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THE UNIVERSITY 

OF ILLINOIS 

LIBRARY 










HIM 1 - 



BOTANICAL SERIES 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893 

VOLUME XVI 



THE GENUS BIDENS 

PART II THE LIBRARY OF THE 

OCT8-1937 

~~7~ UNIVERSITY OF iLLiNOIS 

BY 

EARL EDWARD SHERFF 

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE IN SYSTEMATIC BOTANY 



B. E. DAHLGREN 

CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 
EDITOR 



PUBLICATION 389 




CHICAGO, U.S.A. 

SEPTEMBER 21, 1937 



Natural History 



BOTANICAL SERIES 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893 

VOLUME XVI 



THE GENUS BIDENS 



THE LIBRARY OF THE 

QCT8-1937 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



BY 

EARL EDWARD SHERFF 

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE IN SYSTEMATIC BOTANY 



B. E. DAHLGREN 

CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 
EDITOR 



PUBLICATION 389 




CHICAGO, U.S.A. 
SEPTEMBER 21, 1937 



FEINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 



580,5 

^ 

THE GENUS BIDENS 



EARL EDWARD SHERFF 



102. Bidens acuticaulis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 59: 301. 1915. 
PI. CIV, figs. j-r. 

Herba annua, tenerrima, 4-9 dm. alta; caule acute angulato, 

^ramoso; ramis adscendentibus, acutissime angulatis et fere suba- 

\_latis, remote pubescentibus. Folia petiolata petiolis 2-10 mm. 

*j longis, petiolo adjecto 1-4 cm. longa, pinnata vel irregulariter bipin- 

^.nata; foliolis (et lobis) linearibus, 0.5-1 mm. latis. Capitula multa, 

terminalia, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 3-4 mm. alta et 2.5-3.5 mm. 

lata (fructificantia demum 1-1.2 cm. alta et 4-5 mm. lata). Involu- 

crum basi pubescens; bracteis exterioribus linearibus, plus minusve 

pubescentibus, 3-4 mm. longis; interioribus lanceolatis, 1.5-3 mm. 

longis. Flores ligulati circ. 4, parvi, subflavidi vel fere albi, 2- 

(4-) striati, 3-5 mm. longi. Achaenia anguste linearia, subnigra, 

plano-convexa, remotissime pubescentia, margine adscendenti- 

ciliata, apice erecto-hispida et biaristata, corpore 6-12 mm. longa et 

0.5-0.9 mm. lata, aristis retrorsum hamosis 1.5-2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen : Collected by John Gossweiler, No. 4052, in herb- 
grown woods, Kassuango-Kuiriri, Angola, April 4, 1906 (Brit., 
2 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Kassuango- 
Kuiriri, Angola. 

Specimens examined: Gossweiler 4052 (type, Brit., 2 sheets). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CIV, figs, j-r 

Bidens acuticaulis: j, flowering and fruiting lateral branch of 
specimen, X0.68; k, separate leaf, Xl.02; I, portion of an extremely 
sharp-angled branch, X3.4; ra, exterior involucral bract, X6.79; 
n, interior involucral bract, X6.79; o, ray corolla, X6.79; p, palea, 
X2.04; q, disc floret, X6.79; r, achene, X2.72; all from 2nd type 
sheet 

103. Bidens oligocarpa Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 92: 206. 1931. 
PI. LXXXII, figs. j-l. 

Herba annua, erecta, gracilis, 4-6 dm. alta, caule ramisque acriter 
tetragonis et sparsissime hispidis. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus 

347 

1 056908 



348 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

ciliatis usque ad 1.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 4-8 cm. longa, 
pinnatim 3-5-partita; foliolis ovatis vel oblongo-lanceolatis, valde 
membranaceis, acriter serratis dentibus indurato-apiculatis, faciebus 
sparsim minuteque adpresso-hispidis, marginibus ciliatis, terminali 
usque ad 2 cm. lato et apice acuminate. Capitula pauca, ramos 
(pedunculos) tenuissimos usque ad 8 cm. longos terminantia, radiata, 
pansa ad anthesin circ. 1.2-1.6 cm. lata et 5-7 mm. alta. Involucri 
subglabri bracteae exteriores 5-7, tenuissime iineares, hispido- 
ciliatae, supra moderate dilatatae, apice acerrimae, 1.5-2.3 mm. 
longae; interiores late lanceolatae vel oblongo-ovatae, apice pubes- 
centes, 3-3.5 mm. longae. Flores ligulati 4-5, rosacei, ligula oblongi 
vel anguste obovati, apice obtuso obsolete denticulati, 7-9 mm. 
longi. Achaenia circ. 6-8, linearia, obcompresso-tetragona, omnino 
circ. 8- (unica facie 2-) sulcata, atra, superne sensim angustata, 
exalata, plus minusve erecto-hispida setis e faciebus ipsis vel e 
papillis ortis, corpore 6-10.5 mm. longa et 0.7-0.9 mm. lata, apice 
biaristata aristis retrorsum hamosis, 0.4-1 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by C. E. Lloyd, No. 409, State of Sonora, 
Mexico, 1890 (Gray). 

Distribution: State of Sonora, Mexico. 
Specimens examined: Lloyd 409 (type, Gray). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXII, FIGS, j-l 

Bidens oligocarpa: j, cauline leaf, X0.65; k (flowering), I (fruit- 
ing), heads, X 0.65; all from type. 

104. Bidens amphicarpa Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 88: 290. 1929. 
PI. LXXXII, figs. a-i. 

Herba annua, gracilis, ramosa, 1-6 dm. alta; caule quadrangulato 
ac saepe purpurascenti, nunc pubescenti nunc glabrato. Folia 
tenuiter petiolata petiolis usque ad 2 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
usque ad 5 cm. longa, pinnatim 3-5-partita; foliolis valde mem- 
branaceis, glabratis vel sparsim adpresso-hispidis, ciliatis et ple- 
rumque minutissime atro-marginatis, unico latere grosse 1-4-serratis 
dentibus acerrime apiculatis, lateralibus ovatis, terminali lanceo- 
late vel fere lineari. Capitula in pedunculis tenuissimis usque ad 
1 dm. longis ramos terminantibus disposita, radiata, pansa ad anthe- 
sin tantum circ. 6-7 mm. alta et 8-10 mm. lata. Involucri brac- 
teae exteriores 5-8, tenuiter Iineares, basi extrinsecus marginaliter- 
que superne tantum marginaliter hispidae, apice acerrime mucro- 
natae, demum circ. 4 mm. longae, bracteis interioribus lanceolatis 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXXXIX 




BIDENS BIGELOVII Gray (figs, a-fc) 
BIDENS BIPINNATA L. (figs, l-s) 



THE GENUS BIDENS 349 

atro-brunneis vel atro-purpurascentibus sed marginibus albido- 
diaphanis apice ciliatis plerumque subaequales. Flores ligulati 
circ. 5, ligula oblanceolati, 3-5 striis percursi, subflavidi vel sub- 
rosacei, apice saepe 2- (3-) dentati, 5-6 mm. longi; tubulosi 8-14. 
Achaenia exteriora subplana, unica facie circ. 4-sulcata, infra parce 
supra valde erecto-setosa, badia vel rubro-straminea, corpore 5-8 
mm. longa, interiora tereti-quadrangulata, omnino 8-sulcata, maxima 
ex parte atra sed apice brunneo-straminea, erecto-setosa (interdum 
valde perspicueque tuberculato-setosa), elongato-linearia et supra 
saepe cervicem formantia, corpore demum 9-15 mm. longa; omnia 
recta vel subrecta, 2-3-aristata aristis tenuibus retrorsum hamosis, 
2.5-4 mm. longis, demum saepe caducis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Townsend S. Brandegee, Sierra de 
la Laguna, Lower California, January 23, 1899 (Calif.). 

Distribution: Known only from Lower (Baja) California. 

Specimens examined : Brandegee, Sierra de la Laguna, January 23, 
1890 (type, Calif.); idem, Sierra de San Francisquito, March 28, 
1892 (Field). 

Differs from glabrous or subglabrous forms of the similarly 
amphicarpous Bidens Anthriscoides DC. in the dissection and outline 
of the leaflets, in its proportionately much longer external involucral 
bracts, 1 and in its straighter achenes. The general aspect is some- 
what like that in stunted, slender forms of B. pilosa var. bimucronata 
f. odorata (Cav.) Sherff, but the very narrow external bracts and the 
dimensions of the flowering and fruiting heads (the latter with 
fewer achenes) distinguish it from that form. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXII, FIGS, a-i 

Bidens amphicarpa: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.65; 
6, c, exterior involucral bracts, X5.22; d, interior involucral bract, 
X5.22; e, ray corolla, X5.22;/, palea, X5.22; g, disc floret, X5.22; 
h (outer but not outermost), i (inner), achenes, X2.61; all from type. 

105. Bidens oligantha Brandegee, Zoe 5: 224. 1905. 
PL LXXXIII, figs. a-h. 

Herba erecta, annua, 2-3 dm. alta; caule parce puberulento, 
simplici vel supra subramoso. Folia membranacea, breviter petiolata 
petiolis 2-8 mm. longis, petiolo adjecto plerumque 1-3 cm. longa, 

1 In B. Anthriscoides DC. the outer bracts are only about one-half or three- 
fifths the length of the inner ones, notwithstanding DeCandolle's original descrip- 
tion ("invol. squamis. . .inter se subaequalibus": Prodr. 5: 601. 1836). 



350 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

lamina glabrata, trifida vel tripartita; foliolo terminal! lineari- 
lanceolato, acuminate, plus minusve serrato, 1.5-2 cm. longo, latera- 
libus ovato-acuminatis, serratis vel inciso-serratis, 5-8 mm. longis. 
Capitula pauca, tenuissime pedunculata pedunculis 6-10 cm. longis, 
radiata, pauciflora (floribus tubulosis circ. 6-12), pansa ad anthesin 
5 mm. lata et 4 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores 5, 
lineares, perspicue ciliatae, apice acres, circ. 3 mm. longae, inte- 
rioribus ovato-lanceolatis late diaphano-marginatis interdum fere 
aequales. Flores ligulati circ. 4-5, albidi vel subrosacei, purpureo- 
striati, circ. 3 mm. longi, triangulato-obovati. Achaenia pauca, 
recurvata, tenuiter linearia, subplana, nigra, glabra vel ad angulos 
valde tuberculato-hispida, biaristata (vel interdum exaristata ex 
Brandeg.), aristis (retrorsum hamosis hamis perpaucis vel demum 
calvis) circ. 1 mm. longis; pauca crassiuscula supra et corpore circ. 
5 mm. longa, reliqua attenuata supra (et plerumque corpore 7-10 
mm. longa! Brandeg. 5 mm. dixit inaccurate!). 

Type specimen: Collected by Townsend S. Brandegee at Cofra- 
dia (vicinity of Culiacan), State of Sinaloa, Mexico, October 21, 
1904 (Calif.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in the State of 
Sinaloa, Mexico. 

Specimens examined :Brandegee, Cofradia, October 21, 1904 (type, 
Calif.: cotypes, Field; Gray). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXIII, FIGS, d-k 

Bidens oligantha: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.68; 
6, exterior involucral bract, X4.77; c, interior involucral bract, 
X4.77; d, ray corolla, X4.77; e, palea, X4.77; /, disc floret, X4.77; 
g (outer), h (inner), achenes, X2.72; all from cotype, in Hb. Gray. 

106. Bidens Andrei Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 61: 495. 1916. 

PI. LXXXIV, figs. k-s. 

Herba (ad basim suffrutescens?), 1-2 m. alta, glabrata, caule 
tetragono et striato; ramis tetragonis, striatis, (superioribus) irregu- 
lariter arcuatis et in nonnullos ramulos (vel pedunculos) divisis. 
Folia petiolata petiolis 0.3-2 cm. longis basi connatis, petiolo adjecto 
2.5-7 cm. longa, bi- vel tri-(vel quadri-) pinnata, supra minute et 
non dense adpresso-hispida; ultimis segmentis linearibus, integris 
vel lobulatis, indurato-apiculatis. Capitula multa, tenuiter pedun- 
culata pedunculis 4-12 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin tan- 
turn 5-6.5 mm. lata et circ. 4 mm. alta, demum (in fructu) usque ad 
1 cm. alta. Involucrum basi plus minusve hispidum, bracteis demum 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany. Vol. XVI, Plate XC 




a b d 

BIDENS LEPTOCEPHALA Sherfl 



THE GENUS BIDENS 351 

valde et perspicue reflexis; exterioribus (circ. 6) linearibus, apicu- 
latis, subsparsim pubescentibus, tantum 1-2 mm. longis; interioribus 
lanceolatis, membranaceis, 2-3 mm. longis, margine diaphanis. 
Flores ligulati (6 vel pauciores) ligula lanceolati, 4-5-striati, apice 
integri, 3-4 mm. longi, in specimine sicco subalbi. Achaenia tenuis- 
sime attenuato-linearia, tetragona, ad apicem brunnea, alibi atra, 
supra sparsim erecto-hispida, corpore 0.5-1 cm. longa et tantum 
0.3-0.6 mm. lata, biaristata aristis glabris vel retrorsum hamosis, 
usque ad 1.6 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Edouard Francois Andre, No. 2878, 
at altitude of 1,250 meters, Rio Juanambu, Colombia, April 28, 
1876 (Gray). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Rio Juanambu, 
Colombia. 

Specimens examined: Andre 2878 (type, Gray: cotype, Kew). 

The type specimen was restudied in 1922 and again in 1925. 
The 20-30 areolae on the old disks become prominent as the invo- 
lucres reflex. There are 37 heads on the type. The plant appears to 
be entirely herbaceous, but the label says "suffrutesc.," hence the 
lower part of the plant (not present on the sheet) may have been 
woody. The species stands very close to B. pilosa var. alausensis f . 
scandicina (H.B.K.) Sherff, from which it appears to differ in its 
taller stature, more acutely tetragonal stems, longer internodes, 
finally much reflexed involucres, and, most of all, its very minute 
flowering heads, these measuring only about 4 mm. high and equally 
wide. 1 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXIV, FIGS. k-S 

Bidens Andrei: k, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.65; I, 
top of peduncle showing areolate receptacle and involucre reflexed 
in age, X9.16; m, portion of leaf showing pubescence, X5.23; n, 
exterior involucral bract, X5.23; o, interior involucral bract, X5.23; 
p, ray corolla, X5.23; q, palea, X5.23; r, disc floret, X5.23; s, achene, 
X3.92; all from type. 

107. Bidens Anthriscoides DC. Prodr. 5: 600. 1836; cf. Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 61: 497. 1916. PI. LXXXIII, figs. i-q. 

Folia tripartite B. Anthriscoides sensu stricto. 

Folia bipinnata var. /3. decomposita. 

1 It may be observed that in the somewhat comparable case of B. ramosissima 
Sherff the finally reflexed involucres and the minute size of the flowering heads 
were later concluded to be only subformal variations of B. pilosa var. bimucronata 
f. odorata (Cav.) Sherff. 



352 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Annua, erecta vel suberecta, ramosa, tota dense pubescenti- 
hirta vel etiam glabriuscula, 3-5 dm. alta; caule ramisque acriter 
tetragonis. Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis 0.5-3 cm. longis, petiolo 
adjecto 3.5-9 cm. longa, membranacea, ciliata, tripartita, infimorum 
foliolis lateralibus ovatis acutis subaequalibus medio vix dissimi- 
libus, mediorum superiorumque foliolis lateralibus ovatis medio 
duplo longiore petiolulato lanceolato utrinque attenuate, omnibus 
serratis. Capitula ramulos terminantia, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 
8-11 mm. lata et 5-9 mm. alta, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 
1-8 cm. longis. Involucrum tomentosulum vel breviter hispidulum; 
bracteis exterioribus 6-8, adpressis vel subsquarrosis, linearibus, 
apice acerrime indurato-mucronulatis, tantum 1.5-3 mm. longis et 
non interiores lanceolatas subaequantibus (DeCandolleus invol. squa- 
mis disco et inter se subaequalibus dixit per errorem!); interiori- 
bus 4-5 mm. longis. Flores ligulati 3 vel 4, parvi, ligula obovato- 
elliptici, leviter vel valde rosacei (exsiccati saepe subflavidi), apice 
truncate vel emarginato obtuse (saepius tri-) dentati, circ. 5 mm. 
longi. Achaenia pauca, 3-12 in unico capitulo; exteriora linearia 
vel lineari-fusiformia, valde obcompressa, flavido-brunnea vel rufo- 
badia, conspicue tuberculato-setulosa, corpore 6-7 mm. longa; 
interiora tenuissime elongato-linearia, supra attenuata sed non vero 
rostrata, subrecta vel saepius recurvata, atra, plus minusve tetra- 
gona, tuberculis saepe flavidis tuberculato-setulosa vel saepe una 
facie glabrata, corpore 9-21 mm. longa; omnia superne demum late 
distantia, apice breviter biaristata; aristis stramineis, retrorsum 
hamosis, 0.2-3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Jean Luis Berlandier, No. 1010, 
Cordillera de Guchilaque (near Cuernavaca, State of Morelos), 
Mexico, October, 1827 (Del.). 1 

Distribution: Southwestern Mexico. 

Specimens examined: Berlandier 1010 (type, Del., 3 sheets: 
cotypes, Brit.; Flor.; Par.); idem 1152, Cordillera de Guchilaque, 
Mexico, October, 1827 (Del., 2 sheets; Flor., aristis saepe brevibus 
vel obsoletis; Par.); C. G. Pringle 11822 pro parte, ravine near 
Guadalajara, Jalisco, October 17, 1903 (Field). 

As stated before (Sherff, loc. cit.), examination of cotype material 
in London (Brit.) and Paris (Par.) shows the species to have radiate 
heads, not discoid as described by DeCandolle, exterior involucral 
bracts much shorter than the interior, not subequal, and some of the 

1 No. 1010 is the first cited specimen and hence may pass as the type. De 
Candolle founded the species upon Berlandier 's Nos. 1010 and 1152, both from 
the same locality. The specimens are identical. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 353 

achenes reaching a total length of 2.1 cm. The type and cotype 
specimens are of the very pubescent form and have tripartite leaves. 

Bidens Anthriscoides var. 0. decomposita Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 80: 380. 1925. 

A specie foliis bipinnatis (segmentis ultimis oblongo-ovatis, cal- 
loso-apiculatis) differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by Cyrus Guernsey Pringle, No. 11822 
pro parte, ravine (barranca) near Guadalajara, State of Jalisco, 
Mexico, October 17, 1903 (Kew). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, near Guadalajara, 
State of Jalisco, Mexico. 

Specimens examined : Pringle 11822 pro parte (type, Kew: cotypes, 
Berl.; Gray; U.S.). 

Pringle 11822 in the Herbarium of Field Museum has the leaves 
tripartite and matches the type material of B. Anthriscoides DC. 
(Berlandier 1010, Del.; Brit.; Par.) fairly well except in being gla- 
brate. Elsewhere, the specimens of Pringle 11822 are seen to have 
delicately bipinnate leaves, similar to those of B. pilosa var. bimu- 
cronata f. odorata (Cav.) Sherff. Through this form, apparently best 
regarded as a variety, B. Anthriscoides DC. is found to be rather 
closely related to a form (the B. inermis Wats.) of B. pilosa var. 
bimucronata f. odorata (Cav.) Sherff. 1 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXIII, FIGS, i-q 

Bidens Anthriscoides: i (lower), j (upper), portions of flowering 
and fruiting specimen, X0.68; k, exterior involucral bract, X4.77; 
/, interior involucral bract, X4.77; ra, ray floret, X4.77; n, palea, 
X4.77; o, disc floret, X4.77; p (outer), q (inner), achenes, X2.72; 
all from Berlandier 1010 (type collection) i, j, mainly from sheet in 
Hb. Brit., but partly from sheets in Hb. Par.; k, I, n-q, from sheet 
in Hb. Brit.; ra, from sheet in Hb. Par. 

108. Bidens Chrysanthemifolia (H.B.K.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
61:501.1916. PI. LXXXV. 

Cosmos Chrysanthemifolius H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 188 (239) 

and pi. 382. 1820. 
Cosmea Chrysanthemifolia (H.B.K.) Spreng. Syst. Veg. ed. 16. 3: 615. 

1826. 
Cosmos Chrysanthemoides H.B.K. ex DC. Prodr. 5: 607. 1836. 

1 The var. decomposita is not to be confused with the var. angustiloba DC., a 
plant referable to B. duranginensis Sherff (q.v.). 



354 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Cosmea Chrysanthemoides H.B.K. ex Heynhold, Nomencl. 222. 1840. 
Bidens Kunthii Schz. Bip. in Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald 308. 

1852-1857. 
Bidens parvulifolia Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56: 490. 1913. 

Herba ut videtur interdum perennis, breviter et dense pilosa vel 
maxima ex parte glabrata; caule subsimplici, adscendenti vel plus 
minusve repenti, tetragono, 1.5-4 dm. longo. Folia petiolata 
petiolis ciliatis pilosiusculisque 4-13 mm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
1-2.5 cm. longa, variabilia; mine pinnato-quinquepartita, circumam- 
bitu ovato-triangularia, foliolis oppositis, duobus inferioribus tri- vel 
quinquefidis, tribus superioribus trifidis, segmentis obovato- 
cuneatis et quibusdam apice bi- vel trilobis lobis acutis; nunc etiam 
fere omnia indivisa, ovata, acuta vel subacuminata, serrata. Capi- 
tula terminalia, solitaria vel subsolitaria, longe tenuiterque pedun- 
culata pedunculis 5-17 cm. longis et plerumque glaberrimis, erecta, 
radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2-3.3 cm. lata et circ. 6-8 mm. alta. 
Involucrum basi hispidum vel omnino glabrum; bracteis exterioribus 
7 vel 8, linearibus vel superne saepe subdilatatis, saepe subcarnosis, 
apice plerumque obtusis, margine costaque mediana raro paucis 
pilis instructis, 2.5-3.5 mm. longis; interioribus lanceolatis, 5-6 mm. 
longis. Flores ligulati 5-8, rosacei (vel in speciminibus exsiccatis 
saepe subflavidis), ligula oblongo-elliptici vel oblanceolati, apice 
obsolete denticulati, 1-1.5 cm. longi. Achaenia linearia et inferne 
subattenuata, obcompresso-tetragona, glabra, nigra, corpore 4.5-7 
mm. longa, biaristata; aristis aurantiaco-flavidis, tenuibus, supra 
retrorsum hamosis, 1.2-1.8 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Alexander Humboldt and Aime 
Bonpland, 1799-1804, the locality uncertain; thought by Kunth to 
have come perhaps from Mexico, but it is known at present only 
from Guatemala (Par.). 

Distribution: Known only from Department of Amatitlan, 
Guatemala. 

Specimens examined: Heyde & Lux 6162, alt. 900 meters, Frai- 
janes, September, 1893 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Field; Kew; U.S.; nom. 
vernac., mosote); iidem 6163, Guatemala (Field, type of Bidens 
parvulifolia Sherff) ; iidem 6173, alt. 900 meters, Fraijanes, September, 
1893 (Berl.; Brit.; Boiss.; Field; Kew); Humboldt & Bonpland, loco 
ignoto (type, Par.); W. A. Kellerman 6112, alt. 2,490 meters, crater 
of Volcan de Pacaya, January 6, 1907 (Field) ; Scherzer, alt. 2,700- 
3,300 meters, Volcan de Pacaya, August, 1854 (Mus. V., sub nom. 
Bidente pacayae Schz. Bip.). 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XCI 




BIDENS ENGLERI O. E. Schulz (figs, a-/) 
BIDENS CYLINDRICA Sherff (figs, g-l) 



OF 'THE 



THE GENUS BIDENS 355 

This species was stated definitely by DeCandolle (loc. cit.) to 
come from Mexico, but Kunth (H.B.K. loc. cit.) was uncertain as to 
its native country. It is known definitely only from Guatemala. 
DeCandolle commented upon the closer affinity of the achenes with 
those of Bidens than with those of Cosmos. Whether he altered the 
specific name through intent or through error, I am unable to say. 1 
But later, Schultz Bipontinus (Seemann, loc. cit.), who frankly 
declared his belief that Cosmos was not a valid genus, used this 
altered name in citing it as a basis for his Bidens Kunthii, which 
latter name, according to the International Rules, cannot stand. 

Asa Gray (Proc. Amer. Acad. 19: 16. 1884) strongly suspected 
that this plant was merely Bidens humilis H.B.K. and suggested a 
reexamination of the type material. Kunth (H.B.K. loc. cit.) had 
described the color of the ligules as "violacea, basim versus sulphurea." 
This description is borne out, not only by the coloring in the plate 
cited (that is, in copies of Kunth's work having the plates colored, 
as in John Crerar Library, Chicago), but by the type specimen in 
Paris, clearly the one from which the plate was made. This speci- 
men, though faded as to its rays, shows at least that the proximal 
ends of the rays were colored differently from the remaining portions, 
which latter seem surely to have been some shade of red. 

More recently, there has been collected in the Department of 
Amatitlan, Guatemala, fine material, Heyde & Lux 6173, which 
belongs here. Singularly enough, it had been determined by John 
Donnell Smith as Bidens humilis (cf. Gray, loc. cit.), but the roseate 
rays and more or less Cosmos-like aspect are very distinct. The color 
of the rays in the dry condition varies from a pronounced roseate 
to a faded yellowish color, rather than showing a distinct sulphureous 
color definitely located toward the base as described by Kunth. 
Still further material from the same small district in Guatemala, 
W. A. Kellerman 6112, has been collected and fortunately is in a 
more mature condition. The ripe achenes match the ovary figured 
by Kunth and show that there is not the slightest tendency to 
become rostrate as in most species of Cosmos. 

An examination of the original description of Bidens parvulifolia 
(Sherff, loc. cit.) shows that the second cited specimen, Heyde & 

1 In his Prodromus Herbarium DeCandolle had mistaken a single large speci- 
men of Bidens pilosa var. bimucronata f. odorata (Cav.) Sherff for this species. The 
original label had said "Bidens Cavanilles" and from the peculiar fades of the 
plant, the writing, etc., it is clearly one of the original specimens of Bidens odorata 
Cav. that had been sent out by Cavanilles. On the cover, DeCandolle originally 
had written "B. Chrysanthemoides? H.B.K." but later had changed the "B." to 
"C." 



356 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Lux 6162, seen in the United States National Herbarium, was 
obtained by the same collectors at the same altitude, locality, and 
time as Heyde & Lux 6173. The dried ligules were yellowish, 
the leaves were pubescent, and all but the top pair were simple. 
Since then I have found other specimens (Heyde & Lux 6162) show- 
ing numerous intergradations between the simple, pubescent leaves 
and the compound, mainly glabrous leaves; also, variations to a 
roseate color are shown in the rays. Thus Bidens parvulifolia, 
incredible as it may seem to any botanist who does not have at hand 
the intermediate specimens, must be interpreted as merely a form 
of Bidens Chrysanthemifolia having minute, mainly undivided leaves. 
B. Chrysanthemifolia offers a perplexing approach to B. pilosa 
var. bimucronata f. odorata (Cav.) Sherff. It seems significant, 
however, that among the large number of specimens of the rather 
widely distributed f. odorata examined from elsewhere than in the 
Department of Amatitlan, Guatemala, none have been found to 
present the gradations from glabrous, decompound to pubescent, 
undivided leaves that B. Chrysanthemifolia presents. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXV 

Bidens Chrysanthemifolia: a, c, flowering branches, X0.61; b, 
leaf and portion of adjacent stem enlarged to show pubescence, 
Xl.22; d-i, various pinnate or bipinnatisect cauline leaves, X0.61; 
j, exterior involucral bract, X4.89; k, interior involucral bract, 
X4.89; /, ray corolla, X4.89; m, palea, X4.89; n, disc floret, X4.89; 
o (outer), p (inner), achenes, X2.4; a, b, from Heyde & Lux 6163 
(type of Bidens parvulifolia Sherff), in Hb. Field; c, j-p, from Heyde 
& Lux 6162, in Hb. U.S.; d-h, various cauline leaves from Heyde 
& Lux 6173, in Hb. Kew; i, cauline leaf from type. 

109. Bidens mollifolia Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 64: 21. 1917. 
PI. LXXXVI. 

Herba annua, 1.2-1.8 m. alta (ex inscriptione Pringlei) ; caule et 
ramis plus minusve acute tetragonis, subviridibus vel purpurascenti- 
bus, dense tomentosis (vel supra etiam fere glabris) ; ramis ad finem 
liberum in aliquot ramulos vel pedunculos divisis, ut quaeque planta 
30-60 capitula habeat. Folia petiolata petiolis dense tomentosis 
basi connatis 0.3-2.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 2-9 cm. longa, 
ternata vel pinnata, dense et molliter pilosiuscula vel tomentosula, 
infra pallidiora; foliolis (3-7) ovatis vel lanceolatis, serratis, laterali- 
bus (infimis interdum ternatis) 1-3.5 cm. longis et 0.5-2 cm. latis, 
terminali 1.8-5 cm. longo et 0.7-2.3 cm. lato. Capitula breviter 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XCII 




BIDENS PSEUDALAUSENSIS Sherff (figs, a-g) 
BIDENS CORNUTA Sherff (figs, h-n) 



Of 



Of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 357 

pedunculata pedunculis 0.5-3 cm. longis, radiata, 5-7 mm. alta et 
ad anthesin ligulis adjectis (etiam cum achaeniis) 1.5-2 cm. lata. 
Involucrum basi hispidum, bracteis exterioribus 6-8, linearibus, 
ad apicem obtusis, sparsim hispidis et plus minusve ciliatis, 2-3 mm. 
longis; interioribus lanceolatis, maxima ex parte glabris, 3-5 mm. 
longis. Flores ligulati circ. 5, ligula obovati vel oblanceolati, rosacei, 
3-7-striati, apice 2-4-lobulati lobulis subrotundis, 0.8-1 cm. longi. 
Paleae lineares demum 5-7 mm. longae, terminis tortis achaenia 
demum superantes. Achaenia subtetragona, clavae simillima, infra 
angustiora, apice calva et areolata, atra, glabra, 3-6.5 mm. longa. 

Type specimen : Collected by Cyrus Guernsey Pringle, No. 6050, 
at altitude of 2,250 meters, Sierra de San Felipe, State of Oaxaca, 
Mexico, November 16, 1894 (Gray). 

Distribution: Known only from State of Oaxaca, Mexico. 

Specimens examined: E. W. Nelson 1176 pro parte, alt. 2,850- 
3,300 meters, vicinity of Sierra de San Felipe (Cerro San Felipe), 
September 1, 1894 (U.S.); idem 1363, alt. 2,250-2,850 meters, 18 
miles southwest of City of Oaxaca, September 10-20, 1894 (Gray) ; 
idem 1476 pro parte, alt. 1,650-2,250 meters, Valley of Oaxaca, 
September 20, 1894 (Gray); Pringle 6050 (type, Gray: cotypes, 
Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Cam.; Del.; Field; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; Mus. V.; 
N.Y.;Par.;Phila.;U.V., etc.). 

A species of highly restricted distribution. It appears most closely 
related to Bidens pilosa var. calcicola, which at times offers a strong 
resemblance. The clavate achenes of B. mollifolia, however, seem 
very distinctive. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXVI 

Bidens mollifolia: a (upper), b (lower), portions of flowering and 
fruiting specimen, X0.55; c, small portion of same enlarged to show 
pubescence, Xl.66; d, exterior involucral bract, X3.32; e, interior 
involucral bract, X3.32; /, ray corolla, X3.32; g, palea, X3.32; h, 
disc floret,. X3.32; i, achene, X3.32; all from type. 

110. Bidens Abadiae DC. Prodr. 5: 601. 1836. 
PI. LXXXVII, figs, a, c-i. 

Folia bipinnatisecta B. Abadiae sensu stricto. 

Folia pinnatim 3-5-partita var. /3. pilosoides. 

Herba annua, erecta, ramosa, pilis albidis plus minusve villoso- 
hirsuta, caule tetragona, probabiliter 4-9 dm. alta, internodiis 
elongatis quam foliis multo longioribus. Folia petiolata petiolis 1-4 



358 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 7-15 cm. longa, circumambitu late tri- 
angulata, bipinnatisecta; segmentis principalibus 2-3 jugis, mem- 
branaceis, anguste oblongo-ovatis, grosse inciso-dentatis terminali 
trilobo basi cuneato, infra (exsiccatis) multo pallidioribus, dentibus 
obtusis abrupte mucronatis. Capitula non numerosa, pedunculata 
pedunculis 2-4 cm. longis, breviter radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 
1.5 cm. lata et 6-9 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae glabrae vel villoso- 
hirsutae, subaequales, 5-7 mm. longae; exteriores moderatim lineares, 
supra dilatatae, apice acriter apiculatae; interiores lanceolatae vel 
ovato-lanceolatae. Flores ligulati 4-6, pro capitulo parvi, exsiccati 
albi, ligula ovati, circ. 5-7-striati, 6-8 mm. longi. Achaenia linearia, 
subtetragona, atra, omnino circ. 8-sulcata, supra marginibus et 
costis medianis adrecte setosa, corpore 4.6-6 mm. longa et 0.5-1 mm. 
lata, 2- vel 3-aristata aristis brunneo-stramineis retrorsum hamosis 
plerumque 1.5-2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Abadia around Lima, Peru, in 1833 
(Del.). 

Distribution: Vicinity of Lima, Peru; also in Ecuador and 
Colombia. 

Specimens examined: Abadia, Lima, Peru, 1833 (type, Del.); 
Bro. Ariste-Joseph A832, Choaclu, above Bogota, Colombia, July 
(U.S. ; forma internodiis longissimis) ; Alexander Mathews 738, Lima 
(Kew); A. Mille 387, in cultivated places, Cotocollso, Ecuador, 
February, 1922 (U.S.) ; Luis Mille 486, in cultivated places, June, 
1904 (U.S.; forma); ex herb. Pavonii, Lima and Chancay, Peru 
(Boiss.; Flor.). 

Bidens Abadiae DC. was founded upon a specimen collected at 
Lima, Peru, in 1833. The leaves of the type are bipinnatisect, and 
the general aspect of the foliage is comparable with that of B. pilosa 
var. bimucronata f. odorata (Cav.) Sherff. In the Boissier Herbarium 
is the plant from the Pa von Herbarium, and collected at Lima or in its 
vicinity, a plant matching the type very closely in its bipinnatisect 
foliage. The technical characters of both the old and young heads 
on these plants are very similar to those often met with in B. pilosa 
L. The general habit is so distinct, however, that to equate B. 
Abadiae and B. pilosa would seem unjustifiable. 

Bidens Abadiae var. ft. pilosoides Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81: 40. 1926. 

PI. LXXXVII, fig. 6. 

A specie foliis pinnatim 3-5-partitis foliolis ovatis vel terminali 
lanceolate omnibus serratis vel incisis apice obtusis vel acutis capi- 
tulis plerumque eradiatis diversa; habitu B. pilosae adpropinquans. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 359 

Type specimen: Collected by Hugh Cuming, No. 1041, Lima, 
Peru, in 1831 (Kew, 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Peru. 

Specimens examined: Cuming 1041 (type, Kew, 2 sheets); 
W. Nation, cultivated places, Lima, 1862 (Kew); ex herb. Pavonii 
ex Peru (Webb) ; Dr. & Mrs. J. N. Rose 18740 p. p., Santa Clara, 
July 18, 1914 (N.Y.). 

In the Webb Herbarium at Florence is the additional specimen 
(just cited) from the Pavon Herbarium, and collected in Peru. This 
has the leaves merely tripartite, with the terminal lobe subtripartite. 
The specimens by Cuming and by Nation, all from Lima, likewise 
differ from the DeCandolle type of B. Abadiae in having leaves 
only once-divided. One of the Cuming specimens has leaves ap- 
proaching those of the related B. pilosa var. alausensis (H.B.K.) 
Sherff. Since the difference between the simply pinnate and the bi- 
pinnatisect types of foliage appears here to be emphatic, as in the 
varieties of B. pilosa, I have given the name pilosoides to the variety 
having 3-5-partite leaves. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXVII 

Bidens Abadiae, figs, a, c-i: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, 
X0.52; c, portion of leaf enlarged to show pubescence, X3.14; d, 
exterior involucral bract, X3.14; e, interior involucral bract, X3.14; 
/, ray corolla, X3.14; g, palea, X3.14; h, disc floret, X3.14; i, achene, 
X3.14; all from hb. Pavdn, Lima and Chancay, Peru, in Hb. Boiss. 

Bidens Abadiae var. pilosoides, fig. b: cauline leaf, X3.14; from 
W. Nation, Lima, Peru, 1862, in Hb. Kew. 

111. Bidens Brandegeei Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 64: 38. 1917. 
PL LXXXVIII, figs. a-k. 

Herba annua, erecta (nisi infra plus minusve arcuata), 3-5 dm. 
alta, maxima ex parte albido-hispida, caule quadrangulato striato, 
ramis tenuibus rursus ramosis. Folia petiolata petiolis 0.2-2.5 cm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto 1-8 cm. longa, pinnata vel bipinnata, supra 
minus albido-hispida; foliolis 3-5, ovatis (vel ovato-lanceolatis) 
serratisque et iis Bidentis pilosae L. similibus vel pinnato-partitis, 
lobulis vel dentibus indurato-apiculatis. Capitula pauca, terminalia, 
radiata, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis monocephalicis et 3-8 cm. 
longis. Involucri bracteae subaequales, exteriores (circ. 8) lineares, 
1-nervatae, apiculatae, albido-ciliatae et -hispidae, 4-5 mm. longae; 
interiores lanceolatae, membranaceae, glabratae vel pubescentes, 



360 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

margine diaphanae. Flores ligulati circ. 5, ligula obovati, in speci- 
mine sicco albido-flavi, 7-9-striati, ad apicem obscure dentati, 1-1.3 
cm. longi. Achaenia (submatura) attenuato-linearia, striata, exari- 
stata, supra antrorsum hispida, 4-6 mm. longa. 

Type specimen : Collected by Townsend S. Brandegee, in vicinity 
of San Luis Tultitlanapa, State of Puebla, near the Oaxaca boundary 
line, Mexico, 1908 (Calif., 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, vicinity of San 
Luis Tultitlanapa, State of Puebla (near Oaxaca boundary line), 
Mexico. 

Specimens examined : Brandegee, vicinity of San Luis Tul- 
titlanapa, 1908 (Calif., first type sheet); idem, eodem loco, July, 1908 
(Calif., second type sheet); C. A. Purpus 4429, eodem loco, August, 
1908 (Calif.). 

The first type sheet bears two fine specimens, the larger one 
having its leaves bipinnately divided. The specimens on the second 
type sheet have the leaves mainly 3-5-partite, as in B. pilosa. The 
achenes suggest those of B. pilosa var. bimucronata. The ray florets 
suggest the ray florets of B. pilosa var. radiata. The combination 
of achenial and radial characters with the strange general aspect 
(especially in the case of the first specimen, with its bipinnate and 
particularly white-hispid foliage) is one that I have never observed 
in authentic material of B. pilosa. It seems best, therefore, to retain 
B. Brandegeei as a separate species. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXVIII, FIGS, a-k 

Bidens Brandegeei: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.57; 
6, c, more compound cauline leaves than in a, X0.57; d, small part 
of plant enlarged to show pubescence, Xl.7; e, exterior involucral 
bract, X4.54; /, interior involucral bract, X4.54; g, ray corolla, 
X2.27; h, palea, X4.54; i, /, disc florets, X4.54; k, achene, X4.54; 
a, e-k, from left-hand specimen on 2nd type sheet; b, from right- 
hand specimen on 2nd type sheet; c, d, from left-hand specimen on 
1st type sheet. 

112. Bidens aequisquama (Fern.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 

64: 26. 1917. PI. CIX, figs. k-t. 

Bidens rosea var. aequisquama Fern. Proc. Amer. Acad. 43: 68. 1907. 

Herba 5 dm. alta; caule ramisque pubescentibus vel sub- 

glabris, quadrangularibus, striatis. Folia petiolata petiolis 0.4-1.8 

cm. longis hispidis ad basim connatis, petiolo adjecto 3-8.5 cm. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 361 

longa, indivisa vel tripartita, ciliata, supra subglabra, infra sparsim 
adpresso-hispida et pallidiora; indivisa lanceolata, subcrasse ser- 
rata; foliolis foliorum tripartitorum similiter serratis, terminali 
ovato vel lanceolate, lateralibus ovatis et subsessilibus et minoribus. 
Capitula terminalia, radiata, pedunculata pedunculis 1-6 cm. longis 
et ad apicem creberrime albido-pubescentibus. Involucrum basi 
hispidum; bracteis exterioribus 9-16, linearibus, hispidis, 2-4 mm. 
longis; interioribus subaequalibus, lanceolatis, glabris vel ad apicem 
et longitudinaliter medio hispidis, margine diaphanis. Flores 
ligulati circ. 8, rosei, striati, apice irregulariter 2-4-dentati, saepius 
9-11 mm. longi et 6-8 mm. lati. Achaenia nigra, linearia, ad apicem 
plus minusve hispida, biaristata, corpore 4.5-7 mm. longa, aristis 
flavis retrorsum hamosis 2.5-3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Cyrus Guernsey Pringle, No. 10109, 
in thickets at altitude of 1,500 meters, near Uruapan, Michoacan, 
Mexico, November 1, 1905 (Gray). 

Distribution: Michoacan, Mexico. 

Specimens examined: Bro. G. Arsene, alt. 2,100 meters, Quinceo, 
near Morelia, 1910 (Field, 3 sheets); idem 3198, alt. 2,800 meters, 
Quinceo, November 11, 1909 (Berl.; Gray; Mo.); idem 5797, eodem 
loco, 1910 (Gray; Mo. ; N.Y. ; U.S.) ; idem 6774, Dos Teteras, alt. 2,500 
meters, vicinity of Morelia, October 26, 1911 (Mo.; U.S.); C. G. 
Pringle 10109 (type, Gray: cotypes, Berl.; Brit.; Boiss.; Cop.; Del.; 
Field; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; Mus. V.; Phila.); idem 13420, Farascon, 
October 11, 1904 (U.S.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CIX, FIGS, k-t 

Bidens aequisquama: k, I, flowering and fruiting specimens, 
X0.62; m, separate leaf, X0.62; n, lower surface of portion of leaf 
showing pubescence, Xl.24; o, exterior involucral bract, X3.71; p, 
interior involucral bract, X3.71; q, ray corolla, X3.71; r, palea, 
X3.71; s, disc floret, X3.71; t, achene, X3.71; all from cotype, in 
Hb. Field. 

113. Bidens Bigelovii A. Gray in Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound. 
91. 1858. PI. LXXXIX, figs. a-k. 

Planta austro-mexicana var. /3. pueblensis. 

Planta a Sonora borealiter distributa. . .B. Bigelovii sensu stricto. 

Herba annua, erecta, fere glabra, 4-10 dm. alta; caule tetragono, 
gracili, ramoso. Folia petiolata petiolis 1-2.5 cm. longis, petiolo 
adjecto usque ad 8 cm. longa, tripartita, segmentis 3-5-partitis, 



362 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

lobis oblongis vel cuneatis et paucius pinnatifido-incisis dentibus 
mucronatis, membranaceis, plus minusve ciliatis. Capitula sub- 
solitaria, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis usque ad 15 cm. longis, 
discoidea vel subradiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 6-9 mm. lata et 
aequaliter alta. Involucrum basi hispidum; bracteis exterioribus 
6-9, linearibus, tergo glabratis, margine ciliatis, termino acriter 
apiculatis, 5-7.5 mm. longis; interioribus lanceolatis, saepe brevi- 
oribus. Flores ligulati deficientes vel 3-5, albidi, ligula oblongo- 
obovati, 5-7 mm. longi. Achaenia subtetragona, dimorpha; 1-4 
exteriora lineari-cuneata, truncata, papilloso-hispidula et scaberrima, 
saepe rufo-badia, corpore circ. 5-7 mm. longa, apice nunc obsolete 
aristata nunc manifeste 2-3-aristata aristis retrorsum hamosis et 
usque ad 1.5 mm. longis; cetera anguste linearia, atra, infra glabrata 
supra plerumque erecto-hispida, corpore 8-12 mm. longa, apice 2-3- 
aristata aristis retrorsum hamosis 1.5-3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by John Milton Bigelow, No. "582(6)," 
on banks of Limpio Creek (Rio Limpio), Texas, July 19, 1852 (Gray). 

Distribution: Northern Colorado to southern New Mexico and 
southern Arizona, also reaching slightly into northern Sonora, 
Mexico. 

Specimens examined : Bigelow, banks of Limpio Creek, etc. 
(type, Gray: cotype, N.Y.); 1 idem, mountain arroyo, Rock Creek, 
Texas, July (Gray; ab A. Grayo pro varietate innominata, achaeniis 
triaristatis exterioribus longioribus habitum); J. C. Blumer 1486, 
alt. 1,650 meters, Miss Rhoda Riggs' Ranch, along creek, Chiricahua 
Mts., Arizona, October 22, 1906 (Field; Gray); idem 1711, alt. 1,590 
meters, in shade, on sandy alluvium, near Cedar Gulch, Paradise, 
Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, September 21, 1907 (Berl.; Gray; Kew; 
Mo., ubi B. leptocephalae adpropinquans; Mus. V.; U.S.); idem 2211, 
alt. 1,590 meters, Paradise, Arizona, October 3, 1907 (Gray; N.Y.) ; 
F. E. & E. S. Clements 64, alt. 2,200 meters, Engelmann Canyon, 
Colorado, August 24, 1901 (Berl.; Del., 2 sheets; Mo.; N.Y.); C. S. 
Crandall 2724, Ute Pass, Colorado, August 25, 1897 (Berl.; N.Y.; 
Par.); W. W. Eggleston 17416, alt. 1,500 meters, Fort Davis, Texas, 
September 19, 1920 (N.Y.; U.S.); George Engelmann, St. Louis, 
Missouri, May, 1848 (cult, e seminibus ad Santa Fe, New Mexico, 
lectis; Mo.); J. G. Lemmon, Apache Pass, Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, 
September, 1881 (Mo.; alibi est B. leptocephala) ; idem 2771, near 

1 The material at New York (from the old Torrey Herbarium) has the No. 
582 and, additional to the Limpio locality and date, "Puerto de Paysano, Sept. 
4, 1852." 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XCIII 




BIDENS TENUISECTA Gray 



IKE 



THE GENUS BIDENS 363 

Fort Huachuca, southern Arizona (Gray); idem & uxor, Huachuca 
Mts., Arizona, September, 1882 (Kew); 0. B. Metcalfe 839, on or 
near West Fork of Gila River, Mogollon Mts., Socorro Co., New 
Mexico, September 15, 1903 (U.S); idem 1096, moist loam, alt. about 
1,980 meters, Kingston, New Mexico, July 9, 1904 (Berl.; Brit.; 
Del.; Field; Gray; Mo.); Nealley 244, Limpio Canyon, western 
Texas, 1889 (Field); C. C. Parry, Cibuta Valley, northern Sonora, 
Mexico, July, 1852 (Gray; N.Y.); C. G. Pringle 18, Huachuca Mts., 
Arizona, July 8, 1884 (Gray) ; C. L. Shear 4587, Manitou, Colorado, 
September 5, 1896 (N.Y.); E. 0. Wooton, Organ Mts., Dona Ana 
Co., New Mexico, September 17, 1893 (N.Y.); idem, eodem loco, 
September 28, 1902 (U.S.); idem, Filmore Canyon, eodem loco, 
October 23, 1904 (U.S.); idem, Santa Rita Mts., Arizona, September 
30, 1913 (U.S.) ; idem 430, alt. 1,440 meters, Organ Mts., New Mexico, 
September 1, 1897 (Berl.; Boiss.; Calif.; Del.; Kew; Par.; U.S.; 
U.V.); idem & P. C. Standley, alt. about 1,650 meters, eodem loco, 
September 23, 1906 (U.S.); iidem, alt. about 1,800 meters, eodem 
loco et tempore (U.S.); Charles Wright 346, western Texas, May- 
October, 1849 (Gray). 

Bidens Bigelovii var. 0. pueblensis Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 88: 287. 1929. 

Folia principalia valde membranacea, tenuiter petiolata petio- 
lis usque ad 3 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 5-7 cm. longa, circum- 
ambitu triangulato-ovata, pinnata vel bipinnatisecta, segmentis 
primariis ovatis saepe 2-3 cm. longis et 1.2-1.6 cm. latis. Flores 
ligulati circ. 5, subflavi, circ. 6-7 mm. longi. Achaenia inferne 
glabrata superne plus minusve erecto-setosa, apice biaristata (vel 
exteriora interdum calva) aristis stramineis 1.5-3 mm. longis retror- 
sum hamosis, dimorpha, exteriora clavata badia vel rubro-straminea 
corpore tantum circ. 4.5-5.5 mm. longa, interiora atra corpore usque 
ad 11 mm. longa et superne attenuata. 

Type specimen: Collected by Fr. G. Arsene, No. 7211, vicinity 
of Puebla, State of Puebla, Mexico, October, 1908 (U.S.). 

Distribution: States of Michoacan, Mexico (with Federal Dis- 
trict), Puebla, Oaxaca, and Chiapas, southern Mexico. 

Specimens examined: G. Arsene 1982, Hacienda Batan, near 
Tatimehuacan, vicinity of Puebla, State of Puebla, December 3, 
1907 (U.S.); idem 5870, alt. 1,950 meters, Loma Santa Maria, 
vicinity of Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico, September 4, 1910 (U.S.); 
idem 7211 (type, U.S.); C. Conzatti 2261, alt. 2,000 meters, Cerro 



364 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

San Felipe, Distr. del Centre, Oaxaca, Mexico, October 18, 1908 
(Field); E. W. Nelson 3167, alt. 2,100-2,400 meters, near San Cristo- 
bal, Chiapas, September 18, 1895 (Gray); F. Nicol&s 5557, Batan, 
State of Puebla, November 14, 1910 (U.S.); C. G. Pringle 6784, near 
Tlalpam, Valley of Mexico, Federal District, September 10, 1897 
(Berl.; Boiss.; Del.; Gray; Mun.; Mus. V.). 1 

The foliage of the observed specimens suggests strongly that of 
Bidens duranginensis Sherff, but the dimorphic achenes reveal the 
affinity with B. Bigelovii Gray, a species which, in its typical form, 
is confined to a more northern range. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXIX, FIGS. 0,-k 

Bidens Bigelovii: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.67; b, 
fruiting branch, X0.67; c, exterior involucral bract, X4.02; d, interior 
involucral bract, X4.02; e, ray corolla, X4.02; /, palea, X4.02; g, 
disc floret, X4.02; h and j (outer), i and k (inner), achenes, X2.68; 
a, c-i, from type; 6, Parry 882, in Hb. Gray; j, k, Bigelow, mountain 
arroyo, Rock Creek, Texas, July (A. Gray's unnamed variety), 
in Hb. Gray. 

114. Bidens leptocephala Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 64: 22. 1917. 

PI. XC. 

Herba annua, 1-5 dm. alta, ramosa; caule et ramis tetragonis, 
saepius glabratis, striatis, tenuibus. Folia petiolata petiolis 0.3-4 
cm. longis sparsim hispido-ciliatis ad basim connatis, petiolo 
adjecto 2-10 cm. longa, 1.5-5.5 cm. lata, bipinnata (inferiora non 
saepe unipinnata), minute ciliata, hispida (praecipue ad venas) 
vel glabrata, segmentis nunc linearibus nunc etiam ovatis. Capitula 
terminalia, subradiata vel discoidea, pansa ad anthesin 3-5 mm. 
alta et 4-8 mm. lata, cum achaeniis 1-1.5 cm. alta et saepius 2-4 
mm. lata, tenuissime pedunculata pedunculis 2-8 cm. longis. Invo- 
lucrum basi subglabrum; bracteis exterioribus 4-6, linearibus, cili- 
atis, 1-2.5 mm. longis; interioribus dimidio longioribus, lanceolatis, 
glabris vel ad apicem pubescentibus. Flores ligulati (interdum defici- 
entes) circ. 3, minimi (circ. 2.5 mm. longi et 1.2 mm. lati), integri 
vel ad apicem bidentes, 4- vel 5-striati, subalbidi. Achaenia pauca 

1 A form in the past confused by me with B. duranginensis and with B. pilosa 
var. radiata. Cf. O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 138. 1911: "Equidem 
hanc formam [subbiternatam O. Ktze.] in specimine unico a cl. Pringle (n. 6784) 
in Mexico collecto observavi;"-eundem, Engler Bpt. Jahrb. 50, Suppl. 177. 1914: 
"Nur ein einziges Mai habe ich in dem reichhaltigen Material des Berliner Bot. 
Museums ein Exemplar gefunden, dessen unterste Fiederblattchen etwas geteilt 
sind (Mexico: Pringle n. 6784)." 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XCIV 



/ 




BIDENS PAUPERCULA Sherff 



THE GENUS BIDENS 365 

(5-9 vel interdum -13), subtetragona, linearia, biaristata aristis 
retrorsum hamosis, 1-3 mm. longis; quaedam exteriora badia vel sub- 
nigra, hispida, corpore 6-8 mm. longa; interiora nigra vel ad apicem 
helveola, infra glabra, supra hispida, corpore 0.9-1.4 cm. longa. 

Type specimen: Collected by J. C. Blumer, No. 1712, in shade, 
sandy alluvium soil at altitude of 1,615 meters, near Cedar Gulch, 
Paradise, Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, September 21, 1907 (Gray). 

Distribution: State of Chihuahua (Mexico) northward into New 
Mexico and westward into Arizona and Lower (Baja) California. 

Specimens examined: J. M. Bigelow (Lt. A. W. Whipple's ExpL), 
Hurrah Creek, northern Guadalupe Co., New Mexico, September 25, 
1853-1854 (N.Y.); idem 581, "mountains near Estaban" (Gray; 
N.Y.); Blumer 1712 (type, Gray: cotypes, BerL; Kew; Mo.; Mus. V.); 
idem 2144, alt. 1,680 meters, Wilgus Ranch, base of rhyolite slope, 
Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, September 4, 1907 (U.S.); T. S.Brandegee, 
San Bernardo, Lower California, October 13, 1893 (Calif.); idem, 
Miraflores, Lower California, September 27, 1899 (N.Y.); idem 320, 
mountains near Agua Caliente, Lower California, October 18, 1890 
(Calif.) ',E. L. Greene 263, banks of the Upper Gila River, New Mexico, 
August 29, 1880 (Gray) ; David Griffiths 1985, Hudson Ranch, near 
Pierce, Arizona, October, 1900 (N.Y.); idem 5994, fenced area, Santa 
Rita Mts. Forest Reserve, Arizona, September 27-October 4, 1903 
(U.S.); idem 6014, above range reserve, Santa Rita Mts., Arizona, 
September 12-October 18, 1903 (U.S. ; forma foliis Bidenti Bigelovii 
adpropinquans) ; Griffiths & Thornber 65, Santa Rita Mts., Arizona, 
September 20-October 4, 1902 (U.S.); M. E. Jones, alt. 1,350 meters, 
Santa Rita Mts., Arizona, August 24, 1903 (Stanf.); J. G. Lemmon, 
Apache Pass, Fort Bowie, Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, September, 

1881 (Brit.; Calif.; Cam.; Field; Par., 2 sheets; alibi, e.g. Mo., 
est B. Bigelovii) ; idem 333, near Fort Huachuca, southern Arizona, 

1882 (Gray); idem 3029, eodem loco, 1883 (Gray); idem & uxor, 
Apache Pass, Fort Bowie, Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, September, 
1881 (Brit.; Carn.; U.S.); C.G. Pringle 62, near Arivaca, Arizona, 
August 31, 1884 (Gray) ; idem 534, near Chihuahua, State of Chihua- 
hua, Mexico, September 6, 1885 (Gray); idem 1574, shaded banks, 
Sierra Madre, Chihuahua, September 17, 1887 (Field; Mo.); J. J. 
Thornber 72, alt. 1,500 meters, Stone Cabin Canyon, Santa Rita 
Mts., Arizona, September 14, 1903 (Mo.; N.Y.); George Thurber, 
near Chihuahua, State of Chihuahua, Mexico, October, 1852 (Gray) ; 
idem 842, November (Gray) ; C. H. T. Townsend & C. M. Barber 
411, alt. 2,100 meters, near Seven-star Mine, Sierra Madre, Chi- 



366 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

huahua, September 7, 1899 (Brit.; Del.; Kew; Mo.; Par.); (E.O. 
Wooton 430, formerly referred in small part to this species, seems 
rather to be entirely B. Bigelovii;) C. Wright 12346i's pro parte, New 
Mexico, 1851-1852 (Kew; Mo.; Phila.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XC 

Bidens leptocephala: a, entire fruiting plant, X0.67; 6, exterior 
involucral bract, X6.7; c, interior involucral bract, X6.7; d, ray 
floret, X6.7; e, palea, X6.7; /, disc floret, X6.7; g (outer),' h (inner), 
achenes, X5.36; all mainly from cotype in Hb. U.S. 

115. Bidens bipinnata L. Sp. PI. 832. 1753. 
PI. LXXXIX, figs. l-s. 

Bidens fervida Hort. ex Colla, Herb. Pedem. 3: 306. 1834. 

Bidens Myrrhidifolia Tausch, Flora 19: 394. 1836. 

Bidens Cicutaefolia Tausch, op. cit. 395. 

Bidens elongata Tausch, loc. cit. (ex descript. etc.). 

Bidens tenuifolia Tausch, loc. cit. 

Bidens decomposite, Wall, ex DC. Prodr. 5: 602. 1836. 

Coreopsis Corymbifolia Ham. in Wall, ex DC. loc. cit. 1 

Bidens Kotschyi Schz. Bip. ex Walp. Repert. 6: 168. 1846. 

Bidens Kotschyana Schz. Bip. loc. cit. 

Kerneria bipinnata (L.) Godr. & Gren. Fl. Fr. 2: 169. 1850. 

Bidens pilosa var. bipinnata (L.) Hook. Fl. Brit. Ind. 3: 309. 1881. 

Bidens pilosa var. decomposita (Wall, ex DC.) J. D. Hook. loc. cit. 

Bidens bipinnata var. minor Memm. Journ. Elisha Mitchell Sci. 

Soc. 30: 148. 1915. 

Bidens pinnata L. ex Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 94. 1920 (sphalm). 2 
Folia normaliter bipinnata; involucri bracteis exterioribus apicaliter 

acutis B. bipinnata sensu stricto. 

Folia pinnata vel tantum foliolis imis tripartitis bipinnata; involucri 

bracteis exterioribus superne dilatatis var. /3. biternatoides. 

Herba annua, erecta, plerumque glabra sed rariter minute setoso- 
hispida, ramosa, caule tetragona, 3-12 (-17) dm. alta. Folia tenuiter 

1 Copies of Wallich's Catalogue seen by me give "Coreopsis? corindifolia Ham." 
(cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 86: 442 and footnote 3. 1928), indicating a resemblance in 
foliage to Corindum. 

2 Bidens fervida Nocca (nomen in Fischer, Cat. Jard. PI. Razoum. Gorenki ed. 2. 
37. 1812) is represented by two specimens (Petrop.) and is seen to be purely B. 
bipinnata L. (cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 86: 442. 1928). 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XCV 




BIDENS PRINGLEI Greenm. (figs, a-h) 
BIDENS HETEROSPERMA Gray (figs, i-o) 



THE ' 

OF THt 
UIWEHSIT! OF 



THE GENUS BIDENS 367 

petiolata petiolis 2-5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 0.4-2 dm. longa, 
normaliter 2-3-pinnata, membranacea, ciliata, segmentis ultimis 
saepe deltoideo- (vel rhomboideo) lanceolatis, basim versus cuneatis. 
Capitula florescentia parva, 5-7 mm. alta et 4-6 mm. lata, peduncu- 
lata pedunculis tenuibus et 1-10 cm. longis, obscure radiata. In- 
volucrum ad basim pubescens, bracteis exterioribus 7-10, linearibus, 
ad apicem acutis, 3-5 mm. longis; interioribus lineari-lanceolatis, 
exteriores dimidio superantibus. Flores ligulati flavido-albidi, 
ligula lanceolati vel obovato-lanceolati, apice integri vel valde irregu- 
lariterque 2-3-lobulati, floribus tubulosis non longiores. Achaenia 
linearia, tetragona, (rarissime 2-) 3- vel 4-aristata aristis flavidis 
retrorsum hamosis plerumque 2-4 mm. longis; corpore plerumque 
nigro, supra attenuate et saepe setis parvis sparsim vestito, infra 
glabrato, 1-1.8 cm. longo; corpore 2-4 exteriorum saepe crassiore, 
rufulo, minute et creberrime tuberculato-hispido, 0.7-1.2 cm. longo. 

Type specimen: No type was cited. The habitat was given as 
Virginia and the first pre-Linnean reference given for a synonym 
(Chrysanthemum aquaticum, foliis multifidis cicutae nonnihil 
similibus, virginianum. Herm. lugdb. 416. 1690) relates definitely 
to a Virginia plant. 1 The nativity of the specimen in the Linnean 
Herbarium is not indicated on the sheet. 

Distribution: Rhode Island to Florida and westward to Kansas 
and Mexico; rare in California; scattered in French Guiana, Brazil, 
Argentina, Chile, etc.; common in northern Italy and the Tyrol 
and extending into France; also in British East India, China, Corea, 
Japan, Kordofan, islands of Madagascar and Sokotra (east coast 
of Africa), Lizard Island (northeast coast of Australia), Philippine 
Islands, etc. Probably native in recent times only to the eastern 
United States and eastern Asia, elsewhere introduced. 2 

Specimens examined: Ambrosius, in vineyards, Valsugana, Italy 
(Del.); anon. (Linn., sub num. 6 et nom. bipinnata); anon. 63, 
Lizard Isl., northeast coast of Australia, April, 1861 (Mus. V., 2 

1 In early days the boundaries of Virginia extended much farther west, of 
course, than at present. It may be added that in the later (posthumous) work of 
Hermann's, his Paradisus Batavus (pi. 123. 1698), a crude illustration of an entire 
plant was given, accompanied by the slightly modified name Chrysanthemum 
Virginianum foliis Cicutae nonnihil Similibus. The plate was positively of our 
Linnean B. bipinnata. 

2 Other authors have commonly regarded this species as native to the United 
States, whence introduced elsewhere. The characteristic and quite individual 
aspect found in much of the Asiatic material, an aspect that has persisted through 
specimens collected many years apart (and has occasioned the employment of 
separate specific names), leaves no doubt, however, that eastern Asia has been a 
home to this species since prehistoric times. 



368 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

sheets); A. Autheman 2217, Martiques, Dept. Bouches du Rhone, 
France, September, 1889 (Berl.; Boiss.; Del.; Mus. V.); C. F. Baker 
8, Auburn, Alabama, September 20, 1896 (N.Y.); R. Baron 99, 
Madagascar (Kew); H. C. Benke 236, Hutchinson, Kansas, Octo- 
ber 5, 1918 (Field) ; Biroli, ex herb, of (sub nom. B. fervida Hort. Er- 
furt, in herb. Collae, Tur., 2 sheets); F. Bracht, sterile fields, Verona, 
Italy (Mun.; Mus. V.); T. S. Brandegee, Sierra de la Laguna, Lower 
California, Mexico, October 4, 1899 (Calif.; N.Y.); J. R. Churchill, 
Bay-Head, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, August 24, 1892 (Gray); 
A. H. Curtiss, Bedford Co., Virginia, September, 1867 (Can.); idem 
1499, dry, fertile soil, near Jacksonville, etc., Florida, September 
(Berl., 2 sheets; Boiss.; Brit.; Carn.); idem 4490, near Jacksonville, 
Florida, October 11, 1893 (N.Y.) ; idem 5221, eodem loco, October 1, 
1894 (Mus. V.; N.Y.); idem 6013, cultivated ground, eodem loco, 
October 5, 1897 (Del., 2 sheets; Gray; Kew; U .V '.) ; Bretschneider 385 
and 386, Peking, Prov. Chi-li, China (Kew); idem 387, eodem loco 
(Berl.); John Bright, Glenshaw, Pennsylvania, September 5, 1912 
(Cam.); J. B. Brinton, Wawa, Pennsylvania, August 29, 1888 
(Penn.); S. W. Bushell, near Peking, Prov. Chi-li, China (Kew); 
W. M. Canby, "everywhere," Wilmington, Delaware (Can.); C. B. 
Clark 22115A, alt. 1,800 meters, Dalhousie, Kashmir, British East 
India, September 10, 1874 (Brit.}; Lady Dalhousie, alt. 2,250 meters, 
Simla, Himalayan region, British East India, September 3, 1831 
(Kew); John Davis 8, New Albany, Indiana, September 15, 1909 
(Mo.; forma fructibus iarcuatis B. Cynapiifoliae adpropinquans) ; 
C. Dawson 382, Valparaiso, Chile (Kew) ; De Sardagna, Trent, Tyrol 
(U.V.); L. H. Dewey 523, neglected lawn, Mt. Pleasant, District of 
Columbia, September 2, 1901 (Can.; Gray; Phila.); T. Drummond, 
St. Louis, Missouri, 1832 (Kew) ; idem 192, eodem loco (Kew) ; G. 
A. Eifrick, Cumberland, Maryland, August (Carn.); Adolph Engler, 
above Mori (Tyrol) at foot of Monte Baldo, Italy, July, 1870 
(Berl.); P. Eugene, Drome, France, June, 1871 (U.V.);F. Evrard 154, 
road from Saigon, mangrove 10 km. from the Cape, French Indo- 
China, October 21, 1820 (Calif.) ; D. Facchini 2040, Bozen (Botzen) 
and Roveredo and above Mori at Lake Garda, Tyrol (Berl.; Carn.; 
Gray; Mus. V.; Par.): Urbain Faurie 768, central Corea, Sep- 
tember 4, 1901 (Berl.); idem 1053, fields, Seoul, Corea, September, 
1906 (Brit.); Andrea Fiori 382, alt. 23 meters, about Lake Superior, 
Mantua (Mantova), Italy, September 20, 1904 (Gray; Kew; U.V.); 
A. Fredholm 5991, waste ground, Okeechobee region, Brevard Co., 
Florida, September 9, 1903 (Gray); C. A. Geyer 47 and 529, Cahokia 



THE GENUS BIDENS 369 

River, vicinity of East St. Louis, Illinois, September, 1841 (Mus.V.); 
H. A. Gleason 814, rich woods, Windsor, Illinois, August 30, 1899 
(Gray) ; Asa Gray, Florida (Del., 2 sheets) ; J. M. Greenman 250, 
bank of Blackwater River, Hendricks, West Virginia, September 10, 
1904 (Field); G. Gutteriberg, vicinity of Wheeling, West Virginia, 
September, 1878 (Carn.); Hoisted 35, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 
June, 1891 (N.Y.); A. A. Heller, Conestoga River, Lancaster Co., 
Pennsylvania, September 6, 1901 (Del.); J. M. Hildebrandt 3380a, 
among grass, Ambohitsi, Amber Mts., northern Madagascar, March, 
1880 (Berl., 2 sheets; Kew; Mus.V.); A. S. Hitchcock 736, open 
ground, Allen Co., Kansas, 1896 (Gray; Mo.; U.V.); Holz, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, 1831 (Mus. V.); J. D. Hooker & T. Thomson, Khasia, 
British East India (Gray); ex Hort. Cliff ortiano (Brit.); H. D. 
House 4003, alt. 1,200 meters, Pisgah Forest, Looking-glass Moun- 
tain, North Carolina, September 3, 1908 (Gray); M. E. Hyams, 
Statesville, North Carolina (Carn.); J. F. Joor, Lafourche Parish, 
Louisiana, September 19, 1872 (Field); H. D. Keeler, vicinity of 
Mayport and Jacksonville, Florida, 1870-1876 (Carn.); Kerner, abun- 
dant at Mori, Tyrol (U.V.); idem, Bozen (Botzen), Tyrol (U.V.); 
Koch, ditches near Bozen, Tyrol, 1828 (Del.); Kotschy 79, at eastern 
foot of Mt. Arasch-Cool, Kordofan, September 30, 1839 (type 
collection of Bidens Kotschyi Schz. Bip. ex Walp.; Berl., 2 sheets; 
Del., 3 sheets; Mo.; Mun., 2 sheets; Mus. V.; Par.; U.V.); 
idem 91, eodem loco, August, 1837 (Kew, 2 sheets; Mus. V.); A. B. 
Langlois, along fences in rich soil, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, July, 
1882 (Barn.);LeW(md 330, French Guiana, 1792 (Del.); Lindheimer, 
Houston, Texas, October, 1842 (Gray; Kew); C. D. Lippencott, 
Swedesboro, New Jersey, September 10, 1892 (Phila.); J. C. Liu 1306, 
Prov. Chi-li, China, August 27, 1927 (Calif.) ; idem 1349, Wofossu, 
Western Hills, Prov. Chi-li, August 30, 1927 (Calif. ; nom. Sinorum, 
Kui Chen Ts'ao) ; F. E. Lloyd 162, flats, Hacienda de Cedro, Zacate- 
cas, Mexico, 1908 (U.S.); idem & S. M. Tracy 542, Biloxi, Mississippi, 
September 5, 1900 (N.Y.); Bayard Long 6912, Westville, New Jer- 
sey, September 22, 1911 (Phila.); Alexander MacElwee 1902, damp, 
shaded places near Overbrook, Pennsylvania, September 3, 1900 
(Carn.) ; J. M. Macfarlane, Holly Beach, New Jersey, September 12, 
1907 (Penn.); E. E. Maire, gardens, alt. 2,500 meters, plain of Tong- 
tchouan (Tong-tschwan), Prov. Yun-nan, China, September, 1912 
(Del.; forma B. biternatae var. glabratae adpropinquans) ; B. Matthes 
295, Kentucky (Mus. V.); G. 0. A. Malme 1456a, Quinta near Rio 
Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, April 4, 1902 (Stockh.); W. R. 



370 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Maxon 5966, moist bank by canal, near Cabin John, Maryland, 
October 10, 1912 (U.S.); Marie Meislahn 69, Clarcona, Florida, 
September 25, 1899 (U.S.); E. D. Merrill 4308, Bued River, Prov. 
Benguet, Luzon, Philippine Isls., October-November, 1905 (Berl.); 
H. N. Mertz, Brooke Co., West Virginia, September 27, 1879 (Cam.) ; 
C. F. Millspaugh 791, Deckers Creek, Monongalia Co., West Vir- 
ginia, September 8, 1890 (N.Y.) ; C. J. Moser, Pennsylvania, August, 
1832 (Mus. V.);G. V. Nash 2495, Lake City, Florida, August 29-31, 
1895 (Berl.; Del.; Field; Kew; Petrop.; U.V.); Noe, Fiume, Italy 
(U.V.); Pailane 558, Cape St. Jacques, Cochin China, October 17, 
1919 (Del.); Edward Palmer 782, the market, Zacatecas, State of 
Zacatecas, Mexico, 1898 (Gray); R. Pampanini, Conegliano, Vene- 
tia, Italy, September, 1903 (Flor.); A. S. Pease 8645, waste ground, 
alt. 275 meters, Bozen (Botzen), Tyrol, November 7, 1905 (Gray); 
Charles Pickering, near Bombay, India, 1844-1845 (Phila.; forma 
Bidenti biternatae adpropinquans) ; Eduard Poeppig, wet places, 
Tuscarora Mt., Pennsylvania, September, 1824 (Del., 2 sheets; 
Mus. V., 3 sheets); C.L. Pollard 688, Rock Creek, vicinity of Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, September 15, 1895 (U.S.); T. C. 
Porter, Easton, Pennsylvania, October 3, 1887 (Field) ; G. N. Potanin, 
northern part of Prov. Szetschuan (Sze-chuan), China, July 14, 1885 
(Berl.); idem, valley of River Toiho below Yhepu, Prov. Szetschuan, 
July 17, 1885 (N.Y.); idem, near Naitiha, Prov. Szetschuan, Sep- 
tember 11, 1885 (Mus. V.); (C.G. Pringle 534, from near Chihuahua, 
September 6, 1885, was formerly referred to this species but is now 
seen to be B. leptocephala;} Rafinesque, Cumberland Mts., Tennessee, 
etc., 1823 (Del., sub nom. Bidente bipinnatifida) ; J. Reverchon 
2075, shaded ground, Dallas, Texas, September 13, 1900 (U.S.); 1 
P. H. Rolfs 335, cultivated grounds, Lake City, Florida, September 
14, 1894 (Field); F. Rugel, in ruderal places near Portsmouth, 
Virginia, September, 1840 (Del.; Mus. V.); idem, valley at Broad 
River, North Carolina, July, 1841 (Del.); idem 257, Florida, 1845 
(Gray; U.S.); A. Ruth, damp soil, Knoxville, Tennessee, August, 1895 
(Field); idem 600, rich woods, eodem loco, September, 1898 (N.Y.); 
P. A. Rydberg 8212, Roan Mt. Station, Tennessee, August 28, 1908 
(N.Y.); Matth. Schreiber, St. Anton, near Bozen, Tyrol, September 
20, 1909 (Mus. V.); idem 5091, banks of Talfer Brook, Gries near 
Bozen, Tyrol, September, 1908 (Berl.; Del., 2 sheets; Mun.; Mus. 
V.; Par.; U.V., 2 sheets); J. A. Shafer, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 

1 Here may be noted F. A. Rogers 25123, alt. 1,500 meters, Premier Mine, 
Pretoria, Transvaal (Kew), a form intermediate between B. bipinnata and B. 
biternata and possibly a hybrid. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XCVI 




BIDENS EXIGUA Sherff (figs, o-t) 
BIDENS DURANGINENSIS Sherff (figs, j-q) 



OP THE 
Of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 371 

August 16, 1885 (Cam.); C. W. Short 50, banks of Ohio River, 
Fernbank, Ohio (Mus. V., 2 sheets); 0. Simony, edge of marshy 
brook, plain of Kalansije, Sokotra, January 14, 1899 (Mus. V.); 
P. Sintenis 1390, Peri at foot of Mt. Baldo, Italy, October 4, 1881 
(Berl.; Del.; Gray; Mun.; Mus. V.; Par.); J. K. Small, northeastern 
West Virginia, August 22, 1890 (Field); idem, alt. 630 meters, 
vicinity of Marion, Virginia, July 22-August 2, 1892 (Field); 
Louise M. Stabler, Port Chester, New York, August 25, 1887 (Gray) ; 
P. C. Standley 5373, alt. 900-1,500 meters, near Waynesville, North 
Carolina, August 31, 1910 (U.S.); idem 8514, vicinity of Springfield, 
Missouri, August 31, 1911 (U.S.) ; idem 8771, shaded bluffs, vicinity 
of Turner, Missouri, September 4, 1911 (U.S.); E. S. Steele, roadsides 
etc., vicinity of Washington, District of Columbia, September 2, 
1896 (Del.; U.V., 2 sheets); G. W. Stevens 2249, Neoslio River near 
Miami, Oklahoma, August 24, 1913 (Del.); Stolitzka, alt. 1,200- 
3,000 meters, Prov. Kulu, Himalaya, India, September 7-20, 1864 
(Mus. V.)',idem, India, 1866 (Mus. V.); R. Strachey & J. E. Winter- 
bottom 1, Mohaigari, Kumaon, Himalaya, India, 1848 (Kew); 
Tausch, cult, in garden (Lps., 2 sheets, sub nominibus Bidente Cicu- 
taefolia Tausch et Bidente Myrrhidifolia Tausch) ; C. W. Swan, Low- 
ell, Massachusetts, September 16, 1880 (N. Eng.); C. H. Thompson, 
French Village, Illinois, September 23, 1913 (Mo., forma capitulis 
gracilioribus, achaeniis paucioribus) ; Diomede Tuezkiewicz, vineyards 
at Le Vigan, France, August-September, 1859 (Mus. V.); Tweedie, 
Buenos Aires, Argentina (Kew); Wallich 298a, Nepal, India (type 
of Bid ens decomposita Wall, ex DC., Del.); idem 3188A, eodem loco 
(Brit.); C. Von Hepperger, Bozen (Botzen), Tyrol, 1860 (Gray); idem, 
eodem loco, September, 1864 (Mus. V.); Von Kellner, Verona, Italy 
(Mus. V.); J. Von Sterneck, Peschiera on Lake Garda, Italy, 1893 
(Cop.); Warburg 7844, vicinity of Yokohama, Japan, November, 
1887 (Berl.); Rosa B. Watson, Atlanta, Georgia, November, 1881 
(Gray); P. J. White 25, Dewey Co., Oklahoma, July 17, 1900 (Mo.); 
H. N. Whitford 12, waste places, Cold Spring Harbor, Long Isl., 
New York, August, 1903 (Field) ; E. W. Williams, railroad embank- 
ment, Dedham, Massachusetts, October 2, 1898 (Gray); T. W. 
Williams, Peking, Prov. Chi-li, China, August, 1876 (Gray); idem 
298, on hills, Peking, August, 1865 (Kew; forma B. biternatae adpro- 
pinquans); Percy Wilson, vicinity of New York, New York, Sep- 
tember 28, 1899 (N.Y.); E. 0. Wooton, Mesilla Valley, Dona Ana 
Co., New Mexico, October, 1895 (U.S., 2 sheets); Charles Wright 
1234, New Mexico, 1851 (Gray) ; E. C. Wurzlow, damp, sandy soil, 



372 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

ditch bank in meadow, west of Houma, Louisiana, August 29, 
1913 (N.Y.). 

Tausch (loc. cit.) had sought to distinguish among five forms 
cultivated in gardens under the name B. bipinnata. He described 
each form separately, retaining one as B. bipinnata and creating 
new names for the other four. B. Cicutaefolia Tausch and B. Myrrhidi- 
folia Tausch each is represented by one of his own cultivated 
specimens (Lps.) and is seen to be purely B. bipinnata (vide sub B. 
biternata). The meager description of B. tenuifolia Tausch matches 
B. bipinnata as far as it goes. A plate cited by Tausch, "Chrysanthe- 
mum cannabinum etc. Moris. Hist. 3: tab. 7, fig. 23," is of B. 
bipinnata and is so treated by DeCandolle (Prodr. 5: 603. 1836) and 
0. E. Schulz (Bot. Jahrb. 50, Suppl. : 183. 1914). At Leipsic I failed 
to find an authentic specimen of B. tenuifolia. B. elongata Tausch 
appears likewise unrepresented by an authentic specimen to-day, 
but the description given by Tausch, as also his context, leaves no 
doubt as to the identity of B. elongata with B. bipinnata. The 
various specimens examined of Kotschy 79, the basis of Bidens 
Kotschyi, show mostly a variant of B. bipinnata in the direction of 
B. biternata var. glabrata; indeed, that at Kew (not the type) is very 
clearly B. biternata var. glabrata. 

J. D. Hooker (loc. cit.) reduced B. bipinnata to varietal rank 
under B. pilosa, a treatment not generally accepted by botanists since 
then. True it is that Trimens (Fl. Ceyl. 3: 41. 1895) and also Th. 
Cooke (Fl. Bombay Pres. 2: 44. 1904) regarded Hooker's "variety" 
as "scarcely worth distinction" from B. pilosa. But this was before 
the researches of 0. E. Schulz had placed B. pilosa, B. biternata, 
and B. bipinnata upon a firm footing as to definite fruiting and 
foliage characters. 1 

Of Bidens bipinnata var. minor Memm. I have seen no authentic 
material. Memminger's description ("Very delicate, small, 10 cm. 
high, in dense shade on rocks"), however, leaves little doubt that 

1 Cooke expressly cited Trimens' conclusion, agreeing with it. Trimens, in 
turn, doubtless was influenced by Hooker's grouping of B. bipinnata under B. 
pilosa. In view of the superficially intermediate leaves of B. biternata (B. Wal- 
lichii), a species very common in British East India, but erroneously equated by 
Hooker with B. bipinnata, it was only natural that Trimens should have felt that 
B. bipinnata equaled B. pilosa. Had he studied the fruiting characters as did 
O. E. Schulz later, he would have concluded otherwise. Curiously enough, Hooker, 
in publishing his work, relied here upon the erroneous treatment by C. B. Clarke 
(Comp. Ind. 141), as stated elsewhere (vide sub B. biternata). Clarke, at a later 
date, realized his own error and stated (on herb, label for H. Collett 816, Kew) that 
"B. Wallichii DC. [i.e. B. biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff] has the ray yellow (and 
smaller) as well as different leaves and is a good species. C. B. Clarke. May 1894." 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XCVII 




BIDENS PARVIFLORA Willd. (figs, a-g) 
BIDENS LEMMONII Gray (figs, h-n) 



THE GENUS BIDENS 373 

the name was applied to plants that were mere temporary dwarfs 
because of conditions of the habitat. 

Bidens bipinnata var. /3. biternatoides Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 90: 397. 1930. 

Folia pinnata foliolis lateralibus 3-4-jugis, imis tripartitis seg- 
mentis lanceolatis ceteris simplicibus lanceolatisque. Capitula dis- 
coidea vel subradiata. Involucri bracteae exteriores superne sensim 
vel interdum fere subabrupte dilatatae. Achaenia 2-aristata. 

Type specimen: Collected by Elmer Ottis Wooton, at altitude of 
1,170 meters, in cultivated land, Las Cruces, New Mexico, October, 
1895 (N.Y.). 

Distribution: New Mexico and western Texas. 

Specimens examined: Wooton, Las Cruces, New Mexico (type, 
N.Y.); Charles Wright 345, western Texas, 1849 (Del.). 

In its slightly dilated outer involucral bracts this variety makes 
an approach toward Bidens pilosa L. The general aspect of the 
plant is at once that of the South American B. subalternans DC. and 
of the Old World B. biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff, from both of 
which it differs sharply in its achenes. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXIX, FIGS. l-S 

Bidens bipinnata: I, fruiting specimen, X0.67; m, exterior involu- 
cral bract, X4.02; n, interior involucral bract, X4.02; o, ray corolla, 
X4.02; p, palea, X4.02; q, disc floret, X4.02; r (outer), s (inner), 
achenes. X2.68; all from Curtiss 1499, in Hb. Field. 

116. Bidens cylindrica Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81: 28. 1926. 
PL XCI, figs. g-l. 

Bidens pilosa var. pauciflora O. E. Schulz, Bot. Jahrb. 50, Suppl. 

186. 1914 (nomen). 

Herba gracilis, erecta, 4-7 dm. alta; caule tetragono, glabro, 
ramoso, circ. 2-3 mm. diametro. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus 
1-5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto principalia 5-13 cm. longa, pinnatim 
3-5-partita foliolis lanceolatis vel lateralibus ovatis, membranacea, 
serrata dentibus acriter apiculatis, margine ciliata, faciebus glabrata 
vel sparsissime adpresso-pilosa. Capitula ramos tenues plerumque 
nudos usque ad 13 cm. longos terminantia, plerumque subradiata, 
ad anthesin 4-5 (rarius -10) mm. alta et 3.5-4.5 (rarius -7) mm. lata, 
saepe cylindrica. Involucri bracteae exteriores 6-8, lineares, apicem 
versus saepius angustatae, apice acutae, margine piloso-ciliatae, 



374 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

faciebus glabrae vel sparsim hispidae, 3-8 mm. longae et 0.3-1 mm. 
latae; interiores lanceolatae, apice subacutae, paulo vel interdum 
multo longiores. Flores ligulati rudimentarii, albidi vel rosaceo- 
albidi, oblongo-obovati, apice subtruncati et circ. 3-dentati. Achaenia 
6-12, linearia, tetragona, atra, glabra vel exteriora saepe hispida, 
corpore 1.2-1.6 mm. longa et 0.5-0.8 mm. lata, bi- vel triaristata 
aristis moderate tenuibus retrorsum hamosis 2.5-4 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Menyhart, No. 1110, not abundant, 
in shady places at St. Joseph, Boruma (Mburuma; Boroma; about 
400-500 kilometers above Tete on Zambesi River), Northern Rho- 
desia, April, 1892 (U.V.). 

Distribution: From Boruma, Northern Rhodesia, southwestward 
up the Zambesi River to the District of Sebungwe (Sebungu), 
Southern Rhodesia; also north-northwestward to the Tschari 
(Schari, Shari, Chari) River, Tschad (Tchad, Chad) Lake region, 
some 3,000 kilometers distant. 

Specimens examined: Aug. Chevalier 2816, along the Tschari 
River, Tschad Lake region, Sudan, October 26, 1899 (Berl.); F. 
Eyles (cult, e seminibus ab R. W. Jackio lectis, alt. 750 meters, Distr. 
Sebungwe, Southern Rhodesia, November, 1920; Kew); ex Hort. 
Vindobon. (cult, e seminibus Menyhartii numeri 1110; U.V., 2 sheets) ; 
Menyhart 1110. (type, U.V.) ; Walter Robyns 2004, alt. 930 meters, 
border of sandy beach of Lake Moero, Pweto, Belgian Congo, April 
18, 1926 (Bruss.; nom. indig., Kasokopia). 

The Chevalier specimen listed had been determined by 0. E. 
Schulz as his Bidens Engleri, and in fact was cited by him, as was 
also the nomen B. pilosa var. pauciflora, for that species at the 
time of his original description (Bot. Jahrb. 50, Suppl.: 186. 1914). 
Recently, I have been privileged to study not only Schulz's type of 
B. Engleri (Berl.), but also excellent specimens of duplicate material 
(Boiss.; Mus. V., etc.). These all agree in having plants of low 
stature (2-3 dm. high), the leaves practically all undivided, the 
heads discoid; the exterior involucral bracts only about 3 or 4, 
spatulate, serrulate-ciliate, 1-2 mm. long; the inner bracts 2-5 times 
as long, often rounded at apex; the'achenes all glabrous, parallel- 
sided through most of their length and thus oW<mg(-linear, obcom- 
pressed, about 1 mm. wide. With this material the Chevalier and 
Menyhart specimens were compared and were seen to differ sharply 
as follows: Height, 4-7 dm., leaves 3-5-parted, heads subradiate; 
the exterior involucral bracts 6-8, linear and mostly narrowed above, 
ciliate with slender hairs instead of with minute serrulations, 3-8 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XCVIII 




TKE LIBRARY 

OF THt 
UNIVERSITY QF ILLINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 375 

mm. long; the inner bracts mainly 1.1-2 times as long, subacute at 
apex; the outer achenes frequently hairy, all narrower and gradually 
attenuate upward, distinctly tetragonal, only 0.5-0.8 mm. wide. 

A question at once arose from the fact that the Chevalier and 
Menyhart specimens had come from localities 3,000 km. or more 
apart, while the type material of B. Engleri had come from a point 
more or less intermediate (about 6-8 N. Lat. and 26-28 E. Long. 
In my judgment morphological considerations outweighed those 
as to geographical distribution and appeared to compel a segregation 
of the Chevalier and Menyhart (and, when later found, the Eyles 
and Robyns) specimens as a species distinct from B. Engleri. 

The name cylindrica alludes to the shape of the flowering heads 
which, in the two specimens cultivated from achenes of Menyhart 
1110, are notably cylindric. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XCI, FIGS. Q-l 

Bidens cylindrica: g, cauline leaf, X0.6; h, subflowering head, 
X2.4; i, exterior involucral bract, X2.4;;', interior involucral bract, 
X2.4; k, ray corolla, X2.4; /, achene, X2.4; g, i,j, from 1st type sheet; 
h, k, from 2nd type sheet; /, from Chevalier 2816, in Hb. Berl. 

117. Bidens cornuta Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 64: 22. 1917. 
PI. XCII, figs. h-n. 

Herba annua, 3-5 dm. alta; caule et ramis tetragonis, striatis, 
glabris, tenuibus. Folia petiolata petiolis 0.3-3 cm. longis et supra 
basim hispidam glabris, petiolo adjecto 3-12 cm. longa et 3-6 cm. 
lata, pinnata (vel summa bipinnata), ciliata, supra subglabra, infra 
sparsim adpresso-hispida; foliolis vel dentatis vel incisis vel etiam 
(imis foliorum superiorum) distincte partitis, circumambitu ovatis 
vel lanceolatis. Capitula terminalia, discoidea (vel interdum sub- 
ligulata?), tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 2-9 cm. longis. Involu- 
crum basi glabrum; bracteis exterioribus 5-8, linearibus, glabris vel 
infra hispido-ciliatis, 2-3 mm. longis; interioribus late linearibus, 
glabris, 4-5 mm. longis. Achaenia anguste linearia, striata, triaris- 
tata; aristis maturis 5-7 mm. longis et divaricatis, supra tenuissime 
et retrorsum hamosis, demum plus minusve deciduis; nonnulla exte- 
riora achaenia subbadia, hispida, corpore 6-10 mm. longa; interiora 
elongato-attenuata, nigra vel subnigra vel ad apicem subflavida, 
infra glabra, supra hispida, corpore 1.3-2 cm. longa. 

Type specimen: Collected by Edward Palmer, No. 131, at altitude 
of 730 meters, Hacienda San Miguel, southwestern Chihuahua, 
Mexico, August, 1885 (Gray). 



376 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in southwestern 
Chihuahua, Mexico. 

Specimens examined: Palmer 131 (type, Gray: cotypes, Brit.; 
Kew; N.Y.; Phila.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XCII, FIGS, h-n 

Bidens cornuta: h, flowering and fruiting spray, X0.57; i, exterior 
involucral bract, X3.44;y, interior involucral bract, X3.44; k, palea, 
X3.44; I, disc floret, X3.44; m (outer), n (inner), achenes, X3.44; 
h, from cotypes in Hb. Phila. and Hb. U.S. (mainly from middle 
specimen on sheet in latter herb.); i-n, from type. 

118. Bidens tenuisecta Gray, PI. Fendler. 86. 1849. 

PI. XCIII. 
Bidens cognata Greene, Leafl. Bot. Grit. 1: 149. 1905. 

Herba erecta, annua, glabra vel sparsim hirsuta, infra plerumque 
simplex, supra ramosa, 0.2-1.5 m. alta; caule tetragono, viridi 
purpurascentive. Folia petiolata (vel summa sessilia) petiolis 
0.5-3.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 0.5-1.4 dm. longa, pinnata vel 
saepius 2-3-pinnata segmentis anguste linearibus 0.5-2.5 mm. latis. 
Capitula inconspicue radiata, ad anthesin 4-10 mm. lata et 6-10 
mm. alta. Involucrum inferne plerumque hirsutum; bracteis lineari- 
bus et subaequalibus, exterioribus 6-12, 5-7 mm. longis. Flores 
ligulati flavi, ligula obovati vel lanceolati, apice saepe denticulati, 
tantum 4-6 mm. longi. Achaenia linearia, tetragona; interiora 
maxima ex parte nigra, glabrata vel saepius apicem versus erecto- 
setosa, supra attenuata, apice plerumque flava, corpore 8-15 mm. 
longa, biaristata vel rarissime triaristata aristis retrorsum hamosis, 
plerumque flavis, 1.5-3 mm. longis; pauca exteriora breviora, cras- 
siora, saepe badia, glabrata vel interdum papillato-hispida, corpore 
6-8 mm. longa, apice biaristata aristis retrorsum hamosis et 1-3 
mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by August Fendler, No. 449, margins 
of Ponil Creek, between Bent's Fort, Colorado, and Santa Fe, New 
Mexico, in 1847 (Gray). 

Distribution: Southeastern Idaho southward through Colorado, 
New Mexico, and Arizona into the State of Chihuahua, Mexico; 
reported as adventive near Rochester, New York (N.Y. State Mus. 
Bull. 139:19. 1910). 

Specimens examined: C. F. Baker 643, Chama, New Mexico, 
September 6, 1899 (Berl.; Boiss.; Del.; Gray; Kew); E. A. Bessey, 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XCIX 




BIDENS BITERNATA (Lour.) Merrill & Sherff (figs, a, c-ro) 
BIDENS PILOSA L. (fig. 6) 



THE GENUS BIDENS 377 

alt. 1,800 meters, Colorado Springs, Colorado, July 10, 1895 (N.Y.) ; 
J. M. Bigelow, banks of the Pecos River, New Mexico-Texas, October 
14, 1853 (U.S.) ; J. C. Blumer 1386, alt. 2,400-2,475 meters, Barfoot 
Park, Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, September 17, 1906 (Field; Gray; 
Kew; Mus. V.); idem 1593, eodem loco, August 22, 1907 (Berl.; 
Field; Kew; Mus. V.) ; idem 2056, alt. 2,250 meters, Grand View, above 
Paradise, Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, September 10, 1907 (Field); 
T. S. Brandegee, New Mexico, 1879 (Calif.); idem 1164, Animas 
Valley, Colorado, 1875 (Calif.); F. E. & E. S. Clements 65, alt. 2,100 
meters, Engelmann Canyon, Colorado, September 7, 1901 (Berl.; 
Del.; Gray); /. W. Clokey 3948, alt. 2,270 meters, dry hillsides, 
Cascade, Colorado, August 29, 1920 (Cop.; Field; Mo.; Phila.); 
idem 4368, alt. 2,040 meters, dry hills, Rye, Colorado, September 3, 
1921 (Cop.; Phila.) ; J. H. Cowen 2726, Palmer Lake, Colorado, 
September 10, 1897 (N.Y.; Par.); C.S.Crandall 2725, alt. 2,400 
meters, Buena Vista, Colorado, August 19, 1897 (Field); Alice 
Eastwood 28, along Platte River, Denver, Colorado, August 10, 
1910 (Gray; Kew); W. W. Eggleston 10728, alt. 1,600 meters, Portal, 
Chiricahua National Forest, Arizona, September, 1914 (U.S.); idem 
10873, alt. 2,200 meters, Barfoot Fire-station to Paradise, Chiricahua 
National Forest, Arizona, September 23, 1914 (Gray; U.S.); idem 
15012, alt. 2,140 meters, Salida, Colorado (U.S.); Charlotte C. Ellis 
261, gardens, Balsam Park, Sandia Mts., New Mexico, July 10 
(N.Y.); eadem 280, alt. 2,460 meters, in fields, Balsam Park, August 
4, 1914 (N.Y.); A. Fendler 449, New Mexico (type, Gray: cotypes, 
Berl., 2 sheets; Boiss.; Brit.; Flor.; Kew, 2 sheets; N.Y.); E. L. 
Greene, Cucharas River, Huerfano Co., Colorado, September 5, 
1873 (Field); idem, Fort of Colorado, September 3, 1873 (Gray); 
idem 456, Pinos Altos Mts., New Mexico, September 14, 1880 
(Gray; Kew; Phila.; U.V.); M. E. Jones, alt. 2,100 meters, Mound 
Valley, Sierra Madre, Chihuahua, Mexico, September 18, 1903 
(Mo.; U.S.); idem 803, alt. 1,800 meters, Cheyenne Canyon, Colo- 
rado, October 5, 1878 (Berl.; Brit.); J. G. Lemmon 2768, near Fort 
Huachuca, Arizona, 1882 (Gray) ; idem 2907, eodem loco et tempore 
(Gray); idem & uxor, Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, September, 1881 
(Brit.; Calif.; Kew; U.S.) ; 0. B, Metcalfe 546, alt. about 2,550 meters, 
Mogollon Mts., Socorro Co., New Mexico, August 19, 1903 (Brit.; 
Del.; Gray; Kew); idem 1436, among pines, alt. about 2,850 meters, 
Sawyer's Peak, Grant Co., New Mexico, September 30, 1904 (cotypes 
of B. cognata Greene; Berl.; Brit.; Del.; Field); A. Isabel Mulford, 
Pocatello, Idaho, August 25, 1892 (N.Y.); idem 1232, Whitman's 



378 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Camp, New Mexico, September 8, 1895 (Kew; N.Y.); E. W. Nelson 
4938, State of Chihuahua, Mexico, September 8, 1898 (Field) ; C. C. 
Parry 115, Fort Garland, northern New Mexico, September, 1867 
(Berl., 2 sheets; Gray); idem 605, southern Colorado, 1867 (U.S.); 
Eugene Penard 211, alt. 1,800 meters, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 
September, 1891 (Boiss.) ; C. G. Pringle 1287, canyons, Sierra Madre, 
Chihuahua, Mexico, September 23, 1887 (Boiss.; Field; Kew; Phila.; 
U.V.) ; idem 1636, base of Sierra Madre, Chihuahua, Mexico, October 
8, 1888 (Berl.; Brit.; Del.; Mo.; Mus. V.; U.V.); C. A. Purpus 8116, 
Flagstaff, Arizona, May-October, 1900 (Calif.; U.S.); C. L. Shear 
4946, along ditch, Durango, Colorado, August 11, 1897 (Petrop.); 
Forrest Shreve 5386, alt. 2,700 meters, Mt. Lemmon, Arizona, October 
1, 1917 (Gray) ; P. C. Standley 4862, alt. about 2,520 meters, Pecos 
National Forest, New Mexico, August 10, 1908 (N.Y.) ; idem 5002, 
alt. about 2,010 meters, near Pecos, New Mexico, August 17, 1908 
(N.Y.); idem 6308, alt. 2,100-2,380 meters, in streets, Raton, New 
Mexico, June 21-22, 1911 (U.S.); idem 6503, vicinity of Antonito, 
Colorado, July 7, 1911 (U.S.); idem 7145, alt. 1,550-1,650 meters, 
ditches, Farmington, New Mexico, July 20, 1911 (U.S.); idem 7926, 
alt. about 1,900 meters, ditches, Cedar Hill, New Mexico, August 15, 
1911 (U.S.); idem 40583, sandy arroyo, Pine Canyon, Guadalupe 
Mts., Culberson Co., Texas, August 15-17, 1924 (U.S., forma mon- 
strosa) ; idem .& H. C. Bollman 11107, creek bottoms, Ense- 
nada, New Mexico, September 3, 1914 (U.S.) ; C. H. T. Townsend & 
C. M. Barber 298, alt. 2,250 meters, in Sierra Madre, Colonia Garcia, 
Chihuahua, Mexico, September 1, 1899 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Del.; 
Field; Mo.; Par.); John Wolf 544, Valley of Upper Arkansas River, 
September, 1873 (Field) ; N. P. Woodward 2, potato field with sheep 
manure or wool waste, Worcester, Massachusetts, September 10, 
1921 (Gray); E. 0. Wooton, James Canyon, Sacramento Mts., New 
Mexico, August 11, 1899 (N.Y.); idem, Las Vegas Canyon, New 
Mexico, August 24, 1910 (U.S.); idem, alt. 2,490 meters, 12 miles 
northeast of Vermejo Park, New Mexico, August 30, 1913 (U.S.); 
idem 259, alt. 2,040 meters, White Mts., New Mexico, July 31, 1897 
(N.Y.); idem 2544, Ensenada, New Mexico, August 16, 1904 (U.S.); 
idem & Standley 3675, alt. about 2,220 meters, White Mts., New 
Mexico, August 25, 1907 (U.S.). 

In describing Bidens cognata, Greene (loc. cit.) stated that it was 
"allied to B. heterosperma." He then proceeded to differentiate it 
from that species, which was very easy because B. heterosperma was 
so unlike it. Here, as in certain other cases (cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate C 




A^]> 

BIDENS BITERNATA var. GLABRATA f. ABYSSTNICA (Schz. Bip.) Sherff 



OF THfc 

am EUITY w IUWOB 



THE GENUS BIDENS 379 

56:494. 1913; ibid. 64: 30. 1917), Greene's error consisted in compar- 
ing the plant with the wrong species and then founding a new species 
upon the points of dissimilarity. His type material (0. B. Metcalfe 
1436) is merely a low, rather much branched form of Bidens tenuisecta 
Gray, with the type of which it is connected by a number of the 
specimens cited above. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XCIII 

Bidens tenuisecta: a, b, fruiting specimens, X0.66; c, d, exterior 
involucral bracts, X3.94; e, f, interior involucral bracts, X3.94; g, 
ray corolla, X3.94; h, i, paleae, X3.94;;, k, disc florets, X5.91; I and 
m (outer), n and o (inner), achenes; a, d, f, g, i, k, m, o, from type; 
b, c, e, h, j, I, n, from Metcalfe 1436 (cotype of Bidens cognata Greene), 
in Hb. Field. 

119. Bidens straminoides Sherff, Amer. Journ. Bot. 
22: 706. 1935. 

Herba annua, gracillima, 6-9 dm. alta, caule simplici aegre 
angulato glabro nonnullis internodiis 1-1.5 dm. longis. Folia petio- 
lata petiolis usque ad 1 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto tantum 2-3.5 cm. 
longa, plus minusve bipinnata, infra valde supra sparsim tomentoso- 
hispida, segmentis ultimis oblongis vel (superiorum) filiformibus. 
Capitula pauca (3), subcorymbose ad caulis apicem disposita 
pedicellis subsparsim pilosis subtenuibus 3-5 cm. longis, forsitan 
discoidea, demum circ. 1.4 cm. lata. Involucri bracteae subaequales 
extrinsecus pilis gracillimis albidis longis hispidae, exteriores circ. 
4-6 elongato-lineares acutae circ. 5-7 mm. longae; interiores oblongo- 
ovatae. Flores ligulati non visi. Paleae nunc late nunc anguste 
oblongae, apice plus minusve obtusae. Achaenia atra, plana, lineari- 
oblonga, supra rarius angustata, marginibus ventreque valde tergo 
pluristriato aegre erecto-setosa setis e tuberculis ortis, corpore 7-8 
mm. longa et 0.6-0.8 mm. lata, apice erecte setosa et biaristata 
aristis brunneis antrorso-hispidulis circ. 0.6-0.8 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by H. Scaetta, No. 2272, at altitude 
of about 1,850 meters, Mt. Bohanga, Ruanda District, German East 
Africa (Mus. Cong., 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Ruanda District, German East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Scaetta 2272 (2 type sheets, Mus. Cong.). 

The stems are especially elongate, nudate, and mostly less than 
2 mm. thick, appearing when dry, therefore, more or less like straws. 
Apparently closest to Bidens paupercula, which differs in having 
more elongate achenial bodies, retrorsely barbed aristae, etc. 



380 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

120. Bidens paupercula Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 158, 
pi. 12, figs. a-g. 1923. PI. XCIV. 

Bidens ciliata DeWild. Repert. Sp. Nov. 13: 203. 1914 (non B. cili- 
ata Hoffmgg. ex Fisch. et Mey. Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 6: 46. 
1839). 

Herba annua, erecta, saepe gracillima; caule subtetragono sim- 
plici vel ramoso, 2-8 dm. alto, caule ramisque mine glabris nunc 
infra valde supra debiliter piloso-scabridis. Folia petiolata petiolis 
saepe alatis 0.8-4.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 2-10 cm. longa, pin- 
nata vel interdum bipinnatisecta; foliolis 3 vel 5, anguste linearibus 
vel etiam filiformibus, acutis, minute denticuloso-ciliatis et saepe 
sparse hispidis, 0.2-1.8 mm. latis et usque ad 5 cm. longis. Capitula 
tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 8-13 cm. longis, ad anthesin minima, 
pansa circ. 7 mm. lata et 6 mm. alta, subradiata. Involucri bracteae 
exteriores 4-9, reflexae vel reflexo-patentes, lineares, glabrae vel 
saepius setoso-ciliatae, apice acutae, primum (ad anthesin) circ. 2 
mm. demum circ. 5-8 mm. longae; interiores lanceolatae, subglabrae 
vel apice saepe pubescentes, saepe paulo breviores. Flores ligulati 
rudimentarii, lutei, lineares, circ. 4-5 mm. longi. Achaenia (circ. 
8-15 in unico capitulo) recta, anguste linearia, obcompressa, exalata, 
supra medium sensim usque vel fere ad apicem angustata, atra vel 
atro-brunnea, adpresse erecto-setosa, utrinque manifeste 8-sulcata, 
corpore 1-2.2 cm. longa et 0.5-1.2 mm. lata, apice erecte setoso saepe 
dilatata et semper biaristata aristis tenuibus retrorsum hamosis 
1.2-2.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Ad. Stolz, No. 1442, in forest at 
altitude of 900 meters, Kyimbila, Nyassaland, July 22, 1912 (Berl., 
2 sheets). 

Distribution: Nyassaland to southeastern Belgian Congo. 

Specimens examined: J. Bequaert 302, Elisabethville, Katanga, 
Belgian Congo, April 4, 1912 (Bruss., 2 type sheets of B. ciliata 
DeWild.); F. A. Rogers 10956, Elisabethville, Katanga, May, 1914 
(Rog.); Stolz 1442 (type, Berl., 2 sheets: cotypes, Cop.; Del.; Mun.; 
Mus. V.). 

Unlike most other African species of Bidens, this possesses close 
affinities with B. bipinnata L. and B. parviflora Willd. The type 
specimens were small plants, but the cotypes and other specimens 
later examined were much larger and better developed. From these 
and also from the more robust material collected by Rogers in the 
type locality, the original description has been amplified. B. ciliata 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany. Vol. XVI, Plate CI 



V 




in n 



BIDENS ANDICOLA var. COSMANTHA f. BUCHT1ENII SherfT (figs, a-g) 
BIDENS PSEUDOCOSMOS Sherff (figs, h-n) 



'J.BRMK 
Of THfc 

Of IllMttl 



THE GENUS BIDENS 381 

DeWild. belongs here, but its name is dropped because of the earlier 
homonym B. ciliata Hoffmgg. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XCIV 

Bidens paupercula: a (fruiting) and h (flowering and fruiting) 
specimens, X0.63; 6, k, exterior involucral bracts, X3.75; c, I, interior 
involucral bracts, X3.75; d, ray corolla, X3.75; e, m, paleae, X2.5; 
/, n, disc florets, X3.75; g, o, achenes, X2.5; i, more highly divided, 
lower leaf, X0.63; j, small portion of stem, enlarged to show shape 
and pubescence, Xl.88; a-g, from type; h-o, from Bequaert 302 (2 
type sheets of Bidens ciliata DeWild.), in Hb. Bruss. 

121. Bidens heterosperma Gray, PI. Wright. 2: 90. 1853. 
PI. XCV, figs. i-o. 

Herba annua, gracilis, erecta, glabrata, 3-6 dm. alta, paniculato- 
ramosa; caule ramisque tenuissimis, plus minusve tetragonis. Folia 
petiolata petiolis 0.3-1.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 2-5 cm. longa, 
1- vel 2-ternato-partita, interdum inconspicue denticulato-ciliata ; 
foliolis paucorum inferiorum juniorumque linearibus, 1-2 mm. latis, 
integris; foliolis reliquorum lineari-filiformibus, 0.5-1 mm. latis, 
integris. Capitula discoidea vel rariter subradiata ligulis flavis 
angustisque (circ. 4 mm. longis), pedunculata pedunculis tenuissimis 
1-5 (-10) cm. longis; ad anthesin cylindrico-turbinata, tantum 3.5-5 
mm. alta et 2-3 mm. lata. Involucrum sparsim hispidum vel sub- 
glabratum; bracteis exterioribus 3-5, anguste linearibus, demum 
3-5 mm. longis, quam interioribus elliptico-lanceolatis paulo breviori- 
bus. Flores tubulosi pauci (plerumque 8-13), tantum circ. 1.5 mm. 
longi, 3 (rariter -5)-lobati. Achaenia linearia, glabra, tetragona vel 
tantum trigona, biaristata vel raro triaristata, plerumque nigra; 
interiora supra attenuata, 7-12 mm. longa, aristis 1-2.2 mm. longis; 
exteriora crassa, clavata, saepe rugosa, breviora, aristis brevibus 
saepe caducis. 

Type specimen : Cultivated in 1852 at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
from seed obtained in 1851 near the Copper Mines in New Mexico 
by Charles Wright (Gray, 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Arizona and southernmost Colorado southward 
to the Territory of Baja California, and the states of Sonora and 
Chihuahua, Mexico. 

Specimens examined : J. C. Blumer 3351, alt. 1,800 meters, open, 
eroding gravel slope, Manning Trail, Rincon Mts., Arizona, Sep- 
tember 13, 1909 (Berl.; Gray) ; Miss L. L. Donnelly, alt. 1,830 meters, 



382 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Cananea, Sonora, September 1, 1909 (Calif.); E. L. Greene 461, Pinos 
Altos Mts., New Mexico, September 16, 1880 (Kew); F. H. Knowl- 
ton 157, alt. 2,520 meters, Walker Lake, San Francisco Mt., Arizona, 
September 1, 1889 (Gray) ; J. B. Leiberg 5893, alt. 2,000 meters, near 
Kendrick Mts., Arizona, August 27, 1901 (U.S.); J. G. Lemmon, 
Ramsey's Canyon, Huachuca Mts., Arizona, September, 1882 (Calif.) ; 
E. A. M earns 2218 pro parte, canyon, east side of San Luis Mts., 
Chihuahua, September 11, 1893 (U.S.; cf. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 
56, No. 1: 89, stat. 18. 1907); G. C. Nealley 220, alt. 2,250 meters, 
Rincon Mts., Arizona, 1891 (U.S.); C. G. Pringle 1288, foothills of 
the Sierra Madre, Chihuahua, September 24, 1887 (Boiss.; Field; 
Kew; Mo.; Phila.; U.V.); idem 1289, rocky hills near Guerrero, 
Chihuahua, September 12, 1887 (Berl.; Boiss.; Field; Kew; Phila.); 
idem 1637, base of Sierra Madre, Chihuahua, October 8, 1888 (Berl.; 
Brit.; Calif.; Del.; Mun.; Mus. V.; U.V., 2 sheets); idem 11487*4 
alt. 2,400 meters, lava fields near Eslaba, Federal District, Mexico, 
September 17, 1903 (Berl.; Kew) ; Ira L. Wiggins & D. Demaree 4882, 
alt. 2,200 meters, under pines about margins of meadow, La Encan- 
tada, Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico, September 
18, 1930 (Stanf.) ; (ex seminibus lectis a) Charles Wright, New Mexico, 
1851 (et cult, in Horto Cantabriginensi, 1852; type material, Gray, 
2 sheets). 

.EXPLANATION OF PLATE XCV, FIGS, i-o 

Bidens heterosperma: i, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.7; ;', 
exterior involucral bract, X3.5; k, interior involucral bract, X3.5; I, 
palea, X3.5; m, disc floret, X3.5; n (outer), o (inner), achenes, X3.5; 
all from one (my No. "II" on sheet) of two type sheets. 

122. Bidens exigua Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 89, pi. 11, figs. a-/'. 1920. 

PL. XCVI, figs. a-i. 

Herba annua, usque ad circ. 4.5 dm. alta; caule ramisque tenuis- 
simis, glabratis, striatis. Folia petiolata petiolis 0.5-2 cm. longis, 
petiolo adjecto 3-5 cm. longa, membranacea, glabra, bipinnata; 
foliolis 3 vel 5, saepius 3-5-partitis; lobis linearibus, integris, subob- 
tusis, infirme apiculatis. Capitula pauca, discoidea vel subradiata, 
pauciflora, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 2-5 cm. longis, ad 
anthesin 5-6 mm. longa et infra 1.5-2 mm. supra 2-3 mm. lata; 
cum fructibus usque ad 1.6 cm. longa et usque ad 0.5 (rariter ad 1) cm. 
lata. Involucrum basi sparsim hispid am vel glabratum; bracteis 
exterioribus 4-7, linearibus, 2-3 mm. longis, ciliatis, ad faciem glabris 
vel pubescentibus, ad apicem induratis; interioribus dimidio longi- 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CII 




BIDENS PILOSA L. (figs, a, 6, e-j); var. MINOR (Bl.) Sherff (figs, c, d, k-r) 



THE GENUS BIDENS 383 

oribus, glabratis, lanceolatis, striatis, margine diaphanis. Achaenia 
linearia, tetragona, glabra vel supra ad angulos remote hispida, atra, 
facie unaquaque 2-sulcata, corpore 8-14 mm. longa, bi- vel triaristata, 
aristis usque ad 3 mm. longis, retrorsum hamosis hamis tenuibus. 

Type specimen: Collected by Charles H. T. Townsend, No. 1513, 
at altitude of 1,607 meters, in Chosica Canyon, Peru, April 20, 
1913 (U.S.). 

Distribution: Central and southern Peru, near the coast, and 
southeastward into northern Argentina. 

Specimens examined : J. F. Macbride 2873, alt. about 900 meters, 
dry, sandy, rocky slope, Chosica, Peru, March 11-13, 1923 (Field) ; 
idem 3209, alt. about 2,100 meters, stony slopes, shale and gravel, 
Huanuco, Peru, April 5-8, 1923 (Field ); Ludwig Savatier 570, Matu- 
cana, Peru, April 22, 1877 (Par.); F. Schickendantz 16, Yacatula 
(near Bele"n), Prov. Catamarca, Argentina, December, 1879 (Berl., 
ex herb. Hieronymi; nom. vernac., amor seco); Townsend 1513 
(type, U.S.); A. Weberbauer 5293, alt. 1,500-1,600 meters, San 
Bartolome", Peru, April 4, 1910 (Berl.); idem 7401, alt. 2,200-2,300 
meters, open, mixed formation, Torata, Prov. Moquegua, Peru, 
March 17-18, 1925 (Field). 

Related to Bidens subalternans through the latter's var. simulans, 
which in doubtful cases seems best distinguished by its broader 
leaf divisions. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XCVI, FIGS. 0,-i 

Bidens exigua: a, entire young flowering plant, X0.57; b, sub- 
fruiting head, X0.57; c, d, exterior involucral bracts showing varia- 
tion in pubescence, X4.56; e, interior involucral bract, X4.56; 
/, palea, X4.56; g, disc floret, X4.56; h (outer), i (inner), achenes, 
X4.56; all from type. 

123. Bidens parviflora Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. 848. 1809. 
PL XCVII, figs, a-flf. 

Bidens macrosperma H. G. ex Fischer, Cat. Jard. PL Razoum. 

Gorenki 59. 1808; ed. 2. 37. 1812 (nomen). 
Bidens pauciflora Poir. in Lam. & Poir. Diet. Bot. Suppl. 1: 630. 

1810. 

Bidens multifida Desf. Cat. Hort. Par. ed. 3. 186. 1829; nomen. 
Bidens Messerschmidii Turcz. ex DC. Prodr. 5: 602. 1836. 

Herba annua, erecta, glabrata vel hinc inde sparsim hispida, 
gracilis vel rarius subrobusta, 2-7 dm. alta. Folia petiolata petiolis 



384 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

0.5-2.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 4-13 cm. longa, 2-3-pinnata, 
segmentis linearibus vel oblongo-linearibus, membranaceis, subacriter 
calloso-apiculatis, marginibus involutis obsolete ciliatis, 1-4 (rarius 
-8) mm. latis. Capitula tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis plerumque 
circ. 4-6 cm. longis, discoidea, ad anthesin cylindrica, 7-10 mm. alta 
et circ. 3 mm. lata. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 5, lineares, 
acutae et indurato-apiculatae, tergo subglabrae, margine sparsim 
spinuloso-ciliatae, demum reflexo-patentes et 5-11 mm. longae, quam 
interiores late oblongo-lineares demum multo breviores. Flores 
tubulosi 4-lobati; paleis valde membranaceis, demum elongatis et 
corporibus achaeniorum etiam interiorum saepe fere aequalibus. 
Achaenia 6-13, odorata (ex Messerschm.), atra, linearia, utrinque 
attenuata, plus minusve tetragona, erecto-setosa praecipue supra, 
omnino 16-24-striata, corpore 1.5-2 cm. longa et 0.7-1.4 mm. lata, 
biaristata aristis erectis, retrorsum hamosis, 2-4 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected at Lake Baikal, Siberia (Willd.). 

Distribution: Lake Baikal region of Siberia eastward to Amur 
and eastern Manchuria and southward to central China (provinces 
of Szetschuan, Hupeh, etc.), Corea, and Japan. 

Specimens examined: Anon., Transbaikal region, Siberia (Mus. 
V.); anon., Lake Baikal, Siberia (Willd., type); anon., Usuri (Ussuri), 
southeastern Manchuria (Berl.; Mus. V.); Bretschneider, Peking, 
Prov. Chi-li, China (Berl.); idem 388, Peking (Kew); Y. Chen 701, 
alt. 960 meters, Hsien Shan Hsien, western Hupeh, China, September 
17, 1926 (Calif.); N. H. Cowdry 895, dry roadsides, Chi-fu (Chefoo), 
Prov. Shan-tung, China, June-August, 1920 (Kew); 0. Debeaux 91, 
mica schist hills, Chi-fu (Tche-fou), China, September 2, 1860 
(Par.); E. Farber, mountains, vicinity of Chi-fu (Tschi-fu), China, 
1889 (Berl., 2 sheets; Cop.; Par.; U.V.); Farges 81, China (Par., 
2 sheets); Urbain Faurie 419, common, Fusan, Corea, October 4, 
1901 (Berl.; Par.); idem 420, in fields, Chinampo, Corea, September 
12, 1901 (Berl.; Brit.; Par.); idem 1052, in fields, Chinampo, Sep- 
tember 8, 1906 (Berl.; Brit.); idem 1916, Shinano, Japan, September 
15, 1898 (Berl.; Kew; U.V.); Giuseppe Giraldi 272, northern 
Shen-Si (Chen-Si), China, September 18, 1891 (Berl.; Flor.); idem 
2894, Mt. Ki-fon-San, near Pao-Ki-Scen, northern Shen-Si, October, 
1898 (Flor.); idem 2895, In-Kia-pu (In-kio-po), northern Shen-Si, 
August, 1896 (Berl.; Flor.); idem 2896, hill near Fu-kio, northern 
Shen-Si, June, 1893 (Flor.); idem 2897, hill near Fu-kio, northern 
Shen-Si, October, 1894 (Berl.; Flor.); Aug. Henry 2875, Prov. Hupeh, 
China, 1885-1888 (Brit.; Gray; Kew; Par.); idem 4791, I-chang, 



THE GENUS BIDENS 385 

Patung Distr., Prov. Hupeh, China (Kew); idem 7011, Prov. Hupeh, 
1885-1888 (Berl., 2 sheets; Gray; Kew); Hugh 24, China, August, 
1897 (Brit.); H. E. M. James, Kirin to Tsitsihar, Manchuria, 
communic. June, 1887 (Kew); F. Karo (Plantae Amuricae) 160, 
Blagowjestschensk (Blagovestchensk), Amur, Siberia, August, 1898 
(Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Cop.; Del., 2 sheets; Kew; Mus. V.; Par., 2 
sheets); idem 1534, eodem loco, September, 1905 (Brit.); Vladamir 
Komarov 1534, near Ta-moudan, Prov. Kirin, Manchuria, September 
8, 1896 (Berl.; Brit.; Flor.; Gray; Kew, 2 sheets); idem (similiter 
numerat.) 1534, Jalu-dsian River, about Kazami, northern Corea, 
September 21, 1897 (Kew) ; 5. Krug 73 and 73a, Forestry Garden, 
Tsingtau, Kiao-chau region, Prov. Shan-tung, China, September 15, 
19.05 (Berl.); idem 185, Lehis Mts., China, September 15, 1906 
(Berl.); idem (Imperial Forestry Office of Tsingtau) 433, Lauschen 
Mts., August-September, 1910 (Berl.); J. C. Liu 1413, alt. about 
900 meters, hillside, Kalgan, Prov. Chi-li, China, September 9, 
1927 (Calif.; nom. Sinorum, Kui chen Ts'ao; hoc nomine Bidens 
bipinnata similiter apellatur); Maximowicz (iter secundum), upper 
Usuri, southeastern Manchuria, 1860 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Cop.; 
Flor.; Gray; Kew; Mun.; Mus. V.; Par.); Jar din de Montpelier, 
specimen cult, e seminibus a Fischero communicatis (itaque pro 
Bidente macrosperma Fisch. probabiliter dignum; Del.); Nebel, moun- 
tain slopes, Tsingtau, Kiao-chau (Kiautschou) region, Prov. Shan- 
tung, China, 1899-1900 (Berl.); 1 G. N. Potanin, in road, Paiho 
River below She-pu, northern Szetschuan (Sze-chuan), China, July, 
1885 (Par.); idem, Distr. Naitiha, Szetschuan, September 11, 1885 
(Kew; Par.); A. Provost 34, Kou-pe'i-Ke'ou, China, September, 1891 
(Par., 3 sheets); J. Ross 137, Prov. Sching-King, northern China 
(Kew); idem 286, Kaichow to Kinchow, northern China (Kew); 
Schottmuller 349, Chi-fu (Chefoo), Prov. Shan-tung, China, August, 
1861 (Berl.); ex herb. Schumacheri, cult, in Hort. Hafniae, ann. 1808, 
sub nom. B. macrosperma (Cop., 2 sheets); C. Silvestri 2556, Mt. 
Ku-cheng (Ku-tcen), alt. 600 meters, Prov. Hupeh, China, July- 
August, 1906 (Flor.); idem 2557, Mt. Triora, alt. 1,950 meters, 
Prov. Hupeh, China, July 3, 1907 (Flor.); idem 2558, Mt. Kian- 
Scian, alt. 2,000 meters, Prov. Hupeh, China, September, 1907 
(Flor., 3 sheets); Don Giovanni Tsan, Pouoli, northern Shen-Si, 
China (Flor.); George Staunton, China (Del.); idem, between Peking 
and Jehol, Prov. Chi-li, China (Brit.); Turczaninow, Transbaikal 

1 The "B. chinensis W." specimen from "China" ex Herb. Petrop., cited by 
DeCandolle (Prodr. 5: 602. 1836) for B. parviflora, is B. bipinnata L. 



386 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

region, Siberia (Kew); idem, on rocks at Selenga and elsewhere, 
Transbaikal region, Siberia, 1829 (cum inscript. "Bidens Messer- 
schmidii mihi Ammann. descript. pag. 148;" Del., 2 sheets; Oxf.); 
idem 1232, iisdem locis, 1831 (Del.); Wawra (Circumnav. H. M. 
Frigate Donau) 1232, Chi-fu (Chefoo), Prov. Shan-tung, China, 
1868-1871 (Mus. V., 2 sheets); F. W. Williams 16052, Peking, 
Prov. Chi-li, China, September, 1867 (Brit.). 

A species not easily confused with any other Asiatic species. 
Known to Messerschmid as early as 1739 (or earlier), 1 it was not 
properly published until 1809. In that year Willdenow gave a technical 
description of it, citing as an equivalent the name B. macrosperma 
Fisch., which had been published without description in 1808. I 
have seen very old-looking sheets of material (e.g., Mus. V.) with 
merely the name macrosperma on the label and these match perfectly 
the Willdenow specimens (Willd.) of B. parviflora. Poiret's private 
specimen of B. pauciflora Poir. (Par.) likewise matches the Willdenow 
specimens. Desfontaines' B. multifida was merely a nomen, listed 
as being one used at the Paris Botanical Garden, and was equated 
by Desfontaines himself with B. pauciflora Poir. Certain very old- 
looking sheets of material labeled Bidens multifida Desf., still extant 
in herbaria (e.g., Mus. V.) are, furthermore, merely B. parviflora 
Willd. Turczaninow's original specimen of his B. Messerschmidii is 
in the DeCandpllean Prodromus Herbarium (Del.) and likewise 
is B. parviflora Willd. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XCVII, FIGS, a-fif 

Bidens parviflora: a, fruiting specimen, X0.68; b, exterior invo- 
lucral bract, X3.41; c, interior involucral bract, X3.41; d, palea, 
X3.41; e, disc floret (4-lobed), X3.41;/, pollen grains, X272; g, achene, 
X2.72; a, g, from Poiret's own specimen (type of Bidens pauciflora 
Poir.) in hb. Poir. in hb. Moquin-Tandon in hb. Cosson in Hb. 
Par. ; b-f, from identical material on the Bernhardi herbarium sheet, 
in Hb. Mo. 

124. Bidens Lemmonii Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1, pt. 2: 297. 1884. 
PI. XCVII, figs. h-n. 

Herba annua, gracilis, erecta, glabra, 2-3 dm. alta; caule tenui, 
plerumque purpurascenti, paniculato-ramoso. Folia tenuiter petio- 
lata petiolis plerumque 0.8-1.7 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 2-4 cm. 

1 B. Daurica, saxatilis, foliis Apii v. Cicutae magis, flore luteo, nudo, semine 
Scandicis instar longissimo, odorato; [etc. ]. . .Messerschmid in Amman. Stirp. Rar. 
Imp. Ruthen. Icon, et Descript. 148. 1739. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate GUI 




BIDENS PILOSA var. RADIATA Schz. Bip. (figs, a-h) 
BIDENS TENERA O. E. Schulz (figs, i-o) 



OF THt 
UNIVERSITY Of IttWW 



THE GENUS BIDENS 387 

longa, minute ciliata, irregulariter biternata, segmentis linearibus, 
non serratis, apice acutis, plerumque 0.5-1 mm. (in speciminibus 
parvis saepe 3.5-4.5 mm.) latis. Capitula discoidea, tenuiter pedun- 
culata pedunculis 1-6 (-9) cm. longis; ad anthesin subcylindrica et 
tantum 3-5 mm. alta et 1-2 mm. lata (bracteis exterioribus non 
inclusis). Involucrum glabratum vel sparsim hispidum; bracteis 
exterioribus 3 vel 4, demum tenuiter linearibus, membranaceis, 
ciliatis, longissimis (1-2.5 cm.), plerumque foliaceis et saepe irregu- 
lariter pinnato- vel etiam bipinnato-partitis (segmentis linearibus); 
interioribus demum oblongo-lanceolatis, 6-8 mm. longis. Flores 
tubulosi 5-9, tantum circ. 1.5 mm. longi, plerumque 3-lobati. 
Achaenia linearia, tetragona, rufo-badia, glabra, corpore 1.2-1.4 cm. 
longa, biaristata, interiora supra attenuata; aristis retrorsum hamosis, 
circ. 2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by John Gill Lemmon, Apache Pass 
(Fort Bowie) , Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, September, 1881 (Gray) . 

Distribution: Southern Arizona southward into Lower (Baja) 
California and the State of Mexico, Mexico. 

Specimens examined : T. S. Brandegee, Sierra de San Francisquito, 
Lower California, October, 1890 (Field; Phila.); idem, La Chuparosa, 
Lower California, October 16-17, 1893 (Calif. ; Kew) ; idem, Sierra de 
la Laguna, Lower California, October 2, 1899 (Calif. ; Field) ; idem 321, 
San Francisquito Mts., Lower California, October 20, 1890 (Calif.); 
J. G. Lemmon, Apache Pass (Fort Bowie), Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, 
September, 1881 (type, Gray: cotype, Field); idem 334, vicinity of 
Fort Huachuca, southern Arizona, 1882 (Gray) ; idem et uxor, Helen's 
Dome, Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, September, 1881 (Carn.; Brit.; 
Calif. ; Kew) ; iidem 334, peak south of Apache Pass, Arizona, Sep- 
tember, 1881 (Calif.); C. G. Pringle 6477, alt. 2,550 meters, Sierra 
de Ajusco, Federal Distr., Sept. 8, 1896 (Berl., 2 sheets; Boiss.; 
Brit.; Calif.; Can.; Del.; Field; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; Mus. V.; U.V.); 
idem 11489, alt. 2,400 meters, lava fields near Eslava, Federal Distr., 
September 17, 1903 (Berl.; Cop.; Field; Kew). 

The 3 or 4 outer involucral bracts are very long (1-2.5 cm.), 
commonly foliaceous, and often irregularly pinnate- or bipinnate- 
parted, this last character being unusual for the genus. Another 
exceptional character is the 3-lobed limb of the disc corollas. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XCVII, FIGS, h-n 

Bidens Lemmonii: h, entire small fruiting plant, X0.68; i, leaf 
from larger specimen showing extreme of decompound habit, X0.68; 



388 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

j, exterior involucral bract (of simple kind ; the compound kind often 
found on this species here omitted), X4.77; k, interior involucral 
bract, X4.77; I, palea, X4.77; m, disc floret (atypic in having 4 
instead of for this species the usually 3 corolla teeth), X4.77; n, 
achene, X2.72; all from type sheet (which bears one small and one 
large specimen). 

125. Bidens capillifolia Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 64: 24. 1917. 
PL XCVIII. 

Herba tenuis, annua, +3 dm. alta, ramosa, glabra (vel basibus 
ramorum hispida); caule et ramis subteretibus, striatis. Folia 
petiolata petiolis 0.6-1.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 2-6 cm. longa, 
1-2-pinnata; segmentis linearissimis, margine integris, 0.5-1 mm. 
latis. Capitula terminalia, discoidea, longe et tenuiter pedunculata, 
pedunculis 4-15 cm. longis. Involucrum basi plus minusve setoso- 
hispidum; bracteis exterioribus 3-5, linearibus, glabris vel sparsim 
hispidis, 6-8 mm. longis, primo discum juvenem multo excedentibus; 
interioribus anguste lanceolatis, glabris vel sparsim hispidis, margine 
diaphanis, 4-6 mm. longis. Achaenia linearia, tetragona, biaristata 
aristis retrorsum hamosis; 1-3 exteriora rufo-badia, sparsim tuber- 
culato-hispida, corpore circ. 6 mm. longa; interiora nigra (nisi ad 
apicem), elongata, glabra vel supra remote hispida, corpore 9-14 
mm. longa. 

Type specimen : Collected by Charles Melvin Barber and Charles 
Henry Tyler Townsend,, Sierra Madre, State of Chihuahua, Mexico, 
July 17, 1899 (U.S.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality of Sierra Madre, 
State of Chihuahua, Mexico. 

Specimens examined: Barber & Townsend, Sierra Madre, Chihua- 
hua (type, U.S.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XCVIII 

Bidens capillifolia: a, subflowering and fruiting spray, X0.69; 
b, exterior involucral bract, X4.16; c, interior involucral bract, X4.16; 
d, palea, X4.16; e, disc floret, X5.54;/, achene, X2.77; all from type. 

126. Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff in Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 88: 293. 1929. PL XCIX, figs, a and c-^m. 

Bidens pilosa L. var. /3. L. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. 2: 534. 1767; Murray, 

Syst. Veg. ed. 13. 610. 1774. 
Coreopsis biternata Lour. Fl. Cochinch. ed. 1. 508. 1790; ibid. ed. 

2. 622. 1793. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CIV 




BIDENS PILOSA var. BIMUCRONATA (Turcz.) O. E. Schulz (figs, o-i) 
BIDENS ACUTICAULIS Sherff (figs, j-r) 



OF THt 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 389 

Bidens chinensis Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 1719 (quoad synonyma et herb. 

Willd. num. 15023, fol. 4). 1804. 

Bidens peduncularis Gaud. Voy. Freyc. Bot. 464. 1826. 
Actinea biternata (Lour.) Spreng. Syst. 3: 474. 1826. 
Bidens Wallichii DC. Prodr. 5: 598. 1836. 
Bidens Wallichii var. bimensis Miquel, Fl. Nederl. 2: 78 (ex descript. 

et patria). 1856. 
Bidens pilosa var. /3. Wallichii (DC.) C. B. Clarke, Compos. Ind. 141. 

1876. 
Bidens pilosa var. /3. discoidea f. 4. subbiternata 0. Kuntze, Rev. 

Gen. PI. 1: 322 (quoad pi. Birmam, fide 0. E. Schulz, Bot. Jahrb. 

50, Suppl. 179. 1914). 1891. 
Bidens Robertianifolia LeVl. & Vant. in Fedde Repert. Nov. Spec. 

8: 140. 1910. 
Bidens chinensis f. simplicifolia 0. E. Schulz, Bot. Jahrb. 50, Suppl. 

181. 1914. 1 

Bidens Mayebarai Kitamura, Compos. Nov. Japon. 21. 1931. 
Folia foliolis imis plerumque bipinnata; achaeniis corpore demum 

0.7-2 cm. longis B. biternata sensu stricto. 

Folia rarius bipinnata; achaeniis corpore demum usque ad 2.5 cm. 

longis. 
Caulis glaber, foliolis plus minusve glabris, involucre plus minusve 

piloso var. /3. glabrata sensu stricto. 

Caulis pilosus tomentoso-hirtusve, foliolis dense tomentoso-pilosis 
vel subhirtis, involucre plerumque dense hirto. 

var. glabrata f. 1. abyssinica. 

Herba annua, erecta, 0.3-1.5 m. alta; caule tetragono, oliva- 
ceo-brunneo, glabro sed ad nodos pilosulo, ramis erecto-patentibus 
ramoso. Folia petiolata petiolis pilosulis 1.5-5 cm. longis, petiolo 
adjecto 0.5-1.5 dm. longa, membranacea, utrinque disperse pilosa, cili- 
ata, serrata, pinnatim partita (rarissime indivisa); foliolo terminal! 
oblongo-ovato vel etiam lanceolato, ad apicem acuminate, ad basim 

1 We may note also Bidens elevata Solander mss. (PL Nov. Hollandiae vol. 2 
in Herb. Brit.). This apparently has never hitherto been published. It is accom- 
panied with the synonyms Agrimonia molucca Rumph. Amb. 6. p. 38, pi. 15, fig. 2; 
Bidens pilosa 0. , L. Sp. PI. Thus, ex synon., it reduces to B. biternata. 

In addition, the following pre-Linnean synonyms are presented, as being of 
considerable importance in the nomenclatural history of the species: Chrysanthe- 
mum chinense foliis plurifariam divisis Halicacabi peregrini aemulis Pluk. Phytogr. 
pi. 22, fig. 4 (excl. synon.). 1691; idem, Almag. Bot. 100 (exd. synon.). 1696; Agri- 
monia molucca Rumph. Herb. Amboin. 6: 38, pi. 15, fig. 2. 1750. 



390 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

cuneatim angustato, 2-5.5 cm. longo et 1-2 cm. lato; foliolis laterali- 
bus 2-4 jugis, terminal! proximis ovatis vel ovato-lanceolatis, breviter 
decurrentibus; sequentibus majoribus, breviter petiolulatis; infimis 
manifeste petiolulatis, rursus partitis segmentis lateralibus ovatis 
sessilibus uni- vel subbijugis. Capitula subradiata, ad anthesin 
minuta, 5-7 mm. lata et 4-6 mm. alta, 20-30-flora, pedunculata 
pedunculis tenuibus 1-7 cm. longis. Involucrum basi glanduloso- 
pilosum; bracteis exterioribus 7-10, anguste linearibus et non superne 
spathulato-dilatatis, acutis vel subacutis, hirsutis, 3-6 mm. longis; 
bracteis interioribus ovato-lanceolatis vel late ellipticis, sub apice 
subito angustatis in apiculum puberulum, marginibus late hyalinis, 
plerumque exteriores paulo superantibus. Flores ligulati plerumque 
3, albidi, steriles, ligula oblongo-elliptici, apice circ. 3-crenata, circ. 
4 mm. longi, nullo stylo. Achaenia linearia, subattenuata, pro 
maxima parte nigrescentia, apice aristisque flavido-brunnea, erecta 
vel subrecurvata, paleas manifeste superantia, obcompresso-tetra- 
gona, glabra vel (praecipue exteriora) superne setis erecto-patentibus 
hispida, longitudinaliter omnino 8-sulcata, corpore 0.7-2 cm. longa, 
plerumque 4-, raro 3- vel 5-aristata, aristis retrorsum hamosis 
lateralibus 2.5-3.5 mm. longis mediis 2-2.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Said by Loureiro to have grown in fields near 
Canton, China (see text). 

Distribution: Widely distributed in the Eastern Hemisphere: 
Japan, Corea, and Manchuria, southward through all China to 
French Indo-China, Siam, and Malay Peninsula, westward through 
British India and Afghanistan to Arabia; Liu-kiu Islands, Chusan 
Islands, Philippine Islands, etc.; Malaysia (Borneo, Java, etc.), 
Melanesia (Molucca Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, etc.), Polynesia 
(Fiji Islands, Tonga or Friendly Islands, etc.); Australia; in Africa 
from northernmost German East Africa, southern Sudan and Portu- 
guese West Africa south to Natal and German Southwest Africa; 
off the African coast (islands of Sokotra, Madagascar, Reunion 
[Bourbon], Cape Verde, Madeira, etc.) ; adventive in 1859 in southern 
France (Tuezkiewicz 3118). 

Specimens examined : J. E. T. Aitchison 660 and 982, open, stony 
ground, Shalizan, Kurrum Valley, Afghanistan, 1879 (Boiss.; Gray; 
Kew); anon., Tokyo, Japan, October 3, 1893 (U.V. ; nom. japonicum, 
sendan-gusa) ; C. A. Backer 18215, alt. 10 meters, Poeger, Java, 1914 
(Buit.); idem 20605, Madoera Isl., Dutch East Indies, 1915 (Buit.); 
F.Bachmann, Pondoland, southeastern Africa, April, 1888 (Berl.); 
idem 1586, eodem loco, 1887-1888 (Berl.); Balansa 910, near 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CV 




1 f 

BIDENS PILOSA var. BIMUCRONATA f. ODORATA (Cav.) Sheril 



Of 



Of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 391 

Quang-yen, Tonkin (Tongking), French Indo-China, August, 1885 
(Par.); Banks & Solander, New Holland (Australia), 1770 (Berl.); 
R. Baron, Madagascar (Berl.); J- Bermejos 177 (Bur. Sc. No. 345), 
Palawan, Philippine Isls. (Berl.; Man.; U.S.); James Bisset, Yoko- 
hama, Japan, October, 1876 (Kew); R. P. Bodinier, Hongkong, 
China (Par.); Boivin 155, Reunion, 1846-1852 (Berl.; Boiss.; Del.; 
Par.; forma var. glabratae f. abyssinicae adpropinquans) ; ex Bot. 
Instil., Science College, Imper. Univ. Tokyo, ex Prov. Musashi, Japan, 
September 23, 1885 (U.V.; nom. japonicum, sendan-gusa) ; Bret- 
schneider 1887, mountains west of Peking, Prov. Chi-li, China, 1881 
(Brit., 2 sheets; forma valde5. bipinnatae adpropinquans); R. Brown 
2121, Australia, 1802-1805 (Kew); Burmann 180, Japan (Del.); 
R. Buttner 106, San Salvador, Angola, January 8, 1885 (Berl.); 
J. Cardoso 95, Cape Verde Isls., 1895 (Kew); L. Chanet 99, Cheng- 
ting-fu (Tcheng Ting Fau), Prov. Chi-li, China, September 3, 1905 
(Del., 2 sheets) ; Cheo & Wilson 241 (Hb. Univ. Nanking No. 12887), 
roadside, Mo Kan Shan, Prov. Che Kiang, China, September 7, 
1926 (Gray); Aug. Chevalier 9787, L'Oubangui (Mbanga) and Chari, 
Sudan, September 9-10, 1903 (Del.); C. B. Clarke 223745, alt. 1,800 
meters, Dalhousie, India, September 13, 1874 (Brit.); idem 248235, 
alt. 1,200 meters, Parasnath, India, November 18, 1874 -(Brit.); 
Cole 48, Madras, India (Kew); H. Cunning 593, Philippine Isls. 
(Berl.); idem 594, eodem loco (Berl.; Brit.; Del.); idem 596, eodem 
loco (Mus. V.); Lady Dalhousie, Simla, India, September 2 (Del.); 
R. P. David 15, plains of Petcheli and mountains north of Peking, 
Prov. of Chi-li, China, 1863 (Par., 3 sheets; forma foliis valde bipin- 
natifidis, lobis acutis, B. bipinnatae adpropinquans; forsan hybrida?) ; 
idem 21, environs of Peking, 1865 (Par.; forma Davidii numero 15 
aequalis); Delavay 603, Tapintze, southern Ten-tchouan, China, 
September 7, 1882 (Par.) and September 22, 1887 (Par.); M. & 
Mme. Dieterlen 866, Leribe\ Basouto-(Basuto-) land, southeastern 
Africa (Berl.); Dinter 11-18, in grassy places, Okanhandja (Okan- 
jande), German Southwest Africa, March 19, 1906 (Berl., 2 sheets); 
J. R. Drummond 25726, Karnal Jungle, Punjab, India, August 28, 
1886 (Kew); idem 25727, Karnal-Ghogripur, Punjab, August 12, 
1886 (Kew); Eberhart 2568, Hoi-mit, French Indo-China (Par.); 
idem 33386is, Than-moi, Prov. Langson (Lang Son), French Indo- 
China (Par.; nom. indig., cay-nu-ao); M. P. Edgeworth, northwestern 
India, 1844 (Kew) ; R. Endlich 77a, alt. 1300 meters, Kiboquoto, east- 
ern Africa, July, 1909 (Mun.);*dm 557, alt. 1,100 meters, on the Ki- 
kafu, Kilimanjaro, German East Africa, August, 1909 (Berl.; Mun.); 



392 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

F. Evrard, Tsien, Manchuria, 1891 (Berl., 2 sheets); idem 154, near 
Saigon, French Indo-China, October 21, 1920 (Par.); idem 225, 
Dalat, French Indo-China (Par.); E.Faber, Shanghai, China, 1886 
(Berl., 2 sheets); U. Faurie 2Wbis, wet places, Tamsui, Formosa, 
May 22, 1903 (Brit.; Mus. V.); idem 416, common in wet, sandy 
places, Corea, July 23, 1901 (Berl.; Brit.; Par.); idem 418, common 
in fields of central Corea, September 6, 1901 (Berl.; Par.); idem 
845, Korisho, Formosa, March, 1914 (Del.); idem 847, alt. 750 
meters, Arisan, Formosa, June, 1914 (Del.); idem 1053, in fields, 
Seoul, Corea, September, 1906 (Berl.; Del.); idem 1917, Prov. 
Shinano, Japan, September 15, 1898 (Berl.; Kew; U.V.); Fischer 4, 
Otjimbingue, Use, German Southwest Africa, 1897 (Berl.); Forster, 
Tongatabu (Tongataboo), Tonga Isls. (Kiel, sub nom. Bidente 
pilosa Forst. Prodr.); E. E. Galpin 1332, alt. 570 meters, Sheba 
Battery, Kaap Valley, Barbarton, Transvaal, March, 1891 (Kew); 
Gaudichaud (Voyage of iheBonite), Macao, Prov. Kwang-tung, China, 
1836-1837 (Par.); A. Germain 109, Cochin-China (Par.); L. S. Gibbs 
2724, British North Borneo, January, 1910 (Kew) ; Giuseppe Giraldi 
273, Pe-ling Mts., northwestern China, October, 1894 (Berl.); idem 
2899, Ko-tu-pa, southern Shen-si, China, July, 1895 (Berl.); G. W. 
Groff, around fruit trees, Sun Ooi, Lai Ngok Village, Canton Delta, 
Kwangtung Prov., March 18, 1918 (Calif.; nom. incolarum, Kam 
p'un ngan chan) ; H. Hallier, San Ramon, Prov. Zamboanga, Min- 
danao, Philippine Isls., February, 1904 (Man.); H. G. Hallier 27, 
cult, in Horto Bogoriensi, Buitenzorg, Java, March 27, 1893 (Boiss. ; 
Man.); Hana 298, Hongkong, China, (Gray); Harmand, Poulo- 
Condor Isls., French Cochin-China, 1875-1877 (Par.); Aug. Henry 
388, Prov. Hupeh, China, 1885-1888 (Berl., type ofBidens chinensis 
f . simplicifolia 0. E. Schulz) ; idem 2086, alt. 300 meters, Ape's Hill, 
Formosa (Kew; forma capitulis foliisque minimis); idem 2491, 
Ichang, Patung Distr., Prov. Hupeh, China (Kew; forma foliis 
Bidenti segetum subsimilis); idem 2794, Ichang and vicinity, 
1885-1888 (Boiss.; Gray; Kew; Par.); idem 8574, Hainan Isl., China, 
1889 (Par.); idem 8269, eodem loco, November, 1889 (Berl., 2 sheets; 
Boiss., sub num. 8769); ex herb. Heynei 299c, India (Del.); Fr. Hens 
286, alt. 480-600 meters, Lutete, Belgian Congo, April 1, 1888 
(Boiss.; U.V.); ed. R. F. Hohenacker 276, near Mangalor, India (Del.; 
Mus. V.); idem 1355, Khoondas, Nilgiri Hills, India, December 
(Del, 2 sheets); C. Hoist 2908, alt. 50 meters, Amboni, Distr. Usam- 
bara, German East Africa, June 24, 1893 (Berl., 2 sheets); Em. 
Holub, Bechuanaland (Kew); J. D. Hooker & T. Thomson, alt. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI. Plate CVI 




BIDENS PILOSA var. BIMUCRONATA f. ODORATA (Cav.) Sherff (figs, a-h); 
var. ALAUSENSIS (H.B.K.) Sherff (figs, i-o) 





* 



THE GENUS BIDENS 393 

0-1,200 meters, Khasia, India (Kew, 2 sheets); ex Hort. Bot. Cal- 
cutt., Wallich Cat. No. 3189, Comp. No. 299a, India (Berl., 2 sheets; 
Del.); Kotobuki Ichikawa 398, Nagasaki, Japan, August 15, 1924 
(Calif.); G. De I' Isle, river near Le Barnica, St. Paul, Reunion (Kew; 
Par. ; forma var. glabratae f . abyssinicae adpropinquans) ; V. Jacque- 
mont 377, India (Par.) ; idem 426, Prov. Delhi, India (Par., 4 sheets) ; 
J. G. Koenig, Coromandel, India, 1776 (Brit.); Krauss, banks 
of Umbaar River, Natal, December, 1839 (Mun.); B. Krug 70, 
Forestry Garden, Tsingtau, Prov. Shan-tung, China, September 14, 
1905 (Berl.); idem 177, eodem loco, September 14, 1906 (Berl., 
2 sheets); idem 445, Krautschou, Lauschan Mts., Prov. Shan-tung, 
August-September, 1910 (Ber\.);Labillardiere, Amboina Isl., Molucca 
Isls. (Par.); idem, Java (Del.); H.Lecomte & A. Finet 1252, Barka, 
French Indo-China, November, 1911 (Par.); iidem 1733, Angkor- 
Thorn, Siam, December 12, 1911 (Par.); Leduc, Mong-Tze, Prov. 
Yun-nan, China, September 14, 1890 (Par., 4 sheets); E. Lefevre 4, 
Cochin-China, September 25, 1864 (Par.) ; E. Licent 798, Pei-ta-ho 
(Pei-tai-ho), Prov. Chi-li, China, September, 1914 (Brit.); D. H. 
Linder 1699, rich, moist soil, Tshumbiri, Belgian Congo, December 
15, 1926 (Berl.); A. Loher 3626 pro parte, Prov. Benguet, Luzon, 
Philippine Isls. (Man.; in Mun. cum B. pilosa var. minore commixta) ; 
idem 5084, Tonglon, Prov. Benguet, Luzon (Kew); Macgillivray 63, 
Lizard Isl., northeast coast of Australia, April, 1861 (Brit.; forma B. 
bipinnatae adpropinquans) ; E. E. Maire 987, vicinity of Yun-nan-sen, 
Prov. Yun-nan, China (Kew) ; R. Marloth 1373, alt. 1,200 meters, Oka- 
hand ja, Hereroland (Damaraland), German Southwest Africa, May, 
1886 (Berl.) ; Maximowicz, iter secundum, Nagasaki, Japan, 1863 (Par.) ; 
Kanjiro Mayebara, Sashiki, Prov. Higo, Japan, October 19, 1926 
(Kioto; duplicate type otBidens Mayebarai Kitam.; forma foliis sim- 
plicibus; achaeniis B. bipinnatae adpropinquans); F. A. McClure, 
1 meter high, grassy field, Kingchow, Isl. Hainan, southeastern China, 
October 14, 1921 (Calif.) ; idem, alt. 10 meters, roadside near King- 
chow, April 5, 1922 (Calif.); R. C. McGregor 2666, riverside, Dupax, 
Prov. Nueva Vizcaya, Luzon, Philippine Isls., March, 1912 (Man.) ; 
E. A. Mearns, Santo Domingo de Basco, Batan, Philippine Isls., 
May 27, 1907 (Man.); E. D. Merrill, bamboo thicket and border 
of dry thicket, Honam Isl., Canton, Kwangtung Prov., China, 
October 13-November 9, 1916 (Calif., 2 sheets); idem 414, Prov. 
Camarines, Luzon, Philippine Isls., December, 1914 (Par.); idem 
3335, sandy shore, Puerta Galera, Mindoro, Philippine Isls., October- 
November, 1903 (Berl.; Man.; Par.); idem 3647, open waste places, 



394 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

alt. 1-2 meters, Caloocan, Prov. Rizal, Luzon, November 25, 1903 
(Kew; Man.); idem 4311, Prov. Benguet, Luzon, November 14, 
1905 (Kew; Man.; Par.); Metz 1355, Khoondas, Nilgiri Hills, India, 
December, 1854 (Par.); J. Motley 472, Bangarmassing, Borneo, 
1857-1858 (Kew); Mousset 209, alt. about 900-950 meters, east Java, 
December 12, 1912 (Man.); Genji Nakahara, Shiringai, Taihoku, 
Formosa, August, 1905 (Penn.) ; idem, Toroku, Formosa, September, 
1905 (Penn.); idem 386, Formosa, eodem tempore (Man.); idem 401, 
Sekiko, Formosa, eodem tempore (Man. ; forma vix typica) ; F. P. 
Odubre, mountain side, San Guintin, Pangasinan, Luzon, Philippine 
Isls., January 1, 1913 (Man.) ; Richard Oldham 258, Tamsuy (Tam- 
sui), Formosa, 1864 (Berl.; Brit.; Gray; Kew; Mus. V., 2 sheets; 
Par.) ; F. Otanes, along stream, Umingan, Prov. Pangasinan, Luzon, 
Philippine Isls., April 22, 1914 (Man.; Mo.); F. G. Overlaet, Kafa- 
kumba, Belgian Congo, April, 1925 (Field) ; A. Petelot 1211, Prov. 
Tonkin (Tongking), French Indo-China, Nov., 1922 (Par.) ;idem (simi- 
liter) 1211, edges of roads, Cho Ganh, French Indo-China, Nov., 1923 
(Calif.); Rainier -Kesslitz, borders of fields, Nagasaki, Japan, July, 
1886 (Mus. V.); M. L. Ramos, Prov. Ilocos Norte, Luzon, Philippine 
Isls., March 8, 1909 (Man.); idem, Dupax, Prov. Nueva Vizcaya, 
Luzon, May 16, 1909 (Man.); idem, alt. 700 meters, Umuguten, 
Prov. Nueva Vizcaya, Luzon, May 18, 1909 (Man.); idem 30167, 
Catanduanes, Philippine Isls., November 14-December 11, 1917 
(Mo.); Rautaner 75, Olukonda, Amboland, German Southwest 
Africa, April 30, 1894 (Kew; U.V.) ;K.&L. Reckinger 3636, Herberts- 
hohe, New Britain (Neu Pommern), Bismarck Archipelago, Sep- 
tember, 1905 (Mus. V.);C. B. Robinson 31, rocky soil, alt. 10 meters, 
Batoe-mera, Amboina, Molucca Isls., July 20, 1913 (Man.); idem 
9177, Polillo, Philippine Isls., August, 1909 (Man.); F. A. Rogers 
8048, alt. 1,200 meters, Broken Hill, northwestern Rhodesia, May, 
1908 (Kew); idem 25123, alt. 1,500 meters, Premier Mine, Preto- 
ria, Transvaal (Kew; forma B. bipinnatae adpropinquans, forsan 
hybrida?); Royle 171, Cashmere (Kashmir; Cachemire), India, 1833 
(Del.); Miss E. M. Saunders, Punjab, India (Kew); Savatier 621, 
wet, shady places, Yokoska, Japan, 1866-1874 (Kew; Par.); Otto 
Scheerer, Luakan, near Baguio, Prov. Benguet, Luzon, Philippine 
Isls., April, 1913 (Man.); 1 A. K. Schindler 210a, Tsingtau, Prov. 
Shan-tung, China, September, 1907 (Berl.); idem 247, eodem loco 
et tempore (Berl.; Del.; Mus. V.); R. Schlechter 4568, alt. 800 meters, 

1 Called Angguat by the Ibalai Igorot of Benguet; it "serves them to ferment 
the half-boiled grains of rice in making rice-wine, or 'tafei' " (fide Scheereri). 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CVII 




BIDENS PILOSA var. ALAUSENSIS f. SCANDICINA (H.B.K.) Sherff 



THE GENUS BIDENS 395 

in shrubby place near Mailas Kopje, Transvaal, March 4, 1894 
(Berl., 2 sheets; Boiss.; Kew; Mus. V.; U.V.); idem 17523, Kaiser 
Wilhelm's Land, April 8, 1908 (Calif.); R. Schomburgh 161, Port 
Darwin, North Australia (Kew); Schottmueller 219, Yokohama, 
Japan, October, 1860 (Berl.) ; idem 445, Dutch East Indies, January, 
1862 (Berl.); G. Schweinfurth 296, Tamarida, Sokotra (Socotra), 
September 13, 1881 (Kew); idem 461, alt. 500 meters, Gebel Bura, 
Arabia, January 5, 1889 (Boiss.); idem 2240, forest thicket (Waldege- 
busch) at Gurfala, Bongoland, southern Sudan, August 2, 1869 
(Berl.; Kew); B. Seemann 270 p.p., Fiji Isls., 1860 (Boiss.); Gomes da 
Silva 198, Timor, East Indies (Berl.); George Staunton, Prov. Che- 
kiang, etc., eastern China (Brit.); Stuhlmann 2908, alt. 50 meters, 
Amboni, Distr. Usambara, German East Africa, June 24, 1893 (Berl., 
2 sheets) ; idem 8529, Dar-es-Salaam, German East Africa, September 
10, 1894 (Berl.); Talmy, Cochin-China, October, 1867 (Par.); Emile 
Joseph Taquet 969, in uncultivated places, Hongno, Isl. Quelpaert, 
Corea, September 23, 1908 (type collection ofBidens Robertianaefolia 
LeVl. & Vant.; Berl.; Del.); A, J. Teague 412, Odarvhi River Valley, 
Distr. Manica, Div. Umtali, Southern Rhodesia, 1915 (Kew); G. 
Thomson 58, Singapore, Malay Peninsula (Kew) ; Thomas Thomson, 
alt. 1,500-2,100 meters, northwest Himalaya, India (Brit.; Del.; 
U.V.); idem, Muradabad (Moradabad), India, 1845 (Kew); Clovis 
Thorel 1270, Bassac, etc., Cambodia, French Indo-China, 1862-1866 
(Par.) ; Thwaites, Ceylon (Brit.) ; Diomede Tuezkiewicz 3118, vineyards 
at Le Vigan, southern France, August-September, 1859 (Gray); 
Morice Vanoverbergh 926, along roads, Subprov. Bontoc, Luzon, 
Philippine Isls., October 14, 1910 (Man.); Nathaniel Wallich, 
Catalogue No. 3189, Comp. No. 299e, Prome, India, 1826 (Berl., 
2 sheets; Del., 2 sheets); idem, Catalogue No. 3189, Comp. No. 
299/, Tavoy, India, 1827 (Berl.; Del.); Warburg 4381, alt. 600 
meters, Java, January, 1887 (Berl.); idem 7850, Japan, September, 
1887 (Berl.); Welwitsch 3961 and 3962, Angola (Kew); idem 3963, 
alt. 720-1,140 meters, Distr. Pungo Andongo, Angola (Brit.; Kew); 
C. A. Wenzel 302, in old clearings, Dagami, Leyte, Philippine Isls., 
July 3, 1913 (Del., 2 sheets; Field; Man.); ex herb. Wightii (Wallich 
Cat. No. 3189, Comp. No. 299d), alt. 1,050-1,200 meters, Dendygul 
Mts., India, 1830 (Berl. ; Del.) ; ex herb. Wightii 1451 pro parte, mission 
garden, India, December, 1820 (Berl.; Kew, 2 sheets; N.Y.); Capt. 
Wilkes, Madeira, Madeira Isls. (N.Y.); herb. Willdenowii 15023-fol. 
4 (Willd.); 1 F. Wilm-s 843, among bushes by the great waterfall, 

1 (Lecta, fide O. E. Schulzii op. cit. 178, a) Klein, Mgandamaley, Ceylon, 
February 29, 1796. 



396 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Distr. Lydenburg, Transvaal, February, 1890 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; 
Del.; Kew; Mus. V.; U.V.); idem (similiter) 843, Lydenburg, Distr. 
Lydenburg, Transvaal, November, 1894 (Berl.; Mun.); idem 845 p.p., 
City Garden, eodem loco, February, 1884 (Berl.); Hubert Winkler 
3376, southeastern Borneo, 1908 (Berl.); J. M. Wood 715, Inanda, 
Natal, May-June, 1880 (Kew) ; Charles Wright (17. S. N. Pacif. Expl. 
Exped. under Ringgold & Rodgers) 150, Loo-Choo Isls., Japan, 
1853-1856 (Gray); R. Yatabe, Tokio, Japan, September 4, 1880 
(Del.; nom. japonicum, sendangusa); Yvan, Isl. Chusan, Chusan 
Archipelago, China (Del.); H.Zollinger 410, in gardens, Java, June, 
1856 (Mus. V.); idem 2284, Java (Berl., 2 sheets; Del., 3 sheets). 

0. E. Schulz, in his special study of Bidens chinensis Willd. and 
related species (Bot. Jahrb. 50, Suppl. 178. 1914), appears to have 
overlooked the Coreopsis biternata of Loureiro, published with a 
description in 1790, some fourteen years earlier than the date of 
Willdenow's work. In view of the many difficulties involved in 
the interpretation of some of Loureiro's species, until recently I 
myself have refrained from attempting final disposition of his names. 
At last, however, these difficulties have been overcome and a cer- 
tain and conclusive treatment becomes possible. 

Loureiro described two species of Bidens, namely B. pilosa L. 
and 5. bipinnata L., and two of Coreopsis, namely C. leucorrhiza Lour, 
and C. biternata Lour. The first two may be passed over, since they 
were admittedly not new species and since the known occurrence 
of these two species in the region mentioned by Loureiro (Cochin- 
China and China) tends to confirm the identity of the Loureiro 
plants. The third species, Coreopsis leucorrhiza Lour., has recently 
been referred (Bot. Gaz. 86: 443. 1928) to Bidens pilosa var. minor 
(Bl.) Sherff. 

The fourth species, C. biternata Lour., was known to Loureiro 
under the Annamese dialectic name Ca ap chioc, 1 and he stated that 

1 Loureiro "lived at Hue for approximately thirty-five years, this town being 
the ancient capital of the kingdom of Cochin China, now a part of French Indo- 
China. I assume that the limits of the old kingdom of Cochin China were approxi- 
mately the limits of the Province of Annam Anam, to-day, in French Indo-China. 
On leaving Hue, Loureiro proceeded to Canton and spent two or three years there 
before proceeding to Lisbon. . . . Loureiro tried to indicate in his native names as 
between Annamese (indicated by the letter 'a') and Chinese names (really in 
Mandarin) by the letter 'b'. . . by China he means the general vicinity of Canton 
in Kwangtung Province. . . . Generally speaking: I am of the opinion that most 
of his work was done on Cochin China specimens, chiefly for the reason that he 
resided so long in Cochin China and for a comparatively brief time in Canton; 
and the conditions in Canton at the time of his visit were such that it would have 
been impossible for him to visit any regions outside of the immediate vicinity of 
the city" Dr. Elmer D. Merrill in lit. April 22, 1929. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany. Vol. XVI, Plate CVIII 




BIDENS PILOSA var. CALCICOLA (Greenm.) Sherff 



THE GENUS BIDENS 397 

it grew in fields near Canton, China. His description follows: 
"Differ, spec. Cor. foliis biternatis, ovato-lanceolatis, serratis: pani- 
cula diffusa: radio sexfloro. Habitus et notae. Caulis herbaceus, 
3-pedalis, erectus, 4-gonus, 4-sulcatus, integre luteus: panicula sparsa, 
terminali. Radii corollae 6, neutrae. Pappus bicornis, ramosus. 
Receptaculum planisculum, nudum." 

His character for the foliage, biternatis, shows at once that he 
was dealing with the same plant that Willdenow treated under the 
name Bidens chinensis. His "pappus bicornis" was doubtless merely 
one of the numerous errors for which his descriptions were noted. 1 
His "receptaculum .... nudum" probably was based upon capitula 
that had shed their achenes and chaff scales, for just previously, in 
his generic description of Coreopsis, he had said "recept. paleaceum." 

In my monographic study of Bidens, I have found a considerable 
number of specimens from the general region traversed by Loureiro 
which are listed among the foregoing "Specimens examined." 2 

Recently I was supplied by Dr. Elmer D. Merrill with an excerpt 
from the manuscript of his "A Commentary on Loureiro's Flora 
Cochinchinensis" (since published; vide Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. n. 
ser. 24: 391. 1935). Merrill, too, had concluded Coreopsis biternata 
Lour, to be the same as Bidens chinensis Willd. Since then, he has 
assisted with various desired data and has recently joined me in 
publishing the new combination which this conclusion made necessary. 

In a former article (Bot. Gaz. 61: 499. 1916) I have remarked 
upon the good historical summary for this species, with a compre- 
hensive list of synonyms, presented by 0. E. Schulz (Bot. Jahrb. 50. 
Suppl.: 176. 1914). It is seen that the history of B. biternata goes 
back as far as Plukenet's Phytographia of 1691. Plukenet's plant 
had been received from D. Petiver, to whom it had been brought 
from China. The illustration later presented by Dillenius (Bidens 
latifolia hirsutior, semine angustiore, radiato Hort. Eltham. 51, 
pi. 43. 1732) was deceivingly like B. biternata, although with leaves 
somewhat narrower. The plant of the Dillenian Herbarium at Oxford 
("no. 43.51.51") is found to be really Bidens pilosa L., however, 
and so the Dillenian name must be excluded from synonymy. 3 

1 Occasionally the pappus is tricornis and it may very well be that he had so 
spelled the word on sending it to the printer for the first edition. In any case this 
error was not corrected in the second edition. 

2 These mostly bear my herbarium determination, Bidens chinensis Willd. or, 
incorrectly as to Linnaeus (see discussion in text), (L.) Willd. 

3 In August, 1924, I examined Dillenius' plant at Oxford very carefully. The 
two somewhat biternata-\ike leaves which, in the illustration, had caused 0. E. 
Schulz, myself, and others to refer the Dillenian plate to B. biternata (or its syn- 



398 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

The Rumphius plate, showing an entire fruiting plant from Amboina, 
or a neighboring island, is very good and matches precisely, in its 
individual aspect, many of the plants collected in that general region 
in recent years. Varietally, however, it might profitably be regarded 
as different from much of the B. biternata in other parts of the 
Eastern Hemisphere, were there not here so many intergradations 
as to make varietal distinctions in probably all cases, except for var. 
glabrata, impossible. We may add that Rumphius' plate is partic- 
ularly important because it is directly to that plate that Willde- 
now's two synonyms lead (Willdenow did not cite B. pilosa var. 
chinensis L. as a synonym!). 

In several hundred herbarium determinations I have unfortu- 
nately followed 0. E. Schulz in appending "(L.) Willd." to the name 
there used (B. chinensis). As even Schulz admitted, the varietal 
name as first published by Linnaeus in the Mantissa (p. 281. 1771) 
was based upon cultivated material, which, from the Linnean descrip- 
tion, was doubtless B. pilosa var. minor Sherff. The Linnean Her- 
barium has several sheets pinned together in the Bidens pilosa cover. 
One is labeled "Bidens 5 pilosa"; a second, "Bidens pilosa variety"; 
a third, "HU Radio albo" ; a fourth has on its back, "Rumph. amb. 6 
t. 15." This fourth sheet has a plant with five heads, two of them 
fruiting, and a separate leaf at one side. The leaf is 5-partite, with 
the two basal leaflets each 2-partite because of an ovate leaflet on the 
lower side. Examination of this material in 1914 and again in 1924 
convinced me that this fourth sheet is of a merely freakish form of 
B. pilosa var. minor, and not B. chinensis Willd. Hence Linnaeus' 
name may well be left out of consideration here, and Willdenow, who 
fortunately cited only the Systema Vegetabilium (ed. 13, p.) 610 1 for 
his basis, may properly be given sole credit. 

As stated previously (Bot. Gaz. loc. cit.), the figure in Plukenet's 
Phytographia was cited by Tausch (Flora 19 : 395. 1836) for his Bidens 
Cicutaefolia. A study of his context (some of which, unfortunately, 
was not included in the manuscript copy before me at the previous 
writing) shows that Tausch primarily was describing several species 
of Bidens cultivated in gardens under the name of B. bipinnata and 
that then, in the case of his B. Cicutaefolia, he added the Plukenet 
reference. Under these circumstances, the Plukenet reference may 

onym, B. chinensis), were detached from the main specimen and might have 
belonged to another specimen. At any rate, the main specimen was very clearly 
and positively Bidens pilosa L. 

1 A work that omits Linnaeus' varietal name chinensis published three years 
earlier and rests the variety directly upon Rumphius' Agrimonia molucca. 



Field Musuum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CIX 




BIDENS PILOSA var. CALCICOLA (Greenm.) Sherff (figs, a, c-j); f. DISSECTA Sherff (fig. b) 
BIDENS AEQUISQUAMA (Fern.) Sherff (figs, k-t) 



Of THt 
UNIVERSITY 8f 



THE GENUS BIDENS 399 

properly be discarded and Tausch's description itself, 1 which con- 
flicts with B. biternata as to achenes, be used instead. This course 
led me some time ago to the conclusion that Tausch's B. Cicutaefolia 
was probably a mere form of B. bipinnata L., a conclusion since 
confirmed by examination of Tausch's own specimen (cult.) of 

B. Cicutaefolia (Lps.). 

The species B. biternata is usually distinguished easily from 
typical B. pilosa by the leaves, the lower leaflets in the former 
commonly being tripartite, not simple. The external involucral 
bracts and the achenes also are usually distinct. 

Gaudichaud's B. peduncularis, collected on Freycinet's voyage, 
at the Island of Rawak of the Molucca Islands, is B. biternata. It is 
of interest as having come from the same group of islands as Rum- 
phius' Agrimonia molucca.* All through that region B. biternata is 
common. 

Miquel (Fl. Nederl. 2: 78. 1856) refers Agrimonia molucca Rumph. 
to B. peduncularis Gaud, "(nisi ad praec. /3. [i.e., B. Wallichii var. 
bimensis Miq.])." It is true that Miquel erroneously equated B. 
sandvicensis Less, with B. peduncularis Gaud, but in this he doubt- 
less was merely following DeCandolle's earlier treatment (Prodr. 5: 
598. 1836). Interesting it is, then, to find that as early as 1856 
Miquel had come almost to the point of synonymizing the two 
names of Moluccan plants with each other and with B. Wallichii DC. 

Of Bidens Wallichii DC. many authentic specimens are extant 
today and they all are seen to be very definitely B. biternata. Thus, 
for example, six uniform sheets of material occur in Berlin (Berl.). 
These were collected by Wight, Prone, Tavoy, etc., and all are B. 
biternata. They all are of the old Wallich distribution No. 3189, 
cited by DeCandolle for his B. Wallichii. C. B. Clarke (Compos. 
Ind. 141. 1876) reduced B. Wallichii to a variety of B. pilosa L. 
but later, on a herbarium sheet in Kew Herbarium, admitted his 
error in so doing. 3 

B. Wallichii var. bimensis Miq. was described from a specimen 
collected by Rheinwardt on the Island of Bima, considerably to the 

1 "Foliis bipinnatisectis glabris, laciniis ovatis dentatis, caule stricto, floribus 
corymbosis subradiatis, involucre appresso, achaeniis erectis 2-aristatis." 

2 For further data see under B. sandvicensis Less. (p. 123, footnote 1). 

3 On the herbarium label for H. Collett 816, Clarke wrote, "I erred about these 
two Indian Bidens ([sic] in my Comp. Indicae) and Sir J. D. Hfooker] unfortu- 
nately 'followed' me. 

"Bidens pilosa Linn, is B. leucantha Willd. and has the ray white. B. Wallichii 
DC. has the ray yellow (and smaller) as well as different leaves and is a good species. 

C. B. Clarke. 11 May 1894." 



400 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

southwest of the Molucca Islands. From its description, 1 it appears 
to differ in no important respect from ordinary B. biternata. 

B. chinensis f. simplicifolia 0. E. Schulz was based on Henry's 
No. 388 from the Province of Hupeh, China. It is merely a small, 
poorly developed form. The leaves are simple, as happens also in B. 
pilosa, B. tripartita, and many other similar species when the growth 
conditions are poor. One may well doubt the wisdom of assigning 
indiscriminately to formal or varietal rank the many impoverished 
or otherwise retarded forms of this nature that are found repeatedly 
among herbarium specimens. 2 

Bidens pinnata Noronha (Verh. Batav. Gen. 5 [ed. 1.] Art. IV[?] 
8. 1790) is listed without description but with the Java synonym 
Harruga. It probably was either B. biternata or B. pilosa var. 
minor, both of these plants being known in Java, probably without 
distinction, under the name Harruga. 

LeVeill (loc. cit.) cited as the type for B. Robertianaefolia LeVl. 
& Vant., a plant collected in Corea by Taquet: Island of Quelpaert, 
in uncultivated places at Hongno, September 23, 1908. There exist 
fine specimens with these data in Geneva and Berlin (Taquet 969, 
Del.; Berl.). They are B. biternata. 

Plants by Bretschneider, David, etc., from the neighborhood of 
Peking, China, display a remarkable approach or transition through 
their more decompound and membranaceous leaves and their fre- 
quently narrower and fewer-flowered heads to B. bipinnata L. (or 
are even suggestive of the North American B. Bigelovii Gray and B. 
leptocephala Sherff). A slightly similar approach is made rarely by 
plants collected elsewhere (e.g., Macgillivray 63, Lizard Isl.). 

Bidens biternata var. 13. glabrata (Vatke) Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 90: 389. 1930. 

Bidens abyssinica var. glabrata Vatke, Linnaea 39: 500. 1875. 
Bidens pilosa var. glabrata Vatke ex Engler, Hochgebfl. Trop. Afr. 

437. 1892. 

Bidens lasiocarpa 0. E. Schulz, Bot. Jahrb. 50, Suppl. 185. 1914. 

Herba caule glabrata, 3-7 dm. alta. Folia tenuiter petiolata 

petiolis 1-4 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 4-14 cm. longa, tripartita vel 

1 "Var. bimensis, folia fere omnia 2-3-jugq-pinnatisecta, segmentis argute 
serratis et profunde incisis, hinc passim subpinnatifidis, achaenia ext. mediis multo 
breviora, radii pappi 3 vel saepe 2 vel 4 inaequales." 

2 The sheet of Henry 388 bears two specimens, the larger, second one having 
the leaves tripartite and resembling those of B. cylindrica Sherff. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 401 

rarius quinquepartita rarius bipinnata; foliolis plus minusve glabris, 
ovato-lanceolatis, serratis vel crenato-dentatis vel crenato-incisis, 
membranaceis. Capitula corymbosa, subradiata, ad anthesin 4-6 
mm. alta et 4-8 mm. lata, demum 1.8-2.6 cm. alta et 1.5-2.5 cm. lata, 
pedunculata pedunculis tenuibus crassisve et 4-12 cm. longis. Invo- 
lucrum plus minusve pilosum; bracteis plerumque subaequalibus 
demum 6-11 mm. longis, exterioribus (6-9) anguste linearibus cilia- 
tisque rarius interiores multo superantibus. Flores ligulati perpauci 
(2 vel 3), minuti, subalbidi, saepe deficientes. Flores disci plerumque 
ad apicem quadridentati, rarius quinquedentati. Achaenia linearia, 
recta vel moderate recurvata, nigra, tetragona; exteriora scabrido- 
hispida, rarius 4- plerumque 3-aristata, 7-14 mm. longa; interiora 
elongata, plerumque 4-, rariter 3-6-aristata, corpore usque ad 2.5 
cm. longa; aristis retrorsum hamosis, 2-4 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Wilhelm Schimper, No. 105, in 
Abyssinia, 1854. l 

Distribution: Widely and sparingly scattered in Japan, Corea, 
northeastern China (Province of Shan-tung), British East India, 
Arabian Peninsula (Ye"men); in Africa from Abyssinia, where 
especially common, Egypt, Dar Fur, and Nigeria southward inter- 
mittently to Natal and German Southwest Africa; also islands of 
Borneo, Reunion, Cape Verde, etc. Much less common than the 
species proper and than its own f . abyssinica. 

Specimens examined: 2 Andrea Bellini 330, Eritrea, October 30, 
1910 (Flor.); (Emilia Chiovenda 1120 and 1539fo's, both from Gondar, 

1 Vatke (loc. cit.) states: "Adest in coll. a. 1854 n. 105. e Gaha Meda prope 
Dschadscha, a Schweinfurthio Beitr. 142 cum var. altera (quadriaristata Hochst. 
fide ejusdam) n. 305 e Gageros confusa, a qua primo intuitu diversissima; 
nostra transitum praebere videtur ad B. bipinnatum L. a Kotschyo in Nubia 
repertum, cui forte stirps abyssinica reducenda." The Berlin Herbarium has three 
sheets of Schimper 105, but my manuscript gives these as from alt. 1,200-1,500 
meters, Gageros, Abyssinia, September 16, 1854. On the other hand, the several 
specimens of Schimper 305 studied (vide sub f. abyssinica) were noted as coming 
from Gaha-Meda near Dschadscha, Abyssinia, October 22, 1854. My manuscript 
does not differentiate for these Nos. 105 and 305 the var. glabrata or its f . abyssinica. 

2 In addition to the specimens here cited may be given the following, which 
belong either to the variety glabrata or to its f. abyssinica but which had been 
studied before it was decided to differentiate the two forms: J. T. Bent, alt. 900- 
1,200 meters, seacoast of Nubia at about 21 N. Lat., 1896 (Kew) ; Boivin, Isl. Bour- 
bon (Kew) ; Botta, Yemen, Asiatic Turkey (Arabian Peninsula), 1837 (Par.) ; J. Car- 
doso 103, Cape Verde Isls., 1895 (Kew); W. R. Carles 219, Chemulpo, Corea (Kew); 
C. B. Clarke 21969B, Patankot (Pathankote), India, September 9, 1874 (Webb); 
N. H. Cowdry 894, roadside, moist locality, Che-foo, July, 1920 (Kew); idem 
896, north end of sand spit, Che-foo (Chi-fu), Prov. Shan-tung, China, August 
6, 1920 (Kew); Deflers 231, alt. 1,200 meters, Wadi Hidjan, Usil, Yemen, Asiatic 
Turkey (Arabian Peninsula), May 6, 1887 (Boiss.); idem 428, alt. 1,900 meters, 
Wadi Schidja, Menakha, Yemen, May 16, 1887 (Boiss.); DeWitte 2118, tropical 
East Africa, November 27, 1934 (Bruss.); F. V. Dickins 652, Yokohama, Japan, 



402 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Dembia, Prov. Amhara, Abyssinia, were formerly referred here; they 
are the f . abyssinica;) E. Chiovenda 1234, Gondar, July 30, 1909 (Flor.) ; 
idem 1834, Dembia, September 3, 1909 (Flor.); idem 2161, Abyssinia, 
September 20, 1909 (Flor.; sub nom. B. abyssinica var. glabrata L 
nemorali) ; idem 2409, Gondar, October 7, 1909 (Flor.) ; (Adriano Fiori 
1832 and 1833, both collected in Eritrea, January, 1909, were for- 
merly referred here but on reexamination are seen to be the f. 
abyssinica;} Adriano Fiori 1834, alt. 2,330 meters, Asmara, Eritrea, 

commun. May, 1876 (Kew) ; W. J. Dowson 194, Nairobi, British East Africa (Kew) ; 
J. F. Duthie 3054, alt. 2,400-2,700 meters, Kali Valley, Kumaon (Kumaun), north- 
western India, September 16, (1886?; Boiss.); Bertha Fritzsche 93, grassy plains, 
Humpata, Angola, May, 1903 (Berl.); Miss A. E. Gairdner 577, Sesheki District, 
Rhodesia, April (Kew); John Gossweiler 5438, Angola, January 28, 1912 (Brit.); 
J. M. Hildebrandt 415, alt. 1,500 meters, under bushes, Habab, Abyssinia, Sep- 
tember, 1872 (Mus. V., 2 sheets); V.Jacquemont 879', India (Par., 3 sheets); idem 
884' and 886, eodem loco (Par.); Kotschy 79, along pools of rain water at eastern 
foot of Mt. Arasch-Cool, Nubia (Kordofan), September 30, 1839 (Kew); idem 135, 
in wet places near Arasch-Cool, Nubia, August, 1837 (Kew; Mus. V.); idem 325, 
Nile River near Sennar, Khartum region, 1837 (vide p. 405; Coss.; Mus. V.; forma 
foliorum lobis acrioribus et a Schz. Bipont. ipso Bidens laciniata dicta); Krauss 
11, Port Natal, Natal, 1840 (Del.; Kew); H. V. Lely 267, Neill's Valley, east of 
Naraguta Government Station, Nigeria, June 15, 1921 (Kew); idem 600, Kadaura, 
northern Nigeria, September 19, 1921 (Kew, 2 sheets); H. Lynes 609, alt. 1,080 
meters, Kulme, Dar-Fur Prov., Sudan, September 27, 1921 (Kew); D. T. Mac- 
Dougal & G. Sykes 134, alt. 780 meters, northern Africa, January 25, 1912 (Brit.); 
R. E. Massey 60, Gondar and vicinity, Abyssinia (Kew) ; Maximowicz, Her secun- 
dum, Yokohama, Japan, 1862 (Berl.; Flor.; Gray; Kew; Mun.; Mus. V.); Richard 
Oldham 411 pro parte, Nagasaki, Japan, 1862 (Berl.; Cop.; Del.; Flor.; Mun.; 
Mus. V.; Par., etc.; pro parte parva cum B. tripartite commixta); Petit, Abyssinia 
(Berl., 2 sheets); 'Pfund 204, Katul Gambar, northeastern Africa, September 8, 
1895 (Kew); Quar tin-Dillon, Memsa, Abyssinia (Par.); idem & Petit, eodem loco 
(Par.); Rohr55, Abyssinia, April, 1842 (Kew); W. Schimper 196, Abyssinia (Berl.); 
idem 285 and 288, alt. 1,800 meters, Scholloda, Prov. Tigre, Abyssinia, September 
24, 1862 (Berl.; Brit.; "Landplage fur wanderer vom October bis Januar weil 
sich die Fruchte in die Kleider einstechten"); idem 305, alt. 1,800 meters, Gaha- 
Meda near Dschadscha, Abyssinia, October 22, 1854 (Berl., 2 sheets; Del.; Mus. 
V.); idem 321, Abyssinia, October, 1841 (Berl.); idem 337 (type, Par.: cotypes, 
Berl., 2 sheets; Brit.; Del., 3 sheets; Hamb.; Kew, 3 sheets; Mo.; Mun.; Mus. V.; 
U.V.; nom. abyssinicum, Zellim Tannag); idem 912, Abyssinia, October 10, 1852 
(Par., 4 sheets); idem 1427, everywhere near Djeladjeranne, Abyssinia, September 
20, 1840 (Berl.; Del., 3 sheets; Kew, 3 sheets; Kiel; Mo.; Mun., 2 sheets; Mus. V.; 
Par.); idem 1475, alt. 1,500 meters, on mountains, Dscha-Dscha, Abyssinia, 
September 28, 1854 (Del.; Mus. V.; U.V.); idem (similiter) 1475, eodem loco, 
August 22, 1853 (Par., 3 sheets); idem 1986, near Djeladjeranne (Par.); idem 2181, 
alt. 1,500 meters, mountains near Dschadscha, September 28, 1854 (Brit.; Del.; 
Gray; Kew; Mus. V., 3 sheets); idem 2324, alt. 1,200 meters, mountains prope 
Gageros, Abyssinia, September 16, 1854 (Brit.; Del.; Kew; Mus. V., 3 sheets; sub 
nom. var. incisifolia); C. Schultz Bipontinus, cultivated, December 6, 1856 (Del.); 
G. Schweinfurth 419 p.p., Kanka, near Cairo, Egypt, September 25, 1864 (Brit.); 
idem 420, Matamma, Abyssinia, October 6, 1865 (Berl., 2 sheets; Brit.; Kew; 
Mus. V.); idem 1619 and 1643, upper lava valley, Eritrea, 1891 (Boiss.); idem & 
D. Riva 458, Mt. Farakh near, and 477 at Ailet, Eritrea, February 18, 1892 
(Boiss.); F. Seiner 509, alt. 1,350 meters, German Southwest Africa, April 14, 1911 
(Berl.); Stocks 608, Distr. Scinde, India (type of Bidens lasiocarpa O. E. Schz., 
Berl); Thwaites 3583, Ceylon (Mus. V.); U. S. S. Pacif. Ex-pi. Exped. under 
Capt. Wilkes, Cape Verde Isls., 1838-1842 (Phila.); Wight 1606, India (Berl.; Cop.; 
Kew; Mus. V.). 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CX 




BIDENS SUBALTERNANS DC. 



w 



THE GENUS BIDENS 403 

Nov. 15, 1909 (Flor.); Giovanni Negri 667, alt. about 1,900 meters, 
Scioa, June 17, 1909 (Flor.); A. Papyri 821, alt. about 2,480 meters, 
Altipiano di Gheleba, Scimenzana, Eritrea, September 22, 1902 
(Flor.); idem 3040, alt. about 500 meters, Assaorta Cuale-Enrot, 
Eritrea, March 18, 1893 (Flor.); idem 4128, alt. about 600 meters, 
Valle Damas, Ocul Cusai, Eritrea, April 14, 1893 (Flor.); idem 
6011, Monte Damba, Beni-Amer, Eritrea, September 10-25, 1903 
(Flor.); idem 7252, altitude about 1,600 meters, Adi Ghebsus, 
Medri Od Tesfa, Eritrea, November 2, 1906 (Flor.); idem 7680, 
alt. 800 meters, along the Gherhen River, Beni Amer, Eritrea, 
October 1, 1907 (Flor.) ; idem 8524, alt. about 1,326 meters, Beggiuch, 
near Adi Mendad, Bogos, Eritrea, September 29, 1909 (Flor.); 
G. Schweinfurth & D. Riva 804, alt. 2,200 meters, environs of Saga- 
neiti, Eritrea, March 7, 1892 (Boiss.); A. Tettini 292, Altipiano- 
Asmara, Eritrea, October 1-10, 1903 (Flor.). 

In proposing as a new species his Bid-ens lasiocarpa, Schulz empha- 
sized (in key, op. cit. 87) the fact that the outer achenes are more or 
less recurved and commonly very densely hirtous, but this character 
is present equally well in the type material of B. biternata var. glabrata 
and its f. abyssinica, where it seems to have been overlooked by him. 
Moreover, B. lasiocarpa has long achenes, as in the type material 
of var. glabrata and, as a whole, is too closely connected by inter- 
mediate forms in the herbaria to rank as a separate species. B. lasio- 
carpa appears to bear somewhat the same relationship to the var. 
glabrata as is borne by the peculiar local form found about Peking, 
China, cited under the species proper, to the species itself. In both 
cases there is a gradation of the foliage toward the more membrana- 
ceous and more decompound type possessed by Bidens bipinnata L. 

Bidens biternata var. glabrata f. 1. abyssinica (Schz. Bip.) 

Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 90: 389. PI. C. 

Bidens abyssinica Schz. Bip. in Walp. Repert. 6: 167. 1846-1847. 
Bidens abyssinica var. quadriaristata Hochst. ex Schweinfurth, Beitr. 
Fl. Aethiop. 142. 1867 (nomen subnudum). 

Bidens laciniata Schz. Bip. ex Schweinf. op. cit. 283 (nomen). 

Bidens quadriseta Hochst. ex Oliv. & H. in Oliver, Fl. Trop. Afr. 
3: 393. 1877. 

Bidens abyssinica var. incisifolia Hochst. loc. cit. (nomen nudum) . 

Bidens pilosa var. quadriseta (Hochst.) Schweinf. ex Engler, Hochge- 
birgsfl. Trop. Afr. 437. 1892. 



404 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bidens pilosa var. abyssinica (Schz. Bip.) Fiori, Nuov. Giorn. Bot. 
Ital. n. ser. 20: 390. 1913. 

Bidens chinensis var. abyssinica (Schz. Bip.) 0. E. Schulz, Bot. 
Jahrb. 50, Suppl. 180. 1914. 

A var. glabrata caule piloso tomentoso-hirtove foliolis dense tomen- 
toso-pilosis vel subhirtis involucre plerumque dense hirto differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by Wilhelm Schimper, No. 337, in 
stony places on the mountains and in the valleys near Adowa (Adoa) 
and everywhere in front of Djeladjeranne (Tche'latche'kanne' fide 

A. Richardii, Tent. Fl. Abyssin. 1: 414, 415, etc., 1847; etiam Dsche- 
ladscheranne), Abyssinia, September 19, 1837 (Par.). 

Distribution: With the var. glabrata and much more common. 

Specimens examined: 1 Chiovenda 1120, Gondar, Prov. Amhara, 
Abyssinia, July 26, 1909 (Flor.); idem 15396is, eodem loco, August 
21, 1909 (Flor.); Adriano Fiori 1832, alt. 960 meters, Ghinda, 
Hamasen region, Eritrea, January 14, 1909 (Flor.); idem 1833, 
Damas, Eritrea, January 13, 1909 (Flor.); A. Pappi 6105, along the 
Mai Albo, Dembelas, Eritrea, September 25, 1903 (Flor.); Schimper 
337 (type, Par.: cotypes, Berl., 2 sheets; Brit.; Del., 2 sheets; Kew, 
3 sheets; Mo.; Mun.; Mus. V.; U.V.). 

Some of Schimper's original specimens, on which were founded 
the names Bidens abyssinica, B. abyssinica var. quadriaristata, and 

B. quadriseta, are densely hairy forms with tripartite leaves and 
conspicuously large fruiting heads. In leaf characters they might 
be confused with B. pilosa L.; their achenes and involucral bracts, 
however, are very distinct. Some cotypes of "B. abyssinica" (Brit., 
etc.) show leaves more incisely toothed or lobed and approaching 
more or less closely those of B. biternata proper. The fruit characters 
sometimes seem too distinctive to warrant reducing "B. abyssinica" 
to subordinate rank under B. biternata as proposed by 0. E. Schulz, 
but the great number of intergradations observed in various her- 
barium specimens appears to compel some such course. 

The varietal name incisifolia was given originally to specimens 
of Schimper 2328, described (Oliver, loc. cit.) as having "rather 
more deeply cut lobes." The authentic sheet of this number at Kew, 
however, marked "Fl. Afr. Trop. iii p. 393," has none of its leaves 
incisely toothed to a noticeable degree. 

1 Here belong also the majority of the specimens which are cited on p. 401, 
footnote 2. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXI 




/' a 

BIDENS DOMINGENSIS O. E. Schulz 



Of 

*** 



THE GENUS BIDENS 405 

B. abyssinica var. quadriaristata Hochst. ex Schweinf. was 
published without description, but based upon W. Schimper 729, 
ad Gageros, September 16, 1854, etc. I have not seen this number, 
but the data given by Schweinfurth are essentially the same as those 
for Schimper 105 and 2324 already cited. Oliver and Hiern (in 
Oliv. loc. cit.) cited this varietal name as a synonym for Bidens 
quadriseta, but of course did not thus validate it as a varietal name, 
nor did the varietal nomen incisi/olia receive valid publication. 

Bidens laciniata Schz. Bip. ex Schweinf. was a nomen applied to 
Kotschy 325. The material in Schultz Bipontinus' private herbarium 
(Par.) had been received from the Vienna Botanical Garden. This 
and also the more ample specimen in Vienna (Mus. V.) are the 
f. abyssinica. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XCIX, FIGS, a, C-m 

Bidens biternata: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.7; 

c, exterior involucral bract, X4.91; d, interior involucral bract, 
X4.91; e, f with g, h, ray florets (h having rudiments in throat), 
X4.91; i, palea, X4.91;;, disc floret, X4.91; k, I, m, achenes, X4.21; 
a, c-g, i-k, from Wenzel 302, in Hb. Field; h, I, m, from Clarke 22374, 
in Hb. Brit. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE C 

Bidens biternata var. glabrata f. abyssinica: a (lower), 6 (upper), 
portions of fruiting plant, X0.65; c, exterior involucral bract, X2.6; 

d, interior involucral bract, X2.6; e, palea, X2.6; /, disc floret (4- 
lobed), X2.6; g (outer), h (inner), achenes, Xl.95; a-e, g, h, from 
Schimper 2181 (Bidens quadriseta Hochst.), in Hb. Kew; /, from 
Schimper 2324, ibid. 

127. Bidens Engleri 0. E. Schulz, Bot. Jahrb. 50, Suppl. 
186. 1914. PI. XCI, figs. a-f. 

Herba gracilis, erecta, 2-3 dm. alta; caule tetragono, glabro, 
ramoso, 1.5-2 mm. diametro. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus 1^4 cm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto principalia 3.5-10 cm. longa, plerumque 
simplicia et ovato-lanceolata, membranacea, serrata dentibus acriter 
apiculatis, margine ciliata, faciebus glabrata vel sparsissime adpresso- 
pilosa. Capitula ramos tenues plerumque nudos usque ad 8 cm. 
longos terminantia, discoidea, ad anthesin 2.5-5 mm. alta et 2.5-4.5 
mm. lata. Involucri bracteae exteriores 3-5, lineares, apicem versus 
dilatatae, apice acutae, margine serrato-ciliatae, faciebus glabrae 
vel hispidae, 1-2 mm. longae et 0.3-0.6 mm. latae; interiores lanceo- 
latae, apice rotundato-obtusae vel subacutae, multo longiores. 



406 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Achaenia anguste oblongo-linearia, obcompressa, subtetragona, atra, 
glabra, omnino circ. 8-sulcata, corpore 1.2-1.6 cm. longa et circ. 
1 mm. lata, bi- vel triaristata 1 aristis tenuibus, retrorsum hamosis, 
2.5-4 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Georg Schweinfurth, No. 2596, 2 in 
forest called Genena, near Seriba Ghattas, District of Jur (Djur), 
Province of Bahr-el-Ghazal, English-Egyptian Sudan, November 8, 
1869 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Province of 
Bahr-el-Ghazal, English-Egyptian Sudan. 

Specimens examined: Schweinfurth 2596 (type, Berl.: cotypes, 
Boiss.; Mun.; Mus. V.; Par.). 

An African species comparable to Bidens tenera of northern 
South America. The plants of the type collection all are less than 
3 dm. high, and practically all the leaves are undivided. Hispid 
outer achenes are lacking and the exterior involucral bracts are 
mostly about 3 or 4 in number, 1-2 mm. long and spatulate, with 
the margin, except near the base, minutely serrate. The achenes, 
which tend to be rather parallel-sided throughout their length and 
hence oblong-linear, are unique in appearance. 

With B. Engleri Schulz identified an apparently different form, 
Chevalier 2816, here referred to B. cylindrica Sherff. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XCI, FIGS, a-/ 

Bidens Engleri: a, entire flowering and fruiting plant, X0.6; 
6, exterior involucral bract, X6; c, interior involucral bract, X6; 
d, palea, X6; e, disc floret, X6;/, achene, X2.4; all from type. 

128. Bidens tenera 0. E. Schulz, Bot. Jahrb. 50, Suppl. 
186. 1914. PI. GUI, figs. i-o. 

Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 4; achaeniis 2-4- plerumque 

3-aristatis B. tenera sensu stricto. 

Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 7 vel 8; achaeniis normaliter 

4-aristatis var. /3. paucidertfata. 

Herba annua, tenera, 1-3.5 dm. alta; caule tenui, tetragono, 
0.75-1 mm. crasso, subglabro, simplici vel parce ramoso. Folia 
petiolata petiolis 1-3 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 3-11 cm. longa, 

1 A search through three sheets of type and cotype material shows no achenes 
with "4" aristae as stated by Schulz, loc. cit. 

2 Erroneously given by Schulz, loc. cit., as 259h, because the type label had 
had the number carelessly inserted. Labels elsewhere give the number distinctly 
as 2596. 



'ield Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXII 




BIDENS MALMEI Sherfl 



. 

OF THt 
UNJYEHSITY Of IUIHOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 407 

saepe simplicia, valde membranacea, ovata vel ovato-lanceolata, 
ad apicem acuminata vel interdum acuta, basi rotundata vel trun- 
cata, argute serrata dentibus plerumque mucronulatis, ciliata, supra 
setis brevibus sparsissime vestita (interdum principalia trifoliolata, 
foliolo terminal! foliis simplicibus aequali, foliolis lateralibus moderate 
minoribus, ovatis, acutis, sessilibus, 1-2.5 cm. longis et 1-1.5 cm. 
latis; rarissime irregulariter quinquepartita) . Capitula perpauca, 
non perspicua, discoidea, pauciflora 6-15 (vel etiam -20) floribus 
tubulosis, ad anthesin 3.5-5 mm. alta et 3-6 mm. lata. Involucri 
basis hispida; bracteis exterioribus circ. 4, late linearibus vel lineari- 
spathulatis, ad apicem subdilatatum obtusiusculis sed mucronulatis, 
breviter ciliatis praesertim basim versus, circ. 4 mm. longis, quam 
interioribus vix brevioribus. Achaenia linearia, nigra, recta vel vix 
recurvata, subtetragona vel obcompresso-tetragona, omnino circ. 
8-sulcata, glabra, corpore 1.2-1.5 cm. longa, quam paleae multo 
longiora, 2-4- (plerumque 3-) aristata; aristis viridi-flavidis, retror- 
sum hamosis, 2-3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen : Collected by Henri Francois Pittier, No. 4528, 
in forests of Boruca, Costa Rica, November, 1891 (Berl., 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Costa Rica; Colombia eastward to French Guiana 
and southward to State of Minas Geraes, Brazil. 

Specimens examined: Burchell 8848, tropical Brazil (Kew); 
Nicholas Funck 424, Minca, Dept. Magdalena, Colombia, Novem- 
ber-December, 1842 (Boiss.; Kew; Mus. V.; Petrop.); idem 431, 
Caracas, Venezuela, 1843 (Del.; Par.; forma parce typica) ; Gabriel, 
French Guiana, 1802 (Del.); George Gardner 3849, shady banks of 
streams, Goyaz, Brazil, March, 1840 (Kew, 2 sheets); ex Hort. Par., 
cult. (Del., sub. nom. Ceratocephalo Vaill.); H. F. Pittier 4528 
(type, Berl., 2 sheets: cotypes, Brit.; Gray); idem 9140, Guaremales, 
Venezuela, December 10, 1920 (Del.; Gray; achaeniis vix typica); 
ex herb. L. C. Richardii, French Guiana (Par., sub nom. Bidente 
trifoliolata); H. H. Smith 512, alt. 150 meters, observed only in 
damp woods near river at Masinga, Santa Marta, Colombia, Novem- 
ber, 1898-1901 (Berl.; Brit.; Cam.; Del.; Field; Kew; Mo.; N.Y.; 
Par.; Ph\\a.); Eugene Warming, Picao, Minas Geraes, Brazil, January 
26, 1865 (Cop., foliis 5-partitis); idem 643 pro parte, on calcareous 
rocks, Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes, March 28, 1864 (Cop.). 

A species with very delicate, membranaceous foliage, a character 
easily explained by the sylvan habitat. The peduncles are mostly 
very slender and the fruiting heads suggest those of Bidens Engleri 
0. E. Schulz. 



408 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bidens tenera var. /3. paucidentata (0. E. Schulz) Sherff, Bot. 

Gaz. 89: 362. 1930. 
Bidens Ekmanii et var. paucidentata 0. E. Schulz in Urban, Repert. 

Sp. Nov. 26: 111. 1929. 
Bidens tenera var. tetracera Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 88: 293. 1929. 

Capitula discoidea ad anthesin 4-5 mm. alta et pariter lata. 
Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 7 vel 8, lineares, tergo fere glabrae, 
margine ciliatae, sub apice interdum subdilatatae, apice ipso suba- 
cutae, circ. 3 mm. longae; interiores lanceolatae, 4-5 mm. longae. 
Achaenia 15-30, linearia, fere usque ad apicem atra, apice ipso 
straminea, corpore tetragona atque 1-1.5 cm. longa, circ. 0.5-0.65 
mm. crassa, superne sensim attenuata, glabra, unica facie (4 facie- 
rum) 2-sulcata, apice quadriaristata aristis tenuibus, 2-3 mm. longis, 
retrorsum hamis elongatis tenuibus albidis hamosis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Erik L. Ekman, No. 10022, in 
Province of Oriente, Cuba (Stockh.). 

Distribution: Known only from Cuba and Bolivia. 

Specimens examined: Otto Buchtien 4182, alt. 1,300 meters, 
Milluguaya, North Yungas, Bolivia, December, 1917 (U.S., type of 
var. tetracera Sherff); Ekman 3398, on the forest path between 
Sabana Resusna and Sabana Niranda, Prov. Oriente, Cuba, Novem- 
ber 5, 1914 (Stockh.; type of Bidens Ekmanii 0. E. Schz.); idem 
10022 (type, Stockh.) ; H. Pittier 10222, alt. 800-1,000 meters, around 
Caracas, Venezuela, March 10, 1922 (Gray; N.Y.; U.S.). 

Differs from the species proper in its more numerous achenes, 
these quadriaristate and upwardly attenuated, not triaristate nor 
almost parallel-sided throughout. The general aspect is that of a 
thin-leaved form of Bidens pilosa L. as to foliage and of B. bipinnata 
L. as to fruiting heads. 

Bidens tenera var. tetracera, published in November, 1929, 
was found to have been antedated several months by the equivalent 
B. Ekmanii 0. E. Schulz and its so-called var. paucidentata, both of 
Cuba. The type specimens of B. Ekmanii and its var. paucidentata 
are now before me (through the kindness of Dr. Gunnar Samuelsson, 
Director of the Botanical Section of the Natural History Royal 
Museum of Stockholm). They differ mutually to an insignificant 
extent, nor are they separable from the South American specimens 
described for B. tenera var. tetracera. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CIII, FIGS, i-0 

Bidens tenera: i, entire small flowering and fruiting plant, X0.7; 
j, tripartite leaf, X0.7; k, exterior involucral bract, X5.56; I, interior 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXIII 




E. E. SHSRFF DEL, 



h e 

BIDENS CYNAPIIFOLIA H.B.K. 



Of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 409 

involucral bract, X5.56; m, palea, X5.56; n, disc floret, X5.56; o, 
achene, X3.48; i, k-o, from H. H. Smith 512, in Hb. Field; j, from 
cotype, in Hb. Gray. 

129. Bidens duranginensisSherff,Bot.Gaz.70:90.pJ. 11, figs. g-m. 
1920. PI. XCVI, figs. j-q. 

Bidens Anthriscoides var. angustiloba DC. Prodr. 5: 601. 1836. 

Herba annua, glabrata, demum circ. 6-9 dm. alta; caule sub- 
tetragono, ramis acute tetragonis, longis et tenuibus, striatis, infra 
minute pubescentibus. Folia petiolata petiolis (foliorum princi- 
palium) 2.5-4 cm. longis et ad basim ciliatis connatisque, petiolo 
adjecto 10-12 cm. longa, pinnata, serrata vel dentata (vel etiam 
inciso-dentata), ciliata, foliolis ovatis vel ovato-lanceolatis, saepe 
duobus vel quattuor imis cuiusque folii tripartitis. Capitula multa, 
subradiata, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 3-8 cm. longis, ad 
anthesin 4-7 mm. alta et 0.8-1.3 cm. lata, cum achaeniis 1.2-1.4 cm. 
alta et 6-8 mm. lata. Involucrum basi hispidum; bracteis exteriori- 
bus (circ. 8) linearibus, fere glabris, apice induratis, 2-3 mm. longis; 
interioribus dimidio longioribus, anguste lanceolatis. Flores ligulati 
(3-6) subalbidi, ligula anguste ovati, 4-7-striati, 4-6 mm. longi. 
Achaenia linearia, atra, glabra vel supra sparsim hispida, corpore 
6-12 mm. longa, apice 2^i-aristata aristis flavis et retrorsum hamosis, 
1.5-2.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Edward Palmer, No. 756, on west 
side of Iron Mountain, vicinity of Durango, State of Durango, 
Mexico, October, 1896 (Gray). 

Distribution: States of Sonora and Chihuahua to State of 
Mexico, Mexico. 

Specimens examined: Berlandier 875, around City of Mexico, 
Federal District, September 19, 1827 (Del.; Par.; type collection of 
Bidens Anthriscoides var. angustiloba DC.); Edward Palmer 612, 
vicinity of Durango, State of Durango, Mexico, October, 1896 
(Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Calif.; Field, 2 sheets; Gray; Kew; Mo.); idem 
756 (type, Gray: cotypes, Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Calif.; Field; Kew; 
Mo.; U.S.) ; /. L. Wiggins 7396, La Mina Verde, 31 km. from Cumpas, 
Sonora, Mexico, September 23, 1934 (Field). 

At the time that this species was described, I looked upon B. 
pilosa L., B. leucantha (L.) Willd., B. bimucronata Turcz., B. odorata 
Cav., and several other similar forms as representing distinct species. 
B. duranginensis, therefore, was considered to be a distinct form and 
clearly entitled to specific rank. Since then, examination of a vast 



410 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

amount of additional material from European herbaria has com- 
pelled the conclusion that these forms, while doubtless seeming 
distinct in certain localities, at various places in their distributional 
range intergrade so thoroughly that all hope of their specific segre- 
gation must be abandoned. 

This being true, the question at once arises whether B. duranginen- 
sis, clearly a close relative of B. pilosa, is merely another of B. pilosa's 
many varietal manifestations, or whether, like B. subalternans DC., 
B. biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff, and several other pilosoid forms, 
it is a valid species. Certainly it is very close in flowers and fruits 
to some undisputed forms of B. pilosa var. radiata Schz. Bip. C. V. 
Hartman 113 (alt. 1,740 meters, Las Calabazas, State of Sonora, 
Mexico, October 9, 1890; Gray; Kew; Penn.; Phila.) is a form which 
in some specimens appears closer to the young state of B. duranginen- 
sis (as typified by Palmer 612) and yet in others appears referable to 
B. pilosa var. radiata. Aside from questionable approaches of this 
kind, I have been unable to obtain any legitimate basis for referring 
B. duranginensis to synonymy and so feel compelled to retain it as a 
separate species. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XCVI, FIGS, j-q 

Bidens duranginensis: j, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.57; 
k, exterior involucral bract, X4.56; I, interior involucral bract, 
X4.56; m, ray corolla, X4.56; n, palea, X4.56; o, disc floret, X4.56; 
p (outer), q (inner), achenes, X4.56; all from type. 

130. Bidens pseudocosmos Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 151. 
1923. PI. CI, figs. h-n. 

Herba annua, erecta, glabra, ramosa, saltern 4 dm. et verisimiliter 
usque ad 10 dm. alta, caule ramisque tetragonis. Folia tenuiter 
petiolata petiolis 0.5-3 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 2-8 cm. longa, 
bipinnata, saepe ad petiolorum basim et rarius alibi hinc illinc paucis 
pilis vestita, foliolis primariis 3-7, ultimis segmentis linearibus 
acriter calloso-apiculatis. Capitula ramos terminantia pedunculis 
3-9 cm. longis, discoidea vel obscure subradiata radiis 4-5 minutis 
albido-luteis, ad anthesin minima, 4-5 mm. alta et circ. 6 mm. lata; 
demum 2.5-3 cm. alta et 1-2 cm. lata. Involucrum basi hispidum; 
bracteis exterioribus 6-8, anguste linearibus, ciliatis, apice acute 
apiculatis, 4-6 (rarius-8) mm. longis, quam interioribus lanceolatis 
manifeste brevioribus. Paleae maturae 1-1.3 cm. longae, quam 
achaenia matura multo breviores. Achaenia atra, tenuissime 
linearia, tetragona, exalata, supra tenuiter sed sensim elongata et 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI. Plate CXIV 




c c d a 



BIDENS RIPARIA H.B.K. (figs, i-p); var. REFRACTA (Brandeg.) O. E. Schulz (figs, a-h) 



OF TH 
6f 



THE GENUS BIDENS 411 

antrorsum setis stramineis hispida, infra glabra, corpore 1-2.4 cm. 
longa et 0.4-0.7 mm. lata, biaristata aristis tenuibus erectis divari- 
catisve stramineis retrorsum hamosis 2-3.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen : Collected by Otto Buchtien, No. 815, at altitude 
of 3,300 meters, below Obraje, southeast of La Paz, Bolivia, May 
10, 1919 (Field, 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Central western Peru to central western Bolivia. 

Specimens examined: Buchtien 815 (Field, 2 type sheets: cotypes, 
Field; Gray; Hamb.; U.S.); J. F. Macbride 2904, alt. about 2,400 
meters, sunny slide rock, Matucana, Peru, March 14-16, 1923 
(Field); idem & Featherstone 168, alt. about 2,400 meters, gravelly 
river bank, eodem loco, April 12-May 3, 1922 (Field). 

A species with somewhat the aspect of Cosmos. The flowering 
heads are those of Bidens, however, and the achenes are not abruptly 
narrowed above into a neck or beak as in typical Cosmos. The 
general habit bears a superficial resemblance to that of certain 
branched forms of the North American Bidens tenuisecta Gray. 
Apparently the closest ally is B. andicola var. Cosmantha L Buch- 
tienii. In fact, the fruiting characters of f . Buchtienii are so similar 
that at first the remarkable habit and foliage differences in B. pseudo- 
cosmos were thought attributable to the fact that the specimen came 
from a larger plant than the observed specimens of f. Buchtienii. 
Additional sheets of B. pseudocosmos were found later, however, 
bearing small, entire, fruiting plants and even here both the habit 
and the foliage distinctions were found to hold true. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CI, FIGS, h-n 

Bidens pseudocosmos: h, fruiting branch, X0.62; i, exterior 
involucral bract, X2A8;j, interior involucral bract, X2.48; k, palea, 
X2.48; /, disc floret, X4.96; m (outer), n (inner), achenes, X2.48; all 
from type. 

131. Bidens pseudalausensis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 64: 26. 
1917. PL XCII, figs, a-flf. 

Herba verisimiliter annua, circ. 6 dm. alta (e Langlassei inscrip- 
tione), ramosa; caule et ramis tetragonis et acute angulatis, striatis, 
glabris. Folia petiolata petiolis 0.2-2 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
2-7 cm. longa et 1-5.5 cm. lata, bi-tripinnatisecta, glabra; ultimis 
lobis cuneato-oblanceolatis, dentatis dentibus ad apicem induratis. 
Capitula terminalia, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 1.5-6 cm. 
longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 6-7 mm. alta et circ. 1.5 cm. lata. 
Involucrum basi glabrum, bracteis exterioribus (circ. 8) linearibus, 



412 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

ciliatis, 2-3 mm. longis; interioribus paulo longioribus, glabratis, 
margine diaphanis. Flores ligulati (circ. 5) albi (e Langlasseo), in 
specimine sicco luteoli, striati, ligula obovati, ad apicem lobulati 
vel obtusissime dentati, 5-7 mm. longi. Achaenia linearia, nigra, 
faciebus plus minusve glabra, marginibus tuberculato-hispida, 
biaristata (aristis sub apice retrorsum hamosis), corpore 7-9 mm. 
longa. Differt a B. pilosa var. alausensi habitu ramorum, etc. 

Type specimen: Collected by E. Langlasse, No. 541, at altitude of 
580 meters, Cerro Pedregoso, El Ocote, State of Michoacan, Mexico 
(DA). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in State of Michoa- 
can, Mexico. 

Specimens examined : Langlasse 541 (type, U.S.: cotypes, Gray; 
Kew). 

A species of uncertain status. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XCII, FIGS, 

Bidens pseudalausensis: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.57; 
6, exterior involucral bract, X3.44; c, interior involucral bract, 
X3.44; d, ray corolla, X3.44; e, palea, X3.44; /, disc floret, X3.44; 
g, achene, X3.44; all from type. 

132. Bidens pilosa L. Sp. PI. 832. 1753. PI. XCIX, fig. 6, and pi. 
CII, figs, a, b, and e-j. 

Ceratocephalus pilosus (L.) Rich. Cat. Jard. Medic. 91. 1 

Bidens reflexa Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. 2: 306. 1822. 

Bidens adhaerescens Veil. Fl. Flum. 348, 8. pi. 88. 1827 (pro parte). 2 

Bidens calif ornica DC. Prodr. 5: 599. 1836. 

Bidens decussata Pav. ex DC. loc. cit. 

Bidens pilosa var. b. discoidea Schz. Bip. in Barker- Webb & Berthe- 

lot, Hist. Canar. Isls. Ill, 2, pt. 2: 242. 1836-1850. 
Bidens ciliata Hoffmgg. ex Fisch. & Mey. Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 

6:46.1839. 

Bidens hirsuta Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. II, 7: 369. 1841. 
Bidens leucantha f. discoidea Schz. Bip. in Krauss, Beitr. Fl. Cap. 

Natal. 77. 1846. 

Bidens leucantha f. discoidea subf. Kraussii Schz. Bip. loc. cit. 
Bidens leucantha var. pilosa (L.) Griseb. Cat. 155. 1866. 

1 Ricardi liber non visus sed nomen ex O. E. Schulzio (in Urban, Symb. Antill. 
7: 134. 1911) acceptum. 

Spelled B. adherescens on Vellozo's plate. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXV 




BIDENS SAMBUCIFOLIA Cav. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 413 

Kerneria pilosa (L.) Lowe Man. Fl. Madeira 1: 474. 1868. 
Kerneria pilosa var. /3. discoidea (Schz. Bip.) Lowe, loc. cit. 
Bidens pilosa var. I pilosa proper (L.) J. D. Hook. Fl. Brit. Ind. 3: 

309. 1881. 

Bidens montaubanii Phil. Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile Bot. 1891: 49. 1891 

(B. montsulani sphalm in Ind. Kew. Suppl. 1: 56. 1901-1906). 

Bidens pilosa var. /3. discodea, [f.] 1. subsimplicifolia, [L] 2. ternata, 

[f.] 3. pinnata, and [f.] 4. subbiternata 0. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 

1:322. 1891. 1 

Bidens pilosa sub var. /3. discoidea (Schz. Bip.) Pitard in Pitard & 

Proust, lies Canar. Fl. Archipel. 226. 1908. 
Bidens pilosa f. subsimplicifolia 0. Ktze. and f. subbiternata 0. Ktze. 

ex 0. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 133. 1911. 
Bidens pilosa var. discodea f. ternata 0. Ktze. and f. pinnata 0. 
Ktze. ex 0. E. Schulz, op. cit. 134. 2 

a. Capitula normaliter discoidea B. pilosa sensu stricto- 

a. Capitula radiata radiis magnis parvisve. 

6. Flores ligulati pro capitulo minuti, flavidi vel albidi, circ. 4-8 
' mm. longi. 
c. Foliola normaliter serrata membranaceaque, floribus ligulatis 

circ. 5-8 mm. longis var. /3. minor sensu stricto. 

c. Folia paucidentata ac valde membranacea, floribus ligulatis 

circ. 4 mm. longis var. /3. minor f. 1. umbrosa. 

b. Flores ligulati pro capitulo majores, flavidi vel albidi vel plus 

minusve rosacei. 

c. Capitula pansa ad anthesin 1-1.5 cm. lata. 
d. Plantae principaliter mexicanae sed usque ad Colombian! 

rarius extendentes. 
e. Folia pinnatim vel subbipinnatim partita foliolis ovatis 

lanceolatisve var. 77. calcicola sensu stricto. 

e. Folia bipinnata vel etiam tripinnatisecta segmentis 
linearibus vel anguste lanceolatis. 

var. 77. calcicola f. 1. dissecta. 

d. Plantae austro-americanae septentrionaliter ad Ecuado- 
riam vel rarius etiam usque ad Colombian! extendentes. 

1 Cf. footnote under var. radiata. Kuntze (loc. cit.) does not make the status 
of "1. subsimplicifolia," etc., clear, but reference to a later volume (3, pt. 2: 137. 
1898) shows that these were formae, as indeed they were later set forth by 0. E. 
Schulz (vide supra). 

2 Bidens pilosa var. puberula Schz. Bip. (Flora 39: 356. 1856) was merely a 
nomen applied to Edelstan Jar din 42, Nukahiva, Marquesas Isls. I could not 
find authentic material of this number among Jardin's Nukahiva plants (Par.). 



414 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

e. Folia pinnato-quinquepartita vel biternatisecta vel 
tantum pinnatisecta, foliolis segmentisve saepius plus 

minusve ovatis var. e. alausensis. 

e. Folia plus dissecta, saepe tripinnatisecta, segmentis 

angustioribus var. e. alausensis f. 1. scandicina. 

c. Capitula pansa ad anthesin plerumque 1.5-3 cm. lata. 1 
d. Folia pinnata, foliolis ovatis vel lanceolatis. 

e. Tota planta plerumque viridis, ligulis saepius flavidis 

vel albidis var. y. radiata. 

e. Tota planta plerumque pallido-caerulea, ligulis saepius 

rosaceis var. 8. bimucronata. 

d. Folia plus dissecta, plerumque bi- vel rarius tripinnata, 
segmentis angustioribus. .var. 5. bimucronata f. 1. odorata. 
Herba annua, erecta, ramosa, 0.3-1.8 m. alta; caule tetra- 
gono, glabrato vel saepe sparsissime piloso, stramineo-viridi vel 
purpurascenti. Folia petiolata petiolis 1-6.5 cm. longis, mem- 
branacea, marginibus serrata ciliataque, utrinque glabrata vel pilis 
inaequalibus adpressis disperse pilosa vel interdum dense tomentoso- 
pilosa; ima saepe simplicia, ovata, apice acuta, lamina 1.5-7 cm. 
longa; media plerumque 3-5 (vel etiam -7) -partita, petiolo adjecto 
0.5-2 dm. longa, foliolo terminali oblongo-ovato vel lanceolato 
acuminate ad basim decurrenti, lateralibus proximis minoribus 
ovatis vel lanceolatis acutis sessilibus vel decurrentibus, infimis 
majoribus et breviter petiolulatis et rarissime plus minusve terna- 
tisecta; summa simplicia, lanceolata. Capitula discoidea vel inter- 
dum obsolete radiata, ad anthesin 7-8 mm. lata et 5-7 mm. alta, 
25-40-flora, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 1-9 cm. longis. Invo- 
lucri basis hispida; bracteis exterioribus 7-9, linearibus vel lineari- 
spathulatis, indurato-apiculatis, ciliatis, 4-5 mm. longis, quam 
interioribus lanceolatis brevioribus. Flores ligulati plerumque 
deficientes (rarissime minuti, 2-3 mm. longi, albidi vel flavido-albi). 
Achaenia linearia, recta vel marginalia subincurvata, obcompresso- 
tetragona vel subcomplanata, infra glabra, supra tuberculato-strigosa, 
2- vel 3- (rarius 4- vel rarissime 5-) aristata aristis flavidis retrorsum 
hamosis 2-4 mm. longis, corpore 4-16 mm. longa, interiora superne 
elongata et marginalibus multo longiora. 

Type specimen: No particular specimen was mentioned. The 
first pre-Linnean synonym given by Linnaeus was the Bidens 
corona seminum retrorsum aculeata, seminibus undique patentibus 

1 Var. f . Apiifolia intermedia est et var. alausensi ac var. radiatae affinis est. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany. Vol. XVI, Plate CXVI 




bed 
BIDENS GARDNERI Baker 



.u 

OF THt 
HWMWTY flf IHWIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 415 

of the Hortus Cliff ortianus (p. 399. 1737). The first and only 
Hortus Cliffortianus synonym given was the Bidens latifolia hir- 
sutior, semine angustiore radiato of Dillenius (Hort. Eltham. 51. 
pi. 43. f. 51 and 1, 2, 3, 4- 1732). Dillenius' illustration was of a 
specimen still extant in the Dillenian Herbarium (Oxf.; vide p. 397, 
footnote 3), which is a slightly abnormal plant (as to leaves) of 
the at present widely known and accepted Bidens pilosa L. An 
excellent and more typical specimen is the one labeled Bidens pilosa 
in the official Linnean set at London (Linn.). 

Distribution: Widely distributed in tropical and subtropical 
regions. In the Western Hemisphere from California southeastward 
through Mexico, Central America, and South America to Chile, 
Argentina, and Uruguay, also in the West Indies; throughout 
Africa; in southeastern Asia, East Indies, Australia, New Zealand, 
and many other islands of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. 

Specimens examined: 1 LeRoy Abrams 2484, along streets, Ingle- 
wood, California, May 31, 1902 (Del.; Field; Kew; Phila.); anon. 
(Linn., 2 sheets, sub nominibus Bidente pilosa et B. pilosa var.); 
anon. 123, Manoa Valley, Oahu, Hawaiian Isls., May 13, 1854 
(Petrop.); C. F. Baker 2204, Masaya, Dept. Masaya, Nicaragua, 
January 27, 1903 (Del.; Gray; Kew; Mo.); idem 3729, Claremont, 
California, October 1, 1903 (Del.; Gray; Kew; Mus. V.); J. H. Barber 
158, Santa Monica Experiment Station, California, May 24, 1897 
(Calif.); R. Baron 43, chiefly in Betsileo-land, Madagascar (Kew); 
Gust. Bernoulli 477, Chojoja near Mazatenango, Guatemala, Sep- 
tember, 1867 (Del.; N.Y.); Beyrich, sandy places around Rio de 
Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, January, 1845 (Boiss.); 
J. Bornmuller 743, in rubbish heaps, Funchal, Madeira, March 19, 
1900 (Berl.; Mus. V.; U.V.); E. Bourgeau 150, San Angel, Federal 
Distr., Mexico, May 23, 1865-1866 (Kew) ; idem 847 pro parte, near 
Santa Cruz, Palma, Canary Isls., August 14, 1845 (Kew) ; L. J. K. 
Brace 4121, Albert Town, Long Cay, Bahamas, December 7-17, 1905 
(Field); Ernest Braunton 674, Los Angeles, California, September, 
1902 (Calif.); W. H. Brewer 285, Santa Barbara, California, March, 
1861 (U.S.); N.L.Britton 2631, roadside, Grierfield near Moneague, 
Jamaica, April 3, 1908 (Field); W. E. Broadway 5128, St. Ann's 

1 In the fruiting stage, specimens of the minutely radiate var. minor fre- 
quently look like those of the species proper and it is more than likely that several 
collections have been included here for B. pilosa whereas younger material (i.e., in 
its minutely radiate state) would have led to determination as var. minor. In a 
number of cases, I had determined specimens in certain herbaria as B. pilosa and 
later found the duplicates in other herbaria to be characteristic of the var. minor. 
In all such cases, as far as known, the collections are cited under that variety. 



416 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Cascade, Trinidad, November 27, 1923 (Del., 2 sheets); W. A. 
Bryan, Salt Lake, Oahu, Hawaiian Isls., December 13, 1903 (Bish.); 
Otto Buchtien, alt. 2,450 meters, Cotana on the Ilimani River, Boli- 
via, November, 1911 (Field) ; idem, alt. 1,100 meters, Polo-Polo near 
Coroico, North Yungas, Bolivia, October-November, 1912 (Field); 
idem 287, alt. 2,100 meters, South Yungas, Bolivia, November 16, 
1906 (Field) ; idem 1574, on roads, alt. 750 meters, San Carlos near 
Mapiri, Bolivia, September, 1907 (Field) ; idem 4409, Arica, Chile, Sep- 
tember, 1914 (Field); idem 5628 and 5628&W, alt. 1,400 meters, 
Hacienda Simaco on road to Tipuani, Bolivia, January, 1920 (Field ; 
forma nonnullis centralibus achaeniis elongatis atque eis Cosmidis non 
dissimilibus) ; F. S. Collins 8, roadside near Flatts, Bermuda, April 24, 
1912 (Gray); idem 303, Middle Road, Bermuda, August 24, 1913 
(Berl.; Kew); Conzatti & Gonzalez 1000, alt. 1,750 meters, State of 
Oaxaca, Mexico, July-August, 1900 (Berl.; Gray); C. C. Beam 241, 
alt. 126 meters, along river, Gualan, Guatemala, January 20, 1905 
(Gray; Mo.); F. Didrichsen (Galathea Expedition) 3515 and 3520, 
Pulo Penang, Penang, Malay Peninsula, 1845-1847 (Cop.) ; idem 3547, 
Oahu, Hawaiian Isls., eodem tempore (Cop., 2 sheets); idem 
3625, Tahiti, Society Isls., eodem tempore (Cop.); Mrs. A. Dieterlen 
2719, alt. 1,500-1,800 meters, Leribe, Basutoland (Kew); Amalia 
Dietrich, near Brisbane River, eastern Australia, 1863-1865 (Mus. 
V.); David Douglas, California, 1833 (Brit.); idem 56, California, 1833 
(Del.; Gray; Kew, 2 sheets; type material oiBidens calif ornica DC.); 
A. D. E. Elmer 3798, Santa Barbara, California, May, 1902 (Berl.; 
Del.; Field; Kew; Mus. V.); A. Engler 2506, high plain, Transvaal, 
August 20, 1905 (Berl.); Urbain Faurie 967, Oahu, Hawaiian Isls., 
April, 1909 (Del.); A. Fendler 695 pro parte, Venezuela, 1854-1855 
(Mo.); C. N. Forbes 2QQH, summit of Hualalai, Hawaii, Hawaiian 
Isls., June 18-21, 1911 (Bish.); idem 10620, Nuuanu Valley, Oahu, 
Hawaiian Isls., January 24, 1909 (Bish.) ; George Gardner 501, Organ 
Mts. (Serra dos Orgaos), State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Berl.; Del.; 
Kew; Mus. V.); Gamier 51, Madagascar, spring of 1869 (Par.); 
Claude Gay, Prov. Coquimbo, Chile, 1839 (Del.); A. Glaziou 8755, 
Brazil (Berl.); Goudot, vicinity of Tananarive, Madagascar (Del.); 
Ludwig Hahn 385, Martinique, December, 1867 (Berl.; Boiss.; Del., 
2 sheets; Mus.V.); 0. Hansen, in mountains, Jamaica, January, 1897 
(Cop.); A. A. Heller 2090, slopes of Makiki, Oahu, Hawaiian Isls., 
April 5, 1895 (Boiss.; Field; Mo.); idem (similiter) 2090, along 
Hanapepe River, near the Falls, Kauai, Hawaiian Isls., July 2-8, 
1895 (Field); idem (similiter) 2090, on Kaholuamanu, above 



THE GENUS BIDENS 417 

Waimea, Kauai, Hawaiian Isls., September 2-9, 1895 (Bish.); 
Aug. Henry 108, in mountains, Formosa (Berl.); Heyde & Lux 
4208 p.p., alt. 900 meters, Los Verdes, Dept. Amatitlan, Guatemala, 
November, 1892 (Berl., 2 sheets; Gray); William Hillebrand, 
Madeira, October, 1876 (U.V.); idem & J. M. Lydgate, Hawaiian 
Isls. (Bish.); C. Hoffmann 804, Costa Rica, 1857 (Berl.); (for R. F. 
Hohenacker 276, once referred here, see B. biternata); Fr. Holl, along 
stream near Funchal, Madeira, September 12, 1827 (Mus. V.); 
E. W. D. Holway 27, San Rafael, Dept. Guatemala, Guatemala, 
January 7, 1915 (Gray) ; J. D. Hooker, New Zealand (Kew) ; Hort. 
Bot. Berol. e seminibus e Mexicine missis (Berl.; type of Bidens 
reflexa Link); Hort. Elthamensis, sub No. 43.51.51 (Oxf.); T. Husnot, 
rocky places, Santa Cruz, Teneriffe, Canary Isls., March, 1866 
(U.V., 2 sheets); Jenman 4984, Demerara River, British Guiana, 
March, 1889 (N.Y.); W. A. Kellerman 5321, Palmar, Dept. Quezal- 
tenango, Guatemala, February 11, 1906 (Field); idem 6436, alt. 
237 meters, Retalhuleu, Dept. Retalhuleu, Guatemala, January 10, 
1907 (Field); Ferd. Krauss, southern Africa, March, 1839 (Mun.); 
idem, eodem loco, 1842 (Flor.); F. M. Liebmann 634, Mirador, 
Vera Cruz, Mexico, March, 1842 (Cop.); idem 635, Yavesta, Oaxaca, 
Mexico, September, 1842 (Cop., 2 sheets; forma foliis minoribus ac 
magis membranaceis, foliolis jugi inferioris tripartitis, achaeniis eis 
Bidentis bipinnatae aegre similibus; a Schultzio Bip. in herb, rite 
pro B. pilosa determinata) ; idem 653, Mirador, Vera Cruz, Mexico, 
January, 1842 (Cop.) ; E. Langlasse 971, alt. 1,000 meters, clay soil, 
El Porvenir, southern Mexico, March 27, 1899 (Berl.; U.S.); F. 
E. Lloyd 111, Laudat, Dominica, West Indies, 1903 (Kew) ; J. F. 
Macbride 2683, Darien, Panama, February 23, 1923 (Field); idem 
3174, Ambo, Peru (Field); idem 3180, alt. 2,100 meters, eodem loco, 
April 5, 1923 (Field); Mann & Brigham 49, Oahu, Hawaiian Isls. 
(Bish.; Corn.; Gray); W. R. Maxon 724, Annatto Bay, Jamaica, 
April 7, 1903 (U.S.); Katherine Mayo, Paramaribo, Surinam, May 
10, 1905 (Phila.); E. A. Mearns, Baguio, Prov. Benguet, Luzon, 
Philippine Isls., April, 1907 (Man.); C. F. Millspaugh 1275, Spot 
Bay, Grand Cayman Isl., West Indies, February 13-14, 1899 (Field); 
idem 2610, Oahua, Hawaiian Isls., September 12, 1911 (Field) ; Otto 
Moller, introduced, Isl. Amager, Denmark, October 20, 1895 (Cop.); 
Fred Muller 544 p.p., Orizaba, Mexico, 1855 (N.Y.); G. C. Munro 
146, Palawai, Lanai, Hawaiian Isls., October 10, 1913 (Bish.) ; Thomas 
Nuttall, Oahu, Hawaiian Isls. (Brit., sub nom. B. pubescenti) ; idem, 
Hawaiian Isls. (Brit., sub nom. B. hirsuta); Richard Oldham 259, 



418 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Tamsuy, Formosa, 1864 (Boiss.; Mus. V.); C. R. Orcutt 120, Santo 
Tomas, Lower California, Mexico, September 24, 1884 (Field) ; idem 
3026, Sanborn, Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 18, 1910 (Field) ; idem 5429, 
Rio Verde, San Luis Potosi, Mexico, November 17, 1910 (Mo.; 
forma achaeniis longioribus ac dense spinuloso-hispidis, eis non- 
nullarum var. bimucronatae formarum non valde dissimilibus) ; 
Corn. Osten 5978, Dept. Montevideo, Uruguay, March 3, 1912 
(Field) ; Edward Palmer 440, Parras and vicinity, Coahuila, Mexico, 
October 6-11, 1898 (Calif.; Del., 4 sheets; Field; Mo.); idem (simi- 
liter) 440, vicinity of Mapimi, Durango, Mexico, October 21-23, 
1898 (Kew); S. B. Parish 6486, alt. about 300 meters, damp land, 
meadows, swamps, San Bernardino Valley, California, September 21, 
1907 (Field; forma nonnullis inferioribus foliolis, his tripartitis) ; 
idem & W. F. Parish 184, San Bernardino, California, July, 1881 
(Berl.; Boiss.; U.V.); M. E. Peck 277, clearing near Manatee Lagoon, 
British Honduras, January 8, 1906 (Gray) ; Gustave Perdonnet 345, 
State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1840-1846 (Boiss.); Philippi, Prov. 
Tarapaca, Chile, communic. 1888 (type material of Bidens Mon- 
taubanii Phil.) ; H. Pittier 4362, Mt. Carpintera, Costa Rica, August 2, 
1891 (Gray); idem 9140, Guaremales near Urama, Carobobo, 
Venezuela, December 10, 1920 (Berl.); idem & Ad. Tonduz 8724, 
alt. 100 meters, forests of Tsuritkub, Costa Rica, April, 1894 (Boiss. ; 
forma umbrosa, foliis valde membranaceis) ; Poeppig 1569, very 
common along roads near Pampayacu, Dept. Huanuco, Peru, 
December, 1829 (Mus. V.); C. A. Purpus, San Luis Tultitlanapa, 
Puebla, Mexico, August, 1908 (Calif.); 1 Karl & Lily Rechinger 2043, 
slopes of the Volcano Kilauea, Hawaii, Hawaiian Isls., April, 1905 
(Mus. V.); iidem 2139, ditches at Honolulu, Hawaii, Hawaiian Isls., 
April, 1905 (Mus. V.) ; A. F. Regnell III. 777, Caldas, Minas Geraes, 
Brazil, April 28, 1874 (Berl.); Reinecke 22, Samoa, 1893 (Boiss.); 
A. E. Ricksecker 473, spring garden, St. Croix, West Indies, July 13, 
1896 (Mo.); J. Robertson 106, Stann Creek, British Honduras, 
February 20, 1890 (Brit.); F. A. Rogers 23904, crocodile farm, 
Barberton, Transvaal, December, 1920 (Kew); E. Rothschuh, alt. 
1,000 meters, rain forest, Canada Yasica, Dept. Matagalpa, Nica- 
ragua, February 20, 1894 (Berl.); idem 244, on roads, eodem loco, 
August 19, 1893 (Berl.); H. H. Rusby 1619, alt. 1,800 meters, 
Yungas, Bolivia, 1885 (N.Y.) ; idem & R. W. Squires 232, Catalina, 
lower Orinoco River, Venezuela, May, 1896 (Berl.; Boiss.; Del.; 
Kew; Mo.; Mun.; Phila.; U.V., 2 sheets); Satte, Orizaba, Mexico, 

1 Two plants by Raunkiaer (Cop.), determined by me at first as B. pilosa, 
may have to be referred to B. domingensis (q. v.) if that species is to be retained. 



ield Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXVII 






BIDENS FLAGELLARIS Baker 



:::: " IQ RABY 

OF THt 

nf ILUNOiS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 419 

1854-1855 (Del., 3 sheets); J. G. Schaffner 383, Tequisquiapan, 
Quere"taro, Mexico, October, 1880 (Gray; Kew; Mo.); Scherzer, 
alt. 1,230 meters, San Jose", Costa Rica (Mus. V.) ; L. Schlim 113, 
alt. 1,050 meters, Ocafia, Prov. Ocana, Colombia, September, 1850 
(Del., 2 sheets) ; Schomburgk 455 p.p., British Guiana (Mus. V.) ; Ber- 
thold Seemann 270 p.p., Fiji Isls., 1860 (Del. ; Mus. V. ; nom. incolarum, 
Batimadramadra) ; idem 2047, Sierra Madre, northwestern Mexico 
(Kew); Eduard & Caecilie Seler 2534, San Andre's Osuna, Dept. 
Escuintla, Guatemala, May 7, 1896 (Berl.); Sieber 330, Martinique 
(Berl., 2 sheets; Mo.); P. Sintenis 391, in maritime and montane 
forests, Maricao, Puerto Rico, November 17, 1884 (Berl., 2 sheets; 
Boiss.; Del.; Mo.); idem 4653, among bushes, Adjuntas, Puerto 
Rico, June 24, 1886 (Del.; Mo.; U.V.); H. H. Smith 598, alt. 1,350 
meters, Santa Marta, Colombia, December, 1898-1901 (Berl.; Del.; 
Kew; Mo.); idem 599, alt. 750 meters, eodem loco et tempore (Berl.; 
Cam.; Del.; Field; Man.; Mo.; Phila.); J. D. Smith 2350, alt. 1,500 
meters, Guatemala, Dept. Guatemala, Guatemala, February, 1890 
(Field) ; P. C. Standley 23977, alt. 75-225 meters, open slope, Quiri- 
gua, Dept. Izabal, Guatemala, May 15-31, 1922 (Mo.) ; J. F. G. Stokes, 
Kaali, Niihau, Hawaiian Isls., January, 1912 (Bish.); D. L. Topping 
2833, garden, Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaiian Isls., September 6, 1924 
(N.Y.); C. H. T. Townsend A102, alt. 2,000 meters, near San Pedro, 
Ecuador, November 25, 1910 (U.S.); idem A200, alt. 1,350 meters, 
Hacienda Charape on the Rio Tabaconas, Prov. Jae"n, Peru, Sep- 
tember 18, 1911 (Field); H. H. Travers, introduced, swampy coast 
places, Wellington, North Isl., New Zealand, October, 1908 (Man.; 
forma foliis valde membranaceis et foliolis inferioribus subdivisis, 
aristis 2); J. Triana 1373, Colombia (Berl.; N.Y.); Knei Chen 
Ts'ao (Herb. Univ. Nanking No. 1549), Bau Hiva Shan, Kiangsu 
Prov., China, October 14, 1915 (Calif.; a second-growth form 
simulating B. Engleri, B. tenera, B. leptocephala, etc., in characters 
of the fruiting heads) ; Eugene Warming 38, Barbados, West Indies, 
November 13, 1891 (Cop.); idem 638, Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes, 
Brazil, March 17, 1864 (Cop.) ; idem 639 pro parte, eodem loco (Cop.) ; 
idem 640, Morro de San Antonio, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 
May 7, 1863 (Cop.) ; idem 643 pro parte, Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes, 
Brazil (Cop.); Wawra (H. M. Maximilian's Journey to Mexico) 1035, 
Mirador and vicinity, Vera Cruz, Mexico (Mus. V.) ; idem (Circumnav. 
H. M. Frigate "Donau") 1811, Maui, Hawaiian Isls., 1868-1871 
(Mus. V., 2 sheets); S. J. Whitmee, Samoa (Gray); Widgren 253, 
Caldas, Minas Geraes, Brazil, December 15, 1845 (Berl.; Cop.); C. S. 



420 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Williamson, Los Angeles, California, July 24, 1901 (Phila.); F. 
Wilms 845 p.p., Distr. Lydenburg, Transvaal, December, 1887 (Del.; 
Kew; U.V.); Hubert Winkler 101, Victoria, Kamerun (Berl.); Charles 
Wright 316, eastern Cuba, 1856-1857 (Boiss.; Del.; Gray; Kew; 
Mo.; Phila.); idem 317 pro parte, eodem loco et tempore (Gray; 
Kew); idem (similiter) 317, eastern Cuba, 1860 (Mus. V.); H. Wydler 
228, in cultivated places, Puerto Rico, May-June, 1827 (Del., 2 
sheets; foliorum superiorum foliolis inferioribus tripartitis, forma 
Bidenti subalternanti aegre simili); Yates 632, Santa Barbara, Cali- 
fornia, October 3, 1894 (Boiss.); H. Zollinger II. 410, Java (Del.). 1 

The pre-Linnean setting of B. pilosa has already been given (vide 
sub "Type specimen"). Much pertinent material will be found 
under the following varieties and formae. We may note the status 
of certain post-Linnean synonyms which either are not self-explana- 
tory or else do not receive adequate treatment in the list of "Speci- 
mens examined." 

The name Bidens reflexa Link has been variously construed by 
botanists during the past century. This is doubtless due to the fact 
that more than one species was obtained in European botanical 
gardens from supposedly B. reflexa achenes which had been sent 
out from Berlin. Thus, some of the B. reflexa material in the Berlin 
Herbarium is 5. pilosa L., while in the Herbarium of the University 
of Halle, for example, a specimen labeled "Bidens reflexa Hort. bot. 
Berol." is really B. serrulata (Poir.) Desf. Fortunately there exists 
in the Berlin Herbarium an original specimen by Link. Its main 
label says, in pencil, "Bidens sp. Mexico." In ink is written "reflexa 
m. (Link)." Another label says, "Bidens reflexa Link En. 2. p. 306. 
Hort. Bot. Berol." This specimen is clearly of Link's type material 
and matches his description, except that he erred in calling it a 
perennial, for it is an annual. It is nothing more than B. pilosa L., 
to which it must be referred. 

A careful study of Vellozo's description and illustration of his 
B. adhaerescens shows that plant to be none other than B. pilosa L. 
His description of the capitulum is not above criticism. In the short, 
abridged description at the beginning we read: "floribus terminalibus, 
discoideis," which would limit the description to B. pilosa proper. 
In the detailed description which follows, however, we read: "Co- 

1 In South America B. pilosa, in common with such related species as B. 
Gardneri and B. riparia, is often called Picao (fide F. Hoehnei et al.). 

Concerning the value of B. pilosa as a forage plant, especially for horses with 
intestinal parasites, and as a plant to be considered in connection with bananas 
for cultivation, vide DeWildeman, PI. Util. Inter. 556-557. 1903. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXVIII 




a b 

BIDENS NUDATA Brandeg. 



Of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 421 

rollula composite, quandoque radiata, radis octo ligulatis, albis." 
Thus it is seen that he really included also the plants with white 
rays, forms which today are separately treated as B. pilosa var. 
radiata Schz. Bip. 1 

An original specimen of B. ciliata Hoffmgg. is in the collection 
of the younger Reichenbach at the Museum of Vienna. It was 
collected by Dr. Hoffmannsegg. It is a nearly glabrous plant, with 
discoid heads, and is typical B. pilosa L. In the original description 
it was differentiated from B. pilosa because of its polymorphous 
leaves, a character of no value here, since B. pilosa L., B. subalternans 
DC., and most other species of Bidens display a noticeable,some- 
times very high degree of foliar polymorphism. 

A sheet bearing two type specimens of B. Montaubanii Phil, is 
in Berlin (Berl.). These were received from Philippi. They display, in 
the narrowness of their leaflets, a superficial resemblance to certain 
specimens of the South American B. subalternans DC., but differ 
in having leaves pinnate, not bipinnate, and the achenes 2-aristate, 
not 2-4-aristate. A study of their foliage, achenes, and involucres 
shows that they are mere foliage forms of B. pilosa L. 

Bidens pilosa var. ft. minor (Bl.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80: 387. 
1925. PI. CII, figs, c, d, and k-r. 

Coreopsis leucorrhiza Lour. Fl. Coch. ed. 1. 508. 1790 (ex descript. 

et patria). 
Coreopsis leucorhiza Lour. op. cit. ed. 2. 622. 1793 (ex descript. 

et patria). 

Bidens hispida H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 186 (237). 1820. 
Kerneria dubia Cass. Diet. Sci. Nat. 24: 398. 1822 (pro parte). 
Bidens sundaica Blume, Bijdr. 913. 1826. 
Bidens sundaica var. minor Blume, op. cit. 914. 
Bidens (?) leucorhiza (Lour.) DC. Prodr. 5: 605. 1836. 
Bidens leucantha var. sundaica (Bl.) Hasskarl, Cat. PI. Hort. Bog. 

100. 1844; etiam in Miquel, Fl. Ned. 2: 77. 1856-1859. 
Bidens andicola var. ft. Wedd. Chlor. And. 1: 70. 1855 (ex synon. 

H.B.K.). 

Bidens sundiaca Bl. ex Ind. Kew. 1: 301. 1895 (sphalm). 
Bidens aurantiaca Colenso, Trans. New Zeal. Inst. 27: 388. 1895. 
Bidens africana Klatt, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4: 464. 1896. 

1 For an extended discussion of Vellozo and his work, see Hook. Journ. Bot. 
4: 4. 1842. 



422 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bidens pilosa var. brevifoliata Hieron. Bot. Jahrb. 29: 48. 1900. 
Bidens pilosa var. dubia (Cass.) 0. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. 
Antill. 7: 135. 1911. 1 

Foliola saepius acriter apicata et acriter serrata. Capitula 
subradiata. Flores ligulati 4-7, albidi vel sulphurei vel vivi saepe 
etiam aurei, supra irregulariter 3-5-lobulati, circ. 5-8 mm. longi, 
stylo deficiente vel 2 mm. longo ramis inaequilongis, ovario circ. 
1 mm. longo plerumque 2- vel 3-aristato aristis 1-2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: See discussion below. 

Distribution: Throughout most tropical and subtropical regions; 
in Central America and South America to Chile and Argentina; fre- 
quent in the West Indies; found over the entire continent of Africa; 
occurring in southeastern and southern Asia, Burma, etc. ; in Japan, 
Formosa, Ceylon, Australia, New Zealand, etc. ; in many of the East 
Indies and in widely separated insular localities of the Atlantic, 
Pacific, and Indian oceans. 

Specimens examined: D. J. Anderson (Yunnan Exped.), China, 
March 19, 1868 (Boiss.); anon., St. Croix, West Indies (Cop.); 
anon., Kamwake-mura, Isl. Shikoku, Prov. Tosa, Japan, Nov. 23, 
1896 (Berl.; sub nom. var. albiflora Maxim.); F. Bachmann 1585, 
1588, and 1589, Pondoland, southeastern Africa, 1887-1888 (Berl.); 
J. Ball, alt. 450-1,800 meters, in valley of Rimac River, Peru, April, 
1882 (Kew); Aug. Barbey, Baliagata, Calcutta, India, April 10, 
1891 (Boiss.); G. L. Bates 39, Batanga, Kamerun, March 2, 1895 
(Boiss.); G. Baur 111, Chatham Isl., Galapagos Isls., June, 1891 
(Gray); Bertero 444, Quillota, Chile, September, 1829 (De\.);Blanchet 
143, Bahia, Brazil (Del., 2 sheets); Blume, Java (Leyd., 2 sheets); 
idem, eodem loco (Leyd., sub nom. Bidente sundaica et B. sundaica 
var.); idem, eodem loco, 1836 (Brit.; Del.; Par.; Webb; sub nom. 
Bidente sundaica Bl.); idem 139, eodem loco (Brit., sub nom. Bidente 
leucantha var. sundaica Hassk.); F. R. Bona 131, Malaya Mts., 
Lepanto Subprov., Luzon, Philippine Isls., November-December, 
1911 (Man.) ; W. E. Broadway 2280, common in ditches, Cangiehel, 
Santa Cruz, Trinidad, West Indies, August 11, 1908 (Field; Man.); 
O^o Buchtien, alt. 2,450 meters, Cotafia, Bolivia, November, 1911 
(Field); idem 5629, alt. 1,400 meters, above the road to Tipuani, 
Bolivia, February, 1920 (Field; U.S.); W. Busse 939, Upper Ngaka 
Valley, German East Africa, 1901 (Berl.) ; idem 2480, Tand-ngongoro, 
Distr. Trindi, German East Africa, May 13, 1903 (Berl.); D. R. 

1 Regarding Bidens pinnata Nor. (nomen), which applies perhaps equally to 
B. pilosa var. minor and to B. biternata, see under B. biternata. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXIX 




BIDENS BRASILIENSIS Sherff 



OF THt 
UNIVERSITY F { 



THE GENUS BIDENS 423 

Buttner 29, Togo, Guinea, July 31, 1890 (Berl.); J- Cardoso, 244, 
Cape Verde Isls., 1895 (Berl.); J. Cavalerie 3697, in cultivated places, 
Pin-Fa, China, August 20, 1907 (Del.); Mrs. Evelyn Cecil 21, between 
Beira and Massi Kessi, Portuguese East Africa (Kew) ; Tang Chung 
Chang et al. 2859, grassy lawn, Fukien Christian Univ. Campus, 
Foochow, Fukien Prov., China, October 7, 1925 (Calif.); T. F. 
Cheeseman 30, Sunday Isl., Kermadec Isls., August, 1887 (Kew); 
J. & M. S. Clemens 4177, Hue Divide, Tourane, Annam, French 
Indo-China, July, 1927 (Calif.); W. Colenso, New Zealand, com- 
munic. 1897 (Kew, sub nom. Bidente aurantiaca Col.); Paul Conrath 
395, Nodderfontein, Transvaal, 1896 (Berl.); Alice C. Cook 25, wet 
places, ravine (barranca) near Guia, Gran Canaria, Canary Isls., 
December, 1893 (Field); T. Cooper 1152, Natal, 1862 (Mus. V., 2 
sheets); H. M. Curran 5019, Mt. Tonglon, Prov. Benguet, Luzon, 
Philippine Isls., August, 1906 (Mo.) ; DeVore & Hoover 260, lowland, 
Santa Cruz, Distr. Davao, Mindanao, Philippine Isls., April 28, 
1903 (Man.); Deschamps, Ceylon, 1891 (Del.); Dinklage 2117, 
Grand Bassa, Liberia, October 15, 1899 (Berl.; Gray); Drege 5084, 
South Africa (Berl.); W. Dudgeon & L. A. Kenoyer 426, alt. 1,200 
meters, Himalaya Mts., India, May 30, 1920 (Mo.); Eggers 208, 
alt. 330 meters, Signal Hill, St. Thomas, West Indies, December, 
1880 (Berl., 2 sheets; Boiss.; Del., 2 sheets; Kew, 2 sheets; Mun., 
2 sheets; U.V., 2 sheets); idem 6251, infrequent on shore between 
Mt. Felix and Goyave, Grenada, West Indies, December 9, 1889 
(Berl.); idem 7218, Forster's Hall Wood, Barbados, West Indies, 
January 24, 1890 (Berl.); Ehrenreich, Ceylon, May 18, 1893 (Berl.); 
A. D.E.Elmer 5769, Baguio, Prov. Benguet, Luzon, Philippine Isls., 
February 29, 1904 (Berl.; Boiss.; Man.); Ernest Faber, Tung-kun, 
southern China (Del.); A. Fendler 695 pro parte, near Tovar, Ven- 
ezuela, 1854-1855 (Del.; Kew); E. Fenix, Baguio, Prov. Benguet, 
Luzon, Philippine Isls., December 5, 1910 (Man. ; floris radicibusque 
faciendo Igaroteorum vim "sinisit" dicti lectis); Fraser, Ecuador, 
1860 (Del.); Claude Gay, Chile (Berl.; Del., 2 sheets; Mus. V.); 
idem, Prov. Coquimbo, Chile, 1839 (Del.); 0. Gelert, Arucas, Gran 
Canaria, Canary Isls., April 22, 1897 (Cop.); A. Glaziou 4034, Brazil 
(Cop.); Hance 299, Hongkong, China (Gray); J. W. Harshberger, 
Pembroke Church, Bermuda, June 21, 1905 (Gray; Mo.); G. T. 
Hastings 570, in garden, Santiago, Chile, March, 1902 (Calif.); 
0. Haught 4, Talara, Prov. Paita, Peru, 1925 (Field); Aug. Henry 
75, Hongkong, China (Mo.); idem 108, Formosa (Mo.); idem 8769, 
Isl. Hainan, southeastern China, November, 1889 (Gray); Fr. Hens 



424 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

91, alt. 100-600 meters, Lute'te', Belgian Congo, February 1, 1888 
(Del.); idem 94, alt. 500-600 meters, eodem loco, February 20, 
1888 (Del.); idem 261, alt. 150-600 meters, eodem loco, February 1, 
1888 (Boiss.; U.V.); J. M. Hildebrandt 1023, sterile ground, Zanzi- 
bar, October-November, 1873 (Berl. ; Mus. V., 2 sheets) ; idem 1640, 
Isl. Johanna (Isl. Anjouan), Comoro (Comore) Isls., June-August, 
1875 (Berl.; Mus. V., 2 sheets); William Hillebrand 41, Makawao, 
eastern Maui, Hawaiian Isls. (Kew); C. Hoffmann 250, San Jose*, 
Costa Rica, September, 1854 (Berl.); Fr. Roll, along stream near 
Funchal, Madeira, cum specie ipsa, September 12, 1827 (Mus. V., 
3 sheets); C. Hoist 4328, Gonja, Distr. Usambara, German East 
Africa, September, 1893 (Kew; Mus. V.);7. F. Holton, La Paila, 
Dept. Cauca, Colombia, May 19, 1853 (Del.); J. D. Hooker, alt. 
up to 1,500 meters, Sikkim, India (Berl.; Cop.; Del.; Gray); idem & 
T. Thomson, alt. 1,200-1,500 meters, Mt. Khasia, India (Boiss.; 
Mus. V., 2 sheets); C. C. Hosseus "498a x ," alt. 1,050 meters, Doi- 
Sutep, Siam, April 14, 1905 (Mun.); HUgel, New Zealand (Mus. V.); 
Abdul Huk, Fort Stedman, Upper Burma, December, 1892 (Mus. 
V.); Humboldt & Bonpland, Caracas, Venezuela (Par., sub mss. 
No. 698 et nom. Bidente hispida); E. Jahandiez, Bufadero, Teneriffe, 
Canary Isls., January 6, 1911 (Boiss.) ; Pedro Jorgensen, Mendoza, 
Argentina, 1908 (Cop.); Junghuhn 290, Java (Gray); idem 311, Java 
(Gray); idem 357, Mt. Dieng, Java (Gray; Leyd.); idem 376 (Gray); 
H. Junod, Delagoa Bay, Mozambique, 1890 (Boiss.); Kandt 105, 
alt. 1,700 meters, Mt. Niansa, Ruanda, German East Africa, 1906 
(Berl., 2 sheets); A. F. G. Ken 743, alt. 720 meters, Djing-Mai 
(Chieng-Mai), Doi-Sutep, Siam, August 8, 1909 (Berl.); R. Lan- 
dauer, Mariannhill, Natal (Berl.); LeGuillon, Raffles Bay, north 
coast of Australia, 1841 (Par.) ; idem, Java, 1841 (Par.) ; idem, Akaroa, 
Banks Peninsula, Middle Isl., New Zealand, 1841 (Par.); Lehmann 
58, Lindanglaja, west Java, February, 1890 (Berl.); Leschenault, 
Ceylon, 1823 (Del.); A. Letourneux, in marshes, banks of Lake 
Mariot (Lake Mariut), Egypt, June, 1876 (Cop., 2 sheets); C. 0. 
Levine 278, Honam Isl., Prov. Kwangtung, China, October 1, 1917 
(Mo.); J. A. Lorzing 153, alt. about 1,650 meters, north Sendara, 
central Java, January 25, 1912 (Berl.; nom. vernac., Kettul); H. 
Lynes 23, alt. 1,950 meters, Nuiruya, Jebel Marra (Marrah Mts.), 
Darfur, Sudan, February, 1922 (Kew); J. F. Macbride 2898, weed of 
fields, railway grades, etc., alt. about 2,400 meters, Matucana, Peru, 
March 14-18, 1923 (Field); idem 3179, alt. about 2,100 meters, stony 
river-flat, Ambo, Peru, April 5, 1923 (Field) ; G. Mandon 134, grav- 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXX 




a he g i f 

BIDENS RIEDELII Baker (tigs, o-fc); var. HASSLERIANA Chod. (fig. I) 



Tt 
81 s 



THE GENUS BIDENS 425 

elly and rocky places near Funchal, Madeira, February, 1865 (Berl. ; 
Boiss.; Del., 2 sheets; Mus. V., 2 sheets; plantae specie! ipsi adpro- 
pinquantes); Manggerai 22, Isl. Flores, Dutch East Indies, August 
28, 1918 (Buit.); Martins 819, Brazil (Mus. V.); idem 842, Brazil 
(Berl.); Maximowicz, Oahu, Hawaiian Isls., 1854 (Kew); R. C. 
McGregor, Dupax, Prov. Nueva Vizcaya, Luzon, Philippine Isls., 
March- April, 1912 (Cam.; Field); idem 861, Lutab to Kabayan, 
Prov. Benguet, Luzon, June, 1909 (Man.); idem 3637, Prov. Nueva 
Vizcaya, Luzon, January 15, 1913 (Man.); idem 3865, Mt. Polis, 
Subprov. Ifugao, Luzon, February 1, 1913 (Man.); A. Meebold, alt. 
600 meters, Kandy, Ceylon, March, 1905 (Berl.); E. D. Merrill, 
Prov. Benguet, Luzon, Philippine Isls., October-November, 1905 
(Berl.) ; idem, Honam Isl., Kwangtung Prov., October 13-November 
9, 1916 (Calif., 2 sheets; nom. sinensi, Kam p'un ngan chan); idem 
1781, alt. 1,200-1,400 meters, open, disturbed soil of railway grade, 
Baguio, Benguet Subprov., Luzon, May 12, 1914 (Man.; Mo.); 
idem 6548, Mt. Pulog, Prov. Benguet, Luzon, May, 1909 (Man.); 
idem 6988, alt. 1,725 meters, thickets at old crater of Canlaon 
Volcano, Negros, Philippine Isls., April, 1910 (Field; Man.); C. F. 
Millspaugh 81, Walsingham, Bermuda, December 31, 1898 (Field); 
Milne, waste places, Isle of Pines, October, 1853 (Kew); A. Moc- 
querys 44, San Thome", Roca Ledroma, Portuguese West Africa, 1899 
(Del.); R. P. Murray, Teror, Gran Canaria, Canary Isls., May 13, 
1892 (Boiss.); G. Nakahara 283, Formosa, August, 1905 (Man.); 
F. G. Overlaet, Kafakumba, Belgian Congo, April, 1925 (Field, 3 
sheets); L. R. Parodi 7305, Palermo, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 
October 16, 1926 (Gray); idem 7309, eodem loco, October 17, 1926 
(Gray); A. Petelot 129, edges of roads, Cho Ganh, French Indo- 
China, April, 1920 (Calif.); Peters 8 and 79, Mozambique (Berl.); 
C. J. Pitard 189, Barranco de Bufadero, Teneriffe, Canary Isls., 
March 18, 1905 (Berl.; Mo.; var. radiatae adpropinquans) ; H. 
Pittier 683 and 684, alt. 1,500-1,900 meters, Cuesta de Tocota, 
road from Buenaventura to Call, western Cordilleras, Cauca, Colom- 
bia, December, 1905 (U.S.); idem 980, prairies, La Uruca, Costa 
Rica, February, 1888 (Boiss.); idem 3031, Costa Rica, 1890 (Boiss.); 
idem 6990, alt. 1,500 meters, San Rafael de Cartago, Costa Rica, 
August 28, 1892 (Berl.) ; H. Polakowsky 362, San Jose", Costa Rica, 
November, 1875 (Berl.); Von Prittwitz und Gaffron 272, Lager, 
German East Africa, July 7-8, 1901 (Berl.); Maximo Ramos 5550, 
Rio Trinidad, Benguet Prov., Luzon, December 12, 1908 (Berl.; 
Man.); Dr. & Mrs. J. N. Rose 18740 p.p., Santa Clara, Peru, July 18, 



426 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

1914 (U.S.); H. H. Rusby 1620, Tacna, Chile, March, 1885 (N.Y.; 
Phila.); K. Saida, Tokyo, Japan (Berl.); A. Sauliere, alt. 2,115 
meters, Kodai-kanal, Pulney Hills, Madura District, Presidency of 
Madras, India (Man.); F. Schickendantz 127, Fuerte de Andalgala, 
Prov. Catamarca, Argentina, May, 1879 (Berl.); Rudolph Schlechter 
2133, alt. 230 meters, Zuurbraak, Cape Colony, January 19, 1893 
(Berl. ; Boiss. ; Kew; Mus. V. ; U.V.) ; G. Schweinfurth 112, Nile Valley, 
Egypt, 1887 (Berl.) ; idem 419 p.p., vicinity of Cairo, Egypt, September 
25, 1864 (Berl., 2 sheets; Boiss.; Mus. V.); Berthold Seemann 2265, 
Oahu, Hawaiian Isls., 1850 (Kew) ; Eduard & Caecilie Seler 2692 and 
2694, Chacula, Dept. Huehuetenango, Guatemala, August 20, 1896 
(Berl.); E. E. Sherff 2043, cult., Chicago, Illinois, October 7, 1915, 
e seminibus e Horto Bot. Raoul., Papeete, Tahiti (Field); A. Sodiro 
4314 (43/4 fide Hieronymi), Ecuador (Berl., 2 sheets; type material 
of Bid ens pilosa var. brevifoliata Hieron.); Mary F. Spencer, alt. 100 
meters, Taormina, Sicily, January-February, 1904 (Gray); Ad. 
Stolz 627, alt. 600-1,500 meters, Kyimbila, Nrulila (vicinity of Lan- 
genburg at north end of Lake Nyassa), Nyassa Highland, March 8, 
1911 (Berl., 2 sheets; Cop.; Del., 3 sheets; Mus. V.); R. Strachey & 
J. E. Winterbottom 2, alt. 1,110 meters, Ramgungu River, Kumaon, 
India (Brit. ; Kew) ; Stuhlmann 9624, Uluguru, German East Africa, 
November 20, 1894 (Berl.); Styles, Chile (Phila.); Fedor Tagor 384, 
Java, 1859 (Berl.); T. Thomson 869, Kumaon, India, May- June, 
1845 (Kew, 2 sheets); Thwaites 3630, Ceylon (Boiss.; Del.); Ad. 
Tonduz 498, alt. 1,752 meters, orillas de la Laguna de Caldera, 
Volcan de Pacaya, Guatemala, April 6, 1921 (Mo.); idem 695, roads 
and plantings at San Jose", Costa Rica, June, 1892 (Boiss.); 
William Trelease 437, Sao Jorge, Azores, June 23, 1894 (Mo.); E. 
Ule 835, weed in fields, Blumenau, Santa Catharina, Brazil, August, 
1888 (Berl.) ; idem 4493, roadsides, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Au- 
gust, 1897 (Berl.); Vahl, Ribeira de Fayal, Madeira, August 5, 1901 
(Cop.) ;S. Venturi 8810, alt. 1,200 meters, Cerro el Noglito, Dept. Bur- 
royaco, Prov. Tucuman, Argentina, April 12, 1929 (Gray) ; Verreaux 
532, Australia, 1845-1846 (Par., 2 sheets) ; Seb. Vidal, Miagao, Prov. 
Ilo-ilo, Panay, Philippine Isls. (Kew); idem 1514, 3133, and 3138, 
northern Luzon, Philippine Isls. (Kew); Voeltzkow 211, Comoro 
Isls., 1903 (Berl.); G. Volkens 682, alt. 1,550 meters, Kilimanjaro 
region, German East Africa, August 15, 1893 (Berl.; Boiss.; Kew); 
Walker, Ceylon (Del.); Warburg 413, Bombay, India (Berl.); idem 
418, Nilgiri Hills, India (Berl.); Wawra 353, Ascension Isl., east 
Atlantic, 1857-1858 (Mus. V.); Welwitsch 3959, Distr. Golungo Alto, 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXXI 




c b 

BIDENS CHODATI Hassl. 



OF Tt 



THE GENUS BIDENS 427 

Angola (Cop.); Alexander Whyte, alt. 1,050-1,200 meters, Tangan- 
yika Plateau, July, 1896 (Kew); idem, alt. 1,950-2,100 meters, 
Masuku (Masukwo) Plateau, northwest of Lake Nyassa, eodem 
tempore (Kew); Wichura 2200, Gedang Bendang, Java, November 
21, 1861 (Berl.);F. Wilms 844, Lydenburg, Transvaal, December, 
1887 (Berl.; Del.; Kew); Charles Wright, Hongkong, China, 1853- 
1856 (Gray); idem, Loo-Choo Isls., 1853-1856 (Gray; U.S.); Zech. 
276, Kratschi, Togo, 1900 (Berl.) ; H. Zollinger 401, Java (Del., 3 
sheets; Par.); idem 816, eodem loco (Del., 2 sheets; Par.). 

Bidens pilosa L. has among its various varieties and formae a 
subradiate variety, widely distributed in both hemispheres. This 
was observed by Cassini. 1 0. E. Schulz (loc. cit.) has employed for 
it the varietal name dubia, but the synonymous Bidens sundaica Bl. 
had already been reduced to varietal rank by Hasskarl (loc. cit.) in 
1844, and so takes precedence over the name dubia. In his original 
description Blume (loc. cit.) listed a variety minor, "caule foliisque 
humilioribus. Crescit: cum praecedente [i.e., B. sundaica ips., 
prope Buitenzorg, Java]." Recently, through the kindness of Dr. 
J. W. C. Goethart, Director of the Royal Herbarium at Leyden, I 
was privileged to examine early specimens by Blume and by Jung- 
huhn, from Java. Three sheets (Nos. 900,146 ... 72 pro parte; 
900,146 ... 73; 900,146 ... 75) bear excellent specimens of Blume's 
Bidens sundaica. A few minute rays are present. The first of these 
sheets bears also the basal part of a specimen (and a fruiting 
branch which probably belonged to it), labeled unmistakably in 
Blume's own handwriting, "Bidens Sundaica Variet." Dr. Goethart 
(in lit.) very properly regards this as "probably type of var. minor." 
The one fruiting head still attached to the rather depauperate basal 
portion exactly matches the others on the B. sundaica plants. A 
fourth sheet bears still more depauperate material collected by Dr. 
Fr. Junghuhn, No. 357, on Mt. Dieng, Java. It is labeled in Miquel's 2 
handwriting (fide Goethartii in lit.) as a depauperate forma of B. 
sundaica Bl. Indeed, its three specimens (one of them, in flower, 

1 "... les calathides, composees d'un disque jaune et d'une couronne blan- 
chatre, sont larges de cinq lignes. . . . Nous ayons observe, pendant plusiers 
annees, des individus vivans de cette espece, cultives au Jardin du Roi, et nous 
avons remarque que leurs calathides etoient le plus souvent incouronees, rarement 
radiees. Dans ce dernier cas, la couronne etoit composee de cinq a sept fleurs, dont 
la corolle avoit le tube court, et la languette courte, large, orbiculaire, tridentee 
au sommet, multinervee, a nervures jaunatres. . . . "- Cassini, loc. cit. 

2 Miquel (loc. cit.) cites a depauperate form collected by Junghuhn: "B. 
leucantha /3. sundaica Hassk. I.e. p. 100, cujus auctoritate formam hanc alioquin 
satis constantem hue retuli. Formam omnibus partibus depauperatam in elevati- 
oribus montanis Javae insulae el. Jungh. legit." 



428 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

having the tiny rays very evident) are so obviously a merely less 
developed form of B. sundaica, that few if any authors today would 
seek to draw any distinctions. 

It is evident that the actually equivalent name minor, given 
varietal status long before the name sundaica was, must in turn take 
precedence, supplanting both sundaica and dubia. 1 

Blume's description, "B. floribus subradiatis ..." is matched 
by upwards of a thousand specimens examined in the past few years. 
It is represented in particular by several of Blume's own specimens 
(Brit., sub numero 139; Del.; Par.; Webb). In the Delessert, Paris, 
and Webb herbaria the heads are mostly rayless, perhaps having had 
the few rays removed in previous examinations. The foliage aspect, 
however, is definitely that of the ordinary subradiate variety. Fur- 
thermore, the plant at the British Museum of Natural History is 
definitely subradiate. 2 

Even earlier than Blume's var. minor is Bidens pilosa var. chi- 
nensis L. Mantiss. PI. 281. 1771, a name omitted from the foregoing 
list of synonyms. 3 Linnaeus' original description follows: "Habitat 
in India orientali. H.U. Planta simillima Bid. pilosae, si non 
eadem, sed radio diversa. Folia supra nuda, sicca ut fere scariosa. 
Flosculi marginales nivei (nee albi) tamen hermaphroditi fertiles; 
primo anno sati erant conformes flosculis disci, nee majores, altero 
anno erant radio explanato quinquefioro piano parvo. Semina radii 
aristis 4. s. 5, quae in B. pilosa vulgari radiis 2. s. 3." 

It is seen that the Linnean plants, in the first year of their sowing 
(they were annuals of course), had no ray flowers and thus were 
typical B. pilosa. In a subsequent year, five small rays appeared. 
It would seem that if Linnaeus' observations were flawless, and not 
founded upon confused forms, the reason for distinguishing our 
minor varietally (i.e., its constancy) would automatically disappear. 
If we consider, however, the color of the rays in the later plants, it 
is seen that some were glistening- or snowy-white while some were 

1 Cf. O. E. Schulz (Bot. Jahrb. 50, Suppl. 179. 1914), ". . . dagegen gehoren 
B. sundaicus . . . und var. minor . . . wahrscheinlich zu B. pilosus L. var. dubius 
(Cass.) 0. E. S." In herbarium determinations, I have not differentiated between 
forms having or lacking aristae on the ovaries of the ligulate florets. 

2 In my cultural observations the var. minor appeared to come very true to a 
given type. For example, in some two dozen plants (Sherff 2043) raised in 1915 
from achenes on specimens sent by Mr. St. Ahnne (Bot. Gard. Raoul, Papeete, 
Tahiti), the hundreds of flowering heads had uniformly tiny, distinctly yellowish, 
ligulate florets, as had been observed on the parent material. 

3 As also its equivalent, Glossogyne chinensis (L.) Less. Syn. Composit. 212. 
1832. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXXII 




BIDENS ANGUSTISSIMA H.B.K. (figs, h-m); var. LIN1FOLIA 
(Schz. Bip. ex Klatt) Sherff (figs, a-g) 



OF Tht 
mtWHNMTY flf 



THE GENUS BIDENS 429 

other shades. 1 My field and herbarium observations indicate a 
pronounced constancy in the ray color for any one collection of 
plants of var. minor. Therefore, it appears probable that some 
of the smaller-rayed forms of B. pilosa var. radiata composed at 
least a part of the later material examined by Linnaeus. His her- 
barium affords no help in solving the matter. 2 Surely, there is so 
much of uncertainty in the application of the Linnean concept that 
it appears unwise to adopt it as against the clear and certain con- 
cept associated with the varietal name minor. 3 

Bidens aurantiaca Colenso has its description ("Florets . . . 
small, bright dark orange: ray-few, . . . ") supplemented by the 
authentic Colenso specimen at Kew. This has the one flowering 
head now lacking rays, but the aspect of the various critical struc- 
tures is more properly that of the variety minor than of B. 
pilosa proper. 

Klatt's type of B. africana, as already pointed out (Bot. Gaz. 
85: 14. 1928), was a plant collected by Dr. C. Keller, on Reunion 
Island, summer of 1886. The herbarium containing the type was 
not cited nor have I succeeded in locating an authentic specimen. 
At Gray Herbarium are various tracings by Klatt, which form an 
important part of the Klatt Herbarium obtained by that institution 
some years ago. One of these is of B. africana. The plant represented 
is seen to be widely remote from B. Lantanoides Gray and B. hawai- 
ensis Gray, with which Klatt compared it in his original description. 
The tracing, construed with Klatt's description (" . . . Die eiformi- 
gen Strahlbliiten sind 2-3 mm. lang . . . "), shows that the plant 
was, beyond all reasonable doubt, merely a simple-leaved form of B. 
pilosa var. minor. 

Bidens pilosa var. /3. minor f. 1. umbrosa Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 90: 394. 1930. 

Herba gracilis. Folia valde membranacea, 3-5-partita foliolis 
ovatis vel rhomboideo-ovatis, paucidentatis. Capitula minute radi- 
ata, pansa ad anthesin tantum circ. 6-7 mm. lata et 5-6 mm. alta. 

1 1 assume that "nivei (nee albi)" is not a misprint and construe it in appar- 
ently the only permissible way: "snowy-white (also, not white)." 

2 There are four sheets pinned together; one, correctly labeled Bidens pilosa; 
a second, labeled "B. pilosa variety" and determined by me as B. pilosa; a third, 
from the Hortus Upsalensis, with merely the inscription "Radio albo," and 
belonging to B. pilosa var. minor; a fourth, with the inscription (on back of sheet, 
"Rumph. amb. 6, t. 15") and identified by me as B. pilosa. 

3 It may be noted that O. E. Schulz has likewise declined, in his writings upon 
Bidens, to adopt the name chinensis for this variety. 



430 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Flores ligulati circ. 4 vel 5, flavidi, circ. 4 mm. longi. Achaenia circ. 
18-24, linearia, nigra, biaristata, 6-10 exteriora clavata atro-rubida 
corpore tantum circ. 4-5 mm. longa aristis demum saepe caducis, 
interiora nigra magis attenuata corpore 9-14 mm. longa. 

Type specimen : Collected by Christian Julius Wilhelm Schiede, in 
shady places between Las Trojes and Hacienda de la Trinidad, State 
of Michoacan, Mexico, October (Berl.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in State of Michoa- 
can, Mexico. 

Specimens examined : Schiede (type and 2 cotype specimens, Berl.). 

Bidens pilosa var. 7. radiata Schz. Bip. in Barker-Webb 
& Berthelot, Hist. Canar. Ill, 2": 242. 1836-1850. 

PI. GUI, figs. a-h. 
Coreopsis leucanthema L. Amoen. Acad. 4: 291. 1759 (exclud. syn. 

Tournef.); Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 1228. 1759. 
Coreopsis coronata L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 2: 1281 (ex syn. Vaill. et Plum. 

sed non ex descript. vel patria). 
Coreopsis leucantha L. op. cit. 1282. 

Kerneria tetragona Moench, Meth. 595. 1794 (ex descript.). 
Bidens leucantha (L.) Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 1719. 1804. 
Kerneria leucantha (L.) Cass. Diet. Sci. Nat. 24: 398. 1822. 
Bidens abortiva Schum. & Thonn. Beskr. Guin. PI. 155 (381). 1827 

(ex descript.). 

Bidens adhaerescens Veil. Fl. Flum. 348, 8, pi. 88. 1827 (pro parte). 1 
Bidens striata Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. ser. 1. 3, pi. 237. 1828. 
Bidens oxyodonta DC. Prodr. 5: 600. 1836. 
Bidens pilosa L radiata Schz. Bip. in Krauss, Beitr. Fl. Cap. Natal. 

77. 1846 (ex synon. B. leucantha Willd., excl. plantam Kraussii 

quae5. biternata var. glabrata f. abyssinica est). 
Bidens pilosa var. leucantha (L.) Harv. Fl. Cap. 3: 133. 1865; cf. 

0. Hoffm. in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. IV, 5: 244. 

1890. 
Kerneria pilosa var. radiata (Schz. Bip.) Lowe, Man. Fl. Madeira 1: 

474. 1868. 
Bidens pilosa var. leucantha f. subsimplicifolia, f. ternata, f. pilosior, 

and f. subbiternata O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. 1: 322. 1891. 2 

1 For treatment of B. adhaerescens see under B. pilosa proper. This name was 
spelled B. adherescens on the plate cited (pi. 88). 

2 At least as to his synoptical arrangement of forms. The descriptions given 
by Kuntze are hasty and inadequate; they do not admit of identification. Nor 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXXIII 




BIDENS ANDICOLA H.B.K. (figs, a-d, h-p); var. COSMANTHA (Griseb.) Sherff (fig. e); 
var. DECOMPOSITA O. Ktze. (figs. /, g) 



of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 431 

Acocotli quauhuahuacensis Hernandez ex Mat. Med. Mex. 2: 154. 

1898 (pro parte; cf. var. bimucronatam) . 

Bidens pilosa var. humilis Walp. ex Reiche, Fl. Chile 4: 102. 1905 
(Bidens leucantha var. /3. Meyen & Walp. Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. 
Leop. Carol. 19, Suppl. 1: 271. 1843). l 
Bidens leucanthema (L.) Krause in Sturm, Fl. Deutsch. ed. 2. 13: 

159. 1905. 
Bidens pilosa sub var. radiata (Schz. Bip.) Pitard ex Pitard & Proust, 

lies Canar. Fl. de Archipel. 226. 1908. 
Bidens Wallichii var. albiflora Max. ex Matsum. Ind. PI. Jap. 2, pt. 2: 

631. 1912 (ex syn. B. leucantha Willd.). 
Bidens pilosa var. albiflora Max. in Somoku Dzusetsu, ed. Makino 

(Iconogr. PI. Nippon) 15: pi. 58. 1912. 
a. Caules vel rami inferiores plerumque decumbentes. 

b. Caules magni, demum 1.5-3 m. longi f. 3. decumbens. 

b. Caules parvi, plerumque 1-3 dm. longi f . 2. Dondiaefolia. 

a. Planta erecta. 

b. Folia plerumque 3-5-partita var. radiata sensu stricto. 

6. Folia indivisa f. 1. indivisa. 

Caulis parum humilior, foliorum foliolis forsan saepius ovatis. 
Capitula radiata, pansa ad anthesin 1.5-3 cm. lata et 7-9 mm. 
alta. Flores ligulati 5 vel 6, ligula elliptico-obovati, apice subtrun- 
cati, albi vel luteoli, saepe nervis purpurascentibus percursi vel raro 
omnino rosacei vel purpurascentes, 0.7-1.5 cm. longi. Achaenia ple- 
rumque breviora, 5-9 (rarissime -12) mm. longa. Aliter a specie 
videtur non differe. 

Type specimen: Collected somewhere in America, the exact 
locality not stated. See discussion below. 

Distribution: Abundant in Florida; occurring infrequently in 
Louisiana, Arizona, and California; distributed widely through 
Mexico, Central America, and South America to Chile and southern- 
most Brazil; in Cuba, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and on many 
other islands of the West Indies; in Africa scattered from Egypt, 

can they always be definitely applied on having recourse to Kuntze's herbarium 
specimens (e.g., in Herb. N. Y.), as he labeled his plants so carelessly that widely 
different forms are found to have been given the same name (cf. O. E. Schulz, 
Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 139. 1911: "Sine dubio pleraque specimina ab O. Kuntze 
I.e. commemorata ad species propinquas pertinent"). 

1 Original description inadequate: "/3, humilis, spithamaea, foliis plerisque 
simplicibus, paucis uniiugis, capitulis solitariis. Brasilia: Rio de laneiro." Refer- 
ence to var. radiata is made here solely because the original description was set by 
its authors (Meyen and Walpers) under "Bidens leucantha Willd." 



432 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Tunis, etc., southward through British East Africa, Dar-fur of the 
Sudan, Rhodesia, etc., to the Cape of Good Hope; in Asia from Corea 
southward through China to Siam and westward into British East 
India; also in the Liu-kiu Islands, the Canary Islands, and many 
other insular groups of tropical regions. l Rarely adventive on ballast, 
etc., outside its natural range (e.g., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). 

Specimens examined: R. C. Alexander, Diablo, Jamaica, 1849 
(Kew) and 1850 (Gray; Kew); anon. (Linn., sub nom. Leucanthema 
radio albo) ; anon., Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Septem- 
ber, 1868 (Phila.); A. A. Baldwin 47, Merritt's Isl., Florida, De- 
cember 17, 1892 (Penn.) ; Gust. Bernoulli 1205, Chojoja near Maza- 
tenango, Guatemala, December, 1870 (Berl.; Del.; Kew; N.Y.); 
Bernoulli & Cario 1492, eodem loco et tempore (Berl.; Kew); iidem 
1552, Quezaltenango, Guatemala, July, 1876 (Kew); Bert ero, Isl. Santo 
Domingo (Berl.; Del.; type material of Bidens oxyodonta DC.); 
idem 844, Quillota, Chile (Del}; Bitting 1297, Ovedo, Florida, March 
13, 1892 (Field) ; J. C. Blumer 2144, alt. 1,680 meters, Wilgus Ranch, 
Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, September 4, 1907 (Field); B. G. C. 
Bolland 6, Meadi, Cairo, Egypt, January 10, 1913 (Kew); Charles 
Bolle, Teneriffe, Canary Isls., November 17, 1851 (Berl.; var. minori 
adpropinquans) ; Joseph Bornmuller 2437, Santa Cruz, Palma, 
Canary Isls., April 24, 1901 (Del; Mo.; Phila.); MateoBotteri, Mexico, 
in 1856 (Del., 2 sheets); E. Bourgeau 215 pro parte, somewhat moist 
places, Mesa de Mota, Teneriffe, Canary Isls., January 23, 1845 
(Kew; var. minori adpropinquans); idem 847 pro parte, moist fields, 
St. Sebastian, Gomera, Canary Isls., April 11, 1849 (Del.); idem 
2253, Valley of Cordoba, Vera Cruz, Mexico, in 1866 (Kew); idem 
2561, abundant at Orizaba, Mexico, July 8, 1866 (Del., 2 sheets; 
Kew); idem 2681, region of Orizaba, Mexico, July 17, 1866 (Berl.; 
Cop.; Gray; Kew; U.S.);L. J. K. Brace 1946, Cherokee (Cheroki) 
Sound, Great Abaco Isl., Bahamas, December 29, 1904 (Field); 
idem 5091, Andros Isl., Bahamas, August 18-September 10, 1906 
(Field); A. C. Brade 2167, Tablazo, Costa Rica, December 21, 1908 
(Berl.) ; N. L. & E. G. Britton & J. A. Shafer 158, Tampa, Florida, 
March 7-8, 1903 (Cam.) ; N. L. Britton & C. F. Millspaugh 2596, 
waste places, Eight Mile Rock, Great Bahama Isl., Bahamas, 
February 5-13, 1905 (Field); W. E. Broadway 2690, San Juan, 

1 Biologically the var. radiata is best typified by such material as is found in 
Florida and the West Indies, while the var. minor is best typified by specimens of 
the Orient. In the Canary Islands and a few other places these two varieties tend 
to approach each other or to intergrade. In Mexico and the West Indies var. 
radiata tends at times to approach var. bimucronafa. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 433 

Trinidad, West Indies, May 20, 1908 (Field) ; Stewardson Brown 14, 
Mandeville, Jamaica, February 15-26, 1910 (Phila.); idem & N.L. 
Britton 125, waste land, Paget, Bermuda, August 31-September 20, 
1905 (Field; Kew); iidem 179, Hamilton, Bermuda, August 31- 
September 20, 1905 (Field; Phila.); Otto Buchtien 117, alt. 2,450 
meters, Cotafia, on the Ilimani River, Bolivia, November, 1911 
(Del., 2 sheets; Gray; Kew) ; Emile Burdet 300, Egypt, November 22, 
1889 (Del.); A. B. Burgess 575, New Smyrna, Florida, March 29-31, 
1904 (Berl.); idem 639, Cape Canaveral, Florida, April 2-5, 1904 
(Berl.) ; Dr. & Mrs. P. P. Calvert, Cartago, Costa Rica, November 30, 
1909 (Penn.); J. R. Churchill, Port Antonio, Jamaica, March 7-26, 
1897 (Field; Gray); W. N. Clute 33, Bog Walk, Jamaica, February 4, 
1900 (Phila.); F. S. Collins 21, roadside, Walsingham, Bermuda, 
April 28, 1912 (Gray); idem 44, roadside near Flatts, Bermuda, 
May 1, 1912 (Gray); idem 301, very common, roadside, Flatts, 
Bermuda, July 27, 1913 (Berl.; Kew); idem 302, roadside, Paget, 
Bermuda, August 21, 1913 (Berl. ; Kew) ; Rob. Combs 432, Cieneguita, 
Distr. Cienfuegos, Prov. Santa Clara, Cuba, August 8 (fide lectoris 
ipsius inscript.), 1895 (Berl.; Gray; Kew; Mo.); Alice C. Cook 694 
pro parte, Tafira, Gran Canaria, Canary Isls., June, 1897 (Cam.; 
Phila.); T. Cooper 2520, Cape of Good Hope, Natal, 1862 (Kew; 
var. minori adpropinquans) ; J. P. Couthouy, Andes, Quito, Ecuador. 
1855 (Phila.); A. H. Curtiss 658, waste places near Havana, Cuba, 
February 25, 1905 (Brit.; Cop.; Del.; Field; Kew; Mo.; Mun.); 
idem 1498, Mosquito Lagoon, Florida, June (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; 
Gray; Kew; Kiel; Mun.; Penn.; U.V.); idem 5387, cultivated and 
waste grounds, Palm Beach, Florida, May 13, 1895 (Boiss.; Del.; 
Kew; U.V.); W. J. Dowson 189, Nairobi, British East Africa, Sep- 
tember 27, 1915 (Kew); Eggers 3379, Je>e"mie, Haiti, January 18, 
1888 (Cop.) ; idem 3982, Fortune Isl., Bahamas, February 11, 1888 
(Cop.); C. Ehrenberg 440 pro parte, Mineral del Monte, Hidalgo, 
Mexico, October (Berl.) ; idem 471, Real del Monte (Berl.) ; A. Fendler 
695 pro parte, near Tovar, Venezuela, 1854-1855 (Del. ; e Bidente 
domingensi 0. E. Schz. vix differt) ; J. R. Ferrie 95, Naze, Isl. Amainie- 
Oshema, Riu-Kiu (Loo-choo, Liu-kiu, etc.) Isls., March-April, 1897 
(Del.); Nettie F.Flynn 79, Bermuda, March 16, 1910 (Mo.); A.Fred- 
holm 6277, Hillsborough Co., Florida, February 28, 1904 (Gray); 
H. Galeotti 2278, moist fields, Cordillera, State of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 
October, 1840 (Del.); G. F. Gaumer, Izamal, Yucatan, Mexico, in 
1888 (Kew) ; idem 129, Cozumel Isl., Quintana Roo, Mexico, June 11, 
1885 (Kew; Phila.); idem 451 p.p., Izamal, Yucatan, Mexico, 1895 



434 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

(Gray; Kew; Mo.); idem 632, Yucatan (Berl.; Boiss.; Mo.); idem 
1469, Chichankanab, Yucatan, Mexico (Berl.); Gay, Coquimbo, 
Chile, 1839 (Del.); Germain, in fields, Quillota, Chile, 1855-1856 
(Del., 2 sheets); J. M. Greenman 172, near Cordoba, Vera Cruz, 
January 25, 1906 (Field); Josiah Gregg, Parras, Coahuila, Mexico, 
May 16, 1847 (Gray); J. W. Harshberger, Big Hammock, Miami, 
Florida, August 12, 1911 (Penn.); idem, bay beach, Sanibel Isl., 
Lake Okeechobee, Florida, June 10, 1912 (Penn.); idem 89, Navy 
Isl., Port Antonio, Jamaica, July 10, 1901 (Phila.); A. A. Heller 
6428, in sand near the sea at Santurce, Puerto Rico, January 19, 
1903 (Field; Del.; Mo.); idem et uxor 6, Puerto Rico, 1899 (Brit.; 
Kew); Aug. Henry 1111, Ichang, Prov. Hu-peh, China, communic. 
September, 1886 (Gray; Kew; var. minori adpropinquans) ; Heyde 
& Lux 3404, alt. 1,800 meters, San Miguel Uspantan, Dept. 
Quiche", Guatemala, May, 1892 (Field); iidem 3788, Guatemala, 
1892 (Field); A. S. Hitchcock 135, Fort Myers, Florida, July-August, 
1900 (Gray); E. W. D. Holway 29, San Rafael, Dept. Guatemala, 
Guatemala, January 7, 1915 (Gray; forma valde pilosa); ex Hort. 
Soc. Hort. Lond., September 6, 1829 (Kew; sub nom. Bidente striata 
Sw.; foliis vere var. radiatae non var. bimucronatae ; radiis immaturis 
sed certe distinguentibus; facie paulum ei f. decumbentis simili); 
Jameson, Ecuador (Mus. V.); 0. E. Jennings 497, near Caleto 
Grande, Isle of Pines, West Indies, May 22, 1910 (Cam.); M. E. 
Jones, alt. 1,650 meters, Huachuca Mts., Arizona, September 3, 
1903 (N.Y.); ex herb. 0. Kuntzei, Caquaj, Puerto Rico, March 8, 
1874 (N.Y., sub nom. Bidente pilosa L. a. leucanthasubsimplicifolia); 
F. C. Lehmann 3596, cultivated ground at alt. 1,860 meters, Chapa, 
Cauca, Colombia, February 29, 1884 (Berl.; Boiss.; var. minori 
adpropinquans); idem 5664, alt. 1,000-2,000 meters, highlands of 
Popayan, Colombia (Kew); E. C. Leonard 3466, Port au Prince, 
Haiti, April 1-2, 1920 (Del.) ; A.Letourneux 79, Hagueret-en-Naouatie 
and at the canal, near Alexandria, Lower Egypt, April 15, 1877 
(Berl., 3 sheets; Boiss.; Mus. V.); C. 0. Levine, Honam Isl., Kwang- 
tung Prov., China, October 13-November 9, 1916 (Calif.; nom. 
sinense Kam p'un ngan chan) ; F. M. Liebmann 630, Mexico, February 
1841 (Cop.); idem 631, Mirador, Vera Cruz, Mexico, October- 
November, 1841 (Cop.) ; idem 650, Jicaltepec, Vera Cruz, April, 1841 
(Cop.); J. J. Linden 1201, Mirador, Vera Cruz, February, 1839 
(Kew); Lloyd 1042, Jamaica, January, 1892 (Mo.); H. Lynes 601, 
alt. 1,080 meters, Kubue, Darfur, Sudan, August, 1921 (Kew); 
J. F. Macbride 2899 and 2901, alt. about 2,400 meters, Matucana, 



Field Museum of Natural History Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXXIV 




b ad 

BIDENS ANDICOLA var. COSMANTHA (Griseb.) Sherff 



Of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 435 

Peru, March 14-18, 1923 (Field; forma radiis plerumque 5-8 mm. 
longis et saepius subflavidis); E. E. Maire, alt. 2,500 meters, cul- 
tivated places, plain of Tong-tchouan, China, September, 1912 
(Del., 2 sheets); Alexander Mathews 1750, Peru, 1835 (Kew); C. F. 
Millspaugh 144, Catano, Puerto Rico, January 6-11, 1899 (Field); 
idem 1446 and 1464, Cape Corrientes, Cuba, February 17, 1899 
(Field) ; idem 1854, Navy Island, Jamaica, November, 1900 (Field) ; 
idem 2222, Lake Cunningham, Isl. New Providence, Bahamas, 
April 8, 1904 (Field); idem 2363, South Bimini Isl., Bahamas, April 
15, 1904 (Field); idem 2419, South Cat Cay, Bahamas, April 16, 
1904 (Field) ; idem & C. M. Millspaugh 9087, rocky plain, Jackson- 
ville, Isl. East Caicos, Bahamas, February 26-27, 1911 (Field); 
Frederick Muller 1194, Orizaba region, Vera Cruz, 1853 (Mus. V.); 
Max Muller, Havana, Cuba (Berl.); G. V. Nash 653, Eustis, Florida, 
May 1-15, 1894 (Berl.; Boiss.; Del.; Kew; U.V.); idem 1360, eodem 
loco, July 16-31, 1894 (Phila.); E. W. Nelson 1300, alt. 1,500-1,590 
meters, Valley of Oaxaca, State of Oaxaca, Mexico, September 20, 
1894 (U.S.); J. I. & A. R. Northrop 36, Nassau, New Providence, 
Bahamas, January, 1890 (Boiss. ; Kew) ; Edward Palmer 420, Saltillo, 
Coahuila, Mexico, September, 1898 (Gray); B. H. Patterson, Day- 
tona, Florida, November 25, 1917 (Cam.); F. W. Pennell 13603, 
alt. 3,300-3,400 meters, bushy slope of canyon, San Sebastian, Dept. 
Cuzco, Peru, April 25, 1925 (Field); A. Penther 1223, South Africa, 
October 24, 1894 (Mun.); E. Pincherle, in fields, near Tunis, Tunis, 
January 21, 1895 (Field); H. Pittier 6990, alt. 1,500 meters, San 
Rafael de Cartago, Costa Rica, August 28, 1892 (Gray); Eduard 
Poeppig, Cochero, Dept. Huanuco, Peru, in 1830 (Mus. V.); C. L. 
Pollard, G. N. Collins, & E. L. Morris 59, Sugar Loaf Key, Florida, 
March 12-14, 1898 (Del.; Field); C. G. Pringle 193, valley, Jimulco, 
Coahuila, Mexico (Boiss.; Del.; Field; Kew; Mus. V.; U.V.; forma 
var. minori et specie ipsi adpropinquans) ; Christen Raunkiaer 1083, 
San Juan, Puerto Rico, April 3, 1906 (Cop.); E. M. Reineck, ditch, 
City of Telotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, November, 1903 
(Del.); Rivet 261, Quito, Ecuador, October, 1902 (Par.); idem 614, 
Ecuador, June, 1904 (Par., var. bimucronatae adpropinquans) ; Rojas 
273, alt. 650 meters, San Carlos, Dept. Retalhuleu, Guatemala, 
March 22, 1921 (Mo.); J. N. Rose 2636, near Monte Escobedo, 
Zacatecas, Mexico, August 26, 1897 (U.S.); idem, Fitch, & Russell 
4237, San Pedro de Macoris, Santo Domingo, March, 1913 (U.S.); 
J. N. Rose & J. Painter 6638, Tequixquiac, Hidalgo, Mexico, Aug- 
ust 30, 1903 (U.S.) ; iidem & J. S. Rose 9917, near Tehuacan, Puebla, 



436 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

August 30-September 8, 1905 (U.S.) ; J. T. Rothrock, Manatee Co., 
Florida, February 25, 1887 (Penn.); idem 297, Fortune Isl., Bahamas, 
November 27, 1890 (Phila.); Ryan, Montserrat, West Indies (Cop.); 
R. de la Sagra 22, Cuba, 1836 (Del.) ; Salle, Orizaba region, Vera Cruz, 
Mexico (Del.) ; idem 136, 137, and 151, Orizaba, Vera Cruz, 1854-1855 
(Del.); A. Sauliere 26, Kodai-kanal Station, Pulney Hills, Madura 
District, Presidency of Madras, India, 1914 (Del.); idem 156, alt. 
1,800 meters, Shembaganur, Madura District, Presidency of Madras, 
September 6, 1913 (Kew); C. J. W. Schiede 344, in thickets near 
Jalapa (Xalapa), Vera Cruz, Mexico, about 1829 (Berl.); Schindler 
430, alt. 250 meters, Feng-shih in the valley of the Han River, Distr. 
of Yung- ting, southwest Fukien (Fu-kien), China, January, 1909 
(Del.; Mus. V.); R. H. Schomburgk 121, Isl. Santo Domingo (Kew); 
Schott 118, Havana, Cuba, November 3, 1864 (Brit.); idem 533, 
Me>ida, Yucatan, Mexico, July 26, 1865 (Brit.); JosepK Schrenk, 
on ballast, Jersey City, New Jersey, October, 1879 (N.Y.);Eduard 
& Caecilie Seler 175, near Tancanhuitz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico, 
February, 1888 (Berl.); J. A. Shafer, Pinar del Rio, Prov. Pinar del 
Rio, Cuba, April 25, 1903 (Cam.); idem 30, Madruga, Prov. Havana, 
Cuba, April 1, 1903 (Cam.) ; P. Sintenis 1148, along roads, Baya- 
mon, Puerto Rico, March 23, 1885 (Boiss.; Kew; Mun.); idem 5173, 
on grassy slopes at Guayabala, Puerto Rico, September 26, 1886 
(Mus. V.; Phila.); idem 6779, Manati, Puerto Rico, April, 1887 
(Cam.); Edith Skene 139, very common, Kavirondo, British East 
Africa, 1907-1908 (Del.) ; C. L. Smith 1501 and 1521, San Francisco 
(near Vera Cruz), Vera Cruz, Mexico, May, 1894 (Gray) ; H. H. Smith, 
Santa Marta, Colombia, 1898-1901 (Phila.); idem 2668, eodem loco 
et tempore (Del.; Mo.); U. C. Smith, Georgiana, Florida, January 
24, 1891 (Phila.) ; R. Spruce 4610, near Tarapoto, Dept. San Martin, 
Peru, 1855-1856 (Mus. V.); R. J. Stordy 23, alt. 4,200 meters, 
Hacienda Altosaica, Dept. Junin, Peru (Kew); E. Taquet 2991, in 
hedges, Isl. Quelpaert, Corea, November, 1909 (Del.); Norman 
Taylor 133, Sevilla Estate, Guama River Basin, near Santiago, 
Cuba, August 31, 1906 (Phila.); idem 500, alt., 1,020 meters, Jiqua- 
rito Mt., Sierra Maestra, Sevilla Estate, near Santiago, Cuba, Sep- 
tember 18, 1906 (N.Y.); Dr. & Mrs. W. R. Taylor, Fort Cristobal, 
Puerto Rico, October, 1916 (Penn.); A. J. Teague 149, Odzani 
River Valley, Distr. Manica, Div. Umtali, Southern Rhodesia, 
1914 (Kew) ; S. M. Tracy 6456, Sneed's Isl., Florida, September 9, 
1899 (Gray); idem 6921, Longboat Key, Florida, April 27, 1900 
(Del.; Mus. V.); Tracy & Lloyd 495, Port Eads, Louisiana, August 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI. Plate CXXV 




BIDENS MICROPHYLLA SheriT 



THE GENUS BIDENS 437 

21, 1900 (Brit.; Del.; Gray; Mus. V.); H. von Tuerckheim 762, alt. 
1,290 meters, Coban, Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, May, 1886 
(Berl.; Gray); E. Vie 6557, pampas at Tarapoto, Dept. San Martin, 
Peru, November, 1902 (Berl.; Del., 2 sheets); H. A. Van Hermann 
379, Santiago de las Vegas, Prov. Havana, Cuba, where "sometimes 
used as a forage," Dec. 19, 1904 (Field); A.E. Wight 3, Crantstown 
Village, Nassau, New Providence, Bahamas (Berl.; Field); Wilson 
498, vicinity of Santiago de las Vegas, Prov. Havana, Cuba, August, 
1904 (Field) ; N. P. Woodward, wool waste, North Worcester, Mas- 
sachusetts, October 15, 1917 (Gray) ; Young 154, alt. 900-1,350 meters, 
Vom, Bauchi Plateau, northern Nigeria, 1922 (Kew); Charles Wright 
317 pro parte, eastern Cuba. 1856-1857 (Del.; Gray; Kew; Mo.). 

Linnaeus, in giving the habitat of his Coreopsis leucanthema, 
said, "Hab. in Amer. Miller." In the Coreopsis cover in the Linnean 
Herbarium is still to be found Linnaeus' specimen. It is somewhat 
immature but has one head with whitish rays. These are less well 
developed than those usually found, but much more conspicuous 
than those on the radiate or subradiate var. minor. The sheet is 
labeled "Leucanthema radio albo." The spelling "leucanthema" 
is seen to agree with that found originally in the Amoenitates Acade- 
micae and not that later published (leucantha) in the second edition 
of the Species Plantarum. Linnaeus cited two synonyms, the first 
(Bidens americana trifolia, leucanthemi flore. Tournefort. inst. 
462) being apparently that from which he derived the name leucan- 
thema. In his Systema Naturae ed. 10. 2: 1228, published in 1759, 
he again used the name leucanthema. Although the name leucantha 
was adopted later by Willdenow (loc. cit.) and has been accepted 
widely since then, the original spelling leucanthema was restored by 
Krause (loc. cit.). 

When we trace the above Linnean citation of Tournefort's 
Institutiones, we find that Tournefort gave merely two lines for 
the plant later cited by Linnaeus: "Bidens trifolia, Americana, 
Leucanthemi flore. Chrysanthemum Americanum, Ciceris folio 
glabro, Bellidis majoris flore Prodr. Par. Bat." Thus it is seen that 
Linnaeus' first cited synonym goes back directly to the plant listed 
in Hermann's Paradisi Batavi Prodromus. However, this cited plant 
is the same as that listed in the somewhat later (posthumous) 
Paradisus Batavus (edited by William Sherard), which was cited by 
Linnaeus for his Coreopsis alba. 1 

1 Linnaeus' description of C. alba, the second citation, and the habitat all refer 
to Herm. Par. Bat. 124, pi. 1%^, His first citation, however, is to an entirely 
different plant (Coreopsis scandens, foliis serratis ternato-pinnatis, receptaculo 



438 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

On studying the original Coreopsis leucanthema description and 
habitat data ("Caulis trium vel quatuor pedum, .... Foliolis 
quinque, rarius tribus, ovatis .... Habitat in America. Miller 
..." Amoen. Acad. 4: 291. 1759), we see that Linnaeus did not 
really have in mind the plant of Hermann's, but rather a plant re- 
ceived from Philip Miller and perhaps the same specimen that is 
left to-day in the Linnean Herbarium. 1 Later, Linnaeus very clearly 
showed his belief that the two plants were different specifically, 
naming the Hermann plant Coreopsis alba. DeCandolle (loc. cit.) 
accepted this treatment, transferring Coreopsis alba to Bidens to 
accord with the position of Bidens leucantha (L.) Willd. A few 
years ago I dealt with these last two names (Bot. Gaz. 64: 32. 1917), 
stating that it "seems much the safer course to retain the two 
names separately for the present rather than merge them as done by 
O. E. Schulz." Since that time I have examined several hundreds of 
additional specimens and recently have concluded that B. leucantha 
and B. alba are related to each other as variety and forma (becoming 
respectively, as will be seen in the following text, var. radiata and 
var. radiata f. Dondiaefolia) . 2 

Willdenow compared his B. leucantha with B. biternata (Lour.) 
Merr. & Sherff, B. pilosa L., and B. pilosa var. minor (Bl.) Sherff for 
several years under cultivation and decided it to be distinct: "Jam 
per plures annos cum binis sequentibus 3 culta faciem servavit" 
(Sp. PI. 3: 1719. 1804). Since Willdenow's time its status has been 
the subject of. much difference of opinion. Asa Gray, who gave 
considerable attention to this matter, wrote (Proc. Amer. Acad. 

nudo. Brown, jam. 321) and must be excluded, as it conflicts with the Linnean 
description (cf. DC. Prodr. 5: 605. 1836. "Syn. Brownei a Linnaeo citatum 
videtur alienum ex recept. nudo dicto"). The Browne plant, if a Bidens, was one 
of the tall, yellow-flowered climbers found in Jamaica, not the lower, white- 
flowered species that Linnaeus had in mind. 

1 The fact that the sheet bears, as already stated, the original spelling "leucan- 
tiiema" rather than the later spelling "leucantha" may be taken as evidence that 
the plant is the original Miller specimen. 

2 In a former article (Bot. Gaz. 64: 32. 1917), I stated the reasons for believing 
that Bidens Dondiaefolia Less, was synonymous with Coreopsis alba L. Subse- 
quently I have found Lessing's type (Hlle.). It matches exactly (cf. Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 81: 44. 1926) the Milller specimen (No. 148; N.Y.) formerly cited by me, 
thus confirming the earlier treatment. For detailed presentation, see under var. 7. 
radiata f. 2. Dondiaefolia. 

3 Viz., B. biternata (B. chinensis) and B. pilosa. But Willdenow's herbarium 
material of B. biternata (Willd. No. 15023) consists of 4 sheets, nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4. 
Nos. 1-3 are B. pilosa L. var. minor and only No. 4 bears true B. biternata (cf. 
O. E. Schulz, in Urb. Symb. Antill. 7: 135. 1911; cf. G. Walpers Nov. Act. Nat. 
Cur. 19, Suppl. 1: 271. 1843 who erroneously interpreted Willdenow's herb. No. 
15023 as being identical with his i.e., Willdenow's herb. No. 15022, B. pilosa 
var. radiata, i.e., B. leucantha Willd.). 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXXVI 




BIDENS TRIPLINERVIA H.B.K. (figs, j, k); var. MACRANTHA (Wedd.) Sherff 

(figs, a-t, l-v) 



THE GENUS BIDENS 439 

19: 16. 1884): "B. leucantha Willd. This, the Coreopsis leucanthema 
L. Amoen. Acad., C. leucantha L. Sp. ed. 2,-1282 (Desc. Fl. Ant. 
t. 583), and the C. coronata L. as to Plumier's plant, I take to be 
quite distinct from the radiate form of B. pilosa." But 0. E. Schulz, 
whose writings display a profound and comprehensive knowledge of 
a number of the species of Bidens, treats B. alba, by which he means 
B. leucantha Willd., as merely a variety of B. pilosa ("Einige Autoren 
wollen auch jetzt noch die Abart als selbstandige Art betrachten. 
Dieser Ansicht kann ich aber nicht beipflichten, weil ich oft direkte 
Ubergangsformen gesehen habe." Bot. Jahrb. 50, Suppl. 176. 1914). 
In 1913, Dr. N. L. Britton, who had had considerable field 
experience with these forms, told me that B. leucantha and B. pilosa 
seemed to him unquestionably distinct species, not only in leaf and 
ray but in the appression of the involucral bracts at anthesis. In 
1916, however, he stated to me that as a result of further field 
observations he had decided to equate the two in one species. Not- 
withstanding the opinion held by Schulz, Britton, and many others, 
I have until recently maintained the two as separate species. A 
study of the large assemblage of specimens in Berlin has revealed, 
however, several "direkte Ubergangsformen" that efface quite 
effectually the specific limits and compel the adoption of a varietal 
rank for the radiate form. Schultz Bipontinus' name B. pilosa var. 
radiata is apparently the earliest pertaining to varietal rank. 

B. striata Sweet (loc. cit.; etiam Curtis' Bot. Mag. 59: pi. 3155. 
1832) is a form with large, particularly roseate rays. 1 

The pre-Linnean Bidens trifolia Feuill. (not listed above) is cited 
by some authors (e.g., Gay, Hist. Chil. 4: 293. 1849; Reiche, Fl. 
Chil. 4: 103. 1905) as a synonym for B. pilosa var alausensis (H.B.K.) 
Sherff. The leaves in Feuilles' illustration (Journ. Observ. 3: 10, 
pi. 4. 1725), however, match better those of B. pilosa var. radiata.- 

Under the name B. leucantha the Materia Medica Mexicana (2: 
153-172. 1898) gives a comprehensive treatment from the standpoints 
of history, medicine, botany, etc. The treatment there doubtless 
applies to the vars. radiata and bimucronata, each in part. 

Bidens pilosa var. y. radiata f. 1. indivisa Sherff, 

Bot. Gaz. 88: 297. 1929. 
A varietate ipsa foliis indivisis ovato-lanceolatisque differt. 

1 A cultivated specimen given by Lindley in 1830 and formerly in Kunth's 
herbarium is at Berlin (Berl.). It displays an approach to var. bimucronata 
(Turcz.) O. E. Schulz. 

2 Feuilles stated that he found his plant at 37 S. Lat., which is farther south 
in Chile than known for other specimens of var. radiata studied as yet by me. 



440 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Type specimen: Collected by J. S. DeLa Cruz, No. 1792, growing 
3 feet high, Upper Rupununi River, near Dadanawa, Lat. 2 45' N., 
British Guiana, July 24-29, 1922 (Field). 

Distribution: British Guiana, West Indies, etc. 

Specimens examined: Alexander, Jamaica (Gray); De La Cruz 
1792 (type, Field); idem 2284, growing 2 ft. high, Upper Mazaruni 
River, Long, about 60 10' W., British Guiana, September 22-Octo- 
ber 6, 1922 (Field). 

In his Flora of The British West Indian Islands (p. 373. 1861), 
Grisebach stated that "a remarkable form, with all the leaves simple, 
hispidulous achenia, and whitish-pubescent involucres, was collected 
by Dr. Alexander, but transitions into the common B. leucanthus 
[i.e., B. pilosa var. radiata Schz. Bip.] occur among Mr. March's 
specimens." A former study of Alexander's materials left me 
unconvinced as to the value of their simple-leaved character for 
drawing taxonomic distinctions. The recently collected specimens 
by De La Cruz were obtained at different localities and about two 
months apart, yet both reveal in all respects a striking similarity. 
The leaves all are simple, thin, glabrous, the blades ovate-lanceolate, 
serrate, acute or subacuminate at apex, the larger ones about 3.5-4 
cm. long and 1.5-2 cm. wide, the petioles slender and 1-2 cm. long. 
Compared with chance, more or less simple-leaved plants of B. 
pilosa proper that are sometimes found (B. pilosa discodea Schz. Bip. 
em. 1. subsimplicifolia 0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. 1: 322. 1891; "folia omnia 
vel plurima integra (cfr. Gris. Fl. Westindien)" Ktze. loc. cit.), 
also of B. pilosa var. radiata proper (B. pilosa var. leucantha f. sub- 
simplicifolia 0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. 1: 322. 1891), these plants appear to 
represent a more pronounced and less ephemeral form. 

Bidens pilosa var. 7. radiata f. 2. Dondiaefolia (Less.) Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 97: 607. 1936. 

Coreopsis alba L. Sp. PI. ed. 1. 2: 908. 1753; ed. 2. 2: 1282. 1763 

(exclud. syn. Brown). 

Bidens Dondiaefolia Less. Linnaea 5: 155. 1830. 
Bidens alba (L.) DC. Prodr. 5: 605. 1836. 

Bidens pilosa var. alba (L.) 0. E. Schz., Urb. Symb. Antill. 7: 136. 1911. 
Humilis, pier unique glabrata; caulibus vel ramis inferioribus 
demissis ad nodos saepe radicantibus, basim versus ramulis saepe 
sterilibus foliosisqueinstructis; foliis parvis (2.5 cm. longis), saepius 
3-partitis foliolis saepius rhomboideo-ovatis. Capitula longe et 
saepius erecte pedunculata, ligulis siccis flavido-albis. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany. Vol. XVI, Plate CXXVII 




BIDENS TRIPLINERVIA var. HJRTELLA (H.B.K.) Sherff 



OF 



OF 



THE GENUS BIDENS 441 

Type specimen: Collected by Christian J. W. Schiede and Ferdi- 
nand Deppe, near Vera Cruz, State of Vera Cruz, Mexico, about 1828 
(Hll.). 

Distribution: Central part of State of Vera Cruz (especially at and 
near the coast), Mexico. 

Specimens examined: J. M. Greenman 6, near the wharf, City 
of Vera Cruz, January 22, 1906 (Field); idem 23, La Laguna, near 
City of Vera Cruz, eodem temp. (Field) ;idem 97, along the shore, north 
of City of Vera Cruz, January 24, 1906 (Field) ; Frederick Muller 148, 
Vera Cruz, August, 1853 (N.Y.); idem 4067, Orizaba (N.Y.); C. R. 
Orcutt 2666, Vera Cruz, February 16, 1910 (Field; Kew; U.S.); idem 
2991, Sanborn, Vera Cruz, April 18, 1910 (Field) ; Schiede & Deppe, 
near City of Vera Cruz, about 1828 (type, Hll.) ; Heinrich Wawra 206, 
Soledad and vicinity (Mus. V.). 

Bidens pilosa var. 7. radiata f. 3. decumbens (Greenm.) 
Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 97: 607. 1936. 

Bidens decumbens Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 34: 576. 1899. 

Caules robustiores, decumbentes, purpurascentes, 1.5-3 m. longi; 
internodiis glabris. Foliorum segmenta lateralia obovata terminale 
saepe rhomboideo-ovatum. Ligulae 2 cm. longa. 

Type specimen: Collected by Cyrus Guernsey Pringle, No. 6820, 
sand dunes, Tampico, State of Tamaulipas, Mexico, April 29, 1898 
(Gray). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in southeasternmost 
Tamaulipas, Mexico. 

Specimens examined: Pringle 6820 (type, Gray: cotypes, Berl.; 
Boiss.; Brit.; Cam.; Del.; Field; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; Par.; Phila.; 
Mus. V.;U.V., etc.). 

Referred in the past by me to var. radiata proper, but probably 
best treated as a distinct forma because of its unique growth habit. 

Bidens pilosa var. 8. bimucronata (Turcz.) 0. E. Schulz in 

Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 138. 1911. PI. CIV, figs. a-4. 
Bidens caracasana DC. Prodr. 5: 600. 1836. 
Bidens bimucronata Turcz. Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 24: 184. 1851; Walp. 

Ann. Bot. Syst. 5: 224. 1858. 
Acocotli quauhuahuacensis Hernandez ex Mat. Med. Mex. 2: 154. 1898 

(pro parte; cf. var. radiatam). 

Caules et folia plerumque plus minusve glaucoideo- vel pallido- 
viridia. Capitula plerumque radiata radiis candidis vel subrosaceis, 



442 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

pansa ad anthesin 1-2.3 cm. lata. Achaenia saepius 6-10 mm. longa, 
gracilia, circ. 0.75 mm. lata, pilis erecto-patentibus disperse hir- 
suta, aristis omnino deficientibus exaristata vel aristis 1-2 (rariter 
-4) plerumque tantum 0.5-1 mm. longis munita. 

Type specimen: Collected by Benedict Jaeger, No. 146, on the 
Island of Santo Domingo (Petrop.). 

Distribution: In Mexico from states of San Luis Potosi, Coahuila, 
Chihuahua, and Sinaloa southeastward to states of Chiapas and 
Yucatan, also, but rarely, on certain of the West Indies (Jamaica, 
Santo Domingo, Trinidad) and in northern Venezuela; found in 1879 
(Martindale, Parker) on ballast at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Specimens examined: Alwin Aschenborn, Mexico, 1872 (Berl.); 
idem 72, Mexico (Berl.); J. L. Berlandier 756, Chapultepec, State of 
Mexico, 1827 (Brit.; Del.; Par., 2 sheets); idem 1138 pro parte, 
Toluca, State of Mexico, October, 1827 (Kiel; Mus. V., 2 sheets; 
Webb; type material of Bidens Caucalidea DC. and Bidens Dau- 
cifolia DC.; formae odoratae adpropinquans et in herb. DC. Prodr. 
in Del. illae formae propior) ; E. Bourgeau 148 pro parte, fields and 
borders of ditches near City of Mexico, State of Mexico, May 23, 
1865 (Del.; Petrop.); idem 188, fields, eodem loco et tempore (Kew); 
idem 811, borders of the roads to Los Banos, State of Mexico, 
August 14, 1865 (Berl.; Boiss., 2 sheets; Cop.; Del.; Kew, 2 sheets; 
Mun.); C. Conzatti & V, Gonzalez 996, alt. 1,750 meters, State of 
Oaxaca, Mexico, July- August, 1900 (Berl.); A. Duges, in garden near 
Guanajuato, State of Guanajuato, 1891 (Gray) ; C. Ehrenberg, Haiti 
(Berl.); idem 440 pro parte, Regla, Hidalgo, Mexico (Berl.); idem 
442 pro parte, Mexico, October (Berl., cum forma odorata lecta); 
H. Galeotti 2370, near Real del Monte, Hidalgo, Mexico, 1840 
(Del.); G. F. Gaumer 451 p.p., Izamal, Yucatan, Mexico (Berl.; 
Gray; Kew; N.Y., 2 sheets); August Ghiesbreght 556, Chiapas, etc., 
southern Mexico, flowering from July to November, 1864-1870 
(Gray; Mo.); Josiah Gregg 236 pro parte, State of Puebla, Mexico, 
July 13, 1848 (Mo., cum f. odorata commixt.); idem 2366 pro parte 
(Kew, cum f. odorata commixt.); C. V. Hartman 564 pro parte, State 
of Chihuahua, Mexico, Sept. 8, 1892 (Gray, cum f. odorata lecta); 1 
Hooker, Jamaica, 1843 (Kew); Theodor Hartweg 1608 p.p., "Cali- 
fornia" (? Brit.); 2 Hort. BeroL, cult, anno 1831, e seminibus mexi- 

1 "As young eaten with pinole [Mexican cereal meal] and salt, boiled" (fide 
Hartmanii). 

2 "California" perhaps erroneous. Cf. Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 4: 
127. 1886: "owing to their having been incorrectly localized in the Hookerian 
herbarium." 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXXVIII 




B1DENS TRIPLINERVIA var. MACRANTHA (Wedd.) Sherff (figs, j-p); var. MOLLIS 
(Poepp. & Endlich.) Sherff (figs, a-i ) 



OF Tlit 
UNIVERSITY OF IUINGJS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 443 

canis a Deppeo missis (Berl., 3 sheets, sub nominibus Bidente retusa 
Link et Coreopside retusa Link); Jaeger 146 (type, Petrop.); J- G. 
Lemmon 2766, near Fort Huachuca, Arizona, 1882 (Gray, formae 
odoratae paulum adpropinquans; idem 2767, eodem loco, 1883 (Gray, 
2 sheets; formae odoratae paulo adpropinquans) ; F. M. Liebmann 649, 
Chinantla, Puebla, Mexico, May, 1841 (Cop., forma); idem 655, 
Tehuacan, Puebla, December, 1841 (Cop., sub nom. Bidente tehua- 
cana Klatt); /. C. Martindale, on ballast, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, September, 1879 (Phila., 2 sheets); E. W. Nelson 3492, alt. 
1,740-1,950 meters, Valley of Comitan, Chiapas, Mexico, December 
8, 1895 (U.S.); C. R. Orcutt, Mexico, 1910-1911 (Kew); idem 3656, 
Olivar, Federal Distr., Mexico, August 17, 1910 (Mo.); idem 4335, 
Santa Fe, Morelos, Mexico, August 25, 1910 (Mo.) ; Edward Palmer 3, 
Durango and vicinity, State of Durango, Mexico, April-November, 
1896 (Berl.; Brit.; Mo.); idem 263, shady places in gardens and old 
fields, eodem loco, June, 1896 (Gray); idem 282, southwestern Chi- 
huahua, Mexico, August-November, 1885 (Gray); idem 673 pro 
parte, Durango and vicinity, Mexico, April-November, 1896 (Gray; 
Kew); idem 676, eodem loco (Berl.); C. F. Parker, on ballast, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, September 20, 1879 (Phila.); Parry & 
Palmer 484 pro parte, Mexico, 1878 (Mo.; U.S.); C. G. Pringle 
9859, alt. 2,040 meters, waste places, Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico, Sep- 
tember 20, 1902 (Berl. ; Cam. ; Field; Kew; N.Y. ; U.S.) ; C. A. Purpus, 
Sierra de Parras, Coahuila, Mexico, March, 1905 (Calif.); idem 1544 
p. p. (pro partibus f. odorata et B. Ostruthioides) , fields, southern 
Mexico, November, 1905 (Calif.; Gray; Mo.; U.V., etc.; forma 
achaeniis nonnullarum plantarum exaristatis, aliarum aristatis); 
idem 1905, eodem loco, November, 1906 (Berl.); Rose & Hay 5828, 
near Tehuacan, Puebla, Mexico, August 1-2, 1901 (U.S.); Rose & 
Painter 7781, near Aguascalientes, State of Aguascalientes, Mexico, 
October 10, 1903 (U.S.) ; Rose, Standley, & Russell 13405, San Bias, 
Sinaloa, Mexico, March 24, 1910 (N.Y.); iidem 13584, along the 
river, Fuerte, Sinaloa, Mexico, March 27, 1910 (N.Y.); Baron 
de Schack, Trinidad, West Indies (Kew); J. G. Schaffner, on moun- 
tains and in cultivated places, Mexico, 1880 (Gray; nom. vernac. 
aceitillo; planta usitatissima fide Schaffneri); idem 206, State of San 
Luis Potosi, Mexico, October, 1879 (Berl. ; Boiss. ; Gray; Kiel; Mun.); 
idem (similiter) 206, in sandy places about City of San Luis Potosi, 
September, 1876 (Berl.; Gray}; idem 239, Valley of Mexico, State of 
Mexico (Par., 2 sheets); Alb. Schmitz 80 p. p., eodem loco (Mus. V., 3 
sheets); idem 81, eodem loco (Mus. V., 3 sheets); idem 251, Mexico 



444 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

(Berl.; Brit.; Mus. V.); idem 542, fields, Mexico (Brit.; Mus. V.; f. 
odomtae adpropinquans) ; idem 629, Mexico (Berl.); Walther Schu- 
mann 10 pro parte, Mexico, August 20, 1884 (Berl., cum f. odorata; 
Brit.; Mun.; Mus. V.; U.V.); idem 12, Mexico, September 20, 1884 
(U.S.); Eduard & Caecilie Seler 308, near Axayapictla, Distr. Morelos, 
Morelos, Mexico, December 17, 1887 (Berl.); iidem 572 et 579, near 
Chihuahua, State of Chihuahua, Mexico, November, 1887 (Berl.); 
iidem 1142, Obregon, Guanajuato, Mexico, October 13, 1895 (Kew; 
N.Y.); Uhde 616 and 623, Mexico (Berl.); W. J. Vargas 210, about 
Caracas, Venezuela, 1830 (Del., type oi Bidens caracasana DC.). 

The name Bidens caracasana DC. has been carelessly treated by 
botanists, having been referred to a number of widely different species. 
The DeCandolle Prodromus Herbarium (Del.) contains two sheets 
of type material, Vargas 210, Caracas, Venezuela, in 1830. All of this 
material is the form represented by the type of B. bimucronata Turcz., 
reduced by 0. E. Schulz (loc. cit.) to a variety of B. pilosa L. 

Bidens pilosa var. 8. bimucronata f. 1. odorata (Cav.) Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 81: 41. 1926. PI. CV and PI. CVI, figs. a-h. 

Bidens odorata Cav. Icon. 1: 9 and pi. 13. 1791. 

Coreopsis Ferulaefolia var. odoratissima (Cav. ex Pers.) Pers. Syn. 

PI. 2:477. 1807. 

Coreopsis odoratissima Cav. ex Pers. loc. cit. 
Coreopsis odorata (Cav.) Poir. in Lam. & Poir. Encycl. Suppl. 2: 350. 

1811 ; Atlas pi. 704, fig.l. 

Cosmos tenellus H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 188 (240). 1820. 
Coreopsis multifida DC. Prodr. 5: 573. 1836. 
Coreopsis muliifida var. mutica DC. loc. cit. 
Bidens Daucifolia DC. op. cit. 601. 

Bidens Ferulaefolia var. odoratissima (Cav. ex Pers.) DC. op. cit. 603. 
Bidens Caucalidea DC. op. cit. 604. 
Bidens Bonplandii Schz. Bip. in Seem. Bot. Voy. Herald 308. 1852- 

1857. 

Bidens inermis Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 23: 278. 1888. 
Bidens Deamii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56: 490. 1913. 
Bidens ramosissima Sherff, op. cit. 491. 
Bidens barrancae Jones, Extracts Contr. West. Bot. 18: 82. 1933 

(vix typica). 

Folia plus dissecta, plerumque bi- vel rarius tripinnata, seg- 
mentis angustioribus. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany. Vol. XVI. Plate CXXIX 




b a d 
BIDENS SERRULATA (Poir.) Desf. 



OF Tht 

a? 



THE GENUS BIDENS 445 

Type specimen: Observed in flowering condition in the Royal 
Garden of Madrid, November 24 (anno non dicto), growing from 
material obtained originally near the City of Mexico. 1 

Distribution : In Mexico from southern Chihuahua southeastward 
along the interior region to the State of Oaxaca; very rare in Guate- 
mala, where giving way to var. calcicola and its f . dissecta. 

Specimens examined: Bro. Adole 63 (Arsene distrib. No. 6350) 
pro parte, alt. 1,600 meters, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, 1911 (Mo.; 
U.S.); Bro. Agniel (Arsene distrib. No. 10430), Quere"taro, Mexico, 
1910-1913 (U.S.); anon. (Del., type of Coreopsis multifida DC.); 
Bro. G. Arsene, alt. 2,150 meters, near Hacienda Santa Barbara, 
Barranca de la Alseseca, Puebla, State of Puebla, Mexico, 1907 
(U.S.; cum var. lecta et commixt.); idem, azotea de San Pedro 
near Puebla, September 27, 1908 (U.S.); idem 497, alt. 2,175 meters, 
azotea del Colegio de San Pedro y San Pablo, Puebla, August 25, 
1906 (U.S.); idem 497a, garden, Puebla, August 30, 1906 (U.S.); 
idem 4976, alt. 2,173 meters, College of San Pedro and San Pablo, 
Puebla, September 23, 1906 (U.S.); idem 497c, alt. 2,173 meters, 
azotea del Colegio de San Pedro y San Pablo, September 13, 

1906 (U.S.); idem 1813, alt. 2,155 meters, Molino de Huexotitla, 
Puebla, October 20, 1907 (Gray; U.S.); idem 2340, alt. 2,170 meters, 
azotea del Colegio de San Pedro y San Pablo, Puebla, September 27, 

1907 (U.S.) ; J. L. Berlandier 1138 pro parte, Valley of Toluca, State 
of Mexico, September, 1827 (Berl.; Del.; Gray; Hll.; Mus. V.; Par., 
type material of Bidens Caucalidea DC. and B. Daucifolia DC.; 
cum var. ipsa lecta) ; E. Bourgeau 148 pro parte, edges of ditches, 
Valley of Mexico, State of Mexico, May 23, 1865 (Par. ; forma magna 
et pro parte var. ipsi adpropinquans) ; idem 812 pro parte, Guada- 
lupe, State of Mexico, August 14-24, 1865 (Boiss.; Kew; Par., 3 
sheets sub nom. Bidente montana; Petrop.; plantae nunc var. 
bimucronata ipsa nunc /. odorata nunc plus minusve intermedia); 
idem 813 pro parte, upon terraces about homes, Mexico, State of 
Mexico, August 30, 1865 (Berl.; Boiss.; Cop.; Del., 2 sheets; Gray; 
Kew; Par., 4 sheets sub nom. Bidente maculata; U.S.; hie illic cumB. 
bipinnata commixt.) ; ex herb. Cavanillesii (Brit., 3 sheets, sub nomini- 
bus Coreopside odorata, C. odoratissima et Cosmide odorato} ; Thomas 
Coulter 380, Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico (Kew); C. C. Deam, Cholula, 
Puebla, Mexico, January 1, 1899 (Field; type of Bidens Deamii 

1 Material (three specimens) from Cavanilles' herbarium is in the Herbarium of 
the British Museum of Natural History. Precisely identical material, from 
Pavon's herbarium, is in the Boissier Herbarium and may safely be regarded as 
coming from Cavanilles' original plants. 



446 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Sherff); A. Duges 471, State of Guanajuato, Mexico, 1891 (Gray); 
C.Ehrenberg 441, Mexico (Berl.);idem 442 pro parte, Regla, Hidalgo, 
Mexico (Kew, cum var. ipsa lecta); Josiah Gregg 39, valley near 
Saltillo, Coahuila, May 7, 1848 (Mo.); idem 236 pro parte, State of 
Puebla, Mexico (Mo., cum var. ipsa lecta); idem 2366 pro parte 
(Kew, cum var. ipsa lecta); C. V. Hartman 564 pro parte, State of 
Chihuahua, Mexico, September 8, 1892 (Gray ; cum var. bimucronata 
ipsa lecta); Theodor Hartweg 1608 p.p., fields, State of Guanajuato, 
Mexico (Kew); Hort. Par. e seminibus (fide DC.) in Peruvia[?] lectis 
et olim ad Hort. Par. a Dombeyo missis (Del., type of Coreopsis 
multifida var. mutica DC.); M. E. Jones 27757, La Barranca, Guada- 
lajara, Jalisco, Mexico, November 23, 1930 (Pom. ; type of Bidens 
barrancae Jones; vix typica); F. M. Liebmann 620, State of Oaxaca, 
Mexico, May, 1842 (Cop.}; idem 648, Ejutla, Oaxaca, October, 1841 
(Cop., 3 sheets) ; L. H. MacDaniels 49, alt. 2,220 meters, Pyramid of 
Cuicuilco, Tlalpam, Federal Distr., Mexico, August 15, 1935 (Field); 
C. R. Orcutt 3657, El Olivar, State of Mexico, August 18, 1910 
(Kew; Mo.); Edward Palmer 283, southwestern Chihuahua, Mexico, 
August-November, 1885 (Gray); idem 673 pro parte, Durango and 
vicinity, State of Durango, Mexico, April-November, 1896 (Gray) ; 
idem 674, Durango and vicinity, April-November, 1896 (Berl.; 
Boiss.; Brit.; Field; Kew; Mo., 2 sheets; U.S., ubi etiam aliud speci- 
men est e huius seminibus cultum et Mart. 1, anno 1898 lectum); 
idem 685 et 686, eodem loco et tempore (U.S.); Parry & Palmer 
484 pro parte, alt. 1,800-2,400 meters, Mexico, 1878 (Kew; Mo.); 
ex herb. Pavonii (Boiss.); C. G. Pringle, valley near Tula, Hidalgo, 
Mexico, September 16, 1899 (Berl.); idem 1290, base of the Sierra 
Madre, Chihuahua, Mexico, September 14, 1887 (Boiss.; Field; 
Phila.) ; idem 1291, thin soil of ledges, Arroyo Ancho, Sierra Madre, 
Chihuahua, October 14, 1887 (Berl.; Boiss.; Calif.; Field; Gray; 
Kew; Phila.; type material of Bidens inermis Wats.); idem 1638, 
base of Sierra Madre, Chihuahua, October 2, 1888 (Berl.; Brit.; 
Calif.; Del.; Field; Mo.; Mus. V.; U.V.); idem 5999, hillsides near 
Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, November 14, 1895 (Cop.; Gray; 
Mun.); idem 7904, near Cuernavaca, September 30, 1899 (Gray); 
idem 13032, under cliffs near Acambaro, Guanajuato, Mexico, 
October 6, 1904 (Berl.; Gray; Kew; U.S.); C. A. Purpus, Sierra de 
Parras, Coahuila, Mexico, March, 1905 (Calif.); J. N. Rose & 
Jos. H. Painter 7782, near Aguascalientes, State of Aguascalientes, 
Mexico, October 10, 1903 (U.S.); W.E. Safford 1391, near Guadala- 
jara, Jalisco, Mexico, February 23, 1907 (U.S.; type of Bidens 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXXX 




BIDENS CHIAPENSIS Brandeg. (figs, a-i) 
BIDENS GERANIIFOLIA Brandeg. (figs, j-o) 



OF 



THE GENUS BIDENS 447 

ramosissima Sherff; nom. vulg., aceitillo); J. G. Schaffner 205, State 
of San Luis Potosi, Mexico, October, 1879 (Berl.; Mun.); idem 205a, 
cultivated fields, Mexico, 1880 (Gray; Kew; nom. vernac., aceitillo); 
idem 2056, mountains about San Luis Potosi, State of San Luis 
Potosi, Mexico, 1880 (Gray; Kew); idem 206 p.p.; State of San Luis 
Potosi, October, 1879 (Brit.) ; Schmitz 80 p.p., Valley of Mexico, State of 
Mexico, 1855 (Brit.); idem 541 p.p., Mexico, 1856 (Brit.); Berthold 
Seemann, loco non dicto (Kew) ; Eduard & Caecilie Seler 1184 p.p., 
Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico, November 2, 1895 (Berl.). 

For many years, Persoon's variety odoratissima of Coreopsis 
Ferulae/olio, seems to have been unfamiliar to botanists. DeCandolle 
(loc. cit.) merely mentioned it: "quid sit var. odoratissima a Per- 
soonio citata ignore." Persoon's variety was founded on Cavanilles' 
plant in Jussieu's herbarium and was said to be native to Peru. This 
cited specimen I have not found, but there exists in the British 
Museum of Natural History a good specimen from Cavanilles, 
labeled "Coreopsis odoratissima nobis, Mexico," which matches 
Persoon's description precisely. The leaves, probably because of 
having grown under cultivation, are especially slender-divided and 
give a superficial resemblance to those of Bidens Ferulaefolia (Jacq.) 
DC. The specimen is identical with two other specimens (Brit.) 
from the herbarium of Cavanilles, one labeled "Coreopsis odorata 
olim Bidens," and the other "Bidens odorata Cav. Ic. V. 1., nunc 
Coreopsis." Both of these last two are further labeled, in pencil, 
"Cosmos odoratus" Clearly, Persoon's variety is perfectly synony- 
mous with Bidens odorata Cav. 

Coreopsis multifida DC. and its var. mutica DC. are represented 
by the type specimens in the herbarium of DeCandolle's Prodromus 
(Del.). The species was collected (fide DC. loc. cit.), by Pa von, 
possibly in Peru; the variety was from seed previously sent by Dom- 
bey from "Peruvia" to the Botanical Garden at Paris. Both are 
found on careful comparisons to be merely Bidens odorata Cav. 1 

1 The citation of Peru would seem to indicate that the material is really best 
considered as the rather similar var. alausensis f. Scandicina, the form native to 
South America. The plants are more like the North American material of f. 
odorata. Whether a mistake was made originally in the mention of Pavon and 
Peru for these plants I can not say for certainty, although the indications point 
that way. We may note the partly comparable case of Bidens Sambucifolia Cav., 
said to have come from Peru and Mexico, but which has never been known from 
outside of Mexico. The evidence in herbaria indicates that Cavanilles got his 
material in this case from or rather through Pavon, and thus Pavon's written data 
were at fault. Regarding another, somewhat different case of mislabeling observed 
in much of the "Pavon" material cf. Hemsley, Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 4: 120. 
1887 ("as Pavon himself was never in Mexico, and there is evidence of his having 
dealt freely in the sale of dried plants"). 



448 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bidens Caucalidea DC. was described from Berlandier 1138. The 
sheet of this number in the Museum of Vienna has one specimen 
with bipinnate leaves, approaching Bidens odorata Cav. and another 
with some of the principal leaves only tripartite, approaching B. 
pilosa var. bimucronata. At Washington (U.S.) are two sheets of the 
fine material collected by Arsene. It is remarkably close to the type 
material of B. Caucalidea and might well serve as a supplementary 
type for the concept represented by that name. Four of the five 
specimens there have the leaves mainly bipinnate as in B. odorata 
Cav. but the remaining specimen has the leaves tripartite as in the 
var. bimucronata. 1 Obviously the amount of foliar division is of 
little value here in determining specific limits. Likewise a study of 
various other specimens (referred to B. odorata Cav. or to B. Cau~ 
calidea DC. by different botanists), with reference to achenial shape, 
size, and armature, to width of flowering heads, and to general 
branching habit, reveals an astonishing amount of variation. A 
form with the upper part of the main stem broken away and the 
lower part profusely branched is the plant formerly described as 
Bidens Deamii Sherff. B. ramosissima Sherff is probably best inter- 
preted as merely a mutant form with an excessive degree of branch- 
ing and the involucres finally becoming reflexed to a notably uniform 
extent. A specimen collected by Seemann (Kew) is positively the 
B. odorata of Cavanilles and yet in its highly branched character 
displays an approach to the type specimen of B. ramosissima. 

Certain specimens of Berlandier 1138 were rather under-de- 
veloped in stature, somewhat pubescent-hirtellous, and had the leaf 
segments more acute. These DeCandolle assumed to be another 
species, confused with the B. Caucalidea material by Berlandier in 
the gathering. He named them B. Daucifolia. For B. Daucifolia, 
as for his B. Caucalidea, he described the rays as yellow. Since 
DeCandolle's day, many (yellow-rayed) Mexican specimens of B. 
triplinervia var. macrantha (Wedd.) Sherff have been determined by 
students (myself among them) as B. Daucifolia DC., but recent 
study of the long neglected type material of B. Daucifolia at Geneva 
(Del.) and Paris (Par.) showed that B. Daucifolia is not a yellow- 
rayed form. The Geneva sheet has a single small specimen, with 
one flowering and one fruiting head. The ligules are a faded rosaceous 
color, not yellow as DeCandolle had stated. The achenes are those 
of B. odorata Cav. The Paris sheet has three small but good speci- 

1 Cf. O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 138. 1911: "Bidens caucalideus 
DC.! .... varietati bimucronato valde affinis folia pinnatisecta habet." 



THE GENUS BIDENS 449 

mens. Three radiate heads are present, of a faded rosaceous color. 
One specimen has a head of biaristate achenes and another has two 
ample fruiting heads of exaristate achenes. These specimens all 
are mere variations of B. Caucalidea DC., and there is no reason to 
suppose that Berlandier confused two sorts with each other. Clearly 
B. Daucifolia DC. and B. Caucalidea DC. are synonymous, and 
together must be equated in turn with the earlier B. odorata Cav. 

Judged by standards maintained in many other genera, there 
would seem to be no less than eight or ten varieties and racial formae 
represented. To encumber taxonomy with a large number of addi- 
tional names, when the variations are so capricious and fickle as 
often to result in two or three unlike fades upon a single herbarium 
sheet, 1 would appear entirely unwarranted. Therefore, these vary- 
ing forms, all of them intimately related to B. pilosa var. bimucronata 
but tending to display more or less bipinnate leaves on most of the 
individual plants, are grouped as the forma odorata of that variety. 
Complicated and undesirable as the name resulting from this inter- 
pretation will be, 2 it is the only one that appears to accord with the 
facts in nature. 

The type of Cosmos tenellus H.B.K. (or Bidens Bonplandii as it 
was later renamed by Schultz Bipontinus upon its transfer to Bidens) 
was collected between the City of Mexico and Huahuatoca (variously 
spelled Huehuetoca, Giiegiietoque, etc.) in the State of Mexico, 
Mexico. A search in 1914 and again in 1924 among the type sheets 
of the Humboldt, Bonpland, and Kunth set at Paris failed to reveal a 
specimen with the name Cosmos tenellus, nor was there authentic 
material at Berlin. The description by Kunth shows that the type 
was without achenes. The bipinnatipartite foliage and the probably 
rosaceous color of the ligules evidently had led him to place the plant 
in Cosmos. A survey of Cosmos and Bidens at the present time indi- 
cates that Kunth's extended description fits none other than the 
present f . odorata of Bidens pilosa var. bimucronata. This forma, as 
well as its supravening variety bimucronata, is very abundant 

1 C. V. Hartman 564 (Gray) and C. A. Purpus 1544 (Calif.) are especially good 
examples of this. 

2 O. Kuntze (Rev. Gen. 1: 322. 1891) put forth a treatment of Bidens pilosa 
in which he adopted the even more complicated and unwelcome method of pro- 
posing varieties, subvarieties, and forms (formae). His name subbiternata is seen, 
on carefully reading the related names, to have been used for a subvariety or group 
(under B. pilosa) ranking lower than a variety but higher than a forma (thus cf. 
B. pilosa a. leucantha 2. ternata f. pilosior, loc. cit.). Yet, even were the formal rank 
of the name subbiternata accepted, it could not conflict with the validity of the claim 
of odorata to formal rank, as subbiternata pertained to a form of B. pilosa var. 
radiata, not of var. bimucronata. 



450 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

throughout the region surrounding the type locality of Cosmos 
tenellus. Moreover, the general aspect is often deceptively like that 
of Cosmos, a fact easily explaining Kunth's reference of his type 
to that genus. 1 

The type of Bidens inermis Wats, is matched by Pringle 1638, 
5999, and 7904. All four numbers have achenes especially slender 
and long-attenuate, as well as exaristate. The forma odorata is 
known frequently to produce achenes wholly or in part of this very 
kind, thus leaving no grounds for the retention of B. inermis as a 
species. 2 It may be remarked that 0. E. Schulz, in 1911, studied 
some of the B. inermis material (e.g., Pringle 1638) in the Berlin 
Herbarium and labeled it B. Caucalidea DC., which in turn, as al- 
ready stated, is merely another synonym for f. odorata. 

The grayish green or bluish green color of the herbage in the 
forma odorata often is very noticeable. The Mexicans appear to 
prefer this form and also the var. bimucronata proper for food. Under 
the name of "aceitillo" (fide A. Dugesii 471, Gray; Wm. E. Saffordii 
1391, U.S.; et al.), the young plants are boiled and eaten with pinole 
and salt (fide C. V. Hartmanii 564, Gray). 

Bidens pilosa var. e. alausensis (H.B.K.) Sherff, 

Bot. Gaz. 81: 35. 1926. PI. CVI, figs. i-o. 
Bidens alausensis H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 184 (235). 1820. 
Bidens valparadisiaca Colla, Mem. Accad. Torin. 38: 12. pi. 24- 

1835. 

Bidens chilensis DC. Prodr. 5: 603. 1836. 

Bidens diversifolia Willd. ex DC. op. cit. 602. 1836 (pro parte). 
Bidens valparadisea Colla ex Philippi Cat. PL Chil. 155. 1881. 

Folia pinnato-quinquepartita vel biternatisecta vel tantum 
pinnatisecta, circumambitu saepe deltoidea; foliolis segmentisve 
saepius plus minusve ovatis, basi cuneatis alibi grosse et saepe 
irregulariter inciso-serratis dentibus mucronatis. Capitula radiata 
pansa ad anthesin circ. 1-2 cm. lata ligulis albidis vel rosaceis vel 
subalbidis. Achaenia saepius biaristata. 

1 It may be noted that several specimens collected by Brother G. Arsene in the 
states of Puebla and Michoacan (U.S.) had been distributed by Arsene under the 
name Cosmos tenellus H.B.K. and that these are our f. odorata. 

2 The singular aspect of the fruiting heads upon typical "B. inermis" might 
be taken as justifying a subformal rank under f. odorata, but the already lengthy 
name B. pilosa var. bimucronata f. odorata would seem to suggest restraint in this 
matter. Furthermore, some material (e.g., Edward Palmer 673, Kew) has fruiting 
capitula precisely like those in the type collection of B. inermis but merely 3-5- 
partite leaves as in B. pilosa var. bimucronata proper, thus displaying an overlap- 
ping of characters. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXXXI 




c f h 

BIDENS OSTRUTHIOIDES (DC.) Schz. Bip. 



OF Tht 



THE GENUS BIDENS 451 

Type specimen: Collected by Alexander Humboldt and Aime 
Bonpland, at altitude of 2,340 meters, between Alausi and Tambo de 
Guamote, Ecuador, 1799-1803 (Par.; for illustration, see Bot. Gaz. 
59:311, fig. 1. 1915). 

Distribution: The Andes region of western South America from 
Colombia through Ecuador and Peru to Chile and in southwestern 
Bolivia; also in the Galapagos Islands. 

Specimens examined: J. Ball, alt. 3,600-3,900 meters, rocky 
places of Andes, near Chicla, Peru, April 21-23, 1882 (Kew); F. W. 
Beechey, Valparaiso, Chile (Del.); Bertero 95, Taqua-taqua, Chile, 
October, 1828 (Del.); idem 845, Quillota, Chile, October-November, 
1829 (type material of Bidens chilensis; Del.; Par.); idem (similiter) 
845, forest pastures and upon hilly slopes, Valparaiso, Chile, 1830 
(Brit.; Mun.; Mus. V.; N.Y.); Bridges, Valparaiso, Chile, 1830 
(Kew); idem 66, eodem loco, 1832 (Brit.; Kew; Mus. V.); Otto 
Buchtien, eodem loco, August 20, 1895 (Field) ; Agnes Calvert, Valdivia 
and Valparaiso, Chile (Brit.) ; 0. F. Cook & G. B. Gilbert 512, alt. 
about 3,000 meters, Ollantaitambo, Peru, May 1, 1915 (U.S.); 
Cruckshank, Chile (Kew); H, Cuming 646, prope Valparaiso, Chile, 
1831 (Brit.; Mus. V.; Webb); K. Fiebrig 2049, alt. 1,700 meters, 
Bermejo, Bolivia, November 15, 1903 (Berl.; forma varietati bimu- 
cronatae valde adpropinquans; nom. vulg., saitilla); Frombling, 
Chile, 1886 (Mun., 2 sheets); Gaudichaud 164, Valparaiso, Chile, 
1834 (Del.; Webb); Claude Gay 201, Chile, 1833 (Del.; Gray, 2 
sheets); idem 341, on hills, Prov. Coquimbo, Chile, August, 1829 
(Par.) ; idem 355, on hills, Chile (Par.) ; W. H. Harvey, Valparaiso, 
Chile, April-July, 1856 (Gray); Humboldt & Bonpland, alt. 2,340 
meters, between Alausi and Tambo de Guamote, Ecuador, 1799- 
1803 (type and cotype, Par.: cotypes, Berl., 2 sheets); iidem, Llacta- 
cunga (Latacunga), Ecuador (Berl., sub nom. Bidente quitensi); 
E. P. Killip 6761, alt. 2,900-3,200 meters, in open, "Canaan," Mt. 
Purac, near Rio Anambiu, Dept. El Cauca, Colombia, June 11-16, 
1922 (U.S.); idem & A. C. Smith 18101, alt. 3,500 meters, oak forest, 
La Baja, Dept. Santander, Colombia, January 14-31, 1927 (U.S.); 
G. Looser 148, Cerro Cruz, Limache, Prov. Valparaiso, Chile, October 
12, 1926 (Gray) ; J. F. Macbride 2902, on slide rock, alt. about 2,400 
meters, Matucana, Peru, March 14-18, 1923 (Field) ; James Macrae, 
near Valparaiso, Chile, 1825 (Kew); Mathews 465, Lima, Peru, 
communic. 1833 (Del.); idem (similiter) 465, interior Peru, 1862 
(N.Y.); idem 468, Purruchuco, Peru (Kew); ex herb. Johanni Miersii 
67, Concon, Chile (Brit.); Moseley (Challenger Expedition), Juan 



452 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Fernandez, Chile, November, 1875 (Kew); Macbride & Feather stone 
2139, alt. about 3,150 meters, common on hillsides and stream banks, 
15 miles southeast of Huanuco, Peru, May 31-June 3, 1922 (Field) ; 
F. W. Neger, Conception, Chile, July 20, 1895 (Mun.); F. Philippi, 
Valparaiso, Chile, 1894 (Brit.); G. H. Pring 31, San Cristobal, 
Sabana de Bogota, Colombia, May, 1923 (Mo.); ex herb. E. C. 
Reedii, Juan Fernandez, Chile, October, 1872 (Petrop.); Dr. & Mrs. 
J. N. Rose 19114, near Valparaiso, Chile, September 14, 1914 (N. Y. ; 
U.S.); Lud. Savatier, Canruru, Peru (Kew, 2 sheets); R. E. Snod- 
grass & E. Heller 887, alt. 1,200 meters, Tagus Cove, Albemarle 
Isl., Galapagos Isls., June 15, 1899 (Gray); A. Sodiro, sandy fields 
among Andes, near Pomasqui, Ecuador, February, 1896 (Berl., cum 
f . scandicina lecta) ; idem 486, in cultivated places, Niebly-Perucho, 
Ecuador, June, 1904 (N.Y.); Alban Stewart, Valparaiso, Chile 
(Petrop.); idem 716, abundant in thickets at alt. 1,200 meters, 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Isl., Galapagos Isls., March 24, 1906 (Brit.; 
Mo.); Styles, Chile (Phila.); Wawra (H. M. Frigate "Donau"), 
Valparaiso, Chile, 1868-1871 (Mus. V.); A. Weberbauer 50, Matu- 
cana, Peru, December 24, 1901 (Berl.). 

The Willdenow Herbarium has a sheet of Bidens diversifolia 
Willd. (ex DC.) and this sheet bears two plants. One is referable to 
var. alausensis, but the other seems more like B. andicola H.B.K. 
Willdenow doubtless construed them to be genetically the same, 
hence his name diversifolia. It appears, however, that this was 
merely a case of mixed material. Fortunately, the very definite 
status and validity of the names alausensis and andicola permit us 
to ignore the name B. diversifolia Willd. 

In a former article (Bot. Gaz. 59: 310-311, fig. 1. 1915) I have 
discussed the identity of B. valparadisiaca Colla and B. chilensis 
DC. with B. alausensis H.B.K., and presented photographs of 
Kunth's type of B. alausensis H.B.K. In 1924 I made a careful 
reexamination of Kunth's type and of four sheets of cotype material 
(Par.; Berl.) and came to the same conclusion as before. A study of 
various other specimens shows that B. alausensis H.B.K. cannot 
properly be regarded as specifically distinct from B. pilosa L. Thus, 
for example, J. F. Macbride 2899 and 2901, at altitude of about 
2,400 meters, Matucana, Peru, etc. (Field), 1 have tripartite leaves 

1 These and the other Macbride specimens cited were obtained by Mr. Mac- 
bride, who had the matter particularly in mind on his recent South American 
expedition. Of each number I have seen various duplicates awaiting distribution to 
other herbaria. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXXXII 




BIDENS OSTRUTHIOIDES var. COSTARICENSIS (Benth. ex Oerst.) Sherff 



OF U 



liilHOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 453 

and are a form 1 of B. pilosa var. radiata Schz. Bip. But Macbride 
2902 (Field), collected at the same place and same time as Macbride 
2899 and 2901, has the foliage mostly bipinnatisect, and is very 
close to or identical with various specimens of B. alausensis H.B.K. 
from Chile and Ecuador. 2 Macbride 2900 p.p., altitude about 2,400 
meters, Matucana, Peru, March 14-18, 1923 (Field), and 3473, 
altitude about 2,550 meters, Cani, Peru, April 16-26, 1923, also are 
identical in habit and technical characters with B. alausensis, except 
that they are taller and more robust and their foliage is more finely 
cut, becoming even tripinnatisect. These are identical with A. 
D'Orbigny 1234, Bolivia (Par.), labeled Bidens Scandicina var. 
glabrescens by Weddell. They match also the Berlin and Paris 
cotypes of B. Scandicina H.B.K., except that the latter have more 
pubescent leaves with somewhat finer divisions. It is significant 
that the types of B. alausensis H.B.K. and B. Scandicina H.B.K., 
here seen to be so closely connected by intermediate specimens, 
were collected by Humboldt and Bonpland in the same vicinity: 
B. alausensis between Alausi and Tambo de Guamote (the type 
label gives merely "Alausi"), Ecuador, and B. Scandicina between 
Llactacunga and Ambato, Ecuador. 

It might seem at first that there is here a situation comparable 
with that in B. pilosa var. bimucronata (Turcz.) 0. E. Schulz, where 
the form with finely divided leaves is reducible to subordinate rank 
as f. odorata (Cav.) Sherff. In such a case we should have the names 
alausensis and Scandicina taking respectively formal and subformal 
rank under the name B. pilosa var. radiata, giving names which 
would be very cumbersome. It seems more probable that in the 
present case the alausensis and Scandicina forms do not intergrade 
nearly so much with B. pilosa var. radiata as does the odorata form 
with B. pilosa var. bimucronata. Hence there appears good reason 
for assigning B. alausensis varietal status directly under B. pilosa, 
and reducing B. Scandicina to a forma under the variety. 

Bidens pilosa var. <=. alausensis f. 1. Scandicina (H.B.K.) 
Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81: 36. 1926. PI. CVII. 

Bidens Scandicina H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 184 (235). 1820. 

Folia plus dissecta, saepe tripinnatisecta, segmentis angustioribus. 

1 Having rays mostly 5-8 mm. long and slightly more yellowish than usual in 
the var. radiata. They suggest in the ray characters the allied forms that pass 
under the name B. pilosa var. minor (Bl.) Sherff. 

2 See also remarks under B. pilosa var. Apiifolia (DC.) Sherff. 



454 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Type specimen: Collected by Alexander Humboldt and Aime 
Bonpland, between Llactacunga (Latacunga) and Ambato, Ecuador, 
1799-1803 (Par.). 

Distribution: Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. 

Specimens examined: Otto Buchtien, alt. 3,500 meters, LaPaz, 
Bolivia, May, 1911 (Mun.);*dera 125, alt. 3,460 meters, eodem loco, 
March 8, 1919 (Field) ; idem 355, alt. 3,600 meters, San Jorge, La 
Paz, Bolivia, October 10, 1921 (Field; Gray); idem 378, alt. 3,460 
meters, La Paz, March 8, 1919 (Field, 2 sheets); idem 811, eodem 
loco et tempore (Field, 2 sheets; Gray; Mo.; N.Y.); 1 Const, de Jelski 
(distrib. Ign. de Szyszylowicz 657 and 735), Cutervo, Peru, April, 
1879 (Berl.); Alcide D'Orbigny 1234, Dept. Chuquisaca, Bolivia, 
February (Par., sub nom. B. Scandicina var. glabrescenti Weddell); 
F. L. Herrera, Valley of the Apurimac, Dept. Cuzco, Peru, February 
29 (Field) ; Humboldt & Bonpland, between Llactacunga and Ambato, 
Ecuador, 1799-1803 (type, Par.: cotypes, Berl. 2 sheets; Par., 2 
sheets; Willd., 2 sheets); Otto Kuntze, alt. 3,000 meters, near Cocha- 
bamba, Bolivia, March 26, 1892 (N.Y.); J. F. Macbride 2900 pro 
parte, very rocky valley floor, alt. 2,400 meters, Matucana, Peru, 
March 14-18, 1923 (Field, cum var. alausensi ipsa lecta) ; idem 3473, 
alt. about 2,550 meters, Cani (town 7 miles northeast of Mito), 
Peru, April 16-26, 1923 (Field) ; Rivet 29, Caripacunga, vicinity of 
Quito, Ecuador, February 19-21, 1902 (Par., 2 sheets); idem 245, 
Quito, Ecuador, October, 1902 (Par.); A. Sodiro, in fields among the 
Andes, near Pomasqui, Ecuador, February, 1896 (Berl., 2 sheets; 
cum var. alausensi ipsa lecta). 

For remarks about this form, see under var. alausensis above. 

Bidens pilosa var. . Apiifolia (DC.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
85: 1. 1928. 

Bidens chilensis var. Apiifolia DC. Prodr. 5: 604. 1836. 

Varietas inter varietates radiatam et alausensem omnibus cha- 
racteribus labans (forsan hybrida?). 

1 In the Buchtien specimens the similarity to certain Umbelliferae, implied in 
the name Scandicina, is most striking. In fact, before seeing the Sodiro (cf. 
Hieronymus, Bot. Jahrb. 29: 48. 1901) and de Jelski specimens, I had not thought 
to connect the Buchtien specimens with f. Scandicina, and had tentatively con- 
sidered them as representing a new species. Curiously enough, I too had been 
impressed with the resemblance to certain Umbelliferae, especially Musineon, 
and, to a lesser extent, Chaerophyllum, and had tentatively employed a trivial 
name based upon the resemblance to Musineon. In one specimen by Buchtien 
(No. 811) the foliage and general habit suggest also those of Anthemis Cotula L. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXXXIII 




b 

BIDENS BICOLOH Greenm. 



OF THc 
UNIVERSITY OF (HINDIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 455 

Type specimen: Collected by Eduard Poeppig, No. 207, in rocky 
and gravelly maritime places near Valparaiso, Chile, June (Del.)- 

Distribution : Known only from Chile. 

Specimens examined: Erik Asplund 42, Valparaiso, July 17, 
1921 (Stockh.); Poeppig 207 (type, Del.: cotypes, Berl.; Hll.; Kiel; 
Mus. V., etc.). 

In a former article (Bot. Gaz. 76: 158. 1923), Bidens chilensis 
var. Apiifolia DC. was discussed and the Berlin cotype (Poeppig 
207) of that variety was treated as "an unimportant foliage form of 
B. alausensis." Subsequent study of much cotype material, in 
conjunction with several specimens collected by J. F. Macbride at 
Matucana, Peru, revealed closer affinities of several of the original 
specimens with B. pilosa var. radiata Schz. Bip. Specimens of Poep- 
pig 207 were studied in collections belonging to several of the older 
herbaria. Two specimens in Vienna and one in Berlin appeared 
closer to var. alausensis, but the cotypes elsewhere appeared, when 
studied in the light of the interesting Macbride specimens previously 
described (cf. Bot. Gaz. 81: 35. 1926), to be closer to var. radiata. 

The nomenclatural problem offered by the publication in 1836 
by DeCandolle of this var. Apiifolia is particularly vexing, since its 
publication antedated that for both the var. alausensis and the var. 
radiata. An equation of the var. Apiifolia with either of these two 
varieties would compel the taking up of the name Apiifolia and the 
reduction of a well established name to synonymy. The intermediate 
nature and ill denned status of the var. Apiifolia would make such 
a course seem unwise, if not indeed impossible. Apparently the 
interests of taxonomy are best conserved by employing the com- 
bination B. pilosa var. Apiifolia to apply only to the form inter- 
mediate between vars. alausensis and radiata, and represented by 
Poeppig 207. In this case, the last two names, each certain in its 
application and well supported in herbaria by illustrative material, 
are left undisturbed. 1 

Bidens pilosa var. 17. calcicola (Greenm.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80: 377, 

pi. 20. 1925. PI. CVIII and PI. CIX, figs, a and c-j. 
Cosmos pilosus H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 189 (241). 1820. 
Bidens exaristata DC. Prodr. 5: 600. 1836. 
Bidens brachycarpa DC. loc. cit. 

1 Concerning the intermediate nature of var. Apiifolia, it may be remarked 
that while DeCandolle ranked this variety under B. chilensis DC. (=B. pilosa var. 
alausensis), Poeppig's original printed labels bore the name "B. leucantha L." 
(-B. pilosa var. radiata). 



456 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bidens rosea Schz. Bip. in Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald 308. 1852-1857. 
Bidens rosea var. calcicola Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 41: 264. 1905. 
Bidens pilosa var. brachycarpa (DC.) 0. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. 

Antill. 7: 138. 1911. 
Bidens orendaniae Jones, Extracts Contr. West. Bot. 18: 82. 1933. 

Planta gracilis 1.5-6 dm. alta. Folia saepe minora, foliolo 
terminali plerumque 1-3.5 cm. longo. Capitula plerumque radiata 
radiis albidis vel rosaceis, pansa ad anthesin tantum 1-1.5 cm. lata. 
Achaenia parva, corporibus 4-9 mm. longa, 1 biaristata aristis 1-1.5 
mm. longis. 

Type specimen : Collected by Cyrus Guernsey Pringle, No. 11340, 
at altitude of 1,200 meters, on limestone hills, Yautepec, near 
Cuernavaca, State of Morelos, Mexico, October 21, 1902 (Gray). 

Distribution: In Mexico from the states of Tamaulipas, San 
Luis Potosi, and Nayarit southward to the states of Vera Cruz, 
Oaxaca, and Guerrero; also in Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Colombia; 
in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Sao Paulo, Brazil, where 
apparently adventive. 

Specimens examined: Berlandier 5 and 113, Tampico, Tamau- 
lipas, Mexico, in 1827 (Del., 2 sheets; Par.; Webb; type collection of 
Bidens brachycarpa DC.); idem 39, Mexico (Par.); idem 800, Mexico 
(Gray; Mo.); idem 2220, between Victoria and Tula, Tamaulipas, 
Mexico, November, 1830 (Del., 2 sheets; Gray; Par.); Bourgeau 
2253, Valley of Cordoba, Mexico, April 16, 1866 (Par.); J. J. Cooper 
5814 p.p., alt. 1,275 meters, Cartago, Prov. Cartago, Costa Rica, 
December, 1887 (Berl.; Field; Gray; forma radiis parvis vel deficien- 
tibus) ; G. M. Emrick 145, Hacienda Coahuayula, Michoacan, Mexico, 
February, 1901 (Field); J. M. Greenman 174, near Cordoba, Vera 
Cruz, Mexico, January 25, 1906 (Field); idem & M. T. Greenman 
5312, San Pedro, east of San Jose", Costa Rica, January 25, 1922 
(Mo.): J. Gregg 430, Mexico, September 3, 1848 (Mo.); Carl Heller 
37, alt. 900 meters, in meadows, Mirador, Vera Cruz, Mexico (Par. ; 
Mus. V.); Heyde & Lax 3788, alt. 1,050 meters, Cerro Gordo, Dept. 
Santa Rosa, Guatemala, September, 1892 (Gray; Mun.); idem 6172, 
alt. 800 meters, Cuijiniquilapa, Dept. Santa Rosa, Guatemala, 
November, 1893 (Boiss.; Brit.; Field; Gray) ; Hoehne & Gehrt 23904, 
Sao Vicente, Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil, March 28, 1929 (U.S.); 
Carl Hoffmann 742, San Jose", Costa Rica, April, 1857 (Berl.); 

1 O. E. Schulz (loc. cit.) and DeCandolle (loc. cit.) both give the achenial 
length as about 6 mm. ("3 lin.") but cotype material of B. brachycarpa DC. (Par.) 
has many fruiting heads with achenes having bodies 8-9 mm. long. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXXXIV 




h d 

BIDENS HOLSTII (O. Hoffm.) Sherff 



. 

OF THi 

OF IUINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 457 

Humboldt & Bonpland, alt. 2,340 meters, in arid places, near Santa 
Rosa de la Sierra, near western boundary of State of Guanajuato 
(cf. H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 7: 434 et 456. 1825), September, 1803- 
1804 (Par.; type of Cosmos pilosus H.B.K. and hence of Bidens 
rosea Schz. Bip.); M. E. Jones 27770, Orendain, Jalisco, Mexico, 
November 27, 1930 (Pom.; type of Bidens orendaniae Jones); H. 
Karsten, Quindio, Colombia (Petrop.); E. Kerber 9, Cordoba, Vera 
Cruz, Mexico, July 22, 1882 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Cop.; Del.; Mun.; 
Par., 3 sheets; Mus. V., etc.) ; F. M. Liebmann 640, Colipa, Vera Cruz, 
Mexico, March, 1841 (Cop., 2 sheets) ; idem 641, Papantla, Vera Cruz, 
June, 1841 (Cop.); idem 643, Mirador, Vera Cruz, January, 1843 
(Cop. ; Klatt's sketch in Gray) ; idem 651, Tehuacan, Puebla, Mexico, 
December, 1841 (Cop.) ; Fred Miiller 238, Orizaba, Vera Cruz, Mexico, 
1853 (N.Y.); idem 544 p.p., eodem loco, 1855 (N.Y.); E. W. Nelson 
2111, alt. 1,350-1,710 meters, between Tlapa and Ayusinapa, Gue- 
rrero, Mexico, December 13, 1894 (Gray); idem 6868, Los Reyes, 
Michoacan, Mexico, February 8-12, 1903 (Gray; foliis glabris et 
valde membranaceis) ; Edward Palmer, Terr. Tepic (Nayarit), Janu- 
ary 5-February 6, 1892 (U.S.); idem 68, alt. about 15 meters, vicin- 
ity of Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico, January, 1910 (Mo.; N.Y.); 
idem 192, Alvarez, San Luis Potosi, Mexico, September 28-October 
3, 1902 (Gray) ; Parkinson, Mexico (Kew) ; C. G. Pringle 11340 (type, 
Gray); E. M. Reineck, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 
November, 1898 (Gray) ; Rose, Painter, & Rose 10061, near Tomellin, 
Oaxaca, September 4-5, 1905 (U.S.); W. W. Rowlee & H. E. Stork 
842, Juan Vinas, Costa Rica, August 30, 1920 (N.Y.) ; H. E. Seaton 
419, alt. 810 meters, Cordoba, Vera Cruz, Mexico, August 20, 1891 
(Field; Gray; Kew; N.Y.); Eduard & Caecilie Seler 682, vicinity of 
Gallinas, Distr. Ciudad del Maiz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico, Febru- 
ary, 1888 (Berl.); Sinclair, San Bias, Terr. Tepic, Mexico (Kew); 
Ad. Tonduz 14779, alt. 1,400 meters, Ferme de Guacimo, Costa 
Rica, July 30, 1901 (Boiss.; forma capitulis discoideis). 

Greenman (loc. cit.) lists Palmer 192, E. W. Nelson 6868, and 
Heyde & Lux 6172 (all in Gray) as representing Bidens rosea Schz. 
Bip. (Cosmos pilosus H.B.K.). Without discussing B. rosea Schz. 
Bip., the immature type of which (Par.) is especially well matched 
by the Palmer plant, it is sufficient here to state that these specimens 
are referable to Bidens brachycarpa DC. The type and cotype 
specimens of B. brachycarpa DC. (Del.; Par., etc.), with their small 
leaves, small heads, more or less rosaceous ligules, and small, ex- 
aristate, upwardly attenuate achenes, appear widely different from 



458 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

typical B. pilosa L. A study of the other herbarium specimens 
cited above, however, shows it to be impossible to maintain separate 
specific rank for them; rather must they be given varietal rank 
under B. pilosa as was done by 0. E. Schulz (loc. cit.). According 
to the International Rules, the earlier varietal name calcicola must 
be applied here. 1 The type of the var. calcicola, Pringle 11340 
(Gray), has a single pair of stem leaves present, these pinnately 
5-parted, with the terminal and basal leaflets more or less definitely 
3-parted; the divisions are lanceolate; the involucres are rather 
densely canous-pubescent. These characters are found to be dupli- 
cated in various of the specimens above. 

DeCandolle appears to have attached undue importance to the 
amount of scabridity on the achenial surfaces. Thus he placed 
Berlandier 5 and 113, with achenes scabrous, in his new species B. 
brachycarpa, but Berlandier 2220, with achenes less glabrous 2 and 
happening to have a taller, more corymbose habit, with the terminal 
leaflets more elongate, he described separately under the new name 
B. exaristata. The technical characters of flowers and fruit offer 
no warrant for maintaining B. exaristata as a separate species or 
variety apart from the var. caleicola. As to the somewhat taller 
habit and more corymbosely or even fastigiately branched inflores- 
cence observed in certain specimens (Berlandier 39, Del., Par.; 
idem 2220, Del., Par.; Nelson 2111, U.S.), these seem to be merely 
the result of a capricious growth. Indeed, Berlandier 800 and 2220 
in the Gray Herbarium have a much more loosely corymbose in- 
florescence as, in fact, DeCandolle's description states ("laxe corym- 
bosa"), and thus at once remove from consideration the only charac- 
ter that by some botanists might be thought important. Through 
the first Berlandier specimen just cited (No. 800) an approach is 
made to B. pilosa var. bimucronata (Turcz.) 0. E. Schulz, a variety 

1 The Berlin Herbarium has several specimens of B. pilosa (leg. Sello et al.) 
with mature achenes only 4-5 mm. long and closely simulating the var. calcicola 
plants in all important respects except that they lack rays. Similarly, various 
herbaria have plants of the var. radiata with diminutive, commonly pubescent 
leaves and many of the fruiting heads minute, approaching the var. calcicola type 
so closely as practically to efface all varietal distinctions. The Tonduz specimens 
might almost equally well be regarded as of the species proper, and in fact had been 
treated as that by me until the same local form appeared again during further 
studies (Cooper 5814), with some of the heads radiate. 

2 DeCandolle (loc. cit.) actually described the achenes as glabrous ("achaeniis 
glabris"), but in two sheets of Berlandier 2220 (Del.), many of the achenes are dis- 
tinctly scabrous near the apex. 

O. E. Schulz (loc. cit.), evidently relying upon DeCandolle, likewise regarded 
B. exaristata as having glabrous achenes. Thus he stated: ' B. exaristatus DC. 
. . . ab hac varietate [B. pilosa var. bimucronata] acheniis glabris differt." 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXXXV 




BIDENS HOLSTII var. RUPESTRIS SherfT 



OF THt 

OF ILLINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 459 

which has the heads usually larger, the leaves more often glabrous 
or subglabrous, and the lateral leaflets (in the variety proper) 
typically undivided. 

Bidens pilosa var. 77. calcicola f. 1. dissecta Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 80: 379. 1925. PI. CIX, fig. 6. 

A varietate differt: foliis bipinnatis vel etiam tripinnatisectis, 
segmentis linearibus vel anguste lanceolatis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Heyde &Lux, No. 6164, at altitude 
of 1,300 meters, Malpais, Department of Santa Rosa, Guatemala, 
November, 1893 (Gray). 

Distribution: State of Michoacan, Mexico, southeastward to 
Guatemala. 1 

Specimens examined: Bro. G. Arsene 3164, alt. 1,900 meters, 
flooded places to the east of Morelia, Michoacan,' October 7, 1909 
(Gray; N.Y.); Bernoulli & Cario 1551, Quezaltenango, Guatemala, 
July, 1876 (Kew); Heyde & Lux 6164 (type, Gray: cotypes, Berl., 
2 sheets; Boiss., 4 sheets; Brit.; Cop.; Field; Kew); iidem 6170, 
alt. 1,600 meters, La Vega, Department of Santa Rosa, Guatemala, 
September, 1893 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Gray; Kew); L. H. MacDaniels 
114, alt. 1,650 meters, along Cuernavaca-Taxco Road, about 10 
miles from Taxco, Guerrero, Mexico, August 19, 1935 (Field) ; E. W. 
Nelson 6868 (N.Y.); Schaffner, Mexico (Berl.); Eduard & Caecilie 
Seler 1184 p.p., Patzcuaro, Michoacan, November 2, 1895 (N.Y.). 

A form comparable with the var. calcicola in much the same way 
that the bipinnately leaved f. odorata of B. pilosa var. bimucronata 
(Turcz.) 0. E. Schulz is comparable with that variety. Indeed, of 
the var. bimucronata and its form with more compound foliage (i.e., 
f. odorata}, there are found at times stunted or dwarfed specimens 
which have flowering and fruiting heads diminutive enough to be 
taken for var. calcicola and f. dissecta. It is therefore possible that 
in some of my past herbarium determinations I may have confused 
the two varieties and their respective forms to a slight extent. 2 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XCIX, FIG. b 

Bidens pilosa: 5-partite cauline leaf, with lowermost leaflets 
2-partite, approaching those in B. biternata, X0.7; from sheet in Hb. 

1 Among specimens additional to those listed and found to be true f. dissecta, 
but omitted because of the uncertainties connected with the written data (cf. 
Standley, Science n. ser. 65: 130. 1927), was a fine specimen purporting to be by 
Fr. Nicolas, Moulin d'Huexotitla, vicinity of Puebla, July 15, 1909 (Kew). Aside 
from this plant, I have seen no authentic Mexican material known definitely to 
have come from elsewhere than the states of Michoacan and Guerrero. 

2 For var. calcicola and f. dissecta I have, in various herbaria, used until 
recently the name B. pilosa var. brachycarpa (DC.) 0. E. Schz., etc. 



460 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Linn, (where properly treated as Bidens pilosa but labeled on reverse 
side "Rumph. amb. 6, t. 15")- 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CII 

Bidens pilosa, figs, a, b, e-j: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, 
X0.69; b, separate leaf, X0.69; e, exterior involucral bract, X3.43; 
f, interior involucral bract, X3.43; g, palea, X3.43; h, disc floret, 
X3.43; i (outer), j (inner), achenes, X3.43; all from Maxon 724, in 
Hb. U.S. 

Bidens pilosa var. minor, figs, c, d, k-r: c, d, separate leaves, 
X0.69; k, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.69; /, exterior involu- 
cral bract, X3.43; m, interior involucral bract, X3.43; n, ray floret, 
X3.43; o, palea, X3.43; p, disc floret, X3.43; q (outer), r (inner), 
achenes, X3.43; c, d, from Sodiro 4314 (type of Bidens pilosa var. 
brevifoliata Hieron.), in Hb. BerL; k-r, from Eggers 208, in Hb. 
Kew. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CIII, FIGS, a-h 

Bidens pilosa var. radiata: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, 
X0.7; b, 5-partite leaf, X0.7; c, exterior involucral bract, X5.56; 
d, interior involucral bract, X5.56; e, ray floret, X3.48; /, palea, 
X5.56; g, disc floret, X5.56; h, achene, X3.48; a, c-h, from Bitting 
1297, in Hb. Field; 6, from type of Bidens leucantha (L.) Willd., in 
Hb. Linn. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CIV, FIGS, a-l 

Bidens pilosa var. bimucronata: a, b, lower and upper portions of 
same flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.68; c, exterior involucral 
bract, X6.79; d, interior involucral bract, X6.79; e, ray floret, 
X3.4; /, palea, X4.07; g, disc floret, X4.07; h, i, achenes differing 
length of awns, X4.07; all homEhrenberg 111, in Hb. Berl. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CV 

Bidens pilosa var. bimucronata f. odorata: a, flowering and fruiting 
specimen, X0.58; b, lower cauline leaf, X0.58; c, portion of stem and 
portion of adjacent leaf, magnified to show details, Xl.75; d, exterior 
involucral bract, X3.49; e, interior involucral bract, X3.49; /, ray 
floret, X3.49; g, palea, X3.49; h, disc floret, X3.49: i, anthers, 
X 17.46; j, pollen grain, X336; k, upper portion of pistil, X 17.46; 
/ (outer), m (inner), achenes, X4.14; all from Pringle 1291 (cotype 
of Bidens inermis Wats.), in Hb. Field. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CVI 

Bidens pilosa var. bimucronata f. odorata, figs, a-h: a, flowering 
and fruiting specimen, X0.66; b, exterior involucral bract, X3.98; 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXXXVI 




BIDENS KAMERUNENSIS Sheril 



OF THE 

Of if HN8IS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 461 

c, interior involucral bract, X3.98; d, ray corolla, X2.66; e, palea, 
X3.98; /, disc floret, X3.98; g (outer), h (inner), achenes, X3.98; 
a, mainly from hb. Cavanilles (original material of Bidens odorata 
Cav.), in Hb. Brit., but slightly from Orcutt 3657, in Hb. Mo.; rest 
from Orcutt 3657, ibid. 

Bidens pilosa var. alausensis, figs, i-o: i, flowering and fruiting 
specimen, X0.66; j, exterior involucral bract, X3.98; k, interior 
involucral bract, X3.98; I, ray corolla, X3.98; m, portion of palea, 
X3.98; n, disc floret, X3.98; o, achene, X3.98; i, mainly from type 
but partly from cotype, in Hb. Par.; j-o, from Bertero 845, in 
Hb. Gray. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CVII 

Bidens pilosa var. alausensis f. Scandicina: a, flowering and fruit- 
ing branch, X0.61; b-d, diverse leaves, X0.61; e, exterior involucral 
bract, X3.68; /, interior involucral bract, X3.68; g, ray corolla, 
X3.68; h, palea, X3.68; *, disc floret, X3.68; j (outer), k (inner), 
achenes, X3.68; a, from De Szyszylowicz 657, in Hb. Berl.; 6, e-k, 
from De Szyszylowicz 735, ibid.; c, d, from Sodiro, near Pomasqui, 
Ecuador, February, 1896, 2 sheets, ibid. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CVIII 

Bidens pilosa var. calcicola: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, 
X0.59; b, exterior involucral bract, X4.13; c, interior involucral 
bract, X4.13; d, ray floret, X4.13; e, palea, X4.13; /, disc floret, 
X4.13; g (outer), h (inner), achenes, X4.13; a, from Kerber 9, in Hb. 
Berl. ; b-h, from Berlandier 5 and 113 (cotypes of Bidens brachycarpa 
DC.), in Hb. Par. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CIX, FIGS, a-j 

Bidens pilosa var. calcicola, figs, a, c-j: flowering and fruiting 
specimen, X0.62; c, lower surface of portion of leaf from a, showing 
pubescence, Xl.24; d, exterior involucral bract, X3.71; e, interior 
involucral bract, X3.71; /, ray corolla, X3.71; g, palea, X3.71; h, 
disc floret, X3.71; i (outer), j (inner), achenes, X3.71; all from Heyde 
and Lux 6172, in Hb. Gray. 

Bidens pilosa var. calcicola f. dissecta, fig. b: a single leaf, X0.62; 
from type. 

133. Bidens subalternans DC. Prodr. 5: 600. 1836. PI. CX. 
Bidens quadrangularis DC. loc. cit. 

Bidens platensis Mang. An. Mus. Buenos Aires 24: 230. 1913. 
Bidens megapotamica 0. E. Schulz, Bot. Jahrb. 50, Suppl.: 182. 
1914 (non Spreng.). 



462 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Folia unipinnata var. 7. unipinnata. 

Folia plus minusve bipinnata. 

Foliorum segmenta plerumque linearia var. /3. simulans. 

Foliorum segmenta saepius lanceolata .B. subalternans sensu stricto. 

Herba annua, erecta, ramosa, 4-10 (vel etiam fere usque ad 30) 
dm. alta, caule tetragono glabro vel sparsim hispido. Folia petiolata 
petiolis usque ad 5.5 mm. longis, petiolo adjecto 6-21 cm. longa, 
bipinnatifida vel subsimpliciter pinnata; segmentis membranaceis, 
breviter et dense vel remote hispidis, plus minusve dentatis vel 
irregulariter lobulatis, infra pallidioribus, terminalibus plerumque 
elongato-lanceolatis vel elongato-linearibus, acuminatis, lateralibus 
saepe angustioribus. Capitula non numerosa, ramos terminantia, 
pedunculata pedunculis 1-4 cm. longis, discoidea vel subradiata, ad 
anthesin 8-10 mm. lata et 5-6 mm. alta, demum cum achaeniis circ. 
1.7 cm. lata et circ. 1.6 cm. alta. Involucri bracteae subaequales, 
exteriores circ. 8, anguste lineares, ciliatae, plus minusve hispidae, 
acute vel subobtuse calloso-apiculatae, demum 4-6 mm. longae, 
interiores lineari-lanceolatae. Flores ligulati albidi vel albido- 
flavi et rudimentarii, saepe deficientes. Achaenia non pauca (30-50), 
linearia, tetragona, sulcata, atra, glabra vel superne leviter hispida, 
corpore exteriora 6-8 mm. interiora 8-14 mm. longa et paleas facile 
superantia, plerumque 4- (rarius 2-3-) aristata aristis erectis vel sube- 
rectis retrorsum hamosis 1-2.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Philip Salzmann, in cultivated 
places about Bahia, Brazil, in 1830 (Del.). 

Distribution: Uruguay and central Argentina to northern and 
western Brazil; found long ago (MacGillivray) on the Isle of Pines 
in the West Indies. 

Specimens examined: Jose Arechavaleta 4123, Montevideo, Uru- 
guay, March, 1874 (Kew) ; Banks & Solander, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 
1768 (Brit.); C. Bettfreund & Isolina Roster 460 and 461, Almagro- 
Flores, Buenos Aires, Argentina, communic. 1889 (Berl.); Blanchet 
51, Bahia, Brazil (Del.); idem 195, eodem loco, 1831 (Del.); Bowie 
& Cunningham, Monte de Santa Theresa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 
February 10, 1815 (Brit.); Otto Buchtien 4167 and 4182, alt. 1,300 
meters, Milluguaya, North Yungas, Bolivia, December, 1917 (Field) ; 
R. E. Fries 1084, shady, wet place among bushes, Tarija, Bolivia, 
January 16, 1902 (Petrop.; Stockh., 2 sheets); idem 1456, among 
bushes at edge of forest, Gran Chaco, Tatarenda, Bolivia, March 
25, 1902 (Petrop.; Stockh., 2 sheets; U.S.); Galander, Cordoba, 
Argentina, November 30, 1877 (Berl.); idem, eodem loco, March 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXXXVII 




b a 



BIDENS GRANTII var. STAPFII Sherff (figs, a-i) 
BIDENS STEPPIA (Stcetz) Sherff (figs, j-r) 



, 

OF THt 
HNIVENITY ftf 



THE GENUS BIDENS 463 

15, 1878 (Berl.; forma foliis dissectior; nom. vulg. amor seco) ; George 
Gardner 2222, dry, hilly places, lane near Oeiras, northern Brazil, 
March, 1839 (Kew); idem 3851, Goyaz, Brazil, 1841 (Berl.; Boiss.; 
Brit.; Del.; Kew, 2 sheets; Mus. V.; Oxf.; Par.); Ernest Gibert, road- 
sides, Montevideo, Uruguay, January, 1874 (Mus. V., 2 sheets); 
idem la, eodem loco, 1858 (Kew, 2 sheets); idem 95, eodem loco 
(Kew); Emit Hassler 375, in ploughed fields near San Bernardino, 
central Paraguay, July, 1885-1895 (Boiss., 2 sheets; Brit.; Hassl.; 
Kew; N.Y.); idem 3623, in ploughed fields, San Bernardino, Decem- 
ber, 1897-1899 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Gen.; Gray; Hassl.; Kew; 
Mus. V.); idem 11558, in region of Lake Ypacaray, Paraguay, 
February, 1913 (Berl.; Brit.; Hassl.; Mo.); Guill. Herter, Sayago, 
Uruguay, 1907 (Gray; Kew); idem 787 pro parte (Stockh.); G. 
Hieronymus, Colanchanga, Sierra Chica de Cordoba, Argentina, 
February, 1882 (Berl.; forma); Hort. Bot. Genevae, from Rio de 
Janeiro, Brazil, September 24, 1826 (N.Y.); Lhotzky, Bahia, Brazil 
(Berl.); C. A. M. Lindman, noticeable in rubbish-covered places 
everywhere through the state, Cruz Alta, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 
April 20, 1893 (Stockh., 2 sheets) ; idem, dry fields, Paraguari, Para- 
guay, 1894 (Stockh., forma monstr.); P. G. Lorentz 219, Cordoba, 
Argentina, 1871 (Berl.); D. Lund, Brazil (Cop.); John MacGillivray 
783, margin of woods, Isle of Pines, October 2, 1853 (Kew) ; ex herb. 
John Miers, Mendoza and Buenos Aires, Argentina (Brit.) et 705, 
Mendoza (Kew; nom. vulg., amores secos); Thomas Morong 208, 
Asuncion, Paraguay, November 30, 1888 (Mo.; N.Y.; Phila.); idem 
959, growing almost 3 meters high, Pilcomaya River, Paraguay, 
1888-1890 (Gray; Mo.; Phila.); C. Niederlein 95, Conception del 
Uruguay, Argentina, April 30, 1880 (Berl.); L. R. Parodi 8133, San 
Vincente, Prov. Buenos Aires, Argentina, April 14, 1927 (Gray); 
Perrot, along the Cuyaba River, Mattogrosso, Brazil, April 22, 1899 
(Berl., 3 sheets; usque ad 2 m. alta); R. Pilger 505 (Berl.); Ponson, 
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1828 (Del., type of Bidens quadrangularis 
DC.); Raimooser, Paraguay (U.V., 2 sheets); A, F. Regnell III. 
778 pro parte, in forest, Caldas, Minas Geraes, Brazil, February 
23, 1869 (Stockh.); Salzmann, cultivated places about Bahia, Brazil, 
1830 (Del., type); F. Schickendantz 57, Yacatula, Prov. Catamarca, 
Argentina, March, 1879 (Berl.; forma); Sello, Brazil (Berl., 2 sheets); 
idem 607, Brazil (Berl.); Teodoro Stuckert 9469, Burruyacu, Prov. 
Tucuman, Argentina, April 1, 1900 (Del., 2 sheets); idem 9215, 
Tucuman, April 6, 1900 (Del.); idem 13077, Burruyacu, April 20, 



464 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

1903 (Del.); Tamberlik, western Brazil (Mus. V.); Algernon Weddell 
3169, Paraguay, April-May, 1845 (Par., 3 sheets). 

0. E. Schulz (loc. cit.) found in the herbarium of the Botanical 
Garden at Berlin three sheets of Bidens material collected by Sello 
(the name often spelled "Sellow" in literature), No. 607, in Brazil. 
These he determined as Bidens megapotamica Spreng., although 
the labels bore no data as to the locality in Brazil whence the plants 
came. Sprengel's description was based upon a plant collected by 
Sello at "Rio Grande" in "Brazil." 1 That Schulz had not seen this 
Rio Grande specimen is shown by his citing it "Sellow ex Sprengel." 
In 1923 (Bot. Gaz. 76: 91) I presented these and other facts and stated 
the conclusion that Bidens megapotamica was a species of Thele- 
sperma and as such had been correctly renamed Thelesperma mega- 
potamicum (Spreng.) 0. Kuntze (taking precedence in Thelesperma 
over the synonym T. Scabiosoides Less.). 

In 1926 (Bot. Gaz. 81: 252-254) I reported finding what seemed 
an authentic specimen of Bidens megapotamica Spreng. in the Deles- 
sert Herbarium and on the strength of that specimen, of the well 
known Isostigma Peucedanifolium (Spreng.) Less., made the new 
combination I. megapotamicum (Spreng.). About the same time, 
but too late to prevent publication of this new combination (vide 
Bot. Gaz. 83: 425. 1927), Dr. S. F. Blake reported finding the true 
type of B. megapotamica Spreng. in the Schultz Bipontinus Herbarium 
(Par.). This plant, as his photograph and observations showed, was 
true Thelesperma Scabiosoides Less. Thus the plant of the Delessert 
Herbarium was seen to be of spurious or at least erroneous determina- 
tion, and my first reasoning, namely, that Bidens megapotamica 
Spreng. was equivalent to and took precedence over Thelesperma 
Scabiosoides Less, (thus validating the name Thelesperma mega- 
potamicum [Spreng.] 0. Ktze.), was proved correct. 

1 Sprengel Latinized the citation Rio Grande to read "Ad fl. magnum Amer. 
austr.," evidently thinking that a Rio Grande River had been meant by Sello. 
The name megapotamica would seem to emphasize this fact. A study of various 
specimen labels, however, shows that Sello collected many specimens either in the 
State of Rio Grande Do Sul or in the country just south, which, although shortly 
after Sello's collecting separated from Brazil under the name of Uruguay, was 
considered a part of Brazil when Sello collected, and may easily have been con- 
sidered by him a part of the adjacent province of Rio Grande Do Sul. Thus we 
read (as given by Lessing, Linnaea 6: 103. 1831): "Sellow in Brasilia meridionali 
ad Rio Pardo Octbr. et Novbr. 1823"; ibid. 141, "In Monte Video Commerson 
et Sellow"; ibid. 516, "Sellow in Campis ad Rio Nigro." In this connection we 
may note also that DeCandolle (Prodr. 5: 634. 1836) cites for the State of Rio 
Grande Do Sul four species of Thelesperma and Isostigma collected by Sello and 
cited by Lessing merely as coming from Brazil. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 465 

This is particularly reassuring, since it enables us definitely to 
eliminate from consideration the trivial name megapotamica in the 
genus Bidens, where it had been placed erroneously by 0. E. Schulz 
(loc. cit.), and for the one species considered here to take up the 
name B. subalternans DC. 

Bidens platensis Mang. was described as a hybrid between B. pilosa 
L. (staminate) and "B. bipinnata L." (pistillate). A study of Miss 
Manganaro's text convinced me some time ago that the plant which 
had been assumed to be B. bipinnata L. was in reality B. subalternans 
var. simulans. Recently I was given valuable aid in the determi- 
nation of B. platensis by Professor Angel L. Cabrera of the La Plata 
Museum in Argentina. In a letter he wrote to the following effect: 
His numerous searches in the past for the type of B. platensis had 
been fruitless. He therefore had given the type up for lost. 
Recently, however, he had been entrusted with the rearrangement 
of the Spegazzini collections for the La Plata Museum. Now, the 
late Miss Manganaro had been a pupil of Spegazzini, and at her 
death her parents sent her collections to Spegazzini. Professor 
Cabrera found her collections inside an old chest, in November, 1930. 
The herbarium was in great disorder, without labels or any other 
indications. There were, however, several specimens of Bidens that 
had been very carefully mounted, and these were "closely similar to 
the original figure of B. platensis." Since no other specimens in the 
Manganaro collection had been given such special care, Professor 
Cabrera concluded (without doubt rightly) that these specially 
mounted ones represented the type material of B. platensis. He 
lent two of the supposedly type specimens for study and they are 
now before me. Both are typical B. subalternans. 

Bidens subalternans var. /3. simulans Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 88: 291. 1929. 

A specie foliis plus dissectis, segmentis plerumque plus minusve 
linearibus, differt. 

Type specimen : Collected by Pedro Jb'rgensen, No. 1785, growing 
erect, one meter high, Department of Andalgala, Province of Cata- 
marca, Argentina, October 1, 1917 (U.S.). 

Distribution : With the species, but much rarer. 

Specimens examined: A. L. Cabrera 873, La Plata, Argentina, 
April 18, 1929 (Field); P. Dusen, in cultivated places, Tlapcrussu, 
Parana, Brazil, February 29, 1912 (U.S.); idem 9432, in grassy, 
shrubby places, State of Parana, March 25, 1910 (Gray; N.Y.; 



466 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

U.S.); Guill. Herter 787 pro parte, alt. 30 meters, in clay soil, along 
roads, Toledo, Dept. Canelones, Uruguay, May, 1927 (Gray); 
P. Jorgensen 1283, Dept. Andalgala, Prov. Catamarca, Argentina, 
October 11, 1916 (Gray; U.S.); idem 1785 (type, U.S.: cotype, 
Gray); Otto Kuntze, Prov. Cordoba, Argentina, December, 1894 
(N.Y.); idem, eodem loco (Mo.); Regnell III. 778 pro parte, in 
cultivated places, Caldas, Minas Geraes, Brazil (Stockh.); idem 
III. 778a, Rio Verde, Caldas (Stockh.); S.'Venturi 121, barracks 
south of Buenos Aires, Argentina, April 28, 1902 (Stockh.). 

At times Bidens subalternans is found with the leaves delicately 
2-3-pinnatisect and the segments linear, even narrowly so. For a 
number of years, when making herbarium determinations, I included 
such forms under the species proper without distinction. Only more 
recently have I distinguished them as var. simulans. In some 
cases they suggest B. bipinnata L. so strongly as to create confusion. 
In other cases they display a slight approach to B. exigua Sherff. 

Bidens subalternans var. 7. unipinnata Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 88: 292. 1929. 

A specie foliis pinnatim 3-5-partitis foliolis lanceolatis vel ovato- 
lanceolatis differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by Emil Hassler, No. 11558, in the 
region of Lake Ypacaray, central Paraguay, February, 1913 (Gray). 

Distribution: Argentina, Paraguay, and Brazil. 

Specimens examined: Beyrich, in rubbish-strewn places near Rio 
de Janeiro, Brazil (Stockh.) ; Blanchet 816, about Bahia, Brazil, 1831 
(N.Y.); R. E. Fries, Santa Barbara, Prov. Salta, Argentina, July, 
1901 (Stockh.); Hassler 11558 (Gray, type); P. Jorgensen 1080, 
Comau, Andalgala, Prov. Catamarca, Argentina, November 11, 
1916 (Mo.); idem 2041, Terr. Chaco, Argentina (Mo.); G. A. Malme 
1410B, in rubbish-strewn places, Santa Anna da Chapada, Matto 
Grosso, Brazil, February 20, 1894 (Stockh.); Martins, herb-grown 
places along San Francisco River near Joazeiro, Bahia, Brazil, 
March-April (Kew); L. R. Parodi 7787, adventive in cultiva- 
tions, Lanugasta, Chilecito, Prov. La Rioja, Argentina, January 31, 
1927 (Gray). 

Occasionally a South American specimen of Bidens is found with 
the general aspect of B. pilosa L., but with the fruiting heads as 
in the closely related B. subalternans. A close inspection shows that 
the only difference from typical B. subalternans is in the once-pinnate 
(instead of twice-pinnate) leaves. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXXXVIII 




BIDENS RUFOVENOSA Sherff (figs, a-t) 
BIDENS LEPTOLEPIS Sherff (figs, j-p) 



Of 



11UHOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 467 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CX 

Bidens subalternans: a (lower), 6 (upper), portions of flowering 
and fruiting specimen, X0.57; c, exterior involucral bract, X4.53; 
d, interior involucral bract, X4.53; e, ray corolla, X4.53; /, palea, 
X4.53; g, disc floret, X4.53; h (outer), i (inner), achenes, X4.53; all 
from Morong 959, in Hb. Gray. 

134. Bidens domingensis 0. E. Schulz in Urban, 
Symb. Antill. 7: 429. 1912. Plate CXI. 

Herba erecta, annua, ramosa, 3-5 dm. alta, caule quadrangulato 
subglabroque. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus ciliatisque usque ad 
2.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto circ. 5-7 cm. longa, simpliciter pin- 
nata, bijuga; foliolis membranaceis, ciliatis, utrinque pilis articulatis 
crispis disperse pilosis; terminali oblongo-ovato, apice acuminate, ad 
basim decurrenti, utrinque profunde 3-6-serrato, circ. 2-3 cm. longo 
et 1-1.3 cm. lato; lateralibus ovatis, superioribus plus minusve 
sessilibus, inferioribus breviter petiolulatis; folia suprema foliolis 
angustiora et oblonga. Capitula pauca tenuiter pedunculata pedun- 
culis 6-15 cm. longis, subradiata, pansa ad anthesin 4-8 mm. alta 
et 4-9 mm. lata. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 8, lineares, 
ciliatae, circ. 4.5 mm. longae, quam interiores lanceolatae paulo 
breviores. Flores ligulati circ. 5, albidi, non perspicui; flores tubulosi 
circ. 20. Achaenia linearia, subattenuata, nigrescentia, supra pilosa, 
subtetragona, corpore 1-1.6 cm. longa, apice bi- vel rarius tri- 
aristata aristis retrorsum hamosis 2.5-3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Miguel Fuertes, No. 1324, at 
altitude of 1,300 meters, La Ho near Rincon, Province of Barahona, 
Santo Domingo, October, 1911 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Island of Santo Domingo, West Indies. 

Specimens examined: Fuertes 1320, alt. 1,300 meters, near Rin- 
con, Prov. Barahona, October, 1911 (N.Y.); idem 1324 (type, Berl.: 
cotypes, Del., 2 sheets; Mus. V.). 

A species meriting further study. Plants collected by Raun- 
kiaer 1 appear to be B. pilosa and yet have capitula not essentially 
different from those of the Fuertes plants of B. domingensis. (Cf. 
etiam Fendleri 695 pro parte sub B. pilosa var. radiata.) 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXI 

Bidens domingensis: a, b, lower and upper parts of flowering and 
fruiting plant, X0.7; c, exterior involucral bract, X3.52; d, interior 

1 C. Raunkiaer, La Cumbre, Haiti, April 8, 1906 (Cop.); idem 1005, Puerto 
Plata, Haiti, April 5, 1906 (Cop.). 



468 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

involucral bract, X3.52; e, ray floret, X2.ll; /, palea, X3.52; g, disc 
floret, X4.22; h (outer), i (inner), achenes, X2.ll; a-d, f-J, from 
type; e, from Fuertes 1320, in Hb. N. Y. 

135. Bidens Malmei Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 89: 364. 1930. 
PI. CXII. 

Herba annua, erecta, caule acriter tetragona, supra ramosa, 
0.4-1 m. alta. Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis usque ad 4 cm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto 4-10 cm. longa, minutissime sparsimque 
pubescentia, ciliata, membranacea, primaria mediana subbipinnata, 
foliolis lateralibus 2-3 jugis, basalibus rursus 2-3-partitis, aliis indi- 
visis, omnibus circumambitu ovatis circ. 2.5-3.5 cm. longis, crenato- 
dentatis, dentibus (saepe duplicibus) unico latere circ. 6-12 ; superiora 
minora, bipinnata vel etiam tripinnatisecta, segmentis plus minusve 
ovato-oblongis. Capitula laxe corymboideo-paniculata, tenuiter 
pedunculata pedunculis 5-17 cm. longis, subradiata, pansa ad 
anthesin circ. 6 mm. alta et aequaliter lata. Involucri basaliter 
hispidi bracteae exteriores 6-8, lineares, hispidae, apice subacutae, 
sub apice rarissime subdilatatae, 3-4 mm. longae; interiores lineari- 
lanceolatae, 5-7 mm. longae. Flores ligulati albidi rudimentarii, 
ligula ipsa tantum circ. 1-1.5 mm. longi plus minusve obcordati 
atque apice paucidentati. Achaenia linearia, nigra, tetragona, facie 
unaquaque 2-sulcata, glabra vel paulo erecto-setosa, corpore 
7-11 mm. longa et 0.5-0.7 mm. lata, apice exteriora 2-3- alia 4-aris- 
tata, aristis stramineis retrorsum hamosis 2-3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Gustaf 0. A. Malme, No. 1456, 
near Menino Denso, Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Bra- 
zil, March 3, 1902 (Stockh., 2 sheets). 

Distribution: State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. 

Specimens examined: Malme 1456 (2 type sheets, Stockh.). 

Allied with Bidens bipinnata L., B. duranginensis Sherff, B. 
Gardneri Baker, and B. subalternans DC. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXII 

Bidens Malmei: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.62; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X4.92; c, interior involucral bract, X4.92; 
(/, (rudimentary) ray corolla, X4.92; e, palea, X4.92; /, disc floret, 
X4.92; g, achene, X3.69; all from 1st type sheet. 

136. Bidens Cynapiifolia H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. PL 4: 185 

(235). 1820. PI. CXIII. 

Bidens Cynapifolia H.B.K. ex Heynhold, Nomencl. 121. 1840 
(sphalm). 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXXXIX 




BIDENS ASPERATA (Hutch. & Dalz.) SheriT 



OF 
UNIVERSITY 



THE GENUS BIDENS 469 

Bidens bipinnata var. Cynapiifolia (H.B.K.) Gomez, Ann. Hist. Nat. 

Madrid 19: 275. 1890. 

Caulis a basi ramosissimus, ramis perspicue tenuibus, foliis ple- 
rumque pinnatis inferioribus circ. 3.5 cm. longis, foliolo terminali 

circ. 1 cm. longo saepe integro var. 7. tennis. 

Habitus diversa, foliis plerumque bipinnatis inferioribus majoribus. 
Achaenia plerumque paulo recurvato-falcata, nonnulla (2-4 mar- 
ginalia) dense hirta B. Cynapiifolia sensu stricto. 

Achaenia recta vel subrecta, omnia glaberrima. 

var. /3. portoricensis. 

Herba annua, erecta; caule ramoso, tetragono, glabro vel nodis 
piloso, 0.3-1.2 (rarius -2) m. alto. Folia petiolata petiolis 1.5-6 
cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 4-15 cm. longa, bipinnata; foliolis valde 
membranaceis, ciliatis, utrinque ad nervos sparsim adpresseque 
pilosis, his vel suis lobis deltoideo-ovatis vel lanceolatis, serratis. 
Capitula obscurissime radiata, ad anthesin minuta (5-7 mm. lata 
et 4-6 mm. alta), floribus 25, pedunculis tenuibus 2-9 (-15) cm. 
longis. Involucri basis glanduloso-hispida; bracteis exterioribus 
circ. 7, linearibus, acutis, fere glabris, 4-6 (-7) mm. longis, quam 
interioribus paulo brevioribus. Flores ligulati 4 vel 5, ligula oblongo- 
elliptici, pallide flavi vel albidi, apice integri vel irregulariter denti- 
culato-incisi, 5-7.5 mm. longi. Achaenia linearia, tetragona, oli- 
vaceo-brunnea, plerumque paulum recurvato-falcata, 4- (rariter 
5- vel 6-) aristata aristis retrorsum hamosis et 1-3.5 mm. longis, 
corpore 7-14 (-17) mm. longa, marginalia 2-4 brevia pilis brevibus 
erecto-patulis dense hirta, reliqua glabrata. 

Type specimen: Collected by Alexander Humboldt and Aime 
Bonpland on the Island of Cuba, 1 in April, 1799-1804 (Par.). 

Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the West Indies; in 
State of Yucatan, Mexico, and throughout northern South America 
to central Peru and the states of Matto Grosso and Ceara, Brazil; 
has been collected (T. Thomson) also in northwestern Himalaya, 
British East India, where doubtless adventive; recently established 
in the Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: 2 Ed. Andre 151, La Guayra, Venezuela, 
November 25, 1875 (Field; N.Y.); anon., St. Croix (Cop.); Charles 

1 The type sheet gives Havana for the locality, but Bonpland's private dupli- 
cate sheet gives "Guanayacoa" (Guanabacoa; across the small bay from Havana) 
and so does Kunth's original description. 

2 Many of these specimens were listed in the manuscript before it was decided 
to maintain any varieties of B. Cynapiifolia, hence possibly a very few are included 
which belong to var. portoricensis or var. tennis. 



470 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Belanger 179, St. Pierre, Martinique, March, 1853 (Del.); idem 522, 
eodem loco, 1860 (Par.); P. E. Benzon, St. Croix (Cop.); idem, West 
Indies, 1820 (Cop.); Blauner 86, Aguas Claras, Puerto Rico, 1853 
(Del.); L. J. K. Brace 385, Bahamas, April-June, 1879 (N.Y.); 
N. L. Britton 1612, waste places, Bluefields and vicinity, Jamaica, 
September 22, 1907 (N.Y.); idem 2972, roadside, Constant Spring, 
vicinity of Kingston, Jamaica, August 29, 1908 (N.Y.); idem& uxor 
& J. A. Shafer 116, Playa, vicinity of Matanzas, Cuba, March 12, 
1903 (Cam.; N.Y.); N. L. Britton & J. F. Cowell 29, roadside, St. 
Croix, September 5, 1901 (N.Y.) ; iidem & Stewardson Brown 4996, 
waste grounds, Cayo Muertos, Puerto Rico, March 9-12, 1915 
(N.Y.); N. L. Britton & John Shafer 752, banks, Isl. Tortola, Febru- 
ary 13-17, 1913 (N.Y.); iidem 3117, rocky hill, Mt. Pleasant, Cura- 
cao, March 20-27, 1913 (N.Y.) ; N. L. Britton & W. M. Wheeler 129, 
waste places, Isl. Culebra, Puerto Rico, March 3-12, 1906 (N.Y.); 
N. L. Britton & Percy Wilson 469, hills south of Matanzas, Cuba, 
September 10, 1903 (N.Y.); W. E. Broadway, open places in the 
lowlands, St. George's, Grenada, November-December, 1904 (Gray; 
N.Y.) and March, 1905 /Del.); E. M. Bryant 69, windward coast, 
Dominica, 1905 (Kew); Rob. Combs 152, not uncommon in fertile, 
shaded places, Cieneguita, Distr. Cienfuegos, Prov. Santa Clara, 
Cuba, June 17, 1895 (Berl.; Field; Gray; Kew; Mo.); J. S. De La Cruz 
1839, Mora Landing, Moruka River, Pomeroon Distr., British 
Guiana, August 21-23, 1922 (Gray; N.Y.); idem 3809, Waini River, 
Northwest Distr., British Guiana, April 3-18, 1923 (Phila.); ex 
Herb. Estacidn Central Agrondmica (Cuba) 1349, Laguna de Caste- 
llano, vicinity of Santiago de las Vegas, Prov. La Habana, Cuba 
(Field); A. H. Curtiss, in tobacco bed, Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines, 
January, 1904 (N.Y.); 0. Debeaux, Fort de France, Martinique, 
March 29, 1897 (Par.); Otto Degener 3777, between Waiohinu and 
Kaalualu, Isl. Hawaii, September 9, 1929 (Field; U.S.); idem 3778, 
eodem loco, September 10, 1929 (Field) ; idem 3780, arid cliff, South 
Point above Pukawaakauhi, Isl. Hawaii, September 17, 1929 (Field) ; 
idem 3781, arid pasture, Keei, Isl. Hawaii, September 21, 1929 (Field) : 
idem & Herbert Kai 3779, dry, open forest, near Kaalualu, Isl. Hawaii, 
September 13, 1929 (Field) ; Pere Duss 19, in fields, Antigua, Decem- 
ber, 1902 (N.Y.) ; idem 468, Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, 1893 (Par.) ; 
idem 1444, abundant at St. Pierre and Robert, Martinique, 1882 
(N.Y.) ; idem 2504, road from Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, 1892 (Field); 
Heinrich Franz Alexander Eggers, Isl. St. Croix, in 1874 (Cop.); 
idem, in ruderal places, St. Thomas, February 8, 1877 (Gray) and 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXL 







BIDENS URCEOLATA DeWild. (figs, a-g) 
BIDENS RUBRA DeWild. (figs, h-o) 



OF THt 

8F HUMS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 471 

July, 1881 (N.Y.); idem 45, eodem loco, December, 1886 (Cop.); idem 
204, eodem loco, September, 1880 (Gray) ; idem 208, alt. 330 meters, 
Signal Hill, eodem loco, December, 1880 (Mus. V.; U.V.); idem 
454, St. Thomas (Par.); idem 4601, Guantanamo, Cuba, February, 

1889 (Kew); idem 5499, Gomez Bay, Tobago, October, 1889 (N.Y.); 
Carl Ehrenberg 7, St. Thomas (Berl., 2 sheets); W. R. Elliott 117, 
Grenada, 1888 (Field) ; A. Fendler 460, Trinidad, 1877-1880 (Brit.) ; 
Emanuel Friedrichsthal 38 and 110, Santo Tomas, Guatemala, 1841 
(Mus. V.) and 313 (Mus. V., 2 sheets) ; Fuertes 322, near Barahona, 
Santo Domingo (Del., 3 sheets; N.Y.; Par.); Gabriel, French Guiana, 
1802 (Del.); George Gardner 1742, Ceara, 1839 (Kew); G. F. Gaumer 
940, Yucatan, Mexico (N.Y.; U.S.); idem 2498, Izamal, Yucatan 
(Kew); Gillberg 167, Cartagena, Colombia, 1826 (Berl.); G. P. Goll 
742, Jagney, Coamo, Puerto Rico, November 23, 1899 (U.S.); 
Ludwig Hahn 383, between St. Pierre and Le Fond St. Denis, 
Martinique, December, 1867 (Kew); A. A. Heller 6196, Adjuntas 
Road, 8 miles from Ponce, Puerto Rico, December 4, 1902 (Del.; 
Gray; Mo.; Phila.); J. Hennecart, Isl. Santo Domingo, March 11, 
1827 (Par.); A. S. Hitchcock, Nassau, New Providence, November, 

1890 (Mo.); idem, Constant Springs, Jamaica, December 10, 1890 
(Mo.); idem, Grand Cayman, January 17, 1891 (Mo.); I. Hubo 30, 
Para, Brazil, August, 1895 (Boiss.); Humboldt & Bonpland, Guana- 
bacoa, Cuba (type and cotype, Par.); P. E. Isert, St. Croix, 1787 
(Cop.) ; V. Jacquemont, wet places, Marquisant, near Port au Prince, 
Haiti, March 11, 1827 (Kew); Jenman 4643, Bartica Grove, British 
Guiana, November, 1888 (Brit.); idem 5383, coast lands, British 
Guiana, June, 1889 (N.Y.; U.S.); J. R. Johnston 709, Mameyes, 
Puerto Rico, December 5, 1912 (N.Y.); E. P. Killip & A. C. Smith 
14807, alt. 100 meters, clearing, Puerto Wilches and vicinity, Dept. 
Santander, Colombia, November 28-December 2, 1926 (U.S.); 
Krebs, St. Thomas, October, 1846 (Cop.); Otto Kuntze, Trinidad, 
April, 1874 (Field, sub nom. B. pilosa L. subdiscoidea f . decomposita) ; 
idem 533, Guama, Puerto Rico, March, 1874 (N.Y.); McLadyer, 
Jamaica (Kew); L. A. Lee, Port Castries, St. Lucia, December 1, 
1887 (U.S.); Leon 1399, Prov. Pinar del Rio, Cuba, August 12, 1909 
(N.Y.) ; E. C. Leonard 3455, Port au Prince, Haiti, April 1-2, 1920 
(Phila.); Leprieur, French Guiana (Del.); idem, eodem loco, 1835 
(Del.; Par.);Meyen, Lima, Peru, May, 1831 (Berl.); G. 0. A. Malme 
3166, Cujaba, Matto Grosso, April 29, 1903 (Stockh.); idem 3166a, 
eodem loco, May 3, 1903 (Stockh.); C. F. Millspaugh 501, Charlotte 
Amalie, St. Thomas, January 17-18 (Field) ; S. L. Moore 581, Santa 



472 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Cruz, Matto Grosso, 1 November, 1891 (Brit.); Otto 428, Colombia 
(Kew); A. C. Persaud 112, sandy and cultivated places, Georgetown, 
British Guiana, February, 1923 (Field) ; H. Pittier 4839, in savannas 
near sea level, Aguadulce, Prov. Code', Panama, December 3-6, 
1911 (U.S.); Poiteau, Isl. Santo Domingo, 1802 (Del.); C. Raunkiaer 
1004, Puerto Plata, Isl. Santo Domingo, April 5, 1906 (Cop.) ; L. C. 
Richard, French Guiana (Par., sub nom. Bidente multipartita) ; 
A. E. Ricksecker 13, Christiansted (Bassin), St. Croix, October 23, 
1895 (Mo. ; N.Y.) ; Mrs. J. J. Ricksecker 129, eodem loco, February 16, 
1897 (Mo.; U.S.); J. von Rohr, St. Croix (Brit.); H. H. Rusby & 
F. W. Pennell 147, alt. 350-400 meters, dry, open loam, Girardot, 
Dept. Cundinamarca, Colombia, July 19, 1917 (N.Y.); Ramon DeLa 
Sagra, about Havana, Cuba, 1825 (Del.); Carlos Schunke 1425, alt. 
1,000 meters, Chanchamayo Valley, Dept. Junin, Peru, April, 
1929 (Field); J. A. Shafer, Prov. La Habana, Cuba, April 2, 1903 
(Carn.) ; idem 2439, waste places, Isabel Segunda, Isl. Vieques, Puerto 
Rico, January 24-27, 1914 (N.Y.); idem 4334, Lower Valley of Rio 
Miel, Oriente, Cuba, March 17, 1910 (Field) ; idem 12071, roadside, 
Spiritus, Prov. Santa Clara, Cuba, February 15-24, 1912 (N.Y.); 
P. Sintenis 27, mountain slopes, Mesa, Mayagiiez, Puerto Rico, 
October 20, 1884 (Kew; Mo.; Mun.); idem 1978, on slopes, Coamo, 
Aibonito, etc., Puerto Rico, November 4, 1885 (Berl., 2 sheets); 
idem 4226, among coffee bushes, Mt. Galsa, Adjuntas, Puerto Rico, 
April 28, 1886 (Del.); idem 4651, on slopes at Yunco, Adjuntas, 
June 24, 1886 (Mo.; Par.; U.V.); idem 5072, at La Tandura, Tabu- 
coa, Puerto Rico, September 18, 1886 (Brit.; Del.; Carn.; U.S.); 
H. H. Smith 600, common in clearings and dry woods, alt. 75 meters, 
Santa Marta, Colombia, November, 1898-1901 (Berl. ; Brit. ; Carn. ; 
Del.; Kew; Mo.; N.Y.; Phila.); idem 601, boggy, open land, south of 
Mamatoca, Santa Marta, Colombia (N.Y.); idem & G. W. Smith 
305, alt. up to 300 meters, St. Vincent, West Indies (Kew); R. Spruce 
651, Santarem, State of Para, Brazil, April, 1850 (Mun.) and 829 
(Boiss.; Brit.; Del., 2 sheets; Kew, 2 sheets; Petrop.; Webb); F. L. 
Stevens 6359, Isl. Mona, December 20-21, 1913 (N.Y.); Norman 
Taylor 23, Santiago, Cuba, August 27, 1906 (N.Y.); T. Thomson, alt. 
1,500-2,100 meters, northwestern Himalaya, India (Mus. V.); J. 
W. H. Traitt 492, Manaos, Amazonas, Brazil, June 12, 1874 (Kew) ; 
Triana 1371, alt. 600 meters, Rio Apulo, Prov. Bogota, Colombia 
(Par.) ; H. Von Tilrckheim 3646, alt. 300 meters, among bushes, near 
Maniel de Ocoa, Isl. Santo Domingo, October, 1910 (Del. ; Kew; Mun. ; 

1 Name of state supplied from Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. ser. 2. 4, pt. 3: 270. 1895. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXLI 




BIDENS TAITENSIS Shertf 



1Mb. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 473 

N.Y.); Weigelt, Surinam (De\.) ; Llewelyn Williams 1249, Santa Ana 
on the Upper Rio Nanay, Dept. Loreto, Peru, July 7, 1929 (Field) ; 
idem 2601, La Victoria on the Amazon River, Dept. Loreto, August 
20, 1929 (Field); Wilson 255, Jamaica, 1857 (Kew); Charles Wright 
315, eastern Cuba, 1856-1857 (Gray; Kew); Wullschldgel 300, along 
roads and among bushes, Paramaribo, Surinam (Mus. V.); H. Wydler 
101, St. Thomas, 1827 (Del., 2 sheets). 

Bidens Cynapiifolia var. /3. portoricensis (Spreng. ex DC.) 

0. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 131. 1911. 
Bidens portoricensis Spreng. ex DC. Prodr. 5: 601. 1836. 

Capitula floribus radialibus deficientibus discoidea, raro radiata. 
Omnia achaenia glaberrima, quadriaristata; corpore saepius nigro ac 
recto vel subrecto, aristis saepius stramineis. 

Type specimen; Collected by Charles Joseph Bertero in Puerto 
Rico and sent to DeCandolle (Del.). 

Distribution: With the species but much rarer. 

Specimens examined: 1 Bertero, Puerto Rico (type, Del.); B. E. 
Dahlgren & E. Sella 479, Belem, State of Para, Brazil, March-May, 
1929 (Field) ; iidem 726, eodem loco et tempore (Field) ; G. 0. A. 
Malme 31666, subruderal place, Santa Anna do Chapada, Matto 
Grosso, Brazil, May 26, 1903 (Stockh.); Passarge 23, Rosalia, 
eastern Venezuela, 1901 (Berl.); P. Sagot 351, lies du Salut, French 
Guiana, 1854 (Boiss.; Del.; Mus. V., 2 sheets; Par., 2 sheets); idem 
(similiter) 351, Karouany, French Guiana, 1858 (Brit.; Kew; nom. 
vulg., Persil diable) ; R. Schomburgk 455 p.p., Berbice, British Guiana, 
1837 (Berl.; Brit.); P. Sintenis 3787, in forests at La Plata, Guanica, 
Puerto Rico, February 17, 1886 (Berl.); Norman Taylor 388, edge of 
road, La Romana, Prov. of Seibo, Santo Domingo, December 1-3, 
1909 (N.Y.); E. Ule 5155, edge of forest, Bom Fim, Amazonas, 
Brazil, November, 1900 (Berl.). 

Bidens Cynapiifolia var 7. tenuis 0. E. Schulz in 
Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 131. 1911. 

Caulis a basi ramosissimus; ramis tenuibus. Folia minora, infe- 
riora petiolis circ. 1 cm. longis exclusis circ. 2.5 cm. longa (foliolo 
terminal! circ. 1 cm. longo, saepe integro, jugis inferioribus brevis- 
sime petiolulatis, foliolis parce crenatis); folia superiora (petiolo 

1 See footnote under "Specimens examined" for the species proper. The few 
examples listed have been selected partly with the aid of memoranda as to O. E. 
Schulz's determinations in the Berlin Herbarium. 



474 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

adjecto) 1.5-2 cm. longa, simpliciter pinnata, petiolo circ. 0.5 cm. 
longo. Capitula eis plantae typicae aequalia. 

Type specimen: Collected by Fr. Xavier, on hills near Jacmel, 
Haiti, December (Berl.). 

Distribution: Haiti and Puerto Rico and perhaps elsewhere in 
the range of the species proper. 

Specimens examined: P. Sintenis 27C, bank of river, Fajardo, 
Puerto Rico, April 21, 1885 (Boiss.); idem 3591, among bushes at 
Montalba, Guanica, Puerto Rico, February 2, 1886 (Berl.; Field; 
Mus.V.). 

Apparently a mere state of the species itself. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXIII 

Bidens Cynapiifolia: a, portion of fruiting specimen, X0.85; b 
(upper), c (lower), leaves, X0.85; d, exterior involucral bract, X6.82; 
e, interior involucral bract, X6.82; /, palea, X6.82; g, disc floret, 
X6.82; h (outer), i (inner), achenes, X3.41; a, b, mainly from type; 
c-4, from Duss 1444, in Hb. N.Y. 

137. Bidens riparia H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 185 (236). 1820. 

PI. CXIV, figs. i-p. 

Bidens Ambrosioides Willd. ex 0. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 
7: 132. 1911. 

Folia tripartita var. /3. refracta. 

Folia bipinnata B. riparia sensu stricto. 

Herba annua, erecta, 3-5 dm. alta; caule tetragono, glabro, 
ramoso. Folia petiolatapetiolistenuibus 1-5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
0.4-1.2 cm. longa, membranacea, supra pilosiuscula, subtus glabra, 
margine scabro-ciliata, bipinnata, segmentis ovatis vel lanceolatis, 
plus minusve inciso-lobatis et -dentatis, terminali apicaliter acumi- 
nato-angustato. Capitula pauca, inconspicue radiata, terminalia, 
tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 0.2-1.5 dm. longis, ad anthesin 
(bracteis exterioribus non inclusis) 5-8 mm. lata et 4-6 mm. alta. 
Involucrum basi piloso-hispidum ; bracteis exterioribus 7-13, anguste 
linearibus, patentibus reflexisve, glabris vel interdum remotissime 
hispido-ciliatis, apice acutis, 6-10 mm. longis; interioribus lineari- 
lanceolatis, 4-7 mm. longis. Flores ligulati deficientes vel 4 vel 5, 
minuti (3-5 mm. longi), flavido-albi, ligula elliptico-ovati vel oblongo- 
elliptici, apice integri vel denticulati. Achaenia tetragona, linearia, 
recurvata, brunnea vel olivaceo-brunnea, 3- vel 4- (vel etiam 5-) 
aristata aristis retrorsum hamosis, una duabusve erectis, reliquis 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXLII 




E E SHERFF DEL 



BIDENS FISCHERI (O. Hoffm.) Sherff (figs, a-h) 
BIDENS SCHIMPERI Schz. Bip. ex Walp. (figs, i-q) 



OF 



THE GENUS BIDENS 475 

reflexis, 2-3.5 mm. longis; interiora demum glabra vel apicem versus 
hispida, supra saepeplus minusve attenuata, corpore 1-1.5 cm. longa; 
nonnulla exteriora 1 dense pilosiusculo-hispida, breviora, crassiora. 

Type specimen: Collected by Alexander Humboldt and Aime 
Bonpland, in very warm places on the bank of the Magdalena River 
near Badillas, Colombia, May, 1801 (Par.). 

Distribution: Southern Mexico southward through Guatemala 
and Costa Rica to northern Peru and central Brazil. 

Specimens examined: N. J. Andersson 66, Puna, Prov. Jujuy, 
Argentina, 1852 (Stockh., 2 sheets); Bernoulli & Cario 1384, Gra- 
nados, Guatemala, November, 1877 (Berl.; Kew); Burchell 8805, 
State of Para, Brazil (Gray; Kew; Par.; Petrop.; Webb); D. da 
Rocha 3, Bahia, Brazil (Field) ; 0. de Carvalho 5, Vianna, Maranhao, 
Brazil, July 23, 1919 (Field); George Gardner 3851, Goyaz, Brazil 
(Mus. V. ; Par. ; Webb) ; G. F. Gaumer 2498, Izamal, Yucatan, Mexico 
(Berl., 2 sheets); Humboldt & Bonpland, bank of Magdalena River 
near Badillas, Colombia, May, 1801 (type and cotype, Par.); E. 
Langlasse 414, alt. 50 meters, La Puerta, southern Mexico, October 
4, 1898 (Berl.; Gray; Kew; U.S.); Alb. Ldfgren 495, Ceara, Brazil 
(Stockh.); Martius, in cultivated and rubbish-covered places along 
Itapicuru River near Caxias, Maranhao, Brazil, May (Mun., 2 
sheets); Ridley, Lea, & Ramage, suburbs of Pernambuco, Brazil, 
July 13, 1887 (Brit.); A. de Saint Hilaire 1199, Goyaz, Brazil, 1816- 
1821 (Par.); A. Tonduz 13618, roadsides at Nicoya, Costa Rica, 
December, 1899 (Berl., 2 sheets; Brit.; Del., 2 sheets; Kew; U.S.); 
A. Weberbauer 5975, alt. 200-300 meters, western slopes of Andes, 
Terran (east-southeast from Piura), Peru, March 27, 1912 (Berl.); 
Llewelyn Williams 7917, alt. 120 meters, Iquitos, Dept. Loreto, 
Peru, March-April, 1930 (Field). 

Humboldt sent some of the type material of Bidens riparia to 
Willdenow, who labeled it B. Ambrosioides. From the Willdenow 
Herbarium (Berl.) Schultz Bipontinus obtained a leaf and some 
achenes, which are preserved in a packet in his private herbarium 
(Par.) and are likewise labeled B. Ambrosioides ("Willd. herb. no. 
15031 fol. 1 ... "). Kunth's name B. riparia takes precedence 
over Willdenow's, having received earlier publication. 

Bidens riparia var. /3. refracta (Brandeg.) 0. E. Schulz in 
Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 132. 1911. PI. CXIV, figs. a-h. 

Bidens refracta Brandeg. Zoe 1: 310. 1890. 
1 Kunthii descriptio "interiora" dixit per errorem. 



476 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Usque ad 9 dm. alta. Folia tripartita; foliolis ovatis vel ovato- 
lanceolatis, serratis, terminal! acuminate majoreque. Achaenia extima 
perpauca dense pilosiusculo-hispida crassioraque, 0.8-1.2 cm. longa. 
Achaeniorum interiorum longiorum aristae 1.5-5 mm. longae. 

Type specimen: Collected by Townsend S. Brandegee, No. 319, 
in the shade of trees and bushes, near Miraflores, Lower (Baja) 
California, October 13, 1890 (Calif.). 

Distribution: Lower California and State of Sinaloa, Mexico, 
southward through Central America to Galapagos Islands, Peru, 
Colombia, and British Guiana to east central Brazil (State of Bahia). 

Specimens examined : George Barclay 2643, loam soil, arid banks, 
Gulf of Fonseca, Central America, November, 1830 (Brit.); idem, 
Huamantanga, Peru (Gray); Brandegee 319 (type, Gray: cotype, 
Phila.); idem, eodem loco, September 27, 1899 (Gray); idem, common 
at Cofradia (vicinity of Culiacan), Sinaloa, October 20, 1904 (Calif.); 
Padre Cornelio 24, Venezuela (N.Y.) ; C. C. Deam 242, alt. 186 meters, 
Zacapa, Guatemala, January, 1905 (Gray); Placide Duchassaing, 
Panama, 1851 (Par., 2 sheets); George Gardner 878, Bahia, Brazil, 
1837-1839 (Brit. ; Del., 2 sheets; Kew; Mus.V.) ; G. F. Gaumer^bl p.p., 
Yucatan, Mexico, 1895 (Berl.; Boiss.; U.S.); idem 2499, Izamal, 
Yucatan (Field); idem 2504, eodem loco (Field); Oscar Haught 
F139, on the Tablazo, northeast of Talara, Dept. Piura, Peru, 
March 29, 1929 (Field); William Heuston, 1 1730 (Brit.); Heyde & 
Lux 4208 pro parte, alt. 1,200 meters, Santa Rosa, Dept. Santa Rosa, 
Guatemala, November, 1892 (Field) ; Jenman 5499, British Guiana, 
October, 1889 (U.S.; forma foliolis inferioribus 3-4-partita) ; E. 
Langlasse 523, alt. 250 meters, Chaveta, southern Mexico, October 
26, 1898 (Berl.; Gray; Kew); C. L. Lundell 899, common weed 
1 meter tall, Tuxpena, Campeche, Mexico, November 4, 1931 
(Stanf .) ; Ynes Mexia 189, alt. 240 meters, deciduous woods, foot- 
hills, La Noria, Sinaloa, Mexico, October 8, 1925 (Mo.); Edward 
Palmer 205, Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico, October, 1894-March, 
1895 (Gray); idem 923, Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico, December, 
1890 (Berl.; Brit.; Gray); idem 1631, Lodiego, Mexico, October 
9-25, 1891 (Field) ; G. H. Pring 10, alt. 180 meters, bank of Magda- 
lena River, Dept. Antioquia, Colombia, April 25, 1923 (Mo.); A. 
E. Salazar 387, Rancho del Agua Fria, San Ignacio, Sinaloa, Mexico, 
June 11, 1918 (U.S.; nom. vulg., tomatillo); W. Schaffner, near 

1 Labeled "Heustin [sic], Jamaica, 1730." Neither the variety nor the species 
proper is known to occur in Jamaica. Concerning the inaccuracy of Heuston 
labels reading thus, see Millspaugh and Sherff, Rev. N. Amer. Sp. Xanthium. 
Field Mus. Bot. 4: 21. 1919. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI. Plate CXLIII 




BIDENS SCHIMPERI Schz. Bip. ex Walp. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 477 

Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico, October (Gray; Mus. V.); H. Schenck 
4095, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, June-September, 1887 (Berl.); 
Berthold Seemann, Panama (Brit.); C. L. Smith, Isl. Ometepe, Nica- 
ragua, January, 1893 (Gray) ; R. E. Snodgrass & E. Heller 92, Iguana 
Cove, Albemarle Isl., Galapagos Isls., March 4, 1899 (Gray; Stanf.); 
iidem 316, alt. 600 meters, South Narborough Isl., Galapagos Isls., 
April, 1899 (Gray; Stanf.); iidem 338, eodem loco, abundant, 
March, 1899 (Gray) ; iidem 380, most abundant, growing in lava soil 
everywhere in shade of bushes and trees, James Bay, James Isl., 
Galapagos Isls., April, 1899 (Gray; Stanf.); iidem 420, Charles Isl., 
Galapagos Isls., May, 1899 (Stanf.); iidem 732, Hood Isl., Galapagos 
Isls., May, 1899 (Gray; Stanf.); Alban Stewart 743, alt. 60 meters, 
open places, abundant, Iguana Cove, Albemarle Isl., Galapagos 
Isls., 1905-1906 (Brit.; Mo.). 

Brandegee's original description, like several others of his Bidens 
descriptions, was carelessly drawn. The exterior involucral bracts 
are linear, not "linear-lanceolate." The terminal leaflet is larger, 
not "much smaller" than the lateral ones. The achenes are almost 
uniformly shorter than he says, very few being "20-25 mm." long. 

0. E. Schulz (loc. cit.), in reducing this form to varietal rank 
under B. riparia, differentiated the two forms on the basis of fruit 
characters, but an examination of many specimens of each form shows 
that the only genuine difference is in the foliage. B. refracta Bran- 
deg. has tripartite leaves while B. riparia H.B.K. has bipinnate or 
tripinnatisect leaves. This difference Schulz seems to have over- 
looked. Indeed, he even refers to B. refracta, Tonduz 13618, a plant 
identical in foliage and other parts with the type and Bonpland co- 
type of B. riparia. 1 

Several years ago, on having examined 22 collections of the 
refracta form and failed to find more than one approach in foliage to 
that of B. riparia, I concluded (Bot. Gaz. 64: 35. 1917) that "the 
probabilities are strong that B. refracta and B. riparia are entirely 
distinct species." Since then, I have seen several other foliage 
intergradations. Furthermore, we have the important consideration 
that in numerous species of Bidens the foliage is known positively 
to vary from tripartite (or even simple) to bipinnate or tripinnatisect. 
Thus all attempts to defend a specific segregation of the tripartite- 

1 Schulz's confusion of the refracta with the riparia forms is shown further by 
certain of his determinations at Berlin. For example, he there referred not only 
Tonduz 13618, but also Bernoulli & Carlo 1384 and Gaumer 2498 to refracta. All 
these are riparia proper. 



478 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

leaved form would seem to be futile and the varietal rank proposed 
for B. refracta Brandeg. by 0. E. Schulz is here adopted. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXIV 

Bidens riparia, figs, i-p: i, j, small fruiting branches, X0.7; k, 
portion of leaf, enlarged to show ciliation, X6.3; I, exterior involucral 
bract, X3.5; m, interior involucral bract, X3.5; n, palea, X3.5; o 
(outer), p (inner), achenes, X3.5; i, l-p, from type;;, k, from Tonduz 
13618, in Hb. U.S. 

Bidens riparia var. refracta, figs, a-h: a, fruiting specimen, X0.7; 
b, portion of leaf enlarged to show ciliation, X6.3; c, exterior involu- 
cral bract, X3.5; d, interior involucral bract, X3.5; e, palea, X3.5; 
/, disc floret, X3.5; g (outer), h (inner), achenes, X3.5; all from T. 
S. Brandegee, Miraflores, Lower California, September 27, 1899, 
in Hb. Gray. 

138. Bidens Sambucifolia Cav. Icon, et Descr. 3: 15, 

pi 229. 1795. PI. CXV. 
Coreopsis Sambucifolia Cav. Descr. 225. 1802. 
Bidens alamosana Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 1: 104, pi. 6. 1891. 

Herba grandis, perennis, glabra, 1.5-3.3 m. alta, ramosa; non- 
nullis caulibus ex una radice et basi fere 5 cm. crassis, manifeste 
angulatis. Folia petiolata petiolis 2-3 cm. (vel ultra) longis, petiolo 
adjecto 8-11 cm. (vel ultra) longa, membranacea, ciliata, pinnata, 
foliolis quandoque 3 sed saepius 5, lanceolatis vel ovato-lanceolatis, 
serratis, lateralibus basi inaequilaterali connatis decurrentibusque, 
terminali longiore. Capitula in ramis singulis corymbosa, radiata, 
pansa ad anthesin 2.5-3.5 cm. lata et 10-15 mm. alta, pedunculata 
pedunculis 0.4-1.5 dm. longis, graveolentia et odore Tageti similia. 
Involucrum glabratum vel minute pubescens, totum irregulariter 
in bracteas lineares vel lineari-lanceolatas 4-6 mm. longas exteriores 
plerumque 10-12 non semper ab interioribus valde distinctas 
divisum. Flores ligulati 9-12, ligula oblongo-obovati, apice saepe 
tridentati, satiate aurantiaci vel interdum fere sed non vere coccinei, 
1.2-1.6 cm. longi; tubulosi elongati, tenues, sursum non urceolati, 
4- vel 5-dentati. Achaenia linearia, valida, acute quadrangulata, 
plus minusve recurvata, fusco-nigra vel nigrescentia, glaberrima, 
corpore 12-18 mm. longa, 4- (rarissime 3- vel 5-) aristata; aristis 
retrorsum hamosis, 2-3.5 mm. longis, una saepe quam ceteris multo 
breviore. 

Type specimen: Obtained in flower during November in the 
Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid, from material coming originally, 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXLIV 




I h /op 

BIDENS SCH1MPERI Schz. Bip. ex Walp. (forms) 



C '.'?! 

OF Ti. 

ftp | UI|IO|S 



THE GENUS BIDENS 479 

according to Cavanilles, from Peru and Mexico. The citation of 
Peru, however, is unquestionably erroneous. No specimens are 
known from Peru. Furthermore, the Pavon specimens cited (Boiss.), 
which from a comparison of other Pavon herbarium specimens 
(e.g., "Bidens odorata Cav.") are found to be doubtless some of 
Cavanilles' original material, are labeled "Nueva Espafia" and thus 
are seen to have come from Mexico. 

Distribution: States of Sinaloa and Sonora, northwestern Mexico. 

Specimens examined: T. S. Brandegee, Culiacan, Sinaloa, Sep- 
tember 12, 1904 (Calif.); idem, eodem loco, September 20, 1904 
(Calif.; Gray); E. A. Goldman 247, Valley of Rio Fuerte, Sinaloa, 
October 14, 1898 (Gray); cult, in Hort. Bot. Neapolit. (Del.); J. G. 
Ortega 5213, alt. 20 meters, Piaxtla, San Ignacio, Sinaloa, Mexico, 
July, 1923 (Stanf.); idem 6599, Santa Maria, Syndicure of Baila, 
Municipality of Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico, December, 1926 (Stanf.); 
Edward Palmer, Culiacan, Sinaloa, October 25-November 18, 1891 
(U.S.); idem 6, Alamos, Sonora, September 16-30, 1890 (Kew); 
idem 278, eodem loco, March 26-April 8, 1890 (type of Bidens 
alamosana Rose, U.S.: cotypes, Boiss.; Calif.; Gray; Kew); idem 
1715, Imala, Sinaloa, September 25-October 8, 1891 (Gray); ex 
Herb. Pavon, Mexico (Boiss., 2 sheets; Del.); Rose, Standley, & 
Russell 12932, arroyo near Alamos, Sonora, March 16, 1910 (U.S.); 
iidem 14673, river bed, Guadalupe, Sinaloa, April 18, 1910 (U.S.); 
iidem 14907, Culiacan, Sinaloa, April 21, 1910 (U.S.); Wilhelm 
Schaffner 529, in marshy, shady places, near Culiacan, Sinaloa, 
October, 1866 (Gray; Par.); I. L. Wiggins 6429, along bank of Rio 
Cedros at village of Cedros, Sonora, Mexico, March 5, 1933 (Stanf.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXV 

Bidens Sambucifolia: a, flowering branch, xO.95; b, exterior in- 
volucral bract, X2.71; c, interior involucral bract, X2.71; d, ray 
corolla, X2.71; e, palea, X2.71; /, disc floret, X2.71; g, anthers, 
X 10.16; h, upper portion of pistil, X9.48; a, mainly from Cavanilles' 
type plate, but finished from, and figs, b-h drawn entirely from a 
sheet of apparently Cavanilles' original material in hb. Pavon, in 
Hb. Boiss. 

139. Bidens Gardner! Baker in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6, 

pt. 3: 246. 1884. Plate CXVI. 

Herba gracilis, parce ramosa, 6-13 dm. alta, brevissime scabrido- 
hispida vel hie illic glabrata; caulibus ramisque obtuse vel acute 
tetragonis, supra elongatis, internodiis superioribus folia multo 



480 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

superantibus. Folia petiolata petiolis 0.5-2.5 cm. longis, petiolo 
adjecto 3-8 cm. longa, membranacea, ciliata, inferiora plerumque 
simplicia vel tripartita foliolis ovatis vel ovato-lanceolatis crenato- 
serratis dentium apice subobtuse indurato-apiculato; superiora (vel 
raro omnia) bipinnatifida, segrnentis lanceolatis. Capitula pauca, 
radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 2.5-3 cm. lata et 8-10 mm. alta, 
longe tenuiterque pedunculata pedunculis 1-2.1 dm. longis. Invo- 
lucrum basi hispidum; bracteis exterioribus 10-12, linearibus vel 
lineari-spathulatis, subacutis, saepe strigosis, 2-3.5 mm. longis; interi- 
oribus latius linearibus, 5-7 mm. longis. Flores ligulati 6-8, obscure 
aurantiaci vel saepius atro-purpurei rubrive (sicci plus minusve 
cinnamomei), ligula elliptico-oblongi, apice irregulariter dentati, 1.2- 
1.6 cm. longi ; flores disci brunnei. Achaenia linearia, valde tetragona, 
nigrescentia, glabra vel quaedam strigosa, corpore 7-10 mm. longa, 
apice 4- (vel rarissime 3-) aristata, aristis inaequalibus, erectis, rigi- 
dis, retrorsum et saepe oculis pectinatim hamosis, 1.2-2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by George Gardner, No. 4256, in rocky 
places at San Domingos, State of Goyaz, Brazil, May, 1840 (Kew, 
2 sheets). 

Distribution: Paraguay and southern Brazil northward and 
northeastward through Brazil to the states of Matto Grosso, Goyaz, 
and Bahia. 

Specimens examined: B. Balansa 908, Ticada in the great forest 
of Caaguazu, Paraguay, March 3, 1876 (Kew) ; Burchell 6901 and 
6902 (Kew); Karl Fiebrig 74, northern Paraguay, 1909 (Hassl.); 
idem 679, Cerros de Tobati, Paraguay, January 10, 1903 (Berl., 
2 sheets; Brit.; Del.; Field; Gray; Hassl.; Kew; Mun.); Gardner 
3850, dry, hilly places, Conceigao, Goyaz, February (Kew); idem 
4256 (type, Kew, 2 sheets: cotypes, Brit.; Webb); Guilhermo Gehrt, 
Ityrapina, Sao Paulo, Brazil, April 28, 1927 (Field) ; Emil Hassler 
1877, in thickets near Piribebuy, Paraguay, February, 1885-1895 
(Boiss.; Hassl.; Kew; Par.); idem 4253, San Estanislao, Paraguay, 
August 10, 1898-1899 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Gen.; Hassl.; Kew; 
Mus. V. ; Par.) ; idem 7454, in ruderal spots near Conception, Paraguay, 
September, 1901-1902 (Brit.; Hassl., 2 sheets); idem 9177, in fields 
near Caaguazu, Paraguay, March, 1905 (Del.); F. C. Hoehne, State 
of Sao Paulo, Brazil, May 21, 1927 (Field); A. Lofgren 590, June 
5, 1888 (Cop.); G. 0. A. Malme 16825, ruderal and along road, 
Buriti near Santa Anna do Chapada, Matto Grosso, Brazil, June 
16, 1894 (Stockh., 2 sheets) ; idem 3374, edge of forest, Santa Anna 
do Chapada, May 17, 1903 (Stockh., 2 sheets); idem 3374a, in 



THE GENUS BIDENS 481 

garden, subruderal, eodem loco, May 16, 1903 (Stockh.); Merkel, 
Brazil (Cop.); Herm. Meyer 2, Cuyaba, Matto Grosso, April 16, 
1896 (Berl.); Pohl 1698 (distrib. No. 413), in front of Barra, Bahia, 
Brazil (Berl.; Kew, 2 sheets; Mus. V., 3 sheets); Riedel & Lund 
883, 984, and 2221, in shady places, Araracacoara (Araraquara), 
Minas Geraes, May, 1834 (herb, ignot.); T. Rojas 10260, in fields 
at margins of forests near Estrella, Sierra de Amambay, Paraguay, 
March, 1908 (Brit.; Hassl.); A. St. Hilaire 1192, State of Rio de 
Janeiro, Brazil, 1816-1821 (Par.); Eugene Warming, Lagoa Santa, 
Minas Geraes, December 4, 1863 (Cop., 3 sheets; Par.); idem 639 
pro parte, eodem loco (Cop.); A. Weddell 3302, Paraguay, April- 
May, 1845 (Par., 3 sheets, sub nom. Bidente rubra Schz. Bip.; 
see next paragraph below). 

A species with lower part of plant having aspect usually re- 
sembling that of Bidens pilosa L. The bipinnatifid upper leaves, 
however, as also the few long peduncles and the radiate flowering 
heads, distinguish it easily from that species. Occasionally the 
leaves, all or nearly all, are bipinnatifid, giving the plant a very 
different appearance. Baker described the ligulate florets as being 
orange-colored, but a number of dried flowering heads observed in 
herbaria appear to have the ligules more of a reddish brown or 
cinnamon color. Fiebrig, on the labels for his No. 679, describes the 
ligules as fire-red and the disc florets as brown. Hassler, on labels 
for his No. 4253, describes the ligules as dark purple or obscurely 
orange-colored. We may note, further, that long before Baker's pub- 
lication of Bidens Gardneri, Schultz Bipontinus had designated the 
Weddell plant (in herb.) as Bidens rubra, evidently for the very 
reason that its rays were red. 

The mature fruiting heads are noticeable for the conspicuous 
retrorse barbs of the achenes, these barbs suggesting strongly the 
teeth of a comb. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXVI 

Bidens Gardneri: a and d (lower), 6 and c (upper), portions of 
flowering and fruiting specimens, X0.59; e, lower surface of portion 
of leaf, enlarged to show pubescence, Xl.76; /, exterior involucral 
bract, X3.52; g, interior involucral bract, X3.52; h, ray corolla, 
X3.52; i, palea, X3.52; j, achene, Xl.76; a", from Pohl 413, in Hb. 
Kew; b, c, partly from Gardner 3850 and partly from 2 sheets of 
Pohl 413, all in Hb. Kew; d, from Fiebrig 679, in Hb. Field; e, j, 
from Pohl 413, in Hb. Kew;f-i, from Gardner 3850, in Hb. Kew. 



482 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

140. Bidens flagellaris Baker in Mart. Fl. Brasil. 
6, pt. 3: 248. 1884. PI. CXVIL 

Herba perennis, erecta, glabra, simplex vel copiose ramosa, 
0.9-2 m. alta, interdum glauco-viridis, caule primario subtereti. 
Folia petiolata petiolis marginatis usque ad 1.5 cm. longis, petiolo 
adjecto plerumque 5-9 cm. longa, mine pinnatim 3-partita segmentis 
subulatis gracillimis, elongatis, flexuosis, lateralibus terminal! 
4.5-8 cm. longo subaequalibus, saepe tantum 0.4-0.6 mm. latis; 
nunc 2-3-pinnata, segmentis usque ad 2 cm. longis et 1.2 mm. latis, 
indurato-apiculatis; raro indivisa et foliolo mediano foliorum 3-par- 
titorum similia. Capitula discoidea tenuiter pedunculata pedun- 
culis 3-8 cm. longis, ad anthesin 6-7 mm. lata et 7-11 mm. alta. 
Involucri bracteae exteriores 7-10, anguste lineares, subacutae, 
3-4 mm. longae, quam interiores lanceolatae dimidio breviores. 
Achaenia linearia, subtetragona, brunnea vel fere nigra, glabra, unica 
facie plerumque 2-sulcata, corpore 1-1.4 cm. longa et circ. 1 mm. 
lata, biaristata; aristis subcalvis vel irregulariter retrorsumque 
hamosis, saepe late divergentibus, circ. 1.5-2.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by George Gardner, No. 4255, in upland 
bushy fields between Pass and San Domingos, State of Goyaz, 
Brazil, May, 1840 (Kew). 

Distribution: States of Goyaz and Minas Geraes, Brazil. 

Specimens examined: Gardner 4255 (type, Kew); A. Glaziou 
19525, near Diamantina, Minas Geraes, March 28, 1892 (Berl.; 
Kew; Par.); Martins, in fields along brooks, Minas Geraes, May 
(Mun.) ; Mosen 4217, on dry hills near the Rio Verde, Caldas, Minas 
Geraes, January 25, 1876 (Stockh.); A. F. Regnell, Caldas, Minas 
Geraes, January 25, 1876 (Par.); idem ser. Ill, 779, Minas Geraes, 
February 11, 1877 (Berl.; Stockh.); A. de Saint Hilaire 1191, eodem 
loco, 1816-1821 (Par.; forma plus foliosa, foliis 2-3-pinnata); idem 
1193, eodem loco et tempore (Par.); idem 1194, Brazil, 1816-1821 
(Par. ; foliis inferioribus vel principalibus saepe bipinnatis vel etiam 
plus minusve tripinnatifidis). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXVII 

Bidens flagellaris: a (lower), 6 (upper), portions of fruiting and 
flowering specimen, X0.63; c, exterior involucral bract, X3.79; d, 
interior involucral bract, X3.79; e, palea, X3.79; /, disc floret, 
X2.52; g, achene, X3.79; all from type. 
141. Bidens nudata Brandeg. Zoe 1:309. 1890. PI. CXVIII. 

Suffrutescens, glabra, 4-5 dm. alta; caulibus multis, supra inter- 
dum fere efoliatis, infra foliosis, basi ligneis. Folia petiolata petiolis 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXLV 




BIDENS KIRKII (Oliv. & Hiern) Sherff 



OF THt 
UNIVSB8ITY OF IUIUOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 483 

ad basim membranaceo-connatis 1-3 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
6-12 cm. longa, bipinnatim dissecta in segmenta longa filiformia 
0.3-1 mm. lata Integra eciliataque, ultima 0.7-3 cm. longa. Capitula 
pauca, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 4 cm. lata et 1.3 cm. alta, 
pedunculata; pedunculis tenuibus, nudis vel 1-4- bracteatis, 0.3-1.4 
dm. longis. Involucrum glabratum; bracteis exterioribus 7-10, 
linearibus, acutis, 2.5-6 mm. longis; interioribus lanceolatis, 5-8 mm. 
longis. Flores ligulati 6-8, flavi, ligula elliptico-obovati, 1-2.2 cm. 
longi, subintegri vel denticulati, 12-14 striis percursi, styliferi 
fertilesque. Achaenia atra, linearia (unicum aequaliter latum fere 
totam longi tudinem), tetragona, omnino 8-sulcata, supra strigosa, 
marginibus costisque interdum subtuberculata, apice biaristata 
aristis tenuibus et retrorsum hamosis, 2-3 mm. longis; interiora 
tenuissima, corpore 6-12 mm. longa; exteriora latiora, corpore 5-7 
mm. longa, aristis caducis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Townsend S. Brandegee, No. 318, 
Sierra de Francisquito, Lower California, Mexico, October 19, 
1890 (Calif.). 

Distribution: Lower (Baja) California, Mexico. 

Specimens examined: Brandegee, San Bernardo Canyon, October 
13, 1893 (Calif.; Gray); idem, Sierra de la Laguna, October 19, 1893 
(Kew); idem 318 (type, Calif.: cotypes, Field; Phila.); Harvard 
University Bot. Gard., cult., December 4, 1894 (Gray). 

A species distinguished from most others in the genus by the 
styliferous and fertile ray florets, also by the achenes, which are 
parallel-sided throughout almost their entire length. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXVIII 

Bidens nudata: a (lower), 6 (upper), portions of flowering and 
fruiting specimen, X0.67; c, exterior involucral bract, X4.67; d, 
interior involucral bract, X4.67; e, ray corolla, X2;/, palea, X4.67; 
g, disc floret, X4.67; h, anthers, X 17.33; i, upper portion of pistil, 
X20; j (outer), k (inner), achenes, X5.33; a, b, from T. S. Brandegee, 
Sierra de Laguna, Lower California, October 19, 1893, in Hb. Kew; 
c, d, f-k, from cotype in Hb. Field; e, from specimen cultivated in 
Harvard University Botanical Garden, December 4, 1894, in Hb. Gray. 

142. Bidens brasiliensis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81: 49. 1926. 

PL CXIX. 

Herba perennis, erecta, simplex vel supra ramosa, plus minusve 
tomentosa, 1 m. alta. Folia principalia sessilia, indivisa, rhom- 
boideo-elliptica, utrinque sensim angustata, membranacea, molliter 



484 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

denseque tomentosa, acriter numerosis dentibus serrata, 6-9 cm. 
longa et 2.5-4 cm. lata; folia ramorum linearia, minora. Capitula 
subnumerosa (40), discoidea, florescentia 8 mm. alta et 6 mm. 
lata, demum cum fructibus circ. 1.3 cm. longa et 1-2 cm. 
lata. Involucri glabrati bracteae exteriores 5-8, lineares, subacute 
indurato-apiculatae, 3-6 mm. longae, interiores lanceolatae 7-10 
mm. longae. Paleae achaeniorum corpora aequantes vel superantes. 
Achaenia atra, linearia, tetragona, omnino 8- (facie unaquaque 2-) 
sulcata, glabra vel supra sparsissime erecto-setosa, exalata, corpore 
1-1.3 cm. longa et circ. 1 mm. crassa, ad apicem erecto-setosa et 
biaristata; aristis calvis vel saepius 1-3 hamis minutis retrorsum 
hamosis, usque ad 2.3 mm. longis, interdum deficientibus. 

Type specimen: Collected by Auguste de Saint Hilaire, No. 1196, 
State of Minas Geraes, Brazil, 1816-1821 (Par.). 

Distribution: State of Minas Geraes, Brazil. 

Specimens examined: Saint Hilaire 1196 (type, Par.). 

In general habit B. brasiliensis resembles simple-leaved plants of 
B. Riedelii Baker and B. Chodati Hassler. It differs from the former 
in its more numerous heads, its lack of ray florets, its elongate, 
aristate achenes, etc. ; from the latter, in its wider and more rhombic 
leaves, more numerous heads, smaller involucres with much more 
nearly glabrous and less numerous bracts, etc. The type had been 
collected by Saint Hilaire in two portions representing separately 
the lower, leafy stem and the branched, fruiting top. Both of these 
are taken as the basis for the description. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXIX 

Bidens brasiliensis: a (lower), b (upper), portions of flowering and 
fruiting specimens, X0.6; c, d, small portions of stem and leaf 
enlarged to show pubescence, Xl.5; e, exterior involucral bract, 
X3.6;/, interior involucral bract, X3.6; g, palea, X3.6; h, disc floret, 
X3.6; i, achene, X 3. 6; all from type. 

143. Bidens Riedelii Baker in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6, pt. 3: 246. 1884. 

PI. CXX, figs. a-k. 

Gymnopsis glaberrima Schz. Bip. ex Baker, loc. cit. 
Bidens Riedelii var. typica et f. intermedia Chod. & Hassl. Bull. 

Herb. Boiss. ser. 2. 3: 726. 1903. 
Caulis glaber. 

Folia principalia simplicia B. Riedelii sensu stricto. 

Folia omnia pennisecta var. /3. Hassleriana. 

Caulis hispido-pilosus var. 7. hirsuta. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany. Vol. XVI, Plate CXLVI 




BIDENS MUSOZIANA Sherff 



Or THt 
HNIViRUTY flf 



THE GENUS BIDENS 485 

Perennis, glabra, parce ramosa, 5-10 dm. alta; caulibus gracilibus, 
caespitosis, firmis, teretibus, e radice lignosa. Folia inferiora 4-6 
juga contigua, subsessilia vel breviter petiolata petiolis usque ad 1 
cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 3-5 vel etiam usque ad 10 cm. longa, 
simplicia, firmula, rarius ovata saepius ovato-lanceolata vel anguste 
oblongo-lanceolata, apice subacuta vel acuminata, margine argute 
serrata, non ciliata, basi cuneata. Capitula pauca, radiata, pansa 
ad anthesin circ. 4 cm. lata et 9-12 mm. alta, tenuiter pedunculata 
pedunculis 5-11 cm. longis. Involucrum basi glabrum, bracteis 
triseriatim dispositis; extimis atque intermediis simul circ. 12-14, 
similibus, linearibus, subcarnosis, subobtusis, ciliatis, 4-6 mm. longis; 
interioribus lanceolatis, 6-9 mm. longis. Flores ligulati 6-9, cin- 
namomeo-rubri, ligula cuneato-elliptici, apice obsolete denticulati, 
1.5-2.8 cm. longi; flores tubulosi cylindrici et non infundibuliformes. 
Achaenia oblanceolata, subtetragona, brunnea, glabra, 8-9 mm. 
longa, setis abortivis. 

Type specimen: Collected byLudwig Riedel, No. 553, in dry fields 
at the Rio Pardo, Brazil, September, 1826 (Kew, ex Petrop.). 

Distribution: Paraguay and southern Brazil. 

Specimens examined: B. Balansa, in fields, Caaguazu, Paraguay, 
March 24, 1876 (Kew) ; E. Hassler 5580, on high plateau and slopes, 
Sierra de Maracayu, Paraguay, December (Boiss.; Kew; Par.); 
idem 5707, in region of the headwaters of the Rio Jejui-guazu, Para- 
guay, December, 1898 (Boiss.; Brit.; Del.; Kew; Par.); idem 7910, 
in region of the headwaters of the Rio Apa, Paraguay, November, 
1901 (Berl.; Gen.; Gray; Hassl.; Kew, 2 sheets; Mus. V.; Par., 2 
sheets); idem 7910a, eodem loco, December, 1901 (Hassl., 2 sheets; 
forma varietati Hasslerianae adpropinquans) ; idem 9348, in fields, 
near Caaguazu, Paraguay, March, 1905 (Hassl.); Riedel 553 (type, 
Kew: cotypes, Gray; Par., 2 sheets; Petrop., 2 sheets); T. Rojas 
9888, on high plateau and slopes, Sierra de Amambay, etc., Paraguay, 
December, 1907 (Berl.; Brit.; Hassl., 2 sheets; Mus. V.; Par.). 

Bidens Riedelii var. /3. Hassleriana Chod. Bull. Herb. 
Boiss. 2. 2: 395. 1902. PI. CXX, fig. I. 

A forma typica differt foliis omnibus pennisectis, sparsim his- 
pidis, lobis linearibus incisis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Emil Hassler, No. 5708, in a field 
near the upper course of the Rio Jejui-guazu, vicinity of Yerbales, 
Sierra de Maracayu, Paraguay, December, 1898 (Boiss.). 

Distribution : Paraguay and northeastern Argentina. 



486 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Specimens examined: Hassler 5708 (type, Boiss.: cotypes, Brit.; 
Hassl.; Kew; Mus. V.); idem 12079, Sierra de Amambay, Paraguay, 
January, 1913 (Berl.; Brit.; Hassl., 2 sheets; Kew; Par.); Nieder- 
lein 414, Cerro de Santa Ana, Misiones Terr., Argentina, March, 
1884 (Berl.). 

Bidens Riedelii var. 7. hirsuta Hassl. Repert. 
Sp. Nov. 14:272. 1916. 

Caulis hispido-pilosus, folia supra et subtus scaberulo-pilosa. 

Type specimen: Collected by Emil Hassler, No. 12045, in fields of 
high plateau, "Serrados," Sierra de Amambay, Paraguay, June, 
1912-1913 (Hassl., 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Paraguay and northeasternmost Argentina. 

Specimens examined: Hassler 12045 pro parte (2 type sheets, 
Hassl.: cotypes, Berl.; Del., 2 sheets, parce hirsuta; Kew; Mus. V.; 
Par., 2 sheets); P. Jorgensen, Bonpland, Government of Misiones, 
Argentina, December 18, 1909 (Field). 

A form looking very different from the species at first glance, 
because of the pronounced hairiness. The hairiness is not a very 
positive character, however, since the Delessert specimens are 
somewhat smoothish and the specimen at the British Museum of 
Natural History (omitted above) is distinctly glabrous. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXX 

Bidens Riedelii, figs, a-k: a (lower), b (median), c (upper), portions 
of flowering specimen, X0.66; d, ray floret, Xl.33; e, ray floret, X3.33; 
/, smaller plant than in a-c, X0.66; g, pair of larger cauline leaves, 
X0.66; h, exterior involucral bract, X3.33; i, interior involucral 
bract, X3.33;;, palea, X3.33; k, disc floret, X3.33; a-c, from Hassler 
5707, in Hb. Kew; d, e, from Hassler 7910, in Hb. Gray; /, g, from 
type; h-k, from cotype, in Hb. Gray. 

Bidens Riedelii var. Hassleriana, fig. I: typical cauline leaf, 
X0.67; from Hassler 12079, in Hb. Brit. 

144. Bidens Ghodati Hassl. Repert. Sp. Nov. 

12: 369. 1913. PI. CXXI. 

Bidens graveolens var. comosa Chod. Bull. Herb. Boiss. 2. 2: 394. 1902. 
Herbacea forsitan interdum suffruticosa, erecta vel suberecta, 
1-2 m. alta; caule simplici, apicem versus vix in ramos 2-3 erectos 
diviso, glabro, tereti, basim versus usque ad 6 mm. crasso; inter- 
nodiis inferioribus mediisque 4-7 cm. longis, superioribus usque ad 
19 cm. longis. Folia sessilia, semi-amplexicaulia et basibus inter se 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany. Vol. XVI, Plate CXLVII 




BIDENS MOSSII Sherff 



OF THt 
NNIVF.RSITY OF ILLINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 487 

connata; nunc omnia lanceolata vel ovato-lanceolata, acuta, basi 
rotundata, subcoriacea, margine argute serrata dentibus apice 
acute mucronulatis ac saepe incurvescentibus, supra breviter his- 
pidula, infra pallidiora et dense tomentosulo-pubescentia, 7-10.5 
cm. longa et 2.4-4.2 cm. lata; nunc superiora vel inferiora vel 
etiam omnia minora, profunde pinnatifida, segmentis oblongo- 
linearibus, acutis, mucronulatis, rhachi late alata. Capitula pauca, 
terminalia, pedunculata pedunculis nudis bracteatisve erectis et 
1-9 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2-3 cm. lata et 11-13 mm. 
alta. Involucrum setulis squarrosis valde hispidulum; bracteis 
exterioribus plemmque 8-12, linearibus, acute calloso-apiculatis, 
8-14 mm. longis; interioribus paulo latioribus et parce brevioribus 
(vel juvenibus triple brevioribus). Flores ligulati circ. 10, lutei, 
ligula late lanceolati, striis circ. 10 purpureis parallels percursi, 
extus dense flavido-pubescentes, intus glabrescentes, apice subacuti 
flavido-puberulique, circ. 1.2 cm. longi et 3-3.5 mm. lati. Achaenia 
linearia, tetragona, glabra, griseo-nigra, corpore circ. 1-1.2 cm. longa 
et circ. 1.2 mm. lata, biaristata; aristis erecto-patentibus, retrorsum 
hamosis vel demum glabratis, 2.5-3.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimens: Collected by Emil Hassler, No. 3757, in rocky 
places, Cordillera de Altos, Paraguay, January, 1899 (Hassl., 2 
sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Paraguay. 

Specimens examined: Karl Fiebrig 571, Cordillera de Altos, 
December 7, 1902 (Berl., 5 sheets, inferioribus vel omnibus foliis 
pinnatis; Brit.; Del.; Kew; Hassl.; Mun.); Hassler 3757 (type, 
Hassl., 2 sheets). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXI 

Bidens Chodati: a (lower), portion of plant, X0.62; b (upper), 
portion of flowering specimen, X0.62; c, compound leaf from another 
specimen, X0.62; d, small portion of leaf from a, enlarged to show 
pubescence, X2.48; e, exterior involucral bract, X2.48; /, interior 
involucral bract, X2.48; g, palea, X2.48; h, disc floret with immature 
achene, X2.48; i, achene, X2.48; a, d, from one sheet of Fiebrig 571, 
in Hb. Berl.; b, e-i, from 2nd sheet of same, ibid.; c, from 3rd sheet of 
same, ibid. 

145. Bidens Pringlei Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 41: 263. 1905. 

PL XCV, figs. a-h. 

Herba perennis; caulibus adscendentibus, basi ligneis, viridibus 
vel subpurpurascentibus, manifeste tetragonis, infra glabratis vel 



488 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

glabris, supra cano-pubescentibus setis brevibus, 3-4.5 dm. longis. 
Folia petiolata petiolis 1-2.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 3-9 cm. longa, 
1.5-5.5 cm. lata, 1-3-pinnatisecta, glabra; segmentis ultimis anguste 
linearibus, apice acutissimis, indurato-apiculatis, 0.5-5.5 cm. longis 
et 0.3-1.3 mm. latis. Capitula pauca, tenuiter pedunculata pedun- 
culis 0.5-1.5 dm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2.5-3 cm. lata 
et 8-12 mm. alta. Totum involucrum plus minusve cano-hispidum; 
bracteis exterioribus circ. 15, anguste linearibus, ciliatis, apice 
acriter indurato-mucronulatis, 4-5 mm. longis, interiores oblongo- 
lanceolatas subaequantibus. Flores ligulati 8-10, albidi vel rosacei, 
ligula anguste obovati, apice truncate grosse dentati, 1.3-1.6 cm. 
longi. Achaenia (submatura) linearia, subtetragona, supra attenu- 
ata, subnigra, marginibus et summis faciebus erecto-setosa, 2- vel 
3-aristata aristis retrorsum hamosis 1-2 mm. longis, corpore exteriora 
6-9 mm. et interiora 9-13 mm. longa. 

Type specimen: Collected by Cyrus Guernsey Pringle, No. 8844, * 
at altitude of 1,525 meters, in fields near Uruapan, State of Michoa- 
can, Mexico, October 8, 1904 (Gray). 

Distribution: Mexico, from southern part of State of Coahuila 
to State of Michoacan. 

Specimens examined: J. Gregg 438, mountains near Saltillo, 
Coahuila, September 3, 1848 (Gray; Kew; Mo.); Pringle 8844 (type, 
Gray: cotypes, Berl.; Boiss., 3 sheets; Brit.; Calif.; Carn.; Cop.; Del.; 
Field, 2 sheets; Kew; Mun.; Mus. V., etc.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XCV, FIGS, d-h 

Bidens Pringlei: a, b, flowering and fruiting branches, X0.7; c, 
exterior involucral bract, X3.5; d, interior involucral bract, X3.5; e, 
ray floret, X3.5;/, palea, X3.5; g, disc floret, X3.5; h, achene, X3.5; 
all from type. 

146. Bidens angustissima H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 183 (233). 

1820. PI. CXXII, figs. h-m. 

Bidens angustifolia H.B.K. op. cit. 7: 359 (456). 1825 (cf. Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 88:286. 1929). 

Folia 3-5-partita B. angustissima sensu stricto. 

Folia indivisa var. /3. Linifolia. 

Herba erecta, glabra vel sparsim pubescens, perennis e radice 
lignea, erecte ramosa, graveolens, 3-7.5 dm. alta, ramis quadrangula- 
ribus. Folia petiolata petiolis ciliatis 0.6-1.5 cm. longis, 3-5-partita; 

1 The original description gives the number erroneously as 8814. The type 
and various cotype sheets examined bear a printed label with number 8844. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany. Vol. XVI, Plate CXLVIII 




BIDENS WHYTEI Sherff (figs, a-g) 
BIDENS AMBIGUA S. L. Moore (figs, h-m) 



THE GENUS BIDENS 489 

foliolis angustissime linearibus, plerumque 0.3-0.6 mm. latis, apice 
acuto-mucronatis, integerrimis, plerumque glabris, subcarnosis, 
inaequalibus, lateralibus 1-4 cm. longis, terminali 4-6 cm. longo. 
Capitula terminalia, longe pedunculata pedunculis usque ad 15 cm. 
longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2-2.5 cm. lata et 6-9 mm. alta. 
Involucri bracteae exteriores 8-10, lineares vel spathulato-lineares, 
apice acute indurato-mucronulatae, glabriusculae vel interdum 
irregulariter ciliatae, ad anthesin 3-4.5 mm. longae et circ. 0.4-0.6 
mm. latae; interiores lanceolatae, margine manifeste diaphanae, 
tergo dense et perspicue piloso-hispidae, ad anthesin 5-7 mm. 
longae. Flores ligulati circ. 8, aurantiaco-flavi, glabri, ligula late 
elliptico-oblanceolati, apice tridenticulati, 8-10 mm. longi. Achaenia 
immatura tenuissime linearia (lateribus paribus intervallis inter se 
distantibus), obcompresso-tetragona, glabra vel supra obscure setoso- 
hispida, straminea, biaristata aristis tenuibus, retrorsum hamosis, 
circ. 3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Alexander Humboldt and Aime 
Bonpland in rather cold places at altitude of 2,340 meters, near the 
western boundary of the State of Guanajuato (near Los Joares and 
Santa Rosa de la Sierra), Mexico, in September, 1803-1804 (Par.). 

Distribution: Mexico, from State of San Luis Potosi southwest- 
ward across State of Guanajuato to northeasternmost Jalisco. 

Specimens examined : Thomas Coulter 375 pro parte, Mexico (Kew, 
cum var. L/inifolia lecta) ; Humboldt & Bonpland (type and cotype, 
Par.) ; C. C. Parry & Edward Palmer 486, alt. 1,800-2,400 meters, 
central Mexico, 1878 (Boiss.; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Phila., 2 sheets); 
J. G. Schaffner 203 pro parte, in marshes near Morales, San Luis 
Potosi, September, 1876 (Boiss., cum B. Schaffneri commixt. ; Brit. ; 
Gray; Mun.); Walther Schumann 110, Jaral Mts., October 10, 1886 
(Berl.). 

Bidens angustissima var. /3. Linifolia (Schz. Bip. ex Klatt) Sherff, 

Bot. Gaz. 81: 49. 1926. PI. CXXII, figs. a-g. 
Coreopsis linearifolia DC. Prodr. 5: 570. 1836. 
Bidens Linifolia Schz. Bip. ex Klatt, Flora 68: 203. 1885. 

A specie differt foliis indivisis, saepius 1-2 mm. latis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Carl Ehrenberg, No. 356, near 
Mineral del Monte, District of Huajalote, State of Hidalgo, Mexico. 1 

Distribution: Known only from the State of Hidalgo, Mexico. 

1 Schultz Bipontinus' specimen is at Paris (Par.), while the specimen studied 
by Klatt is doubtless another, perhaps one of the Berlin plants (Berl.). 



490 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Specimens examined: Ehrenberg 356 (type material: Berl., 2 
sheets; Par.); idem 386, eodem loco (Berl.); C. G. Pringle 6924, alt. 
2,850 meters, granitic ledges, Cerro Ventoso above Pachuca, August 
18, 1898 (Berl.; Boiss.; Cam.; Del.; Field; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; N.Y.; 
Par.; Phila.; Mus. V.; U.V., etc.). 

The type of Bidens angustissima is matched very well by Schultz 
Bipontinus' type of the var. Linifolia, except that the latter has only 
simple leaves, while the former has tripartite leaves. Klatt, in pub- 
lishing the description of his B. Linifolia, described the heads as dis- 
coid, but that rays were present on at least the Paris material is 
shown by Schultz Bipontinus' label, in his own handwriting, which 
reads, "achs. rad. calva. . . . ' Furthermore, Pringle collected 
many fine specimens of the simple-leaved form, and these all show 
orange-yellow rays, about 8 on each head. The only difference to 
be found between the two species is the questionable one of foliage 
(cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 64: 34. 1917). 

At Gray Herbarium there is a single sheet (Coulter 375, Mexico) 
with three slender but well developed specimens; the largest one, at 
the left, matching the type of B. angustissima, and the other two, at 
the right, matching the type of B. Linifolia. From these it is evident 
that the simple-leaved form does not merit higher than varietal rank. 

The type material of Coreopsis linearifolia DC. (leg. Keerl, Tla- 
pujahua, Mexico; Del.) I have not seen. I rely upon the determina- 
tion "Bidens angustissima H.B.K." communicated by Dr. S. F. Blake 
(in lit.), who made a study of the material in 1924, l also the 
fact that DeCandolle classified his species among those having 
undivided leaves. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXII 

Bidens angustissima, figs, h-m: h, flowering branch, X0.69; i, 
exterior involucral bract, X3.46;;, interior involucral bract, X3.46; 
k, ray corolla, X2.77; I, palea, X3.46; m, disc floret with immature 
achene, X3.46; all from Bonpland's private cotype, in Hb. Par. 

Bidens angustissima var. Linifolia, figs, a-g: a and b, a flowering 
specimen, X0.69; c, exterior involucral bract, X3.46; d, interior 
involucral bract, X3.46; e, ray corolla, X2.77;/, palea, X3.46; g, disc 
floret, X3.46; a, b, mainly from Schultz Bipontinus' specimen of 
Ehrenberg 356 (type collection), in Hb. Par.; rest from Pringle 6924, 
in Hb. Field. 

iCf. Bot. Gaz. 85: 16. 1928. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CXLIX 




BIDENS MICROCARPA Sherff (figs, a-h) 
BIDENS GRACILIOR (O. Hoffm.) Sherff (figs, i-p) 



OF Ittt. 
UNIVERSITY Of IU.IIIOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 491 

147. Bidens Anthemoides (DC.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56:493. 1913; 
ibid. 59: 306. 1915; ibid. 76: 153. 1923. PI. LXXXIV, figs. a^>. 

Coreopsis Anthemoides DC. Prodr. 5: 573. 1836. 

Bidens sarmentosa Greenman, Proc. Amer. Acad. 41: 264. 1905. 

Bidens alpina Brandegee, Zoe 5: 239. 1907-1908. 

Bidens Coreopsidioides Schz. Bip. ex. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56: 493. 1913. 

Bidens Schaffneri Schz. Bip. ex Sherff, loc. cit. ; non Bidens Schaffneri 

(Gray) Sherff. 

Bidens Purpusorum Bitter & Petersen ex Bitter, Repert. Sp. Nov. 
17:335. 1921. 

Herba annua (vel interdum perennis?), demissa, saepe ramosis- 
sima, 1-2.5 (rariter -5.7) dm. alta, glabra vel inconspicue hispida, 
caule ramisque saepe radicans, habitu fere Anthemidis arvensis L. 
Folia petiolata petiolis 0.4-3 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 1-5 (-7.5) 
cm. longa, pinnata vel bipinnata (rarissime 3-5-partita foliolis ovatis 
vel ovato-lanceolatis) ; segmentis linearibus, acutis, indurato-apicu- 
latis, crasso-marginatis, non ciliatis. Capitula radiata, pansa ad 
anthesin 1.4-2 (rariter -2.8) cm. lata et 7-9 mm. alta, pedunculata 
pedunculis terminalibus tenuibus 1-5 (-7.5) cm. longis. Involucri 
basis glabra vel hispida, bracteis subaequalibus; exterioribus 6-10, 
linearibus, glabris vel sparsim ciliatis et interdum hispidis, 2-5 mm. 
longis. Flores ligulati plemmque 5, flavi, ligula lanceolato-elliptici 
vel late obovati, apice integri vel denticulati vel etiam lobulato- 
dentati et plus minusve emarginati, 0.6-1.3 cm. longi. Achaenia 
linearia, atra, apicem versus plerumque non attenuata, glabra vel 
parce strigosa, exalata, apice plerumque dilatata et exaristata vel 
interdum biaristata aristis suberectis vel patentibus nunc glabris et 
0.1-1 mm. longis nunc (rarius) retrorsum hamosis et 1-3.5 mm. 
longis, corpore 4-7 (rariter -11) mm. longa et 0.7-1.2 mm. lata. 

Type specimen: Collected by Jean Luis Berlandier, No. 1030, 
at Cordillera de Guchilaque (near Cuernavaca, State of Morelos), 
Mexico, October 21, 1827 (Del.). 

Distribution : From the State of Vera Cruz westward to the states 
of Mexico and Morelos, Mexico. 

Specimens examined : Barnes & Land 369, alt. 2,940 meters, lava 
fields, La Cima, Federal Distr., October 14, 1908 (Field; Kew); 
Berlandier 1030 (type, Del.: cotypes, Berl.; Brit.; Del.; Hll.; Oxf.; 
Par., 2 sheets; $tockh.};Bourgeau 836, deserts (tablelands) near City 
of Mexico, Federal Distr., September 8, 1865 (Berl.; Boiss.; Del.; 
Gray; Kew, 2 sheets; Par., 3 sheets); /. W. Clokey 1860, rocky hill- 



492 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

side, Real del Monte, Hidalgo, September 15, 1910 (Mo.); Coulter 
378, Mexico (Gray; Kew) ; Ehrenberg 436, Mineral del Monte, Distr. 
Huajalote, Hidalgo (Berl., 2 sheets; Gray; Par.); H. M. Hall, from 
Mexican material cultivated on University of California Campus, 
Berkeley, California, August 28, 1911 (U.S.); Hort. Bot. Hauniensi, 
cultivated in 1921 (type material, Bidens Purpusorum Bitt. & Pet., 
Cop., 2 sheets) ; Mr. & Mrs. J. G. Lemmon, Ajusco Mountains, State 
of Mexico, 1905 (Calif. );Liebmann 647, Cerro Leon, July, 1841 (Cop., 
2 sheets) ; Fred Mutter 525, at foot of Mt. Orizaba, August, 1853 
(Mus. V.; Petrop.); idem 527, Orizaba, August, 1853 (N.Y.); ex 
Herb. Pavonii ex Mexico (Boiss., 2 sheets); C. G. Pringle 10130, 
volcanic sand, Ajusco Station, Federal Distr., December 5, 1905 
(Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Cop.; Del.; Field; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; Mus. V.; 
Par.); idem 11486, alt. 2,850 meters, Serrania de Ajusco, Ajusco 
Station, Federal Distr., November 9, 1903 (type of Bidens sarmentosa 
Greenm., Gray: cotypes, Berl.; Cop.; Kew); C. A. Purpus, fields, 
Esperanza, Vera Cruz, August, 1907 (Calif., forma usque ad 4 dm. 
alta) ; idem 1648, gravelly soil about timber line, Mt. Popocatapetl, 
November, 1905 (cotypes, Bidens alpina Brandeg.: Berl.; Brit.; 
Field; Mo.; U.V.); idem 3037, sandy soil, Mt. Popocatapetl, Sep- 
tember, 1908 (Berl.; Brit.; Del., 2 sheets; Field; Mo.; Par.; Calif.); 
idem 3634, Esperanza, Puebla, 1909 (Calif.); J. N. Rose & R. Hay 
5812, Mt. Orizaba, July 26, 1901 (Gray); J.N. Rose&J.H. Painter 
7881, Nevada.de Toluca, State of Mexico, October 15, 1903 (U.S.); 
Schaffner, mountainous places, Mexico, September, 1855 (Gray); 
idem 293, in mountains, Mexico, October, 1855 (Gray) ; H. Schenck 
459, alt. about 3,800 meters, ridge between Mt. Popocatapetl and 
Mt. Ixtaccihuatl, September 10, 1908 (Berl.); Schiede, near Tepeya- 
hualco, Puebla, September, 1829 (Berl.); Schmitz, Valley of Mexico, 
State of Mexico (Mus. V., 3 sheets); H. E. Seaton 272, alt. 2,700 
meters, Mt. Orizaba, August 8, 1891 (Field; Gray); idem 497, alt. 
2,400 meters, between Mt. Orizaba and Esperanza, Vera Cruz, 
August 15, 1891 (U.S.); J. G. Smith, Mexico, 1892 (Mo.); Tote, 
Mexico (Kew); Uhde 620 and 621, Mexico (Berl.). 

Asa Gray (Proc. Amer. Acad. 19: 15. 1883) carefully considered 
this species, but retained it in Coreopsis, the taxonomic distinctions 
between which and Bidens he admitted frequently in his writings to 
be highly artificial. It is interesting to note, however, that Schultz 
Bipontinus had given, previous to Gray's observations, the names 
Bidens Coreopsidioides (not B. Coreopsidis as in Gray, loc. cit.) and 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CL 




BIDENS PALUSTRIS Sherff (figs, a-g) 
BIDENS TAYLORI (S. L. Moore) Sherff (figs, h-o) 



Of THt 
UMWERSin GF 



THE GENUS BIDENS 493 

Bidens Schaffneri to specimens of this species sent to the Gray 
Herbarium and to the Berlin Herbarium. 

The type (Berlandier 1030) is matched well by the type of Bidens 
sarmentosa Greenm. (Pringle 11486) and that of Bidens alpina 
Brandeg. (Purpus 1648 not 1684 as erroneously printed in Brandeg., 
loc. cit.). The general habit suggests strongly that of Anthemis 
(A. arvensis L.) , whence the specific name. I have seen two old speci- 
mens in the herbarium of Pavon (Boiss.) from Mexico, which were 
evidently cultivated forms belonging here. The larger one is more 
than 3.6 dm. high; the smaller one bears a fruiting head with achenes 
up to 8 mm. long and having naked, variously spreading or even 
somewhat reflexed aristae 1.5-2 mm. long. These are the Bidens 
bipinnatifida Herb. Pav. (nee aliorum). 

The varying treatments accorded this species have been dis- 
cussed in earlier papers (Sherff, op. cit., 1913, 1915, and 1923). 
Recently Bitter has published the new name Bidens Purpusorum 
Bitt. & Petersen for a plant the ripe achenes of which were collected 
in 1908 by C. A. Purpus in fields in the vicinity of Esperanza, 
Vera Cruz, Mexico, and sent to the Bremen Botanical Garden 
under the name of Bidens grandi flora Balb. In the herbarium of 
the University of California are two specimens collected by Purpus 
and bearing field data essentially similar to those given by Bitter. 
The first was collected at Esperanza in August, 1907, not "1908," 
and matches Bitter's description well. The second was collected at 
Esperanza in 1909, and distributed under the name of "Bidens 
pilosa Linn.? Form." It is Purpus 3634. This second plant differs 
in being more branched and in having merely 3-5-parted leaves, not 
2-3-pinnatifid leaves. 1 Both forms have most of the achenial aristae 
retrorsely barbed, but in this and other respects are connected with 
typical Bidens Anthemoides by a large number of herbarium speci- 
mens examined. 

Similarly, the specimens cited above (vide sub Hort. Bot. Hauni- 
ensi), raised at the Botanical Garden of Copenhagen from the achenes 
of the type material of Bidens Purpusorum (Cop.), are found to be 
referable at once to Bidens Anthemoides. 

The type material for B. Anthemoides, B. sarmentosa, and B. 
alpina was in each case the more common, small, alpine form, 0.5-2 

1 In a number of species of Bidens a strong degree of polymorphism is known 
to occur among the leaves; for example, B. aurea (Ait.) Sherff, B. triplinervia 
H.B.K., B. andicola H.B.K., B. Chrysanthemifolia (H.B.K.) Sherff, and B. squar- 
rosa H.B.K. The difference in the leaves, therefore, does not appear to be of much 
importance in this case. 



494 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

dm. tall. Taller forms are sometimes found, the taller of the above- 
mentioned Pavon Herbarium specimens being an example. The 
plant collected by Henry E. Seaton, No. 272, was over 4 dm. tall. 
The plants cultivated in Bremen from achenes sent by Purpus grew 
about 5 dm. tall. An exceptional specimen by Schiede from Tepeya- 
hualco (Berl.) measures over 5.7 dm. in height. In 1917, Professor 
H. M. Hall of the University of California sent me from the botanical 
garden of that university several specimens of this species for deter- 
mination. He wrote: "It has been in our botanical garden for a long 
time without name .... It is rather attractive and is being used 
to some extent as a bedding plant." The largest specimen measured 
about 4 dm. high, and many of the immature achenes had aristae 
retrorsely barbed. 1 The occasional presence here of retrorsely barbed 
aristae in a species usually lacking them demonstrates again the 
impracticability of using the presence or absence of such aristae as a 
distinguishing character for Bidens and Coreopsis (cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
59: 307. 1915). For 147a. Bid ens Muelleri Sherff, see p. 645. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXIV, FIGS. 0,-j 

Bidens Anthemoides: a, flowering and fruiting spray, X0.65; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X5.23; c, interior involucral bract, X5.23; 
d, ray corolla, X5.23; e, palea, X5.23;/, disc floret, X5.23; g, anthers, 
X26.16; h, pollen grain, X261.6; i, upper portion of pistil, X26.16; 
j, achene, X5.23; all from Pringle 11486 (type of Bidens sarmentosa 
Greenm.), in Hb. Gray. 

148. Bidens andicola H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 186 (237). 1820. 
PI. CXXIII, figs, a-d and h-p. 

Bidens fruticulosa Mey. & Walp. Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 19, Suppl. 1: 

271. 1843. 2 

Bidens Cosmantha var. diversifolia Griseb. Symb. Argent. 198. 1879. 
Bidens andicola vars. normalis and heterophylla 0. Kuntze, Rev. 

Gen. PL 3, pt. 2: 136. 1898. 3 
Capitula subradiata. 

Capitula pansa ad anthesin circ. 5 mm. lata .... var. e. Mandonii. 

1 Dr. Hall examined for me three sheets of material from the same original 
source (Calif.), and reported that one sheet had exaristate achenes. Thus here, 
as already seen in many other cases, plants of the same collection are found to vary 
decidedly in the matter of achenial aristae. 

2 See also remarks upon Bidens diversifolia Willd. ex DC. under B. pilosa var. 
alausensis (H.B.K.) Sherff. 

1 Coreopsis patula Willd. (forsan ined.) was the name given to Bonpland 3125 
(Par.), from equatorial America. The leaves were small, mostly tripartite. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLI 




BIDENS SCHLECHTERI Sherff (figs, a-i) 
BIDENS HOFFMANNII Sherff (figs, j-p) 



OF TKt 
UltVERSltt Of IUIHW 



THE GENUS BIDENS 495 

Capitula pansa ad anthesin circ. 7-8 mm. lata. 

var. 7. Cosmantha. f. 1. Buchtienii. 

Capitula perspicue radiata, ad anthesin multo majora. 

Habitus plerumque perennis, foliis 1-7 cm. longis nunc indivisis 
nunc tripartitis vel nonnullis etiam 1-3-pinnatis, capitulis 
pansis ad anthesin plerumque 2-4 rarius usque ad 5.5 cm. 
latis, achaeniis corpore 0.7-1.4 cm. longis. 

B. andicola sensu stricto. 

Habitus plerumque perennis, foliis 2-3-pinnatisectis usque ad 1 dm. 
longis, achaeniis longioribus superne valde attenuato-elongatis. 

var. j8. decomposite. 

Habitus plus minusve annuus, foliis ternatisectis, capitulis 1 vel 
paucis, normaliter radiatis et pansis ad anthesin 6-7 cm. latis. 

var. 7. Cosmantha. 

Habitus perennis, foliis plerumque indivisis, anguste vel late 
oblongo-linearibus, interdum 1-5-lobatis vel 3-5-partitis, seg- 

mentis linearibus; achaeniis parvis var. 5. tarijensis. 

Habitus perennis, omnibus foliis pinnatim divisis segmentis elonga- 
tis tenuiterque linearibus, achaeniis parvis. 

var. 5. tarijensis f. 1. dissecta. 

Herba perennis, semi-procumbens vel etiam erecta, valde hispido- 
pubescens vel fere glabra, ramosa; caulibus parce angulatis, 2-6 
(rarius -8 vel etiam usque ad 13 fide Lehmannii) dm. longis. Folia 
1-7 cm. longa, valde polymorpha; nunc indivisa, ovata, serrata, 
sessilia vel alato-petiolata, ad apicem obtusa vel subacuta; nunc 
tripartita vel 1-3-pinnata foliolis ovatisvel lanceolatis vel linearibus 
et ad apicem sensim vel abrupte apiculatis. Capitula ramos terminan- 
tia, longe pedunculata, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2-4 vel rarius 
etiam usque ad 5.5 cm. lata, 0.7-1.4 cm. alta. Involucrum perspicue 
hispidum; bracteis exterioribus 8-10, lanceolatis vel lineari-oblongis, 
ciliatis, supra saepe glabratis, apice plerumque obtusis, 5-6.5 mm. 
longis, quam interioribus lanceolatis dense hispidis plerumque multo 
brevioribus. Flores ligulati saepius 8, lutei, ligula elliptico-oblan- 
ceolati, apice plerumque minute 3-denticulati, 1.2-2.5 cm. longi. 
Achaenia tenuiter linearia, inferne sensim attenuata, obcompresso- 
quadrangularia, sulcata, supra plus minusve erecto-hispida, fusco- 
nigra, corpore 0.7-1.4 cm. longa et 0.4-1 mm. lata et paleas demum 
superantia, apice bi- (vel pauca tri-) aristata, aristis tenuibus, 
brunneo-stramineis vel rubescentibus, retrorsum hamosis, 1.7-3 mm. 
longis. 



496 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Type specimen: Collected by Alexander Humboldt and Aime 
Bonpland at altitude of 3,150 meters, on slope of Mt. Chimborazo, 
Ecuador, June, 1799-1804 (Par.). 

Distribution: Region of the Andes from Colombia southward 
through Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia into northern Argentina. 

Specimens examined : J. Ball, rocky places, alt. 3,600-3,900 meters, 
Chicla, Peru, April 21-23, 1882 (Gray) ; Miguel Bang 16 pro parte, 
alt. 3,000 meters, La Paz, Bolivia, 1889 (Berl.; Boiss.; Del., 2 sheets; 
Gray; Kew, cum B. pilosa var. radiata commixta; Mo.; Mus. V.); 
idem 141, eodem loco, 1890 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Cop.; Field; Gray: 
Kew; Mo.; Mun.; Mus. V.; Phila., etc.); Aime Bonpland 3125, 
equatorial America (Par., sub nom. Coreopside patula Willd. mss.); 
Thomas Bridges, Bolivia (Brit.); Otto Buchtien, alt. 3,700 meters, on 
hills, La Paz, Bolivia, February 5, 1907 (Berl.); idem, alt. 3,750- 
3,800 meters, eodem loco, February, 1919 (Field, 2 sheets); idem, 
alt. 3,750 meters, eodem loco, March 6, 1919 (Field); idem 23, on 
hills and mountain slopes, alt. 3,700 meters, eodem loco, March, 1910 
(Berl.; Del., 2 sheets; Field; Gray); idem (similiter) 23, alt. 3,200 
meters, Unduavi, North Yungas, Bolivia, February, 1914 (Field; 
forma B. triplinerviae var. macranthae adpropinquans) ; idem 98, 
alt. 3,750 meters, dry hillsides, La Paz, Bolivia, May 18, 1907 (Field) ; 
idem 205, alt. 3,200 meters, hills, Unduavi, North Yungas, February 
12, 1907 (Field) ; idem 260, alt. 3,750 meters, hills, La Paz, April 18, 
1907 (Field); idem 261, alt. 3,700 meters, eodem loco, February 5, 
1907 (Field); idem 732, alt. 3,700 meters, eodem loco, February 5, 
1907 (Field); idem 1462, La Paz, February 5, 1907 (Gray; Mun.); 
idem 3072, alt. 3,300 meters, mountain slopes, Unduavi, North 
Yungas, November, 1910 (Field; U.S.; forma B. triplinerviae var. 
macranthae adpropinquans) ; idem 3073, alt. 3,200 meters, eodem loco, 
February 12, 1907 (Field; forma B. triplinerviae var. macranthae 
adpropinquans) ; idem 4305, alt. 3,750 meters, La Paz, April 8, 1919 
(Field; Gray; U.S.); idem 4306, eodem loco et tempore (Field; 
Hamb.); Gaudichaud (Voyage la Bonite) 1046, Purruchuca, Peru, 
1836-1837 (Par., sub nom. Bidente diffusa); Fritz Claren 11443, alt. 
3,650 meters, sandy places, Santa Catalina, Dept. Santa Catalina, 
Prov. Jujuy, Argentina (Stockh.); R. E. Fries 987, alt. 3,300-3,400 
meters, subhumid, cultivated places, Yavi, Prov. Jujuy, Argentina, 
January 1, 1902 (Stockh., 2 sheets) ; R. Hauthal 334, alt. about 3,600 
meters, La Paz, Bolivia, 1906 (Berl.); F. L. Herrara 2358, alt. 3,600 
meters, hills of the Saxaihuaman, Dept. Cuzco, Peru, March, 1929 
(Field); G. Hieronymus & P. G. Lorentz, vicinity of Nevado del 



THE GENUS BIDENS 497 

Castillo, Prov. Salta, Argentina, March 19-23, 1873 (Berl.); Hum- 
boldt & Bonpland, alt. 3,150 meters, etc. (type, Par.: cotype, Willd., 
sub herb. No. 15032, fol. 2, et sub nom. Bidente pubescenti 
Willd.); A. S. Kalenborn 1006, Oroya, Peru (U.S.); E. P. Killip 
& A. C. Smith 21591, alt. 3,000-3,500 meters, on open hillside, 
Rio Blanco, Dept. Lima, Peru, April 15-17, 1929 (Field); iidem 
21766, eodem loco et tempore (Field); Otto Kuntze, Cochabamba, 
Bolivia, March, 1892 (Mo., sub appellationibus /3. and a. normali) ; 
idem, alt. 2,100 meters, Santa Rosa, Bolivia, April 1, 1892 (N.Y., sub 
nom. Bidente grandiflora 5. serrulata 0. K.);F. C.Lehmann, abundant 
in swampy places, alt. 3,000 meters, Pasto, Colombia, June 14, 1878 
(Mus. V.) ; idem 357, alt. 2,000 meters, Tunguragua, Ecuador, October 
31, 1879 (Boiss.); idem 2835, alt. 2,600-3,000 meters, Dept. Cauca, 
Colombia, May 6, 1883 (Gray) ; idem 5977, abundant at alt. 2,500- 
2,800 meters, on the Alto de Pesares above Popayan, Cauca, Colom- 
bia, March (Berl.) ; G. Mandon 43 pro parte, uncultivated slopes at 
alt. 2,600-2,700 meters, San Pedro, Bolivia, March, 1859 (Berl.; 
Gray; Kew; N.Y.); idem (similiter) 43 pro parte, everywhere, in dry, 
rocky, uncultivated places, alt. 2,650-3,200 meters, Sorata, Bolivia, 
February-May, 1859 (Boiss.); idem 44 pro parte, San Pedro, Bolivia, 
March, 1859 (Berl.; Brit.; Del., 2 sheets; Gray; Kew; Mus. V.); 
idem 45 pro parte, alt. 3,200 meters, between Mt. Pocara and Habaya, 
Sorata, Bolivia, February, 1859 (Brit.); idem 46 pro parte, Sorata, 
(N.Y.) ; Mathews 1046, Cuesta de Purruchuca, Peru (Del., sub nom. 
Bidente diffusa; Kew); F. W. Pennell 13555, rocky stream bank, 
alt. 3,500-3,600 meters, Sacsahuaman, above Cuzco, Dept. Cuzco, 
Peru, April, 24, 1925 (Field) ; idem 14240, alt. 3,500-3,550 meters, 
rocky cliff below La Paz, Bolivia, May 19-20, 1925 (Field); idem 
14730, alt. 3,400-3,600 meters, open, rocky slope, Huaros, Dept. 
Lima, Peru, June 23, 1925 (Field); K. Pflanz 106, alt. 3,100 meters, 
Palca, La Paz, Bolivia, April, 1908 (Berl.); idem 205, alt. 4,300 
meters, eodem loco, February, 1908 (Berl.); idem 441, Palca, La Paz, 
April 8, 1910 (Berl.); idem 466, alt. 3,650 meters, eodem loco, Febru- 
ary 1, 1910 (Berl.) ; H. H. Rusby 1687, alt. 3,000 meters, near La 
Paz, April, 1885 (N.Y.) ; idem 1688, alt. 3,000 meters, La Paz, Octo- 
ber, 1885 (Berl.; Boiss.; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Phila.); F. Schickendantz 
139, Yacatula, near Bele"n, Prov. Catamarca, Argentina, 1879- 
1880 (Berl.); idem 200, Capillitas, Prov. Catamarca, February, 1873 
(Berl., 2 sheets, 1 sub nom. Bidente Cosmantha var. diversifolia) ; 
A. Weberbauer 2506, alt. 3,400-3,600 meters, mountains east of 
Palca, Dept. Junin, Prov. Tarma, Peru, February 12, 1903 (Berl.); 



498 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

idem 3057, alt. 3,700 meters, Hacienda Cajabamba (between Samanco 
and Caraz), Dept. Ancash, Peru, May 24, 1903 (Berl.); idem 4854, 
alt. 3,500-3,600 meters, Sacsahuaman, above Cuzco, Peru, May 24, 
1905 (Berl., forma B. triplinerviae var. macranthae adpropinquans) . 

For many years the identity of the South American Bidens andi- 
cola has been obscured by the great multiplicity of foliage forms 
encountered. Weddell, as early as 1856 (Chloris And. 1 : 70) described 
it as a polymorphous plant ("Plante polymorphe et tres repande dans 
la chaine, mais presque exclusivement alpestre"). Later, Otto 
Kuntze, who like Weddell had collected in South America, com- 
mented upon the variability of the leaves ("Eine robuste Art mit 
einfach oder mehrfach ternatisecten Blattern, mittelgrossen gelben 
Strahlbliithen, ziemlich grossen Bliithenkopfen, ausseren zottig 
behaarten Involucralbracteen, etc., aber in Bezug auf Blattheilung 
wie manche andere Bidens-Art sehr variabel" ; Rev. Gen. PI. 3, pt. 2: 
136. 1898). In herbaria the numerous foliage forms are seen to 
simulate corresponding forms of B. triplinervia H.B.K. (B. humilis 
H.B.K., B. Crithmifolia H.B.K., etc.), and this has led often to con- 
fusion between the two species. Some years ago I was enabled, 
through the courtesy of Dr. Otto Buchtien (cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
76: 151. 1923), to study a great number of specimens collected by 
him and displaying a wide range of variation. From these (Field) 
and many others, totalling more than three hundred specimens, the 
descriptions for B. andicola and its varieties are drawn. It was 
found that sometimes, in poorly developed material, distinction from 
B. triplinervia or its varieties is apparently impossible, but that in 
well developed material the distinctions are usually very definite, B. 
andicola being coarser, its thicker heads having commonly about 
eight instead of commonly about five rays, etc. B. andicola has the 
paleae shorter than the mature achenes and even this character alone 
separates it from the surprisingly similar aggregation of Mexican 
forms of B. triplinervia (Purpus 1547, 1548, 2637, 4135, 5089, 5620; 
Rose & Painter 6666, 7949; Pringle 4915; E. W. Nelson 3220, etc.) 
that in late years have passed erroneously under the name B. Dauci- 
folia DC. In the latter the paleae are usually very blackish above 
and commonly surpass the mature achenes. 

The type sheet of B. fruticulosa Mey. & Walp. in Berlin bears 
two small specimens collected by Mey en in April, 1831, about 
Tacora, Peru. The leaves are undivided, ovate to oblanceolate, 
and only about 1 cm. long, the heads 6-8-ligulate. The plants 
match very closely a certain form found among the Buchtien plants 



sld Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLII 




BIDENS MILDBRAEDII Sherff 



. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 499 

already cited (No. 4305), and thus are seen to be merely an extreme 
form of B. andicola. 

As stated in a former article (Bot. Gaz. 85: 2. 1928), Grise- 
bach's B. Cosmantha var. diversifolia was described as having the 
lowermost leaves ternatisect, the others entire, elliptic-oblong, 
sharply serrate. It came from the Province of Catamarca, Argen- 
tina. The Catamarca plants studied by Grisebach had been collected 
by F. Schickendantz (Griseb. op. cit. 3). A good specimen of F. 
Schickendantz 200, from Catamarca and bearing the determination 
B. Cosmantha var. diversifolia Griseb., is extant in the Berlin Her- 
barium. It is merely B. andicola H.B.K. 

Bidens andicola var. /3. decomposita Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 
3, pt. 2: 136. 1898. PI. CXXIII, figs. / and g. 

Bidens macrantha Griseb. Abhandl. Goett. 19: 138. 1874. 
Bidens grandiflora var. breviloba Kuntze, loc. cit. 

Folia 2-3-pinnatisecta, usque ad 1 dm. longa, achaeniis superne 
valde attenuato-elongata. 

Type specimen: Collected by Otto Kuntze, at altitude of 3,000 
meters, Cochabamba, Bolivia, March 26, 1892 (N.Y.). 

Distribution: From Ecuador southward through Peru and 
Bolivia into Argentina, where it extends as far south as the provinces 
of Mendoza, San Luis, and Cordoba. 

Specimens examined: J. Ball, rocky places, alt. 3,600-3,900 
meters, Chicla, Peru, April 21-23, 1882 (Kew, ubi secundum speci- 
men species ipsa est); idem, alt. 4,200-4,290 meters, above Casa- 
palta, Peru, April 22, 1882 (Kew) ; idem, alt. 1,800-3,300 meters, in 
valley of Rimac River, Peru, April, 1882 (Kew) ; Miguel Bang 16 
pro parte, alt. 3,000 meters, La Paz, Bolivia, 1889 (Del. ; Mun. ; U.V.) ; 
idem 141a, Bolivia (Cop.; N.Y.); Thomas Bridges, Bolivia (Brit.; 
forma B. triplinerviae var. macranthae adpropinquans) ; Otto Buchtien, 
alt. 3,840 meters, Bolivia, March, 1910 (Field); idem, alt. 3,750 
meters, La Paz, Bolivia, March, 1912 (Brit.); idem, eodem loco, 
March, 1913 (Cop.; Del., 2 sheets; Field; Gray; Kew; Mo.); idem, 
alt. 3,800 meters, eodem loco, February, 1919 (Field) ; idem 150, alt. 
3,750 meters, eodem loco, March, 1913 (Field) ; idem 377, eodem loco, 
February 2, 1919 (Field); idem 812, eodem loco et tempore (Field, 
2 sheets); idem 3066, eodem loco, March, 1910 (N.Y.); idem 3067, 
alt. 3,700 meters, hills, La Paz, March, 1910 (Field); idem 4301 et 
4302, alt. 3,750 meters, La Paz, February 2, 1919 (Field; U.S.); idem 
8562, alt. 3,750 meters, eodem loco, February 13, 1931 (Field); idem 



500 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

8563, alt. 3,850 meters, eodem loco et tempore (Field); idem 8660, 
alt. 3,800 meters, eodem loco, April 25, 1931 (Field) ; Cardenas "68 
special," alt. 3,300 meters, La Paz, Bolivia, May 7, 1922 (N.Y.); 
K.Fiebrig 3004, South America (Berl.) ; idem 30326, alt. 3,600 meters, 
Escayache near Tarija, Bolivia, January-February, 1904 (Stockh.); 
C. Galander, Pampa del Matadero, Argentina, January 22, 1880 
(Berl.); idem, ravine, at foot of Los Gigantes, Sierra Achala, 
Prov. Cordoba, Argentina, January 23, 1880 (Berl.); idem, ravine, 
eodem loco, January 24, 1880 (Berl.); idem, Estancia de las Rosas, 
Prov. Cordoba, January 27, 1881 (Berl.); idem, Cuesta de San 
Ignacio, Argentina, March 23, 1881 (N.Y.) ; idem, Sierra de la Estan- 
zuela, Prov. San Luis, Argentina, March 3, 1882 (Berl.); idem, 
ravine of los Bueyes near San Francisco, Prov. San Luis, March 17, 
1882 (Berl.); idem, Cerro del Morro, Prov. San Luis, March 22, 1882 
(Berl.) ; F. L. Herrera 1482a, alt. 3,350 meters, Cuzco, Peru, March, 
1927 (Gray); G. Hieronymus, Paso de la Higuera at foot of the 
Cuesta de Arpel, Sierra Achala, Prov. Cordoba, Argentina, March 
24-25, 1874 (Berl.); idem, Sierra Achala, north from the Cuesta de 
Copina, Argentina, February 19, 1877 (Berl.); idem 431, Cerro de 
Orcosu, Dept. Las Minas, Prov. Cordoba, Argentina, February 20, 
1876 (Berl.; Kew, ubi glabra et mexicanae B. serrulatae plus minusve 
adpropinquans) ; idem & P. G. Lorentz 147, Los Potreros at foot of 
Nevado del Castillo, Prov. Salta, Argentina, March 24, 1873 (Berl., 
forma tantum 5- vel 6-radiata); iidem 172, eodem loco, March 18, 
1873 (Berl.; forma floribus ligulatis deficientibus vel minimis); 
A. S. Hitchcock 20785, alt. 3,000 meters, open slopes, La Rinconada, 
a ranch between Ibarra and Tulcan, Prov. Carchi, Ecuador, August 
10-11, 1923 (N.Y.) ; P. Jorgensen 1363 pro parte, Dept. Andalgala, 
Prov. Catamarca, Argentina, February 16, 1917 (U.S.; in Herb. 
Calif, hie numerus species ipsa est); A. S. Kalenborn 100, alt. 3,000- 
4,200 meters, dry hills, Oroya, Peru (U.S.); idem lOOa, Oroya (U.S.); 
Margaret Kalenborn 100, alt. 3,000-5,100 meters, Oroya, 1919 (Mo.); 
E. P. Killip & A. C. Smith 24229, alt. 1,800-2,400 meters, open 
hillside, Huacapistana, Dept. Junin, Peru, June 6-8, 1929 (Field) ; 
P.O. Lorentz, Tucuman, Argentina (Kew; commun. Grisebach sub 
nom. B. macrantha Griseb.); idem 152 and 152a, Sierra de Tucuman, 
La Cie"naga, Prov. Tucuman, Argentina, March 25-31, 1872 (Berl.); 
idem 188, meadows, etc., Ascodringa, Argentina, April, 1871 (Berl.); 
idem 318, La Cie"naga, Argentina (Berl.) ; Macbride &Featherstone 441, 
grassy hilltop, Matucana, Peru, April 12-May 3, 1922 (Field) ; Hans 
Meyer 61, alt. 4,200-4,300 meters, paramo region, Mt. Chimborazo, 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLIII 




f a 
BIDENS BEQUAERTII DeWild. 



Of THt 



ILIHC1S 



THE GENUS BIDENS 501 

Ecuador, 1903 (Berl.) ; K. Pflanz 406 p.p., alt. 3,550 m., Palca, La Paz, 
Bolivia, March 13, 1910 (Berl.); E. C. Reed 142, Mendoza, Argentina 
(Kew); H. H. Rusby 1686, near La Paz, Bolivia, April, 1885 (N.Y.); 
C. S. Sargent 26, above Chicla, Peru, December 26, 1905 (U.S.; forma) ; 
F. Schickendantz 201, Negrilla, Prov. Catamarca, Argentina, Febru- 
ary, 1873 (Berl.); A. Weberbauer 275, alt. 4,400 meters, near Lima, 
Peru, January 18-27, 1902 (Berl.). 

Occasionally a form of B. andicola is found with the leaves highly 
compound and the achenes strongly narrowed above, somewhat like 
those of Cosmos. If it were not for various connecting forms this 
would seem to be specifically distinct. Kuntze, who collected speci- 
mens of it, referred at least one of them, a plant from Cochabamba, 
Bolivia (N.Y.) to B. andicola, naming it var. decomposita. In a care- 
less moment he named a precisely identical form collected between 
Cochabamba and Rio Juntas, Bolivia (N.Y.) B. grandiflora var. 
breviloba, although B. grandiflora ( = B. serrulata} is a Mexican species 
not known to occur in South America. 

To Kuntze's variety decomposita must be referred Bidens ma- 
crantha Griseb., founded on a plant by P. G. Lorentz, No. 316, 
alpine pastures near La Cie"naga, Argentina. The type is extant in 
good condition (Berl.). Although lacking mature achenes, it matches 
very closely the Bolivian specimens of var. decomposita, except in the 
unimportant respect that it has somewhat larger rays. 

Bidens andicola var. 7. Cosmantha (Griseb.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
85: 2. 1928. PL CXXIII, fig. e and PL CXXIV. 

Bidens Cosmantha Griseb. Goett. Abhandl. 19: 137. 1874. 

Caules altiores et graciliores, mono- vel paucicephali, foliis terna- 
tisectis; segmentis supra basim argute serratis acutis, lateralibus 
sessilibus duplo brevioribus ovatis, terminali oblongo-lanceolato basi 
cuneato et secus petiolum decurrente, capitulis longe pedunculatis, 
normaliter radiatis et pansis ad anthesin 6-7 cm. latis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Paul Guenther Lorentz, No. 1526, 
Sierra de Tucuman, La Cie"naga, Province of Tucuman, Argentina, 
March 25-31, 1872 (Berl.). 

Distribution: From central western Bolivia (La Paz) southward 
to the provinces of Catamarca and Tucuman in northern Argentina. 

Specimens examined : Otto Buchtien 813, alt. 3,750 meters, La Paz, 
Bolivia, March 6, 1919 (Field; Gray; Hamb.); idem 8477, alt. 
3,750 meters, La Paz, January 22, 1931 (Field); idem 8561, alt. 3,750 
meters, La Paz, February 13, 1931 (Field); idem 8564, alt. 3,900 



502 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

meters, La Paz, February 24, 1931 (Field) ; P. G. Lorentz 540 and 
5406, Granadillas near Yacatula (near Beln), Prov. Catamarca, Argen- 
tina, beginning of February, 1872 (Berl.); idem 1526 (type, Berl.). 
Grisebach's type of B. andicola var.Cosmantha was P.O. Lorentz 
1526, La Cie'naga, etc. Identical material was collected by Lorentz 
under Nos. 540 and 5406 (Granadillas near Yacatula, etc.). These 
Lorentz specimens are connected with B. andicola H.B.K. by too 
many intermediate forms to permit their being regarded as specific- 
ally distinct. They may best be considered as a variety of B. andi- 
cola, more or less distinguished from the species proper by the tall, 
slender habit, by the leaves more dissected (but less so than in var. 
decomposita 0. Ktze.) and with outlines suggesting those of celery 
(Apium graveolens L.), also by the (typically) larger flowering heads, 
which when fully expanded reach a diameter of 6-7 cm. 

Bidens andicola var. 7. Cosmantha f. 1. Buchtienii (Sherff), 
comb. nov. PI. CI, figs. a-g. 

Bidens Buchtienii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 150. 1923. 

A var. capitulis discoideis vel interdum radiatis (radiis 4 vel 5 
minimis rudimentariis atro-flavis) differt. 

Type specimen : Collected by Otto Buchtien, No. 4304, at altitude 
of 3,800 meters, La Paz, Bolivia, April 8, 1919 (Field, 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality of La Paz and 
vicinity, Bolivia. 

Specimens examined: Miguel Bang 16 pro parte, alt. 3,000 meters, 
La Paz, 1889 (Mun.); Otto Buchtien, alt. 3,670 meters, La Paz, April, 
1913 (Brit.; Cop.; Del.; Hamb.; Mo.; N.Y.); idem 708, alt. 3,750 
meters, eodem loco, February 27, 1907 (Field; N.Y.); idem 814, alt. 
3,750 meters, eodem loco, March 6, 1919 (Field, 2 sheets; Gray, 2 
sheets; Hamb.); idem 4303a and 6, alt. 3,800 meters, eodem loco, 
March 23, 1919 (Field); idem 4304 (2 type sheets, Field); idem 8226, 
alt. 3,600 meters, region of Tembladerani, La Paz, March 26, 1931 
(Field) ; idem 8474, alt. 3,500 meters, lower half of San Jorge, La Paz, 
December, 1930 (Field) ; idem 8475, alt. 3,800 meters, La Paz, Decem- 
ber 19, 1930 (Field); idem 8476, alt. 3,800 meters, eodem loco, 
January 17, 1931 (Field); idem 8548, alt. 3,800 meters, eodem loco, 
February 24, 1931 (Field); idem 8549, alt. 3,800 meters, eodem loco 
et tempore (Field) ; idem 8550, alt. 3,800 meters, eodem loco et tern- 
pore (Field) ; idem 8551, alt. 3,800 meters, eodem loco, February 20, 
1931 (Field) ; idem 8553, alt. 3,600 meters, eodem loco, February 18, 
1931 (Field); idem 8621, alt. 3,750 meters, eodem loco, March 6, 1931 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLIV 




BIDENS HILDEBRANDTII O. Hoffm. 



OF THt 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 503 

(Field) ; idem 8622, alt. 4,000 meters, eodem loco, March 15, 1931 
(Field); idem 8624, alt. 3,850 meters, eodem loco et tempore (Field); 
idem 8625, alt. 3,850 meters, eodem loco et tempore (Field); idem 
8627, alt. 3,600 meters, eodem loco, March 26, 1931 (Field). 

In 1916, Otto Buchtien, the eminent South American collector, 
courteously undertook to secure for me as wide a range as possible of 
specimens of Bidens from South America. His collections since then, 
as well as his earlier collections, all mainly from Bolivia and Chile, 
have been received and deposited in the Herbarium of Field Museum. 
Not only do some of them throw great light upon heretofore difficult 
points as to the variations of certain species, but two of them were 
found to be apparently new to science. One of these was described 
under the name B. pseudocosmos. The other was at first regarded as 
representing a new species, B. Buchtienii. Studies of the more 
recently collected specimens have shown indubitably that the B. 
Buchtienii plants are merely a subligulate form of B. andicola var. 
Cosmantha. 1 

Bidens andicola var. d. tarijensis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
85: 14. 1928. 

Folia plerumque indivisa, anguste vel late oblongo-linearia, 
interdum 1-5-lobata vel 3-5-partita, segmentis linearibus. 

Type specimen: Collected by Karl Fiebrig, No. 3460, Tarija, 
Bolivia, March 9, 1904 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Southern Bolivia. 

Specimens examined: Fiebrig 3004a pro parte, Tarija, in 1904 
(Berl.); idem 3460 (type, Berl.); idem 3461 pro parte, alt. 3,200 
meters, Calderillo, March 22, 1904 (Berl.). 

The specimens cited for the var. tarijensis (and its f. dissecta, 
below) come from the little known territory in the extreme southern 
part of Bolivia, close to the Argentine boundary. They are graceful, 
mostly glabrous plants, growing up to a meter in height. They have a 
habit more characteristic of B. triplinervia H.B.K. (with which they 
were at first confused by me), but the heads are rather uniformly 8- 
rayed, as in B. andicola. The variety proper is seen to be comparable 
with the var. hirtella of B. triplinervia. In var. tarijensis, however, 

1 Recently Buchtien has reported (in lit. March 27, 1932) that B. andicola 
(meaning var. Cosmantha in particular) has rays often 4 cm. long, but usually 3 cm., 
and as short as 2 cm. only on very dry spots of ground. He reports further that the 
Buchtienii forms are always radiate but with rays only 2-3 mm. long. He has 
"never seen plants which form a transition from the one to the other." For 
practical purposes of identification, it may be remarked that dried herbarium 
specimens of f. Buchtienii often appear entirely discoid. 



504 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

there is observed the very strong tendency to produce a form with 
the leaves divided into 3-5 elongate-linear segments. This form 
(f . dissecta) is very different in general habit from other known forms 
of B. andicola with compound leaves. 1 

Bidens andicola var. 6. tarijensis f. 1. dissecta Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 85: 14. 1928. 

E var. tarijensi ipsa omnibus foliis pinnatim divisis segmentis 
elongatis tenuiterque linearibus differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by KarlFiebrig, No. 3147, at altitude 
of 2,200 meters, Tarija, Bolivia, March 13, 1904 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Southern Bolivia. 

Specimens examined: Fiebrig 3004a pro parte, Tarija, 1904 
(Berl.); idem 3147 (type, Berl.); idem 3461 pro parte, alt. 3,200 
meters, Calderillo, March 22, 1904 (Berl.). 

Bidens andicola var. . Mandonii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
80: 380. 1925. 

A specie differt: saepius annua, altior (usque ad 8 vel 10 dm. 
alta), minus ramosa et magis attenuata; capitulis ad anthesin sub- 
radiatis, minoribus, tantum circ. 5 mm. latis et 5-7 mm. altis, achae- 
niis gracilioribus. 

Type specimen: Collected by Gustave Mandon, No. 48, in 
uncultivated places at altitude of 2,650-2,680 meters, San Pedro, 
Bolivia, March, 1859 (Boiss.). 

Distribution: Bolivia and northernmost Argentina. 

Specimens examined: Otto Buchtien 9105, alt. 3,200 meters, 
Unduavi, North Yungas, Bolivia, October, 1931 (Field) ; P. G. Lorentz 
& G. Hieronymus, cattle ranches at foot of Nevado del Castillo, 
Prov. Salta, Argentina, March 19, 1873 (Berl., 2 sheets); Mandon 
44 pro parte, San Pedro, Bolivia, March, 1859 (Boiss.; Mus. V.); 
idem 48 (type, Boiss.: cotypes, Brit.; Kew). 

Mr. Gustave Beauverd, in 1919, had referred my type doubtfully 
to a variety of B. pilosa L. The fruiting heads, however, are more 
those of B. andicola. Mandon 44, collected at the same time and 
place, offers several transitional forms that connect this variety 
satisfactorily with typical B. andicola. In fact, the Boissier Herba- 

1 We may note an instructive specimen, K. Fiebrig 3459, alt. 2,800 meters, 
Tarija, Bolivia, March 22, 1904 (Berl.)- This was collected the same day as the 
Calderillo plants (No. 3461), at a slightly different altitude in a nearby locality. 
Its leaves are tripartite and more as in normal forms of B. andicola. 



eld Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLV 




I' a ( 

BIDENS MAGNIFOLIA Sherff 



OF THt 

flf HIlNCIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 505 

rium specimen of Mandon 44 and one in the Natural History 
Museum at Vienna are closer to the variety than to the species 
proper. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CI, FIGS, a-g 

Bidens andicola var. Cosmantha f. Buchtienii: a, fruiting branch, 
X0.62; 6, exterior involucral bract, X2.48; c, interior involucral 
bract, X2.48; d, palea, X2.48; e, disc floret, X4.96; / (outer), g 
(inner), achenes, X2.48; all from type. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXIII 

Bidens andicola, figs, a-d, h-p: a, flowering and fruiting branch, 
X0.65; b, pair of leaves, X0.65; c, d, more compound leaves, X0.65; 
h, lower surface of portion of leaf enlarged to show pubescence, 
X2.62; i, exterior involucral bract, X3.27;;, interior involucral bract, 
X3.27; k, portion of j, enlarged to show multiloculate hairs, X44.78; 
I, ray floret, X2.62; ra, palea, X3.27; n, disc floret, X4.58; o (outer), 
p (inner), achenes, X4.58; a, h-p, from Buchtien 732, in Hb. Field; 
b, from Buchtien 4305 (matching type of Bidens fruticulosa Walp.), 
ibid.; c, from type; d, fromBcmg 16, in Hb. Berl. 

Bidens andicola var. decomposita, figs. /, g: cauline leaves, X0.65; 
/, from Buchtien 377, in Hb. Field; g, from Buchtien, alt. 3,800 
meters, La Paz, Bolivia, February, 1919, ibid. 

Bidens andicola var. Cosmantha, fig. e: cauline leaf, X0.65; from 
Buchtien 813, in Hb. Field. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXIV 

Bidens andicola var. Cosmantha: a, flowering and subfruiting 
specimen, X0.68; b, separate leaf, X0.68; c, exterior involucral bract, 
X3.38; d, interior involucral bract, X3.38; e, ray corolla, Xl.35; 
/, palea, X3.38; g, disc floret, X3.38; h, immature achenes, X4.05; 
a, from type; b-h, from Lorentz 5406, in Hb. Berl. 

149. Bidens microphylla Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 90: 390. 

1930. PL CXXV. 

Coreopsis pulchella 0. Hoffm. Bot. Jahrb. 38: 204, pi. 3. 1906; et 

Engler, Pflanzenw. Afrikas 1, pt. 1: 155, pi. 124. 1910. 

Herba prostrata, verisimiliter perennis, ramosa, ramis gracillimis 

infra sparsissime supra valde pilosis foliosis, speciminibus visis 

tantum 1-1.5 dm. longis, nodis majoribus radicantibus, internodiis 

0.5-2.5 cm. longis. Folia minima, tenuiter petiolata petiolis basi 

dilatatis parce pilosis 2-5 mm. longis petiolo adjecto tantum 8-10 

mm. longa, lamina deltoidea membranacea subglabra tripartita 



506 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

segmentis rhomboideo-ovatis iterum 2-5-fidis, laciniis acutis vel 
apiculatis. Capitula solitaria ramos terminantia pedunculis tenuibus 
1.5 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 1.2-1.6 cm. lata et 
6-7 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae aequilongae (circ. 4 mm.), exteri- 
ores 5-7 carnosulae glabrae spathulatae apicem versus rotundatae 
et apice ipso minute mucronulatae, interiores late ellipticae mem- 
branaceae puberulae. Flores ligulati circ. 5, aurei, ligula oblongi, 
apice submucronulati, 7-8 mm. longi et 3-4 mm. lati. Disci florum 
stigmata terminaliter angustata. Achaenia anguste obovoidea, obcom- 
pressa, exalata, margine parce ciliata, apice obtuso vel truncate calva 
vel bidenticulata, 2-2.5 mm. longa et 0.5 mm. lata. 

Type specimen: Collected by Ellenbeck (Exped. Baron Von 
Erlanger}, No. 1370, on rocks at altitude of 3,000 meters, at Abutkasin 
in the Land of Arussi-Galla, Galla Highland, July 16, 1900 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Galla Highland. 

Specimens examined: Ellenbeck 1370 (type, Berl.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXV 

Bidens microphylla: a, b, flowering branches, X0.62; c, view 
from below of flattened involucre, X4.31; d, ray corolla, X4.93; 
e, palea, X4.93; /, disc floret, X6.16; g, achene, X4.93; all from 
type, but a and b drawn partly with aid of type plate. 

150. Bidens triplinervia H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 182 (231). 

1820. PI. CXXVI, figs, j, k. 
Bidens affinis Klotzsch & Otto, Linnaea 15: 2. 1841; Literatur- 

Bericht 83. 1841. 

Bidens pedunculata Phil. Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile Bot. 1891: 49. 
1891 (ex descript. et patr.); B. pedunculosa Phil, ex Ind. Kew 
Suppl. 1: 56. 1906 (sphalm). 
a. Folia plerumque indivisa. 

6. Folia ovato-lanceolata B. triplinervia sensu stricto. 

b. Folia linearia vel lineari-lanceolata var. /3. hirtella. 

a. Folia plerumque 1-3-pinnata. 

6. Folia normaliter tripartita saepius molliter pubescentia. 

var. <5. mollis. 
b. Folia variabiliter pinnato-quinquepartita, bipinnata vel etiam 

tripinnata. 

c. Segmenta ultima linearia 0.5-3 mm. lata. 
d. Flores ligulati plerumque 5 vel 6. 

var. 7. macranlha sensu stricto. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany. Vol. XVI, Plate CLVI 




BIDENS PHALANGIPHYLLA Sherff (figs, a-h) 
BIDENS ELLIOTII (S. L. Moore) Sherff (figs, t-p) 



THE GENUS BIDENS 507 

d. Flores ligulati circ. 8 var. 7. macrantha f . 1. octoradiata. 

c. Segmenta ultima flagellaria plerumque circ. 0.3-0.6 mm. lata. 

var. e. nematoidea. 

Herba perennis, diffusa, gracilis, glabra vel sparsim pubescens; 
caulibus saepe numerosis, simplicibus vel inferne ramosis, procum- 
bentibus vel adscendentibus, angulatis, 1-3.5 (-7) dm. longis. Folia 
petiolata petiolis 0.5-1.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto plerumque 1.5-4 
cm. longa, indivisa, ovato-lanceolata, serrata. Capitula terminalia, 
solitaria, longe tenuiterque pedunculata pedunculo 0.3-1.5 dm. longo, 
radiata, pansa ad anthesin 5-8 mm. alta et 1.5-2.5 cm. vel etiam 
usque ad 6 cm. lata, cum fructu demum 7-10 mm. alta et 0.7-1.4 cm. 
lata. Involucrum glabrum vel hispidum; bracteis exterioribus (5-9) 
quam interioribus paulo brevioribus, linearibus, obtusis, 3-7 mm. 
longis. Flores ligulati plerumque 5, flavi, ligula oblongo-elliptici, 
apice tridenticulati, 1-3 cm. longi. Achaenia linearia, quadran- 
gularia, nigrescentia, supra scabriuscula vel sparsim hispida, bi- vel 
triaristata, corpore 6-9 mm. longa, aristis retrorsum barbatis, 0.7-2 
mm. longis. 

Type specimen : Collected by Alexander Humboldt and Aime Bon- 
pland, at altitude of 2,106 meters, near San Agustin de Las Cuevas 
and the City of Mexico, State of Mexico, Mexico, 1803-1804 (Par.). 

Distribution : Southern Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecua- 
dor; very rare, being usually represented by one of its varieties. 

Specimens examined: Ed. Andre 556, Facatativa, Colombia (Kew) ; 
Anon, (communic. R. A. Philippi, February, 1888), Tarapaca, Chile 
(Kew, sub nom. Bidente macropa Phil.); 0. F. Cook & G. B. Gilbert 
703, alt. about 3,000 meters, Ollantaitambo, Peru, May 13, 1915 
(U.S.; monstrosum); Rosalio G6mez 1074, alt. 1,950 meters, Santiago, 
Dept. Zacatepe"quez, Guatemala, 1891 (Kew); Justin Goudot, 
ditches, Fontibon, Prov. of Bogota, Colombia, February 20, 1844 
(Par.); idem, Guadalupe, Bogota, Colombia, March, 1844 (Webb); 
Hort. Argentorati, Strasburg, Alsace, August, 1841 (Herb. Schz. 
Bip. in Par.); Hort. Berol, October, 1833 (Berl., 2 sheets); idem, 1840 
(Berl.); idem, e seminibus mexicanis, August, 1840 (Berl.); idem, 
September, 1840 (Berl.); Humboldt & Bonpland, alt. 2,106 meters, 
etc. (type and cotype, Par.); E. P. Killip & Albert C. Smith 17405, 
alt. 3,400-3,700 meters, Paramo de Vetas, Dept. Santander, Co- 
lombia, January 16, 1927 (U.S.); iidem 18212, alt. 3,500-3,700 
meters, Paramo de Las Puentes, above La Baja, Dept. Santander, 
Colombia, January 25, 1927 (U.S.); E. W. Nelson 3656, alt. 3,300 
meters, mountains near Hacienda Chaucol, Guatemala, January 2, 



508 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

1896 (U.S.; forma foliis late ovatis); 1 C. A. Purpus 5089 pro parte, 
El Chico, Hidalgo, Mexico, September, 1905 (Calif.; cum var. 
macrantha lecta) ; J. N. Rose & R. Hay 6039 pro parte, Mt. Popo- 
catapetl, Mexico, August 7-8, 1901 (U.S.; forma foliis rotundato- 
ovatis, cum var. macrantha lecta) ; C. J. W. Schiede, near Angangueo, 
Michoacan, Mexico, October (Berl., 2 sheets) ; J. D. Smith 2375, 
alt. 300 meters, San Luis, Dept. Escuintla, Guatemala, April, 1890 
(Phila.); A. Stubel 54a, Cerro Colocachi, Prov. Imbabura, Ecuador, 
November-December, 1870 (Berl.); idem 143 pro parte, alt. 3,700- 
3,800 meters, Paramo de Pasca, Dept. Cundinamarca, Colombia, 
June, 1868 (Berl., 2 sheets; cum var. macrantha commixt.; nom. 
vulg., nacha); J. Triana 1375, alt. 2,700 meters, Prov. Bogota, 
Colombia, 1851-1857 (Par.). 

Bidens affinis Kl. & 0. was described from specimens raised 
from seed sent by E. Otto. A number of good specimens are in 
the older herbaria (Herb. Bernhardi in Mo.; Mus. V.; Par.; etc.). 
Specimens obtained in August, 1841, at the Strasburg Botanical 
Garden (Hort. Argent.) and elsewhere from seed sent from Berlin 
(where Klotzsch was Keeper of the Royal Herbarium, fide Pritzel, 
Thes. 165. 1872) are in the private herbarium of Schultz Bipontinus 
(Par.). These were determined by him as B. triplinervia H.B.K. 
O. E. Schulz (in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 143. 1911) likewise equates 
B. affinis with 5. triplinervia. In 1914 I compared the B. affinis 
specimens with the type and Bonpland duplicate of B. triplinervia 
(Par.) and found them identical. 2 

Asa Gray (Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 429-430. 1887) suspected B. 
triplinervia of being a form of B. heterophylla Ort.; i.e., of B. aurea 
(Ait.) Sherff. The two species do actually resemble each other in 

1 Here may be mentioned C. G. Pringle 7895, alt. 2,850 meters, Sierra de 
Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico, September 14, 1899 (U.S.); idem 7908, alt. 3,000 meters, 
eodem loco, October 6, 1899 (Gray); idem 8255, eodem loco, October 5, 1899 (Berl.; 
Boiss.; Brit.; Can.; Cam.; Del.; Field; Gray; Kew; Mun.; Mus. V.; Par., 2 sheets; 
Petrop.; Phila.; U.S., etc.). These are tall, robust forms, appearing at first as if 
abnormal forms of Bidens serrulata. Most of the specimens have simple leaves 
and these vary greatly in outline (from ovate-lanceolate to rotund) and hispidity 
Cdensely hispid to glabrous). No. 7908 has the ovate, simple leaves very incisely 
toothed with about 5-7 long teeth on each side, giving the same pectinate appear- 
ance noted by Schultz Bipontinus in certain specimens of Mandon 50 from Bolivia. 
In a number of cases, however, the foliage is fairly typical for B. triplinervia. 

Whether the bizarre vegetative variations observed among these Pringle 
plants from the upper slopes of Sierra de Pachuca are indicative of hybridization 
with one or two neighboring species can only be surmised at this time. 

2 The Berlin Herbarium contains the two sheets, already cited, of fine material 
collected near Angangueo, Michoacan, Mexico, October, by Schiede, also several 
garden specimens cultivated in 1833 at Berlin, doubtless from seed of the Schiede 
specimens. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLVII 




BIDENS INSECTA (S. L. Moore) Sherff 



OF THt 

OF ILLINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 509 

their simple-leaved states, but B. triplinervia's longer achenes are 
very distinctive. 

Bidens pedunculata Phil, was based upon Frederick Philippi 217, 
Sibaya, Province of Tarapaca, Chile. I have not seen the type, 
although the first above cited specimen, from Tarapaca, may be 
from the original collection. Reiche (Fl. Chile 4: 102. 1905), who 
without doubt has studied the type, equates B. pedunculata with B. 
serrata Pav., but this latter has more slender leaves than called for by 
Philippi's description ("foliis inferioribus .... ovato-lanceolatis") 
and is better referred to var. hirtella. 

Bidens triplinervia var. ft. hirtella (H.B.K.) Sherff, 

Bot. Gaz. 85: 13. 1928; cf. Bot. Gaz. 80: 383 and 

pi. 21.1925. PI. CXXVII. 

Bidens hirtella H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 182 (232). 1820. 

Bidens procumbens H.B.K. loc. cit. 

Bidens serrata Pav. ex DC. Prodr. 5: 597. 1836. 

E specie foliis linearibus vel lineari-lanceolatis differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by Alexander Humboldt and Aime 
Bonpland, probably at Quito, Ecuador, 1799-1803 (Par.). 

Distribution: Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. 

Specimens examined : Bro. Ariste-Joseph A42, Bogota, Colombia, 
1916 (U.S.); M. T. Dawe 302, sabana or plain of Bogota, Colombia, 
communic. 1916 (Kew); Humboldt & Bonpland, probably at Quito, 
Ecuador, 1799-1803 (types of Bidens hirtella H.B.K. and B. pro- 
cumbens H.B.K.; Par.); iidem, Quito, eodem tempore (Par.); Ruiz, 
Pavon, and Dombey 977, Peru, 1788 (Del.; type of Bidens serrata 
Pav. ex DC.); J. Triana 1374 pro parte (Par., cum var. macrantha 
commixt.). 

The type locality of B. hirtella H.B.K. and of B. procumbens 
H.B.K. was not definitely known to Kunth. In the case of the 
former, he surmised (H.B.K. loc. cit.) that the plant had grown with 
B. triplinervia H.B.K., which was known to have been collected in 
Mexico ("prope San Augustin de Las Cuevas et urbem Mexici"). 
In the case of the latter, he surmised that it had grown near Jalapa 
("Xalapa"), Mexico. An extra sheet of original material matching 
the type of B. hirtella and of the identical B. procumbens was in the 
Bonpland Herbarium, which was given later to the Paris Herbarium. 
This was clearly of the same collection as the two types mentioned. 
It had been labeled (by Spach, fide L. Anfrayi coram me in mense 



510 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Augusto anno 1914) B. procumbens, and had come from Quito, 
Ecuador. Without doubt the types of B. hirtella and of B. pro- 
cumbent, which had upon their labels no data as to locality 
(except "Ame'rique Equatoriale"), came from the same locality, 
Quito, Ecuador. 

In a former paper (Bot. Gaz. 80: 383. 1925), I have treated B. 
triplinervia as having two sets of forms with divided leaves (var. 
mollis and var. macrantha), and one set with undivided leaves (the 
species proper). From this last set may properly be segregated 
the forms with slender leaves as var. hirtella. Kunth described the 
leaves of this variety as lanceolate, but they are variously linear- 
lanceolate, widely linear-oblong, or narrowly oblong-lanceolate. 
The affinity with B. triplinervia is evidenced by the mostly 5-rayed 
heads, which probably alone distinguish the variety from the corre- 
sponding var. tarijensis of B. andicola H.B.K. 

To var. hirtella must be referred B. serrata Pav. ex DC. The 
type (No. 977 of the Ruiz, Pavon, and Dombey expedition, Peru, in 
1788; cf. Lasegue, Mus. Bot. Deless. 244-247. 1845) is extant in the 
DeCandolle Prodromus Herbarium (Del.). It lacks flowers, as 
stated by DeCandolle, but has some leaves undivided and lanceolate 
or narrowly oblong, others somewhat incised or lobed at the base. 

Bidens triplinervia var. 7. macrantha (Wedd.) Sherff, Bot. 

Gaz. 80: 383. 1925. PI. CXXVI, figs, a-i and l-v, 

and PI. CXXVIII, figs. j-p. 

Bidens Crithmifolia H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 183 (234). 1820. 

Bidens Delphinifolia H.B.K. loc. cit. 

Bidens humilis H.B.K. op. cit. 184 (234). (Non Sess<* & Moc.) 

Bidens glaberrima DC. Prodr. 5: 601. 1836. 

Bidens Artemisiaefolia Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 3: 49. 1845. 

Bidens consolidaefolia Turcz. Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 24: 185. 1851; 

Ann. Bot. Syst. 5: 225. 1858. 

Bidens humilis var. macrantha Weddell, Chlor. And. 1: 69. 1856. 
Bidens humilis var. major Schz. Bip. Linnaea 34: 528. 1865-1866 

(pro parte, ex num. 52 plantarum Mandonis; nomen subnudum). 
Bidens pectinata Schz. Bip. loc. cit. (ex num. 50 plantarum Mandonis; 

nomen subnudum). 
Bidens decomposita Wall. var. hirsutior C. B. Clarke, Compos. Ind. 

141. 1876. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLVIII 




BIDENS ROBUSTIOR S. L. Moore 



THE GENUS BIDENS 511 

Bidens humilis var. tenuifolia Schz. Bip. ex Griseb. Symb. Fl. Arg. 
198. 1879 (ex syn. B. humilis var. macrantha et num. 52 et pro 
parte 46 plantarum Mandonis). 
Bidens pilosa var. discodea Schz. Bip. em. 6. decomposita f. hirsutior 

0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. 1: 322. 1891. 
Bidens grandiflora Balb. var. humilis (H.B.K.) 0. Ktze. op. cit. 3, 

pt. 2: 136. 1898 (ex syn. H.B.K.). 
Bidens attenuata Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 61 : 495. 1916. 

Folia (raro nonnulla tripartita foliolis lanceolatis ovato-lan^ 
ceolatisve, serratis vel pectinatim inciso-dentatis) variabiliter pin- 
nato-quinquepartita, bipinnata vel etiam tripinnata, segmentis 
ultimis linearibus 0.5-3 mm. latis; capitulis normaliter 5- vel 6- 
radiatis. 

Type specimen: Collected by William Jameson, No. 55, at altitude 
of 3,900 meters, on rocks, flowering almost the entire year, Mount 
Pichincha, Ecuador, January 21, 1856. l 

Distribution: From northern Chile and central Argentina north- 
ward along the Andes to Colombia, thence eastward into Venezuela; 
also in Guatemala and widely scattered throughout southern Mexico, 
reaching as far north as the states of Vera Cruz and San Luis Potosi; 
established as a common weed in the Nilgeri (Nilgiri) Hills region of 
southwestern British East India. 

Specimens examined: Ed. Andre 3952, alt. 4,600 meters, Mt. 
Chimborazo, Ecuador, July 7, 1876 (Gray) ; Virl. d'Aoust 447, 496, 
and 605, "Province of San Luis," Mexico, 1851 (Par.); George Bar- 
day 2290, wet loam, Puruchucos (Purrochuca), Peru, June, 1838 
(Brit.) ; Barnes, Chamberlain, & Land 5 pro parte, along railway below 
Las Vegas, Vera Cruz, Mexico, September 8, 1906 (Field, cum var. 
molli lecta); R. H. Beddome 4510, alt. 2,250 meters, Ooty, India 
(Brit.); idem 4511, a common weed, Nilgiri Hills, India, communic. 
1885 (Brit.); A. G. & Lady Bourne 4594, hedges around Ootaca- 
mund, Nilgiri Hills, India, June 8, 1904 (Kew); iidem 4594A, 4594B, 
4594C, banks around Ootacamund, July 6, 1904 (Kew: A, foliis mul- 
tum divisis et foliolis tenuibus;B, foliis 3-5-partitis; C, foliis nunc 3-5- 
partitis nunc valdius decompositis) ; Otto Buchtien, alt. 3,200 meters, 
Unduavi, Bolivia, February, 1914 (Field); C. B. Clarke 11207, a 
common weed, alt. 2,250 meters, Ooty, Nilgiri Hills, India, March 

1 The type herbarium is not cited. Good specimens of this number are in the 
Delessert and Kew herbaria. Each of their several flowering heads has five rays. 
A third specimen examined (Brit.) has one head 7-rayed but otherwise matches 
precisely. 



512 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

23, 1870 (Kew; type of Bidens decomposita var. hirsutior C. B. 
Clarke); 0. F. Cook & G. B. Gilbert 409, alt. about 3,000 meters, 
Ollantaitambo, Peru, April 27, 1915 (U.S.); Thomas Coulter 381, 
Real del Monte, Hidalgo, Mexico (Kew); J. P. Couthouy, Andes, 
Ecuador, 1855 (Gray; Phila.); Ernie Cuming, State of Oaxaca, 
Mexico, 1859 (Del., 2 sheets; Par., 2 sheets); idem 53, eodem loco et 
tempore (Del. ; Par. ; forma olim pro specie B, attenuate, mihi habita) ; 
Davis, Peru (Mus. V.); Dinelli, alt. 1800 meters, Distr. Monteros, 
Prov. Tucuman, Argentina, May, 1906 (Brit.); S. Echegaray, Leon- 
cito, Prov. San Juan, Argentina, January, 1876 (Berl.) ; Carl Ehr en- 
berg 437 pro parte, Real del Monte, Hidalgo, Mexico (Berl., 2 sheets) ; 
K. Fiebrig 3474, on roads, among rocks, Tucumilla near Tarija, 
Bolivia, January 15, 1904 (Berl.); Fraser, Ecuador (Del.); Funck & 
Schlim 1152, alt. 2,850 meters, Sierra Nevada, Prov. MeYida (State 
of Losandes), Venezuela, September, 1846 (Boiss.; Petrop.); C. 
Galander, Quebrada de los Condoritos, Sierra Achala, Prov. Cordoba, 
Argentina, March 26, 1881 (Berl.); idem, Casa de Piedra near Hues- 
tita, Prov. San Luis, Argentina, March 11, 1882 (Berl.) ; H. Galeotti 
2021, alt. 1,800-2,100 meters, fields, Cordillera, State of Oaxaca, 
Mexico, January- April, 1840 (Del., atypica; Par.); idem 2067, alt. 
2,700 meters, damp woods, eodem loco, September, 1840 (Kew); 
idem 2169, alt. 2,700-3,000 meters, Mt. Orizaba, Mexico, 1840 (Del. ; 
Kew) ; August Ghiesbreght, State of Oaxaca, Mexico, October, 1842 
(Del.; Par.); idem 85, Chiapas, Mexico (Gray, 2 sheets; Par.; type 
material of Bidens attenuata Sherff) ; idem 533, in the cold region, 
mountains, Chiapas, etc., Mexico, August-October, 1864-1870 
(Boiss.; Brit.; Gray; Mo. ; formae) ; idem 534, in pine forests, Chiapas, 
etc., Mexico, October-November, 1864-1870 (Gray); R. Hauthal 
223, alt. 3,500-4,000 meters, lower valley at Chuquiaguillo, to east 
of La Paz, Bolivia, 1905-1906 (Berl.); idem 273, alt. 3,600-4,800 
meters, La Paz, January, 1906 (Berl.); idem 333, alt. about 3,600 
meters, eodem loco, 1906 (Berl.) ; idem 381, alt. 3,700 meters, Chuquia- 
guillo near La Paz, Bolivia, February, 1906 (Berl.); G. Hieronymus, 
vicinity of the Hill of Arjel, Sierra Achala, Prov. Cordoba, Argentina, 
January 13-15, 1876 (Berl.); idem, Hill of the Sala Grande, Sierra 
Achala, February 13, 1876 (Berl.); idem, slopes of the Hill of the 
Potrerillos, Sierra Achala, February 1, 1877 (Berl.); idem 465, at 
Las Ramadas (caves) near San Miguel, Sierra Achala, March 14, 
1876 (Berl.; contra diarrhoeam vel dysentariam incolis accepta); 
idem & G. Niederlein 762, near foot of hill above Vallecito, Sierra 
Famatina, Prov. La Rioja, Argentina, January 16-20, 1879 (Berl., 



THE GENUS BIDENS 513 

3 sheets); 7. F. Holton 368, Bogota, Colombia, November 6, 1852 
(Kew); Humboldt & Bonpland, alt. 2,880 meters, at base of Mt. 
Cotopaxi, near Mulalo, Ecuador, May, 1799-1803 (Par.; type of 
Bidens humilis H.B.K.); iidem, near Quito, Ecuador, 1799-1803 
(Par., 2 sheets; type and cotype of Bidens Crithmifolia H.B.K.); 
iidem, Quito, Ecuador (Par., 2 sheets; type material of Bidens Del- 
phinifolia H.B.K.); Alfredo John 23, alt. 3,000-3,200 meters, State 
of Trujillo, Venezuela, October 2, 1910 (Berl.; U.S.); William Jame- 
son, Ecuador (Mus. V.) ; idem 47, flowering the entire year, environs 
of Quito, Ecuador (N.Y.); idem 55 (type material, Brit.; Del.; Kew); 
idem 61, Andes, Quito (Brit.); idem 693, very common, environs of 
Quito, 1848 (Boiss.; Brit.; Kew; Petrop.; type material of Bidens 
consolidaefolia Turcz.); C. de Jelski 653, Callacate, Peru, May, 1879 
(Berl.) ; 7. M. Johnston 5328, rocky ridge at upper edge of fertile belt, 
Aguada de Miguel Diaz, Dept. Taltal, Prov. Antofagasta, Chile, 
December 1-4, 1925 (Gray); idem 5442, common locally on cliffs 
and talus, vicinity of spring, Aguada del Panul, Dept. Taltal, Prov. 
Antofagasta, December 4, 1925 (Gray); W. Kalbreyer 714, alt. 
3,150-3,300 meters, Sierra Pelada, Dept. Santander, Colombia, 
August 30, 1878 (Berl.); E. P. Killip 6751, alt. 2,900-3,100 meters, 
field near Anambiu, "Canaan," Mt. Purace", Dept. El Cauca, Colom- 
bia, June 11-16, 1922 (Gray; Kew; N.Y.; forma foliis var. molli 
adpropinquans) ; idem & A. C. Smith 18212, alt. 3,500-3,700 meters, 
Paramo de los Puentes, above La Baja, Dept. Santander, Colombia, 
January 25, 1927 (N.Y.); Otto Kuntze, alt. 3,000 meters, Bolivia, 
April 13-21, 1892 (Berl.); idem, alt. 4,200 meters, vicinity of Ovuro 
and Tapacari, Bolivia, 1892 (N.Y.; sub nom. Bidente grandiflora 
var. humili) ; F. C. Lehmann 189, alt. 2,500-3,000 meters, near Calicali 
and Quito, Ecuador, December 1, 1880 (Boiss.); idem 190, alt. 2,800- 
3,000 meters, Calicali near Quito, eodem tempore (Berl.; Boiss.; 
Gray; Kew) ; idem 442, alt. up to 3,600 meters, near Quito, November, 
1880 (Boiss.; Mus. V.); Uebmann 93 (Hort. Hafn. 648), alt. 3,000 
meters, Mt. Orizaba, Mexico (Gray) ; J. J. Linden 491, alt. 450-2,910 
meters, foot of Mt. Orizaba, Vera Cruz, Mexico, August, 1838 (Del., 
2 sheets; Kew); idem 737, alt. 3,300 meters, Paramo de las Cruces, 
Prov. Pamplona, Colombia, November, 1842 (Brit.; Del.; Mus. V.); 
P. G.Lorentz 686, Ascochinga, Argentina (Berl.); idem & G. Hierony- 
mus 147, Los Potreros, Argentina, March 24, 1873 (Berl.); J. F. 
Macbride 3182 and 3183, alt. about 2,100 meters, steep, stony slopes, 
Ambo, Peru, April 5, 1923 (Field); idem 3263, sunny, stony, grassy 
hillsides, Mito, Peru, April 8-18, 1923 (Field) ; idem 3345 and 3347, 



514 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

alt. 2,700 meters, grassy hillsides, eodem loco et tempore (Field); 
idem 3467, 3469, 3470, and 3471, grassy slopes, alt. about 2,550 
meters, Cani, northeast of Mito, Peru, April 16-26, 1923 (Field); 
idem 3501 and 3502, alt. about 2,100 meters, loose-stony slopes, 
Huanuco, Peru, April 26, 1923 (Field) ; idem 4363, alt. about 3,900 
meters, sprawling on mossy, rocky, open uplands, Tambo de Vaca, 
Peru, June 10-24, 1923 (Field); G. Mandon 45 (pro parte), alt. 
3,200 meters, between Mt. Pocara and Habaya, Prov. Larecaja, 
Bolivia, February, 1859 (Boiss.; Brit.; Del.; Kew; Par.; Mus. V., 2 
sheets) ; idem 46 pro parte, alt. 2,800 meters, slopes of hills, unculti- 
vated places, etc., Sorata, Bolivia, March, 1859 (Berl.; Brit.; Del.; 
Gray; Mus. V., 2 sheets; Petrop., 3 sheets; cum var. molli, etc., lecta) ; 
idem 50 pro parte, alt. 3,900 meters, near Ancouma, Bolivia, April, 
1860 (ex herb. Schz. Bip. in Par., type ofBidens pectinata Schz. Bip., 
nom. subnudum: cotypes, Gray; N.Y.; Par.); idem 51, alt. 4,000 
meters, in rocky places, Mt. Avichaca, near Achacache, Bolivia, 
January, 1859 (Boiss.; Brit.; Del.); idem (similiter) 51, alt. 3,300 
meters, on slopes of hills, near Choquecoa, Bolivia, February 5, 1859 
(Boiss.; Del.; Gray; Kew; Mus. V.); idem 52 pro parte, alt. 2,650- 
3,300 meters, along road to Lacatia, Bolivia, February-March, 1860 
(Gray; N.Y.; cum var. molli lecta); idem (similiter) 52, alt. 2,800 
meters, slopes of hills, Sorata, Bolivia, May, 1860 (Berl.; Brit.; Del., 
2 sheets; Gray; Mus. V.; N.Y.; type material of Bidens humilis var. 
major Schz. Bip., nom. subnudum); W. R. Maxon 5359, alt. 3,025- 
3,374 meters, rocky, open slope, upper belt and summit of Chiriqui 
Volcano, Panama, March 12, 1911 (U.S.); John Miers 886, Achiras, 
Argentina (Kew); Moritz 1401, Colombia, October-November (Berl.; 
Boiss.; Kew; nomen incolarum, flor amarilla); Fred. Muller 218, Mt. 
Orizaba, Mexico, August, 1853 (Mus. V.; N.Y.; Petrop.); E. W. 
Nelson 1796, alt. 2,010-3,000 meters, near Reyes, Oaxaca, Mexico, 
Oct. 20, 1894 (U.S.); W. H.Osgood & M. P. Anderson 88, Celendin, 
Peru, May 2, 1912 (Field); Edward Palmer 158 p.p. and 1586is, 
Alvarez, San Luis Potosi, Mexico, September 28-October 3, 1902 
(Calif.; Field); idem 1117, San Luis Potosi to Tampico, Mexico, 
December, 1878-February, 1879 (Field; Phila., 2 sheets; U.S.); 
ex herb. Pavonii e seminibus peruvianis et sine multo dubio culta 
(Boiss., sub nom. Bidente magniflora} ; R. Pearce, alt. 3,600 meters, 
Andes, Ecuador (Kew) ; F. W. Pennell 2142, alt. 2,600-2,700 meters, 
field on plain, southwest of Las Cruces, Bogota, Colombia, Sep- 
tember 24-25, 1917 (Mo.; N.Y.); idem 2405, alt. 2,800-2,900 meters, 
bank, edge of woods above El Penon, southwest of Sibate, Dept. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLIX 




B1DENS UGANDENSIS (S. L. Moore) Sherff 



OF THt 

OP IliiNOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 515 

Cundinamarca, Colombia, October 13, 1917 (N.Y.); idem 13361 and 
13361a, alt. 3,000-4,000 meters, rocky, clay slope over limestone, 
Chuquibambilla, Dept. Puno, Peru, April 19-21, 1925 (BerL; Field); 
idem 13881, alt. 3,800-3,900 meters, open, grassy paramo, Paso 
de Tres Cruces, Cerro de Cusilluyoc, Dept. Cuzco, Peru, May 3, 
1925 (Field) ; K. Pflanz 107, alt. 4,000 meters, Palca, Dept. La Paz, 
Bolivia, April, 1909 (BerL); idem 204, alt. 4,300 meters, eodem loco, 
February, 1908 (BerL); idem 403, alt. 3,650 meters, eodem loco, 
March 6, 1910 (BerL); H. Pittier 1337, alt. 2,500-3,000 meters, char- 
acteristic of upper forest zone and of lower paramo, Las Escalere- 
tas, Moras Valley, Rio Paez Basin, Tierra Adentro, Dept. Cauca, 
Colombia, February, 1906 (Field; U.S.); idem 3087, alt. 3,000-3,374 
meters, dry, sunny places, upper belt, northern slope of Chiriqui 
Volcano, Panama, March 10-13, 1911 (Gray; M.}',Eduard Poeppig 
1376, open, herb-grown, mountainous places at Casapi, Peru, Sep- 
tember, 1829 (Mus. V.); idem 1378, open, warm, mountainous places, 
Casapi, eodem tempore (Mus. V.: Oxf.; type material of Bidens 
Artemisiaefolia Poepp. & EndL); idem (similiter) 1378, Cochero, 
Peru, 1829 (Mus. V.); P. Preuss 1417, alt. 2,000 meters, between 
Perote, Vera Cruz, and Teziutlan, Puebla, Mexico, May 13, 1900 
(BerL); G. H. Pring 97, Sabana de Bogota, Colombia, May, 1923 
(Mo.) ; C. G. Pringle 4915, alt. 3,090 meters, Sierra de San Felipe, 
Oaxaca, Mexico, September 26, 1894 (BerL; Boiss.; Brit.; Calif.; 
Cam.; Del.; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; Mus. V.; Par.; Phila.; U.V.); 
idem 7924, alt. 3,000 meters, Sierra de Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico, 
October 6, 1899 (BerL; Mo.); C. A. Purpus 1548 pro parte, rocky 
soil above timber line, Mt. Ixtaccihuatl, Mexico, October, 1905 
(Mo. ; cum var. molli lecta) ; idem 2637, moist, shaded soil, Alta Luz, 
Puebla, Mexico, August, 1907 (BerL; Calif.); idem 4135, alt. 2,100- 
2,400 meters, oak forests, Coxcatlan, Puebla, September, 1909 
(Calif.); idem 5089 pro parte, El Chico, Hidalgo, Mexico, September, 
1905 (Calif.; cum specie ipsa lecta); idem 5620, Esperanza, Puebla, 
Mexico, September, 1911 (Calif.); Rivet 134, 147, and 156, Rio- 
bamba, Ecuador, August, 1901 (Par.); idem 209, Quito, Ecuador, 
October, 1902 (Par.); idem 373, Bella Vista, Ecuador, February, 
1903 (Par.); idem 654, Ecuador, August, 1904 (Par.); idem 756, 
Niarihuinia, Ecuador, December, 1904 (Par.); J. N. Rose & R. Hay 
6039 pro parte, Mt. Popocatapetl, Mexico, August 7-8, 1901 (U.S.; 
cum specie ipsa lecta) ; J. N. Rose & J. H. Painter 7949 pro parte, 
Nevada de Toluca, State of Mexico, October 15, 1903 (U.S., cum 
var. molli lectum); H. Ross 501, alt. about 1,200 meters, on arid 



516 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

hills, Zapotlan, Jalisco, Mexico, August, 1906 (Mun.); H.H.Rusby 
1685, alt. 3,000 meters, near La Paz, Bolivia, October, 1885 (Kew) ; 
idem 2129, eodem loco, April, 1885 (N.Y.); Sattt, Villa Alta, Oaxaca, 
Mexico (Brit.; Kew; forma quam olim pro Bidente attenuate, habui); 
Osbert Salvin, alt. 3,000-3,450 meters, Volcan de Fuego, Guatemala, 
November 17, 1873 (Kew); Scherzer, alt. 3,000-3,810 meters, fir 
region near crater, Volcan de Santa Maria, Guatemala, August, 1854 
(Mus. V.); Schiede, near Angangueo, Michoacan, Mexico, October 
(Berl.); idem 342, summit of mountain, Mexico, August, 1830 
(Berl., 2 sheets) ; L. Schlim 4066, alt. 2,700 meters, Prov. Pamplona 
(North Santander), Colombia, January, 1846-1852 (Boiss.; Del., 2 
sheets) ; Berthold Seemann 669, Loja, Ecuador, August, 1847 (Kew) ; 
Eduard Seler 123, La Paz, Bolivia, June 23, 1910 (Berl.); idem & 
Caecilie Seler 2376, alt. 3,000 meters, Totonicapam, Dept. Quezal- 
tenango, Guatemala, September 25, 1896 (Berl.; N.Y.); iidem 3021, 
alt. 3,000 meters, ridge of the Cordillera between Todos los Santos 
and Chiantla, Dept. Huehuetenango, Guatemala, September 11, 
1896 (Berl.); W. C. Shannon 3691, alt. 3,720 meters, summit of 
Volcan de Acatenango, Dept. Zacatepe"quez, Guatemala, August, 
1892 (Field); C.L. Smith 300, alt. 3,000 meters, Sierra de San Felipe, 
Oaxaca, Mexico, September, 1894 (Mo.; N.Y.); (H. H. Smith 1980, 
formerly referred here, is seen to be var. nematoidea;) A. Sodiro 
2313, Ecuador (Berl.); idem 4311, in sandy places, Andes (Berl.); 
idem 4312, sandy places among Andes, Pomasqui, etc., Ecuador 
(Berl.); R. Spruce 5048, Tunguragua, Ecuador, 1857-1859 (Boiss.; 
Brit.; Del.; Kew, 2 sheets; Mus. V., 2 sheets); idem 5049, Andes, 
Ecuador, 1857-1859 (Boiss.; Brit.; Del.; Kew, 2 sheets; Petrop.; 
U.V.); idem 5894, common in fields, along walls, etc., through the 
Cordillera of Quito, Ecuador, December, 1858 (Boiss.; Brit.; Del.; 
Gray; Kew; Par.; Petrop.); R. J. Stordy, hills above Abancai, Peru 
(Kew, 2 sheets); idem, alt. 3,280 meters, Valley of Anta, Cuzco, 
Peru (Kew); A. Stiibel 12, alt. 3,600 meters, Paramo del Cerro Ungui, 
Ecuador, March, 1870 (Berl., 2 sheets) ; idem 436 p.p., Tambo, Peru, 
April-June, 1875 (Berl.); idem 536, Cerro Colacachi, Cuicacha, 
Prov. Imbabura, Ecuador, November-December, 1870 (Berl.); 
idem 676, alt. 4,000 meters, Cerro Imbabura, Ecuador, March, 1870 
(Berl.); idem 102c, road to La Pena, Bogota, Colombia, April-May, 
1868 (Berl.) ; idem 143 pro parte, alt. 2,100-2,300 meters, dry soil, 
Loma de Canaballa and environs, Prov. Imbabura, Ecuador, Janu- 
ary-February, 1871 (Berl.; nom. vulg., nacha); idem 254, sandy soil, 
Riobamba and environs, Ecuador, 1872 (Berl., 2 sheets); idem 298a, 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLX 




BIDENS CINEREA Sherff 



OF THt 
DIVERSITY DF 



THE GENUS BIDENS 517 

Pucara de Chisalo, Ecuador, January-March, 1874 (Berl.) ; idem 338a, 
alt. 3,800 meters, Paramo de Sotara, Colombia, June, 1869 (Berl.); 
Thomson, Nilgiri Hills, India, December, 1871 (Kew) ; C. H. T. Town- 
send A213 and A214, alt. 2,400-2,850 meters, opposite Huancabamba, 
Western Cordillera, Peru, Sept. 26, 1911 (Field) ; idem 1519, Oroya, 
Peru, May 7, 1914 (U.S.); J. J. Triana 1369 p.p., alt. 2,600 meters, 
Soacha, Prov. Bogota, Colombia, 1851-1857 (Par., 2 sheets); idem 
1374 pro parte, alt. 2,700 meters, Suasco, Prov. Bogota, Colombia 
(Brit.; Kew; Par.; cum var. hirtella lecta); idem 1375 pro parte, 
Bogota, Colombia (Brit. ; cum specie ipsa lecta) ; Uhde 622, Mexico 
(Berl.); U. S. S. Pacif. Expl. Exped. under Capt. Wilkes, Andes, Peru, 
1838-1842 (Gray); Warburg 419, Nilgiri Hills, India (Berl.); War- 
szewicz 38, Chimborazo Cordillera, Ecuador (Berl.); G. Watt 2160, 
alt. up to 900 meters, Metapollium, Nilgiri Hills, India, June, 1876 
(Kew); (Weberbauer 435, formerly placed here, is better considered 
as f. octoradiata;}; idem 5613, alt. 2,400-2,500 meters, Dept. 
Ayacucho, Prov. Huanta, Peru, June 1, 1910 (Berl.); idem 7617, 
Mantaro Valley, near La Mejorada, Dept. Huancavelica, Prov. 
Tayacaja, Peru, March 21, 1926 (Field); Edward Whymper, alt. 
4,650-4,950 meters, south side of Mt. Chimborazo, Ecuador, January 
4, 1880 (Brit.); idem, alt. 3,900-4,200 meters, north and northeast 
sides, eodem loco, January 7, 1880 (Brit.); Von Winkler 214, Quito, 
Ecuador (Petrop.). 

As stated in an earlier paper (Bot. Gaz. 61: 500. 1916), the two 
type specimens from which Kunth described B. Crithmifolia and B. 
Delphinifolia are still extant in good condition (Par.). Both are from 
Ecuador l and differ only in the slightly diverse foliage. The immature 
type of B. Crithmifolia is matched exactly by J. J. Triana 1374 pro 
parte (Par.), a specimen collected near Bogota, Colombia, which is 
superior in showing not only flowering heads but also numerous 
achenes. These achenes are mainly 2-aristate, but some are 3-aris- 
tate and so agree perfectly with achenes of B. Delphinifolia. 2 Fortu- 
nately, I have found another specimen by Triana of the same number 
in the British Museum of Natural History, and this shows the 
slightly different foliage of B. Delphinifolia, for which it might well 
be taken to represent a supplementary type. 

1 Kunth (loc. cit.) expressed uncertainty as to the locality whence B. Del- 
phinifolia had come, but Bonpland's duplicate specimen (Par.) has the original 
label marked "XI Quito." 

2 It is interesting to note that the mature head on the type of B. Delphinifolia 
has at least one achene that is 2-aristate, showing no indication of a third awn's 
ever having been present (cf. H.B.K. loc. cit., "triaristata"). 



518 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

There is great variation in foliage. Triana 1375 (Brit.) shows one 
plant with leaves tripartite, the leaflets being incisely dentate, and 
another plant with the simple, ovate-lanceolate leaves of B. tri- 
plinervia proper. In fact, the sheet of Triana 1374 in Paris bears 
another specimen (besides that cited above) which has similarly 
simple, ovate-lanceolate leaves; and still another specimen of 
Triana 1374 at Paris has the slender, undivided leaves of var. 
hirtella. Evidently Triana did not differentiate in the field between 
the two types of simple leaves or between these and the finely 
divided ones. 

In 1914, on comparing the simple-leaved spontaneous state 
(Triana 1374 pro parte and 1375 pro parte, also Goudot, ditches, 
Fontibon, February 20, 1844) with the mature B. affinis and imma- 
ture B. triplinervia material, I was impressed with their similarity. 
I searched, but in vain, for any authentic material of B. affinis mani- 
festing the divided leaves so much more common than undivided 
ones on B. Crithmifolia. Later, I was permitted, through the kindness 
of Dr. Alex. Zahlbruckner to study the large set of Bidens specimens 
in the Natural History Museum of Vienna and found three more 
sheets of the original B. affinis material. These display numerous 
gradations from the typical undivided, lanceolate leaves of B. affinis 
to the bipinnate leaves characteristic of B. Crithmifolia. The 
plants are a little larger, but this doubtless was due to cultivation. 
The floral and achenial characters are identical. The plants with 
decompound foliage (B. Crithmifolia, B. Delphinifolia, etc.) are, 
therefore (cf. Bot. Gaz. 76: 156. 1923), not more than varietally 
distinct from B. affinis Kl. & 0. and, hence, from its equivalent, 
B. triplinervia H.B.K. 

Because of the great rarity of the form with undivided, ovate- 
lanceolate leaves (B. triplinervia proper) and the evolutionary 
detachment from this simple-leaved form that the various forms with 
divided leaves manifest to-day, it seems wisest to associate without 
distinction all the cut-leaved forms, except vars. mollis and nema- 
toidea, under the earliest varietal name, var. macrantha. Accordingly, 
this has been done in the present treatment. 

B. humilis H.B.K., the type of which also came from Ecuador, 
is not varietally distinct from B. Crithmifolia and therefore reduces, 
likewise, to var. macrantha (cf. Weddell, Chlor. And. 1: 69. 1855: 
"Le B. Crithmifolia H.B.K. et le B. delphinifolia H.B.K. sont tres 
voisins de cette espece B. humilis, dont ils ne sont meme peut-etre 
que des formes a feuilles moins divise"es, et a lanieres plus allonge"es"; 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXI 




e f a c b 

BIDENS CROCEA Welw. ex O. Hoffm. (figs, a-g); var. VERRUCIFERA S. L. Moore (fig. h) 



of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 519 

also Jameson, Syn. PL Aequator. 2: 117. 1865: "a B. crithmifolia et B. 
delphinifolia vix distincta videtur."). B. consolidaefolia, described 
by Turczaninow from Jameson 693, collected at Quito, is a form 
with finely divided, very pubescent leaves (cf. Turcz. Ann. Bot. 
Syst. 5: 225. 1858: "Accedit ad definitionem B. humilis H.B.K. sed 
ligulae duplo majores, achaenia minime scabra et forte laciniae folior. 
angustiores."). 

B. decomposita var. hirsutior was described by Clarke (cf. Bot. 
Gaz. 61: 500. 1916) from a single specimen collected by him at an 
altitude of over 2,200 meters, in the Nilgiri Mountains of British 
East India. Later he informed J. D. Hooker (cf. Fl. Brit. Ind. 3: 310. 
1881) that he supposed it to be some cultivated plant. Hooker 
admits having seen no specimen of it, but it happens that Clarke's 
original specimen ("11207. . . 23 March 1870 . . . coll. C. B. Clarke.") was 
sent to Kew Herbarium in 1877 and is still there in good condition. 
The plant is very different from Bidens decomposita Wall., but its 
villous, finely divided leaves match fairly well Jameson 693, the type 
collection of B. consolidaefolia Turcz. It matches also a number of 
other South American specimens of B. triplinervia var. macrantha. 
In the same region of India Dr. Watt collected material (Watt 2160) 
that agrees with Clarke's specimen except that it is minutely pubes- 
cent as to leaves and glabrous as to stems. Still more specimens 
from this region occur (e.g., Thomson, Eclipse Exped., Nilgiri Hills, 
December, 1871, determined on sheet as "Bidens humilis H.B.K.," 
in Kew; and R. H. Beddome 4511, "introd.? a common weed," 
Nilgiri Hills, in Brit.), some of them glabrous and some pubescent 
but all indistinguishable from B. triplinervia var. macrantha. A 
study of these specimens, all collected in the same region at about 
the same time, and by two of the collectors suspected of being 
introduced, shows beyond doubt that they were merely forms of B. 
triplinervia var. macrantha carried, perhaps in ballast, from South 
America to the southwest shores of British East India. 1 

At times, dwarfed, immature forms of B. andicola H.B.K. decep- 
tively resemble the var. macrantha and thus frequently have been 
confused with it in herbaria. B. serrulata (Poir.) Desf. (B. grandi- 
flora Balb.) appears really distinct from var. macrantha, despite the 
implication of Dr. Otto Kuntze's name B. grandiflora var. humilis 
(cf. 0. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 139. 1911: "Sine dubio 
pleraque specimina ab 0. Kuntze I.e. commemorata ad species 

1 Cf. Fyson (Fl. Nilgiri and Pulney Hill-tops above 6500 feet 1: 237. 1915), 
who, though omitting historical details, lists B. humilis from South America as an 
introduction into the Nilgiri Hill region. 



520 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

propinquas pertinent," a criticism justified also by Kuntze's incor- 
rect association of Clarke's var. hirsutior with B. pilosa L. Kuntze's 
combination derived, perhaps, from the fact that in certain localities 
of Mexico (e.g., Mt. Orizaba and Sierra de Pachuca) a few plants of 
var. macrantha (i.e., of B. humilis H.B.K.) are found with a more 
robust growth habit, suggesting somewhat that of B. serrulata (Poir.) 
Desf. (i.e., of B. grandiflora Balb.). 

The several original specimens of B. Artemisiaefolia Poepp. & 
Endl. still extant (Mus. V.; Berl.) are the form of var. macrantha 
with tomentose pubescence and 2-3-pinnatifid leaves. They match 
rather closely the original material of B. decomposita var. hirsutior 
and B. consolidaefolia. They were collected by Poeppig, No. 1378, 
in "Peruvia subandina. In montibus apertis calidis ad Cassapi. 
Septbr. 1829." 

Bidens triplinervia var. 7. macrantha f. 1. octoradiata Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 92: 203. 1931. 

E var. macrantha capitulis regulariter 8-radiatis differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by K. Pflanz, No. 406 pro parte, at 
altitude of 3,550 meters, on schist slope, Chullo, Palca, La Paz, 
Bolivia, March 13, 1910 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Argentina to Guatemala. 

Specimens examined: R. Hauthal 273, alt. 3,600-4,800 meters, 
La Paz, Bolivia, January, 1906 (Berl.); F. L. Herrera 1828, alt. 
3,500 meters, Hacienda Chum, Valle del Paucartambo, Peru, Febru- 
ary, 1928 (Berl.); Pflanz 406 p.p. (type, Berl.); A. Mathews 571, 
Peru, April (Gray); Eduard Seler, Sierra Chica, Prov. Cordoba, 
Argentina, April 1, 1910 (Gray); idem & Caecilie Seler 3021, alt. 
3,000 meters, Cordillera between Todos los Santos and Chiantla, 
Guatemala, September 11, 1896 (Berl.); A. Stubel 436 p.p., Peru, 
April- June, 1875 (Berl.); A. Weberbauer 435, alt. 3,700 meters, Peru, 
February 24-25, 1902 (Berl.). 

Bidens triplinervia var. 5. mollis (Poepp. & Endl.) Sherff, Bot. 
Gaz. 80: 384, pi. 22, figs. a-i. 1925. PI. CXXVIII, figs. a-i. 

Bidens mollis Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 3: 49. 1845. 

Folia tripartita, saepius molliter pubescenti-villosa, saepe sub- 
canescentia, foliolis serratis, lateralibus plerumque ovatis, abrupte in 
basim sessilem contractis, terminali majore, oblongo-ovato vel 
rhomboideo-ovato. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXII 




b h 

BIDENS FLABELLATA O. Hoffm. 



OF 



IP 



THE GENUS BIDENS 521 

Type specimen: Collected byEduard Poeppig, No. 1377, in open, 
warm places, calcareous mountains at Casapi (sub- Andean region), 
Peru, September, 1829 (Mus. V.). 

Distribution: From Bolivia and Peru northward along the Andes 
into Colombia; common in Guatemala; northwestward through the 
eastern part of Mexico as far as the State of San Luis Potosi and 
southwestern Chihuahua. 

Specimens examined: Anon, (communic. H. Broughton-Leigh), 
alt. 4,500 meters, Mt. Popocatapetl, Mexico (Kew) ; Barnes, Chamber- 
lain, & Land 5 pro parte, along railroad below Las Vegas, Vera Cruz, 
Mexico, September 8, 1906 (Field ; cum var. macrantha lecta) ; Gust. 
Bernoulli 155, dry place, Calvario, Guatemala, November, 1865 
(Berl.; Del.; Kew); /. W. Clokey 1854, bank of stream, Real del 
Monte, Hidalgo, Mexico, October 1, 1910 (Mo.); Thomas Coulter 
392, Mexico (Gray, 2 sheets; Kew; N.Y., forma plus minusve gla- 
brata); C. Ehrenberg 437 pro parte, Mineral del Monte, Hidalgo, 
Mexico, September-November (Berl.); idem 439, Regla, Hidalgo 
(Berl.); Rosalia Gomez 1073, alt. 1,950 meters, Santiago, Dept. 
Zacatepe'quez, Guatemala, 1891 (Gray; Kew); Heyde & Lux 4503, 
alt. 1,650 meters, Embaulada, Dept. Zacatepe'quez, Guatemala, 
December, 1889 (Field; Gray; Kew); E. W. D. & Mary M. Holway 
575, Sorata, Bolivia, April 26, 1920 (Gray) ; Humboldt & Bonpland 
3322, in forests (Berl.); W. A. Kellerman 4396, Volcan de Agua, 
Dept. Zacatepe'quez, Guatemala, February 18, 1905 (U.S.) ; F. C. 
Lehmann 357, alt. 2,000 meters, edges of woods and open forest 
places, Tunguragua River, Ecuador, October 31, 1879 (Boiss.; Gray; 
Kew); idem 433, alt. 2,000 meters, arid valley of Bafios on Tun- 
guragua River, Ecuador, December 13, 1880 (Berl.: Boiss.; Gray); 
idem 1608, abundant at 2,000 meters, damp places, San Marcos, 
Guatemala, June 17, 1884 (Berl.; Boiss.; Gray; Kew; forma 6 dm. 
alta, foliolis 3-5 cm. longis); idem 2835, alt. 2,600-3,000 meters, 
above Pais Camba on the Sotora, Cauca, Colombia, May 6, 1883 
(Berl. ; Boiss. ; Gray) ; idem 3511, alt. 2,650 meters, Cauca, Colombia, 
February 1, 1884 (Brit.); idem 5977, alt. 2,500-2,800 meters, Alto 
de Pesares, above Popayan, Colombia (Kew; N.Y.); Liebmann 645, 
alt. 3,000 meters, Orizaba, Mexico (U.S.); G. Mandon 43, alt. 2,650- 
3,200 meters, everywhere in dry places, rocky places, uncultivated 
places, etc., Sorata, Bolivia, February-May, 1859 (Boiss.; Brit.; 
Del.; Gray; Mus. V.; N.Y.); idem (similiter) 43, alt. 2,600-2,700 
meters, hilly slopes, etc., Espada Munaypata, San Pedro, Bolivia, 
March, 1859 (Del., 2 sheets); idem 46 pro parte, alt. 2,800 meters, 



522 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

slopes of hills, uncultivated places, etc., Sorata, Bolivia, March, 
1859 (Boiss.; cum var. macrantha lecta); A. Mathews, Prov. Chacha- 
poyas, Peru, communic. 1846 (Del., 2 sheets; Kew; forma multis vel 
omnibus achaeniis exaristatis) ; Edward Palmer 158 p.p., Alvarez, San 
Luis Potosi, Mexico, September 28-October 3, 1902 (Calif.; Cam.; 
Field) ; idem 358, southwestern Chihuahua, Mexico, August-Novem- 
ber, 1885 (U.S.) ; idem 2062, Sierra Madre, Coahuila, Mexico, Febru- 
ary-October, 1880 (Gray; Kew; forma); Poeppig 1377 (type, Mus. 
V.) ; C. A. Purpus 1547, alt. 2,700-3,000 meters, open woods, Mt. 
Ixtaccihuatl, Mexico, November, 1905 (U.S.); idem 1548 pro parte, 
rocky soil above timber line, eodem loco, October, 1905 (Calif.; 
Field ; Mo. ; cum var. macrantha lecta) ; J. N. Rose & J. H. Painter 
6666, between Pachuca and Real del Monte, Hidalgo, Mexico, 
August 31, 1903 (U.S.); iidem 7949 pro parte, Nevada de Toluca, 
State of Mexico, October 15, 1903 (U.S. ; cum var. macrantha lecta) ; 
iidem & J. S. Rose 9184, between Somoriel and Las Lajas, Hidalgo, 
Mexico, August 5, 1905 (Gray; U.S. ; forma var. macranthae adpropin- 
quans) ; Osbert Salvin, alt. 1,800 meters, Volcan de Fuego, Guatemala, 
October 20, 1873-1874 (Kew); idem & Godman 74, Calderas, Guate- 
mala, 1861 (Kew) ; R. Spruce 5047, foot of Mt. Tunguragua, Ecuador, 
1857-1859 (Boiss. ; Brit. ; Cop. ; Del., 2 sheets; Kew, 2 sheets; Mus. V. ; 
Par.; Petrop.); Thomson, Nilgiri Hills, India, December, 1871 (Kew; 
forma valde glabra); H. Von Tuerckheim 1179, alt. 1,500 meters, 
Santa Rosa, Dept. BajaVerapaz, Guatemala, April, 1887 (Gray; Kew). 
The type of Bidens mollis Poepp. & Endl., Poeppig 1377, was 
found growing with the type material of B. Artemisiaefolia (referred 
above to B. triplinervia var. macrantha). Its achenes were immature 
and the leaves tripartite. In pubescence, floral characters, and 
general habit it was similar to the B. Artemisiaefolia specimens. 
The peculiar outline of the leaf divisions, however, would seem at 
first to suggest B. andicola more strongly. Spruce 5047 matches 
the B. mollis type very closely. Spruce 5049 (Brit.) and 5894 (Gray) 
match Spruce 5047 minutely except that they show the leaves finely 
divided, as in B. Artemisiaefolia. These and other similar consid- 
erations show beyond all doubt that B. mollis belongs to B. tripli- 
nervia, is merely a foliage form, and, as such, should be accorded 
no higher than varietal rank. 

Bidens triplinervia var. e. nematoidea Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 88: 287. 1929. 

A specie foliis numerosissimis et pinnatis vel bipinnatis, seg- 
mentis capillaribus plerumque tantum circ. 0.3-0.6 mm. latis differt. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXIII 




BIDENS BAUMII (O. Hoffm.) Sherff 



Of 
UNIVERSITY Of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 523 

Type specimen: Collected by H. L. Viereck, No. 5, Cerro Que- 
mado, Santa Marta, Colombia, December 17, 1922 (U.S.). 

Distribution: Known only from Province of Santa Marta, 
Colombia. 

Specimens examined : H. H. Smith 1980, rare on open lands, alt. 
1,950-2,250 meters, San Lorenzo Ridge, January 26, 1899 (N.Y.); 
H. L. Viereck 5 (type, U.S.). 

In 1913 the Smith plant from Santa Marta was noted as a 
singular foliage form and photographs (my photograph No. 341) were 
distributed to several herbaria. Recently I have been sent the 
Viereck plant, collected in the same locality and revealing similar 
characters. On both specimens the segments of the very numerous 
and pinnately or more often bipinnately parted leaves are strikingly 
thread-like. Otherwise the plants are like those of the very common 
var. macrantha (Wedd.) Sherff. 1 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXVI 

Bidens triplinervia, figs, j, k: j, small portion of plant, X0.57; 
k, lower surface of portion of leaf in ;', X3.39; from J. Triana 1375 
pro parte, in Hb. Brit. 

Bidens triplinervia var. macrantha, figs, a-i, l-v: a, p, flowering and 
fruiting branches (the strongly pubescent foliage of p left glabrous 
in the sketch), X0.57; 6, exterior involucral bract, X4.52 (q, exterior 
involucral bract, X2.83); c, interior involucral bract, X4.52 (r, 
interior involucral bract, X2.83); d, ray corolla, X4.52 (s, ray floret, 
X2.83); e, palea, X4.52 (t, palea, X2.83); /, disc floret, X4.52 (u, 
disc floret, X2.83); g, achene, X3.39 (v, achene, X2.83); h, i, l-o, 
various leaves, X0.57; a-/, from Bonpland's private cotype of 
Bidens Delphinifolia H.B.K., in Hb. Par.; g, from Triana 1374, in 
Hb. Brit. ; h, i, from Humboldt and Bonpland,, Quito, Ecuador (type 
of Bidens Crithmifolia H.B.K.), in Hb. Par.; l-n, from Triana 1375 
pro parte, in Hb. Brit.; o, from Dr. Thomson, Nilgiri, British East 
India, December, 1871, in Hb. Kew; p-v, from C. B. Clarke 11207 
(type of Bidens decomposita var. hirsutior C. B. Clarke), in Hb. Kew. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXVII 

Bidens triplinervia var. hirtella: a, flowering branch, X0.68; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X8.12; c, interior involucral bract, X8.12; 
d, ray corolla, X2.71; e, palea, X8.12;/, disc floret, X8.12; all from 
type. 

1 The capitula are 5-rayed; the mature achaenia (6-8 mm. long) are exaristate 
(as sometimes happens in the var. macrantha too) and are somewhat surpassed 
by the paleae. Smith reported the plants as growing erect and up to 18 inches high. 



524 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXVIII 

Bidens triplinervia var. macrantha, figs, j-p: j, cauline leaf (seen 
from beneath, leaflets mostly flattened out but petiole left convolute, 
its ciliation thus not showing), Xl.35; k, exterior involucral bract, 
X4.05; I, interior involucral bract, X4.05; m, ray corolla, X2.03; 
n, palea, X4.05; o, disc floret, X4.05; p, achene, X4.05; all from 
Ghiesbreght 85 pro parte, Chiapas, Mexico (type of Bidens attenuata 
Sherff). 

Bidens triplinervia var. mollis, figs, a-4: a, b, branches with leaves 
and flowers, X0.68; c, portion of leaf, enlarged to show pubescence, 
X2.7; d, exterior involucral bract, X4.05; e, interior involucral bract, 
X4.05;/, ray corolla, X2.03; g, palea, X4.05; h, disc floret, X4.05; i, 
achene, X4.05; a, 6, from Spruce 5047, in Hb. Mus. V. ; c-h, from type; 
i, from Spruce 5047, in Hb. Kew. 

151. Bidens acrifolia Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 94: 591. 1933. 

Herba forsitan perennis, plus minusve glabrata, caulibus vel 
ramis gracilibus. Folia petiolata petiolis usque ad circ. 1 cm. longis, 
petiolo adjecto principalia saltern 3-4 cm. longa, bipinnatisecta seg- 
mentis linearibus firmulis terminaliter subsensim ad apicem acer- 
rimum angustatis, 1-3 mm. latis; summa simplicia lineariaque vel 
unipinnata. Capitula solitaria tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 5 
cm. longis ramum terminantibus, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2.5 
cm. lata et 8 mm. alta. Involucri plus minusve hispiduli bracteae 
exteriores circ. 12, lineares, acutae, 5-7 mm. longae, quam interiores 
ovato-oblongae paulo longiores. Flores ligulati 6, flavi, ligula 
elliptico-oblongi, circ. 1-1.4 cm. longi. Achaenia matura deficientia. 
Ovaria minima, plana, biaristata aristis tenuibus calvisque. 

Type: Collected by M. P. Dehesa, No. 1532, at altitude of 1,600 
meters, Mala Noche, Concordia, State of Sinaloa, Mexico, Septem- 
ber (Kew). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in State of Sinaloa, 
Mexico. 

Specimens examined: Dehesa 1532 (type, Kew; nom. vulg., pal- 
mi ta; unico rarrio viso). 

The general habit, so far as can be inferred from the single 
branch examined, is somewhat similar to that of Bidens Geraniifolia 
and B. triplinervia var. macrantha. The foliar segments are especially 
acute, however, and the unbarbed achenial aristae should render 
distinction easy. 



'ield Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXIV 




a f h 

BIDENS MOOREI Sherff (figs, a-g); var. VERRUCOSA Sherff (figs, h, i) 



Of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 525 

152. Bidens insolita Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 97: 607. 1936. 

Verisimiliter perennis suberectaque; caulibus gracilibus, angu- 
latis, glabratis, non nisi ad summam ramosis, 4 dm. altis. Folia 
petiolata petiolis planis convexo-concavisve sparsim setoso-ciliatis 
sub 2 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto usque ad 1 dm. longa, bipinnati- 
secta; foliolis plerumque 5, saepe (segmentis linearibus apicaliter 
acerrimis membranaceis glaberrimis antrorsum spectantibus) sub- 
flabelliformibus. Capitula (4-8) subcorymbose disposita pedicellis 
tenuibus usque ad 8 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 
3-3.5 cm. lata et 8-10 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores 
plerumque 8, lineares, extus glabratae, marginibus albido-ciliatae, 
apice induratae et saepe acres, 4-5 mm. longae, quam interiores 
ovato-oblongae apice pubescenti saepe abrupte angustatae breviores. 
Flores ligulati plerumque 5, flavi, ligula late oblongi vel obovati, 
apice subtruncato denticulati, circ. 2 cm. longi. Paleae lineares, 
superne angustatae, inferne interdum 1-3-dentatae dentibus erectis, 
5-6 mm. longae. Flores tubulosi tenuissimi, corolla tubo brevi 
(circ. 1.5 mm.) adjecto demum circ. 5.5-6 mm. longa. Achaenia 
cuneato-linearia, subplana, brunneo-atra, utraque facie 4-sulcata, 
superne sparsim erecto-setulosa, corpore circ. 5-5.5 mm. longa et 
supra circ. 1 mm. lata, apice biaristata aristis flavidis retrorsum 
hamosis 2-3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Howard Scott Gentry, No. 1971, in 
meadow, Quicorichi, Rio Mayo, State of Chihuahua, Mexico, Octo- 
ber 7, 1935 (Field). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in the State of 
Chihuahua, Mexico. 

Specimens examined : Gentry 1971 (type, Field). 

153. Bidens canescens Bertol. Fl. Guat. (Nov. Comm. Act. Sc. 
Bonon. 4:) 431. 1840. PI. LXXXVIII, figs. l-s. 

Herba, verisimiliter perennis, humilis, adscendenti-erecta, circ. 
2-4 dm. alta; caule tetragono, inferne glabro, superne albido-pubes- 
centi. Folia petiolata petiolis circ. 0.5-1 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
1.5-4 cm. longa, bipinnatisecta, circumambitu triangulata, trijuga, 
omnino dense albido-pubescentia, foliolis inferioribus cuneato- 
petiolulatis, foliolorum segmentis saepius late lineari-oblongis. 
Capitula solitaria, ramos superne foliis minimis bracteatos terminan- 
tia, radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 2.5-3 cm. lata et circ. 7-9 mm. 
alta. Involucri dense albido-pubescentis bracteae subaequales, 
exteriores circ. 8-10, lineari-oblongae, 4-7 mm. longae; interiores 



526 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

lanceolatae. Flores ligulati circ. 8-10, flavi (vel exsiccati subalbidi), 
ligula anguste ovato-oblongi, apice plus minusve denticulati, circ. 
1-1.4 cm. longi. Achaenia biaristata, aristis retrorsum hamosis. 

Type specimen : Collected by Joachim (Don Joachin fide Hemsley, 
Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 4: 126. 1886) Velasquez on Volcan de Agua, 
Guatemala (Herb. Bertolonii, pro parte verisimiliter adhuc ad Zolam 
Pedrosam prope urbem tuscanam Bononiam in Italia). 

Distribution: Guatemala on Volcan de Agua and very rare north- 
ward into State of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 

Specimens examined: Virl. d'Aoust 404, State of San Luis Po- 
tosi, Mexico, 1851 (Par.) ; Maxon & Hay 3690, alt. 3150-3,300 meters, 
Volcan de Agua, Guatemala, March 22, 1905 (U.S.); Salvin & God- 
man, summit of Volcan de Agua, 1861 (Kew) ; Wawra 326, region of 
Mexico (Mus. V.). 

Dr. S. F. Blake examined Bertoloni's type which he found (July 
21, 1925) in the Bertoloni Herbarium at Zola Pedrosa, near Bologna, 
Italy. 1 He states (in lit.) that he is satisfied that my determination 
of Maxon & Hay 3690 as B. canescens Bertol. is correct. Bertoloni's 
description was so full and detailed that the topotypes collected by 
Maxon and Hay, and by Salvin and Godman, could anyway be 
identified with his species without the slightest room for doubt. 
Authentic specimens with mature achenes are much to be desired, 
that the relationship of this species with its closest ally, Bidens 
andicola var. decomposita 0. Ktze., may be investigated more 
extendedly. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXVIII, FIGS. l-S 

Bidens canescens: I, flowering branch, X0.57; m, small portion 
of same, enlarged to show pubescence, Xl.7; n, exterior involucral 
bract, X3.41; o, interior involucral bract, X3.41; p, ray floret, X3.41; 
q, palea, X3.41; r, disc floret X3.41; s, upper portion of pistil, X 11.36; 
all from Maxon and Hay 3690, in Hb. U. S. 

154. Bidens serrulata (Poir.) Desf. Tabl. Ecol. Bot. ed. 2: 130. 
1815; Cat. Hort. Par. ed. 3: 186. 1829. PI. CXXIX. 

Coreopsis serrulata Poir. Encycl. Suppl. 2: 352. 1811. 
Bidens grandiflora Balb. Cat. Hort. Taur. 19. 1812. 
Bidens grandiflora Pers. ex Balb. op. cit. 18. 1813. 

1 The Bertoloni specimens of Bidens, etc., representing the Flora Italica are at 
the University of Bologna, but the North and Central American specimens are 
apparently still at Zola Pedrosa, or at least somewhere in the custody of Bertoloni's 
heirs. Cf. footnote under synonymy of Bidens mitis. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 527 

Coreopsis diversi/olia Jacq. Eclog. PI. 1: 80, pi. 54- 1811-1816. 
Bidens quinqueradiata Zea fide Jacq. loc. cit. 
Cosmea lutea Sims in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 41: pi. 1689. 1815. 
Kerneria serrulata (Poir.) Cass. Diet. Sci. Nat. 51: 474. 1827. 
Bidens diversifolia Hort. ex DC. Prodr. 5: 602. 1836; non Willd. ex 

DC. loc. cit. 

Bidens serratulata Desf. ex DC. loc. cit. 

Cosmos luteus (Sims) Gomez, Anal. Hist. Nat. Madr. 19: 275. 1890. 
Bid-ens grandiflora var. diversifolia (Jacq.) 0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. 3, 

pt. 2:136. 1898. 

Bidens grandiflora var. serrulata (Poir.) 0. Ktze. loc. cit. ex synon. 
sed exclud. plantam Boliviae. 1 

Herba annua, erecta vel interdum adscendens; caule tereti vel ad 
basim quadrangulato, debili validove, plerumque glaberrimo (raris- 
sime strigoso), purpurascenti, glaucescenti, 3-8 dm. alto. Folia 
glabra vel rariter sparsim hispida, petiolata petiolis 0.5-3 cm. longis, 
petiolo adjecto 0.3-1 dm. longa, variabilia; nunc 2-3-pinnata, seg- 
mentis linearibus vel lanceolatis, integris, acutis, indurato-apiculatis, 
crasso-marginatis, parce ciliatis; nunc pinnatim 3-5- (9-) partita, 
foliolis lanceolatis vel ovato-lanceolatis, acutis vel acuminatis, 
serratis vel inciso-dentatis, parce ciliatis, dentibus indurato-apicu- 
latis. Capitula radiata, pansa ad anthesin 3-6 cm. lata et 9-13 mm. 
alta, pedunculata pedunculis 0.4-1.5 (-2) dm. longis. Involucri 
basis hispida; bracteis exterioribus 7-10, late linearibus, glabris, 6-9 
mm. longis, plerumque patentibus vel reflexis; interioribus lineari- 
lanceolatis, extrinsecus hispidissimis, 7-11 mm. longis. Flores 
ligulati 4-7, plerumque 5, aurei, ligula ovati vel obovato-lanceolati, 
apice subintegri vel denticulati, 1.5-3 cm. longi; tubulosi aurantiaci. 
Achaenia plantarum normalium capitulorum numerosa (40-60), di- 
morpha; interiora tenuiter linearia, saepe apicem versus attenuata, 
tetragona, biaristata aristis aurantiaco-flavidulis et retrorsum 
hamosis, corpore nigra (vel ad apicem flavida), tuberculato-strigosa 
(praecipue supra), 7-16 mm. longa; marginalia clavata, cuneato- 
linearia, tetragona, glabrata, exaristata, rufo-badia, 4-5 mm. longa. 

Type specimen: No particular type cited by Poiret, but several 
authentic original specimens are extant (Par.; vide infra). 

Distribution: From State of Zacatecas southeastward to states of 
Oaxaca and Chiapas, Mexico; not common, however, outside of the 
State of Mexico. 

1 Kuntze's specimen (ipse legit) came from 2,100 meters alt., Santa Rosa, 
Bolivia, April 1, 1892. It is still extant (N.Y.) and is true Bidens andicola H.B.K. 



528 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Specimens examined: Alamdn, Mexico, 1825 (Del.); Berlandier 
1198, Valley of Mexico, State of Mexico, October, 1827 (Brit.; Del., 
3 sheets) ; E. Bourgeau 954, borders of fields near San Nicolas, State 
of Mexico, September 27, 1865 (Berl.; Boiss.; Cop.; Gray; Kew; 
Mun. ; Par., 5 sheets; Petrop., 2 sheets; U.S.) ; idem 956, eodem loco et 
tempore (Berl. ; Boiss; Cop. ; Del. ; Gray; Kew, 2 sheets; Par., 5 sheets) ; 
idem 1079, borders of corn fields, on mountain above San Nicolas, 
October 26, 1865 (Kew; Par., 4 sheets); Carl Ehrenberg 438, between 
Mineral del Monte and Huajalote, Hidalgo (Berl., 2 sheets); G. J. 
Graham 49, Mexico (Kew); Ludwig Hahn 280, Tlalpam, State of 
Mexico, 1865 (Par.) ; idem 1079, San Nicolas, State of Mexico, October 
26, 1865-1866 (Kew; Petrop.; Webb); cult, in Hort. Basil, July, 
1838 (N.Y.); cult, in Hort. Par., August 5, 1813 (Par.), August, 1823 
(Berl., ex herb. Kunthii), etc.; E. W. Nelson 1412, alt. 2,250-2,850 
meters, southwest of Oaxaca, State of Oaxaca, September 10-20, 
1894 (U.S.); idem 1561, alt. 1,950-2,340 meters, Valley of Oaxaca, 
State of Oaxaca, October 3, 1894 (U.S. ; forma plus gracilis) ; C. R. 
Orcutt 4271, Churubusco, State of Mexico, October 4, 1910 (Field) ; 
C. G. Pringle 3661, Flor de Maria, State of Mexico, October 18, 1890 
(Gray) ; idem 4313, Sierra de las Cruces, State of Mexico, October 23, 
1892 (Berl., 2 sheets; Boiss.; Brit.; Del., 2 sheets; Field; Kew; Mo.; 
Mun.; Mus. V.; Par.; Phila.; U.V., etc.); idem 11488, alt. 2,850 
meters, Tres Marias Mts., Morelos, November 7, 1903 (Berl.; Field; 
Kew); C. A. Purpus, Mt. Ixtaccihuatl, 1903 (Calif.); idem 1545, 
fields, Pachuca, Hidalgo, September, 1905 (Calif.; Field; Mo.); idem 
1546, fields, Salto de Agua, southern Mexico, October, 1905 (Field; 
Mo.); J. N. Rose & J. H. Painter 7844, near Tultenango, State of 
Mexico, October 13, 1903 (U.S.); Schaffner 252, Valley of Mexico, 
State of Mexico (Kew); C. J. W. Schiede, Angangueo, Michoacan, 
November, 1829 (Ber\.);idem, near Angangueo, October, 1830 (Berl., 
2 sheets); idem, cold region, Mexico, October, 1835 (Berl.); Alb. 
Schmitz 394, mountains near City of Mexico, State of Mexico, 1856 
(Brit. ; Mus. V., 2 sheets) ; Eduard & Caecilie Seler 560, near Zacatecas, 
State of Zacatecas, November, 1887 (Berl.); iidem 1303, Villa Lerma, 
State of Mexico, October 14, 1895 (Berl.; Gray; Kew); C.L. Smith 
299, alt. 2,100-2,400 meters, Sierra de San Felipe, Oaxaca, 1894 
(Mo.; U.S.); L. C. Smith 224, alt. 2,100 meters, mountains, Las 
Sedas, Oaxaca, October 8, 1894 (Gray); Ralph Tate, Mexico (Kew); 
Uhde 445, 625, 631, and 633, Mexico (Berl.). 

In most herbarium determinations of this species (cf. Bot. Gaz. 
85: 11. 1928), I have employed the widely accepted name Bidens 



THE GENUS BIDENS 529 

grandiflora Balb., a name going back to 1812. The trivial name 
serrulata was employed by Poiret one year earlier, and must be taken 
up. Certain authentic specimens of Poiret's species are extant at 
Paris, where this plant once was cultivated for at least several years. 
One of them ("Du Jardin des Plantes de Paris. 5 Aout 1813") was 
photographed by me. They are specifically the same as the plants 
cultivated by the younger Jacquin in 1810 from seed sent from Paris 
(Mus. Hist. Nat., located in the Jardin des Plantes), under the name 
Bidens quinqueradiata Zea and named by Jacquin, Coreopsis diversi- 
folia. They are matched specifically also by the type illustration 
of Cosmea lutea Sims. 1 

The cultivated specimens found in herbaria are mostly lower, 
more delicate, and less erect, giving an illusory appearance of dis- 
similarity to the spontaneous form. Poiret's description was based 
upon one of Desfontaines' specimens. Like many of the descriptions 
written in those days, it was inadequately drawn. The fruit characters 
were omitted. We read that the plant described is small, with 
petioles and lower part of stem pilose, also with ovate leaves. These 
last were not described as compound. 

DeCandolle (loc. cit.), evidently relying solely upon Poiret's 
description, 2 maintained B. grandiflora apart from B. serrulata (Poir.) 
Desf . The Index Kewensis (1 : 617. 1895), however, equates Coreopsis 
serrulata Poir. and Bidens grandiflora Balb. Furthermore, we are 
bound to consider the very careful and extended description of the 
Poiret species drawn up by Cassini (loc. cit.) when publishing the 
new combination Kerneria serrulata. Cassini had been in Paris, at 
the center of Desfontaines' and Poiret's activities. He amplified his 
description from living material growing in the Royal Garden of 
Paris, where Desfontaines had worked. His description fitted very 
well the average plants of B. grandiflora Balb. 

Upon the grounds of priority the name B. serrulata takes pre- 
cedence, going back to some time in the year 1811 prior to November 
29, 3 while B. grandiflora was not published until 1812. The exact 
date for Coreopsis diversifolia Jacq. I do not know. The page num- 
ber and plate number would seem clearly to indicate a date later 
than 1811. At all events, the existence of a B. diversifolia Willd. 

1 A species native to Mexico, cultivated from seeds obtained from the Madrid 
Botanical Garden; drawing made in 1812. Stem purplish at base in illustration. 

2 "Ab hac (B. grandiflora Balb.) ex descr. videtur diversa Coreopsis serrulata 
Poir. suppl. 3 [sic] p. 352 etiamsi a cl. Desf. admissa." 

3 Fide Bibl. Franc. 83. Nov. 29, 1811: cf. Journ. Bot. 44: 319. 1906. 



530 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

(ex DC. loc. cit. No. 55) might well preclude the acceptance of the 
combination B. diversifolia (Jacq.) Hort. ex DC. (loc. cit. No. 59). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXIX 

Bidens serrulata: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.68; b, c, 
d, various cauline leaves, X0.68; e, exterior involucral bract, X2.72; 
/, interior involucral bract, X2.72; g, ray floret, X2.72; h, palea, 
X2.72; i, disc floret, X2.72;j (outer), k (inner) achenes, X2.72; a, b, 
e-k, from Pringle 11488, in Hb. Field; c, d, from Pringle 4313, in Hb. 
Field. 

155. Bidens Geraniifolia Brandegee, Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 
6: 76. 1914. PI. CXXX, figs. j-o. 

Herba, probabiliter perennis et 5-9 dm. alta; caulibus tenuibus, 
ramosis, glabris. Folia petiolata petiolis ciliatis 1-2.5 cm. longis, 
petiolo adjecto 6-9 cm. longa, bipinnatisecta; segmentis late lineari- 
bus vel elliptico-linearibus, membranaceis, acriter apiculatis, parce 
ciliatis, 2-4 vel etiam -5.5 mm. latis. Capitula solitaria, longe 
tenuiterque pedunculata pedunculis 1.5 dm. longis, radiata, pansa 
ad anthesin 3-4.5 cm. lata et 7-10 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae 
subaequales; exteriores 10-14, glabrae, lineares, inferne sensim 
angustatae, apice subacute mucronulatae, 7-10 mm. longae et 
0.9-1.2 mm. latae; interiores lanceolatae, glabratae. Flores ligulati 
7-10, sicci albido-flavidi, ligula oblanceolati, apice 3-denticulati, 
1.4-1.8 cm. longi. Achaenia juniora plana, biaristata aristis retror- 
sum hamosis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Carl Albert Purpus, No. 6679, in 
the high region of Cerro del Boqueron, State of Chiapas, Mexico, 
September, 1913 (Calif.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Cerro del Boqueron, 
State of Chiapas, Mexico. 

Specimens examined: Purpus 6679 (type, Calif.: cotypes, Brit.; 
Field; Mo.). 1 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXX, FIGS, j-o 

Bidens Geraniifolia: j, flowering branch, X0.62; k, exterior in- 
volucral bract, X3.1; I, interior involucral bract, X3.1; m, ray corolla, 
X3.1; n, palea, X3.1; o, disc floret, X3.1; all from cotype, in Hb. 
Field. 

1 Bidens triplinervia var. macrantha (Wedd.) Sherff also occurs in the State of 
Chiapas and at times (e.g., Ghiesbreght 533, Hb. Gray) produces leaves deceivingly 
like those of B. Geraniifolia. It is possible that in earlier herbarium determinations 
I may have referred plants of that variety erroneously to B. Geraniifolia. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 531 

156. Bidens chiapensis Brandegee, Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 
6: 76. 1914. PI. CXXX, figs. a-i. 

Glabra, verisimiliter perennis; caule subtereti vel parce tetragono, 
purpureo-subnigro, forsan 1 m. alto (et forsan scandenti), internodiis 
longis quam foliis saepe multo longioribus. Folia petiolata petiolis 
tenuibus 1-3 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 4-8 cm. longa, tripartita 
(vel summa indivisa); foliolis membranaceis, ovato-acuminatis vel 
interdum lanceolato-acuminatis, minute ciliatis, subtus multo palli- 
dioribus. Capitula perpauca, saepius 1-3 in unico ramo (an caule?), 
pedunculata pedunculis caules ramosve terminantibus et 0.4-1.6 
(-2.4) dm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2.5 cm. lata et 1.2 
cm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores numerosae 12-20, lineares, 
apice acutae, ciliatae, 0.8-1.3 cm. longae, quam interiores oblongo- 
lanceolatae paulo longiores. Flores ligulati circ. 8, flavi vel albido- 
flavi, anguste elliptici, apice dentati, disco paulo longiores. Achaenia 
linearia, glabra, acute tetragona, supra demum attenuata, nigra, 
biaristata (rarissime quadriaristata) aristis retrorsum hamosis 2-4 
mm. longis, corpore circ. 9 mm. longa. 

Type specimen: Collected by Carl Albert Purpus, No. 6945, at 
high altitude of the Cerro del Boqueron, State of Chiapas, Mexico, 
October, 1913 (Calif.). 

Distribution: State of Chiapas to State of Michoacan, southern 
Mexico. 

Specimens examined : Ghiesbreght 551, "Chiapas, etc.," 1864-1870 
(Boiss.; Brit.; Kew; Mo.); C. A. Purpus 6668, Chiapas, 1913 (Field); 
idem 6945 (cotypes, Brit. ; Field) ; Schiede, near Angangueo, Michoa- 
can, October, 1830 (Berl.) ; L. C. Smith 857, alt. 2,250 meters, in 
mountains, Telixtlahuaca, Oaxaca, October 18, 1895 (Gray). 

The plant of Ghiesbreght (No. 551) was referred erroneously by 
Asa Gray (Proc. Amer. Acad. 19: 16. 1883) to Bidens Dondiaefolia 
Less. It matches the type of B. chiapensis very precisely. A dis- 
tinguishing character of the species is the large number (12-20) of 
narrowly linear exterior involucral bracts. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXX, FIGS, a-i 

Bidens chiapensis: a, flowering branch, X0.62; b, exterior involu- 
cral bract, X3.1; c, interior involucral bract, X3.1; d, e, ray corollas, 
X3.1; /, palea, X3.1; g, disc floret, X3.1; h, i, achenes, X3.1; a-d, 
f-h, from cotype, in Hb. Field; e, horn Ghiesbreght 551, in Hb. Mo.; i, 
from L. C. Smith 857, in Hb. Gray. 



532 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

157. Bidens Ostruthioides (DC.) Schz. Bip. in Seem. 

Bot. Voy. Herald 308. 1852-1857. PL CXXXI. 
Delucia Ostruthioides DC. Prodr. 5: 633; Deless. Icon. Select. Plant. 

4: pi. 40. 1839. 

Bidens guatemalensis Klatt, Bot. Jahrb. 8: 44. 1887. 
Folia principalia tripartita, foliolis ovatis vel rhomboideo-ovatis. 

B. Ostruthioides sensu stricto. 

Folia acerrime bipinnatisecta vel plus minusve biternatisecta, foliolis 
segmentisve cuneato-lanceolatis var. /3. costaricensis. 

Herba e radice lignea perennis, plus minusve decumbens, saepius 
glabra; caule subtereti, subsimplici ramosove, infra ligneo, 0.3-1.5 m. 
(vel ultra) longo. Folia petiolata petiolis inferne hispido-ciliatis 
1.5-2.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto plerumque subaequaliter 4.5-6.5 
cm. longa, membranacea, infra multo pallidiora, tripartita (vel saepe 
summa indivisa); foliolis ovatis vel rhomboideo-ovatis, ciliatis, 
utrinque acute grosseque dentato-serratis; dentibus utroque latere 
1-5, indurato-mucronatis. Capitula solitaria, longe tenuiterque 
pedunculata pedunculis plerumque 1-2.2 dm. longis, radiata, pansa 
ad anthesin 3-5 cm. lata et 0.9-1.2 cm. alta. Involucrum plus 
minusve glabrum, bracteis subaequalibus; exterioribus 5-7, foliaceis, 
lanceolatis vel late linearibus, acutis, plerumque ciliatis, 0.6-1.2 cm. 
longis; interioribus lanceolatis vel ovato-lanceolatis, aurantiacis, 
membranaceis. Flores ligulati circ. 5, flavi, ligula obovato-lanceolati, 
apice plerumque 3-dentati, styliferi fertilesque, 1.5-2.2 cm. longi. 
Achaenia disci et radiorum obcompressa, pallide rufo-badia, linearia, 
obtuse triangulata, glabra, corpore 7-9 mm. longa, triaristata aristis 
retrorsum hamosis et 3.5-5 mm. longis (rariter biaristata, saepe imper- 
fecte quadriaristata, arista quarta brevi circ. 1.2 mm. longa). 

Type specimen: Collected by Jean Luis Berlandier, No. 920, in 
mountains about the City of Mexico, Federal District, Mexico, 
October-November, 1827 (Del.). 

Distribution: States of Michoacan and Vera Cruz, southern 
Mexico, southeastward into Guatemala. 

Specimens examined: Alaman, Mexico (Gray); Baites, Mexico, 
1846 (Kew) ; Berlandier, in mountains about City of Mexico, Federal 
Distr., September (U.V.); idem 920 (type, Del.: cotypes, Berl.; 
Boiss.; Brit.; Mus. V.; Par., 3 sheets; Webb); Bourgeau 835, forest 
of the montane desert near Santa Fe", Federal Distr., Mexico, July, 
1865 (Kew; Par., 3 sheets); idem (similiter) 835, forest of Desierto 
Viejo near City of Mexico, September 7, 1865 (Berl.; Boiss.; Cop.; 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXV 




d ah 

BIDENS ANDONGENSIS Hiern 



THE GENUS BIDENS 533 

Del.; Gray; Kew); idem (similiter) 835, forest at San Nicolas, near 
City of Mexico, October 26, 1865 (Kew; Par., 2 sheets); C. C.Deam 
20, "decumbent vine, 2-5 ft. high," foothill of Mt. Ixtaccihuatl, 
Mexico, 1899 (Gray); Ghiesbreght 107, Chiapas (Gray); idem 151, 
temperate region, mountains of the Mexican Plateau, August, 1843 
(Par.); idem 555, Chiapas or in region of (Boiss.; Brit.; Mo.); C. J. 
Graham 48, Mexico, 1830 (Brit.; Kew); F. C. Lehmann 1560, Guate- 
mala, June 16, 1882 (type collection of Bidens guatemalensis Klatt; 
Boiss.; Gray; Kew; U.S.); Liebmann 644, between San Andres and 
San Miguel, eastern central Mexico, October, 1842 (Cop., 2 sheets) ; 
Mackenzie, Mexico (Kew) ; Fred. Mutter 1950, City of Vera Cruz to 
Mt. Orizaba, Vera Cruz, 1853 (Kew; Mus. V.); E. W. Nelson 1333, 
alt. 2,250-2,850 meters, 18 miles southwest of Oaxaca, State of 
Oaxaca, September 10-20, 1894 (U.S.); idem 1403, eodem loco et 
tempore (U.S.); idem 1725, alt. 2,250-3,120 meters, near Reyes, 
Oaxaca, October 17, 1894 (U.S.); idem 3658, alt. 3,300 meters, moun- 
tains near Hacienda Chaucol, Guatemala, January 2, 1896 (U.S.); 
C. R. Orcutt 3517, Contreras, Federal Distr., Mexico, August 9, 1910 
(Field; Kew; Mo.) ; C. G. Pringle 3596, hills of Patzcuaro, Michoacan, 
November 8, 1890 (Gray); idem 6598, alt. 2,550 meters, Sierra de 
Ajusco, Federal Distr., Mexico, October 23, 1896 (Berl., 2 sheets; 
Boiss.; Brit.; Calif.; Can.; Carn.; Del., 2 sheets; Field; Kew; Mo., 2 
sheets; Mun.; Mus. V.; Par., 2 sheets; Phila.; U.V.); C. A. Purpus, 
Mt. Ixtaccihuatl, February, 1903 (Calif.) ; idem 1544 p.p., moist, shady 
woods at alt. 2,100-2,400 meters, eodem loco, October, 1905 (Brit.; 
Calif.: Field; Mo.; U.V.); W. Schaffner 187, Valley of Mexico (Kew; 
Par., 2 sheets); idem 228, eodem loco (Kew); idem 232a, alt. 2,400 
meters, Mt. Popocatapetl, Mexico (Berl.; Gray; hie numerus in 
Herb. Par. flores radiatos neutros et folia atypica habet, itaque 
hybrida forsitan cum B. triplinerviavidetur) ; Schiede, near Angangueo, 
Michoacan, November, 1829 (Berl.); idem, eodem loco, October, 1830 
(Berl., 3 sheets); Alb. Schmitz 395, Mexico (Brit.; Mus. V., 4 sheets); 
Eduard & Caecilie Seler 2928, forested banks of Lake Atitlan, Pana- 
jachel, Dept. Solola, Guatemala, June 3, 1896 (Berl.). 

DeCandolle made this the type species of his genus Delucia, 
which he distinguished from Bidens by the character of the fertile 
ray flowers. Later Schultz Bipontinus (loc. cit.; cf. Flora 39: 359. 
1856) transferred it to Bidens, where it has been placed almost uni- 
versally by other botanists. Klatt described B. guatemalensis from 
Lehmann's No. 1560, said by him to have biaristate achenes, but 
only a part of the achenes on the Lehmann plant in the Boissier 



534 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Herbarium are biaristate, the others being triaristate. The style 
branches of the disk flowers, moreover, are blunt-tipped as in the 
type material of B. Ostruthioides and the two forms are identical in 
other respects as well. 

Bidens Ostruthioides var. 0. costaricensis (Benth. ex Oerst.) 

Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 88: 298, pi. 21. 1929. PI. CXXXII. 
Bidens costaricensis Benth. ex Oerst. Kjoeb. Vid. Medd. 1852: 94. 

1852. 

Bidens irazuensis Calv. & Calv. Year Costa Rican Nat. Hist, xvi, 137 
(plate), and 140. 1917. 

Folia petiolata petiolis inferne hispido-ciliatis 1-4 cm. longis, 
petiolo adjecto 5-12 cm. longa, acerrime bipinnatisecta vel plus 
minusve biternatisecta, foliolis segmentisve cuneato-lanceolatis, 
inciso-dentatis, dentium apice induratis et saepe mucronatis, margine 
sparsim ciliatis; supra ad venas plerumque minutissime creberri- 
meque glanduloso-setulosis, aliter glabris, in speciminibus exsiccatis 
saepe nigrescentibus; infra pallidioribus; lateralibus decurrentibus. 
Floribus fructibusque a specie non differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by Anders Sandoe Oersted, at altitude 
of 600-1,500 meters, on Mt. Aguacate, Costa Rica, November, 1846 
(Cop.). 

Distribution: State of Oaxaca, Mexico, southeastward into 
Costa Rica. 

Specimens examined: Dr. & Mrs. P. P. Calvert, forest below 
cinders, Volcan Irazu, Costa Rica, April 2, 1910 (Penn.) ; C. Conzatti 
2090, alt. 2,000 meters, Distr. Teotitlan, Oaxaca, December 10, 1907 
(Field); C. W. Dodge 3439, in oak forest on the upper slopes, Volcan 
Irazu, Cartago Prov., Costa Rica, August 18, 1925 (Gray) ; C. Hoff- 
mann 105, higher mountain forest of Volcan Irazu, May 6, 1855 
(Berl.) ; Otto Kuntze, alt. 2,100 meters, Cartago, Costa Rica, June 24, 
1874 (N.Y.); F. C. Lehmann 119, alt. 1,950 meters, climbing to 5 
meters, among shrubs and bamboos, west slopes of Volcan Irazu, 
March 28, 1878 (Mus. V.; forma petiolis infra medium spiralibus 
claviculatisque) ; idem 1787, alt. 800 meters, growing up to 1.5 meters, 
in moist places, Rio Blanco, Costa Rica, March 18, 1882 (Boiss.; 
Gray; Kew, 2 sheets); A. S. Oersted, alt. 600-1,500 meters, Mt. 
Aguacate, Costa Rica, November, 1846 (type, Cop.) ; idem, San Jose, 
Costa Rica, 1845-1848 (Cop., 2 sheets); idem, Volcan Irazu, etc., 
Costa Rica (ex herb. Benth. in Kew) ; H. Pittier 742, alt. 2,800-3,200 
meters, in oak forests of Volcan Irazu, December 12, 1888 (Gray) ; 



Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXVI 




b / a h 

BIDENS BUCHNERI (Klatt) Sherff 



THE GENUS BIDENS 535 

idem 14070, alt. 2,300 meters, Laguna del Reventado, Volcan Irazu, 
January 1, 1901 (Gray) ; C. G. Pringle 5848, alt. 2,700 meters, Sierra 
de Clavellinas, Oaxaca, October 26, 1894 (Gray; Mo.); C. A. Purpus 
3109, Cerro Verde, Oaxaca (vicinity of San Luis Tultitlanapa, 
Puebla, near Oaxaca), July, 1908 (Berl.; Brit.; Calif.); C. L. Smith 
357, alt. 2,700 meters, Sierra de Clavellinas, Oaxaca, October 16-19, 
1894 (Mo.;N.Y.;U.S.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXXI 

Bidens Ostruthioides: a, h, flowering branches, X0.66: b, j, ex- 
terior involucral bracts, X4.62; c, k, interior involucral bracts, X4.62; 
d, I, ray florets, X2.64; e, m, paleae, X4.62;/, n, disc florets, X4.62; 
g, o, upper portions of pistils, X9.9; i, cauline leaf, X0.66; p (ray), 
q (disc), achenes, X4.62; a-g, from Lehmann 1560 (type collection of 
Bidens guatemalensis Klatt) in Hb. Gray; h, j-o, from Purpus 1544, 
in Hb. Field; i, from specimen presented by De Candolle to Hb. Par.; 
p, q, from Pringle 6598, in Hb. Field. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXXII 

Bidens Ostruthioides var. costaricensis: a, b, flowering and sub- 
fruiting branches, X0.64; c, exterior involucral bract, X3.84; d, 
interior involucral bract, X3.84; e, ray floret, X2.56;/, palea, X3.84; 
g, disc floret, X3.84; all from sheet of assorted Oersted materials from 
Mt. Irazu, Mt. Aguacate, etc., in Bentham's herbarium in Hb. Kew. 

158. Bidens bicolor Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 
39: 114. 1903. PI. CXXXIII. 

Herba erecta, ramosa caulibus ramisque hirsuto-pubescentibus 
vel fere glabris, 4-7 dm. alta. Folia petiolata petiolis 0.5-3 cm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto usque ad 8 cm. longa, 3-5-partita; foliolis 
ovatis vel ovato-lanceolatis, apice acutis vel etiam acuminato-acutis, 
serratis, sparsim pubescentibus vel glabris, infra pallidioribus, mem- 
branaceis, 1.5-5 cm. longis et 0.5-2 cm. latis. Capitula non nume- 
rosa, pedunculata pedunculis tenuibus usque ad 10 cm. longis, radi- 
ata, pansa ad anthesin 2.5-7 cm. lata et 7-13 mm. alta. Involucri 
plus minusve hirsuti bracteae exteriores circ. 8-10, lineari-oblongae, 
plerumque patentes, 5-8 mm. longae; interiores lanceolatae, plerum- 
que breviores. Flores ligulati 5 vel 6, basi plerumque purpurei 
alibi flavi, ligula elliptico-oblanceolati, apici interdum minute denti- 
culati, 1.5-3 cm. longi. Achaenia (immatura) linearia, supra sensim 
angustata, apicem versus erecto-setosa, biaristata aristis retrorsum 
hamosis. 



536 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Type specimen: Collected by Cassiano Conzatti and V. Gonzalez, 
No. 1008, at altitude of 1,750 meters, State of Oaxaca, Mexico, 
July-August, 1900 (Gray). 

Distribution: States of Oaxaca and Chiapas, southern Mexico. 

Specimens examined: Conzatti & Gonzalez 1008 (type, Gray); 
iidem 1009, eodem loco et tempore (Gray); Ghiesbreght 781, on 
cultivated land, Chiapas, etc., Mexico, July- August (Gray). 

A scantily represented and poorly understood species. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXXIII 

Bidens bicolor: a, upper, main part of plant, X0.7; b, flowering 
branch, X0.7; c, exterior involucral bract, X4.2; d, interior involucral 
bract, X4.2; e, ray floret (shaded at base to show spot of purplish 
color), X2.8;/, palea, X4.2; g, disc floret, X4.2; h, achene, X4.2; all 
from Conzatti and Gonzalez 1009, in Hb. Gray. 

159. Bidens Holstii (0. Hoffm.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
76: 79. 1923. PI. CXXXIV. 

Coreopsis Holstii 0. Hoffm. in Engler, Pflanzenw. D. Ost.-Afr. 
C:415. 1899. 

Achaenia plurime exaristata B. Holstii sensu stricto. 

Achaenia plurime aristata aristis supra retrorsum 1-3-hamosis. 

var. j8. rupestris. 

Herba perennis, undique glanduloso-puberula, circ. 1 m. alta; 
ramis obtuse tetragonis, speciminibus siccis dense brunneo-viridi- 
bus. Folia petiolata petiolis circ. 1-1.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
5-9 cm. longa, pinnatipartita, circumambitu oblongo-ovata vel 
oblongo-lanceolata; segmentis principalibus saepius circ. 7 vel 9, 
membranaceis vel crassiusculis, atro-punctulatis, grosse crenatis vel 
sinuatis, dentium apice nitido-cartilagineis, infra pallidioribus. 
Capitula pauca, ad apices ramorum solitaria, radiata, pansa ad 
anthesin 4-5.5 cm. lata et 1.4-1.7 cm. alta. Involucri bracteae 
exteriores (in duabus seriebus) 10-14, oblongae vel rarius ovatae, 
dense glanduloso-pubescentes, apice obtusae, 8-10 mm. longae; 
interiores subaequilongae, angustiores, tenuiter membranaceae, non 
nisi ad apicem puberulae. Flores ligulati 8-10, lutei, ligula elliptici 
vel oblanceolati, apice minute circ. 3-dentati. Achaenia quam paleae 
multo breviora, plana, oblonga lineariave, utraque facie circ. 
8-striata, margine (moderate) et apice (dense et pectinatim) erecto- 
setosa, 4-6 mm. longa et 0.7-1.2 mm. lata, apice exaristata vel rare 
pauca biaristata aristis tenuibus et erecto-setosis. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 537 

Type specimen: Collected by C. Hoist, No. 76, in sunny places 
of the higher mountains, mountain steppe, Usambara, German East 
Africa, October, 1891 (Berl.). 

Distribution: District of Usambara, German East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Karl Braun 2820, Kingo-Kwai, western 
Usambara, August 21, 1909 (Berl) ; idem 2857, eodem loco et tempore 
(Berl.) ; Hoist 76 (type, Berl.) ; Albrecht Zimmermann 1776, Hermanns- 
platte, western Usambara, February, 1908 (Berl.). 

Hoffmann's type in Berlin consists of three flowering specimens 
mounted upon one sheet. They lack mature or even submature 
achenes. At first they were determined by him as Coreopsis Grantii 
Oliv. (Bidens Grantii Sherff), but later he crossed out this determi- 
nation and substituted the new name C, Holstii. His description of 
the achenes ("Achaeniis juvenilibus alatis") was of necessity drawn 
from the unripened ovaries. The winged character assigned by him 
to the young achenes is not manifest on my examination of them. 
They naturally are thin and delicate toward the edges, but this is 
true of the achenes of many typical Bidens species when equally 
young. Fortunately there since have been collected by Braun and by 
Zimmerman additional specimens from the type district, Usambara. 
These match the type very closely, and two excel it in having mature 
achenes. The achenes are linear, unwinged, 3-6 mm. long, flattened, 
antrorsely setose upon the margins and at the apex, exaristate or with 
two setae very slightly larger than the rest and representing minute 
aristae. Hoffmann described the aristae as very short ("aristis 2 
brevissimis"), but, as may be seen from my plate, fig. g, the ovarian 
aristae of his type, when compared with the body of the ovary, are 
not very short. The species bears a strong habital resemblance to 
Bidens Grantii (Oliv.) Sherff and in lesser degree to Coreopsis pin- 
natipartita 0. Hoffm. From the latter it differs in its setose, exalate 
achenes. From B. Grantii it appears to differ mainly in having the 
achenes exaristate or only shortly aristate (a character here of some- 
what uncertain value) and in the nature of its pubescence. 

Bidens Holstii var. /3. rupestris Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
90: 393. 1930. PI. CXXXV. 

Bidens rupestris Sherff, op. cit. 76: 144. 1923. 

A specie achaeniis regulariter bi- (rariter tri-) aristatis aristis infra 
plerumque spinulis erecte munitis, supra retrorsum 1-3-hamosis vel 
rariter nudis 2-3.5 mm. longis differt. 



538 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Type specimen: Collected by Carl Uhlig, No. 750, on moss- 
covered, stony, newly formed volcanic cliffs, "im filzigdichten manns- 
hohen Busch," at altitude of 2,400 meters, northeast side of Meru 
Mountain, German East Africa, November 27, 1901 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Known only from vicinity of Mt. Meru, north- 
eastern German East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Uhlig 750 (type, Berl.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXXIV 

Bidens Holstii: a, flowering branch, X0.65; b, portion of leaf, 
X3.25; c, exterior involucral bract, X3.25; d, interior involucral 
bract, X3.25; e, ray corolla, Xl.95; /, palea, X3.25; g, disc floret, 
X3.25; h, i, achenes, X3.25; a-g, from type; h, i, from Braun 2857, 
in Hb. Berl. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXXV 

Bidens Holstii var. rupestris: a, flowering branch, X0.63; b, 
exterior involucral bract, X2.53; c, interior involucral bract, X2.53; 
d, ray floret, Xl.9; e, palea, X2.53;/, disc floret, X2.53; g, immature 
achene, X3.79; all from type. 

160. Bidens kamerunensis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 148. 1923. 
PI. CXXXVI. 

Herba pubescens, verisimiliter perennis, simplex forsitan inter- 
dum ramosa, 1-1.5 m. alta. Folia petiolata petiolis latis 0.5-1.5 cm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto 4-10 cm. longa, 3- (rarius 5-) partita; foliolis 
lanceolatis, irregulariter crenato-dentatis dentibus abrupte sub- 
calloso-apiculatis, foliolis lateralibus usque ad 2.5 cm. longis, terminal! 
usque ad 7 cm. longo. Capitula pauca, pedunculata pedunculis 
subrobustis usque ad 8 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 6-7 cm. 
lata et 1.2-1.8 cm. alta. Involucri bracteae dense sed breviter hispi- 
dae, exteriores 13-16, lineari-lanceolatae, supra sensim attenuatae, 
inconspicue apiculatae, 1.2-1.5 cm. longae, ad medium plus minusve 
reflexae; interiores lanceolatae vel lineares, interdum breviores. 
Flores ligulati 14-16, lutei, ligula late elliptico-lineares, apice minute 
denticulati, 2.5-3.5 cm. longi. Paleae anguste lineares, achaenia 
superantes. Achaenia atra, valde obcompressa, exalata, antrorsum 
hispida vel inferne glabrata, circ. 11-13 mm. longa et 2 mm. lata, 
saepe biaristata aristis tenuibus, nudis, usque ad 1.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by C. Ledermann, No. 5461, at altitude 
of 1,200-1,400 meters, Mao Barked je, Mt. Gendero, Kamerun, Octo- 
ber 6, 1909 (Berl.). 



THE GENUS BIDENS 539 

Distribution: Known only from type locality on Mt. Gendero, 
Kamerun. 

Specimens examined : Ledermann 5461 (type, Berl.); J> McDon- 
ald 1003, alt. 1,800 meters, gray sandy loam, Solai, Kikuyu region, 
British East Africa, September, 1925 (Kew; forma foliis 5-7-partitis; 
achaeniis submaturis). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXXVI 

Bidens kamerunensis: a, flowering branch, X0.63; b, lower surface 
of portion of leaf, enlarged to show pubescence, X2.5; c, exterior 
involucral bract, X2.5; d, interior involucral bract, X2.5; e, ray 
corolla, Xl.25;/, palea, X2.5; g, palea (showing rolling-over of edges 
characteristic of older paleae, the dilated tips of which surpass at 
least submature achenes), X2.5; h, disc floret, X2.5; i, achene, 
X2.5; all from type. 

161. Bidens Grantii (Oliv.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
59: 309. 1915. 

Coreopsis Grantii Oliv. Trans. Linn. Soc. 29: 98, pi. 65. 1873. 
a. Foliorum segmenta ultima plus minusve ovata. 

6. Folia subsessilia, 3.5-5 cm. longa B. Grantii sensu stricto. 

b. Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis usque ad 4 cm. longis, petiolo 

adjecto 1-1.7 dm. longa var. /3. Stapfii. 

a. Foliorum segmenta ultima plus minusve oblongo-linearia. 

b. Foliorum segmentum terminale elongato-angustissimum 1.5-2 
cm. longum et circ. 2-3 mm. latum; achaeniis corpore circ. 

4 mm. longis var. 8. Scaettae. 

b. Foliorum segmentum terminale brevius latiusque; achaeniis 

corpore 5-8 mm. longis var. 7. Dawei. 

Herba annua forsitan perennis, erecta, 6-12 dm. alta; caule 
superne ramoso, laxe piloso-pubescenti, subtetragono. Folia sub- 
sessilia, circumambitu anguste deltoidea, 3.5-5 cm. longa et basi 
2.5-3.5 cm. lata, bipinnatifida, lobulis ovatis obtusiusculis integris 
paucidentatisve mucronulatis supra scabrido-puberulis subtus piloso- 
pubescentibus. Capitula breviter pedunculata pedunculis 2.5-4 cm. 
longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 4-5 cm. lata et 1 cm. alta. 
Involucri hirto-pilosi bracteae exteriores 8-10, lineares, apiculatae, 
6 mm. longae; interiores multo latiores, vix longiores. Flores 
ligulati circ. 8, flavi, ligula oblongo-elliptici, apice subintegri, 2-2.5 
cm. longi. Paleae lineares, apice coloratae, achaenio longiores. 
Achaenia oblonge linearia, obcompressa, atra, exalata, marginibus 



540 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

et facie interiore subsparsim erecto-setosa, facie exteriore obscure 
circ. 16-sulculata, corpore circ. 4 mm. longa et circ. 0.6-0.7 mm. 
lata; pappo minuto, poculiformi setoso-ciliatoque duabus setis 
oppositis manifestioribus tenuibus antrorsum hispidulis sub 0.7 mm. 
longis ex angulis ortis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Captains Speke and Grant, No. 
448, at altitude of 1,200-1,500 meters, Karagwe (Karague") region, 
German East Africa, March, 1862 (Kew). 

Distribution: Region of Karagwe, German East Africa. 1 

Specimens examined: Speke & Grant 448 (type, Kew). 

Oliver (loc. cit.) described this species as an annual, but Skan, 
v who had had an opportunity of studying var. /3. Stapfii (qu. vide) 
in cultivation, described the species (in which he included var. 
Stapfii) as a perennial. The type specimen lacks the basal part, thus 
offering no aid in settling the matter. It may be noted, however, 
that herbarium specimens of vars. Dawei and Scaettae have definitely 
annual roots. 

Bidens Grantii var. /3. Stapfii Sherff, Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux. 

13: 287. 1935. PI. CXXXVII, figs. a-i. 
Coreopsis Grantii, Skan (non Oliv.) in Curtis's Mag. pL 8110. 1906. 

Perennis suffruticosaque, ramis patentissimis. Folia longe 
tenuiterque petiolata petiolis usque ad 4 cm. longis, petiolo (ut 
rhachi anguste alato et supra canaliculate) adjecto principalia 1-1.7 
dm. longa et basi usque ad 1.5 dm. lata, atroviridia, paulum viscida, 
2-3-pinnatifida; lobulis membranaceis, ovatis, apice rotundatis 
(terminalibus angustioribus acutis exceptis), minutissime apiculatis. 
Capitula paulo magis tenuiter longeque pedunculata. Achaenia 
paulo setosiora (setosa etiam facie exteriore), corpore 6.5-8 mm. 
longa et 1-1.5 mm. lata; aristis 1-1.3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen : Collected by Ernest Brown, No. 137, at altitude 
of 1,230 meters, District of Buddu, Uganda Protectorate, British 
East Africa, December, 1904 (Kew). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Uganda, British 
East Africa. 

Specimens examined : Brown 137 (type, Kew); Hort. Kew., cult., 
February, 1906 (e seminibus a M. T. Dawe cum E. Brown in Buddu, 
1905, lectis; Kew, 2 sheets; the basis of pi. 8110 in Curtis's 
Bot. Mag.). 

1 Many Congo specimens cited by Belgian workers as B. Grantii prove to be 
Coreopsis oligoflora Klatt or a variety of that species. 



Field Museutn of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXVII 




BIDENS SOMALIENSIS Sherff 



OF TKt 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 541 

The late Dr. Otto Stapf had studied the type and had noted 
on the sheet, "a C. Grantii non differt nisi acheniis." 

Bidens Grantii var. 7. Dawei Sherff, Bull. Jard. 
Bot. Brux. 13: 288. 1935. 

Folia breviter lateque petiolata petiolis plerumque 4-10 mm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto 4-6 cm. longa 2-3-pinnatifida lobis lanceolatis 
vel oblonge linearibus. Capitula circ. 4 (rarius 5) cm. lata. Achaenia 
corpore 5-8 mm. longa, aristis usque ad 1.6 mm. longa. 

Type specimen: Collected by M. T. Dawe, No. 243, at altitude 
of 1,170 meters, District of Buddu, Uganda Protectorate, British 
East Africa, in 1905 (Kew). 

Distribution: Westernmost British and German East Africa and 
adjacent Belgian Congo. 

Specimens examined : Joseph Bequaert 5987, Belgian Congo, 1919 
(Bruss., 2 sheets); Dawe 243 (type, Kew); Speke & Grant 406, corn 
fields, Karagwe (Karague"), German East Africa, 1861 (Kew). 

Bidens Grantii var. 5. Scaettae Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 96: 146. 1934. 

Gracilis, 5 dm. alta, caule subsimplici glabrato vel supra spar- 
sim piloso internodiis principalibus quam foliis multo longioribus. 
Folia bi-tripinnatisecta, supra moderate infra densissime hispida, 
lobis lineari-oblongis ultimis acerrime apiculatis terminali 1.5-2 
cm. longo et circ. 2-3 mm. lato. Achaenia corpore circ. 4 mm. longa 
et sub 1 mm. lata, aristis circ. 1.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by H. Scaetta, No. 2286, Nyabihu, 
Ruanda District, northwesternmost German East Africa, 1930 
(Bruss.). 

Distribution: Ruanda District, northwesternmost German East 
Africa. 

Specimens examined: Mutter 46, Kitega, Ruanda, 1933 (Bruss.); 
Scaetta 2286 (type, Bruss.); idem 2294, on clay soil in field unused for 
10 years, dry country, Nyabihu, Ruanda, 1930 (Bruss.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXXVII, FIGS, a-l 

Bidens Grantii var. Stapfii: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, 
X0.57; 6, cauline leaf, X0.57; c, portion of leaf enlarged to show 
pubescence, X3.4; d, exterior involucral bract, X2.27; e, interior 
involucral bract, X2.27; /, ray corolla, Xl.7; g, palea, X2.27; h, 
disc floret, X3.4; i, achene, X3.4; all from Brown 137, in Hb. Kew. 



542 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

162. Bidens Uhligii Sherff, Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux. 
13: 286. 1935. 

Herba erecta, verisimiliter perennis atque 8 dm. alta, ramosa; 
caule ramisque tenuibus glabratisque, plus minusve angulatis. 
Folia petiolata petiolis planis tenuibus supra glabratis sed ad mar- 
ginem hispidis usque ad 4 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto usque ad 1 dm. 
longa, membranaceissima, principalia 2-3-pinnatisecta, rhachi tenui 
vix nisi supra medium alata; foliolis (segmentis primariis) 3 vel 5, 
circumambitu ovatis vel ovato-lanceolatis, segmentis ultimis acutis, 
duabus faciebus adpresso-hispidis, ciliatis. Capitula ad ramorum 
apices subcorymboide disposita, tenuiter vel tenuissime pedicellata 
pedicellis usque ad 9 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 4 
cm. lata et circ. 7-9 mm. alta. Involucrum hispidum; bracteis 
exterioribus 8-10, oblongo-linearibus, tergo mediane 1-nerviis, apice 
acutis vel obtusis, circ. 5-9 mm. longis; interioribus oblongis, vix 
longioribus. Flores ligulati 8, ligula elliptico-oblongi, flavi, apice 
subintegri, circ. 2.5 cm. longi. Paleae oblonge lineares, glabrae, 
usque ad 1 cm. longae. Ovaria anguste linearia, infra sensim angus- 
tata, exalata, faciebus multistriata et sparsissime vel etiam numerose 
erecto-hispida, erecto-ciliata setis e tuberculo minuto saepius ortis, 
corpore 5-6 mm. longa et sub 0.8 mm. lata, apice atriore dense 
erecto-hispida et biaristata aristis tenuibus antrorsum subsparsimque 
hispidulis 1.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Carl Uhlig, No. V.46, near edge of 
forest, Ukerewe, Lake Victoria Nyanza, German East Africa, April 
21, 1904 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in German East 
Africa. 

Specimens examined: Uhlig V.46 (type, Berl.). 

163. Bidens Steppia (Steetz) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 82. 1923. 
PI. CXXXVII, figs. j-r. 

Coreopsis Steppia Steetz, Nat. Reise nach Mossambique 496. 1862- 

1864. 
a. Achaenia biaristata. 

b. Achaeniorum corpora 5.5-9 mm. longa et 1.1-2.6 mm. lata. 

B. Steppia sensu stricto. 

6. Achaeniorum corpora 7-10.5 mm. longa et 1.1-1.3 mm. lata; 
involucri bracteis exterioribus circ. 9-14 mm. longis. 

var. /3. leptocarpa. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 543 

6. Achaeniorum corpora 4-7.5 mm. longa et 1.1-1.3 mm. lata; invo- 

lucri bracteis exterioribus 4-6 mm. longis. . . .var. y.Elskensii. 

a. Achaenia exaristata vel breviter bidentata .... var. 8. ambacensis. 

Herba annua, erecta, 6-10 dm. alta; caule teretiusculo vel sub- 
tetragono, glabrato vel hinc inde pilis elongatis consperso. Folia 
breviter petiolata petiolis latis hispido-ciliatis et 0.5-6 cm. longis, 
petiolo adjecto 4-25 cm. longa, principalia ternata vel inciso- 
bi-tripinnatifida; foliolis (praesertim terminali) elongatis, lanceolatis 
vel late linearibus, inciso-dentatis vel terminali saepe integro, mem- 
branaceis, ciliatis, utrinque sparsim pilosis. Capitula pauca, tenuiter 
pedunculata pedunculis 3-12 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 
3.5-5.5 cm. lata et 1.2-1.4 cm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores 
8-16, elongatae, lineares, ciliatae, infra pilis articulatis hirsutissimae, 
0.7-2 cm. longae; interiores oblongae vel late lanceolatae, dorso 
pilis articulatis plus minusve hirsutae, 8-10 mm. longae. Flores 
ligulati saepius 11 vel 12, flavi, ligula anguste elliptici, 9-13 striis 
percursi, apice saepe dentati, 2-2.5 cm. longi. Achaenia lineari- 
oblonga, nigra, obcompressa, exalata, (saepe margine crasso) dense 
et adrecte ciliata, faciebus adpresse plus minusve setosa praesertim 
supra, corpore 5.5-9 mm. longa et 1.1-2.9 mm. lata, apice setosa ac 
biaristata; aristis tenuibus, erectis, antrorsum hispidulis, 1.5-4.5 
mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Wilhelm Peters, No. 57, in various 
spots near damp places, Rios de Sena, Mozambique, State of East 
Africa, 1842-1848 (Berl., 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Widely scattered across Africa from Angola (in 
Portuguese West Africa) eastward and northeastward to Mozam- 
bique, to German East Africa, and to western British East Africa. 

Specimens examined: George Adamson 363, alt. 1,800-2,100 
meters, Mt. Mlanje, Nyassaland, British Central African Protectorate, 
March, 1897 (Brit.; Kew); Antunes 197, Huilla, Angola (Berl.); John 
Buchanan 190, alt. 2,100 meters, Blantyre, Nyassaland, British 
Central African Protectorate (Kew); idem 251, Nyassaland, 1891 
(Berl., 2 sheets; Brit.; U.S.); idem 928, eodem loco et tempore (Gray; 
U.S.); K. J. Cameron 38, Namasi, communic. December 19, 1899 
(Kew) ; Corbisier 172, Belgian Congo, November 8, 1919 (Bruss., 2 
sheets) ; M. T. Dawe 393, Melange (Malanji) Plateau, Angola, April 
18, 1922 (Kew); Fred Eyles 307, granite hills, alt. 1,320 meters, 
Distr. Mazoe, Southern Rhodesia, April, 1906 (Brit.); Miss A. E. 
Gairdner 414, Livingstone Distr., Rhodesia, March (Kew); JohnGoss- 
weiler 1201, common in good cultivated ground or on sugar cane 



544 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

plantations about Malange (Malanji), Angola, May 26, 1903 (Brit.; 
Kew, 2 sheets) ; idem 3831, in woods and open places, not common, 
near village of Katoco-Kubango, Angola, May 7, 1906 (Brit.; Kew); 
idem 5726, in herb-grown thickets, along road between Camondai 
and Grunja de S. Suiz Cazengo and at Saco Matari, Angola, May 
20, 1912 (Brit.); W. P. Johnson 354, Tumbi Hill, April 27 (Kew); 
T. Kassner 2658, mountain slopes, Musofi River, Belgian Congo, 
May 1, 1908 (Berl.); idem 3182, open places, Ruzizi Valley, Belgian 
Congo, July 23, 1908 (Kew); Miss E. Kenyon 55 (Kew); J. Kirk, 
alt. 900 meters, Mbame, Manganja (Maganja) Hills, Zambesiland, 
July, 1861 (Kew, 2 sheets); Mrs. Macaulay 633 p.p., near Mumbwa, 
Northern Rhodesia, 1911 (Kew) ; C. J. Meller, vicinity of Blantyre, 
Nyassaland, August-September, 1861 (Kew); Peters 57 (type, Berl., 
2 sheets); Stuhlmann 2120, alt. 1,500 meters, Ruhanga, Uganda, 
British East Africa, April 20, 1891 (Berl.); Welwitsch 3531, alt. 
1,140-1,650 meters, in bushy meadows at Lake Ivantala, Distr. 
Huilla, Angola, February, 1860 (Brit.; Kew; Par.); idem 3532, alt. 
300-720 meters, Distr. Golungo Alto, Angola (Berl.; Brit.; Kew). 

As already stated (Sherff, loc. cit.), the two type specimens are 
extant in fairly good condition. Their several mature achenes are 
seen on close inspection to be devoid of true wings (cf. Peters, loc. 
cit., "achaeniis oblongis subcompressis marginatis sed vix alatis"), 
and to have merely rough, thickened margins, similar to those on 
certain species of true Bidens, e.g., B. aristosa (Michx.) Britt. In a 
previous paper (Bot. Gaz. 59: 305-308. 1915) I have stated the 
reasons for regarding such plants as belonging to Bidens. 

Coreopsis Mattfeldii Sherff (Bot. Gaz. 76: 83. 1923) bears a strong 
superficial resemblance to Bidens Steppia, but can easily be dis- 
tinguished by its achenes and involucral bracts. The many mature 
achenes on the type of C. Mattfeldii differ remarkably from the 
ones on the type and other specimens (already cited) of B. Steppia. 
For B. Steppia they are (at most) widely oblong-linear in outline, 
7.5-9 mm. long and 2.5-3 mm. wide; there is merely a thickened 
lateral ridge, wings being absent. For C. Mattfeldii the achenes are 
much thinner and wider, the outer obovate, 6-8 mm. long and 
4.25-5 mm. wide, the inner oblanceolate, about 8 mm. long and 4 
mm. wide; all are winged, and even on submature fruiting heads the 
rounded upper ends of the wings, adjacent to the aristae, are easily 
visible. The external bracts about equal the inner ones in C. Matt- 
feldii; in B. Steppia they tend to exceed the inner ones by at least 
2-6 mm. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 545 

Coreopsis oligoflora Klatt is another species of Coreopsis closely 
similar in superficial aspect to B. Steppia. 

Bidens Steppia var. /3. leptocarpa Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 90: 392. 1930. 

Herba 1-1.5 m. alta. Capitula pansa ad anthesin 5-6.5 cm. lata; 
bracteis exterioribus 8-10, circ. 9-14 mm. longis et 1.2-2 mm. latis, 
quam interioribus oblongo-ovatis paulo longioribus. Flores ligulati 
plerumque 8, circ. 2.5-3 cm. longi. Achaenia anguste oblongo- 
linearia, plana, nigra, unaquaque facierum circ. 8-sulculata, margini- 
bus apiceque erecto-ciliata, faciebus praecipue supra plus minusve 
erecto-setosa, exalata, corpore 7-10.5 mm. longa et 1.1-1.3 mm. 
lata, biaristata aristis erectis stramineis tenuibus antrorsum his- 
pidis circ. 2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Ad. Stolz, No. 729, growing 1.5 
meters high at altitude of 1,350 meters, Kaningwe, Langenburg, 
German East Africa, May 26, 1911 (Berl.). 

Distribution: German East Africa, also Angola. 

Specimens examined : Braun 5505, growing 1 meter high, Niamu- 
tukusja Nsira, Distr. Bukoba, German East Africa, June 15, 1913 
(Berl.) ; 0. Elskens 20, on sandy plain of Lake Tanganyika, Rumonge, 
Urundi, German East Africa, May 23, 1922 (Bruss.); JohnGosswei- 
ler 8477, alt. 1,200 meters, Angola, September 30, 1922 (Berl.); Stolz 
729 (Berl., type: cotypes, Del., 2 sheets; Kew) ; F. L. Stuhlmann 
(Exped. Emin Pascha) 4156, Nuansa, May 20, 1892 (Berl.). 

Bidens Steppia var. 7. Elskensii Sherff, Bull. Jard. 
Bot. Brux. 13: 286. 1935. 

Capitula pansa ad anthesin parce 3 cm. lata. Involucri bracteae 
exteriores 7-10, tantum 4-6 mm. longae, quam interiores breviores. 
Achaenia corpore 4-7.5 mm. longa et 1.1-1.3 mm. lata, biaristata 
aristis 3-4 mm. longis. 

Type specimen : Collected by 0. Elskens, No. 257, in places long 
cultivated, hills at Kitega, Ruanda, northwesternmost German East 
Africa, December 13, 1922 (Bruss.). 

Distribution: Ruanda, German East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Elskens 257 (type, Bruss.). 

Plant said by Elskens to grow about 1.6 meters tall, to be eaten 
by cattle, and to have the native name "chikuchike." The flowers 
are described as odorless. The fruiting heads approach, in their 
small size, those of B. kivuensis, but the general foliage habit and 
habit of flowering heads are more as in B. Steppia. 



546 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bidens Steppia var. 6. ambacensis (Hiern) Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 90: 392. 1930. 

Coreopsis ambacensis Hiern, Cat. Welw. Afr. PL 3: 586. 1898. 
Bidens ambacensis (Hiern) Sherff, op. cit. 59: 309. 1915. 

A specie achaeniis tantum 5-7 mm. longis et 0.8--0.9 mm. latis, 
exaristatis sed breviter bidentatis differt. 

Type specimen : Collected by Friedrich Welwitsch, No. 3272 pro 
parte, in marshy places on the left bank of the Caringa River, 
Ambaca, Angola, Portuguese West Africa, June, 1855 (Brit.). 

Distribution: Known only from Angola. 

Specimens examined: John Gossweiler 8936, alt. 1,300 meters, 
vicinity of River Gola Luije, Malange, June, 1925 (Kew) ; Welwitsch 
3272 pro parte (type, Brit.). 

The type has the general habit of. Steppia proper but differs 
in the small, slender achenes. The existence of the var. leptocarpa, 
as also of several transitional forms between B. Steppia proper and 
var. leptocarpa, shows, in my opinion, that the achenial distinctions 
for the ambacensis type are varietal rather than specific. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXXVII, FIGS, j-f 

Bidens Steppia: j, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.57; k, 
portion of cauline leaf, X0.57; I, exterior involucral bract, Xl.7; 
m, interior involucral bract, Xl.7; n, ray corolla, Xl.7; o, palea, 
Xl.7; p, disc floret, Xl.7; q, achene, X3.4; r, portion of achene, 
X7.94; j, l-q, mainly from Cameron 38, in Hb. Kew, but slightly 
from Dr. J. Kirk, alt. 900 meters, Mbame, Manganja Hills, Zambesi- 
land, July, 1861, in Hb. Kew; k, r, from type. 

164. Bidens rufovenosa Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 59: 301. 1915. 
PL CXXXVIII, figs. a-i. 

Herba erecta, perennis, 4-6 dm. alta; caule subtereti, striato, 
glabro, plus minusve ramoso; ramis (vel ramulis) monocephalis. 
Folia principalia petiolata petiolis angustis usque ad 1.5 cm. longis, 
petiolo adjecto 4-6 cm. longa, pinnata, spinuloso-ciliata, supra 
sparsim et brevissime spinuloso-pubescentia, infra sparsim pubes- 
centia et ad venas interdum rufo-tomentosa; foliolis lateralibus 
lanceolatis vel foliorum superiorum lineari-lanceolatis, incisis vel 
longe dentatis. Folia summa indivisa lanceolataque vel ternata 
foliolis integris lanceolatisque. Capitula radiata, pansa ad anthesin 
3.5-4.5 cm. lata et 8-12 mm. alta, in fructu 1-1.3 cm. lata et 0.8-1 
cm. alta. Involucri bracteae membranaceae, margine plus minusve 
diaphanae, duplici serie dispositae; exteriores 7 vel 8, lineares, 



THE GENUS BIDENS 547 

3-6 mm. longae; interiores lanceolatae, dimidio longiores. Flores 
ligulati 7-9, aurantiaci, ligula anguste lanceolati, apice integri, 
ad basim minute hispidi, 7-9-lineati, 1.5-1.8 cm. longi. Paleae 
lineares, 6-8 mm. longae. Achaenia linearia atro-brunnea, subplana, 
una facie valde unicostata, margine faciebusque dense sed breviter 
erecto-hispida (praecipue supra), corpore circ. 8-9 mm. longa, biaris- 
tata aristis nudis, usque ad 1 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by John Gossweiler, No. 4176, among 
the ferruginous rocks near the fort at Kabango, Principality of 
Amelia, Angola, Portuguese West Africa, December, 1907 (Brit.). 

Distribution: From eastern Southern Rhodesia to Angola. 

Specimens examined: Ex Dept. Agriculture, No. 2482, Salisbury, 
Southern Rhodesia (Kew); Mrs. 0. Craster 211, eodem loco, com- 
munic. May 27, 1914 (Kew); Gossweiler 4176 (type, Brit.). 

At the time of writing the original description of Bidens rufo- 
venosa, there were at hand only my large photograph of the type 
and a small fragment which had been lent me. The one leaf on this 
fragment had the pubescence along the veins of the lower leaf -sur- 
faces conspicuously red-tomentose. The habitat cited by Goss- 
weiler, "amongst ferruginous rocks," led at once to the thought that 
iron in some form had been taken from the soil into the roots, then 
carried through the stem and leaves to the lower leaf surfaces and 
deposited there, doubtless as an oxide of iron. This view having 
been rejected by an eminent plant physiologist to whom it had 
been stated, the leaf was given for study to Dr. Sophia H. Eckerson, 
then of the University of Chicago. She reported the color of the 
pubescence as due to a red stain produced in the mucilage cells 
along the veins. Apparently, then, the stain afforded a character of 
diagnostic value. 

More recently I have reexamined the type. Only certain leaves 
possessed the rufo-tomentose character. Furthermore, the thickish 
root was covered with a deposit, of the reddish color noted in the hairs 
on some of the lower leaf -surfaces, but other material examined lacks 
the red. Clearly the rufo-tomentose character is here a fickle one, 
doubtless being entirely dependent upon the "ferruginous" nature 
of the rocks or soil in the habitat. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXXVIII, FIGS. a-4 

Bidens rufovenosa: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.61; 
b, lower leaf and portion of adjacent stem, X0.61; c, portion of leaflet, 
enlarged to show hairs, X6.12; d, exterior involucral bract, X3.67; 



548 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

e, interior involucral bract, X3.67; /, ray floret, Xl.83; g, palea, 
X3.67; h, corolla of disc floret, X3.67; *, achene, X3.67; all from type. 

165. Bidens asperata (Hutch. & Dalz.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
93: 220. 1932. PL CXXXIX. 

Coreopsis asperata Hutch. & Dalz. Fl. West Trop. Afr. 2: 141-143. 
1931; Sherff, op. cit. 219. 

Herba perennis, verisimiliter 1-2 m. alta, erecta, ramosa, caule 
ramisque subtetragonis, glabris. Folia inferiora non visa, superiora 
breviter petiolata petiolis planis latissimis basi connatis 1 cm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto 6-11 cm. longa, pallida, membranacea, faciebus 
glaberrima, pinnatim 3-5-partita; foliolis lanceolatis acriter dentatis 
vel subincisis, ciliatis, usque ad circ. 2 cm. latis. Capitula pauca, 
corymbosa, subvalide pedunculata pedunculis superne pubescentibus 
circ. 4-8 cm. longis, demum circ. 2.5-3 cm. lata et 1.5-1.8 cm. alta; 
radio non viso. Involucri basaliter pubescentis bracteae exteriores 
circ. 7 vel 8, ovatae vel late lanceolatae, superne angustatae, apice 
obtusae, margine glabratae vel plus minusve ciliatae, tergo circ. 
5-7-nerviae, 1.2-1.6 cm. longae et 3-6 mm. latae; inferiores rigidae, 
oblongo-obovatae, tergo plus minusve hispidae, apice angustatae 
ac pubescentes, paulo breviores. Paleae lineares, apicaliter coloratae, 
achaeniorum aristas aequantes vel parce superantes. Achaenia 
plana, brunneo-atra, late vel moderate oblonga, utraque facie 
circ. 16-sulcata, costis marginibusque creberrime papillata papillis 
setis munitis, corpore 7-8 mm. longa et 2-2.8 mm. lata, apice valde 
erecto-setosa et biaristata; aristis subdivergentibus, rectis, apicem 
versus nudis inferne 1-3 hamis antrorsum hamosis, 1.5-2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Aug. Chevalier, No. 20554, Cercle 
de Faranah (Faranna, Farana), "entre Sambadougou," French 
Guinea, January 27, 1909 (Kew). 

Distribution: French Guinea and Sierra Leone, southeastward 
to the upper Sassandra River, Ivory Coast. 

Specimens examined: Chevalier 20554 (type, Kew). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXXIX 

Bidens asperata: a, b, portions of fruiting branch, X0.62; c, 
exterior involucral bract, X3.08; d, interior involucral bract, X3.08; 
e, palea, X3.08;/, disc floret, X4.93; g, achene, X4.93; all from type. 

166. Bidens rubra DeWild. Repert. Sp. Nov. 13: 203. 

1914. PI. CXL, figs. h-o. 

Herba annua, erecta, verisimiliter 4-8 dm. alta, ramosa, caule 
(saepe acerrime) ramisque quadrangularibus, piloso-scabris (non 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXVIII 




BIDENS SERETII (DeWild.) Sherff 



OF THt 
UNIVERSITY Qf ILUN8IS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 549 

"velutinis"), ramulis subglabris. Folia petiolata petiolis pilosis 
plerumque usque ad 1.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 4-8 cm. longa, 
pinnatisecta; foliolis 3-7, linearibus, acriter calloso-apiculatis, 
sparse pilosulis, 0.5-2 mm. latis et usque ad 5.5 cm. longis. Capitula 
solitaria, ramos terminantia, pedunculata pedunculis 1.5-3.5 cm. 
(supra bracteas lineares) longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2.5-4 cm. 
lata et 7-11 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae extimae circ. 6-8, lineares 
(non "lanceolatae"), acriter calloso-apiculatae, dorso plus minusve 
dense hispidae, demum 5-7.5 mm. longae; medianae ovato-ellipticae, 
breviter apiculatae, dorso sparse hispidae, usque ad 7 mm. longae et 
4 mm. latae; intimae glabrae, usque ad 1 cm. longae. Flores ligulati 
4-6 (plerumque 5), glabri, rubri vel exsiccati violacei, plerumque 
5-7-nervati, ligula elliptici, usque ad 17 mm. longi et circ. 4-4.5 mm. 
lati; tubulosi flavidi, infra angusti, supra inflato-urceolati, glabri, 
circ. 3 mm. longi (antheris exsertis non inclusis). Achaenia valde 
obcompressa, margine apiceque setuloso-ciliata, faciebus glabra sed 
manifeste minuteque circ. 8-striata; exteriora lineari-oblonga, atro- 
brunnea, interdum exaristata, circ. 5-7 mm. longa et 1-1.4 mm. lata; 
interiora linearia, non elongata, atra, corpore usque ad 1 cm. longa et 
1 mm. lata, biaristata aristis retrorsum hamosis circ. 1.5-2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen : Collected by Joseph Bequaert, No. 389, at Wel- 
gelegen, Katanga, Belgian Congo, May 2, 1912 (Bruss.). 

Distribution: Known only from southeasternmost portion of 
Belgian Congo. 

Specimens examined: Bequaert 389 (type, Bruss.); idem 563, 
Welgelegen, Katanga, May 2, 1912 (Bruss.); Homble 563, eodem loco 
et tempore (Bruss.); T. Kassner 2859a, open grass plain, Lukifwa 
River, May 24, 1908 (Berl. ; Brit. ; forma involucri bracteis exteriori- 
bus interiores aequantibus) . 

In the herbarium at Brussels are two sheets labeled J. Bequaert 
389. One bears a specimen having fairly large flowering heads 
(2.5-4 cm. wide) with red or violaceous ligules and moderately thick, 
not elongated achenes. This sheet bears Bequaert's original field 
label and clearly is the one kept mainly in mind by De Wildeman 
when he named and described Bidens rubra. It is, moreover, the 
main basis of my description. The other sheet bears a very different 
plant with small (7-8 mm. wide), discoid flowering heads and slender, 
elongated achenes. This second specimen matches the type of 
Bidens ciliata De Wild. (=B. paupercula Sherff), i.e., Bequaert 302, 
and doubtless was really a duplicate of the B. ciliata type, but 
through some error in mounting was given the wrong number. It 



550 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

was unfortunately confused by De Wildeman with his B. rubra, as is 
shown by his erroneously describing the achenes of B. rubra as 
elongate, up to about 15 mm. long. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXL, FIGS, k-0 

Bidens rubra: h, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.63; i, portion 
of stem, X3.15;y, exterior involucral bract, X3.15; k, interior involu- 
cral bract, X3.15; I, ray floret, X3.15; m, palea, X3.15; n, disc floret, 
X3.15; o, achene, X3.15; all from type. 

167. Bidens urceolata De Wild. Ann. Mus. Congo 
IV. 167. 1903. PI. CXL, figs. a-g. 

Herba annua, erecta, glabra vel ad nodos parce pilosa, caule 
ramisque perspicue angulata, 7 dm. alta. Folia petiolata petiolis 
basi connatis et usque ad 2.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 4-8 cm. 
longa, pinnatim 3-5-partita; foliolis linearibus 1-3 mm. latis, mem- 
branaceis vel subcarnosis, non perspicue ciliatis, apice acutis, laterali- 
bus non divaricatis et rariter lobatis. Capitula tenuiter pedunculata 
pedunculis 3-9.5 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 3.5-5 cm. 
lata et 8-12 mm. alta. Invohicrum inferne hispidum; bracteis 
exterioribus 7-14, linearibus, ciliatis, acriter calloso-apiculatis, 6-8 
(rariter -10) mm. longis; interioribus brevioribus, ovato-lanceolatis, 
supra conspicue scarioso-marginatis. Flores ligulati 5-8, violacei 
vel sicci plus minusve flavi, ligula elliptico-oblanceolati, apice integri 
vel denticulati, 1.5-2.5 cm. longi. Flores tubulosi superne interdum 
perspicue urceolati, 1.5-3 mm. lati, nunc violacei, nunc flavidi sed 
venis et loborum marginibus brunnei, tubo quam ovariorum aristae 
longiores. Achaenia lineari-oblonga, atro-brunnea, apicem versus 
plana, alibi obcompressa, faciebus marginibusque perspicuissime 
brunneo-tuberculata, suberecto-ciliata, corpore 9-14 mm. longa et 
1.2-1.7 mm. lata, biaristata aristis retrorsum hamosis 1-2.3 mm. 
longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by E. Verdick, No. 464, at Lukafu, 
Katanga, Belgian Congo, April, 1900 (Bruss.). 

Distribution: Southeastern Belgian Congo and probably also 
adjacent portion of Rhodesia. 

Specimens examined : Alex Carson 34, Tanganyika-Moero Plateau, 
Central Africa, 1894 (Kew); T. Kassner 2725, slope of Mt. 
Kundelungu, Belgian Congo, May 7, 1908 (Berl.); Verdick 464 
(type, Bruss.). 

Fortunately, the mature specimen by Carson has been available 
for the description of the achenes, those on the type being immature. 



' H I il 
THE GENUS BIDENS 551 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXL, FIGS, d-g 

Bidens urceolata: a, flowering branch, X0.63; b, exterior invo- 
lucral bract, X3.15; c, interior involucral bract, X3.15; d, ray corol- 
la, Xl.26; e, palea, X3.15; /, disc floret, X3.15; g, upper portion of 
achene, X3.15; all from type, except lowermost pair of leaves in a 
taken from the identical Kassner 2710, in Hb. Berl. 

168. Bidens leptolepis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 85, pi. 9, figs. a-g. 
1923; ibid. 85: 12. 1928. PI. CXXXVIII, figs. j-p. 

Herba annua, erecta, glabra vel fere glabra, ramosa, caule tetra- 
gona, circ. 4-6 dm. alta. Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis 1-3.5 cm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto usque ad 1.1 dm. longa, pinnatim 3-5 (rariter 
-7) -partita; foliolis membranaceis, lateralibus plus minusve prorsum 
spectantibus; omnibus nunc elongato-linearibus et 1-2 mm. latis, 
vel nunc rursus plus minusve partitis segmentis oblongo-linearibus 
usque ad 5 mm. latis, ultimis lobis apicem versus rotundatis, apice 
ipso mucronulatis, margine obsolete vel debiliter ciliatis et saepe 
involutis vel revolutis. Capitula ramos terminantia, pedunculata 
pedunculis 2-7 vel rarius -15 cm. (supra summum jugum foliorum 
verorum) longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2.2-3 cm. lata et 0.7-1.1 
cm. alta. Involucri bracteae (saepe perspicue) dimorphae, exteriores 
numerosae (11-18), patentes vel recurvatae, (saepe angustissime) 
lineari-elongatae, hispidae vel apicem versus glabratae, apice indu- 
rato acutae, basi moderate dilatatae, 6-9 mm. longae, interiores 
ovato-lanceolatae, exterioribus subaequales. Flores ligulati 6-8, 
ligula oblanceolati vel anguste obovati, valde et perspicue atropur- 
purei vel atro-rubri, apice rotundato plus minusve emarginati et 
saepe 1-5 dentibus minutis denticulati, 0.9-1.5 cm. longi. Achaenia 
linearia, exalata, infra sensim supra saepe subabrupte angustata, 
atra, obcompressa, utraque facie circ. 8-sulcata, faciebus margini- 
busque saepe minute erecto-setosa, corpore 9-14 mm. longa et 1-1.3 
mm. lata, quam paleae anguste lineares paulo breviora, apice biaris- 
tata aristis retrorsum hamosis, circ. 1.7-2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by T. Kassner, No. 2725, under trees, 
Mt. Kundelungu, Belgian Congo, May 10, 1908 (Berl.). 
Distribution: Belgian Congo. 

Specimens examined: Kassner 2725 (type, Berl.); F. G. Overlaet, 
Kafakumba, April, 1925 (Berl.; Field, 3 sheets; Kew). 

Appears closest in foliage and general habit to B. urceolata 
De Wild., a species also collected by Kassner (No. 2710) on Mt. 



552 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Kundelungu. 1 B. leptolepis has smaller flowering heads, very dark 
red or dark purple, not light violet ligules, much more slender and 
elongate external involucral bracts, ordinary (not conspicuously 
margined above) internal involucral bracts, and lacks a definitely 
urceolate shape to the tubular florets. 

It was described originally from the single type specimen by 
Kassner. Shortly afterward I was able to enlist the friendly co- 
operation of Mr. F. G. Overlaet of Belgium. In April, 1925, Mr. 
Overlaet's official duties had taken him to Kafakumba, Belgian 
Congo, where he collected several handsome specimens of this 
Bidens. These, together with various other Congo specimens found 
by him, were forwarded to me and are now deposited in the herbaria 
cited. They afford a much broader and more representative notion 
of the species than was possible from the lone type specimen. The 
achenes are mature, the leaves are mostly more divided, with shorter 
and broader segments, and the external involucral bracts are often 
more numerous than in the type and also often shorter and less 
noticeably narrowed. The rays of the two dozen or more flowering 
heads examined vary from dark red to densely dark purplish-red, as 
in the type. With the aid of these additional specimens the above 
amplified description has been drawn. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXXXVIII, FIGS, j-p 

Bidens leptolepis: j, flowering branch, X0.61; k, exterior involucral 
bract, X2.44; I, interior involucral bract, X2.44; ra, ray floret, X2.44; 
n, palea, X2.44; o, disc floret, X2.44; p, ovary, X7.32; all from type. 

169. Bidens taitensis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 90: 396. 1930. 
PI. CXLI. 

Herba erecta, verisimiliter perennis, glabra vel sparsissime his- 
pida, forsitan 1 m. alta. Folia principalia petiolata petiolis margi- 
natis 1.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 9 cm. longa, circumambitu 
late deltoideo-ovata, bipinnatisecta; foliolis (lateralibus 2 jugis) 
membranaceis, subgrosse dentatis, decurrentibus, saepius oblongo- 
lanceolatis vel ovato-lanceolatis, minute nigro-punctatis, segmentis 
apicaliter subacutis. Capitula tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 
glabratis vel ad summam hispidis, 1 dm. longis, radiata, pansa ad 
anthesin probabiliter 3-5 cm. lata et 8-10 mm. alta. Involucri 
bracteae exteriores circ. 8 vel 9, late oblongae, apice obtusae carti- 
lagineo-indurataeque, marginibus eciliatae, tergo nonnullis lineis 

1 The type of B. urceolata came from Lukufu, in the same region. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plato CLXIX 




'' d 

BIDENS STUHLMANNII (O. Hoffm.) Sherflf 







< j 



ft- 



THE GENUS BIDENS 553 

nervatae, circ. 8-9 mm. longae et 2-4 mm. latae; interferes late 
oblongo-lanceolatae dorsaliter subsparsim hispidae, apicaliter dense 
pubescentes, saepe paulo breviores. Flores ligulati (tantum unicus 
visus) flavi, ligula lineari-oblongi, nervis pilosi, apice subintegri, 
1.5 cm. longi. Achaenia nunc late cuneato-linearia nunc oblongo- 
oblanceolata, plana, atra, utraque facie circ. 8-striata, non vere 
alata, marginibus dense faciebus non nisi supra erecto-setosa, 
corpore 6-8 mm. longa et 1.5-2.2 mm. lata, apice erecte hispido et 
concavo vel raro piano exaristata vel brevissime biaristata aristis 
usque ad 0.5 mm. longis nunc calvis nunc antrorsum 1-3-hamosis. 

Type specimen: Collected by J. M. Hildebrandt, No. 2432a, at 
altitude of 600-900 meters, Taita (Teita) Mountains, British East 
Africa, February, 1877 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in British East 
Africa. 

Specimens examined: Hildebrandt 2432a (type, Berl.). 

Hildebrandt's No. 2432 was collected in quantity and proved to 
be new (Bidens Hildebrandtii). Specimens were distributed to 
several herbaria. His 2432a, though collected at the same time and 
place, seems to have been rare, for apparently only a single specimen 
was found, and that none too ample. The habit seems nearest that 
of Bidens Fischeri (0. Hoffm.) Sherff, of German East Africa. From 
that it differs in being more nearly glabrous, in having the exterior 
involucral bracts also the achenes much wider, etc. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXLI 

Bidens taitensis: a, fruiting branch, X0.63; b, detached leaf, 
X0.63; c, exterior involucral bract, X3.8; d, interior involucral bract, 
X3.8; e, ray corolla, X2.53; /, palea, X3.8; g, disc floret, X3.8: h 
(outer), i (inner), achenes, X3.8; all from type. 

170. Bidens Fischeri (0. Hoffm.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
76: 158. 1923. PL CXLII, figs. a-h. 

Coreopsis Fischeri 0. Hoffm. in Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afr. C:414. 

1895. 

Herbacea, parce hispida. Folia petiolata petiolis 1 cm. longis, 
superiora (inferiora non visa) petiolo adjecto 4-11 cm. longa, mem- 
branacea, pinnatipartita segmentis lanceolatis crenato-dentatis 
acutis. Capitula cymam foliatam formantia, radiata, pansa ad 
anthesin 2.5-4 cm. lata et 6-8 mm. alta, pedunculata pedunculis 
usque ad 9 cm. longis. Involucri bracteae dorso hispidae; exteriores 



554 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

7-9, lineares, 7-12 mm. longae, interioribus ovato-lanceolatis lon- 
giores. Flores ligulati circ. 8, lutei, ligula elliptico-obovati, apice non 
conspicue denticulati, demum circ. 1.5-1.8 cm. longi. Achaenia 
obcompressa, nigrescentia vel brunneo-nigra, exalata, antrorsum 
setosa, faciebus circ. 8-sulcata, apice exaristata vel biaristata aristis 
glabris brevissimis 0.2-1 mm. longis; corpore exteriora lineari- 
oblanceolata, 4-5 mm. longa et circ. 1.3-1.4 mm. lata, tuberculata; 
interiora angustiora, linearia, 8-9 mm. longa et 0.6-1 mm. lata. 

Type specimen: Collected by Fischer, No. 354, lake district of 
central eastern Africa, January 29-February 13, anno ignoto (Berl.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in central eastern 
Africa. 

Specimens examined: Fischer 354 (type, Berl.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXLII, FIGS. CL-h 

Bid ens Fischeri: a, leaf, X0.74; b (flowering) and c (subfruiting), 
heads, X0.74; d, exterior involucral bract, X3.73; e, interior involu- 
cral bract, X3.73; /, palea, X3.73; g (outer) and h (inner), achenes, 
X 3.73; all from type. 

171. Bidens Schimperi Schz. Bip. ex Walp. Repert. 6: 168. 

1846; Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81, pi. 3. 1926. PI. CXLII, 

figs, i-q, PI. CXLIII, and PI. CXLIV. 

Bidens Schimperi var. pilosa Schz. Bip. ex Schweinfurth, Beitr. Fl. 
Aethiop. 142. 1867. 

Bidens Buchingeri Schz. Bip. ex Schweinf . loc. cit. 

Bidens prolixa S. L. Moore, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. 40: 116. 1911. 

Bidens punctata Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 59: 302. 1915. 

Bidens acutiloba Sherff, op. cit. 76: 147. 1923. 

Bidens Schimperi var. punctata Sherff, op. cit. 85: 17. 1928. 

Achaenia corpore tantum 3-5 mm. longa, aristis perspicue tenuibus 
1.5-3 mm. longis var. /3. leptocera. 

Achaenia corpore plerumque usque ad 9-16 mm. longa, aristis mode- 
rate tenuibus, 2.5-4 mm. longis B. Schimperi sensu stricto. 

Herba annua, erecta, inconspicue subhirto-pubescens vel interdum 

pilis articulatis perspicue candido-hispida, 5-15 dm. alta; caule 

tetragono, ramoso. Folia petiolata petiolis 0.4-3 cm. longis, petiolo 

adjecto 5-15 cm. longa, membranacea, numerosis punctulis obsita, 

breviter hispido-ciliata, (rarissime pinnata) plerumque bi- vel tri- 

pinnatisecta; lobis ovato-oblongis vel lineari-lanceolatis, basi cune- 



THE GENUS BIDENS 555 

atis, integris vel grosse inciso-dentatis, apice indurato-mucronu- 
latis. Capitula non numerosa, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 
4-13 cm. longis et fere semper nudis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2-4 
cm. lata et 5-10 mm. alta. Involucrum turbinatum, pilis articulatis 
praecipue infra hispidum; bracteis exterioribus 5-9, foliaceis, spa- 
thulato-linearibus, apice obtusis subacutisve et indurato-apiculatis, 
pilis articulatis ciliatis, demum 10-17 mm. vel interdum tantum 4-7 
mm. longis, junioribus ac senioribus interiores oblongo-lanceolatas 
saepius paulo vel etiam dimidio superantibus. Flores ligulati ple- 
rumque 8, flavi, ligula anguste elliptici, apice subintegri, 12 mm. 
longi. Achaenia brunnea vel liventia vel nigrescentia, utraque 
facie circ. 8-sulcata, ad margines atque facies saepius perspicue 
adrecteque tuberculato-hispida, apice setosa et biaristata (Schz. 
Bip. triaristata dixit probabiliter inaccurate; nulla triaristata vidi) 
aristis tenuibus, retrorsum plus minusve hamosis, 2.5-4 mm. longis; 
exteriora valde obcompressa vel plana, circumambitu lineari-fusi- 
formia, corpore usque ad 9-12 (-14) mm. longa et 2-2.6 mm. lata; 
interiora linearia, intima saepe convoluta, corpore usque ad 1.6 (in 
cultu etiam usque ad 2.2) cm. longa et circ. 2 mm. lata. 

Type specimen: Collected by Wilhelm Schimper, No. 1429, in 
valleys near Djeladjeranne, Abyssinia, September 27, 1840 (Par.). 

Distribution : Eastern Africa, from Eritrea and Nubia southward 
to Natal; also in Angola. 

Specimens examined: C. E. F. Allen 434, Rhodesia (Kew); 
E. Battiscombe 63, coast districts, British East Africa, June 24, 1909 
(Kew); J. T. Bent, sea coast to alt. 1,200 meters, about 21 N. Lat., 
Nubia, 1896 (Kew) ; Miss E. M. Bruce 589, growing 4 ft. tall, among 
native cultivation by river, Uluguru Mts., Bunduki, German East 
Africa, January 20, 1934 (Kew; Field); eadem 603, eodem loco, Jan- 
uary 22, 1934 (Kew; Field); Cecil 193, alt. 1,800-2,100 meters, 
Inyanga Mts., Manika, Rhodesia, December, 1899 (Kew) ; Anita G. 
Curtis 696, alt. 1,500-2,100 meters, damp, hilly woods, Loita Plains, 
British East Africa, July 8, 1923 (Gray) ; Fred Eyles 1302, extremely 
common, alt. 1,410 meters, headwaters at Gwelo, Rhodesia, April, 
1918 (forma: Brit.; Kew; Rog.); Rudolph Endlich 384, alt. 1,200- 
1,300 meters, mixed forest zone between Kibohohe and the Namui, 
Kilimanjaro, German East Africa, July, 1909 (Mun.) ; Adriano Fiori 
1835, alt. 960 meters, Ghinda, Hamasen region, Eritrea, April 11, 
1909 (Flor.); John Gossweiler 3330, not abundant, weedy annual of 
the Mossacolas at Kassuango Kuiriri, Angola, April, 1906 (Brit.); 
J. Hannington, 2-7 S. Lat., eastern tropical Africa, communic. 1883 



556 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

(Kew); W. Hay garth, near Umzinyati River, Natal, January 21, 
1893 (Brit.) ; ex Reg. Hort. Romano, cult, e sem. ab A. Terracciano et 
A. Pappio lectis sub numero 4713 (Flor.) ; ex eodem, e sem. ab A. Pappio 
anno 1893 sub numero 4766 (Flor.); Hort. Vindob., cult, anno 1869 e 
seminibus ex Horto Pragensi anno 1868 missis (U.V.; forma capi- 
tulis demum maximis, achaeniorum corporibus usque ad 2.2 cm. et 
aristis usque ad 4 mm. longis) ; W. P. Johnson 50, Likoma Isl., Lake 
Nyassa (Kew); idem 341, Tumbi Hill, Tumbi (Makapula), April 27, 
circ. 1901 (Kew); idem 343, Tumbi, eodem tempore (Kew; type of 
Bidens punctata Sherff) ; J. Kirk, Lupata, State of East Africa, April, 
1860 (Kew) ; J. K. Lord, sandy plains, Suakin to Tamanieb River, 
Nubia, February 17, 1869 (Kew); F. D. & E. J. Lugard 177, Kwebe, 
Ngamiland, northern Bechuanaland, February, 1897 (Kew); Mrs. 
E. J. Lugard (similiter) 177, Kwebe Hills, Ngamiland, February 15, 
1898 (Kew); Mrs. Macaulay 633 p.p., near Mumbwa (15 S. Lat. and 
28 E. Long.), northern Rhodesia, 1911 (Kew); J. McClounie 133, alt. 
2,400 meters, Nyika Plateau, British Central African Protectorate, 
February-March, 1903 (Kew, 2 sheets); Menyhart 1109, grassy 
places, Boruma (Mburuma; Boroma; about 400-500 km. above Tete 
on Zambesi River), northern Rhodesia, April, 1891 (U.V.); A.Pappi 
3281, alt. about 1,500 meters, Eritrea, 1893 (Flor.); Von Prittwitz 
und Gaffron 353, abundant at Camp Kirangwana, German East 
Africa, July 17-18, 1901 (Berl.);F. A. Rogers 6001, alt. 900 meters, 
common from Victoria Falls to Wankie, south bank of Zambesi 
River, southern Rhodesia (17 54' S. Lat. and 25 55' E. Long.), 
April 3, 1909 (Kew) ; idem 7707, Broken Hill, northwestern Rhodesia, 
May, 1914 (Kew; forma B. rufovenosae adpropinquans sed involucre 
valde differt) ; idem 8007, Choma, northwestern Rhodesia, May, 1909 
(Kew); idem 13225, alt. 720 meters, Wankie, southern Rhodesia, 
May, 1915 (Rog.) ; Schilling 67, Kilimanjaro District, German East 
Africa, 1903 (Berl.); W. Schimper 201, on mountain and in valley, 
alt. 750-1,650 meters, Hamedeo, Abyssinia, September 12, 1862 
(Berl., 2 sheets; Brit.); idem 304, alt. 1,800 meters, in mountains, 
Gaha-Meda near Dschadscha, Abyssinia, October 22, 1854 (Berl., 
2 sheets); idem 949, Abyssinia (Kew; Par., 4 sheets); idem 1429 (type, 
Par.: cotypes, Berl., 2 sheets: Del., 3 sheets; Gray; Kew, 2 sheets; 
Mo.; Mun.; Mus. V., etc.); H. J. Schlieben 1065, bed of the upper 
Ruhudje, Prov. Lupembe, German East Africa, 1931 (Bruss.); G. 
Schweinfurth 417, Soturba Mts., coast of Nubia, 1865-1868 (Berl.; 
Brit.); C. F. M. Swynnerton 1884, alt. 60-180 meters, Northern 
Melsetter, Rhodesia, April, 1907 (Brit., type of Bidens prolixa S. L. 



field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXX 




BIDENS UKAMBENSIS S. L. Moore (figs, a-i) 
BIDENS RHODESIANA Sherff (figs, j-p) 



Of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 557 

Moore); A. J. Teague 6, alt. 900-1,500 meters, Odzani River Valley, 
Distr. Manica, Div. Umtali, Southern Rhodesia, 1914 (Kew); A. Ter- 
raciano & A. Pappi, Eritrea, April 3, 1892 (Flor.) and April 5, 
1892 (Flor.); Georg Volkens 384, alt. 1,500 meters, Kiva Kinabo, 
June, 1893 (type material of Bidens acutiloba Sherff; Boiss.; Brit.; 
Kew); T. Wakefield, Galla Country, eastern tropical Africa, May, 
1880 (Kew; forma plus gracilis); J. M. Wood 1231, Umzinyati Falls, 
Inanda, Natal, March 11 (Kew, recept. September, 1881). 

The material originally given by Schultz Bipontinus the manu- 
script name Bidens Buchingeri and later given the name B. Schimperi 
var. pilosa was collected by Schimper at Gaha-Meda near Dschad- 
scha, Abyssinia. The specimens examined by me in Schultz Bipon- 
tinus' herbarium (Par.) are merely a somewhat pilose-leaved but 
glabrous-stemmed form of B. Schimperi. We must therefore follow 
the course of Oliver and Hiern (Oliver, Fl. Trop. Afr. 3: 394. 1877) 
and treat these names as synonymous. 

Many species of Bidens are polymorphic as to foliage, and yet 
reasonably constant as to characters of flower and fruit, but B. 
Schimperi offers an amazing range of variation in all respects. Thus, 
in typical B. Schimperi the external bracts of the involucre become 
10-17 mm. long, but in forms of the species (of which B. acutiloba 
Sherff must be considered one) these may become only 3-6 mm. 
long. Again, in typical material, the achenial bodies range in length 
from 0.9-2.2 cm., while in various forms these range as low as 3-6 mm. 
long. Oliver and Hiern, also Otto Hoffmann, in their work on the 
African flora came to recognize a large number of these forms as 
merely variations of B. Schimperi, although to a novice these would 
seem separate species. 

Bidens prolixa S. L. Moore was founded upon C. F. M. Swynnerton 
1884, northern Melsetter at alt. 60-180 meters, Rhodesia, April, 1907 
(Brit.). Moore (loc. cit.) distinguished this plant from B. Schimperi 
by "its slender habit with long stalked heads, its smaller leaves with 
narrower lobes, its smaller heads, shorter involucres and narrower 
ligules." Upon comparison with a considerable number of specimens 
of B. Schimperi, B. prolixa is found to be connected much too closely 
for specific separation. 

B. punctata Sherff (PL CXLII, figs, i-q) was founded upon two 
sheets of material (Kew) consisting of small plants with leaves 
tripartite or even entire, not bi- or tripinnate as in ordinary B. 
Schimperi. Their outer involucral bracts were noticeably shorter 
than the inner ones. The fruiting characters were very similar to 



558 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

those of B. prolixa, and I therefore came later to regard B. punctata 
and with it the less extreme B. prolixa as representing a variety (var. 
punctata) of B. Schimperi. The diagnostic characters are found, 
however, to be so uncorrelated and so prone to appear in different 
combinations, that it seems difficult to justify maintenance of even 
varietal rank for the prolixa or punctata forms. 

Bidens Schimperi var. /3. leptocera Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 81: 52. 1926. 

Herba erecta, 6 dm. alta, verisimiliter annua, caule glabro et 
ramoso. Folia superiora (inferiora non visa) subsessilia, usque ad 6 
cm. longa, bipinnatisecta segmentis linearibus vel lineari-lanceolatis, 
valde membranaceis, sparsim hispidis, ciliatis, acriter dentatis, 1-5 
mm. latis. Capitula tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis usque ad 6 cm. 
longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 2.5 cm. lata et 6-8 mm. alta. 
Involucri bracteae moderate hispidae, exteriores 5-8, lineares, acriter 
indurato-apiculatae, 3-6 mm. longae, interioribus ovato-lanceolatis 
parce longiores. Flores ligulati probabiliter circ. 8 (in uno capitulo 
imperfecto tantum 5 observati), lutei, ligula elliptico-oblanceolati, 
apice obscure denticulati, circ. 8-10 mm. longi. Achaenia parva 
valde obcompressa, ovato-oblanceolata vel lineari-oblonga, exalata, 
atra vel atro-fusca, utraque facie circ. 8-striata, marginibus erecto- 
ciliata, faciebus erecte plus minusve spinuloso-setosa, apice setis 
erectis valde et perspicue coronata, corpore tantum 3-4.5 (rarissime 
-5) mm. longa et 0.8-1.1 mm. lata, biaristata; aristis perspicue 
tenuibus, leviter arcuatis, solum apice retrorsum hamosis, 1.5-3 
mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by C. F. M. Swynnerton, No. 845A, 
Kilossa, German East Africa, May 8, 1921 (Brit.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in German East 
Africa. 

Specimens examined: Swynnerton 845A (type, Brit.). 

In addition to the single specimen cited, we have Swynnerton 
875 (Brit.), which may prove closer to the variety than to the species 
proper. It was collected at Handeni, German East Africa, February, 
1920, and has a habit suggesting that of the South American Bidens 
Andrei. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXLII, FIGS, i-q 

Bidens Schimperi: i, small flowering and fruiting specimen, 
X0.74; j, leaf, X0.74; k, portion of leaf, magnified to show punctate 
surface, X5.22; /, exterior involucral bract, X3.73; m, interior involu- 



THE GENUS BIDENS 559 

cral bract, X3.73; n, ray corolla, X 3. 73; o, palea, X3.73; p, disc floret, 
X3.73; q, achene, X3.73; i, l-q, from Johnson 343 (type of Bidens 
punctata Sherff), in Hb. Kew; j, k, from Johnson 341, in Hb. Kew. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXLIII 

Bidens Schimperi: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.6; b, 
exterior involucral bract, X2.41; c, interior involucral bract, X2.41; 

d, ray corolla, X2.41; e, palea, X2.41;/, disc floret, X3.61; g (outer), 
h (inner), achenes, X3.61; all from cotype, in Hb. Kew. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXLIV 

Bidens Schimperi (forms of): a,j, flowering and fruiting specimens, 
X0.6; 6, portion of leaf from a, enlarged to show pubescence, X3; c, k, 
exterior involucral bracts, X3; d, I, interior involucral bracts, X3; 

e, m, ray corollas, X3; /, n, paleae, X3; g, o, disc florets, X3; h and 
p (outer), i and q (inner), achenes, X3; a-i, from Volkens 384 (type of 
Bidens acutiloba Sherff), in Hb. Boiss.; j-q, from Schilling 67, in 
Hb. Berl. 

172. Bidens Onisciformis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 96: 144. 1934. 

Herba, unico ramo viso gracili subtereti sulculato sparsissime 
piloso internodiis folia superantibus. Folia tenuiter petiolata 
petiolo 5 mm. longo adjecto sub 3 cm. longa, hispida setis 
pluriloculatis, bipinnatisecta segmentis ultimis membranaceis plus 
minusve oblongis acriter apiculatis vel dentatis dentibus vix mu- 
cronatis. Capitula pauca, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis superne 
hispidis 3 cm. longis, ad anthesin cernua circ. 2 cm. lata et circ. 
6 mm. alta, disco parvo demum circ. 6-7 mm. lato. Involucri hispidi 
bracteae exteriores circ. 8, paten tes, lineares, 5 mm. longae, quam 
interiores ovatae saepe paulo longiores. Flores ligulati 6 (pro unico 
capitulo ad anthesin viso), flavi, ligula elliptico-oblanceolati, apice 
vix denticulati, 8-10 mm. longi. Paleae lineari-oblongae, apice 
obtusae vel raro irregulariter mucronatae, circ. 5-5.5 mm. longae. 
Achaenia exteriora fertilia, obcompressa, moderate vel late oblonga, 
nigra, dorso 8-sulculata et glabrata, marginibus pectinato-dentatis 
vel laceratis sursum albido-setosa, non vere alata, ventro circ. 
8-sulculata et valde papillato-setosa setis albis, apice bidenticulata 
(sed vix aristulata) et erecte setosa, 4-5 mm. longa et 1.5-1.8 mm. 
lata; interiora sterilia planiora, elongatiora, angustiora, griseo-nigra. 

Type specimen: Collected by Van den Houdt, No. 211, at alti- 
tude of about 2,200 meters, W. Katana (Kivu), tropical east Africa, 
1932 (Terv.)- 



560 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Distribution: Northeastern Belgian Congo. 
Specimens examined: Van den Houdt 211 (type, Terv.). 
The outer achenes offer a strong superficial resemblance to sow 
bugs, of the genus Oniscus, whence the trivial name. 1 

173. Bidens Hoffmannii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 146, 
pi. 12, figs. h-n. 1923. PI. CLI, figs. j-p. 

Planta gracilis, glabra, circ. 3-5 dm. alta; caule inferne lignescenti, 
angulato vel obscure tetragono, ramoso. Folia tenuiter petiolata 
petiolis inferne plus minusve ciliatis 4-9 mm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
2-5 cm. longa, pinnata, foliolis linearibus 1-3 mm. latis, lateralibus 
(1 vel 2 jugis) usque ad 2 cm. longis, terminali paulo longiore, omnibus 
integris vel remote pinnato-dentatis, subcarnosis, eciliatis, acute 
calloso-apiculatis. Capitula pauca, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 
3-9 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2.5-3 cm. lata et 6-9 mm. 
alta. Involucrum moderatim hispidum, bracteis exterioribus circ. 6, 
linearibus, apice acutis callosisque, 4-6 mm. longis; interioribus 
lanceolatis, paulo longioribus. Flores ligulati circ. 8, flavi, ligula 
elliptico-oblongi, apice integri vel acute 2- vel 3-denticulati, 1-1.5 
cm. longi. Achaenia subnigra vel cinerea, supra brunnea, obcom- 
pressa, exalata, utraque facie 8-sulcata, antrorsum hispida, saepe 
tuberculata, linearia, paleas facile superantia, corpore exteriora 6-7 
mm. longa et fere 2 mm. lata, interiora 7-9 mm. longa et 1-1.5 mm. 
lata, omnia biaristata aristis retrorsum hamosis, 1.5-1.75 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Georg Volkens, No. 365, at altitude 
of 1,400-1,500 meters, Kwa Kinabo, District of the Ngowe, Kiliman- 
jaro, German East Africa, June 11, 1893 (Boiss.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Kilimanjaro, 
German East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Volkens 365 (type, Boiss.: cotypes, Berl.; 
Brit.). 

The type had been determined at Berlin as a form of Bidens 
lineariloba Oliv. That species is a very different plant, having the 
exterior involucral bracts 9-13, linear-lanceolate or even narrowly 
linear, strongly attenuate above, finally more or less reflexed, 6-11 
mm. long; also anomalous inner paleae, which are widely elliptic or 
obovate or truncate, the apex conspicuously and to a great length 
linearly elongated, surpassing the spreading-awned achenes. The 
habit is that of Bidens Kirkii (Oliv. & Hiern) Sherff, but the fewer 

1 The name Oniscus was taken in its restricted sense as used in modern Latin 
by zoologists, rather than from the Greek. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 561 

heads of B. Hoffmannii, the shorter, more often lobed and less par- 
allel-sided leaf divisions, and the retrorsely barbed awns of the longer 
achenes distinguish it easily from B. Kirkii. The species was named 
in honor of Dr. Otto Hoffmann, who not only studied this and other 
material collected by Volkens, but during his lifetime 1 contributed in 
a most important way to knowledge of the African species of Bidens. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLI, FIGS, j-p 

Bidens Hoffmannii: j, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.6; 
k, exterior involucral bract, X3.6; Z, interior involucral bract, X3.6; 
m, ray corolla, X3.6; n, palea, X3.6; o, disc floret, X3.6; p, achene, 
X3.6; all from type. 

174. Bidens Kirkii (Oliv. & Hiern) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 

59: 309. 1915. PI. CXLV. 

Coreopsis Kirkii Oliv. & Hiern in Oliver, Fl. Trop. Afr. 3: 390. 1877. 
Foliorum laminae segmentave linearia 1-3.3 mm. lata; involucri 

bracteis exterioribus circ. 4 vel 5 B. Kirkii sensu stricto. 

Foliorum laminae segmentave flagellaria sub 1 mm. lata; involucri 
bracteis exterioribus circ. 8-10 var. 0. flagellata. 

Suffruticosa, perennis, glaberrima, 3-5 dm. alta, infra ramosa 
ramis ligneis et teretibus vel obsolete tetragonis. Folia tenuiter peti- 
olata petiolis 1-3.3 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 3-7 cm. longa, inter- 
dum (forsitan plerumque) in ramulis adbreviatis genita, trisecta 
vel profunde tripartita, foliolis indivisis vel rursus tripartitis; seg- 
mentis linearibus, integris, crassiusculis, apice acutis, margine non 
ciliatis sed subrevolutis, 0.4-3.5 cm. longis et 1-3.3 mm. latis. 
Capitula solitaria vel perpauca, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2-3.5 cm. 
lata et 6-10 mm. alta, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 1.5-8 (inter- 
dum -15) cm. longis. Involucrum glabrum; bracteis exterioribus circ. 
4 vel 5, anguste lateve linearibus, plerumque apicem versus orbi- 
culato-dilatatis, non ciliatis, 4-5 mm. longis, interiores lanceolatas 
fere aequantibus. Flores ligulati circ. 5, flavi, ligula obovati vel 
lineari-oblanceolati, 1.5-1.7 cm. longi. Achaenia linearia, nigres- 
centia, antrorsum hispida, corpore circ. 7 mm. longa, 1.2-1.6 mm. 
lata, paleas non aequantia, biaristata aristis antrorsum hispidis, 2-3 
mm. longis. 

Type specimen : Collected by J. Kirk, at altitude of 900 meters, 
Moramballa, Mozambique District, State of East Africa, December 
30, 1855-1858 (Kew). 

1 For an account of his life and work see P. Ascherson, Verb. Bot. 
Ver. Brandenb. 51: 153. 1909; R. Muschler, ibid. 155. 



562 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Distribution: Southern British East Africa southward through 
German East Africa to Mozambique District of State of East Africa. 

Specimens examined : R. .Dimmer 2641p.p., alt. 1,200 meters, grassy 
hill slopes, "Kyabana" (Kyalana?), Nov., 1915 (U.S.) ; G.F. ScottElliot 
6909, alt, 2,400 meters, Mt. Mau, British East Africa, 1893-1894 
(Brit.; Kew); R. E. & T. C. E. Fries 571, alt. 2,300 meters, grassy 
field, near Forest Station, British East Africa, December 30, 1921 
(Kew); C. Hoist 913/, grass meadows, Kwa Mstuza, Distr. Usam- 
bara, German East Africa, August, 1893 (Hamb.; Kew; U.S.); 
F. J. Jackson, tropical eastern Africa, 1889 (Brit.); H. H. Johnston, 
Nandi Plateau, British East Africa, communic. 1901 (Kew); J. 
Kirk, alt. 900 meters, etc. (type, Kew); E. A. Mearns 1364 and 1418, 
alt. about 3,630 meters, in "giant heath" zone, western slopes of 
Mt. Kenia, British East Africa, September 21-27, 1909 (U.S.); 
Domenico Riva (Exped. Eugenio Ruspoli) 1447 (1244), Biddumi, 
Somaliland, September 12, 1893 (Flor.). 

Bidens Kirkii var. ft. flagellata Sherff, Bull. Jard. 
Bot. Brux. 13: 287. 1935. 

Folia inferiora tripartita alia simplicia, 4-8 cm. longa, lamina 
segmentisve flagellaribus sub 1 mm. latis. Capitula pansa ad 
anthesin sub 2 cm. lata. Involucri purpureo-maculati bracteae 
exteriores circ. 8-10, ad anthesin sub 3 mm. longae. Flores ligulati 
circ. 8. 

Type specimen: Collected by Muller, No. 50, Kitega, Ruanda, 
north westernmost German East Africa, 1933 (Bruss.). 

Distribution: Ruanda, German East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Muller 50 (type, Bruss.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXLV 

Bidens Kirkii: a, flowering branch, X0.63; b, exterior involucral 
bract, X3.13; c, interior involucral bract, X3.13; d, ray corolla, 
Xl.88; e, palea, X3.13; /, disc floret, X3.13; g, achene, X3.5; h, 
immature achene, X3.5; a-/, h, from type; g, from identical specimen 
by Fred J. Jackson, tropical east Africa, 1889, in Hb. Brit. 

175. Bidens musoziana Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 86: 445. 
1928. PI. CXLVI. 

Coreopsis arenicola S. L. Moore, Journ. Linn. Soc. 37: 170. 1905. 
Bidens arenicola (S. L. Moore) Sherff, op. cit. 59: 309. 1915; non Gan- 
doger, Fl. Lyon. 122. 1875. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 563 

Fruticulosa, erecta, crebro ramosa, 4 dm. alta; caule glabro, 
una cum ramulis puberulis gracili subquadrangulatoque. Folia parva, 
petiolata petiolis 0.5-1 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 1-3 cm. longa, 
pinnatim 5-partita vel bipinnatisecta ; lobis linearibus, integris, 
supra moderate infra valde subadpresso-pilosis, apice acri induratis, 
plerumque 0.5-1.5 mm. latis. Capitula ad apices ramulorum corym- 
bos laxos oligocephalos formantia, pedunculata pedunculis gracilibus 
et 2-5 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 1.4-2 cm. lata et 7-9 
mm. alta. Involucrum pilosum; bracteis exterioribus circ. 8, anguste 
lineari-oblongis, subacutis, 2-3 mm. longis; interioribus late lanceo- 
latis, integris vel bifidis, 5-6 mm. longis. Flores ligulati circ. 8, 
flavi, ligula oblongo-lanceolati, perspicue 11-nerves, apice integri, 
1-1.3 cm. longi. Achaenia lineari-oblonga, obcompressa, brunneo- 
nigra vel nigrescentia, inferne leviter ac gradatim attenuata, utraque 
facie subtiliter costata, omnino circ. 16-sulcata, superne adrecte plus 
minusve pilosa ac ciliata, corpore 6-8 mm. longa, plerumque aristata; 
aristis 2, brevissimis, subcalvis vel perspicue adrecteque hispidulis, 
0.1-0.7 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Arthur William Gerrard Bag- 
shawe, in dry sand by Lake Victoria Nyanza, at Musozi, 1 Uganda, 
British East Africa, December 18 (not "12"), 1903-1904 (Brit.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Uganda, British 
East Africa. 

Specimens examined : Bagshawe, Musozi (type, Brit.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXLVI 

Bidens musoziana: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.66; 6, 
leaf magnified to show pubescence, X0.66; c, exterior involucral 
bract, X2.66; d, interior involucral bract, X2.66; g, h, disc florets, 
X2.66; i (outer), j (inner), achenes, X2.66; all from type. 

176. Bidens Mossii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 92: 202. 1931. 

PI. CXLVII. 

Coreopsis tripartita M. B. Moss, Kew Bull. 1929: 184 and 196. 1929. 
Herba erecta, gracilis, forsan 3-6 dm. alta, caule ramisque sub- 
teretibus glabris vel minute puberulis longitudinaliter striatis. 
Folia breviter lato-petiolata petiolis 2-6 mm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
circ. 2 cm. longa, tripartita; foliolis lineari-oblongis, glabris, apice 
breviter mucronatis, integris vel terminali lateraliter 1-2-lobato, 
marginibus plus minusve revolutis sed eciliatis, plerumque 1-2.5 mm. 

1 Spelled also Msozi (Century Atlas, 1899). 



564 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

latis. Capitula solitaria, terminalia, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculo 
puberulo circ. 4.5-6 cm. longo, radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 2.2- 
2.8 cm. lata et circ. 5.5-7 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae hispidae, 
exteriores 10-14, lineari-oblongae, superne plus minusve dilatatae, 
terminaliter submucronato-apiculatae, circ. 4-4.5 mm. longae, sub- 
patentes; interiores oblongo-lanceolatae circ. 5-6 mm. longae. Flores 
ligulati circ. 9-12, flavi, ligula late lineari-oblongi, apice subintegri 
vel obscure 3-denticulati, 1-1.2 cm. longi. Achaenia deficientia; 
ovariis obcompressis, exaristatis, truncatis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Thomas Ford Chipp, No. 80, at 
altitude of 3,000 meters, in meadows on Mt. Kinetti (Kineti), 
Imatong Mountains, southern Sudan, February 11, 1929 (Kew). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in southern Sudan. 

Specimens examined: Chipp 80 (type, Kew). 

A species deceivingly like Bidens Whytei (which apparently had 
not been studied by Miss Moss). From B. Whytei it appears to 
differ in its larger and less dilated exterior involucral bracts, its 
exaristate achenes, etc. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXLVII 

Bidens Mossii: a, b, flowering branches, X0.72; c, exterior invo- 
lucral bract, X5.74; d, interior involucral bract, X5.74; e, ray corolla, 
X4.31;/, g, paleae, X5.74; h, i, disc florets, X5.74; all from type. 

177. Bidens Whytei Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 145. 1923. 
PI. CXLVIII, figs. a-g. 

Herba erecta, forsan annua (partem inferiorem non vidi), glabra, 
verisimiliter 4-8 dm. alta, ramis angulatis. Folia subsessilia vel 
petiolata petiolis latis ciliatis et 3-12 mm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
1.5-4.5 cm. longa, superiora ac media (infima non vidi) ternati- 
vel pinnatisecta, segmentis lineari-oblongis vel lineari-oblanceolatis, 
integris, apice indurato-apiculatis, subcarnosis, margine plus minusve 
revolutis spinuloso-ciliatisque, basi angustatis subangustatisve et 
decurrentibus. Capitula longe ac tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 
5-21 cm. longis et nudis vel 1-3 foliolis foliolata, radiata, pansa ad 
anthesin 2.5-3 cm. lata et 9-11 mm. alta. Involucrum inferne his- 
pidum; bracteis exterioribus 7-9, brevibus, late spathulatis et supra 
saepe orbiculato-dilatatis, apice obtuso apiculatis, sparsim ciliatis, 
tan turn 2-3 mm. longis; interioribus oblongo-lanceolatis, 5-6 mm. 
longis. Flores ligulati circ. 8, aurei, ligula elliptico-oblanceolati, 
apice irregulariter dentati, 1-1.5 cm. longi. Achaenia (unum matu- 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXXI 




BIDENS GRANDIS Sherff 



Of 



ir 



THE GENUS BIDENS 565 

rum ac multa immatura vidi) linearia, obcompressa vel plana, 
exalata, nigra, faciebus 16-sulcata, supra ad margines atque angulos 
adrecte strigosa, corpora 7 mm. longa, biaristata; aristis tenuibus, 
retrorsum hamosis vel saepe sub medio 1-3 hamis suberectis abnor- 
maliter munitis, circ. 2.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Alexander Whyte, near Nairobi, 
British East Africa, received at Kew in August, 1903 (Kew). 

Distribution: Known only from the vicinity of Nairobi, British 
East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Whyte, near Nairobi (type, Kew). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXLVIII, FIGS. 0,-Q 

Bidens Whytei: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.61; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X3.66; c, interior involucral bract, X3.66; 
d, ray corolla, Xl.83; e, palea, X3.66;/, disc floret, X3.66; g, achene, 
X 3.66; all from type. 

178. Bidens gracilior (0. Hoffm.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 84. J923; 
ibid. 81: 29. 1926. PI. CXLIX, figs. i-p. 

Coreopsis exaristata var. gracilior O. Hoffm. in Engler, Pflanzenw. 
Ost-Afr. C: 414. 1895. 

Foliorum segmenta ultima linearia plerumque 1-1.5 mm. lata. 

var. j8. ukerewensis. 

Foliorum segmenta ultima ovato-lanceolata vel lanceolato-linearia. 

B. gracilior sensu stricto. 

Herba perennis, gracilis, erecta, 4-7 dm. alta, caule angulato, 
ramoso. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus 0.5-2 cm. longis, petiolo 
adjecto 3.5-8 cm. longa, circumambitu triangulato-ovata, 1-2- 
pinnatipartita; segmentis ovato-lanceolatis vel lanceolato-linearibus, 
membranaceis, atropunctulatis, dentibus acerrime indurato-apicu- 
latis. Capitula tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 4-16 cm. longa, 
radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2.5-4 cm. lata et 6-9 mm. alta. Involu- 
crum glabratum vel moderate pubescens; bracteis exterioribus 6-8, 
linearibus, acriter cartilagineo-apiculatis, 4.5-6.5 mm. longis, quam 
interioribus lanceolatis plerumque paulo brevioribus. Flores ligu- 
lati circ. 8, lutei, ligula elliptico-oblanceolati, apice obscure denti- 
culati, 1.2-1.8 cm. longi. Achaenia linearia, obcompressa, atra, 
supra erecto-setosa, exalata, 4.5-6 mm. longa et 0.6-1 mm. lata, 
apice calva vel breviter biaristata aristis nudis vel retrorsum 1- 
vel 2-hamosis et tantum circ. 0.2-0.3 mm. longis. 



566 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Type specimen: Collected by Franz Ludwig Stuhlmann, No. 6403, 
Maramo, Mkamba (Mgambo), District of Usaramo, German East 
Africa, January, 1894 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Near Indian Ocean Coast, easternmost German 
East Africa. 

Specimens examined: W. Holtz 406, sandy soil, light places, 
Sachsenwald, Dar-es-Salaam, December 6, 1901 (Berl.) ; Stuhlmann 
6403 (type, Berl.); idem 7584, Dar-es-Salaam, 1894 (Berl.); idem 
8470, Dar-es-Salaam, September, 1894 (Berl.). 

The two sheets of material (Stuhlmann 6403 and 7584) cited by 
Otto Hoffmann for his var. gracilior differ from his species proper 
(Coreopsis exaristata 0. Hoffm. = Bidens microcarpa Sherff) in having 
the leaves less glandular-pubescent or sometimes even glabrate, their 
divisions finer and much more acute or even acuminate, the involucre 
less pubescent and the achenes not only 3-4 mm. long with all 
except the innermost ones oblanceolate, but rather 4.5-6 mm. 
long and all linear. The important achenial differences seem to have 
been overlooked by Hoffmann. 1 A specimen collected later by 
Holtz (No. 406, Dar-es-Salaam, German East Africa, December 6, 
1901) in the immediate vicinity of the type locality, Usaramo, 2 
agrees fairly well with the type as to foliage and involucre, and has 
likewise longer achenes. These important characters of foliage and 
achenes appear to entitle Hoffmann's variety to separate specific rank. 

Bidens gracilior var. /3. ukerewensis Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 92: 203. 1931. 

Folia bi-tripinnatipartita, segmentis ultimis linearibus moderate 
adpresso-hispidis plerumque 1-1.5 mm. latis; achaeniis exterioribus 
corpore circ. 4.5-5 mm. longis interioribus 6-7 mm. longis, omnibus 
tenuiter biaristatis aristis 0.5-1 mm. longis apice retrorsum 1-4- 
hamosis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Carl Uhlig, No. 19, abundant along 
the shore line of Lake Victoria Nyanza (Lake Ukerewe), Ukerewe, 
German East Africa, April 20, 1904 (Berl.). 

1 Many mature achenes on the type, Stuhlmann 6403, have 1 or 2 minute 
aristae (0.2-0.3 mm. long) and several have these aristae retrorsely barbed with 
1 or 2 barbs. Had Hoffmann noticed this character he certainly would have 
remarked upon it, probably even referring his specimen not to Coreopsis but 
to Bidens, since with him the retrorse-barb character was considered diagnostic 
of the genus Bidens (cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 59: 305-308. 1915). 

2 Spelled also Uzaramo (Century Atlas, 1899). 



THE GENUS BIDENS 567 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in northwestern 
German East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Uhlig 19 (type, Berl.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXLIX, FIGS, i-p 

Bidens gracilior: i (upper), j (lower), portions of flowering and 
fruiting specimen, X0.6; k, exterior involucral bract, X3; I, interior 
involucral bract, X3; ra, ray corolla, X2.4; n, palea, X3; o (outer), 
p (inner), achenes, X3; all from type. 

179. Bidens microcarpa Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 84. 1923. 
PL CXLIX, figs. a-h. 

Coreopsis exaristata 0. Hoffm. in Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afr. C: 414. 

1895. 

Herba perennis, gracilis, dense glanduloso-pubescens, 4-15 dm. 
alta, caule angulato, ramoso. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus 0.6-3 
cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 2.5-5.5 (-15) cm. longa, circumambitu 
deltoidea vel triangulato-ovata, pinnatipartita ; segmentis 3-5, grosse 
serratis vel pinnatifidis, membranaceis, atro-punctulatis. Capitula 
tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis plerumque 3-5 cm. longis, pauca, 
radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2.5-4 cm. lata et 6-8 mm. alta. Involucri 
puberuli bracteae exteriores 6-8, lineares, obtuse indurato-apiculatae, 
in capitulis juvenilibus patenti-reflexae, 4-6 mm. longae, quam 
interiores lanceolatae fere vel circ. dimidio breviores. Flores ligulati 
circ. 8, lutei, ligula oblongo-elliptici vel oblanceolati, apice rotundati 
et obscure vel perspicue 3-dentati, 1.5-2 cm. longi. Achaenia 
minima, obcompressa vel subtetragona, oblanceolata vel intima 
linearia, atra, apice et sub apice erecto-setosa, saepe cupula minima 
coronata, exalata, 3-4 mm. longa et 0.6-1.2 mm. lata, exaristata 
vel rarius obsoletissime 1-2-aristata. 

Type specimen: Collected by C. Hoist, No. 102, mountain 
meadows, Usambara, German East Africa, October, 1891 (Berl.). 

Distribution: German East Africa and Belgian Congo. 

Specimens examined: Eick 265, Kwai, Usambara, 1900-1901 
(Berl.); A. Engler 872a, alt. 1,140 meters, in eagle-fern formation at 
Sangerawe above Monga, Belgian Congo, September 22, 1902 (Berl.) ; 
C. Hoist 102 (type, Berl.); idem 207, on borders of plantations 
("Pflanzungen"), Usambara, December, 1891 (Brit.); idem 5002, 
alt. 1,100 meters, Usambara (Berl.); Meinhof 40, among low bushes, 
Bumbuli, Usambara, December 16, 1902 (Berl.); Frau Hauptmann 
Prince, alt. 1,600 meters, Utschungwe Mountains, Uhehe Distr., 
1899 (Berl.). 



568 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

From most African species of Bidens this is easily distinguished 
by its minute achenes. The absence of wings as well as of any other 
distinctly Coreopsoid character made the transfer to Bidens seem 
advisable. 

The habitat is in the tropical forest up to 1,600 meters or more in 
the mountains, ploughed-up areas in the virgin forest, low bush, 
edges of plantings, etc. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXLIX, FIGS, d-k 

Bidens microcarpa: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.6; b, 
larger cauline leaf, X0.6; c, exterior involucral bract, X3; d, interior 
involucral bract, X3; e, ray corolla, X2.4; /, palea, X3; g (outer), 
h (inner), achenes, X3; a, c-h, from type; 6, from Hoist 207, in 
Jib. Brit. 

180. Bidens palustris Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 148. 1923. 
PI. CL, figs. a-g. 

Herba gracilis, erecta, verisimiliter perennis; caulibus plus 
minusve quadrangularibus, hinc illinc minute hispidis, circ. 5-6 dm. 
altis. Folia petiolata petiolis 5-12 mm. longis, petiolo adjecto 1.5-6 
cm. longa, 1-2 (raro -4)-pinnata, segmentis linearibus, faciebus 
glabris, margine sparsim ciliatis, apice acutis, 0.5-1.2 mm. latis et 
plerumque 1-2 cm. longis. Capitula tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 
5-10 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 2.5 cm. lata et 6-8 
mm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 6, lineares, ciliatae, non 
aliter nisi sparsim basi pubescentes, apicem versus non conspicue 
dilatatae, apice acutae, 3-4 mm. longae; interiores lanceolatae, circ. 
6-7 mm. longae. Flores ligulati circ. 6, lutei vel fusco-lutei, ligula 
anguste elliptici, apice acriter dentati, circ. 1-1.2 cm. longi. Achaenia 
immatura circumambitu triangulato-linearia, obcompressa, deorsum 
ex apice angustata, atra, glabra vel ad apicem sparsim erecto-hispida, 
corpore adhuc circ. 3 mm. longa et 0.8 mm. lata, biaristata aristis 
1.5-2 mm. longis et retrorsum hamosis. Planta Bidenti Kirkii habitu 
valde similis sed ligulis, involucri bracteis exterioribus, achaeniis, 
patria, etc., differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by T. Kassner, No. 2599, in swamps, 
Kundelungu, Belgian Congo, March 13, 1908 (Berl.). 

Distribution: From region of the Kundelungu Mountains, south- 
eastern Belgian Congo, northeastward to region of Mt. Kenia, 
British East Africa. 

Specimens examined : Karl Braun 1341, Orero-Knewa Kionidje, 
German East Africa, May, 1906 (Berl.); W. J. Dowson 630, alt. 



?ield Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI. Plate CLXXII 




B1DENS CORIACEA (O. Hoffm.) Sherff 



OF Tht 



THE GENUS BIDENS 569 

2,100 meters, stony ground at river's edge, Guaso Narok, Distr. 
Likipia (Leikipia), northeast slope of Mt. Aberdares, British East 
Africa (Kew); G. F. S. Elliot 6484, alt. 1,800 meters, Ukamba, British 
East Africa (Brit.); Rudolph Endlich 142, alt. 1,600 meters, bush 
steppe, Kilimanjaro, German East Africa (Berl.); J. W. Gregory, 
Guaso Nairotia, Distr. Likipia, British East Africa, 1893 (Brit.); 
idem, Guaso Larok, Likipia, 1893 (Brit.); idem, Guaso Laschau, 
Likipia, 1893 (Brit.); R. L. Harger', alt. 2,400 meters, Elgeyo Escarp- 
ment, Eldoret Distr., British East Africa, communic. 1926 (Brit.; 
forma foliis 3-4-pinnatis) ; Kassner 2599 (type, Berl.). 

In 1908, T. Kassner spent at least several weeks among and 
around the Kundelungu Mountains, southwest of Lake Moero, in 
southeastern Belgian Congo. Among his plants received at the 
Botanical Garden of Berlin were no fewer than four new species of 
Bidens and Coreopsis. 1 Besides these he collected (Kassner 2710) 
the violet-rayed Bidens urceolata DeWild., described previously 
(Ann. Mus. Congo, Bot. IV. 1: 167. 1903) from a specimen (No. 464) 
obtained in 1900 by Verdick at Lukafu, a locality in this same 
region; also (Kassner 2859a) the red-rayed Bidens rubra DeWild., 
described more recently (Repert. Sp. Nov. 13: 203. 1914) from 
specimens (J. Bequaert 389, Homble 563) obtained at Welgelegen. 

DeWildeman (Ann. Mus. Congo IV. 2: 169. 1913) has referred this 
plant to Bidens Kirkii (Oliv. & Hiern) Sherff (Coreopsis Kirkii 
Oliv. & Hiern). A study of various specimens of Bidens Kirkii in 
European herbaria, however, shows several pronounced distinctions. 
Bidens Kirkii's rays are light yellow, not dark or brownish orange- 
yellow; its exterior involucral bracts are mostly obtuse at the apex 
and below the apex noticeably dilated ; its immature achenes are not 
widest at the apex as in S. palustris, nor are they practically glabrous, 
and their aristae are upwardly hispid, with numerous weak hairs, 
not downwardly barbed with a few spinulose hooks; finally, B. 
Kirkii does not appear from collectors' data to be a swamp-inhabiting 
species as B. palustris was observed to be. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CL, FIGS. 0,-Q 

Bidens palustris: a, flowering specimen, X0.64; b, exterior invo- 
lucral bract, Xo.15; c, interior involucral bract, X5.15; d, ray corolla, 
X2.57; e, palea, X5.15; /, disc floret, X5.15; g, submature achene, 
X5.15; all from type. 

1 Bidens palustris, B. leptolepis, Coreopsis scabrifolia, and C. leptoglossa. 



570 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

181. Bidens Schlechteri Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 146. 1923. 

PL CLI, figs. a-4. 

Coreopsis Schlechteri (Sherff) Burtt Davy, Kew Bull. 1935: 568. 1935. 

Herba glabra, gracilis, 5-9 dm. alta; caule parce ramoso, subte- 
tragono, perspicue sulcato. Folia petiolata petiolis 0.7-1.5 cm. longis, 
petiolo adjecto 5-10 cm. longa, parce membranacea, pinnata vel 
bipinnata; segmentis linearibus 1.5-4 mm. latis (terminal! usque ad 
5 cm. longo), margine glabris vel breviter et inconspicue ciliatis, 
saepe revolutis, apice acuto induratis. Capitula pauca, tenuiter 
pedunculata pedunculis usque ad 16 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad 
anthesin 3-4.5 cm. lata et 7-9 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteri- 
ores 5-8, lineares, basi hispidae, apice indurato obtusae vel acutae, 
4-7 mm. longae; interiores lanceolatae, paulo longiores. Flores 
ligulati 6-8, flavi, ligula elliptico-ovati, 13-20-striati, apice integri 
vel obscure denticulati, 1.5-2 cm. longi. Achaenia nigro-brunnea, 
valde obcompressa, late oblongo-linearia, utrinque angustata vel 
moderatim linearia, faciebus leviter sed marginibus apiceque dense 
erecto-hispida, non vere alata, corpore 5-7 mm. longa et 1.4-2 mm. 
lata, biaristata; aristis circ. 1.5 mm. longis, plerumque nudis rariter 
ad apicem una spinula vel erecta vel retrorsa munitis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Rudolph Schlechter, No. 4745, at 
altitude of 1,500 meters, on mountain slope, Houtboschberg, Pieters- 
burg District, Transvaal, March 30, 1894 (Berl., 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Transvaal and northward into German East Africa. 

Specimens examined: (Distrib.) H. G. Breyer (Transvaal Mus. 
Herb. No.} 19567 (leg. Louis Trichardt?), Zoulpansberg, Transvaal, 
February, 1919 (Kew) ; C. Hoist 2146, Gombelo-Schamben, February, 
1893 (Kew; forma capitulis minoribus); Moss & Rogers 283, The 
Downs, Pietersburg, Transvaal, November 17 (Brit.); F. A. Rogers 
20104, Pietersburg Distr., Transvaal (Kew); Schlechter 4745 (type 
and cotype, Berl.); George Thorncroft (herb. No.) 11275, alt. 840 
meters, on veldt, Elands Valley, Barberton Distr., Transvaal, 
April, 1915 (Kew). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLI, FIGS, a-4 

Bidens Schlechteri: a, flowering branch, X0.6; b, lower cauline leaf, 
X0.6; c, exterior involucral bract, X2.4; d, interior involucral bract, 
X2.4; e, ray corolla, Xl.8;/, palea, X2.4; g, disc floret, X2.4; h, i, 
achenes, X3.6; all from 2 type sheets. 

182. Bidens kivuensis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 96: 145. 1934. 
Bidens Steppia var. Humbertii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 96: 146. 1934. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 571 

Achaenia exaristata vel minutissime aristata 

B. kivuensis sensu stricto. 

Achaenia perspicue biaristata var. /3. armata. 

Herba nunc basi suffruticosa forsan perennis, nunc manifeste 
herbacea atque annua, usque ad 2 m. alta, erecte ramosa, caule ramis- 
que subtetragonis sparsissime hispidis setis articulatis. Folia 
petiolata petiolis tenuibus 1.5 cm. longis hispidis setis patentibus 
pluriloculatis, petiolo adjecto 6-9 cm. longa, 2-3-pinnatisecta, seg- 
mentis ultimis lineari- vel lanceolato-oblongis membranaceis supra 
adpresse infra saepius patente hispidis acriter dentatis dentibus 
mucronatis sed non in setas productis. Capitula corymbose ad 
ramorum fines 3-5-adgregata pedicellis tenuibus pilosis setis patenti- 
bus subalbis pluriloculatis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 4.5 cm. lata 
et 8 mm. alta. Involucri albido-hispidi bracteae exteriores circ. 8, 
oblongo-lineares, mediane 1-nervatae nervo atro, apice acutae, circ. 
4-7.5 mm. longae, quam interiores oblongo-ovatae moderate longi- 
ores. Flores ligulati plerumque 8, flavi, ligula oblanceolate lineari- 
oblongi, apice integri, 2.2 cm. longi. Paleae lineari-oblongae, circ. 
5-6 mm. longae. Flores tubulosi tubo (ac corollae lobis aurantiacis) 
sparsim patenti-pilosi. Achaenia submatura plana, lineari-oblonga, 
anguste marginata, faciebus marginibusque inferne glabrata superne 
erecto-setosa, 5.5 mm. longa et circ. 1.5 mm. lata, paleas superantia, 
apice erecte setosa et exaristata vel minutissime biaristata aristis 
glabris. 

Type specimen : Collected by Jean Lebrun, No. 5467, a somewhat 
suffrutescent herb about 2 meters high, on savanna at 1,720 meters 
altitude, Mulungu, Belgian Congo, May, 1932 (first and second sheets, 
Terv.; third sheet, Field). 

Distribution: Northeastern Belgian Congo. 

Specimens examined : Boutakoff 6, alt. 1,700-1,900 meters, basin 
of Nyagezi and neighboring mountains, September-October, 1929 
(Bruss.); idem 14, eodem loco et tempore (Bruss.); idem 39, eodem 
loco et tempore (Bruss.); idem 88, alt. 1,800-2,000 meters, Mt. 
Nyidunga, west of Nyagezi, between Ngezi and Ngweso, September, 
1929 (Bruss.); H. Humbert 7593, alt. 2,400-2,790 meters, Biega Mts., 
west of Lake Kivu, eastern Belgian Congo, March, 1929 (Bruss., 
type of B. Steppia var. Humbertii Sherff) ; Lebrun 5467 (first and 
second type sheets, Terv.; third type sheet, Field); Walter Robyns 
2280, alt. 1,800 meters, grassy savanna, between Gsare and Mur- 
annya, May 22, 1926 (Bruss., 2 sheets). 



572 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bidens kivuensis var. 0. armata Sherff, Bull. Jard. 
Bot. Brux. 13: 287. 1935. 

A specie achaeniis biaristatis aristis tenuibus antrorsum hispi- 
dulis circ. 2 mm. longis differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by Boutakoff, No. 57, at altitude of 
1,700-1,900 meters, basin of Nyagezi and neighboring mountains, 
Belgian Congo, middle of September to beginning of October, 1929 
(Bruss.). 

Distribution: District of Great Lakes, northeastern Belgian 
Congo. 

Specimens examined : Boutakoff 57 (type, Bruss.). 

183. Bidens Mildbraedii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 91: 308. 
1931. PI. CLII. 

Herba perennis e radice lignescenti, erecta, probabiliter 7-12 
dm. alta, ramis fastigiato-erectis; caule ramisque atropurpureis, 
glabris, angulato-teretibus vel subtetragonis. Folia petiolo adjecto 
0.7-1.7 dm. longa, nunc indivisa, linearia, 2-7 mm. lata, superne ad 
apicem acerrimum sensim elongato-attenuata inferne in petiolum 
marginatum 2-3.5 cm. longum angustata; nunc supra petiolum 
utrinque anguste 1-lobata lobo tenuiter lineari 1-3 cm. longo et 
0.5-2 mm. lato; nunc pinnatim 3- vel 5-partita, foliolis linearibus 1^4 
mm. latis, inferioribus interne saepe rursus 1-lobatis, petiolo tenui 
2-4 cm. longo; laminis segmentisve membranaceis, supra glabris 
infra glabris vel debiliter adpresso-hispidis, marginaliter parce sub- 
revolutis sed hispido-ciliatis. Capitula corymbosa, tenuiter pedun- 
culata pedunculis superne dense pilosis pilis patentibus, radiata, 
pansa ad anthesin circ. 2.8-3.4 cm. lata et 8-12 mm. alta. Involucri 
bracteae inferne valde superne debiliter hispidae; exteriores 8-10, 
lineari-oblongae, apice indurato-nitidae et saepius obtusae, 6-16 mm. 
longae; interiores ovatae, 6-9 mm. longae. Flores ligulati circ. 8, 
sicci atroflavi, lineari-oblongi, circ. 1-1.3 cm. longi et circ. 2-3.5 mm. 
lati, apice profunde acriterque lobulati lobulis 1-3 mm. longis. Paleae 
lineari-oblongae, subtiles, apice obtusae, demum 7-9 mm. longae et 
circ. 1 mm. latae. Achaenia lineari-oblonga, plana, brunneo-atra, 
utraque facie circ. 8-sulcata, faciebus marginibusque erecto-hispida, 
nunc parva, corpore 4.5-6 mm. longa et circ. 0.6-0.8 mm. lata, apice 
valde erecto-setosa et biaristata aristis erectis vel suberectis basaliter 
antrorsum hispidis aliter nudis 0.8-1.3 mm. longis; nunc majora, 
corpore 7-9 mm. longa et 1-1.6 mm. lata, apice subsetosa et biaris- 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXXIII 




BIDENS CRATAEGIFOLIA (O. Hoffm.) Sherfl 



ftf 



THE GENUS BIDENS 573 

tata aristis patentibus inaequaliter 0.5-1 mm. longis, nudis vel 
basaliter rarius erecto-setosis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Johannes Mildbraed, No. 9777, at 

altitude of about 1,000 meters, Buar, Kamerun, July, 1914 (Kew). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in the Kamerun. 

Specimens examined: Mildbraed 9386, alt. about 1,000 meters, 
Buar, May, 1914 (Kew); idem 9777 (type, Kew). 

The two sheets examined are of material collected two months 
apart. The first sheet has two plants, collected in May. One has a 
sterile, leafy stem about 2.7 dm. tall; the other has a sterile stem 
about 2.4 dm. tall and a fertile stem about 6.2 dm. tall, bearing three 
fruiting heads. The leaves are of the more compound type and offer 
a strong superficial resemblance to those of the North American 
Coreopsis Delphinifolia Lam. The exterior involucral bracts are 
equal to or a fourth or third shorter than the interior ones. The 
achenes are the larger ones of the Latin description. 

The second or type sheet bears material of a much better devel- 
oped plant (or plants), collected in July. About two dozen heads 
are present. The leaves are simple or laterally 2-lobed. The exterior 
involucral bracts tend to greatly exceed the interior ones. The 
achenes are the smaller ones of the Latin description. 

As these differences appear to be of a seasonal nature, it seems 
inadvisable to attempt any varietal distinction of one form from 
the other. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLII 

Bidens Mildbraedii: a, b, c, portions of sterile and fruiting speci- 
mens, X0.63; d, exterior involucral bract, X4.41; e, interior involucral 
bract, X4.41; /, ray corolla, X3.15; g, palea, X4.41; h, disc floret, 
X6.3; i, j, achenes, X4.41; all from Mildbraed 9386, in Hb. Kew. 

184. Bidens Bequaertii DeWild. Repert. Sp. Nov. 
13: 204. 1914. PL CLIII. 

Herba glabra, e radice lignea et verisimiliter perennis, gracilis, 
ramosa ramis suberectis plus minusve tetragonis, usque ad 6.5 dm. 
alta. Folia petiolata petiolis alatis 0.5-3 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
4-6 (rarius -9.5) cm. longa, inferiora 2- vel 3-pinnatisecta, superiora 
pinnatisecta vel tripartita, lobis linearibus usque ad 2.5 mm. latis, 
margine recurvatis, apice acriter mucronatis. Capitula solitaria 
ramos terminantia, pedunculata pedunculis tenuibus usque ad 13.5 
cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 3-4.5 cm. lata et 9-12 mm. 



574 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores 5-7, interdum breves, elliptico- 
subobtusae, glabrae vel sparsim pilosae, 3-5 (demum etiam -8) mm. 
longae, interferes oblongo-oblanceolatae 5-7 (demum etiam -9) mm. 
longae. Flores ligulati 5-7, lutei, ligula anguste elliptic! vel lineares, 
circ. 2-3 mm. lati, apice 2-3-dentati, usque ad 2.2 cm. longi. Achae- 
nia subrobusta, obcompressa, crasso-linearia, glabra, atra, utraque 
facie circ. 8-striata, corpore 9-13 mm. longa et 1-1.5 mm. lata, 
paleas maturas aequantia vel superantia, apice truncate 2- vel 3- 
aristata aristis suberectis retrorsum hamosis 3-4.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Joseph Bequaert, No. 270, at Elisa- 
bethville, Katanga, Belgian Congo, March, 1912 (Bruss., 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from Katanga, Belgian Congo. 

Specimens examined: Bequaert 270 (type, Bruss., 2 sheets); 
Corbisier (Homble) 605, Welgelegen, Katanga, 1912 (Bruss.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLIII 

Bidens Bequaertii: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.63; 
6, exterior involucral bract, X2.5; c, interior involucral bract, X2.5; 
d, ray corolla, X2.5; e, palea, X2.5; /, disc floret, X2.5; g, achene, 
X 2. 5; all from 2 type sheets. 

185. Bidens Hildebrandtii 0. Hoffm. Bot. Jahrb. 
20: 234. 1894. PI. CLIV. 

Suffruticosa, glaberrima, sparsim ramosa ramis teretibus, circ. 2 
m. alta. Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis 1.5 cm. longis, petiolo 
adjecto 8 cm. longa, circumambitu ovata, bipinnatisecta segmentis 
ultimis oblongis, acutissimis, membranaceis, nigro-punctatis. Capi- 
tula in panicula laxa corymbosa oligocephala bracteata disposita, 
pedunculata pedunculis gracilibus 3-10 cm. longis, radiata, pansa 
ad anthesin 4-5 cm. lata et 1-1.3 cm. alta. Involucri glabri bracteae 
exteriores circ. 5, reflexae, lineares, moderate acutae, 4-7 mm. longae; 
interiores late lanceolatae, multo majores. Flores ligulati 6-8, lutei, 
ligula oblongo-oblanceolati, apice denticulati, 2-2.5 cm. longi. 
Achaenia lineari-oblonga, obcompressa, faciebus glabrata et 6-8- 
sulcata sed non costa mediana instructa, marginibus antrorsum 
spinuloso-ciliata, atra, corpore circ. 1.5 cm. longa et 1 mm. lata, 
biaristata; aristis late patentibus, gracilibus, primum plerumque 
retrorsum hamosis, demum fere omnibus antrorsum hamosis, 
longissimis (5-6.5 mm.). 

Type specimen: Collected by J. M. Hildebrandt, No. 2432, at 
altitude of 600-900 meters, Taita (Teita) Mountains, British East 
Africa, February, 1877 (Berl.). 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXXIV 




BIDENS KILIMANDSCHARICA (O. Hoffm.) Sherff 



Of Tft 



THE GENUS BIDENS 575 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Taita Mountains, 
British East Africa. 

Specimens examined: A. P. Grenfell, alt. 600 meters, Taita Hills 
(Kew); Hildebrandt 2432 (type, Berl.: cotypes, Brit.; Kew; Mus. 

V.;U.V.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLIV 

Bidens Hildebrandtii: a, flowering branch, X0.69; b, exterior 
involucral bract, X3.47; c, interior involucral bract, X3.47; d, ray 
corolla, X2.08; e, palea, X3.47; /, disc floret, X4.16; all from type. 

186. Bidens magnifolia Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 90: 390, 
pi. 4- 1930. PI. CLV. 

Coreopsis frondosa 0. Hoffm. in Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afr. C. 414. 
1899. 

Herba perennis elata 1-3 m. alta caule ramisque glabris vel etiam 
hispidis valde striatis saepius atro-subpurpurascentibus. Folia 
tenuiter petiolata petiolis 1-4 (-7) cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
6-15 (-26) cm. longa, circumambitu ovata, pinnatipartita ; seg- 
mentis ovatis vel saepius late lanceolatis, grosse serratis vel infimis 
pinnatifidis, numerosissime glanduloso-punctatis, nunc tantum infra 
secundum nervos pilosis nunc utrinque molliter hispidis, plerumque 
1-4 cm. latis. Capitula laxe disposita, tenuiter pedunculata pedun- 
culis glabratis usque ad 2 dm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 
4-5.5 cm. lata et 1-1.2 cm. alta. Involucri bracteae aequilon- 
gae; exteriores circ. 8-12, lineari-lanceolatae vel late lineari- 
oblongae, herbaceae, dorso marginibusque saepe hispidae, saepe 
refiexae, 8-12 mm. longae et 1.5-3.5 mm. latae; interiores ovato- 
oblongae, apicaliter pubescentes. Flores ligulati 8, flavi, ligula 
oblongi vel obovati apice saepe acriter 2-3-dentati, 2-2.6 cm. longi 
et 0.6-1.4 cm. lati. Achaenia lineari-oblonga, obcompressa, dorso 
saepe subcarinata ventre circ. 8-sulcato plana sed nervo mediano 
tenui percursa, duabus faciebus praecipue supra erecto-setosa, exa- 
lata vel subalata, marginibus stramineis brunneisve erecto-setosa, 
corpore 4.5-7 mm. longa et circ. 1.1 mm. lata, apice setoso biaristata; 
aristis divergentibus, tenuibus, apicem versus 1-6 hamis retrorsum 
vel saepe (interdum etiam in eodem capitulo) antrorsum hamosis, 
1-3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by C. Hoist, No. 2252, distributed 
everywhere in clearings and growing 2-3 meters high, at Kwa Kiniarri, 
Nderema, German East Africa, February 23, 1893 (Berl.). 

Distribution: German East Africa. 



576 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Specimens examined: Albers 204, growing 2-3 meters high at 
1,600 meters alt., forest margins and burned-over areas, Kwai, 
October 22, 1899 (Berl.) ; Anon. [cf. Eick] 56, growing up to 2 meters 
high, in bush- and grassland, Kwai, September, 1899 (Berl.); Braun 
671, Amani, May 12, 1905 (Berl., 2 sheets) ; idem 2682, Lutindi, eastern 
Usambara, August 15, 1909 (Berl.); J. Buchwald 263, growing 2.5 
meters high at margin of litoral forest, Moop, Usambara, December 
20, 1895 (Berl.); Eick 56, alt. 1,750 meters, "even now growing on 
the steppes," bush- and grassland, September 6, 1899 (Berl.; vix 
typica); A. Haarer 1471, alt. about 1,650 meters, Suji, Pari District, 
August, 1928 (Kew); Hoist 2252 (type, Berl.: cotype, Hamb.); 
idem 9149a, in high forest clearings, Kwa Mstuza, Usambara, 
August 17, 1893 (Berl.; Hamb.; Kew); Houy 57 (Exped. Hans Meyer 
No. 1190), growing 1-2 meters high, Nsogiro Mts., Ussagara, Distr. 
Kilossa, Morogoro, November-December, 1911 (Berl.); Munzner 
(Exped. Captain Fromm) 35, growing 2 meters high along streams, 
Langenburg, July 30, 1908 (Berl.); H. J. Schlieben 74, north of the 
upper Ruhudje, Prov. Lupembe, January, 1931 (Bruss. 2 sheets); 
Stuhlmann 8912, alt. 1,400 meters, Kibungo, Uluguru, October 20, 
1894 (Berl.); idem 9265, Uluguru, November 20, 1894 (Berl.); 
Warnecke 63, growing 1.5 meters high on prairie-like mountain 
slopes and in all forest clearings, alt. 700-900 meters, Amani (Berl. ; 
Kew) ; Albrecht Zimmermann 63, alt. 900 meters, Amani, December, 
1902 (Berl., 2 sheets). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLV 

Bidens magnifolia: a, flowering branch, X0.53; b, exterior in- 
volucral bract, X3.15; c, interior involucral bract, X3.15; d, ray 
corolla, X2.63; e, palea, X3.15; /, disc floret, X3.15; g (outer), 
h (inner), achenes, X4.2; a-/, from type; g, h, from Albers 204, in 
Hb. Berl. 

187. Bidens Taylori (S. L. Moore) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 

59: 309. 1915. PI. CL, figs. h-o. 
Coreopsis Taylori S. L. Moore, Journ. Bot. 44: 22. 1906. 

Verisimiliter perennis, erecta, 1 m. alta; caulibus solitariis vel 
pluribus, subvalidis, demum denudatis; ramulis gracillimis et saepe 
irregulariter arcuatis, elongatis ac distanter foliosis, glaberrimis. 
Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis 0.4-3 cm. (vel ultra) longis, petiolo 
adjecto 3-7 cm. longa, ab inflorescentia plus minusve remota, mem- 
branacea, alte bipinnatifida; segmentis ultimis late linearibus, apice 
acutis, glaberrimis sed glandulis nigris copiose instructis, non ciliatis, 



THE GENUS BIDENS 577 

0.5-2.5 mm. latis. Capitula in cymis elongatis oligocephalisque 
digesta (pedunculis propriis 4-10 cm. vel ultra longis, gracilibus 
glabrisque), radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 2-2.5 cm. lata et 6-8 
mm. alta. Involucrum basi parce hispidulum; bracteis exterioribus 
circ. 8, linearibus, glabris vel basi ciliatis, acutis, 3-5 mm. longis; 
interioribus oblongo-lanceolatis, circ. 7 mm. longis. Flores ligulati 
circ. 8, exsiccati lutei, viventes dicti aurantiaci (a Gossweilero), 
ligula late oblongi, apice plerumque 3-denticulati, circ. 1.3 cm. longi. 
Achaenia lineari-oblonga vel lineari-clavata, obcompressa, utraque 
facie circ. 8-sulcata, nigrescentia, dimidio superiore vel etiam fere 
usque ad basim setis adscendentibus eximie tuberculato-scabrida, 
corpore 5-7.5 mm. longa et 0.8-1.2 mm. lata, apice calva vel setuloso- 
ciliata et saepe aristulis 1 vel 2 brevibus instructa; aristulis erecto- 
vel patenti- vel etiam recurvo-uncinulatis, vel saepe vero nudis, usque 
ad 1 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by W. E. Taylor, in the bed of a tor- 
rent in a ravine at Rabai, Seyidie Province, British East Africa, Janu- 
ary 5, 1886 (Brit.). 

Distribution: Equatorial Africa from east to west coasts. 

Specimens examined: John Gossweiler 3165, Cutchi River near 
the fort, Cutchi, Angola, May 4, 1901 (Brit.); Taylor, in torrent bed 
in a ravine, Rabai, etc. (type, Brit.). 

Moore describes this species as "verisimiliter perennis." Goss- 
weiler's label says "like perennial." While perhaps having a peren- 
nial root, the plant has somewhat the aspect of an annual. Its tall 
habit and smooth, very delicate, elongate, wiry branches, characters 
especially well marked in Gossweiler's plant, are distinctive. The 
heads look much like those of Bidens Kirkii (0. & H.) Sherff . 

The remarkably discontinuous distribution displayed by B. 
Taylori in its occurrence, so far as at present known, only at or near 
the opposite coasts of Africa, led at first to my suspecting that the 
species might prove to be only a form of some older and better known 
species. It has been impossible, however, to find justification for 
reducing B. Taylori to synonymy with any other species. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CL, FIGS, h-0 

Bidens Taylori: h, leaf, X0.64; i, portion of leaf, enlarged to show 
glands, X3.2;j, exterior involucral bract, X5.15; k, interior involucral 
bract, X5.15; I, ray corolla, X2.56; ra, palea, X5.15; n, disc floret, 
X 5.15 ; o, achene, X 5.15 ; all from type. 



578 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

188. Bidens Elliotii (S. L. Moore) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
59: 309. 1915. PI. CLVI, figs. i-p. 

Coreopsis Elliotii S. L. Moore, Journ. Linn. Soc. 35: 346. 1902; cf. 
Muschler, Wiss. Ergebn. Deutsch. Zentr. Afr. Exped. 1907- 
1908,2:381. 1911. 

Bidens amoena Sherff, op. cit. 76: 144. 1923. 

Frutex perennis, adscendens vel erectus, nunc 4-10 dm. nunc 
etiam usque ad 2 m. altus; caule glabro, obtuse tetgragono, demum 
fistuloso ac plus minusve stramineo-colorato, creberrime folioso, 
supra ramoso. Folia sessilia vel subtenuiter petiolata petiolis 1-4.5 
cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 3-10 (vel etiam -17) cm. longa, bi- vel 
tripinnatisecta ; segmentis vel lobulis anguste linearibus, apicem 
versus primum sensim demum saepe subabrupte angustatis, acutis- 
sime indurato-apiculatis vel rarissime dente in setam subtransfor- 
mato munitis, parce hispidulis ac hispidulo-ciliatis, glandulis minutis 
numerosis conspersis, supra satis viridibus infra pallidioribus, 0.5-3 
mm. latis. Capitula mediocria laxe corymboua, pedunculata pedun- 
culis mox puberulis 1-7 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 3-5.5 
cm. longa et 7-11 mm. alta. Involucrum glabrum vel basi hispidum; 
bracteis exterioribus 8-12, comparate elongatis, superne angustatis, 
saepe acutis, squarroso-reflexis, 5.5-11 mm. longis, quam interi- 
oribus oblongo-lanceolatis lutescenti-marginatis paulo brevioribus 
vel saepe paulp longioribus. Flores ligulati 8-14, flavi, ligula obo- 
vato-oblongi vel lineari-oblanceolati, 10-13 striis percursi, styliferi, 
apice integri 1.2-3 cm. longi; ovario anguste recteque oblongo, 
corpore 3-4 mm. longo, bi- vel tri- (forsan interdum quadri-) aris- 
tato aristis sursum setulosis et 0.3-0.6 mm. longis. Achaenia lineari- 
oblonga, obcompresso-tetragona vel subplana, subpallide grisea vel 
griseo-nigrescentia, debiliter striata omnino 16 striis, faciebus summis 
et marginibus adrecte tuberculato-setosa, corpore 5-8 mm. longa et 
0.9-1.3 mm. lata, apice setosa et biaristata; aristis tenuibus, antror- 
sum setulosis, 1-2.6 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by G. F. Scott Elliot, No. 7724, in open 
places at altitude of about 2,880 meters, Kivata, vicinity of Mt. 
Ruwenzori, eastern equatorial Africa, May, 1893-1894 (Brit.). 

Distribution: Vicinity of Mt. Ruwenzori southward to Lake 
Kivu region, east equatorial Africa. 

Specimens examined: Joseph Bequaert 3685, alt. about 2,300 
meters, Butagu, Mt. Ruwenzori, April 15, 1914 (Bruss.); idem 4461, 
alt. about 2,500 meters, Lanuri, Mt. Ruwenzori, May 24, 1914 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXXV 




b a f 

BIDENS VOLKENSII O. Hoffm. 



OF Tlk 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 579 

(Bruss., 2 sheets); J. Claessens, between Shangugu and Usambara, 
1925 (Bruss., 2 sheets) ; idem, sine loco, 1929 (Bruss., 2 sheets) ; M. T. 
Dawe 582, alt. 2,100 meters, Distr. Ruwenzori, Uganda, British 
East Africa, 1905 (Kew) ; DeWitte 1895, Tropical East Africa, Sep- 
tember 5, 1934 (Bruss.); W. G. Doggett, alt. 2,400 meters, Mt. Ru- 
wenzori, communic. 1901 (Kew; type of Bidens amoena Sherff); 
Elliot 7724 (type, Brit.: cotype, Kew); idem 8018, among heather, 
alt. about 2,700 meters, Butagu, Mt. Ruwenzori, July, 1893-1894 
(Kew); H. Humbert 7843, alt. 1,460-2,000 meters, between lakes 
Kivu and Edouard, Belgian Congo, April-May, 1929 (Mus. Cong., 
2 sheets); idem 8479, alt. 2,200-2,700 meters, mountains, Ruanda, 
northwestern German East Africa, May, 1929 (Bruss.); Johannes 
Mildbraed 1386, alt. 3,000 meters, Ninagongo, Kissenye, Lake Kivu 
region, May 20, 1907 (Berl., 2 sheets); idem 1676, alt. 2,600 meters, 
among bamboos in mountain meadows, abundant in the heath 
formation, Sabyino (Sabinjo, Sabinio)-Kahinga Ridge, northeast of 
Lake Kivu, end of November, 1907 (Berl., 3 sheets); idem 1834, alt. 
2,200 meters (fide Muschleri loc. cit.), Mt. Muhavura, northeast of 
Lake Kivu, December, 1907 (Berl., 2 sheets); H. Scaetta 197, alt. 
3,000 meters, Mt. Muhavura (Bruss.); A. F. R. Wollaston, alt. 2,100 
meters, Mt. Ruwenzori, January 29, 1906 (Brit.). 

B. Elliotii was described originally from very mature, fruiting 
material, B. amoena from flowering specimens with scarcely mature 
achenes. The description of B. Elliotii has here been amended some- 
what to include B. amoena. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLVI, FIGS, i-p 

Bidens Elliotii: i, terminal portion of cauline leaf, X0.61; j, 
lateral leaflet of cauline leaf, X0.61; k, exterior involucral bract, 
Xl.83; I, interior involucral bract, Xl.83; m, ray floret, Xl.83; n, 
palea, Xl.83; o, disc floret, X2.44; p, submature achene, X3.66; all 
from W.G. Doggett, alt. 2,400 meters, Mt. Ruwenzori (type of Bidens 
amoena Sherff), in Hb. Kew. 

189. Bidens Phalangiphylla Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
76: 152. 1923. PL CLVI, figs. a-h. 

Herba gracilis, forsan perennis, parce erecta, glabra, usque ad 
1 m. alta, caule tetragono, ramoso. Folia longe tenuiterque petiolata 
petiolis 1.5-4.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 9-15 cm. longa, bipinnati- 
secta; segmentis primariis paucis remotisque, lateralibus tenuiter 
petiolulatis, omnibus 3-7-partitis lobis submembranaceis, crebro 
punctatis, linearibus, acriter apiculatis, non ciliatis, 0.6-3 mm. latis, 



580 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

terminalibus elongatis usque ad 5 cm. longis. Capitula pauca, 
ramos terminantia, pedunculata pedunculis tenuibus circ. 8-10 cm. 
longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 3 cm. lata et 7-8 mm. alta. 
Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 8, lineares, acute calloso-apicu- 
latae, basi subhispidae, 5-7 mm. longae, patentes; interiores lanceo- 
latae, 6-8 mm. longae. Flores ligulati circ. 8, lutei, ligula anguste 
elliptici, apice parce vel raro profunde dentati, 1-1.3 cm. longi. 
Achaenia nigra, linearia, non elongata, plano-convexa, utraque facie 
glabra ac circ. 8-sulcata, marginibus superne erecto-ciliata, apice 
erecto-setosa, corpore 5.5-7 mm. longa et 1.1-1.3 mm. lata, biaristata 
aristis retrorsum hamosis fere 2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by C. Hoist, No. 2967, at altitude of 30 
meters, Doda, District of Usambara, German East Africa, June 28, 
1893 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in District of 
Usambara, northeastern German East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Hoist 2967 (type, Berl.). 

A species close to Bidens Elliotii, but having only about 8 ray 
florets, the about 8 exterior involucral bracts only 5-7 mm. long and 
scarcely equalling the interior, and the achenial aristae downwardly 
barbed. In B. Elliotii the ray florets number mostly 10-14, the 
usually 9-12 exterior bracts are more often 8-11 mm. long, and the 
achenial aristae are erectly hispid. B. Phalangiphylla is close also to 
B. Bequaertii DeWild., but has the much larger and more openly 
dissected leaves, 1 narrower exterior involucral bracts, and much 
smaller fruiting heads with smaller achenes. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLVI, FIGS, d-h 

Bidens Phalangiphylla: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.61; 
6, cauline leaf, X0.61; c, exterior involucral bract, Xl.83; d, interior 
involucral bract, Xl.83; e, ray floret, Xl.83;/, palea, Xl.83; g, disc 
floret, X2.44; h, achene, X3.66; all from type. 

190. Bidens insecta (S. L. Moore) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
59: 309. 1915. PI. CLVII. 

Coreopsis insecta S. L. Moore, Journ. Bot. 46: 42. 1908. 

Herba erecta, glabra, forsan usque ad 1 m. alta; caulibus 1 vel 
pluribus e radice lignea, quadrangularibus, longitrorsum sulcatis, 
ramosis. Folia sessilia, inferiora 6-9 cm. longa, summa gradatim 

1 The spreading segments offer a fanciful resemblance to the legs of Phalan- 
gium, whence the trivial name. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXXVI 




BIDENS L1NEATA Sherff 



OF TKt 

OF iLLIHQIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 581 

imminuta, bipinnatifida ; segmentis primi ordinis circumambitu 
lanceolatis acutisque 2-4 cm. longis, secundi lineari-oblongis 3-16 
mm. longis, omnibus subcoriaceis glandulis immersis crebro indutis 
apice pungentibus margine revolutis eciliatisque, rhachi inferne 
circ. 1.5 mm. superne alata ac circ. 4-5 mm. lata. Capitula radiata, 
pansa ad anthesin circ. 4.6-5.2 cm. lata et 1 cm. alta, pauca (saepis- 
sime 3 ex apice ramulorum singulorum ramorum orientia). Invo- 
lucri ad basim parce hispidi bracteae exteriores circ. 8, anguste 
lineari-oblongae, acutae, crassiusculae, circ. 1-1.2 cm. longae et 
1.5-2 mm. latae, interiores anguste ovato-oblongas obtusas char- 
taceas margine decoloratas aequantes vel leviter excedentes. Flores 
ligulati circ. 8, flavi (sed infra atriores), ligula oblongi vel late ellip- 
tico-oblanceolati, apice bidentati vel subintegri, plurinerves, circ. 
1.8-2.3 cm. longi. Receptaculi paleae oblongae, obtusae, circ. 6 mm. 
longae. Achaenia vix matura, plana, griseo-fusca vel basi apiceque 
straminea, exalata, oblonga, faciebus marginibusque breviter adpres- 
seque ad apicem dense setulosa, utraque facie circ. 8-sulcata, corpore 
5.5 mm. longa et 1.2 mm. lata, biaristata; aristis nunc calvis nunc 
antrorsum 1-4-setosis, usque ad 1 mm. longis. 

Type specimen : Collected by Fred Eyles, No. 266, common among 
tall grass, at altitude of 1,380 meters, Bernheim Hill, District of 
Mazoe, Southern Rhodesia (Brit.). 

Distribution : Known only from type locality in District of Mazoe, 
Southern Rhodesia. 

Specimens examined: Eyles 266 (type, Brit.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLVII 

Bidens insecta: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.62; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X3.09; c, interior involucral bract, X3.09; 
d, ray corolla, Xl.85; e, palea, X3.09;/, disc floret, X3.09; g, achene, 
X3.09; a, mainly and rest, entirely from type. 

191. Bidens robustior S. L. Moore, Journ. Linn. 
Soc. 35: 349. 1902. PI. CLVIII. 

Herba elata, erecta, probabiliter perennis, crebro ramosa ramis 
validis teretibus striatis solidis hispidulis deinde glabris, verisimiliter 
7-10 dm. alta. Folia petiolata petiolis 1-2.8 cm. longis vel summa 
sessilia, petiolo adjecto 5-12 cm. longa, pinnatim triloba lobis ovatis 
vel ovato-lanceolatis acutis grosse crenato-serratis (dentibus calloso- 
apiculatis) raro lobulatis, summa lanceolata, omnia supra scaber- 
rima subtus hispidula. Capitula magna breviter vel mediocriter 



582 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

pedunculate pedunculis 1-5 cm. longis, radiata, cymam paucicapi- 
tulatam strictam angustam sparsim foliatam folia longe excedentem 
efformantia, pansa ad anthesin circ. 5-6 cm. lata et circ. 1-1.2 cm. 
alta. Involucri bracteae 4-seriatae, eae 2 exteriorum serierum (circ. 
9-13 ex toto) lineari-lanceolatae, utrinque hispidulae, basi ciliatae, 
reflexae, circ. 7-11 mm. longae; aliae lanceolatae, dorso hispido- 
scaberrimae, saepe breviores et saepe reflexae. Flores ligulati circ. 
14, lutei, ligula oblongi, apice undulati vel obsolete denticulati, circ. 
2.5 cm. longi et parce 1 cm. lati, circ. 12-nervosi. Achaenia lineari- 
oblonga, maxime obcompressa, atra, utraque facie debiliter 8-striata 
et leviter erecto-setosa, marginibus antrorsum ciliata, corpore 6-8 
mm. longa et 1.5-1.7 mm. lata, quam receptaculi paleae perspicue 
breviora, biaristata; aristis retrorsum hamosis (hamis 1 vel rariter 2 
vel etiam 3), 1.7-2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by G. F. Scott Elliot (Mt. Ruwenzori 
Expedition), No. 6846, at altitude of 1,800 meters, Elmentaita 
(Elmenteita), Masailand, German East Africa, 1893-1894 (Brit.). 

Distribution: Masailand, German East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Elliot 6846 (type, Brit.: cotype, Kew). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLVIII 

Bidens robustior: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.59; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X2.36; c, interior involucral bract, X2.36; 
d, ray corolla, XI. 18; e, palea, X2.36;/, disc floret, X2.36; g, achene, 
X2.36; all from type and cotype specimens. 

192. Bidens ambigua S. L. Moore, Journ. Linn. Soc. 
37: 322. 1906. PI. CXLVIII, figs. h-m. 

Herbacea, glabra, circ. 5 dm. alta e radice perenni (ex Goss- 
weilero); caulibus pluribus (vel interdum tantum uno), gracilibus, 
simplicibus, adscendenti-erectis, sparsim foliosis, obtuse quadrangu- 
laribus, 1-1.5 mm. crassis. Folia sessilia, modica 2.5-3.5 cm. longa, 
alii indivisa alii paucilobatis; lamina vel lobis anguste linearibus, nunc 
obtusis nunc acutissimis et calloso-apiculatis, subcarnosis, non 
ciliatis, 1-1.5 mm. latis; lobis 3-8 mm. (forsan ultra) longis. 
Capitula terminalia, solitaria, tenuiter longipedunculata pedunculis 
&-18 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 2.5-3 cm. lata et 
8-9 mm. alta. Involucrum glabratum vel basi parce hispidulum; 
bracteis exterioribus 3-5, lineari-lanceolatis, parce ciliatis, 5-7 mm. 
longis; interioribus ovato-lanceolatis, dimidio longioribus. Flores 
ligulati circ. 8, lutei, ligula elliptici, apice bidentati, circ. 1 cm. longi. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 583 

Achaenia nondum matura late oblonga, nequaquam alata, glabra 
vel fere glabra, biaristata ; aristis quam corpore brevioribus dentibus 
perpaucis nunc erectis nunc recurvatis onustis vel etiam omnino 
calvis. 

Type specimen: Collected by JohnGossweiler, No. 1189, in open 
forests of Berlinia on left bank of River Quanze at Kiambella, 
Angola, July 23, 1903 (Brit.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Angola. 

Specimens examined : Gossiveiler 1189 (type, Brit.). 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE CXLVIII, FIGS, 

Bidens ambigua: h, flowering branch, X0.61; i, exterior involucral 
bract, X3.66; j, interior involucral bract, X3.66; k, ray corolla, 
Xl.83; /, palea, X3.66; m, disc floret, X3.66; all from cotype, in 
Hb. Kew. 

193. Bidens ugandensis (S. L. Moore) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
59: 309. 1915. PI. CLIX. 

Coreopsis ugandensis S. L. Moore, Journ. Linn. Soc. 35: 347. 1902. 

Herba perennis, erecta, 5-9 dm. alta, nunc molliter pubescens 
nunc caulibus ramisque vel etiam foliis glabrata; caulibus teretibus 
vel tetragonis, 2-4 mm. crassis. Folia non sessilia, petiolo 0.5-2.5 
cm. longo adjecto 4-8 cm. longa, basi parce connata, nunc ternatim 
quinatimve pinnata nunc bipinnata; segmentis anguste linearibus 
(0.3-1 mm. latis), terminali lateralia plerumque superante. Capi- 
tula mediocria, solitaria vel pauca, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 
plerumque 3-10 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2.5-3.5 cm. 
lata et circ. 6-8 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae biseriales, exteriores 
7-10, pubescentes, oblongo-lineares, apice obtusae vel subacutae, 
4-5.5 mm. longae et 0.6-1 mm. latae, quam interiores ovato-oblongae 
7-8.5 mm. longae et 3-4 mm. latae margine scariosae dorso hispi- 
dulae apice moderatim obtusae satis breviores. Flores ligulati circ. 
8, lutei, ligula late oblongi, apice saepe tridentati, circ. 1.4-1.6 cm. 
longi et 3-6 mm. lati. Achaenia paleas oblongo-lineares apice ob- 
tusas interdum superantia, olivaceo-brunnea vel brunneo-atra, 
anguste oblongo-linearia, obcompressa, exalata, margine apiceque 
erecto-ciliata, utraque facie unicostata et circ. 8-striata, ad summam 
costam saepe erecto-puberula, corpore 6-7 mm. longa et 0.6-1 mm. 
lata, biaristata, aristis tenuibus, nudis, plerumque patulis, tantum 
circ. 0.5-1 mm. longis. 



584 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Type specimen: Collected by G. F. Scott Elliot, No. 7520, dry 
schist hills, Buddu, Uganda, British East Africa, March, 1893-1894 
(Brit.). 

Distribution : British East Africa to Belgian Congo. 

Specimens examined: G. S. Baker 312, alt. 1,200 meters, grassland, 
common from Muhoroni to Kisumi, British East Africa, December 
12, 1905 (Kew); Ernest Brown 404, alt. 1,170 meters, District of 
Unyoro, Uganda, British East Africa, July, 1907 (Kew) ; idem 2651, 
alt. 1,260 meters, savanna, 100 miles northwest of Kampala, 
Uganda, June, 1915 (Brit.) ; J. Claessens 1448, Blukwa, Belgian Congo, 
August, 1921 (Bruss.); idem 1511, Goduma, Belgian Congo, Sept., 
1921 (Bruss., 2 sheets); R. Dummer 2641 p.p., alt. 1,200 meters, 
grassy hill slopes, "Kyalana" (Kyabana?), Uganda, November, 1915 
(Kew); idem 2641a, eodem loco et tempore (Brit.); R. L. Piemeisel 
& L. W. Kephart 695, alt. 1,560 meters, Kylgegwa to Kampala, 
Uganda, November 11, 1927 (U.S.); Elliot 7520 (type, Brit.: cotype, 
Kew) ; J. D. Snowden 158, alt. 1,050 meters, Singo, Uganda, 1915 
(Kew). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLIX 

Bidens ugandensis: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.63; 6, 
cauline leaf, X0.63; c, exterior involucral bract, X5.03; d, interior 
involucral bract, X5.03; e, ray corolla, X3.77; /, palea, X5.03; g, 
disc floret, X5.03; h, i, achenes, X5.03; a, c, d, f, h, from cotype, in 
Hb. Kew; 6, e, g, from Dummer 2641a, in Hb. Brit.; i, from Brown 
2651, in Hb. Brit. 

194. Bidens cinerea Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 59: 302. 

1915. PL CLX. 

Ligulae apice integrae vel vix denticulatae . . B. cinerea sensu stricto. 
Ligulae apice plerumque profunde acriterque tridentatae. 

var. /3. tricuspidata. 

Herba, verisimiliter perennis, erecta vel adscendenti-erecta, 
cinerea; caule striato, squarroso-hispido, subtetragono, monocepha- 
lico (vel ramis monocephalicis). Folia petiolata petiolis spinuloso- 
setosis 0.5-2 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 2-6 cm. longa, tuberculato- 
scabrida et minute spinuloso-setosa, impari-pinnata, 1- vel 2-juga; 
foliolis ovatis vel cuneato-oblongis, dentatis vel lobulatis, dentibus 
(vel lobulis) acriter apiculatis. Capitula terminalia, pedunculata 
pedunculis 6-10 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2.5 cm. 
lata et circ. 5-7 mm. alta. Involucrum hispidum, bracteis duplici 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXXVII 




b a i 

BIDENS SCHWEINFURTHII Sherff 



OF THt 
UNIVERSITY Of ILLIHOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 585 

serie dispositis; exterioribus circ. 8, linearibus, 4-5 mm. longis; 
interioribus dimidio longioribus, lanceolatis. Flores ligulati flavi, 
ligula lineari-oblanceolati, apice integri vel parce denticulati, 7-9- 
striati, circ. 1.2 cm. longi. Achaenia linearia, obcompressa, atra, 
striata, adscendenti-hispida, corpore 9 mm. longa, biaristata 
aristis retrorsum hamosis 2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by C. S. Smith, Kilimanjaro, German 
East Africa, May, 1893 (Kew). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Kilimanjaro, 
German East Africa. 

Specimens examined: C. S. Smith, Kilimanjaro, May, 1893 
(type, Kew). 

Bidens cinerea var. /3. tricuspidata Sherff, 
Amer. Journ. Bot. 22: 705. 1935. 

Caules sicci subbrunnei, graciliores. Foliorum petioli usque ad 
circ. 1 cm. longi. Capitula pansa ad anthesin demum 3 cm. lata, 
ligulis apice plerumque profunde acriterque tridentatis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Margarete Uhlig, No. 2038, at 
altitude of about 2,000 meters, on wrinkled or folded lava rock, 
stream bed, North Meru, northeastern German East Africa, July 17, 
1910 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in German East 
Africa. 

Specimens examined: Uhlig 2038 (type, Berl.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLX 

Bidens cinerea: a, subfruiting specimen, X0.73; b, exterior involu- 
cral bract, X2.91; c, interior involucral bract, X2.91; d, ray corolla, 
X2.91; e, palea, X2.91; /, disc floret, X2.91; g, achene, X2.91; all 
from type. 

195. Bidens crocea Welw. ex O. Hoffm. Bol. Soc. Broteriana 
10: 177. 1892. PI. CLXI, figs. a-g. 

Achaenia f aciebus crebro spinuloso-verrucata var. /3. verrucifera. 

Achaenia faciebus glabrata vel subglabrata . . . B. crocea sensu stricto. 
Herbacea, perennis, elata, glaberrima, 6-12 dm. alta; caulibus 
(multis et procumbenti-adscendentibus ex Gossweilero) inferne 
simplicibus ac foliatis, superne in pedunculos circ. 3 longissimos et 
parce foliates divisis. Folia petiolata petiolis 0.3-2.5 cm. longis, 
petiolo adjecto plerumque 3-7 cm. longa; caulina quam internodia 



586 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

plerumque longiora, bipinnatipartita vel infima simpliciter pinnati- 
partita, rhachi segmentisque anguste linearibus, segmentis firmulis 
plerumque 1-2.5 cm. longis et 0.5-1.5 mm. latis acutis vel subacutis; 
folia pedunculorum remota, quam internodia multiple breviora, 
simpliciter pinnatipartita, suprema brevia bracteiformia integer- 
rimaque. Capitula solitaria, discoidea, ad anthesin circ. 1.5 cm. 
alta et 1-1.5 cm. lata. Involucri late campanulati bracteae exteriores 
circ. 8 vel 9, lineares, saepe acutae, 6-8 mm. longae; interiores 
lanceolatae vel oblongo-lanceolatae, coloratae, duplo-triplo longiores. 
Flores tubulosi crocei. Achaenia brunnea vel atro-brunnea, linearia, 
usque ad apicem truncatum non angustatumque aequilata, obcom- 
pressa, margine pilis aliis simplicibus aliis (perpaucis) uncinatis 
ciliata, apice corona minute ciliolata instructa, corpore circ. 11 mm. 
longa et 1.5 mm. lata, biaristata, aristis retrorsum hamosis, circ. 
3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Friedrich Welwitsch, No. 3964, in 
wooded meadows at altitude of 1,350-1,500 meters, around the great 
lake of Ivantala, District of Huilla, Benguella (Benguela) region, 
Angola, end of February, 1860 (Berl.). 

Distribution : Angola. 

Specimens examined: H. Baum 696, alt. 1,250 meters, sporadic 
in sandy soil of light forest ("lichtem Wald"), Longa and Quiriri 
rivers, February 2, 1900 (Berl.; Brit.; Del.; Kew; Mun.; Mus. V.); 
Dekindt 861, in woods, Huilla, Benguella (Benguela) region (Berl.); 
John Gossweiler 3023, common in mumua woods, Tchirandongamba 
Luassingua, April, 1906 (Brit.); idem 3099, in mixed woods (com- 
posed chiefly, however, of mumua), at Luasenha-Cutchi, April 30, 
1906 (Brit.); idem 3842, common in mumua woods at Kaconda, 
February 14, 1907 (Brit.) ; idem 4304, in open mumua woods between 
Kaconda and Bissapa, March 5, 1907 (Brit.) ; Welwitsch 3964 (type, 
Berl.: cotypes, Brit.; Cop.; Kew; Par.). 

Bidens crocea var. /3. verrucifera S. L. Moore, Journ. Linn. 
Soc. Bot. 37: 322. 1906. PI. CLXI, fig. h. 

A specie achaeniis crebro spinuloso-verrucatis, vel infra apicem 
faciebus vero glabris differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by John Gossweiler, No. 1210, in 
thickets, Catombe near Malange, North Guanza District, Angola, 
May-August, 1903 (Brit.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Angola. 

Specimens examined: Gossweiler 1210 (type, Brit.: cotype, Berl.). 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXXVIII 




BIDENS NYIKENSIS Sherff 



THE GENUS BIDENS 587 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXI 

Bid ens crocea, figs, a-g: a (lower), b (upper), portions of fruiting 
specimen, X0.65; c, exterior involucral bract, X2.6; d, interior 
involucral bract, X2.6; e, palea, X2.6;/, disc floret, X2.6; g, achene, 
X2.6; a-e, g, from type;/, from cotype, in Hb. Kew. 

Bidens crocea var. verrucifera, fig. h: achene, X2.6; from type. 

196. Bidens lineariloba Oliver, Trans. Linn. Soc. 29: 99. 
pi 60. 1873. PI. LXVIII, figs. g-o. 

Herba annua, erecta, interdum gracilis, glabrata, ramosa, 4-8 
dm. alta, caule saepe valde costato. Folia subsessilia vel petiolata 
petiolis latis 4-1.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 4-12 cm. longa, parce 
hispida, irregulariter bipinnata, totis segmentis nunc ad meras 
lineas tantummodo 0.5-1 mm. latas reductis, nunc 1-2 mm. latis; 
lobis ultimis paucis, acutissime indurato-apiculatis. Capitula 
corymbosa radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2-4.5 cm. lata et 7-12 mm. 
alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores 9-13, lineari-lanceolatae vel etiam 
anguste lineares, supra valde attenuatae, saltern basi ciliatae, apice 
acriter apiculatae, interioribus fere vel perfecte aequales, demum 
plus minusve reflexae, 6-11 mm. longae; interiores lanceolatae, 
glabratae. Flores ligulati 6-8, flavi, ligula elliptico-lanceolati, 
10-14-striati, apice obscure vel perspicue denticulati, 0.7-2 cm. 
longi. Paleae lineari-lanceolatae vel lineares, acuminatae, interiores 
late ellipticae vel obovatae vel truncatae, supra longissime et per- 
spicuissime lineari-productae, achaenia fere aequantes vel interdum 
etiam superantes. Achaenia plus minusve dimorpha; exteriora 
oblongo-linearia, basi moderatim angustata, faciebus marginibusque 
tuberculata et antrorsum spinoso-setosa, corpore 5.5-6.5 mm. 
longa et supra 2-2.5 mm. lata; interiora linearia, glabrata vel ad 
margines et supra ad facies sparsim setosa, corpore 8-10 mm. longa 
et 0.8-1.2 mm. lata; omnia valde obcompressa, sub apice conspicue 
biaristata; aristis demum valde divaricatis, inferne glabris, apicem 
versus retrorsum hamosis, 3-6 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by J. A. Grant, No. 187, in corn- 
fields, Mininga (Mininja), German East Africa, April, 1861 (Kew). 1 

Distribution: Ukerewe Island in Lake Victoria Nyanza (Lake 
Ukerewe) and southeastward through the northern part of German 
East Africa. 

1 Oliver (loc. cit.) accredits the type to Grant alone, but the type label says: 
"Coll. by Capts. Speke &Grant." 



588 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Specimens examined: Braun 5372, Lulangula, Distr. Tabora, 
German East Africa, May 29, 1913 (BerL); P- Conrads 34, Ukerewe 
Isl., Lake Victoria Nyanza, German East Africa, 1903 (BerL, 2 
sheets); Durham, Tanganyika Central Railway, at Kikombo, Ger- 
man East Africa (Kew) ; Grant 187 (type, Kew) ; Grote 3749, Monga- 
Mongatour, east equatorial Africa, March, 1912 (BerL); J> Hanning- 
ton, Msilala (Msalala), German East Africa, communic. 1883 (Kew); 
F. L. Stuhlmann (Exped. Emin Pascha) 225, northern German East 
Africa (BerL); C. F. M. Swynnerton 845, German East Africa, June 
5, 1921 (Brit.); Uhlig 118, field near Kagunguli, Ukerewe Isl., Lake 
Victoria Nyanza, German East Africa, April 29, 1904 (BerL). 

Easily distinguished from all other species of Bidens by the 
numerous acute, finally spreading exterior involucral bracts and 
the peculiar inner paleae, which are membranous-winged below and 
with greatly extended, exalate apex running upwardly and surpass- 
ing the bodies of the achenes. My description of the mature achenes 
is drawn from the mature specimen, Braun 5372 (BerL), collected at 
a spot (Lulangula) close to the type locality of Mininga. The achenes 
simulate those of certain Hawaiian species in having the aristae 
attached somewhat below rather than at the top of the achene body. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXVIII, FIGS, g-o 

Bidens lineariloba: g, flowering and subfruiting specimen, X0.68; 
h, exterior involucral bract, X2.72; i, interior involucral bract, 
X2.72; ;, ray' corolla, X2.04; k, palea, X2.72; I, palea, X2.72; m, 
disc floret, X2.72; n (outer), o (inner), achenes, X2.72; all from J. 
Hannington, Msilala, German East Africa, communic. 1883, in Hb. 
Kew. 

197. Bidens flabellata 0. Hoffm. in H. Baum, Kunene- 
Sambesi Exped. 419, pi 11, G. 1903. PL CLXII. 

Herbacea, perennis; caulibus multis (fide Gossweileri), procum- 
bentibus flexuosisque vel adscendentibus, subteretibus, pilis septatis 
puberulis, simplicibus vel parce ramosis, 3-10 dm. longis, ad 3-4 
dm. surgentibus (ex Baumio). Folia petiolata petiolis 0.4-2.5 cm. 
longis et supra saepe dilatato-marginatis, petiolo adjecto 2-6.5 cm. 
longa, coriacea, orbicularia vel flabellata, ciliata et (venis praecipue) 
hispidula, subtus pallida, supra petiolum rotundata vel sinuato- 
cuneata, praeter basim grosse crenata vel flabellatim multilobata, 
segmentis dentibusve acute calloso-apiculatis. Capitula ad apicem 
caulis ramive solitaria, longiuscule vel longe pedunculata pedunculis 
6-25 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 4-5 cm. lata et 1.4-2 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXXIX 




h c e f 

BIDENS ROGERSII Sherfl 



THE GENUS BIDENS 589 

cm. alta. Involucrum basi pilosum; bracteis exterioribus circ. 8, 
brevibus (circ. 3.5 mm. longis), oblongis vel lineari-lanceolatis, 
ciliatis, dorso saepe sparsim hispidis, apice obtusis vel subacutis et 
induratis; interioribus lanceolatis, 10-12 mm. longis. Flores ligulati 
circ. 8, lutei, ligula anguste oblongo-elliptici, apice obtuso subintegri 
vel tridentati, 1.5-2.5 cm. longi. Achaenia linearia, obcompresso- 
tetragona vel plana, marginibus ac costis medianis suberecte ciliata 
alibi glabra, omnino circ. 16-sulcata, fusca vel nigrescentia, corpore 
exteriora 9 mm. longa et interiora 16 mm. longa, omnia biaris- 
tata; aristis tenuibus, retrorsum hamosis, 3.5-5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by H. Baum (Kunene-Sambesi Expe- 
dition), No. 847, in sandy, clay soil among bushes at altitude of 
1,350 meters, Manonge on the Kuebe River, Mambunda region, 
southeastern Angola, April 22, 1900 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Western Africa from Angola southward. 

Specimens examined: Baum 847 (type, Berl.: cotypes, Brit.; 
Del.; Kew; Mus. V.); John Gossweiler 2635, Angola, April 16, 
1906 (Brit.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXII 

Bidens flabellata: a-c, portions of subfruiting specimens, X0.63; 
d, exterior involucral bract, X4.4; e, interior involucral bract, X2.52; 
f, ray corolla, X2.52; g, palea, X2.52; h, disc floret, X2.52; i, achene, 
X2.52; all from Gossweiler 2635, in Hb. Brit. 

198. Bidens Baumii (0. Hoffm.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 59: 
309. 1915. PL CLXIII. 

Coreopsis Baumii 0. Hoffm. in H. Baum, Kunene-Sambesi Exped. 
419. 1903. 

Herbacea, perennis, elata, simplex vel parce ramosa, 1-1.3 m. 
alta; caule tetragono, glabro. Folia principalia sensim in petiolum 
2-3 cm. longum angustata et non vere sessilia, petiolo adjecto 6-11 
cm. longa, membranacea, indivisa, lanceolata vel ovato-lanceolata, 
apice acuta vel parce acuminata, grosse serrato-dentata dentibus 
calloso-attenuatis, hispidulo-ciliata, glabra vel infra paucis setis 
adpressis sparsissime vestita, minute glanduloso-punctata. Capitula 
radiata, pansa ad anthesin 3.5-5 cm. lata, solitaria vel perpauca, 
longe tenuiterque pedunculata; pedunculis glabris, usque ad 16 cm. 
(vel ultra) longis, parce bracteatis. Involucrum basi hispidum, 
bracteis exterioribus circ. 8, linearibus, saepe hie illic aciculato- 
ciliatis, apice callosis, circ. 6-7 mm. longis; interioribus lineari- 



590 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

lanceolatis, circ. 9-11 mm. longis. Flores ligulati 6-8, aurei, ligula 
oblongo-lanceolati ellipticive, apice subintegri, 2-3.2 cm. longi. 
Achaenia exteriora late interiora anguste linearia, omnia obcom- 
pressa, adpresse pilosa, adscendenti-ciliata, omnino circ. 16-sulcata, 
atra, 6-9 mm. longa et 1-1.7 mm. lata, quam paleae manifesto 
breviora, apice adrecte setosa et exaristata vel saepe aristis 2 brevi- 
bus subulatis superne nudis et usque ad 1 mm. longis coronata. 

Type specimen: Collected by H. Baum, No. 883, sporadic on 
sandy loam in dense forest at altitude of 1,300 meters, between 
Kuma and Kutsi, Mambunda region, southeastern Angola, May 
2, 1 1900 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Angola. 

Specimens examined: Baum 883 (type, Berl.: cotype, Brit.; 
Kew); John Gossweiler 3147, in open, herb-grown woods between 
Lambo River and Cutchi, May 1, 1906 (Brit.; Kew). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXIII 

Bidens Baumii: a (lower), 6 (median), c (uppermost), portions of 
flowering specimen, X0.63; d, portion of leaf enlarged to show cilia- 
tion and glandular-punctate surface, X3.13; e, exterior involucral 
bract, X3.13; /, interior involucral bract, X3.13; g, ray corolla, 
Xl.88; h, i, paleae, X3.13; /, disc floret, X3.13; k, achene, X3.13; 
^~0> j, from cotype, in Hb. Kew; h, i, k, from Gossweiler 3147, 
in Hb. Brit. . 

199. Bidens ruandensis Sherff, Bull. Jard. Bot. 
Brux. 13: 285. 1935. 

Herba, sine dubio perennis, erecta, 7 dm. alta; caule sub- 
simplici, plus minusve tetragono, moderate hispido. Folia princi- 
palia petiolata petiolis tenuibus aegre hispidis anguste marginatis 
circ. 2-3 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 7-11 cm. longa et 1.5 cm. 
lata, indivisa, rhomboide oblongo-lanceolata, utroque latere acriter 
circ. 3- vel 4-dentata dentibus saepius incurvis, basi cuneata apice 
plus minusve acuminata, supra moderate infra secundum venas 
perspicue alibi sparsim hispida; superiora linearia, usque ad 1 dm. 
longa et 5-6 mm. lata. Capitula perpauca (3), pedunculata pedun- 
culis tetragonis patenti -hispidis 6 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad 
anthesin 5 cm. lata et 1.2 cm. alta. Involucri basi valde supra 
moderate hispidi bracteae 2-3-seriales; extimae circ. 10, oblonge 
lineares, elongatae, supra acerrimae ac crassiusculo-induratae inter- 

1 Not December 2, as erroneously printed in Hoffmann, loc. cit. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 591 

dum nitidae, 1-1.3 cm. longae, quam aliae longiores. Flores ligulati 
circ. 11 vel 12, flavi, ligula oblongo-lineares, apice minutissime 
2-3-denticulati, circ. 2.2-2.5 cm. longi. Flores tubulosi sub medio 
sparsim patenti-hispidi. Ovaria plana, oblonga, exalata, faciebus 
pluristriata aliter glabrata, marginibus apiceque dense erecto- 
setosa, biaristata; aristis tenuibus, acerrimis, nudis vel basim versus 
sparsim erecto-hispidis, 1-2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by H. Scaetta, No. 427, Ruhengeri, 
Ruanda, northwestern German East Africa (Bruss.). 

Distribution: Ruanda, northwestern German East Africa. 
Specimens examined : Scaetta 427 (type, Bruss.). 

200. Bidens Moorei Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81: 25, pi 1, figs, 
a-g. 1926. PI. CLXIV, figs. a-g. 

Achaenia 2- (saepe imperfecte 3- vel 4-) aristata, faciebus erecte 
hispida B. Moorei sensu stricto. 

Achaenia plerumque 6-8-aristata, faciebus verrucata. 

var. /3. verrucosa. 

Herba perennis, glabra, 3-5 dm. alta, caule adscendenti et ramoso; 
ramis plus minusve glaucescentibus, monocephalicis, gracilibus, 
supra nudis, infra foliis parvulis foliosis. Folia sessilia, lanceolata 
vel cuneato-oblanceolata, integra vel apicem versus irregulariter 
dentata, carnosa, 1-6 cm. longa. Capitula terminalia, longepedun- 
culata, radiata, 4-5 cm. lata. Involucri squamae duplici serie dis- 
positae; exteriores circ. 8, ovatae vel ovato-lanceolatae, 6-8 mm. 
longae; interiores lanceolatae, membranaceae, striatae, 1.2-1.4 cm. 
longae. Flores ligulati circ. 8, flavidi, ligula lineares, striati, apice 
dentati, 2-2.6 cm. longi. Achaenia linearia, plana vel subtetragona, 
adscendenti-ciliata et -hispida, corpore 0.8-1.5 cm. longa et 1-1.2 
mm. lata, bi- (saepe imperfecte tri- vel quadri-) aristata aristis 
retrorsum hamosis, usque ad 5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by John Gossweiler, No. 3339, in 
woods, Angola, April, 1906 (Brit.). 

Distribution: Angola. 

Specimens examined: H. Baum (Reise nach Sudwest- Africa: 
Kunene-Sambesi Expedition) 708, alt. 1,250 meters, Longa River 
("oberhalb des Quiriri," "oberhalb Ninnescra"), Cubango Distr., 
February 5, 1900 (Berl.; Brit.; Del.; Kew; Mus. V.); John Gossweiler 
2467, sandy, herb-grown woods, Angola, January 5, 1906 (Brit.); 
idem 3339 (type, Brit.). 



592 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Otto Hoffmann, in his original determination of Baum's plant, 
treated it as a new species. Whether he did so because at that time 
he was unfamiliar with Bidens andongensis Hiern, or because, al- 
though familiar with Hiern's species, he felt Baum's plant to be 
distinct, I am unable to say. However, he later (Kunene-Sambesi 
Exped. 420. 1903) referred the Baum specimen to B. andongensis 
Hiern. Since the main differences lay in the size and shape of the 
involucres, also the number and shape and proportionate size of the 
exterior involucral bracts, one might indeed have suspected that 
Baum had collected merely an atypic and less robust form of B. 
andongensis. The various specimens sent in more recently by Goss- 
weiler to the British Museum of Natural History show similar 
peculiarities as to these characters, thus strengthening the belief 
that we have to do with a distinct species. 

The species was named in honor of the late Spencer L. Moore of the 
British Museum of Natural History, who had done much admirable 
work upon the African species of Bidens, and who, independently, 
had interpreted the Gossweiler plants as typifying a new species. 

Bidens Moorei var. /3. verrucosa Sherff, op. cit. 
26, pi. l,figs. h, i. PL CLXIV, figs, h and i. 

A specie differt achaeniis verrucatis; his plerumque 5-8-aristatis, 
saepe praeterea 4-10 levibus acutis aristulis coronatis. 

Type specimen: Collected by John Gossweiler, No. 3021, Angola, 
April, 1906 (Brit.). 

Distribution: Angola. 

Specimens examined : Gossweiler 3021 (type, Brit.). 

A form so peculiar in fruit characters that it is perhaps best 
treated for the present as a variety. Various considerations indicate 
no basis for regarding it as a separate species. The achenes are 
minutely warty and 5-8-aristate (commonly with 3 long aristae and 
2-5 short ones, with frequently 4-10 additional rudimentary, smooth, 
sharp aristae completing a crown). The variety is seen to be com- 
parable, in its relation to the species proper, with the var. verrucifera 
Moore of Bidens crocea Welw. In its large number of aristae it makes 
a singular approach to Ericentrodea mirabilis (Sherff) Blake & Sherff, 
a plant that differs widely in other respects. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXIV 

Bidens Moorei, figs, a-g: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, 
X0.63; 6, exterior involucral bract, Xl.26; c, interior involucral 



THE GENUS BIDENS 593 

bract, X2.52; d, ray corolla, Xl.26; e, palea, X2.52; /, disc floret, 
X2.52; g, achene, X2.52; all from type. 

Bidens Moorei var. verrucosa, figs, h, i: achenes, X2.52; both 
from type. 

201. Bidens andongensis Hiern, Cat. Welw. Afr. PI. 
1: 588. 1898. PI. CLXV. 

Herba erecta, glabra vel subglabra, perennis, basi lignea; caule 
inferne simplici, superne subramoso, subtereti. Folia sessilia vel 
inferiora petiolata petiolis alatis usque ad 2 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
2-7.5 cm. longa et 1-4.5 cm. lata, indivisa vel parce lobulata, elliptica 
vel ovata vel rhomboideo-oblanceolata, apice acuta vel subobtusa, 
basi plerumque cuneato-angustata, grosse et inaequaliter dentata, 
subcarnosa, minute punctulato-squamosa. Capitula solitaria, ter- 
minalia, pedunculata pedunculis 5-10 (-19) cm. longis, radiata, 
pansa ad anthesin circ. 5 cm. lata et 1.2-1.6 cm. alta. Involucri 
bracteae subbiseriatae, lanceolato-oblongae, subacutae vel subob- 
tusae, exteriores 10-14 circ. 8-10 mm. longae et 1.5-3 mm. latae, 
interiores circ. 11-13 mm. longae et 3-5 mm. latae. Flores ligulati 
circ. 8-12, aurei, ligula anguste elliptic! vel lineari-oblongi, feminei 
vel pauci hermaphroditi sed probabiliter steriles, apice acuti, circ. 
1.8-2.2 cm. longi. Achaenia immatura lineari-oblonga, plana, 
marginibus ciliata, corpore 4.5 mm. longa et 1.2 mm. lata, apice 
erecte setulosa et biaristata; aristis de apice usque ad basim dense et 
retrorsum hamosis, circ. 3.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Friedrich Welwitsch, No. 3529, in 
sandy, bushy places at altitude of 720 to 1,140 meters, near Quibinde 
(Quibinda), not far from the Cuije River, District of Pungo Andongo 
(Loanda District), Angola, March, 1857 (Brit.). 1 

Distribution: Angola. 

Specimens examined: John Gossweiler 3631, in short, thicket- 
grown pasturage, Valley of Cubal, near Cubal River, Distr. Ben- 
guella (Benguela), March-August, 1907 (Brit.); Welwitsch 3529 
(type fragment and drawing, Brit.). 

In an earlier article (Bot. Gaz. 59: 312. 1915) I have stated that 
Gossweiler's 3631 may properly be taken as representative of this 
species. In many respects both Gossweiler's plant and Hiern's type 
material appear to be too close to Bidens Buchneri (Klatt) Sherff, a 

1 The type sheet bears a crude sketch and a fragment of the type specimen, 
the major portion having been returned to Lisbon on demand of the Portuguese 
Government (cf. Hiern, loc. cit.). 



594 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

species likewise from Angola. The latter species, however, has the 
achenial aristae only sparsely barbed and the few barbs near the base 
are erect, not retrorse; furthermore, the rays (15-18) are more numer- 
ous than in B. andongensis and none of the leaves, so far as I know, 
are ever as narrowly petiolate as in some cases with B. andongensis. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXV 

Bidens andongensis: a (lower), b (upper), portions of one flowering 
specimen, 0.67; c, upper portion of another flowering specimen, 
X0.67; d, exterior involucral bract, Xl.34; e, interior involucral 
bract, X2.68; /, ray floret, Xl.34; g, palea, X2.68; h, disc floret, 
X2.68; all from Gossweiler 3631, in Hb. Brit. 

202. Bidens Buchneri (Klatt) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
76: 158. 1923. PI. CLXVI. 

Coreopsis Buchneri Klatt, Leopoldina 25: 107. 1889 (non Ann. 

Naturh. Hofmus. Wien 7: 103. 1892). 

Herba erecta, perennis (non "annua"), 6-10 dm. alta; caule 
obtuse tetragono, glabro, superne ramoso. Folia sessilia vel breviter 
alato-petiolata petiolis circ. 3-5 mm. longis, petiolo adjecto prin- 
cipalia 10-13 cm. longa et 3.5-4.5 cm. lata, membranacea vel parce 
subcoriacea, indivisa, late oblongo-lanceolata, basi saepe subaurita, 
margine duplicato-serrata dentibus apice cartilagineis et brevissime 
setoso-ciliata, apice non vere acuminata, utrinque dense sed non 
perspicue verrucoso-scabra, aliter glabra. Capitula terminalia, 
plerumque solitaria, pedunculata pedunculis superne breviter hirto- 
pilosis et 10-18 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 6.5-8.5 
cm. lata et 1.2-1.8 cm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores plurise- 
riatae, totae 16, lanceolatae vel ovato-lanceolatae, subacutae, 
moderate brevi-hispidae vel subglabrae, inconspicue rugoso-mar- 
ginatae vel spinuloso-ciliatae, 1.7-2.2 cm. longae et 5-8 mm. latae; 
interiores breviores, 1-1.3 cm. longae. Flores ligulati 15-18, auran- 
tiaci, lineari-elliptici, apice acuti vel minute denticulati, 3-4 cm. 
longi. Achaenia immatura plana, lineari-oblonga, margine et apice 
et superne faciebus dense setulosa, corpore circ. 4 mm. longa et 1 
mm. lata, biaristata; aristis tenuibus apicem versus retrorsum 1- 
vel 2-hamosis et basim versus erecte 1-3-setulosis, 2-3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Wilhelm Buchner, No. 31, Malange, 
Angola, March, 1879 (Berl.). 

Distribution : Known only from type locality in Angola. 

Specimens examined: Wilhelm Buchner 31 (type, Berl.). 



THE GENUS BIDENS 595 

Klatt (loc. cit.) described the achenial aristae as glabrous, but a 
study of ten immature achenes removed from the one large flowering 
head on the type sheet shows all the aristae to be downwardly barbed 
near the apex and upwardly barbed near the base. The inner bracts 
of the involucre, which are shorter than the outer, the more numer- 
ous rays, and the peculiarly barbed aristae appear to distinguish this 
species sufficiently from B. andongensis Hiern. 

We may note that in a second publication (Ann. Naturh. Hofmus. 
Wien 7: 103. 1892) Klatt repeated his description of this species 
with only slight changes but cited Von Mechow's No. 394 instead 
of the Buchner plant. However, Von Mechow 394 does not repre- 
sent B. Buchneri and must be discarded. 1 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXVI 

Bidens Buchneri: a (lower), 6 (upper), portions of flowering speci- 
men, X0.56; c, exterior involucral bract, X2.25; d, interior involucral 
bract, X2.25; e, ray corolla, Xl.69; /, palea, X2.25; g, disc floret, 
X3.37; h, ovary, X3.37; all from type. 

203. Bidens somaliensis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 90: 395. 
1930. PL CLXVII. 

Herba perennis, erecta, supra erecte ramosa, verisimiliter circ. 
9-12 dm. alta, caule glabrato tetragono. Folia non manifeste 
petiolata, 8-14 cm. longa et 1.2-3.3 cm. lata, lanceolata vel plus 
minusve spathulato-lanceolata, inferne sensim ad basim parce 
connatam angustata, apice acuta sed non acuminata, acriter serrata 
plerumque 4-9 dentibus unico latere, subrigida, supra breviter his- 
pida vel glabrata infra dense hispida. Capitula pedunculata pedun- 
culis bracteatis inferne debiliter superne valde hispidis circ. 1-1.6 
cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 4-6.5 cm. lata et 1.2-1.5 cm. 
alta. Involucri bracteae plus minusve biseriales, exteriores circ. 
10-12, lanceolatae vel ovato-oblongae, apice subacutae et induratae, 
marginibus ac saepe faciebus pilis albis articulatis hispidae, circ. 
0.9-1.2 cm. longae, pro capitulo juniore disco subaequales; interiores 
oblongo-ovatae plus minusve hispidae, saepius paulo longiores. 
Flores radiati 8-14, flavi, ligula subanguste ovato-oblongi, apice 
minutissime denticulati. Paleae late lineari-oblongae, subrigidae, 
valde paucistriatae, supra saepe hispidae atque abrupte vel sensim 
angustatae, demum achaeniorum corpora paulo superantes. 
Achaenia cuneato-oblanceolata, plana, brunneo-nigra, faciebus spar- 

1 See discussion under Bidens grandis Sherff. 



596 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

sim marginibus atque apice dense erecto-setosa, utraque facie nunc 
circ. 8- nunc circ. 16-sulcata, corpore 1-1.4 cm. longa et 3-4.5 mm. 
lata, biaristata; aristis acribus, brunneo-stramineis, infra medium 
subsparsim antrorsumque setosis, supra medium plerumque nudis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Domenico Riva, No. 85 (field No. 
1306; Expedition of Eugenia Ruspoli], in grassy fields and on plains, 
from Biddum to Volghe, Somalia, September 15, 1893 (Flor., 2 
sheets). 

Distribution : Somalia. 

Specimens examined: Riva, 85 (Flor., 2 type sheets). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXVII 

Bidens somaliensis : a, flowering specimen (stem sub tetragonal, 
but this not showing well in sketch), X0.56; 6, exterior involucral 
bract, X3.37; c, interior involucral bract, X3.37; d, ray corolla, 
Xl.69; e, palea, X3.37;/, disc floret, X4.5; g, achene, X3.37; all from 
2 type sheets. 

204. Bidens Seretii (DeWild.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 
162. pi. 14. 1923. PI. CLXVIII. 

Coreopsis Seretii DeWild. Ann. Mus. Congo V. 2: 212. 1907. 

Herba perennis, erecta, 0.9-1.5 m. alta, habitu Heliantho simil- 
lima; caule subtereti vel aegre quadrangulari, glabrescenti vel 
setulis brevissimis hispidulo, non nisi ad apicem ramoso. Folia 
sessilia, 6-13 cm. longa et 1.5-3 cm. lata, indivisa, lanceolata vel 
lanceolato-oblonga, rigidula, serrata dentibus calloso-apiculatis, 
supra rugulosa et glabrata vel scabrido-hispida, infra pallidiora et 
scabrido-hispida, margine ciliata, apice acuminata, basi inferiora ac 
mediana saepius sensim summa plerumque abrupte angustata, 
mediana (interdum) summa (saepe) etiam subamplexicaulia. Capi- 
tula non numerosa, corymbosa, magna, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 
5-8 cm. lata et 1.4-1.8 cm. alta, pedunculata pedunculis tomentoso- 
hispidis, 3.5 cm. longis. Involucrum scabrido-hispidum, bracteis 
imperfecte 4-serialibus, ad apicem saepius reflexis; exterioribus circ. 
12 (6+6), subfoliaceis, late lineari-oblongis vel interdum late oblongo- 
lanceolatis, supra attenuatis, apice acutis, circ. 1.3-1.7 (rarius -3) 
cm. longis, in capitulo juniore discum facile superantibus; bracteis 
interioribus late linearibus vel etiam lanceolatis, superne attenuatis, 
quam exterioribus manifeste brevioribus. Flores ligulati 10-14, 
flavi, ligula oblanceolati vel elliptico-oblongi, 12-16 striis percursi, 
tubi apice pilosi, ad summam integri vel interdum lobulati, 2.5-4.5 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany. Vol. XVI, Plate CLXXX 




BIDENS CHAETODONTA Sherff (figs, a, c-i); var. GLABRIOU (O. & H. in Oliv.) Sherff (fig. b) 



Of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 597 

cm. longi et 0.6-1.5 cm. lati; ovario sterili oblongo vel subcuneato, 
piano, marginibus et apicem versus adrecte setoso, 2-3 mm. longo. 
Achaenia matura lineari-oblonga vel subcuneata, plana, subatra, 
striata, marginibus et apice adrecte setosa, faciebus non nisi supra 
setosa, corpore 5-10 mm. longa et 1.4-2 mm. lata, biaristata; aristis 
tenuibus, suberectis, infra saepe 1-3 setis acriter adrecteque munitis, 
supra calvis vel interdum apicem versus 1 vel 2 setis retrorsum 
hamosis, 1.5-2.5 mm. longis. 

Type Specimen: Collected by F. Seret, No. 306, at summit of 
Mt. Angba, on right bank of Uele River, Belgian Congo, November 
9, 1905 (Bruss., 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Belgian Congo and adjacent Uganda of British 
East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Miss G. E. Benham, Mt. Elgon, Uganda, 
British East Africa, 1920 (Brit.) ; Joseph Bequaert 3040, on grassy 
savanna, Irumu, Belgian Congo, March 14, 1914 (Bruss., 2 sheets); 
M. T. Dawe 415, alt. 1,500 meters, Ankoa, Uganda, 1905 (Kew); 
R. Dummer 313, alt. 1,200 meters, swamp, Uganda, October, 1913 
(Brit.) ; idem 492, alt. 1,200 meters, dry, grassy slope, Namaiba Hill, 
Uganda, October 15, 1913 (Brit.; Par.); idem 493, eodem loco, 
November-December, 1913 (Kew) ; R. Fyffe 235, Entebbe, Uganda 
(Kew); T. D. Maitland 236, common on hillsides in grassland, 
Kampala, Uganda, October, 1922 (Kew; nom. vulg., Kymyula); 
idem 634B, Uganda (Kew); Nannan 601, near villages and in old 
clearings, alt. 800 meters, Kokuma, Terr. Wamba, Distr. Ituri, 
Belgian Congo, June 23, 1923 (Bruss.); Seret 306 (type, Bruss., 2 
sheets); C. B. Ussher 1, Mabira Forest, Chagwe, Uganda, October, 
1906 (Kew). 

There are two ample specimens of the type. Their achenes are 
wingless and the aristae lack barbs. A specimen from Uganda 
(Dawe 415) has, however, many of the aristae retrorsely barbed at 
the apex. This last specimen I had described in manuscript as a 
new species, but later found it specifically identical with the type 
specimens of Coreopsis Seretii. It may be remarked that, had De- 
Wildeman relied upon the more significant presence or absence of 
achenial wings instead of the presence or absence of retrorse aristal 
barbs (cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 59: 308. 1915), he would have had no 
hesitation in placing the species in Bidens at the outset. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXVIII 

Bidens Seretii: a, flowering specimen, X0.55; b, portion of lower 
surface of leaf, X2.2; c, exterior involucral bract, Xl.65; d, interior 



598 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

involucral bract, Xl.65; e, ray floret, Xl.l;/, palea, Xl.65; g, disc 
floret, Xl.65; h, achene, X3.31; all from Dawe 415, in Hb. Brit. 

205. Bidens Stuhlmannii (0. Hoffm.) Sherff, 
Bot.Gaz. 76: 158. 1923. PI. CLXIX. 

Coreopsis Stuhlmannii 0. Hoffm. in Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afr. C. 
415. 1895. 

Herba perennis, usque ad 1.5 m. alta, ramis saepe tetragonis 
nunc glabratis nunc glanduloso-pubescentibus vel superne tomen- 
tosis. Folia sessilia vel subsessilia, indivisa, nunc late oblongo- 
lanceolata, nunc anguste oblonga vel elliptica, apice acuta, basi 
late cuneata vel rotundato-truncata et in petiolum brevissimum 
alatum subito contracta, margine grosse serrata et minute ciliata, 
supra parce subter dense glanduloso-pilosa, usque ad 11 cm. longa. 
Capitula ad apices ramorum plerumque solitaria, radiata, pansa ad 
anthesin 5-7 cm. lata et circ. 1.5 cm. alta. Involucri bracteae circ. 
4-seriatae, subaequilongae, ab 7-12 exterioribus ovato-lanceolatis 
vel oblongis herbaceis undique tomentosis ad interiores angustiores 
membranaceas multo minus pubescentes sensim vel abrupte transe- 
untes, 1.2-1.8 cm. longae. Flores ligulati 9-12, flavi, ligula late 
elliptic! vel oblanceolati, circ. 2.5-3 cm. longi. Achaenia plana, 
demum lineari-oblonga et atra, utraque facie circ. 8-striata, exalata, 
margine apiceque erecto-setosa, corpore 6-7.5 mm. longa et circ. 
1.5 mm. lata, biaristata, aristis tenuibus, nudis vel rarius 1-3 spinulis 
ad basim antrorsum hamosis, usque ad 2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by F ranz Ludwig Stuhlmann, No. 1649, 
at altitude of 1,550 meters, Kitungu (Karagwe), German East 
Africa, February 19, 1890 (Berl.). 1 

Distribution: Uganda Protectorate of British East Africa, south- 
ward to the west of Lake Victoria Nyanza (Lake Ukerewe), thence 
southeastward to east central German East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Von Prittwitz und Gaffron 293, Meia- 
Kampi-ndizi road, east central German East Africa, May 16, 1901 
(Berl.; Hamb.); Stuhlmann 1649 (type, Berl.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXIX 

Bidens Stuhlmannii: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.61; 
h, separate leaf, X0.61; c, portion of leaf enlarged to show pubescence, 

1 The Stuhlmann plant is taken as the type. Hoffmann cited a specimen by 
Meyer first, but this was a mere scrap, utterly worthless for determination. The 
fairly large and much better specimen by Stuhlmann, though cited after Meyer's, 
was clearly the type from which Hoffmann's description was drawn. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXXXI 




BIDENS RUEPPELLII (Schz. Bip.) Sherff 



THE GENUS BIDENS 599 

X2.44; d, exterior involucral bract, X2.44; e, interior involucral 
bract, X2.44; /, ray floret, X2.44; g, palea, X2.44; h, disc floret, 
X2.44; i, j, achenes, X3.66; a, j, from Prittwitz-Gaffron 293, in Hb. 
Berl.; rest from type. 

206. Bidens grandis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 59: 309. 1915. PL CLXXI. 
Coreopsis lineata Klatt, Ann. Naturh. Hofmus. Wien 7: 103. 1892. 
Coreopsis speciosa Hiern, Cat. Welw. PI. 1, part 3: 585. 1898. 

Herba robusta, erecta, annua vel biennis forsan saepius peren- 
nis, apicem versus ramosa, 1-2.2 m. alta; caule inferne glabrato, 
plus minusve quadrangulato, ramis erecto-patentibus apicem versus 
breviter hispidulis. Folia subsessilia vel petiolata petiolis usque ad 
2.5 cm. longis (totum folium 4-13 cm. vel ultra longum), coriacea 
vel parce submembranacea, glabrata vel utrinque breviter strigosa, 
ciliata, ad margines plus minusve cartilaginea et anguste revoluta, 
nunc indivisa et ovata vel raro lanceolata, nunc tripartita lobis 
ovatis vel terminali interdum oblongo-lanceolato et multo longiore; 
lamina foliolisve ad apicem obtusis vel interdum etiam acutis, ad 
margines grosse et inaequaliter dentatis dentibus acute indurato- 
apiculatis. Capitula magna, plerumque singulatim caulim ramosque 
terminantia, erecta, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 5-10 cm. lata, 
pedunculata; pedunculis 5-15 cm. longis, nudis vel foliatis, subro- 
bustis. Involucrum setis brevibus crassis spinulosisque vestitum, 
supra 2-4.5 cm. latum, bracteis biseriatis vel subtriseriatis; exteriori- 
bus 9-12, foliaceis, subcarnosis, aciculato-ciliatis, apice obtusis vel 
subacutis, nunc linearibus vel angustissime lineari-lanceolatis 
1.6-2.3 cm. longis et interiores ovato-lanceolatas dimidio superanti- 
bus, nunc (rarius) ovato-rotundatis tantum circ. 4 mm. longis et 
quam interioribus ovatis vel ovato-lanceolatis dimidio brevioribus. 
Flores ligulati numerosi, 10-18, aurei, ligula elongata lineari-elliptici 
vel interdum oblanceolati, apice acuto integri vel dentati, 2.5-3.8 
cm. longi. Achaenia lineari-oblonga vel cuneato-linearia, obcom- 
pressa vel plana, omnino circ. 16-sulcata, nigra, marginibus antror- 
sum setuloso-ciliata, corpore circ. 1 cm. longa, apice subemarginato 
dense adrecteque setulosa ac biaristata; aristis subulatis erecto- 
patentibus, supra calvis, infra adrecte setulosis, 2-3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Friedrich Welwitsch, No. 3537, by thickets from 
N-gombe in the direction of Puri-Cacarambola, Ambaca, Angola, 
October, 1856 (Brit.) is the first cited specimen. The original 
description was based also upon Welwitsch's 3535, 3536, and 3538, 
all from Pungo Andongo, in the same vicinity. 



600 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Distribution: Tropical Africa; chiefly in Angola, but also in the 
widely separated Usambara (northeastern German East Africa) and 
Sidamo (southern Abyssinia) regions at the east of the continent. 

Specimens examined: John Gossweiler, alt. 1,300 meters, near 
Sucala (Lucalla) River at Gala Suije, Malange Region, Angola, 
June, 1925 (U.S.); idem 1224, common between Lucalla (Sucala) 
and Catembe on road to Malange (Malanji), Angola, May 5, 1903 
(Berl.; Kew); idem 1227, District of Malange (Malanji), Angola, 
June 5, 1903 (Brit.; nom. vulg., Kebullo; decocta pro vulnerum 
lavatione insumpta, fide Gossweileri) ; idem 4338, open thickets, 
Kaconda (Kakonda), Distr. of Benguella (Benguela), Angola, 
February, 1907 (Brit.); idem 5727, here and there in Andropogon 
beds at Camondai and N'dalatando, Angola, May 20, 1912 (Brit.; 
forma olim pro var. Welwitschii Sherff habita); R. Houy (sub H. 
Meyer o] 1213, southern Ussagara (Usagara, Uzagara), German 
East Africa, November, 1911 (Berl.); L. Keil 1, Musumba, Distr. 
Usambara, German East Africa, May 3, 1905 (Berl.); idem 10, alt. 
2,000 meters, eodem loco, May 4, 1905 (Berl.); 0. Neumann 79, alt. 
2,300-2,800 meters, Sidamo region, Abyssinia, December 24, 1900 
(Berl.; forma multis aristis omnino nudis, tantum una arista [uno 
hamo] retrorsum barbata visa); Alex. Von Mechow 131, Pungo- 
Andongo, Angola, January-April, 1879 (Berl.; Gray); idem 394, 
Malange (Malanji), Angola, January, 1880 (Berl.) ; Welwitsch 3272 pro 
parte, very rare, to the left of the Caringa River, Angola, June, 1855 
(Brit., type, and Kew, cotype of var. Welwitschii Sherff ined.; cum 
B. Steppia var. ambacensi commixt.); idem 3535, alt. 720-1,140 m., 
Pungo-Andongo, communic. April, 1883 (Brit.; Kew); idem 3536, 
frequent in open forests, especially near Sansamanda, Angola, May 
1, 1857 (Brit.); idem 3537, thickets from N-gombe toward Puri- 
Cacarambola, Distr. Ambaca, Angola, October, 1856 (Brit. ; necdum 
bene floruit); idem 3538, alt. 720-1,140 meters, Pungo-Andongo, 
Angola, communic. April, 1883 (Brit., 2 sheets; Kew). 

In the Kew Herbarium, Welwitsch 3535 is mounted with Wel- 
witsch 3538. These two had been regarded by Dr. Welwitsch in his 
manuscript as the same species. No. 3535 is the form with sessile, 
ovate, undivided but conspicuously dentate leaves represented more 
or less closely by Gossweiler 4338, Neumann 79, Houy 1213, and 
Von Mechow 394 ; still less so by Gossweiler 1227, which has lanceolate 
leaves. 1 Von Mechow 394 had been cited by Klatt (Ann. Naturh. 

1 Gossweiler's field label says "see 1224 that is the same." His 1224 is good 
B. grandis. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXXXII 




BIDENS VATKEI Sherff 



OF THk 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 601 

Hofmus. Wien 7: 103. 1892) for Bidens Buchneri (Klatt) Sherff. To 
the type of B. Buchneri (Buchner 31) it does, indeed, offer a strong 
resemblance. In fact, I have suspected that through further such 
forms as Von Mechow 394, B. grandis may be proved to pass into 
B. Buchneri and perhaps even be shown to be conspecific. Certain it 
is that distinction is impossible in some cases except upon the ques- 
tionable basis of upwardly (B. grandis) versus downwardly (B. 
Buchneri) barbed aristae. 1 For the present it seems wise to await 
more positive data before attempting to merge the two. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXI 

Bidens grandis: a, flowering branch, X0.67; b, marginal portion 
of leaf, upper surface, enlarged to show hairs, X2.69; c (tripartite), 
d (simple), leaves, X0.67; e, exterior involucral bract, X2.69;/, interior 
involucral bract, X2.69; g, ray corolla, X 2.69; h, palea, X2.69; i, 
disc floret, X2.69; ;', achene, X2.69; a, mainly (6, entirely) from 
Welwitsch 3535, but partly from Welwitsch 3538, both in Hb. Kew; 
c, e-j, from Welwitsch 3538, in Hb. Brit. ; d, from Gossweiler 1227, 
ibid. 

207. Bidens coriacea (0. Hoffm.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 

81:52. 1926. PI. CLXXII. 

Coreopsis coriacea 0. Hoffm. in Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afr. 414. 1899. 
Coreopsis ruwenzoriensis S. L. Moore, Journ. Linn. Soc. 35: 345. 1902. 
Bidens ruwenzoriensis (S. L. Moore) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 59: 309. 1915. 

Herba erecta, elata, verisimiliter 0.6-2 m. alta; caule glaberrimo 
vel ad summam interdum minute pubescenti; ramis validis, tereti- 
quadrangularibus, adscendentibus. Folia sessilia, per paria plus mi- 
nusve connata, oblonga vel oblongo-oblanceolata, firme membranacea, 
albido-virescentia vel glaucescentia, glabra vel faciebus obscure pubes- 
centia et margine ciliata, subgrosse subsimpliciterque serrata denti- 
bus saepius indurato-apiculatis, principalia 10-13 cm. longa et 3-4.5 
cm. lata. Capitula magna ramulos singillatim coronantia, radiata, 
pansa ad anthesin plerumque 7-8 cm. lata et 1.5-2 cm. alta. Involu- 
cri bracteae 3- vel 4-seriatae, glabrae vel minute pubescentes, extimae 
(circ. 5) ovato-lanceolatae, foliosae et interdum sparsissime denti- 
culatae, apice subacutae, usque ad 3 cm. longae et 1.5 cm. latae; 
interiores vix vel manifeste breviores, lanceolatae, margine non 
decoloratae. Flores ligulati circ. 12, lutei, ligula anguste ovato- 
oblongi, apice undulati vel circ. 3-denticulati, 2.3-3.5 cm. longi et 

1 In Neumann 79, among all the ovaries examined, one barb was found pointing 
downward ; all the others were erect. 



602 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

1-1.5 cm. lati; paleis lineari-lanceolatis, achaenia facile superantibus, 
1-1.5 cm. longis. Achaenia atra vel atro-grisea, maxime obcom- 
pressa, oblonga, basi levissime angustata, margine apiceque erecto- 
setosa, utraque facie plus minusve erecto-setosa et circ. 8-sulcata, 
corpore 6-9 mm. longa et 1.8-2.3 mm. lata, biaristata vel rarius 
triaristata; aristis tenuibus, pro maxima parte nudis sed basim versus 
1-3 setulis erectis instructis, 1.5-2.8 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Fischer, No. 367, Massai Plateau, 
British and German East Africa, March 26-30, 1886 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Southwestern British East Africa, in region sur- 
rounding northern half of Lake Victoria Nyanza (Lake Ukerewe), 
and on the Massai Plateau passing into German East Africa. 

Specimens examined : R. Cummer 492, alt. 1,200 meters, dry slope, 
Hamaiba Hill, Uganda, British East Africa, October, 1913 (Brit.); 
G. F. S. Elliot 7410, in tall grass, Kavirondo, British East Africa, 
1893-1894 (Brit.; Kew; type material of Coreopsis ruwenzoriensis 
Moore) ; Fischer 367 (type, Berl. };Evan James, Libu, Nandi Country, 
Uganda (Kew); herb. Jean Lebrun 4347, alt. 850-1,000 meters, near 
Mt. Ruwenzori, Belgian Congo, November, 1931 (Bruss.); E. A. 
Mearns 2524, alt. 650-1,110 meters, vicinity of Kabula Muliro, on 
trail from Entebbe, Victoria Nyanza, to Butiaba, Albert Nyanza, 
Uganda, December 26, 1909 (U.S.); idem 2625, alt. 650-1,110 
meters, vicinity of Yilo, on trail from Entebbe to Butiaba, December 
31, 1909 (U.S.); H. Powell 6, Kibose, British East Africa, 1906 
(Kew); W. Small 1192, short-grass land at alt. 1,500 meters, foot- 
hills of Mt. Elgon, British East Africa, November, 1914 (Kew); 
J. D. Snowden 28, alt. 1,410 meters, Toro (Kyaka; east of and adja- 
cent to Mt. Ruwenzori), Uganda, 1913 (Kew); Alexander Whyte, 
from Nandi to Mumias, etc., British East Africa, 1898 (Kew, 
3 sheets). 

The type of Bidens rmvenzoriensis (Moore) Sherff, G. F. S. Elliot 
7410, was stated by Moore to have been collected at Mt. Ruwenzori, 
but the original field tag on the cotype at Kew gives, as the type 
locality, Kavirondo, some 400 kilometers to the east. 1 Both the 
type and the cotype consisted merely of fragments from the inflores- 
cence. Thus the original description was necessarily very faulty 
and misleading as to general habit, size of leaves, etc. Fortunately, 
there have been received at Kew several additional specimens from 

1 The name ruwenzoriensis was not entirely inappropriate, since Mt. Ruwenzori 
was Elliot's destination, and his herbarium labels bear the heading, "Ruwenzori 
Expedition." 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXXXIII 




BIDENS ROTATA Sherff 



Or THt 
DIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 603 

the same general region, which show the species to be a tall, hand- 
some perennial, doubtless reaching a height of 2 meters, although 
Small reported it as growing 2-3 feet. As the mutual identity of 
all these specimens admits of no doubt, I have taken advantage of 
them to draw up a fresh and amplified description of the species. 

The type proper of B. coriacea consists of seven fragments from 
the inflorescence, which offer at least a superficial resemblance to the 
type of B. ruwenzoriensis. Indeed, Moore (loc. cit.) appears to have 
suspected them of being the same. In the B. coriacea type the outer- 
most involucral bracts, as noted by Moore, are not noticeably longer 
than the inner ones, and the achenes are mainly triaristate. In the 
type material of B. ruwenzoriensis, also in the material by Diimmer,by 
Small, by Snowden, and by Whyte, the outermost bracts are easily 
the longest and the achenes are biaristate. In a former article (Bot. 
Gaz. 81 : 52. 1926) I pointed out the similarity between the two forms. 
Since then I have studied the material by Sir Evan James, which has 
the achenes biaristate as in the type of B. ruwenzoriensis, but the 
outermost bracts not much longer than the others. With this 
connecting form at hand, there appears no justification for attempt- 
ing further retention of B. ruwenzoriensis as a separate species. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXII 

Bidens coriacea: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.57; b, 
exterior involucral bract, Xl.72; c, d, e, various interior involucral 
bracts (c, e, X2.3; d, Xl.7); /, ray floret, Xl.7; g, palea, Xl.7; h, 
disc floret, X3.44; i (outer), j (inner), achenes, X3.44; k, submature 
achene, X2.29; a, from Snowden 28, in Hb. Kew; b, d, f-j, from 
Scott Elliot 7410 (cotype of Bidens ruwenzoriensis [S. L. Moore] 
Sherff), in Hb. Kew; c, e, k, from type of Bidens coriacea. 

208. Bidens Brucei Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 97: 606. 1936. 

a. Kami glabrati; achaeniorum aristis inferne robustis 1 mm. longis. 

B. Brucei sensu stricto. 

a. Kami pubescentes; achaeniorum aristis omnino tenuibus 2 mm. 
longis. 

b. Achaenia corpore 6-7 mm. longa var. /8. pubescent/tor. 

b. Achaenia corpore 7-9 mm. longa var. 7. Swynnertonii. 

Herba fruticosa, perennis, erecta, 1.8 m. alta, caulibus ramisque 
angulatis et non (nisi summam versus) pubescentibus. Folia inferne 
in petiolos hispido-tomentulosos usque ad 1.5 cm. longos supra saepe 
marginatos abrupto-angustata, petiolo adjecto 6-11 cm. longa et 



604 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

2-4.5 cm. lata, indivisa, lanceolato-oblonga vel saepius subrhom- 
boideo-ovata, grosse serrata, apice subacuta, utrinque hispida. 
Capitula pauca, pedunculos subrobustos apicaliter folio-bracteatos 
terminantia, radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 7 cm. lata et circ. 
1.5-1.8 cm. alta. Involucri hispidi bracteae 3-4-seriales, laxe adgre- 
gatae, interdum patentes vel subreflexae, subaequales, plus minusve 
oblongae, apice acutae, 1-2 cm. longae, intimae apicem versus 
angustatae. Flores ligulati 10-12, flavi, ligula oblongi vel lineares, 
apice parce denticulati, 3-4 cm. longi et 0.6-1.6 cm. lati. Paleae 
oblonge lineares, apice subacuto coloratae alibi stramineae, 1.1-1.4 
cm. longae. Achaenia late vel anguste oblongo-linearia, obcom- 
pressa, nigra, utraque facie circ. 8-sulculata, exalata, marginibus et 
facierum lineis perspicue erecteque papillato-setulosa, corpore 6-8 
mm. longa et 1-2 mm. lata, apice erecte pauci-setosa et 2- (vel faciei 
ventralis costa mediana extensa saepe sub-3-) aristata aristis inferne 
robustis erecto-setosisque superne nudis tenuibusque 1 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Miss E. M. Bruce (for whom 
named), No. 26, at altitude of 660 meters, Ulugurue, Morogoro, 
German East Africa, October 25, 1934 (Kew; nom. vulg., m-luga). 

Distribution : Southeastern German East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Bruce 26 (type, Kew); B. D. Burtt 4696, 
herb 3-4 ft. tall, on steep grass slopes, alt. 900 meters, Ulugurue 
Mts., above Morogoro, May 9, 1933 (Kew, 2 sheets). 

Bidens Brucei var. /3. pubescentior Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 97: 607. 1936. 

A specie caulibus ramisque breviter patenti-hispidulis achaeni- 
orum minorum (corpore 6-7 mm. longorum) apice numerose 
erecteque setoso aristis regulariter 2 tenuissimis 2 mm. longis non 
nisi base ipsa setosis differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by G. B. Wallace, No. 294, herb 6 feet 
tall, at altitide of 900 meters, Morogoro District, German East 
Africa, February 16, 1932 (Kew; nom. vulg., luzasu). 

Distribution: Southeastern German East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Wallace 294 (type, Kew). 

Bidens Brucei var. 7. Swynnertonii Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 97: 607. 1936. 

A var. pubescentiore achaeniis corpore 7-9 mm. longis et 2-2.2 
mm. latis floribus ligulatis (tan turn 8 pro singulo capitulo visis) 
forsan paucioribus differt. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXXXIV 




OF THk 
8HWEHSITY OF 



THE GENUS BIDENS 605 

Type specimen: Collected by C. F. M. Swynnerton, No. 859, 
Hiwaga, German East Africa, April-June, 1921 (Brit.). 
Distribution : Southeastern German East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Swynnerton 859 (type, Brit.); idem 860, 
Kigobcra, May- June, 1921 (Brit.). 

209. Bidens Crataegifolia (0. Hoffm.) Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 76: 158. 1923. PI. CLXXIII. 

Coreopsis Crataegifolia 0. Hoffm. Bot. Jahrb. 30: 431. 1901. 

. Herba perennis; caule lignescenti, nunc simplici et monocephalo, 
nunc ramoso et pluribus capitulis coronato, infra interdum glabres- 
centi, superne glanduloso-piloso, verisimiliter circ. 5-10 dm. alto. 
Folia subcoriacea, circumambitu ovato-lanceolata vel etiam lance- 
olata, basi in petiolum alatum 2-3 cm. longum angustata, petiolo 
adjecto 7-10 cm. longa et 2.5-3.5 cm. lata, utrinque scabro-pilosa, 
grosse dentata vel irregulariter et non profunde pinnatisecta, seg- 
mentis lateralibus acutis usque ad 17 mm. longis et 7 mm. latis 
dentibus calloso-apiculatis; folia suprema anguste oblonga vel etiam 
lineari-lanceolata, sessilia, integra, minora. Capitula magna, breviter 
pedunculata, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 6-7 cm. lata et 1-1.7 cm. 
alta. Involucri hemisphaerici basi glanduloso-villosi bracteae 
exteriores 7-11, oblongo-lineares, pilosae, apice callosae, 1-1.5 cm. 
longae; interiores paulo breviores, minus pilosae, ovato-lanceolatae, 
obtuse acuminatae. Flores ligulati circ. 8, ligula elliptici vel elliptico- 
oblanceolati, apice obtuso non perspicue denticulati, 3-3.5 cm. longi 
et 7-10 mm. lati. Achaenia submatura obcompressa, exalata, 
brunneo-nigrescentia, linearia, 6-6.5 mm. longa et 1-1.5 mm. lata, 
faciebus glabra, margine et apice inter aristas antrorsum setosa, 
biaristata aristis nudis circ. 0.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by W. Goetze, No. 851, on unforested 
slopes at altitude of 1,800 meters, Yawulanda Mountain, Living- 
stone Mountains, German East Africa, April 18, 1899 (Berl.). 

Distribution: German East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Goetze 851 (type, Berl.: cotype, Brit.). 

Native name said to be "maharrama." The foliage strongly 
suggests in outline that of some species of Crataegus. Hoffmann (loc. 
cit.) described the ovaries as winged, but a careful search through his 
type material shows that he used the term carelessly, for there is 
no trace of definite wings such as are usually found in true Coreopsis. 



606 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Their absence on the many submature achenes examined makes it 
appear preferable to class the species with Bidens. 

The type sheet bears merely small, simple-stemmed plants. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXIII 

Bidens Crataegifolia: a, flowering branch, X0.62; b, detached leaf, 
X0.62; /, lower surface of portion of leaf magnified to show pubes- 
cence, X2.5; d, exterior involucral bract, X2.5; e, interior involucral 
bract, X2.5; /, ray corolla, Xl.25; g, palea, X2.5; h, disc floret, 
X3.74; i, submature achene, X3.74; all from type. 

210. Bidens kilimandscharica (0. Hoffm.) Sherff, 

Bot. Gaz. 59: 309. 1915. PL CLXXIV. 

Coreopsis kilimandscharica 0. Hoffm. Bot. Jahrb. 20: 234. 1894. 
Achaeniorum aristae glabrae vel ad basim antrorsum setosae. 

B. kilimandscharica sensu stricto. 
Achaeniorum aristae ad apicem saepissime retrorsum hamosae. 

var. /8. retrorsa. 

Erecta, perennis, 1-2.3 m. alta, subramosa (forsan valde ramosa) 
ramis herbaceis, aliter frutici non dissimilis sed verisimiliter nullo 
tempore frutex verus; caule ramisque obtuse tetragonis vel sub- 
teretibus, tomentulosis. Folia summa sessilia, cetera inferne sensim 
abrupteve angustata in petiolum latum 0.5-2.5 cm. longum, petiolo 
adjecto 3-9 cm. longa, utrinque densissime tomentulosa; nunc indi- 
visa, oblonga vel ovata, basi truncata vel rotundata vel grosse 
cuneata, margine grosse crenata vel lobulata; nunc polymorpha, 
varie plus minusve (saepe profunde) sinuato-pinnatifida, dentibus 
lobisque rotundatis, ad apicem nunc obtusis, nunc calloso-mucro- 
natis. Capitula magna, ad apices ramorum solitaria vel in cymis 
oligocephalis disposita, breviter pedunculata, radiata, ad anthesin 
5-8 cm. lata et 9-11 mm. alta. Involucrum tomentulosum ; bracteis 
exterioribus 9-11, late lineari-oblongis, apice obtusis, 8-15 mm. 
longis, demum reflexis; interioribus lanceolatis subaequilongis. 
Flores ligulati 8-11, aurei, ligula elliptico-oblanceolati, apice subin- 
tegri, 2.5-4 cm. longi. Achaenia lineari-oblonga, valde obcom- 
pressa, nigrescentia, ad margines apicemque antrorsum ciliata, ad 
facies breviter pilosa, corpore 6-7 mm. longa et 1.5 forsan raro 2 
mm. lata, biaristata; aristis de apice fere usque ad basim plerumque 
glaberrimis sed basi ipsa antrorsum setosis, 1-2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by W. L. Abbott, Kilimanjaro, German 
East Africa, 1890 (Berl.). 1 

1 Abbott's specimen was the first one cited by Hoffmann. This was followed 
by Volkens 398 and 537. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 607 

Distribution: British East Africa and German East Africa, 
where common especially from Mt. Kenia to Mt. Kilimanjaro; 
occurring also in Angola. 

Specimens examined: W. L. Abbott, Kilimanjaro, 1890 (type, 
Berl.: cotype, U.S.); E. Battiscombe 78, alt. 2,700-3,000 meters, 
Mt. Kenia, British East Africa, June 24, 1909 (Brit.); Rudolph 
Endlich 400, alt. 1,150 meters, forest-covered steppe, Kibohohe, 
Kilimanjaro, June, 1909 (Berl.); idem 400a, alt. 1,300 meters, 
Kibognoto, Kilimanjaro, July, 1909 (Berl.); H.M.Gardner 1416, 
alt. 2,250 meters, Maji Mazuri, British East Africa (Kew); John 
Gossweiler 3640, thicket-grown pasturage, Valley of River Kubal, 
near Kaconda, Angola, March, 1907 (Brit.); F. Jaeger 192, dry 
steppes, north slopes of Gua Mts., Iraku, German East Africa, 
September 14, 1906 (Berl., 2 sheets) ; H. H. Johnston ( Kilimanjaro 
Exped.} 190, alt. 1,290 meters, 1884 (Kew); T. Kassner 870, 
Galunka, British East Africa, May 30, 1902 (Berl.; Brit.; Kew); 
T. H. Marshall 5, Moshi, German East Africa, 1927 (Kew) ; W. E. 
Taylor, eastern equatorial Africa, 1888 (Brit.); Carl Uhlig 414, 
bush region, southwestern Meru, German East Africa, October 21, 
1904 (Berl.) ; idem 480, alt. 1,600 meters, in meadows, above Enzonzo 
Enzare, November 13, 1901 (Berl.); Georg Volkens 398, alt. 1,500 
meters, abundant on grassy plateau, Distr. Uschiri, Kilimanjaro, 
June 14, 1893 (Berl.; Brit.); idem 537, alt. 1,200 meters, among 
bushes on road to the steppe, Distr. Marangu, German East Africa, 
July 6, 1893 (Berl.; Hamb.). 

The branches as preserved in herbaria have the appearance of 
having come from a large, coarse herb. Uhlig, however, labeled 
his No. 414 a shrub ("Strauch d. Strauchregion") and Volkens, in 
labeling his own No. 537, likewise described it as a shrub ("Strauch 
bis 2 m. hoch"). The other collectors are silent upon this point. 
Hoffmann's description (loc. cit.) of the species as a shrub doubtless 
was based upon Volkens' label. It is doubtful, however, if the plants 
form true woody shrubs (frutices) in the common sense of the term. 

The discontinuous distribution shown by the occurrence of this 
species in Angola as well as in British and German East Africa is 
notable. The Angola plant (Gossweiler 3640) was carefully compared 
with Kassner 870 from British East Africa and found to match well. 

Bidens kilimandscharica var. (3. retrorsa Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 92:202. 1931. 

A specie achaeniorum aristis ad apicem saepissime retrorsum 
hamosis differt. 



608 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Type specimen: Collected by A. E. Haarer, No. 1472, at altitude 
of about 1,200 meters, Doloti, Moshi District, German East Africa, 
August, 1928 (Kew). 

Distribution : Known only from type locality in German East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Haarer 1472 (type, Kew). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXIV 

Bidens kilimandscharica: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, 
X0.65; 6, exterior involucral bract, X3.27; c, interior involucral 
bract, X3.27; d, ray corolla, Xl.63; e, palea, X3.27; /, disc floret, 
X3.27; g, achene, X3.27; all from Kassner 870, in Hb. Brit. 

211. Bidens rhodesiana Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 91: 309. 1931. 
PI. CLXX, figs. j-p. 

Herba perennis, erecta, ramosa, verisimiliter circ. 8-10 dm. alta, 
breviter denseque hispida, caule ramisque tetragonis, internodiis 
elongatis. Folia subsessilia vel petiolata petiolis alatis usque ad 
circ. 1.3 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 3-7 cm. longa (inferiora non 
visa), membranacea sed rigidula, circumambitu nunc late nunc 
anguste deltoideo-ovata, pinnata; foliolis lateralibus 1-2 jugis ovatis 
terminali ovato lanceolatove, omnibus dentatis dentibus obtusis vel 
etiam orbiculatis sed acriter mucronulatis. Capitula pauca, longe 
tenuiterque pedunculata, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 5-6 cm. lata 
et circ. 1-1.2 cm. alta. Involucri bracteae dorsaliter hispidae 
exteriores circ. 8, nunc lineari-oblongae nunc etiam oblongo-ovatae, 
apicaliter obtusae, circ. 4-8 mm. longae; interiores ovato-lanceolatae, 
9-12 mm. longae. Flores ligulati circ. 9, flavi, ligula oblongo- 
oblanceolati, apice obscure 3-denticulati, 2-2.5 cm. longi. Paleae 
lineari-oblongae, circ. 7-8 mm. longae. Achaenia plana, atrobrunnea, 
lineari-oblonga, basim versus paulum angustata, faciebus glabra, 
utraque facie circ. 8-sulcata, marginibus antrorsum setosa, apice 
antrorsum setosa ac biaristata; aristis tenuibus, glabris, plerumque 
1-1.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by A. J. Teague, No. 226, in the 
Odzani River Valley, District of Manica, Division of Umtali, 
southern Rhodesia, 1914 (Kew). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Southern 
Rhodesia. 

Specimens examined: Teague 226 (type, Kew). 

The leaves of the specimen illustrated (Plate CLXX, figs, j-p) 
resemble closely those of Bidens ukambensis. A second specimen on 



THE GENUS BIDENS 609 

the type sheet has the leaves more elongate, with the terminal 
leaflet having a narrowly lanceolate terminal lobe. The achenes 
are easily distinguished from those of B. ukambensis. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXX, FIGS. j-p 

Bidem rhodesiana: j, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.63; 
k, exterior involucral bract, X3.75; I, interior involucral bract, 
X3.75; m, ray floret, X2.5; n, palea, X3.75; o, disc floret, X5; p, 
achene, X5; all from type. 

212. Bidens ukambensis S. L. Moore, Journ. Linn. Soc. 
35: 350. 1902. PI. CLXX, figs. ar4. 

Tomentuloso-pubescens, verisimiliter elata ac perennis; ramulis 
subteretibus, solidis, sparsim foliosis. Folia subsessilia vel petiolata 
petiolis usque ad 1.5 cm. longis (totum folium 3-5 cm. longum), 
leviter profundeve et pinnatim trisecta; segmentis ovatis, acutis, 
paucidentatis vel intermedio saepe trilobulato, dentibus acute 
indurato-mucronatis. Capitula subsessilia vel saepius pedunculata 
pedunculis usque ad 6 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 3 cm. 
lata et 8 mm. alta. Involucrum valde tomentuloso-hispidum; 
bracteis exterioribus 8-11, anguste lanceolatis, acutiusculis, demum 
squarroso-reflexis, 7-10 mm. longis; interioribus similibus, 9-12 
mm. longis. Flores ligulati circ. 8, flavi, ligula obovato-oblongi, 
apice integri, circ. 1.5 cm. longi et involucrum multo superantes. 
Achaenia lineari-oblonga, acute tetragona, obcompressa, nigrescentia, 
omnino obsolete circ. 16-sulcata, apice angulisque adrecte setosa, 
faciebus subsparsim et breviter pilosa; corpore receptaculi paleas 
haud excedente 6-8 mm. longa et circ. 1.3 mm. lata, 2-4- (saepius 
3- raro 4-) aristata; aristis tenuibus, fuscis, erectis, basi adrecte 
setulosis, alibi levibus vel supra saepe unco unico prominulo instruc- 
tis, 2-2.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by G. F. Scott Elliot, No. 6462, at 
altitude of 1,500-1,800 meters, in Ukamba, British East Africa, 
1893-1894 (Brit.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Ukamba, British 
East Africa. 

Specimens examined : G. F. S. Elliot 6462 (type, Brit. : cotype, 
Kew). 

Moore compared this species in his manuscript with Bidens 
robustior and meant to describe it in print as near to that species 
"near the last." Unfortunately, there happened a misarrangement 



610 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

(fide correctionis in bibliotheca Brit.) of the text at the hands of the 
printer, as a result of which the "last" turned out unintentionally 
to be "Bidens leucantha Willd." 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXX, FIGS, d-l 

Bidens ukambensis: a, b, upper leaves, X0.63; c, portion of leaf 
enlarged to show tomentose surface, X3.75; d, exterior involucral 
bract, X3.75; e, interior involucral bract, X3.75; /, ray corolla, 
X2.5; g, palea, X3.75; h, disc floret, X3.75; i, achene, X5; all from 
cotype in Hb. Kew. 

213. Bidens Volkensii O. Hoffm. in Engler, Pflanzenw. 
Ost-Afr. C: 415. 1895. PI. CLXXV. 

Herba perennis, erecta, probabiliter 5-9 dm. alta, caule sulcato 
subteretique, ramis dense sed breviter subglanduloso-pilosis. Folia 
petiolata petiolis 4-9 mm. longis, petiolo adjecto 2-4 cm. longa, 
remota, circumambitu plus minusve ovata, indivisa vel triloba, 
grosse crenata, dense piloso-pubescentia, dentibus acriter calloso- 
apiculatis. Capitula longissime pedunculata cymam oligocephalam 
laxam formantia pedunculis tenuibus usque ad 18 cm. longis, radiata, 
pansa ad anthesin circ. 2-2.5 cm. lata et 7-8 mm. alta. Involucri 
bracteae villosae, exteriores circ. 6-8, lineares, obtusae vel acriter 
apiculatae, erectae vel reflexae, circ. 4-5 mm. longae, quam interiores 
membranaceae lanceolatae multo breviores. Flores ligulati 5-8, 
lutei, ligula elliptici vel ovato-lanceolati, apice denticulati. Achaenia 
lineari-oblanceolata, obcompressa, atra, antrorsum plus minusve 
setoso-hispida, faciebus 8-sulcata, corpore 5-6 mm. longa et circ. 1 mm. 
lata, biaristata aristis retrorsum hamosis circ. 1.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Georg Volkens, No. 1694, on the 
Quare 1 River below Madwame, Kilimanjaro region, eastern equato- 
rial Africa, December 26, 1893 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Region of Mt. Kilimanjaro, eastern equatorial 
Africa. 

Specimens examined: Volkens 1694 (type, Berl.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXV 

Bidens Volkensii: a, flowering branch, X0.7; b, exterior involucral 
bract, X5.6; c, interior involucral bract, X4.2; d, ray floret, X2.1; 
e, palea, X4.2; /, disc floret, X5.6; g, achene, X4.2; all from type. 

] Spelled Ouri on Volkens' label. Same as Limpopo River. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 611 

214. Bidens lineata Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 84. 1923. 

PL CLXXVI. 

Herba gracilis, forsan perennis, verisimiliter 5-7 dm. alta; caule 
moderatim ramoso, subtetragono, sulcato, breviter setoso, internodiis 
quam foliis plerumque multo longioribus. Folia subsessilia vel 
breviter petiolata petiolis 2-6 mm. longis, petiolo adjecto 1-4 cm. 
longa, pinnata; foliolis 3 vel 5, dentatis vel pinnatisectis; lobis 
linearibus vel lanceolatis, ciliatis et ad costas setosis, aliter hispidis 
vel etiam fere glabratis, apice plerumque acriter indurato-apiculatis. 
Capitula radiata, pauca, singillatim fines ramorum terminantia, 
pansa ad anthesin circ. 3-3.5 cm. lata et 7-8 mm. alta; pedunculis 
tenuibus 7-15 cm. longis. Involucri bracteae subaequales, 4-7 mm. 
longae, dorso hispidae, exteriores late lineares, supra saepe latiores, 
apice obtusae. Flores ligulati 6-8, flavi, elliptico-oblanceolati, apice 
minute et obscure denticulati, 1.2-1.6 cm. longi. Achaenia nigra, line- 
ari-clavata, tumido-obcompressa, utraque facie 8-sulcata, marginibus 
et supra inter sulcosantrorsumhispidavel tuberculato-hispida, corpore 
circ. 5 mm. longa et 1.2-1.5 mm. lata, tenuiterbiaristata, aristis lineatis 
vel lineis rectis valde similibus, retrorsum hamosis, circ. 2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Rudolph Endlich, No. 117, at 
altitude of 1,500 meters, on grass steppe, Kilimanjaro, German 
East Africa, summer of 1909 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Kilimanjaro, 
German East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Endlich 117 (type, Berl.). 

The type specimen had been determined at Berlin as Coreopsis 
exaristata 0. Hoffm. (Bidens microcarpa Sherff), to which it does 
bear a strong resemblance. The characters of the involucre and of 
the aristate achenes, however, are very distinct. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXVI 

Bidens lineata: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.62; b, lower 
surface of portion of leaf, enlarged to show pubescence, X3.72; 
c, exterior involucral bract, X3.1; d, interior involucral bract, X3.1; 
e, ray corolla, X2.48;/, palea, X3.1; g, disc floret, X3.1; h, achene, 
X3.72; all from type. 

215. Bidens Aspilioides (Baker) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 

94: 590. 1933. 

Coreopsis Aspilioides Baker, Kew Bull. 1898: 153. 1898. 

Herba perennis, erecta; caulibus circ. 3-6 dm. altis, ramosis, 
hispidis, remote foliatis. Folia opposita, sessilia, lanceolata, adscen- 



612 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

dentia, integra vel parce dentata, utrinque viridia, scabra, circ. 
7.5-10 cm. longa. Capitula radiata, ad apices ramorum solitaria 
vel pauca corymbosa. Involucrum campanulatum, 8 mm. altum, 
bracteis aequilongis lanceolatis foliaceis hispidis. Flores ligulati, 
aurantiaci; ligulis apice profunde fissis, circ. 1.2 cm. longis. Paleae 
lanceolatae, rigidae, 6-8 mm. longae. Achaenia faciebus margini- 
busque glabra, apice biaristata aristis parvis lanceolatisque. 

Type specimen: Collected by Alexander Whyte, at altitude of 
750-1,050 meters, Zomba, Nyassaland. 1 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Nyassaland. 

Specimens examined : None. 

216. Bidens Schweinfurthii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 59: 309. 1915. 

PL CLXXVII. 

Coreopsis linearifolia Oliv. & Hiern in Oliv. Fl. Trop. Afr. 3: 390. 

1877. 
Bidens linearifolia (Oliv. & Hiern) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 109. 1920; 

non B. linearifolia Schz. Bip. in Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald 307. 

1852-1857. 

Perennis, erecta, 1.2-1.5 m. alta; caule inferne subtereti, superne 
angulato, purpurascenti, e basi lignea, simplici vel supra parce 
ramoso, glabro. Folia crassiuscula, marginibus induratis revoluta 
involutave et scabrido-ciliata, aliter glabrata; principalia plerumque 
elongato-linearia atque indivisa, utrinque longe acuminata, non dis- 
tincte petiolata, 5-15 cm. longa et 5-8 (interdum -16) mm. lata; 
quaedam alia (praesertim minora) saepe irregulariter et profunde bi- 
vel trisecta, lobis linearibus acutisque. Capitula pauca, 1-3 in 
unico ramulo, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 3.5-5 cm. lata et 1.3-1.6 
cm. alta, pedunculata pedunculis 1-12 cm. longis. Involucrum basi 
hispido-scabridum; bracteis exterioribus 7-9, linearibus vel lineari- 
lanceolatis, glabris vel raro margine parce spinuloso-ciliatis, crassius- 
culis, supra quandoque angustatis, apice obtusis acutisve, 9-13 mm. 
longis, interiores lanceolatas aequantibus. Flores ligulati 8-16, 
flavi, ligula anguste elliptico-lanceolati, apice saepius tridentati, 
2.3-2.8 cm. longi. Achaenia lineari-oblonga, valde obcompressa vel 
plana, subnigra vel nigrescentia, utraque facie circ. 8-sulcata, ad 
angulos marginesque setis suberectis patentibusve et tuberculo 
insidentibus setosa; apice vel valde setosa et biaristata aristis tenui- 
bus calvis 0.3-1.1 mm. longis, vel saepe exaristata; corpore 9-12 
mm. longa, paleas parce superantia. 

1 Type apparently lost. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXXXV 




BIDENS D1ELSII Sherff 



OF THt 



THE GENUS BIDENS 613 

Type specimen: Collected by Georg August Schweinfurth, Ser. 
II, No. 27, steppes near Agada, Djur-land (Jur-land), October 20, 
1869 (Kew). 

Distribution: Uganda (in British East Africa) and northwestward 
into Djur-land (of southeastern Sudan and to the northeast of the 
Belgian Congo) ; apparently also in Belgian Congo. 

Specimens examined: M. T. Dawe 914, Acholi Country, Uganda 
(Kew); Lathomvers, Niaramba (Belgian Congo?), May 10, 1932 
(Mus. Cong., 3 sheets; forma); Schweinfurth II, 27 (type, Kew: 
cotypes, Berl.; Brit.; Par.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXVII 

Bidens Schweinfurthii: a (lower), 6 and c (upper), portions of 
flowering specimens, X0.68; d, e, tripartite leaves, X0.68;/, exterior 
involucral bract, X2.05; g, interior involucral bract, X2.05; h, ray 
corolla, Xl.37; i, palea, X2.05; j, disc floret, X2.73; A;, achene, 
X2.73; a-c, f-h, j, from type; d, e, i, k, from Dawe 914, in Hb. Kew. 

217. Bidens nyikensis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81: 50. 1926. 
PL CLXXVIII. 

Herba, verisimiliter perennis; caule simplici forsan ramoso, 
angulato, glabro vel ad summam piloso, 3 dm. alto. Folia petiolata 
petiolis ciliatis anguste alatis 2.5-3.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
4-11 cm. longa, pinnata, 3-5-partita; foliolis parce membranaceis, 
late linearibus vel rhomboideo-lanceolatis, 0.2-1.8 cm. latis, integris 
vel lateraliter 1-2 lobis instructis, margine revolutis spinuloso-cili- 
atisque, omnibus segmentis apice acutis. Capitula solitaria, termi- 
nalia, moderatim pedunculata pedunculo piloso usque ad 6 cm. longo, 
radiata, pansa ad anthesin 3 cm. lata et 9 mm. alta. Involucri 
hispidi bracteae exteriores circ. 8, moderatim vel late lineares, apice 
subacutae, 7-9 mm. longae et 1.2-2 mm. latae, interiores lanceo- 
latae circ. 9-11 mm. longae. Flores ligulati circ. 8-10, flavi, tantum 
immaturi visi. Achaenia atra, lineari-oblonga, obcompressa, duabus 
faciebus non nisi ad summam hispida sed quaque circ. 8 sulculis 
lineata, margine apiceque valde erecto-ciliata, corpore 6.5-8.5 mm. 
longa et 2-2.7 mm. lata, biaristata; aristis tenuibus, supra sparsissime 
infra saepe dense erecto-hispidis, 2-3 mm. longis, palearum apices 
coloratos parce superantibus. 

Type specimen: Collected by Alexander Whyte, No. 191, at 
altitude of 1,800-2,100 meters, Nyika Plateau, British Central 
African Protectorate, June, 1896 (Kew). 



614 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Distribution: Known only from Nyika Plateau, British Central 
African Protectorate. 

Specimens examined: Whyte 191 (type, Kew). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXVIII 

Bidens nyikensis: a, fruiting specimen, X0.63; 6, portion of leaf, 
magnified to show bristly edge, X12.6; c, exterior involucral bract, 
X3.78; d, interior involucral bract, X3.78; e, ray floret, X3.78; /, 
g, paleae, X3.78; h, i, disc florets, X3.78; ;, k, achenes, X3.78; all 
from type. 

218. Bidens Rogersii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81: 52. 1926. 
PI. CLXXIX. 

Herba perennis, erecta, glabra, simplex forsitan ramosa, 5 
dm. alta. Folia petiolata petiolis alatis 0.5-3 cm. longis, petiolo 
adjecto 4-8 cm. longa, pinnatim 3-7-partita; foliolis crassiusculis, 
margine revolutis et sparsim ciliatis, linearibus, lateralibus usque ad 
5 cm. longis, terminali elongato usque ad 7 cm. longo, omnibus 
integris vel pinnatisectis dentibus (lobulis) linearibus patentibus. 
Capitula solitaria, longe pedunculata, forsitan radiata (nullis ligulis 
visis), involucro ad anthesin 2.3 cm. lato et 1.1 cm. alto. Involu- 
cri bracteae aequilongae, exteriores circ. 8, lineares, infra hispidae, 
apice acutae, 0.9-1.2 cm. longae; interiores ovato-lanceolatae, mar- 
gine decoloratae, dorso glabratae vel parce hispidae. Achaenia 
submatura nigrescentia, lineari-oblonga vel lineari-oblanceolata, 
valde obcompressa, utraque facie circ. 8-sulcata, margine apiceque 
valde faciebus aegre erecto-setosa, corpore 6-8 mm. longa et 1.8-2.2 
mm. lata, biaristata; aristis tenuibus, calvis vel sparsim erecto-setosis, 
2-3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by F. A. Rogers, No. 10046, Sakania, 
Belgian Congo, August 18, 1911 (Kew). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Sakania, Belgian 
Congo. 

Specimens examined : Rogers 10046 (type, Kew). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXIX 

Bidens Rogersii: a, subfruiting specimen, X0.63; b, exterior 
involucral bract, X3.78; c, interior involucral bract, X3.78; d, very 
immature ray floret, X9.45; e, palea, X3.78; /, disc floret, X3.78; 
g, h, submature achenes, X3.78; all from type. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXXXVI 




BIDENS NEUMANNII Sherff 



THE GENUS BIDENS 615 

219. Bidens chaetodonta Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 90: 387. 1930. 
PI. CLXXX, figs, a, c-i. 

Coreopsis abyssinica Schz. Bip. in Walp. Repert. 6: 163. 1846. 

Verbesina abyssinica (Schz. Bip.) A. Richard, Tent. Fl. Abyssin. 1: 
409. 1847. 

Prestinaria (Steppia} abyssinica Schz. Bip. in Herb. Schimp. Abyssin. 

sect. I, No. 332 ex 0. & H. in Oliver, Fl. Trop. Afr. 3: 389. 1877. 
Foliorum segmenta principalia anguste linearia circ. 1.5-3 mm. lata. 

var. /3. glabrior. 
Foliorum segmenta principalia late linearia vel lineari-lanceolata, 

plerumque 4-9 mm. lata Bidens chaetodonta sensu stricto. 

Herba perennis, erecta, 6-10 dm. alta, caule saepe subtetragono 
inferne glabra superne plerumque scabrido-pubescens. Folia oppo- 
sita, principalia petiolata petiolis planis anguste marginatis inferne 
saepe hispido-ciliatis usque ad 4.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 7-15 
cm. longa, circumambitu ovata vel deltoidea, 2-3-pinnatisecta, 
saepius 5-7-partita; foliolis saepius oblonge linearibus vel lineari- 
lanceolatis, terminaliter elongatis et integris, apice acutis, basaliter 
angustatis et remote dentatis dentibus acerrimis nunc elongatis 
perspicuisque nunc parvis capilliformibusque, infra pallidioribus, 
margine ciliatis, faciebus plus minusve scabrido-hispidis, saepius 
4-9 mm. latis. Capitula tenuiter pedicellata pedicellis hispidis 1-12 
cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2-4 cm. lata et 7-9 mm. alta. 
Involucri bracteae exteriores 10-14, lineares, dorso plerumque 
glabrae, marginibus superne scabrido-ciliatae, 8-12 mm. longae et 
circ. 1 mm. altae, interioribus lanceolatis dorsaliter hispidis saepius 
aequales. Flores ligulati circ. 8, aurei, ligula elliptico-oblongi, 
apice rotundato obscure denticulati, 1.2-2 cm. longi et 3-5 mm. lati. 
Paleae lineari-oblongae, apice obtusae, glabrae, 7.5 mm. longae. 
Achaenia valde obcompressa, nunc late nunc anguste lineari-oblonga, 
atra, utraque facie adpresse setosa et circ. 8-sulcata, marginibus 
erecto-setosa, margines versus tenuissime et non distincte alata, 
corpore circ. 4-4.5 mm. longa et 1.2-1.5 mm. lata, apice setosa et 
biaristata; aristis tenuibus, stramineis, antrorsum hispidis, circ. 1-1.6 
mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Wilhelm Schimper, No. 332, in the 
upper region, northern side, of Mt. Scholoda, Abyssinia, October 3, 
1837 (Par.). 

Distribution: Abyssinia. 



616 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Specimens examined: Chiovenda 3151, Semien, Prov. Amhara, 
December 7, 1909 (Flor., 2 sheets) ; Ellenbeck 1622, alt. 2,600 meters, 
Mt. Furi, Schoa, November 2, 1900 (Berl. ; forma foliis minus divisis) ; 
A. Petit, Abyssinia (Par.); idem, Chir4 (Berl.); Quartin-Dillon, 
Abyssinia (Par.); Schimper 332 (type, Par.: cotypes, Berl.; Gray; 
Kew; Par., 4 sheets). 

Bidens chaetodonta var. /3. glabrior (0. & H.) Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 90: 388. 1930. PI. CLXXX, fig. 6. 

A specie foliolis anguste linearibus tantum 1.5-3 mm. latis 
inferioribus saepe pinnatisectis differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by Antonio Petit at Chire", Abyssinia 

(Kew). 

Distribution: Eritrea and Abyssinia. 

Specimens examined: R. E. Cheesman, alt. 2,010 meters, Dancila, 
40 miles south of Lake Tana, May 9, 1926 (Brit.); Ellenbeck 1566, 
alt. above 2,000 meters, Akaki, South Schoa, August 13, 1900 (Berl.) ; 
idem 1592, alt. about 2,300 meters, Adis Abeba, Schoa, October 3, 
1900 (Berl.); idem 1614, growing 1 meter high, alt. 2,300 meters, 
Akaki, South Schoa, December 26, 1900 (Berl.); A. Pappi 5205, 
alt. about 2,610 meters, Mt. Zagher, Eritrea, May 20, 1902 (Flor.); 
A. Petit, Chir (type, Kew); idem 138, eodem loco, August, 1840 
(Par.); idem 587, eodem loco (Par.); Hugh Scott, alt. 2,850 meters, 
Mt. Chillalo, November, 1926 (Kew). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXX 

Bidens chaetodonta, figs, a, c-i: a, flowering branch, X0.61; 
c, exterior involucral bract, X4.86; d, interior involucral bract, X4.86; 
e, portion of d, magnified more highly to show basally flattened 
median hairs, X24; /, ray corolla, X2.43; g, palea, X4.86; h, disc 
corolla, X4.86; i, achene, X4.86; all from type and cotypes, in 
Hb. Par. 

Bidens chaetodonta var. glabrior, fig. b: cauline leaf, X0.61; from 
type. 

220. Bidens Rueppellii (Schz. Bip.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 90: 
389. 1930. PI. CLXXXI. 

Coreopsis Rueppellii Schz. Bip. in Walp. Repert. 6: 163. 1846. 

Verbesina Ruppellii (Schz. Bip.) A. Richard, Fl. Tent. Abyssin. 1: 
410. 1847. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXXXVII 




BIDENS TERNATA (Chiov.) Sherff 



THE GENUS BIDENS 617 

Verbesina Rueppellii (Schz. Bip.) A. Rich, ex Vatke, Linnaea 39: 
499. 1875. 

Herba perennis, erecta, verisimiliter usque ad 1 m. alta, caule 
subsimplici subtereti scabrido-pubescenti supra corymbose. Folia 
brevissime petiolata petiolis alato-marginatis raro usque ad 1 cm. 
longis, omnino 4-10 cm. longa, pinnatim 3-5-partita; foliolis scabris, 
siccis subrigidis, acriter dentatis dentibus mucronato-setigeris inter- 
dum elongatis, lateralibus ovato-lanceolatis, terminali majore circ. 
2-3 cm. lato. Capitula subtenuiter pedunculata pedunculis usque ad 
8 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 5 cm. lata et circ. 8-10 
mm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores 11-18, lineari-spathulatae, 
pallidae, supra spinuloso-ciliatae, dorso fere glabratae vel saepius 
secundum costam medianam hispidae, apice nitidenti callosoque 
acerrimae, 6-10 mm. longae et 1-1.5 (vel etiam -2.5) mm. latae; 
interiores oblongo-lanceolatae subaequales, apice attenuate valde 
pubescentes, dorso inter margines flavido-diaphanas atro-brunneae 
ac pilis albescentibus (medianis inferne lato-membranaceis) valde 
hispidae. Flores ligulati circ. 12, aurei, ligula lineari-elliptici, apice 
integri, 4-6 mm. lati. Paleae lineari-oblongae, nitidae, secundum 
medium linea duplici colorata percursae, circ. 5 mm. longae. Achae- 
nia immatura plana, anguste lineari-oblanceolata, erecto-ciliata, 
faciebus superne adpresso-setosa, corpore circ. 3.5 mm. longa et 
circ. 0.5 mm. lata, apice erecto-setosa et biaristata aristis filiformibus 
antrorsum hispidis circ. 0.5-1 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Eduard Ruppell at Siemen, Abys- 
sinia, in August or September:, 1832 (Par.). 

Distribution: Abyssinia. 

Specimens examined: Emilio Chiovenda 2906, Dara, Uoghera, 
Prov. Amhara, November 28, 1909 (Flor.); idem 2930, Debarek, 
Semien, Prov. Amhara, November 29, 1909 (Flor., 2 sheets) ; Ruppell, 
Siemen, August or September, 1832 (type, Par.); Wilhelm Schimper 
(itin. abyssin. sect. V, No. 706B, ed. Buchinger ann. 1854), Abyssinia 
(Par., 2 sheets). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXXI 

Bidens Rueppellii: a, flowering branch, X0.6; b-d, separate 
leaves, X0.6; e, exterior involucral bract, X4.23;/, interior involucral 
bract (the somewhat numerous basally flattened median hairs not 
so shown here), X4.23; g, ray floret, Xl.81; h, palea, X4.23; i, disc 
floret, X4.83; j, achene, X4.23; a, c-e, g, i, j, from Chiovenda 2930, 2 
sheets in Hb. Flor.; b, f, h, from Rueppell's fragment on type sheet. 



618 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

221. Bidens Vatkei Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 90: 388. 1930. 
PI. CLXXXII. 

Coreopsis chrysantha Vatke, Linnaea 39: 499. 1875; non L. Sp. PI. 
ed. 2. 2: 1282. 1763. 

Herba perennis, erecta e radice lignea crassaque, pallida, 6-12 dm. 
alta; caulibus tenuibus, subtetragonis, striatis, inferne glabris, superne 
hispidulis subsimplicibusque. Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis his- 
pido-ciliatis dorso plerumque glabris usque ad 4 cm. longis, petiolo 
adjecto 5-12 cm. longa, tripartita; foliolis lanceolatis linearibusve, 
utrinque cuneato-angustatis, membranaceis, acerrime serratis denti- 
bus inferioribus saepe capilliformibus, supra scabridis infra breviter 
hispido-pubescentibus, terminal! majore 0.4-1.9 cm. lato. Capitula 
perpauca (circ. 2-4 ad unici caulis terminum), tenuiter pedunculata 
pedunculis hispidis usque ad 1.5 dm. longis, radiata, pansa ad 
anthesin circ. 3-4 cm. lata et circ. 1 cm. alta. Involucri bracteae 
exteriores 9-11, lineari-subspathulatae, apice acerrime mucronatae, 
sparsim ciliatae et dorso aegre hispidulae, circ. 6-7 mm. longae; 
interiores ovato-lanceolatae, hispidae, paulo longiores. Flores ligu- 
lati circ. 12-13, aurei, ligula circ. 6-7-striati et lineares, 1.5-2 cm. 
longi et tantum 2-4 mm. lati; flores tubulosi sicci ad medium ut 
videtur articulati ac saepe inflati. Achaenia oblonga, valde obcom- 
pressa, brunneo-nigra, utraque facie circ. 8-sulcata, margine erecto- 
setosa, faciebus superne erecto-hispida, corpore 3-4 mm. longa et 
0.7-1.1 mm. lata, apice erecto-setosa et biaristata aristis tenuissimis 
stramineis antrorsum hispidulis circ. 1.5-2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Wilhelm Schimper, at altitude of 
2,100 meters, in Valley of the Repp River at Dewari, Abyssinia, 
October 2, 1863. * 

Distribution: Known only from Abyssinia. 

Specimens examined: Emilio Chiovenda 1699, Gondar, Dembia, 
Prov. Amhara, August 28, 1909 (Flor. ; forma foliis majoribus, foliolis 
latioribus terminali usque ad 3.5 cm. lato); idem 1992, near Asoso, 
Dembia, September 13, 1909 (Flor.) ; Schimper, alt. 2,100 meters, Repp 
River Valley, Dewari, October 2, 1863 (Berl., 2 sheets of type material). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXXII 

Bidens Vatkei: a (lower), 6 (upper), portions of fruiting specimen, 
X0.55; c, cauline leaf, X0.55; d, portion of leaf, magnified to show 

1 Herbarium not cited for type, but one of the two Berlin specimens has the 
determination "Coreopsis chrysantha Vatke" in a particularly bold handwriting, 
the same as seen on numerous other specimens typifying Vatke's species and 
varieties and which without question was by Vatke himself. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 619 

pubescence, X5.5; e, exterior involucral bract, X3.31; /, interior 
involucral bract, X3.31; g, ray floret, X2.21; h, palea, X3.31; i, 
disc corolla, X4.97; ;', achene, X4.42; a, b, d-f, h-j, from 2nd type 
sheet; c, g, from Chiovenda 1699, in Hb. Flor. 

222. Bidens rotata Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 90: 391. 1930. 
PI. CLXXXIII. 

Coreopsis Buchingeri Schz. Bip. ex Schweinf. & Aschers. Enum. 284 
(nomen). 

Herba perennis, erecta, 6-10 dm. alta, supra ramosa, caule infra 
fere glabra supra hispida. Folia opposita subtenuiter petiolata 
petiolis planis hispido-ciliatis basaliter in poculum circ. 1 mm. 
altum connatis usque ad 2 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto saltern 4-7.5 
cm. longa, tripartita foliolis membranaceis apicaliter subacuminatis 
ad medium usque ad 2.7 cm. latis nunc ovatis nunc lanceolatis supra 
viridibus ac subglabris infra pallidis ac papillato-hispidis margine 
ciliatis ac acerrime serratis dentibus mucronato-setigeris. Capitula 
tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis hispidis usque ad 18 cm. longis, 
radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 3.5 cm. lata et 1-1.2 cm. alta. 
Involucri bracteae exteriores 10-13, lineari-subspathulatae, pallidae, 
dorso subglabrae vel aegre adpresso-hispidae, margine spinuloso- 
ciliatae, apice nitido calloso-mucronatae, 1-1.6 cm. longae et 1-2 mm. 
latae, saepe interiores ovato-lanceolatas dorsaliter hispidas (setis 
medianis inferne Jato-membranaceis) apicaliter ciliatas paulo super- 
antes. Flores ligulati 12, aurei, ligula anguste oblongo-elliptici, 
apice 2-3-denticulati, circ. 1.5 cm. longi et circ. 4-5 mm. lati; tubu- 
losi superne aurantiaci, sicci ad medium plus minusve tumidi vel 
fracti vel articulati. Achaenia plana, lineari-oblonga, nigra, utraque 
facie circ. 4-sulcata et superne adpresso-setosa setis erectis, margini- 
bus erecto-setosa, margines versus tenuia sed non vere alata, corpore 
4-6 mm. alta et 1-1.2 mm. lata, apice erecte setosa ac biaristata 
aristis tenuibus stramineis antrorsum hispidis circ. 2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Wilhelm Schimper (itin. abyssin. 
sect. V, No. 706a, ed.Buchinger ann. 1854) in Abyssinia (Par.). 

Distribution : Abyssinia. 

Specimens examined: Schimper V-706a (type, Par.). 

The type is in the Schultz Bipontinus Herbarium at Paris. By 
Schultz Bip. ithad been given the nameCoreopsis Buchingeri, which has 
appeared occasionally in literature but without description. The 
closest ally is Bidens Rueppellii. B. rotata appears to differ, however, 
in having more nearly glabrous stems, different foliage, larger involu- 



620 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

cral bracts, and larger achenes. The slender rays, regularly 12, offer 
a fanciful resemblance to the spokes of a wheel, whence the trivial 
name. The interior involucral bracts have many of the lower 
median hairs of the dorsal surface expanded below into flat scales, as 
occurs sometimes in B. chaetodonta and commonly in B. Rueppellii. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXXIII 

Bid ens rotata: a, b, flowering and fruiting specimens, X0.6; c, 
exterior involucral bract, X2.4; d, interior involucral bract, X2.4; 
e, portion of d, magnified more highly to show basally flattened 
median hairs, X6; /, ray floret, X2.4; g, palea, X2.4; h, disc floret, 
X4.8; i, achene, X4.8; all from type. 

223. Bidens articulata Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 94: 591. 1933. 
Coreopsis glaucescens O. & H. in Oliver, Fl. Trop. Afr. 3: 389. 1877. 

Coreopsis abyssinica f. latisecta Vatke, Linnaea 39: 499. 1875 (nomen 
subnudum). 

Herba perennis e radicibus tuberoso-incrassatis plus minusve 
fasciculatis, erecta, circ. 1.2 m. alta; caule striato, supra plus minusve 
hispido pilis aegris patentibusque. Folia opposita, subsessilia vel 
petiolata petiolis planis marginatis hispido-ciliatis etiam 1.5 cm. 
longis, omnino 3-13 cm. longa, circumambitu ovata, pinnatim 
3-5-partita; foliolis membranaceis, plerumque lanceolatis, apice 
acutis, marginibus acriter dentatis dentibus interdum in setas 
desinentibus (terminal! plus minusve ovato saepe pinnatisecto lobis 
lanceolatis serratisque), infra pallidioribus et valde pubescentibus, su- 
pra sparsissime hispidis, lateralibus usque ad 5 cm. longis et ad 2 cm. 
latis. Capitula pauca, corymbosa vel corymboso-cymosa, subvalde 
pedunculata pedunculis hispidis 6-10 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad 
anthesin circ. 4-5 cm. lata et circ. 8 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae 
exteriores 12-14, elongato-lineares, supra saepe spathulato-dilatatae, 
dorso marginibusque hispidae, apice acuto cartilagineo-induratae, 
1.3-1.7 cm. longae et circ. 1-1.5 mm. latae; interiores lanceolatae, 
dorso hispidae, interdum paulo breviores. Flores ligulati forsitan 10, 
flavi, oblongo-lineares, apice vix denticulati, 1.5 cm. longi. Paleae 
oblongo-lanceolatae, perspicue circ. 2-nerviae nervis brunneis, 
apicaliter acutae et aegre pubescentes, alibi glabrae, 7-8 mm. 
longae, achaenia valde superantes. Disci florum corollae ad medium 
anulato-articulatae, stigmatibus tenuiter elongato-caudatis. Achae- 
nia oblongo-linearia vel lineari-oblonga, obcompressa, nigra, 
exalata, faciebus supra erecto-setosa, marginibus minutissime erecto- 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXXXVIII 




BIDENS SETIGERA (Schz. Bip.) Sherff (figs, j, k); var. ABYSSINICA (Schz. Bip.) Sherff (figs, a-i) 
BIDENS PRAECOX Sherff (fig. I) 



of IK 



THE GENUS BIDENS 621 

ciliata, corpore 3.5-4.5 mm. longa et 0.8-1.1 mm. lata, apice erecto- 
setosa et biaristata; aristis tenuibus, stramineis, antrorsum hispidis, 
circ. 1 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Wilhelm Schimper, No. 329, at 
Hedscha, Abyssinia, October 3, 1862 (Kew). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Abyssinia. 

Specimens examined: Schimper 329 (type, Kew: cotypes, Berl.; 
U.S. ; this collection was the basis of Coreopsis abyssinica f . latisecta 
Vatke, published without description). 

224. Bidens Cirsioides Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 90: 393, 
pi. 5. 1930. PI. CLXXXIV. 

Herba elata, verisimiliter perennis, glaberrima, pallida, 8-15 dm. 
alta, caule subtereti glaucescenti valde ramoso ramis elongatis plus 
minusve simplicibus. Folia petiolata petiolis planis anguste alatis 
basaliter dilatatis 0.5-2 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto usque ad 1.5 
dm. longa, pinnatim 3 (-5) -partita; foliolis oblonge linearibus vel 
lineari-lanceolatis, crassiusculis, nunc perspicue acriterque dentatis 
dentibus elongatis saepe inflexis et saepe setigeris nunc setis pro 
dentibus munitis, infra albescentibus, margine saepe revolutis, termi- 
nali usque ad 12 cm. longo et 2.5 cm. lato lateralibus minoribus. 
Capitula numerosa corymboso-paniculata, tenuiter pedicellata pedi- 
cellis hispidis usque ad 1 dm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 
4-5 cm. lata et 8-11 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores 16-24, 
subbiseriales, lineares, glaberrimae, apicem versus angustatae, apice 
ipso acriter calloso-mucronatae, 8-10 mm. longae et 0.5-1 mm. latae; 
interiores late lanceolatae, dorso ventreque apicaliter pubescentes 
alibi glabrae, saepe paulo breviores. Flores ligulati plerumque 12, 
flavi, ligula lineari-elliptici, paucistriati, apice subacuto vix denti- 
culati, 1.8-2.3 cm. longi et circ. 3-4 mm. lati. Achaenia plana, 
lineari-oblonga, nigra, exalata, utraque facie circ. 6-sulcata, faciebus 
ac marginibus valde erecto-setosa, corpore circ. 5 mm. longa et 
circ. 1-1.1 mm. lata, apice erecto-setosa ac biaristata; aristis erectis, 
tenuibus, stramineis, antrorsum hispidis, 2-3 mm. longis. Habitu 
specimen siccum foliis acriter dentatis nonnullis speciebus Cirsii 
simile. 

Type specimen: Collected by C. Ledermann, No. 5440, growing 
0.8-1.5 meters high at altitude of 1,200-1,400 meters, Gendero, 
Pass Tchape, Kamerun, October 5, 1909 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Kamerun. 

Specimens examined: Ledermann 5440 (type, Berl.). 



622 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXXIV 

Bidens Cirsioides: a (lower), b (upper), portions of flowering and 
fruiting branch, X0.58; c, exterior involucral bract, X3.45; d, interior 
involucral bract, X3.45; e, ray corolla, X2.3; /, palea, X3.45; g, 
disc floret, X4.6; h, achene, X4.6; all from type. 

225. Bidens chaetophylla Sherff, Amer. Journ. Bot. 
22: 705. 1935. 

Herba perennis, erecta, subgracilis, glabra, 1.5 m. alta; caule 
subtereti, internodiis imis 1 cm. aliis usque ad 13 cm. longis. 
Folia petiolata petiolis marginatis 0.5-3 mm. latis et nunc (caulis 
basim versus) 4-7 cm. nunc (alibi) 2-3.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
1.5-2.3 dm. longa, ima indivisa alia pinnatim tripartita; lamina vel 
foliolis elongato-linearibus, tantum 2-9 mm. latis sed saepe 10-16 
cm. longis, membranaceis, ad apicem acrem sensim angustatis, mar- 
ginibus plerumque remote setigeris (setis circ. 2-4.5 mm. longis) 
rarius integris. Capitula pauca, subcorymbosa, tenuiter pedicellata 
pedicellis demum glabris usque ad circ. 7 cm. longis, radiata, pansa 
ad anthesin 4 cm. lata et 1 cm. alta. Involucri glabrati bracteae 
exteriores 12-16, tenuiter elongato-lineares saepe 1.5-2.5 cm. longae 
et discum multo superantes, superne subulatae; interiores ovato- 
oblongae, apice acutae, circ. 7 mm. longae. Flores ligulati flavi, 
ligula plus minusve lineari-oblongi, 1.2 cm. longi. Achaenia 
matura non visa. Ovaria plana, lineari-oblonga, subatra, marginibus 
apiceque erecto-hispida, corpore 1.2 mm. longa, biaristata; aristis 
tenuibus, antrorsum hispidis; circ. 2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Gunther Tessmann, No. 2704, on 
grass steppe, Kongola, Ngaundero (Ngaumdere) region, Kamerun, 
August 20, 1914 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in the Kamerun. 

Specimens examined: Tessmann 2704 (type, Berl.; nom. vulg., 
nwa sole). 

226. Bidens Dielsii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 90: 388. 1930. 
PI. CLXXXV. 

Coreopsis chrysantha var. simplicifolia Vatke, Linnaea 5: 500. 1875. 

Coreopsis simplicifolia (Vatke) Engler, Hochgeb. Fl. Trop. Afr. 
(Abh. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. 1891, ii:) 435. 1892. 

Involucri bracteae exteriores plerumque 10-14, lineari-acuminatae vel 
anguste lanceolatae, 1.5-2.5 mm. latae. . .B. Dielsii sensu stricto. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 623 

Involucri bracteae exteriores plerumque circ. 16-18, lineari-subulatae, 
0.6-1 (raro usque ad 1.5) mm. latae var. /3. medusoides. 

Herba perennis, erecta, rigida, subglaucescens, glaberrima vel 
parce scabra, 12 dm. alta, caule subtereti, supra ramoso. Folia 
opposita, subsessilia, 6-15 cm. longa et 2-3.5 cm. lata, ovata vel 
anguste elliptica, acute apiculata, spinuloso-ciliata, principalia 
acriter serrata (summa subintegra) dentibus acerrimis et saepe 
apicem versus capilliformi-subulatis, basi angustata. Capitula 
pauca, corymbose disposita, pedunculata pedunculis scabridis usque 
ad 1.2 dm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 3.5-4.5 cm. lata 
et circ. 1 cm. alta. Involucri scabrido-hispidi bracteae exteriores 
10-14 (vel raro -18), lineari-acuminatae vel anguste lanceola- 
tae, 8-15 mm. longae et 1.5-2.5 mm. latae, interioribus lance- 
olatis interdum longiores. Flores ligulati circ. 12, aurei, ligula 
anguste elliptici, apice 2-3-denticulati, 1.5-2 cm. longi et 3.5-5 mm. 
lati; tubulosi minuti cylindrici ad medium saepe tumidi vel sicci 
fracti, lobis apicalibus pubescentes, circ. 4 mm. longi. Achaenia 
plana, lineari-oblonga, nigra, utraque facie circ. 8-striata, faciebus 
(praecipue supra) antrorsum adpresso-setosa, margines versus 
tenuissime sed non distincte alata, marginibus antrorsum ciliata, 
corpore circ. 5 mm. longa et 0.9-1.2 mm. lata, apice corona setarum 
erectarum munita ac biaristata aristis erectis stramineis tenuissimis 
antrorsum hispidis circ. 1.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Wilhelm Schimper, at altitude of 
2,100 meters, on mountains at Dewari, Abyssinia, October 2, 1863 
(Berl., 2 sheets). 

Distribution : Abyssinia. 

Specimens examined: A. Petit, Abyssinia, 1862 (Kew); Ragazzi 
1311, Abyssinia, 1887 (Flor., 2 sheets); W. Schimper, alt. 2,100 
meters, on mountains, Dewari, October 2, 1863 (2 type sheets, Berl.). 

Oliver and Hiern (Oliver, Fl. Trop. Afr. 3: 389. 1877) were 
inclined to regard this as a distinct species, as indeed Vatke had 
earlier suspected it of being. Oliver and Hiern noted that it had 
"the technical characters of Wedelia; the general appearance of the 
plant is however quite that of Coreopsis." The plant matches Bidens 
in its achenes somewhat better than Coreopsis. 

Bidens Dielsii var. /3. medusoides Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 91:311. 1931. 

A specie involucri bracteis exterioribus 14-20 (plerumque circ. 
16-18), lineari-subulatis, 0.8-1 (rarius usque ad 2) cm. longis, 
inferne 0.6-1 (raro usque ad 1.5) mm. latis differt. 



624 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Type specimen: Collected by T. D. Maitland, No. 1004, frequent 
in grassland at altitude of 1,500 meters, Wasa, region of Mt. Ruwen- 
zori, tropical east Africa, December 15, 1925 (Kew). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in tropical east 
Africa. 

Specimens examined: Maitland 1004 (type, Kew). 

In the young heads (much before anthesis) the exterior bracts 
are twice as long as the disc, with a resulting fanciful resemblance 
of these heads to the medusa stage of many of the Coelenterata in 
the animal kingdom. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXXV 

Bidens Dielsii: a (upper), 6 and c (lower), portions of fruiting 
specimen, X0.54; d, e, exterior involucral bracts, X2.7; /, interior 
involucral bract, X2.7; g, ray floret, X2.16; h, palea, X2.7; i, disc 
floret, X4.32; j, achene, X2.7; all from 2 type sheets. 

227. Bidens superba Sherff, Amer. Journ. Bot. 
22: 707. 1935. 

Herba sine dubio perennis, erecta, rigida, infra simplex supra 
erecte ramosa, glabra (etiam inflorescentiae ramis), forsitan 1 m. 
alta, caule inferne subtereti superne subtetragono. Folia suberecta, 
breviter petiolata petiolis latis circ. 4-6 mm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
usque ad 17 cm. longa et 1.6-2.4 cm. lata internodia plerumque 
paulo superantia, anguste elongato-lanceolata, rigidulo-membrana- 
cea, supra medium usque ad apicem acutum elongato-attenuata, 
acriter sed non profunde serrulata dentibus saltern inferioribus in 
setas desinentibus imis interdum majoribus inflexisque, margine 
minutissime ciliata. Capitula paniculate disposita (unica panicula 
cum 35 capitulis) pedicellis ultimis subrobustis pubescentibus 
saepius sub 1 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 4-5 cm. lata 
et 7-8 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 18-22, elongato- 
lineares, ciliatae et extrinsecus sparsim hispidae vel glabrescentes, 
1-1.6 cm. longae; interiores oblongo-ovatae, pubescentes, circ. 7-8 
mm. longae. Flores ligulati circ. 12, flavi, ligula ovato-oblongi vel 
elliptico-oblongi, apice 2- vel 3-dentati, 1.5-2.5 cm. longi. Paleae 
oblongae, apice abrupte vel subabrupte acutae. Achaenia plana, 
oblonga, brunneo-grisea, marginibus tenuibus non alata sed erecto- 
setosa, faciebus circ. 4-5-sulcata et superne plus minusve erecto- 
setosa setis subalbis, corpore 4.5-5 mm. longa et 1.4 mm. lata, 
apice setulo-coronato biaristata aristis tenuissimis flavidis minu- 
tissime antrorso-hispidulis 1 mm. longis. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 625 

Type specimen: Collected by F. Jurion, No. 41, Nioka, Luri 
(Ituri), Belgian Congo (2 sheets, Mus. Cong.). 

Distribution: Northeasternmost Belgian Congo. 

Specimens examined: Jurion 41 (Mus. Cong., 2 type sheets). 

Apparently most closely allied to B. Dielsii var. medusoides, 
from which it differs in its stouter, straighter, and more rigid stem, 
its more slender and elongate leaves, its much more numerous and 
paniculately, not corymbosely, disposed heads, etc. 

228. Bidens Neumannii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 90: 394. 1930. 
PI. CLXXXVI. 

Herba perennis, subsimplex, saltern 3 dm. alta, suberecta e radice 
lignescenti, breviter tomentoso-hispida; caule subtereti, internodiis 
medianis quam foliis brevioribus, inferioribus plurime tantum 5-12 
mm. longis. Folia opposita, parce petiolata petiolis planis circ. 
4 vel 5 mm. longis, omnino circ. 2.7-4 cm. longa et 1.1-1.7 cm. lata, 
indivisa, anguste oblongo-ovata, marginibus regulariter acriterque 
serrata dentibus indurato-apiculatis, apicaliter subacuminata. Capi- 
tula non numerosa (6 in unico specimine observata), corymboso- 
paniculata pedicellis 1-7 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 
2.8 cm. lata et circ. 7-8 mm. alta. Involucri externe hispidi 
bracteae exteriores 8-16, lineares, inferne saepe sensim angustatae, 
apice acriter indurato-mucronatae, demum circ. 6-8 mm. longae; 
interiores lanceolatae ventraliter nitidae et non nisi ad summam 
hispidae, paulo vel fere dimidio longiores. Flores ligulati circ. 10, 
saturate flavi, ligula elliptico-oblongi, apice bidenticulati, circ. 1.2- 
1.4 cm. longi. Paleae nitido-stramineae, lineari-oblongae, apice 
subabrupte mucronatae, nervo mediano perspicuae, achaenia super- 
antes. Achaenia valde obcompressa, nigra, lineari-oblonga, utraque 
facie circ. 8-striata, faciebus marginibusque adpresse erecto-setosa, 
non vere alata, corpore 4-5 mm. longa et circ. 1 mm. lata, apice 
erecte setoso biaristata aristis tenuibus antrorsum hispidis circ. 
1-1.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Oscar Neumann, No. 135, at 
altitude of 2,800 meters in mountain meadows, Gardulla, near and 
south-southwest of Lake Abaya (L. Abai), southwestern Abyssinia, 
January 14, 1901 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in southwestern 
Abyssinia. 

Specimens examined: Neumann 135 (type, Berl.). 



626 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXXVI 

Bidens Neumannii: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.64; 
6, exterior involucral bract, X5.12; c, interior involucral bract, 
X5.12;, d, ray corolla, X3.84; e, palea, X5.12; /, disc floret, X6.4; 
g, achene, X5.12; all from type. 

229. Bidens ternata (Chiov.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 90: 391. 1930. 
PI. CLXXXVII. 

Coreopsis ternata Chiov. Ann. Bot. Roma 9: 74. 1911. 

Herba perennis, glaberrima, circ. 9 dm. alta, caulibus caespitosis, 
strictis, subteretibus. Folia 3-verticillata, subsessilia, 7-11 cm. 
longa et 2-3.5 cm. lata, ovato-lanceolata, basi ample et breviter 
cuneata, apice acuta vel etiam tenuiter acuminata, marginibus 
scaberrimis argute serrata dentibus acutissimis calloso-acuminatis 
vel interdum etiam in setas subspinulosas desinentibus, venulis 
parce scabrula, supra subviridia subtus pallidiora, internodia duplo 
triplove superantia et caulibus subadpressa. Capitula subcorymbosa, 
circ. 11 in caule quoque, subrigide pedunculata pedunculis plerumque 
4-7 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 5 cm. lata et 9 mm. 
alta. Involucri bracteae subaequales, exteriores circ. 18-22, lineares, 
plus minusve patentes, acriter subcalloso-apiculatae, dorso glabrae, 
marginibus scabro-ciliatae, 9-14 mm. longae; interiores sub 12 
lanceolatae, dorso dense pilis basi eximie incrassatis obtectae, 
acutae, in medio late rubro-vittatae, marginibus luteolis pallidae. 
Flores ligulati verisimiliter circ. 10-12, flavi, ligula lineares, apica- 
liter saepe denticulati, circ. 1.5-2 cm. longi. Paleae pallide hyalinae, 
ad medium linea colorata percursae, apice abrupte acutae, demum 
circ. 7 mm. longae. Disci florum corollae apice 5-dentatae dentibus 
perspicuissime papilloso-hispidis ; stigmatibus anguste caudatis. 
Achaenia lineari-oblonga, obcompressa, exalata, nigra, utraque facie 
circ. 8-sulcata, faciebus (praecipue superne) marginibusque erecto- 
setosa, corpore 5-5.5 mm. longa et 1.1-1.3 mm. lata, apice erecto- 
setosa ac biaristata aristis filiformibus antrorsum hispidis circ. 
1.4-1.8 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Emilio Chiovenda, No. 2581, very 
rare in the Valley of Scinta above Asoso, Dembia, Province of 
Amhara, Abyssinia, October 17, 1909 (Flor.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Abyssinia. 

Specimens examined: Chiovenda 2581 (type, Flor.). 



THE GENUS BIDENS 627 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXXVII 

Bidens ternata: a, fruiting specimen, X0.61; b, exterior involucral 
bract, X2.44; c, interior involucral bract, X2.44; d, ray corolla, 
X2.44; e, palea, X2.44; /, disc floret, X4.88; g, achene, X4.88; 
all from type. 

230. Bidens setigera (Schz. Bip.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 

90: 390. 1930. PI. CLXXXVIII, figs. ; and k. 
Coreopsis setigera Schz. Bip. in Walp. Repert. 6: 163. 1846. 
Verbesina lineata A. Richard, Tent. Fl. Abyssin. 1: 410. 1847. 
Coreopsis abyssinica var. bipinnato-partita Chiov. in Pirotta, Fl. 
Eritr. 185. 1904 (fide Adr. Fiori, Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital. n. 
ser. 20: 390. 1913). 
Folia pinnatim plus minusve incisa vel etiam subtripartita. 

var. 0. lobata. 
Folia 2-3-pinnatisecta. 

Achaenia biaristata B. setigera sensu stricto. 

Achaenia exaristata, pappo plus minusve cupuliformi. 

var. 7. abyssinica. 

Herba annua, erecta, verisimiliter usque ad 1 m. alta, paniculato- 
corymbosa, glabra vel superne hirta. Folia opposita, tenuiter 
petiolata petiolis plus minusve hispidis basaliter connatis usque ad 
2 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 3-6 cm. longa, pinnatisecta pinnis 
pinnatipartitis membranaceis, lobis vel dentibus oblongo-linearibus 
plus minusve hirtis punctulis atris obsitis acerrime calloso-apiculatis 
et saepissime seta longiore terminatis. Capitula parva tenuissime 
pedicellata pedicellis hispidis 3 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad 
anthesin 1.5 cm. lata et circ. 4-5 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae 
exteriores circ. 8, lineari-spathulatae (infra angustissimae apicem 
versus oblongo-orbiculatae), acriter calloso-apiculatae, glabratae, 
3-4 mm. longae; interiores ovato-acutae marginaliter diaphanae 
alibi brunneae pubescentes saepe dimidio longiores. Flores ligulati 
circ. 8, flavi, saepe pistillati, ligula anguste oblongi, apice integri, 
db7 mm. longi et 1 mm. lati. Paleae lineari-oblongae, circ. 3- 
striatae, valde nitidae, circ. 5-6 mm. longae. Achaenia minima, 
lineari-oblonga, nigra, valde obcompressa, dorso convexiuscula 
ventre plana, omnino papillis in setas erectas adpressas desinentibus 
obsita, exalata, utraque facie circ. 4-sulcata, corpore tantum circ. 
2.5 mm. longa et circ. 0.8 mm. lata, apice stramineo erecto-setosa 
ac biaristata aristis tenuissimis erectis stramineis antrorsum hispidis 
fere 2 mm. longis. 



628 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Type specimen: Collected by Eduard Ruppell in Abyssinia in 
1831 or 1832 (Par.). 1 

Distribution: Abyssinia and probably Eritrea. 

Specimens examined: Ruppell, Abyssinia, 1831 or 1832 (type, 
Par.). 2 

Bidens setigera var. /3. lobata Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
91: 311. 1931. 

Folia circumambitu oblongo-lanceolata vel anguste deltoideo- 
lanceolata, pinnatim plus minusve incisa vel etiam subtripartita, 
inferiora non visa alia 2-5 cm. longa, dentibus perspicue setigeris. 

1 The type sheet in Schultz Bipontinus' herbarium at Paris has a small plant 
at the right, with one fruiting and two flowering heads. This has the Ruppell 
label underneath. At the left is a small fragment from a larger but specifically 
identical plant, with one fruiting head and the several leaves more compound and 
more noticeably setigerous-toothed. As no additional field data are given under 
this second specimen, it may well be that the two belonged to the same collection. 

* Formerly I made no distinction of the var. abyssinica from B. setigera proper 
when compiling my manuscript. The following additional specimens were listed 
and doubtless many of them belong to var. abyssinica: Anon. 235, Hort. Berol. 
e sem. Schimperi abyssin., 1857 (Herb. Par.; forma bracteis ext. quam int. lon- 
gior.) ; A. Braun, Hort. Carlsruh., 1841 (Herb. Par.) ; Emilia Chiovenda 2051, Gondar, 
Dembia, Prov. Amhara, Abyssinia, September 13, 1909 (Flor.); idem 2699, Dembia, 
October 27, 1909 (Flor.); idem 2750, Gondar (Flor.); idem 3253, Scire, Tigre, 
Abyssinia, December 11, 1909 (Flor.); AdrianoFiori 1828, alt. 960 meters, Ghinda, 
Hamasen (Amasen) region, Eritrea, April 11, 1909 (Flor.); idem 1830, alt. 1,950 
meters, Hamasen region, February 3, 1909 (Flor.); idem 1929, cult, e sem. lectis 
alt. 960 m. ad Ghindam, October 2, 1909 (Flor.); Hort. Cantabrig. (Harvard 
Univ.), cult, e sem. ex Hort. Petropol. missis, July 8, 1895 (Gray) and August 
7, 1895 (Gray, 2 sheets; forma elata achaeniorum corporibus usque ad 4.5 mm. 
aristis usque ad 3 mm. longis); A. Pappi 559, alt. about 2,000 meters, Adi Quala, 
Sarae, Eritrea, October 23, 1902 (Flor.); idem 584, alt. about 1,900 meters, 
Terammi, Sarae, October 9, 1902 (Flor.); idem 3047, alt. 500 meters, Cuale-Enrot, 
Eritrea, March 18, 1893 (Flor.); idem 3097, alt. about 1,000 meters, Mt. Fatta, 
Eritrea, March 19, 1893 (Flor.); idem 3128, alt. about 1,000 meters, Eritrea, 
March 19, 1893 (Flor.); idem 3191, alt. about 1,200 meters, Eritrea, March 20, 
1893 (Flor.); idem 3871, Hamasen region, Eritrea, March 2-10, 1902 (Flor.); 
idem 4101, alt. about 600 meters, Valle Damas, Ocule Cusai, Eritrea, April 14, 
1893 (Flor.); idem 4209, Dongollo near Ghinda, Hamasen region, Eritrea, March 
12, 1902 (Flor.); idem 4268, eodem loco et temp. (Flor.); idem 5787, alt. about 
1,200-1,800 meters, Mt. Dijet, Eritrea, March 2, 1902 (Flor.); V. Ragazzi 244, alt. 
1,500 meters, Eritrea, September, 1892 (Flor.); idem 3360/3860, Scioa, Abyssinia, 
Oct. 10, 1886 (Flor.) ; G. Schweinfurth & D. Riva 2119, alt. 950 meters, higher places 
at Donkollo (Dongollo) near Ghinda, Eritrea, May 14, 1892 (Flor.); Sing Scotti, 
Ghinda, 1893 (Flor.); A. Tellini 135, Ghinda, December 1-2, 1902 (Herb. Flor.); 
idem 586, eodem loco et tempore (Flor.); idem 1189, Eritrea, October 11-13, 1902 
(Flor.); idem 1512, Eritrea, January-February, 1903 (Flor.); idem 1586, Mai Atal- 
Dongollo, Eritrea, February, 1903 (Flor.); idem 1683, near Dongollo, Eritrea, 
February-March, 1903 (Flor.); idem 1715, eodem loco et temp. (Flor.); A. Ter- 
raciano & A. Pappi, Eritrea, April 3, 1892 (Flor.); iidem 55, alt. about 1,000 
meters, Baresa, Ghinda, Eritrea, February 17, 1893 (Flor.); iidem 760, alt. about 
1,800-2,060 meters, "Rora Ualicaue-Ham-Ham," Eritrea, January 9, 1893 (Flor.); 
iidem 1441, alt. about 2,400 meters, Mt. Ira, Eritrea, February 9, 1893 (Flor.); 
iidem 1981, alt. 1,900 meters, Eritrea, January 8, 1893 (Flor.). 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate CLXXXIX 




BIDENS SETIGEROIDES Sherff (figs, a-i) 
BIDENS PHELLOPTERA Sherff (figs, j-s) 



THE GENUS BIDENS 629 

Type specimen : Cultivated in garden of J. Veitch and Sons, 1908, 
from material collected by Captain Diespecker in British East Africa 
(Kew, 2 sheets). 

Distribution: British East Africa. 

Specimens examined: Hort. Veitchii et filiorum (Kew, 2 type 
sheets). 

The first type sheet has the six flowering heads measuring about 
2.2-2.7 cm. across, with about 12-16 exterior bracts. The second 
type sheet has likewise six flowering heads, but these are mostly 
4-4.5 cm. across and the exterior bracts number 16-22. These 
differences are construed as representing different states of luxuri- 
ance due to conditions of cultivation. 

Bidens setigera var. 7. abyssinica (Schz. Bip.) Sherff, Bot. 
Gaz. 92: 202. 1931. PI. CLXXXVIII, figs. a-4. 

Chrysanthellum (subgenus Microlecane) abyssinicum Schz. Bip. Flora 

25: 440. 1842; Walp. Repert. 6: 171. 1846. 

Microlecane abyssinica (Schz. Bip.) Benth. & Hook, ex 0. Hoffm. in 
Engler & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 4, 5: 240, fig. 118C. 1894. 

E specie achaeniis exaristatis sed pappo brevi plus minusve 
consolidate ac cupuliformi coronatis differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by Wilhelm Schimper, No. 766, at 
margins of groves in valleys near Adoa, Abyssinia, November 12, 
1838 (Par., 2 sheets). 1 

Distribution: Abyssinia and perhaps Eritrea. 

Specimens examined : Schimper 766 (2 type sheets). 2 

The achenes of this variety lack aristae but have the pappus 
more or less definitely coroniform or cup-shaped (whence the 
name Microlecane given by Schultz Bipontinus). Tegetmeyer (0. 
Hoffm. loc. cit.) has illustrated this peculiar pappus in its extreme 
development. 

In his original treatment Schultz Bipontinus referred this form, 
as representing a subgenus, to Chrysanthellum. The affinity with 

1 The two type sheets of Chrysanthellum abyssinicum at Paris both bear the 
number 578. A printed distribution label also is present on the first type sheet 
and this has the number 766 in print with the citation "Fl. Ratisb. Anni. 1842 
pag. 440, ubi per errorem plantae numerus 578 tribuitur." In his original 
description Schultz Bipontinus gave Schimper's number as "it. abyss. Sect. II. no. 
578," but later, in Walpers' Repertorium, he gave it as "1078." Just why these 
discrepancies arose is not clear, but there can be no question as to the authenticity 
and identity of the type material. 

2 See footnote (p. 628, no. 2) under species proper. 



630 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

that genus seems purely fallacious. Bentham and Hooker (loc. 
cit.) elevated the subgenus, which Schultz* Bipontinus had named 
Microlecane, to the rank of a genus separate from Chrysanthellum. 
However, through Bidens setigera and B. setigeroides the type mate- 
rial of Microlecane is too closely allied with Bidens to justify generic 
segregation. Thus, for example, B. setigera has very long, slender 
aristae and many of the achenes are much the same as in other 
species of Bidens (sect. Steppia); but a fair percentage of them 
have the shorter or secondary pappus noticeably modified into an 
annular or cupuliform corona (not shown in my illustration), thus 
strongly suggesting the so-called Microlecane material, here treated 
as the var. abyssinica. All things considered, it seems that the var. 
abyssinica bears somewhat (though not entirely) the same relation- 
ship to B. setigera proper that Bidens aristosa var. mutica bears to 
the species B. aristosa proper. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXXVIII 

Bidens setigera, figs. ;, k: achenes, X6.84; from type. 

Bidens setigera var. abyssinica, figs, a-i: a, flowering and fruiting 
branch, X0.57; 6 (lower), c (upper), leaves, X0.57; d, exterior involu- 
cral bract, X4.56; e, interior involucral bract, X4.56; /, ray corolla, 
X2.85; g, palea, X4.56; h, disc floret, X4.56; i, achene, X6.84; a, 
d-4, from type; b, from Pappi 3047, in Hb. Flor.; c, from Terraciano 
and Pappi 2003, ibid. 

231. Bidens setigeroides Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 91: 310. 
1931. PI. CLXXXIX, figs. a-4. 

Herba annua, erecta, laxe hispida, caule subtetragona, ramosa 
ramis suberectis, 3-9 dm. alta. Folia 2-3-pinnatisecta, breviter 
petiolata petiolis latis usque ad 1 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto usque 
ad circ. 7 cm. longa; segmentis membranaceis, acriter apiculatis et 
interdum in setas breves desinentibus, plerumque 1-2 mm. latis. 
Capitula subcorymboidea, tenuissime pedicellata pedicellis pubescen- 
tibus 2-6 cm. longis, numerosa, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 1.2 
cm. lata et circ. 6 mm. alta, demum circ. 8-9 mm. diametro. Involu- 
cri bracteae plus minusve hispidae, exteriores plerumque 6, anguste 
lineares vel lineari-spathulatae, apicaliter obtusae, 2-3 mm. longae; 
interiores oblongo-ovatae, 3.5 mm. longae. Flores ligulati circ. 
6, flavi, ligula oblongo-ovati, apice circ. 3-dentati, circ. 5-6 mm. 
longi. Paleae nitidae, glabrae, oblongae, subobtusae, apicem versus 
aurantiacae, 3-6 mm. longae. Achaenia oblanceolato-linearia vel 
late oblanceolata, nigra, exalata, non manifeste sulcata, dorso con- 



THE GENUS BIDENS 631 

vexa ac glaberrima, ventre plana vel concava ac costa mediana 
erecte setosa, marginibus erecte ciliata, apice truncate exaristata 
sed erecte setosa, 2.2-3.5 mm. longa et 0.5-1.2 mm. lata. 

Type specimen: Collected by J. D. Snowden, No. 411, growing 
1 to 3 feet high in short-grass land at altitude of 1,500 meters, 
Wallasi, Bukedi, Uganda Protectorate, British East Africa, October 
17, 1916 (Kew). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Uganda. 

Specimens examined: Snowden 411 (type, Kew). 

Differs from Bidens setigera in the less setigerous foliar teeth, 
the fewer exterior bracts of the involucres, the smoother and more 
shiny achenes, these exaristate and lacking a consolidated cupuli- 
form pappus or corona at apex, etc. It approaches in general appear- 
ance the habitally similar Coreopsis Negriana Sherff of Gallaland, 
but differs from that in the smaller flowering heads, the setose, 
exalate achenes, etc. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXXIX, FIGS. 0,-i 

Bidens setigeroides: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.66; 
b, exterior involucral bract, X6.6; c, interior involucral bract, X6.6? 
d, ray floret, X5.94; e, palea, X6.6; /, disc floret, X9.9; g, outer 
achene, ventral face, X6.6; h (dorsal), i (ventral), faces of inner 
achene, X6.6; all from type. 

232. Bidens phelloptera Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 92: 204. 
1931. PI. CLXXXIX, figs. j-s. 

Herba verisimiliter perennis, usque ad 2 m. alta, caule obscure 
angulato glabro. Folia secundaria (primaria non visa) tenuiter 
petiolata petiolis 1.5 cm. longis petiolo adjecto 4.5 cm. longa, 
pinnatim 3-5-partita; segmentis valde membranaceis, ovatis vel 
lanceolatis, apice acutis, supra glabratis subtus pubescentibus, circ. 
6-13 mm. latis, acerrime dentatis dentibus mucronatis. Capitula 
corymbose disposita, ramulos plerumque glabros usque ad 8.5 cm. 
longos terminantia, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 4 cm. lata et circ. 
10-11 mm. alta. Involucri glabri bracteae exteriores 8-10, lanceo- 
latae vel lineari-oblongae, apice obtusae, mox valde reflexae; interi- 
ores late oblongo-lanceolatae, basaliter vel etiam usque ad medium 
connatae, demum circ. 8.5-9.5 mm. longae. Paleae late lineari- 
oblongae, apicaliter obtusae atque atro-coloratae, 7-9.5 mm. longae. 
Flores ligulati 6 (normaliter 8?), flavi, ligula anguste obovati, 
apice minute acriterque 3-4-denticulati, 1.7-2 cm. longi. Achaenia 



632 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

valde obcompressa, utraque facie subatra 8-sulcata glabra vel 
apicem versus erecte setosa, marginibus crassiusculis densissime 
erecto-ciliata, exteriora late oblonga 5-6 mm. longa et marginibus 
perspicuis incrassatis inclusis 2-2.4 mm. lata apicaliter calva vel 
breviter biaristata et saepe paucisetosa, interiora lineari-oblonga 
corpore circ. 8-9 mm. longa et marginibus angustis inclusis circ. 
1.5-1.8 mm. lata, apice plus minusve setoso biaristata; aristis tenui- 
bus usque ad 2.5 mm. longis, nunc glabris nunc antrorsuni vel etiam 
retrorsum 1-2-hamosis. 

Type specimen : Collected by Walter Busse, No. 2257, at altitude 
of 750 meters, south slope of Mt. Gonja, Usambara, German East 
Africa, April 18, 1903 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in German East 
Africa. 

Specimens examined: Busse 2257 (type, Berl.). 

The branches of the type material have internodes 1-1.5 dm. 
long. Busse's label lists the plant as an herb and gives its height as 
being up to 2 meters. The interior involucral bracts (like those of 
Bidens praecox) are connate below, often even up to the middle, thus 
simulating those of the allied genus Thelesperma, although the gen- 
eral habit in no way suggests Thelesperma. The achenes are thick- 
margined and suggest those of some species of Coreopsis, but the 
occasional retrorse barbs are foreign to that genus. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXXIX, FIGS. j-S 

Bidens phelloptera: j, k, rameal leaves, X0.66; I, exterior involu- 
cral bract, X3.3; ra, portion of interior involucre, showing sub- 
medianly connate bracts, X2.7; n, ray corolla, X2; o, palea, X5.28; 
p, q, disc florets, X5.28; r, s, achenes, X5.28; all from type. 

233. Bidens praecox Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 92: 450. 1931. 
PI. CLXXXVIII, fig. I. 

Herba erecta, gracilis, glabra, erecte ramosa, circ. 6 dm. alta, 
caule plus minusve tetragona. Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis 
saepe albido-hispidis 1 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 4-7 cm. longa, 
1-2-pinnata; segmentis ultimis valde membranaceis, nunc ovatis 
nunc rhomboideo-oblongis, breviter rotundo-dentatis et apicaliter 
rotundatis sed obsolete mucronulatis, acriter ciliatis, circ. 4-12 mm. 
latis. Capitula verisimiliter discoidea, ramulos (pedunculos) acriter 
angulatos glabratos vel irregulariter hispidos usque ad circ. 8 cm. 
longos terminantia, ad anthesin minuta (verisimiliter circ. 5 mm. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 633 

alta et circ. 4 mm. lata). Involucri glabri bracteae exteriores circ. 
8, tergo 3-nervatae, sursum sensim dilatatae, apicaliter subito rotun- 
datae et obtusae vel rarius subacutae, eciliatae, demum etiam usque 
ad 4 mm. longae; interiores oblongo-lanceolatae apicaliter angustatae 
ac pulverulente pubescentes, inferne connatae, demum circ. 8-9 
mm. longae. Achaenia praecocia, tenuiter clavato-linearia, obcom- 
pressa vel plana, deorsum sensim angustata, plumbeo-atra, glabra 
vel tuberculato-papillata, utraque facie nunc eleganter circ. 8- 
sulculata nunc subobsolete circ. 4-sulcata, 6-7.5 mm. longa et circ. 
0.8-1.1 mm. lata, marginibus exalata, apice exaristata sed plus 
minusve incrassato-capitata vel crassiusculo-anulata, itaque sub 
apice plerumque plus minusve constricta, demum paleas oblongo- 
lineares hyalinas apicem acutum versus sensim angustatas dimidio 
superantia. 

Type specimen: Collected by Walter Busse, No. 2523, in sandy 
soil, sunny places in legume forest, Mayanga, District of Lindi, 
southeasternmost German East Africa, May 15, 1903 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in German East 
Africa. 

Specimens examined : Busse 2523 (type, Berl.). 

Florets, both ray and disc, are lacking on the type. The achenes 
had been well formed even on small, young heads, differing in this 
respect from those in ordinary species of Bidens. Moreover, the 
achenes had produced at the apex some sort of secondary growth, 
this imparting a more or less capitate appearance. The growth in 
question is mostly 0.5-0.8 as wide as the maximum width of the 
achenial body and is variously truncate or protuberant, ovoid 
or subglobose, sometimes appearing faintly as if representing a rem- 
nant of the disc floret. The general habit is that of many annual 
species of Bidens (unless as to the submedianly connate interior 
involucral bracts, which, however, are matched by those in B. 
phelloptera) , to which genus the species is apparently best referred 
for the present. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXXXVIII, FIG. I 

Bidens praecox: achene, X3.42; from type. 

NOMINA E BlDENTE EXCLUDENDA 

Bidens acaulis Baker in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6, pt. 3: 247. 1884 (cf. 
Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81: 245. I926).=lsostigma acaule (Baker) Chod. 
Bull. Herb, Boiss. II. 1: 417. 1901. 



634 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bidens Acmella (L.) Lam. Encycl. 1: 415. 1783.=Spilanthes 
Acmella (L.) Murr. Syst. Veg. ed. 13. 610. 1774 (cf. A. H. Moore, 
Proc. Amer. Acad. 42: 534. 1907). 

Bidens Acmelloides Berg, in Vet. Acad. Handl. 29, pt. 2: 245, 
pi 7, fig. 1. l7Q8.=Spilanthes oleracea L. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. 2: 534. 
1767 (cf. A. H. Moore, op. cit. 530). 

Bidens angustifolia Lam. Encycl. 1: 416. l783.=Spilanthes wrens 
Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 28. 1762 (cf. Lam. loc. cit.; cf. A. H. Moore, 
op. cit. 528). 

Bidens angustifolia Lam. var. minor Poir. in Lam.-Poir. Illustr. 
Gen. 3: 244. pi. 668, fig. 2. 1823. =Spilanthes wrens Jacq. loc. cit. (cf. 
A. H. Moore, op. cit. 528). 

Bidens Apiifolia L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 1203. 1759; Amoen. 
Acad. 5: 381, 405. 176Q. = Chrysanthellum americanum Vatke, Abh. 
Bremen 9: 122. 1885 (cf. 0. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 
7: 144. 1911). 

Bidens arborea (Forst. & Forst. /.) Roxb. in A. Beatson, Appendix 
(Tracts Isl. St. Helena) 301, 325. 1816. =Laxmannia arborea Forst. 
& Forst. /. Char. Gen. 94. pi. 47. 1776 (cf. Robinson, Proc. Amer. 
Acad. 47: 207. 1911). 

Bidens Artemisiaefolia (Jacq.) 0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. 1: 321. 1891. 
= Cosmos sulphureus Cav. Icon, et Descr. PI. 1: 56. pi. 79. 1791. 

Bidens Artemisiaefolia (Jacq.) 0. Ktze. subsp. caudata (H.B.K.) 
0. Ktze. 1 var. fusca 0. Ktze. (ex patria et radii colore) et verisi- 
militer etiam var. rubra 0. Ktze. ; subsp. intermedia 0. Ktze. cum 
var. aurantiaca O. Ktze.; subsp. calva (Schz. Bip.) 0. Ktze. var. 
sulfurea (Cav.) 0. Ktze. 2 (ex syn. Cav.) loc. cit. =Cosmos sulphureus 
Cav. loc. cit. 

Bidens Artemisiaefolia (Jacq.) 0. Ktze. subsp. calva (Schz. Bip.) 
0. Ktze. loc. cit. = Cosmos calvus (Schz. Bip.) Sherff, Field Mus. 
Bot. 8: 405. 1932. 

Bidens Artemisiaefolia (Jacq.) 0. Ktze. subsp caudata (H.B.K.) 
0. Ktze. cum. var. rosea 0. Ktze. loc. cit. = Cosmos caudatus H.B.K. 
Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 188 (240). 1820. 

1 In this and the next two following cases, it may be noted that Kuntze omitted 
mention of any status for the names caudata, intermedia, and calva, but his placing 
of varieties under them would seem to indicate his conception of them as being 
subspecies. 

2 Spelled sulphureus by Cavanilles, loc. cit. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 635 

Bidens Artemisiaefolia f. grandiflora 0. Ktze. and f. parviflora 
O. Ktze. loc. cit. = Cosmos sulphureus Cav. 1 loc. cit. 

Bidens Atriplicifolia L. Cent. 2: 30. 1756; Amoen. Acad. 4: 329. 
1759 = Isocarpha Atriplicifolia (L.) R. Br. Trans. Linn. Soc. 12: 
110. 1816. 

Bidens atropurpurea DeVries, Sp. and Var. 131. 1905 (nomen). 
Cf. Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. 2: 114. 1821. 

Bidens atrosanguinea (Hook.) Ortg. in Regel, Gartenflora 1861: 
408. pi. 347. 1861; cf. Vilmorin, Fl. PI. Terre ed. 2. 269. 1866.= 
Cosmos atrosanguineus (Hook.) Ortg. loc. cit. Specimens raised in 
Vienna in 1868 (e sem. ex Hort. Turic. anno 1867) are still preserved 
(Mus. V., U.V.). In the Botanical Garden of Harvard University 
this plant has been raised for many years, doubtless since the days 
of Hooker and Ortgies (one of whom probably sent Asa Gray some 
of the original seed). The living plants were studied there in August, 
1929. The plants bear heads uniformly dark-flowered, the rays of 
a velvety blackish red. 

Bidens atrosanguinea var. hybrida DeCorte, Rev. Hort. Beige 
37: 29 et fig. 1911= Hybrid between Cosmos atrosanguineus (Hook.) 
Ortg. and Dahlia Merckii Lehm. 

Bidens? bandana Wall. Cat. 3291, Comp. No. 401. 2 =C/m/sew- 
thettum indicum DC. Prodr. 5: 631. 1836. 

Bidens Beckii Torr. in Spreng. Neue Entdeck. 2: 135. 1821; 
Fl. N. Y. 1: 388. pi. 58. l83.=Megalodonta Beckii (Torr.) Greene, 
Pittonia 4: 271. 1901. Rejected from Bidens not alone because of its 
growth habit, but also and mainly because of its achenial characters. 3 

Bidens Beckii f. scissa Sheldon, Bull. Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. 
Minn. 9: 79. 1894.=Megalodonta Beckii (Torr.) Greene, loc. cit. 
Type herbarium not named, but a fine sheet of the type collection 
(from Lindstrom, Minnesota) is extant (U.S.). 

Bidens Berteriana Spreng. Syst. 3: 454. 1826.=Coswos caudatus 
H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 188 (240). 1820. DeCandolle's Pro- 

1 Kuntze (loc. cit.) proposed his two forms in a rather loose way, manifestly 
intending that they might be distinguished in the case of all subspecies and varieties 
of his Bidens Artemisiaefolia (that is to say, for each subspecies and variety both 
a forma grandiflora and a f. parviflora could be distinguished. 

2 Wallich's Catalogue is written indistinctly as to the r's and n's. The Index 
Kewensis (1: 300. 1895) prints the trivial name bardana and Hooker (Fl. Brit. 
Ind. 3: 310. 1885) renders it bandanna. 

3 Wiegand and Eames (Fl. Cayuga Lake Basin 418. 1925) insist upon the 
retention of this species in Bidens. 



636 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

dromus Herbarium (Del.) has an excellent flowering and fruiting 
specimen. The rays are a faded rose color. The label reads, "Bidens 
Berteriana Spr. Coreopsis coronata Bert. Porto Rico Bertero M. 
Balbis 1820." Balbis sent many specimens this way to DeCandolle 
and this material by Bertero would seem to be authentic (Sprengel's 
Bidens Berteriana having been founded upon Coreopsis coronata 
Bert.). 1 

Bidens bipinnata Baill. Hist. PI. 8: 50. 1886 (non L.).=Cosmos 
bipinnatus Cav. Icon, et Descr. PI. 1: 10, pi. 14- 1791. 

Bidens calva (Schz. Bip.) C. B. Clarke, Comp. Ind. 141. 1876. 
=Cosmos calms (Schz. Bip.) Sherff, Field Mus. Bot. 8: 405. 1932. 

Bidens carnea Heer, Ind. Sem. Hort. Turic. 1842. 2 = Cosmos 
caudatus H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 188 (240). 1820. 

Bidens caroliniana Hemsl. in Index Curtis's Bot. Mag. 27. 1906.= 
Coreopsis lanceolata L. Sp. PI. 908. 1753. 

Bidens Carvifolia (Benth.) Schz. Bip. in Seemann, Bot. Voy. 
Herald 308. 1852-1857.= Cosmos Carvifolius Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 
117. 1844. 

Bidens caudata (H.B.K.) Schz. Bip. in Seemann, loc. cit.= 
Cosmos caudatus H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 188 (240). 1820. 

Bidens Cervantesii (Lag.) Baill. ex Ind. Kew. 1: 300. 1895. 3 
= Dahlia coccinea Cav. Icon, et Descr. PI. 3: 33, pi. 266. 1795 (fide 
Ind. Kew. 1:300. 1895). 

Bidens coccinea (Cav.) Baill. op. cit. 49, figs. 73, 74-= Dahlia 
coccinea Cav. 4 loc. cit. 

Bidens coronata (Hook.) Fisch. ex Steud. Nom. ed. 2. 1: 202. 
l$AQ.=Coreopsis nuecensis Heller, Bot. Expl. S. Texas 106. 1895. 

1 Other students appear unanimously to have referred Sprengel's species 
to Cosmos caudatus, among them: Steudel, Nom. Bot. ed. 2. 202. 1840; Baker in 
Mart. Fl. Bras. 6, pt. 3: 242. 1884; O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 144. 
1911; Urban, op. cit. 4: 641. 1911; Gomez, Anal. Hist. Nat. Madr. 275. 1890; etc. 

2 Bidens carnea Heer is the customary citation, but an early and apparently 
original specimen by Regel (Berl.) is accompanied with the inscription "Bidens 
carnea Heer et Rgl." 

3 Baillon, cited by the Index Kewensis, really gave (Hist. PI. 8: 305. 1886) 
the name Dahlia Cervantesii Lag. (cf. DC. Prodr. 5: 494. 1836). While he treated 
Dahlia as a section of Bidens (op. cit. 221, footnote 8; 305, footnote 8), he really 
did not directly make a new combination. 

4 So also B. coccinea (Cav.) Gomez (Anal. Hist. Nat. Madr. 19: 275. 1890). 
= Dahlia coccinea Cav. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 637 

Bidens crocata Cav. Icon, et Descr. PI. 1: 66, pi. 99. 1791.= 
Verbesina crocata (Cav.) Less, ex DC. Prodr. 5: 617. 1836 (cf. A. H. 
Moore, Proc. Amer. Acad. 42: 560. 1907). 1 

Bidens Dahlioides Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 26: 142. 1891.= 
Cosmos diversifolius Otto in Knowles & Westc. Fl. Cab. 2: 3, pi. 47. 
1838 (cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56: 494. 1913). 

Bidens denudata Turcz. Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 24: 183. 1851. 
=Glossogyne tenuifolia (LaBillard.) Cass. Diet. Nat. Sci. 51: 475. 
1827. 2 

Bidens dichotoma Desf. Tabl. Ecol. Bot. ed. 1. 108. 1804.= 
Nomen nudum. 3 

Bidens diversifolia (Otto) Schz. Bip. in Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald 
308. 1852-1857; etiam B. diversifolia (Otto) Ortg. in Regel, Garten- 
flora 408. 1861.= Cosmos diversifolius Otto in Knowles & Westc. 
Fl. Cab. 2: 3. pi. 47. 1838. (B. diversifolia var. atrosanguinea Hook, 
in Curtis's Mag. 87: pi. 5227. 1861=5. atrosanguinea [Hook.] Ortg. 
q. v., p. 635.) 

Bidens fervida Lam. Encycl. 1: 415. ~L783.=Spilanthes oleracea 
L. fide Lam. ips. atque A. H. Moorei, Proc. Amer. Acad. 42: 530. 
1907. 

Bidens fixa Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 3: 307. 1885. Sphalm, for B. 
fusca (cf. Ind. Kew. 1: 301. 1895). =Spilanthes oleracea L. (cf. Spreng. 
Syst. Veg. 3: 444. 1826; etiam A. H. Moore, loc. cit.). 

1 DeCandolle (loc. cit.), the Index Kewensis (4: 1180. 1895), A. H. Moore 
(loc. cit.), and various other authorities give Lessing for the combination Verbesina 
crocata, but Lessing (Syn. Gen. Comp. 232. 1832) did not make a definite or 
decisive transfer from Bidens to Verbesina. Nor should we overlook the fact that 
in his index (op. cit. 445) Lessing retained Bidens crocata Cav. but entirely omitted 
(op. cit. 472) mention of any Verbesina crocata. 

2 Fide Ind. Kew. 1: 300. 1895. The type of B. denudata Turcz. was collected 
by Cuming (No. 1375) in the Province of Cagagan, Luzon, Philippine Isls. I do 
not recall having seen it. 

3 Desfontaines gave merely a name for his plant and indicated it to be a 
perennial. DeCandolle (Prodr. 5: 597. 1836) presented a description, citing 
plants from Brazil by Commerson and by Lund. Lund's one plant (Del.) studied 
is true B. pilosa L. The Prodromus Herbarium (Del.) appears to have no speci- 
mens by Commerson. All told, the Prodromus specimens of "B. dichotoma Desf." 
are five in number, four being true B. pilosa L. and one being B. pilosa var. minor 
(Bl.) Sherff (cf. Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 2. 2: 394. 1902). 

Desfontaines later published (Cat. PI. Hort. Reg. Paris ed. 3. 185. 
1829) "Bidens dichotoma H. p." as a synonym for Blainvillea rhomboidea Cass. 
Diet. Nat. Sci. 29: 494. 1823. (Cf. O. E. Schulz, Bot. Jahrb. 50, Suppl. 182. 
1914). A small but fine specimen of a "Bidens dichotoma" is preserved (Petrop.) 
from material cultivated in 1815. Riedel sent it (whether the seed or the plant 
itself the label does not specify). It is a Blainvillea and may well have come 
from the material on which Desfontaines founded his reduction of B. dichotoma 
to synonymy in 1829. 



638 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bidens formosa (Bon.) Schz. Bip. in Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald 
307. 1852-1857.= Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Icon, et Descr. PI. 1: 10, 
pi 11*. 1791. 

Bidens formosa (Bon.) 0. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 3, pt. 2: 137. 1898. 
= Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. loc. cit. 

Bidens frutescens Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. No. 4. H68.=Zexmenia 
frutescens (Mill.) Blake cum var. genuina Blake, Contr. Gray Herb, 
n. ser. 52: 50. 1917. 

Bidens fruticosa L. Sp. PI. 2: 833. 1753.=Zexmera'a frutescens 
(Mill.) Blake cum var. genuina Blake, loc. cit. 

Bidens fusca Lam. Encycl. 1: 416. n83.=Spilanthes oleracea L. 
Syst. Nat. ed. 12. 2: 534. 1767 (fide Spreng. Syst. Veg. 3: 444. 1826; 
etiam A. H. Moore, Proc. Amer. Acad. 42: 534. 1907). 

Bidens Glyceriaefolia Schz. Bip. ex Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 78. 1923. 
= Isostigma Scorzoneraefolium (Bak.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81: 246. 
1926. 

Bidens Glydnaefolia Schz. Bip. ex Baker in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
6, pt. 3: 247. \&84:.=Isostigma Scorzoneraefolium (Bak.) Sherff, 
loc. cit. 

Bidens gracilis Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 2: 215. 1828.= Thelesperma 
gracile (Torr.) Gray, Kew Journ. Bot. 1: 252. 1849. 

Bidens hirsuta Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 110. l78S.=Notoptera 
hirsuta (Sw.) Urban, Symb. Antill. 2: 466.. 1901 (cf. 0. E. Schulz in 
Urban, op. cit. 7: 144. 1911). 

Bidens Humboldtii Schz. Bip. in Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald 307. 
1852-1857= Cosmos parviflorus (Jacq.) H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 
4: 189 (241). 1820. 

Bidens insipida (Jacq.) Lam. Encycl. 1: 416. HS3.=Spilanthes 
insipida Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 28. 1762; Sel. Stirp. Amer. Hist. 
215, pi. 126, jig. 2. 1763 (cf. A. H. Moore, Proc. Amer. Acad. 42: 
530. 1907). 

Bidens involvens Phil, ex Ind. Kew. Suppl. 1: 56. 1901. Clearly 
a sphalm forB. involucrata Phil, which is the name given in the place 
cited (Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile Bot. 49. 1891) and which = Hetero- 
sperma involucratum (Phil.) Reiche, Anal. Univ. Chile 112: 150. 
1903; etiam Fl. Chile 4: 99. 1905. 

Bidens involucrata Phil. Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile Bot. 49. 1891.= 
Heterosperma involucratum (Phil.) Reiche, locis cit. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 639 

Bidens Jacksonii (S. L. Moore) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81: 45. 1926.= 
Coreopsis Jacksonii S. L. Moore, Journ. Linn. Soc. 35: 347. 1902; cf. 
Field Mus. Bot. 11 : 363 (and fig. 1, the legend of which through errror 
fails to show Moore as the sole authority for the binomial as printed). 

Bidens Langlassei Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 64: 24. 1917.=Coswos Lang- 
lassei Sherff, Field Mus. Bot. 8: 425. 1932. 

Bidens Leyboldii Phil. Anal. Univ. Chile 27: 338. 1865.= TMe- 
sperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) 0. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 3, pt. 2: 182. 
1898 (cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 91-93. 1923. l 

Bidens Lindleii Schz. Bip. in Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald 307. 
1852-1857 (B.Lindleyi Schz. Bip. in Ind. Kew. 1: 301. 1895). (=Cos- 
mos tenuifolius Lindl. Bot. Reg. pi. 2007. 1837 and hence) = Cosmos 
bipinnatus Cav. Icon, et Descr. 1: 10. pi. 14- 1791. 

Bidens linearifolia Schz. Bip. in Seemann, loc. cit. = Cosmos 
linearifolius (Schz. Bip.) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 2: 200. 1881. 

Bidens marginata Perr. ex DC. Prodr. 5: 631. 1836. =Chrysan- 
thellum indicum DC. Perrottet's specimen of B. marginata was made 
the basis by DeCandolle for his Chrysanthellum senegalense, but this 
is reduced to C. indicum by the Index Kewensis (1: 525. 1895). 

Bidens megapotamica Spreng. Syst. Veg. 3: 454. 1826; non 0. E. 
Schulz, Bot. Jahrb. 50, Suppl.: 182. 1914. =Thelesperma megapotami- 
cum (Spreng.) 0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 3, pt. 2: 182. 1898 (cf. Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 76: 91. 1923; ibid. 83: 425. 1927). 

Bidens melananthera hastata (Michx.) Desf. Tabl. Ecole Bot. 
ed. 2. 130. \Sl5 = Melanthera (spelled in Michx. Melananthera) has- 
tata (Walt.) Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer. 2: 107. 1803. 

Bidens Meyeniana Walp. Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 19, Suppl. 1: 271. 
1843; Walp. Repert. 6: 168. 1846. =Glossogyne tenuifolia (LaBill.) 
Cass. Diet. Nat. Sci. 51: 475. 1827. The type of Bidens Meyeniana, 
collected by Meyen at Cape Syngmoon, Kwangtung, China, August, 
1831, is preserved in the Berlin Herbarium. Walpers described it as 
being nearest B. parviflora Willd., wherefore Forbes and Hemsley 
(Journ. Linn. Soc. 23: 435. 1888) stated that it might be referable 
to B. parviflora or to B. bipinnata. The plant, however, is typical 
Glossogyne tenuifolia Cass., and the species has already been thus 
equated on a label for another specimen (legit Hillebrand) by some- 
one in the Berlin Herbarium (cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 91. 1923). 

1 For a further note upon the validity of the name Thelesperma megapotamicum, 
vide Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 83: 425. 1927. 



640 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bidens mirabilis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 61: 496. pi. 31. 1916. = Eri- 
centrodea mirabilis (Sherff) Blake & Sherff ex Blake, Journ. Wash. 
Acad. Sci. 13: 105. 1923. Cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81: 26, footnote 1. 
The footnote in question was meant to include also the latinized 
description of Ericentrodea and the citation of the type species. 
These, however, were erroneously placed by the printer in the body 
of the text. 

Bidens nivea L. Sp. PL 833. 1753 (non Sesse & Moc.) =Melanthera 
nivea (L.) 0. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 118. 1911 (ex syn. L.). 

Bidens novae-caledoniae Forst. ex Schlect. Linnaea 10: 480. 1835- 
1836. = Glossogyne tenuifolia (LaB.) Cass. Diet. Sci. Nat. 51 : 475. 1827. 

Bidens ochracea (0. Hoffm.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 158. 1923.= 
Coreopsis ochracea 0. Hoffm. Bot. Jahrb. 30: 431. 1901 (cf. Sherff, 
op. cit. 80: 375. pi. 19. 1925). Hoffmann had not seen ripe fruits of 
this species. 1 In my earlier studies it seemed that the specimens of 
this handsome species of the Nyassa region were of two kinds, 
differing generically on the basis of the winged character of the 
achenes. Further specimens have shown that some material is 
merely more tardy than the rest in displaying achenial wings. As 
the specimens mature, their achenes become fairly well winged. Be- 
sides the type (W. Goetze 731, on red laterite, hilly plateau, in thin 
bush growth, at altitude of 1,700 meters, Bweni, Uhehe, March 11, 
1899; BerL), I have seen the following: Ad. Stolz 764 pro parte, 
growing 2 meters tall, alt. 600 meters, Kyimbila, Langenburg, German 
East Africa, June 8, 1911 (BerL); idem 764 pro parte, eodem loco, 
February 27, 1912 (Del.); Muenzner 159, Msamvia, Lake Tangan- 
yika District, German East Africa, February 24, 1909 (BerL; type 
of Coreopsis Cosmophylla Sherff); A. Whyte, northern Nyassaland 
(Kew); E. Battiscombe 83, alt. 1,050-1,200 meters, Muhoroni, British 
East Africa (Kew; forma foliis plus minusve atypica); W. H. Nutt, 
alt. about 1,800 meters, between Lake Tanganyika and Lake Rukwa, 
1896 (Kew). 

Bidens Ocymifolia Lam. Encycl. 1: 416. 1783; Lam. & Poir. 
Illustr. Gen. 3: 244, pi. 668, fig. 3. 1823. =Spilanthes Ocymifolia (Lam.) 
A. H. Moore, Proc. Amer. Acad. 42: 531. 1907. Here, as elsewhere 
in similar cases unless noted to the contrary, I have preferred to 
rely upon Moore's special knowledge of the various species of Spi- 
lanthes. I examined the Lamarckian specimen in 1924 (Par.) and 
noted in manuscript merely that it was a Spilanthes. 

1 "Reife Friichte fehlen; nach den Fruchtknoten zu erteilen konnten sie 
gefliigelt sein": Hoffm. loc. cit. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 641 

Bidens oleracea (L.) Cav. ex Steud. Norn. ed. 2. 1: 203. 1840.= 
Spilanthes oleracea L. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. 2: 534. 1767 (cf. A. H. Moore, 
op. cit. 530). 

Bidens Palmeri Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 429. 1887. = Cosmos 
Landii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 64: 29. 1917. This species, with its strongly 
ribbed leaves, is very close to Cosmos Crithmifolius H.B.K., but 
differs in its yellow rays and slightly dissimilar leaf outline. In most 
specimens the achenes are clearly erostrate, but occasionally some of 
the central ones become highly elongated above, appearing almost 
distinctly rostrate and thus exactly simulating those of such species 
as Cosmos Crithmifolius and C. linearifolius. This is especially 
notable in certain material collected by Barnes and Land (Nos. 164 
and 189, Field). In fact, the subrostrate character of the achenes 
was known to Gray (cf. Gray, loc. cit., "achaeniis subulatis . . . 
subrostratis"). Yet, curiously enough, he placed this species in 
Bidens, while previously (Proc. Amer. Acad. 19: 16. 1883) he had 
determined as Cosmos Seemannii a Ghiesbreght plant, described 
by himself as having "essentially beakless . . . achenes." I have 
examined the following specimens: Edward Palmer 315, Rio Blanco, 
Jalisco, Mexico, August, 1886 (Gray; Phila.; U.V.); C. G. Pringle 
2348, vicinity of Guadalajara, Jalisco, November 2, 1889 (Del.; 
Field; Phila.; U.V., 2 sheets); idem 11490, banks of ravines at alt. 
1,525 meters, Rio Blanco near Guadalajara, Jalisco, October 6, 
1903 (Field) ; C. R. Barnes & W. J. G. Land 164 and 167, alt. 1,707 
meters, Sierra de San Esteban, Jalisco, September 28, 1908 (Field); 
iidem 189, alt. 1,737 meters, eodem loco et tempore (Field). 

Bidens paradoxa D. Don ex Hook. & Arn. in Hooker, Journ. Bot. 
3: 319. 184:0.= Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) 0. Kuntze, 
Rev. Gen. PI. 3, pt. 2: 182. 1898 (cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 91. 1923; 
ibid. 83:425. 1927). 

Bidens perianthomega Arrab. ex Steud. Nom. ed. 2. 1: 203. 1840. 
Erroneously given for Bignonia perianthomega Velloso, Fl. Flum. 
248; 6: pi. 34. 1827 (cf. Ind. Kew. 1: 301. 1895). 

Bidens Peucedanifolia (Wedd.) 0. Kuntze cum var. bipinnati- 
secta 0. Ktze. et var. soratensis 0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 3, pt. 2: 
136-137. 1898.= Cosmos Peucedanifolius Wedd. Chlor. And. 1: 70. 
1855. 

Bidens Peucedanifolia var. cochabambensis 0. Ktze. loc. cit. = 
Cosmos Peucedanifolius var. cochabambensis (0. Ktze.) Sherff, Bot. 
Gaz. 88: 307. 1929. 



642 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bidens Peucedanifolia var. tiraquensis 0. Ktze. loc. cit. = Cosmos 
Peucedanifolius var. tiraquensis (0. Ktze.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. loc. cit. 

Bidens pinnatifida Buch.-Ham. in Wall. Cat. No. 3190. 1828. = 
Glossogyne pinnatifida (Buch.-Ham. in Wall.) DC. in Wight, Contr. 
19. 1834. 

Bidens pseudacmella (L.) Zorn, Ic. PI. Med. Cent. 6. pi 594- 
l7W.=Verbesina pseudo-acmella L. Sp. PI. 2: 901. 1753 (fide A. H. 
Moore, Proc. Amer. Acad. 42: 561. 1907). 

Bidens pulcherrima Schz. Bip. Linnaea 34: 528. 1865-1866.= 
Nomen subnudum. Name applied by Schultz Bipontinus to G. 
Mandon 54, specimens of which (Gray; Brit.) are referable to Cosmos 
Peucedanifolius Wedd. Chlor. And. 1: 70. 1855. 

Bidens purpurea DC., cum var. glabriuscula DC., Prodr. 5: 604. 
1836. = Cosmos purpureus (DC.) Benth. & Hook. Gen. PI. 2: 387. 
1876; Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 2: 200. 1881 (cf. Sherff, Bot. 
Gaz. 80: 381. 1925). 1 

Bidens Ramtila Wall. Cat. 3191. 1828; B. Ramtilla Wall, ex DC. 
Prodr. 5: 551, 605. 1836. = Guizotia abyssinica Cass. Diet. Nat. Sci. 
59:248.1829. 

Bidens reptans Schz. Bip. in Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald 308. 
1852-1857 (non [L.] G. Don). = Cosmos diversifolius Otto in Knowles 
& Westc. Fl. Cab. 2: 3. pi. 1,7. 1838. 

Bidens rhombifolia Schz. Bip. Bonplandia 4: 54. 1856 (nomen). 
= Het erosperma rhombifolium (Schz. Bip.) Griseb. Goett. Abh. 19: 
138. 1874; cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 80. pi. 8. 1923. Schultz Biponti- 
nus, who reduced Heterosperma to Bidens, published without 
description the name Bidens ( Heterosperma) rhombifolia for a plant 
collected by W. Lechler, No. 1576, in rubbish-covered places, May, 
1854, Tacna, Peru. Later Grisebach (loc. cit.) transferred the species 
to Heterosperma, supplying a very scant description: "Species parum 
ab H. maritimo Kth. foliis latioribus (2" longis, 1" latis) recedens." 

The leaves of H. maritimum were described as 4-4.5 lines wide; 
those of H. rhombifolium are 7-9.3 lines wide, and because of this 
greater width have a remarkably different aspect. The achenes of 
the outer, perfect (hermaphrodite) florets in H. maritimum were 
described as obsoletely tridentate at the apex, but the corresponding 
achenes of H. rhombifolium are definitely biaristate. 2 In 1914, on 

1 B. purpurea Downing (Nat. Great L. Region 317. 1922) is an error for Bra- 
senia purpurea Casp. (=B. Schreberi Gmel.). 

2 It should be remarked, however, that in the type plate, fig. 3, of H. maritimum, 
two definite aristae are shown on the achene. No tridentate character is indicated. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 643 

finding one of Lechler's original specimens in Paris, I made a draw- 
ing of it (Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 80, pi. 8. 1923). The leaves suggested 
strongly the possibility of the plant's being the Heterosperma 
ovatifolium of Cavanilles, described from "Peru" in 1822 (Cav. Descr. 
204. 1802), and later renamed H. ovatum by Willdenow (Sp. PL 
ed. 4. 3: 2129. 1804). 1 Cavanilles' description of the leaves, however, 
"Las hojas son aovadas, de cinco a ocho lineas de largo," shows his 
plant to have been one of the smaller-leaved species native to 
that region. In the Paris specimen of H. rhombifolium the principal 
leaves all measure from 9 to 16 lines long, 2 not 5-8 lines as given by 
Cavanilles. The plant, on comparison with Kunth's plate in Hum- 
boldt and Bonpland's Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (4: pi. 
383. 1820), appears to differ from H. maritimum mainly in having 
large, rhombic-ovate instead of small, rhombic-lanceolate leaves. 

Since the paucity of material in the larger herbaria makes it 
impossible actually to settle the separate identity of H. rhombifolium 
as distinct from H. maritimum, attempts at synonymizing the two 
would seem for the present to be valueless. 

Bidens rigidaHort. Calc. ex C. B. Clarke, Comp. Ind. 141. 1876. = 
Glossogyne pinnatifida (Buch.-Ham. in Wall.) DC. in Wight, Contr. 
19. 1834. 

Bidens Sartorii Schz. Bip. in Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald 307. 
1852-1857. = Cosmos Crithmifolius H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 190 
(242). 1820. I have examined Schultz Bipontinus' type (Par.). 

Bidens Scabiosoides (H.B.K.) Schz. Bip. loc. cit. 308 (cf. Ortg. 
in Regel, Gartenflora 408. 1861). =Cosmos Scabiosoides H.B.K. Nov. 
Gen. etSp. 4:242. 1820. 

Bidens scandens L. Sp. PI. 833. 1753. =Salmea scandens (L.) 
DC. Cat. Hort. Monsp. 141. 1813 (cf. 0. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. 
Antill. 7: 144. 1911; cf. Blake, Journ. Bot. 53: 197. 1915). 

Bidens Scorzoneraefolia Baker in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6, pt. 3: 247. 
1884. =Isostigma Scorzoneraefolium (Baker) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81: 
246, pi. 23, figs, g, h. 1926. 

1 In Cavanilles' description, the name "Heterosperma ovatifolia" [sic] appears 
not as a binomial but merely as the first two words of a short Latin description, 
followed by a longer Spanish description. Cavanilles' method of presenting his 
plant names in his Descripciones is not the orthodox post-Linnean one, and only 
by examination of his treatment of the many other plant names does one find 
surely that the first two words in each description are the intended binomial. 

2 Grisebach's measurements, "2* longis, 1* latis," appear to have been care- 
lessly taken. 



644 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bidens Seemannii Schz. Bip. in Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald 307. 
1852-1857.= Cosmos Carvifolius Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 117. 1844 
(cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 64: 27. 1917; etiam 88: 303. 1929). 

Bidens spathulata Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 149. 1923. = Coreopsis 
Jacksonii S. L. Moore, Journ. Linn. Soc. 35: 347. 1902. 

Bidens subalpina Larss. ex Kindb. Svensk Fl. 393. 1877.= 
Betula intermedia Thorn, fide Kindb. loc. cit. 

Bidens Succisaefolio Hemsl. in Ind. Curtis's Bot. Mag. 27. 1906. 
=Coreopsis lanceolata L. Sp. PI. 908. 1753. 

Bidens sulphured (Cav.) Schz. Bip. op. cit. 308.=Coswos sul- 
phureus Cav. Icon, et Descr. PL 1: 56, pi 79. 1791. 

Bidens tenella L. PI. Rar. Afr. 17. 1760; Amoen. Acad. 6: 96. 1760. 
The Linnean Herbarium has two plants on one sheet. They were 
identified long ago by Schultz Bipontinus as "Pectis (tenella)" and 
"Charieis heterophylla Cass." 

Bidens tenuifolia LaBill. Sert. Austr. Caled. 44, pi. 45. 1825.= 
Glossogyne tenuifolia (LaBill.) Cass. Diet. Nat. Sci. 51 : 475. 1827. 

Bidens tinctoria (Nutt.) Baill. Hist. PL 8: 305. 1886; (Nutt.) 
Baill. ex Ind. Kew. 1: 301. 1895.=Coreopst's tinctoria Nutt. Journ. 
Acad. Phila. 2: 114. 1821. 

Bidens tridentata Turcz. Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 24, pt. 1: 183. 1851. 
=Glossogyne tridentata (Turcz.) Benth. & Hook. Gen. PL 2: 389. 
1873. 

Bidens tripteris (L.) Krause in Sturm, FL Deutschl. ed. 2. 13: 
158. 1905. = Coreopsis tripteris L. Sp. PL 2: 908. 1753. 

Bidens tuberosa Schz. Bip. Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 12: 79. 1865; 
Linnaea 34: 528. 1865-1866. Nomen subnudum. Applied by 
Schultz Bipontinus to G. Mandon 49, specimens of which (N.Y., 
etc.) are referable to Viguiera fusi/ormis Blake, Contr. Gray Herb, 
n. ser. 54: 145. 1918. 

Bidens valladolidensis Schz. Bip. in Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald 
308. 1852-1857. = Cosmos Crithmifolius H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 
190 (242). 1820. 

Bidens variabilis (Desf.) Baill. Hist. PL 8: 305. 1886; etiam 
(Desf.) Gomez, Ann. Hist. Nat. Madrid 19: 275. 1890.=Z)a^a 
variabilis Desf. Cat. PL Hort. Reg. Paris ed. 3. 182. 1829. 

Bidens verticillata L. Sp. PL 833. 1753 (non [L.] Baill.). = Tn- 
chospira verticillata (L.) Blake, Torreya 15: 106. 1915. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 645 

Bidens verticillata (L.) Baill. Hist. PI. 8: 305. 1886. ^Coreopsis 
verticillata L. Sp. PI. 907. 1753. 

Bidens Xantiana Rose ex Vasey & Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
1: 72. 1890.= Heterosperma Xantii Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 162 
(cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 61: 497, footnote 2. 1916). Heterosperma is 
very closely connected with Bidens through Heterosperma Xantii 
Gray, the type of which (Gray) is matched by that of Bidens Xanti- 
ana Rose (U.S.); a species best retained in Heterosperma, a view in 
accord with the treatment by Brandegee (Zoe 1: 309. 1890), who, 
moreover, has since positively corroborated (in lit., 1913) my 
equation of Bidens Xantiana Rose with Heterosperma Xantii Gray. 

ADDENDA 

71. Bidens segetum Mart, ex Colla, p. 194, PI. XLIX and PI. L. 
Colla's rare work (Herb. Pedem.) describing this species is inacces- 
sible to me. Drs. Henry A. Gleason and Elmer D. Merrill very 
kindly sent me copied portions of the text. From the inscription 
("Bidens segetum Mar.") accompanying Colla's type specimen and 
from Colla's citation of the herbarium of Martius ("14. B. segetum 
= Mart. hb.") as seen in these copies, though set forth somewhat 
unconventionally, it is evident that "Martius ex Colla" should be 
given for the authorship of the name B. segetum. (Similarly, B. 
fervida Hort. Erf. ex Colla is correct for the full citation of Colla's 
B. fervida on p. 366.) 

m 147a. Bidens Muelleri sp. nov. 

Herba pumila, perennis, e radice plus minusve perpendiculari 
4-8 mm. crassa saltern 3 vel 4 cm. longa crescens, subacaulescens, 
5 cm. alta, subconferte subcaespitoseque foliata. Folia petiolata 
petiolis planis submarginatis glabris vel basim versus hispidis usque 
ad 3.5 cm. longis et 0.6-1 mm. latis, petiolo adjecto sub 5 cm. longa, 
lamina circumambitu deltoideo-ovata, bipinnatisecta; segmentis 
(primariis 1-3 jugis ad rhachin decurrentibus) lineari-oblongis, 
crassiusculis, obtusis vel subacutis, glabris, subrevolutis, majoribus 
uninerviis, 1-2 mm. latis. Capitula pauca (1-3), pedunculum 
scapoideum glabrum inferne arcuatum superne erectum 2-4 cm. 
longum et circ. 0.5 mm. crassum terminantia, radiata, pansa ad 
anthesin circ. 1.8-2.3 cm. lata et circ. 9 mm. alta. Involucri sub- 
hemisphaerici bracteae exteriores 6-8, lineari-oblongae, apice obtusae, 
tergo glabrae, marginibus glabri vel raro paulum spinuloso-ciliatae, 
2-4 mm. longae et sub 1 mm. latae; interiores ovato-oblongae, anguste 



646 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

flavo-marginatae aliter brunneo-nigrescentes, glabrae vel ad apicem 
minute pubescentes, circ. 8-9 mm. longae. Flores ligulati plerumque 
8, aurei, ligula ovato-oblongi, apice obtuso plus minusve denticulati, 
1 cm. longi. Paleae plus minusve oblanceolatae, apice obtusae 
6 mm. longae. Achaenia matura absentia. Ovaria oblongo- 
fusiformia, plana, nitido-brunneae, glabrata, apice paulum dilatata 
vel etiam subbidenticulata sed non aristata, usque ad 2 mm. longa. 

Type specimen : Collected by C. H. Mueller, No. 2267, abundant 
in meadows above timber line, on the peak of Cerro Potosi, Galeana, 
Nuevo Leon, Mexico, July 21, 1935 (Field). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Nuevo Leon, 
Mexico. 

Specimens examined: Mueller 2267 (type, Field). 

The type sheet bears seven specimens. The dried capitula offer 
an illusory resemblance to those of most South American species of 
Coreopsis, because of the conspicuous, dark interior involucral bracts. 
I am indebted to Mr. Paul C. Standley of Field Museum for oppor- 
tunity to study this recently collected material (which he had very 
properly considered as representing a new species), and to prepare 
a detailed description for insertion in this work. The affinities are 
probably closest with B. Anthemoides, B. andicola, and B. triplinervia 
var. macrantha. 

185a. Bidens Lindblomii sp. nov. 

Herba perennis, fruticosa, glabra, verisimiliter erecta et 1 m. 
alta; caule subtereti vel parce subtetragono, inferne ac mediane 
simplici. Folia opposita, tenuiter petiolata petiolis glaberrimis 1-2 
cm. longis basi connatis, petiolo adjecto saepius 6-9 cm. longa, 
3-5-partita; foliolis plus minusve ovatis vel rhomboideo-ovatis, 
obtusis, paucidentatis (dentibus suborbiculato-ovatis saepe mucro- 
nulatis), membranaceis, eciliatis vel obsoletissime ciliatis, 1-3.5 cm. 
latis. Capitula 11-13 corymboso-paniculate disposita, radiata, 
pansa ad anthesin 3-4 cm. lata et circ. 12-13 mm. alta, tenuiter 
pedicellata pedicellis glabris usque ad 9 cm. longis. Involucri plus 
minusve glabri bracteae exteriores circ. 5 vel 6, patentes vel reflexae, 
oblongo-lineares, apice subobtusae, circ. 4-5 mm. longae; interiores 
ovato-oblongae, 6-7 mm. longae. Flores ligulati circ. 8, flavi, ligula 
obovato-oblongae vel late ellipticae, apice subdenticulati, 1.6-2 cm. 
longi. Paleae lineari-oblongae, acutae vel obtusae, 7 mm. longae. 
Achaenia matura non visa. Ovaria 4 mm. longa, linearia, plana, 
basim versus angustata, faciebus glabra, marginibus erecte setosa, 



THE GENUS BIDENS 647 

apice setis erectis coronata et bi- vel plerumque triaristata; aristis 
elongato-filiformibus, de apice fere usque ad basim acriter retrorsum- 
que hamosis, 4-5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen : Collected by K. G. Lindblom, in Ukamba, British 
East Africa, 1911-1912 (Stockh.). 

Distribution : Known only from type locality in Ukamba, British 
East Africa. 

Specimens examined : K. G. Lindblom, Ukamba, 1911-1912 (type, 
Stockh.). 

The type was found, on the eve of publication, among a large 
assortment of undetermined specimens received from Th. Arwidsson 
of the Natural History Royal Museum of Stockholm. In my Clavis 
it runs down to the second i on page 65. From the specimens there 
given, however, it differs at once in one or more of the characters 
noted : glabrous stem and leaves, corymbose-paniculate inflorescence, 
capitula 3-4 cm. wide and about 12-13 mm. tall, exceptionally 
elongate-filiform and retrorsely barbed aristae of the usually triaris- 
tate ovaries, etc. 

INCERTAE SEDIS 

Bidens grandiflora var. y. longiloba O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. 3, pt. 2: 
136. 1898. "Folia plurima 2-3-pinnatisecta lobis longis integris 
anguste lanceolatis. Bolivia: Cochabamba." 

Bidens ingrata Larranaga ex Escritos D. A. Larranaga (Publ. 
Inst. Hist. Geogr. Uruguay) 2: 250. 1923. "Floribus 1-2 radiatis, 
calicibus nudis, foliis pinnatis, superioribus pinnatifidis; glabris caule 
tetragono." 

Bidens Martii Colla, Herb. Pedem. 3: 306. 1834. 

Bidens Maximowicziana Getting. Act. Hort. Bot. Univ. Imp. 
Jurjuv. 6: 219, pi. 3, fig. 1. 1905. Doubtless is Bidens radiata Thuill. 

Bidens odora Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. Suppl. 56. 1813. 

Bidens paleacea Vis. Nuov. Saggi Ace. Padov. 5: 266. 1840. 
Native of Nubia. "Gehort nach der Beschreibung in den Formen- 
kreis vonB. pilosus L." 0. E. Schulz, Bot. Jahrb. (Suppl.) 50. 183. 
1914. 

Bidens tetragona Sess4 & Moc. PI. Nov. Hispan. ed. 1. 131. 1887. 
A plant described from San Angel, near the City of Mexico (stem 
quadrangulate-alate, leaves rhombic-lanceolate, peduncles solitary 
and terminal, capitula yellow and radiate, etc.). Belongs clearly in 



648 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

another genus. An authentic specimen is lacking among the large 
collection of Sesse" & Mocino plants recently sent from the Madrid 
Botanical Garden to Field Museum for study. 

Bidens trifoliata Noronha, Verh. Batav. Gen. 5 (ed. 1, art. 
IV?) : 8. 1790. Nomen nudum. Probably B. pilosa L. or one of its 
varieties. 

Bidens trifoliata Gueldenstadt, Reis. Russl. Cauc. Geb. 2: 9. 1791: 
Guldenst. ex Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 2: 516. 1844-1846. Nomen nudum. 
Probably B. tripartita L., for which it is cited as a synonym by 
Ledebour, loc. cit. 

Bidens Vestii Schz. Bip. Flora 39: 358. 1856; Coreopsis fruticosa 
Vest, Flora 3: 7. 1820; Bidens fruticosa (Vest) DC. Prodr. 5: 596. 
1836; non (Forst.) Schz. Bip. loc. cit. A glabrous plant, of unknown 
origin. The leaves were oblong, lanceolate, dentate. The stem was 
shrubby. The rays numbered up to 12. The achenes were smooth, 
4-aristate, the aristae retrorsely barbed. Vest described the plant 
as having been planted in his garden under the name Iva frutescens 
and brought probably from Vienna. 

Bidens Viciosoi Pau, Bol. Soc. Arag. 7: 78. 1908. Should be com- 
pared with Bidens pilosa L. 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS CITED 1 

Collectors' names and page numbers in italic type 



Abadia, around Lima, 1833, 358 
Abbon, "Monterrey," 238 
Abbott, W. L., Kilimanjaro, 1890, 606 
Abrams, LeRoy R., no. 2484, 415 

no. 4177, 315 

no. 6758, 238 

no. 12046, 247 

Adamovic, Lujo, Vranja, Sept. 2, 1903, 
283 

Adrianople, July, 1906, 283 
Adamson, George, no. 363, 543 
Adamson & Mumford, no. 400, 79 

no. 469, 82 

Adole, Brother, no. 63 p.p., 445 
Agniel, Brother, Queretaro, 1910-1913, 

445 

Agriculture, ex Dept. of, no. 2482, 5^7 
Agronomica, Herb. Estacion Central, 

ex, no. 1349, 470 

Aitchison, James Edward Tierney, no. 
660, 390 

no. 982, 390 
Alamdn, Mexico, 1825, 528 

west of Guanajuato, 1829, 336 

Mexico, 1831, Ski 

no. 26, 336 
Albers, no. 204, 576 
Alboff, Nicolas, no. 460, 272 
Alexander, Richard Chandler, coffee 
region, Blue Mts., Nov. 28, 1850, 
178 

Jamaica, 440 

Diablo, 1849, 1*32 

Jamaica, 1850, 170 

Diablo, 1850, 432 
Allabach, Lulu F., LaSalle Isl., Aug. 

25, 1920, 302 
Allart, nos. 69, 457, 180 
Allebach, H. G., Ocean City, Oct., 1918, 

222 

Allen, C. E. F., no. 434, 555 
Allison, Andrew, no. 46, 229 
Ambrosius, vineyards, Valsugana, 367 
Anderson, St. Vincent, 170 
Anderson, D. J., China, Mar. 19, 1868, 

422 

Anderson, Robert T., no. 12562, 238 
Andersson, Nils Johan, no. 66, 4.75 
Andre, Edouard Francois, no. 103, 180 

no. 151, 1*69 

no. 551, 315 

no. 556, 507 

no. 2878, 351 

no. 3952, 511 



Andrieux, G,, no. 312, 315 
Anonymous, Delaware Co., 315 

Cambridge, cult, at, from achenes 

collected by Charles Wright in 

1851, 381 
ex Hort. Bot. Genevae from Rio de 

Janeiro, Sept. 24, 1826, 463 
fresh-water pools, Honolulu and Wai- 

lupe, 315 

Kamwake-mura, Nov. 23, 1896, 422 
Lake Baikal, 384 
Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Sept., 

1868, 432 
ditches, Padua and Pavia, Aug.- 

Sept., 285 

Pontcheri to Lyon, Sept. 3, 1836, 285 
Popocatapetl (comm. H. Broughton- 

Laigh), 521 

Sakawa, Oct. 10, 1890, 272 
St. Croix, 422, 469 
Tarapaca (comm. R. A. Philippi, 

Feb., 1888), 507, 509 
Tokyo, pet. 3, 1893, 390 
Transbaikal region, 384 
Usuri, 384 
no. 56, 576 

no. 63, Lizard Isl., Apr., 1861, 367 
no. 123, Manoa Valley, May 13, 1854, 

415 
no. 235, Hort. Berol. e sem. Schimperi 

abyssin., 1857, 628 
Antunes, no. 197, 543 

no. 315, 330 
Aoust, Virl. d', no. 404, 526 

nos. 447, 496, 605,511 
Arechavaleta, Jose, LaBarra, 315 
no. 4021, 315 
no. 4123, 462 
Argentorati, Hort., Aug., 1841, 508 

Strassburg, Aug., 1841, 507 
Ariste-Joseph, Brother, Paramo de Usme, 

1922, 188 
no. A42, 509 
no. A832, 358 
Arsene, Brother Gerfroy (Brouard, 

Arsene Gustave Joseph), states of 

Puebla and Michoacan, 50 
near Laguna de San Baltasar, Aug. 

16, 1906, 333 

Mayorazgo, Aug. 16, 1906, 333 
near Hacienda Santa Barbara, 1907, 

445 
azotea de San Pedro, Sept. 27, 1908, 

445 



Unnumbered specimens are cited, generally, in the inverse order of exactness 
as to geographic location, in alphabetical order as to locality, or in chronological 
order. 



649 



650 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Quinceo, 1910, 361 

nos. 102, 1410, 2414, 3080, 10165, 333 

nos. 497, 497a, 4976, 497c, 1813, 2340, 
6350, 10430, 445 

nos. 1982, 5870, 7211, 363 

no. 3164, 459 

nos. 3198, 5797, 6774, 361 
Aschenborn, Alwln, Mexico, 1872, 442 

nos. 189, 433, S1>1 

no. 478, 31 5 
Ashcroft, George B., Berea, July, 1897, 

222 

Asplund, Erik, no. 42, 4.55 
Autheman, Alphonse, no. 2217, 368 

Bachmann, F., Pondoland, Apr., 1888, 
390 

nos. 1585, 1588, 1589, 422 

no. 1586, 390 
Backer, C. A., no. 12506, 281 

nos. 18215, 20605, 390 
Bade, no. 102, 315 

Baenitz, Carl Gabriel, near Lowenhagen, 
Aug. 20, 1889, 290 

Lowenhagen, Sept.-Oct., 1878, 290 
Bagshawe, Arthur William Gerrard, 

Musozi, Dec. 18, 563 
Bain, Samuel McCutchen, no. 297, 215 

no. 422, 213, 217 
Baker, Charles Fuller, no. 8, 368 

no. 643, 376 

nos. 1697, 3727, 315 

nos. 2121, 2214, 180 

nos. 2204, 3729, 415 
Baker, G. S., no. 312, 584 
Bakke, Arthur Laurence, vicinity of 

Forest City, Aug., 1912, 247 
Balansa, Benedict, Cesarea, Sept. 1, 
1856, 302 

vicinity of Rehitze, Sept., 1866, 272 

Caaguazu, Mar. 24, 1876, 485 

no. 908, 480 

no. 910, 390 

Baldwin, A. A., no. 47, 432 
Baldwyn, Georgia, 229, 231 
Ball, Carleton Roy, no. 490, 238 
Ball, John, near Belfast, Aug., 1837, 272 

near Sneem, Sept. 20, 1859, 302 

Kerry Co., Sept. 22, 1859, 272 

vicinity of Colico, Aug. 21, 1863, 272 

Valley of Rimac River, Apr., 1882, 
422 499 

Chicla, Apr. 21-23, 1882, 496, 499 

near Chicla, Apr. 21-23, 1882, 451 

above Casapalla, Apr. 22, 1882, 499 
Ballieu, Hawaiian Isls., 146 

no. 46, 95 
Bang, Miguel, nos. 16, 1406, 180 

no. 16 p.p., 496, 499, 502 

no. 141a, 499 

no. 2031, 188 

no. 2152 p.p., 195, 197, 198 



Banks, Joseph, & Daniel Charles 

Solander, Tonga Isls., 87 
Rio de Janeiro, 1768, 462 
Tahiti, 1769, 87 
New Holland, 1770, 391 
Barber, J. H., no. 158, 415 
Barber, Charles Melvin, & Charles Henry 
Tyler Toumsend, Sierra Madre, 
July 17, 1899, 388 
Barbey, Auguste A., Baliagata, Apr. 10, 

1S91, 422 

Barclay, George, Huamantanga, 476 
no. 2290, 511 
no. 2643, 476 
no. 3213, 81 

Barnes, Charles Reid, Charles Joseph 
Chamberlain, & William Jesse Goad 
Land, no. 5 p.p., 511, 521 
no. 369, 491 
Barnes, C. R., & W. J. G. Land, nos. 

164, 167, 189, 641 
Baron, Richard, Madagascar, 391 
no. 43, 415 
no. 99, 368 
Bartram, Edvnn Bunting, Newport 

News, Sept. 16, 1907, 222 
Frazer, Sept. 12, 1909, 219 
Devon, Oct. 28, 1911, 247 
nos. 1251, 1369, 238 
nos. 1280, 1339, 258 
no. 1295, 204 
no. 1302, 302 
no. 1339, 264 
no. 1372, 251 
Batchelder, Charles Foster, Winchester, 

Oct. 7, 1917, 256 
Merrimack, Aug. 26, 1919, 315 
no. 2071, 256 
Bates, G. L., no. 39, 422 
Bates, John Mallery, St. Paul, Sept. 17 

and 25, 1910, 251 
no. 5424, 258 

Battiscombe, E., no. 63, 555 
no. 78, 607 
no. 83, 640 
Baum, H., no. 696, 586 
no. 708, 591 
no. 847, 589 
no. 883, 590 
Baur, G., no. Ill, 422 
Bean, Ralph Carleton, F. W. Bird, & 
Clarence Hinckley Knowlton, Mash- 
pee, Sept. 16, 1916, 261 
Bean, Ross Smoot, Oahu, Apr. 12, 1931, 

116 

no. 1, 111 
no. 2322, 116 
Bebb, Michael Schuck, Fountaindale, 

302 

no. 363, 247 

Bebb, Robert, no. 755, 247 
Beck, R, H., no. 1529, 80 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



651 



Beckmth, Florence, no. 71, 215 
Beddome, Captain R. H., no. 4510, 51 1 

no. 4511, 511, 519 

Beechey, Captain Frederick William, 
California, 315 

Oahu, 111 

Tahiti, 87 

Valparaiso, 1+51 

Beguinot, Augusta, no. 1378, 341 
Behrendsen, Werner, Potsdam, Sept. 26, 
1896, 238 

no. 4106, 238 
Belanger, Charles, no. 176, 170 

nos. 179, 522, 470 
Bellini, Andrea, no. 330, 401 
Benham, Miss G. E., Mt. Elgon, 1920, 

597 
Benke, Hermann Conrad, no. 236, 368 

no. 3843, 229 

Benner, Walter Mackinnett, Telford, 
Sept. 14, 1913, 251 

above Point Pleasant, Sept. 16, 1923, 

251 

Bennett, Arthur, no. 107, 272 
Bennett, Frederick Debell, Maui, 151 

no. 45, 75 
Bent, J. T., Nubia, 1896, 555 

seacoast of Nubia, 1896, 401 
Benzon, P. E., St. Croix, 470 

West Indies, 1820, 470 
Bequaert, Joseph, no. 270, 57-4 

no. 302, 380 

no. 389, 569 

no. 3040, 597 

nos. 3685, 4461, 578 

no. 5987, 541 

Berlandier, Jean Luis, mts. about City 
of Mexico, Sept., 532 

nos. 5, 39, 113, 800, 456, 458 

nos. 14, 730, 2148, 2150, 180 

no. 606, 315 

no. 717, 341, 345 

no. 756, 442 

no. 875, 409 

no. 920, 532 

nos. 1001, 1091, 341 

nos. 1010, 1152, 352 

no. 1030, 491, 493 

no. 1138 p.p., 442, 445, 448 

no. 1198, 528 

no. 2220, 456 

Berlin, Bot. Card, of (Hort. Berol.), 
e seminibus mex., 417 

in 1806, 344 

cult. arm. 1831 e sem. mex. a Deppeo 
missis, 442 

Oct., 1833, 507 

in 1840, 507 

e seminibus mex. Aug., 1840, 507 

Sept., 1840, 507 

ex, ann. 1858, 334 

ex, July 18, 1863, 334 



Bermejos, J., no. 177, 391 
Bernet, Henri, Geneva, Aug., 1860, 272 
Grand-Laconnex, Oct., 1866, and 

Sept., 1868, 302 
Bernoulli, Gust., no. 155, 521 
no. 477, 415 
no. 1205, 432 

Bernoulli & Carlo, no. 1384, 75, 477 
nos. 1375, 1519, 180 
nos. 1492, 1552, 432 
no. 1551, 459 

Bertero, Charles Joseph, Jamaica, 170 
Puerto Rico, 473, 636 
Santo Domingo, 432 
near Angostura, Feb., 1829, 315 
nos. 95, 845, 451 
no. 97, 315 
no. 444, 422 
no. 844, 432 
Bertero, C. J., & J. A. Moerenhout, 

Tahiti, 1831, 87 
Bessey, Ernst Athearn, Colorado Springs, 

July 10, 1895, 376 
Bettfreund, Carl, nos. 193, 199, 315 
Bettfreund, Carl, & Isolina Koster, nos. 

460, 461, 462 
Beyrich, Heinrich Carl, around Rio de 

Janeiro, 415, 466 
Bidivill, Eimeo, 87 
Bigelow, John Milton, mountain arroyo, 

Rock Creek, July, 362 
Hurrah Creek, Sept. 25, 1853-1854, 

365 
banks of Pecos River, Oct. 14, 1853, 

577 

no. 581, 365 
no. 5826, 362 

Bilimek, Dominik, no. 203, 180 
Billot, C., LaVerpilliere, 285 
Lyon to Pontche>i, 285 
nos. 2866, 28666zs, 272 
Biltmore Herbarium, anon, ex, no. 1386 

p.p., 302, 315 
no. 2060o, 217 

Bioktti, Frederick Theodore, Lake Mer- 
ced, Aug., 1892, 302 
Biolley, no. 7028, 180 
Birschel, 180 
Bissell, Charles Humphrey, Norwalk, 

Sept. 16, 1901, 368 
Brunswick, Aug. 13, 1911, 322 
no. 293, 302 
no. 295, 258 
Bissell, C. H., & David H. Linder, 

no. 22863, 302 
Bisset, James, Yokohama, Oct., 1876, 

391 

Bitting, Arvill, no. 1297, 432 
Blake, Sidney Fay, along C. & 0. Canal, 

Oct. 5, 1924, 243 
nos. 2843, 3002, 247 
no. 2985, 234 



652 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



nos. 8392, 8680, 8839, 243 

no. 8644, 217 

nos. 8680, 8901, 257 

nos. 9698, 9703, 206 

nos. 10771, 10771A, 10771B, 208 

no. 10784A, 210 
Blanchet, Jacques Samuel, Bahia, 422 

Bahia, 1836, 422 

nos. 51, 195, J^62 

nos. 139, 143, 422 

no. 816, 466 
Blankinship, Joseph William, no. 259, 

303 

Blau, no. 2012, 272 
Blauner, no. 86, 470 
Bleuntt, Arthur Edmund, nos. 1103, 
1148, 234 

no. 1123, 261 

no. 1146, 315 

no. 1147, 247 

Blume, Carl Ludung, Java, 427, 4%8 
Blumer, Jacob Corurin, nos. 1386, 1593, 
2056, 377 

nos. 1486, 1711, 2211, 362 

nos. 1712, 2144, 365 

no. 2144, 432 

no. 3351, 381 

Bodinier, R. P. Emile, Hongkong, 391 
Bohnhof, Hugo, no. 186, 290, 295 

no. 314, 303 
Boice, Carrie A., Camden, Oct. 2, 1879, 

204 
Boivin, Louis C., Isl. Bourbon, 401 

no. 155, 391 

Bolander, Henry Nicholas, no. 2405, 315 
Boll, J., Dallas, 315 

Dallas, 1871, 238 
Bolland, B. G. C., no. 6, 432 
Bolle, Charles, Teneriffe, Nov. 17, 1851, 

432 

Bona, F. R., no. 131, 422 
Bonnet, Edmond, & Theodore Delacour, 

no. 311, 290 
Bonpland, Aime (Jacques Alexander, 

Goujaud), no. 3125, 494, 496 
Boott, William, Boston, 1829, 256 
Borges, Antone, no. 3798, 11 8 

no. 3799, 104 
Bornmuller, Joseph, nos. 9, 1177, 283 

no. 743, 415 

no. 2437, 432 

Bosc, Louis Augustin Guillaume, Caro- 
lina, 315 

Botta, Yemen, 1837, 401 
Botteri, Mateo, Mexico, 1856, 181, 341, 
432 

nos. 443, 444, 489, 181 
Boullu, Abbe, Charvieux, Sept., 1851, 
285 

Pontcheri, Aug., 1853, 285 

Rochelaise, 1883, 285 



Pontcheri, Sept. 15-Oct. 9, 1883, 285 
nos. 310, 798, 3769, 285 
Bourgeon, Eugene, Saskatchewan, 1857- 

1858, 247, 303 
edge of Saskatchewan River, Sept. 

18, 1857, 250 
nos. 30, 1560, 3093, 181 
nos. 147, 510, 315 
no. 148 p.p., 442, 445 
nos. 150, 847 p.p., 415 
nos. 188, 811, 442 
nos. 215 p.p., 847 p.p., 2253, 2561, 

2681, 432 
nos. 263, 382&zs, 603, 851, 957, 3084, 

30846is, 3085, 341 
no. 502 p.p., 334,341,345 
nos. 812 p.p., 813 p.p., 445 
no. 835, 532, 533 
no. 836, 491 

nos. 954, 956, 1079, 528 
no. 2253, 456 

Bourne, Alfred Gibbs, & Lady Bourne, 
nos. 4594, 4594A, 45945, 4594C, 
511 

Boutakoff, nos. 6, 14, 39, 88, 571 
Bowie, James, & Allan Cunningham, 
Monte de Santa Theresa, Feb. 10, 
1815, 462 

Brace, Lewis Jones Knight, no. 385, 470 
no. 1946, 432 
no. 4121, 415 
no. 5091, 432 
Bracht, F., Verona, 368 
Erode, Alex. Curt, no. 7104, 195 
Brade, Alfred C., no. 2167, 432 
Brainerd, Ezra, Middlebury, Sept. 23, 

1904, 258 

Brandegee, Townsend Stith, New Mex- 
ico, 1879, 377 
Sierra de San Francisquito, Oct., 

1890, 387 
Sierra de San Francisquito, Mar. 23, 

1892 349 

San Bernardo, Oct. 13, 1893, 365 
San Bernardo Canyon, Oct. 13, 1893, 

483 

LaChuparosa, Oct. 16-17, 1893, 387 
Sierra de la Laguna, Oct. 19, 1893, 

483 

Sierra de la Laguna, Jan. 23, 349 
near Miraflores, Sept. 27, 1899, 476 
Miraflores, Sept. 27, 1899, 365 
Sierra de la Laguna, Oct. 2, 1899, 387 
Sierra de la Laguna, Oct. 4, 1899, 368 
Culiacan, Sept. 12, 1904, 479 
Culiacan, Sept. 20, 1904, 479 
banks of Cofradia River, Oct. 20, 

1904, 341 

Cofradia, Oct. 20, 1904, 476 
Cofradia, Oct. 21, 1904, 350 
vicinity of San Luis Tultitlanapa, 
1908, and July, 1908, 360 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



653 



no. 318, 4#3 

no. 319, 1*76 

no. 320, 365 

no. 321, 387 

no. 323, 341 

no. 706, 238 

no. 1164, 377 
Braun, nos. 671, 2682, 576 

no. 5372, 588 

no. 5505, 545 
Braun, Alexander Carl Heinrich, Hort. 

Carlsruh., 1841, 628 
Braun, Henr., Goyss, Sept. 28, 1879, 

SOS 
Braun, Karl, no. 1341, 568 

no. 2820, 537 

no. 2857, 537 

Braunton, Ernest, nos. 132, 576, 665, 
728, 315 

no. 674, 1>15 

Brenning, Buenos Aires, Jan., 1894, 315 
Bretschneider, Emil, Peking, 281, 384 

nos. 385, 386, 387, 368 

no. 388, 384 

no. 1887, 391 
Brewer, William Henry, no. 91, 316 

no. 285, 415 

Breyer, H. G., distrib. no. 19567, 570 
Bridges, Thomas, Bolivia, 496, 499 

Valparaiso, 1830, 451 

no. 66, 451 

no. 67, 316 

Briggs, Mrs. F. A., Rainier, 1893, 303 
Bright, John, Glenshaw, Sept. 5, 1912, 
368 

Potomac River, Sept. 2, 1918, 219 

Cape May Co., Sept. 4, 1925, 222 
Brinton, Jeremiah Bernard, banks of 
Schuylkill River, Aug. 29, 1879, 
316 

Woodbury, Sept. 21, 1879, 316 

Holly Oak, Aug. 19, 1888, 316 

Wawa, Aug. 29, 1888, 365 

Holly Oak, July 14, 1889, 316 

Rock Hill, Sept. 15, 1889, 316 

Holly Oak, Sept. 29, 1889, 316 

Centre Square, Sept. 17, 1891, 316 

Tylersport, Sept. 18, 1892, 316 

Garretson's Meadows, Sept. 23, 1892, 

999 

WVM 

Brinton & Keller, Egg Harbor, Sept. 

22, 1894, 256 
Britton, Mrs. Elizabeth Gertrude, nos. 

3824, 3867, 178 
Britton, Nathaniel Lord, Westport, 

Sept. 6, 1892, 247 
Whiting, Aug. 29, 1893, 222 
Four Corners, Sept. 23, 1894, 251 
no. 73, 178 
no. 424, 316 
no. 1488, 222 
nos. 1612, 2972, 470 



no. 2621, 170 
no. 2631, 415 
no. 3654, 1 74 
Britton, N. L., & wife (E. G. Britton), 

& J. A. Shafer, no. 116, 470 
no. 158, 432 
Britton, N. L., & John Francis Cowell, 

no. 29, 470 
nos. 1559, 4115, 174 
no. 12789, 170 

Britton, N. L., J. F. Cowell, & Steward- 
son Brown, no. 4996, 470 
Brilton, N. L., J. F. Cowell, & J. A. 

Shafer, no. 12955, 174 
Britton, N. L., & Arthur Hollick, no. 

1792, 199 
no. 2001, 170 
Britton, N. L., & Charles Frederick 

Millspaugh, no. 2596, 482 
Britton, N. L., & John Adolph Shafer, 

nos. 752, 3117, 470 
Britton, N. L., & W. M. Wheeler, no. 

129, 470 
Britton, N. L., & Percy Wilson, no. 469, 

470 
Broadway, Walter Elias, St. George's, 

Nov.-Dec., 1904, 470 
no. 2280, 422 
no. 2690, 432 
no. 5128, 415 
Brooks, W. P., southern Hokkaido, 

1884, 303 
Brown, Addison, near Communipaw 

Ferry, July 3, 1880, 272 
Brown, Ernest, no. 137, 540 

nos. 404, 2651, 584 
Brown, Forest Buff en Harkness, nos. 

405A, 405B, 75 
no. 1084, 92 
Brown, F. B. H., & Mrs. Elizabeth D. W. 

Brown, no. 1018, 92 
Brown, H. E., no. 35, 303 

no. 51, 238 
Brown, O. H., no. 112, 234 

no. 113, 258 

Brown, Robert, no. 2121, 391 
Brown, Stewardson, Budd's Lake, 1894, 

234 

no. 14, 433 
no. 145, 1 70 
Brown, Stewardson, & Nathaniel Lord 

Britton, nos. 125, 179, 433 
Browne, Patrick, probably Antigua, 1 70 
Bruce, Miss E. M., no. 26, 604 

nos. 589, 603, 555 
Bryan, Edwin H., Jr., nos. 793, 827, 133 

no. 847, 106 
Bryan, William Allanson, Diamond 

Head, Dec. 6, 1903, 163 
Salt Lake, Dec. 13, 1903, 416 
Bryant, E. M., no. 69, 470 
Buchanan, John, nos. 190, 251, 928, 543 



654 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Buchner, Wilhelm, no. 31, 594 
Buchtlen, Otto, Valparaiso, Aug. 20, 

1895, 451 

La Paz, Feb. 5, 1907, 496 
alt. 3,840 meters, Mar., 1910, 499 
La Paz, May 11, 454 
Cotana, Nov., 1911, 416, 422 
alt. 3,750 meters, La Paz, Mar., 1912, 

499 

Polo-Polo, Oct.-Nov., 1912, 416 
alt. 3,750 meters, La Paz, Mar., 1913, 

499 
alt. 3,670 meters, La Paz, Apr., 1913, 

502 
alt. 3,200 meters, Unduavi, Feb., 

1914, 511 

La Paz, Feb., 1919, 496 
alt. 3,800 meters, La Paz, Feb., 1919, 

499 

La Paz, Mar. 6, 1919, 496 
nos. 23, 98, 205, 260, 261, 732, 1462, 

3072, 3073, 4305, 4306, 496 
no. 117, 433 

nos. 125, 355, 811, 378, 454 
nos. 150, 377, 812, 3066, 3067, 4301, 

4302, 4305, 8562, 8563, 499 
nos. 287, 1574, 4409, 5628, 56286ts, 

416 
nos. 708, 814, 4303a, 43036, 4304, 

8226, 8474, 8475, 8476, 8548, 8549, 

8550, 8551, 8553, 8621, 502 
nos. 813, 8477, 8561, 8564, 501 
no. 815, 411 
no. 1575, 181 
nos. 4167, 4182, 462 
no. 5629, 422 

nos. 8622, 8624, 8625, 8627, 503 
no. 8660, 500 
no. 9105, 504 

Buchwald, J., no. 263, 576 
Burchell, William John, nos. 6901, 6902, 

480 

no. 8805, 475 
no. 8848, 407 

Burdet, Emile, no. 300, 433 
Burgess, Allen Brazilia, no. 305, 238 
no. 319, 303 
no. 320, 222 
nos. 575, 639, 433 
Burgess, Edward Sanford, Distr. of 

Columbia, Sept., 1888, 316 
Burk, Isaac, Gray's Ferry, Oct., 1866, 

243 

Laurel Hill, Oct., 1866, 243 
Burmann, no. 180, 391 
Burnham, Stewart Henry, Osawatomie, 

Sept. 1, 1893, 219 
Burtt, B. D., no. 4696, 604 
Bush, Benjamin Franklin, Courtney, 

Sept. 27, 1893, 219, 303 
nos. 31, 49, 164, 216, 802, 804, 1798, 

1816, 1817, 251 



nos. 34, 165, 807, 1887, 303 

nos. 36, 806, 258 

nos. 67, 3659, 8249, 213 

nos. 167 p.p., 346, 809, 238 

no. 170, 220 

nos. 170A, 170B, 319, 910, 7767, 219 

no. 808, 247 

nos. 1891, 6164, 6165, 252 

no. 5175 p.p., 213, 220 

nos. 7741, 9305, 215 
Bush, William, no. 25, 106 

no. 27, 102 

nos. 32, 33, 4196, 136 

nos. 4163, 4164, 111 

no. 7461, 109 
Bush, William, & Kwan Kee Park, no. 

4079, 136 
Bush, Wm., K. K. Park, & Y. Nitta, 

nos. 4159, 4159a, 136 
Bush, Wm., & D. LeRoy Topping, no. 
26, 116 

nos. 3684, 3744, 3745, 143 

no. 3765, 99 

no. 3779, 106 

no. 3780, 106, 109 
Bushell, Stephen Woollen, near Peking, 

368 
Busse, Walter, nos. 939, 2480, 422 

no. 2257, 632 

no. 2523, 633 

Buttner, D. R., no. 29, 422 
Biittner, Richard, no. 106, 391 

Cabrera, Angel L., no. 168, 31 6 

no. 873, 465 

Calcutta, Bot. Card, of (Hort. Calcutt.), 
ex, Wallich Cat. no. 3189 Comp. 
299a, 393 

Calderon, Salvador, no. 169, 181 
Caley, St. Vincent, Jan. 7, 1823, 170 
Collier, Alphons, near Reichenbach, 

Sept. 8, 1887, 291 
no. 47, 291 
Calvert, Agnes, Valdivia and Valparaiso, 

451 
Calvert, Dr. & Mrs. Philip Powell, 

Cartago, Nov. 30, 1909, 433 
Volcan Irazu, Apr. 2, 1910, 534 
Cameron, K. J., no. 38, 543 
Canby, William Marriott, Salisbury, 

August, 234 
near Wilmington, 204 
Wilmington, 243, 368 
Salisbury, Sept., 1865, 234 
Delaware River shores, Wilmington, 

Oct., 1865, 204 

mead ows, Brandywine, Aug., 1867,2^3 
near Newport, Sept. 9, 1879, 219 
reclaimed marsh land, Wilmington, 

Sept. 25, 1899, 219 
marsh, Sept. 5, 1900, 215 
Cherry Isl. Marsh, Sept. 5, 1900, 219 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



655 



Cantabriginensis, Hortus, cult, e sem. ex 
Hort. Petrop. missis, Julio 8, 1895 
et Aug. 7, 1895, 628 
Cardenas, Martin, no. "68 special," 500 
Cardoso, J., no. 95, 391 
no. 103, 401 
no. 244, ^23 

Carles, William Richard, no. 219, 401 
Carleton, Mark Alfred, Johnson Co., 

Aug. 25, 1892, 219 
St. George, Sept. 8, 1892, 219 
Carlstrom, P., & E. Carlstrom, vicin. 
Stora-Schedwic, Aug. 28, 1862, 272 
Carpenter, William Marbury, Feliciana, 

July, 23^ 
Carter, Joel Jackson, Safe Harbor, Sept. 

14, 1906, 215 

Norfolk, Sept. 6, 1907, 215 
Carter, W. R., Quamichan, Aug. 22, 

1917 297 
Castella, Fr., Lentigny, 303 

Ramont, Sept. 5, 1905, 272 
Cavalerie, J., no. 3697, 423 
Cavanilles, Antonio Jose, ex herb., 445 
Cecil, no. 193, 555 
Cecil, Mrs. Evelyn, no. 21, 423 
Cederwald, G. (von), Holm, 1866, 272 
Celakovsky, Beraun River, Sept., 1872, 

291 

no. 3067, 291 
Cesats (Cisati, Cesati), Vincenzo von, 

Villa-franca, Oct., 1859, 286 
Cesats & Camel, no. 156, 286 
Chalmers, R., wet places, Campbellton, 

July, 1877, 38 
swamps and ditches, Campbellton, 

Aug. 17, 1884, 238 
Chamberlain, Edward Blanchard, no. 

437, 238 
no. 443, 258 

Chamberlain, E. B., & L. O. Eaton, 

East Livermore, Aug. 27, 1904, 303 

Chamberlain, Leander Trowbridge, Dan- 

vers, Aug., 316 
Chandonnet, Z. L., Luce, Aug. 25, 1911, 

262 

Luce, Aug. 23, 1912, 262 
Chanel, C., no. 99, 391 
Chaney, Ralph Works, no. 184, 257 

no. 249, 303 
Chang, Tang Chung, & others, no. 2859, 

423 
Chapman, Alvan Wentworth, Florida, 

229, 231 

Florida, 1845, 229, 231 
Charreli, no. 692, 283 
Chase, (Mary) Agnes Merrill, nos. 639, 

1699, 222 
no. 2665, 31 6 
no. 2733, 303 

Chase, Virginius Heber, no. 123, 252 
Cheeseman, Thomas F., no. 30, 423 



Cheesman, R. E., Dancila, May 9, 1926, 

616 
Chelsea Garden (Hort. Chelseae), ex, 341 

no. 3417, 344 
Chen, Y., no. 701, 384 
Cheo & Wilson, no. 241, 391 
Chevalier, Auguste, no. 2816, 374, 406 

no. 9787, 391 

no. 20554, 548 
Ching, R. C., no. 4672, 279 
Chiovenda, Emilio, no. 1120, 401, 404 

nos. 1234, 1834, 402 

no. 15396is, 402, 404 

nos. 1699, 1992, 618 

no. 2051, 628 

Claessens, J., between Shangugu and 
Usambara, 1925, 579 

anno 1929, 579 

nos. 1448, 1511, 584 
Claren, Fritz, no. 11443, 496 
Clarke, Charles Baron, no. 11207, 511, 
519 

no. 21969B, 401 

no. 22115A, 368 

nos. 22374B, 24823J5, 391 

nos. 23674, 41686A, 41825A, 281 
Clarke, Daniel, Flint, 1866, 252 

no. 29, 303 

Clark, June A., no. 298, 303 
Claussen, P., Minas Geraes, 195 

Minas Geraes, Jan.-Apr., 1840, 202 

nos. 8, 105, 195 
Clayton, John, Virginia, 1734, 234 

no. 195, 315 
Clemens, J., & M. S. Clemens, no. 4177, 

423 

Clements, Fred (Frederic) Edward, no. 
2868, 222 

no. 2894, 238 

no. 2920, 303 

Clements, F. E., & Edith Schwartz 
Clements, no. 64, 362 

no. 65, 377 

Cliff ori, Garden of (Hort. Cli/ort.), 369 
Clinton, George William, Cayuga 

Marshes, 1864, 316 
Clokey, Ira Waddell, 1854, 521 

anno 1860, 491 

nos. 3948, 4368, 377 
Clute, Willard Nelson, no. 33, 433 
Cochburn, Caracas, 181 
Cole, no. 48, 391 
Colenso, William, New Zealand, comm. 

1897, 423, 429 
Collett, Henry, Kulu Valley, Oct. 17, 281 

no. 816, 372, 399 

Collin, Otto, near Tavastburg, Aug., 
1885, 291 

near Tavastburg, Aug. 10, 1897, and 
Aug. 11, 1897, 291 

Tavastehus, Aug. 22, 1898, 291 

north of Tavastehus, Aug., 1903, 291 



656 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Collins & M. L. Fernald, no. 11460, 23 4 
Collins, Frank Shipley, nos. 8, 303, 416 
nos. 21, 44, 301, 302, 433 
nos. 511, 540, 258 
no. 956, 256 
no. 3253, 21*3 

Collins, James Franklin, M. L. Fernald, 
& Harlan Harvey York, no. 11462, 
256 

Collins, J. F., M. L. Fernald, & A. S. 
Pease, mouth of Bonaventure 
River, Aug. 4, 1904, 329 
between Bald6 and Baie des Chaleurs, 

Aug. 5-8, 1904, 328 
Perce, Aug. 16-20, 1904, 272 
mouth of St. John River, Aug. 23, 

1904, 329 
near mouth of Dartmouth River, 

Aug. 26-27, 1904, 329 
mouth of Dartmouth River, Aug. 26 

and 27, 1904, 329 
no. 5871, 328, 329 
no. 6175, 272 
Combs, Robert, no. 152, 470 

no. 432, 433 

Commons, Albert, tidal banks of Dela- 
ware River, Oct. 3, 1866, 204 
near Wilmington, Oct. 8, 1875, 243 
Cherry Isl. Marsh, Sept. 8, 1898, 219 
Cherry Isl. Marsh, 1899, 219 
tidal banks of Delaware River, Aug. 

31, 1899, 204 

Cherry Isl. Marsh, Aug. 31, 1899, 222 
Cherry Isl. Marsh, Sept., 1899, 213 
Cherry Isl. Marsh, Sept. 8-16, 1899, 

219 

Cherry Isl. Marsh, Sept. 16, 1899, 219 
Wilmington, Sept. 16, 1899, 822 
Congdon, Joseph Whipple, South Kings- 
ton, Sept. 7, 1878, 222, 316 
Conillard, F. L., Richfield, June, 1889, 

262 

Conrads, P., no. 34, 588 
Conrath, Paul, no. 395, 423 
Conzatti, Cassiano, nos. 122, 1581, 2269, 

181 

no. 124, 316 
no. 2090, 534 
no. 2261, 363 
Conzatti, Cassiano, & V. Gonzalez, 

no. 996, 442 
no. 1000, 416 
nos. 1008, 1009, 536 
no. 1133, 181 
Cook, Alice Carter, no. 25, 423 

no. 694, 433 
Cook, Orator Fuller, & G. B. Gilbert, 

no. 409, 512 
no. 512, 451 
no. 703, 507 
Cooper, Alabama, 229 
Cooper, G. Proctor, no. 11, 181 



Cooper, Juan J., no. 5814 p.p., 181, 

456, 458 
Cooper, T., no. 1152, 423 

no. 2520, 433 
Corbiere, Louis, Cherbourg, Sept. 26, 

1886, 303 
Corbisier, A., no. 172, 543 

no. 605, 574 
Cornelio, Padre, no. 24, 476 

no. 59, 181 

Cosson, Ernest Saint-Charles, Prov. 
Constantine, July 17, 1861, 272 
Coulter, Thomas, no. 375 p.p., 489, 
490 

no. 378, 492 

no. 380, 445 

no. 381, 512 

no. 392, 521 
Couthouy, Andes, 1855, 512 

Quito, 1855, 433 

Coville, Frederick Vernon, Ithaca, Sept. 
27, 1884, 234 

no. 1341, 303 
Cowdry, N. H., nos. 894, 896, 401 

no. 895, 384 

no. 1015, 272 

Cowen, Jacob H., no. 2726, 377 
Cowles, Henry Chandler, communic., 

Jackson Park, 310 
Crandall, Charles S., no. 2724, 362 

no. 2725, 377 

Crosier, Mrs. 0., no. 211, 547 
Crawford, Joseph, Tullytown, Sept. 12, 
1894, 234 

nos. 630, 636, 170 
Cruckshank, Chile, 316, 451 
Culbertson, no. 4651, 238 
Cuming, Ernie, Oaxaca, 1859, 512 

no. 53, 512 

Cuming, Hugh, nos. 593, 594, 596, 
391 

no. 646, 451 

no. 1041, 359 

no. 1375, 637 

Curran, Hugh McCollum, no. 5019, 423 
Curtis, Anita Grosvenor, no. 696, 555 
Curtiss, Allen Hiram, Bedford Co., 
Sept., 1867, 368 

Eden, 1875, 229 

Walton Co., 1885, 229 

Nueva Verona, Jan., 1904, 470 

nos. 658, 1498, 5387, 433 

no. 1472, 229, 231 

nos. 1499, 4490, 5221, 6013, 368 

no. 1768o, 247 

no. 4486, 229, 231 

no. 5322, 229 
Cushman, Joseph Augustine, no. 1717, 

238 

Cusick, William Conkling, nos. 1408, 
1453, 1768, 303 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



657 



Da Cunha, A. Ricardo, no. 1260, 238 
Dahlgren, Bror Eric, & Emll Amedee 
Sella, no. 479, 1*73 

no. 726, 478 
Dalhousie, Lady, Simla, Sept. 2, 391 

Simla, Sept. 3, 1831, 368 
D Aoust, Virl., see Aoust 
Darlington, William, West Chester, 258 
Da Rocha, D., no. 3, 475 
Da Silva, Gomes, no. 198, 395 
David, R. P., nos. 15, 21, 391 
Davis, Peru, 512 

Davis, Charles Albert, Alma, Sept. 29, 
1893, 252 

nos. 4872, 6039, 252 

no. 5158, 222 

Davis, John, Fall Creek, Sept. 16, 1914, 
215 

no. 8, 368 

nos. 24, 55, 245, 1348, 3293, 3431, 
3433, 3741, 3806, 3814, 6218, 215 

no. 1319 p.p., 213, 215 

nos. 3446, 3911, 6346, 213 

nos. 5203, 9058, 258 

no. 6119 p.p., 213, 217 

no. 6160 p.p., 213, 215 

no. 6264 p.p., 213, 215 

no. 6276 p.p., 213, 215 

no. 6345 p.p., 215, 217 
Davy, Joseph Burtt, no. 2918, 316 
Dawe, Morley Thomas, no. 243, 541 

no. 302, 509 

no. 393, 543 

no. 415, 597 

no. 582, 579 

no. 914, 613 

Dawson, C., no. 382, 368 
Day, H. E., no. 402, 303 
Day, Mary Anna, & M. L. Fernald, 
no. 48, 222 

no. 49, 234 

Deam, Charles demon, Cholula, Jan. 1, 
1899, 445 

Wells Co., Sept. 21, 1902, 252 

swamp near Lake Gage, Aug. 12, 
1903, 222 

Steuben Co., Sept. 11, 1904, 234 

no. 20, 533 

no. 109, 181 

no. 241, 416 

no. 242, 476 

no. 630, 234 

no. 5369, 258 

nos. 5376, 19034, 22018, 29813, 
30229, 42209, 222 

nos. 10157, 32932, 34865, 37935, 213 

nos. 12160, 38126, 217 

nos. 12482, 26524, 29826, 37928, 215 

no. 33031 p.p., 213, 215 

no. 35010, 220 

Deane, Walter, & Edward Lothrop Rand, 
Swansea, Sept. 25, 1909, 316 



Debeaux, Jean Odon, Fort de France, 

Mar. 29, 1897, 470 
no. 91, 384 

De Carvalho, O., no. 5, .475 
De Cesaree, Girard, Vilayet of Sivas, 

Sept. 7, 1893, 303 
De Cesati, see Cesats 
Deflers, nos. 231, 428, 401 
Degener, Otto, near Pauoa Flats, Apr. 

18, 1926, 106 

Keaau Valley, Feb. 7, 1932, 129 
head of Makua Valley, Apr. 4, 1932, 

135 

nos. 2095, 2672, 2673, 2677a, 121 
no. 2096, 99 
no. 2099, 143 
nos. 2264, 2265, 102 
no. 2515, 135 
nos. 2674, 2675, 106 
nos. 2676, 26776, 130 
no. 2868, 162 
no. 3531, 143 
no. 3535, 153 

nos. 3777, 3778, 3780, 3781, 470 
no. 4190, 133 
no. 10035, 99 

Degener, Otto, Ross S. Bean, D. LeRoy 
Topping, & Anthony Apo, no. 
2514, 116 
Degener, Otto, & William Bush, no. 

3532, 143 
Degener, Otto, William Bush, & Kwan 

Kee Park, no. 4099, 143 
Degener, Otto, & Herbert Kai, no. 3779, 

470 
Degener, Otto, & Yasuma Iwasaki, nos. 

3813, 3814, 104 
no. 3819, 118 
Degener, Otto, & Kazuto Nitta, nos. 3410, 

3411, 3412, 121 
nos. 341 la, 3412a, 124 
Degener, Otto, & Kwan Kee Park, no. 

4078, 153 
no. 4082, 106 

nos. 4085, 4087, 4088, 4089, 121 
nos. 4086, 4090, 124 
no. 4094, 133 
no. 4095, 129 
no. 10066, 99 
Degener, Otto, K. K. Park, & Wm. Bush, 

nos. 4096, 4098, 4105, 129 
nos. 4097, 4101, 133 
nos. 4100, 4102, 4103, 4104, 134 
Degener, Otto, K. K. Park, Wm. Bush, 
Nitta, & Westgate, no. 4114, 116 
Degener, Otto, K. K. Park, Wm. Bush, & 
Colin Potter, nos. 10047, 10299, 133 
no. 10046 p.p., 133, 153 
Degener, Park, Bush, Potter, & Topping, 

no. 10069, 109 
no. 10070, 100 
nos. 10071, 10072, 10073, 107 



658 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Degener, K. K. Park, & Wallace Hirai, 

no. 4040, 102 
nos. 4041, 4045, 103 
no. 4043, 107 
no. 4044, 109 
Degener, Park, Iwasaki, & Tony Agliam, 

no. 4400, 136 
Degener, Park, Iwasaki, & Bush, no. 

4243, 136 
Degener, Park, Iwasaki, & Toshio 

Yamamoto, no. 4259, 116 
Degener, K. K. Park, & F. Kruse, 

no. 4080, 110 
Degener, K. K. Park, & Manuel Kwon, 

no. 4092, 125 
no. 4108, 129 

Degener, K. K. Park, & Y. Nitta, nos. 
4115, 4135, 4136, 4252, 4253, 153 
no. 4134, 100 
no. 4160, 103 
no. 4161, 121 
no. 4162, 119 

Degener, K. K. Park, Yoshimasa Nitta, 
& Wm. Bush, nos. 4129, 4130, 4131, 
153 

no. 4133, 99 
Degener, Park, Nitta, & Weslgate, no. 

4117, 129 
Degener, Park, Shigeura, & Topping, 

no. 10119, 136 
Degener, Park, & Masaji Takamoto, 

no. 10115, 136 
no. 10332, 100 
Degener, Park, Takamoto, & Shigeura, 

no. 10117, 136 
Degener, Park, & T. Yamamoto, nos. 

3237, 4236, 100 
nos. 4240, 4241, 136 
Degener, Hamilton Rodrigues, & Noel 

Krauss, no. 3529, 130 
no. 3530, 122 

Degener & Takamoto, no. 10293, 133 
Degener, Takamoto, & Martinez, no. 

10536, 122 
no. 10537, 133 
no. 10540, 107 
Degener & D. LeRoy Topping, no. 4119, 

153 

nos. 4120, 4121, 143 
no. 10539, 15k 
Degener, Topping, & Shigeura, no. 

10067, 122 
Degener & Henry Wiebke, nos. 2097, 

2166, 156 
no. 2128, 104 
nos. 2162, 2179, 97 
nos. 2163, 2169, 2177 p.p., 139 
nos. 2164, 2178, 127 
no. 2165, 119 
no. 2167, 111 
no. 2168, 165 
no. 21796, 98 



nos. 2261, 2678, 2679, 2680, 158 

no. 2321, 15k 

nos. 2601, 2671, 122 

nos. 2869, 3004, 162 

no. 2894 p.p., 151, 152 

no. 3000, 138 

no. 3005, 128 

nos. 3006, 3007, 3008, 151 
Degener, Wiebke, & Guberlet, no. 2294, 

15k 

Dehesa, M. P., no. 1532, 524. 
De Hilgel, see Hiigel 
De Jehki, Const., nos. 657, 735, 454 

nos. 628, 749, 750, 751, 197 

no. 653, 513 
Dekindt, no. 861, 586 
De Labillardiere, see Labillardiere 
De La Cruz, J. S., nos. 1792, 2284, 440 

nos. 1839, 3808, 470 
De La Sagra, Ramon, about Havana, 
1825, 472 

no. 22, 436 

Delavay, Abbe, no. 603, 391 
De I'Isle, G., river near Le Barnica, 393 
Demaree, Delzie, no. 13675, 219 

nos. 13756, 13793, 234 

nos. 13895, 13960, 235 
De Saint Hilaire, Auguste, Minas Geraes, 
1816-1821, 196 

nos. 1190, 1199, 196 

nos. 1191, 1193, 1194, 482 

no. 1192, 481 

no. 1196, 484 

no. 1198, 183 

no. 1199, 475 

no. 1200, 202 
De Sardagna, Valle del Sale, Sept. 4, 

1878, 275 

De Schack, Baron, Trinidad, 443 
Deschamps, Ceylon, 1891, 423 
De Szyszylowicz, Ign., distrib. of, see 

De Jelski 

De Vore & Hoover, no. 260, 423 
Dewart, Frederick Wesley, no. 40, 213 
Dewey, Lyster Hoxie, no. 523, 368 
De Witte, no. 1895, 579 

no. 2118, 401 

Dickins, Frederick Victor, no. 652, 401 
Didrichsen, Didrick Ferdinand, nos. 

3515, 3520, 3547, 3625, 416 
Dieterlen, Mr. & Mrs., no. 866, 391 
Dieterlen, Mrs. A., no. 2719, 416 
Dietrich, Amalie, near Brisbane River, 

1863-1865, 416 
Dillenius, Johann Jakob, herbarium of, 

no. 43.51.51, 397 

Dimonie, Macedonian region, July, 
1908, 272 

near Ohrida, July, 1908, 303 
Dinelli, E., Distr. Monteros, May, 1906, 

512 
Dinklage, Max J., no. 2117, 423 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



659 



Dinter, Kurt, no. 11-18, 391 
Dixon, Royal Absalom, no. 365, 238 
Dodge, Charles Keene, near Port Huron, 

Aug. 31, 1894, 222 

near Port Huron, Aug. 28, 1895, 235 
no. 81, 222 
no. 143, 247 
no. 3439, 534 
Doggett, W. G., Mt. Ruwenzori, comm. 

1901, 579 
Donnelly, Miss L. L., Cananea, Sept. 1, 

1909, 382 
Donnot, Abbe, Percey-le-Petit, Sept., 

1923 258 

D'Orbigny, Alcide, no. 1234, 453, 454 
Douglas, David, California, 1833, 416 

no. 56, 416 

Dowson, W. J., no. 189, 433 
no. 194, 402 
no. 630, 568 
Drake, D., & J. H. Dickson, Portland, 

Sept., 1886, 247 

Drege, Jean Francois, no. 5084, 423 
Dreisbach, Robert Rickert, no. 2-217, 258 
no. 167, 252 

nos. 1117, 1139, 1878, 222 
no. 1926, 223 
Dresden, Bot. Card, of (Hort. Dresd.), 

ex, July 18, 1878, 334 
Drummond, James Ramsay, nos. 25726, 

25727, 391 
Drummond, Thomas, Louisiana, 1832, 

229 

New Orleans, 1832, 229, 231 
Jacksonville and Covington, 1832- 

1833, 229 

St. Louis, 1832, 216, 247, 252, 368 
Louisiana, 1833, 229, 231 
St. Louis, 1833, 219 
no. 166, 216 
no. 192, 368 

nos. 203, 268 p.p., 553, 235 
no. 238, 247 
no. 315, 252 
no. 540, 254 
Duchassaing (de Fontbressin), Placide, 

Panama, 1851, 476 
Dudgeon, Winfield, & Leslie Aha 

Kenoyer, no. 426 
Duftschmid, near Waldhausen, Aug. 20, 

1856, 303 
Duges, Alfredo, near Guanajuato, 1891, 

442 

no. 9, 331 
no. 471, 446, 450 

Duhmberg, O., nos. 278, 419, 272 
Diimmer, R., nos. 313, 492, 493, 597 
no. 492, 602, 603 
no. 2641 p.p., 562, 584 
no. 2641a, 584 

Durham, Tanganyika Central Railway, 
588 



Dusen, Karl Fredrik, near Ydre, Aug., 

1870, 291 
Dusen, Per, Tlapcrussu, Feb. 29, 1912, 

465 

nos. 4123, 9817, 16866, 195 
no. 9432, 465 
Duss, Pere Antoine, 1445, 170 

nos. 19, 468, 1444, 2504, 470 
Duthie, John Firminger, no. 3054, 402 
Button, Miss, Boston, 1827, 316 
Dutton, D. Lewis, Brandon, Sept. 5, 
1921, 303 

Eames, Edwin Hubert, no. 1, 316 

no. 159, 252 
Eames, Randolph, & Wiegand, nos. 

13200, 13201, 256 
Eastwood, Alice, no. 28, 377 
no. 47, 238 
no. 48, 303 

Eaton, Alvah Augustus, Moseley's, 209 
Newburyport, Sept., 1902, 207, 209 
below Newburyport, Sept. 26, 1903, 

207 

North Easton, Sept. 11, 1903, 223 
no. 159, 316 

Eaton, A. A., & M. L. Fernald, New- 
buryport, Oct. 2, 1902, 207, 209, 
322 

Salisbury, Oct. 2, 1902, 207, 256 
Eaton, A. A., & Benjamin Lincoln 
Robinson, shores, Newburyport, 
Sept., 1903, 208, 209 
Eaton, Daniel Cady, marshes, Hacken- 

sack 223 

Eberhart,' nos. 2568, 33386is, 391 
Echegaray, S., Leoncito, Jan., 1876, 512 
Edgeworth, M. Pakenham, Himalaya 

region, 1844, 281 
northwestern India, 1844, 391 
Edmonson, T. W., Haley's Station, 

Aug. 25, 1902, 258 
Edwards, Hy., Sacramento, Nov. 3, 

1876, 247 
Eggers, Heinrich Franz Alexander, St. 

Croix, 1874, 472 
St. Thomas, Feb. 8, 1877, 472 
St. Thomas, July, 1881, 472 
nos. 45, 204, 208, 454, 4601, 5499, 

472 

nos. 208, 6251, 7218, 423 
nos. 3379, 3982, 433 
nos. 3437, 6612, 170 
no. 6612, 181 
no. 15725, 191 

Eggert, Heinrich (Karl Daniel), near 
East St. Louis, Sept. 6, 1874, 235 
Indian Lake, Oct., 1876, 252 
St. Louis, Sept. 6, 1877, 214 
Haverhill, Sept. 19, 1893, 214 
vicinity of Baresville, Sept. 16, 1896, 
214 



660 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Eggert, Henry, see Heinrich Eggert 
Eggkston, Willard Webster, nos. 5211, 
5390, 21 7 

no. 5290, 252 

nos. 10728, 10873, 15012, 577 

no. 12071, 219 

no. 17416, 362 

Ehrenberg, Carl (Karl) August, Haiti, 
M* 

no. 7, 1*70 

nos. 38, 1496, 316 

no. 55, 181 

no. 353, 31*1 

no. 356, 489 

no. 386, 490 

no. 436, 492 

no. 437 p.p., 512, 521 

no. 438, 528 

no. 439, 521 

no. 440 p.p., ASS, 442 

no. 441, U6 

no. 442 p.p., 442, 446 

no. 471, 433 

Ehrenreich, Ceylon, May 18, 1893, 423 
Eick, no. 56, 576 

no. 265, 557 

Eifrick, G. A., Cumberland, Aug., 368 
Ekman, Erik L., nos. 3398, 10022, 408 
Ellenbeck, no. 1370, 506 

nos. 1566, 1592, 1614, 1622, 616 
Elliot, George Francis Scott, no. 6462, 
609 

no. 6484, 569 

no. 6846, 582 

no. 6909, 562 

no. 7410, 602 

no. 7520, 584 

no. 7724, 57S 

no. 8018, 579 

Elliott, William Robert, no. 117, 470 
Ellis, Charlotte C., nos. 261, 280, 377 
Elmer, Adolph Daniel Edward, no. 611, 
238 

no. 3798, 1>16 

no. 4209, 316 

no. 5769, 423 

Elmquist, Fredrik Carl, no. 3981, 303 
Elskens, O., nos. 20, 257, 545 
Elthamensis, Hortus, no. 43.51.51, 17 
Emrick, George Monroe, no. 145, 456 
Endlich, Rudolph, nos. 77a, 557, 391 

no. 117, 611 

no. 142, 569 

no. 384, 555 

nos. 400, 400a, 607 
Endres, nos. 1, 45, 181 
Engelmann, George, vicinity of St. Louis, 
Sept., 1846, 214, 216 

St. Louis, Sept., 1846, 235 

prairies and along fences, Aug., 1847, 
216 

St. Louis, 1847, 214 



St. Louis, May, 1848, 362 

St. Louis, 1858, 235 

St. Louis, Sept., 1866, 252 

no. 566, 252 

Engler, (Heinrich Gustav) Adolph, above 
Mori, July, 1870, 368 

vicinity of Reichenbach, Oct. 2, 1870, 
291 

no. 872a, 567 

no. 2506, 416 
Erichsen, Frido, Hamburg, Sept. 18, 

1902, 264 

Ervendberg, L. C., no. 67, 181 
Eugene, P., Drome, June, 1871, 368 
Evers, no. 477, 304 
Evrard, F., Tsien, 1891, 392 

no. 154, 368, 392 

no. 225, 392 

Eyles, Fred, cult, from achenes coll. by 
R. W. Jack, 374, 375 

no. 266, 581 

no. 307, 543 

no. 1302, 555 

Faber, Ernest, Tung-kun, 423 

Hai City, 1891, 272 
Facchini, D., no. 2040, 368 
Farber, E., vicinity of Chi-fu, 1889, 384 
Farges, Abbe, no. 81, 384 
Fassett, Norman Carter, Cherry Isl. 
Marsh, Sept. 16, 1899, 243 

nos. 74, 75, 910, 911, 2117, 2119, 
2121, 326 

no. 139, 322 

nos. 292, 787, 794, 880, 884, 895, 
2102, 2103, 2104, 2106, 2107, 2108, 
2109, 2111, 2112, 2113, 2114, 2115, 
2126, 2129, 2131, 323 

no. 408, 243 

nos. 848, 2111,325 

nos. 852, 920, 2101, 2120, 2122, 209 

nos. 2116, 2123, 2125, 2127, 2128, 210 

nos. 2130, 2300, 2362, 2363, 2364, 211 

nos. 2301, 2302, 2365, 2368, 212 

no. 2369 p.p., 267, 268 

no. 2370, 268 

nos. 2876, 2878, 235 

nos. 2883, 2884, 2888, 2976, 12820, 264 

nos. 4257, 4258, 9016, 9021, 261 

no. 4259, 257 

Faucett, William, no. 822 la, 199 
Fauch, ex herb, of, no. 50, 334 
Faurie, Abbe Urbain, nos. 162, 417, 
1171, 272 

nos. 2106is, 416, 418, 845, 847, 1053, 
1917, 392 

nos. 419, 420, 1052, 1916, 384 

no. 734, 291 

nos. 768, 1053, 368 

nos. 931, 965, 156 

no. 933, 165 

no. 960, 99 

no. 961, 125 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



no. 967, 416 
no. 993, 132 
no. 994, 162 
no. 995, 112 
no. 996, 107 
no. 997, H7 
nos. 998, 999, 151 
no. 3138, 304 

nos. 3372, 4083, 4854, 4855, 273 
Faurie, Abbe Urbain, & J. B. Verlot, 

no. 4916, 273 
Favrat, Louis, Marecages, Sept. 3, 1873, 

304 
Faxon, Charles Edward, Jamaica Plain, 

256 

South Boston, Aug., 1878, 217 
Faxon, Edtvin, near Boston, Oct., 1883, 

204 

Fendler, August, nos. 41, 696, 6966, 181 
nos. 398, 444, 219 
no. 439, 316 
no. 449, 376 
no. 460, 470 

no. 695 p.p., 416, 423, 433 
Fenix, Eugenio, Baguio, Dec. 5, 1910, 

423 
Ferguson, William Cashman, Plattsdale, 

Sept. 20, 1919, 262 
Fernald, Merrill Lyndon, Orono, Sept. 

19 1889 252 

Somesville,' Sept. 21, 1892, 304 
North Berwick, Aug. 25, 1897, 217 
Dexter lime quarries, Oct. 6, 1906, 252 
Vanceboro, Sept. 1, 1908, 258 
nos. 2248, 2249, 323 
no. 2895, 258 
no. 17613, 223 
Fernald, M. L., Bissell, Graves, el al., 

no. 22874, 238 
Fernald, M. L., & Collins, Nouvelle, 

July 19-20, 1904, 238 
Fernald, M. L., J. F. Collins, & Harlan 

Harvey York, no. 11461, 238 
Fernald, M. L., Francis Welles Hunne- 
well, & Bayard Long, no. 10676, 247 
no. 10689, 316 
no. 10690, 223 
Fernald, M. L., & D. H. Under, no. 

22868, 259 
no. 22871, 259, 260 

Fernald, M. L., & Bayard Long, nos. 
295, 14825, 14827, 14828, 14927, 326 
nos. 296, 14826, 14829, 323 
nos. 10673, 17597, 235 
nos. 10681, 10687, 14844, 17604, 

24695, 256 
nos. 10682, 10686, 14845, 22866, 

22867, 259 
no. 10683, 261 

nos. 14822, 14823, 14824, 211 
nos. 14830, 14831, 14832, 14833, 
14834, 324 



nos. 14841, 22876, 238 
no. 14842, 247 

nos. 17602, 17606, 17607, 262 
no. 17612, 223 
nos. 22866, 22867, 260 
no. 24697, 239 
nos. 24698, 24699, 243 
Fernald, M. L., Bayard Long, & D. H. 
Linder, nos. 22869, 22870, 259, 260 
Fernald, M. L., Bayard Long, & A. H. 

Norton, no. 14843, 262 
Fernald, M. L., Bayard Long, & Harold 

St. John, nos. 8199, 8202, 245 
nos. 8200, 8201, 239 
nos. 8203, 8204, 267 
nos. 8205, 8206, 8207, 266 
nos. 8208, 8209, 313 
nos. 8210, 8211, 8212, 8213, 8214, 304 
no. 8317, 266 
Fernald, M. L., Bayard Long, & George 

Safford Torrey, no. 10674, 235 
no. 10675, 239 
nos. 10679, 10680, 256 
nos. 10684, 10685, 259 
no. 10688, 264 
Fernald, M. L., & Arthur Stanley Pease, 

no. 25321, 327 

Fernald, M. L., & Earl Edward Sherff, 
near Winter Pond, July 27, 1913, 
256 
Fernald, M. L., & Harold St. John, no. 

11210, 267 
no. 11211, 313 
Fernald, M. L., & Henry Knute Svenson, 

no. 1100, 324 

Fernald, M. L., & Charles Alfred 
Weatherby, Winter Pond, Sept. 22, 
1908, 256 
no. 298, 256 
no. 17608, 261 
no. 17609, 262 
Fernald, M. L., & Karl McKay Wie- 

gand, no. 4150, 239 
no. 4151, 247 
no. 6375, 245 
no. 6376, 246 
nos. 14492, 14494, 243 
Ferrari, Enrico, & Ferdinando Vignolo- 
Lutati, Prov. Cuneo, Aug. 31, 1912, 
286 

Ferrie, John Rd., no. 95, 433 
Fiebrig, Karl, no. 74, 480 
no. 571, 487 
no. 679, 480, 481 
no. 2049, 451 
nos. 3004, 30326, 500 
no. 3004a p.p., 503, 504 
no. 3147, 3459, 504 
no. 3460, 503 
no. 3461 p.p., 503, 504 
no. 3474, 512 



662 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Findley, William, Collingdale, Oct. 3, 

1911, 252 

Fiori, near Modeno, Sept. 9, 1885, 273 
Fiori, A., no. 1830, 628 
Fiori, Andrea, no. 382, 368 
Fiori, Adriano, no. 1377, 239 

nos. 1828, 1929, 628 

nos. 1832, 1833, 402, 404 

no. 1834, 402 

no. 1835, 555 
Fiori, Adriano, & A. Beguinot, no. 

1376, 286 
Fischer, no. 4, 392 

no. 354, 55| 

no. 367, 602, 603 

Fischer, G., & Kurt E. Harz, no. 826, 291 
Fisher, George Lewis, St. Thomas, Sept. 
3, 1904, 2U7 

St. Thomas, Sept. 13, 1908, 304 

St. Thomas, Sept. 20, 1908, 239 

no. 11, 247 

Fitzpatrick, Thomas Jefferson, & M. F. 
L. Fitzpatrick, Decatur Co., Sept. 
16, 1899, 219 

Flynn, Mrs. Nellie F., no. 79, 433 
Forbes, Charles Noyes, Lanihuli Trail, 
Oct. 14, 1908, 107 

Palolo Valley Ridge, Dec. 17, 1908, 
107 

Makaha Valley, Feb. 12-19, 1909, 148 

ridge east of Wainu, Aug., 1910, 151 

sea cliffs, Halawa Valley, Aug., 1912, 
97 

nos. 14H, 326Mo, 146 

no. 27 K, 141 

no. 82K, 132 

nos. 116Mo, 162H, 241#, 590Mo, 151 

no. 148L, 96 

nos. 195H, 346#, 138 

nos. 200H, 10620, 1*16 

nos. 218K, 785K, 1085X, 1698K, 165 

nos. 268M, 524Mo, 156 

no. 468M, 126, 127 

nos. 494K, 592K, 18490, 2014O, 112 

nos. 523Afo, 570Mo, 162 

no. 534Mo, 316 

no. 704.K, 111 

no. 811K, 125 

no. 877H, 152 

no. 1085X, 101 

no. 1184O, 100 

(with Henry Augustus Pilsbry & 
C. Montague Cooke) no. 18390, 
143 

nos. 1862O, 24740, 2477O, 103 

no. 19820, 97 

no. 2023O, 153 

no. 2092O, 133 

no. 2221O, 107 

no. 2313O, 107, 109 

no. 2435O, 102 

no. 25530, 107 



Forbes, C. N., & C. Montague Cooke, 
Koolauloa Mts., May 3-8, 1909, 
107 
Forbes, C.N., & C. Montague Cooke, Jr., 

no. 24M, 117 
Forbes, Fayette Frederick, Brookline, 

Aug. 25, 1907, 247 
Brookline Water Works Land, Sept. 

21, 1911, 312 
Forster, Johann Georg Adam, probably 

Tahiti, 86 
Tongatabu, 392 

Forwood, William Henry, no. 224, 252 
Fosberg, Francis Raymond, nos. 9103, 

10374, 136 

nos. 9288, 9298, 10736, 122 
nos. 9482, 9515, 148 
no. 9488, 149 
nos. 9525, 10726, 107 
nos. 9666, 9916, 156 
no. 9671, 162 
no. 10743, 122 
no. 10884, 15k 

Fosberg, F.R.,& Roy Clark, no. 11276, 90 
Fosberg, F. R., & K. Duker, nos. 8680, 

8803, 107 
no. 9044, 133 
Fosberg, F. R., & Harold St. John, 

no. 9343, 100 
Fowler, James, Kingston, Sept. 12, 1899, 

304 

Kingston Mills, Sept. 12, 1899, 239 
Fox, no. 149, 316 
Eraser, Ecuador, 512 
Ecuador, 1860, 423 
South Carolina, 31 6 
Fredholm, Adolph (John August), no. 

5991, 368 
no. 6277, 33 

Freedky, Pennsylvania, 223 
French, George Hazen, Jackson Co., 

Sept. 4, 1878, 21 7 
Fretz, Clayton Detweiler, Bristol, Sept. 

14, 1886, 235 

May's Landing, Sept. 12, 1912, 223 
Friedrichsthal, Emanuel, nos. 38, 110, 

313, 71 
no. 1086, 30J,. 
no. 1088 (1688?), 283 
Fries, O. R., Upsala, 1858-1864, 273 
Fries, Robert Elias, Santa Barbara, 

July, 1901, 66 
no. 987, 496 
no. 1084, 462 
no. 1456, 462 
Fries, R. E., & Thore Chr. E. Fries, 

no. 571, 562 
Fritchey, John Quincy Adams, St. Louis, 

215 

St. Louis Co., Sept. 21, 1858, 217 
St. Louis Co., Oct. 3, 1859, 217 
Bridgeton, Oct. 3, 1859, 216 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



663 



Fritzsche, Bertha, no. 93, 1*02 
Eroding, Herman A., Vermland, Aug. 
22, 1904, 273 

Sunne, Sept. 17, 1910, 294 

Ulfsby, Aug. 24, 1911, 291 

Ulfsby, Sept. 8, 1913, 291 

Ulfsby, Sept. 8, 1914, 291 
Frohock, R., Maiden, Aug., 1880, 304 
Frombling, Chile, 1886, 451 
Fromm, Captain, expedition of, no. 35, 

576 
Fuertes, Miguel, no. 322, 1*71 

nos. 1320, 1324, 467 
Funck, Nicholas, nos. 424, 431, 407 
Funck, Nicholas, & L. Schlim, no. 1152, 

512 
Furbish, Kate, Brunswick, 1907, 243 

Cow Isl., Aug., 1910, 324 
Fyffe, R., no. 235, 597 

Gabriel, French Guiana, 1802, 407, 471 
Gairdner, Miss A. E., no. 414, 543 

no. 577, 402 
Galander, C., Cordoba, Nov. 30, 1877, 

462 

Cordoba, Mar. 15, 1878, 462 
Pampa de Matadero, Jan. 22, 1880, 

500 

Los Gigantes, Jan. 23, 1880, 500 
foot of Los Gigantes, Jan. 24, 1880, 

500 
Estancia de las Rosas, Jan. 27, 1881, 

500 
Cuesta de San Ignacio, Mar. 23, 1881, 

500 
Quebrada de los Condoritos, Mar. 26, 

1881, 512 
Sierra de la Estanzuela, Mar. 3, 1882, 

500 

Casa de Piedra, Mar. 11, 1882, 512 
ravine of los Bueyes, Mar. 17, 1882, 

500 

Cerrp del Mprro, Mar. 22, 1882, 500 
Galeotti, Henri Guillaume, nos. 2021, 

2067, 2169, 512 

nos. 2212, 2340, 2471, 2493, 181 
no. 2278, 1*33 
no. 2370, 442 
no. 2486, 341 

Galpin, Ernest Edward, no. 1332, 392 
Gandoger, Michel, near Naples, Aug., 

1871, 286 

Arnas, Sept., 1872, 273 
nos. 88, 88[6], 1410, 286 
nos. 599, 600, 967, 273 
no. 1334, 247 
Garber, Abram Paschal, vicinity of 

Easton, 1868, 235 

vicinity of Easton, July, 1869, 235 
Levy Co., Nov., 1877, 229, 231 
Gardner, George, no. 501, 416 
nos. 509, 511, 195 
no. 510, 195, 197 



no. 878, 476 

no. 1742, 471 

nos. 2222, 3851, 463 

no. 3849, 407 

nos. 3850, 4256, 480 

no. 3851, 475 

no. 4254, 197, 198 

no. 4255, 482 

no. 4257, 202 

Gardner, H. M., no. 1416, 607 
Gardner, J. R., no. 809, 252 
Gamier, no. 51, 416 
Garnsey, H. E., no. 455, 304 

no. 756, 291 
Gates, Frank Caleb, no. 2002, 304 

nos. 2194, 10083, 247 

nos. 9953, 10041, 216 
Gates, Hezekiah, Alabama, 1831, 229 
Gaudefroy, E., no. 13, 291 
Gaudichaud-Beaupre, Charles, Hawaiian 
Isls., 122, 146 

Hawaiian Isls., Oct., 1836, 112, 122 

Macao, 1836-1837, 392 

no. 71, 146 

no. 164, 451 

nos. 220 p.p., 221 p.p., 97, 107, 122, 
138 

no. 1046, 496 

Gaumer, George Franklin, Izamal, 1888, 
181, 433 

no. 129, 433 

no. 451 p.p., 433, 442, 476 

nos. 632, 1469, 434 

nos. 940, 2498, 471 

no. 951, 181 

no. 2083, 171 

no. 2498, 75, 477 

nos. 2499, 2504, 476 
Gaumer, George F., & sons, no. 23510, 

181 
Gay, Claude, Chile, 316, 423 

Prov. Coquimbo, 1839, 416, 423, 434 

nos. 201, 341, 355, 451 
Gehrt, Guilhermo, Ityrapina, Apr. 28, 

1927, 480 

Gelert, Otto, Kirkevaerlose, Sept. 25, 
1889, 291 

Arucas, Apr. 22, 1897, 423 
Geneva, Bot. Garden of, Oct., 1855, 345 
Gentry, Howard Scott, no. 1700, 192 

no. 1971, 525 

no. 2847, 193 
Germain, A., Quillota, 1855-1856, 434 

no. 109, 392 

Gershoy, A., no. 737, 256 
Geyer, Carl Andreas, nos. 47, 529, 368 
Ghiesbreght, August Boniface, Oaxaca, 
Oct., 1842, 512 

nos. 85, 533, 534, 512 

nos. 107, 151, 555, 533 

nos. 112, 380, 341 

no. 533, 530 



664 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



no. 551, 531 

no. 556, 442 

no. 781, 536 

Gibbs, Miss Lilian Suzette, no. 2724, 392 
Gibert, Ernest, Montevideo, Jan., 1874, 
463 

nos. la, 95, 463 

no. 908, 316 
Gilbert, Grace, Pine Grove, Sept., 1893, 

256 

Gillberg, no. 167, 471 
Giraldi, Giuseppe, nos. 272, 2894, 2895, 
2896, 2897, 384 

nos. 273, 2899, 392 

nos. 274, 3059, 273 
Glatfelter, Noah Miller, St. Louis Co., 

Sept. 19, 1897, 21 4 

Glaziou, Auguste Francois Marie, nos. 
2624, 12881, 195 

no. 4034, 423 

no. 8755, 416 

nos. 18315, 21588, 202 

no. 19525, 482 

Gleason, Henry Allan, Herod, Aug. 23, 
1902,217 

no. 41, 217 

no. 814, 369 
Gleason, H. A., & F. D. Shobe, no. 218, 

223 
Goetze, W., no. 731, 640 

no. 851, 605 

Goldman, Edward Alphonso, nos. 30, 
493, 181 

no. 247, 479 

no. 468, 174 
Goll, George P., no. 572, 171 

no. 742, 471 

Gomer, T. H., no. 1743, 195 
Gomez, Rosalio, no. 1074, 507 
Goodding, Leslie Newton, no. 495, 304 
Gossweiler, John (Johannes), near Sucala 
River, June, 1925, 600 

no. 1189, 583 

no. 1201, 543 

nos. 1210, 3023, 3842, 4304, 586 

nos. 1224, 1227, 4338, 5727, 600 

nos. 2467, 3339, 591 

no. 2635, 589 

no. 3021, 592 

no. 3147, 590 

no. 3165, 577 

no. 3330, 555 

no. 3631, 593 

no. 3640, 607 

nos. 3831, 5726, 544 

no. 4052, 347 

no. 4176, 547 

no. 5438, 402 

no. 8477, 5^5 

no. 8936, 546 

Goudot, Justin, vicinity of Tananarive, 
416 



Bogota, 188 

Fontibon, Feb. 20, 1844, 507 

Guadalupe, Mar., 1844, 507 

Bogota, Nov., 1844, 188 

no. 1, 190 
Gourlie, Gulielmi, Jr., ex herb, of, vicin. 

Glasgow, 304 
Graham, C. J., no. 48, 533 

no. 49, 528 
Grant, George Barnard, no. 106, 204 

no. 4553, 316 

no. 5278, 239 

Grant, Captain J. A., no. 187, 557 
Grant, Martin Lawrence, nos. 3794, 4419, 
91 

no. 4958, 105 

no. 5195, 89 

no. 5386, 85 

nos. 7018, 7395, 7456, 134 

no. 7242, 107 
Grantzow, Prenzlau, Aug., 1875, 204 

Prenzlau, Aug., 1876, 204, 273 

Prenzlau, Aug., 1877, 264 

no. 876, 273 

Graves, Charles Burr, no. 259a, 216 
Gray, Asa, Florida, 369 
Greene, Edward Lee, Fort of Colorado, 
Sept. 3, 1873, 577 

Cucharas River, Sept. 5, 1873, 377 

Marshall Hall, Sept. 28, 1898, 316 

no. 263, 365 

no. 456, 377 

no. 461, 382 
Greenman, Jesse More, nos. 6, 23, 97, 441 

no. 172, 434 

no. 174, 456 

no. 250, 369 

no. 337, 223 

no. 501, 259 

no. 543, 304 

no. 545, 239 

nos. 1713, 1799, 239 

no. 2143, 235 
Greenman, J. M., & M. T. Greenman, 

no. 5312, 456 

Greenman, J. M., Jr., & M. T. Green- 
man, no. 3712, 216 
Gregg, Josiah, Parras, May 16, 1847, 434 

above Shreveport, Sept. 28, 1847, 235 

no. 39, 446 

nos. 236 p.p., 2366 p.p., 442, 446 

no. 256, 341 

no. 397, 336 

no. 430, 456 

no. 438, 488 

no. 604, 317 
Gregory, J. W., Guaso Larok, 1893, 569 

Guaso Laschau, 1893, 569 

Guaso Nairotia, 1893, 569 
Grenfell, A. P., Taita Hills, 575 
Grenier, Charles, Lyon, 1846-1852, 286 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



665 



Griffiths, David, nos. 1985, 5994, 6014, 

365 
Griffiths, David, & John James Thorn- 

ber, no. 65, 365 

Grimes, Earl Jerome, no. 4546, 229 
Groff, G. W., Sun Ooi, Mar. 18, 1918, 

392 
Gross, Charles A., May's Landing, Sept. 

12, 1882,317 
Gross, Rudolph, Kopenick, Sept. 22, 

1908, 261* 

Kopenick, Oct. 3, 1908, 239 
Kopenick, Sept. 6, 1909, 239 
Kopenick, Sept. 22, 1909, 239 
Grote, no. 3749, 588 
Grove, Jacob Houtz, no. 498, 223 

no. 619, 239 

Guilding, L., St. Vincent, 171 
Guttenberg, Gustave (von), vicinity of 

Wheeling, Sept., 1878, 369 
near Wheeling, Sept., 1878, 239 
near Wheeling, Sept. 7, 1878, 317 
near Wheeling, Oct., 1878, 252 
Erie, Sept. 9, 1879, 259 

Haarer, A. E., no. 1471, 576 

no. 1472, 608 
Haberer, Joseph Valentine, nos. 1458, 

3359, 235 
Hafniae, Hortus (cf. Hort. Haun.), no. 

648, 513 

Hahn, Ludwig, no. 9, 31 7 
nos. 280, 1079, 528 
no. 383, 471 
no. 385, 41 <> 
no. 408, 171 

Hale, Josiah, Louisiana, 21 It, 229 
Alexandria, 239 
Louisiana, 1842, 235 
no. 402, 235 
no. 403, 317 

Hall, Elihu, sloughs, Athens, 1861, 217 
sloughs, Athens, Sept., 1864, 21 1* 
Athens, Sept., 1868, 21 7 
Kansas, 1869, 243 
Hall, George Reuben, canal banks at 

Riverside, 1905,317 
Hall, Harvey Monroe, cult., Berkeley, 

Aug. 28, 1911, 432 

Hallier, H., San Ramon, Feb., 1904, 392 
Hallier, Hans Gottfried, no. 27, 392 
Hoisted, Bryon David, no. 35, 369 
Harm, no. 298, 392 
Hamilton, Arthur Andrew, Centennial 

Park, Mar., 1909, 273 
Hance, Henry Fletcher, no. 99, 1*23 
Hancock, W ., Guatemala, 1882-1883, 

181 

no. 35, 174 
Handel-Mazzetti, Heinrich Gotzeus, 

Aug., 1897, 273 

Hannington, J., Msilala, comm. 1883, 
588 



2-7 S. Lat., comm. 1883, 555 
Hansen, O., mts. near Kingston, 1897, 

171 

Jamaica, Jan., 1897, 1*16 
Harger, Edgar Burton, Oxford, Sept. 27, 

1917, 252 
no. 4160, 21*7 
no. 4833 p.p., 235, 259 
no. 6181, 21*9 
Harger, R. L., Elgeyo Escarpment, 

comm. 1926, 569 

Harmand, Poulo-Condor Isls., 392 
Harper, Roland McMillan, no. 1562, 

229, 231 
Harris, James Arthur, Oahu, Aug. 22, 

1924, 151* 

Harris, William, nos. 5420, 12302, 176 
nos. 5617, 12209, 12303, 171 
no. 6735, 200 
nos. 10987, 11180, 167 
nos. 11649, 12327, 178 
Harshberger, John William (Claghorn), 

Ocean City, Aug. 23, 1900, 259 
Pembroke Church, June 21, 1905, 1*23 
Big Hammock, Aug. 12, 1911, 1*31* 
Sanibel Isl., June 10, 1912, 1*31* 
Cedar Bog, Sept. 9, 1912, 223 
no. 89, 1*31* 
no. 102, 317 

Hart, John Hinchley, Jamaica, 175 
Hartman, C. V., nos. 47, 834, 961, 991, 

331* 

no. 95, 317 
no. 113, 1*10 
nos. 198, 833, 962, 341 
no. 564 p.p., 1*1*6, 1*1*9, 1*50 
Hartweg, Theodor, no. 1608 p.p., 1*1*2, 

1*1*6 

Harvard University, Bot. Gard. of (cf. 

Hort. Cantabrig.), Dec. 4, 1894, 1*83 

Harvey, William Henry, Valparaiso, 

Apr .-July, 1856, 451 
Harz, Kurt, near Bamberg, Sept. 26, 

1908, 291 

no. 5090, 291 

Hass, no. 17, 273 

Hassler, Emil, nos. 375, 3623, 11558, 463 
nos. 1474, 12378, 317 
nos. 1877, 7454, 9177, 1*80 
no. 3757, 1*87 
no. 4253, 1*80, 1*81 
nos. 5580, 5707, 5708, 7910, 7910a, 

9348, 1*85 
no. 11558, 466 
nos. 12045 p.p., 12079, 486 
Hastings, G. T., no. 570, 423 
Haught, Oscar (Lee), no. 4, 423 

no. .F139, 476 
Hauniensis, Hort. Bot. (Hort. Hafniae, 

qu. cf.), cult. 1921, 492 
Haussknecht, Heinrich Carl, about Ma- 
ranh, Aug. 22, 1865, 273 



666 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Hauthal, R., nos. 223, 273, 333, 381, 512 

no. 273, 520 

no. 334, 1+96 
Hayek, August Edler von, no. 796, 309 

no. 3795 p.p., 273, 291,. 
Haygarth, Walla Jacques, near Umzin- 

yati River, Jan. 21, 1893, 556 
Heidenreich, Ferdinand, Tilsit, Aug. 28, 
1871, 291 

Memel River, Sept. 5, 1872, 291 

Tilsit, Sept. 5, 1872, 291 

Tilsit, Aug. 26, 1873, 291 

Tilsit, Sept. 6, 1876, 291 
Heiland, Gustav L., Schluesoh, Aug., 
1876, 261+ 

no. 876, 265 

Heller, Amos Arthur, on Kaholuamanoa, 
Oct. 11-16, 1895, 11+5 

Lancaster, Sept. 24, 1900, 2*7 

Conestoga River, Sept. 6, 1901, 369 

Dillerville Swamp, Sept. 13, 1901, 259 

mouth of Tucquan, Sept. 20, 1901, 
252 

no. 1247, 223 

no. 1988 p.p., 103, 130 

no. 2090, 1+16 

no. 2791, 165 

no. 2848, 11+1+ 

no. 2894, 122 

no. 2901, 107 

no. 6081, 171 

no. 6196, 1+71 

no. 6428, 1+31+ 

no. 10240 p.p., 239, 21+7 

no. 11134, 239 

no. 11718, SOU 

Heller, A. A., & Elizabeth Gertrude 
Halbach, no. 600, 301+ 

no. 601, 235 
Heller, A. A., & wife, no. 6, IS I 

no. 874, 1 71 
Heller, Carl, no. 37, 1+56 

no. 389, 811 
Henderson, Louis Forniquet, no. 3855, 

301+ 
Hennecart, J., Santo Domingo, Mar. 11, 

1827, 1*71 

Henry, Augustine, nos. 75, 108, 8769, 
1+23 

no. 108, 1+17 

no. 388, 392, 1*00 

no. 1111, 1+31+ 

nos. 2086, 2491, 2794, 8269, 8574, 
8769, 392 

nos. 2875, 4791, 381+ 

no. 7011, 385 

no. 9903, 273 
Henry, Charles, mt. near Hakui, 1916, 

u 

Mt. Taie Kaoa, 1916, 75 
Mt. Kaea, 1916, 75 



Nukahiva, 1917, 76 

Atuona Valley Ridge, December, 

1917, 92 

Hens, Fr., no. 91, 1+23 
nos. 94, 261, 1+21+ 
no. 286, 392 
Henschen, Salomon Eberhard, no. 193, 

195 

Hepperger, see von Hepperger 
Hermann, Friedrich, Bernburg, Sept. 15, 

1905, 239 
Herrera, Fortunato L., Valley of the 

Apurimac, Feb. 29, 1+51+ 
no. 1482o, 500 
no. 1828, 520 
no. 2358, 1+96 

Herter, Guilelmus (sometimes given 
W. G. Herter}, Sayago, 1907, 1+63 
no. 787 p.p., 1+63, 1+66 
Heuser, P., Arlington, Aug. 25, 1896, 

223 

Arlington, Sept. 8, 1896, 223 
Rahway, 1865, 235 
Lutheran Hill, Sept. 10, 1894, 257 
Cypress Hill, Sept. 29, 1894, 257 
Heuston, William, 1730, 1+76 
Hexamer, A. C., & F. Maier, Hudson 

Co., Sept. 28, 1854, 317 
Heyde, Enrique Theophilus, no. 666, 181 
Heyde, E. T., & Ernesto Lux, nos. 3404, 

3788, 1+31+ 

nos. 3788, 6172, 1+56 
no. 4193, 181 
no. 4208 p.p., 1+17, 1+76 
no. 4503, 521 
no. 6162, 351+, 355, 356 
no. 6163, 351+ . 
no. 6164, 1+59 
no. 6170, 1+59 
no. 6172, 457 
no. 6173, 351+, 355, 356 
Heyne, ex herb, of, no. 299c, 392 
Hieronymus, Georg Hans Emmo Wolf- 
gang, Paso de la Higuera, Mar. 24- 
25, 1874, 500 
vicinity of Hill of Arjel, Jan. 13-15, 

1876, 512 
Hill of the Sala Grande, Feb. 13, 1876, 

512 
Hill of the Potrerillos, Feb. 1, 1877, 

512 

Sierra Achala, Feb. 19, 1877, 500 
Colanchanga, Feb., 1882, 1+63 
no. 431, 500 
no. 465, 512 
no. 490, 31 7 

Hieronymus, G., & Paul Guenther 
Lorentz, vicin. Nevado del Castillo, 
Mar. 19-23, 1873, 1+96 
nos. 147, 172, 500 
no. 762, 512 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



667 



Hildebrandt, Johann Maria, no. 415, 402 

nos. 1023, 1640, 424 

no. 2432, 555, 574 

no. 2432a, 555 

no. 3380a, 369 

Hill, Albert Frederick, no. 2357, 239 
Hill, Ellsworth Jerome, no. 107, 216 
Hillebrand, William, central plateau of 
Hawaii, 151, 152 

Haleakala Crater, 14.7 

Isl. Hawaii, 146, 147 

gulch of Kalae, June, 1870, 151 

seashore, Kalawau, 1870, 162 

Kapalama, 31 7 

Kula, 1871, 147 

road between Lahaina and Wailuku, 
158 

Isl. Lanai, 1870, 160 

Madeira, Oct., 1876, 417 

Maui, 151 

northern Maui, 160 

eastern Maui, 1870, 146 

Molokai, 149, 158 

Molokai, 1870, 151 

Nuuanu, 100, 107 

Oahu, 107, 122 

Waianae Range, 148 

Waikapu, 97 

Waikiki, 31 7 

Waikolu, 141 

near seashore at Waikolu, 1870, 162 

south ridge of valley of Wailuku, 
Aug., 1870, 147 

nos. 29, 298, 151 

no. 30, 152 

no. 35, 100 

no. 39, 138 

no. 41, 424 

no. 42, 122 

no. 43, 146 

no. 1998, 317 

Hillebrand, Wm., & John M. Lydgate, 
Hawaiian Isls., 152, 417 

Isthmus of Maui, 158 

Konahuanui, Oct. 29, 1870-1872, 107 

Kula, 147 
Hinds, Richard Brinsley, Marquesas 

Isls., 1841, 76 

Hitchcock, Albert Spear, Nassau, Nov., 
1890, 471 

Constant Springs, Dec. 10, 1890, 471 

Blue Mt. Peak, Dec. 12, 1890, 171, 
200 

Grand Cayman, Jan. 17, 1891, 471 

no. 135, 434 

no. 734, 219 

no. 735 p.p., 259, 305 

no. 736, 369 

no. 915, 230, 231 

no. 917, 918, 230 

no. 13958, 154 

no. 14985, J40 



nos. 15291, 15388, 165 

no. 20785, 500 
Hoar, E. S., Concord River, Sept., 1858, 

317 

Hoehne, F. C., State of Sao Paulo, 
May 21, 1927, 480 

no. 2690, 195 
Hoehne, F. C., & August Gehrt, no. 

23904, 456 

Hoffman, Ralph, Sandesfield, July 12, 
1907, 305 

Dodson, Sept. 30, 1916, 259 
Hoffmann, Carl, no. 105, 534 

no. 250, 424 

no. 383, 182 

no. 742, 456 

no. 804, 417 
Hoffmannsegg, Johann Centurius, loco 

ignoto, 421 
Hoffstad, O. A., vicin. Sandefjord, Aug., 

1893, 305 

Hohenacker, Rudolph Friedrich, ed., no. 
276, 417, 392 

no. 1355, 392 
Holl, Frederic, near Funchal, Sept. 12, 

1827, 417, 424 

Hollermayer, P. Athanasius, no. 102, 317 
Hollister, Mabel P., no. 94, 214 
Hollmen, Hans, nos. 384a, 384b, 273 
Holm, Herman Theodor, back of Mar- 
shall Hall, Sept. 28, 1898, 317 

Brookland, Sept., 1908, 239 

no. 61,^71 

no. 61a, 174 

Holmes, Jesse Herman, Woodlawn, 
Aug., 1888, 239 

no. 557, 223 
Holmes, Katharina R., near Apollo, 

Sept. 3, 1902, 252 
Hoist, C., no. 76, 537 

nos. 102, 207, 5002, 567 

no. 913/, 562 

no. 2146, 570 

no. 2252, 575 

no. 2908, 392 

no. 2967, 580 

no. 4328, 424 

no. 9149a, 576 
Holton, Isaac Farwell, Illinois, 216 

Kanawha, Oct. 8, 1849, 305 

Kanawha Salines, Oct. 8, 1849, 252 

La Paila, May 19, 1853, 424 

no. 265, 188 

no. 365, 192 

no. 368, 512 
Holtz, W., no. 406, 566 
Holub, Emil, Bechuanaland, 392 
Holway, Edward Willet Borland, nos. 4, 
110, 3667, 182 

no. 27, 417 

no. 29, 434 

no. 816, 200 



668 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Holway, E. W.D., & Mary M. Holway, 

no. 575, 521 
nos. 1407, 1713, 196 
Holz, Pittsburgh, 1831, 369 
Homble, no. 563, 569 

no. 605, 57k 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, New Zealand, 

417 

Sikkim, 424 

North America, 1835, 243 
northwest coast of North America, 

Jan., 1835, 297 
Jamaica, 1843, 442 
Hooker, J. D., & Thomas Thomson, Mt. 

Khasia, 424 
Khasia, 369, 392 
Hopkins, Lewis S., Kent, Sept. 20, 

1913, 252 
no. 2335, 223 

Homer, R. M., no. 5281, 248 
Hosaka, Edward Yataro, no. 177, 154 

nos. 1107, 1108, 107 
Hosseus, C. Curt, no. 498a x , 424 
House, Homer Doliver, no. 4003, 369 
Houy, R., no. 57, 576 

no. 1213, 600 

Howe, Clifton Durant, no. 1464, 305 
Howe, C. D., & William Francis Lang, 

nos. 1466, 1527, 243 
Howell, Thomas J., Sauvies Isl., Sept., 

1882, 305 

Sauvies Isl., Oct., 1886, 248 
Hubo, I., no. 30, 471 
Hiigel, Carl de, New Zealand, 424 
Hugh, no. 24, 385 
Huk, Abdul, Fort Stedman, Dec., 1892, 

424 
Hiilphers, A., Karlstad, Aug. 15-20, 

1901, 291 

Sunne, Aug. 16, 1914, 291 
Sunne, Aug. 20, 1914, 294 
Hulsch, R., Rathenow, Sept., 1896, 264 
Humbert, Henri, no. 7593, 571 

nos. 7843, 8479, 579 
Hume, Edward P., no. 276, 154 
no. 305, 143 
no. 385, 136 

Humboldt (Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich) 
Alexander (von), & Aime Bon- 
pland, loco ignoto, 354 
between Alausi and Tambo de Gua- 

mote, 451 
Caracas, 424 
between Caracas and Mt. Buenavista, 

January, 1 80 

slope of Mt. Chimbqrazo, June, 496 
base of Mt. Cotopaxi, May, 513 
Cuba, Apr., 469 
alt. 2700 meters, foot of Mt. Javirac, 

Feb., 188 

between Llactacunga and Ambato, 
454 



Llactacunga, 451 

near Los Joares and Santa Rosa de 

la Sierra, 489 
bank of Magdalena River near Badi- 

llas, May, 1801, 475 
Mexico, 317 
Morelia, 341 
near Morelia, 341 
probably at Quito, 509 
Quito, 188, 509, 513, 517 
near Quito, 513 
near San Agustin de Las Cuevas and 

the City of Mexico, 507, 508 
near Santa Rosa de la Sierra, Sept., 

457 

no. 3322, 521 

Husnot, T., Santa Cruz, Mar., 1866, 417 
Hyams, M. E., Statesville, 248, 369 

Ichikawa, Kotobuki, no. 398, 393 
Ingricae, Herb. Florae, cent. Ill, no. 

309, 304 

cent. VII, no. 308 p.p., 291 
cent. VII, no. 308B, 292 
cent. VIII, 3096, 304 
cent. VIII, 309c, 305 
Isert, Paul Erdmann, St. Croix, 1787, 

471 
Jackson, Frederick J., trop. eastern 

Africa, 1889, 562 
Jacquemont, Victor, Marquisant, Mar. 

11, 1827, 471 
nos. 377, 426, 393 
nos. 879', 884', 886, 402 
Jacquin, ex herb, of ex Hort. Vindob., 

ff> <tt <t> Q t 
OOO, OOJf. 

Jacquin filius (i.e., Joseph Franz), cult., 

1809, 333, 334 

Jaeger, Benedict, no. 146, 442 
Jaeger, F., no. 192, 607 
Jahandiez, Emile, Bufadero, Jan. 6, 

1911, 424 

John, Albrecht, below Washington Park, 
Sept. 14, 1895, 204, 223 

Delair, Sept. 30, 1907, 204 
John, Alfredo, no. 23, 513 
Jahn, Joseph, no. 573, 292 
James, Evan, Libu, 602 
James, H. E. M., Kirin to Tsitsihar, 

comm. June, 1887, 385 
Jameson, William, Ecuador, 434, 513 

nos. 47, 61, 513 

no. 55, 511 

no. 497, 188, 189 

no. 693, 513, 519 
Janin, no. 28, 252 
Jardin, Edelstan, no. 32, 318 

no. 40, 76 

no. 41, 77 

no. 42, 413 

no. 132, 78 

no. 199, 81 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



669 



Jeanjean, A. F., rocks of Massane, 

Oct., 1912, 341 

Jeanpert, Henri Edouard, no. 1202, 273 
Jenman, George Samuel, nos. 4643, 5383, 

no. 4984, 417 
no. 5499, 476 
Jennings, Otto Emery, Pymatuning 

Swamp, Aug. 19, 1904, 223 
Conger, Sept. 22, 1904, 252 
Kittanning, Sept. 24, 1904, 239 
south of Logan's Ferry, Sept. 23, 

1916, 252 

north of Glenshaw, Oct. 13, 1918, 248 
Sandy Lake, Aug. 30, 1923, 223 
no. 497, 434 
Jennings, O. E., & Grace E. Kinzer, 

Ohio Pyle, Sept. 10, 1905, 305 
Jennings, 0. E., & Grace Kinzer Jen- 
nings, Peace River, Dec., 1919, 230 
no. 2178, 250 

Jennings, O. E., & wife, no. 5173, 305 

Jennings, O. E., & wife, & ft. H. Daily, 

below Nipigon, Aug. 31, 1912, 305 

Jepson, Willis Linn, Grand Isl., Sept. 

17, 1891, 239 

Johnson, Harry, nos. 920, 921, 182 
Johnson, W. P., no. 50, 556 
nos. 341, 343, 556, 557 
no. 354, 544 

Johnston, E. L., no. 394A, 305 
Johnston, H. H., Nandi Plateau, comm. 

1901, 562 
no. 190, 607 
Johnston, Ivan Murray, nos. 5328, 5442, 

513 
Johnston, I. M., & N. C. Fassett, nos. 

903, 905, 906, 208 
Johnston, John Robert, no. 709, 471 
Jones, Marcus Eugene, Grinnell, Aug., 

1877, 214 

Santa Rita Mts., Aug. 24, 1903, 365 
Huachuca Mts., Sept. 3, 1903, 434 
Mound Valley, Sept. 18, 1903, 377 
no. 377, 503 
no. 620, 239 

nos. 673, 4144, 5978, 305 
no. 1063, 252 
no. 27757, 446 
no. 27770, 457 
Joor, Joseph F., Lafourche Parish, Sept. 

19 1872 369 

Jacksonville, Oct. 8, 1884, 219 
Long Beach, Sept. 16, 1891, 230, 231 
Jordan, Alexis, Lyon, 286 
Pontcheri, 286 

La Verpilliere, Sept., 1841, 286 
a la tete d'or, Lyon, 1849, 286 
no. 664, 286 
Jorgensen, Pedro, Bonpland, Dec. 18, 

1909, 486 
nos. 1080, 1283, 2041, 466 



no. 1363 p.p., 500 

no. 1785, 465 

no. 1908, 424 

no. 2725, 317 

Junghuhn, Franz Wilhelm, nos. 290, 311, 
376, 424 

no. 357, 424, 427 

Junod, H., Delagoa Bay, 1890, 424 
Jurgensen, C., no. 781, 182 
Jurion, F., no. 41, 625 

Kalbreyer, W., no. 714, 513 
Kalenborn, A. S., nos 100, lOOa, 500 

no. 1006, 497 

Kalenborn, Margaret, no. 100, 500 
Kandt, no. 105, 424 
Karo, Ferdinand, nos. 160, 1534, 385 

no. 397, 292 

Karsten, (Gustave Karl Wilhelm) Her- 
mann, Bogota, 188, 191 

Chiquinquira, 188 

Quindfo, 457 
Kassner, T., no. 870, 607 

no. 2599, 568 

no. 2658, 544 

no. 2710, 569 

no. 2725, 551 

no. 2859a, 569 

no. 3182, 544 
Kastalsky, Oahu, 122 
Kearney, Thomas Henry, Jr., nos. 178, 
185, 252 

no. 475, 305 

no. 2375, 223 

no. 2391, 317 

Keck, Karl, Aistershaim, Aug. 23, 1861, 
070 

mi9 

near Aistershaim, Aug., 1889, 273 
Keeler, Henry D., vicin. Mayport and 

Jacksonville, 1870-1876, 369 
Keerl, Tlapujahua, 490 
Keil, L., nos. 1, 10, 600 
Keller, C., Reunion Isl., summer of 

1886, 429 
Keller, Ida Augusta, Argus, Sept. 18, 

1892, 317 
Keller, Louis, Moosbrun, Aug. 28, 1880, 

305 

vicin. Vienna, Aug. 28, 1880, 273 
Kirschenteuer i. Rosental, Aug., 

1907, 305 
Kellerman, William Ashbrook, Goet- 

tingen, Aug. 23, 1879, 274 
Manhattan, Sept. 2, 1886, 219 
no. 4396, 521 
nos. 5321, 6436, 417 
nos. 5341, 5351, 6118, 8035, 182 
no. 6112, 354, 355 
Kellogg, John Henry, no. 146, 216 
Kellogg, Albert, & William George 
Washington Harford, 437 p.p., 305, 
317 



670 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Kennedy, George Golding, Bailey's 

Beach, Sept. 19, 1907, 257 
Portsmouth, Sept. 19, 1907, 257 
no. 8, 257 

Kenyan, Miss E., no. 55, 544 
Kerber, E., no. 9, 457 

no. 147, 1 71 
Kerner, Bozen, 369 

Mori, 369 

Kerr, A. F. G., no. 743, 424 
Kew Gardens (Hort. Kew.), cult., 1785, 

SW, 344 

cult., Feb., 1906, 540 
Kihlman, Alfred Oswald, no. 385, 292 
Killip, Ellsworth Paine, no. 6751, 513 

no. 6781, 451 
Killip, E. P., & Bro. Ariste-Joseph, 

no. 11922, 188 
Killip, E. P., & Tracy E. Hazen, nos. 

2527, 9527, 182 
Killip, E. P., & Albert Charles Smith, 

no. 14807, 471 

nos. 16896, 23769, 25348, 182 
no. 17204, 188 
nos. 17405, 18212, 507 
no. 18101, 451 
no. 18212, 513 
no. 18799, 189 
no. 20871, 197 
nos. 21591, 21766, 497 
nos. 24114, 24249, 168 
no. 24229, 500 
Kindt, Egon, Beckendorf, Aug. 28, 1907, 

305 
Kirk, John, Moramballa, Dec. 30, 1855- 

1858, 561 

Lupata, Apr., 1860, 556 
Mbame, July, 1861, 544 
Klammerth, Miss Arnoldine, no. 1268, 

274 
Klein, Mgandamaley, Feb. 29, 1796, 

395 

Klugh, A. Brooker, no. 8, 223 
Knapp, T. A., Hasanbeili, Sept. 19, 

1884, 274 
Knowlton, Clarence Hinckley, Hyde 

Park, Sept. 19, 1908, 317 
Plymouth, Aug. 24, 1916, 248 
Boston, Sept. 5, 1916, 249 
Sturbridge, Sept. 27, 1917, 252 
Harwich, Oct. 14, 1920, 223 
Knowlton, Frank Hall, no. 157, 382 
Koch, ditches near Bozen, 1828, 369 
Koenig, Jean Gerard, Coromandel, anno 

1776, 393 
Komarov, Vladamir L., Sajan Mts., 

1902, 292 
eastern shores of L. Chan-chai, July 

20, 1913, 305 
no. 1534, 385 

no. 1535 p.p., 274, 283, 292 
no. 3291 p.p., 274, 292 



Kornicke, Fr., Leningrad, 305 

Isl. Crestofski, Aug., 1857, 292 

Leningrad, Aug., 1857, 274 

on the Karposka, Sept., 1857, 274 
Korzchinsky, S. J ., Raifa, 1884, 283 
Kotschy, Theodore, no. 79, 372, 402 

no. 91, 369 

no. 135, 402 

no. 325, 402, 405 

no. 457, 274, 279 

Krauss, Ferdinand, southern Africa, 
Mar., 1839, 417 

banks of Umbaar River, Dec., 1839, 
393 

southern Africa, 1842, 417 

no. 11, 402 

Krauss, Noel H., Hauula, Jan. 6, 1934, 
111 

no. 4128,107 
Krautter, Louis, Jr., Halsey, Aug. 20, 

1907, 223 

Kreager, Frank O., no. 527, 248 
Krebs, St. Thomas, Oct., 1846, 471 
Krebs, William, no. 61, 223 
Krout, A. F. K., Lehigh Co., 1868, 317 
Krug, B., nos. 70, 177, 445, 393 

nos. 73, 73a, 185, 433, 385 

nos. 454, 631, 274 

Kuntze, (Carl Ernst) Otto, Prov. Cor- 
doba, 466 

ex herb, of, Caquaj, Mar. 8, 1874, 434 

Trinidad, Apr., 1874, 471 

Cartago, June 24, 1874, 534 

Cochabamba, Mar., 1892, 497 

near Cochabamba, Mar. 26, 1892, 454 

Cochabamba, Mar. 26, 1892, 499 

alt. 4,200 meters, vicin. Ovuro and 
Tapacari, 1892, 513 

Santa Rosa, Apr. 1, 1892, 497 

2,100 meters, Santa Rosa, Apr. 1, 
1892 527 

alt. 3,000 meters, Bolivia, Apr. 13-21, 
1892, 513 

Prov. Cordoba, Dec., 1894, 466 

no. 533, 471 
Kurtz, F., no. 9061, 317 

Labillardiere, Jacques Julien Houton de, 

Amboina Isl., 393 
Lakela, Miss Olga, no. 1719, 264 

nos. 1858, 1860, 262 
Landauer, Robert, Mariannhill, 424 
Lange, Axel, Surrey, Sept. 8, 1895, 305 
Lange, Johann (Martin Christien), ditch 

near Lucca, Sept., 1861, 239 
Lange, L., Hellebaek, 292 
Langlasse, E., no. 414, 75 

no. 523, 476 

no. 541, 412 

no. 689 p.p., 174, 182 

no. 971, 417 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



671 



Langlois, Auguste Barthelemy, Plaque- 
mines Parish, July, 1882, 369 
Cotes Blanches, Oct. 10, 1884, 230 
Langsdorff, George Heinrich von, Minas 

Geraes, 196 
Nukahiva, 1813, 76 
Lansberg, Venezuela, 182 
Lansing, Odell Edward, Jr., nos. 538, 

2640, 2901, 3314, 223 
nos. 1594, 3981, 305 
nos. 2626, 3983, 3992, 248 
no. 2640, 21 U 
no. 2641, 264 
no. 3502 p.p., 214, 217 
nos. 3540, 3693, 3701, 239 
nos. 3800, 3802, 240 
Lansing, 0. E., Jr., & Earl Edward 

Sherff, no. 40, 217 

Lapham, Increase Allen, swamps, Mil- 
waukee, 223 
Lathouwers, Niaramba, May 10, 1932, 

613 
Lay, George Tradescant, & A. Collie, 

Tahiti, Mar.-Apr., 1826, 87 
Leblond, Jean Baptiste, no. 330, 369 

no. 331, 237, 240 
Lebrun, Jean, herb, of, no. 4347, 602 

no. 5467, 571 
Lechler, Willibald, no. 1576, 642, 643 

no. 2127, 189 
Lecomte, Henri, & Eugene Achille Finet, 

nos. 1252, 1733, 393 
Ledebour, Karl Friedrich von, Altai, 

1831, 292 
Ledermann, C., no. 5440, 621 

no. 5461, 538 
Ledman, O. S., St. Louis, Sept. 12, 1916, 

214 

Leduc, Mong-Tze, Sept. 14, 1890, 393 
Lee, Leslie Alexander, Port Castries, 

Dec. 1, 1887, 471 
Lefevre, Edouard, no. 4, 393 
Le Guillon, Akaroa, 1841, 4.24 
Java, 1841, 424 
Raffles Bay, 1841, 424 
Lehmann, no. 58, 424 
Lehmann, Alfred, near Gundorf, Oct. 5, 

1904, 240 
no. 5092, 236, 240 
no. 5093, 237, 240 
Lehmann, Friedrich Carl, Pasto, June 

14, 1878, 497 
nos. 119, 1787, 534 
nos. 189, 190, 442, 513 
nos. 357, 2835, 497, 521 
nos. 433, 1608, 3511, 521 
no. 1560, 533 
nos. 3596, 5664, 434 
no. 4703, 189, 190 
no. 5965, 189 
no. 5977, 497 
no. 8723, 182 



Leiberg, John Bernhard, no. 689,505 

no. 916, 248 

no. 5893, 382 

Leibold, Friedrich Ernst, no. 3089, 317 
Leipsic, Bot. Card, of, in 1857, 345 
Lely, H. V., nos. 267, 600, 402 
Lemmon, John Gill, Alache Pass, Sept., 
1881, 362, 365, 387 

Rucker Valley, Sept., 1881, 341, 345 

no. 59, 341, 345 

no. 86, 342 

nos. 332, 2767, 2769, 334 

nos. 333, 3029, 365 

no. 334, 387 

nos. 2766, 2767, 442 

nos. 2768, 2907, 377 

no. 2770, 341 

no. 2771, 362 

Lemmon, J. G., & wife, Ajusco Mts., 
1905, 492 

Apache Pass, Sept., 1881, 365 

Chiricahua Mts., Sept., 1881, 377 

Helen's Dome, Sept., 1881, 387 

Huachuca Mts., Sept., 1882, 363 

Ramsey's Canyon, Sept., 1882, 382 

Rucker Valley, Sept., 1881, 334 

no. 334, 387 

no. 2768, 334 
Leonard, Emery Clarence, no. 3455, 471 

no. 3466, 434 

Leon, Brother Huo, no. 1399, 471 
Leon, Clement, & Roca, no. 9820, 174 
Lepine, no. 98, 87 
Leprieur, French Guiana, 471 

French Guiana, 1835, 471 
Leschenault (de la Tour), Louis Theodore, 

Ceylon, 1823, 424 

Letourneux, Aristide, Lake Mariot, June, 
1876, 424 

no. 79, 434 

Letterman, George Washington, Texar- 
kana, Oct. 19, 1894, 235 

vicin. Denver, Aug. 20, 1884, 305 
Levier, Emilio, vicin. Florence, Oct. 8, 
1868, 240 

vicin. Florence, 1872, 240 

about Lake Sibolla, Sept. 27, 1874, 
240 

at Lake Sibolla, Sept., 1876, 240 

near Brozzi, Oct. 20, 1887, 240 
Levine, C. O., Honam Isl., Oct. 13- 
Nov. 9, 1916, 434 

no. 278, 424. 

Levy, Pablo, no. 306, 182 
Lhotzky (spelled also Lhotsky), John, 

Bahia, 463 

Licent, E., no. 798, 393 
Liebmann, Frederik Michael, no. 93, 513 

nos. 620, 648, 446 

nos. 621, 622, 623, 628, 629, 182 

nos. 630, 631, 650, 434 

nos. 634, 635, 653, 417 



672 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



nos. 640, 641, 457 

no. 644, 533 

no. 645, 521 

no. 647, 492 

no. 649, 443 

no. 655, 443 

Lindberg, Harald, vicin. Lojo, Aug. 20, 
1893, 292 

no. 973 p.p., 292, 294 

no. 974, 294 

Lindblom, K. G., Ukamba, 647 
Linden, Jean Jules, no. 487 p.p., 170, 
171, 189 

nos. 491, 737, 513 

no. 1172, 182 

no. 1201, 434 

Linder, David H., no. 1699, 393 
Lindheimer, Ferdinand (Jacob), Hous- 
ton, Oct., 1842, 235, 369 

Industry, Aug., 1844, 240 

nos. 887, 111.435,317 

no. 888, 240 

Lindholm, C. O., & V. G. Wenersborg, 
Sweden, Aug., 1894, 292 
Sweden, July, 1895, 292 
Lindley, John, cult., comm. 1830, 439 
Lindman, Carl Axel Magnus, Cruz 
Alta, Apr. 20, 1893, 463 

Paraguari, 1894, 463 
Lippencott (spelled also Lippincott) 
Charles Duett, Swedesboro, Sept. 
10, 1892, 223, 369 

Swedesboro, Sept. 18, 1892, 317 

Budd's Lake, Sept. 4, 1894, 235 

Swedesboro, Oct. 5, 1894, 252 
Litwinow, D. I., no. 38, 283 
Liu, J. C., nos. 1306, 1349, 369 

no. 1413, 385 
Livingston, Burton Edward, vicin. Grand 

Rapids, July 30, 1890, 505 
Lloyd, no. 408, 342 

no. 1042, 434 
Lloyd, C. E., no. 409, 348 
Lloyd, Curtis Gates, near Cincinnati, 
Sept. 18, 1882, 240, 252 

near Cincinnati, Sept. 2, 1883, 252 
Lloyd, Francis Ernest, nos. 162, 542, 369 

no. 177, 417 
Lofgren, Albert, no. 495, 475 

no. 590, 480 
Loher, August, nos. 3626 p.p., 5084, 393 

no. 3637, 274 
London, Horticultural Society of, ex 

hort., Sept. 6, 1829, 434 
Long, Bayard Henry, Manahawken, 223 

river shore, Delair, Sept. 30, 1907, 204 

Millville, Oct. 7, 1909, 204 

nos. 4526, 4840, 317 

nos. 4719, 4868, 5195, 5288, 223 

nos. 6782, 6843, 248 

no. 6787, 252 

no. 6895, 243 



no. 6903, 240 

no. 6912, 369 

no. 6939, 224 

Loomis, Martha Louise, no. 587, 248 
Looser, Gualterio, no. 148, 451 
Lord, John Keast, Suakin to Tamanieb 

River, Feb. 17, 1869, 556 
Lorentz, Paul Guenther, La Cienaga, 500 

Tucuman, 500 

nos. 152, 152a, 188, 500 

no. 219, 463 

no. 316, 507 

nos. 540, 5406, 502 

no. 686, 513 

no. 1526, 501, 502 

Lorentz, P. G., & G. Hieronymus, foot of 
Nevado del Castillo, Mar. 19, 1873, 
504 

no. 147, 513 

Lorenzen, Marcus, no. 4108, 292 
Lorzing, J. A., no. 153, 4%4 
Ludung, Alfred, Potsdam, Sept. 28, 

1906, 240, 264 

Lugard, Mrs. E. J., no. 177, 556 
Lugard, F. D., & E. J. Lugard, no. 177, 

556 
Lund, D., Brazil, 463, 637 

Caxoeira do Campo, Feb., 1835, 202 

no. 603, 196 

no. 644, 198 
Lundell, C. L., no. 136, 182 

no. 899, 476 
Lunell, Joel, Leeds, Sept. 10, 1901, 253 

Towner, Sept. 10, 1908, 253 

Leeds, Sept. 6, 1909, 253 

Leeds, Sept. 9, 1917, 253 

no. 55, 505 

no. 1161, 250 
Lydgate, JohnM., Kauai, 165 

Kula, 147 
Lyall, David, Chilliwack Prairie, Oct., 

1859, 505 
Lynes, H., no. 23, 424 

no. 601, 434 

no. 609, 402 

Macaulay, Mrs., no. 633 p.p., 544, 556 
Macbride, J. Francis, no. 297, 505 

nos. 728, 1627, 248 

nos. 2683, 3174, 3180, 417 

nos. 2873, 3209, 555 

nos. 2898, 3179, 424 

nos. 2899, 2901, 434, 452, 453 

no. 2900 p.p., 455, 454 

no. 2902, 451, 453 

no. 2904, 411 

nos. 3182, 3183, 3263, 3345, 3347, 513 

nos. 3467, 3469, 3470, 3471, 3501, 
3502, 4363, 514 

no. 3468, 189 

no. 3473, 455, 454 

no. 3814, 182 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



673 



Macbride, J. F., & Featherstone, no. 168, 
411 

no. 441, 500 
no. 2139, 452 
MacDaniels, Laurence Rowland, no. 49, 

446 

no. 114, 459 
MacDougal, Daniel Trembly, & Godfrey 

Sykes, no. 134, 402 
MacElwee, Alexander, Delaware River, 

Sept. 21, 1895, 224 
Lyonville, Oct. 4, 1908, 253 
no. 1526, 248 
no. 1545,317 
no. 1902, 369 
no. 1992, 204 

MacElwee, Alexander, Jr., West Phila- 
delphia, Aug., 1874, 253 
Washington Park, Sept. 27, 1894, 317 
Macfarland, Frank Theodore, no. 161, 

306 
Macfarland, F. T., & William Arthur 

Anderson, Jr., no. 275, 214 
Macfarlane, John Muirhead, North 

Wildwood, Sept., 1907, 317 
Holly Beach, Sept. 12, 1907, 259, 369 
Peak's Isl., Sept., 1913, 259, 306 
Macgillivray, no. 63, 393, 400 
MacGillivray, John, no. 783, 463 
Mackenzie, Mexico, 533 
Mackenzie, Kenneth Kent, no. 3791, 318 
Macoun, James Melville, Selkirk, July 

20, 1884, 240 

Muskeg Isl., Aug. 11, 1884, 306 
Rupert House, Sept. 5, 1885, 322 
mouth of Salem River, Aug. 27, 1902, 

306 
Macoun, John, Little Slave Lake, Sept. 

20, 1872, 306 

Moira River, Sept. 14, 1877, 306 
Hull, Aug. 23, 1884, 259 
Brackley Point Road, Sept. 5, 1888, 

240 

Brackley Point, Sept. 5, 1888, 306 
Lulu Isl., July 27, 1889, 305 
Leamy's Lake, Sept. 6, 1889, 305 
Ottawa, Aug. 28, 1894, 259 
Medicine Hat, Aug. 10, 1895, 240 
Ross Creek, Aug. 10, 1895, 248 
Brandon, July 29, 1896, 306 
Morden, Aug. 5, 1896, 240 
St. Ann's Harbor, Aug. 9, 1898, 243 
Algonquin Park, Aug. 16, 1900, 248 
cultivated ground, Wakefield, Aug. 

28, 1903, 248 

Brown's Lake, Aug. 29, 1903, 259 
Wakefield, Aug. 30, 1903, 306 
St. Anne de Beaupre, Aug. 30, 1905, 

257, 306 

Lost Lake, July 2, 1908, 297 
Springfield Junction, Aug. 2, 1910, 
240 



Italy Cross, Aug. 22, 1910, 259 

Annapolis, Sept. 1, 1910, 306 

Kingsmere, Aug. 23, 1911, 306 
Manor Park, Aug. 25, 1911, 306 
McKay Lake, Aug. 3, 1911, 235 

Chelsea Road, Aug. 11, 1911, 240 

Carlsbad Springs, Sept. 5, 1911, 306 

Casselman, Sept. 13, 1911, 259 

no. 73, 297 

nos. 457, 458, 306 

nos. 1150, 5061, 224 
Macoun, John, & William Herriott, 
Battle River, Aug. 15, 1906, 306 

east of Beaver Hill Lake, Aug. 22, 

1906, 306 
Macrae, James, Oahu, May, 1825, 138 

Mt. Kaah, June, 1825, 95, 138 

near Valparaiso, 1825, 451 
Magnus, Paul Wilhelm, Prov. Branden- 
burg, Nov. 3, 1895, 259 
Madrid, Bot. Gard. of, cult., Nov., 478 

e sems. mexicanis Nov. 24, 445 
Maire, E. E., plain of Tung-chuan, 
Sept., 1910, 881 

plain of Tong-tchouan (Tung-chuan), 
Sept., 1912, 281, 369, 435 

no. 987, 393 
Maitland, T. D., nos. 236, 6345, 597 

no. 1004, 624 

Malbranche, Alexander (Rel. Maill. 
1266), banks of Seine, Aug., 1855, 
306 
Malme, Gustaf O. A., no. 1410B, 466 

no. 1456, 468 

no. 1456a, 369 

nos. 16825, 3374, 3374a, 480 

nos. 3166, 3166a, 471 

no. 31666, 473 
Malte, Malte Oskar, Salmon Arm, Aug. 

13, 1911, 306 
Mandon, Gustave, no. 43 p.p., 497, 521 

no. 44 p.p., 497, 504, 505 

no. 45 p.p., 497, 514 

no. 46 p.p., 497, 514, 521 

no. 48, 504 

no. 49, 644 

no. 50 p.p., 508, 514 

no. 51, 514 

no. 52 p.p., 514 

no. 53, 189 

no. 54, 642 

no. 134, 424 
Manggerai, no. 22, 425 
Mann, Horace, & William T. Brigham, 
central plateau of Hawaii, 152 

alt. 900 meters, Waimea, 165 

Oahu, 107 

no. 49, 417 

no. 98 p.p., 100, 107 

no. 372, 158 

no. 428, 122, 127 

no. 450, 97 



674 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



nos. 520, 589, 152 

no. 537, 165 

no. 541, 122 

Marie-Victorin, Brother (Kirouac, Con- 
rad), no. 8197, 235 

nos. 9737, 15466, 253 

no. 15458, 32k 

no. 15459, 328, 329 

nos. 15461, 21207, 327 

no. 16247, 257 

no. 21206, 244 

no. 28084, 259 

Marloth, Rudolph, no. 1373, 393 
Marshall, T. H., no. 5, 607 
Martin, C., LaVerpilliere, Sept., 1851, 

286 
Martin, E., Sllbis, 292 

no. 3027, 306 

Martindale, Isaac Comly, Philadelphia, 
1870, 20^ 

Camden, Sept., 1879, 201* 

Philadelphia, Sept., 1879, 443 
Martins, Karl Friedrich Philipp (von), 
near Mariana, Apr., 1817-1820, 193 

Brazil, comm. 1827, 195 

Brazil, 1827, 196 

Diamantina, March, 201 

along Itapicuru River near Caxias, 
May, 475 

along brooks, Minas Geraes, May, 4.82 

along San Francisco River, Mar.- 
Apr., 466 

above Serra do Mar, December, 196 

nos. 819, 842, 425 

nos. 823, 1018, 196 
Masarakij, W., no. 1074, 306 
Massey, R. E., no. 60, 1*02 
Mathews (Matthews), Alexander, Peru, 
168 

Prov. Chachapoyas, comm. 1846, 522 

no. 110, 90 

nos. 465, 468, 451 

no. 520, 571 

no. 738, 358 

no. 1046, ^97 

no. 1750, 435 

no. 1757, 168 
Matthes, B., no. 295, 369 
Maximowicz, Karl Johann, Amur, 292 

Oahu, 1854, 425 

upper Usuri, 1860, 385 

Hakodate, 1861, 274 

Yokohama, 1862, 274, 402 

Nagasaki, 1863, 393 
Maxon, William Ralph, vicin. of Oneida, 
Aug. 26, 1895, 248 

no. 724, 417 

no. 1138, 178 

no. 5359, 51 4 

no. 5878, 240 

no. 5962, 259 

no. 5966, 369 



Maxon, W. R., & Robert Hay, no. 3162, 

182 

no. 3690, 526 

Mayebara, Sashiki, Oct. 19, 1926, 393 
Mayo, Katherine, Paramaribo, May 10, 

1905, 417 

McAtee, Waldo Lee, no. 1709, 31 8 
McCalla, William Copeland, no. 2514, 

306 
McClatchie, Alfred James, vicin. of 

Whittier, June 27, 1892, 31 8 
McClounie, J ., no. 133, 556 
McClure, F. A., Kingchow, Oct. 14, 

1921, 393 
roadside near Kingchow, Apr., 1922, 

393 

McDonald, J., no. 1003, 539 
McFarland, F. T., see F. T. Macfarland 
McGregor, Richard C., Dupax, Mar.- 

Apr., 1912, 425 
nos. 861, 3637, 3865, 425 
no. 2666, 393 
McKay, Alexander Howard, Pictou, 

Sept., 1875, 235, 259 
McLadyer, Jamaica, 471 
Mearns, Edgar Alexander, Kissimmee, 

May 7, 1901, 230 
Baguio, Apr., 1907, 417 
Santo Domingo de Basco, May 27, 

1907, 391 
no. 158, 248 
no. 159, 259 
no. 160, 224 
nos. 1364, 1418, 562 
no. 2218 p.p., 382 
nos. 2524, 2625, 602 
Meebold, Alfred, Kandy, Mar., 1905, 425 
no. 4165, 154 
no. 4166, 107 
no. 4168, 104 
no. 20821, 104 
Meek, Seth Eugene, near Henry, Sept. 

12-16, 1906, 306 
Meinhof, no. 40, 567 
Meislahn, Miss Marie, no. 69, 370 

no. 107, 230 
Meisner, Carl Friedrich, near Geneva, 

Sept. 14, 1826, 274 
Meller, Charles James, vicin. of Blan- 

tyre, Aug.-Sept., 1861, 544 
Mendez, west of Guanajuato, 335 
Mendonc,a, R., nos. 1120, 1254, 196 
Menjabe, K., Azuma, Aug. 22, 1884, 274 
Mentzel, Texas, July, 318 
Menyhart, no. 1109, 556 

no. 1110, 374 
Menzies, Archibald, Hawaiian Isls., 100, 

146, 151 
Meredith, Hugh Bradshaw, Cape May, 

Oct. 10, 1920, 257 

below Greenwich Point, Sept. 7, 1921, 
216 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



675 



Washington's Crossing, Sept. 20, 

1923, 24.0 
Delaware River shore, Taylor, Oct. 3, 

1923 205 

vicin. of Palatine, Oct. 16, 1923, 248 
Merkel, Brazil, 481 
Merrill, Elmer Drew, Prov. Benguet, 

Oct.-Nov., 1905, 425 
Honam Isl., Oct. 13-Nov. 9, 1916, 

393, 425 

nos. 414, 3335, 3647, 393 
no. 529, 240 

nos. 1781, 6548, 6988, 425 
no. 4308, 370 
no. 4311, 394 
Mertz, Henry Ney, Brooke Co., Sept. 27, 

1879, 370 

Metcalfe, Jamaica, 1859-1860, 171 
Metcalfe, 0. B., no. 546, 377 
nos. 839, 1096, 363 
no. 1436, 377, 379 
Metz, no. 1355, 394 
Mexia, Mrs. Ynes, no. 189, 476 

no. 1305, 174 
Meyen, Franz Julius Ferdinand, about 

Tacora, Apr., 1831, 498 
Lima, May, 1831, 471 
Cape Syngmoon, Aug., 1831, 639 
Meyer, Hans, no. 61, 500 

no. 1190, 576 
Meyer, Herm., no. 2, 481 
Meyers, Frederic Stanton, & John 

Edward Dinsmore, no. 1904, 283 
Michalet, Eugene, France, Aug., 1845, 

292 

Pleurre, Oct. 14, 1853, 292 
Pleurre, Sept. 25, 1854, 292 
Distr. Poligny, 1855, 292 
cantons of Chaussin and Sellieres, 

Aug. 28, 1855, 292 
Fays Champrougier, Aug. 28, 1855, 

292 

no. 2088, 292 
Michaux, Andre, North America, 224, 

229, 231, 318 

general region of Illinois, 213 
Michener, Charles Gerald, & Frederick 
Theodore Bioletti, Lake Merced, 
June 12, 1892, 306 
Miers, John, ex herb, of, Mendoza and 

Buenos Aires, 463 
no. 67, 451 
no. 705, 463 
no. 886, 514 
Mildbraed, Johannes, nos. 1386, 1676, 

1834, 579 

nos. 9386, 9777, 573 
Mille, A., no. 387, 358 
Mille, Luis, no. 486, 358 
Miller, Gerrit Smith, Jr., Passage Creek, 
Sept. 5, 1897, 253 



Millspaugh, Charles Frederick, no. 14, 

306 

nos. 26, 3880, 3951, 240 
no. 81, 425 
nos. 144, 1446, 1464, 1854, 2222, 2363, 

2419, 435 
no. 501, 471 
no. 791, 370 
nos. 1275, 2610, 417 
Millspaugh, C. F., & Mrs. Clara Mitchell 

Millspaugh, no. 9087, 435 
Milne, Isle of Pines, Oct., 1853, 425 
Mocquerys, A., no. 44, 425 
Moerenhout, J. A., Tahiti, 1834, 87 
Moffatt, Will Sayer, Pine, Aug. 31, 1895, 

224 
Mohr, Charles Theodore, Mobile, Oct., 

1878, 230, 231 
Mobile, Oct. 4, 1886, 230 
Poplarville, Oct. 4, 1894, 230 
Cullman, Aug. 6, 1896, 214. 
swampy thickets, Oct. 18, 1896, 235 
Mobile, Oct., 1899, 230 
Moller, Otto, Isl. Amager, Oct. 20, 1895, 

417 

Monacensis, Hortus, 1845, 334 
Moniez, no. 2866, 274 
Montpelier, Jardin de, cult, e sems. a 

Fischero cpmm., 385 
Montreal, University of, distrib. no. 

28576, 243 
Moore, John William, no. 467, 89 

no. 559, 76 
Moore, Spencer Le Marchant, no. 581, 

471 
More, Ch., moist places, New Jersey, 

Aug., 1838, 224 
Mori, Antonio, near Castelfranca dell' 

Emilia, Sept. 11, 1884, 286 
Bologna, Oct., 1887, 286 
near Bologna, Oct., 1888, 286 
vicin. of Villa Colombaro, Sept., 1892; 
Sept., 1893; Sept., 1894; Sept., 
1896, 286 
Moricand, Mo'ise Etienne, vicin. Vienna 

and Venice, Sept., 306 
Moritz, Johann Wilhelm Karl, no. 57, 1 83 

no. 1401, 514 

Morong, Thomas, nos. 208, 959, 463 
Morris, Daniel, alt. up to 1,800 meters, 

Jamaica, Feb., 1884, 200 
alt. 1,650 meters, Cinchona planta- 
tions, Aug., 1886, 178 
Mortensen, H., vicin. of Birkerod, Sept. 

9 1871 293 

Denmark] Aug. 14, 1882, 293 
Denmark, Sept. 15, 1888, 274 
Moseley, Edwin Lincoln, cove of San- 
dusky Bay, Sept. 12, 1895, 235 
Castalia, Sept. 19, 1895, 306 
Marblehead Sandspit, Sept. 16, 1908, 
224 



676 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Moseley, Henry Nottidge, Juan Fer- 
nandez, Nov., 1875, 451 
Mosen, Hjalm, no. 4217, 482 
Moser, C. J., Pennsylvania, Aug., 1832, 

240, 253, 259, 370 
Moss & Rogers, no. 283, 570 
Motelay, Leonce, nos. 585, 1676, 342 
Motley, J., no. 472, 394 
Mousset, J. P., no. 209, 394 
Mueller, C. H., 2267, 646 
Muenzner, see Miinzner 
Muhlenberg, Gotthilf Henry Ernest, 

North America, 257 
Mulford, A. Isabel, Pocatello, Aug. 25, 
1892, 377 

no. 1232, 377 
Mutter, no. 46, 541 

no. 50, 562 

Mutter, Frederick (Fred), no. 148, 438, 
441 

no. 218, 514 

no. 238, 457 

nos. 525, 527, 492 

no. 544 p.p., 417, 457 

nos. 911, 1672, 342 

no. 1194, 435 

no. 1950, 533 

no. 4067, 441 

Mutter, Max, Havana, 435 
Milliner, Michael Ferdinand, Penzing, 

Sept. 6, 1876, 274 

Munro, George C., Kapano, July 28, 
1915, 96 

nos. 122, 602, 146 

no. 146, 417 

nos. 450, 451, 160 

nos. 464, 505, 138 
Miinzner, no. 35, 576 

no. 159, 640 

Murdoch, John, Jr., no. 4307, 307 
Murray, Richard Paget, Teror, May 13, 

1892, 425 

Mustafa, no. 490, 274 
Mutis, Jose Celestino, no. 26, 189 

Nadeaud, Jean, no. 336, 87 
Nakahara, Genji, Shiringai, Aug., 1905, 

394 

Toroku, Sept., 1905, 394 
no. 283, 425 
nos. 386, 401, 394 
Nanking, University of, Herb. no. 1549, 

419 

Nannan, no. 601, 597 
Nash, George Valentine, vicin. of Clifton, 

Sept. 24, 1892, 253 
vicin. of Clifton, Sept. 25, 1892, 260 
nos. 112, 150, 336, 230 
nos. 653, 1360, 435 
no. 2336, 318 
no. 2495, 370 

Nation, W., cultivated places, Lima, 
1862, 359 



Natsumura, J., Tokyo, Sept. 30, 1879, 

274 
Nealley, George C., no. 220, 382 

no. 244, 363 

Neapolitanus, Hort. Bot., cult., 479 
Nebel, Tsingtau, 1899-1900, 385 
Neger, Franz Wilhelm, Concepcion, 

July 20, 1895, 452 
Negri, Francesco, no. 2103, 286 
Negri, Giovanni, no. 667, 403 
Nelson, Aven, nos. 1707, 8657, 307 

no. 2749 p.p., 240, 248 

no. 8209, 240 

no. 8656 p.p., 240, 248 
Nelson, Edward William, Atlixco, July 
25-Aug. 1, 1893, 342 

nos. 612, 754, 4853, 342 

nos. 1176 p.p., 1363, 1476 p.p., 357 

no. 1300, 435 

nos. 1333, 1403, 1725, 3658, 533 

nos. 1412, 1561, 528 

no. 1438, 336 

nos. 1508, 1824, 3410, 183 

no. 1796, 51 4 

no. 2111, 457, 458 

no. 3167, 364 

no. 3220, 498 

no. 3492, 443 

no. 3656, 507 

no. 4938, 378 

no. 6868, 459 
Nelson, E. W., & Edward Alphonso 

Goldman, no. 7389, 338 
Nelson, James Carlton, no. 4131, 307 

no. 4196, 240 

no. 4796, 307, 310 
Neumann, Oscar, no. 79, 00, 601 

no. 135, 625 
Newton, Francisco, Biballa, June 3, 

1883, 330 

Neyraut, Edmond Jean, right bank of 

Garonne River, Nov. 19, 1899, 342 

Nichols, George Elwood, no. 137, 1 78, 1 79 

Nicolas, Fr., Moulin d'Huexotitla, July 

15, 1909, 459 

no. 5557, 364 

Nicholson, Thomas, Isl. Antigua, 171 
Niederlein, Gustavo, Quezaltepec, Jan. 9, 
1898, 183 

no. 95, 463 

no. 414, 486 

Nitta, Kazuto, nos. 3879, 3880, 154 
Nitta, Kazuto, & Henry Wiebke, nos. 
3173a, 31736, 3173c, 3173d, 156 

nos. 3174, 31746, 3175, 3176, 162 
Nitta, Yoshimasa, nos. 4126, 4127, 4215, 

118 

Noe, Fiume, 370 
Norris, Harry Waldo, near Ithaca, 1889, 

253 

Northrop, John Isaiah, & Alice R. 
Northrop, no. 36, 435 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



677 



Northwood & Topping, no. 3767, 143 
Norton, Arthur Herbert, Nonesuch River, 

Aug. 20, 1919, 324, 325 
Norton, A. H., & Everett Smith, Aba- 
gadassett Point, Sept. 28-30, 1919, 
324 
Norton, Welden, & Haren, Nonesuch 

River, Sept. 25, 1924, 325 
Norton, John Bitting Smith, Manhattan, 

Sept. 1, 1892, 253 
no. 280, 240 
no. 281 p.p., 253, 260 
no. 282, 307 
Nutt, W. H., between Lake Tanganyika 

and Lake Rukwa, 1896, 640 
Nuttall, Thomas, ex herb, of, Massa- 
chusetts, 22^ 
Hawaiian Isls., 417 
Oahu, 100, 112, 122, 417 
Philadelphia, 201,. 
Salt River, 219 

Wappatoo (Sauvies) Isl., 297, 307, 
311 

Odubre, F. P., San Guintin, Jan. 1, 1913, 

3 9 ^ 

Oersted, Anders Sandoe, Volcan Irazu, 
etc., 53 4 

San Jose, 1845-1848, 534 

Mt. Aguacate, Nov., 1846, 534 

Denmark, 1865, 293 

nos. 150, 182, 183 

no. 181, 233 

Ohlinger, L. B., no. 400, 230, 231 
Oldham, Richard, no. 258, 394. 

no. 259, 417 

no. 411 p.p., 274, 307, 402 
Olney, Stephen Thayer, Black Isl., 257 
Orcutt, Charles Russell, Mexico, 1910- 
1911, 443 

no. 120, 418 

nos. 2666, 2991, 441 

nos. 3026, 5429, 418 

no. 3031, 183 

no. 3517, 533 

nos. 3656, 4335, 443 

no. 3657, 446 

nos. 3714, 4076, 4125, 342 

no. 3830, 176 

no. 4271, 528 

no. 4604, 342, 345 

no. 7054, 200 

Ortega, Jesus Gonzalez, nos. 5213, 6599, 
479 

no. 6108, 174 
Orleansis, ex Hort. Duds, Paris, 1820, 

334 
Osgood, Wilfred Hudson, & M. P. 

Anderson, no. 88, 514 
Osten, Cornelius, no. 5978, 418 

no. 6128, 318 
Otanes, F., Umingan, Apr. 22, 1914, 394 



Otto, no. 428, 471 

no. 515, 183 

Over, William Henry, no. 5146, 248 
Overlaet, F. G., Kafakumba, Apr., 1925, 

394, 425, 551, 552 

Oyster, John Houck, Miami Co., July, 
1883, 219 

Paczoski (Pazzoski), Joseph, Pereiaslaf, 
Aug. 6, 1891, 307 

Pereiaslaf, Aug. 21, 1891, 274 

Kamienka, July 9, 1892, 274 

Borysth. Lubecz, Aug. 11, 1892, 293 
Pailane, no. 558, 370 
Palmer, Edward, Culiacan, Oct. 25- 
Nov. 18, 1891, 479 

Terr. Tepic, Jan. 5-Feb. 6, 1892, 457 

nos. 3, 263, 282, 676, 443 

nos. 6, 278, 1715, 479 

nos. 18, 239, 291, 633, 1843, 31 8 

nos. 49, 49}4 269, 348, 365, 425, 
487, 516, 516 }4 676, 678, 679, 680, 
683, 684, 938, 939, 940, 342 

nos. 68, 192, 457 

no. 95, 1 74 

no. 122, 182 

no. 131, 375 

no. 158 p.p., 514, 522 

nos. 1586is, 1117, 514 

nos. 205, 923, 1631, 476 

no. 268, 331 

nos. 283, 674, 685, 686, 446 

no. 285, 230 

no. 315, 641 

nos. 316, 393, 425, 426, 668, 672, 677, 
682, 933, 334 

nos. 358, 2062, 522 

no. 420, 435 

no. 440, 418 

no. 612, 409, 410 

nos. 634, 669, 670, 671, 342 

no. 673 p.p., 443, 446, 450 

no. 681, 336 

nos. 713, 1116, 183 

no. 756, 409 

no. 782, 370 

nos. 944, 1739, 343 
Palmer, Ernest Jesse, no. 1480, 220 

no. 8928, 214 

Palmer, T. Chalkley, Chester, Sept. 9, 
1896, 205 

Chester, Sept. 9, 1896, 244 
Pammel, Louis Hermann, no. 19, 248 

nos. 84, 3851, 240 

Pammel, L. H., & C. R. Ball, no. 63 
p.p., 241, 244 

no. 64, 249 
Pammel, L. H., & R. E. Blackwood, 

no. 3932, 307 
Pammel, L. H., & Violet Pammel, no. 

56, 249 
Pampanini, Renato, Nov. 4, 1899, 343 

Conegliano, Sept., 1903, 370 



678 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Pappi, A., nos. 559, 584, 3047, 3097, 
3128, 3191, 3871, 4101, 4209, 4268, 
5787, 628 
nos. 821, 3040, 4128, 6011, 7252, 7680, 

8524, 403 

no. 3281, 556 

no. 5205, 616 

no. 6105, 404 

Parish, Samuel Bonsall, San Bernardino, 

Oct., 1893, 318 
nos. 183, 4598, 5134, 5319, 31 8 
no. 6486, 418 
Parish, S. B., & William Fletcher Parish, 

no. 184, 418 
Paris, Bot. Card, of (Hort. Paris.), ex, 

cult., W7 

e sem. a Dombeyo missis, 446 
cult., Aug., 1823, 528 
cult., Aug. 5, 1813, 528, 529 
ex, Nov. 1, 1814, 331* 
Park, Kwan Kee, 1 Colin Potter, & D. Le 

Roy Topping, no. 10295, 136 
Park, K. K., & D. L. Topping, no. 

10074, 122 
Parker, Charles F., Camden, Sept. 25, 

1867, 205 

Camden, Sept. 21, 1874, 205 
Parkinson, John, Mexico, 457 
Parlatore, Filippo, Palermo, 241 
Parlin, John Crawford, & Merritt 

Lyndon Fernald, no. 958, 217 
Parodi, Lorenzo R., nos. 7305, 7309, 425 
no. 7787, 466 
no. 8133, 463 
Parry, Charles Christopher, Cibuta 

Valley, July, 1852, 363 
no. 31, 219 
nos. 115, 605, 378 

Parry, C. C., J. M. Bigelow, Charles 
Wright, & Arthur Schott, no. 580, 
31 8 
Parry, C. C., & Edward Palmer, no. 484 

p.p., 443, 446 
no. 486, 489 
no. 487, 343 

nos. 488, 488 14 331, 332 
no. 1116, 183 

Pascha, Emin, Exped. of, no. 225, 588 
Passarge, no. 23, 473 
Patterson, Burt H., Chautauqua, Sept. 3, 

1910, 260 

west of Ligonier, Sept. 18, 1917, 253 
Daytona, Nov. 25, 1917, 435 
Orlando, Dec. 3-11, 1917, 230 
Kissimmee, Dec. 7, 1917, 230, 319 
Patterson, Harry Norton, vicin. Oquawka, 

Sept., 216 

Oquawka, 1873, 220 
no. 382, 235 



Paul, August Richard, Stettin, Sept. 7, 

1898, 264 

Paulsen, Ove, Oak Camp Station, Sept. 
23, 1913, 343 

no. 2141, 274 
Pavon, Jose, ex herb, of, Mexico, 334 

ex Peru, 359 

Lima and Chancay, 358 
Pazzoski, J., see J. Paczoski 
Pearce, R., alt. 3,600 meters, Andes, 514 
Pease, Arthur Stanley, Success Pond, 
Aug. 27, 1907, 313 

East Watertown, Oct. 8, 1908, 253 

Champaign, Sept. 25, 1919, 250 

no. 1371, 235 

no. 3061, 216 

no. 8645, 370 

no. 12392,217 

Peck, Morton Eaton, no. 277, 418 
Pellanda, Giuseppe, Valley of Pompeii, 
Nov. 4, 1912, 343 

no. 1378, 343 

Pelon., Hort., ex, Nov., 1819, 334 
Penard, Eugene, no. 211, 378 
Pennell, Francis Whittier, nos. 2142, 
2405, 51 4 

nos. 3571, 6622, 224 

no. 6625, 260 

no. 8858, 189 

nos. 13361, 13361a, 13881, 515 

nos. 13555, 14240, 14730, 497 

no. 13603, 435 
Penther, A., no. 1223, 435 
Perdonnet, Gustave, no. 345, 418 
Perrot, along Cuyaba River, Apr. 22, 

1899, 463 

Persaud, A. C., no. 112, 471 
Petelot, A., no. 129, 425 

no. 1211, 394 

Peter, Brother, Halifax, 244 
Peter, Robert, Lexington, Sept., 1833, 

253 

Petermann, vicin. of Leipsic, 274 
Peters, John Ellsworth, May's Landing, 

Oct. 12, 1887, 224 
Peters, Wilhelm, nos. 8, 79, 425 

no. 57, 543 

Petersen, K., Christiania, 1888, 274 
Petersen, N. E., & Joh. Lange, no. 68, 

293 
Petit, Antonio, Abyssinia, 402, 616 

Abyssinia, 1862, 623 

Chire, 616 

no. 587, 616 
Petrak, Franz, no. 1-95, 307 

no. 691, 274 

no. VII.692, 307 
Pfianz, K., nos. 106, 205, 441, 466, 497 

nos. 107, 204, 403, 515 

no. 406 p.p., 501, 520 



1 A young Korean collector who has used several names, the first being Young 
Tark Park and the present, James K. K. Park. 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



679 



Pfund, no. 204, 402 

Philippi, Prov. Tarapaca, comm. 1888, 

18, 421 
Philippi, Frederick, Valparaiso, 1894, 

452 

no. 217, 509 
Philippi, R. A., Prov. Concepcion, 

1862, 318 
Pickering, Charles, near Bombay, 1844- 

1845, 370 
Piemeisel, R.L., & Leonard W. Kephart, 

no. 695, 584 
Pierron, P. Edwin, Westmoreland Co., 

Sept. 3, 1877, 253 
Westmoreland Co., Sept. 7, 1877, 

248 

Pilger, Robert, no. 505, 1+63 
Pincherle, E., near Tunis, Jan. 21, 1895, 

^35 

Pirotta, Romualdo, Valle la Veniera, 286 
Pitard, Charles Joseph, no. 189, 425 
Pitcher, Zina, Arkansas, 219, 220 
Pittier, Emilio, no. 112, 183 
Pittier, Henri Francois, nos. 683, 684, 

980, 3031, 6990, 425 
no. 742, 534 
nos. 1337, 3087, 515 
no. 1432, 189 

nos. 1838, 5912, 8243, 11250, 183 
nos. 4362, 9140, 418 
nos. 4528, 9140, 407 
no. 4839, 471 
no. 6990, 435 
no. 10222, 408 
no. 14070, 535 
Pittier, H. F., & Adolphe Tonduz, no. 

8724, 418 

Poeppig, Eduard Friedrich, wet mead- 
ows, Pennsylvania, Aug., 1824, 241 
Tuscarora Mt., Sept., 1824, 370 
Cove Creek, Sept., 1824, 318 
mts. above Casapi, 1829, 168 
Cochero, 1830, 435 
no. 207, 455 
no. 1376, 515 
no. 1377, 521, 522 
no. 1378, 515, 520 
no. 1548 p.p., 522 
no. 1569, 418 
no. 1715, 168 
Pohl, Olio d'Agua, 202 
nos. 413, 1698, 481 
nos. 605, 4382, 202 
Poiteau, Santo Domingo, 1802, 471 
Poldk, Karl, Lake Duda, Aug., 1877, 

293 

Polakowsky, Hellmuth, no. 362, 425 
Pollard, Charles Louis, no. 688, 370 
Pollard, C. L., Guy N. Collins, & E. L. 

Morris, no. 59, 435 

Pollem, Mairlot, Belgium, Sept. 28, 
1901, 307 



Pollock, W. M., Upshur Co., Aug. 28, 

1895, 253 

Ponson, Rio de Janeiro, 1828, 463 
Poole, Silas Frank, no. 80, 307 

no. 118, 216 
Porter, Thomas Conrad, Chestnut Hill, 

Sept. 22, 253 
Delaware River, near Easton, Sept. 

14, 1869, 236 
Delaware River, near Easton, Sept. 

27, 1869, 236 

Budd's Lake, Sept. 15, 1875, 236 
Easton, Sept. 27, 1875, 236 
Budd's Lake, Sept. 19, 1878, 224 
Delaware River, above Easton, Oct. 

1, 1886, 236 

Easton, Oct. 3, 1887, 370 
above Easton, Sept. 5, 1899, 257 
Pot Rock, Sept. 7, 1899, 257 
Tinicum, Sept. 12, 1900, 216 
Potanin, G. N., about Kuku-hoton, Aug. 

23, 1884, 274 

Kuku-hoton, Aug. 25, 1884, 274 
Taituhai, Aug. 30, 1884, 307 
Paiho River below She-pu, July, 1885, 

385 

Prov. Szetschuan, July 14, 1885, 370 
Valley of River Toiho, July 17, 1885, 

370 

Distr. Naitiha, Sept. 11, 1885, 385 
near Naitiha, Sept. 11, 1885, 370 
Lake Orok-nor, Sept. 1, 1886, 307 
Powell, H., no. 6, 602 
Preissman, Ernest, Poltschach, Aug. 26, 

1881, 307 

Marienbad, Aug. 15, 1915, 274 
Pretz, Harold William, no. 1644, 216 
nos. 9112, 10513, 248 
no. 10288, 257 
no. 11220, 253 
no. 11221, 241 
no. 11536, 318 
Preuss, P., no. 1417, 51 5 
Prince, Frau Hauptmann, Utschungwe 

Mts., 1899, 567 
Pring, G. H., no. 10, 476 
no. 31, 452 
no. 97, 515 
Pringle, Cyrus Guernsey, Santa Catalina 

Mts., May 9, 1883, 343 
Santa Catalina Mts., May 9, 1884, 

343 
Santa Catalina Mts., June 16, 1884, 

343 

near Tula, Sept. 16, 1899, 446 
no. 18, 363 
nos. 62, 1574, 365 
nos. 136, 758, 334 
no. 193, 435 
no. 293, 336, 337 
no. 534, 365, 370 
no. 757 p.p., 337 



680 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



no. 758, 343, 345 

nos. 1287, 1636, 378 

nos. 1288, 1289, 1637, 11487 M. 382 

nos. 1290, 1291, 13032, 446 

no. 1638, 446, 450 

no. 2348, 641 

no. 3373, 183 

nos. 3596, 6598, 533 

nos. 3661, 4313, 11488, 528 

no. 4915, 498, 515 

no. 5848, 535 

no. 5999, 446, 450 

no. 6050, 357 

nos. 6477, 11489, 387 

nos. 6783, 8749, 343 

no. 6784, 364 

no. 6820, W 

no. 6924, 490 

no. 7368, 318 

nos. 7895, 7908, 8255, 508 

nos. 7904, 446, 450 

no. 7924, 515 

no. 8844, 1*88 

no. 9859, 443 

nos. 10109, 13420, 361 

no. 10130, 92 

no. 11340, ^56, 1*58 

no. 11486, 492, 493 

no. 11487, 331 

no. 11490, 641 

no. 11822 p.p., 352, 353 
Prior, see E. C. Alexander (his earlier 

name) 

Prodan, near Bezdan, Sept., 1914, 283 
Provost, A., no. 34, 385 
Przewalski (Przhevalski), Nikolay, Lake 

Khanka, 293 

Puchtler, Wolfgang, nos. 825, 1720, 307 
Purdie, Manchester, Nov., 1873, 171 
Purpus, Carl Albert, Mt. Ixtaccihuatl, 
1903, 528 

Mt. Ixtaccihuatl, Feb., 1903, 533 

Sierra de Parras, Mar., 1905, 443, 446 

Esperanza, 1907 and 1909, 493 

Esperanza, Aug., 1907, 492 

San Luis Tultitlanapa, Aug., 1908, 
418 

no. 1544 p.p., 443, 449, 533 

nos. 1545, 1546, 1*98 

no. 1547, 498 

no. 1548 p.p., 498, 515 

no. 1549, 343 

no. 1648, 492, 493 

no. 1905, 443 

no. 2637, 498, 575 

no. 3037, 492 

no. 3109, 535 

no. 3633, 183 

no. 3634, 492, 493 

no. 3828, 343 

no. 4135, 498, 515 

no. 4429, 360 



no. 5089 p.p., 498, 508, 515 

no. 5126, 346 

no. 5620, 498, 515 

nos. 6668, 6945, 531 

no. 6679, 530 

no. 8116, 378 

Quartin-Dillon, Abyssinia, 616 

Memsa, 402 
Quartin-Dillon & Antonio Petit, Memsa, 

402 

Quayle, E. H., Mt. Aorai, Aug. 1-3, 
1922 91 

nos. 1066, 1149, 115 

no. 1235, 78 

no. 1588, 76 

no. 1600, 92 

Rafinesque, Constantine Samuel, Ap- 
palachian Mts. in Alabama, 230, 
257 

Arkansas, 244 

Cumberland Mts., 1823, 370 

North America, Aug., 1828, 241 
Ragazzi, V., nos. 244, 3360, 3860, 628 
Raimondi, A., no. 3906, 198 

no. 7198, 196 
Raimooser, Paraguay, 463 
Raine, F., near Dormans, Sept. 3, 1905, 

307 
Rainier-Kesslitz, Nagasaki, July, 1886, 

394 

Ramos, Maximo L., Prov. Ilocos Norte, 
Mar. 8, 1909, 394 

Dupax, May 16, 1909, 394 

Umuguten, May 18, 1909, 394 

no. 5537, 281 

no. 5550, 425 

no. 30167, 394 

Raunkiaer, Christen, LaCumbre, Apr. 8, 
1906, 467 

no. 1004, 471 

no. 1005, 467 

no. 1083, 435 
Rautaner, no. 75, 394 
Rechinger, Karl, & Lily Rechinger, nos. 
2043, 2139, 18 

no. 3636, 394 

Reed, Edwyn C,, ex herb, of, Juan Fer- 
nandez, Oct., 1872, 452 

no. 142, 501 
Regel, Varposka, 307 

Zurich, 1842, 636 
Regel, A., Ala-tau, Sept., 1876, 274 

Kara Kul, Sept., 1876, 274 
Regnell, Anders Fredric, Caldas, Jan. 
25, 1876, 482 

no. 1-193 p.p., 196, 197 

no. 11.164, 202 

no. III.777, 4^8 

no. III.778 p.p., 463, 466 

no. III.778a, 466 

no. III.779, 482 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



681 



Reineck, Eduard Martin, Porto Alegre, 
Nov., 1898, 457 

City of Telotas, Nov., 1903, 435 
Reinecke, no. 22, 418 
Reinsch, Paul Friedrich, no. 304, 274 
Remy, Jules, Hawaii, 138 

no. 2586ts, 31 8 

no. 278, 165 

nos. 279, 283, 122 

no. 280, 147, 149 

no. 281, 146 

no. 282, 149 

no. 285, 138 

no. 287, 155 

no. 288, 162 

no. 289, 158 

no. 290, 152 

Reverchon, Julian, Dallas, Sept., 1876, 
31 8 

nos. 518, 518a, 3355, 3355a, 318 

no. 519, 241 

no. 2075, 370 

Rheinwardt, Isl. Bima, 399 
Richard, Louis Claude, ex herb, of, 
French Guiana, 407 

French Guiana, 471 

Richter, Aladdr, between Taga and 
Sucutard, Aug. 30, 1901, 275 

Cluj, Sept. 23, 1901, 307 
Ricksecker, Alfred Edmund, no. 13, 472 

no. 473, ^18 

Ricksecker, Mrs. Joseph J. (Mrs. Leo- 
nora Agnes), no. 129, 472 
Ridgway, Robert, Olney, Sept. 2, 1914, 21 7 

nos. 77, 95, 21 8 
Ridley, Lea, & Ramage, suburbs of 

Pernambuco, July 13, 1887, 475 
Riedel, Ludung, commun., cult. 1815, 637 

nos. 138z, 2122, 196 

no. 506, 203 

no. 553, 485 
Riedel, Ludung, & George Heinrich von 

Langsdorff, no. 206, 196 
Riedel, Ludwig, & D. Lund, Brazil, 202 

nos. 883, 984, 2221, 481 

no. 2326, 202 
Riva, Domenico, nos. 85, 1306, 596 

nos. 1244, 1447, 562 
Rivet, nos. 29, 245, 454 

nos. 134, 147, 156, 209, 373, 654, 756, 
515 

nos. 261, 614, 435 

nos. 924, 2220, 189 
Roberti, Lucca, Aug., 1876, 241 
Robertson, J., no. 106, 418 
Robinson, Benjamin Lincoln, Hancock, 
Sept. 13, 1899, 307 

Phillips, Aug. 4, 1903, 241 

no. 361, 241 

no. 400, 307 

no. 557, 248 
Robinson, Charles Budd, nos. 31 , 9177, 394 



Robyns, Walter, no. 2004, 374, 375 

no. 2280, 571 

Rock, Joseph Francis Charles, no. 8008, 
96 

no. 8200, 146 

no. 8310, 151 

no. 8351, 152 

no. 8633, 139 

no. 10291, 165 

Rogers, Mrs. E. E., no. 259, 21 4 
Rogers, F. A., nos. 6001, 7707, 8007, 
13225, 556 

nos. 8048, 25123, 394 

no. 10046, 614 

no. 10956, 380 

no. 20104, 570 

no. 23904, 418 

no. 25123, 370 

Rohlena, Josef, Bar, Aug., 1910, 284 
Rohr, no. 55, 402 
Rohr, J. P. B. von, St. Croix, 472 
Rojas, Teodoro, no. 273, 435 

no. 9888, 485 

no. 10260, 481 

Rolfs, Peter Henry, no. 335, 370 
Holland, Fr., no. 15460, 327 
Rome, Royal Garden of (Reg. Hort. 
Roman.), e sem. ab A. Terracciano 
et A. Pappio sub num. 4713 et 4766 
lectis, 556 

Rood, A. N., Warren, Sept. 11, 1911, 216 
Rose, Joseph Nelson, no. 2530, 331 , 33-4 

no. 2605, 331 

no. 2636, 435 

no. 2995, 343 

Rose, J. N., & wife, no. 18740 p.p., 
359, 425 

no. 19114, 452 
Rose, J. N., & William Reed Fitch, no. 

17964, 318 

Rose, J. N., W. R. Fitch, & Paul 
George Russell, no. 3425, 171, 173 

no. 4237, 435 
Rose, J. N., & Robert Hay, no. 5812, 492 

no. 5828, 443 

no. 6039 p.p., 508, 515 
Rose, J. N., & Joseph Hannum Painter, 
no. 6638, 435 

no. 6666, 498, 522 

no. 7781, 443 

no. 7782, 446 

no. 7844, 528 

no. 7881, 492 

no. 7949 p.p., 498, 515, 522 
Rose, J. N., J. H. Painter, & Joseph 
Sims Rose, no. 9184, 522 

no. 9917, 435 

no. 10061, 457 

Rose, J. N., P. C. Standley, & P. G. 
Russell, nos. 12932, 14673, 14907, 
479 

nos. 13405, 13584, 443 



682 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Ross, Hermann, no. 501, 515 
Ross, J., nos. 137, 286, 385 
Rosthorn, A. V., no. 1049, 275 
Rothrock, Joseph Trimble, Spy Pond, 

Sept. 20, 1864, 224 
Manatee Co., Feb. 25, 1887, 436 
alt. 1,125 meters, Blue Mts., Dec. 12, 

1890, 178 
no. 297, 436 
no. 458, 178 
no. 671, 331* 
no. 705, 343, 345 
Rothschuh, Ernesto, Canada Yasica, 

Feb. 20, 1894, 418 
no. 244, 4^8 
Rottenbach, Heinrich, Berlin, Sept. 26, 

1896, 264 

Rtidersdorf, Sept. 19, 1898, 241, 264 
Rousseau, Jacques, nos. 21208, 21209, 

#44 

no. 25346, 329 

Rovirosa, Jose N., nos. 70, 688, 183 
Rowlee, Willard Winfield, & Harvey 

Elmer Stork, no. 842, 457 
Roxburgh, William, India, 280 
Royle, John Forbes, no. 171, 3P4 
Rugel, Ferdinand, near St. Marks, 

Aug., 1833, 230 

near Portsmouth, Aug., 1840, 318 
near Portsmouth, Sept., 1840, 370 
valley at Broad River, July, 1841, 370 
French Broad River near Dandridge, 

Sept., 1842, 307 
no. 257, 370 
no. 278, 230, 232 
nos. 360, 547, 633, 230 
no. 448, 253 . 
no. 483, 230, 231 

Ruiz, Don Hippolyte, Joseph Pavon, & 

Joseph Dombey, no. 977, 509, 510 

Riippell, Eduard, Abyssinia, 1831 or 

1832, 628 

Siemen, Aug. or Sept., 1832, 61 7 
Rusby, Henry Hurd, no. 1619, 418 
no. 1620, 426 
no. 1642, 183 
nos. 1685, 2129, 516 
no. 1686, 501 
nos. 1687, 1688, 497 
Rusby, H. H., & Francis Whittier 

Pennell, no. 147, 472 
no. 647, 200 
Rusby, H. H., & Roy W. Squires, no. 

232, 418 
Ruspoli, Eugenio, Exped. of, nos. 85, 

1306, 596 

nos. 1244, 1447, 562 
Russell, Padre A., no. 218, 196 
Ruth, Albert, Knoxville, Aug., 1895, 370 
no. 32, 253 
no. 63, 260 
no. 600,370 



Ryan, Montserrat, 171, 436 
Rydberg, Per Axel, no. 1642, 224 

nos. 1696, 9646, 307 

no. 1707, 244 

no. 8212, 370 

no. 9648, 308 

no. 9649, 262 

Sabransky, Heinrich, Ebersdorf, Aug., 

1908, 308 
Safford, William Edwin, no. 1391, 446, 

450 

Sagot, Paul, no. 351, 473 
Saida, K., Tokyo, 425 
Saint Hilaire, see de Saint Hilaire 
Saint John, Harold, no. 1345, 260 

nos. 10154, 11193, 108 

nos. 11128, 13999, 14000, 137 

no. 11181, 100 

no. 12250, 134 

no. 12983, 122 

no. 13123, 149 

no. 15003, 90 

nos. 15683, 15688, 164 

no. 17398, 87 

Saint John, Harold, et al., no. 10947, 132 
Saint John, H., R. S. Bean, & E. Y. 

Hosaka, no. 11239, 118 
St. John, Coulter, Hashimoto, Lindsay, 

& Mitchell, no. 11404, 138 
St. John, Harold, & Francis Raymond 
Fosberg, no. 12178, 134 

nos. 13454, 13459, 13465, 122 

nos. 13965, 13975, 132 

no. 15107, 82 

nos. 15155, 15171, 84 

nos. 15173, 15183, 83 

no. 17068, 94 
Saint John, H., F. R. Fosberg, & V. 

Oliveira, no. 13699, 165 
Saint John, Harold, & G. S. Torrey, 

no. 891, 260 

Salazar, Antonio E., no. 387, 476 
Salle, Charles, Orizaba region, 436 

Orizaba, 343 

Orizaba, 1854-1855, 4^8 

Villa Alta, 516 

nos. 136, 137, 151, 436 

nos. 443, 444, 183 

Salm, S., Konigswart, Oct. 8, 1910, 293 
Salvin, Osbert, Volcan de Fuego, Aug., 



Volcande Fuego, 1873-1874, 343 
Volcan de Fuego, Oct. 20, 1873-1874, 

522 

Volcan de Fuego, Nov. 17, 1873, 516 
Salvin, Osbert, & F. Ducane Godman, 

summit of Volcan de Agua, 1861, 

526 

no. 74, 522 
no. 294, 183 
Salzmann, Philip, about Bahia, 1830, 

462 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



683 



Sandberg, John Herman, Hennepin Co., 

Aug., 1889, 22k 
Ramsey Co., Aug., 1890, 262, 263 

no. 919, 260 

nos. 929, 6009, 262 

no. 985, 308 
Sandberg, J. H., D. T. MacDougal, & 

A. A. Heller, no. 914, 248 
Sandman, J. Alb., no. 386, 308 
Sandvik, southeastern Finland, Aug. 6, 

1861, 308 

Sargent, Charles Sprague, no. 26, 501 
Sargent, Herbert Eugene, no. 73, 260 

no. 74, 308 

no. 76, 2^1 

Sartorius, Carl, Mirador, 183 
Sauliere, A., Kodai-kanal, 426 

nos. 26, 156, 436 

Saunders, Miss E. M., Punjab, 394 
Savatier, Ludwig, Canruru, 452 

no. 570, 383 

no. 621, 394 

Savi, Pietro, no. 3627, 241 
Scaetta, H., no. 197, 579 

no. 427, 591 

no. 2272, 379 

nos. 2286, 2294, 541 
Scammon, Franklin, Chicago, Sept., 

1860, 224 

Schaffner, mountainous places, Sept., 
1855, 492 

nos. 233, 253, 31 8 

no. 252, 528 

no. 293, 492 

Schaffner, J. G. (often cited as Wilhelm), 
near Culiacan, Oct., 476 

on mts. and in cultivated places, 
Mexico, 1880, 443 

near San Angel, Sept., 1855, 334 

no. 168, 343 

nos. 187, 228, 232a, 533 

no. 202 p.p., 331, 332, 334 

no. 203 p.p., 331, 332, 489 

nos. 205, 205a, 2056, 44? 

no. 206 p.p., 443, 447 

no. 213, 334 

no. 239, 443 

no. 383, 419 

nos. 384a, 3846, 343 

no. 529, 479 
Schlanbusch, Fr., vicin. of Alingsas, 

July, 1893, 275 

Scheerer, Otto, Luakan, Apr., 1913, 394 
Schenck, H., no. 459, 492 

nos. 3398, 3481, 196 

no. 4095, -477 
Scherzer, San Jose, 419 

Volcan de Pacaya, Aug., 1854, 343, 
354 

Volcan de Santa Maria, Aug., 1854, 
516 

no. 853, 186, 198 



Schickendantz, F., Prov. Catamarca, 499 

no. 16, 383 

no. 57, 463 

no. 127, 426 

no. 139, 497 

no. 200, 497, 499 

no. 201, 501 

Schiede, Christian Julius Wilhelm, cold 
region, Mexico, Oct., 1835, 528 

between Las Trojes and Hacienda de 
la Trinidad, Oct., 430 

near Angangueo, Oct., 343, 508, 516, 
528, 531, 533 

near Angangueo, Nov., 1829, 535 

Angangueo, Nov., 1829, 528 

near Tepeyahualco, Sept., 1829, 492 

Tepeyahualco, 494 

no. 342, 516 

no. 344, 436 

Schiede, C. J. W., & Ferdinand Deppe, 
near Vera Cruz, about 1828, 438, 441 
Schilling, no. 67, 556 
Schimper, Wilhelm Philipp, mts. at 
Dewari, Oct. 2, 1863, 623 

Valley of Repp River, Oct. 2, 1863, 
618 

no. 105, 401 

nos. 196, 285, 288, 305, 321, 912, 1427, 
1475, 1986, 2181, 2324, 402 

nos. 201, 304, 949, 556 

no. 329, 621 

no. 332, 615 

nos. 337, 2328, 404 

no. 729, 405 

no. 766, 629 

no. 1078, 629 

no. 1429, 555 

no. 11-578, 629 

no. V-706a, 619 

no. V-706B, 617 
Schindler, Anton K., nos. 210a, 247, 394 

no. 430, 436 

Schlagintweit, no. 866, 275 
Schlechter (Friedrich Reichardt) Rudolph, 
no. 2133, 426 

nos. 4568, 17523, 395 

no. 4745, 570 
Schlieben, H. J., no. 1065, 556 

no. 74, 576 
Schlim, L., no. 113, 419 

no. 255, 183, 189 

no. 4066, 516 
Schmidt, Major Friedrich, Sakhalin Isl., 

1860, 293 

Schmidt, Justus, no. 4107, 264 
Schmitz, Alb., Valley of Mexico, 318, 
492 

along railroad from Guadalupe, 334 

no. 79, 343 

no. 80 p.p., 443, 447 

nos. 81, 251, 443 

no. 394, 528 



684 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



no. 395, 533 

no. 541 p.p., 343, 447 

nos. 542, 629, 444 

Schneider, Camilla Karl, no. 1018, 284 
Schnyder, no. 913, 319 
Schomburgk, Robert Hermann, no. 121, 
436 

no. 161, 395 

no. 455 p.p., 419, 473 
Schott, Arthur, Arroyo San Felipe, 319 

nos. 118, 533, 436 

no. 145, 184 

Schottmueller (Schottmuller) , nos. 219, 
445, 395 

no. 349, 385 
Schrader, A., no. 127, 224 

no. 129, 253 

Schreiber, Matthias, St. Anton, Sept. 20, 
1909, 370 

no. 5091, 370 
Schrenk, Sungaria, 275 
Schrenk, Joseph, Jersey City, Oct., 1879, 
436 

Weehawken, 1884, 22 4 
Schuette, Joachim Heinrich, Green Bay, 
249 

Cedar Swamp, Aug. 17, 1878, 224 

Ashwabenon, Aug. 26, 1878, 250 

Green Bay Marsh, Sept. 7, 1897, 250 
Schultz Bipontinus, Carl Heinrich, Er- 
langen, 1826, 275 

cult., Dec. 6, 1856, 402 
Schumacher, ex herb, of, cult, in Hort. 

Hafniae ann. 1808, 385 
Schumann, Peilau, Sept., 1870, 293 

Peilau, Sept., 1872, 293 

Peilau, Sept., 1874, 293 
Schumann, Walther, nos. 6, 108, 334 

nos. 10 p.p., 12, 444 

no. 109, 335 

no. 110, 489 

Schunke, Carlos, no. 1425, 472 
Schiich, no. 1824, 196 
Schur, Philipp Johann Ferdinand, near 
Briinn, 279 

no. 2001a, etc., 275, 279 

no. 112255, 279 

Schwacke, Wilhelm, no. 9317, 196 
Schwarz, August, no. 1466, 293 
Schweinfurth, A., Nijni-Novgorod, July, 

1863, 275 
Schweinfurth, Georg August, no. 112, 426 

nos. 296, 461, 2240, 395 

no. 417, 556 

no. 419 p.p., 402, 426 

nos. 420, 1619, 1643, 402 

no. 2596, 406 

no. 11-27, 613 

Schweinfurth, G. A., & Domenico Riva, 
nos. 458, 477, 402 

no. 804, 403 

no. 2119, 628 



Schweinitz, Lewis David von, Salem, 253 
Scott, Hugh, Mt. Chillalo, Nov., 1926, 

61 6 

Scotti, Sing, Ghinda, 1893, 628 
Scouler, John, Strait of Juan de Fuca, 

297 
Scovell, Josiah Thomas, & Howard 

Walton Clark, no. 1225, 308 
Scribner, Frank Lamson, Girard Point, 

Aug. 30, 1880, 319 
no. 108, 308 

Seaton, Henry Eliason, no. 272, 492, 494 
no. 419, 457 
no. 497, 492 

Seemann, Berthold, loco non dicto, 447 
Panama, 184, 477 
no. 270 p.p., 395, 419 
no. 669, 516 
no. 686, 190, 196 
no. 2047, 419 
no. 2265, 426 
no. 2268, 122 
Seiner, F., no. 509, 402 
Selby, Augustin Dawson, no. 6, 257 
Selby, A. D., & Joseph William Tell 

Duvel, no. 1261, 308 
no. 1266, 308 
Seler, Eduard, Sierra Chica, Apr. 1, 

1910, 520 
no. 66, 319 
no. 123, 516 
Seler, Eduard, & Caecilie Seler, no. 175, 

436 

nos. 308, 572, 579, 1142, 444 
nos. 444, 475, 343 
nos. 560, 1303, 528 
no. 682, 457 
no. 1184 p.p., 447, 459 
no. 1277, 319 
nos. 2376, 3021, 516 
no. 2534, 419 
nos. 2692, 2694, 426 
no. 2928, 533 
no. 3021, 520 
no. 4081, 216 

Sello (Sellow), Friedrich, Brazil, 463 
nos. 590, 4548, 184, 196 
no. 607, 464 
nos. 1104, 5670, 196 
Sennen, Fr. (Etienne Gamier), no. 2687, 

275 
Sennen, Fr., & Fr. Septimin, no. 178 

p.p., 275, 284 
Seret, F., no. 306, 597 
Sesse, Martin, Jose Mariano Mocino, 
Castillo, & Maldonado, no. 2915 
(=1724), 1 75 

Setchell, William Albert, & Clara B. 
Setchell, near Huehue, June 24, 
1924, 104 

Seymour, Frank Conkling, no. 8, 241 
no. 9, 260 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



685 



no. 87, 308 

no. 1550, 257 

Shafer, John Adolph, Prov. La Habana, 
Apr. 2, 1903, 472 

Pinar del Rio, Apr. 25, 1903, 436 

Pittsburgh, Aug. 16, 1885, 370 

Presque Isle, Sept. 9-12, 1900, 260 

no. 30, ^36 

nos. 319, 8943, 171 

nos. 2439, 4334, 12071, 472 
Shaffer, Charles, Spotswood Dam, Sept. 

18, 1871, 224 
Shakespear, Roger, Jamaica, 171 

Jamaica, 1777, 200 
Shannon, W. C., no. 3691, 516 
Shear, Cornelius Lott, no. 4587, 363 

no. 4946, 378 

Sheldon, Edmund Perry, Lake Benton. 
Aug., 1891, 248 

University Park, Sept. 14, 1902, 308 
Sherff, Earl Edward, cult, ex Harrisio 
12302, 176 

nos. 1747, 1997, 224 

no. 1803, 260 

no. 1830, 248 

no. 1871, 241 

nos. 2029, 2047, 308 
-no. 2032 p.p., 21 4, 216 

no. 2043, 426, 428 

no. 2046, 253 

nos. 3082, 3084, 3084a, 30846, 3085*. 
3086, 76 

nos. 3083, 3085, 3090, 74 
Shimada, Y., Schichiseizan, Sept., 1916, 

280 
Ship-man, E. F., Benton Co., Aug., 

1876, 224 

Short, Charles Wilkins, bottom of dried 
mill pond, 253 

Fernbank, 224 

rich soils, Lexington, 1835, 224 

marshes around Louisville, 1835, 224 

wet prairies of Illinois, 1837, 214 

marshes, Kentucky, 1840, 224 

Rock Isl., 1840, 253 

no. 50, 371 

Shreve, Forrest, higher altitudes, Cin- 
chona, Nov., 1905, 199 

Cinchona, Oct. 25, 1906, 178 

Dover Bridge, Sept. 16, 1907, 224 

no. 401, 224 

no. 5386, 378 
Shreve, Forrest, & W. R. Jones, no. 

1304, 230, 231 
Shull, George Harrison, no. 356, 224 

nos. 380, 398 M, 319 

no. 399, 206 

no. 399 Yi, 260 

no. 400, 241 
Sieber, Franz Xavier, no. 330, 419 

no. 331, 171 
Sihestri, C., nos. 2556, 2557, 2558, 385 



Simmons, Hermann Georg, Augusten- 

hof, Aug. 11, 1893, 308 
Simony, Oskar, plain of Kalansije, Jan. 

14, 1899, 371 
Sinclair, Andrew, 184 

San Bias, 457 
Sinclair, Mrs. Francis, Jr., Hawaiian 

Isls., 165 
Sintenis, Paul (Ernst Emil), nos. 27, 

1978, 4226, 4651, 5072, 472 
nos. 27C, 3591, 474 
no. 387, 174 

nos. 3876 p.p., 2919, 5576, 171 
nos. 391, 4653, 419 
no. 1119, 284 
nos. 1148, 5173, 6779, 436 
no. 1390, 371 
no. 1832, 308 
no. 3787, 473 
Sintenis Brothers, Pristav, Sept. 18, 

1872, 284 
no. 419, 284 

Skene, Edith, no. 139, 436 
Skottsberg, Carl Johan Frederik, nos. 

153, 1536, 1776, 1859, 108 
no. 262, 137 
no. 387, 134 
nos. 924, 1135, 154 
nos. 1954, 1955, 19556, 104 
no. 2092, 118 
Small, John Kunkel, Wetzel's Swamp, 

Sept., 1887, 320 

Dillerville Swamp, Oct., 1888, 319 
northeastern West Virginia, Aug. 22, 

1890, 371 
vicin. of Marion, July 22-Aug. 2, 

1892, 371 

Pleasant Grove, Oct., 1903, 308 
Small, J. K., & Joel Jackson Carter, 

nos. 957, 1459, 319 

Small, J. K., & Arthur Middleton Huger, 
Chimney Rock to Hendersonville, 
Oct. 3, 1901, 308 

Small, J. K., & G. V. Nash, the Ever- 
glades, Nov. 1-9, 1901, 319 
Small, J. K., & G. K. Small, nos. 4254, 

4324, 4424, 4482, 319 
Small, W., no. 1192, 602, 603 
Smart, no. 411, 343, 345 
Smith, Aubrey Henry, near Philadelphia, 

#44 

Tinicum, Sept., 1866, 319 
Gray's Ferry, Sept. 23, 1866, 253 
Tinicum, Oct., 1866, 205 
tidal marsh, Tinicum, Sept. 23, 1867, 

205 
below Philadelphia, Sept. 24, 1867, 

205 
near Philadelphia, Sept.-Oct., 1868, 

244 

near Philadelphia, Sept. and Oct., 
1869, 243, 244 



686 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Delaware River, Sept., 1870, 319 

no. 59 p.p., 205, 21*1 
Smith, A. H., T. C. Porter, & J. Leidy, 

Tinicum Isl., Sept. 8, 1868, 221* 
Smith, Benjamin Hayes, Cherry Creek, 
Aug. 24, 1884, 308 

Ojo Caliente, Aug. 26, 1893, 25S 

Ojo Caliente, Aug. 25, 1894, 253 
Smith, Charles Eastwick, Tinicum, 244 
Smith, Charles L., Isl. Ometepe, Jan., 

1893, 477 

nos. 298, 587, 633, 184 

no. 299, 528 

no. 300, 516 

no. 357, 535 

nos. 1501, 1521, 36 
Smith, C. S., Kilimanjaro, May, 1893, 

585 

Smith, Ernest Charles, no. 537, 28 
Smith, Herbert Huntington, Santa 
Marta, 1898-1901, 36 

no. 512, 407 

no. 519, 18 

nos. 598, 599, 1*19 

nos. 600, 601, 72 

no. 1980, 516, 523 

no. 2668, 36 

no. 6041, 21 

no. 6064, 29 

Smith, H. H., & George Whitfield Smith, 
no. 305, 72 

no. 1220, 171 

Smith, John Donnell, near Jackson, 
Sept. 6, 1885, 21 

no. 16, 230 

no. 2350, 1 9 

no. 2354, 18 

no. 2375, 508 

Smith, Jared Gage, Mexico, 1892, 92 
Smith, Lyman B., no. 2301, 196 
Smith, Lucius C., alt. 1,800 meters, 
Rancho de Calderon, Sept. 10, 

1894, 18 
no. 224, 528 
no. 304, 33 
no. 857, 531 
no. 910, 3 

Smith, Uselma C., Georgiana, Jan. 24, 
1891, 36 

no. 657, 319 

Snodgrass, R. E., & E. Heller, nos. 92, 
316, 338, 380, 420, 732, 477 

no. 887, 52 
Snowden, J. D., no. 28, 602, 603 

no. 158, 58 

no. 411, 631 

Sodiro, A., near Pomasqui, Feb., 1896, 
52, 5 

no. 486, 52 

nos. 2313, 4311, 4312, 516 

no. 4314, 26 
Soils, Fernando, no. R.460, 196 



Soma, Teisuke, Schichiseizan, Mar., 

1916, 280 

Somes, Melvin Philip, no. 3832, 220 
Sommier, Stephano, Vicopelago, Oct., 

1874, 21 

Speke, Captain John Hanning, & 
Captain J. A. Grant, no. 406, 51 
no. 448, 540 
Spencer, Mary F., Taormina, Jan.- 

Feb., 1904, 26 

Spreadborough, William, mouth of Sal- 
mon River, Aug. 27, 1904, 308 
Spruce, Richard, nos. 651, 829, 72 
no. 4610, 456 
no. 5047, 522 
no. 5048, 516 
no. 5049, 516, 522 
no. 5894, 516, 522 
Stabler, Louise Merrill, Port Chester, 

Aug. 25, 1887, 371 

Standley, Paul Carpenter, nos. 4862, 
5002, 6308, 6503, 7145, 7926, 40583, 
378 

nos. 5373, 8514, 8771, 371 
nos. 5614, 9006, 9308, 9816, 29 
nos. 8321, 9049, 9455, 220 
nos. 9853, 9869, 253 
nos. 19096, 20220, 21844, 22603, 18 
no. 23977, 19 
Standley, P. C., & H. C. Bollman, no. 

10274, 230 
no. 11107, 378 
Staunton, George, China, 385 
Prov. Chekiang, 395 
between Peking & Jehpl, 385 
Steele, Edward Strieby, Distr. Columbia, 
1896, 21, 253, 260, 308, 319, 371 
Distr. Columbia, 1899, 236, 253, 260 
Distr. Columbia, Sept. 7, 1902, 21 
Distr. Columbia, Oct. 2, 1902, 29 
Great Falls, Sept. 18, 1899, 21 
Steele, Edward Strieby, & wife, vicin. 

Aurora, Sept. 11, 1898, 260 
no. 215, 29 
no. 219, 308 
no. 226, 253 
Stefano, see Moricand 
Steinbach, Jose, no. 5584, 1 96 
Stevens, Frank Lincoln, no. 6359, 72 
Stevens, F. L., & W. E. Hess, no. 4278, 

171 

no. 4873, 175 
Stevens, George Walter, no. 2249, 371 

nos. 2430, 2544, 2991 H, 220 
Stevens, William Chase, Lawrence, 220 
Stevenson, John A., Garrochales, Dec. 6, 

1914, 172 

Stewart, Alban, Valparaiso, 52 
no. 716, 52 
no. 743, 477 

Stewart, James Torrence, Illinois, 22 
Peoria, 1869, 22 , 227 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



687 



Stewart, Ralph R., no. 10056, 281 
Stocks, John Ellerton, no. 608, 402 
Stokes, John F. G. t Kaali, Jan., 1912, 
113, 419 

Niihau, Jan., 1912, 142 

Kolekole Pass, 1915, 15k 

cliffs at Puunui, Dec., 1915, 112 

no. 3406, 151* 

Stoliczka, vicin. of Islamabad, 308 
Stolitzka, Prov. Kulu, Sept. 7-20, 1864, 
371 

India, 1866, 371 
Stolz, Ad., no. 627, 426 

no. 729, 545 

no. 764 p. p., 6^0 

no. 1442, 380 

Stone, Witmer, Fish House, Sept. 18, 
1908, 205 

nos. 6236, 10725, 10860, 10908, 
11052, 260 

nos. 10803, 10907, 241 

nos. 10818, 10820, 10824, 254 

no. 10823, 257 
Stordy, R. J., hills above Abancai, 516 

Valley of Anta, 516 

no. 23, 436 

Strachey, Richard, & James Edward 
Winterbottom, no. 1, 371 

no. 2, 426 

no. 3, 281 

Stribrny, Venceslaus, Sadovo, May 28, 
1893, 284 

Sadovo, Aug., 1893, 284 

Sadovo, Sept. 3, 1893, 284 

Sadovo, Aug., 1894, 284 

Sadovo, Sept. 15, 1896, 284 

Sadovo, Sept. 27, 1896, 284 

Sadovo, Oct., 1906, 284 

Sadovo, Sept. 10, 1898, 284 
Strobl, Gabriel, Admont, June, 1876, 308 
Stiibel, A., nos. 12, 536, 676, 102c, 254, 
298a, 516 

no. 436 p.p., 516, 520 

no. 54a, 508 

no. lOla, 189 

no. 143 p.p., 508, 516 

no. 338o, 517 
Stuckert, Teodoro, nos. 9215, 9469, 

13077, 463 
Stuhlmann, Franz Ludwig, no. 225, 588 

no. 1649, 598 

no. 2120, 544 

nos. 2908, 8529, 395 

no. 4156, 545 

nos. 6403, 7584, 8470, 566 

nos. 8912, 9265, 576 

no. 9624, 426 

Styles, Chile, 319, 426, 452 
Suksdorf, Wilhelm Nikolaus, nos. 932, 
1592, 308 

no. 1591, 241, 249 



Sullivant, William Starling, Columbus, 

1840, 236 

swamps, Columbus, 1842, 236 
no. 52, 234 
Svenson, Henry Knute, Rensselaer, Oct. 

15, 1922, 205 

Hudson River, Sept. 30, 1923, 212 
no. 482, 220 
Svenson, H. K., & N. C. Fassett, nos. 

797, 847, 848, 878, 879, 324 
nos. 819, 846, 882, 883, 885, 886, 887, 

327 

no. 881, 328, 329 
nos. 888, 893, 896, 897, 898, 899, 912, 

936, 328 

no. 889, 325, 328 
nos. 913, 914, 915, 244 
no. 918, 264 
Swan, Charles Walter, Lowell, Sept. 16, 

1880, 371 

Acton, Sept. 6, 1884, 319 
Swezey, Otto, no. 4183, 112 
no. 4205, 123 
no. 4206 p.p., 112, 123 
Swinerton, J. R., Newport News, Oct., 

1889, 319 

Swynnerton, C. F. M., no. 845, 588 
no. 845A, 558 
no. 859, 605 
no. 875, 558 
no. 1884, 556, 557 
Sydow, H., no. 1, 184 

no. 39, 184 
Symonowiczowna, Miss Tekla, no. 736, 

308 
no. 737, 275 , 

Tagor, Fedor, no. 384, 426 
Talcenouchi, Makoto, Mt. Hizengajho, 

Aug. 29, 1924, 281 

Talmy, Cochin-China, Oct., 1867, 395 
Tarn, Anthony Apo, no. 4249, 156 

no. 4329, 159 

Tamberlik, western Brazil, 464 
Tanaka, no. 20, 275 
Taponnier, vicin. of Lyon, Sept., 286 
Taquet, Emile Joseph, no. 969, 395, 400 

no. 1028, 275 

no. 1031, 281, 282 

no. 1035, 281, 282 

no. 2991, 436 
Tate, Ralph, Mexico, 492, 528 

nos. 172, 173, 288, 184 
Tausch, cult, in garden, 371 
Taylor, Alexander, no. 4253, 178 
Taylor, Benjamin Chandler, Center 

City, 1892, 308 
Taylor, Norman, no. 23, 472 

no. 133, 500, 436 

no. 388, 473 

Taylor, W. E., ravine at Rabai, Jan. 5, 
1886, 577 

eastern equatorial Africa, 1888, 607 



688 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Taylor, William Randolph, Essington, 

Aug. 15, 1914,216 
Taylor, W. R., & wife, Fort Cristobal, 

Oct., 1916, 436 
Teague, A. J., no. 6, 557 
no. 149, 436 
no. 226, 608 
no. 412, 395 
Tellini, Achille, nos. 135, 586, 1189, 

1512, 1586, 1683, 1715, 628 
no. 292, 403 
Telsman, no. 48, 275 
Terraciano, Achille, & A. Pappi, 
Eritrea, Apr. 3, 1892, 557, 628 
nos. 55, 760, 1441, 1981, 628 
Tessmann, Gilnther, no. 2704, 622 
Teyber, Alois, wooded places, Hohen- 

eich, Aug. 30, 1905, 293 
banks of pond, Hoheneich, Sept. 3, 

1905, 293 
forested areas, Hoheneich, Sept. 9, 

1905, 29k 

forested areas, Hoheneich, Aug., 

1906, 29^ 

peat moor at Schrems, Aug., 1906, 294 
wooded areas, peat moor, etc., 
Lower Schrems, Aug., 1906, 293 
forest, Frommberg, Aug., 1908, 294 
forested areas, Gopprechts, Aug., 

1908, 293, 294 

Heidenreichstein, Aug., 1908, 294 
wooded areas, Heidenreichstein, Aug., 

1908, 293 
Thedenius, C. G. H., Goteborgstrakten, 

Aug., 1902, 309 
Thomson, Thomas, alt. 1,500-1,800 

meters, India, 281 

Nilgiri Hills, Dec., 1871, 517, 519, 522 
northwestern Himalaya, 395, 472 
Kashmir, 275, 309 
Kumaon, 281 
Muradabad, 1845, 395 
no. 869, 426 
no. 1238, 281 

Thompson, Charles Henry, French Vil- 
lage, Sept. 23, 1913, 371 
Thomson, G., no. 58, 395 
Thorel, Clotis, no. 1270, 395 
Thornber, John James, no. 72, 365 
Thorncroft, George, no. 11275, 570 
Thuillier, Jean Louis, environs of Paris, 

#75 293 295 

Etang de St. Hubert, Aug., 275, 279 
Thurber, George, near Chihuahua, Oct., 

1852, 365 
no. 794, 319 
no. 842, 365 
no. 1102 p.p., 335, 336 
Thurrow, W. F., Hockley, 1890, 214 
Thwaites, Ceylon, 395 
no. 3583, 402 
no. 3630, 426 



Tidestrom, Ivar, no. 6890, 260 

Tod, Karl, Wittingauer Becken, July 

31, 1902, 293 
Todaro, Augustino, Palermo, 1840, 249 

no. 1479, 241 
Tokubuchi, Horomambetsu, Aug. 20, 

1892, 275 

Tokyo, Bot. Inst. Sc. Coll. Imper. Univ. 
of, ex, Prov. Musashi, Sept. 23, 
1885, 391 

Tonduz, Adolphe, nos. 498, 695, 426 
nos. 7058, 7248, 7265, 9850, 13600, 

184 

no. 12284, 184, 187 
no. 13618, .475, 477 
no. 14779, 457 

Topping, David LeRoy, no. 2365, 293 
no. 2833, 419 
no. 2939, 112 
nos. 2941, 3354a, 119 
nos. 3060, 3341, 3343, 3346, 108 
no. 3304, 103 
no. 3308, 134 
nos. 3405, 3406, 3407, 3408a, 34086, 

154 

no. 3353, 137 
no. 3354 p.p., 123, 124 
no. 3763, 123 
no. 3834, 100 
Topping, D. L., & Richard Northwood, 

no. 4330, 134 
Topping, D. L., & Colin Potter, no. 

10037, 100 

Torrey, John, New York, 1843, 225, 241 
Tourney, James William, no. 58, 335 

no. 680, 319 
Toumsend, Charles Henry Tyler, nos. 

A102, A200, 419 
nos. A213, A214, 1519, 517 
no. 1513, 383 
Toumsend, C. H. T., & Charles Melvin 

Barber, no. 298, 378 
no. 315, 335 
no. 411, 365 
no. 415, 339 

Tracey, Mrs. J. A., no. 77, 319 
Tracy, Samuel Mills, nos. 4762, 6929, 

7140, 7351, 230 
no. 6445, 230, 231 
nos. 6456, 6921, 436 
no. 8585, 236 

Tracy & Lloyd, no. 495, 436 
Traill, James William Helenus, no. 492, 

472 
Travers, H. H., Wellington, Oct., 1908, 

419 
Trelease, William, no. 437, 426 

no. 640, 220 
Triana, Jose Jeronimo, nos. 1367, 1368, 

189 

no. 1369 p.p., 189, 517 
no. 1371, 472 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



689 



no. 1373, 419 

no. 1374 p.p., 509, 517, 518 
no. 1375 p.p., 508, 517, 51 8 
no. 1377, 319 
Trichardt, Louis, Zoulpansberg, Feb., 

1919, 570 
Trimble, William, vicin. Bridgeport, 

Oct. 1, 1883, 205 
Tsan, Don Giovanni, Poupli, 385 
Ts'ao, Chen Knei, Bau Hiva Shan, Oct. 

14, 1915, 419 
Turczaninow, Nicolas Stevanovitch, 

Transbaikal region, 385 
Selenga and elsewhere, 1829, 386 
Argun River, 1833, 293, 295 
no. 1232, 386 
Tuezkiewicz, Diomede, vineyards at Le 

Vigan, Aug.-Sept., 1859, 371 
no. 3118, 395 
Turici, Hortus, e sem. ex, anno 1867, 

635 (cf . Bot. Gard. of Zurich) 
Tweedie, John, Buenos Aires, 371 
Tweedy, Frank, pine barrens, Sept., 1880, 
225 

Uhde, nos. 445, 625, 631, 633, 528 

no. 454, 319 

nos. 616, 623, 444 

nos. 620, 621, 492 

no. 622, 517 

nos. 644, 646, 344 
Uhlig, Carl, no. 19, 566 

no. 118, 588 

nos. 414, 480, 607 

no. 750, 538 

no. V.46, 51>2 

Uhlig, Margarete, no. 2038, 585 
Ule, Ernst Heinrich Georg, nos. 835, 
4493, ^26 

no. 1589, 31 9 

nos. 2585, 3403, 196 

no. 5155, 473 

no. 6557, 437 
Umbach, Levi Menger, nos. 2035, 2051, 

225 

United States (Southern Pacific) Ex- 
ploring Expedition under Captain 
Wilkes, Andes of Peru, 51 7 

Cape Verde Isls., 402 

Eimeo, 84 

Isl. Hawaii, 95, 150 

Kaala Mts., 154 

Kauai, mts. of, 165 

Maui, sandy or dry hills near coast 
of, 158 

Maui, western, 151 

Oahu, 106, 109, 154 

Tahiti, 84, 93 

Urumoff, Ivan K., no. 52, 284 
Ussher, C. B., no. 1, 597 

Vdgner, L., Comitat of Marmaros, 
Aug.-Sept., 309 



Vahl, Ribeira de Fayal, Aug. 5, 1901, 

426 
Vanatta, Edward G., Chestertown, Aug. 

4, 1902, 319 

Queen Anne Co., Aug. 15, 1902, 225 
Chestertown, Aug. 3, 1904, 225 
Van den Houdt, no. 211, 559 
Van Hermann, Herman Adolf, no. 379, 

437 

Vanoverbergh, Morice, no. 926, 395 
Van Pelt, Samuel Smyth, Narrowsville, 

Sept. 9, 1904, 220 
Palermo, Sept. 20, 1908, 260 
Vargas, W. J., no. 210, 444 
Vasey, George, Ringwood, 1861, 225, 227 

northern Illinois, 1862, 227 
Veitch, J., & Sons, cult., 1908, 629 
Velasco, Luis V., no. 8873, 184 
Velasquez, Joachim, Volcan de Agua, 

187, 526 
Velenovsky, Josef, Pilsky, Aug. 16, 1882, 

294 

Pilsky Pond, Aug. 16, 1882, 293 
no. 1888, 283 
Vendrely, Xavier, & J, Paillot, no. 

2088bis, 293 
Venturi, S., no. 121, 466 

no. 8810, 426 
Verdick, no. 464, 569 
Verreaux, no. 532, 426 
Versteeg, nos. 1192, 1543, 281 
Victorin, see Marie-Victor in 
Vidal, Seb., Miagao, 426 

nos. 1514, 3133, 3138, 426 
Vienna, Bot. Gard. of (Hort. Vindob.), 

1869, 345 

Viereck, H. L., no. 5, 523 
Vierhapper, Friedrich, Heidenreichstein, 

Sept., 1915, 293 
Vindobonensis, Hortus, cult, anno 1869, 

556 
cult, from achenes of Menyhart 1110, 

374 

Visher, Stephen Sargent, no. 2224, 309 
Voeltzkow, no. 211, 426 
Volkens, Georg, no. 365, 560 
no. 384, 557 
no. 398, 606, 607 
no. 537, 606, 607 
no. 682, 426 
no. 1694, 610 

Von Cederwald, G., see Cederwald 
Von Cesats, see Cesats 
Von Chamisso, Ludolf Adelbert, Oahu, 

1816, 114, 121 
Oahu, 1817, 146 
Von Christmar, Campeche, 184 
Von Guttenberg, Gustav, see Guttenberg 
Von Hayek, A., see Hayek 
Von Hepperger, Carl von, Bozen, 1860, 

371 
Bozen, Sept., 1864, 371 



690 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Von Kellner, Verona, 371 

Von Langsdorff, see Langsdorff 

Von Ledebour, see Ledebour 

Von Martins, Karl Friedrich Philipp, 

see Martins 
Von Mechow, Alexander, no. 131, 600 

no. 394, 595, 600 

Von Priltwitz und Gaffron, Captain, 
no. 272, 25 

no. 293, 598 

no. 353, 556 
Von Rabenau, Arlington, Sept. 7, 1890, 

225 

Von Rohr, J. P. B., see Rohr 
Von Schrenk, Ithaca, Oct. 1, 1892, 260 
Von Schweinitz, L. D., see Schweinitz 
Von Sterneck, Jakob, Peschiera, 1893, 

371 
Von Tuerckheim, H., no. 297, 184 

no. 762, ^37 

no. 1179, 522 

no. 3646, 472 

no. 7900, 185 

no. 8237, 1 75 

no. 11.1475, 185 

Von Warszewicz, see Warszewicz 
Von Winkler, no. 214, 517 

Waddell, L. A., Lhasa, Sept. 15, 1904, 

275 
Wadmond, Samuel Christensen, no. 

1232, 309 

Waghorne, Arthur Charles, Newfound- 
land, Sept. 3, 1896, 241 
Wakefield, T., Galla Country, May, 

1880, 557 

Waldron, Lawrence Root, & T. F. 
Manns, vicin.' of Fargo, Aug. 13, 
1901, 250 

Walker, George Warren, Ceylon, 426 
Wallace, G. B., no. 294, 604 
Wallich, Nathaniel, nos. 298a, 3188A, 

371 
no. 3187a (3187, comp. 297a), 281, 

282 

no. 3189 (comp. 299e), 394 
no. 3189 (comp. 299/), 395 
Warburg, nos. 413, 418, 426 
no. 419, 51 7 
no. 3142, 281 
nos. 4381, 7850, 395 
no. 7844, 371 
Ward, Lester Frank, along canal, Distr. 

Columbia, Sept. 10, 1876, 309 
between Sherman and Texarkana, 

Sept. 22, 1877, 214 
Eastern Branch Marsh, July 7, 1878, 

309, 312 

Arcadia, Aug. 24, 1878, 214 
Distr. Columbia, Oct. 3, 1880, 236 
vicin. of Denver, Aug. 19, 1881, 319 
Distr. Columbia, Sept. 24, 1882, 236 



Chesapeake Junction, Sept. 10, 1905, 

214 

Ward, L. F., & Rosamond Ward, 
Jacksonville, Feb.-Mar., 1891, 230 
Ware, Robert Allison, no. 4230, 324 
Warming, Eugene, Lagoa Santa, Dec. 4, 
1863, 481 

Lagoa Santa, Feb.-Apr., 1864, 202 

Lagoa Santa, May 7, 1864, 196 

Picao, Jan. 26, 1865, 407 

Lagoa Santa, Mar. 7, 1865, 202 

nos. 38, 638, 640, 419 

no. 637, 202 

no. 639 p.p., 419, 481 

no. 643 p.p., 407, 419 
Warnecke, no. 63, 576 
Warnstorf, Carl, Lake Neuruppin, Oct., 
1877, 264 

Lake Neuruppin, Sept. 10, 1895, 263, 

265 

Warszewicz, Julius, no. 38, 517 
Watanabe, Kano, Sakawa, Oct. 11, 

1888, 275 
Watson, Hewitt Cottrell, North Surrey, 

1865, 275 
Watson, Rosa B., Atlanta, Nov., 1881, 

371 

Watt, George, no. 2160, 517, 519 
Wawra, Heinrich, Kauai, 165 

Valparaiso, 452 

no. 206, 441 

no. 326, 526 

no. 353, 426 

nos. 545, 669, 155 

nos. 1035, 1811, 419 

no. 1232, 386 

no. 1664, 108 
Webb, Tahiti, 87 
Weberbauer, August, no. 50, 452 

no. 275, 501 

no. 435, 51 7, 520 

nos. 840, 6583, 185 

no. 2506, 497 

nos. 3057, 4854, 498 

no. 3857, 198 

nos. 5293, 7401, 383 

nos. 5613, 7617, 517 

no. 5975, 475 

Weatherby, Charles Alfred, Dennis, 
Sept. 28, 1915, 264 

Wenham, Oct. 12, 1915, 225 

no. 2071, 249 
Weddell (?), Isls. of Seine River, 1841, 

286, 288 
Weddell, Hugues Algernon, no. 2656, 196 

no. 2996, 203 

no. 3169, 464 

no. 3302, 481 

Weidmann, Anton, Lomnitz, July 14, 
1883, 293 

Rybnyk, etc., July 28, 1885, 293 
Weigelt, Surinam, 473 



INDEX OF COLLECTORS 



691 



Wellenius, Otto, Prov. Tavastehus, 

Sept. 10, 1898, 293 
Welwitech, Friedrich Johann Martin, 

no. 243, 284 
no. 3272 p.p., 546, 600 
no. 3529, 593 
nos. 3531, 3532, 544 
nos. 3535, 3536, 3537, 3538, 599, 

600 

no. 3959, 1*26 
nos. 3961, 3962, 3963, 395 
no. 3964, 586 

Wenzel, Chester Alan, no. 302, 395 
Werckle, Charles, no. 63, 185 
Werner, William C., Cedar Swamp, 

Sept. 10, 1892, 225 
no. 409, 254. 

Westerlund, Otto, no. 10, 231 
Westgate Philip, no. 4132, 137 
Wetherill, Henry Emerson, Norristown, 

1891, 225 
Wetzstein, Albert, St. Marys, Sept., 

1898, 225 

Wheeler, Charles Fay, swamp near Lan- 
sing, July 23, 1897, 225 
Wheeler, C. F. r & E. S. Steele, vicin. of 

Millboro, Aug. 30, 1907, 254 
White, Paul J., no. 25, 371 
Whitford, Harry Nichols, no. 12, 371 
Whitmee, S. J., Samoa, 419 
Whymper, Edward, Mt. Chimborazo, 

Jan. 4, 1880, 517 

Mt. Chimborazo, Jan. 7, 1880, 517 
Whyte, Alexander, Nandi to Mumias, 

1898, 602, 603 
northern Nyassaland, 640 
Zomba, 612 

Masuku Plateau, July, 1896, 427 
Tanganyika Plateau, July, 1896, 427 
near Nairobi, 565 
no. 191, 613 

Wibbe, John Hermann, Oswego, 236 
Wichura, no. 2200, 427 
Widgren, Minas Geraes, 1845, 197 
Caldas, Feb. 17, 1846, 202 
nos. 251, 252, 197 
no. 253, 419 
Wiebke, Henry, no. 3083, 151 

no. 3084, 131 

Wiegand, Karl McKay, no. 916, 249 
Wiggins, Ira Loren, no. 6429, 479 

no. 7396, 409 
Wiggins, I. L. t & Delzie Demaree, no. 

4882, 382 

Wight, Alexander Este, no. 3, 437 
Wight, Robert, ex herb, of, Dendygul 

Mts., 1830, 395 
ex herb, of, no. 1451 p.p., 395 
no. 1606, 402 
Wight, William Franklin, nos. 112a, 

113,225 
Wilkes, Captain Charles, Madeira, 395 



Wilkinson, Edward, no. 4874, 249 

no. 5126, 225 
Willdenow, Carl Ludwig, herb, of, no. 

15019-1, 345 
no. 15020-5, 296 
no. 15022, 438 
no. 15023-l,-2,-3, 438 
no. 15023-4, 395, 438 
Williams, Emile Francis, Weston, Sept. 

29, 1895, 257 

Lake Massapoag, Sept. 10, 1899, 264 
Concord, Sept. 17, 1899, 257 
Neponset Marshes, Sept. 23, 1900, 

263 

Rowley, Sept. 3, 1906, 319 
Dedham, Oct. 2, 1898, 371 
Williams, F. W., no. 16052, 386 
Williams, Llewelyn, nos. 1249, 2601, 473 

no. 7917, 1*75 
Williams, Robert S., no. 160, 185 

no. 194, 198 
Williams, Thomas Albert, Tacoma Park, 

Sept. 18, 1900, 236 
Williams, T. W., Peking, Aug., 1876, 

371 

no. 298, 371 
Williamson, Charles Sumner, Palatka, 

Apr., 1897, 231 

Council Bluffs, Aug., 1898, 254 
Lake Manawa, Aug., 1898, 249 
Chicago, Sept. 2, 1898, 225 
Los Angeles, July 24, 1901, 419 
San Bernardino, June, 1903, 319 
Philadelphia, Aug. 23, 1903, 225 
Green Pond, Aug. 18 and 21, 1904, 

236 

Bordentown, Sept. 11, 1904, 205 
Williamson School, Sept. 23, 1906, 

260 

nos. 2223, 2326, 2420, 249 
no. 2474, 236 
Williamson, T. A., Camden, Sept., 

1897, 205 
Wills, 0. R., Hightstown, Sept., 1845, 

225 

Wilms, Friedrich, no. 843, 395, 396 
no. 844, 427 
no. 845 p.p., 396, 420 
Wilson, Jamaica, 172 
no. 255, 473 
no. 498, 437 

Wilson, E., Armstrong, 1904, 309 
Wilson, Jamaica, 178 
Wilson, Percy, vicin. of New York, 

Sept. 28, 1899, 371 
Winkler, Hubert, no. 101, 420 

no. 3376, 396 
Winslow, Evelyn James, North Grafton, 

Sept. 19, 1912, 264 

Winter, Ferdinand, nos. 345, 751, 309 
Wislizenus, (Friedrich) Adolph, no. 178, 
337 



692 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Witasek, Mitterburg, Aug., 1901, 309 
Witting, E., Lake Leonhard, 309 
Wolcott, Albert B., no. 75, 225 
Wolf, John, no. 172, 245 

no. 73, 214 

no. 544, 378 
Wolfgang, flooded marshes, Lithuania, 

309 
Wollaston, A. F. R., Mt. Ruwenzori, 

Jan. 29, 1906, 579 
Wood, John Medley, no. 715, 396 

no. 1231, 557 

Woodward, N. P., North Worcester, 
Oct. 15, 1917, 1*37 

no. 2, 378 

Woodward, Richard William, Pocoto- 
paug Lake, Sept. 21, 1915, 267, 268 

Franklin, Sept. 25, 1915, 261* 

Old Saybrook, Sept. 29, 1915, 257 

Old Lyme, 1915-1918, 211 
Woodward, R. W., & Charles Humphrey 
Bissell, Pocotopaug Lake, Sept. 21, 
1910, 268 

Woolson, G. W., Lodi, Sept., 1872, 319 
Wooton, Elmer Ottis, Organ Mts., Sept. 
17, 1893, 363 

Organ Mts., Sept. 28, 1902, 363 

Las Cruces, Oct., 1895, 373 

Mesilla Valley, Oct., 1895, 371 

James Canyon, Aug. 11, 1899, 378 

Filmore Canyon, Oct. 23, 1904, 363 

Las Vegas Canyon, Aug. 24, 1910, 378 

N. E. of Vermejo Park, Aug. 30, 1913, 
378 

Santa Rita Mts., Sept. 30, 1913, 363 

nos. 259, 2544, 378 

no. 430, 363, 366 

Wooton, E. O., & P. C. Standley, Organ 
Mts., Sept. 23, 1906. 363 

no. 3675, 378 
Charles Wright, Connecticut, 236 

Hongkong, 427 

Loo-Choo Isls., 427 

Texas, 220 

no. 150, 396 

no. 314 p.p., 172, 175 

no. 315, 473 

no. 316, 420 

no. 317 p.p., 420, 437 

no. 345, 373 



no. 346, 363 

no. 347, 319 

no. 1232, 335 

no. 1233, 344, 345 

no. 1233&is, 344, 31*5 

no. 1234, 371 

no. 12346is, 366 

Wright, Samuel Hart, Volusia Co., 231 
Wright, W. F., no. 175, 241 

no. 251, 309 
Wullschlagel, H. R., no. 300, 1*73 

no. 317, 172 

Wurzlow, Edwin Clarence, west of 
Houma, Aug. 29, 1913, 371 

bank of Barataria Canal, Oct. 22, 

1912, 319 
Wydler, Heinrich, no. 101, 1*73 

no. 228, ^20 

Xavier, Fr., near Jacmel, December, 474 

Yamaguchi, M., no. 1218, 108 

Yatabe, R., Tokio, Sept. 4, 1880, 396 

Yates, no. 632, 420 

Young, no. 154, 437 

Young, Herbert Andrew, Cedar Pond, 

Sept. 13, 1879, 225 
Revere, Sept. 27, 1879, 254 
Young, Robert Thompson, near Boulder, 

Sept. 14, 1904, 309 

Yuncker, Truman George, no. 4256, 108 
Yvan, Isl. Chusan, 396 

Zahlbruckner, Alexander, St. Georgen, 

Sept., 1883, 309 
Zech., no. 276, 427 

Zelenetzuy (Zelenetzkij), Nikolaj Michai- 
lowitsch, Simferopol, June 1, 
1885, 275 

Crimea, July, 1885, 309 
Zick, Alois, no. 825a, 309 
Zimmermann, Albrecht, no. 63, 576 

no. 1776, 537 

Zollinger, Heinrich, nos. 401, 816, 427 
nos. 410, 2284, 396 
no. 11.410, 420 
Zuccarini, Joseph Gerhard, herb, of, 

cult. 1817, 335 
Zupancic, no. 781, 309 
Zurich, Bot. Gard. of (cf. Hort. Turici), 

in 1848, 345 
anno 1849, 345 



GENERAL INDEX 1 



Actinea biternata (Lour.) Spreng., 389 

Acacia, 134 

Acocotli quauhuahuacensis Hern., 431, 

441 
Adenolepis Less., 18, 30 

pulchella Less., 18, 113, 123 
Adenolepis (Less.) O. Hoffm. in Engl. & 

Prantl (pro sect.), 30, 31 
Agrimonia 

molucca Rumph., 389, 398, 399 
Alyxia olivaeformis, 90 
Andropogon, 600 
Anthemis arvensis L., 491, 493 
Anthemis Cotula L., 454 
Anthrena, 27 

Apium graveolens L., 98, 502 
Asplenium, 113 

pinnatifidum Nutt., 113 

Betula 

intermedia Thorn., 644 
Bidens 

Abadiae DC., 58, 357 

var. pilosoides Sherff, 58, 358 
abortiva Schum. & Thonn., 430 
abyssinica Schz. Bip. ex Walp., 

26, 403, 404 

var. glabrata Vtke., 400 
f. nemoralis Chiov., 402 

var. incisaefolia Hochst. in Oliv., 
402, 403, 405 

var. quadriaristata Hochst. ex 
Schweinf., 401, 403, 404, 405 
acaulis Bak. in Mart., 633 
Acmella (L.) Lam., 634 
Acmelloides Berg., 634 
acrifolia Sherff, 49, 524 
acuta (Wieg.) Britt., 251, 253 
acuticaulis Sherff, 62, 347 
acutiloba Sherff, 554, 557 
adhaerescens Veil., 412, 420, 430 
adherescens Veil., 412, 430 
aequisquama (Fern.) Sherff, 53, 360 
affinis Kl. & O., 506, 508, 518 
africana Klatt, 421, 429 
Ahnnei Sherff, 34, 73, 88 
alamosana Rose, 478, 479 
alausensis H.B.K., 450, 452, 453, 455 
alba (L.) DC., 438, 439, 440 
alpina Brandeg., 21, 491, 492, 493 
ambacensis (Hiern) Sherff, 546 
ambigua S. L. Moore, 25, 64, 68, 582 
Ambrosioides Willd., 474, 475 
americana trifolia leucanthemi flore 

Tournef., 437 
[americana] triphylla, angelicae folio, 

flore radiato Plum., 169 



Bidens 

amoena Sherff, 578, 579 
amphicarpa Sherff, 53, 348 
amplectens Sherff, 40, 134, 135, 142, 

143, 144 
amplectens Sherff X torta Sherff, 134, 

144 

amplectens X waianensis 143, 155 
amplissima Greene, 51, 296, 311 
andicola H.B.K., 57, 58, 452, 493, 

494, 519, 522, 527, 646 

var. /3. O. Ktze., 497 

var. /3. Wedd., 421 

var. Cosmantha (Griseb.) Sherff, 
58, 495, 501 

f. Buchtienii Sherff, 58, 411, 495, 
502 

var. decomposita O. Ktze., 58, 495, 
499, 502, 526 

var. heterophylla 0. Ktze., 494 

var. Mandonii Sherff, 58, 494, 504 

var. normalis O. Ktze., 494, 497 

var. tarijensis Sherff, 58, 495, 503, 
510 
f. dissecta Sherff, 57, 495, 503, 

504 

andongensis Hiern, 63, 592, 593, 595 
Andrei Sherff, 57, 350, 558 
angustifolia H.B.K., 488 
angustifolia Lam., Ill, 112, 634 

var. minor Poir., 634 
angustifolia Nutt., Ill, 112, 124 
angustissima H.B.K., 48, 332, 488 

var. Linifolia (Schz. Bip. ex Klatt) 

Sherff, 47, 488, 489 
Anthemoides (DC.) Sherff, 47, 49, 

491, 646 
Anthriscoides DC., 53, 349, 351 

var. angustiloba DC., 353, 409 

var. decomposita Sherff, 351, 353 
antiguensis Coult., 179, 184, 186 
aoraiensis Grant, 23, 37, 85, 90 
Apiifolia L., 634 

arborea (Forst. & Forst.) Roxb., 634 
arenaria Gandog., 270, 273, 275 
arenicola Gandog., 270 
arenicola (S. L. Moore) Sherff, 562 
arguta H.B.K., 339, 341, 345 

var. luxurians (Willd.) DC., 340 
aristosa (Michx.) Britt., 22, 49, 205, 

212, 219, 220, 263, 544, 630 

var. Fritcheyi Fern., 22, 46, 212, 
214, 217 

var. mutica Gray ex Gatting., 49, 

212, 213, 214, 216, 630' 
Artemisiaefolia (Jacq.) O. Ktze., 634, 

635 



1 For the main treatment of sections, species, varieties, forms, and hybrids 
described for the genus Bidens, see page numbers in bold-faced type. 

693 



694 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Bidens 

f. grandiflora O. Ktze., 635 
f. par -vi flora 0. Ktze., 635 

subsp. calva (Schz. Bip.) O. Ktze., 
634 

var. sulfurea (Cav.) O. Ktze., 634 

subsp. caudata (H.B.K.) 0. Ktze., 
634 

var. fusca O. Ktze., 634 

var. rosea O. Ktze., 634 

var. rubra O. Ktze., 634 

subsp. intermedia 0. Ktze., 634 

var. aurantiaca O. Ktze., 634 
Artemisiaefolia Poepp. & Endl., 510, 

515, 520, 522 
articulata Sherff, 61, 620 
asperata (Hutch. & J. M. Dalz.) 

Sherff, 70, 548 

Aspilioides (Baker) Sherff, 67, 611 
Asplenioides Sherff, 42, 44, 113 
asymmetrica (Levl.) Sherff, 36, 41, 

43, 45, 98, 107, 108, 117, 145 
Atriplicifolia L., 635 
atropurpurea DeVries, 635 
atrosanguinea (Hook.) Ortg., 26, 27, 

635 

var. hybrida De Corte, 635 
attenuata Sherff, 511, 512, 516 
aurantiaca Colenso, 421, 423, 429 
aurea (Ait.) Sherff, 32, 47, 48, 59, 231, 

334, 339, 493, 508 

var. leptophylla (Nutt.) Sherff, 228 

var. Wrightii (Gray) Sherff, 340, 

345 
australis Spreng., 20, 34, 35, 77, 85, 

86, 87, 90, 91, 168 
bandana Wall., 635 
bandanna Wall, ex Hook., 635 
bardana Wall, ex Ind. Kew., 635 
barrancae M. E. Jones, 444, 446 
Baumii (O. Hoffm.) Sherff, 67, 589 
Beckiana (F. Brown) Sherff, 35, 80 
Beckii Torr., 22, 26, 635 

f. scissa Sheldon, 635 
Bequaertii DeWild., 64, 573, 580 
Berteriana Spreng., 635, 636 
bicolor Greenm., 47, 535 
Bidentoides (Nutt.) Britt., 32, 50, 

203, 208, 324 

var. mariana (Blake) Sherff, 203, 

205 
Bigelovii A. Gray, 55, 361, 365, 400 

var. pueblensis Sherff, 54, 55, 361, 

363 

bimucronata Turcz., 409, 441, 459 
bipartita L. ex Halacsy, 270 
bipinnata Baill., 636 
bipinnata L., 17, 26, 29, 55, 59, 60, 

63, 366, 380, 385, 391, 393, 394, 

396, 398, 400, 401, 403, 408, 417, 

445, 465, 466, 468, 639 



Bidens 

var. biternatoides Sherff, 55, 366, 
373 

var. Cynapiifolia (H.B.K.) Gom., 
469 

var. minor Memm., 366, 372 
bipinnatifida Herb. Pav., 493 
bipinnatifida Raf., 370 
Bipontina Sherff, 34, 78 
biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff, 

33, 60, 63, 123, 160, 370, 371, 372, 

388, 410, 422, 438 

var. glabrata (Vtke.) Sherff, 60, 63, 
369, 372, 389, 398, 400 
f. abyssinica (Schz. Bip. ex 
Walp.) Sherff, 389, 391, 393, 
401, 403, 430 

Bonplandii Schz. Bip., 444, 449 
XBoullii Rouy, 288 

var. subbullata Rouy, 288 

var. subtripartita Rouy, 288 
brachycarpa DC., 455, 456, 457, 458 
Brandegeei Sherff, 52, 359 
brasiliensis Sherff, 56, 483 
Brittonii Sherff, 173, 175, 176 
Brucei Sherff, 66, 603 

var. pubescentior Sherff, 66, 603, 
604 

var. Swynnertonii Sherff, 67, 603, 

604 
Buchingeri Schz. Bip. ex Schweinf., 

554 557 
Buchneri (Klatt) Sherff, 64, 593, 594, 

601 

Buchtienii Sherff, 502, 503 
bullata Balb., 285 
bullata L., 284, 286, 287 

var. eu-bullata Briq. & Cav., 285 

var. glabrescens Fiori, 285, 288 

var. hirta (Jord.) Coste, 284 

var. hirta (Jord.) Fiori, 284 

var typica Fiori in Fiori & Paol., 

285 

californica DC., 412, 416 
calva (Schz. Bip.) C. B. Clarke, 636 
Campylotheca Schz. Bip., 19, 41, 

42, 137, 141 

var. nematocera Sherff, 140 

var. pentamera Sherff, 42, 137, 139 

f. filicifolia Sherff, 137, 139 
canadensis latifolia flore luteo Tour- 

nef., 242 

canescens Bertol., 49, 228, 525 
cannabina Lam., 268, 277 
cannabina Tausch, 269, 277, 278 
capillifolia Sherff, 52, 388 
caracasana DC., 441, 444 
carnea Heer, 636 
carnea Heer & Regel, 636 
caroliniana Hemsl., 636 
carpodonta Sherff, 335 



GENERAL INDEX 



695 



Bidens 

Carvifolia (Benth.) Schz. Bip., 636 
caucalidea DC., 442, 444, 445, 448, 

449, 450 

caudata (H.B.K.) Schz. Bip., 636 

cernua L., 17, 22, 25, 26, 27, 29, 46, 

51, 59, 254, 262, 263, 273, 277, 

278, 279, 291, 294, 297, 298, 317, 

321, 328 

subvar. minima (L.) Coss. & 

Germ., 299 

var. Bidens (L.) Farw., 300 
var. Bidens minima (L.) J. E. 

Smith, 299 

var. Bidens mixta Kitt., 300 
var. C. MeVat, 300 
var. Coreopsis Bidens Willd., 299 
var. discoidea Wimm. & Grab., 299 
subvar. glabra Wimm. & Grab., 

299 
f. glabra Wimm. & Grab, ex 

Briq. & Cavill., 299 
subvar. hispida Wimm. & Grab., 

299 
f. hispida Wimm. & Grab, ex 

Briq. & Cavill., 299 
var. elata Torr. & Gray, 296, 298 
var. elatior Torr. ex Greene, 301 
var. elliptica Wieg., 300, 304, 306, 

310, 311 
var. genuina Rouy, 301 

f. discoidea (Wimm. & Grab.) 

Briq. & Cavill., 301 
subvar. ligulata (Bonn.) Rouy, 

301 
subvar. rugosa (Coss. & Germ.) 

Rouy, 301 
var. integra Wieg., 300, 303, 310, 

311 

var. ligulata Bonn., 300 
var. minima DC., 300 
var. minima Huds., 269 
var. minima Ray, 299 
var. monocephala Zersi ex Fiori 

in Fiori & Paol., 301 
var. nana Wimm. & Grab., 299 
var. natans Ossw. & Sag. ex 

Sagorski, 300 
var. oligodonta Fern. & St. J., 

46, 51, 301, 310, 312 
var. radians Beck von M., 300 
f. mixta (Kitt.) Beck von M., 300 
var. radiata Roth, 299 

f. glabra Wimm. & Grab., 299 
f. hispida Wimm. & Grab., 299 
var. rugosa Coss. & Germ., 300 
var. tenuis Turcz. ex DC., 269 
var. typica Beck von M., 300 
f. elongata Richt., 307 
f. ligulata (Bonn.) Briq. & Cav., 

301 
f. minima (Huds.) Larss., 300 



Bidens 

f. radiata (Roth) Larss., 300 
subvar. rugosa Coss. & Germ., 

300 
f. typica (Beck von M.) Briq. & 

Cav., 301 
cernua L. X B. connata Muhl., 262, 

312 
cernua L. X B. hyperborea Greene, 

325 

cernua L. X B. tripartita L., 273, 304 
Ceryantesii (Lag.) Baill., 636 
cervicata Sherff, 41, 101 
chaetodonta Sherff, 33, 61, 615, 620 
var. glabrior (O. & H. in Oliv.) 

Sherff, 61, 615, 616 
chaetophylla Sherff, 61, 622 
chiapensis Brandeg., 48, 531 
chilensis DC., 450, 451, 452, 455 

var. Apiifolia DC., 454, 455 
chinensis Willd., 123, 385, 389, 396, 

397, 398, 438 

f. simplicifolia O. E. Schz., 389, 

392, 400 
var. abyssinica (Schz. Bip. ex 

Walp.) O. E. Schz., 404 
Chodati Hassl., 57, 484, 486 
chrysantha (L.) DC., 169 
Chrysanthemifolia (H.B.K.) Sherff, 

53, 353, 493 

Chrysanthemoides Michx., 27, 297, 
313, 318, 320 
vars. a., /3., y., and S. Torr. & 

Gray, 314, 320 

var. Nashii (Small) Jeps., 314 
Cicutaefolia Tausch, 366, 371, 372, 

398, 399 

ciliata DeWild., 380, 549 

ciliata Hoffmgg. ex Fisch. & Mey., 

380, 381, 412, 421 
ciliolata Greene, 300 
cinerea Sherff, 66, 584 

var. tricuspidata Sherff, 584, 585 
Cirsioides Sherff, 16, 61, 621 
clarendonensis Britt., 23, 31, 47, 49, 

166 

coartata Sherff, 43, 129 
coccinea (Cav.) Baill., 636 
coccinea (Cav.) Gomez, 636 
cognata Greene, 376, 377, 378 
collina Deg. & Sherff, 37, 79 
colpophila Fern. & St. J., 321, 323, 

324 

comata L. ex W. J. Hook., 250, 254 
comosa (Gray) Wieg., 51, 160, 220, 

245, 248, 250, 298 

var. acuta Wieg., 251 
comosa (Gray) Wieg. X B. polylepis 

Blake, 254 

comosa Hook, ex Short & Peter, 254 
conica L., 298 
conjuncta Sherff, 40, 43, 126 



696 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Bidens 

connata Muhl., 22, 50, 160, 206, 208, 
245, 254, 255, 272, 298, 312 
var. ambiversa Fass., 50, 255, 261 
var. anomala Farw., 22, 50, 255, 

257 

var. comosa Gray, 251 
var. fallax (Warnst.) Sherflf, 50, 

59, 206, 241, 255, 263, 267 
var. fultior Fern. & St. J., 263, 265 
var. gracilipes Fern., 50, 255, 260, 

261 

var. inundata Fern., 257, 260 
var. petiolata (Nutt.) Farw., 50, 
59, 208, 210, 254, 255, 257, 262, 
267 

var. pinnata Wats., 50, 255, 262 

var. typica Fass., 50, 206, 255, 267 

connata Muhl. X B. Eatonii Fern., 

208 
connata Muhl. X B. cernua L., 262, 

312 

connata Warnst. non Muhl., 263 
consolidaefolia Turcz., 510, 513, 519, 

520 

cordifolia Schz. Bip., 35, 80 
Coreocarpoides Sherff , 48, 338 
Coreopsidioides Schz. Bip. ex Sherff, 

491, 492 

Coreopsidis DC., 22, 168, 170, 173 
var. incisa (Ker) DC., 177 
var. procumbens Donn. Smith, 

179, 186 

var. reptans (L.) DC., 169 
Coreopsidis Schz. Bip. ex A. Gray, 

492 

coriacea (O. Hoffm.) Sherff, 67, 601 
Coriopsidis DC. ex Griseb., 169 
cornuta Sherff, 53, 375 
corona seminum retrorsum aculeata 

etc. Hort. Cliff., 414 
corona seminum retrorsum aculeata 

etc. L., 301 
coronata Fischer, 225 
coronata (Hook.) Fisch. ex Steud., 

636 

coronata (L.) Britt., 49, 160, 205, 
221, 232, 233, 263 
var. leptophylla (Nutt.) Mohr, 228 
var. tenuiloba (Gray) Sherff, 49, 

221, 222, 224, 227 
Cosmantha Griseb., 501 
var. diversifolia Griseb., 494, 497, 

499 
Cosmoides (A. Gray) Sherff, 16, 31, 

37, 102, 164 

costaricensis Benth. ex Oerst., 534 
Crataegifolia (O. Hoffm.) Sherff, 67, 

70, 605 
Crithmifolia H.B.K., 498, 510, 513, 

517, 518, 519 
crocata Cav., 637 



Bidens 

crocea Welw. ex O. Hoffm., 64, 585 
var. verrucifera S. L. Moore, 585, 

586, 592 

ctenophylla Sherff, 36, 38, 39, 44, 103 
cuneata Sherff, 34, 158, 163 
Cusickii Greene, 300, 303 
cylindrica Sherff, 63, 373, 400, 406 
Cynapifolia H.B.K. ex Heynh., 468 
Cynapiifolia H.B.K., 33, 53, 58, 368, 
468 
var. portoricensis (Spreng.) O. E. 

Schz., 53, 58, 469, 473 
var. tenuis O. E. Schz., 53, 469, 473 
Dahlioides Wats., 637 
Daucifolia DC., 442, 444, 445, 448, 

449 

Daurica, saxatilis, foliis Apii vel 
Cicutae magis, flore luteo, nudo 
etc. C. Bauh., 386 
Deamii Sherff, 444, 445, 448 
decipiens Warnst., 263, 264, 265 
decolorata H.B.K., 32, 339, 341, 345 
decomposita Wall, ex DC., 366, 371, 
519 
var. hirsutior C. B. Clarke, 510, 

512, 519, 520 
decumbens Greenm., 441 
decussata Pav. ex DC., 412 
Degeneri Sherff, 34, 96 

var. Apioides Sherff, 38, 49, 96, 98 

f. filicifolia Sherff, 38 
Delphinifolia H.B.K., 510, 513, 517, 

518, 519 

deltoidea J. W. Moore, 34, 76, 91 
dentata (Nutt.) Wieg., 298, 300, 311 
denudata Turcz., 637 
dichotoma Desf., 96, 637 
dichotoma (Hillebr.) Sherff, 96 
dichotoma H. P., 637 
Dielsii Sherff, 61, 67, 622 

var. medusoides Sherff, 61, 67, 

623, 625 

diffusa Gaud., 496 
diffusa Mathews, 497 
Dilleniana Hill, 299 
discoidea (Torr. & Gray) Britt., 51, 

233 

dissecta (0. E. Schz.) Sherff, 173, 176 
distans Sherff, 35, 39, 95 
diversa Sherff, 62, 329 

var. megaglossa Sherff, 62, 329, 330 
diversifolia Hort. ex DC., 527 
diversifolia (Jacq.) Hort. ex DC., 530 
diversifolia (Otto) Ortg., 637 
diversifolia (Otto) Schz. Bip., 637 
var. atrosanguinea Hook., 637 
diversifolia Willd. ex DC., 450, 452, 

494, 529 
domingensis O. E. Schz., 54, 418, 433, 

467 
Dondiaefolia Less., 438, 440, 531 



GENERAL INDEX 



697 



Bidens 

duranginensis Sherff, 54, 353, 364, 

409, 468 
Eatonii Fern., 16, 50, 206, 261 

var. fallax Fern., 50, 207, 209 

var. illicita Blake, 50, 207, 210 

var. interstes Fass., 50, 207, 209, 
210, 211, 261 

var. kennebecensis Fern., 50, 207, 
211 

var. major Fass., 50, 207, 211 

var. mutabilis Fass., 50, 207, 210 

var. simulans Fass., 50, 207, 210 

var. typica Fass., 50, 206 
effusa Thuill., 268, 278 
Ekmanii O. E. Schz., 408 

var. paucidentata 0. E. Schz., 408 
elata (Torr. & Gr.) Sherff, 296, 298 
elegans Greene, 314, 317, 321 
elevata Soland., 389 
Elliotii (S. L. Moore) Sherff, 60, 61, 

68, 578, 580 

elliptica (Wieg.) Gleas., 301 
elongata Tausch, 366, 372 
Engleri O. E. Schz., 63, 405, 407, 419 
exaristata DC., 455, 458 
exigua Sherff, 57, 382, 466 
expansa Greene, 318, 321 
fastigiata Mich., 289, 292, 294 

var. hispida Jord. ex Car. & St. 

Lag., 285 
fecunda Deg. & Sherff ex Sherff, 39, 

40, 43, 128, 129, 134 
fecunda Deg. & Sherff X B. torta 

Sherff, 129, 134 
X fennica Teyber, 294 
ferax Deg. & Sherff ex Sherff, 128 
Ferulaefolia (Jacq.) DC., 16, 20, 48, 

332, 342, 343, 447 

var. Foeniculaefolia (DC.) Sherff, 
48, 332, 335 

var. ludens (Gray) Sherff, 48, 332, 
336 

var. odoratissima (Cav. ex Pers.) 

DC., 444 

fervida Hort. Erf. ex Colla, 366, 645 
fervida Lam., 637 
fervida Nocca, 366 
filamentosa Rydb., 301, 308 
Fischeri (O. Hoffm.) Sherff, 71, 553 
fistulosa Schz. Bip. ex Bak. in Mart., 

31, 56, 202 
fixa Hook, f., 637 
flabellata O. Hoffm., 63, 588 
flagellaris Bak. in Mart., 57, 482 
floribunda H.B.K., 187, 188, 191 
Foeniculaefolia DC., 335, 336 
foliis tripartite divisis Caesalp., 276 
folio non dissecto Caesalp., 301, 310 
folio non dissecto Tournef., 301, 310 
foliosa Willd., 289, 290, 296 
fondosa L. ex W. Stone, 237 



Bidens 

Forbesii Sherff, 41, 131 
formosa (Bon.) O. Ktze., 638 
formosa (Bon.) Schz. Bip., 638 
formosa Greene, 314, 315, 320 
frondosa L., 21, 28, 51, 59, 236, 245, 

246, 280, 298 

var. a. Lam., 268, 277 

var. anomala Port, ex Fern., 51, 
237, 243 

var. major Hook., 236 

var. minor Hook., 236 

var. pallida Wieg., 51, 237, 244 

var. puberula Wieg., 249 

var. stenodonta Fern. & St. J., 

51, 237, 245 
frutescens Mill., 638 
fruticosa (Forst.) Schz. Bip., 86 
fruticosa L., 17, 638 
fruticosa (Vest) DC., 32, 646 
fruticulosa Mey. & Walp., 494, 498 
fulvescens Sherff, 41, 42, 135 
fusca Lam., 637, 638 
Gardneri Bak. in Mart., 55, 420, 468, 

479 

Gentryi Sherff, 45, 49, 192 
Geraniifolia Brandeg., 16, 48, 524 530 
glaberrima DC., 273, 510 
glabrata (A. Gray) Sherff, 36, 93 
glandulifera Grant, 23, 37, 85, 105 
glaucescens Greene, 300 
Glyceriaefolia Schz. Bip. ex Sherff, 

638 
Glycinaefolia Schz. Bip. ex Bak. 

in Mart., 638 

gracilenta Greene, 300, 308 
gracilior (O. Hoffm.) Sherff, 65, 70, 

565 

var. ukerewensis Sherff, 65, 565, 

566 
gracilis Nutt., 18, 98, 100, 101, 108, 

123 

gracilis Torr., 101, 638 
graciloides Sherff, 35, 38, 43, 44, 102 
grandiflora Balb., 493, 501, 519, 520, 

526, 529 

var. breviloba O. Ktze., 499, 501 

var. diversifolia (Jacq.) O. Ktze., 
527 

var. humilis (H.B.K.) 0. Ktze., 
511, 513, 519 

var. longiloba O. Ktze., 647 

var. serrulata (Poir.) O. Ktze., 

497, 527 

grandiflora (Pers.) ex Balb., 526 
grandis Sherff, 66, 69, 595, 599 

var. Welwitschii Sherff, 600 
Grantii (Oliv.) Sherff, 62, 71, 537, 539 

var. Dawei Sherff, 539, 540, 541 

var. Scaettae Sherff, 62, 539, 540, 
541 

var. Stapfii Sherff, 539, 540 



698 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Bidens 

graveolens Kom., 301 
graveolens Mart., 31, 56, 201 

var. comosa Chod., 486 
guatemalensis Klatt, 532, 533 
halawana Deg. & Sherff ex Sherff, 99, 

100 
hawaiiensis A. Gray, 19, 35, 36, 94, 

96, 101, 168, 429 

var. conglutinata Deg. & Sherff, 118 
Helianthoides H.B.K., 314, 320, 321 
Henryi Sherff, 36, 91 
heterodoxa Fern. & St. J., 50, 266 

var. agnostica Fern., 266, 267, 268 

var. interstes Fass., 209 

var. Monardaefolia Fern., 266, 267, 
268 

var. orthodoxa Fern. & St. J., 266, 

267 

heterophilla Orteg. ex Blench., 339 
heterophylla Orteg., 231, 339, 344, 

345, 508 

var. polycephala Schz. Bip., 341 

var. typica Fiori in Fiori & Paol., 
340 

var. Wrightii A. Gray, 340 
heterosperma A. Gray, 52, 378, 381 
hendersonensis Sherff, 36, 82 

var. oenoensis Sherff, 36, 82, 83 

var. subspathulata Sherff, 82, 83 
Hildebrandtii O. Hoffm., 65, 70, 553, 

574 
Hillebrandiana (Dr. del Cast.) Deg. 

ex Sherff, 38, 155, 162 
Hillebrandiana (Dr. del Cast.) Deg. 

XB. molokaiensis (Hillebr.) Sherff, 

162 

hirsuta Nutt, 412, 417 
hirsuta Sw., 638 
hirta Jord., 284, 285, 287 
hirtella H.B.K., 509, 510 
hirto-tripartita Boullu, 285, 288 
hispida H.B.K., 421, 424 
hivoana Deg. & Sherff ex Sherff, 36, 

81 

Hoffmannii Sherff, 65, 560 
Holstii (O. Hoffm.) Sherff, 71, 536 

var. rupestris Sherff, 65, 536, 537 
Holwayi Sherff & Blake, 45, 194, 200 
Humboldtii Schz. Bip. in Seem., 638 
humilis H.B.K., 355, 498, 510, 513, 

518, 519, 520 

var. macrantha Wedd., 510 

var. major Schz. Bip., 510, 514 

var. tenuifolia Schz. Bip. ex 

Griseb., 511 

humilis Sesse & Moc., 510 
hybrida Thuill., 295 
hyperborea Greene, 51, 206, 208, 321 

var. arcuans Fern., 51, 322, 326 

var. cathancensis Fern., 51, 321, 
324, 326 



Bidens 

var. colpophila (Fern. & St. J.) 
Fern., 321, 325 

var. gaspensis Fern., 51, 322, 324, 
328 

var. laurentiana Fass., 51, 321, 327 

var. Svensonii Fass., 51, 322, 328 

var. typica Fass., 51, 321, 324 
incisa (Ker) G. Don, 45, 170, 177 
inermis Wats., 353, 444, 446, 450 
ingrata Larr., 647 

insecta (S. L. Moore) Sherff, 68, 580 
insipida (Jacq.) Lam., 638 
insolita Sherff, 48, 525 
integrifolia Brandeg., 47, 346 
intermedia Opiz ex Nym., 289 
involucrata Phil., 638 
involucrata (Nutt.) Britt., 205, 218 

var. retrorsa Sherff, 220 
involvens Phil, ex Ind. Kew., 638 
irazuensis Calv. & Calv., 534 
Jacksonii (S. L. Moore) Sherff, 639 
Jardinii Schz. Bip., 34, 77 
kamerunensis Sherff, 70, 538 
Kelloggii Greene, 301, 305, 312 
kilimandscharica (0. Hoffm.) Sherff, 

65, 69, 606 

var. retrorsa Sherff, 66, 606, 607 
Kirkii (Oliv. & Hiern) Sherff, 68, 560, 

561, 569 

var. flagellata Sherff, 561, 562 
kivuensis Sherff, 62, 69, 545, 570 

var. armata Sherff, 571, 572 
Kotschyana Schz. Bip. ex Walp., 366 
Kotschyi Schz. Bip. ex Walp., 369 
Kunthii Schz. Bip. in Seem., 354, 355 
laciniata Schz. Bip. ex Schweinf., 

402, 403, 405 
laevis (L.) B.S.P., 33, 46, 50, 56, 279, 

305, 311, 312, 313, 345 
Langlassei Sherff, 639 
Lantanoides A. Gray, 19, 20, 33, 84, 

429 

var.(?) glabrata A. Gray, 93 
lasiocarpa O. E. Schz., 400, 402, 403 
latifolia hirsutior, semine angustiore 

radiate Dillen., 415 
Lemmonii A. Gray, 51, 386 
leptocephala Sherff, 52, 53, 362, 364, 

400, 419 

leptolepis Sherff, 60, 551, 569 
leptomeria Greene, 301, 309, 312 
leptopoda Greene, 300, 306, 312, 320 
leucantha L. ex Poepp. in herb., 455 
leucantha (L.) Willd., 186, 399, 409, 

430, 431, 438, 439, 440, 610 
f. discoidea Schz. Bip., 412 
subf. Kraussii Schz. Bip., 412 

var. 0. Meyen & Walp., 431 

var. pilosa (L.) Griseb., 412 

var. sundaica (Bl.) Hsskl., 421, 
422, 427 



GENERAL INDEX 



699 



Bidens 

leucanthema (L.) Krause, 431 
Leucanthema radio albo L. herb., 432 
leucorhiza (Lour.) DC., 421 
leucorrhiza (Lour.) DC., 20 
levis B.S.P. ex Jeps., 314 
Leyboldii Phil., 639 
Lindblomii Sherfif, 646 
Lindleii Schz. Bip. in Seem., 639 
Lindleyi Schz. Bip. in Seem, ex Ind. 

Kew., 639 
linearifolia (0. & H. in Oliv.) Sherff, 

612 

linearifolia Schz. Bip., 639 
lineariloba Oliv., 64, 560, 587 
lineata Sherff, 66, 611 
Linifolia Schz. Bip. ex Klatt, 489 
lonchophylla Greene, 300, 303 
longifolia DC., 340, 341, 345 
longipetiolata Rusby, 197, 198 
lucida Hort., 249 
ludens A. Gray, 336, 337 
lugens Greene, 314, 317, 321 
luxurians Hook. & Arn., 145, 147 
luxurians Willd., 339, 344, 345 
Macounii Greene, 300, 306 
macrantha Griseb., 499, 501 
macrocarpa (A. Gray) Sherff, 40, 100, 

105, 117, 123 

var. ovatifolia (A. Gray) Sherff, 

37, 106, 109, 117 
macropa Phil., 507 
macrosperma Fisch., 385, 386 
macrosperma H. G., 383 
maculata Anon, in herb., 445 
magnidisca Deg. & Sherff ex Sherff, 

40, 110 

magniflora Herb. Pav., 514 
magnifolia Sherff, 65, 69, 575 
Malmei Sherff, 59, 468 
marginata Greene, 301, 304, 312 
marginata Perr. ex DC., 639 
mariana Blake, 205, 206 
Martii Colla, 647 

Mathewsii Sherff, 35, 37, 77, 89 
mauiensis (A. Gray) Sherff, 24, 38, 

157 

var. cuneatoides Sherff, 33, 38, 
157, 158, 161 

var. cuneatoides Sherff X B. 
Hillebrandiana (Dr. del Cast.) 
Deg. ex Sherff, 157, 159 

var. Forbesiana Sherff, 33, 157, 160 

var. lanaiensis Sherff, 38, 157, 159 
160, 161 

var. media Sherff, 38, 157, 160, 161 
Maximowicziana Oett., 647 
Mayebarai Kitam., 389, 393 
megapotamica O. E. Schz., 461, 465 
megapotamica Spreng., 464, 465, 639 
melananthera hastata (Michx.) Desf., 

639 



Bidens 

melanocarpa Wieg., 236, 242 
f. pumila Lehm., 236, 240 
f. simplex Lehm., 237, 240 

var. pallida Wieg., 244 
Menziesii (A. Gray) Sherff, 38, 88, 

150 

var. filiformis Sherff, 38, 150, 152 

var. leptodonta Sherff, 38, 150, 151 
Messerchmidii Turcz. ex DC., 383, 

386 

mexicana Sherff, 173, 174, 175 
mexicana Willd. ex Sherff, 339 
Meyeniana Walp., 639 
micrantha Gaud., 17, 18, 19, 31, 39, 

87, 96, 112, 145, 154, 155, 156 

var. caduca Sherff, 35, 39, 123, 145, 
149 

var. kaalana Sherff, 39, 137, 145, 
148 

var. kaalana Sherff X B. fulvescens 
Sherff, 149 

var. laciniata (Hillebr.) Sherff, 

39, 145, 147 
micranthoides Sherff, 44, 111, 112, 

124, 126, 145 

microcarpa Sherff, 69, 566, 567, 611 
microphylla Sherff, 69, 505 
Mildbraedii Sherff, 68, 572 
minima Huds., 277, 298, 299, 300, 312 
minima L., 277, 299, 300 
minuscula Levl. & Vant., 280, 281, 

282 

mirabilis Sherff, 640 
mitis (Michx.) Sherff, 49, 160, 205, 

224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 526 

var. incisa (Torr. & Gray) Sherff 
in herb., 228 

var. subintegra (Torr. & Gray) 

Sherff in herb., 228 
mixta Kitt., 300 
mollifolia Sherff, 52, 356 
mollis Poepp. & Endl., 522 
molokaiensis (Hillebr.) Sherff, 33, 

34, 161 
molokaiensis (Hillebr.) Sherff X B. 

Hillebrandiana (Dr. del Cast.) 

Deg. ex Sherff, 162 
montana Anon, in herb., 445 
Montaubanii Phil., 413, 418, 421 
monticola Poepp. & Endl., 31, 55, 167 
Montsulani Phil, ex Ind. Kew., 413 
mooreensis Grant, 35, 85 
Moorei Sherff, 63, 591 

var. verrucosa Sherff, 63, 591, 592 
Mossii Sherff, 68, 563 
Muelleri Sherff, 49, 645 
Xmulticeps Fass., 50, 208 
multifida Desf., 383, 386 
multipartita L. C. Rich., 472 
multiserrata Schz. Bip., 194, 196, 197 
musoziana Sherff, 68, 562 



700 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Bidens 

mutica Nutt., 19, 100, 108, 120, 123 

Myrrhidifolia Tausch, 366, 371, 372 

Nashii Small, 314, 318, 320, 321 

nematocera Sherff, 41, 43, 44, 140 

Neumannii Sherff, 66, 625 

nivea L., 17, 640 

nivea Sesse & Moc., 640 

nodiflora folio Tetrahit Dillen., 276 

nodiflora L., 268, 276 

novae-caledoniae Forst. ex Schlect., 

640 

nudata Brandeg., 48, 482 
nudiflora Steud., 268 
nyikensis Sherff, 68, 69, 613 
obtusiloba Sherff, 38, 119 
ochracea (0. Hoffm.) Sherff, 640 
Ocymifolia Lam., 640 
odora Willd., 647 
odorata Cav., 355, 409, 444, 447, 448, 

449, 479 
Oerstediana (Benth. ex Oerst.) Sherff, 

49, 232 

oleracea (L.) Cav. ex Steud., 641 
oligantha Brandeg., 53, 349 
oligocarpa Sherff, 347 
Onisciformis Sherff, 62, 71, 559 
orendaniae M. E. Jones, 456 
orientalis Velen. ex Bornm., 283 
orientatis Velen., 283 
orofenensis Grant, 23, 35, 85, 86, 93 
Ostruthioides (DC.) Schz. Bip. in 

Seem., 18, 48, 532 

var. costaricensis (Benth. ex Oerst.) 

Sherff, 48, 532, 534 
oxyodonta DC., 430, 432 
pacayae Schz. Bip., 354 
paleacea Vis., 647 
pallida Rusby, 194, 195 
Palmeri A. Gray, 641 
palustris Sherff, 65, 568 
paniculata Hook. & Am., 20, 86, 88 
paradoxa D. Don ex Hook. & Arn., 

641 

Parryi Greene, 314, 318, 320, 321 
parviflora Willd., 60, 380, 383, 639 
parvulifolia Sherff, 354, 355, 356 
patula Gardn., 197 
pauciflora Poir., 383, 386 
paupercula Sherff, 62, 330, 379, 380, 

549 

pectinata Schz. Bip., 510, 514 
peduncularis Gaud., 123, 389, 399 
pedunculata Phil., 506, 509 
pedunculosa Phil, ex Ind. Kew., 506 
perianthomega Arrab. ex Steud., 641 
Persicaefolia Greene, 314, 319, 321 
personans Deg. & Sherff ex Sherff, 

135, 136 

petiolata Nutt., 257 
Peucedanifolia (Wedd.) O. Ktze., 641 

var. bipinnatisecta O. Ktze., 641 



Bidens 

var. cochabambensis O. Ktze., 641 
var. spratensis 0. Ktze., 641 
var. tiraquensis O. Ktze., 642 
Phalangiphylla Sherff, 65, 579 
phelloptera Sherff, 33, 70, 631, 633 
pilosa Forst., 392 

pilosa L., 17, 18, 27, 33, 54, 58, 60, 
63, 160, 358, 359, 360, 372, 373, 
396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 404, 408, 
409, 410, 412, 481, 493, 504, 520, 
637, 647 
subvar. discoidea (Schz. Bip.) 

Pit. ex Pit. & Pr., 413 
subvar. radiata (Schz. Bip.) 

Pit. ex Pit. & Pr., 431 
f. radiata Schz. Bip. in Krauss, 

430 

f. subbiternata O. Ktze., 364, 413 
f. subsimplicifolia O. Ktze., 413 
var. /3. L., 388 
var. abyssinica (Schz. Bip.) Fiori, 

404 

var. alausensis (H.B.K.) Sherff, 
359, 412, 414, 439, 450, 494 
f. Scandicina (H.B.K.) Sherff, 

351, 414, 447, 452, 453 
var. alba (L.) O. E. Schz., 440 
var. albiflora Max., 422 
var. albiflora Max. in Somoku 

Dzusetsu, 431 
var. Apiifolia (DC.) Sherff, 58, 63, 

414, 453, 454 

var. bimucronata (Turcz.) O. E. 
Schz., 53, 58, 63, 360, 414, 418, 
431, 432, 434, 435, 439, 441, 451, 
453, 458 

f. odorata (Cav.) Sherff, 52, 349, 
351, 353, 355, 356, 358, 442, 
443, 444, 453, 459 
var. bipinnata (L.) Hook, f., 366 
var. brachycarpa (DC.) O. E. 

Schz., 456, 459 

var. breyifoliata Hieron., 422, 426 
var. calcicola (Greenm.) Sherff, 53, 
58, 63, 357, 413, 445, 455 
f. dissecta Sherff, 52, 413, 445, 

459 

var. chinensis L., 398, 428 
var. decomposita (Wall, ex DC.) 

Hook, f., 366 

var. discodea Schz. Bip. ex 0. 
Ktze., 511 
subvar. decomposita (Wall, ex 

DC.) O. Ktze., 511 
f. hirsutior (C. B. Clarke) 

0. Ktze., 511 
f. pinnata O. Ktze., etiam O. 

Ktze. ex O. E. Schulz, 413 
f. subbiternata O. Ktze., 413 
subvar. subsimpliqifolia O. Ktze., 
440 



701 



Bidens 

f. subsimplicifolia O. Ktze., 413 
f. ternata O. Ktze., etiam O. 

Ktze. ex O. E. Schulz, 413 
var. discoidea Schz. Bip. in B. W. 
& Berth., 412 

f. subbiternata O. Ktze., 389 
var. dubia (Cass.) O. E. Schz., 422, 

427, 428 

var. glabrata Vtke. ex Engler, 400 
var. humilis Walp. ex Reiche, 431 
var. leucantha (L.) Harv., 430 
subvar. ternata O. Ktze., 449 
f. pilosior O. Ktze., 430, 449 
f. subbiternata 0. Ktze., 430 
f. subsimplicifolia O. Ktze., 430, 

434, 440 

f. ternata 0. Ktze., 430 
var. minor (Bl.) Sherff, 54, 58, 60, 
63, 393, 396, 398, 400, 413, 415, 
421, 432, 433, 434, 435, 437, 438, 
453, 637 

f. umbrosa Sherff, 413, 429 
var. pauciflora O. E. Schz., 373, 374 
var. pilosa (L.) Hook, f., 413 
var. puberula Schz. Bip., 413 
var. quadriseta (Hochst.) Schweinf. 

ex Engler, 403 

var. radiata Schz. Bip. in B. W. & 
Berth., 53, 58, 59, 63, 186, 345, 
360, 364, 410, 413, 414, 421, 425, 
429, 430, 449, 453, 454, 455, 458, 
467, 496 
f. decumbens (Greenm.) Sherff, 

431, 434, 441 
f. Dondiaefolia (Less.) Sherff, 

431, 438, 440 

f. indiyisa Sherff, 57, 431, 439 
var. subdiscoidea, 471 

f. decomposita O. Ktze., 471 
var. Wallichii (DC.) C. B. Clarke, 

389 
pilosa leucanthema radio albo Linn. 

herb., 437 

pinnata Noronha, 400, 422 
pinnata L. ex Sherff, 366 
pinnatifida Buch.-Ham. in Wall., 642 
X platensis Mang., 461, 465 
platycephala Oerst., 289, 294, 320 
polycephala Oerst. ex Fiek, 289 
polycephala Schz. Bip., 34, 75, 76, 88 
polylepis Blake, 32, 49, 205, 218, 254 
var. retrorsa Sherff, 47, 213, 218, 

220 

Populifolia Sherff, 36, 37, 115, 118 
portoricensis Spreng. ex DC., 473 
praecox Sherff, 33, 62, 632 
Pringlei Greenm., 52, 487 
prionophylla Greene, 300, 306 
procera D. Don, 332, 335, 336, 337 
procumbens H.B.K., 509, 510 
prolixa S. L. Moore, 554, 556, 557, 558 



Bidens 

pseudacmella (L.) Zorn, 642 

pseudalausensis Sherff, 53, 411 

pseudocosmos Sherff, 57, 410, 503 

puberula (Wieg.) Rydb., 249 

pubescens Nutt., 417 

pubescens Willd., 497 

pulchella (Less.) Schz. Bip., 38, 113, 

120, 123, 124 

pulcherrima Schz. Bip., 642 
pumila (Retz.) Steud., 269, 276 
punctata Sherff, 554, 556, 557, 558 
purpurea DC., 18, 642 

var. glabriuscula DC., 642 
purpurea Down., 642 
Purpusorum Bitt. & Pet. ex Bitt., 

21, 491, 492, 493 
pygmaea Kitt., 269 
quadrangularis DC., 461, 463 
quadriaristata DC., 314, 316 

var. dentata Nutt., 297, 300, 307, 

311 

quadriseta Hochst. ex O. &. H. in 
Oliv., 403, 404, 405 
var. incisifolia, 404 
quinqueradiata Zea ex Jacq., 527, 529 
quitensis herb. H.B.K., 451 
radiata Thuill., 59, 270, 273, 289, 320 
f. integra Hiilph., 291 
f. perpusilla Dom., 289, 293, 295, 

296 

var. aberrans Frod., 291 
var. borysthenica Pacz., 293 
var. integra f. gracilis Frod., 291 
var. latiloba Frod., 291 
radiata Thuill. X B. tripartita L., 

294, 295 

raiatensis J. W. Moore, 36, 89 
ramosissima Sherff, 351, 444, 447, 448 
Ramtila Wall., 642 
Ramtilla Wall, ex DC., 642 
reflexa Link, 412, 417, 420 
refracta Brandeg., 475, 477 
Regnellii Schz. Bip., 201, 202 
Remyi Dr. del Cast., 145, 155, 156 
Remyi (Hillebr.) Sherff, 145, 155, 156 
repens D. Don, 280, 282 
reptans (L.) G. Don, 22, 46, 168, 178, 
182, 185, 186 
f. glabrescens O. E. Schz. in Urb., 

169 

var. bipartita O. E. Schz. in Urb., 

169, 170, 171, 173, 175, 186 

var. Brittonii (Sherff) O. E. Schz. 

in Urb., 173 
var. dissecta O. E. Schz. in Urb., 

46, 169, 176 
var. tomentosa O. E. Schz. in Urb., 

177, 179 

var. Urbanii (Greenm.) O. E. Schz. 
in Urb., 46, 169, 173, 176, 179, 
185, 193 



702 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Bidens 

reptans (L.) Hitchc., 168 
reptans Schz. Bip. in Seem., 642 
retusa Link, 443 
rhodesiana Sherff, 69, 608 
rhombifolia Schz. Bip., 642 
Riedelii Bak. in Mart., 55, 484 

var. Hassleriana Chod., 484, 485 

var. hirsuta Hassl., 55, 484, 486 

var. typica Chod. & Hassl., 484 

f. intermedia Chod. & Hassl., 484 

rigida Hort. Calc. ex C. B. Clarke, 643 

riparia Greene, 251 

riparia H.B.K., 51, 56, 251, 420, 474 

var. refracta (Brandeg.) O. E. 

Schz. in Urb., 56, 474, 475 
Robertianifolia Levl. & Vant., 389, 

395, 400 

robustior S. L. Moore, 65, 581, 609 
Rogersii Sherff, 68, 614 
rosea Schz. Bip. in Seem., 456, 457 

var. aequisquama Fern., 360 

var. calcicola Greenm., 456 
rotata Sherff, 61, 619 
ruandensis Sherff, 67, 590 
Rubifolia H.B.K., 18, 31, 56, 168, 

187, 191, 192, 193, 195, 197, 198, 

201 

var. Coreopsidis (DC.) Bak. in 
Mart., 169 

var. floribunda (H.B.K.) 0. E. 
Schz., 187 

var. monticola (Poepp. & Endl.) 
Bak. in Mart., 167 

var. silvatica Bak. in Mart., 194 
rubra DeWild., 60, 548, 569 
rubra Schz. Bip., 481 
Rueppellii (Schz. Bip.) Sherff, 61, 616, 

619, 620 

rufovenosa Sherff, 70, 546, 556 
rugulosa Turcz., 187, 188, 189 
rupestris Sherff, 537 
ruwenzoriensis (S. L. Moore) Sherff, 

601, 602, 603 

Saint-Johniana Sherff, 33, 163 
Salicoides Sherff, 44, 130 
Sambucifolia Cav., 20, 46, 447, 478 
Sandbergii Rydb., 262 
sandvicensis Less., 43, 44, 45, 88, 100, 

103, 108, 112, 114, 116, 119, 120, 

127, 149, 399 

var. caduca Sherff, 149 

var. heterpphylla A. Gray, 145, 147 

var. imminuta Deg. & Sherff ex 
Sherff, 45, 120, 123, 125 

var. ovatifolia A. Gray, 101, 109 

var. setosa Sherff, 45, 120, 124, 128 

var. typica Sherff, 120, 124 

f. compositior Deg. & Sherff ex 

Sherff, 38, 120, 121, 123, 124 

sarmentosa Greenm., 21, 491, 492, 

493 



Bidens 

Sartorii Schz. Bip. in Seem., 643 
Scabiosoides (H.B.K.) Schz. Bip. 

in Seem., 643 
scandens L., 643 
Scandicina H.B.K., 453 

var. glabrescens Wedd., 453, 454 
Schaffneri (A. Gray) Sherff, 50, 331, 

489 
Schaffneri Schz. Bip. ex Sherff, 491, 

493 
Schimperi Schz. Bip. ex Walp., 62, 

554 

var. leptocera Sherff, 554, 558 

var. pilosa Schz. Bip. ex Schweinf. 
554, 557 

var. punctata Sherff, 554, 558 
schizoglossa Sherff, 103, 104 
Schlechteri Sherff, 64, 69, 570 
Schweinfurthii Sherff, 66, 612 
Scorzoneraefolia Bak. in Mart., 643 
Seemannii Schz. Bip., 644 
segetum Mart, ex Colla, 56, 186, 187, 

189, 194, 392, 645 

var. patula (Gardn.) Sherff, 45, 56, 
184, 186, 187, 190, 194, 197, 201 
Seretii (DeWild.) Sherff, 64, 67, 596 
serrata Pav. ex DC., 509, 510 
serratulata Desf. ex DC., 527 
serrulata (Poir.) Desf., 47, 78, 420, 

500, 501', 519, 520, 526 
serrulata Schz. Bip., 78 
serrutata Schz. Bip., 78 
setigera (Schz. Bip.) Sherff, 61, 627. 

631 

var. abyssinica (Schz. Bip.) Sherff. 
627, 628, 629 

var. lobata Sherff, 627, 628 
setigeroides Sherff, 61, 62, 630 
setosa Sherff, 124, 125 
Shimadei Hay., 279, 280 
Shrevei Britt., 45, 56, 194, 199 
silvatica Schz. Bip. ex Bak. in Mart., 

194, 196 

simplicifolia C. H. Wright, 55, 190 
Skottsbergii Sherff, 37, 117 

var. conglutinata (Deg. & Sherff) 

35, 36, 117, 118 
'somaliensis Sherff, 67, 595 
spathulata Sherff, 644 
speciosa Gardn., 194 

var. patula (Gardn.) 0. E. Schz. 
in Urb., 197 

var. silvatica (Schz. Bip.) O. E. 
Schz. in Urb., 194 

var. tomentosa Gardn., 197 
speciosa Parish, 314, 321 
spiralis Schz. Bip., 188 
squarrosa H.B.K., 18, 46, 56, 134, 

171, 173, 179, 190, 194, 197, 198, 

201, 493 



GENERAL INDEX 



703 



Bidens 

Steppia (Steetz) Sherff, 62, 542 

var. ambacensis (Hiern) Sherff, 
62, 543, 546, 600 

var. Elskensii Sherff, 62, 543, 545 

var. Humbertii Sherff, 570, 571 

var. leptocarpa Sherff, 62, 542, 

545, 546 

Stokesii Sherff, 44, 142 
straminoides Sherff, 63, 379 
striata Sweet, 430, 439 
Stuhlmannii (0. Hoffm.) Sherff, 67, 

598 

subalpina Larss. ex Kindb., 644 
subalternans DC., 55, 59, 373, 383, 

410, 420, 421, 461, 468 

var. simulans Sherff, 57, 59, 383, 
462, 465 

var. unipinnata Sherff , 58, 462, 466 
sulphurea Schz. Bip., 644 
sundaica Bl., 421, 422, 427, 428 

var. minor Bl., 421, 427 
sundiaca Bl. ex Ind. Kew., 421 
superba Sherff, 60, 624 
taitensis Sherff, 71, 552 
Taquetii Lev). & Vant., 280, 281, 282 
Taylori (S. L. Moore) Sherff, 64, 68, 

576 

tehuacana Klatt, 443 
tenella L., 644 
tenera 0. E. Schz., 58, 406, 419 

var. paucidentata (O. E. Schz.) 
Sherff, 54, 58, 406, 408 

var. tetracera Sherff, 408 
tenerrima Greene ex Sherff, 233, 236 
tenuifolia LaBill., 644 
tenuifolia Tausch, 366, 372 
tenuisecta A. Gray, 52, 376, 411 
tenuissima Greene, 21, 233, 236 
tereticaulis DC., 179, 185, 186 

var. antiguensis. (Coult.) O. E. 
Schz., 179, 186 

var. indivisa Rob., 179 

var. sordida Greenm., 179, 182, 184, 

187 

ternata (Chiov.) Sherff, 61, 626 
tetragona (LL. & Lex.) DC., 340, 345 
tetragona Sesse & Moc., 647 
tinctoria (Nutt.) Baill., 644 
torta Sherff, 40, 129, 132, 134, 135, 

144 
torta Sherff X B. amplectens Sherff, 

134, 144 
torta Sherff X B. fecunda Deg. & 

Sherff, 129, 134 
Townsendii Sherff, 55, 338 
trichosperma (Michx.) Britt., 221, 

224, 226, 233, 263 

var. tenuifolia (A. Gray) Britt. ex 
Farw., 227 

var. tenuiloba (A. Gray) Britt., 227 
tridentata Turcz., 644 



Bidens 

trifida Buch. ex Roxb., 280, 283 
trifolia Feuille in Gay, 439 
trifolia, Americana, Leucanthemi 
flore. Chrysanthemum Ameri- 
canum, Ciceris folio etc. Herm., 437 
trifoliata Gueldenst., 646 
trifoliolata L. Cl. Rich., 407 
trifoliata Noronha, 646 
tripartita Bigel., 272 
tripartita L., 17, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 
30, 32, 33, 50, 51, 59, 268, 294, 295, 
296, 298, 299, 302, 304, 309, 312, 
320, 400, 402, 646 
var. 0. Lam. & DC., 295 
var. y. Lam. & DC., 289, 294 
var. C Merat, 289, 294 
var. aberrans Froding, 291 
var. auriculata Tausch, 277 
var. biaristata Sennen, 275 
var. Bidens pygmaea Kitt., (276,) 

277 

var. borysthenica Pacz., 293 
subsp. bullata (L.) Rouy, 285 
subsp. bullata var. glabrescens 

(Fiori in Fiori & Paol.) Briq. & 

Cavill., 285 
subsp. bullata var. hirta (Jord.) 

Rouy, 285, 287 
subsp. bullata var. hispida Car. 

& St. Lag. ex Briq. & Cavill., 285 
var. cannabina (Lam.) Beckh., 270 
var. cernuaefolia Sherff, 59, 269, 

270, 273, 279 
var. Conyza palustris (Loes.) Willd., 

268, 277 
var. cannabina (Lam.) Tausch ex 

Fiori in Fiori & Paol., 270 
var. discoidea Wimm., 269, 277 
subsp. eutripartita Briq. & Cavill., 

270 
subsp. eu-tripartita var. major 

Wimm. & Grab, ex Briq. & 

Cavill., 270 
subsp. eu-tripartita var. pumila 

(Retz.) Roth ex Briq. & Cavill., 

270 
subsp. eu-tripartita var. pumila f. 

integra (Peterm.) Koch ex Beck 

v. M. ex Briq. & Cavill., 270 
var. eutripartita Schur, 269, 275, 

279 

var.? fallax Warnst., 263, 265 
var. flore radiato Zinn, 268 
var. genuina Rouy, 270, 277 

subvar. pinnatifida (Turcz. ex 
DC.) Rouy, 289 

subvar. pumila (Retz.) Rouy ex 
Briq. & Cavill., 270 

subvar. rugosa Coss. & Germ. 

in Rouy, 285 
var. glareosa Schz. Bip., 269, 279 



704 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Bidens 

var. heterodoxa Fern., 266 

var. heterophylla Schur, 269, 279 

var. hirta (Jord.) Sherff, 59, 271, 

284 

var. hispida Car. & St. Lag., 284 
var. hybrida (Thuill.) DC., 295 
var. indivisa Corb., 270, 277, 278 
var. indivisa DC., 278 
var. integra Peterm., 269, 276 

f. gracilis Froding, 291 
var. integrifolia Celak., 277 
var. integrifolia Wirtg., 269, 277 
var. latifolia Rouy, 270, 278 
var. limosa Kom., 274, 283 
var. major Wimm. & Grab., 269, 

277 

var. minima Huds., 299 
var. minima Lej. 269 
var. minima Wimm. 277 
var. minima Wirtg., 276, 277 
var. minor Wimm. & Grab., 269, 
276 

f. integra (Peterm.) Koch ex 
Beck von M., 270, 277 

f. pumila (Retz.) Roth ex Beck 
von M., 270, 277 

subvar. pumila (Retz.) Rouy, 

270, 277 
var. orientalis (Velen. ex Bornm.) 

Sherff, 59, 271, 274, 283 
var. partita Peterm. ex Beckh., 295 
var. pinnatifida Turcz. ex DC., 289, 

293, 295 

var. pumila Retz., 268, 276, 299 
var. radiata Willd. ex Beckh., 269 
var. radiata Wimm., 269, 278 
var. ramosissima Schz. Bip., 269, 

279 
var. repens (D. Don) Sherff, 59, 

270, 280, 283 
var. reptans Cald. ex Fiori in 

Fiori & Paol., 270 
var. ruderalis eutripartita, 269, 275, 

279 

var. rugosa Anon, in herb., 286 
var. rugosa Wedd., 288 
var. simplex Schur, 269, 279 
var. tenuis (Turcz. ex DC.) DC., 

269, 278 
var. typica Beck von M., 270, 276, 

277, 295 

f. fastigiata Franch., 294 

f. gigantea Evers, 270, 272 

f. minima (Wirtg.) Druce, 277 

f. minima (Wirtg.) Larss., 269, 
277 

subvar. minima (Wirtg.) Coss. & 
Germ., 269, 277 

f. pinnatifida (Turcz. ex DC.) 
Beck von M., 289 



Bidens 

f. pumila (Retz.) Roth ex Briq. 

& Cavill., 270 
subvar. pumila (Retz.) Rouy ex 

Briq. & Cavill., 270 
sub-var. rugosa Coss. & Germ., 

284, 288 

f. stolonifera Bolzon, 270 
tripartita L. X cernua L., 304 
tripartita L. X radiata Thuill., 294, 

295 

tripartito-hirta Boullu, 288 
triplinervia H.B.K., 18, 21, 47, 57, 
493, 498, 503, 506, 533 
var. hirtella (H.B.K.) Sherff, 57, 

503, 506, 509, 517, 518 
var. macrantha (Wedd.) Sherff, 
21, 48, 57, 60, 448, 496, 498, 499, 
506, 508, 509, 510, 521, 522, 523, 
524, 530, 646 
f. octoradiata Sherff, 49, 57, 507, 

520 

var. mollis (Peopp. & Endl.) 
Sherff, 57, 506, 510, 511, 513, 514, 
515, 518, 520 
var. nematoidea Sherff, 57, 507, 

518, 522 

'tripteris (L.) Krause, 644 
tripteris Raf., 241 
tuberosa Schz. Bip., 644 
uapensis (F. Brown) Sherff, 37, 115 
ugandensis (S. L. Moore) Sherff, 68, 

583 

Uhligii Sherff, 71, 542 
ukambensis S. L. Moore, 66, 69, 608, 

609 

Urbanii Greenm., 173, 175, 176 
urceolata DeWild., 60, 550, 551, 552, 

569 

urophylla Sherff, 56, 193 
valida Sherff, 40, 141 
valladolidensis Schz. Bip. in Seem., 

644 

valparadisea Colla ex Phil., 450 
valparadisiaca Colla, 450, 452 
variabilis (Desf.) Baill., 644 
variabilis (Desf.) G6m., 644 
Vatkei Sherff, 61, 618 
venosa Gardn., 201, 202 
verticillata L., 17, 644 
verticillata (L.) Baill., 645 
Vestii Schz. Bip., 646 
Viciosoi Pau ex Vicioso, 646 
Vincaefolia Karst. & Schz. Bip. ex 

Sherff, 56, 191 
Volkensii O. Hoffm., 27, 28, 63, 66, 

610 

vulgata Greene 51, 59, 242, 246 
var. dissectior Sherff, 250 
var. puberula (Wieg.) Greene, 51, 

246, 247, 249 
var. schizantha Lun., 51, 246, 250 



GENERAL INDEX 



705 



Bidens 

waianensis Sherff, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 

143, 144, 152 

waimeana Sherff, 43, 45, 144 
Wallichii DC., 372, 389, 399 

var. albiflora Max. ex Matsum., 
431 

var. bimensis Miq., 389, 399, 400 
Warszewicziana Regel, 340, 345 

var. bipinnata Regel, 340 

var. pinnata Regel, 340 

var. simplicifolia Regel, 340 
Whytei Sherff, 64, 564 
Wiebkei Sherff, 41, 127 
Xantiana Rose ex Vas. & Rose, 645 
sect. Campylotheca (Cass.) Nutt., 

18, 30 

sect. Clomtonia Sherff, 31 
sect. Degeneria Sherff, 31 
sect. Ebussa Sherff, 33 
sect. Fulsotsia Sherff, 31 
sect. Greenmania Sherff, 23, 31, 186 
sect. Heterodonta (Nutt.) Sherff, 31, 

205 

sect. Lesperthema Sherff, 33 
sect. Meduseae (Nutt.) Sherff, 32 
sect. Neurophyllum Sherff, 23, 31 
sect. Platycarpaea DC., 18, 32, 236, 

320, 321 

sect. Psilocarpaea DC., 18, 32 
sect. Selvorngea Sherff, 31 
sect. Steppia (Schz. Bip. in Walp.) 

Bignonia Sherff, 32, 630 
perianthomega Veil., 641 
Blainvillea, 637 

rhomboidea Cass., 637 
Bombus 

terrester, 27 
Brasenia 

purpurea Casp., 642 
Schreberi Gmel., 642 
Bussea Harms, 33 

Campylotheca Cass., 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 

24, 100, 205 

angustifolia (Nutt.) Walp., Ill 
australis (Spreng.) Less., 86 
Beckiana F. Brown, 80 
collina (Deg. & Sherff) F. Brown, 79 
cordifolia Schz. Bip., 80 
Cosmoides (A. Gray) Hillebr., 164 
dichotoma Hillebr., 96 
gracilis (Nutt.) Walp., 98 
grandiflora DC., 137, 139 

var. /3. Hillebr., 140 
hawaiiensis (A. Gray) Hillebr., 94 
Helianthoides Endl., 314 
Henryi (Sherff) F. Brown, 91 
Jardinii Schz. Bip., 77 
macrocarpa Gray ex Hillebr. in herb., 

122 



Campylotheca Cass 

macrocarpa (Gray) Hillebr., 100,, 105 
116 

var. 0. Hillebr., 100, 101 
var. y. Hillebr., 108, 120, 122, 123 
var. ovatifolia (Gray) Hillebr., 109, 

116 

Mathewsii (Sherff) F. Brown, 89 
mauiensis (Gray) Hillebr., 157 

var. 0. Hillebr., 159 
Menziesii Gray, 150 
var. 0. Hillebr., 151 
var. y. Hillebr., 152 
micrantha (Gaud.) Cass., 145 
var. /3. Hillebr., 147 
var. y. Hillebr., 148, 149 
var. laciniata Hillebr., 147 

f. dissecta Skbg., 152, 154 
molokaiensis Hillebr., 161 
mutica (Nutt.) Walp., 120 
polycephala Schz. Bip., 75 
pulchella (Less.) Hillebr., 113 
Remyi Hillebr., 155, 156 
Rutifolia Le"vl., 155, 156 
sandvicensis (Less.) Hillebr., 120 

var. 0. Hillebr., 149 
serrulata Schz. Bip., 78 
uapensis F. Br., 115 
Campylotheca (Cass.) Nutt. (pro sect.), 

18, 30 
Ceratocephalus Vaill., 407 

pilosus (L.) Rich., 412 
Chaerophyllum, 454 
Charieis 

heterophylla Cass., 644 
Chrysanthellum, 114, 629 
abyssinicum Schz. Bip. ex Walp., 629 
americanum Vtke., 634 
indicum DC., 635, 639 
senegalense DC., 639 
Chrysanthemum, 27 
aquaticum, foliis multifidis cicutae 
nonnihil similibus, virginianum 
Herm., 367 

cannabinum bidens Americanum 
caule erecto firmo subrubente. 
Moris., 372 
chinense foliis plurifariam divisus 

halicacabi Pluk., 389 

Virginianum foliis Cicutae nonnihil 

Similibus Herm., 367 
trifoliatum scandens, flore luteo, 
semine longo, rostrato Sloane, 172 
Clomtonia Sherff (sect.), 31 
Coelenterata, 624 
Coleoptera, 27 
Conyza 

palustris foliis tripartito-divisis. Loes., 

277 

Coreocarpus, 11 

Coreopsis L., 11, 18, 20, 22, 24, 25, 205, 
225, 397, 494, 566, 632, 646 



706 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Coreopsis L. 

abyssinica Schz. Bip. in Walp., 615 
f. latisecta Vatke, 620, 621 

var. bipinnato-partita Chiov., 627 
alba L., 25, 437, 438, 440 
alternifolia L., 25 
ambacensis Hiern, 546 
ambigua Nutt., 228, 229, 232 
angustifolia Pavon ex D. Don, 332 
Anthemoides DC., 21, 491 
arenicola S. L. Moore, 562 
arguta Pursh, 228 
aristata Muhl. ex Willd., 212 

var. mutica Engelm., 215 
aristosa Michx., 21, 212 

var. mutica Gray, 214, 215 
asperata Hutch. & Dalz., 548 
Aspilioides Baker, 611 
aurea Ait., 32, 339, 344 

var. incisa Torr. & Gray, 228, 231 

var. leptophylla (Nutt.) Torr. & 
Gray, 228, 231 

var. subintegra Torr. & Gray, 228, 

231, 232 
aurea Gray, 226 
aurea Lindl., 212 
Baumii O. Hoffm., 589 
bicolor Bosse, 29 
Bidens Gunn., 299 
Bidens L., 25, 298, 302, 310 
Bidentoides (Nutt.) Torr. & Gray, 

203 

biternata Lour., 388, 396, 397 
brasiliensis Colla, 194 
Buchingeri Schz. Bip., 619 
Buchneri Klatt, 594 
caracasana Willd. ex 0. E. Schz., 169 
chrysantha L., 169 
chrysantha Vtke., 618 

var. simplicifolia Vtke., 622 
chrysantha W., 170 
cordifolia (Schz. Bip.) Dr. del Cast., 

80 

coriacea 0. Hoffm., 601 
corindifolia Ham., 366 
coronata Bert., 636 
coronata Hook., 225 
coronata L., 221, 224, 225, 226, 227, 

430 
Corymbifolia Ham. in Wall, ex DC., 

366 

Cosmoides A. Gray, 19, 164 
Cosmophylla Sherff, 640 
Crataegifolia O. Hoffm., 605 
cuspidata Bertol., 228 
Delphinifolia Lam., 573 
dichotoma (Hillebr.) Dr. del Cast., 96 
discoidea Torr. & Gray, 233 
diversifolia Jacq., 527, 529 
Elliotii S. L. Moore, 578 
exaristata O. Hoffm., 566, 611 

var. gracilior O. Hoffm., 565 



Coreopsis L. 
ferulacea Hort., 332 
Ferulaefolia Jacq. 332 

var. odoratissima (Cav. ex Pers.) 

Pers., 444, 447 

Ferulifolia Jacq. ex Ind. Lond., 332 
Fischeri O. Hoffm., 553 
flammula Banks ex Steud., 314 
foeniculacea Moc. & Sesse ex DC., 335 
frondosa O. Hoffm., 575 
fruticosa Forst., 86, 87 
fruticosa mscr., 87 
fruticosa Sol., 86, 87 
fruticosa Vest, 646 
glaucescens Oliv. & Hiern in Oliv., 620 
Grantii Oliv., 537, 539 
Grantii Skan, 540 

hawaiiensis (Gray) Dr. del Cast., 94 
Helianthoides Forst., 313, 314 
heterophylla Bertol., 228 
Hillebrandiana Dr. del Cast., 155 
Holstii O. Hoffm., 536, 537 
incisa Ker, 22, 177 
incurva Moench, 332 
insecta S. L. Moore, 580 
involucrata Nutt., 218, 254 
Jacksonii S. L. Moore, 639 
Jardinii (Schz. Bip.) Dr. del Cast., 77 
Jasminifolia Bertol., 228 
kilimandscharica O. Hoffm., 606 
Kirkii Oliv. & Hiern in Oliv., 561, 569 
lanceolata L., 24, 636 
leptoglossa Sherff, 569 
leucantha L., 430, 439 
leucanthema L., 430, 437, 438, 439 
leucorhiza Lour., 421 
leucorrhiza Lour., 396, 421 
linearifolia DC., 489, 490 
linearifolia Oliv. & Hiern in Oliv., 612 
lineata Klatt, 599 
lucida Cav., 339 
Macraei A. Gray, 19, 137, 139 
macrocarpa A. Gray, 19, 105, 123 

var. p. Hillebr. ex Rock, 117 
Mattfeldii Sherff, 544 
mauiensis A. Gray, 19, 157 
Menziesii A. Gray, 19, 88, 150 
Menziezii A. Gray ex Dr. del Cast., 

150 

micrantha (Gaud.) A. Gray, 145, 154 
minima Hort. ex Steud., 299 
mitis Michx., 226, 228, 231, 232, 344 
molokaiensis (Hillebr.) Dr. del Cast., 

161 
multifida DC., 444, 445, 447 

var. mutica DC., 444, 446, 447 
Negriana Sherff, 631 
nitida Hort. R. M., 339 
nuecensis Heller, 636 
ochracea O. Hoffm., 640 
odorata Cav., 445, 447 
odorata (Cav.) Poir., 444 



GENERAL INDEX 



707 



Coreopsis L. 

odoratissima Cav., 445, 447 
odoratissima Cav. ex Pers., 444 
Oerstediana Benth. ex Oerst., 232 
oligoflora Klatt, 540, 545 
patula Willd., 494, 496 
perfoliata Bosc, 315 
perfoliata Bosc ex DC., 314 
perfoliata herb. Burm., 316 
perfoliata Walt., 313 
pinnatipartita O. Hoffm., 537 
polycephala (Schz. Bip.) Benth. & 

Hook, ex Dr. del Cast., 75 
pulchella (Less.) Dr. del Cast., 113 
pulchella O. Hoffm., 505 
quadricornis Krock., 299 
radiata Mill., 313 
Remyi Dr. del Cast., 145, 146 
reptans L., 22, 168, 172 
retusa Link, 443 
Ridens Gunn., 299 
rosea Nutt., 24 
Rueppellii Schz. Bip., 616 
ruwenzoriensis S. L. Moore, 601, 602 
Sambucifolia Cav., 478 
sandvicensis (Less.) Benth. & Hook. 

ex Dr. del Cast., 120 
scabrifolia Sherff, 569 
scandens J. E. Smith, 168 
scandens Sesse & Moc., 173, 175, 179 
scandens, foliis serratis ternato-pin- 

natis etc. Browne, 437 
Schaffneri A. Gray, 331 
Schlechteri (Sherff) Burtt Davy, 570 
Seretii De Wild., 16, 596, 597 
serrata DC., 314 
serrulata Poir., 78, 526, 529 
serrulata (Schz. Bip.) Benth. & Hook. 

ex Dr. del Cast., 78 
setigera Schz. Bip., 627 
simplicifolia (Vtke.) Engler, 622 
speciosa Hiern, 599 
Steppia Steetz, 542 
Stuhlmannii 0. Hoffm., 598 
Taylori S. L. Moore, 25, 576 
ternata Chiov., 626 
tetragona LaL. & Lex., 339 
tinctoria Nutt., 24, 29, 635, 644 
trichosperma Michx., 221, 226, 227 

var. aurea Edwards, 221 

var. aurea? Nutt., 228, 232, 339 

var. tenuiloba Gray, 227 
trifoliata Bertol., 179, 187 
tripartita M. B. Moss, 563 
tripinnatifida Herb. Pav., 334 
tripteris L., 644 
variifolia Salisb., 168, 173 
verticillata L., 645 
viminea Browne ex Smith, 168, 172 
Coreopsis sect. Eucoreopsis subsect. 
Meduseae (Nutt.) Pfeiff., 32 
sect. Steppia Schz. Bip. in Walp., 32 



Corindum, 366 
Cosmea 

Chrysanthemifolia (HBK.) Spreng., 

353 
Chrysanthemoides H. B. K. ex Heynh., 

354 

lutea Sims, 527, 529 
Cosmos, 11, 18, 142, 411, 416, 449, 450, 

501 

atrosanguineus (Hook.) Ortg., 635 
bipinnatus Cav., 40, 636, 638, 639 
calvus (Schz. Bip.) Sherff, 634, 636 
Carvifolius Benth., 636, 644 
caudatus H. B. K., 634, 635, 636 
Chrysanthemifolius H.B.K., 353 
Chrysanthemoides H.B.K. ex DC., 

353 355 

Crithmifolius H.B.K., 641, 643, 644 
diversifolius Otto, 637, 642 
Landii Sherff, 641. 
Langlassei Sherff, 639 
linearifolius (Schz. Bip.) Hemsl., 639, 

641 

luteus (Sims) Gomez, 527 
odoratus Cav., 445 
parviflorus (Jacq.) H.B.K., 638 
Peucedanifolius Wedd., 641, 642 
var. cochabambensis (O. Ktze.) 

Sherff, 641 
var. tiraquensis (O. Ktze.) Sherff, 

642 

pilosus H.B.K., 455, 457 
purpureus (DC.) Benth. & Hook., 642 
Scabiosoides H.B.K., 643 
Seemannii (Schz. Bip.) Gray, 641 
sulphureus Cav., 634, 635, 644 
tenellus H.B.K., 444, 449, 450 
tenuifolius (Schz. Bip.) Hemsl., 639 
sect. Discopoda DC.) Sherff, 30 
Crataegus, 605 
Crossostyles, 85 

Dahlia, 11, 26, 636 
Cervantesii Lag., 636 
coccinea Cav., 636 
Merckii Lehm., 27, 635 
variabilis Desf., 644 

Degeneria Sherff (sect.), 31 

Delucia DC., 18, 533 

Ostruthioides DC., 18, 532 

Diatonta Nutt. ex Walp., 32 

aristosa (Michx.) Nutt. ex Walp., 212 
aurea (Ait.) Nutt. ex Walp., 340 
Bidentoides Nutt. ex Walp., 203 
coronata (L.) Nutt. ex Walp., 221 
involucrata Nutt. ex Walp., 218 
leptophylla Nutt. ex Walp., 228 
mitis (Michx.) Nutt. ex Walp., 228 
sect. Hederodonta Nutt. ex Walp., 32 
sect. Meduseae Nutt. ex Walp., 32 

Diodonta Nutt., 31, 32, 205 

aristosa (Michx.) Nutt., 212 , . 
aurea (Ait.) Nutt., 340 



708 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



Diodonta Nutt. 

Bidentoides Nutt., 32, 203 

coronata (L.) Nutt., 221 

involucrata Nutt., 218 

leptophylla Nutt. ex Walp., 228, 229 

mitis (Michx.) Nutt., 228 

sect.(?) Heterodonta Nutt., 31 

sect. Meduseae Nutt., 32, 205 
Diptera, 27 

Discopoda DC. (sect.), 18, 30 
Dolicotheca Cass., 17, 23 

Ebussa Sherff (sect.), 33 
Edwarsia Necker, 17 
Ericentrodea Blake & Sherff, 640 
mirabilis (Sherff) Blake & Sherff, 592, 
640 

Fagraea, 85 

Fulsotsia Sherff (sect.), 31 

Glossogyne 

chinensis (L.) Less., 428 

pinnatifida (Buch.-Ham.) DC., 642, 

643 
tenuifolia (LaBill.) Cass., 637, 639, 

640, 644 
tridentata (Turcz.) Benth. & Hook., 

644 

Greenmania Sherff (sect.), 23, 31, 186 
Guizotia 

abyssinica Cass., 642 
Gymnopsis 

glaberrima Schz. Bip. ex Bak. in 
Mart., 484 

Helianthus 

annuus L., 26 

laevis L., 313 
Heliopsis 

laevis, 29 
Hemiptera, 27 
Heterodonta Nutt., 205 
Heterodonta (Nutt.) Sherff (sect.), 31, 

205 
Heterosperma, 11, 114, 642, 645 

involucratum (Phil.) Reiche, 638 

maritimum Kunth, 642, 643 

ovatifolium Cav., 643 

ovatum Willd., 643 

rhombifolium (Schz. Bip.) Griseb., 
642, 643 

Xantii A. Gray, 645 

Hydrocarpaea A. Gray (sect.), 30 
Hymenoptera, 27 

Isocarpha 

Atriplicifolia (L.) R. Br., 635 
Isostigma, 11, 464 

acaule (Bak.) Chod., 633 

megapotamicum (Spreng.) Sherff, 464 



Isostigma 

Peucedanifolium (Spreng.) Less., 464 
Scorzoneraefolium (Bak.) Sherff, 638, 
643 

Iva 
frutescens Hort., 646 

Kerneria 

bipinnata (L.) Godr. & Gren., 366 
dubia Cass., 421 
Ferulaefolia (Jacq.) Cass., 332 
Helianthoides (H.B.K.) Cass., 314 
leucantha (L.) Cass., 430 
pilosa (L.) Lowe, 413 

var. discoidea (Schz. Bip.) Lowe, 
413 

var. radiata (Schz. Bip.) Lowe, 430 
Rubifolia (H.B.K.) Cass., 187 
serrulata (Poir.) Cass., 527, 529 
tetragona Moench, 345, 430 

Lantana, 133, 136, 143, 153 
Laxmannia 

arborea Forst. & Forst. f., 634 
Leidon 

mite (Michx.) Shuttlw. ex Sherff, 228, 

232 
Leiodon, 232 

aureum Shuttlw., 230, 232 
. Lepidoptera, 27 
Lesperthema Sherff (sect.), 33 
Lipochaeta 

asymmetrica Levl., 99, 101, 117 
Lucilia 

cornicina, 27 
Lythrum 

Hyssopifolia, 16 

Meduseae (Nutt.) Sherff (sect.), 32 
Megalodonta Greene, 11, 22, 30 

Beckii (Torr.) Greene, 26, 635 
Melananthera 

hastata (Walt.) Michx., 639 
Melanthera 

hastata (Walt.) Michx., 639 

nivea (L.) O. E. Schulz, 640 
Metrosideros, 107, 116, 134 
Microlecane Schz. Bip. (pro subgenere), 

629 
Microlecane (Schz. Bip.) Benth. & 

Hook., 630 

abyssinica (Schz. Bip.) Benth. & 

Hook, ex O. Hoffm., 629 
Musineon, 454 

Neurophyllum Sherff (sect.), 23, 31 
Notoptera 
hirsuta (Sw.) Urb., 638 

Oniscus, 560 

Pandanus, 116 
Pectis 

tenella, 644 



GENERAL INDEX 



709 



Phalangium, 580 
Pieres 

hellica, 27 
Platycarpaea DC. (sect.), 18, 32, 236, 

320, 321 

Pluridens Necker, 17 
Populus, 116 

deltoides Marsh., 116 
Prestinaria 

abyssinica Schz. Bip., 615 
Pseudohepatorium 

foemina Dodon. ex Rupr. 269, 278 
Psilocarpaea DC. (sect.), 18, 32 

Salmea 

scandens (L.) DC., 643 
Scandicina, 454 
Selvorngea Sherff (sect.), 31 
Senecio, 27 
Spilanthes, 640 

Acmella (L.) Murr., 634 

insipida Jacq., 638 

Ocymifolia (Lam.) A. H. Moore, 640 

oleracea L., 634, 637, 638, 641 

urens Jacq., 112, 634 
Stenolobium, 85 
Steppia (Schz. Bip. in Walp.) Sherff 

(sect.), 32, 630 
Synedrella 

nodiflora (L.) Gaertn., 276 
Syrphus, 27 

Taraxacum 

officinale Weber, 28 



Taraxacum 

palustre 

var. vulgare (Lam.) Fern., 28 
Thelesperma, 11, 33, 464, 632 

gracile (Torr.) A. Gray, 638 

megapotamicum (Spreng.) 0. Ktze., 
464, 639, 641 

Scabiosoides Less., 464 
Trichospira 

verticillata (L.) Blake, 644 

Verbena 

supina Trag. ex Rupr., 269, 278 
Verbesina, 172, 278 

abyssinica (Schz. Bip.) A. Rich., 615 

crocata (Cav.) Less, ex DC., 637 

integrifolia Rupr., 299, 300 

lineata A. Rich., 627 

minima Dillen., 298, 299 

minima Dillen. ex Rupr., 300 

pseudo-acmella L., 642 

Rueppellii (Schz. Bip.) A. Rich, ex 
Vatke, 617 

Ruppellii (Schz. Bip.) A. Rich., 616 

tripartita (L.) Rupr., 269, 278 
Viguiera 

fusiformis Blake, 644 

Xylosma, 85 

Zexmenia 

frutescens (Mill.) Blake, 638 
var. genuina Blake, 638 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA