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Full text of "The genus Bidens .."

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF ILLINOIS 

LIBRARY 







jUN L-; 



HOV13 '358 



BOTANICAL SERIES 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893 

VOLUME XVI 



THE GENUS BIDENS 

PART I 



BY 

EARL EDWARD SHERFF 

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE IN SYSTEMATIC BOTANY 



B. E. DAHLGREN 

CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 
EDITOR 



THE LIBRARY OF THE 

OCT8-1937 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



PUBLICATION 388 




CHICAGO, U.S.A. 
AUGUST 31, 1937 



BOTANICAL SERIES 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893 

VOLUME XVI 



THE GENUS BIDENS 

PART I 



THE LIBRARY OF THE 

OCT8-1937 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



BY 



EARL EDWARD SHERFF 

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE IN SYSTEMATIC BOTANY 



B. E. DAHLGBEN 

CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OP BOTANY 
EMTOR 



PUBLICATION 388 




CHICAGO, U.S.A. 
AUGUST 31, 1937 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 



580.5 
FB 



CONTENTS 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 5 

PREFACE 11 

HISTORICAL SURVEY OF GENUS BIDENS 17 

MORPHOLOGY, HISTOLOGY, CYTOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND OTHER SPECIAL LINES 
OF INQUIRY 25 

DESCRIPTION OF GENUS BIDENS 29 

SYNOPSIS OF SECTIONS 30 

KEY (C LA vis) 

Plants Native to Islands of Central Pacific Ocean 33 

Plants Growing in North and Central America and in the West Indies ... 45 

Plants of South America 55 

Plants of the Eastern Hemisphere, excluding Africa 59 

Plants of Africa 60 

ABBREVIATIONS USED FOR HERBARIA CITED 71 

DESCRIPTIONS 73 

NAMES TO BE EXCLUDED FROM BIDENS 633 

ADDENDA 645 

NAMES OF UNCERTAIN STATUS (INCERTAE SEDIS) 646 

INDEX OF COLLECTORS CITED 649 

GENERAL INDEX . 693 



1 056907 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PLATES 



FACING 
PAGE 



I. Bidens polycephala Schz. Bip. (figs, a-h) 80 

Bidens Ahnnei Sherff (figs, i-p) , 80 

II. Bideiis Jardinii Schz. Bip 82 

III. Bidens Lantanoides Gray (figs, a-g) 84 

Bidens cordifolia Schz. Bip. (figs, h-n) 84 

IV. Bidens australis Spreng 86 

V. Bidens Mathewsii Sherff 90 

VI. Bidens Henryi Sherff (figs, a-i) 92 

Bidens pulchella (Less.) Schz. Bip. (figs, j-p) 92 

VII. Bidens glabrata (Gray) Sherff. ..'.... 94 

VIII. Bidens liawaiensis Gray 96 

IX. Bidens distans Sherff 98 

X. Bidens micrantha Gaud. (figs, a-h) 100 

Bidens Degeneri Sherff (figs, i-o) 100 

XI. Bidens asymmetrica (Levl.) Sherff 102 

XII. Bidens asymmetrica (Levl.) Sherff (figs, a-i) 106 

Bidens cuneata Sherff (figs, j-p) 106 

XIII. Bidens torta Sherff (figs, a-g) 108 

Bidens cervicata Sherff (figs, h-p) 108 

XIV. Bidens graciloides Sherff (figs, a-g) 110 

Bidens waianensis Sherff (figs, h-p) 110 

XV. Bidens ctenophylla Sherff 112 

XVI. Bidens ctenophylla Sherff 114 

XVII. Bidens macrocarpa (Gray) Sherff (figs, a-i) 116 

Bidens magnidisca Deg. & Sherff ex Sherff (figs, j-l) 116 

XVIII. Bidens micranthoides Sherff 118 

XIX. Bidens Asplenioides Sherff (figs, a-/) 122 

Bidens Stokesii Sherff (figs, g-o) 122 

XX. Bidens Populifolia Sherff 124 

XXI. Bidens Skottsbergii Sherff 126 

XXII. Bidens obtusiloba Sherff 128 

XXIII. Bidens sandvicensis Less. (figs, a-h) 130 

Bidens waimeana Sherff (figs, i-o) 130 

XXIV. Bidens conjuncta Sherff (figs, a-h) 132 

Bidens fulvescens Sherff (figs, i-o) 132 

XXV. Bidens Wiebkei Sherff 134 

XXVI. Bidens coartata Sherff 138 

XXVII. Bidens Salicoides Sherff 140 

XXVIII. Bidens Forbesii Sherff 142 

XXIX. Bidens fulvescens Sherff 144 

XXX. Bidens Campylotheca Schz. Bip 146 

XXXI. Bidens valida Sherff 148 

XXXII. Bidens amplectens Sherff 150 

XXXIII. Bidens sandvicensis var. setosa Sherff (figs, a-l) 154 

Bidens Bipontina Sherff (figs, m, n) 154 

Bidens Menziesii (Gray) Sherff (figs, o, q-v) and var. filiformis 

Sherff (fig. p) 154 

5 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



XXXIV. Bidens Hillebrandiana (Dr. del Cast.) Deg. ex Sherff 156 

XXXV. Bidens mauiensis (Gray) Sherff (figs, a, e); var. cuneatoides 

Sherff (figs, b-d, f-o) 158 

XXXVI. Bidens molokaiensis (Hillebr.) Sherff 160 

XXXVII. Bidens Cosmoides (Gray) Sherff 162 

XXXVIII. Bidens darendonensis Britt 164 

XXXIX. Bidens monticola Poepp. & Endlich 166 

XL. Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don 170 

XLI. Bidens reptans var. Urbanii (Greenm.) 0. E. Schulz 172 

XLII. Bidens reptans var. Urbanii (Greenm.) 0. E. Schulz (figs, a-h) ; 

var. dissecta O. E. Schulz (figs, i-s) 174 

XLIII. Bidens incisa (Ker) G. Don 176 

XLIV. Bidens squarrosa H.B.K 178 

XLV. Bidens squarrosa H.B.K. (figs, a-g) 180 

Bidens Vincaefolia Karst. & Schz. Bip. ex Sherff (figs, h-m) 180 

XLVI. Bidens Rubifolia H.B.K 182 

XLVII. Bidens simplicifolia C. H. Wright 186 

XLVIII. Bidens urophylla Sherff 188 

XLIX. Bidens segetum Mart, ex Colla 190 

L. Bidens segetum Mart, ex Colla 192 

LI. Bidens segetum var. patula (Gardn.) Sherff 194 

LII. Bidens Shrevei Britt 196 

LIII. Bidens Holwayi Blake & Sherff 204 

LIV. Bidens graveolens Mart 206 

LV. Bidens fistulosa Schz. Bip. ex Baker 212 

LVI. Bidens Bidentoides (Nutt.) Britt 220 

LVII. Bidens Eatonii Fern. (figs, a-/); var. fallax Fern. (fig. g) 224 

LVIII. Bidens aristosa (Michx.) Britt. (fig. h); var. mutica Gray ex 

Gatting. (figs, a-g); var. Fritcheyi Fern. (fig. i) 228 

Bidens polylepis Blake (figs, k-r); var. retrorsa Sherff (fig. s) 228 

LIX. Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff (figs, a-l) 236 

Bidens coronata (L.) Britt. (figs, m, p-u);var. tenuiloba (Gray) 

Sherff (figs, n, o) 236 

LX. Bidens Oerstediana Sherff 240 

LXI. Bidens discoidea (Torr. & Gr.) Britt 242 

LXII. Bidens frondosa L. (figs, a, c-h); var. anomala Port, ex Fern. 

(fig. i); var. stenodonta Fern. & St. J. (fig. 6) 244 

LXIII. Bidens vulgata Greene (figs, a, c-h); var. schizantha Lunell 

(fig. b) 252 

LXIV. Bidens comosa (Gray) Wieg 254 

LXV. Bidens connata Muhl. ex Willd. (fig. d); var. anomala Farwell 
(fig. k); var. petiolata (Nutt.) Farw. (figs, a, f-j); var. 
pinnata Wats. (fig. e); var. fallax (Warnst.) Sherff (figs. 

b, c) 258 

LXVI. Bidens heterodoxa Fern. & St. J. (figs, a, c-g); var. orthodoxa 

Fern. (figs. 6, h) 260 

LXVII. Bidens tripartita L. (figs, a, b, d-i); var. cernuaefolia Sherff 

(fig. c) 262 

LXVIII. Bidens tripartita var. repens (D. Don) Sherff (figs, a-/) 266 

Bidens lineariloba Oliv. (figs, g-o) 266 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



LXIX. Bidens radiata Thuill. (figs, a-g) 268 

Bidens tripartite var. orientalis (Velen.) Sherff (figs, h-ri) . . 268 

LXX. Bidens tripartita var. hirta (Jord.) Sherff 270 

LXXI. Bidens amplissima Greene 272 

LXXII. Bidens cernua L. (figs, a, d-k); var. oligodonta Fern. & St. J. 

(figs. 6, c) 276 

LXXIII. Bidens laevis (L.) B.S.P 284 

LXXIV. Bidens hyperborea Greene (figs, b, d, f, h, j, 1) ; var. gaspensis 

Fern. (figs, a, c, e, g, i, k, m) 288 

LXXV. Bidens diversa Sherff (figs, a, 6, d-i); var. megaglossa Sherff 

(fig. c) 290 

LXXVI. Bidens Schaffneri (Gray) Sherff 292 

LXXVII. Bidens Ferulaefolia (Jacq.) DC 300 

LXXVIII. Bidens Ferulaefolia var. Foeniculaefolia (DC.) Sherff (figs. 

a-i); var. ludens (Gray) Sherff (figs. /-) 302 

LXXIX. Bidens Townsendii Sherff 304 

LXXX. Bidens aurea (Ait.) Sherff 306 

LXXXI. Bidens integrifolia Brandeg 308 

LXXXII. Bidens amphicarpa Sherff (figs, a-i) 316 

Bidens oligocarpa Sherff (figs, j-l) 316 

LXXXIII. Bidens oligantJia Brandeg. (figs, a-h) 318 

Bidens Anthriscoides DC. (figs, i-q) 318 

LXXXIV. Bidens Anthemoides (DC.) Sherff (figs, a-j) 320 

Bidens Andrei Sherff (figs, fc-s) 320 

LXXXV. Bidens Chrysanthemifolia (H.B.K.) Sherff 322 

LXXXVI. Bidens mollifolia Sherff 324 

LXXXVII. Bidens Abadiae DC. (figs, a, c-i); var. pilosoides Sherff (fig. 6) 332 

LXXXVIII. Bidens Brandegeei Sherff (figs, a-k) 334 

Bidens canescens Bertol. (figs, l-s) 334 

LXXXIX. Bidens Bigelovii Gray (figs, a-k) 348 

Bidens bipinnata L. (figs, l-s) 348 

XC. Bidens leptocephala Sherff 350 

XCI. Bidens Engleri O. E. Schulz (figs, a-f) 354 

Bidens cylindrica Sherff (figs. 0-0 354 

XCII. Bidens pseudalausensis Sherff (figs, a-g) 356 

Bidens cornuta Sherff (figs, h-n) 356 

XCIII. Bidens tenuisecta Gray 362 

XCIV. Bidens paupercula Sherff 364 

XCV. Bidens Pringlei Greenm. (figs, a-h) 366 

Bidens heterosperma Gray (figs, i-o) 366 

XCVI. Bidens exigua Sherff (figs, a-i) 370 

Bidens duranginensis Sherff (figs, j-q) 370 

XCVII. Bidens parviflora Willd. (figs, a-g) , 372 

Bidens Lemmonii Gray (figs, h-n) 372 

XCVIII. Bidens capillifolia Sherff 374 

XCIX. Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merrill & Sherff (figs, a, c-m) 376 

Bidens pilosa L. (fig. 6) 376 

C. Bidens biternata var. glabrata f. abyssinica (Schz. Bip.) Sherff 378 

CI. Bidens andicola var. Cosmanlha f. Buchtienii Sherff (figs, a-g) 380 

Bidens pseudocosmos Sherff (figs, h-n) 380 



8 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



CII. Bidens pilosa L. (figs, a, b, e-j) ; var. minor (Bl.) Sherff (figs, c, 

d, k-r) 382 

CIII. Bidens pilosa var. radiata Schz. Bip. (figs, a-h) 386 

Bidens tenera O. E. Schulz (figs, i-o) 386 

CIV. Bidens pilosa var. bimucronata (Turcz.) O. E. Schulz (figs, a-i) 388 

Bidens acuticaulis Sherff (figs, j-r) 388 

CV. Bidens pilosa var. bimucronata f. odorata (Cav.) Sherff 390 

CVI. Bidens pilosa var. bimucronata f. odorata (Cav.) Sherff (figs. 

a-h); var. alausensis (H.B.K.) Sherff (figs, i-o) 392 

CVII. Bidens pilosa var. alausensis f. Scandicina (H.B.K.) Sherff 394 

CVIII. Bidens pilosa var. calcicola (Greenm.) Sherff 396 

CIX. Bidens pilosa var. calcicola (Greenm.) Sherff (figs, a, c-j); 

f . dissecta Sherff (fig. b) 398 

Bidens aequisquama (Fern.) Sherff (figs, k-t) 398 

CX. Bidens subalternans DC 402 

CXI. Bidens domingensis 0. E. Schulz 404 

CXII. Bidens Malmei Sherff 406 

CXIII. Bidens Cynapiifolia H.B.K 408 

CXIV. Bidens riparia H.B.K. (figs, i-p); var. refracta (Brandeg.) 

O. E. Schulz (figs, a-h) 410 

CXV. Bidens Sambucifolia Cav 412 

CXVI. Bidens Gardneri Baker 414 

CXVII. Bidens flagellaris Baker 418 

CXVIII. Bidens nudata Brandeg 420 

CXIX. Bidens brasiliensis Sherff .422 

CXX. Bidens Riedelii Baker (figs, a-k) ; var. Hassleriana Chod. (fig. I) 424 

CXXI. Bidens Chodati Hassl 426 

CXXII. Bidens angustissima H.B.K. (figs, h-m); var. Linifolia (Schz. 

Bip. ex Klatt) Sherff (figs, a-g) 428 

CXXIII. Bidens andicola H.B.K. (figs, a-d, h-p)', var. Cosmantha 
(Griseb.) Sherff (fig. e); var. decomposita O. Ktze. (figs. 

/, g) 430 

CXXIV. Bidens andicola var. Cosmantha (Griseb.) Sherff 434 

CXX V. Bidens microphylla Sherff 436 

CXXVI. Bidens triplinervia H.B.K. (figs, j, k); var. macrantha (Wedd.) 

Sherff (figs, a-i, l-v) 438 

CXXVII. Bidens triplinervia var. hirtella (H.B.K.) Sherff 440 

CXXVIII. Bidens triplinervia var. macrantha (Wedd.) Sherff (figs, j-p); 

var. mollis (Poepp. & Endlich.) Sherff (figs, a-i) 442 

CXXIX. Bidens serrulata (Poir.) Desf 444 

CXXX. Bidens chiapensis Brandeg. (figs, a-i) 446 

Bidens Geraniifolia Brandeg. (figs, j-o) 446 

CXXXI. Bidens Ostruthioides (DC.) Schz. Bip 450 

CXXXH. Bidens Ostruthioides var. costaricensis (Benth. ex Oerst.) Sherff 452 

CXXXIII. Bidens bicolor Greenm 454 

CXXXIV. Bidens Holstii (O. Hoffm.) Sherff 456 

CXXXV. Bidens Holstii var. rupestris Sherff 458 

CXXXVI. Bidens kamerunensis Sherff 460 

CXXXVII. Bidens Grantii var. Stapfii Sherff (figs, a-i) 462 

Bidens Steppia (Steetz) Sherff (figs, j-r) .462 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



CXXXVIII. 

cxxxix. 

CXL. 

CXLI. 
CXLII. 

CXLIII. 

CXLIV. 

CXLV. 

CXLVI. 

CXLVII. 

CXLVIII. 

CXLIX. 

CL. 

CLI. 

CLII. 
CLIII. 
CLIV. 

CLV. 
CLVI. 

CLVII. 

CLVIII. 

CLIX. 

CLX. 

CLXI. 

CLXII. 

CLXIII. 

CLXIV. 

CLXV. 

CLXVI. 

CLXVII. 

CLXVIII. 

CLXIX. 

CLXX. 




Bidens rufovenosa Sherff (figs, a-i) 466 

Bidens leptolepis Sherff (figs, j-p) 466 

Bidens asperata (Hutch. & Dalz.) Sherff 468 

Bidens urceolata DeWild. (figs, a-g) 470 

Bidens rubra DeWild. (figs, h-o) 470 

Bidens taitensis Sherff 472 

Bidens Fischeri (O. Hoffm.) Sherff (figs, a-h) 474 

Bidens Schimperi Schz. Bip. ex Walp. (figs, i-q) 474 

Bidens Schimperi Schz. Bip. ex Walp 476 

Bidens Schimperi Schz. Bip. ex Walp. (forms) 478 

Bidens Kirkii (Oliv. & Hiern) Sherff 482 

Bidens musoziana Sherff 484 

Bidens Mossii Sherff 486 

Bidens Whytei Sherff (figs, a-g) 488 

Bidens ambigua S. L. Moore (figs, h-m) 488 

Bidens microcarpa Sherff (figs, a-h) 490 

Bidens gracilior (0. Hoffm.) Sherff (figs, i-p) 490 

Bidens palustris Sherff (figs, a-g) 492 

Bidens Taylori (S. L. Moore) Sherff (figs, h-o) 492 

Bidens Schlechteri Sherff (figs, a-i) 494 

Bidens Hoffmannii Sherff (figs, j-p) 494 

Bidens Mildbraedii Sherff 498 

Bidens Bequaertii DeWild 500 

Bidens Hildebrandtii 0. Hoffm 502 

Bidens magnifolia Sherff 504 

Bidens Phalangiphylla Sherff (figs, a-h) 506 

Bidens Elliotii (S. L. Moore) Sherff (figs, i-p) 506 

Bidens insecta (S. L. Moore) Sherff 508 

Bidens robustior S. L. Moore 510 

Bidens ugandensis (S. L. Moore) Sherff 514 

Bidens cinerea Sherff 516 

Bidens crocea Welw. ex O. Hoffm. (figs, a-g); var. verrucifera 

S. L. Moore (fig. h) 518 

Bidens flabellata 0. Hoffm 520 

Bidens Baumii (0. Hoffm.) Sherff 522 

Bidens Moorei Sherff (figs, a-g) ; var. verrucosa Sherff (figs, h, i) 524 

Bidens andongensis Hiern 532 

Bidens Buchneri (Klatt) Sherff 534 

Bidens somaliensis Sherff 540 

Bidens Seretii (DeWild.) Sherff 548 

Bidens Stuhlmannii (O. Hoffm.) Sherff 552 

Bidens ukambensis S. L. Moore (figs, a-i) 556 

Bidens rhodesiana Sherff (figs, j-p) 556 

Bidens grandis Sherff 564 

Bidens coriacea (O. Hoffm.) Sherff 568 

Bidens Crataegifolia (0. Hoffm.) Sherff 572 

Bidens kilimandscharica (O. Hoffm.) Sherff 574 

Bidens Volkensii O. Hoffm 578 

Bidens lineata Sherff 580 

Bidens Schweinfurthii Sherff 584 



10 



CLXXVIII. Bidens nyikensis Sherff 586 

CLXXIX. Bidens Rogersii Sherff 588 

CLXXX. Bidens chaetodonta Sherff (figs, a, c-t); var. glabrior (O. & H. 

in Oliv.) Sherff (fig. 6) 596 

CLXXXI. Bidens Rueppellii (Schz. Bip.) Sherff 598 

CLXXXII. Bidens Vatkei Sherff , 600 

CLXXXIII. Bidens rotata Sherff 602 

CLXXXIV. Bidens Cirsioides Sherff 604 

CLXXXV. Bidens Dielsii Sherff 612 

CLXXXVI. Bidens Neumannii Sherff 614 

CLXXXVII. Bidens ternata (Chiov.) Sherff 616 

CLXXXVIII. Bidens setigera (Schz. Bip.) Sherff (figs, j, k); var. abyssinica 

(Schz. Bip.) Sherff (figs, a-i) 620 

Bidens praecox Sherff (fig. 1) 620 

CLXXXIX. Bidens setigeroides Sherff (figs, a-t) 628 

Bidens phelloptera Sherff (figs, j-s) 628 



PREFACE 

It is now a quarter of a century since the work detailed in the 
following pages was begun. 1 The genus Bidens was suggested at 
that time by Dr. Jesse More Greenman as deserving of monographic 
study (c/. my Revision of the Genus Coreopsis, Field Mus. Bot. 
Ser. 11 : 279. 1936). Numerous facilities for research and publication 
were at once granted by the Department of Botany of the University 
of Chicago and by the Department of Botany of the Field Museum 
of Natural History. Subsequently, many other institutions of 
learning and many individuals throughout the world extended assist- 
ance of the most helpful kind. Indeed, it is certain that without 
their cooperation my studies could never have been advanced to a 
reasonable degree of completion. 

The genus Bidens was so closely intertwined in botanical litera- 
ture with Coreopsis, Cosmos, Coreocarpus, Megalodonta, Dahlia, 
Isostigma, Heterosperma, Thelesperma, and certain other genera 
of Compositae, that it became necessary in many cases to make a 
truly monographic study of these allied genera before attempting 
to progress further in the treatment of Bidens itself. This has occa- 
sioned considerable delay in the consummation of the present work 
but has permitted the writing of several other revisional texts which 
it is hoped will be of compensating value. 

It is exceedingly difficult in a work of this kind to describe properly 
or to acknowledge completely the innumerable bits of aid received 
over so long a time as twenty-five years. Several botanists and 
collectors have personally journeyed to distant and often almost 
inaccessible places to secure specimens for my studies. Various 
teachers of botany have enlisted the aid of their more advanced 
students to secure a large assemblage of materials. Most of the 
world's larger museums and herbaria have lent their entire collec- 
tions of Bidens and related genera or have placed at my disposal 
every desired facility when I sojourned with them for herbarium 
or library study. One foreign institution even went so far during 
the troublous times of the World War as to cut the sheets of type 
or other valuable specimens into halves and transmit one half for 
the delineation of my illustrative plates. In various articles already 

1 At the University of Chicago, where the first stages were completed in the 
graduate department. Some of the earliest findings were embodied in a paper 
(Studies in the genus Bidens III, Bot. Gaz. 61: 495. 1916) which was accepted by 
that institution as a thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy degree. 

11 



12 PREFACE 

published, some of this assistance has been acknowledged. At this 
time, however, I would express my indebtedness and gratitude to 
the staffs of all the many cooperating institutions and especially 
to the following individuals: Dr. Charles Sprague Sargent (deceased), 
former Director, and Miss Ethelyn Tucker, Librarian, Arnold 
Arboretum of Harvard University; Dr. Adolph Engler (deceased), 
former Director, Dr. Ludwig Diels, present Director, Dr. Robert 
Pilger, Associate Director, and Dr. Johannes Mattfeld, Curator, 
Botanical Garden of Berlin; Dr. Herbert E. Gregory, former Director, 
Dr. Peter Buck, present Director, Mr. Charles Noyes Forbes (de- 
ceased), former Curator of Botany, Mr. Edwin H. Bryan, Jr., Curator 
of Collections, Dr. Harold St. John and Mr. Francis Raymond 
Fosberg, members of the Mangarevan Expedition of, Bernice Pauahi 
Bishop Museum; Dr. Robert Chodat (deceased), former Director, 
Institute of Botany of the University of Geneva and Boissier Her- 
barium; Dr. Alfred Barton Rendle, former Keeper of Botany, Dr. 
John Ramsbottom, present Keeper of Botany, and Mr. Spencer 
Le Marchant Moore (deceased; for many years affiliated with), 
British Museum of Natural History; Dr. Otto Buchtien, formerly 
in charge of the Buchtien Herbarium, La Paz, Bolivia; Dr. Emile 
DeWildeman, former Director, Dr. Walter Robyns, present Director, 
and Dr. P. Staner (until recently Attache at the Museum of the 
Belgian Congo at Tervueren but now on the staff of), National 
Botanical Garden at Brussels; Dr. Harvey Monroe Hall (deceased), 
former Professor of Botany, and Dr. Willis Linn Jepson, Professor 
of Botany, University of California; Mr. James Melville Macoun 
(deceased), former Curator, Herbarium of Canadian Geological 
Survey; Dr. Otto Emery Jennings, Curator of Botany, Carnegie 
Museum, Pittsburgh; Dr. John Merle Coulter (deceased), former 
Head of Department of Botany, University of Chicago; Dr. Alexander 
Borza, Director, Institute for Systematic Botany at the University 
of Cluj; Dr. Carl Christensen, Curator of the Botanical Museum, 
University of Copenhagen; Dr. Willard Winfield Rowlee (deceased), 
former Professor of Botany, Dr. Liberty Hyde Bailey, former Pro- 
fessor of Horticulture, and Dr. Karl McKay Wiegand, Professor of 
Botany, Cornell University; Mr. Charles Clemon Deam, formerly 
owner and custodian of the Deam Herbarium; Mr. Otto Degener, 
author of the New Flora of the Hawaiian Islands, owner and custo- 
dian of the Degener Herbarium; Dr. Casimir DeCandolle (deceased), 
formerly in charge of the DeCandollean Prodromus Herbarium, Dr. 
John Isaac Briquet (deceased), former Director, and Dr. Benedict 



PREFACE 13 

Pierre Georges Hochreutiner, present Director, Delessert Herbarium ; 
Dr. Fritz Knoll, former Director, Botanical Institute of the German 
University of Prague; Dr. Enrico Carano, former Director, Dr. 
Giovanni Negri, present Director, and Dr. Renato Pampanini, 
former Adjutante and Conservator, Institute of Botany of the 
University of Florence; Dr. Carl Skottsberg, Director, Gothenburg 
(Gb'teborg) Arboretum; Dr. Benjamin Lincoln Robinson (deceased), 
former Curator, Dr. Merritt Lyndon Fernald, present Curator, Mr. 
Charles A. Weatherby, Assistant Curator, Miss Mary Ann Day 
(deceased), former Librarian, and Miss Ruth D. Sanderson, present 
Librarian, Gray Herbarium, Harvard University; Dr. Edward Lee 
Greene (deceased), former owner and custodian, and Dr. Julius A. 
Nieuwland (deceased), former Curator, E. L. Greene Herbarium; 
Sir David Prain, former Director, Sir Arthur W. Hill, present 
Director, Dr. Otto Stapf (deceased), former Keeper of Herbarium, 
Mr. Arthur Disbrowe Cotton, present Keeper of Herbarium, and Miss 
M. L. Green, Botanist, Royal Botanical Gardens of Kew; Professor 
Siro Kitamura, Imperial University, Kioto; Dr. J. W. C. Goethart, 
Conservator, National Herbarium (Herb. Rijks), Leyden; Dr. 
Benjamin Daydon Jackson (deceased), former General Secretary, 
Linnean Society of London; Dr. Wilhelm Ruhland, Director, 
Botanical Institute of the University of Leipsic; Dr. Carl Otto 
Rosendahl, Chairman of Department of Botany, Dr. Martin 
Lawrence Grant, recently Assistant in Botany, and Dr. John 
William Moore, Curator of Herbarium, University of Minnesota; 
Dr. George Thomas Moore, Director, Mr. Moses Craig (deceased), 
former Curator of Herbarium, and Dr. Jesse More Greenman, 
present Curator of Herbarium, Missouri Botanical Garden; Dr. 
Karl Eberhard Goebel (deceased), former Conservator of the Royal 
Botanical Garden, and Dr. Hermann Ross, Chief Conservator of 
the Botanical Museum, Munich; Dr. Edwin Bayer, Director of 
Department of Botany, National Museum, Prague; Dr. Karel 
Domin, Director, Botanical Institute and Gardens of Charles 
University, Prague; Dr. Alexander Zahlbruckner, former Custodian, 
Dr. Heinrich Handel-Mazzetti, former Custodian, and Dr. Karl 
Keissler, Director, Department of Botany, Natural History Museum 
of Vienna; Dr. Nathaniel Lord Britton (deceased), former Director, 
Dr. Elmer Drew Merrill, former Director, Dr. Marshall Avery Howe 
(deceased), late Director, Dr. Henry Allan Gleason, Deputy Director 
and Head Curator, Dr. John Hendley Barnhart, Bibliographer, 
and Dr. John Kunkel Small, Curator, New York Botanical Garden ; 



14 PREFACE 

Mr. George Claridge Druce, formerly in charge of the Dillenian 
Herbarium, and Dr. Joseph Burtt-Davy, Lecturer in Tropical Forest 
Botany, Oxford University; Dr. H. LeComte, Honorary Professor, 
Dr. Henri Humbert, Professor, Mr. Louis Anfray (deceased), former 
Preparator, and Dr. Paul Danguy, Vice-Director, Museum of 
Natural History of Paris; Dr. John Milton Fogg, Jr., Assistant 
Professor of Botany, University of Pennsylvania; Dr. Boris Issat- 
chenko, former Director, Dr. Boris Keller, present Director, and 
Dr. V. P. Savicz, Assistant Director, Botanical Garden of Leningrad ; 
Mr. Marcus Eugene Jones (deceased), former Honorary Curator 
of Herbarium, and Dr. Philip A. Munz, Professor of Botany, Pomona 
College; Mr. Stewardson Brown (deceased), former Curator of 
Plants, and Dr. Francis W. Pennell, present Curator of Plants, 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; Dr. LeRoy Abrams, 
Professor of Botany and Curator of the Dudley Herbarium, and 
Dr. Ira L. Wiggins, Assistant Professor of Botany, Stanford Uni- 
versity; Dr. Gunnar Samuelsson, Director of the Botanical Section 
of the Natural History Royal Museum, Stockholm; Dr. William R. 
Maxon, Curator, United States National Museum; Dr. Sidney Fay 
Blake, Senior Botanist, United States Bureau of Plant Industry; 
Dr. Richard Wettstein-Westersheim (deceased), former Director, 
Botanical Garden and Institute of Vienna; Dr. Charles Elmer Allen, 
Professor of Botany, and Dr. Norman Carter Fassett, Assistant 
Professor of Botany, University of Wisconsin; Mr. William Harris 
(deceased), former Superintendent of Public Gardens for the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture in Jamaica; Professor Angel L. Cabrera, National 
University of La Plata, Argentina; Sr. Jose" F. Molfino, Ministry 
of Agriculture, Buenos Aires; Mr. James C. Nelson, Principal, 
Senior High School, Salem, Oregon; Mr. F. G. Overlaet, Territorial 
Administrator at Kafakumba, District of Katanga, Belgian Congo; 
Mr. St. Ahnne, President of the Chamber of Agriculture of Tahiti 
in 1916; and Mr. V. Van Straelen, President, Institute of National 
Parks of the Belgian Congo, Brussels. 

From its inception, most of the work has been done at the 
Field Museum of Natural History, where I have been shown in- 
numerable courtesies and afforded much valuable aid. It is a genuine 
pleasure to express here my gratitude to Mr. Frederick J. V. Skiff 
(deceased), former Director, Mr. David C. Davies (deceased), 
former Director, Mr. Stephen C. Simms (deceased), late Director, 
Dr. Charles Frederick Millspaugh (deceased), former Curator of 
Botany, Dr. B. E. Dahlgren, present Curator of Botany, Mr. Paul 



PREFACE 15 

Carpenter Standley, Associate Curator of the Herbarium, and Mr. 
J. Francis Macbride, Assistant Curator of Taxonomy. I desire to 
thank also the Board of Trustees of Field Museum and particularly 
its President, Mr. Stanley Field. 

From time to time since late in 1913, the results of my investiga- 
tions in Bidens have been published in various botanical journals, 
especially the Botanical Gazette, the American Journal of Botany, 
the Journal of the Pan-Pacific Research Institution, the Occasional 
Papers of Bernice P. Bishop Museum, and the Bulletin du Jardin 
Botanique de L'fitat (Bruxelles). Numerous references to these 
journals will be found scattered through the present text. In fact, 
to a certain extent this text represents a final consolidation of the 
materials presented earlier in some two dozen or more separate 
articles. Most of the text stands as it was prepared ten or more 
years ago. A sincere attempt has been made, however, to add treat- 
ments for all new forms which have come to light recently and to 
incorporate, so far as space would permit, additional exsiccatae of 
importance and references to the more noteworthy recent literature. 

Throughout the preparation of the original manuscript and final 
text, I have been aided in the proofreading by my wife, Fern R. 
Seeley Sherff. Her cooperation is acknowledged here most gratefully. 

Of all the more important specimens cited I have made photo- 
graphs, these aggregating probably more than two thousand. Com- 
plete sets are in my private collection and in the Herbarium of the 
Field Museum of Natural History. A few hundred photographs 
have been distributed to certain other herbaria, notably those of 
the Berlin Botanical Garden and the National Botanical Garden 
at Brussels. 

It was originally intended to present delineations of authentic 
materials for every known species. Accordingly, until about six 
years ago I had sketched all species known to me, and even many 
varieties. Since that time, however, the pressure of other work, not 
to mention the anticipated limitations of space, has prevented the 
preparation of additional plates. Fortunately most of the recently 
described species are well represented in herbaria by type and 
cotype materials, 1 so that little difficulty should be encountered in 
problems of identification. 

In general, geographic names are given essentially as in modern 
atlases. In a few cases, however, it has seemed wise to leave the 

1 The term "cotype" is used throughout to connote a duplicate of the type (i.e., 
a paratype; cf. J. C. Arthur et al., Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 34: 172-174, Apr., 1907). 



16 PREFACE 

country name as given in my earlier writings; e.g., British East 
Africa is retained for Kenya Colony and German East Africa for Tan- 
ganyika Territory. 1 In most cases where specimens were described 
as having been collected "in the vicinity of" a certain town or city, 
these qualifying words have been deleted by the Editor. Moreover, 
all altitudes expressed by the collector in feet have been altered in 
the process of editing to read in meters, the conversion being made 
on the slightly inexact basis of 3^ feet to one meter. 

The text has been made to conform throughout to the Inter- 
national Rules of Nomenclature as adopted at Cambridge, England, 

in 1930 (ed. 3, Jena, 1935). 2 

EARL EDWARD SHERFF 

1 An unwelcome complication arises in the latter case, in that northwestern- 
most German East Africa (that is, Urundi and Ruanda) now appears in atlases as 
a part of Belgian Congo. It is quite possible that several specimens recently 
collected in "Belgian Congo" came from territory cited by me for earlier specimens 
as a part of German East Africa. 

2 With the slight exception that Recommendation XL-b, intended to apply 
only to "a new specific or other epithet" and governing the construction of posses- 
sive names when these are derived from "the name of a man," is made to apply to 
old as well as "new" epithets. Thus, for examples, Coreopsis Sereti (original spell- 
ing) appears as C. Seretii, and Bidens Eatoni (original spelling) appears as B. Eatonii. 
It would seem that, in the interests of nomenclatural simplification and unification, 
a future International Congress should amend Recommendation XL, making 
part "b" and perhaps the other three parts to apply to old as well as to new epithets. 

It may be added here that in the present text Recommendation XLIII of the 
International Rules has been followed in accordance with what it seemed must be a 
correct literal interpretation, rather than in accordance with the interpretation 
placed upon it by most botanists (if we may judge by their practice). This 
Recommendation provides that: "Specific (or other) epithets should be written 
with a small initial letter, except those which are derived from names of persons 
(substantives or adjectives) or are taken from generic names (substantives or 
adjectives)." This is essentially the same as Recommendation X of the Inter- 
national Rules adopted in 1905 at Vienna, and, curiously enough, the context con- 
tains the same flaws that were manifest in the context for the earlier recommenda- 
tion. No example is given immediately of a specific name taken from a generic name 
and used as an adjective (in "Lythrum Hyssopifolia," perhaps originally intended for 
an example, "Hyssopifolia" is the name of a former genus and is used as a sub- 
stantive, lacking, quite naturally of course, agreement in gender with Lythrum). 
However, elsewhere in the text of the 1930 Rules, specific epithets taken directly 
from generic names and used as adjectives are begun with a small letter (e.g., linoides 
from Linurn, Art. 69, Examples, line 4). Confronted with this evident disregard of 
recommendations by those whose very duty it was to edit and publish them, I have 
chosen to ignore all but the literal wording of the recommendation itself as printed. 
In this way it is felt that the matured and officially expressed judgment of those 
in attendance when the recommendation in question was originally put to a vote 
has been given proper recognition. The reader will find, therefore, Bidens Cos- 
moides, Bidens Cirsioides, etc., in the text. Moreover, trivial names like geraniifolia, 
ferulaefolia, etc., have been construed as coming within the scope of the same 
recommendation, hence the names, Bidens Geraniifolia, Bidens Ferulaefolia, etc. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 



EARL EDWARD SHERFF 



HISTORICAL SURVEY OF GENUS 

The genus Bidens dates back (if we disregard the genus in so far 
as it appeared in the works of Tournefort and other pre-Linnean 
writers) to Linnaeus' Species Plantarum (p. 831. 1753) and his 
Genera Plantarum (ed. 5. 362, No. 840. 1754). Bidens tripartita L. 
was the type. Except for certain species (e.g., B. nivea L., B. verti- 
cillata L., and B. fruticosa L.), which since have been universally 
recognized as belonging to genera other than Bidens (and, too, other 
than Coreopsis; see list of Nomina e Bidente excludenda at end of 
this work), the Linnean species of Bidens had achenial awns or aristae, 
and these were armed with retrorse barbs. 

In 1790, * Necker (Elem. Bot. 1: 86-87) subdivided the genus 
Bidens into two new genera. Because of the existence of species 
with more than two achenial aristae, he dropped the name Bidens. 
He proposed, instead, the names Pluridens and Edwarsia. His 
Pluridens was described as having "folia simplicia" and apparently 
was meant as synonymous with Bidens L. sensu stricto (although 
the Linnean type of the genus Bidens was really B. tripartita L., a 
species with compound leaves!). It would include Bidens cernua L. 
His Edwarsia was described as having "folia composita" and con- 
sisting of "quaed. Bident. Linn." It thus would include, for example, 
B. pilosa L. and B. bipinnata L. 

In 1794, Moench (Meth. 569 and 595) followed Necker's treat- 
ment essentially, but substituted the names Bidens and Kerneria 
for Necker's two names. Neither Necker's treatment nor that of 
Moench is today accepted by botanists. 

About a century ago Gaudichaud (Voy. Freycinet Bot. 464, 
pL 85. 1826-1830), describing a species collected in the Hawaiian 
Islands during Freycinet's voyage, named the plant Bidens micrantha. 
Shortly afterward, Cassini (Diet. Sci. Nat. 51: 475. 1827) called 
attention to the curved achenes of Gaudichaud's species. He made 
this achenial character the basis for proposing his new genus Cam- 
pylotheca (syn. Dolicotheca). Later, Lessing (Linnaea 6: 508. 1831) 

1 Cf. E. L. Greene, Pittonia 4: 245. 1901. 

17 



18 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

accepted Cassini's genus for species like Bidens micrantha Gaud., 
but erected a new genus, Adenolepis, to include a somewhat different 
form, his (Lessing's) A. pulchella. Concerning Campylotheca, how- 
ever, we may note that the name was retained by DeCandolle in 
his Prodromus (5: 593. 1836), although elsewhere it was accorded 
only slight attention. In fact, the collections in those days embraced 
so few specimens from the Pacific Islands that little study was made 
of the Pacific flora by taxonomists. 

DeCandolle (loc. cit.) listed under Bidens proper 76 species. An 
essential character of Bidens as distinguished from Coreopsis was, 
in his opinion, the possession of retrorse barbs by the achenial 
aristae. If these were lacking he referred the species to Coreopsis. 
His 76 species of Bidens he divided into three sections. His Sect. I, 
Platycarpaea, included such species (as to obovate-cuneiform, ob- 
compressed, or flat achenes) as B. tripartite, L., B. connata Muhl., 
and B. cernua L. His Sect. II, Psilocarpaea, included such species 
(as to elongate, linear-tetragonal achenes) as B. triplinervia H.B.K. 
and B. pilosa L. ; and with these species he even joined those climbing 
species like B. Rubifolia H.B.K. and B. squarrosa H.B.K., species 
which have elongate, flat, almost ribbon-shaped achenes. His 
Sect. Ill, Discopoda, included the one species B. purpurea DC., a 
species that was a true Cosmos and later was very properly trans- 
ferred to that genus (Benth. & Hook. Gen. PL 2: 387. 1876; cf. 
Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 2: 200. 1881). It is seen, then, that 
the true species of Bidens were in reality divided by DeCandolle 
into only two sections, namely, Platycarpaea and Psilocarpaea. 
These, however, were distinguished upon a surer morphological basis 
than was the case with either Necker or Moench. 

Aside from Campylotheca and Bidens, DeCandolle (op. cit. 633) 
described a new plant that resembled Bidens, but which appeared 
remarkable in having the ligules pistillate and fertile. He created 
the genus Delucia therefor, and his new plant he named D. Ostru- 
thioides (later Schultz Bipontinus in Seem. Bot. Voy. Herald 308. 
1852-1857 renamed the species Bidens Ostruthioides, and this latter 
name has been widely accepted ever since). Nuttall, in 1841 (Trans. 
Amer. Phil. Soc. n. ser. 7: 368), reduced Campylotheca to the rank 
of a section under Bidens, but did not give extended reasons for so 
doing. His attention had been directed to the subject by his having 
traveled among the Hawaiian Islands and discovered there at least 
one new species of Bidens (his B. gracilis}. Nuttall, however, did 
evince a rejection of Cassini's main character for Campylotheca, 



THE GENUS BIDENS 19 

namely, the curved or twisted achenes. He worded his description 
to read "sometimes curved or contorted," and for one species (his 
B. mutica) he definitely described the achenes as "straight." Since 
Nuttall's time, we may add, many other closely affiliated species 
have been discovered, including forms of Bidens micrantha itself, 
which have straight achenes, thus bringing the curved-achene 
character into discredit. 

In 1856 Schultz Bipontinus undertook the determination of 
various specimens collected on the Island of Nukahiva (Marquesas 
Islands) by Edward Jardin. Finding four new species native to this 
single small island, Schultz Bipontinus appears to have entered upon 
a very careful and painstaking research into the subject of their 
generic affinities, finally publishing his results 1 in Flora (39: 357. 
1856). As regards the maintenance of a genus Campylotheca apart 
from Bidens, he was unreservedly against such a course. His four 
new species from Nukahiva and all of the Hawaiian species he 
referred to Bidens. 

In 1861, Asa Gray (Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 125-128) made the 
next important contribution to a knowledge of the group. Gray 
had received from the Museum of Natural History in Paris several 
specimens collected by Jules Remy in the Hawaiian Islands, also 
a number from the United States Exploring Expedition under 
Captain Wilkes, collected in the Hawaiian Islands, Tahiti, Eimeo, 
and elsewhere in the Pacific. Most of these were new species. Gray's 
publication indicates that he was probably unaware of Schultz 
Bipontinus' paper. Thus, for example, he inadvertently created the 
name Coreopsis Macraei for a plant already named by the latter 
Bidens Campylotheca. As, therefore, he does not seem to have read 
Schultz Bipontinus' paper, it is all the more interesting and valu- 
able to find that Gray, too, was compelled to abandon the name 
Campylotheca. Species having the achenes wingless and the awns 
retrorsely barbed he described under Bidens. But several other 
species, different in having either exaristate achenes or even winged 
achenes, he described under Coreopsis. Thus he described Bidens 
hawaiensis, B. Lantanoides, Coreopsis mauiensis, C. macrocarpa, C. 
Macraei, C. Cosmoides, and C. Menziesii. Gray's own words at the 
time of describing some of these species are worthy of note. 
Speaking of the futility of maintaining Campylotheca as a separate 

1 For a personal estimate, apparently unbiased and accurate, of the taxonomic 
ability and sagacity that Schultz Bipontinus displayed at times, see Bentham, 
Journ. Linn. Soc. 13: 340. 1873. 



20 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

genus, apart from Bidens and Coreopsis, he said: "Its adoption 
merely gives us three limitless genera unmarked by any peculiarity 
in habit, in the place of two artificially separated ones. . . . Vain is 
the attempt to draw absolute limits where Nature luxuriates in 
gradations" (Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 126. 1861). 

In 1888 there appeared the posthumous Flora of the Hawaiian 
Islands by William Hillebrand. From his twenty years of resident 
study in the Hawaiian Islands and his careful investigations subse- 
quently, Hillebrand was eminently well versed in their species. His 
treatment assumes almost the aspect of a monographic revision, 
and it is evident that he possessed much more than an ordinary 
knowledge of Bidens and related groups. His brilliancy, however, 
appears to have been manifested, as is so apt to occur with a local 
botanist, less in the excellence of his genus concept than in that of 
his species concept. And, even in the latter respect, his generaliza- 
tions are often necessarily faulty because of the inadequacy of his 
material. Hillebrand, like Gray, appears never to have seen Schultz 
Bipontinus' paper. He discarded Gray's treatment, however, and 
adopted once again Cassini's name Campylotheca. Speaking of 
Campylotheca he says (p. 211) : "The genus, as it presents itself now, 
stands evidently nearer to Bidens than to Coreopsis, and might be 
merged in the former if it were not for the winged achenes of so many 
species, 1 which, if admitted in the character of Bidens, would efface 
the limits between that genus and Coreopsis." Gray's Hawaiian 
Bidens is transferred by Hillebrand to Campylotheca. 2 

From early times down to and including the work of Drake del 
Castillo, botanists, as exemplified by Augustin DeCandolle (the 
DeCandolle who is meant throughout this work except where noted 
to the contrary) and Asa Gray, tended to refer to Bidens those species 
with retrorsely barbed awns, and to Coreopsis those species with 
antrorsely barbed awns or with awns inconspicuous. 3 But, from 
time to time in North America, new forms have been discovered, 
identical in each case with a certain species of Coreopsis (as then 

1 Regarding the inaccuracy of this statement, cf. footnote 1, p. 24. 

2 We may note at this point that shortly following Hillebrand's book, Drake 
del Castilld (Illustr. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. 208-210. 1890) transferred all the Campy- 
lotheca species, also several allied species of Bidens, to the genus Coreopsis! 
Strangely, however, he left such species as Bidens Lantanoides Gray and B. australis 
Spreng. (B. paniculata Hook. & Arn.) in Bidens. 

3 It is true that in isolated cases species with retrorsely barbed achenes were 
put by Jacquin (e.g., Bidens Ferulaefolia), by Loureiro (e.g., B. leucorrhiza) , by 
Cavanilles (e.g., B. Sambucifolia), and by others into Coreopsis. In each such 
case, however, these species were sooner or later transferred to Bidens and there 
retained by the great body of taxonomic workers. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 21 

delimited) or Bidens except in the direction of the barbs on the 
awns. Asa Gray (cf. Fernald, Rhodora 15: 77. 1913), when con- 
fronted with such a form of "Coreopsis aristosa Michx." (the then 
accepted name), designated it "C. aristosa inBidentem transformata." 
Later (Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1, pt. 2: 294-296. 1884) he treated this 
and similar forms as hybrids between Coreopsis and Bidens. 

In 1893, Britton (Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 20: 280-281), emphasizing 
the instability of the barb-direction character f or Bidens frondosa L., 
and also separating the two genera on general grounds rather than 
by one particular character, transferred six species from Coreopsis 
to Bidens. The validity of these transfers has since been accepted 
unhesitatingly by all prominent American botanists who have 
critically studied the Eastern United States species of Bidens, among 
them Wiegand (Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 26: 401. 1899), Greene (e.g., 
Leafl. Bot. Crit. 1: 200. 1906), 1 and Robinson and Fernald (Gray's 
Man. ed. 7: 839. 1908). It is also implied by many other botanists 
working upon the species of other regions but following the same 
distinctions, a singular case being that of Brandegee's description 
(Zoe 5: 239. 1906) of Bidens alpina and Greenman's description 
(Proc. Amer. Acad. 41: 264. 1905) of Bidens sarmentosa. The achenes 
are described for B. alpina as "nearly smooth; awns none or two 
varying from 1 mm. long to rudiments, corneous and not barbellate"; 
for B. sarmentosa, as "glabrous or sparingly hispidulous, awnless 
or with reduced awns." But, on investigation, these species were 
found to be identical; in turn, B. sarmentosa, which from priority 
of publication would otherwise stand as the accepted species, was 
found to match in every character Coreopsis Anthemoides DC., 
having achenes described (DC. Prodr. 5: 573. 1836) as "(immaturis) 
linearibus glabris brevissime bidentatis." Thus, a species placed 
by DeCandolle in Coreopsis, evidently because of its very short 
awns, was independently referred by Brandegee and by Greenman, 
about 70 years later, to Bidens, evidently because the achenes lacked 
wings and the general characters coincided closely with those of 
certain unquestioned species of Bidens (e.g.,B. triplinervia, especially 
its var. macrantha, with awns retrorsely barbed). More recently 
still, specimens of this same species have been found with most of 
the achenial aristae retrorsely barbed, and one such form has been 
described as Bidens Purpusorum Bitt. & Ptsn. (cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
76: 153. 1923). 

1 Thus, Greene refers to Bidens a plant ("B. tenuissima") with "erect, up- 
wardly barbed awns." 



22 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Fernald, in a recent discussion of the awn characters of Bidens 
(Rhodora 15: 74-78. 1913), lists no fewer than six American species 
in which occurs a more or less pronounced form having the awns 
barbed in the reverse from the normal direction. Thus, for example, 
Bidens connata Muhl. has awns retrorsely barbed, while var. anomala 
Farw. has awns antrorsely barbed. Again, Bidens aristosa (Michx.) 
Britt. has antrorsely barbed awns, while the var. Fritcheyi Fern, has 
retrorsely barbed awns. Hence it is obvious that, were the old artifi- 
cial method of distinguishing between Coreopsis and Bidens (namely, 
by the direction of the barbs on the awns) to be retained, an anoma- 
lous situation would result. We should be compelled either to regard 
each of these varieties as a hybrid between two species of distinct 
genera, a course certainly unwarranted in several cases (cf. Fernald, 
loc. cit., and Wiegand, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 26: 401. 1899), or to 
refer each variety to the other genus, an entirely indefensible alterna- 
tive. We are compelled, then, to view these varieties, in at least 
the majority of cases, as merely more or less distinct and pronounced 
forms of their respective species. This being true, the awn character 
method of separating Coreopsis from Bidens is seen to demand a 
restatement. In the light of my own monographic researches upon 
these two genera, we may go only so far as to say that all forms with 
retrorsely barbed achenial aristae belong in Bidens, but that forms 
having antrorsely barbed aristae or having no aristae at all may 
belong in either Bidens or Coreopsis, depending upon various other 
considerations. 1 

The somewhat superficial study made by Greene (Pittonia 4: 
242-270. 1901) upon several species of Bidens may be noted here 
in passing. Greene commented upon the dissimilarity between 
such species as B. cernua L. and B. tripartite^ L. Even so radical a 
botanist as he, however, refrained from proposing a generic segrega- 
tion of the B. cernua forms. Nevertheless, Greene did segregate the 
aquatic Bidens Beckii as the type of a new genus, Megalodonta; 
and, when the peculiar achenes of this species are considered, it 
seems wise to accept Greene's new genus as valid. 

Strangely enough, no one appears to have tried to segregate 
generically the pronounced and well defined group of Bidens species 
typified by B. reptans (L.) G. Don. 2 These species differ from the 

1 For additional notes on the aristal barbs, see Wegener, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 
31: 79. 1914; etiam Briquet, Arch. Sc. Phys. Nat. 42: 65. 1916. 

2 DeCandolle (Prodr. 5: 599. 1836), however, did create the name Bidens 
Coreopsidis for one of these species. Even earlier, the names Coreopsis reptans L., 
C. incisa Ker., etc., had been given to certain of these species, but without very 
serious consideration's being given to their generic affiliations. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 23 

more typical species in being climbers, and in having long, flat 
achenes that are hispid along the two edges in such a way at times 
as to suggest a centipede. They are referred in this work to the 
Section Greenmania. Similarly, the anomalous Bidens clarendonensis 
Britton may be mentioned here. It has trailing, somewhat woody 
stems, thick, rhombic-ovate leaves, and by some might be inter- 
preted as representing a new genus (although by me it is taken as 
representing the monotypic section Neurophyllum). 

It is seen that, if we accept the narrow concept of Bidens held 
by Cassini, Lessing, and Hillebrand, and seek to segregate the native 
Pacific species under the name Campylotheca, to be consistent we 
shall have to subject the entire genus Bidens to a process of subdivi- 
sion and segregation, resulting in at least eight genera. There are 
at least two good reasons for not adopting such a course. In the 
first place, the accuracy of such a series of interpretations is not so 
well established as to justify overturning almost the entire nomen- 
clature of the genus. In the second place, the lines of demarcation 
among the various subordinate groups are so fluctuating and in- 
constant that efforts to apply a binomial system of nomenclature 
to the many species would be rendered even more difficult than 
before. I am constrained to reject, therefore, any idea of seriously 
interfering with the general status of Bidens. Cassini's name 
Campylotheca I am compelled to reject. 1 

1 In taking this step it is reassuring to read the words of so eminent a student 
of the Compositae as Bentham. Speaking of Cassini and his work, he stated 
(Journ. Linn. Soc. 13: 338. 1873): "Unfortunately, however, in working out the 
details of the genera in the 'Dictionaire,' he indulged in an enormous and useless 
multiplication of generic names, which only tended to throw the nomenclature 
into confusion, and cast a slur upon all his labors. Wherever he observed a slight 
difference in the involucre, pappus, or general aspect, or could not readily identify 
an imperfect specimen, an engraved figure, or a description often incorrect, he 
at once set it down as a new genus, and has thus, more than any other botanist of 
equal ability, overloaded the science with useless synonyms. So recklessly, indeed, 
did he give way to this mania of coining new names, that he on many occasions 
proposed two, or even three, for the same genus, leaving future botanists to take 
their choice." Cassini did not neglect Campylotheca in this respect. At the very 
outset he proposed Dolicotheca as an alternative name. This latter name, however, 
was never adopted by Lessing, DeCandolle, or others. 

We may note here that recently Brown (Forest B.H., Fl. S.E. Polynesia 
3: 350. 1935; Bishop Mus. Bull. 130: 350. 1935) has retained Campylotheca and 
advanced various queries as to the presence or importance of certain diagnostic 
characters hitherto relied upon or hitherto neglected. On the other hand, Degener 
(in numerous names published conjointly with myself in past articles cited in 
the following pages), Grant (in such names as Bidens orofenensis, B. glandulifera, 
B. aoraiensis, etc., published or repeated in this volume with his cooperation), 
J. W. Moore (Bish. Mus. Bull. 102: 46. 1933), St. John (in many herbarium 
determinations), Skottsberg (Medd. Goteborgs Bot. Tradgard 10: 191. 1935), 
and various other able students of the Pacific floras have inclined toward outright 
reduction of Campylotheca to Bidens. 



24 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Having laid aside the name Campy iotheca, we must note next 
the lack of absolute uniformity in even one distinctive character 
among the numerous species of Bidens and of the allied genus 
Coreopsis. In spite of this lack, however, one such character does 
persist to a considerable extent, especially among the African and 
North American (as contrasted with the South American) species. 
It is the presence (in Coreopsis) or absence (in Bidens) of two lateral 
wings upon the mature achene. In cases where other criteria are 
absent, it appears to offer the only logical basis of distinction. This 
presence or absence of achene wings was given great weight by Gray, 
but in the Pacific flora the wing character is unreliable, and will 
lead, if absence of wings be demanded from all species of Bidens, 
to an arbitrary and unnatural arrangement. Some three or four 
Hawaiian forms commonly have accessory awns or barbs below the 
achene's apex, and either these or the principal awns frequently 
are decurrent along the achenial edges as a more or less thickened 
margin or even as a wing; or at times the awns seem unrelated to 
the wings. In Bidens mauiensis, these wings are very conspicuous. 
The number of Hawaiian species that exhibit this character, however, 
is very small compared with the remaining Pacific species that lack 
it. 1 Moreover, a study of their other characters, such as odor of 
bruised foliage (when fresh) and shape of ligules, as well as range 
of distribution, shows them to be much closer to the wingless-achened 
Bidens species of the Pacific than to the American species Coreopsis 
lanceolata L., which has winged achenes and which must be taken as 
the type of the genus Coreopsis. It seems wise, therefore, to treat such 
species as belonging in Bidens instead of in Coreopsis, where placed 
by Asa Gray. We shall have even then no greater incongruity in 
Bidens than must perforce be tolerated in Coreopsis. Thus, for 
example, all authors who have dealt with the subject have retained 
the North American wingless-achened Coreopsis rosea Nutt. and 
C. tinctoria Nutt. in Coreopsis despite their anomalous achenes, 
because their other characters clearly indicated a closer affinity with 
Coreopsis than with Bidens. Manifestly this was the only correct 
course to pursue, and my own procedure is precisely comparable. 

On reference to recent descriptions and types of African species 
of Bidens, we find that in several cases the awns, even on achenes 
of the same head, are barbed both antrorsely and retrorsely. Thus, 

1 Cf. Hillebrand's misleading words, "the winged achenes of so many species." 
Doubtless Hillebrand was recalling many specimens of a few species, and unguard- 
edly referring to them as "so many species." Reference to his individual descrip- 
tions shows few of the species to be described as wing-achened. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 25 

for example, Moore (Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 37: 322. 1906) created 
the name Bidens ambigua for Gossweiler 1189, for the very reason 
that some of the awns are smooth, others antrorsely barbed, and 
others retrorsely barbed ("achaeniis .... aristis 2 quam se ipsa 
brevioribus dentibus perpaucis nunc erectis mine recurvis onustis 
vel etiam omnino calvis . . . ., hence the trivial name"). Yet in the 
same year (Journ. Bot. 44: 22. 1906) he likewise somewhat arbi- 
trarily created the name Coreopsis Taylori for a plant showing the 
same variation (coll. W. E. Taylor, Jan. 5, 1886; "achaeniis .... 
apice setuloso-ciliatis calvis vel aristulis 1 vel 2 brevissimis erecto- vel 

patenti- vel etiam recurvo-uncinulatis onustis saepe vero nudis ; 

indeed, the plant might almost as well be considered a Bidens, but 
the habit is that of Coreopsis"). In referring the latter species to 
Coreopsis, he relied mainly upon its habital similarity to other 
(so-called) species of Coreopsis from Africa. But, as will be seen 
presently, some of these species belong in reality to Bidens. There- 
fore, this habital similarity, affording formerly an apparently good 
reason for the name Coreopsis Taylori, can no longer be given much 
consideration. 

The present writer, in bringing together the numerous species 
of Bidens for monographic treatment, has come to adopt fully the 
distinctions between these two genera as followed by recent American 
botanists. In brief, the genus Coreopsis is maintained primarily 
because of the peculiar habit and winged achenes of the Linnean 
type species (excluding C. alba, C. Bidens, and C. alternifolia, Sp. 
Plant, ed. 1. 907-909. 1753; cf. Britton, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 20: 
280. 1893). 

Similarly, the genus Bidens is maintained primarily because of 
the peculiar habit, strongly barbed awns, and wingless achenes of 
several of the Linnean species of Bidens. 

MORPHOLOGY, HISTOLOGY, CYTOLOGY, ECOLOGY, 
AND OTHER SPECIAL LINES OF INQUIRY 

No attempt can be made here to survey completely the work done 
so far upon Bidens in the several special fields of plant research. 1 

1 Aside from references to Frank's finding of connecting bundles in Bidens (Bot. 
Zeit. 1864: 154 and 382. 1864; cf. DeBary, Comp. Anat. Phan. Ferns 308. 1884) 
and to Hanstein's finding of transverse girdles in B. cernua and B. tripartite^ (Abh. 
Berl. Acad. 1857: 77. 1857; cf. DeBary, op. cit. 297), my manuscript includes 
little of value connected with the morphology or histology of the stem or branches. 

The morphology of the chaff scales and involucral bracts of the European 
species of Bidens has been studied by Briquet (Arch. Sc. Phys. Nat. 43: 333. 1917). 
A summary of his findings, as presented elsewhere (Briq. & Cavill. Fl. Alp. Marit. 



26 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Nor can an attempt be made to summarize the environmental con- 
ditions under which the numerous species live. These are so varied, 
ranging from almost extreme hydrophytism 1 to almost extreme 
xerophytism, that habitat data can best be and are presented in 
association with the Specimens examined. 2 There, too, will be found 
special notes on any uses for medicines, dyestuffs, beverages, etc., 
that various collectors have recorded. There is practically no litera- 
ture upon the cytology or genetics of Bidens. 3 

6: 215. 1917), is quoted verbatim: "Enfin, une autre particularity tres inteiessante 
de nos especes du genre Bidens consiste dans le fait que les bractees involucrales 
internes et externes ont une structure tres differente. IndSpendamment de nom- 
breux caracteres distinctifs de detail, les canaux s6creteurs sont lies aux faisceaux 
dans les premieres (dans la nervure m6diane, il y a 2 canaux phleotermiques et 
un canal sur la face ventrale de 1'endoxyle), dans les secondes les canaux sont 
beaucoup plus volumineux et places dans le m&ophylle en dehors des faisceaux. 
Les bractees paleales presentent les principaux caracteres des bractees involucrales 
internes, mais avec une forme differente et une reduction dans le nombre des 
faisceaux et des canaux." 

The alternation of calyx projections (achenial aristae), corolla lobes, and 
stamens in the abnormally tetramerous disc florets of B. cernua has been noted 
by Buchenau, also by Wydler (see p. 302, footnote 1). 

The achenes' internal structure was investigated for various Compositae by 
Hanausek (Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesellsch. 20: 449. 1902; Sitzungsber. Konigl. 
Acad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturw. Kl. 116: (Abt. 1) 3. 1907; Wiesner-Festschrift 
139. 1908; Denkschrift Konigl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturw. Kl. 87: 93-142, 
pis. 1-3. 1912). For Bidens bipinnata, B. tripartite,, B. abyssinica, etc., as for certain 
other Compositae (e.g., Helianthus annuus), he found the pericarp to have a 
"coal-depositing" layer. This and related facts are summarized by Briquet and 
Cavillier (Fl. Alp. Marit. 6: 214. 1917), who state as follows: "La section trans- 
versale de 1'akene des Bidens est rhomboidale; Tepicarpe n'est pas cristallifere 
et ne porte point de trichomes autres que les aculeoles; sous 1'epicarpe se trouve 
un hypoderme a elements etires radialement en palisades, hypoderme simple 
par places, plus souvent multiple, dont les parois internes (en contact avec le 
scle>ocarpe) transforment leur lamelle mitoyenne (mitoyenne avec le sclerocarpe) 
en un epais depdt de charbon (ligne d'un noir fuligineux continue en coupe trans- 
versale entre 1'hypoderme et le sclerocarpe) ; le sclerocarpe forme une cuirasse con- 
tinue, e'paisse de 2-3 assises, a stereides externes pourvues d'asperites en brochette 
faisant saillie dans le depdt de charbon; les faisceaux sont encastres dans la region 
interne du sclerocarpe, leur xyleme 6tant enyeloppe par le leptocarpe parenchy- 
mateux; 1'endocarpe ne presente rien de particular; 1'albumen possede des parois 
cellulaires souvent cplorees en violet; le plan de symetrie de 1'embryon coincide 
avec le plan de symetrie de la fleur: les cotyledons sont transversaux." 

1 The truly aquatic Bidens Beckii Torr. is here excluded from the genus, in 
accordance with the treatment of E. L. Greene, who renamed it Megalodonta 
Beckii (Pittonia 4: 271. 1901). 

2 We may note in passing, however, a cultural experiment by H. B. Guppy 
(Studies in Seeds and Fruits 445-446. 1912) upon Bidens cernua andJB. tripartita, 
"two species that grow in wet stations by the sides of ditches, ponds, and rivers. 
After three generations the height of the plants was reduced from 17 or 18 inches 
to 5 or 6 inches, the fleshy stems becoming dry, woody, and wiry, the length of 
the achenes being reduced by half." In young plants of B. cernua, Guppy was 
able (op. cit. 480-482), by withholding water, to produce an approach in leaf 
outline to that of B. tripartita. 

3 Lawrence, writing on "The genetics and cytology of Dahlia species" (Journ. 
Genetics 21: 125-159. 1929), cites (p. 151) his own root tip count for the somatic 
number of chromosomes in Bidens atrosanguinea "as approximately 48, which was 



THE GENUS BIDENS 27 

Certain studies have been made, however, upon the flowering 
and fruiting heads, having to do chiefly with protection and pollina- 
tion, which studies may be mentioned here: 

Protection of pollen. Hansgirg (Pflanzenbiolog. Untersuch. 122- 
123. 1904) lists five types of antipluvial ("regenscheuer") flowers, 
the protection of whose pollen rests upon a phytodynamic principle. 
As illustrating his third type, characterized by a standing upright 
of the flowers or heads in pleasant weather and by their drooping 
over (due to a flexure of the axis) in rainy weather, he mentions, 
among other genera, Bidens. (See also B. Volkensii, next paragraph.) 

Insect visits. Robertson (Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 6: 473- 
474. 1894) made a study of insect visits to plants of B. aristosa on 
fourteen days, Aug. 2 to Sept. 15, in the neighborhood of Carlinville, 
Illinois. He presents lists of Hymenoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, 
Coleoptera, and Hemiptera which he observed. On Sept. 20 he 
studied the insect visits, in the same neighborhood, to "B. chrysan- 
themoides Michx." (as this species does not grow in Illinois he 
clearly meant B. cernua). There he found represented all the above 
groups but Hemiptera. Scott Elliot (Ann. Bot. 5: 357. 1891), in 
his notes on the fertilization of South African and Madagascar 
flowering plants, recorded a visitation of B. pilosa by Pieres hellica. 
Knuth (Bot. Centralbl. 49: 301. 1892) reported the visit at Kiel, 
Germany, of Lucilia cornicina to B. cernua. He later (Blutenbiol. 
2, pt. 1 : 598-599. 1898) recorded also the visit of Bombus terrester 
to the same species, and cited as well a visit by the honey bee which 
had been recorded by H. Miiller. For B. tripartite,, Knuth reported 
MacLeod's observation of the bees Bombus and Anthrena visiting 
the flowers; he recorded also his own observation of three hoverflies 
and one bug. William Saunders, of London, Ontario, reported 
insect captures (Canad. Entomologist 11: 196. 1879; also, Amer. 
Entomologist 1880: 75. 1880) by a species of Bidens, in all probability 
B. cernua. "The insects which he had observed thus captured were 
Dipterous [flowerflies, of the genus Syrphus], all of whom had been 

later confirmed by a pollen mother cell count of 24. Considerable irregularity of 
the divisions was apparent and multiple association was also marked." He records 
his unsuccessful attempt to cross B. atrosanguinea with Dahlia Merckii. We 
must observe, however, that B. atrosanguinea is a true Cosmos and thus can not 
represent Bidens. 

The same writer wrote elsewhere (in lit., October 21, 1931) : "It is a remarkable 
fact but, with the exception of Bidens atrosanguinea, not a single species of Bidens 
or Coreopsis has been examined cytologically as far as I am aware. ... I have 
little doubt that these genera are mainly polyploid. One would expect to find 
multiple series of chromosomes as in Chrysanthemum and Senecio, but of course I 
have no evidence for this view." 



28 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

caught by the mouth; some were found dead, others still living, but 
unable to withdraw their proboscis." On the other hand, Meehan 
(Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1891: 271. 1891) recorded his invariable 
failure, throughout two years of repeated observations, to find one 
instance of insect visitation for B. frondosa. He advanced the 
opinion that the long; retrorsely barbed achenial aristae had exerted 
a deterrent influence on the insects. He furthermore ventured the 
assertion that B. frondosa has in no way suffered "by ages of pure 
in-and-in breeding." Hansgirg, in the work already cited (p. 133), 
lists various myrmecophobic plants. He includes B. Volkensii along 
with the common dandelion, Taraxacum palustre var. vulgar e (Lam.) 
Fern. (T. officinale Weber), as having reflexed outer involucral 
bracts, this tending to prevent access of ants to the flowers. 

Protection of flowering heads when young. Gressner (Flora 69: 
94. 1886) investigated the developing involucre for two species of 
Compositae. He states for B. tripartita (as translated) : "The edge 
of the bracts of the involucre of the very young inflorescence possesses 
no indentation but, instead, at fairly regular distances apart, 
several-celled trichomes. These have stiff, strongly cuticularized 
walls and are bent hook-like. . . . The outer surface of the cell 
wall shines forth through the delicate strip of cuticle, beautifully 
ornamented. Through the inter-hooking of these marginal trichomes 
there is obtained an exact enclosure of the bud. Later, as it seems, 
the hair-structure in question is broken asunder; the bracts of the 
matured involucre are twisted in an extremely irregular way, and 
a mass of many-shaped, several-celled trichomes surrounds the 
disrupted bract apex." 

Anthers and style at anthesis. Cassini (Opuscul. Phytolog. 1: 
31. 1826) and, much later, Friedrich Hildebrand (Geschlechtsver- 
haltnisse Compos. 66. 1869) described and illustrated the surface 
of the style branches for B. tripartita. To translate from Hildebrand : 
"The extreme apex [of each style branch] possesses a fascicle or 
tuft of sweeping-hairs and somewhat deeper down, separated by 
a smooth flat surface from the upper hair-cluster, still a second 
sweeping-hair region occurs." Knuth (Blum. Insekt. Nordfrieschen 
Inseln 88. 1894; Blutenbiol. 2, pt. 1: 598. 1898) described the behavior 
of B. tripartita at and following anthesis rather minutely. To 
translate: "Ray flowers almost constantly lacking. 1 Cross section 

1 Here we may note Thuillier's surprising and erroneous statement (Fl. Par. 
ed. 1. 232. 1790), that there occur sometimes one or two imperfect florets "a la 
circonference de la feuille." In his second edition (p. 422. 1799) he corrected 
"feuille" to read "fleur." 



THE GENUS BIDENS 29 

of the head at most 1 cm. The sweeping-teeth at the apex of the 
style are somewhat long, those following thereafter are shorter, 
the lowermost the longest. They sweep the pollen forward out of 
the anther cylinder, whereupon the latter withdraws entirely into the 
corolla tube. Then the stigma branches unfold their papillose inner 
surface, while meantime the heretofore widely spread corolla lobes 
become again somewhat erect and the backwardly barbed calyx 
teeth spread away from each other, so that the cross section of the 
head above becomes finally 2.5 cm. The originally yellow flowers 
become colored toward the end of the blooming-period an unsightly 
brown." In his Bliitenbiologie (p. 599), Knuth treated also of 
B. cernua, citing H. Miiller for various details. To translate: 
"About a hundred flowers compose a head. Each disk flower 
possesses, according to H. Miiller, an approximately 1.5 mm. long 
tube and an almost equally long, 1 mm. wide bell or limb. Out of 
this there arises at the first of the flowering period the anther tube, 
covered with pollen and about 1 mm. thick; in the later part of the 
flowering period, moreover, the 1 mm. long style branches spread 
apart. The structure of these accords quite well with that of the 
foregoing B. tripartite,. The stigma papillae are so broad that light 
pollen grains of the same flower remain fast upon the edge, so that 
here, as also with the foregoing species, spontaneous self-pollination 
is made possible." We may note also that Meehan (Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1893: 303. 1893) meanwhile had made a study of 
anthesis in B. bipinnata and reported it to be essentially the same as 
for Heliopsis laevis: "The style pushes up the staminal tube, starting 
at nightfall. During the next day the pollen is pressed through the 
divisions of the incurved staminal appendages, the style branches 
protrude the following nightfall, the staminal tube retires the next 
day, followed the following day by the retreating style." 1 

Genus BIDENS: Descriptio 2 

Linn. Sp. PI. 831. 1753 (maxima ex parte) ; Gen. PI. ed. 5. No. 

840. 1754. 

Plantae (familiae Compositarum) herbaceae vel fruticosae, annuae 
vel perennes, erectae vel procumbentes vel etiam scandentes, glabrae 
vel pilosae; caulibus teretibus vel angulatis, plerumque striatis. 

1 Under the title "Beitrage zur Entwickelungsgeschichte des Pistills" Buchenau 
(Linnaea 25: 622-633. 1852) gives a detailed account of pistil development in the 
related Coreopsis bicolor Bosse (verisimiliter C. tinctoria Nutt.). 

2 Regarding the gender of the wordBidens, I quote from Briquet and Cavillier 
Fl. Alp. Marit. 6: 215, footnote 1. 1917: "Linne Sp. ed. 1, p. 831 (1753) a introduit 
dans la nomenclature botanique moderne un nom generique/eraimw. Independam- 



30 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Folia principalia opposita vel rarissime ternata, Integra vel dentata 
vel incisa vel semel bis terve ternatim pinnatimve dissecta ; superiora 
interdum alterna. Capitula nunc mediocria vel majuscula ad apices 
ramorum vel in dichotomiis solitaria, nunc minora numerosiora 
irregulariter corymboso-paniculata; nunc heterogama, radiata, flori- 
bus radii 1-seriatis neutris vel rarius pistillatis, disci hermaphroditis 
fertilibusque, nunc radio deficiente homogama. Involucrum saepius 
campanulatum vel subhemisphaericum, bracteis plerumque 2 
(rarius 3-4) -serialibus, basi saepe breviter (rarissime dimidio) 
connatis, exterioribus saepius herbaceis nunc brevibus nunc in folia 
elongata (raro etiam decomposita) expansis, interioribus plerumque 
membranaceis saepius hyalino- vel flavido-marginatis. Flores 
ligulati plerumque albidi flavive rarius rubri, lamina patente integra 
vel saepius denticulata. Paleae angustae, subplanae, flores herma- 
phrodites subtendentes. Flores disci corolla regulares, tubulosi, 
limbo cylindraceo urceolatove raro 4- plerumque 5-fido. Antherae 
basi integrae vel auriculis parvis muticis sagittatae. Styli floris 
hermaphroditi rami superne hirti, appendicibus brevibus acutis 
vel longioribus subulatis superati. Achaenia a dorso compressa 
vel 3-4-gona, obovato-oblonga vel cuneata vel plus minusve linearia, 
glabra vel pilis brevibus (his e tuberculis interdum ortis) sursum 
vel rarius retrorsum spectantibus ciliata vel conspersa, marginaliter 
rarissime tuberculato- vel submembranaceo-alata, apicaliter aequalia 
vel attenuata nee distincte vel raro rostrata, nunc exaristata nunc 
ad vel sub apice ipso aristis 1-8 rigidis plerumque persistentibus 
plus minusve (antrorsum retrorsumve) barbellatis vel aculeolatis 
rarissime ad glandulas parvas reductis munita. 

SECTIONES GENERIS 
No fewer than fourteen sections may be recognized. 1 These are: 

Sect. I. Campylotheca (Cass.) Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 
ser. II. 7: 368. 1841 (pro genere, Cass. in Diet. Sci. Nat. 51: 
475. 1827). Adenolepis Less. Linnaea 6: 510. 1831 (pro genere). 

ment du fait que les noms de genre peuvent etre arbitraires (Regies nomencl. 
art. 24), les termes bidens, tridens, etc., etaient employes en latin non seulement 
comme substantifs masculins, mais aussi comme adjectifs: Bidens (sous-entendu 
Herba) tripartita est done correct, mSme au point de veu du purisme, qui N'est 
pas le n6tre. Les expressions Bidens tripartitus, cernuus, etc., doivent etre rejetees." 

!Sect. Discopoda DC. (Prodr. 5: 604. 1836)=Cos/nos, sect. Discopoda (DC.) 
Sherff, Field Mus. Bot. 8: 430. 1932. 

Sect. Hydrocarpaea A. Gray (Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1, II: 298. l&M) = Megalodonta 
Greene, Pittonia 4: 271. 1901. 

Sect. Adenolepis (Less.) O. Hoffm. in Engler & Prantl (Pflanzenf. 4, v: 245. 
1894)=sect. Campylotheca (q.v.). 



THE GENUS BIDENS 31 

Adenolepis (Less.) 0. Hoffm. in Engler & Prantl, Pflanzenf. 4, V: 
245. 1894 (pro sect. Bidentis). Nos. 1-59. 

Demum plerumque fruticosae, saepissime glaberrimae, suci odore 
carotae plus minusve similes. Capitula saepius numerosa, radiata. 
Achaenia recta vel torta, saepius biaristata aristis plerumque 
retrorsum hamosis. Plantae insularum Oceani Pacifici. (Type, 
B. micrantha.) 

Sect. II. Degeneria Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 93: 213. 1932. No. 60. 1 
Genitalia praesertim stylo longissimo valde exserta. (Type, B. 
Cosmoides.) 

Sect. III. Neurophyllum Sherff, op. cit. 214. No. 61. 
Herbae perennes, procumbentes, foliis crassioribus, perspicue 
nervatis. (Type, B. clarendonensis.) 

Sect. IV. Clomtonia Sherff, loc. cit. No. 62. 2 
Frutices, foliis oblongis, acuminatis, etc. Cum characteribus 
typi. (Type, B. monticola.) 

Sect. V. Greenmania Sherff, op. cit. 88 : 297. 1929. Nos. 63-73. 

Herbae Americae tropicae perennes, plerumque scandentes, 
caulibus saepe 5-10 m. longis; capitulis numerosis, normaliter radia- 
tis; achaeniis elongatis, valde obcompressis vel omnino planis, 
lateribus parallelis et saepissime valde setosis, apice plerumque 
biaristatis aristis saepius longis nunc retrorsum hamosis nunc calvis. 
(Type, B. Rubifolia.) 

Sect. VI. Selvorngea Sherff, op. cit. 93: 214. 1932. No. 74. 3 
Herbae perennes, glabrae; foliis sessilibus, decussatis, rigidis, 

oblanceolato-oblongis, serratis, etc. Cum characteribus typi. 

(Type, B. graveolens.) 

Sect. VII. Fulsotsia Sherff, loc. cit. No. 75. 4 
Caulis glaber fere nudus, foliis 3-4-jugis, parvis, sessilibus, in- 
tegris, linearibus. Cum characteribus typi. (Type, B. fistulosa.) 

Sect. VIII. Heterodonta (Nutt.) Sherff, loc. cit. Pro sect.? 
Diodontae Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. ser. II. 7: 361. 1841. Sect. 

1 Named for Mr. Otto Degener, the well-known authority on the flora of the 
Hawaiian Islands. 

2 Name anagrammatic for monticola. 

3 Name anagrammatic for graveolens. 

4 Name anagrammatic for fistulosa. 



32 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Hederodonta Nutt. ex Walp. (generis Diatontae Nutt. ex Walp.) 
Repert. 2: 615. 1843. Nos. 76 and 77. 

Plantae boreali-americanae, foliis plerumque simplicibus, capi- 
tulis discoideis vel subradiatis et cylindricis vel ellipsoidalibus, 
achaeniis planis lineari-cuneatis. (Type, B. Bidentoides.} 

Sect. IX. Meduseae (Nutt.) Sherff, loc. cit. Pro sect. Diodontae 
Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. ser. II. 7: 360. 1841. Diodonta Nutt. 
(sed syn. Coreopsis aurea Ait. et Diodonta Bidentoides Nutt. exclu- 
denda sunt) loc. cit. Pro sect. Diatontae Nutt. ex Walp. Repert. 
2: 615. 1843. Diatonta Nutt. ex Walp. (exclud. syn. Coreopsidem 
auream Ait.), op. cit. 614. Diadonta Nutt. ex Walp. op. cit. 6: 164. 
1846. Pro subsect. sectionis Eucoreopsidis Pfeiffer, Nom. Bot. 1: 
1085. 1874 (non vere Torr. & Gray). Nos. 78-82. 

Plantae boreali-americanae; foliis plerumque pinnatis raro in- 
divisis vel bipinnatis; capitulis radiatis luteis; achaeniis planis nunc 
lineari-cuneatis nunc cuneato-obovatis saepe crasso-marginatis et 
plus minusve tuberculatis, exaristatis vel biaristatis aristis saepius 
antrorsum hamosis. (Type, B. polylepis.) 

Sect. X. Platycarpaea DC. Prodr. 5: 594. 1836. Nos. 83-94. 

Folia plerumque simplicia vel pinnatim 3-7-partita (raro 2-3- 
pinnatisecta) ; achaeniis ovalibus vel obovato-cuneiformibus, obcom- 
presso-planis vel apicem versus tetragonis. (Type, or at least first 
cited species, B. tripartita.) 

Sect. XL Psilocarpaea DC. Prodr. 5: 596. 1836. Nos. 95-218. 

Plantae habitu valde diversae, nunc annuae nunc perennes, 
herbae vel frutices; foliis simplicibus vel (etiam valde) decompositis; 
capitulis discoideis vel radiatis, nunc minimis nunc maximis; achae- 
niis plerumque plus minusve linearibus, planis vel tetragonis, apice 
muticis vel aristatis. A large section, containing more than half of 
the species in the genus. Future studies may indicate the advisability 
of splitting this section into several smaller groups. (Type species 
not indicated by DeCandolle. B. fruticosa (Vest) DC., cited first by 
DeCandolle, unknown both to him and to me. B. decolor ata H.B.K., 
the next species cited, reduces to B. aurea, which species may there- 
fore serve as the section type.) 

Sect. XII. Steppia (Schz. Bip. in Walp.) Sherff, op. cit. 215. 
Pro sect. Coreopsidis, Schz. Bip. in Walp. Repert. 6: 163. 1846. 
Nos. 219-231. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 33 

Folia dentibus apicaliter setigeris saepius dentata; floribus tubu- 
losis ad medium saepius tumido-articulatis vel anulatis; achaeniis 
plerumque biaristatis aristis antrorsum hispidis. (Type, B. chaeto- 
donta.) 

Sect. XIII. Lesperthema Sherff, op. cit. 216. No. 232. 1 
Involucri bracteae interiores basaliter vel etiam usque ad medium 

connatae. Achaenia exteriora marginibus perspicue incrassata. 

(Type, B. phelloptera,) 

Sect. XIV. Ebussa Sherff, loc. cit. No. 233. 2 

Involucri bracteae interiores basaliter vel etiam usque ad medium 
connatae. Achaenia praecocia, clavato-linearia, exalata, apice plus 
minusve incrassato-capitata vel crassiusculo-anulata. (Type, B. 
praecox.) 

CLAVIS 

a. Plantae insulis Oceani Pacifici centralis nativae.* 

6. Folia plerumque indivisa. 
c. Inflorescentia monocephalica pedunculataque. 

d. Folia tomentoso-pubescentia 11. B. Lantanoides. 

d. Folia glabra. 

e. Petioli laminas aequantes superantesve. 
/. Achaenia alata. 

56. B. mauiensis var. cuneatoides et var. Forbesiana. 

f. Achaenia exalata 57. B. molokaiensis. 

e. Petioli laminis breviores. 
/. Folia basi late cuneata, utroque latere 3-5 dentibus 

grosse dentata. 

g. Folia membranacea, saepius 2-3 cm. lata, dentibus in 
unico latere saepe usque ad 12; achaeniis costis 
marginibusque dense setosis apice biaristatis. 

59. B. Saint- Johniana. 

1 Name anagrammatic for that of Thelesperma, which genus is strongly sug- 
gested by the interior bracts, these being connate below (as are also those in Sect. 

XIV). 

2 Name anagrammatic in honor of Dr. Walter Busse, collector of the type, the 
name Bussea having already been used (pro genere) by Harms (Bot. Jahrb. 33: 
159. 1902) in another connection. 

3 Introduced species, being readily distinguishable from the indigenous ones, 
are here omitted. The introduced species commonly found in certain localities, 
especially in the Hawaiian Islands, are: Bidens laevis, B. pilosa, B. biternata, B. 
Cynapiifolia, andS. tripartita (the last apparently absent in the Hawaiian group). 
The central Pacific region, as here taken, extends from the Tropic of Cancer 
southward to slightly past the Tropic of Capricorn (Maretiri or Bass Isls.) and 
from about 127 to 180 W. Long. 



34 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

g. Folia crassiuscula, 1-2 cm. lata, dentibus in unico 
latere plerumque 3-5; achaeniis marginibus sparsis- 

sime ciliatis apice exaristatis 58. B. cuneata. 

f. Folia basi rotundata vel cordata, utroque latere 6-15 

dentibus serrata 57. B. molokaiensis. 

c. Inflorescentia capitulorum paucorum multorumve, cymosa vel 

paniculato-corymbosa. 
d. Capitula ad anthesin minuta, tantum 2-4 mm. alta. 

e. Achaenia 6-8 mm. longa; speciebus insularum sandvicen- 

sium 22. B. Degeneri. 

e. Achaenia plerumque 2.5-6 mm. longa; speciebus hemi- 

sphaerii australis. 

/. Folia plus minusve oblongo-ovata, breviter acuminata, 

petiolis crassiusculis 1.2-1.4 mm. latis. .1. B. Ahnnei. 

/. Folia lanceolata vel oblongo-lanceolata vel lanceolato- 

ovata, caudato-acuminata, petiolis tenuibus 0.6-0.8 

mm. latis. 

g. Achaenia plerumque lineari-fusiformia, corpore 2-3 
mm. longa et 0.7 rarius usque ad 1 mm. lata, calva 
vel brevissime 1- vel 2-aristata aristis adrecte his- 
pidulis et usque ad 0.3 mm. longis; planta ex insulis 

Marquesas 2. B. polycephala. 

g. Achaenia lineari-oblonga, corpore 3.5-5 mm. longa et 
1.25 mm. lata, biaristata aristis retrorsum hamosis 
0.5-1 mm. longis; planta ex insula Raiatea. 

3. B. deltoidea. 
f. Folia angustiora, plerumque anguste lanceolata vel 

oblongo-lanceolata 13. B. australis. 

d. Capitula ad anthesin majora. 

e. Folia plerumque anguste lanceolata vel anguste oblongo- 
lanceolata. 
/. Plantae marquesianae. 

g. Achaeniorum corpora circ. 4 mm. longa. 

4. B. Jardinii. 
g. Achaeniorum corpora circ. 6 mm. longa. 

5. B. Bipontina. 

f. Plantae nee marquesianae nee sandvicenses. 
g. Capitula pauca (8 in unico ramo). 



THE GENUS BIDENS 35 

h. Folia tenuiter petiolata; involucri bracteis exteri- 
oribus 3-6 mm. longis, patentibus reflexisve; 
achaeniis dense erecto-hispidis . .15. B. Mathewsii. 

h. Folia alato-petiolata; involucri bracteis exterioribus 
8-12 mm. longis, adpressis; achaeniis porriginosis. 

19. B. orofenensis. 
g. Capitula numerosiora. 

h. Folia unico latere 20-40 (raro -75) -dentata; capi- 
tulis 6-7.5 mm. latis et 3-4 mm. altis; involucri 
bracteis exterioribus circ. 1 mm. longis interioribus 
circ. 2 mm. longis; floribus ligulatis 2-3 mm. longis. 

13. B. anstmlis. 

h. Folia unico latere 6-17-dentata; capitulis 15 mm. 
latis et 6 mm. altis; involucri bracteis exterioribus 
circ. 3 mm. longis interioribus circ. 3.5 mm. 
longis; floribus ligulatis circ. 8 mm. longis. 

12. B. mooreensis. 

/. Plantae sandvicenses; achaeniorum corporibus 8-11.5 
mm. longis. 

g. Involucri bracteae exteriores 1-2 mm. longae; capitulis 
numerosis; multis foliis divisis; floribus ligulatis 
plerumque 3-5. 

h. Capitula distantia, planta lanaiensi. 21. B. distans. 
h. Capitula congesta, planta molokaiensi. 

52. B. micrantha var. caduca. 

g. Involucri bracteae exteriores 2-5 mm. longae; capitulis 
vix numerosis; foliis plerumque indivisis; floribus 
ligulatis 7-8. 
h. Achaeniorum aristae sub corporis apice positae. 

20. B. hawaiensis. 
h. Achaeniorum aristae ex apice ipso ortae. 

35. B. Skottsbergii var. conglutinata. 
e. Folia latiora. 
/. Folia subtus pubescentia. 

g. Folia utrinque pubescentia 7. B. Beckiana. 

g. Folia supra sparsim pubescentia vel demum sub- 

glabrata 8. B. cordifolia. 

/. Folia plus minusve glabra (hie stant etiam f ormae depressae 
sarmentosae humiles simplicifoliae Bidentis graciloidis). 



36 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

g. Caules ramive plus minusve glauci; plantis sandvicen- 

sibus. 
h. Involucri bracteae exteriores 1-2.5 mm. longae. 

i. Folia simplicia ovata vel rhomboideo-ovata. 

26. B. ctenophylla. 

i. Folia simplicia oblongo-lanceolata. 
;. Achaeniorum aristae sub corporis apice positae. 

20. B. hawaiensis. 
j. Achaeniorum aristae ex apice ipso ortae. 

35. B. Skottsbergii var. conglutinata. 
h. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 4-5 mm. longae. 

23. B. asymmetrica. 
g. Caules ramive interdum pallidi (B. Populifolia) sed 

non glauci. 

h. Folia plus minusve ovato-lanceolata vel ovata, 

basaliter cuneata vel rotundata raro vix subcor- 

data, petiolis 0.5-3 cm. longis; plantis non sand- 

vicensibus. 

i. Capitula ad anthesin 3.3-4 cm. lata; foliis acriter 

serrata 17. B. Henryi. 

i. Capitula angustiora. 
j. Folia leviter vel obsolete serrulata vel subin- 

tegra. 
k. Achaenia alata, 2.3-3 mm. lata. 

9. B. hivoana. 
k. Achaenia exalata, circ. 1 mm. lata. 

10. B. hendersonensis et var. oenoensis. 
j. Folia acriter serrata. 

k. Folia crassiuscula; planta e Tahiti. 

18. B. glabrata. 
k. Folia membranacea. 
I. Achaenia exalata. 

w. Achaenia corpore 5-10 mm. longa. 
n. Achaenia exaristata, corpore 9-10 
mm. longa; involucri bracteis exteri- 
oribus perspicue spathulatis quam 
interioribus longioribus; planta ex 
insula Raiatea. . . .14. B. raiateensis. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 37 

n. Achaenia biaristata, corpore 5-8 mm. 
longa; involucri bracteis exterioribus 
oblongo-linearibus quam interioribus 
paulo brevioribus; planta ex insula 

Pitcairn 15. B. Mathewsii. 

m. Achaenia corpore 2.5-4.5 mm. longa. 
n. Achaenia plerumque biaristata, cor- 
pore 3.8-4.5 mm. longa; planta ex 
insula Tahiti .... 16. B. aoraiensis. 
n. Achaenia vix vel non aristata, corpore 
circ. 2.5 mm. longa; planta ex insula 

Hiva Oa 6. B. collina. 

L Achaenia crassiusculo-marginata vel -alata, 
marginibus apice in aristas productis. 

27. B. glandulifera. 
h. Folia si simplicia ovata, basi subcordata vel cordata ; 

petiolis usque ad 6 vel etiam ad 10 cm. longis. 
i. Planta ex insulis marquesianis; foliis subtus 
secundum rachidis basim caespitose hispidis. 

33. 5. uapensis. 

i. Plantae ex insula Oahu; foliis glabris. 
y. Folia obtuse dentata; achaeniis anguste lineari- 
bus, exalatis, corpore 7-12 mm. longis. 

34. B. Populifolia. 

j. Folia acriter dentata; achaeniis late linearibus, 
saepe alatis, corpore 1.2-2 cm. longis. 

28. B. macrocarpa var. ovatifolia. 

h. Folia si simplicia oblongo-ovata, basi late cuneata; 

petiolis circ. 1-3 cm. longis; planta ex insula 

Hawaii 35. B. Skottsbergii. 

b. Folia plerumque divisa. 

c. Capitula magna, ad anthesin 5 cm. lata; stylis 6-10 mm. 
antheras superantibus, ramis abrupte longo-caudatis. 

60. B. Cosmoides. 
c. Capitula minora, plerumque solis stylorum ramis supra antheras 

projectis. 

d. Folia bipinnatim divisa, segmentis ultimis angustis (vel in 
B. waianensi interdum lata). 

e. Plantae decumbentes vel adscendentes. 



38 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

/. Capitula solitaria vel longe pedunculata. 

56. B. mauiensis var. lanaiensis. 
f. Capitula corymbosa vel paniculata. 

55. B. Hillebrandiana. 
e. Plantae erectae. 
/. Pedicellae pedunculique minimi dense et insigniter 

albido-pubescentes 26. B. ctenophylla. 

f. Pedicellae vel pedunculi glabri. 

g. Achaenia spiraliter volubilia vel torta; foliorum 
segmentis late linearibus vel latioribus. 

54. B. waianensis. 

g. Achaenia recta vel paululum torta, corpore 8-13 mm. 
longa, foliorum segmentis linearibus vel filiformibus, 
vel raro latioribus ac dentibus elongatis angustis 
perspicue dentatis. 

53. B. Menziesii et var. filiformis et var. leptodonta. 

g. Achaenia recta vel subrecta, corpore 6-9 mm. longa; 

foliorum principalium segmentis rhomboideo-ovatis 

vel cuneate lineari-lanceolatis, dentibus non elongatis. 

37. B. sandvicensis var. typica f. compositior. 

g. Achaenia recta vel subrecta, corpore circ. 3-7.5 mm. 

longa. 

h. Achaenia corpore 6-7.5 mm. longa. 36. B. obtusiloba. 
h. Achaenia corpore circ. 3 mm. longa. 

32. B. pulchella. 
d. Folia ternatim vel pinnatim divisa, vel interdum imperfecte 

bipinnata. 

e. Plantae decumbentes vel adscendentes. 
/. Capitula solitaria vel longe pedunculata. 

56. B. mauiensis etiam var. cuneatoides et var. media, 
f. Capitula cymosa, corymbosa, vel paniculata. 

g. Paleae usque ad 1 cm. longae, achaenia matura biaris- 

tata superantes 55. B. Hillebrandiana. 

g. Paleae multo breviores atque achaeniis plerumque 

exaristatis multo superatae. 
h. Capitula pansa ad anthesin 1.1-1.5 cm. lata. 

25. B. graciloides. 
h. Capitula pansa ad anthesin 6-8 mm. lata. 

22. B. Degeneri var. Apioides et f . filicifolia. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 39 

e. Plantae erectae. 

/. Achaeniorum aristae principales plerumque infra cor- 
poris apicem ortae et corporis marginibus continuae, 
vel deficientes. 

g. Achaenia valde torta 54. B. waianensis. 

g. Achaenia recta vel paulum curvata. 

h. Achaenia angusta (0.5-1.7 mm. lata), atra, exalata 
vel rarius subalata; capitulis ad anthesin 4-6 
mm. alta et 1.5-2 cm. lata. 

i. Capitula numerosa, saepe dense corymbosa vel 
paniculata; achaeniis maturis plerumque ad 
facies et margines glabris. 

j. Ligulae apice saepe profundissime incisae; 
achaeniis inferne plerumque 1-3-setosis, setis 
elongatis erectis partim adnatis. 

26. B. ctenophylla. 

j. Ligulae non vel tantum moderate dentatae; 
setis basalibus elongatis partim adnatis utro- 
que margini achaeniorum deficientibus. 

k. Achaenia matura perspicue ac intense nigra; 
involucri bracteis exterioribus tantum circ. 

1.5 mm. longis 52. B. micrantha et 

var. kaalana et var. laciniata. 

k. Achaenia matura atra vel parce nigra sed 
non intense perspicueque nigra. 

I. Involucri bracteae exteriores tantum 1-2 
mm. longae. 

m. Ligulae elliptico-oblongae, aegre denti- 
culatae, 1.5-3 mm. latae; achaeniis 
glabris. 

n. Capitula distantia, planta lanaiensi. 

21. B. distans. 

n. Capitula congesta, planta molokaiensi. 
52. B. micrantha var. caduca. 

m. Ligulae cuneato-obovatae, dentatae vel 

lobulatae, 3-5 mm. latae; achaeniis 

basim versus lateraliter erecto-setosis. 

40. B. fecunda. 



40 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

I. Involucri bracteae exteriores plerumque 

2.3-5 mm. longae. 

m. Foliola non nisi inferiora petiolulata. 

38. B. conjuncta. 
m. Foliola normaliter tenui-petiohilata. 

40. B. fecunda. 

i. Capitula p'auciora, cymoso-corymbosa vel hac 
atque iliac sparsa; achaeniis maturis atris ac 
non nitidis, ad margines setosis. 

51. B. waimeana. 

h. Achaenia matura saepe latiora, subbrunnea vel 

brunneo-nigra, saepe alata; capitulis ad anthesin 

7-15 mm. altis et 2-3 cm. latis. 

i. Capitula ad anthesin 7-8 mm. alta et circ. 3 cm. 

lata; involucri bracteis subaequalibus circ. 6 

mm. longis; floribus ligulatis 1-1.6 cm. longis; 

floribus tubulosis 15-20. . . .28. B. macrocarpa. 

i. Capitula ad anthesin 8-15 mm. alta et circ. 2 vel 

vix 2.5 cm. lata; involucri bracteis exteriorfbus 

minoribus plerumque 1.5-3 mm. longis; floribus 

ligulatis 6-9 mm. longis; floribus tubulosis 30-45. 

29. B. magnidisca. 

/. Achaeniorum aristae deficientes vel principales plerum- 
que ex apice ipso ortae. 

g. Involucri immaturi bracteae exteriores reflexae; involu- 
cro interiore perspicuo et ei Cosmidis bipinnati Cav. 
simili 50. B. amplectens. 

g. Involucri immaturi bracteae exteriores erectae vel 

patentes. 

h. Capitula plerumque solitaria, pedunculis usque ad 
11 cm. longis, bracteis exterioribus valde foliaceis. 

48. B. valida. 

h. Capitula ac bracteae exteriores diversae. 
i. Achaenia spiraliter volubilia vel valde torta. 
j. Achaenia plerumque per 3-5 revolutiones voluta. 

44. B. torta. 

j. Achaenia plerumque per 0.6-2 revolutiones 
voluta. 

k. Folia caulina 3-5-partita. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 41 

1. Capitula numerosa, parva, ad anthesin 
3.5-6 mm. alta et circ. 0.9-1.5 (rarius -2) 
cm. lata. 

m. Foliola saepius ovato-lanceolata vel late 
oblongo-lanceolata, apice saepius sub- 
obtusa vel tantum breviter acuminata. 

n. Foliola juvenia plerumque pilis 
numerosis fulvescentibus vel etiam 
ferrugineis obsita; achaeniis 0.6-0.8 
mm. latis, exaristatis. 

45. B. fulvescens. 

n. Foliola primo glaberrima; achaeniis 
1-1.7 mm. latis, biaristata aristis 
tenuibus db 1 mm. longis. 

23. B. asymmetrica. 

m. Foliola lanceolata breviter vel longe 
acuminata, primo viridia. 

n. Folia (petiolis inclusis) principalia 
5-13 cm. longa 39. B. Wiebkei. 

n. Folia (petiolis inclusis) principalia 
1-2.5 dm. longa 43. B. Forbesii. 

1. Capitula pauca, ad anthesin majora, 6-12 
mm. alta et 2 cm. latajfoliisprincipali- 
bus (petiolis inclusis) 1-2.5 dm. longis. 

w. Achaenia apice calva vel irregulariter 
1-2-aristata aristis usque ad circ. 1.3 
mm. longis 46. B. Campylotheca. 

m. Achaenia biaristata aristis longis (4 
mm.), filiformibus, deciduis. 

47. B. nematocera. 

k. Folia caulina plerumque 5-7-partita. 

1. Foliorum caulinorum foliola inferiora saepe 
alternata; achaeniis anguste linearibus, 
apicem versus anguste elongatis. 

24. B. cervicata. 

L Foliorum caulinorum foliola inferiora ple- 
rumque opposita; achaeniis superne tan- 
tum paulum angustatis. 



42 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

m. Internodia longa; foliis paucis et mag- 
nis; capitulis paucis, pansis ad anthesin 
3-4 cm. latis. 

46. B. Campylotheca var. pentamera. 

w. Internodia brevia; foliis plerumque sub- 
numerosis, magnitudinis mediae; capi- 
tulis plerumque numerosissimis, unico 
specimine in herbario 50-200 ferente, 
his pansis ad anthesin tantum circ. 
1.5-2 cm. latis 54. B. waianensis. 

i. Achaenia recta, curvata, vel tantum paulum torta. 

j. Inflorescentiae rami late patentes, 1-pauci-capi- 
tulati; internodiis caulis ac ramorum ple- 
rumque longis. 

46. B. Campylotheca et var. pentamera. 

j. Habitus diversus. 

k. Folia principalia plerumque 3-partita. 

I. Foliola anguste lanceolata, crenato-serrata, 
terminali apice longo-attenuato ; capitulis 
non numerosis 31. B. Asplenioides. 

1. Foliola lanceolata vel ovata (et non elonga- 
tiora nisi cum capitulis numerosis), 
acute serrata, terminale apicaliter acutum 
vel acuminatum sed non longo-attenua- 
tum. 

m. Capitula ad anthesin minuta, 6-8 mm. 
lata et 4-5 mm. alta. 

22. B. Degeneri var. Apioides. 

m. Capitula ad anthesin majora. 

n. Caulis (basi excepta) et rami acute 
tetragoni, superne herbacei. 

o. Foliola lateralia plerumque sessilia; 
achaenii corpore 10-16.5 mm. 
longo. 

p. Involucri bracteae exteriores 1.5- 
2 (raro -2.5) mm. longae; achae- 
niiscirc. 0.7-0.8 mm. latis, exaris- 
tatis 45. B. fulvescens. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 43 

p. Involucri bracteae exteriores 2-7 
(plerumque 4-6) mm. longae; 
achaeniis circ. 1 mm. latis, 
plerumque aristatis. 

38. B. conjuncta. 

o. Foliola petiolulata ; capitulis numero- 
sissimis; achaenii corpore 10-12.5 

mm. longo 40. B. fecunda. 

o. Foliorum majorum principalium foli- 

ola lateralia petiolulata; achaenii 

corpore 6-10 mm. longo. 

p. Capitula demum in herbarii speci- 

minibus siccis dense adgregata 

ac plerumque inter se tangentia, 

aequaliter vel subaequaliter 

edita 41. B. coartata. 

p. Capitula demum in herbarii speci- 

minibus siccis sparsa, rariter 

inter se tangentia, nee in eodem 

nee fere eodem aequo stantia. 

37. B. sandvicensis. 

n. Caulis et rami rotundato-tetragoni, 

superne vix herbacei. 
o. Achaenia matura plus minusvetorta. 
p. Achaeniorum aristae deficientes 
vel usque ad 1 mm. longae. 

23. B. asymmetrica. 
p. Achaeniorum aristae elongatae et 
inaequaliter flexuosae usque ad 
4 mm. longae. 

47. B. nematocera. 
o. Achaenia matura recta vel curvata, 

non torta. 

p. Involucri bracteae exteriores ple- 
rumque fere vel interdum plene 
interioribus aequales. 

51. B. waimeana. 

p. Involucri bracteae exteriores 
quam interiores tertio vel dimi- 
dio breviores. 25. B. graciloides. 



44 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

k. Folia principalia saepius 5-partita. 

/. Capitula 2-5-adgregata, ramis tenuibus 
longis erectis nudis gesta, separatim 
pedimculata pedunculis plurime 2-5.5 
cm. longis; ad anthesin 7-8 mm. alta. 

49. B. Stokesii. 

L Capitula cymoso-corymbosa vel paniculata, 

pedunculis vel pedicellis plurime breviori- 

bus; ad anthesin plerumque 4.5-7 mm. 

alta. 

m. Achaenia plerumque glabra, vel superne 

sparsim setosa. 

n. Foliola anguste lanceolata, crenato- 
serrata, terminale apicaliter longo- 
attenuatum; herba ex insula Niihau 
(insularum Sandvicensium). 

31. B. Asplenioides. 
n. Foliola moderate vel late linearia. 
o. Pedicellae pedunculique glabri. 

42. B. Salicoides. 

o. Pedicellae pedunculique albido- 

pubescentes. . . .26. B. ctenophylla. 

n. Foliola lanceolata vel ovata, acute 

serrata, terminale apicaliter acutum 

acuminatumve sed non longo-attenu- 

atum 37. B. sandvicensis. 

m. Achaenia marginibus moderate vel copi- 

ose setosa. 

n. Plantae plerumque 2-5 dm. altae. 
o. Inflorescentia manifeste supra folia 

exserta 30. B. micranthoides. 

o. Inflorescentia (totius plantae et non 

solius rami) non manifeste supra 

folia exserta .... 25. B. graciloides. 

n. Plantae plerumque 4-9 dm. altae. 

o. Capitula pansa ad anthesin 2.6-3.1 

cm. lata; achaeniis perspicue aris- 

tatis (aristis circ. 4 mm. longis). 

47. B. nematocera. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 45 

o. Capitula pansa ad anthesin usque 
ad 1.5 cm.lata;achaeniorum aristis 
deficientibus vel usque ad circ. 
1 mm. longis. 

p. Habitu B. asymmetricae adpro- 
pinquans; foliis pinnatis, foliolis 
ovato-lanceolatis, foliolo termi- 
nal! folii majoris omnino circ. 
6-16-dentato . . 51. B. waimeana. 

p. Habitu B. sandvicensi adpropin- 
quans. 

q. Folia pinnata, foliolis ovatis vel 
lanceolatis vel saepius ovato- 
lanceolatis, foliolo terminali 
folii majoris omnino circ. 22- 
26-dentato. 
37. B. sandvicensis var. setosa. 

q. Foliola inferiora saepius rursus 
partita, alia plerumque line- 
aria, foliolo terminali folii 
majoris omnino circ. 2-8- 
dentato ... 37. B. sandvicensis 
var. imminuta. 

a. Plantae in America boreali centralique etiam 
in insulis Occidentali-Indicis crescentes. 

b. Herbae vel frutices perennes, scandentes, achaeniis linearibus 

biaristatis plus minusve planis longe ciliatis. 
c. Folia totius plantae plerumque indivisa. 

d. Achaenia corpore 8-13 mm. longa . . 71. B. segetum var. patula. 

d. Achaenia corpore 1-2.2 cm. longa 72. B. Shrevei. 

c. Folia plerumque divisa. 

d. Involucri bracteae exteriores 9-15 mm. longae. 

e. Folia tripartita 73. B. Holwayi. 

e. Folia bipinnata vel tripinnatisecta 69. B. Gentryi. 

d. Involucri bracteae exteriores 3-8 mm. longae. 
e. Folia principalia pinnatim 3-7-partita. 
/. Foliolum terminale anguste lanceolatum; caule pilis 
densis pubescenti ; planta jamaicensi .... 64. B. incisa. 



46 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

/. Foliolum terminale latius; caule glabro vel tomentoso. 
g. Planta antillana, rarissime alibi crescens . .63. B.reptans. 

g. Planta Americae septentrionalis australisque, rarissime 
antillana. .65. B. squarrosa (et raro 71. B. segetum}. 

e. Folia principalia 2-3-pinnata. 

63. B. reptans var. Urbanii et var. dissecta. 

6. Non scandentes (sed apud B. clarendonensem longe repentes). 

c. Capitula perspicue radiata floribus ligulatis maxima ex parte 
flavis vel aurantiacis. 

d. Achaenia aristata aristis retrorsum hamosis (raro caducis). 

e. Flores ligulati rubido-aurantiaci ; achaeniis validis, acute 
quadrangulatis, plus minusve recurvatis, plerumque 
4-aristatis 138. B. Sambucifolia. 

e. Flores ligulati flavi. 
/. Achaenia omnia valde cuneata, non alato-marginata. 

g. Capitula hemisphaerica, ad anthesin plerumque cer- 
nua; involucri bracteis exterioribus reflexis vel vix 
adscendentibus; achaeniis transversim rhomboideis, 
faciebus graciliter atque obscure striatis, saepe 
tuberculatis. 

h. Achaenia arcuata, valde carinata, cortice pallido 
marginata; paleis apice plerumque flavidis; ligulis 
usque ad circ. 1.7 cm. longis vel deficientibus; 
capitulis demum saepius cernuis. 

92. B. cernua et var. oligodonta. 

h. Achaenia recta, plana, non cortice-marginata; paleis 
apice rubidis; ligulis 1.5-3 cm. longis; capitulis 
raro cernuis 93. B. laevis. 

g. Capitula campanulata vel subhemisphaerica, ad anthe- 
sin erecta; involucri bracteis erectis adscendentibus; 
achaeniis biconvexis, grosse perspicueque striatis, 
non tuberculatis. . . .94. B. hyperborea et varietates. 

/. Achaenia exteriora obovata vel cuneato-obovata, mar- 
gine plerumque interrupte crassiusculo-alata. 

g. Involucri bracteae exteriores 8-10, saepius laeves vel 
leviter ciliatae, 0.5-1.2 cm. longae. 

78. B. aristosa var. Fritcheyi. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 47 

g. Involucri bracteae exteriores plerumque 15-20, per- 
spicue hispido-ciliatae, 1-2.7 cm. longae. 

79. B. polylepis var. retrorsa. 

f. Achaenia omnia magis elongata, plerumque cuneato- 
linearia vel anguste linearia. 

g. Ligulae plerumque bicolores, basi purpureae alibi 
flavae 158. B. bicolor. 

g. Ligulae unius colons. 

h. Folia simplicia (raro formae simplicifoliae B. aureae 

stant hie). 

i. Folia oblongo-ovata vel oblongo-lanceolata, mar- 
gine integra vel raro 1-dentata; caule erecto. 

101. B. integrifolia. 

i. Folia ovato-lanceolata, serrata, petiolo adjecto 
plerumque 1.5-4 cm. longa; caulibus procum- 
bentibus vel adscendentibus, 1-7 dm. longis; 
planta numquam in india occidental! crescente. 

150. B. triplinervia. 

i. Folia rhomboideo-ovata, grosse serrata 5-16 
dentibus in unico latere, petiolo adjecto 5-10 
cm. longa; caulibus repentibus, usque ad 4 m. 
longis; planta jamaicensi. 61. B. clarendonensis. 

i. Folia linearia; caule erecto. 

146. B. angustissima var. Linifolia. 
h. Folia divisa. 

i. Herbae annuae vel biennes. 

j. Planta demissa, saepe ramosissima, plerumque 
1-2.5 dm. alta, foliis petiolo adjecto 1-5 
(rarius -7.5) cm. longis . 147. B. Anthemoides. 

j. Planta erecta, moderate ramosa, plerumque 
altior, foliis saepius 0.5-2 dm. longis. 

k. Achaenia interiora corpore 10-16 mm. longa. 

154. B. serrulata. 

k. Achaenia omnia corpore 4-7 mm. longa. 

I. Folia principalia plerumque indivisa vel 
3-5-partita, rarissime bipinnata. 

m. Planta 3 dm. alta; foliis petiolo ad- 
jecto 1.5-1.8 cm. longis; capitulis ad 



48 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

anthesin circ. 1.5-1.8 cm. latis; floribus 
ligulatis plerumque 8. 

98. B. Coreocarpoides. 

m. Planta plerumque 5-10 dm. alta; foliis 
petiolo adjecto 0.8-2.2 dm. longis; 
capitulis ad anthesin 2-5 cm. latis; 
floribus ligulatis plerumque 5 vel 6. 

100. B. aurea. 

L Folia principalia bi- vel subtripinnata. 

97. B. Ferulae/olio, et varietates. 

i. Herbae perennes. 
j. Involucri bracteae exteriores 10-20. 

k. Folia principalia tripartita foliolis plus mi- 
nusve ovatis 156. B. chiapensis. 

k. Folia principalia bipinnatisecta segmentis 
plus minusve linearibus. 

155. B. Geraniifolia. 

j. Involucri bracteae exteriores 5-10. 
k. Flores ligulati fertiles. 

L Folia tripartita, foliolis ovatis vel rhomboi- 
deo-ovatis 157. B. Ostruthioides. 

I. Folia bipinnatisecta vel biternatisecta folio- 
lis segmentisve cuneato-lanceolatis. 
157. B. Ostruthioides var. costaricensis. 

L Folia bipinnatim dissecta segmentis longis 

filiformibus 141. B. nudata. 

k. Flores ligulati steriles. 

I. Foliola angustissime linearia, plerumque 
0.3-0.6 mm. lata. .146. B. angustissima. 

L Foliola latiora. 
m. Flores ligulati 5 vel 6. 

n. Foliorum segmenta primaria subfla- 
belliformia 152. B. insolita. 

n. Foliorum segmenta primaria non sub- 

flabelliformia . 150. B. triplinerviavar. 

macrantha et var. mollis. 

m. Flores ligulati 7-10. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 49 

w. Involucri bracteae exteriores 9-12 
mm. longae 69. B. Gentryi. 

n. Involucri bracteae exteriores 3-7 mm. 
longae . . . 153. B. canescens (ac 147a. 
B. Muelleri et rarissima 150. B. tripli- 
nervia var. macrantha f. octoradiata). 

d. Achaenia exaristata vel aristata aristis calvis vel antrorsum 

setosis. 
e. Achaenia exteriora late cuneata vel cuneato-obovata. 

/. Achaenia nigra corpore 2.5-4.5 mm. longa; involucri 
bracteis exterioribus 7-10 81. B. mitis. 

f. Achaenia brunnea vel subnigra, corpore 5-7.5 mm. longa. 

g. Involucri bracteae exteriores 8-10, glabrae vel mode- 
rate ciliatae, quam interiores breviores. 

78. B. aristosa et var. mutica. 

g. Involucri bracteae exteriores 12-20, valde ciliatae vel 
grosse hispidae, quam interiores plerumque longiores. 

79. B. polylepis. 
e. Achaenia exteriora anguste cuneata vel linearia. 

/. Folia indivisa, nitido-subcoriacea, rhomboideo-ovata; 
caulibus repentibus, usque ad 4 m. longis. 

61. B. clarendonensis. 
f. Folia divisa. 

0. Planta demissa, saepe ramosissima, plerumque 1-2.5 
dm. alta 147. B. Anthemoides. 

g. Plantae erectae, moderate ramosae, altiores. 

h. Achaeniorum corpus et aristae similes soliditate; 
aristae transversim triangulatae. 

80. B. coronata et var. tenuiloba* 

h. Achaeniorum corpus et aristae soliditate dissimiles; 
aristae transversim teretes. 

i. Involucri bracteae exteriores apicem versus plus 
minusve dilatatae, 1-2 mm. longae. 

82. B. Oerstediana. 

i. Involucri bracteae exteriores usque ad apicem 
lineares, 3-7 mm. longae. 

j. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 12, plerumque 
5-7 mm. longae 151. 5. acrifolia. 



50 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

y. Involucri bracteae exteriores 6-8, plerumque 
3-5 mm. longae 96. B. Schaffneri. 

c. Capitula discoidea vel subradiata vel perspicue radiata ligulis 

albis vel rosaceis vel rubris sed non vere flavis. 
d. Achaenia late vel anguste cuneata, sub apice non angustata. 1 

e. Achaeniorum corpus striatum; foliis simplicibus vel pro- 

funde incisis vel (apud B. tripartitam) 3-5-partitis. 
/. Achaenia marginibus antrorsum hamosa, saltern basi ipsa. 
g. Capitula terminalia 8-30-flora. 

h. Achaenia fere linearia, transversim plano-convexa, 
copiose pubescentia, sine costis medianis; aristis 
angustissimis, patentibus, vix dimidio quam cor- 

pore brevioribus 76. B. Bidentoides. 

h. Achaenia plana vel biconvexa, sparsim pubescentia, 
costis medianis perspicuis; aristis crassioribus, 
longitudine non plus tertia parte corporis. 
i. Capitula terminalia saltern 8 mm. longa. 

77. B. Eatonii et varietates. 
i. Capitula terminalia 4-7 mm. longa. 

X B. multiceps (p. 208). 
g. Capitula terminalia 30-60-flora. 

h. Achaenia saltern matura ad apicem tetragona. 

87. B. connata et varietates. 

h. Achaenia plana 88. B. heterodoxa. 

/. Achaenia marginibus retrorsum hamosa pro tota longi- 
tudine. 
g. Achaenia apice convexa ac cartilaginea. 

h. Capitula hemisphaerica, ad anthesin plerumque 
cernua; involucri bracteis exterioribus reflexis, 
patentibus vel parce adscendentibus ; achaeniis 
transversim rhomboideis, graciliter obscureque 
striatis, saepe tuberculatis. 

i. Achaenia recta planaque, non valde carinata, 
sine marginibus corticis pallidae; paleis ad api- 
cem rubidis; floribus ligulatis 1.5-3 cm. longis. 

93. B. laevis. 

1 For purposes of comparison, the steps under this d have been made to 
correspond rather closely with those in Fassett's "A key to the northeastern 
American species of Bidens" (Rhodora 27: 184-185. 1925). 



THE GENUS BIDENS 51 

i. Achaenia arcuata, valde carinata, cortice pallida 
marginata; paleis ad apicem flavidis; floribus 
ligulatis usque ad 1.7 cm. longis. 

92. B. cernua et var. oligodonta. 

h. Capitula campanulata vel subhemisphaerica, ad 
anthesin erecta; achaeniis biconvexis, grosse ac 
profunde striatis, non tuberculatis. 

94. B. hyperborea et varietates. 

g. Achaenia apice nee convexa nee cartilaginea. 
h. Folia principalia 3-5-secta vel -partita. 

i. Flores ligulati 8-11, circ. 3.5-8 mm. longi ; foliorum 
lamina segmentisve profunde atque acerrime 
incisis vel inciso-dentatis . . .91. B. amplissima. 

i. Capitula normaliter discoidea (rarissime sub- 
radiata) ; foliis normaliter 3-5-partitis, segmentis 
serratis dentatisve sed non plerumque incisis. 

89. B. tripartite,. 

h. Folia simplicia 86. B. comosa. 

e. Achaeniorum corpus non striatum; foliis saltern 1-2- 
pinnatis, foliolo terminali plerumque petiolulato. 

/. Involucri bracteae exteriores 3-5 (plerumque 4), non 
evidenter ciliatae 83. B. discoidea. 

f. Involucri bracteae exteriores 5-16, regulariter copioseque 
ciliatae. 

g. Involucri bracteae exteriores 10-16; interiores quam 
discus breviores; achaeniis brunneis vel olivaceis. 

85. B. vulgata et varietates. 

g. Involucri bracteae exteriores 5-8; interiores disco 
aequales; achaeniis subnigris. 

84. B. frondosa et varietates. 

d. Achaenia linearia vel clavata sed numquam manifeste 
cuneata, supra saepe attenuata. 

e. Involucri bracteae exteriores 3 vel 4, pro capitulo longis- 
simae (1-2.5 cm.), nonnullae valde foliaceae atque irregu- 
lariter 1-2-pinnatim partitae 124. B. Lemmonii. 

e. Involucri bracteae exteriores simplices. 

/. Achaeniorum aristae 3-5, regulariter una duaeve erectae 
reliquae reflexae 137. B. riparia. 



52 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

/. Achaenia exaristata vel aristata aristis inter se non 
regulariter diverse spectantibus. 

g. Foliorum segmenta plerumque linearia vel capilli- 
formia. 

h. Herba perennis; floribus ligulatis 8-10, apice trun- 
cate grosse dentatis, 1.3-1.6 cm. longis. 

145. B. Pringlei. 
h. Herbae annuae. 

i. Flores tubulosi pauci, plerumque 5-13. 

;. Foliorum medianorum ac superiorum segmenta 
lineari-filiformia 0.5-1 mm. lata. 

121. B. heterosperma. 

j. Foliorum medianorum ac superiorum segmenta 
multo latiora 114. B. leptocephala. 

i. Flores tubulosi multo numerosiores. 
y. Capitulorum juvenilium discus saltern dimidio 
bracteis exterioribus brevior; foliorum seg- 
mentis linearissimis 0.5-1 mm. latis. 

125. B. capillifolia. 

y. Capitulorum juvenilium discus bracteis exteri- 
oribus fere vel plene aequalis. 

k. Involucri bracteae exteriores sub apice ple- 
rumque dilatatae;ligulisalbidis vel rosaceis. 
132. B. pilosa var. bimucronata f. odorata 
et var. calcicola f. dissecta. 

k. Involucri bracteae exteriores sub apice raro 
dilatatae; ligulis flavis. .118. B. tenuisecta. 

g. Foliorum segmenta anguste lanceolata vel latiora. 
h. Achaenia omnia etiam primum exaristata. 

i. Achaenia omnia valde clavata, glabra; ligulis 
rosaceis 109. B. mollifolia. 

i. Achaenia non clavata, supra antrorsum hispida; 
ligulis albidis vel flavidis 111. B. Brandegeei. 

h. Achaenia saltern interiora aristata. 
i. Achaenia pauca, plerumque 5-14. 

y. Achaenia matura plerumque plus minusve 
recurvata, superne late distantia. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 53 

A;. Achaenia interiora corpore plerumque 12-21 

mm. longa 107. B. Anthriscoides. 

k. Achaenia interiora corpore plerumque 7-10 

mm. longa 105. B. oligantha. 

j. Achaenia matura recta vel subrecta, non 

superne distantia. 

k. Flores ligulati deficientes vel circ. 3, tantum 
circ. 2.5 mm. longi . . . 114. B. leptocephala. 

k. Flores ligulati circ. 5, plerumque 5-7 mm. 
longi. 

I. Folia pinnatim 3-5-partita. 
ra. Achaenia exteriora badia rubrave. 

104. B. amphicarpa. 

m. Achaenia omnia atra . 103. B. oligocarpa. 
I. Folia 2-3-pinnatisecta. 

131. B. pseudalausensis. 
i. Achaenia plerumque 16-50. 
y. Flores ligulati pro capitulo perspicui, albi vel 
rosacei. 

k. Involucri bracteae exteriores 7-9. 

I. Ligulae rosaceae ac caules adscendentes vel 

plus minusve repentes, 1.5-4 dm. longi. 

108. B. Chrysanthemifolia. 

I. Nunc ligulae albidae vel rosaceae ac caules 

erectae, nunc caules repentes subscanden- 

tesve ac ligulae albae . . 132. B. pilosa var. 

radiata, var. bimucronata, et var. calcicola. 

k. Involucri bracteae exteriores 9-16. 

112. B. aequisquama. 
j. Flores ligulati minuti vel deficientes. 

k. Achaeniorum maturorum aristae 5-7 mm. 

longae ac divaricatae 117. B. cornuta. 

k. Achaeniorum aristae usque ad 4 mm. longae 
vel deficientes. 

1. Achaenia plerumque recurvata; aristis 4-6. 
136. B. Cynapiifolia et varietates. 
I. Achaenia recta vel subrecta. 

m. Folia simplicia vel simpliciter pinnata. 



54 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

n. Achaenia valde dimorpha; nonnulla 
exteriora clavata, badia vel rubro- 
straminea, corpore tantum circ. 4.5- 
5.5 mm. longa. 

113. B. Bigelovii var. pueblensis. 

n. Achaenia plus minusve similia. 

o. Folia 5-partita foliolo terminal! circ. 

2-3 cm. longo et 1-1.3 cm. lato; 

achaeniis plerumque 2-aristatis. 

134. B. domingensis. 

o. Folia simplicia vel 3-partita, lamina 
vel foliolo terminali 3.5-8 cm. 
longa et 2-4 cm. lata; achaeniis 
plerumque 3-4-aristatis. 
128. B. tenera et var. paucidentata. 

o. Folia rarissime simplicia plerumque 
3-5-partita, lamina vel foliolo 
terminali plerumque 2-10 cm. 
longo, achaeniis 25-40, plerumque 
2-3 (rarius 4-5) -aristatis. 

132. B. pilosa et var. minor. 

m. Folia foliolis saltern imis 2-3-pinnata. 

w. Involucri bracteae exteriores 2-3 mm. 
longae; achaeniorum interiorum cor- 
pore 6-12 mm. longo; planta mexi- 
cana 129. B. duranginensis. 

n. Involucri bracteae exteriores 3-7.5 

mm. longae. 

o. Achaenia dimorpha, exteriora cla- 
vata, rubido-badia vel rubido- 
nigra, corpore tantum circ. 4-7 
mm. longa, saepe setosiora; interi- 
orum maturorum corporibus 8-12 
mm. longis. 

p. Folia tripartita interdum termi- 
nalibus interdum omnibus seg- 
mentis 3-5-partitis, lobis ob- 
longis vel cuneatis; involucri 
bracteis exterioribus 6-9; achae- 



THE GENUS BIDENS 55 

niorum interiorum aristis saepe 

3, circ. 1.5-3 mm. longis. . .113. 

B. Bigelomi et var. pueblensis. 

p. Folia 1-2-pinnata, segmentis pri- 
mariis lateralibus circ. 2 jugis, 
superioribus simplicibus inferi- 
oribus saepius tripartitis, seg- 
mentis lanceolatis acriter 
serratis; involucri bracteis ex- 
terioribus 8-12; achaeniorum 
interiorum aristis 2, circ. 1-1.5 
mm. longis . . 99. B. Townsendii. 

o. Achaenia inter se similia vel sub- 
similia, corpore quam 12 mm. 
saepe longiora; involucri bracteis 
exterioribus 3-5 mm. longis. 

p. Aristae erecto-patentes . . 115. B. 
bipinnata et var. biternatoides. 

p. Aristae erectae vel suberectae. 
133. B. subalternans. 

a. Plantae austro-americanae. 

b. Flores ligulati plerumque brunneo-rubri vel purpurei, sicci saepe 
plus minusve cinnamomei. 

c. Capitula pansa ad anthesin circ. 2.5-3 cm. lata; achaeniis 
valde tetragonis 3-4-aristatis aristis retrorsum et saepe oculis 
pectinatim hamosis 139. B. Gardneri. 

c. Capitula pansa ad anthesin circ. 4 cm. lata; achaeniorum sub- 
tetragonorum aristis abortivis . . 143. B. Riedelii et var. hirsuta. 

b. Flores ligulati diversi vel deficientes. 

c. Herbae vel frutices perennes plerumque scandentes. 
d. Folia indivisa. 

e. Capitula pansa ad anthesin circ. 1.5-2 cm. lata; foliis 1-3 
cm. latis 62. B. monticola. 

e. Capitula pansa ad anthesin plerumque 3-5 cm. lata; 
foliis 3-5.5 cm. latis. 

/. Involucri bracteae exteriores numerosae (plerumque 12- 
14), spathulato-obovatae, apice rotundae vel obtusis- 
simae 67. B. simplicifolia. 



56 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

/. Involucri bracteae exteriores 7-9, late lineares vel lineari- 

spathulatae, apice acutae. 

g. Achaenia corpora 8-13 mm. longa . . 71. B. segetum var. 
patula (rarissime etiam 65. B. squarrosa}. 

g. Achaenia corpore 1-2.2 cm. longa 72. B. Shrevei. 

d. Folia 3-5-partita. 

e. Omnia folia tantum 2-3.5 cm. longa. .68. B. Vincaefolia. 
e. Folia longiora. 

/. Folia plerumque subcoriacea ac rugosa . 66. B. Rubifolia. 
f. Folia plus minusve membranacea. 

g. Foliola valde perspicueque caudato-acuminata; achae- 

niis marginibus glabris 70. B. urophylla. 

g. Foliola moderate acuminata vel obtusiora; achaeniis 

ciliatis. 

h. Foliola plerumque anguste lanceolata raro ovato- 
lanceolata; achaeniis corpore 8-13 mm. longis. 

71. B. segetum. 

h. Foliola vel ovata vel ovato-lanceolata vel lanceolata, 
raro angustiora; achaeniis corpore 6-9 mm. longis. 

65. B. squarrosa. 

c. Herbae annuae perennesve, non scandentes. 
d. Una vel duae aristae erectae reliquae perspicue reflexae. 

137. B. riparia et var. refracta. 
d. Aristae diversae vel deficientes. 
e. Folia simplicia. 
/. Capitula discoidea. 
g. Folia glaberrima. 

h. Folia principalia (inferiora exclusa) usque ad 3.5 
cm. longa et 0.2-1 mm. lata ... 75. B. fistulosa. 
h. Folia principalia 5-9 cm. longa et 2-3 cm. lata. 

74. B. graveolens. 

g. Folia tomentosa 142. B. brasiliensis. 

/. Capitula radiata. 

g. Achaenia anguste cuneata, plana vel 3-4-angulata 
angulis retrorsum hamosis 93. B. laevis. 

g. Achaenia elongata et plus minusve lineari-fusiformia, 
corpore glabra vel antrorsum setosa. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 57 

h. Involucri bracteae exteriores apicem versus plus 
minusve dilatatae. 

132. B. pilosa var. radiata f. indivisa. 
h. Involucri bracteae exteriores superne angustatae. 
i. Flores ligulati plerumque 5 vel 6. 

150. B. triplinervia. 
i. Flores ligulati plerumque 8-10. 
y. Planta 1-2 m. alta; involucri bracteis exteriori- 

bus 8-14 mm. longis 144. B. Chodati. 

j. Plantae caules plerumque 2-6 dm. longi; invo- 
lucri bracteis exterioribus 5-6.5 cm. longis. 

148. B. andicola. 
e. Folia divisa. 

/. Foliorum segmenta anguste linearia vel flagellaria (hac 
stat raro etiam . . . 133. B. subalternans var. simulans). 
g. Capitula discoidea vel vix subradiata. 
h. Involucri bracteae exteriores 4-7, circ. 2-3 mm. 
longae; achaeniis corpore 8-13 mm. longis. 

122. B. exigua. 

h. Involucri bracteae exteriores 7-10, circ. 3^4 mm. 
longae; achaeniis corpore 1-1.4 cm. longis. 

140. B. flagellaris. 

h. Involucri bracteae exteriores 6-8, circ. 4-6 (rarius 
8) mm. longae; achaeniis corpore 1-2.4 cm. longis. 

130. B. pseudocosmos. 
g. Capitula radiata. 

h. Flores ligulati plerumque 4-6. 
i. Flores ligulati tantum 3-4 mm. longi. 

106. B. Andrei, 
i. Flores ligulati saltern 1 cm. longi. 

150. B. triplinervia. 

h. Flores ligulati plerumque 8 . . 148. B. andicola var. 
tarijensis f. dissecta (sed vide etiam 150. B. tripli- 
nerviam var. macrantham f. octoradiatam) . 
f. Foliorum lamina vel segmenta latiora. 

g. Capitula perspicue radiata, floribus ligulatis mani- 

feste flavis ac saltern 1 cm. longis. 
h. Flores ligulati plerumque 5 vel 6. 

150. B. triplinervia et varietates. 



58 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

h. Flores ligulati plerumque 8. 

148. B. andicola et varietates excl. var. Mandonii. 

g. Capitula discoidea vel vix subradiata vel etiam 
radiata sed cum floribus ligulatis albis rosaceisve non 
vere flavis. 

h. Involucri bracteae exteriores apicem versus dila- 
tatae. 

i. Achaenia interiora corpore 5-6 mm. longa, 2-3- 

aristata aristis plerumque 1.5-2 mm. longis. 

110. B. Abadiae et var. pilosoides. 

i. Achaenia interiora corpore 6-16 mm. longa, 2-3 
(-5) -aristata aristis 2-4 mm. longis. 

132. B. pilosa et varietates. 

h. Involucri bracteae exteriores apicem versus plerum- 
que non dilatatae. 

i. Achaenia recurvato-falcata. 

136. B. Cynapiifolia et var. portoricensis. 

i. Achaenia recta. 

y. Folia principalia unipinnata 3-5 foliolis. 
k. Achaenia plerumque 2-aristata. 

I. Herba gracilis, infra simplex; capitulis in 
fructu circ. 1.5 cm. altis et circ. 1 cm. 
latis .... 148. B. andicola var. Mandonii. 

I. Herba subrobusta, infra valde ramosa; 
capitulis cum fructibus circ. 2-2.4 cm. 
alta et superne circ. 1-1.8 cm. lata. .148. 
B. andicola var. Cosmantha f. Buchtienii. 

k. Achaenia plerumque 3-aristata. 

128. B. tenera. 
k. Achaenia plerumque 4-aristata. 

/. Achaenia plerumque 6-15 (raro -20); 
aristis saepius patentibus. 

128. B. tenera var. paucidentata. 

I. Achaenia numerosiora; aristis erectis. 

133. B. subalternans var. unipinnata. 

j. Folia principalia saltern 2-3-pinnata. 

k. Achaenia exteriora (saltern demum) divari- 
cata . 136. B. Cynapiifolia var. portoricensis. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 59 

k. Achaenia exteriora semper erecta vel sub- 

erecta. 

/. Aristae erectae vel suberectae. 
TO. Foliola lateralia superiora circumam- 
bitu ovata, apice obtusa vel subacuta. 
135. B. Malmei. 

TO. Foliola lateralia superiora circumam- 
bitu lanceolata vel linearia, apice valde 
acuta vel acuminata. 
133. B. subalternans et var. simulans. 

1. Aristae patentes 115. B. bipinnata. 

a. Plantae hemisphaerii orientalis africanae exclusae. 
b. Achaenia moderate vel late cuneata non linearia, sub apice non 

angustata. 

c. Achaenia faciebus striata. 

d. Achaenia marginibus saltern basi ipsa 1-paucis setis antror- 

sum munita .... 87. B. connata var. petiolata et var. fallax. 

d. Achaenia marginibus totam longitudinem retrorsum hamosa. 

e. Achaenia apice convexa cartilagineaque. 

/. Folia simplicia; achaeniis quadrangulatis quadriaristatis 

corpore 5-7.7 mm. longis 92. B. cernua. 

/. Folia normaliter pinnatim 3-5-partita; achaeniis planis 
biaristatis corpore 3-3.5 mm. longis ... 90. B. radiata. 
e. Achaenia apice nee convexa nee cartilaginea. 

89. B. tripartita et varietates. 

c. Achaenia faciebus non striata; foliis pinnatim 3-5-partitis. 
d. Involucri bracteae exteriores 5-8; interiores disco aequales. 

84. B. jrondosa. 
d. Involucri bracteae exteriores 10-16; interiores quam discus 

breviores 85. B. vulgata. 

b. Achaenia linearia, apicem versus saepe angustata. 

c. Capitula perspicue radiata, floribus ligulatis saltern 8 mm. longis. 
d. Ligulae albae vel ochroleucae . . . 132. B. pilosa var. radiata. 
d. Ligulae flavae. 

e. Folia petiolo adjecto 0.8-2.2 dm. longa; involucri bracteis 
exterioribus 8-17; achaeniis cuneato-linearibus, corpore 
4-7 mm. longis 100. B. aurea. 



60 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

e. Folia petiolo adjecto plerumque 1.5-4 cm. longa; involucri 
bracteis exterioribus 5-9 ; achaeniis interioribus linearibus 
superne attenuates, corpore 6-9 mm. longis. 

150. B. triplinervia var. macrantha. 

c. Capitula discoidea vel debiliter radiata floribus ligulatis plerum- 
que 2-6 mm. longis. , 
d. Folia simpliciter pinnata. 

e. Involucri bracteae exteriores apicem versus plus minusve 

dilatatae 132. B. pilosa et var. minor. 

e. Involucri bracteae exteriores superne angustatae et non 

dilatatae 126. B. biternata et var. glabrata. 

d. Folia saltern foliolis imis 2-3-pinnata. 
e. Flores tubulosi 4-lobati, achaeniis 6-13, biaristatis; folio- 
rum segmentis linearibus vel oblongo-linearibus. 

123. B. parviflora. 

e. Flores tubulosi 5-lobati; achaeniis plerumque 15-35. 
/. Foliola ima tripartita caetera indivisa, omnia ovata vel 
lanceolata, multiserrata. 

126. B. biternata et var. glabrata. 
f. Foliola omnia 1-2-pinnata 115. B. bipinnata. 

a. Plantae africanae. 

b. Flores ligulati rubidi vel violacei vel purpurei nee (vel sicci 

false) flavi nee albi. 
c. Achaenia faciebus glabra; involucri bracteis exterioribus circ. 

6-8 166. B. rubra. 

c. Achaenia faciebus plerumque setosa. 

d. Ligulae atrorubrae vel atropurpureae .... 168. B. leptolepis. 

d. Ligulae moderate violaceae 167. B. urceolata. 

b. Flores ligulati flavi vel raro albi, aut deficientes. 
c. Foliorum saltern perpauci basales dentes capilliformes vel in 
setas veras elongatas desinentes; floribus tubulosis siccis ad 
medium plerumque plus minusve tumidis articulatisve ac 
fractis, plantis plurime abyssinicis vel eritreanis (raro 188. B. 
Elliotii adpropinquat). 
d. Folia simplicia. 
e. Folia opposita. 
/. Folia anguste elongato-lanceolata 227. B. superba. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 61 

/. Folia ovata vel anguste elliptica. 

226. B. Dielsii et var. medusoides. 

e. Folia ternatim verticillata 229. B. ternata. 

d. Folia divisa. 

e. Capitula pansa ad anthesin 1-2.5 cm. lata et circ. 5 mm. 
alta. 

/. Foliorum dentes saepissime seta terminati, involucri 
bracteae exteriores circ. 8 230. B. setigera. 

/. Foliorum dentes saepissime non setigeri, involucri 
bracteae exteriores circ. 6 231. B. setigeroides. 

e. Capitula majora, saepius 3-5 cm. lata. 

/. Foliorum segmenta anguste linearia. 

219. B. chaetodonta var. glabrior et 225. B. chaetophylla. 

f. Foliorum segmenta latiora. 

g. Petioli brevissimi alato-marginati raro usque ad 1 cm. 
longi 220. B. Rueppellii. 

g. Petioli plerumque 1-4 cm. longi. 

h. Involucri bracteae exteriores 16-24; foliorum seg- 
mentis subtus albescentibus . . . 224. B. Cirsioides. 

h. Involucri bracteae pauciores; foliorum segmentis 
subtus viridibus pallidisve sed non albescentibus. 

i. Folia 3-5-partita foliolis serratis ovatis vel 
lanceolatis. 

y. Achaenia corpore 3-4 mm. longa; involucri 
bracteis exterioribus circ. 6-7 mm. longis. 

221. B. Vatkei. 

y. Achaenia corpore 3.5-4.5 mm. longa; involucri 
bracteis exterioribus 1.3-1.7 cm. longis; foliis 
3-5-partitis 223. B. articulata. 

j. Achaenia corpore 4-6 mm. longa; involucri 
bracteis exterioribus 1-1.6 cm. longis; foliis 
3-partitis 222. B. rotata. 

i. Folia 2-3-pinnatisecta foliolis saepius oblongo- 
linearibus vel lineari-lanceolatis. 

219. B. chaetodonta. 

c. Foliorum dentes numquam (sed pro B. Elliotii interdum imper- 
fecte) capilliformes nee in setas veras elongatas desinentes. 



62 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

d. Herbae annuae, achaeniis apice exaristato plus minusve 
incrassato-capitatis vel crassiusculo-anulatis. 

233. B. praecox. 

d. Herbae annuae, achaeniis apice non incrassato-capitatis nee 
crassiusculo-anulatis. 

e. Capitula valde radiata. 

/. Flores ligulati 1.2 cm. longi, aristis retrorsum hamosis. 

171. B. Schimperi (forsitan etiam 172. B. Onisciformis) . 

/. Flores ligulati 2-2.5 cm. longi; aristis antrorsum hispi- 

dulis vel deficientibus. 

g. Involucrum maturum 2 cm. latum, bracteis exteriori- 

bus 0.7-2 cm. longis . . 163. B. Steppia et varietates. 

g. Involucrum maturum 1 cm. latum, bracteis exteri- 

oribus circ. 4-7.5 mm. longis . . 182. B. kivuensis (vide 

etiam 161. B. Grantii et var. Scaettae; etiam 163. 

B. Steppia var. Elskensii). 

e. Capitula discoidea vel debiliter radiata floribus ligulatis 

usque ad circ. 7 mm. longis. 
/. Foliorum segmenta anguste linearia. 

g. Kami acutissime angulati et fere subalati. 

102. B. acuticaulis. 

g. Kami tantum moderate angulati vel subtetragoni. 
h. Achaenia exaristata. 

i. Achaenia circ. 5-7 mm. longa; capitulis pansis ad 
anthesin 3.5-5.5 cm. latis. 

163. B. Steppia var. ambacensis. 

i. Achaenia 2.2-3.5 mm. longa; capitulis pansis ad 
anthesin 1.2cm. latis 231. B.setigeroides. 

h. Achaenia aristata. 

i. Involucri bracteae exteriores 1-2 mm. longae, 

interiores 4-5 mm. longae; ligulis manifestis 

profunde incisis nunc 3-7 nunc 7-13 mm. longis. 

95. B. diversa et var. megaglossa. 

i. Involucri bracteae exteriores demum circ. 4-8 
mm. longae. 

j. Achaenia supra medium sensim angustata; 
aristis retrorsum hamosis . . 120. B. paupercula. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 63 

j. Achaenia plerumque anguste sed perspicue 
oblonga; aristis antrorsum hispidis. 

119. B. straminoides. 
/. Foliorum segmenta lineari-lanceolata vel latiora. 

g. Involucri bracteae exteriores apicem versus plerumque 

dilatatae. 
h. Disci flores (et quam ob rem achaenia) 6-12; foliis 

plurime simplicia 127. B. Engleri. 

h. Disci flores multo numerosiores; foliis plerumque 

pinnatim 3-5-partitis . . 132. B. pilosa et varietates. 

g. Involucri bracteae exteriores apicem versus anguste 

lineares itaque non dilatatae. 

h. Folia pinnatim vel subbipinnatim 3-9-partita ; f oliolis 
(vel segmentis) ovatis vel ovato-lanceolatis, multi- 
serratis. 

i. Foliola inferiora raro divisa. 
y. Achaenia 2- vel 3-aristata, corpore 1.2-1.6 cm. 

longa 116. B. cylindrica. 

y. Achaenia (exteriora excepta) plerumque 4- 
rariter 3-6-aristata, corpore usque ad 2.5 

cm. longa 126. B. biternata var. glabrata. 

i. Foliola inferiora plerumque divisa. 

126. B. biternata. 

h. Folia 2-3-pinnatisecta 115. B. bipinnata. 

d. Herbae perennes vel verisimiliter perennes. 

e. Achaeniorum aristae saltern ad summam plurime retrorsum 

hamosae vel retrorsum hispidae, raro deficientes. 
/. Folia omnia indivisa vel interdum flabelliformi-incisa. 
g. Folia rotundata vel flabellata. 

h. Achaenia corpore 5-6 mm. longa . 213. B. Volkensii. 
h. Achaenia exteriora corpore 9 mm. interiora 16 

mm. longa 197. B. flabellata. 

g. Folia plus minusve lanceolata. 

h. Achaeniorum aristae valde retrorso-hamosae. 

i. Involucri bracteae exteriores 10-14, circ. 8-10 

mm. longae 201. B. andongensis. 

i. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 8, circ. 6-8 mm. 
longae 200. B. Moorei et var. verrucosa. 



64 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

h. Achaeniorum aristae non nisi ad apicem retrorsum 

hamosae. 

i. Folia utrinque dense sed non perspicue verrucoso- 
scabra, aliter glabra, 3.5-4.5 cm. lata. 

202. B. Buchneri. 
i. Folia subtus scabrido-hispida, 1.5-3 cm. lata. 

204. B. Seretii. 
/. Nonnulla vel omnia folia divisa. 

g. Foliorum segmenta principalia linearia. 

h. Paleae interiores supra longissime et perspicuissime 
lineari-productae; achaeniorum aristis demum 

valde divaricatis 196. B. lineariloba. 

h. Paleae et aristae diversae. 

i. Achaeniorum aristae nudae vel antrorsum hamosae 
vel rarius perpaucis hamis retrorsum hamosae, 
vel etiam deficientes. 
j. Nonnulla folia indivisa alia paucilobata. 

192. B. ambigua. 
j. Folia omnia valde 1-2-pinnata. 

k. Capitulapansaad anthesin circ.2-2.5cm. lata; 
achaeniis 0.8-1.2 mm. latis . . 187. B. Taylori. 
k. Capitula pansa ad anthesin 3-4.5 cm. lata; 
achaeniis 1.4-2 mm. latis. 

181. B. Schlechteri. 

i. Achaeniorum aristae regulariter retrorsum hamo- 
sae. 
j. Folia (petiolo adjecto) plerumque 1.5-7 (raro 

-9.5) cm. longa. 
k. Foliorum segmenta plerumque late oblongeve 

linearia 177. B. Whytei. 

k. Foliorum segmenta angustiora. 

L Involucri bracteae exteriores plerumque 
4-8 mm. longae. 

m. Capitula discoidea 195. B. crocea. 

m. Capitula radiata. 

n. Capitula pansa ad anthesin 3-4.5 
cm. lata et 9-12 mm. alta; achaeniis 
corpore 9-13 mm. longis. 

184. B. Bequaertii. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 65 

n. Capitula pansa ad anthesin 2.5-3 cm. 
lata et 6-9 mm. alta; achaeniis 
corpore 5-9 mm. longis. 
o. Folia pinnata vel subbipinnatipar- 
tita, subcarnosa, achaeniis interi- 
oribus corpore 7-9 mm. longis. 

173. B. Hoffmannii. 

o. Folia bi-tripinnatipartita, valde 

membranacea, achaeniis interiori- 

bus corpore 6-7 mm. longis. 

178. B. gracilior var. ukerewensis. 

1. Involucri bracteae exteriores 3-4 mm. 

longae 180. B. palustris. 

j. Folia (petiolo adjecto) 9-15 cm. longa. 

189. B. Phalangiphylla. 
g. Foliorum segmenta principalia latiora. 
h. Nonnulla folia 1-2.6 dm. longa; foliolis lateralibus 
1-4 jugis, late lanceolatis, 1-4 cm. latis; plantis 

elatis 1-3 m. altis 186. B. magnifolia. 

h. Folia plerumque usque ad 1 dm. longa; foliolis 
lateralibus minoribus; plantis quam 1 m. non 
(nisi B. kilimandscharicae) altioribus. 
i. Folia principalia valde 2-3-pinnatisecta. 
y. Capitula pansa ad anthesin 2.5-4 cm. lata et 

6-9 mm. alta 178. B. gracilior. 

;. Capitula pansa ad anthesin 4-6 cm. lata et 

1-1.3 cm. alta. 

k. Involucri glabri bracteae exteriores circ. 
5, plerumque 4-7 mm. longae, interiores 

multo majores 185. B. Hildebrandtii. 

k. Involucri dense hispido-tomentosi bracteae 
exteriores 8, circ. 8 mm. longae, interiores 

aequales 159. B. Holstii var. rupestris. 

i. Folia principalia pinnatim 3-5-partita foliolis 

dentatis vel vix subsectis. 
y. Capitula pansa ad anthesin 5-8 cm. lata et 

circ. 1-1.2 cm. alta. 

k. Foliorum segmenta plerumque lanceolata vel 
ovato-lanceolata, apice angustata. 

191. B. robustior. 



66 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

k. Foliorum laminae vel segmenta saepius ovata 

vel ovato-lanceolata, apice saepius obtusa. 

210. B. kilimandscharica var. retrorsa. 

j. Capitula pansa ad anthesin 2-3.5 cm. lata et 

5-8 mm. alta. 
k. Foliolum terminate ovatum. 

/. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 4-5 mm. 
longae; achaeniis corpore 5-6 mm. longis 
et circ. 1 mm. latis .... 213. B. Volkensii. 

I. Involucri bracteae exteriores 7-10 mm. 
longae; achaeniis corpore 6-8 mm. longis 
et circ. 1.3 mm. latis . . 212. B. ukambensis. 

k. Foliolum terminate cuneate vel oblonge 
lanceolatum. 

I. Folia subsessilia vel breviter petiolata 
petiolis 2-6 mm. longis; achaeniis cor- 
pore circ. 5 mm. longis . . 214. B. lineata. 

L Folia petiolata petiolis 0.5-2 cm. longis; 
achaeniis corpore 9 mm. longis. 

194. B. cinerea. 

e. Achaeniorum aristae nunc manifestae et nudae vel plus 
minusve antrorsum hamosae vel antrorsum hispidae, 
nunc deficientes. 

/. Folia plerumque indivisa. 

g. Folia linearia 216. B. Schweinfurthii. 

g. Folia latiora. 

h. Folia (si simplicia) ovata vel subrhomboideo-ovata. 

i. Involucrum late plano-hemisphaericum ; floribus 

ligulatis 10-18 206. B. grandis. 

i. Involucrum altius; floribus ligulatis 8-10. 

y. Capitula pansa ad anthesin 2.8 cm. lata, 
achaeniis corpore 4-5 mm. longis. 

228. B. Neumannii. 

j. Capitula pansa ad anthesin 6-7 cm. lata, 
achaeniis longioribus. 

k. Flores ligulati 10-12. 

208. B. Brucei et var. pubescentior. 

k. Flores ligulati circ. 8. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 67 

I. Achaenia corpore 6-6.5 mm. longa. 

209. B. Crataegifolia. 
1. Achaenia corpore 7-9 mm. longa. 

208. B. Brucei var. Swynnertonii. 
h. Folia oblongo-lanceolata vel angustiora. 
i. Folia subtus glabra vel aegre pubescentia. 

j. Flores ligulati 6-8 198. B. Baumii. 

j. Flores ligulati circ. 12. 

k. Involucri bracteae extimae ovato-lanceolatae, 
usque ad 1.5 cm. latae. .207. B. coriacea. 
k. Involucri bracteae exteriores lineari-acumi- 
natae vel anguste lanceolatae, 1.5-2.5 mm. 
latae. 
I. Folia subsessilia. 

226. B. Dielsii et var. medusoides. 
I. Folia principalia tenuiter longeque petio- 

lata 199. B. ruandensis. 

i. Folia subtus scabrida vel scabrido-hispida vel 

glanduloso-pilosa. 
y. Achaenia marginibus apiceque glabra. 

215. B. Aspilioides. 
j. Achaenia plus minusve setosa. 

k. Folia inferne (plerumque sensim) ad basim 

saepissime angustata ; folia principalia quam 

internodia plerumque multo longiora. 

/. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 1.3-1.7 

(-3) cm. longae, in capitulo discum facile 

superantes; achaeniis corpore 5-10 mm. 

longis et 1.4-2 mm. latis.204. B. Seretii. 

I. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 0.9-1.2 

cm. longae, in capitulo juniore disco 

subaequales; achaeniis corpore 1-1.4 cm. 

longis et 3-4.5 mm. latis. 

203. B. somaliensis. 

k. Multa folia inferne lata et truncata; folia 
principalia quam internodia breviora. 

205. B. Stuhlmannii. 
/. Folia plerumque divisa. 

g. Foliorum segmenta linearia. 



68 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

h. Folia pinnata vel vix bipinnatisecta. 

i. Involucrum ad anthesin 2.3 cm. latum et 

1.1 cm. altum. 

y. Foliolum terminale elongate tenuiterque lineare. 

218. B. Rogersii. 

y. Foliolum terminale late lineare vel anguste sub- 
rhomboideo-lanceolatum . . . 217. B. nyikensis. 
i. Involucrum ad anthesin multo minus. 

y. Capitula pansa ad anthesin 1.4-2 cm. lata. 

175. B. musoziana. 

j. Capitula pansa ad anthesin 2-3.5 cm. lata. 
k. Involucri plus minusve glabrati bracteae 

exteriores 3-5. 
Z. Involucrum superne ad anthesin 5-8 mm. 

latum 174. B. Kirkii. 

1. Involucrum superne ad anthesin 12-15 mm. 

latum 192. B. ambigua. 

k. Involucri pubescentis bracteae exteriores 

7-14. 
I. Bracteae exteriores 7-10; foliorum petiolis 

0.5-4 cm. longis; achaeniis biaristatis. 
m. Folia 4-8 cm. longa . 193. B. ugandensis. 
m. Folia 0.7-1.7 dm. longa. 

183. B. Mildbraedii. 

I. Bracteae exteriores 10-14 ; foliorum petiolis 
2-6 mm. longis; achaeniis exaristatis. 

176. B. Mossii. 
h. Folia 2-3-pinnatisecta. 

i. Involucrum pansa ad anthesin 2-3 cm. latum, 
bracteis exterioribus circ. 1-1.2 cm. longis. 

190. B. insecta. 

i. Involucrum pansa ad anthesin multo angustius. 

y. Involucri bracteae exteriores lineari-elongatae, 

multae 8-11 mm. longae . . . 188. B. Elliotii. 

y. Involucri bracteae exteriores 3-7 mm. longae. 

k. Capitula pansa ad anthesin circ. 2-2.5 cm. 

lata 187. B. Taylori. 

k. Capitula pansa ad anthesin 3-4.5 cm. lata. 






THE GENUS BIDENS 69 

I. Glabra, 5-9 dm. alta, ovariis biaristatis. 

181. B. Schlechteri. 

1. Plus minusve hispida, 2 m. alta, ovariis 
plemmque exaristatis . 182. B. kivuensis. 
g. Foliorum segmenta lanceolata vel latiora. 

h. Planta pusilla, prostrata 149. B. microphylla. 

h. Plantae majores. 

i. Folia principalia magna petiolo adjecto plerumque 
1-2.6 dm. longa, foliolis lateralibus late lanceo- 
latis plerumque 1-4 cm. latis. 

186. B. magnifolia. 
i. Folia principalia usque ad 1 rarius ad 1.5 dm. 

longa. 
y. Achaenia minima tantum 3-4 mm. longa et 

0.6-1.2 mm. lata 179. B. microcarpa. 

j. Achaenia majora. 

k. Folia crassiuscula pinnatim 3-5-partita, foli- 
olis late linearibus vel rhomboideo-lanceo- 
latis, saepius integris vel 1-2-dentatis. 

217. B. nyikensis. 
k. Folia diversa. 

I. Folia plerumque 3-5-partita foliolis ovatis 

et apice obtusis. 

w. Involucrum late hemisphaericum vel 

subpatelliforme; bracteis exterioribus 

plerumque adpressis . .206. B. grandis. 

m. Involucrum altius; bracteis exterioribus 

mox reflexis. 

n. Achaeniorum aristae saepius 3, circ. 
2-2.5 mm. longis (saepe unco unico 

prominulo) 212. B. ukambensis. 

n. Achaeniorum aristae 2, circ. 1-2 mm. 

longae (supra semper glabrae). 
o. Involucri bracteae exteriores 4-8 
mm. longae, quam interiores mani- 
feste breviores . . 211. B. rhodesiana. 
o. Involucri bracteae subaequilongae 
(circ. 8-15 mm.). 

210. B. kilimandscharica. 



70 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

I. Nonnulla vel multa folia 3-5-partita, foliolo 

terminal! late angusteve lanceolate, 
w. Folia valde membranacea, foliolis acer- 
rimis, involucri bracteis exterioribus 
inferne connatis. .232. B. phelloptera. 
m. Folia crassiora, foliolis vel segmentis 
obtusioribus, involucri bracteis exteri- 
oribus inferne distinctis. 

n. Herba glabra 165. B. asperata. 

n. Caulis (saltern supra) et folia pubes- 

centia. 

o. Foliorum principalium petioli 2-3 
cm. longi ; involucri bracteis exteri- 
oribus 7-11 . . 209. B. Crataegifolia. 
o. Foliorum principalium petioli 0.5- 
1.5 cm. longi; involucri bracteis 
exterioribus 13-16. 

160. B. kamerunensis. 
I. Folia dissectiora, segmentis apice subacutis 

vel acrioribus. 

m. Foliorum principalium segmenta termi- 
nalia acriter elongata vel elongato- 
attenuata. 
n. Achaenia corpore 4.5-6 mm. longa et 

0.6-1 mm. lata 178. B. gracilior. 

n. Achaenia corpore circ. 1.5 cm. longa 
et circ. 1 mm. lata. 

185. B. Hildebrandtii. 
m. Foliorum segmenta terminalia non acri- 
ter elongata. 

n. Flores ligulati 7-9, aurantiaci (i.e., 

rubido-flavi) ; achaeniis atro-brun- 

neis corpore circ. 8-9 mm. longis. 

164. B. rufovenosa. 

n. Flores ligulati flavi. 

o. Foliorum segmenta saepius crassius- 

cula, subtus tomentulosa vel 

piloso-pubescentia. 

p. Achaenia interiora corpore 4-6 

mm. longa; involucre superne 



THE GENUS BIDENS 71 

ad anthesin circ. 1.7-2.2 cm. 

lata 159. B. Holstii. 

p. Achaenia interiora corpore 6- 
8.3 cm. longa; involucre su- 
perne ad anthesin circ. 8-12 

mm. lata 161. B. Grantii. 

o. Foliorum segmenta manifeste mem- 

branacea, subtus parce hispida. 

p. Folia plus minusve hispida, 

involucri bracteis exterioribus 

linearibus hispidisque, achaeniis 

0.6-1.4 mm. latis. 

q. Folia supra subdense hispida; 

bracteis exterioribus 5-9 mm. 

longis, quam interioribus raro 

longioribus; floribus ligulatis 

circ. 2.5 cm. longis; aristis 

antrorsum hispidulis 1.5 

mm. longis . . 162. J5. Uhligii. 

q. Folia supra sparsim hispida; 

bracteis exterioribus 7-12 

mm. longis, interiores superan- 

tibus; floribus ligulatis circ. 

1.5-1.8 cm. longis; aristis nunc 

deficientibus nunc usque ad 1 

mm. longis sed glabris . . 170. 

B. Fischeri (cf. etiam 172. B. 

Onisciformem, speciem cum 

capitulis ad anthesin cernuis 

et circ. 2 cm. latis, floribus 

ligulatis 8-10 mm. longis, etc.). 

p. Folia glabrata, involucri bracteis 

exterioribus late oblongis ac 

glabris, achaeniis 1.5-2.2 mm. 

latis 169. B. taitensis. 

ABBREVIATIONS USED FOR HERBARIA CITED 

Barn. Herb. Barnard College, New York City. 

Berl. Herb. Berlin Botanical Garden, Germany. 

Bish. Herb. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Honolulu. 

Bn. Herb. Ross S. Bean, Honolulu. 



72 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Boiss. Herb. Boissier, Geneva, Switzerland. 

Bol. Herb. University of Bologna, Italy. 

Brit. Herb. British Museum of Natural History, South 
Kensington. 

Bucht. Herb. Dr. Otto Buchtien, La Paz, Bolivia. 

Bruss. Herb. National Botanical Garden, Brussels. 

Buit. Herb. Buitenzorg Botanical Garden, Java. 

Burn. Herb. Emile Burnat, Geneva, Switzerland. 

Calif. Herb. University of California, Berkeley. 

Can. Herb. Canadian Geological Survey, Ottawa. 

Carn. Herb. Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh. 

Cluj Herb. University of Cluj, Roumania. 

Cop. Herb. University of Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Corn. Herb. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

Coss. Herb. Ernest Saint-Charles Cosson (now in Mu- 
seum of Natural History, Paris). 

Deam Herb. Charles C. Deam, University of Indiana. 

Deg. Herb. Otto Degener, Honolulu. 

Del. Herb. Delessert, Geneva, Switzerland. 

D.U.Prag. Herb. German University, Prague. 

Field Herb. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. 

Flor. Herb. Institute of Botany, University of Florence, 
Italy. 

Gen. Herb. University of Geneva, Switzerland. 

Goth. Herb. Gothenburg Arboretum (Botan. Tradgard), 
Sweden. 

Gray Herb. Gray, Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts. 

Greene Herb. Edward Lee Greene, University of Notre 
Dame, Indiana. 

Hamb. Herb. Botanical Institute of Hamburg, Germany. 

Hassl. Herb. Emil Hassler, Geneva, Switzerland. 

Haw. Herb. University of Hawaii, Honolulu. 

Hll. Herb. University of Halle, Germany. 

Kew Herb. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, England. 

Kiel Herb. University of Kiel, Germany. 

Kioto Herb. Imperial University of Kioto, Japan. 

Leyd. Herb. Royal Museum, Leyden, Netherlands. 

Linn. Herb. Linnaeus, Linnean Society, London. 

Lps. Herb. University of Leipsic, Germany. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 



73 



Man. Herb. Bureau of Science of the Philippine Islands, 

Manila. 

Minn. Herb. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. 

Mo. Herb. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. 

Mun. Herb. Munich Botanical Garden, Germany. 

Mus. Cong. Herb. Musei Congoensis, Tervueren, Belgium 
(recently amalgamated with that of the 
National Botanical Garden, Brussels). 

Mus. Prag. Herb. National Museum, Prague. 

Mus. V. Herb. Museum Natural History, Vienna. 

N. Eng. Herb. New England Botanical Club, Cambridge, 

Massachusetts. 

N.Y. Herb. New York Botanical Garden, New York City. 

Oxf. Herb. University of Oxford, England. 

Par. Herb. Museum of Natural History, Paris. 

Penn. Herb. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

Petrop. Herb. Botanical Garden of Leningrad (Hortus 

Petropolit.), U.S.S.R. 

Phila. Herb. Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, 

Philadelphia. 

Pom. Herb. Pomona College, Claremont, California. 

Rog. Herb. Reverend F. A. Rogers, England. 

Stanf. Herb. Stanford University, California. 

Stockh. Herb. Museum of Stockholm, Sweden. 

Transsilv. Herb. Museum Transsilvania, Cluj, Roumania. 

Tur. Herb. University of Turin, Italy. 

U.S. Herb. United States National Museum, Washing- 

ton. 

U.V. Herb. University of Vienna, Austria. 

Webb Herb. Webb, Botanical Institute of University of 

Florence, Italy. 

Willd. Herb. Willdenow, Berlin. 

Wis. Herb. University of Wisconsin, Madison. 

1. Bidens Ahnnei Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 165. 1923; ibid. 85: 23, 
pi 1, figs. i-p. 1928. PL I, figs. i-p. 

Fruticosa, ramosa, 5-10 dm. alta; caule glabro. Folia petiolata 
petiolis anguste marginatis et 1.5-2.5 (in cultu -4.5) cm. longis, 
petiolo adjecto 5-8.5 (in cultu -14.5) cm. longa et 2-3.5 (in cultu 
-6.5) cm. lata, indivisa (vel juvenilia saepe irregulariter regulariterve 
tripartita), membranacea, oblongo-ovata, apice breviter et sub- 



74 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

abrupte acuminata, basi ad petiolum valde rotundata sed non vero 
cordata, argute serrata, non ciliata, supra glabra, infra ad venas 
praecipue petiolum versus saepe pilis tenuibus articulatisque pilosa. 
Capitula multa, minima, in inflorescentia dense corymboso-cymosa 
disposita, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 7-12 mm. lata et 2-5 mm. 
alta; pedicellis tenuibus, glabris, nudis vel saepius minute 1-4- 
bracteolatis, 7-20 mm. longis. Involucrum glabrum, demum 4-5 
mm. latum et 4-5 mm. altum; bracteis exterioribus 4-6, linearibus, 
interdum ciliatis vel irregulariter 1-3-laciniatis, apice subacuto 
saepius nitido-callosis, 2-2.5 mm. longis; interioribus oblongis, supra 
saepe margine diaphano dilatatis, quam exterioribus non plerumque 
longioribus. Flores ligulati 3-5, flavi, ligula anguste elliptico- 
oblongi vel oblongo-ovati, 8-11 striis percursi, apice subintegri vel 
acute dentati, tantum 4-5 mm. longi. Achaenia minuta, exalata, 
lineari-clavata, interdum paulo torta, subtetragona, atra, ad 
angulos praesertim supra setulis suberectis instructa, circ. 8-sulcata 
(toto achaenio), apice calva, tantum 3-4 mm. longa et 0.3-0.5 
mm. lata. 

Type specimen: Collected by Charles Henry, mountain near 
Hakaui, Island of Nukahiva, Marquesas Islands, in 1916 (Field, 
2 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Island of Nukahiva, 
Marquesas Islands. 

Specimens examined: Charles Henry, mountain near Hakaui, 
1916 (type, Field, 2 sheets) ; E. E. Sherff 3083, January 6, 1919, et 
idem 3085, January 27, 1919, both cultivated in University of Chi- 
cago greenhouses from achenes of type material planted Septem- 
ber, 1917 (Field, many sheets); idem 3090, cultivated from type 
achenes (Bish.). 

The species was named for Mr. St. Ahnne, who, as President of 
the Chamber of Agriculture of Tahiti in 1916, kindly enlisted the 
services of Mr. Henry of Nukahiva in securing the type material 
(cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 92. 1920). 

Mr. Henry's original label bears the notation, "rare." 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE I, FIGS, i-p 

Bidens Ahnnei: i, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.6;;, exterior 
involucral bract, X6; k, interior involucral bract, X6; I, ligule, 
X6; m, palea, X6; n, disc corolla, X6; o, p, achenes, X6; all from 
first type sheet. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 75 

2. Bidens polycephala Schz. Bip. Flora 39: 360. 1856; Sherff, Bot. 
Gaz. 85: 23, pi. 1, figs. a-h. 1928. PI. I, figs. a-h. 

Campylotheca polycephala Schz. Bip. loc. cit. 

Coreopsis polycephala (Schz. Bip.) Benth. & Hook, ex Drake del 
Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. 210. 1890; cf. Drake del Cast. 
Fl. Polyhes. Fr. 108. 1893. 

Fruticosa, 5-10 dm. alta; caule glabro, tereti, ramoso. Folia 
longe ac tenuiter petiolata petiolis 2-5 (pro inferioribus -10.5) cm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto 7-12 (inferiora -22) cm. longa, indivisa (vel 
juvenilia saepe profunde tripartita), oblongo-lanceolata vel saepius 
fere exacte ovata, apice acriter acuminata, margine plerumque argute 
serrata serraturis 10-15 vel etiam usque ad 37 in unico latere, rarius 
subintegra, non ciliata, membranacea, supra glabra, infra ad venas 
(praesertim petiolum versus) pilis paucis tenuibus articulatisque 
pilosa. Capitula corymbose disposita vel etiam subumbellata, 
parva, tenuiter pedicellata pedicellis usque ad 2.7 cm. longis, radiata, 
pansa ad anthesin tantum 7-10 mm. lata et 4-5 mm. alta; disco 
demum 3-4 mm. lato et circ. 4 mm. alto. Involucri bracteae exteri- 
ores 4 vel 5, lineares vel lineari-oblongae, saepe acutae, margine 
ciliatae vel saepe irregulariter 1-3-laciniatae, 1.2-2 mm. longae; 
interiores oblongae, supra plerumque margine diaphano dilatatae, 
quam exteriores dimidio longiores. Flores ligulati 3-5, flavi, ellip- 
tici, plerumque 8-10 striis percursi, apice obtuso dentati, 4-5 mm. 
longi. Achaenia in speciminibus spontaneis linearia vel lineari-fusi- 
formia, exalata, tetragona vel obcompresso-tetragona, nigra, om- 
nino manifeste 8 (unica facie 2) -sulcata, supra sensim angustata et 
terminaliter in apicem crassum dilatata, angulis sparsim adscendenti- 
setulosa, corpore 2-3 mm. longa et 0.7 etiam usque ad 1 mm. lata, 
apice calva vel brevissime 1- vel 2-aristata aristis adrecte hispidulis 
et usque ad 0.3 mm. longis; in speciminibus cultis angustiora et 
magis elongata, corpore 2.5-3.2 mm. longa et 0.4-0.7 mm. lata. 

Type specimen: Collected \)yEdelstanJardin,NoAQ, Mt. Taiohae, 
Island of Nukahiva, Marquesas Islands, 1852-1854 (Par.). 

Distribution: Known only from the islands of Nukahiva and 
Tauata (Santa Christina), Marquesas Islands. 

Specimens examined : Bennett 45, Santa Christina (Berl.); F. B. H. 
Brown 405A, alt. above 500 meters, Taipi Vai, Nukahiva, May 7, 
1921 (Bish.); idem 405B, alt. 800 meters, ridge, Hakaui, Nukahiva, 
eodem tempore (Bish.); Ch. Henry, very rare, Mt. Taie Kaoa, 
northern Nukahiva, 1916 (Field) ; idem, very rare, Mt. Kaea, north- 



76 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

era Nukahiva, 1916 (Field); idem, Nukahiva, 1917 (Par.); Hinds, 
Marquesas Isls., 1841 (Kew) ; Jardin 40 (type, ex herb. Schz. Bipon- 
tini, Par.; aliud specimen sed sine numero ex herb. Jardinii, Par.); 
Langsdorff, Nukahiva, 1813 (Brit.); E. H. Quayle 1588, alt. 800 
meters, ridge, Nukahiva, October 18, 1922 (Bish.);E. E.Sherff3Q82, 
cult, in University of Chicago greenhouses from seed (Ch. Henry, 
Nukahiva, 1917) planted September, 1917, collected December 18, 
1918 (Field, 6 sheets) ; idem 3084, same as 3082, but collected Janu- 
ary 6, 1919 (Field, 4 sheets) ; idem 3084a, same as 3082, but collected 
September 17, 1919 (Bish.); idem 30846, same as 3082, but col- 
lected December 22, 1919 (Bish.); idem 3085z and 3086, same as 
3082, but collected January 27, 1919 (Field, 2 sheets of each). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE I, FIGS, d-h 

Bidens polycephala: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.6; 
6, exterior involucral bract, X6; c, interior involucral bract, X6; 
d, ligule, X6; e, palea, X6; /, disc corolla, X6; g, h, achenes, X6; all 
from Ch. Henry, Mt. Taie Kaoa, Isl. Nukahiva, 1916, in Hb. Field. 

3. Bidens deltoidea J. W. Moore, Bishop Mus. Bull. 102: 46. 1933. 

Suffruticosa, usque ad 1 m. alta, caule erecto glabro supra 
ramoso, ramis subgracilibus. Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis basi 
ipsa in juventute ciliolatis mox glabris usque ad 2.5 cm. longis, 
petiolo adjecto 4.5-11.5 cm. longa et 1.5-4 cm. lata, simplicia, 
ovata vel oblongo-lanceolata vel lanceolata, apice caudata cauda 
integra 7-18 mm. longa, basi sublate cuneata, margine acriter serru- 
lata dentibus saepius inflexis, membranacea, glabra, venulis secunda- 
riis 5-9 utroque latere costae instructa. Capitula subnumerosa 
corymbose in inflorescentia usque ad 6 cm. longa terminali et in 
axillis foliorum superiorum subtabescente disposita, campanulata, 
radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 7 mm. lata et 4 mm. alta; pedicellis 
glabris usque ad 2.5 cm. longis. Involucri bracteae exteriores 5-8, 
oblongae vel attenuato-lineares, apice saepe obtusae, extus ad basim 
pilis brevibus sparsim pubescentes, 1-3 mm. longae et sub 1 mm. 
latae. Flores ligulati 4, subflavi, ligula elliptici, apice emarginati 
vel breviter 3-lobati, 3.5-4.5 mm. longi. Paleae lineares, 3 mm. 
longae et 0.3-1 mm. latae. Achaenia obcompressa, lineari-oblonga, 
atra vel apicaliter brunnea, utraque facie 4-sulcata, apicem versus 
subsparsim breviterque setosa, corpore 3.5-5 mm. longa, biaristata 
aristis retrorsum hamosis 0.5-1 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by John William Moore, No. 559, 
at altitude of 300 meters, on ridge in wet clay soil, on mountain 



THE GENUS BIDENS 77 

at north side of Faaroa Bay, Island of Raritea, January 20, 1927 
(Bish.). 

Distribution: Island of Raritea, Society Islands. 

Specimens examined: Moore 559 (type, Bish.). 

In general habit simulating B. polycephala, from which it differs 
in achenial characters. 

4. Bidens Jardinii Schz. Bip. Flora 39: 360. 1856. PI. II. 
Campylotheca Jardinii Schz. Bip. loc. cit. 

Coreopsis Jardinii (Schz. Bip.) Drake del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 
Pacif. 209. 1890. 

Glabra, suffruticulosa, forsitan 6-10 dm. alta, ramis teretibus, 
repetito-trichotomis. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus 2.5 cm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto usque ad circ. 10 cm. longa, principalia lanceo- 
lata vel oblongo-lanceolata, apice moderate acuminata, basi abrupte 
angustata itaque late cuneata, marginibus eciliata sed multiserrata 
serraturis nempe unici folii omnino circ. 10 cm. longi utrinque numero 
31, acumine et basi vero integra; folia superiora decrescentia, 
subrhomboideo-ovata, summa linearia. Capitula non numerosa, 
subcorymbosa, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 1.3 cm. lata et 6 mm. 
alta, pedicellis insidentia 2-6 cm. longis efoliatis vel foliolo uno 
alterove anguste lineari, 5-8 mm. longo, instructis. Involucrum 
depresso-hemisphaericum, demum circ. 5-7 mm. altum et 1-1.6 cm. 
latum, bracteis subaequilongis, exterioribus 6-8, oblongo-linearibus, 
glabris, apice obtusis, demum 4-5 mm. longis, interioribus lanceolatis 
nunc tergo minute pubescentibus et supra ciliolatis nunc glabratis; 
unico receptaculo circ. 4.8 mm. diametro metiente. Flores ligulati 
(forsitan 8?) aurei, ligula elliptico-oblongi, 7 mm. longi. Achaenia 
anguste lineari-oblonga, obcompresso-tetragona vel obcompresso- 
triquetra, exalata, atra vel griseo-livida, omnino circ. 8- vel 9-sulcata, 
marginibus et costis medianis setis adrectis perspicue obsita, apice 
exaristata, circ. 4-5 mm. longa et circ. 0.7 mm. lata. 

Type specimen: Collected by Edelstan Jardin, No. 41, on the 
Island of Nukahiva, Marquesas Islands (Par.). 

Distribution: Island of Nukahiva, Marquesas Islands. 

Specimens examined: Jardin 41 (type, Par.). 

Related to Bidens australis Spreng. but differing in its exaristate 
achenes and fewer, mostly larger, and more corymbose heads; to 
Bidens Mathewsii Sherff, but differing in its shorter and exaristate 
achenes and smaller, more numerous heads. The original description 
by Schultz Bipontinus is here redrawn after careful study of his type. 



78 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE II 

Bidens Jardinii: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.65; b, 
exterior involucral bract, X5.2; c, interior involucral bract, X5.2; 
d, ray corolla, X5.2; e, palea, X5.2; /, achene, X5.2; all from type. 

5. Bidens Bipontina Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 85: 10. 1928. 
PI. XXXIII, figs, m, n. 

Bidens serrulata Schz. Bip. Flora 39: 361. 1856; non B. serrulata 1 
(Poir.). Desf. Tabl. Ecol. Bot. ed. 2. 130. 1815 (et Cat. Hort. 
Par. ed. 3. 186. 1829). 

Coreopsis serrulata (Schz. Bip.) Benth. & Hook, ex Drake del Cast. 
111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. 210. 1890; cf. Fl. Polyn. Fr. 109. 1893; 
non Coreopsis serrulata Poir. Encycl. Supplem. 2: 352. 1811. 

Campylotheca serrulata Schz. Bip. loc. cit. etiam ex Brown, Fl. S. E. 
Polynesia 3 (Bishop Mus. Bull. 130) : 356, fig. 64- 1935. 

Fruticosa, glabra. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus saepius 2-3 
cm. longis, petiolo adjecto usque ad 11 cm. longa et 3.5 cm. lata, 
membranacea, lanceolata, apice perspicue acuminata, basi subacuta, 
subgrosse acriterque serrulata dentibus cuspidatis subinflexisque. 
Capitula pauca, corymbose disposita inflorescentia 7.5 cm. longa 
non exserta, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 7 mm. alta et 4 cm. lata. 
Involucri glabri vel subglabri bracteae exteriores circ. 5 vel 6, 
lineares, acutae, 5-6 mm. longae, basi 1 mm. latae; interiores 
ovatae, apiculatae, parce breviores. Flores ligulati 6-8, flavi, ligula 
oblongo-elliptici, circ. 2 cm. longi et 4.5 mm. lati. Paleae lineares, 
apice acutae, 6-7 mm. longae et 0.8 mm. latae. Achaenia anguste 
lineari-oblonga, valde obcompressa, exalata, griseo-livida vel apicem 
versus straminea, faciebus glabra vel supra sparsim longo-pilosa, 
marginibus valde piloso-ciliata pilis tenuibus albidis adrectis, corpore 
6-7 mm. longa et 0.6-0.9 mm. lata, apice exaristata vel irregulariter 
1- vel 2-aristata aristis minutis inutilibus calvis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Edelstan Jardin, No. 132, on Island 
of Nukahiva, Marquesas Islands (Par.). 

Distribution: Island of Nukahiva, Marquesas Islands. 

Specimens examined: Jardin 132 (type, Par.); E. H. Quayle 
1235, alt. 500 meters, Nukahiva, October 15, 1922 (Bish.). 

Description, except as to achenes, drawn largely from Quayle 
1235 (Bish.). 

1 The trivial name was misspelled serrutata at one point in Schultz Bipontinus' 
article. See discussion in the text. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 79 

The type sheet bears four entirely denuded branches (cf. "speci- 
mina valde manca," Schz. Bip. loc. cit.). A packet contains rem- 
nants of a fruiting head, with about a dozen achenes. From these 
I have drawn the above description of the achenes. No leaves re- 
main, but Schultz Bipontinus described them as remotely and super- 
ficially serrate. The name unfortunately was misprinted B. serrutata 
in the original description. However, the correct spelling, B. serru- 
lata, is found elsewhere in the original article of publication (op. cit. 
356 et 362); also upon the type sheet, in Schultz Bipontinus' own 
handwriting. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIII, FIGS, m, n 

Bidens Bipontina: m, n, achenes, X6.4; both from type. 

6. Bidens collina Deg. & Sherff ex Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 96: 144. 1934. 

Campy lotheca collina (Deg. & Sherff) F. Brown, Fl. S. E. Polynesia 
3 (Bishop Mus. Bull. 130): 354. 1935. 

Frutex erectus, gracilis, ramosus ramis obscurissime adpresso- 
setosis, circa 1 m. altus. Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis saepius 
1.5-2 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 5-6 cm. longa et 1.5-3 cm. lata, 
indivisa, oblongo-lanceolata vel oblongo-ovata, rotundato-truncata 
vel fere subcordata, apice abrupte attenuata, membranacea, faciebus 
glabrata, marginibus acriter serrulata (unico latere 8-20-dentata) . 
Capitula corymbose disposita, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 1.3-2 cm. 
lata et circ. 5 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae hispidae exteriores 5-8, 
lineares vel oblongae, apicem abrupte mucronulatum versus saepe 
dilatatae, 1.5-3 mm. longae, interioribus lanceolato-oblongis dimidio 
breviores. Flores ligulati plerumque 5 vel 6, flavi, ligula oblongi 
vel late oblanceolati, apice 2-3-denticulati, circ. 7-9 mm. longi. 
Achaenia submatura plana, lineari-oblonga, sursum sensim angus- 
tata, faciebus marginibusque perspicue erecto-setosa setis fulves- 
centibus, corpore sub 2.5 mm. longa et sub 0.8 mm. lata, apice 
erecte setosa setis pluribus (saepe 2 longioribus et aristis non 
dissimilibus). 

Type specimen: Collected by Adamson & Mumford, No. 400, 
growing about 1 meter tall on exposed hillside at altitude of about 
100 meters, Tehutu, Island of Hiva Oa, Marquesas Islands, May 19, 
1929 (N.Y.). 

Distribution: Island of Hiva Oa, Marquesas Islands. 
Specimens examined: Adamson & Mumford 400 (type, N.Y.). 



80 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

7. Bidens Beckiana (F. Brown) Sherff, comb. nov. 

Campylotheca Beckiana F. Brown, Fl. S. E. Polynesia 3 (Bishop Mus. 

Bull. 130): 359, fig. 66. 1935. 

Fruticosa vel subarborescens, altitudine ignota; ramulis dense 
patenterque crispo-pubescentibus, nodis erecte conferteque sordido- 
hispidis. Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis patenti-pubescentibus 
1.5-2 cm. longis basi non connatis, petiolo adjecto 5-7.5 cm. 
longa, membranacea, cordato-ovata, apice acuminato-acuta, utrin- 
que minute molliterque pubescentia, margine minute minimeve 
serrulata (plerumque 10-12 dentulis per 1 cm.). Capitula 7 in 
inflorescentia terminali pubescenti folia vix superante disposita, 
radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2.5 cm. lata et 8 mm. alta. Involucri 
pubescentis bracteae exteriores 6, lanceolatae, 6 mm. longae et 
2 mm. latae; interiores vix longiores, 1.5-2 mm. latae. Flores 
ligulati 8 mm. longi. Paleae lineares, apice acutae, 6-7 mm. 
longae et 0.5 mm. latae. Achaenia linearia, arcuata, exalata, per- 
spicue hirsuta, exaristata, 4-6 mm. longa et 0.5-0.7 mm. lata. 

Type specimen: Collected by R. H. Beck, No. 1529, on Island 
of Eiau, Marquesas Islands, September 20, 1922 (Bish.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality on Island of Eiau, 
Marquesas Islands. 

Specimens examined: Beck 1529 (type, Bish.). 

The description of the achenes is drawn from Brown's original 
text. Unfortunately Brown may have relied upon the several abor- 
tive and hence unrepresentative achenes (ovaries) at the periph- 
ery of the receptacle (the type at present completely lacks mature 
achenes). 

8. Bidens cordifolia Schz. Bip. Flora 39: 361. 1856; Sherff, Bot. 
Gaz. 85: 24, pi. 5, figs. h-n. 1928. PI. Ill, figs. h-n. 

Campylotheca cordifolia Schz. Bip. loc. cit. 

Coreopsis cordifolia (Schz. Bip.) Drake del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 
Pacif. 208. 1890. 

Frutex, 5 dm. altus, ramosus; ramis striatis, infra minutissime 
pubescentibus, supra dense tomentosis, oligocephalicis. Folia tenui- 
ter petiolata petiolis 1.5-4.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 6-10 cm. 
longa, 1.8-3.8 cm. lata, simplicia, ovato-oblonga, basi rotundata 
vel cordata, apice acuminata, margine eleganter serrata serraturis 
nempe ad latus singulum 25-40 vel etiam usque ad 60, supra sparsim 
pubescentia vel demum subglabrata, infra minute sed dense pubes- 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate I 




BIDENS POLYCEPHALA Schz. Bip. (figs, a-h) 
BIDENS AHNNEI Sherff (figs, i-p) 



"OF 



of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 81 

centia; petiolis tomentoso-ciliatis vel demum inconspicue ciliatis. 
Capitula breviter pedunculata pedunculis circ. 2-4 cm. longis, 
radiata, pansa ad anthesin 1.5-2.5 cm. lata et 8 mm. alta. Invo- 
lucri bracteae exteriores ovato-lanceolatae, acutae vel acuminatae, 
minute tomentosae, demum reflexae, circ. 7 mm. longae; interiores 
paulo breviores, late lanceolatae, minute plus minusve pubescentes. 
Flores ligulati circ. 10-12, flavi (?-ochroleuci in specimine sicco), 
ligula obovati vel cuneato-oblanceolati, irregulariter tridentati, 
tubulo ad jecto circ. 9 mm. longi ; paleis linearibus, demum 9-10 mm. 
longis. Achaenia linearia, tetragono-obcompressa, atra vel griseo- 
livida, margine setis elongatis (interdum diametro achaenii multo 
longioribus) conferte praecipue apicem versus ciliata, una facie 
remote longo-pilosa, corpore exteriora 4-5 mm. interiora 6-8 mm. 
longa, omnia 0.5-0.65 mm. lata, apice longe pilosa et saepius aristis 
2 minutis calvis vel retrorsum paucihamosis coronata. 

Type specimen: Collected by Edelstan Jardin, No. 199, on the 
Island of Nukahiva, Marquesas Islands (Par.). 

Distribution: Known only from Island of Nukahiva, Marquesas 
Islands. 

Specimens examined: Barclay 3213, loam soil, wet ravines, Isl. 
Nukahiva, January, 1840 (Brit.); Jardin 199 (type, Par.). 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE III, FIGS, 

Bidens cordifolia: h, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.75; 
i, exterior involucral bract, X3.75; j, interior involucral bract, 
X3.75; k, ray corolla, X3.75; I, palea, X3.75; m, disc floret, X6; 
n, achene, X3.75; all from Barclay 3213, in Hb. Brit. 

9. Bidens hivoana Deg. & Sherff ex Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 96: 143. 1934. 

Frutex ramosus, glaber, 2 m. altus. Folia opposita, subcon- 
ferte ad ramuli finem disposita, petiolata petiolis conduplicatis mar- 
ginatis basi dilatato-connatis 1.5-3 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto circ. 
6-8 cm. longa et 2.5-3.8 cm. lata, indivisa, ovata, basi rotundata 
vel raro vix subcordata, apice subacuta vel subattenuata, mem- 
branacea, obsolete ac remote serrulata, eciliata. Capitula termina- 
liter circ. 3-adgregata, pedunculata pedunculis suberectis glabratis 
2.5 cm. longis, ut videtur radiata (ligulis in typo non plene cretis), 
disco ad anthesin circ. 6-7 mm. crasso et circ. 9-11 mm. alto. Invo- 
lucri glabrati bracteae exteriores circ. 4, ovato-oblongae vel late 
lanceolatae, obtusae, usque ad 8 mm. longae, quam interiores ob- 
longae paulo longiores. Flores ligulati (fide lectorum descriptionis) 
albi. Paleae angustissime lineares, usque ad 11 mm. longae. Achae- 



82 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

nia submatura plana, oblanceolata vel obovata, atro-brunnea, 
glabra, apice bidentata dentibus glaberrimis deorsum in margines 
membranaceas luteo-brunneas alis similes desinentibus, corpore 
5.5 mm. longa et marginibus alatis adjectis 2.3-3 mm. lata. 

Type specimen: Collected by Adamson & Mumford, No. 469, 
growing 2 meters tall at altitude of 1,086 meters, in typical forest 
of cloud zone, on crest north of summit of Mt. Temetiu, Tenatinaei, 
Island of Hiva Oa, Marquesas Islands, July 24, 1929 (N.Y.). 

Distribution: Marquesas Islands. 

Specimens examined: Adamson & Mumford 469 (type, N.Y.). 

10. Bidens hendersonensis Sherff, Bishop Mus. Occas. Paps. 
12. No. 19: 6, pi. 2. 1937. 

a. Capitula perpauca ( 3 ad rami apicem) var. /3. oenoensis. 

a. Capitula numerosiora. 

6. Capitula perspicue et subconferte in inflorescentia magna 

corymbiformi adgregata; foliorum laminis plerumque sub 5.5 

cm. longis et 2-3 cm. latis. . .B. hendersonensis sensu stricto. 

6. Capitula laxe disposita; foliorum laminis majoribus aut plus 

minusve subspathulatis var. 7. subspathulata. 

Frutex arborescens 4 m. altus, glaber, caule inferne circ. 2.5 cm. 
crasso, cortice pallido-brunnea, ligno exteriore albo, medulla alba. 
Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis 1-2.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
plerumque 5-8 cm. longa et 2-3 cm. lata, membranacea, oblongo- 
ovata, apice obtusa et breviter mucronata, basi late cuneata vel 
raro subrotundata, leviter serrata dentulis breviter cuspidatis. 
Capitula multa, laxe corymbosa pedicellis tenuibus glabris saepius 
1-4 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin tantum circ. 1 cm. lata 
et circ. 7 mm. alta. Involucri minute subsparsimque pubescentis 
bracteae exteriores 4-6, plus minusve oblongae, crassiusculae, apice 
subacutae, circ. 2-2.5 mm. longae; interiores oblongae, circ. 4-5 mm. 
longae. Flores ligulati circ. 5, flavi, ligula obovati, sub 5 mm. longi. 
Paleae lineares, apice acutae, demum usque ad 1.2 cm. longae. 
Achaenia anguste oblongo-linearia, obcompressa, nigra, utraque 
facie 4-sulcata et plerumque glabra, marginibus exalatis erecte 
setosa, corpore 7-10 mm. longa et circ. 1 mm. lata, apice biaristata 
aristis retrorsum hamosis 1 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Harold St. John & Francis Ray- 
mond Fosberg, No. 15107, at altitude of 33 meters, in jungle on ele- 
vated, dissected coral, north end of Henderson Island, Low Archi- 
pelago, June 17, 1934 (Bish., 2 sheets). 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate II 




BIDENS JARDINII Schz. Bip. 



OF THk 



THE GENUS BIDENS 83 

Distribution: Henderson (Elizabeth) Island, Low Archipelago 
(Tuamotu or Paumotu Islands). 

Specimens examined: St. John & Fosberg 15107 (type, Bish., 
2 sheets: cotypes, Berl.; Field, 2 sheets). 

Bidens hendersonensis var. ft. oenoensis Sherff, Bishop Mus. 
Occas. Paps. 12. No. 19: 7, pi. 4. 1937. 

Fruticosa, decumbens erectave, 1-3 m. alta, caule basi circ. 2.5 
cm. crasso. Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis 1-3 cm. longis, petiolo 
adjecto plerumque 7-13 cm. longa et 3-5.3 cm. lata, membranaceis- 
sima, subpallida, oblongo-ovata, apice obtusa vel subacuta, basi late 
cuneata vel raro subrotundata, leviter dentata vel obsolete crenato- 
denticulata dentibus minute cuspidatis. Capitula pauca (saepius 
3-5-adgregata), tenuiter pedunculata pedunculo glabro 4 cm. 
longo, pansa ad anthesin circ. 1.5 cm. lata et circ. 8 mm. alta. In- 
volucri bracteae exteriores 8-10, oblongo-obovatae, apice acutae 
vel subacutae, glabratae vel minutissime glanduloso-pubescentes, 
2-3 mm. longae; interiores oblonge ovatae, apice puberulentae, 4-6 
mm. longae. Flores ligulati, ligula obovati, apice obscure denticu- 
lati, 6 mm. longi. Achaenia marginibus et saepe costa mediana 
erecto-setosa setis subflavidis, biaristata (vel obsoletissime triaris- 
tata) aristis erectis retrorsum hamosis 1.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Harold St. John & Francis 
Raymond Fosberg, No. 15183, under Tournefortia trees, at altitude of 
2 meters, Island of Oeno, Low Archipelago, June 23, 1934 (Bish.). 

Distribution: Island of Oeno, Low Archipelago (Tuamotu or 
Paumotu Islands). 

Specimens examined: St. John & Fosberg 15183 (type, Bish.: 
cotypes, Berl.; Field, 2 sheets). 

Bidens hendersonensis var. 7. subspathulata Sherff, Bishop 
Mus. Occas. Paps. 12. No. 19: 7, pi. 3. 1937. 

Frutex 1.5-7 m. altus, interdum arborescens. Folia petiolo 
tenui 1-2.5 cm. longo adjecto plerumque 4-10 cm. longa, lamina 
diverse subspathulata (nunc plus minusve rhomboideo-oblonga, 
nunc rhomboide oblanceolata, nunc lanceolato-spathulata), apice 
subobtusa vel subacuta, basi late vel anguste cuneata, margine leviter 
pauciterque crenato-serrulata. Capitula laxius disposita. Achaenia 
confertius setosa. 

Type specimen: Collected by Harold St. John & Francis 
Raymond Fosberg, No. 15173, bush 1.5 meters tall, open place in 



84 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

jungle on elevated, dissected coral, at altitude of 30 meters, 
north center of Henderson Island, Low Archipelago, June 20, 
1934 (Bish.). 

Distribution: Henderson (Elizabeth) Island, Low Archipelago 
(Tuamotu or Paumotu Islands). 

Specimens examined: Harold St. John & Francis Raymond 
Fosberg 15155, tree-like shrub, 3-7 meters tall, stem 4 cm. 
thick, bark gray, sapwood and pith white, common in jungle on 
elevated, dissected coral, alt. 30 meters, north center, Henderson 
Isl., June 20, 1934 (Bish.; Berl.; Field) ;iidem 15171, bush 2 meters 
tall, eodem loco et tempore (Bish.; Berl.; Field; Kew); iidem 15173 
(type, Bish.: cotypes, Berl.; Field; Kew; U.S.). 

11. Bidens Lantanoides A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 128. 1861; 
Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 85: 24, pi. 5, figs. a-g. 1928. PI. Ill, figs. a-g. 

Frutex hirsutulo-pubescens, ramosus, ramis oligocephalicis. 
Folia petiolata petiolis 1-2 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto plerumque 
4-6 cm. longa, simplicia, ovalia oblongave, apice acuta, basi late 
cuneata, margine creberrime serrata. Capitula solitaria pedun- 
culos foliis subaequantes terminantia, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 
2.2 cm. lata et 8 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 
8-10, lineari-oblongae, disco adaequantes, circ. 6-8 mm. longae; 
interiores lanceolatae saepe paulo breviores. Flores ligulati flavidi, 
ligula elliptico-oblanceolati, apice paucidentati. Achaenia lineari- 
oblonga, subtetragona, omnino circ. 8-sulcata, brunneo-nigra, mar- 
ginibus apiceque antrorsum hispidula, corpore circ. 8-10 mm. longa, 
biaristata aristis retrorsum hamosis, 0.5-1.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by the United States Southern Pacific 
Exploring Expedition under Captain Wilkes on the Island of Eimeo 
(Morea), Society Islands, 1838-1842 (U.S.). 

Distribution: Islands of Eimeo (Morea, Moorea) and Tahiti, 
Society Islands. 

Specimens examined: U. S. S. Pacif. Expl. Exped. (Capt. Wilkes), 
Tahiti, 1838-1842 (Gray); eadem, Eimeo (Morea), 1838-1842 
(type, U.S.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE III, FIGS, a-g 

Bidens Lantanoides: a, fruiting branch, X0.75; b, exterior invo- 
lucral bract, X3.75; c, interior involucral bract, X3.75; d, ray corolla, 
X3.75; e, palea, X3.75;/, disc floret, X6; g, achene, X3.75; a, from 
type material in Hb. U.S.; b-g, from type material in Hb. Gray. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate III 




BIDENS LANTANOIDES Gray (figs, a-g) 
BIDENS CORDIFOLIA Schz. Bip. (figs, h-n) 



OF THt 
UNIVERSITY OF 



THE GENUS BIDENS 85 

12. Bidens mooreensis M. L. Grant, sp. nov. 

Frutex 3.6 m. altus, multum ramosus, glaber, caule basaliter 
4 cm. crasso; ramulis subteretibus. Folia opposita, petiolata peti- 
olis subplanis sed non alatis 1.5-1.8 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
6-9.5 cm. longa et 1.2-1.6 cm. lata, anguste oblongo-lanceolata 
vel elliptico-lanceolata, longe acuminata (acumine integro 1.4-1.8 
cm. longo), apice extreme parce acria, basi cuneata vel subacumi- 
nata, margine acriter serrata 6-17 dentibus pro unico latere, utrinque 
pallido-viridia vel (sicca) supra demum subatra. Inflorescentia 
terminalis, corymboso-paniculata, patens, circ. 6 cm. alta et 9 cm. 
lata, exserta, glabra, saltern 10-20-cephala. Capitula radiata, pansa 
ad anthesin 1.5 cm. lata et circ. 6 mm. alta; pedicellis tenuissimis 
saepe 3-4 cm. longis. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 7 vel 8, 
lineares, apice dilatatae et subobtusae, circ. 3 mm. longae et 0.8 mm. 
latae, quam interiores lanceolatae paulo breviores. Folia ligulati 5, 
pallide flavi, ligula oblongi vel obovati, obsolete vel irregulariter 
3-lobati, circ. 8 mm. longi. Paleae filiformes, 3.8 mm. longae et 
0.3 mm. latae. Flores tubulosi 35-40, flavi, 5.5 mm. longi; ovario 
1.2 mm. longo; corolla 3.8 mm. longa, tubuloso-campanulata, 5- 
lobata; filamentis 1.2 mm. longis; antheris 1.4 mm. longis, basi 
subacutis; styli ramis ovatis, acuminatis, extus pubescentibus; 
poculo nectarifero circum styli basim 0.3 mm. alto. Achaenia linearia, 
obcompressa vel subtetragona, nigra, exalata, marginibus plerumque 
antrorso-setosa, utraque 2 facierum 4-sulcata, corpore 3.8-4.8 mm. 
longa et circ. 0.6 mm. lata vix sub extremo apice biaristata aristis 
0.4-0.5 mm. longis nudis vel pauciter retrorso-setosis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Martin Lawrence Grant, No. 5386, 
at altitude of 350 meters, in ridge forest of Crossostyles, Stenolobium, 
Xylosma, and Fagraea, Putoa, District of Af areaitu, Island of Moorea, 
February 18, 1931 (Bish.). 

Distribution: Island of Moorea (known variously also as Morea, 
Eimeo, Aimeo), Society Islands. 

Specimens examined: Grant 5386 (type, Bish.). 

Differs from perhaps its nearest ally, B. australis, in having fewer 
leaf serrations, larger heads, longer involucral bracts, and larger 
ray florets. 

The description, as also the descriptions of three other species 
16, B. aoraiensis; 19, B. orofenensis; and 27, B. glandulifera was 
drawn from materials placed at my disposal by Dr. Martin L. Grant. 
Dr. Grant had made, during the course of graduate study at the 



86 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

University of Minnesota, a detailed study of various species of 
Bidens found by himself and others in the Society Islands. He had 
recognized these four as new and very kindly contributed a copy of 
his manuscript to me for use in the present volume. It will be noted 
that B. orofenensis, several cotypes of which I had already studied 
independently while determining numerous specimens collected on 
the Bishop Museum's Mangarevan Expedition, has already been 
published elsewhere (Bish. Mus. Occas. Paps. 12. No. 19: 4, pi. 1 . 1937). 

13. Bidens australis Spreng. Syst. 3:453. 1826. PL IV. 

Coreopsis 'fruticosa Forst. Prodr. Fl. Ins. Austr. 91. 1786 (nomen; 

non Vest). 

Campylotheca australis (Spreng.) Less. Linnaea 6: 509. 1831. 
Bidens paniculata Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. Voy. 66. 1841. 

Bidens fruticosa (Forst.) Schz. Bip. Flora 39: 358. 1856 (non L. 
nee DC.). 

Coreopsis fruticosa Solander mss. in Seemann, Fl. Vitiensis 143. 
1865-1868. 

Suffruticosa, glabra, usque ad 3 m. alta; caule obtuse tetragono 
vel subtereti, erecto, ramoso vel saepe ramosissimo. Folia tenuiter 
petiolata petiolis 1-3 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 6-13 (-24) cm. 
longa, indivisa, lanceolata oblongave et apice plerumque acuminata, 
serrata dentibus parvis et plerumque 20-40 (raro -75) in unico 
latere, non ciliata. Capitula parva, paniculato-corymbosa, supra 
folia exserta, minute radiata, pansa ad anthesin 6-7.5 mm. lata et 
3-4 mm. alta, tenuissime pedunculata pedunculis 1-3 cm. longis. 
Involucrum vix hispidulum vel profecto saepe glabrum; bracteis 
exterioribus 5-7, minimis, linearibus, supra saepe dilatatis, apice 
plerumque subobtusis, raro subciliatis, circ. 1 mm. longis; interio- 
ribus lanceolatis, circ. 2 mm. longis. Flores ligulati circ. 5, minimi, 
ligula late ovati vel oblongi, apice plerumque denticulati, flavi, 
2-3 mm. longi. Achaenia minuta, linearia, infra parce angustata, 
obcompresso-tetragona vel subplana, atra, sparsim suberecto-setosa, 
paleas saepe superantia, corpore 2.5-6.6 mm. longa, brevissime biaris- 
tata aristis divergentibus, retrorsum hamosis, 0.2-0.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by JohannGeorg Adam For ster, prob- 
ably on Island of Tahiti (Par.; see discussion of type below). 

Distribution: Islands of Eimeo (known also as Aimeo, Moorea, 
and Morea), Tahaa, and Tahiti (Society Isls.) and also Tonga 
(Friendly) Islands. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate IV 




BIDENS AUSTRALIS Spreng. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 87 

Specimens examined: Banks & Solander, Tahiti, 1769 (Brit.; 
U.S.); iidem, Tonga Isls. (Par.); Beechey, Tahiti (Kew); Bertero & 
Moerenhout, Tahiti, 1831 (Par.) ; Bidwill, Eimeo (Kew) ; J. G.A.Forster, 
Tahiti (Brit.; Par.); G. T. Lay & A. Collie (CapL Beechey' s Voyage), 
Tahiti, March-April, 1826 (Brit., 2 sheets) ; Lepine 98, Tahiti (Kew); 
Moerenhout, Tahiti, 1834 (Par.); J. Nadeaud 336, on precipices, 
Tahiti, June 1, 1857 (Par.); Harold St. John 17398, shrub 3 meters 
tall, in thicket on steep ridge, alt. 500 meters, east ridge, Mt. Purauti, 
Isl. Tahaa, October 11, 1934 (Bish.; Field; speciminibus sterilibus 
vel cum fructibus maturis sed nullis floribus); Webb, Tahiti (Kew). 1 

In 1769, Banks and Solander collected fine material of this species 
in the Society Islands (Tahiti, fide Solander in Seem. loc. cit.) and 
in the Tonga Islands. These collectors accompanied Captain Cook 
on the first of his three famous voyages (cf. Encycl. Brit. ed. 11. 
3: 333. 1910). Further specimens were collected on Tahiti during 
Captain Cook's third voyage. Both sets of material are still extant 
in excellent condition (Brit.). A sheet from the first voyage (Society 
Islands) bears the name Coreopsis fruticosa mscr. 2 One from the 
third voyage bears the name Coreopsis fruticosa Soland. In Solan- 
der 's unpublished manuscript, at the British Museum of Natural 
History, is his very complete and precise description of these plants 
under the name Coreopsis fruticosa. This description was not pub- 
lished until 1865-1868 (Seemann, loc. cit.). 

Meanwhile, Forster, who was botanist on Captain Cook's third 
voyage (cf. Encycl. Brit. ed. 11. 10: 674. 1910), listed a Coreopsis 
fruticosa with the habitat "intra tropicos." He gave no description 
and so the name amounts, with him, merely to a nomen nudum. In 
fact, it seems entirely plausible that he meant merely to list a plant 
collected by him on Cook's third voyage and which he had found to 
match Solander's contemplated species that had been collected on 
Cook's first voyage. Forster's small and rather scanty private speci- 
men went into the hands of Sprengel, who gave the first published 
description of it under the new name Bidens australis. This historic 
fragment later became the possession of Schultz Bipontinus, still 
later of E. Cosson, and now is in Paris. It agrees precisely with the 

1 Chamisso's specimens from Oahu, cited by Lessing (Linnaea 6: 509. 1831) 
for this species, are merely fragments with branchlets and leaves, but more or less 
deficient as to heads (Hll.; Kew). At Leningrad (Petrop.) they are slightly more 
ample than elsewhere and there display the simple-leaved state of B. micrantha 
(as exemplified by Remy 281). 

2 The Banks and Solander specimen at Paris is from the Tonga Islands (1769). 
It matches the Society Islands plants, but the label bears none of Solander's 
own notations. 



88 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

material in London, already mentioned as having been collected 
likewise on Cook's third voyage. Schultz Bipontinus (loc. cit.) gave 
a very full description of Forster's fragment, evidently unaware of 
the much more ample duplicate material in London. Nor does he 
seem to have known of the synonymous Bidens paniculata Hook. 
& Arn., which was based on Captain Beechey's plant from 
Tahiti (Kew). 

The five fruiting heads remaining on Forster's private fragment 
have achenes measuring, aristae included, about 3 mm. long (cf. 
Schz. Bip. loc. cit., "1 Linie lang, oder etwas langer"). Those on the 
duplicate material studied by Solander vary in length from 3 to 6 
mm. (cf. Soland. in Seem. loc. cit., "bilinearia"). Those on the type 
of B. paniculata Hook. & Arn. average slightly smaller, varying 
from 2.5 to 3.9 mm. long, but this difference seems without much 
significance. 

Asa Gray (Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 128. 1861) erroneously associated 
this species with the Hawaiian B. sandvicensis Less. Drake (del 
Castillo, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. 209-210. 1890) erroneously referred 
it to B. Menziesii (Gray) Sherff (Coreopsis Menziesii Gray), but 
he had already given a good picture of it under the name Bidens 
paniculata Hook. & Arn. (op. cit., pi. 40. 1888). From its general 
habit, also its much smaller and more numerous heads, it is seen to 
be affiliated more closely with such species as B. polycephala Schz. 
Bip. and B. Ahnnei Sherff, both of the southern Pacific, than with 
species such as B. sandvicensis Less, of the Hawaiian region. Nor 
does B. australis resemble at all closely B. Lantanoides Gray, which 
Seemann (loc. cit.) thought was "probably identical." 

The plant is said by Mr. Collie to be mixed with coconut juice 
and boiled by the natives of Tahiti, to produce a cathartic. They 
know the plant as "motu" (Hook. & Arn., loc. cit.). 

Additional material is much to be desired from the Island of 
Tahaa. One of the St. John specimens had been considered by 
Dr. Martin L. Grant, though somewhat doubtfully, as typifying a 
new species. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV 

Bidens australis: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.69; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X13.7; c, interior involucral bract, X13.7; 
d, ray corolla, XlO.3; e, palea, X13.7;/, disc corolla, Xl0.3;gr, achene, 
X6.86; all from Capt. Beechey, Tahiti (type of B. paniculata Hook. 
& Arn.), in Hb. Kew. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 89 

14. Bidens raiateensis J. W. Moore, Bish. Mus. Bull. 
102:47.1933. 

Suffruticosa, usque ad 1 m. alta; caule erecto, supra ramoso, 
glabro, subfusco, ramulis gracilibus glabris subviridibus. Folia 
tenuiter petiolata petiolis glabratis 5-15 mm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
3.5-9.5 cm. longa et 1.5-2.5 cm. lata, simplicia, elliptico-oblonga 
vel obovata, apice acuta, basi cuneata, acriter dentata dentibus 
2-5 mm. longis, membranacea, supra pilis acribus adpressis spar- 
sissime instructa. Capitula in inflorescentia usque ad circ. 8 cm. 
longa terminali et in axillis foliorum superiorum subtabescente dis- 
posita, nunc pauca nunc numerosa, campanulata, radiata, pansa 
ad anthesin 1.2-2 cm. lata et circ. 8 mm. alta; pedicellis gracilibus, 
glabris, in axillis bractearum lanceolatarum acutarum 1-1.5 cm. 
longarum plerumque fictis. Involucri bracteae exteriores 5-8, sub- 
adpressae, spathulatae, apice subacutae, extus glabratae et supra 
virides infra subfulvae, intus inferne pilis subrubiginosis instructae, 
6-10 mm. longae, quam interiores longiores. Flores ligulati 5 vel 6, 
subflavi, ligula oblongo-obovati, apice emarginati vel breviter 3- 
lobati, 7-10 mm. longi. Paleae ovato-oblongae, 7-8 mm. longae. 
Ovaria 2.75 mm. longa setis binis caducis 0.1 mm. longis instructa. 
Achaenia tenuiter linearia, irregulariter arcuata, subtetragona, exa- 
lata, nigra, apice subcapitato exaristata, facie quaque 2-sulcata, 
8-10 mm. longa et tantum circ. 0.6 mm. crasso. 

Type specimen: Collected by John William Moore, No. 467, at 
altitude of 450 meters, in wet clay soil, Mt. Temehani, Island of 
Raiatea, January 1, 1927 (Bish.). 

Distribution: Island of Raiatea, Society Islands. 

Specimens examined: Martin L. Grant 5195, alt. 411 meters, 
Temehani, District of Avera, January 29, 1931 (Minn.); Moore 
467 (type, Bish.). 

15. Bidens Mathewsii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81: 34. 1926. PI. V. 

Campylotheca Mathewsii (Sherff) F. Brown, Fl. S. E. Polynesia 
3 (Bish. Mus. Bull. 130): 355. 1935. 

Glabra, fruticosa, nunc extensa terra nunc forsitan 6-10 dm. 
alta, ramis angulatis. Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis 1-2 cm. longis, 
petiolo adjecto 4-12 cm. longa et usque ad 4.7 cm. lata, indivisa, 
ovata vel lanceolata vel oblongo-lanceolata, membranacea, serrata 
dentibus parce mucronatis, eciliata, apice acuta. Capitula pauca ( 8 
in unico ramo), corymbosa, in typo (sed non plerumque) supra folia 



90 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

exserta, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 1.3 cm. lata et 0.8 cm. alta. 
Involucri bracteae exteriores 8-10, oblongo-lineares, glabratae, 
apice obtusae, 3-6 mm. longae, patentes vel reflexae; interiores 
lanceolatae, paulo longiores, apice et basim versus saepe minute 
pulverulentae. Flores ligulati 5, lutei, ligula elliptico-oblongi 
vel anguste obovati, apice plus minusve denticulati, 7 mm. longi. 
Achaenia paleis elongatis parce aequantia, plerumque anguste rarius 
late linearia, plana vel obcompresso-triquetra, exalata, atra, dense 
erecto-hispida pilis stramineis, corpore 5-8 mm. longa et 0.5-1 mm. 
lata, apice plerumque biaristata aristis retrorsum hamosis 0.5-1 mm. 
longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Alexander Mathews, No. 110, Pit- 
cairn Island, March, 1830 (Kew). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Pitcairn Island, 
in southern Pacific Ocean. 

Specimens examined : F. R. Fosberg & Roy Clark 11276, spreading, 
leaves with parsnip odor, in rock crevices at top of cliffs, St. Paul's 
Point, June 14, 1934 (BerL; Bish.; Field; Gray; Kew; U.S.; nom. 
indig. alehau) ; Harold St. John 15003, trailing shrub, on steep turfy 
slopes, summit of precipice above The Rope, alt. 200 meters, June 
14, 1934 (Berl.; Bish.; Field; Kew; Mo.; N.Y.; foliis fragrantibus 
odore Alyxiae olivaeformis fide St. Johnii); Mathews 110 (type, Kew: 
cotype, Gray). 

A plant with the foliage habit sometimes of Bidens australis 
Spreng., but having fewer and larger heads, more numerous and more 
uniformly linear (not apically dilated) exterior involucral bracts, 
and larger, much more hispid achenes. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE V 

Bidens Mathewsii: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.57; 
6, exterior involucral bract, X4.56; c, interior involucral bract, 
X4.56; d, ray corolla, X4.56; e, palea, X4.56; /, disc floret, X4.56; 
g, achene, X4.56; all from type. 

16. Bidens aoraiensis M. L. Grant, sp. nov. 

Frutex 2 m. altus, multum ramosus; ramulis subtetragonis, 
duabus faciebus (his oppositis) depressis tomentulosisque, internodiis 
7-15 mm. longis. Folia ramulorum apices versus conferta, opposita, 
petiolata petiolis subplanis sed vix alatis 0.5-2 cm. longis, petiolo 
adjecto 4-8 cm. longa et 1.5-3 cm. lata, simplicia, glabra, ovata vel 
ovato-oblonga, apice acuta acuminataque, basi cuneata vel acumi- 
nata, acriter serrata ( 25 dentibus pro utroque latere), membranacea, 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate V 




BIDENS MATHEWSII Sherff 



OF THt 



THE GENUS BIDENS 91 

supra flavido-viridia, infra paulo pallidiora. Inflorescentia terminalis 
et in axillis superioribus disposita, corymboso-paniculata, circ. 5 cm. 
alta et 4 cm. lata, non exserta, pubescens, 10-20-cephala; pedunculis 
primariis tomentoso-sulcatis 0.5-2 cm. longis ultimis (pedicellis) 
0.5-2 cm. longis et circ. 0.7 mm. crassis et inferne saepe paulum 
tomentellis. Capitula radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 12 mm. lata 
et 6-7 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae 3-seriales; extimae plerumque 
6 vel 7, spathulato-oblongae (supra medium et basim versus dila- 
tatae), puberulentae, tergo saepius 3-nervatae, apice subacutae, 
3-4 mm. longae et circ. 1 mm. latae; medianae intimaeque apice 
ciliatae vel puberulentae, 4-6 mm. longae et circ. 1.8-2 mm. latae. 
Flores ligulati circ. 4, flavi, 3-denticulati, 7-9-nervii, 6 mm. longi 
et 1.8 mm. lati, corolla mature decidua. Paleae lineares, acutae, 
4 mm. longae et 0.6 mm. latae. Disci flores circ. 35-40, flavi, 
6 mm. longi; poculo nectarifero circum styli basim circ. 0.5 mm. 
alto. Achaenia linearia, obcompressa, nigra, exalata, duabus facie- 
bus plus minusve obsolete 4-sulculata et interdum valde mediano- 
costata (itaque subtetragona), omnino et minutissime acri-papillata, 
marginibus interdum setosa, corpore 3.8-4.5 mm. longa et circ. 0.7 
mm. lata, sub apice saepius aristata; 2 aristis retrorso-hispidis, 
aequalibus vel inaequalibus, usque ad 1-1.25 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Martin Lawrence Grant, No. 3794, 
at altitude of 2,063 meters, in scrub forest on summit of Mt. Aorai, 
District of Mahina, Tahiti, June 7, 1930 (Bish.). 

Distribution: Tahiti, Society Islands. 

Specimens examined: Grant 3794 (type, Bish.); idem 4419, alt. 
1,015 meters, in Metrosideros forest, Mahina, Ahonu-Tuauru ridge, 
November 7, 1930 (Bish.). 

An additional specimen is cited by Grant in his manuscript: 
Quayle, Mt. Aorai, Tahiti, August 1-3, 1922 (Bish.). 

Differs from B. australis chiefly in the tomentose-channeled 
twigs and peduncles, the broader and shorter leaves, the larger and 
less numerous capitula, the longer exterior involucral bracts, and the 
larger ray corollas. Differs from B. deltoidea in the acuminate (not 
caudate) leaves with attenuate (not obtuse) bases, more numerous 
lateral nerves and glabrous (not ciliate) petioles, larger capitula, etc. 

17. Bidens Henryi Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 164. 1923; ibid. 85: 24, 

pi. 2, figs. a-i. 1928. PL VI, figs. u-i. 

Campylotheca Henryi (Sherff) F. Brown, Fl. S. E. Polynesia 3 (Bish. 
Mus. Bull. 130): 355. 1935. 



92 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Fruticosa, glabra, ramosa, circ. 1 m. alta. Folia superiora (infe- 
riora non vidi) in petiolum 1-3 cm. longum subcuneato-angustata, 
petiolo adjecto 5-11 cm. longa et 2-3 cm. lata, in specimine typico 
indivisa, ovato-lanceolata, satis acuminata, argute serrata 10-20 
dentibus in unico latere, membranacea, non ciliata; inferiora majora 
ac cordiformia vel oblonga sed basi cordata. Capitula in nonnullis 
pedunculis ramum terminantibus et 5-6.5 cm. longis, pauca, pro 
patria magna, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 3.3-4 cm. lata et 8-10 mm. 
alta; disco demum circ. 12 mm. lato et 9 mm. alto. Involucrum 
glabrum vel basi parce hispidulum; bracteis exterioribus circ. 8, 
elongatis, linearibu^, patentibus, plerumque subacutis, subeciliatis, 
7-10 mm. longis et 0.6-1.2 mm. latis; interioribus oblongo-lanceo- 
latis 5-7 mm. longis. Flores ligulati 5-8, ligula oblongo-elliptici, 
flavi, 9-14 striis percursi, apice parce denticulati, 1.2-1.9 cm. longi. 
Achaenia linearia vel lineari-oblonga, exalata, atra vel griseo-livida 
vel interdum ad terminos brunneo-straminea, faciebus glabra, mar- 
ginibus glabra vel interdum supra adrecte 1-3-setosa; exteriora valde 
obcompresso-tetragona sed non vere alata, corpore 5-8 mm. alta 
et 1-1.6 mm. lata; interiora subtetragona, usque ad 1.1 cm. alta et 
circ. 1 mm. lata; omnia apice raro calva, saepius apice vel sub 
apice breviter 1-3-aristata aristis crassis, nudis vel obsoletissime 
suberecto-denticulatis, 0.3-1 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Charles Henry, arid region [at 
altitude of 1,050-1,200 meters], Atuona Valley Ridge on route to 
Hanamenu, Island of Hiva Oa, Marquesas Islands, December, 1917 
(Field). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Island of Hiva Oa, 
Marquesas Islands. 

Specimens examined: Forest B. H. Brown 1084, alt. above 900 
meters, Feani, December 15, 1921 (Bish.); idem & Elizabeth D. W. 
Brown 1018, alt. 800 meters, Ootua, eodem tempore (Bish.); Charles 
Henry, arid region, Atuona Valley Ridge, etc. (type, Field : cotype, 
Par., sub num. 14) ; E. H. Quayle 1600, alt. 800 meters, Hanaiapa, 
October 30, 1922 (Bish.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI, FIGS, d-4 

Bidens Henryi: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.68; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X4.08; c, interior involucral bract, X4.08; 
d, ray corolla, X2.72; e, palea, X4.08; /, disc floret, X4.08; g, h, i, 
achenes, X4.08; all from type. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate VI 




BIDENS HENRYI Sherff (figs, a-i) 
BIDENS PULCHELLA (Less.) Schz. Bip. (figs, j-p) 



-.- '">ftMtf 
- 



THE GENUS BIDENS 93 

18. Bidens glabrata (Gray) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 88: 292. 1929. 

PI. VII. 
Bidens Lantanoides var. (?) glabrata Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 128. 

1861. 

Frutex, ramis subtetragonis, hinc inde hispidulis, minute striatis. 
Folia breviter ac late petiolata petiolis basaliter ciliatis circ. 1 cm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto 7-10 cm. longa et 2-3 cm. lata, oblonga, basi 
sensim attenuata apice subabrupte attenuata et breviter acuminata, 
lamina glabra, crassiuscula, acriter serrata unico latere 11-19 dentibus. 
Capitula corymboideo-paniculata, pedunculata pedunculis validis 
usque ad 8 cm. longis, verisimiliter radiata, involucris demum basi 
db 7 mm. latis. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 7, late lineares, 
apice subobtusae, tergo non nisi basim versus pubescentes, circ. 4 
mm. longae; interiores oblongo-lanceolatae, 6-7 mm. longae. Achae- 
nia submatura brunnea, matura atra, valde obcompressa, linearia, 
nunc inferne nunc superne attenuata, glabra, exalata, unica facie 
circ. 4-sulcata, corpore 4-5 mm. longa et circ. 0.8 mm. lata, apice 
biaristata aristis tenuibus retrorsum hamosis usque ad 2.2 mm. 
longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by the United States Southern Pacific 
Exploring Expedition under Captain Wilkes on Tahiti, Society Islands 
(U.S.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Tahiti, Society 
Islands. 

Specimens examined : U. S. S. Pacif. Expl. Exped. under Capt. 
Wilkes (type, U.S.). 

The description is drawn from the two small branches on the type 
sheet. These are somewhat fragmentary, yet quite sufficient to 
indicate an identity specifically distinct from all heretofore known 
Pacific species. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII 

Bidens glabrata: a, remnant of flowering and fruiting branch, 
X0.68; 6, exterior involucral bract, X5.44; c, interior involucral 
bract, X5.44; d (young), e (older), achenes, X5.44; all from type. 

19. Bidens orofenensis M. L. Grant ex Sherff, Bishop Mus. 
Occas. Paps. 12. No. 19: 4. 1937. 

Frutex 1 m. altus, caule basi 6 mm. crasso; ramulis crassis 
sub inflorescentia circ. 3 mm. diametro, tomentuloso-canaliculatis, 
brunneis. Folia petiolata petiolis alatis glabris 1-2 cm. longis, 
petiolo adjecto 10-13.5 cm. longa et 2-3 cm. lata, membranacea, 



94 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

lanceolata vel elliptico-lanceolata, apice acriter acuminata, basi 
cuneato-acuminata, perspicue serrata (dentibus patentibus 10-26 
pro utroque latere), glabra. Inflorescentia terminalis corymbiformis 
non vel pro parte parva exserta, pedunculis glabris 5-9 cm. longis. 
Capitula radiata, pansa ad anthesin 17-23 mm. lata et 7-10 mm. 
alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 7 vel 8, adpressae, oblonge 
lineares vel lineari-oblanceolatae, apice subacutae, tergo 3-nerviae, 
glabrae, 8-12 mm. longae et 2-2.5 mm. latae, quam interiores 
lanceolatae extus sparsim puberulentae intus apice tomentulosae 
manifesto longiores. Flores ligulati (fide lectorum) pauci, parvi, 
flavi. Paleae lineari-oblongae, 5.3 mm. longae et 1 mm. latae. 
Disci flores flavi, 7 mm. longi. Achaenia submatura oblonge linearia, 
basim versus angustata, plana vel costis medianis perspicuis subte- 
tragona, dorsaliter (ut ventraliter) subobscure 4-sulculata, porriginosa, 
maxima ex parte griseo-atra, corpore circ. 4 mm. longa et 1-1.2 mm. 
lata, perspicue biaristata; aristis vix sub apice ortis, divergentibus, 
apicem versus retrorsum infra antrorsum vel subantrorsum brevis- 
simi-barbatis, circ. 2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Harold St. John and Francis Ray- 
mond Fosberg, No. 17068, at altitude of 2,020 meters, summit and 
shaded sides of steep ridge, south ridge of Mt. Orofena, Tahiti, 
September 24, 1934 (Bish.). 

Distribution: Tahiti, Society Islands. 

Specimens examined: St. John & Fosberg 17068 (type, Bish.: 
cotypes, Bish.; Field). 

20. Bidens hawaiensis Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 128. 1861. l 

PI. VIII. 

Campylotheca hawaiiensis (Gray) Hillebr. Fl. Haw. Isls. 211,214.1888. 
Coreopsis hawaiiensis (Gray) Drake del Cast. Illustr. Fl. Ins. Mar. 
Pacif. 209. 1890. 

Frutex herbaceus, glaberrimus, caule plerumque glaucescens, 
7 dm. altus. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus 1.5-3.5 cm. longis, 
petiolo adjecto 8-12 cm. longa et 2.5-3.5 cm. lata, crassiuscula, 
interdum nitida, serrata, acuminata, plerumque indivisa, oblongo- 
lanceolata. Capitula vix numerosa, corymboso-paniculata, medio- 
cria, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 5-8 mm. alta et circ. 2-2.5 cm. lata. 
Involucri bracteae exteriores 5-7, lineares, obtusae, glabrae vel his- 
pidae, circ. 2-3 mm. longae, quam interiores minores. Flores ligulati 

1 Published as B. hawaiensis by Gray; trivial name later spelled hawaiiensis 
by some writers. 



Field Museum of Natural History- 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate VII 





BIDENS GLABRATA (Gray) Sherd 



T"- I 

I II - 



OF THfc 

OF .'HINDIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 95 

7-8, ligula anguste oblongi, flavi, ad apicem plus minusve denti- 
culati, 1 cm. longi. Achaenia recta, anguste linearia, exalata, 
brunneo-nigra, corpore 8-11 mm. longa et 1-1.5 mm. lata, faciebus et 
marginibus glabra, sub apice nudo breviter biaristata aristis erectis 
et retrorsum barbatis, plerumque 1-2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by the United States Southern Pacific 
Exploring Expedition under Captain Wilkes, on the Island of Hawaii, 
Hawaiian Islands, 1840 (Gray). 

Distribution: Islands of Maui (fide Hillebr. Fl. Haw. Isls. 214. 
1888) : and Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Ballieu 46, Hawaiian Isls. (Par.); William 
Hillebrand, perhaps Isl. Hawaii (BerL); Macrae, Mt. Kaah (Mauna 
Kea), Isl. Hawaii, June, 1825 (Gray); U. S. S. Pacif. Expl. Exped. 
(Capt. Wilkes}, Isl. Hawaii, 1840 (type, Gray: cotypes, Mun.; Par.). 
B. distans, a species from the Island of Lanai, was confused by 
me with this species in my conspectus of the species and varieties 
of Bidens native to islands of the central Pacific Ocean (Bot. Gaz. 
85:24.1928). 

In the Hawaiian Islands this and the other species of Bidens are 
known by the common name "kokoolau" (fide Degener, Ferns 
Flow. PL Hawaii Nat. Park 295. 1930). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIII 

Bidens hawaiensis: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.6; &, 
exterior involucral bract, X4.8; c, interior involucral bract, X5.6; 
d, ray corolla, X3.6; e, palea, X4.8; /, disc floret, X5.2; g, h, 
achenes, X3.6; i, fruiting head, Xl; all from type. 

21. Bidens distans Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 89: 362. 1930. PI. IX. 

Frutex erectus, glaber, ramosus, verisimiliter 6-9 dm. altus, caule 
subtereti glaucescenti. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus 3-4.5 cm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto 9-16 cm. longa, nunc pinnatim 3-5-partita 
foliolis lanceolatis serratis dentibus acriter mucronatis, apice acutis 
sed parce acuminatis; nunc indivisa lamina lanceolata 11.5 cm. 
longa et 4 cm. lata, unico latere circ. 16-20 dentibus munita. 
Capitula paniculato-corymbosa, numerosa, subdense disposita (dis- 
tantia) pedicellis tenuibus plerumque 1-2 cm. longis, radiata, pansa 
ad anthesin 1.5-2 cm. lata et circ. 6-7 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae 
exteriores 4-6, oblongo-lineares, obtusae, minimae (1-2 mm. longae), 
quam interiores lanceolatae multo minores. Flores ligulati plerum- 

1 Hillebrand's specimen from East Maui (Berl.) is of doubtful identity. 



96 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

que 5, ligula anguste oblongi, flavi, apice plus minusve denticulati, 
8-12 mm. longi. Achaenia recta vel vix curvata, anguste linearia, 
plana, exalata, atra vel ad apicem brunnea, utraque facie circ. 
4-sulcata, corpore 8-11.5 mm. longa et 1.1-1.7 mm. lata, facie 
marginibusque glabra, apice interdum paucisetosa, sub apice irregu- 
lariter biaristata aristis erectis et retrorsum barbatis, usque ad 
1 (rarius -3) mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Charles Noyes Forbes, No. 148L, 
"at Gay's," on mountains near Koele, 1 Island of Lanai, Hawaiian 
Islands, June, 1918 (Field). 

Distribution: Known only from Island of Lanai, Hawaiian 
Islands. 

Specimens examined: Forbes 148L (type, Field: cotype, Bish.); 
George C. Munro, Kapano, Lanai, July 28, 1915 (Field) ; Joseph F. 
Rock 8008, south coast of Lanai, July 28, 1910 (Gray). 

Differs from J3. hawaiensis Gray in its smaller and more numerous 
heads, minute exterior involucral bracts, fewer rays, mostly divided 
leaves, etc. Differs from B. micrantha Gaud, in its more open inflores- 
cence, dullish-black, not truly shining achenes, glaucescent stem, etc. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX 

Bidens distans: a, flowering branch, X0.55; b, c, compound leaves, 
X0.55; d, exterior involucral bract, X5.54; e, interior involucral bract, 
X5.54; /, ray corolla, X4.43; g, palea, X3.88; h, disc floret, X6.09; 
i, achene, X3.32; 6, from G. C. Munro, Kapano, July 28, 1915, in 
Hb. Field; rest from type. 

22. Bidens Degeneri Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 85: 3. 1928. 
PL X, figs. i-o. 

Campylotheca dichotoma Hillebr. Fl. Haw. Isls. 212. 1888. 

Coreopsis dichotoma (Hillebr.) Drake del Cast. Illustr. Fl. Ins. Mar. 

Pacif. 209. 1890. 
Bidens dichotoma (Hillebr.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 98. 1920; non B. 

dichotoma Desf. Tabl. ed. 1. 108. 1804 (nomen nudum); nee B. 

dichotoma Desf. Cat. PL Hort. Reg. Par. ed. 3. 185. 1829. 

Multa folia indivisa B. Degeneri sensu stricto. 

Folia plerumque 3-partita var. /3. Apioides. 

1 Spelled Koala upon United States Geological Survey map. But a Mrs. 
Greenland (nee Gay) informed H. Wiebke (fide O. Degeneri in lit., Feb. 9, 1928) 
that the name is spelled locally Koele, not Koala. 



Field Museum of Natural History Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate VIII 




:;,: I'RARY 

OF THt 
HWVWttTY ftp MMK81S 



THE GENUS BIDENS 97 

Humilis, prostrata vel erecta, inferne lignea, superne herbacea, 
glabra, ramis brevibus saepe dichotomis et cymis veteribus annorum 
priorum in furcis, verisimiliter usque ad 4 dm. alta. Folia tenuiter 
petiolata petiolis 1-2.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 2-6.5 cm. longa, 
parce carnosa, moderate serrata, nunc indivisa, ovata obovatave et 
breviter acuminata, nunc tripartita foliolis ovatis lanceolatisve basi 
rotundatis vel cuneatis. Capitula minima, plerumque numerosa, radi- 
ata, pansa ad anthesin 6-8 mm. lata et 4-5 mm. alta, in cymis minutis 
3-5 (-poly) -cephalis disposita, pedunculis 2-5 cm. longis, pedicellis 
2-20 mm. longis. Involucri bracteae exteriores 5-7, lineares, glabrae 
vel obscure glanduloso-hispidae, adpressae vel reflexo-patentes, 1-2 
mm. longae, quam interiores lanceolatae plerumque breviores. Flores 
ligulati circ. 3 vel 4, lutei, ligula ovati vel elliptici, apice irregulariter 
plus minusve profunde incisi, circ. 4-5 mm. longi. Achaenia linearia, 
curvata vel torta, exalata, obcompressa vel subtetragona, subnigra, 
glabra vel supra sparsissime erecto-hispida, corpore 6-8 mm. longa 
et circ. 0.6-1 mm. lata, nunc biaristata aristis tenuibus circ. 1 mm. 
longis et apice retrorsum hamosis, nunc omnia exaristata, quam 
paleae breves multo longiora. 

Type specimen: Collected by William Hillebrand, Waikapu 
("above Maalaea or on Haleakala," fide Hillebr. loc. cit.), Island of 
Maui, Hawaiian Islands (Berl.). 

Distribution: Islands of Oahu, Molokai, and Maui, Hawaiian 
Islands. 

Specimens examined: Otto Degener & Henry Wiebke 2162, 
extremely common on arid, windswept, rocky sides at medium eleva- 
tions, Pohakea Gulch, Maui, July 11, 1927 (Berl.; Field; Kew; Haw.); 
iidem 2179, arid, windswept ridge north of Pohakea Gulch, near 
Wailuku, Maui, July 23, 1927 (Berl.; Boiss.; Field, 8 sheets; Haw.; 
Kew; Mun.) ; C. N. Forbes, sea cliffs, Halawa Valley, Molokai, August, 
1912 (Bish.) ; idem 19820, Waimano Ridge, Oahu, October 27-30, 1914 
(Bish.); Gaudichaud 220 pro parte and 221 pro parte, Hawaiian 
Isls., September-October, 1836 (Par.); William Hillebrand, Waikapu, 
Maui (Berl. ; type) ; H. Mann & W. T. Brigham 450, mountains near 
Waikapu, Maui (Bish.; Gray). 

The minute flowering heads are a distinguishing characteristic 
of Bidens Degeneri, also the low stature, the small leaves, and the 
often much thickened, ligneous stems. The achenes are less distinc- 
tive. Mann & Brigham 450, with which Hillebrand stated his type 
material to be "identical," has even the youngest achenes exaristate. 
The Forbes material from Oahu has the numerous small, immature 



98 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

achenes likewise exaristate. Among the many hundreds of fruiting 
heads found upon the Degener & Wiebke material, however, several 
heads were observed to have the achenes mainly aristate. 

B. Degeneri was named in honor of Otto Degener, formerly of 
the University of Hawaii, Honolulu. 

Bidens Degeneri var. /3. Apioides Sherff, loc. cit. 

E specie foliis plerumque 3-partitis, grosse serratis vel dentatis 
vel etiam lobatis, foliolo terminali interdum subtripartito differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by Otto Degener & Henry Wiebke, No. 
21796, windswept ridge, north of Pohakea Gulch, near Wailuku, 
Island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands, July 23, 1927 (Field). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, north of Pohakea 
Gulch, near Wailuku, Island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined : Otto Degener & Henry Wiebke 21796 (type, 
Field: cotype, Haw.). 

Western Maui is connected with eastern Maui by a broad, sandy 
isthmus, Wailuku, which appears to be the real home of the species. 
Recently Degener & Wiebke, on finding many specimens of the 
species proper, their number 2179, growing near Wailuku, observed 
several bizarre plants which may be designated 21796. Regarding 
these latter, Mr. Degener (in lit.) states: "Plants of this type are 
somewhat rare and grow intermingled with typical ones." The 
leaves have their leaflets deeply toothed or lobed and suggest in 
outline the leaves of common celery, Apium graveolens L., whence 
the varietal name Apioides. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE X, FIGS, i-0 

Bidens Degeneri: i, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.59; j, 
exterior involucral bract, X5.88; k, interior involucral bract, X5.88; 
I, ray corolla, X5.88; ra, palea, X5.88; n, disc floret, X5.88; o, achene, 
X5.88; all from Forbes 19820 in Hb. Bish. 

23. Bidens asymmetrica (Levl.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81: 49. 1926; 
ibid. 85: 25 and pi. 3, 1928. PI. XI and PI. XII, figs. a-4. 

Bidens gracilis Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. ser. 2, 7: 368. 1841; 
Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 105, pi 13, figs. a-i. 1920; non Torr. Ann. 
Lye. N. Y. 2: 215. 1828. 

Campylotheca gracilis (Nutt.) Walp. Repert. Bot. Syst. 2: 618. 1843. 



fleld Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate IX 




'b i & 

BIDENS DISTANS Sherff 



Of THt 



THE GENUS BIDENS 99 

Lipochaeta asymmetrica LeVl., Fedde Repert. Sp. Nov. 10: 122. 1912. l 
Bidens halawana Deg. & Sherff ex Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 94: 589. 1933. 

Herbacea vel demum fruticosa, gracilis, glabra, ramosa ramis 
saepe rubescentibus, verisimiliter 6-9 dm. alta; caule infra obsolete 
supra plus minusve acriter tetragono. Folia plerumque serrata vel 
etiam laciniato-dentata, nunc indivisa et ovata vel lanceolata, basi 
subcordata vel rotundata et saepius moderate asymmetrica, apice 
acuta vel acuminata, petiolis adjectis 3-13 cm. longa et 1-3.5 cm. 
lata; nunc tripartita, foliolis lanceolatis, foliolo terminali usque ad 
4 cm. lato, lateralibus dimidio minoribus; petiolis tenuibus 1-6 cm. 
longis; raro foliis multo majoribus. Capitula parva, in inflorescentia 
composite bracteato-cymosa disposita, in ramulis solitaria vel bina, 
radiata, pansa ad anthesin 1-2 cm. lata et 5-7 mm. alta. Involucri 
bracteae exteriores 6-9, patulae, lineares, apicem versus subglandu- 
losae, alibi glabrae, apice subacutae, circ. 4-5 mm. longae, quam 
interiores lanceolatae ad apicem saepe minutissime pubescentes 
paulo (vel interdum fere dimidio) breviores. Flores ligulati saepius 
4, flavi, ligula late oblongo-oblanceolati, apice saepe obsolete 2-3- 
denticulati, 3-11 mm. longi. Achaenia plerumque plus minusve 
torta, oblongo-linearia, nunc infra nunc supra angustata, non vere 
alata, atro-brunnea, faciebus striata, glabra vel margine saepe 1-3 
setis praedita, corpore 6-14 mm. longa et 0.8-1.5 mm. lata, nunc 
brevissime biaristata aristis 0.3-0.8 mm. longis et glabris vel apicem 
versus retrorsum hispidulis, nunc uniaristata vel etiam exaristata, 
saepe omnibus tribus formis in eodem capitulo. 

Type specimen: Collected by Abbe Urbain Faurie, No. 960, 
Kalihi, Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, October, 1909. 2 

Distribution: Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: William Bush & D. LeRoy Topping 3765, 
shady bank, Pacific Heights Trail, October 14, 1934 (Field) ; Christo- 
phersen, Wilder, & Hume 1502, alt. 300-500 meters, open forest, 
head of Kalihi Valley, January 25, 1931 (Bish. ; Field) ; Otto Degener 
2096, dry, sunny ridge, Fort Shafter, Honolulu, October 22, 1922 
(Field, 3 sheets); idem 10035, open woods, rim of Mt. Tantalus, 
November 12, 1935 (Field) ; idem & Kwan Kee Park 10066, eodem 
loco, November 20, 1935 (Field) ; iidem, Yoshimasa Nitta, & William 

1 LeVeille's original spelling was asymetrica, perhaps through influence of the 
French asymetrique. However, the universally accepted (New) Latin form calls 
for asymmetrica, which is here used in keeping with article 70 of the International 
Rules of Botanical Nomenclature (Revision of 1930). 

2 Type herbarium not cited by Leveille. Specimens of Faurie 960 occur, 
however, in Hb. Brit., Hb. Del., and Hb. Par. 



100 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bush 4133, on partly forested lateral ridge, north slope of South 
Halawa Gulch, about one mile from top of Koolau Range, April 
17, 1932 (Berl.; Brit.; Field, 2 sheets; Gray; Kew; Mo.; N.Y.; type 
collection of Bidens halawana Deg. & Sherff ) ; Degener, Park, & Nitta 
4134, in forest, ridge on south slope of North Halawa Gulch, about 
0.75 mile from No. 4133, April 17, 1932 (Berl.; Field; Gray; Kew; 
Mo.) ; Degener, Park, & Takamoto 10332, partly wooded ridge, C.C.C. 
Trail, Aiea, February 16, 1936 (Field, 2 sheets) ; Degener, Park, Top- 
ping, Bush, & Potter 10070, open rainy woods at Middle Halawa Ridge, 
May 26, 1935 (Field) ; Degener, Park, & T. Yamamoto 3237, in forest on 
plateau, about 2.5 miles northeast of main road above Forest Reserve 
fence, Red Hill, October 9, 1932 (Berl. ; Brit. ; Del. ; Field ; Goth. ; Gray ; 
Kew; Mo.; Mun.; N.Y.; Par.; U.S.); iidem 4236, in thick, tall grass 
near summit of ridge, about 2 miles northeast of main road just below 
Forest Reserve fence, Red Hill, October 9, 1932 (Berl.; Brit.; Del.; 
Field; Goth.; Gray; Kew; Mo.; N.Y.; Par.; U.S.); Faurie 960 (type 
collection; Brit.; Del.; Par.); C. N. Forbes 11840, Moanalua Valley, 
March 9, 1909 (Bish.); F. R. Fosberg & Harold St. John 9343, alt. 
460 meters, in wet forest, Kalauao-Waimalu Ridge, Koolau Mts., 
March 29, 1933 (Berl.; Field, 2 sheets; Goth.; Gray; Mo.); William 
Hillebrand, Nuuanu (Berl., 2 sheets, sub nom. Campylotheca macro- 
carpa et var. /3.); idem 35, Oahu (Kew) ; Mann & Brigham 98 pro parte, 
Oahu (Brit.; Corn.; Del., cum B. macrocarpa commixt.; Field; Mo.; 
U.S.); Archibald Menzies, Hawaiian Isls. (Brit.); Thomas Nuttall, 
Oahu (Brit.; type of B. gracilis Nutt.); Harold St. John 11181, shrub 
3 ft. tall, alt. 510 meters, wooded ridge, main ridge running southwest 
from Puu Lanihuli, Kalihi-Nuuanu, November 29, 1931 (Field); 
D. LeRoy Topping 3834, dry, sunny bank, along new C.C.C. Trail, 
Aiea, September 22, 1935 (Field); idem & Colin Potter (Degener 
distrib. No.) 10037, middle Halawa Ridge, Nov. 10, 1935 (Field). 

Until recently, no botanist appears to have given this species 
serious attention. In 1843, Walper categorically transferred it along 
with two others described by Nuttall from Bidens to Campylotheca. 
In 1861, Gray (Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 128) referred it, with Bidens 
mutica Nutt., to B. sandvicensis Less. Nuttall's types of B. gracilis 
and B. mutica are still extant in a state of excellent preservation 
(Brit.). The type of B. gracilis is clearly distinct from that of B. 
mutica. It is distinct also from the type specimen of B. sandvicensis 
Less. (Berl.). In 1888, Hillebrand doubtfully referred the species to a 
variety of B. macrocarpa, but Nuttall's type is not even remotely 
matched by the type material (U.S.; Gray; N.Y.) of B. macrocarpa. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate X 

/I 




BIDENS MICRANTHA Gaud. (figs, a-h) 
BIDENS DEGENERI Sherff (figs, i-o) 



OF TKt 
UNIVERSITY OF MilNQIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 101 

It is, however, the same as Mann & Brigham 98, wrongly distributed 
to various herbaria as B. hawaiensis. B. hawaiensis is a much coarser 
plant and differs in many characters from Nuttall's B. gracilis. 

The type material of Lipochaeta asymmetrica LeVl. is found to 
be a coarser and more herbaceous form, inseparable in technical 
characters from this species. 1 The trivial name asymmetrica is here 
taken up because of the homonym Bidens gracilis Torr. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XI 

Bidens asymmetrica: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.6; 
6, tripartite leaf, X0.6; c, exterior involucral bract, X3.6; d, interior 
involucral bract, X3.6; e, ray corolla, X3.6; /, palea, X3.6; g, disc 
floret, X3.6; h, i, achenes, X3.6; all from type or cotype material 
in Hb. Del. and Hb. Brit. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XII, FIGS, a-4 

Bidens asymmetrica: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.63; 
6, tripartite leaf, X0.63; c, exterior involucral bract, X6.3; d, interior 
involucral bract, X6.3; e, ray corolla, X6.3; /, palea, X6.3; g, disc 
floret, X6.3; h, i, achenes, X6.3; 6, from Forbes 11840 in Hb. Bish.; 
rest from Mann & Brigham 98, ibid. 

24. Bidens cervicata Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 99. 1920. 
PL XIII, figs. h-p. 

Glabra, supra herbacea, infra forsan suffruticosa; caule acute 
tetragono, ramoso, 8 dm. alto. Folia membranacea, pinnata vel 
summa tripartita, petiolata petiolis tenuibus 1.5-4 cm. longis, petiolo 
adjecto 7-15 cm. longa, foliolis lanceolatis, acuminatis, serratis 
(dentibus acribus et tenuiter mucronatis), sparsim ciliatis, 2.5-9 cm. 
longis et 0.8-2.8 cm. latis. Capitula multa, subcorymbosa, radiata, 
pansa ad anthesin 1.5-1.8 cm. lata et 5-7 mm. alta. Involucri brac- 
teae exteriores plerumque 5, lineares, glabratae, patentes vel reflexae, 
1.5-2.5 mm. longae, interioribus multo breviores. Flores ligulati 
circ. 5, flavidi, ligula ovato-lanceolati vel elliptico-oblongi, apice 
saepe profunde et acriter dentati, 7-9 mm. longi. Achaenia tenuiter 
linearia, nigra, exalata, exaristata, glabra vel 1-paucis setis munita, 
torta, infra angustata, supra cervici-elongata, 1-1.3 cm. longa. 

Type specimen: Collected by Charles Noyes Forbes, No. 1085K pro 
parte, in Waimea Drainage Basin, west side, Island of Kauai, Hawai- 
ian Islands, July 3-August 18, 1917 (Bish.). 

1 The herbaceous form, with large, mainly simple leaves, is the plant had in 
mind by Hillebrand (excl. syn. B. sandvicensis var. ovatifolia Gray) f or his Campy- 
lotheca macrocarpa var. /3. (Fl. Haw. Isls. 215. 1888). 



102 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Waimea Drainage 
Basin, Island of Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined : Forbes 1085-K" pro parte (type, Bish., cum B. 
Cosmoidi commixt.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIII, FIGS, h-p 

Bidens cervicata: h, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.54; i, 
one of larger leaves, X0.54; j, exterior involucral bract, X5.43; k, 
interior involucral bract, X5.43; I, ray corolla, X3.26; m, palea, 
X5.43; n, disc floret, X3.26; o, p, achenes, X3.26; i, from cotype in 
Hb. Field; rest from type. 

25. Bidens graciloides Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 159. 1923. 
PI. XIV, figs. ar-g. 

Glabra, erecta vel repens, fruticosa, ramosa (ramis moderate 
tetragonis) vel infra simplex, 1-6 dm. alta. Folia tenuiter petiolata 
petiolis 1-3 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 3-6 cm. longa, nunc indivisa 
et ovata, nunc pinnata vel rarius subbipinnata, foliolis 3 vel 5 (vel 
rarius 7) ovatis vel ovato-lanceolatis, crenato-serratis, apice obtusis 
vel acutis, 0.4-2 cm. latis. Capitula laxe subcorymbosa, non plerum- 
que supra folia perspicue exserta, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 
usque ad 6 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 1.1-1.5 cm. lata 
et 5-7 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores 4-6, lineares vel 
oblongo-lineares, apice obtusae vel acutae, nunc hispidae nunc fere 
glabrae, 2-3 mm. longae; interiores lanceolatae, dimidio longiores. 
Flores ligulati 4-5, flavi, ligula elliptici, apice dentati, 5-7 mm. longi. 
Achaenia atra, plus minusve arcuata, plana, non vere alata, linearia, 
marginibus et saepe costis medianis sparsim setosa, unica facie circ. 
4-striata, corpore 4-8 mm. longa et 0.6-1 mm. lata, nunc exaristata, 
nunc biaristata aristis tenuibus retrorsum hamosis, usque ad 1.5 
mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Charles Noyes Forbes, No. 24350, 
ridge, right-hand side, Waialae Iki, Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, 
March 2, 1917 (Bish.). 

Distribution: Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: William Bush 27, alt. 540 meters, grassy 
slopes, Manoa Cliffs, Tantalus, June 11, 1929 (Field); Otto Degener 
2264, cliffs at wet head of Kuliouou Valley, December 11, 1927 (Berl.; 
Boiss.; Field; Haw.; Kew); idem 2265, arid, sunny slope at base of 
Kuliouou Valley, December 11, 1927 (Berl.; Field, 3 sheets; Haw.; 
Kew) ; idem, K. K. Park & W. Hirai 4040, east ridge of Niu Valley, 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XI 




b t f 

BIDENS ASYMMETRICA (Levl.) Sherff 



. - 

Of 

omosnt of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 103 

summit of ridge at edge of forest, April 20, 1931 (Field) ; iidem 4041, 
eodem loco et tempore, dry, grassy slope before reaching forest (Berl. ; 
Field; Gray; Kew; Mo.); iidem 4045, east ridge of Kuliouou Valley, 
May 3, 1931 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Field; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; 
N.Y.; Par.; U.S.); Degener, Park, & Nitta 4160, sunny, grassy slope, 
middle ridge of Niu Valley, June 4, 1932 (Berl.; Boiss.; Calif.; Field; 
Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; N.Y.; Par.; U.S.; U.V.); Forbes 18620, 
Oahu, December 11, 1913 (Bish.); idem 24350 (type, Bish.); idem 
24740 et 24770, between Niu and Wailupe, April 11, 1917 (Bish.); 
A. A. Heller 1988 p.p., Nuuanu, March 23, 1895 (N.Y.); D. Le Roy 
Topping 3304, alt. 300 meters, open ridge, Niu Ridge, January 13, 
1929 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Field, 2 sheets; Kew; N.Y.). 

At times simulated by depauperate forms of B. sandvicensis. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV, FIGS, a-g 

Bidens graciloides: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.67; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X6.67; c, interior involucral bract, X6.67; 
d, ray corolla, X4; e, palea, X6.67; /, disc floret, X6.67; g, achene, 
X4; all from type. 

26. Bidens ctenophylla Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 85: 5. 1928. 

PL XV and PI. XVI. 
Bidens schizoglossa Sherff, op. cit. 88: 288 and pi. 19. 1929. 

Frutex ramosus ramis rubescentibus subtetragonis vix glau- 
cescentibus glabratis, 1.2-1.5 (rarius -2.7) m. altus. Folia petiolata 
petiolis tenuibus 2-5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 5-12 cm. longa, 
membranacea, nunc simplicia, basim integram versus rotundata 
vel late cuneata, supra medium raro integra plerumque perspicue 
pectinato-dentata dentibus (in unico latere saepius 3-9) plerumque 
prorsum spectantibus, apice acuminata, circumambitu ovata vel 
rhomboideo-ovata, margine debiliter ciliata, supra glabrata, infra 
saepe paucis setis sparsissime adpresso-hispida; nunc 1-2-pinnata, 
foliolis lanceolatis vel lineari-lanceolatis integris vel plus minusve 
pectinato-dentatis, lateralibus minoribus. Capitula numerosa, in 
inflorescentia corymbiformi vel paniculata disposita, radiata, pansa 
ad anthesin 4-6 mm. alta et circ. 1.5-1.8 cm. lata; pedicellis et 
pedunculis minimis dense et insigniter albido-pubescentibus. Invo- 
lucri bracteae dense hispidae, exteriores 5-8, lineares, patentes, apice 
acutae, 1.5-2.5 mm. longae; interiores lanceolatae, dimidio longiores. 
Flores ligulati plerumque 5, ligula late lineari-oblongi vel obovati, 
flavi, apice rotundato integri vel etiam acriter denticulati vel pro- 
funde lobati, 7-10 mm. longi. Achaenia demum paleas anguste 



104 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

lineares paulo superantia, recta vel subrecta, sublate oblongo-linea- 
ria, valde obcompressa, corpora nigro 8-11 mm. longa et 1.5-2 
mm. lata, faciebus marginibusque glabra, apice (saepe imperfecte) 
biaristata; aristis usque ad 1.2 mm. longis, in achaeniorum duos 
subalatos stramineos margines decurrentibus, retrorsum barbatis vel 
demum plus minusve calvis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Otto Degener and Henry Wiebke, 
No. 2128, arid, weed-covered "aa" 1 slopes, between Puuwaawaa 
and Huehue, Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands, August 22, 1926 
(Field, 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality on Island of Hawaii, 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: A. Borges (Degener distrib. No.) 3799, 
Huehue, November 26, 1929 (Field) ; Degener & Wiebke 2128 (type, 
Field, 2 sheets: cotypes, Berl.; Brit.; Haw.; Kew; Par., etc.); 
Degener & Yasuma Iwasaki 3813, usually 4 to rarely 6 feet high, 
on arid "aa" lava flows 1 near type locality north of Huehue, January 
18, 1930 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Field, 3 sheets; Gray; Kew; Mo.; 
Mun.); iidem 3814, usually 5 to rarely 9 feet high, on extremely arid 
and hot lava flows along road west of Puuwaawaa, eodem tempore 
(Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Field, 3 sheets; Gray; Mo.); Alfred Meebold 
(Degener distrib. No.) 4168, Huehue, May 22, 1932 (Berl.; Field; 
Kew); idem 20821, Puuwaawaa, November, 1935 (Field); William 
A. & C.B. Setchell, near Huehue, June 24, 1924 (Calif.; type of B. 
schizoglossa Sherff) ; Carl Skottsberg 1954, 1955, and 19556, along the 
Kona-Kohala Road in North Kona, near branch road to Puuwaa- 
waa (Goth.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XV 

Bidens ctenophylla: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.59; 
b, portion of pedicel, X6; c, exterior involucral bract, X3.54; d, 
interior involucral bract, X3.54; e, ray corolla, X2.37; /, palea, 
X3.54; g, disc floret, X3.54; h, achene, X3.54; a, mainly from cotype 
in Hb. Kew; rest from cotype in Hb. Field. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVI 

Bidens ctenophylla: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.64; b, 
exterior involucral bract, X6.36; c, interior involucral bract, X6.36; 
d, e, ray corollas, X6.36; /, palea, X6.36; g, disc floret, X6.36; h, i, 
achenes, X6.36; all from type of Bidens schizoglossa Sherff. 

1 Aa, Anglicized from the Hawaiian and meaning a loose, rough type of lava 
(fide Degeneri in lit.; cf. Degener, Plants Haw. Nat. Park. v. 1930). 



THE GENUS BIDENS 105 

27. Bidens glandulifera M. L. Grant, sp. nov. 

Frutex 1.7 m. altus; ramulis gracilibus, lateribus plus minusve 
canaliculatis, glabris vel axillis subporrigini-tomentulosis. Folia 
subsparsim disposita, opposita, petiolata petiolis tenuibus subplanis 
glabris vel facie superiore tomentulosis, petiolo adjecto 4.5-6 cm. 
longa et d- 2.3 cm. lata, simplicia, membranacea, apice subabrupte 
acuminata, basi lato-cuneata vel subrotundata, marginibus acriter 
serrata (dentibus pro unico latere plerumque 15-20, nitide indurato- 
apiculatis), subflavido-viridia, infra vix pallidiora, lamina glabra 
vel glabrata. Inflorescentia terminalis et in axillis superioribus dis- 
posita, corymboso-paniculata, circ. 5 cm. alta et aequaliter lata, 
exserta, usque ad 20-cephala; pedunculis ultimis (pedicellis) sparsim 
puberulentis. Capitula radiata, pansa ad anthesin 11 mm. lata 
et 8 mm. alta. Involucri basaliter puberulenti vel rarius glabrati 
bracteae exteriores circ. 8, spathulate lineari-oblanceolatae, apice 
subacuta 5-6 mm. longae et circ. 1 mm. latae; interiores lanceolatae, 
circ. 7 mm. longae et db 1.7 mm. latae. Flores ligulati 5 vel 6, flavi 
sed venis forsitan rubro-brunnei, obscure 3-5-denticulati, 8- vel 
9-nervii, ligula obovati, circ. 6.5 mm. longi. Paleae lineares, 4-7 
mm. longae. Flores tubulosi circ. 30-35, flavi, circ. 6.6 mm. longi, 
poculo nectarifero circum styli basim circ. 0.5 mm. alto. Achaenia 
linearia, plana et bimarginata vel interdum trigona et trimarginata, 
maximam partem subatra lateribus apiceque flavido-brunnea, utra- 
que facie glabra et plerumque 4-sulculata, marginibus supra medium 
antrorsum apicem versus retrorsum brevi-setulosa, corpore 7.5-9 mm. 
longa et circ. 1.5 mm. lata, marginibus superne productis bi- (vel 
tri-) aristata (aristis sub apice ipso ortis, retrorsum setosis, sub 
1 mm. longis) ; summo corpore glabro vel 1- vel 2-setoso. 

Type specimen: Collected by Martin Lawrence Grant, No. 4958, at 
altitude of 530 meters, in ridge scrub, Tahuhuura, Mt. Tarapaia, Dis- 
trict of Tevaitapu, Island of Borabora, January 3, 1931 (Bish.). 

Distribution: Island of Borabora, Society Islands. 

Specimens examined : Grant 4958 (type, Bish.). 

Dr. Grant notes in his manuscript: "Serrations, margins of 
petioles, and occasionally twigs and lower surfaces of midribs with 
minute, sessile, callus-like, castaneous glands." These are, however, 
comparatively inconspicuous. 

28. Bidens macrocarpa (Gray) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 97. 1920. 

PI. XVII, figs. a-4. 

Coreopsis (Campylotheca) macrocarpa Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 
126. 1861. 



106 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Folia principalia ternata vel pinnata 3-5 foliolis. 

B. macrocarpa sensu stricto. 
Folia simplicia var. /3. ovatifolia. 

Fruticosa, erecta, glabra, 1-2.4 m. alta. Folia petiolata petiolis te- 
nuibus 2-10 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 0.5-2.2 dm. longa, subcrassa, 
ternata vel pinnata velsumma saepe pro maxima parte simplicia et in- 
feriora plus minusve bipinnata; foliolis (3-5) ovatis vel ovato-lanceola- 
tis, cuspidatis, acriter et saepe creberrime serratis (dentibus interdum 
valde inflexis), parce membranaceis, lateralibus 2-6 cm. longis et 
1-2 cm. latis (imis interdum bipartitis vel etiam tripartitis), terminal! 
majore saepius acuminate interdum tripartite, petiolulis lateralium 
plerumque 2-15 mm. longis. Inflorescentia laxa, aperta, foliolis 
linearibus vestita, folia superans. Capitula non numerosa, non 
minuta, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 7-8 mm. alta et circ. 3 cm. 
lata. Involucri bracteae subaequales, exteriores 5-7, crassae, late 
lineares, glabrae, circ. 6 mm. longae. Flores ligulati 5-7, flavi, 
ligula anguste vel late elliptico-oblongi, apice trifidi, 1-1.6 cm. longi; 
disci floribus 15-20. Achaenia pro capitulo magna, late linearia, 
plana, striata, brunnea vel atro-brunnea, glaberrima vel marginibus 
et apice setulosa, erecta vel subtorta, corpore 1.2-2 cm. longa et 
(ullis alis adjectis) 1.5-2.8 mm. lata, exalata vel alata, alis in duos 
dentes vel aristas sub corporis apice productis; aristis remotissime et 
minutissime, antrorsum retrorsumque barbatis, vel raro glabratis. 

Type specimen: Collected by the United States Southern Pacific 
Exploring Expedition under Captain Wilkes, Island of Oahu, Hawaiian 
Islands, 1840 (U.S.). 

Distribution: Known only from the Island of Oahu, Hawaiian 
Islands. 

Specimens examined: E. H. Bryan, Jr., 847, shrub 2 meters tall, 
alt. 690 meters, moist ridge in rain forest, Kaluanui, October 14, 1934 
(Field) ; William Bush 25, alt. 600 meters, wind-swept, wet slope, 
Wahiawa-Kahana Divide, June 9, 1929 (Field; Gray; Kew; N.Y.; 
U.S.); idem & D. L. Topping 3779 et 3780, shady bank, C.C.C. 
Trail, Waipio, March 10, 1935 (Field); Otto Degener, open forest, 
near Pauoa Flats, Mt. Tantalus, April 18, 1926 (N.Y.) ; idem 2674, 
wooded, moderately dry slope, about halfway along lower trail 
from Pauoa Flats to Mt. Olympus, February 25, 1928 (Field; N.Y.); 
idem 2675, eodem loco et tempore, more shaded than No. 2674 
(Field) ; idem & K. K. Park 4082, growing rarely up to 8 ft. high, 
locally common in rain forest, just south of summit of Puu Lanipo 
on Wilhelmina Rise Ridge, November 11, 1931 (Berl.; Brit.; Calif.; 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XII 




BIDENS ASYMMETRICA (Levl.) Sherff (figs, o-t) 
BIDENS CUNEATA Sherff (figs, j-p) 



OF THt 
UHIVERW OF 



THE GENUS BIDENS 107 

Del.; Field, 2 sheets; Gray; Kew; Mo.; N.Y.; Par.; U.S.; U.V.); 
iidem & W. Hirai 4043, wind-swept mountain summit, about half- 
way along Waikane-Schofield Trail, April 4, 1931 (Berl.; Boiss.; 
Field; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Par.); Degener, Park, Potter, Bush, & 
Topping 10071, near summit, Poamoho Trail, Laie, August 18, 
1935 (Field); iidem 10072, open forest, Waimano, June 9, 1935 
(Field; forma monstrosa); iidem 10073, near 4-mile post, Kipapa 
Trail, Koolau Range, June 21, 1935 (Field); Degener, Takamoto, & 
Martinez 10540, open rain forest near summit, C.C.C. Trail, Aiea, 
March 15, 1936 (Field) ; Urbain Faurie 996, Panalieu, May, 1910 
(Brit.); C. N. Forbes, Lanihuli Trail, October 14, 1908 (Bish.); 
idem, Palolo Valley Ridges, December 17, 1908 (Bish.) ; idem 22210, 
Waihiawa-Kahana Trail, August 17-20, 1915 (Bish.); idem (& 
Labouchere) 23130, ridge and foot of Kalihi Valley, March 9, 1916 
(Bish.); idem 25530, Manoa Ridge, March 17, 1919 (Bish.); idem (& 
C. M. Cooke}, Koolauloa Mts. between Punaluu and Kaipapau, 
May 3-8, 1909 (Bish.); F. R. Fosberg 9525, suffrutescent herb 
0.4 meter tall, wet, bushy ridge, alt. 740 meters, Waikane-Schofield 
Trail, divide between Kahana and Waianaeuka, May 14, 1933 (Field) ; 
idem 10285, exposed ridge, alt. 740 meters, Waikane-Schofield Trail, 
Koolau Mts., Kahana, September 22, 1933 (Field); idem 10726, 
suffrutescent herb 1 meter tall, wet forest, alt. 550 meters, Palolo- 
Waialae-Niu, Koolau Mts., December 27, 1934 (Field); idem & 
K. Duker 8680, alt. 620 meters, rain forest, ridge, South Kipapa 
Gulch, Koolau Mts., September 18, 1932 (Field; Kew); iidem 8803, 
alt. 600 meters, wet forest, Waikane-Schofield Trail, Koolau Mts., 
Kahana, October 16, 1932 (Field; Gray; Kew) ; Gaudichaud (Voy. la 
Bonite} 220pro parte and 221 p.p., Hawaiian Isls., September-October, 
1836 (Par.) ; M. L. Grant 7242, shrub 4 ft. tall, alt. 690 meters, in 
Metrosideros forest, Kipapa- Waiawa Ridge, Waipio, August 7, 1934 
(Field); A. A. Heller 2901, plentiful in forest, alt. 750 meters, on 
and near summit, Konahuanui, November 2, 1895 (Brit.; Calif.; 
Field; Kew; Minn.; Mo.; N.Y.; Par.; Petrop.; Phila.); William 
Hillebrand, Oahu (Kew) ; idem, Nuuanu (Berl. ; Gray) ; idem & J. M. 
Lydgate, Konahuanui, October 29, 1870-1872 (Bish.);E. Y. Hosaka 
1107 and 1108, on wet, denuded ridge, alt. 600 meters, Kipapa 
Gulch, south ridge, Waipio, Koolau Mts., July 2, 1933 (Bish.; Field); 
Noel Krauss 4128, wet, open woods in upper Manoa Valley along 
Mt. Olympus, Pauoa Flats Trail, December 6, 1931 (Field); Mann 
& Brigham, Oahu (U.S.); iidem 98 pro minim, parte, Oahu (Del., 
cum B. asymmetrica commixt.) ; Alfred Meebold (Degener distrib. No.) 



108 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

4166, east ridge of Manoa Valley, June, 1932 (Field; Kew); Carl 
Skottsberg 153 and 1536, alt. 500-600 meters, Koolau, Nuuanu- 
Kalihi Ridge, August 13, 1922 (Goth.); idem 1776, Nuuanu- 
Pauoa Ridge, September 12, 1926 (Goth.); idem 1859, ridge above 
Kahana Bay, Koolau Mts., September 17, 1926 (Goth.); Harold 
St. John 10154, low shrub, alt. 690 meters, upper ridge Waikane- 
Schofield Trail, Kahana, January 19, 1930 (Field); idem 11193, 
shrub 4 ft. tall, alt. 600 meters, wooded ridge, main ridge running 
southwest from Puu Lanihuli, Kalihi-Nuuanu, November 29, 1931 
(Bish. ; Field) ; U. S. S. Pacif. Expl Exped. under Capt. Wilkes, Oahu, 
1840 (type, U.S.: cotypes, Gray; N.Y.); D.L. Topping 3060, growing 
3-4 ft. high, along ridge, Wahiawa-Waihane Trail, March 8, 1925 
(N.Y.); idem 3341, dry ridge along trail at 600 meters alt., Waipio 
Ridge, June 30, 1929 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Field; Gray; Kew; U.S.); 
idem 3343, growing 3 ft. high along trail, open and dry, Waipio 
Ridge (Field) ; idem 3346, open trail, Waipio Ridge, June 30, 1929 
(Field); Wawra (H. M. Frigate Donau) 1664, Oahu, 1868-1871 
(Petrop.); M. Yamaguchi 1218, wet mountain ridge, alt. 570 meters, 
south ridge of Kipapa Gulch, Waipio, Koolau Mts., May 15, 1932 
(Field); T. G. Yuncker (0. Degener distrib. No.) 4256, alt. 600 meters, 
rainy region, Kipapa Gulch Trail, September 18, 1922 (Field; Kew). 

Bidens macrocarpa can easily be told from all other species by 
its large, flat, usually brownish achenes, with many of their subapical 
aristae decurrent into flattened, lateral achenial margins or wings. 
Hillebrand (Fl. Haw. Isls. 215. 1888) confused other names with 
B. macrocarpa. Thus he listed as a synonym Bidens mutica Nutt. 
The type of B. mutica (Brit.) is trueB. sandvicensis Less. He created a 
var. 7. for plants from Niu and Makaleha, Oahu, to which he referred 
(1) B. sandvicensis as understood by A. Gray "(pro parte)" and (2) 
"probably also B. gracilis, Nutt." The type of his var. 7. (Brit.), 
however, is likewise B. sandvicensis Less. (cf. footnote under B. sand- 
vicensis Less., "Specimens examined"); and while indeed Gray had 
usually treated such material as B. sandvicensis, it must be noted 
that he was correct in so doing, as the species B. sandvicensis Less, 
was a valid one and in the main Gray was fairly familiar with it. 
B. gracilis Nutt. was of course quite unlike either B. macrocarpa 
or B. sandvicensis and reduces to B. asymmetrica (LeVl.) Sherff. 

According to Heller's printed note (Minn.), B. macrocarpa 
"appears to be confined to the forest." 

An apparently teratological form occurs with conspicuously 
laciniate-dentate leaf divisions. The leaves are 1-2- or sub-3- 



Fit-Id Museum ot Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI. Plate XIII 




BIDENS TORTA Sherff (figs, a-g) 
B1DENS CEHVICATA Sherff (figs, h-p) 



OF 



|U| 



THE GENUS BIDENS 109 

pinnatifid. I have seen only one capitulum, and this one was very 
immature. 

Specimens examined: William Bush 7461, Mt. Tantalus, June 11, 
1929 (Berl.; N.Y.); Degener, Park, Bush, Potter, & Topping 10069, 
near summit, west of Poamoho Trail, Laie, August 25, 1935 (Deg.) ; 
Degener, Park, & Hirai 4044, wind-swept mountain summit about 
halfway, Waikane-Schofield Trail, April 4, 1931 (Deg.; N.Y.). 

Bidens macrocarpa var. /3. ovatifolia (Gray) Sherff, op. cit. 

85: 7. 1928. 

Bidens sandvicensis var. ovatifolia Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 128. 

1861. 
Campylotheca (Coreopsis) macrocarpa var. ovatifolia (Gray) Hillebr. 

Fl. Haw. Ids. 215. 1888. 

Caulis herbaceus. Folia simplicia vel pauca tripartita, ovata, 
subcordata, longissime tenuiterque petiolata petiolis usque ad 6 cm. 
longis. Ovaria coronula setularum superata, exaristata. 

Type specimen: Collected by the United States Southern Pacific 
Exploring Expedition under Captain Wilkes on the Island of Oahu, 
Hawaiian Islands, 1840 (U.S.). 

Distribution: Known only from the type locality, Oahu, Hawai- 
ian Islands. 

Specimens examined: U. S. S. Pacif. Expl. Exped. under Capt. 
Wilkes, Oahu, 1840 (type, U.S.). 

I have never seen another specimen exactly matching the type, 
but Bush & Topping 3780 and Forbes 23130, listed under the species 
proper, show in their lowermost leaves an approach to the ovatifolia 
form. The type's capitula are referable to B. macrocarpa rather 
than to B. sandvicensis. In fact, Drake del Castillo (Illustr. Fl. 
Ins. Mar. Pacif. 209. 1890) equated the ovatifolia form outright with 
B. macrocarpa (Coreopsis macrocarpa Gray). The exceptional nature 
of the leaves, however, makes it seem best to retain a varietal status 
for Gray's type, as was done by Hillebrand. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVII, FIGS, a-i 

Bidens macrocarpa: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.56; 6, 
one of larger leaves, X0.56; c, exterior involucral bract, X3.38; d, 
interior involucral bract, X3.38; e, ray corolla, X3.38; /, palea, 
X3.38; g, disc floret, X3.38; h (submature), i (mature, outer), 
achenes, X3.38; a-h, from Forbes 23130 in Hb. Bish.; i, from Forbes, 
Palolo Valley Ridges, Isl. Oahu, December 17, 1908, ibid. 



110 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

29. Bidens magnidisca Deg. & Sherff ex Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
93: 216. 1932. PI. XVII, figs. j-l. 

Herba erecta, perennis, fruticosa, glabra, caule tetragona, veri- 
similiter 6-10 dm. alta. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus usque 
ad 9 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto usque ad 2 dm. longa, acriter serrata, 
nunc indivisa, ovata vel ovato-lanceolata, basi (saepe obliqua) late 
cuneata vel rotundata vel truncato-subcordata, apice acuta vel 
breviter acuminata, usque ad circ. 4.5 cm. lata; nunc pinnatim 3-5- 
partita, foliolis ovatis vel oblongo-lanceolatis, lateralibus basi valde 
obliquis et saepe (praecipue superioribus) decurrentibus, plerumque 
1-3.5 cm. latis. Capitula irregulariter paniculata, pedicellata pedi- 
cellis glaberrimis saepius 1-2-bracteatis plerumque 1-3.5 cm. longis, 
radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 2 vel vix 2.5 cm. lata, 0.8-1.5 cm. 
alta. Involucrum interius primum (pro capitulo juveni) late cylin- 
dricum vel turbinato-globosum, glaberrimo-subnitidum et supra 
clausum, exterius patens vel reflexum; demum bracteis exterioribus 
(6-8) saepe irregulariter positis, glabris, ovatis vel linearibus vel 
late oblongis, apicem obtusum versus saepe latioribus, plerumque 
tantum 1.5-3 rarius 5 mm. latis; interioribus oblongo-lanceolatis 
plerumque 5-7 mm. longis. Flores ligulati 6-8, non perspicui, 
flavidi, ligula cuneato-lineares, apice acriter (saepe profunde atque 
irregulariter) 3-4-dentati, tantum 6-9 mm. longi et 1.5-3 mm. 
lati. Flores disci circ. 30-45, aurantiaci, limbo acriter profundeque 
5-lobati, deorsum sensim angustati, stylis antherisque exsertis paleas 
lineares ac flores ligulatos superantibus. Achaenia plana, lineari- 
oblonga, utrinque moderate attenuata, aegre torta, glabra, brunneo- 
nigra, valde mediano-nervata, utraque facie circ. 4-sulcata, 
corpore 8-15 mm. longa et 1-2 mm. lata, apice ipso exaristata sed 
infra apicem saepe irregulariter 1-2-aristata aristis brevibus validis 
plus minusve calvis ex achaeniorum marginibus (alis) desinentibus 
manifeste productis. 

Type specimen : Collected by Otto Degener, Kwan Kee Park, and 
F. Kruse, No. 4080, much localized on sunny, grassy, shrubby slope, 
western ridge of Kaipapau (not "Waipapau" as erroneously printed 
in original description) Valley just within forest reserve, Hauula, 
Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, October 11, 1931 (Field, 4 sheets). 

Distribution : Known only from type locality on Island of Oahu, 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined : Degener, Park, & Kruse 4080 (4 type sheets, 
Field: cotypes, Berl.; Brit.; Del.; Field; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mus. V.; 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XIV 




BIDENS GRACILOIDES Sherff (figs, a-g) 
BIDENS WAIANENSIS Sherff (figs, h-p) 



Of THt 



THE GENUS BIDENS 111 

N.Y.; Par.; U.S.; U.V.); N. H. Krauss, alt. 300-360 meters, Hauula, 
Koolau Mts., January 6, 1934 (Field). 

Should be investigated as to possibility of hybrid origin. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVII, FIGS, j-l 

Bidens magnidisca: j (young) and k (flowering), heads, X0.67; 
I, achene, X3.38; all from type specimens. 

30. Bidens micranthoides Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 100. 1920. 

PL XVIII. 

Bidens angustifolia Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. ser. 2. 7: 369. 

1841; non Bidens angustifolia Lam. Encycl. 1: 416. 1783. 
Campylotheca angustifolia (Nutt.) Walp. Repert. 2: 618. 1843. 

Herba glabrata, infra suffruticosa, supra ramosa ramis gracilibus, 
3-5 dm. alta. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus 1-5 cm. longis, petiolo 
adjecto 3-7 (-12.5) cm. longa et 2-5 (-8) cm. lata, pinnatim 3-7- 
partita foliolis ovato-lanceolatis vel raro ovatis, serratis, ad apicem 
plerumque acutis vel etiam longissime acuminatis, nunc membrana- 
ceis, nunc subrugoso-crassiusculis, foliolis imis raro tripartitis. Capi- 
tula supra folia exserta, laxe corymbosa, ad anthesin 5-7 mm. 
alta et 1.5-2.5 cm. lata. Involucri bracteae exteriores 5-7, lineares, 
ad apicem subobtusae, glabratae vel glanduloso-pulverulentae, 1-2.5 
mm. longae, interiores multo longiores. Flores ligulati 4-6, flavi, 
ligula ovato-oblanceolati, ad apicem 2-4-dentulati, circ. 1 cm. longi. 
Achaenia linearia, exalata, nunc recta nunc torta, atra, supra et 
ad margines sparsim setosa, apice setoso-coronulata et biaristata 
aristis retrorsum hamosis et usque ad 1.5 mm. longis vel saepe 
plus minusve exaristata, corpore 7-9 mm. longa. 

Type specimen: Collected by Charles Noyes Forbes, No. 704K, 
Haupu Range, Nawiliwili Bay, Island of Kauai, Hawaiian Islands, 
October 31, 1916 (Bish.). 

Distribution: Islands of Oahu and Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: R. S. Bean 1, arid, rocky place, east ridge, 
Manoa Valley, Oahu, September 3, 1927 (Bn.) ; Beechey, Oahu (Kew) ; 
WilliamBush (Degener distrib. No.) 4163, on slopes of Waimea Canyon 
near lookout on way to Kokee, Kauai, June 9, 1932 (Berl.; Boiss.; 
Calif.; Field; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; N.Y.; Par.; U.V.); idem 4164, 
eodem loco (but at lower elevation) et tempore (Field, 2 sheets; 
forma foliorum segmentis angustioribus quidem linearibus); Otto 
Degener & Henry Wiebke 2167, dry, sunny canyon side, Olokele 
Canyon, Kauai, July 3, 1926 (Berl.; Field, 3 sheets; Kew);Faurie 



112 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

995, Kolea, Kauai, December, 1909 (Brit.); Forbes 494A', Wailua 
Falls, Kauai, October 5, 1916 (Bish.); idem 592JRT, Nonou Mts., 
Kauai, October 16-17, 1916 (Bish.) ; idem 704K (type, Bish.: cotype, 
Mo.); idem 18490, Waiolani Ridge, Oahu, October 27, 1913 (Bish.); 
idem 20140, Oahu, November 17, 1914 (Bish.); Gaudichaud (Voy. la 
Bonite), Hawaiian Isls., October, 1836 (Del.); Thomas Nuttall, 
Oahu (Brit.; type of Bidens angtistifolia Nutt.); Swezey (Degener 
distrib. No.) 4183, top of Puu Kapele, Kauai, July 13, 1932 (Field; 
Kew);idem (Degener distrib. No.) 4206 pro parte, Kokee region, 
Kauai, July, 1932 (Berl.; Field; Gray; cumB. sandvicensi commixt.); 
J. F. G. Stokes, cliffs at Puunui, Oahu, December, 1915 (Bish.) ; D. 
LeRoy Topping 2939, Niu Ridge, Oahu, November, 1924 (Calif.). 

Resembles more or less B. micrantha Gaud. In some cases the 
similarity in foliage is very deceiving. The specimen by Beechey 
had been determined as B. micrantha by Hooker and Arnott (cf. 
Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. Voy. 86. 1841), although in this case the 
foliage was very distinct from that of Gaudichaud's plate for B. 
micrantha. Asa Gray, who later studied the Beechey plant, referred 
it to B. sandvicensis Less. (cf. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 128. 1861), 
a species to which indeed B. micranthoides, through its Oahu material, 
seems transitional. From both B. micrantha and B. sandvicensis 
this species differs most noticeably in habit, being lower in stature, 
apparently more open in its branching, and certainly with the in- 
florescence much more open, the heads being variously scattered 
and at more different levels, and not so corymbose. 

As remarked in an earlier paper (Bot. Gaz. 76: 161. 1923), 
Asa Gray (Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 127-128. 1861) suspected B. angusti- 
folia Nutt. of belonging to B. sandvicensis, and Drake del Castillo 
(111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. 210. 1890), evidently with Gray's treatment 
at hand, definitely equated the two species. A study, however, of 
Nuttall's type (Brit.) and the other specimens cited above shows 
a plant with aspect very different from that of B. sandvicensis. It 
is found to match exactly certain of these above cited specimens of 
B. micranthoides. The name B. angustifolia is rejected, however, 
because of the earlier homonym B. angustifolia Lam. 1 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVIII 

Bidens micranthoides: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.56; 
b, larger and more compound leaf, X0.56; c, exterior involucral bract, 

1 A name referred by Lamarck himself (loc. cit.) and by A. H. Moore (Proc. 
Amer. Acad. 42: 528. 1907) to Spilanthes urens Jacq. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XV 




/ b 

BIDENS CTENOPHYLLA Sherff 












c 



THE GENUS BIDENS 113 

X5.57; d, interior involucral bract, X5.57; e, ray corolla, X2.79; /, 
palea, X5.57; g, disc floret, X5.57; h, achene, X5.57; all from type. 

31. Bidens Asplenioides Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 101 and pi. 12, 
figs. a-f. 1920. PI. XIX, figs. a-f. 

Supra herbacea, infra verisimiliter suffruticosa, glabra, ramosa, 
caule subtetragona, 4 dm. alta. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus 
3-7 cm. longis, petiolo adjecta 6-16 cm. longa, submembranacea, 
pinnata vel ternata, foliolis lanceolatis vel anguste ovato-lanceolatis, 
crenatis, non ciliatis, terminali ad apicem longe acuminate et 6-8 cm. 
longo, lateralibus ad apicem acutis vel subobtusis et dimidio breviori- 
bus. Capitula multa, radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 1.5-2 cm. 
lata et 6-8 mm. alta, pedunculata pedunculis tenuibus 1-6 cm. 
longis. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 5, lineari-spathulatae, 
demum reflexae, glabratae, circ. 2 mm. longae; interiores lanceolatae, 
dimidio longiores. Flores ligulati (mancos tantum vidi) flavi, circ. 
8-10 mm. longi. Achaenia (manca vidi) linearia, exalata, supra 
glabrata vel sparsim setosa, apice nuda vel biaristata, corpore veri- 
similiter 5-7 mm. longa. 

Type specimen: Collected by JohnF. G. Stokes, at Kaali, Island 
of Niihau, Hawaiian Islands, January, 1912 (Bish.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality on Island of Niihau, 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: J. F. G. Stokes, Kaali, etc. (type, Bish.). 

The elongate, crenate terminal leaflets offer a curious superficial 
resemblance in outline to the leaves or leaflets of some species of 
Asplenium (A. pinnatifidum Nutt., etc.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIX, FIGS, a-f 

Bidens Asplenioides: a, branch, past fruiting, X0.54; b, exterior 
involucral bract, X5.39; c, interior involucral bract, X5.39; d, ovary 
(of ray floret?), X5.39; e, f, fragments of mature achenes, X5.39; 
all from type. 

32. Bidens pulchella (Less.) Schz. Bip. Flora 39: 362. 1856; 

cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 85: 25 and pi. 2, figs. j-p. 1928. 

PL VI, figs. j-p. 

Adenolepis pulchella Less. Linnaea 6: 510 and pi. 6. 1831. 
Campylotheca pulchella (Less.) Hillebr. Fl. Haw. Isls. 211, 212. 1888. 
Coreopsis pulchella (Less.) Drake del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. 
210. 1890. 



114 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Herba parva, annua, erecta, facie Heterospermi vel Chrysanthelli; 
caule acute angulato, subglabrato vel apice hispidiusculo-puberulo, 
infra simplici supra non valde ramoso, 1.2 dm. alto. Folia petiolata 
petiolis 2-6 mm. longis, petiolo adjecto tantum 1.5-2.2 cm. longa, 
membranacea, ciliata, faciebus fere glabra, primaria bipinnata, f oliolis 
lateralibus 2 jugis, segmentis Ipnge cuneatis obtusis saepe trilobatis. 
Capitula terminalia, parva, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 5 mm. lata 
et circ. 4 mm. alta, disco 5-10-floro. Involucrum cylindraceum, 
bracteis extus hirsutiusculis; exterioribus 4-6, linearibus, ciliatis, 
patentibus, apice obtusis vel abrupte subapiculatis et in sicco atris, 
1.5-3 mm. longis; interioribus lineari-lanceolatis, quam exterioribus 
saltern dimidio longioribus. Flores ligulati circ. 4 vel 5, lutei, emargi- 
nati, ligula rotundo-elliptici, quam flores tubulosi paulo breviores. 
Achaenia lineari-oblonga, atra, dorso convexa, ventre plana, navicu- 
laeformia, superne subsubito inferne sensim angustata, exaristata, 
faciebus 3-costata, erecto-ciliata, dorso apicem versus ventre omnino 
erecto-setosa, circ. vel fere 3 mm. longa et 0.9 mm. lata. 

Type specimen: Collected by Adelbert Von Chamisso, Island of 
Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, 1816. 1 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Island of Oahu, 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Von Chamisso, Oahu, 1816 (Berl.). 

Asa Gray (Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 128. 1861) suspected this species 
of being merely the awnless state of Bidens sandvicensis Less. An ex- 
amination of Lessing's type material of the two species shows them 
to be widely distinct. In fact, no other Hawaiian species combines 
the dwarf habit, delicate bipinnate foliage, minute, terminal, shortly 
pedunculate heads and small, exaristate achenes of B. pulchella. It is 
not improbable that this is one of the doubtless numerous species 
which have become extinct on the islands of the Hawaiian group 
during the past century, since the coming of civilization and the 
application of more intensive methods to the local agriculture and 
grazing. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI, FIGS, j-p 

Bidens pulchella: j, entire plant, X0.68; k, exterior involucral 
bract, X5.44; I, interior involucral bract, X5.44; m, ray corolla, 
X5.44; n, palea, X5.44; o, disc floret, X5.44; p, achene, X5.44; all 
from type. 

1 No herbarium was cited for the type. A good specimen (the subject of my 
plate) is preserved, however, in Berlin and may safely be taken as a type of the 
species. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XVI 




BIDENS CTENOPHYLLA Sherff 



OF TRt 
UNIVERSITY OF 1UIMOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 115 

33. Bidens uapensis (F. Brown) Sherff, comb. nov. 

Campylotheca uapensis F. Brown, Fl. S. E. Polynesia 3 (Bishop Mus. 
Bull. No. 130) : 358 and fig. 65. 1935. 

Fruticosa forsitan subarborescens, altitudine ignota, subglabra. 
Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis interdum sparso-ciliatis basi con- 
natis 2-4 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 6-10 cm. longa et 2-4 cm. lata, 
membranacea, cordata, apice acuminato-acuta, basi rotundata vel 
cordata, serrata (dentibus circ. 5 vel 6 per 1 cm.), subtus secundum 
rhachidis basim squarrose caespitoseque hispida. Capitula subsoli- 
taria pedunculis ramos terminantibus tenuibus 5 cm. longis folia 
non superantibus, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2.5 cm. lata et circ. 
6-7 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores 6-9, oblonge vel subrhom- 
boide lineari-lanceolatae, manifeste 3-nervatae, inferne saepe ciliatae 
aliter subglabrae, apice obtusae vel acutae, circ. 5-6 mm. longae; 
interiores paulo longiores, subsparsim minutissimeque pubescentes. 
Flores ligulati numerosiori (14 fide Brownii), flavi, ligula oblongo- 
oblanceolati, apice plus minusve denticulati, 1.3 cm. longi et circ. 
3-4 mm. lati. Paleae lineares, 5-7 mm. longae. Achaenia (fide 
Brownii) oblonge linearia, exaristata, marginibus apiceque longo- 
ciliata, saltern 4-5 mm. longa et 0.5 mm. lata. 

Type specimen: Collected by E. H. Quayle, No. 1149, at altitude 
of 810 meters, Mt. Tekahoipu, Island of Uapou, Marquesas Islands, 
September 9, 1922 (Bish.). 

Distribution: Island of Uapou, Marquesas Islands. 

Specimens examined : E. H. Quayle 1066, alt. 1,500 meters, Uapou, 
September 7, 1922 (Bish.); idem 1149 (type, Bish.). 

34. Bidens Populifolia Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 86: 438 and pi. 16. 1928. 

PL XX. 

Herba e radice (ut videtur) annua, usque ad 8 dm. alta, glabra; 
caule tetragono, subsimplici vel etiam valde ramoso, non robusto. 
Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus nunc 1.5-6 cm. nunc 6-10 cm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto usque ad 2 dm. longa, membranacea, palli- 
diora, vix ciliata, serrata dentibus rotundatis obtuseque calloso- 
apiculatis, plerumque indivisa, circumambitu ovato-cordata vel 
deltoideo-cordata, basi saepe tantum subcordata vel etiam truncata 
obliquave, apice nunc subobtusa nunc acuta vel rarius plus minusve 
subacuminata; rariter (et plus minusve irregulariter) pauca 2-3- 
partita, foliolo terminali late rhomboideo-lanceolato vel ovato- 
lanceolato vel rotundato, lateralibus obliquis et rhomboideo-ovatis. 
Capitula non numerosa, in inflorescentia corymbiformi disposita, 



116 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

radiata, pedicellata pedicellis tenuibus usque ad 5 cm. longis, pansa 
ad anthesin circ. 3 cm. lata et 7-9 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae 
valde dissimiles, exteriores 5-7, patenti-reflexae, glabrae, nunc late 
oblongo-lineares nunc spathulato-obovatae apice obtusae vel rotun- 
datae, 1.5-3.5 mm. longae; interiores lanceolatae, apicem versus 
minute pubescentes, 5-6.5 mm. longae. Flores ligulati 6-8 (rariter 
tantum 5), flavidi, ligula oblongo-lineares vel oblanceolati, apice 
plerumque 3-dentati, 1.2-1.5 cm. longi. Achaenia anguste linearia, 
recta, exalata, subnigra, obcompressa, unica facie obsolete circ. 
8-striata, margine sparsim erecteque ciliata, corpore 7-12 mm. longa 
et 0.8-1.1 mm. lata et paleas apice rufescentes paulo demum saepe 
excedentia, apice plerumque biaristata; aristis tenuibus, supra retror- 
sum infra antrorsum hamosis, usque ad 1 mm. longis. 

Type specimen : Collected by Otto Degener, Ross S. Bean, D. Le Roy 
Topping, and Anthony Apo, No. 2514, growing with Pandanus and 
stunted Metrosideros, grassy slope back of small Hawaiian church 
on east side of Kahana Valley, Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, 
February 12, 1928 (Field, 4 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality on Island of Oahu, 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: R. S. Bean, Oahu, April 12, 1931 (Field; 
Kew); idem 2322, sunny, rocky ridge, foot of left ridge of Kahana 
Valley, January 1, 1928 (Field; Kew); William Bush & D.L. Topping 
26, alt. 540 meters, wet slope, Kahana Valley Slope, June 9, 1929 
(Field; Gray; U.S.); Degener, Bean, Topping, & Apo 2514 (type, 
Field, 4 sheets: cotypes, Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; 
Mus. V., etc.); Degener, Park, Bush, Nitta, & Westgate 4114, dry, 
grassy cliffs, about 3 miles up Kaipapau Valley, March 27, 1932 
(Berl.; Brit.; Field; Gray; Kew); Degener, Park, Iwasaki, & Yama- 
moto 4259, alt. 240 meters, among grasses and shrubs on lateral ridge, 
northern slope of Kahana Valley, November 6, 1932 (Berl.; Brit.; 
Calif.; Del.; Field; Goth.; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; Mus. V.; N.Y.; 
Par.; Phila.; U.S.; U.V.). 

This species is characterized by the very distinct Populus aspect 
of its foliage, the resemblance to the foliage of P. deltoides Marsh., 
for example, being at times very striking. Hillebrand (Fl. Haw. 
Isls. 215. 1888) appears not to have known this plant. Under Campy- 
lotheca macrocarpa he lists the (to B. Populifolia) faintly similar var. 
ovatifolia, transferred by him from varietal rank under Bidens sand- 
vicensis Less., where Asa Gray had originally placed it. He then gives 
a detailed description of mature plants, a description which could 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XVII 




BIDENS MACROCARPA (Gray) Sherff (figs, a-t) 
BIDENS MAGNIDISCA Dcg. & Sherff ex Sherff (figs, j-l) 



' 



s 









THE GENUS BIDENS 117 

not have come from the single, very immature type of the var. ovati- 
folia (U.S.). The true var. ovatifolia, recently placed (Bot. Gaz. 
85: 7. 1928) under Bidens macrocarpa, has sharply serrate leaves, 
while B. Populifolia has round and obtuse teeth. It is clear from 
Hillebrand's text that, the synonym var. ovatifolia Gray being ex- 
cluded, his treatment applied to the herbaceous forms of Bidens 
asymmetrica (LeVl.) Sherff, found upon the Island of Oahu. In fact, 
we may note that one able student of the Hawaiian flora, Joseph 
Rock, had labeled a cotype specimen of B. asymmetrica (Faurie 960, 
Par.) with the equation: "Coreopsis macrocarpa Hbd. var. 0. Hbd. 
Lipochaeta asymmetrica LeVl. (teste) Rock" (the latter name being 
a synonym for Bidens asymmetrica). A consideration of these her- 
baceous forms of B. asymmetrica (" . . . Achenes . . . often spirally 
twisted . . . "), however, shows that they too have little in common 
with the species here under discussion. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XX 

Bidens Populifolia: a, main portion of younger plant, flowering 
and fruiting, X0.55; 6, leaf from lower part of same, X0.55; c, exte- 
rior involucral bract, X3.32; d, interior involucral bract, X3.32; e, 
ligulate floret, Xl.66; /, palea, X3.32; g, disc floret, X3.32; h, i, 
achenes, X3.32; all from cotype material in Hb. Boiss. 

35. Bidens Skottsbergii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 91: 311. 1931. PL XXI. 

Flores ligulati 1.7-2 cm. longi et 6-8 mm. lati. 

B. Skottsbergii sensu stricto. 
Flores ligulati 1-1.4 cm. longi et 3-4.5 mm. lati. 

var. /3. conglutinata. 

Frutex glaberrimus, verisimiliter 1 m. altus, ramosus. Folia 
tenuiter petiolata petiolis circ. 1-3 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 8-13 
cm. longa, pallidiora, forsitan semper membranacea, indivisa, 
oblongo-ovata, subgrosseserrata (unico latere saepius 12-18-serrata), 
apice subobtusa, basi late cuneata, principalia 3.5-5 cm. lata. Capi- 
tula pauca, laxe paniculata, pedunculata pedunculo subtenui usque 
ad 9 cm. longo, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 3-4 cm. lata et 9-12 mm. 
alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 8-10, glaberrimae, nunc late 
lineari-oblongae nunc oblongo-spathulatae, apice obtusae, demum 
saepe patentes, 4-6 mm. longae; interiores oblongo-lanceolatae paulo 
longiores, apice pubescentes. Flores ligulati circ. 8, flavi, ligula 
nunc oblongi nunc obovati, apice truncate 2-5-dentati et saepe 
subprofunde scissi, 1.7-2 cm. longi et 6-8 mm. lati. Achaenia 
nigra, plana, lineari-oblonga, utraque facie plus minusve 8-striata, 



118 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

corpore glabro 8-10.5 mm. longa et circ. 1.35 mm. lata, lateribus 
marginata sed non vere alata, apice ipso biaristata (aliter glabra); 
aristis subvalidis, stramineis brunneisve, retrorsum multihamosis, 
1.5-2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen : Collected by Carl Johan Fredrik Skottsberg, No. 
2092, near Puna Road, south of Hilo, Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian 
Islands, September 30, 1926 (Goth.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality on Island of Hawaii, 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Yoshimasa Nitta (0. Degener distrib. No.) 
4126, cult, for tea in Kapoho, from seed collected at Kamailii (near 
Kauleau), Puna, December 15, 1931 (Field); idem (0. Degener 
distrib. No.) 4127, on "aa" lava, near English public school, Kapoho, 
eodem tempore (Field) ; idem 4215, on "aa" lava, along railroad track 
23 miles from Hilo toward Kapoho, eodem tempore (Field) ; Skotts- 
berg 2092 (type, Goth.); H. St. John, R. S. Bean, & E. Y. Hosaka 
11239, plant 4 ft. tall, alt. 60 meters, in open woods, 1 mile north of 
Kaimu, December 21, 1931 (Bish.; Field). 

Stands next to Bidens Populifolia (of the Island of Oahu), from 
which it differs in its oblong-ovate, basally wide-cuneate leaf blades, 
and its broader and more oblong achenes, these lacking erect apical 
setae between the aristae and having the aristae more densely and 
regularly retrorse-hamose. 

Bidens Skottsbergii var. /3. conglutinata (Deg. & Sherff) Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 92: 206. 1931. 

Bidens hawaiensis var. conglutinata Deg. & Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 89: 364. 

1930; cf. Degener, Ferns Flow. PI. Hawaii Nat. Park 300 

and pi. 89. 1930. 

A specie floribus ligulatis minoribus (tantum circ. 1-1.4 cm. longis 
et 3-4.5 mm. latis), foliis plerumque coriaceo-rugosis differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by Antone Borges, No. 3798, on dry 
lava flow of 1840, southeast of Pahoa, easternmost part of Island of 
Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands, November 18, 1929 (Field, 2 sheets). 

Distribution : Known only from type locality on Island of Hawaii, 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined : Borges 3798 (type, Field, 2 sheets: cotypes, 
Berl. ; Gray; Kew) ; Otto Degener & Yasuma Iwasaki 3819, being eaten 
by cattle, on arid, sunny "aa" lava of the 1788 flow, between Pahoa 
and Kalapana, February 7, 1930 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Calif.; Field, 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XVIII 




BIDENS MICRANTHOID'ES sherff 



THE GENUS BIDENS 119 

2 sheets; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; N.Y.; Par.; U.S.); Otto Degener 
& Henry Wiebke 2165, west slope of Polulu Valley, August 11, 1926 
(Field); William Hillebrand, Hawaii (Kew). 
Perhaps passing into the species proper. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXI 

Bidens Skottsbergii: a, flowering and fruiting spray, X0.55; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X3.29; c, interior involucral bract, X3.29; 
d, ray floret, X2.2; e, palea, X3.29; /, disc floret, X4.39; g, achene, 
X3.29; all from type. 

36. Bidens obtusiloba Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 88: 289 and pi. 20. 1929. 

PL XXII. 

Frutex glaber, 6 dm. altus, ramosus; ramis quadrangulatis, 
internodiis inferioribus quam foliis plerumque multo brevioribus. 
Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis usque ad 3.5 cm. longis, petiolo 
adjecto usque ad 8 cm. longa, bipinnati- (plerumque biternati-) secta, 
segmentis primariis circumambitu oblongo-ovatis vel saepe deltoideis, 
membranaceis, obsolete ciliatis, 1.5-3.5 cm. longis et paulo angustiori- 
bus, lateralibus breviter petiolulatis, omnibus in lobos vel dentes 
obtusos atque apice minute cuspidatos rursus dissectis. Capitula non 
numerosa, plus minusve corymbosa, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 
1-1.5 cm. lata et 5-7 mm. alta, tenuiter pedicellata pedicellis usque 
ad 1.8 cm. longis. Involucri nunc glabri nunc basi pubescentis 
bracteae exteriores 4 vel 5, lineares, apice subacutae, circ. 2 mm. 
longae, quam interiores lanceolatae dimidio breviores. Flores ligulati 
circ. 4 vel 5, flavidi, 5 mm. longi, anguste obovati, apice 2- vel 
3-dentati. Achaenia linearia, recta vel subrecta, atro-brunnea, valde 
obcompressa, unica facie circ. 8-striata, duabus faciebus non nisi 
summam versus setosa, marginibus erecto-setosa, apice exaristata 
sed erecto-hispida, corpore 6-7.5 mm. longa et circ. 1 mm. lata. 

Type specimen : Collected by D. Le Roy Topping, No. 2941, Niu 
Ridge, Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, November 30, 1924 
(Calif.). 

Distribution : Known only from type locality on Island of Oahu, 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Topping 2941 (type, Calif.); idem 3354a, a 
single specimen growing with many Bidens sandvicensis plants, dry, 
open ridge, Niu Ridge, March 2, 1930 (Field); Degener, Park, & 
Nitta 4162, a single plant growing with No. 4161 (B. sandvicensis), 
near base on western side of middle ridge of Niu Valley, June 4, 
1932 (Field; Kew). 



120 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Nearest apparently to Bidens pukhella (Less.) Schz. Bip., the 
type of which is a complete plant but only about 12 cm. tall, having 
the several principal leaves tripinnatisect with narrower segments 
than in B. obtusiloba and the achenes distinctly clavate and only 
about 3 mm. long. A study of B. obtusiloba in its juvenile stages is 
much to be desired. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXII 

Bidens obtusiloba: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.69; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X6.9; c, interior involucral bract, X6.9; 
d, ray floret, X6.9; e, palea, X6.9; /, disc floret, X6.9; g, achene, 
X6.9; all from type. 

37. Bidens sandvicensis Less. Linnaea 6: 508. 1831; descript. 
amplific. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 161. 1923. PI. XXIII, figs. a-h. 

Bidens mutica Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. ser. 2, 7: 368. 1834. 
Campylotheca mutica (Nutt.) Walp. Repert. 2: 618. 1843. 
Campylotheca sandvicensis (Less.) Hillebr. Fl. Haw. Isls. 211, 214. 

1888. 

Campylotheca macrocarpa var. 7. Hillebr. op. cit. 215. 
Coreopsis sandwicensis Benth. & Hook, ex Drake del Castillo, 111. 

Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. 210. 1890. 

Bidens sandvicensis var. typica Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 88: 296. 1929. 

a. Folia principalia plerumque bipinnatisecta vel (saepe ternatim) 
bipinnata var. a. typica f. 1. compositior. 

a. Folia principalia plerumque pinnata. 

6. Achaenia faciebus omnino perspicue setosa, marginum setis 

longis et valde patentibus var. /3. setosa. 

b. Achaenia faciebus glabra vel apicem versus sparsissime erecto- 

setosa, marginibus moderate erecto-setosa, apice aristata vel 

(etiam primo) exaristata. 

c. Foliorum segmenta plerumque tantum 3-6 mm. lata. 

var. 7. imminuta. 

c. Foliorum segmenta plerumque 6-15 mm. lata. 

B. sandvicensis sensu stricto. 

Caulis herbaceus, erectus, quadrangulatus, sulcato-striatus, 
glaber. Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis usque ad 4 cm. longis, petiolo 
adjecto 3-12 cm. longa, pinnatim 3-5-partita; foliolis ovatis vel 
saepius ovato-lanceolatis, acuminatis, serratis, glabris, membranaceis, 
subtus pallidioribus, lateralibus plerumque manifeste petiolulatis 1-4 



THE GENUS BIDENS 121 

cm. longis et 5-12 mm. latis (inferioribus rarissime rursus 3-5-par- 
titis), terminal! longiore. Capitula radiata, pansa ad anthesin 11-14 
mm. lata et 4-6 mm. alta, in paniculis corymboideis trichotomis sub- 
fastigiatis disposita, ramis rigidis folia sua longe excedentibus. 
Involucri bracteae exteriores 4-6, lineares, glabratae, obtuse acriterve 
calloso-apiculatae, 2-5 mm. longae, interiores lanceolatae longiores. 
Flores ligulati circ. 5, lutei, ligula moderate vel late elliptico-oblongi, 
apice denticulati, 6-8 mm. longi. Achaenia linearia, obcompressa, 
exalata, parce curvata, non perspicue attenuata, atra, faciebus glabra 
vel apicem versus sparsissime erecto-setosa et circ. 4-sulcata, mar- 
ginibus erecto-setosa, corpore 6-9 mm. longa et 0.5-0.8 mm. lata, 
apice nunc biaristata aristis retrorsum et solum apice hamosis circ. 
1 mm. longis, nunc subaristata vel etiam exaristata sed setis erectis 
coronata. 

Type specimen: Collected by Adelbert Von Chamisso, Island of 
Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, in 1816 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Islands of Kauai, Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii, Hawai- 
ian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Otto Degener 2095, dry, sunny slope, Mt. 
Tantalus, Honolulu, Oahu, December 2, 1922 (Field, 2 sheets); 
idem 2672, wind-swept, exposed ridge, northeast slope of Nuuanu 
Pali, Oahu, February 6, 1928 (Berl.; Brit.; Field, 2 sheets; N.Y.); 
idem 2673, moist, shrubby slope, Upper Pauoa Flats, Oahu, February 
25, 1928 (Berl.; Brit.; Field; Kew; N.Y.; forma); idem 2677a, sunny 
slopes from Woodlawn along east rim of Manoa Valley toward Mt. 
Olympus, Oahu, February 28, 1928 (Field, 2 sheets; N.Y.); idem & 
Kazuto Nitta 3410, alt. 450 meters, moderately dry slope, east rim of 
Manoa Valley (1 mile mauka of University), Oahu, January 13, 1929 
(Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Field, 2 sheets; Kew; Mun.; N.Y.); iidem 3411, 
open slope, eodem loco et tempore (Berl.; Boiss.; Field, 2 sheets; 
Kew; Mun.; N.Y.; U.S.); iidem 3412, very much wind-swept, 
sparingly wooded slope, rim of Manoa Valley (1.5 mile mauka of 
University), January 13, 1929 (Berl.; Field; Kew; N.Y.); Otto 
Degener & K. K. Park 4085, alt. 330 meters, dry, exposed, grassy 
slope on elevation on Wilhelmina Rise Ridge, Oahu, November 11, 
1931 (Field; Gray); iidem 4087, eodem loco et tempore (Berl.; Brit.; 
Field; Gray; Kew; U.S.); iidem 4088, dry, shady, grassy slope, 
eodem loco et tempore (Berl.; Brit.; Field; Gray; Mo.); iidem 4089, 
eodem loco et tempore (Berl.; Brit.; Calif.; Field, pro parte, aliter 
var. typica f. compositior; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Par.; U.S.); iidem & 
Y. Nitta 4161, open forest on western side of middle ridge of Niu 



122 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Valley, Oahu, June 4, 1932 (Berl.; Calif.; Field; Gray; Kew; Mo.; 
Mun.; N.Y.; U.V.); Degener, Hamilton Rodrigues, & Noel Krauss 
3530, very wet, wooded slope, cliffs below and east of Nuuanu Pali, 
Oahu, January 20, 1929 (Berl.; Brit.; Field; Kew; N.Y.); Degener, 
Takamoto, & Martinez 10536, rare, on grass- and weed-covered slope, 
talus southwest of Waimanalo Landing, Oahu, April 10, 1936 (Field) ; 
Degener, Topping, & Shigeura 10067, open, wooded slope, Manoa Cliff 
Trail, Oahu, November 20, 1935 (Field) ; Degener & Henry Wiebke 
2601, exposed slope northeast of Nuuanu Valley, Oahu, November 20, 
1926 (Field; N.Y.); iidem 2671, on way from Manoa Valley up to 
Mt. Olympus, Oahu, January 9, 1927 (Field; N.Y.); F. R. Fosberg 
9288, alt. 440 meters, dry forest, Manoa-Palolo Ridge, Oahu, March 
19, 1933 (Field); idem 9298, alt. 340 meters, dry slope, ridge above 
Woodlawn, Manoa, Oahu, March 19, 1933 (Field) ; idem 10743, suffru- 
tescent herb, 0.5 meters tall, alt. 400 meters, steep open slope, lower 
slopes of Puu Konahuanui above Nuuanu Pali Road, Kailua, Oahu, 
January 5, 1935 (Field) ; idem 10736, suffrutescent herb 1 meter tall, 
alt. 400 meters, lower slopes of Puu Konahuanui above Nuuanu Pali 
Road, Kailua, Oahu, January 5, 1935 (Field) ; Gaudichaud, Hawaiian 
Isls. (Berl., 2 sheets); idem (Voy. la Bonite), eodem loco, October, 
1836 (Del., 2 sheets); idem (Voy. la Bonite) 220 pro parte et 221 pro 
parte, eodem loco, September-October, 1836 (Par.); A. A. Heller 
2894, Nuuanu Pali, Oahu, October 29, 1895 (Calif.; Field; Mo.; 
N.Y.; U.S.); William Hillebrand, Oahu (Berl., 2 sheets; Brit.; 
Kew) ; l idem 42, Maui (Kew) ; idem (similiter) 42, Kokolau, Hawaii 
(Kew) ; Kastalsky, Oahu (Oxf.) ; (Mann & Brigham 428, once referred 
to B. sandvicensis, is B. conjuncta;) iidem 541, alt. 600-900 meters, 
Waimea, Kauai (Bish.; Boiss.; Brit.; Corn.; Mo.); Thomas Nuttall, 
in fields, Oahu (type of Bidens mutica Nutt.; Brit.); K. K. Park & 
D. L. Topping (Degener distrib. No.) 10074, grassy slope, Kuliouou 
Valley, Oahu, June 23, 1935 (Field); J. Remy279, Oahu, 1851-1855 
(Par.); idem 283, Oahu, 1851-1855 (Gray, 2 sheets; Par.); Seemann 
2268, Oahu, 1850 (Kew) ; Harold St. John 12983, herbs 2-3 ft. tall, 
alt. 360 meters, lower woods, Manoa-Palolo Ridge, Oahu, March 26, 
1933 (Bish.; Field); idem&F. R. Fosberg 13454 et 13459, bush 2 ft. 
tall, alt. 330 meters, dry, open ridge, Hoary Head Range, Laaukahi, 

1 The sheet at British Museum of Natural History was labeled "Campylotheca 
macrocarpa Gray y. var. Hab. Niu, Makaleha, Oahu." It is clearly an original 
specimen of Hillebrand's var. y. (Fl. Haw. Isls. 215. 1888). Unfortunately the upper 
half of the sheet had been cut away and was missing, so that a specimen only from 
Niu or only from Makaleha was seen by me. In Berlin, the Niu sheet is labeled C. 
macrocarpa var. y., while the Makaleha sheet, though bearing identical material, 
is labeled C. macrocarpa. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI. Plate XIX 




BIDENS ASPLENIOIDES Sherff (figs, a /) 
BIDENS STOKESII Sherff (figs, g-o) 



THE GENUS BIDENS 123 

Koloa, Kauai, December 22, 1933 (Field); iidem 13465, alt. 270 
meters, eodem loco et tempore (Bish.; Field); Swezey (Degener 
distrib. No.) 4205, barren ridge, Milolii, Kauai, July 2, 1932 (Berl.; 
Field; Gray; Kew; B. micranthae var. caducae adpropinquans) ; idem 
(Degener distrib. No.) 4206 pro parte, Kokee region, Kauai, July, 
1932 (Field; Kew; forma var. imminutae adpropinquans); D. L. 
Topping 3354 p.p., growing 0.5-3 ft. high, alt. 300-600 meters, dry, 
open ridge, Niu Ridge, Oahu, March 2, 1930 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; 
Field, 3 sheets; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; Par.; U.S.; pro parte forma 
compositior Deg. & Sherff, q.v.) ; idem 3763, shrubby hillside, Kuli- 
ouou, Oahu, August 5, 1934 (Field). 

For many years (cf. Sherff, loc. cit.) writers have confused 
various other Hawaiian species of Bidens with B. sandvicensis Less. 
Space permits only the more important of such errors to be noticed 
here. In 1836, DeCandolle (Prodr. 5: 598) equated B. sandvicensis 
Less. withB. peduncularis Gaud. In 1856, Miquel (Fl. Ned. 2: 78) 
likewise equated these two species. In the Berlin Herbarium are 
certain Sandwich (Hawaiian) Island specimens sent by Gaudichaud 
as B. peduncularis, and these specimens are close to B. sandvicensis, 
but the original description of B. peduncularis was published by 
Gaudichaud from material collected at Rawak of the far distant 
Molucca Islands, and which in no way could be mistaken for B. 
sandvicensis. 1 In 1861, Gray (Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 127-128) gave an 
extended discussion of B. sandvicensis, referring to it B. mutica Nutt., 
B. gracilis Nutt., B. pulchella (Less.) Schz. Bip. (Adenolepis pul- 
chella Less.), etc. The type of B. mutica (Brit.) matches Lessing's 
type of B. sandvicensis (Berl.) very well. 2 B. gracilis, however, is an 
entirely different species (cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 105. 1920). B. 

1 The Paris specimen (Par.) of Gaudichaud's is a mere fragment, but is probably 
from his type material. It matches his description perfectly. It is trueB. biternata 
(Lour.) Merr. & Sherff. So also is the authentic fragment of Gaudichaud's plant 
found in the Prodromus Herbarium (Del.). Singularly, Miquel (loc. cit.) equated 
B. peduncularis with B. biternata (B. chinensis), an equation erroneously rejected 
fcy O. E. Schulz (Bot. Jahrb. 50, Suppl.: 179. 1914). Gaudichaud's Paris specimen 
is labeled as coming from the Sandwich Islands (voyage of the corvette Uranie, 
one of the two vessels used by Freycinet), butB. biternata is not known to occur in 
that part of the world, and the specimen may well have come from Rawak as 
stated by him when he published the original description. The fragment in the 
Prodromus Herbarium is indeed labeled as coming from Rawak. 

2 The type of B. mutica is very distinct from Bidens macrocarpa (Coreopsis 
macrocarpa Gray), to which B. mutica was wrongly referred by Hillebrand (Fl. 
Haw. Isls. 214. 1888) and by Drake del Castillo (111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. 209. 
1890). 

We may note also that Hillebrand's var. 7. of Campylotheca macrocarpa Gray 
was, likewise, not Bidens macrocarpa at all but, as seen from authentic specimens in 
Berlin (Berl.) and London (Brit.), purely B. sandvicensis Less. 



124 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

pukhella is represented by a single small type specimen in Berlin, 
and is so different in technical characters that by no stretch of the 
imagination could it be equated with B. sandvicensis. Gray (loc. cit.) 
suspected B. angustifolia Nutt. of belonging to B. sandvicensis, and 
Drake del Castillo (loc. cit.), evidently with Gray's treatment at 
hand, definitely equated the two species. A study of Nuttall's type 
(Brit.) shows a plant with more dissected foliage and more slender- 
awned achenes (B. micranthoides Sherff). 

Depauperate specimens approach B. graciloides. 

Bidens sandvicensis var. a. typica f. 1. compositior Deg. & Sherff 
ex Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 88: 296. 1929. 

A var. typica foliis principalibus bipinnatisectis vel (saepe ter- 
natim) bipinnatis differt. Achaenia biaristata aristis usque ad 1 mm. 
longis vel demum (vel etiam primum) calvis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Otto Degener and Kazuto Nitta, 
No. 3411a, on moderately dry, open slope at altitude of 450 meters, 
east rim of Manoa Valley, one mile mauka of the University, Island 
of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, January 13, 1929 (Field). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality on Island of Oahu, 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Degener & Nitta 341 la (type, Field); iidem 
3412a, much wind-swept, sparingly wooded slope, alt. 600 meters, 
east rim of Manoa Valley, 1.5 mile mauka of the University, January 
13, 1929 (Field) ; Degener & Park 4086, on dry, sunny, windy, grassy 
slope, alt. 330 meters, elevation on Wilhelmina Rise Ridge, November 
11, 1931 (Field; Gray); iidem 4090, eodem loco et tempore (Field; 
Gray); cf. etiam Topping 3354 sub specie ipsa (speciminibus pro 
parte parva hoc aequantibus). 

The appearance of an entire plant is rendered strikingly unique 
by the increased dissection of the leaves. In the case of each number 
cited, however, the plant had been found growing near plants of the 
variety typica. In the case of No. 3412a, furthermore, a small shoot 
attached to one of the branches bears ordinary pinnate leaves such as 
characterize var. typica proper. 

Bidens sandvicensis var. /S. setosa Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 85: 6. 1928. 
PI. XXXIII, figs. a-l. 

Bidens setosa Sherff, op. cit. 70: 103. 1920. 

A specie differt achaeniorum faciebus omnino perspicue setosa, 
marginum setis longioribus et patentioribus. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XX 




h A 

BIDENS POPULIFOLIA Sheril 



OF Ttft 

OF ILLINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 125 

Type specimen: Collected by Charles Noyes Forbes, No. S11K, in 
Waimea Drainage Basin, west side, Island of Kauai, Hawaiian 
Islands, July 3-August 18, 1917 (Bish., 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Islands of Kauai and Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Urbain Faurie 961, Holokele, Hawaii, 
March, 1910 (Brit.; Del.); Forbes 8UK (2 type sheets, Bish.: cotype, 
Field). 

The type material of B. setosa, from the Island of Kauai, was a 
slightly monstrous or pathological form, as to vegetative parts, and 
did not match any known species. The singularly hairy achenes 
were unique and were relied upon as indicating a distinct species. 
More recently, however, I found in the Delessert Herbarium a speci- 
men from another collection, Faurie 961, from the somewhat remote 
Island of Hawaii. This lacked all traces of any pathological condi- 
tion. Its floral and achenial characters matched those of the type 
precisely, but the foliage and growth habit were those of normal B. 
sandvicensis Less. 1 I concluded, therefore, that a varietal rank under 
B. sandvicensis was more nearly expressive of the true status of the 
setosa forms. 

Bidens sandvicensis var. 7. imminuta Deg. & Sherff ex Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 93: 217. 1932. 

Planta 1 m. alta, multo ramosa ramis gracillimis. Folia pin- 
natim 5-partita, foliolis infimis terminalibusque saepe 3-partitis, 
foliolis indivisis vel foliolorum divisorum segmentis plerumque 
lineari-lanceolatis saepius tantum 3-6 mm. latis et tantum 1-2.5 cm. 
longis. Achaenia marginaliter basim versus atque apicem versus 
moderate erecto-setosa, saepe 1-2-aristata aristis retrorsum hamosis 
usque ad 1 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Otto Degener, K. K. Park, & M. 
Kwon, No. 4092, at altitude of 300 meters, on grassy, shrubby plateau, 
narrow middle Waialae Ridge, Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, 
November 14, 1931 (Field, 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality on Island of Oahu, 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined : Degener, Park, & Kwon 4092 (2 type sheets, 
Field: cotypes, Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Par.; U.S.). 

A single large plant observed in the field by the collectors yielded 
upwards of a dozen sheets of herbarium specimens. The general 

1 The achenes were mostly exaristate or shortly aristate. The duplicate in the 
British Museum of Natural History, however, had the achenes mostly very dis- 
tinctly biaristate with aristae retrorsely barbed and about 1 mm. long. 



126 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

aspect of a flowering branch is suggestive of Bidens micranthoides, a 
species which grows only about 2-5 dm. high. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIII, FIGS. 0,-h 

Bidens sandvicensis: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.6; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X3.6; c, interior involucral bract, X3.6; 
d, ray corolla, X3.6; e, palea, X3.6;/, disc floret, X3.6; g (aristate), 
h (exaristate), achenes, X3.6; all from type. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIII, FIGS, d-l 

Bidens sandvicensis var. setosa: a, b, c, various cauline leaves, 
X0.58; d, portion of inflorescence, X0.58; e, exterior involucral bract, 
X5.78; /, interior involucral bract, X5.78; g, ray corolla, X5.78; 
h, palea, X5.78; i, disc floret, X5.78; j-l, achenes, X5.78; all from 
1st type sheet. 

38. Bidens conjuncta Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 162. 1923. 
PL XXIV, figs. a-h. 

Caulis ramique herbacei, perspicue quadrangulati, sulcato-striati, 
glabri, 5-8 (vel etiam usque ad 15) dm. alti. Folia tenuiter petiolata 
petiolis plerumque 2-4.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 5-14 cm. longa, 
ternatim vel pinnatim 3-5-partita, foliolis glabris, subtus pallidiori- 
bus, acriter serratis dentibus perspicue apiculatis, ovato-lanceolatis, 
acuminatis, lateralibus non (nisi interdum inferioribus) petiolulatis 
sed sessilibus itaque plerumque conjunctis, quam terminali brevi- 
oribus. Capitula radiata, pansa ad anthesin 1.2-2 cm. lata et 6-8 
mm. alta, in paniculis corymboideis trichotomis disposita, ramis 
rigidis folia sua longe excedentibus. Involucri bracteae exteriores 
circ. 5, lineares, acutae obtusaeve, patentes vel reflexae, glabrae vel 
hispidae, 2-5 vel saepe etiam usque ad 7 mm. longae, interioribus 
lanceolatis plerumque longiores. Flores ligulati circ. 5, lutei, ligula 
elliptico-oblanceolati, apice denticulati, 6-10 mm. longi. Achaenia 
linearia, obcompressa, exalata, plus minusve curvata, parce atten- 
uata, nigrescentia, faciebus glabra et circ. 4-sulcata, marginibus 
glabra vel rarius sparsim erecto-setosa, corpore 10-16.5 mm. longa 
et circ. 1 mm. lata, nunc ad vel infra apicem aristata aristis crassis 
vel tenuibus saepe apicem versus retrorsum hamosis usque ad circ. 
3 mm. longis, nunc subaristata vel etiam exaristata sed saepe setis 
erectis brevibus paucis coronata. 

Type specimen: Collected by Charles Noyes Forbes, No. 468M, 
Honokahau Drainage Basin, Island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands, 
September 25-October 17, 1917 (Bish., 2 sheets). 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXI 




Of 



of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 127 

Distribution: Islands of Oahu and Maui, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Otto Degener & Henry Wiebke 2164, in 
damp scrub near timber line, Mt. Eke, Maui, August 30, 1927 
(Berl.; Field, 3 sheets; Kew; Par.); iidem 2178, in exposed bog and 
light woods, near summit, Mt. Eke, August 29, 1927 (Field, 5 sheets) ; 
C. N. Forbes 468M (type, Bish., 2 sheets); H. Mann & W. T. 
Brigham 428, ridge east of Nuuanu, Oahu (Bish., 2 sheets). 

This species, obtained by the late C. N. Forbes (cf. Sherff, Bot. 
Gaz. 70: 98. 1920), might easily be confused with Bidens sandvicensis 
Less., the general habit of the two being very similar. In fact, as 
remarked in a former paper (Bot. Gaz. 85: 26. 1928), B. conjuncta 
may perhaps prove to be only a variety of B. sandvicensis. B. con- 
juncta, however, appears to be fairly distinct in its usually larger 
leaves with commonly sessile lateral leaflets, its larger and more 
conspicuous external involucral bracts, its longer ray flowers, and 
its larger achenes. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIV, FIGS, a-h 

Bidens conjuncta: a, cauline leaf, X0.41; b, exterior involucral 
bract, X6; c, interior involucral bract, X6; d, ray corolla, X3.6; 
e, palea, X3.6; /, disc floret, X9; g, h, achenes, X3.6; all from 1st 
type specimen. 

39. Bidens Wiebkei Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 86: 435 and pi 14. 1928. 

PI. XXV. 

Erecta, glabra, infra demum fruticosa supra herbacea, usque ad 
circ. 1 m. alta, ramis acriter tetragonis et siccis plus minusve pur- 
purascentibus. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus plerumque 2-4.5 cm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto usque ad 1.3 dm. longa, 3- vel 5-partita, foliolis 
membranaceis, lanceolatis, acriter serratis, imis 5-partitorum saepe 
breviter petiolulatis, terminali moderate acuminato. Capitula 
numerosa in inflorescentia corymboidea, tenuiter pedicellata pedi- 
cellis fere glabris, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 1-2 cm. lata et circ. 
4.5-6 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores 4-6, patentes vel 
suberectae, lineares, apice subobtusae, tergo saepe hispidulae, 2-3 
mm. longae; interiores lanceolatae, plerumque 3^1.5 mm. longae. 
Flores ligulati 4-6, flavidi, ligula oblongi vel late elliptico-oblanceo- 
lati, apice circ. 3-denticulati, 5-9 mm. longi. Achaenia demum 
nigra, valde obcompressa, curvata vel saepius etiam per 1-2.5 con- 
volutiones torta, marginata vel alata marginibus glabris vel sparsis- 
sime erecto-setosis nunc multo infra nunc ad corporis apicem in 
1 vel 2 filiformes remote retrorsumque hamosas usque ad 1.5 mm. 



128 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

longas aristas productis vel saepius non productis, corpore faciebus 
glabro vel sparsim erecto-setoso, nitido, 6-8 mm. longo et 0.9-1.2 
mm. lato. 

Type specimen: Collected by Otto Degener and Henry Wiebke, 
No. 3005, in scrub vegetation, upper part of Halawaiki Gulch, Island 
of Molokai, Hawaiian Islands, June 21, 1928 (Field, 3 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality on Island of Molokai, 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Degener & Wiebke 3005 (type, Field, 3 
sheets: cotypes, Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Mun.; Mus. V.; N.Y.). 

Allied to Bidens sandvicensis Less., a species unknown in its typical 
state except from the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii. 

The species was named for Mr. Henry Wiebke, who, as a student 
under Mr. Otto Degener, aided in collecting native Hawaiian plants 
for taxonomic study. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXV 

Bidens Wiebkei: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.57; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X3.43; c, interior involucral bract, X3.43; 
d, ray floret, X2.86; e, palea, X3.43;/, disc floret, X5.71; g, h, achenes, 
X3.43; all from cotype in Hb. Mus. V. 

40. Bidens f ecunda Deg. & Sherff ex Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 93 : 217. 1932. 
Bidens ferax Deg. & Sherff ex Sherff, op. cit. 94: 590. 1933. 

Fruticosa, erecta, glabra, 1 m. alta, ramis tetragonis. Folia 
petiolata petiolis tenuibus 1-6 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 6-15 cm. 
longa, pinnata; majora 5-partita, foliolis lanceolatis vel ovato- 
lanceolatis, acriter serratis vel paucis undulato-integris, apice acutis 
vel acuminatis, membranaceis, inferioribus tenuiter petiolulatis; 
minora saepius 3-partita foliolis non dissimilibus nisi lateralibus 
saepe sessilibus. Capitula plerumque numerosissima, plus minusve 
paniculato-corymbosa, tenuiter pedicellata pedicellis glabratis, pansa 
ad anthesin 1.5-2 cm. lata et circ. 6-7 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae 
exteriores circ. 5 vel 6, tenuiter lineari-oblongae, sparsim hispidae 
et ciliatae, apice obtusae, circ. 2.5-3 mm. longae, quam interiores 
anguste oblongae apicaliter pubescentes dimidio breviores. Flores 
ligulati 4-6, flavi, ligula elliptico-oblongi vel oblanceolato-obovati, 
apice denticulati vel raro inciso-lobulati, 1-1.3 cm. longi. Paleae 
lineares, superne saepius attenuatae ac demum coloratae, usque 
ad 9 mm. longae, achaeniis maturis multo superatae. Achaenia 
pauca (plerumque 8-12), parce patentia, tenuissime oblongo-linearia, 
valde obcompressa vel interdum tetragona, nigra, faciebus 4-sulcatis 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXII 







BIDENS OBTUSILOBA Sherff 



OF THt 

QF ILLINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 129 

(4 faciebus 2-sulcatis) glabra, marginibus glabra vel sparsim erecto- 
setosa, corpore longiora demum 1-1.3 cm. longa et circ. 0.5-0.7 mm. 
lata, sub apice (rarius ad apicem) plus minusve erecto-setosa saepe 
1-2 (raro 3) -aristata aristis acriter retrorsumque hamosis usque 
ad 1 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Otto Degener, Kwan Kee Park, 
and William Bush, No. 4098, on cliffs and less often on grassy and 
shrubby slopes, deep, precipitous gully on north central side of 
Kahanahaiki Valley, Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, November 
28, 1931 (Field, 4 sheets). 

Distribution: Extreme western part of Island of Oahu, Hawaiian 
Islands. 

Specimens examined: Otto Degener, Keaau Valley, February 7, 
1932 (Berl.; Field, 2 sheets; Goth.; Gray; Kew); idem & Park 4095, 
near dry, partly shaded stream bed, first large side valley on south 
of Makua Valley, September 7, 1931 (Berl.; Field; Kew); iidem & 
William Bush 4096, on dry cliffs and less often on grassy slopes, 
narrow northeast gully in Ohikilolo Valley, November 29, 1931 
(Berl.; Field; Gray; Mo.); iidem 4098 (type, Field, 4 sheets: cotypes, 
Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Calif.; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; Mus. V.; N.Y.; 
Par. ; U.S. ; U.V.) ; iidem 4105, rare on moderately dry, grassy slope, 
south crest of prominent side gully on southeast side of Keawaula 
Valley and directly north of Kahanahaiki Valley, November 28, 1931 
(Field ; Gray) ; Degener, Park, & Kwon 4108, dry, grassy ledges and 
slopes, southern slope of Kahanahaiki Valley, November 1, 1931 
(Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Calif.; Field, 2 sheets; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; 
Mus. V.; N.Y.; Par.); Degener, Park, Nitta, & Westgate 4117, dry, 
grassy slope one-fourth mile from shore on south side of Keaau Valley, 
March 23, 1932 (Berl.; Brit.; Field, 2 sheets; Gray; Kew; Mun.; 
type collection of B. ferax Deg. & Sherff). 

Of the specimens cited here for B. fecunda, we may note Degener 
et al. 4105 in particular. It was found growing within 20 feet of 
B. torta and also of several plants (4102, Field: 4103, Brit.; Field: 
4104, Field; Gray) which were clearly hybrids between the two 
species. These hybrids resemble B. torta in having the achenes 
spirally more or less twisted, although the twisting is much less 
regular than in B. torta. In other respects the resemblance to 
B. fecunda is much stronger. 

41. Bidens coartata Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 86:436. 1928. PI. XXVI. 

Perennis, infra fruticosa, 5 dm. alta, ramosa, caule ramisque 
tetragonis, glabris. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus usque ad 6 cm. 



130 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

longis, petiolo adjecto usque ad 1.5 dm. longa, pinnatim 3 (-5)- 
partita, foliolis ovatis vel lanceolatis, membranaceis, acriter dentibus 
calloso-apiculatis serratis, glabris atque eciliatis, imis saepe ad 
marginem inferiorem plus minusve irregulariter divisis, terminali 
apice breviter acuminate. Capitula subnumerosa et saepe in inflo- 
rescentia densa subcorymboideaque coartata, radiata, pansa ad 
anthesin circ. 1.5 cm. lata et 6-8 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae 
glabrae vel glabratae, exteriores circ. 5-7, lineares, apice subobtusae, 
circ. 3 mm. longae; interiores lanceolatae paulo longiores. Flores 
ligulati plerumque 5, flavidi, ligula late oblanceolato-elliptici, apice 
subintegri, circ. 7-10 mm. longi. Achaenia anguste linearia, nigra, 
exalata, plana, recta vel moderate torta, faciebus glabrata et levi- 
ter paucistriata, marginibus sparsim suberecto-hispida, apice aegre 
spinulosa sed exaristata, corpore 7-10 mm. longa et 0.6-1 mm. 
lata, demum quam paleae manifeste longiora vel saepius breviora. 

Type specimen: Collected by Otto Degener, No. 26776, on sunny 
slopes from Woodlawn along east rim of Manoa Valley toward 
Mt. Olympus, Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, February 28, 1928 
(Field, 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality on Island of Oahu, 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Degener 2676, two-thirds the way up to 
Mt. Olympus by way of Pauoa Flats, February 25, 1928 (Brit.; 
Field; N.Y.); idem 26776 (2 type sheets, Field: cotypes, Berl.; 
Brit.; N.Y.); idem, Hamilton Rodrigues, & Noel Krauss 3529, 
alt. 600 meters, sunny, shrub-covered embankment, east ridge of 
Manoa Valley, February 3, 1929 (Berl.; Brit.; Field; Kew; N.Y.); 
A. A. Heller 1988 p.p., in Nuuanu, March 23, 1895 (Calif.; Field; 
U.S.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVI 

Bidens coartata: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.61; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X6.08; c, interior involucral bract, X6.08; 
d, ray corolla, X6.08; e, f, paleae, X3.04; g, disc floret, X6.08; h, i, 
achenes, X3.65; all from Degener, Rodrigues, and Krauss 3529, in 
Hb. Field. 

42. Bidens Salicoides Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 86: 437 and pi. 15. 1928. 

PI. XXVII. 

Fruticosa, erecta, glabra, ramosa, 6 dm. alta, caule ramisque 
plus minusve tetragonis. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus usque 
ad 5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto usque ad circ. 1.5 dm. longa, prin- 
cipalia pinnatim sed saepe irregulariter 2-5-partita, foliolis moderate 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXIII 




BIDENS SANDVICENSIS Less. (figs, a-h) 
BIDENS WAI MEAN A Sherff (figs, i-o) 



OF THt 

flf liMN&!S 



THE GENUS BIDENS 131 

vel late linearibus ac circumambitu foliis nonnullorum specierum 
Salicis nonnihil similibus, integris vel interdum paucidentatis, 
marginibus saepe parce revolutis, membranaceis, terminal! usque 
ad 8 cm. longo et 12 mm. lato, lateralibus plerumque minoribus 
et sessilibus vel imis subpetiolulatis; summa nunc indivisa, mine 
ternata. Capitula subcorymboidea, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 
1.5 cm. lata et circ. 6-8 mm. alta, graciliter pedicellata pedicellis 
1-4 cm. longis. Involucrum glabratum, bracteis exterioribus circ. 
6-7, anguste linearibus, apice calloso subacutis, costa mediana atris, 
circ. 3-4 mm. longis, quam interioribus lanceolato-ovatis paulo 
brevioribus. Flores ligulati 3 vel 4, forsitan interdum 5, flavidi, 
lineari-elliptici, apice obsolete denticulati, 1.2-1.4 cm. longi. Achae- 
nia linearia, plana, plumbeo-atra, exalata, recta vel moderate 
torta, plerumque glabra, faciebus obscure sulcata (pro toto corpore 
circ. 16 sulcis), corpore 7-10 mm. longa, apice ipso nunc 1- vel 
2-aristata aristis nudis usque ad 1 mm. longis, nunc calvis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Henry Wiebke, No. 3084, arid 
region, East Ohia, Island of Molokai, Hawaiian Islands, July 17, 
1928 (Field, 3 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality on Island of Molokai, 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Wiebke 3084 (3 type sheets, Field: cotypes, 
Berl.;N.Y.). 

The five specimens studied had come from a single plant, the 
only one found. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVII 

Bidens Salicoides: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.56; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X3.38; c, interior involucral bract, X3.38; 
d, ray floret, X2.82; e, palea, X3.38;/, disc floret, X5.63; g (exterior), 
h (interior), achenes, X3.38; a, from cotype in Hb. Berl.; rest from 
1st type sheet. 

43. Bidens Forbesii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 103 and pi. 14- 1920. 

PI. XXVIII. 

Herbacea supra, infra fruticosa, caule ramisque tetragona, glabra, 
usque ad 4.5 m. alta. Folia inferiora magna, tripartita, petiolata 
petiolis tenuibus 6-8 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 1-2.5 dm. longa et 
5-15 cm. lata, foliolis lanceolatis, longe acuminatis, membranaceis, 
creberrime serratis dentibus acribus et longe mucronulato-inflexis, 
1-1.4 dm. longis et 3.5-5 cm. latis; folia superiora minora, 7-10 cm. 
longa et 4-5 cm. lata. Capitula parva, supra folia exserta, sub- 



132 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

corymbosa, pansa ad anthesin 4-5 mm. alta et circ. 1.5 cm. lata. 
Involucri bracteae exteriores 3-6, anguste lineares, ad apicem acutae, 
glanduloso-pulverulentae vel fere glabratae, patentes vel reflexae, 
1.5-2.5 mm. longae, interiores paulo vel multo longiores. Flores 
ligulati circ. 5, flavidi, ligula anguste oblongo-obovati, apice valde 
acriterque 2-dentati, 6-8 mm. longi. Achaenia pro capitulo pauca 
(10-14), angustissime elongato-linearia, superne attenuata, obcom- 
pressa, nigra, faciebus glabris et manifeste 2-sulcata vel obscure 
4-sulculata, marginibus sparsim antrorsumque setosa, corpore 
1-1.6 cm. longa et sub 0.7 mm. lata, apice setosa et saepius minuto- 
biaristata aristis saepe patentibus reflexisve nunc subrectis nunc 
hamiformibus glabris, vel retrorsum 1-2-hamosis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Charles Noyes Forbes, No. S2K, 
Waioli Valley, Island of Kauai, Hawaiian Islands, July 23, 1909 
(Bish., 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from northern part of Island of Kauai 
(Waioli to Wainiha), Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined : UrbainFaurie 993, Wainiha, January, 1910 
(Brit.); Forbes 82 K (type, Bish., 2 sheets); Harold St. John et alii 
10947, alt. 180-450 meters, stream bank, Power Line Trail, Hanalei- 
Kalihi Kai Ridge, January 1, 1931 (Bish.); St. John & Fosberg 
13965, shrub 4.5 meters tall, stem 1.9 cm. thick at base, on moist 
rocks near base of waterfall, alt. 330 meters, side gulch on west side, 
0.75 mile upstream from intake, Wainiha Valley, Wainiha, January 1, 
1934 (Bish.; Field); iidem 13975, plant 8 ft. tall, alt. 300 meters, 
in moist bottom of woods, same locality and date (Field). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVIII 

Bidens Forbesii: a, flowering specimen, X0.54; 6, leaf from sterile 
branch, X0.54; c, exterior involucral bract, X5.37; d, interior involu- 
cral bract, X5.37; e, ray corolla, X5.37; /, palea, X5.37; g, disc 
floret, X5.37; h, very young achene, X5.37; i, mature achene (found 
detached on, but glued to sheet), X5.37; a, c-i, from 1st type sheet; 
&, from 2nd type sheet. 

44. Bidens torta Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 105. 1920. 
PI. XIII, figs. a-g. 

Fruticosa, glabra, caule non crassa, 0.5-2.1 m. alta. Folia tener- 
rime petiolata petiolis 1-4 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 7-16 cm. longa 
et 2.5-10 cm. lata, tripartite, membranacea, serrata, ciliata, foliolis 
acuminatis, terminali multo majore, oblongo-lanceolato, lateralibus 
sessilibus vel breviter petiolulatis, ovato-lanceolatis. Capitula 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXIV 




BIDENS CONJUNCTA Sherff (figs, a-h) 
B1DENS FULVESCENS Sherff (figs, i-o) 



OF THt 
DIVERSITY OF (MINIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 133 

numerosa, laxe paniculata, mediocria, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 
circ. 1.7 mm. lata et 5 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 
5, tenuiter lineares, glanduloso-pubescentes, 1.5-2.5 mm. longae, 
interioribus paulo breviores. Flores ligulati circ. 5, ligula oblongo- 
oblanceolati, flavi, ad apicem plus minusve denticulati, circ. 7 mm. 
longi. Achaenia tenuiter linearia, nigra, maxime torta, glabra, 
corpore 9-13 mm. longa, ad apicem calva vel obscure 1-2-aristata 
aristis glabris brevissimis (0.1-0.3 mm. longis). 

Type specimen: Collected by Charles Noyes Forbes, No. 20920, 
at Kawailoa, Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, March 2-5, 1915 
(Bish.). 

Distribution: Known only from Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: E. H. Bryan, Jr., 793, erect shrub, 3 meters 
tall, alt. 540 meters, in small clump of remnant native forest at 
head of Manini Gulch, Waianae Mts., September 25, 1934 (Bish.; 
Field); idem 827, erect shrub 2-3 meters tall, alt. 2,000 ft., on ridge 
at edge of rain forest, Kukuiala Valley, October 9, 1934 (Field); 
Otto Degener 4190, becoming 6 ft. high, in woods on summit ridge, 
400 ft. west of top of Piko Trail, Makua Valley, July 18, 1932 
(Berl.; Calif.; Field; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; Par.; U.V.); idem & 
K. K. Park 4094, on grassy, shrubby slopes and cliffs, first large 
side valley on south of Makua Valley, September 7, 1931 (Field, 2 
sheets; Gray; Mo.); iidem & William Bush 4097, among grass and 
bushes and on ledges, not in cracks of cliff, narrow northeast gully 
in Ohikilolo Valley, November 29, 1931 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Calif.; 
Field; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; N.Y.; Par.; U.S.; U.V.); iidem 4101, 
on moderately dry, grassy slopes, prominent side gully on southeast 
side of Keawaula Valley and directly north of Kahanahaiki Valley, 
November 28, 1931 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Field; Gray; Kew; Mo.; 
N.Y.; Par.; U.S.; U.V.); iidem & Colin Potter 10046 pro parte, 
grassy, shrubby slope, west side of Makaleha Valley, July 21, 1935 
(Field) ; iidem 10047, growing up to 7 ft. tall, grassy, shrubby slope, 
half way between Makaleha Valley and ridge above Makua Valley, 
same date (Field) ; iidem 10299, partly shaded ridge, east slope of 
Puu Kaua, January 19, 1936 (Field); Degener & Takamoto 10293, 
rare, on partly wooded ridge, Kawaiiki, February 9, 1936 (Field); 
iidem & Martinez 10537, in sun with Lantana, etc., Ekahanui Ridge 
along Waianae Contour Trail, April 21, 1936 (Field); F. R. Fosberg 
& K. Duker 9044, bush 1.5 meters tall, alt. 510 meters, dry, bushy 
slope at foot of cliffs, head of Makua Valley, Waianae Range, 
November 25, 1932 (Berl.; Field; Gray; Kew; N.Y.); Forbes 20920 



134 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

(type, Bish. : cotype, Field) ; Martin L. Grant 7018, alt. 475 meters, in 
Acacia-Metrosideros forest, Kaava-Kamokunui, District of Mokuleia, 
July 1, 1934 (Field) ; idem 7395, shrub 3 ft. tall, alt. 900 meters, in 
Metrosideros forest, Kalena, District of Waianae, September 30, 1934 
(Field); idem 7456, shrub 3 ft. tall, alt. 840 meters, Kaala, Waianae 
District, October 4, 1934 (Field); Carl Skottsberg 387, Makaleha 
Valley, Waianae, August 30, 1922 (Goth.); Harold St. John 12250, 
in tufts on sunny grass slope, alt. 630 meters, Piko Trail, Keaau- 
Makua Forest Reserve, Waianae Mts., November 25, 1932 (Bish.; 
Field) ; idem & Francis R. Fosberg 12178, shrub 3-6 ft. tall, in thicket, 
alt. 600 meters, east ridge of 2nd gulch east of Puu Kaupakuhale, 
northeast slope of Puu Kaala, Mokuleia, October 23, 1932 (Bish.; 
Field) ; D. L. Topping 3308, shady hillside, Waimea Canyon, Feb- 
ruary 3, 1929 (Berl.; Brit.; Field; Kew; N.Y.); idem & Richard 
Northwood (Degener distrib. No.) 4330, on partly shaded rocky 
slope near falls, Waimea Canyon, February 19, 1933 (Field; N.Y.). 
The leaves of this species appear to have rather large leaflets 
in proportion to the thickness of the petiole. The terminal leaflet 
becomes 1 dm. long and 4.4 cm. wide. The branches of the inflores- 
cence are slender and widely diverging. The leaves and inflorescence 
combine to give a striking superficial resemblance to certain Central 
American specimens of B. squarrosa H.B.K. The achenes surpass 
those of nearly or quite all other species in the amount of twist- 
ing. The twisting commences early, in the young achene, and the 
mature achenes are frequently twisted through four or five complete 
revolutions. 

B. torta X B. fecunda. Specimens collected by Degener, Park, 
and Bush (4102, Field: 4103, Brit.; Field: 4104, Field; Gray), within 
20 feet of both parents, 1 resemble B. torta in having the achenes 
spirally more or less twisted, although the twisting is much less 
regular than in B. torta. In other respects the resemblance to B. 
fecunda is much stronger. 

B. torta X B. amplectens. Certain specimens collected by 
Degener, Park, and Bush (4100, among bushes, grass, and rocks in 
dry region, near upper part of trail in Keawaula Valley leading to 
Kuaokala Forest Reserve, Oahu, November 28, 1931; Field; Gray) 
were found growing near B. torta and B. amplectens and are unques- 
tionably hybrids between the two. The general habit is of the latter, 
but the achenes are more or less bent or curled, showing a very weak 

1 For field data, vide Deg. et al. num. 4101 sub B. torta et eosdem num. 4105 
sub B. fecunda. 



eld Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXV 




BIDENS WIEBKEI Sherff 



OF THt 
DIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 135 

approach to the strongly twisted ones of the former. More recently 
Mr. Degener has collected many additional plants nearby (at head 
of Makua Valley, Oahu, April 4, 1932; Berl.; Brit.; Field; Goth.; 
Gray; Mo.; Mun.; N.Y.; Par.; Phila.; U.S.; U.V.), in which, while 
the general habit is that of B, amplectens, the achenes are practically 
typical for B. torta. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIII, FIGS, a-g 

Bidens torta: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.54; b, exterior 
involucral bract, X5.43; c, interior involucral bract, X5.43; d, ray 
corolla, X5.43; e, palea, X5.43;/, disc floret, X5.43; g, achene, X3.26; 
all from type. 

45. Bidens fulvescens Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 86: 435. 1928. 
PI. XXIV, figs, i-o, and PI. XXIX. 

Bidens personans Deg. & Sherff ex Sherff, op. cit. 92: 205. 1931; 
etiam 94: 589. 1933. 

Fruticosa vel subfruticosa, caule ramisque tetragona et glabrata, 
demum 1.5-2.5 m. alta. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus usque 
ad 9 cm. longis saepe sparsim ciliatis, petiolo adjecto usque ad 2.2 dm. 
longa, pinnatim 3- vel 5-partita, juniora plerumque pilis numerosis 
fulvescentibus vel etiam ferrugineis obsita, foliolis ovato-lanceolatis 
vel rarius etiam anguste oblongo-lanceolatis, apice subobtusis vel 
breviter acuminatis, margine serratis et ciliatis, demum plus minusve 
glabratis, supra valde viridibus, infra pallidioribus (venulis numerosis 
perspicuis coloratis), imis nunc petiolulatis nunc sessilibus. Capitula 
numerosa corymbo-paniculata, radiata, pansa ad anthesin vix 1 cm. 
lata et tantum 3.5-5 mm. alta, pedicellis tenuibus, pubescentibus, 
saepius 0.5-2 cm. longis. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 5, 
lineares vel lineari-oblongae, patentes vel recurvatae, tantum 1-2 
(raro -2.5) mm. longae, minute pubescentes vel glabratae, apice 
subobtusae; interiores lanceolatae 3-4 mm. longae. Flores ligulati 
plerumque 5, flavidi, ligula late oblanceolati, apice circ. 3-dentati, 
circ. 5-9 mm. longi. Achaenia linearia, nigra, obcompressa, glabra, 
spiraliter per 1 vel 1.5 convolutiones torta, circ. 8-12 mm. longa 
et 0.6-0.8 mm. lata, exaristata vel ad apicem rariter 1 vel 2 setis 
munita. 

Type specimen: Collected by Otto Degener, No. 2515, in open 
woods, north slope of Mt. Kaala, Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, 
February 11, 1928 (Field, 3 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from Island of Oahu, Hawaiian 
Islands. 



136 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Specimens examined : William Bush 32, alt. 360 meters, semi-arid 
valley, south slopes, Palikea, July 7, 1929 (Berl.; Field; Kew; type 
collection of Bidens personans Deg. & Sherff ) ; idem 33, eodem loco 
et tempore (Field) ; Degener 2515 (type, Field, 3 sheets) ; idem 4196, 
alt. 600 meters, on weed- and grass-covered slopes in dry region, 
Pohakea Pass, July 30, 1932 (Berl.; Calif.; Field; Gray; Kew; Mo.; 
Mun.; N.Y.; Par.; U.V.); idem & Kwan Kee Park 4079, along 
terminal ridge among grass or shrubs, often fog-swept, north of 
Puumanawahua and south of Palikea, Waianae Range, September 
27, 1931 (Berl.; Field; Gray; N.Y.; Par.; Mus. V.); iidem & Y. 
Nitta 4159, alt. 750 meters, on shrub- and grass-covered rocky 
slope, lateral ridge north of summit ridge where it is about 
equidistant from Puu Kamaohanui and Puu Pane, June 11, 1932 
(Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Calif.; Field; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; N.Y.; 
Par.); iidem 4159a, eodem loco et tempore (Field; Kew); Degener, 
Park, Iwasaki, & Agliam 4400, on tree- and bush-covered, rocky 
canyon wall, Kamokuiki Valley, April 12, 1933 (Berl.; Brit.; Field; 
Goth.; Gray; Kew; Mo.; N.Y.; Par.; U.S.); Degener, Park, Iwasaki, 
& Bush 4243, northeast slope near summit, small valley immediately 
southeast of Puu Hapapa, October 30, 1932 (Berl.; Brit.; Del.; Field; 
Gray; Kew; Mo.; Par.; U.S.); Degener, Park, & Takamoto 10115, 
on dry, Lantana-covered ridge, Palehua, Waianae Range, November 
23, 1935 (Field); iidem & Shigeura 10117, varying forms from dry 
and from wet sides of ridge, Mauna Kapu, December 16, 1935 
(Field, 3 sheets) ; Degener, Park, Shigeura, & Topping 10119, spring- 
fed talus, Nanakuli Valley below Mauna Kapu, December 1, 1935 
(Field; forma foliis juvenilibus subglabris, foliolis circumambitu 
atypicis); Degener, Park, & Yamamoto 4240, along dry stream 
bed among grass and bushes, small valley southeast of Palikea, 
October 23, 1932 (Berl.; Brit.; Calif.; Del.; Field; Goth.; Gray; 
Kew; Mo.; N.Y.; Par.); iidem 4241, on ridge northwest of small 
valley cited for 4240, same date (Berl.; Brit.; Del.; Field; Goth.; 
Gray; Kew; Mo.; N.Y.; Par.; U.S.); F. R. Fosberg 9103, alt. 1,160 
meters, wet forest, Puu Kaala, eastern slope of Waianae Mts., 
Waianaeuka, January 8, 1933 (Field; Goth.; Gray); idem 10374, 
more or less decumbent, wet forest, alt. 1,180 meters, Waianaeuka, 
November 5, 1933 (Field) ; idem 10382, moist forest, alt. 850 meters, 
Waianaeuka, November 5, 1933 (Field) ; Edward P. Hume 385, alt. 
690 meters, shrub on dry, wooded ridge, Puu Hapapa, December 1, 
1931 (Field); Park, Potter, & Topping (Degener distrib. No.) 10295, 
summit ridge, Palikea, January 5, 1936 (Field, 3 sheets); Carl 



THE GENUS BIDENS 137 

Skottsberg 262, alt. 700 meters, Palehua-iki, Waianae, August 23, 
1922 (Goth.); Harold St. John 13999 and 14000, shrub 0.5-1 ft. tall, 
alt. 780 meters, main divide northwest of Puu Kanehoa, January 7, 
1934 (Field); idem 11128, alt. 840 meters, ridge south of Puu 
Hapapa, October 25, 1931 (Bish.; Field); D. L. Topping 3353, alt. 
750 meters, open ridge, Puu Kanehoa, July 14, 1929 (Berl.; Boiss.; 
Brit.; Field, 2 sheets; Kew; Mun.); Philip Westgate (Degener distrib. 
No.) 4132, open, moderately dry ridge, main ridge between Palikea 
and Von Holt's mountain house, April 10, 1932 (Berl.; Field; Gray). 
Appears to hybridize withB. micrantha var. kaalana (q.v.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIV, FIGS, i-0 

Bidens fulvescens: i, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.6; j, 
exterior involucral bract, X6; k, interior involucral bract, X6; I, 
ray corolla, X3.6; m, palea, X6; n, disc floret, X9; o, achene, X6; 
all from cotype of B. personans in Hb. Field. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIX 

Bidens fulvescens: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.65; 6, 
a lower, 5-partite leaf, X0.65; c, exterior involucral bract, X6.54; 
d, interior involucral bract, X6.54; e, ray corolla, X6.54; /, palea, 
X6.54; g, disc floret, X6.54; h, i, j, achenes, X3.92; a-h, from Skotts- 
berg 262, in Hb. Goth.; rest from type material. 

46. Bidens Campylotheca Schz. Bip. Flora 39: 359. 1856. 

PI. XXX. 

Campylotheca grandiflora DC. Prodr. 5: 593. 1836. 
Coreopsis Macraei Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 126. 1861. 

a. Foliola 7-9 var. ft. pentamera f. 1. filicifolia. 

a. Foliola usque ad 5. 

6. Foliola plerumque 5 var. ft. pentamera sensu stricto. 

6. Foliola rarius 5 B. Campylotheca sensu stricto. 

Herbacea vel demum fruticosa, usque ad 4.5 meters alta, caule 
tetragona gracilisque (vel infra interdum 2.5 cm. crassa), ramosa; 
ramis gracilibus, elongatis (usque ad 1.8 m. longis!), patentibus. 
Folia petiolata petiolis 1-5 (in foliis plantarum juvenum etiam usque 
ad 9) cm. longis, petiolo adjecto principalia 1-2.5 dm. longa, nunc 
indivisa et oblongo-ovata (plantarum juvenum etiam 5-6 cm. lata!) 
vel oblongo-lanceolata breviter acuminata, nunc tripartita foliolis 
lanceolatis et acutis vel breviter acuminatis lateralibus subsessilibus, 
membranacea, puberulo-hirtella vel glabra, moderatim vel creberrime 



138 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

serrata dentibus saepius acriter apiculatis. Capitula laxissime 
paniculata paniculo interdum etiam 3 dm. lato, radiata, pansa ad 
anthesin 2 cm. lata et 6-12 mm. alta, pedicellis ultimis minute 
bracteatis usque ad 8 cm. (supra ramulescentiam) longis. Involucri 
glabri vel pubescentis bracteae variabiles, plerumque subaequales, 
7 vel 8 exteriores lineari-oblongae vel oblanceolatae, apice obtusae, 
tergo saepe perspicue trinervatae, 4-7 mm. longae, interiores late 
lanceolatae. Flores ligulati circ. 5 (-8 fide Hillebrandii), flavi, 
oblongi vel late elliptico-oblanceolati, apice acriter irregulariterque 
dentati, 1 cm. longi. Achaenia lineari-subfusiformia, glaberrima 
vel superne nonnullis setis erecte setosa, atra, subrecta vel valde et 
saepe regulariter torta, exalata, ad margines crassa rotundataque, 
corpore 7-12 mm. longa et 1.4-1.7 mm. lata, apice calva vel irregula- 
riter 1-2-aristata aristis usque ad circ. 1.3 mm. longis, supra retrorsum 
infra antrorsum obsolete spinulosis. 

Type specimen : Collected by James Macrae at Mt. Kaah (Mauna 
Kea), Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands, June, 1825 (Del.). 

Distribution: Islands of Oahu, Lanai, and Hawaii, Hawaiian 
Islands. 

Specimens examined : Otto Degener & Henry Wiebke 3000, sunny, 
rocky slope, Punaluu Valley, Oahu, February 20, 1927 (Field, 7 
sheets; Haw.); C. N.Forbes 195H, Hanehane, Kona District, Hawaii, 
June 17, 1911 (Bish.); idem 346#, Honomalino, Kona District, 
Hawaii, July 25, 1911 (Bish., forma plus minusve puberula, quam 
ob rem typica); Gaudichaud (Voy. la Bonite) 220 pro parte and 
221 pro parte, Hawaiian Isls., October, 1836 (Del.; Par.); William 
Hillebrand 39, Hawaii (Brit.; Kew); Macrae, Mt. Kaah, Hawaii, 
June, 1825 (type, Del.: cotypes, Berl.; Kew); idem, Oahu, May, 
1825 (Kew) ; G. C. Munro 464, Kaiholena, Lanai, August 16, 1915 
(Bish.); idem 505, Kohinahina, Lanai, February 12, 1916 (Bish., 3 
sheets; Field, 2 sheets); J. Remy, Hawaii (N.Y.); idem 285, Hawaii, 
1851-1855 (Gray, 2 sheets; Par.); St. John, Coulter, Hashimoto, 
L/indsay, & Mitchell 11404, shrub 15 ft. tall, in woods, Puuwaawaa, 
Hawaii, December 29, 1931 (Bish.; Field). 

The specimens collected by Munro on the Island of Lanai are 
glabrous forms, with the leaflets of the tripartite leaves somewhat 
wider than in the type material from Oahu or in the Forbes specimen 
(346H) from Hawaii. They do not, however, appear at all separable. 
Asa Gray's description of the achenes, "calloso-marginatis" (Proc. 
Amer. Acad. 5: 126. 1861) demands amplification. The mature 
achenes on Remy 287, the specimen studied particularly by Gray, 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXVI 




BIDENS COARTATA Sherd 



OF THt 

Of HUMUS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 139 

are rounded along the two margins and in some cases slightly thinner 
marginally than in the part nearer the median line. There is no 
suggestion, however, of wings. Regarding Gray's employment of 
the new trivial name Macraei I have already written in another 
place (Bot. Gaz. 70: 93. 1920; cf. ante, p. 19). 

The reason for DeCandolle's use of the name grandiflora is not 
apparent, for the flowering heads are only of average width when 
compared with those of other Hawaiian species. 

Bidens Campylotheca var. /3. pentamera Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 85: 4. 1928. 

Folia principalia plerumque 5-partita, jugi inferioris foliolis 
lanceolatis, sessilibus vel vix petiolulatis, circ. 5-6.6 cm. longis et 
1.4-2.9 cm. latis; capitulis pansis ad anthesin 3^4 cm. latis; flori- 
bus ligulatis circ. 8, ligulis linearibus. Achaenia torta, non nisi ad 
apicem setosa, exaristata vel rariter obsolete aristata 1 vel 2 aristis 
minutis, glabris, etiam infra apicem positis et in achaeniorum 
margines decurrentibus. 

Type specimen: Collected by Otto Degener and Henry Wiebke, 
No. 2163, fog-swept medium forest in Koolau Gap, Haleakala 
Crater, Island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands, August 11, 1927 (Field). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Haleakala Crater, 
Island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Otto Degener & Henry Wiebke 2163 (type 
and cotypes, Field: cotypes, Berl.; Brit.; Haw.; Kew; Par., etc.); 
iidem 2177 pro parte, wet, open forest in fog belt, Koolau Gap, 
Haleakala Crater, August 11, 1927 (Field) ; Joseph F. Rock 8633, 
Haleakala Crater, October, 1910 (Gray). 

Bidens Campylotheca var. /3. pentamera f. 1. filicifolia 
Sherff, loc. cit. 

E varietate foliis 7-9-foliolatis, foliolis terminalibus et basalibus 
saepe irregulariter 2-5-partitis, aliis simplicibus differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by Otto Degener and Henry Wiebke, 
No. 2177 pro parte, Koolau Gap, Haleakala Crater, Island of Maui, 
Hawaiian Islands, August 11, 1927 (Field, 3 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Haleakala, Island 
of Maui, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Degener & Wiebke 2169, on arid cliffs near 
.spring, between Crater House and Koolau Gap, August 18, 1927 
(Field); iidem 2177 pro parte (type, Field, 3 sheets: cotype, Haw., 



140 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

2 sheets); A. S. Hitchcock 14985, alt. 1800-3000 meters, moist, 
shady cliff, Haleakala Crater, October 2-5, 1916 (U.S.). 

One specimen of Degener & Wiebke 2177 is typical for the var. 
pentamera, but the remaining specimens differ conspicuously in hav- 
ing 7-9 leaflets, the terminal one and the two of the basal pair often 
irregularly 2-5-parted. In view of the pronounced endemism of 
Hawaiian plants, it seemed wise to interpret this distinction as 
connoting a definite forma of B. Campylotheca var. pentamera. Such 
interpretation was later given added force by the finding of the 
Hitchcock plant, which had been collected some eleven years earlier 
but matched the type very closely. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXX 

Bidens Campylotheca: a, branch with subflowering and sub- 
fruiting heads, X0.55; b, c, additional leaves, X0.55; d, exterior 
involucral bract, X3.3; e, interior involucral bract, X3.3; /, palea, 
X3.3; g, disc floret, X3.3; h, achene, X3.3; all from Munro 505, 

3 sheets in Hb. Bish. 

47. Bidens nematocera Sherff, Amer. Journ. Bot. 22: 705. 1935. 
Campylotheca grandiflora var. j3. Hillebr. Fl. Haw. Isls. 215. 1888. 
Bidens Campylotheca var. nematocera Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 85: 7. 1928. 

Plus minusve herbacea, glabra, ramosa ramis adscendentibus 
tetragonis. Folia tenuiter petiolata inferiora (petiolo usque ad 9.5 
cm. longo adjecto) usque ad 21 cm. longa, summa indivisa cetera 
pinnatim 3-5-partita foliolis acriter serratis membranaceis ovato- 
oblongis ad basim cuneatis et imis plerumque petiolulatis apice 
breviter acuminatis terminali usque ad 11.5 cm. longo et ad 4.4 cm. 
lato; mediana (petiolo circ. 2-4 cm. longo adjecto) 1 dm. longa, 
foliolis vix angustioribus. Capitula corymboso-paniculata, tenuiter 
pedicellata pedicellis subsparsim hispidis 1-2.5 cm. longis, radiata, 
pansa ad anthesin 2.6-3.1 cm. lata et circ. 8-9 mm. alta. Involucri 
laxe glanduloso-hispiduli bracteae exteriores circ. 6, oblongo-lineares, 
inferne saepe angustatae, apice subobtusae, demum plerumque 
reflexae, 2-3.5 mm. longae; interiores ovato-oblongae circ. 5-6 mm. 
longae. Flores ligulati 5 (-8 fide Hillebrandii), flavi, ligula obovato- 
oblongi, apice 2-3-denticulati, 1.5-1.7 cm. longi. Achaenia atra, 
lineari-oblonga, aegre torta et arcuata, utrinque perspicue mediano- 
costata, ciliata, corpore usque ad 1 cm. longa et circ. 1-1.2 mm. lata, 
apice biaristata aristis longis (4 mm.) filiformibus interdum deciduis 
erecte retrorsumque hamosis. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXVII 




OF THt 
'.'NIVFHSITY ftf HilNQIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 141 

Type specimen: Collected by William Hillebrand, Waikolu, 
Island of Molokai, Hawaiian Islands (Berl., 2 sheets). 

Distribution : Known only from type locality on Island of Molo- 
kai, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined : William Hillebrand, Waikolu (2 type sheets, 
Berl.). 

One type sheet bears a sterile, more or less basal shoot, with 
large leaves very similar to those of Bidens Campylotheca of Oahu, 
Lanai, and Hawaii. The achenes and the habit of the inflorescence, 
as shown by the copious flowering and fruiting material on the 
other sheet, are, however, entirely distinct. 

48. Bidens valida Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 102. 1920. PI. XXXI. 

Supra herbacea, infra verisimiliter fruticosa, glabra; caule 
tetragono, valido, 7 dm. alto. Folia (exsiccata) atra supra, acriter 
serrata, non ciliata, petiolata petiolis tenuibus usque ad 5 cm. longis, 
petiolo adjecto 4-15 cm. longa; superiora indivisa ovata vel ovato- 
lanceolata, abrupte acuminata, 2-6 cm. lata; inferiora tripartita 
(vel interdum 5-partita ? tantum unum inferius vidi), foliolis lanceo- 
latis, acuminatis. Capitula pauca, corymbosa, solitaria in pedunculis 
subtenuibus, majuscula, involucre ad anthesin circ. 6 mm. alto et 
(supra) 11 mm. lato, demum circ. 1.4 cm. alto et (supra) 1.2-3 cm. 
lato; pedunculis saepe bracteatis, 2-11 cm. longis. Involucri brac- 
teae exteriores 7 vel 8, foliosae, obtuse oblongo-lanceolatae, glabrae, 
apice obscure induratae, demum 1.5-1.8 cm. longae et 2-3 mm. 
latae, interioribus longiores. Flores ligulati non observati. Achaenia 
linearia, nigra, exalata, glabra vel sparsim setoso-hispida, apice 
proprio exaristata, plerumque sub apice biaristata aristis brevibus 
et retrorsum (1-3 setis) hispidis, corpore 8-13 mm. longa. 

Type specimen: Collected by Charles Noyes Forbes, No. 27 K, at 
Hanopu near Lihue, Island of Kauai, Hawaiian Islands, July 9, 
1909 (Bish.). 

Distribution: Known only from Hanopu near Lihue, Island of 
Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined : Forbes 27 K (type, Bish.: cotype, Field). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXI 

Bidens valida: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.54; b, a 
tripartite leaf, X0.54; c, exterior involucral bract, X3.23; d, interior 
involucral bract, X3.23; e, palea, X3.23; /, g, achenes, X3.23; all 
from type. 



142 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

49. Bidens Stokesii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 101, pi. 12, figs. g-o. 1920. 

PL XIX, figs. g-o. 

Supra herbacea, infra verisimiliter fruticosa, glabra; caule sub- 
tetragono, ramoso, 6 dm. alto. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus 
1.5-4 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 4-9 cm. longa et 2.5-6 cm. lata, 
ternata vel 5 foliolis pinnata, membranacea, non ciliata, foliolis 
rhomboideo-ovatis vel lanceolatis, orbiculato-serratis, terminali in- 
terdum breviter acuminate raro inciso-lobulato. Capitula pauca, 
paniculato-corymbosa, tenuiter pedunculata (ad fines ramorum 
10-14 cm. longorum nudomm) pedunculis 1-5.5 cm. longis, ligulata, 
pansa ad anthesin circ. 2-2.5 cm. lata et 7 mm. alta. Involucri 
bracteae exteriores circ. 8, lineares, glabratae vel sparsissime his- 
pidae, apice induratae, 3-4 mm. longae, erectae vel recurvatae, 
interioribus longiores. Flores ligulati 6-7, flavidi, ligula oblongi, 
apice obscure denticulati, 7-10 mm. longi. Achaenia linearia, nigra, 
glabra, interdum plano-marginata sed non vere alata, saepe 
biaristata aristis tenuibus et obscure retrorso-hamosis, corpore 
db 7 mm. longa. 

Type specimen: Collected by John F. G. Stokes, at foot of pla- 
teau, southeast, Island of Niihau, Hawaiian Islands, January, 1912 
(Bish.). 

Distribution: Known only from Island of Niihau, Hawaiian 
Islands. 

Specimens examined: Stokes, at foot of plateau, etc. (type, Bish.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIX, FIGS, g-0 

Bidens Stokesii: g, flowering branch, X0.54; h, i, additional 
leaves, X0.54;;, exterior involucral bract, X5.39; k, interior involu- 
cral bract, X5.39; I, ray corolla, X5.39; m, palea, X5.39; n, disc 
floret, X5.39; o, achene, X5.39; all from type. 

50. Bidens amplectens Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 99. 1920. 

PI. XXXII. 

Herbacea supra, infra verisimiliter suflruticosa, ramosa, caule 
ramisque tetragona, glabra, probabiliter 5-8 dm. alta. Folia ple- 
rumque pinnata, membranacea, petiolata petiolis tenuibus 2-4 cm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto 4-12.5 cm. longa et 3-7.5 cm. lata; foliolis 
3-5, ovato-lanceolatis, serratis (saepe irregulariter et grosse dentatis) 
dentibus orbiculatis, ad apicem acuminatis, terminali saepe majore. 
Capitula non multa, subsolitaria in pedunculis, laxissime corym- 
bosa, adolescentia iis Cosmidis specierum non dissimilia, florescentia 
6-8 mm. alta et 3-5.5 cm. lata. Involucri bracteae exteriores 5-6, 



Field Museum of Natural^History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXVIII 




BIDENS FORBESII Sherff 



OF THt 
OF I 



THE GENUS BIDENS 143 

patentes vel etiam valde reflexae, crassiusculae, lineari-oblanceolatae, 
ad apicem subacutae et glanduloso-apiculatae, 3-6 mm. longae, 
quam interiores paulo breviores. Flores ligulati 7-8, ligula anguste 
obovati, apice obscure dentulati, 1.5-2.3 (rarius usque ad 4) cm. 
longi. Achaenia submatura grisea vel subnigra, plana, exalata, 
recta vel subrecta, marginibus apiceque setulosa, exaristata vel 
breviter biaristata aristis dense (hamis subrectis, albidis, elongatis) 
hamosis, corpore circ. 8-10 mm. longa. 

Type specimen: Collected by Charles Noyes Forbes (with Henry 
A. Pilsbry and C. Montague Cooke), No. 18390, at Kawaihapai, 
Waianae Range, Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands (Bish.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality on Island of Oahu, 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: William Bush & D. LeRoy Topping 3684, 
rocky hillside, gulch between Kaena Point and Kawaihapai, October 
12, 1933 (Field); iidem 3744 et 3745, eodem loco, May 6, 1934 
(Field); Otto Degener 2099, arid Lantana region in ravine, Kawai- 
hapai, December, 1925 (Field, 2 sheets); idem 3531, dry slope at 
edge of Forest Reserve (in valley east of the one in which No. 2099 
was found), southeast of Kawaihapai Railroad Station, January 27, 
1929 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Field; Kew; N.Y.); idem & William Bush 
3532, alt. 300 meters, on spring-fed cliffs, opposite Kawaihapai 
Railroad Station, eodem tempore (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Field; Kew; 
N.Y.); iidem & K. K. Park 4099, among bushes, grass, and rocks, 
in dry region, near upper part of trail in Keawaula Valley leading to 
Kuaokala Forest Reserve, November 28, 1931 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; 
Calif.; Del.; Field, 2 sheets; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; Mus. V.; N.Y.; 
Par.; U.S.; U.V.); Otto Degener & D. LeRoy Topping 4121, on 
1/cm^cma-covered, somewhat dry slope, along trail leading to top of 
Keawaula Valley, March 24, 1932 (Berl.; Brit.; Field; Gray; Kew); 
C. N. Forbes (with H. A. Pilsbry and C. M. Cooke) 18390 (type, 
Bish.: cotype, Field); E. P. Hume 305, alt. 180 meters, dry, wind- 
swept fore hill, Nihoa Gulch, mountain side, Mokuleia, November 
15, 1932 (Bish.; Field); Northwood & Topping 3767, rocky hillside, 
new C.C.C. Trail, Kawaihapai, January 1, 1935 (Field). 

B. arnplectens X B. waianensis. B. waianensi achaeniis supra 
medium valde recurvatis vel subtortis similis, aliter B. amplectenti 
plus minusve similis. 

Specimens examined: Degener & Topping 4120, on Lantana- 
covered, somewhat dry slope, along trail leading to top of Keawaula 



144 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Valley, Oahu, Hawaiian Isls., March 24, 1932 (Berl.; Brit.; Field; 
Gray; Kew; Mo.). 

Recently Mr. Otto Degener forwarded some specimens col- 
lected by himself and Mr. D. LeRoy Topping along the trail leading 
to the top of Keawaula Valley, on the Island of Oahu. One set, 
numbered by Degener 4119, was B. waianensis (q.v.). Another 
set, numbered by Degener 4121, was B. amplectens (v. supra). A 
third set, numbered by Degener 4120, was found to be of hybrid 
material, embodying throughout very emphatically the general 
habit of B. amplectens but approaching B. waianensis in the curva- 
ture or even the twisting of the distal half of the achenes. 

B. amplectens X B. torta. Vide sub B. torta. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXII 

Bidens amplectens: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.57; 
6, exterior involucral bract, X3.44; c, interior involucral bract, 
X3.44; d, ray corolla, X2.87; e, palea, X3.44; /, disc floret, X3.44; 
g, achene, X3.44; all from type. 

51. Bidens waimeana Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 164. 1923. 
PI. XXIII, figs. i-o. 

Herba fruticosa, gracilis, erecta, ramosa, glabra, verisimiliter 
4-8 dm. alta. Folia petiolata petiolis 1-4 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
6-9 cm. longa, pinnatim 3-5-partita, foliolis membranaceis, ovato- 
lanceolatis, acuminatis, serratis. Capitula cymoso-corymbosa vel 
irregulariter dispersa, radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 1.5 cm. lata 
et 5-6 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 5, patentes, 
lineares, acutae vel obtusae, glabratae vel leviter glanduloso-his- 
pidae, interioribus lanceolatis saepe aequales. Flores ligulati 
circ. 5, flavi, ligula elliptico-oblanceolati, apice obsolete denticulati, 
6-8 mm. longi. Achaenia atra, linearia, obcompressa, utrinque 
moderate attenuata, recta vel leviter curvata, non manifeste striata, 
faciebus rugulosa sed non pubescentia, marginibus suberecto-setosa, 
corpore 6-8 mm. longa et 0.5-0.75 mm. lata, apice erecto-setosa, 
saepe ad apicem vel interdum parce sub apice brevissime biaristata 
aristis glabris vel rariter 1-2 hamis retrorsum hamosis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Amos Arthur Heller, No. 2848, on 
Kaholuamanoa, above Waimea, Island of Kauai, Hawaiian Islands, 
October 1-8, 1895 (Mo.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality on Kaholuamanoa, 
above Waimea, Island of Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXIX 




BIDENS FULVESCENS Sherff 



THE GENUS BIDENS 145 

Specimens examined : Heller, on Kaholuamanoa, above Waimea, 
October 11-16, 1895 (Field); idem 2848 (type, Mo.: cotypes, Brit.; 
Calif.; Field; Gray; Kew; N.Y.; Petrop.; U.S.). 

A species related toBidens asymmetrica (LeVl.) Sherff, B. micran- 
tha Gaud., and B. micranthoides Sherff. It can be told from B. 
asymmetrica by its straight or slightly curved, not twisted achenes; 
from B. micrantha by its marginally setose, smaller, more slender, 
and not conspicuously black achenes; from B. micranthoides by its 
taller, more branching, less herbaceous habit. The type specimen 
has the primary leaves mainly 5-partite; the cotypes examined have 
many of the primary leaves 3-partite. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIII, FIGS, i-0 

Bidens waimeana: i, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.6; /, 
exterior involucral bract, X3.6; k, interior involucral bract, X3.6; 
I, ray corolla, X3.6; m, palea, X3.6; n, disc floret, X3.6; o, achene, 
X3.6; all from cotype in Hb. N.Y. 

52. Bidens micrantha Gaud. Voy. Freycinet Bot. pi. 85 (sine 

descript.). 1826; ibid. 464. 1830. PI. X, figs. a-h. 
Campylotheca micrantha (Gaud.) Cass. Diet. Sci. Nat. 51: 475. 1827. 
Coreopsis micrantha (Gaud.) A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 127. 1861. 
Bidens sandvicensis var. heterophylla Gray (excl. syn. B. luxurians 

Hook. & Arn.), op. cit. 128. 
Bidens Remyi Drake del Cast. Illustr. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. pi. 39. 

1888; non B. Remyi (Hillebr.) Sherff. 
Coreopsis Remyi Drake del Cast. op. cit. 210. 1890. 
a. Achaenia plerumque multum irregulariterque curvata; planta ex 

insula Oahu var. 7. kaalana. 

a. Achaenia recta vel paulum curvata. 
b. Foliorum principalium lamina vel foliolum terminale serratum 

20-28 dentibus pro unico latere var. 6. caduca. 

b. Dentes pauciores. 

c. Folia 3-5-foliolata, foliolis anguste lanceolatis, acuminatis, 
quoque latere paucis dentulis ad medium serrato. 

B. micrantha sensu stricto. 
c. Foliola latiora, magis profunde serrata, ad medium etiam 

laciniata var. /3. laciniata. 

Frutex glaber, caule plus minusve rubidus, 6-9 dm. altus. Folia 
gracilia, crassiuscula, irregulariter 3-5-foliolata vel summa simplicia, 
petiolata petiolis 1.5-5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 4-13 cm. longa, 



146 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

foliolis anguste lanceolatis, acuminatis, quoque latere paucis dentulis 
ad medium serratis, 2-5 cm. longis et 4-12 mm. latis. Capitula 
numerosa, paniculata vel corymbosa, ligulata, pansa ad anthesin 
4-6 mm. alta et 1.2-2 cm. lata, pedicellis tenerrimis 1-2.5 cm. longis. 
Involucri bracteae exteriores lineares, resino-pubescentes vel gla- 
bratae, minimae (circ. 1.5 mm. longae), bracteis interioribus multo 
minores. Flores ligulati 3-5, ligula anguste oblongi, flavi, saepe ad 
apicem obscure dentati, circ. 1 cm. longi. Achaenia linearia, nigra, 
obcompressa, recta vel torta, facie et marginibus plerumque glabra, 
corpore 7-10 mm. longa et circ. 0.8-1.5 mm. lata, apice nunc exaris- 
tata et setosa, nunc breviter biaristata vel etiam (marginibus 
excurrentibus sub apicem) irregulariter tri- vel quadriaristata, aristis 
glabris vel retrorsum hispidulis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Charles Gaudichaud in the Hawaiian 
Islands. 1 

Distribution: Islands of Oahu, Lanai, Maui, and Hawaii, 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Ballieu, Hawaiian Isls. (Par.); Adelbert 
Von Chamisso, Oahu, 1817 (Berl., 2 sheets; Hll.; Kew; Petrop., 2 
sheets; forma foliis indivisis); C. N. Forbes 14 H, Puuwaawaa 
Mountain, Hawaii, June 8-14, 1911 (Bish.); idem 326Mo, ridge 
and foot of Lahainaluna Valley, Maui, February, 1913 (Bish.); 
Gaudichaud 71, Hawaiian Isls. (Del.); idem, sine num., Hawaiian 
Isls. (Par., 2 sheets); William Hillebrand, Hawaii (Brit.); idem, 
western and eastern Maui (Gray); idem, eastern Maui, 1870 
(Kew); idem 43, Central Plateau, Hawaii (Berl., 2 sheets; Kew); 
Menzies, Hawaiian Isls. (Kew); G. C. Munro 122, Waiapaa, Lanai, 
September 26, 1913 (Bish., the form close to Gaudichaud's type 
illustration); idem 602, ridge to Puu Kukui, Maui (Bish.); J. Remy 
281, Hawaii, 1851-1855 (Gray; cotype, Coreopsis Remyi Drake del 
Cast.); J. F. Rock 8200, alt. 1,200 meters, Kaanapali, western Maui, 
August 25, 1910 (Gray). 

The identity ofBidens micrantha Gaud, has long been a matter of 
conjecture with most authors. Many appear to have assumed that 
Gaudichaud's original plate was only a crude representation, and 
that hence the delineation of foliage, etc., given there must not be 
interpreted very literally. Consequently, various other species have 
been referred arbitrarily toB. micrantha Gaud, to such an extent that 
references in literature to B. micrantha Gaud, are almost entirely 

1 Type herbarium not cited, but the Paris and Delessert herbaria contain 
specimens. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXX 




BIDENS CAMPYLOTHECA Schz. Bip. 



OF THt 

OF (HINDIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 147 

untrustworthy. In studying the recent collections from the Hawaiian 
Islands, I was impressed with the resemblance of a certain plant 
(G. C. Munro 602) to Gaudichaud's illustration. The leaves possessed 
the same peculiar outlines as in the drawing. A careful study of the 
plant showed that it was positively the true B. micrantha. Several 
other plants that, while varying in several minor details from this 
plant, were seen to belong nevertheless with it specifically, were then 
assembled. From this small group of specimens, together with some 
of Gaudichaud's own original specimens (Del.; Par.), I have been 
able to draw up the above description. 

Gray's description of his B. sandvicensis var. heterophylla is seen 
to have been derived primarily from his specimen (Gray) of Remy 
281. But that plant, as I have pointed out before (Bot. Gaz. 70: 97, 
footnote 9. 1920), is merely a form of B. micrantha. Contrary to my 
former understanding of the matter, however, the name B. luxurians 
Hook. & Arn. (nee alior.), although used by Gray synonymously, 
must be kept distinct from Gray's var. heterophylla and so from B. 
micrantha. The name B. luxurians Hook. & Arn. was based upon a 
plant (Kew) collected by Captain Beechey on the Island of Oahu 
and very different from B. micrantha Gaud. 

Bid ens micrantha var. /3. laciniata (Hillebr.) Sherff, 

Bot. Gaz. 85: 8. 1928. 

Campylotheca micrantha var. laciniata Hillebr. Fl. Haw. Isls. 216. 
1888. 

Foliola latiora, magis profunde serrata, ad medium etiam laciniata. 

Type specimen : Found by William Hillebrand upon the Island of 
Maui, Hawaiian Islands. 1 

Distribution: Islands of Maui and Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Faurie 997, Wailuku, Maui, August, 1909 
(Brit.) ; C. N. Forbes & C. M. Cook, Jr., 2AM, Maunahooma, western 
Maui, May, 1910 (Bish. ; Field) ; William Hillebrand, south ridge of 
valley of Wailuku, Maui, August, 1870 (Brit.); idem, Kula, eastern 
Maui, 1871 (U.S.; sub nom. Campylotheca micrantha j3.); idem, 
Haleakala Crater, Maui (Berl.); idem, Isl. Hawaii (Berl.); idem & 
J. M. Lydgate, Kula, Maui (Bish.) ; J. M. Lydgate, eodem loco (Berl.) ; 
J. Remy 280, Maui, 1851-1855 (Gray). 

In his Flora of the Hawaiian Islands, Hillebrand listed two 

varieties under Bidens micrantha Gaud. (Campylotheca micrantha 

t 

1 Hillebrand's first cited locality, Honuaula, appears unrepresented by material 
in herbaria. For specimens from his second and third localities, viz., Kula and 
Wailuku respectively, see text. 



148 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Cass.). One of these was his var. laciniata, and for its habitat the 
islands of Maui (Honuaula, Kula, Wailuku) and Hawaii were cited. 
Fortunately, there still exists in the herbarium of the Bernice Pauahi 
Bishop Museum a specimen collected by Hillebrand and Lydgate at 
Kula, Maui, and determined on the original label as "ft. var. laciniata 
Hbd." Still another original specimen is in the British Museum of 
Natural History. It was collected by Hillebrand alone, at Wailuku, 
and was labeled "Campylotheca micrantha ft. var." Additional speci- 
mens are those by Lydgate, from Kula, and by Hillebrand, from 
Haleakala Crater on Maui (both in Hillebrand's private herbarium, 
Berl.). These plants came from Hillebrand's cited localities and 
may be regarded as authentic for the var. laciniata. The plant 
collected by Hillebrand on Hawaii has the leaves somewhat more 
deeply incised. 

Bidens micrantha var. 7. kaalana Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 85: 8. 1928. 
Campylotheca micrantha var. 7. Hillebr. Fl. Haw. Isls. 216. 1888. 

Kami acriter tetragoni praecipue si herbacei. Foliola plerumque 
3, ad apicem basimque minus elongata, dentibus 8-22 pro unico 
latere nunc perspicuis acribus apice saepe inflexis nunc minoribus. 
Capitula minora et ligulae breviores. Achaenia multum irregulari- 
terque curvata, plerumque exaristata sed corona setulosa coronata. 

Type specimen: Found on the Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands 
(see text). 

Distribution: Western Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined : C. N. Forbes, Makaha Valley, Kaala Range, 
February 12-19, 1909 (Field) ; Francis R. Fosberg 9482, erect, suf- 
frutescent herb, 1 meter tall, alt. 640 meters, Halona Valley, Waianae 
Mts., District Lualualei, May 12, 1933 (Field); idem 9515, suffru- 
tescent herb, 0. 5 meter tall, alt. 640 meters, dry ridge, Pohakea 
Pass, Honouliuli, eodem tempore (Field); William Hillebrand, 
Waianae Range (Berl., type). 

Hillebrand cited "Oahu! Kaala, and Waianae range" for his 
var. 7. In the apparent absence from herbaria of authentic original 
specimens, it had seemed unwise to attempt taking up this variety 
and giving it a formal name. Some years ago, however, the now 
deceased Charles N. Forbes sent me a large collection of Hawaiian 
specimens of Bidens which he had collected (cf. Bot. Gaz. 70: 98. 
1920), and among tjiese was one (Makaha Valley, Kaala Range, etc.; 
now in Hb. Field) from the type locality cited by Hillebrand. This 
matches Hillebrand's description very closely, and is so different 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXXI 




BIDENS VALIDA SherU 



THE GENUS BIDENS 149 

from typical B. micrantha that it may well be interpreted as repre- 
senting a valid variety. More recently (1933), I have been lent the 
entire Hillebrand collection of Bidens from Berlin. It contains two 
sheets labeled Campylotheca micrantha Cass. var. y. One bears a 
specimen from Makaleha, Oahu. This is true Bidens sandvicensis 
Less, and must be discarded. The other bears two specimens from 
Waianae Range, Oahu. These fit the type description closely and 
are seen to match the Forbes plant from Makaha Valley. 

The recently collected Fosberg 9482 is noteworthy in having larger 
and more conspicuously serrate leaflets, their teeth often up to 18-22 
on a single edge and frequently somewhat inflexed at the tip. (Its 
general appearance comes close to that of the plate given by Drake 
del Castillo [111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif . pi. 38. 1886] for Bidens micrantha 
Gaud. Remy 280 and 282, which Drake had for B. micrantha, and 
which I have not seen, were said by him to have come from Lanai 
and Maui. Later, however, he gave [p. 210] Hawaii for the habitat.) 
Fosberg 9488 (suffrutescent herb 0.7 meter tall, in dry forest, alt. 
580 meters, Halona Valley, District of Lualualei, Oahu, May 12, 
1933; Field) appears to be a hybrid between var. kaalana and B. 
fulvescens. So also does Harold St. John 13123 (common, 2-4 ft. 
tall, on open slopes, alt. 615 meters, Pohakea Pass, Halona, Lualualei 
Forest Reserve, Oahu, May 12, 1933; Bish. and Field). 

Bidens micrantha var. 5. caduca Sherff, Amer. Journ. Bot. 

22: 705. 1935. 

Campylotheca sandvicensis var. 0. Hillebr. Fl. Haw. Isls. 214. 1888. 
Bidens sandvicensis var. caduca Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 85: 7. 1928. 

Folia superiora simplicia vel tripartita, laminis vel segmentis 
magis elongatis oblongo-lanceolatis, dentibus (20-28 pro unico 
latere folii simplicis vel folii tripartiti folioli terminalis) minus pro- 
tractis. Capitula minora (pansa ad anthesin tantum circ. 7-8 mm. 
lata) et multo plura, inflorescentia corymbiformi sed vix exserta. 
Achaenia matura atra circ. 1 cm. longa, aristis filiformibus vix 
hamosis et mox caducis. 

Type specimen: Collected by William Hillebrand on the Island 
of Molokai, Hawaiian Islands (Berl.). 

Distribution: Island of Molokai. 

Specimens examined: Hillebrand, Molokai (type, Berl.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE X, FIGS, a-h 

Bidens micrantha: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.59; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X5.88; c, interior involucral bract, X5.88; 



150 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

d, ray corolla, X3.53; e, palea, X3.53; /, disc floret, X5.88; g, h, 
achenes, X3.53; all from Munro 122, in Hb. Bish. 

53. Bidens Menziesii (Gray) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 98. 1920. 
PI. XXXIII, figs, o, q-v. 

Coreopsis (Campylotheca) Menziesii Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 127. 

1861. 
Coreopsis Menziezii Gray ex Drake del Cast. Illustr. Fl. Ins. Mar. 

Pacif. 209. 1890. 
Foliorum segmenta longe angusteque linearia, integerrima. 

B. Menziesii sensu stricto. 
Foliorum segmenta saepe etiam usque ad 1.8 cm. lata, perspicue 

dentata var. /3. leptodonta. 

Foliorum segmenta angustissima et plerumque filiformia. 

var. 7. filiformis. 

Suffruticosa, plerumque glabrata, 6-14 dm. alta, caule interdum 
5 cm. crasso. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus 3-6 dm. longis, 
petiolo adjecto 6-15 cm. longa, bipinnata- (vel subternati-) secta, 
summa 3-5-partita; segmentis longe angusteque linearibus, circ. 
2-5 mm. latis, membranaceis, integerrimis, acriter apiculatis, mar- 
gine minute plus minusve revolutis. Capitula plurima in corymbum 
digesta, tenuiter breviterque pedicellata, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 
1-2 cm. lata et 3-4.5 mm. alta. Involucri plerumque glabrati 
bracteae exteriores circ. 5, tantum circ. 1 mm. longae, lineares vel 
lineari-spathulatae, apice subobtusae; interiores lanceolatae, circ. 
2.5-3.5 mm. longae. Flores ligulati 4 vel 5, flavi, ligula oblanceolati, 
apice subintegri, 6-9 mm. longi. Achaenia obcompressa, linearia, 
demum leviter flexuosa vel aegre torta, glaberrima, subnigra, unica 
facie circ. 4 primariis sulcis sulcata, apice calva rariusve obsolete 1 
vel 2 setis munita, 8-13 mm. longa et 0.6-1.1 mm. lata, exteriora 
saepe tenuiter subalata. 

Type specimen: Collected by the United States Southern Pacific 
Exploring Expedition under Captain Wilkes, upon the Island of 
Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands, 1840. 1 

Distribution: Islands of Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii, Hawaiian 
Islands. 

1 Gray mentioned no type, but the above specimen from Hawaii was the first 
cited. Gray cited also the Island of Maui for further U. S. S. Pacif. Expl. Exped. 
material, and definitely cited Menzies and Remy as additional collectors of the 
species. The Menzies and Remy plants are at Gray Herbarium, but my manu- 
script contains no mention of my having seen the type specimen there. The Wilkes 
specimen seen (U.S.) is the one from western Maui. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXXII 



A 






BIDENS AMPLECTENS Shcrff 



OF UL 

UNIVERSITY Of ILUNOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 151 

Specimens examined: F. D. Bennett, Maui (Berl.); Faurie 998, 
Kamalo, Molokai, June, 1910 (Brit.); idem 999, alt. 1,000 meters, 
Kamalo, Molokai, June, 1910 (Brit.); Degener & Wiebke 2894 pro 
parte, dry, sunny slopes, alt. about 450 meters, small valley east 
of East Fork of Kawela Gulch, Molokai, June 11, 1928 (Berl.; Brit.; 
Field, 2 sheets; Kew; N.Y.) ; iidem 3006, arid, barren ledges, on cliffs, 
east slope of Kapulei, Molokai, June 25, 1928 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; 
Field, 2 sheets; Kew; N.Y.); iidem 3007, hot, arid cliffs, second 
eastern gulch, Wawaia, Molokai, June 27, 1928 (Field, 2 sheets; 
N.Y.); iidem 3008, hot, barren cliffs, Kamalo Gulch, Molokai, 
June 29, 1928 (Field, 2 sheets; N.Y.); C. N. Forbes, ridge east of 
Wainu, western Maui, August, 1910 (Bish.; Field); idem 116Mo, 
mountains below Puu Kolekole, Molokai, July, 1912 (Bish.); idem 
241#, Kanehaha, Kona District, Hawaii, June 23, 1911 (Bish.); 
idem 590Mo, Molokai, September, 1912 (Bish.); William Hillebrand, 
gulch of Kalae, Molokai, June, 1870 (Berl., 2 sheets; Brit.); idem, 
Molokai, 1870 (Kew); idem, Central Plateau of Hawaii (Berl.); 
A. Menzies, Hawaiian Isls. (Kew, 2 sheets; Brit.); U. S. Expl. Exped. 
under Capt. Wilkes, western Maui (U.S.); Henry Wiebke 3083, 
arid cliffs, East Ohia, Molokai, July 17, 1928 (Berl.; Brit.; Field; 
Kew; N.Y.). 

Bidens Menziesii var. ft. leptodonta Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 85: 9. 1928. 
Campylotheca (Coreopsis} Menziesii var. ft. Hillebr. Fl. Haw. Isls. 
216. 1888. 

Foliorum segmenta primaria saepe etiam usque ad 1.8 cm. lata, 
interdum usque ad costam mediam secta, dentibus plerumque per- 
spicue elongatis et tenuibus. 

Type specimen: Collected by William Hillebrand on the Island 
of Maui, Hawaiian Isls. 1 

Distribution: Islands of Hawaii and Maui, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: C. N. Forbes 162#, slopes of Hualalai, 
Hawaii, June 15, 1911 (Bish.); Hillebrand 29, Kohala, Hawaii 
(Kew) ; idem 298, Hawaii (Kew) ; idem, Maui (sub nom. Campylotheca 
Menziesii ft. var., Brit.); J. F. Rock 8310, alt. 1,800 meters, Kemole, 
Mauna Kea, Hawaii (Gray). 

Hillebrand's var. ft., my var. leptodonta, was cited for eastern 
Maui and also the Island of Hawaii. His description is faulty, 

1 Hillebrand was not in the habit of designating his types as such, but the 
authentic specimen in the British Museum of Natural History, labeled by him 
Campylotheca Menziesii /3. var., appears to be the only one of its collection left by 
Hillebrand and hence may well be regarded as a type. 



152 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

giving the leaves as 2 inches long, the primary segments cut to 
the rachis. The leaves on some of his own material are over 5 
inches long; only comparatively few of the primary segments are cut 
to the rachis, but usually enough are thus deeply cut to impart a 
distinctive appearance to the foliage. 

Bidens Menziesii var. 7. filiformis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 85: 9. 1928. 

PI. XXXIII, fig. p. 

Campylotheca (Coreopsis) Menziesii var. 7. Hillebr. Fl. Haw. Isls. 
216. 1888. 

Foliorum segmenta secundaria angustissima et plerumque 
filiformia. 

Type specimen: Collected by William Hillebrand on the Central 
Plateau of the Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands (Berl.). 

Distribution: Islands of Hawaii and Molokai, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Degener & Wiebke 2894 pro parte, with 
the species, dry sunny slopes, alt. about 450 meters, small valley 
east of East Fork of Kawela Gulch, Molokai, June 11, 1928 (Berl.; 
Boiss.; Brit.; Field, 2 sheets; Kew; Mun.; N.Y.); C. N. Forbes 
877 H, Koehe, Hawaii, June 17, 1915 (Bish.; Field); Hillebrand, 
Central Plateau, Hawaii (type, Berl.); idem 30, eodem loco (Kew); 
idem & J. M. Lydgate, cum specie commixt., Hawaiian Isls. (Bish.); 
H. Mann & W. T. Brigham, Central Plateau, Hawaii (Bish.) ; iidem 
520, alt. 1,800 meters, Hualalai, Hawaii (Bish.; Del.; Gray; Kew; 
Mo.; U.S.); iidem 589, Hawaiian Isls. (Bish.); J. Remy 290, Hawaii, 
1851-1855 (Gray) ; J. F. Rock 8351, Nohonaohae Crater, Hawaii, 
June, 1910 (Gray). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIII, FIGS. 0-V 

Bidens Menziesii (figs, o, q-v): o, cauline leaf, X0.58; q, exterior 
involucral bract, X5.78; r, interior involucral bract, X5.78; s, ray 
corolla, X3.47; t, palea, X5.78; u, disc floret, X5.78; v, achene, 
X3.47; all from Wiebke 3083 in Hb. Field. 

Bidens Menziesii var. filiformis (fig. p) : small portion of branch 
with two subtended leaves, X5.78; from Forbes 877 H in Hb. Field. 

54. Bidens waianensis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 104. 1920. 

PI. XIV, figs. h-p. 
Campylotheca micrantha var. laciniata f. dissecta Skbg. Act. Hort. 

Gothoburg. 2: 273. 1925. 

Frutex glaber, supra ramosus, verisimiliter 5-8 dm. altus. Folia 
gracilia, petiolata petiolis tenuissimis 1.5-4 cm. longis, petiolo 



THE GENUS BIDENS 153 

adjecto 4-12 cm. longa et 3-6 cm. lata, plerumque pinnata vel plus 
minusve bipinnata, foliolis primariis lanceolatis serratis acuminatis 
vel iterum pinnatis lobis ultimis linearibus integris ad apicem acriter 
mucronatis. Capitula multa, corymbosa vel corymboso-paniculata, 
pansa ad anthesin circ. 6 mm. alta et 1.5-2 cm. lata, breviter supra 
folia exserta, floribus 15-25. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 6, 
lineares, glabratae vel sparsim glanduloso-pulverulentae, ad apicem 
subacutae, 1-2 mm. longae, quam bracteae interiores dimidio bre- 
viores. Flores ligulati circ. 5, flavidi, ligula oblongo-oblanceolati, 
ad apicem obtusi, circ. 1 cm. longi. Achaenia linearia, subtetragono- 
obcompressa, nigra, valde torta, glabra vel apicem versus remote 
setosa, exalata, matura exaristata et 6-10 mm. longa. 

Type specimen: Collected by Charles N. Forbes, No. 20230, 
at Kolekole Pass, Waianae Range, Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, 
February 1 and 2, 1915 (Field). 

Distribution: Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Otto Degener 3535, dry slope at edge of 
Forest Reserve, valley southeast of Kawaihapai Railroad Station, 
January 27, 1929 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Field; Kew; N.Y.); idem & 
Kwan Kee Park 4078, sunny, moderately dry ridge near Puumana- 
wahua, Waianae Ridge, September 27, 1931 (Berl.; Field; Gray; 
Mo.); iidem & Y. Nitta 4115, windy, grassy, moderately dry plain, 
Kolekole Pass, Waianae Range, March 13, 1932 (Berl.; Brit.; Field; 
Gray; Kew); iidem 4135, growing about 3 ft. high, comparatively 
weed-covered and grassy plateau near pipe line, one-half mile south- 
west of exact middle of summit ridge between Kaala and Kalena, 
April 24, 1932 (Berl.; Brit.; Field; Gray; Kew); iidem 4136, com- 
monly 5 ft. high, open forest ridge where rain is frequent, one-fourth 
mile northeast of plants under No. 4135, same date (Berl.; Field; 
Gray; Kew; N.Y.); iidem 4252, in dry, grassy, wind-swept 
region, Kolekole Pass, March 13, 1932 (Berl.; Brit.; Del.; Field; 
Goth.; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; N.Y.; Par.; U.S.); iidem 4253, 
below Puu Kalena, same date (Berl.; Field; Goth.); iidem & Wm. 
Bush 4129, rocky, rather dry slope partly covered with Lantana and 
grasses, 500 ft. northwest of Puu Kailio (near Kolekole Pass), 
May 1, 1932 (Field; Gray); iidem 4130, eodem loco et tempore 
(Berl.; Brit.; Field; Gray; Mo.); iidem 4131, eodem loco et tempore 
(Berl.; Brit.; Field; Gray; Mo.); Degener, Park, Potter, & Bush 
10046 pro parte, grassy, shrubby slope, west side of Makaleha 
Valley, July 21, 1935 (Field) ; Otto Degener & D. L. Topping 4119, 
LcmZcmo-covered, somewhat dry slope, along trail leading to top of 



154 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Keawaula Valley, March 24, 1932 (Field; Gray; Kew); iidem 10539, 
in dry scrub, northeast side of Puu Kumakalii, April 1, 1936 (Field) ; 
Degener & Henry Wiebke 2321, wind-swept arid grassy slope, Kole- 
kole Pass, January 1, 1928 (Berl.; Field, 3 sheets; Kew; Mun.); iidem 
& Guberlet 2294, wind-swept arid ridge, Kolekole Pass, December, 
1925 (N.Y.); C. N. Forbes 20230 (type, Field: cotype, Bish.); F. 
R. Fosberg 10884, erect herb 1.5 meters tall, moist forest, alt. 780 
meters, Puu Kawiwi-Puu Kaala ridge, Waianae Mts., March 31, 
1935 (Field) ; J. A. Harris, Oahu, August 22, 1924 (Field) ; A. S. Hitch- 
cock 13958, slope of hill, Schofield Barracks, pass at west end, July 
6, 1916 (U.S.); E. Y. Hosaka 177, shrub 3 ft. tall, alt. 750 meters, on 
dry slope, Puu Hapapa, back of Schofield Barracks, Waianaeuka, 
March 16, 1930 (Field; N.Y.; forma foliis plerumque indivisis); 
E. P. Hume 276, alt. 240 meters, dry slope, Waianae Valley, Waianae 
Mts., November 5, 1931 (Bish.; Field); Alfred Meebold (Degener 
distrib. No.) 4165, alt. 540 meters, Puu Hapapa, June, 1932 (Field; 
Gray; Kew); Kazuto Nitta (Degener distrib. No.) 3879, alt. 510 
meters, Mt. Kaala, October 13, 1929 (Field; forma foliis atypicis); 
idem (Degener distrib. No.) 3880, alt. 450 meters, Mt. Kaala, October 
13, 1929 (Field; forma); Carl Skottsberg 924, Waianae, October 24, 
1922 (Goth.); idem 1135, Makaha Valley, October 24, 1922 
(Field; cotype, Campylotheca micrantha var. laciniata f. dissecta 
Skbg.); J. F. G. Stokes, Kolekole Pass, 1915 (Bish.); D. L. Topping 
3405, dry hillsides, along firebreak trail on northeast slope between 
Mt. Kumakalii and Mt. Kalena, January 6, 1929 (Berl.; Field; 
N.Y.); idem 3406, eodem loco et tempore (Berl.; Field; N.Y.; forma 
foliis nunc simplicibus nunc tripartitis sed achaeniis maturis typica) ; 
idem 3407, eodem loco et tempore (Berl.; Brit.; Field; Kew; N.Y.); 
idem 3408a, eodem loco et tempore (Brit.; Field; N.Y.); idem 34086, 
eodem loco et tempore (Field); U. S. Expl. Exped. under Capt. 
Wilkes, sine loco (U.S.); eadem, Oahu (Gray; N.Y.); eadem, Kaala 
Mts., Waianae Range, 1838-1842 (N.Y.). 

Asa Gray had determined the specimens collected under Captain 
Wilkes as being Bidens micrantha Gaud. (Coreopsis micrantha Gray). 
Later, in discussing Bidens micrantha (Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 127. 
1861), he said: "Sandwich Islands, especially Oahu. Variable in the 
foliage, which is commonly more dissected than in Gaudichaud's 
figure." Clearly Gray had in mind the Wilkes plants, collected in the 
Waianae Range on Oahu. A study of the more recent specimens 
cited above, all collected in the same immediate locality, shows the 
same peculiarities of foliage. Furthermore, the floral and achenial 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXXIII 




BIDENS SANDVICENSIS var. SETOSA Sherff (figs. o-J) 

BIDENS BIPONTINA Sherff (figs, wi, n) 
BIDENS MENZIESII (Gray) Sherff (figs, o, q-v) and var. FILIFORMIS Sherff (fig. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 155 

characters are seen to be very distinct from those of the more widely 
distributed Bidens micrantha, which occurs not only on Oahu but 
also on Hawaii, Maui, and Lanai. 

Hybrids with B. amplectens (q.v.) are known. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV, FIGS, k-p 

Bidens waianensis: h, i, typical leaves, X0.67; j, exterior involu- 
cral bract, X6.67; k, interior involucral bract, X6.67; /, ray corolla, 
X4; m, palea, X6.67; n, disc floret, X6.67; o, p, achenes, X4; h, p, 
from cotype in Hb. Bish.; rest from type. 

55. Bidens Hillebrandiana (Dr. del Cast.) Deg. ex Sherff, 

Bot. Gaz. 85: 6. 1928. PL XXXIV. 

Campylotheca Remyi Hillebr. Fl. Haw. Isls. 211 and 212. 1888. 
Coreopsis Hillebrandiana Drake del Cast. Illustr. Fl. Ins. Mar. 

Pacif. 209. 1890. 

Campylotheca Rutifolia LeVl. Repert. Sp. Nov. 10: 123. 1911. 
Bidens Remyi (Hillebr.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 97. 1920; non B. Remyi 
Drake del Cast. op. cit. 78, pi. 39. 1888; nee Drake del Cast, 
ibid. 210. 1890. 

Omnino herbacea, late patens; ramis glabris, angulatis, 2-5 dm. 
longis, nonnullis decumbentibus et nodis radicantibus vel adscendenti- 
bus. Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis 1-5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
usque ad 12 cm. longa, nunc (rarissime) indivisa et ovata, nunc 
pinnatim 3-5-partita, nunc bipinnata foliolis lateralibus longe (usque 
ad 1 cm.) tenuiterque petiolulatis, segmentis obovatis vel oblongis, 
obtusis, crenatis, saepe decurrentibus, membranaceis vel crassius- 
culis, margine dentibusque eciliatis sed plus minusve induratis, 
plerumque revolutis, glabris vel interdum adpresso-hispidis. Capi- 
tula pauca vel subnumerosa, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis (nunc 
simplicibus nunc plus minusve decompositis) usque ad 1 dm. longis, 
radiata, pansa ad anthesin 4-6 mm. alta et 1 cm. lata. Involucri 
bracteae glabratae, exteriores circ. 4, lineari-oblongae, supra dila- 
tato-obtusae, 1-3 mm. longae; interiores ovato-lanceolatae, dupli- 
citer longae. Flores ligulati circ. 5, flavi, ligula elliptico-oblongi, 
apice obtuso-rotundati et obscure denticulati, 5 mm. longi. Achae- 
nia obcompressa, atra, lineari-oblonga, exalata, unica facie circ. 4- 
striata, margine erecto-ciliata, corpore usque ad circ. 8 mm. longa 
(paleas usque ad 1 cm. longas non aequantia) et circ. 1 mm. lata, 
biaristata aristis retrorsum hamosis 1-2.3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Jules Remy, No. 287, on the Island 
of Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands, 1851-1855 (Gray). 



156 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Distribution: Islands of Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii, Hawaiian 
Islands. 

Specimens examined: Otto Degener & Henry Wiebke 2097, 
exposed coast, Niulii, Kohala, Hawaii, August 6, 1926 (Field, 3 
sheets; Haw., 2 sheets); iidem 2166, seacoast, Kohala, Hawaii, 
July 31, 1926 (Field) ; Urbain Faurie 931, Wailau, Molokai, June, 
1910 (first cited number of Campylotheca Rutifolia LeVl.; Brit.; 
Par.); idem 965, Hawaiian Islands, 1909 (second cited number of 
Campylotheca Rutifolia LeVl.; Brit.); C. N. Forbes 268M, Hana, 
Maui, July, 1910 (Bish.; Field; Mo.); idem 524Mo, shore cliffs, 
Wailau Valley, Molokai, September, 1912 (Bish.); F. R. Fosberg 
9666, alt. 8 meters, talus slopes at foot of cliffs, Wailau Valley, 
Molokai, July 4, 1933 (Field) ; idem 9916, alt. 5 meters, ocean bluffs, 
Pauwalu Point, near Keanae, Maui, August 20, 1933 (Field); 
Kazuto Nitta (for Otto Degener) & Henry Wiebke 3173a, on talus 
slope and cliffs exposed to ocean spray during storms, western side of 
Wailau Valley, Molokai, August 4, 1928 (Field); iidem 31736, 
eodem loco, August 5, 1928 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Field, 2 sheets); 
iidem 3173c, eodem loco, August 11, 1928 (Berl.; Brit.; Field, 2 
sheets; Kew); iidem 3173d, eodem loco, August 12, 1928 (Berl.; 
Boiss.; Brit.; Field, 3 sheets; Kew); Jules Remy 287 (type, Gray); 
Anthony Apo Tarn (Degener distrib. No.) 4249, between Pawela and 
Huelo, eastern Maui, September, 1932 (Berl.; Brit.; Del.; Field; 
Goth.; Gray; Kew; Par.; nom. vulg., Aupana). 

A species offering apparently only little difficulty in determi- 
nation. The herbaceous, more or less prostrate branches, combined 
with the foliage habit, are very distinctive. The Forbes plants from 
Molokai and Maui have some of the' principal leaves bipinnate. 
Faurie 965 has a few of the leaves simple and has been described by 
LeVeill under the name Campylotheca Rutifolia. It appears different 
in no important respect, however, from ordinary B. Hillebrandiana. 

This species must not be confused with Bidens Remyi Drake 
del Cast., which was published at first (1888) with only a plate and 
analysis, the description following later (1890). Even though that 
name (based upon J. Remy 281) is referable to B. micrantha Gaud, 
(cf. Bot. Gaz. 70: 97, footnote 9. 1920), it nevertheless must be taken 
as having precluded the acceptance of my name 5. Remyi (Hillebr.), 
made later. Mr. 0. Degener suggested (in lit., February 21, 1927) the 
taking up, therefore, of the trivial name Hillebrandiana for the plant 
described first by Hillebrand under the name Campylotheca Remyi. 1 

1 1 am informed by Dr. John Hendley Barnhart, of the New York Botanical 
Garden (in lit., November 30, 1927), that Hillebrand's Flora Hawaiiensis was 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXXIV 




I3IDENS HILLEBRANDIANA (Dr. del Cast.) Deg. ex Sherff 



Of TR 



IUI 



THE GENUS BIDENS 157 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIV 

Bidens Hillebrandiana: a, fruiting branch, X0.56; 6, an individual 
appressed-hispid leaf, X0.56; c, exterior involucral bract, X5.6; d, 
interior involucral bract, X4.5; e, palea, X2.8; /, achene, X2.8; all 
from type. 

56. Bidens mauiensis (Gray) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 98. 1920. 

PI. XXXV, figs, a and e. 

Coreopsis mauiensis Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 125. 1861. 
Campylotheca mauiensis (Gray) Hillebrand, Fl. Haw. Isls. 211 and 

213. 1888. 

Capitula pansa ad anthesin circ. 1.5-2.5 cm. lata. 
Folia (rariter indivisa) plerumque trisecta vel etiam 3-5-partita 
segmentis oblongis vel subcuneatis. 

B. mauiensis sensu stricto. 

Folia nunc indivisa nunc tripartita laminis segmentisve lanceolatis 
vel ovatis vel subrhomboideis vel etiam late cuneato-spathu- 

latis var. /3. cuneatoides. 

Folia nunc indivisa laminis ovato-orbiculatis basi latissime cunea- 
tis vel etiam subtruncatis, nunc 3-5-partita segmentis saepius 
rhomboideo-ovatis et apice obtusis. .hybrida B. mauiensis 
var. cuneatoides X B. Hillebrandiana. 
Capitula pansa ad anthesin saepius circ. 1.2-1.5 cm. lata. 
Folia principalia saepius 5-partita parce bipinnatisecta. 

var. d. media. 

Folia plerumque indivisa rarius tripartita var. . Forbesiana. 

Folia valde 2-3-pinnatisecta var. 7. lanaiensis. 

Decumbens, inferne lignea, valde ramosa, sparsim pubescens, 
mox glabrata, ramis 1.5-4.5 dm. longis, dichotomis, in furcis seniori- 
bus pedunculos marcidos ferrentibus. Folia petiolata petiolis 1-2.5 
cm. longis, petiolo adjecto usque ad circ. 5 cm. longa, rariter nonnulla 
indivisa et ovato-deltoidea, plerumque trisecta vel etiam 3-5- 
partita segmentis oblongis vel subcuneatis, obtusis acutisve, inciso- 
dentatis vel etiam pinnatipartitis, submembranaceis, margine ple- 
rumque eciliatis. Capitula longe pedunculata pedunculis nudis 
monocephalicis folia multo superantibus 7-18 cm. longis, radiata, 
pansa ad anthesin 1.5-2.5 cm. lata et 6-8 mm. alta. Involucri 

mentioned in the Journal of Botany for April, 1888, and was published "probably 
in March" of that year. Dr. Barnhart finds Drake del Castillo's work (111. Fl. 
Ins. Mar. Pacif., fasc. 4) referred to later, Nat. Novit., 2nd number for June, 1888; 
he believes that Drake del Castillo's work (fasc. 4) was published "probably late 
in May" of the same year. 



158 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

bracteae exteriores 6-8, oblongo-lineares vel lineari-spathulatae, 
interdum ciliatae, ad apicem saepe glandulo-apiculatae, 3-4.5 mm. 
longae, interioribus subaequales. Flores ligulati 7 vel 8, flavidi, 
ligula elliptico-oblongi vel oblongo-oblanceolati, apice 3-dentati, 
7-9 mm. longi; flores disci circ. 10. Achaenia plana, glabra, brunneo- 
atra, oblonga, alata, recta vel parce curvata, corpore 6-8 mm. 
longa et alis exclusis 0.8-1.2 (alis inclusis 1.5-2.1) mm. lata, alis 
supra in dentes vel aristas obsoletas et interdum seta minuta hori- 
zontali instructas productis. 

Type specimen: Collected by the United States Southern Pacific 
Exploring Expedition under Captain Wilkes, sandy or dry hills near 
the coast, Island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands, 1840 (Gray; see dis- 
cussion under var. cuneatoides}. 

Distribution: Islands of Maui and Molokai, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Degener & Wiebke 2678, extremely arid, 
almost bare hills, from Papawai Point toward Puu Anu through 
Manawainui Gulch, Maui, July 12, 1927 (Brit.; Field; N.Y.); iidem 
2679, extremely dry, barren hills near McGregor, west Maui, July 
10, 1927 (Berl.; Boiss.; Field; Kew); William Hillebrand, Molokai 
(Berl.); idem, road between Lahaina and Wailuku, western Maui 
(Berl.); idem & J. M. Lydgate, Isthmus of Maui (Bish.); Jules Remy 
289, Maui, 1851-1855 (Gray); U. S. S. Pacif.ExpLExped. under CapL 
Wilkes, sandy or dry hills, etc. (type, Gray: cotypes, N.Y.; Par.). 

For critical notes see under var. cuneatoides. 

Bidens mauiensis var. /3. cuneatoides Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 86: 440. 
1928. PL XXXV, figs, b-d, f-o. 

A specie foliis nunc indivisis nunc tripartitis laminis segmentisve 
lanceolatis vel ovatis vel subrhomboideis vel etiam late cuneato- 
spathulatis, habitu fere Bidentis cuneatae differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by Otto Degener and Henry Wiebke, 
No. 2680, on barren aeolian deposits near Wailuku, Island of Maui, 
Hawaiian Islands, July 9, 1927 (Field). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality on the Island of 
Maui, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Degener & Wiebke 2261, arid, aeolian 
deposits, southeast of Wailuku, July 7, 1927 (Berl.; Boiss.; Field, 
2 sheets; Kew; Mun.); iidem 2680 (type, Field: cotypes, Berl.; 
Boiss.; Brit.; Kew; N.Y.); H. Mann & W. T. Brigham 372, Isthmus 
of Maui (Bish.; Brit.; Corn.; Del.; Field, 2 sheets; Gray; Kew; Mo.; 
U.S., etc.). 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXXV 




j cadi b 

BIDENS MAUIENSIS (Gray) Sherff (figs, a, e); var. CUNEATOIDES Sherff (figs, b-d, f-o) 



Of THt 
UMIYERSITY OF 



THE GENUS BIDENS 159 

The type material of Bidens mauiensis (the species proper) had 
the leaves, except for one small branchlet apparently somewhat 
ignored by Asa Gray in writing his original description, rather well 
dissected, with segments mostly linear to oblong, rarely rhombic- 
ovate. The duplicate sheet in the Torrey Herbarium (N.Y.) has, 
at the right, one specimen with some leaves tripartite and some 
undivided, the blades or their segments more or less rhombic-ovate, 
and somewhat suggestive of those of Bidens cuneata Sherff. Doubtless 
had Gray seen this last specimen he would have presented a different 
or an additional treatment. In any case, we are fortunate in having 
at hand two new and excellent series of specimens collected in July, 
1927, by Degener and Wiebke in the type region. Their Nos. 2678 
and 2679 are of the species as described by Gray. Their Nos. 2261 
and 2680 have the leaves simple or merely tripartite. These latter 
thus match the ignored or at least undescribed specimens collected 
with Gray's type of the species proper. They are matched in turn 
by Mann & Brigham 372. The specimens of Mann & Brigham 372 
at the Delessert Herbarium, the Bishop Museum, and the United 
States National Herbarium have the leaves mostly simple, but else- 
where they are mainly tripartite. 

The pronounced difference between the two types of foliage 
makes it appear worth while to treat the plants with simple or 
tripartite foliage as varietally distinct. 

Bidens mauiensis var. cuneatoides X B. Hillebrandiana 

Folia nunc indivisa laminis ovato-orbiculatis basi latissime 
cuneatis vel etiam subtruncatis, nunc 3-5-partita segmentis saepius 
rhomboideo-ovatis et apice obtusis. Capitula ad anthesin non valde 
radiata, disco circ. 1.2-1.4 cm. lato. Achaenia latiora alis inclusis 
principalia 3.2-3.8 mm. latis. 

Distribution: Southwesternmost East Maui. 

Specimens examined: Anthony Apo Tarn (Otto Degener distrib. 
No.) 4329, near the beach at Kanaio, Island Maui, November 28, 
1932 (Field; N.Y. ; etc.). 

Bidens mauiensis var. 7. lanaiensis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80: 381. 1925. 
Campylotheca mauiensis var. /3. (sine nom.) Hillebrand, Fl. Haw. 

Isls. 213. 1888. 

Var. foliis magis membranaceis et magis divisis, petiolis tenuibus 
usque ad 5 cm. longis; capitulis minoribus, pansa ad anthesin 
circ. 1.2-1.5 cm. latis; bracteis exterioribus minoribus; floribus 



160 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

ligulatis plerumque tan turn 5 vel 6; achaeniis brevioribus 5-7 mm. 
longis, atris, plano-convexis vel etiam subtetragonis, mine anguste 
alatis nunc exalatis, apice exaristatis sed minute coronulatis. 

Type specimen: Collected by William Hillebrand, Island of 
Lanai, Hawaiian Islands, in 1870 (Gray). 

Distribution: Islands of Lanai and Maui, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Hillebrand, Lanai (Berl.) ; idem, eodem loco, 
July, 1870 (Brit.; Gray; Kew); idem, eodem loco, 1870 (type, Gray: 
cotype, Berl.); idem, northern Maui (Brit.). 

The specimens from Lanai, as also the Hillebrand specimen from 
"northern Maui," are of the same general habit as the typical B. 
mauiensis from Maui (and Molokai), but in respect to the characters 
noted above are definitely marked. It will be observed that there 
are more pronounced differences than are found to occur in certain 
other cases between two accepted species (e.g., Bidens connata and 
B. comosa, B. coronata and B. mitis, B. pilosa and B. biternata). In 
the case at hand, however, the remarkable degree of endemism mani- 
fested by Hawaiian plants renders the value of these distinguishing 
characters somewhat uncertain. For the present, I have thought 
it best to follow mainly the treatment of Hillebrand and of Charles 
N. Forbes, both of whom regarded the Lanai material as representing 
a variety (or varieties) of B. mauiensis. 

Bidens mauiensis var. 5. media Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 86: 441. 1928. 

Ex characteribus pro maxima parte var. lanaiensi similis sed 
foliis principalibus saepius 5-partitis parce bipinnatisectis minus 
decomposita; ex var. Forbesiana foliis non plerumque indivisis 
differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by George C. Munro, No. 450, Maunalei, 
Island of Lanai, Hawaiian Islands, April 19, 1915 (Field). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Island of Lanai, 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: G. C. Munro 450 (type, Field : cotype, Bish.). 

See remarks under next following var. Forbesiana. 

Bidens mauiensis var. e. Forbesiana Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 86: 441. 1928. 

Ex characteribus pro maxima parte var. lanaiensi similis sed 
foliis plerumque indivisis rarius tripartitis differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by George C. Munro, No. 451, Maunalei, 
Island of Lanai, Hawaiian Islands, April 19, 1915 (Bish.). 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXXVI 




c a b d 

BIDENS MOLOKAIENSIS (Hillebr.) Sherff 



Of THt 

of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 161 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Island of Lanai, 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: G. C. Munro 451 (type, Bish.). 

This and the var. media were included in a former paper (Bot. 
Gaz. 80: 381. 1925) among the plants referred to B. mauiensis var. 
lanaiensis. The considerations already referred to, however, for the 
var. cuneatoides make it appear similarly preferable here to segregate 
from the var. lanaiensis the two types of foliage which differ in not 
being finely dissected. 

The name Forbesiana alludes to Charles Noyes Forbes, who 
before his death (in 1920) had studied the type plant and regarded 
it as typifying a new variety. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXV 

Bidens mauiensis, figs, a and e: a, flowering branch, X0.67; e, leaf 
from plant shown in a, drawn to show characteristic appearance of 
leaves when dry and folded, X0.67; from one of several specimens on 
type sheet in Hb. Gray. 

Bidens mauiensis var. cuneatoides, figs, b-d, f-o: b, entire flowering 
plant, X0.67; c, d, tripartite leaves, X0.67; /, exterior involucral 
bract, X3.35; g, interior involucral bract, X3.35; h, ray corolla, 
X3.35; i, palea, X3.35; j, disc floret, X3.35; k, anthers, X23.5; I, 
upper portion of pistil, X23.5; m, peripheral ovary, X13.4; n, o, 
achenes, X3.35; 6, c, m-o, from material in blue envelope on type 
sheet of species proper, in Hb. Gray; d, from sheet bearing cotype of 
species proper in Hb. N.Y.; f-l, from Mann & Brigham 372, in 
Hb. Mo. 

57. Bidens molokaiensis (Hillebr.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 97. 1920. 

PI. XXXVI. 

Campylotheca molokaiensis Hillebr. Fl. Haw. Isls. 211, 212. 1888. 
Coreopsis molokaiensis (Hillebr.) Drake del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 
Pacif. 210. 1890. 

Herba humilis, infra fruticosa; caule brevi subprostrato vel fere 
erecto, ad apicem ramoso ; ramis parce dividentibus, saepe radicanti- 
bus, 1.5-3 dm. longis. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus 1.5-3 cm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto 2.8-7 cm. longa et 1-2.5 cm. lata, plerumque 
indivisa, ovata vel subdeltoidea, ad apicem subobtusa vel sub- 
acuminata, serrata, basi lata saepe subcordata; rarius plus minusve 
tripartita, foliolis latis, terminali quam lateralibus multo majore. 
Capitula solitaria, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 8 mm. alta et 1.5-2.5 



162 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

cm. lata, pedunculata pedunculis tenuibus 1-2 dm. longis, disci 
floribus circ. 10-24. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 6-8, lineares 
vel lineari-lanceolatae, crassae, saepe plus minusve hispidae, saepe 
glandule apiculatae, bracteas interiores paulo excedentes. Flores 
ligulati plerumque 8, flavi, ligula anguste obovati, apice plerumque 
lobati, circ. 0.8-1.2 cm. longi. Achaenia late linearia, recta, exalata, 
plus minusve ciliata, corpore 9-11 mm. longa, ad apicem (saepe 
setosa et) biaristata aristis acribus et superne retrorsum ciliatis, 
1.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by William Hillebrand, near seashore 
at Waikolu, on north shore of Island of Molokai, Hawaiian Islands, 
in 1870 (Berl.). 

Distribution: Island of Molokai, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Urbain Faurie 994, Kamalo, June, 1910 
(Par.); Otto Degener 2868, rocky, dry, clay slopes, Kapale Gulch, 
May 6, 1928 (Berl.; Boiss.; Field, 4 sheets; Kew); idem & Henry 
Wiebke 2869, exposed, grassy cliff ledges several hundred feet above 
sea, Pohakunui, May 17, 1928 (Berl.; Boiss.; Field, 7 sheets; Kew); 
iidem 3004, Naiwa coastal cliffs, above Kalaupapa, June 18, 1928 
(Field, 2 sheets; N.Y.); C. N. Forbes 523Mo, shore cliffs, Wailau 
Valley, September, 1912 (Bish.) ; idem 570Mo, Pelekunu Valley, Sep- 
tember, 1912 (Bish.) ; F. R. Fosberg 9671, grassy clearing in forest, 
Wailau Valley, July 4, 1933 (Field) ; Hillebrand, seashore, Kalawau 
(Kalawao) and Waikolu, 1870 (type material, Berl., 2 sheets; Brit.; 
Gray; Kew); Kazuto Nitta (forO^o Degener) & Henry Wiebke 3174, 
on talus slope and cliffs exposed to ocean spray during storms, western 
side of Wailau Valley, August 11, 1928 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Field, 
4 sheets; Kew; Mun.); iidem 31746, eodem loco, August 5, 1928 
(Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Del.; Field; Kew; Mun.); J. Remy 288, Molo- 
kai, 1851-1855 (Par.). 

Bidens molokaiensis appears to hybridize with B. Hillebrandiana. 1 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXVI 

Bidens molokaiensis: a, flowering specimen, X0.72; b, exterior 
involucral bract, X3.6; c, interior involucral bract, X3.6; d, ray 

1 We may cite here two collections: Nitta & Wiebke 3175, collected with 
3173 (B. Hillebrandiana) and 3174 (B. molokaiensis), but in slightly higher, richer 
locality, August 11, 1928 (Field); iidem 3176, collected with 3173 and 3174, August 
5, 1928 (Berl.; Brit.; Field, 3 sheets; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; U.S.). Mr. Otto 
Degener (in lit. September 18, 1928) regarded these as perhaps hybrids between B. 
molokaiensis and B. Hillebrandiana, and to me No. 3176 appears as almost cer- 
tainly so. Mature achenes of each were planted in October, 1928, but failed to 
germinate. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXXVII 




BIDENS COSMOIDES (Gray) Sherff 



Of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 163 

corolla, X3.6; e, palea, X3.6;/, disc floret, X3.6; g, h, achenes (show- 
ing range of ciliation on same plant), X3.6; a-/, from cotype in Hb. 
Kew; g, h, from Remy 288, in Hb. Par. 

58. Bidens cuneata Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 102 and pi. 13. 1920. 

PI. XII, figs. j-p. 

Frutex ramosus, verisimiliter 6-10 dm. altus, ramis dichotomis, 
tenuibus, infra foliosis, supra in pedunculos productis. Folia cras- 
siuscula, rhomboideo-ovata, dentata (dentibus in unico latere 
plerumque 3-5), ad apicem acuta, ad basim anguste vel late cuneata, 
petiolata petiolis tenuibus 1-2 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 3-5 cm. 
longa et 1-2 cm. lata. Capitula solitaria, ligulata, pansa ad anthesin 
circ. 6 mm. alta et 2-2.5 cm. lata, pedunculis tenuibus 0.8-1.8 dm. 
longis. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 7, lineares, glabratae, 
glandulo-apiculatae, bracteas interiores subaequantes. Flores ligu- 
lati flavi, ligula late lanceolati, ad apicem denticulati, 8-11 mm. 
longi. Achaenia linearia, exalata, ad margines sparsissime ciliata, 
ad apicem ciliato-coronata, exaristata, 6-7 mm. longa. 

Type specimen: Collected by William Allanson Bryan, at Dia- 
mond Head, Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, December 6, 1903 
(Bish.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Diamond Head, 
Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined : Bryan, Diamond Head, December 6, 1903 
(type, Bish.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XII, FIGS, j-p 

Bidens cuneata: j, fruiting branch, X0.63; k, exterior involucral 
bract, X4.41; I, interior involucral bract, X4.41; m, ray corolla, 
X4.41; n, palea, X4.41; o, disc floret, X4.41; p, achene, X4.41; all 
from type. 

59. Bidens Saint-Johniana Sherff, Bish. Mus. Occas. Paps. 

12. No. 19: 12 and pi. 6. 1937. 

Fruticosa, implicata decumbensve, glabra, ramosa. Folia petio- 
lata petiolis alato-marginatis basi subconnatisi 1 cm. longis, petiolo 
adjecto plerumque tantum 3-4 cm. longa et 1.7-3 cm. lata, ad 
ramorum apices plus minusve adgregata, rhomboideo-orbiculata, 
apice saepius rotundata, supra medium acerrime serrata dentibus 
mucronatis inflexisque (saepius 3-12 pro utraque margine), inde 
usque ad basim (petiolo incluso) angustata lateribus concavis, mem- 
branacea. Capitula solitaria vei subsolitaria pedunculis tenuibus 



164 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

glabris 1 dm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 3 cm. lata et 
8 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores 5-8, saepe crassiusculae, 
anguste vel moderate oblongae vel oblongo-subobovatae, apice 
obtusae, tergo plurinervatae et glabrae sed saepe longitudinaliter 
rugosae, circ. 7-8 mm. longae; interiores ovatae, apice puberulentae, 
paulo breviores. Flores ligulati circ. 8, flavi, ligula oblongo-obovati, 
apice saepe obsolete denticulati, circ. 1.3 cm. longi. Paleae lineares, 
superne attenuatae colorataeque, circ. 6-8 mm. longae. Achaenia 
griseo-atra vel atro-brunnea, oblongo-linearia, obcompresso-tetra- 
gona, facie quaque 2-sulcata, costis marginibusque perspicue brevi- 
setosa setis acerrimis plerumque antrorsis rarius retrorsis, exalata, 
recta vel subarcuata, corpore 6-9.3 cm. longa et 1-1.7 mm. lata, 
sub apice raro in rostrum crassum et 1 mm. longum angustata, 
apice biaristata; aristis erectis, tenuibus, 1-3.5 mm. longis, acerrime 
supra plerumque retrorsum infra saepe antrorsum hamosis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Harold St. John, No. 15688, matted 
or trailing over basalt ledges or soil and guano, at altitude of 30 
meters, Southeast Islet, Marotiri Islands, July 22, 1934 (Bish.). 

Distribution: Southeast Islet, Marotiri (Maretiri or Bass) Islands. 

Specimens examined: Harold St. John 15683, trailing, shallow 
soil on basalt, alt. 80 meters, the reduced state of drier, more exposed 
places, Southeast Islet, July 22, 1934 (Berl.; Bish.; Field); idem 
15688 (type, Bish.: cotypes, Berl.; Field; Kew). 

60. Bidens Cosmoides (Gray) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70: 98. 1920. 

PI. XXXVII. 

Coreopsis (Campylotheca') Cosmoides Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 126. 

1861. 

Frutex erectus, valde sese extendens, 1.2-2.4 m. altus; ramis 
herbaceis, glabris, plus minusve quadrangulatis. Folia membra- 
nacea, ternata vel pinnata vel summa indivisa, petiolo adjecto 0.8- 
1.4 dm. longa; foliolis (3-5, raro etiam -9) lanceolatis vel ovato- 
lanceolatis, acuminatis, serratis, glabratis vel sparsissime hispidis, 
saepe ciliatis, lateralibus sessilibus vel indistincte petiolulatis, 4-7 
cm. longis et 1.3-2.8 cm. latis, terminali paulo majore; petiolis 
tenuibus, plerumque fere glabris, 2-6 cm. longis. Capitula maxima, 
solitaria, cernua, longe pedunculata pedunculis demum circ. 6-9 
cm. longis, ligulata, pansa ad anthesin 3-4 cm. alta et 5-6.5 (vel 
etiam -9) cm. lata. Involucri bracteae exteriores 8-10, foliaceae, 
oblongo-lanceolatae vel lineares, erectae vel reflexae, acutae vel 
subobtusae, plerumque ciliatae, 1-2 cm. longae, interioribus longiores. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXXVIII 




BIDENS CLARENDONENSIS Britt. 



OF THfc 
ilNIVFRSITY OF 



THE GENUS BIDENS 165 

Flores ligulati 8-14, flavi, ligula oblanceolati, acriter 2-3-dentati, 
3-4 cm. longi; disci floribus circ. 50, genitalibus praesertim stylo 
longissimo (circ. 3 cm. longo) valde exsertis. Achaenia matura non 
vidi ; immatura linearia, exalata, plus minusve flexuoso-curvata, mar- 
ginibus faciebusque hispidula, apice setuloso-coronulata et plerum- 
que aristis 2 brevibus vel brevissimis munita. 

Type specimen : Collected by the United States Exploring Expedi- 
tion under Captain Wilkes, in mountains on Island of Kauai, Hawaiian 
Islands, 1840 (U.S.). 

Distribution: Island of Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. 

Specimens examined: Otto Degener & Henry Wiebke 2168, sunny 
slope in light forest, Halemanu, Kokee, June 27, 1926 (Berl. ; Field, 
3 sheets; Kew; Par.); Urbain Faurie 933, Waimea, March, 1910 
(Brit.); C. N. Forbes 218K, Wahiawa Mountains, August, 1909 
(Bish.); idem 785K, west side of Waimea Drainage Basin, July 3- 
August 18, 1917 (Bish., 2 sheets); idem W85K, eodem loco et tempore 
(Bish.); idem 1698K, Kololau trail, Waimea Drainage Basin, July 3- 
August 18, 1917 (Bish.); A. A. Heller 2791, Kaholuamanoa, above 
Waimea, September 2-9, 1895 (Bish. ; Brit. ; Calif. ; Corn. ; Kew; Minn. ; 
N.Y. ; Par., 2 sheets; Phila. ; U.S.) ; A. S. Hitchcock 15291 et 15388, alt. 
1,080 meters, Kaholuamanoa, October 20, 1916 (U.S.); J. M. 
Lydgate, Kauai (Bish.); Mann & Brigham, alt. 900 meters, Waimea 
(Corn.); iidem 537, alt. 600-900 meters, Waimea (Brit.; Del.; Gray; 
Kew; U.S.); J. Remy 278, Hawaiian Isls., 1851-1855 (Gray); J. F. 
Rock 10291, Kaholuamanoa, October 20, 1911 (Gray, 2 sheets; 
Par.); Mrs. Francis Sinclair, Jr., Hawaiian Isls. (Kew); H. St. John, 
F. R. Fosberg, & V. Oliveira 13699, 4-6 ft. tall, alt. 1,110 meters, edge 
of wet woods, Kokee, Waimea, Na Pali-Kona Forest Reserve, Decem- 
ber 27, 1933 (Field) ; U. S. Expl. Exped. under Capt. Wilkes, Kauai 
(type, U.S.); Heinrich Wawra, Kauai (Berl.). 

A strange and anomalous species. Not only are the acutely 
toothed, numerous rays and the large, wide involucral bracts dis- 
tinctive but the style column is remarkably elongate and might 
with some botanists serve as a basis for a separate genus. 

Hillebrand (Fl. Haw. Isls. 214. 1888) cites only the Island 
of Kauai for this species, listing the United States Exploring Expedi- 
tion, Remy, Mann, and Knudsen as the collectors of it there. Gray's 
citation of the Island of Hawaii for the type, collected by the U. S. 
Exploring Expedition, was surely erroneous. The Gray Herbarium 
lacks a specimen of the type collection, but the type itself (U.S.) 
has "Mts., Kauai" on the label. The Sinclair plant, with "Hawaii" 



166 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

on the label, doubtless came from Kauai. Mrs. Sinclair has illustrated 
this species elsewhere (Indig. Fl. Haw. Isls. pi. 19. 1885) and stated 
that the various species collected by her came from the islands of 
Kauai and Niihau. 

According to Mrs. Sinclair, it is a "spreading bushy plant, five or 
six feet high, with twining, interlacing, branches, one plant covering 
from eight to ten feet of ground. It generally grows under the 
shade of the open forest, in the mountain regions at various heights 
above the sea, but seldom less than two thousand feet. 

"In ordinary seasons it blooms in April and May, but occasionally 
flowers may be found as late as the end of June or beginning of July. 

"The Poolanui [nomen incolarum] is quite a striking flower, 
not only on account of its size and colour, but also on account of the 
great number in bloom at the same time giving the sombre forest 
quite a bright appearance during the spring months. It is a useful 
fodder plant, cattle and horses eating it with avidity, but it soon 
disappears if constantly eaten down." 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXVII 

Bidens Cosmoides: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.6; b, 
exterior involucral bract, Xl.81; c, interior involucral bract, Xl.81; 
d, ray corolla, Xl.81; e, palea, Xl.81;/, disc floret, Xl.81; g, anthers, 
X7.26; h, upper portion of pistil, X 10.89; i, achene, Xl.81; a, from 
Remy 278, in Hb. Gray; rest from Heller 2791, in Hb. Mo. and 
Hb. Field. 

61. Bidens clarendonensis Britt. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 
39:9.1912. PI. XXXVIII. 

Perennis, glabra; caule repenti, subligneo, tereti, saepe 4 m. 
longo, ramoso ramis teretibus. Folia petiolata petiolis superne 
marginatis 1-3.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 5-10 cm. longa, nitido- 
subcoriacea, valde odorata, indivisa, rhomboideo-ovata, grosse 
serrata 5-16 dentibus in unico latere, apice acuta, basi late cuneata, 
marginibus subindurato-revoluta et non ciliata, venis brunneis 
numerosis perspicue venata. Capitula perpauca, subumbellata, 
pedunculata pedunculis 0.5-2 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 
circ. 2.5 cm. lata. Involucrum glabratum vel hispidum; bracteis 
exterioribus 9-13, plus minusve biseriatim dispositis, late linearibus 
vel lineari-lanceolatis, acutis vel obtusis, rarenter paulum ciliatis, 
8-11 mm. longis, 1.5-2 mm. latis, interiores saepe superantibus. 
Flores ligulati circ. 5, aurantiaco-flavi, ligula oblongi, apice integri 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XXXIX 




BIDENS MONTICOLA Poepp. & Endlich. 



or ut 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 167 

vel saepius minute 2- vel 3-dentati, 1.5-2 cm. longi. Achaenia linea- 
ria, subtetragona, longitudinaliter omnino circ. 8-sulcata (unica 
facie plerumque 2-sulcata), glabra, corpore 8-10 mm. longa, bre- 
viter et saepe inaequaliter biaristata (vel una vel etiam duabus 
aristis saepe deficientibus) ; aristis mine retrorsum hamosis hamis 
perpaucis, mine calvis, usque ad 1 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by William Harris, No. 10987, in Peck- 
ham Woods, at altitude of 750 meters, Upper Clarendon, Jamaica, 
July7,1911(N.Y.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality at Upper Claren- 
don, Jamaica. 

Specimens examined: Harris 10987 (type, N.Y.: cotype, Kew); 
idem 11180, alt. 750 meters, Peckham Woods, Upper Clarendon, 
Jamaica, September 27, 1912 (Field; Kew; Mo.; N.Y.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXVIII 

Bidens clarendonensis: a, fruiting branch (one leaf drawn to show 
characteristic venation), X0.69; b, exterior involucral bract, X3.45; 
c, interior involucral bract, X3.45; d, ray corolla, X3.45; e, palea, 
X3.45; /, disc floret, X3.45; g, anthers, X20; h, pollen grain, X414; 
i, upper portion of pistil, X20;;, achene, X5.5; a, mainly from type; 
rest from Harris 10987, in Hb. Field. 

62. Bidens monticola Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 3: 49, 
pi 255. 1845. PI. XXXIX. 

Bidens Rubifolia H.B.K. var. monticola Baker in Mart. Fl. Brasil. 

6, pt. 3:245. 1884. 

Frutex valde dumosus, glaber, 1.2-2.5 m. altus; ramis erectis 
vel suberectis, teretibus, lignosis, principalibus plus minusve elon- 
gatis, ramulis oppositis vel potius trichotomis. Folia petiolata 
petiolis subalatis planis 0.7-2 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 4-10 cm. 
longa et 1-3 cm. lata, oblongo-lanceolata vel rhomboideo-ovata, 
apice acuminata, basi cuneata in petiolum attenuata, marginibus 
argute et regulariter serrata, utrinque glaberrima, subtus in colorem 
sordide badium vergentia. Capitula terminalia, subcorymbosa vel 
etiam subracemosa, radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 1.5-2 cm. lata 
et 0.7-1.3 cm. alta, pedunculata pedunculis parvis, glanduloso- 
pubescentibus, viscosis, plerumque 1-4 cm. longis. Involucri insig- 
niter glanduloso-pubescentis viscosique bracteae exteriores circ. 
8-12, laxae, lineares, acutiusculae, 6-8 mm. longae, quam interiores 
erectae paululum longiores vel interdum multo breviores. Flores 



168 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

ligulati circ. 6-8, ligula anguste obovati, apice rotundato obtuse 
bidentati, obscure flavi, circ. 1-1.2 cm. longi. Achaenia demum 
paleas superantia, linearia, subobcompresso-tetragona, atra, erecto- 
(et interdum tuberculato-) setosa, corpore 8 mm. longa et 0.8 
mm. lata (forsan tantum immatura vidi?) apice spinulosa et biaris- 
tata; aristis retrorsum hamosis, circ. 1-1.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Eduard Poeppig, in calcareous, 
herb-covered, rather dry places in the mountains about Casapi 
(Cassapi), eastern Peru, 1829 (Mus. V.). 

Distribution: Peru. 

Specimens examined: E. P. Killip & A. C. Smith 24114, alt. 
1,800-2,400 meters, thickets and open woods, Huacapistana, Dept. 
Junin, June 5-8, 1929 (Field); iidem 24249, eodem loco et tempore 
(Field); Alexander Mathews, Peru (Kew); idem 1757, Casapi 
(Kew; Oxf.; Petrop.); Poeppig, in mountains about Casapi (type, 
Mus. V.); idem 1715, Cochero (Berl.; Kiel; Mus. V.; Oxf.; Par.; 
Petrop.). 

In general aspect simulating various Pacific Island species, 
such as Bidens australis Spreng. and B. hawaiensis Gray. The 
tetragonal achenes show that the species is very distinct from B. 
Rubifolia H.B.K., with which Baker (loc. cit.) associated it. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIX 

Bidens monticola: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.68; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X3.4; c, interior involucral bract, X3.4; 
d, ray corolla, X3.4; e (outer, short-hairy), / (inner, glabrous), paleae, 
X3.4; g, disc floret, X3.4; h, achene (showing 2 normal and 2 rudi- 
mentary aristae), X3.4; all from A. Mathews, Peru, in Hb. Kew. 

63. Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don in Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 3. 360. 

1839. 1 PI. XL. 

Coreopsis reptans L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 1228. 1759; Amoen. Acad. 

5: 381 (nomen) and 407. 1760; J. E. Smith, Spicilegium Bot. 

fasc. 2: 20 and pi. 22. 1791-1792. 
Coreopsis viminea Browne ex Smith, op. cit. 20. 
Coreopsis scandens Smith, loc. cit. 

Coreopsis variifolia Salisb. Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allert. 206. 1796. 
Bidens Coreopsidis DC. Prodr. 5: 599. 1836. 

1 At a much later date, Hitchcock (Mo. Bot. Gard. Ann. Kept. 4: 101. 1893), 
evidently unaware of G. Don's previous transfer of the Linnean species to Bidens, 
made the transfer a second time. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 169 

Bidens Coreopsidis var. reptans (L.) DC. loc. cit. 

Bidens Coriopsidis DC. ex Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. Isls. 720. 1864 

(sphalm). 
Bidens Rubifolia var. Coreopsidis (DC.) Baker in Mart. Fl. Brasil. 

6,pt. 3:245. 1884. 
Bidens reptans L glabrescens 0. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 

7: 139. 1911. 
Coreopsis caracasana Willd. ex 0. E. Schulz, op. cit. 140 (ex synon. 

B. reptanti). 
Bidens reptans var. bipartita 0. E. Schulz op. cit. 141. l 

Folia principalia pinnatim 3- vel raro 5-7-partita. 

B. reptans sensu stricto. 
Folia principalia plerumque 2-3-pinnatisecta. 

Foliorum segmenta anguste vel late lanceolata, acute submu- 
cronato-dentata var. /3. Urbanii. 

Foliorum segmenta linearia integraque var. 7. dissecta. 

Suffrutescens, scandens; caule volubili, ad basim quadrangulo 
vel demum subtereti, supra teretiusculo, setis brevissimis recurvatis 
sparsim vestito vel glabro, viridi vel purpurascenti, usque ad 6.5 
m. (vel ultra) longo, ramoso ramis squarrosis pendulisve. Folia 
petiolata petiolis 1-3 cm. longis et saepe reflexis, petiolo adjecto 
0.4-1 dm. longa, membranacea, supra glabrata vel rarissime sparsim 
pilosula, infra rarissime pubescentia vel tomentosula, interdum 
utrinque glabra (f. glabrescens 0. E. Schulz), inferiora et summa 
simplicia, reliqua 3- vel raro 5-7-partita, foliolis serratis, interdum 
ciliatis, terminali oblongo-ovato vel lanceolato (saepe longe), acumi- 
nate, 2.5-8 cm. longo et 1-3.5 cm. lato; lateralibus minoribus, acutis 
vel acuminatis, basi inaequilaterali sessilibus vel breviter petiolulatis, 
ovatis vel ovato-lanceolatis, vel infimis raro ad latus superius seg- 
mento unico parvo sessili auctis vel trisectis (var. bipartita O. E. 
Schulz). Capitula radiata, apice ramulorum tenuiter pedunculata 
pedunculis nudis vel 1-3 prophyllis minutis obsitis 1-5 cm. longis, 
pansa ad anthesin 2-3 cm. lata et 7-11 mm. alta. Involucrum plus 
minusve hispidum; bracteis exterioribus 8-11, linearibus vel lineari- 

!The West Indian Coreopsis chrysantha L. (Sp. PI. ed. 2. 2: 1282. 1763), 
omitted in the above synonymy, was based upon Bidens [americana] triphylla, 
angelicae folio, flore radiato. Plum. Cat. PI. Amer. 10. 1703; Plum. PI. Amer. ed. 
Burm. 1 : 42, pi. 53, fig. 1 . 1756. It is regarded by some (e.g., O. E. Schulz in Urban, 
Symb. Antill. 7: 140. 1911) as synonymous withB. reptans. The illustration given 
by Burmannus (Plum. PI. Amer. loc. cit.) is very crude and inaccurate for B. 
reptans, yet its foliage aspect suggests that species more than any other Bidens of 
the West Indies. DeCandolle (Prodr. 5: 605. 1836) hesitatingly changed the 
Linnean name to Bidens chrysantha ("Bidens? chrysantha"). 



170 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

spathulatis, acutis, parce vel valde ciliatis, 4-8 mm. longis, quam 
interioribus anguste oblongo-lanceolatis brevioribus, demum patenti- 
bus recurvatisve. Flores ligulati 5-8, flavi, ligula elliptic! vel anguste 
obovati, apice subemarginati vel acutiusculi, 1.2-1.7 cm. longi. 
Achaenia plana vel obcompresso-tetragona, linearia, nigrescentia, 
praesertim ad margines pilis erecto-patentibus plerumque 2-4- 
adgregatis et saepe tuberculo parvo insidentibus pilosa, biaristata 
(rarissime imperfecte triaristata); aristis tenuibus, maxima ex parte 
retrorsum hamosis, saepe ad basim antrorsum setosis, 2.54 mm. 
longis. 

Type specimen: No single specimen was cited in the original 
description (Sloane, Cat. PI. Jam. 125. 1696; idem, Voy. Jam. 1: 261, 
pi. 1 54, figs. 2 and 3. 1707) . The first specimens studied, however, had 
been found by Hans Sloane in the inland forests of Jamaica, partic- 
ularly upon the Red Hills, going to Guanaboa and on Mt. Diablo. 
The type illustration by Sloane (loc. cit.) is definite and character- 
istic, admitting of no doubt as to its application. 

Distribution: West Indies, where apparently restricted to the 
islands of Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Montserrat, Antigua, Mar- 
tinique, and St. Vincent; very rare in southeastern Mexico (Gaumer 
2083, State of Yucatan; Kerber 147, State of Vera Cruz) and Vene- 
zuela (Linden 487 p.p., Prov. of MeYida). 

Specimens examined: R. C. Alexander, Jamaica, 1850 (Gray); 
Anderson, St. Vincent (Kew) ; Belanger 176, St. Pierre to Precheur, 
Martinique, May, 1853 (Del.); Bertero, Jamaica (Del., type of 
BidensCoreopsidis DC.); idem, eodem loco (Mo., sub nom. Coreopside 
chrysantha W.); N. L. Britton 2621, hillside, Bower's Wood Road, 
vicinity of Bog Walk, Jamaica, April 2, 1908 (N.Y.) ; idem & J. F. 
Cowell 12789, vicinity of El Guero, Prov. Oriente, Cuba, March 18- 
19, 1912 (N.Y. ; forma Bidenti incisae adpropinquans) ; N. L. Britton 
& Arthur Hollick 2001, alt. 500 meters, Bluefields Mt., Jamaica, 
March 6-7, 1908 (N.Y.); Stewardson Brown 145, vicinity of Mande- 
ville, Jamaica, February 15-26, 1910 (N.Y.; Phila.); Patrick Browne 
(verisimiliter Antigua fide J. E. Smithii loc. cit.; Linn.); Caley, 
up the valley, St. Vincent, January 7, 1823 (Del.); Joseph Crawford 
630, vicinity of Kingston, Jamaica, April 22-24, 1910 (N.Y.; Phila.); 
idem 636, eodem loco et tempore (N.Y.; Phila.; forma varietati 
bipartitae adpropinquans); Cuming 101, Jamaica (Mus. V.); Pere 
Duss 1445, Martinique, 1881-1883 (Field; Mo.; N.Y.); Eggers 3437, 
alt. 360 meters, at Banana River, Jamaica, January 21, 1888 (Mun.) ; 
idem 6612, alt. 180-360 meters, Montrose Hills, St. Vincent, Decem- 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XL 




BIDENS REPTANS (L.) G. Don 



Of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 171 

her 26, 1889 (Hun.); G. F. Gaumer 2083, San Anselmo, Yucatan, 
Mexico (Field); George P. Goll 572, Guayama Road, Puerto Rico, 
November 18, 1899 (N.Y.); L. Guilding, St. Vincent (Kew); Ludwig 
Hahn 408, Piton de la Case-Pilote, Martinique, January, 1867- 
1868 (BerL; Boiss.; Brit.; Del., 2 sheets; Gray; Kew; Mun.; Mus. V.; 
Par., 3 sheets; Phila.; U.S.; forma circumambitu foliorum B. squar- 
rosae adpropinquans) ; 0. Hansen, in mountains near Kingston, 
Jamaica, 1897 (Cop.); William Harris 5617, Yallab. Valley, Jamaica, 
December 13, 1893 (Brit.); idem 12303, alt. 570 meters, Hagley 
Gap, St. Thomas, Jamaica, December 20, 1915 (Brit.; Gray; Kew); 
idem 12209, Liguanea Ridge, St. Thomas, Jamaica, November 21, 
1915 (Brit.; Field; Kew; Mo.); A. A. Heller 6081, on Adjuntas Road 
near Ponce, Puerto Rico, November 21, 1902 (Del.; Field; Mo.; 
Phila.); idem & uxor 874, on banks, Aibonito, Puerto Rico, March 
22, 1899 (N.Y.); Heustin, Jamaica, 1730 (Brit.); A. S. Hitchcock, 
Blue Mountain Peak, Jamaica, December 12, 1890 (Mo.; forma 
tomentosa, foliis nunc indivisis nunc 3-partitis); Theodor Holm 61, 
alt. 350 meters, Las Mesas near Mayagiiez, Puerto Rico, February, 
1915 (Mo.); E. Kerber 147, Atoyac, Vera Cruz, Mexico, November, 
1882 (Berl., 3 sheets; Brit.; Del.; Kew; Mus. V.; Par., 2 sheets; 
U.S.; forma B. squarrosae affinis et foliis plus minusve bipartitis 
atypica; nom. vernac. fide Kerberi Te" de China) ; J. J. Linden 487 p.p, 
alt. 3,300 meters, Prov. Me"rida, Venezuela, August, 1842 (Mus. V.); 
March 1198, Jamaica, 1858 (Kew); Metcalfe, Jamaica, 1859-1860 
(Brit.); Nicholson, Antigua (Kew); Purdie, hedges and waste places, 
Manchester, Jamaica, November, 1873 (Kew); Rose, Fitch, & 
Russell 3425, Antigua, February 4-16, 1913 (Field; Gray; forma 
foliis plus divisis); Ryan, Montserrat (Cop.); J. A. Shafer 319, 
Elberton, Montserrat, January 29, 1907 (Cam.; Field; N.Y.); idem 
8943, Firmeza to Gran Piedra, Prov. Oriente, Cuba, March 4-5, 1911 
(N.Y.); R. Shakespear, Jamaica (Brit.); Sieber 331, Martinique 
(Berl., 4 sheets; Kew; Kiel; Mo.; Mun.; Mus. V., 3 sheets; Par.; 
U.V.) ; P. Sintenis 3876 pro parte, on slopes of Mt. Montoso (Cerro 
Montuoso) near Maricao, Puerto Rico, November 23, 1884 (BerL; 
Brit.; Kew; type material of var. bipartita 0. E. Schulz); idem 2919, 
between Aibonito and Algarrobo, Puerto Rico, December 2, 1885 
(Berl.; Gray; Kew; Mun.); idem 5576, in forests at the Rio Grande, 
Aguada, Puerto Rico, December 4, 1886 (Berl.; Boiss.; Del.); 
H. H. & G. W. Smith 1220, common in dry forests or second-growth 
thickets, alt. from near sea level to 300 meters, leeward side and 
southern end of St. Vincent, December-February (Gray); F. L. 



172 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Stevens & W. E. Hess 4278, Manati, Puerto Rico, November 5, 1913 
(N.Y.); J- A. Stevenson, Garrochales, Puerto Rico, December 6, 
1914 (Gray); Wilson, Jamaica (Kew); Charles Wright 314 pro parte, 
eastern Cuba, 1856-1857 (Gray; Kew); Wullschlagel 317, in shady 
places among bushes, Antigua, 1849 (Mun.). 

The bibliographic status of Bidens reptans is very definite and 
rests upon a direct and positive chain of synonyms going back to 
pre-Linnean literature. G. Don (loc. cit.) based his name B. reptans 
(1st) upon plate 22 of Smith's Spicilegium and (2nd) upon Coreopsis 
reptans L. Smith's plate is seen to represent the common tripartite- 
leaved form shown also in my own plate (q.v.). From a perusal 
of Smith's text, it is seen further to have been drawn necessarily 
from cultivated material raised in the hothouse, from seed received 
from Jamaica by the Marchioness of Rockingham. Smith's plant is 
the same species as the single Linnean specimen, still extant, of 
Coreopsis reptans L. (Linn.). 1 It is the same, too, as the species 
illustrated in Sloane's Voy. Jam. pi. 154, figs. 2, 3 (1707), the single 
reference given by Linnaeus, together with a harmonious description, 
when he first published the name Coreopsis reptans (Syst. Nat. ed. 
10. 2: 1228. 1759). Thus the two references given by Smith go back 
clearly to the same species. Don's use of the Linnean name reptans 
leads in any case back to the first Linnean publication of the name, 
based upon Sloane's plant. From Sloane's text (Voy. Jam. 1: 261. 
1707) we see that Sloane's plant was the "Chrysanthemum trifoliatum 
scandens, flore luteo, semine longo, rostrato" reported in his earlier 
Catalogus Plantarum Jam. (p. 125. 1696) to have been found in the 
inland forests of Jamaica. In his later work he cites it definitely as 
growing "among the Trees and Shrubs on the Red Hills going to 
Guanaboa, on Mount Diablo, and the other inland woody parts of 
this island." The type locality for B. reptans is seen, then, to be the 
inland forests of Jamaica, especially those on the Red Hills and on 
Mt. Diablo. 

Coreopsis viminea was merely a manuscript name which Smith 
found to have been given by Browne, in an unpublished Flora, to our 

1 The sheet in the Linnean Herbarium has the letters Br and the name Coreopsis 
reptans. The letters Br stand for Browne, according to the distinguished Linnean 
student, Dr. B. Daydon Jackson (coram mense Julio, anno 1914). This sheet 
bears, then, the plant referred to by Smith (loc. cit.). According to Smith it had 
been sent in Dr. [Patrick] Browne's herbarium to Linnaeus and later was erro- 
neously considered by Linnaeus [Amoen. Acad. 5: 407. 1760] as representing the 
second Verbesina of Browne's Civil and Natural History of Jamaica (p. 319. 
1756). Browne's second Verbesina was evidently a very different plant and the 
Browne Jam. reference has justly been rejected by a long line of botanists since 
Smith's time. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XLI 




BIDENS REPTANS var. URBANII (Greenm.) O. E. Schulz 



THE GENUS BIDENS 173 

Bidens reptans. C. variifolia Salisb. was based directly upon material 
growing wild in Jamaica and collected by William Browne. Salis- 
bury gave "C. reptans Linn. Sp. PL ed. 2. p. 1281" as a synonym. 

Bidens Coreopsidis DC. was based upon the Jamaica material 
collected by Bertero; the original Sloane plant also was cited. B. 
Coreopsidis is seen to be clearly synonymous with B. reptans. 

In leaf outline and in size of heads, B. reptans is highly variable. 
Typically the leaves are mainly three-parted, a few being simple. 
At times some or most of them have two or three pairs of lateral 
leaflets, with the lowermost leaflets tending to have on their upper 
edge a single miniature leaflet; this mere state is the var. bipartita 
0. E. Schulz. 1 Again, forms are found (e.g., Rose, Fitch, & Russell 
3425, Antigua) with the leaves grading into the bipinnatisect type 
and approaching too closely specimens that, beyond dispute, are B. 
Urbanii Greenm. In fact, 0. E. Schulz (in Urban, Symb. Antill. 
7: 141. 1911) referred B. Urbanii Greenm. as a variety to B. reptans. 
In a former paper (Bot. Gaz. 56: 493. 1913), I expressed the opinion 
that B. Urbanii, as well as the sister forms B. dissecta and B. Brittonii, 
should be classed as separate species. An examination of numerous 
additional specimens has since compelled the conclusion that B. 
Urbanii and B. dissecta are best treated as mere foliage varieties of 
B. reptans, while B. Brittonii must be regarded as varietally the same 
as the Urbanii material, differing only in its pronounced foliar 
pubescence. 

Bidens reptans var. /3. Urbanii (Greenm.) 0. E. Schulz in Urban, 
Symb. Antill. 7: 141. 1911. PI. XLI and PI. XLII, figs. a-h. 

Coreopsis scandens Sesse" & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2. 194. 1894 (pro 
parte, ex una planta in Herb. Field; cf. B. squarrosam) . 

Bidens Urbanii Greenm. Field Mus. Bot. 2: 271. 1907. 

Bidens mexicana Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56: 491. 1913. 

Bidens Brittonii Sherff, op. cit. 492. 

Bidens reptans var. Brittonii (Sherff) 0. E. Schulz, Repert. Sp. Nov. 
26: 111. 1929. 

Folia circumambitu triangulari-ovata, petiolo adjecto 3-11 (inter- 
dum etiam usque ad 15) cm. longa; nunc pinnatim 5- vel 7-par- 
tita foliolis ovatis lanceolatisve; nunc et saepissime bi- vel tripin- 
natisecta, segmentis anguste vel late lanceolatis et acute sub- 
mucronato-dentatis, interdum ciliata, supra glabra vel minute 

1 Regarding the too numerous transitional forms between B. reptans and B. 
squarrosa, most of them more or less like this "var. bipartita," see under B. squarrosa. 



174 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

sparsimque hispidula vel moderate pubescentes, infra glabra vel 
subglabra vel rariter valde tomentosa. Capitula radiata vel rarissime 
discoidea. Involucrum glabrum vel inferne parce hispidum; bracteis 
exterioribus 7-9, linearibus vel lineari-spathulatis, acutis vel sub- 
obtusis, interdum ciliatis, squarroso-reflexis, 3-4.5 mm. longis; 
interioribus oblongo-lanceolatis, quam exterioribus fere dimidio 
longioribus. Flores ligulati plerumque 5, pallide flavi, ligula oblanceo- 
lati vel anguste oblongi, 1-1.5 cm. longi, apice acuti vel subobtusi, 
integri. Achaenia linearia, nigra, erecta vel vix recurvata, obcom- 
presso-tetragona, ad margines et interdum ad costas medias pilis 
saepe 2-4-adgregatis et plerumque tuberculo minimo insidentibus 
ciliata, corpore 7-12 mm. longa, demum paleas multo superantia, 
biaristata (vel rarissime tri- vel quadriaristata? cf. Greenm. loc. 
cit.); aristis subflavidis, retrorsum vel ad basim saepe antrorsum 
hamosis, 2-3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen : Collected by Paul Sintenis, No. 387, on the slopes 
of Mt. Montoso (Cerro Montuoso), near Maricao, northwestern 
Puerto Rico, November 23, 1884 (Field). 

Distribution: Islands of Puerto Rico and Cuba; also in southern 
Mexico and Guatemala. 

Specimens examined: N. L. Britton 3654, hillside, Parish of St. 
Thomas, Jamaica, September 15-19, 1908 (N.Y.); idem & J. F. 
Cowell 1559, Monte Mesa, Mayagiiez, Puerto Rico, February 14-15, 
1914 (Gray; N.Y.; sine radiis); iidem 4115, mountain forest, Monte 
Montoso (Cerro Montuoso), Puerto Rico, February 13, 1915 (N.Y.; 
vinea 8 m. longa); iidem & Shafer 12955, alt. 100 meters, river 
valley, Ensenada de Mora, Prov. Oriente, Cuba, March 26-29, 1912 
(N.Y.); E. A. Goldman 468, Apazote, near Yohaltun, Campeche, 
Mexico, December 20, 1900 (U.S.) ; W. Hancock 35, in woods, between 
Acapulco and Puerto Nuevo, Guerrero, Mexico, November 13, 1882 
(Kew) ; Theodor Holm 61a, alt. 350 meters, Las Mesas, near Maya- 
giiez, Puerto Rico, December, 1914 (Field; Mo.); E. Langlasse 
689 p.p., alt. 300 meters, southern Mexico, December 2, 1898 (Kew) ; 
Leon, Clement, & Roca 9820, alt. about 800 meters, Cobre Range of 
Sierra Maestra, Cuba, July 11-August 14, 1921 (N.Y.); Ynes 
Mexia 1305, slightly ill-smelling, alt. 100 meters, near Rio de Cuale, 
Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, December 17, 1926 (Mo.; Stanf.); J. G. 
Ortega 6108, Mezcaltitan, Santiago Ixc., Nayarit, Mexico, January, 
1926 (Stanf.); Edward Palmer 95, vicinity of Acapulco, Guerrero, 
Mexico, October, 1894-March, 1895 (Field; Gray; Kew; type 
material of Bid ens mexicana Sherff); Sesse, Mocino, Castillo, & 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XLII 




BIDENS REPTANS var. URBANII (Greenm.) O. E. Schulz (figs, a-h) 
var. DISSECTA O. E. Schulz (figs, i-s) 



OF Itft 
DIVERSITY OF IUINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 175 

Maldonado 2915 (labeled also 1724), Mexico, 1787-1804 (Field; 
sub nom. Coreopside scandenti); P. Sintenis 387 (type, Field: 
cotypes, Berl., 2 sheets; Boiss; Brit.; Cam.; Del.; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; 
Mus. V.; Par.; U.V., etc.) ; F. L. Stevens & W. E. Hess 4873, Maricao, 
Puerto Rico, November 18, 1913 (N.Y.); H. Von Tuerckheim 8237, 
alt. 350 meters, Cubilquitz, Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, Janu- 
ary, 1902 (Berl.; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; U.S.); Charles Wright 
314 pro parte, eastern Cuba, 1856-1857 (Gray; N.Y.). 

The leaves of the type material of Bidens mexicana Sherff have 
the leaflets much larger and simpler than do those on the type 
material of B. Urbanii Greenm. Goldman's material from the State 
of Campeche, Mexico (and cited by Greenman) has, however, leaf- 
lets of both sorts. It clearly effaces all foliage distinctions between 
the two and indicates definitely their common identity. In fact, 
several cotypes of B. mexicana have been observed with leaves very 
finely divided, grossly different from those on the type of B. mexicana 
(Field) but similar to those on the type and cotypes of B. Urbanii. 
While B. mexicana must, therefore, be reduced to synonymy with 
B. Urbanii, it is interesting to note in particular the scantily divided 
leaves on the type of the former. Some of these are seen to be 5- 
partite as in B. reptans "var. bipartita" 0. E. Schulz and to offer a 
strong gradation through that form to B. reptans. The floral and 
fruiting characters in many specimens run too closely into those of 
B. reptans. Therefore, as stated above, it has seemed wiser to adopt 
0. E. Schulz's course and rank these forms under B. reptans, as the 
var. Urbanii (Greenm.) 0. E. Schulz. 

The type specimen of B. Brittonii Sherff, as also the cotype in 
the Columbia College Herbarium (N.Y.), was mounted upon the 
same sheet with a specimen of B. reptans proper. 1 Upon the sheet 
was written, evidently in Torrey's handwriting, "2 species," while, 
just below, Gray had written, "no. A. Gr." In his diagnosis of 
Wright's plants, Gray treated this form as a variety of B. reptans 
with dissected leaves. But the fact that the leaves are pubescent 
above and strongly tomentose beneath, as well as finely dissected, 
made it seem certain to me in 1913, when studying these plants, 
that two species had been confused and that Torrey's assumption 
was correct. Dr. N. L. Britton, to whom the material was shown 
for examination, came to a similar conclusion and later I named the 
form with dissected foliage in his honor. Since then, however, the 
finding of specimens of B. reptans with tripartite but pubescent- 

1 Wright's No. 314 in the Kew Herbarium is all B. reptans proper. 



176 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

tomentose leaves and the finding of evidence that the parallel forms 
B. Urbanii and B. dissecta are reducible to varietal rank under B. 
reptans, have led to the conclusion thatB. Brittonii is only a variety of 
B. reptans, and best equated with var. Urbanii. 

Bidens reptans var. 7. dissecta 0. E. Schulz in Urban, 

Symb. Antill. 7: 142. 1911. PI. XLII, figs. i-s. 
Bidens dissecta (O. E. Schulz) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56: 493. 1913. 

Bidenti reptanti var. Urbanii similis sed foliorum dissectione vali- 
dior; foliolis 3-4 jugis, plerumque tripinnatisectis, segmentis linea- 
ribus integrisque. 

Type specimen: Collected by William Harris, No. 5420, weed 
along roads at altitude of 810 meters, near Moy Hall in Blue Moun- 
tains, Jamaica, November 9, 1894 (Berl.). 
Distribution : Known only from Jamaica. 

Specimens examined: Harris 5420 (type, Berl.: cotype, N.Y.); 
idem (similiter) 5420, alt. 1,500 meters, Portland Gap, November 16, 
1894 (Field); idem 12302, alt. 600 meters, climbing among shrubs, 
roadside banks, Cedar Valley, St. Thomas, December 20, 1915 (Brit.; 
Kew; Mo., 2 sheets; N.Y.; Phila.); C. R. Orcutt 3830, Arntully, 
November 9, 1927 (Stanf.) ; E. E. Sherff, cult, ex unico achaenio e 
Harrisio 12302, Chicago, Illinois, 1916-1920 (Field, etc.; multis 
speciminibus) . 

In December, 1915, the late William Harris, Superintendent of 
Public Gardens for the Department of Agriculture in Jamaica, very 
kindly made a journey to collect specimens of this variety for me. 
Material obtained then at Cedar Valley, St. Thomas (eastern Jamaica) 
was found to match the type material very closely. Characteristically, 
the primary leaflets or their immediate subdivisions were seen to be 
deeply toothed, giving them a more or less pectinate appearance. A 
mature achene was planted and from cuttings of the resulting vine 
many plants were obtained. These were transferred in the autumn 
to a greenhouse. Some individuals were kept two years. They 
flowered profusely but did not produce fruit. Their leaflets were 
finely divided and lacked the pectinate appearance mentioned (which 
is shown in my plate). They differed from the leaflets of var. 
Urbanii only in having the segments narrower, making it appear 
doubtful if more than varietal distinction between the two will ever 
be considered justified. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XL 

Bidens reptans: a, flowering branch, X0.7; b, a more compound 
leaf (var. bipartita 0. E. Schz.), X0.7; c, exterior involucral bract, 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XLIII 



BIDENS INCISA (Ker) G. Don 




THE GENUS BIDENS 177 

X3.5; d, interior involucral bract, X3.5; e, ray floret, X3.5;/, palea, 
X3.5; g, disc floret, X3.5; h, achene, X3.5; a, from C. Wright 314, in 
Hb. Kew; b, from Sintenis 3876, in Hb. Kew; rest from Heller 6081, 
in Hb. Field. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLI 

Bidens reptans var. Urbanii: a, flowering branch, X0.6; b, more 
compound leaf, X0.6; c, exterior involucral bract, X9.1; d, interior 
involucral bract, X9.1; e, ray floret, X3.04;/, palea, X4.25; g, disc 
floret, X4.25; h, achene, X3.64; b, from cotype in Hb. Mo.; rest 
from 2 sheets of Palmer 95 (type material of Bidens mexicana Sherff), 
in Hb. Field. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLII 

Bidens reptans var. Urbanii, figs, a-h: a, leafy branch, X0.67; 
6, portion of leaf, enlarged to show pubescence, X6.73; c, exterior 
involucral bract, X4.04; d, interior involucral bract, X4.04; e, ray 
corolla, X2.69; /, palea, X4.04; g, disc floret, X4.04; h, achene, 
X3.37; all from C. Wright 314 pro parte (type collection of Bidens 
Brittonii Sherff), a-g in Hb. Gray and h in Hb. N.Y. 

Bidens reptans var. dissecta, figs, i-s: i, fruiting branch, X0.67; 
j-m, various cauline leaves, X0.67; n, exterior involucral bract, 
X4.04; o, interior involucral bract, X4.04; p, ray corolla, X2.69; 
q, palea, X4.04; r, disc floret, X4.04; s, achene, X3.37; i-k and m-s, 
from W. Harris 12302, in Hb. Field; I, from cotype in Hb. N.Y. 

64. Bidens incisa (Ker) G. Don in Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 3. 360. 

1839. PL XLIII. 

Coreopsis incisa Ker, Bot. Reg. 1 : pi. 7. 1815. 
Bidens Coreopsidis var. incisa (Ker) DC. Prodr. 5: 599. 1836. 
Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don var. tomentosa 0. E. Schulz in Urban, 
Symb. Antill. 7: 141. 1911. 

Herba perennis, scandens; caule fruticoso, tereti, dense pubes- 
centi, ramoso, verisimiliter 2-6 m. longo. Folia parva, tenuiter 
Detiolata petiolis 1-2.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 3-7 cm. longa, 
pinnatim 3-5-partita vel summa indivisa, foliolis submembranaceis, 
serratis vel valde inciso-dentatis, supra pilis articulatis subadpresse 
pilosis et flavido-viridibus, infra dense tomentosis et albidis; terminali 
lanceolato vel ovato-lanceolato, acuminate, 4-11 dentibus in unico 
latere ; lateralibus anguste ovatis, acutis. Capitula ramulos superiores 
caulemque terminantia, umbellate cymosa, radiata, pansa ad anthe- 
sin 1.5-2 cm. lata et 8-11 mm. alta, pedunculata pedunculis tantum 



178 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

0.5-4 cm. longis. Involucri basis dense tomentoso-hispida; bracteis 
exterioribus 7-10, linearibus, acutis, tomentoso-hispidis, patentibus 
vel reflexis, 3-4 mm. longis; interioribus lineari-lanceolatis, piloso- 
hispidis, quam exterioribus dimidio longioribus. Flores ligulati 
circ. 5, flavi, ligula ovali-lanceolati, ad apicem subacuti et integri, 
1.5 cm. longi. Achaenia linearia, plana vel obcompresso-tetragona, 
nigra, marginibus et interdum costis mediis piloso-ciliata, corpore 
7-10 mm. longa, biaristata aristis plerumque de apice fere usque ad 
medium retrorsum hamosis sed aliter antrorsum hamosis, 1.5-2 
mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Raised from seed from Jamaica, about 1812, in 
the nursery of Messrs. Colville, King's Road, Chelsea, England; 
represented by the colored plate which Sydenham Edwards pre- 
pared from the "one living specimen" seen by Ker (Bot. Reg. 1: 
pi 7. 1815). 

Distribution: Jamaica. 

Specimens examined: Alexander (postea Prior appellatus, fide 
J. Hutchinsonii apud Herbarium Kewensem), coffee region, Blue 
Mts., November 28, 1850 (Kew) ; Mrs. E. G. Britton (N. Y. Bot. Card. 
Explor. Jamaica No.) 3824, near Clydesdale, Blue Mts., September, 
21-24, 1908 (N.Y.); eadem (N. Y. Bot. Gard. Explor. Jamaica No.) 
3867, near Marce's Gap, Blue Mts., October 3, 1908 (N.Y.); N. L. 
Britton (N. Y. Bot. Gard. Explor. Jamaica No.) 73, banks, St. 
Helen's Gap, vicinity of Cinchona, September 2-10, 1906 (N.Y.); 
William Harris 11649, alt. 1,470 meters, Cinchona, September 20, 
1913 (Brit.; Field; Kew; Man.; Mo.; Par.; Phila.); idem 12327, alt. 
1,500 meters, over shrubs and low trees, Cinchona, February 4, 1916 
(Brit.; Kew; Mo.; N.Y.; Par.; Phila.); J. H. Hart, Jamaica (Field); 
William Maxon 1138, alt. 1,050 meters, dryish roadside, near Silver 
Hill Gap, April 15-16, 1903 (U.S.); (commun.) D. Morris, alt. 1,650 
meters, Cinchona plantations, August, 1886 (Kew, 2 sheets); G. 
E. Nichols 137, alt. 1,500 meters, Cinchona, July 26, 1903 (Mo.); 
J. T. Rothrock, alt. 1,125 meters, Blue Mountains, December 12, 1890 
(Penn., 4 sheets); idem 458, Jamaica, 1890-1891 (Phila.); Forrest 
Shreve, Cinchona, October 25, 1906 (N.Y.); Alexander Taylor 4253, 
trail to St. Helen's Gap, vicinity of Cinchona, April 7, 1909 (N.Y.); 
Wilson, Jamaica (Kew). 

Ker, as stated in a former article (Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56: 494. 1913), 
very justly separated this species from the smooth-stemmed B. 
reptans (L.) G. Don. He laid too much stress, however, upon the 
"indented ray" of the latter species, this character varying too 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XLIV 




/ h 

BIDENS SQUARROSA H.B.K. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 179 

much to be of definite value. The external bracts were described as 
gibbous, but herbarium material fails to show this character to any 
noticeable extent. 

B. reptans var. tomentosa 0. E. Schulz, based on Geo. E. Nichols 
137, is merely a synonym for B. incisa. In the Nichols plants, which 
had been found growing spontaneously, the terminal leaflets were less 
than "about two inches long" (the measure stated for the type 
specimen, raised in cultivation, of B. incisa). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLIII 

Bidens incisa: a, flowering branch, X0.64; b, portion of same, 
showing pubescence, Xl.l; c, exterior involucral bract, X3.84; d, 
interior involucral bract, X3.1; e, ray corolla, X2.56;/, palea, X3.84; 
g, disc floret, X5.1; h, i, achenes, X3.84; a-g, from Nichols 137 
(cotypes of Bidens reptans var. tomentosa 0. E. Schz.) in Hb. Mo. 
and Hb. Field ; h, i, from J. Hart, in Hb. Field. 

65. Bidens squarrosa H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 187 (238). 1820. 
PI. XLIV and PI. XLV, figs. a-g. 

Bidens tereticaulis DC. Prodr. 5: 598. 1836. 

Coreopsis trifoliata Bertoloni, Fl. Guat. 36. 1840. 

Bidens antiguensis Coult. Bot. Gaz. 16: 100. 1891. 

Coreopsis scandens Sesse* & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2. 194. 1894 (ex 

descript. et pro parte; cf. B. reptans var. Urbanii). 
Bidens tereticaulis var. sordida Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 39: 115. 

1903. 
Bidens tereticaulis var. indivisa Robins. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 

31: 270. 1904. 
Bidens Coreopsidis var. procumbens Bonn. Sm. Bot. Gaz. 42: 299. 

1906. 
Bidens tereticaulis var. antiguensis (Coult.) 0. E. Schulz in Urban, 

Symb. Antill. 7: 142. 1911. 

Perennis, scandens; caule fruticoso, tereti, 3.5 m. longo, ramoso; 
ramis teretibus, glabris vel tomentosis. Folia petiolata petiolis 
tenuibus 1-4 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 4-15 cm. longa, principalia 
pinnatim 3-5-partita vel rarenter indivisa, summa indivisa; foliolis 
nunc ovatis, nunc ovato-lanceolatis, nunc lanceolatis, apice acutis 
acuminatisve, serratis, membranaceis, supra plerumque pilis brevibus 
conspersis et subtus pubescenti-hirtis, rarius glabratis vel densis- 
sime tomentosis, terminali petiolulato, lateralibus sessilibus vel sub- 
sessilibus. Capitula plerumque numerosa, terminalia, paniculata 



180 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

vel racemoso-corymbosa, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 1-4 (-8) 
cm. longis nudis vel bracteolatis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 1.5 
etiam usque ad 4 cm. lata et 6-8 (vel etiam -15) mm. alta. Involu- 
crum omnino hispidum vel glabratum supra; bracteis exterioribus 
4-6, linearibus, apice indurato-apiculatis, 3-5 mm. longis, demum 
squarroso-reflexis, interiores oblongo-oblanceolatas subaequantibus. 
Flores ligulati 5 vel 6, flavi, ligula anguste elliptico-oblanceolati, 
apice integri vel minutissime denticulati et plerumque subacuti, 
0.8-1.5 cm. longi. Achaenia linearia, plana vel obcompresso- 
quadrangularia, nigrescentia, marginibus pilis longis plerumque 
2-4-adgregatis et saepe tuberculo parvo insidentibus ciliata, corpore 
6-9 mm. longa, biaristata; aristis tenuibus, erectis vel divaricatis, 
retrorsum hamosis vel omnino nudis, 2-4 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Alexander Humboldt and Aime 
Bonpland at altitude of 900 meters, between Caracas and Mt. 
Buena vista, Venezuela, January, 1799-1803 (Par.). 

Distribution: From states of Tamaulipas and Jalisco, Mexico, 
southeastward through Central America and in South America to 
Peru, Bolivia, and southern Brazil; also on St. Vincent, Windward 
Islands. 

Specimens examined : Allart 69, between Cotiza and Los Venados, 
near Caracas, Venezuela, October, 1924 (N.Y.); idem 457, alt. 1,800- 
2,000 meters, Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, December, 1924 (N.Y.jU.S.) ; 
Ed. Andre 103, La Guayra, Venezuela, November 25, 1875 (N.Y.); 
C. F. Baker 2121, Quesalguague, Dept. Leon, Nicaragua, January 
17, 1903 (Calif.; Del.; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mus. V.); idem 2214, 
Masaya, Dept. Masaya, Nicaragua, January-February, 1903 (Calif. ; 
Del.; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mus. V.); Miguel Bang 16, alt. 3,000 meters, 
vicinity of La Paz, Bolivia, 1889 (Phila.) ; idem 1406, Guanai-Tipuani, 
Bolivia, April-June, 1892 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Del.; Field; Kew; 
Mo.; Mun.; Mus. V.; Petrop.; Phila.; U.V., etc.); Berlandier 14, in 
woods between Tampico and Altamira, Tamaulipas, Mexico, Janu- 
ary 30, 1827 (Del., 2 sheets; Flor.); idem 730, Tantoyuca, Vera Cruz, 
Mexico, December, 1830 (Gray; Par.); idem 2148, vicinity of Tan- 
toyuca, Vera Cruz (Boiss.; Brit.; Del., 2 sheets; Phila.; Mus. V.); 
idem 2150, eodem loco, December, 1830 (Berl.; Del., 2 sheets; Gray); 
Bernoulli & Cario 1375, Retalhuleu, Dept. Retalhuleu, Guatemala, 
December, 1877 (Berl.; Kew); iidem 1519, eodem loco, January, 
1876 (Berl., 2 sheets; Kew); Bilimek 203, Orizaba, Mexico, May, 
1867 (Kew; Par., 2 sheets); Biolley 7028, near San Mateo, Costa 
Rica, January 18, 1892 (Boiss.; Gray); Birschel, near Guarenas, 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XLV 




BIDENS SQUARROSA H.B.K. (figs, a-g) 
BIDENS VINCAEFOLIA Karst. & Schz. Bip. ex Sherff (figs, h-m) 



of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 181 

Venezuela, April, 1854 (Kew) ; Botteri, Mexico, 1856 (Del., 2 sheets) ; 
idem 443 and 444, Orizaba, Mexico, September, 1854 (Brit.; Par.); 
idem 489, eodem loco (Gray) ; E. Bourgeau 30, State of Vera Cruz, 
Mexico, September 5, 1866 (Par., 5 sheets); idem 1560, Valley of 
Cordoba, Vera Cruz, Mexico, December 12, 1865 (Del.; Gray; Kew; 
Petrop.); idem 3093, Orizaba, Mexico, October 3, 1866 (Kew; Par., 
3 sheets) ; Otto Buchtien 1575, alt. 570 meters, near Mapiri, Bolivia, 
November, 1907 (Field) ; Salvador Calderdn 169, San Salvador, Sal- 
vador, 1921 (Gray) ; Cochburn, Caracas, Venezuela (Brit.) ; C. Conzatti 
122, alt. 1,200 meters, mountains of Oaxaca, Mexico, September 20, 
1895 (Gray) ; idem 1581, alt. 1,800 meters, Cerro San Antonio, Oaxaca, 
Mexico, October 28, 1906 (Field); idem 2269, alt. 2,000 meters, 
Cerro San Felipe, Oaxaca, October 18, 1908 (Field); idem 
& V. Gonzalez 1133, alt. 850 meters, Cordoba, Mexico, December, 
1900 (Gray); G. P. Cooper 11, alt. 1,140-1,260 meters, Las Con- 
cavas, near Cartago, Costa Rica (Gray); J. J. Cooper 5814 p.p., 
alt. 1,275 meters, Cartago, Prov. Cartago, Costa Rica, December, 
1887 (Mun.); Padre Cornelio 59, Maracay, Aragua, Venezuela, 1927 
(U.S.); C. C. Deam 109, alt. 48 meters, Los Amates, Izabal, Guate- 
mala, February 12, 1905 (Gray) ; Eggers 6612, alt. 180-360 meters, 
Montrose Hills, St. Vincent, West Indies, December 26, 1889 (U.V.; 
mihi non aliter e his insulis nota, tamen est vera B. squarrosa); 
C. Ehrenberg 55, Mexico (Berl.); Endres 1, alt. 1,050 meters, Costa 
Rica (Mus. V.); idem 45, Costa Rica (Kew); idem 133, alt. 1,200 
meters, Costa Rica (Mus. V.);L. C.Ervendberg 67, Wartenberg, near 
Tantoyuca, Vera Cruz, Mexico, November, 1858 (Del.; Gray; Par.; 
Phila.); A. Fendler 41, near Tovar, Venezuela, 1854-1855 (Del., 2 
sheets; Gray; Kew; Mo.; Phila.); idem 696 and 6966, Venezuela 
(Gray) ; H. Galeotti 2212, mountains, State of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 
October-December, 1840 (Par.); idem 2340, moist woods on moun- 
tains, eodem loco, October-November, 1840 (Del.; Par.); idem 2471, 
mountains, State of Oaxaca, Mexico, about 1840 (Del.; Par.); 
idem 2493, eodem loco (Del.; Par.); George Gaumer, Izamal, Yucatan, 
Mexico, 1888 (Kew, 2 sheets); idem 951, eodem loco (Berl.; Gray; 
Kew) ; idem et filii 23510, Xnocac, Yucatan, December, 1916 (Brit. ; 
floris aromaticissimis fide Gaum, et ff.); E. A. Goldman 30, near 
Metlaltoyuca, Puebla, Mexico, January 27, 1898 (Gray); idem 493, 
Apazote, Campeche, Mexico, December 28, 1900 (U.S.); W. Han- 
cock, Guatemala, 1882-1883 (Kew); E. T. Heyde 666, Guatemala, 
1892 (U.S.); idem & Lux 4193, alt. 1,650 meters, Buena Vista, 
Dept. Santa Rosa, Guatemala, December, 1892 (Berl.; Field; Kew; 



182 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Mo.); C. Hoffmann 383, Valley of Rio Legardo, Costa Rica (Gray, 
type of Bidens tereticaulis var. sordida Greenm.); E. W. D. Holway 
4, alt. 1,500 meters, Guatemala City, Guatemala, December 31, 
1914 (Gray) ; idem 110, alt. about 1,500 meters, Solola, Guatemala, 
January 25, 1915 (Gray); idem 3667, State of Oaxaca, Mexico, 
October 18, 1899 (Gray); Humboldt & Bonpland, Caracas, Vene- 
zuela (Par., type); Harry Johnson 920, alt. 1,350 meters, Samac, Alta 
Verapaz, Guatemala, October 20, 1920 (U.S. ; forma glabra foliis sim- 
plicibus, floribus e lectore suaveolentibus) ; idem 921, alt. 1,200 
meters, Samac, October 20, 1920 (U.S.; forma tomentosa foliis 
simplicibus, elongatis, lanceolato-oblongis) ; C. Jurgensen 781, Mexico, 
1843-1844 (Del.; Kew, 2 sheets); W. A. Kellerman 5341, El 
Rancho, Sierra de Las Minas, Dept. Baja Verapaz, Guatemala, 
January 6, 1906 (Field) ; idem 5351, alt. 1,205 meters, Moran, Dept. 
Amatitlan, Guatemala, February 11, 1905 (Field); idem 6118, 
Volcan de Acatenango, Dept. Chimaltenango, Guatemala, February 
8, 1907 (Field) ; idem 8035, alt. 1,050 meters, El Rancho, Guatemala, 
January, 1908 (N.Y.); E. P. Killip & T. E. Hazen 2527, alt. 2,500- 
3,100 meters, forest, Old Quindio Trail, "La Ceja" to "Agua Bonita," 
Dept. Tolima, Colombia, August 2, 1922 (N. Y. ; forma valde tomen- 
tosa); iidem 9527, eodem loco et tempore (U.S.); E. P. Killip & 
A. C. Smith 16896, alt. 2,800 meters, vicinity of California, Dept. 
Santander, Colombia, January 11-27, 1927 (U.S.); iidem 23769, 
thickets at about 700 meters alt., La Merced, Dept. Junin, Peru, 
May 29-June 4, 1929 (Field); iidem 25348, alt. 700 meters, dense 
forest, Rio Paucartambo Valley, Dept. Junin, June 19, 1929 (Field) ;E. 
Langlasse 689 p.p., alt. 300 meters, Michoacan and Guerrero, Mexico, 
December 2, 1898 (Berl.; Gray; forma foliis 5-partitis et B. reptanti 
adpropinquans) ; Lehmann 8723, alt. 1,000-1,500 meters, Altamira 
and Suaza above Tolima, Colombia, December (Field; forma); 
P. Levy 306, alt. 40 meters, forests about Granada, Nicaragua, 
December, 1869 (Cop., 2 sheets; Par.); Liebmann 621, Colipa, 
Vera Cruz, Mexico, 1841-1843 (Cop., 2 sheets) ; idem 622, Gualulu, 
Mexico, 1841-1843 (Cop., 2 sheets; Kew); idem 623, Ejutla, Oaxaca, 
Mexico, October, 1842 (Cop.); idem 628, Mirador, Vera Cruz, Mexico, 
1841-1843 (Cop., 2 sheets; Par.); idem 629, eodem loco, October, 
1841 (Cop., 2 sheets) ; Lansberg, Venezuela (Berl.); J. Linden 1172, 
Mirador, Vera Cruz, November, 1838 (Flor. ; Kew) ; C. L. Lundell 
136, Honey Camp, Orange Walk, British Honduras, 1928 (Gray); 
J. F. Macbride 3814, sunny thickets, about 1,800 meters, Yanano, 
Peru, May 13-16, 1923 (Field); Maxon & Hay 3162, alt. about 550 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XLVI 




BIDENS RUBIFOLIA H.B.K. 



Of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 183 

meters, bank, vicinity of Secanquim, Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guate- 
mala, January 4, 1905 (U.S.); Moritz 57, Caracas, Venezuela, 
January, 1843 (Berl.; Brit., 2 sheets); E. W. Nelson 1508, alt. 1,560- 
2,040 meters, Valley of Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Mexico, October 2, 1894 
(U.S.); 'idem 1824, alt. 1,350-1,650 meters, 6 miles above Domin- 
guillo, Oaxaca, October 30, 1894 (Gray); idem 3410, near Yajalon, 
Chiapas, Mexico, November 21, 1895 (Gray); Gustavo Niederlein, 
alt. 2,100 meters, Quezaltepec (Volcan de San Salvador), Salvador, 
January 9, 1898 (Berl., 2 sheets); Oersted 150, Costa Rica, 1851 
(Kew); idem 182, Segovia, Nicaragua, 1851 (Kew); C. R. Orcutt 
3031, Sanborn, Vera Cruz, Mexico, March-April, 1910 (Field; Mo.); 
Otto 515, Colombia (Kew) ; Edward Palmer 122, alt. about 15 meters, 
vicinity of Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico, January, 1910 (Brit.; 
Kew; Mo.; N.Y.); idem 713, Chapala, Jalisco, Mexico, October- 
November, 1886 (Boiss.; Brit.; Gray; Mo.; Par.; Phila.); idem 1116, 
San Luis Potosi to Tampico, Mexico, December, 1878-February, 
1879 (Field; Kew; Phila., 2 sheets); C. C. Parry & E. Palmer (simi- 
liter) 1116, alt. 1,800-2,400 meters, Mexico, 1878 (Gray); Emilio 
Pittier 112, forest, mountains near Galipan, Federal District, Vene- 
zuela, October 25, 1921 (N.Y.; U.S.); H. Pittier 1838, alt. 600 
meters, hedges about Copan, Honduras, January 9, 1907 (Field); 
idem 5912, alt. 1,100-1,700 meters, between Caracas and La Guayra, 
Federal Distr., Venezuela, February 28, 1913 (Berl.); idem 8243, 
alt. 800-1,200 meters, Lower Cotiza, near Caracas, Venezuela, October 
26, 1918 (U.S.); idem 11250, alt. 1,400 meters, in bushes on hills 
above Los Teques, Miranda, Colombia, November 18, 1923 (Del.); 
C. G. Pringle 3373, extensively trailing over dry ledges, shrubs, etc., 
Tamasopo Canyon, San Luis Potosi, Mexico, November 28, 1890 
(Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Cam.; Del., 2 sheets; Field; Kew; Man.; Mo.; 
Mun.; Mus. V.; Par.; Phila.; U.V., etc.); C. A. Purpus 3633, Zacua- 
pan, Vera Cruz, Mexico, October, 1909 (forma foliis plerumque 5- 
partitis; Berl.; Brit.; Calif.; Del., 2 sheets; Field; Mo.; Par.); J. N. 
Rovirosa 70, vicinity of San Juan Bautista, Tabasco, Mexico, 1888 
(Phila.); idem 688, in thickets between San Juan Bautista and 
Atasta, Tabasco, about 1890 (N.Y.; Phila.); H. H. Rusby 1642, 
alt. 600 meters, Guanai, Bolivia, May, 1886 (Boiss.; Brit., 2 sheets; 
Field; Kew; Mus. V.; Phila.); A. de St. Hilaire 1198, State of Sao 
Paulo, Brazil, 1816-1821 (Par., 2 sheets) ; Salle 443, Orizaba, Mexico, 
September, 1854 (Berl.; Kew); idem 444, eodem loco (Berl.); Salvin 
& Godman 294, Dulmas, Guatemala, 1861 (Kew); Carl Sartorius, 
Mirador, Vera Cruz, Mexico (Par.);L. Schlim 255, alt. 1,050 meters, 



184 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Prov. Ocana, Colombia, October (1846-1852; Brit.; Del.; Par.); 
A. Schott 145, Mgrida, Yucatan, Mexico, December, 1864 (Brit.); 
Seemann, Panama (Brit.); (Sello 590 and 4548, once put here, are at 
least partly B. segetum;} Sinclair, Ecuador (Kew) ; C. L. Smith 298 
and 633, alt. 1,650-1,800 meters, Monte Alban, near Oaxaca, Oaxaca, 
Mexico, October, 1894 (N.Y.); idem 587, Coatzacoalcos, Isthmus of 
Tehuantepec, Vera Cruz, Mexico, February 6, 1895 (Gray; Mo., 
2 sheets) ; H. H. Smith 519, alt. 600 meters, Jiracasaca, Santa Marta, 
Colombia, October, 1898-1901 (Berl.; Brit.; Cam.; Del.; Field; 
Man.; Mo.; N.Y.; Par.; Phila.); J. D. Smith 2354, alt. 1,500 meters, 
Antigua, Dept. Zacatepe"quez, Guatemala, April, 1890 (first and 
second type sheets of Bidens antiguensis Coult., Field; cotypes, 
Berl.; Kew; Mun.);L. C. Smith, alt. 1,800 meters, Rancho de Cal- 
deron, Oaxaca, Mexico, September 10, 1894 (Gray) ; P. C. Standley 
19096, alt. 650-850 meters, vicinity of San Salvador, Salvador, 
December 20, 1921-January 4, 1922 (Gray); idem 20220, alt. 800- 
1,000 meters, vicinity of Ahuachapan, Dept. Ahuachapan, Sal- 
vador, January 9-27, 1922 (Gray); idem 21844, vicinity of Izalco, 
Dept. Sonsonate, Salvador, March 19-24, 1922 (Gray) ; idem 22603, 
dry slope along road from San Martin to Laguna de Ilopango, 
Dept. San Salvador, Salvador, April 1, 1922 (Gray) ; H. Sydow 1, 
Grecia, Costa Rica, January 17, 1925 (Field) ; idem 39, coffee plan- 
tation near San Jose", Costa Rica, January, 1925 (Field); R. Tate 
172, 173, and 288, Nicaragua, 1867-1868 (Brit.); Ad. Tonduz 7058, 
alt. 1,100 meters, vicinity of San Francisco de Guadalupe, Prov. 
San Jose", Costa Rica, January, 1896 (Berl.; Boiss.; Gray; Kew; 
Mo.; Mun.); idem 7248, eodem loco, January 4, 1893 (Del.; Boiss.; 
Gray); idem 7265, banks of the Rio Maria Aguilar near San Jose", 
Costa Rica, December 29, 1892 (Boiss.; Gray; Par.); idem 9850, 
environs of San Pedro del Mojon, Costa Rica, January, 1896 (Berl.; 
Brit.; Mun.); 1 idem 13600, thickets, Nicoya, Costa Rica, January, 
1900 (Berl.; Brit.; Boiss.; Gray; Kew, 2 sheets) ;L. V. Velasco 8873, 
San Salvador, Salvador, December, 1905 (U.S.); Von Christmar, 
Campeche, Mexico (Berl.); H. Von Tuerckheim 297, in bushes, 
vicinity of Coban, Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, December, 
1879 (Mus. V., 2 sheets; U.V., 3 sheets); idem (similiter) 297, 
alt. 1,290 meters, eodem loco, May, 1886 (forma foliis pro 
maxima parte simplicibus; Berl.; Del.; Kew; N.Y.; Par., ubi foliis 

1 Tonduz 12284 (alt. 1,800 meters, forests, Mala Via au Copey, Costa Rica, 
April, 1898; Gray) was cited by Greenman for his B. tereticaulis var. sordida. 
It is an uncertain form between B. segetum var. patula, which Dr. Scherzer 
collected at San Jos6, and this species. 



THE GENUS BIDENS . 185 

tripartita; Phila.); idem II. 1475, alt. 1,350 meters, eodem loco, 
November, 1906 (Brit.; Field); idem 7900, on rocks, alt. 350 meters, 
Cubilquitz, Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, January, 1901 (Berl.; 
Gray; Kew; Mo.; Mun.); Wawra 545, Vera Cruz, Mexico 
(forma B. reptanti var. Urbanii valde adpropinquans; Berl.; Mus. 
V.); idem 669, eodem loco (Berl.; Mus. V.); A. Weberbauer 840, alt. 
2,400 meters, between Sandia and Cuyocuyo, Peru, April 27, 1902 
(Berl.); idem 6583, 1,900-2,000 meters, Mantaro River at Huachicna, 
Prov. Huancayo, Peru, April 6, 1913 (Berl., 2 sheets); C. Werckle 
63, Costa Rica (Berl.); R. S. Williams 160, alt. 1,440 meters, Apolo, 
Bolivia, April 15, 1902 (Brit.; Field). 

DeCandolle, in describing his Bidens tereticaulis (loc. cit.), stated 
that it differed from B. squarrosa in having glabrate leaves, all of 
which were trisected, in having heads smaller, and in coming from 
a different region ("Differt .... a B. squarrosa foliis glabrius- 
culis . . . capitulo minore, foliis etiam superis trisectis et patria"). 
But he had not seen the type material of B. squarrosa, as is 
evidenced by his failure to use the abbreviation "v.s." in con- 
nection with its description (op. cit. 599). At Paris is still preserved 
Kunth's type of B. squarrosa. Upon the label are the words "Bidens 
squarrosa mihi . . . Caracas." This is positively the specimen 
which Kunth had at hand in drawing up his description. In a former 
paper (Bot. Gaz. 64: 36, pi 9. 1917) I have discussed the plant and 
presented a plate drawn directly from it, with an attempt at the 
utmost fidelity to all details. It consists of a branchlet coming from 
a portion of a stem. The leaves of the branchlet are simple, as 
described by Kunth. One well preserved leaf, still attached, 1 and 
certain similar but more fragmentary leaves, some of them broken 
loose, remain with the stem proper. These leaves are very important, 
as they establish definitely and beyond all question the identity of 
B. squarrosa with pubescent forms of B. tereticaulis DC., and not with 
B. reptans (L.) G. Don (with which it is equated by 0. E. Schulz, 
op. cit. 140). 

The presence of pubescence in this species is not of specific 
importance, a fact recognized by Greenman (loc. cit.) and by Schulz 
(op. cit. 142) when they treated very tomentose specimens as mere 
varieties of B. tereticaulis. Nor is the presence of several or even 

1 At least when I examined it in 1914, as may be seen from a photograph 
taken by myself at that time and now deposited, with many hundreds of others 
of the genus Bidens, in the herbarium of Meld Museum. The specimen was very 
brittle and certain parts were observed to crack even during my cautious handling 
of it. 



186 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

many undivided leaves of decisive value, a fact recognized by 
Robinson (loc. cit.) in treating as merely a variety of B. tereticaulis 
a specimen with all its leaves simple. That Coulter (loc. cit.) 
treated his B. antiguensis (cf. Sherff, op. cit., pi. 10} as a distinct 
species is easily explained by the fact that the strong superficial 
resemblance of his first type specimen's foliage to that of certain 
hispid forms of B. pilosa var. radiata (B. leucantha [L.] Willd.) led 
him to contrast it with that plant, from which he very properly 
regarded it as distinct. It is interesting to observe that Coulter also 
noted the remarkable variation in pubescence ("exceedingly variable 
in pubescence, from glabrous to pilose-pubescent"). 

The plant described by Coulter has the achenial awns glabrous. 
This character, which, however, is inconstant in some cases, is 
noticeable in nearly all the specimens of B. squarrosa from Central 
America (in South America and Mexico the awns are almost always 
barbed). The tendency to have smooth awns is apparently the only 
means by which a separation of the Central American forms from 
the species proper might be undertaken. 1 In view of the wide range 
of variation in leaves, flowering heads, and inflorescence, it seems 
unwise at the present time to select one or two forms (e.g., vars. 
antiguensis and sordida) and recognize for them a varietal rank. 

Bidens Coreopsidis DC. var. procumbens Bonn. Sm. is a form of 
this species. Its leaves are mainly 5-parted and the leaflets are 
slightly narrower than in most specimens. It approaches rather 
closely B. reptans (L.) G. Don var. bipartita 0. E. Schulz, described 
from Puerto Rico. In fact, an occasional specimen from Central 
America or Mexico simulates so strongly the Puerto Rico material 
that the two practically pass into each other, making distinctions 
difficult except upon a purely geographic basis. Yet the general 
aspect of Bidens reptans (the species proper) is usually so distinct 
that botanists almost uniformly have retained B. squarrosa (B. 
tereticaulis) as of separate specific rank. 

With the usually very distinct B. segetum and its var. patula of 
South America, B. squarrosa is connected by three specimens from 
Costa Rica and apparently by a few doubtful forms from South 
America. One Costa Rica plant, Scherzer 853, alt. 2,730 meters, 
San Jose", September-November (Mus. V.) is closer to B. segetum 

1 Like B. reptans and other members of the Section Greenmania, B. squarrosa 
often has different parts of one plant growing under widely diverse conditions 
of light and atmosphere because of the climbing habit and the great length of the 
stems and branches. Thus two specimens of strikingly different aspect may be 
gathered from the same plant. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XLVII 




BIDENS SIMPLICIFOLIA C. H. Wright 



THE GENUS BIDENS 187 

(var. patula) in technical characters. The somewhat similar type of 
B. tereticaulis var. sordida Greenman, also collected in Costa Rica, 
appears closer, however, to B. squarrosa, to which it apparently must 
be referred. Tonduz 12284, a supplementary specimen cited by 
Greenman for his B. tereticaulis var. sordida, is a more uncertain form, 
apparently almost as justly referable to B. segetum as to B. squarrosa. 
Just what the exact significance of these more or less intermediate 
forms is, I am unable to judge satisfactorily. In any case it seems 
entirely without warrant to merge the two species into one. 

Coreopsis trifoliata Bertoloni is represented, according to Dr. 
S. F. Blake (in lit., January 5, 1926; cf. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 53: 
217. 1926), by merely a small fragment about 1 dm. long (Hb. Bertol. 
now in Bol . ) . It was collected by Velasquez, Vulcano d' Acqua ( Volcan 
de Agua). Dr. Blake concludes from his own careful study of the 
type fragment that it is a form of B. squarrosa. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLIV 

Bidens squarrosa: a, fruiting branch, X0.57; 6, c, portions of 
branches drawn to show pubescence, X0.57; d, e, exterior involucral 
bracts, X 3.45; /, g, interior involucral bracts, X3.45; h, i, ray corollas, 
X3.45; j, palea, X3.45; k, I, disc florets, X3.45; m, anthers, X 28.75; 
n, pollen grain, X805; o, upper portion of pistil, X 17.25; p, achene, 
X4.31; all from J. D. Smith 2354 (two type sheets of Bidens 
antiguensis Coult.), in Hb. Field. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLV, FIGS, a-g 

Bidens squarrosa: a, flowering branch, X0.73; b, exterior involucral 
bract, X3.66; c, interior involucral bract, X3.66; d, ray corolla, 
X2.92; e, palea, X3.66; /, disc floret, X2.92; g, achene, X2.92; all 
from Berlandier 2150 (cotype of Bidens tereticaulis DC.), in Hb. 
Gray, except d and radiate heads of a, which are amplified accord- 
ing to better preserved heads of Pringle 3373, in Hb. Field. 

66. Bidens Rubifolia H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 186 (237), pi. 381. 

1820. PI. XLVI. 

Bidens floribunda H.B.K. op. cit. 187 (238). 
Kerneria Rubifolia (H.B.K.) Cass. Diet. Sci. Nat. 24: 399. 1822. 
Bidens rugulosa Turcz. Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 24: (I) 184. 1851. 
Bidens Rubifolia var. floribunda (H.B.K.) 0. E. Schulz in Urban, 
Symb. Antill. 7: 142. 1911. 

Perennis, scandens, 4 m. alta; caule fruticoso; ramis tetra- 
gonis vel subteretibus, glabris. Folia tenuiter petiolata, petiolis 1-5 



188 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 4-16 cm. longa, pinnatim 3-5-partita vel 
summa indivisa; foliolis subcoriaceis et saepe rugosis vel raro mem- 
branaceis, serratis, plerumque glabris, margine interdum revolutis, 
supra nitidis et satiate viridibus, subtus pallidioribus; lateralibus 
subsessilibus, ovatis vel ovato-lanceolatis, acutis vel obtusis, 1.5-6 
cm. longis; intermedio petiolulato, ovato-oblongo vel lanceolate, 
apice anguste acuminate vel etiam obtuso, 4-12 cm. longo, plerumque 
8-14 dentibus in unico latere. Capitula corymbosa, radiata, pedun- 
culata pedunculis 1-4 (vel interdum etiam 12) cm. longis. Involu- 
crum basi plerumque hispidum; bracteis exterioribus circ. 8-10, 
linearibus, nunc hispido-ciliatis et in tergo hispidis, nunc fere omnino 
glabris, 3-6 mm. longis, plerumque patentibus vel reflexis, quam 
interioribus nunc vix longioribus nunc dimidio brevioribus. Flores 
ligulati saepius 5, flavi, ligula oblongi, obsolete tridentati, 1.2-1.6 
cm. longi. Achaenia paleas multo superantia, linearia, plana vel 
obcompresso-quadrangularia, paucisulcata, scabriuscula, margini- 
bus hispida, fusco-nigra vel nigrescentia, corpore 0.9-2.1 cm. longa, 
interiora superne attenuata, biaristata vel rarissime subtriaristata, 
aristis erectis vel patentibus vel reflexis, retrorsum hamosis, 3.5-5.5 
mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Alexander Humboldt and Aime 
Bonpland at Quito, Ecuador, 1799-1803 l (Par.). 

Distribution: In the region of the Andes, Venezuela to Peru. 

Specimens examined: Bro. Ariste- Joseph, Paramo de Usme, 
Colombia, 1922 (U.S.); Miguel Bang 2031, Bolivia (Kew; N.Y.; 
forma); Justin Goudot, Bogota, Colombia (Del.); idem, eodem loco, 
November, 1844 (Par. ; Webb) ; /. F. Holton 265, eodem loco, October 
28, 1852 (Boiss.; Del.; Kew; N.Y.); Humboldt & Bonpland, Quito, 
Ecuador (Par., type and duplicate, 2 sheets) ; iidem, alt. 2,700 meters, 
at foot of Mt. Javirac near Quito, February (Par. ; type of Bidens 
floribunda H.B.K., the simple-leaved state); Jameson 497, near 
Pasto, Colombia (type material of Bidens rugulosa Turcz.; Boiss.; 
Brit.; Del.; Petrop.; Webb); H. Karsten, Bogota, Colombia (Mus. 
V.); idem, Chiquinquira near Bogota, Colombia (Mus. V., sub nom. 
Bidente spirali Schz. Bip.); E. P. Killip & Bro. Ariste-Joseph 11922, 
alt. 3,700 meters, Paramo de Choachi, near Bogota, Colombia, 
August 8, 1922 (U.S.); E. P. Killip & A. C. Smith 17204, alt. 3,000- 
3,600 meters, in woods, western slope of Paramo Rico, Dept. San- 
tander, Colombia, January 15-19, 1927 (U.S.; planta juvenili); 

1 The type sheet bears no citation of locality but the Bonpland duplicate at 
Paris gives Quito. This had not been seen by Kunth, hence his query, "Crescit 
in Regno Quitensi?" 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI. Plate XLVIII 




BIDENS UROPHYLLA Sherff 



Of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 189 

iidem 18779, alt. about 3,200 meters, dense forest, Quebrada de Pais, 
north of La Baja, Dept. Santander, January 31, 1927 (U.S.); W. 
Lechler 2127, Tabina, Peru (Kew); F. C. Lehmann 4703, alt. 2,800- 
3,000 meters, west slopes near Paramo of Guanacas, Prov. Popayan, 
Colombia, March (Berl.; Kew; Petrop.); idem 5965, alt. 2,500-2,800 
meters, in dense forests on the Alto de Pesares above Popayan, 
Colombia, March (Berl. ; Kew) ; J. J. Linden 487 p.p., alt. 1,200-4,350 
meters, high Andes, Truxillo and MeYida, Venezuela, 1842 (Del.; 
per hanc formam magna anomalaque specimina num. 53 Mandonii 
q.v. Bidenti Rubifoliae conjuncta sunt); idem (similiter) 487, 
Caracas, Venezuela, April, etc., 1842 (Boiss.; Brit.; Kew; Mus. V.); 
J. F. Macbride 3468, alt. about 2,550 meters, Cani, Peru, April 16-26, 
1923 (Field); G. Mandon 53, alt. 3,000 meters, in woods (nemoribus), 
between Motoato and Alto de Soque, Bolivia, June 1, 1860 (Del.; 
Kew; Mus. V., etc.; vide Lindenii 487 ex MeYida, etc.); Mutis 26, 
Colombia (Linn.); F. W. Pennell 8858, alt. 2,100-2,500 meters, edge 
of forest above Salento, Dept. Caldas, Colombia, July 25-31, 1922 
(U.S.); H. Pittier 1432, alt. 2,550 meters, below Pitaio, Rio Palo 
Basin, Tierra Adentro, Dept. Cauca, Colombia, February, 1906 (Field; 
U.S.); Rivet 924 and 2220, Soja, equatorial South America, April, 
1905 (Par. ; atypica) ; (L. Schlim 255, formerly referred at Kew to 
this species, is seen, at least in some herbaria, to be B. squarrosa;) 
A. Stubel lOla, vicinity of Bogota, Colombia, April-May, 1868 
(Berl.); J.J. Triana 1367, alt. 2,700 meters, Colombia (Berl.; Par.); 
idem 1368, alt. 2,700 meters, Prov. Bogota, Colombia, 1851-1857 
(Brit.; Par.); idem 1369 p.p., Colombia (Berl.). 

The foliage is at times 3-partite as in the type material, or again it 
is mostly 5-partite, as in my plate. The leaves are typically sub- 
coriaceous and strongly rugose, characters failing to show in the 
plate, but in herbarium specimens usually very distinctive. The 
specimens cited by Turczaninow for his Bidens rugulosa (Jameson 
497) are mutually rather dissimilar in foliage, varying from typical 
or nearly so to a form with lanceolate leaflets, these hardly rugose 
but more closely and finely serrate, a terminal leaflet having as many 
as 46 teeth on each side. Of the latter form an extreme, such as 
Turczaninow must have had for his description, is in Kew, on the 
same sheet with two other specimens more nearly typical for B. 
Rubifolia. It suggests B. segetum Mart, very strongly. In fact, J. G. 
Baker (in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6, pt. 3: 245. 1884), doubtless influenced 
by this material at Kew, synonymized the name B. speciosa Gardn. 
(=B. segetum) with B. Rubifolia H.B.K. We may note also that 



190 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

some forms of B. segetum var. patula (Gardn.) Sherff approach in 
foliar rugosity very closely to B. Rubifolia; e.g., Goudot 1. 

Seemann 686, from Ecuador, has foliage typical for B. squarrosa 
H.B.K., but in the characters of the inflorescence is like B. Rubifolia 
and B. segetum. Lehmann 4703 has the rugose leaves of B. Rubi- 
folia but small flowering heads as in B. squarrosa. Through these 
and certain other specimens much confusion has arisen in literature, 
but it appears that the maintenance of B. squarrosa and B. Rubifolia 
as distinct species is more in harmony with the Linnean species 
concept. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLVI 

Bidens Rubifolia: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.58; b, 
tripartite leaf, X0.58; c, exterior involucral bract, X2.91; d, interior 
involucral bract, X2.91; e, ray floret, X2.91;/, palea, X2.91; g, disc 
floret, X2.91; h, achene, X2.32; all from Lehmann 4703, in Hb. Kew. 

67. Bidens simplicifolia C. H. Wright, Kew Bull. 1906: 5. 1906. 

PL XLVII. 

Frutex scandens, 3 m. altus; ramis teretibus, striatis, glabris. 
Folia petiolata petiolis 1-4 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 0.8-2 dm. 
longa et 4-7 cm. lata, indivisa; lamina nunc valde ovata nunc 
oblongo-ovata, apice acuminata basi primum rotundata deinde ad 
petiolum decurrente, margine (non alte) serrata atque eciliata, facie- 
bus glaberrima. Capitula corymbosa, subtenuiter pedicellata pedi- 
cellis glabris usque ad 1 dm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 
4 cm. lata et circ. 1.4-1.6 cm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores 
numerosae (plerumque 12-14) ac perspicuae, demum patentes vel 
subreflexae, spathulato-obovatae vel -oblanceolatae, tergo glabrae, 
margine sparsim ciliatae, saepius 3-nervatae, apice rotundatae vel 
obtusissimae, 6-9 mm. longae et 1.5-2.6 mm. latae; interiores 
lanceolato-oblongae, brunneae, anguste hyalino-marginatae, subtiles, 
apicaliter pubescentes, paulo longiores. Flores ligulati 6-8, flavi, 
ligula late oblongo-oblanceolati, apice subintegri, circ. 1.5-1.8 cm. 
longi. Paleae lineares, pro capitulo submaturo 1-1.4 cm. longae. 
Achaenia linearia lateribus plus minusve parallela, valde obcompressa, 
atra, utraque facie circ. 8-sulcata et glabra vel sub apice spar- 
sim erecto-setosa, marginibus densissime suberecto-ciliata, corpore 
submatura 8-14 mm. longa et circ. 0.5-0.7 mm. lata, apice perspicue 
biaristata aristis tenuibus, stramineis, supra retrorsum hamosis basi 
saepe antrorsum hamosis, moderate patentibus, 5-6 mm. longis. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XLIX 




BIDENS SEGETUM Mart. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 191 

Type specimen: Collected by Heinrich Franz Alexander Eggers, 
No. 15725, in dry, bushy places, Agua Amarga at El Recreo, Ecuador, 
April 10, 1897 (Kew). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Ecuador. 

Specimens examined: Eggers 15725 (type, Kew: cotypes, Berl.; 
Field; Mun.). 

In 1915 (Bot. Gaz. 59: 309) this species was referred by me to 
Bid ens floribunda H.B.K. Subsequent study of additional material 
has shown, however, that B. floribunda is merely a simple-leaved 
state of B. Rubifolia H.B.K., whereas B. simplicifolia is apparently 
distinct. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLVII 

Bidens simplicifolia: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.52; 
b, exterior involucral bract, Xl.56; c, interior involucral bract, 
X2.1; d, ray corolla, X3.1; e, palea, Xl.56; /, disc floret, X2.5; g, 
anthers, X8.2; h, upper portion of pistil, X7.47; i, achene, X2.08; 
chiefly from cotype in Hb. Field, but partly from cotype in Hb. 
Berl. and partly from type in Hb. Kew. 

68. Bidens Vincaefolia Karst. & Schz. Bip. ex Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
59: 303. 1915. PL XLV, figs. h-m. 

Herba perennis, verisimiliter volubilis; caule angulato vel tetra- 
gono, ramoso; ramis glabris vel subglabris, tetragonis, striatis. Folia 
petiolata petiolis ciliatis 1-1.8 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 2-3.5 cm. 
longa, tripartita vel raro indivisa, subcoriacea vel membranacea, 
subtus pallidiora et ad venas minute pubescentia, marginibus integris 
vel rarius serratis et in specimine sicco subrevolutis; foliolo terminali 
lanceolato, 1-2 cm. longo; lateralibus oblanceolatis vel obovatis, 
0.6-1.3 cm. longis. Capitula pedunculata, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 
circ. 1 cm. lata et 5-6 mm. alta. Involucrum basi hispidum, bracteis 
subaequalibus; exterioribus circ. 5, linearibus, plus minusve pubes- 
centibus, nigro-striatis, 3-4 mm. longis; interioribus lanceolatis, 
subglabris. Flores ligulati circ. 6 vel 7, flavi, nonnullis lineis nigro- 
striati, ligula elliptico-oblanceolati, 5-8 mm. longi. Achaenia 
linearia, plana, atro-fusca, corpore circ. 1 cm. longa, biaristata aristis 
retrorsum hamosis, 1-2.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Hermann Karsten at Bogota, 
Colombia (Par.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality of Bogota, Colombia. 

Specimens examined: Karsten (type, Par.: cotype, Mus. V.). 




192 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

This species appears unique, being distinct in general aspect from 
any other species known to me. The type sheet, originally in 
Schultz Bipontinus' own herbarium, bears several small specimens. 
These are remarkably uniform and are allied most closely with 
Bidens Rubifolia H.B.K., the leaves of which are much less diminu- 
tive. While true B. Rubifolia grows at Bogota (e.g., /. F. Holton 
365, October 28, 1852), Karsten and Schultz Bipontinus evidently 
regarded the Karsten plant as specifically distinct. This course I also 
must adopt, as I am unable to connect the two forms in herbaria by 
any intermediate ones. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLV, FIGS, h-m 

Bidens Vincaefolia: h, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.73; i, 
exterior involucral bract, X3.66;;, interior involucral bract, X3.66; 
k, ray corolla, X2.92; I, palea, X3.66; m, disc floret, X2.92; all from 
type. 

69. Bidens Gentry! Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 97: 608. 1936. 

Herba perennis, gracillima, circ. 1 m. alta; caulibus paucibus 
ex unica radice, parce rectis sed non certe volubilibus, subteretibus, 
sulculatis, glabris, tantum circ. 1-1.3 mm. crassis. Folia petiolata 
petiolis tenuibus glabris plerumque 1-3 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
principalia 1-1.3 dm. longa, bipinnata vel tripinnatisecta; foliolis 
lateralibus primariis (imis tenuiter petiolulatis) 2 vel 3 jugis, 
membranaceissimis, glabratis vel margine sparsim setuloso-ciliatis, 
segmentis plus minusve lineari-oblongis vel ovato-lanceolatis termi- 
nali anguste attenuate; folioli terminalis segmento terminali angustis- 
sime lineari-acuminato usque ad 5.5 cm. longo. Capitula corymbose 
disposita (3 vel 4 ad caulis finem), pedunculata pedunculo tenui 
glabro 7 cm. longo, radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 3.8-4.3 cm. 
lata et 1.2 cm. alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 8, patentes 
vel subreflexae, lineares, apice acutae, glabratae, circ. 9-12 mm. 
longae; interiores oblongo-lanceolatae, non nisi apice pubescentes, 
breviores. Flores ligulati 7-9, flavi, ligula elliptico-oblanceolati, 
apice saepe 2- vel 3-denticulati, 2 cm. longi. Paleae superne sen- 
sim angustatae, apice obtusae, sub 1 cm. longae. Achaenia sub- 
matura linearia, subtetragono-obcompressa, brunneo-atra; corpore 
glaberrimo vel apicem versus sparsissime erecto-setuloso, sub 1 cm. 
longo et sub 1 mm. crasso, omnibus (4) faciebus 2-sulculatis; aristis 
abortivis vel 2, tenuibus, sub 3 mm. longis, suberectis, retrorsum 
hamosis hamis paucis albidis acerrimis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Howard Scott Gentry, No. 1700, 
growing a meter high, stalks several from the base, pine slope in 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate L 




BIDENS SEGETUM Mart. 



Of 



THE GENUS BIDENS 193 

Upper Sonoran region, Final, Sierra Charuco, State of Sonora, 
Mexico, September 9, 1935 (Field). 

Distribution: Southern Sonora and western Chihuahua, Mexico. 

Specimens examined: Gentry 1700 (type, Field); idem 2847, a 
colony on sunny slope, in transition, pine-oaks, San Jos de Final, 
Rio Mayo, Chihuahua, September 22, 1936 (Field). 

Apparently intermediate between Bidens reptans var. Urbanii 
and B. urophylla, although not known definitely as yet to have a 
climbing habit. From the former it differs in its larger capitula, 
longer exterior involucral bracts, eciliate achenes, etc. From the 
latter it can be told at once by its more compound leaves, larger and 
more numerous ligulate florets, etc. 

70. Bidens urophylla Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81: 32. 1926. 
PI. XLVIII. 

Herba glabra, verisimiliter perennis scandensque, forsitan 1-3 m. 
alta vel longa; ramis aegre angulatis vel teretibus. Folia peti- 
olata petiolis tenuibus 2.5-4.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 8-14 cm. 
longa, pinnatim 3-5-partita, foliolis anguste lanceolatis, mem- 
branaceis, usque ad 1.6 cm. latis, valde et perspicue (prominentibus 
anguste linearibus cauda 1-3.5 cm. longa) caudato-acuminatis, 
pauciserratis unico latere 2-6 mucronatis dentibus munito, margine 
eciliatis. Capitula radiata, pansa ad anthesin 3 cm. lata et 0.9-1.4 
cm. alta, pro maxima parte verisimiliter corymboso-paniculata. 
Involucri bracteae exteriores 6-8, anguste lineares, subglabrae, 
crassiusculae, apice subacutae, 5-8 mm. longae; interiores latiores 
et paulo longiores. Flores ligulati 5 vel 6, sicci albo-flavidi, ligula 
oblongo-elliptici, apice denticulati, 1.5 cm. longi. Achaenia matura 
non visa; submatura fusco-nigra, linearia, plana vel subtetragona, 
corpore 9-12 mm. longa et circ. 1 mm. lata, omnino etiam ad mar- 
gines glabra vel ad summam sparsissime setulosa, biaristata aristis 
supra retrorsum infra antrorsum hamosis, tantum circ. 1 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Karl Friedrich Philipp Von Martins, 
in thickets ("sepibus") at the margins of forests near Mariana, 
State of Minas Geraes, Brazil, April, 1817-1820 (Mun.). 

Distribution: Known only from vicinity of Mariana, State of 
Minas Geraes, Brazil. 

Specimens examined: Martins, near Mariana (type, Mun.). 

The type had been labeled Bidens Rubifolia H.B.K., probably by 
J. G. Baker. Indeed, from its general habit, the species does appear 
to be without doubt a close relative of such species as B. Rubifolia 



194 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

H.B.K., B. squarrosa H.B.K., B. segetum Mart., B. reptans (L.) G. 
Don, B. Holwayi Sherff, and B. Shrevei Britt., all of them perennial 
climbers. From these it differs decidedly in its remarkably caudate- 
tipped leaflets and in its achenes, which are almost entirely glabrous, 
even on the margins, and have only short aristae. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLVIII 

Bid ens urophylla: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.62; b, 
exterior involucral bract, X4.94; c, interior involucral bract, X 4.94; 
d, ray corolla, X4.94; e, palea, X4.94;/, disc floret, X4.94; g, achene, 
X4.94; all from type. 

71. Bidens segetum Mart, ex Colla, Herb. Pedem. 3: 307. 1834. 
PI. XLIX and PI. L. 

Coreopsis brasiliensis Colla, Herb. Pedem. 3: 479. 1834. 

Bidens speciosa Gardn. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. 4: 126. 1845. 

Bidens multiserrata Schz. Bip. Linnaea 30: 181. 1859-1860. 

Bidens silvatica Schz. Bip. ex Baker in Mart. Fl. Brazil. 6, pt. 3: 245. 
1884. 

Bidens Rubifolia H.B.K. var. silvatica Baker, loc. cit. 

Bidens pallida Rusby, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 4: 389. 1907; cf. Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 81: 53 and pi. 4- 1926. 

Bidens speciosa var. silvatica (Schz. Bip. ex Baker) 0. E. Schulz in 
Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 142. 1911. 

Folia omnia simplicia ovato-lanceolata usque ad 5.5 cm. lata. 

var. ft. patula. 

Folia plerumque 3- vel etiam 5-partita; raro simplicia laminis mode- 
rate angusteve lanceolatis B. segetum sensu stricto. 

Perennis, scandens, 9 m. alta (vel longa) ; caule fruticoso, tereti ; 
ramulis plus minusve teretibus, glabris vel pubescenti-tomentosis. 
Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus 1.5-4.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 0.6- 
1.5 cm. longa, plerumque tripartita sed interdum multa indivisa (var. 
silvatica [Schz. Bip. ex Bak.] 0. E. Schulz) vel raro pauca 5-partita; 
foliolis anguste lanceolatis vel raro ovato-lanceolatis, acuminatis, 
minute et acute serratis, crassiusculis vel submembranaceis, supra gla- 
briusculis vel hispidulis, subtus plus minusve pubescentibus vel etiam 
glaberrimis, lateralibus sessilibus et basi valde inaequilateralibus vel 
(pro foliis 5-partitis) infimis petiolulatis et basi aequilateralibus, 
terminali petiolulato, plerumque 20-45 dentibus in unico latere 
serrulato, circ. 1.2-2.5 vel rariter usque ad 3.3 cm. lato. Capitula 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LI 




c b J I 

BIDENS SEGETUM var. PATULA (Gardn.) Sherff 



OF THL 
DIVERSITY OF HUMS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 195 

paniculata, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 3-5 cm. lata et 9-12 mm. 
alta, pedunculata pedunculis 1-5 cm. longis. Involucrum hispidum; 
bracteis exterioribus circ. 8, late lineari-spathulatis, ciliatis, apice 
acutis vel subacutis, reflexo-squarrosis, 5-7 mm. longis, plerumque 
quam interioribus lanceolatis paulo brevioribus. Flores ligulati 5 
vel interdum 6, flavi, ligula elliptico-oblanceolati, apice acuti vel 
subacuti, 1.5 cm. longi. Achaenia linearia, plana vel obcompresso- 
tetragona, atra, marginibus apiceque valde hispida pilis longis 
plerumque 2-4-adgregatis et saepe tuberculo minuto insidentibus, 
corpore 8-13 mm. longa, demum paleas multo superantia, biaristata; 
aristis tenuibus, supra retrorsum hamosis sed basim versus antror- 
sum hamosis, 3.5-5 mm. longis, plerumque patentissimis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Karl Friedrich Philipp Von Martins, 
in Brazil, communic. anno 1827 (Tur.). 

Distribution: Peru (where very rare) and Bolivia eastward to 
states of Goyaz, Minas Geraes, and Parana, Brazil; recently col- 
lected (Solis 460) in Costa Rica. 

Specimens examined: Miguel Bang 2152 pro parte, Coripati, 
Yungas, Bolivia, April 25, 1894 (type ofBidens pallida Rusby, N.Y.: 
cotypes, Boiss. ; Brit. ; Cop. ; Del. ; Gray; Kew; Mo. ; N.Y. ; Phila., etc.) ; 
P. Claussen, Minas Geraes, Brazil (Del., 5 sheets; Kew; Mus. V., 
3 sheets; N.Y., forma foliis indivisis; Par., 8 sheets); idem 8, in 
shade, Cachoeira (Caxoeira) do Campo, Minas Geraes, Brazil, April, 
1839 (Del.); idem (similiter) 8, Minas Geraes, Brazil, 1841 (Par.); 
idem 105, eodem loco, 1840 (Berl.; Boiss.; forma foliis indivisis); 
P. Dusen 4123, along stream in woods, Lago, Parana, Brazil, March- 
July, 1904 (Brit.; U.V.); idem 9817, margins of small forests, Porta 
Grossa, Parana, Brazil, March 31, 1910 (U.S.); idem 16866, alt. 
740 meters, edge of forest, Jaguariahyva, Brazil, March 24, 1915 
(Berl., 2 sheets; Mo.; U .S.) ; George Gardner 509, Organ Mts., Brazil 
(Kew; forma subtomentosa) ; idem 510, Serra dos Orgaos, State of 
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, February, 1837 (a Gardnero loc. cit. pro var. 
tomentosa sed non nominata habita: Berl.; Brit., 3 sheets; Del.; 
Flor.; Kew; Mus. V.; N.Y.; Par.); idem 511, in forests, alt. about 
900 meters, eodem loco, February-May, 1837-1838 (type collection 
of Bidens speciosa Gardn.; Berl.; Brit., 2 sheets; Del.); A. Glaziou 
2624, Petropolis, State of Rio de Janeiro, March 24, 1879 (Cop.; 
Par.); idem 12881, road from the Iron Mine, vicinity of Rio de 
Janeiro, April 24, 1881 (Berl.; Cop.; Kew; Par., 2 sheets; Petrop.); 
T. H. Gomer 1743, April 2, 1918 (Field); S. E. Henschen 193, Caldas, 
Minas Geraes, Brazil, April, 1868 (U.S.); F. C. Hoehne 2690, Pocos de 



196 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Caldas, Minas Geraes, January 9, 1919 (Field) ; E. W. D. & Mary 
M. Holway 1407, Juiz de Fora, Minas Geraes, December 17, 1921 
(U.S.); iidem 1713, alt. 1,100 meters, stem to 1 inch in diameter, 
climbing over trees to 30 feet and then hanging down, Pocos de 
Caldas, State of Sao Paulo (U.S.); Langsdorff, Minas Geraes, Brazil 
(Kew); Lund & Warming 603, Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes (Cop.); 
Martins, grassy stream banks above Serra do Mar (near Santos), 
Sao Paulo, Brazil, December (Mun.) ; idem, Brazil, 1827 (Kew) ; idem, 
Brazil, communic. 1827 (type, Tur.); idem 823, Brazil (Berl.; Del.; 
Kew; Mun., 2 sheets; Mus. V.; N.Y.; Par.); idem 1018, thickets 
and shady forests, Mainarde, Minas Geraes, Brazil, April (Mun.); 
MendonQa 1120, Tacarchy, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, April, 1888 
(Berl.); idem 1254, Brazil (Berl.); Pohl 1624, Brazil (Mus. V.); 
A. Raimondi 7198, Chorillos, Prov. Contumaza, Dept. Cajamarca, 
Peru, 1875 (Berl.); A. F. Regnell 1-193, Caldas, Minas Geraes (Par., 
sub nom. Bidens multiserrata Schz. Bip.); idem (similiter) 1-193, 
eodem loco, April, 1865 (Cop., 2 sheets); idem (similiter) 1-193, 
eodem loco, April 15, 1867 (Berl.); Ludwig Riedel 138x, mountain 
forests, Serra dos Orgaos, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, April, 
1823 (type collection, Bidens silvatica Schz. Bip.; Gray; Kew; Par.; 
Petrop.); idem 2122, shady forested places, Itu, State of Sao Paulo, 
Brazil, March, 1834 (Petrop., 4 sheets); Riedel & Langsdorff 206, 
Brazil (Petrop.); A. Russell 218, State of Sao Paulo, December 15, 
1897 (Field); H. Schenck 3398, Queluz, Minas Geraes, March 31, 
1887 (Berl.); idem 3481, Congonhas do Campo, Minas Geraes, April 
3, 1887 (Berl.); Schuch 1824, Brazil (Mus. V.); W. Schwacke 9317, 
Ouro Preto, Minas Geraes, April, 1893 (Berl.); Seemann 686, Loja, 
Ecuador, August (Kew); Sello 590, Brazil (Berl.); idem 1104, Brazil, 
1819 (Berl., 2 sheets); idem 4548, Brazil (Berl.); idem 5670, Brazil 
(Berl.); L. B. Smith 2301, vicinity of Monte Serrat, Mt. Itatiaya, 
State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, April 11, 1929 (Gray); F. Solis R. 
460, alt. 1520 meters, forest margins, Hacienda Montecristo, Costa 
Rica, November 20, 1936 (Field); Jose Steinbach 5584, alt. 400 
meters, orilla del bosque, Rio Surutu, Buena Vista, Prov. 
Sara, Dept. Santa Cruz, Bolivia, April 15, 1921 (Del.; Field); 
A. de St. Hilaire, Minas Geraes, 1816-1821 (Par.); idem 1190, 
eodem loco (Par., 3 sheets; forma tomentosa); idem 1199, State of 
Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1816-1821 (Par., 4 sheets); E. Vie 2585, Brazil, 
April, 1892 (Hamb.); idem 3403, Brazil, April, 1894 (Hamb.); 
Eugene Warming, Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes, May 7, 1864 (Cop.; 
Gray; Par.); A. Weddell 2656, Goyaz, April, 1844 (Par.); Widgren, 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LII 




BIDENS SHREVEI Britt. 



OF 

HF lillNOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 197 

Minas Geraes, 1845 (Cop.; Mun.; U.S.); idem 251, Caldas, Minas 
Geraes, March 27, 1846 (Berl.; Cop., 2 sheets; Flor.; Kew; Mun.; 
Par.; Petrop.; U.V.); idem 252, Minas Geraes, 1845 (Berl.). 

Varies widely in pubescence, leaf division, and leaf outline. The 
type material has leaves glabrate above. Gardner 510, by Gardner 
regarded as a variety (var. tomentosa in herb.) has smaller leaves and 
is tomentose. These extremes are connected, however, by various 
intermediate forms (e.g., Warming, Hb. N.Y.). The var. silvatica 
is merely a foliage state supposedly having undivided leaves. The 
Riedel specimen at Kew has one branch with all simple leaves and 
another branch, from the same stem, with all leaves simple except 
two lower ones. One of these has an additional lateral leaflet and the 
other has two lateral leaflets, being tripartite as in the species 
proper. 

Bidens multiserrata Schz. Bip. was a name given to Regnell's 
Ser. I, No. 193 (pro parte), collected at Caldas in the State of Minas 
Geraes. The type material from Schultz Bipontinus' herbarium 
(Par.) is clearly Bidens segetum Mart. 

Bidens segetum var. /3. patula (Gardn.) comb. nov. 
PI. LI. 

Bidens speciosa var. patula (Gardn.) 0. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. 

Antill. 7: 142. 1911. 

Bidens patula Gardn. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. 7: 405. 1848. 
Bidens longipetiolata Rusby, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 8: 131. 1912. 

Folia omnia simplicia, ovato-lanceolata, usque ad 5.5 cm. lata. 

Type specimen: Collected by George Gardner, No. 4254, bushy 
banks of the Rio San Bernardo, near San Bernardo, Goyaz, Brazil, 
May, 1840 (Kew). 

Distribution: Colombia, where approaching Bidens Rubifolia 
H.B.K., to State of Goyaz in Brazil, and to Bolivia and Peru. 
Represented (somewhat doubtfully) in Costa Rica by very scanty 
material. 1 

Specimens examined: Miguel Bang 2152 pro parte, Coripati, 
Yungas, Bolivia, April 25, 1894 (Carn. ; foliis simplicibus, lanceolato- 
ovatis, petiolis 1.5-2 cm. longis); Gardner 4254 (type, Kew: 
cotypes, Berl.; Del., 2 sheets; Flor.; Kew, 3 sheets; N.Y.); Const. 
de Jelski 628, 749, 750, and 751, Callacate, Peru, May, 1879 
(Berl.); E. P. Kittip & A. C. Smith 20871, alt. 1,000-1,300 meters, 

1 Regarding its presence in Costa Rica, see under B. squarrosa H.B.K. 



198 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

between Chinacota and La Esmeralda, Dept. Norte de Santander, 
Colombia, March 19, 1927 (U.S.);Lwwd 644, loco ignoto, December 
31, 1863 (Cop.); 1 A. Raimondi 3906, Callacate, Dept. Cajamarca, 
Peru, May, 1879 (Berl.); A. Weberbauer 3857, alt. 2,000-2,400 
meters, below San Pablo, Prov. and Dept. Cajamarca, Peru, April 
29, 1904 (Berl.); R. S. Williams 194, alt. 1,140 meters, Michariapo, 
Bolivia, April 9, 1902 (B. longipetiolata Rusby, type, N.Y. : cotype, 
Brit.). 

The var. patula would seem at first from a study of merely the 
type specimens (Gardner 4254) to be specifically distinct, as thought 
by Gardner. But an examination of technical characters in various 
herbaria convinces me of the soundness of O. E. Schulz's policy in 
treating it as merely a variety of B. segetum. In fact, with the 
accumulation of more herbarium specimens in the future, even the 
varietal distinctions will perhaps be found so fluctuating that 
maintenance of the var. patula will be considered inadvisable. In 
this connection may be noted the specimens of Miguel Bang 2152. 
Most of these are referable to B. segetum proper, but the one at the 
Carnegie Museum has the leaves all simple, lance-ovate, and the 
petioles 1.5-2 cm. long, thus placing it with the var. patula. 

The leaves vary in petiolar length, and it appears that B. longi- 
petiolata Rusby, a species described from specimens lacking mature 
achenes, is merely a form of var. patula with especially long petioles 
(up to 4.5 cm.). Through the var. patula, B. segetum doubtless 
passes into the related species, B. squarrosa H.B.K. (cf. p. 186 and 
p. 184, footnote 1). Through the Goudot specimens, it approaches 
Bidens Rubifolia H.B.K. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLIX 

Bidens segetum: a, flowering branch, X0.57; b, portion of leaflet, 
lower surface, showing characteristic venation, X0.57; c, exterior 
involucral bract, X2.28; d, interiot involucral bract, X2.28; e, ray 
floret, X2.28; /, palea, X2.28; g, disc floret, X2.28; h, portion of 
mature achene, X2.86; a-g, from Gardner 511, mainly in Hb. N.Y.; 
h, from P. Claussen, Minas Geraes, Brazil, in Hb. Mus. V. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE L 

Bidens segetum: a, flowering branch, X0.61; b, exterior involucral 
bract, X3.05; c, interior involucral bract, X3.05; d, ray corolla, 

1 Here may be mentioned the interesting plant, Scherzer 853, referred to 
under B. squarrosa as coming from Costa Rica (alt. 2,730 meters, San Jose; Mus. 
V.), which appears closer to B. segetum (var. patula) than to B. squarrosa. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 199 

X2.44; e, palea, X3.05; /, disc floret, X3.05; all from Miguel Bang 
2152 pro parte (type and various cotypes of Bidens pallida Rusby). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LI 

Bidens segetum var. patula: a, fruiting specimen, X0.68; 6, one of 
larger cauline leaves, X0.68; c, k, portions of leaf, lower surface, 
showing pubescence, X3.4; d, I, exterior involucral bracts, X4.08; 
e, m, interior involucral bracts, X4.08; /, ray corolla, X4.08; g, n, 
paleae, X4.08; h, o, disc florets, X4.08; i, achene, X4.08; j, flowering 
branch, X0.68; a-t, from cotype, in Hb. Gray; j-o, from Williams 
194 (type of Bidens longipetiolata Rusby), in Hb. N.Y. 

72. Bidens Shrevei Britton, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 37: 359. 

1910. PL LIT. 

Herba perennis, fruticosa, scandens, glabra; caule tetragono, 
saepe etiam 5-6.5 m. longo, ramoso; ramis tenuibus, acriter tetra- 
gonis, conspicue subnigro-striatis, 3-6 dm. longis. Folia tenuiter 
petiolata petiolis 1.5-3.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 5-11 cm. longa, 
saepe recurvata, simplicia, ovata vel oblongo-lanceolata, apice 
acuminata vel tantum subacuta et basi plerumque subtruncata, 
serrata, non ciliata, membranacea, sicca subbrunneo-viridia venis 
brunneis. Capitula non numerosa, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 
3-5 cm. lata et 1.2-1.5 cm. alta, pedunculata pedunculis saepius 
nudis, 2-6 cm. longis. Involucri basis parce hispida ; bracteis exterio- 
ribus 7-9, late linearibus vel lineari-spathulatis, fere foliaceis, apice 
acutis pubescentibusque, margine paucis pilis raro ciliatis, 6-9 
mm. longis, squarroso-reflexis plerumque fere a primo, interioribus 
subaequalibus. Flores ligulati 6-8, flavidi, ligula elliptici, apice 
obtusiusculi, 1.5-2 cm. longi. Achaenia linearia, obcompresso- 
tetragona, ad latera et saepe ad costas medias pilis saepe 2-4- 
adgregatis et plerumque tuberculo insidentibus erecto-patentibus 
obsita, nigrescentia, corpore 1-2.2 cm. longa, interiora demum paleis 
multo longiora, biaristata; aristis tenuibus, brunneo-flavidis, fere ad 
basim retrorsum hamosis, divaricatis, 4-5 mm. longis, hamis raro 
caducis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Forrest Shreve on banks at higher 
altitudes in the Blue Mountains, Cinchona, Jamaica, November, 
1905 (N.Y.). 

Distribution: Jamaica, also in Colombia. 

Specimens examined: N. L. Britton & A. Rollick 1792, rocky 
bank below Hardware Gap, vicinity of New Castle, Jamaica, March 
1, 1908 (N.Y.); W. Fawcett 8221a, near Cinchona, Jamaica, Novem- 



200 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

her 27, 1905 (Field; Kew); W. Harris 6735, alt. 1,515 meters, St. 
Catherine's Peak, Jamaica, 1896 (Brit.); A. S. Hitchcock, Blue 
Mountain Peak, Jamaica, December 12, 1890 (Mo.); D. Morris, 
alt. up to 1,800 meters, Jamaica, February, 1884 (Kew); C. R. 
Orcutt 7054, Arntully, Jamaica, November 22, 1928 (Stanf.); H. H. 
Rusby & F. W. Pennell 647, alt. 2,000-2,500 meters, Cordillera 
Oriental, east of Neiva, Dept. Huila, Colombia, August 1-8, 1917 
(Field; Mo.; N.Y.; U.S.); Roger Shakespear, Jamaica, 1777 (Brit.); 
Shreve, Cinchona, Jamaica, November, 1905 (type, N.Y.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LII 

Bidens Shrevei: a, flowering branch, X0.6; 6, a leaf with oblong 
shape, X0.6; c, exterior involucral bract, X3; d, interior involucral 
bract, X3; e, ray corolla, X3; /, palea, X3; g, disc floret, X3; h, 
anthers, X15; i, pollen grain, X700; j, upper portion of pistil, Xlo; 
k, achene, X3; 6, from Fawcett 8221a, in Hb. Field; rest from type. 

73. Bidens Holwayi Blake & Sherff ex Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 64: 39. 

1917. PI. LIII. 

Herba scandens; caule demum 20-30 m. longo, adscendente 
(ex Holwayo) in altitudinem 12-15 m.; ramis tetragonis, glabris, 
striatis. Folia petiolata petiolis 1.5-4 cm. longis basi connatis et 
hispido-ciliatis, petiolo adjecto 6-18 cm. longa, tripartita vel summa 
indivisa, ciliata, supra non manifeste hispida (nisi ad venas), infra 
plus minusve piloso-hispida, serrata; foliolis lateralibus ovatis vel 
ovato-lanceolatis, terminali ovato-lanceolato vel lanceolate. Capi- 
tula magna, radiata, pansa ad anthesin circ. 6 cm. lata, pedunculata 
pedunculis (in unico specimine observato) 12-13 cm. longis. Involu- 
crum ad basim dense piloso-tomentosum, bracteis exterioribus 8 vel 
9, late linearibus, hispido-ciliatis, subsparsim hispidis, 9-15 mm. 
longis; interioribus saepe paulo brevioribus, anguste lanceolatis, ad 
faciem exteriorem piloso-tomentosis, marginibus diaphanis. Flores 
ligulati 5 vel interdum verisimiliter etiam 6 vel 7, ligula lineari- 
elliptici, flavi, 9-11-striati, 2.3-3 cm. longi, ad apicem irregulariter 
2-4-lobulati. Achaenia linearia, subplana, atra, setis albidis sub- 
erectis ciliata, ad facies (praecipue ad costas medianas) sparsim his- 
pida, corpore 1.3 cm. longa, ad apicem nonnullis erectis setis 
coronata, biaristata; aristis 4-7 mm. longis, divaricatibus et 
retrorsum hamosis hamis tenuibus. 

Type specimen: Collected by Edward W. D. Holway, No. 816, 
Quezaltenango, Guatemala, January 31, 1917 (Gray). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality of Quezaltenango, 
southwestern Guatemala. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 201 

Specimens examined : HolwaySlQ (type, Gray). 

A strange species of uncertain status. The leaves are not unlike 
those sometimes found on Bidens squarrosa. The tetragonal branches, 
the large heads (in anthesis about 6 cm. across), their very large 
involucral bracts, all stamp the species as being distinct from B. 
squarrosa. Apparently B. Rubifolia and B. segetum var. patula are 
much more closely related to B. Holwayi. Possibly one of them, par- 
ticularly B. segetum var. patula, may some day be shown, by means of 
various connecting or intermediate forms, to be conspecific with it. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LIII 

Bidens Holwayi: a, branch in subfruiting stage, X0.56; b, exterior 
involucral bract, X2.8; c, interior involucral bract, X2.8; d, ray 
corolla, X2.8; e, palea, X2.8; /, disc floret, X2.8; g, achene, X2.8; 
all from type. 

74. Bidens graveolens Mart. Isis 1824: 590. 1824. PI. LIV. 
Bidens venosa Gardn. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. 7: 405. 1848. 
Bidens Regnellii Schz. Bip. Linnaea 22: 570. 1849 (nomen). 

Herba stricta, perennis, glaberrima, 8-12 dm. alta, caule tereti 
vel superne angulato, apicem versus ramoso, e basi tumida et lignea. 
Folia sessilia, suberecta, rigida, oblonga vel cuneato-oblanceolata, 
apice acuta vel interdum orbiculata, 5-9 cm. longa et 2-3 cm. lata, 
tripli- vel quintuplinervata, utrinque perspicue venosa, grosse ser- 
rata 7-12 dentibus in unico latere. Capitula terminalia, paniculata 
vel interdum subcorymbosa, longe pedunculata et breviter pedicel- 
lata pedicellis plerumque 3-11 mm. rarius usque ad 6 cm. longis, 
discoidea, ad anthesin 6-9 mm. lata et 9-14 mm. alta, floribus (fide 
Riedelii et Lundii) atrorubescentibus et sapore odoreque Crithmo 
maritimo similibus. Involucri (sicci rubro-brunnei) bracteae exteri- 
ores 4-6, lineares, crassiores, acriter calloso-apiculatae, glanduloso- 
rugosae, saepe pubescentes, nunc tantum circ. 5-6 mm. nunc etiam 
8-10 mm. longae, interiores oblongae vel oblongo-lanceolatae, 8-13 
mm. longae. Achaenia linearia, tetragona, glabra vel supra et ad 
apicem erecto-hispida, plumbeo-nigra (vel ad apicem straminea), 
corpore 1.1-1.5 cm. longa et 1.1-1.4 mm. lata, biaristata aristis 
erectis retrorsum scabris et 1-4 mm. longis vel rarius exaristata. 

Type specimen: Collected by Karl Friedrich Philipp Von 
Martins, on high, grassy plains, Diamantina, Minas Geraes, 
Brazil, March (1817-1820). l 

1 Should be at Brussels (Bruss.; cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81: 247, footnote 3. 1926). 
I have studied the authentic specimen at Munich (Mun.). 



202 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Distribution: Central and eastern Brazil. 

Specimens examined : P. Claussen, Minas Geraes, January- April, 
1840 (Brit.); G. Gardner 4257, fields between Arrayas and San 
Domingos, Goyaz, May, 1840 (type collection, Bidens venosa Gardn.: 
Berl.; Brit,, 2 sheets; Del., 2 sheets; Kew, 2 sheets; Mus. V.; N.Y.; 
Par.); A. Glaziou 18315, Morro do Pires, Minas Geraes, January, 
1891 (Berl.; Cop.; Kew; Par.); idem 21588, Corrego do Brejo, Goyaz, 
December 6, 1894 (Berl.; Par., 2 sheets); Lund, in fields, Batataes 
and Franca, State of Sao Paulo (Cop.); idem, in fields, Caxoeira do 
Campo, February, 1835 (Cop.) ; Martins, high, grassy plains, Diaman- 
tina, Minas Geraes, March (cotype, Mun.); Pohl, Olio d'Agna (Mus. 
V.); idem 605, Brazil (Berl.; Kew, 2 sheets); idem 4382, Brazil 
(Mus. V.) ; A. F. Regnell II: 164, Caldas, Minas Geraes, February and 
December, 1847 (sub nom. Bidente Regnellii Schz. Bip.; Berl.; Par.); 
idem (similiter) II : 164, Batataes, Sao Paulo, February, 1849 (Stockh.) ; 
idem (similiter) II: 164, Caldas, April 18, 1867 (Stockh., 3 sheets); 
Riedel & Lund, Brazil (Kew, 2 sheets; Par.); iidem 2326, grassy 
fields, Batataes and Franca and elsewhere between the Rio Pardo 
and the Rio Grande, Sao Paulo, May-June, 1834 (Petrop., 4 sheets) ; 
A. de Saint Hilaire 1200, Minas Geraes, 1816 (Par., 2 sheets); 
Eugene Warming, Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes, February- April, 
1864 (Cop.); idem, Lagoa Santa, March 7, 1865 (Cop.; N.Y.; Par.); 
idem 637, Lagoa Santa, March, 1866 (Cop.); Widgren, Caldas, 
Minas Geraes, February 17, 1846 (Stockh.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LIV 

Bidens graveolens: a (lower), b (upper), portions of flowering and 
fruiting specimen, X0.67; c, exterior involucral bract, X2.68; d, 
interior involucral bract, X2.68; e, palea, X2.68; /, disc floret, X4; 
g, achene, X2.68; h, achene, X2; all from Gardner 4257 (cotype of 
Bidens venosa Gardn.), in Hb. Kew. 

75. Bidens fistulosa Schz. Bip. ex Baker in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
6, pt. 3: 247. 1884. PI. LV. 

Perennis, herbacea, glaberrima, 9-15 dm. alta; caule simplici, 
e radice crassiuscula lignosaque, tereti, abunde et perspicue striato, 
cavo (sed medulla plus minusve abundante), internodiis medianis 
longissimis (1.5-4.3 dm.) et perspicuis; ramis paucis, elongatis, sub- 
nudis, suberectis. Folia sessilia, 3-4 juga, non serrata, adscendentia, 
non ciliata, firmula, venis inter se paribus intervallis distantibus; 
inferiora indivisa, squamis non valde dissimilia, breviter lineari- 
oblonga, obtusa, 8 mm. longa et 3 mm. lata; principalia indivisa 



THE GENUS BIDENS 203 

vel interdum 2- vel 3-partita, usque ad 3.5 cm. longa, lamina seg- 
mentisve anguste linearibus, 0.2-1 mm. latis. Capitula 4-6, laxe 
corymbosa in pedunculis ramos superiores terminantibus et usque 
ad 1 dm. longis, ut videtur discoidea, disco demum (achaeniis non 
inclusis) 1.4 cm. lato et 8 mm. alto. Involucrum glabrum vel 
minutissime pubescens; bracteis exterioribus circ. 8, linearibus, 4-5 
mm. longis; interioribus lanceolatis, 5-7 mm. longis. Achaenia 
matura linearia, obcompresso-tetragona vel subplana, brunneo-atra, 
omnino circ. 16-sulcata, glabra, corpore 15-17 mm. longa, biaristata; 
aristis erecto-patentibus, subulatis, levibus, 1.5-2.5 mm. longis, ut 
videtur saepe caducis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Ludwig Riedel, No. 506, in fields at 
Rio Pardo, Brazil, September, 1826 (Par.). 

Distribution: Southeastern Brazil. 

Specimens examined: Riedel 506 (type, Par.: cotypes, Kew; 
Petrop., 2 sheets); H.A.Weddell 2996, Goyaz to Cuyaba, Novem- 
ber-December, 1844 (Par., 3 sheets). 

With its remarkably long cauline internodes, these reaching a 
length even of 43 cm., its numerous regular cauline striations, its 
abbreviated, linear, parallel-veined leaves, etc., Bidens fistulosa 
occupies a unique position in the genus and is closely approached by 
no other known species. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LV 

Bidens fistulosa: a (lower), b (upper), portions of flowering and 
fruiting plant, X0.68; c, exterior involucral bract, X4.06; d, interior 
involucral bract, X4.06; e, palea, X3.38; /, g, disc florets, X3.38; h 
(shortest outer), i (longest inner), achenes, X2.7; all from Weddell 
2996, in Hb. Par. 

76. Bidens Bidentoides (Nutt.) Britt. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 20: 
281. 1893. PI. LVI. 

Diodonta Bidentoides Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. ser. 2. 7: 361. 1841. 

Coreopsis Bidentoides (Nutt.) Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 2: 339. 1842. 

Diatonta Bidentoides Nutt. ex Walp. Repert. 2: 615. 1843 (sphalm). 

Flores tubulosi glabri, achaeniis corpore 6.5-13 mm. longis et circ. 
0.7-1 mm. latis, aristis 6-9 mm. longis; foliis basi raro lobatis, 
dentibus raro divaricatis B. Bidentoides sensu stricto. 

Flores tubulosi inferne sparsim pilosi, achaeniis corpore 6-10 mm. 
longis et 1-1.5 mm. latis; folia basi saepe lobatis, dentibus acri- 
bus saepe divaricatis var. /3. mariana. 



204 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Herba annua, erecta, glabra; caule paniculato-ramoso, pur- 
purascenti, 2-8 dm. alto. Folia ad basim in petioles tenues 1-3.5 
cm. longos attenuata, petiolo adjecto 0.5-1.8 dm. longa, membra- 
nacea, indivisa vel raro 1-2-lobata, lanceolata, ad apicem longe 
acuminata, serrata. Capitula erecta, plerumque discoidea, demum 
late turbinata, disco usque ad 1.5-2 cm. longo et 1.3-1.7 cm. lato. 
Involucrum glabrum, bracteis exterioribus 4 vel 5, foliaceis, lineari- 
spathulatis, inaequalibus, 1.5-4.5 cm. longis; interioribus lanceolatis, 
valde membranaceis, apicem versus saepe etiam pseudo-petaloideis, 
discum subaequantibus. Flores ligulati saepius deficientes; tubulosi 
4-lobati, omnino glabri. Achaenia anguste lineari-cuneata, adpresso- 
hispida, corpore 6.5-13 mm. longa et usque ad 1 mm. lata,apicebiaris- 
tata aristis tenuibus antrorsum hispidis et etiam 6-9 mm. longis, 
vel saepe duabus aliis abortivis aristis imperfecte quadriaristata. 

. Type specimen: No type was cited by Nuttall. The original, 
dwarfed material described by him (Brit.) was thought to have 
come from the vicinity of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. A sheet of 
better developed material (Phila.), however, was, for a certainty, 
collected by Nuttall at Philadelphia and is labeled in Nuttall's own 
handwriting. 

Distribution: About mouth of Susquehanna River, Maryland; 
also ascending Delaware River to Tinicum, Pennsylvania, and 
Maurice River to Millville, New Jersey. 

Specimens examined: E. B. Bartram 1295, Delaware River shore, 
Morrisville, Pennsylvania, October 9, 1910 (Gray; Phila.); C. A. 
Boice, on ballast, Camden, New Jersey, October 2, 1879 (Phila., 2 
sheets); W. H. Canby, near Wilmington, Delaware (Field; forma 
radiis parvis); idem, Delaware River shores, Wilmington, October, 
1865 (Field; Kew); A. Commons, tidal banks of Delaware River, Wil- 
mington, October 3, 1866 (Field); idem, eodem loco, August 31, 
1899 (Phila.); N. C. Fassett 257, tidal shores of Hudson River, 
Glenmont, Bethlehem, New York, Sept. 18, 1922 (Gray); Albrecht 
John, Delair, New Jersey, September 26, 1897 (Phila.); idem, below 
Washington Park, New Jersey, September 14, 1895 (Phila. ); Bayard 
Long, river shore, Delair, New Jersey, September 30, 1907 (Phila.); 
idem, muddy shore of Maurice River, Millville, New Jersey, October 
7, 1909 (Gray; Phila.); Alex. MacElwee 1992, muddy shores of 
Delaware River, West Deptford, New Jersey, September 20, 1900 
(Phila., 2 sheets); I. C. Martindale, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
1870 (Phila.); idem, Camden, New Jersey, September, 1879 (Field); 
H. B. Meredith, Delaware River shore, Taylor, New Jersey, October 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany. Vol. XVI, Plate LIII 




BIDENS HOLWAYI Blake & Sherff 



THE GENUS BIDENS 205 

3, 1923 (Phila.); Thomas Nuttall (type material: Brit.; Phila.); 
T. C. Palmer, tidal banks of Delaware River, Chester, Pennsylvania, 
September 9, 1896 (Gray) ; C. F. Parker, shores of Delaware River, 
Camden, New Jersey, September 25, 1867 (Field) ; idem, eodem loco, 
September 21, 1874 (Field; Kew; Mo.); A. H. Smith, Tinicum, 
Pennsylvania, October, 1866 (Phila.); idem, tidal marsh, eodem 
loco, September 23, 1867 (Field); idem, abundant, growing 3-4 ft. 
high along tidal marshes below Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Septem- 
ber 24, 1867 (U.S.); idem 59 p.p., tidal mud, Tinicum, Pennsylvania, 
October 6, 1866 (Phila.); Witmer Stone, shores of Delaware River, 
Fish House, New Jersey, September 18, 1908 (Phila.); H. K. 
Svenson, tidal shores of Hudson River, Rensselaer, New York, 
October 15, 1922 (Gray, 2 sheets); W. Trimble, vicinity of Bridge- 
port, New Jersey, October 1, 1883 (Phila.) ; C. S. Williamson, shores 
of Delaware River, Bordentown, New Jersey, September 11, 1904 
(Phila.); T. A. Williamson, Camden, New Jersey, September, 1897 
(Gray). 

Nuttall (loc. cit.) classed the five United States species, Bidens 
coronata, B. mitis, B. aristosa, B. polylepis, and B. Bidentoides under 
his new genus Diodonta. For B. polylepis (B. involucrata [Nutt.] 
Britt.) he erected the separate subgeneric section Meduseae (in 
reference to its medusoid exterior involucres). For B. Bidentoides 
he erected the section Heterodonta. His doubts about the status of 
Heterodonta are shown by his use of an interrogation mark and 
further by his words (loc. cit.) "this section, or rather genus." In 
recent years, authors have been uniform in accepting Britton's 
reference of Nuttall's plant to the genus Bidens. The names Dio- 
donta and Heterodonta, in so far as they represented generic concepts, 
have been entirely abandoned. 1 

Bidens Bidentoides var. /3. mariana (Blake) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 

90: 394. 1930. 
Bidens mariana Blake, Rhodora 31 : 88, fig. 1 . 1929. 

Folia basim versus saepe profunde laciniato-lobata, marginibus 
acriter serrata dentibus interdum divaricatis, principalia petiolo 
adjecto 13-24 cm. longa. Flores tubulosi inferne sparsim pilosi. 

1 By creating the name Diodonta, Nuttall sought to make a place between 
Coreopsis and Bidens for several species which, in the upward direction of the 
barbs or bristles on their achenial awns, were considered more closely allied to 
Coreopsis and yet, in general aspect, were seen to be closer to Bidens. We may 
note that Cassini's employment of the name Campylotheca for another group of 
intergradient species marked a similar attempt. In either case, it is doubtful if 
competent botanists in the future will ever again seek to segregate the inter- 
mediate forms under separate generic names (cf. pp. 17-23). 



206 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Achaenia corpore 6-10 mm. longa et 1-1.5 mm. lata, plerumque 
2- (raro usque ad 4-) aristata aristis 3-6 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Sidney F. Blake, No. 9698, on sandy 
shore of Northeast River, near Carpenter's Point, Charlestown, 
Maryland, September 17, 1926 (U.S.). 

Distribution: Maryland. 

Specimens examined: Blake 9698 (type, U.S.: cotypes, Field; 
Gray); idem 9703, sandy shore of Susquehanna River, Havre de 
Grace, September 17, 1926 (Field; Gray; U.S.); G. H. Shull 399, in 
vegetable refuse at mouth of drain of bog one-half mile south-south- 
west of Havre de Grace, September 20, 1902 (Gray; Mo.; N.Y.). 

In 1926, Dr. S. F. Blake submitted his specimens Nos. 9698 and 
9703 to me for study. He had suspected them of representing a new 
species. Notwithstanding this, I felt compelled at that time to refer 
them to Bidens Bidentoides. Later, he published his B. mariana, 
based upon these and certain other plants. This naturally led to a 
careful investigation of the entire matter on my part. Especially 
did a survey of the closely related B. hyperborea and B. connata, 
together with their several varieties, prove helpful. In this way it 
was found at once that B. mariana differed from B. Bidentoides to 
about the same extent as, for example, B. connata var. fallax differed 
from B. connata var. typica. To recognize B. mariana as a species, 
therefore, would immediately (if consistency is to be sought) entail 
an elevation of numerous forms that Fassett, Fernald, Fernald and 
St. John, and other writers have regarded as varieties. It has 
seemed wiser to adopt the alternative course and reduce B. mariana 
to varietal rank. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LVI 

Bidens Bidentoides: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.62; 
b, exterior involucral bract, Xl.86; c, interior involucral bract, 
Xl.86; d, palea, Xl.86; e, disc floret, X3.72; /, achene, X3.1; a, 
from Shull 399, in Hb. Mo. ; &-/, from William M. Canby, Delaware 
River, above Wilmington, August 20, 1878, in Hb. Field. 

77. Bidens Eatonii Fern. Rhodora 5: 92, pi. 45, figs. 11-13. 1903. 

PI. LVII, figs. a-f. 

Bidens Eatonii var. typica Fass. Rhodora 27: 143. 1925. 
a. Achaeniorum interiorum corpora 6.8-9 mm. longa; aristis 2, 

rariter 4. 
b. Capitula saltern juvenia anguste cylindrica. 

c. Aristae retrorsum hamosae . . . .B. Eatonii sensu stricto. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany. Vol. XVI, Plate LIV 




b f 

BIDENS GRAVEOLENS Mart. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 207 

c. Aristae antrorsum hamosae var. j3. fallax. 

b. Capitula late cylindrica vel etiam campanulata. 
c. Involucri bracteae interiores colore nunc jejune flavo nunc 
atro-brunneo striatae; foliis inferioribus saepe tripartitis. 

d. Aristae omnino retrorsum hamosae var. y. interstes. 

d. Aristae retrorsum atque antrorsum hamosae. 

e. Aristae 2.8-3.7 mm. longae var. d. illicita. 

e. Aristae 0.5-2 mm. longae var. e. mutabilis. 

c. Involucri bracteae interiores plerumque nitenti-striatae striis 
succinis vel purpureo-brunneis, aevo demum nitenti-nigres- 

centibus; foliis simplicibus var. f. simulans. 

a. Achaeniorum interiorum corpora 9-11 mm. longa, aristis saepius 4. 
b. Capitula plerumque cylindrica; foliis petiolatis petiolis 1-3 

cm. longis, inferioribus saepe divisis var. 17. kennebecensis. 

b. Capitula subcylindrica vel latiora, etiam campanulata; foliis 
subsessilibus vel breviter lateque alato-petiolatis, non divisis. 

var. 6. major. 

Herba annua, erecta, glabra, simplex vel ramosa, 2.5-6 dm. alta. 
Folia basi in petiolos tenues vel alato-marginatos 1-3.5 cm. longos 
attenuata, petiolo adjecto 0.5-1.5 dm. longa, membranacea, indivisa 
vel saepe lobis lateralibus 1 vel 2 instructa, lanceolata, apice longe 
acuminata, serrata. Capitula erecta, discoidea, juvenia anguste 
cylindrica demum turbinato-cylindrica, disco 1.1-1.4 cm. alto et 
0.8-1.1 cm. lato. Involucri bracteae exteriores 3-5, foliaceae, 
1-2 (-3) cm. longae; interiores quam discus paulo breviores. Achaenia 
8-25, plana, lineari-oblanceolata vel anguste cuneata, duabus facie- 
bus uninervata (ac saepe manifeste vel obscure striata) et sparsis- 
sime piloso-hispida, marginibus basaliter 1-paucis hamis antrorsum 
aliter plurime retrorsum hamosa, corpore exteriora 6-6.8 mm. 
interiora 6.8-9 mm. longa, omnia 1-1.7 mm. lata, apice 2-4-aristata 
aristis retrorsum hamosis et 2-4.3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Alvah A. Eaton, brackish shores of 
Merrimac River, Newburyport, Massachusetts, September, 1902 
(Gray?). 

Distribution: About mouth of Merrimac River, Massachusetts. 

Specimens examined: A. A. Eaton, shore of Merrimac River, 

below Newburyport, September 26, 1903 (N. Eng.); idem & M. L. 

Fernald, Salisbury, October 2, 1902 (Gray) ; iidem, brackish, muddy 

margin of Merrimac River, Newburyport, October 2, 1902 (Can.; 



208 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Gray, 5 sheets; N. Eng.); A. A. Eaton & B. L. Robinson, shores of 
Merrimac River at the "Laurels," Newburyport, September, 1903 
(N.Y.). 

As with, for example, Bidens Bidentoides and some of the varieties 
of B. connata and B. hyperborea, geographic isolation and local con- 
ditions of the habitats appear to afford a potent stimulus for the in- 
ducement of distinct forms. The duplicate specimens sent out to 
various herbaria have not been in all cases sufficiently mature or 
distinctive to impart an adequate concept of the species or variety 
in question. At present the collections of B. Eatonii and varieties 
in Gray Herbarium, though scanty to be sure, are still more com- 
plete than found anywhere else. After a close study of these materials 
at Gray Herbarium, and having in mind the various considerations 
of endemism mentioned by Fassett (Rhodora 27 : 142. 1925) and other 
writers, I have deemed it wise to make the minimum of changes in 
their nomenclatural status. 

Occasionally in various parts of the genus Bidens, plants are 
found which have had the tops broken off or for some other reason 
have become especially ramose, often fastigiately so. The heads 
are usually much dwarfed and much more numerous in such cases. 
The technical characters are then usually somewhat abnormal. 
Bidens multiceps Fass. (Rhodora 27: 145. 1925), described as a 
hypothetical hybrid of B. connata X Eatonii, may represent such a 
case. 1 Three of the specimens cited by Fassett and examined by me 
(Johnston & Fassett 903 and 905, tidal shores of the Taunton River, 
Massachusetts, October 21, 1923, Gray; iidem 906, tidal shores, 
Three-mile River, Dighton, Massachusetts, October 21, 1923, N. 
Eng., type) appear to be merely abnormal growth forms of B. 
Eatonii. A collection by S. F. Blake, however, was made in the 
general type locality (Blake 10771, tidal shore of Three-mile River, 
North Dighton, Massachusetts, September 20, 1928, Gray), and 
this shows some plants of apparently natural growth forms that are 
atypic for B. Eatonii. But even here, there is one specimen of the 
teratological kind. Furthermore, an additional collection by Blake 
(10771A and B; Gray) shows plants too close to B. connata and its 
var. petiolata. 

1 "B. connata X Eatonii (?), planta 2-6 dm. alta ramosissima super basem 
simplicem; foliis lanceolatis simplicibus 2-4 cm. longis integris vel cum dentibus 
utrinque 1-2 instructis; petiolis brevibus; capitulis multis late cylindratis, termi- 
nalibus 4-7 mm. altis 15-18-floris; bracteis exterioribus 1-1.5 cm. longis integris 
latioribus ad apicem obtusum; achaeniis exterioribus 4-7 mm. longis, planis, 2-4 
aristis retrorso-barbatis; achaeniis interioribus 7-8 mm. longis, planis vel trigonis 
vel saepe in costis alatis, aristis 2-4 retrorso-barbatis." (Fass. loc. cit.) 



THE GENUS BIDENS 209 

Bidens Eatonii var. /3. fallax Fern. Rhodora 5: 92, pi. 45, fig. 14- 
1903. PI. LVII, fig. g. 

A specie differt achaeniorum aristis erecte barbatis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Alvah A. Eaton, brackish shore of 
Merrimac River, Newburyport, Massachusetts, September, 1902 
(Gray). 

Distribution: About the mouth of the Merrimac River, Massa- 
chusetts. 

Specimens examined: A. A. Eaton, Moseley's, Newburyport 
(N. Eng.); idem, brackish shore of Merrimac River, Newburyport 
(type, Gray, 3 sheets) ; idem & M. L. Fernald, brackish, muddy bank 
of Merrimac River, Newburyport, October 2, 1902 (Gray; N. Eng., 
2 sheets); iidem, brackish margins of pools near Merrimac River, 
Salisbury, October 2, 1902 (Gray); A. A. Eaton & B. L. Robinson, 
muddy shores of Merrimac River at the "Laurels," Newburyport, 
September, 1903 (N.Y.). 

Bidens Eatonii var. 7. interstes Pass. Rhodora 27: 143. 1925. 
Bidens heterodoxa var. interstes Fass. op. cit. 26: 178. 1924. 

Herba 1-8 dm. alta. Folia petiolata petiolis marginatis vel 
anguste alatis 1-5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto usque ad 17 cm. longa 
et 4 cm. lata, lanceolata vel rarius anguste ovata, serrata, inferiora 
saepe profunde secta vel tripartita. Capitula campanulata, prin- 
cipalia 8-10 mm. alta et 8-12 mm. lata. Involucri bracteae exteriores 
2-5, plerumque 3, suberectae, lineari-oblanceolatae, acutae; interio- 
res striis nunc debiliter flavis nunc atro-brunneis striatae. Achaenia 
plana vel costis medianis paulo carinata, exteriora corpore 5.5- 
6.5 mm. interiora corpore 6.5-8 mm. longa, omnia marginaliter 
retrorsum vel ad basim antrorsum hamosa; aristis 2 vel rarius 4, 
retrorsum hamosis, marginalibus 1.5-4 mm. longis, intermediis multo 
brevioribus. 

Type specimen: Collected by Norman Carter Fassett, No. 852, 
rocky places on tidal shores of the Kennebec River, Gardiner, 
Maine, September 18, 1923 (Gray). 

Distribution: About estuaries, Maine. 

Specimens examined: N. C. Fassett 852 (type, Gray); idem 920, 
rocky places, tidal shores of Kennebec River, Gardiner, September 
18, 1923 (Gray); idem 2101, Hatch's Corners, West Dresden, 
September 9, 1924 (Gray); idem 2120, estuary of Sheepscot River, 
Alna, September 12, 1924 (Field; Gray); idem 2122, tidal shores at 
mouth of Eastern River, Dresden, September 13, 1924 (Gray); 



210 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

idem 2125, tidal shores of Kennebec River, Woolwich, September 
18, 1924 (Gray); idem 2127, estuary of Kennebec River, South 
Gardiner, September 16, 1924 (Field; Gray); idem 2128, from type 
station, September 16, 1924 (Field; Gray). 

"The achenes are similar to those of var. typica, but a little 
broader in proportion to their length, while the heads are campanu- 
late instead of cylindric" (Fassett, op. cit. 27 : 143. 1925). The general 
aspect of the plants is very close to and in some cases identical with 
that of B. connata var. petiolata, compelling an examination of the 
achenes for certain identification. 

Bidens Eatonii var. d. illicita Blake, Rhodora 31 : 100. 1929. 

Capitula majora campanulata, circ. 30-32-flora. Achaenia exte- 
riora corpore 6-7 mm. longa et 2 mm. lata, 2-aristata; interiora 
corpore 6.8-7.5 mm. longa et 1.5-1.8 mm. lata, 2-3-aristata, pilis 
marginalibus omnibus antrorsis vel rariter perpaucis ad basim 
extremam retrorsis; aristis 2.8-3.7 mm. longis, hamosis (basi antror- 
sum, medio retrorsum vel utroque, apice antrorsum aut retrorsum). 

Type specimen: Collected by Sidney F.Blake, No. 10784A, tidal 
shore of Merrimac River, Amesbury, Massachusetts, September 22, 
1928 (U.S.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Massachusetts. 

Specimens examined : Blake 10784A (type, U.S.). 

Bidens Eatonii var. e. mutabilis Fass. Rhodora 27: 143. 1925. 

Herba habitu foliisque var. interstitem valde simulans. Achaenia 
exteriora corpore 5.5-6 mm. interiora corpore 7-7.5 mm. longa, aristis 
2, retrorsum antrorsumque setosis, 0.5-2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Norman Carter Fassett, No. 2116, 
tidal estuary shores of the Kennebec River, Cedar Grove, Maine, 
September 9, 1924 (Gray). 

Distribution: Known only from mouth of Kennebec River, 
Maine. 

Specimens examined: N. C. Fassett 2116 (type, Gray) ; idem 2123, 
estuary of Kennebec River, Dresden, September 16, 1924 (Field; 
Gray). 
Bidens Eatonii var. f. simulans Fass. Rhodora 27: 144. 1925. 

Habitu achaeniisque var. interstitem simulans. Folia lanceolata, 
simplicia. Involucri bracteae interiores plerumque nitenti-striatae 
striis succinis vel purpureo-brunneis, aevo demum nitenti-nigres- 
centibus. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 211 

Type specimen: Collected by Richard W. Woodward, in brackish 
marsh, Old Lyme, Connecticut, October 1, 1915 (Gray). 

Distribution : About mouth of Connecticut River, Connecticut. 

Specimens examined: N. C. Fassett 2363, tidal shores of Con- 
necticut River, Essex, October 13, 1924 (Gray); idem 2364, tidal 
shores of Connecticut River, East Haddam, October 12, 1924 
(Gray); R. W. Woodward, in brackish marsh (type, Gray); idem, 
hidden among tall grass and sedges in brackish marsh, Old Lyme, 
September 9, 1917 (Gray; N. Eng.); idem, eodem loco, September 
29, 1917 (Gray, 2 sheets; N. Eng.) ; idem, sandy shore just above high 
water line, Old Lyme, September 2, 1918 (Gray; N. Eng.). 

A variety too close to var. interstes of Maine. The technical 
characters relied upon are of doubtful value. The floras of inter- 
mediate estuaries from Connecticut to Maine will perhaps yield 
overlapping and intergrading forms. 

Bidens Eatonii var. r\. kennebecensis Fern. Rhodora 19: 76. 1917. 

Folia petiolata petiolis 1-3 cm. longis, inferiora saepe divisa. 
Capitula plerumque cylindrica. Achaenia exteriora corpore 8.8-9.8 
mm. interiora corpore 9.5-10.5 mm. longa. 

Type specimen : Collected by Merritt Lyndon Fernald and Bayard 
Long, No. 14822, tidal mud flats and swales by Cathance River, 
Bowdoinham, Maine, September 14-19, 1916 (Gray). 

Distribution: Maine to Massachusetts. 

Specimens examined: N. C. Fassett 140, tidal swales of Andros- 
coggin River, Brunswick, Maine, September 17, 1921 (N. Eng.); 
idem 2130, tidal shores of Eastern River, Dresden Mills, Maine, 
September 16, 1924 (Gray); idem 2300, tidal shores of Merrimac 
River, Amesbury, Massachusetts, October 16, 1924 (Gray); idem 
2362, eodem loco et tempore (Gray) ; Fernald & Long 14822 (type, 
Gray) ; iidem 14823, tidal mud flats, Cathance River, Bowdoinham, 
Maine, September 14-19, 1916 (Field; Gray, 2 sheets; Kew; N. Eng.) ; 
iidem 14824, border of salt marsh, Back River Creek, Woolwich, 
Maine, September 15, 1916 (Field; Gray; N. Eng.; Phila.). 

Bidens Eatonii var. 8. major Fass. Rhodora 27: 144. 1925. 

Herba 4-15 dm. alta, caulibus inferne saepe prostratis nudisque. 
Folia breviter alato-petiolata vel ad basim angustata et subsessilia, 
simplicia, lanceolata, grosse serrata, 0.5-1.5 dm. longa. Capitula 
subcylindrica vel campanulata, principalia 1.3 cm. alta, floribus 
18-20 (-33). Involucri bracteae exteriores plerumque 3, lineares, 
acutae, 1-2.5 cm. longae et 2-3 mm. latae. Achaenia exteriora 



212 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

corpora 6-7.5 mm. longa, interdum 2- saepius 3-4-aristata; interiora 
corpore (8-) 9-11 mm. longa (costis ad apicem saepe crassis), inter- 
dum 2- saepius 4-aristata; aristis retrorsum hamosis, usque ad 
5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Norman Carter Fassett, No. 2301, 
tidal shores of the Quinnipiac River, North Haven, Connecticut, 
October 14, 1924 (Gray). 

Distribution : New York to Connecticut. 

Specimens examined : N. C. Fassett 2301 (type, Gray) ; idem 2302, 
tidal shores of the Quinnipiac River, North Haven, Connecticut, 
October 14, 1924 (Gray); idem 2365, tidal flats, eodem loco et 
tempore (N. Eng.) ; idem 2368, growing 1.5 meters tall, tidal shores, 
eodem loco et tempore (N. Eng.); H. K.Svenson, shores of Hudson 
River, near upper limits of tide, Hudson, New York, September 30, 
1923 (Gray). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LVII 

Bidens Eatonii, figs, a-/: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, 
X0.63; b, exterior involucral bract, X3.15; c, interior involucral 
bract, X3.15; d, palea, X 3. 15 ; e, disc floret, X 6.3 ; /, achene, X3.15; 
all from type material. 

Bidens Eatonii var. fallax, fig. g: achene, X3.15; from type. 

78. Bidens aristosa (Michx.) Britt. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 20: 281. 
1893. PI. LVIII, fig. h. 

Coreopsis aristosa Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer. 2: 140. 1803; Hook. f. in 

Curtis, Bot. Mag., pi. 6462. 1879. 
Coreopsis aristata Muhl. ex Willd. Sp. PL 3: 2253. 1804. 
Coreopsis aurea Lindl. Bot. Reg., pi. 1228. 1829 (nee alior.). 
Diodonta aristosa (Michx.) Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. ser. 2. 

7: 360. 1841. 

Diatonta aristosa (Michx.) Nutt. ex Walp. Repert. 2: 615. 1843 
(sphalm). 

Achaenia exaristata var. 0. mutica. 

Achaenia perspicue aristata. 

Aristae antrorsum setosae B. aristosa sensu stricto. 

Aristae retrorsum hamosae var. 7. Fritcheyi. 

Herba annua vel biennis, glabrata vel parce pubescens, 0.3-1 
(vel etiam -1.5) m. alta, caule purpurascenti, subtetragono, ramoso. 
Folia petiolata petiolis 1-1.5 (-3) cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 0.5- 
1.5 cm. longa, pinnata vel bipinnata, segmentis lanceolatis vel 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LV 




b f 

BIDENS FISTULOSA Schz. Bip. ex Baker 



THE GENUS BIDENS 213 

lineari-lanceolatis, acuminatis, inciso-serratis vel pinnatifidis, mem- 
branaceis, ciliatis, subtus parce pubescentibus. Capitula radiata, 
pansa ad anthesin 2-5 cm. lata et 7-9 mm. alta. Involucrum saepe 
hispidum, bracteis subaequalibus; exterioribus 8-10, linearibus, 
mine parce mine valde ciliatis, 0.5-1.2 cm. longis. Flores ligulati 
6-10, aurei, ligula oblongo-oblanceolati, apice obtuso integri sub- 
denticulative, 1-2.5 cm. longi. Achaenia plana vel subplana, sub- 
nigra vel flavidulo-nigra, apice bi- (rarissime quadri-) aristata aristis 
corpus aequantibus et erecto-setosis, margine suberecte aciculato- 
ciliata; interiora anguste cuneata vel obovato-cuneata, faciebus 
strigosa, 5-6.5 mm. longa; exteriora obovata, strigosa, saepe rugoso- 
tuberculata, margine plemmque interrupte crassiusculo-alata, inte- 
riora parce aequantia. 

Type specimen: Collected by Andre Michaux in the general 
region of Illinois (Par.?; perhaps not seen by me). 

Distribution: Maine to Minnesota, southward to Virginia, 
northern Alabama, central Mississippi, and southeastern Texas. 
Probably only adventive in eastern part of range. 

Specimens examined: S. M. Bain 422 p.p., low fields, Jackson, 
Tennessee, September, 1892 (N.Y.); B. F. Bush 67, Dunklin County, 
Missouri, September 17, 1893 (Gray) ; idem 3659, swamps, Williams- 
ville, Missouri, October 14, 1905 (Mo.); idem 5175 pro parte, Webb 
City, Missouri, September 25, 1908 (N. Y. ; in Hb. Gray hie numerus 
B. polylepis var. retrorsa Sherff est) ; idem 8249, sandy fields, Courtney, 
Missouri, October 6, 1917 (Mo.); A. Commons, abundant in Cherry 
Isl. Marsh, Wilmington, Delaware, September, 1899 (N.Y.); John 
Davis 1319 pro parte, woods, Oakwood, Missouri, October 4, 1911 
(Mo., cum var. mutica commixta); idem 3446, bottoms, Pike Co., 
Illinois, September 16, 1914 (Mo.); idem 3911, damp soil, Oak- 
wood, Missouri, September 13, 1913 (Mo.); idem 6119 p.p., West 
Hannibal, Missouri, September 4, 1915 (Mo.) ; idem 6160 p.p., west of 
Oakwood, Missouri, Sept. 11, 1915 (Mo.) ;idem 6264 p.p. and 6276 p.p., 
Eolia, Missouri, August 30, 1915 (Mo.); idem 6346, fields, Oakwood, 
Missouri, November 12, 1915 (Mo.); C. C. Deam 10157, northwest of 
Hovey Lake, Posey Co., Indiana, September 20, 1911 (Deam); 
idem 32932, southwest of Oaktown, Indiana, September 19, 1920 
(Deam); idem 33031 pro parte, vicinity of Mt. Vernon, Indiana, 
September 25, 1920 (Phila.); idem 34865, roadside, east of Kouts, 
Porter Co., Indiana, September 15, 1921 (Deam); idem 37935 p.p., 
south of Terre Haute, Indiana, September 13, 1922 (Deam) ; F. W. 
Dewart 40, St. Louis, Missouri, September 8, 1892 (Mo.) ; H. Eggert, 



214 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

wet places, eodem loco, September 6, 1877 (N.Y.); idem, swampy 
places, vicinity of Haverhill, Missouri, September 19, 1893 (Mo.); 
idem, low ground, vicinity of Batesville, Mississippi, September 16, 

1896 (Mo.); George Engelmann, St. Louis, Missouri, August, 1847 
(U.S.); N. M. Glatfelter, St. Louis Co., Missouri, September 19, 

1897 (U.S.) ; Elihu Hall, sloughs, Athens, Illinois, September, 1864 
(Par.); Mabel P. Hollister 94, in woods, southeast of Prescott, 
Arkansas, August 29, 1912 (U.S.); M.E. Jones, wet ground, Grinnell, 
Iowa, August, 1877 (N.Y.); 0. E. Lansing, Jr., 2640, prairie, Roby, 
Indiana, September 20, 1906 (Mus. V.); idem 3502 pro parte, north 
of Catlin, Illinois, September 24, 1912 (Field, cum var. Fritcheyi 
commixta) ; 0. S. Ledman, vacant lot, St. Louis, Missouri, September 
12, 1916 (Mo.) ; F. T. Macfarland &W. A. Anderson, Jr., 275, roadside 
and fields, La Center, Kentucky, August 15, 1923 (Mo.); Charles 
Mohr, Cullman, Alabama, August 6, 1896 (Field; achaeniis imma- 
turis); E. J. Palmer 8928, open, sandy ground, Sicard, Ouachita 
Parish, Louisiana, October 13, 1915 (Mo.); Mrs. E. E. Rogers 259, 
Norwich, Connecticut, October 11, 1902 (Gray); E. E. Sherff 2032 
pro parte, Chicago, Illinois, October 4, 1915 (Field); C. W. Short, 
wet prairies of Illinois, 1837 (N.Y.) ; J. D. Smith, low thickets, near 
Jackson, Mississippi, September 6, 1885 (Gray); E. S. Steele, near 
the water, Great Falls, Virginia, September 18, 1899 (U.S.); W. F. 
Thurrow, Hockley, Texas, 1890 (Field ; achaeniis immaturis) ; L. F. 
Ward, between Sherman and Texarkana, Texas, September 22, 1877 
(U.S.); idem, Arcadia, Missouri, August 24, 1878 (U.S.); idem, near 
Chesapeake Junction, District of Columbia, September 10, 1905 
(U.S.); John Wolf 73, Canton, Illinois, 1881 (U.S.). 

Bidens aristosa var. /3. mutica A. Gray ex Gattinger, Fl. Tenn. 
172. 1901; cf. K. M. Wiegand in Small, Fl. Southeast. U. S. 1281. 
1903; cf. (A. Gray) Gatting. ex Fernald, Rhodora 15: 78. 1913. 

PL LVIII, figs. a-0. 

Coreopsis aristosa var. mutica Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1, pt. 2: 
295. 1884. 

Var. achaeniis exaristatis. 

Type specimen: No type was mentioned by Gray, but at Gray 
Herbarium there are two sheets of material equivalent to types. 
One has a plant at the left by Hale from Louisiana. This has the 
printed label of Torrey and Gray's Flora of North America, also 
the inscription by Asa Gray (in pencil), "C. aristosa exaristata!" At the 
right is a better specimen, rich in achenes. This has the printed 
label of "George Engelmann, M.D. St. Louis, Mo." with the written 



THE GENUS BIDENS 215 

inscription (not in Gray's but doubtless in Engelmann's hand- 
writing), "Coreopsis aristata var. mutica St. Louis Sept. 1846." An 
official Synoptical Flora of North America label is on the sheet, 
stamping it as authoritative for Gray's variety. The second sheet is 
labeled (in Asa Gray's hand), "Coreopsis aristosa, var. mutica. St. 
Louis, Fritchey." It likewise has the official Synoptical Flora of 
North America label attached. 

Distribution: Massachusetts and Virginia westward to Illinois 
and Missouri. Probably only adventive in eastern part of range. 

Specimens examined: S. M. Bain 297, low fields, Henderson, 
Tennessee, August 29, 1892 (Gray) ; Florence Beckwith 71, Quincy, 
Illinois, September, 1917 (Field) ; B. F. Bush 7741, dry soil, Livonia, 
Missouri, September 21, 1915 (Mo.); idem 9305, Courtney, Missouri, 
October 17, 1920 (Mo.); W. M. Canby, marsh, Wilmington, Dela- 
ware, September 5, 1900 (Carn.); J. J. Carter, shore of Safe Harbor, 
York Co., Pennsylvania, September 14, 1906 (Phila.); idem, Norfolk, 
Virginia, September 6, 1907 (Phila.); John Davis, meadows, Fall 
Creek, Adams Co., Illinois, September 16, 1914 (Del., 2 sheets); 
idem 24, roadsides, Oakwood, Missouri, September 13, 1913 (Mo., 
2 sheets); idem 55, roadsides, Aberdeen, Missouri, September 29, 
1912 (Mo.); idem 245, Eolia, Missouri, June 26, 1916 (Field); idem 
1319 p.p., Oakwood, Missouri, October 4, 1911 (Mo.); idem 1348, 
meadows, eodem loco, September 4, 1915 (Mo.); idem 3293, rich 
banks, Hannibal, Missouri, September 7, 1916 (Mo.); idem 3431, 
bottoms, Bear Creek, eodem loco, September 18, 1914 (Mo., 2 sheets) ; 
idem 3433, roadsides, Eolia, Missouri, September 20, 1914 (Mo., 
2 sheets); idem 3741, bottoms, Shepherd, Illinois, September 16, 
1914 (Mo.) ; idem 3806, rich soil, bluffs of Mississippi River, Hanni- 
bal, Missouri, September 7, 1916 (Mo.); idem 3814, railroad banks, 
Helton Station, Missouri, September 12, 1914 (Mo.); idem 6119 p.p., 
meadows, west of Hannibal, Missouri, September 4, 1915 (Mo.); 
idem 6160 p.p., meadows, Oakwood, Missouri, Sept. 11, 1915 (Mo.); 
idem 6218, fields and bottoms, Canton, Missouri, September 8, 1915 
(Mo., 2 sheets); idem 6264 p.p. and 6276 p.p., fields and roadsides, 
Eolia, Missouri, August 30, 1915 (Mo.) ; idem 6345 p.p., bluffs, Helton 
Station, Missouri, Sept. 12, 1915 (Mo.); C. C. Deam 12482, east of 
Dana, Indiana, Sept. 29, 1912 (Deam); idem 26524, bank of old 
channel of Kankakee River at the Baum Ridge, Porter Co., Indiana, 
September 15, 1918 (Deam) ; idem 29826, northeast of Kouts, Porter 
Co., Indiana, September 13, 1919 (Deam); idem 33031 pro parte, 
vicinity of Mt. Vernon, Indiana, September 25, 1920 (Phila.); idem 



216 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

37928, south of Toronto, Indiana, September 12, 1922 (Beam); 
T. Drummond, St. Louis, Missouri, 1832 (Kew); idem 166, eodem 
loco (Kew); George Engelmann, vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri, 
September, 1846 (Gray; Mo.); idem, prairies and along fences, 
St. Louis, Missouri, August, 1847 (Berl.); J.Q. A.Fritchey, Bridgeton, 
Missouri, October 3, 1859 (Mo., 2 sheets) ; F. C. Gates 9953, Carthage, 
Illinois, September 5, 1916 (Field); idem 10041, Crooked Creek, 
Hancock Co., Illinois, September 10, 1916 (Field) ; C. B. Graves 259a, 
Windham, Connecticut, September 17, 1902 (Gray) ; J. M. Greenman, 
Jr., & M. T. Greenman 3712, Kirkwood, Missouri, September 7, 1913 
(Mo.); E. J. Hill 107, wet ground, Chicago, Illinois, September 8, 
1893 (Field); Holton, Illinois (Field); John Kellogg 146, Jerome, 
Missouri, September 15, 1913 (Mo., 2 sheets); H. B. Meredith, 
below Greenwich Point, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, September 7, 
1921 (Phila.); H. N. Patterson, vicinity of Oquawka, Illinois, Sep- 
tember (Brit.; Carn.; Field; Kew, 2 sheets; N.Y.); A. S. Pease 
3061, Soldiers' Field, Brighton, Massachusetts, October 6, 1903 
(N. Eng.); S. F. Poole 118, Sharon, Massachusetts, September, 
1905 (Gray); T. C. Porter, Tinicum, Pennsylvania, September 12, 
1900 (Cam.); H. W. Pretz 1644, Lehigh River, Lehigh Co., Pennsyl- 
vania, September 13, 1908 (Phila.); A. N. Rood, Warren, Ohio, Sep- 
tember 11, 1911 (Gray); Eduard & Caecilie Seler 4081, St. Louis, 
Missouri, September 23, 1904 (Berl., 2 sheets) ; E. E. Sherff 2032 pro 
parte, ditch, Chicago, Illinois, October 4, 1915 (Field, 4 sheets); 
W. R. Taylor, Essington, Pennsylvania, August 15, 1914 (Phila.). 

The existence of a variety with awnless achenes was suspected 
by Torrey and Gray, who wrote, "If we mistake not, the achenia 
are sometimes awnless!" (Fl. N. Amer. 2: 340. 1843). Later, Gray 
(Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1, pt. 2: 295. 1884) definitely published the 
varietal name mutica for the plants with awnless achenes. In 1901, 
Gattinger (loc. cit.) listed the variety under Bidens aristosa (Michx.) 
Britt., carelessly citing A. Gray as the author of the combination 
given, although Gray himself created the varietal name under a 
species of Coreopsis, not of Bidens. In 1913, Fernald (loc. cit.) dealt 
with this laxity in nomenclatural treatment and, with a view to 
establishing a more definite status for the variety, set it forth as 
"B. aristosa, var. mutica (Gray) Gattinger . . . ." It happens, 
however, that in 1903 Wiegand (loc. cit.), evidently unaware of 
Gattinger's treatment, published the combination "B. aristosa mutica 
(A. Gray) Wiegand." This, in turn, was overlooked by Fer- 
nald, but is clearly the alternative publication (rather than 



THE GENUS BIDENS 217 

Fernald's) that would have to be accepted by anyone disposed to 
attack the validity of Gattinger's treatment. 1 

Bidens aristosa var. 7. Fritcheyi Fern. Rhodora 15: 78. 1913. 
PL LVIII, fig. i. 

Var. achaeniorum aristis retrorsum hamosis. 

Type specimen: Collected by John Quincy Adams Fritchey, St. 
Louis County, Missouri, October 3, 1859 (Gray). 

Distribution: Indiana and Kentucky to Illinois and Missouri; 
adventive in District of Columbia, Massachusetts, Maine, and 
perhaps elsewhere in the eastern United States. 

Specimens examined : S. M. Bain 422 p.p., low fields, Jackson, Ten- 
nessee, September, 1892 (N.Y.); Biltmore Herb. 2060a, damp soil, 
Hollow Rock, Tennessee, August 14, 1897 (Mo.); S. F. Blake 8644, 
waste ground along Speedway, East Potomac Park, Washington, 
District of Columbia, October 1, 1923 (Field); John Davis 6119 p.p., 
dry woods, Hannibal, Missouri, Sept. 4, 1915 (Mo.); idem 6345 p.p., 
open woods, Marion County, Missouri, September 12, 1914 (Mo.); 
C. C. Deam 12160, west of Shelburn, Indiana, August 24, 1912 
(Deam); idem 38126, roadside ditch, southwest of New Marion, 
Indiana, September 23, 1922 (Deam) ; W. W. Eggleston 5211, Kut- 
tawa, Kentucky, September 27-October 9, 1909 (N.Y.); idem 5390, 
Stiles Station, Kentucky, October 6, 1909 (N.Y.); C. E. Faxon, 
made land, South Boston, Massachusetts, August, 1878 (Gray); 
M. L. Fernald, wool waste, North Berwick, Maine, August 25, 1897 
(N. Eng.); G. H. French, Jackson Co., Illinois, September 4, 1878 
(N.Y.); J. Q. A. Fritchey, St. Louis Co., Missouri, September 21, 
1858 (Gray) and October 3, 1859 (type, Gray); H. A. Gleason, wet 
bottom lands, Herod, Illinois, August 23, 1902 (Deam); idem 41, 
Champaign, Illinois, September 29, 1898 (Gray); Elihu Hall, 
sloughs, Athens, Illinois, 1861 (Par.); idem, Athens, Illinois, Septem- 
ber, 1868 (Field; Gray); 0. E. Lansing, Jr., 3502 pro parte, north of 
Catlin, Illinois, September 24, 1912 (Field, cum specie ipsa com- 
mixta, 2 sheets) ; idem & E. E. Sherff 40, common in moist ground, 
near Athens, Illinois, August 25, 1916 (Gray) ; J. C. Parlin & M. L. 
Fernald 958, around wool waste, North Berwick, Maine, September 
25, 1897 (N. Eng.); A. S. Pease 12392, railroad ditch, Champaign, 
Illinois, September 11, 1909 (Gray) ; Robert Ridgway, Olney, Illinois, 

1 The name, according to established custom, must of course read B. aristosa 
var. mutica, followed either by "(Gray) Gray ex [or in] Gattinger" or, since Gray's 
name appears twice, by merely "Gray ex [or in] Gattinger." The second rendition 
accords with the style used in this monograph. 



218 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

September 2, 1914 (Gray); idem 77, Fox Prairie, Olney, Illinois, 
September 11, 1917 (Field); idem 95, Sugar Creek Prairie, Richland 
County, Illinois, September 12, 1914 (Gray). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LVIII, FIGS. 0,-j 

Bidens aristosa, fig. h: from John Davis 1319, in Hb. Mo. 

Bidens aristosa var. mutica, figs, a-g: a, fruiting specimen, X0.63; 
b, exterior involucral bract, X3.16; c, interior involucral bract, 
X 3. 16 ; d, ray floret, Xl.26; e, palea, X3.16; /, disc floret, X3.16; 
g, achene, X3.16; all from Sherff 2027, in Hb. Field. 

Bidens aristosa var. Fritcheyi, fig. i: achenes, X3.16; both from 
type. 

79. Bidens polylepis Blake, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 35: 78. 1922. 

PI. LVIII, figs. k-r. 

Coreopsis involucrata Nutt. Journ. Phila. Acad. 7: 74. 1834. 
Diodonta involucrata Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. n. ser. 7: 361. 1841. 
Diatonta involucrata Nutt. ex Walp. Repert. 2: 615. 1843 (sphalm). 
Bidens involucrata (Nutt.) Britt. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 20: 281. 1893; 

non Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Bot. 1891: 49. 1891 (cf. 

Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 160. 1923). 
Achaenia apice exaristata vel obscure bidentata dentibus erecto- 

hispidis B. polylepis sensu stricto. 

Achaenia biaristata aristis retrorsum hamosis var. /3. retrorsa. 

Herba annua vel biennis, glabra, 0.3-1 m. alta; caule tetragono, 
ramoso. Folia petiolata petiolis usque ad 2.5 cm. longis, petiolo 
adjecto 8-15 cm. longa, plerumque bipinnata, foliolis lanceolatis vel 
lineari-lanceolatis, acuminatis, acriter serratis, membranaceis, cili- 
atis. Capitula radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2-5 cm. lata et 7-9 mm. 
alta. Involucri bracteae exteriores numerosae plerumque 15-20, 
saepius patentes vel reflexae, lineari-elongatae, perspicue hispido- 
ciliatae, dorso hispidae vel glabratae, 1-2.7 cm. longae, interiores 
lanceolatas manifeste superantes. Flores ligulati circ. 8, aurei, 
ligula oblongo-oblanceolati, apice integri vel obscure denticulati, 
1-2.5 cm. longi. Achaenia plana, brunnea vel atro-brunnea, facie- 
bus tuberculato-setosa vel fere glabra, apice calva vel obscure 
bidentata dentibus erecto-hispidis, margine interrupte crassiusculo- 
alata et antrorsum ciliata, exteriora cuneato-obovata circ. 5.5-6.5 
mm. longa, interiora cuneato-oblanceolata corpore circ. 6.5-7.5 
mm. longa. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 219 

Type specimen: Collected by Thomas Nuttall along the Salt 
River in Arkansas (Brit.). 1 

Distribution: From western Illinois westward to Iowa, Kansas, 
Colorado, and Texas; adventive eastward to Pennsylvania and 
Maryland. 

Specimens examined: E. B. Bartram, Frazer, Pennsylvania, Sep- 
tember 12, 1909 (Phila.); John Bright, Potomac River, near Han- 
cock, Maryland, September 2, 1918 (Carn.) ; S. H. Burnham, Osa- 
watomie, Kansas, September 1, 1893 (Gray); B. F. Bush, Courtney, 
Missouri, September 27, 1893 (Berl.); idem 170A, low ground, 
Greene Co., Missouri, September 21, 1893 (Gray; Kew); Hem 1705, 
common on low ground, Jackson Co., Missouri, September 27, 1893 
(U.S.); idem 319, abundant in wet prairie, Vinita, Oklahoma, 
September, 1894 (Mo.); idem 910, common on low ground, Sheffield, 
Missouri, September 6, 1896 (U.V.); idem 7767, bottoms, Sheffield, 
September 4, 1916 (Gray) ; W. M. Canby, high ground near Newport, 
Delaware, September 9, 1879 (Gray); idem, reclaimed marsh land, 
Wilmington, Delaware, September 25, 1899 (Gray); idem, Cherry 
Id. Marsh, Wilmington, September 5, 1900 (Gray; Phila.); 2 M.A. 
Carleton, Johnson Co., Kansas, August 25, 1892 (Mo.); idem, St. 
George, Kansas, September 8, 1892 (N.Y.); Albert Commons, Cherry 
Isl. Marsh, Wilmington, Delaware, September 8, 1898 (Phila.) 
and 1899 (Gray) ; 2 idem, abundant, eodem loco, September 16, 1899 
(Phila.); Delzie Demaree 13675, moist creeks, 9 miles southeast of 
Monticello, Drew Co., Arkansas, September 4, 1936 (Field); T. 
Drummond, St. Louis, Missouri, 1833 (Del.); W. W. Eggleston 
12071, Carthage, Missouri, October 1-3, 1915 (N.Y.; U.S.); A. 
Fendler 398, prairie hollows near 110 Creek, Kansas, September 
20, 1847 (Mo.); idem 444, eodem loco et tempore (Brit.); T. J. & 
M. F. L. Fitzpatrick, common in waste places, Decatur Co., 
Iowa, September 16, 1899 (N.Y.); A. S. Hitchcock 734, wet soil, 
Pottawatomie Co., Kansas, 1896 (Par., 2 sheets); J. F. Joor, Jack- 
sonville, Texas, October 8, 1884 (Mo., 2 sheets); W. A. Kellerman, 
Manhattan, Kansas, September 2, 1886 (N.Y.; U.S.); ex herb. 
Thomas Nuttall, Salt River, Arkansas (type, Brit.); J. H. Oyster, 
Miami Co., Kansas, July, 1883 (Field) ; C. C. Parry 31, headwaters 
of Clear Creek and alpine ridges east of Middle Park, Colorado, 1861 

1 Nuttall cited secondly the material by Dr. Zina Pitcher. The Pitcher speci- 
men is still extant (Phila.); also at least one duplicate of it (N.Y.). 

2 Plantae Canbyi Commonsiique in hac palude lectae Bidenti aristosae bracteis 
exterioribus debiliter vel valde adpropinquant. Una planta (Commons, September 
8-16, 1899; Hb. N.Y.) pro B. aristosa a N. L. Brittonio habita est. 



220 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

(Gray) ; H. Patterson, Oquawka, Illinois, 1873 (Gray) ; Zina Pitcher, 
Arkansas (N.Y.; Phila.); M. P. Somes 3832, Des Moines, Iowa, Sep- 
tember 14, 1909 (N.Y.); P. C. Standley 8321, pasture, vicinity of 
Springfield, Missouri, August 28, 1911 (U.S.); idem 9049, open field, 
eodem loco, August 20, 1912 (U.S.); idem 9455, open field, vicinity 
of Straff ord, Missouri, August 27, 1912 (U.S.) ; G. W. Stevens 2430, 
woods near Ottawa, Oklahoma, August 27, 1913 (Gray) ; idem 2544, 
moist slough, in shade by Spring River, near Ottawa, August 29, 
1913 (Gray); idem 2991^, waste place, Tulsa, Oklahoma, October 
30, 1913 (Gray); W. C. Stevens, Lawrence, Kansas, August (U.S.); 
H. K. Svenson 482, old field, Eva, Tennessee, August 28, 1922 
(Gray); William Trelease 640, Truhey Creek, Joplin, Missouri, 
October 7, 1897 (Mo.); S. S. Van Pelt, Narrowsville, Pennsylvania, 
September 9, 1904 (Phila.) ; Charles Wright, Texas (Par.; Gray). 

Daniels (Univ. Missouri Studies, Sci. Ser. 1: 378 [reprint 236]. 
1907) lists a supposed hybrid of this species with Bidens comosa. 
Such a hybrid is unknown to me. 

Bidens polylepis var. ft. retrorsa Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80: 386. 1925. 

PI. LVIII, fig. s. 
Bidens involucrata var. retrorsa Sherff, loc. cit. 

A specie achaeniorum biaristatorum aristis retrorsum hamosis 
differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by B. F. Bush, No. 5175 pro parte, 
Webb City, Missouri, September 25, 1908 (Gray). 

Distribution: Known only from Indiana and Missouri. 

Specimens examined: Bush 170, common on low ground, Mc- 
Donald Co., Missouri, September 1, 1893 (Field); idem 5175 pro 
parte, Webb City, etc. (Gray; hie numerus in Hb. N.Y. vera 
Bidens aristosa est) ; C. C. Deam 35010, roadside north of Coal City, 
Indiana, September 22, 1921 (Deam; fragment, in Field); E. J. 
Palmer 1480, abundant on moist prairies, Webb City, Missouri, 
September 25, 1908 (Mo.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LVIII, FIGS. k-S 

Bidens polylepis, figs, k-r: k, flowering and fruiting specimen, 
X0.63; I, exterior involucral bract, X3.16; m, interior involucral 
bract, X3.16; n, ray corolla, Xl.26; o, palea, X3.16; p, disc floret, 
X3.16; q, r, achenes, X3.6; k, mainly from type, in lesser part 
from Zina Pitcher, Arkansas, in Hb. Phila.; l-r, from B. F. Bush, 
Courtney, Missouri, September 27, 1893, in Hb. Berl. 

Bidens polylepis var. retrorsa, fig. s: achene, X3.16; from type. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LVI 




BIDENS BIDENTOIDES (Nutt.) Britt. 



Of W 



THE GENUS BIDENS 221 

80. Bidens coronata (L.) Britt. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 20: 281. 

1893; cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56: 495.1913. PI. LIX, figs, m and p-u. 
Coreopsis coronata L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 2: 1281. 1763 (ex descript., 

exclud. synon.). 

Coreopsis trichosperma Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer. 2: 139. 1803. 
Coreopsis trichosperma var. aurea Edwards, Bot. Reg. 1228. 1829 

(non Nutt.). 
Diodonta coronata (L.) Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. ser. 2. 7: 360. 

1841. 

Diatonta coronata (L.) Nutt. ex Walp. Repert. 2: 614. 1843 (sphalm). 
Bidens trichosperma (Michx.) Britt. loc. cit. 
Foliola plerumque lanceolato-linearia et inciso-dentata, achaeniis 

corpore 5-7 mm. longis B. coronata sensu stricto. 

Foliola (segmentave) angustissime linearia et saepe etiam integra, 

achaeniis minoribus var. /3. tenuiloba. 

Herba annua vel biennis, glabra, erecta, ramosa, 3-15 dm. alta; 
caule subtereti, saepe purpurascenti. Folia petiolata petiolis 0.3-1.6 
cm. longis, petiolo adjecto usque ad 1.4 dm. longa, pinnata (nonnulla 
inferiora saepe irregulariter bipinnata segmentis lanceolatis vel 
linearibus) vel rarissime indivisa lanceolataque, foliolis 3-7 (-9), 
minime ciliatis, acutis vel acuminatis, plerumque lanceolato-lineari- 
bus et inciso-dentatis. Capitula pauca vel multa, paniculato- 
corymbosa, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2-6 cm. lata et 6-8 mm. alta. 
Involucrum basi plerumque glabrum; bracteis exterioribus 6-8, 
linearibus vel lineari-spathulatis, margine levibus vel ciliatis, extrin- 
secus rariter hispidis, disco rarissime longioribus, interiores ovato- 
lanceolatas subaequantibus. Flores ligulati 7-9, aurei, ligula 
elliptico-obovati vel obovato-lanceolati, 1-2.5 cm. longi, termino 
obtuse apiculati vel obsolete denticulati. Achaenia anguste cuneato- 
oblonga vel interiora cuneato-linearia, plana vel inconspicue quad- 
rangulata, brunnea vel interdum subnigra, faciebus levia vel plus 
minusve rugoso-hispida, marginibus suberecte ciliata, corpore 5-7 
mm. longa, apice biaristata aristis validis subulatisque 1-2 mm. 
longis, erecte setosis. 

Type specimen: The single specimen in the Linnean Herbarium 
has on the back of its sheet "Pennsylvania" but Linnaeus apparently 
ignored or overlooked this and cited Virginia (then embracing much 
more territory than now) as the home of the species. 

Distribution: From Massachusetts, southernmost Ontario, and 
northern Wisconsin southward and southwestward to Virginia, 
Kentucky, and Nebraska. 



222 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Specimens examined: 1 H. G. Allebach, salt marsh, Ocean City, 
New Jersey, October, 1918 (Phila.); anon., Pennsylvania (Linn.); 
G. B. Ashcroft, Berea, Ohio, July, 1897 (Field); E. B. Bartram, 
Newport News, Virginia, September 16, 1907 (Phila.) ; J. B. Brinton, 
swamp, Westville, New Jersey, September 20, 1879 (Penn.); idem, 
Hammonton, New Jersey, September 6, 1891 (Penn.); N. L. Britton, 
Garretson's Meadows, Staten Isl., New York, September 23, 1892 
(N.Y.); idem, Whiting, Indiana, August 29, 1893 (N.Y.); idem 1488, 
Staten Isl., New York, September 6, 1879 (Carn.); John Bright, 
salt meadow bogs, Cape May Co., New Jersey, September 4, 1925 
(Carn.); A. B. Burgess 320, swampy ground near creek, Prairie 
Rhonde, Michigan, September 25, 1903 (Field); Agnes Chase 639, 
Larix swamp, Miller, Indiana, September 8, 1897 (Phila.); eadem 
1699, prairie, Chicago, Illinois, August 28, 1901 (Field); J. R. 
Churchill, Rehoboth, coast of Delaware, September 10, 1908 (Gray) ; 
Fred Clements 2868, Cams, Nebraska, August 14, 1893 (Gray); 
Albert Commons, river shore, Cherry Isl. Marsh, Wilmington, Dela- 
ware, August 31, 1899 (Phila.) ; idem, Wilmington, September 16, 1899 
(Phila.; forma foliis tripartitis, foliolis dentatis, terminali anguste 
lanceolate quam lateralibus oblongo-lanceolatis multo longiore sed 
achaeniis typica); J. W. Congdon, South Kingston, Rhode Island, 
September 7, 1878 (Carn.); C. A. Davis 5158, marshes, Alma, Michi- 
gan, September, 1892 (Phila.); Mary A. Day & M. L. Fernald 48, 
wet meadows of Neponset River, Dedham, Massachusetts, Septem- 
ber 6, 1901 (Berl.; Boiss.; Can.; Cam.; Del.; Field; Kew; Phila.; 
U.V., etc.); C. C. Deam, swamp near Lake Gage, Steuben Co., 
Indiana, August 12, 1903 (Berl.); idem 5376, prairie south of 
Bluffton, Indiana, September 13, 1908 (U.V., 2 sheets); idem 19034, 
north of Medora, Indiana, September 13, 1915 (Deam; forma typica 
specimini Linnaei herbarii simillima); idem 22018, northwest of 
Laketown, Indiana, September 17, 1916 (Deam); idem 29813, near 
Waverly Beach, Indiana, September 13, 1919 (Deam) ; idem 30229, 
southwest of Vallonia, Indiana, September 27, 1919 (Penn.); idem 
42209, southeast of Tefft, Indiana, August 19, 1925 (Deam) ; C. K. 
Dodge, near Port Huron, Michigan, August 31, 1894 (U.S.); idem 
81, Rush Lake, Huron Co., Michigan, August 25, 1908 (Gray); 
R. R. Dreisbach 1117, Brown's Mills, Burlington Co., New Jersey, 
September 4, 1922 (Carn.; Phila.); idem 1139, Atsion, New Jersey, 
September 9, 1922 (Carn.); idem 1878, Ancora Station, New Jersey, 

1 No attempt was made to distinguish in various herbaria between the species 
proper and the form with narrower leaf divisions, var. tenuiloba. Thus all are 
listed here. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 223 

September 9, 1923 (Phila.); idem 1926, edge of pond, Deerfield, 
New Jersey, October 6, 1923 (Phila.); A. A. Eaton, North Easton, 
Massachusetts, September 11, 1903 (Berl.); D. C. Eaton, marshes, 
Hackensack, New Jersey (Field); Fernald 17613, Harwichport, 
Massachusetts, October 13, 1918 (Phila.); idem & B. Long 17612, 
near Fresh Pond, Dennis, Massachusetts, September 2, 1918 (Phila.) ; 
Fernald, Hunnewell, & Long 10690, near Chebacco Lake, Essex, 
Massachusetts, September 11, 1913 (N. Eng.; Phila.); Freedley, 
Pennsylvania (Del.); C. D. Fretz, May's Landing, New Jersey, 
September 12, 1912 (Phila.; forma foliis indivisis, lanceolatis, den- 
tatis, anguste petiolatis; achaeniis atris, aristis brevibus paten tibus); 
H. A. Gleason & F. D. Shobe 218, boggy prairie, Sun Lake, Lake 
Villa, Illinois, August 9, 1906 (Gray) ; J. M. Greenman 337, Riverside, 
Massachusetts, September 5, 1897 (Mo.) ; J. H. Grove 498, swamps, 
New Egypt, New Jersey, August 20, 1907 (Phila.) ; J. W. Harsh- 
berger, Cedar Bog, west of Point Pleasant, New Jersey, September 
9, 1912 (Penn.) ; A. A. Heller 1247, Northwest, Virginia, September 
6, 1893 (Penn.; Phila.) ; P. Heuser, Arlington, Staten Isl., New York, 
August 25, 1896 (Berl.); idem, eodem loco, September 8, 1896 (Berl., 
2 sheets); J. H. Holmes 557, Salem Co., New Jersey, September, 
1890 (U.S.); L. S. Hopkins 2335, Kent, Ohio, August 25, 1913 
(Carn.) ; Albrecht John, below Washington Park, New Jersey, Sep- 
tember 14, 1895 (Phila.); 0. E. Jennings, Pymatuning Swamp, 
Linesville, Pennsylvania, August 19, 1904 (Carn., 3 sheets; forma 
foliorum segmentis latioribus); idem, Sandy Lake, near Stoneboro, 
Pennsylvania, August 30, 1923 (Carn., 3 sheets); T. H. Kearney 
2375, near Northwest, Virginia, November 8, 1898 (U.S.); A. B. 
Klugh 8, Point Pelee, Ontario, September 14, 1905 (Gray); C. H. 
Knowlton, cranberry bog, Harwich, Massachusetts, October 14, 
1920 (Phila.); Louis Krautter, Jr., Halsey, Nebraska, August 20, 
1907 (Penn.); W. Krebs 61, swamps, Cleveland, Ohio, August- 
October (Berl.); 0. E. Lansing, Jr., 538, prairie swale, Hammond, 
Indiana, September 28, 1898 (Field); idem 2640, prairie, Roby, 
Indiana, September 20, 1906 (Berl.; Field) ; idem, 2901, Pine, Indiana, 
September 28, 1910 (Gray); idem 3314, swamp, South Haven, 
Michigan, September 3, 1911 (Field); /. A. Lapham, swamps, Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin (Phila.); C. D. Lippencott, Swedesboro, New 
Jersey, September 10, 1892 (Phila.); Bayard Long, Manahawken, 
New Jersey, September 8, 1906 (Phila.); idem 4719, Mullica River, 
Atlantic Co., New Jersey, August 21, 1910 (Phila.); idem 4868, 
Hartford, New Jersey, September 5, 1910 (Phila.); idem 5195 and 



224 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

5288, Forked River, Ocean Co., New Jersey, September 29, 1910 
(Phila.); idem 6939, Ancora, New Jersey, October 28, 1911 (Phila.); 
Alex. MacElwee, Delaware River, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Sep- 
tember 21, 1895 (Phila.); John Macoun 1150, Rondeau, Ontario, 
October, 1885 (Brit.); idem 5061, eodem loco, September 25, 1894 
(Gray); E. A. Mearns 160, Minnesota River, Fort Snelling, Min- 
nesota, August 29, 1889 (N.Y.); Andre Michaux, North America 
(type material of Bidens trichosperma Michx.: Berl.; Del., ubi cum 
nom. Neetoux quoque; Par.); W. S. Moffatt, swamps, Pine, Indiana, 
August 31, 1895 (Field); Ch. More, moist places, New Jersey, August, 
1838 (Del., 2 sheets); E. L. Mosely, Marblehead Sandspit, Ohio, 
September 16, 1908 (Carn.); ex herb. Nuttallii, ex Massachusetts 
(Brit., sub nom. C. coronata L.); F. W. Pennell 3571, Parkdale, New 
Jersey, September 13, 1911 (Phila.); idem 6622, Point Pleasant, 
New Jersey, September 22, 1915 (Phila.); J. E. Peters, May's Land- 
ing, Atlantic Co., New Jersey, October 12, 1887 (N.Y.); T. C. 
Porter, Budd's Lake, New Jersey, September 19, 1878 (N.Y.); J. T. 
Rothrock, Spy Pond, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 20, 
1864 (Field); P. A. Rydberg 1642, sandhills, Middle Loupe River 
near Thedford, Nebraska, August 19, 1893 (N.Y.); J. H. Sandberg. 
Hennepin Co., Minnesota, August, 1889 (Penn.); F. Scammon, 
Chicago, Illinois, September, 1860 (N.Y.); A. Schrader 127, Ohio, 
1864 (Berl.); J. H. Schuette, Cedar Swamp, Green Bay Marsh, Wis- 
consin, August 17, 1878 (Field); Charles Shaffer, Spotswood Dam, 
New Jersey, September 18, 1871 (Phila.); E. E. Sherff 1747, ditch, 
South Chicago, Illinois, August 24, 1912 (Mo.); idem 1997, wet soil, 
near Carpenterville, Illinois, September 22, 1912 (Field); E. F. Ship- 
man, Benton Co., Indiana, August, 1876 (Phila.); C. W. Short, banks 
of Ohio River, Fernbank, Ohio (Kew); idem, rich soils, Lexington, 
Kentucky, 1835 (Kew; forma nonnullis foliis tripartitis ac foliolis 
1.5-1.8 cm. latis) ; idem, marshes around Louisville, Kentucky, 1835 
(Phila.) and 1840 (Phila.); idem, marshes, Kentucky, 1840 (Brit.); 
Joseph Schrenk, Weehawken, New Jersey, 1884 (Mo.); Forrest Shreve, 
fresh-water marshes of Choptauk River, Dover Bridge, Caroline 
Co., Maryland, September 16, 1907 (U.S.); idem 401, Charlestown, 
Maryland, September 12, 1904 (U.S.); G. H. Shull 356, north of 
Bush River Station, Maryland, September 10, 1902 (U.S.); A. H. 
Smith, T. C. Porter, & J. Leidy, Tinicum Isl., Pennsylvania, Sep- 
tember 8, 1868 (Penn.); Stewart, Illinois (ex herb. Asae Grayi, Kew; 
forma achaeniis parvis B. miti adpropinquans sed foliis typica pro 
B. coronata var. tenuiloba}; idem, peat bogs, Peoria, Illinois, 1869 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LVII 



1 




BIDENS EATONII Fern. (figs, a-/); var. FALLAX Fern. (fig. g) 



:;;: '."RARY 

OF THt 
UNIVERSITY ftp (HINDIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 225 

(Gray); John Torrey, New York, 1843 (Del.); Frank Tweedy, pine 
barrens, New Jersey, September, 1880 (Berl.; achaeniis plus minusve 
eis B. mitis adpropinquantibus) ; L. M. Umbach 2035, marsh, Clark, 
Indiana, September 2, 1907 (Mus. V.); idem 2051, marsh, Miller, 
Indiana, September 6, 1907 (Mus. V.) ; E. G. Vanatta, Queen Anne 
Co. (at point opposite Chestertown), Maryland, August 15, 1902 
(Phila.); idem, Chestertown, Maryland, August 3, 1904 (Phila.); 
George Vasey, Ringwood, Illinois, 1861 (Gray) ; Von Rabenau, Arling- 
ton, Staten Isl., New York, September 7, 1890 (Berl.); C. A. Weath- 
erby, open swamp, Wenham, Massachusetts, October 12, 1915 (N. 
Eng.) ; W. C. Werner, Cedar Swamp, Champaign Co., Ohio, September 
10, 1892 (N.Y.); H. E. Wetherill, Norristown, Pennsylvania, 1891 
(Penn.); A. Wetzstein, St. Marys, Ohio, September, 1898 (Berl.); 
C. F. Wheeler, swamp near Lansing, Michigan, July 23, 1897 (Gray) ; 
W. F. Wight 112a and 113, Kalamazoo River, Allegan Co., Michigan, 
September 11, 1902 (U.S.); E. Wilkinson 5126, Richland Co., Ohio, 
August 29, 1893 (Field) ; idem (similiter) 5126, low woods, Mansfield, 
Ohio, August 29, 1895 (Carn.); C. S. Williamson, Chicago, Illinois, 
September 2, 1898 (Phila.); idem, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
August 23, 1903 (Phila.); 0. R. Willis, Hightstown, New Jersey, 
September, 1845 (Field) ; A. B. Wolcott 75, low prairie south of dunes, 
Mineral Springs, Indiana, September 13, 1911 (Field) ; H. A. Young, 
Cedar Pond, Lynn, Massachusetts, September 13, 1879 (N. Eng.). 

Britton, at the time of transferring several American species 
from Coreopsis to Bidens, assumed that this species had already been 
transferred by Fischer. In fact, as his citation proves, he rested his 
assumption entirely upon Steudel. But a careful examination of 
Steudel (Nom. Bot. ed. 2. 1840), with proper regard for his use of 
italics for synonyms, shows that Fischer's plant was Coreopsis 
coronata Hooker (a true Coreopsis) and not Coreopsis coronata L. 
Steudel even emphasized this fact with the words nee alior. after C. 
coronata Hooker, to which he referred Bidens coronata Fischer. 
Thus the Linnean species was left in Coreopsis until Britton's treat- 
ment of it as a species of Bidens. 

In the Linnean Herbarium there still exists the original superb 
specimen of Coreopsis coronata L. (cf. Bot. Gaz. 59: 314, fig. 3. 1915; 
cf . pi. LIX, fig. m) . It lacks mature achenes, but its several beautiful, 
8-rayed heads, with the rays strikingly well arranged on the paper, 
leave little doubt that Linnaeus had this specimen at hand when 
describing his C. coronata (Sp. PL ed. 2. 2: 1281. 1763; "radio magno, 



226 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

octopetalo," etc.). 1 While, indeed, Linnaeus cited in his synonymy 
plants of Vaillant and Plummier, these have been justly excluded 
by subsequent authors. Thus, for forming a true conception of 
C. coronata L., there are left the Linnean specimen and description. 
The latter, by itself, is inadequate. The former, in Gray's time, 
seemed likewise disappointing, as being too nearly intermediate 
between C. mitis Michx. (C. aurea Gray, non Ait.) and C. tricho- 
sperma Michx. 2 But, in later years, numerous specimens of these 
last two species have been added to our American herbaria and show 
very clearly differences in leaf outline that Gray, with his scantier 
material, evidently could not properly evaluate. A comparison with 
these specimens shows at once that the single remaining Linnean 
specimen is Coreopsis trichosperma Michx. and hence Bidens tricho- 
sperma (Michx.) Britt. 3 

We may remark also that Nuttall (loc. cit.) equated C. tricho- 
sperma Michx. with Coreopsis coronata L., for the concept of which 
latter he relied upon Gray ("fide Gray"), a fact which evidently 
indicates that in his earlier years Gray had considered Coreopsis 
coronata L. to be the species common in the northeastern United 
States (our Bidens coronata), not that found in the southeastern 
United States (OUT Bidens mitis). 

1 In fact, Asa Gray and various others appear to raise no question whatever 
as to the authenticity of this specimen and refer to it as "the specimen of the 
Linnean Herbarium" (a fact of importance if it be argued that the habitat, Penn- 
sylvania vide sub "Type Specimen" is in conflict with Linnaeus' published 
habitat, Virginia). 

According to Jackson's scholarly researches (Proc. Linn. Soc. 124th Session, 
suppl. Index Linn. Herb. : 8, sub num. 3; 25, sub Explanation; 62, sub Coreop- 
side coronata, 3. 1912), the inscription Cor. coronata is in Linnaeus' own hand- 
writing and the specimen was first "enumerated" by Linnaeus (as possessed in 
his private herbarium) by underscoring in the second volume of the twelfth 
edition of the Systema Naturae, published in 1767, thus proving its accession 
between the spring of 1755 and about or later than 1767. 

2 Dr. N. L. Britton wrote me in 1915 that, many years before, he had examined 
the Linnean type, but, while entertaining doubts as to its true status, felt con- 
strained, for want of achenes, to follow Gray's treatment, except as to generic 
affiliations. Professor M. L. Fernald of the Gray Herbarium informed me shortly 
afterward that Gray's fragment at Gray Herbarium, from the Linnean Herbarium 
(where certain heads were missing on the single type specimen), showed "perfectly 
characteristic fruit of B. trichosperma, not of B. coronata of recent authors," thus 
confirming my conclusions in a most emphatic way. 

3 Gray (Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1, pt. 2: 294. 1884) did equate, though somewhat 
provisionally, the C. coronata of the Linnean Herbarium with a species of the 
southeastern United States, Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff, which latter he erro- 
neously called Coreopsis aurea Ait. 

The type of B. trichosperma (Michx.) Britt. is still extant (Par.) and was 
studied in 1924; also the cotypes at Berlin (Berl.) and Geneva (Del.). The material 
matches the Linnean Herbarium Coreopsis coronata well. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 227 

Nuttall's herbarium (Brit.) has a plant of B. coronata from 
Massachusetts. Its first determination, "trichosperma Michx.," had 
been crossed out and "C. coronata Linn." substituted. 

Bidens coronata var. /3. tenuiloba (Gray) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
86: 446. 1928. PI. LIX, figs, n and o. 

Coreopsis trichosperma var. tenuiloba Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1, pt. 

2: 295. 1884. 
Bidens trichosperma var. tenuiloba (Gray) Britt. Bull. Torr. Bot. 

Club 20: 281. 1893. 

Bidens trichosperma var. tenuifolia (Gray) Britt. ex Farw. Ann. 
Kept. Comm. Parks and Blvds. Detroit 11: 92. 1900. 

A specie caule saepe altiore, foliolis segmentisve angustissime 
linearibus et saepe etiam integris, achaeniis minoribus differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by George Vasey, sloughs in northern 
Illinois, 1862 (Gray). 1 

Distribution: With the species proper and usually commoner. 

Specimens examined : E. P. Killip 13273, Alsion, Atlantic County, 
New Jersey, September, 1928 (Field) ; also many specimens already 
listed with those of species proper (cf. p. 222, footnote 1). 

Frequently, where many specimens are examined in the field, 
the var. tenuiloba is found to pass over into the species proper. The 
more finely divided foliage appears to be the most pronounced 
diagnostic character, but even this is inconstant. Rarely the achenes 
are exceedingly diminutive and then a strong approach is made to 
Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff, as noted by Gray (loc. cit.). 

Farwell's plant, not seen by me, was referred with an interroga- 
tion to this variety. It was described as "a peculiar form found on 
Belle Isle [a pleasure island at Detroit, Michigan]. It has the outer 
linear involucral bracts twice longer than the inner and equal to 
the rays in length." 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LIX, FIGS. m~U 

Bidens coronata, figs, m, p-u: m, flowering spray, X0.61; p, 
exterior involucral bract, X3.05; q, interior involucral bract, X3.05; 

1 Gray mentioned no type but gave "Peat bogs, Indiana and Illinois, Vasey, 
Stewart, &c." Whence the first cited material, that collected by Vasey, may well 
be regarded as the type. Gray had at least two specimens by Vasey, the first 
from Ringwood, Illinois, in 1861, a plant with broader leaf segments and really 
of the species proper, hence to be excluded here; the second from northern Illinois, 
in 1862, a fine specimen with very narrow leaf segments, clearly the kind that 
inspired the name tenuiloba. The supplementary specimen by J. T. Stewart 
was collected in peat bogs at Peoria, Illinois, 1869. It is a fine, large, branched 
plant (Gray). 



228 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

r, ray corolla, Xl.22; s, palea, X3.05; t, disc floret, X3.05; u, achene, 
X3.05; m, almost entirely from the Linnean Hb. specimen regarded 
here as type, but in very small part from Sherff 2014, in Hb. Field ; 
p-u, from Sherff 2014, ibid. 

Bidens coronata var. tenuiloba, figs, n, o: cauline leaves, X0.61; 
w, from Sherff 2044, in Hb. Field; o, from Sherff 2015, ibid. 

81. Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81: 43. 1926. 
PI. LIX, figs. a-l. 

Coreopsis mitis Michx. Fl. Amer. Bor. 2: 140. 1803. 

Coreopsis trichosperma var. "0. aurea?" Nutt. Gen. 2: 180. 1818 

(exclud. synon. Ait.). 

Coreopsis arguta Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 567. 1814. 
Coreopsis ambigua Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. 7: 75. 1834. 
Diodonta mitis (Michx.) Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. ser. 2. 7: 360. 

1841. 

Diodonta leptophylla Nutt. loc. cit. 

Diatonta leptophylla Nutt. ex Walp. Repert. 2: 615. 1843 (sphalm). 
Diatonta mitis (Michx.) Nutt. ex Walp. op. cit. 614 (sphalm). 
Coreopsis aurea var. subintegra Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 2: 339. 

1843. 

Coreopsis aurea var. leptophylla Torr. & Gray, loc. cit. 
Coreopsis aurea var. incisa Torr. & Gray, op. cit. 340. 
Coreopsis heterophylla Bertol. Misc. Bot. 7: 43. 1848 (ex descript. 

et patria). 

Coreopsis cuspidata Bertol. op. cit. 44 (ex descript. et patria). 
Coreopsis Jasminifolia Bertol. loc. cit. (ex descript. et patria). 1 
Bidens coronata var. leptophylla (Nutt.) Mohr, Contr. U. S. Nat. 

Herb. 6: 808. 1901. 

Bidens aurea var. leptophylla (Nutt.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 59: 316. 1915. 
Leidon mite (Michx.) Shuttlw. ex Sherff. op. cit. 81: 44, footnote 20. 

1926. 

Bidens mitis var. subintegra (Torr. & Gray) Sherff in herb. 
Bidens mitis var. incisa (Torr. & Gray) Sherff in herb. 

Herba annua, plus minusve glabra; caule tenui, 3-10 dm. alto, 
obscure quadrangulato, ramoso. Folia petiolata petiolis 0.3-2 (-3) 

1 Professor Luigi Buscalioni, Director of the Royal Botanical Garden of the 
University of Bologna, informs me (in lit., October 24, 1931) that C. heterophylla 
Bertol., C. cuspidata Bertol., and C. Jasminifolia Bertol. are not represented in 
the Bertoloni Herbarium at the University of Bologna, and that perhaps they are 
still in the hands of Bertoloni's heirs. Cf. footnote under Bidens canescens. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LVIII 




BIDENS ARISTOSA (Michx.) Britt. (fig. h); var. MUTICA Gray ex Gatting. (figs, a-g); 

var. FRITCHEYI Fern. (fig. i) 
BIDENS POLYLEPIS Blake (figs, k-r); var. RETRORSA Sherff (fig. s) 



OF Tfit 
0F 



THE GENUS BIDENS 229 



cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 0.4-1.2 dm. longa, membranacea, vari- 
abilia; nunc indivisa, lanceolata vel ovata, serrata, apice acuta vel 
acuminata (var. subintegrae) ; nunc Integra vel saepius pinnata 
3-7-partita foliolo terminal! plerumque elongatissimo, lamina seg- 
mentisve linearibus et plerumque integris (formae plus minusve 
typicae) vel latioribus inciso-serratisque (var. incisae), rarissime 
valde pinnato-decomposita. Capitula radiata, pansa ad anthesin 
2-5 cm. lata, pedunculata pedunculis tenuibus 0.2-1.2 dm. longis. 
Involucrum basi glabrum vel sparsim hispidum ; bracteis exterioribus 
7-10, linearibus vel lineari-spathulatis, saepius ciliatis, apice acutis 
obtusisve, 5-10 mm. longis, interiores saepe superantibus. Flores 
ligulati circ. 8, aurei, ligula 1-2.5 cm. longi, oblanceolati vel elliptico- 
obovati, apice integri vel minime denticulati. Achaeniorum 2 facies 
unicostatae; corpore subplano vel parce trigono, late cuneato, nigro, 
saepe rugoso aliter fere glabro, ad apicem dentibus acribus circ. 
0.5-1 mm. longis et antrorsum setosis bidentato, 2.5-4.5 mm. longo. 

Type specimen: Collected by Andre Michaux in North America 
(Par.). 

Distribution: Southeastern United States from Maryland to 
Texas, but chiefly in coastal states from North Carolina to Louisi- 
ana. Apparently found once in Cuba (Rug el 633), where doubtless 
adventive. 

Specimens examined: Andrew Allison 46, vicinity of Lake 
Charles, Louisiana, 1904 (U.S.) ; Baldwyn, Georgia (type of Diodonta 
leptophylla Nutt.; Brit.); H. C. Benke 3843, Palatka, Florida, March 
10, 1924 (Field); Chapman, Florida (Kew); idem, Florida, 1845 
(Brit., 2 sheets; uno specimine cum foliis pro maxima parte lanceo- 
latis, alio cum foliis valde dissectis); Cooper, Alabama (type of 
Coreopsis ambigua Nutt.; Brit.); A. H. Curtiss, Eden, Georgia, 1875 
(U.S.); idem, Walton Co., Florida, 1885 (N.Y.); idem 1472, near 
Jacksonville, Florida, October (Berl.; Brit.; Carn. ; Field. ; Gray; Kew; 
Mo.; Phila.); idem 4486, eodem loco, September 30, 1893 (N.Y.); 
idem 5322, swampy places in pine barrens, eodem loco, October 22, 
1894 (Boiss.; Field; Kew); Drummond, New Orleans, Louisiana, 
1832 (Kew); idem, Louisiana, 1832 (N.Y.); idem, eodem loco, 1833 
(Kew); idem, Jacksonville and Covington, Louisiana, 1832-1833 
(Brit.); A. P. Garber, Levy Co., Florida, November, 1877 (Field, 
2 sheets; Phila.); Gates, Alabama, 1831 (N.Y.); E. J. Grimes 4546, 
banks of canal, Wallacetown, Virginia, October 2, 1921 (N.Y.); 
Josiah Hale, Louisiana (Phila., 3 sheets); R. M. Harper 1562, 
Satilla River swamp near Woodbine, Georgia, August 23, 1902 



230 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 



(Berl.; Brit.; Field; Mo.); A. S. Hitchcock 915, vicinity of Eustis, 
Florida, June-July, 1894 (Field); idem 917, Lake City, Florida, 
June- July, 1898 (Field); idem 918, Hernando Co., Florida, June- 
July, 1898 (Field) ; 0. E. & Grace K. Jennings, flood plain of Peace 
River, vicinity of Fort Meade, Florida, December, 1919 (Carn., 
3 sheets; forma foliis parvis indivisisque, nunc rhomboideis nunc 
rhomboideo-lanceolatis nunc oblongo-lanceolatis) ; J. F. Joor, Long 
Beach, Mississippi, September 16, 1891 (Mo.); A. B. Langlois, 
Cotes Blanches, Louisiana, October 10, 1884 (N.Y.); E. A. Mearns, 
Kissimmee, Florida, May 7, 1901 (U.S.); Marie Meislahn 107, 
Clarcona, Florida, November 5, 1899 (U.S.); Michaux, North 
America (type, Par.: cotypes, Berl.; Par.); Charles Mohr, Mobile, 
Alabama, October, 1878 (U.S.); idem, borders of ponds and streams 
in the low country, eodem loco, October 4, 1886 (U.S.); idem, 
Poplarville, Mississippi, October 4, 1894 (U.S.); idem, Mobile, 
Alabama, October, 1899 (U.S.) ; G. V. Nash 112, swamps, vicinity 
of Eustis, Florida, March 12-31, 1894 (Phila.); idem 150, eodem loco 
et tempore (Berl.; N.Y.); idem 336, eodem loco, April 1-15, 1894 
(Berl.; Field; Kew; Par., 2 sheets); L. B. Ohlinger 400, marsh, Polk 
Co., Florida, May 12, 1894 (Field); Edward Palmer 285, Indian 
River, eastern Florida, 1874 (U.S.); B. H. Patterson, Orlando, 
Florida, December 3-11, 1917 (Carn., 2 sheets); idem, Kissimmee, 
Florida, December 7, 1917 (Carn.); Rafinesque (labeled "Appalach- 
ian Mts. in Alabama"; Petrop.); F. Rugel, near St. Marks, Florida, 
August, 1833 (Field); idem 278, swamps, Macon Co., North 
Carolina, September, 1842 (appellata Leiodon aureum Shuttlw.; 
Brit.; Kew); idem 360, meadows of Swannanoa (Swanano) Valley, 
North Carolina, August, 1841 (Berl.; Brit., 2 sheets; Kew); idem 
483, Florida, 1845 (N.Y.; U.S.); idem 547, Florida, 1845 (U.S.); 
idem 633, Cuba (I), 1 1849 (Brit.); Forrest Shreve & W. R. Jones 1304, 
marshes of Nanticoke River near Vienna, Maryland, August, 1906 
(U.S.); J. D. Smith 16, swamps of Muddy Creek, North Carolina, 
August, 1881 (N.Y.); P. C. Standley & H. C.Bollman 10274, swamp, 
vicinity of Black Mountain, Buncombe Co., North Carolina, 
September 2, 1913 (U.S.); S. M. Tracy 4762, Biloxi, Mississippi, 
September-October, 1898 (Field); idem 6445, eodem loco, October 
8, 1899 (Brit.; Gray; U.S.); idem 6929, Clearwater, Florida, April 
20, 1900 (Mo., pro nova specie Coreopsidis a E. L. Greeneo habita); 
idem 7140, Bradentown, Florida, October 26, 1900 (Cam.; Field); 
idem 7351, Manatee, Florida, December 5, 1901 (Carn.) ; L. F. & 

1 The label is a printed one and so "Cuba" is perhaps correct. The species 
does not ordinarily grow there, however. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 231 

Rosamond Ward, Jacksonville, Florida, February-March, 1891 
(U.S.); Otto Westerlund 10, Pittman, Florida, November, 1889 
(U.S.); C. S. Williamson, Palatka, Florida, April, 1897 (Phila.); 
S. H. Wright, Volusia Co., Florida (Field). 

As stated in a former paper (Bot. Gaz. 81: 43. 1926), the name 
Bidens aurea (Ait.) Sherff, at first considered as pertaining to a 
species from the southeastern United States, has been found to 
belong to the Mexican species described by Ortega as Bidens hetero- 
phylla. Michaux's name Coreopsis mitis is found to be, in reality, 
the first name published for the southeastern United States species, 
which is the species to be considered here. Torrey and Gray (loc. 
cit.) divided this species into three varieties, subintegra, leptophylla, 
and incisa, on the basis of the amount of leaf division. But in this 
species the variation in leaf division is so fickle that the maintenance 
of varieties is often difficult. Thus, in a considerable number of 
cases, a specimen in one herbarium belongs to one variety and one 
or more duplicates in other herbaria belong to another variety. 
Michaux (or rather, to speak more accurately, his author, Richard) 
described the leaves but scantily ("foliis petiolatis; infimis duplicato- 
pinnatifidis; supremis lineari-tripartitis"). I have studied specimens 
of his original material (BerL, ex Kunthio, cui datum erat ab A. 
Ricardo, anno 1827; Par., ex herb. Drake ex herb. A. Richard e 
Michx. ips.). Their leaf segments are slender and fit the var. lepto- 
phylla better than the var. incisa, to which latter Torrey and Gray 
referred the Michaux material. 

This being the case, it becomes evident that, if varietal distinctions 
are to be erected, the species proper may be considered as embracing 
the plants with compound foliage and linear leaf divisions, leaving 
the various other foliage forms to constitute two more or less inter- 
grading varieties, subintegra (Torr. & Gray) Sherff and incisa 
(Torr. & Gray) Sherff. The var. subintegra will include forms with 
leaves undivided (and ovate to lanceolate) or tripartite (with ovate 
to lanceolate leaflets). The var. incisa will include forms with the 
leaves more dissected, a specimen by Chapman (Florida, 1845; 
Brit.) having its multisect leaves looking even like the fronds of 
some ferns. 1 

1 Of the specimens cited for Bidens mitis, the following are fairly typical, 
as to linear leaf divisions, of the species proper :Baldwyn; Chapman (Kew); Curtiss 
1472 (Carn., pro parte; Field; Mo.); idem 4486; Drummond, in 1832 (Kew) and 
1833 (Kew, 1 of 2 sheets) ; Garber (Field, 1 of 2 sheets); Harper 1562; Hitchcock 
915; Joor; Michaux; Mohr, in 1878; Ohlinger 400; Rugel 483 (N.Y.) ; Shreve & Jones 
1304; Tracy 6445 (Brit.); Westerlund 10. 



232 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Coreopsis ambigua Nutt. is represented by the type, still extant 
(Brit.)- It is the form described by Torrey and Gray as var. 
subintegra. 

Leidon mite (Michx.) Shuttlw. was the name printed on Rugel's 
label for a specimen of this species (Berl.), with Coreopsis mitis 
Michx. cited as a synonym. The generic name was more properly 
spelled on various other herbarium labels, Leiodon. Similarly, the 
name Leiodon aureum Shuttlw. was printed upon some of Rugel's 
labels (No. 278) and distributed for this species. 

Nuttall's "Coreopsis trichosperma var. /3. aurea?" was correctly 
referred by me (in my mss.) several years ago to this species (B. 
mitis). The plate in Edwards' Botanical Register (no. 1228), is of 
B. coronata (L.) Britt. This plate was made in April, 1829, and 
based upon more northern material than B. mitis (Mr. Thomas, 
New York). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LIX, FIGS, a-l 

Bidens mitis: a, flowering spray, X0.61; b-e, diverse cauline leaves, 
X0.61;/, exterior involucral bract, X3.05; g, interior involucral bract, 
X3.05; h, ray corolla, Xl.22; i, palea, X3.05; j, disc floret, X3.05; 
k, I, achenes, X3.05; a, f-k, from Curtiss 1472, in Hb. Field; b, c, 
from Mr. Cooper, Alabama (type of Coreopsis ambigua Nutt.), in 
Hb. Brit.; d, from type of Diodonta leptophylla Nutt., in Hb. Brit.; 
e, from Rugel 547, in Hb. Mo.; /, from A. B. Langlois, southern 
Alabama, in Hb. Field. 

82. Bidens Oerstediana (Benth. ex Oerst.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
80: 385. 1925. PL LX. 

Coreopsis Oerstediana Benth. ex Oerst. Vid. Meddel. Kj0benh. 1852: 

93. 1852. 

Herba annua, glabra, erecta; caule tereti, moderate ramoso, 
6 dm. alto. Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis usque ad 4 cm. longis, 
petiolo adjecto usque ad 9 cm. longa, pleraque pinnatim 5-secta 
foliolis inferioribus plerumque 2-3-sectis, omnibus angustissimis 
(0.5-1.2 mm. latis) eciliatis et apice acutis. Capitula tenuiter 
pedunculata pedunculis usque ad 10 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad 
anthesin 1.5-2 cm. lata et 0.7-1 cm. alta. Involucri bracteae bise- 
riales, exteriores circ. 7-10, lineares, apicem versus plus minusve 
dilatatis, ad apicem subobtusae, tantum 1-2 mm. longae; interiores 
lanceolatae, 4-7 mm. longae, saepe ad medium reflexae. Paleae 
superne elongatae et sensim attenuatae, bracteis interioribus longi- 
ores. Flores ligulati 8-10, aurei, ligula oblongo-elliptici. Achaenia 



THE GENUS BIDENS 233 

solum immatura visa, non vere alata, brunnea, obcompressa, lineari- 
lanceolata, inferne latiora, superne longe angustata, faciebus pauci- 
striata et glabra vel ad costam moderate hispida, margine erecte 
ciliata, corpore 3-4 mm. longa, apice erecto-hispida et biaristata 
aristis antrorsum et breviter sed dense hispidis, 2-3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Anders Sandoe Oersted, No. 181, in 
savannahs on northeast slope of Mt. Masaya, Nicaragua, 1851 (Kew). 

Distribution: Known only from the type locality in western 
Nicaragua. 

Specimens examined: Oersted 181 (type, Kew). 

This species from Nicaragua 1 was collected by Oersted on Mt. 
Masaya in the year 1851. It does not appear to have been collected 
since then. In fact, the region round Masaya has been explored 
botanically very little. The type specimen at Kew 2 is a slender, 
herbaceous plant, quite unlike the fruticose species so commonly 
found in Mexico and Central America for true Coreopsis. Bentham's 
original description likened it to some species of Bidens, but withheld 
it from Bidens because of the upwardly barbed achenial aristae. The 
young achenes were described as "subalata." The type specimen, 
though slightly immature in its achenes, is a plant related to Bidens 
coronata (L.) Britt. (B. trichosperma Michx.), of the northeastern 
United States. Its achenes are not more plainly margined or sub- 
winged than the average Bidens achenes of similar stage of maturity. 3 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LX 

Bidens Oerstediana: flowering specimen, X0.67; 6, exterior invo- 
lucral bract, X5.38; c, interior involucral bract, X5.38; d, ray floret, 
X5.38; e, palea, X5.38; /, disc floret, X5.38; g, very immature 
achene, X5.38; all from type. 

83. Bidens discoidea (Torr. & Gray) Britt. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 
20: 281. 1893. PI. LXI. 

Coreopsis discoidea Torr. & Gray Fl. N. Amer. 2: 339. 1842. 
Bidens tenuissima Greene Leafl. Bot. Observ. and Grit. 1: 200. 1906. 
Bidens tenerrima Greene ex Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56: 494. 1913. 

1 Not Brazil, as stated in the Index Kewensis. 

- The Oersted plants in the Herbarium of the University of Copenhagen, 
from which Dr. Carl Christensen generously loaned me the material of Bidens and 
Coreopsis, do not appear to have among them a duplicate of this species. 

3 Dr. Sidney F. Blake, of the United States Bureau of Plant Industry, has 
kindly examined the type and likewise concluded that the plant was closer to 
Bidens than to Coreopsis. 



234 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Herba annua, erecta, glabra, 0.3-1.8 m. alta; caule purpu- 
rascenti, obtuse tetragono, diffuse ramoso. Folia membranacea, 
petiolata petiolis tenuibus 1-4 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 0.5-1.2 
dm. longa, tripartita, foliolis lanceolatis vel ovato-lanceolatis, 
acuminatis, serratis, omnibus plerumque petiolulatis, interdum 
obscure ciliatis. Capitula numerosa, discoidea, parva, disco demum 
7-9 mm. lato et 6-7 mm. alto. Involucrum glabrum; bracteis 
exterioribus 3-5 (plerumque 4), foliaceis, lineari-spathulatis, mem- 
branaceis, non evidenter ciliatis, plerumque discum superantibus, 
0.7-2.5 cm. longis; interioribus oblongo-lanceolatis, membranaceis, 
discum subaequantibus. Flores tubulosi 5-lobati. Achaenia sub- 
nigra, subplana, lineari-cuneata, saepe tuberculata, piloso-hispida, 
corpore 3-6.2 mm. longa, biaristata aristis 0.2-2.2 mm. longis, aristis 
marginibusque erecto-hispida. 

Type specimen: Collected by William Starling Sullivant, No. 52, 
Columbus, Ohio, 1839 (N.Y.). 

Distribution: Northern Nova Scotia, southern Quebec, and 
Minnesota southward to District of Columbia, Alabama, Louisiana, 
and Texas. 

Specimens examined: S. F. Blake 2985, Maquam Bay, Swan ton, 
Vermont, August 20, 1911 (N. Eng.); A. E. Blewitt 1103, shore of 
Lake Quassapaug, Middlebury, Connecticut, September 18, 1908 
(N. Eng.); idem 1148, swamp, Waterbury, Connecticut, August 23, 
1910 (N. Eng.); 0. H. Brown 112, swamp, Cold Spring, New Jersey, 
September 10, 1914 (Phila.); Stewardson Brown, Budd's Lake, New 
Jersey, 1894 (Phila.); W. M. Canby, sandy river shores, Salisbury, 
Maryland, August (Kew); idem, Salisbury, Maryland, September, 
1865 (Field); Carpenter, low land and water, Feliciana, Louisiana, 
July (N.Y.); J. R. Churchill, Lakeville, Long Island, New York, 
September 25, 1899 (Gray); John Clayton, Virginia, 1734, etc. (Brit., 
two sheets); Collins & Fernald 11460, Moscow Pond, Hopkinton, 
Rhode Island, September 3, 1914 (N. Eng.);F. V. Coville, Ithaca, 
New York, September 27, 1884 (Kew; U.S.) ; Joseph Crawford, Tully- 
town, Pennsylvania, September 12, 1894 (Phila., 3 sheets); Mary A. 
Day & M. L. Fernald 49, wet margins of pools, Neponset Meadows, 
Dedham, Massachusetts, September 6, 1901 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; 
Can.; Del.; Field; Kew; Mus. V.; Par.; Phila.; U.V.); C. C. Deam, 
ditch, Steuben Co., Indiana, September 11, 1904 (Gray); idem 630, 
southeast of Montpelier, Indiana, September 24, 1905 (Deam); 
Delzie Demaree 13756, old bogs, Yorktown, Bayou Bartholomew, 
Lincoln Co., Arkansas, September 20, 1936 (Field); idem 13793, 



THE GENUS BIDENS 235 

swamp 3 miles west of McGehee, Desha Co., Arkansas, September 
26, 1936 (Field); idem 13895, edge of Wilson Lake, Ashley Co., 
Arkansas, October 11, 1936 (Field); idem 13960, on logs in Bayou 
Bartholomew, Jefferson Co., Arkansas, October 11, 1936 (Field); 
C. K. Dodge, near Port Huron, Michigan, August 28, 1895 (Gray) ; 
T. Drummond 203, San Felipe, Texas, 1834-1835 (Kew; Oxf.); 
idem 268 pro parte, St. Louis, Missouri (Kew); idem 553, New 
Orleans, Louisiana (Kew); George Engelmann, St. Louis, Missouri, 
September, 1846 (Par.; Phila.) and 1858 (Berl.); H, Eggert, along 
Mississippi River near East St. Louis, Illinois, September 6, 1874 
(Gray); N. C. Fassett 2876, floating dock, Minneiska, Minnesota, 
September 6, 1926 (N.Y.); idem 2878, floating dock, Winona, 
Minnesota, September 11, 1926 (N.Y.); M. L. Fernald & B. Long 
10673, Lakeville, Massachusetts, August 26, 1913 (Phila.); iidem 
17597, Brewster, Massachusetts, September 7, 1918 (Phila.); iidem 
& G. S. Torrey 10674, swampy thickets near head of Harbor Pond, 
Block Isl., Rhode Island, September 13, 1913 (Gray; Phila.); C. D. 
Fretz, Bristol, Pennsylvania, September 14, 1886 (Phila.); A. P. 
Garber, vicinity of Easton, Pennsylvania, 1868 (Field) and July, 
1869 (Phila.); J. M. Greenman 2143, Beaver Pond, Lincoln, Massa- 
chusetts, August 23, 1903 (Mo.); Josiah Gregg, above Shreveport, 
Louisiana, September 28, 1847 (Phila.); J. V. Haberer 1458, gravelly, 
inundated shore of Oneida Lake at Davis Point, Lenox, New York, 
August 2, 1906 (U.S.); idem 3359, gravelly, inundated shore of 
Oneida Lake at Jewel, New York, August 27, 1905 (U.S.); Hale, 
Louisiana, 1842 (Gray); idem 402, eodem loco (N.Y.); E. B. Harger 
4833 p.p., wooded swamp, Long Hill, Connecticut, August 25, 1905 
(N. Eng.); A. A. Heller & E. G. Halbach 601, about Long Pond, 
Luzerne Co., Pennsylvania, September 16-17, 1892 (Field; Phila.); 
Heuser, Rahway, New Jersey, 1865 (Calif.); G. W. Letterman, alt. 
90 meters, edge of swamp, Texarkana, Arkansas, October 19, 1894 
(N.Y.)',Lindheimer, swamps, Houston, Texas, October, 1842 (Gray); 
C. D. Lippencott, Budd's Lake, New Jersey, September 4, 1894 
(Phila.); John Macoun, McKay Lake, Ottawa, Ontario, August 3, 
1911 (Can.); Marie-Victor in 8197, Ottawa Co., Quebec, September 
1, 1919 (Par., 2 sheets); A. H. McKay, on beaches, Pictou, Nova 
Scotia, September, 1875 (N.Y.);C. Mohr, swampy thickets, Alabama, 
October 18, 1896 (U.S.); E. L. Moseley, on floating log, cove of San- 
dusky Bay, Ohio, September 12, 1895 (Cam.; Field); H.N.Pat- 
terson 382, Oquawka, Illinois (Berl.); A. S. Pease 1371, Andover, 
Massachusetts, September 6, 1901 (N. Eng.); T. C. Porter, Delaware 



236 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

River, near Easton, Pennsylvania, September 14, 1869 (Field; 
Par.; Phila.); idem, eodem loco, September 27, 1869 (N.Y.); idem, 
eodem loco, September, 1875 (Par., 2 sheets) ; idem, Easton, Pennsyl- 
vania, September 27, 1875 (Field); idem, Budd's Lake, New Jersey, 
September 15, 1875 (Phila.); idem, Delaware River, above Easton, 
Pennsylvania, October 1, 1886 (Phila.); E. S. Steele, vicinity of 
Washington, District of Columbia, September 7, 1899 (Del.); W. 
S. Sullivant, Columbus, Ohio, 1840 (Phila.) and very common in 
swamps, eodem loco, 1842 (Phila.); idem 52, eodem loco, 1839 (type, 
N.Y.); S. M. Tracy 8585, Saratoga, Mississippi, October 2, 1903 
(type material Q{ Bidens tenuissima Greene: Brit.; Mo.; Penn., etc.); 
L. F. Ward, Washington, District of Columbia, September 24, 1882 
and October 3, 1880 (U.S.); J. H. Wibbe, Oswego, New York (Par.); 
T. A. Williams, Tacoma Park, District of Columbia, September 18, 
1900 (Par.); C. S. Williamson, rocky shores of Green Pond, Morris 
Co., New Jersey, August 18 and 21, 1904 (Phila.); idem 2474, near 
Higbee's Beach, Cape May Co., New Jersey, September 22, 1912 
(Phila.); Charles Wright, Connecticut (Cam.). 

As previously pointed out (Bot. Gaz. 56: 494. 1913), Greene's 
Bidens tenuissima, termed B. tenerrima on the labels of the type 
collection, was originally described by Greene as "a gigantic ally of B. 
connata but with almost minute heads." His type and cotypes are 
merely tall, slender forms of B. discoidea. 

Britton (loc. cit.) reports having observed downwardly barbed 
awns in this species. Wiegand (ibid. 26: 405. 1899), after having 
made a special study of the North American species of the section 
Platycarpaea, reported that he had never observed any retrorse 
barbs in B. discoidea. Nor do I recall having seen any. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXI 

Bidens discoidea: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.63; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X3.15; c, interior involucral bract, X3.78; 
d, palea, X3.78; e, disc floret, X6.32; /, achene, X4.42; a-e, from 
Day & Fernald 49, in Hb. Field; /, from A. P. Garber, vicinity of 
Easton, Pennsylvania, 1868, in Hb. Field. 

84. Bidens frondosa L. Sp. PI. 832. 1753. PL LXII, figs, a, c-h. 
Bidens frondosa var. a. major Hook. Comp. Bot. Mag. 1 : 99. 1835. 
Bidens frondosa var. /3. minor Hook. loc. cit. 
Bidens melanocarpa Wieg. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 26: 405. 1899. l 

1 Bidens melanocarpa f. pumila Lehmann, a printed name on label for A. 
Lchmann 5092, but which I have not yet seen in literature, is purely synonymous 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plato LIX 




BIDENS MITIS (Michx.) Sherff (figs, a-l) 
BIDENS CORONATA (L.) Britt. (figs, m, p-u); var. TENUILOBA (Gray) Sherff (figs, n, o) 



THE GENUS BIDENS 237 

Bidens fondosa L. ex Stone, Ann. Kept. N. Jers. State Mus. 1910: 773. 

1910 (sphalm). 

a. Achaeniorum aristae antrorsum hispidae var. 0. anomala. 

a. Achaeniorum aristae retrorsum hamosae. 

b. Plantae glaucescentes var. 7. pallida. 

b. Plantae virides. 

c. Foliorum dentes lanceolato-attenuati, medii 5-6 mm. longi. 

var. 5. stenodonta. 

c. Foliorum dentes latiores B. frondosa sensu stricto. 

Herba annua, plus minusve glabra, paniculato-ramosa, 5-12 dm. 
alta, caule tetragona et plerumque purpurascens. Folia petiolata 
petiolis tenuibus 1-6 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 0.5-1.5 (-2) dm. 
longa, pinnatim 3- vel 5-divisa, membranacea, ciliata, supra ple- 
rumque glabrata, infra glabrata vel obscure sparsimque vel etiam 
subvalde setis minutis vestita; foliolis lanceolatis, acuminatis, ser- 
ratis, terminali tenuiter petiolulato. Capitula obscure ligulata 
vel interdum discoidea, ad anthesin circ. 1 cm. lata et 6 mm. alta. 
Involucrum ad basim hispidum; bracteis exterioribus (5-8) conspicue 
ciliatis, saepe longissimis (etiam 3-5 cm.) et foliaceis, lineari-spathu- 
latis; interioribus ovatis vel ovato-lanceolatis, brevioribus (demum 
5-7 mm. longis). Flores ligulati minuti (vel deficientes), aurei, 
2-3.5 mm. longi, ligula cuneato-obovati, ad apicem plerumque 
2-3-dentulati ; tubulosi aurantiaci, 4-5-lobati. Achaenia plana, 
anguste cuneata, subnigra, subglabra vel piloso-hispida, corpore 6-10 
mm. longa, faciebus valde 1-nervata, biaristata aristis retrorsum 
hamosis et 3-4.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: No particular specimen was cited by Linnaeus. 
For more complete discussion see text below. 

Distribution: Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward 
Island, Magdalen Islands, etc., to New Brunswick, thence across 
North America through Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, and southern 
Saskatchewan to Washington, southward to District of Columbia, 
West Virginia, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, Colorado, and California; 
rarely southeastward to Florida; collected once in French Guiana 
(Leblond 331); in Europe established in Sicily, and in peninsular 
Italy at Lucca, Pisa, Florence, etc.; also in Germany (cf. Verh. Bot. 

with B. frondosa. The plant is merely a dwarfed form (collected in Germany) and 
utterly unworthy of separate rank. So also for B. melanocarpa f . simplex Lehm. 
printed on label iorA.Lehmann 5093. 



238 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Ver. Brandenb. 1896: Iv. et ibid. 1897: 89); found once in Portugal 
(Cunha 1260). J 

Specimens examined: L. R. Abrams 6758, 3-5 miles above 
Auburn, California, September 15, 1917 (N.Y.) ; R. T. Anderson 12562, 
Aylmer, Ontario, August 9, 1899 (Berl.); C. R. Ball 490, infrequent, 
in low ground, vicinity of Alexandria, Louisiana, May 29, 1899 
(Can.; Gray) ; Edwin B. Bartram 1251, creek margin, Bradford Hills, 
Chester Co., Pennsylvania, October 2, 1910 (Gray); idem 1369, 
Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, October 16, 1910 (Phila.); W.Behrend- 
sen, on floating wood, Potsdam, Germany, September 26, 1896 
(Cop.); idem 4106, on floating wood, Havel River, near Potsdam, 
September, 1896 (Berl.; Boiss.; Del., 2 sheets; Mun.; Mus. V.; 
U.V.); J. Boll, Dallas, Texas, 1871 (Del., 2 sheets); T. S. Brandegee 
706, Oil Creek, Fremont Co., Colorado, September, 1873 (Calif.); 
H. E. Brown 51, alt. 300 meters, vicinity of Pendleton, Oregon, 
August 30, 1896 (Del.); A. B. Burgess 305, creek bottoms, Prairie 
Rhonde, Michigan, September 25, 1903 (Field) ; B. F. Bush 167 pro 
parte, Jackson Co., Missouri, September 28, 1893 (Gray; Kew); 
idem 346, Swan, Missouri, September 24, 1899 (Gray); idem 809, 
Courtney, Missouri, September 11, 1899 (Gray); R. Chalmers, wet 
places, Campbellton, New Brunswick, July, 1877 (Can.); idem, 
swamps and ditches, eodem loco, August 17, 1884 (Gray); E. B. 
Chamberlain 437, Bristol, Maine, August 27, 1897 (N. Eng.); Fred 
Clements 2894, Lomo, Nebraska, August 18, 1893 (Gray) ; Culbertson 
(Distrib. C. F. Baker, No. 4651), Millwood, Fresno Co., California, 
October 4, 1904 (Del.; Field; Kew); A. Ricardo da Cunha 1260, mar- 
gins of Rio Nabao, Thomar, Portugal, September, 1887 (Berl., 2 sheets; 
Boiss.); J. A. Cushman 1717, Spencer Bay, Piscataquis Co., Maine, 
August 25, 1907 (N. Eng.); R. A. Dixon 365, vicinity of Huntsville, 
Texas, July 9-12, 1909 (Field); Alice Eastwood 47, along Platte 
River, Denver, Colorado, August 18, 1910 (Gray; Kew); A. D. E. 
Elmer 611, Loomiston, Washington, August, 1897 (Berl.); Fernald, 
Bissell, Graves, et al. 22874, Sissiboo River, Weymouth, Nova Scotia, 
August 21, 1920 (Phila.); Fernald & Collins, Nouvelle, Bonaventure 
Co., Quebec, July 19-20, 1904 (Gray) ; iidem & York 11461, north- 
east of Sand Pond, Warwick, Rhode Island, September 8, 1914 
(Phila.) ; Fernald &Long 14841, tidal mud flats at mouth of Souadabs- 
cook Stream, Hampden, Maine, September 11, 1916 (Cop.); iidem 
22876, Third Lake, Windsor Junction, Nova Scotia, August 31, 1920 

1 A specimen by Abbon (Del.), purporting to come from Monterrey, State of 
Nuevo Leon, Mexico, is doubtless mislabeled (cf. Standley, Science n. ser. 65: 130. 
1927). 



THE GENUS BIDENS 239 

(Phila.); iidem 24697, Harper Lake, Shelburne Co., Nova Scotia, 
August 5, 1921 (Phila.); iidem & St. John 8200, boggy margin of the 
strand at the Narrows, Alright Isl., Magdalen Isls., Quebec, August 
21, 1912 (Gray); iidem 8201, swale along Hillsborough River, St. 
Andrews, Prince Edward Isl., August 26, 1912 (Gray); Fernald, 
Long, & Torrey 10675, border of pond hole, east of Great Salt Pond, 
Black Isl., Rhode Island, September 13, 1913 (Gray); Fernald & 
Wiegand 4150, Birchy Cove (Curling), region of Humber Arm, Bay 
of Islands, western Newfoundland, September 2, 1910 (Gray); 
Adr. Fiori 1377, Marsh of Fucecchio, Prov. Florence, Italy, Septem- 
ber 20, 1909 (Gray); 1 G. L. Fisher, St. Thomas, Ontario, September 

20, 1908 (U.V.); J. Fowler, Kingston Mills, Kingston, Ontario, 
September 12, 1899 (Field) ; G. B. Grant 5278, Mt. Shasta, California, 
September, 1902 (Calif.); J. M. Greenman 545, Gandy Creek, West 
Virginia, September 15, 1904 (Field); idem 1713, Tiverton, Rhode 
Island, September 27, 1903 (Gray) ; idem 1799, Cumberland, Rhode 
Island, September 13, 1903 (Gray) ; R. Gross, Kopenick on the Spree 
River, Prov. Brandenburg, Germany, October 3, 1908 (Mus. V.) 
and September 6, 1909 (Cop.) and September 22, 1909 (Berl.); 
J. H. Grove 619, New Egypt, New Jersey, September 15, 1907 
(Phila.); G. Guttenberg, near Wheeling, West Virginia, September, 
1878 (Carn.) ; Josiah Hale, Alexandria, Louisiana (N.Y.) ; A. A. Heller 
10240 p.p., alt. 1,350 meters, farm near Reno, Nevada, September 

21, 1910 (Berl.; Del.; Gray); idem 11134, Chico, on Big Chico Creek, 
California, September 12, 1913 (Berl.; Del.; Gray); F. Hermann, 
Bernburg, Anhalt, Germany, September 15, 1905 (Calif.); A. F. 
Hill 2357, Swans Isl., Hancock Co., Maine, August 17, 1915 (N. Eng.) ; 
H. T. Holm, low thickets, Brookland, District of Columbia, Septem- 
ber, 1908 (Cop.); J. H. Holmes, Woodlawn, Virginia, August, 1888 
(Field); Hortus Cliff ortianus (Brit.); Hortus Upsalensis (Brit.); 0. E. 
Jennings, Kittanning, Pennsylvania, September 24, 1904 (Carn.); 
W. L. Jepson, Grand Isl., Lower Sacramento River, California, 
September 17, 1891 (Penn.); M. E. Jones 620, alt. 1,800 meters, 
near South Boulder, Colorado, August 15, 1878 (Berl.) ; Joh. Lange, 
ditch near Lucca, Compartimento of Tuscany, Italy, September, 
1861 (Cop.); 0. E. Lansing, Jr., 3540, Catlin, Illinois, September 27, 
1912 (Field) ; idem 3693 and 3701, near brook, Deer Park Canyon, 

1 Label gives following note: "Oss.-Pianta originaria dell'America sett., ma 
ora talrnente diffusa in parecchi luoghi paludosi della pianura toscana da pre- 
sentarsi come specie affatto indigenata. La sua scoperta in Toscana data dal 
1849, epoca nella quale il Caruel la rinveniva presso Firenze lungo la ferrovia di 
Prato; ma gia sino dal 1860 era abbondante nei dintorni di Lucca e di Pisa. Adr. 
Fiori & A. Beguinot curant., Fl. Ital. Exsicc. Ser. II." 



240 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

LaSalle Co., Illinois, September 6, 1914 (Field) ; idem 3800 and 3802, 
near road, Starved Rock, Illinois, September 7-8, 1914 (Field); 
Leblond 331, French Guiana, 1792 (Del.); Alfred Lehmann, alt. 100 
meters, near Gundorf, Leipsic, Saxony, October 5, 1904 (Mus. V.); 
idem 5092, muddy ditches at Bohlitz-Ehrenberg near Leipsic, Octo- 
ber, 1906 (Berl.; Cop.; Del.; Mun.; Mus. V.; U.V.; sub nom. B. 
melanocarpa f. pumila); idem 5093, eodem loco et tempore (Berl.; 
Cop.; Del.; Mun.; Mus. V.; U.V.; sub nom. B. melanocarpa f. sim- 
plici) ; E. Levier, vicinity of Florence, Italy, October 8, 1868 (Mus. V. ; 
U.V., 2 sheets) ; idem, eodem loco, 1872 (Berl.; U.V.) ; idem, abundant 
in marshes about Lake Sibolla near Altopascio, Lucca, Italy, Sep- 
tember 27, 1874 (Berl.; Gray; Mun.; Mus. V., 3 sheets); idem, 
marshes at Lake Sibolla, near Lucca, Italy, September, 1876 (Boiss.); 
idem, near Village of Brozzi west of Florence, Italy, October 20, 
1887 (Mus. V.); F.Lindheimer, Industry, Texas, August, 1844 (Kew); 
idem 888, Texas, 1849-1851 (Berl.; Field); C. G. Lloyd, near Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, September 18, 1882 (U.V.); Bayard Long 6903, West- 
ville, New Jersey, September 22, 1911 (Phila.); A. Ludwig, floating 
wood, Potsdam, Germany, September 28, 1906 (Mus. V.); J. M. 
Macoun, borders of marshes, Selkirk, Manitoba, July 20, 1884 
(Can.); John Macoun, moist places, Brackley Point Road, Prince 
Edward Isl., September 5, 1888 (Can.); idem, Medicine Hat, Sas- 
katchewan, August 10, 1895 (Cop.); idem, in ditches by the brook, 
Morden, Manitoba, August 5, 1896 (Can.); idem, marshes at Spring- 
field Junction, Nova Scotia, August 2, 1910 (Can.); idem, Chelsea 
Road, Hull, Quebec, August 11, 1911 (Can.); W. R. Maxon 5878, 
low, open woods, edge of swamp, vicinity of Lanham, Maryland, 
September 22, 1912 (Field) ; H. B. Meredith, Delaware River, Wash- 
ington's Crossing, Pennsylvania, September 20, 1923 (Phila.); 
E. D. Merrill 529, East Auburn, Maine, July, 1895 (N. Eng.); C. F. 
Millspaugh 26, low ground, Miller, Indiana, September 22, 1900 
(Field); idem 3880, roadside ditches, Lakeside, Berrien Co., Michi- 
gan, September, 1914 (Field); idem 3951, Ephraim, Wisconsin, 
September 20, 1915 (Field); C. J. Moser, Pennsylvania, August, 
1832 (Del., 2 sheets) ; Aven Nelson 2749 p.p., Platte Canyon, Laramie 
Co., Wyoming, August 27, 1896 (Carn.); idem 8209, banks of irri- 
gating ditches, Dry Creek, Colorado, August 25, 1900 (Kew); idem 
8656 p.p., Platte Canyon, Wyoming, September 4, 1901 (Del.; U.S.); 
J. C. Nelson 4196, Hayden Isl. (opposite Vancouver, Washington), 
Oregon, October 8, 1921 (Field); J. B. Norton 280, wet places, 
Riley Co., Kansas, August 31, 1895 (Gray; U.V.);L. H. Pammel 84, 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LX 




BIDENS OERSTEDIANA Sherff 



OF THt 

of IUIHOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 241 

Ames, Iowa, September, 1909 (Gray); idem 3851, Charles City, 
Iowa, September 4, 1902 (Gray) ; idem & C. R. Ball 63 p.p., ledges, 
Boone Co., Iowa, August 22, 1896 (N.Y.); Parlatore, Palermo, 
Sicily (Del.); Poeppig, in wet meadows, Pennsylvania, August, 
1824 (Del.); H. W. Pretz 11221, vicinity of Centre Valley, Pennsyl- 
vania, October 2, 1921 (Phila.); Rafinesque, North America, August, 
1828 (Mus. V. ; sub nom. Bidente tripteridi) ; J. Reverchon 519, moist 
places, Dallas, Texas, September, 1876 (U.V.); Roberti, ditches, 
Lucca, Prov. Lucca, Italy, August, 1876 (Berl., 2 sheets; U.V., 2 
sheets); B. L. Robinson, Phillips, Maine, August 4, 1903 (Gray); 
idem 361, Jaffrey, New Hampshire, September 7, 1897 (Gray); 
Rottenbach, Riidersdorf, Prov. Brandenburg, Germany, September 
19, 1898 (U.V.); H. E. Sargent 76, Wolfboro, New Hampshire, 
August 17, 1909 (Gray) ; P. Savi 3627, ditches in vicinity of Lucques 
(Lucca), Italy, September, 1861 (Del.; Mus. V.);F. C. Seymour 8, 
Granville, Massachusetts, September 15, 1913 (Gray) ; E. E. Sherff 
1871, West Pullman, Chicago, Illinois, August 30, 1912 (Field); 
G. H. Skull 400, in refuse, near Havre de Grace, Maryland, Sep- 
tember 20, 1902 (Gray); A. H. Smith 59 p.p., Gray's Ferry, Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania, September 22, 1866 (Phila.); H. H. Smith 6041, 
banks of Dairy Creek, Hillsboro, Oregon, August 7, 1915 (Field); 
S. Sommier, in marshes, Vicopelago near Lucca, Tuscany, Italy, 
October, 1874 (Field) ; E. S. Steele, vicinity of Washington, District 
of Columbia, September 17, 1896 (U.V.) and September 25, 1896 
(Del.) and September 7, 1902 (Cop.); Witmer Stone 10803, Lawnside, 
New Jersey, September 7, 1908 (Phila.); idem 10907, Delanco, 
New Jersey, September 11, 1908 (Phila.); W. N. Suksdorf 1591, low, 
damp places, Columbia River, West Klickitat County, Washington, 
September 14, 1893 (Boiss.; Field); Todaro 1479, along brooks, 
Sicily, October (Berl.); John Torrey, State of New York, 1843 (Del., 
2 sheets) ; ex herb. Vaillantii (Par. ; sub nominibus postea pro syno- 
nymibus Bidentis frondosae a Linnaeo citatis); A. C. Waghorne, 
Newfoundland, September 3, 1896 (Del); W. F. Wright 175, sandy 
bank of lake, Lake Edward, Quebec, August 24, 1904 (Gray; atypica, 
habituB. connatae var. fallaci similis). 

The original Linnean description of Bidens frondosa 1 is accom- 
panied by two synonyms, the first one being "Bidens canadensis 

1 "frondosa. 4. Bidens foliis pinnatis serratis, seminibus erecto-distantibus 
calycibus frondosis, corollis radiatis. Habitat in America septentrionali. Folia 
ternata aut ex 5 pinnata, supra glabra, striata, serrata. Calyces frondosi; radius in 
corolla brevissimus, saepe mutilatus." 



242 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

latifolia, flore luteo. Tournef. inst. 362 j" 1 the second being "Chrysan- 
themum cannabinum bidens virginianum, caule erecto firmo sub- 
rubente. Moris, hist. 3. p. 17. s. 6. t. 5. f. 21." Wiegand (Bull. 
Torr. Bot. Club 26: 409. 1899), in trying to trace back the Lin- 
nean species, encountered "considerable difficulty." Finally he inter- 
preted B. frondosa L. to be the plant later described by Greene as 
B. vulgata. For the B. frondosa of Linnaeus and of my text, he 
was left, then, apparently with no name, so he created the name B. 
melanocarpa. With Wiegand's conclusions, Greene (Pittonia 4 : 246. 
1901) took vigorous issue. As pointed out in a former paper (Bot. 
Gaz. 61: 498. 1916), Greene gave a good survey of pre-Linnean 
authors and their treatment of the plant finally named B. frondosa 
by Linnaeus. As additional evidence of the accuracy of Greene's 
conclusions regarding the characters of true B. frondosa L., there are 
the three specimens of Linnaeus' (Linn., 2 sheets; Herb. Hort. 
Cliff, in Brit.) and one of Vaillant's (Par.). The first of these has a 
flowering head with 9 or 10 elongate, foliose exterior involucral bracts 
(cf. Linn. loc. cit., "calycibus frondosis") and "HU 4, frondosa" is 
written on the sheet. 2 Pinned with this sheet is a second sheet having 
a plant without label, but which is coarser and has about 14 exterior 
involucral bracts on the largest head. The third specimen is among 
the Hortus Cliffortianus specimens and matches the first specimen, 
even to having the same elongate, foliose type of exterior bracts. 
Linnaeus clearly had the first or the third specimen, and probably 
both, in mind when he drew up his description of B. frondosa for the 
Species Plantarum. The second specimen is probably B. vulgata 
Greene, but it is not labeled, and has no historical significance. The 
fourth specimen is the one formerly in Vaillant's private herbarium. 
This matches the two labeled Linnean specimens perfectly. Bearing 
as it does, in Vaillant's own handwriting, the early names 3 afterward 
cited by Linnaeus as synonyms for B. frondosa, it shows that Vaillant, 
himself a student of the genus Bidens, likewise understood this species 
to be the smaller-headed, fewer-bracted, less robust form (and not 
theB. vulgata of Greene). 

1 In the third edition (1719), to which I have access, the page is 462, of vol. 1. 

2 Dr. B. Daydon Jackson, formerly of the Linnean Herbarium and known 
during the later years of his life as a Linnean authority of high rank, assured me 
that "HU" was used by Linnaeus to indicate that the plant had been raised "in 
Horto Upsalensi." 

3 1 am indebted to Professor P. Danguy of the Museum of Natural History of 
Paris for comparisons made with Vaillant's known writing to verify the authen- 
ticity of these names. An extra label on the sheet "Bidens frondosa L." was 
written, according to Professor Danguy, by Lamarck. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXI 




BIDENS DISCOIDEA (Torr. & Gr.) Britt. 



Of 



W 



THE GENUS BIDENS 243 

Bidens frondosa var. /3. anomala Port, ex Fern. Rhodora 5: 91. 
1903; cf. Blake, ibid. 27: 34. 1925. PI. LXII, fig. *. 

Differt achaeniorum aristis antrorsum hispidis, non retrorsum 
hamosis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Aubrey Henry Smith, banks of 
Delaware River, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, September and 
October, 1869 (Gray). 

Distribution: Cape Breton Island and through Nova Scotia to 
Maine, thence southward near the Atlantic coast into District of 
Columbia; also in Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska. 

Specimens examined: Anon, (distrib. Univ. Montreal No. 28576), 
Berthier-en-bas, estuary of the St. Lawrence River, Septem- 
ber 1, 1928 (Gray) ; S. F. Blake, along C. & 0. Canal, near Cabin 
John, Maryland, October 5, 1924 (Gray); idem 8392, muddy shore, 
Analostan Isl., Washington, District of Columbia, September 14, 
1921 (Field; Gray); idem 8680, vicinity of Cabin John, Maryland, 
October 21, 1923 (Field); idem 8839, Nantasket, Massachusetts, 
September 4, 1924 (N. Eng.); Burk, Gray's Ferry, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, October, 1866 (Phila.); idem, Laurel Hill, Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania, October, 1866 (Phila.); W. M. Canby, Wil- 
mington, Delaware (Can.); idem, meadows, Brandywine, Delaware, 
August, 1867 (Field); F. S. Collins 3253, Orleans, Massachusetts, 
September 14, 1914 (N. Eng.); Albert Commons, tidal banks of 
Delaware River, near Wilmington, Delaware, October 8, 1875 (Kew) ; 
N. C. Fassett, Cherry Isl. Marsh, Wilmington, Delaware, September 
16, 1899 (Phila.); idem 408, farmyard, Squirrel Isl., Boothbay, 
Maine, September 5, 1921 (N. Eng.); M. L. Fernald & B. Long 
24698, gravelly sea beach, Yarmouth Bar, Nova Scotia, August 22, 
1921 (Gray) ; iidem 24699, margin of thicket bordering cobbly beach 
of Parr Lake, Yarmouth Co., Nova Scotia, September 4, 1921 (Cop. ; 
Phila.); Fernald, Wiegand, & Eames 14492, Narrows Isl., Black Lake, 
St. Lawrence Co., New York, August 30, 1922 (Gray); iidem 14494, 
limestone ledges of Lake Ontario, southwest of Chaumont, New 
York, August 27, 1922 (Gray); Kate Furbish, Brunswick, Maine, 
1907 (N. Eng.); Elihu Hall, Kansas, 1869 (U.S.); Hooker, North 
America, 1835 (Del.); C. D. Howe & W. F. Lang 1466, dry soil, 
roadside, Purcell's Cove, Halifax Harbor, Nova Scotia, September 
2-6, 1901 (Field; Gray); iidem 1527, sphagnous edge of swamp, 
eodem loco et tempore (Gray) ; Bayard Long 6895, vicinity of New- 
bold, Westville, New Jersey, September 22, 1911 (Phila.); John 
Macoun, St. Ann's Harbor, Cape Breton Isl., August 9, 1898 (Gray) ; 



244 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Marie-Victorin 21206, estuarine shores, Cap Rouge, Quebec, August 
19, 1925 (Gray); T. C. Palmer, marshes of the Delaware River, 
Chester, Pennsylvania, September 9, 1896 (Gray) ; L. H. Pammel & 
C. R. Ball 63 p.p., on ledges, Boone Co., Iowa, August 22, 1896 
(Field) ; Rafinesque, Arkansas (Del.) ; P. A. Rydberg 1707, Middle Loup 
River, near Thedford, Nebraska, August 26, 1893 (Berl.); J. Rousseau 
21208, estuarine shores, He aux Oies, Quebec, August 26, 1925 
(Gray) ; idem 21209, estuarine shores, Berthier-en-bas, Quebec, Aug- 
ust 28, 1925 (Gray); A. H. Smith, banks of Delaware River, near 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Kew); idem, eodem loco, September- 
October, 1868 (Berl.; Field) and September-October, 1869 (type, 
Gray); C. E. Smith, tidal mud of Delaware River, Tinicum, 
Pennsylvania (Gray; cum specie ipsa lecta sed distincta); 1 H. K. 
Svenson & N. C. Fassett 913, shores of Kennebecasis River, Lakeside, 
New Brunswick, August 25, 1923 (Gray); iidem 914, Restigouche 
River, Tide Head, New Brunswick, August 16, 1923 (Gray) ; iidem 915, 
tidal flats of St. Lawrence River, Levis, Quebec, August 9, 1923 (Gray). 

Bidens frondosa var. 7. pallida Wieg. Rhodora 26: 5. 1924; 

cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80: 386. 1925. 

Bidens melanocarpa var. pallida Wieg. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 26: 
406. 1899. 

Parce glaucescens, ramis omnibus adscendentibus vel erectis, 
valde caulem principalem superantibus; foliis inferioribus ternatis, 
superioribus indivisis minoribus, in petiolis brevioribus (3-4 cm. 
longis) latius marginatis, glabris, non nitidis, venis inconspicuis; 
foliolis brevioribus, ovato-lanceolatis, brevi-acuminatis, grosse et 
acriter paucidentatis, terminali inferne in petiolulum alatum angus- 
tato; capitulis longioribus, in pedunculis longioribus; involucre 
exteriore erecto, foliaceo, quam capitulo 1-3-plo longiore, bracteis 
rariter ciliatis interioribus oblongo-lanceolatis; disci florum corolla 
majore (usque ad 3-4 mm. longa), saepe 4-dentata, propius lutea, 
quam aristis breviore; achaeniis corpore 5-10 mm. longis, non 
papillatis; aristis longioribus (quam corpore tantum circ. dimidio 
brevioribus). 

Type specimen: Collected by Brother Peter, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 
in 1896 (N.Y.). 2 

1 For remarks upon the significance of the upward direction of the hairs of the 
achenial awns see p. 20. 

2 At least Wiegand lists this first among his specimens examined. It is clear 
from his text, however, that he was influenced in his evaluation and description 
of this variety more by his field study of the abundant specimens growing along 
the shores of Cayuga Lake, near Ithaca, New York. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXII 




BIDENS FRONDOSA L. (figs, a, c-h); var. ANOMALA Port, ex Fern. (fig. t); 
var. STENODONTA Fern. & St. J. (fig. 6) 



THE GENUS BIDENS 245 

Distribution: Rare and known only from widely scattered locali- 
ties in Nova Scotia, New York, Illinois, and (fide N. C. Fassettii in 
lit.) Wisconsin. 

Specimens examined: Brother Peter, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1896 
(type, N.Y.); John Wolf 172, Illinois (Gray). 

The var. pallida is rare in herbaria. Wiegand reports it as 
abundant in the vicinity of Ithaca, New York, along the shores of 
Cayuga Lake, "where its habit makes it quite conspicuous." I my- 
self have not observed it growing. 

"In many respects," says Wiegand (loc. cit.), "the reduction of 
the leaves and lengthening of the peduncles suggests a condition 
similar to that which in B. connata and B. comosa was determined to 
be a 'second growth,' but here the plants seem to be perfectly normal 
and healthy." While I should hardly have ventured to treat this 
form as worthy of varietal rank, any attempt to interfere with its 
status, in the absence of further field observations at least as careful 
and extended as those of Dr. Wiegand, would seem for the present 
unwarranted. 1 

Bidens frondosa var. 5. stenodonta Fern. & St. John, 
Rhodora 17: 22. 1915. PL LXII, fig. 6. 

Var. dentibus foliorum lanceolato-attenuatis, mediis 5-6 mm. 
longis; involucri bracteis exterioribus lanceolatis, acuminatis, ple- 
rumque 2.5-5 cm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Merritt Lyndon Fernald and Karl 
McKay Wiegand, No. 6375, boggy, open woods, Whitbourne, New- 
foundland, August 8, 1911 (Gray). 

Distribution: Prince Edward Island northeastward to Magda- 
len Islands and Newfoundland. 

Specimens examined: Fernald, Long, & St. John 8199, boggy 
margin of a brackish pond southeast of Etang du Nord village, 
Grindstone Isl., Magdalen Isls., Quebec, August 15, 1912 (Gray); 
iidem 8202, border of salt marsh, Bunbury, Queens Co., Prince 
Edward Isl., August 9, 1912 (Gray); Fernald & Wiegand 6375 (type, 

1 Since the above remarks were written, Wiegand (Rhodora 26: 5. 1924) has 
published the following: "The taxonomic status of the plants included originally 
under this variety is not clear. They have the appearance of hybrids, also of 
ecological forms. Sporadic plants of this type still are found about Cayuga 
Lake." Still later (Wieg. & Eames, Fl. Cayuga Lake Bas. 419. 1926), he published 
(with Eames): "The leaves of var. pallida are apparently always smooth. As to 
characters, var. pallida might well be a hybrid of B. frondosa and B. comosa, but 
the restricted range of the variety near the lake shore does not support this assump- 
tion. This variety is of doubtful standing, and should be studied further." 



246 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Gray); iidem 6376, Norris Arm, Newfoundland, August 21-22, 
1911 (Can.; Gray; Phila.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXII 

Bidens frondosa, figs, a, c-h: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, 
X0.62; c, exterior involucral bract, Xl.87; d, interior involucral 
bract, Xl-87; e, ray floret, X6.23; /, palea, Xl.87; g, disc floret, 
X5.61; h, achene, X2.49; a, c, d, f, g, h, from Sherff 1831 in Hb. 
Field; e, from Millspaugh 3824, ibid. 

Bidens frondosa var. stenodonta, fig. b: leaf, X0.62; from type. 

Bidens frondosa var. anomala, fig. i: achene, X2.49; from A. H. 
Smith, banks of Delaware River, 1868, in Hb. Field. 

85. Bidens vulgata Greene, Pittonia 4: 72. 1899. 
PI. LXIII, figs, a and c-h. 

Folia principalia pinnatim plerumque 3-5-partita. 

Planta plerumque plus minusve glabrata . .B. vulgata sensu stricto. 

Planta plerumque valde perspicueque puberula. .var. 0. puberula. 
Folia principalia bipinnata vel tripinnatisecta var. 7. schizantha. 
Herba annua, 0.3-1.5 m. alta; caule obtuse tetragono, saepe 
purpurascenti, plerumque plus minusve glabrato, ramoso ramis 
saepius fastigiatis. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus 1-5 cm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto 0.5-1.5 dm. longa, pinnata, plerumque 3-5- 
partita, plerumque fere glabra, foliolis lanceolatis, acuminatis, 
serratis, non perspicue ciliatis. Capitula inconspicue radiata, 
demum (bracteis exterioribus exclusis) 1.5-2.8 cm. lata et 1.2-1.8 
cm. alta, pedunculata pedunculis tenuibus vel subvalidis, 0.4-2.3 
cm. longis. Involucrum plus minusve hispidum, bracteis exteriori- 
bus 10-16, foliaceis, inaequalibus, lineari-spathulatis, hispido- 
ciliatis, demum 1-2 (-3) cm. longis; interioribus ovato-lanceolatis, 
demum 7-9 mm. longis. Flores ligulati minimi, flavidi, ligula 
obovato-lanceolati, infra sparsissime pilosi, 2.5-3.5 mm. longi; 
tubulosi flavi, 4- vel 5-lobati. Achaenia plana, obovato-cuneata vel 
oblongo-cuneata, brunnea vel olivacea, saepe tuberculata, duabus 
faciebus unicostata et glabra vel interdum breviter hispida, margi- 
nibus antrorsum setosa vel supra retrorsum hamosa, corpore 
6-12 mm. longa, apice biaristata aristis retrorsum hamosis et 
3-4.2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: No particular type was mentioned by Greene. 
The species was established by segregation from Bidens frondosa L. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 247 

Distribution: In North America from Nova Scotia to Quebec 
and Alberta southward to North Carolina, Missouri, Nevada, and 
California. 1 Introduced into Sicily and southern Italy. 

Specimens examined: 2 LeRoy R. Abrams 12046, Blue Lakes, 
Lake Co., California, August 25, 1927 (Stanf .) ; Anon., loco ignoto 
(Linn.); A. L. Bakke, vicinity of Forest City, Iowa, August, 1912 
(Kew); E. B. Bartram, Devon, Pennsylvania, October 28, 1911 
(Penn.); M. S. Bebb 363, Fountaindale, Illinois (Berl.); Robert 
Bebb 755, Tracy, Illinois, September 14, 1901 (Field); S. F. Blake 
2843, shore of Missisquoi River, Swanton, Vermont, August 17, 
1911 (N. Eng.); idem 3002, St. Albans, Vermont, August 22, 1911 
(Phila.); A. E. Blewitt 1147, dry bank, Waterbury, Connecticut, 
August 27, 1910 (N. Eng.); E. Bourgeau, Saskatchewan, Canada, 
1857-1858 (Berl.); N. L. Button, Westport, New York, September 
6, 1892 (N.Y.) ; B. F. Bush 808, common in woods, Courtney, Mis- 
souri, September 11, 1899 (Gray); W. C. Cusick 1768a, alt. 925 
meters, Tules of Grand Ronde Valley, Oregon, August 9, 1897 
(Gray); C. K. Dodge 143, near Port Huron, Michigan, August 25, 
1904 (U.S.); Drake & Dickson, Portland, Oregon, September, 1886 
(Field); Drummond, St. Louis, Missouri, 1832 (Kew); idem 238, 
eodem loco (Kew); Hy. Edwards, Sacramento, California, Novem- 
ber 3, 1876 (N.Y.); Fernald & Wiegand 4151, bank of stream, Truro, 
Nova Scotia, September 11, 1910 (Gray); Fernald, Hunnewell, & 
Long 10676, vicinity of Chebacco Lake, Essex, Massachusetts, 
September 11, 1913 (N. Eng.; Phila.) Fernald &Long 14842, Hamp- 
den, Maine, September 11, 1916 (Phila.); G. L. Fisher, St. Thomas, 
Ontario, September 3, 1904 (U.V.) ; idem 11, eodem loco, September 
17, 1905 (U.S.; U.V.); F. F. Forbes, Brookline, Massachusetts (cult. 
e seminibus ad Leeds, North Dakota lectis), August 25, 1907 (Del.); 
Michel Gandoger 1334, Naples to Capracotta, Italy, 1871 (Mo.); 
F. C. Gates 2194, roadside ditch east of Urbana, Illinois, October 14, 
1907 (Gray, forma monstrosa achaeniis atypicis) ; idem 10083, yard, 
Carthage, Illinois, September 12, 1916 (Mo.); E. B. Harger 4160, 
Oxford, Connecticut, October 2, 1903 (Phila.); A. A. Heller, Lan- 
caster, Pennsylvania, September 24, 1900 (Del.) ; idem 10240 p.p., alt. 
1,350 meters, near Reno, Nevada, September 21, 1910 (U.S.); R. M. 

1 Field Museum has one specimen labeled as having been collected by Arsene, 
near the Prison, Morelia, Mexico, June, 1909. In view, however, of the deceptions 
known to have been practiced in connection with some of the plants bearing 
Arsene's name (cf. Standley, Science 65: 130. 1927), it is not safe to include Mexico 
in the distributional range. 

2 Including perhaps several plants that belong properly to var. puberula. 



248 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Homer B281, along streams, Wartsburg, Washington, August 20, 
1897 (Gray); Thomas Howell, Sauvies Island, Oregon, October, 
1886 (Par., forma abnormalis cum facie B. comosae) ; M. E. Hyams, 
Statesville, North Carolina (Carn.); 0. E. Jennings, north of Glen- 
shaw, Pennsylvania, October 13, 1918 (Carn.); C. H. Knowlton, 
Plymouth, New Hampshire, August 24, 1916 (Phila.) ;F. 0. Kreager 
527, Chewelah, Washington, August 26, 1902 (U.S.); 0. E. Lansing, 
Jr., 2626, old cornfield, Riverdale, Illinois, September 20, 1906 
(Berl.; Field; Mus. V.); idem 3983 and 3992, vacant lots, Chicago, 
Illinois, September 28, 1915 (Field); J. B. Leiberg 916, Wallula, 
Oregon, September 17, 1894 (Berl.); Bayard Long 6782, Melrose, 
Pennsylvania, September 17, 1911 (Phila.); idem 6843, Ashbourne, 
Pennsylvania, October 7, 1911 (Phila.); Martha L. Loomis 587, 
beside railroad, Sherborn, Massachusetts, August 30, 1911 (N. Eng.); 
Alexander MacElwee 1526, roadsides along Perkiomen Creek, Sellers- 
ville, Pennsylvania, October 10, 1899 (Carn.) ; John Macoun (Herb. 
Can. No.) 10934, Ross Creek, Medicine Hat, Alberta, August 10, 
1895 (Can.); idem (Herb. Can. No.) 21835, wet places, Algonquin 
Park, Ontario, August 16, 1900 (Berl.); idem (Herb. Can. No.) 60395, 
waste, cultivated ground, Wakefield, Quebec, August 28, 1903 
(Can.); W. R. Maxon, moist roadside ditch, vicinity of Oneida, 
New York, August 26, 1895 (U.S.); J. F. Macbride 728, old 
neglected orchard, Falk's Store, Canyon Co., Idaho, August 14, 
1910 (Carn.; Del.; Field); idem 1627, stream banks, Sweet, Idaho, 
August 14, 1911 (Del.; Gray); E. A. Mearns 158, Fort Snelling, 
Minnesota, September 4, 1889 (U.S.); H. B. Meredith, vicinity of 
Palatine, New Jersey, October 16, 1923 (Phila.) ; Aven Nelson 2749 p.p., 
Platte Canyon, Wyoming, August 27, 1896 (Gray); idem 8656 p.p., 
margins of marshes, eodem loco, September 4, 1901 (Boiss. ; Gray) ; 
W. H. Over 5146, moist places, Clay Co., South Dakota, Septem- 
ber 7, 1914 (U.S.);L. H. Pammel 19, Ames, Iowa, September, 1904 
(Gray); P. E. Pierron, Westmoreland Co., Pennsylvania, Septem- 
ber 7, 1877 (Cop.); H. W. Pretz 9112, near Allentown, Pennsyl- 
vania, September 8, 1917 (Phila.); idem 10513, vicinity of Wes- 
coesville, Pennsylvania, September 19, 1920 (Phila.); B. L. Robinson 
557, alt. 400 meters, open roadside gutters, Ringville, Massachu- 
setts, August 17, 1912 (Gray); Sandberg, MacDougal, & Heller 
914, Spokane, Washington, August 17, 1892 (U.S.); E. P. Shel- 
don, Lake Benton, Minnesota, August, 1891 (Field); E. E. Sherff 
1830, moist prairie, Chicago, Illinois, August 30, 1912 (Field); 
E. C. Smith 537, roadsides and woods, Hinsdale, Illinois, September 



THE GENUS BIDENS 249 

9, 1902 (Field) ; H. H. Smith 6064, Chicago, Illinois, September 18, 
1914 (Field) ; P. C. Standley 5614, alt. 900-1,500 meters, open slope, 
vicinity of Eagles Nest near Waynesville, North Carolina, Septem- 
ber 7, 1910 (U.S.); idem 9006, oak woods, vicinity of Springfield, 
Missouri, August 20, 1912 (U.S.); idem 9308, vicinity of Ash Grove, 
Missouri, August 24, 1912 (U.S.); idem 9816, thin woods, vicinity of 
Rogersville, Missouri, September 3, 1912 (U.S.) ; E. S. Steele, vicinity 
of Washington, District of Columbia, October 2, 1902 (Cop.) ; idem 
& uxor 215, alt. 550 meters, Sweet Springs, West Virginia, September 
5, 1903 (Gray) ; W. N. Suksdorf 1591, low damp places along Colum- 
bia River, West Klickitat Co., Washington, September 14, 1893 
(Gray); Augustino Todaro, Palermo, Sicily, Italy, 1840 (Berl.);C. A. 
Weatherby 2071, sandy bank of Connecticut River, East Windsor, 
Connecticut, September 30, 1906 (N. Eng.); K. M. Wiegand 916, 
damp ditch, Truxton, New York, September 6, 1909 (Gray); E. 
Wilkinson 4874, Mansfield, Ohio, September 6, 1895 (Cam.); C. S. 
Williamson, Lake Manawa, Iowa, August, 1898 (Phila.); idem 2223, 
Fort William, Ontario, August 12, 1912 (Phila.); idem 2326, eodem 
loco, August 21, 1912 (Phila.); idem 2420, Buffalo, New York, 
August 25, 1912 (Phila.). 

It is interesting to note that many years before Greene's study 
of this species it had been treated as distinct at the Botanical Garden 
of Pisa and had been named Bidens lucida. A search for this name 
proved fruitless, but I have seen at least four sheets of material 
(Berl., C. Loeffler legit, ex herb. A. Braun, etc.) so named. 

Bidens vulgata var. /3. puberula (Wieg.) Greene, 
Pittonia 4: 250. 1901. 

Bidens frondosa var. puberula Wieg. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 26: 408. 

1899. 

Bidens puberula (Wieg.) Rydb. Fl. Pr. Plains Cent. N. Amer. 849. 
1932. 

Plerumque valde et perspicue puberula. 

Type specimen: Collected by Joachim Heinrich Schuette, Green 
Bay, Wisconsin (Gray). 

Distribution: With the species proper. 

Specimens examined: E. B. Harger 6181, meadow thickets, Rocky 
Hill, Connecticut, September 24, 1912 (Gray); C. H. Knowlton, 
Boston, Massachusetts, September 5, 1916 (Phila.); Pammel & Ball 
64, Ames, Iowa, August 22, 1896 (Berl.; Field; Gray); L. H. & 
Violet Pammel 56, eodem loco, September, 1909 (Gray); A. S. Pease, 



250 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

waste ground, Champaign, Illinois, September 25, 1919 (Gray); 
J. H. Schuette, Green Bay Marsh, Wisconsin, September 7, 1897 
(Field, 2 sheets); idem, field, Ashwabenon, Wisconsin, August 26, 
1878 (Field) ;L. R. Waldron & T.F. Manns, vicinity of Fargo, North 
Dakota, August 13, 1901 (BerL; Gray). 

A variety at times very striking because of its dense pubescence. 
At other times the pubescence is weak and distinction from the species 
proper is difficult. For this reason I have not in the past differen- 
tiated consistently between the two forms; thus the list of specimens 
cited for the species proper doubtless includes several which are 
referable to var. puberula. 

Bidens vulgata var. 7. schizantha Lunell, Amer. Midi. 
Nat. 5: 65. 1917. PL LXIII, fig. 6. 

Bidens vulgata var. dissectior Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80: 380. 1925. 

A specie foliis principalibus bipinnatis vel tripinnatisectis differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by Joel Lunell, No. 1161, in waste or 
cultivated places, western North Dakota, September, 1915 (Minn.). 

Distribution: Saskatchewan to Lake Superior and western 
North Dakota. 

Specimens examined: E. Bourgeau (Palliser's Brit. N. Amer. 
Expl. Exped.), rather rare, willow marsh at edge of Saskatchewan 
River, Saskatchewan, September 18, 1857 (BerL; Gray; Kew; Par.; 
cotype and type specimens of var. dissectior Sherff) ;O.E. & G. K. 
Jennings 2178, fields, 4 miles southwest of Murillo, west of Fort 
William, Ontario, August 22, 1912 (Cam.);lMnell 1161 (type, Minn.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXIII 

Bidens vulgata, figs, a, c-h: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, 
X0.6; c, exterior involucral bract, X2.4; d, interior involucral 
bract, X2.4; e, ray floret, X3.6;/, palea, X2.4; g, disc floret, X3.6; 
h, achene, X2.4; all from Sherff 1881, in Hb. Field. 

Bidens vulgata var. schizantha, fig. 6: cauline leaf, X0.6; from 
E. Bourgeau, Saskatchewan, September 18, 1857 (type of Bidens 
vulgata var. dissectior Sherff), in Hb. Par. 

86. Bidens comosa (Gray) Wieg. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 24 : 436. 1897; 
cf. Hook, ex Short & Peter, Suppl. Cat. PL Kentucky 598. 1833; 
cf. Hook, ex Short in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 2: 352. 1843. 

PL LXIV. 

Bidens comata L. ex W. J. Hook. Comp. Bot. Mag. 1: 99. 1835 
(nomen subnudum). 



THE GENUS BIDENS 251 

Bidens connata var. comosa A. Gray, Man. ed. 5. 261. 1867. 
Bidens comosa var. acuta Wieg. op. cit. 26: 411. 1899. 
Bidens acuta (Wieg.) Britt. Man. 1001. 1901. 

Bidens riparia Greene, Pittonia 4: 261. 1901; non B. riparia H.B.K. 
Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 185 (236). 1820. 

Herba annua, glabra, erecta, caule pallido saepe valida, 3-8 dm. 
alta, ramosa ramis brevibus et suberectis. Folia subsessilia vel 
petiolata petiolis marginatis, pallida, indivisa, elliptico-lanceolata, 
regulariter serrata vel interdum (in speciminibus depauperatis) 
integra, saepe obscure spinuloso-ciliata, 4-12 cm. longa. Capitula 
discoidea, ad anthesin parva, matura (bracteis exterioribus non 
inclusis) 1.5-2.2 cm. lata et 1.1-1.3 cm. alta. Involucrum basi fere 
glabrum; bracteis exterioribus 6-8, magnis, foliaceis, linearibus vel 
lanceolatis, suberectis vel parce patentibus, spinuloso-ciliatis, saepe 
serratis, basim versus angustatis, apice acutis, 2-5 cm. longis; inte- 
rioribus valde membranaceis, lanceolatis, capitulo paulo brevioribus. 
Florum tubulosorum limbus saepe tantum 4-lobatus. Achaenia sub- 
plana, una facie ad lineam medianam costata, marginibus retrorsum 
hamosa et interdum tuberculata, aliter fere glabra, cuneata, olivaceo- 
brunnea vel interdum subpurpurascentia, corpore 5-10 mm. longa 
et 2.5-3 mm. lata, apice 3- (rarissime 2- vel 4-) aristata aristis 
retrorsum hamosis et plerumque 4-6 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: No specimen was cited, but Illinois was the first 
mentioned, type locality. 

Distribution: From Maine, Quebec, and North Dakota south- 
ward and southwestward to North Carolina, Tennessee, New 
Mexico, and Utah. 

Specimens examined: E. B. Bartram 1372, Valley Forge, Pennsyl- 
vania, October 16, 1910 (Phila.); J. M. Bates, St. Paul, Nebraska, 
September 17 and 25, 1910 (Gray; N.Y.); W. M. Benner, Telford, 
Pennsylvania, September 14, 1913 (Phila.); idem, above Point 
Pleasant, Pennsylvania, September 16, 1923 (Phila.); N . L. Britton, 
Four Corners, Staten Isl., New York, September 23, 1894 (N.Y.); 
B. F. Bush 31, Courtney, Missouri, September 11, 1892 (Gray); 
idem 49, eodem loco, September 28, 1892 (Gray); idem 164, wet 
banks, Jackson Co., Missouri, September 30, 1893 (Field; Mo.; U.S.; 
type material of Bidens riparia Greene) ; idem 216, Courtney, Mis- 
souri, October 15, 1896 (U.V.); idem 802, common in low ground, 
eodem loco, September 11, 1899 (Gray); idem 804, eodem loco et 
tempore (Cam. ; Gray) ; idem 1798, common in bottom, eodem loco, 
October 19, 1902 (Gray) ; idem 1816 and 1817, common in bottom, 



252 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

eodem loco, October 21, 1902 (N.Y.) ; idem 1891, bottoms, eodem loco, 
September 22, 1903 (Gray; N.Y.); idem 6164 and 6165, bottoms, 
eodem loco, August 24, 1910 (Gray); V. H. Chase 123, west of Wady 
Petra, Illinois, September 15, 1897 (Field) ; D. Clarke, Flint, Michigan, 
1866 (Phila.) ; C. A. Davis, low grounds, Alma, Michigan, September 
29, 1893 (Phila.); idem 4872, Alma, Michigan, September 29, 1893 
(Phila.); idem 6039, eodem loco et tempore (N.Y.); C. C. Deam, 
Wells County, Indiana, September 21, 1902 (Berl.); R. R. Dreisbach 
167, Pickaway Co., Ohio, September 4, 1912 (Phila.); Thomas 
Drummond, St. Louis, Missouri, 1832 (Kew) ; idem 315, eodem loco 
(Kew); E. H. Eames 159, moist roadside, Stratford, Connecticut, 
September 24, 1902 (Gray); H. Eggert, Indian Lake, St. Clair 
Co., Illinois, October, 1876 (Cam.); W. W. Eggleston 5290, 
Kuttawa, Kentucky, September 27-October 9, 1909 (Mo.); George 
Engelmann, St. Louis, Missouri, September, 1866 (Gray); idem 566, 
eodem loco, September, 1834 (Berl.); M. L. Fernald, damp field, 
Orono, Maine, September 19, 1889 (N. Eng.); idem, ditch, Dexter 
lime quarries, Lincoln, Rhode Island, October 6, 1906 (Gray); 
William Findley, Collingdale, Pennsylvania, October 3, 1911 (Phila.) ; 
W. H. Forwood 224, near Fort Meade, Black Hills, South Dakota, 
September 8, 1887 (U.S.); J. R. Gardner 809, Fayette Co., Iowa, 
September 3, 1898 (N.Y.); G. Guttenberg, near Wheeling, West 
Virginia, October, 1878 (Cam.); E. B. Harger, Oxford, Connecticut, 
September 27, 1917 (Phila.) ; A. A. Heller, about the mouth of the 
Tucquan, Lancaster Co., Pennsylvania, September 20, 1901 (Berl.; 
Par.) ; Katharina R. Holmes, near Apollo, Westmoreland Co., Penn- 
sylvania, September 3, 1902 (Carn.); 7. F. Holton, Kanawha 
Salines, West Virginia, October 8, 1849 (Field) ; L. S. Hopkins, Kent, 
Ohio, September 20, 1913 (Carn.); Janin 28, Albany, New York, 
1827 (Del.); 0. E. Jennings, swampy spot with Typha, south of 
Logan's Ferry, Pennsylvania, September 23, 1916 (Carn.); idem, 
Conger, Pennsylvania, September 22, 1904 (Carn.); M. E. Jones 
1063, alt. 1,290 meters, Salt Lake City, Utah, July 24, 1879 (Berl. ; 
Brit.; Field; U.V.); T. H. Kearney 138, Plummer's Isl. in Potomac 
River, near Cabin John, Maryland, August 21-23, 1903 (N.Y.); 
idem 185, eodem loco, August 30, 1903 (N.Y.); C. H. Knowlton, 
Sturbridge, Massachusetts, September 27, 1917 (Phila.); C. D. 
Lippencott, Swedesboro, New Jersey, October 5, 1894 (Phila.); 
C. G. Lloyd, near Cincinnati, Ohio, September 18, 1882 (U.V.); 
idem, eodem loco, September 2, 1883 (Mus. V.) ; Bayard Long 6787, 
Edge Hill Station, Pennsylvania, September 24, 1911 (Phila.); 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXIII 




c d e a g f h 

BIDENS VULGATA Greene (figs, a, c-h); var. SCHIZANTHA Lunell (fig. 6) 



THE GENUS BIDENS 253 

J. Lunell, alkaline soil, Leeds, North Dakota, September 10, 1901 
(Beam) ; idem, Towner, North Dakota, September 10, 1908 (N.Y.) ; 
idem, Leeds, North Dakota, September 6, 1909 (Mun.); idem, dry 
bottoms, eodem loco, September 9, 1917 (Deam); Alexander Mac 
Elwee, Lyonville, Pennsylvania, October 4, 1908 (Phila.); Alexander 
MacElwee, Jr., West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, August, 1874 
(Phila.); Marie-Victorin 9737, moist places, vicinity of Longueuil, 
Quebec, September 10-October 9, 1919 (Gray; Par., 2 sheets); 
idem 15466, Longueuil, September, 1922 (Gray); C. J. Moser, 
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, August, 1832 (Kew); G. S. Miller, Jr., 
Passage Creek, Virginia, September 5, 1897 (U.S.); G. V. Nash, 
along a pond, vicinity of Clifton, New Jersey, September 24, 1892 
(N.Y.); H. W. N orris, near Ithaca, New York, 1889 (Mo.); J. B. 
S. Norton, Manhattan, Kansas, September 1, 1892 (type material 
oiBidens acuta [Wieg.] Britt.; N.Y.); idem 281 p.p., wet places, Riley 
Co., Kansas, September 21, 1895 (N.Y.); B. H. Patterson, west of 
Ligonier, Pennsylvania, September 18, 1917 (Can.); A. S. Pease, 
edge of pond, East Watertown, Massachusetts, October 8, 1908 
(N. Eng.); Robert Peter, damp soil, Lexington, Kentucky, September, 
1833 (Kew); P. E. Pierron, Westmoreland Co., Pennsylvania, Sep- 
tember 3, 1877 (Cop.); W. M. Pollock, Upshur County, West Vir- 
ginia, August 28, 1895 (U.S.) ; T. C. Porter, Chestnut Hill, Easton, 
Pennsylvania, September 22 (Cam.); H. W. Pretz 11220, vicinity 
of Centre Valley, Pennsylvania, October 2, 1921 (Phila.); Rugel 
448, in swampy places near Rutherfordton, North Carolina, Sep- 
tember, 1841 (Brit.; Del.; Kiel; Mus. V.); A. Ruth 32, near Tennessee 
River, Knoxville, Tennessee, September, 1896 (N.Y.; forma involu- 
cri bracteis exterioribus giganteis); A. Schrader 129, Ohio, 1864 
(Berl., 2 sheets); Schweinitz, Salem, North Carolina (Phila.); E. E. 
Sherff 2046, in pasture, near Glenwood, Illinois, October 7, 1915 
(Field); C. W. Short, bottom of dried mill pond, etc., Lexington, 
Kentucky (Kew; Phila., 2 sheets); idem, Rock Isl., Ohio River, 
1840 (Phila.) ; A. H. Smith, Gray's Ferry, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
September 23, 1866 (Penn.); B. H. Smith, alt. 1,800 meters, Ojo 
Caliente, New Mexico, August 26, 1893 (Phila.; plantis parvis sed 
certe hac specie); idem, eodem loco, August 25, 1894 (Phila.); P. C. 
Standley 9853, low ground, vicinity of Turner, Missouri, September 
5, 1912 (U.S.);fem 9869, along stream, vicinity of Graydon Springs, 
Missouri, September 7, 1912 (U.S.); E. S. Steele, vicinity of Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, August 24-September 4, 1896 (U.V.); 
idem, eodem loco, September 16, 1899 (Del.); idem & uxor 226, alt. 



254 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

600 meters, Sweet Springs, West Virginia, September 6, 1903 (Gray) ; 
Witmer Stone 10818, 10820, and 10824, Delaware River meadows, 
Tinicum Township, Pennsylvania, September 13, 1908 (Phila.); 
W. C. Werner 409, Columbus, Ohio, September 27, 1892 (Gray); 
C. F. Wheeler & E. S. Steele, alt. 490 meters, vicinity of Millboro, 
Virginia, August 30, 1907 (U.S.); Charles Williamson, Council 
Bluffs, Iowa, August, 1898 (Phila.); H. A. Young, Revere, Massa- 
chusetts, September 27, 1879 (N. Eng.). 

Hooker (loc. cit.) listed B. Bidens comata L. as a determination for 
Thomas Drummond 540, from St. Louis, Missouri. Later, Short 
and Peter (loc. cit.) listed the name Bidens comosa Hooker. Still 
later, Torrey and Gray (loc. cit.) stated: "This species [B. connata 
Muhl.] is introduced into Dr. Short's Catalogue of Kentucky plants 
under the name of Bidens comosa, Hooker, but we are not aware 
that Sir Wm. Hooker, or any other author, has published a species 
with this name. In the account of Drummond's collections in the 
United States, however, a 'Bidens comata Linn.' is enumerated; but 
as Linnaeus has no such species, we suppose B. connata, Muhl. to be 
intended." We may add to Torrey and Gray's observations by 
noting that the words comata and comosa, while very distinct in 
pronunciation and in print, are apt to be similar in script. 
Thus, despite the fact that the name comosa (in the sense of leafy) is 
indeed appropriate for the plants so designated, it might be that the 
name originated not through an intentional changing of words, but 
rather from a misreading of the really equivalent word comata as it 
appeared in script. Short's plants in herbaria are variously labeled. 1 
The name comosa Hook, ex Short & Peter therefore not only is a 
nomen nudum but fails to admit of definite interpretation. Fortu- 
nately, Gray (loc. cit.) did not cite Short's name when establishing 
the var. comosa nor did Wiegand (loc. cit.) go back to Short when 
elevating the name to specific rank. 

Daniels (Univ. Missouri Studies, Sci. Ser. 1: 378 [reprint 236]. 
1907) lists a supposed hybrid between B. comosa and B. polylepis 
(Coreopsis involucrata Nutt.). Such a hybrid is unknown to me. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXIV 

Bidens comosa: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.56; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X2.22; c, interior involucral bract, X2.22; 
d, palea, X2.22; e, disc floret, X4.45; / (outer), g (inner), achenes, 

1 Three random specimens of this species collected by Short (Phila.), for 
example, have severally the determinations: "B. connata /3. petiolata"; . . . "B. 
cernua var. minima?"; . . . "B. cernua?" 



ield Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXIV 




BIDENS COMOSA (Gray) Wieg. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 255 

X4.45; all from E. E. Sherff, Elgin, Illinois, October 5, 1913, in 
Hb. Field. 

87. Bidens connata Muhl. in Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 1718. 1804. 
PI. LXV, fig. d. 

Bidens connata var. typica Fass. Rhodora 30: 31. 1928. 

a. Folia principalia indivisa vel fere tripartita, nunc solum grosse 

dentata nunc etiam in segmenta 3 lato-lanceolata secta. 
6. Achaeniorum margines non antrorsum hamosae nisi interdum 

ad basim. 

c. Petioli alati; foliis principalibus saepe trisectis. 
d. Involucri bracteae exteriores longitudine raro 1.5 cm. 

superantes B. connata sensu stricto. 

d. Involucri bracteae exteriores 3-6 cm. longae . . var. rj.fallax. 
c. Petioli anguste marginati. 

d. Folia plerumque indivisa, rarius 2-3-secta . . var. 7. petiolata. 
d. Folia principalia saepius 3- (vel etiam 5-) lobata. 

var. e. gracilipes. 

b. Achaeniorum margines summam versus plus minusve antror- 
sum hamosae. 
c. Aristae antrorsum ac retrorsum hamosae . . . var. d. ambiversa. 

c. Aristae solum antrorsum hamosae var. /3. anomala. 

a. Folia principalia pinnatim 3-7-partita, foliolis anguste lanceolatis. 

var. f . pinnata. 

Herba annua, glabra, saepe ramosa, 0.4-1.5 m. alta, caule ple- 
rumque purpurascenti. Folia petiolata petiolis alatis et 0.5-3 cm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto 0.5-1.6 dm. longa, dentibus acutis exten- 
sisque valde serrata, margine spinulis inconspicuis vestita, princi- 
palia plerumque tripartita (rarissime omnia indivisa, acuminata, 
elliptica vel lanceolata, basi angusta sed non in petiolum evidenter 
angustata); foliolo terminali lanceolate, saepe in basim petiolula- 
tarn angustato, lateralibus lanceolatis vel triangulato-ovatis, saepe 
oppositis connatisque. Capitula (bracteis exterioribus non inclusis) 
demum 1.2-1.4 cm. lata et circ. 1 cm. alta, discoidea vel rariter 
inconspicue radiata, pedunculata pedunculis tenuibus 1-6 cm. longis. 
Involucrum superne plerumque glabratum; bracteis exterioribus 
4-5 (-7), rariter valde foliaceis, linearibus, integris, sparsim setoso- 
ciliatis, plerumque 1-2 (rarius -4) cm. longis; ihterioribus ovato- 
lanceolatis quam capitulo paulo brevioribus. Flores ligulati (nisi 
deficientes) minimi, aurei; flores tubulosi 4-5-lobati. Achaenia 



256 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

cuneata, subnigra vel debiliter purpurascentia, pauca marginalia 
plana vel trigona et saepe 2-3-aristata, omnia reliqua plerumque 
tetragona quadriaristataque, margine basaliter 1-paucis erectis hamis 
aliter hamis semper vel fere semper retrorsis munita, faciebus 
tuberculato-setosa, corpore 3.5 (exteriora) -6.5 (interiora) mm. 
longa; aristis retrorsum hamosis, 1-3.6 mm. longis. 

Type specimen : Collected by Gotthilf Henry Ernst Muhlenberg in 
North America (Willd., Herb. No. 15021-1). 

Distribution: Nova Scotia and Quebec southward to New Jersey 
and westward. A single specimen observed from Alabama (collected 
by Rafinesque). 

Specimens examined : C. F. Batchelder, Winchester, Massachusetts, 
October 7, 1917 (Phila.) ; idem 2071, along brookside by Lake Salton- 
stall, Branford, Connecticut, September 12, 1914 (N. Eng.; capitulis 
radiatis); Boott, Boston, Massachusetts, 1829 (Kew); Brinton & 
Keller, Egg Harbor, New Jersey, September 22, 1894 (Phila.); 
F. S. Collins 956, Cranberry Bog, Eastham, Massachusetts, Sep- 
tember 6, 1910 (N. Eng.); J.F. Collins, M.L.Fernald, & H. H. York 
11462, Warwick, Rhode Island, September 8, 1914 (N. Eng.); 
Eames, Randolph, & Wiegand 13200, Montezuma, New York, 
September 9, 1919 (Gray); iidem 13201, Aurelius, New York, Sep- 
tember 9, 1919 (Gray); A. A. Eaton & M. L. Fernald, brackish 
margin of pool, Salisbury, Massachusetts, October 2, 1902 (Gray); 
C. E. Faxon, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts (Gray); M. L. Fernald 
& Bayard Long 10681, Greenough Pond, Yarmouth, Massachusetts, 
September 19, 1913 (N. Eng.; Phila.); iidem 10687, Winter Pond, 
Winchester, Massachusetts, October 5, 1913 (N. Eng.; Phila.); iidem 
14844, Bowdoinham, Maine, September 14-19, 1916 (Phila.); 
iidem 17604, north of No Bottom Pond, Brewster, Massachusetts, 
September 7, 1918 (Phila.); iidem 24695, Lahave River, Bridgewater, 
Nova Scotia, August 16, 1921 (Gray; Phila.); iidem & G. S. Torrey 

10679, Block Isl., Rhode Island, September 13, 1913 (Phila.); iidem 

10680, near Grace Point, Block Isl., September 14, 1913 (Gray; 
Phila. ; nonnullis foliis 5-partitis) ; M. L. Fernald & E. E. Sherff, near 
Winter Pond, Winchester, Massachusetts, July 27, 1913 (Field); 
M. L. Fernald & C. A. Weatherby, shore of Winter Pond, Winchester, 
September 22, 1908 (Gray); iidem (PLGrayanaeExsicc.) 298, eodem 
loco (Berl.; Can.; Cam.; Cop.; Del., 2 sheets); Grace Gilbert, Pine 
Grove, Newton, Massachusetts, Sept., 1893 (Gray); A. Gershoy 737, 
Como Lake, Belmar, New Jersey, Sept. 7, 1917 (Gray); P. Heuser, 
Lutheran Hill, Long Isl., New York, September 10, 1894 (Berl.); 



THE GENUS BIDENS 257 

idem, Cypress Hill near Brooklyn, New York, September 29, 1894 
(Berl.); G. G. Kennedy, Portsmouth, Rhode Island, September 19, 
1907 (Gray); idem, Bailey's Beach, Newport, Rhode Island, Sep- 
tember 19, 1907 (Gray); idem 8, meadow ditch, Danvers, Massa- 
chusetts, September 7, 1907 (Gray); John Macoun, St. Anne de 
Beaupre", Quebec, August 30, 1905 (Gray); Marie-Victorin 16247, 
River Je"sus, Rosemere, Quebec, September 22, 1922 (Gray); H. B. 
Meredith, Cape May, New Jersey, October 10, 1920 (Phila.) ; Muhlen- 
berg, North America (type in Willd., Herb. No. 15021-1); S. T. 
Olney, Block Isl., Rhode Island (Mun.); T. C. Porter, Delaware 
River above Easton, Pennsylvania, September 5, 1899 (Cam.); 
idem, Pot Rock on Delaware River above Easton, September 7, 
1899 (Cam.); H. W. Pretz 10288, vicinity of Slatedale, Pennsylvania, 
August 1, 1920 (Phila.); Rafinesque, Appalachian Mts., Alabama 
(Petrop.); F. C. Seymour 1550, Tea Lane, Chilmark, Martha's 
Vineyard, Massachusetts, September 21, 1916 (Gray); Witmer 
Stone 10823, meadows of Delaware River, Tinicum Township, 
Delaware Co., Pennsylvania, September 13, 1908 (Phila.); E. F. 
Williams, Weston, Massachusetts, September 29, 1895 (Gray); 
idem, Concord, Massachusetts, September 17, 1899 (Gray); R. W. 
Woodward, Old Saybrook, Connecticut, September 29, 1915 (Gray). 

Bidens connata var. /3. anomala Farwell, Ann. Rept. Comm. Parks 
and Blvds. Detroit 11: 91. 1900. PI. LXV, fig. k. 

A specie achaeniorum aristis erecte barbatis differt. 

Type specimen: None cited. Presumably a specimen had been 
found growing at Detroit, Michigan. 

Distribution: Maryland, Ohio, Michigan, and Wisconsin. 

Specimens examined: S. F. Blake 8680, edge of Chesapeake and 
Ohio Canal, vicinity of Cabin John, Maryland, October 21, 1923 
(Field); idem 8901, eodem loco, October 5, 1924 (Gray); R. W. 
Chaney 184, edge of Hamlin Lake, Ludington, Michigan, August 
20, 1910 (Gray; N.Y.); N. C. Fassett 4259, muddy edge of a ditch, 
"The Narrows," Minocqua, Wisconsin, September 14, 1927 (Wis., 
2 sheets); A. D. Selby 6, Ohio, September 6, 1890 (Gray). 

Bidens connata var. 7. petiolata (Nutt.) Farwell, Ann. Rept. 
Comm. Parks and Blvds. Detroit 11: 91. 1900. 

PI. LXV, figs, a, /-j. 

Bidens petiolata Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. 7: 99. 1834. 
Bidens connata var. inundata Fern. Rhodora 23: 298. 1921. 



258 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Folia plerumque indivisa, lanceolata, usque ad 1 (rarius 2) dm. 
longa et usque ad 3 (rarius etiam 7) cm. lata, moderate acriterque 
dentata dentibus unico latere saepius 6-12; petiolis tenuibus, usque 
ad 5 cm. longis, marginatis. Involucri bracteae exteriores circ. 5, 
plerumque 1-2 cm. longae. Achaenia exteriora corpore plerumque 
4.2-4.6 (interdum usque ad 6.5) mm. longa, interiora saepius circ. 
6.2-6.5 (rarius usque ad 8) mm. longa. 

Type specimen: No type was cited by Nuttall. The nativity 
was given by him as "on the margins of ponds in various parts of 
New England." The Nuttall Herbarium has two authentic sheets 
starred with Nuttall's customary asterisk as being of new material 
(although on the labels he had used a trivial name referring to the 
lanceolate rather than petiolate nature of the leaves). One (Phila.) 
says "Massachusetts" and the other (Brit.) gives "Northampton" 
(Massachusetts) . 

Distribution: Nova Scotia, Quebec, Ontario, and Minnesota, 
southward to Virginia, Tennessee, Missouri, and Kansas. Also 
rarely adventive in France and Germany. 

Specimens examined^. B. Bartram 1280, creek margin, Bradford 
Hills, Pennsylvania, October 2, 1910 (Gray); idem 1339, Paoli, 
Pennsylvania, October 16, 1910 (Gray); J. M. Bates 5424, Red 
Cloud, Nebraska, October 3, 1910 (N.Y.); C. H. Bissell 295, South- 
ington, Connecticut, August 31, 1891 (N. Eng.); Ezra Brainerd, along 
creek, Middlebury, Vermont, September 23, 1904 (Gray); 0. H. 
Brown 113, New England Marshes, Cold Spring, New Jersey, 
September 18, 1913 (Phila.); B. F. Bush 36, Courtney, Missouri, 
September 11, 1892 (Gray); idem 806, eodem loco, September 11, 
1899 (Gray) ; E. B. Chamberlain 443, swamp, Bristol, Maine, August 
28, 1897 (N. Eng.); F. S. Collins 511 and 540, Eastham, Massa- 
chusetts, September 1, 1907 (N. Eng.); William Darlington, West 
Chester, Pennsylvania (Phila.); John Dams 5203, Riverview Park, 
Hannibal, Missouri, September 8, 1916 (Mo.); idem 9058, pastures, 
near Mt. Olivet Cemetery, Hannibal, September 14, 1918 (Mo.); 
C. C. Deam 5369, northwest of Decatur, Indiana, September 8, 1908 
(Deam; forma capitulis perspicue radiatis); Donnot (Soc. Cenomane 
d'Exsicc. No. 1650), Percey-le-Petit, canal de la Marne a la Saone, 
Department of Haute-Marne, France, September, 1923 (Gray); 
R. R. Dreisbach 2-217, Vereeville, Pennsylvania, September 25, 1922 
(Phila.); T. W. Edmonson, Haley's Station, Renfrew Co., Ontario, 
August 25, 1902 (Phila.); M. L. Fernald, Vanceboro, Maine, Sep- 
tember 1, 1908 (Gray) ; idem 2895, low woods, Glenburn, Maine, 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXV 




BIDENS CONNATA Muhl. ex Willd. (fig. d); var. ANOMALA Farwell (fig. k); var. PETIOLATA 
(Nutt.) Farw. (figs, o, f-j); var. FINN ATA Wats. (fig. e); var. FALLAX (Warnst.) Sherff (figs. 6, c) 



THE GENUS BIDENS 259 

September 6, 1898 (N. Eng.); idem & D. H. Linder 22868, Quinan, 
Nova Scotia, October 8, 1920 (Phila.); iidem 22871, springy sp hag- 
nous bog, Sand Beach, Yarmouth Co., Nova Scotia, October 6, 1920 
(Field; Gray, 3 sheets; Phila.) ; M. L. Fernald & B. Long 10682, White 
Pond, Chatham, Massachusetts, September 9, 1913 (N. Eng.; 
Phila.); iidem 10686, Dennis Pond, Yarmouth, Massachusetts, 
September 19, 1913 (Phila.); iidem 14845, Back River Creek, Wool- 
wich, Maine, September 15, 1916 (Phila.); iidem 22866, sandy 
brooksides and springy ditches, Baddeck, Nova Scotia, August 27, 
1920 (Gray, 2 sheets; Phila.); iidem 22867, pools at base of gypsum 
cliffs, Port Bevis, Nova Scotia, August 29, 1920 (Gray; Phila.); 
iidem & D. H. Linder 22869, springy sphagnous bog, Sand Beach, 
Yarmouth Co., Nova Scotia, September 7, 1920 (Field; Gray); iidem 
22870, eodem loco et tempore (Gray); Fernald, Long, & Torrey 
10684, Block Isl., Rhode Island, September 13, 1913 (New Eng.); 
iidem 10685, Harbor Pond, Block Isl., September 13, 1913 (Phila.) ; 
(M. L. Fernald & C. A. Weatherby 17609, once referred to var. 
petiolata, is apparently better construed as var. gracilipes;) J. M. 
Greenman 501, Concord, Massachusetts, Oct. 9, 1898 (Mo.); Gustave 
Guttenberg, Erie, Pennsylvania, September 9, 1879 (Carn.); E. B. 
Harger 4833 p.p., Huntington, Connecticut, August 25, 1905 (Phila.); 
J. W. Harshberger, Ocean City, New Jersey, August 23, 1900 (Penn.) ; 
A. A. Heller, in limestone, Dillerville Swamp, Lancaster Co., 
Pennsylvania, September 13, 1901 (Berl.); A. S. Hitchcock 735 
pro parte, wet soil, Atchison Co., Kansas, 1896 (Mo.); R. Hoffman, 
muddy bank in shade, Indian Creek, Dodson (vicinity of Kansas 
City), Missouri, September 30, 1916 (Mo.); J. M. Macfarlane, 
Holly Beach, New Jersey, September 12, 1907 (Penn.); idem, 
Peak's Isl., Casco Bay, Maine, September, 1913 (Penn., 2 sheets) ; 
John Macoun, wet places, Hull, Quebec, August 23, 1884 (Can.); 
idem, Ottawa, Ontario, August 28, 1894 (U.S.); idem, Brown's 
Lake, Wakefield, Quebec, August 29, 1903 (Can.); idem, Italy 
Cross, Nova Scotia, August 22, 1910 (Can.); idem, Casselman, 
Ontario, September 13, 1911 (Can.); P. Magnus, Prov. Brandenburg, 
Germany, November 3, 1895 (Berl.); Marie-Victorin 28084, edge of 
stream, Les Greves, Quebec, September 23, 1928 (Gray); W. R. 
Maxon 5962, near Cabin John, Maryland, October 10, 1912 
(U.S.); A. H. McKay, on beaches, Pictou, Nova Scotia, Sep- 
tember, 1875 (N.Y.); E. A. Mearns 159, Camp Douglas, Wis- 
consin, September 11, 1890 (U.S.); C. J. Moser, Pennsylvania, 
August, 1832 (Mus. V.); G. V. Nash, stony shore, in water, vicinity 



260 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

of Clifton, New Jersey, September 25, 1892 (N.Y.); J- B. Norton 
281 p.p., Riley Co., Kansas, September 21, 1895 (Gray; U.V.); B. H. 
Patterson, Chautauqua, New York, September 3, 1910 (Carn.); F. W. 
Pennell 6625, Point Pleasant, New Jersey, September 22, 1915 
(Phila.); Albert Ruth 63, open places, Knoxville, Tennessee, Sep- 
tember 10, 1905 (Gray) ; J. H. Sandberg 919, Silver Creek, Minnesota, 
August 29, 1891 (U.S.); H. E. Sargent 73, shore of Lake Wentworth, 
Wolfboro, New Hampshire, September 2, 1909 (Gray); idem 77, 
Wolfboro, September 18, 1909 (Gray) ; J. H. Schuette, in cedar swamps, 
Wisconsin, September 7, 1878 (Field); F. C. Seymour 9, Granville, 
Massachusetts, September 15, 1913 (Gray); J. A. Shafer, Presque 
Isle, Pennsylvania, September 9-12, 1900 (Carn.);E. E. Sherff 1803, 
Elgin, Illinois, August 27, 1912 (Field); G. H. Skull 399%, vicinity 
of Havre de Grace, Maryland, September 20, 1902 (U.S.); E. S. 
Steele, vicinity of Washington, District of Columbia, August 24, 
1896 and September 7, 1899 (Del. ; forma nonnullis capitulis radiatis, 
ligulis circ. 3 vel 4 flavis 5 mm. longis); idem & uxor, alt. about 
900 meters, vicinity of Aurora, West Virginia, September 11, 1898 
(Del.); Harold St. John 1345, Sable Isl., Nova Scotia, September 12, 
1913 (Gray); idem & G. S. Torrey 891, Lincoln, Rhode Island, 
October 19, 1913 (N. Eng.); Witmer Stone 6236, meadows along 
Delaware River, Tinicum Township, Delaware Co., Pennsylvania, 
September 20, 1903 (Phila.); idem 10725, Atlantic City, New Jersey, 
September 4, 1908 (Phila.); idem 10860, Pennsylvania, September 
9, 1908 (Phila.); idem 10908, Delanco, New Jersey, September 11, 
1908 (Phila.); idem 11052, Seaside Park, Ocean Co., New Jersey, 
September 27, 1908 (Phila.); 7. Tidestrom 6890, wet places, Emporia, 
Virginia, September 22, 1913 (U.S.); S. S. VanPelt, Palermo, New 
Jersey, September 20, 1908 (Phila.); Herman von Schrenk, Ithaca, 
New York, October 1, 1892 (Mo.); C. S. Williamson, Williamson 
School, Delaware Co., Pennsylvania, September 23, 1906 (Phila.). 
Bidens connata var. inundata Fern, was based upon Fernald & 
Under 22871 (type), Fernald, Long, & Under 22869 and 22870, and 
Fernald & Long 22866 and 22867, all from Nova Scotia. It was 
described as "closely simulating var. gracilipes Fernald ... of the 
Cape Cod quagmires but with much larger achenes." The leaf 
margins do at times suggest those in var. gracilipes, but are matched 
quite closely by those in several specimens of var. petiolata from 
various widely separated localities. The achenes likewise match 
those of var. petiolata, leaving me entirely unable to distinguish 
inundata separately. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXVI 




'" b a d 

BIDENS HETERODOXA Fern. & St. J. (figs, a, c-g); var. ORTHODOXA Fern. (figs. 6, h) 



THE GENUS BIDENS 261 

Through the var. petiolata, B. connata approaches B. Eatonii 
Fern., the var. inter stes of which frequently can not be distinguished 
(from B. connata, var. petiolata) except by its achenes. 

Bidens connata var. 5. ambiversa Fassett, Rhodora 30: 33. 1928. 

Herba subsimplex vel ramis tenuibus ramosa, 3-7 dm. alta. 
Folia mediana dentata dentibus utrinque 1-4 plerumque 3 (quorum 
inferiores saepe 1.5 cm. longi sinibus paene ad rhachidem extendenti- 
bus sunt), 4-7 cm. longa; superiora saepe simplicia cum dentibus 
grossis utrinque 1-4. Involucri bracteae exteriores lineares vel lan- 
ceolatae, 1-3.5 cm. longae. Achaeniorum margines sparsim vel 
dense setis plerumque antrorsis setosi; aristis hamis (nunc sursum 
nunc retrorsum vel saepius utroque versis) munitis; achaeniis 
exterioribus planis, biaristatis, corpore circ. 5 mm. longis et 2-2.5 
mm. latis; interioribus superne obcompresso-tetragonis, quadri- 
aristatis, corpore 6-8 mm. longis. 

Type specimen : Collected by Norman Carter Fassett, No. 4257, 
in moist kettle hole, with copious growth of Dulichium, Minocqua, 
Oneida County, Wisconsin, September 14, 1927 (Wis., 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from northern Wisconsin, where it 
has been collected chiefly in sphagnum bogs. 

Specimens examined: Fassett 4257 (Wis., 2 type sheets); idem 
4258, sphagnum bog, margin of Hill Lake, Minocqua, September 13, 
1927 (Wis.); idem 9016, quaking bog, Big Wildcat Lake, Boulder 
Junction, Vilas Co., September 2, 1929 (Wis.); idem 9021, eodem 
loco et tempore (Wis.). 

Bidens connata var. e. gracilipes Fern. Rhodora 21: 103. 1919. 

Folia primaria lobata, lobis 2-4 basalibus divergentibus decur- 
rentibus, lobo terminali foliisque superioribus lanceolato-attenuatis 
anguste serratis dentibus subfalcatis, petiolis gracilibus vix mar- 
ginatis. Achaenia exteriora corpore 3-4 mm. interiora 4.5-5 mm. 
longa, omnia plerumque quadriaristata aristis marginalibus 2-2.5 
mm. longis, aristis intermediis brevioribus. 

Type specimen : Collected by Merritt Lyndon Fernald and Charles 
Alfred Weatherby, No. 17608, sandy beach of Seymour Pond, Har- 
wich, Massachusetts, September 19, 1918 (Gray). 

Distribution: Maine and southward to Connecticut. 

Specimens examined: R. C. Bean, F. W. Bird, & C. H. Knowlton, 
wet shore of Mashpee Pond, Mashpee, Massachusetts, September 16, 
1916 (N. Eng.); A. E. Blewitt 1123, Hall and Upson Pond, Water- 
bury, Connecticut, September 15, 1911 (N. Eng.); M. L. Fernald 



262 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

& B. Long 10683, peaty margins of small ponds west of White Pond, 
Chatham, Massachusetts, September 9, 1913 (Gray; N. Eng.); 
iidem 17602, between Grassy and Lower Simmons ponds, Dennis, 
Massachusetts, August 22, 1918 (Field; Gray; N. Eng.; Phila.; 
forma var. petiolatae adpropinquans) ; iidem 17606, quagmire in 
woods south of Sparrow Young's Pond, Chatham, Massachusetts, 
August 20, 1918 (N. Eng.); iidem 17607, borders of peaty quagmires 
east of Buck Pond, Harwich, Massachusetts, August 30, 1918 
(Field; Gray, 2 sheets; N. Eng., 2 sheets; Phila.); iidem & A. H. 
Norton 14843, swales and peaty shores of Little Ossipee River, 
Limington, Maine, August 29, 1916 (N. Eng., 2 sheets; Phila.); 
M. L. Fernald & C. A. Weatherby 17608, sandy beach, Seymour 
Pond, Harwich, September 19, 1918 (type, Gray, 2 sheets: cotypes, 
Cop.; Field; Kew; N. Eng., 2 sheets); iidem 17609, sandy beach, 
Gull Pond, Wellfleet, Massachusetts, September 19, 1918 (Gray; 
N. Eng.; forma var. petiolatae adpropinquans). 

Bidens connata var. f. pinnata Wats, in Gray, Man. ed. 6: 
284. 1890. PI. LXV, fig. e. 

Bidens Sandbergii Rydb. Fl. Pr. Plains Centr. N. Amer. 849. 1932. 

A specie differt foliis pinnatis, 5-7 foliolis angustis et plus 
minusve inciso-dentatis. 

Type specimen: Collected byF. L. Conillard, Richfield, Hennepin 
County, Minnesota, June, 1889 (Gray). 

Distribution: Wisconsin (ex Aldrich & Fassett, Science 70: 45. 
1929) and Minnesota. 

Specimens examined: Z. L. Chandonnet, wet sandy shores of 
lakes, Luce, Minnesota, August 25, 1911 (U.S.); idem, eodem loco, 
August 23, 1912 (Penn. ; U.S.) ; F. L. Conillard (type, Gray) ; O.Lakela 
1858 and 1860, Duluth, Minnesota (Field); P. A. Rydberg 9649, 
White Bear Lake, Minnesota, September 15, 1926 (N.Y., 2 sheets, 
pro specie nova, Bidente Sandbergii, a Rydbergio); J. H. Sandberg, 
wet sandy shores, Ramsey Co., Minnesota, August, 1890 (Penn.); 
idem 929, Ramsey Co., September 2, 1891 (U.S.); idem 6009, wet 
places, Ramsey Co., August, 1891 (N.Y.; Phila.). 

The specimens examined clearly represent B. connata as apart 
from any other species and show no evidence of hybridity. 1 (But 

1 Bidens connata appears to hybridize very rarely in nature. I have seen two 
sheets of material (Hb. W. C. Ferguson) collected by W. C. Ferguson, Plattsdale, 
Long Island, New York, Sept. 20, 1919, which appeared clearly to be of hybrid 
origin B. connata X B. cernua. The leaves were tripartite as in typical B. con- 
nata; the heads were radiate and much like those of B. cernua. A further specimen 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXVII 




BIDENS TRIPARTITA L. (figs, a, 6, d-i); var. CERNUAEFOLIA Sherff (fig. 



Of 



If 



THE GENUS BIDENS 263 

cf. Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. ed. 2. 3: 495. 1913; these authors have 
considered that the var. pinnata is possibly a hybrid between B. 
cernua and B. aristosa.} 

Fassett (Rhodora 30: 34. 1928) gives an amplified description, 
based, however, upon fewer collections than those studied by me. 
More recently, he has reported (Science 70: 45. 1929; cf. McLaugh- 
lin, Ecological Monographs 2: 376,.%. 31. 1932) finding this variety 
upon certain relic lakes in northwestern Wisconsin, a few miles 
northeast of the type vicinity. As touching upon the constancy of 
this interesting foliage form, we may note that Sandberg collected 
it in 1890 in the same locality where Rydberg collected it thirty- 
six years later. 

Bidens connata var. 77. fallax (Warnst.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
76: 154. 1923. PI. LXV, figs. 6 and c. 

Bidens tripartite^ L. var.? fallax Warnst. Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 

31: 157. 1880. 
Bidens decipiens Warnst. Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 45: 392 and 475. 

1895. 

Bidens connata Warnst., op. cit. 475, non exacte Muhl. 
Bidens tripartita var. fallax Warnst. in Wieg. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 

26: 413. 1899. 
Bidens connata var. fultior Fern. & St. John, Rhodora 17: 24. 1915. 

Folia primaria laminis vel lobis terminalibus saepius grosse 
inaequaliterque dentatis, dentibus utrinque plerumque 5-10; invo- 
lucri bracteis exterioribus foliaceis, oblanceolatis, majoribus 3-6 
cm. longis et 0.5-1.5 cm. latis; achaeniis 4-6-aristatis. 

Type specimen : Collected by C. Warnstorf, shore of Lake Neurup- 
pin (where undoubtedly adventive from North America), Province 
of Brandenburg, Prussia, September 10, 1895 (herbarium not cited; 
various sheets in Del., Field, Kew, etc.). 

Distribution: Quebec southward to Rhode Island and westward 
to Indiana, Wisconsin, and Minnesota; also at several places in 
northern Germany, 1 where doubtless introduced from North 
America. 

by Emile F. Williams (Neponset Marshes, Readville, Massachusetts, Sept. 23, 
1900; Gray), "with remarkably short rays awns barbed downwards," has been 
collected as a supposed hybrid between B, connata and B. coronata (B. tricho- 
sperma Michx.). 

1 Specimens by Abbon (Del.) and Arsene (Field) purporting to come from 
Mexico, are unquestionably mislabeled (cf. Standley, Science n. ser. 65: 130. 1927). 



264 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Specimens examined: E. B. Bartram 1339, roadside ditch, Paoli, 
Pennsylvania, October 16, 1900 (Gray); F. Erichsen, Hamburg, 
Germany, September 18, 1902 (Mus. V.); N. C.Fassett 2883, floating 
dock, Minneiska, Minnesota, September 8, 1926 (N.Y.); idem 
2884, damp ground, Rohrer's Slough, Cochrane, Wisconsin, Sep- 
tember 7, 1926 (N.Y.; Wis.); idem 2888, rocky shore of Mississippi 
River, Alma, Wisconsin, August 23, 1926 (Wis.); idem 2976, wet 
shore, Fountain City Slough, Fountain City, Wisconsin, September 
9, 1926 (Wis.); idem 12820, Potosi, Wisconsin, September 8, 1930 
(Wis.); Fernald, Long, & Torrey 10688, Dickens Point, Block Isl., 
Rhode Island, September 15, 1913 (Gray, 2 sheets; N. Eng.; Phila.; 
type and cotype sheets of var. fultior Fern. & St. John) ; Grantzow, 
Prenzlau, Germany, August, 1877 (Del., 2 sheets) ; R. Gross, Kope- 
nick on the Spree River, Prov. Brandenburg, Prussia, September 
22, 1908 (Berl.); Heiland, Schluesoh, Prov. Brandenburg, August, 
1876 (U.V.) and September, 1876 (Berl.); R. Hulsch, on driftwood, 
Rathenow, Prov. Brandenburg, Germany, September, 1896 (Berl., 
2 sheets); 0. E. Lansing, Jr., 2641, Indiana (Berl.; Field; Mus. V.); 
Olga Lakela 1719, Duluth, Minnesota (Field); A.Ludwig, driftwood, 
Potsdam, Prussia, September 28, 1906 (Berl.); A. R. Paul, on drift- 
wood upon the Parmitze, Stettin, Prov. Pomerania, Germany, Sept. 
7, 1898 (Berl., 2 sheets); Rottenbach, along canal, Berlin, Prussia, 
September 26, 1896 (Berl.); idem, on the lime lake at Riidersdorf, 
Prov. Brandenburg, Prussia, September 19, 1898 (Del., 2 sheets); 
Justus Schmidt 4107, on floated timber, Hamburg, Germany, Sep- 
tember, 1896 (Berl.; Boiss.; Cop.; Del.; Mun.; Mus. V.; U.V.); 
H. K. Svenson & N. C. Fassett 918, tidal flats of St. Lawrence River, 
Levis, Quebec, August 9, 1923 (Gray) ; C. Warnstorf, shore of Lake 
Neuruppin, Prov. Brandenburg, Germany, October, 1877 (Berl.; 
Mus. V.); idem, especially common on floated timber, eodem loco, 
September, 1895 (Del.; Field; Kew; Mus. V.; U.S.; U.V.; type 
collection of Bidens decipiens Warnst.); C. A. Weatherby, clearing in 
cedar swamp, Dennis, Massachusetts, September 28, 1915 (N. 
Eng.); E. F. Williams, Lake Massapoag, Sharon, Massachusetts, 
September 10, 1899 (Gray) ; E. J. Winslow, North Grafton, Massa- 
chusetts, September 19, 1912 (N. Eng.); R. W. Woodward, low 
meadows, Franklin, Connecticut, September 25, 1915 (Gray). 

Most of the European specimens of B. connata are so different in 
general aspect from the more common forms in America that they 
have been perplexing to botanists. Their primary leaves are less 
slenderly and distinctly petiolate than in B. connata proper, and 



THE GENUS BIDENS 265 

also fewer- toothed, the teeth being usually larger and more irregular. 
The outer involucral bracts are distinctly foliaceous, the well devel- 
oped ones being mostly 3-6 cm. long. Indeed, for some time it 
seemed to certain European botanists that the European plants 
represented a new form, 1 and Warnstorf did in fact name them 
B. tripartite, L. var.? fallax, afterwards changing the name to B. 
decipiens. Later, he referred the name B. decipiens to B. connata 
Muhl. 

In 1915 Fernald and St. John (loc. cit.) described a variety fultior 
from Rhode Island and Massachusetts. Their specimens (Gray) 
are so closely identical with certain of the European specimens (for 
example, Heiland 876; C. Warnstorf, shore of Lake Neuruppin; 
both in U.V.) that they can scarcely be distinguished. In fact, the 
only difference which I can find is that several leaves on Fernald 
and St. John's material are tripartite, a difference seen to be incon- 
sequential as additional specimens have been studied. 

Fassett (Rhodora 30: 32. 1928) cites additional specimens and 
records that "in Wisconsin, var. fallax grades into var. typica, al- 
though some individuals are well marked with bracts 6 cm. long. 
The few large irregular teeth of the leaves, mentioned both by 
Fernald and St. John and by Sherff, do not seem to be characteristic 
of most Wisconsin material." 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXV 

Bidens connata, fig. d: leaf, with portion of adjacent stem, X0.58; 
from Lea 105, in Hb. Field. 

Bidens connata var. petiolata, figs, a, f-j: a, flowering specimen, 
X0.58; /, exterior involucral bract, Xl.74; g, interior involucral 
bract, Xl.74; h, palea, Xl.74; i, disc floret, X4.06;;, achene, X4.64; 
a, f-i, from Sherff 1803, in Hb. Field; ;, from Tin. Holm, Brookland, 
District of Columbia, September 30, 1902, ibid. 

Bidens connata var. fallax, figs. 6, c: simple and tripartite leaves, 
X0.58; from Fernald, Long, & Torrey 10688 (type of var. fultior Fern. 
& St. John), in Hb. Gray. 

Bidens connata var. pinnata, fig. e: cauline leaf, X0.58; from 
J. H. Sandberg, Minnesota, in Hb. Field. 

Bidens connata var. anomala, fig. k: achene, X4.64; from Aug. 
Selby, Ohio, September 9, 1890, in Hb. Field. 

1 But cf. Baenitz (Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 45: 485. 1895), who merely equated 
B. decipiens Warnst., the European form, with B. connate Muhl. of America. 



266 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

88. Bidens heterodoxa Fern. & St. John, Rhodora 17: 23. 1915. 
PI. LXVI, figs, a and c-g. 

Bidens tripartite, var. heterodoxa Fern. ibid. 15: 76. 1913. 
Foliorum simplicium lamina vel 3-5-partitorum foliolum terminale 
anguste lanceolatum vel etiam anguste ovatum, acerrime (vel 
etiam incise) serratum. 
Achaeniorum aristae antrorsum setosae. 

B. heterodoxa sensu stricto. 

Achaeniorum aristae retrorsum setosae var. 0. orthodoxa. 

Foliorum simplicium lamina vel 3-partitorum foliolum terminale 
oblongo-lanceolatum vel lanceolato-ovatum, grosse ac subacriter 
dentatum. 

Achaeniorum aristae leves vel obscure scabridae . var. 8. agnostica. 
Achaeniorum aristae retrorsum setosae .... var. 7. Monardaefolia. 
Herba annua, erecta, glabra, 1.5-9 dm. alta; caule subtetragono, 
purpurascenti. Folia membranacea, simplicia vel 3-5-partita, petio- 
lata petiolis 0.5-4 cm. longis et saepe subalatis; lamina vel foliolo 
terminali lanceolate vel anguste ovato, 2.5-12 cm. longo, argute 
grosseque serrato vel etiam inciso-dentato. Capitula discoidea 
vel debiliter radiata, ad anthesin 7-12 mm. lata et 5-8 mm. alta, 
pedunculata pedunculis tenuibus et 1-5 cm. longis. Involucrum 
glabrum vel sparsim hispidum; bracteis exterioribus 3-6, late lineari- 
spathulatis, foliaceis, elongatis, interdum sparsim ciliatis, 1-2 cm. 
longis; interioribus oblongis vel ovato-lanceolatis, 7-9 mm. longis. 
Flores ligulati (saepe deficientes) flavi, ligula oblanceolati vel oblongo- 
obovati, 4 mm. longi. Achaenia plana, strigosa, duabus faciebus 
unicostata, plerumque 2-4-aristata, margine aristisque antrorsum 
barbellatis; marginalia cuneata, 4-5 mm. longa et 1.8-2 mm. lata, 
aristis 1.5-2 mm. longis; interiora paulo angustiora, 6-7 mm. longa, 
aristas 2-3 mm. longas gerentia. 

Type specimen: Collected by Merritt L. Fernald, Bayard Long, 
& Harold St. John, No. 8206, border of salt marsh, Bunbury, Prince 
Edward Island, August 28, 1912 (Gray, 3 sheets). 
Distribution: Prince Edward Island. 

Specimens examined: Fernald, Long, & St. John 8205, fresh, 
spring-fed marsh, Southport, Queens Co., Prince Edward Island, 
August 22, 1912 (Field; Gray, 2 sheets); iidem 8206 (type, Gray, 3 
sheets: cotype, Field); iidem 8207, border of salt marsh, Bunbury, 
Queens Co., Prince Edward Island, August 28, 1912 (Field; Gray); 
iidem 8317, sandy sea strand at the Narrows, Alright Isl., Magdalen 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXVIII 




BIDENS TRIPARTITA var. REPENS (D. Don) Sherff (figs, a-/) 
BIDENS LINEARILOBA Oliv. (figs, g-o) 



v 



THE GENUS BIDENS 267 

Isls., Quebec, August 21, 1912 (Gray) ; Fernald & St. John 11210, 
border of a fresh pond (recently an arm of the sea), back of sand 
hills, Tracadie, Prince Edward Island, August 22, 1914 (Gray). 

A rather enigmatic species as yet. It is one that from its general 
habit might easily be confused with B. connata Muhl. vars. typica, 
fallax, and petiolata. The achenes, however, are consistently flat 
and frequently only 2- (instead of 4-) awned, whereas "a check- 
study of B. connata and its varieties shows that in that species all 
well developed central achenes of the heads are consistently 4- 
awned and with the highly developed mid-ribs becoming almost 
wing-like in maturity" (Fernald, op. cit. 19: 258. 1917). The wide 
gap in distributional ranges between those of the species proper with 
its var. orthodoxa and those of the vars. Monardaefolia and agnostica 
might at first excite suspicion as to the specific identity of the two 
sets of forms. Such gaps are common, however, for the region in 
question (vide Fernald, loc. cit.). 

Bidens heterodoxa var. /3. orthodoxa Fern. Rhodora 17: 24. 1915. 
PI. LXVI, figs. 6 and h. 

Var. aristis achaeniorum retrorsum setosis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Fernald, Long, & St. John, No. 
8203, shallow water near margins of brackish ponds, southwest of 
Etang du Nord Village, Grindstone Island, Magdalen Islands, Que- 
bec, August 15, 1912 (Gray, 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Magdalen Islands, Quebec. 

Specimens examined : Fernald, Long, & St. John 8203 (type, Gray, 
2 sheets: cotype, Field); iidem 8204, boggy margin of the strand at 
the Narrows, Alright Isl., Quebec, August 21, 1912 (Field; Gray). 

Bidens heterodoxa var. 7. Monardaefolia Fern. 
Rhodora 19: 259. 1917. 

Planta racemose ramosa, ramis brevibus axillaribusque. Folia 
longe petiolata, simplicia vel 3-partita, laminis vel lobis terminalibus 
oblongo-lanceolatis vel lanceolato-ovatis, grosse dentatis. Achaeni- 
orum aristae retrorsum setosae. 

Type specimen: Collected by Richard W. Woodward, strand of 
Pocotopaug Lake, Chatham, Connecticut, September 21, 1915 
(Gray, 10 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Connecticut. 

Specimens examined: N. C. Fassett 2369 pro parte, shores of 
Pocotopaug Pond (Lake), Chatham, October 12, 1924 (N. Eng., 



268 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

cum var. agnostica commixta); idem 2370, eodem loco et tempore 
(N. Eng., 2 sheets); Woodward, eodem loco, September 21, 1915 
(type, Gray, 10 sheets: cotypes, N. Eng., 2 sheets). 

The foliage of this and the next following variety offers a strong 
general resemblance to that of certain well-known species of Monarda 
(e.g., M. didyma L. and M. fistulosa L.). 

Bidens heterodoxa var. 5. agnostica Fern. Rhodora 19: 259. 1917. 

Habitus foliaque ut apud var. Monardaefoliam. Achaeniorum 
aristae leves vel obsolete scabrae. 

Type specimen: Collected by Richard W. Woodward and Charles 
Humphrey Bissell, strand of Pocotopaug Lake, Chatham, Connecti- 
cut, September 21, 1910 (Gray). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Connecticut. 

Specimens examined: N. C. Fassett 2369 pro parte, shores of 
Pocotopaug Pond (Lake), Chatham, October 12, 1924 (N. Eng., 
cum var. Monardaefolia commixta); R. W. Woodward, eodem loco, 
September 21, 1915 (Gray, 5 sheets). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXVI 

Bidens heterodoxa, figs, a, c-g: a, flowering and fruiting branch, 
X0.61; c, exterior involucral bract, X4.88; d, interior involucral 
bract, X4.88; e, palea, X4.88; /, disc floret with submature achene, 
X4.88; g, achene, X4.88; all from Fernald, Long, & St. John 8205, 
in Hb. Field. 

Bidens heterodoxa var. orthodoxa, figs. 6, h: b, small flowering 
plant, X0.61; h, achene, X4.88; both from Fernald, Long, & St. 
John 8204, in Hb. Field. 

89. Bidens tripartita L. Sp. PI. 831. 1753. PI. LXVII, 

figs, a, b, and d-i. 
Bidens nodiflora L. op. cit. 832 (B. nudiflora Steud. Nom. ed. 2, 

sphalm). 
Bidens tripartita var. /3. flore radiato Zinn, Cat. Hort. Ager. Goett. 

406. 1757. 
Bidens tripartita var. 0. pumila Retz. Observ. 55. 1774; ed. 2. fasc. 

1: 28. 1791; Retz. Prodr. Fl. Scand. 154. 1779. 
Bidens cannabina Lam. Fl. Fr. 2: 44. 1778. 
Bidens frondosa var. a. Lam. Diet. Bot. 1 : 413. 1789. 
Bidens effusa Thuill. in Hb. Del. 
Bidens tripartita var. 0. Conyza palustris (Loes.) Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 1716. 

1804. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXIX 




BIDENS RADIATA Thuill. (figs, a-g) 
BIDENS TRIPARTITA var. ORIENTALIS (Velen.) Sherff (figs, h-n) 



OF THt 
UNIVERSITY Of ILLINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 269 

Bidens pumila (Retz.) Steud. Nom. ed. 1: 108. 1821. 

Bidens tripartita var. /3. minima Lej. Rev. Fl. Spa 171. 1824; cf. 

Wirtgen, Fl. Reg. Gobi. 97. 1841; Fl. Preuss. Rheinprov. 246. 

1857; Wimmer, Fl. Sches. Preuss. Oesterr. Anth. 216. 1841. 1 
Bidens tripartita var. a. major Wimmer & Grabowski, Fl. Siles. 2: 

118. 1829. 

Bidens tripartita var. /3. minor Wimm. & Grabowski, loc. cit. 
Bidens cernua var. tennis Turcz. ex DC. Prodr. 5: 594. 1836. 
Bidens tripartita var. 5. tennis (Turcz. ex DC.) DC. loc. cit. 
Bidens cannabina Tausch, Flora 19: 396. 1836. 
Bidens tripartita var. integra Peterm. Fl. Lips. 602. 1838. 
Bidens tripartita var. a. discoidea Wimmer, Fl. Sches. Preuss. Oesterr. 

Anth. 216. 1841. 
Bidens tripartita var. /3. radiata Wimm. loc. cit. ; Willd. ex Beckhaus, 

Fl. Westf. 582. 1893. 

Bidens pygmaea [pro var.!] 2 Kittel, Deutschl. Fl. ed. 2. 702. 1844. 
Bidens tripartita var. /3. integrifolia Wirtgen, Fl. Preuss. Rheinprov. 

246. 1857. 
Bidens tripartita L minima (Wirtg.) Larsson, Fl. Werml. o. Dal 221. 

1859. 

Bidens tripartita var. glareosa Schz. Bip. in Hb. Par. 
Bidens tripartita var. /3. ramosissima Schz. Bip. in Hb. Mus. V. 
Verbesina tripartita (L.) Ruprecht, Fl. Ingrica 1: 563. 1860. 
Pseudohepatorium foemina Dodon. ex Ruprecht, op. cit. 564. 
Verbena supina Trag. ex Ruprecht, loc. cit.; cf. Kirschleger, Fl. 

Vog.-Rhen. 1:364. 1870. 
Bidens tripartita subvar. minima (Wirtg.) Coss. & Germ. Fl. Par. 

ed. 2: 487. 1861. 

Bidens tripartita var. ruderalis eutripartita Schur in Hb. Kew. 
Bidens tripartita var. a. eutripartita Schur in Hb. U. S. 
Bidens tripartita var. heterophylla Schur in Hb. Par. 
Bidens tripartita var. simplex Schur in Hb. Gray. 

1 For a discussion of var. minima Huds. (Fl. Angl. ed. 2: 355. 1778), which is 
referred to Bidens cernua L., see p. 298, footnote 4. 

2 Kittel, in accordance with his peculiar custom of avoiding the prefix "var." 
and using the generic initial, used the name B. pygmaea. It is clearly evident in 
his text, however, that he meant a variety, not a species. But cf. Briq. & Cavill. 
(Fl. Alp. Marit. 6: 217. 1917), who fail to discriminate in this respect. (Really, 
Kittel's omission of the designation "var." is, by itself, unimportant, since such 
eminent botanists as Linnaeus and Augustin DeCandolle to name only two 
examples likewise omitted it, using merely a Greek letter. In the main body 
of their text, however, they repeatedly referred to their lettered forms as varieties.) 



270 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bidens arenicola Gandoger, Fl. Lyon. 122. 1875. 

Bidens arenaria Gandoger, loc. cit. 

Bidens tripartite, var. a. typica Beck v. M. Fl. Nied. Oesterr. 2, 2: 

1191. 1893 (exclud. synon. B. hybrida Thuill.). 
Bidens tripartita var. minor f. pumila (Retz.) Roth ex Beck v. M. 

loc. cit. 
Bidens tripartita var. minor f. Integra (Peterm.) Koch ex Beck v. M. 

loc. cit. 
Bidens tripartita var. cannabina (Lam.) Beckhaus, Fl. Westf. 582. 

1893. 

Bidens tripartita var. /3. indivisa Corbiere, Nouv. Fl. Norm. 316. 1893. 
Bidens tripartita f. stolonifera Bolzon, Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital. 1895: 

323. 1895. 
Bidens bipartita L. ex Halacsy, Conspect. Fl. Graec. 2: 578. 1902 

(sphalm). 

Bidens tripartita var. a. genuina Rouy, Fl. Fr. 8: 218. 1903. 
Bidens tripartita var. latifolia Rouy, loc. cit. 

Bidens tripartita var. minor sub var. pumila (Retz.) Rouy, loc. cit. 1 
Bidens tripartita f. gigantea Evers in Hb. Mus. V. 
Bidens tripartita var. cannabina (Lam.) Tausch ex Fiori in Fiori & 

Paoletti, Fl. Anal. Ital. 3: 302. 1904. 

Bidens tripartita var. reptans Caldesi ex Fiori, loc. cit. (fide Fiori). 
Bidens tripartita f. pumila (Retz.) Roth ex Briq. & Cavill. Fl. Alp. 

Marit. 6: 217. 1917. 
Bidens tripartita subvar. pumila (Retz.) Rouy ex Briq. & Cavill. 

op. cit. 217 and 327. 

Bidens tripartita subsp. eu-tripartita Briq. & Cavill. op. cit. 216. 
Bidens tripartita subsp. eu-tripartita var. major Wimm. & Grab. 

ex Briq. & Cavill. op. cit. 216 and 327. 
Bidens tripartita subsp. eu-tripartita var. pumila (Retz.) Roth ex 

Briq. & Cavill. op. cit. 217 and 327. 
Bidens tripartita subsp. eu-tripartita var. pumila f. Integra (Peterm.) 

Koch ex Beck v. M. ex Briq. & Cavill. op. cit. 217 and 327. 
a. Achaenia marginibus levia vel tantum parce retrorso-hamosa. 

var. 7. repens. 

a. Achaenia marginibus valde retrorso-hamosa. 
b. Folia principalia plerumque indivisa. 

c. Folia oblongo-lanceolata var. /3. cernuae/olia. 

1 For a discussion of hybrids between B. tripartita and B. radiata see p. 294. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXX 




B1DENS TRIPARTITA var. HIRTA (Jord.) Sherff 



OF THt 

f (HINDIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 271 

c. Folia subovata var. e. hirta. 

b. Folia principalia normaliter 3-5-partita. 

c. Achaenia corpore exteriora 5-6 mm. longa et 2.2-2.5 mm. 
lata, interiora 6-7.5 (-8.5) mm. longa et 1.5-2 mm. lata. 

B. tripartite, sensu stricto. 

c. Achaenia corpore exteriora 4-4.5 mm. longa et 2.2-2.5 mm. 
lata, interiora circ. 4.5 mm. longa et 1.5-2 mm. lata. 

var. 8. orientalis. 

Herba erecta, annua, saepius 2-7 (interdum gigantea et usque 
ad 20, interdum minima et tantum 1-2) dm. alta; caule subtetragono, 
glabro, gracili vel subgracili, virente vel valde purpurascente, ramoso; 
ramis subtenuibus, laxis. Folia breviter petiolata petiolis marginatis 
usque ad 1.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto principalia plerumque 3-9 
cm. longa, pallida vel laete viridia; inferiora simplicia lanceolata 
dentataque; superiora medianaque normaliter 3- vel 5-partita, seg- 
mentis membranaceis ovatis vel lanceolatis, acutis vel longe angus- 
teque acuminatis, irregulariter paucidentatis, segmento terminali 
tripartitorum simplici vel basi lobis duobus lateralibus interne 
saepius integris externe 1-2-dentatis instructo; summa lanceolata, 
simplicia vel trifida; omnia subtus parce hirtula et margine ciliata. 
Capitula solitaria ad terminos ramulorum, discoidea vel rarissime 
subradiata disco demum circ. 1-2 cm. lata (bracteis exterioribus 
exclusis) et circ. 1-1.5 cm. alta, pedunculata pedunculis tenuibus 
plerumque usque ad 4 cm. longis. Involucrum basi glabrum vel 
pubescens; bracteis exterioribus 5-9, foliaceis, linearibus vel lanceo- 
latis, integris vel dentatis, acutis vel anguste acuminatis, margine 
setoso-ciliatis, patulis, 1-3.5 cm. longis; interioribus ovatis vel ovato- 
lanceolatis, apice obtusis vel breviter acuminatis, 6-9 mm. longis. 
Achaenia obovato-cuneata, obcompressa, brunnea vel subatra, ad 
margines et rarissime ad costam medianam retrorsum hamosa, alibi 
glabra vel apicem versus sparsissime pilosiuscula, corpore exteriora 
5-6 mm. longa et 2.2-2.5 mm. lata, interiora 6-7.5 (-8.5) mm. longa 
et 1.5-2 mm. lata, omnia biaristata vel saepe imperfecte triaristata 
(rarissime quadriaristata) ; aristis suberectis, brunneis vel purpuras- 
centibus, retrorsum hamosis, duabus principalibus 2-3.5 mm. longis. 
Type specimen: In the Hortus Cliff ortianus set (Brit.; for 
more extended discussion see following text and especially p. 276, 
footnote 1). 

Distribution: Eastern hemisphere. In Eurasia from northern 
Ireland through Norway, Sweden, Finland, Turkestan, southeastern 
Siberia to Japan and even to Kamchatka Peninsula, southward to 



272 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

France, Italy, Turkey, Persia, and British East India. In the Philip- 
pine Islands. Rare in northern Africa (Algeria, etc.). In south- 
eastern Australia (New South Wales). 1 

Specimens examined: N. Alboff 460, alt. 600 meters, Abkhasia, 
Trans-Caucasia, October 14, 1893 (Boiss.); anon., Sakawa, Isl. 
Shikoku, Japan, October 10, 1890 (Berl.); 5. Balansa, moist ground, 
vicinity of Rehitze, Dist. Lazistan, Asiatic Turkey, September, 1866 
(Del., 2 sheets; Mus. V.); John Ball, near Belfast, Ireland, August, 
1837 (Mo.); idem, Dromtine Lough and Sneem, Kerry Co., Ireland, 
September 22, 1859 (Mo.); idem, vicinity of Colico, near Lake 
Como, Italy, August 21, 1863 (U.S.) ; A.Bennett 107, Croydon, Surrey, 
England, 1881 (Barn.); Henri Bernet, ditches, Geneva, Switzerland, 
August, 1860 (Boiss.); C. Billot 2866 (collected by M&niez), wet 
places at Louhans, Saone-et-Loire, France, September, 1860 (U.S.); 
idem 2866bis (collected by G. E. Paris), in radish field, very wet 
soil, near Chambe'ry, Savoie, France (U.S.); Blau 2012, Bosnia, 
September 10, 1869 (Berl.); Addison Brown, ballast near Com- 
munipaw Ferry, New Jersey, July 3, 1880 (N.Y.); P. & E. Carlstrom 
(Reliq. Mailleanae 1267), in swampy places, vicinity of Stora-Sched- 
wic, Dist. Dalecarlia (Dalarne), Sweden, August 28, 1862 (Burn.; 
Cop.; Del.; D.U. Prag.; Kew; Par., 2 sheets) ;Fr. Castella, edge of 
road, alt. about 800 meters, Ramont, toward Lussy, Fribourg, Switzer- 
land, September 5, 1905 (U.S.) ; G. von Cederwald, Holm, Sweden, 1866 
(Gray); J. F. Collins, M. L. Fernald, & A. S. Pease, damp hollow in 
arbor- vitae swamp, Perce", Quebec, August 16-20, 1904 (Gray); 
iidem 6175, towards Cap Blanc, Perce", August 16-20, 1904 (Gray); 
E. Cosson, Prov. Constantine, Algeria, July 17, 1861 (Cop.) ; N. H. 
Cowdry 1015, side of moat, very common, Peking, China, September, 
1919 (Kew); Dimonie, Macedonian region, European Turkey, July, 
1908 (Mus. V.); 0. Duhmberg 278, Altai, Siberia, 1881 (Berl., 3 
sheets); idem 419, eodem loco, 1881 (Berl.); Evers 476, shady 
ditches near Madonna Mariellina, September 6, 1903 (Mus. V., 
sub inscript. "f. gigantea bis Mannshoch") ; Faber, damp roadsides, 
Hai City, Manchuria, 1891 (Berl., 2 sheets); Urbain Faurie 162, 
Shonai, Japan, September 22, 1897 (Berl.; U.V.); idem 417, common 
in herb-covered places, Fusan, Corea, October 4, 1901 (Berl.); 
idem 1171, Mombetsu, Japan, September 27, 1887 (Kew, 2 sheets); 

1 Bidens tripartita was cited by Bigelow for Massachusetts (Fl. Bost. ed. 2. 
294. 1824), but Bigelow's plant was the tripartite-leaved form of Bidens connata 
Muhl. B. tripartite is not known to me from the western hemisphere, but doubtless 
occurs in the eastern United States about ballast and waste heaps. Fassett 
(Rhodora 27: 185. 1925) includes it for eastern North America. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXXI 




BIDENS AMPLISSIMA Greene 



OF TRt 



THE GENUS BIDENS 273 

idem 3372, Aomori, Japan, October, 1899 (Berl.; var. cernuaefoliae 
adpropinquans) ; idem 4083, in wet places, near Aomori (Berl.); 
idem 4854 and 4855, in marsh, Kushiro, Japan, September 19, 
1889 (Kew) ; idem & J. -B. Verlot 4916, ditches, near Grenoble, Isere, 
France, September, 1885 (Boiss.); Fiori, near Modeno, Italy, Sep- 
tember 9, 1885 (Berl.);0. R. Fries (fasc. 16, no. 1), Upsala, Sweden, 
1858-1864 (Berl.; Boiss.); H. A.Froding, Vermland, Sweden, August 
22, 1904 (Calif.); Gandoger (sine num.), Arnas, Rhone, France, Sep- 
tember, 1872 (Mus. V.) ; idem 599, gravels of the Saone River at Anse, 
Rhone, France, August 6, 1866 (Kew, sub nom. B. arenaria) ; idem 
600, glades, Nousols (Monsoult, Department Seine-et-Oise?), 
France, August 19, 1858 (Kew, sub nom. B. glaberrima) ; idem 967, 
Arnas, near Villefranche, Rhone, France, August 11, 1869 (sub nom. 
B. arenaria Gandog. Fl. Lyon. 122: Mo.; U.V.); Giuseppe Giraldi 
274, hill at Fu-kio, northern Shen-si, China (Berl.); idem 3059, 
Ki-fon-san, northern Shen-si, China, September, 1899 (Berl.); 
Grantzow, Prenzlau (Hindenburg), Prussia, August, 1876 (Mus. V., 
sub nom. B. cernua X tripartita); 1 A. A. Hamilton, Centennial Park, 
New South Wales, March, 1909 (Mus. V.); Heinrich Handel- 
Mazzetti, Gotzeus bei Innsbruck, Austrian Tyrol, August, 1897 
(U.V.); C. Haussknecht (Iter Syriaco-Armenicum), alt. 450 meters, 
ditches about Maranh, August 22, 1865 (Mus. V.); Hass 17, alt. 30 
meters, Kiao-chau (Kiautschou), Prov. Shan-tung, China, October 10, 
1905 (Berl.); Hayek 3795 p.p., calcareous soil, alt. 330 meters, Hoche- 
negg, southern Styria (Steiermark), Austria (Gray); A. Henry 9903, 
rice fields below Pan-Zu-Lua, Mengtse (Meng-tsz, Prov.Yun-nan), 
China, November 19 (N.Y.); H. Hollmen 384a, in ditch connected 
with the sea, near Abo, Finland, August 28, 1885 (Berl.; Cop.; Del., 
2 sheets; Mo.; U.V.); idem 3846, Nystad, Birkholm, Huvilanlahti, 
Finland, August, 1881 (Berl.; Cop.; Del.; Mo.; U.V.); 2 Jeanpert 
1202, ditches, Saint-Denis, Seine, France, September 19, 1901 
(Boiss.; foliis indivisis); Karl Keck, Aistershaim, Upper Austria, 
August 23, 1861 (U.V.); idem, ditches near Aistershaim, August, 
1889 (U.V.);Lom's Keller, bushy, swampy places, vicinity of Vienna, 

1 Grantzow 876 (Mus. V.) likewise came from Prenzlau and likewise was 
regarded by Grantzow as being a hybrid between B. cernua and B. tripartita and 
he remarks in both cases that he found his (supposed) hybrids "nur unter den 
Eltern." The leaves are indeed almost simple, somewhat suggesting B. cernua, 
but the general aspect and fruit characters are those of B. tripartita. (Elsewhere in 
herbaria, normal specimens of B. radiata have been carelessly taken for hybrids 
between B. cernua and B. tripartita.) 

2 From Hollmen's printed label is taken the following: "In Finlandia australi 
usque ad c. 62 frequenter aut frequentissime obvius, in australi parte Finlandiae 
mediae ad c. 63 haud frequens. In vicinitate Sinus Bottnici ad c. 64 progreditur." 



274 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Austria, August 28, 1880 (Mus. V., 2 sheets); W. A. Kellerman, 
Goettingen, Germany, August 23, 1879 (U.S.); A. Klammerth 1268, 
in fields at Aschbach near Wegscheid, Bavaria, August, 1911 (Berl.; 
Mus. V.; U.V.); T. A. Knapp, along brook, Hasanbeili, Persia, 
September 19, 1884 (U.V.); V. L. Komarov 1535 p.p., River Mu-dan- 
dsian, Manchuria, September 19, 1896 (Berl., sub nom. var. limosa 
Kom.; plantis tantum circ. 1.5 dm. altis, achaeniorum immaturorum 
marginibus retrorsum spinulosis) ; idem 3291 p.p., Kamtchatka Penin- 
sula, August 27, 1909 (Mus. V., forma valde pumila et var. orientali 
adpropinquans, foliis simplicibus longo-lanceolatis, achaeniis parvis 
submaturis subnigris); Fr. Kornicke, Leningrad, Russia, August, 
1857 (Berl., 2 sheets); idem, on the Karposka, at the Botanical 
Garden, Leningrad, September, 1857 (Berl.); Th. Kotschy (PL alepp. 
kurd. moss.) 457, Asiatic Turkey (Berl. ; Mus. V., 3 sheets, forma paucis 
foliis tripartitis) ; B. Krug 454, alt. 600 meters, Lauschan Mountains, 
Kiao-chau (Kiautschou), Prov. Shan-tung, China, September, 1910 
(Berl.); idem 631, iisdem montibus, 1905 (Berl.); A. Loher 3637, 
Trinidad, central Luzon, Philippine Islands (Kew); Maximowicz 
(iter secund.}, Hakodate, Japan, 1861 (Cop.; Mus. V.); idem (iter 
secund.}, Yokohama, Japan, 1862 (Berl.; Gray); Meisner, near 
Geneva, Switzerland, September 14, 1826 (N.Y.); K. Menjabe, 
Azuma, Prov. Iburi, Japan, August 22, 1884 (Gray); Moniez 2866 
(vide C. Billot 2866) ; H. Mortensen, Denmark, September 15, 1888 
(Mo.) ; M.F. Milliner, shore of stream at Penzing, Austria, September 
6, 1876 (Mus. V.); Mustafa 490, Noi, Kurdistan, Asiatic Turkey, 
1874 (Kew) ; J. Natsumura, Tokyo, Japan, September 30, 1879 (U.V. ; 
nomen japonicum, Tokogi); R. Oldham 411 pro parte, Nagasaki, 
Japan, 1862 (Boiss.; Cop.; Kew; Mun.); J. Paczoski, Pereiaslaf, 
Poltava, Little Russia, August 21, 1891 (Boiss.); idem, Kamienka, 
Distr. Gorodnia, Chernigof, Little Russia, July 9, 1892 (Boiss.); 
Ove Paulsen 2141, forest, Piribasar near Enseli, Prov. Gilan (Ghilan), 
Persia, 1899 (Cop.); Petermann, vicinity of Leipsic, Germany 
(Mus. V., 15 specimina, tantum 7-12 cm. alta et sub nom. var. 
minima Peterm.); K. Petersen, Christiania, Norway, 1888 (Mus. 
V.); F. Petrak 691, ditches in meadows, Weisskirchen, Moravia, 
Czechoslovakia, August, 1911 (Gray); G. N. Potanin, plain about 
Kuku-hoton, Ordos, Mongolia, August 23, 1884 (Mus. V.); idem, in 
marshes, eodem loco, August 25, 1884 (N.Y.);#. Preissmann, alt. 
600 meters, Marienbad, Bohemia, August 15, 1915 (Mus. V.); 
A. Regel, Kara Kul (Karakol) and Ala-tau, Turkestan, September, 
1876 (Kew, achaeniis var. orientali adpropinquans) ; P. F. Reinsch 



THE GENUS BIDENS 275 

304, Erlangen, Bavaria, September 1, 1900 (Del.); Aladar Richter, 
between Taga and Sucutard, Prov. Transsilvania, Roumania, August 
30, 1901 (Cluj, 2 sheets); A. V. Rosthorn 1049, Nan-chuan, Prov. 
Sze-chuan (Szechuen), China, 1891 (Berl.); De Sardagna, Valle del 
Sale, Trent, southern Tyrol, September 4, 1878 (U.V., 2 sheets); 
Schlagintweit 866, alt. 2,070-2,250 meters, environs of Skardo, 
Prov. Balti, Tibet, August 6-September 4, 1856 (Gray);Fr. Scklan- 
busch, vicinity of Alingsas, Sweden, July, 1893 (Cop.); Schrenk, 
Sungaria (Berl. ex Petrop.); C. H. Schultz Bipontinus, Erlangen, 
Germany, 1826 (Mus. V.);Schur 2001a, Briinn, Moravia, July, 1870 
(U.S., sub nom. a. eutripartita Schur); idem 2001 (c? non distincte 
scriptum), among rubbish, Vienna, Austria, August 30, 1867 (Kew, 
sub nom. var. ruderali eutripartita}; A. Schweinfurth, Nijni-Nov- 
gorod, Great Russia, July, 1863 (Berl., 1 interiore achaenio 4-aris- 
tato); Fr. Sennen 2687, alt. 1,150 meters, prairie ditches, Caldegas, 
Cerdagne, Spain, September 11, 1916 (Burn., sub nom. B. tripartita 
var. biaristata Sennen) ; idem & Fr. Septimin 178 p.p., ditches, Portia 
to Fortianell, Catalonia, Spain, October, 1906 (Burn.); T. Symono- 
wiczowna 737, Minojty, Dist. Lida, Lithuania, 1898 (Berl.; Mus. V.; 
U.V.); Tanaka 20, Japan (Mus. V.); Taquet 1028, in rice fields, 
Hongno, Isl. Quelpaert (Quelpaerd), Corea, October 15, 1908 
(Berl.; Del.); Telsman 48, Dittmannsdorf, Silesia, August, 1889 
(U.V.); T. Thomson, alt. 1,500-1,800 meters, Kashmir, British East 
India (Boiss.; Cop.; Del.; Gray; Kew; Mus. V.); J. L. Thuillier, 
Etang de St. Hubert, France (Del., sub nom. B. effitsa; forma parva 
valde ramosa); idem (Del., sub nom.B. tripartita; auctoris specimen, 
Fl. env. d. Paris ed. 2. 1799); Tokubuchi, Horomambetsu, Prov. 
Hidaka, Japan, August 20, 1892 (Mo.); L. A. Waddell, alt. 3,600 
meters, Lhasa, Tibet, September 15, 1904 (Kew); K. Watanabe, 
Sakawa, Isl. Shikoku, Japan, October 11, 1888 (Gray); H. C. Watson, 
North Surrey, England, 1865 (Carn.); N. Zelenetzuy, Simferopol 
(Sympheropol), Crimea, June 1, 1885 (Boiss.). 1 

The historical setting of Bidens tripartita L. is very definite and 
admits of no doubt fortunately so, since Linnaeus (loc. cit.) made it 
the first or type species of his genus Bidens. Linnaeus' original 
description ("Bidens corollis flosculosis, calycibus subfoliosis, semi- 
nibus erectis, foliis trifidis") is rather meager. However, his first 
cited synonym refers directly to the Hortus Cliffortianus. The 

1 The juice of this species dyes cloth yellow (Lightfoot, Fl. Scot. 1: 462. 1777; 
Gray, Brit. PI. 2: 448. 1821; J. E. Smith, Engl. Fl. ed. 1. 3: 399. 1825; W. Baxter, 
Brit. Flow. PI. 6: 446. 1843). "It is very acrid and when chewed, excites salivation" 
(Baxter, loc. cit.; cf. Gandoger, Fl. Lyon. 122, concerning B. arenaria. 1875). 



276 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

original Hortus Cliffortianus specimen is still in an excellent state of 
preservation (Brit.) 1 and this, together with the main specimen 2 
of the Linnean Herbarium, is seen to be the common, usually purple- 
stemmed species known to practically all European writers since the 
days of Linnaeus as B. tripartita. 

Much confusion has arisen in literature concerning Bidens nodi- 
flora L. The name was founded by Linnaeus directly upon "Bidens 
nodiflora, brunellae folio" in Dillenius, Hort. Elth. 52, pi. 44, / 52. 
This Dillenian plant was clearly illustrated and was a form of Bidens 
tripartita L. The Linnean Herbarium has Linnaeus' own specimen 
of Bidens nodiflora L. and the resemblance to the Dillenian plate 
(No. 44) is very close. It happens, however, that Dillenius had 
given another plate with the name "Bidens nodiflora folio Tetrahit" 
(op. cit. pi. 45, fig. 53} and in that plate was shown the plant later 
named Synedrella nodiflora by Gaertner. The use by Dillenius 
of the name nodiflora for these two unlike species led subsequently 
to confusion. Thus many instances are found in which "Synedrella 
nodiflora (L.) Gaertn." is erroneously given and it must be noted 
here that Linnaeus should in no way be accredited with this name 
in Synedrella. 

Many writers have sought to segregate, under such names as var. 
pygmaea, var. pumila, etc., the tiny dwarfed plants often produced 
by B. tripartita under adverse conditions. As dwarfed forms can 
be evoked, under certain conditions, in practically every species of 
phanerogam, the maintenance of such names as var. pygmaea, var. 
pumila, etc. (as also of such names as var. normalis, var. typica, etc.), 
seems of little value. Thus, in all cases in which a varietal or even 
specific name rests upon a form which clearly is B. tripartita but has 
not had opportunity to grow to normal size, I have reduced the name 
to synonymy, viz.: var. pumila Retz.; B. pumila (Retz.) Steud.; 
var. minor Wimm. & Grab.; var. Integra Peterm.; var. minima 

1 Its label reads, "Chrysanthemum. Cannabinum aquaticum folio tripartitum 
diviso. H. L. Bidens foliis tripartite divisis Caesalp. 488, Bidens tripartitus." 
In the Hortus Cliffortianus (p. 399. 1737) Linnaeus placed this with var. a. of his 
first species of Bidens and gave Bidens foliis tripartito divisis Caesalp. syst. 488" as 
his first synonym. But if we discard the Hortus Cliffortianus herbarium specimen 
and go back to the work of Caesalpinus (De Plantis 16: 488, cap. XVII. 1583), 
we meet with the same species. 

2 From which my plate is largely taken. A second sheet in the Linnean 
Herbarium is pinned to the main or first sheet and bears a smaller specimen 
raised from seed in the Garden of Upsala (Hort. Upsal.). This smaller specimen is 
specifically identical. (Concerning the status and authenticity of the main or 
larger specimen as representing Linnaeus' concept, cf. B. Daydon Jackson, Proc. 
Linn. Soc. 124th Session, suppl. Index Linn. Herb. : 8, sub num. 1; 25, sub 
Explanation; 44, sub Bidente tripartita, 1. 1912.) 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXXII 




BIDENS CERNUA L. (figs, a, d-k); var. OLIGODONTA Fern. & St. J. (figs. 6, c) 



OF TKt 

UHIYEBSITY OF ILLINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 277 

Wirtg.; 1 var. pygmaea Kittel; var. integrifolia Wirtg.; 2 f. minima 
(Wirtg.) Larss.; 3 sub var. minima (Wirtg.) Coss. & Germ.; var. minor 
f . pumila (Retz.) Roth ex Beck von M. ; var. minor f. Integra (Peterm.) 
Beck von M.; var. indivisa Corb.; var. minor sub var. pumila 
(Retz.) Rouy. 4 Similarly, all cases of self-evident duplication have 
been treated by reduction to synonymy, viz.: var. major Wimm. 
& Grab.; var. discoidea Wimm.; var. typica Beck von M.; var. 
genuina Rouy. 

B. cannabina Lam. was a substitute name 5 used by Lamarck 
for B. tripartita L., which he cited, along with "Bidens foliis 
tripartite divisis Tournef. 462," as synonymous. B. Jrondosa var. 
a. Lam. is likewise referable, by straight synonymy, to B. tripartita. 

Rarely B. tripartita has a few minute ray flowers. Loeselius (Fl. 
Pruss. 53, pi. 10. 1703) was apparently the first to publish an illus- 
tration of this rare radiate form, using the name, "Conyza palustris, 
foliis tripartito-divisis." In 1757, Zinn (loc. cit.) listed it as var. 0. 
flore radiato. Later, Vitman (Summa PI. 4: 458. 1790) noted this 
form ("Petal, luteo-fusca. Var. fl. radiato") and, still later, Willdenow 
(loc. cit.) employed the name "var. /3. Conyza palustris" (Loes.) Willd. 
In 1836, Tausch (loc. cit.) used again the nameB. cannabina for the 
common discoid form of B. tripartita and treated Conyza palustris, 
etc., of Loeselius as synonymous. Certain authors (e.g., Me"rat, Rev. 
Fl. Par. 251. 1843) appear to have misconstrued the import of 
Tausch's equation of the .two names, thinking that his B. cannabina 
was meant as a name given particularly to the radiate form of B. 

1 In his treatment of B. tripartita L., Wirtgen rejected B. minima Huds. 
("B. minima L.")i placing this latter form rather as a variety of B. cernua L. 
In 1841, it will be observed, both Wimmer and Wirtgen published the name var. 
minima. As Wirtgen's var. minima is apparently the first to rest purely upon the 
dwarf B.triparlita form, I have credited him rather than Wimmer or the earliest 
writers in the subsequent combinations; e.g., f. minima (Wirtg.) Larss. 

2 Wirtgen's short description ("mit ungetheilten lanzettl. Bl., etwas entfernt 
vom Wasser") stresses the simple, lanceolate leaves of plants in drier habitats and 
omits mention of any dwarf habit, although of course his description could refer 
only to the more or less dwarfed forms. We may note, in passing, that K. Beck- 
haus (Fl. Westfal. 582. 1893) credits Celakovsky with the authorship of the varietal 
name integrifolia but it is doubtful if Celakovsky's use of this name antedates 
Wirtgen's. 

3 As stated elsewhere (Bot. Gaz. 64: 31. 1917), Druce (Fl. Berks. 283. 1897) 
treated this dwarf form as forma minima, with the idea apparently that such 
treatment was new. Evidently he was unaware of Larsson's much earlier use of 
the name. 

4 In addition may be mentioned var. /3. auriculata Tausch (Flora 19: 396. 1836). 
It was described rather briefly: "foliis plerisque integris, inferioribus 1-2-auricula- 
tis." It is apparently a mere dwarfed form of the species proper. 

5 Evidently taken from one of the pre-Linnean synonyms cited by Linnaeus. 
Cf. Cannabina aquatica folio tripartite diviso C. Bauhin. Pin. ed. 2. 321. 1671. 



278 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

tripartite,. Tausch's description ("floribus discoideis. . . .") shows, 
of course, that he used the name B. cannabina mainly for the common 
discoid form. 1 Beckhaus (loc. cit.) reduces the name cannabina to 
varietal rank under B. tripartita, but without good reason. 

The rare radiate form is by a few authors separated as var. 
radiata Wimm. Beckhaus (loc. cit.) reports that it once was found at 
Bielefeld, Prussia. 2 Var. tennis (Turcz. ex DC.) DC. is merely a 
small form or state of the species "capitulis paucifloris, foliis indivisis 
aut vix basi grossius tridentatis" (DC. loc. cit.). 3 Verbesina tri- 
partita (L.) Rupr. is a direct synonym forB. tripartita L. 4 Pseudo- 
hepatorium foemina Dodon. ex Rupr. is admitted here with some 
reluctance as it is really a pre-Linnean name (Rembert. Dodonaeus 
Mechl. Stirp. Hist. Comm. Imag. 67 and pi. 1553), though published 
in binomial form by Ruprecht. So, also, for Verbena supina Trag. 
ex Rupr. (which goes back to Tragus, De Stirp. Germ., etc., 211. 
1552). 

B. tripartita var. latifolia Rouy was a name applied to small 
plants collected by P. and E. Carlstrom (Reliq. Mailleanae 1267). 
Excellent specimens examined by me (Burn., D.U.Prag., etc.) are 
merely small forms (12-30 cm. high) of B. tripartita. 

B. tripartita var. indivisa Corb. ("Feuilles lance'ole'es, indivises. 
Qa et la" Normandy, France) fits, from its description, a speci- 
men by Mr. Aucher Eloy, No. 3847, northern Persia, 1837, sub nom. 
B. cernua (Del.). This specimen had been labeled "B. tripartita 5. 
indivisa DC." by DeCandolle many years before Corbiere's name 
was published. 

A number of herbarium names have been included among the 
synonyms, with the thought that some of these may perhaps have 
been published in literature not examined by me. Bidens effusa 

1 Among Tausch's plants preserved at Leipsic is a specimen of B. cannabina 
Tausch, with the data, "fl. inundat. Bohemiae Tausch!" It is in fine condition and 
is normal B. tripartita L. 

2 For other references to this form, cf. J. E. Smith, Eng. Fl. ed. 1. 3 : 399. 
1825; ibid. ed. 2. 3: 400. 1828-1830; Mossier, Handb. Gewachsk. (Fl. Deutschl.) 
2: 1503. 1833; Steinworth, Phan. Fl. Fiirst. Liineb. 106. 1849; Garcke, Fl. N. M. 
Deutschl. ed. 2. 174. 1851; Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv. 309. 1857; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. 3: 543. 1866; O. Kuntze, Tasch. Fl. Leipz. 137. 1867; Kirschleger, Fl. Vog. 
Rhen. 364. 1870; Seubert, Excurs. Suddeutschl. 170. 1878. 

3 DeCandolle's type sheet of var. tenuis is in the Prodromus Herbarium (Del.). 
It has Turczaninow's original specimen, also two others. All three are merely 
small, dwarfed forms of B. tripartita L. 

4 Ruprecht (loc. cit.) gives an extended review of the history of Bidens as a 
genus. He rejects the name Bidens and adopts, for such species as B, tripartita 
L. and B. cernua L.,the generic name Verbesina. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 279 

(leg. J. L. Thuillier, Etang de St. Hubert, France, August; Del.) is 
merely a bushy state. Bidens tripartita var. glareosa Schz. Bip. 
(Par.) is a rather small plant of B. tripartita. Bidens tripartita var. 
ft. ramosissima Schz. Bip. was a name applied to a plant by Th. 
Kotschy (PL alepp. kurd. moss. 457); a few leaves are tripartite 
on the specimens examined (Mus. V., 3 sheets; Berl.), the rest are 
simple. Bidens tripartita var. ruderalis eutripartita Schur was the 
name applied to Schur 2001 pro parte, in ruderatis, Vienna, Austria, 
August, 1867 (Kew). Elsewhere (U.S.), the name Bidens tripartita a. 
eutripartita Schur was applied to Schur 2001a, Briinn, Moravia, July, 
1870. Bidens tripartita var. heterophylla Schur was applied (Par.) to 
Schur 11225B, September 24, 1874. Another .specimen (Gray) by 
Schur, from near Briinn, Moravia, was labeled B. tripartita var. 
simplex. 

Bidens tripartita var. ft. cernuaefolia Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 88: 288. 
1929. PL LXVII, fig. c. 

Folia indivisa vel summa subtripartita, breviter petiolata petiolis 
alatis circ. 1 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 7-9 cm. longa, oblongo-lanceo- 
lata, membranacea, glabra, leviter serrulata, apice acuta sed parce 
acuminata, basi sensim rotundata. Achaenia cuneato-oblanceolata, 
plana, purpurascenti-atra, faciebus glabra striataque, marginibus 
retrorsum hamosa, corpore 7-8 mm. longa et 1.5-2 mm. lata, apice 
biaristata aristis retrorsum hamosis 3-4 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by R. C. Ching, No. 4672, rare along 
open ditch, at altitude of 120 meters, Pei Chen, Province of Anhwei 
(Ngan-hui; Nganhwei), China, September 15, 1925 (Calif.). 

Distribution: Known for a certainty only from type locality of 
Pei Chen, Province of Anhwei, China; but perhaps occurring also in 
Formosa (B. Shimadei Hay., vide infra). 

Specimens examined: R. C. Ching 4672 (type, Calif.). 

Among the probably more than two thousand sheets of Bidens 
tripartita material studied, all specimens heretofore examined have 
proved referable either to the species proper or to one of the following 
three varieties. This plant, from the little known Province of 
Anhwei, appears to represent a variety quite distinct. The leaves 
bear a strong resemblance to those found in some forms of Bidens 
cernua L. and of B. laevis (L.) B.S.P. 

B. Shimadai Hay. (cf. Bot. Gaz. 85: 15. 1928) is construed, from 
its description and the figure given, to be a simple-leaved form of B. 
tripartita, probably best referred to the var. cernuaefolia. Hayata 



280 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

(loc. cit.) applied this name to a plant collected by Y. Shimada at 
Schichiseizan, Formosa, September, 1916. He described the plant as 
being near to B. tripartite,, but stated that it differed "in the simple, 
not lobed, leaves." l 

Bidens tripartita var. 7. repens (D. Don) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 

81: 45. 1926. PI. LXVIII, figs. a-/. 
Bidens repens D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 180. 1825. 
Bidens trifida Buch. in Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 3: 411. 1832. 
Bidens Taquetii LeVl. & Vant. ex LeVl. Bull. Acad. Internat. Geogr. 

Bot. 20: 3. 1910. 
Bidens minuscula LeVl. & Vant. ex LeVl. loc. cit. 

Saepius tantum 1-4 dm. alta, foliis nunc simplicibus et anguste 
lanceolatis, nunc tripartitis segmentis anguste lanceolatis vel saepe 
cuneato-lanceolatis. Achaenia cuneato-linearia, brunneo-subnitida 
vel subnigra, marginibus levia vel debiliter retrorso-hamosa, corpore 
plerumque 5-8 mm. longa, apice 2- vel 3-aristata aristis retrorsum 
hamosis. 

Type specimen: Collected in State of Nepal, British East India. 
Don's book was based primarily upon plants collected in the years 
1802-1803 in Nepal by Dr. Hamilton, but was supplemented by 
plants sent in more recently by D. Wallich. 2 It is evident from 
Don's text, and considering all available herbarium data, that his 
Bidens repens was based upon (1) "Bidens frondosa Linn.? Hamilton 
Mss.;" (2) "B. tripartita Roxb. Hort. Beng. p. 60;" (3) the speci- 
mens sent in by Wallich. The Hooker Herbarium (Kew) has one 
specimen (omitted from the list below) that is probably the Roxburgh 
plant seen by Don and that might be regarded as the type or its 
equivalent. In any case, the Wallich plants (vide "Specimens 
examined") all exactly match each other and also Don's description 
and are equally representative of his concept. 

Distribution: From Island of Quelpaert (Corea) and Province 
of Chi-li (China) to Province of Yun-nan (China), to northern and 
eastern British East India, southward to Island of Luzon (Philip- 
pine Isls.), Java, and Dutch New Guinea. 

1 It may be remarked in passing, that normal B. tripartita grows in Formosa. 
Hayata lists a normal specimen of B. tripartita collected in the type locality for his 
B. Shimadai: T. Soma, Schichiseizan, March, 1916. 

2 Thus we read, on Don's title page, ". . . sive Enum. vegetabilium, quae in 
itinere per Nepaliam proprie dictam et regipnes conterminas, ann. 1802-1803. 
Detexit atque legit D. D. Franciscus Hamilton, (olim Buchanan) M.D. . . . 
Accedunt plantae a D. Wallich nuperius missae. . . . David Don. . . . 1825." 



THE GENUS BIDENS 281 

Specimens examined: C. A. Backer 12506, alt. 1,700 meters, near 
pool, Tclaga Pattenggang, Preanger Regencies, Java, March 24, 1914 
(Buit.; achaeniis tenuissimis sed ad corporum margines retrorsum 
hispidis; Calif .); Bretschneider, Peking, Prov. Chi-li, China (Berl.); 
C. B. Clarke 23674, alt. 900 meters, Raipur, British East India, 
October 15, 1874 (Kew); idem 41686A, alt. 1,425 meters, Kohima 
(Koluma), Naga Hills Distr., British East India, October 22, 1885 
(Kew); idem 41825A, alt. 1,650 meters, Chekwema (Kegwima), 
Naga Hills Distr., British East India, November 9, 1885 (Kew); 
Henry Collett, alt. 1,500 meters, Kulu Valley, British East India, 
October 17 (Kew) ; M . P. Edgeworth, alt. 1,500-2,400 meters, Hima- 
laya region, British East India, 1844 (Kew; forma e specie ipsa 
non valde differens); E. E. Maire, ditches at alt. 2,500 meters, 
plain of Tung-chuan (Tong-tchouan), Prov. Yun-nan, China, Sep- 
tember, 1910 (Mus. V.); idem, ditches, pools, eodem loco, September, 
1912 (Del.); R. Oldham 411 pro parte, Nagasaki, Japan, 1862 
(N.Y.); Maximo Ramos 5537, Rio Trinidad, Benguet Prov., Luzon, 
Philippine Isls., December, 1908 (U.S.); R. R. Stewart 10056, 
Gund, Kashmir, Sind Valley, northwestern Himalaya, September 1, 
1928 (N.Y.); R. Strachey & J. E. Winterbottom 3, alt. 1,200 meters, 
below Almora, Kumaon, Himalaya region, British East India (Gray; 
Kew) ; Makoto Takenouchi, alt. about 1,300 meters, wet meadow on 
Mt. Hizengajho, Kudzu Mountain Range, Prov. Bungo, Kyushu 
IsL, Japan, August 29, 1924 (Field; plantis pumilis typo B. 
minusculae LeVl. & Vant. ex LeVl. valde similibus); Taquet 1031, 
alt. 1,000 meters, wet, herb-grown places, Hallaisan, Quelpaert 
Isl., Corea, September 18, 1908 (cotypes Bidens minuscula LeVl. & 
Vant. ex LeVl.; Berl.; Del.; Kew; Mun.); idem 1035, alt. 900 meters, 
forests, Hioton, Quelpaert Isl., Corea, September 18, 1908 (cotypes 
Bidens Taquetii LeVl. & Vant. ex LeVl.; Berl.; Kew); T. Thomson, 
alt. 1,500-1,800 meters, Kumaon, Himalaya region, British East 
India (Kew); idem, alt. 1,500-1,800 meters, British East India 
(temperate region), October, 1848 (Kew, 2 sheets); idem 1238, eodem 
loco, June, 1845 (Kew; Oxf.); Versteeg 1192, Dutch New Guinea, 
August 3, 1907 (Berl.; Kew; achaeniorum corporibus margine 
paucihamosis) ; idem 1543, eodem loco, July 31, 1907 (Berl.; Kew; 
a Versteegii numero 1192 non differt); Wallich (cat. 3187, comp. 
297a), Nepal, British East India, 1821 (Berl.; Brit.; Del., sub 
inscript. "297. Bidens tripartita Rogb. herb. 1824. A Nepalia. 
Comp. angl. des Ind. 1830"); Warburg 3142, Java, September, 
1866 (Berl.). 



282 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bidens Taquetii LeVl. & Vant. and B. minuscula LeVl. & Vant. 
were described from specimens collected by Taquet in Corea. B. 
Taquetii (Taquet 1035) is described as having heads radiate, ligules 
3-striate. The several cotypes examined (Berl.; Kew) uniformly 
lack rays, but even were tiny rays present they alone could not be of 
conclusive value in diagnosis, since true European B. tripartita (vide 
supra) has been known for many years to produce, in rare cases, 
small rays. B. minuscula (Taquet 1031) is merely a dwarfed form of 
B. Taquetii. Its several cotypes studied (Berl.; Del.; Kew; Mun.) 
excel, however, in having mature achenes. These have the slender, 
cuneate-linear, often almost glossy bodies with smooth margins, 
observed in a number of specimens from the Orient. Quite generally 
in herbaria this far-eastern form has been referred to B. tripartita. 
The dwarfed plants of it, however, do not resemble the dwarfed 
plants of B. tripartita commonly found, for example, in Europe. 
Rather do they have slender, oblanceolate leaves. Among the larger 
plants, various intergradations in foliage are found, particularly 
in Japan and Formosa, between the form of the Orient and the one 
typical in Europe. We have also the fact that in the particular 
oriental form under discussion the smooth margins of the achenes are 
strikingly different from the spinulose margins of normal B. tripartita 
achenes. In view of these considerations, it seems wisest to treat 
the Taquet plants as representing a geographic variety. 

Reference to literature shows that long ago this eastern variety 
was listed for Nepalia (India) by Roxburgh, who published the manu- 
script name Bidens trifida previously given it by Buchanan, and gave 
a full description. Roxburgh's description of the achenes ("flat, 
wedge-shaped, smooth, without angles; horns two, rarely three, 
backwardly hispid, diverging") is significant. 

In the British Museum of Natural History are two old sheets, 
labeled in pencil, "B. repens Don." The plants are similar to the 
cotypes of B. Taquetii LeVl. & Vant., and match the description of 
B. trifida Buch. ex Roxb. They match also Don's earlier but less 
ample description, published in 1825, of B. repens. At least one 
plant was collected by Wallich, likewise in Nepalia, and bears 
Wallich's list No. 3187a. Don's text included plants "a D. Wallich 
nuperius missae," and it is probable that he had seen these sheets 
before publishing his description of B. repens. In any case, his 
description rested primarily, as did Roxburgh's, upon the material 
collected by Buchanan 1 in Nepal, and thus, with B. repens Don, 

1 Known in literature also as Francis Hamilton (cf. Don, loc. cit.; Alph. DC. 
Phytogr. 418. 1880). 



THE GENUS BIDENS 283 

B. trifida Buch. ex Roxb. is seen to be synonymous. 1 (Additional 
data are given above under "Specimens examined.") 

Bidens tripartita var. 6. orientalis (Velen.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
81:47.1926. PI. LXIX, figs. h-n. 

Bidens orientalis Velen. ex Bornm. Bot. Centralbl. 36: 61. 1888 
(nomen); Velen. Sitzb. Boehm. Ges. Wiss. 1888: 49. 1889. 
(Cf. etiam Fl. Bulg. 250. 1891.) 

Bidens orientals Velen. Sitzb. Boehm. Ges. Wiss. 1888: 48. 1889 
(sphalm). 

Var. achaeniis parvis, obovato-cuneatis, planis, nitidis, purpureo- 
nigris vel saepius nigrescentibus, ad margines retrorsum tubercu- 
lato-hamosis, alibi glabris vel apicem versus sparsissime pilosius- 
culis, corpore exterioribus 4-4.5 mm. longis et 2.2-2.5 mm. latis 
interioribus circ. 4.5 mm. longis et 1.5-2 mm. latis, omnibus biaris- 
tatis vel saepe imperfecte triaristatis, aristis retrorsum hamosis, 
duabus principalibus circ. 2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Velenovsky, No. 1888, on the shores 
of the Kamtchik (Kamcyk) River, Bulgaria (non visum). 

Distribution: Spain, Jugo-Slavia, and eastern European Russia 
(Kazan) southeastward to Montenegro and European and Asiatic 
Turkey. 

Specimens examined : Lujo Adamovic, wet places, Vran ja, Serbia, 
September 2, 1903 (Berl.); idem, marshes, Adrianople, Vilayet of 
Adrianople, European Turkey, July, 1906 (Berl., 2 sheets; Del.; 
Kew; Mus. V. ; U.V.) ; Joseph Bornmuller 9, swamps, Kebedze, Varna, 
Bulgaria, September 21, 1889 (Boiss.; Brit.; Kew; Phila.; U.V.); 
idem 1177 (Berl.) ; Charreli 692, alt. 250 meters, Acropolis of Seres, 
Vilayet of Saloniki, European Turkey, August 21, 1888 (Berl.); 
Friedrichsthal 1088 (1688?), lake near Saloniki, Vilayet of Salo- 
niki, European Turkey (Mus. V.); S. Korzchinsky, Raifa, Distr. 
Kazan, Government of Kazan, Russia, 1884 (Berl.); D. I. Litwinow 
38, edges of water, near Ashabad, Turcomania, November 15, 1897 
(Berl.; Del.); F. S. Meyers & J. E. Dinsmore 1904, wet places, shore 
of Lake Huleh, Palestine, September 2, 1921 (Del., 2 sheets); 
Prodan, marshy places near Bezdan, Jugo-Slavia, September, 1914 

1 Mention may be made also of Vladimir L. Komarbv 1535 p.p., collected 
along the Mu-dan-dsian River, Province of Kirin, Manchuria, Sept. 19, 1896 
(Berl.; Brit., etc.). This is a small, slender mud form with elliptic or oblong- 
lanceolate leaves, and achenes moderately retrorse-hooked on margins. It was 
distributed under the name 5. tripartita var. limosa Komarov. The plant is an 
intermediate form between var. repens and the species proper (cf. p. 274). 



284 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

(Transsilv.); Jos. Rohlena, Bar, Montenegro, August, 1910 (Berl.); 
C. K. Schneider 1018, sandy places near Studena, near Nisch, Ser- 
bia, September 5, 1907 (Berl.; Kew; Mo., 2 sheets; Mus. V.; Phila.); 
Bros. Sennen & Septimin 178 p.p., ditches, Fortia to Fortianell, Cata- 
lonia, Spain, October, 1906 (Cluj; Mus. V.); Sintenis Bros., Pristav, 
Dobrudja Division, Roumania, September 18, 1872 (Berl.); iidem 
419, Babadag, Dobrudja Division, Roumania, September 12, 1873 
(Kew); P. Sintenis 1119 ("Bunarbaschi: Kirk Goez"), Asiatic 
Turkey, September 12, 1883 (Berl.; Brit.; Coss.; Kew; U.V.); Vences- 
laus Stribrny, swamps at Sadovo (near Philippopolis), Bulgaria, 
May 28, 1893 (Bucht.; Cluj; Del.; Mus. V., 2 sheets); idem, near 
waters at Sadovo, Bulgaria, August, 1893 (Berl.; Del.; Mus. V.; 
U.V.); idem, eodem loco, August, 1894 (Berl., 2 sheets; Kew); 
idem, swamp meadows, eodem loco, September 3, 1893 (Boiss.); 
idem, marshy places, eodem loco, September 15, 1896 (U.V., 3 
sheets); idem, swamp meadows, eodem loco, September 27, 1896 
(Del., 2 sheets); idem, marshy places, eodem loco, September 10, 
1898 (Del., 2 sheets) ; idem, marshy places, eodem loco, October, 1906 
(Cluj); Urumoff 52, Bulgaria, 1895 (U.V.); Welwitsch 243, Tagus 
River region, Lusitania, 1848 (Del.). 

The most distinctive feature of the several specimens examined 
from the type region is the small, often black achenes. Numerous 
intergradations between these and typical B. tripartite, achenes are 
found in European material, however, and in no other characters 
can I find sufficient constancy to warrant specific segregation from 
B. tripartite, L. Evidently it is more logical to rank these small- 
fruited extremes, especially common in Bulgaria and Serbia, as a 
variety of B. tripartita L. 

Bidens tripartita var. e. hirta (Jord.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 
81: 47. 1926. PI. LXX. 

Bidens bullata L. Sp. PI. 833. 1753; Harduin, Animadv. Bot. pi. 18. 
1764. 

Bidens hirta Jord. in Gren. & Godr. Fl. Fr. 2: 168. 1850; cf. Boullu, 

Bull. Soc. Dauph. 1880: 423. 1880. 
Bidens tripartita sub-var. rugosa Coss. & Germ. Fl. Par. ed. 2: 487. 

1861. 
Bidens tripartita var. hispida Car. & St. Lag. Fl. Bass. Moy. Rhone 

459. 1889. 
Bidens bullata var. hirta (Jord.) Coste, Fl. Fr. 2: 357. 1903; cf. Fiori 

in Fiori & Paoletti, Fl. Anal. Ital. 3: 302. 1904. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXXITI 




d c b a 

BIDENS LAEVIS (L.) B.S.P. 



OF THt 



THE GENUS BIDENS 285 

Bidens fastigiata var. hispida Jord. ex Car. & St. Lag. Et. Fl. 459, 
fide Rouy, Fl. Fr. 8: 219. 1903. 

Bidens tripartite, var. genuina sub-var. rugosa Coss. & Germ, in 
Rouy, op. cit. 218. 

Bidens tripartite, subsp. bullata (L.) Rouy and subsp. bullata var. 
hirta (Jord.) Rouy, op. cit. 219. 

Bidens bullata vars. typica and glabrescens Fiori, loc. cit. 

Bidens bullata var. eu-bullata Briq. & Cavill. Fl. Alp. Marit. 6: 218. 
1917. 

Bidens tripartita subsp. bullata var. glabrescens (Fiori in Fiori & 

Paol.) Briq. & Cavill. op. cit. 219 and 327. 
Bidens tripartita subsp. bullata var. hispida Car. & St. Lag. ex Briq. 

& Cavill. Fl. Alp. Marit. 6: 218 and 327. 

Caulis erectus. Folia principalia plerumque indivisa, subovata, 
dentata, saepius crassa, plerumque setosa et saepe plus minusve 
bullata, basi abrupte breviterque petiolata petiolo alato; superiora 
saepe ternata, subsessilia, foliolis lateralibus et saepius minimis. 

Type specimen: No particular specimen was cited as the type. 
The authors (Grenier and Godron) evidently had a number of 
Jordan's specimens in mind along with certain other materials. 1 

Distribution: Southern Italy near Naples; northern Italy, where 
common from provinces of Padua and Florence westward to provinces 
of Turin and Cuneo; in southeastern France (departments of Isere, 
Rhone, etc.) and very rare northwestward to Paris. 

Specimens examined: Anon., ditches, Padua and Pa via, Italy, 
August-September (Mus. V.); anon., Pontche"ri to Lyon, France, 
September 3, 1836 (Mus. V.); C. Billot, Lyon to Pontche>i, France 
(Berl.); idem, La Verpilliere near Lyon, France (Coss.); A. Boullu, 
Charvieux, Isere, France, September, 1851 (U.V.); idem, PontcheYi, 
Isere, France, August, 1853 (Kew); idem, Pontche"ri, Charvieux, 
Isere, France, September 15-October 9, 1883 (Boiss., sub nom. B. 
hirto-tripartita Boullu); idem, Rochelaise, Isere, France, 1883 (sub 
nom. B. hirto-tripartita) ; idem 310, lie de Rubens, PontcheYi, Dept. 
Isere, France, September 6-October 14, 1882 (Coss.; Del.; Mus. V.; 
U.V.); idem 798, along the Bourbre at Charvieux, Isere, France, 
September, 1851 (Coss.); idem 3769, cool, wet places, PontcheYi, 
Isere, France, September 6-October 14, 1882 (Boiss.; Coss.); 

1 They prefaced (loc. cit.) their descriptive paragraph with: "B. hirta Jord. 
ined.; B. bullata Balbis! fl. lyon. I, p. 376 (non L.). Schultz, exsicc. 664!" They 
closed with: "Hab. Lyon, a la Tgte-d'Or, a Pontcheri," etc. 



286 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

ex herb. A. Braun, ditches, etc., Padua, Italy (Berl., 3 sheets) ; Cesats 
(& Camel) 156, near Villa-franca and along streams at Monteserrato, 
near Verona, Italy, September (Coss.; U.S.); Cesats (Cisati, Cesati), 
Villa-franca, Italy, October, 1859 (Berl.); E. Ferrari & Vignolo- 
Lutati, Prov. Cuneo, Italy, August 31, 1912 (Field); Adr. Fiori & 
A. Beguinot 1376, alt. 13 meters, sandy clay soil, Padule di Fucecchio, 
Etruria, Prov. Florence (Firenze), Italy, September 20, 1909 (Kew; 
U.V.); Michel Gandoger, moist places near Naples, Italy, August, 
1871 (Kew); idem 88, marshes near La Verpilliere, Dept. Isere, 
France, July 28, 1872 (Field); idem 88[6], La Verpilliere, Isere, 
France, July, 1874 (Mo.); idem 1410, Turin, Italy, 1871 (Mo.); 
Grenier, Lyon, France, 1846-1852 (Kew); Alexis Jordan, Lyon, 
France (Kew); idem, PontcheYi, Lyon, France (Mus. V., 4 sheets); 
idem, (a la tete d'or) Lyon, France, 1849 (Berl.); idem, marshes, edge 
of Rh6ne River, Lyon, France (Del.); idem, La Verpilliere, Dept. 
Isere, France, September, 1841 (Cop.); idem 664, marshes at edge 
of the Bourbe at PontcheYi, Dept. Isere, France, September 12, 1842 
(Coss.; Del., 2 sheets; Kew; Mus. V.); C. Martin, moist places at 
La Verpilliere, Isere, France, September, 1851 (Coss.; Mus. V.); 
Antonio Mori, near Castelfranca dell' Emilia, Italy, September 11, 
1884 (Mus. V.); idem, Bologna, Italy, October, 1887 (Berl.); idem, 
wet places, near Bologna, October, 1888 (U.V.); idem, ditches, 
vicinity of Villa Colombaro, Prov. Modena, Italy, September, 1892 
(Berl.; Mus. V.); idem, eodem loco, September, 1893 (Cop.; Del.); 
idem, eodem loco, September, 1894 (Berl.); idem, eodem loco, 
September, 1896 (Mus. V.); F. Negri 2103, moist places, Casale 
Monferrato, Italy, September, 1878 (Boiss. ; Coss. ; Kew) ; Romualdo 
Pirotta, Valle la Veniera, near Reggiolo, Prov. Reggio Emilia, 
Italy (Flor., forma plus minusve glabra); Taponnier, vicinity of 
Lyon, France, September (Berl.; Mus. V.); anon. (leg. Weddell?}, 
islands of Seine River, Paris (Charenton), France, 1841 (Par., ex 
herb. Wedd. et sub nom. Bidens tripartita L. var. ft. rugosa). 

Linnaeus presented a rather distinctive description of his Bidens 
bullata, but gave its habitat as America. The single well-preserved 
specimen in the Linnean Herbarium matches the original description 
very closely. There can be no doubt that Linnaeus drew his descrip- 
tion either from this specimen or from another identical with it. 
However, the plant is seen at once to be a European form, entirely 
unknown from America or any other continent than Europe. The 
plate of B. bullata published by Harduin (Animadv. Bot. pi. 18. 
1764) differs in no important respect except that the principal 



THE GENUS BIDENS 287 

leaves are undivided, instead of being tripartite with the lateral 
lobes small and inconspicuous, as in Linnaeus' specimen. The 
various herbarium specimens distributed by Jordan from the vicinity 
of Lyon, under his name B. hirta, have the leaves undivided, but 
certainly cannot be said to differ consequentially from Linnaeus' 
plant. In fact, other specimens have been collected in the same 
locality that have the leaves tripartite, just as in the Linnaean 
plant (e.g., Boullu 310). The variation in the amount of roughness 
is likewise considerable. In view of this variation in leaf division and 
in amount of roughness, there can be no question that the plants of 
Linnaeus and of Jordan are specifically identical. 

Furthermore, these plants are connected by many apparently 
freakish specimens 1 with B. tripartita, and doubtless are to be 
regarded more accurately as a rather well-marked foliage form of 
that species. Rouy (loc. cit.) appears to have come to a similar 
conclusion, but his adoption of subspecific rank for B. bullata, and 
his making B. hirta a variety of the subspecies are too unconven- 
tional to secure wide acceptance, nor do they seem other than mere 
attempts to maintain distinctions for which no real basis exists. It 
happens, however, that Coste (loc. cit.) definitely published the 
name hirta as a variety, although under the species B. bullata (!). 2 
In this curious way the name hirta was the first to receive publica- 
tion with varietal rank, and, under the International Rules, must 
be adopted instead of bullata. 

It may be noted that the Abbe" Boullu, whose collections of this 
variety extended over more than thirty years, paid particular 
attention to the matter of variation in its leaves. Finding various 
forms intermediate between B. hirta Jord. and B. tripartita L., and 
having assumed that B. hirta as well as B. tripartita was a valid 
species, he suspected the intermediate forms of being hybrids. 3 
In the genus Bidens hybridity is so rarely encountered that, in the 
absence of more positive evidence, the intermediate forms would 
seem best accounted for on the basis of ordinary variation. Boullu 

1 Especially branches from more or less injured stems. 

- The manifest unwillingness of so many writers to equate the names hirta and 
bullata as synonyms surely must have been because Linnaeus erroneously cited 
America as the home of bullata, and, further, because they had never seen the 
Linnean Herbarium specimen. Had they seen this plant, they would have been 
quick to realize that it was the form found in Europe and nowhere else. 

3 "Dans la Flore de France de Gr. et God. il est dit des feuilles de cette espece 
ovales, fprtement dentees, ce qui semble exclure toute idee de division; or parmi les 
exemplaires qu j'ai recoltes pres de la Bourbre a Pont-de Ch6rui, bon nombre 
portent quelques feuilles bi ou tripartites tant6t dans le haut, tant6t dans la bas 
de la plante. J'ai trouve la le Bidens hirta comme perdu dans une f6ret de B. 



288 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

described (Bull. Soc. Bot. Lyon, ser. 2. 7: 6 and 109. 1889) two of 
these supposedly hybrid forms under the names B. hirto-tripartita 
Boullu (with leaves broad, often tripartite) and B. tripartito-hirta 
Boullu (with leaves narrow, but likewise often tripartite). For the 
first of these two names, Rouy (Fl. Fr. 8: 219. 1903) has proposed 
the name, XB. Boullui var. subbullata; for the second, XB. Boullui 
var. subtripartita. 

Cosson and Germain's B. tripartite, sub-var. rugosa, a plant found 
about Paris, is seen from its description 1 to belong to this variety. 
I find no authentic specimen in the large Cosson Herbarium at 
Paris (Par.), but the main herbarium at Paris (Par.) has a specimen 
from the environs of Paris (Charenton, on the islands of the Seine 
River, collected in 1841) given by Weddell in 1848 and clearly the 
source of Cosson and Germain's sub-variety. It is a remarkably 
hispid-scabrous form. In fact, its extreme roughness had been 
noted by Weddell, for his label reads, "Bidens tripartite!, L. var. ft. 
rugosa." Evidently the name sub-var. rugosa was later derived 
from this. Cosson & Germain's comment, "Assez commun," is 
doubtless inaccurate, for such extremely rough forms appear rare in 
the vicinity of Paris. 

B. bullata var. glabrescens Fiori is seen upon examination of the 
original materials (Flor.) to be merely a rather glabrous form of 
var. hirta. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXVII 

Bidens tripartita, figs, a, b, d-4: a (normal) and b (dwarf) flowering 
and fruiting specimens, X0.67; d, exterior involucral bract, X4.02; 
e, interior involucral bract, X4.02; /, palea, X4.02; g, disc floret, 
X4.02; h (outer), i (inner), achenes, X4.02; a, chiefly from main 
specimen of Bidens tripartita in Hb. Linn., but slightly from Caspary, 
hb. No. 331811 in Hb. Field; 6, from hb. FL Ingricae 308 (hb. No. 
11839), in Hb. Field; d-i, from Caspary (as in a). 

Bidens tripartita var. cernuaefolia, fig. c: cauline leaf, X0.67; 
from type. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXVIII, FIGS, a-f 

Bidens tripartita var. repens: a, entire flowering plant, X0.68; 6, 
exterior involucral bract, X3.4; c, interior involucral bract, X3.4; d, 

tripartita L., atteignant pres de deux metres de hauteur. Les sujets a feuilles 
divisees seraient-ils un produit hybride de ces deux especes? Sur les pieds isoles 
que j'ai rencontres en plusieurs autres lieux, je n'ai pas observe cette division des 
feuilles." (From a printed clipping attached to sheet in Herb. Boiss.) 

1 "Tiges et rameaux rugueux-scabres, parsemes d'aiguillons setiformes courts. 
Feuilles ord. rudes-scabres." 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXXIV 





BIDENS HYPERBOREA Greene (figs. 6, d, f, h,j, I); 
var. GASPENSIS Fern. (figs, a, c, e, g, i, k, in) 



Or THt 
ONIttRSITY OF if 1 1*818 



THE GENUS BIDENS 289 

palea, X3.4; e, disc floret (4-lobed) with submature achene having 
aristae barbed chiefly on inner side, X4.08; /, achene, X4.08; a-e, 
from Taquet 1035 (cotype of Bidens Taquetii LeVl. & Vant.), in Hb. 
Kew; /, from Taquet 1031 (cotype of Bidens minuscula LeVl. & 
Vant.), in Hb. Kew. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXIX, FIGS, h-n 

Bidens tripartite, var. orientalis: h, entire flowering and fruiting 
plant, X0.63; i, exterior involucral bract, X3.77;./, interior involucral 
bract, X3.77; k, palea, X3.77; I, disc floret, X3.77; ra (biaristate), 
n (triaristate), achenes, X3.77; all from Bornmuller 9, in Hb. Kew. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXX 

Bidens tripartita var. hirta: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, 
X0.68; 6, exterior involucral bract, X2.04; c, interior involucral bract, 
X2.04; d, palea, X2.04; e, disc floret with submature achene, X2.04; 
all from Jordan, Lyon, France, in Hb. Kew. 

90. Bidens radiata Thuill. Fl. Par. ed. 2: 422. 1799; cf. Oerst. 

in Vid. Medd. 1862: 312-319, pis. 3, 4, figs. 1-17. 1863. 

PL LXIX, figs, a-flf. 

Bidens tripartita var. 7. Lam. & DC. FL Franc, ed. 3. 4: 219. 1805. 
Bidens foliosa Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. Suppl. 56. 1813 (nomen 

subnudum); J. C. Loudon, Hort. Brit. 335. 1830; cf. Sherff, Bot. 

Gaz. 86: 446. 1928. 
Bidens tripartita var. C, F. V. Me'rat, Nouv. Fl. Env. Paris, ed. 4. 2: 

370. 1836. 

Bidens tripartita var. 0. pinnatifida Turcz. ex DC. Prodr. 5: 594. 1836. 
Bidens fastigiata Michalet, M^m. Soc. Emul. Doubs, ser. 2. 5: 29. 

1854. 
Bidens platycephala Oerst. Ind. Sem. Haun. 27. 1859; Linnaea 30: 

753. 1859-1860; Vid. Medd. 1862: 312-319, pis. 3, 4, figs. 

1-17. 1863. 

Bidens intermedia Opiz ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Europ. 348. 1879. 
Bidens polycephala Oerst. ex E. Fiek, FL Schlesien 218. 1881. 
Bidens tripartita f. pinnatifida (Turcz. ex DC.) Beck v. M. Fl. Nied. 

Ost. 2, pt. 2: 1191. 1893. 
Bidens tripartita var. a. genuina sub var. pinnatifida (Turcz. ex DC.) 

Rouy, Fl. Fr. 8:218. 1903. 
Bidens radiata f. perpusilla Dom. Sitzungsb. Vgl. Bohm. Ges. Wiss. 

19: 34. 1905. 



290 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Erecta, stricta, annua, glabriuscula, fastigiate ramosa, 3-7 
(raro -20) dm. alta, caule ramisque stramineis vel rariter purpuras- 
centibus. Folia petiolata petiolis 1-3 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
6-13 cm. longa, membranacea, subflavido-viridia (in speciminibus 
depauperatis simplicia sed) plemmque pinnatim tri- vel quinquepar- 
tita; foliolis lanceolatis vel lineari-lanceolatis, serratis, plus minusve 
ciliatis. Capitula ad ramorum apicem 2-4-adgregata, plerumque 
breviter pedunculata pedunculis 0.5-3 cm. longis, discoidea, 1 demum 
flavido-straminea, facie superiore valde convexa, inferiore concava, 
disco demum circ. 1.5 cm. lato ac 6-7 mm. alto; floribus tubulosis 
numerosis, plerumque 100-240. Involucrum basi sparsim hispidu- 
lum; bracteis exterioribus 7-14, linearibus, sparsim denticulato- 
ciliatis, foliaceis, 6-20 mm. longis, interiores lanceolatas superantibus. 
Achaenia cuneata, grisea vel griseo-nigra, plana, dorso non costata, 
altera facie costa mediana inconspicue costata, marginibus retrorsum 
hamosa, alibi (faciebus) glaberrima, corpore 3-3.5 mm. longa, 
biaristata; aristis stramineis, retrorsum hamosis, 1.6-2.2 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: No particular specimen cited by Thuillier. He 
stated the species to occur at Chaville, at the pond at the Rendez- 
vous de Chasse and at the pond at St. Hubert, France (authentic 
specimens by Thuillier, Del. and Par.). 

Distribution: Sweden and Finland, northward to the end of the 
Gulf of Bothnia (circ. 66 N. Lat.) ; in northwestern and southwestern 
European Russia; in western Europe southward to the departments 
of Loir-et-Cher and Jura in France, to Bavaria and to Lower Austria; 
also widely distributed in northeastern Asia from the Altai and 
Ircut (Irkutsk) region eastward to Kamchatka Peninsula, Sakhalin 
Island and the Province of Kirin (in Manchuria); adventive in 
vicinity of Oxford, England, in 1874 (Garnsey 756). Frequently 
hybridizes with Bidens tripartite, L. 

Specimens examined: Anon, (type material of Bidens foliosa 
Willd.; Berl.; Mus. V.; Willd., sub num. 15020-5); C. Baenitz, 
Lowenhagen, East Prussia, September-October, 1878 (Berl., 3 
sheets; Field; Mus. V.); idem, in dried-up pond near Lowenhagen, 
East Prussia, August 20, 1889 (Berl.; Field); Hugo Bohnhof 186, 
Vladivostok and Lake Khanka (Lake Kanka; L. Hanka) region of 
northeastern Asia, 1898-1899 (Berl.; Boiss.; Del.; Field; Kew; Par., 
2 sheets); Erf. Bonnet & Th. Delacour 311, dried-up banks of the pond 
of Saint-Quentin near Trappes, Dept. Seine-et-Oise, France, Sep- 

1 Not radiate as implied in the trivial name. Thuillier's own specimens are 
discoid! (Cf. DC. Prodr. 5: 594. 1836; "discoidea in ipsissimo auct. specim.") 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXXV 




BIDENS DIVERSA Sherff (figs, a, b, d-i); var. MEGAGLOSSA Sherff (fig. c) 



nf 14k 

"* 



THE GENUS BIDENS 291 

tember 2, 1882 (BerL; Del.; Mus. V.); A. Collier, in flooded places 
near Reichenbach, Silesia, September 8, 1887 (Cop.); idem 47, pond, 
eodem loco, August, 1887 (Boiss.; U.V.);Celakovsky, shore of Beraun 
River at Radotin, Bohemia, September, 1872 (U.V., 2 sheets) ; idem 
3067, along fish ponds near Chudenic, Bohemia (Berl. ; Boiss. ; Cop. ; 
Del.; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; Mus. V.; U.V.); Otto Collin, among Bidens 
cernua and B. tripartite,, on muddy and flooded banks of ditches along 
public road, not far from Tavastburg, southern Tavastehus, Finland, 
August, 1885 (Mus. V.) and August 10, 1897 (U.S.) and August 11, 
1897 (Corn.); idem, Tavastehus, August 22, 1898 (Cop.); idem, on 
muddy sides of road, north of Tavastehus, southern Tavastehus, 
Finland, August, 1903 (Gray; N.Y.); K. F. Dusen, rare, in swampy 
places near Ydre, Ostsogothia, Sweden, August, 1870 (Kew); A. 
Engler, vicinity of Reichenbach, Silesia, October 2, 1870 (U.V.); 
Urbain Faurie 734, Korsakofski (Korsakof), Sakhalin (Sagalien, 
Sachalin), Japan, September, 1908 (Berl.; Brit.); G. Fischer & K. 
E. Harz 826, alt. about 260 meters, in mud, near Mullersdorf on the 
Aisch River, Bavaria, September 10, 1904 (Del., 2 sheets; Gray; 
Mun.); H. A. Froding, Ulfsby, Lake Friken, Vermland, Sweden, 
August 24, 1911 and September 8, 1913 (Cop., sub nom. var. Integra 
f. gracili); idem, eodem loco, September 8, 1914 (Cop., sub nom. B, 
radiata var. latiloba) ; idem, eodem loco et tempore (Cop., sub nom. 
var. aberrante; forma plus minusve aberrans, plantis 10-15 cm. 
altis, B. tripartitae adpropinquantibus et forsan cum ea specie 
hybridis); H. E. Garnsey 756, vicinity of Oxford, England, 1874 
(U.V.) ; E.Gaudefroy 13, borders of ponds at St. Hubert, 10 km. north- 
northeast of Rambouillet, Dept. Seine-et-Oise, France, September 8, 

1872 (U.V. ; hie unus duorum originalium locorum a Thuill. datorum) ; 
0. Gelert, Kirkevaerlose, Sjaelland (Sjelland, Zealand), Denmark, 
September 25, 1889 (Berl., 2 sheets); Kurt Harz, near Bamberg, 
Bavaria, September 26, 1908 (Mus. V.); idem 5090, alt. 260 meters, 
in swampy places near Willersdorf, "Bavaria," September, 1904 
(Berl.; Cop.; Del., 2 sheets; Mun.; Mus. V.; U.V.);F. Heidenreich, 
at mill pond, Tilsit, East Prussia, August 28, 1871 and September 6, 
1876 (U.V.); idem, eodem loco, September 5, 1872 and August 26, 

1873 (Mus. V.); idem, wet banks of Memel (Niemen) River, Tilsit, 
East Prussia, September 5, 1872 (U.V.); A. Hulphers, Karlstad, 
Vermland, Sweden, August 15-20, 1901 (Cop.; N.Y.); idem, Sunne, 
Vermland, August 16, 1914 (Cop., sub nom. B. radiata L integra); 
Herb. Florae Ingricae Cent. VII, 308 pro parte, Government of 
Petrograd, Russia (Kew; Mus. V., 2 sheets; Cop., verisimiliter cum 



292 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

B. tripartite, commixt.); idem Cent. VII, 3085, in flooded places, 
marshes, ditches, margins of wet fields, also among sedges, nearly 
always fairly abundant, eodem loco, July-September, 1861 (Field; 
Kew); Jos. John (F. Petrak Distrib. VI) 573, drained pond near 
Marienbad, Bohemia, September, 1910 (Del.; Gray); F. Karo 397, 
swamps, ditches, Nerisynsk (Nerchinsk), Transbaikalia, Siberia, 
1890 (Berl.; Boiss.; Kew; Mus. V.); A. 0. Kihlman 385, ditch near 
Jyvaskyla, northern Tavastehus, Finland, August 31, 1899 (Berl.; 
Cop.; Del., 2 sheets; Kew); 1 V. L. Komarov, Sajan Mts., along 
headwaters of the Ircut (Irkutsk) and Oka rivers, Government of 
Ircut (Irkutsk), Siberia, 1902 (Berl.) ;idem 1535 p.p., Prov. Kirin, Man- 
churia, October 7, 1896 (Berl.); idem 3291 p.p., Kamtschatka (Kam- 
chatka) Peninsula, 1909 (Berl.) ; Fr. Kornicke, Isl. Crestofski (Isl. 
Krestovskoi), Leningrad, Russia, August, 1857 (Berl., 2 sheets); 
J. Lange (Fries, Herb. Normale, Fasc. XVI), Hellebaek (Holbaek), 
Zealand (Sjelland, Seeland), Denmark (Berl.; Boiss.; Kew; Mo.); 
Ledebour, Altai, Siberia, 1831 (Par.); Harold Lindberg, on sandy 
bank, vicinity of Lojo, Nyland, Finland, August 20, 1893 (Cop.); 
idem 973 p.p., edge of ditch, vicinity of Jorois, etc., Prov. Mikkelin 
(Prov. St. Michel), Finland, August 23, 1911 (Cop.; Del., 2 sheets; 
Kew, cum eodem 974 commixt. ; Mo.) ; C. 0. Lindholm & V. G. Weners- 
borg, Sweden, August, 1894 (Berl.) and July, 1895 (Cop.; N.Y.); 
Lorenzen 4108, swampy places at Borsholm near Helsingor (Elsi- 
nore), Zealand, Denmark, August, 1896 (Berl.; Boiss.; Del.; Mun.; 
Mus. V.; U.V.); E. Martin Sllbis, Dept. Loir-et-Cher, France, 
September, 1882 (Del.; U.V.); Maximowicz, Amur, Siberia (Berl.; 
Mus. V.); E. Michalet, France, August, 1845 (Boiss., sub nom. 
Bidente fastigiata Mich.); idem (Herb. Mich., Fasc. 1, 27), Pleurre, 
Canton Chaussin, Dept. Jura, France, October 14, 1853 (Par., sub 
nom. Bidente fastigiata Mich.) and September 25, 1854; idem, 
pond, Fays Champrougier, Canton Sellieres, Distr. Poligny, Dept. 
Jura, August 28, 1855 (Coss., sub nom. B. fastigiata Mich.); idem, 
cantons of Chaussin and Sellieres, Dept. Jura, 1853, 1855, etc. 
(Del.; Kew; Mus. V.; Par.; sub nom. B. fastigiata Mich.); idem, 
Distr. Poligny, Dept. Jura, 1855 (Par., sub nom. B . fastigiata Mich.); 
idem (C. Billot Fl. Gall, exsicc.) 2088, Canton Chaussin, Dept. Jura, 

1 The printed label for the Kihlman plant gives the following important dis- 
tributional note: "In Finlandia austro-orientali frequens, media in Finlandia 
usque ad c. 63 etiam satis frequens et multis plagis frequentior est quam B. 
tripartitus. In austro-occidentali parte minus frequenter vel sat raro crescit. In 
Alandia adhuc nunquam lectus est. In vicinitate septentrionalis partis Sinus 
Bottnici usque ad 65 50' plurimis locis adnotatus est, in australis partis vicinitate 
adhuc non est lectus." 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany. Vol. XVI, Plate LXXVI 




BIDENS SCHAFFNERI (Gray) Sherff 



THE GENUS BIDENS 293 

September-October, 1856 (Mus. V.); H. Mortensen, vicinity of 
Birkerod, Denmark, September 9, 1871 (U.V.); idem, Denmark, 
August 14, 1882 (Mus. V.); idem, Denmark, August 4, 1889 (Mo.); 
A. S. Oersted, Denmark, 1865 (Cop.); J> Paczoski, in flooded places, 
Borysth. Lubecz, Distr. Gorodnia, Government of Chernigow 
(Chernigof), Little Russia, August 11, 1892 (Boiss.; 1-2 dm. alta, 
sub nom. var. borysthenica Paczoski) ; N. E. Petersen & Joh. Lange 
68, peaty places and drained marshes at Viedams Mose and in the 
drained lake Klare So near Hellebaek (Holbaek), Zealand, Denmark 
(Berl.; Cop.; Kew; Mun.; Mus. V.); K. Polak, Lake Duda, Sobeslau, 
Bohemia, August, 1877 (Del.); Przewalski, at Lake Khanka (Lake 
Hanka), Manchuria (Berl.; Flor.); S. Salm, Konigswart near Marien- 
bad, Bohemia, October 8, 1910 (Cop.); Fr. Schmidt, Sakhalin (Saga- 
lien, Sachalin), Japan, 1860 (Kew) ; Schumann, Peilau near Reichen- 
bach, Silesia, September, 1870 (Kew) and September, 1872 (Mus. 
V.); idem, at margin of fish pond, eodem loco, September, 1874 
(Mus. V.); A. Schwarz 1466, alt. 282 meters, in drained pond, 
Dechsendorf near Erlangen, Bavaria, September 1-11, 1912 (Del.; 
Gray; Mun.); Alois Teyber, in wooded places, Hoheneich, Lower 
Austria, August 30, 1905 (Mus. V.); idem, banks of pond, wooded 
area, eodem loco, September 3, 1905 (U.V.); idem, wooded 
areas, peat moor, etc., Lower Schrems, Lower Austria, August, 
1906 (U.V., 2 sheets); idem, wooded areas, Heidenreichstein, 
Lower Austria, August, 1908 (U.V.); idem, Gopprechts near Lit- 
schau, Lower Austria, August, 1908 (U.V.); J. L. Thuillier (Del., 
auctoris exemplum pro Fl. Env. Par. ed. 2, anno 1799); Karl Tool, 
pond, Wittingauer Becken, southern Bohemia, July 31, 1902 (Berl., 
sub nom. Bidente radiata f. perpusilla Dom.); D. L. Topping 2365, 
Vladivostok and vicinity, Siberia, May-October, 1919 (U.S.); 
Turczaninow, at the Argun River, Dahuria (Daur, Dauria), Siberia, 
1833 (Del., sub nom. Bidente tripartita 0. pinnatifida) ; Velenovsky, 
abundant on shores of the Pilsky Pond, Blatna District, Bohemia, 
August 16, 1882 (Mus. V.); X. Vendrely & J. Paillot 2QSSbis, dried 
mud at edge of pond at St. Hubert, 10 km. north-northeast of 
Rambouillet, Dept. Seine-et-Oise, France, September 15, 1872 (Mo.; 
hie unus duorum originalium locorum a Thuill. datorum); F. Vier- 
happer, wooded places, shore of pond at Heidenreichstein, Lower 
Austria, September, 1915 (Mus. V.); Ant. Weidmann, Lomnitz, 
Bohemia, July 14, 1883 (Mus. V.); idem, Rybnyk, etc., Silesia, July 
28, 1885 (U.V.); Otto Wellenius, Prov. Tavastehus, Finland, Sep- 
tember 10, 1898 (Cop.). 



294 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

In general habit Bidens radiata is intermediate between B. 
cernua and B. tripartite,. The several authentic original specimens 
of B. fastigiata Mich, in various herbaria are identical with one 
from Oersted's type collection of B. platycephala (Cop.), and with 
others from Thuillier's type collection of B. radiata (Del.; Par.). 
Indeed, Oersted himself compared these three species and found them 
identical. 1 MeYat (loc. cit.) reduced the Thuillier species to varietal 
rank under B. tripartita L. (var. C), but, more than three decades 
before, Lamarck and DeCandolle (loc. cit.) had given much the 
same treatment, publishing the name B. tripartita var. 7. By mod- 
ern authors, B. radiata is commonly ranked as a separate species, 
and with good reason. Only rarely is there any difficulty in dis- 
tinguishing it from B. tripartita and even then the forms examined 
appear to be hybrids. Thus Schube (Theod., Verbr. Gefasspl. Schles. 
315. 1903) considered an intermediate form studied by him to be a 
hybrid. Likewise did Collin (Medd. Soc. Fauna et Flora Fennica 
1886: 255. 1886) regard a certain intermediate form. Teyber (Verh. 
Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 56: 74. 1906) proposed the name Bidens fennica 
for these hybrids. Teyber's specimens (Alois Teyber, in forested areas, 
Hoheneich, Lower Austria, September 9, 1905, type; idem, peat moor 
at Schrems, L. Austria, August, 1906; idem, forested areas, Gopprechts 
near Litschau, L. Austria, August, 1908; idem, forested areas, Hohe- 
neich, L. Austria, August, 1906; idem, forest, Frommberg near Kirch- 
berg, L. Austria, August, 1908; idem, forested areas, Heidenreichstein, 
L. Austria, August, 1908 all in U.V.) are intermediate between B. 
tripartita and B. radiata* Thuillier himself appears to have sus- 
pected the occurrence of hybridity here. This is shown in his 

1 For a more extended discussion see the classic treatment by G. Schwein- 
forth, Verh. Bot. Vereins Brand. 2: 142-152, etiam 226-227 et 2 tabulae. 1861 
(issued by the author also separately and thus available in certain libraries as a 
separate with the illustrations differently placed). Cf. Kornicke, Bonplandia 
8: 222-227. 1860; etiam Oesterr. Bot. Zeit. 13: (181) 381. 1863. 

2 Additional specimens similarly construed by their collectors, apparently with 
justice, are: Sweden: H. A. Froding, Sunne, Sundsvik, Vermland, Sept. 17, 1910 
(Cop.); A. Hillphers, eodem loco, Aug. 20, 1914 (Berl.). Finland : Harold Lindberg 
973 pro parte, edge of ditch, vicinity of Jorois, etc., Prov. Mikkelin, Aug. 23, 1911 
(Kew, quo cum Lindbergii 974 commixt.); idem 974, among B. radiata and B. 
tripartita on bank of Lojo, Sept. 3, 1911 (Cop.; Kew; Mo., 2 sheets). Bohemia: 
Velenovsky, growing with both parents, shores of pond, Pilsky near Cekanic, 
Aug. 16, 1882 (Mus. V.). Styria: Hayek 3795 p.p., marshy places in forests, etc., 
Hochenegg (Kew). 

B. tripartita f. fastigiata A. Franchet (Plant. David. 1 [Plant. Mongol.]: 165. 
1884) apparently belongs with these hybrid forms: "478. B. tripartita, L. L. Sp., 
1165. Forma, fastigiata. Mongolie: Gehol, danslesmarais; (n21156is). Rameaux 
dresses, etroitement fastigies; capitules entoures de longues feuilles bracteales 
rayonnantes. Port du B. radiata Thuill.; mais les achanes sont tout a fait ceux du 
Bidens tripartita." 



THE GENUS BIDENS 295 

description and naming (loc. cit.) of a Bidens hybrida, 1 which he 
differentiated from B. tripartite, L. It happens that Thuillier speci- 
mens of B. hybrida are still extant in good condition at Paris (Par.), 
Berlin (Willd.), and Geneva (Del.). The Paris specimen was 
formerly in the herbarium of Dr. F. V. MeYat and bears the name 
"Bidens hybrida Thuillier" written probably (according to an oral 
statement by the late Mr. Louis Anfray of the Museum of Natural 
History of Paris) by Thuillier himself. It is much closer to B. 
radiata than to B. tripartite, (with the var. typica of which latter it 
had been erroneously equated by Beck von Mannagetta, Fl. Nied. 
Oesterr. 2: 1191. 1893). The Berlin specimen is numbered 15013-5. 
Willdenow had labeled it "Bidens tripartite?" It is true B. radiata. 

The official Thuillier set of specimens, however, is the set at Geneva 
(fide Lasegue, Mus. Bot. Deless. 72. 1845). The type of B. hybrida 
there preserved is, without question, of hybrid origin. It is purple- 
stemmed like B. tripartita but in the greater number and the character 
of the achenes is closer to B. radiata.* 

B. radiata has been mistaken by many botanists for a form or 
variety of B. tripartita L. B. tripartita var. pinnatifida Turcz. ex DC. 
was based upon a plant collected in 1833 at the Argun River, Dahuria 
(southwest of Lake Baikal, Siberia). The type specimen (Del.) is 
positively B. radiata. Bohnhof 186, widely distributed to herbaria 
as a specimen of B. tripartita var. pinnatifida, is purely B. radiata. 
It is very likely that C. F. Schultz (Prodr. Fl. Stargard. 208. 1806) 
had B. radiata in mind when he described a form under B. tripartita 
as follows: "1. Lacinia foliorum intermedia pinnatifida. cum prae- 
cedente [B. tripartita] promiscue occurrit." At even an earlier date, 
Roth (Tent. Fl. Germ. 2, pt. 2: 301. 1793) stated under B. tripartita: 
"Variat 1. Lacinia foliorum intermedia pinnatifida." 

1 B. tripartita var. 0. Lam. & DC. Fl. Fr. ed. 3. 4: 219. 1805; B. tripartita y. 
hybrida (Thuill.) DC. Prodr. 5: 594. 1836; B. tripartita var. B, F. V. Merat. Nouv. 
Fl. Env. Par. ed. 4. 2: 370. 1836; cf. var. partita Peterm. ex Beckhaus, Fl. Westfal. 
582. 1893; cf. Fiori in Fiori & Paoletti, Fl. Anal. Ital. 3: 302. 1904. 

Thuillier's original treatment follows: "Hybrida. I. B.foliis subpinnato-5-parti- 
tis; laciniis longo-lanceolatis. Habitus B. tripartitae. 

"Habitat in paludibus. Flores spurco-lutei; Julio, Augusto . . . [annua] .... 

"I. Bident Hybride. Feuilles souspinnees a cinq, parties. Lanieres ou folioles 
longuement lanceolees. Du reste ressemble a 1'espece appelee Bidens 3-partita. 
Fleurs d'un jaune-sale; en Juillet et Aout. Se trouve dans 1'etang de Marcoussis, 
c6te du pavilion de chasse." 

2 Touching the occurrence of hybridity between B. radiata and B. tripartita 
we may add the observation of Prof. Karel Domin of Prague, who states (in lit. 
in Herb. Berl., cum suo specimine B. radiatae f. perpusillae Dom.) that where the 
two species grow together in southern Bohemia they almost always hybridize. 



296 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

B. foliosa Willd. was listed as an "annual. Growing always in 
the open." It was listed later by Link (Enum. PI. Hort. Berol. 
305. 1822) and by J. L. London (loc. cit.), the latter giving a more 
extended description and evidently having seen authentic material. 
The type in the Willdenow Herbarium at Berlin is Herb. Willd. 
No. 15020-5. Ascherson, in 1869, had labeled it "B. radiata Thuill. 
fol. indivisis." A duplicate sheet in the Berlin Herbarium bears 
three plants all with leaves likewise simple. The achenes on all 
four plants are typical for B. radiata, with which the name B. foliosa 
must be considered synonymous. The reason for Willdenow's name 
foliosa is hardly apparent until one examines the duplicate specimen 
in Vienna (Mus. V.). This is a spray with gigantic leaves, which 
measure up to more than 2.1 dm. long. One leaf is tripartite, with 
the terminal leaflet oblong-lanceolate; the others are simple. This 
mostly simple-leaved form of B. radiata is much rarer than are 
simple-leaved forms of the sister species, B. tripartita. 

B. radiata f. perpusilla Dom. is represented in Berlin by a packet 
of four tiny plants, 3-6.5 cm. tall. These are so diminutive and 
indistinctive of B. radiata, as opposed to B. tripartita, that were it 
not for an authoritative determination by Domin, one might well 
hesitate at referring them positively to either species. In keeping 
with my policy of rejecting all such forms, dwarfed temporarily 
because of peculiar conditions in the habitat, the forma perpiLsilla 
is here reduced to synonymy with the species proper. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXIX, FIGS, a-g 

Bidens radiata: a, fruiting specimen, X0.63; 6, exterior involucral 
bract, X3.77; c, interior involucral bract, X3.77; d, palea, X3.77; e, 
disc floret, X3.77; / (outer), g (inner), achenes, X3.77; all from 
Michalet 27, in Hb. Kew. 

91. Bidens amplissima Greene, Pittonia 4: 268. 1901. PI. LXXI. 
Bidens cernua var. elata Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 2: 352. 1842. 
Bidens elata (Torr. & Gray) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 59: 312. 1915. 

Annua, ramosa, 5-10 dm. alta; caule plerumque robusto, obtuse 
quadrangulato, scabrido vel interdum fere usque ad apicem subgla- 
brato. Folia sessilia vel inferiora breviter alato-petiolata, 0.8-2 dm. 
longa, membranacea, glabra, ciliata, superiora indivisa, cetera pro- 
funde pinnatimque tripartita; lamina indivisorum vel foliolis triparti- 
torum elliptico-lanceolatis, profunde atque acerrime incisis vel inciso- 
dentatis, duobus lateralibus foliolis in petiolum vel costam medianam 
connato-decurrentibus. Capitula erecta vel subcernua, pauca, incon- 



THE GENUS BIDENS 297 

spicue radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2.5 cm. lata et 1.2 cm. alta, 
breviter pedunculata pedunculis usque ad 3 cm. longis. Involucrum 
basi saepe hispidum; bracteis exterioribus circ. 8-10, foliaceis, 
ciliatis, nunc lineari-lanceolatis integris et circ. 1-2 cm. longis, nunc 
elongatis incisis et usque ad 7.5 cm. longis; interioribus ovato-lanceo- 
latis, demum 8-12 mm. longis. Flores ligulati 8-11, parvi, flavidi, 
ligula elliptico-oblongi, apice saepe denticulati, 3.5-8 mm. longi. 
Achaenia cuneata, obcompressa vel subplana, olivaceo-viridia, 
marginibus costisque medianis retrorsum hamosa, aliter glaberrima 
vel raro faciebus minime pubescentia, corpore exteriora circ. 5 mm. 
longa et sub apice 2.3-2.6 mm. lata, interiora 5.5-7 mm. longa et 
1.5-2 mm. lata, omnia bi- quadri- (fere semper tri-) aristata, aristis 
suberectis, subrobustis, retrorsum hamosis, 2-4 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by John Macoun (No. 73), in wet 
places along Lomas River, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, 
August 12, 1887 (Greene). 

Distribution: Vancouver Island, British Columbia. 1 

Specimens examined: W. R. Carter, Quamichan, August 22, 
1917 (Gray); Hooker, Northwest Coast of North America, com- 
munic. January, 1835 (Gray); Macoun (73), Lomas River, August 
12, 1887 (type, Greene: cotypes, Can., ubi etiam locus Alberni datur; 
Gray, sub Macounii num. 73) ; idem, Lost Lake, near Victoria, July 
2, 1908 (Can.) ; Scouler, Strait of Juan de Fuca (Brit.; Kew; N.Y.). 

An excellent specimen of this species, collected by Dr. Scouler at 
the Strait of Juan de Fuca, is in the Torrey Herbarium, now included 
in the Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden. It is identical 
with the Scouler specimen of Hooker's herbarium (now in Kew), a 
specimen referred by Hooker (Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 314. 1833) to 
B. Chrysanthemoides Michx. (but entirely distinct from Michaux's 
two type specimens at Paris). It is identical also with the type and 
cotype specimens of B. amplissima Greene. It is very different from 
the type (cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 59: 313, fig. 2. 1915) of B. quadriaristata 
DC. var. dentata Nutt. (Brit.), a plant cited synonymously by 
Torrey and Gray, but probably never seen by them, as indeed 
their failure to use their customary exclamation marks would 
partly imply. 

Wiegand (Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 26: 412. 1899), following Torrey 
and Gray's treatment, likewise equated these two forms. Assuming 

1 Sauvies Island, Oregon, is cited by Piper and Beattie (Fl. Northwest Coast 
375. 1915) for this species. Their citation is clearly based, however, upon Nuttall's 
type plant (Brit.) of Bidens quadriaristata var. dentata, collected by Nuttall upon 
"Wappatoo Island" (now Sauvies Island) at the outlet of the Willamette River, 
Oregon, and which is merely a form of Bidens cernua. 



298 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

the correctness of this equation, he employed the name Bidens 
dentata (Nutt.) Wieg. for the species. Greene (loc. cit.) justly denied 
the identity of the two, although he had not seen Nuttall's type. 1 

Wiegand (loc. cit.) regarded the Macoun plant as representing 
a very good species, standing, in structural characters, "almost 
intermediate between B. cernua and B. comosa on the one hand and 
between B. cernua and B. frondosa on the other." To me it has 
presented some difficulty. While locally restricted in distribution 
and usually easy to distinguish from related species, 2 its peculiar 
aspect has inspired the suspicion that ultimately it will be proved 
to be of hybrid origin. 

The name Bidens elata, advanced in 1915 as a synonym for 
Torrey and Gray's var. elata, is at variance with the International 
Rules and must be dropped (cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 61: 504. 1916). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXI 

Bidens amplissima: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.61; b, 
c, tripartite leaves, X0.61; d, exterior involucral bract, Xl.83; e, 
interior involucral bract, Xl.83;/, ray corolla, Xl.83; g, palea, Xl.83; 
h, disc floret, X6.14; i, achene, X2.44; a, b, d-i, from Dr. Scouler, 
Strait of Juan de Fuca (type and cotype specimens of Bidens cernua 
var. elata Torr. & Gray), in Hb. N.Y. and Hb. Kew; c, from John 
Macoun 73 (cotype), in Hb. Gray. 

92. Bidens cernua L. Sp. PI. 832. 1753. 3 PI. LXXII, 
figs, a and d-k. 

Coreopsis Bidens L. op. cit. 908. 

Bidens minima Hudson, Fl. Angl. 310. 1762 (probabiliter maxima ex 
parte); cf. L. Sp. PL ed. 2. 2: 1165. 1763. 4 

1 Which, as stated in p. 297, footnote 1, was a mere form of Bidens cernua L. 

2 The Macoun specimen in London (Brit.) is a curious, freakish one seemingly 
allied with B. connate. 

3 The name Bidens conica L. op. cit. 833, is clearly a misprint for B. cernua. 

* Hudson's description, "minima. 3. Bidens foliis lanceolatis sessilibus, floribus 
seminibusque erectis. Verbesina minima Cat. giss. 167. app. 66. R. Syn. 188. t. 
7. f. 2 . . . ," is unsatisfactory and does not distinguish between the dwarf 
forms of B. cernua L. and B. tripartita L., both of which are common in the English 
flora. While Hudson cites Dillenius' synonym (Cat. Giss.) first, the vague treat- 
ment given by Dillenius leaves little doubt that Hudson's concept was based 
primarily on the cited figure in Ray's Synopsis. In fact, it is seen on turning to 
Ray (loc. cit.) that Ray himself cited "Dill. Cat. Giss. 167 & App. 66," and evidently 
Hudson, in citing Ray, merely took the Dillenian synonym from Ray but cited it 
first for better historical sequence. 

Under these circumstances it seems only right to stop with the reference in 
Ray, discarding all earlier ones. Ray's crude and inexact figure shows a seemingly 



THE GENUS BIDENS 299 

Coreopsis Ridens Gunn. Fl. Norv. 2: 87. 1772 (sphalm). 

Bidens tripartite, var. minima Hudson, Fl. Angl. ed. 2. 355. 1778 

(probabiliter maxima ex parte). 

Coreopsis quadricornis Krocker, Fl. Silesiae 2, pt. 2: 481. 1793. 
Bidens cernua var. Coreopsis Bidens Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 1717. 1804. 
Bidens cernua var. radiata Roth, Tentamen 1: 351. 1788. 
Bidens cernua var. Bidens minima J. E. Smith, Eng. Fl. 3: 400. 1825. 
Bidens cernua var. discoidea Wimm. & Grab, (cum formis glabra et 

hispida), var. radiata formae glabra Wimm. & Grab, et hispida 

Wimm. & Grab., et var. nana Wimm. & Grab. Fl. Silesiae 2: 117. 

1829. 1 

radiate head. As radiate heads are exceedingly rare (I have never seen any) in 
B. tripartite, but very common in B. cernua, it would appear that the plant was 
probably a dwarfed form of B. cernua. In such case, however, the biaristate achene 
shown by Ray is strongly atypic, so much so that DeCandolle (Prodr. 5: 594-595. 
1836), with apparent reliance upon the delineator's fidelity to nature, referred the 
Ray figure to a variety tenuis of B. tripartita and excluded it from his concept of 
Bidens cernua var. minima. (Cf. Ruprecht, Fl. Ingric. 1: 564. 1860: "in fig. apud 
Rajum achaenia tantum incuria pictoris biaristata videntur, nam planta ex habitu 
ad V. integrifoliam [=B. cernua] pertinet." Cf. etiam Neilreich, Fl. Nied.-Oester- 
reich 339. 1859, sub B. cernua: "Ob B. minima Huds. Fl. angl. ed. I. p. 310, L. 
Spec. ed. II. p. 1165 hierher pder zu B. tripartita gehort, ist zweifelhaft, weil 
die Abbildung der Verbesina minima in Raii Syn. brit. p. 188 t. 7 f. 2, auf die sich 
Hudson beruft, die sitzenden Blatter der B. cernua und die 2grannigen Achenen 
der B. tripartita darstellt.") 

Hill (Brit. Herb. 461, pi. 66, fig. Dwarf hemp agrimony. 1756) reproduced Ray's 
figure very exactly. He described the plant under the name Dwarf Hemp-Agri- 
mony and cited Ray's name Verbesina minima. In the copies of Hill's work which 
had the plates colored (e.g., in Libr. Field Mus.), a definitely radiate effect is 
secured by bright yellow coloring, making the plant appear unmistakably as 
jB. cernua. Later, Hill (Veg. Syst. 3:123, pi 89, fig. 7. 1761) renamed the Dwarf 
Hemp-Agrimony, Bidens Dilleniana, evidently with Dillenius' authorship of the 
early name Verbesina minima in mind (cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 64: 30. 1917). In his 
later publication, however, Hill gave a poor illustration with the leaves more oval 
and the head undistinctive. He altered the description just slightly (calling the 
leaves oval, rather than oblong as at first). Thus is introduced an element of 
doubt as to whether Hill really distinguished between the dwarf forms of the two 
species, B. cernua and B. tripartita. 

Many authors, realizing the confusion that has existed here, have treated the 
two dwarf forms collectively without effort toward distinction. Thus H. Stein- 
worth (PI. Fl. Luneb. 106. 1849) states: "Von beiden Arten [i.e., B. tripartita and 
B. cernua] auf Torfboden nicht selten eine Zwergform: minima L." Retzius (A. J., 
Obs. Bot. fasc. 1: 28. 1791) had long before cautioned against confusion in this 
matter: "B. tripartita L. var. /3. pumila teneraque caule simplicissimo unifloro, 
quam pro minima Sp. PI. 1165, ne habeant Tirones moneo." 

We may note, in passing, that Hudson himself did not distinguish 
very carefully here. This is shown by the fact that while in his first edition he 
cited synonyms that would indicate his having a form of B. cernua L. in mind, he 
later reduced his B. minima to varietal rank under B. tripartita. 

Bidens cernua subvar. minima (L.) Coss. & Germ. (Fl. Paris ed. 2. 488. 1861) 
was based directly upon B. minima L. So also, probably, was Coreopsis minima 
Hort. ex Steud. (Norn. ed. 2. 1: 420. 1840). 

1 Wimmer and Grabowski (loc. cit.) do not indicate whether the names glabra 
and hispida are meant technically for subvarieties or formae. Briquet and Cavil- 
lier (Fl. Alp. Marit. 6: 220 and 326. 1917) give them as formae. 



300 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bidens cernua var. minima DC. Prodr. 5: 595. 1836. l 

Bidens cernua var. C, F. V. Me"rat, Nouv. Fl. Env. Par. ed. 4. 2: 370. 

1836. 
Bidens quadriaristata var. dentata Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. ser. 

2. 7: 368. 1841; cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 59: 313, fig. 2. 1915. 
Bidens mixta Kittel (pro var.B. cernuae!), Taschenbuch Fl. Deutschl. 

ed. 2. 2: 626. 1844. 

Bidens cernua var. rugosa Coss. & Germ. Fl. Paris ed. 1. 395. 1845. 
Bidens cernua f. radiata (Roth) et f. minima (Huds.) Larsson, Fl. 

Wermland 220. 1859 (cf. Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 64: 31. 1917; cf. 

Briq. & Cavill. Fl. Alp. Marit. 6: 220 and 326. 1917). 
Verbesina integrifolia Ruprecht, Fl. Ingrica 1: 564. 1860. 
Verbesina minima Dillen. ex Rupr. loc. cit. 

Bidens cernua sub var. rugosa Coss. & Germ. Fl. Paris ed. 2. 488. 1861. 
Bidens cernua var. ligulata Bonnet, Pet. Fl. Paris 211. 1883. 
Bidens cernua var. natans Osswald & Sagorski ex E. Sagorski, 

Mittheil. Thiir. Bot. Verein ser. nov. 2: 23. 1892. 
Bidens cernua vars. typica et radians (cum f. mixta [Kitt.]) Beck von 

M. Fl. Nied. Oesterr. 2, pt. 2: 1191. 1893. 
Bidens dentata (Nutt.) Wieg. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 26: 412. 1899 (ex 

synon. Nutt.). 

Bidens cernua var. elliptica Wieg. op. cit. 417. 
Bidens cernua var. Integra Wieg. op. cit. 418. 
Bidens cernua var. Bidens Farwell, Ann. Rep. Comm. Parks and 

Boulevards, Detroit 11: 91. 1900. 
Bidens gracilenta Greene, Pittonia 4: 255. 1901. 
Bidens ciliolata Greene, op. cit. 256. 
Bidens prionophylla Greene, loc. cit. 
Bidens glaucescens Greene, op. cit. 258. 
Bidens lonchophylla Greene, loc. cit. 
Bidens Macounii Greene, op. cit. 259. 
Bidens Cusickii Greene, loc. cit. 
Bidens leptopoda Greene, op. cit. 260. 

1 DeCandolle rejected Ray's plant as a synonym (see p. 298, footnote 4) 
and introduced Bidens minima L. only interrogatively. He rested his plant 
directly upon Fl. Dan. pi. 312. Since, as shown in p. 298, footnote 4, Hudson's 
text for Hudson's minima involves a doubtful concept or probably two concepts 
intermixed, it is unwise to set this name off as "B. cernua var. minima (Huds.) 
DC." as has been done occasionally (e.g., Fern. & St. John, Rhodora 17:25. 1915; 
Fern. ibid. 24: 207. 1922). 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI. Plate LXXVII 




BIDENS FERULAEFOLIA (Jacq.) DC. 



OF THt 
UNIVERSITY Of IIMNQiS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 301 

Bidens marginata Greene, op. cit. 262. 
Bidens leptomeria Greene, op. cit. 264. 
Bidens Kelloggii Greene, op. cit. 267. 
Bidens cernua var. elatior Torr. ex Greene, op. cit. 268. 
Bidens cernua var. genuina Rouy, cum subvars. rugosa (Coss. & 
Germ.) Rouy et ligulata (Bonn.) Rouy, Fl. France 8: 217. 1903. 
Bidens cernua var. monocephala Zersi ex Fiori in Fiori & Paoletti, 

Fl. Anal. Ital. 3: 301. 1904. 

Bidens elliptica (Wieg.) Gleason, Ohio Nat. 5: 317. 1905. 1 
Bidens graveolens Kom. Bull. Jard. Imper. Bot. (Leningrad) 16: 178. 

1916. 
Bidens cernua f. discoidea (Wimm. & Grab.) Briq. & Cavill. Fl. Alp. 

Marit. 6: 220. 1917. 

Bidens cernua f. ligulata (Bonn.) Briq. & Cavill. loc. cit. 
Bidens cernua f. typica (Beck v. M.) Briq. & Cavill. loc. cit. 
Bidens filamentosa Rydb. Fl. Pr. Plains Cent. N. Amer. 850. 1932. 
Folia in apices longe acuminato-attenuatos angustata, primaria 
acriter serrata 4-24 jugis dentium; involucri bracteis exteriori- 
bus circumambitu a lineari usque ad lanceolatum, apice acutis 

vel subacutis B. cernua sensu stricto. 

Folia apice plerumque obtusa vel rotundata, primaria integra vel 
dentata 1-6 jugis dentium remotorum; involucri bracteis 
exterioribus circumambitu a oblongo usque ad spathulatum, 

apice obtusis vel rotundatis var. /3. oligodonta. 

Herba annua, erecta, breviter ramosa, 1-9 dm. alta, ramis 
suberectis vel adscendentibus; caule subtereti, glabro vel scabrido- 
hispido, purpurascenti vel stramineo (saepe pallidissimo). Folia 
normaliter opposita (rarissime verticillata), normaliter sessilia, 
indivisa (rarissime 1 vel 2 lobis lateralibus 2-3-partita), marginibus 
sparsim ciliata, aliter glabra, lineari-lanceolata vel lanceolata, apice 
acuminata, inaequaliter serrata, basim versus saepe angustata, basi 
connata, 4-17 (-22) cm. longa. Capitula primum saepe erecta sed 
demum cernua, ligulata vel discoidea, pansa ad anthesin 1-5 cm. 
lata et 0.6-1.2 cm. alta (ligulis non adjectis tantum 1-2 cm. lata). 
Involucrum basi hispidum; bracteis exterioribus 5-8, foliaceis, lineari- 
lanceolatis, subsparsim aciculato-ciliatis, inaequalibus, patentibus, 
capitulo plerumque longioribus; interioribus valde membranaceis, 

1 Pre-Linnean synonymy is as follows: Bidens folio non dissedo Caesalp. 
De Plantis 16: 488, cap. XVII. 1583; Bidens folio non dissecto Tpurn. Instit. 462. 
1719; Bidens corona seminum relrorsum aculeata, foliis amplexicaulibus, floribus 
nutantibus, L. Fl. Suec. 239 (No. 664). 1745. 



302 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

ovato-lanceolatis vel obovato-lanceolatis, capitulo non longioribus. 
Flores ligulati (si praesentes) 6-8, flavi, ligula ovato-lanceolati, apice 
acuti vel minute denticulati, capitulo dimidio longiores; tubulosi nor- 
maliter 5-lobati. 1 Achaenia anguste cuneata, quadrangulata, angulis 
retrorsum hamosa (et saepe tuberculata), corpore 5-6.5 (-7.7) mm. 
longa et saepe purpurascentia, apice flavida et quadriaristata aristis 
tenuibus retrorsum hamosis et 2-3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen : A good specimen exists in the Linnean Herbarium 
at London, but the name Bidens cernua traces back by synonymy 
directly to Caesalpinus 16: 488, cap. XVII, to the plant there con- 
trasted with the present B. tripartite/, and mentioned only briefly 
("eodem reperitur aliquando folio non dissecto"). 

Distribution: In North America from British Columbia east- 
ward to New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and 
Magdalen Islands, and southward to California, New Mexico, 
Tennessee, and North Carolina; in Europe throughout the British 
Isles and known on the continent eastward to past the 35th meridian 
and from Norway, Sweden, and Finland at the north to southern 
France, northern Italy, European Turkey, and the Crimean Penin- 
sula at the south; in Asia known from Asiatic Turkey southward 
to Palestine, from British East India, from Japan and from various 
localities between western Mongolia and southeastern Siberia. 
Absent from the southern hemisphere. 

Specimens examined: Lulu F. Allabach, LaSalle Isl., Les Cheneaux 
Isls., northwestern Lake Huron, August 25, 1920 (Carn.); anon., 
loco ignoto (Linn.; sub num. 2 et nom. cernua}; anon., loco ignoto 
(Linn. ; pro Coreopside et sub nom. Bidente, i.e., hie specimen Coreopsis 
Bidens L. est);B. Balansa, alt. about 1,100 meters, borders of marsh, 
Cesarea (Caesarea, Kaisariyeh, Kaisarieh), Palestine, September 1, 
1856 (Del.); J. Ball, near Sneem, County Kerry, Ireland, September 
20, 1859 (Gray); E. B. Bartram 1302, Morrisville, Pennsylvania, 
October 3, 1910 (Gray); M. S. Bebb, Fountaindale, Illinois (Field); 
Henri Bernet, Grand-Laconnex near Geneva, Switzerland, October 
1866 and September, 1868 (Boiss.) ; Biltmore Herb. 1386 p.p., swampy 
places, Highlands, North Carolina, September 7, 1897 (Mus. V.); 
F. T. Bioletti, Lake Merced, San Francisco, California, August, 1892 
(Calif.) ; C. H. Bissell 293, Southington, Connecticut, September 23, 
1892 (Gray); idem & D. H. Linder 22863, Pottle's Lake, North 

^uchenau (Abh. Senckenb. Gesellsch. Frankf. 1: 119. 1854) and Wydler 
(Flora 43: 516. 1860) have described tetramerous florets for B. cernua. In these 
there was a regular alternation between the calyx projections (achenial aristae), 
the corolla lobes, and the stamens. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany. Vol. XVI, Plate LXXVIII 




BIDENS FERULAEFOLIA var. FOENICULAEFOLIA (DC.) SherlT (figs. a-i>; 
var. LUDENS (Gray) Sherff (figs, j-s) 



OF THt 
UHIVFRSITY flf ItMNIIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 303 

Sydney, Cape Breton Co., Nova Scotia, August 27, 1920 (Phila.); 
J. W. Blankinship 259, wet places at alt. 1,350 meters, Bozeman, 
Montana, August 23, 1905 (Berl.; Boiss.; Can.; Cop.; Phila.); Bohn- 
hof 314, sands of Lake Hanka (Lake Kanka; L. Khanka), south- 
eastern Siberia, August 21, 1899 (Berl.; Del.; N.Y.); E. Bourgeau, 
Saskatchewan, 1857-1858 (Berl.; Mus. V.); Hem. Braun, wet 
places at Goyss near Bruck, Hungary, September 28, 1879 (Mus. 
V.); Mrs. F. A. Briggs, Rainier, Oregon, 1893 (Phila.); W. P. Brooks, 
Southern Hokkaido, Japan, 1884 (Calif.); H. E. Brown 35, alt. 
300 meters, near Milton, Oregon, August 26, 1896 (Del.; Phila.); 
A. B. Burgess 319, swampy ground near creek, Prairie Rhonde, Mich- 
igan, September 25, 1903 (Field); B. F. Bush, Courtney, Missouri, 
September 27, 1893 (U.V.); idem 34, eodem loco, September 11, 

1892 (Gray; forma pro var. Integra Wieg. determinant K. M. Wie- 
gand) ; idem 165, river banks, Jackson Co., Missouri, September 28, 

1893 (Field; Kew); idem 807, bottoms, Courtney, Missouri, Sep- 
tember 11, 1899 (Gray; Mo.); idem 1887, eodem loco, September 22, 

1903 (Gray); Fr. Castella, peat bogs, Lentigny, Canton Fribourg, 
Switzerland, September 10, 1902 (U.S.); Girard de Cesaree, Vilayet 
of Sivas, Asiatic Turkey, September 7, 1893 (Boiss.) ;E. B. Chamber- 
lain & L. 0. Eaton, quaking bog, East Livermore, Maine, August 27, 

1904 (Gray; planta minima); R. W. Chaney 249, Hamlin Lake, 
Mason Co., Michigan, September 18, 1910 (Field); Agnes Chase 2733, 
islets of Potomac River near Cabin John, Maryland, October 5, 
1904 (Field); June A. Clark 298, pond margin, Boise, Idaho, August 
26, 1911 (Can.; Del.; Field); D. Clarke 29, Flint, Michigan (Cam.); 
Fred Clements 2920, Ainsworth, Nebraska, August 29, 1893 (Gray) ; 
L. Corbiere, Cherbourg, France, September 26, 1886 (U.S.);/ 1 . V. 
Coville 1341, shore of Klamath Lake between Modoc Point and 
mouth of Williamson River, Oregon, August 29, 1902 (U.S. ; forma a 
Leibergii 689 non differt); W. C. Cusick 1408, bogs, etc., Oregon, 
August, 1886 (U.S.; type material of Bidens lonchophylla Greene); 
idem 1453, Oregon (Field) ; idem 1768, tules of the Grand Rond Valley, 
Oregon, August, 1897 (Field; Kew; type collection of Bidens Cusickii 
Greene) ; H. E. Day 402, Manchester, Vermont, September 6, 1898 
(Gray); Dimonie, along bodies of water near Ohrida, Macedonia, 
European Turkey, July, 1908 (Mus. V., 2 sheets; U.V.); Duftschmid, 
grassy meadows near Waldhausen, Upper Austria, August 20, 1856 
(Mus. V.); D. L. Button, Brandon, Vermont, September 5, 1921 
(Carn.) ; Alice Eastwood 48, along Platte River, Denver, Colorado, 
August 18, 1910 (Gray; Kew);F. Elmquist 3981, in marshes, Ostro- 



304 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

gothie, Brenas, Sweden, July 25, 1896 (Boiss.; Del.; Mus. V.; U.V.); 
Evers 477, shaded ditches at Madonna Mariellia, Monfalcone, 
Coastland (Kiistenland), September 6, 1903 (Mus. V.); Urbain 
Faurie 3138, Plain of Sapporo, Japan, September 12, 1888 (Kew); 
Favrat, Marcages, Switzerland, September 3, 1873 (U.V.);#. Faxon, 
near Boston, Massachusetts, October, 1883 (Gray; formam pro var. 
elliptica Wieg. determinant K. M. Wiegand); M. L. Fernald, wood- 
land pool, Somesville, Mt. Desert Isl., Maine, September 21, 1892 
(N. Eng. ; planta minima) ; idem, Long, & St. John 8210, Etang du 
Nord Village, Grindstone Isl., Magdalen Isls., Quebec, August 15, 
1912 (Gray); iidem 8211, wet bogs and mossy pond margins among 
sandhills, Coffin Isl., Magdalen Isls., Quebec, August 17, 1912 
(Gray; planta minima); iidem 8212, North Lake, Kings Co., Prince 
Edward Isl., Aug. 24, 1912 (Gray) ; iidem 8213, Dundee, Kings Co., 
Prince Edward Isl., August 26, 1912 (Gray) ; iidem 8214, Southport, 
Queens Co., Prince Edward Isl., August 28, 1912 (Gray); (Fernald 
& St. John 11211, formerly referred to B. cernua proper, is var. obli- 
godonta, q.v.); G. L. Fisher, St. Thomas, Ontario, September 13, 
1908 (U.V.); J. Fowler, Kingston, Ontario, September 12, 1899 
(Field) ; Friedrichsthal 1086, Lake Ledes near Saloniki, Macedonia, 
European Turkey (Mus. V.); R. Frohock, Maiden, Massachusetts, 
August, 1880 (N. Eng.; forma nonnullis foliis 2-3-partitis foliolis 
lateralibus ovatis subacuminatis infra in petiolum decurrentibus) ; 
H. E. Garnsey 455, vicinity of Oxford, England, 1876 (U.V.); F. C. 
Gates 2002, Urbana, Illinois, September 26, 1907 (U.S.); L. N. 
Goodding 495, edge of a pond, Lower Canyon Creek, Big Horn Co., 
Wyoming, August 6, 1901 (Field); ex herb. Gulielmi Gourlie, Jr., 
vicinity of Glasgow, Scotland (Berl.) ;G. B. Grant 106, Sisson, northern 
California, September, 1902 (Del.); 1 J. M. Greenman 543, Dry Fork 
River, near Harman, West Virginia, September 12, 1904 (Field); 
A. A. Heller 11718, alt. about 1,140 meters, vicinity of Deetz Station 
near Black Butte, Siskiyou Co., California, August 25, 1914 (Del., 
2 sheets; Field; Penn.); idem & E. G. Halbach 600, Long Pond, 
Luzerne Co., Pennsylvania, September 16-17, 1892 (Boiss.); L. F. 
Henderson 3855, Salmon, Idaho, August 31, 1895 (U.S.; type of 
Bidens marginata Greene) ; Herb. Ingricae Cent. Ill, 309, in marshes 
and at edges of streams, Government of Leningrad, Russia, Septem- 
ber, 1860 (Field); idem Cent. VIII, 3096, in ditches and marshes, 

1 Grantzow has two sheets (Del.) of simple-leaved Bidens tripartita from 
Prenzlau, Germany (ditches at Hindenburg, only under the parents), August, 1876, 
labeled B. tripartita X B. cernua; also additional sheets labeled August, 1875, and 
August, 1876 (U.V.). I can find no trace of Bidens cernua present in any of these. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXXIX 




BIDENS TOWNSENDII Shertf 



OF THfc 
UNIVERSITY QF 



THE GENUS BIDENS 305 

eodem loco, September, 1864 (Field; Mo.; Mus. V.);idem VIII, 309c, 
eodem loco et tempore (Mus. V.); A. S. Hitchcock 735 p.p., wet soil, 
Atchison Co., Kansas, 1896 (Gray; U.V.) ; R. Hoffman, peat bog, San- 
desfield, Massachusetts, July 12, 1907 (N. Eng.; planta minima); 
0. A. Hoffstad, vicinity of Sandefjord, Norway, August, 1893 
(Mus. V.); I. F. Holton, Kanawha, West Virginia, October 8, 1849 
(Field); Clifton D. Howe 1464, roadside swamp, Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, September 1, 1901 (Field) ; T. J. Howell, Sauvies Isl., Oregon, 
September, 1882 (Field); 0. E. Jennings & G. E. Kinzer, Ohio 
Pyle, Pennsylvania, September 10, 1905 (Cam.); 0. E. Jennings 
& uxor 5173, swamp pasture, near Fort William, Ontario, Sep- 
tember 5, 1913 (Carn.) ; iidem & R. H. Daily, bank of river below 
Nipigon, Ontario, August 31, 1912 (Carn.); E. L. Johnston 394A, 
Brighton, Colorado, September 8, 1908 (N.Y.); M. E. Jones 673, 
alt. 1,500 meters, Platte River, Denver, Colorado, August 22, 1878 
(Berl.; forma B. laevi adpropinquans) ; idem 4144, Albuquerque, 
New Mexico, September 4, 1884 (Boiss.; Del.; Field; U.V.); idem 
5978, alt. 1,800-1,950 meters, Kingston, Utah, September 3, 1894 
(Boiss.; N.Y.; U.S.); T. H. Kearney 475, near Wasioto, Kentucky, 
September, 1893 (Boiss. ; Gray) ; Louis Keller, ditches at Moosbrun 
near Vienna, Lower Austria, August 28, 1880 (Mus. V.); idem, 
edges of swamps at Kirschenteuer i. Rosental, Prov. Karnten 
(Carinthia), Austria, August, 1907 (Mus. V.); A. Kellogg & W. G. W. 
Harford 437 pro parte, Lake Merced, San Francisco, California, 
August 22, 1868 (Boiss., Brit., et Kew, quo cum B. laevi commixt.; 
N.Y.; U.S.; type material of Bidens Kelloggii Greene); E. Kindt, 
Beckendorf near Boitzenburg (Boizenburg) on the Elbe River, 
Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Germany, August 28, 1907 (U.V., 2 sheets); 
V. Komardv, eastern shores of Lake Chan-chai, July 20, 1913 (Petrop. ; 
type of Bidens graveolens Kom.) ; Fr. Kornicke, Leningrad (Berl.) ; Axel 
Lange, Surrey, England, September 8, 1895 (Cop.) ; 0. E. Lansing, Jr., 
1594, bottom land, Calumet River, Porter, Indiana, September 13, 
1902 (Field) ; idem 3981, swampy margins of Calumet River, Clarke, 
Indiana, September 17, 1915 (Field); J. B. Leiberg 689, alt. 1,580 
meters, near Fort Klamath, Oregon, August 8, 1894 (Berl.; Calif.; 
N.Y.);G. W. Letterman, near water, vicinity of Denver, Colorado, 
August 20, 1884 (U.V.); B. E. Livingston, vicinity of Grand Rapids, 
Michigan, July 30, 1890 (Carn.); J. Lunell 55, Leeds, North Dakota, 
August 20-September 3, 1899 (Gray); Lyall, Chilliwack Prairie, 
British Columbia, October, 1859 (Kew) ; J. F. Macbride 297, Falk's 
Store, Canyon Co., Idaho, June 28, 1910 (Carn.; Del.; Gray); 



306 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

J. M. Macfarlane, Peak's Isl., Casco Bay, Maine, September, 1913 
(Perm., 3 sheets); J. M. Macoun, borders of marshes, Muskeg Isl., 
Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, August 11, 1884 (Can.; U.S.); idem, 
mouth of Salem River, British Columbia, August 27, 1902 (Gray); 
John Macoun, margins of lakes and marshes, Little Slave Lake, 
Alberta, September 20, 1872 (Can.); idem, margins of streams and 
lakes, Moira River, Ontario, September 14, 1877 (Can., type of 
Bidens prionophylla Greene); idem, swamps and ditches, Brackley 
Point, Prince Edward Isl., September 5, 1888 (Can.); idem, Lulu 
Isl., mouth of Fraser River, British Columbia, July 27, 1889 (Can.); 
idem, Leamy's Lake, Hull, Quebec, September 6, 1889 (Can.); idem, 
New Westminster, British Columbia, August 28, 1893 (Can.; cf. 
numeros 457 et 458 infra) ; idem, Brandon, Manitoba, July 29, 1896 
(Can. ; type of Bidens leptopoda Greene) ; idem, by the river, Wake- 
field, Quebec, August 30, 1903 (Field) ; idem, St. Anne de Beaupre", 
Quebec, August 30, 1905 (Berl.; Gray); idem, Annapolis, Nova 
Scotia, September 1, 1910 (Can.) ; idem, ditches, Kingsmere, Quebec, 
August 23, 1911 (Can.); idem, Manor Park, Ottawa, August 25, 
1911 (Can.); idem, Carlsbad Springs, Ontario, September 5, 1911 
(Can.) ; idem 457, New Westminster, British Columbia, August 28, 
1893 (Can.; Gray; Greene; pro var. elliptica Wieg. determinavit 
K. M. Wiegand; type material of Bidens Macounii Greene); idem 
458, eodem loco et tempore (Can. ; Gray) ; idem & William Herriott, 
Battle River, Alberta, August 15, 1906 (Can.; Field); iidem, east 
of Beaver Hill Lake, Alberta, August 22, 1906 (Can.; Field); 
Malbranche (Reliq. Mailleanae 1266), banks of Seine River near 
Rouen, France, August, 1855 (Cop.; Mus. V.; U.S.); M. 0. Make, 
Salmon Arm, British Columbia, August 13, 1911 (Can.); E. Martin 
3027, ditch at base of bank of pond at St. Hubert, Commune of 
Veilleins, Dept. Loir-et-Cher, France, last of September, 1892 (Berl.; 
Boiss.; Del.; Mus. V.; U.V.); W. Masarakij 1074, wet, sandy soil 
along stream, near Preobrashenskaja, Distr. Luga, Prov. St. Peters- 
burg, August 19, 1906 (Berl.; Cop.; Del., 2 sheets; Mus. V.); W. 
C. McCalla 2514, vicinity of Edmonton, Alberta, September 14, 1918 
(Can.); F. T. McFarland 161, Lexington, Kentucky, October 11, 
1923 (Phila.); S. E. Meek, near Henry, Illinois, September 12-16, 
1906 (Mus. V., 2 sheets); Michener & Bioletti, Lake Merced, San 
Francisco, California, June 12, 1892 (N.Y.); C. F. Millspaugh 14, 
wet river bank near Lake, Indiana, September 22, 1900 (Field); 
M. E. Moricand (i.e., Stefano), vicinity of Vienna (Wien), Austria, 
(Del.) and Venice (Venetia), Italy, September (Del.); EM,. Moseley, 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXXX 




BIDENS AUREA (Ait.) SherfT 



OF Ttlk 
UNIVERSITY Of liilKQiS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 307 

Castalia, Ohio, September 19, 1895 (Field) ; John Murdoch, Jr., 4307, 
alt. 1,350 meters, Pactola, South Dakota, August 12, 1910 (Gray); 
Atten Nelson 1707, Centennial Valley, Wyoming, August 17, 1895 
(Carn.); idem 8657, margins of marshes, Platte Canyon, Laramie 
Co., Wyoming, September 4, 1901 (Boiss.; Del.); J. C. Nelson 4131, 
Minto's Isl., south of Salem, Oregon, August 13, 1921 (Phila.); 
idem 4796, ditch by roadside, Sauvies Isl., Multnomah Co., Oregon, 
September 16, 1922 (Phila.; forma ternis foliis ad singulos nodos 
verticillatis) ; J. B. Norton 282, wet places, Riley Co., Kansas, July 2, 
1895 (U.V.); Thomas Nuttall, Wappatoo Isl. (Sauvies Isl.; Brit., 
sub nom. Bidente quadriaristata var. dentata); R. Oldham 411 pro 
parte, Nagasaki, Japan, 1862 (Del.); Joseph Paczoski, Pereiaslaf 
(Pereiaslaw), Government of Poltava (Poltawa), Little Russia, 
August 6, 1891 (Boiss.); L. H. Pammell & R. E. Blackwood 3932, 
alt. 1,950 meters, Weber River, Peterson, Utah, July 18-24, 1902 
(Gray); Franz Petrak (Distrib. I) 95, marshes at Skalitzka near 
Weisskirchen, Moravia (Mahren), Czechoslovakia, August 26, 1908 
(Gray; planta minima); idem (Distrib. VII) 692, meadow ditches, 
vicinity of Weisskirchen, August, 1911 (Gray) ; Mairlot Pollem, ditch, 
Belgium, September 28, 1901 (Mus. V.); S. F. Poole 80, Sharon, 
Massachusetts, September, 1905 (Gray); G. N. Potanin, Taituhai, 
plain of eastern Ordos region, Mongolia, August 30, 1884 (Berl.; 
Gray; Mus. V.); idem, Lake Orok-nor, Desert of Gobi (Shamo), 
Mongolia, September 1, 1886 (Gray) ; E. Preissmann, alt. 270 meters, 
swampy places, Poltschach, southeastern Styria (Steiermark), 
August 26, 1881 (Mus. V.); Wolfgang Puchtler 825, alt. 350 meters, 
ditches at Neuenmarkt-Wirsberg, Upper Franconia (Ober-Franken), 
Bavaria, August, 1904 (Del., 2 sheets; Gray); idem 1720, alt. 390 
meters, ponds, Berneck, Upper Franconia, July 13, 1918 (Del.); 
F. Raine, marsh near Dormans, Surrey, England, September 3, 1905 
(Gray); Regel, Varposka, Government of St. Petersburg (Berl., 2 
sheets; Mus. V., 2 sheets); Aladar Richter, Cluj, Prov. Transsilvania, 
Roumania, September 23, 1901 (Cluj; sub nom. Bidente cernua f. 
elongata A. R., planta tenui simplicique) ; B. L. Robinson, boggy 
meadow after mowing, Hancock, New Hampshire, September 13, 
1899 (Gray) ; idem 400, ditches, Jaffrey, New Hampshire, September 
11, 1897 (Gray); Rugel, French Broad River near Dandridge, Ten- 
nessee, September, 1842 (Mus. V.); P. A. Rydberg 1696, near Thed- 
ford, Nebraska (Cop., 2 sheets); idem (similiter) 1696, Middle Loup 
River, near Mullen, Nebraska, August 17, 1893 (Berl.; N.Y.); idem 
9646, Moore Lake, Anoka Co., Minnesota, September 5, 1926 



308 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

(N.Y., 2 sheets; pro Bidente filamentosa Rydb.); idem 9648, White 
Bear Lake, Minnesota, September 15, 1926 (N.Y.; numero 9646 
aequale et similiter a Rydbergio pro sua Bidente filamentosa habi- 
tum); H. Sabransky, ditches, Ebersdorf, eastern Styria (Steiermark), 
August, 1908 (Mus. V.); J. H. Sandberg 985, Minneapolis, Minne- 
sota, September 23, 1891 (Field; U.S.; type collection of Bidens graci- 
lenta Greene); J. A. Sandman 386, seashore near Uleaborg, Finland, 
August 29, 1884 (Berl.; Cop.; Del.; Mo.); 1 Sandvik, southwestern 
Finland, August 6, 1861 (Berl.) ; H. E. Sargent 74, Lake Wentworth, 
Wolfboro, New Hampshire, September 2, 1909 (Gray) ; J. T. Scovell 
& H. Walton Clark 1225, beach at Long Point, Lake Maxinkuckee, 
Indiana, October 30, 1900 (Field); F. L. Scribner 108, Dog Creek near 
Missouri River, Montana, September 11, 1883 (Gray); A. D. Selby 
& J. W. T. Duvel 1261, near Orville, Ohio, September 4, 1899 (Field) ; 
iidem 1266, Killbuck Swamp, Wayne Co., Ohio, September 15, 1899 
(Carn.) ; F. C. Seymour 87, Granville, Massachusetts, September 20, 
1913 (Gray);#. P. Sheldon, University Park, Oregon, September 14, 
1902 (Field) ;E. E. Sherff 2029, along stream, Skokie Marsh, west of 
Glencoe, Illinois, October 3, 1915 (Field) ; idem 2047, Thorn Creek, 
northwest of Glenwood, Illinois, October 7, 1915 (Field); H. G. 
Simmons, Augustenhof, Schleswig-Holstein, August 11, 1893 (Cop.); 
P. Sintenis 1832, wet places, Katarina (Katerina), Vilayet of Salo- 
nica, European Turkey, September 9, 1889 (Berl.); J. K. Small, 
Pleasant Grove, Pennsylvania, October, 1903 (N.Y.); idem & A. 
M. Huger, Chimney Rock to Hendersonville, North Carolina, Octo- 
ber 3, 1901 (N.Y.);B. H. Smith, Cherry Creek, Denver, Colorado, 
August 24, 1884 (Phila.); W. Spreadborough, mouth of Salmon River, 
British Columbia, August 27, 1904 (Can.); E. S. Steele, river swamps, 
vicinity of Washington, District of Columbia, September 18, 1896 
(U.V.); idem & uxor 219, alt. 550 meters, Sweet Springs, West 
Virginia, September 5, 1903 (Gray); Stefano (vide Moricand); 
Stoliczka, vicinity of Islamabad, northwestern Himalaya, British 
East India (Mus. V.); Gabriel Strobl, ditches, at Admont, north- 
western Styria, June, 1876 (Mus. V.); W. N. Suksdorf 932, wet 
meadows near Spangle, Washington, July 12, 1889 (Berl.; Boiss.; 
Del.; Field); idem 1592, wet ground, Falcon Valley, Washington, 
September 20, 1894 (Boiss.; Field) ; T. Symonowiczowna 736, Minojty, 
Distr. Lida, Lithuania (Berl.; Mus. V.); B. C. Taylor, Center City, 

'Printed label of Sandman 386 states: "Forma radiata in Finlandia rara aut 
rarissima et tantum in litoribus vel in vicinitate maris lecta est. Ad oras Sinus 
Bottnici nonnullis locis occurrit; rarissime ad oram intimae partis Sinus Finlanden- 
sis ad Mare Album crescit. F. typica multo frequentior est; in interioribus etiam 
partibus Finlandiae australis invenitur." 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXXXI 




BIDENS INTEGRIFOL1A Brandeg. 



OF Tfk 
UMW5MITY 8P /Mf8IS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 309 

Minnesota, 1892 (Boiss.); C. G. H. Thedenius, Goteborgstrakten, 
Sweden, August, 1902 (Man.); T. Thomson, alt. 1,500-1,800 meters, 
Kashmir, British East India (Berl.; Boiss.; Cop.; Del.; Gray; Kew, 
2 sheets; Mus. V.; aristis interdum tantum 1-8-hamosis) ; L. Vagner, 
ditches and other wet places, Comitat of Marmaros (Maramaros, 
Marmaross), Hungary, August-September (Mus. V.); S. S. Visher 
2224, Sand Creek, Bennett Co., South Dakota, August 12, 1911 
(Field); A. Von Hayek 796, alt. 635 meters, in grassy places near 
Selzthal, Styria (Steiermark), Austria, July, 1908 (Berl.; Mus. V.; 
U.V.); S. C. Wadmond 1232, Racine and Kenosha counties, Wis- 
consin, September 7, 1899 (Phila.); L. F. Ward, along the canal, 
vicinity of Washington, District of Columbia, September 10, 1876 
(U.S.; planta ad dextram forma Bidenti leptomeriae Greenei aequa- 
lis) ; idem, Eastern Branch Marsh, District of Columbia, July 7, 1878 
(U.S.; type of Bidens leptomeria Greene); E. Wilson, Armstrong, 
British Columbia, 1904 (Can.); Ferdinand Winter 345, Saarbriicken, 
Rhine (Rhein-Provinz), September, 1866 (Berl.); idem 751, St. 
Johann, Saarbriicken, Rhine, September, 1863 (Berl.; hoc et num. 
345 et nonnulla alia specimina a Wintero pro hybridis inter B. 
cernuam et B. tripartitam habita, sed videntur vere B. cernua)', 
Witasek, Mitterburg, Istrian Peninsula, Prov. Coastland (Kiisten- 
land), August, 1901 (U.V.); E. Witting, swamps at Lake Leonhard, 
near Villach, Prov. Carinthia (Karnten, Karnthen; Mus. V.); Wolf- 
gang, flooded marshes, Lithuania (Mus. V.); W. F. Wright 251, 
near Ouatchonan Falls, Lake St. John, Quebec, August 29, 1904 
(Gray) ; R. T. Young, common in marshes on the plains, near Boulder, 
Colorado, September 14, 1904 (Field); A. Zahlbruckner, ditches at 
St. Georgen, Kleine Karpaten (Little Carpathian) Mts., north- 
western Hungary, September, 1883 (Mus. V.); N. Zelenetzuy (N. 
Zelenetzkij), Krima (Crimea) Peninsula, South Russia, July, 1885 
(Boiss.); Alois Zick 825a, alt. about 720 meters, peaty soil, swamp 
ditches at Wildpoldsried near Kempten, Bezirk of Swabia (Schwa- 
ben), Bavaria, September 7, 1913 (Del.; Gray); Zupancic 781, 
marshes near Laibach (Labacus), Prov. Carniola (Krain, Krajina), 
Jugo-Slavia, August (U.V.). 1 

Linnaeus gave a short description for Bidens cernua: "Bidens 
seminibus erectis: foliis lanceolatis amplexicaulibus, floribus cernuis. 
Fl. suec. 664." The character cernua, taken with the lanceolate 
leaves and with the habitat cited ("in Europa ad fontes & fossas") 

1 The juice of this species said by Lightfoot (Fl. Scot. 1: 462. 1777) to dye cloth 
yellow. It also excites salivation (Gandoger, Fl. Lyon. 122. 1875). 



310 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

leaves not the slightest doubt as to the identity of B. cernua. Lin- 
naeus' first cited synonym, Fl. Suec. 664, rests by synonymy upon 
Bidens folio non dissecto Tourn. Inst. 462, which in turn goes back 
directly to Bidens folio non dissecto Caesalp. 16: 488, cap. XVII, 
published in 1583. 

In the Linnean Herbarium are only two specimens of this species. 
One, in the Bidens cover, is marked "2 cernua" and the other, in the 
Coreopsis cover, is marked "7 Bidens." The latter is clearly the 
radiate form meant by Linnaeus for his Coreopsis Bidens; the former 
is the discoid form. Linnaeus expressly declared his doubts as to 
whether the radiate form was a distinct species or only a variety of 
B. cernua, although Valantius held the latter view (L. Fl. Suec. ed. 
2: 300. No. 772. 1755). 1 

Numerous attempts have been made in literature to segregate 
the various forms of B. cernua into formae, subvarieties, varieties, 
and even separate species. The trouble with this work has been 
that, with the apparent exception of var. oligodonta Fern. & St. 
John, these forms vary so indiscriminately that the "characters" 
listed for one form will elsewhere reappear in almost endless over- 
lapping combinations with those of other described forms and hence 
the lines of demarcation disappear (regarding difficulties in such 
cases, vide H. M. Hall, Proc. Internat. Congr. PL Sci. 1926, 2: 1571. 
1929). Thus there are plants dark green or pale and subglaucous, 
tall or dwarf, radiate or discoid, smooth-stemmed or scabrous- 
stemmed, wide-leaved or narrow-leaved, etc. 2 

1 So, too, concluded Roth (Tentamen 2, pt. 2: 303. 1793): "omnino mera 
tantummodo varietas est Bidentis cernuae;" also C. F. Schultz (Prodr. Fl. Stargard. 
208. 1806): "floribus radiatis in fossis cum praecedente [B. cernua] cujus mera 
varietas est;" also numerous other students of the subject since then. 

1 A plant has even been found having single leaves (never more than one at a 
node) pinnate with linear segments (Asch. & Graebn. Fl. N.E. Deutsch. Flach- 
landes ed. 2: 716. 1898; cf. specimen Frohockii citatum supra). A form appeared 
spontaneously several years ago along the lagoons in Jackson Park, Chicago, 
Illinois, having the leaves definitely verticillate in threes. A specimen was given 
to Dr. Henry C. Cowles, who in turn presented it to me. The plant unfortunately 
was lost in mounting. The same form has been found again in Oregon (J. C. Nel- 
son 4796; Phila.). 

If varieties other than oligodonta are to be maintained for North American 
material, then the leaf characters appear to offer the most acceptable basis of 
separation. We should in such case recognize the species proper and the vars. 
integra Wieg., elliptica Wieg., and oligodonta Fern. & St. John. We may note 
here that Fernald (Rhodora 24: 206. 1922) presents the results of a study of B. 
cernua in eastern North America in which he treats these (and other) forms. His 
distributional ranges as given are: 

"B. cernua (typical) . . . extending northeastward to Chicoutimi, Rimouski 
and Bonaventure Cos., Quebec, Magdalen Islands and Cape Breton, 



THE GENUS BIDENS 311 

Bidens quadriaristata var. dentata Nutt. was based upon a small, 
fragmentary specimen (Brit.) from Wappatoo Island (now called 
Sauvies Isl.) at the outlet of the Wahlamet (now Willamette) River, 
northern Oregon. Elsewhere I have published a photograph of it 
(Bot. Gaz. 59: 313, fig. 2. 1915). It might by some be construed as 
representing B. laevis (L.) B.S.P., but B. laevis is not known to range 
nearly so far north in the western United States. Nuttall's variety 
(as also the nomenclaturally synonymous B. dentata Wieg.) should 
not be confused with the widely different B. amplissima Greene. 

In 1901, Greene (loc. cit.) described a number of new species of 
Bidens. On examination of his types and cotypes, I was dismayed 
to find that most of these species represented what ordinarily had 
been regarded as mere ecological forms of Bidens cernua and B. 
laevis. Direct conversation with Dr. Greene himself showed that 
back of his viewpoint regarding B. cernua (Greene, op. cit. 251-253) 
was the absolute conviction that the American specimens were 
native to America, and, being so, were hence specifically different 
from European specimens. 1 Personal field study for several autumns, 
combined with a careful examination of a vast amount of B. cernua 
material from different parts of the northern hemisphere, has 
convinced me only the more of the utter impossibility of separating 
the many forms as species. Scarcely a form occurs in North America 
that is not duplicated by a similar form in Europe. Even Greene 
(op. cit. 252) was compelled to declare "after careful and repeated 
comparisons made between European and American specimens of 

Nova Scotia; Eurasia. In Nova Scotia unknown from west of Annapolis 

and Lunenburg Cos." 
"Var. Integra . . . Prince Edward Island; Cape Cod, Massachusetts; Illinois 

to western North Carolina, Oklahoma and South Dakota." 
"Var. elliptica . . . extending northeastward to the Ottawa Valley, Ontario 

and Quebec, and Prince Edward Island." 

The relevant part of his key (omitting the var. oligodonta already treated 
above) is here Latinized: 

Folia basi late connata vel subconnata, infra medium vix angustata 

Folia circumambitu a lineari usque ad oblanceolatum, dentata 4-13 jugis dentium 
grossorum 1-5 mm. altorum B. cernua sensu stricto. 

Folia circumambitu a lineari-oblongo usque ad lanceolato-oblongum, dentulata 
12-24 jugis dentium vix 1 mm. altorum var. Integra. 

Folia basi perspicue angustata, circumambitu elliptico-lanceolata. . .var. elliptica. 

1 In emphasizing his views upon this subject, Dr. Greene exclaimed: "I defy 
you to find a single species of Compositae that is native both to Europe and to 
North America." As to the nativity of B. cernua, we should note that it was 
known from Europe much earlier than from North America (cf. DC. Prodr. 5: 594. 
1836: "in Europae et nunc in Amer. borealis fossis inundatis et aquaticis frequens") 



312 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

so-called B. cernua, I acknowledge inability to detect any strong 
technical characters upon which to separate them." l 

Again, in a single colony of B. cernua, frequently three or more 
dissimilar forms occur, with numerous intergradations. Thus, in a 
single small colony north of Elgin, Illinois, many plants were diminu- 
tive, matching forms doubtless included with the corresponding 
dwarf forms of B. tripartite!, by Hudson in his B. minima; 2 some were 
tall and robust, matching B. leptopoda Greene (the type of which the 
late Mr. James M. Macoun of the Canadian Geological Survey 
Herbarium at Ottawa kindly permitted me to examine); and some 
were small plants grown from the rooting nodes of tall plants trampled 
by cattle, and were practically identical with B. marginata Greene. 
In the same way, several of Greene's types are found on comparison 
with their cotypes in other herbaria to be merely slight variants 
from the standard form. In certain of these cases, Greene's descrip- 
tion was much too narrow to fit even the few cotypes examined. 

B. leptomeria Greene, founded upon a plant from Eastern Branch 
Marsh, Washington, District of Columbia (L. F. Ward, July 7, 1878; 
U.S.), is seemingly a more or less teratological form with long 
peduncles. Several other specimens from the same vicinity (all in 
Hb. U.S.) connect this extreme perfectly with normal B, cernua. 

Occasionally specimens are found which represent apparently 
hybrids with B. connata. One such plant is F. F. Forbes, swamp on 
Brookline Water Works Land, Cow Bay, Dedham, Massachusetts, 
September 21, 1911 (Gray). 

Bidens cernua var. /3. oligodonta Fern. & St. John, Rhodora 
17: 25. 1915. PI. LXXII, figs. 6 and c. 

Herba humilis, plus minusve depressa, ramosissima, 0.5-2 dm. 
alta; caulibus glabris vel sparse hispidis; foliis crassis, rhomboideis 
vel elliptico-oblanceolatis, apice obtusis, ad basim angustatis, sub- 
integris vel pauco-dentatis, dentibus utrinque 1-5 obtusis, foliis 
primariis 2-5 cm. longis et 0.5-1.5 cm. latis; capitulis hemisphaericis 

1 Illustrative of Greene's regrettable carelessness displayed in much of his 
work on Bidens is the case of B. Kelloggii (Greene, loc. cit.). In naming certain 
forms B. Kelloggii, he treated them as segregates of B. laevis (L.) B.S.P. Then he 
actually stated that "Dr. Torrey . . . more correctly referred them to B. cernua." 
In passing, we may note that while Greene's type of B. Kelloggii (U.S.) is not 
distinct from B. cernua, sheets of the type number (Kellogg & Harford 437) in 
certain herbaria (Boiss.; Brit.; Kew) bear an additional specimen of B. laevis (L.) 
B.S.P. mixed with the B. cernua. 

2 See second footnote under synonymy for B. cernua. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 313 

0.5-1 cm. latis; bracteis foliaceis oblongis vel late oblanceolatis, apice 
obtusis, plerumque 1.5-2 cm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Merritt L. Fernald, Bayard Long, 
and Harold St. John, No. 8208, peaty margin of a brackish pond 
southwest of Etang du Nord wharf, Grindstone Island, Magdalen 
Islands, Quebec, August 22, 1912 (Gray, 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Magdalen Islands, Prince Edward Island, Massa- 
chusetts, and "locally inland to western New York" (Fern. Rhodora 
24: 207. 1922). 

Specimens examined : Fernald & St. John 11211, border of a fresh 
pond back of sandhills, Tracadie, Prince Edward Isl., August 22, 
1914 (Gray); Fernald, Long, & St. John 8208 (type, Gray: cotype, 
Field); iidem 8209, wet brackish sand, North Lake, Kings Co., 
Prince Edward Isl., August 22, 1914 (Gray); A. S. Pease, sandy 
shore of Success Pond, Success, New Hampshire, August 27, 1907 
(N. Eng.). 

Of all the many described varieties, forms, etc., of B. cernua, this 
is the only one which, so far as it is known at present, can easily be 
maintained with varietal distinction (cf. discussion under species 
proper). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXII 

Bidens cernua, figs, a, d-k: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, 
X0.61; d, e, diverse cauline leaves, X0.61;/, exterior involucral bract, 
X3.03; g, interior involucral bract, X3.03; h, ray corolla, X3.03; i, 
palea, X3.03; j, disc floret, X4.85; k, achene, X4.85; a, f-j, from 
Greenman 543, in Hb. Field; d, from Coville 1341, in Hb. U.S.; e, 
from A. J. Grout, Vernon, Vermont, September 13, 1895, in Hb. 
Field; k, from Sherff 2047, in Hb. Field. 

Bidens cernua var. oligodonta, figs. b, c: characteristic cauline 
leaves, X0.61; from 1st type sheet. 

93. Bidens laevis (L.) B.S.P. Prelim. Cat. N.Y. 29. 1888. 
PL LXXIII. 

Helianthus laevis L. Sp. PL 906. 1753. * 

Coreopsis radiata Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. No. 5. 1768 (ex descript.). 

Coreopsis Helianthoides Forst. Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. 91. 1786. 

(Verisimiliter. Cf. Schz. Bip. Flora 39: 356. 1856.) 
Coreopsis perfoliata Walt. FL Carol. 215. 1788. (Verisimiliter.) 
Bidens Chrysanthemoides Michx. FL Bor. Amer. 2: 136. 1803. 
1 As to PI. Gronov. Fl. Virg. ed. 1 (not ed. 2). 104. 



314 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bidens Helianthoides H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 181 (230). 1820. 
Coreopsis flammula Banks ex Steud. Nom. ed. 1: 108. 1821 (fide 

Steud.). 

Kerneria Helianthoides (H.B.K.) Cass. Diet. Sci. Nat. 24: 399. 1822. 
Bidens quadriaristata DC. Prodr. 5: 595. 1836. 
Coreopsis perfoliata Bosc ex DC. loc. cit. 
Campylotheca? Helianthoides Endl. Bemerkungen iiber Die Flora 

Der Sudsee Inseln 168. 1841. (Verisimiliter. Vide Coreopsis 

Helianthoides Forst. supra.) 
Bidens Chrysanthemoides vars. a., /3 M 7., and 6. Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. 

Amer. 2: 353. 1842. 

Coreopsis serrata DC. Prodr. 5: 595. 1836. 
Bidens Nashii Small, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 25: 481. 1898. 
Bidens elegans Greene, Pittonia 4: 254. 1901. 
Bidens lugens Greene, loc. cit. 

Bidens formosa Greene, op. cit. 264; non (Bon.) Schz. Bip. 
Bidens Parryi Greene, op. cit. 265. 
Bidens expansa Greene, op. cit. 266. 
Bidens Persicaefolia Greene, loc. cit. 
Bidens Chrysanthemoides var. Nashii (Small) Jepson, Fl. W. Middle 

Calif. 544. 1901. 
Bidens speciosa Parish, Zoe 5: 75. 1907-1908; non Gardner in Hooker, 

Lond. Journ. Bot. 4: 126. 1845. 
Bidens levis B.S.P. ex Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 1085. 1925. 

Herba nunc annua nunc perennis, erecta vel basi procumbens; 
caule subtereti, simplici vel sparsim ramoso, glabro, 3-10 dm. alto. 
Folia sessilia, indivisa, lineari-lanceolata vel lanceolata vel rariter 
ovato-lanceolata, utrinque angustata vel ad basim interdum lata 
et connata, apice saepe acuminata, regulariter serrata dentibus 
saepe tenuibus et fere subulatis, glabrata vel margine saepe sparsim 
ciliata, 5-15 cm. longa. Capitula plerumque pauca, ligulata, erecta 
vel demum saepe cernua, ad anthesin 3-7 cm. lata et 8-11 mm. alta. 
Involucrum basi plerumque hispidum; bracteis exterioribus 6-8, 
parce foliaceis, lineari-lanceolatis, apice obtusis acutisve, margine 
subsparsim aciculato-ciliatis, capitulo rarissime lingioribus. Flores 
ligulati 7 vel 8, aurei, ligula obovato-lanceolati, apice rotundi et 
saepe minute 2-3-denticulati, 1.5-3 cm. longi. Achaenia anguste 
cuneata, plana vel 3-4-angulata, angulis retrorsum hamosa, angulis 
faciebusque interdum tuberculata, apice 2-4-aristata aristis 3-5 mm. 
longis et retrorsum hamosis, corpore 6-9 mm. longa. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 315 

Type specimen: Collected by John Clayton, No. 195, in "Virginia" 
(as bounded in early days; Brit., ex herb. Gronovii). 

Distribution : From New Hampshire and Massachusetts southward 
along the coast to Florida and westward from Florida to California; 
southward through Mexico; in South America mainly from Colom- 
bia to Chile, thence through Argentina to Uruguay and southern 
Brazil; established in the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu, Molokai, etc.). 

Specimens examined: LeRoy Abrams 4177, Alviso, Santa Clara, 
California, September, 1902 (Berl.; Del.; Mus. V.; N.Y.); Ed. Andre 
551, alt. 2,600 meters, Facatativa, Colombia, 1875 (Kew; N.Y.); 
G. Andrieux 312, Yotla, near City of Mexico, State of Mexico, 
May 15 (Del.; Kew, 2 sheets, communic. 1834; Mus. V.); anon., 
Delaware Co., Pennsylvania (U.S. ; type of Bidens formosa Greene) ; 
anon., fresh-water pools, Honolulu and Wailupe, Oahu, Hawaiian 
Isls. (Bish.); anon., ex Biltmore Herb. No. 138& p.p., swampy places, 
Highlands, North Carolina, September 7, 1897 (U.V.); J. Arecha- 
valeta, in flooded places along banks of Santa Lucia River, La 
Barra, Uruguay, April, 1869 (Berl.); idem 4021, Montevideo, Uru- 
guay, February, 1876 (Kew); Alwin Aschenborn 478, Mexico (Berl.); 
Bade 102, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1831 (Del.); C. F. Baker 1697, 
Alviso, California, September 16, 1902 (Berl.; Boiss.; Can.; Del.; 
Gray; Mo.; Mus. V., 2 sheets; U.S.); idem 3727, Pomona, California, 
October 1, 1903 (Can.; Del.; Gray; Kew; Mo.); C. F. Batchelder, 
Merrimack, New Hampshire, August 26, 1919 (Phila.); F. W. 
Beechey, California (Kew); Berlandier 606, about City of Mexico, 
State of Mexico, August, etc. (Berl.; Del., 2 sheets; Mo.; Mus. V.); 
Bertero, ditches, marshy places, near Angostura, Chile, February, 
1829 (Del)', idem 97, about Lake Amleo, Chile, March, 1828 (Del.); 
C. Bettfreund 193 and 199, Buenos Aires, Argentina (Berl.); A. E. 
Blewitt 1146, wet meadow, New Haven, Connecticut, September 17, 
1910 (N. Eng.) ; H. N. Bolander 2405, swamp, San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, 1863 (Gray; U.S.); J. Boll, Dallas, Texas (Del.);Bosc, Caro- 
lina (Del., sub nom. Coreopside perfoliata);E.Bourgeau 147, Mexico, 
May 17, 1865-1866 (Kew); idem 510, Mexicalcingo and Canal near 
City of Mexico, State of Mexico, July 17, 1865 (Berl.; Cop.; Del.; 
Gray; Kew, 2 sheets; N. Eng.; Par., 4 sheets) ; Ernest Braunton 132, 
Cienaga Swamp, Los Angeles Co., California, August, 1902 (U.S.) ; 
idem 576, Los Angeles River, Los Angeles Co., California, July, 1902 
(U.S.) ; idem 665, wet places, usually in water, eodem loco, September, 
1902 (U.S.); idem 728, Oak Knoll, Los Angeles Co., California, 
October, 1902 (Calif.; U.S.); Brenning, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 



316 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

January, 1894 (Berl.); W. H. Brewer 91, Los Angeles, California, 
1860-1862 (Calif.; Gray; U.S.)', Bridges 67, marshes, Quillota, Chile, 
1832 (Kew) ; J. B. Brinton, banks of Schuylkill River, southeastern 
Pennsylvania, August 29, 1879 (Penn.); idem, Woodbury, New 
Jersey, September 21, 1879 (Phila.); idem, Holly Oak, Delaware, 
August 19, 1888 (N.Y.); idem, eodem loco, July 14, 1889 (U.V., 
2 sheets); idem, Rock Hill, Pennsylvania, September 15, 1889 
(Penn.); idem, Holly Oak, Delaware, September 29, 1889 (Phila.); 
idem, Centre Square, Pennsylvania, September 17, 1891 (N.Y.; 
Penn.); idem, Tylersport near Sellersville, Pennsylvania, September 
18, 1892 (Penn.); N. L. Britton 424, bank of Miami River, Florida, 
April 3, 1904 (N.Y.); E. S. Burgess, District of Columbia, September, 
1888 (N.Y.); ex herb. Burmannii (Del., sub nom. Coreopside per- 
foliata); A. L. Cabrera 168, Ensenada, near La Plata, Argentina, 
February 9, 1928 (Field) ; L. T. Chamberlain, Danvers, Massachusetts, 
August (N.Y.); Agnes Chase 2665, muddy edge of slough, Four 
Mile Run, Alexandria County, Virginia, September 21, 1904 (Field) ; 
John Clayton (num. 195 ex Gronovio loc. cit.), "Virginia" (Brit., 
ex herb. Gronovii; type) ; Chloris Platensis Argentina 1177, Argentina 
(N.Y.); G. W. Clinton, Cayuga marshes, New York, 1864 (Gray); 
J. W. Congdon, South Kingston, Rhode Island, September 7, 1878 
(Carn.); C. Conzatti 124, alt. 1,550 meters, Valley of Oaxaca, State 
of Oaxaca, Mexico, April 19, 1896 (Gray) ; Cruckshank, Chile (Kew) ; 
J. B. Davy 2918, Bakersfield, California, October, 1896 (Calif.); 
Walter Deane & E. L. Rand, Swansea (Touisset), Massachusetts, 
September 25, 1909 (Gray); Miss Button, Boston, Massachusetts, 
1827 (Del.; type of Bidens quadriaristata DC.); E. H. Eames 1, edge 
of pond, Bridgeport, Connecticut, September 27, 1897 (Gray); A. 
A. Eaton 159, shore of river and hammock back of Miami, Florida, 
November 8, 1903 (Field); Carl Ehrenberg 38, Mexico (Berl.); idem 
1496, in marshes near City of Mexico, State of Mexico (Berl.; U.S.); 
A. D. E. Elmer 4209, Alviso, California, September, 1902 (Berl.; 
Del.; Mus. V.; N.Y.); A. Fendler 439, New Mexico (Brit.);Fernald, 
Hunnewell, & Long 10689, Wenham, Massachusetts, September 11, 
1913 (Phila.); C. N. Forbes 534Mo, Wailau Valley, Molokai, Hawai- 
ian Isls., September, 1912 (Bish.);Fox 149, Buenos Aires, Argentina 
(Kew); Fraser, South Carolina (Del.); Gay, Chile (Berl.; Boiss.; 
Gray; Kew); Gibert 908, in flooded places along banks of the Santa 
Lucia River, Uruguay, April, 1869 (Kew); G. B. Grant 4553, rich, 
wet woods and plains, September, 1901 (N.Y.) ; E. L. Greene, Marshall 
Hall, Maryland, September 28, 1898 (Greene; type of Bidens lugens 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXXXII 







BIDENS AMPHICARPA Sherff (figa. a-i) 
BIDENS OLIGOCARPA Sherff (figs, j-l) 



OF m 
UNIVERSITY OF ILUHWS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 317 

Greene); Josiah Gregg 604, Mexico, 1848-1849 (Gray); C. A. Gross, 
May's Landing, New Jersey, September 12, 1882 (Carn.);G. Gutten- 
berg, near Wheeling, West Virginia, September 7, 1878 (Cam.); 
Ludwig Hahn 9, Mexico, 1870 (Berl.); Hale 403, southeastern United 
States (N.Y.); G. R. Hall, canal banks at Riverside, California, 1905 
(Phila.); J- W. Harshberger 102, on chinampas, Lake Xochimilco, 
Valley of Mexico, August 15, 1896 (Penn.); C. V. Hartman 95, 
alt. 1,530 meters, Cochuto, Sonora, Mexico, October 4, 1890 (Kew; 
Penn.); E. Hassler 1474, vicinity of Lake Ypacaray, Paraguay, 
November, 1885-1895 (Boiss.; Kew; HassL); idem 12378, eodem 
loco, November, 1913 (Berl.; Brit.; Cop.; Del.; Hassl.; Mo.}; Hex- 
amer & Maier, Hudson Co., New Jersey, September 28, 1854 (Gray) ; 
G. Hieronymus 490, Lake of Peitiado at Cordoba, Argentina, 
April, 1877 (Berl.; U.S.); William Hillebrand, Kapalama near Hono- 
lulu, Oahu, Hawaiian Isls. (Berl.); idem, Waikiki near Honolulu, 
Oahu (Berl.); idem 1998, Hawaiian Isls. (U.S.); P. A. Hollermayer 
102, growing even in salt water, shore of Lake Budi, Prov. Cautin, 
Chile, March 15, 1919 (Berl.); Theo. Holm, river bottom back of 
Marshall Hall, Maryland, September 28, 1898 (Gray; type material 
of Bidens lugens Greene) ; E. S. Hoar, shallow water, Concord River, 
Concord, Massachusetts, September, 1858 (N. Eng.); Humboldt & 
Bonpland, Mexico (Par.; type of Bidens Helianthoides H.B.K.); 
Pedro Jorgensen 2725, El Chaco Terr., Argentina (Mo.); T. H. 
Kearney, Jr., 2391, near Northwest, Virginia, November 8, 1898 (U.S. ; 
type of Bidens elegans Greene); Ida A. Keller, Argus, Pennsylvania, 
September 18, 1892 (Phila., 2 sheets); Kellogg & Harford 437 pro 
parte, California (Boiss.; Brit.; Kew; cum B. cernua commixt.); 
C. H. Knowlton, swamp, Hyde Park, Massachusetts, September 19, 
1908 (Gray); A. F. K. Krout, Lehigh Co., Pennsylvania, 1868 
(Phila.); F. Kurtz 9061, Toma de Malpaso, Cordoba, Argentina, 
March 29 (N.Y.) ; F. E. Leibold 3089, Chile, 1868-1871 (Mus. V.); 
F. Lindheimer 1 1 1. 435, banks of streams, New Braunfels, Texas, 
1846 (Berl., 2 sheets; Gray; Kew, 2 sheets) ; idem 887, Texas, October, 
1850 (Berl.; Brit.; Cop.; Gray; Kew; Mus. V.; Phila.); C. D. Lippen- 
cott, Swedesboro, New Jersey, September 18, 1892 (Phila.); Bayard 
Long 4526, Fish House, Camden Co., New Jersey, August 17, 
1910 (Phila.); idem 4840, Delair, New Jersey, September 2, 1910 
(Phila.); Alexander MacElwee 1545, Rockhill, Pennsylvania, Octo- 
ber 11, 1899 (Carn.); Alexander MacElwee, Jr., Delaware River, 
at Washington Park, New Jersey, September 27, 1894 (Phila.); 
J. M. Macfarlane, North Wildwood, New Jersey, September, 1907 



318 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

(Perm.); K. K. Mackenzie 3791, swamps, Little Falls, New Jersey, 
August 30, 1908 (U.S.) ; W. L. McAtee 1709, St. Vincent Isl., Florida, 
October 30, 1910 (U.S.); A. J. McClatchie, San Gabriel River bottom, 
vicinity of Whittier, California, June 27, 1892 (N.Y.); Mentzel, 
Texas, July (Mus. V., 3 sheets); Andre Michaux, North America 
(type material of Bidens Chrysanthemoides Michx.; Berl., ex Kun- 
thio ex A. Ricardo; Par., 2 sheets; Willd., ex A. Ricardo); G. V. Nash 
2336, Tallahassee, Florida, August 7-9, 1895 (type material of 
Bidens Nashii Small; Berl.; Gray; Kew; Mo.; U.V.); C. Osten 6128, 
Carrasco, Dept. Montevideo, Uruguay, April 6, 1912 (Field); 
Edward Palmer 18, Sonora, Mexico, 1869 (Gray; U.S.); idem 239, 
Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, July, 1886 (Boiss.; Gray; Kew); 
idem 291, along watercourses, vicinity of Durango, State of Durango, 
Mexico, June, 1896 (Berl.; Boiss.; Gray; Kew; Mo., 2 sheets); idem 
633, Uvalde, southwestern Texas, 1879-1880 (Kew; U.S.); idem 
1843, Tepic, Nayarit, Mexico, January 5-February 6, 1892 (N. Eng.) ; 
S. B. Parish, stream banks, San Bernardino, California, October, 
1893 (U.S.; type of Bidens expansa Greene); idem 183, in running 
water, San Bernardino, California, August, 1881 (Boiss.; Calif.; 
Mun.); idem (similiter) 183, borders of streams, San Bernardino 
Valley, California, September, 1882 (Berl.; Kiel; U.V.); idem 4598, 
alt. 300 meters, San Bernardino, California, November 3-5, 1899 
(Phila.; U.S.); idem 5134, vicinity of San Bernardino, California, 
November 5, 1901 (N.Y.); idem 5319, alt. 300-750 meters, eodem 
loco, October 11, 1903 (Field); Parry, Bigelow, Wright, & Schott 
(Mexican Boundary Survey) 580, Valley of Rio Grande below Dona 
Ana, New Mexico (U.S.; type of Bidens Parryi Greene); R. A. 
Philippi, Prov. Conception, Chile, 1862 (Boiss.; Del.); Eduard 
Poeppig, marshes, Cove Creek, Pennsylvania, September, 1824 
(Mus. V., 7 sheets); H. W. Pretz 11536, Trexlertown, Pennsylvania, 
September 3, 1922 (Phila.); C. G. Pringle 7368, swamps, Guadala- 
jara, Jalisco, Mexico, October 16, 1895 (Berl.); Jules Remy 258 bis, 
Hawaiian Isls., 1851-1855 (Gray; Par.); 1 J. Reverchon, marsh, 
Dallas, Texas, September, 1876 (Boiss.); idem 518 and 518a, com- 
mon, eodem loco, September, 1884 (N.Y.) ; idem 3355, Dallas, Texas, 
October 17, 1902 (Gray; U.S.); idem 3355a, eodem loco et tempore 
(Mo.); Rose & Fitch 17964, vicinity of Devil's River, Texas, October 
16, 1913 (U.S.) ; Rugel, marshes near Portsmouth, Virginia, August, 
1840 (Berl.); Schaffner 233 and 253, near Chapultepec, Mexico, 
September, 1855 (Berl., 2 sheets; Cop.; Gray; Mus. V.); Alb. Schmitz, 

1 Edelstan Jardin 32, Oahu, was collected about the same years and was 
determined as this species by Schultz Bipontinus (Flora 1856: 356. 1856). 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXXXIII 




BIDENS OLIGANTHA Brandeg. (figs, a-k) 
BIDENS ANTHRISCOIDES DC. (figs, i-q) 



OF THt 
UNIVERSITY flf IWNQIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 319 

Valley of Mexico, State of Mexico (Mus. V.) ; Schnyder 913, Buenos 
Aires, Argentina (Berl.); A. Schott, Arroyo San Felipe, western 
Texas (Field); F. L. Scribner, Girard Point, Pennsylvania, August 
30, 1880 (Penn.); Eduard & Caecilie Seler 1277, Lake of Patzcuaro, 
Michoacan, Mexico, November 1, 1895 (Berl., 2 sheets; Kew; 
N.Y.); Seler 66, Buenos Aires, Argentina, May 13, 1910 (Berl.); 
G. H. Shull 380, in salt marsh, east shore of Bush River near mouth, 
Maryland, September 16, 1902 (U.S.); idem 398 >4 entrance to bog 
near Havre de Grace, Maryland, September 20, 1902 (U.S.); J. K. 
Small, Dillerville Swamp, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, October, 1888 
(Mo.); idem & J. J. Carter 957, the Everglades, back of Miami, 
Florida, November 17, 1903 (N.Y.; Phila.); iidem 1459, Miami, 
Florida, October 2&-November 28, 1903 (N.Y.); Small & Nash, 
the Everglades, west of Miami, Florida, November 1-9, 1901 (N.Y.) ; 
J. K. & G. K. Small 4254 and 4324, east shore of Lake Okeechobee, 
etc., Florida, November 11-25, 1913 (N.Y.); iidem 4424, beyond head 
of New River, Florida, eodem tempore (N.Y.); iidem 4482, near 
Miami Canal, Florida, November 26-December 20, 1913 (N.Y.); 
A. H. Smith, Tinicum, Pennsylvania, September, 1866 (Penn.); 
idem, Delaware River, September, 1870 (Penn.); Uselma C. Smith 
657, Cape May, New Jersey, October 8, 1892 (Phila.); E. S. 
Steele, vicinity of Washington, District of Columbia, September 25, 
1896 (Del.); Styles, Chile (Phila.); C. W. Swan, Acton, Massa- 
chusetts, September 6, 1884 (Can.); J. R. Swinerton, Newport 
News, Virginia, October, 1889 (Mun.); G. Thurber 794, margin of Ojo 
Caliente, Chihuahua, Mexico, October (Gray); J. W. Tourney 680, 
Bradshaw Mts., Arizona, June 23, 1892 (U.S.; type of Bidens Per- 
sicaefolia Greene); Mrs. J. A. Tracey 77, flowering twice a year, alt. 
2,580 meters, savanna dykes and streams, Bogota, Colombia (Kew) ; 
J. J. Triana 1377, alt. 2,660 meters, marshes, Prov. Bogota, Colom- 
bia (Berl.; Par.); Uhde 454, Mexico (Berl.); idem 648, eodem loco 
(Berl., 2 sheets); E. Ule 1589, in swamps of the delta of the Rio 
Tubarao, Santa Catharina, Brazil, April, 1890 (Berl.; Gray); 
E.G.Vanatta, Chestertown, Maryland, August 4, 1902 (Phila.); B. H. 
Patterson, Kissimmee, Florida, December 7, 1917 (Carn.); L. F. 
Ward, vicinity of Denver, Colorado, August 19, 1881 (U.S.); 
E. F. Williams, Rowley, Massachusetts, September 3, 1906 (Gray); 
C. S. Williamson, San Bernardino, California, June, 1903 (Phila.); 
G. W. Woolson, Lodi, New Jersey, September, 1872 (U.V.); Charles 
Wright 347, western Texas, October, 1849 (Gray);#. C. Wurzlow, wet 
soil, bank of Barataria Canal, Louisiana, October 22, 1912 (N.Y.)- 



320 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

The types of Bidens Chrysanthemoides Michx. and B. Helian- 
thoides H.B.K. appear precisely the same. The original description 
of both species shows their achenes to have been 2-aristate in each 
case, although many specimens have since been gathered with 
the achenes often 3- or 4-aristate. Indeed, one of Michaux's dupli- 
cates, sent by Richard to Willdenow (Willd.) has 4-aristate achenes 
and another, sent by Richard to Kunth (Berl.), has both 3- and 
4-aristate achenes. A study of numerous specimens from the United 
States and Mexico seems to indicate a slight tendency for the western 
specimens to be more often 2-aristate, the eastern ones more often 
3- or 4-aristate, but the variations are so abundant as to defy all 
attempts at delimiting the separate forms or races in a specific way 
(cf. Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 2: 353. 1842). 

Small's B. Nashii, founded on southeastern United States 
material (Florida to Louisiana), is the form originally treated by 
Torrey and Gray (loc. cit.) as B. Chrysanthemoides var. ft. Gray 
(Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1, pt. 2: 296. 1884) later abandoned the var. ft. 
as well as Torrey and Gray's three other varieties. Jepson (loc. cit.) 
has reduced B. Nashii to varietal rank under B. Chrysanthemoides. 
An examination of a large number of specimens shows that at most 
it is only a minor form of B. laevis and is much too inconstant to 
merit varietal rank. It is not a variation confined to the south- 
eastern United States but occurs as far west as California and at 
least as far north as Massachusetts. 

Greene cites a single sheet for Bidens formosa, a plant from Dela- 
ware County, Pennsylvania, but in Field Museum are 5 sheets of 
material (all by J. K. Small, Wetzel's Swamp, N. Harrisburg, Sep- 
tember, 1887) from the same state, and these show all gradations 
between B. formosa and B. laevis. Again, Greene terms his B. Parry i 
an unwelcome species, "as uniting the habit of B. cernua and the 
fruit of the Platycarpaea group of species." But even if B. Parryi 
were a valid species, it would not be the first species to do this; for 
all the material of B. laevis that has flat, biaristate achenes does the 
same; and, moreover, B. radiata Thuill. (B. platycephala Oerst.) had 
long been noted as a species that likewise united B. cernua with 
B. tripartita, the latter a principal species of the Platycarpaea group 
(cf. G. Schweinfurth, Verh. Bot. Verein. Brand. 2: 145. 1861). In- 
deed, Greene on another occasion (op. cit. 261) had been led to con- 
sider B. radiata in this same connection, having suspected his B. 
leptopoda of being that species. DeCandolle, in monographing the 
genus Bidens (Prodr. 5: 594. 1836), defined the subgeneric section 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXXXIV 




BIDENS ANTHEMOIDES (DC.) Sherff (figs, a-j) 
BIDENS ANDREI Sherff (figs, k-s) 



OF int 
UNIVERSITY OF IUWOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 321 

Platycarpaea with the evident purpose of admitting just such species 
as B. cernua, and actually classed B. cernua among the Platycarpaea. 
Both B. Parryi Greene (from Texas) and B. Persicaefolia Greene 
(from Arizona) are of the form more common in Mexico and often 
referred by authors to B. Helianthoides H.B.K. B. expansa Greene 
is the same form described by Parish for his B. speciosa and is similar 
to the B. Nashii forms. B. elegans Greene and B. lugens Greene 
both were mistakenly associated by Greene with B. cernua L. and 
then segregated as being worthy species. A study of their types 
(U.S.) shows them to be unmistakably mere forms of B. laevis. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXIII 

Bidens laevis: a, flowering specimen, X0.62; 6, c, d, diverse cauline 
leaves, X 0.62 ; e, exterior involucral bract, X 2.47 ; /, interior involucral 
bract, X2.47; g, ray corolla, X1.24; h, palea, X2.47; i, disc floret, 
X4.94;/, achene, X2.47; a, e-i, tromE.F. Williams, Rawley, Massa- 
chusetts, September 3, 1906, in Hb. Gray; 6, from Palmer 239, ibid.; 
c, Bourgeau 510, ibid. ; d, from J. Hale (a specimen cited for Bidens 
Nashii Small), in Hb. N.Y.;;, from Agnes Chase 2665, in Hb. Field. 

94. Bidens hyperborea Greene, Pittonia 4: 257. 1901. 
PI. LXXIV, figs, b, d, f, h, j, I. 

Bidens colpophila Fern. & St. John, Rhodora 17: 21. 1915. 

Bidens hyperborea var. colpophila (Fern. & St. John) Fern. ibid. 20: 

149. 1918. 
Bidens hyperborea var. typica Fassett, ibid. 27: 167. 1925. 

a. Achaenia exteriora corpore 4.2-5 mm. interiora usque ad 7 mm. 
longa, aristis marginalibus 1.8-3 mm. longis. 

B. hyperborea sensu stricto. 
a. Achaenia exteriora corpore 6-8.5 mm. interiora 7.5-10 mm. 

longa, aristis marginalibus 3-5 mm. longis. 

6. Kami adscendentes, cauli angulum minus quam 45 facientes. 

c. Involucri bracteae exteriores saepius lineares, acutae, raro 

latitudine 2 mm. excedentes; foliis anguste lanceolatis, 

longo-attenuatis, dentatis 2-8 jugis dentium gracilium 

basi raro quam 0.5 mm. latiorum var. /3. cathancensis. 

c. Involucri bracteae exteriores lanceolatae vel raro lineares, 
saepe obtusae, latitudine 2 mm. excedentes; foliis lanceola- 
tis, non valde attenuatis, dentatis 1-5 jugis dentium gros- 
sorum basi saltern 1 mm. latorum. . . .var. d. laurentiana. 



322 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

6. Kami median! inferioresque patentes, cauli angulum plus quam 
45 facientes. 

c. Folia principalia integra vel usque ad 3 jugis dentium dentata. 
d. Folia membranacea, dentata (1 vel) 2 vel 3 jugis dentium; 
involucri bracteis exterioribus utrinque 1- (raro 2-) 
dentatis; interioribus late oblongis, 3-4 mm. latis. 

var. e. Svensonii. 

d. Folia interdum parce membranacea, integra vel dentata 
1-2 jugis dentium; involucri bracteis exterioribus integris 
vel raro utrinque 1-dentatis; interioribus anguste oblon- 
gis, 2-3 mm. latis var. f. gaspensis. 

c. Folia principalia dentata 4-6 jugis dentium . . var. y. arcuaws. 
Herba annua, erecta, simplex vel ramosa ramis arte adscendenti- 
bus, 1-7 dm. alta, caule glaberrimo vel etiam scabrido-hispido. 
Folia membranacea, oblanceolato-acuminata, glaberrima et non 
ciliata; ima subpetiolata; media superioraque sessilia, 0.3-1 dm. 
longa et 6-13 mm. lata, normaliter remote serrata dentibus utrin- 
que 3-10. Capitula plerumque erecta, pedunculata pedunculis 1-6 
cm. longis, discoidea vel radiata, demum (bracteis exterioribus non 
inclusis) 1-2 cm. lata et 1.1-1.3 cm. alta. Involucrum cylindrico- 
campanulatum vel turbinato-hemisphaericum ; bracteis exterioribus 
4-8, foliaceis, arte adscendentibus, glabris, remotissime ciliatis, line- 
ari-lanceolatis, acutis vel subacutis, 1.5-4 cm. longis; interioribus 
oblongis, subacutis, membranaceissimis, flavis, badio-striatis. Flores 
ligulati (si praesentes) plerumque 5, interdum 6 vel 7, sulphurei, 
valde membranacei, ligula anguste oblongo-ovati, apice 2-4-dentati, 
bracteas interiores dimidio superantia; tubulosi nunc 4- nunc 5- 
lobati. Achaenia anguste cuneata, plana vel subplana, subnigra, 
marginibus nervisque retrorsum hamosa, 2- vel saepe 3-4-aristata, 
aristis retrorsum hamosis; exteriora corpore 4.2-5 mm. interiora 
corpore usque ad 7 mm. longa, omnia circ. 1-1.3 mm. lata, aristis 
marginalibus 1.8-3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by James Melville Macoun, in 
swamps and ditches, Rupert House, James Bay, Quebec, Septem- 
ber 5, 1885 (Can.). 

Distribution: Massachusetts northward to New Brunswick and 
Nova Scotia. 1 

Specimens examined : C. H. Bissell, river bank, Brunswick, Maine, 
Aug. 13, 1911 (N. Eng.); A. A. Eaton & M. L. Fernald, brackish 

1 Specimens by V. Jacquemont, subsaline marshes, Hackensack, New Jersey, 
July 23, 1827 (Berl.; Par.), belong to this species, perhaps to one of its varieties. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXXXV 




BIDENS CHBYSANTHEMIFOLIA (H.B.K.) Sherfl 



OF THt 
UNIVERSITY af IMINOIS 



THE GENUS BIDENS 323 

shore, Newburyport, Mass., Oct. 2, 1902 (Gray); N. C. Fassett 139, 
shores, submersed at high tide, Abagadassett Point, Kennebec River, 
Bowdoinham, Maine, August 16, 1921 (N. Eng.); idem 292, tidal flats 
of Sheepscot River, Alna, Maine, August 14, 1922 (Gray; N. Eng.); 
idem 787, tidal mud of Mill River, near Newburyport Turnpike, 
Rowley, Massachusetts, September 22, 1923 (Gray); idem 794, 
tidal shores of Salmon Falls River, Salmon Falls, New Hampshire, 
September 22, 1923 (Gray); idem 880, stony shore, tidal flats of 
Kennebec River, Gardiner, Maine, September 18, 1923 (Gray); 
idem 884, stony beach, tidal shores of Kennebec River, Gardiner, 
September 18, 1923 (Gray) ; idem 895, tidal shores of Mousan River, 
Kennebunk, Maine, September 22, 1923 (Gray); idem 2102, tidal 
mud flats of Pleasant River, Columbia Falls, Maine, August 30, 
1924 (Gray); idem 2103, tidal mud flats of River Philip, Oxford, 
Nova Scotia, August 24, 1924 (Gray) ; idem 2104, small brook flowing 
into Shediac River, Shediac, New Brunswick, August 23, 1924 
(Gray) ; idem 2106, tidal shores of Kennebec River, West Woolwich, 
Maine, September 8, 1924 (Gray) ; idem 2107, tidal shores, Pleasant 
River, Columbia Falls, Maine, August 17, 1924 (Gray) ; idem 2108, 
eodem loco, August 30, 1924 (Gray) ; idem 2109, estuary of Harring- 
ton River, Harrington, Maine, August 17, 1924 (Field; Gray); idem 
2111, tidal shores, Union River, Ellsworth, Maine, August 17, 1924 
(Gray); idem 2112, eodem loco et tempore (Gray); idem 2113, tidal 
shores, Mill River, Rowley, Massachusetts, August 15, 1924 (Gray) ; 
idem 2114, tidal shores of Mousan River, Kennebunk, Maine, 
September 22, 1923 (Gray); idem 2115, estuary of Shediac River, 
Shediac, New Brunswick, August 22, 1924 (Field; Gray); idem 2126, 
tidal shores of Kennebec River, South Gardiner, Maine, September 
16, 1924 (Gray); idem 2129, tidal shores of Kennebec River, Rich- 
mond Camp Ground, Sagadahoc Co., Maine, September 16, 1924 
(Gray); idem 2131, tidal shores of Cherryfield River, Cherryfield, 
Maine, August 17, 1924 (Gray); M. L. Fernald 2248, salt marsh, 
Winnegance Creek, Phippsburg, Maine, August 23, 1909 (Gray; 
N. Eng.) ; idem 2249, among sedges and rushes, eodem loco et tempore 
(N. Eng. ; type of Bidens colpophila Fern. & St. John) ; idem & Bayard 
Long 296, very abundant on muddy and gravelly tidal flats, Penobscot 
River, Hampden, Maine, September 8, 1916 (Berl.; Can.; Cam.; 
Cop.; Del.; Gray; Kew; Mun.; N. Eng.; Par.; Phila.); iidem 
14826, border of salt marsh, Back River Creek, Woolwich, Maine, 
Sept. 15, 1916 (N. Eng.; Phila.); iidem 14829, tidal flats of Penobscot 



324 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

River, Bangor, Maine, September 7, 1916 (Field; Gray; Kew; 
N. Eng.); iidem 14830, eodem loco et tempore (Field; Gray; N. Eng.; 
forma capitulis radiatis quam forma discoidea sub num. 14829 lecta 
rarior); iidem 14831, tidal mud flats at mouth of Reed Brook, 
Hampden, Maine, September 8, 1916 (Field; Gray; N. Eng.); iidem 
14832, tidal mud flats, mouth of Reed Brook, Hampden, Maine, 
September 8, 1916 (Gray; N. Eng.; Phila.); iidem 14833, tidal mud 
flats at mouth of Souadabscook Stream, Hampden, Maine, September 
11, 1916 (Gray; Phila.); iidem 14834, eodem loco et tempore (Gray; 
N. Eng.; Phila.); M.L.Fernald & H. K. Svenson 1100, tidal mud, 
North River, Hanover, Massachusetts, October 6, 1928 (Gray); 
Kate Furbish, Cow Isl., Topsham, Maine, August, 1910 (N. Eng.); 
J. M. Macoun, Rupert House, James Bay, etc. (type, Can.); Marie- 
Victorin 15458, shores, in the intercoastal zone, Saint-Francois de 
1'Ile d'Orleans, Quebec, August 24, 1922 (Gray); A. H. Norton, 
Nonesuch River, Scarborough, Maine, August 20, 1919 (Gray; 
N. Eng.); idem & Everett Smith, Abagadassett Point, Bowdoinham, 
Maine, September 28-30, 1919 (Beam); H. K. Svenson & N. C. 
Fassett 797, muddy tidal shores of Pleasant River, Columbia Falls, 
Maine, August 28, 1923 (Gray); iidem 847, eodem loco et tempore 
(Gray); iidem 848, tidal shores of Union River, Ellsworth, Maine, 
August 29, 1923 (Gray); iidem 878, tidal shores of Narraguagus 
River, Cherryfield, Maine, August 28, 1923 (Gray) ; iidem 879, tidal 
mud of Buctouche River, Coate Mills, New Brunswick, August 20, 
1923 (Gray); R. A. Ware 4230, bank of Androscoggin River, Bruns- 
wick, Maine, August 22, 1911 (N. Eng.). 

On examination in 1916 of the cited specimens (Gray) of Bidens 
colpophila, I made a careful study of them in the light of my drawings, 
photographs, and notes taken the previous year from the three 
small type plants (Can.) of B. hyperborea. My conclusion was that 
they were conspecific. Later, Professor Fernald, who with Dr. H. 
St. John had described B. colpophila, turned his attention again to 
that species, reducing it to varietal rank under B. hyperborea. He 
recognized also two other varieties of B. hyperborea, vars. cathancen- 
sis and gaspensis. He gave (Rhodora 20: 146-150. 1918) an extended 
discussion of B. hyperborea and these three varieties, with an analyti- 
cal key for their determination. The vars. cathancensis and gaspensis 
are here retained. Var. cathancensis is marked by its elongate, much 
toothed leaves and in habit often approaches B. Bidentoides; var. 
gaspensis by its tendency toward being depressed or matted 1 and 

1 The plant chosen for my plate did not have this depressed or matted habit 
so pronounced. 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXXXVI 




BIDENS MOLLIFOLIA Sherff 



THE GENUS BIDENS 325 

toward being much more highly branched for its size, the branches 
usually being arcuate. Both varieties differ from the species proper 
in having much larger achenes. The species proper has the "outer 
achenes 4.2-5 mm. long; the inner 6-7 mm. long, with marginal awns 
1.8-3 mm. long"; the two varieties each have the "outer achenes 
6-8.5 mm. long; the inner 7.5-10 mm. long, with marginal awns 
3-5 mm. long" (Fern. op. cit. 149). 

In 1925, Fassett presented the results of further studies of B. 
hyperborea and its varieties (Rhodora 27: 166-171). He followed 
Fernald in retaining the var. colpophila, which he distinguished from 
his (i.e., Fassett's) var. typica of B. hyperborea as follows: 

"Plant simple and monocephalous: leaves oblanceolate and blunt, 
entire or obscurely toothed var. typica. 

Stem somewhat branching: leaves serrate var. colpophila." 

When sheets of smaller specimens (e.g., Fassett 884) are studied, 
practically all distinctions indicated in Fassett's key are obliterated. 
The numerous specimens collected in recent years and labeled var. 
colpophila appear to be merely what one would expect as to the 
normal vegetative growth forms of B. hyperborea proper (i.e., var. 
typica Fass.). 1 Apparently, considerations of geographic isolation 
were relied upon by Fernald and later by Fassett. When the so- 
called colpophila form was known, as it at first was, only from Maine, 
these geographic considerations were of somewhat more force than 
now, when admittedly (and so listed by Fassett, loc. cit.) colpophila 
material has been collected as far north as New Brunswick and at 
least as far south as Massachusetts. 

Fassett (Rhodora 27: 171. 1925) has described an apparent 
hybrid between this species and B. cernua L., having "the habit of B. 
hyperborea, and the achenes of B. cernua." 2 

1 The three slender, unbranched type plants of B. hyperborea have some of 
the leaves missing, but several leaves still remain (one plant has four) and these 
approach very closely the leaves on certain small, undersized specimens of the var. 
colpophila. A study of Fernald's analytical key (op. cit. 149) shows that he, as 
well as myself, failed to find any achenial distinctions for his var. colpophila. His 
vegetative distinctions there given would seem to connote, as do those given later 
by Fassett, merely different degrees of vegetative growth. Thus, for example, 
Fernald( op. cit. 148) emphasized the "absolutely simple monocephalous habit" 
of the B. hyperborea types; but a number of so-called colpophila collections more 
recently made have one or many plants of this habit (e.g., Fassett 848 and 2111; 
Svenson & Fassett 889). Since Macoun, in his collecting, failed to save any but 
the three small specimens that Greene later took for his (Greene's) type of B. 
hyperborea, obviously, for comparison (and if we disregard for the moment all 
geographic considerations) we must select colpophila specimens of a growth stage 
equivalent to that in the Macoun material. 

! Norton, Welden, & Haren, Nonesuch River, Scarborough, Maine, September 
25, 1924 (type, Gray: cotype, N. Eng.); A. H. Norton, eodem loco, August 20, 1919 
(Gray). 



326 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bidens hyperborea var. ft. cathancensis Fern. 
Rhodora 20: 149. 1918. 

Herba 3-7 dm. alta, ramis valde adscendentibus. Folia mem- 
branacea costa central! subtus perspicua, apice longe attenuata, 
principalia 0.6-1.4 dm. longa, dentibus acribus gracilibusque ad 
basim raro 0.5 mm. latitudine excedentibus, numerosis. Involucri 
bracteae exteriores 4-9, saepius lineares raro lanceolatae, apice acutae 
vel acuminatae, margine integrae, 1.5-3.5 cm. longae. Achaenia 
exteriora corpore 6-8.5 mm. longa et 1.4-1.7 mm. lata, interiora 
corpore 7.5-10 mm. longa et 1.2-1.6 mm. lata, aristis mine 2 nunc 
usque ad 4, marginalibus 3-5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen : Collected by Merritt Lyndon Fernald and Bay- 
ard Long, No. "14927" (surely a misprint for 14827), tidal mud flats of 
Cathance River, Bowdoinham, Maine, September 14-19, 1916 (Gray). 

Distribution: Known only from estuaries of southern Maine. 

Specimens examined: N. C. Fassett 74, soft mud of tidal flats, 
just below high tide level, Bowdoinham, August 26, 1920 (Gray); 
idem (similiter) 74, atque 75, bordering mud flats at high tide level, 
Bowdoinham, September 2, 1920 (Field); idem 160, tidal shores of 
Kennebec River, East Bowdoinham, August 24, 1921 (Gray); idem 
191, muddy shores, submersed at high tide, west shore of Kennebec 
River, Bowdoinham, August 24, 1921 (N. Eng.); idem 192, tidal 
mud along Muddy River, Bowdoinham, August 23, 1921 (N. Eng.); 
idem 910, tidal shores of Merrymeeting Bay, Bowdoinham, August 
23, 1921 (Gray); idem 911, tidal shores, mouth of West Branch, 
Bowdoinham, August, 1921 (Gray); idem 2117 and 2119, tidal shores 
of Kennebec River, Hatch's Corners, West Dresden, September 9, 
1924 (Gray); idem 2121, tidal shores of Eastern River, Dresden, 
September 13, 1924 (Gray) ; M. L. Fernald & Bayard Long 295, tidal 
flats, Bowdoinham, September 19, 1906 (Del.; Phila.); iidem 14825, 
tidal mud flats of Cathance River, Bowdoinham, September 14 and 
19, 1916 (Cop.; Gray; N. Eng.); iidem 14827, eodem loco et tempori- 
bus (doubtless type material; Gray; N. Eng., 2 sheets); iidem 14828, 
eodem loco et temporibus (Gray; N. Eng.). 

Bidens hyperborea var. 7. arcuans Fern. 
Rhodora 25: 44. 1923. 

Herba 2-3 dm. alta, caulibus ramosis, ramis imis decumbentibus 
vel arcuato-adscendentibus. Folia membranacea, attenuato-acu- 
minata, argute serrata, principalia 0.6-1.3 dm. longa, costa subtus 
prominente. Capitula 15-30-flora. Involucri bracteae exteriores 



THE GENUS BIDENS 327 

3-5, lineari-lanceolatae, acutae, plus minusve serratae, 2-6 vel etiam 
-8 cm. longae. Achaenia exteriora corpore 5-5.6 mm. longa et 
2 mm. lata, interiora corpore 8.5-9.5 mm. longa et 1.8-2.4 mm. 
lata, aristis plerumque 4, marginalibus 4-4.7 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Merritt Lyndon Fernald and 
Arthur Stanley Pease, No. 25321, tidal mud of Miramichi River, 
Newcastle, New Brunswick, July 30, 1922 (Gray, 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality of Newcastle, 
New Brunswick. 

Specimens examined : Fernald & Pease 25321 (type, Gray, 2 sheets). 

Bidens hyperborea var. 8. laurentiana Fass. 
Rhodora27: 169. 1925. 

Herba 1-3 dm. alta, subsimplex ramis adscendentibus supra vel 
interdum etiam ramis tenuibus infra ramosa. Folia principalia 
adscendentia, lanceolata, non attenuata, 3-11 cm. longa, dentata 
1-5 jugis dentium basi 1 mm. latitudine excedentium. Involucri 
bracteae exteriores 3-6, lanceolatae, obtusae, 1-3.5 (-4.5) cm. longae 
et 1.5-5 (-8) mm. latae, plerumque integrae raro dentatae 1-2 jugis 
dentium. Achaenia exteriora corpore 7-8 mm. interiora corpore 
8-10 mm. longa, aristis 4, marginalibus 3.5-4 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Fr. Marie-Victorin, No. 15461, at 
a little higher than the Bridge of Quebec, shores in the intercoastal 
zone with Gentiana Victorinii, Cap-Rouge, Quebec, August 29, 1922 
(Gray, 2 sheets). 

Distribution : Provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec. 

Specimens examined: Marie-Victorin 15461 (type, Gray, 2 
sheets); idem 21207, estuarine shores, Cap-Rouge, Quebec, August 
19, 1925 (Gray, 2 sheets); Fr. Holland 15460, shores at Beauport, 
near City of Quebec, Quebec, August 8, 1922 (Gray) ; H. K. Svenson 
& N. C. Fassett 819, estuary of Jacquet River, Durham, New Bruns- 
wick, August 17, 1923 (Gray) ; iidem 846, tidal flats above Mirimichi 
River, 5 miles above Newcastle, New Brunswick, August 19, 1923 
(Gray) ; iidem 882, tidal shores of Eel River, Dalhousie, New Bruns- 
wick, August 16, 1923 (Gray) ; iidem 883, tidal shores of Tabusintac 
River, Almwick, New Brunswick, August 18, 1923 (Gray); iidem 
885, muddy tidal shore of Boyer River, St. Michel, Quebec, August 
9, 1923 (Gray) ; iidem (similiter) 885, clayey tidal shores of St. Law- 
rence River, Montmagny, Quebec, August 9, 1923 (Gray) ; iidem 886, 
tidal shores of Kouchibouguacis River, Bretagne, New Brunswick, 
August 20, 1923 (Gray) ; iidem 887, tidal flats of Tetagouche River, 



328 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bathurst, New Brunswick, August 17, 1923 (Gray); iidem 888, 
tidal flats of Kouchibouguacis River, Charleton, New Brunswick, 
August 20, 1923 (Gray); iidem 889, 893, 897, and 898, tidal flats of 
Restigouche River, Restigouche County, New Brunswick, August 
16, 1923 (Gray; num. 893 B. cernuae similis); iidem 896, tidal shores 
of Mirimichi River, Newcastle, New Brunswick, August 19, 1923 
(Gray); iidem 912, tidal flats of St. Lawrence River, St. Jean-Port- 
Joli, Quebec, August 10, 1923 (Gray). 

A very imperfectly understood variety. Some of the plants 
determined by Fassett as belonging here are included by me under 
var. gaspensis (e.g. Svenson & Fassett 881; Marie-Victorin 15459; 
Collins, Fernald, & Pease, dead waters between Balde" and the Baie 
des Chaleurs, Bonaventure River, Quebec, August 5-8, 1904; iidem 
5871). 

Bidens hyperborea var. e. Svensonii Fass. 
Rhodora 27: 170. 1925. 

Herba 1-2.5 dm. alta, ramis inferioribus arcuato-adscendentibus 
var. gaspensem simulans vel subsimplex. Folia principalia patentia 
vel adscendentia, apice obtusa, dentibus utrinque 1-3 grossis obtusis. 
Involucri bracteae exteriores (2 vel) 3 vel 4, lanceolatae, apice ob- 
tusae, utrinque dentatae dentibus obtusis 1 vel raro 2; interiores 
apice plus minusve rotundatae, 7-9 mm. longae. Achaenia exteriora 
corpore 6 mm. longa, interiora corpore 8 mm. longa, aristis 4, mar- 
ginalibus 2.5-3 mm. longis. 

Type specimen : Collected by Henry Knute Svenson and Norman 
Carter Fassett, No. 936, tidal shores, Rimouski River, Rimouski, 
Quebec, August 14, 1923 (Gray). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality of Rimouski, 
Quebec. 

Specimens examined: Svenson & Fassett 899, tidal estuary of 
Rimouski River, Rimouski, August 14, 1923 (Gray); iidem 936 
(type, Gray). 

Bidens hyperborea var. f. gaspensis Fern. Rhodora 20: 150. 1918. 
PI. LXXIV, figs, a, c, e, g, i, k, m. 

Herba humilis, plerumque depressa et ramosior, 0.5-2.5 dm. alta, 
ramis plerumque arcuatis. Folia numerosa, subcarnosa, apice 
obtusa, costa centrali obscura; principalia 1.5-6.5 cm. longa, integra 
vel 1-2 jugis dentium crassorum instructa. Capitula numerosa 
discoidea vel subradiata. Involucri bracteae exteriores 2-4, oblanceo- 



THE GENUS BIDENS 329 

latae, subobtusae, integrae vel dentatae, 2-6 cm. longae. Achaenia 
iis var. cathancensis similia. 

Type specimen: Collected by J. Franklin Collins, Merritt L. 
Fernald, and Arthur S. Pease, sine num., submerged at high tide, 
brackish shores about mouth of Dartmouth River, Gaspe* Peninsula, 
Quebec, August 26 and 27, 1904 (Gray). 

Distribution: Quebec. 

Specimens examined: Collins, Fernald, & Pease, brackish shore, 
submerged at high tide, alluvial islands at mouth of Bonaventure 
River, Bonaventure Co., August 4, 1904 (Gray, 2 sheets); iidem, 
brackish shores, submerged at high tide, mouth of St. John River, 
Douglastown, August 23, 1904 (Gray) ; iidem, brackish shores about 
mouth of Dartmouth River (type, Gray: cotypes, Berl.; Can.; 
Carn.; Cop.; Gray, 2 sheets; Kew); iidem, brackish pools and dead 
waters near mouth of Dartmouth River, August 26-27, 1904 (Gray) ; 
iidem 5871, dead waters, between Bald and Baie des Chaleurs, 
Bonaventure River, Bonaventure Co., August 5-8, 1904 (Gray); 
Marie-Victorin 15459, shores, Saint Francois de 1'Ile d'Orleans, 
August 24, 1922 (Gray); J. Rousseau 25346, flats at Montmagny, 
September 10, 1926 (Gray) ; Svenson and Fassett 881, rocky places, 
tidal shores of the St. Lawrence River, Cap St. Ignace, August 9, 
1923 (Gray). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXIV 

Bidens hyperborea, figs. 6, d, f, h, j, I: b, entire fruiting specimen, 
X0.63; d, exterior involucral bract, X2.52; /, interior involucral 
bract, X2.52; h, palea, X2.52;;, disc floret, X2.52; I, achene, X2.52; 
all from type sheet. 

Bidens hyperborea var. gaspensis, figs, a, c, e, g, i, k, m: a, flowering 
and fruiting specimen, X0.63; c, exterior involucral bract, X2.52; 
e, interior involucral bract, X2.52; g, ray floret, X2.52; i, palea, 
X2.52; k, disc floret, X2.52; m, achene, X2.52; all from Collins, 
Fernald, and Pease, mouth of Bonaventure River, Bonaventure 
County, Quebec, August 4, 1904, in Hb. Gray. 

95. Bidens diversa Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76: 159. 1923. 
PL LXXV, figs, a, b, d-i. 

Involucrum glabrum vel subglabrum, ligulis usque ad 6 mm. longis. 

B. diversa sensu stricto. 
Involucri bracteae exteriores ciliatae, ligulis 7-13 mm. longis. 

var. /3. megaglossa. 



330 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Herba annua, erecta, gracilis, glabra, ramosa, 3-6 dm. alta, caule 
tetragono. Folia petiolata petiolis 0.5-2 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 
3-6 cm. longa, bipinnata, segmentis paucis, linearibus, acriter cal- 
loso-apiculatis, membranaceis, margine saepe revolutis, 0.3-1.2 mm. 
latis. Capitula ramos terminantia, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 
usque ad 15 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 8-13 mm. lata 
et 6-9 mm. alta. Involucri glabri vel subglabri bracteae valde 
inaequales (diversae), exteriores 5-8, lineares, obtuse vel acriter 
calloso-apiculatae, 1-2 mm. longae, interiores lanceolatae, 4-5 mm. 
longae. Flores ligulati circ. 6-8, lutei, ligula elliptico-oblongi, apice 
profunde incisi, 3-7 mm. longi. Achaenia submatura obcompressa, 
atro-brunnea, lineari-oblonga, faciebus glabra, exalata, marginibus 
et apice erecto-setosa, corpore circ. 5 mm. longa et usque ad 0.7 
mm. lata, biaristata aristis retrorsum hamosis circ. 1 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Antunes, No. 315, in forest at 
altitude of 1,760 meters, Mounyino, Portuguese West Africa, March, 
1901 (Berl., 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality of Mounyino, 
Portuguese West Africa. 

Specimens examined: Antunes 315 (type, Berl., 2 sheets). 

The species may be noted especially for its small flowering heads, 
the inequality of the exterior and interior involucral bracts, and the 
sharply and deeply bilobed ligules. It is close to Bidens paupercula, 
but is easily distinguished by the characters of the rays and involucre. 

Bidens diversa var. 0. megaglossa Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 92:202. 1931. 

PI. LXXV, fig. c. 

A specie bracteis exterioribus ciliatis, ligulis 7-13 mm. longis differt. 

Type specimen: Collected by Newton, at Biballa, Serra da Chella, 
Angola, June 3, 1883 (Berl., 2 sheets). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in Angola. 

Specimens examined: Newton, Biballa, Serra da Chella, etc. 
(2 type sheets, Berl.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXV 

Bidens diversa, figs, a, b, d-i: a, flowering specimen, X0.62; b, 
exterior involucral bract, X6.23; d, interior involucral bract, X6.23; 
e, ray floret, X6.23;/, palea, X6.23; g, disc floret, X6.23; h, i, achenes, 
X6.23; all from 1st type sheet. 

Bidens diversa var. megaglossa, fig. c: exterior involucral bract, 
X6.23; from type. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 331 

96. Bidens Schaffneri (Gray) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56: 493. 1913. 

PI. LXXVI. 

Coreopsis Schaffneri Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 19: 15. 1884. 

Herba plerumque erecta, e radice perenni vel forsan saepius 
omnino annua, pallide viridis, glaberrima, 6-9 dm. alta; caulibus 
tetragonis, ramosis, gracilibus. Folia late petiolata petiolis 0.8-2 
cm. (vel ultra) longis, petiolo adjecto 4-11 cm. longa, alia integra 
alia pinnatim 3-5-partita; laminis vel foliolis anguste linearibus, 
membranaceis vel oculis saepe fere subcarnosis, integerrimis, apice 
acutis, 2-9 cm. longis, 0.6-1.6 mm. latis. Capitula corymboso- 
paniculata, radiata vel rarius discoidea, pansa ad anthesin 1.3-1.7 
cm. lata et 6-8 mm. alta, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 1-6 
cm. longis. Involucrum basi pubescens; bracteis exterioribus 6-8, 
anguste linearibus, apice acutis et mucronulatis, ciliatis, 3-5 mm. 
longis, interiores lanceolatas saepe aequantibus. Flores ligulati 
aurei, ligula elliptico-oblanceolati, apice denticulati vel subintegri, 
7-10 mm. longi. Achaenia lineari-clavata et inferne attenuata, 
obcompresso-tetragona, nigra, supra antrorsum plus minusve setu- 
losa, corpore 3.5-6.5 mm. longa, plerumque breviter biaristata; aris- 
tis fere levibus, 0.2-0.6 mm. longis, demum interdum deciduis. 

Type specimen: Collected by J. G. Schaffner, No. 202 pro parte, 
Valley of San Luis Potosi, State of San Luis Potosi, Mexico, August, 
1876 (Gray). 

Distribution: Central Mexico from states of Durango and San 
Luis Potosi southward to states of Jalisco, Guanajuato, and Hidalgo. 

Specimens examined: A. Duges 9, State of Guanajuato, 1906 
(Gray); Edward Palmer 268, vicinity of Durango, State of Durango, 
April-November, 1896 (Calif.; U.S.); idem & C. C. Parry 488, alt. 
1,800-2,400 meters, probably near San Luis Potosi, State of San 
Luis Potosi, 1878 (Brit.; Field; Gray; Kew; N.Y.; Par.); iidem 
488}/, eodem loco et tempore (Field; Gray; Kew, 2 sheets; N.Y.; 
Par.); C. G. Pringle 11487, wet places, Nopala Station, Hidalgo, 
September 3, 1903 (BerL; Cop.; Kew; U.S.; forma involucri bracteis 
exterioribus interdum 12-16, aristis interdum longioribus et omnino 
nudis) ; J. N. Rose 2530 p.p., near Huejuquilla, Jalisco, August 24, 1897 
(U.S.); idem 2605, road between Mesquites and Monte Escobedo, 
Jalisco, August 26, 1897 (U.S.); J. G. Schaffner 202 (hb. A. Vigner 
No. 642) pro parte (type, Gray: cotypes, Brit.; Mun.; N.Y.); idem 
(similiter) 202, eodem loco, 1879 (BerL); idem 203 (hb. A. Vigner 
No. 643) pro parte, eodem loco, October, 1879 (Boiss.; Brit.; N.Y.). 



332 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Evidently placed by Gray in Coreopsis merely because of the 
practically smooth awns of the achenes. In general habit, also in the 
shape of the achenes (which are tetragonal and lack wings), Gray's 
type is a true Bidens. The associate types collected by Parry and 
Palmer (488 and 488^, not "448 and 448 }/%" as erroneously printed 
in Gray's original citation), in the Gray Herbarium, match very 
well Schaffner's No. 202, ibid., the type. In the Boissier Herbarium, 
Schaffner 203 is accompanied on the sheet with additional material 
which is true Bidens angustissima H.B.K. Elsewhere (Brit.; Gray; 
Mun.), additional sheets of this number are entirely B. angustissima. 
Gray's description of the root as perennial may have sprung from 
some similar confusion (Gray did in fact actually compare his plant 
with B. angustissima, "facie Bidentis angustissimae"). Where the 
basal portions have been available in the herbarium, they have 
seemed to connote an annual habit. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXVI 

Bidens Schaffneri: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.60; 
6, exterior involucral bract, X 5.43 ; c, interior involucral bract, X 5.43 ; 
d, ray floret, X3.62; e, palea, X5.43; /, disc floret, X6.2; g (outer), 
h (inner), achenes, X3.62; all from Parry & Palmer 488, in Hb. Mo. 

97. Bidens Ferulaefolia (Jacq.) DC. Prodr. 5: 603. 1836. 

PI. LXXVII. 

Coreopsis Ferulaefolia Jacq. Hort. Schoenbr. 3: 65, pL 375. 1798. 
Coreopsis ferulacea Hort. ex Enum. Stirp. in Horto Acad. Pisano Viv. 

Ann. 1801 (probabiliter). 

Coreopsis incurva Moench, Meth. Suppl. 245. 1802 (fide auctorum). 
Bidens procera D. Don, Bot. Reg. 8: 684, pL 684. 1822. 
Coreopsis angustifolia Pa von ex D. Don, loc. cit. 
Kerneria Ferulaefolia (Jacq.) Cass. Diet. Sci. Nat. 51: 473. 1827. 
Coreopsis Ferulifolia Jacq. ex Ind. Lond. 2: 294. 1930. 
Achaenia corpore 4-6 mm. longa, compacte adgregata, 2-aristata. 
Achaenia quam paleae maturae interdum breviora; aristis inter- 

dum deciduis B. Ferulaefolia sensu stricto. 

Achaenia quam paleae maturae saepius breviora; aristis multo 

saepius deciduis var. 7. ludens. 

Achaenia corpore plerumque circ. 8 mm. longa, laxe adgregata, saepe 

3- vel 4-aristata var. /3. Foeniculaefolia. 

Herba annua vel biennis, erecta, 0.3-1 (-2.5) m. alta; caule 
subobtuse tetragono, glabro vel supra parce pubescenti, ramoso 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXXXVII 




BIDENS ABADIAE DC. (figs, a, c-i); var. PILOSOIDES Sherff (fig. 6) 



" tf tfti 



THE GENUS BIDENS 333 

ramis suberectis, teretiusculis vel angulatis. Folia petiolata petiolis 
0.5-2.5 cm. (vel ultra) longis, petiolo adjecto 5-8 (-17) cm. longa, 
glabra vel hispidula, saepe inconspicue ciliata, membranacea vel 
fere subcarnosa, summa pinnata, inferiora bi- vel subtripinnata; 
segmentis anguste vel mediocriter linearibus, sub apice acutis vel 
subobtusis, apice mucronulatis. Capitula terminalia, erecta, corym- 
bosa, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2.2-3.3 cm. lata et 6-9 cm. alta, 
tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis pilosiusculis, 1-6 cm. longis. 
Involucrum basi saepe hispidum; bracteis exterioribus 8-10, lineari- 
bus, ciliatis, extrinsecus glabratis vel pubescentibus, apice obtusis 
vel mucronulatis, 2.5-4 mm. longis; interioribus ovato-lanceolatis, 
late et perspicue diaphano-marginatis, quam exterioribus paulo 
longioribus. Flores ligulati 5, aurei, ligula late elliptici vel ovato- 
oblanceolati, saepe tridenticulati, 1.1-1.7 cm. longi. Achaenia 
lineari-cuneata, nigrescentia, obcompresso-tetragona vel subplana, 
angulis erecte scabrida vel tuberculato-strigosa, corpore 4-6 mm. 
longa, exalata, biaristata; aristis tenuibus, flavidis, retrorsum hamo- 
sis, 1-2 mm. longis, interdum deciduis. 

Type specimen: Cultivated at Schonbrunn, Austria, from 
achenes of unknown geographic origin. The plants were raised in 
the open air during the summer. Given the shelter of a hothouse, 
they bloomed in November and December. 1 

Distribution: Southern Arizona southward through western 
Mexico to the states of Mexico and Jalisco, and very rarely into 
Guatemala. 

Specimens examined : Bro. G. Arsene, near Laguna de San Balta- 
sar, vicinity of Puebla) State of Puebla, Mexico, August 16, 1906 
(U.S.); idem, Mayorazgo, vicinity of Puebla, eodem tempore (U.S.); 
idem 102, alt. 2,170 meters, Cerro San Juan, vicinity of Puebla, 
August 5, 1906 (U.S.); idem 1410, alt. 2,120 meters, Mayorazgo, 
upon the Atoyac, vicinity of Puebla, July 18, 1907 (U.S.); idem 2414, 
alt. 1,850 meters, road of the Park, vicinity of Morelia, Michoacan, 
Mexico, August 1, 1909 (U.S.); idem 3080, alt. 1,900 meters, flooded 
places, vicinity of Morelia, October 3, 1909 (Gray); idem 10165, 
between haciendas Santa Barbara and Cristo, upon the Alseseca, 

1 1 do not appear to have found type material of this at Vienna, either at the 
Hofmuseum (Mus. V.) or at the University of Vienna's Herbarium (U.V.) in the 
Vienna Botanical Garden. However, the plant listed below as having been culti- 
vated by Jacquin's son in 1809 (and given to DeCandolle) and now at the Delessert 
Herbarium, matches the type plate very closely. Then, too, the specimen from 
the elder Jacquin's own herbarium, although raised at the Vienna Botanical 
Garden (Hort. Vindob.) instead of the Schonbrunn Garden, a short distance away, 
was undoubtedly from the original material or from a lineal descendant. 



334 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

vicinity of Puebla, June 27, 1907 (U.S.); E. Bourgeau 502 pro parte, 
Guadalupe Hidalgo, State of Mexico, August 23, 1865-1866 (Berl.; 
Boiss.; Gray; Kew; U.S.) and July 10, 1865 (Kew); ex herb. Fauchei 
50 (Boiss.); C. V. Hartman 47, in ditch, Fronteras, Sonora, Mexico, 
September 25, 1890 (Gray) ; idem 834, San Pedro, Sonora, September 
14, 1890 (Gray); idem 961, between San Pedro and Fronteras, 
Sonora, September 20-24, 1890 (Gray) ; idem 991, Fronteras, Sonora, 
September 25-29, 1890 (Gray); ex Hort. BeroL, 1858 (Berl.); ex 
eodem, July 18, 1863 (Berl.); ex Hort. Dresd., July 18, 1878 (Berl.); 
ex Hort. Bot. Monac., 1845 (Mun., 4 sheets) ; ex Hort. Duds Orleansis, 
Paris, 1820 (Mus. V.); ex Hort. Par. (Del., 2 sheets); ex eodem, 
November 1, 1814 (Kew); ex Hort. Pelon., November, 1819 (Kew); 
ex herb. Jacquinii ex Hort. Vindob. (Mus. V.); Jacquin fil., cult, in 
1809 (Del.); J. G. Lemmon 332, southern Arizona, 1881 (Gray); 
idem 2767 et 2769, near Fort Huachuca, Arizona (Gray); idem & 
uxor, Rucker Valley, Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, September, 1881 
(Brit.; Calif.); iidem 2768, spring at "Hermitage," eodem loco et 
tempore (Calif.); Edward Palmer 316 and 393, southwestern Chi- 
huahua, August-November, 1885 (Gray; in Phila. num. 393 caulis 
folia superiora pro maxima parte indivisa, angusto-elongata et faciem 
faciei B. aureae adpropinquantem habet); idem 425, Guadalajara, 
Jalisco, July-October, 1886 (U.V.); idem 426, eodem loco et tempore 
(Boiss.; Mo.; U.S.); idem 668, 672, 677, and 682, vicinity of Durango, 
State of Durango, April-November, 1896 (668, Calif, and Gray; 
672, U.S.; 677, Berl. and Gray; 682, Mo., 2 sheets, and Gray); 
idem 933, wet bottoms along watercourses, eodem loco, July- 
November, 1896 (Berl.; Boiss.; Calif.; Gray; Mo., 2 sheets); ex 
herb. Pavonii (Boiss., sub nom. Coreopside tripinnatifida) ; idem, 
Mexico (Boiss.); C. G. Pringle 136, Mexico (Gray); idem 758, wet 
meadow, Sacramento Valley, Mexico, September 27, 1886 (Berl.); 
J. N. Rose 2530 p.p., Huejuquilla, Jalisco, August 24, 1897 (Gray) ; 
J. T. Rothrock 671, Sonoita Valley, southern Arizona, September, 
1874 (Gray); Osbert Salvin, Volcan de Fuego, Guatemala, August, 
1873 (Kew); J. G. Schaffner, near San Angel, Mexico, September, 
1855 (Gray; N.Y.); idem 202 p.p., Morales Mts., Valley of San Luis 
Potosi, State of San Luis Potosi, October, 1880 (Kew; forma, uno 
achaenio corpore 12.5 mm. longo, aristis 3-3.3 mm. longis); idem 
213, Valley of Mexico, State of Mexico (Berl.; Gray); Schmitz, 
along railroad from Guadalupe, State of Mexico (Mus. V., 2 sheets) ; 
Walther Schumann 6, Mexico, September 20, 1884 (Berl.); idem 
108, river bank, Mexico, September 10, 1885 (Berl., 2 sheets; U.V.); 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXXXVIII 




BIDENS BRANDEGEEI Sherff (figs, a-fc) 
BIDENS CANESCENS Bertol. (figs, l-s) 



OF THt 
UNIVERSITY Of IlilNQI* 



THE GENUS BIDENS 335 

idem 109, Mexico, 1885 (Berl., 2 sheets); George Thurber 1102 p.p., 
Sonora, September 11, 1851 (Field; Gray); J. W. Tourney 58, Chiri- 
cahua Mts., Arizona, July 26, 1899 (Calif.); C. H. T. Townsend & 
C. M. Barber 315, alt. 2,160 meters, State of Chihuahua, September 6, 
1899 (Boiss.; Mo.); Charles Wright 1232, Sonora, 1851 (Gray; Mo., 
sub num. 12326t's); ex herb. Zuccarinii, cult. 1817 (Mun.). 

The type of Bidens procera D. Don had been raised from seed sent 
by Don Jose" Pavon to Lambert. Pavon had received the material 
from Mexico, but the exact locality in Mexico is not stated by Don. 
I have not knowingly seen the Lambert Herbarium specimens which 
Don cited, but have studied carefully an original specimen from 
Pavon's own herbarium (Boiss.). This agrees with Don's descrip- 
tion and plate fairly well, the chief differences being attributable to 
the fact that Don based his description mainly upon the taller and 
more robust cultivated plants. Thus, early in his description, Don 
described his plant as "orgyalis v. ultra," and later he described it 
as "6 or 8 ft. high." I have seen no spontaneous specimens that 
measured nearly so tall as in Don's cultivated plants. These latter, 
however, are seen from Don's description and plate to match the 
original plate and the various cultivated specimens, extant in 
European herbaria, of B. Ferulaefolia (Jacq.) DC. 

Most of the spontaneous specimens have a low stature (5-8 dm. 
high) and slender branches; very rarely have they been found to 
resemble the cultivated plants (illustrated especially well in Jac- 
quin's plate), and then they appear to have grown in an aqueous 
habitat. 

Bidens Ferulaefolia var. /3. Foeniculaefolia (DC.) Sherff, Bot. 

Gaz. 81: 39. 1926. PI. LXXVIII, figs. a-i. 
Bidens Foeniculaefolia DC. Prodr. 5: 603. 1836. 
Coreopsis foeniculacea Moc. & Sesse" ex DC. loc. cit. 
Bidens carpodonta Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 64: 25. 1917. 

A specie differt: habitu minus robusta, pilosior, foliorum seg- 
mentis angustioribus. Achaenia pauciora, laxe adgregata, corpori- 
bus plerumque circ. 8 mm. longis et circ. 0.6 mm. latis, aristis saepe 
3 vel 4. 

Type specimen: Collected by Mr. Mendez, west of Guanajuato, 
District of Leon, State of Guanajuato, Mexico, in 1829 (Del.). 1 

1 Alaman collected separate specimens at the same place and time. Mendez 
and Alaman each collected additional plants south of Guanajuato. DeCandolle 
had four sheets in his herbarium. He clearly had both the Mendez and the Alaman 
plants, but only those from the west of Guanajuato, in mind when writing his 



336 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Distribution: In Mexico from the State of Sonora southeastward 
to the State of Guanajuato, and, if a specimen purporting to be by 
Nicolas is truthfully labeled (cf. Standley, Science, new ser. 65: 
130-133. 1927), further southeastward to the State of Puebla. 

Specimens examined: Alaman, west of Guanajuato, Distr. 
of Leon, State of Guanajuato, 1829 (Del.); idem 26, south of Guana- 
juato, 1829 (Del.; Par.; Webb) ; Josiah Gregg 397, Mexico, September 
1, 1848-1849 (Gray; Mo.); Mendez, west of Guanajuato, etc. (type, 
Del.), and south of Guanajuato (Del.); Edward Palmer 681, vicinity 
of Durango, State of Durango, September, 1896 (Berl.; Kew; Mo., 2 
sheets, etc.) ; George Thurber 1102 p.p., Sonora, September, 1851 (Field) . 

Asa Gray suspected Bidens Foeniculaefolia DC. of belonging to 
B. procera (Syn. Fl. 1, pt. 2: 298. 1884; cf. Proc. Amer. Acad. 19: 16. 
1884). The resemblance is very close, but B. Foeniculaefolia tends to 
have a more wiry aspect, with narrower leaf divisions and more 
pubescence. The achenes are less numerous and less compactly 
arranged in the heads than those of typical B. procera, or B. Ferulae- 
folia as we must call it. Furthermore, their bodies average about 
8 mm. long and 0.6 mm. wide, while the bodies of B. Ferulaefolia 
are usually shorter and wider than this. The aristae are usually 2, 
but at times 3 or 4, 1 while in B. Ferulaefolia they seem constantly 2. 
At the most, B. Foeniculaefolia does not exhibit enough differences 
from B. Ferulaefolia to warrant more than varietal distinction. 

Bidens Ferulaefolia var. 7. ludens (Gray) Sherff, 
Bot. Gaz. 81: 39. 1926. PI. LXXVIII, figs. j-s. 

Bidens ludens Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 21: 390. 1886. 

A specie vix differt. Achaeniorum aristae plus valde deciduae 
et achaenia ipsa saepius quam paleae maturae breviora. 

Type specimen : Collected by Cyrus Guernsey Pringle, No. 293, 
on cool hillsides and along streams, northwest of Chihuahua, State 
of Chihuahua, Mexico, October, 1885 (Gray). 

Distribution: Known only from the widely separated states 
of Chihuahua and Oaxaca, Mexico. 

Specimens examined: E. W. Nelson 1438, alt. 1,650-2,250 meters, 
Valley of Oaxaca, State of Oaxaca, September 20, 1894 (Gray; U.S.); 

description ("in Mexico ad occid. urbis Guanaxuato in prov. Leonina leger. et 
mecum comm. cl. Mendez et Alaman"). Technically, the Mendez plant from 
west of Guanajuato would probably be best accepted as the actual type. 

1 DeCandolle is seen, from his description ("biaristatis"), to have overlooked 
the additional aristae on his own material. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 337 

Pringle 293 (type, Gray); idem 757 pro parte, mountains near 
Chihuahua, State of Chihuahua, October 3, 1886 (Berl.; Brit.; Mo.; 
U.V.); A. Wislizenus 178, mountains at Cosiquiriachi, west of Chi- 
huahua, September 19, 1846 (Mo.). 

Asa Gray, shortly before his death, applied the name B. ludens 
to Pringle 293. Gray's type specimens do not differ much in general 
appearance from B. procera, which, as we have seen above, is refer- 
able to the earlier synonym B. Ferulaefolia. The fruiting heads, 
however, are noticeable because most of the achenes lack or have 
dropped their aristae. 1 In certain of the foregoing collections cited 
for B. Ferulaefolia proper, particularly some of Palmer's plants, 
there are heads in which most of the achenes have likewise lost their 
aristae. Indeed, Don had noted this as one of the characters of his 
B. procera. 2 Another character noted in Gray's type material is the 
usually greater proportionate length of the mature paleae. In most 
of the heads they are longer than the achenes, but on the same plant 
some heads may be found with exceptionally long achenes, these 
surpassing the paleae. Evidently Gray's B. ludens is best regarded 
as merely a variety of B. Ferulaefolia, if indeed entitled to rank 
higher than just a forma. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXVII 

Bidens Ferulaefolia: a, flowering specimen, X0.66; b, exterior 
involucral bract, X3.3; c, interior involucral bract, X3.3; d, ray 
corolla, Xl.98; e, palea, X3.3;/, disc floret, X3.3; g, achene, X3.3; 
all from Hort. Pelon., November, 1819, in Hb. Kew. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXVIII 

Bidens Ferulaefolia var. Foeniculaefolia, figs, a-i: a, entire flower- 
ing and fruiting specimen, X0.58; b, exterior involucral bract, X3.49; 
c, interior involucral bract, X3.49; d, ray corolla, X3.49; e, palea, 
X3.49;/, disc floret, X3.49; g (outer), h and i (inner), achenes, X3.49; 
all from Palmer 419 (cotype of Bidens carpodonta Sherff), in Hb. U.S. 

Bidens Ferulaefolia var. ludens, figs, j-s: j, flowering and fruiting 
specimen, X0.58; k, exterior involucral bract, X3.49; I, interior 
involucral bract, X3.49; m, ray corolla, X3.49; n, palea, X3.49; o, 
disc floret, X3.49; p (average outer), q (average inner), r and s 
(extremely longest inner), achenes, X3.49; j, mainly from cotype 

1 " . . . aristis subulatis . . . (persistentibus vel deciduis)." Gray, loc. cit. 

2 " . . . aristis . . . deciduis . . . having flat cuneiform seed with deciduous (not 
permanent) awns." Don, loc. cit. 



338 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

in Hb. Field, modified slightly from Pringle 757, in Hb. Field; k-l, 
n-s, from cotype in Hb. Field; m, from Pringle 757, in Hb. Field. 

98. Bidens Coreocarpoides Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 97: 185. 1935. 

Herba glabrata, ramosa, erecta e radice simplici tamen forsan 
perennis, 3 dm. alta, ramis tenuibus suberectis. Folia non per- 
spicua, pinnatim 3- vel 5-partita vel summa simplicia, breviter 
petiolata petiolis plus minusve hispido-ciliatis 2-8 mm. longis, 
petiolo adjecto 1.5-3 cm. longa, segmentis rhachi similibus linearibus 
crassiusculis acriter indurato-apiculatis 0.4-1 mm. latis. Capitula 
elongato-pedunculata pedunculis subcorymbose dispositis tenuissi- 
mis saepius nudis plerumque 8-12 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad 
anthesin circ. 1.5-1.8 cm. lata et circ. 6-7 mm. alta. Involucrum 
glabrum, bracteis exterioribus circ. 8, adpressis, oblongo-linearibus, 
apice subacuto induratis, quam interioribus oblongo-ovatis dimidio 
brevioribus. Flores ligulati plerumque 8, flavi, circ. 7-nervati, 
ligula plus minusve oblongi, apice denticulati, 7-9 mm. longi. Flores 
disci sub 3 mm. longi. Ovaria plana, oblongo-linearia vel cuneato- 
linearia, corpore 1.5 mm. longa, apice biaristata aristis retrorsum 
hamosis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Edward William Nelson and 
Edward Alphonso Goldman, No. 7389, at altitude of 15-60 meters, 
from Cape San Lucas to San Jose del Cabo, southernmost Baja 
California, January 4, 1906 (U.S.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in southernmost 
Baja (Lower) California. 

Specimens examined: Nelson & Goldman 7389 (type, U.S.). 

99. Bidens Townsendii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 89: 363. 1930. 
PI. LXXIX. 

Herba annua, erecta, subsimplex, 8-10 dm. alta, caule acriter 
tetragono glabra. Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis usque ad 2.5 cm. 
longis, petiolo adjecto circ. 8-10 cm. longa, 1-2-pinnata; segmentis 
primariis lateralibus circ. 2 jugis, superioribus simplicibus inferioribus 
saepius tripartitis, segmentis secundariis lanceolatis membranaceis 
acriter serratis adpresse setosis, apice acuminatis, sub medio circ. 
0.7-1.7 cm. latis. Capitula pauca, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 
3-6 cm. longis, subradiata, pansa ad anthesin 1.2 cm. lata et circ. 
6 mm. alta. Involucri bracteae subaequales exteriores 8-12, anguste 
lineares, superne non spathulato-dilatatae, apice acerrimo induratae, 
3-6 mm. longae, interiores lanceolatae. Flores ligulati 5, rudi- 



THE GENUS BIDENS 339 

mentarii, ligula obovati, albidi vel subrosacei, plus minusve per- 
spicue striati, circ. 4 mm. longi. Achaenia exalata, exteriora clavata, 
obcompresso-tetragona, rubido-nigra, hinc inde saepe sparsim setosa, 
corpore circ. 4-4.5 mm. longa et 1-1.2 mm. lata, apice calva vel 
biaristata, aristis stramineis retrorsum hamosis circ. 0.5 mm. longis; 
interiora tenuiter linearia, corpore usque ad 11 mm. longa, nigra, 
supra marginaliter setosa, biaristata aristis stramineis retrorsum 
hamosis 1-1.5 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Charles Henry Tyler Townsend and 
Charles Melvin Barber, No. 415, near Chuichupa in the Sierra Madre, 
State of Chihuahua, Mexico, September 6, 1899 (N.Y.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality in State of Chi- 
huahua, Mexico. 

Specimens examined: Townsend & Barber 415 (type, N.Y. : cotypes, 
Gray; Mo.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXIX 

Bidens Townsendii: a, flowering specimen, X0.7; 6, fruiting head, 
X0.7; c, exterior involucral bract, X5.6; d, interior involucral bract, 
X5.6; e, ray corolla, X5.6;/, palea, X5.6; g, disc floret, X5.6; h and 
i (outer), j (inner), achenes, X5.6; a, c-j, from cotype in Hb. Mo.; b, 
from type. 

100. Bidens aurea (Ait.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 59: 313. 1915 
(ex synon. Ait. nee alior.) ; ibid. 81: 42. 1926. PI. LXXX. 

Coreopsis aurea Ait. 1 Hort. Kew 3: 252. 1789 (non aliorum). 

Bidens mexicana Willd. Herb. No. 15034-1 (nee alior.). 

Bidens heterophylla Ortega, Hort. Matr. 99, pi. 12. 1798. 

Coreopsis lucida Cav. Descrip. 224. 1802. 

Coreopsis nitida Hort. R. M. ex Elenchus PI. Hort. Bot. J. J. De- 

stremx ann. 1805: 10. 1806. 

Bidens heterophilla Ort. ex Elenchus, loc. cit. (sphalm). 
Bidens luxurians Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. 847. 1809 (nee alior.). 
Coreopsis trichosperma var. "/3. aurea?" Nutt. Gen. 2: 180. 1818 

(tantum quoad synon. Ait.). 

Bidens argutaH.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 181 (231). 1820. 
Bidens decolorata H.B.K. op. cit. 182 (233). 
Coreopsis tetragona La Llave & Lex. Nov. Veg. Descrip. 1: 31. 1824 

(ex descrip. et loco). 

1 Less commonly, but probably with greater justice, cited "Dryander in Aiton." 



340 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Bidens arguta var. luxurians (Willd.) DC. Prodr. 5: 596. 1836. 

Bidens tetragona (La Llave & Lex.) DC. loc. cit. 

Bidens longifolia DC. op. cit. 597. 

Diodonta aurea (Ait.) Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. ser. 2. 7: 360. 

1841 (ex synon. Ait.). 
Diatonta aurea (Ait.) Nutt. ex Walp. Repert. 2: 614. 1843 (ex synon. 

Ait). 
Bidens Warszewicziana Regel cum vars. a. simplicifolia, /3. pinnata, 

and 7. bipinnata, Flora 32: 183-184. 1849. 

Bidens heterophylla var. Wrightii Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 19: 15. 

1883; Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1, pt. 2: 298. 1884. 
Bidens heterophylla var. typica Fiori in Fiori & Paoletti, Fl. Anal. 

Ital. 3:303. 1904. 
Bidens aurea var. Wrightii (Gray) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 85: 16. 1928. 

Herba erecta, perennis vel interdum annua; caule tetragono, 
simplici ramosove, viridi vel subpurpurascenti, plerumque 0.5-1 m. 
alto. Folia submembranacea, plerumque petiolata petiolis plus 
minusve alatis et 0.2-4 cm. longis, glabra vel interdum tomentula 
vel supra debiliter pubescentia, petiolo adjecto 0.8-2.2 dm. longa, 
maxime variabilia; nunc indivisa, linearia vel lanceolata vel etiam 
elliptico-oblonga, serrata dentibus brevibus longisve vel interdum 
subintegra, saepe acuminata; nunc 3-5-partita, foliolis lanceolatis 
linearibusve (raro etiam capillaribus), acriter tenuiterque serratis 
vel integris, imis interdum connatis ad apicem petioli ; nunc rarissime 
bipinnata, segmentis linearibus et integris. Capitula radiata, pansa 
ad anthesin 2-5 cm. lata et 0.6-1 cm. alta. Involucri bracteae 
exteriores 8-17, lineares, apice acuto induratae, hispido-ciliatae, 
faciebus saepe glabrae, 3-6 mm. longae, bracteis interioribus sub- 
aequales. Flores ligulati plerunlque 5 vel 6, flavi, ligula obovati, 
apice subintegri vel irregulariter dentati, 1-3 cm. longi. Achaenia 
cuneato-linearia, subtetragona, nigra vel subnigra, plus minusve 
erecto-setosa setis ad basim saepe papilliformibus, corpore 4-7 
mm. longa, apice biaristata; aristis flavidis, tenuibus, supra retrorsum 
hamosis, 1.5-2.7 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected at Kew Gardens in 1785, from plants 
cultivated there from seed introduced that year by Charles, Earl of 
Tankerville. No particular specimen is cited as the type, but the 
one in London (Brit.) clearly is from the type material. 

Distribution: From southern Arizona southward through most 
parts of Mexico and reaching the Volcan del Fuego and Volcan de 



THE GENUS BIDENS 341 

Pacaya, Guatemala; adventive in recent years and becoming estab- 
lished in France and Italy. 

Specimens examined: Alam&n, Mexico, 1831 (Del.); Alwin 
Aschenborn 189 and 433, Mexico (Berl.); A. Beguinot 1378 (Burn.); 
J. L. Berlandier 717, Valley of Mexico, State of Mexico, 1827 (type 
material of Bidens longifolia DC.; Berl.; Brit.; Del.; Gray); idem 
1001, Cordillera de Guchilaque (near Cuernavaca, Morelos), October, 
1827 (Berl. ; Del. ; Mus. V. ; Par.) ; idem 1091, Toluca, State of Mexico, 
October, 1827 (Berl.; Del., 2 sheets); Mateo Botteri, Mexico, 1856 
(Del.); E. Bourgeau 263, Tacubaya, State of Mexico, June 5-15, 
1865 (Berl.; Cop.; Gray; Kew); idem 382fa's, ditches near Tacubaya, 
June 13, 1865 (Boiss.; Gray; Kew, 2 sheets, 1 sub num. 382); idem 
502 pro parte, Guadalupe, State of Mexico, August 23, 1865 (Mun.); 
idem 603, fields and ditches, Mexico, September 8, 1865-1866 (Kew) ; 
idem 851, edges of fields at Pedregal, State of Mexico, September 
12, 1865 (Berl.; Cop.; Gray; Kew; Mun.); idem 957, San Nicolas, 
State of Mexico, September 27, 1865 (Cop.; Del.; Gray; Kew); 
idem 3084, region of Mt. Orizaba, Mexico, September 20, 1866 
(Boiss.; Kew; Par., 3 sheets; Petrop.); idem 3084fo's and 3085, eodem 
loco et tempore (Kew); T. S. Brandegee, banks of Cofradia River, 
vicinity of Culiacan, Sinaloa, October 20, 1904 (Calif.; Gray); idem 
323, San Francisquito Mts., Lower California, October 18, 1890 
(Calif.; Gray; Phila.); Carl Ehrenberg 353, Mexico (Berl., 2 sheets, 
1 sub nom. B. heterophylla var. polycephala Schz. Bip.); H. Galeotti 
2486, alt. 2,100 meters, Cordillera, State of Oaxaca, 1840 (Del.); 
August Ghiesbreght 112, Plateau of Mexico, 1842-1843 (Del.; Gray); 
idem 380, moist plains of the cold region, September-October (Gray) ; 
Josiah Gregg 256, Saltillo, Coahuila, July 14, 1848 (Mo.); C. V. 
Hartman 198, ditch, Oputo, Sonora, October 26, 1890 (Kew; Penn.); 
idem 833, San Pedro, Sonora, September 14, 1890 (Gray) ; idem 962, 
between San Pedro and Fronteras, Sonora, September 20-24, 1890 
(Gray) ; Carl Heller 389, meadows, alt. 2,400-2,700 meters, Toluca, 
State of Mexico (Mus. V.); ex Horto Chelseae (Brit., sub. num. 3417); 
ex Horto Kewensi, ann. 1785 (Brit., type material); Humboldt & 
Bonpland, alt. 1,800 meters, temperate places near Morelia (formerly 
Valladolid), Michoacan (Par.; type of Bidens arguta H.B.K.); iidem, 
Morelia (Par.; type of Bidens decolorata H.B.K.); A. F. Jeanjean, 
rocks of Massane*, Villeneuve, France, October, 1912 (Field) ; J. G. 
Lemmon, Rucker Valley, Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, September, 
1881 (Brit.) ; idem 59, Creek of San Antonio, Tucson, Arizona (Gray) ; 
idem 2770, Huachuca Mts., Arizona, September, 1882 (Boiss.; Field; 



342 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

Kew; Petrop.); idem & uxor 86, Ajusco Mts., State of Mexico, 1905 
(Calif.; Gray); Lloyd 408, canyon, Huehuerachi, Sonora, December 
10, 1890 (Gray; Kew); L. Motelay 585, subspontaneous, Bordeaux, 
France, November, 1877 (Del.; Par.; U.V.); idem 1676, muddy 
banks of the Garonne River at Bordeaux, France, November 14, 
1877 (Boiss.; Kew; Par.); Frederick Muller 911, Orizaba, Mexico, 
September, 1853 (N.Y.); idem 1672, eodem loco, August, 1853 (Kew; 
Petrop.); E. W. Nelson, Atlixco, State of Puebla, July 25-August 1, 
1893 (U.S.) ; idem 612, alt. 2,310-2,400 meters, west slope of Mt. Zem- 
poaltepec, Oaxaca, July 5-13, 1894 (U.S.); idem 754, vicinity of 
Totontepec, Oaxaca, July 15-20, 1894 (U.S.); idem 4853, alt. 2,100- 
2,250 meters, base of Mt. Mohinora, Chihuahua, August 23-31, 
1898 (Gray) ; E. J. Neyraut, slope of right bank of Garonne River, 
above wharf of the Souys, Bordeaux-Bastide, Dept. Gironde, France, 
November 19, 1899 (Burn.); C. R. Orcutt 3714, Ajusco, State of 
Mexico, August 20, 1910 (Kew) ; idem 4076, Federal District, October 
16, 1910 (Field); idem 4125, Telles, Hidalgo, September 21, 1910 
(Field) ; idem 4604, State of Colima, October 24, 1910 (Field) ; Edward 
Palmer 49 and 49^, Alvarez, State of San Luis Potosi, September 
5-10, 1902 (Cam.; Field; Mo.; N.Y.); idem 269, vicinity of Durango, 
State of Durango, April-November, 1896 (Berl.; Field; Gray; Kew; 
Mo.); idem 348, vicinity of Saltillo, Coahuila, 1898 (Field; Kew; 
Mo.); idem 365, alt. 2,655 meters, Cumbro, southwestern Chihuahua, 
October, 1885 (Gray; Kew); idem 425, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Sep- 
tember, 1886 (Boiss.; Gray; forma prope B. Ferulaefoliam); idem 
487, between San Luis Potosi and Tampico, December, 1878- 
February, 1879 (Phila.); idem 516, vicinity of Mapimi, Durango, 
October 21-23, 1898 (Calif.; Kew; Mo.); idem 516 J/6, vicinity of 
Torreon, Coahuila, October 13-20, 1898 (Field); idem 634, near 
Parras, Coahuila, June 8-28, 1880 (Boiss.; Gray; Kew; Phila.; U.V.); 
idem 669, vicinity of Durango, State of Durango, September, 1896 
(Gray); idem 670, eodem loco et tempore (Berl.; Gray; Mo.); idem 
671, eodem loco et tempore (Berl.; Boiss.; Field; Kew; Mo.); idem 
676 and 678, eodem loco, April-November, 1896 (Boiss.; Field; 
Gray) ; idem 679 and 683, eodem loco, September, 1896 (Gray) ; idem 
680, eodem loco et tempore (Berl.; Gray; Mo.); idem 684, eodem 
loco, April-November, 1896 (Gray) ; idem 938, eodem loco, November, 
1896 (Berl.; Boiss.; Field; Gray; Kew; Mo.); idem 939, wet bottoms 
and fields, eodem loco et tempore (Berl.; Boiss.; Field; Mo.); 1 idem 
940, rich bottom lands, eodem loco, October, 1896 (Berl.; Boiss.; 

1 An additional sheet of Palmer 939 (U.S.) bears material cultivated in green- 
house from the original achenes. The foliage is much dissected. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 343 

Field; Kew; Mo., 2 sheets) ; idem 944, rich soil, eodem loco, November, 
1896 (Gray); idem 1739, Mexico, September 25-October 8, 1891 
(Field) ; R. Pampanini, Cozzuolo, Italy, November 4, 1899 (Del., 2 
sheets; Webb) ; Parry & Palmer 487, alt. 1,800-2, 400 meters, Mexico, 
1878 (Boiss.; Gray; Kew; Phila.); Ove Paulsen, alt. 1,500 meters, Oak 
Camp Station, Santa Catalina Mts., Arizona, September 23, 1913 
(Cop.); G. Pellanda, moist fields and ditches, alt. 10 meters, Valley 
of Pompeii, Naples (Napoli), Campania, Italy, November 4, 1912 
(Field); idem (Fiori & Beguinot Fl. Ital. Exsicc. No.) 1378, sandy soil, 
subspontaneous and abundant in fields, ditches, alt. 15 meters, 
between Valley of Pompeii and Scafati, Prov. Salerno, Campania, 
November 4, 1908 (Field; Gray; U.V.); C. G. Pringle, by streams, 
Santa Catalina Mts., Arizona, May 9, 1883 (Del.; Field; U.V.); idem, 
eodem loco, May 9, 1884 (U.V.) and June 16, 1884 (Cam.); 1 idem 
6783, wet places, alt. 2,190 meters, Valley of Mexico, State of Mexico, 
September 6, 1897 (Berl.; Boiss.; Can.; Cam.; Del.; Field; Kew; Mo.; 
Mun. ; Mus.V. ; Phila. ; U.V., etc.) ; idem 8749, alt. 2,340 meters, borders 
of fields, Eslava, State of Mexico, September 17, 1903 (Berl. ; Boiss. ; 
Cam.; Cop.; Del.; Field; Kew; Mo.; Mun.; Mus. V.; Phila., etc.); 
C. A. Purpus 1549, fields, Pachuca, Hidalgo, September, 1905 (Calif.; 
N.Y.); idem 3828, wet soil, Rio de San Francisco, Puebla, August, 
1909 (Berl.; Calif.; Field; Mo.; N.Y.); J. N. Rose 2995, west of 
Bolanos, in the Sierra Madre, Jalisco, September 15-17, 1897 (Gray); 
J. T. Rothrock 705, alt. 1,350 meters, Camp Lowell, southern Arizona, 
September, 1874 (Field; Gray); Salle, Orizaba, Mexico (Del., 2 
sheets; Kew); Osbert Salvin, Volcan de Fuego, Guatemala, 1873-1874 
(Mus. V.) ; Wilhelm Schaffner 168, marshy meadows near Chapultepec, 
State of Mexico, August, 1856 (Berl.); J. G. Schaffner 384a, marshes, 
etc., Valley of San Luis Potosi, 1880 (Gray; Kew); idem 3846, eodem 
loco et tempore (Gray); Scherzer, alt. 2,700-3,300 meters, Volcan 
de Pacaya, Guatemala, August, 1854 (Mus. V.); C. J. W. Schiede, 
near Angangueo, Michoacan, October, 1830 (Berl., 2 sheets); Alb. 
Schmitz 79, Valley of Mexico, State of Mexico (Mus. V.) ; idem 541 p.p., 
Colzada near Piedad, State of Mexico (Mus. V.); Eduard & Caecilie 
Seler 444, near Chapultepec, State of Mexico, November, 1887 
(Berl.); iidem 475, near Tlalelolco, Federal District, January, 1888 
(Berl.) ; Smart 411, San Pedro River, Arizona, 1867 (U.S.) ; L. C. Smith 
304, alt. 1,530 meters, Valley of Oaxaca, Oaxaca, November 14, 1894 

1 Here may be mentioned Pringle 758, wet meadows, Sacramento Valley, 
Chihuahua, September 27, 1886 (Berl., 2 sheets; Del.; Field; Kew; Mo., 2 sheets; 
Mus. V.; N.Y.; Penn.; Phila.; U.V., etc.). Some of the specimens (e.g., Kew, 
Mus. V., and Penn.) appear to pass into Bidens Ferulaefolia. 



344 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

(Gray); idem 910, alt. 2,100 meters, near Puebla, State of Oaxaca, 
November 6, 1895 (Gray); Uhde 644 and 646, Mexico (Berl.); 
Charles Wright 1233, Sonora, 1851 (Gray) ; idem 1233fo's, eodem loco 
(vel in Arizona australi fide A. Grayi Syn. Fl.), 1851-1852 (Kew). 1 

The name Coreopsis aurea Ait. has been associated by botanists 
for more than a century with a plant native to the southeastern 
United States. The description given by Aiton is rather short: 
"aurea 2 Coreopsis foliis serratis: radicalibus tripartitis; 

caulinis trifidis integrisve lanceolato-linearibus. Hemp-leav'd Coreop- 
sis. Nat. of North America. Introd. 1785 by Charles Earl of Tan- 
kerville. Fl. August & September. H. (Perennis)." The specimen 
collected from the type plants in Kew Gardens in 1785 is still extant 
in good condition in the British Museum of Natural History. 2 This 
specimen bears a superficial resemblance to the plant of the south- 
eastern United States, Coreopsis mitis Michx., and, from the con- 
fusion found in literature, appears to have deceived every botanist 
who had examined it. I misinterpreted it in 1914 (Bot. Gaz. 59: 314. 
1915). In 1924, however, having in the meantime determined many 
hundreds of herbarium specimens of Bid ens heterophylla Ort., I 
found immediately on reexamination that Aiton's type was merely 
a cultivated form of that species. This surprising discovery led to 
a careful search through the remains of the single flowering, worm- 
eaten head. Two aristae were extracted. These both were retrorsely 
barbed. Such aristae are entirely unknown in the species from the 
southeastern United States, but are typical for B. heterophylla Ort. 3 
Obviously, the name aurea, published by Aiton nine years prior to 
Ortega's heterophylla, and transferred to Bidens by me in 1915, must 
be considered the valid trivial name for this well known species. 

As stated in an earlier paper (Bot. Gaz. 76: 157. 1923), the Berlin 
Herbarium contains several specimens under the name B. luxurians 
Willd. One, from the Kunth Herbarium, was collected at the Berlin 
Botanical Garden, apparently in 1806 4 or about three years before 

1 A few additional specimens are cited in the text. 

2 There is nothing mysterious about the Aiton material's being in this institu- 
tion rather than at Kew. The Aiton plant had been carried, without doubt, to 
Banks or Splander, then got into the Banksian Herbarium, and thus finally found 
its way, with other Banksian specimens, into the British Museum of Natural 
History (cf. James Britten, Journ. Bot. 50, Suppl. 3: 15. 1912). 

3 Another specimen was found in the same herbarium and had come from the 
old Chelsea Garden. It had the number 3417 and a copy of the original description 
of Coreopsis aurea was upon the label. It had the same peculiar aspect as the Aiton 
type, so much so that it might well have been gathered from the same plant. All 
its achenial aristae were retrorsely barbed. 

4 The date is given "1806-12," whence I assume that it was December, 1806. 
There is the possibility, however, that 1806-1812 was intended. 



THE GENUS BIDENS 345 

the date of publication of B. luxurians. A second one was collected 
in the same garden but the label bears no date. A third has a label 
saying merely "ex horto?" A fourth is segregated in the Willdenow 
Herbarium (No. 15019-1). These all are positively B. aurea. 

Bidens tetragona (La Llav. & Lex.) DC. was described as being 
very frequent in moist meadows and in deep excavations in the 
environs of the City of Mexico. It had a tetragonal stem, lanceolate 
leaves, eight yellow rays, etc. The "tetragonal stem" excludes the 
lanceolate-leaved B. laevis (L.) B.S.P. of the vicinity of Mexico and 
limits B. tetragona definitely to B. aurea. 1 

Bidens Warszewicziana was founded by Regel upon plants which 
bloomed in the Botanical Garden at Zurich in the years 1848 and 
1849, from seed collected by Julius Von Warszewicz in the region 
of Guatemala. Three specimens in the Boissier Herbarium, from the 
Geneva Botanical Garden, October, 1855, are B. aurea. A specimen 
(U.V.) from the Botanical Garden of Vienna in 1869, obtained from 
seed sent from the Botanical Garden at Prague in 1868, is likewise 
B. aurea. Similarly, a specimen from the Leipsic Botanical Garden 
in 1857 and several others, mainly from the Berlin Botanical Gar- 
den (all in Berl.), are without exception B. aurea. Regel's description 
of the species and its varieties shows that he relied largely upon the 
capricious variations of the foliage for his distinctions and apparently 
was unaware that these various forms had already been noted long 
before under the well known but synonymous B. heterophylla. 

Bidens arguta H.B.K. and B. decolorata H.B.K. are merely forms 
with lanceolate, undivided leaves. B. longifolia DC. is likewise a 
form of this species, having the leaves elongately linear-lanceolate. 
The variation in foliage is so great as to be very deceptive at times. 
Thus a single sheet often may be found (e.g., Pringle 758, U.V.) 
with leaves varying from undivided and lanceolate to pinnate or 
bipinnate and with segments lanceolate, linear or even capillary. 

Bidens aurea var. Wrightii (Gray) Sherff is a form with especially 
slender, even linear leaves and by some writers is recognized varie- 
tally. It is typified, among the specimens cited, by Berlandier 717; 
Bourgeau 502 pro parte (Mun.); Lemmon, Rucker Valley, etc.; idem 
59; Orcutt 4604; Rothrock 705; Smart 411; C. Wright 1233 and 1233fo's. 

Specimens of B. aurea in Italy are said (Prof. Renato Pampanini, 
Florentiae, in mense Julio, ann. 1924, coram mihi testatus) to pro- 
duce fertile achenes seldom, if ever, and to reproduce commonly 
from a rhizome. 

1 B. tetragona (La Llav. & Lex.) DC. is not to be confused with Kerneria tetra- 
gona Moench, a species which reduces to Bidens pilosa var. radiata Schz. Bip. 



346 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXX 

Bidens aurea: a, b, lower and upper portions of flowering speci- 
men, X0.6; c-e, diverse cauline leaves, X0.6; /, exterior involucral 
bract, X3; g, interior involucral bract, X3; In, ray corolla, Xl.8; 
i, palea, X3; ;, k, disc florets, X3; I, m, achenes, X3.6; a, 6, f-k, m, 
from Pringle 6783, in Hb. Field; c, from Pringle 8749, ibid.; d, from 
Rothrock 705, ibid. ; e, from Palmer 671, I, from Purpus 3828, ibid. 

101. Bidens integrifolia Brandegee, Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 
4: 279. 1912. PI. LXXXI. 

Herba glaberrima, erecta e radice repente, 8 dm. alta; caule 
inferne subtereti et superne angulato, ramis tetragonis. Folia prin- 
cipalia simplicia basi in petiolum 0.5-3 cm. longum sensim vel suba- 
brupte angustata, petiolo adjecto 9-12 cm. longa et 2-4 cm. lata 
(Brandegeeus usque ad 5 cm. longa, 2.5 cm. lata dixit inaccurate!), 
oblongo-ovata vel saepius late oblongo-lanceolata, apice obtusa vel 
subacuta, hie illic obsolete ciliata, membranacea, margine integra 
vel raro 1-dentata; summa interdum tripartita, foliolo terminali 
multo maximo. Capitula terminalia, subcorymbosa, pedunculata 
pedunculis 5-9 cm. longis, radiata, 23-30-flora. Involucrum basi 
sparsim hispidum, bracteis exterioribus 7-9, linearibus, acutis, ciliatis, 
calloso-apiculatis, 4-6 mm. longis; interioribus oblongo-lanceolatis, 
paulo (saepe circ. dimidio) longioribus. Flores ligulati pauci (circ. 5), 
parvi, ligula elliptici, apice dentati, 5-7 mm. longi (an vidi matures?). 
Achaenia linearia vel lineari-clavata, obcompresso-tetragona, nigra, 
omnino 8-sulcata, infra glabra, supra sparsim breviterque hispidula, 
corpore 3.6-5 mm. longa, longe biaristata, aristis flavidulis, retrorsum 
hamosis, suberectis, 3.5-4 mm. longis. 

Type specimen: Collected by Carl Albert Purpus, No. 5126, 
along brooks near Guascama, Minas de San Rafael, San Luis Potosi, 
Mexico, June, 1911 (Calif.). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Guascama, Minas 
de San Rafael, San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 

Specimens examined: Purpus 5126 (type, Calif.: cotypes, Berl.; 
Brit.; Field; Gray, 2 sheets; Mo.). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXI 

Bidens integrifolia: a, entire flowering and fruiting specimen, 
X0.61; 6, exterior involucral bract, X4.87; c, interior involucral 
bract, X4.87; d, ray corolla, X4.87; e, palea, X4.87; /, disc floret, 
X4.87; g, anthers, X40; h, pollen grain, X460; i, upper portion of 
pistil, X40;j, achene, X4.87; all from cotype, in Hb. Field. 

THE LIBRARY OF THE 

OCT8-1937 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA 





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