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Full text of "The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies"

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

Received... .... 

Shelf No. 




THE 

GEOGRAPHICAL 

AND 

HISTORICAL 

DICTIONARY - 

OF 

. AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES. 

CONTAINING 

AN ENTIRE TRANSLATION OF THE SPANISH WORK 

OF 

COLONEL DON ANTONIO DE ALCEDO, 

1 1 

CAPTAIN OF THE ROYAL SPANISH GUARDS, AND MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF HISTORY 

\VITH 

Harge attritions ant* Compilations 

FROM MODERN VOYAGES AND TRAVELS, 

AND FKOU 

ORIGINAL AND AUTHENTIC INFORMATION. 



G. A. THOMPSON, ESQ. 



TJSIVBRSIT7 




JN FIVE VOLUMES. 



VOL. I. 



Magna modis multis miranda videtur 

Gentibus humanls regio, visendaque fertur , 

Rebus opima bonis. LUCRETIUS, lib. I. line 



PRINTED FOR JA MES CARPENTER, OLD BOND-STREET; LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN, PATER N OSTER-ROVV J WHITE. 
COCHRANE, AND CO. AND ML RKAY, FLEET-STREET, LONDON ; PARKER, OXFORD; AND UEIGHTON, CAMBRIDGE. 

1812. 



TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 

NICHOLAS VANSITTART, 

CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER, fyc. $c. 
SIR, 

IT was your advice and encouragement that first induced me 
to attempt the Translation of ALCEDO S Dictionary. The work 
was undertaken six years ago, when I was only twenty-three 
years old, and has ever since been the chief employment of 
those hours which the necessary attendance of my office has 
left at my disposal. 

In seeking a name to give credit to my work, I am naturally 
led to solicit yours, not merely by the impulse of gratitude 
and esteem, but by the dictates of prudence, since there is no 
name that is better calculated than yours to stamp on it the 
impression of authority, and give it currency. 

With you, Sir, whose duty it has been to provide for the 
pecuniary exigencies of your country in times that have called 
for an expenditure so unprecedented and astonishing, the 
resources she has derived from the extensive regions of the 



6 

Western World must be too familiar not to be duly appreciated . 
To display those resources in their due magnitude and import 
ance to your countrymen at large is amongst the objects of my 
labours : I trust, therefore, that yourself and the public in 
general will have the goodness to receive them, if not with 
commendation, at least without much severity of censure. 

The Egyptians wisely suspended their judgment of distin 
guished men till death had sealed their characters. Were I 
here to take the liberty of expressing my sense of your worth, 
my contemporaries would suspect me of flattery, whilst posterity 
would, with infinitely more justice, blame me for underrating 
it; nor would the attempt be less presumptuous in me than 
displeasing to yourself. I hope, however, I may be permitted 
without offence to yourself or to any one, to acknowledge my 
great obligations to you, and to assure you of the high respect, 
esteem, and gratitude with which 

I have the honor to be, 

SIR, 

Your most devoted 
and faithful 

humble servant, 

oj ri-;>jd -.,J Ji /Jij!; lifl |JS JFOYI J 

G. A. THOMPSON. 



PREFACE. 



PART I. 




THE writers of every age have been inclined to represent their own as inferior to those 
which preceded it. No writer of the present day, however, can with reason com 
plain that he has been called on either to act in, or to behold, a drama destitute, at 
least, of incident. The great theatre of human life has for the last fifty years exhibited 
in rapid succession transactions of such extraordinary novelty, of such perplexing 
intricacy, of such terrific grandeur, and of such increasing interest, that he must be 
destitute of feeling as well as of reflection, who is capable of regarding them without 
an earnest wish to trace them to the causes in which they originated, and to the con 
sequences in which they are likely to terminate. Whichever course he pursues, 
whether retrograde or prospective, he will find that part of the swelling scene, which 
has been laid in the old world, much more intelligible and of easier explication than 
that which is supplied by the new. In contemplating the former portion of the drama, 
he will be aided by all the lights which ardent inquiry and unfettered communication 
have, during a course of many centuries, been able to throw on it. In considering 
the latter, he will find himself obstructed, not only by the obscurity naturally belong 
ing to his subject, but by that in which the art of man has purposely laboured to in 
volve it. To assist in dispelling this darkness has been my principal motive for 
engaging in the work I now offer to the public. 

When Buonaparte, in the year 1808, entered Spain, the curtain, as it drew up, dis 
covered, even to the most inattentive spectator, and by no means in the back part of 
the stage, a view of the transatlantic possessions of that nation. The plot of the 
piece here so strongly developed the grasping ambition of its chief hero, the baseness 



viii PREFACE. 

of the princes and rulers who ought to have opposed him, and the unstable, though 
virtuous energies of the betrayed and deserted people, against whom the detestable 
machinations of both these distinguished parties seemed equally directed, that all 
mankind, however before divided in their sentiments of the performance, seemed to 
stand up, and with one common feeling to pronounce their sense of it. 

I was, I must confess, not amongst the last to catch the general enthusiasm ; and 
wishing to contribute my mite towards the sacred cause of truth and freedom, I 
determined to give to my country a work to which my attention had been directed, 
no less by the commendations it had experienced of learned and judicious friends, 
than by the public testimony borne to its merits by the enlightened Editors of the 
Edinburgh Review. To this end, I immediately entered upon an elaborate study of 
the Spanish language, with which my acquaintance had then been the effects of only 
a few weeks application, and before the lapse of two months from the period of my 
first resolution, began the translation of Albedo s Dictionary. 

It was mentioned in my Prospectus, and ought to be recorded here, that the 
original was published at Madrid, in 1787, by Colonel Don Antonio de Albedo, a 
native of America, in five small quarto volumes, by a large subscription of the most 
respectable characters in the state, and that its merits were its only condemnation ; 
for that the very true and accurate information it contained was looked upon with an 
eye of such jealousy by the Spanish Government, as to have caused its immediate 
suppression by the Supreme Power. The copies which escaped were very few ; I 
found, after many enquiries, that a very small number, not supposed to exceed five 
or six, were existing in this kingdom, and the late endeavours to procure any from 
the continent have always been unsuccessful, even when attempted by official pursuit, 
and at an unlimited expense. 

Whatever is good in the original, I confidently assure the Public, will be found 
in the translation, for (with the exceptions mentioned in the advertisement published 
in the First Volume, namely, in some cases of evident errata) I have faithfully 
given the whole text. To this I have added much new matter, drawn, all of it, 
from the best sources extant, and a great portion of it from those of the most un 
questionable authority; but of the nature and extent of the additions made to Albedo s 
Work I shall presently speak more fully, whilst, for an account of the indefatigable 
exertions of that author, I feel I cannot do better than to refer the reader to his own 
Preface. 

The invasion of Spain has led, as I conceived it would, to the confusion of its 
authors ; and though it has not yet been attended with all the good to that nation, 
or to the world in general, which I fondly hoped it might, it must yet be inevitably 



PREFACE. ix 

pregnant with mighty, and 1 trust most salutary, effects. These are chiefly to be 
looked for in the western hemisphere; and if the work I now offer to the Public 
can, in the smallest degree, help to produce them, I shall think my labours amply 
rewarded. I well know that the writer of a Dictionary, whether of words or things, 
is aptly considered but as the drudge of science, the mere pioneer of literature. 
With this humble character I shall be well satisfied if I shall, in any degree, have 
helped to clear the way for the Philanthropist, the Patriot, the Philosopher, the 
Statesman, or the Merchant, and supplied them in their several capacities with the 
materials either for thought or action. 

If I may stand excused for having thus far explained my views in undertaking the 
work in question, and for exhibiting to the Public the general plan on which it has 
been founded, it will be both necessary and becoming in me to shew the sources 
from whence I have chiefly derived the materials by which the superstructure has 
been raised. These are acknowledgements which I shall have peculiar pleasure in 
making, not only in justice and gratitude to my authorities, but in deference to the 
claims of my readers, and in gratification of my own feelings. 

But if the political state of the western hemisphere be, at the present moment, 
an object of the greatest, universal interest, it seems, in its relations with this coun 
try, to be of a striking and peculiar importance: I shall, therefore, endeavour to 
advance whatever may be desirable to be said as well on this as on the foregoing 
head, in the following order : 

PART II. 

On the Commercial Importance of America and the JVe&t Indies to Great Britain, deduced from Facts, 

and from Calculations on official Documents. 

PART III. 

List of the chief Books, Documents, and Authorities, consulted for the Completion of this Dictionary. 

PART IV. 

Geographical Appendix. Memoranda. 



PART II. 



PREFACE. 



PART II. 



ON THE COMMERCIAL IMPORTANCE OF AMERICA AND THE WEST 
INDIES TO GREAT BRITAIN, DEDUCED FROM FACTS, AND FROM 
CALCULATIONS ON OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS. 

IF the western hemisphere affords us a source of amusement and instruction from 
the variety of its history, and from its extraordinary physical advantages, with 
respect to its commercial relations, it has, more than any other portion of the globe, 
a right to demand our attention. Commerce, at least since the Revolution, has been 
the soul of Great Britain, and it is from America and the West Indies that the 
greatest portion of her life-blood has been drawn. The subject is in itself both 
grand and inviting : it has excited the wonder and admiration of surrounding nations 
no less than of ourselves. Some account, therefore, of the origin, progress, extent, 
and nature of our trade, when supported by official testimonies, will not, I trust, be 
in this place deemed useless or invaluable. 

To the importance of the intercourse between this country and the new world, it 
has been my endeavour to do justice in the body of this work. With regard to the 
success that has awaited my efforts, I am little doubtful; since, to whatever extent I 
may have gone, I have scrupulously avoided all theory and speculation, and have stated 
nothing but facts. In this view, I trust that the information imparted, more parti 
cularly under the heads United States and West Indies, will be found as well original as 
desirable. Something, however, is still wanting to substantiate the utility of the 
commercial documents interspersed through this work. The scattered rays must 
be drawn together into one focus, that their mutual relations may be placed in a 
more conspicuous light, and their combined influence be more duly appreciated. 

It was not until the Revolution that this country began to form a right estimate 
of the advantages of commerce. From the time of William the Conqueror to the 
reign of Elizabeth, a few feeble attempts only were made to establish or encourage 
manufactures. Commerce, either internal or external, was hardly looked upon as a 
source of emolument, and monopolies and patents without number, seemed to form 
the only revenue of the Crown, and interest of the State. 



PREFACE. xi 

But the establishment of the American colonies in the reigns of James and Charles, 
if they did not afford an immediate advantage, laid the foundation of an extensive 
and prosperous intercourse in times to come. Before England was known as a 
commercial state, Spain and Portugal had immense acquisitions in the Indies ; and 
it was with exactly the same spirit of monopoly, and abandonment of arts and ma 
nufactures, that led to the ruin of these sovereignties, that the original charters of 
James, granted to the North American colonies, were indited. Wealth, without 
industry, produces equally the debasement of individuals as of kingdoms. Spain 
and Portugal fell conquests to their influx of gold. The Dutch rose upon their 
ruins, and became the carriers and factors of the world. Their formidable navy 
awakened the apprehension and jealousy of Great Britain. The spirit of commer 
cial emulation was roused by Cromwell, and the celebrated navigation act was forth 
with passed. Immediately upon the Revolution, three other acts were passed of 
considerable importance to the extension of trade ; namely, those of 1 W. and M. 
cap. 12. and cap. 24., and 8 Geo. I. cap. 15. By the two first, bounties were 
granted on the exportation of corn, when it did not exceed a limited price ; by the 
last, near two hundred taxes, on raw materials imported, and on British manufactures 
exported, were at once repealed. 

A review of the wisely discriminative measures by which the commercial interests 
of Great Britain have been guarded and upheld to this day, would form a subject 
far too diffuse, and pregnant with historical and parliamentary circumstances, to 
afford any reasonable hope of doing justice to it in the limited scope of this Preface; 
but the following document has in itself advantages of a nature more valuable and 
intrinsic than any commentary I might offer on that subject. It is a continuous and 
organized system of facts, mutually assisting and assisted, against which there is no 
answer or appeal. It is a standing record, that in all times of internal or external 
commotion, of foreign or domestic peace, this country, like some stately vessel, has 
been still impelled forward, down a never-ebbing tide of fortune, whilst at every har 
bour into which she has entered, and at every barren point at which she has touched, 
she has left some lasting memorial of her greatness and her wealth. 



b 2 



XII 



PREFACE. 



The Annual Value of Goods IMPORTED into and EXPORTED from Great Britain, com 
pared with their EXCESS, in the several undermentioned Years, viz. from J097 to 
1812 116 Years. 





Imports. 


Exports. 


niports Excess. 


Exports Excess. 


1697 


3,482,586 


3,525,906 


_ 


43,320 


1698 


4,732,360 


6,522,104 


- - - 


1,789,744 


1699 - - 


5,707,669 


6,788,166 


- - - 


1,080,497 


1700 - - 


5,970,175 


7,302,716 


- - - 


1,332,541 


1701 - - 


5,869,606 


7,621,053 


- - - 


1,751,446 


1702 - - 


4,159,304 


5,235,874 


- - - 


1,076,569 


1703 - - 


4,526,596 


6,644,103 


- - - 


2,117,506 


1704 - - 


5,383,200 


6,552,019 


_ - _ 


1,168,819 


1705 - - 


4,031,649 


5,501,677 


_ . _ 


1 ,470,027 


1706 - - 


4,113,933 


6,512,086 


_ _ - 


2,398,153 


1707 - - 


4,274,055 


6,767,178 


- - - 


2,493,122 


1708 - - 


4,698,663 


6,969,089 


- - - 


2,270,426 


1709 - - 


4,510,593 


6,627,045 


- - - 


2,116,452 


1710 - - 


4,011,341 


6,690,828 


- - - 


2,679,487 


1711 - - 


4,685,785 


6,447,170 


- - - 


1,761,384 


1712 - - 


4,454,682 


7,468,857 


- - - 


3,014,174 


1715 - - 


5,811,077 


7,352,655 


- - - 


1,541,577 


1714 - - 


5,929,227 


8,361,638 


- - - 


2,432,411 


1715 - - 


5,640,943 


7,379,409 


- - - 


1,738,465 


1716 - - 


5,800,258 


7,614,085 


- - - 


1,813,826 


1717 - - 


6,346,768 


9,147,700 


- - - 


2,800,932 


1718 - - 


6,669,390 


8,255,302 


- - - 


1,585,912 


1719 - - 


5,367,499 


7,709,528 


- - _ 


2,342,028 


1720 - - 


6,090,083 


7,936,728 


- - - 


1,846,645 


1721 - - 


5,768,510 


8,681,200 


. . _ 


2,912,690 


1722 - - 


6,378,098 


9,650,789 


- - - 


3,272,690 


1723 - - 


6,505,676 


9,489,811 


- - - 


2,984,135 


1724 - - 


7,394,405 


9,143,35(5 


- - - 


1,748,951 


1725 - - 


7,094,708 


11,352,480 


- - - 


4,257,772 


1726 - - 


6,677,865 


9,406,731 


- - - 


2,728,865 


1727 - - 


6,798,908 


9,553,043 


- - - 


2,754,135 


1728 - - 


7,569,299 


11,631,383 


- - - 


4,062,084 


1729 - - 


7,540,620 


11,475,771 


- - - 


3,935,151 


1730 - - 


7,780,019 


11,974,135 


- - - 


4,194,116 


1731 - - 


6,991,500 


11,167,380 


- - - 


4,175,880 


1732 - - 


7,087,914 


11,786,658 


- - - 


4,698,744 


1733 - - 


8,016,814 


11,777,306 


- - - 


3,760,492 


1734 - - 


7,095,861 


11,000,645 




3,904,783 



PREFACE. 

Imports and Exports, &c. continued. 



Xlli 





Imports. 


Exports. 


Imports Excess. 


Exports Excess. 


1735 - - 


8,160,184 


13,544,144 





5,383,960 


1736 - - 


7,307,966 


11,616,356 


_ . _ 


4,308,389 


1737 - - 


7,073,638 


11,842,320 


_ _ _ 


4,768,682 


1738 - - 


7,438,960 


12,289,495 


- - - 


4,850,535 


1739 - - 


7^29,373 


9,495,366 


- - - 


1,665,993 


1740 - - 


6,703,778 


8,869,939 


- - - 


2,166,161 


1741 - - 


7,936,084 


11,469,872 


_ _ . 


3,533,787 


1742 - - 


6,866,864 


11,584 ; 427 


. _ _ 


4,717,562 


1743 - - 


7,802,353 


14,623,653 


_ _ _ 


6,821,300 


1744 - - 


6,362,971 


11,429,628 


_ . . 


5,066,657 


1745 - - 


7,847,123 


10,497,329 


_ 


2,650,206 


1746 - - 


6,205,687 


11,360,792 


_ _ . 


5,155,105 


1747 - - 


7,116,757 


11,442,049 


- - - 


4,325,291 


1748 - - 


8,136,408 


12,351,433 


_ _ _ 


4,215,024 


1749 - - 


7,917,804 


14,099,366 


- - - 


6,181,562 


1750 - - 


7,772,059 


15,132,004 


- - - 


7,359,964 


1751 - - 


7,943,436 


13,967,811 


- - - 


6,024,375 


1752 - - 


7,889,369 


13,221,116 


. _ . 


5,331,746 


1753 - - 


8,625,029 


14,264,614 


_ . . 


5,639,584 


1754 - - 


8,093,472 


13,396,853 


. . _ 


5,303,380 


1755 - - 


8,772,865 


12,182,255 


- - - 


3,409,390 


1756 - - 


7,961,603 


12,517,640 


- - - 


4,566,036 


1757 - - 


9,253,317 


13,438,285 


_ _ _ 


4,184,967 


1758 - - 


8,415,025 


15,034,994 


- 


6,619,969 


1759 - - 


8,922,976 


14,696,892 


. 


5,773,916 


1760 - - 


9,832,802 


15,579,073 


_ 


5,746,270 


1761 - - 


9,543,901 


16,365.953 


. 


6,822,051 


1762 - - 


8,870,234 


14,134^093 


- - - 


5,263,858 


1763 - - 


11,665,036 


16,160,181 


- - - 


4,495,145 


1764 - - 


10,364,307 


16,512,403 


- - - 


6,148,096 


1765 - - 


10,889,742 


14,550,507 


. _ . 


3,660,764 


1766 - - 


11,475,775 


14,024,964 


- - 


2,549,188 


1767 - - 


12,073,956 


13,844,511 


- - 


1,770,555 


1768 - - 


11,878,661 


15,117,982 


_ _ _ 


3,239,321 


1769 - - 


11,908,560 


13,438,236 


. _ _ 


1,529,675 


1770 - - 


12,216,937 


14,266,253 


.... 


2,049,716 


1771 - - 


12,821,995 


17,161,146 


_ . _ 


4,339,150 


1772 - - 


13,298,452 


16,159,412 


. ~ 


2,860,960 


1773 - - 


11,406,841 


14,763,253 


, - - - 


3,356,411 


1774 - - 


13,275,599 


15,916,343 


_ _ _ 


2,640,744 


1775 - - 


13,548,467 


15,202,365 


_ . . 


1,653,898 


1776 - - 


11,696,754 


13,729,731 


_ . _ 


2,032,977 


1777 - - 


11,841,577 


12,653,363 


*" ~ *" 


811,786 



XIV 



PREFACE. 

Imports and Exports, &c. continued. 





fmports. 


Exports. 


Imports Excess. 


Exports Excess. 


1778 - - 


10,293,243 


11,551,070 


_ 


1,257,827 


1779 - - 


10,660,492 


12,693,429 


_ - - 


2,032,937 


1780 - - 


10,812,239 


12,696,138 


- 


1,883,899 


1781 - - 


11,918,991 


10,569,186 


1,349,805 




1782 - - 


9,532,606 


12,355,750 


_ . . 


2,823,144 


1783 - - 


12,114,644 


13,851,670 


_ 


1,737,026 


1784 - - 


14,119,369 


14,171,589 


_ 


52,220 


1785 - - 


14,899,942 


15,109,533 


- . . 


209,591 


1786 - - 


14,610,162 


15,385,987 


_ . . 


775,825 


1787 - - 


16,335,096 


15,754,654 


580,442 




1788 - 


16,551,054 


16,283,159 


267,895 




1789 - - 


16,408,039 


18,170,472 


_ 


1,762,433 


1790 - - 


17,442,549 


18,884,716 


- 


1,442,167 


1791 - - 


17,688,151 


21,435,459 


. 


3,747,308 


1792 - - 


17,897,700 


23,674,315 


- 


5,776,615 


1793 - - 


17,823,274 


19,365,428 


_ 


1,542,154 


1794 - - 


20,844,998 


25,663,272 


_ 


4,818,274 


1795 - - 


21,468,369 


26,146,346 


_ 


4,677,977 


1796 - - 


21,462,709 


29,196,190 


_ _ _ 


7,733,481 


1797 - - 


19,520,872 


27,699,889 


- . . 


8,179,017 


1798 - - 


25,954,161 


31,922,580 


- . _ 


5,968,419 


1799 - - 


24,483,841 


34,074,698 


- . - 


9,590,857 


1800 - - 


28,357,814 


40,805,949 


- 


12,448,135 


1801 - - 


32,795,557 


37,786,856 


. . _ 


4,991,299 


1802 - - 


31,442,318 


41,411,966 


. 


9,969,648 


1803 - - 


27,992,464 


31,438,495 


. 


3,446,031 


1804 - - 


29,201,490 


34,451,367 


_ - 


5,249,877 


1805 - - 


30,344,628 


34,308,545 


- 


3,963,917 


1806 - - 


28,835,907 


36,527,184 


_ 


7,691,277 


1807 - - 


28,854,658 


34,566,572 


. 


5,711,914 


1808 - - 


29,629,353 


34,554,267 


_ - 


4,924,914 


1809 - - 


33,772,409 


50,286,900 


. _ - 


16,514,491 


1810 - - 


41,136,135 


45,869,860 


_ 


4,733,725 


1811 - - 


28,626,580 


32,409,671 


> 


3,783,091 


1812 - - 


28,595,426 


43,243,173 


_ 


14,647,747 


1813 - - 


* 










1,386,359,556 


1,823,288,741 


2,198,142 


439,127,327 




2,198,142 


Tnffli Rfiljvnpp of Trjirlp in favour of* C-lrpfit RritQiii fc\T 




JL V/ CCt>I JU*dl CVIH C- \JL X 1 itl.lv, 1 11 Id. V vJ vl 1 \JL \Jf 1 t^CH> JL/l 1 Let 11 1 J.U1 

116 Years, up to 1812, inclusi\ 7 e, 


.436,929,185 



* The authorities for the above table are as follow : 

From 1697 to 177$ inclusive, Sir Charles Whitworth s Tables, consisting of compilations from annual accounts 
delivered to House of Commons. 



PREFACE. xv 

In the above account we look in vain for those glaring features so common, since 
the late unsettled and distressing times, in the commercial statements of most other 
nations ; for those striking distinctions of profit and loss, those blots of defalcation, 
or those blanks of depreciation, with which the columns of their accounts have 
been so invariably disgraced. We find, on the contrary, that the increase of the 
trade of Great Britain has been rapid and progressive ; and that, if at any time a 
partial check has been experienced, it was the dam reserving the impetus of an 
overwhelming torrent, or that inherent stubbornness in material things, that relaxes 
but to recoil, and that benefiting by coercion and resistance, assumes, in proportion, 
a power more elastic, an energy more uncontrouJable. 

I do not, however, mean to deny, that the variations of our Imports and Exports, 
in the long period just alluded to, bear sufficient marks of originality, in certain 
years, to afford ground for speculation and historical research. To notice some of 
the more important facts will be desirable ; and I shall enter upon the subject with 
the greater willingness, as I shall thus be led to the more immediate object of this 
chapter, namely, of affording some, I trust, useful illustrations respecting the 
intrinsic value of our colonies in the western hemisphere, and the relative estima 
tion in which they should be held, as well with regard to each other as to the re 
maining colonies and countries to which the unbounded intercourse of Great Britain 
is extended. 

From the year 1697 to 1776, a period of 80 years, the value of the Imports in 
creased from 3,480,000 to 13 millions and an half; that of the Exports from 
3,520,000 to 17 millions, and the balance of trade in favour of this country from 
43,000 to 7,359,000. Thus the Imports and Exports had risen on a medium of 
their aggregate amount as 4 and a quarter to 1, and the balance of trade as 171 to 
1 in 80 years. In the 36 years following up to 1812, the highest amount of Im 
ports was 41,100,000, of Exports 45,800,000, and the largest balance of trade was 
16,500,000, and thus the Imports and Exports have risen on a medium of their 
aggregage value to as nearly 3 to 1, and the balance of trade as 2 and one-seventh to I , 
with regard to the higher amounts of the preceding 80 years, compared with those of 
the 36 years ending 1812. 

The total amount of Imports and Exports, and balance of trade, for the 80 years 
from 1697 to 1776, was, 



From 1774 to 1800 inclusive, Macpherson s Annals of Commerce, (this period is exclusive of Scotland.) 

From 1801 to 1812 inclusive, Parliamentary Reports, Finance, 1804 Miscellanous Accounts and Papers, 1812, 

and other authentic returns. 
The same sources of information, with regard to the same periods, were, generally speaking, had recourse to in the 

formation of all similar documents contained in this Dictionary, particularly in those of the United States and West 

Indies. 



xvi PREFACE. 

Imports. Exports. Exports Excess. 

6 1 2,090,775 886,3 19,083 274,228,308 

The excess of Exports to those colonies, now the United States, during the same 
period, was .20,657,232 *, which was more than one-thirteenth of the whole com 
mercial profit derived by Great Britain in her intercourse with all parts. 

In the following six years of struggle and perturbation, arising from the American 
Revolution, a considerable proportion of our Exports to that part of the Continent 
had necessarily fallen off, though not to such an extent as might be imagined. The 
annual average excess of Exports for the six years ending 1776 was .791,697, 
and for the six years following, or during the disturbances, .362,123, making a 
loss of profit to Great Britain during the latter period, of somewhat more than half 
of that derived from the regular trade. 

The total amount of Imports and Exports to those colonies, with the balance of 
trade, for the six years ending 1782, was 



Imports. 

197,977 


Exports. 

2,370,718 


Imports Excess. 

5,217 


Exports Excess. 

2,177,958 
5,217 



Balance in favour of Great Britain - - .2,172,741 

The total amount of Imports and Exports and Balance of Trade, between Great 
Britain and all parts, for the same period, was 

Imports. Exports. Imports Excess. Exports Excess. 

65,059,151 72,518,938 1,349,804 8,809,591 

1,349,804 



Balance in favour of Great Britain - .7,459,787 



So that during this period the intercourse of the United States formed a proportion 
of 2 to 7 of the whole balance of trade in favour of this country. 

The two next periods of 10 years each, commencing with 1783, will afford some 
general phenomena on our commercial relations, respecting the effects produced by 
peace and by war. 

The value of goods imported and exported between Great Britain and all parts of 
the world, between the years 1783 and 1792, both inclusive, being 10 years of peace, 
was 

See Vol. V. Page 63, of this Dictionary. 



PREFACE. xvii 

Imports. Exports. Imports Excess. Exports Excess. 

158,066,711 172,721,559 848,335 15,503,183 

848,336 



Balance in favour of Great Britain - .14,654,847 



The value of goods imported and exported between Great Britain and the United 
States, during the above 10 years of peace, was 

Imports. Exports. Exports Excess. 

8,101,048 25,494,296 17,393,248 

Thus, the balance of trade Great Britain derived from the United States alone in 
the above 10 years, exceeded that from all other parts of the world by nearly three 
millions. 

With respect to the war period, 

The value of goods imported and exported between Great Britain and all parts of 
the world, between the years 1793 and 1802, both inclusive, was 

Imports. Exports. Exports Excess. 

244, 153,913 314,073,174 69,919,261 

The value of goods imported and exported between Great Britain and the United 
States, during the above 10 years of war, was 

Imports. Exports. Exports Excess. 

15,768,780 53,571,870 37,803,090 

The first thing to be noticed here is the extraordinary increase of profit derived by 
Great Britain with all parts during 10 years of war, comparatively, with the preceding 
10 years of peace, as there was an increase of nearly 5 to 1 in favour of the war pe 
riod. The next observation, and what is not less worthy of remark, is, that in time 
of war, the exports to the United States diminished in so great a degree, that, in 
stead of exceeding those to all other parts, as they usually did in time of peace, they 
fell, in the 10 years just alluded to, to only somewhat more than one-half of the ex 
ports of the British empire to all parts ; being, however, still more than double of 
the excess of exports of the former period of 10 years of peace. 

But this consideration naturally leads us to another not less important, namely, 
whether the surplus of English commodities thus excluded from the United States, 
did not find a vent, not merely as we have seen in other parts, but more particularly 
in the British colonies in North America and in the West Indies. 



xviii PREFACE. 

Now, the balance of trade from the North American colonies, for any period oi 
10 years previously to that ending 1783, (when they benefited exceedingly by the un 
settled state of the neighbouring colonies) was never greater than for the 10 years 
ending 1792, which was .5,828,376*; and hence, the decrease of exports to the 
United States f, compared with the general trade of Great Britain, for the period of 
war ending 1802, may be taken as the cause of the increase of the balance of trade 
to our own colonies in North America, in the 10 years ending 1802, when it rose to 
.7,735,409 ; this increase being as about 7 to 5 in favour of the North American 
colonies, whilst the decrease on the part of the United States was as about 2 to 4. 

Thus far, however, we have only brought to account the trade of our North Ame 
rican Colonies. If we add to this another statement, also requisite to be made, of 
the trade to the West Indies, the demonstration of the proposition advanced will 
be infinitely more striking and conclusive. But, in this case, it is not the balance 
of trade to which we must refer, since that of the West Indies is always against 
Great Britain ; and this, although it may seem an anomaly, always at least to the 
amount to which she is really benefited. This will be easily understood, when it 
is remembered that colonial produce, constituting the imports, is so much real pro 
perty belonging to the inhabitants of the country, which is the same as to the 
country itself, and is, consequently, so much profit; that the exports consisting 
chiefly of articles of manufacturing industry, are also so much profit. If, also, we 
consider that the imports from the North American colonies, and, in short, that, 
generally speaking, all exchange of wealth, whether in regard to import or export, 
between colonies and the parent state, is so much actual property belonging to and 
enriching the latter, it will obviously appear that, by taking the aggregate amounts 
of import and export of the trade between Great Britain and North America and 
the West Indies, and comparing the same with the aggregate amount of imports 
and exports of any other country for a similar period, we shall have a tolerably 
fair, and perhaps only, medium by which, in a short and comprehensive manner, 
an estimate of the value of any trade compared with that of our colonies can be 
made out. I proceed, therefore, to state, 

* See vol. v. page 350, of this Dictionary, 
f See idem, page 66, idem. 



The 



PREFACE. 



xix 



The official Value of Imports and Exports between Great Britain and the United 
States, and between Great Britain and the North American Colonies and the West 
Indies, for the two periods above alluded to, viz. 





United States. 


North America. 


West Indies. 


Surplus of North 
America and 
West Indies. 


10 years of peace, J Imports 
ending 1792 -/Exports 

Total 

10 years of war, (Imports 
ending 18Q2 -^Exports 

Total 


. 

8,101,048 
25,494,296 


2! 

2,158,113 
7,986,489 


. 
36,040,686 
15,777,140 


. 
28,367,084 


33,595,344 


10,144,602 


51,817,826 


15,768,780 
53,57 1 ,870 


3,066.450 
10,801,850 


66,700,513 
38,972,038 


50,200,210 


69,340,650 


13,868,309 


105,672,551 



From whence it appears, that from the year 1 793, a comparative check was given 
to the trade of the United States by the increase of that to the colonies, for, 
whereas the intercourse of the former with Great Britain, afforded, as it has been 
already shewn, with respect to the balance of trade in her favour, for the 10 years 
ending 1 792, an excess of the balance to all other parts, the amount of imports and 
exports having been as about l-10th, or as .33,595,344 to .330,788,270, in com 
parison with those of Great Britain in general ; and whereas in the 10 years ending 
1802, the same balance of trade with the United States, so far from exceeding, fell 
to about one-half of the whole balance of Great Britain, the imports and exports 
for the same period being, however, as l-8th, or as .69,340,650 to .558,227,087, 
in comparison of those of Great Britain in general, the large and progressive ad 
vance of the trade of the remaining colonies was most striking : first, from the 
balance of trade to the North American colonies for the last period of 10 years, 
being, as already shewn, as 7 to 5 compared with the former ; and, secondly, from 
the aggregate amount of imports and exports of those colonies and the West In 
dies, being with respect to those of Great Britain in general, as about l-6th, in 
the former, or as .51,817,826 to .330,788,270, and as about one fifth, or as 
.105,672,551 to .558,227,087, in the latter of the periods under consideration; 
and here, also, I infer that the whole imports and exports of Great Britain having 
increased, in the latter period of ten years, in the ratio of as about five to three, 

c2 



xx PREFACE. 

\vhilst those of North America and the West Indies have increased in the ratio of as 
about ten to five, and the latter augmentation being more than equivalent to 
account for the increase of the trade of Great Britain in general, the comparative 
decrease of the trade to the United States was the cause of its increase to the British 
Colonies. 

I proceed, now, to treat of the actual relative importance of the trade of the Western 
Hemisphere, compared with that to all other parts. 

The amount (official value) of the imports and exports, with their excess, and the 
balance of trade between Great Britain and all the Colonies in North America, and 
between Great Britain and all parts, for the period of 13 years, ending 1812, was 



Imports. Exports. Exports Excess. 

j Annual average balance in favour 

( of Great Britain . 754,908 

399,584,739 497,660,805 98,076,066 



7,025,863 16,839,669 9,813,806 

With Colonies in North America 



With all parts . . Armual aver age balance in favour 



of Great Britain . . . . . . 7,544,312 

Thus the balance of trade derived from the North American Colonies, is as one 
tenth in proportion to the whole balance of trade derived by Great Britain with all 
other parts: it thus, also, appears that taking the aggregate amounts of the imports 
and exports, the trade of those Colonies forms one thirty-seventh and an half part of 
the whole trade of Great Britain, for the thirteen years ending 1812, or is as 
.23,865,532 to .897,245,544 *. 

Thus far the trade of our Nortli American Colonies does not look very important, 
but, if there be any weight or moment in that generally received opinion, that on their 
possession depends, in all probability, the safety of the West India islands, and in 
consequence, our lucrative connection with them, and their s with the United States, 
and that in the eventual loss either of our North American or West Indian Colonies, 
our intercourse with the United States would be either suspended through the 
hostility of that government, or be put on a footing highly disadvantageous to this 
country ; in consideration, I say, of all these points, it will be necessary to take also 
into the account the aggregate value of the imports from and exports to those several 
parts separately and collectively ; they were as follows : 

* See preceding table of Imports and Exports. 



PREFACE. xxi 

For the thirteen years ending 1812. 

Imports. Exports. Totals. 

Between Great Britain and the Colonies 

of North America . ..... 7,025,863 16,839,669 23,865,532 

Idem, and the West Indies .... 127,401,641 74,650,541 202,052,182 

Idem, and the United States ... 26,158,846 77,133,884 103,292,730 

. 160,586,350 168,624,094 329,210,444 

From whence it appears that the trade of the Western Hemisphere, estimated on 
the aggregate amount of the imports and exports for the last thirteen years, is, 
according to the official value, though not quite half, more than one third of the value 
of imports and exports between Great Britain and all parts, or as .329,210,444 to 
.897,245,544, or, at an annual average, as .25,323,880 to .69,018,888. 

It cannot be denied that the balance of trade with the Continent of Europe is in 
favour of the country ; but more than half of the exports to that quarter consist of 
transatlantic produce*. With the islands of Guernsey, Jersey, and Man the balance 
is against us, with Africa it is but inconsiderably in our favour, with Asia it is 
against us. But our colonies in the last-mentioned quarter are extensive and rich, 
and the nature of their commercial relations with the parent state may here be 
advantageously considered. 

By a general account f of the trade of Great Britain for five years, ending 1810, 
the balance of trade in her favour amounted to as follows : 

+ Official value of exports . .... 201,804,783 
Official value of imports . . . . . 162,228,462 

Balance in favour of Great Britain . . 39,576,321 

But, according to the real value, there appears by the same account, to have been a 
balance against Great Britain ; viz. 

* See this Dictionary, article WEST INDIES, Table (B.) 

t See idem idem, Table (C.) 

I By return to the House of Commons, April 8, 1S()6, it was shewn that the real is to the official value as 40 to 
25, or 8 to 5. 

The official values are calculated on estimates formed at the establishment of the office of inspector-general of 
imports and exports in the year 1696 ; and the real values are ascertained from the declarations of the exporters, on 
all articles chargeable with duty ad valorem, and from the average prices current of the year, on articles that are 
charged with a rated duty, or entitled to a drawback or bounty on the quantity exported. The quantities of foreign 
and colonial goods exported are, in like manner, ascertained with the utmost accuracy, on delivery from the ware 
houses for exportation, and the values thereof are calculated at the official rates, and also at the average market 
prices. 



xxii PREFACE. 

Real value of imports 284,230,788 

Real value of exports 282,201,409 

Balance against Great Britain . . . . 2,029,379 

It is, however, to be remarked, that, taking the trade at this period, according to 
the real value, the excess of exports to America and the West Indies was, neverthe 
less, most considerable. 

Real value of exports 

To America 76,664,017 

To West Indies . . . 51,212,611 

127,876,628 

Real value of imports 

From America , . . 39,544,707 
From West Indies . . 65,401,425 

104,946,132 



Balance in favour of Great Britain . .22,930,496 



Now, admitting the principle just urged, the advantages of a colonial intercourse, 
even when the balance is against the mother-country, it must also be allowed, that 
this benefit is neither so large or direct as that derived from an actual excess of 
exported to imported produce. Looking therefore at the comparative value of the 
trade to the East Indies and to the Western Hemisphere through this medium, one 
certainly not the most favourable to the latter, when the productions of the one and 
the other imported are relatively appreciated, we shall plainly perceive the extent to 
which the Western trade exceeds the Eastern, and the little probability there would 
be, in the case of the eventual loss of the former, of the defalcation being supplied 
by this portion of the Old World. 

By the account (C) above referred to, for the five years ending 1810, the balance of 
trade with Asia against this country was prodigious, viz. 

Real value of imports from Asia . . . 39,482,437 
Real value of exports to Asia .... 16,641,554 

Balance against Great Britain . . . ..22,840,883 

So that the difference of value, as to the balance of trade between the Eastern and 
Western Hemispheres in the above period was, 



PREFACE. xxiii 

Excess of exports to America and the West Indies . . . . -. . . . 22,930,496 
Excess of imports from Asia . . . ". + . . . , .. . ; ; ... ; 22,840,883 



Total in favour of the Western Hemisphere . f . . . . . . . .45,771,379 



Or, at the annual average of five years, ending 1810 . . , , ... ..9,254,275 



Nor does an aggregate statement of the amount of imports and exports make the 
account with Asia more favourable. For the five years ending 1810, the total value 
of these was .56,123,991, or, at an annual average, .11,224,798, whereas the value 
of those of America and the West Indies was .232,822,760, or, at an annual 
average, .46,564,552, which is as four to one in favour of the latter ; and, whilst 
the trade to America and the West Indies for the same period was nearly half of the 
total of that of Great Britain, or as .232,822,760 to .566,432,197, that to Asia 
formed only one-tenth part of it, being as .56,123,991 to .566,432,197. 

In closing these cursory remarks on the commercial relations of Great Britain, one 
other would seem to force itself upon my attention ; namely, how do these facts and 
calculations bear upon the internal situation of the country, her resources and her 
finance ? To which I answer, that, though aware of the strong and intimate connec 
tion existing between them, I am also too sensible of the impossibility, should I 
endeavour to point them out, of my doing justice to the subject in the limited 
scope of this Preface : a due sense, also, of my own inefficiency would cause me to 
shrink from the task, at least till I had better prepared myself to enter upon its 
execution. In the absence, however, of more practical results, it should appear that, 
upon a re-consideration of what has been here laid down, the following important 
conclusions may be deduced. 

First, That an insular situation, with a superiority of marine, is most favourable to 
general and colonial trade ; and that such a power will be strengthened and en 
riched by the dissentions that weaken and impoverish the rest. 

Secondly, That it is as difficult for a nation with a commanding trade to exceed her 
resources, as it is for another without commerce to supply them. 

Thirdly, That an increase of trade involves an increase of industry, and that as 
the latter generates an augmentation of capital and floating medium to represent, in 
part, the property created, a National Debt may, in that light, be considered as the 
offspring of national prosperity. 

Fourthly, That a National Debt having a direct tendency to attach the public 
creditor to the government, is a great sedative in every disposition to domestic 



xxiv PREFACE. 

disturbance, and can never be dangerous but when means are deficient to pay the 
interest thereon ; and that, with a commanding trade, it is almost impossible for 
such deficiency to arise. 

Finally, That commerce is the centre and circumference of insular greatness, 
and that the exaltation of Great Britain in the scale of nations has proceeded from, 
and must ever depend upon, an attention to its interests. 



PART III. 



PREFACE. xxv 



PART III. 



LIST OF THE CHIEF BOOKS, DOCUMENTS AND AUTHORITIES CON 
SULTED FOR THE COMPLETION OF THIS DICTIONARY. 

IN this statement it may be necessary to premise, that the translation of the original 
volumes were nearly completed within the first year after the commencement of the 
undertaking, so that the intervening period of four years to the present moment, 
has (with the exception of some indispensable engagements) been exclusively devoted 
to the compilation of materials from such works as might illustrate and fill up the 
extensive outline that had been originally chalked out ; whilst, with a view of 
bringing the Dictionary to the highest perfection of which it was capable, every source 
of information has been resorted to, and no expense or labour has been spared. 

To the name of the several authorities here quoted, I subjoin the nature and extent 
of the extracts that have been made ; no less for the purpose of acknowledging my 
obligation to each in particular, than of pointing out to the reader the grounds upon 
which any fact or document may have been inserted. 

NORTH AMERICA. 

Letters from Canada, written during a Residence there in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808, shewing 
the present State of Canada, its Productions, Trade, commercial Importance, and political Rela 
tions ; exhibiting also the commercial Importance of New Brunswick, and Cape Breton, &c. &c. 
By HUGH GRAY. London. 1809. 

I HAVE derived considerable information from this work, either by extracts or col 
lations with other authors, especially in the articles Canada, Quebec, Montreal, New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Passamaquoddy Bay. 

A Short Topographical Description of his Majesty s Province of Upper Canada, in North America, 
to which is annexed a Provincial Gazetteer. London. 1813. 

I HAVE inserted a great number of new articles from this little volume; corrected 

d 



xxvi PREFACE. 

the topography of others, and selected from it the tables exhibiting the division of the 
province of Upper Canada, together with the bearings and distance of every principal 
place from York. 

The British Empire in America, containing the History of the Discovery, Settlement, Progress and 
State of the Continent and Islands of America. 2 vols. London. 1741. 

THESE volumes, although in a great degree superseded by the information of more 
recent historians, I have found it necessary to consult no less in the early history of 
the West Indies than of the Continental Colonies in North America, with a view to 
fill up and illustrate particular portions of historical dissertation, as, amongst others, 
in the articles Massachusetts and West Indies. 

The History of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, from the first Settlement thereof in 1628 to the 
Year 1749. By Mr. HUTCHINSON, Lieutenant Governor of the Massachusetts Province. 
2 vols. London. 1765. 

As forming an interesting record of the transactions of a British Settlement, the 
parent of all the other Colonies of New England, and of political events in which all 
the other American Colonies were deeply concerned, I have inserted an abridgment 
of the complete history of Massachusetts under that article. 

Some Information respecting America, collected by THOMAS COOPER. London. 1794. 

THE information contained in this pamphlet was collected by the author with a 
view to serve as a guide for his own conduct, though he published it for the informa 
tion of his friends, and to account for his motives for quitting this country, and going 
to settle in the United States ; his chief reason appearing to be, as he states, the com 
parative ease of providing for a large family in the latter country. I have inserted in 
the Dictionary some extracts of the American trade, as it stood about the period of 
his journey, together with many commercial tables of coins and exchanges at the end 
of the article United States. 

Travels through Lower Canada and the United States of North America, in the Years 1806, 
1807, and 1808. By JOHN LAMBERT. 3 vols. London. 1810. 

AMONGST much light but pleasing anecdote, a great deal of weighty statistical in 
formation is contained in these volumes ; and there are, consequently, few articles in 
the Dictionary, which, with regard to the latter sort of communication, and within the 
scope of that author s research, are not indebted in a greater or less degree to the 
valuable contents of his work. 



PREFACE. xxvii 

The American Review of History and Politics, and General Repository of Literature and State 

Papers. 3 vols. London. 1812. 

THE title of this work too clearly indicates its importance with regard to that sort 
of information aspired to in the Dictionary, to need any comment; but it may be 
proper to state, that the accounts of trade, revenue, and finance, under the article 
United States, have either been formed from the Treasury Reports and other official 
documents contained in that periodical, or by such a collation of them with other 
materials as might have fallen into my possession. 

The Travels of Captain Lewis and Clarke, from St. Louis, by way of the Missouri and Columbia 
Rivers, to the Pacific Ocean, in the Years 1804, 1805, and 1806, by order of the Government 
of the United States ; containing Delineations of the Manners, Customs, Religion, &c. of the 
Indians, &c. &c. &c. London. 1812. 

BESIDES inserting numerous new articles in the Dictionary, under the heads or names 
of the different tribes, with a succinct detail of their particular manners and customs, 
I have extracted from this memoir an account of the navigation of the Missouri, its 
soil, productions, and commerce ; and this, with a more specific description of the 
degree and nature of the civilization existing amongst the natives, may be found under 
that article ; as likewise an account of the navigation, &c. &c. of the Mississippi 
under this head, being also extracted from a document in that memoir, taken from the 
journals of Wm. Dunbar, Esq. and Dr. Hunter. 

History of the Voyage from Montreal on the River St. Lawrence, through the Continent of North 
America to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans, in the Years 1789 and 1793 ; with a Preliminary 
Account of the Rise, Progress, and Present State of the Fur Trade of that Country. By ALEX 
ANDER MACKENZIE, Esq. London. 

AN abstract historical narrative of the Fur Trade has been drawn from this volume, 
and is inserted under the article Canada; also, the positions of numerous places that 
had been touched at and explored in the rout of this enterprising traveller, have been 
notified under separate articles. 

The Gazetteer of the American Continent, and also of the West India Islands, &c. &c. &c. By 

JEDIDIAH MORSE, J).D. London. 1798. 

IN almost all the minor articles of the United States this Dictionary maybe said to be 
a reprint of this Gazetteer, and respecting these the author has to regret that he could 
only procure an abstract detail of the population of each state according to the last 

d2 



xxviii PREFACE. 

census. The reader will, therefore, consider the amount of population, and in general 
the statistical information in the townships, &c. as corresponding- with that of the year 
1790 ; and for the present amounts, the numbers may, on an average, be about doubled, 
as may be seen in the account of the population in the periods 1790 and 1810, and 
statistical table of the progressive increase of the United States for twenty years ; and 
this method I have preferred, as more consistent with the character of the Dictionary, 
as being rather a book of authority and of facts, than of facts submitted on analogy 
and surmise. 

The work of Morse is too wull known not to be generally appreciated, it is an 
abstract of all the works written on America and the West Indies up to the year 
1796; besides which it con tains much local information respecting the United States 
not to be found in any other book existing. It would indeed be reprinting a cata 
logue to recapitulate all the authors and documents mentioned by Morse, in his pre 
face, as his authorities, I shall therefore forbear to restate them here. It was 
suggested by persons of talents and discernment, upon my proposition of translating 
Albedo s volumes, that the embodying with it the contents of the American Gazetteer 
would make a very complete work. Indeed a better superstructure for the American 
Dictionary could not have been laid ; but what I have already stated in regard to the 
illustration of the original, and what I am about to add, will shew how even the con 
tents of Morse s elaborate production have been improved upon by the addition and 
collation of later authorities. 

Political Essay of the Kingdom of New Spain, containing Researches relative to the Geography of 
Mexico, the Extent of its Surface and its Political Division into Intendancies, the physical 
Aspect of the Country, the Population, the State of Agriculture and Manufacturing- and Com 
mercial Industry, the Canals projected between the South Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, the 
Crown Revenues, the Quantity of Precious Metals which have flowed from Mexico into 
Europe and Asia, since the Discovery of the New Continent, and the Military Defence of New 
Spain. By ALEXANDER DE HUMBOLDT. London. 1811. 

I HAVE found it necessary greatly to condense, and, at the same time, completely to 
new-arrange the valuable work of this learned traveller ; in the first instance, by a 
general digest, under the article Mexico ; in the second, by the insertion of a greater 
part of his information on the intendancies of Nueva Espana, in new articles, under 
separate heads ; in the third, by a collation of his statistical accounts with those of 
Albedo and others, in the several capitals and towns ; and, lastly, by an insertion of 
various new settlements, and many, now by him more accurately ascertained, geogra 
phical positions. 



PREFACE. xxix 

SOUTH AMERICA. 

Histoire Philosophique et Politique des Etablissemens et du Commerce des Europeens dans les 
deux Indes. Tomes 7. a la Haje. 1774. 

BY the large scale on which this work has been planned, it may be considered a 
reservoir of much useful information ; and I have not failed to draw from it such as 
could not be afforded through other sources : but as the chief advantages I have 
derived are rather illustrations in a moral and philosophical point of view, than any 
abstract historical, commercial, or physical information, their influence is too loosely 
diffused over the Dictionary to authorize the mention of one particular instance in 
preference to the rest. 

Voyage a la Partie orientale de la Tierre Ferme, dans 1 Amerique Meridionale, fait pendant les 
Annees 1801, 1802, 1803, et 1804. Par F. DEPONS. Tomes 3. a Paris, 1806. 

THE whole of the N. and N. E. Coast of South America, including the whole of 
the Spanish dominions, bounded by Peru and Mexico on the W. and by the At 
lantic on the E. formed the object of the statistical researches of Depons ; conse 
quently I have readily adopted all the new information I could find relative to the 
governments, provinces, cities, towns, and villages, within the scope of his inquiry ; 
and, as most of the articles in the Dictionary, with respect to those territories, 
will be found to be either entirely new, or an improvement of the original work of 
A^edo, the reader is requested, except where the contrary is asserted, to consider, 
in all such cases, Depons as the authority for the information submitted. 



Interesting official Documents relating to the United Provinces of Venezuela. London. 

THE declaration of independence by a country so large and valuable as that of 
Venezuela, was, in an historical point of view, a subject of too great magnitude not 
to deserve a specific and minute attention. As a corollary therefore to the outline of 
events that led to the independence of those States, the official documents that they 
have published, namely, the Grievances complained of in their Manifesto, their 
Act of Independence, &c. and their * Federal Constitution, have been recorded 
in the Dictionary. 

Sketch of the present State of Caracas, including a Journey from Caracas, through la Vittoria 
and Valencia, to Puerto Caballo. By ROBERT SEMPLE. London. 1812. 

THIS little volume, though neatly written, is chiefly entitled to notice from its late 
information respecting the territories of which it treats. Some brief account of 



xxx PREFACE. 

Venezuela, and of other places on the coast of Caracas, is the extent of the ex 
tracts for which the Dictionary is indebted. 

Voyages dans 1 Amerique Meridionale. Par DON FELIX DE AZARA, Commissaire et Com 
mandant des limites Espagnoles dans le Paraguay. Depuis 1781 jusqu en 1801. Tomes 4. 
Paris. 1809. 

THE object of Azara was to collect the most accurate statistical information of 
that part of the South American Colonies bordered on the N. by Brasil, N. W. by 
Peru, and S. W. by Chile, namely, of Paraguay and la Plata. The result of his 
inquiries have been incorporated by the collation of his information with that of 
Albedo in some hundreds of articles, and many new ones have been added on his 
authority. The geographical positions of the several settlements now existing in 
those territories, the years of their foundation, and the amount of their several 
populations, have been extracted from the tables in his work, and may be found 
under articles Buenos Ayres and Paraguay of the Dictionary. Some illustrations 
of their natural history have also been transferred into the Appendix. 

Guia Politica, Eclesiastica y Militar de Virreynato del Peru ; or, Political, Ecclesiastical, and 
Military Guide of the Viceroyality of Peru. Published annually for the Academical Society 
of Lovers of the Country of Lima. 

THE first number of this work was published in 17.93. In 1797 it contained a 
digest of the information of the four previous years ; and having received the sanc 
tion of the Governor, contained some useful tables of a commercial, financial, and 
statistical nature. Indeed it seems always to have been well compiled, and in a 
manner to give, in a small compass, the greatest possible information respecting 
the power, resources, and actual state of that viceroyalty ; and I much regret that, 
not having been able to obtain any information respecting the subsequent numbers (and 
it is not improbable that they w r ere suppressed) I was obliged to seek for other autho 
rities in completing the account of those far-famed territories. And this I have done, as 
the reader will find, by consulting those no less accredited works, the Viagero Universal, 
and Alveary Ponce. But of the preciseness and value of the information of the perio 
dical just alluded to, the reader will be convinced, amongst various other instances, 
by turning to those under the articles Xauxa, Urubamba, Yauyos, &c. in the 
Dictionary. 



PREFACE. 



The Geographical, Natural, and Civil Histpry of Chile. By Abbe Don J. IGNATIUS MOLINA. 
With Notes, from the Spanish and French Versions. United States. 1808. 

THERE are, I believe, few persons (certainly amongst those with whom I have 
met) who have not read and been delighted with this entertaining production. So 
convinced was I of the valuable and perspicuous information it contained with 
regard to those southern limits of the Spanish dominion, that I resolved not to 
omit any thing in the Dictionary that had been stated by Molina, and seemed 
worthy of record. But this has been a work of considerable difficulty and labour, 
for not only has the manner of imparting such information to my readers been 
necessarily completely changed to suit itself to the style of the work before them, 
but it has been condensed into somewhat less than one-half of the original, and this 
more especially by curtailing the more minute and uninteresting part of the detail 
of the Araucanian wars, or of such other heads of investigation as appeared to have 
been already fully treated of, either under the original article, or the provinces of 
the kingdom of Chile, by Albedo. 

History of Brasil. By ROBERT SOUTHEY. Part the First. London. 1810. 
THE article Brasil in the Dictionary is almost exclusively indebted, with regard 
to the historical information, to the labours and researches of this author, as far as 
his narrative is now before the Public, that is to say, for the period between the 
year 1498 and 1642. Some other articles have also been entirely newly written or 
corrected by the same authority. 

History of Brasil, comprising a Geographical Account of that Country, tog-ether with a Narra 
tive of the most remarkable Events which have occurred there since its Discovery, &c. &c. 
By ANDREW GRANT, M.D. London. 1809. 

A CONTINUATION of the History of Brasil has been brought down to the present 
day from the period above mentioned, namely, from 1642 to the middle of the last 
century, by a succinct narration of the events alluded to in the annexed title ; and 
from that period to the present day, by a particular detail of each, as they attached 
to the different captaincies, either upon the credit of the same authority, or of 
.such other as might, in the course of my researches, have fallen in my way. 



xxxii PREFACE. 

Travels in the interior of Brasil, particularly in the Gold and Diamond Districts of that Country, 
by Authority of the Prince Regent of Portugal, including a Voyage to the Rio de la Plata, 
&c. &c. By JOHN MAWE, Author of the Mineralogy of Derbyshire. London. 1812. 

MUCH useful information has been derived from this work respecting the soil, 
productions, and mineralogy of all the most important places of Brasil, no less than 
of those of Monte Video, and other parts of the province of Buenos Ayres, so that 
from 25 to 30 long and important articles have either been fresh arranged, or newly 
prepared from the observations of this interesting traveller. 

WEST INDIES. 

The West India Common-Place Book, compiled from Parliamentary and Official Documents, 
shewing the Interest of Great Britain in its Sugar Colonies, &c. &c. &c. By Sir WILLIAM 
YOUNG, Bart. F.R.S. M.P. London. 1807. 

ALTHOUGH, through the liberality of friends, I had, from time to time, been 
put in possession of most of the important parliamentary documents that might assist 
me in the subject in which I was engaged, yet such is the clearness and perspicuity 
with which the voluminous information of the annexed work is arranged, that I can 
not but express myself in the most unqualified manner indebted to it ; since, indeed, 
wherever it has answered my purpose, I have made use of the subject matter of the 
text, no less than of such tables as might conduce to its illustration; but not, I trust, 
with such a close imitation either of method or arrangement as in any way to injure 
the originality of the Common-Place Book. With respect to the value of the extracts 
I have made, the reader will be enabled in some degree to judge by the following 
account of the high pretensions of the honourable author, though so modestly asserted 
by himself. 

" When (says he, in his Preface, page 11) I first took my seat in the House 
of Commons, now more than twenty-two years past, I carefully observed the course 
and succession of parliamentary business, with the view of chalking out some line of 
industry, rather than of talent, in which I might qualify myself to be humbly useful 
to my country ; and I selected the Poor Laws, the British Fisheries, and the Com 
merce of the Kingdom, as the leading subjects on which my attention was to be fixed, 
and my attendance given on the Committee. From that time (June, 1784) I kept a 
Common-Place Book, in which I entered, under distinct heads, whatever occurred 
under these matters in debate, or I could collect from the Statute Book and other 
reading; and, at the same time, I carefully arranged and preserved, every document 
returned to Parliament, and some which were not printed by order of the House, I 
copied in the Journal Office." 



PREFACE. xxxiii 

The History, Civil and Commercial, of the British Colonies in the West Indies. By BRYAN 
EDWARDS, Esq. F. R. S. S. A. 3 Vols. London. 1801. 

THIS generally appreciated work, though consulted by Morse and other authors of 
later date, of whose labours T have availed myself, was yet too clear and circumstan 
tial in the original not to require my attentive perusal, and the consequence has been 
that I have found it necessary, in justice to the plan of the Dictionary, to form from 
the historical information contained in Edwards s volumes, a newly digested, and con 
cise History, not only in separate articles relating to most of the islands, but con 
jointly under the head WEST INDIES. Some of his statistical information has also 
been acceptable. 

Present State of the Spanish Colonies, including a particular Report of Hispanola, or the Spa 
nish Part of Santo Domingo, &c. &c. &c. By WILLIAM WALTON, Junr. Secretary to the Ex 
pedition which captured the City of St. Domingo from the French ; and resident British Agent 
there. 2 Vols. London. 1810. 

SOME information of an interesting and useful nature, extracted from the annexed 
work, has been scattered over several parts of the Dictionary ; such for instance as 
may be traced in the account of the Spanish intercourse with Vera Cruz, under that 
article, and in the later detail of historical transactions relative to St. Domingo, under 
the article West Indies; with various other cursory statements and remarks, for which 
as they might be too tedious to detail, it is hoped this general acknowledgment of 
obligation will suffice. 

A Treatise on the Wealth, Power, and Resources, of the British Empire in every Quarter of the 
World ; illustrated by copious Statistical Tables, constructed on a new Plan. By P. COLQU- 
HOUN, LL. D. London. 1814. 

No one, unless prepared to push his researches to the extent of those of this dis 
tinguished author, or unless enjoying every means of information on the subjects on 
which he has been peculiarly engaged, could do justice to his compilation, by pro 
ducing any original statements, however nearly by approximation they might corres 
pond with those in the Statistical Tables here quoted. 

I trust I have paid no undue tribute to his judgment in having given the amount of 
population, and the estimated value of the colonies, as set forth in his most useful 
and elaborate treatise. 



xxxiv PREFACE. 



ALL PARTS OF AMERICA, AND WEST INDIES. 

State of the Trade of Great Britain, in its Imports and Exports, progressively, from the Year 
1697 to 1773, &c. &c. &c. By Sir CHARLES WHITWORTH, M. P. Folio. London, 1776. 

This was the first and last work of the kind ever undertaken, in this or perhaps 
any other country. In as far as relates to the trade of the western hemisphere and 
to the trade of Great Britain with all parts, I have, by the assistance thereby afforded, 
given complete accounts of the Imports and Exports, from the Revolution down to 
the present day, distinguishing those, 

1st. of Great Britain - with North America. 

2d. of do. - with the West Indies. 

3d. of do. - - with the United States. 

4th. of do. - - with all parts of the world. 

Annals of Commerce, Manufactures, Fisheries, and Navigation, &c. &c. &c. ; with an Account of 
the Commercial Transactions of the British Empire and other Countries. By DAVID MACPHER- 
SON. 4 Vols. London. 1805. 

THIS valuable compilation, amongst other important records of the trade to Ame 
rica and the West Indies, is enriched with a series of official documents, from whence 
I was enabled to bring down the Tables of Import and Export above alluded to, and 
as inserted in the Dictionary, to the year 1800 inclusive. 

The History of the Public Revenue of the British Empire. By Sir JOHN SINCLAIR, Bart. 

3 Vols. London. 1790, and 1804. 

MANY of the financial and commercial calculations in the Dictionary have been 
made upon the credit of the accounts and statements found in the elaborate and useful 
production of the distinguished author here quoted. 

An Inquiry into the Colonial Policy of the European Powers. By HENRY BROUGHAM, Jun. Esq. 

2Vols> Edinburgh, 1803. 

I OWN myself indebted for several useful hints and illustrations to this able treatise. 

i i-j oru i i i Hi in. : r-<: . , :>;{ ., I . 

The Financial Accounts and Papers laid before Parliament. 

BY these, as far as they have been laid before the House of Common* for some years 
pftst, I have been able to supply the deficiencies of modern authors in all objects of 
statistical research. 



PREFACE. xxxv 

Some Series of Caracas and other South American Gazettes. 

AN intimate view of the more recent affairs of the Spanish colonies has thus been 
brought before me, from whence I have reflected such lights upon those subjects in 
the Dictionary as might be deemed desirable. 

A Number of Original and Personal Communications, of the Sources of which the Translator does 
not feel himself warranted more specifically to treat. 

BUT though restricted from speaking of the sources of such communication, it will 
be necessary to mention their nature ; and I shall, therefore, at the same time, beg to 
offer my sincerest acknowledgments for the liberal communications of those Gentle 
men, who, from the situations they have held, or from the interest they have had in 
America or the West Indies, have been peculiarly entitled to my gratitude, and who 
have added so much to the value of the book by the local information they have, in so 
many instances, contributed. 

I am also particularly bounden in duty to express my sincere thanks for the as 
sistance and advice I have had the good fortune to enjoy, during the whole course 
of my labours, from one, who, equally distinguished for his judgment and experience, 
is filling, with universal applause, an exalted station in the British Government; by 
whose powerful assistance I have been able to supply whatever of statistical, financial 
and commercial information was necessary to the completion of a Work, which, I 
trust, will prove as novel in its principle as useful in its design. 



e 2 PART IV. 



XXXVI 



PREFACE. 



PART IV. 



TABLE of the Geographical Positions of the more important Places in the Spanish 
Colonies, determined by Astronomical Observations. 

(The positions marked with an asterisk, are established either by triangulations, or angles of altitude 

and azimuths.) 



Names of Places. 


N. Latitude. 


Longitude W 
from London 
In degrees. 


Longitude 
W. from Pa 
ris. In time 


Names of Observers and Remarks. 


INTERIOR OF NEW SPAIN. 


o / // 

19 25 45 

19 18 37 
19 15 27 
19 16 8 
20 10 4 
20 17 28 
20 17 55 


o / // 

99 5 30 

99 7 
99 12 45 


h / // 

6 45 42 

6 45 48 
6 46 11 


Humboldt, at the convent 
of St. Augustin. 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem. 


S. Augustin de las Cuevas, (village) - 
Cerro de Axusco*, (mountain) - - - 
Venta de Chalco, (farm) - - - 


98 28 
98 49 
98 33 
98 51 30 
99 21 45 
99 25 38 
99 52 30 
100 10 30 
100 55 
100 55 

100 52 15 

101 20 
101 30 
101 1 45 
99 14 45 
99 28 

99 29 
99 28 
99 24 
99 29 
98 33 

98 21 
98 35 

98 13 30 


6 43 4 
6 44 37 
6 43 32 
6 44 46 
6 46 47 
6 47 2i 
6 48 50 
6 50 2 
6 53 
6 53 

6 52 49 

6 54 40 
6 53 22 
6 53 27 
6 46 19 
6 47 12 

6 47 16 

6 47 12 
6 46 56 
6 47 16 
6 43 33 

6 42 44 
6 43 40 

6 42 14 




Totonilco el Grande, (village) - - - 




19 16 19 
19 11 33 




dem. 
idem. 






20 36 39 
20 40 
21 15 

19 42 




idem, 
idem, at the house of Don 
Diego Rul. 
idem, at the bishop s pa 
lace, 
dem. 
dem. 
dem. 
dem. 
dem, near the water-spout 
machine, 
dem. 
dem. 
dem. 
dem. 
dem, summit of themtfun- 
tain. 
dem. 
dem. 

dem. 




Valla dnlirl fr\t\r\ 












Pont d Tstln ffarm k 


18 37 41 






18 35 
18 20 


Tepecuacuilco, (village) - * - - 




17 56 4 
18 35 47 

19 2 
19 10 

19 2 6 


Popocatepetl*, (volcano) - - - 

San Nicolas de los Ranches, (village) 
Itztacihuatl*, (mountain) - - - - 
Pyramide de Cholula, (ancient monu- 





PREFACE. 

Table of Geographical Positions (continued.) 



xxx vn 



Names of Places. 


N. Latitude. 


Longitude W. 
from London. 
In degrees. 


Longitude 
W. from Pa 
ris. In time. 


Names of Observers and Remarks. 


La Puebla de los Angeles, (city) - - 


o / // 

19 15 
19 26 30 
19 33 37 
19 28 57 
19 37 37 
19 30 8 
19 31 49 
19 2 17 

19 28 25 
19 30 40 
19 46 52 
19 26 4 
19 42 47 
19 43 17 
19 47 58 
19 38 39 
19 28 48 
19 48 38 
19 28 38 
19 49 28 
19 42 25 
19 35 5 
19 54 30 

19 50 45 
20 49 45 
21 10 
22 27 50 
22 35 15 
21 34 
22 21 30 
21 33 30 
21 28 50 
21 33 
20 32 10 
20 55 50 
20 30 14 
19 11 52 
19 10 10 
19 10 55 
19 11 16 
19 12 55 
19 12 12 
19 12 55 
19 13 20 
19 14 30 


o / // 

98 2 45 


h / // 

6 41 31 


Humboldt. 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem. 
Humboldt and Ferrer, 
summit of the mountain. 
Ferrer. 
Velasquez, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem. 
,idem. 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem. 

Ferrer and Cevallos. 
Cevallos and Herrera. 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem. 
Humboldt and Ferrer. 
Ferrer, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
dem. 
dem. 
idem. 

idem. 

i 




97 13 45 
97 8 45 


6 38 15 
6 37 55 


Coffre de Perote, (mountain) - - - 




96 55 
96 66 35 
94 15 15 

96 48 32 
98 51 15 
99 4 6 
99 2 30 
99 1 15 
99 8 5 
99 9 45 
98 56 
99 4 45 
99 12 45 
99 4 45 
99 13 30 
99 4 15 
99 1 36 
99 16 

90 30 45 
90 24 30 
89 59 45 
89 47 40 
89 40 45 
88 10 15 
89 38 15 
86 45 
86 44 
86 51 13 
91 54 5 
92 11 52 
92 10 23 
96 9 0, 
96 6 40 
96 6 10 
96 5 26 
96 45. 
96 4 35 
96 5 5 
96 8 22 
96 11 20 


6 37 
6 36 58 
6 38 21 

6 36 34 
6 44 45 
6 45 36 
6 45 30 
6 45 25 
6 45 54 
6 45 59 
6 45 4 
6 45 39 
6 46 11 
6 45 39 
6 46 14 
6 45 37 
6 45 26 
6 46 24 

6 11 23 
6 10 58 
6 9 19 
6 8 30 
683 
5 2 1 
6 7 57 
6 56 20 
6 56 16 
6 56 45 
6 15 56 
5 18 1\ 
6 18 If 
6 33 56 
Q 33 47 
S 33 45 
S 33 42 
S 33 47 
S 33 38 
S 33 40 
3 33 53f 
S 34 5 


Cerro de Macultepec, (mountain) - - 
Pic d Orizaba*, (volcano) - - - - 






Fl Ppfinl* (\\\\\\ 






Hacienda de Xalpa*, (farm) - - - 
Cerro de Chiconautla*, (hill) - - - 
San Miguel de Guadalupe*, (convent) 


Garita de Gaudalupe*, (barrier) - - 
Cerro de Sincoque*, (hill) - - - - 
Hacienda de Santa Ines*, (farm) - - 
Cerro de San Christoval *, (mountain) 
Puente del Salto *, (bridge) - - - 

EASTERN COAST OF NEW SPAIN. 


Punta de la Disconocida ----- 

Castillo del Sisal - - - 


Alpprun /^wpctprn nnirif^ - 


Alacran, (northern extremity) - - - 
Mouth of the Rio de los Lagartos : 
Punta S O dpi Pnprto 


North point of the Conboy - - - - 
South point of the Conboy - - - - 


Shallow of Diez Brazas - - - - - 
Small island to the S. W. of the triangle 




Island of Sacrifices, (centre) - - - 
She 1 How of the Paiaro - 




Islot^ Blanquillas, (centre) - - - - 
Anegada de Fuera (south point) - - 









XXXVI11 



PREFACE. 

Table of Geographical Positions (continued.) 



Nam^s of Places. 


N. Latitude. 


Longitude W. 
from London. 
In degrees. 


Longitude 
W. from Pa 
ris. In time. 


Names .pf Observers and Remarks. 


Mouths of the Rio Antigua - - - - 


o / // 

19 18 41 
19 37 45 
19 39 42 
19 43 15 
21 15 48 
23 45 18 
24 36 
25 55 

16 50 29 

17 15 
17 32 
19 6 
20 25 30 

20 45 
21 1 30 

21 16 
21 26 15 
21 32 48 
21 33 
21 45 30 
20 50 30 
22 52 23 
23 3 25 
23 26 
24 47 
26 59 30 
28 2 10 
28 18 22 
28 53 
29 40 40 

32 25 10 
32 39 30 
32 43 
33 16 30 
33 29 

34 
34 17 
34 26 
36 36 
37 9 15 
37 48 10 


/ // 

96 17 17 
96 26 5 
96 25 43 
98 25 43 

98 12 23 
97 58 40 
97 31 10 

99 46 

100 45 15 
101 28 45 
104 33 5 
105 39 

108 47 15 
107 15 

106 17 45 
105 3 
105 17 45 
105 17 45 
106 41 35 
105 57 5 
109 53 15 
109 43 25 
110 18 15 
112 21 15 
113 48 15 
115 23 15 
115 46 15 
118 17 15 
115 57 15 

117 18 55 
117 18 15 
118 30 15 
119 36 15 
117 53 30 

120 31 15 
119 25 30 
119 45 30 
121 51 8 
122 22 53 
123 1 15 


h / // 

6 34 29 
6 35 4 
6 35 3 
6 35 3 

6 42 9| 
6 41 15 
6 39 25 

6 48 24 

6 52 21 
6 55 15 
7 7 32 
7 11 56 

7 12 29 

7 18 20 

7 14 31 
7 9 S2 
7 10 31 
7 11 11 
7 16 6 
7 13 8 
7 28 53 
7 28 14 
7 30 33 
7 38 5 
7 44 33 
7 50 33 
7 52 25 
8 2 29 
7 53 9 

7 58 36 
7 58 33 
8 3 21 

8 7 45 
8 54 

8 11 25 
872 
8 8 22 
8 16 44| 
8 18 51| 
8 21 25 


Ferrer, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem. 

Humboldt, at the gover 
nor s house. 
Expedition of Malaspina. 
idem, 
idem, 
idem. 

idem, 
idem. 

idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem. 

idem. 
Vancouver andMalaspi na. 
Expedition of Malaspina. 
idem. 
Vancouver andMalaspina. 

Expedition of Malaspina. 
Vancouver. 
Vancouver andMalaspina. 
Expedition of Malaspina. 
idem, 
idem . 




Punta Mari Andrea ------ 




Lago de San Fernando, or laCarbonera 
Mouth of the Rio Bravo del Norte 

WESTERN COAST OF NEW SPAIN. 


Western extremity of las PlayasdeCujuca 

Mnrrr* Pptatlan fhilll 


Port de Selagu (a little doubtful) - - 


Small island to the N. N. W. of ,Cape 


Cprrn dpi Vallp fhilh 


Isles Marias, (Cape south of the most 


Mountain of San Juan - - - - . 










Mission de S. Josef, (village) - - - 
Mission de Todos los Santos - - - 
Mountain of San Lazaro - - - - 
Mountain to the north of the Abreojos 
Island of Cedars, (south point) - - - 
Isla de San Benito (the highest part) - 
Isla Guadalupe, (Cape south) - - 


Isla de S. Martin or de los Coronados 
(the largest and most eastern islot) 


Isla S. Salvador, (south point) - - - 
Isla San Nicolas, (west cape) - - - 


Isla de Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, (west 


Santa Buenaventura ----.._ 
Presidio de Santa Barbara (mission) - 









PREFACE. 

Table of Geographical Positions (continued.} 



XXXIX 



Names of Places. 


N. Latitude. 


Longitude W. 
from London. 
In degrees. 


Longitude 
W. from Pa 
ris. In time. 


Names of Observers arid Remarks. 




o / // 

37 48 30 
40 29 
49 35 13 

18 37 

18 48 
19 4 
19 15 40 

15 44 
15 47 
15 50 
16 7 
15 25 
16 37 
17 16 
17 18 
18 3 
21 9 
23 
23 30 
24 25 
25 28 
26 50 
27 8 
27 45 
28 50 
30 36 


o / // 

132 37 
124 28 45 
126 35 15 

114 3 45 

110 9 15 
111 5 45 
118 53 45 


h / // 

8 19 48 
8 27 15 
8 35 41 

7 54 33 

7 29 57 
7 33 43 
7 28 55 


Vancouver andM alaspina. 
Expedition of Malaspina. 
idem. [This position and 
the preceding are be 
yond the actual bounds 
of New Spain. 
Collnet, Camacho, & Tor 
res fmemoire of M. 
Espinosa%) 
idem, 
idem, 
idem. 

Pedro de Laguna. 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem. 
Mascaro and Rivera. 
Count de la Laguna. 
Mascaro and Rivera. 
Oteyza. 
Mascaro and Rivera, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem. 
Mascaro and Lafora. 
Mascaro and Rivera. 
Mascaro. 
Mascaro and Rivera. 
Mascaro. 
Fathers Diaz and Font. 
Father Font. 
Lafora, 

Collations by Arrowsmith. 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem. 






REVILLAGIGEDO IgLANDS. 

Isla de Santa Rosa, (centre) _ - - 
Isla del Socorro, (summit of the moun 
tain, which is more than 1,115 me 
tres high, or 3,657 feet) - - - - 


Isla de San Benedito, (south cape) 

POSITIONS LESS CERTAIN. 

Gruatiilco (port) - - 




-; V!J 

- ^ 


_ 


























San Antonio de los Cues, (village) - 
Guadalaxara, (city) - 






103 2 30 
101 35 
106 6 30 
103 35 
103 13 30 
108 13 30 
109 3 30 
110 8 30 
104 30 
108 58 30 
106 45 30 
111 46 
104 43 


7 1 30 
6 55 40 
7 13 46 
7 3 40 
7 2 14 
7 22 14 
7 25 34 
7 29 45 
7 7 40 
7 25 14 
7 16 22 
7 36 24 
7 8 12 












Real del los Alamos, (mine) - - - 










31 2 
32 9 
32 45 
33 30 
36 12 

L v> . ) j St * i 

e\:. -:\ 1 f\ri 
* .? tR* 

12 Os. 
2 55 Os. 
5 24 Os. 
3 59 s. 
4 27 0*. 
2 10 20 s. 


Paso del Norte, (Presidio) - - - - 
Junction of the Rio Gila and Colorado 
Las Casas grandes (near Rio Gila) 






104 43 -0 

- 1 1. i 

| - 

78 20 
78 50 
78 28 
79 15 
76 24 30 
79 40 -0 


7 8 52 


NEW GRANADA, QUITO, &C. 















xl 



PREFACE. 

Table of Geographical Positions (continued.) 



Names of Places. 


N. Latitude. 


Longitude W 
from London 
In degrees. 


Longitude 
W. from Pa 
ris. In time 


Names of Observers and Remarks. 




o / // 

1 42 05. 
2 25 05. 
56 On. 
13 On. 
20 OH. 
3 51 5n. 
I 13 On. 
2 28 20 n. 
3 15 On. 
4 36 On. 
3 11 20 n. 
5 25 On. 
6 45 On. 
9 On. 
8 47 On. 
10 27 10 n 
11 16 On 
11 30 On. 
9 45 On 
5 15 30 n. 

8 8 205. 
6 52 05. 
12 2 20 s. 
11 35 Os. 
13 46 s. 
12 57 5. 
13 42 5. 
16 17 205. 
16 39 s. 
18 27 s. 
17 30 5. 
19 47 5. 
20 17 s. 
17 36 5. 

1 54 On. 
1 12 On. 
4 30 5. 
7 05. 
20 05. 
1 19 05. 
3 10 05. 
4 26 05. 
2 28 05. 


/ / 

78 35 
77 48 
79 24 
78 3 30 
77 55 
76 49 
77 5 30 
76 29 
75 12 
74 8 
73 57 20 
73 47 
75 18 
79 18 
77 34 
75 23 30 
74 7 30 
72 55 30 
74 33 30 
74 15 10 

78 52 
78 40 
76 58 30 
75 17 20 
76 8 30 
73 58 
71 6 
71 58 10 
69 43 
70 19 
68 26 
67 25 
70 6 20 
71 12 

67 37 
67 30 
67 40 
67 20 
65 20 
61 58 20 
59 57 
59 20 
54 57 


h / // 

. - - 

. 


Collations by,Arrowsmith. 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem. 

idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem. 

idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
idem, 
dem. 
dem. 
dem. 
idem. 












Pjicfo 




























PERU, &C. 




















La Pax - 






Ilo 


RIO NEGRO, &C. 


Ft dp S .Toyp 






S. Anto. do Casanhoronova - - - - 




Rorha Villa 







TABLE OF CONTENTS 



OF THE 



INTRODUCTORY MATTER. 



1. Translator s Preface. 

2. List of Subscribers to the Translation. 

3. Translator s Advertisement. 

4. Albedo s Dedication. 

5. Albedo s Preface. 

6. Albedo s Additions and Corrections stated. 

7. List of Albedo s Subscribers. 

8. A general Table of Kingdoms , Provinces, Syc. into which Spanish America 

is divided; with a continuation, illustrating at one view the other respective 
Dominions and Governments in America and the West Indies. 

N. B. The Translator s Preface and List of Subscribers, Nos, 1 and 2, will be 
delivered with the last Volume, and may be bound up with thejirst. 



VOL, I. 



TRANSLATOR S ADVERTISEMENT. 



THE history of Algedo s work is already before the world, as stated in my prospectus ; * 
the particulars of such statement were derived from his own preface, which is now de 
livered entire, and to which I beg leave particularly to call the reader s attention. The 
manner in which the original deficiencies of that author were to be corrected, and in 
which the historical and geographical relations of the countries treated of, were to be 
brought down to the present day, has been explained in the prospectus, and the volume 
now before the public will best show how those promises have been fulfilled. 

Although from the forward state of the work, (the whole of it, with some small excep 
tions, being ready for press), I might now enter into an analysis of my labours ; I shall 
reserve that task until the whole shall have been published, when there will be delivered 
to the subscribers a regular preface, containing such general considerations respecting 
America and the West Indies, as could not, with equal convenience, have been incor 
porated with the work itself. 

Whatever might have been my own opinion as to the necessity of giving a literal and 
complete translation of Alcedo, I found myself bound so to do, as well from the sensation 
which the book had awakened at the first issuing of the prospectus, as from the opinion 
of its earliest and most distinguished patrons, that, considering how rare and curious was 
supposed to be the information it contained, it would be thought defective by the public 
if any part of the original were omitted ; although, on the other hand, something might 
have been gained in point of conciseness and regularity of method. The translation, 
therefore, is as literal as the respective idioms of the two languages would permit, 
saving in some trifling cases of evident errata: the additional matter is always included in 
brackets; and if, as in various instances, it be continued for several pages, the brackets 
will be found at the beginning and end of each page. 

Like Algedo, I have forborne to quote my authorities specifically in each article, for 
the sake of avoiding unnecessary repetitions; though, like him, I refer my readers to 
particular authors to illustrate my subject, when the matter has grown too voluminous 
under my hands. It is true that I have assumed a complete discretionary power with re 
gard to the additional information, but I shall not fail, in justice to those writers to whom 
I am so much indebted, to give in the preface a list of my authorities, as well as of the 
original documents to which I may have had access. I cannot, however, forbear mention 
ing for the present, how far more copious and extensive is the information of this publica 
tion than that of any which has hitherto appeared. In some of the articles, as may be 

b <2 



( via ) 

seen under the heads Brazil, Canada, aiul Chile, in this volume, not less than from 20 to 
46 pages of additional matter have been introduced, each article having its separate index 
of contents. Independently likewise of the very elaborate work of Morse, containing 
upwards of 7000 articles, nearly the whole of which have been transfused into these 
volumes; many large and valuable extracts, as well as new articles, have been selected from 
Molina, Humboldt, Depons, Azara, and other writers of less consideration, even with 
respect to the Spanish provinces of America ; upon which subject A^edo is far more 
copious and complete than any other writer. In the West India islands, as under the 
heads Antigua, Barbadoes, St. Christopher, &c. comparative accounts of the earlier ex 
ports and imports have been selected, and those of the latest years introduced. 

Our author, we find, had thought it necessary to annex to his book a large vocabulary 
of provincial terms, forming a catalogue of the plants, birds, animals, &c. found in 
America: it is obvious that this information is still more desirable in the translation; and 
this glossary has, therefore, been carefully revised, and enriched with valuable additions; 
and there being several Spanish terms which will not admit of direct translation in the 
dictionary, these likewise, with a full explanation of their meaning, will be found in the 
same glossary ; each such term being, for the convenience of the reader, invariably found 
printed in italics in the body of the work. 

To conclude, so much additional light has been thrown upon the geography of 
America since the publication of Alcedo, that, in order to render these volumes as perfect 
as possible, the position of every place has been carefully revised, and corrected according 
to Mr. Arrowsmith s several maps of North America, of the United Slates, of the West 
fndia Islands, of Mexico, and of South America ; the last of which has been recently 
constructed from original materials, which till lately remained inaccessible at Madrid 
and at Lisbon ; whilst, at the same time, all the places not heretofore found in his maps 
have been inserted from the Dictionary, as it issued sheet by sheet from the press. 

The above maps of Mr. Arrowsmith, whose eminence in that line it is unnecessary to 
mention, will consequently be ready to be delivered at a somewhat reduced price to the 
subscribers to this book, about the time of the publication of the last volume, and will form 
a complete ATLAS to Alcedo, who had no means of improving and illustrating his 
Dictionary by so important a supplement. 

G. A. THOMPSON, 



ALCEDO S DEDICATION 



To His Royal Highness the Prince of Spain. 

SIR, 

THE Dominions of America, to which Heaven has destined you the heir, 
as being part of this monarchy, have their fortunes united with those of your Royal 
Highness. To Charles I. [more commonly known in this country as the Emperor 
Charles V.] they owe the first elements of civil government, and the system 
established for the propagation of the gospel amongst those gentiles ; to Charles II. 
the protection and encouragement of the missions, by which so many souls have been 
brought into the bosom of the church; and to Charles III. your Royal Highness s 
august father, the most happy establishments, the present well-organized political 
economy of Europe, the promotion of the arts and the advantages of commerce; to the 
excellency of which institutions every day bears testimony, and for a continuation of the 
benefits of which we look with confidence, seeing that your Royal Highness is gathering 
instruction in the wise school of your father. 

Surely then, Sir, the New World could not find a better Maecenas than 
in the person of your Roj^al Highness, to protect a work written by one of its sons; and 
the Author, with great deference, submits it to your consideration, as containing the 
description of all your Royal Highness s kingdoms and provinces in that part of the 
world, together with their riches and productions. 

May your Royal Highness deign to receive it with your accustomed 
benignity ; and may Heaven grant us the life of your Royal Highness as many years 
as the universal wishes of Spain desire it. 

SIR, 

At the feet of your Royal Highness, 

ANTONIO DE ALCEDO. 



ALCEDO S PREFACE. 



THE history of America and the West Indies has been for some time an object of 
the study and interest of all European nations, from the desire of information concerning 
the geography, navigation, customs, and productions of those parts, and for the sake of 
encouraging commerce between the Old World and a country considered as the very 
fountain of riches. Hence it is that foreigners have dedicated themselves to writing and 
publishing on this subject whatsoever they knew or could collect; procuring from Spain 
all the histories and treatises which had been already made by the natives and the first dis 
coverers and conquerors of those regions : in so much, that books which were heretofore 
common, and in no estimation, are now scarcely to be obtained at any price. 

What has in no small degree contributed to the connection between the Old and 
New Worlds, is the introduction of certain American productions into the former, which 
through luxury have been rendered inrlispensible, such as cacao, cochineal, tobacco, 
vicuna wool, &c. ; as also, for their specific medicinal virtues, bark, jalap, zarzaparilla, 
calaguala, canchaguala, and the balsams of Tolu, Maria, Canime, &c. not to be found in 
any other part. 

These, it appeared to me, were sufficient reasons for requiring an universal history 
of America, which might contain every thing worthy of note, as well in its civil, natural, 
and ecclesiastical relations, as in its geography, productions, commerce, navigation, and 
interests with European powers: but being well aware of the difficulty of combining such 
information, it seemed to me more advisable to reduce it to the form of a dictionary. 

A publication of this nature could never have been completed by the labour of an 
individual ; but being aware that this timidity might ever operate as an insuperable 
obstacle to its execution, I determined, by the advice of a person of superior talents 
and intelligence, to be the first to lay the foundation, at least, of the undertaking; being, 
however, at the same time, somewhat instigated by the reflection, that I had myself visited 
many parts of America and the West Indies; and that I could avail myself of some most 
exact and important information in the vivd voce communications of a minister, [pro 
bably the M. R. P. Fr. Pedro Gonzalez de Agiieros, Franciscan missionary in the Ar 
chipelago of Chiloe], who having filled several of the highest offices in those countries 
for the space of upwards of forty years, had acquired a very uncommon stock of valuable 
knowledge, so as to have obtained at court the title of the " Oracle of America;" a 
title, for the justification of which, it were only necessary to refer to the vast number of 
public documents and decrees which have been drawn up by him for the Council of 
the Indies, and to the variety of works he has written, independent of those which have 
been published, and have met with general applause and estimation. In short, it is from 
such sources, as well as from a vast library of Indian books and papers, that I have found 
materials to labour incessantly for the space of twenty years, without other intermission than 
such as was called for by the duties of my profession; though even then, each trifling in 
terval I could spare was devoted to my principal object. 



The work being finished, I could not yet prevail upon myself to bring it to light, 
convinced that it must necessarily have many defects, although unknown to myself. It 
was then that the advice of a person of superior judgment, and a well founded confidence 
in the protection of the public, overcame my scruples, and I was persuaded to offer it at 
least as a foundation, whereon something more noble might afterwards be erected ; in the 
same manner as has occurred with regard to the dictionaries of Moreri, Vosgien, and La 
Martiniere, and many others, which, having been at first very defective, became enlarged 
and rendered complete by the labour of many. In this state of the business there came to 
my hands a Geographical Dictionary of South America, written in Italian by the Ex- 
Jesuit D. Juan Domingo Coleti, who had lived for some years in the province of Mainas ; 
also a Dictionary of North America, in English, with the title of" American Gazetteer;" 
and it immediately occurred to me that my own was now no further necessary : but having 
examined them both, I became persuaded that they were rather a reason why I should 
publish this ; since, without robbing them of any just merit, and remembering too, that 
each of them was confined to the descriptions of certain provinces , they possess by no 
means the same extent of information as this, as may be seen by referring to the letter A, 
which, in neither of those books, exceeds an hundred articles ; whereas the same letter in 
my dictionary contains upwards of a thousand, [and in this translation more than 1700.] 
But the principal cause which fixed me in my resolution was the recollection that I was 
treating of a country, in one of the best towns of which, I with pride and gratitude ac* 
knowledge myself to have been born ; and I do at the same time candidly allow, that I have 
made a free use of the two dictionaries just spoken of, as well in adding to, as in correcting 
the many articles I had already written. 

Whoever shall consider with impartiality the troublesome investigation of more than 
three hundred Indian volumes, the confusion and little exactness in many, and the diffi 
culty and labour of conciliating opposite opinions, and extracting the naked truth, will, I 
doubt not, make some allowance for the defects they may find ; and all I hope is, that 
they may have the goodness to apprise me of them whenever they shall think them worthy 
of emendation; when, so far from being mortified, I shall feel the most lively gratitude 
for their attention, stating their communications to the public, that they may not be de 
frauded of the merit to which they may be entitled. This, in truth, is the rational way of 
contributing to the public weal, and not the plan, as adopted by some, of endeavouring to 
find out diminutive errors, for the sake of satisfying their capriciousness, or of gaining the 
reputation of being wise, though fortunately the contrary be generally the effect of their 
labours. 

Some will observe that there are many articles very small and scanty of information : 
to this I answer, that my first object was only to have given a history of the kingdoms, 
provinces, capitals, and rivers of note; but that I afterwards included an account of the 
lesser settlements and rivers, concerning which there is for the most part but little to say, 
although there be a great advantage in knowing all their names and their relative distances. 
I have suppressed quoting, at the end of each article, the author from whom the principal 
information may have been extracted, in order to avoid a useless and troublesome repeti 
tion ; and in as much as I thought it would be preferable to give, at the end of the book, a 
list of the authors who have written upon the subject in question, after the plan of the cele 
brated Don Nicolas Antonio ; and also, by way of appendix, another dictionary, or alpha 
betical list of the provincial terms and foreign names of the fruits, trees, animals, &c. 

I have now only to add, that whatsoever information is read in this dictionary, con 
cerning a town, its number of inhabitants of any class, the existence of convents, forts, 



&c. is relative to the state in which those countries were in the time in which those au 
thors wrote, from whom the extracts are made; not but that I have in very many instances 
acquired the most recent information : and although I may regret that I may have some 
times stood in need of certain accounts, documents, and papers in the hand of government, 
or which might be even lying in the cabinets of the curious; yet, as they were still unpub 
lished, and not within my reach, I have been forced to content myself with such as have 
either passed through the press, or my good fortune and diligent research have thrown 
into my wav. Vale. 



A L C E D O S 
ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS STATED. 



THE desire we have felt of rendering this work more perfect, by every means 
in our power, has caused us to be continually employed in its execution ; and since we; 
have discovered many errata which have unavoidably arisen in the press, we lose no 
time in bringing them to light ; taking, at the same time, an opportunity of adverting 
to certain communications forwarded to us from certain literary characters who have 
been zealous in promoting our undertaking, and contributing to the public weal : amongst 
the number of whom are, the most Illustrious Senor Don Juan Manuel Moscoso, bishop 
of Cuzco ; Don Joseph de Ugarte, colonel of militia of the province of Abancay; the 
Fr. Pedro Gonzalez de Agiieros, of the order of St. Francis, and missionary apostolic 
for many years in the Archipelago of Chiloe; the Fr. Francisco de Ajofrin, a Capuchin; 
Don Manuel del Campo, native of the city of Cartago ; and Don Joseph Undo; all of 
whom are actually residing at this court, and to whom I with great gratitude acknow 
ledge all the important favours the public, no less than myself, has received. But, and 
although we are convinced it were in the power of many others to have manifested the 
same dispositions, who have contented themselves with criticising the errors they have 
been able to discern; and although we could, if we thought proper, shew on what little 
foundation their arguments were built, we shall decline entering into any controversy 
with them, but shall content ourselves with following the plan we have designed in the 
preface, supporting ourselves in our laborious employ with the consolatory reflection, that 
the work has obtained undeniable credit, as well in this kingdom as in America and in 
foreign parts, and that all wise persons are well aware of the difficulties which must na 
turally accrue to the beginning of an undertaking of this nature, and that time alone can 
bring it to perfection: To this, we cannot forbear adverting to the very great loss we have 
experienced by the fire which occurred in the palace and secretary of state s office, in 
1734 ; insomuch that we were obliged to go about soliciting information from the curious, 
as was particularly the case for the completion of the series of bishops and governors, 
not having been able to obtain any intelligence respecting them in the various papers 
and documents which lay before us ; and it is entirely from this latter source that we have 
completed the lists of bishops of Arequipa, Caracas, and Cuzco. 



The Royal Academy of History, 24 copies. 

Don Joaquin Dareche y Urrutia. 

Don Andres Gilabert. 

Don Miguel Murillo. 

Don Antonio Joseph Mosti, inhabitant of Cadiz. 

Don Pedro de la Roca. 

Don Cayetano Foncerrada. 

The most Excellent Seiior Don Luis de Urbina, 
lieutenant-general, and miltary fiscal of the 
supreme council of war. 

The most Excellent Senor Duke of Alva. 

Don Ramiro Ponce, chaplain of honour to his 
Majesty, and canon of the holy church of 
Jaen. 

Don Agustin Madan, 2 copies. 

Don Pedro Colmenares. 

Don Joaquin Pantaleon de Asteguieta, canon in 
the collegiate church of Mendinaceli. 

Don Manuel Antonio de Arce y Carrion. 

Don Dionisio Garcia Urbano. 

The most Excellent Senor Don Pedro Lerena, se 
cretary of the revenue office. 

Don Antonio Lucas, Marquis of Beniel. 

The M. R. P. Fr. Juan Antonio Roarte, a calced 
Trinitarian in Salamanca. 

Don Juan Antonio de la Pefia. 

The Count of Carpio, of his Majesty s council. 

The M. R. P. Fr. Tomas de la Virgen. 

Don Alexandro Cameron, rector of the royal 
Scotch college of Valladolid. 

The R. P. Don Romualdo Ramirez, administra 
tor of San Anton A bad. 

Don Lucas Palomeque, an officer in the revenue 
department. 

Don Jacobo Maria Espinosa, knight of the dis- 
tinguised order of Charles III. fiscal of the 
royal audience of Cataluna. 

Don Joseph Madrazo de la Escalera. 

Don Juan de Villalonga, captain of engineers. 

Don Joaquin de Necochea, of the commerce of 
Cadiz. 

Don Juan Manuel Lopez de Sagredo, inhabitant 
of Granada. 

Don Juan de Ardois, inhabitant of Cadiz. 

The Count of Guendulain, native of Pam 
plona. 

VOL. I. 



Don Francisco Xavier Ximinez de Fexada, native 

of Pamplona. 
Don Francisco Ibanez. 
Don Juan Francisco Solano. 
Don Ignacio Francisco de Arjona. 
Don Ignacio Campesirio. 
Don Rudesindo Ruiz de Cabrejas. 
Don Juan Estevan de Espeleta. 
Don Martin Damaso de Uriz. 
Don Manuel Man so. 
Don Mateo Gutierrez de Villegas. 
Don Luisde Oyarzabal. 
Don Tomas de Iriarte. 
Don Joseph Manuel de Encalada. 
The library of the Capuchin fathers of Prado. 
Don Juan Antonio de la Fuente, inhabitant of 

Cadiz. 

Don Domingo de Marcoleta. 
Don Joaquin Mendez de Vigo, inhabitant of 

Oviedo. 

Don Joseph Delgado y Campo. 
Don Francisco Dusay y Fivaller. 
Don Ramon de Marimon, first lieutenant of Spa 
nish guards. 
The Illustrious Senor Don Roque Martin Merino, 

bishop of Teruel. 
Don Fernando Luengo Rodriguez, dignified canon 

of the holy church of Teruel. 
Don Inigo Cortes de Velasco. 
The P. M. Fr. Benito Araujo, benedictine monk, 

and abbot of the royal monastery of San Vi 
cente de Oviedo. 
The P. M. Fr. Vicente Giron Benedictino, regent 

of the royal monastery of San Vicente de 

Oviedo. 

Don Joseph Sandoval, inhabitant of Malaga. 
Don Joseph de Viu, prebendary of the holy church 

of Toledo. 

Don Juan Francisco del Castillo y Carroz. 
The Illustrious Senor Count of Tepa, of the 

council and chamber of the Indies. 
Don Manuel Comes, inhabitant of Cadiz. 
Don Jayrae Martinez. 
Don Cayetano Maria Huarte, prebendary of the 

holy church of Cadiz, and visitor of its 

bishopric. 



Don Martin rle TJHoa, oidor of the royal audience 

of Sevilla. 
Don Joaquin cle Molina, captain of the royal 

armada. 
Don Manuel Espinosa Tello, lieutenant of the 

royal armada. 
The most Illustrious Seiior, Don Joseph Constancio 

de Andinos, bishop of Albarracin. 
The Brigadier Marquis of Granada, captain of the 

regiment of royal Spanish guards. 
Don Ignacio de Meras Queipo. 
Don Francisco Durango. 
Don Angel Triqueros, secretary to the embassy at 

the court of Turin. 
Don Antonio de Lara y Zuniga, of the council of 

H. M. at the court of inquisition of Sevilla. 
Don Tomas Isidre de la Pinta. 
Don Cayetano Hue. 
Don Cayetano Font Clossas. 
Don Pedro Juez Sarmiento, lieutenant-colonel of 

the royal armies, adjutant-major of royal 

Spanish guards. 
Don Narciso de Pedro, colonel at the Plaza of 

Valencia. 

Don Joseph Francisco Ferrer de Ibauez, inhabi 
tant of Barcelona. 
Don Vicente Domingo. 
Don Manuel de Robles, door-keeper of H. M. 

chamber, 2 copies. 
Don Antonio Garcia Conde, lieutenant-colonel of 

the royal armies, second adjutant-major of 

the royal Spanish guards. 
Don Juan Bautista Munoz, cosmographer-general 

of the Indies. 

Don Agapito Domenchu, presbyter. 
Don Ramon Antonio de Castro. 
Don Felipe Baron de Lamberts, brigadier of the 

royal armies. 
Don Francisco Xavier Becar, canon of the holy 

church of Barcelona. 

Don Francisco Cinza, inhabitant of Vizcaya. 
Don Vicente Ferrer de Plauden. 
The most Excellent Senor, Duke of Ilijar. 
Don Manuel de San Pedro y Tobia. 
The M. II. P. Fr. Antonio Calonje, benedictine 

monk and lieutenant-major of San Martin. 
Don Miguel de Iribarren. 
Don Francisco Seneca. 
Don Joseph Sala, canon of Grandia. 
Don Francisco de Turnes, magistral canon of the 

holy church of Lugo. 
Don Juan Antonio Montes, second adjutant-major 

of the royal Spanish guards. 
Don Joseph de la Pena y Alfeidan, archdeacon of 

Azumara, in the holy church of Mondofiedo. 



The M. R. P. Fr. Dionisio de Otano, of the order 

of San Benito. 

Don Miguel Antonio Torrente. 
Don Antonio Perez, of the teller s office in the 

Indies. 

Don Joseph Tello y Pallares. 
The Doctor Don Sebastian Rodriguez Viedma. 
Don Antonio Cortes Moreno. 
Don Manuel de Ataide y Portugal. 
Don Joseph Colon de Larreategui, oidor of Valla- 

dolid. * 

The most Excellent Senor, Marquis of Santa Cruz. 
Don Antonio de Sancha, bookseller at this court, 

2 copies. 

Don Francisco de Soria y Soria. 
Don Lorenzo Buxeda. 
Don Roque Jzquierdo. 
Don Joseph Carnpana. 
The R. P. M. Don Agustin Vazquez, general of 

San Bernardo, and abbot of the monastery of 

Poblet in Cataluna. 
Don Nicolas Ballester y Flotats. 
Don Mariano Rivas, inhabitant of Barcelona. 
Don Miguel Grijalva Guzman, archdeacon of 

Sepulveda, canon of the holy church of 

Segovia. 
Don Salvador Texerino y Texada, presbyter of 

Salamanca. 
Don Diego Alvarez de la Fuente, inhabitant of 

Malaga. 
The most Excellent Senor, Don Manuel de Florez, 

lieutenant-general of the royal armada, and 

viceroy of Nueva Espana. 
Don Juan Francisco Ibanez de la Renteria. 
Don Tadeo de Arguedas. 
Don Mariano Cerda. 
Don Candido Marca Trigueros. 
The most Excellent Senor, Marquis of La Lapilla. 
Don Mateo Alfonso de Prado, a counsellor at this 

court. 
The most Excellent Senor, Duke of Vauguyon, 

French ambassador at the court of Madrid. 
The most Excellent Senor, Duke of Uceda, squire 

of the body to his most Serene Highness the 

Prince of Asturias. 
Don Francisco Joseph Villodres, canon of the holy 

cathedral church of Cordoba. 
Don Joaquin Juan de Florez. 
Don Alfonso Tabares, inhabitant of the town of La 

Solana in La Mancha. 

The R,. P. M. Fr. Adriano de Huerta, of the reli 
gion of San Bernardo, abbot of the monastery 

of Osera. 
The Marquis of Mos, colonel of militia, of Be- 

tanzos. 



Don Antonio Borras, of the commerce of Reus in 

Cataluna. 

Don Joaquin Sotomayor y Cisneros, 2 copies. 
Don Miguel Arnaud de Courbille, commissary of 

war. 
Don Tomas Martinez de Aguilera, racionero of the 

holy church of Sigiienza. 
Don Alonso Ceferino Borbon. 
Don Antonio Iglesias, bookseller, 4 copies. 
Don Juan Manuel Mascarenas, inhabitant of the 

town of Berin in Galicia. 
Don Miguel de Larrea. 
Don Bartolome de Siles. 
Don Juan Antonio Ximenes de Aguilera. 
The R. P. Fr. Joseph Mancebo, of the order of St. 

Augustin. 
Don Francisco de Paula Cabeda Solares, of his 

Majesty s royal apothecaries hall. 
The most Excellent Senor, Duke of Almodovar, 

major-domo to the Infanta Dona Maria Ana 

Victoria. 
The Lieutenant-colonel Don Francisco Mayorga, of 

the order of Alcantara, second lieutenant in 

the regiment of royal Spanish guards. 
Don Joseph Galan. 
Don Joseph Sanroman. 
Don Joseph Badan. 

Don Jacinto Lorenzana, inhabitant of Leon. 
Don Dionisio Saenz Galinsoga, presbyter. 
Don Joseph Espriella. 
Don Isidro de Antayo, second adjutant of the 

royal Spanish guards. 
Don Andres de Zabala y Aragon. 
The Marquis of Rivas, inhabitant of Seville. 
Don Domingo Antonio de Urruchi. 
Don Antonio Gimbernat, surgeon to his Majesty. 
The Doctor Don Pedro de la Torre Herrera, canon 

of Alcala of Henares. 
Don Pedro Perez de Castro, of the college of 

counsellors in this court. 

Don Joaquin Espalter y Roix, resident at Bar 
celona. 
Don Juan Vicente Canet y Longas, inhabitant of 

Valencia. 
Don Miguel de Hermosilla, engineer of the royal 

armies. 
Don Francisco Joseph BernaJ, paymaster at the 

port of Guayra. 



The M. R. P. Fr. Joaquin Herrezuelo, preacher at 
San Martin de Santiago. 

Don Manuel de Arredondo, regent of the royal 
audience of Buenos Ayres. 

Don Joseph Ignacio del Pumar, native of the city 
of Barinas in America. 

Don Vicente Navarro, canon of Huesca. 

Don Andres de Quevedo, second lieutenant of gre 
nadiers in the royal Spanish guards. 

Don Joseph Rubio, second lieutenant in the regi 
ment of royal Spanish guards. 

Don Antonio Pasqual y Garcia de Almunia, per 
petual regidor amongst the nobles of the city 
of Valencia. 

Don Manuel Joseph Marin. 

Don Justo, pastor of Astiqufeta y Sarralde, resi 
dent at Mexico. 

Don Silvestre Diaz de la Vega, accountant of the 
tobacco-revenues at Mexico. 

The Doctor Don Manuel de Florez, secretary of 
the lllmo Sr. archbishop of Mexico. 

Don Felipe Albera, bookseller at this court. 

The Doctor Don Estevan Gutierrez. 

Don Pedro Joseph de Lemus, inhabitant of 
Mexico. 

Don Tomas de Berganza. 

Don Joseph de Aguilar. 

The most Excellent Sr. Duke of Alburquerque, 
Marquis of La Mina, gentleman of the cham 
ber to his Majesty, and brigadier-general in 
the royal armies. 

The R. P. Fr. Juan Fiayo, a Franciscan, and 
preacher in the convent of Cartagena, in the 
Indies. 

Don Pedro Tomas de Villanueva, resident at Car 
tagena, in the Indies. 

Don Antonio Bergosa y Jordan, inquisitor of 
Mexico. 

Don Isidro Limonta, colonel of infantry, king s 
lieutenant at the Plaza of Cuba. 

Don Joseph Martin de Garmendia, inhabitant of 
Villafranca of Guipuzcoa. 

Don Gabriel Manuel Espinosa de los Monteros, re 
sident at Barcelona. 

Don Francisco Arias Velasco, perpetual regidor of 
the city of Oviedo. 

Don Manuel Malco, of his Majesty s council of the 
royal revenue. 



GENERAL TABLE 

OF THE KINGDOMS AND PROVINCES INTO WHICH 

SPANISH AMERICA 

is DIVIDED; 

AND OF THE VICEROYALTIES, GOVERNMENTS, CORREGIMIENTOS, AND 
ALCALDIAS MAYORES ESTABLISHED IN THEM. 



SOUTH AMERICA 

is divided into three Viceroyalties, containing the following Kingdoms and Provinces : 

VICEROYALTY OF THE NEW KINGDOM OF GRANADA. 

KINGDOM OF TIERRA FIRME. 

Governments. 



Panama, 
Porto velo, 



Veragua, 
Darien. 



Cartagena, 


Guayana, 


Caracas, 


Cumana, 


Popayan, 


Santa Marta, 


Maracaibo, 


Choco, 


Tunja, 


Zipaquira, 


Bogota, 


Ubate, 


Boza , 


Coyaima, 


Pasca, 


Muzo, 


Panches, 


Turmeque, 


Guatavita, 


Tensa, 



Guayaquil, 

Jaen de Bracamoros, 



Alcaldia Mayor. 
Nata. 

NEW KINGDOM OF GRANADA. 

Governments. 

Antioquia, 

San Faustino, 

San Juan de los Llanos, 

San Juan Jiron, 

Corregimientos. 

Duitama, 

Cliivata, 

Paipa, 

Sogamoso, 

Neiva, 

Gameza, 

KlxNGDOM OF QUITO. 

Governments. 

Esmeraldas, 
Mainas, 



Mariquita, 
Isla de Puerlorico, 
Isla de la Trinidad, 
Isla de la Mar<i;arilac 



Chita, 
Sachica, 
Velez, 
San Gil, 
Servita, 



Quixos y Macas,. 
Cuenca. 



( xvii ) 



Pasto, 

Xibaros, 

Ibarra, 



Corregim ten tos . 

Tacunga, Riobamba, 

Ambato, Loxa, 

VICEROYALTY OF PERU. 

KINGDOM OF PERU. 

Governments. 



Zamora, 
Ciiimbp. 





Guarochiri, 
Tarma, 


Guancavelica, 
Cuzco. 


Corregimientos. 


Abancai, 


Chachapoyas, 


Huarochiri, 


Sana, 


Aimaraes, 


Chancay, 


Huailas, 


Santa, 


Andahuailas, 


Castro Virreyna, 


Huanuco, 


Truxillo, 


Angaraes, 


Collalmas, 


Huanta, 


Vilcas Huaman, 


Arequipa, 


Conchucos, 


Luya y Chillaos, 


Caxamarca, 


Arica, 


Condesuyos, 


Lucanos, 


Urubamba, 


Calca y Lares, 


Cotabamba, 


Moquebua, 


Yauyos, 


Camana, 


Cbilques y Masques, Parinacochas, 


Yea, 


Canes y Canches, 


Cbumbivilcas, 


Piura, 


Xauxa, 


Caiiete, 


Guaraanga, 


Paucartambo, 


Caxatambo. 


Canta, 


Guamacana, 


Pataz, 




Cercado, 


Guamalies, 


Quispicanchi, 




VICEROYALTY OF THE PROVINCES OF THE RIO 


DE LA PLATA. 






Governments. 




Buenos Ayres, 


Santa Cruz de la 


Sierra, Puno, 


Chiquitos, -,* 


Chucuito, 


Montevideo, 


Paz, 


Moxos, 


Tucuman, 


Paraguay, 


Potosi, 








Coregimientos. 




Mizque, 


Chayanta, 


Atacama, 


Oruro, 


Paucarcolla, 


Larecaja, 


Asangaro, 


Ornasuyos, 


Pilaya y Paspaya, 


Lipes, 


Carabaya, 


Sicasica, 


Purnabamba, 


Paria, 


Carangas, 


Tomina. 


Yarnparaez, 


Pacajes, 


Tarija, 




Cochabamba, 


Apolabamba, 


Porco, 





CAPTAINSIIIP-GENERAL AND PRESIDENCY OF CHILE. 

KINGDOM OF CHILE. 
Governments. 



Concepcion, 
Valdivia, 



Valparaiso, 
Chiloe, 



Aconcagua, 
Cuyo, 
Copiapo, 
Coquimboj 



Colcagua, 
Chilian, 
Maule, 
Melpilla> 



Corregimientos. 

Puchacay, 
Quillota, 
Rede, 
SantiagOj 



Islas Malvinas, 

Islas de Juan Fernandez. 



Rancagua, 
Kata. k 



( xviii ) 



NORTH AMERICA, 

which has only one Viceroyalty, and contains the following Kingdoms and Provinces : 

VICEROYALTY OF NEW SPAIN. 
KINGDOM OF NEW SPAIN. 
Governments. 

Vera Cruz, 
Acapulco, 



Actopam, 

Apam, 

Acayuca, 

Antigua, 

Acatlan, 

Atrisco, 

San Bias, 

Chalco, 

Cuyoacan, 

Chietla, 

Chiautla, 

Coatepec, 

Cozamaluapan, 

Cordoba, 

Cadreita, 

Chilapa, 

Cuernavaca, 

Colima, 

Cholula, 



S. Christoval, 
Ezallan, 
Guijolotitlan, 
Huamelula, 



Cuiceo de la Laguna, 

Guimeo, 

Guanajuato, 

San Luis de Potosi, 

San Luis de la Paz, 

Maravatio, 



Amula, 
Autlan, 



Coaguila, 


Yucatan, 


Pucbla de los Angeles. 


Tabasco. 


Alcaldias Mayores. 




Huajuapan, Qnantla Amilpas, 


Tampico, 


Huichiapan, Quantitlan, 


Tulin/inco, 


Htielutla, Querefaro, 


Tetela Xonotla, 


Guejotzinco, Temastelpec, 


Tezcuco, 


Ixtepexi, Tepeaca, 


Teotihuacan, 


Ixtlahuaca, Tccali, 


Tlaxcala, 


Izucar, Tehuacan de las 


Tuxtla, 


Ixmiquilpan, Granadas. 


Tlapa, 


Justlahuac, Teufitlan, 


Villalta, 


S.Juande los Llanos, Teutila, 


Valladolid, 


Lerma, Tehuantepec, 


Valles, 


Mexilcaltzinco, Teocuilco, 


Xalapa, 


Miahuatlan, Tepozcolula, 


Xuchimilco, 


Metepec, Tepexi de la Seda, 


Xicayan, 


Malinalco, Tacuba, 


Yahualica, 


Mextitlan, Toluca, 


Zacualpan, 


Nexapa, Tenango del Valle, 


Zapotlan, 


Nochiztlan, Tetela del Rio, 


Zumpango, 


Nuevo Santander, Taxco, 


Zimapan, 


Oaxaca, Tixtla, 


Zacatlan delas Man 


Orizava, Tocliimilco, 


zanas, 


Otumba, Tula, 


Zempoala, 


Papantla, Tetepango, 


Zimatlan. 


Quatro Villas, Tehusitlan, 




KINGDOM OP MECHOACAN. 




Alcaldias Mayores. 




San Miguel el Grande, Zelaya, 


Zarnora, 


Tancitaro, Pasquaro, 


Cinaque, 


Tlasasalca, Chaco, 


Motines, 


Tlalpujagua, Guadalcazar, 


Tinguindin, 


Villa de Leon, Jaso y Teremendo, 


Xiquilpa, 


Xiquilpa, Chilchota, 


Zacatula. 


KINGDOM OF NUEVA GALICIA. 




Alcaldias Mayores. 




/ay ula, Guadalaxara, 


Tepic, 


Zacatecas, Tala, 


Sentipac, 



Tequepexpa, Caxititlan, Acaponeta, Juchipila, 

Tonola, Tlajomulco, Nayarith, Colotlan, 

Ostotipaquillo, Zapotlan, Barca, Xerez, 

Analco, Izatlan, Tecpatitlan, Fresnillo, 

Ma/apil, Guauchinango, Lagos, Ibarra, 

Aguas Calientes, Purificacion, Cuquio, Sierra de Pinos, 

Zapopan, Ostotipac, Tecualtichi, Charcas. 
Xaln, Compostela, 

CAPTAINSHIP-GENERAL OF THE ISLAND OF CUBA. 

Governments. 

Cuba, Florida, Louisiana. 



A 

GENERAL TABLE 

OF THE BRITISH DOMINIONS AND GOVERNMENTS IN 

NORTH AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES. 

viz. 

BRITISH DOMINIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 

Hudson s Bay, tinder N.S.Wales,) Nova Scotia, the government of 

the management of East Main, > rinsettled. New Brunswick, Lower Canada, 

the Hudson s Bay Labrador, J Lower Canada, St. John s, under the 

Company. Newfoundland, Upper Canada, government of Nova 

Cape Breton, under Scotia. 

BRITISH DOMINIONS IN THE WEST INDIES. 

Governments. 

Jamaica, Island, Barbadoes, Island, 

Bahama Islands, Trinidad, Island. 

Leeward Islands, 
For the enumeration of the islands comprised in these governments, see article ANTILLES. 

Islands and Territories conquered in the present War. 

Martinique, Curacoa, Surinam, 

Guadaloupe, St. Eustatius, Demerara, 

St. Lucie, Santa Cruz, Essequibo. 

Conquered by the Portuguese and British. 
Cayenne. 



PORTUGUESE DOMINIONS. 

BRAZIL 

is divided into the following fourteen Provinces or Captainships : 



Rio Janeyro, 
Todos Santos, 

llheos, 
Paraiba, 



Para, 
Maranan, 
Espiritu Santo, 

Itaraaraca, 



Seara, 

Puerto Seguro, 
Pernarabuco, 



INDEPENDENT. 

The Island of Hayti or St. Domingo. 



Sergipe del Rey. 
San Vicente, 
Rio Grande. 



OF THE 
REPUBLIC OF NORTH AMERICA, 

OR THE 

UNITED STATES, 
AND TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENTS. 



Virginia, 
New York, 
Pennsylvania, 
Massachusetts, 
Maine, 

Orleans, 
Mississippi, 


North Carolina, 
South Carolina, 
Kentucky, 
Maryland, 
Connecticut, 

TERRITORIAL 

Indiana, 
Columbia, 


Tennessee, West, 
Tennessee, East, 
Georgia, 
New Jersey, 
Ohio, 

GOVERNMENTS. 

Louisiana, 
Illinois, 



Vermont, 
New Hampshire, 
Rhode Island, 
Delaware. 



Michigan. 



The Russians have formed some settlements upon a part of the n. w. coast 
of America, tying w. and n. of Cook s Inlet. 



THE 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL 



DICTIO NARY 



OF 



AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES 




ABA 

lies at the head of Penn s 
Creek, Northumberland county, Pennsylvania ; 
about 30 miles w. from Lewisburgh, and 40 w. by 
n. from Sunbury. Lat. 40 52 30" n. Long. 77 
31 30" o>.] 

ABACACTIS,- or ABACARIS, a settlement of 
Indians, of this name, in the province of the Ama- 
zonas, and in the part or territory possessed by the 
Portuguese. It is a reduction of the religious 
order of the Carmelites of this nation, situate on 
the shores of a lake of the same name. It lies 
between this lake and a river, which is also so 
called, and which is a large arm of the Madeira, 
which, passing through this territory, afterwards 
returns to that from whence it flowed, forming the 
island of Topinambes. 

[ABACO, one of the largest and most northern 
of the Bahama islands, situate upon the s. e. end 
of the Little Bahama bank. The Hole in the 
Rock, or (as it is most commonly called) the 
Hole in the Wall, is the most southern point of 
the island, and bears about 18 leagues north from 
the island of New Providence, about 9 or 10 
leagues in a n. w. direction from Egg Island, 
and about 10 or 12 in a n. e. direction from 
the Berry islands. About 10 leagues to the n. of 
the Hole in the Wall, on the e. side of the island, 
is Little Harbour, the entrance to which is be 
tween the main land of Abaco and Ledyard s Key, 

VOT,. i. 



ABA 

and within which there is good anchorage. There 
is also an anchorage to the w. of the Hole in the 
Wall. 

The island of Abaco is at present uninhabited. 
In 1788 it contained about 50 settlers and 200 
Negroes. The lands granted by the crown, pre 
vious to May 1803, amounted to 14,058 acres, for 
the purpose of cultivation ; but the settlers who 
occupied it have since removed. It contains great 
quantities of the various kinds of woods which 
are common to almost all the Bahama islands. 

To the northward of Abaco, is a long chain of 
small islands or keys, (including Elbow Key, 
Man of War Key, Great Guana Key, the Gala 
pagos, &c. fec.) reaching, in a n. w. direction, 
almost to the Matanilla reefs on the Florida 
stream ; from whence the Little Bahama bank ex 
tends, in a southerly direction, to the west point 
of the island of the Grand Bahama. [Lat. 26 
22 n. Long. 77 14 w. See BAHAMAS.] 

[ABACOOCHE, or COOSEE, a large river, ris 
ing in the s. w. territory, passing into Georgia, 
through the Cherokee into the Creek country, 
where it unites with the Oakfuskee, and forms the 
Alibama.] 

ABACQUA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Buenos Ayres, situate on the shore 
of the river Parana, near the spot where it enters 
the Paraguay, to the e. of the city of Corrientes. 



ABA 

ABACU, a point of land on the s. coast of the 
island of St. Domingo. 

ABADES, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Popayan, in the district and jurisdic 
tion of San J uan de Pasto. 

ABANCAY, a province and corregimiento of 
Peru, bounded on the e. by the large city of Cuzco, 
(its jurisdiction beginning at the parish of Santa 
Ana of that city), and on the w. by the province 
of Andahuailas ; w. by that of Calcaylares, form 
ing, in this part, an extended chain of snow-covered 
mountains ; s. by the provinces of Cotabamba and 
Aimaraez ; s. w. by Chilques and Masques. It 
extends 26 leagues from e. to w. and is 14 broad. 
Its most considerable river is the Apurimac, which 
is separated from it at the n. w. and bends its 
course, united with other streams, towards the 
mountains of the Andes. This river is crossed by 
a wooden bridge of 80 yards long and 3 broad, 
which is in the high road from Lima to Cuzco, and 
other provinces of the sierra. The toll collected 
here is four rials of silver for every load of goods 
of the produce of the country, and twelve for those 
of the produce of Europe. The temperature of 
this province is mild, and for the most part salu 
brious, with the exception of a few vallies, where, 
on account of the excessive heat and humidity, 
tertian agues are not uncommon. It produces 
wheat, maize, and other grain in great abundance, 
and its breed of horned cattle is by no means in 
considerable ; but its principal production is 
sugar, which they refine so well, that it may chal 
lenge the finest European sugars for whiteness : 
this is carried for sale to Cuzco and other pro 
vinces, and is held in great estimation. It also 
produces hemp, cloth manufactures of the coun 
try ; and in its territories mines of silver are not 
wanting, especially in the mountain which they 
call Jalcanta, although the natives avail them 
selves not of the advantages so liberally held out to 
them. Its jurisdiction comprehends 17 settle 
ments, f \\erepartiwentO) quota of tribute, amounted 
to 108,750 djllars, and it rendered yearly 870 
for the alcdbala. 

The following are the 17 settlements : 
The capital, Limatambo, 

Huanicapa, Mollepata, 

Curahuasi, Pantipata, 

Cachora, Pibil, 

Antilla, Chonta, 

Anta, Pocquiura, 

Ibin, Surite, 

ChachaypucquiOj Huaracondo. 

Sumata, 

ABANCAY, the capital of the above province, 
5 



ABE 

founded in a spacious valley, which gives it its 
title : it is also so called from a river, over which 
has been thrown one of the largest bridges in the 
kingdom, being the first that was built there, and 
looked upon as a monument of skill. In the above 
valley the jurisdiction of this province, and that of 
Andahuailas, becomes divided. It is also memor 
able for the victories gained in its vicinity by the 
king s troops against Gonzalo Pizarro, in the years 
1542 and 1548. It has a convent of the religious 
order of St. Dominic ; this order being the first of 
those which established themselves in Peru. 20 
leagues distant from the city of Cuzco. Lat. 13 
31 30* s. Long. 72 26 w. 

ABANCAY, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Cuenca, in the kingdom of Quito, 
situate on the shore of the river Paute. 

ABANES, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the plains of San 
Juan, to the n. of the Orinoco. They inhabit the 
woods on the shores of this river, as well as other 
small woods ; and are bounded, e. by the Salivas, 
and w. by the Caberres and Andaquies. They 
are docile, of good dispositions, and are easily 
converted to the Catholic faith. 

ABANGOUI, a large settlement of the pro 
vince and government of Paraguay. It is com 
posed of Indians of the Guarani nation, and situate 
on the shore of the river Taquani. It was disco 
vered by Alvar Nunez, Cabezade Vaca, in 1541. 

ABARANQUEN, a small river of the pro 
vince and government of Guayana, or Nueva 
Andalusia. It rises in the country of the Quiri- 
quipas Indians, runs from s. to n. and enters the 
Aruy. 

[ABARY, a small river of Guayana, between 
the Berbice and the Demerary. See MAH AICA.] 

[ABBEVILLE County, in Ninety-six district, 
S. Carolina, bounded on the n. e. by the Saluda, 
and on the s. w. by the Savannah, is 35 miles in 
length and 21 in breadth ; contains 9197 in 
habitants, including 1665 slaves.] 

[ABBOTS, a small river of N. Carolina, Avhich 
runs s. w. and enters the Pcdi, at a little distance 
from the source of this river, in the territory of the 
Granville limits.] 

ABECOCH1, a settlement of Indians of S. Caro 
lina, situate on the shore of the river Cousa. The 
English have a settlement here, with a fort for its 
defence. 

ABE1CAS, a nation of Indians of New France, 
bounded on the n. by the Alibaniis, and e. by 
the Cheraquis. They live at a distance from the 
large rivers, and the only produce of their terri 
tory is some canes, which are not thicker than a 



A B I 

finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, 
they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak 
the Tchicachan language, and with the other na 
tions are in alliance against the Iroquees. 

ABERCORN, a (own of the province and co 
lony of New Georgia, on the shore of the river 
Savannah, near where it enters the sea, and at a 
league s distance from the city of this name. [It is 
about 30 miles from the sea, 5 miles from Ebenezer, 
and 13 n. w. of Savannah.] 

ABIDE, mountains, or serrania, of the pro 
vince and government of Cartagena. They rim 
from w. to n. e. from near the large river of Mag- 
dalena to the province of Choco, and the S. Sea. 
Their limits and extent are not known, but they 
are leagues wide, and were discovered by Capt. 
Francisco Cesar in 1536 ; he being the first who 
penetrated into them, after a labour of 10 months, 
in which time he had to undergo the most extreme 
privations and excessive perils ; not that these ex 
ceeded the hardships which were endured by the 
licentiate Badillo, who entered upon its conquest 
with a fine army. 

AB1GIRAS, a settlement of Indians, one of the 
missions, or a reduction, which belonged to the 
regular order of the Jesuits, in the province and 
government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; 
founded in the year 1665, by the father Lorenzo 
Lucero, on the shore of the river Curarari, 20 
leagues from its mouth, and 240 from Quito. 

[ABINEAU Port, on the n. side of lake Erie, 
is about 13 miles w. s. w. from fort Eric. Lat. 
42 6 n. Long. 79 15 o>.] 

[ABINGDON, a town at the head of the tide 
waters of Bush river, Harford county, Maryland, 
12 miles s. w. from Havre-de-Grace, and 20 n. e. 
from Baltimore. Cokesbury college, instituted by 
the methodists in 1785, is in this town. Lat. 
39 27 30" n. Long. 76 20 35" w.l 

[ABINGDON, the chief town of Washington 
county, Virginia, contained but about 20 houses 
in 1788, and in 1796 upwards of 150. It is about 
145 miles from Campbell s station, near Holston ; 
260 from Richmond in Virginia, in a direct line, 
and 3JO as the road runs, bearing a little to the s. 
of w. Lat. 36 41 30" n. Long. 81 59 .] 

[ABINGTON, a township in Plymouth coun 
ty, Massachusetts; 22 miles 5. e. from Boston, and 
contains 1453 inhabitants. Lat. 42 4 30".] 

[ABINGTON, a parish in the town ot Pom- 
frei in Connecticut. Lat. 42 4 30". Long. 70 51 
30".] 

[ABINGTON, a village in Pennsylvania, 12 
miles w. of Philadelphia.] 

ABIPI, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of 



A B I 3 

Muzo, and corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, 
producing some wheat, maize, yucas, plantains, 
and canes ; it has been celebrated for iis rich mines 
of emeralds, which aie. however, at present aban 
doned from want of water ; it is nearly three 
leagues distant from the large mine of Itoco. 

ABIPONES, a nation of barbarous Indians, of 
the province and government of Tucuman, in 
habiting the s. shores of the river Bermejo. Their 
number once exceeded 100,000 ; but they are cer 
tainly at present much reduced. They go naked, 
except that the women cover themselves with little 
skins, prettily ornamented, which they call quey- 
api. They aro very good swimmers, of a lofty 
and robust stature, and well featured : but they 
paint their faces and the rest of their body, and arc 
very much given to war, which they carry on 
chiefly against such as come cither to hunt or to 
fish upon their territory. Their victims they have 
a custom of sticking upon lofty poles, as a land 
mark, or by way of intimidation to their enemies. 
From their infancy they cut and scarify their 
bodies, to make themselves hardy. When their 
country is inundated, which happens in the five 
winter months, they retire to live in the islands, or 
upon the tops of trees : they have some slight no 
tion of agriculture, but they live by fishing, and 
the produce of the chase, holding in the highest 
estimation the flesh of tigers, which they divide 
among their relations, as a sort of precious relic or 
dainty ; also asserting that it has the properties of 
infusing strength and valour. They have no know 
ledge either of God, of law, or of policy ; but they 
believe in the immortality of the soul, and that 
there is a land of consummate bliss, where they 
shall dance and divert themselves after their death. 
When a man dies, his widow observes a state of 
celibacy, and fasts a year, which consists in an ab 
stinence from fish : this period being fulfilled, an 
assembly run out to meet her, and inform her that 
her husband has given her leave to marry. The 
women occupy themselves in spinning and sewing 
hides ; the men are idlers, and the boys run about 
the whole day in exercising their strength. The men 
are much addicted to drunkenness, and then the 
women are accustomed to conceal their husband s 
weapons, for fear of being killed. They do not rear 
more than two or three children, killing all above 
this number. 

AB1SCA, an extensive province of the king 
dom of Peru, to the e. of the Cordillera of the 
Andes, between the rivers Yetau and Anmrumago,, 
and to the s. of Cuzco. It is little known, con 
sisting entirely of woods, rivers, and lakes ; and 
B 2 



4 A B R 

hither many barbarous nations of Indians have re 
tired, selecting for their dwelling places the few 
plains which belong to the province. The Em 
peror Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subser 
vient to his controul, but without success : the same 
disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his 
attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538. 

ABISMES, QUARTEL DBS, that part or divi 
sion of the island of Guadaloupe which looks to 
the n. e. It takes its name from its having some 
creeks, or inlets, which serve as places of shelter 
for vessels, in case of invasion either from enemies 
or from hurricanes. Here they ride quite safe, 
for the bottom is very good ; and being made fast 
to the strong palm-trees which abound here, they 
stand in no need of being anchored, which would 
be inconvenient, and attended with risk, on ac 
count of the thick roots thrown out by the 
above trees. Further on is a small island called 
Des Cochons, where an engineer, of the name of 
Renau, endeavoured, without success, in 1700, to 
build a fort, for the sake of securing the harbour, 
which is a good one. 

ABITANJS, a mountain of the province and 
corregimiento of Lipes in Peru. In the Quechu- 
an tongue it signifies the ore of gold, from a cele 
brated mine which is at present nearly abandoned, 
from the want of workmen. It is nearly contigu 
ous to thetesettlement of Colcha. 

[ABITIBBI, a small lake in Upper Canada, on 
the s. side of which is a settlement called Frederick, 
which last lies in n. lat. 48 35 . w. long. 82. Also 
the name of a river which runs n. and joins Moose 
river near its mouth at James s bay.] 

ABIT1BIS, a lake of the country of Hudson, 
in the territory of the Indians of this name. [This 
lake is n. of Nipissing lake, the . e. boundary of 
Canada, in New South Wales : it has communi 
cation with James s bay, near Moose fort. Lat. 
48 39 n. Long. 79 2 o>.] 

ABITIGAS, a nation of barbarous Indians, of 
the province and corregimiento of Tarma in 
Peru. It is very numerous and warlike; and they 
live a wandering life in the woods. It is CO 
leagues to the e. of the mountains of the Andes ; 
bounded on the s. by the Ipilcos Indians. 

ABORROEN, a port of the coast of Brasil, in 
the province and captainship of Seara, between the 
river Escorgogive and the bay of Inobu. 

ABRA, an island of the straits of Magellan, at 
the entrance of the third and last narrow pass, 
called the Passage. 

[ABRAM S CREEK falls into Hudson s river, 
near the city of Hudson.] 

ABREOLHOS, or ABREOGOS, Point of, on 



A C A 

the coast of Brasil, and of the province and cap 
tainship of Espiritu Santo, between the rivers 
Percipe and Quororupa, in s. lat. 18 19 30". 
w. long. 39 51 30". Here are some hidden rocks, 
or sand-banks, extremely dangerous ; and al 
though there are various navigable channels, it 
requires the utmost caution to avoid shipwreck, 
this having been the lot of an infinite number of 
vessels. These sand-banks are more than 20 
leagues distant from the continent, and extend 
themselves upwards of five leagues to the e. of the 
island of Tuego. Their situation, taken in the 
the centre, is in 170 51 20" s. lat. w. long. 39 

lo. 

[ABROJOS, or BAXOS DE BABUCA, a bank, 
with several small rocks and isles, e. of Turk s 
island, in n. lat. 21 5 . w. long. 70 40 . Between 
this bank and Turk s island is a deep channel, for 
ships of any burden, three leagues wide.] 

ABROJOS, a shoal of the N. sea. See the ar 
ticle PANUELA QUADRADO. 

ABSECON BEACH, on the coast of New 
Jersey, 16 miles s. w. from Little Egg harbour. 

ABUCARA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru, in a valley of 
the same name. It was anciently the capital of 
this province, and had the same denomination. 
At present it is much reduced, the corregidor 
haying left it to establish himself in Lucanas. 
Lat. 15 33 5. Long. 73 28 w. 

ABUCEES, S. JOSEPH DE LOS, a settlement 
of the missions of the Sucumbios Indians, who 
were founded by, and maintained at the expence 
of, the abolished order of the Jesuits, in the pro 
vince and government of Quixos and Marcas, of 
the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of a 
small river, which enters the Putumayo. Lat. 
36 n. Long. 75 22 w. 

ABLJRRA, S. BARTOLOME DE, a town of the 
province and government of Antioquia, in the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada, founded in 154?, by 
the Marshal George Robledo, in u fertile and ex 
tensive valley of the same name, which was dis 
covered in 1540 by Captain Geronimo Luis 
Texelo. It abounds in all kinds of fruits, seeds, 
and vegetables, and is of a hot temperature. In its 
district are found many huacas, or sepulchres of 
the Indians, in which great riches are deposited. 
It has now so much fallen to decay, that it is no 
more than a miserable hamlet. In its vicinity are 
some streams of salt water, from which the Indians 
procure salt for their use. Lat. 5 51 30" . 
Long. 75 17 w. 

ACA, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of 
Tlaxclala, in Nueva Espana. 



A C A 

[ACAAY, a parish in Paraguay, situate on a 
small river which runs into the Rio Paraguay. 
It is about 14 leagues s. e. of Asuncion. Lat. 25 
54 1" s. Long. 57 23 to.] 

ACACUNA, a mountain of Peru, in the pro 
vince and corrcgimiento of Arica in Peru. It is 
very lofty, and is four leagues distant from the 
S. sea ; is very barren, and situate between the 
promontory of Ilo and the river Sama. Lat.70 3 
29 s. [Long. 18 35 a?.] 

ACADIA, a province and peninsula of N. Ame 
rica, on the e. coast of Canada, between the island 
or bank of Newfoundland and New England, by 
which it is bounded on the w. It is more than 
100 leagues in length from n. w. to s. e. arid nearly 
80 in width, from n. e. tos. w. from the gulph of 
St. Lawrence to the river Santa Cruz. It was dis 
covered in 1497 by Sebastian Cabot, sent thither 
from England by Henry VII. The French, un 
der the command of Jacob Cartier, of St. M aloes, 
established themselves here in 1534, in order to 
carry on a cod -fishery on the bank of Newfound 
land ; and in 1G04, Peter Guest, a gentleman of 
the household of Henry IV. of France, was sent by 
that king to establish a colony, which he founded 
at Port Royal. The English entered it under 
Gilbert Humphry, in consequence of a grant 
which had been made to this person by Queen 
Elizabeth, and gave it the title of Nova Scotia. 
In 1621 King James 1. made a donation of it to 
the Earl of Stirling ; and in 1627 the French, 
commanded by Kirk de la Rochelle, made them 
selves masters of it, destroying all the establish 
ments of the English, who were obliged to sur 
render it up, in 1629, by the treaty of St. Ger- 
mains. The French shortly afterwards lost it ; a 
Governor Philip having taken possession of it ; 
but they, however, regained it in 1691, through the 
conduct of Mr. De Villebon. In order to settle 
the pretensions of the rival courts, commissioners 
were, by mutual consent, appointed in the peace 
ofRiswick, in 1697, to consider which should be 
the limits of Nova Scotia and New England ; and 
in the peace of Utrecht, it was entirely ceded to the 
English, who afterwards returned to it. This 
beautiful country contains many rivers and lakes ; 
the principal of these is the Rosignol, well stocked 
with fish : there are also many woods, full of ex 
cellent timber, and thronged with very singular 
birds ; as, for instance, the Colibri, or humming 
bird, and various others. The same woods abound 
in many kinds of fruits and medicinal herbs. It 
is very fertile in wheat, maize, pulse of all sorts, 
and also produces cattle of various kinds, animals 
of the chase, and abundance of fine fish. Its 



A C A 5 

principal commerce is in skins and salt fish. The 
winter is longer and colder than in Europe. The 
capital is Port Royal. [The name of Acadia was 
first applied to a tract from the 40th to the 46th 
degree of n. lat. granted to De Mons, Nov. 8, 
J603, by Henry IV. of France. For the present 
state of this country, see NOVA SCOTIA.] 

ACAGUATO, a settlement of the head settle- 
ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tan- 
citaro. It is so reduced as to consist of no more 
than 15 families of Indians, who maintain them 
selves by sowing some maize, and other vegetable 
productions. Eight leagues s. of the capital. 

ACAHILA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Yamparaes in Peru, dependent 
on the archbishopric of Charcas, and annexed to 
the curacy of S. Christ obal de Pilcomayo. 

ACAIA, a settlement of the province and corre 
gimiento of Caxatambo in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Churin. 

ACAMBARO, the head settlement of the dis 
trict of the alcaldia mayor of Zelaya, in the 
province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It con 
tains 490 families of Indians, 80 of Mustees and 
Mulattoes, and a convent of the order of St. Fran 
cis. In its district there are other small settle 
ments or wards. Seven leagues s. of its capital. 

ACAM1STLAHUAC, the head settlement of 
the district of the alcaldia mayor of Tasco, an 
nexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence it 
is distant two leagues to the e. n. e. It contains 
50 Indian families^ 

ACAMUCH1TLAN, a settlement of the head 
settlement of the district of Texopilco, and alcal 
dia mayor of Zultepec. It contains 60 Indian fa 
milies, whose commerce is in sugar and honey. 
It produces also maize, and cultivates many vege 
table productions. Five leagues n. of its head 
settlement. 

ACAMON, a river of the province and govern- 
ment of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. ft arises 
in the serranias of Usupama; runs w. n. w. and 
enters the Caroni. 

ACANTEPEC, the head settlement of the al 
caldia mayor of Tlapa. It is of a cold and moist 
temperature, contains 92 Indian families, among 
which are included those of another settlement in 
its vicinity, all of whom maintain themselves by 
manufacturing cotton stuffs. 

ACANTI, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. 
It rises in the mountains which lie towards the n. 
and empties itself into the sea between Cape Tibu- 
ron and the bay of Calidonia. 

ACAPALA, a settlement of the province and 



6 A C A 

alcaldia mayor of Chiapa, in the kingdom of 
Guatemala. Lat. 16 53 n. Long. 93 52 w . [It 
is situate on the Tobasco river, near the city of 
Chiapa, and not far from a bay in the S. sea, 
called Teguantipac.] 

ACAPAZINGO, SAN DIEGO DE, the head set 
tlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Cuer- 
navaca. 

ACAPETLAHUA1A, a settlement of the head 
settlement of the district of Escateopan, and alcal 
dia mayor of Zaqualpa. It contains 180 Indian 
families. 

ACAPONETA, the alcaldia mayor of the 
kingdom of Galicia, and bishopric ofGuadalaxa- 
ra, in Nueva Espana. Its jurisdiction is reduced. 
It enjoys various hot and cold temperatures, and 
has therefore the crops peculiar to both climates ; 
and the same are sown in its district, and produce 
abundantly. The capital is the town of the same 
name, situate between the two rivers St. Pedro 
and de Canas ; the latter dividing Nueva Espana 
from the provinces of Rosario and Cinaloa, as also 
the bishoprics of Durango and Gaudalaxara, from 
whence it is distant 83 leagues, w. n. w. It has a 
convent of the order of St. Francisco. Long. 105 
40 30*. Lat. 22 43* 30". 

ACAPULCO, or Los REYES, the capital city of 
the government of Nueva Espana, situate on the 
coast of the S. sea. Its inhabitants amount to nearly 
400 families of Chinese, Mulattoes, and Negroes. 
It has a parish church, with two vicars, and two 
convents, one of the order of St. Francis, and the 
other of St. Hyppolite de la Casidad, which is a 
royal hospital ; an office of public accounts, with 
an accountant and treasurer for the managing and 
keeping the accounts of the duties produced by the 
goods brought in the China ships. The city is 
small, and the churches and houses are moderately 
ornamented. The greater part of the city is on 
the sea-shore. The air is of an extremely hot and 
moist temperature ; for, independent of its being 
in the torrid zone, it is entirely shut out from the 
. winds, being surrounded by lofty serranias. 
These circumstances render it very unhealthy, 
especially in the wet season, on account of the 
damps and sea-winds blowing from the s. e. to 
the great detriment of the inhabitants and mer 
chants who come to trade here ; this being the 
principal cause why there are scarcely more than 
eight Spanish families who reside here. It is 
equally in want of every sort of provision, owing 
to the reduced and barren state of the land, and is 
forced to seek its necessary supplies from the In 
dian settlements within its jurisdiction. The only 
commerce which it can be said to have, isafairwhich 



A C A 

is held on the arrival of the ships from China ; and 
when these depart, there are no other means for 
the people of maintaining a trade, and if the above 
resource should happen to fail for three or four 
years, the place must inevitably be abandoned. 
At the distance of a musket-shot, and on a pro 
montory running far into the sea, is situate the 
castle and royal fort of San Diego, mounted with 
31 pieces of artillery, the greater part of them 
24 pounders, for the defence of the entrance of the 
port, which is safe, and so spacious, that .500 
ships can lay at anchor in it with ease. It is sur 
rounded by lofty rising grounds. Its principal 
mouth is on the s. side, formed by an island of an 
oblong figure, and somewhat inclining to the s. w. 
The same island forms also another mouth, which 
they call chica, or little. The canals on either 
side of the island are 25 fathoms deep. The go 
vernor of the castle has the rank ofcastellano, with 
the title of lieutenant-general of the coasts of the 
S. Sea ; and for the defence of these coasts, there 
are three companies of militia, composed of the 
the whole of the inhabitants, namely, one company 
of Chinese, another of Mulattoes, and the third of 
Negroes, who run to arms whenever they hear 
the cannon fired three times at short intervals. 
In the settlements of its neighbourhood they grow 
cotton, maize, and other seeds, vegetables and 
fruits. They have cattle of the large and small 
kind, and some tobacco, all of which productions 
are sufficient for the use of the castle and the city, 
which is 80 leagues distant from Mexico. [The 
famous cut in the mountain, (abra de San Nicholas), 
near the bay de la Langosta, for the admission of 
the sea winds, was recently finished. The popu 
lation of this miserable town, inhabited almost ex 
clusively by people of colour, amounts to 9000 
at the time of the arrival of the Manilla galleon 
(nao de China}. Its habitual population is only 
4000. The chief trade of Acapulco continues still 
to be its commerce with Manilla. The Manilla 
ship arrives once a year at Acapulco, with a cargo 
of Indian goods, valued at 12 or 1 300,000 dollars, 
and carries back silver in exchange, with a very 
small quantity of American produce, and some 
European goods. Lat. according to Humboldt, 
1650 29 . Long, by ditto, 99 46 . Lat, accord 
ing to the Spaniards, 16 50 30". Long, by ditto, 
100. Both longitudes being measured from the 
meridian of Greenwich .] 

ACARAGA, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Paraguay. It rises in the province of the 
Parana, and running n. enters the Uruguay, where 
is the city of Asuncion. It is navigable by ca 
noes throughout, and abounds in fish. 



ACARAI, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Paraguay, founded near the river Pa 
rana, and rather towards the w. by the missionary 
Jesuits, in 1624, where they also built a fort to 
protect it against the incursions of the infidel In 
dians. 

ACARAI, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Paraguay. It runs s. s. e. and enters the 
Parana opposite the settlement of La Poblacion Nu- 
eva. 

ACARAPU, a small river of the province and 
colony of Surinam, in the part of Guayana be 
longing to the Dutch. It is one of those which 
enter the Cuyuni. 

ACAR1, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Camana, in Peru, situate in a beau 
tiful and extensive valley, in which there is a very 
lofty mountain, which they call Sahuacario, com 
posed of misshapen stones and sand, in which, at 
certain times of the year, especially in the months 
of December and January, is heard a loud and con 
tinued murmuringjwhich excites universal astonish 
ment, and which, no doubt, is to be attributed to 
the air in some of its cavities. On its skirts are 
two fortresses, which were built in the time of the 
gentilism of the Indians. There is a port half-way 
between the town of St. Juan and the city of Are- 
quipa, which is 8 leagues distant from the lat 
ter, and 1 1 from the former. It is very convenient, 
and has an excellent bottom, but is frequented only 
by small vessels. It is in lat. 15 15 . s. Long. 
75 30" w. 

ACARI, a point or cape of the coast of the S. 
sea, of the same province, and of the corregimicnto 

c r< 

of Camana. 

ACARI, a river of the above province, which 
runs to the s. e. 

ACARI, another river, of the province and cap 
tainship of Para in the kingdom of Brasil. It is 
small, runs n. afterwards inclines to the n. n. w. 
and enters the river of Las Amazonas, just where 
this empties itself into the sea. 

ACARIGUA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Venezuela, situate on the shore of 
the river of its name, and close upon the . side of 
the town of Ararul. 

ACARIGUA, a river of the above province and 
government, which rises near the town of Araure, 
and runs s. to enter the river of La Portuguesa. 

ACARRETO, a port of the coast of Tierra 
Firme, in the province and government of Darien, 
near cape Tiburon. [Lat. 8 S9 y n. Long. 77* 
24 30" o>.] 

ACARUACA, a small river of the province 
and country of the AmazonaSj in the part belong- 



A C A 7 

ing to the Portuguese. It runs from n. to *. form 
ing a bow, and enters the Matari. 

[ACASABASTIAN, a river in the province of 
Vera Paz in Mexico. It runs into the Golfo 
Dulce, and has a town situated on its banks of the 
same name. The source of this river is not far 
from the S. sea.] 

ACASABASTLAN, a settlement of the kingdom 
of Guatemala, in the province and alcaldia mayor 
of Chiapa. 

{[ACASATHULA, a sea-port, situated on a 
point of land, in the province of Guatemala Pro 
per, in Mexico, on a bay of the S. sea, about four 
leagues from Trinidad. It receives the greatest 
part of the treasures from Peru and Mexico. In 
its neighbourhood are three volcanoes.] 

AC ASS A, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Guayana, in the part possessed by the 
French. It enters the sea between the Ayapoco 
and Cape Orange. 

ACATEPEC, a settlement of the head settle 
ment and alcaldia mayor of Thehuacan, where 
there is a convent or vicarage of the order of St. 
Francis. It contains 860 Indian families (includ 
ing those of the wards of its district) in a spacious 
valley, which begins at the end of the settlement 
and extends itself above a league. In this valley 
are 12 cultivated estates, on which live 40 Indian 
families. It is four leagues s. s. w. of its capital. 

ACATEPEC, another settlement in the head set 
tlement and district of Chinantla, of the alcaldia 
mayor of Cozamaloapan. It is situate in a very 
pleasant plain, and surrounded by three lofty 
mountains. The number of its inhabitants is re 
duced. A very rapid and broad river passes near 
this settlement; and as this is the direct way to the 
city of Oaxaca and other jurisdictions, and as the 
travellers, who come here in great numbers, must 
necessarily cross the river in barks or canoes, the 
Indians, who are very expert in this sort of navi 
gation, contrive by these means to procure them 
selves a decent livelihood. 10 leagues w. of its 
head settlement. 

ACATEPEC, another settlement of the alcaldia 
mayor of the same kingdom, situate between two 
high ridges. It contains 100 Indian families, and 
is annexed to the curacy of San Lorenzo, from 
whence it is two leagues distant. 

ACATEPEC, another settlement, having also the 
dedicatory title of San Miguel, in the alcaldia 
mayor of Huamelula, situate in a hollow. The 
climate here is hot. At its skirts runs a river, the 
waters of which fertilize the land, which abounds 
in gardens and cultivated spots. It contains 39 
Indian families; and is annexed to the curacy of 



> 



A C A 



Tlacolula, from whence it is distant a league and a 
half to the n. 

ACATEPEC, another settlement of the head set 
tlement and alcaldia mayor of Xicayan, of the 
same kingdom. It contains 12 Indian families, 
and is 10 leagues distant from its head settlement. 

AGATEPEQUE, S. FRANCISO DE, asettlement 
of the head settlement of St. Andres de Cholula, 
and alcaldia mayor of this name. It contains 140 
Indian families, and is half a league to the s. of its 
capital. 

ACATEPEQUE, another settlement of the head 
settlement and alcaldia mayor of Igualapa, situate 
at a league s distance to the e. of the same. 

ACATIC, a settlement of the head settlement 
and alcaldia mayor of Tecpatitlan, in the kingdom 
and bishopric ot Nueva Galicia. It is four leagues 
to the s. of its capital. 

ACATICO, a settlement of the head settlement 
and alcaldia mayor of Cuquio, in Nueva Espana. 

ACATLAN, a settlement and capital of the al 
caldia mayor of this name. It is of a mild tempe 
rature, and its situation is at the entrance of the 
Misteca Baxa. It contains 850 families of Indians, 
and 20 of Spaniards and Mustees. In its vicinity 
are some excellent salt-grounds, in which its com 
merce chiefly consists. The jurisdiction of this 
alcaldia , which contains four other head settle 
ments of the district, is fertile and pleasant, 
abounding in flowers, fruits, all kinds of pulse and 
seeds, and is well watered. They have here large 
breeds of goats, which they slaughter chiefly for the 
skin and the fat, salting down the flesh, and sending 
it to La Puebla and other parts to be sold. In its 
district are many cultivated lands. It is 55 leagues 
leagues to the e. s. e. of Mexico. Long. 275 10 . w. 
Lat. 19 4 fi. 

ACATLAN, another settlement of the same name, 
whh the dedicatory title of S. Andres, in the head 
settlement and alcaldia mayor of Xalapa, in the 
same kingdom, situate on a clayey spot of ground, 
of a cold moist temperature, rendered fertile by an 
abundance of streams, which in a very regular man 
ner water the lands ; although , it being void of moun 
tains and exposed to the n. winds, the fruits within 
its neighourhood do not come to maturity. It con 
tains 180 Indian families, including those of the 
new settlement, which was established at a league s 
distance to the 5. of its head settlement, and which 
is called San Miguel de las Aguastelas. Acatlan 
is a league and a half distant from its head settle 
ment. 

ACATLAN, another settlement, having the de* 
dicatory title of San Pedro, belonging to the head 
settlement of Malacatepec and alcaldia mayor of 



A C A 

Nexapa, in the same kingdom. It contains SO In 
dian families, who trade in wool and HI the fish 
called bobo, quantities of which are found in a 
large river which runs close by the settlement, and 
which are a great source of emolument to them. 
It is four leagues /?. of its capital. 

ACATLAN, another settlement of the head set 
tlement of Zitlala, of the same alcaldia and king 
dom. It contains 198 Indian families, and its 
situation is a league and an half n. of its head set 
tlement. 

ACATLAN, another settlement of the head set 
tlement and alcaldia mayor of Sentipac, of the 
same kingdom. It is of a cold temperature, con 
tains 42 Indian families, and is 15 leagues n. e. of 
its capital. 

ACATLAN, another settlement of the head set 
tlement of Atotonilco, and alcaldia mayor of Tu- 
lanzingo in the same kingdom. It contains 115 
Indian families, and a convent of the religious 
order of St. Augustin. Two leagues n. of its head 
settlement. 

ACATLAZINGO, SANTA MARIA DE, a set 
tlement of the head settlement of Xicula, and al 
caldia mayor of Nexapa, situate in a plain that is 
surrounded on all sides by mountains. It contains 
67 Indian families, who employ themselves in the 
culture of the cochineal plant. 

ACATULA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Venezuela, situate on the shore of 
the river Guasqui, to the e. of the city of Coro. 

ACAXEE, a nation of Indians of the province 
ofTopia. It is well peopled, and was converted 
to the Catholic faith by the father Hernando de 
Santaren, and others of the abolished society of the 
Jesuits, in 1602. They are docile, of good dispo 
sitions and abilities. In the time of their idolatry, 
they used to bend the heads of their dead with their 
bodies and knees together, and in this posture inter 
them in a cave, or under a rock, giving them provi 
sions for the journey which they fancied them about 
to make ; also laying by them a bow and arrows 
for their defence. Should an Indian woman hap 
pen to have died in child-bed, the infant was put 
to death ; for they used to say, it was the cause of 
her death. These Indians were once induced by a 
sorcerer to make an insurrection, but it was quelled 
by the governor of the province, Don Francisco de 
Ordinola, in the year 1612. 

ACAXETE, SANTA MARIA DE, the head set 
tlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Tep- 
caca, situate on the slope of the noted sierra of Tlas- 
cala. It is of a cold and dry temperature, contains 
seven Spanish families, 10 of Mustees and Mulattoes, 
and 176 of Mexican Indians. In its vicinity is a re- 



A C A 

servoir, formed of hewn stone, which serves at once 
to catch the waters as they come down from the 
sierra, and to conduct them to Tepcaca, three 
leagues n. n. w. of its capital. 

ACAXUCHITLAN, the head settlement of the 
alcaldia mayor of Tuluzingo, to the n. e. It con 
tains 406 Indian families, and is a curacy of the 
bishopric of La Puebla de los Angeles. Distant 
four leagues to the e. of its capital. 

ACAYUCA, the alcaldia mayor of Nueva Es- 
paria, and of the province of Goazacoalco. Its 
jurisdiction is very extended, and consists, for the 
most part, of places of a hot and moist temperature, 
but so fertile is it that it gives annually lour crops 
of maize; and as there is no demand for this pro 
duction in the other provinces, it follows, of course, 
that the Indians here are little given to industry. 
Indeed the ground never requires the plough, and 
the whole of their labours during the seed-time 
consist merely in smoothing the surface of the 
mountains, and in scratching up the ground with 
a pointed stick. It is at times infested by locusts, 
which destroy the plants and crops ; and having 
never been able to find a remedy against this evil, 
the inhabitants had recourse to the protection of 
the virgin of La Conception, which is revered in 
the head settlement of the district of the Chichi- 
mecas ; and it is said that, owing to her mediatory 
influence, the plague has been thought to diminish. 
This province is watered by the abundant river of 
the Goazacoalco. The settlements of this alcaldia 
are, 

Xocoteapa, Olutla, 

Macayapa, Otcapa, 

Menzapa, Pochutla, 

Molocan, Ostitan, 

Theimanquillo, Cozolcaque, 

Tinantitlan, Ixhuatla, 

Chinameca, Macatcpeque. 

Zoconusco, 

ACAYUCA, the capital of the above, situate on 
the coast of the N. sea. Its inhabitants are com 
posed of 30 families of Spaniards, 296 of In 
dians, and 70 of Mustees and Mulattoes. It lies 
a little more -than 100 leagues s. e. of Mexico. 
Lat. 17 53 n. Long. 94 46 30" w. 

ACAYUCA, another settlement in the alcaldia 
mayor of Pachuca, in the kingdom of Nueva Es- 
paiia, annexed to the curacy of Tezayuca, and 
containing 100 Indian families. 

ACAZINGO, ST. JUAN DE, the head settle- 
ment of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Tep 
caca, situate in a plain of a mild temperature, and 
watered by two streams which run close to all the 
houses of the settlement, to the great comfort of 

VOL. I. 



A C H 9 

the inhabitants. In the middle of the above plain 
there is a beautiful fountain, a convent of the reli 
gious order of St. Francis, a very ancient build 
ing, and some other buildings, which have been 
erected since the conquest of the country. The 
parish church is a piece of the most ancient archi 
tecture. The inhabitants are composed of 150 
families of Spaniards, 104 of Mustees, 31 of Mu 
lattoes, and 700 of Indians ; 3| leagues c. to the 
n. e. of its capital. 

ACAZUTLA, a port of the S. sea, on the coast 
of the province of the alcaldia mayor of Zuchi- 
tepec, in the kingdom of Guatemala, between the 
point of Los Remedios, and the settlement of 
Guapaca. [Lat. 14 42 n. Long. 90 3 w.~] 

ACCHA, a settlement of the province a;id cor- 
regimienloof Chilques arid Masques in Peru, situ 
ate on the skirt of a mountain, which has a pro 
minence, seeming as though it were about to fall 
upon the settlement. This mountain is constantly 
dwindling away without any assignable cause. 
Lat. 13 19 s. Long. 71 13 w. 

ACCHA-AMANSALA, a settlement of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Chilques and Masques 
in Peru. 

ACCIIA-UR1NZABA, a settlement of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Chilques and Masques 
in Peru. 

ACCITES, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Caraccas, in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme. It rises in the mountains, and enters the 
Orituco. 

[ACCOCESAWS. The ancient town and prin 
cipal place of residence of these Indians is on the 
w. side of Colorado of Rio Rouge, about 200 miles 
s. w. of Nacogdoches, but they often change their 
place of residence for a season : being near th 
bay, they make great use of fish, oysters &c. ; 
kill a great many deer, which are the largest and 
fattest in the province ; and their country is uni 
versally said to be inferior to no part of the pro 
vince in soil, growth of timber, good ness of water, 
and beauty of surface ; they have a language pe 
culiar to themselves, but have a mode of commu 
nication by dumb signs, which they all understand : 
number about 80 men. Thirty or forty years 
ago, the Spaniards had a mission here, but broke 
it up, or moved it to Nacogdoches. They talk 
of resettling it, and speak in the highest terms of 
the country.] 

[ACCOMACK County, in Virginia, is situated 
on a peninsula, bounded //. by Maryland, e. by 
the ocean, and on the w. by Chcsapeak bay, 
and contains 13,959 inhabitants, including 4262 
skyes.] 

c 



10 



A C H 



ACHA, Mountains of, in the province and 
government of G nay ana ; they run from n. to *. 
on the shore of the river Carom. 

ACHACACHE, a settlement of the province 
and corregimtenlo of Omasuyos, the capital of 
this province, in Peru. It contains, besides the 
parish chapel, another, in which is an image of 
Christ, with the dedicatory title of La Misericordia. 
[Lat. 16 33 30" s. Long. 79 23 20 a?.] 

ACHAGUA, a nation of Indians of the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada, who dwell among the plains 
of Gazanare and Meta, and in the woods which 
skirt the river Ele. They are bold in their en 
gagements with wild beasts, but with human be 
ings they have recourse rather to poison and 
stratagem ; they are dexterous in the use of the 
dart and spear, and never miss their aim ; are 
particularly fond of horses, of which they take the 
utmost care, anointing and rubbing them with oil ; 
and it is a great thing among them to have one of 
these animals of peculiar size and beauty. They 
go naked, but, for the sake of decency, wear a 
small apron made of the thread of aloes, the rest 
of their bodies being painted of different colours. 
They are accustomed, at the birth of their chil 
dren, to smear them with a bituminous ointment, 
which hinders the hair from growing, even upon 
the eye-brows. The women s brows are also en 
tirely deprived of hair, and the juice of jugua 
being immediately rubbed into the little holes 
formed by the depilatory operation, they remain 
bald for ever afler. They are of a gentle disposi- 
sition, but much given to intoxication. The 
Jesuits reduced many to the catholic faith, forming 
them into settlements, in 166 1 . 

ACHA LA, Mountains of, in the province and 
government of Tucuman, bounded by the moun 
tains of Augo or Mendoza, of the kingdom of 
Chile ; they run from n. n. w. to s. s. c. at the 
sources of the river Quarto. 

ACHAMQU1. See CHANQUI. 

ACHAS, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Guamanga in Peru, situate on the 
confines which divide the above province from 
Huanta. 

ACHEPE, Bay of, a small port of the N. sea, 
on the e. coast of the Isla Real, or Cape Breton. 
It is close to N. cape. 

[ACHIACH1CA, a town in Mexico. See 
ANC F.LOS.] 

ACHIANTLAS, MIGUEL DE, the head settle 
ment of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Te- 
pozcolula. It contains a convent of monks of 
Santo Domingo, and 260 families of Indians, who 
occupy themselves in cultivating and improving 



AGO 

the land. It is eight leagues to the w. with an in 
clination to the s. of its capital. 

AC11IBAMBA, a river of the province and 
government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito ; 
it rises in the mountains, and enters the Mara- 
non. 

ACFI1NUTLAN, a very lofty mountain of the 
province and government of Guayana, or Nueva 
Andalucia. It is on the shore of the river Orinoco, 
and to the e. of the Ciudad Real, (royal city), the 
river Tacuragua running between them. 

AC1IIRA. See CATA-MAGU. 

ACHITE, a small river of the province and 
government of Guayana. It runs from 5. to n. 
and enters the Cuyuni. 

ACHOCALLA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Pacages in Peru, annexed 
to the curacy of Viacha. 

ACHOGOA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Cinaloa, founded by the mission 
aries of the Jesuits, between the rivers Tuerte, 
Mayo, and Ribas. 

ACHOMA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Collahuas in Peru. In its vici 
nity is a volcano, called Amboto and Sahuarcuca, 
which vomits smoke and flames; the latter of 
which are seen clearly at night. 

ACHONGA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Lircay. 

ACHOUPEKAHIGAN, a river of Canada. 
It runs e. afterwards turns to the s. and enters the 
lake of St. Thomas. 

[ACKLIN S Island. See CROOKED Island.] 

ACLA, a small city of the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, in the province of Darien, founded by 
Gabriel de Roxas, in 1514, on the coast of the S. 
sea, at the mouth of the gulph of Uraba, in front 
of the island of Pinos, with a good fort, then much 
frequented and very convenient, from having a 
good bottom, but somewhat incommoded by cur 
rents. Pedro Arias Davila built here a fort for 
its defence in 1516 ; but the settlement, never 
theless, did not keep long together, the Spaniards 
having abandoned it, on account of its unhealthi- 
ness, in 1532. [Lat. 8 56 n. Long. 77 40 a>.] 

ACOBAMBA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru. It was the 
capital, but at present the town of Guancavelica 
bears that title, on account of its being the resi 
dence of the governor and other people of conse 
quence. It is of a good temperature, and so 
abundant in grain, that its crops of wheat amount 
to 25,000 bushels yearly. In an estate near it, 
are some pyramidical stones, and in other parts 



AGO 

are the ruins of some well made benches in the 
shape of couches, which have been much injured 
by time, and were there before the coming of the 
Spaniards. Lat. 13 lb 30" s. Long. 74 32 
30" w. 

ACOBAMBA, another settlement of the same 
name in the province and corregimiento of Jauja, 
annexed to the curaey of Cocliangara. 

ACOBAMBA, another settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Tarma. 

ACOBAMB1LLA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru, annexed 
to the caracy of Conaica. 

ACOCHALA, a very lofty mountain of the 
province and corregimiento of Lipes, in the arch 
bishopric of Charcas, where there are some very 
fine silver mines, which are, however, little work 
ed for want of hands. 

ACOLA, a settlement of the province and cor 
regimiento of Lucanas in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of its capital. 

ACOLMAN, SAN AGUSTIN DE, a settlement 
of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tez- 
coco, in Nueva Espana, situate in a pleasant 
valley of a benign temperature. There are some 
wards united to its district, and the number of 
its inhabitants, including these wards, amounts to 
240 Indian families, besides a convent of monks of 
the order of St. Augustin. 

ACOMA, a settlement of Nucvo Mexico, situ 
ate on the shore of a river which enters the Grande 
of the N. between the settlements of San Juan and 
La Laguna. [It is on a high mountain, with a 
strong castle, and is the capital of the province. 
[Lat. 35 24 n. Long. 106 U 10 to.] 

ACOMACK, a county of the province and 
colony of Virginia, which preserves i(s Indian 
name. It is the largest county of the province, 
containing 200,925 acres of ground : but not so 
well peopled as the others, and has only one parish, 
which is of the same name. Different rivers take 
their rise here ; among the most noted is the Clis- 
fconossea. 

ACOMAIO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Huanuco in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Santa Maria del Valle, situate on 
the confines of the infidel Panataguas Indians. 

ACOMAIO, another settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru. 

A CO MARC A, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Vilcas Huaman in Peru, annexed 
to the curacy of Vilcas. 

ACOMES, a fall of the river Amariscoggin, in 
the province of Continent, one of the fouf which 
compose the colony of New England. 



AGO 



11 



ACOMULCO, a settlement of the head settle 
ment and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan in 
Nueva Espafia. It contains 12 Indiau families, 
and is two leagues to the u. of its capital. 

ACONCAGUA, a province and corregimietito 
of the kingdom of Chile ; bounded n. by a part 
of the province of Quillota, e. by the Cordillera, 
s. by the valley of Colina, of the jurisdiction of 
Santiago, zo. by the province of Quillota. Its 
territory is level and well watered. It is divided 
into two parts by a large river of the same name, 
having a bridge built of stone and mortar, with 
two arches. It produces abundance of wheat and 
much wild marjoram, which is carried to Peru, 
and forms the principal branch of its commerce. 
In this province is the royal road, lying through 
the Cordillera in the way to Mendoza, which is 
very rough and dangerous, on account of the 
many slopes and steep declivities towards the river ; 
the path is very narrow, and in various places it is 
necessary to open a pass by means of a pick-axe ; so 
that, if at any time the mules should crowd together, 
they would push each other into the river, which has 
not unfrequcntly been the case. The royal treasures 
are carried by this road from the month of Novem 
ber to April and part of May. A few years since, 
some small houses of brick and mortar have been 
built on one or other side of the Cordillera, which 
they call casuchas (miserable huts) ; in these thej 
put, in the winter time, some coal, biscuit, and 
hung beef, so that the couriers, providing them 
selves with the keys of the doors at Mendoza, or, on 
the other side, at the Guardia of Aconcagua, may 
have something to live upon, in case they should 
be stopt by a fall of snow on their journey ; and 
with this precaution, a courier goes every month 
to Santiago, carrying with him the mails brought 
by the ships from Europe. In the winter it is 
customary to walk on foot over the snow, from 
Paramillo, which is three leagues from the top of 
the Cordillera, and four from its descent to the 
place which is called Los Ojos de Agua, through 
the valley of Putaendo ; but towards the n. there 
is another way, which thej r call De Los Patos, 
which is the road generally taken in going to tbp 
city of San Juan ; but the Cordillera being more 
lofty here, it is only passable in the months of 
February and March. The inhabitants of this 
province amount, on an average, to 8000 souls. 
The capital is San Felipe el Real. [Lat. 32 11 
s. Long. 70 12 30" w.~] 

ACONCAGUA, a large river which runs through 
the above province, rising in the mountains of the 
Cordillera^ and running through it by the side of 
the road which leads to Buenos Ayres ; branching 



12 AGO 

out various ways, and watering, from the place in 
which it rises, the extensive vallies of Curimon, 
Aconcagua, Quillota, and Concon ; in which are 
cultivated large crops of wheat, flax and hemp ; 
and it, moreover, enters the sea in as large a stream 
as if it had never undergone the like ramifications : 
its mouth is in 33 lat. 

ACONCAGUA, a settlement of the same pro 
vince, which was formerly its capital, until the 
foundation of the city of S. Felipe. It is very 
thinly peopled, and is situate in the valley of this 
name. 

ACONCAGUA, a volcano of the same province. 

ACONCHI, a settlement of the province and 
government of Sonora in Nueva Espana. 
3 ACON1CH1, a settlement of Indians of N.Ca 
rolina, situate on the shore of the river Eno. 

ACONICHI, an island in ihe middle of the river 
Dan, in the same province. 

ACONQUIJA, the most lofty mountain of the 
province and government of Tucuman, in the 
district of the city of Catamarca, and very near 
it. It is perpetually covered with snow, and 
abounds with minerals of gold. Its jurisdiction 
is disputed by the province of Atacama. 

ACOP1A, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Sangarara. 

ACORA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Chucuito in Peru, situate on the 
shore of the Gran Laguna (great lake). Lat. 16 
40 30" s. Long. 70 15 w. 

ACORI, a small river of the province and cap 
tainship of Para in Brazil. It runs w. bet ween the 
Pacajes and Yavarais, and enters the river of the 
Ama^onas, in the arm formed by the island of 
Marajo. 

ACORIA, a settlement of the province and 
ccrregimievto of Angaraes in Peru. 

ACORO, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimienlo of Huanta in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Tambillo. 

ACOS, a settlement of the province and corre- 
ginrifnto of Jauja in Peru. 

At os, another settlement of the province and 
rorregt mifnto of Quispicanchi, annexed to the 
curacy of Acomayo. 

ACOSTA, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situate on 
the n. shore of the large river of San Francisco, 
near where it enters the sea. 

ACOSTAMBA, a settlement of the province and 
correginricnto of Ctistro-virrcyna in Peru, an 
nexed to the curacy of Pilpichacha. 

ACOSTA M BO, a settlement of the province 



ACT 

and covregimiento of Huanta in Peru, annexed 
to the curacy of Huaribamba. 

ACOTAMA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Chancay in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Iguari. 

ACOTITLAN, a settlement of the head settle 
ment and alcaldia mayor of Autlan. It con 
tains 15 Indian families, who employ themselves in 
breeding the larger sort of cattle, in making sugar 
and honey, in dressing seeds, and extracting oil 
of cacao, which abounds greatly, from the num 
ber of trees yielding this fruit. It is annexed to 
the curacy of Tccolotlan, from whence it is two 
leagues to the s. w. 

[ACOUEZ, an Indian nation in Canada.] 

ACOXCH1APA, a settlement of the head set 
tlement of Xonacatepec, and alcaldia mayor of 
Cuemavaca, in Nueva Espana. 

[ACQUACKNACK, or ACQUAKINUNK, a 
town on the w. side of Passaic river, in Essex 
county, New Jersey, ten miles . of Newark, and 
17 n. w. from New York. Lat. 40 47 n. Long. 
74 10 w. 

ACTIPA, SAN MATEO I>E, a settlement of the 
alcaldia mayor of Tezcoro in Nueva Espaiia, an 
nexed to the curacy of Capulalpa. 

ACTIPAQUE, SANTA MARIA DE, a settle* 
ment of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor 
of Toluca in Nueva Espaiia, four leagues to 
the s. of its capital, and situate on the shore of 
the lake Tezcoco. 

[ACTON, a township in Middlesex county, 
Massachusetts, containing 853 inhabitants; 24 
miles n. w. of Boston.] 

ACTOPAN, the district and alcaldia mayor of 
Nueva Espana, commonly called Octupan. Its 
productions and commerce are as follows : They 
consist in seeds, rigging, saltpetre, and the feed 
ing of goats and sheep, chiefly prized on account 
of their skins and their fat. It is of a mikt tem 
perature ; but the ground is infested with prickly 
plants, thorns, and teasels. There are some estates 
here of about eight or ten labouring families each. 
In this district, and in its environs, are many sing 
ing birds, which, in the Mexican language, are 
called zenzontla ; and among others is the nightin 
gale. The capital bears the same name, and in it 
there are no less than 2750 families of Otho- 
mies Indians, divided into two parties, and sepa 
rated by the church, which is a convent of the 
order of St. Augustin, and a very ancient piece of 
architecture. It also contains 50 families of Spa 
niards, Mulattoes, and Muslccs. 23 leagues n. n. e. 
of Mexico. Long. 98 49 w.. Lat. 20 19 30" n. 

ACTUPAN, SAN PEDRO m, the head set- 



A C U 

tlemcnt of the district of the alcaldia mayor of 
Xochimilco, in the same kingdom. It contains 
210 Indian families, including those of its wards. 

ACUA, a river of the kingdom of Brazil, in 
the island of Joancs or Marajo. It runs s. s. e. 
and enters the large arm of the river of the Amo- 
zonas. 

ACUIAPAN, a settlement of the head settle, 
ment and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec in Nueva 
Espafia, situate between two craggy steeps, and 
annexed to the curacy of Temascaltepec. It con 
tains 38 Indian families, who carry on a commerce 
by the dressing of hides of large and small cattle. 
Six leagues n. of its capital. 

ACU1LPA, a settlement of the head settlement 
of Olinaltt, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in 
Nueva Espaiia. It is of a hot and moist tempe 
rature, abounding in grain, chia, (a white medicinal 
earth), seeds, and other productions, with which 
its inhabitants carry on a trade. These consist of 
92 Indian families. It is a little more than three 
leagues from its head settlement. 

ACUIO, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of 
Cinaqua in Nueva Espana ; of a hot temperature, 
and inhabited only by nine Indian families, whose 
commerce consists in collecting salt and wild wax. 
It belongs to the curacy of Tauricato, and in its 
district are 1 1 sugar mills, and seven pastures fit 
for the larger cattle, and which are so extensive 
and considerable as to employ in them 50 families 
of Spaniards, and 235 of Mustees^ Mulattoes, and 
Negroes. 30 leagues towards the s. of its capital. 

ACUL, a settlement of the island of St. Do 
mingo, in the part possessed by the French ; si 
tuate on the n. coast, on the shore of the port of 
Petit-Goane. 

ACUL, another settlement in the same island, 
belonging also to the French ; situate s. of the 
Llanos of the N. 

ACUL, another settlement on the s. coast, upon 
the bay which forms the point of Abacu. 

ACUL, a river of the above island. It is small, 
and runs-into the sea behind the point of Abacu. 

ACULA, SAN PCDKO DE, a settlement of the 
head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cozama- 
loapan in Nueva Espana, situate upon a high 
hill, and bounded by a large lake of salubrious 
water, called by the Indians Pitetla ; which lake 
empties itself into the sea by the sand bank of Al- 
varado, and the waters of which, in the winter 
time, overflow to such a degree as nearly to inun 
date the country. It contains 305 Indian families, 
and is four leagues to the e. of its capital. 

AC U LEO, a lake of the kingdom of Chile, 
which empties itself into the river Maipo, famous 



ADA 



13 



for good fish, highly prized in the city of San- 
tiago. It is three leagues in length, and in some 
parts one in breadth. It is in the district of the 
settlement of Maipo, of the province arid corre- 
gimiento of Rancagua. 

AC LIMA, a river of the captainship of Seara 
in Brazil : it enters the sea between the lake 
Lpieni and the cape of Las Sierras. 

ACLliAGU, ANGORAS, or CAMOSIX, a river 
of the province and captains/tip of Seara in Bra 
zil, which rises in the province of Pernambuco, 
runs n. for many leagues, and enters the sea be 
tween the points of Tortuga and Pahneras. 

ACURAIP1TI, a river of the province and 
government of Paraguay, which runs s. s. e. and 
enters the Parana. 

ACUT1TLAN, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Tepuxilco, and alcaldia 
mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva Espana. It contains 
45 Indian families, who trade in sugar, honey, and 
maize, and many other of its natural productions. 
It is five leagues n. e. of its head settlement, and a 
quarter of a league from Acamuchitlan. 

ACUTZIO, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of Tiripitio, and alcaldia mayor of Valla- 
dolid, and bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 
136 families of Indians, and 11 of Spaniards and 
Muatees. There are six large cultivated estates in 
its district, which produce abundance of wheat, 
maize, and other seeds ; and these estates keep in 
employ eight families of Spaniards, 60 of Mulat 
toes, and 102 of Indians, who have also under 
their care many herds of large and small cattle, 
which breed here. It is one league and a half s. 
of its head settlement. 

ADAES, NUESTRA SGNORA DEL PILAR DE 
Los, a town and garrison of the province of Los 
Texas, or Nuevas Felipinas, and the last of these 
settlements, being upon the confines of the French 
colonies. It is of a mild temperature, very fertile, 
and abounding in seeds and fruits, which the earth 
produces without any cultivation ; such as ches- 
nuts, grapes, and walnuts. The garrison consists 
of a captain and 57 men, for the defence of the In 
dian settlements lately converted by the missions 
belonging to the religious order of St. Francis. 
It is 215 leagues from its capital, and 576 from 
Mexico. Long. 93 35 . Lat, 32 9 . 

AOAES, a lake of the above province, about five 
leagues broad, and 10 in circumference, forming 
agulphjin which large ships can sail with ease. It 
is more than 180 fat horns deep, as was once proved, 
when it was found that a line of that length did not 
reach the bottom. It abounds in a variety offish, 
which are caught in vast quantities without nets > 



ADA 



ADO 



the same being the case with regard to the nume 
rous rivers which intersect and fertilize the pro 
vince ; all of them entering and augmenting the 
already abundant stream of the Mississippi. In 
the middle of the lake is a pyramid ical mount, of 
above 100 yards in circumference, composed of a 
stone similar to crystal, and being the loftiest of 
any in the province. Its borders abound with 
cattle, called cibolaa^ a sort of wild cow, having the 
neck well covered with a long and soft wool, and 
affording delicious food to the natives. By the fat 
which they procure from the numerous ant-eaters, 
which breed here, they supply the want of oil. 
There are also some castors, and other kinds of 
mountain-animals. Two leagues from the gar 
rison. 

ADAES, a river of the above province, which 
runs s. e. in the district or country of the Indians, 
who give it the denomination ; and enters the river 
Mexicano. 

[ADA1ZE are Indians of N. America, who live 
about 40 miles from Natchitoches, below the Yat- 
tasses, on a lake called Lac Macdon, which com 
municates with the division of Red river that 
passes by Bayau Pierre. They live at or near 
where their ancestors have lived from time imme 
morial. They being the nearest nation to the old 
Spanish fort, or mission of Adaize, that place was 
named after them, being about 20 miles from them 
to the s. There are now but 20 men of them re 
maining, but more women. Their language dif 
fers from all others, and is so difficult to speak or 
understand, that no nation can speak ten words of 
k ; but they all speak Caddo, and most of them 
French, to Avhom they were always attached, and 
join them against the Natchez Indians. After the 
massacre of Natchez, in 1798, while the Spaniards 
occupied the post of Adaize, their priests took 
much pains to proselyte these Indians to the Roman 
Catholic religion, but, we are informed, were totally 
unsuccessful.] 

[ADAMS, a township in Berkshire county, 
Massachusetts, containing 2040 inhabitants, is a- 
bout 140 miles n. w. of Boston. In the n. part 
of this town is a great natural curiosity. A pretty 
mill stream, called Hudson s brook, which rises in 
Vermont, and falls into the n. branch of Hoosuck 
river, has, for 30 or 40 rods, formed a very deep 
channel, in some places CO feet deep, through a 
quarry of white marble. Over this channel, where 
deepest, some of the rocks remain, and form a 
natural bridge. From the top of this bridge to 
the water is 62 feet ; its length is about 12 or 15, 
and its breadth about 10. Partly under this bridge, 
and about 10 or 12 feet below it. is another, which 



is wider, but not so long ; for at the e. end they 
form one body of rock, 12 or 14 feet thick, and 
under this the water flows. The rocks here are 
mostly while, and in other places clouded, like 
the coarse marble common at Lanesborough, and 
in other towns in Berkshire county.] 

[ADAMSTOWN, a town in Lancaster county, 
Pennsylvania, containing about 40 houses ; 20 
miles n. e. of Lancaster.] 

ADAUA, a river of the province and govern 
ment of St. Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuero 
Reyno de Granada. It rises between the Meta and 
Meteta, runs e. and enters the Orinoco in the 
port of San Francisco de Borja . 

ADAUQUIAIVA, a small river of the province 
and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalu- 



cia, which rises 



near the sierra of Parime ; and 
to e. enters the sources of the 



running from is* 
Cauca. 

[ADA YES. See MEXICANO River.] 

ADDI, a settlement of the province and govern 
ment of Sonora in Nueva Espaiia ; situate on the 
shore of a small river, between the settlements of 
Uquitoa and Tibutana. 

ADDIS, a settlement of the island of Barba- 
docs, one of the Antilles ; situate in the district 
of the parish of Christ Church, on the s. coast. 

[ADDISON, a township of the district of Maine 
in Washington county, 10 miles s. w. of Machias, 
on the sea-board, between Englishmen s bay and 
Pleasant river. It was called No. 6. until it was 
incorporated in Feb. 1797.] 

[ADDISON County, in Vermont, is on the e, side 
of lake Champlain, and is divided nearly into 
equal parts by Otter creek ; has Chittenden county 
on the n. and Rutland county on the s. and con 
tains 6449 inhabitants, dispersed in 21 townships. 
It is about 30 miles by 27. A range of the green 
mountains passes through it. Chief town Middle- 
bury, granted Nov. 1761.] 

[ADDISON, a town of the above county, con 
taining 401 inhabitants. It lies on lake Champ- 
lain, and is separated from Newhaven, on the e. 
by Otter creek. Snake mountains on the s, e. lie 
partly in this township, granted 1761.] 

[ADEQUATANGI& Creek, in New York 
state, is the eastern head-water of Susquehannah 
river.] 

ADICONI, a port on the coast of the N. sea, 
in the province and government of Venezuela. It 
is e. of the peninsula of Para^uana. 

[ADMIRALTY Bay, and Port Mulgrave, on 
the n. zo. coast of America, lie in Lat. 59 31 n. 
Long. 140 18 . a>.] 

ADOLES, a settlement of Indians, of the pro- 



A G A 

vince of Orinoco, and part of the Saliva nation, 
forming a separate district, and situate in the 
plains of San Juan, of the new kingdom of Gra 
nada, near the river Sinaruco. It was destroyed 
by the Caribee indians in 1684. 

ADORATORIO, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru, situate 
w. of Lurin. 

[ADSON S Town lies near the n. e. line of New 
Jersey, and s. e. of the Drowned Lands ; 27 miles 
n. of Morristown, and 24 ??. w. of Patterson.] 

ADUANA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Maracaibo, situate on the shore of 
the lake of this name, on the e. side. 

ADVANCE. See FORWARD. 

AE1QUAIA, the head settlement of the alcaldia 
mayor of Tonala in Nueva Espana. 

AERIUCTUQUEN, a mountain of the pro- 
v.inceand colony of Surinam, or part of Guayana, 
in the Dutch possessions. It is the beginning of 
the great sierra of Binocote, between the rivers 
Cutini and Caroni. 

AFFREUX, a lake of the province and colony 
of Virginia, near the coast. 

[AFLJERA, one of the islands of Juan Fer- 
nandes, on the S. sea coast, in the kingdom of 
Chile. About 400 leagues to the n. of Cape Horn. 
This coast swarms with sea lions and wolves. 
Lat. 33 47 s. Long. 80 41 w. 

AGA, a mountain of the province and captain 
ship of Rio Janeiro in Brazil. It is between the 
rivers Irutiba and Tapoana, on the sea-coast. 

AGACES, a nation of Indians, of the province 
of Paraguay, on the shore of the river of this 
name, towards the e. The people are numerous, 
valiant, and of a lofty stature. In ancient times 
they were masters of that river, cruising about in 
it, and being the enemies of the Guaranies ; but 
after several conflicts, they were at last subjected 
by Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, governor of the 
province, in 1542. 

AGALTECA, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Honduras, in the kingdom of Guate 
mala. 

[AGAMENTIGUS, a river of the province and 
colony of New England, of York county, dis 
trict of Maine. It is indebted to the ocean for its 
waters, through Pascataqua bay ; having no con 
siderable aid from streams of fresh water. Its 
mouth is about four miles s. from Cape Neddie 
river. Small vessels can enter here.] 

[AGAMENTIGUS, a mountain of consider 
able elevation in the district of Maine, distant 
about six miles from Bald Head, and eight from 
York harbour. Lat. 43 12 n. and Long. 70 



AGO 



15 



43 w. from Greenwich. It is a noted land-mark 
for seamen, and is a good directory for the entry 
of Pascataqua harbour, as it lies very nearly in 
the same meridian with it and with Pigeon hill, 
on Cape Ann. The mountain is covered with 
wood and shrubs, and affords pasture up to its 
summit, where there is an enchanting prospect. 
The cultivated parts of the country, especially on 
the s. and s. w. appear as a beautiful garden, in 
tersected by the majestic river Pascataqua, its 
bays and branches. The immense ranges of 
mountains on the n. and n. zo. afford a sublime 
spectacle; and on the sea side the various in- 
dentings of the coast, from Cape Ann to Cape 
Elizabeth, are plainly in view in a clear day ; and 
the Atlantic stretches to the e. as far as the power 
of vision extends. At this spot the bearing of the 
following objects were taken, with a good sur 
veying instrument, October II, 1780. 

Summit of the White mountains, n. 15 w. 

Cape Porpoise, n. 63 e* 

Rochester hill, n. 64 w. 
.Tuckaway South peak, s. 80 w. 

Frost s hill, Kittery, s. 57 w. 

Saddle of Bonabeag, n. 14 w. 

Isle of Shoals Meeting-house, s. 6 e. 

Varney s hill, in Dover, distant 10| miles by 
mensuration, n. 89 w. Variation of the 
needle, 6 w.~\ 

[AGAMUNT1C, or AMAGTJNTIC Pond, in 
the district of Maine, sends its waters northward to 
the Chaudiere, through the west branch of that 
river.] 

[AGCH1LLA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Pilaya and Paspaya in Peru. 
It has in its district seven public chapels, within 
four leagues distance.] 

AGENAGATENINGA, a river of the pro 
vince and country of the Amazonas, in the Portu 
guese territory. It rises in the country of the 
Anamaris Indians, runs n. and enters the abundant 
stream of the Madera. 

AG1QUA, a river of N. Carolina, which runs 
n. w. and afterwards turning to the w. enters the 
Cherokees. 

AGNALOS, a nation of infidel Indians, of the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada, inhabiting the moun 
tains n. of the river Apure. 

AGNAPURAS, a chain of mountains, or a 
cordilhra of the kingdom of Peru, which run for 
leagues from n. to s. without termination, and 
separate the Taucas from the Chizuitos Indians. 

[AGOM1SO, an island of Hudson s bay, near 
its w. coast; n. n. e. from Albany fort.] 

AGON1CHE, a river of Nova Scotia, running 



16 A G U 

from s. to e. between 4 the rivers Mechicor and St. 
John, and entering the sea at the mouth of the 
bay of Fundy. 

AGRATUMATI, a river of the province and 
government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme. It rises in the mountains of the if. and 
enters the sea by the Little Beech, opposite Cali- 
donia. 

AGREDA, or NUEVA MA LAGA, a city of the 
province and government of Popayan, in the king 
dom of Quito, founded by Geronimo Aguado in 
J54I. It is small, and of a hot temperature, but 
abounds in gold mines. Forty-five leagues s. w. 
of its capital, 42 from Quito, and 37 to the e. of 
the S. sea. 

AGRESINAS, a settlement founded by the 
Portuguese fathers of the Carmelite order, in the 
country of the Amazonas, situate on the shores of 
the river Amazonas. 

AGRIAS, a nation of Indians of the province 
and government of Santa Marta, to the w. of the 
Cienega Grande. It was formerly very numerous, 
but at present considerably reduced. 

AGUA, Port of, on the n. coast of the island 
of St. Domingo, between Point Rabel and the Bay 
of Marques. 

AGUA, a small island, situate near the w. coast 
of the island of Vaca, in the channel formed by the 
island of St. Domingo, in front of the bay of 
Mesle. 

AGUA, also OJGS DE AGUA, two springs or 
fountains of the province and corregimiento of 
Cuyo, in the kingdom of Chile, near the lake of 
Inca, from whence the river Quillota takes its 
source. 

AGUA BLANCA, a settlement of the province 
and government of Venezuela, situate between the 
rivers Sarare and Acarigua, to the e. of the town of 
Araure. 

AGUA BUF.NA Y DULCE, or FRESH WATER, 
a bay of the strait of Magellan, near the bay 
of La Gente. . 

AGUA-CALIENTE, a settlement of the kingdom 
of Guatemala. 

AGUA-CLARA, a river of the province and 
government of Paraguay. It runs e. and enters 
the Parana on the w. side. 

AGUA COLORADA, a river of the same province 
and government as the former, which runs e. and 
enters also the large river of Parana. 

AGUA DE CULBBRA, SAN FRANCISCO XA- 
VIER DE LA, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Venezuela, a reduction of Indians of 
the Capuchin lathers ; but the place is also inha 
bited by some Spanish families. It belongs to the 



A G U 

district and jurisdiction of the city of San Felrpc ; 
and in its vicinity dwell a great number of people 
in tiie estates belonging to it, and which produce 
abundance of cacao, plantains, ywo?s, and other 
vegetable productions. 

AGUA-DULCK, CALETA DE, or Creek of, on 
the s. coast of the strait of Magellan, on the side 
of the bay of San Martin. 

AGUA ESCONUIDA, a settlement of the pro 
vince and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana, 
situate at the foot of a mountain, and to the n. of 
Santa Clara. 

AGUA-VERDE, an island of the gulph of 
California, or Red sea of Cortes, situate near the 
coast, between the islands of Carmen and Mon- 
serrat. 

AGUACAGUA, a settlement of the province 
of Guayana, and government of Cumana, one of 
those belonging to the missions of the Catalanian 
Capuchin lathers. It is on the shore of the river 
Caroni, near the mouth, through which this en 
ters the Orinoco. Lat. 8 22 n. Lono-. 62* 
42 to. 

AGUACATAL, a settlement of the province 
and government of Antioquia, situate in the val 
ley of Pcneo, on the shore of the river Cauca. 
Lat. 8 n. Long. 75 28 w. 

AGUACATENANGO, a settlement of the pro 
vince and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa in the king 
dom of Guatemala. [Lat. 16 18 n. Long. 
91 57 w.l 

AGUACATLAN, the head settlement of the 
district of the alcaldia mayor of Xala in Nueva 
Espana. In 1745 it contained 80 families of In 
dians, who employed themselves in the culture of 
maize and French beans. It has a convent of the 
religious order of St. Francis, and lies two leagues 
s. e. of ils capital. 

AGUAC11APA, a settlement of the province 
and government of Nicaragua in the kingdom of 
Guatemala. 

AGUADA, a settlement of the island of Porto- 
rico ; situate in the bay of its name, between the 
capes Boriquen and St. Francis. It serves as an 
inlet for ships going to Tierra Firme and Nueva 
Espana to take in water. PLat. 18 25 n. Loner. 
67 6 a;.] 

AGUADA, the aforesaid bay in the above island. 

AGUADA, the point on the coast and at the head 
of the above island, 27 leagues distant from the 
cape of San Rafael, of the island of St. Domingo. 

AGUADA, a river near the cape or former point, 
and in the same island, being a place where ships 
are accustomed to take in water. 

AGUADA, a small river of the province and 



A G U 

captainship of the Rio Grande in Brazil. It 
rises near the coast, and runs s. s. e. entering the 
sea close to the cape of San Roque. 

AGUADA, a sharp point or small island of the 
S. sea, near the coast, in the province and corre- 
gimiento of Atacama. 

AGUADA, a point on the coast of Tierra Firme, 
in the province and government of Cartagena. It 
is one of those which form the mouth of the gulph 
of Uraba or Darien. 

AGUAD1LLA, a river of the province and 
kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the moun 
tains on the s. and enters the large river Chagre 
very near its mouth, and the castle of this name. 
Here ships take in water, on account of the conve 
nience of a bay, for the defence of which there is, 
upon the shore, a battery belonging to the same 
castle, which was built under the directions of 
Don Dionisio de Alcedo, in 1743. 

AGUADORES, River of the, in the island 
of Cuba. It runs into the sea on the s. coast of 
this island, having at its mouth a watch-tower and 
guard to give notice of vessels which may enter the 
port of Santiago de Cuba, from whence it is 
seven leagues distant. 

AGUA1O, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Sierra Gorda, in the bay of Mexico, 
and kingdom of Nueva Espana, founded in the 
year 1748 by the Colonel of the militia of Quere- 
taro, Don Joseph de Escandon, Count of Sierra 
Gorda. 

AGUAIO, another settlement, with the dedicatory 
title of San Miguel, in the new kingdom of Leon, 
inhabited by Spaniards ; 10 leagues distant from 
La Punta. 

AGUAIUS, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Quixos and Marcas in the kingdom 
of Quito. 

AGUAGE, a settlement and real of mines of the 
province and government of Sonora in Nueva 
Espana. Lat. 29 n. Long. 1 1 1 5 w. 

AGUAJES, a settlement of the province of 
Tepeguna, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, situ 
ate on the shore of the river of Las Nasas. 

AGUALEI, a small river of the province and 
government of Guayana, which rises in the sierras 
of Usupama, and enters the Caroni on the e. side. 

AGUALULCO, a settlement and capital of the 
jurisdiction of Izatlan in Nueva Galicia. It has 
a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, and 
in 1745 it contained upwards of 100 families of 
Indians, including the wards of its district ; 17 
leagues w. of Guadalaxara. Lat. 20 44 n. 
Long. 103 33 w. 

TOL. I. 



A G U 



17 



AGUAMENA, a settlement of the jurisdiction 
of Santiago de las Atalayas, and government of 
San Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada, annexed to the curacy of that city. It is 
of a hot temperature, and produces the same fruits 
as the other settlements of this province. 

AGUAMIRO, a settlement of the province and 
cerregimiento of Huamalies in Peru, celebrated for 
some medicinal and very salutary baths. 

AGUAN, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Honduras, wliich runs into the sea at the 
gulph of this name. 

AGUANATO, SANTA MARIA DE, a settlement 
of the head settlement of the district of Puruandiro, 
andalcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the prdvince 
and bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a cold tem 
perature, situate at the foot of the sierra of Curupo, 
and contains 36 families of Indians, who gain theit 
livelihood by trading in dressed hides. Sixteen 
leagues from Pasquaro or Valladolid. 

AGUANO, a lake of the province and govern* 
ment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. It is 
formed by an arm or channel of the river Gualla- 
ga, and is very near the shore of that river. 

AGUANOS, SAN ANTONIO DE, a settlement 
of the province and government of Mainas in the 
kingdom of Quito ; one of those which belonged 
to the missions held there by the Jesuits, and 
thus called from the nation of Indians of whom it is 
composed. It was founded in 1670 by the father 
Lorenzo Lucero. 

AGUANOS, another settlement, with the dedica 
tory title of San Francisco, in this province, and 
of these missions. 

AGUAPAI, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Paraguay. It rises between the Pa 
rana and the Uruguay, near the settlement of San 
Carlos, runs s. forming a curve, and returning e. 
enters the last of the above rivers not far from the 
settlement of La Cruz. 

AGUAPAI, another river of the same province 
and government, which runs w. and enters the 
Parana close to the Juan Gazu. 

AGUAPEI, a river of the same province and 
government as the two former. It is very small, 
and rises in the mountains of Nuestra Senora de 
Fe ; runs from n. tos. and enters the Parana. 

AGUARAU, a river of the proyince and go 
vernment of Paraguay, which runs w. and enters 
the Parana between the Inau and Piray. 

AGUAR1CO, SAN PEDRO DE, a settlement of 
Indians, converted by the missions of the Jesuits, 
in the province and government. of Mainas; situ 
ate on the shore of the river Napo. 



AGUARICO, another settlement oftbe same pro 
vince, and belonging to the same missions, and 
bearing the dedicatory title of San Estanislao. 

AGUARICO, a river of the same province and 
government, being one of those which enter the 
Napo by the n. side. At its mouth, or entrance, 
begins the large province of the Ericabellados ; 
and here it \vas that the Portuguese attempted to 
establish themselves in 1732, invading it with a 
certain number of Piraguas, (small vessels), which 
came from Para. They were, however, through 
the well-timed precautions of the president of Qui 
to, forced to retire without attaining their object. 
This river contains much gold in its sands, and 
its body is much increased by other streams, such 
as those of the Azuela, Cofanes, Sardinas, and Du- 
ino. It descends from the grand Cordillera of the 
Andes, near the town of San Miguel de Ibarra, 
washes the territory of the Sucumbios Indians, and 
enters the Napo in lat. 123 s. 

AGUAR1NGUA, an ancient and large settle 
ment of the nation of the Taironas Indians, in the 
province and government of Santa Marta. 

AGUARO, a river of the province and go- 
Ternment of Honduras. It enters the S. sea to the 
e. of Aguan. 

AGUARO, CANO DE, a river of the province and 
government of Venezuela. It enters the Guarico, 
and is famous for abounding in fish, particularly 
a kind called pabon, which has a circular spot of 
sky-blue and gold upon its tail, resembling 1 an eye, 
and which is much esteemed for its excellent fla 
vour. 

AGUAS, a small river of the province and 
government of Paraguay. It runs n. n. w. and 
enters the Uruguay close to the Juipa. 
AGUAS-BLANCAS. See YAGUAPIIU. 
AGUAS-BELLAS, a small river of the pro 
vince and government of Paraguay. It runs e. 
and enters the Parana. 

A^UAS-CALIENTES, an akaldia mayor of the 
the kingdom of Nucva Galicia, and bishopric of 
Guadalaxara, in Nueva E*paiia. Its jurisdiction 
includes four head settlements of the district, and 
two large estates called the Pavellon, as also the 
estate Del Fuerte, in which quantities of grain and 
seed are cultivated. The principal settlement is 
the town of the same name, of a moderate tempera 
ture, its inhabitants consisting of 500 Spanish fa 
milies, as also of some of Mustees and Mulattoes; 
and although some Mexican Indians are to be 
found here, they merely come to traffic with the 
productions of the other jurisdictions. It con 
tains three convents ; one of the bare-footed Fran 



ciscans, a sumptuous and well-built fabric ; one of 
the Mercenarios; and a third of San Juan de Oiosj 
with a well-endowed hospital ; not to mention 
several other chapels and altars in the vicinity. 
It is 140 leagues n. n.w. of Mexico, and 35 of 
Guadalaxara. Long. 101 51 30* w. Lat. 22 & n. 

AGUAS-CALIENTES, another settlement in the 
province and government of Venezuela, of the 
kingdom of Ticrra Firme, situate upon the coast. 

AGUASTELAS, SAN MIGUEL DE, a settle 
ment of the head settlement of the district of San 
Andres of Acatlan, and akaldia mayor of Xalapa, 
in Nueva Espana. It is but lately established, 
and is one league s. of its head settlement. 

AGUATEPEC, SANTA MARIA DE, a settle 
ment of the head settlement of the district and 
akaldia mayor of Tecali in Nueva Espana. It 
contains 48 families of Indians. 

AGUATLAN, the head settlement of the dis 
trict of the akadia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Es 
pana. It was formerly a separate jurisdiction; 
but on account of its smallness, and the ill-fa 
voured and craggy state of its soil, it was incorpo 
rated with another close to it. It contains 46 Indian 
families, and is 12 leagues e. of its capital. 

AGUATUBI, a settlement of the province of 
Moqui in Nuevo Mexico. 

AGUATULCO, a river of the province and 
akaldia mayor of Tegoantepec in Nueva Espana. 
It runs e. and enters the S. sea near the Capolita. 

AGUEDA, MONO DE SANTA, a mountain of 
the n. coast of the straits of Magellan, in the Sierra 
Nevada (snowy sierra). 

AGUEDA, a point or cape near the above moun 
tain. 

[AGUGA Cape, on the coast of Peru, S. Ame 
rica, lies s. of Puira, in the 61 of s. lat. and in the 
8Pofo>. long.] 

AGU1.JO, SAN MIGUEL DE, a settlement of 
the new kingdom of Leon. 

AGLJILA, VILLA GUTIERREZ DE LA, atowii 
of the akaldia mayor of Xerez in Nueva Espana. 
It was formerly very considerable, and had a nu 
merous population of Spaniards, when it was 
made a fortress against the Tepehuanes and Tarau- 
maras Indians. It is an akaldia may or , but its 
jurisdiction is consolidated with another, on ac 
count of its being a place of little consideration, 
and its population being very scanty, and living 
in some small wards and estates in its district, ft 
lies at the e. entrance of the province of Nayarith, 
and is the boundary of the kingdom of Nucva 
Gulicia, being nine leagues c. of Xerez. 

AGUILA, a very lofty mountain of the province 



A G U 

and government of Darien, near the . coast, and 
thus called from an eagle with two heads, which 
was caught here in 1608, and which was sent to 
the queen, Dona Maria-Ana of Austria, mother 
of Philip III. At its skirt is a bay, or swampy 
ground, which is round, and has a very narrow 
inlet. Forty-five leagues from Cartagena. 

AGUILA, a point or cape of the larger island of 
the Maluinas or Falkland isles ; thus named from 
having been discovered by the French frigate, the 
Aguila, or Eagle. It is one of those which form 
the great bay or port. 

AGU1LUSCO, a settlement of the head settle- 
ment of the district of Arantzan, and alcaldia 
mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishop 
ric of Mechoacan. It contains 32 families of In 
dians, who employ themselves in sowing seed, 
cutting wood, manufacturing vessels of fine 
earthen-ware, and saddle-trees for riding. 

AGUIRRE, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Venezuela. It rises by the side of the 
city of Niiira, runs s. passes through the town of 
San Carlos, and enters the Sarara. 

AGUIRRE, some pastures for young horses in 
the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo, of 
the kingdom of Chile, between the rivers Ramos 
and Mamas. 

AGUJA, Point of the, on the coast oPTierra 
Firme, and of the province and government of 
Santa Marta, between this city and Cape Chichi- 
bacoa. It is the part of land which projects far 
thest into the sea. 

AGUJA, Point of the, another point on the 
coast of the S. sea, and of the province and corre 
gimiento of Piura in Peru. 

AGUJA, Point of the. See article EGUILLE. 

AGUR, FRANCISCO, a settlement of the pro 
vince and captainship of Espiritu Santo in Bra 
zil, situate near the coast and the bay of Espiritu 
Santo. 

AGUSTIN, SAN, a capital city of the pro 
vince and government of E. Florida, situate on the 
e. coast, in a peninsula, or narrow strip of land. 
It has a good port, which was discovered by Ad 
miral Pedro Menendes de Aviles, on St. Augus- 
tin s day in the year 1565, which was his reason 
for giving the place this title, which has, however, 
been twice changed. He also built here a good 
castle for its defence. The city has a very good 
parish church, and a convent of the Franciscan 
order ; and, as far as relates to its spiritual con 
cerns, it is subject to the bishop of Cuba, who has 
at various times proposed the erection of an 
abbey, but has not obtained his wish, although it 
had been approved by the council of the Indies. 



A G U 



19 



It has two hospitals, one for the garrison troops, 
and another tor the community ; it has also an 
hermitage, with the dedicatory title of Santa Bar 
bara. It was burnt by Francis Drake in 1586; 
by Captain Davis, with the Bucaniers, in 1665 ; 
but it was immediately afterwards rebuilt. In 
1702 it was besieged by the English, under the 
command of Colonel Moore, who, failing in his 
attempts to take the castle, which was defended by 
the governor, Don Joseph de Zuniga, exhibited 
his revenge by burning and destroying the town. 
In 1744 the English returned to the siege, under 
the command of General Oglethorp, who was 
equally unsuccessful, in as much as it was most 
valiantly defended by the governor, Don Manuel 
de Montiano, who defied the bombardment of the 
enemy. This fort has a curtain of 60 toises long ; 
the parapet is nine feet ; and the terrace, or horizon 
tal surface of the rampart, is 20 feet high, with 
good bomb-proof casemates, and mounted with 50 
pieces of cannon, having also, on the exterior, an 
excellent covered way. The city, although it is 
encompassed by a wall, is not strong, and its de 
fence consists in 10 projecting angles. It was ced 
ed, with the whole of the province, to the English^ 
by the King of Spain, in the peace of Versailles, in 
1762 ; and it remained in their possession till 1783, 
when it was restored by the treaty of Paris. The 
breakers at the entrance of the harbour have 
formed two channels, whose bars have eight feet of 
water each. Long. 81 40 . Lat. 29 58 . 

AGUSTIN, SAN, a settlement and real of mines, 
of the province of Taraumara, in the kingdom of 
Nueva Yizcaya, which was formerly a population 
of some consequence, and wealthy withal, from 
the richness of its mines, which have lately fallen 
into decay, and thereby entailed poverty upon the 
inhabitants. It is 26 leagues s. of the town of S. 
Felipe de Chiguagua. 

AGUSTIN, SAN, another small settlement or 
ward of the head settlement of the district of Zum- 
pahuacan, and alcaldia mayor of Marinalco, in 
Nueva Espafia. 

AGUSTIN, SAN, another settlement of the head 
settlement of the district of Nopaluca, and alcaldia 
mayor of Tepcaca, in Nueva Espafia. It contains 
20 families of Indians, and is distant a little more 
than a league from its head settlement. 

AGUSTIN, SAN, another, in the head settlement 
of the district of Pinoteca, and alcaldia mayor of 
Xicayan. It contains 70 families of Indians, who 
trade in grain, seeds, and tobacco. Four leagues 
n. of its head settlement. 

AGUSTIN, SAN, another settlement of the dis 
trict of Guilapa, and the alcaldi* mayor of Quatro 



20 A H O 

Villas. It contains 34 families of Indians, who 
cultivate and trade in grain, pulse, coal, and the 
bark of trees. A little more than two leagues to 
the w. with a slight inclination to the s. of its head 
settlement. 

AGUSTIN, SAN, another setttlement of the pro 
vince and government of Tucuman in Peru ; si 
tuate on the shore of the river Tercero (third river.) 

AGUSTIN, SAN, another settlement of the pro 
vince and alcaldia, mayor of Vera Paz in the king 
dom of Guatemala. 

AGUSTIN, SAN, another of the province and 
government of Popayan in the kingdom of Quito. 

AGUSTIN, SAN, another of the province and 
government of Buenos Ayres in Peru, on the shore 
of the river Ibiquay. 

AGUSTIN, SAN, another of the province and 
alcaldia mayor of Culiacan in Nueva Espana, 
situate near the town of Rosario. 

AGUSTIN, SAN, a point or cape of the coast, of 
Brazil, in the province and captainship of Per- 
nambuco, between the port Antonio Vaz and the 
river Tapado. One hundred leagues from the 
bay of Los Muertos ; [300 miles n. e. from the bay 
of All Souls. Lat. 8 38 s. Long. 35 11 w.l 

AGUSTIN, SAN, another point or cape of the 
coast of the province and government of Rio de 
Hacha, and kingdom of Tierra Firme, close to the 
lake of San Juan, on the e. side. 

AGUSTIN, SAN, a river of the province and 
government of Antioquia, in the new kingdom of 
Granada. It runs from 5. to n. and afterwards, 
with a slight inclination to the w. enters the river 
S. Juan, of the province of Choco. 

AGUSTIN, SAN, a small island of the gulph of 
California, or Red Sea of Cortes ; situate in the 
most interior part of it, and near upon the coast of 
Nueva Espana, opposite the bay of San Juan 
Baptista. 

[AGWORTII, a township in Cheshire county, 
New Hampshire, incorporated in 1766, and con 
tains 704 inhabitants; eight miles e. by w. from 
Charlestown, and 73n.w. by w. from Portsmouth.] 

AHOME, a nation of Indians, who inhabit the 
shores of the river Zuaque, in the province of 
Cinaloa, and who are distant four leagues from 
the sea of California : they were converted to the 
Catholic faith by father Andres de Rivas, a Jesuit. 
Their country consists of some extensive and fer 
tile plains, and they are by nature superior to the 
other Indians of Nueva Espana. Moreover, their 
Heathenish customs do not partake so much of the 
spirit of barbarism. They abhorred polygamy, 
and held virginity in the highest estimation : and 
thus, by way of distinction, unmarried girls wore 

5 



A H U 

a small shell suspended to their neck, until the day 
of their nuptials, when it was taken oft" by the bride 
groom. Their clothes were decent, composed of 
wove cotton, and they had a custom of bewailing 
their dead for a whole year, night and morning, 
with an apparently excessive grief. They are 
gentle and faithful towards the Spaniards, with 
whom they have continued in peace and unity 
from the time of their first subjection. The prin 
cipal settlement is of the same name, and lies at 
the mouth of the river Fuerte, on the coast of the 
gulph of California, having a good, convenient, 
and well sheltered port. 

AHORCADOS, Point of the, on the shore of 
the large lake of Los Patos, of the province and 
captainship of Rey in Brazil. 

AHORCADOS, some small islands or points on 
the coast of the S. sea, in the district of Santa 
Elena, of the province and government of Guay 
aquil, close to the mouth of the river Colonche. 

AHUACATEPEC, SAN NICOLAS DE, another 
settlement of the above head settlement and alcal 
dia mat/or. 

AHUACATES, SANTA MARIA DE, a branch 
of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia 
mayor of Cuernavaca in Nueva Espana. 

AHUACATLAN, SANTA MARIA DE, a set 
tlement* of the head settlement of the district of 
San Francisco del Talle, and alcaldia mayor of 
Zultepec, in Nueva Espana. It is of a cold tem 
perature, inhabited by 51 families of Indians, and 
distant three leagues s. of its head settlement. 

AHUACATLAN, another settlement of the head 
settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan in 
Nueva Espana. It is of a cold temperature, si 
tuate on a small level plain, surrounded by hills 
and mountains. It contains 13 families of In 
dians, and is seven leagues to the n. of its capital. 

AHUACATLAN, with the dedicatory title of SAN 
JUAN, the head settlement of the district of the 
alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan in Nueva Nspana. 
Its inhabitants are composed of 450 families of 
Indians, and .60 of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mu- 
lattoes, including the settlements of the district. 
Five leagues from its capital, and separated by a 
mountainous and rugged road, as also by a very 
broad river, whose waters, in the winter time, in 
crease to such a degree as to render all communi 
cation between the above places impracticable. 

AHUACATLAN, another, of the head settlement 
of the district of Olinala, and alcaldia mayor of 
Tlapa, in the above kingdom. It contains 160 
families of Indians, who trade in chia, (a white 
medicinal earth), and grain, with which its territory 
abounds. It lies n. w. of its head settlement, 



A H W 

AHUACAZALCA, a settlement of the head 
settlement of the district of San Luis de la Costa, 
and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espaiia. 
It contains 56 families of Indians, whose com 
merce consists in rice and cotton. Three leagues 
n. e. of its head settlement. 

AHUACAZINGO, a settlement of the head 
settlement of the district of Atengo, and alcaldia 
mayor of Chilapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 
46 families of Indians, and is ten leagues c. of its 
head settlement. 

AHUAL1CAN, a settlement of the alcaldia 
mayor of Tixtlan in Nueva Espaiia ; of a benign 
and salutary temperature, as it is fanned bj the??. 
breezes. It lies three leagues n. of its head settle 
ment, which is Oapan ; and contains 36 families 
of Indians. 

AHUATELCO, a settlement of the head set 
tlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of 
Izucarin Nueva Espana, situate on the skirt of the 
volcano of the same name. In its district are 
eight settlements, inhabited by 289 families of In 
dians, and 11 of Muste.es and Mulattoes, who 
live in some temporary habitations for labourers. 
It is situate on a cold, rough, and barren soil, but 
is nevertheless fertile in wheat, and abounds in 
water and cattle. Eight leagues n. w. of its capital. 

AHUATEMPA, a settlement of the head set 
tlement of the district of Santa Isabel, and alcaldia 
mayor of Cholula, in Nueva Espana. It contains 39 
familiesof Indians, and is two leagues s. of its capital. 

AHUATEPEC, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa 
in Nueva Espana. It contains 32 families of In 
dians, and is two leagues n. of its capital. 

AH U AT LAN, SAN PEDRO DE, a settlement 
of the head settlement of the district of San Juan 
del Rio, and alcaldia mayor of Queretaro, inNueva 
Espana ; annexed to the curacy of the former 
place, and lying ten leagues n. w. of the latter. 

AHUEHUEZ1NGO, a settlement of the head 
settlement of the district of Chietlan, and alcaldia 
mayor of Izucar, in Nueva Espana. 

AHUEZ1TLA, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa 
in Nueva Espana. It contains^ families of In 
dians, and abounds in cA/a, (a white medicinal 
earth), grain, and earthen- ware. It is nine leagues 
w. n. w. of its capital. 

[AHVVAHHAWAY, a race of Indians, who 
differ but very little in any particular from the 
Mandans, their neighbours, except in the unjust 
war which they, as well as the Minetares, prosecute 
against the defenceless Snake Indians. They claim 
to have once been a part of the Crow Indiansjwhom 



A I A 21 

they still acknowledge as relations. They have 
resided on the Missouri as long as their tradition 
will enable them to inform.] 

AIABACA, a settlement of the province and cor 
regimiento of Piura in Peru. 

AIACASI, a settlement of the province and cor 
regimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Belille. 

AIACOA, a small river of the province and go 
vernment of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It 
rises to the w. of the Sierra Maiguatida, runs e. and 
enters the Orinoco near the rapid stream of the 
Marumarota. 

AIACOCHA, a settlement of the pr <ind 
corregimiento of Huanta in Peru, situate in the 
island Tayacaja. 

AIAHUALTEMPA, a settlement of the head set 
tlement of the district of Zitlala, and alcaldia mayor 
of Chilapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 36 fa 
milies of Indians, and is three leagues to the s. of 
its head settlement. 

AIAHUALULCO, a settlement of the head set 
tlement of the district of Ixlahuacan, and alcaldia 
mayor of Xalapa, in Nueva Espana, which, in the 
Mexican language, signifies a small river. It 
abounds in the best fruits of its jurisdiction, such 
as pears and other sorts of fruit highly esteemed at 
Vera Cruz. It contains only three families of Spa 
niards, 22 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 70 of In 
dians. In its district are several temporary habi 
tations for labourers, and pastures for breeding cat 
tle, which reach as far as the district of Tepcaca, 
in the lofty eminence of Xamiltepec, 16 leagues 
distant from Xalapa. It includes also within its 
administration the cultivated estates extending as 
far as the place called Puertezuelo, where this juris 
diction approximates to that of San Juan de los 
Llanos on the w. s. w. side ; and in the culture of 
the above estates many Spaniards, Mustees, and 
Mulattoes, are employed. One league s. w. of its 
head settlement. 

AIAHUALULCO, another settlement of the head 
settlement of the district of Zitlala, and alcaldia 
mayor of Chilapa, in the kingdom of Xalapa, and 
annexed to the curacy of this place, from which it 
is three leagues distant, being nine to the s. of its 
head settlement. It contains 42 families of Indians, 
including another small settlement incorporated 
W 7 ith it. 

A1AHUASA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Pachaconas. 

AIAMARCA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Castro Virreyna in Peru, an* 
nexed to the curacy of Cordova. 



22 A I A 

A1ANABE, a settlement of Indians of S. Caro 
lina, situate on the shore of the river Uuflle-noir. 

AI APANGO, the head settlement of the district 
of the alcaldia mayor of Chalco in Nueva Es 
pana. It contains 100 families of Indians, and is 
annexed to the curacy of Amccameca, at two 
leagues to the 5. of its capital. 

A1APATA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru, and very 
opulent, on account of its silver mines. The sands 
on the banks of the rivers here have been known so 
richly impregnated with this metal, that lumps of 
it have been at different times picked up. It is the 
most considerable population in the province, and 
the temperature is so salutary, that it is very com 
mon to meet with persons of 90 years of age, and 
many also of 100. 

A1APEL, a town of the province and govern 
ment of Antioquia, iu the new kingdom of Gra 
nada, situate on the bank of a large lake or swamp 
of the same name, and which is formed from the 
waters of the rivers Cauca, San Jorge, and others. 
In its district are the laxaderos, or washing places 
for gold, of La Cruz, San Mateo, Thuansi, Can, 
Ure, Man, San Pedro, and La Soledad. 

AIARANGA, a settlement of the province and 
c-orregimiento of Chancay in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Paccho. 

AIARI, a settlement of the province and corre 
gimiento of Huanta in Peru, annexed to the cu 
racy of Mayoc. 

A I ATA, a settlement of the province and cor- 
tcgimiento of Larecaja in Peru. 

AIATASTO, a large river of the province and 
government of Tucuman, in the district and juris 
diction of the city of Salta, on the banks of which 
arc some pasture grounds of the same name, upon 
which are fed 40,000 head of neat cattle, arid 6000 
of horses for breeding. 

AIATEPEC, a settlement of the head settlement 
of the district of Atitlan, and alcaldia mayor of 
Villalta, in Nueva Espana. It contains 45 fami 
lies of Indians, and is 17 leagues from its capital. 

AIAU1, a settlement of the province and corre- 
gimiento of Castro Virreyna in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Huaitara. 

AIAU1RI, a settlement of the province and cor 
regimiento of Lamoa in Peru. In its vicinity are 
some forts, which were built by the Indians in the 
time of their gentilism, and now in a state of great 
dilapidation. There is a lake of warm water here, 
the bottom of which has never yet been found. 
The water always keeps at one height, so that it is 
presumed that it finds its way out through some 
subterraneous channel. There is also another warm 



A I M 

water spring at two leagues distance, "which is very 
noxious, and, as it runs, has the property of petri 
fying, in like manner as the spring of water in 
Guancavelica. 

AIAUIRI, another settlement of the province and 
corregimienlo of Yauyos in Peru. 

A1AUTLA, a settlement of the head settlement 
of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teutila iu 
Nueva Espana, of a warm temperature, and inha 
bited by 100 Indian families, who support them 
selves by cultivating and selling the vat/?iil/a plant. 
Nine leagues s. of its capital. 

AICAROPA, a small river of the province and 
government of Guayana,or Nueva Andalucia. It 
rises in the country of the Armocotos Indians, runs 
from e. to w. with a slight inclination to the s. and 
enters the Caura. 

AICHES, a settlement of Indians of the province 
and government of Las Texas, in Nueva Espana, 
sitzate in the way which leads to Mexico. 

A1C1ACH1 A, a settlement of the missions which 
belonged to the Jesuits, in the province of Tarau- 
mara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, 40 leagues 
w. s. w. of the town and real of the mines of Chi- 
guagua. 

A1ECT1PAC, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Yxteapan, and alcaldia 
mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 
21 Indian families, and is three leagues e. of its 
head settlement. 

AIENCAS, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Cuenca, in the kingdom of Quito, 
annexed to the curacy of Paccha. 

A1GA, a settlement of the province and corre 
gimiento of Huailas in Peru. 

AIGAME, a settlement and real of mines of 
the province and government of Sonora in Nueva 
Espana. 

A1LES, a river of the province and government 
of Louisiana. It runs s. e. between the rivers Canot 
and Noyre, and empties itself into the Mississippi. 

AIMARAEZ, a province and corregimiento of 
Peru, bounded n. w. and w. by the province of 
Andahuailas, of the bishopric of Guamanga, s. by 
Parinacocha of the same, s. e. by Chumbivilcas, 
and e. by Cotabamba. It is 40 leagues in length 
from n. to s. and 26 in width from e. to w. includ 
ing in its figure on the w. side the last mentioned 
province. It is one of the most uneven soils in the 
kingdom, being full of lofty sierras and snowy 
mountains. It is on this account that its climate is 
very cold, excepting, however, in some vallies, 
where it is more temperate, and where, on some 
small sloping grounds, the inhabitants sow seed and 
grain, and cultivate fruit trees and cane plantations, 



A I M 

from which they are enabled to make sugar. It is 
intersected by three rivers, which are of no use 
whatever to it, being too low in their beds ; but they 
unite and form the Pachachaca, which enters the 
province of Abancay, and has more than 40 bridges 
of wood and cord thrown over it in different parts. 
There are innumerable veins of gold and silver ore- 
in this province, which are not worked, from the 
want of energy, and from the poverty existing 
among the inhabitants ; and thus only some tri 
fling emolument is now and then derived from one 
or the other. It was otherwise in former times, 
but these mines are now almost all filled with water. 
Some mines of quicksilver have been discovered, 
but the working of them has been forbid. Here 
is little of the cattle kind, and no cloth manufac 
tures peculiar to the country are made here, with 
the exception of a sort of thick quilt, which they 
call Chuces ; and a kind of grain is gathered here, 
known by the name of Maino. This province was 
united to the empire of Peru by Capac Yupan- 
qui V. Emperor of the Incas. The language of the 
natives is the same as that which is most universal 
throughout the kingdom. The capital formerly 
consisted of a large and well ordered settlement, 
which was called Tintay, but which is at present 
but thinly inhabited, on account of the scarcity of 
water, and from a plague, in which almost all its 
inhabitants perished. The number of souls in the 
whole of the province may amount to 15,000. It 
contains 50 settlements within its jurisdiction. The 
yearly tribute received by the corregidor used to 
amount to 800,100 dollars, and the duties paid 
upon the akavala, (a centage on goods sold), to 
688 dollars. 

The settlements of its jurisdiction are: 

Chaluanca. Ayahuasa. 

Colca. Huancaray. 

Mollebamba. Sabaino. 

Carabamba. Catarosi. 

Matara. Ant ill a. 

Antabamba. Iluaquirca. 

Oropesa. Pocoanca. 

Totora. Tapairihua. 

Traparo. Chalvani. 

Chacoche. Caypi. 

Caleauzo. Caracara, 

Viri. Sanaica. 

Pampamarca. Huaillaripa, 

Silco. Pichihua. 

Atuncama. Amoca. 

Chacna. Yanaca. 

Capaya. Saraico. 

Muitu. Subyunca. 

Pachaconas. Lucre. 



Sirca, Chuquingft, 

Pichurhua. Ancobamba. 

Colcabamba. Pampayacta. 

Soraya. Chapinmrca, 

Huairahuacuo. Lambraraa. 

Toraya. Pairaca. 

AIMAKAPA, a small river of the province and 
colony of Surinam, in the part of Guayana pos 
sessed by the Dutch. It is one of those which en 
ter the Cuyum near where it joins the Esquivo. 

AINACA, a settlement of the province and r-or- 
rfginiiento of Caxatarnbo in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Cochamarca. 

A1NACOLCA, a gold mine of the province and 
corregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. It is famous 
for the excellent quality of this metal, but it is very 
difficult to be worked, on account of the hardness 
of its stone. 

AIO, a settlement of the province and corregi 
miento of Condensuyos de Arequipa in Peru, an 
nexed to the curacy of Chichas. 

A1OA1O, a settlement of the province and cor 
regimiento of Sicasica in Peru, eight leagues from 
its capital. 

AIOCUESCO, SANTA MARIA DE, the head 
settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of 
Antequera, in the province and bishopric of Me- 
choacan in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot tem 
perature, contains a convent of the religious order 
of Santo Domingo, and 400 Indian families, who 
carry on some commerce in the cochineal, (the 
plant producing which they cultivate), and a very 
considerable one in the manufacture of Ptdgues, 
on account of the abundance of Magueyes which 
are found here. Seven leagues s. of its capital. 

AIOTITLAN, the head settlement of the dis 
trict of the alcaldia mayor of Amola in Nueva 
Espana, immediately upon the coast of the S. sea, 
and situate between two deep ravines. Its tem 
perature is very hot and troublesome to live in, on 
account of the various venomous animals and in 
sects that abound in its territory. It contains 76 
Indian families, whose trade consists in making 
troughs and trays very finely painted. This set 
tlement, in which there is a convent of the order 
of St. Francis, is beautifully surrounded with 
plantations. Fifteen leagues distant from its capital. 
AIONANTOU, a settlement of Indians of New 
France, situate in the county of Canahoque, on the 
shore of one of the salt marshes that are found 
there. 

AIOZINAPA, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of Oliuala, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in 
Nueva Espana, of a hot and moist temperature, 
and abounding in cochineal, fruit, and pulse, with. 



24, A I U 

which the inhabitants trade. These are composed of 
34 Indian families. It is a little more than three 
leagues from its head settlement. 

AIOZINGO, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor 
of Chalco in Nueva Espana, situate on the shore 
of the lake of Mexico, with a good port, at which 
are embarked the fruits of many provinces for the 
supply of that capital, (Chalco), which is within 
eight or ten hours sail from hence. It has a good 
convent of S. Augustin, where a most beauti 
ful image of the virgin is reverenced, and sup 
posed to be wonder-working. Its inhabitants con 
sist of 120 Indian families and some Spanish. It 
is distant one league s. s. e. from its capital. 

AIQUILE, a settlement of the province of Miz- 
que in Peru. 

AIRICOS, a nation of Indians who inhabit the 
plains of Cazanare and Meta, of the new kingdom 
of Granada, to the e. of the mountains of Bogota, 
on the borders of the river Ele. It is numerous, 
and feared by all its neighbours, on account of its 
valour and dexterity in the use of arms. 

AIRICOS, with the dedicatory title of SAN 
FRANCISCO XAVIER, a settlement which belonged 
to the Jesuits, and founded in 1662 by father An 
tonio de Monteverde, and composed of some of 
those Indians who were thus reduced to the Catho 
lic faith. 

AIRIHUANCA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Cotabamba in Peru. 

AIRS, a small city of the province and colony 
of New Jersey, in the county of Burlington. 

AIUDA, NUESTRA SENORA DE LA, a village 
and settlement of the Portuguese, in the province 
and captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situate 
upon the sea-coast, and on the shore of the river 
S. Miguel. 

AIUDA, another settlement in the province and 
captainship of Puerto Seguro, situate upon the 
coast on the shore of the port. 

AIUILA, a river of the province and alcaldia 
mayor of Soconusco, in the kingdom of Guate 
mala. It runs into the S. sea between the settle 
ment of Suchitepec and the river Coatlan. 

AIUINOS, a nation of Indians of the province 
and government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana, 
converted to the faith by father Francisco Olinano, 
of the abolished society of the Jesuits, in 1624. 
They live towards the n. of the above province, 
and in the times of their heathenism they dwelt in 
the lofty mountains, in order that they might de 
fend themselves from the other nations with whom 
they were at war. They are docile, well-inclined, 
and of good habits. 

AIUN, or IUMERI, a river of the province and 



A K A 

viceroy/aft^ of Buenos Ayres. It runs s. and enters 
the Rio Negro. 

AIUNGIIA, PAGO DE, a settlement of the pro 
vince and government of Tucuman, in the district 
and jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero, 
from whence it is 22 leagues distant. It is situate 
on the shore of the river Dulce. 

AIUTLA, the head settlement of the district of 
the alcaldia mm/or of Villalta in Nueva Espana. 
It is of a cold temperature, containing 187 Indian 
families, and a convent of the religious order of S. 
Domingo; distant 13 leagues to the e. of its capi 
tal. 

AIUTLA, another settlement in the head settle 
ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Autlan 
of the sanie kingdom, with 23 Indian families, wh* 
have large stores of pulse and fruit, so rich and fer 
tile is their country. It is annexed to the curacy of 
Tenamaztlani, from whence it lies one league s. 

A1UA, a small town of the island of St. Domin 
go, situate in the line which divides the Spanish 
territory from the French. It was the inhabitants 
of this town who chiefly contributed to ensure the 
victory which was gained against the Spaniards in 
the plain of Pucrfo Real, by the president Don 
Francisco de Segura y Sandoval, in 1691. 

AIX, PALMARDE, a large beach on the coast 
of Florida, within the channel of Bahama, near 
the point of Canaveral ; memorable for the ship 
wreck of 22 vessels, composing the fleet of Nueva 
Espana, which took place in 1715, being under the 
command of Don Antonio de Ubila ; memorable 
also for the loss of two galleons from Tierra Firme, 
commanded by Don Antonio de Echevers ; the 
loss of the one and the other amounting to nearly 
20 million dollars. 

AIX, a river of the same province, which runs 
into the sea very near the Palmar. 

AJOIANI, a settlement of the province and cor 
regimiento of Carabaya in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Coaza. 

[A JOS, a parish situate on the foot of the moun 
tains which separate the rivers Paraguay and Pa 
rana, about 24 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 25 
26 34" s. Long. 56 30 a?.] 

AJOUES, a settlement of Indians of the pro 
vince and government of Louisiana, in which the 
French held a garrison and fort for its defence, on 
the shore of a lake near the Missouri. 

AJOUES, another settlement of the same province 
and government, situate on the shore of the river 
Missouri. 

AKANCEAS, a nation of savage Indians of N. 
America, who live at the conflux of the rivers 
Mississippi, and another abundant stream of its 



ALA 

name. The religion of these idolaters is very sin 
gular, for they acknowledge a supreme being, who, 
they imagine, manifests himself to them in the 
figure of some animal which feeds in their fields ; 
and when this dies, they substitute another, after 
having signified very great demonstrations of re 
gret for the fate of the one which is lost. 

AKANKIA, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Louisiana. It is an arm of (he Mis 
sissippi, which runs s. s. e. and enter* the lake of 
Maurepas. 

AKANSA, a settlement of Indians of the pro 
vince and government of Louisiana. It has a fort 
built by the French, and it is near the mouth of 
the river of its name, where it enters the Missis 
sippi. 

AKANSA, another settlement in the same pro 
vince, situate also on the shore of the aforesaid 
river, and distinguished by the name of Petit 
Akansa. 

AKANSA, a river of the above province and 
government. It rises in the country of the Oza- 
ques Indians, runs many leagues s. e. as far as the 
town of Satovis, when, turning to the s. it enters 
by two mouths into the Mississippi, being through 
out subject to large cataracts. 

AKOUKA, a settlement of the province of La 
Guayana, in the Dutch possessions, or colony of 
Surinam ; situate on the shore of the river Little, 
just before it enters the Marawin. 

[ALABAHA, a considerable river in E. Flo 
rida. Also said to be the name of a branch of St. 
Mary s river.] 

[ALABAHA, a considerable river of Georgia, 
which pursues a s. course to thegulph of Mexico, 
100 miles w. of the head of St. Mary s river. Its 
banks are low, and a trifling rain swells it to more 
than a mile in width. In a freshet the current is 
rapid, and those who pass are in danger of being 
entangled in vines and briars, and drowned ; they 
are also in real danger from great numbers of hun 
gry alligators. The country for nearly iOO miles 
on each side of this river, that is to say, from the 
head of St. Mary s to Flint river, which is 90 
miles zo. of the Alabaha, is a continued soft, miry 
waste, affording neither water nor food for men or 
beasts ; and is so poor indeed, as that the common 
game of the woods are not found here. The 
country on the w. of Alabaha is rather preferable 
to that on the ej 

[ALABAMOUS, an old French fort, in the 
t>. part of Georgia ; situate between Coosa and 
TaUapOQse rivers, and not far from their conflu 
ence.] 

[ALABAMA, an Indian village, delightfully 

VOL. I. 



ALA 35 

situated on the banks of the Mississippi, on several 
swelling green hills, gradually ascending from the 
verge of the river. These Indians are the remains 
of the ancient Alabama nation, who inhabited the 
e, arm of the Great Mobile river, which still bears 
their name, now possessed by the Creeks, or Mus- 
cogulges, who conquered the former,] 

[ALABAMA River is formed by the junction 
of the Ooosa or Coosee, or High Town river, and 
Tallapoosee river, at Little Tullasee, and runs in 
a s. w. direction, until it meets Tombigbee river 
from the n. w. at the great island which it there 
forms, 90 miles from the mouth of Mobile bay, in 
thegulph of Mexico. This beautiful river has a 
gentle current, pure waters, and excellent fish. 
It runs about two miles an hour, is 70 or 80 rods 
wide at its head, and from 15 to 18 feet deep in 
the driest season. The banks are about 50 feet 
high, and seldom, if ever, overflowed. Travellers 
have gone down in large boats, in the month of 
May, in nine days, from Little Tallasee to Mobile 
bay, which is about 350 miles by water. Its banks 
abound w ith valuable productions in the vegetable 
and mineral kingdoms. 

[ALABASTER, or ELEUTHERA, one of the 
Banama or Lucayo islands, on which is a small fort 
and garrison. It is on the Great Bahama bank. 
The soil of this island and Harbour island, which 
lies at the n. end of it, is better than Providence 
island, and produces the greatest part of the pine 
apples that are exported ; the climate is very 
healthy. Lat. 24 40 to 26 30 n. Long. 7G 22 
to 76 56 w.] 

[ALACHUA Savannah is a level green plain, 
in the country of the Indians of that name in 
E. Florida, situate about 75 miles w. from St. 
Augustine. It is about 15 miles over, and 50 in 
circumference ; and scarcely a tree or bush of any 
kind to be seen on it. It is encircled with high 
sloping hills, covered with waving forests, and 
fragrant orange groves, rising from an exube 
rantly fertile soil. The ancient Alachua town 
stood on the borders of this savannah ; but the 
Indians removed to Cuscowilla, two miles distant, 
on account of the unhealthiness of the former site, 
occasioned by the stench of the putrid fish and 
reptiles, in the summer and autumn, driven on 
shore by the alligators, and the noxious exhala 
tions from the marthes of the savannah. Though 
the horned cattle and horses bred in these meadows 
are large, sleek, sprightly, and fat, yet they are 
subject to mortal diseases ; such as the water rot, 
or scald, occasioned by the warm water of the sa 
vannah ; while those which range in the high 
forest* are clear of this disorder.] 
E 



26 ALA 

ALACLATZALA, a branch of the head set 
tlement of the district of S. Luis, of the coast and 
alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It 
contains 125 Indian families, and is one league 
from the settlement of Quanzoquitengo. 

ALACRANES, some islands, or rather some 
hidden rocks, of the N. sea, in the bay of Mexico, 
opposite the coast of Yucatan. Those who navi 
gate these parts arc accustomed to pass round be 
yond them for fear of venturing amongst them, al 
though there are some good channels among them, 
and withgood soundings. They are for the most part 
barren, producing nothing beyond a herb called 
?20row,and deficient in fresh water ; neither do they 
produce any animal except the mole, which is 
found here in prodigious numbers. There are, 
however, a quantity of birds, of three distinct sorts, 
each forming a community of itself, and entirely 
separated from the other two ; and it has been 
observed, that if one party may have fixed upon 
any place for building their nests, the others never 
think of disturbing them, or driving them from it ; 
but the noise these birds make is so great, that one 
cannot pass near them without suffering consider 
ably from their united clamours. 

[A LAD AS, a parish situate about 14 leagues 
s. e. of Corrientes, in Lat. 23 15 20" s. Long. 58 
30 rr.~) 

ALAHUIZTLAN, SAN JUAN DF, a branch 
of the head settlement of the district of Escateopan, 
and alcaldiamayor of Zaqualpa, in Nueva Espana. 
(t contains 270 Indian families. 

ALAIN, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. It rises 
in the country of the Locamas Indians, runs from 
r. to n. and turning to the n. n. f. enters the Pucare. 

ALAMEDA, a settlement of the missions be 
longing to the religious of St. Francis in Nuevo 
Mexico. 

ALAMILLOS, a settlement of the province of 
Taraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; one 
of the missions which belonged to the religious of 
St Francis. It is close to the town and real of 
the mines of Santa Eulalia. 

ALAMO, a settlement of the province and 
government of the new kingdom of Leon, situ 
ate 15 leagues to the s. e. of the Point. 

ALAMOS, REAL DE Los, a settlement and 
real of the mines of the province of Sinaloa in 
Nueva Espana. It is situate s. e. of the Sierra 
Mad re, and surrounded by rich silver mines, 
which would produce abundantly but for want of 
labourers. There are in its district five estates 
that are fertile in maize, French beans, and sugar 
cane. The spiritual concerns of all these parts 



ALA 

are under the direction of a curate, whose jurisdic 
tion extends as far as the river Mayo, which flows 
down from the sierra. It is 20 leagues distant 
from the town of Tucrtc, and between these lies 
the valley of Maquipo. [Population 7900 souls.] 

ALAMOS, with the dedicatory title of S. JORGE, 
a town of the province and captainship of Para in 
Brazil, founded by Jorge del Alamo, who gave 
it his name, in a place called La Vigia. It has a 
magnificent parish church, with the title of Nuestra 
Senora de Nazareth , with a large and good fort, 
and well furnished with artillery. Also, at the dis 
tance of a league and an half from the settlement, 
is a house of charity belonging to the religious 
order of the Capuchins of La Piedad. 

ALAMOS, another town of the province and go 
vernment of Sonora, in the line that divides the 
confines of this jurisdiction and the province of 
Ostimuri, between the rivers Hiaqui and La 
Sonora. 

ALAMOS, another settlement of the same pro 
vince and government as the former, situate to 
the s. of the garrison of Coro de Guachi. 

ALAMOS, another of the missions belonging to 
the abolished society of Jesuits, in the province 
of Taraumara and kingdom of Nueva V izcaya. 
It is 27 leagues 5. w. and a quarter of a league s. 
of the real of the mines and town of S. Felipe de 
Chiguaga. 

ALAMOS, another settlement and real of the 
silver mines of the province and government of 
Cinaloa. 

ALANGAS1, a settlement of the kingdom of 
Quito, in the district of the corregimiento of the 
Cinco Leguas de la Capital. In its territory is a 
fountain of hot medicinal waters. 

A LANG AST, a river of the above corregimiento y 
and rising in the desert mountain of Sincholagua ; 
over it there is a large bridge, composed of a single 
arch, but so strong, that when, in 1660, a part 
of the mountain fell upon it, and precipitated one 
half of it into the stream, the other half still re 
mained firm and immoveable. This bridge is 
built of mud and stone. 

ALANIS, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Maracaibo, in the district of the city 
of Merida, situate in the way which leads from 
this city to the new kingdom of Grenada. 

ALANGI, SANTIAGO DE, a city and head 
settlement of the district of the province of Chi- 
riqui and government of Santiago de Veragua, 
in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It is small, but 
abounding in fruits and cattle ; in which a regular 
trade is carried on for supplying the city of Pa 
nama. This trade consists principally in pigs, 



ALA 

mules, poultry, cheese, and salt meats. It has 
likewise some mines in its district, which are not 
altogether neglected, though the advantages de 
rived from them would be immensely increased, if 
the number of labourers were greater. It is go 
verned by a lieutenant nominated by the governor 
of Santiago de Veragua. ["Lat. 8 12 n. Long. 
80 40 w.~\ 

ALAQUES, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Tacunga in the kingdom of 
Quito. 

ALAQUINES, a branch of the head settle 
ment of the district of Tamazunchale, and akaldia 
mayor of Valles, in Nueva Espana, situate on the 
shore of a large river which divides this jurisdic 
tion from that of Guadalcazar. 

ALARA, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Antioquia in the new kingdom of Gra 
nada. It rises at the foot of the sierra of Gua- 
moco, and s. of the town of this name ; runs a?, 
and enters the Cauca. 

[ALASKE, a long peninsula on the n. w. coast 
of America, formed by Bristol bay and the ocean 
on the n. w. and n. and by the ocean and the 
waters of Cook s river on the s. and s. e. At its 
extremity are a number of islands, the chief of 
which, in their order westward, are, Oonemak, 
Oonalasha, and Ocutnnak, which form part of 
the chain or cluster of islands called the Northern 
Archipelago. Captain Cook, on his return in 
1779, passed through the channel e. of Oonemak 
island. Sec NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.] 

ALATAMALIA, a large river of the province 
and government of Florida. It runs nearly due 
e. and enters the sea opposite the Gcorgean isles. 
[This river, which is navigable, is more properly 
of Georgia. It rises in the Cherokee mountains, 
near the head of a western branch of Savannah 
river, called Tugulo. In its descent through the 
mountains it receives several auxiliary streams ; 
thence it winds, with considerable rapidity, 
through the hilly country 250 miles, from whence 
it throws itself into the open flat country, by the 
name of Oakmulgee. Tkence, after meandering 
for 150 miles, it is joined by the Oconee, which 
likewise has its source in the mountains. After 
this junction it assumes the name of Aiatamaha, 
when it becomes a large majestic river ; and flow 
ing with a gentle current through forests and 
plains 100 miles, discharges itself into the Atlan 
tic by several mouths. The n. channel glides by 
the heights of Darien, about 10 miles above the 
bar, and after several turnings, enters the ocean 
between Sapelo and Wolf islands. The s. chan 
cel, which is esteemed the largest aad deepest, 



ALB 27 

after its separation from the n. descends gently, 
taking its course between M Intosh.and Brough- 
ton islands, and at last by the w. coast of St. 
Simon s sound, between the s. end of the island 
of that name, and the ;?. end of Jekyl island. 
At its confluence with the Atlantic it is 500 yards 
wide.] 

ALAUSI, a province and small corregimiento 
or district of the kingdom of Quito ; bounded w. by 
the province of Riobamba, n. w. by Chimbo, s. 
by Cuenca, w. by the district of Yaguache, and 
e. by that of Macas. It is watered by the rivers 
Uzogoche, Gussuntos, Pinancay, Alausi, and 
others of less note. It abounds in mountains, the 
most lofty of which are toward the w. ; the country 
is pleasant, and yields liberally every kind of 
fruit and grain that are common either to America 
or Europe. It contains many sugar mills, and 
the sugar is the best in the kingdom. The air here 
is mild and healthy, and the climate cannot be said 
to be inconveniently hot. It is governed by the 
corregidor, who resides in the capital. 

ALAUSI, the capital of the above province. If 
has in its district some mineral fountains of hot 
water, established with suitable conveniences by 
some families of consideration residing there. Its 
trade consists in cloths, baizes, and cotton gar 
ments, which are wrought in its manufactories. 
It has a very good parish church, and a convent 
of the order of St. Francis. [Lat. 2 12 n. 
Long. 78 39 a>.] 

[ALBANS, ST. a township in Franklin county, 
Vermont, on lake Cham plain, opposite N. Hero 
island, with 256 inhabitants.] 

ALBANIA, or ALBANY, a county of the pro 
vince and colony of New York. It contains a 
certain number of plains fertile ingrain, in which, 
and in planks of pine, its principal commerce con 
sists. The winter is extremely cold, and the river 
Hudson is generally frozen for 100 miles, so as 
to bear immense burthens. The great quantity 
of snow that falls at this season is useful, not only 
because it covers the grain, and keeps it from pe 
rishing by the frost, but because, when it melts, it 
so increases the waters of the river, as to facilitate 
thereby the transportation of the productions of 
the country. 

[ALBANY County lies between Ulster and 
Saratoga; its extent 46 miles by 28. By the 
slate census, Jan. 20, 1796, the number of elec 
tors in this county were 60S7, and the number of 
towns 11.] 

ALBANIA, or ALBANY, the capital of the 
above county, founded by the Dutch in 1608, 
together with that of Orange, on the shore of the 
E 2 



28 A L I> 

river Hudson. It is small, but has a great trade 
from the contiguity of the Iroquese Indians. It 
contains 350 houses, built afterthe Dutch fashion ; 
and that of the magistracy, which consists of 
a mayor, six aldermen, and a recorder, is very 
beautiful. The city is defended by a regular fort 
with four bastions, the rest of the fortification con 
sisting of palisades. Here the treaties and alli 
ances have been made with the Indians. It was 
taken by Robert Car in 1664, and added to this 
province by Colonel Dongan. [It is 160 miles n. 
of the city of New York, to which it is next in rank, 
and 340 s. of Quebec. This city and suburbs, by 
enumeration in 1797, contained 1263 buildings, of 
which 863 were dwelling houses, and 6021 inha 
bitants. Many of them are in the Gothic style, 
with the gable end to the street, which custom the 
first settlers brought from Holland ; the new 
houses are built in the modern style. Its inhabit 
ants are collected from various parts of the world, 
and speak a great variety of languages, but the 
English predominates ; and the use of every other 
is gradually lessening. Albany is unrivalled for 
situation, being nearly at the head of sloop navi 
gation, on one of the noblest rivers in the world. 
it enjoys a salubrious air, and is the natural em 
porium of the increasing trade of a large extent of 
country y>. and n, a country of an excellent soil, 
abounding in every article for the W. India 
market; plentifully watered with navigable lakes, 
creeks, and rivers ; settling with unexampled rapid 
ity ; and capable of afford ing subsistence to millions 
of inhabitants. The public buildings are, a low 
Dutch church, of ancient and very curious con- 
struction, one for Episcopalians, two for Presby 
terians, one for Germans or High Dutch, and one 
for Methodists ; an hospital, city hall, and a hand 
some brick jail. In the year 1609, Henry Hudson, 
whose name the river bears, ascended it in his boat 
to Auraniaj the spot on which Albany now stands. 
The improvements in this city have, of late 
years, been very great in almost all respects. 
Wharfs have been built on the river, the streets 
have been paved, a bank instituted, a new and 
handsome style of building introduced. One mile 
w. ofthis city, in its suburbs, near the manor-house 
of lieutenant-governor Van Renssalaer, are very 
ingeniously constructed extensive and useful 
works, for the manufacture of Scotch and rappee 
snuff, roll and cut tobacco of different kinds, 
chocolate, mustard, starch, hair-powder, split- 
pease, and hulled barley. These valuable works 
are the property of Mr. James Caldwell, who un 
fortunately lost a complete set of similar works by 
re, in July 1794, with the stock, valued at 



ALB 

37,500 dollars. It is a circumstance worthy of 
remark, and is evincive of the industry and eater- 
prise of the proprietor, that the whole of the pre 
sent buildings and machinery were begun and 
completed in the short space of eleven mouths. 
These works are decidedly superior to any of the 
kind in America. All the articles above enume 
rated, even to the spinning of tobacco, are manu 
factured by the aid of water machinery. For the 
invention of this machinery, the proprietor has 
obtained a patent. These works give employ 
ment and subsistence to 40 poor boys, and a num 
ber of workmen.] Long. 73 42 w. Lat. 4S 
40 n. lim.<v 

ALBANIA, or ALBANY, a large river of New 
France, which takes its rise from the lake Chris- 
tinaux, runs n. e. and enters the sea at Hudson s 
bay. 

ALBANIA, or ALBANY, a fortress in New South 
Wales, N. America. [Lat. 52 17 n. Long. 81 
51 w.~] 

ALBARICOQUES, Point of the, a cape on 
the n. coast, in the head settlement of the island 
of Santo Domingo, and in the French territories. 
It lies between the Trou d Enfers and Cape Bom- 
bo n. 

ALBARRACIN, Desert of, a very, lofty 
mountain, always covered with snow, in the new 
kingdom of Granada. 

ALBARRADA, a settlement of Indians of 
the kingdom of Chile, situate on the shore of the 
river Cauchupil. 

ALBARRADA, another settlement, with the dedi 
catory title of San Miguel, in the head settlement 
of the district of Mitla, and alcaldia mai/or of 
Tentitlan, in Nueva Espana. It contains 22 
Indian families, and is seven leagues n. of its head 
settlement. 

ALBARREGAS, a large and abundant river 
of the new kingdom of Granada, which descends 
from the mountains of Bogota, irrigates the coun 
try and the city of Merida, running n. of this 
city until it enters the lake Maracaibo. 

ALBEMARLE, a county of the province and 
colony of N. Carolina, and that part of it which 
is most agreeable, fertile, and salutary. It pro 
duces various sorts of fruits and pulse, and the 
winter is very temperate. This colony was esta 
blished in J670 by the lords and proprietors of it, 
who equipped, at their own expeuce, three ships, 
and a considerable number of persons, with provi 
sions for 18 months, and an abundance of merchan 
dize, tools, and arms fit for the new establishment; 
to which they sent resources yearly, in the pro 
portion required, until it appeared to be in a fit 



ALB 



A L C 



state to maintain itsdf. Thus the colonisfs lived 
for some years, and in time the productions in 
which their commerce consisted, increased to such 
a degree as tcr have caused them to excel all the 
other English colonies. 

ALBEMARLE, another county or part of Vir 
ginia, washed by the river Fluvana on the s. 
\rhieh divides itself into several branches, and 
adds much to the fertility of the country. It is 
bounded e. by the county of Goochiand, a ! . divided 
by a chain of mountains of Augusta, and by that 
of Louisa on the n. [It contains 12,585 inha 
bitants, including 5579 slaves. Its extent, about 
35 miles square.] 

ALBEMARLE, a strait, which is the mouth or 
entrance into the sea of the river Roanoke. 

ALBERTO, a small settlement or ward of 
the head settlement of the district of Tlazintla, 
and alcaldia mayor of Ixmiqnilpan, in Nueva 
Espana. 

[ALBION, NEW, the name given by Sir 
Francis Drake to California, and part of then, w. 
coast of America, when he took possession of it. 
A large uncertain tract of the n, w. coast is thus 
called. Its limits, according to Mr. Arrow- 
smith s chart, are between 27 12 and 41 15 
n. lat. Humboldt asserts, that, agreeably to sure 
historical data, the denomination of New Albion 
ought to be limited to that part of the coast which 
extends from the 43 to the 48, or from Cape 
White of Martin de Aguilar, to the entrance of 
Juan de Fuea. Besides, he adds, from the mis 
sions of the Catholic priests to those of the Greek 
priests, that is to say, from the Spanish village of 
San Francisco, in New California, to the Russian 
establishments on Cook river at Prince William s 
bay, and to the islands of Kodiac and Unalaska, 
there are more than a thousand leagues of coast 
inhabited by free men, and stocked with otters and 
Phocae ! Consequently, the discussions on the 
extent of the New Albion of Drake, and the pre 
tended rights acquired by certain European na 
tions, from planting small crosses, and leaving 
inscriptions fastened to trunks of trees, or the 
burying of bottles, may be considered as futile. 
The part of the coast on which Capt. Cook landed 
on the 7th of March 1778, and which some desig 
nate as New Albion, is in n. lat. 44 33 . e. long. 
235 10 , which he thus describes : The land 
is full of mountains, the tops of which are covered 
with snow, while the vallies between them, and 
the grounds on the sea-coast, high as well as low, 
are covered with trees, which form a beautiful 
prospect, as of one vast forest. At first the natives 
seemed to prefer iron to every other article of 



commerce; at last they preferred brass. They 
were more tenacious of their property than any of 
the savage nations that had hitherto been met 
with ; so that they would not part with wood, 
water, grass, nor the most trifling article without 
a compensation, and were sometimes very unrea 
sonable in their demands." Sec CALIFORNIA, 
NEW.] 

ALBOR, a small island of the N. or Atlantic 
sea, one of the Bahamas, between those of Neque 
and S. Salvador. 

ALBUQUERQUE, SAN ROSA DE, a settle 
ment and real of the silver mines of the alcaldia 
mayor of Colotlan in Noeva Espaaa. It is 19 
leagues s. w. of the head settlement of the district 
of Tlaltenango. 

ALBUQUERQUE, a town of New Mexico, situate 
on the shore of the Rio Grande (large river) of the 
N. [opposite the village of Atrisco, to the w. of 
the Sierra Obscura. Population 6000 souls.] 

ALBUQUERQUE, a small island, or low rocks, of 
the N. sea, near that of S. Andres. 

ALCA, a settlement of the province and corre- 
gimiento of Condensuyos of Arequipa in Peru. 

ALCALA, a settlement ot the province and 
alcaldia mayor of Chiapa, and kingdom of Gua 
temala, in the division and district of that city. 

ALCAMANI, a branch of the head settlement 
of the district and alcaldia mayor of Igualapa in 
Neuva Espana, and two leagues to the n. of the 
same. 

ALCANTARA, S. ANTONIO DE, a town of 
the province and captainship ofMaranam in the 
kingdom of Brazil. It has been frequently invaded 
by the infidel Indians, who destroyed its work 
shops, so that its inhabitants have been much 
seduced. 

ALCANTARA, S. ANTONIO DE, another settle 
ment in the province and district of Chanco, in 
the kingdom of Chile, near the shore of the river 
Mataquino. 

ALCARAI, a small river of the province and 
government of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and 
enters the river La Plata between those of Lay 
man and Gomez. 

ALCATRACES, Island of the, one of (hose 
which lien, of St. Domingo, between the s. point 
of the Caico Grande, and the Panuelo Quadrado, 
(square handkerchief). 

ALCHICH1CA, S. MARTIN DE, a ward of 
the head settlement of the district and alcaldia 
mayor of Izucar in Nueva Espana, belonging to 
that of Santa Maria de la Asuncion. 

ALCHIDOMAS, a settlement of the province 
of the Apaches in N uevo Mexico, situate on the 



30 



ALE 



shore of the Rio Grande Colorado, (large coloured 
river), or of the North. 

ALCO, a settlement of the province and corre- 
gimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Libitaca. 

ALCOHOLADES, a nation of Indians of the 
province of Venezuela. They are of a docile and 
affable disposition, and live upon the borders of 
the lake Maracaibo. Their numbers are much 
diminished, from the treatment they received from 
the German Weltzers, who, through a covetous- 
ness to possess the gold of these people, killed the 
greater part of them. 

ALCOZAUCA, a settlement of the alcaldia 
mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains 
104 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees; 
not a single Indian dwells in it. It is of a mild 
temperature, and in its district were the once cele 
brated mines of Cayro, which were crushed in and 
destroyed, having been almost unparalleled forthe 
quantity of silver that they produced. Eight lea 
gues from its capital. 

ALDAS, a small settlement or ward of the head 
settlement of the district of Santa Ana, and alcaldia 
mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva Espana. 

ALDEA, DEL ESPIRITU SANTO, a settlement 
of the province and captainship of Tondos Santos 
in Brazil, situate on the coast, at the mouth of the 
river Joana. 

ALDEA, DEL ESPIRITU SANTO, another settle 
ment of the province and captainship of Seregipe, 
in the same kingdom, situate on the shore, and 
at the entrance of the river Real. 

[ALDEN, Fort, in Cherry Valley, in the 
state of New York.] 

ALDWORT, a settlement of the island of 
Barbadoes, in the district and parish of Santiago, 
on the a>. coast. 

ALEBASTER, or ELEUTHERA, an island of 
the channel of Bahama. See ALABASTER. 

ALEGRE, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of S. Vincente in Brasil, situate s. 
of the settlement of Alto. 

[ALEMP1GON, a small lake northward of 
lake Superior.! 

ALEXANDRIA, a city of Virginia, [formerly 
called Belhaven, and situated on the southern 
bank of the Patowmac river, in Fairfax county, 
about five miles s: w. from the Federal city, 60 
s. to. from. Baltimore, 60 n. from Fredericks- 
burgh, 168 n. of Williamsburgh, and 290 from 
the sea; 38 54 n. lat. and 77 10 w. long, 
its situation is elevated and pleasant. The soil 
is clayey. The original settlers, anticipating its 
future growth and importance, laid out the streets 



A L G 

on the plan of Philadelphia. It contains about 
400 houses, many of which are handsomely built, 
and 2748 inhabitants. This city, upon opening 
the navigation of Patowmac river, and in conse 
quence of its vicinity to the future seat of the 
federal government, bids fair to be one of the most 
thriving commercial places on the continent. Nine 
miles from hence is Mount Vernon, the celebrated 
seat of the late General Washington.] 

[ALEXANDRIA, a township in Grufton county, 
New Hampshire, containing 298 inhabitants, in 
corporated in 1782.] 

[ALEXANDRIA, a township in Hunterdon coun 
ty, IVew Jersey, containing 1503 inhabitants, inclu 
sive of 40 slaves.] 

[ALEXANDRIA, a small town in Huntingdon 
county, Pennsylvania, on the Frankstown branch 
of Janiatta river, 192 miles n. w. of Philadel 
phia.] 

ALEXO, S. an island of the N. sea, near the 
coast of Brazil, in the province and captainship 
of Pernambuco, between the river Formoso and 
Cape S. Agustin. 

ALFARO, S. MIGUEL DE, a settlement of the 
province and government of the Chiquitos Indians; 
situate on the shore of the river Ubay. It has a 
good port, from whence it is also known by the 
name of Port of the Chiquitos. It is, however, 
at present destroyed, % and the ruins alone remain. 

ALFAXA I UCA,* a settlement of the alcaldia 
mayor of Kilotepec in Nueva Espana. It con 
tains 171 Indian families, and is seven leagues 
e. n. e. of its capital. 

ALFEREZ, Valley of the, in the province 
and corregimiento of Bogota in the new kingdom 
of Granada. 

ALFEREZ, a river of the province and captain* 
ship of Rey in Brazil; it runs n. and enters the 
lake of Mini. 

[ALFORD, a township in Berkshire county, 
Massachusetts, containing 577 inhabitants ; 145 
miles w. from Boston.] 

[ALFORDSTOWN, a small town in Moor 
county, North Carolina.] 

ALGARROBO, a settlement of the province 
and government of Antioquia in the new kingdom 
of Granada ; situate on the bank of an arm of the 
river Perico, in an island which it forms in the 
serranias of Guamoca. 

ALGODON, Island of the, one of those 
which are in the N. sea, between the s. point of 
the Cayco Grande and the Panuelo Quadrado. 

ALGODON, a settlement of the same name. See 
BIEZMK.T. 
ALGODONALES, a settlement of the province 



A L I 

and correrrimiento of Atacama in Peru, situate on 

M 

the coast. 

ALGONQUINENSES, or ALGONQUINS, a 
nation of savage Indians, who inhabit a part of 
Canada: they are continually at war with the 
Iroquees. Their idiom may be looked upon as 
the mother tongue of all the other nations of that 
country, and differs very slightly from the rest, 
so that any one speaking it would be able to 
travel in any other nation in these parts. They 
border on the north side of lake Huron; and 
although inhabiting the whole of the coast of lake 
Superior, their number, according to Mackenzie, 
does not exceed 150 families. 

[ALGONQUINS, of Rainy Lake, Indians of 
N. America, of the precise limits of whose coun 
try we are not informed. They live very much 
detached in small parties. The country they 
inhabit is but an indifferent one ; it has been much 
hunted, and the game, of course, nearly exhaust 
ed. They are well-disposed towards the whites. 
Their number is said to decrease. They are ex 
tremely addicted to spirituous liquors, of which 
large quantities are annually furnished them by 
the n. w. traders, in return for their bark canoes. 
They live wretchedly poor.] 

[ALGONQUINS, of Portage de Prairie, In 
dians of N. America, who inhabit a low, flat, 
marshy country, mostly covered with timber, and 
well stocked with game. They are emigrants 
from the lake of the Woods, and the country e. of 
it ; who were introduced some years since by the 
n. w. traders, in order to hunt the country on the 
lower parts of Red river, which then abounded 
in a variety of animals of the fur kind. They are 
an orderly, well-disposed people, but, like their 
relations on Rainy lake, addicted to spirituous 
liquors. Their trade is at its greatest extent.] 
ALGUILGUA. See article SANTA MONICA; 
ALHUE, a settlement of the province and 
corregirniento of Rancagua in the kingdom of 
Chile, annexed to the curacy of San Pedro. 

ALHUE, a large lake of the same province and 
kingdom. 

[ALIATANS, Snake Indians, of N. America, 
a numerous and well disposed people, inhabiting 
a woody and mountainous country ; they are 
divided into three large tribes, who wander at 
a considerable distance from each other, and are 
called by themselves So-so-na, So-so-bubar, and 
I-a-kar : these are again subdivided into smaller, 
though independent bands, the names of which we 
have not yet learnt : they raise a number of horses 
arid mules, with which they trade with the Crow In 
dians, or which are stolen by the nations on the e. of 



A L I 



31 



them. They maintain a partial trade with the 
Spaniards, from \vhora they obtain many articles 
of clothing and ironmongery, but no warlike im 
plements.] 

[ALIATANS, of La Playes, Indians of N. Ame 
rica, who inhabit the rich plains from the head 
of the Arkansas, embracing the heads of Red 
river, and extending, with the mountains and high 
lands, e. as far as it is known towards the gulph of 
Mexico. They possess no fire arms, but are 
warlike and brave. They are, as well as the 
other Aliatans, a wandering people. Their coun 
try abounds in wild horses, beside great numbers 
which they raise themselves. These people, and 
the West Aliatans, might be induced to trade on 
the upper part of the Arkansas river. The Alia 
tans do not claim a country within any particular 
limits.] 

[ALIATANS, of the West, Indians of N. Ame 
rica, who inhabit a mountainous country, and 
sometimes venture in the plains e. of the rocky 
mountains, about the head of the Arkansas river. 
They have more intercourse with the Spaniards of 
New Mexico than the Snake Indians. They are 
said to be very numerous and warlike, but are 
badly armed. The Spaniards fear these people, 
and therefore take the precaution not to furnish 
them with any warlike implements. In their pre 
sent unarmed state, they frequently commit hos 
tilities on the Spaniards. They raise a great 
many horses. 1 

ALLANTE, a volcano of the kingdom of 
Chile, in the province and country of Arauco ; 
in 1640 it burst, the mountain opening in two 
places, and throwing out large shapeless masses of 
lava, with so great a noise as to be heard at many 
leagues distance : the mischief it did was very 
considerable. 

ALIBAMONS, or ALIBAMIS, a nation of 
Indians of Louisiana, dwelling n. of the Apaches. 
It is very numerous, and is on terms of amity with 
the French ; so that they never have communica 
tion with the English, but from necessity. The 
former, when they first established themselves in 
this country, carried on a large trade here, but it 
afterwards declined, on account of the distance of 
the place. [These Indians are from West Florida, 
off the Allibami river, and came to Red river 
about the same time as the Boluxas and Appala- 
ches. Part of them have lived on Red river, 
about sixteen miles above the Bayau Rapide, till 
lately, when most of this party, of about 30 men, 
went up Red river, and have settled themselves 
near the Caddoques, where, we are informed, they 
have lately raised good crops of corn. The Cad- 



32 A L K 

tlos are friendly to them, and have no objection to 
their settling there. They speak the Creek and 
Chactaw languages, and Mobilian; most of them 
French, and some of them English. There is 
another party of them, whose village is on a small 
creek in Apelousa district, about 30 miles >? w. 
from the church of Appclousa. They consist of 
about 40 men. They have lived at the same 
place ever since they came from Florida ; are 
said to be increasing a little in numbers for a few 
years past. They raise corn, have horses, hogs, 
and cattle, and are harmless, quiet people.] 

[AL1CHE, commonly pronounced EYEISH, 
Indians of N. America, who live near Nacog 
doches, but are almost extinct as a nation, there not 
being more than twenty-five souls of them remain 
ing. Four years ago the small-pox destroyed the 
greater part of them. Some years since they 
were a considerable nation, and lived in a spot 
which bears their name, which the road from 
Natchitoch to Nacogdoches crosses, about twelve 
miles &. of Sabine river, on which a few French 
and American families are settled. Their native 
language is spoken by no other nation, but they 
speak and understand Caddo, with which people 
they are in amity, often visiting one another.] 

ALINA, a settlement of the head settlement of 
the district of Pinzandaro, and alcald ut mayor of 
Tancitaro, in Nucva Espana. It contains 20 fami 
lies of Indians, who engage themselves in the 
commerce of maize and wax, and is seven leagues 
s. of its head settlement. 

ALIS, a settlement of the province and corrc- 
gimiento of Yauyos in Peru, annexed to the cu 
racy of Laraos. 

ALISOS, FARALLOX DE LOS, an island of tlie 
N. sea, on the coast of California. 

ALITAT1S, a small island of the coast of 
Brazil, opposite the island of Marajo, and between 
those of Yurua and Nova. 

ALJARACA, a river of the province and cor- 
reginnento of Sicasica in Peru. It rises in the 
Cordillera, e. of its capital, runs n. e. inclining to 
the n. n. e. and enters the Chuquiabo. 

ALJOJUCA, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Tlalchico-mula, and alcaldia 
mayor of Tepeaca, in Nueva Espana ; situate on 
the bank of a great lake, the waters of which are 
somewhat brackish ; and its depth being 70 fa 
thoms, has never been found to vary. It contains 
172 families, and is seven leagues n. of its head 
settlement. 

ALKANSAS, a nation of savage Indians of 
Canada or New France, situate in 33ofw. lat. 



ALL 

on the w. side of the Mississippi. See ALKANSAS 
River. 

ALLAUCA, a settlement of the province and 
corrcgimiento of Yauyos in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Tanripampa. 

[ALLBURG1I, a township in Franklin county, 
Vermont, containing H(j inhabitants, situated on 
Missisquc bay.] 

ALLCA, an ancient povincc of the kingdom of 
Porn, to the s. of Cuzco. These Indians made a 
great and vigorous stand against Manco Capac, 
the fourth emperor of the Incus, and called the 
conqueror; being much favoured by tlieruggedness 
of the country, which abounds in woods, moun 
tains, and lakes, as also in gold and silver mines. 

[ALLEGHANY,a county in Pennsylvania, ex 
tends from the junction of the river of that name 
with the Ohio, where its chief town, Pittsburgh, 
is situated, to the New York line. It contains 
10,309 inhabitants, including 159 slaves.] 

[ALLEGHANV is the most western county in 
Maryland, and has Pennsylvania on the n. The 
windings of the Patowmac river separate it from 
Virginia on the 5. and Sideling-hill creek divides 
it from Washington county on the e. It con- 
4809 inhabitants, including 258 slaves. Cum 
berland is its chief town. J 

[ALLEGHANY Mountains, between the Atlantic 
ocean, the Mississipi river, and the lakes, are a 
long and broad range of mountains, made up of a 
great number of ridges, extending n. e. and s. w 
nearly parallel to the sea coast, about 900 miles 
in length, and from 60 to 150 and 200 miles iu 
breadth. Mr. Evans observes, with respect to 
tliat part of these mountains w r hich he travelled 
over, viz. in the back parts of Pennyslvania, that 
scarcely one acre in ten is capable of culture. 

This, however, is far from being the case in all 
parts of this range. Numerous tracts of fine 
arable and grazing land intervene between the 
ridges. The different ridges which compose this 
immense range of mountains, have different names 
in the different states, viz. the Blue Ridge, the 
North Mountain, or North Ridge, or Devil s 
Back-bone, Laurel Ridge, Jackson s Mountains, 
and Kittatimy Mountains; w : hich see under these 
names. All these ridges, except the Alleghany, 
are broken through by rivers, which appear to 
have forced their way through solid rocks. This 
principal ridge is more immediately called Alle 
ghany, and is descriptively named the Back-bone 
of the United States. From these several ridges 
proceed innumerable branches or spurs. The 
general name of the whole range, taken collective- 



ALL 

Jy, seems not yet to have been determined. Mr. 
Evans calls them the Endless Mountains ; others 
have called them the Appalachian Mountains, from 
a tribe of Indians who live on a river which pro 
ceeds from this mountain, called the Appalachi- 
eola ; but the most common name is the Allegheny 
Mountains, so called, probably, from the princi 
pal ridge of the range. These mountains are not 
confusedly scattered, rising here and there into 
high peaks, overtopping each other ; but run 
along in uniform ridges, scarcely half a mile high. 
They spread as you proceed ,<?. and some of them 
terminate in high perpendicular bluffs: others 
gradually subside into a level country, giving rise 
to the rivers which run s. into the Gulph of 
Mexico.] 

[ALLEGHANY River, in Pennsylvania, rises on 
the>o>. side of the Alleghany Mountain, and after 
running about 200 miles in a s. zv. direction, meets 
the Monongahela at Pittsburgh, and both united 
form the Ohio. The lands on each side of this 
river, for J50 miles above Pittsburg, consist of 
white oak and chesnut ridges, and in many places 
of poor pitch pines, interspersed with tracts of good 
land and low meadows. This river, and the Ohio 
likewise, from its head waters until it enters the 
Mississippi, are known and called by the name of 
Alleghany river, by the Seneca, and other tribes 
of the Six Nations, who once inhabited it.] 

ALLEGU1PPES, a settlement of the province 
and colony of Virginia, in the county of Hamp 
shire, situate on the shore of the river Yauyau- 
gani, and at the mouth which enters the Monan- 
gahela. 

[ALLEMAENGEL, a small Moravian settle- 
ment on Swetara river, in Pennsylvania.] 

[ALLEMAND, a river which falls into the 
Mississippi from the s. e. about 43 miles s. of the 
Natch es.1 

ALLEMANDS, a settlement of the province 
and government of Louisiana, on the shore of the 
river Mississippi, between this river and the lake 
Ovachas. 

[ALLEN-TOWN, in Pennsylvania, North 
ampton county, on the point of land formed by 
Jordan s creek and the Little Leheigh. It con 
tains about 90 houses, and an academy. 

[ALLENSTOWN, a town in New Jersey, in 
Monrnouth county, 15 miles n. e. from Burling 
ton, and 13 s. by e. from Princeton.] 

[ALLENSTOWX, a township in Rockingham 
county, New-Hampshire, containing 254 inha 
bitants; situated on the e. side of Merrimack 
river, 25 miles n. w. of Exeter, and 40 from Ports 
mouth.] 

VOL. I. 



A L M 33 

ALLHEGENI, or rather ALLEGiiANY,a town 
of the province and colony of Pennsylvania, in 
which the English had an establishment and fort. 
It is on the shore of the Ohio, which is also called 
the Vieslle. 

ALLIGATOR, Bay of, on the 5. coast of the 
island of Jamaica. 

ALLIGATOR, a river of N. Carolina, in the 
division of Hyde ; It runs n. and enters the sea at 
the sound of Albemarle. 

ALL1U1TAS, a settlement of the island of 
Cuba, on the n. coast, between the settlement of 
Matanillas and Manati. 

[ALLOWAY Creek, in Salem county, New 
Jersey, emptier into the Delaware. It is navi 
gable 16 miles, interrupted, however, by several 
draw-bridges.] 

[ALL-SAINTS, islands near Guadaloupe 
island in the W r est Indies.] 

[ALL-SAINTS, a parish in George-town district, 
South Carolina, containing 2225 inhabitants, of 
whom 429 are whites, and 1795 slaves. It sends 
a member to each house of the state legislature.] 

ALL-SAINTS Bay. See SANTOS. 

ALMACEN, DEL REY, a settlement of the 
province and corregimiento of Canete in Peru, situ 
ate on the coast, opposite the islands of Chincha. 

ALMAGRO, SANTIAGO DE, a settlement of the 
province and corregimiento of Canete in Peru 3 
founded by the conqueror Diego de Almagro, in 
1536, in the valley of Chincha ; owing to a com 
petition with Don Francisco Pizarro, who had 
founded the city of Lima, and out of honour to 
his native place of this title. It once bore the ap 
pellation ot a city; but its inhabitants so dwindled 
away, that it was forced to resign it a short time 
after. 

ALMAGUER, a city of the province and go 
vernment of Popayan, in the kingdom of Quito r 
founded by Captain Alonza de Fueii Mayor, in 
1543, on the top of a small mountain, which is in the 
middle of a plain called Guachicono. It abounds 
in wheat, maize, barley, fruits, and some sorts of 
cattle. Its temperature is mild and pleasant, and 
in its district are some gold mines. It lies seven 
leagues s. of Popayan. [Lat. 1 56 n. Long. 

[ALMARIA. See VILLA RICA.] 
ALMAS, REAL DEL Rio DE LAS, a Portuguese 
settlement and real of gold mines, in the terri 
tory of the Guayazas Indians, and kingdom of 
Brazil ; situate on the shore and source of the 
river Tocantiues. 

ALMA?, REAL DEL Rio DE LAS, a river of the 
same kingdom and territory, which rises in the 
r 



34 A L O 

sierra near Villaboa, to the s. runs e. and enters 
the Tocantines. 

ALMENAS, a river of the province and corre 
gimiento of Arequipa in Peru, close to the point 
of Chile. 

ALMER1A, a settlement of the jurisdiction 
and government of Vera Cruz in Nueva Espana, 
situate on the coast, at the mouth of the river 
Noadan. 

PALMIRA, a town in Mexico. See ANGELOS.] 

ALMIRANTE, a settlement of the province 
and captainship of Parayba in Brazil, situate on 
the shore of the river Aracay. 

ALMIRANTE, a bay on the coast of the pro 
vince and government of Veragua, in the kingdom 
ofTierra Firme, and w. of Escudo; thus called 
from its having been discovered by Admiral 
Columbus in his fourth voyage. At its entrance 
are many small islands and hidden rocks, upon 
which its discoverer had well nigh been wrecked. 

ALMIRANTE, a river of the province and 
government of Florida, which runs s. e. and enters 
the sea in the bay of Panzacola. 

ALMOLOIA, SAN PEDRO DE, a settlement of 
the head settlement of the district and alcaldia 
mayor of Zultepec in Nueva Espana, situate in 
a spacious, very pleasant, and well watered plain. 
Its temperature is mild ; it contains 77 Indian 
families, and is annexed to the curacy of Temas- 
caltepec. It lies three leagues w. of its capital, 
and inclining to the s. 

ALMOLOIA, SAN PEDRO DE, another settlement, 
with the dedicatory title of San Miguel del Rio, 
being the head settlement of the district of the 
alcaldia mayor of Metepec in the same kingdom. 
It contains 156 Indian families, and to its curacy 
are annexed several others. It lies three leagues 
n. w. of its capital. 

ALMOLOLOIAN, the head settlement of the 
district of the alcaldia mayor of Colima in Nueva 
Espana. It contains 60 families of Indians, 15 
of Spaniards and 22 of Mustees and Mulattoes, 
who occupy themselves in the culture of maize 
and French beans ; and has a convent of the order 
of St. Francis, and is a quarter of a league n. of 
its capital. 

ALOA, a settlement of the kingdom of Quito, 
in the corregimiento of the district of the Cinco 
Leguas de esta Capital. 

ALOASI, a settlement of the same kingdom 
and corregimiento as the former. 

ALOJAM1ENTO, a settlement of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Copiapo in the king 
dom of Chile ; situate on the shore, and at the 
mouth of the river Chiminal. 



ALP 

ALONCHE, a settlement of the district of 
Yaguache, in the province and government of 
Guayaquil, and in the kingdom of Quito. 

ALOTEPEC, a settlement of the head settle- 
ment of the district of Atitlan, and alcaldia mayor 
of Villalta, in Nueva Espana. It contains 67 
Indian families, and is 19 leagues from its capi 
tal. 

ALOZOZINGO, SANTA MARIA DE, a settle 
ment of the head settlement of the district of San 
Martin de Temelucan,atid alcaldia mayor of Gue- 
jozingo, in Nueva Espana, having in it 110 
families of Indians. 

ALPABAMBA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Parinacocha in Peru, an 
nexed to the curacy of Colta. 

ALPAMARCA, a settlement of the province 
and government of Canta in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Atabillos Altos. 

ALPACIA, a settlement and asiento of the 
mines of the province and corregimiento of Con- 
desuyos in Peru, annexed to the curacy of An- 
dary. 

ALPAIACU, a small river of the province and 
government of Quijos and Marcas in the king 
dom of Quito. It runs from n. to s. and enters the 
Llucin. 

ALPARGATON, a settlement of the province 
and government of Venezuela, situate near the 
coast, in the bay of Burburata, to the w. of Port 
Cabello. 

ALPARGATON, a river in the same province and 
government, which rises in the Serrania, opposite 
the coast, and runs to the w. of Port Cabello. 

ALPIZAGUA, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Culi- 
acan in Nueva Espana. It contains 36 families 
of Indians. Its district abounds in the various 
fruits of that region, and also in some maize. It is 
five leagues e. of its capital. 

ALPOIECA, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Atengo, and alcaldia mayor 
of Chilapa, in Nueva Espana, in which there are 
42 families of Indians. It is one league distant from 
its head settlement. 

ALPOIECA, another settlement of the head 
settlement of the district of Ixcateapan, and alcal 
dia mayor of Tlapa, in the same kingdom. It 
contains 115 families of Mistecos Indians, and is 
two leagues e. of its head settlement. 

ALPOIECAZINGO, a settlement of the head 
settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of 
Tlapa in Neuva Espana. It contains 140 fami 
lies of Indians, and is four leagues s. e. of its 
capital. 



ALT 

ALPONECA, SAN ANTONIO DE, a settlement 
of the had settlement of the district and alcaldia 
mayor (*f Jochimilco in Nueva Espaiia. Although 
it is situated within the jurisdiction of that of Te- 
tela, it contains 30 families of Indians, and a con 
vent of the order of St. Dominic. 

ALPUIECA, SANTA MARIA DE, a settlement 
of the head settlement of the district of Huitepec, 
and alcaldia mayor of Cucnavaca, in Nueva Es- 
paiia. It contains 77 families of Indians. 

[ALSTEAD, a township in Cheshire county, 
New Hampshire, containing 1111 inhabitants; 
eight miles s. from Charlestown.] 

ALTA, a lake of the province of Venezuela, and 
government of Cumana. It lies s. of the valley of 
Pasqua, and w. of the river Unare, which is very 
near to and joins it. 

ALTABOIANO, a settlement of the province 
and government of Tucuman, in the district and 
jurisdiction of the city of Cordova. 

ALTABONITA, a small bay of the island of 
Cuba, on the n. n. e. coast, and at the e. head, 
between the bay of Nipe and Port Tanabo. 

ALTAGRACIA, a city and capital of the pro 
vince of Sutagaos in the new kingdom of Granada. 
It was founded in 1540 by the Captains Pedro 
Ordonez de Cevallos, Juan Lopez de Herrera, 
and Diego Sotelo. It abounds in wax, honey, and 
pita, these being the productions in which the na 
tives trade, as likewise in boats, cut out of the 
solid trunks of the large trees, abounding in its 
very craggy mountains. It has at present but a 
miserably scanty population. 

ALTAGRACIA, another settlement, with the de 
dicatory title of Nuestra Senora, in the province 
and government of Cumana. Its inhabitants en 
joy a royal privilege of indemnification from the 
tributes. It is situate on the shore, within a 
cannon s shot of the capital. 

ALTAGRACIA, another settlement in the pro 
vince and government of Tucuman, in the king 
dom of Peru, of the district and jurisdiction of 
the city of Cordova, on the shore and at the 
source of the Rio Segundo. 

ALTAGRACIA, another settlement in the pro 
vince of Guayana and government of Cumana. 
It is one of those which belonged to the missions 
of the Catalanian Capuchin fathers. 

ALTAGRACIA, another settlement of the pro 
vince and government of Gnayana, which is at 
present separated from that of Cumana. 

ALTAGRACIA, another settlement in the pro 
vince and government of Venezuela, in the juris 
diction of the city of S. Sebastian, and valley of 



ALT 35 

Orituco ; in which district there are many estates 
of cacffo, esteemed particularly good, and several 
sugar mills, on either side of the river Orituco. 

ALT A MIR, a settlement of the province of 
Barcelona, and government of Cumana, situate 
on the shore of the river Chivata, to the n. w. of 
the town of San Fernando. 

ALTAMIRA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Sierra Gorda, in the Seno Mexi- 
cano, (bay of Mexico), and kingdom of Nueva 
Espana ; founded by the count of that title, D. 
Joseph de Escandon, colonel of the militia of the 
city of Queretaro, in 1750, who gave it this name, 
from his attachment and friendship towards the 
Marquis of Altamira, auditor of that royal audi 
ence, and one of those who were destined by the 
king to be inspector in the concerns relating to the 
conquest and the population of that province. 

ALTAMIRA, another settlement in the province 
and government of Venezuela, one of those under 
the care of the fathers of the Capuchin missions. 
It abounds in large cattle. 

ALTAR, a town and garrison of the province 
and government of Sonora. 

ALTAR, a settlement in the province and go 
vernment of Venezuela, consisting of Indians con 
verted to the Catholic faith by the Capuchin 
fathers ; in the jurisdiction of the town of San Car 
los, near the river Cojade. 

ALTAR, a very lofty mountain of the kingdom 
of Quito, in the corregimiento of Riobamba, to the 
e. of this town. It is always covered with snow, 
from whence it is called the snow-mountain. It 
serves as a boundary to the mountains of the coun 
try, the other side of this mountain being as yet 
unknown. From it the rivers Llurin and Min 
take their rise, which, united, enter the Pastaza, 
always running e. This mountain is one of those 
which form the Cordillera called, of Collanes. 

ALTO, SAN ANDRES DEL, a settlement of the 
province and government of Mainas in the king 
dom of Quito ; one of the missions held there by 
the abolished order of the Jesuits ; situate on the 
shore of the river Maraiion, and opposite the city 
of S. Francisco de Borja. 

ALTO, SAN ANDRES DEL, another settlement 
in the province and captainship of San Vincente 
in Brazil ; situate s. of the settlement of Espigon. 

ALTO, SAN ANDREI? DEL, another settlement 
in the province and corregimiento of Catamarca 
in Peru. 

ALTO, SAX ANDRES DEL, another settlement, 
with the dedicatory title of San Miguel, in the 
head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor 

F2 



36 



A L V 



of Tecpatitlan, in the kingdom and bishopric of 
Nueva Galicia. It is seven leagues e. of its capi 
tal. 

ALTO, SAN* ANDRES DEL, another settlement in 
the province and government of Popayan, of the 
kingdom of Quito. 

ALTOBELO, a lofty, sharp- pointed island, 
near the n. coast of flispaniola, discovered at a 
great distance, and lying between the point Beata 
and the island of Vaca. [Long. 71 18 . Lat. 
17 38 a).] 

[ALTON, a tract of land in Strafford county, 
New Hampshire, n. e. from Barnstead.] 

ALTOS, a settlement of the province and cap 
tainship of S. Vincente in Brazil, situate between 
those of Tributes and Porcon. 

ALTOS, another settlement in the province and 
captainship of Rey in the same kingdom, and on 
the shore of the river Curucay. 

ALTOS, a river of the province and government 
of Guanuco in Peru. It is small, runs from s. to 
n. and forming a curve towards the w. enters the 
sources of the river Guallaga, opposite the settle 
ment of Saramajos. 

ALTOTONGA, a settlement of the head settle- 
merit of the district of Xalacingo, and alcaldia 
mayor of Xalapa, in Nueva Espana ; situate in a 
fertile, beautiful, and spacious valley, from which 
it takes its name. It is of a mild temperature, 
abounding in fruits, pulse, and tobacco. Jt con 
tains 105 Spanish families. The word Altotonga 
signifies, in the Mexican language, hot and saltish 
water ; and this comes from a river which has its 
rise in two hills united to each other, and situate 
at a league s distance to the s. This river runs into 
the lake of Alchichica, of the jurisdiction of Te- 
peaca. It lies a league and a half s. e. of its head 
settlement. 

ALVA, SAX Luis DE LAICACOTA DE, an 
establishment of silver mines, celebrated for 
their riches, in a mountain of this name, which 
signifies enchanted lake ; there being a lake at the 
top of the mountain formed by the Indians, who 
made use of it as a place in which to deposit and 
conceal their riches. This place was discovered 
in 1657 by the Colonel Don Joseph de Salcedo, 
who, having received some vague rumours of its 
importance, and finding that there was little need 
of hands for the working the mountain of San 
Joseph, sent his men hither to work. They ac 
cordingly opened the ground, and having suc 
ceeded in finding some metals of a superior quality, 
contrived to let off the lake, so as to come to the 
principal vein. Here they discovered an iia- 



A L V 

mensc quantity of silver, which they dug out at a 
trilling cxpence. They also found the mouths of 
other mines ; namely, of those of Las Anirmis and 
Laicacota Baxa, which were contiguous, and 
equally rich. From the last of these, Salcedo 
took, in one night, 93 casks full of silver, valued 
at a hundred thousand dollars, also a massy lump 
of silver, which weighed seven arrobas. The me 
tal was, moreover, so fine and pure, that, after 
paying the quinto or duty to the king, it was 
coined into money without any previous refine 
ment. From these riches the disgraces of Salcedo 
took their origin ; it was from them that arose the 
bickerings and party spirits which appeared 
among the Andaluces and Criollos on one side, 
and the mountaineers and the Viscainos on the 
other. A battle was the consequence, and the 
plain was covered with dead bodies. The plain 
bears the same name (Alva), and is, to this day, 
strewed with whitened bones. This disastrous 
affair induced the viceroy, the Count of Lemos, 
to come in person to put a stop to these differences ; 
and he, upon his arrival, ordered the settlement, 
which consisted of upwards of 300 houses, to be 
laid waste ; and finding a pretext for the removal 
of the Colonel Salcedo, caused him to undergo his 
sentence in the city of Lima, in 1686 ; but, as the 
sentence was about to be put into execution, it 
happened, and, as it is believed, by the decree of 
heaven, which would bear testimony to his inno 
cence, that the mine became inundated ; so that it 
could never after be emptied ; and although vast 
sums have been employed upon this work, no sil 
ver has ever since been extracted. 

AL VAttADO, a very abundant river of Nueva 
Espana, forming itself from one which descends 
from the sierras of Zongolica and Misteca. All 
these three unite near the settlement of Cuyote- 
peque, in the alcaldia mayor of Cozamaloapan, 
and collecting the streams of many others, which 
swell it to an immense size, it enters the sea at the 
mouth of its name, 12 leagues from Vera Cruz. 
It was anciently called Papaloapan, and was the 
first that was discovered by Herrian Cortes. It 
has a battery at its entrance, guarded by a detach 
ment from V era Cruz. 

ALVARADO, a settlement of the jurisdiction and 
alcaldia mayor of Vera Cruz in Nueva Espana. 
It is of a hot and dry temperature, inhabited by 
60 families of Spaniards and Mulattoes, whose 
commerce consists in fish ; as the land, although 
naturally fertile, yields no productions by which 
their commerce might be enlarged. They have a 
church, iu which the image of our Lady of Con- 



A M A 

ception is revered, on account of the miracles 
wrought by it ; and according to tradition, it was 
said to have been found shut up in a chest, lying 
upon the sea-shore on the coasts of Goazacoalco. 
Fourteen leagues from Vera Cruz, n. w. and 88 from 
Mexico. 

ALVARO, SIERRA DE MAESTRO, or Lunar 
Sierra, a cordillera of the mountains of the coast of 
Brazil, in the province and captainship of Espiritu 
Santo, between the point of Tiburon and the island 
of Reposo. 

A L VERNE, MOUNTAIN OF, a settlement 
composed of Indians, converted by the missions 
of the order of St. Francis, in the district of the 
alcaldia mayor of Gaudalcazar. It contains 30 
families, and is 12 leagues n. of the settlement of 
Sta. Rosa. 

ALZ, MANUEL DE, a river of the kingdom of 
Brazil. It rises between those of La Palma and 
Tocantines, runs nearly s. and, forming a curve 
towards the w. enters the latter river in 10 s. 
according to the map of Cruz, and 11 18 s. ac 
cording to Arrowsmith, [which refutes the opinion 
of Mr. De Lisle, who places it in 7.] 

A LZOUJ, a settlement of the head settlement of 
the district of San Luis, of the coast and alcaldiamay- 
orof Tlapain Nueva Espana. It contains 190 fami 
lies of Indians, who are very industrious in tilling 
and cultivating the ground, which produces, in 
abundance, maize, cotton, French beans, and rice. 

AMA, a settlement of the province and govern 
ment of Canta in Peru, annexed to the curacy of 
Huamanga. 

AMACACHES, a nation of Indians, of the 
kingdom of Brazil, and province and captainship 
of Rio Janeiro, inhabiting the woods and moun 
tains towards the 5. It is very numerous, and 
much dreaded, on account of the incursions which 
they have made upon the Portuguese establish 
ments. Amongst them are to be found some canni 
bals. Their weapons are darts and macanas, a sort of 
club, composed of a very heavy and solid wood ; 
and they use in their wars a very active poison, 
with which they anoint the points of their arrows 
and lances. 

AMACHURA, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Cumana. It runs n. and enters the 
sea in the principal mouth of the Orinoco. 

AMACORE, a large river of the province and 
government of Guayana, which descends from the 
W.Cordillera, and running towards the e. waters 
many parts unknown, or at least inhabited by some 
barbarous Indians. Its banks are covered with 
beautiful and umbrageous trees. After collecting 
in its course the waters of several other rivers, it 
empties itself into the N. sea. 



AMA 



37 



AMACU, a lake of the province of Guayana; 
in that part which is possessed by the Dutch. 

AMACU1CA, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Xonacatepec, and alcaldia 
mayor of Cuernavaca, in Nueva Espana. 

AMACUITLAPILCO, a settlement of the 
same head settlement of the district and alcaldia 
mayor of Xonacatepec. 

AMACURO, a settlement of the province and 
government of Cumana in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, situate in the interior of the Serrania. It 
is one of those missions belonging in that province 
to the fathers of the Aragonese Capuchins, at the 
point of Paria, and on the interior coast of the 
gulph Triste. 

AMACURO, a river in the same province, which 
runs towards the n. and joins the Orinoco at its 
large mouth, called De Navios. 

AMADEA, a river of the province and govern 
ment of S. Juan de los Llanos in the new kingdom 
of Granada. It rises to the n. of its capital, and 
joins the Meta very near to its source. 

AMAGUAJES, S. ANTONIO DE, a settlement 
of the province and corregiwiento of Pastes in the 
kingdom of Quito, situate on the shore of a small 
river, which enters that of S. Miguel. 

AMAGUANA, a settlement of the kingdom of 
Quito, in the corregimiento of the district of the 
Cinco Leguas de su Capital. 

AMAGUANA, a river of the same province and 
kingdom, which rises from the n. summit of the 
Paramo, or desert of Elenisa, and running w. 
collects all the waters which take their course 
from that cordillera, and from the mountains of 
Ruminavi and Pasuchua. It afterwards joins the 
river Ichubambato the n. at a small distance from 
the settlement of Conocoto ; and being increased by 
the streams which flow in abundance from the &. 
part of the cordillera t it changes its name to Guail- 
labamba ; and then, receiving also the waters of 
another, called Pisque, takes the denomination of 
Alchipechi, following a ;i. course till it enters the 
river of Esmeraldas ; which is so large, that near 
the settlement of S. Antonio, in the corregimlento 
of Quito, it is necessary to cross it en taravita, its 
width not admitting of its being passed by a ford, 
or by a bridge. 

AMAGUNTICK, a stagnant water, or lake, of 
New France, on the confines of New England. 

AMAIA, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Chayanta, or Charcas, in Peru. 

AMAIALUI, a settlement and asiento of the 
gold mines of the province and corregimiento of 
Chayanta, or Charcas, in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Chayantacas. 

AMAIUCA, a small river of the province and 



38 



A M A 



country of the Amazonas. It rises in (he territory 
lying between the Payaguas and the Cobachis In 
dians ; runs with an inclination to the s. s. c. and 
enters the Mazanon, very near the mouth of the 
large river Napo . 

AMAJUNO, a small river of Florida, which 
runs w. and enters the sea opposite the island of 
Anclote. 

AMAMAZOS, a nation of barbarous Indians, 
o the n. of the city of Ganuco in Peru ; bounded 
by the nation of the Panataguas, and s. w. by the 
cordillera real of the Andes. 

AMAMBAI, CORDILLERA DE, a sj emzofthe 
province and government of Paraguay. It extends 
many leagues from the n. n. w. to the s. s. e. and 
its mountains abound in the herb Paraguay. 

AMAMBAI, CORDILLERA DE, a river ot the same 
province, which rises in the territory of the Mon- 
teses Indians. It runs s. and enters the Parana, 
opposite the large island of Salto. 

AMANA, a settlement of the province of Bar 
celona, and government of Cumana, situate on the 
shore of the river of its name, to the n. of the 
Table-land of Guampa. 

AMANA, a river in the same province and go- 
vernment, which rises at the foot of the mountains 
of Bergantin ; runs e. and enters the Guarapiche. 

AMANALCO, S. GERONIMO DE, the head 
settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of 
Metepeque in Nueva Espafia. It contains 1224 
families of Indians. 

AMAN1BO, a river of the country of the Ama 
zonas, or Guayana, in the Dutch possessions. It 
runs n. making several windings, and enters the 
sea near the lake of Iracubo. 

[AMANIBO, a town on the coast of Guayana, 
between Paramaribo, and Cayenne.] 

AMANIQUE, a river of the province and 
government of Mainas in the kingdom of Qui 
to. It rises in the territory of the Plateros In 
dians, runs from e. to w. and enters the river 
Perene, or ancient Maranon. 

AMANTANE, SAN MIGUEL DE, an island of 
the great lake Chucuito, belonging to the pro 
vince of Paucarcolla, on the lofty plains of which 
were established some settlements of note, but 
which have, by lapse of time, fallen into decay. 
The houses were somewhat peculiar, having been 
built entirely of stone, and the roofs of the rooms 
having been vaulted with the same ; forming edi 
fices altogether handsome and well-constructed. 
This island, which is three leagues in circumfe 
rence, is full of orchards and gardens, producing 
fruits, herbs, and flowers. 

AMANTARA, a small island of the lake Titi- 



A M A 

caca, belonging to the province and government 
of Chucuito, near the strait of Capachica. 

AMAUTATA, a river of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Carabaya in Peru. It rises in the 
valley of Inaguana, to the s. of the settlement of 
Cuyocuyo, and runs n. forming a curve to enter 
the source of the river Inambari. 

AMAZONAS, SAN FELIPE DE, a settlement ot 
the province and government of Mainas in the 
kingdom of Quito. It is on the shore of the river 
Nanai. 

AMAPAES, a barbarous nation of savage In 
dians in Nueva Andalucia, to the w. of the river 
Orinoco, and near the mountain of Paria. They 
inhabit the territory between the rivers Catury, 
Cayari, and Meta, and are bounded by the Isape- 
rices, with whom they are continually at war. 
They are valiant and hardy, sincere and faithful ; 
they live by the chase, and by fishing, and their 
arms are bows and arrows, which are tipped with 
a very active vegetable poison. The territory is 
caJled Amapaya, and is comprehended in the pro 
vince of Paria. 

AMAPALA, a settlement of the. province and 
government of Nicaragua in the kingdom of Gua 
temala, situate upon a strip or narrow point of 
land "running into the S. sea, at the distance of 
four leagues from the town of San Miguel, and 
220 miles s. c. of Guatemala. [Long. 87 55 w. 
Lat. 13 12 .] 

AMAPILCAN, a settlement of the alcaldia 
mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espafia, containing 
15 Indian families. 

AMACUCHO, alias TAMBERIA, a settlement of 
the province and cor regimiento of Cajamarca in 
Peru. 

AMARETE, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Charazani. 

AMARGOS, an island of the coast of Chile, 
at the mouth or entrance of the river Valdivia ; 
where there is also a castle of the same name. 

AMARGOSO, a river of the province and cap 
tainship of Rio Grande in Brazil. It rises near 
the coast, runs n. and enters the sea by a wide 
mouth, between the point of Tiburon and that of 
Mello. 

AMARILLO, a river of the province and cor 
regimiento of Loja in the kingdom of Quito. It 
rises at the foot of the sierra, near the settlement of 
Saraguro ; runs w. and enters the Tumbez. 

AMAR1SCOGGIN, a river of the district of 
Maine. See ANDROSCOGGIN. 

AMARO, JUAN, a town of the province and 
captainship of the bay of Todos Santos in the 



A M A 

kingdom of Brazil, founded in the year 1668 by 
a Portuguese gentleman of this name, in virtue of 
the concession of proprietorship made by King 
Don Pedro, and as a reward for the services of the 
former in its conquest. The same gentleman im 
mediately sold it to Colonel Manuel Araujo de 
Aragon, whose descendants are in possession of it 
at the present day. Its population and commerce 
are equally scanty. It is situate near the river 
Longoribo, [or Panuaca. Lat. 13 17 n. Long. 
40 14 w.] 

AM ABO, JUAN, a settlement, also called Mina de 
Luis Amaro, in the territory of Guayazas, of the 
same kingdom , situate on the shore of a river which 
enters the Tocan tines. 

AMARO, JUAN, another settlement of the pro 
vince and captainship of Puerto Seguro in the 
same kingdom ; situate at the port of the capital. 

AMARO, JUAN, another settlement of the pro 
vince and captainship of Pernambuco, situate at 
the source of the river of Antonio Grande, to the 
n. n. e. of the settlement of San Sabastian Novo. 

AMARO, JUAN, another settlement, called Sari 
Amaro el Velho, or Viejo, in the same province 
and captainship as the former. 

AMARO, JUAN, another town of the province and 
captainship of San Vincente in the same kingdom, 
situate on the shore of the bay of this name. 

AMARO, JUAN, a small island near the coast of 
this last mentioned province, where the Portuguese 
have a fort or castle, with the name of La Cruz. 
It is on the side of the bay of San Vincente. 

AMARUCA, a settlement of the province of 
Guayana and government of Cumana ; one of those 
belonging to the missions held there by the Cata- 
lanian Capuchin fathers. It lies s. of the city of 
Santo Tomas. 

AMARUMAIU, a large river of the king 
dom of Peru, which rises in the cordillera of the 
Andes, in 13 30 s. lat. It passes through the 
province of Mojos, after a long course of many 
leagues through unknown parts ; and after fre 
quently changing its name, it enters into the Ma- 
ranon, in 4 36 . s. lat. 

AMASARENDO, a settlement of the province 
and captainship of Parayba in Brazil, situate near 
the coast. 

AMATENANGO, a settlement of the pro 
vince and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa in the king 
dom of Guatemala. 

AMATEPEC, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Zulte- 
pec in Nueva Espana, situate on the top of a moun 
tain. It is of a cold temperature, and its popu- 



A M A 39 

lation consists of 80 Indian families. It lies 12 
leagues s. e. of of its capital. 

AMATEPEC, another settlement of the head 
settlement of the district of Totontepec, in the alcal 
dia mayor of Villalta. It is of a cold temperature, 
contains 15 families of Indians, and lies a little more 
than seven leagues to the e. of its capital. 

AMATICLAN, S. Luis DE, a settlement of 
the head settlement of the district of Huitepec, and 
alcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca, in Nueva Espana. 
It contains 43 families of Indians. 

AMATINCHAN, a settlement of the head set 
tlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa 
in Nueva Espana. It contains 62 families of In 
dians, and lies two leagues n. e. of its capital. 

[AMATIQUES, a sea-port town at the mouth of 
Guanacos river, which empties into the Amatique 
gulf, or gulf of Honduras, in the province of Vera 
Paz, Mexico. The inhabitants are chiefly logwood- 
cutters, and on the s. of the gulf is a tract of land 
called Amatique land. Lat. 15 23 . Long. 89.] 

AMAT1TLAN, SAN CHRISTOBAL DE, a 
settlement of the kingdom of Guatemala, si 
tuate in the valley of Mixto, or of Pinola. In 
the Mexican tongue it signifies the city of letters, 
from a custom which the natives have of writing 
upon the bark of trees, and thus forming tablets, 
which they send to a great distance. It has some 
excellent medicinal baths, renowned for the cure of 
several infirmities. A great commerce is carried 
on from the salt which is collected every morning 
from the shores of a lake, and which they purity. 
It has a large market-place, with a magnificent 
church, and a convent of the order of St. Domi 
nic, being one of the richest establishments main 
tained by this order throughout that kingdom. 
It is said to be famous for having made the dis 
covery of curing the cancer by eating raw lizards. 
The Indians used this remedy from the time of 
their gentilism, and it was first tried by the Eu 
ropeans in 1780, as appears by testimony and in 
formation transmitted by the provisional viceroy 
of New Spain, Don Martin de Mayorga ; the same 
information having been passed, by order of the 
King, to the tribunal of the first physician of this 
court. 

AMATITLAN, SAN CHUISTOBAL DE, another 
settlement of the same province, distinct from the 
former. 

AMATLAN, SANTA ANA TE ? a settlement of 
the head settlement of the district and alcaldia 
mayor of Tanzitaro in Nueva Espana, situate on 
the skirts of the sierra of this name. It is of a 
cold temperature, inhabited by 60 families of In- 



40 



A M A 



dians, 29 of Spaniards, and 12 of Ahistees and 
Mulattoes. So great is its commerce, and so 
abundant is it in fruits and grain, that it could 
maintain, with ease, double its present number. 
It has a convent of Monks, of the order of St. 
Francis ; in whose church, an image of Christ cru 
cified, and which image also bears the title of 
Milagro, or miracle, is held in particular reve 
rence. It is said to have obtained this title from a 
miracle well authenticated among the people of 
this settlement. Fourteen leagues s. of its capital. 

AMATLAN-, SANTA ANA DK, another settle 
ment, with the dedicatory title of San Luis, of the 
head settlement of the district and akaldia mayor 
of Mialniatlan in the same kingdom. It contains 
380 families of Indians, including those of its wards ; 
and here, as in the former settlements, is found 
a fruit something like a filbert, which they call 
coatecos, or tcpexilotes^ which is veryjiard, and of 
which are made beads and rosaries, ornamented 
and painted with different ciphers of Jesus, Mary, 
and Joseph, or sentences of the Magnificat, which 
are so permanent that it has been thought by some 
that the trees produced them in this state : they 
arc not unfrequently carried to Spain in little 
boxes. It is two leagues to the n. of the capital. 

AMATLAN, SANTA ANA DE, another settle 
ment belonging to the missions of the order of 
St. Francis, in the akaldia mayor of Tuchipila, 
at a short distance from the large river of Guada- 
laxara. Ten leagues n. W. of its capital. 

AMATLAN, SANTA ANA DE, another settlement 
of the head settlement of the district Tepoxtlan, 
and akaldia mayor of Cuernavaca. 

AMATLAN, SANTA ANA DE, another settle 
ment, which is the head settlement of the district 
of the akaldia mayor of Cordova, annexed to the 
curacy of La Punta. It contains 220 Indian 
families, who, from the fertility the ground ac 
quires from the waters of the rich stream of the 
Truchas, arc eabled to cultivate large quantities 
of fruits and pulse. Two short leagues s. of its 
capital. 

AMATLA.V, SANTA ANA DE, another settlement, 
with the dedicatory title of San Joseph, the head 
settlement of the district of the akaldia mayor of 
Zacatlan. In this settlement, and in the wards of 
its district, the families of Indians are estimated 
at 248. 

AMATLAN, SANTA ANA DE, another settlement 
(with the dedicatory title of San Pedro) of the 
head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor 
of Cozamaloapan. It is of a hot temperature, situ 
ate on the shore of a large river of the same name, 
and was formerly the capital. It contains 150 



A M B 

families of Indians, and is two leagues e. of its 
capital. 

AMATLAN, SANTA ANA DE, another settlement 
of the head settlement of the district and akaldia 
mayor of Izatlan. It is 12 leagues from Aqua- 
lulco, which i^ the capital. 

AMAZONAS. See the article MARANON. 

AMBALEMA, a settlement of the jurisdiction 
of Tocarima, and government of Mariquita, in the 
new kingdom of Granada, situate on the shore of 
the large river Magdalena. It produces in abund 
ance the fruits peculiar to its climate, which is 
excessively hot : these are sugar-cane, maize, 
yucas, and plantains. It is much infested with 
Moschettoes, moths, and serpents ; and its in 
habitants may amount to about 100. It lies 12 
leagues s. w. of Santa Fe. 

AMBANA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimicnto of Caxatambo in Peru. 

AMBAR, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Larccaja in Peru. 

AMBARGASTA, a settlement of the province 
and government of Tucuman, in the district and 
jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero ; 
front whence it is distant 52 leagues. 

AMBATO, ASIENTO DE, the division and dis 
trict of the province and corre^imiento of Rio- 
bamba, part of which is in the kingdom of Quito. 
Its temperature is very mild and healthy, the air 
is good, and the earth so fruitful that it is no un 
common thing to see the husbandman sowing, 
reaping, and threshing, all in the same day. The 
crops are abundant, and of the best quality. It 
has many plantations of sugar-cane, from which is 
procured a sugar superior to any produced by the 
estates of the contiguous provinces : it has also 
many delicate and exquisite fruits, and an abund 
ance of cochineal, which they employ for dyeing, 
and of which a much larger quantity might be 
procured. The capital bears the same name, and 
is founded upon a rugged spot on the banks of a 
large river. Its temperature is benign and salu 
brious ; it abounds in all kinds of flesh, and choice 
productions ; the edifices are beautiful : besides 
the parish-church, which is very good and large, 
it has two parish-chapels of ease, and a convent of 
Franciscans. In the year 1698 it was entirely de 
stroyed, from an eruption of the volcano of Coto- 
paxi, which is near to it; and, at the same time, 
the snowy-mountain, or desert of Carguairaso, 
throwing up a river of mud or lava, which inun 
dated the whole country near, ruined the crops, 
and killed the cattle, which in vain endeavoured to 
avoid the destructive deluge. The monuments of 
this misfortune are still visible, and various chinks 



A M B 

or chasms are still remaining, especially one, about 
four or five feet wide, and running from n. to s. 
nearly a league in length, towards the s. point of 
the town ; but nevertheless, owing to the fertility 
and extensive commerce of the town, it has become 
already more considerable than it was formerly. 
In several houses they make a sort of fancy bread, 
so white and of so exquisite a flavour as far to sur 
pass any sort of biscuit ; this article is exported 
largely, even to the most distant settlements, since 
in no other has it ever been imitated with success, 
although the very flour and water have been car 
ried hence for the experiment. It is 18 leagues 
from Quito, and four from Tarunga. [Lat. 1 14 
w. Long. 78 25 .] 

AMBATO, ASJENTO BE, a river of the province 
and corregimiento of Riobamba, near the former 
capital. It runs with such violence, and with 
such a tremendous stream, that it is impossible to 
pass it otherwise than by a very strong built 
bridge : it has one of wood, braced with thick 
links of iron. This river afterwards joins others, 
and these together form a large river, called 
Patate. 

AMBATO, ASIENTO DE, a mountain of the pro 
vince and government of Tucuman in Peru, in the 
jurisdiction of the city of Catamarca, to the w. of 
the jurisdiction. It is large, and renowned not so 
much for its considerable mines, of which vestiges 
are yet apparent, as for the rumbling noises caused 
in it by the air, which seem occasionally to pro 
duce a kind of slight earthquake. 

[AMBER Bay, on the peninsula of Yucatan 
in the bay of Honduras, lies n. of ASCENSION Bay, 
which see.] 

[AMBERGREESE Key, an island in Hanover 
bay, on the e. side of the peninsula of Yucatan, 
in the bay of Honduras. It runs along the mouth 
of the bay, is 70 miles long, but very narrow. 
See ASCENSION Bay. 

AMBOCAS, SAN LUCAS DE, a settlement of 
the province and corregimiento of Loja in the king 
dom of Quito. 

AMBOL, SAN, a small river of the province 
and government of Buenos Ayres. It runs w. and 
enters the Plata near the town of Santa Lucia. 

[AMBOY. See PERTH AMBOY.] 

[AMBROSE, ST. an island in the S. Pacific 
ocean, on the coast of Chile, four or five leagues 
due &\ from St. Felix island. At first view, it 
appears like two small islands ; but after a nearer 
approach, it is found they are joined by a reef. 
It lies in Lat. 26 17 40" s. and Long. 79 8 
35" &. from Greenwich. There is a large rock 
four miles to the n. of the island, called, from its 

VOL. I. 



A M E 41 

appearance, Sail Rock. Captain Roberts, who 
was here in 1792, found St. Felix island inacces 
sible. On St. Ambrose island, his crew killed and 
cured 13,000 seal skins, of the best quality, in 
seven weeks. The island has little else to recom 
mend it. Fish and craw fish abound. The best 
season for sealing is from the 1st of April to the 1st 
of August. The island has the appearance of 
having had volcanic eruptions.] 

AMBROS1O, SAN, a small settlement or ward 
of the head settlement of the district of Ocula, 
and alcaldia mayor of Tocuyo ; thus called by 
Ambrosio de Alfinguer, who wns the first who en 
tered it in 1529. In its vicinity are the Barbarian 
Indians, the Xuruaras, and the Corominos. The 
territory is level, fertile, and abounding in maize, 
and in all sorts of grain ; also in cotton and sugar 
cane, which, however, being very watery, will not 
admit of being made into sugar. The climate is 
hot and unhealthy, and it has to the e. the cordil- 
lera of the mountains of San Pedro, and to the w. 
the cordillera of those of Bogota. 

AMBUQUI, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of the town of Ibarra in the king 
dom of Quito, situate on the shore of the river 
Mira-cerca, of the settlement of Pimampiro. 

AMEALEO, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of San Juan del Rio, and alcal 
dia mayor of Queretaro, in Nueva Espana, an 
nexed to the curacy of Santa Maria of Tequisqui- 
apan. It contains 58 families of Indians. 

AMECA, a head settlement of the district of the 
alcaldia mayor of Autlan in Nueva Espana. It 
contains 40 families of Spaniards and Mustees, and 
43 of Indians, who trade in seeds and swine, hav 
ing enough of them for the supply of the jurisdic 
tion. In its district are many herds of large 
cattle, with some goats. Thirty leagues to the n. 
of its capital. 

AMECA, another settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tala in 
the same kingdom. It is ot a moderate tempe 
rature, fertile in all kinds of seed, fruit, and pulse. 
In its vicinity, towards the w. is the great estate of 
San Nicolas, and to the e. that of Cabejon, besides 
many others on the shore of the river, which runs 
to the town of La Purificacion. Eight leagues w. 
s. w. of its capital. 

AMECAMECA, a head settlement of the dis 
trict of the alcala ia mayor of Chalco in Nueva 
Espana, situate at the skirts of a mountain which 
leads up to the snowy volcano, on which account 
it is of a very cold temperature. The whole of its 
district is full of very fertile estates, and in one of 
these was born the famous Sor Juana Ines de la 



42 A M E 

Cruz, the Mexican poetess, and who was baptized 
in the parish church of this settlement. It con 
tains 570 families of Indians, and some of whites. 
Three leagues between the e. and s. of its ca 
pital. 

AMECAQUK, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Calpa, and alcaldia mayor 
of Atrisco, in Nueva Espana. It contains 275 
families of Indians, and is five leagues s. w. of its 
capital. 

AMEL1E, or AMF.LIA, a county of the pro 
vince and colony of Virginia in North America. 
It lies between several rivers, and is bounded on the 
n. by the county of Cumberland, on the e. by that 
of Prince George, and s. and w. by that of Lu- 
nemberg. [Amelia, including Nottaway, a new 
county, contains 18,097 inhabitants, of whom 
11,037 are slaves.] 

AMELIE, or AMELIA, an island, situated seven 
leagues n. of the city of S. Agustin, on the e. 
coast of Florida. It is nearly two miles wide and 
thirteen long, and one league distant from the river 
of St. Juan. [It is fertile, and has an excellent 
harbour. Its . end lies opposite Cumberland 
island, between which and Amelia isle, is the entry 
into St. Mary s river, in Lat. SO 41 40" n. 
Long. 81 34 40" w.] 

AMKLIE, or AMELIA, a settlement of the same 
province, situate on the shore of the river Con 
ga n- 

[AMELINS, ECOUA, is a s. e. head branch of 
\\abash rive^, whose mouth is nine miles w. e. 
from the mouth of Salarnine river, and 45 miles s. 
zv. from the Miami village and fort.] 

AMENGOACA, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito ; it 
rises in the territory of the Uniguesas Indians, 
runs from re. to e. and afterwards turning n. enters 
the Ucayale. 

AMERICA, the Indies, or the New World, 
one of the four parts of the Universe, and the 
largest. It Mas richer and better peopled in the 
time of the Indians, and more fertile and abound 
ing in the necessaries and comforts of life. It is, 
as it were, surrounded by the sea, and is indeed a 
continent as far as the Arctic Pole, where its boun 
daries have not been discovered. This immense 
country, nearly 2000 leagues in length, was un 
known to the ancients, until it was discovered by 
Christopher Columbus, a Genoese, in the service 
of their Catholic Majesties, Don Fernando V. 
and Dona Isabel, in four following voyages. In 
the first voyage he departed from the port of Palos 
dt- Moguer, with three small vessels and ninety 
meu, in the year 1491, and hud to contend with 



A M E 

incredible difficulties, as well in combating the 
prejudices of the Spaniards, who opposed his 
ideas, holding his attempt as something chime 
rical, as in preserving the crews of the vessels that 
accompanied the expedition ; many of whom, 
depressed and tired with the labours and hard 
ships of so long a voyage, endeavoured to put an 
end to their existence. It is improperly called 
America, from the celebrated pilot Horentin Ame- 
rico Vespucio, who discovered the continent to the 
5. of the equinoctial line : others will have that it 
was before discovered by Sancho de Huelva, who 
was driven there in a storm in the year 1484. 
The English assert, that in 1170, or 1190, it was 
discovered by a man of the name of Madoc, or 
Madocro, son or brother of Ousen Quisneth, 
prince of Wales, who, in two voyages to Virginia, 
Florida, Canada and Mexico, founded English 
colonies ; but this is a mere fable. This country 
has produced, and yet produces gold, silver, and 
other precious metals, in prodigious quantities, an 
infinite variety of herbs, plants, fruits, roots, fish, 
birds, and animals unknown, and such as had 
never heretofore been seen ; an astonishing variety 
of exquisite woods, some of the trees being of an 
enormous size. Its natives, though, on account of 
the innumerable nations and provinces of which it 
is composed, differ entirely amongst each other, 
were nevertheless all idolaters. The greater part 
of this immense country, which is, from its size, as 
it were unpeopled, is possessed by the Spaniards, 
who were its discoverers and conquerors ; but after 
this, the French, invited by its riches, established 
themselres in different parts, as also did the En 
glish, the Portuguese, the Dutch, and the Danes. 
America is divided into North and South by the 
isthmus of Panama, or Ticrra Firme. TheN. part, 
known at the present day, extends from 11 to 70 de 
grees of latitude, and comprehends the kingdoms 
of Nueva Espana, California, Louisiana, Nuevo 
Mexico, Virginia, Canada, Newfoundland, Florida, 
and the islands of St. Domingo, Cuba, Jamaica, 
Puertorico, and the other Antilles. The Meri 
dional or 8. part extends itself from 12 degrees n. 
lat. to 60 .s\ comprehending Tierra Firme, Darien, 
the new kingdom of Granada, Nueva Andalucia, 
Peru, Chile, Paraguay, Quito, the country of the 
Amazonas, Brazil, and the Tierras Magallanicas, 
or of the Patagones. Its largest mountains are 
those of the great chain, or Cordillera of the Andes, 
which run from n. to s. from the isthmus of Pa 
nama to Cape Horn. The mountain Chimborazo 
is the loftiest of any known in the world at the pre 
sent day; and others, especially those in Quito, 
are of an extraordinary height, and always covered 

2 



AMERICA. 



43 



with snow. America is also watered by the largest 
rivers in the universe ; such are those of the Ama- 
zouas, Orinoco, Magtlalcna, Atrato, La Plata, 
Esmeraldas, Jeneyro, Negro, Coca, Ucayale, 
Cauca, Putumayo, Beni, Madura, Napo, Pa 
rana, Pilcomayo, Mississippi, St. Lawrence, &c. 
The barbarous nations belonging to it are innu 
merable, and scattered over all parts, living in the 
most savage slate in the mountains, forests, and 
lakes, without any head, government, or laws ; 
some of them are cannibals, and they all gain their 
livelihood, in general, by fishing and the chase. 
Their languages are as various as their different 
nations ; nevertheless the mo-st universal dialect 
that is spoken in Peru is the Quechuan and the 
Aymaran, and in Nueva Espaiia the Mexican. 
Of religions, the most common are, idolatry among 
the barbarians, and the Catholic religion in those 
countries which have been subdued. Some of the 
idolaters worship the sun, moon, and the stars ; 
but they confess, and are sensible of a superior 
Being, who created them, and who preserves them. 
They believe in the immortality of the soul, the 
rewards and punishments of another world, and in 
the common enemy, whom they call Zupay ; in 
the universal deluge, and many other truths, 
although even these are enveloped in a thousand 
errors, and disfigured with accounts and fables 
which have been handed down to them by their 
ancestors ; others, more savage, adore nothing, or 
at least pay but little respect to their idols, which 
they choose from among plants, serpents, and 
quadrupeds. It is evident they have, all of them, 
some confused sort of light, impressing them with 
something that they cannot understand, but 
which they respect and fear. The greater part of 
them are given to polygamy, and they are not 
without their ceremonies in matrimony, and at 
their funerals ; but they are all, without excep 
tion, much addicted to drunkenness, arid have 
different sorts of strong drinks, which they make 
of herbs, roots, fruits, &c. They are, for the 
most part, robust, moderate, liberal, faithful, com 
passionate, patient, and silent ; but revengeful, 
jealous, luxurious, and stupid : of an obscure 
colour, with hair long and black, with round 
faces, being of a sad countenance, beardless, and of 
a good stature and person. There are some that are 
of a good colour, with a cheerful and noble coun 
tenance ; and grace and pleasantness are not want 
ing amongst the women. Besides these Indians, 
America is inhabited by the Europeans, who have 
established themselves here since the times of its 
conquest, also by the sons of those, who are known 



by the name of Creoles, those of Peru being called 
Chapetones, and those of Nueva Espana Cachu- 
pines. The Negroes, who are brought from the 
coast of Africa in considerable numbers, and who 
are sold as slaves to work in the sugar-cane < states, 
and in the mines of gold or silver, and other ser 
vile capacities, are the authors of a race called 
Castas, or peculiar breeds : thus the Mustees are 
the offspring of the Spaniard and the Indian, and 
the Mulattoes of the Spaniard or White and of a 
Negro or other woman ; the names of such off 
spring being Zambo, Cholo, Puchuela, Salta Atras, 
Tente en el Ay re, Quarteron, Quinteron, &c. 
This country abounds in gold, silver, copper, 
quick-silver, iron, antimony, sulphur, nitre, lead, 
load-stone, and marbles of every sort and colour ; 
in diamonds, rubies, emeralds, amethysts, gra 
nites, alabaster, rock-crystal, and all kinds of 
precious stones and minerals, besides its pearl- 
fisheries, which are carried on in many parts. 
Its fields produce every kind of grain, fruit, pulse, 
herbs, plants, and flowers, native to Europe, be 
sides an infinite variety of others peculiar to this 
climate ; such as the cacao tree, the cinnamon, 
pepper, sarsaparilla, xaynilla, scarlet dye, to 
bacco, balsams of a thousand kinds, Brazil and 
log-wood, bark, sassafras, aloes, vu\& azibar ; fine 
smelling incense, gums, barks, resins, and medi 
cinal herbs. The number of cattle is incredible, 
and the breed of European horses and mules de 
serves particular estimation. Its woods are filled 
with tigers, leopards, and bears ; its rivers, witli 
lizards, alligators, and thousands of different kinds 
of fish ; in its fields are found numbers of vipers 
and snakes, differing, to a surprising degree, in 
their powers, qualities, forms, and colours ; also 
other insects and venomous animals. The climate 
is various, and is changed according to the situ 
ation of the country, or of the different places. In 
the valleys and plains, and on the shores of the sea, 
it is commonly very hot ; upon the slopes or skirts 
of mountains, and in the country which lies more 
lofty, the temperature is most commonly mild and 
pleasant. The copious rains that are frequent 
under the equinoctial line, are not the only cause 
of the mildness of temperature experienced in 
those parts, but this is effected in no small degree 
by the winds and snows of the neighbouring moun 
tains, from which proceeds an excessive degree of 
cold. The part possessed by the King of Spain, 
and which is the larger, is governed by four Vice 
roys, established in Lima, Buenos Ayres, Mexico, 
aud Santa Fe ; an account of which governments 
will be found under their articles, and for a des- 
o 2 



44 



AMERICA. 



criptiou of which we have referred to the Chroni 
cles of Antonio de Herrera, as being the most 
punctual and complete. 

In what regards those who first peopled, and 
who were the ancient inhabitants of this hemis 
phere, and from whence they came, we leave this 
problem to be answered by the numerous cele 
brated historians and philosophers who have writ 
ten so much upon this subject ; observing only, 
that the opinion which, at the present day, most 
generally obtains, is, that America was peopled in 
the n. part, from Kamtchatka. 

[AMERICA is one of the four quarters of the 
world, probably the largest of the whole, and is, 
from its late discovery, frequently denominated the 
New World, or New Hemisphere. This vast 
country extends from the 56th degree of s. lat. to 
the north pole, and from the 55th to the 165th de 
gree of w. long, from Greenwich. It is nearly 
10,000 miles in length. Its average breadth may 
be about 1800 or 2000 miles. It has two sum 
mers and a double winter, and enjoys almost all the 
variety of climates which the earth affords. It is 
washed by two great oceans. To the e. it has 
the Atlantic, which divides it from Europe and 
Africa. To the w. it has the Pacific, or Great 
S. sea, by which it is separated from Asia. By 
these it carries on a direct commerce with the other 
three parts of the world. America is divided into two 
great continents, called North and South America, 
by an isthmus about 500 miles long, and which, 
at Darien, about lat. 9 n. is only 60 miles over ; 
other writers say 34 miles. This isthmus, with the 
n. and s. continents, forms the Gulph of Mexico, 
in and near which lie a great number of islands, 
called the West Indies, in contradistinction to the 
eastern parts of Asia, which are called the East 
Indies. 

In America Nature seems to have carried on her 
operations upon a larger scale, and with a bolder 
hand, and to have distinguished the features of 
this country by a peculiar magnificence. The 
mountains of America are much superior in height 
to those in the other divisions of the globe. Even 
the plain of Quito, which may be considered as 
the base of the Andes, is elevated farther above the 
level of the sea than the top of the Pyrenees in 
Europe ; and Chimborazo, the most elevated point 
of the Andes, is 20,280 feet high, which is at least 
7102 feet above the Peak of Teneriffe. From the 
lofty and extensive mountains of America, descend 
rivers, with which the streams of Europe, of 
Asia, or of Africa, are not to be compared, either 
for length of course, or for the vast body of water 



which they convey to the ocean. The Danube, 
the Indus, the Ganges, or the Nile, in the e. hemi 
sphere, are not of equal magnitude, even with the 
St. Lawrence, the Missouri, or the Mississippi, in 
N. America ; and fall far short of the Amazon 
and the La Plata in S. America. 

The lakes of the New World are no less con 
spicuous for grandeur than its mountains and 
rivers. There is nothing in other parts of the 
globe which resembles the prodigious chain of 
lakes in N. America, viz. Superior, Michigan, 
Huron, Erie, and Ontario : they may be properly 
termed inland seas of fresh water : and even those 
of the second or third class are of greater circuit 
(the Caspian sea excepted) than the greatest lake 
of the ancient continent. 

The luxuriance of the vegetable creation in the 
New World is extremely great. In the s. pro 
vinces, where the moisture of the climate is aided 
by the warmth of the sun, the woods are almost 
impervious, and the surface of the ground is hid 
from the eye under a thick covering of shrubs, of 
herbs, and weeds. In the n. provinces, although 
the forests are not incumbered with the same wild 
luxuriance of vegetation, the trees of various spe 
cies are generally more lofty, and often much 
larger, than are to be seen in any other parts of the 
world. 

Notwithstanding the many settlements of the 
Europeans on this continent, great part of Ame 
rica remains still unknown. The n. continent 
contains the four British provinces, viz. 1. Up 
per Canada; 2. Lower Canada, to which are 
annexed New-Britain, and the island of Cape 
Breton ; 3. New-Brunswick ; 4. Nova Scotia, to 
which is annexed St. John s island. Besides these 
there are the island of Newfoundland, and the 16 
United States. It contains also the Spanish terri 
tories of E. and W. Florida, Louisiana, New 
Mexico, California, and Mexico. Besides these 
there are immense unexplored regions to the w. and 
n. w. The s. continent has been already delineated. 

America, so far as is known, is chiefly claimed 
and divided into colonies by three European na 
tions, the Spaniards, British, and Portuguese. The 
Spaniards, as they first discovered it, have the 
largest and richest portion, extending from Louisi 
ana and New Mexico in N. America, to the straits 
of Magellan in the S. sea, excepting the large 
province of Brazil, which belongs to Portugal ; 
for though the French and Dutch have some forts 
upon Surinam and Guayana, they scarcely deserve 
to be considered as proprietors of any part of the 
s. continent. 



AMERICA. 



Next to Spain, the most considerable proprietor 
of America was Great Britain, who derived her 
claim to N. America from the first discovery of 
that continent by Sebastian Cabot, in the name of 
Henry VII. of England, in the year 1497, about 
six years after the discovery of S. America by Co 
lumbus, in the name of the king of Spain. The 
country was in general called Newfoundland, a 
name which is now appropriated solely to an island 
on its coast. It was a long time before the English 
made any attempt to settle in this country. Sir 
Walter Raleigh, an uncommon genius and a brave 
commander, first shewed the way, by planting a 
colony in the s. part, which he called Virginia, in 
honour of queen Elizabeth, who was unmarried. 

The French, indeed, from this period until the 
conclusion of the war of 1756, laid a claim to, and 
actually possessed Canada and Louisiana ; but in 
that war, they were not only driven from Cana 
da and its dependencies, but obliged to relinquish 
all that part of Louisiana lying on the e. side of 
the Mississippi ; and the British colonies, at the 
peace of 1763, extended so far as to render it dif 
ficult to ascertain the precise bounds of the empire 
of Great Britain in N. America. To the n. Bri 
tain might have extended her claims quite to the 
pole. From that extremity, she had a territory ex 
tending s. to Cape Florida in the Gulph of Mexi 
co, in n. lat. 25, and consequently near 4000 
miles in a direct line ; and to the w. the bounda 
ries were unknown : but having entered into dis 
putes with her colonies, she brought on a war, of 
which she felt the ruinous effects, by the dismem 
berment of her empire in N. America ; and Bri 
tish America, at the peace in 1783, was circum 
scribed within the narrow limits already men 
tioned.] 

A Chronological List of the most celebrated Dis 
coverers of America : 
Years. 

1492. Christopher Columbus, a Genoese, who, 
on the llth October, first discovered the 
island which is called San Salvador, one of 
the Lucayas, and afterwards the following : 

1497. The island of Trinidad, coast of Nueva 
Andalucia. 

1498. The island of Margarita. 

1302. Portobello, Nombre de Dios, the Rio de 
San Francisco, with the other coasts and 
islands. This great man, alas ! worthy of a 
better fortune, died on the 20th May, 1506, 
in Valladolid ; and having required in his 
will that his body should be carried em 
balmed to the island of St. Domingo, one of 
the Larger Antilles, these lines were inscribed 



Years. 

upon his tomb, and which, for those times, 
are excellent : 
Hie locus abscondit prceclarf membra Columbi y 

Cujus prcedarum nomen ad asfra xolat. 
Non satis unus erat sibi mundus notus, at orbem 

Ignotum priscis omnibus ipse dedit. 
Divilias summas terras dispcrsit in omnes, 

Atque animas ccelo tradidit innumcras. 
Intpnit campos ditinis legibus aptos, 
Pegibus et noslris prospera regna dedit. 

1497. Americo Vespucio discovered, in the month 
of May, the coast of Paria, and from him the 
whole of the New World takes its name. 

1498. The Antilles, the coast of Guayana, and 
that of Venezuela. 

1501, The const of Brazil, the Bay of Todos 
Santos, and the e. coast of Paraguay. 

1503. A second time the coast of Brazil, the 
river Curubnta, that of La Plata, and the 
coast of Los Pampas in Paraguay. 

1498. Vicente Yanez Pinzon, a Spaniard, dis 
covered Tombal, Angra, the Rio de las 
Amazonas and its islands, the Para or Mara- 
non, and the coast of Paria and Caribana. 

1501. Rodrigo Galvan de Bastidas, a Spaniard, 
discovered the islands Verde, Zamba, the 
city of Calamari, now Cartagena, the Gulph 
of Uraba, part of the n. coast of Darien and 
that of Sims. 

151 1 . Juan Diaz de Solis, a Spaniard, discovered 
part of the course of the river La Plata in Pa 
raguay. 

1512. Vasco Nunez de Balboa discovered the S. 
or Pacific sea through the Isthmus of Pa 
nama. 

Juan Ponce de Leon discovered Florida. 

1514. Gaspar de Morales discovered, in the S. 
sea, the islands of Las Perlas and those of 
Rey. 

1515. Pedrarias Davila discovered the coast of 
Panama, the Cape of Guerra, Cape Blanco, 
and the a?, coast of Darien, as far as the point 
of Garachine. 

1517. Francisco Hernandez de Cordova disco 
vered Yucatan. 

1518. Juan de Grijalba began the discovery of 
Nueva Espana. 

1519. Hernando de Magallanes, a Portuguese, 
discovered the port and river of San Julian^ 
and on the 6th of November of the following 
year, 1520, the strait to which he gave his 
name. He also discovered the land of the Pata- 
gones, that of Fuego, and the Pacific Sea. He 
was the first who went round the world from 



46 



AMERICA. 



Years. 

the w. to the c. in which voyages he spent 
three years and 28 clays, returning to Eu 
rope in the same ship, which was called the 
Victor j/, and of which it was said, 
Prhna ego velivolis ambivi curs ib us orbem. 
Afagelliana worn sub duce duct a f retro*. 
Ambh i, weritotfue vocor Victoria ; sunt mi 

Vela, alce t prelium gloria, pugna mare. 
1522. Gil Gonzalez Davila discovered through 
Nueva Espana the S. Sea, and Andres Nino 
652 leagues of coast in the N. Sea. 

1524. Rodrigo Bastidas discovered Santa Marta. 

1525. Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Luqne, 
and Diego de Almagro,. joined company in 
Panama, and discovered the river of San 
Juan, the country of Esrneraldas, and the 
coast of Manta. 

1526. Francisco Pizarro discovered the land of 
Tumbez. 

Francisco de Montejo discovered Yucatan. 

Sebastian Gobato, a Venetian, discovered 
the coast and land of Pernambuco, and 200 
leagues further on of the river Paraguay, 
and of that of La Plata. 

1531. Garcia de Lerma, a Spaniard, discovered 
a great part of the large river Magdalena in 
the new kingdom of Granada. 

Diego de Ordcz discovered the grand river 
Orinoco, and the country of the Caribes. 

Nunode Guzman discovered Nueva Gali- 
cia, called Xalisco. 

1533. Francisco Pizarro, Marquis of Los Char- 
cas and Atavillos, discovered the island of 
Puna, Tumbez, Truxillo, the coast of Peru, 
as far as Guanuco and Caxamarca. 
1535. He discovered the river Rimac, Pachaca- 
mac, and the coast of Lima. 

1533. Pedro de Alvarado and Hernando dc Soto 
discovered Cuzco and Chimo. 

1534. Sebastian Venalcazar discovered Quito, 
the Pastes Indians, and other parts of Po- 
payan. 

1535. Diego de Almagro discovered Atacama 
and Chile. 

Pedro de Mendoza, a Portuguese, disco 
vered the rest of the river La Plata, and the 
famous mountain of Potosi. 

1539. Pedro de Valdivia discovered the rest of 
the kingdom of Chile, the country of the 
Araucanos, Chiloe, the land of the Pata- 
gones, and the coast of Magellan to the z& 

1540. Gonzalo Pizarro discovered the rivers Na- 
po arid Coca, aud the province of the Canelos. 



Years. 

1540. Panfilo de Narvaez discovered Nuevo 
Mexico. 

Francisco de Orellana discovered the 
grand river Maranon, or of the Arnazonas. 
1543. Domingo de Irala discovered the rivers 

Paraguay and Guarani. 

1566. Alvarode Mendana discovered the Solo 
mon Isles. 
1576. Francis Drake, an Englishman, discovered 

Cayenne and the coast of Guayana.. 
157S. lie discovered the islands of the straits of 
Magellan, the whole of the coast, of Chile, 
the islands of Mocha, other islands, and the 
coast of Peru. 
15S5. He discovered the coast of the llio del 

Hacha and of Coro, of which it is said : 
Quern tlmuit Icevis etiam Neptunus in widis y 

Et rediit toto victor ab oceano, 
Fcedifragos pellcns pelago prostabit Iberos 
JDrakius, huic tumulus CKquoris unda fuit. 
1601. Juan de Onate discovered the rest of Nu 
evo Mexico. 

1616. Jacobo de Maire, a Dutchman, discovered 
the strait which still preserves the name he 
gave it. 

1617. Fernando Quiros discovered the unknown 
land to the *. near the Antarctic Pole. 

1619. John More, James Hermit, and John 

Hugo Scapenham, Dutchmen, discovered 

the islands of the Estates, Port Mauritius, 

and the island called Hermit. 

1670. Nicolas Mascardi, a Jesuit, discovered the 

city of Cesares, in the kingdom of Chile. 
[1764. Byron, an Englishman Islands in Pacific 

Ocean. 

1766. Carteret, an Englishman do. 
Wallis, an Englishman do. 
Pages, a Frenchman do. 
Bougainville, a Frenchman do. 
1769. Cook, an Englishman made discoveries 



1771. 



in the Pacific. 
Surville, a Frenchman do. 



1775. 



Marion and du Clesmeur, Frenchmen do. 

Hearne, an Englishmando. 

Cook, Clerke, and Gore, Englishmen do. 

Carter, an Englishman in N. America. 
1789. Mackenzie, an Englishman do. 

Pike, an American in Louisiana.] 
A Catalogue of the Founders of the principal 

Cities of S. America. 
Years. 

1502. Christopher Columbus Portobelo. 
1509. Alonso de Ojeda Buenavista. 



* Probably J reta. 



AMERICA. 



Years. 

1.5 JO. Diego Nicuesa Nombre de Dios. 

1514. Gabriel de Roxas Acla. 

1517. Caspar Espinosa Nata. 

1518. Pedrarias Davila Panama. 

1519. Pedro Daza Santiago de Atalayas. 

1525. Gonzalo de Ocampo Cordova deCumana. 
Marcelo Villalobos Margarita. 
Rodrigo Bastidas Santa Marta. 

1526. Ifiigo Carbajal Curaana. 

1530. Ambrosio Alfinger Maracaibo. 

1531. Francisco Pizarro Piura. 

Pedro de Heredia Cartagena and Tolu. 
Fraucisco Pizarro- Arequipa. 
Sebastian Benalcazar Quito. 
Francisco. Pacheco Puerto Viejo. 
Nicolas Federman Rancheria. 
Francisco Pizarro Truxillo, Lima. 
Pedro de Mendoza Buenos Ayres. 
Francisco Henriquez Tenerife. 
Diego dc Almagro Almagro. 
Alonso de Alvarado Chachapoios. 
Pedro de Mendoza Buena Esperanza. 
Sebastian Benalcazar Cali, Popayau. 
Francisco de Orellana Guayaquil. 
Pedro de Anasco Timana. 
Gonzalo Ximenez de Quesada Santa Fe. 
Sebastian Benalcazar La Plata. 
Juan Salazar La Ascension. 
Pedro Anzures Chuquisaca. 
Francisco Pizarro Huamarga. 
Juan Gomez Alvarado Guanuco. 
Lorenzo de Aldana Pasto. 
Sebastian Benalcazar Plasencia. 
Martin Galiano Velez. 
1510. Geronimo Santa Cruz Mompox. 

Pedro Ordifiez de Cevallos, Lope de Her- 
rera, and Diego Sotelo Altagracia. 

1541. Juan Salinas Valladolid. 

Pedro de V aldivia Santiago de Chile. 
Geronimo Aguado Malaga. 
Francisco Henriquez Barbudo. 

1542. Jorge Robledo Antioquia, Anserma, Car- 

tago. 

Sebastian Benalcazar Arma. 
Juan de Salinas Loyola 

1543. Alonso Fuenmayor Almaguer* 
Juan Moreno Caloto. 

Sebast ian Benulcazar -Caramanta. 
Diego Martinz de Ospina Neiva. 
THUS Diaz Melgarejo Ontiveros. 

1544. Sebastian Venegas Tocaima. 
Lorenzo Martin Tamalaincque. 
Fernando Valdez Soiupallon, S. Miguel 

de las Pulmas, 



Years. 
J544. 
1546. 
1547. 



1548. 



1549. 



1535. 

153G. 
1537. 
1538. 

1539. 



1550. 
155 1 . 



1552. 

1553. 
1555. 
1557. 

1558. 
1559. 
1560. 
1562. 

1563. 



1566. 
1570. 
1571. 



Pedro de Valdivia Coquimbo, La Serena. 

Alonso Mercadillo Loxa. 

Jacobo Castellon Cadiz. 

Luis Lanchero Muzo. 

Pedro dc Ursua Tudela. 

Francisco Roldan Victoria. 

Alonso Mendoza La Paz, Vilianueva de 

los Infantes. 

Garcia de Mendoza Confines. 
Juan Nunez de Prado Cordova del Tucu- 

man, Santiago del Estero. 
Diego Palomina Jaen. 
Andres Salinas Salinas. 
Pedro Mercadillo Zamora. 
Fernando de Santa Ana Los Reyes. 
Peel rode Valdivia Villa Rica, La Imperial. 
Andres Lopez Galarza Ibaque. 
Francisco Pedroso Mariquita. 
Pedro Mantilla San Juan Giron. 
Geronimo Avellaneda S. Juan de los 

Llanos. 

Juan Viliegas Segoria. 
Pedro de Valdivia Valdivia. 
Pedro de Alvarado Toro. 
Juan Lopez de Heredia Caguan. 
Andres Hurtado de Mendoza Canete. 
Pedro de Tarita Londres. 
Adriano de Vargas S. Joseph de Cravo. 
Gil Ramirez Davalos Cnenca. 
Miguel de Armendariz Pamplona. 
Andres Hurtado de Mendoza Osorno. 
Diego de Paredes Paz de Truxillo. 
Gil Ramirez Davalos Baeza. 
Lope Garcia de Castro Castro, or Chiloe. 
Francisco Faxardo Carballeda. 
Francisco Rivas Cara. 
Domingo Fernandez de Solo Caceres. 
Diego Lopez de Zuniga fca. 
Juan de los Pinos Merida. 
Alonso Rangel Salazar de las Palmas. 
Pedro Centellas Barcelona. 
Diego Lopez de Zuniga Arnedo. 
Juan de Salamanca-Carora. 
Francisco Cuceres San Christobal. 
Francisco 1 lernandez Ocana. 
Francisco de Toledo Guancavelica. 
Martin de Loyola Santa Cruz de Loyola. 
Miguel de Ibarra Ibarra. 
Juan Pedro Olivcra Cornuta. 
Pedro Sarmiento Filipolis, Nombre de Dios. 
Antoniode los Rios San Jus(ino> 
Domingo Lozano Buga. 
Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza 

Mendoza, 






48 

Years 

1572. Gaillermo de la Mota Villar San Luis 

de Marafion. 

Diego Vaca de Vega Borja. 
Diego Fernandez de Cordova Moquehna. 
Juan de Zarate S. Martin del Puerto. 
Joseph Manso de Velasco Buena vista del 

Callao. 
Catalogue of the Founders of the principal Cities 

of Spanish N. America. 
1494. Bartolomew Columbus St. Domingo. 
Christopher Columbus Bonao. 
Christopher Columbus Concepcion de la 
Vega. 

1502. Juan de Esquivel Higuey. 
Juan de Esquivel Ceibo. 
Nicholas de Ovando Puerto de Plata. 

1503. Diego Velasquez Xaragua. 
Diego Velasquez Salvatierra. 
Diego Velasquez Maguana. 
Diego Velasquez Yaquimo. 

1504. Diego Velasquez Azua. 
Nicolas de Obando Yaguana. 
Nicolas de Obando Buenaventura. 

1505. Rodrigo Mexica Cotui. 

1506. Juan de Esquivel Salvaleon. 

1509. Juan Esquivel Santiago de los Cabal- 

leros. 
Juan de Esquivel Sevilla. 

1510. Juan Ponce de Leon Puertorrico. 
1514. Diego Velasquez Santiago dc Cuba. 

Diego Velasquez Baracoa. 

Diego Velasquez Puerto Principe. 

Diego V r elasquez Sancti Spiritus. 

Diego Velasquez Havana. 

Juan de Garay Melilla. 

Juan de Garay Oristan. 
1518. Hernan Cortes Segura de Tepeaca. 

Hernan Cortes Vera Cruz. 
1520. Gonzalo de Sandoval San Estevan del 
Puerto. 

1522. Andres de Tapia Medellin. 
Gonzato de Sandoval Goazacoalco. 
Gonzalo de Sandoval Colima. 

1523. Juliano Rodriguez de Villafuerte Zaca- 

tula. 

Francisco Fernandez de Cordova- --Leon 
de Nicaragua. 

Francisco Fernandez de Cordova Gra 
nada. 

1524. Francisco Fernandez de Cordova Bru- 

selas. 

Pedro de Alvarado Santiago de Guate 
mala. 

Francisco de las Casas Truxillo. 



AMERICA. 



Years. 

1525. Hernan Cortes Nra. Sra. de Victoria de 

Tabasco, 

1526. Francisco de Montejo Valladolid de Yu- 
} . .catan. 

1528. Diego Mazariegos Villaroel. 

1530. Diego Davila S. Sebastian de Chiametla. 
Niuio de Guzman S. Miguel de Culia- 

can. 
Gabriel de Roxas Gracias a Dios. tmrr^ 

1531. Diego Mazariegos Chiapa. 
Alonso de Carceres Comayagua. 
Nuiio de Guzman Guadalaxara. 
Nuno de Guzman Espiritu Santo. 
Nuiio de Guzman Compostela deXalisco. 
Nuno de Guzman Purificacion. 
Christobal de Olid Pascnaro or Mechoa- 

can. 

1532. Francisco de Montejo Salamanca. 
Diego Davila San Jorge de Olancho. 

1533. Licenciado Saluieron Puebla de los Ange 

les. 

Nicolas de Obando Monte Christi. 
1536. Christobal de Olid Valladolid . 
Pedro de Alvarado San Pedro. 
1538. Alonso de Ojeda Buena V r ista. 
1540. Francisco de Montejo S. Francisco de 

Campeche. 

1542. Francisco de Montejo Merida. 
1551. Francisco de Ibarra Guadiann. 
1560. Juan de Tolosa Zacatecas. 
1565. Pedro Menendez San Agustin. 
1570. Don Martin Henriquez Concepcion de 

Zelaya. 

1596. Andres de Arriola Panzacola. 
1599. Conde de Monterrey Monterrey. 
1613. Martin Reolin Lerma. 
1618. Diego Fernandez de Cordova Cordova. 
1623. Jacobo Castellon Cubagua. 
1637. Martin de Zavala Cadereita. 
1642. Alvaro de Quinoncs LoreHzana. 
1748. Don Joseph Escandon Monclova. 
1750. Don Joseph Escandon Altamira. 

[AMESBURY, a flourishing town in Essex 
county, Massachusetts, on the n. w. bank of Merri- 
mack river, about four miles n. w. of Newbury- 
port, containing 1801 inhabitants. Powaws river 
divides the township from Salisbury, over which a 
handsome bridge has lately been erected. A num 
ber of mills lie on this river round the lower falls. 
See POWAWS River.] 

[AMEWELL is the most populous town in 
Hunterdown county, New Jersey. It contains 
5201 inhabitants, including 283 slaves.] 

[AMHERST, a township in Cumberland coun- 



A M I 

ty, Nova Scotia, situate on Chignecto Bason, on 
the s. side of La Planch river, and on the rivers 
Napan and Macon. The navigation of the two 
last is difficult, on account of shoals. The town 
was settled by North Irish, Yorkshire, and New 
England people.] 

[AMHERST, the shire town of Hillsborough 
county, New Hampshire, is a town of some note, 
formerly Souhegan West, and was originally 
granted from Massachusetts. It has 2369 inhabi 
tants, and was incorporated in 1762. The Aurean 
Academy was founded here in 1790. A few years 
ago, the township being much infested with wolves, 
the people, on a day appointed, surrounded a large 
swamp whicli they frequented, and kept up an in 
cessant firing of guns and beating of drums the 
whole day ; which music forced the wolves to de 
camp the following night with dismal bowlings, 
and they have never done any mischief in the town 
since. Amherst lies on a n. branch of Souhegan 
river, which falls into Merrimack river, and is 60 
miles w. of Portsmouth, and 53 n.w. of Boston. 
Lat. 42 54 n. Long. 71 33 o>.] 

[AMHERST, a township in Hampshire county, 
Massachusetts, containing 1233 inhabitants; 91 
miles w. from Boston, and about eight n.e. from 
Northampton.] 

[AMHERST County, in Virginia, lies between 
the Blue Ridge and the tidewaters, and contains 
13,703 inhabitants, including 5296 slaves. It lies 
on the n. of James river.] 

[AMICU, a lake in the province of Cumana, 
S. America, whose waters run s. through Parima 
river into the Amazon.] 

AMICURI, a lake of the province and country 
of th Amazonas, in the part possessed by the 
Portuguese, formed by a river which enters the 
Madera. 

AMILGAMBO, or AMILGANELO, a settlement 
of the province and government of Tucuman, in 
the jurisdiction of the city of Rioxa, to the n. n. e. 
It is now destroyed, and the ruins of it alone re 
main. 

AMILPA, a head settlement of the district of 
the alcaldia mayor of Xochimilco in Nueva Es- 
pana, situate on the top of a mountain whicli rises 
near the capital. It has in it a very good convent 
of the order of St. Francis, with an endowed ca- 
thedral for the instruction of the novices in the 
Mexican tongue. It is surrounded by many wards ; 
and the number of Indian families amount alto 
gether to 730, who live by tilling the ground. 

[AMILPAS, two volcanoes in the province of 
Guatemala in New Spain, near the mountains of 
Soconusco.] 

VOL. I. 



A M O 



49 



AMILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Juquila, and alcaldia may or 
of Xicayan, in Nueva Espana. It contains 14 
families of Indians, and is six leagues from its ca 
pital towards the n. e. 

AM1NE, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Guayana, which rises in its mountains, and 
runs from w. to e. until it enters the Guarapiche. 

AM1RCARE, a small river of the province and 
government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia, 
which rises near the country of the Caribes In 
dians, runs from w. to e. and enters the Caroni. 

AMIT, a river of the province and government 
of Louisiana, which runs from s. to the side of the 
Mississippi, and enters the Akankia. 

AM1XOCORES, a barbarous nation of Indians 
of the kingdom of Brazil, who inhabit the woods 
and mountains to the $. of the capital of Rio Ja- 
neyro. They are cruel and treacherous, and main 
tain a continual warfare with the Portuguese. 
Their territory and their manners are but little 
known. 

AMOCO, a settlement of the province and eor- 
regimiento of Ayinaraez in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Pocoanca. 

[AMOENIA, a thriving township in Dutchess 
county, New York, six miles distant from Sharon 
in Connecticut. It contains 3078 inhabitants, of 
whom 383 are electors.] 

AMOGUAJES, SAN ANTONIO DE, a settle 
ment of the province and government of Quijos 
Marcas in the kingdom of Quito, situate on the 
shore of a small river which enters the Putumayo. 

AMOI, a river of the province and government 
of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. It rises in 
the country of the Simi^ayes Indians, runs from 
n. to s. and enters the Tigre, or Pinguera. 

AMOI A, a river of the new kingdom of Gra 
nada. It rises behind the desert of Ruiz, and 
after many turnings enters the river Magdalena. 

AMOLA, or AMULA, alcaldia mayor and juris 
diction of Nueva Espana, in the kingdom of Nu 
eva Galicia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara. In 
the Mexican tongue it signifies the land of many 
trees, from its being well stocked with them. The 
name is now corrupted, and is called Amula. Its 
jurisdiction is composed of 17 settlements, which, 
from the coast of the S. sea, form a cordillera to 
wards the e. as far as the boundaries of Zavula. 
The capital is the settlement of Tuzcacuezco. 

The settlements of its jurisdiction are : 
Tuzcacuezco, Cuzalapa, 

Mazatlan, Ton ay a, 

San Gabriel, Tetepam, 

Ayotitlan, Xiquilpa, 



A M O 



Chacala, 

Copa/a, Cuicatlau, 

San Juan, Z a pot it Ian, 

Chachichilco, Toxin. 

Tollman, 

AMOLTEPEC, a settlement of the alcaldia 
mayor of Teozaqualco in Nucva Espaua. It con 
tains 96 families of Indians, who gather cochi 
neal and cultivate some maize. Jt is nine leagues 
to the .<?. ofifs capital. 

[ YMONOOSl CK, an Indian name given to 
two fivers in New Hampshire ; the one is called 
Upper Amonoosnck, passing through a track of 
excellent meadow. Jl rises near the n. end of the 
White hills, runs n. about 15 miles, where is a 
carrying place of about three miles to Amariscog- 
gin river. From thence the river runs s. to. and 
w. nearly 18 miles, and empties into the Con 
necticut at Northumberland, near the Upper 
Coos. 

The other is called Great or Lower Amonoo- 
suck, which rises on the w. side of the White 
mountains. It falls into the Connecticut just 
above the town of Ilaverhill in Lower Coos, by 
a mouth 100 yards wide. About two miles from 
its mouth it receives Wild Amonoosuck, 40 yards 
wide, from Francoiiia and Lincoln mountains. 
Two or three hours rain raises the water in this 
last mentioned river several feet, and occasions a. 
current so furious as to put in motion stones of a 
foot in diameter, but its violence soon subsides.] 

AMOPOCAN, a settlement of Indians of the 
province and corregimietilo of Cuyo in the king 
dom of Chile, situate on the shore of a river. 

AMORTAJADO. See SANTA CLARA. 

AMOTAPE, a settlement of the province and 
rorrtgimicfilo of Piura in Prtu, immediately upon 
the coast of the S. sea, and a quarter of a league 
from, the river of its nnme, which forms itself into 
pools in the rainy season, which so fertilize the 
land as to produce abundance of seeds, roo/s, and 
fruits peculiar to a hot climate. It is in the direct 
Voad called Vales, which leads to Piura. In its 
vicinity is a mine of Cope, a sort of black and 
hard naphtha, resembling ns/iphulla, in which a 
great commerce is carried on with the ports, 
Avheie it is used instead of a. quitran, though it is 
more conunonlv mixed with the latter. [In -4 
50 kit. 80 42 w. lung.] and 14 leagues from the 
capital. 

AMOTAPF, a sierra of the same province and 
corregimiento, beginning at cape Blanco, arid 
running in a n. n. c. direction until it becomes in 
corporated with the sierra of Pachini. 

AMOTAP. -, a river ef the above province. 



A M S 

AMOZAQtJE, a settlement and head settle 
ment of the district of the alcaldia mayor of the 
Puebla de los Angelos, situate in a hot and diy 
temperature. It contains, besides the parish 
church, a convent of the order of St. Francis ; 
one hundred families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and 
Mustees, and 586 of Indians, including those of 
the wards of its jurisdiction. Three leagues c. of its 
capital. 

[A MPA LLA, by some authors called AM PALI A, 
a city and seaport in Guatemala gulf, in that of 
Mexico, 350 miles s. e. of the city of Guatemala, 
and carries on a brisk trade in cochineal, cocoa, 
hides, indigo, &c.] 

AMPARAES, a settlement of the province and 
corrcgimiento of Paucartambo in Pern, annexed 
to the curacy of that of Cochabamba. [Lat. 
19 12 jr. Long. 67 3 a>.] ,,cqH 

AMPATA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Tucuman, and of the jurisdiction 
of the city of Rioja, and to the s. of the same. 

AMPI, a settlement of the province and ror- 
regimiento of Parinacoche in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Pacca. 

AMPOLA, a river of the province and colony 
of N. Carolina, which runs s. and enters the Al- 
dama. 

AMPONES, a barbarous nation of Indians in 
the province and government of Paraguay. The 
natives are small, and inhabit the forests of the 
Rio de la Plata to the s. It is bounded n. by the 
Yaperaes, e. by the Mcpones, and s. by the Chi- 
menes. They all form one nation, although they 
are dirided into several tribes. They are cour 
teous and valorous, maintain themselves upon 
wild fruits and fish, which they catch in the.yeigh* 
bouring lakes, and which they preserve by smok 
ing. They enjoy a line country and a healthy 
climate. They have some gold mines, and this 
metal is also found in the sand of the shores of 
their rivers; nor are they without some inter 
course with the city of Concepcion. Some have 
been converted to the Catholic faith through the 
zeal and exertions of the Jesuits. 

AMSTERDAM, a capital town of the island 
of Cura/ao, with a large bay on the s. coast, op 
posite the cape of Ilicacos of Tierra Finne. 

[AMSTKHUAM, a new township in Montgomery 
county, New York. It contains 235 inhabitants, 
who arc electors.] 

AMSTERDAM, NEW, a city in the province of 
Guajjfc^ta, and in the Dutch possessions, situate 
near fl|i$oast. [Lat. 6 n. Long. 57 15 o>.] 

AMsk.iiDAM, another city in the province 
and colony of New England, which belongs to 



AMU 

(he English, but founded by the Dutch on the 
shore of the bay and river called Mantrati. See 
NEW YORK. 

AMSTERDAM, an island of the S. sea, discovered 
by the Dutch captain Tasmani, who gave it this 
name in 1643. It lies for the most part very low, 
and is subject to inundations of the sea at the flood 
tides, when the water rises to the height of nine 
feet. It is inhabited by savages of a docile and 
affable nature, who have good means of subsist 
ence. The climate is temperate, and it is seven 
leagues distant from the other island, which the 
Dutch call Rotterdam. 

AMUES, SAN FRANCISCO DE LOS, a settle 
ment and real of the silver mines of the alcaldia 
mayor of San Luis de la Paz, and bishopric of 
Mechoacan, in Nueva Espana. It contains 36 
families of Spaniards, 92 of Mustees and Mulattoes, 
and 43 of Indians, who are all employed in the 
commerce of the silver that is dug from the mines. 
Fifteen leagues e. of the capital. 

AMULALAS, or AMULALS, a settlement of 
the province and government of Tucuman, called 
formerly Mataray. It is a population of the an 
cient Abipones Indians. 

AMURCAS, a nation of barbarous Indians, 
descended from the Panches, in the new kingdom 
of Granada. They live in the forests to the s. of 
the river Magdalena; but of them little is known. 

[AMUSKEAG FALLI, in New Hampshire, are 
on Merrimack river, 16 miles below Concord, 
and seven below Hookset falls. It consists of 
three pitches, one below the other, so that the 
water falls about 80 feet in the course of half a 
mile. The second pitch, which may be seen from 
the read on the w. side, is truly majestic. In the 
middle of the upper part of the fall is a high 
rocky island, on the top of which are a number of 
pits, made exactly round, like barrels or hogs 
heads, some of which are capable of holding 
several tons ; formed by the circular motion of 
small stones, impelled by the force of the descend 
ing water. There is a bridge a little below the 
falls, 556 feet in length, and 20 in breadth, con 
sisting of 2000 tons of timber, and made passable 
for travellers 57 days after it was begun. Lat. 
42 59 nJ 

AMU fURI, a large river of the new kingdom 
of Granada, which runs through the plains of 
Cazanare, and being united to the river of this 
name, enters the Orinoco on the n. side. 

AMUZGOS, a head settlement of the- district 
of the a/ca/(#a mayor of Xicayan in Nueva Es 
pana. It is of a hot temperature, and contains 



ANA l 

three or four families of Spaniards, and 76 of 
Indians, who carry on a commerce in cotton, 
bainilla, tobacco, and cochineal, which are its 
natural productions. It lies 15 leagues between 
n. and s. of its capital. 

ANA, STA. a settlement of the government of 
Mariquita in the new kingdom of Granada. It 
has more than 200 housekeepers, is of a hot tem 
perature, but is nevertheless healthy, and abound 
ing in natural productions, notwithstanding it 
must be allowed, that the water is apt to cause 
cotosj or morbid swellings in the throat, an epi- 
demy to which almost all the inhabitants are sub 
ject. It has been a place of note, in consideration 
of its silver mines, from whence immense quanti 
ties of this metal have been extracted, but they 
are now abandoned. 

ANA, STA. another small settlement or ward in 
the district of Ocuila, and alcaldia mayor of Mari- 
nalco, in Nueva Espana. 

ANA, STA. another settlement in the district of 
Tenanzingo, and of the former alcaldia mayor in 
the same kingdom, situate on the verge of a deep 
chasm, which divides this jurisdiction from that of 
Zaqualpa. It contains 31 families of Indians, is 
of a moderate temperature, and lies two leagues 
from its capital. 

ANA, STA. another settlement and head settle 
ment of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Zul- 
tepec in the same kingdom. It contains 117 
families of Indians, who collect much wax and 
virgin honey in their district. Seven leagues *. 
of its capital. 

ANA, STA. another, in the head settlement of the 
district and alcaldia mayor of Toluca, with 124 
families of Indians, and close to its capital. 

ANA, STA. another, in the head settlement of the 
district of Isabel, and alcaldia mayor of Cholula. 
It contains 134 Indian families, and is three 
leagues s. of its capital. 

ANA, STA. another, in the province and govern 
ment of the Chiquitos Indians in Peru, reduced 
by the missions held there by the Jesuits. In the 
head settlement of the Rio Capivari. 

ANA, STA. another, in the province and govern 
ment of Cartagena, and kingdom of Tierra Firme, 
of the district of Mompox, situate on the shore of 
the large river Magdalena. 

ANA, STA. another, of the missions that were 
held by the Jesuits in the province and govern 
ment of Paraguay, situate on the *hore oft Jie river 
Parana, between the settlements of San Cosine and 
Loreto. 

ANA, STA. another, of the province and can- 
H 2 



52 ANA 

tainship of Para in Brazil, situate on the shore of 
the river Xingu, in the country of the Guaiapis 
Indians. 

ANA, STA. another, of the island of Curac,oa, 
and colony of the Dutch, situate on the s. coast, 
and opposite that of Tierra Firme. 

ANA, STA. another, of the province and govern 
ment of Buenos Ayres, situate to the s. of San 
Joaquin. 

ANA, STA. another, of the province of Tarau- 
mara in Nueva Espana, a reduction of the mis 
sions held here by the Jesuits. It is 15 leagues 
from the real of San Felipe de Chiguaga. 

ANA, STA. another, of the province of Cinaloa, 
a reduction of the missions of the abolished society 
of the Jesuits. 

ANA, STA. another, in the kingdom of Nueva 
Mexico, a reduction of the missions of the order 
of St. Francis. 

ANA, Si A. another, in the province and cor- 
regimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Pilpichaca. 

ANA, STA. another, of the province and corregi- 
miento of Lucanas in Peru, annexed to the curacy 
of Pucquin. 

ANA, STA. another, of the province and corre~ 
gimiento of Porco in the same kingdom. 

ANA, STA. another small settlement or ward of 
the district and jurisdiction of Valladolid, in the 
province and bishopric of Mechoacan. 

ANA, STA. another,in the head settlement of the 
district of Yautepec, and alcaldia mayor of Nex- 
apa, in Nueva Espana, situate on the top of a 
bill. It contains 18 Indian families, who employ 
themselves in the culture of grain ; and it lies to 
the s. of its bead settlement. 

ANA, STA. another, of the head settlement of 
the district of Mitla, and alcaldia mayor of Tentit- 
lan. It contains 25 families of Indians, is of a 
cold and moist temperature, and lies a little more 
than four leagues from its head settlement. 

ANA, STA. another, of the head settlement of 
the district of Amaqueca, and alcaldia mayor of 
Zayula, situate between two lofty hills to the s. 
of lake San Marcos. It is of a benign and 
healthy temperature, enjoys pure and delicate 
waters, contains 70 Indian families, and its dis 
trict abounds in maize, wheat, and fruits. Five 
leagues n. e. of its head settlement. 

ANA, STA. another, of the corrtgimiento and 
jurisdiction of Velez, in the new kingdom of Gra 
nada, annexed to the curacy of Chitaraque. It is 
of a hot temperature, abounding in the same fruits 
as that place, and from whence it is but at a small 
distance. It contains 250 housekeepers. 



ANA, STA. another, of the province and corre- 
gimicnto of Angaraes in Peru. 

ANA, STA. another, of the head settlement of 
the district of Tepecpan, and alcaldia mayor of 
Theotihuacan, in Nueva Espana. 

ANA, STA. another, which is the real of the 
mines of the alcaldia mayor of Guanajuato, in the 
same kingdom and province, and bishopric of 
Mechoacan. 

ANA, STA. another, of the head settlement of 
the district of Huchuetlan, and alcaldia mayor of 
Cuicatlan. It contains 149 families of Indians, 
and is two leagues and a half to the ;/. of its head 
settlement. 

ANA, STA. another, of the head settlement of 
the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlajomulco. It 
contains a convent of the order of St. Francis. 

ANA, STA. another, of the missions held there 
by the Jesuits, in the province of Tepeguana and 
kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya: situate on the shore 
of the river Florido, near the settlement and real 
of the mines of Parral. 

ANA, STA. another, of the province and go 
vernment of Maracaibo, in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme; situate on the shores of the lake of this 
name, and at the part opposite to the entrance of 
the same. 

ANA, STA. another, of the same province and 
government as the former, situate in the peninsula 
formed by the cape of San Roman, of that coast, 
and in the w. part. 

ANA, STA. another, of the province of Barce 
lona, and government of Cumana, in the kingdom 
of Tierra Firme; one of those held in charge by 
the missionaries of Peritu, and followers of St. 
Francis ; situate on the top of a mountain, towards 
th s. and a quarter of a league e. of the town of 
San Fernando. 

ANA, STA. another, of the province and govern 
ment of Cumana, situate to the e. of the city of Cu- 
managoto, and near the settlement of Aracagua. 

ANA, STA. another, of the province and go 
vernment of Moscos in the kingdom of Quito ; 
situate on the shore of the river Yacume, between 
this and that of Marmore. 

ANA, STA. another, of the province and country 
of the Amazonas, in the territory of Matagroso ; 
situate near the river Senere, between this and the 
Itenes. 

[ANA, STA. a mission and real of mines of the 
province of Old California, celebrated on account 
of the astronomical observations of Velasquez.] 

ANA, STA. another settlement and parish 01 the 
island of Guadaloupe, situate in the part of the Gran 
Tierra and s. coast, in front of the Diamond isles. 



ANA 

ANA, STA. another, which is the real of the 
gold mines belonging to the Portuguese, in the 
territory and country of the Araes Indians in Bra 
zil, situate on the shores of the port and river of 
that name. 

ANA, STA. another, which is a parish of the 
English in the island of Jamaica, in the n. part. 

ANA, STA. a town of the province and govern 
ment of Venezuela, founded in the peninsula of 
Paraguana, very near the w. coast. 

ANA, STA. another, in the n. part of the island 
Margarita, of the Guayqueries Indians, who are 
indemnified by the king from all contributions. 
They employ themselves in fishing, and in the 
years when the rain is abundant they have plenty 
of maize. They manufacture very fine hats of 
straw,* and cords of the same, which they use 
in ornamenting their lances, and for other pur 
poses. 

ANA, STA. a small river of the province and 
government of Buenos Ayres, which runs into the 
sea near the cape of San Antonio of the Rio de la 
Plata. 

ANA, STA. another, in the province and alcaldia 
mayor of Tabasco in Nueva Espana, which runs 
into the sea between the river Topliquillos and 
Dos Bocos, in the bay of Mexico. 

ANA, STA. another, of the province and country 
of tile Amazonas, in the territory of Matogroso. 
It rises in some mountains near the road that leads 
to Villaboa, runs from n. to s. making several 
windings, and enters the river Prieto, just pre 
vious to its entering upon the confines of Para 
guay. 

ANA, STA. another, also called \acuma, in 
the province and government of Moxos of the 
kingdom, of Quito. It rises near lake Rogacuelo, 
runs towards the s. s. e. and afterwards directing 
its course to the e. enters the river Marmore. 

AN A, STA. another, of Hispaniola or St. Domingo, 
in the part possessed by the French. It runs 
w. and enters the sea by the coast in this direction, 
between the settlement of San Luis and the river 
Tuerto. 

ANA, STA. another, on the coast which lies 
between the river La Plata, and the straits of 
Magellan. 

ANA, STA. islands of the N. sea, near the coast 
of Brazil, in the bay of San Luis de Marauans. 
Of these there are three, but they are all deserted. 
They abound in thick woods, in which are found 
large birds, called by the Indians faux, from suf 
fering themselves to be easily taken. [Long. 43 
44 . Lat. 2 SO 7 .] 

ANA, STA. another small island of the same 



ANA S3 

kingdom of Brazil, on the coast of the province 
and captainship of Maranan, also called Dos 
Macomes by the Portuguese, between the point 
of Arboles Secos (dry trees) and the canal of 
Buen Fondo. 

ANA, STA. another, in the straits of Magellan, 
on the n. coast, near the entrance of the S. sea. 

ANA, STA. a bay of the island of Curazao, op 
posite the cape or point of Hicacos. 

ANA, STA. a mountain of the province and go 
vernment of Venezuela, called El Pan de Santa 
Ana, in the peninsula of Paraguana. 

ANA, STA. a point of land on the w. coast of 
the straits of Magellan, between the bay of Agua 
Buena and that of La Gente. 

ANA, STA. another, on the same coast and 
strait, in the bay of Buena Pesca. 

ASA, STA. another river, with the additional 
title Maria, in the province and government of 
Buenos Ayres. It runs w. and enters the Parana 
between the rivers of Potre and Antonio Tomas. 
[See ANNA and ST. ANN.] 

[ANAHUAC, the ancient Indian name of Now 
Spain, or Mexico, including all the parts of New 
Spain lying between the 14th and 21st degrees oT 
latitude.] 

ANAICA, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Canta in Peru, annexed to the curacy 
of Arahuay. 

ANAIRAHI, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of Para in Brazil, situate on the shore 
of the river Xingu, in the country of the Guayapls 
Indians. 

ANALCO, the akaldia mayor and jurisdiction 
of Nueva Galicia in Nueva Espana, of the bishop 
ric of Guadalaxara. It is much reduced, and 
extends to only as far as three other settlements, 
but enjoys the title from being governed by ah 
ordinary alcalde, who appoints annually one bf 
those of Guadalaxara. The productions of ifs 
territory are wheat, maize, seeds, and various 
sorts of fruit peculiar to that region. The princi 
pal settlement bears the same name. It is of a 
cold temperature, and inhabited by 16 families of 
Spaniards and Mustees, and 40 of Indians. It 
lies a little more than a league to the e. of Guada 
laxara, and 80 w. of Mexico, with a slight incli 
nation to the n. 

ANALCO, another, with the dedicatory title of 
San Juan, the head settlement of the district and 
alcaldia mayor of Teocuilco in the same kingdom, 
of a moderate temperature. Close to it runs the 
large river of the same name, in which, at certain 
seasons of the year, trout are found. With its 
waters they irrigate and fertilize the land for cut- 



54 



ANA 



tivating several fruits ; but the principal emolu 
ment of the inhabitants, who are cpmposed of 182 
families of Indians, consists in cochineal. Four 
teen leagues to thew. with some inclination to the 
w. of its capital. 

ANALOG, another, with the dedicatory title of 
San Pedro, in the head settlement of the district 
and alcaldia mayor of Juchipila, annexed to the 
curacy of Atemanica, from whence it is two 
leagues arid an half distant. 

ANALCO, another, in the kingdom of Nueva 

"i r* 

Vizcaya, situate somewhat more than a quarter of 
a league to the s. of the capital of Ouadiana. 

ANALOG, another, with the dedicatory title of 
San Antonio, in the head settlement and alcaldia 
mayor of Cumavnca. 

ANA PVCUSI, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Acoria, situate on the shore of the 
river I.^ruchnca. 

ANANDIVA, or ANADINVA, a river of the 
province and captainship of Marauan in Brazil. 

ANANEA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimietito of Asangaro in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of the capital. 

ANANEO, a mountain of the corrcgitnicnlo 
and province of Asangaro in the kingdom of Peru, 
where there are some rich gold mines, which pro 
duce five or six thousand castellanos [an old 
Spanish coin, the fiftieth part of a mark of gold,] 
a year. Formerly it yielded abundantly, but 
the working of it is at present impeded by the 
snows. 

ANAPITI, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru. 

ANAPOIMA, a settlement of the jurisdiction 
of Tocaima, and government of Mariquita, in the 
new kingdom of Granada, situate below the plain 
of Juan Diaz. It is of a burning and extremely 
bad temperature, abounding only in ticks or lice, 
which are very obnoxious and troublesome. It is 
situate amidst crags and steep mountains. It is a 
short day s journey from Santa Fe, in the high 
road which leads to Tocaima. It is very scantily 
inhabited, scarcely containing a dozen Indian 
families. 

ANAPUIA, a large province of Andalucia, 
abounding in woods, lying to the s. of the moun 
tains of San Pedro. It extends towards the w. 
from the river Buria, to the e. from the moun 
tains of Meta, and to the n. from the district of 
the province of Venezuela. It is very barren, and 
its woods are inhabited by some families of the 
Parimoes, barbarian Indians. 

ANAQU1TO, a valley or entrance to the city 



A N C 

of Quito, lying on its n. side, having in it a her 
mitage or chapel, in which was buried the first 
viceroy of Peru, Blasco Nunez Vela, who died 
in the battle fought on this plain between himself 
and Gonzalo Pi/arro in 1546. It is more than a 
mile long, and has a lake abounding in fish and 
aquatic fowl. 

ANA U AM A, a river of the country of the 
Amazonas, in the purt possessed by the Portu 
guese. 

ANARIQl 1, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru. 

ANASCO, a settlement of the island of Puer- 
torico, situate on the w. coast, on the shore of 
the bay of its name. 

[AN AST ATI A, ST. a small island closS to 
the coast of E. Florida, situated s. of Mastances 
inlet, where the river Mastances forms two islands 
of the same name at its mouth. St. Anastatia 
island is bounded on the n. by St. Augustine s bar. 
Here is a quarry of fine stone for building.] 

ANATIGUCHAGA, lakes of the province 
and government of Maiuas in the kingdom of 
Quito. They are three in number, upon the 
banks of the river Maranon, with which they com 
municate in the territory of the Mainas Indians. 

ANAURA-PUCU, a river of the province of 
Guayana, in the Portuguese possessions. 

ANAU1LLANA, a small river of the province 
and country of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese 
possessions. It runs from n. to s. and enters the 
river Negro, close to the settlement of Toromas. 

ANAUX, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Venezuela, one of the four which supply 
with water the city of Caracas. It rises in the 
serrania which lies between this city and thr port 
ofGuaira s. and enters the Guaire near the ca 
pital. 

ANCA MARES, a nation of Indians who in 
habit the c. shore of the river Madera, bounded s. 
by the nation of Guarinumas, and n. by the Hu- 
nuriaes. It is a very warlike and robust nation. 
In 1683 they attacked the Portuguese, and obliged 
them to give up their intention of introducing 
themselves to the right of navigating the river. 
They are divided into different tribes or parts, the 
most numerous of which are those who form the 
tribe of the Ancamaris, inhabiting the shores of 
the river Cayari. 

ANCA, Point of, on the coast of the king 
dom of Chile, and district of Guadalubquen, one 
of the two which form the mouth or entrance of the 
river of Valdivia. 

ANCAS, a nation of Indians, who give their 
name to a large settlement of the province of 



A N C 

Iluailas in Peru, between that -of Curuay, and 
that of Yungay. The memory of it alone re 
mains, it having 1 been overwhelmed by the ruins 
of a mountain, which burst by an earthquake on 
the 6th of January, in the year 1725, burying 
tlie whole of the population, which amounted to 
15,000 souls. 

ANCASTE, a settlement of the province and 
government of Tucuman, in the jurisdiction of 
Gatamarca. 

ANCATATA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Paria in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Challapata. It lies 21 leagues from the 
town of Oruro. 

ANCATEMU, a settlement of Indians of the 
island of La Laxa, in the kingdom of Chile, on 
the shore of the river {Jiiren. 

ANCE, GRAND, a settlement and parish of 
the island of Martinica, a curacy of the religion 
of .Santo Domingo, situate on the n. coast, be- 
\veen the river Capot and that of Lorrain, oil the 
shore of the river of its name. 

ANCE, GRAND, a small river of the above 
island. It runs n. e, and enters the sea close to 
that settlement. 

A SICE, GRAND, a large bay and capacious 
and convenient port of the island of San Christo- 
bal, one of the Antillas, in the s. e. extremity, 
towards the part of the s. w. between the point of 
Salinas and the Gros-Cap. 

ANC^, GRAND, another bay, called La Grande 
del E. in the island of Guadalupe, on the coast 
which looks to that point, between the point of 
Vieux-Fort and Los Tres Rios. 

ANCE, GRAND, another, called Quartel de 
Petite-Ance, a settlement and parish of the 
French, in the part which they possess in the 
island of St. Domingo, oa the n. coast, between 
those of Morin and Llanos of the N. 

ANCE, GRAND, another bay of -the coast of 
the Rio de San Lorenzo, in New France, between 
the rivers Oville and the Three Salmones. 

.ANCE, GUAND, another river, La Petite- 
Ance, in the island of St. Domingo, and in the 
French possessions, it rises near tin? n. coast, 
runs n, n. w. and enters the sea opposite the shoal 
La Cocque Y r ieul!e. 

ANCES, GRANDS, two bays of the island of 
Guadalupe, on the w. w. coast, at a small distance 
from each other, between the fort of San Pedro 
and the point of Gros-Morne, or Gran Morro. 

ANCliAC, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Iluanta in Peru, situate on the 
summit of the mountain, and on the opposite part 
of the river Angoyaco. 



A N C 55 

ANCIIIHUAI, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of liuumunga in Peru, annexetk 
to the curacy of Anco. 

ANCHO, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Santa Marta in the kingdom of Tierra 
Fiirue. It enters the sea from the coast, to the w. 
of the point of Aguja. 

ANCLOTE, a small island close to the coast 
of Florida, between Charles bay and the rrver 
S. Pedro. [Lat. 29 4 n. Long. 83 41 pj.1 

[ANCLOTE Point, on the peninsula of Califor 
nia, and coast of the N. Pacific ocean, lies in 
lat. 29 IT w. and 115 11 w. long.; s. from 
the town of Vclicata, and n. e. from the small 
island of Guadalupe.] 

ANCO, a settlement of the province and corre- 
gimiento of Huamanga in Peru, the province of 
Huanta interposing. It is of a cold temperature, 
but abounding in the productions peculiar to the 
mountains of the Andes, in which i(s inhabitants 
have some estates, where they cultivate cocoa, 
sugar-cane, maize, and some garden herbs. Its 
territory is extremely fertile, but much infested 
by insects and reptiles, such as snakes, vipers, and 
scorpions, which arc common in every part of the 
mountains. Here they have plantains, alligator- 
pears, chirinioyas, guat/abtu- , pines of excellent 
flavour, oranges, lemons, and other fruit. It has 
four other settlements annexed to its curacy, and 
formerly it had also another, called Marocmarca, 
which was in the valley of this name, within the 
mountains ; having been depopulated at the be 
ginning of this century, from the inhabitants re 
tiring to the other settlements, from dread of the 
tigers. It contains 1200 souls, including those of 
the four other aforementioned settlements. Twenty 
leagues distant from its capital. [Lat. 13 14 s. 
Long. 73 10 a>.] 

ANCO, another settlement in the province and 
corrcgimicnto of Omasuios in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Achacache. 

ANCOBAM BA , a settlement of the province and 
corre*rir)riento of Amaraez in Peru. 

rANCOCpS Creek, in New Jersey, a water of 
the Delaware, six miles s.w. from Burlington. It 
is navigable 16 miles; and considerable quantities 
of lumber are exported from it.] 

A.NCON, a very lofty mountain of the pro 
vince ami kingdom of Tierra Firme, near to which, 
and almost at the skirts, is situate the city of Pa 
nama. It is full of a variety of large trees, dif 
ferent birds, and animals ; contains several foun 
tains of very good water, by. means of which the 
city is supplied with a never-failing stream, which 
they call Chorrillo, but which is, however, some 



56 A N C 

distance from the city. There was formerly on 
its summit a telegraph, or watch-tower, supported 
by the king, to give notice of the vessels which 
were coming to that port. 

ANCON, a settlement of the province and cor 
regimiento of Chancai in Peru, situate upon the 
coast. 

ANCON, a point of the coast of the S. sea, in 
the former province and correginnento. 

ANCOX, a gulph, with the sirname of Sardi- 
nas, in the province of Esmeraldas and kingdom 
of Quito. It lies very open, and consequently 
the currents are very rapid. It is somewhat more 
than tive leagues distant from the mouth of the 
river of Santiago, and four from the point of 
Manglares. Its centre is in Lat. 1 25 n. Long. 
78 50 w. 

ANCON, a shoal of the e. coast of the strait of 
Magellan, with the sirname of South. It is oppo 
site the bay of Los Gigantes. 

ANCONES, very lofty mountains on the coast 
and in the government of Santa Marta, on the 
skirts of which is a lake, in which are caught 
botiitos, (sea fish resembling tunnies). They lie 
between the city and the point of Chichibacoa. 

ANCOOS, a small river of the province and 
English colony of New Jersey, in the county of 
Burlington. It runs n. n. w. and enters the Dela 
ware. 

ANCORA, a small island of the coast of Brazil, 
in the province and captainship of Rio Janeyro, 
between Bahia-Hermosa, and the river De las 
Ostras. 

ANCORA1MES, a settlement of the province 
and corregimienlo of Omasuyos in Peru, situate 
upon the e. shore of the lake Titicaca. 

A NCOS, a settlement of the province and cor 
regimiento of Conchucos in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Llapo. 

ANCUD, a small settlement of the island of 
Chiloe, from which the Archipelago derives its 
name, the number of the islands being 40. The 
largest of all, in which is the city of Castro, is that 
of Chiloe, which shuts in the Archipelago on the 
u\ They abound in wheat, maize, and amber. 
It is usual to find gold upon the sea shore. This 
Archipelago is 83 leagues long from n. to s. and 
35 wide from e. to w. 

ANCUIA and ABADES, a settlement of the 
province and government of Pastos in the king 
dom of Quito. 

ANCUMA, CORDILLERA DE, mountains of 
the kingdom of Peru. They run from n. n. w. to 
*. s. e. from the province of Asangaro to that of 
La Paz, on the side of the great lake Titicaca, 



AND 

dividing the provinces of Asangaro and Oina- 
suyos from those of Apolabamba, Larecaja, and 
La Paz. 

ANCUTERES, a nation of infidel Indians, 
inhabiting the forests of the river Napo. They are 
very numerous, savage, treacherous, and incon 
stant ; have amongst them a people called Santa 
Maria de los Ancuteres, on the shore of a river. 
It was a rcducr.ion of the Jesuitical missiona 
ries of the province of Quito; is bounded on the s. 
and s.s. e. by the nation of the Congies Indians, 
and bordering upon those of the Abixiras and 
Icaquates. 

ANDABAMBA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru, annexed 
to the curacy of Acobamba. 

ANDAC, a small river of the province and 
colony of Nova Scotia. It runs s. and enters the 
sea at the bay of Fundy. 

ANDACOLLO, a settlement and seat of the 
gold mines of the province and corrcgimiento of 
Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile. ^In its dis 
trict is the valley of Las Huigerillas, in which is 
a convent of the strict observers of the religion of 
San Francisco; and upon a lofty mountain, where 
the various ramifications of the cordillera unite, 
is a celebrated gold mineral. On the summit is a 
small plain, from whence runs a stream. In its 
church is reverenced an image of Nuestra Senora 
del Rosario, before which not only the people of 
the neighbouring provinces are eager to make their 
devotions, but also some of the most remote pro 
vinces. 

ANDAHUA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Condesuyos ofArequipain Peru. 

ANDAHUAILAS, a province and corregi 
miento of Peru, bounded on the n. e. by the pro 
vince of A bancay and by that ofAimaraez, s. e. 
by Parinacocha, s. by Lucanas, w. by Vilcas 
Huaman, and n. e. by the summit of the mountains 
of the Andes, from whence it is not remembered 
that the infidel Indians, (who inhabit the interior 
of those mountains), ever made an incursion upon 
this province. Its forests are very thick. It is 
24: leagues long from n. w. to s. e. and 15 wide. 
The high road from Lima to Cuzco passes through 
it. It lias no other river of note than that which 
runs down from the province of Vilcas Huaman, 
dividing these provinces, and which is called in 
this province river of Pampas. The same has a 
bridge of criznejas or twigs, of 30 yards long, and 
above one and an half wide, by means of which the 
cargas pass which are carried from Lima to Cuz 
co, and also those which pass from the latter place 
to Lima. This province produces wheat, maize, 



AND 

seeds, and all kinds of fruit ; and from its having 
parts in it of a cold temperature, it abounds like 
wise in the productions which arc natural to a 
similar climate, but this, indeed, in a decree not 
more than sufficient to supply its own necessities. 
The only branch of its commerce is sugar, of 
which SO or 40 thousand arrobas are manufac 
tured yearly in several estates. Among the best 
of these is that of Moiobamba, -which is entailed 
on the Marquises of that title. The inhabitants of 
this province should amount to 12,000 souls, 
divided into 27 settlements. The repartimiento 
used to amount to 110,500 dollars, and the alca- 
vala, or centagc on goods sold, to 884 dollars. Its 
capital is the settlement of the same name, in Lat. 
13 25 s. and Long. 73 s 4 x. 

ANDAHUAILAS, a valley of the above province, 
memorable for a great battle, in which the Inca 
Viracocha was victorious over the nation of the 
Chancas, who were commanded by his brother. 
Thirty leagues from Cuzco. 

AiVDAHUAlLILLAS, a settlement of the 
province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi in 
Peru . 

ANDAIMARCA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Castro- Vireyna in Peru, an 
nexed to the curacy of Huaitara. 

ANDAJES, a settlement of the province and 
corregimicnto ofCaxatambo in Peru. 

ANDALIEN, Valley of, in the province and 
corregimiento of Puchacay in the kingdom of 
Chile. Jt lies e. of the city of Concepcion. 

ANDALIEJ*, a large and navigable river of the 
same province and kingdom, which traverses and 
irrigates that valley. It laves the fields of the 
city of Concepcion, and enters the sea at the bay 
of this name, between the rivers Maule and Bio- 
bio. 

ANDALGALA, a river of the province and 
government of Tucuman, on the confines of the 
kingdom of Chile. 

ANDALGALA, a lake of that province. 

ANDALUCIA,NuEVA, a province of the king 
dom of Tierra Firme, anciently called Serpa ; divid 
ed into North, or Superior, and South, or Inferior. 
It comprehends Guayana, or Caribana and Paria. 
Taking it at its full extent, it is more than 300 
leagues from the island of Margarita, to the cape 
Pinion, or n. shore of the river Maranon, inhabit 
ed by the barbarous nations of the Caribes, Omi- 
guas, Peritoes, Palenques, Arvacos, Amapaes, 
Ivarepices, Parimoes, and others. Among the 
many rivers which lave it, the largest is the Ori 
noco. Its climate is for the most part hot and un 
healthy. The ground is rugged, mountainous, 

VOL, I. 



AND 57 

covered with forests, and but little known. Its 
coasts, as well on the n. as e. were first discovered 
by Columbus in 1497, and afterwards by Ame 
rica Vespucio, with Alonzo de Ojeda, in May 
I4S8. It contains mines of gold and other metals, 
although they are not worked : it has also pearl 
fisheries, which, although in former times t!vy 
yielded most plentifully, are at present neglected. 
It abounds in cattle, and the greatest source of its 
commerce is in cacao, of an excellent quality. 
The capital of the province is Cumana. 

Catalogue of the barbarous nations and principal 
towns of this province. 

Nations. Aquire, 

Acomes, Aricani, 

AmapaeSj Aro, 

Aravis, Aropa, 

Aricaretis, Aruari, 

Aricoris, Atanari, 

Arbacas, Berbis, 

Campagotes, Buria, 

Canuris, Cabomi, 

Carivinis, Caora, 

Chahuas, Capurvaca, 

Cumanaes, Cassipouri, 

Eparagois, Caturi, 

Marones, Cavo, 

May os, Corentin, 

Iflorinies, Coropatuba, 

Omiguas, Coura, 

Palenques, Curiguacuriu, 

Papinis, Demarari, 

Parimoes, Esquebo, or 

Parragotes, Esquibo, 

Peritoes, Europa, 

Saymagoes, Guaveteri, 

Sebayos, Guarepiche, 

Supiayes, Majo, 

Vacuronis, Mahuiri, 

Yaos, Masiacari, 

Vuaripices. Maravin4, 

Cities. Maroni, 

Cadiz Nueva, Macpari, 

Cordova, Moruga, 

Cumana. Orinoco, 

Mountains. Ovarabiche, 

Guanta, Ovetacates, 

Panagara, Pao, 

San Pedro, Paraba, 

Saporovis, Piari, 

Vacarima. Saima, 

Jtivers. Sinamari, 

Amacore, or Surinam, 

Amacuri, Timeraris, 

Amana, Varca, 

i 



58 



AND 



Varima, Essequeb, 

Via, or Mompatar, 

Uvia, Surinam. 

Vyacopo, or Islands. 

Yacopo, Assapara, 

Vyaricopo. Blanca, 

Promontories. Cayena, 

Caldera, Coche, 

Cepercu, Cubagua, 

Cenobebo, Iracapono, 

De Salinas, Maiparo, 

Oranges, Maraca, 

Pinzon, Marasi, 

Roniata. Margarita, 

Lakes. Ovaracapa, 

Cassipa, Escudo, 

Parirne. Tortuga, 

Fountains. Trinidad. 

A ray a, 

ANDAMARCA, a town of the province and 
corregimienlo of Cajamarquilla in Peru. 

ANDAMARCA, another settlement in the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Carangas, of the arch 
bishopric of Charcas, in the same kingdom. 

ANDAMARCA, another, of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Parinacoclias, annexed to the cu 
racy of Charcana. 

ANDAMARCA, another, in the provinceand corre- 
gimiento of Jauxa, annexed to the curacy of Comas, 
situate on the frontiers of the infidel Indians of the 
mountains. 

ANDAMVRCUS, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Chacayan. 

ANDAQUIES, a settlement of the province 
and government of Popayan in the new kingdom 
of Granada. 

ANDARAl, a settlement of the province and 

corregimiento of Condensuyos de Arequipa in Peru. 

ANDARAPA, a settlement of the province and 

corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru, annexed to 

the curacy of San Geronimo. 

ANDARIEL, a settlement of the province and 
government of Darien in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, situate on the n. coast, on the shore of the 
gulph of Uraba. 

ANDASTES, a barbarous nation of Indians of 
Canada, bounded by Virginia. 

ANDES, CORDILLERA DE LOS, a chain of 
mountains and most lofty serranias, which extend 
oyer nearly the whole of America, for the space of 
more than 1000 leagues, running continually from 
n. to s. from the province of Santa Marta, where 
they have their origin, in the Sierra Nevada, of the 
new kingdom of Granada, through the provinces 



of Peru and Chile, as far as the straits of Magellan 
and cape Horn, where they terminate. They are 
divided into two branches : one which passes 
through the interior of the new kingdom of Gra 
nada, on the s. part of the plains of San Juan, 
beginning in Guayana ; and the other which forms 
various lines and curves, divided in different direc 
tions, through Cuzco, Tucuman, Tarma, and Pa 
raguay, and afterwards becomes united with the 
grand chain of mountains of Brazil. It takes its 
course through the isthmus of Panama into the 
kingdom of Nicaragua, passes into those of Gua 
temala, Mechoacan, and the province of (/inaloa, 
and continues itself through the unknown countries 
of N. America. Those mountains are clad with 
immense forests, and their tops are continually 
covered with snows, from the melting of which 
are formed great lakes, and the largest rivers in 
the world. Their greatest elevation is in the 
kingdom of Quito, where the lofty Chimborazo 
rises superbly among the rest; it has many volca 
noes vomiting fire, and which have caused infinite 
mischief in the provinces, producing earthquakes, 
inundations, and scattering, far and wide, mud, 
bitumen, and burning stones : in its entrails are hid 
den the greatest treasures of nature, such as gold, 
silver, and other metals, precious stones, marbles, 
and mineral earths of the rarest and most esteemed 
qualities. Almost all the mines in the bosom of 
these rich mountains are worked, and principally 
those of Peru and Chile. Besides the name of 
Andes, they bear others also, given to them by the 
various settlements in their vicinities. The roads 
which, upon their account, were made by the 
Incas, Emperors of Peru, were truly magnificent ; 
but they are at present destroyed, and those which 
are used now for the communication of the inte 
rior provinces, may be called precipices rather 
than roads, and are only passable on foot, or on 
mules, which are very tractable and safe. These 
mountains are inhabited by many barbarous and 
fierce nations, and they abound in mineral waters 
of approved medicinal virtues. The greatest width 
of these mountains is 20 leagues, being in some 
parts 12 leagues from the sea-coast, and in others 
approaching to it within five leagues. They 
abound in vicunas, guanaeosj monkeys, and apes of 
infinite kinds, tigers, leopards, and swine, who 
have the navel in the spine and smell of musk, 
with a multitude of other curious birds and ani 
mals, altogether unknown in Europe ; such is the 
condor, in the kingdom of Chile, which is a car 
nivorous bird of an extraordinary size, having the 
power to carry with it up into the air animals of 
considerable weight, such as sheep, and even small 
2 



ANDES. 



59 



calves, making, as it flies, a noise which may be 
heard at a great distance. The craggy parts 
abound in cacao., so useful for the Indians, as also 
in cachalagua. It has been attempted to pass 
irom Chile to Peru, but this cannot be effected 
during six months in the winter without imminent 
risk, since many have been lost who have enga 
ged in this enterprise. Indeed it is said, that at 
that time the Cordillera is shut up. 

[The lofty chain of the Andes, running along the 
western coast of America, extends on both sides 
of the equator to near the 30th degree of latitude. 
It is of unequal height, sinking in some parts to 
600 feet from the level of the sea, and at certain 
points, towering above the clouds to an elevation 
of almost four miles. The colossal Chimborazo 
lifts its snowy head to an altitude which would 
equal that of the Peak of Teneriffe, though placed 
on the top of Mount Etna. The medium height 
of the chain under the equator may be reckoned at 
14,000 feet, while that of the Alps and Pyrenees 
hardly exceeds 8000. Its breadth is proportion- 
ably great, being 60 miles at Quito, and J50 or 
200 at Mexico, and some districts of the Peruvian 
territory. This stupendous ridge is intersected in 
Peru and Nueva Granada by frequent clefts or 
ravines, of amazing depth ; but to the n. of the 
isthmus of Panama, it softens down by degrees, 
and spreads out into the vast elevated plain of 
Mexico. In the former provinces, accordingly, 
the inhabitants are obliged to travel on horseback 
or on foot, or even to be carried on the backs of 
Indians ; whereas carriages drive with ease through 
the whole extent of New Spain, from Mexico to 
Santa Fe, along a road of more than 15,000 miles. 
The equatorial regions of America exhibit the 
same composition of rock that we meet with in 
other parts of the globe. The only formations 
which Humboldt could not discover in his travels, 
were those of chalk, roe- stone, grey wakke, the 
topaz-rock of Werner, and the compound of ser 
pentine with granular limestone, which occurs in 
Asia Minor. Granite constitutes, in South Ame 
rica, the great basis which supports the otber for 
mations ; above it lies gnesis, next comes mica 
ceous schist, and then primitive schist. Granu 
lar limestone, chlorite schist, and primitive trap, 
often form subordinate beds in the gnesis and mi 
caceous schist, which is very abundant, and some 
times alternates with serpentine and sienite. The 
high ridge of the Andes is every where covered 
with formations of porphyry, basalt, phonolite, 
and greenstone ; ami these, being otten divided 
into columns, that appear from a distance like 
ruined castles, produce a very striking and pic 



turesque effect. At the bottom of those huge 
mountains, occur two different kinds of limestone ; 
the one with a filiccous base, enclosing primitive 
masses, arid sometimes cinnabar and coal ; the 
other with a calcareous base, and cementing toge 
ther the secondary rocks. Plains of more than 
600,000 square miles are covered with an ancient 
deposit of limestone, containing fossil wood and 
brown iron ore. On this rests the limestone of the 
Higher Alps, presenting marine petrifactions at a 
vast elevation. Next appears a lamellar gypsum, 
impregnated with sulphur and salt; above this, 
another calcareous formation, whitish and homo 
geneous, but sometimes cavernous. Again occurs 
calcareous sandstone, then lamellar gypsum mixed 
with clay ; and the series terminates with calca 
reous masses, involving flints and hornstone. But 
what may perplex some geologists, is the singular 
fact noticed by Humboldt, that the secondary for 
mations in the new world have such enormous 
thickness and elevation. Beds of coal are found 
in the neighbourhood of Santa Fe, 8650 feet above 
the level of the sea ; and even at the height of 
14,700, near Huanuco in Peru. The plains of 
Bogota, although elevated 9000 feet, are covered 
with sandstone, gypsum, shell-limestone, and evea 
in some parts with rock-salt. Fossil shells, which 
in the old continent have not been discovered high 
er than the summits of the Pyrenees, or 11,700 
feet above the sea, were observed in Peru, near 
Micuipampa, at the height of 12,800; and again 
at that of 14,120, besides at Huancavelica, where 
sandstone also appears. The basalt of Pichincha, 
near the city of Quito, has an elevation of 15,500 
feet ; while the top of the Schneekoppe in Silesia 
is only 4225 feet above the sea, the highest point 
in Germany where that species of rock occurs. 
On the other hand, granite, which in Europe 
crowns the loftiest mountains, is not found in the 
American continent above the height of 11,500 
feet. It is scarcely known at all in the provinces 
of Quito and Peru. The frozen summits of Chim 
borazo, Cayambe, and Anitsana, consist entirely of 
porphyry, which, on the flanks of the Andes, 
forms a mass of 10 or 12,000 feet in depth. The 
sandstone near Cuen^a has a thickness of 5000 
feet ; and the stupendous mass of pure quartz, on 
the w. of Caxamarca, measures perpendicularly 
9600 feet. It is likewise a remarkable fact, that 
the porphyry of those mountains very frequently 
contains hornblende, but never quartz, and seldom 
mica. The Andes of Chile have a distinct nature 
from those three chains called the ?Jaritime Moun 
tains, which have been successively formed by th* 
waters of tiie ocean. This great interior structure 



60 



AND 



AND 



appears to be coeval with the creation of the 
world. It rises abruptly, and forms but a small 
angle with its base ; its general shape being that of 
a pyramid, crowned at intervals with conical, and, 
as it were, crystallized elevations. It is composed 
of primitive rocks of quartz, of an enormous size, 
and almost uniform configuration, containing no 
marine substances, which abound in the secondary 
mountains. It is in the Cordillera of this part of 
the Andes, that blocks of crystal are obtained, 
of a size sufficient for columns of six or seven 
feet in height. The central Andes are rich, be 
yond conception, in all the metals, lead only 
excepted. One of the most curious ores in the 
bowels of those mountains is the pacos, a com 
pound of clay, oxyd of iron, and the muriate of 
silver, with native silver. The mines of Mexico 
arid Peru, so long the objects of envy and admira 
tion, far from being yet exhausted, promise, under 
a liberal and improved system, to become more 
productive than ever. But nature has blended 
with those hidden treasures the active aliments of 
destruction. The whole chain of the Andes is 
subject to the most terrible earthquakes. From 
Cotopaxi to the S. sea, no fewer than forty volca 
noes are constantly burning ; some of them, espe 
cially the lower ones, ejecting lava, and others 
discharging the muriate of ammonia, scorified 
basalt and porphyry, enormous quantities of water, 
and especially moya, or clay mixed with sulphur 
and carbonaceous matter. Eternal snow invests 
their sides, and forms a barrier to the animal and 
vegetable kingdoms. Near that confine the tor 
por of vegetation is marked by dreary wastes. 
In these wide solitudes, the condor, a fierce and 
powerful bird of prey, fixes its gloomy abode. Its 
size, however, has been greatly exaggerated. 
According to Humboldt, it is not larger than the 
laemmcr geyer, or alpine vulture of Europe; its 
extreme length being only three feet and a half, 
and its breadth across the wings nine feet. The 
condor pursues the small deer of the Andes, and 
commits very considerable havoc among sheep and 
heifers. It tears out the eyes and the tongue, and 
leaves the wretched animal to languish and expire. 
Estimating from very probable data, this bird 
skims whole hours at the height of four miles ; and 
its power of wing must be prodigious, and its 
pliancy of organs most astonishing, since in an 
instant it can dart from the chill region of mid-air 
to the sultry shores of the ocean. The condor is 
sometimes caught alive, by means of a slip-cord ; 
and this chaie, termed correr bmtres^ is, next to 
a bull-fight, the most favourite diversion of the 
Spanish colonists. The dead carcase of a cow or 



horse soon attracts from a distance crowds of these 
birds, which have a most acute scent. They fall 
on with incredible voracity, devour the eyes and 
the tongue of the animal, and plunging through 
the anus, gorge themselves with the entrails. In 
this drowsy plight they are approached by the 
Indians, who easily throw a noose over them. 
The condor, thus entangled, looks shy and sullen ; 
it is most tenacious of life, and is therefore made to 
suffer a variety of protracted tortures. The most 
important feature of the American continent, is the 
very general and enormous elevation of its soil. 
In Europe the highest tracts of cultivated land 
seldom rise more than 000 feet above the sea ; 
but in the Peruvian territory extensive plains 
occur at an altitude of 9000 feet ; and three fifths 
of the viceroyalty of Mexico, comprehending the 
interior provinces, present a surface of half a mil 
lion of square miles, which runs nearly level, at an 
elevation from 6000 to 8000 feet, equal to that of 
the celebrated passages of Mount Cenis, of St. 
Gothard, or of the great St. Bernard. These 
remarkable facts are deduced chiefly from barome 
trical observations. But Humboldt has adopted a 
very ingenious mode, infinitely superior to any 
description, of representing at one view the col 
lective results of his topographical and mineralo- 
gical survey. He has given profiles, or vertical 
sections, of the countries whlcn he visited, across 
the continent, from Acapulco to Mexico, and 
thence to Vera Cruz ; from Mexico to Guanaxu- 
ato, and as far as the volcano of Jorullo ; arid from 
Mexico to Valladolid. These beautiful plates 
are in every way highly interesting.] 

ANDIETUM, asmall river of the province and 
colony of Maryland. It runs s. and enters the 
Potowmac. 

AND1NOS, a small river of the province and 
country of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese pos 
sessions, and in the territory of the Natayas In 
dians. It runs from s. s. e. to n. n. w. and enters 
the lake Maguegazu. According to the descrip 
tion of Mr. Bellin, who calls it Andiras, it enters 
the river Abacachis. 

ANDOAS, SANTA TOM AS DE, a settlement and 
reduction of the missions held there by the Jesuits, 
in the province and government of Mainas, of the 
kingdom of Quito. 

[ANDO\ /r ER, a large, fertile, and thriving town 
in Essex county, Massachusetts. It contains 2863 
inhabitants, in two parishes. In the s. parish are 
a paper mill and powder mill, from the latter of 
which the army received large supplies of gun 
powder in the late war. There is an excellent aca 
demy in this town, called Phillip s Academy, 



AND 

which owes its existence to the liberal benefactions 
of the family whose name it bears. Andover is 
under excellent cultivation, particularly that part 
ivhich is watered by Shawsheen river. It lies 
about 20 miles &. from Newbury-port, and about 
22 n. from Boston. Lat. 42 41 n. Long. 71 
8 a?.] 

[A-NDOVF.R, in Hillsborough, New Hampshire, 
contains 645 inhabitants, and was incorporated 
1779.] 

[ANDOVER is the s. w. township in Windsor 
county, Vermont, has Chester on the e. lies 32 
miles n. e. of Bennington, and contains 275 inha 
bitants.] 

[AN DOVER, a place in Sussex county, New 
Jersey, near the source of Pequest river, five miles 
s. s. t. from New Town, and 16 in the same direc 
tion from Walpack.] 

ANDRE, BAHIA DE, on the ;?. coast of the 
straits of Magellan. 

[ANDRE, ST. a town in the kingdom of Leon, 
in N. America, near the mouth of Nassas river, 
which falls into the gulf of Mexico.] 

[ANDREANOFFSKI Isles, a crescent of isles 
between Asia and America, discovered in 1760. 
See BEHRING S Straits, and NORTHERN Archi 
pelago. 1 

ANDRES, SAN, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Texupilco, and alcaldia may 
or of Zultepec, in Nueva Esparia, situate on the 
top of an extensive and craggy elevation, of a hot 
and moist temperature. It contains 77 families of 
Indians, and is three leagues to the e. of its capi 
tal. 

ANDRES, SAX, another settlement of the head 
settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of 
Toluca, in the same kingdom, with 134 families of 
Indians. It is a small distance n, of its capital. 

ANDRES, SA.V, another, of the head settlement 
of the district of Tlatotepec, and alcaldia mayor of 
Tepeacn. It contains 33 families of Indians, and 
is three leagues from its head settlement. 

ANDRES, SAN, another, which is the head set 
tlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of 
Tuxt a. It contains 1 170 families of Indians. 

ANDRES, SAN, another, of the head settlement 
of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Marinalco, 
at the distance of one short league from its capi 
tal. 

AN DUES, SAN, another, of the head settlement 
of the district of Texpatlan, and alcaldia mayor 
of Cuernavaca. 

ANDRES, SAV, another, which is a small ward 
united to that of Tequiszitlan, in the alcaldia may- 
or of Theotihuacan. 



AND 



61 



ANDRES, SAN, another, in the head settlement 
of the district of Ahuacathm, and alcaldia mayor 
of Zacatlan, at more than a league s distance from 
its head settlement. 

ANDRES, SAN, another, of the head settlement 
of the district of Xonotla, and alcaldi i mayor of 
Tetela, lying one league s.w. of its head settle 
ment. 

ANDRES, SAN, another, of the head settlement 
of the district and alcaldia mayor of Guejozingo. 
It contains 15 families of Indians, including those 
of the ward of San Pedro, which is joined to it, 
both being tothe s. of their capital. 

ANDRES, SAN, another, a small settlement or 
ward of the alcaldia mayor of Guauchinango, an. 
nexed to the curacy of that of Tlacuclotepec. 

AN DUES, SAN, another, of the head settlement 
of the district of Papalotipac, and alcaldia mayor 
of Cuicatlan, with 20 families of Indians. 

ANDRES, SAN, another, of the head settlement 
of the district of Hiscontepec, and alcaldia mayor 
of Nexapa. It comprehends 68 families of Indians. 

ANDRLS, SAN, another, of the head settlement 
of the district of Tepehuacan, and alcaldia mayor of 
Tepee, in which there are reckoned to be 40 fami 
lies of Indians, employed in cultivating cotton. 

ANDRES, SAN, another, of the head settlement 
of the district and ahaldia mayor of Zapatlan and 
Tuspa. In its vicinity, and upon the shores of 
the river Amazonas, is an estate called El Tigre 
a la Raya, (the tiger at bay), and that of Mangtia- 
ro, also upon the shore of the same river. It is four 
leagues from its capital. 

ANDRES, SAN, another, of the missions that 
were held by the Jesuits, in the province of Te- 
peguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, situate 
on the shore of the river of Las Nasas. 

ANDRES, SAN, another, of the mission belong 
ing to the order of St. Francisco, in the province 
of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya; 
10 leagues distant between the s. e. and e. s. e. of 
the real of San Felipe de Chiguaga. 

ANDRES, SAN, another, of the jurisdiction and 
government of San Juan Giron, in the new king 
dom of Granada, situate in the most uneven part 
of \\\G serrania. 

ANDRES, SAN, another, of the province and 
government of Cartagena, in the kingdom of Ticrra 
Firme, situate on the shore of the river Sinu. 

ANDRI s, SAN, another, of the same province 
and government as the former, and at a small dis 
tance from it. 

ANDRES, SAN, another, of the province and 
corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Pucquin. 



<3 AND 

ANDRES, SAN, another, of the province and 
alcaldia mayor of Zacapula in the kingdom of 
Guatemala. 

ANDRES, SAN, another, of the missions that 
belonged to the Jesuits, in the province and go 
vernment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito, on 
the shore of the river Hayai, at a small distance 
from that of San Juan. 

ANDRES, SAN, another, of the province and 
government of Popayan in the kingdom of Quito. 

ANDRES, SAN, another, of the province and 
alcaldia mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Gua 
temala. 

ANDRES, SAN, another settlement and parish of 
the English, in the island of Jamaica, on the s. 
side. 

ANDRES, SAN, another, being a parish and the 
head settlement of the district of the island of Bar- 
badoes, situate upon the e. coast. 

ANDRES, SAN, another, of the above island, 
of the district and parish of St. Thomas. 

ANDRES, SAN, another, of the province and 
alcaldia mayor of Vera Paz in the kingdom of 
Guatemala. 

ANDRES, SAN, an island of the N. sea, situate 
in front of the coast of Tierra Firme, and s. of that 
of Santa Catalina : it is desert. 

ANDRES, SAN, another island of the N. sea, 
one of the Lucayas, between the island Larga and 
that of El Espiritu Santo. 

ANDRES, SAN, a bay of the province and go- 
rernment of La Louisiana, between the two rivers 
Incognitos (unknown). 

ANDRES, SAN, another bay of Florida, in the 
province of Georgia, between that of Santa Rosa 
and the river Apalachicola. 

ANDRES, SAN, a fort of the English, situate in 
an island of the coast of Georgia. 

ANDRFS, SAN, a cape, or point of land, on the 
coast of the Patagones, which lies between the 
river of La Plata and the straits of Magellan. 

[ANDREW S, ST. a small town in the con 
tested country between New Brunswick and the 
United States ; situated in the rear of an island of 
the same name, on the e. side of the arm of the 
inner bay of Passamaquoddy, called Scoodick. 
The town is regularly laid out in the form of an 
oblong square. The few inhabitants are chiefly 
employed in the lumber trade. The common tides 
rise here about 18 feet.] 

[ANDREW S, ST. atownship in Caledonia county, 
Vermont, 100 miles n. e. from Bennington.l 

[ANDREW S, ST. a parish in Charleston district, 
South Carolina, containing 2947 inhabitants, of 
whom 570 are whites, and 2516 slaves.] 



[ANDREW S Sound, ST. lies s. of Jekyl s island, 
and is formed by it and a small island at the mouth 
of Great Sagilla river. The small river opposite 
this sound separates Camden from Glynri county, 
in Georgia.] 

fANUROS Islands, sometimes called Holy 
Ghost Islands, are of very considerable magnitude, 
and have been very erroneously placed in almost 
every map or chart of the Bahama islands. They 
extend in a sort of curve, or crescent, upwards of 
forty leagues in length. There is a passage be 
tween the northern point of them (at J culler s 
keys) and the Berry islands, ofditlicult navigation, 
and not above eight feet deep. Vessels, therefore, 
proceeding from that quarter to Cuba, should go 
round the n. end of all the Berry islands, over the 
Great Bahama bank; which, however, will (not 
admit ressels drawing more than 12 feet. There 
arc also several passages, or creeks, (though very 
shallow), through this chain of islands, particularly 
towards the s. extremity and Grassy Creek keys. 
Upon the w. side of Andros islands is the most 
n. extremity of the Great Bahama bank. On the 
e. side there are no soundings at any considerable 
distance from the shore. The most w. point of 
the principal Andros island lies about 10 or 11 
leagues w. n. w. from the w. end of New Provi 
dence. High Point, which is the most s. part of 
it, lies about eight leagues s. from the w. end ol the 
same island. There are few, if any, inhabitants now 
on Andros island. In the interior of the island, there 
is a shallow swamp or lake of fresh water, almost 
the only one which is to be found in the Bahama 
islands ; and it communicates with the sea by a 
creek, or lagoone, navigable for flat-bottomed 
boats. Great quantities of various sorts of timber 
abound in the interior; but, from the shallowness of 
the banks, and extreme difficulty of getting any 
communication to the coast, the trees remain un 
touched. One part of Andros island extends to 
the w. very far into the Great Bahama bank, in 
a s. w. direction from New Providence, towards 
Salt key and the island of Cuba. In J788 An 
dros island contained about two hundred inhabi 
tants, including slaves; and previous to May 
1803, lands were granted by the crown, to the 
amount of 16,025 acres, for the purpose of culti 
vation. See BAHAMAS.] 

[ANDROSCOGGIN,orAMARiscoGGiNRiver, 
in the district of Maine, may be called the main 
western branch of the Kennebeck. Its sources are 
n. of lake Umbagog. Its course is southerly till 
it approaches near to the White mountains, from 
which it receives Moose and Peabody rivers. It 
then turns to the e. and then to the A- . e. in which 



A N E 

course it passes within two miles -of the sea-coast, 
and then turning n. runs over Pejepskaeg lulls 
into Merry- Meeting- bay, \vhere it forms a junction 
with the Kennebeck, 20 miles from the sea. For 
merly, from this bay to the sea, the confluent 
stream was called Sagadahock. The lands on this 
river are very good. 

ANEAV, Port of the, on the w. coast of the 
island of Newfoundland andgulph of St. Lawrence, 
between cape Raye and the bay of Anguila. 

ANECUILCO, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Tetelzingo, and alcaldia 
mayor of Coautla, in Nueva Espaila. It contains 
20 families of Indians, and at a little more than a 
league s distance there is the estate of Mapaztlan ; 
in the vicinity of which is a ranc/ieria, consisting 
of 22 families ofMtilattoes and Mustees, who have 
near to this place another estate, in which they 
grind silver-metals, and which is of the real 
of the mines of Coautla. It is one league s. w. of 
its head settlement. 

ANEGADA, a small island of the N. sea, one 
of the Antillas, situate to the e. of that of rtier- 
torico. It is barren, without water, and desert, 
[is dependent on Virgin Gorda. It is about six 
leagues long, is low, and almost covered by water 
at high tides. On the s. side is Treasure Point. 
Lnt. 18 46 n. Long. 61 22 a?.] 

ANEGADA, also a bay of the coast of the straits 
of Magellan. It is large and capacious, and lies 
between that of San Matias and the cape of San 
Andres. 

ANKGADA, a small island near the coast 
of Vera Cruz, in the bay or gulph of Mexico, 
between the Arrecife del Palo, and the island of 
Cabezas. 

AN EG A DA, a point of land of the 5. coast of 
the straits of Magellan, close to the cape of Orange, 
and opposite the bay of La Poses ion. 

AN EGA DA, another bay of the coast of the 
Patagones, which lies between the river of La Plata 
and The strait of Magellan. 

ANECADITOS, a settlement of the island of 
Cuba, on the ?. const, between port Trinidad and 
the island Cochinos. 

ANEGADIZOS, River of the, in the province 
and government of Choco, of the kingdom of 
Tierra Firme. It runs almost directly from e. to 
w. into the S. sea, near the point of Salinas. 

ANEGADIZOS, SENAS DE i,os, the name of three 
mountains, which are upon the coast of the S. sea, 
in the same province and government as the former 
river. 

ANEMBI, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Paraguay in Peru. 



A N G 63 

AUGACIIILLA, a river of the district of Gua- 
dalabquen, in the kindom of Chile. It runs o\ 
and enters the Valdivia near this city. 

ANGAGUA, SANTIAGO DE, a settlement of 
the head settlement of the district of Uruapan, 
and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province 
and bishopric of Mechoacan ; situate in the in 
terior of the serrania. It contains 22 families of 
Indians, and is distant 10 leagues to the s. of its 
head settlement, and 15 from the capital. 

ANGAMARCA. a settlement of the province 
and corregimienlo of Latacunga in the new king 
dom of Quito. 

ANGAMOCUT1RO, SAN FRANCISCO DC, a 
settlement of the head settlement of the district of 
Puruandiro, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in 
the province and bishopric of Mechoacan ; situate 
on the top of a hill, in the e. part of its capital ; 
is of a warm and dry temperature ; contains 45 
families of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes, 
and 106 of Indians. Twenty-five leagues e. of its 
capital Pasquaro. 

ANGARAES, a province and corregimiento of 
Peru, bounded on the n. by the province of Jauja, 
on the w. by the Andes, arid joins the province of 
Castro-V irreynato the s. ; to the c. it is bounded by 
the island of Tayacaja, of the province oflluanta : 
24 leagues in length from e. to w. and 12 in width, 
having a very irregular figure. Its temperature is 
for the most part cold, except in one or two 
hollow uneven parts, which are somewhat tempe 
rate ; but there is nevertheless no scarcity in 
wheat, maize, and other seeds. In the temperate 
parts are cultivated the sugar-cane, some fruits 
and herbs, and a kind of hay called ichu, serving 
as fuel for the ovens in which they extract the 
quicksilver, from which great emolument is de 
rived, since the miners buy this article at a great 
price. It abounds in cattle of every kind, and in 
native sheep, which serve to carry the metals to 
the ovens. There are also found in this province 
various coloured earths for painting, such as umber, 
which they call guancahclica^ oropimente^ ocre 
almagre, vermillion, and others of different hues. 
It is watered by the river Sangoiaco, which divides 
it from the island of Tayacaja, belonging to the 
province of lluanta, the river Vilcabamba, which 
also divides it from the province of Tauxa, and 
the rivers Licay and La Sal, all of which run into 
the Maranon. It has six curacies or parishes of 
Indians, and 30 other settlements, dependent upon, 
or annexed to these. Its reparthniento was 36,422 
dollars, of which it paid 1456 of alcumla in five 
years. The capital is Guancavelica, and the set 
tlements of its jurisdiction are, 



A N G 



Andabamba, 

Paucara, 

Ilillinca, 

Vechuilluiaillas, 

Iluachocollpa, 

Pata, 

Iluando, 

Palea, 

Anancusi, 

Pallalla, 

Chacapa, 

Iscuchaca, 

Cuenca, 

Moya, 

Vilcabamba, 

Incahuasi, 

Acobambilla, 

Callanmarca, 

Achonga. 





San Antonio, 

San Sebastian, 

Santa Ana, 

Santa Barbara, 

Acobamba, 

Acoria, 

Conaica, 

Lircay, 

Julcarmarca, 

Autarpanca, 

Iluaillas, 

fluancahuanca, 

Congallo, 

San Christoval, 

Asuncion, 

Sacsamarca, 

Huailazuchu, 

Chacllatacana, 

Espiritu Caja, 

Todos Santos, 
ANGASMAIU, a river of the province and 
government of Popayan, in the valley of Los 
Mahteles. It runs from e. to ?. and, alter collect 
ing the waters of the Tuanambu and the Guaitara, 
enters the Patia on the s. side, which thus be 
comes increased by its stream. It then divides the 
jurisdiction of Quito from that of Popayan, and 
is the mark of the boundary of the inquisition of 
Lima, and the point from whence that of Carta 
gena begins. Its mouth is in Lat. 2 4 n. Long. 
78 24 w. 

ANGASMAHCA, a settlement of the province 
and government of Tarma in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Parianchacra. 

ANG ASMARCA, another, of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Huamachuco, also in Peru. 

ANG ASM A RCA, a river of the same province and 
correginritnfo. It rises to the s. of the capital, 
and enters the river Santa. 

ANGEL, SAN, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of (he district and alcaldia mat/ or of Coyoacan 
in Nueva Espana, of an agreeable and delightful 
temperature, and well stocked with houses, gar 
dens, and orchards, which serve as places of re 
creation to the people of Mexico. There is a 
convent of mo;<ks of the order of St. Francis, 
and another magnificent convent of the bare-footed 
Carmelites, which is a college of studies. It has 
some commerce in cloths and baizes, wrought in 
its manufactories ; is distant somewhat more than 
a quarter of a league from the zz. of its capital. 

ANGIX, SAX, another settlement in the head 
settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of 
Periban in the same kingdom. It contains 86 
jfaniilies of Indians, and six of Muslecs, who ob 



tain a livelihood in making shoes and saddles, as 
its territory has no productions whatever. It has 
a convent of the order of St. Francis, and is six 
leagues to the e. of its capital. 

ANGEL, SAN, another, of the kingdom of Chile, 
which is a place of encampment, and a frontier of 
tiie Arucanian Indians, near the river Biobio. 

ANGEL, SAN, another, of the province and 
corngianento of Pasto in the kingdom of Quito, 
situate in the road which leads down from Po 
payan. 

ANGEL, SAX, another, of the province and 
government of Sonora in Nueva Espana, on the 
shore of a river which enters into that of Gila, to 
the a?, of the garrison of Horcarsitas. 

ANGEL, SAN, another, of the missions held by 
the Jesuits, in the province and government of 
Buenos Ayres, on the shore of the river Yui. 
Here the Portuguese, commanded by Gomez 
Freirede Andrade, held their head -quarters, in the 
year 1756, when the lieutenant-general Don Pedro 
Cevallos, with the Marquis of Valdelirios, was 
sent over to treat for an exchange of prisoners 
between the settlement of Paraguay and the crown 
of Portugal. [It was founded in the vear 1707, 
in Lat. 28 17 19" n. Long. 54 52 .] 

ANGEL, SAN, another, of the province and 
corregimiento of Ibarra in the kingdom of Quito, 
situate at the source of the river of its name. 

ANGEL, SAN, a large island of the gulph of 
California, or Red sea of Cortes, situate in the 
most interior part of it, at a small distance from 
the coast. 

ANGEL, SAN, a river of the province and cor~ 
regimiento of Ibarra in the kingdom of Quito, 
which rises from the desert of Angel, runs s. s. e. 
and enters the Mira, a little before the bridge 
which is across the latter, in Lat. 27 T n. 

ANGELES, PUEBLA DE LOS, a capital city 
of the province of Tlaxcala in Nueva Espana, 
founded in 1533 by the bishop Don Sebastian 
Ramirez de Fuenleal ; is of a warm and dry 
temperature, and one of the most beautiful cities 
of America, being inferior to none in Nueva 
Espana, save its capital. Its temples are sump 
tuous, its streets wide, and drawn in a straight 
line from e. to w. and from n. to s. ; the public 
squares are large and handsome ; and the ancient 
edifices of proportionate architecture. The ca 
thedral is extremely rich, ornamental, and well 
endowed ; to this is united the magnificent chapel 
of Sagrario, with two curacies and four assisting 
parish chapels, which are, the chapel of the In 
dians, that of Los Dolores, at the bridge of San 
Francisco, that of Los Cozos, and another, also 



ANGELES. 



65 



having the name of Los Dolores, contiguous to 
the convent of Bethlemites, and that of San Mar 
cos, as suffragan : besides these, it has four other 
parishes ; that of San Joseph, with five places of 
visitation, which are those of (he Indians, San 
Pablo, Santa Ana, San Antonio, and Nuestra Se- 
nora de Loreto ; also the parish of Santa Cruz, 
with four other places of visitation, namely, of 
Santiago, San Miguel, San Matias, and Guada- 
lupe ; the parish of Santo Angel Custodio with 
two ; Los Remedies, and San Baltasar, and that of 
Santa Cruz with three ; namely, of San Juan del 
Rio, El Santo Christo de Xonacaltepec, and Mise- 
ricordia. It contains the three following convents : 
St. Domingo, a large building ; the royal college 
of San Luis, with public studies and the convent for 
recluses of San Pablo : and in its vicinity two 
large chapels, one of the Mistecos Indians, and 
another of the order of Penitence, to which is an 
nexed that of La Santa Escuela. It has also a 
convent of the religious order of St. Francis, and 
some independent chapels of the order Tercera of 
Indians ; and without the walls of the city, other 
churches and hospitals. It has also the college which 
was formerly of the Jesuits, and contiguous to that, 
the church of San Miguel, of Indians ; and of San 
Ildefonso,of barefooted Carmelites, which is a house 
for novices and for studies ; two colleges of San J uan 
de Dios, one for novices and the other a hospital, 
called San Pedro ; the college of San Hipolito de la 
Caridad, and the convent of Bethlemites, of the 
La Convalescence, with schools for children ; the 
church of the Oratorio de San Felipe Neri, and that 
of the congregation of the ecclesiastics of St. Peter, 
for the practising of ministers in the duties of the 
pulpit and the confessional. Its monasteries are 
those of Concepcion, San Geronimo, Santisima 
Trinidad, "Santa Catalina, of Dominican nuns ; 
Santa Ines de Monte Policiano, of the same order ; 
of Santa Rosa de Maria, of barefooted Carmelites ; 
of Santa Monica, of the Recoletan Agustines, Ca 
puchins, and St. Claire. The colleges which 
adorn this city are, San Pedro and San- Juan, in 
which is included the Tridentine seminary, where 
the collegians are taught grammar, the graver 
sciences, and the Mexican tongue ; also the great 
college of San Pedro and San Pablo, for studying 
theology and philosophy ; of San Geronimo, for 
teaching grammar ; and of San Ignacio, for the 
graver studies. Here is a college for children, 
with the title of La Caridad ; another entirely for 
married women and widows ; that of Jesus Maria, 
contiguous to that of San Geronimo ; and another 
female convent, with a magnificent temple and de 
vout sanctuary of the miraculous image of Nuestra 

VOL, I. 



Sefiora de la Soledad. Besides these aforesaid 
temples, there are, without the walls of the city, 
various chapels and hermitages in the wards of 
the Indians which encompass it ; and with those 
who inhabit these wards, and those within the 
city, the numbers of families amount to 3200 of 
Mexican Indians, and 15,000 Spaniards, Mustees, 
and Mulattoes. The commerce which they main 
tain, although it has been upon the decline from 
the beginning of the present century, with regard 
to what it was before, consists of cloths and fruits 
of Spain and of the country, and some cloths 
from China, besides various effects which find 
their way hither from the other provinces. It 
also traffics in soap of various qualities, cotton 
manufactures, fine earthen ware, resembling that 
of Talavera, and all kinds of iron and steel work, 
as plough-shares, chopping-knives, table-knives, 
spurs, and stirrups ; and, what are held in particular 
estimation, the white arms, renowned for a singular 
temper, and not inferior to those of Toledo. It 
is the seat of the bishop suffragan to the arch 
bishop of Mexico, established in the year 1526, in 
the city of Tlaxcala, and translated to this in 
1550. Its mitre has had the glory of having 
adorned the head of the venerable Senor Don Fray 
Juan de Palafox, whose canonization is no small 
subject of discussion at the present day. This 
famed person was the author of many sacred and 
profound works, and among the rest, those of the 
turbulent disputes which he maintained with the 
extinguished society of the Jesuits. 

[La Puebla de los Aageles, the capital of the 
intendancy of its name, is more populous than Lima, 
Quito, Santa Fe, and Caracas ; and after Mexico, 
Guanaxuato, and the Havannah. the most consider 
able city of the Spanish colonies of the new conti 
nent. La Puebla is one of the small number of Ame 
rican towns founded by European colonists; for in 
the plain of Acaxete, or Cuitlaxcoapan, on the spot 
where the capital of the province now stands, 
there were only in the beginning of the 16th cen 
tury a few huts, inhabited by Indians of Cholula. 
The privilege of the town of Puebla is dated 28th 
Sept. 1531. The consumption of (lie inhabitants, 
in 1802, amounted to 52,951 cargas (of 300 pounds 
each) of wheaten flour, and 36,000 car gas of 
maize. Height of the ground at the Plaza Mayor, 
7381 feet; population, according to Humboldi, 
67,800. This city is 22 leagues to the e. of 
Mexico. Long. 98 3 . Lat. 19.] 

Catalogue of the Bishops of La Puebla de los 
Angeles. 

I. Don Fray Julian Garces, native of Aragon. 
a Domincan, preacher to the Em ptror Charles Y,. 
K, 



66 



ANGELES. 



elected bishop of Tlaxcala in 1527 ; lie died in 
1542. 

2. Don Fray Pablo de Tulavera, native of the 
town of Navalinarquende ; elected in 1543 ; died 
in 1545. 

3. Don Fray Martin Sarmicnto, native of Oja- 
castro, a Franciscan monk, commissary-general of 
India; elected in 1546; died in 1557. 

4. Don Bernardo de Villa Gomez ; elected in 
1559 ; died in J570. 

5. Don Antonio dc Ruiz de Morales y Molina, 
native of Cordova ; elected in 1572; he died in 
1576. 

6. Don Diego dc Romann, a native of Valla- 
dolid, canon of Granada, inquisitor, founder of 
the college of the Jesuits of his country ; elected 
in 1378 he died in 1606. 

7. Don Alonso de la Mota y Escobar, native of 
Mexico, dean of that metropolitan church ; he 
founded the college of San lldefbnso, of the 
Jesuits of this city, endowed it with provisions for 
25 nuns ; and under his direction and influence, 
were founded the convents of Santa Teresa and 
Santa Ines. 

Also, Don Juan de Santo Matia Saenz de Ma- 
fiosca, bishop of Cuba, removed to this, but died 
before he took possession of it. 

8. Don Gutierre Bernardo de Quiros, native of 
Tineo in Asturias, inquisitor of Toledo and Mex 
ico ; elected in 16^6; he died in 1638. 

9. Don Juan de Palafox y Mendoza, native of 
Ariza in Aragon, treasurer of Tarazona; elected 
in 1639 ; promoted to the archbishopric of Mexico 
in 1556. 

10. Don Diego Osorio de Escobar y Llamas, na 
tive of Coruna, canon of Toledo ; elected in 1556, 
founder of the convent of LaSantissima Trinidad, 
of monks of Concepcion ; promoted to the arch 
bishopric of Mexico in 1667. 

11. Don Manuel Fernandez de Santa Cruz, na 
tive of La Palencia, mayor collegian of Cuenca, 
magistral canon of Segovia, bishop of Chiapa and 
of Gnadalaxara ; promoted in 1667; he founded 
the colleges of San Pedro and San Pablo, of St. 
Domingo, that of San Joseph dc Gracia, for 
children, and that of Santa Monica ; he finished 
the beautiful tower of the church, erected two 
gates of marbles, put up the statues, and finished 
the exchange, which fronts the mart ; he was pro 
moted to the bishopric of Mexico in 1703, presented 
to this in 1676 ; he did not accept of the promotion of 
the bishopric or vice-royalty of Mexico, to which 
he was invited ; he died in the year 1699. 

Don Fray Ignacio de Urbina, of the order of 
St. Gerorae, archbishop of Santa Fe, in the Nuevo 



Reyno de Granada ; he was before presented to 
this in 1702, but declined it. 

12. Don Garcia Legaspi Altamirano, native of 
Mexico, archdeacon of that metropolis ; as bishop 
of this church, promoted in the year 1703, of 
which he took possession the following year, and 
in a short time died. 

13. Don Pedro Nogales Davila, native of Za- 
lamea in Estremadura, of the order of Alcantara, 
inquisitor of Logrono ; he was elected in 1708, 
and died with the reputation of sanctity in 1721. 

14. Don Juan Antonio de Lardiz-avaly Elorza, 
native of Segura in Guipuzcoa, mayor collegian of 
San Bartolome, magistral canon of Salamanca, 
and professor of sciences in that university ; he 
was elected in 1722, and was offered the arch 
bishopric of Mexico in 1735 ; this however he de 
clined accepting, and died in 1733. 

15. Don Benito Crespo, a knight of the order 
of Santiago, native of Estremadura, dean of 
Oaxaca, bishop of Durango ; promoted to La 
Pnebla in 1734, and died in 173?! 

16. Don Pedro Gonzalez Garcia, native of Tor- 
delaguna ; he was delaying three years and an 
half in the port of Santa Maria, without daring to 
embark on account of the war, when he was pro 
moted to the bishopric of Alvila in Spain, in 
1743. 

17. Don Domingo Pantalcon Alvarez de Abreu, 
native of Canaria, archbishop of St. Domingo ; 
promoted to this of La Puebla in 1743; he en 
couraged the foundation of the convent of Santa 
Rosa, and dedicated the church of Nuestra Seiiora 
del Refugio, in the small settlement of Las Caleras ; 
he died in 1763. 

18. Don Francisco Xavier Fabian y Fuero, 
native of Terzaga, bishop of Siguenga, of which 
he was magistral collegian in the grand college of 
Santa Cruz, canon and abbot of Santa Leocadia 
in the church of Toledo ; elected in 1764, and 
promoted to the archbishopric of Valencia in 
1774. 

19. Don Victoriano Lopez Gonzalo, vicar- 
general of the church of La Puebla ; elected in 
1774. 

[ANGELES, PUEBLA DE LOS, Intendancy of. 
This intendancy, which has only a coast of 26 
leagues towards the great ocean, extends from 16 
57 to 20 40 of n. latitude, and is consequently 
wholly situated in the torrid zone. It is bounded 
on the . e. by the intendancy of Vera Cruz, on 
the e. by the intendancy of Oaxaca, on the s. by 
the ocean, and on the w. by the intendancy of 
Mexico. Its greatest length, from the mouth of 
the small river Tecoyame to near Mcxitlan, is 118 



ANGELES. 



[leagues; and its greatest breadth, from Techuacan 
to Mecameca, is 50 leagues. 

The greater part of the intendancy of Puebla is 
traversed by the high cordilleras of Anahuac. 
Beyond the 18th degree of latitude the whole 
country is a plain eminently fertile in wheat, 
maize, agave, and fruit trees. This plain is from 
1800 to 2000 metres, or 5905 to 6561 feet, above 
the level of the ocean. In this intendancy is also 
the most elevated mountain of all New Spain, the 
Popocatepetl. This volcano, first measured by 
Humboldt, is continually burning ; but for these 
several centuries it has thrown nothing up from its 
crater but smoke and ashes. This mountain is 
COO metres, or 1968 feet, higher than the most 
elevated summit of the old continent. From the 
isthmus of Panama to Bering s straits, which 
separate Asia from America, we know only of 
one mountain, Mont St. Elie, higher than the 
great volcano of Puebla. 

The population of this intendancy is still more 
unequally distributed than that of the intendancy 
of Mexico. It is concentrated on the plain which 
extends from the eastern declivity of the snowy 
mountains to the environs of Perote, especially on 
the high and beautiful plains between Cholula, La 
Puebla, and Tlascala. Almost the whole country, 
from the central table-land towards San Luis and 
Ygualapa, near the S. sea coast, is desert, though 
well adapted for the cultivation of sugar, cotton, 
and the other precious productions of the tropics. 
The table-land of La Puebla exhibits remark 
able vestiges of ancient Mexican civilization. The 
fortifications of Tlaxcala are of a construction 
posterior to that of the great pyramid of Cholula, 
a curious monument, of which Humboldt promises 
to give a minute description in the historical account 
of his travels in the interior of the new continent. It 
is sufficient to state here, that this pyramid, on the 
top of which he made a great number of astrono 
mical observations, consists of four stages ; that in 
its present state the perpendicular elevation is only 
54 metres, or 177 feet ; and the horizontal breadth 
of the base, 439 metres, or 1423 feet ; that its 
sides are very exactly in the direction of the meri 
dians and parallels ; and that it is constructed (if 
we may judge from the perforation made a few 
years ago in the n. side) of alternate strata of brick 
and clay. These data are sufficient for our recog 
nising in the construction of this edifice the same 
model observed in the form of the pyramids 
of Teotihuacau, which that author also de 
scribes. They suffice also to prove the great 
analogy between these brick monuments, erect 
ed by the most ancient inhabitants of Anahuac, 



the temple of Belus at Babylon, and the pyra 
mids of Menschich-Dashour, near Sakhara in 
Egypt. 

The platform of the truncated pyramid of Cho 
lula has a surface of 4200 square metres, or 45,208 
square feet English. In the midst of it there is a 
church dedicated to Nuestra Senora de los Reme 
dies, surrounded with cypress, in which mass is 
celebrated every morning by an ecclesiastic of In 
dian extraction, whose habitual abode is the sum 
mit of this monument. It is from this platform 
that we eujoy the delicious and majestic view 
of the Volcan de la Puebla, the Pic d Orizaba, 
and the small Cordillera of Matlacueye, which 
formerly separated the territory of the Cholulans 
from that of the Tlaxcaltec republicans. 

The pyramid, or teocalli of Cholula, is exactly 
of the same height as the Tonatiuh Itzaqual of 
Teotiuhacan, already adverted to ; and it is three 
metres, or 9. 8 feet, higher than the Mycerinus, er 
the third of the great Egyptian pyramids of the 
group of Ghize. As to the apparent length of its 
base, it exceeds that of all the edifices of the same 
description hitherto found by travellers iu the old 
continent, and is almost the double of the great 
pyramid known by the name of Cheops. Thosewho 
wish to form a clear idea of the great mass of this 
Mexican monument, from a comparison with objects 
more generally known, may imagine a square, four 
times the dimensions of the Place Vendome, co 
vered with a heap of bricks of twice tlie elevation 
of the Louvre ! The whole of the interior of the 
pyramid of Cholula is not, perhaps, composed of 
brick. These bricks, as was suspected by a cele 
brated antiquary at Rome, M. Zoega, probably 
formed merely an incrustation of a heap of stones and 
lime, like many of the pyramids of Sakhara, visited 
by Pocok, and more recently by M. Grobert. Yet 
the road from Puebla te Mecameca, carried across 
a part of the first stage of the teocalli, does not 
agree with this supposition. We know not the 
ancient height of this extraordinary monument. 
In its present state, the length of its base is 
to its perpendicular height as eight to one, while 
in the three great pyramids of Ghize, this propor 
tion is as one and six-tenths and one and seven - 
tenths to one, or nearly as eight to five. 

The intendancy of Puebla gratifies the curiosity 
of the traveller also with one of the most ancient 
monuments of vegetation, the famous ahahuete, 
(cupressus disticha. Linn.), or cypress of the 
village of Atlixco, which is 76.4 feet English in 
circumference, measured interiorly (for its trunk 
is hollow) ; the diameter is 16 feet English. This 
Cypress of Atlixco is, therefore, to within a few 
K 2 



ANGELES. 



[feet of the same thickness as the baobab (andan- 
sonia digitata) of the Senegal. 

The district of the old republic of Tlaxcala, in 
habited by Indians jealous of their privileges, and 
very much inclined to civil dissensions, has for a 
long time formed a particular government. It is 
indicated in the general map of New Spain as 
still belonging to the intendancy of Puebla ; but 
b^ a recent change in the financial administration, 
Tlaxcala and Guautlade las Hamilpas were united 
to the intendancy of Mexico and Tlapa, and 
Ygualapa separated from it. 

There were, in 1793, in the intendancy of Pue 
bla, without including the four districts of Tlax 
cala, Guautla, Ygualapa, and Tlapa : 

Males 187,531 souls. 

Fcmaleg m ^2l 

,Males 25,617 

Females 29,363 

iMales 37,318 

[ Females 40,590 

Secular ecclesiastics * 585 

Monks 446 

Nuns.. 427 



Indians, 

Spaniards 
or whites, 

Mixed race, 



Result of the total enumeration, 508,098 souls, 
distributed into six cities, 133 parishes, 607 vil 
lages, 425 farms (haciendas), 886 solitary houses, 
(ranches), and 33 convents, two-thirds of which 
are for monks. 

The government of Tlaxcala contained, in 1793, 
a population of 59,177 souls, whereof 21,849 
were male, and 21,029 female Indians. The 
boasted privileges of the citizens of Tlaxcala are 
reducible to the three following points: 1. The 
town is governed by a cacique and four Indian 
alcaldes, who represent the ancient heads of the 
four quarters, still called Tecpectipac, Ocotelolco, 
Quiahutztlan, and Tizatlan ; these alcaldes are 
under the dependence of an Indian governor, who 
is himself subject to the Spanish intendant : 2. 
The whites have no seat in the municipality, in 
virtue of a royal cedula, of the 16th April 1585 : 
and, 3. The cacique, or Indian governor, enjoys 
the honours of an alferez real. The progress 
of the industry and prosperity of this province 
has been extremely slow, notwithstanding the 
active zeal of an intendant equally enlightened 
and respectable, Don Manuel de Flon, who lately 
inherited the title of Count de la Cadena. The 
flour trade, formerly very flourishing, has suf 
fered much from the enormous price of car 
riage from the Mexican table-land to the Ha- 
vannah, and especially from the want of beasts of 
burden. The commerce which Puebla carried on 



till 1710 with Peru, in hats and delft ware, has en 
tirely ceased. But the greatest obstacle to the 
public prosperity arises from four-fifths of the 
whole property ( fined s) belonging to mort-main 
proprietors ; that is to say, to communities of 
monks, to chapters, corporations, and hospitals. 
The intendancy of Puebla has very considerable 
salt-works near Chila, Xicotlan, and Ocotlan, in 
the district of Chiautla, as also near Zapotitlan. 
The beautiful marble, known by the name of 
Puebla marble, which is preferable to that of Biza- 
ron and the Real del Doctor, is procured in the 
quarries of Totamehuacan and Tecali, at two and 
seven leagues distance from the capital of the in 
tendancy. The carbonate of lime of Tecali is 
transparent, like the gypsous alabaster of Volterra, 
and the Phengites of the ancients. 

The indigenous of this province speak three 
languages totally different from one another, the 
Mexican, Totonac, and Tlapanec. The first is 
peculiar to the inhabitants of Puebla, Cholula, and 
Tlascala ; the second, to the inhabitants of Za- 
catlan ; and the third is preserved in the environs 
of Tlapa. Whatever may be the depopulation of 
the intendancy of Puebla, its relative population is 
still four times greater than that of the kingdom of 
Sweden, and nearly equal to that of the king 
dom of Aragon. The industry of the inhabi 
tants of this province is not much directed to 
the workitig of gold and silver mines. Those 
of Yxtacmaztitlan, Temeztla, and Alatlauquitepic, 
in the Partido de San Juan de los Llanos, of 
La Canada, near Tetela de Xonotla, and of San 
Miguel Tenango, near Zacatlan, are almost aban 
doned, or at least very remissly worked. 

The most remarkable towns of the intendancy of 
Pnebla are, the capital of this name, Tlascalla, 
Cholula, Atlixco, Tehnacan de las Granadas, 
Tepeaca or Tepeyacac, Huljocingo or Huexot- 
zinco. Population in 1803, 813,300. Extent of 
surface in square leagues, 2696. Number of 
inhabitants to the square league, 301.] 

ANGELES, PUFBLA DE LOS, with the dedicatory 
title of Nuestra Senora, a town of the province 
and government of Popayan, founded in 1565 by 
the captain Domingo Lozano. It was large and 
well peopled ; but it is at present reduced to a 
miserable state, by the repeated ravages committed 
in it by the infidel Indians of the frontier. Twenty 
leagues from Tocaima, and nine from the town of 
Neiva. 

ANGELES, PUEBLA DE LOS, an other settlement, 
with the sirname of Angeles de Roamainas, a re- 
duccion of the missions which belonged to the re 
gulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province 



A N G 

and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of 
Quito, situate on the shore of the river Napo ; 
founded by the father Lucas Maxano in 1659, 
from a nation of Indians of its name. 

ANGELES, PUEBLA DE LOS, another, with the 
dedicatory title of Santa Maria, in the province 
and government of Cumana, of the kingdom of 
Tierra Firme, situate in the middle of the serrania. 
It is one of those of the mission which is under the 
care of the Capuchin Catalanian fathers. 

ANGELES, PUEBLA DE LOS, another, with the 
dedicatory title of Nuestra Senora, in the district 
of Chiriqui, of the province and government of 
Yeragua, kingdom of Tierra Firrae. 

ANGELES, PUEBLA DE LOS, with the same de 
dicatory title, a reduction of the missions in Ori 
noco, held by the regulars of the extinguished 
order of Jesuits, of the province of the new king 
dom of Granada, situate on the shore of that river. 
It is composed of Indians of the nation of Saliva. 
In 1733 it was destroyed and burnt by the Caribes 
Indians, who could not, with all their strength, 
destroy the cross that was in it. 

ANGELES, PUEBLA DE LOS, another, of the pro 
vince and government of La Senora in Nueva Es- 
pafia; situate on the shore of the river of this name. 

ANGELES, PUEBLA DE LOS, another, of the 
district and corregimiento of Bogota in the new 
kingdom of Granada, near the capital of Santa Fe. 

ANGELES, PUEBLV DE LOS, a bay on the coast 
of thegulph of California, or Red sea of Cortes, in 
the most interior part of it, behind the island of 
the Angel de la Guardia. 

ANGELES PUEBLA DE LOS, a port on the coast 
of the province and alcaldia mayor of Tecoantcpec 
in Nueva Espana, and in the S. sea. It is the 
mouth of the river Cayola, between that of La 
Galera and the settlement of Tanglotango. 

ANGLOIS, CUL DE SAC, a port of the 5. e. 
coast of the island of Martinica, very convenient, 
secure, and well sheltered. It is between the cape 
Ferre, and the bay of the same name. 

ANGLOIS, CUL DE SAC, another port on the 
n. coast of the river Lawrence in New France, 
to the s. of St. Pancras. 

ANGOGARD, a settlement of New France, or 
Canada, situate on the shore of the river St. Law 
rence, at a small distance from the city of 
Quebec. 

ANGOIACO, a river of the province and cor 
regimiento of Angaraes in Peru. It is the same 
that afterwards takes the name of the Ancient Ma- 
raiion ; some call it Sangolaco. 

ANGOL, a city of the kingdom of Chile, 
founded by Pedro de Valdivia, with the name of 



A N G 69 

Los Confines. It was afterwards changed by Don 
Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza to a more open and 
level spot, eight leagues from the cordillera^ and 
20 from La Concepcion, in a soil abounding in 
fruits, seeds, and vines ; as also in raisins, figs, and 
other dried fruits. It is surrounded by Cyprus, 
and is bounded by the river Biobio on the s. and 
by another small stream on the n. which, running 
rapidly, might encourage the building of mills 
upon it. This city was destroyed by the Arauca- 
nos Indians, who set fire to it in 1601, putting to 
death a great number of its inhabitants. It has 
never yet been rebuilt ; and the ruins of it alone 
remain a mournful witness of its melancholy catas 
trophe. 

ANGOSTO, Port, of the strait of Magellan, 
discovered by Pedro Sarmiento on the 7th of 
February 1580. It is one of the parts which this 
admiral took possession of for the crown of Spain, 
putting up a cross, when in the night he saw a 
globe of fire rising from the earth, which afterwards 
became elongated in the air, so as to represent a 
lance ; it then took the figure of a half-moon, 
being of a bright red and whitish colour. This 
port has a clear bottom at 22 fathoms depth, and 
is three leagues from the point of San lldefonso. 

ANGOSTURA, a strait of the river Paraguay, 
in the province and government of this name, in 
that part which is entered by the Pilcomayo, and 
where a redoubt has been thrown up for the defence 
of that pass. 

ANGOSTURA, another, in the river Orinoco; it 
becomes narrowest in the province and govern 
ment ofGuayana, where was lately built the city 
of Guayana. 

ANGRA DE LOS REYES, a city of the pro 
vince and captainship of the Rio Janeiro in Brazil, 
situate upon the coast of a small bay, so called, 
and which gives it its name : it has two churches, 
a monastery of nuns, and it is garrisoned by a 
detachment of 20 men. Its fisheries are the only 
means of its commerce ; it is 36 miles from the 
river Janeiro. Lat. 23 4 s. Long. 44 11 w. 

ANGUALASTA, a settlement of Indians of the 
province and government of Tucuman, and juris 
diction of the city of Rioja, in Peru. 

ANGUASSETCOK, a settlement of the Eng 
lish, in the province and colony of New Hamp 
shire. 

ANGUILA, or SVAKE Island, in the N. sea, 
one of the Small Antilles, inhabited by the English, 
is 10 leagues in length, and three in width, and 
takes its name from its figure. Its productions are 
tobacco, much esteemed for excellent quality, 
maize, and some sugar. It abounds in cattle, 



70 



A N I 



which have multiplied in a wild state in the woods ; 
has only one port or bay of any convenience. I-t 
was in the possession of the English from the 
year 1650, when it was but badly peopled ; has 
been at different times ravaged by the French ; 
but in the year 1745 these were caused to retire 
with great loss. N. of the island of San Martin, 
and s. e. of La Anegada, in lat. 18 12 n. and 
long. 63 10 w. [It is included amongst the 
Virgin islands, and of the government of the go 
vernor general of the Leeward islands.] 

ANGUILA, another, a small island or rock of 
the coast of the island of Cuba, close to that of 
Los Roques, between that island and that of San 
Andres, one of the Lucayas. 

[ANGLJ1LLE, Cape, a point of land in New 
foundland island, on the w. side, in the gulf of 
St. Lawrence, 6 leagues n. from cape Ray, the 
s. w. extremity of the island, in lat. 47 57 w.] 

[ANGUH.LE, a bay on the n. n. e. side of the 
island of St. John s, in the gulf of St. Lawrence, 
opposite Magdalen isles, and having St. Peter s 
harbour on the s. c. and Port Chimene on the n. w.~] 

ANGUILLE, a point or strip of land of the same 
coast, and near the former bay. 

ANGUSTIAS, a settlement of the province 
and corrcgimicnto of Tunja in the new kingdom of 
Granada, situate in the district of the city of 
Pamplona, and valley of Los Locos, on the shore 
of the river Macio. 

ANHEIMBAS, a small river of the province 
and government of Paraguay. It runs e. and enters 
the Parana. 

ANIBA, a small river of the province and 
country of Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese pos 
sessions, and in the territory of the Urubaquis 
Indians. It runs from n. to s. and enters the pools 
there formed by the Maranon, which, according 
to the description of Mr. Bellin, are a lake called 
Sarava. 

ANIBALIS, a barbarous nation of Indians, 
descended from the Betoyes, in the llanos of Casa- 
nare and Meta, of the new kingdom of Granada : 
they are very numerous, and of a gentle nature, re 
duced to the Catholic faith by the missionaries of 
the abolished society of Jesuits in the year 1722. 

AN 1C AN, small islands of the S. sea, near 
those of Malvinas, or of Falkland, discovered by 
Monsieur de Bougainville, when he established 
himself here with the French. 

ANIL, a river of the province and captainship 
of Maranon in Brazil. 

AN1LORE, a river of the province and country 
of Las Amazonas. It rises in the Cacao moun 
tains of the Oreguatos Indians, runs many leagues 



ANN 

from s. to n. and enters the river Madera, in the 
terriory of the Unuriaos Indians. 

ANIMAS, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Florida. It runs s. and enters the rivers 
Jordan and St. Philip, and then runs n. 

ANIMAS, a small island of the gulph of Cali 
fornia, or Red sea of the Cortes. The interior 
part is very close upon the shore. It is one of 
those which is called De Salsiuedes. 

ANIMAS, another, of the river of Valdivia, in 
the kingdom of Chile, and district of Guadalab- 

i 

quen, opposite the city. 

ANIME, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of San Juan de los Llanos in the new 
kingdom of Granada, situate near the river Ariari. 

[ANN ARUNDEL County, in Maryland, lies 
between Patapsco and Patuxent rivers, and has 
Chesapeak bay s. e. Annapolis is the chief town. 
This county contains 22,598 inhabitants, of whom 
10,131 are slaves.] 

[ANN, Fort, in the state of New York, lies at 
the head of batteaux navigation, on Wood creek, 
which falls into S. bay, lake Champlain, near 
Skenesborough. It lies six miles and three quar 
ters s. w. by s. from Skenesborough Fort, 10 e. s. e. 
from Fort George, and 12 n. e. by . from Fort 
Edward on Hudson river. Such was the savage 
state of this part of the country ; and it was so cover 
ed with trees laid lengthwise and across, and so 
broken with creeks and marshes, that general Bur- 
goyne sarmy, in July 1777, could scarcely advance 
above a mile in a day on the road to Fort Edward. 
They had no fewer than 40 bridges to construct, 
one of which was of log work two miles in length ; 
circumstances which in after ages will appear 
hardly credible. Lat. 43 22 n. Long. 73 27 a?.] 

[ANN, ST. a lake in Upper Canada, n. from 
lake Superior, which sends its waters n. e. into 
James s bay through Albany river.] 

[ANN, ST. is the chief town of the province of 
Parana, in the e. division of Paraguay, S. America.] 

[ANN S, ST. a port on the e. side of Cape Bre 
ton island, where fishing vessels often put in. It 
lies on the n. w. side of the entrance into Labrador 
lake.] 

[ANN S, ST. is a small town on the river St. 
John s, province of New Brunswick, about 80 
miles from St. John s. It is at present the seat of 
government.] 

ANNA, of the North, a river of the pro 
vince and colony of Virginia, which runs e. and 
enters the Rapahanock. 

ANNA, called, of the South, to distinguish it 
from that of the same province and colony. It also 
runs c. and enters the Pamunkey. 



ANN 

AXNA, a county of the province and colony of 
Maryland, one of the 10 of which it is composed. 

ANNA, an island of New France, in lake Supe 
rior, between the island of Pont Chatrain and the 
s. coast. 

ANNA, a cape or point of land of the coast of 
New England, in the province and colony of Mas 
sachusetts. It runs many leagues into the sea, be 
tween the river Penny cook and Port Boston. [It 
forms the n. side of Massachusetts bay, as cape 
Cod does the s. side. Lat. 42 40 n. Long. 70 
38 w. See GLOUCESTER. This cape was so named 
in honour of Anne, consort of king James the 
First.] 

ANNA, ST. another cape of the s. coast of the 
river St. Lawrence, in the province of Acadia or 
Nova Scotia. 

ANNA, ST. a settlement and establishment of the 
French, called La Criquede St. Anne, in the part 
\vhich they possess in Guayana. 

ANNAC1OIS, or ANNACOUS, a barbarous na 
tion of Indians, in the kingdom of Brazil, and pro 
vince and captainship of Puerto Scguro. They 
inhabit the woods and mountains to the w. near the 
rivers Grande and Yuearu. They are constantly 
in a state of warfare, night and day, and are irre 
concilable enemies of the Portuguese, -whose colo 
nies and cultivated lands they continually infest, 
and which they destroyed in 1687. 

ANNAPOLIS, REAL, a city and bay of the 
province and colony of Nova Scotia. It was the 
capital until this was translated to Halifax, since 
it was but small and badly fortified. It was found 
ed, with the name of Severn, by the relics of an 
army established here in the time of Queen Anne of 
England, on the shore of an excellent bay towards 
the n. The French established themselves here in 
the year J605, under the command of Mr. Pointis, 
who came from the island of Santa Cruz with a 
certain number of colonists. He gave it the name 
of Port Royal ; but the English, headed by co 
lonel Nicholson, drove them from the port. This 
port, besides being covered with the thickest clouds, 
is of difficult ingress and egress. Ships can make 
it only at one certain period of the year, and then 
but with great precaution ; the currents here being 
so rapid, as generally to drive them stern foremost ; 
but indeed, if it were not for this, it would be one 
of the best ports in the world. It is two leagues in 
length, and has a small island, called the island of 
Goals, almost opposite the middle of the quay. It is 
of a good depth , and well sheltered from every wind . 
\V hen it belonged to the French , the sh ips employed 
in the whale fisheries used to put in here ; but this 
commerce is at present wanting, since the English 



A. N N 



71 



rather prefer Port Breton. The city, although 
small, has some beautiful edifices, but of moderate 
height. The English destroyed the old forlifica- 
tion, and constructed another of a regular form, 
with four bastions, a deep ditch, a covered way, a 
counterscarp, a half-moon, and other exterior 
works detached from the body of &e fortified 
place, all of which excite in the Indians reveren 
tial awe. It has also different batteries conveniently 
placed to repel the attacks of an enemy, who can 
only hope to carry it by bombardment. This 
fortified place appears to be the battery of New 
England, and is the last to impede the invasion of 
the French or Indians on the e. as well by sea as 
land. Not far from the port is a point of land, 
lying between two rivers, where the tide falls 10 
or 12 feet, and all around are beautiful meadows, 
which are thronged with all kinds of birds. Its 
principal commerce consists in skins, which they 
exchange with the Indians for European manufac 
tures. It is the residence of a governor, and is 
garrisoned by 500 men. At the beginning of this 
century it was, amongst the French, the very Dun 
kirk of America, serving as an asylum for pirates 
and cruisers, to the ruin of commerce and the 
fisheries. [The harbour is two leagues in length 
and one in breadth, and the small island, before 
referred to, is almost in the middle of the basin, 
which is said to be large enough to contain 
several hundred ships. Its depth of water is no 
where less than four or five fathoms ; it being 
six or seven on one side of the island, and on the 
other 16 or 18. The town is not large, but has 
some very handsome buildings. It is fortified ; 
nor can it be easily attacked but by a bombard 
ment. The fort is capable of containing about 
100 men in its present state.] Long. 65 22 . 
Lat, 44 49 n. 

ANNAPOLIS, REAL, a capital city of the coun 
ty of Ann Arundel, in the province and colony of 
Maryland, at the mouth of the Severn, and was, by 
an act of the Assembly in 1694, declared a maritime 
city, it being ordained that it should be the resi 
dence of a collector and commandant of the ma 
rine ; from which time it began to take the name of 
Annapolis. Hither also was transferred the tribu 
nal of the county, together with all the state 
papers, acts, and other important documents : 
the parish church w;ts erected in 1699, and a puh- 
lic school was founded agreeably to an act of the 
.Assembly, having the archbishop tor its chancel 
lor. Procurators, visitors, and governors were 
also appointed to preside in this citji, though this 
establishment failed to answer the wise purposes 
of its creation. The alba-aaid tribunal meets, in 

9, 



72 A N O 

ordinary, on the second Tuesday in September, 
November, January, March, and May. This 
city consists of more than 40 houses, but has 
not arrived at that pitch of grandeur that was 
expected, on account of its planters and mer 
chants having been always at variance, as are 
those of Virginia; and from this it is judged, 
that it can never hope to rise at a greater elevation 
of dignity or fortune. [It stands at the mouth of 
the Severn, 30 miles s. of Baltimore, 32 e . by n. 
from the Federal city, 72 s. zo. from Wilmington 
in Delaware state, and 132 s. w. from Philadel 
phia. In 1694 it was made a port town. It is 
situated on a peninsula formed by the river and 
two small creeks, and affords a beautiful prospect 
of Chesapeak bay, and the e. shore beyond it. This 
city is of little note in the commercial world, but 
is the wealthiest town of its size in the United 
States. The houses, about 300 in number, are 
spacious and elegant, indicative of great wealth. 
The state house is the noblest building of the kind 
in the Union. It stands in the centre of the city, 
from which point the streets diverge in every 
direction like radii. Lat. 39 2 n. Long. 76 
40 a;.] 

[ANNAPOLIS River, in Nova Scotia, is of small 
size. It rises in the e. near the head waters of the 
small rivers which fall into the basin of Minas. 
Annapolis river passes into the bay of Fundy 
through the basin of its own name ; on the s. side 
of which, at the mouth of the river, stands the 
town and fort of Annapolis Royal. It is navi 
gable for ships of any burden 10 miles ; for those of 
100 tons, 15 miles ; and is passable for boats within 
20 miles of Horton. The tide flows up 30 miles.] 

[ANNAPOLIS, a county on the above river, ad 
joining to King s county, having five townships, 
viz. Wilmot, GranvihY, Annapolis ; the chief 
towns, Clare and Monckton. It is chiefly inha 
bited by Acadians, Irish, and New Englanders.] 

[ANNATOM, one of the New Hebrides cluster 
of islands.] 

ANNOTO, a river of the island and govern 
ment of Jamaica. It runs n. and enters the sea 
on the coast lying in this point, and between the 
rivers Blowing and Paltnito. 

ANO, NUEVA, a port of the N. sea, of the 
coast of California, or Red sea of Cortes; disco 
vered in 1613, on the first of Januan^, on which 
account this name was given it. 

ANOANAPA, a small river of the province and 
government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It 
rises in the country of the Amacotas Indians, runs 
from *. to . and enters that of Aicaropa. 

ANOLAIMA, a settlement of the jurisdiction 



of Tocaima and government of Mariquita, in the 
new kingdom of Granada. It is of a hot tempe 
rature, abounding in fruits peculiar to the climate, 
such as rnaize, plaintains, yucas, and quantities of 
sugar-cane, of which sugar and preserves are made 
in an infinite variety of mills ; and in this consists 
the commerce of the natives. These may amount 
to somewhat more than 100, exclusive of some In 
dians. Eight leagues from Santa Fe. 

ANOPL, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Pastes in the kingdom of Quito. 

ANOURAMA, a river of the province and 
captainship of Para in Brazil. It runs e. and joins 
the Maranon between the rivers Urupi and Mara- 
capucii. 

ANOURIAHI, a settlement of the province 
and captainship of Para in Brazil, situate on the 
shore of the river Xingu. 

ANOZONOI, a settlement of the province and 
government of Popayan in the kingdom of Quito. 

ANSERMA, SANTA ANA DE, a city of the 
province and government of Popayan, in the dis 
trict and jurisdiction of the audience of Quito, 
founded in 1532 by the field-officer Jorge Robledo, 
upon a hill seven leagues distant from the river 
Cauca. It is of a very hot temperature ; the 
earth abounds in gold mines and in salt, from which 
it took the name of the Vozanser, which, in the 
idiom of the Indians of this country, signifies salt. 
Its productions are rare, and it is very subject to 
tempests, when balls of fire and lightning often 
cause serious mischief. It was at first called Santa 
Ana de los Caballeros, on account of the number 
of the knights who assembled at its foundation. la 
its vicinity dwelt the Tapuyas, Guaticas, Quin- 
chias, Supias, and other Indians, who are now no 
longer heard of here. Fifty leagues n. e. of Po 
payan. 

ANSERMA, a settlement of the same name, with 
the addition of Vieja, of the same province and 
government, situate between two rivers. 

[ANSON, an interior county of N. Carolina, in 
Fayette district, having Mecklinburgh county n. 
and Bladen and Cumberland counties on the e. It 
contains 5J33 inhabitants, including 828 slaves. 

ANTA, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimicnto of Abancai in Peru. 

ANTA, a province of <he kingdom of Quito, but 
little known, to the s, of the city of Jaen, covered 
with impenetrable forests, lakes, rivers, and pools. 
It is unknown whether it be inhabited by infidel 
Indians. 

ANTA, a river of the province and captainship 
of Rey in Brazil. It runs s.s.w. and enters the 
river Curucny 



ANT 

A NT ABA MBA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Aymaraes in Peru. 

ANTAL1S, a barbarous and warlike nation of 
Indians of the kingdom of Chile, to the w. of Co- 
quimbo, bounded by the province of Putunu- 
aucasi. They valorously opposed the progress 
of Inca Yupanqui, compelling him to end his 
conquests on the other side of the river Maule, the 
last boundary of Peru. 

ANTAPALPA, a settlement of the province 
and .corregimiento of Chilques and Masques in 
Peru, annexed to the curacy of Omacho. 

ANTARPANGO, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru, annexed 
to the curacy of Yulcarmaca. 

ANTEGO. See ANTIGUA. 

ANTEQUERA, [now called Oaxaca,] a ca 
pital city of the province and alcaldia mayor of 
Oaxaca in Nueva Espana, founded in a beauti 
ful and spacious valley of this name, in 1528, by 
Juan Nunez del Mercado. It is a large and fine 
settlement, of an extensive vicinity and great com 
merce, as well from the fertility of its soil, and 
from the abundance of its fruits, as from its being 
in the direct road to the provinces of Guatemala. 
It has, besides the curacy of the Sagrario of its 
cathedral, the assisting parish chapels of La San- 
gre de Christo, Nuestra Senora de las Nieves, 
Nuestra Scfiora de la Consolacion, San Joseph, 
the hospital of San Cosme and San Damian, and an 
hermitage of La Santisima Trinidad ; eight con 
vents of monks, which are, two of Santo Domingo, 
one called Elgrande, a sumptuous fabric, and the 
other San Pablo ; one of Dezcalzos of San Fran 
cisco, that of San August in of Nuestra Senora de 
la Merced, of Carmetitas Dezcalzos ; a college 
which belonged to the abolished society of the re 
gular order of the Jesuits, with a house for stu 
dents ; two hospitals, one of San Juan de Dios, 
and another of Bethlemites ; two colleges, deno 
minated Santa Cruz and San Bartolome, for the 
education of children; thirteen monasteries of 
nuns, amongst which, are that of Santa Monica de 
Augustinas, the church, which is of magnificent 
structure, and the gate of most exquisite archi 
tecture, dedicated to Nuestra Senora de la Soledad 
(to whose image, it being very beautiful and mi 
raculous, that city pays singular devotion) ; 
another of La Concepcion, another of Santa Cata- 
lina de Sena, another of Capuchinas ; and a col 
lege for the education of children. The city is 
one of those most conspicuous for the beautiful 
symmetry of its streets, for its public places and 
edifices, which would have been still finer, had 
they not suffered by earthquakes. The tempera- 

VOL. I. 



ANT 73 

ture, although somewhat hot, is nevertheless 
healthy. Its eastern part is situated upon the 
long-continued top of a hill. It abounds in ex 
quisite fruits, such as pears of various kinds, 
apples, sapataSf pomegranates, melons, pines, 
dates, limes, cedars, lemons, pitahayas, nuts, 
and some grapes. Its wheat is scanty, and of bad 
quality. The principal productions in which it 
pays its duties to the King, are cacao of Soco- 
nusco, ready-made chocolate, and powders of 
Oaxaca, justly esteemed and celebrated for giving 
a delicate flavour to chocolate. It also fabricates 
black sealing-wax and some rosaries, the beads of 
which are made of the kernel of a fruit called te- 
pexiloty on which they write with wonderful 
skill some versicles of the magnificat, and paint 
upon them images with a nicety that makes them 
much esteemed. In the cathedral, which is beau 
tiful and amply large, (having three naves), as 
well as in the chapels, is reverenced an arm of 
San Juan Chrisostomo, with other precious relics ; 
and in one of its chapels, a cross about a yard in 
length, made from a part of that wonderful cross 
of Guatulco, brought thither by the bishop Don 
Juan de Cerbantes. The inhabitants of this illus 
trious city, which has San Marcial for its patron, 
are composed of 6000 families ; and in the year 
1766, through the benign influence of the pa 
tron, the number of souls amounted to 20,000. 
It is 85 leagues to the e. s. e. of Mexico. Long. 
277 10 . Lat. 18 2 . 

[ANTERIM, a township in Hillsborough coun 
ty, New Hampshire, having 528 inhabitants, 
incorporated in 1777, 75 miles w. of Portsmouth, 
and about the same distance n. w. of Boston.] 

[ANTHONY S Falls, ST. in the river Mis- 
sissippi, lie about 10 miles n. w. of the mouth 
of St. Pierre river, which joins the Mississippi 
from the w. and are situated in about lat. 44 50 
n. and were so named by father Louis Hcnnipin, 
who travelled into those parts about the year 1680, 
and was the first European ever seen by the na 
tives there. The whole river, 50 yards wide, 
falls perpendicularly above 30 feet, and forms a 
most pleasing cataract. The rapids below, in the 
space of 300 yards, render the descent consider 
ably greater ; so that when viewed at a distance, 
they appear to be much higher than they really 
are. In the middle of the falls is a small island, 
about 40 feet broad, and somewhat longer, on 
which grow a few hemlock and spruce trees ; and 
about half-way between this island and the eastern 
shore, is a rock, lying at the very edije of the fall, 
in an oblique position, five or six feet broad, and 
30 or 40 long. These falls are peculiarly situated, 



74 ANT 

as they are approachable without the least obstruc 
tion from any intervening hill or precipice ; which 
cannot be said, perhaps, of any other considerable 
fall in the world. The scene around is exceed 
ingly beautiful. It is not an uninterupted plain, 
where the eye finds no relief, but composed of 
many gentle ascents, which, in the spring and 
summer, are covered with verdure, and interspers 
ed with little groves, that give a pleasing variety 
to the prospect. 

At a little distance below the falls is a small 
island, about one acre and an half, on which grow 
a great number of oak trees, all the branches of 
which, able to bear the weight, are in the pro 
per season of the year loaded with eagle s nests. 
Their instinctive wisdom has taught them to 
choose this place, as it is secure, on account of 
the rapids above, from the attacks either of man 
or beast.] 

[ANTHONY S Kill, a western water of Hudson 
river. Its mouth is seven miles above that of 
Mohawk river, with which likewise it communi 
cates at the e. end of Long lake,] 

[ANTHONY S Nose, a point of land in the 
high lands on Hudson river, in the state of New 
York, from which to Fort Montgomery on the 
opposite side, a large boom and chain was ex 
tended in the late war, which cost not less than 
70,000/. sterling. It was partly destroyed, and 
partly carried away, by General Sir Henry Clin 
ton, in October 1777. Also the name given to 
the point of a mountain on the n. bank of Mohawk 
river, about 30 miles above Schenectady. Around 
this point runs the stage road.] 

[ANTICOSTI, a barren, uninhabited island, 
in the mouth of St. Lawrence river. It is, how 
ever, of very considerable size, being 120 miles 
long, and 30 broad. The French formerly had a 
settlement on this island, but at present it is unin 
habited ; nor can it ever become of much im 
portance, as it does not possess a single harbour 
where a vessel can ride in safety. The wood 
which grows upon it is small, and the soil is rec 
koned unfruitful ; which, added to the severity of 
the winter, will ever prove serious obstacles to its 
colonization.] 

[ANT1ETAM Creek, in Maryland, rises by 
several branches in Pennsylvania, and empties into 
Potowmack river, three miles s. s. e. from Sharps- 
burgh. Elizabeth and Funk s Towns stand on this 
creek. It has a number of mills and forges.] 

ANTIGOA, PUNTA DE LA, an extremity and 
cape of the island of Guadalupe, which runs into 
the sea, facing the n. 

ANTIGONA, a settlement of the province and 



ANT 

government of Tarma in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Ondores. 

ANTIGOSTI, a large island of the gulph of 
St. Lawrence, at the entrance of the river of this 



name, in Canada. 



ANTIGUA, an island of the N. sea, one of the 
Small Antillas, called by the English, who possess 
it, Antego. -It is six or seven leagues long, and 
nearly the same broad. It is of difficult access 
for vessels, on account of the currents and shallows 
with which it abounds. It was first thought un 
inhabitable from a supposed want of water ; but 
the English, who established themselves in it, 
discovered some fountains, and the inhabitants, 
who may amount to about 900 persons, have 
made many wells and cisterns for preserving the 
rain water. It abounds in every kind offish, and 
one of a peculiar sort, which they call perro dt 
mar y . or sea-dog, from its devouring the other fish j 
and even the fishermen, on which account the 
bathing here is very dangerous. It has some very 
good ports and bays, such as the bays of St. John 
and Willoughby, and the ports English and Fal- 
mouth. It has also a species of sea woodcock, 
which has a beak similar to that bird, the upper 
part of which is much larger than the lower; it 
moves either jaw with equal ease ; and some have 
been seen four feet long, and 12 inches wide to 
wards the head ; they have two fins on each side, 
and a large one upon the belly, rising like the 
crest of a cock, and extending from the head to 
the tail : but what is most extraordinary, is the 
hard beak with two sharp and black horns, nearly 
an inch and an half each, which the creature has 
the power of withdrawing with pleasure into its 
belly, this serving as a scabbard ; it has no 
scales, but a black and rough skin upon its back. 
This island abounds also with a variety of birds ; 
and that which is the most common, is peculiarly 
beautiful to behold, having the upper part of the 
wings and belly of a golden colour, the other half 
and the back of sky-blue, the tail and long fea 
thers of the wings of a mixture of a very bright 
red and blue, and studded with other feathers of 
gold ; but the most singular feature is its head, 
which is covered with a sort of dark bonnet, fring 
ed with green, yellow, and clear blue; it has 
also a variegated beak ; there is a ring of white 
round the eyes, and the pupil is of a beautiful yel 
low and red, having the appearance of a ruby set 
in gold ; and upon the head is a plume of feathers, 
of the colour of vermillion, and others of the co 
lour of pearls. This bird is about the size of a 
pheasant. The climate is hot, unsalutary, and 
is very subject to hurricanes, similar to that 



AN T I G U A. 



dreadful one which happened in 1707. It is not 
deficient in cattle, and its wild wax is similar to 
that of Mainas. This island was first discovered, 
about the year 1623, by Sir Thomas Warner, 
and the English established themselves in it in 
1636. The king of England granted it, in 1663, 
to William Willoughby, who sent to it, in 1666, a 
numerous colony to people it. It was the same 
year attacked and ravaged by the French, from 
whom it was retaken, in 1690, by Christopher 
Codrington. In 1736, three Indians, by name 
Court, Tombay, and Hecules, entered into a 
conspiracy to put some gunpowder in a situation 
that it might explode and blow up a saloon in 
which the governor was giving a ball and enter 
tainment ; but it was timely discovered, and the 
conspirators met with the punishment they de 
served. 

[Antigua lies between lat. 17 and 17 12 n. 
and between long. 61 38 and 61 53 w. ; is situate 
about 20 leagues to the e. of St. Christopher s ; 
and was discovered at the same time with that 
island by Columbus himself, who named it from 
a church in Seville, Santa Maria de la Antigua. 
We are informed by Ferdinand Columbus, Utitt 
that the Indian name was Jamaica. It is a singu 
lar circumstance, that this word, which in the 
language of the larger islands signified a country 
abounding in springs, should, in the dialect of 
the Charibbes, have been applied to an island 
that has not a single spring or rivulet of fresh 
water in it, notwithstanding what Alcedo asserts. 

This inconvenience, without doubt, as it ren 
dered the country uninhabitable to the Charibbes, 
deterred for some time the European adventurers 
in the neighbouring islands from attempting a 
permanent establishment in Antigua ; but nature 
presents few obstacles which the avarice or indus 
try of civilized man will not endeavour to sur 
mount. The lands were found to be fertile, and 
it was discovered that the water preserved in the 
cisterns was wonderfully light, pure, and whole 
some. So early as 1632, a few English families 
took up lands there, and began the cultivation of 
tobacco. 

But the settlement was nearly strangled in its 
infancy. The attack by the French, in 1666, has 
been already mentioned. It was then that the 
island was invaded and ravaged with fire and 
sword. All the Negroes that could be found 
were taken away ; and the inhabitants, after be 
holding their houses and estates in flames, were 
plundered even to the clothes on their backs and the 
shoes on their feet, without regard to sex or age. 



Its recovery from this calamity was owing 
chiefly to the enterprising spirit and extensive 
views of Colonel Codrtngton ofBarbadoes. This 
gentleman removing to Antigua about the year 
1674, applied his knowledge in sugar-planting 
with such good effect and success, that others, 
animated by his example, and assisted by his ad 
vice and encouragement, adventured in the same 
line of cultivation. Mr. Codrington was some 
years afterwards nominated captain-general and 
commander-in-chief of all the Leeward Charibbean 
islands ; and deriving from the appointment the 
power of giving greater energy to his benevolent 
purposes, had soon the happiness of beholding 
the good effects of his humanity and wisdom, in. 
the flourishing condition of the several islands un 
der his government. 

The prosperity of Antigua was manifested in 
its extensive population ; for when, in the year 
1690, General Codrington commanded on the ex 
pedition against the French inhabitants of St. 
Christopher s, Antigua furnished towards it no 
less than 800 effective men : a quota which gives 
room to estimate the whole number of its white 
inhabitants, at that time, at upwards of 5000. 

About 34,000 acres of land in this island are 
appropriated to the growth of sugar, and pastur 
age annexed ; its other principal staples are cot 
ton-wool, ginger, and tobacco ; and they raise 
in favourable years great quantities of provisions. 

This island contains two different kinds of soil : 
the one a black mould on a substratum of clay, 
which is naturally rich, and when not checked by 
excessive droughts, to which Antigua is particu 
larly subject, very productive ; the other is a. 
stiff clay on a substratum of marl ; it is much less 
fertile than the former, and abounds with an 
irradicablc kind of grass, in such a manner, that 
many estates, consisting of that kind of soil, which 
were once very profitable, are now so impoverish 
ed and overgro\vn with this sort of grass, as either 
to be converted into pasture land, or to become 
entirely abandoned. Exclusive of such deserted 
land, and a small part of the country that is alto 
gether unimprovable, every part of the island may 
be said to be under cultivation. 

The island is divided into six parishes and 1 1 
districts. The parishes are, St. John s, St. Mary .--, 
St. George, St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. Philip. 
It has six towns and villages : St. John s, (the 
capital), Parham, Falmouth, Willoughby Bay, 
Old Bay, Old Road, and James Fort ; the two 
first of which are legal ports of entry. JNo island 
in this part of the West Indies can boast of sol 
L 2 



ANTIGUA. 



[many excellent harbours ; of these the principal 
are English harbour and St. John s, both well 
fortified ; and at the former are a royal navy yard 
and arsenal, with conveniences for careening ships 
of war. The military establishment generally 
consists of two regiments of infantry, and two of 
foot militia. There are likewise a squadron of 
dragoons, and a battalion of artillery, both raised 
in the island ; and the regulars receive additional 
pay, as in Jamaica. The governor or captain- 
general of the Leeward Charibbean islands gene 
rally resides in Antigua, but visits occasionally 
each island within his government ; and in hear 
ing and determining causes from the other islands, 
presides alone. He is chancellor of each island by 
his office ; but in causes arising in Antigua, he is 
assisted by his council, after the practice of Bar- 
badoes ; and the president, together with a cer 
tain number of the council, may determine 
chancery causes during the absence of the go 



vernor-general. The other courts of this island 
are, a court of king s bench, a court of common 
pleas, and a court of exchequer. The church of 
the United Brethren has been very successful in 
converting to Christianity many of the Negro 
slaves of this and the other islands. 

It is difficult to furnish an average return of the 
crops of this island, which vary to so great a de 
gree, that the quantity of sugar exported in dif 
ferent years has been from 2500 to 18,000 hogs 
heads. Thus, in 1779, were shipped 3382 hogs 
heads and 579 tierces; in 1782, the crop was 
15,102 hogsheads and 160.3 tierces; and in the 
years 1770, 1773, and 1778, there were no crops 
of any kind ; all the canes being destroyed by a 
long continuance of dry weather, and when the 
whole body of Negroes would have been in danger 
of perish ing for want of food, if American vessels 
with corn and flour had been at that time denied 
admittance. 



Account of the number of vessels, &c. that have cleared outwards from Antigua, between 5th January 
1787, and the 5th January 1788, which was esteemed a favourable year, together with an account 
of their cargoes, and the value thereof. 



Whither Bound. 


Shipping. 


Sugar. 


Rum. 


Molai- 

SM. 


-j. 

-c 

_= 


CottB. 


Dyeing Trood, in 
value. 


Miscellaneous 
articles, in value. 


Total. 




No. 


Tonnage 


Men. 


Cwt. c,r . Ibi. 


Gallons. 


Gall*. 


Ibi 


IbR. 


L. i. d. 


L. . d. 


L. s. d. 


Great Britain - 


65 


13,806 


90] 


254,575 1 18 


128,936 


3,510 


6 


131,01* 


1,742 6 6 


46,466 18 3 


484,483 19 6 


Ireland - - 


16 


1,909 


159 


22,295 


97,400 








29,500 


2,400 


43 


50,768 16 8 


American States 


71 


8,281 


552 


<J,779 


375,150 


1,700 





. 





407 5 


44,679 19 2 


Brit. Col. in Amer. 


34 


2,127 


177 


844 


109,320 


700 











14 7 


11,031 15 4 


Foreign W. Indies 


4? 


2,540 


269 


33 


5,740 





- 








1,075 


1,632 5 


Total from Antigua 


233 


28,663 


2,018 


284 ; 526 1 18 


716,546 


5,910 


M 


160,510 


4,142 6 6 


48,006 10 3 


592,596 15 8 



In the report of the privy council on the slave 
trade, in 1788, the British property vested here 
is estimated at 69,277 taxed acres of patented 
estates, and the Negroes are computed at 60,000, 
valued at 50/. each Negro. In the same report, 
a general appraisement of British property, vested 
in the British colonies makes the land, buildings, 
and stock, double the value of the Negroes, and 
the towns, stores, arid shipping about ^ f of the 
land. 

Has. 

In 1783, Antigua produced, of sugar, 3,900 
1787, produced and exported, 19,500 
1792, four years average, only 3,900 
It is thought that 17,000 hogsheads of sugar, of 
\Qcwt. may be reckoned a good crop ; but the es 
timate of the sugar produced in Antigua cannot 
exceed an average of 9000 hogsheads, of 13 cwt. 
at the king s beam. 

2 



By return to the house of commons, 1806, the 
hogsheads of sugar, at 13 cwt. exported, were 
In 1789, - - - 12,500 
1799, - - - 8,300 
1805, - - - 3,200 

The official value of the imports and exports of 
Antigua were, in 

Imports. Exports. 

1809, - .198,121 j216,000 

1810, - .285,458 .182,392 

And the quantities of the principal articles ex 
ported into Great Britain were, in 



Coffee. 


Sugar. 


Rum. 


Cotton 
wool. 


Brit. Plant. 


For. Plant. 


Brit. Plant. 


For. Plant. 


1809 
1810 


Cwt 

309 
40 


Cwt. 

3,983 

2,164 


Cwt. 
106,1.50 
188,799 


Cwt. 

629 
3,821 


Galls. 
143,223 

77,092 


Ibs. 
112,016 

39,880 



ANT 

[The island abounds in black cattle, hogs, fowls, 
and most of the animals common in the other 
islands. By returns to government in 1774, the 
white inhabitants amounted to 2590, and the 
slaves to 37,808 ; but the latter were estimated in 
1787 at (50,000, as above mentioned. 

The import of slaves into Antigua, by report of 
privy council 1788, at a medium of four years, 
and by a return to house of commons in 1805, 
on a medium of two years, from 1803, were, 
in 



ANT 



77 



Average of four 


Imports. 


Re-exports. 


Retained. 








years to 1787 


768 


100 


668 


Two years to 1805 


434 


100 


334 



ANTIGUASI, a settlement of the province 
and government of Tucuman in Peru, and of the 
district and jurisdiction of the city of Cordova. 

ANTILLA, a settlement of the province and 
coregimiento of Abancaiin Peru. 

ANTILLA, another, of the province and corre- 
gimiento of Angaraes in the same kingdom, an 
nexed to the curacy of Sabayno. 

ANT1LLAS, or ANTILLES, islands of the N. 
sea, discovered by Christopher Columbus in his 
first voyage, in 1492, situate between 18 and 24 
n. lat. extending themselves in the form of a bow 
from the coast of Florida to the n. to the coast of 
Brazil to the s. They are divided into the Wind 
ward and Leeward islands, and into Greater and 
Less. Of the Greater are Cuba, Hispaniola or 
St. Domingo, Jamaica, and Puertorico ; of the 
Smaller the principal are 28. 

Belonging to the English. 
Virgines, Nevis, 

Anguila, Antigua, 

St. Christopher s, Monserrat. 

Barbadoes, 

Belonging to the French. 
S. Bartholomew, Deseada, 

[[Ceded to Sweden Los Santos, 
in 1785.] Martinica, 

Guadalupe, Granada. 

Mariegalante, 

Belonging to the French and Dutch. 
San Martin. 

Belonging to the Dutch. 
San Eustaquio, Bonaire, 

Aves, Curazao. 

Belonging to the Spanish. 
Margarita, Trinidad. 

Belonging to the Danes. 
St. Thomas, Santa Cruz. 



Charibbes. 

Dominica, Becoya. 

San Vincente, 

Desert. 

Tabago, Santa Lucia. 

Almost all enjoy a benign temperature, and the 
cold of winter is unknown to them. The fields 
preserve an everlasting verdure, and the soil is 
fertile in every kind of production, particularly 
in sugar, brandy, cotton, ginger, indigo, coffee, 
and tobacco ; these being the principal branches 
of commerce. Besides the above-mentioned islands, 
are those of Anegada, Sombrero, Saba, Grana- 
dilla, and others much smaller, which are, more 
properly speaking, little isles or rocks. At the 
time of their disco very they were peopled by In 
dian Charibbes, who are cannibals of a very fierce 
nature; a few of whom still keep possession of 
some of the smaller isles. The Europeans esta 
blished themselves in them in 1625, after that the 
Spaniards had kept in their possession some of the 
principal of them from the time they were first 
discovered. They have since been colonized by 
the English, French, Dutch, and Danish, and 
numbers of Negroes have been brought from the 
coast of Africa to labour in them ; these latter 
forming the greater part of their population. 
Although the vine has been brought hither, the 
wine produced from it is not found to keep. 
These islands are extremely subject to violent 
hurricanes, and it is seldom that five years elapse 
without some deplorable calamity taking place. 

[The whole of the lesser islands, with the ex 
ception of St. Bartholomew, which still belongs to 
Sweden, and Margarita to Spain, have fallen into 
the hands of the English. See WEST INDIES, 
also each island under its respective head.] 

ANT1NGO, a settlement of the province and 
government of Tucuman in Peru, of the jurisdic 
tion of the city of Rioja, situate to the . of the 
same. 

ANT1OQU1A, the province and government 
of the new kingdom of Granada, one of those which 
are called Equinocciales, from their being close 
upon the line, bounded n. by the province of Car 
tagena, s. by Popayan, e. by the jurisdiction of 
Santa Fe, and w. by the government of Choco. 
It was called, in the time of the Indians, Hebex- 
ico, and was discovered and conquered in 1541 
by the brigadier George Robledo. It is of a 
benign and mild temperature, abounding in pro 
ductions and in gold mines, from which it derives 
its source of commerce. It has also some mines 
of hyacinths, granite, and rock-crystal ; but they 
are little wrought, from the scarcity of workmen. 



78 



ANT 



The country is mountainous, and watered by 
various rivers, although it is not without some 
large tracts of level ground. The capital is Santa 
Fe. 

ANTIOSA, VALLE DE, in the province and 
corregimiento of Chilchas and Tarija in Peru. 

[ANTIQUERA, a seaport town in the pro 
vince of Oaxaca in Mexico. See ANTEQUERA.] 

[ANTIQUERA, a town in New Spain, province 
of Oaxaca, 75 miles s. of the city of Oaxaca. See 
ANTEQUERA.] 

ANT1SANA, PARAMO DE, a very lofty 
mountain covered with snow, in the kingdom of 
Quito, towards the e. From it the rivers Quixos 
and Caranga take their source ; some believe that 
it is a volcano. It is elevated 3016 feet above the 
level of the sea. It belongs, with its district, to 
the house of the Marquises of Orellana, who have 
also given to it a title, calling it Vizcondes de An- 
tisana. 

[The above is a porphyritic mountain of the 
Andes, in the vicinity of Quito, which was as 
certained by Humboldt, in 1802, to have rising 
from it a crater, in the midst of perpetual snow, 
to an elevation of 19,150 feet above the level of the 
sea.] 

[ANTISANA, a hamlet in the Andes of the 
kingdom of Quito, elevated, according to Hum 
boldt, 3800 feet above the celebrated plain of 
Quito, and 13,500 above the sea, and said to be 
unquestionably the highest inhabited spot on the 
surface of our globe.] 

ANTOFAGASTA, a settlement of the pro 
vince and correguruento of Atacama in Peru, be 
longing to the archbishopric of Charcas, annexed 
to the curacy of its capital. 

ANTO1NE, S. Cape of, on the e. coast of 
the island of Newfoundland, between the bay of 
Pistolet and that of Luvres. 

ANTOGO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of 
Chile, situate on the shore of the river Mamas. 

ANTOGO, a volcano of the mountains of the 
Cordillera of the same kingdom. 

ANTON, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of 
Penonome, in the province and kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, situate near the coast of the S. sea, be 
tween the two rivers Chiru and Colorado, of a 
warm temperature. It abounds in cattle of the 
swine kind, in maize and other seeds, in which 
its commerce consists, and with which it supplies 
the city of Panama, and the vessels which sail 
from its port for the provinces of Peru. Eighteen 
leagues to the s. w. of its capital. 

ANTON, another, in the province and cajptain- 



ANT 

ship of Paraiba in Brazil, situate on the coast 
and shore of the river Camaratuba. 

ANTON, another, of the province and captain 
ship of Pernambnco, in the same kingdom, on the 
shore of the river Tapicura. 

ANTONA, LACUNA DE, a port of the coast of 
the island of St. Domingo. 

ANTONIO, SAN, a settlement of the head 
settlement of Tollman, and alcaldla mayor of 
Queretaro, in Nueva Espana, with 32 families of 
Indian?. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the head settlement 
of Tampolomon and alcaldia of Valles, in the same 
kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of its liead set 
tlement. It is of a hot and moist temperature, pro 
duces different sorts of grain and seeds, as do the 
other settlements of its jurisdiction, and much 
sugar-cane, of which the natives make sugar for 
their commerce. It contains 128 families of Guas- 
tecos Indians, and is 17 leagues to the s. of its 
capital, and four to the e. of its head settlement. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the head settlement 
and alcaldia mayor of Toluca. It contains 51 
families of Indians, and is at a little distance to 
the a? of its capital. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, the head settlement 
of the alcaldia mayor of Metepec. It comprehends 
261 families of Indians. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the head settlement 
of Ahuacatlan, and alcaldia mayor ofZacatlan; 
three leagues from its head settlement. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the head settlement 
of Coronan<o, and alcaldia mat/or of Cholula. It 
contains 44 families of Indians, and lies a league 
and a half n. of its capital. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, a small settlement or 
ward of the alcaldia mayor of Guauchinango, 
annexed to the curacy of Pantepec. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the head settlement 
of Huehuetlan, and alcaldia mayor of Cuscatlan, 
situate in an umbrageous valley. It contains 140 
families of Indians, who employ themselves in, 
preparing, and in the commerce of, saltpetre, and 
in spinning cotton. It lies to the s. of its head 
settlement. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the head settlement of 
Chapala, and alca Idia mayor of Zay ula , on the shore 
of the great lake or sea of Chapala. It contains 27 
families of Indians, who employ themselves in 
fishing, and in the culture of various seeds and 
fruits, which the fertility and luxuriance of the 
soil produces; and with these they traffic with the 
neighbouring settlements, by means of canoes. One 
league w. of its head settlement. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the government ef 



ANT 

Neiba in the new kingdom of Granada, annexed 
to the curacy of the town of La Purificacion, 
situate on the spot which they call del Paramo. 
It contains 500 housekeepers; and at a very little 
distance is a convent of Agustine Rocolects. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the province and 
corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, in the kingdom of 
Quito, of the corregimiento of the district of Las 
Cinco Leguas de la capital. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the province and 
government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, in the province of Te- 
peguaria, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, situated 
130 leagues to the n. w. of the real of Guanacebi, 
in the vicinity of which is a large uninhabited spot, 
called Tinaja. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the province and 
government of Cumana in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, situate in the middle of the serrania. It is 
a reduction of Indians, and one of those held under 
the care of the Arragonese Capuchin fathers. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, which is the parish of 
the ancient Barinas, situate in the serrania and 
table plain of Moromoy, where that cily was. In 
its district are some small estates of cacao and 
sugar-cane, and some very rich modern establish 
ments of indigo. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, with the addition of 
Las Cocuisas, in the province of Barinas, situate 
near to the river Apure. Its district abounds in 
the larger cattle. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, with the addition of 
X-os Altos, situate in the vicinity of the city of 
Caracas. Its mountains abound in excellent woods 
and in maize. 

ANTONIO, SAN, a town of the province and 
government of Guayana in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, situate on the shore of the river Paragua. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the province and 
government of Maracaibo in the kingdom of 
Tierra Firme, and district of the city of San Chris- 
tobal ; situate in the road which leads down to 
the Nuevo Reyno. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the same province 
and government as the former, situate in the district 
of the city of Pcdraza. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the same province 
and government, on the shore of the river Paragua, 
near its source, between the cities of Pedraza and 
Barinas Vieja. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another settlement and asiento 
of the mines of the province and government of 
Chucuito in Peru, near the volcano of Ornate. 



ANT 



79 



ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the province and 
captainship of the bay of Todos Santos in Brazil, 
situate on the shore of the river Paraguaca, near 
the bay. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the province and 
captainship of Sergipe in the same kingdom, situ 
ate on the coast, and at the mouth of the large 
river of San Francisco, at the same point. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the same province 
and captainship, situate at the source of the river 
Sirugipa. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another settlement and real of 
the silver mines in the province and bishopric 
of Guadalaxara in Nueva Espaiia. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the province and 
corregimiento of Colchagua in the kingdom of 
Chile, on the coast, and at the mouth of the river 
Rapel. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the province and 
corregimiento of Aconcagua in the same king 
dom. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the province and 
government of Tucuman, in the jurisdiction of 
Cordova, to the w. of this city. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the same province 
and government as the former, situate between the 
settlements of Solo and Tororal. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the province and 
corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of 
Chile, on the shore of the river Mamas. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, in the province and 
captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, distinct from 
the other of the same name, which is found in it. 
It lies upon the coast, and at the mouth of the river 
of Sun Angelo. 

ANTONIO, SA\ T , another, of the same captainship 
and kingdom, on the shore of the river Tapi- 
cura. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the captainship of 
Para in the same kingdom, on the shore of the 
river of the Amazonas, and??, of the capital. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the province and 
corregimiento of Ibarra in the kingdom of Quito, 
situate to the s. s. e. of the capital. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the province and 
government of Popayan in the new kingdom of 
Granada. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the missions held 
there by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in 
the province of Gaira, of the government of Para 
guay. It is destroyed, and the ruins of it alone 
are visible upon the shore of the river Guabay, 
from the time that it was razed by the Portuguese 
of San Pablo, in 1680. 



80 



ANT 



ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the province and 
government of Buenos Ayres, situate upon the 
shore of the river Ibiguay. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, in the country and 
province of Las Amazonas, and territory of Mata- 
groso, between the river Itenes and that of 
Senere", to the w. of the town of S. Francisco 
Xavier. 

AJTTONIO, SAN, another, with the surname of 
Abad, in the province and government of Carta 
gena, of the district of Sinu, situate on the bank of 
the stream Ingles ; one of those lately formed in 
1776 by the governor Don Juan Pimienta. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, in the province and 
captainship of Los lllieos in Brazil ; situate near 
the sea coast, and at the source of river Santa 
Cruz. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, in the province and 
taptainship of Paraiba in Brazil, on the shore of 
the river Camaratuba. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the province and 
captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, on the coast 
of the river Ciranhaya. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the missions, who 
maintained the religion of S. Francisco, in Nuevo 
Mexico. 

ANTONIO SAN, another, of the head settlement 
of Teutalpan, and alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan, in 
Nueva Espana ; one league distant from its head 
settlement. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, called El Cerro del 
Antonio, in the province and government of Car 
tagena, situate on the sea shore, on the n. coast, 
and also to the . of thereat De la Cruz. 

ANTONIO, SAN, a capital town of the province 
and alcaldia mayor of Zuchitepec in the kingdom 
of Guatemala. 

ANTONIO, SAN, a village in the province and 
captainship of Todos Santos in Brazil. 

ANTONIO, SAN, a town of the province and 
taptainship of the bay of Todos Santos in Brazil. 

[ANTONIO, SAN, a town in New Mexico, on the 
o>. side of Rio Bravo river, below St. Gregoria. 
Also the name of a town on the river Hondo, 
which falls into the gulf of Mexico, n. e. of Rio 
de Bravo, and on the eastern side of the river, s. 
by w. from Texas.] 

[ANTONIO, SAN, another town in the province 
of rfavarre in N. America, on a river which runs 
5. w. in the gulf of California.] 

ANTONIO, SAN, a bay on the coast of the S. sea, 
of the province and government of Choco, close 
to that of San Francisco Solano. 

[AJTTONIO, SAN, DE LOS CUES, averypopu- 



A N T 

lous place of the intendancy of Oaxaca, on the 
road from Orizaba to Oaxaca, celebrated for the 
remains of ancient Mexican fortifications.] 

ANTONIO, SAN, a port of the n. coast of the 
island of Jamaica, between Cold bay and the 
river Grande. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the coast of the 
kingdom of Chile, in the S. sea, and of the pro 
vince and corregimicnto of Melipilla. Lat. 33* 
39 s. Long. 71 41 w. 

ANTONIO, SAN, a cape or point of land of the 
river Mississippi, opposite the Isla Grande. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, on the coast of the 
province and government of Buenos Ayres, one of 
the two which form the entrance of the mouth of 
the river of La Plata. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, which is the w. extre 
mity of the island of Cuba, opposite that of Coto- 
che, of the province of Yucatan, from whence it 
is four leagues distant. Long. 84 56 . Lat. 
21 54 . 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, on the coast of the 
province and captainship of Todos Santos in Brazil, 
close to the cape of S. Salvador ; there is a castle 
in it of the same name, and a settlement, in which 
excellent sugar is made. Long. 38 37 w. Lat. 
13 s. 

ANTONIO, SAN, a small island of the coast of 
Brazil, between this and that of Santa Catalina, in 
the captainship of Rey : the Portuguese have a 
fort in it of the same name. 

ANTONIO, SAN, a small river of the same king 
dom ; it rises in the sierra of Los Coriges, runs c* 
and enters the Tocantines on the w. side. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another small river of th 
province and government of Buenos Ayres, which 
runs w. and enters the Parana, between those of 
Anna Maria and Bernardo de Arcos. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the province and 
captainship of Rey in Brazil, which runs e. and 
enters the great lake of Los Patos, in the territory 
of the Tages Indians. 

ANTONIO, SAN, a large river of the province 
and captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil ; it enters 
the sea, upon the coast between that of Camaraibi, 
and that of Antonio Pequeno, so called to distin 
guish it from this river ; also called Antonio 
Grande. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, called Antonio Peque 
no, to distinguish it from the former; in the same 
province or captainship. It runs into the sea 
between that river and the lake Del Norte. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the province and 
government of Texas in Nueva Espana. 



A N Z 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the province and 
government of Costarica, in the kingdom of Gua 
temala ; it runs into the N. sea, between the rivers 
Conception and Talamancas. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, of the province and 
government of Paraguay ; it runs n. and enters the 
Grande de Curituba. 

ANTONIO, SAN, a point of land on the coast of 
the strait of Magellan, between the bay of Arenas 
and the bay of Santa Catalina. At this point 
Pedro Sarmicnto took possession of that country 
for the crown of Spain. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another, on the coast of the 
province and corregimiento of Melipilla in the 
kingdom of Chile, between those points which 
form the port of the same name. 

ANTONIO, SAN, some shallows or rocks on the 
coast of Brazil, of the province and captainship 
of Los Ilheos, at the entrance or mouth of the 
river of Santa Crnz. 

ANTONIO, SAN, a canal, running from the 
river of Magdalena, which enters the swamp of 
Santa Marta, of the province and government of 
this name. 

ANTONIO, SAN, a fort of the province and 
government of Buenos Ayres, on the banks, and at 
the source of the river Sala, built as a defence 
against the Pampas Indians ; it lying directly in 
the road which leads to Tucuman. 

ANTONIO, SAN, another fort and garrison of the 
province and government of Buenos Ayres. 

[ANTRIVENTR1A, a subdivision of Tierra 
Firme, lying to the s. of Cartagena.] 

ANUNCIACIOiV, NUFSTRA SENORA DE LA, 
a settlement of the province and government of 
Mainas in the kingdom of Quito, situate at the 
source ofthe river Santa Maria. 

[ANVILLE, or Miller s Town, in Dauphine 
county, Pennsylvania, at the head of Tulphe- 
hocken creek. When the canal between the 
Susquehannah and Schuylkill, along these creeks, 
is competed, this town will probably rise to some 
consequence. It lies 18 miles n. e. by e. from Har- 
risburgl*, and 65 n. w. from Philadelphia.] 

[ANZ FRMA. See ANSERMA.] 

ANZUI ^LOS, a river of the province and 
government of Costarica in the kingdom of Gua 
temala ; it vises near the coast, runs e. and enters 
the sea bet.veen the rivers San Juan de Nicaragua 
and Matiiu;, in the province of Veragua. 

ANZUKROS, or ANZURES, a river of the 
province nnd government of Quijos and Marcas 
in the kingdom of Quito ; it runs nearly due s. 
and enters the Putumayo. 

VOL. I. 



A P A 



81 



APABOTA, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Guayana, or N.ueva Andalucia ; it rises 
in the country of the ferocious Charibbee Indians, 
and enters the Arui, on the n. side, a little before 
that of the Apaguata. 

APACEO, SAN JUAN BAUTISTA DE, ahead 
settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor 
of Zelaya, in the province and bishopric of Me- 
choacan; it contains 135 families of Indians, ami 
200 of Spaniards, Mu sices , and Mulattoes, as well 
as a convent of Franciscan monks. The territory 
of its jurisdiction is very fertile and pleasant; it 
is renowned for its abundant crops of grain and 
delicate fruits, especially the grape, which is held 
in high estimation for the superiority of its fla 
vour. Four leagues to the s. of its head settle 
ment. 

APACF.O, another settlement, with the dedica 
tory title of Santa Maria, in the head settlement of 
the district of Zitaguaro, and alcaldia mayor of 
Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacan ; it 
contains 24 families of Indians, and is three 
leagues to the s. of its head settlement. 

APACHE, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Chancay in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Paccho. 

[APACHIERA, an audience and province of 
New Mexico, whose capital is St.. Fe.] 

APACUATA, a small river of the province 
and government of Guayana, or Nueva Anda 
lucia. It rises in the country of the ferocious 
Charibbee Indians, and enters on the n. side into 
the Arui. 

APAGO, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito ; it rises 
in the cordillera, runs n. and enters the Maranon, 
forming first some lakes by its waters. 

APALACHES, a nation of Indians of Florida, 
in the territory of its name ; dwelling on the side 
of a chain of rugged mountains. They are very 
fierce, and so valorous, that it has never been pos 
sible to subject them from the time that they were 
first discovered by the Governor Hernando de 
Sota, in 1539. They have for their dwellings 
certain edifices of an oblong square figure, the 
extremities of winch universally point due n. and 
s. so that they are little molested by these winds, 
which, indeed, are here the most prevalent. The 
pavement is simple and elegant ; being made of 
calcined shells, and of a sort of sand of a gold 
colour, which they collect from the mountains, 
forming from it a paste, which, being spread upon 
the ground, and becoming dry, emits a colour as 
brilliant as though it were a plate of gold. The 



A P A 



clothing and household furniture of these Indians 
consists of the skins of the beasts of the mountains : 
although they have abundance of vines, they are 
very sober, from their ignorance in what manner 
to make use of them, and commonly drink nothing 1 
but water: they are accustomed to give their 
male children the names of the enemies they have 
conquered, or of some hostile settlement which 
they have plundered and burnt: they maintain 
the strictest faith in war ; nor are they excited to 
this by a slight pretext, neither through a spirit of 
avarice or of conquest, but only when they arc 
obliged for their own defence, or for the just satis 
faction of injuries received. These Indians have 
never known the barbarous method of poisoning 
their arrows ; they treat their prisoners with hu 
manity, and their wives and children in the same 
manner as their servants: some assert that they 
are very long-lived, and that it is common for 
them to reach a century : they adore the sun, to 
which they sing hymns every morning and even 
ing ; but at present they have a religion, which is 
a mixture of their own with the catholic and some 
protestant sects. [The A pal aches are emigrant 
Indians from West Florida 4 from off the river 
whose name they bear ; came over to Red river 
about the same time the Boluxas did, and have 
ever since lived on the river, above Bayau 
Jlapide. No nation has been more highly esteem 
ed by the French inhabitants, no complaints 
against them are ever heard. There are only 14 
men remaining, who have their own language, but 
speak French and Mobil ian.] 
.-/yA PAL ACHES, a bay on the coast of this pro 
vince, discovered by the Governor Hernando de 
Soto, in J535, from whence the Spaniards after 
wards formed a settlement called San Marcos, 
which was immediately reduced to a miserable 
village of Indians : before its cession, together 
with the province, to the English in the peace of 
Versailles, in 1763, it had a fort manned by a 
detachment of the garrison of San A gust in. Seven 
ty-four leagues from the bay of Carlos. 

APAL ACHES, a settlement of Indians of the pro 
vince and government of Louisiana ; situate on 
the shore of the river Movila. 

[APALACHES, or St. Mark s River, rises in the 
country of the Seminole Indians, in E.Florida, near 
the n.w. source of Great Satilla river; runs s. w. 
through the Apalachy country into the bay of 
Apalachy, in the gulf of Mexico, about J5 miles 
below St. Mark s. It runs about 135 miles, and 
fulls into the bay near the mouth of Apalachicola 
/iver.] 



A P A 

[APALACHIAN Mountains, a part of the range 
called sometimes by this name, but generally 
Alleghany mountains. In this part of the great 
chain of mountains, in the Cherokee country, the 
river Apalachicola has its source.] 

APALACHICOLA, a town of the province and 
colony of Georgia, in which the English had a 
fort, on the shore of the river Savannah, now 
abandoned. 

[APALACHICOLA is likewise the name of the 
mother town or capital of the Creek or Musco- 
gulge confederacy, called Apalachucla by Ber 
tram. It is, says he, sacred to peace ; no cap 
tives are put to death, or human blood spilt here ; 
and when a general peace is proposed, deputies 
from all the towns in the confederacy meet here to 
deliberate. On the other hand, the Great Coweta 
Town, 12 miles higher up the Chata-Uche river, 
is called the Bloody Town, where the Micos chiefs 
and warriors assemble when a general war is pro 
posed ; and there captives and state malefactors 
are put to death. Apalachicola is situated a mile 
and an half above the ancient town of that name, 
which was situated on a peninsula formed by the 
doubling of the river, but deserted on account of 
inundations. The town is about three days jour 
ney from Tallassee, a town on the Tallapoose 
river, a branch of the Mobile river. See COWETA 
and TALLASSEE.] 

APALACHICOLA, a river running between E. 
and W. Florida, [and having its source in the Apa- 
lachian mountains, in the Cherokee country, with 
in 10 miles of Tuguloo, the upper branch of Savan 
nah river. From its source to the mouth of 
Flint river, a distance of 300 miles, it is called 
Chata-Uche, or Chatahooche river. Flint river 
falls into it from the *. e. below the Lower Creek 
towns, in n. lat. 31. From thence it runs near 
80 miles, and falls into the bay of Apalachy, or 
Apalachicola, in the gulf of Mexico, at cape 
Blaize. From its source to the 33d deg. of n. 
lat. its course is s. w. ; from thence to its mouth, 
it runs nearly s. See CHATA-UCHA and FLINT 
Rivers.] 

[APALACHY Country extends across Flint 
and Apalaches rivers, in E. Florida, having the 
Seminole country on the n. e. Apalachy, or Apa- 
lachay, is by some writers applied to a town and 
harbour in Florida, 90 miles e. ofPensacola, and 
the same distance w. from Del Spiritu Santo 
river. The tribes of the Ap-dachian Indians He 
around it.] 

[APALOUSA, Indians of N. America. It is 
said the word Apalousa, in the Indian language, 



A P A 

means black head, or black skull. They are 
aborigines of the district called by their name. 
Their village is about 15 miles a. from tlie Apa- 
lousa church ; have about 45 men. Their native 
language differs from ail other ; they understand 
Attakapa, and speak French, plant corn, have 
cattle and hogs.} 

APANEO, SAN FHANC:-SCO DK, a settlement 
of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia 
mayor of Tixtlan in Nucva Espana, of a hot tem 
perature. Its population, including its wards, 
may amount to 352 families of Indians. Three 
leagues n. of its capital. 

APANGO, a head settlement of the district and 
alcaldia mayor of Zayula in Nueva Espana, with 
140 families of Indians; five leagues $. of its 
capital. 

tiAPANI, a river of the province and country of 
tbe Amazonas. It rises in the territory of the Aspe- 
ras Indians, runs n.n.w. and enters the Madera. 

APANTOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, 
who inhabit the woods lying 20. of the province of 
Guayaquil, and n. of the Maranon ; bounded on 
the w. by the province of the Curies Indians, 
with whom they live in union and friendship. 
They are inimical to the Tupinambos, use bows 
and arrows for weapons, and a certain kind of 
short darts, which are very heavy. They go en 
tirely naked, both men and women ; the latter 
accompany their husbands to battle, and assist 
them by carrying and serving out to them their 
arrows. They live by the chase, and worship a 
demon, which, according to some, appears in 
hideous forms to their priests, who pass for won 
derful sorcerers, and are very skilful at banquets 
in mingling poison in the cups of the guests. 

APARCELADGS, CABO, a cape on the coast 
of the PatagoneS). which lies between the straits of 
Magellan and the river La Plata.. 

APARIA, an imaginary and fabulous province, 
which some geographers maintain to be situated to 
the . of the river (Jururary, and that of the Mara* 
nou, where there is, in fact, no other province than 
that of Los Quijos. 

APAR1CION, a settlement of the province and 
government of Venezuela, situate on the shore of 
the small river which runs into the G uache. It lies 
n. of the town of Araure, and e. of Truxillo. 

APAiiU, a river of the kingdom of Brazil, 
which rises in the serrania, to the s. of the town 
Boa ; runs s. and enters the Madera. 

APASTEPEC, a settlement of the province and 
alcaldia mayor of San Salvador, in the kingdom of 
Guatemala. 



API 83 

APATO, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento ofXaujasin Peru. 

APATENOMA, a river of the district of Mar- 
cas, and government of this name, in the king 
dom of Quito. It rises in the cordi Iem, near 
the settlement of the Inca, and enters the Ma 
ranon . 

APAXCO, a settlement of the head settlement 
of the district of Atitalaquia, and alcaldia mayor of 
Tepelango,- in Nucva Espana. It contains 145 
families of Indians. 

APAZINGAN, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tanzi- 
taro in Nueva Espana. It contains 34 families of 
Spaniards, 48 of Mmlees and Miulattoes, and 22 
of Indians, and in the rancos of its district 47 
others; all of whom are employed in cultiva 
ting the land, in breeding the larger cattle, and in 
collecting bees-wax and honey. Its temperature 
is sultry ; its territory is fertile, agreeable, and 
abounding ia fruits, and lies 11 leagues to the s. 
of its capital. 

APENA, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. It 
rises in the interior of its mountains, is navigable 
for small vessels and canoes, and runs almost di 
rectly from s. to n, turns to the e. and enters the 
Guallaga on the e. side ; forming, about half-way 
in its course, a lake called Mahuati. 

APERAS, a barbarous nation of Indians, who 
inhabit the forests bordering on the river Maranon,. 
towards the s. They are divided into various 
tribes or companies, meeting for the purposes of 
labour, and wandering through the woods. They 
occupy a space of unknown country, of upwards 
of 46 leagues, beyond the river Cayari. 

APE RE, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Mojos in the kingdom of Quito. 

APERRUES, a barbarous nation of Indians, 
of the province of Paraguay, to the n. e. to the 
e. of the city of La Asuncion. These Indians are 
idle, proud, and restless, continually molesting 
the other nations. The few that have remained 
are reduced into something like a settlement. 

APETUOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, of 
the kingdom of Brazil, in the province and 
captainship of Puerto Scguro. They live in the 
woods towards the s. and in the vicinity of rivers 
and lakes, that they may be able to occupy 
themselves in fishing, which is their princi 
pal means of subsistence. They are but little 
known. 

AP1AGA, a small river of the province and 
government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito,- 
M 2 



84 



A P O 



A P O 



It rises in the sierra which divides this province 
from that of Quixos and Marcas, runs nearly due 
j. and enters the Morona. 

APIA!, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of S. Juan -de Los Llanos in the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada, annexed to the curacy of the 
city of S. Martin del Puerto. It is poor and 
wretched, of a very scorching temperature, and, 
as such, produces only maize, yucas, and plan 
tains, immediately by it, the regulars of the 
abolished company of Jesuits had a noble and rich 
estate. In its district is found abundance of the 
herb escorzoneza (viper s grass). 

AP1CHIQUI, a barbarous nation of Indians, 
of the kingdom of Quito, on the coast of the S. 
sea, and to the s. e. of that city. It is compre 
hended in the government of Mainas, and was sub 
jected and united to the empire of Peru by the Inca 
liuainacapac, thirteenth Emperor. 

APIOCHAMA, a large and rapid river of the 
kingdom of Peni. It runs to the n. of the city 
of La Paz, and after running 22 leagues from 5. w. 
to n. e. it enters the w. side of the river Beni. 

APISSINITAS, a small river of New France, 
or Canada, which runs $. zo. between those of 
Monepieux and De Pic, and enters the lake Supe 
rior. 

APLAO, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Cuinana in Peru, situate in the fer 
tile valley of Mages, close upon a river. 

APO, SAN MARTIN DE, a settlement of the 
head settlement of the district of Uruapan, and 
alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and 
bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 30 families 
of Indians, and is distant 15 leagues to the e. of 
its head settlement, and 27 from the capital. 

APOLABAMBA, a province of Peru, bounded 
by the province of Moxos to the e. and Carabaya 
to the zo. It extends about 80 leagues from s. w. 
to K. e. and in this space are situate the settlements 
consisting of the missions of Apolabamba, founded 
and governed by the monks of San Francisco, of 
the province of San Antonio de Charcas. Of these 
settlements there are eight, and the number of their 
inhabitants, including both sexes and all ages, 
may amount to 3000. The country is mountain 
ous, intersected with hills, rocks, and precipices ; 
the road, consequently is very rugged from the 
settlement of Buenavista to the pleasant valley ; in 
going to which, are three descents, called, from 
steepness, the Attempts, (las Tentaciones), the last 
being the most difficult. This territory has many 
rivers, the most considerable of which is the Tui- 
clii. Many idioms are spoken in the aforesaid 



provinces, the inhabitants being a mixture of diffe 
rent nations, namely, the Uchupiamonas, Lecos, 
Yubamonas, and Poromonas. The fruits which 
they cultivate are yucus, rice, maize, camotes, 
mani) and plantains, which are the common ali 
ment of all the settlements : they likewise cul 
tivate cotton, of which they make body linen for 
themselves : they collect some wax, which the 
bees deposit in the trunks of trees ; and in the 
pampas or llanos of Isllamas, some cacao, which 
is produced without any other trouble or culture 
than such as nature may afford. The trees herp 
are very numerous ; of these are the guayacanes> 
cedars, inarias, &c. Ir it be not put a stop to 
soon, these woods will be rilled with monkeys of 
every tribe ; these animals are very mischievous, 
and, in order to gratify their appetites, pick off 
all the buds from the trees. On the moun 
tains are several wild beasts and venomous animals, 
insects, and grubs. In every settlement, two al 
caldes are appointed by the missions, for its poli 
tical government, and these appointments are 
confirmed by the viceroy of Peru. The produc 
tions that have been before stated as peculiar to it, 
are carried for sale to La Paz, and to other 
parts, the products of which, whether they may 
nave been sold or exchanged, are sufficient for the 
necessary subsistence of the Indians, and of the 
missionaries and the churches. The larger cattle, 
the flesh of which alone is here tasted, are provid 
ed from the provinces of Lampa andAsangaro; 
and with the two settlements of Thumapasa and 
Isllamas, the last of the province of Moxos, it 
barters cacao for other goods. The entrance to 
this province is through the settlement of Pelechu- 
co, from that of Larecaxa. 

The settlements of this jurisdiction are, 
San Juan de Sahagun, San Antonio de Aten, 
S. Juan de Buenavista, S. Joseph de Uchupia- 
Santo Cruz de Valle monas, 

Ameno, Trinidad de lariapu, 

Concepcion de Apola- S. Antonio de Isllamas. 

bambii, 

APOLABAMBA, a settlement of this province and 
corregimiento, situate on the shore of the river 
Santa Rosa, one of those which are composed of 
the missions. 

APOMARCA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Cotabambas in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Pitu. 

APOMATOX, a river of the province and 
colony of Virginia, which runs e. and turning 
towards the s. afterwards takes its former direction, 
until it enters the river James. 



A P O 

APONGARA, a small river of the province 
and colony of Surinam, or part of Guayana be 
longing to the Dutch. It enters into another river, 
which is nameless, and where many rivers unite to 
enter the Cuyuni. 

APONGO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Vilcas Huaman in Peru, annexed 
to the curacy of Canaria. 

APONIA, a settlement or alcaldia mayor of the 
Portuguese, in the province and country of the 
Amazonas, situate on the shore of the river of its 
name, a little before it enters the Madera. 

APONIA, a river of the same province, which 
runs from w. to e. and enters that of the Madera, 
opposite that of Tucumare. 

[APOQUENEMY Creek falls into Delaware 
bay, from Middletown in Newcastle county, 
Delaware, a mile and an half below Reedy island. 
A canal is proposed to extend from the 5. branch 
of this creek, at about four miles from Middle- 
town, to the head of Bohemia river, nearly ^eight 
miles distant, which will form a water communi 
cation between Delaware bay and that of Chesa- 
peak, through Elk river.] 

APOROMA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru, situate on the 
frontier of the Chunchos Indians, on the shore of 
the river Inambari. It has a celebrated mine -of 
gold of the finest quality. 

APOSOL, a settlement of the head settlement 
of the district and alcaldia mayor of Juchipila 
in Nueva Espana, situate five leagues to the s. of 
that head settlement. 

APOSTOLES, a settlement of the missions 
which belonged to the regulars of the abolished 
company of Jesuits, in the province and govern 
ment of Paraguay, situate between the rivers Pa- 
Tana and Uruguay, to the s. of the settlement 
of S. Joseph. 

[APOSTOLE&, a settlement of Indians, of the 
province and government of Buenos Ayres, found 
ed by the Jesuits in 1632, in the mountains of 
Tape. Lat. 27 54 43" s. Long. 55 49 19" o>.] 

APOSTOLES, some islands of the strait of Ma 
gellan, which lie at its entrance into the S. sea, 
close to the cape Deseado. They are 12 in num 
ber, from which circumstance this name was given 
to them. They are all small, barren, and desert; 
their shores, although they abound with good 
shell-fish, are very dangerous, from being rocky. 
Lat. 52 s 34 s. Long. 75 6 w. 

APOSTOLES, another island, of lake Superior, 
of New France, or Canada, situate near the s. 
const. 

APOTOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the 



A P U 



85 



province and country of Lns Amazonas, who inha 
bit the shores of the river Cunuris, bounded on the 
n. by the nation of the Tagaris, and s. by that of 
the Cunuris. 

APOZO, SAX LUCAS DF, a settlement of the 
head settlement of the district of Irurnpo, and al 
caldia mayor of Maravatio, in the bishopric of Me- 
choacari. It contains 15 families of Indians, and 
is a league and a half e. s. e. of its head settlement. 

APPA, a settlement and the capital of the alcal- 
dia mayor of this name, in Nueva Espana. Some 
call it Apami. It contains 200 families of In 
dians ; and its jurisdiction, which is very much re 
duced, comprehends only two other head settlements 
of the district. It lies on the boundary dividing 
the archbishopric of Mexico from the bishopric of 
La Puebla, and it has itself some territory in the 
latter. Its inhabitants employ themselves in tilling 
the ground. In the two aforesaid settlements, in 
cluding those of its rancherios and estates, the inha 
bitants amount from 25 to 30 families of Spaniards, 
MusteeS) and Mulattoes, who are equally employed 
in the cultivation of maize, barley, beans, and 
other seeds, and in the breed of swine, for which 
the country is well adapted. 

[APPLE Island, a small uuinhabi ed island in 
St. Lawrence river, in Canada, on the *. side of 
the river, between Basque and Green islands. It 
is surrounded by rocks, which renders the naviga 
tion dangerous.] 

[APPLE Town, an Indian village on the . side 
of Seneca lake, in New York, between the town 
ships of Ovid on thes. and Romulus on the .] 

[APPOMATOX is the name of a s. branch of 
James river, in Virginia. It may be navigated 
as far as Broadways, eight or ten miles from Ber 
muda Hundred, by any vessel which has crossed 
Harrison s bar in James river. It lias eight or 
nine feet water, a mile or two farther up to Fisher s 
bar, and four feet on that and upwards to Peters- 
burgh, where all navigation ceases.] 

APROBAGUE, orApitooACK, a river of the 
province and government of Cayenne, belonging 
to the French, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. 
Its source is in the interior of the mountains, and it 
enters the sea near cape Orange. 

APROBAGUE, a point or cape of the coast of 
the same province. It is one of those which form 
the entrance or mouth of the river mentioned in 
the above article. 

APUALA, a settlement and head settlement of 
the district of the alcaldia mayor of Tepozcolula 
in Nueva Espana ; situate in the most woody part 
of the road leading to the coast. In its territory 
are found two-headed eagles. Onr of these, which 



86 



A P U 



had been killed, was presented by the curate. lo the 
Marques de Valero, viceroy of that kingdom ; and 
the viceroy sent it to Spain. 

APTAI-A, anolher settlement in the alcaldia 
mayor of Yanguitlari, with 85 families of Indians, 
who employ themselves in the cultivation of seeds 
and fruits of different sorts. Six leagues n. of its 
capital. 

APUCARA, an ancient province of Peru, n. of 
Cuzco. In past times it was Avell peopled by In 
dians. It was conquered by Yupanqui, fifth Em 
peror of the Incas, and united to the empire of 
Capac. 

APUI, a small river of the province and go- 
Ternment of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It 
rises in the country of the ferocious Charibbee In 
dians, runs nearly due e. and enters the Arvi. 

APU1AS, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the 
kingdom of Brazil, in the province and captainship 
of the Rio Janeiro. They inhabit the loftiest 
mountains towards the w. and extend themselves 
to the . for many leagues. These Indians are 
rriu l and treacherous, and are continually at war 
Avith the bordering nations and with the Portuguese, 
to. whom they do infinite mischief, from the nightly 
sallies that they are accustomed to make. The 
women, as Avell as the men, go entirely naked. 
They are given to drunkenness and luxury, re 
specting neither age nor affinity the most close, 
and render themselves a terror even to their friends 
and allies. They live upon the flesh of their ene 
mies, or upon fish. They are accustomed to treat 
tfieir prisoners well, that they may get fat, and 
make them, for this reason, partake of their horrid 
banquets. If there should be among the captives 
on unfortunate female, she becomes the victim of 
their brutal lust, end uniformly perishes under 
their repealed and successive acts of violation, and 
is thus abused till she literally breathes her last. 
These Indians could never be subjected either by 
the Portuguese or by the missionaries ; for tht.se 
have always fallen a victim to their cruelty. 

APU1DO, a settlement of the province of Vene 
zuela and government of Maracaibo; situate in 
the Punta Colontda of the coast. 

APU1LAILAUAXARE, a river of the pro 
vince and country of Las Arnazonas, in the 
Portuguese possessions. It rises in the territory of 
the Andhases Indians, runs from s. to n. and 
turning its course a little to the w. e. enters the 
river Abacachis, which is a canal or arm of the 
Mad era. 

APULCO, a settlement and head settlement of 
the ahaldia mayor of Cuquio in Nueva E.spanu. 
.Three leagues e. of its capital. 



A P U 

[APURE, SAN FERNANDO DF, a j-ettlemcnt 
formed on (he right shore of the celebrated river of 
this name, by some of the inhabitants of the town 
of Guanare, of the province; and government of 
Venezuela. Allured by the fertility of the soil, they 
soon obtained for their little village the title and 
honours of a cily. Their property consists chiefly 
in oxen and mules, and, they are given much 
rather to grazing than to agriculture. Their city, 
without being large, is pretty well built, and the 
only church it has, though not a grand building, 
is neat and well endowed. Population about jjOOO 
souls.] 

APURE, a large river of the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada; it rises in the serranias of Pamplona > 
and takes the name of Uru, collecting in its chan 
nel the Maters of several other streams ; namely ? 
that of Chitaga, which rises in the sume s/crlYf, 
those of St. Domingo, Masparro, ami La Portu- 
guesa, in the jurisdiction of Barinas, and that of 
Guarico in Caracas. Being formed of all these, 
it takes the name of the Apure for upwards of SCO 
leagues through the extensive llanos of San Juan, 
and, overwhelmed by the weight of its waters, 
rushes through a forest, and empties itself into the 
Aguarico, which flows in a small stream from the 
province of Caracas, and is not navigable until it 
receives these additional waters : it then, in an un 
restrained course, runs 20 leagues further, and 
enters, by very rapid streams and by three mouths, 
into the Orinoco. Its rush is indeed so violent, 
that, although it be there a league in width, the 
Orinoco resigns its current entirely to the influence 
of the waters of the Apure for upwards of a league, 
when the fury of this river being somewhat abated 
by dreadful whirlpools, (at which even the dex 
terous and crafty Indian has been known to shud 
der), it runs for the space of three leagues more 
amicably with the Orinoco ; its waters, however, 
being yet distinguishable, from their bright and 
crystal appearance, until, being further commixed 
by the rocks of the current of Aguarico, they be 
come at length inseparably confounded with the 
sombre stream of the Orinoco. On its shores are 
four settlements of the missions which were held 
there by regulars of the order of the Jesuits and 
others, consisting of some reductions of Indians, 
established by the monks of St. Dominic. Near 
the city of Pamplona is a very large bridge. On 
the ;?. part this river receives, besides those already 
mentioned, those of Caparo, Suripa, Canagua, 
Paguii, Cailode Guachi-quin,and Yuca; and on 
the s. the Guaritico, Cano tie los Seteata, and 
others of little consideration, such as the Mati- 
yure. In the part called La Horqucta de Apure, 



* A P U 

opposite the settlement of San Antonio Jo Cocnisns, 
and on the s. side, this river throws out an arm, 
which is called Apurito, through which it dis 
charges nearly a fourth part of its waters : and 
thus separating itself from the mother stream, it 
traverses a great part of those llanos, sometimes in 
the main branch, and at others divided into various 
lesser streams, forming sundry islands ; and these 
again uniting, receive the waters of the Arauca, 
which flows clown from the llanos of Cazanare, 
and enters the Orinoco. The main body of the 
A pure, after receiving the river Portuguesa, 
throws out an arm to the n. which runs to unite it 
self with the Guarico, in the province of Venezuela, 
and then empties itself into the Orinoco. The re 
gulars of the company of the Jesuits did not find 
any settlements of missionaries on the shore of this 
river, as, in fact, all the settlements that were 
founded by them were at some distance from it. 
[The Apure (observes Depons) rises in the neigh 
bouring mountains of St. Christopher, belonging 
to the kingdom of Santa Fe ; its length is 170 
leagues, of which 40 arc from n. e. to s. e. and the 
remainder from w. to e. it then takes its course to 
the s. to join the Orinoco. It is navigable for 
more than 60 leagues, and in its course increases 
the volume of its waters by a number of other rivers, 
of which some are also navigable, and the more 
useful, because, after having irrigated a great part 
of Venezuela, they serve for the conveyance of the 
produce which springs from the luxuriance they 
afford to the soil. These rivers are the Tinaco, 
San Carlos,* Cojeda, Aguablanca, Acarigua, Are, 
Yaruo, Hospiria, Abaria, Portnguesa, Guanare, 
Tucupido, Bocono, Masparro, La Yuca, St. Do 
mingo, Paguey, Tisnados, &c. These succes 
sively confound their waters in the immense plains 
of Venezuela. Almost the whole of them are 
united above Santiago, and form a considerable 
volume of water, which, at twelve leagues below 
that place falls into the Apurc, 20 leagues n. of the 
Orinoco. This quantity of water being too much 
for the bed of the Apure to contain, is forced into a 
division of many branches, and so falls by several 
months into the Orinoco. The cattle bred upon 
the banks of the Apure, and of the other rivers 
which lose their names in joining its waters, consist 
of numerous droves, and are highly esteemed. 
They are principally oxen, horses, and mules, but 
chiefly the latter. Their exportation is naturally 
by Guayana, through the accommodation of the 
pastures in that route up to the Orinoco. All 
the part of Venezuela, forming the new province 
of Barinas, and even all its s. part, are invited by 
the facility of the transport tp so iid their coffee, 



A Q U 



87 



ootlon, Mud iiiJigo, to Guayann, instead of carry 
ing them on mules to Caracas or Puerto Cabal .o, 
over a hundred leagues, on roads almost impracti 
cable, and crossed by rivers nearly unbounded.] 

APUR1MAC, a large river of the province of 
Abancay in Peru ; it rise. 1 - in it, and following a n. 
course, passes through Cuzco, uniting itself after 
wards with those of Santiago and Pachucuaca, and 
after running 120 leagues through the mountains 
of the Andes, it enters the Maranon with the name 
of Ucayale, in such an augmented stream that it is 
difficult to ascertain which is the tributary one ; it 
then, by the force of its waters alone, is obliged to 
change the direction of its course. Some have 
maintained that this river is truly the Maranon, 
founding their opinion on its remote origin. It 
traverses the high road which leads from Lima 
to Cuzco, and other provinces of the sierra. It 
is crossed by a bridge, made of thongs or cords, 
of SO yards long and three wide, at which there 
is paid a toll of four reals for every parcel of goods 
of the country, and 12 reals for such as are of Spaim 
Some bagres are caught in this river. 

[AQUA FORT, a settlement on the e. side of the 
s. c. extremity of Newfoundland island. Lat. 47 
5 n. Long. 52 33 a>.] 

AQUAQUATI, a river of the province and 
government of Portobelo in the kingdom ofTierra 
Firme ; it rises in the mountains on the n. and 
enters the sea at the bay of Mandinga, opposite 
the small island of Broquel. 

AQUATZAGANE, a settlement of Indians, 
of the province and colony of Pennsylvania. 

[AQUEDOCHTON, the outlet of lake Wimi- 
piseogee, in New Hampshire, whose waters pass 
through several smaller ones in a s. w. course, and 
empty into Merrimack river, between the towns of 
Sanburn and Canterbury.] 

AQUEPEZPALA, a settlement of the province 
and alcaldia mayor of Comitlan in the kingdom of 
Guatemala. 

AQUETI, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. It rises 
in the country of the Guallagas Indians, enters the 
river of this name, and that of Ucayale, runs w. 
and e. forming a curve, and enters the latter. 

AQUI, a river of the province and government 
of San .Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. It runs e. and enters the Rio Negro, 
where the Maranon joins the Orinoco. 

AQU lA, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Caxatambo in Peru, aunexed to the 
curacy of Chiquian. 

AQU1ACULCO, a river of the province and 
government of Vcra Cruz in Nueva Espona. It 



83 A Q U 

runs n. and enters the sea to the a), of the Alvarado, 
opposite La Roca Partida. 

AQU1CHA, a settlement of the province and 
corregiminito of Yauyos in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of its capital.] 

[AQU1DNECK, the ancient Indian name of 
Rhode island, in the state of Rhode island. 

AQUIGU1RES, a barbarous nation of Indians, 
of the kingdom of Brazil, very numerous and 
valorous ; they inhabit the woods and mountains 
towards the a 1 , and make frequent sallies upon the 
Portuguese establishments of the captainship of 
Espiritu Santo, and often do great mischief. Iheir 
customs are similar to those of the other barbarous 
tribes in Brazil. 

AQUILA, SANTA MARIA DE, a settlement of 
the head settlement of the district of Maltrata, and 
akaldta mayor of Orizaba, in Nueva Espana. It 
contains 70 families of Indians, and is half a 
league distant from its head settlement, and lies 
lour and a half w. of the capital. 

AQUIMURU, a settlement of the province and 
government of La Sonora in Nueva Espana, 
situate at the source of a river, near the settlement 
of Busanis. 

AQUINABIS, a settlement of the missi ons 
held by the Portuguese Carmelite fathers, in the 
country of the Amazonas, situate on the shore of 
the Rio Negro. 

AQUIRA, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Cotabambas in Peru ; near to which 
is a spring of water, forming a stream abounding in 
trout, which, although small, are nevertheless well 
tasted, and much esteemed, especially in the time 
of Lent. 

AQUIRE, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Guayana in Nueva Andalucia. It rises in 
the sierras of Itamaca, and enters in a very large 
stream into the Orinoco, where this runs into 
the sea, at its widest mouth called De Navios. 

AQUIRE, a port of the coast of the kingdom 
of Tierra Firme, in the province and government 
of Cumana. 

AQUISMON, a settlement and head settlement 
of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Valles in 
Nueva Espana, situate on the skirts of the sierra 
Madre. It is commonly the residence of the 
akaldia mayor, and a Franciscan convent that it 
has is the abode of the grand ecclesiastical super 
visor of the jurisdiction, from the conveniency of 
its central situation, for providing against any un 
toward circumstances that might happen upon the 
frontiers, and for a check upon the bordering In 
dians. It contains 240 families of Indians, 25 of 
Spaniards, and as many others of Mustees and 

2 



A R A 

Mulatloes. At three leagues distance, upon the 
skirt of the sierra, it has two rancherias of Pames 
and Guastccos Indians. Twelve leagues s. of its 
capital. 

AHAA1BAIBAS. SeeGuAiiAYos. 

ARABANATE, a large lake of the province 
and government of Mainas in the kingdom of 
Quito, to the s. of the river Marailon, abounding 
in tortoises. It enters through a canal into the river 
Guallaga, on the e. side. It is three leagues dis 
tant from the settlement of the lake, which is the 
principal of the missions of Mainas, and four 
from the settlement of Chamicuros, to the n. n. w, 

ARABATE, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Yamparaes in Peru, of the 
bishopric of Charcas. 

ARABIBIBA, a small river of the province 
and captainship of Todos Santos in Brazil. It rises 
at the foot of the sierra of Mongaveira, runs e. 
and afterwards shaping its course s. enters the 
bay. 

ARACA, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Cicasica in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of that of Lurubay. It has in its district 
a gold mine, though the same is worked with 
little success. / 

ARACAI, a river of the province and captain 
ship of Paraiba in Brazil, it rises in the territory 
or country of the Petiguares Indians, runs e. and 
then shaping its course to s. s. e. enters the sea, 
between the river of Monganagappe and the port 
of Jorge Pinto. 

ARACARI, a settlement of the missions held 
by the Portuguese Carmelite fathers, in the province 
and country of Las Amazonas ; situate on the 
shore of the Rio Negro. 

ARACARI, a river in this province, in the part 
belonging to the Portuguese. It runs e, and 
forms a large lake before it enters the Rio Negro. 

AHACAS, a small river of the province and go 
vernment of Cumana, which rises close to the set 
tlement of Iguana, runs s. and enters the Orinoco, 
opposite the Ciudad Real. 

ARACOA, CANO DE, an arm of the river 
Orinoco, communicating with the channel of Ma- 
nano, and the grand river Desparrarnadero. 

ARACOR1, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of Rey in Brazil, situate in the island 
Bepitanga. t 

ARACU YES, a barbarous nation of Indians, of 
the kingdom of Brazil, but little known : they live 
in the woods of the captainship of Pernambuco^, and 
all that is known of them is, that they are nume 
rous, and feed with a rare zest upon tigers : they 
go naked, and carry suspended to their ears, lips, 



A R A 

and prepuces, small tablets of an oval form, for 
ornament : they paint their bodies all over red 
and yellow, and to their heads, arms, and legs, 
they attach the feathers of the birds of the most 
beautiful colours : their weapons are bows, arrows, 
and clubs of heavy wood. 

ARAGANA-CUERA, a lake of the province 
and country of the Amazonas, in the territory pos 
sessed by the Portuguese. It is an overflowing or 
pool of the river Maranon, opposite the island 
Cuchibara. 

ARAGANATUBA, a settlement of-the province 
and country of the Amazonas, in the part pos 
sessed by the Portuguese ; situate on the shore of 
that river. 

ARAGUA, a town of the province of Barcelona, 
in the government of Cumana, founded in 1744 by 
some Mustees and Negroes, who established them 
selves there. The territory, although level, is 
only fit for breeding cattle, for which purpose there 
are 24 estates. Its inhabitants may amount to 
150. The above estates, with some plantations 
which yield wretchedly, together with the indo 
lence of the natives, concur in making it alto 
gether but a desolate spot. Twenty leagues from 
its capital. 

ARAGUA, some valleys in the province and 
government of Venezuela, where there are fjve set 
tlements of Spaniards and some Indians, called 
La Victoria, S. Mateo, Cagua, Turmero, and 
Maracay, near the lake of Valencia ; in the dis 
tricts of which are many estates of indigo, some 
sugar-mills, and abundance of tobacco, with 
which article they supply the government. 

ARAGUA, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Paraguay, which runs n. and enters the 
Moretes. 

ARAGUAIA, a large river of the province and 
captainship of Para in Brazil. It rises in the 
sierra of the Coriges, runs n. n. e. and afterwards 
turning n. enters the Tocantines, in the territory of 
the Parainabas Indians. 

ARAGUITA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Venezuela, in the district of which 
there are many good cacao estates. It belongs to 
the curacy and parish of Caucagua. 

ARAGUITA, SA.VTO DOMINGO DK, a settlement 
of the province and government of Cumana in 
Nueva Andalucia, founded in the year 1690, on 
the shore of the river Nivcri, by the father Alonso 
Ilomnias, a monk of the order of St. Francis, 
near a rocky piece of ground, in which is a spring 
of fine water, and from which this place took 
its name. It is close to a lofty and pleasant moun 
tain. Its territory is fertile in cacao, sugar-cane, 

VOL. I. 



A R A 89 

cassavi, maize, plaintains, and other fruits of that 
country. It contains 250 souls, and is three 
leagues .?. e. of Nucva. Barcelona. 

ARAHUAI, a settlement of the province and 
government of Canta in Peru. 

ARAIPALGA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Chilques y Masques in Peru, an 
nexed to the curacy of Colcha. 

ARAMANCHE, a small river of the province 
and colony of N. Carolina, which runs s. e, and 
enters the Saxnpahan. 

ARANCAI, a town of the province and corre 
gimiento of Huamalies in Peru. 

ARANCAGUA, a large river of the kingdom 
of Chile, in the territory of Coquimbo, in the n. 
part. It rises in the mountains of the Andes, and 
running from e. to ro. washes and fertilizes the 
beautiful plains of Curimon, Aconcagua, Quillota, 
and Concon, and empties itself in an abundant 
stream into the S. sea. 

ARANDA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Popayan in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. 

ARANJUEZ, a town of the province and 
alcaldia mayor of Nicoya in the kingdom of 
Guatemala, thus called from the resemblance that 
this delightful country has to the royal seat of 
this name in Spain. It has nevertheless a very- 
scanty population of Indians, and is five leagues 
from the city of Nicoya. 

ARANTAC, a port of the S.sea, on the coast of 
the province and corregbiiento of Arequipa in, 
Peru. It wants both security and convenience, 
and is only frequented by a vessel now and then 
driven to it in distress. 

ARANTZAN, SAN GF.ROXIMO ne, a settle- 
went and head settlement of the district and acaldia 
tnnvor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric 
ofMechoacan; the jurisdiction of which consists 
of nine settlements. It is of a cold temperature, 
and is but scantily inhabited, having been almost 
entirely depopulated by an epidemic disorder, 
called here matlazahua. Twelve leagues w. of it* 
capital. 

ARAPA, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Asan^raro in Peru. 

ARAPARIPUCU, a town of the province and 
captainship of Para in Brazil, situate on the bank 
of the arm of the river Maranon, or Amazonas, 
which forms the island of Marajo. 

ARAPECUMA, a river of the province of 
Guayana, in the territory of the Portuguese : it 
rises in the country of the Apamns Indians, runs 
s. and enters the Maranon near the .strait of 
Pauxis. 



90 



A R A 



ARAPIJO, a settlement of the province and 
captains/tip of Para, in Brazil, on the shore of the 
river of I /as Amazonas, near the Curupa. 

ARAPIJOS, a settlement of the same captain 
ship and kingdom as the former ; situate on the 
5. shore of that river, between the settlements of 
Maraques and Comaru. 

AKAPUCU, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Guayana, in the Portuguese posses 
sions. It runs s. s. c. between those of Carapana- 
tnba and Macuacuari, entering the Maranon at its 
month, or where this river disembogues itself. 

ARARANA, a lake of the province and coun 
try of Las Amazonns, in the territory of the Por 
tuguese. It is a large pool of water formed by 
various canals or arms of the Maranon. 

ARARANGUA, a small river of the province 
" and captainship of Rev in Brazil. It runs e* and 
enters the sea near the Morros of Santa Marta. 

ARARAPIRA, a settlement of the province 
and captainship of Sari Vincente in Brazil ; situate 
in the island Bepitanga. 

[ARARAT, Mount, or the Stone Head, a short 
range of mountains on the n. frontier of N. Caro 
lina, in a n. e. direction from Ararat river ; a n. w. 
branch of Yadkin river.] 

ARARAZ, a settlement of the captainship of 
San Vincente in Brazil, on the shore of the river 
Turmay. 

ARARI, an abundant river of the province and 
captainship of Para in Brazil. It rises from the 
mountains to the w. of Tarnaraca. The woods 
that are immediately on its shore arc inhabited by 
some barbarian Indians, the Tapuyes. It runs s. 
and enters the sea, opposite the great island Ta- 
maraca. 

ARARI CA, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Paraguay. It runs e . and enters the 
grand river San Pedro, in the captainship of San 
Vincente in Brazil. 

ARASAGIL, a river of the province and cap 
tainship of Maranham in Brazil. 

ARASAP1, a small river of the province and 
government of Guayana, in the Dutch territory. 
It enters the Esequibe, or Esquibo. 

A RASAS, a barbarous nation descended from 
the Sernigae?, inhabiting the woods which lie be 
tween the rivers Tig re and Curaray. 

ARASPAHA, a city of the province and colony 
of New York, founded by the Dutch in 1(>OS. It 
has a good fort, and was taken by the English, un 
der tlie command of Robert Carr, in 1640. They 
have since been in possession of it. 

ARATAI. SecTARACiNi. 

[A RATH APE SCOW, an Indian tribe inhabit- 



A R A 

ing the shores of the lake and river of that name, 
in the ;/.u>. part of N. America, between the lati 
tudes of 57 and 59 ;/. North of this nation * 
abode, and near the Arctic circle, is lake Edlande, 
around which live the Dog-ribbed Indians.] 

ARATICtI, a river of the province and cap 
tainship of Para in Brazil, which runs n. between 
the rivers Jacunda and Tocantines, and empties it 
self into the mouth of the river Amazonas. 

ARAUAGIA, a river of the province and coun 
try of Las Amazonas. It rises in the territory of 
the Curanaris Indians, runs n. and enters, after a 
short course, that of the Mataura. 

ARAUAR1, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Cayena in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme. It has its rise in the mountains, and enters 
the sea between cape Orange and the bay of Vi 
cente Pinzon. 

ARAUCA, a grand river of the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada, which flows from the mountains of 
Bogota, and passes through the llanos of Cazanare 
and Meta. Its shores are inhabited by the China- 
tos, Jiraras, and other barbarous nations of In 
dians. 

[ARAUCAI, a river of the province of Chaco 
in Peru. It is an arm of the Pilcomayo. 1 

ARAUCANOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, 
of the kingdom of Chile, who inhabit the country 
lying s. of the river Biobio, in the mountains of 
the Andes, extending also over the plains. They 
are the implacable enemies of the Spaniards, who 
have never been able to reduce or subject them. 
On the contrary, whenever their country has been 
invaded, they have manfully resisted their ene 
mies, committing the most terrible slaughter and 
execution amongst them, destroy ing their cities and 
forts, laying waste their lands, and never sparing 
the life of a Spaniard. The women, indeed, they 
reserve for their own use, as happened in the years 
1599 and 1720. They are faithless and traitorous, 
but of incredible valour and resolution. The first 
peace which was made with them, from an idea 
that it was impossible to reduce them to subjec 
tion, took place in 1641; Don Francisco de Tu- 
niga, Marques de Baydes, Conde del Pcdroso, be 
ing president, governor, and captain-general of the 
kingdom. In 1650 a peace was concluded for 
the second time, but which was broken a short time 
after, like the first. Before the rebellion of 1720, 
the missionaries of the Jesuits had formed, with 
inconceivable trouble and dangers, five large set 
tlements of these Indians ; but every thing was 
lost by this revolution, and a third peace was aftcr- 
wards established in 1724. This lasted till 1767, 
when it was also broken. These Indians were ac- 
2 



A R A 

customed to carry on a trade with the Spaniards, 
exchanging their manufactures of wool, and their 
horses, not inferior to those of the famous Andalu- 
cian breed, for wine, leather, and earthen ware. 
They have no chief or head to govern them : all 
military authority rests in their elders, to whom 
they pay the same respect as though they were the 
fathers of the country, and from them, in times of 
war, they select a general or commander, whom 
they call toquil^ and he is the arbiter both of 
war and of peace. His armies are formed from 
the various tribes, and meet together with the ut 
most quietness ; they are composed of cavalry and 
infantry; theirfirst attack is terrible, especially that 
of the foremost ranks ; they have some few fire 
arms and swords, but the principal and most com 
mon weapon is a long and thick lance, which they 
manage with great dexterity. They are robust, 
handsome, and liberal, but much addicted to ine 
briety and sensuality ; nevertheless the men, as 
well as the women, live honestly after their fashion. 
The Spaniards, to defend themselves against their 
invasions, have built some forts upon the confines, 
furnished with men and artillery ; and in its dis 
trict is celebrated, once a year, a kind of fair, at 
which a meeting is made between the president of 
Chile and the ancients of these Indians, to ratify 
the treaties of peace ; and the former makes, in 
the name of the king, various presents of leather, 
wine, and cloths of different colours. The num 
ber of inhabitants is very considerable, as well 
through the polygamy that prevails here, as that 
the climate contributes to propagation. In its dis 
trict are mines of gold of excellent quality, but 
they are not worked. [In the s. provinces of the 
Araucanos, between the nrer Biobioand the Archi 
pelago of Chiloe, several very rich mines of gold 
were formerly discovered, which yielded immense 
sums ; but since the expulsion of the Spaniards 
from those provinces by the Araucanos, these 
mines have been in the possession of that warlike 
people, who have prohibited the opening them 
anew by any one under pain of death. In the 
territory of these Indians is the Quila rush, of 
which they make excellent lances ; also a shrub 
producing honey, and the boighe tree, which they 
have, from time immemorial, considered sacred, 
carrying its branches in their hands on the conclu 
sion of a peace, as the ancient nations of Europe 
did those of the olive. See a complete history of 
their manners, <$r. in article CHILE.] 

ARAUCO, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Tucuman, in the district of the city of 
ilioja. It is fertile in wine of excellent quality, 



A R A 



91 



but in every thing besides very poor ; for which 
reason tl*ey petitioned the king, as arbitrator in 
their cause, to provide for this unproductiveness of 
soil by encouraging their mines, and, for this pur 
pose, allowing them to avail themselves of the mule 
trade carried on between the jurisdiction of Cor 
dova and Peru. 

ARAUCO, a fort in the kingdom of Chile, on 
the shores of the river Tucapel, built for the pur 
pose of restraining the invasions of the infidel In 
dians. Close to it there was a college belonging 
to the regulars of the abolished order of Jesuits. 

ARAUJA, a settlement of the island of Trini 
dad, in the kingdom of Ticrra Firme, situate on 
thee. coast behind the point of Los Arracifes. 

ARAUJO, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Santa Marta in the kingdom of Ticrra 
Firme, situate at the mouth of the river Magda- 
lena. 

ARAUNA-PURU, a river of the country of 
Las Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese. 
It runs . n. w. and enters the Cumaypi. 

ARAURE, a city of the province and govern 
ment of Venezuela in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme. It is on the shore of the river Acarigua, 
and n. n. e. of the city of Truxillo. [The city of 
Araure is one of the happy results of the labours of 
the first Capuchin missionaries of Andalucia, who, 
by persuasion and mildness, effected that which 
was thought impossible to be accomplished but bjr 
force of arms ; namely, the bringing to a civilized 
life its savage and idolatrous race of Indians. The 
situation of Araure is fine, agreeable, and advan 
tageous. Three rivers water its territory, which is 
fertile, but of which the inhabitants are far from 
making every advantage. Their principal and 
almost sole occupation is the rearing of cattle. 
They cultivate only some cotton and a little coffee. 
The ground of the city is regular and agreeable. 
The streets are straight. It has a handsome square. 
The houses are well built ; but the only thing 
worthy of note is the church, which is superb, 
and famed for the image of our Lady of C orteza, 
who enjoyes the public veneration, not only of all 
the faithful of the city, but also of all those in the 
surrounding villages, although the fame of her 
power and miracles are not equal to those ascribed 
to our Lady of Comoroto.j 

ARAURO, a celebrated gold mine in the pro 
vince and corregimicnto of Condesuyos of Are- 
quipa in Pern, it is of metal of the best quality, 
but little worked, both on account of the hardness 
of the stone and of its depth, which makes the la 
bour of it very expensive. 
N 2 



92 ARE 

ARAWARI, a settlement of the province of 
Guayana, in the Portuguese possessions, situate on 
the coast. 

ARAWARI, a river of this province and territory, 
which runs in an abundant stream to the e. and 
enters the sea opposite the island of Penitencia. 

ARAX1, a rapid and violent river of the king 
dom of Brazil, in the province and captainship of 
Paraiba. It flows down from the mountains lying 
to there , passes through some extensive forests, and 
enters the Mongaguaba. 

ARAYA, SANTIAGO DE, a point of land on the 
coast of Nueva Andalucia, and government of Cu- 
mana, where there were some famous salt pits ; and 
for the defence of these, a castle was built, forming 
a square, with good bastions, and mounting heavy 
artillery, which, however, was ultimately destroy 
ed, from the salt pits having become useless, inas 
much as, owing to some n. winds, they had been 
filled with more than six fathoms of water. Lat. 10 
36 n. Long. 64 20 w. 

ARAZA, a large river of Peru. It rises in the 
cordillera of the Andes of Cuchoa, in the province 
and co>~res:imiento of Pomabamba, runs n, and then 
f. making various wind ings until it enters, through 
different mouths, the abundant waters of the Ma- 
ranon. Some will have it to be the same as the 
Cuchivero, through the origin which is given to 
it by Don Cosine Bueno, geographer of Peru, in 
his description of the province of Cuzco. 

ARBI, VALLE DE, in the province and govern 
ment of Cartagena, of the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, near the river Cauca, where formerly was 
founded the town of Antioquia, the ruins of which 
(as it has been translated to another spot) are still 
to be seen here. 

ARBOL, ARROYO DEL, a small stream of the 
province and government of Buenos Ayres. It 
runs 5. and enters the Gil. 

ARBOLEDAS, a scanty and mean settlement 
of the province and government of Pamplona, in 
the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, of a hot tempera 
ture, and lying in a very craggy and rocky spot. 
It produces sugar-cane, yucas, plaintains, and 
other fruits of that climate ; is 16 leagues n. e. of 
Pamplona, and divided from thence by many 
rivers, which are passed over by bridges made of 
cane. 

ARBOLES-SECOS, CABO DE, a point of land 
on the coast of Brazil, and province and captain 
ship of Maranon, between the island of Santa Ana 
and the sand bank of Pireyras. 

ARBOLETES, CIENEGA DE LOS, a port of 
the coast of the N. sea, in the province and go- 



A R C 

vernment of Cartagena, and kingdom of Tierra 
Firme. It is a recess at once beautiful, capacious, 
and quiet ; covered with trees, sheltered from 
every wind, and irrigated with a small river of 
delicious water. It is 24 leagues from the river 
Sinu. 

ARBOREDA DEL NORTE, an island on the 
coast, and in the province and captainship of Rey, 
of the kingdom of Brazil, to the n. of the island 
Santa Catalina. 

ARBOREDA, another island in the same province 
and captainship, called Del Sur, (of the south), 
to distinguish it from the former, as it lies in the 
same direction, as does also that of Santa Catalina. 

ARCAHA1, a settlement and parish of the 
French, in their possessions in St. Domingo, situ 
ate on the w. coast, between the river Lodos and 
the bay of Flamencos. 

ARCAI, a settlement of the province and corre~ 
gimicnfo of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile, si 
tuate in the valley of Colina. 

ARCANGELES, a settlement of the missions 
held by the regulars of the abolished company of 
Jesuits, in the province of Gaira and government 
of Paraguay. Its ruins alone are visible at the 
source of the river Pegueri or Itazu, since that 
they were destroyed by the Portuguese Paulistas, 
or followers of St. Paul. 

ARCARD1NS, Islands of, near the w. coast 
of the island of St. Domingo, in the French pos 
sessions, between that of Goanava and that of 
Cayo Icarnier. 

ARCAS, a river of the province and captainship 
of Para in Brazil. It rises in its mountains, and 
runs to disembogue itself into the mouth of the 
river De las Amazonas, opposite the island of Joa- 
nes, or De IVlarajo. 

ARCAS, some small islands or rocks near the 
coast of Yucatan, in the bay or gnlph of Mexico. 
[Lat. 2CP 12 7 . Long. 92 24 .] 

ARC AT A, a settlement and seat of the silver 
mines of the province and corregimiento of Con- 
desuyos de Arequipa in Peru. They were formerly 
very rich, and produced much metal, but they are 
at present in great decay for want of labourers. 

[ARCH Spring. See BALD EAGLE Valley.] 

ARCH1D1PISCO, SAN SEBASTIAN DE, a set 
tlement of the head settlement of the district of Xa- 
capistla, and alcaldia mayor of Cuenavaca, in Nu 
eva Espaiia. 

ARCH I DONA, a city of the province and go 
vernment of Quijos and Marcas in the kingdom of 
Quito. It is very small and poor, from the incur 
sions that it has continually suffered from the bar- 



ARE 

barons Indians. Its inhabitants, who may amount 
to little more than 150, cultivate maize and plain- 
tains ; these, with the food they procure by the 
chase, being their subsistence. It produces no 
thing besides, although i(s soil is very fertile, and 
its temperature mild. 

ARCH1HUENU, a small river of the province 
and corregimif.nto of Quillota in the kingdom of 
Chile. It runs s. s. ZD. and joins tiie Lihuay to en 
ter the Longomilla. 

[ARCHIPELAGO, D.ANGEFOUS, the name 
given by Bougainville, in Feb. 1768, to a cluster 
of islands in Ihe Pacific ocean, in the neighbour 
hood of Otaheite, situate between 10 and 18 s. 
lat. and between 142 and 145 w. long, from Pa 
ris. The islands which compose this Archipelago, 
he named Qu;:tre Facardins, the Lanciers, and La 
Harpe : there are other islands forming two groups, 
to which he gave no names. In April 1769, Capt. 
Cook fell in with these same islands, and named 
them Lagoon island, Thrum Cap, Bow island, 
and the Two Groups.] 

[AUCHIPKLAGO of the Great Cyclades, a cluster 
of islands in the Pacific ocean, lying between 14 
and 20 s, lat. and between 166 and 170 e. long. 
Discovered by Bougainville, 22d of May 1768. 
This is the same cluster of islands discovered by 
Quiros 1606, and by him called TIERRA AUSTRAL 
DEL ESPIRITU SANTO, which see. Captain Cook 
passed these islands in 1774, and called them New 
Hebrides.] 

ARCOS, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Parinacochas in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Charnbi. 

ARDAS, a barbarous nation of Indians, who in 
habit the s. of the river Napo, and the n. of the 
Maraiion, in the provice of Quijos and kingdom of 
Quito. They occupy the thickest forests, and are 
bounded by the Maisamaes. 

[ARDO1S, a mountain in Nova Scotia, between 
Windsor and Halifax, 13 miles n,w. from the lat 
ter. It is deemed the highest land in Nova Scotia, 
and affords an extensive prospect of all the high 
and low lands about Windsor and Falmouth, and 
the distant country bordering the basin of Mi- 
nas.] 

AREAS, a small river of the province and cap 
tainship of Para in Brazil. It runs n. and enters 
that of Las Amazonas near the town of Cu- 
xupa. 

AREBATO, a small river of the province and 
government of Guayana, of Nueva Andalucia. It 
rises in the country of the Carinacas Indians, and 
enters the Cayora. 

AREBICO, a town of the island and govern- 



A R E 



93 



ment of San Juan de Puertorico, 30 leagues dis 
tant from its capital. 

ARECHONA, a marsh of the province and 
government of San Juan de los Llanos in the Nu- 
evo Reyno de Granada. It is formed by different 
arms of the rivers Sarare and Apure, and commu 
nicates itself with another, called De Cascas, at the 
foot of the mountain desert of Chisgas. 

ARECO, a small settlement of the province and 
government of Buenos Ayres, situate on the shore 
of the river of its name. It has large breeds of 
cattle, especially of the mule kind, in which it car 
ries on a great commerce. Its families may amount 
to 60, and is 24 leagues from its capital. [It is situ 
ate on a small river near the Parana. Lat. 34 
14 2" s. Long. 59 47 a>.] 

ARECO, a small river of the same province and 
government, which runs from s.w. to n.e. entering 
that of La Plata between thoseof Lujan and Arrecife. 

[AREGUAY, a settlement of Indians of the 
province and government of Paraguay, situate on 
a small river four leagues e. of Assuncion. Lat. 
25 18 s. Long. 57 26 42" a?.] 

AREGUE, a settlement of the province and 
government of Venezuela, in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, situate on the shore of the river Tucuyoj 
to the n. e . | to the e. of the city of Carrora. 

AREITO, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Cumana. It rises n. of the table-land of 
Guanipa, runs s. and enters the Guarapiche. 

AREN, a river of the province and government 
of Cumana. It rises at the foot of the mountains 
of Bergantin, runs e. and enters the Guarapiche. 

ARENA, BAH i A DE LA, on the s. coast of the 
island of Jamaica, close to the point of Morante. 

ARENAL, a point on the coast of the island of 
Margarita. It is the extremity looking to the w. 
and opposite to the point Tortuga. 

ARENAS, BAHIA DE, a bay on the coast of 
the strait of Magellan, between the bay of Agua- 
buena and the point of San Antonio de Padua. 

ARENAS, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Tucuman, situate between the rivers 
Tala and Del Rosario. 

ARENAS, another, of the province and govern 
ment of Cumana in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. 
It is situate on the shore of a river near to Cuma- 
nagota, to the n. $ to n. w. 

ARENAS, a point on the coast of the province 
and government of Maracaibo. 

ARENAS, another, which looks to the e. of the 
island of La Puna, in the province and govern 
ment of Guayaquil. 

ARENAS, another, likewise called De San Sebas 
tian, in the coast of the Tierra del Fuego, one of 




94 ARE 

those which form the entrance of the canal of San 
Sebastian, in the strait of Magellan. 

ARI.NAS, an island of the coast of the kingdom 
of Tierra Firme, in the province and government 
of Cartagena, opposite the Morro Hermoso. 

ARENAS, a shoal of the sound of Campeche, 
near the coast of this province and government. 

ARENAS, some medanos, or mountains of sand, 
of the coast of Peru, in the province and corregi- 
micnto of Piura, near the point of Negrillo. 

ARENAS, two islands between those of Caicos, 
to the n. of the island of St. Domingo. The one 
is between the Cayo Frances and the Cayo Grande, 
and the other farther distant to the s. 

ARENAS, another, called Arenas Gordas. See 

CORRIENTKS. 

AREN1 LLAS, a settlement of the province and 
corregimicnto of Aconcagua in the kingdom of 
Chile, situate on the shore of the river Ligua. 

ARENOSA, a small island near to the n. coast 
of the island of St. Domingo, between the ports of 
Caracol and of Delfin. 

ARENTAPAQUA, a settlement of tlic alcaldia 
mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric 
of Mechoacan. It contains 24 families of Indians, 
and is a league and a half distant from its head set 
tlement. 

AREPUCO, a settlement of the province and 
government of Guayana, situate on the shore of the 
river Orinoco, to the 5. of the city of San Tomas. 

AREQU1PA, a province and government of 
Peru, bounded on the n. by that of Collaguas, e. 
by that of Lampa, s. by that of Moquehua and 
that of Arica, w. by the S. sea, and n. w. by the 
province of Cumana. It is 16 leagues in length 
from n. zc. to s. e. and 12 in width at the most. On 
its coast is a port, which is insecure, and two creeks. 
Its productions, and in which it carries on a com 
merce with the other provinces, are reduced to 
wine, of which 500,000 jars, containing each 22 
flasks, are made annually in the valleys of Arequi- 
pa, Moquegua, Locumba, Victor, Tacar, Liguas 
Mages, &c. It abounds also in wheat, sugar, 
maize, and potatoes, but not in meats ; and there 
fore it is obliged to bring these hither from other 
parts. Its jurisdiction contains only 11 settlements; 
ttnd it is watered by the river Tambo, which gives 
its name to a very fertile valley, through which it 
passes ; and by the Chile, which is formed from 
the water which distils from a cavity of a great 
rock, which, on the outside, is extremely dry. 

The capital is the city properly called Arequi- 
pay, which means to say, " It is well, remain ;" 
because, in one of the conquests of the Incas, the 
yictorious army passing through these parts, many 



ARE 

of the captains, attracted by the beauty of the coun 
try, asked permission to form a settlement here, 
when they received for answer, "Arequipay." The 
Spaniards founded this city by order of Francisco 
Pizarro, in 1536, in the valley of Quilca, at 20 
leagues distance from the S. sea, on the skirt of 
the mountain called Ornate, which is loftier than 
the others of the mountains of the sierra which 
surround it. This mountain, although always 
covered with snow, vomited fire at the time of the 
conquest. The chronologer Antonio de Ilerreru 
says, that this city was founded in 153 4, and Don 
Antonio de Ulloa, in 1539 ; but one and the other 
have erred, and we follow the friar Antonio Ca- 
lancha, who affirms the first mentioned date by 
original documents. Its temperature, notwith 
standing its continual rains, is notoriously dry, 
and very benign and salutary. Its edifices are 
handsome, and built of stone ; the dwelling-houses 
being somewhat like arched vaults, and having no 
upper stories, so as to be prepared against the 
effects of earthquakes. It is watered by the river 
Chile, which is let off by sluices to irrigate the en 
virons, and to enrich the fields. It was subjected 
to the bishopric of Cuzco till the year 1577, when 
Gregory XV. erected it into a cathedral, its first 
bishop being Don Francisco Antonio de Ervia, of 
the order of St. Domingo. This authority was 
immediately extinguished, and then it became sub 
ject to its former dependency until the year 1609, 
when it again became the head seat of a bishopric, 
the influence of which extends as far as the pro 
vinces of its name, and of those of Cumana, Con- 
desuyos, Cailloma, Moquega, and Arica. The 
Emperor Charles V. gave it the title of city, on the 
15th May 1541, granting it for arms, in J549, a 
volcano vomiting fire from a mountain surrounded 
by a river. It has a beautiful fountain of brass in 
the Plaza Mayor, or chief square, and a bridge of 
magnificent arches upon the river ; three parishes, 
and convents of San Francisco, San Domingo, San 
Augustin, La Merced, and San Juan de Dios ; a 
college which belonged to the regulars of the com 
pany of Jesuits, of Recoletos de San Francisco, 
on the other side of the river ; an hospital of Ago- 
nizantes, and a college for the instruction of youth ; 
monasteries of nuns of Santa Catalina, Santa Te 
resa, and Santa Rosa ; a house of correction for 
women, a religious house (beateno) of Indians, 
and two houses of labour, both for men and wo 
men, lately founded. In the city is preserved, 
among its archives, a precious monument of some 
royal letters patent, in which Philip II. returned 
thanks to this city for its having, in times of neces 
sity, supplied to the crown abundaut relief, and 



A R E Q U I P A. 



95 



from its inhabitants having volunteered all their prior in various convents ; he went over to Spain,, 
jewels and ornaments for that purpose. Amongst where he was made preacher (o the king ; and 

i . i TTV li " 1 j 1 I _ 1 /* * J 1_ ITi 1. _ 



having acquitted himself with great credit, he 
was elected bishop of Arequipa in 1551, where 
he remained till 1658. 

7. Don Fray Juan de Almoguera, a monk of 
the order of La Santisima Trinidad Calzada ; he 
was born in Cordova, studied philosophy and 
theology in his native place, and in Sevilla ; was 
provincial minister of the province of Andalucia, 
visitor of it, and nominated for its genera! ; he was 
16 16 .?. It rains here only in^tlie months of also preacher to king Felipe IV. presented to this 



its illustrious children, we may reckon Don Alonso 
de Peralta, inquisitor of Mexico, and archbishop 
of Charcas, and Doctor Don Francisco Xarava, 
collegiate of the royal college of San Martin in 
Lima, and Oidor of Panama. This city has been 
sundry times destroyed by earthquakes, in the 
years 1582, 1600, 1604, 1687, 1"25, 1739, and 
1738. It is 217 leagues s.c. of Lima, 60 from 
Cuzco, and 50tt. of Arica. Long. 71 58 . Lat. 



December, January and February. Its settle 
ments, which are in its vicinity or suburbs, are, 
Chiuhata, Paucarpata, 

Yanahuaya, Valle de Victor, 

Characoto, Tiabuya, 

Cairna, Valle de Jambo. 

The names of the bishops who have presided in 
Arequipa. 

1. Don Fray Christobal Rodriguez, a Domi 
nican monk, native of Salamanca; he was master 
and prior of the convent of Alcala, visitor of the 
convents of Indians; elected archbishop of St. 
Domingo, and promoted to be first bishop of 
Arequipa, on 17th October 1611 ; he died in the 
town of Gumana, before he took possession, in 
1612. 

2. Don Fray Pedro de Perea, of the order of 
Augustin ; he was qualificator of the inquisition, 
and elected bishop in 1612; he died in 1624. 

3. Don Augustin de Ugarte and Garavia, who 
was elected in 1624, and promoted to the bishop 
ric of Quito in 1630. 

4. Don Pedro de Vilbgomez Vivanco, native 
of Castroverde del Campo, canon of Sevilla, 
visitor of the convents of monks of this city, 
judge of the inquisition, visitor of the royal au 
dience and university of Lima, elected bishop 
in 1631, and promoted afterwards to the arch 
bishopric of Lima in 1640. 

5. Don Pedro de Ortega Sotomayor, native of 
Lima, where lie studied in the royal university ; 
and having been there 19 years, he put up for, 
and gained the title of Professor of Arts, after 
wards that of evening lecturer, and was a professor 
of theology ; the former occupying his studies six 
years, and the latter 15 : he was magistral canon 
of that church, school-master, archdeacon and 
bishop of the church of Truxillo, from whence he 
was promoted to this in 1647, and from this to 
that of Cuzco in 1651. 

6. Don Fray Gaspar de Villarroel, of the order 
of Augustin, native of Quito ; he took the habit 
iu the convent of Callao, was lecturer of arts and 



bishopric, of which he took possession in 1661 ; 
promoted to the archbishopric of Lima in 1674. 

8. Don Fray Juan de la Calle y Heredia, of 
the order of Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes, pro 
moted from the church of Truxillo to this in 
1678. 

9. Don Antonio de Leon, promoted from the 
church of Truxillo in 1678 ; he died in 1684. 

10. Don Juan de Otalora, minister of the 
royal and supreme council of the Indies, elected 
bishop to this church in 1714, but at which 
place he did not arrive; and to his situation was 
nominated, 

Don Fray Juan de Arguelles, an Augustin 
monk, promoted from the bishopric of Panama, 
and who, though elected to Arequipa, died before 
he could take possession. 

11. Don Fray Ignacio Garrote, of the order 
of Preachers, elected bishop of this church in 
1725, and remained so until 1742, when he 
died. 

12. Don Juan Bravo del Rivero, native of 
Lima, treasurer of the church of La Plata, elected 
bishop of Santiago of Chile in J734, and promot 
ed to this in 1742. 

13. Don Juan Gonzalez Melgarejo, who was 
bishop of Santiago of Chile, and dean of Para 
guay, promoted to Arequipa, and being elected in 
1742, and remaining till 1755. 

14. Don Jacinto Aguado y Chacos, of Cadiz, 
bishop of Cartagena of the Indies, promoted to 
Arequipa, elected in 1755, and remained in 
office until 1761, when he died. 

15. Don Diego Salguero, who was elected in 
1760, and governed till 1771. 

16. Don Manuel A bad y de Liana, elected in 
1771, and who reigned till 1782. 

17. Don Fray Miguel de Pamplona, native of 
this city in Navarra, a Capuchin monk, who was 
colonel of the regiment of infantry of Murcia, 
comendador of Obreria in the order of Santiago, 
and who, having disengaged himself from the 
world, embraced a religious life, working with. 



96 A R I 

great labour in the missions of the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada, and, in spite of his resistance, was 
elected bishop of this church, in 1782, until 1786, 
when he renounced its functions. 

18. Don Pedro Chaves de la Rosa, lecturer of 
Cordoba, elected bishop of Arequipa, from the 
renunciation of this bishopric, in the year 1786. 

This city experienced an earthquake, which 
ruined the greater part of its edifices and temples, 
in 1785, but they were rebuilt in a short time. 
Among the illustrious persons it has produced, 
should be added, 

The Doctor Don Pedro Durana, archdeacon of 
his holy church, bishop elect of Paraguay. 

Don Juan Bautista dc Taborga, dean of his 
church, and bishop elect of Panama. 

Don Fray Joseph Palavisino, a monk of the 
order of St. Francis, bishop of Paraguay and of 
Truxillo. 

Don Francisco Joseph de Maran, canon of 
Cuzco, bishop of La Concepcion in Chile. 

Don Fernando Perez de Oblitas, treasurer of 
the church of Cuzco, bishop of Paraguay, and of 
Santa Cruz de la Sierra. 

Don Juan Manuel Moscoso y Peralte, arch 
deacon of the holy church of his native place, 
coadjutor of that bishopric, promoted to Tucu- 
man, and from thence to Cuzco. 

Don Clcmente Durana, oidor of Chuquisaca. 

Don Mafias de Peralta, oidor of the royal au 
dience of Mexico, and provisional captain-gene 
ral of that kingdom. 

Don Agustin Butron y Muxica, a very fine 
scholar. 

[ARGYLE, atownship in Washington county, 
New York, on the e. bank of Hudson river, con 
taining 2341 inhabitants, inclusive of 14 slaves. 
In the state census of 1796, there appears to be 
404 electors.] 

[AUGYLE, a township in Shelburne county, 
Nova Scotia, settled by A cad fans and Scotch.] 

ARIACUACA, a settlement of the province 
and country of Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese 
possessions, situate on the shore of the river 
Urubu. 

ARIARI, a large river of the province and 
government of San Juan de los Llanos in the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises in the moun 
tains of Neiva, runs from w. to e. for a long course, 
aud makes several windings, until it enters the 
Orinoco. See GUABIARE, or GUAVABERO 

ARIAS, DOMINGO, a settlement of the pro 
vince and government of Popayan in the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada, on the shore of the river 
Yaguara, and in the road which leads from Neiva 



A R I 

to Popayan, at a small distance from the city of 
La Plata. 

ARIAS, a river of the province and government 
of Tucumiui, the head of the Pasage and Salado. 
It rises to the w. of the city of Salta. 

Am AS, another, a small river of the province 
and government of .Buenos Ayres. It runs nearly 
n. w. and eiiters the Plata. 

AR1BA, a settlement of the missions belonging 
to the Portuguese Carmelite fathers, in the pro 
vince and country of Las Amazonas, situate on 
the shore of the Rio Negro. 

AR1BACIII, a settlement of the province and 
government of La Sonora in Nucva Espana, 
situate to the w. of that of Cocomorachi. 

AR1BETICHI, a settlement of the province of 
Ostimuri in Nueva Espana. It is 20 leagues n. e. 
of the 7 cul of Rio Chico. 

ARICA, a province and corregimienloofPeru, 
bounded on the n. by that of Moquehua, n. w. by 
the jurisdiction of Arequipa, w. by the S. sea, s. 
by the province of Atacamas, s. e. by that of 
Lipes, and e. by that of Pecajes. It is in length 
82 leagues n. w. s. e. and 16 in width e. w. It 
is composed, as arc the other provinces on the 
coast, of valleys, -which begin in the uneven 
grounds and windings of the cordillera, and 
which, for the most part, terminate on the shore 
of the S. sea. The parts lying between the val 
leys in this province are dry and unfruitful, and 
only serve for pastures in those months in which 
the gently sprinkling rain falls which is called 
gama, from May to September. In those val 
leys, which are, generally speaking, fertile, since 
they do not suffer from drought, is grown a suf 
ficient supply of wheat, maize, and other seeds ; 
also much Guiney pepper is cultivated, with 
which a commerce is carried on with the other 
provinces of the sierra, and a good quantity of 
cotton, olives, and sugar. In the 17th century, 
the aforesaid pepper grown on this province might 
be reckoned to produce the yearly value of 
200,000 dollars. It does not want for wines or 
brandies ; and of the vino plant, the most celebrated 
is that of the valley of Loctimba, on account of its 
flavour. In the mountains towards the cordillera, 
cattle of the larger and smaller sort are bred, also 
native sheep. It, has the fruits peculiar to its 
temperature, such as papas and some wheat, es 
pecially in the curacy of llabaya, by which the 
adjoining town of Moquehua finds a regular sup 
ply. In order to render the land fertile, the 
husbandmen make use of huano, wiiich is the 
dung of birds called hunnaes, and is brought 
from an island close upon the coast, called Iqueinc. 



ARE 

This province has very few rivers, and only two 
of any consideration, one in the valley of Loa, 
where the province is bordered by that of Ataca- 
nia, and another which flows down through the 
valley of Locumba, and is composed of two great 
streams, which flow in directions nearly contrary 
to each other, and form a very deep lake of fou r 
leagues and an half in width, at the end of which is 
a deep cavity, from which issues, with an immense 
force, the stream forming the river of Locumba, 
which continues running with an equally abun 
dant supply. This province has to the e. a vol 
cano in a very lofty mountain, from the skirts of 
which spring forth some fetid hot waters; but 
what are most worthy of note are its mines. In 
the mountains of the curacy of Pica, are veins of 
gold, and of the finest copper, neither of which 
are worked, on account of the hardness of their 
temper. In the part upon the coast are two 
mountains, namely, of Chanavnya and of Huan- 
tajaya, two leagues, more or less, from the sea, 
and some others; all of which are very rich in 
metals, which are nevertheless not worked, owing 
to the scarcity of water experienced in this ter 
ritory for many leagues. The second of these 
mountains is supposed to have been dug in former 
times ; the attempt has been repeated in the pre 
sent age, but without method ; it being imagined 
that there were no regular veins of metal in it, but 
merely some lumps, since some of these had been 
found lying detached indifferent parts. Of late, 
however, some strata of metal have been discover 
ed, and it is seen that the lumps which were first 
picked out, were only the forerunners or indica 
tors of better fortune. From hence there has been 
a regular establishment of labourers, and much 
riches have been, and still continue to be, extracted 
from this mine ; and were it not that, owing to the 
want of water, the labourers are obliged to carry 
the metals to be worked at a great distance, and 
through unpeopled parts, the masters would be 
much enriched, the kingdom would be benefited, 
and the demand for workmen much larger. This 
province comprehends 46 settlements and various 
ports. Its repartimiento used to amount to 
880,900 dollars. The settlements of this juris 
diction are, 

The Capital, Putre; 

Caplira, Sora, 

Matilla, Tarata, 

Camsana, Maure, 

Satoca, Locumba, 

Minuni, Tacna, 

Pachica, Toquella, 

Saesama, H uutacondo,, 

VOL. I. 



A R I 



Mam ifia, 



Esqmfiai, 

Ileffk-ii, 

Parinricota, 



Ticaco, 
Sama, 
Ylo, 
Pachia, 



Pachania, 
Choquelimpr, 
Libiiia, 
Chaspaya, 
Ylabaya, 
Pallagua, 
Pica, 
Huavifia, 
Cibaya, 
Camina, 
Copta, 
Tignabuar, 

Tarapaca. Socoroma, 

Yquique, Huayaquiri, 

Pachica, Umagata, 

Sipisa, Tarucachi, 

Tumar, CandaraJv. 

The capital is founded in a beautiful and plea 
sant valley, and is about a league in length, and 
on the sea shore, with a port in the middle, which 
is much frequented by vessels. It is very fertile, 
and abounds in productions, from which it derives 
great commerce, especially in Agi pepper, and in 
glass, which it manufactures. It was ancientry a 
large and renowned settlement, but at present it 
is reduced to a scanty population, since the time 
that it was destroyed by an earthquake, in 1605, 
and sacked by the English pirate, John Guarin, 
in 1680, when the greater part of its inhabitants 
passed over into the settlement of Tacna, which is 
12 leagues from hence. It has three convents, 
one of the order of San Francisco, one of La 
Merced, and another of San Juan de Dios, all 
very poor and badly served. It is 90 leagues 
7i. a?, of Atacames. Long. 70 18 . Lat. 18* 
26 s. 

A R EQUIP A, a settlement of Indians of Louisiana, 
in which the French had a fort and establishment, 
on the shore of the river Missouri. 

AREQUIPA, a mountain, called the Morro de 
Arica, on the coast of the S. sea, of the province 
and corregimiento of its name. 

AREQUIPA, a port in the above province and 
corregimfento, which wants both security arid 
convenience, but which is nevertheless frequented 
from its situation : here are to be seen the ruins of 
the city which was the capital of the province, 
and which was translated from this spot. 

ARICAGUA, a pleasant, long, and fertile val 
ley of the province and government of Maracaibo, 
and jurisdiction of the city of Merida, in the dis 
trict of which are many Indians, who are called 
Giros, and some Mustees and White*, established 
in various messuages. They have some small 
churches, do injury to no one ; and should a 
o 



08 



A R I 



priest be seen passing through their neighbour 
hood, they oblige him to say mass, and regale him 
very bountifully. They have gold mines, but do 
not work them, and their country abounds in 
honey, bees-wax, and other productions. 

ARICAGUA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Cumana, very near the city of 
Cumanagoto. 

ARICAGUA, another, of the province and go- 
Yernment of Venezuela, situate on the shore of 
the river Buga, to the e . | to the s. of the city of 
Coro. 

ARICAN, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of Para in Brazil, situate on the shore 
of the river of Las Amazonas, and at the mouth 
of that ofXingu. 

ARICARA, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of Para in Brazil, situate on the shore 
of the river Xingu. 

ARICARETES, a barbarous nation of Indians 
of Guayana, divided into two parties or tribes, 
one oriental, which inhabits the vicinity of the 
river Aricari, and gives its name to the whole na 
tion, and the other oecidental, in the neighbour 
hood of the river Yapoco. It is a very reduced 
population, and they manifest a very docile and 
pacific nature. 

ARICARI, a large river of the province and 
country of Las Amazonas. It rises in the moun 
tains of Guayana, to the s. of the fabulous pro 
vince of Dorado, and after washing the unknown 
countries of the infidel Indians, it runs e. and 
enters the Orinoco, and not into the sea, as some 
have thought. From it the Aricaretis Indians de 
rive their name. 

AR1CAPANA, a settlement of the province 
and government of Venezuela, situate on the shore 
of the river Guarico, to the /*. of the sierra of 
Carrizal. 

[A RICH AT, a town in Cape Breton island.] 

ARICOR1A, a small river of the province and 
country of Las Amazonas. It rises in the territory 
of the Guarinumas Indians, runs n. n. w. and 
enters the Madera. 

AR1COR1S, or ARICORES, a barbarous na 
tion of Indians of Guayana, to the s. w. and n. of 
the river Maranon. They are of the same origin 
as the Yaos, and are bounded on the e. by the 
Abacas, n. by the Charibbes, and s. by the Mayos : 
they have a poor spirit, though they are revenge 
ful : they go naked, both men and women : they 
believe in the immortality of the soul, and make 

freat feasts and honours for their dead, sometimes 
illing the slave, in order that he may accompany 
and serve his master in the other world : they 



A R I 

worship the sun and moon, the latter of which they 
look upon as their mother, and believe thorn to be 
animated bodies : they mnintain that the large 
stars are the daughters of the sun and moon, and 
the lesser their servants : their priests and sor 
cerers make them believe that they hold converse 
with the great spirit, which they call Valipa, 
which is the devil, who is said to appear to them 
in various forms : they traverse the forests in 
troops, carrying with them their wives and chil 
dren, and maintain themselves by the chase, and 
by wild fruits : their numbers increase astonish 
ingly, not only since they practise polygamy, but 
since they believe that in getting many children 
they do a work calculated more than any other in 
the world to render themselves great and merito 
rious in the eyes of the Vatipa : they are happy 
also in the idea of increasing their nation, so as 
the more easily to overcome their enemies. 

ARICUPA, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of Para in Brazil ; situate in an island 
which lies at the mouth of the river De dos 
Bocas. 

[ARIES Kill, a small creek which runs n. 
into Mohawk river, two miles and a half w. from 
Schoharie river, in New York .] 

ARIGUANATUBA, a large island of the river 
of Las Amazonas ; one of those which form the 
arms of the river Coqueta before they enter it. It 
is the largest of the islands inhabited by the in 
fidel Indians. 

ARIMNABA, Islands of, in the river Orinoco, 
opposite the lake Maruo, and to the w. of the island 
of Trinidad. 

ARINES, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Yucatan, which runs e. and enters the 
sea between Cainpeche and the Punta Desco- 
nocida. 

AR1NOS, a river of the kingdom of Brazil, 
which rises in the territory of the Pareses Indians, 
runs n. w. many leagues, in so large a stream as to 
be navigable for canoes, and enter* the Topayos. 

ARIO, a small settlement of the head settlement 
of the district of Xacona, and alcddia mayor of 
Zarnora, in Nueva Espana. It contains 22 fami 
lies of Indians, who traffic in skins, fruits, and 
seeds ; and is two leagues s. of its head settle 
ment. 

ARIPANUM, a river of the province and 
colony of Surinam, in the part of Guayana pos 
sessed by the Dutch. It rises between the rivers 
Mazarroni and Esquibo ; runs n. and enters the 
latter on the w. side. 

AR1PORO, a river of the province and govern 
ment of San Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo 



A R I 

Reyno de Granada. It rises near the city of Pore, 
and enters the Meta. 

ARIPUANA, a large river of the province and 
country of Las Amazonas ; it is an arm of the 
Madera, which runs in an abundant stream ; and 
forming different pools, in which are many islands, 
it returns to enter the said river through many 
mouths. 

ARIPUANA, a settlement of the above province 
and country, situate on the shore of the former 
river, in the territory of the Urubringuas Indians. 

ARIPUCO, a settlement of the province of 
Guayana and government of Cumana ; one of the 
missions which are held by the Catalanian Capu 
chin fathers. 

AR1RAPUA, a settlement and asienfo of the 
mines of the province and corregimiento of Con- 
desuyos de Arequipa in Peru ; annexed to the 
curacy of Salamanca. Its gold is of the finest 
quality, but it is not extracted at the present day 
in the same quantity as heretofore. 

ARISMENDI, SANTIAGO HE, a settlement of 
the head settlement of the district of Texupilco, 
and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec, in NuevaEspaiia ; 
annexed to the curacy of its head settlement ; 
situate on the plain of a deep ravine. It is of a 
cold and moist temperature, contains 15 families 
of Indians, and is five leagues to the s. of its 
head settlement. 

AR1SPE, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate on 
the shor of the river of its name, between the 
settlements of Chinapa and Guapique. [Persons 
who accompanied M. Galvez in his expedition to 
Sonora affirm, that the mission of Ures near Pitic 
would have answered much better than Arispe for 
the capital of the intendancy. Population 7600 
souls.] 

ARITAGUA, a river of the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada, which runs through the llanos of Caza- 
nare and Meta, and dcsembogues itself into a river 
which has the name of the former, 60 leagues 
from the port of San Salvador. It abounds in 
fish, and its forests are inhabited by some barba 
rian Indians of the Achagua nation. 

ARIUI, a settlement of the province of Bar 
celona, and government of Cumana, in the king 
dom of Tierra Firme ; one of those which are under 
the religious observers of San Francisco, in the 
missions of Piritu. 

ARIUI, a river of the above province and go 
vernment, which rises to the e. of the town of San 
Fernando, runs from the foot of the sierra of Pa- 
riagua to the e. making many windings, turns to 
the s. and enters the Orinoco. 



ARK 



99 



[ARIZ I BO, one of the principal places in 
Portorico island, in the West Indies, it has 
few inhabitants, and little trade but smuggling.] 

AH JON A, a settlement of the province and 
government of Cartagena in Tierra Firme, one of 
those which was re-united and formed of other 
small settlements in 1776 by the Governor Don 
Juan Pimienta. It is six leagues n. of its ca 
pital. 

[ARKANSAS, or ARKEXSAS, a n. w. branch 
of Mississippi river, of a very lengthy course, 
which falls in by two mouths, and forms an island. 
Thirty-five miles long, and ten broad. The branch 
on the n.e. side of the island receives White river, 
about 24 miles from its mouth. The course of the 
river Arkansas, with its meanders, Major Pike 
computes at 1981 miles, from its junction with the 
Mississippi (or rather the Missouri) to the moun 
tains ; and from thence to its source 192; the 
total length being 2173 miles : the former portion 
to the mountains may be navigated. It also re 
ceives several rivers, which are navigable for 
more than 100 miles. The banks of the Arkansas 
swarm with buffaloes, elks, and deer, in numbers 
which seem inexhaustible by the hunting tribes. 
Near the sources of this river is a prodigious 
mountain, well known by the savages for many 
hundred miles around. The altitude was observed 
on a base of a mile, and found to be 10,581 feet 
above the Prairie ; and admitting the Prairie to be 
8000 feet above the sea, the height of this peak 
would be 18,581 feet. But when our author 
on this occasion mentions the peak of Teneriffe, 
he forgets the authentic observations of La Crenne, 
and other astronomers employed by the Frencli 
king, who have sufficiently ascertained that the 
height of the peak of Teneriffe is only 1742 toises, 
or 10,452 French feet, above the level of the sea. 
It is the detached and insular situation which makes 
this peak appear higher than it really is. If it 
approached nearly to the height of Mont Blanc, 
15,500 feet, the difficulty of the ascent would be 
such, that four days would not be more than suffi 
cient to go and return ; whereas there is no hint of 
any such circumstance. But it is almost neces 
sary to apologize for any such observations on the 
work of our enterprising traveller. One man can 
not unite every quality ; and a scientific traveller 
might have perished amidst the difficulties which 
were surmounted by his courage and perseverance. 
The distresses suffered by him and his companions, 
amidst those mountains covered with eternal snow, 
were terrible ; famine daily staring them in the 
face; while their clothing was exhausted, the 
blood started from under the bandages of their 
o 2 



100 



ARM 



snow-shoes, and some of the men even lost their 
feet by the severity of the frost. 

[ARKANSAS, are Indians wholiveon the Arkansa 
river, s. side, in three villages, about 12 miles 
above the post or station. The name of the first 
Tillage is Tawanima, second Oufotu, and the third 
Ocapa ; in all, it is believed, they do not at pre 
sent exceed 100 men, and are diminishing. They 
are at war with the Osages, but friendly with all 
other people, white and red ; are the original pro 
prietors of the country on the river, all which 
they claim, for about 300 miles above them, to 
the junction of the river Cadvva with Arkansas ; 
above this fork the Osages claim. Their language 
is Osage. They generally raise corn to sell ; are 
called honest and friendly people.] 

All LET, a settlement and parish of the French 
in the island of Martinique. It is a curacy of the 
Capuchin fathers, situate on the coast which looks 
to the <r. and lias this name from two bays, one of 
which is larger than the other, and which are at 
the extremity of the island. 

ARLET, a point or cape of this island, on the 
n. n. <. coast. 

[ARLINGTON, a township in Bennington 
county, Vermont, 12 miles n. from Bennington. 
It has 991 inhabitants.] 

ARM A, SANTIAGO J>E, a city of the province 
and government of Antioqnia, in the Nuevo 
Key no de Granada, founded by Sebastian de Be- 
nalcasar in 1542, aud peopled by Captain Miguel 
Munoz: it was a little time after removed to a 
*hort distance, and the ruins of it are still to be 
seen on the shore of the river Cauca. It is of a 
very hot temperature, but abounding in gold 
mines : it is fertile in seeds, and in the productions 
of the country, but barren in those of Europe. 
It is memorable by the unjust death which the 
Marshal George Robledo experienced under the 
hands of its founder ; that unhappy person having 
suffered decapitation. The natives, the Indians, 
used still to eat human flesh, notwithstanding the 
settlements the Spaniards had made amongst them. 
Fifty leagues n, e. of Popayan, and 16 from An- 
serma. Lat. 5 33 n. Long. 75 36 w. 

ARMA, another settlement of the same pro 
vince and corregimieiito of Castro-Vircyna in 
Peru, and annexed to its curacy ; near to it 
are two large . estates, called Huanca and II u- 
aiiupisca. 

ARMADILLO, SANTA ISABEL DEL, a settle 
ment and head settlement of the district of the 
alcaldia mayor of S. Luis de Potosi in Nueva 
Espafia. In its vicinity, and in that of the estates 
of its district, are counted 675 families of Spaniards, 



A R O 

Masters, and Mulattoes. Six leagues to the e. of 
its capital. 

ARMENTABO, a river of the province and 
government of French Guayana, which runs c. 
and enters the Oyapoco. 

ARM IRA, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme, 
which rises in the mountains towards the n. and 
runs into the sea by the side of cape Tiburou. 

ARM1ROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of 
Paraguay, descendants of the Guaranics ; they 
inhabit a fertile and pleasant country, and were 
first discovered by Alvar Nunez Cabcza de Vaca 
in 1541. 

ARMUCICESES, or AHMOUCHIQUOIS, a bar 
barous nation of Indians, of the province of New 
France, or Canada. 

ARNEDO. SeeCnANCAV. 

AROA, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Venezuela in Tierra Firme. It rises in 
the sierra to the w. of the town of S. Felipe, runs 
e. and enters the sea beyond the bay of Burbu- 
ruta, opposite to some islands which are called 
Los Cayos de San Juan, to the s. of the point of 
Tucaca. It is formed from the waterfalls of the 
serrania of the cities of San Felipe and of Bari- 
quismcto. In its course it fertilizes a large val 
ley, in which there is a settlement, as also some 
fine cacao estates. 

AROCOBA, a river of the province and go 
vernment of French Guayana. 

AROI,a river of the province and government of 
Guayana, which rises in the centre of this province, 
from the lake Casipa, in some very rugged moun 
tains ; runs n. w. and enters the Orinoco in an 
abundant stream. Its shores are inhabited by the 
Charibbes, the Aruacas, and the Araris Indians, 
who lead a wandering life. 

ARO1ALT, a small river of the province and 
country of Amazonas, in the Portuguese posses 
sions. It is an arm communicating itself with the 
Paranamini. 

AROQUO1PI, CANO DE, an arm of the river 
Orinoco, which communicates itself with the 
Aracoa, and which with it forms the island of 
Faxarado. 

AROUARI, a river of the province of Guayana, 
in the Portuguese possessions. By these people a 
fort was built upon the shore in 1688, but it 
was destroyed by an overflow of the river in 
1691. 

AROUENS, an island of the river Maranon 
or Amazonas. It is just at the entrance of this 
river, and is inhabited by many infidel or gentile 
Indians. 

2 



A R R 

AROUKAOBA, a river of the province of 
Guayana, in the French possessions. 

AROURA, a settlement and parish of the 
French, in their possessions in Guayana, situate 
on the shore of the river Oaya. 

ARPONES, RANCHO DE LOS, a settlement of 
Indians, on the n. coast of the province and go 
vernment of Darien, between the island of La La- 
guna and the point of Mosquitos. 

ARQUE, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimicnJo of Cochabamba in Peru. 

ARQUTATI, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Darien, and of the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme. It rises in the mountains of ifs interior, 
runs s. e. arid n. zc. and enters the Chucunaqui. 

[ARRACIFFU. SCCARRECIFE.] 

ARRAIAL, a town of the Portuguese, in the 
province and country of the Amazonas ; it is on 
the shore of the river Madera, between the two 
great lakes or pools of water formed by this river, 
one of which is called the Salto Grande. 

ARRASTRADERO, a toy of the coast of the 
S. sea, in the province and government of Esme- 
raldas, on the side of the port Palmar. 

[ARRAYAL DE PORATE, a town in Brazil, 
situated on the w. side of Para river, below the 
junction of its two great branches. See PARA.] 

ARRECIBO, a settlement of the island and 
government of San Juan de Puertorico, situate 
near the coast, on the shore of the river of its 
name. This river has its rise in the mountains 
towards the n. and runs into the sea. 

ARREC1FE, or CAPILLA DEL SENOR, a small 
settlement of the province and government of 
Buenos Ayres, in the road which leads from Lima 
to this city, where there is a chapel, in which 
mass is performed on festivals by the curate of 
the settlement of Baradero, which is 14 leagues 
distant. It is situate on the banks of a river of 
its name, and is 34 leagues from its capital. [Lat. 
34 4 10" w. Long. 60 27 10 a>.] 

The river above-mentioned runs from s. w. to 
n. e. and enters the river La Plata, between that of 
Areco and that of Tres Hermanas. 

ARRECIFE, (sometimes called Oliuda), acity in 
the kingdom of Brazil, in the province and captain 
ship of Pernambuco. It has a good fort, well garri 
soned, and a commodious and capacious port ; the 
entrance of wh ich is small and rendered still more diffi 
cult of access from having a good fort. The city was 
taken by the English, in 1595, under the command of 
James Lancaster, [who entered the port with seven 
English vessels. He staid in the city a month, and 
carried off immense plunder ; but since that time 
the Portuguese have made it almost inaccessible to 



A R R 



101 



enemies.] Its commerce is trifling, and rts climate 
hot, but the air is healthy. It is the residence of 
a Portugaese governor, and is in Lat. 8 13 s. 
Long. 35 5 w. 

A R RECIFE, an island of the coast of the same 
kingdom, in the province and government of Ma- 
ranon ; situate at the mouth of the river Para- 
gnas, between the Igarasu and the Punta Gorda. 

ARRECIFES, CANO DE LOS, an arm of the 
river Orinoco, near its entrance into the sea, 
through the large mouth called De Navios, (of 
ships) ; it forms a curve, and so runs back into this 
river, leaving a large island in the middle of its 
course. 

ARRECIFES. a point or extremity of land on 
the e. coast of the island of Trinidad, which faces 
that of Tabago. 

AnREciFts, some shoals on ttie coast of Brazil, 
of the province and captainship of Scara, between 
the lakes Upiens and Cum. 

ARRETA, a small river of the province and cap 
tainship of Para in Brazil ; it runs n. n. to. towards 
the rnouth of the river Amazonas, and to the arm 
of this river which forms the island of Marajo. 

ARRENON, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Guayana ; it runs s. s. w. and 
enters the Orinoco between those of Caralana and 
Winikine. 

ARRIAN1COSIES, a barbarous nation of In 
dians, of the province and government of Para 
guay, who inhabit the country near to the Rio de 
la Plata. They arc much reduced, and as yet but 
little is known of them. 

ARRICARI, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Guayana, in the French possessions. 
ARRIETA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Cartagena in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme ; situate to the n, of the town of San Benito 
Abad. 

ARROUSICK, an island of the N. sea, near 
the coast of the province of Sagadahoc, at the 
mouth or entrance of the river Kenebec. 

[ARROWSIKE, an island in the district of 
Maine, parted from Parker s island by a small 
strait. It is within the limits of George Town, 
and contains nearly of its inhabitants, and has a 
church. It contains about 20,000 acres of land, 
including a large quantity of salt marsh. See 
GEORGE Town and PARKER S Island.] 

[ARROYO DE LA CHINA, a town of the pro 
vince and government of Buenos Ayres, situate on 
the w. side of the Uruguay, in Lat. 32 29 18*. 
Long. 58 I4 o>.] 

[ARROYOS, a parish of the province and go 
vernment of Paraguay, situate between two small 



A R U 



rivers, at the foot of the mountains which separate 
the rivers running into the Parana and Paraguay. 
Seventeen leagues e. of Assumpcion. Lat. 25 
25 36" s. Long. 56 47 w.~\ 

[ARSACIDES, the Islands of the, the name 
given by M. de Surville, in 1769, to Solomon s 
islands, on account of the barbarous character of 
their inhabitants, particularly at Port Praslin. 
These islands were visited by Mr. Shortland in 
1788, and by him called New Georgia. See SO 
LOMON S Isles and PORT PUASLIN.] 

[ARTHUR-KULL, or NEWARK BAY, on the 
coast of New Jersey, is formed by the union of 
Passaicand Hackinsack rivers.] 

ART1BONITO, a large and abundant river of 
the island of St. Domingo. It rises in the moun 
tains of the mines of Ciboo, runs nearly due zv. 
making many circumvolutions, and enters the sea 
in the to. head of the island, between the bay of 
Gran Pierre and the Morro del Diablo. Various 
projects have at different times been entertained for 
the forming of canals which might irrigate large 
territories; but they have not, on account of the 
want of workmen, been put into execution. Its 
proper name is Hatibonico, but by corruption it is 
universally called Artibonito. 

AIITIBOMTO, a small river of the above island, 
rising in the valley of Inojuelo, runs s. s. w. and 
enters the former. 

ARTIBONITO, a settlement of the above island, 
belonging to the French, and situate on the shore 
of the first mentioned river. 

ARTIBONITO, a port of the island of Cuba, on 
the s. coast, between the port of Guantanamo and 
the island of Auriga-Grande. 

ARTIGON1CHE, a river of the province and 
colony of Nova Scotia. It rises in a lake near the 
e. coast and the strait of Canso, runs n. e. and 
enters the sea. 

ARTIGONICHE, a settlement of Indians of this 
province and colony, situate on the shore of the 
former river. 

ARTLEBURGH, a township of the county of 
Bristol, in the province and colony of New Eng 
land. It is noted for the great increase of houses 
which arose in a few years from its commerce, having 
been till lately nothing better than a mean village. 
[This township, properly called Attleborough, is 32 
miles s. from Boston, and nine trom Providence.] 

ARUACAS, a barbarous nation of Indians who 
inhabit the s.e. of the river Orinoco, descendants 
of the Charibbes. They are very numerous, and in 
habit the country between the river Berbice and 
the mountains of Guayana : they have no fixed 
habitations, aud therefore wander about those 



A R U 

mountains : they are the friends and allies of the 
Dutch of the colonies of Berbice, Esquibo, and 
Surinam. 

ARUARA, a small river of the province and 
colony of Surinam, or part of Guayana in the 
Dutch possessions. It runs from *. to n. and en 
ters the Cusguni on the s. side. 

[ARUBA, one of the Little Antille islands in the 
\\ est Indies, is subject to the Dutch. It is uninha 
bited, lies near Tierra Firme, 14 leagues a>.ofCura- 
coa, and produces little else besides corn nnd wood. 
Lat. 1230 M. Long. 67 35 a?. See ORUBA.] 
ARUCARA, a township of the Portuguese, of 
the province and captainship of Para in Brazil, si 
tuate at the mouth of the river Guanapu. 

ARUG, a river of the province and government 
of Choco in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; it rises 
in the mountains of Abide, runs w. and enters the 
Paganagandi. 

ARUI, a large river of the province of Gua 
yana and government of Cumana. It has its origin 
from a border or line of serrania, lying 14; 
leagues from the mouth at which it enters the Ori 
noco. It is navigable in canoes as far as a violent 
current or waterfall, caused by a heap of stones, 
and which makes the water to rush with such a 
noise in the winter time as to be heard at two 
leagues distance. In its mid course it receives on 
the w. the river Camurica, which runs between the 
port and fortification of Muitacu and the settlement 
of Guazaiparo, of the religious observers of St. 
Francis of Piritu. Its shores are inhabited by Cha- 
ribbes Indians. 

Auui, a small river of the island and govern 
ment of Trinidad, which runs s. and enters the bay 
of Chaguaramas by the point of La Galera. 

ARUNI, an ancient province of Cuzcoin Peru, 
bounded by the province of Collaguas on the w. 
and s. by the llanuras or plains of Arequipa. It 
was conquered and united to the empire by Malta 
Capac, fourth Emperor. 

ARUNDEL, a county of the province and co 
lony of Maryland. See ANA. 

ARUNDUL, a settlement of the island of Barba- 
does, in the district and parish of Santiago, on the 
w. coast. 

[ARUNDEL, a township in York county, dis 
trict of Maine, containing 145 inhabitants. It lies 
between cape Porpoise and Biddeford, on the n. e. 
on Saco river, 21 miles n. e. from York, and 96 
n. e. from Boston.] 

ARUPORECAS, a barbarous nation of Indians, 
lately discovered to the n. w. of the province of the 
Chiquitos ; though of them as yet but little is 
known. 



A S C 

ASANCOTO, a settlement of the province and 
corrcgimiento of Chimbo in the kingdom of Quito. 
It is of a cold temperature, inhabited by Indians 
and JMiisteeS) who are for the most part muleteers, 
and who carry to the neighbouring provinces 
flour, seeds, baizes, and other productions, and 
take in exchange wine, brandy, salt, cotton, fish, 
and oil ; this traffic being carried on only in the 
summer. 

ASANGARO, a province and corregimiento 
of the kingdom of Peru, bounded n.e. and e. by the 
province of Carabaya ; s. e, and s. by that of 
Larecaxa ; s. w. by that of Paucarcolla and the 
lake Chucuito ; by the w. and n. w. by the pro 
vince of Larnpa. It is of very small extent, being 
only 20 leagues in length, and as many in breadth. 
Its figure is very irregular, its temperature is very 
cold, and consequently produces little else than 
potatoes. W hen these are destroyed by frost, as 
is the case some years, the Indians endure great 
privations, and are forced to seek food in the 
province of Larecaxa. This province abounds 
greatly in cattle, from the hides and fat of which, 
as well as from some herds of swine, it derives its 
principal source of commerce. There is in its 
district a fine fresh water lake, from whence it is 
provided with salt. The river of the greatest con 
sideration is that which bears its name, and which 
empties itself into the lake Chucuito. The inha 
bitants amount barely to 3000 ; they are divided 
into 11 settlements ; and the amount of its reparti- 
miento was reputed at 114,500 dollars. 

The names of the J5 settlements of this juris 
diction are, , 

The Capital, Arapa, 

Asilto, Saman, 

Cominaca, Putina, 

Munani, Ananea, 

Santiago de Papuja, Betanzos, 

Achaya, Taraco, 

Chupa, Pusi. 

Poto, 

The capital settlement is situate on the shore of 
the lake Chucuito on the n. part, and at the mouth 
of the river of its name. The above river rises 
close to the settlement of Sayani, on the e. part, 
and runs s. till it enters the above-mentioned lake. 
ASCATLAN, a settlement of the head settlement 
of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tepactitlan 
in the kingdom and bishopric of Nueva Galicia, 
situate eight leagues to the s. of its capital. 

ASCENSION, NUESTRA SENORA DE LA, a 
capital city of the island and government of Mar 
garita, founded by Martin Villalobos in 1525. 
Although small, it was formerly of much con- 



A S II 



103 



sideration, on account of i(s fine pearl fisheries, 
from which it carried on a great commerce, but 
which are now entirely abandoned. It has a very 
good parish church, convents of monks of St. 
Francis and St. Dominic, an hospital, and two her 
mitages. Two leagues distant from the coast. It 
is called Ascencion, in honour of the virgin, who is 
its patron. It was invaded by the French in the 
war at the close of the past century, when they 
destroyed and burnt the hospital and hermitage of 
Santa Lucia, and of which the walls alone were to 
be seen in 1762. It has, contiguous to the convent 
of St. Francis, a chapel, with the title of Nuestra 
Senora de la Soledad, and the two hermitages 
with the titles of Nuestra Senora de la Consolation 
and of San Pedro Martyr. 

ASCENSION, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Cuyo in the kingdom of Chile, to 
the 5. e. of the city of San Juan de la Frontera. 

ASCENSION, another, a small settlement or ward 
of the head settlement of the district of Zumpa- 
huacan, and alcaldia mayor of Marinalco, in Nueva 
Espafia, 

ASCEWSION, a small island of the Atlantic sea, 
near the coast of Brazil, in the province and cap 
tainship of Espiritu Santo, also called De la Trini 
dad. It is somewhat to the w. of the island of 
Martin Vaez, and to the n. w. to the w. of that 
of Dos Picos. It is half a league long from s. to 
n. and at that point it takes the form of a small 
mountain, in the figure of a truncated cone. All 
its coast is surrounded by cliffs and hidden rocks, 
against which the sea beats with fury. It abounds 
in fresh water, which runs from various fountains. 
Although it belongs to the Portuguese, it is not 
inhabited ; its situation is in Lat. 20 30 s. Long. 
29 9 w. 

ASCENSION, a bay on the coast of the province 
and government of Louisiana, between the N. 
cape and the river Missisippi. 

ASCENSION, another very large, beautiful, and 
convenient bay, on the coast of the province and 
government of Yucatan, opposite the shoal of 
Quita Suenos. 

ASCENSION, a river of the kingdom of Nuevo 
Mexico, which runs from n. to s. and is of little 
note. 

ASCHEPOU, a river of the province and colony 
of Georgia. It runs e. then turns to the s. and 
enters the sea between the rivers Chia and Pom 
pon. 

[ASHBURNHAM, formerly Dorchester Cana 
da, lies in Worcester county, Massachusetts, 30 
miles n. of Worcester, and 54 from Boston ; was 
incorporated in 1765, and contains 951 inhabitants. 



104 



It stands upon the height of land <. of Connecticut 
river, and w. of Merrimack, on the banks of Little 
Naukheag. In this township is a white sand, 
equal in fineness to that at cape Ann, and which, 
it is judged, would make fine glass.] 

[ASH BY, a township in Middlesex county, 
Massachusetts, 50 miles n. w. from Boston, con 
taining 751 inhabitants.] 

[AS11CUTNEY, or ASACUTNEY, a mountain 
in Vermont, being partly in the townships of 
Windsor and \Yeathersfield, and opposite Clare- 
mout on Sugar river, in New Hampshire state. 
It is 2031 feet above the sea, and 1732 above high 
water in Connecticut river, which glides by its e. 
side.] 

[ASH FIELD, a township in Hampshire county, 
Massachusetts, about 15 miles n. w. of North 
ampton, and 117 w. from Bost&n, containing 1459 
inhabitants.] 

[ASH FORD, a township in Windham county, 
Connecticut, settled from Maryborough in Massa 
chusetts, and was incorporated in 1710. It lies 
about 38 miles n. e. from Hartford, and 76 s. w. 
from Boston.] 

[AsHFoitD, NEW, a township in Berkshire 
county, Massachusetts, 155 miles w. from Boston, 
containing 460 inhabitants.] 

ASHLEY, a river of the province and colony 
of Georgia. It rises from pools formed by certain 
springs, runs s. e. and enters the sea. 

ASHLY, a large and abundant river of the 
province and colony of Carolina. It is divided 
into two arms ; the one towards the s. preserves 
its name, and that towards the n. takes the name 
of Copper. 

[ASH MOT, the principal harbour in isle 
Madame, which is dependent on Cape Breton. See 
BRETON, CAFE.] 

[ASHUELOT, or ASHWILLET, a small river, 
having a number of branches, whose most distant 
source is at the n. end of the Sunapee mountains 
in New Hampshire. It runs s. w. through part of 
Cheshire county. Below Winchester it runs w. 
by n. and empties into Connecticut river at H ins- 
dale.] 

A Si A, a settlement of the province and cor- 
revimiento of Canete in Peru, situate on the sea 
coast. 

ASIA, an island of this province and corregi- 
mientO) near the coast. 

ASIA, a point of land or extremity of the coast, 
also of the said province. 

ASIENTOS, a sett lenient of Indians of the 
kingdom of Nueva Galicia. 

[ASPOTAGOEN Mountain. This high land 



ASS 

lies on the promontory that separates Mahone 
from Margaret s bay, on the coast of Nova Scotia. 
It is seen at a great distance from the offing, and 
is the land generally made by the ships bound 
from Europe and the West Indies to Halifax. 
The summit is about 500 feet above the level of 
the sea.] 

ASSA, a small river of the province and govern 
ment of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It rises 
from two streams in the country of the ferocious 
Charibbec Indians, and enters Ami on the n. side. 

[ASSABET, a rivulet which rises in Grafton, 
"Worcester county, Massachusetts, and runs . e. 
into Merrimack river.] 

ASSAPARA, a small island formed by the 
river Aropa, at its mouth, by which it enters the 
Orinoco on the n. side. It is not so large as 
Walter describes it, since it is a little less than a 
mile in length, and its widest part does not 
exceed 180 feet. It is somewhat elevated and 
covered with branching trees, but uninhabited. 

ASSEMPOL1, a large lake of N. America, 
abounding in whales. Some believe that it has a 
communication with the sea. [There is no such 
name in the modern maps. It is probably th 
same as Winnepeg lake.] 

ASSERRADORES, a settlement of the island 
of Cuba, on the s. coast, and near a tolerably 
good port. 

ASSERRADORES, another settlement of the pro 
vince and government of Nicaragua in the king 
dom of Guatemala, situate on the coast of the S. 
sea, and close upon the port of Posesiones. 

ASSETEACI, a small river of the province and 
colony of Maryland. It runs e. and enters th 
sea. 

ASSILLO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Asangaro in Peru. It has a very- 
abundant lead mine, by which it has a great com 
merce with the other provinces. It is situate on 
the shore of the great lake Chucuito, on the n. 
part. 

ASSINAIS, a settlement of the missions which 
belonged to the order of St. Francis, in the pro 
vince of Texas in Nueva Espana. It is situate 
on the shore of the river Trinidad. 

[ASSIN1BO1LS, or ASSIN JBOELS, a river and 
lake in the n. w. part of N. America, spoken 
of by some geographers, though not found in 
modern maps. It is probably the same as Win 
nepeg.] 

ASSINIBOLESES, a nation of barbarous 
Indians who inhabit the forests and wilds of Ca 
nada, whose customs are but little known. 

ASSORIA, a small river of the province and 



A S U 

country of Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese pos 
session^. It rises in the territory of the Naunas 
Indians, runs w. and enters the Maranon, close to 
the Imato, and opposite the mouth of the Gran 
Caqueta. 

ASSUMPC1ON, or ASSUMPTION. See ASUN 
CION. 

[ASSUMPTION River, in New York, falls 
in from the e. into lake Ontario, after a n. w. and 
w. course of about 28 miles, 5 miles s. e. from 
Ga verse.] 

[ASTCHIKOUNIPI, a vast lake in New Bii- 
tain, abounding with whales, and supposed to 
communicate with the N. sea.] 

ASTILLANO, a settlement of the province 
and government of Maracaibo, situate on the w. 
shore of the lake of this name. 

ASTILLERO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Itata in the kingdom of Chile j 
situate at the mouth of the river Maule. 

ASTOBAMBAS, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru, annexed 
to the curacy of its capital. 
ASTORES. See the article SANTA LUCIA. 
ASTORGA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Rancagua in the kingdom of 
Chile, near the large lake Pepeta. 

ASUAI, PARAMO PE, a snowy mountain of the 
Cordillera of the kingdom of Quito ; one of those 
which form the cordillera in the road to Cuenca. 
When it is covered with snow, its cold renders it 
impervious, and this season is called u de paramo," 
(desert), since then there is a constant fall of snow, 
or small sleet, accompanied with a sharp wind. 
Its skirts abound in marshes, which render the 
road very dangerous to travellers, obliging them to 
wait for the time when it may be passed with 
safety, lest they should, as has happened to some 
adventurers, perish in the attempt. In its vicinity 
is an estate called La Capilla de Asuai. 

ASUNCION DEL PARAGUAY, a capital city 
of the province and government of this name, 
founded in 1535 by Juan de Salazar y Espinoza, 
by order of Don Pedro de Mendoza, udelantado 
and governor of the province, on the e. shore of 
the river Paraguay, and upon a commodious and 
beautiful spot. It is the head seat of a bishopric, 
erected in 1547, its first bishop having been Don 
Fray Juan de los Barros, of the order of St. Fran 
cis. It has a beautiful cathedral church, three 
parish churches, one the mother church, another 
with the title of NuestraSenora de la Anunciacion, 
and the third called De San Bias, for the Indians ; 
four convents of monks of St. Dominic, St. Francis, 

VOL. I. 



A S U 



105 



of Recoletans, and of the order of La Merced. It 
had also a college of the Jesuits, and a monastery 
of nuns of La Ensenanza. It is of a mild and 
salutary temperature ; its inhabitants, although 
they do not amount to more than 400, form a 
part of more than 6000 who live out of the city. 
In fact, the whole of the province is peopled by 
messuages or small estates, some of which are 
called estancias, in which, there being large tracts 
of pasture land, are bred cattle of all sorts, as 
cows, sheep, goats, horses, mules, and asses ; others 
are called ckacras, and in these is cultivated an 
abundance of wheat, maize, sugar, tobacco, cotton, 
yucas, mandicocct) potatoes and other vegetables, 
and garden herbs. The greater part of the in 
habitants dwell in these estates ; and in the valleys 
of Pirebebuy and Carapegua are two parishes; 
also in some more civilized valleys, are different 
chapels of ease, in which the inhabitants hear mass, 
but on the particular festivals they go to the city. 
It was nearly totally destoyed by fire in 1543, the 
greater part of its houses having been built of 
wood, and many of its inhabitants perished in its 
ashes. In its district are the nations of the Gua- 
tataes, Mogolues, and Guananaquaes Indians, all 
of whom are Christians ; also the celebrated mis 
sions that were held and formed here by the regu 
lars of the abolished society of Jesuits. Lonff. 
57 37 , Lat. 25 16 *. 

ASUNCION, a settlement of the head settlement 
of the district of Tlapacoya, and alcaldia mayor of 
Quatro Villas, in Nueva Espana. It contains 15 
families of Indians, who occupy themselves in the 
culture and commerce of certain grain, seeds, and 
fruits, and in cutting wood. Two leagues to the n. 
of its head settlement. > 

ASUNCION, another, with the dedicatory title of 
Santa Maria, in the head settlement of the district 
and alcaldia mayor of Izucar in the same king 
dom. It contains 147 families of Indians, includ 
ing those of a ward in its vicinity : it is one league 
n. of its head settlement. 

ASUNCION, another, of the province and cor 
regimiento of Angaraes in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of San Sebastian. 

ASUNCION, another, of the province and corre 
gimiento of Caxamarca in the same kingdom. 

ASUNCION, another, of the missions which be 
longed to the Jesuits, situate on the shore of the 
Casanare. 

ASUNCION, another, a small settlement united 
to that of Tequistlan, of the alcaldia mayor of 
Theotihuacan in Nueva Espana. 

ASUNCION, another, with the surname of Tetel- 



106 



ATA 



macingo, in the head settlement of the district of 
Huitepec, and alcaldia mayor of Cuenavaca, in 
the same kingdom, with 19 families of Indians. 

ASUNCION, another, of the head settlement of 
the district of Zumpahuacan, and alcaldia mayor 
of Marinalco, in the same kingdom. 

ASUNCION, another, which is the real of the 
gold mines in Brazil, situate on the shore of the 
river Tocantines, opposite the mouth of the Para- 
tinga. 

ASUNCION, an island of the gulf of St. Lawrence, 
in Canada or New France, at the entrance of that 
river ; very full of woods. The French possessed 
it from the peace of Utrecht, when it was ceded 
by the English, until the year 1757, at which 
time these returned, and made themselves masters 
of it. 

ASUNCION, a bay and port of the N. sea, on the 
coast of Florida ; it is small and ill-adapted to 
large vessels, on which account it is abandoned, or 
at least only inhabited by some Indians. It lies 
between cape Lodo and the bay of Espiritu 
Santo. 

ASUNCION, a small island of the N. sea, on the 
coast of California, and at a small distance from 
the same. 

ASUNCION, a river of New France or Canada, 
which runs s. e. then turns s. and enters the St. 
Lawrence, opposite the island of Montreal. 

ASUNCION, another, of the province of the Apa 
ches in Nuevo Mexico. It rises in the mountains 
of the sierra grande, runs from n. to s. and enters 
the river Salado, before this joins the Gila. 

ASUNCION, another, a very abundant stream of 
the province and government of La Sonora. 

ASUS, a river of the province and captainship 
of Espiritu Santo in Brazil. It rises in the sierra 
of the Carajes Indians, runs nearly due e. and 
enters the river of Las Esmeraldas, just after form 
ing a large cataract. 

ATA, a small river of the province and govern 
ment of Cumana. It rises at the foot of the sierra 
of Imataca, runs s. and enters the Cuyuni on the 
ti. side. 

ATABACA, a small river of the same province 
and government as the former. It rises n. of the 
Orinoco, opposite the canal and fort of Limones, 
runs s. and enters the canal of Aracoa. 

ATABAPU, a large river of the province and 
government of Guayana in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme. It rises in the centre of this province, 
between the rivers Negro and Orinoco, takes an 
e. course, receiving the waters of many others, 
and then turning n. enters with a most abundant 
stream into the Orinoco. 



ATA 

ATACAMA, a province and corrt^imietilo of 
Peru, bounded n. by the province of Arica ; n. e. 
by Lipes ; e. and s. e. by the territory! of Salta 
and jurisdiction of Tucuman ; s. where there is an 
unpeopled waste as far as Copiapo, by the king, 
dom of Chile ; and w. by the S. sea. It is divided 
into High and Low. The first is of a cold tempera 
ture, abounding in fruits of the sierra, in seeds 
and potatoes. In the Cordillera are numerous flocks 
of ostriches and vicunas 9 which the Indians hunt, 
selling their skins and eating their flesh, which is 
tender and well-tasted. The bezoar-stone is also 
found here. Although the aforesaid animals are 
extremely nimble, they are nevertheless hunted 
with great ease ; and it is performed in this as well 
as in other provinces by simply fixing upright, by 
means of stones, some small sticks of about two 
yards long, in a narrow pass ; and attaching to 
each a thread or cord, they tie at small distances 
pieces of coloured wool, which is moved about by 
the wind. The trap being thus prepared, the 
hunters endeavour to frighten the vicunas from 
different parts into this valley, where, as soon as 
they arrive, being completely overcome with 
terror at the bits of wool, the whole of the troop 
remain prisoners, this trifling barrier forming an 
insurmountable obstacle to their escape. The 
hunters then make use of a cord, somewhat more 
than a yard long, having a stone attached to the 
extremity, which they sling round the feet of the 
vicunas, which being thus fast entangled, are ea 
sily taken. If, by accident, an huanuco is found 
amongst the troop, the whole are lost, for he im 
mediately darts through the barrier, and the rest 
follow him. This province is not without its gold 
and silver mines ; but they are not regularly work 
ed. It has many springs of warm water, and a 
lake called Blanca, abounding in salt, another 
called Agul, a league and an half long, which is 
as salt as the sea. The low province contains some 
ports on its coast, where some go to fish for con 
gers, to sell in the sierra. In the mountain named 
Conche, of the parish of Santa Barbara, and in 
other parts, are mines of copper, which they 
work and form into hammers, to be carried to Po- 
tosi, or other parts where minerals are worked. 
Here are found veins of crystal of various colours, 
of jasper, talc, and copper, blue vitriol, and 
alum. This province is much in want of water. 
The most considerable river is that which runs 
down into the sea through the valley of Loa, 
serving there as a limit to this province and to 
that of Arica. Its inhabitants amount only to 
2500. The capital is the settlement of S. Fran- 



ATA 



ATA 



107 



; and the other settlements are, 
Chiuchiu, Hiquina, 

Cobixa, Peine, 

Socaire, Caspana. 



cisco de Atacama 
Toconao, 
Antofagasta, 
Calama, 
Son cor, 

The desert of this province is a large unpeopled 
tract, dividing the kingdoms of Peru and Chile. 
It is a barren and sandy waste, upon which many 
Spaniards perished for want of water when it was 
first discovered. 

ATACAMA, a port of this prorince, on the coast 
of the S. sea. It is small, but well frequented by 
lesser vessels employed in fishing for tolto, which 
abounds here, and which is a species of cod-fish. 

ATACAMES, a settlement of the province and 
government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of 
Quito, . with a good port in the S. sea. It is si 
tuated on a large barren spot, surrounded by 
lofty mountains, where the cold is so intense as to 
freeze people to death . It is near the tropic of 
Capricorn, and was once the capital of the pro 
vince. 

ATACAPAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of 
Louisiana, who inhabit the sea-coast to the w. 
They are thus called because they are Charibbes, 
and in their own language their name signifies can 
nibals. Although they treat and have commu 
nications with the Spanish, these are nevertheless 
ignorant of their customs. The French have, 
however, persuaded them to leave off the barba 
rous custom of eating their fellow- creatures. [The 
district they live in is called after them. Their 
village is about 25 miles to the westward of the 
Attakapa church, towards Quelqueshoe. Their 
number of men is about 50 ; but some Tunicas and 
Humas, who have married in their nation, and 
live with them, make them altogether about 80. 
They are peaceable and friendly to every body ; 
labour occasionally for the white inhabitants ; 
raise their own corn ; have cattle and hogs. Their 
language and the Carankouas is the same. They 
dwelt near where they now live, when that 
part of the country was first discovered by the 
French.] 

ATACHEO, a settlement of the head settlement 
of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlaxsasalca 
in Nueva Espana. It contains 26 families of In 
dians, and in seven small settlements of its dis 
trict, 157 of Spaniards, Mustees. and Mulattoes, 
who trade in the productions of its estates. Four 
leagues to the e. s. e. of its capital. 

ATACO, a settlement of the corregimiento of 
Coyaima in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It 
is of a hot temperature, abounding in cacao, sugar 



cane, maize, yucas, plantains, and neat-cattle, 
as also in mines and washing places (lavaderos) of 
gold, in which specie the tributes of the natives 
is paid. These should amount to 100 Indians, 
who go and collect only just as much as will de 
fray the tribute required. They are much given 
to inebriety, and this is no doubt the cause of their 
being so wretchedly poor. 

ATALAYA, S. MIGUEL DE LA, a settlement 
of the province and government of Veragua in 
the kingdom of Tierra Firme, situate two leagues 
from the capital. 

ATALAYA, S. MIGUEL DE LA, another settte- 
ment of the province and government of Buenos 
Ay res in Peru, situate on the shore of the Rio de 
la Plata, near its entrance. 

ATALAYA, S. MIGUEL DE LA, another, of the 
province and government of Tucuman in the 
same kingdom, between the rivers Tala and Del 
JRosario. 

ATALAYA, S. MIGUEL DE LA, another, which 
is the asiento of the silver mines of the alcaldia 
mayor of Guanajuato, and the bishopric of Mecho- 
acan, in Nueva Espana. 

ATALAYAS, SANTIAGO DE LAS, a capital 
cify of the province and government of San Juan 
de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. 
It was founded by Gonzalo Ximenes de Quesada, 
when, from an eminence, he discovered those ex 
tensive llanuras in 1541, as he was returning from 
the search after the imaginary province of Dorado. 
It was quickly depopulated, and was afterwards 
founded by the Governor Ancizo on the banks of 
of the river called Agua-Mena; on the fertile 
plains of which grow many trees of exquisite fruits, 
and among the rest, the leche-miel, which is like a 
large grape, divided into two parts by a slender 
film : in the one is included a juice similar to milk 
(leche), and in the other a juice similar to very 
delicate honey (miel). It is somewhat of an un 
healthy and hot temperature, abounding in fruits 
peculiar to the climate. It contains 400 house 
keepers, and is nine leagues from the city of Pore. 

ATANAR1, SAN JOAQUIN DE, a settlement of 
the missions which belonged to the regulars of the 
company of Jesuits, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra 
nada, founded by the Indians of the Achagua na 
tion in 1666, but abandoned three years after 
wards, on account of the invasions which it re 
peatedly experienced from the Charibbee Indians. 

ATANARI, SAN JOAQUIN DE, a large and 
navigable river of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, 
which enters the Mota. Its shores are inhabited 
by Indians of the nation of Achagua. 
p 2 



108 



ATE 



ATANCAMA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru, annexed 
to the curacy of Lambrama. 

ATA PALO, a settlement of the head settlement 
of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tinguindin 
in Nueva Espana. It contains 23 families of In 
dians, well skilled in the sowing of wheat and 
maize, and in the cultivation of many fruits of that 
region . Four leagues to the w. of its capital. 

ATAPARAN. See MAZARRONI. 

ATAPIRIRE, a settlement of the province of 
Barcelona, and government of Cumana, in the 
kingdom of Tierra Firme, one of the missions 
which belonged to the order of St. Francis de Piri- 
tu, and founded in 1749. Although it belongs to 
the aforesaid province, it is in the province of 
Guayana. 

ATAPSI, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Tucuman, in the jurisdiction of the 
city of Salta, and annexed to the curacy of Chi- 
quiana. 

ATARA, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Choco in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. 
It runs s. then w. and enters the Cauca. 

ATASIS, a settlement of Indians of the pro 
vince and colony of Georgia, situate on the shore 
of the river Apalache. 

ATAVILLOS, a nation of Indians of Peru, 
converted to the Catholic faith. It was discovered 
and subjected by Don Francisco Pizarro, who wns 
allowed the title of Marquis de los Atavillos by 
the Emperor Charles V. These Indians dwell in 
the province of Jauja, and work with nicety all 
kinds of woollen manufactures. They are of a 
lively and docile disposition, and the whole of the 
above province is peopled by them. 

ATAVILLOS, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Canta in Peru, with the deno 
mination of Atavillos Altos, to distinguish it from 
the other in the same province, and which is call 
ed Atavillos Baxos. 

PATCH I KOUNIPI, a lake in Labrador, 
which sends its waters s. into St. Lawrence river, 
through a connected chain of small lakes.] 

ATEMANICA, a settlement of the head settle- 
ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Juchi- 
pela. It has a considerable population of Spaniards, 
but the greater part consists in Mustees and In 
dians, some of whom reside in the large estates in 
its district, such as those of Milpillas, Caxas, Es- 
tanzuela, Baez, Teresa, and Totolotalco, which 
abound in vegetable productions and in cattle. It 
is seven leagues from the real of the mines of Mes- 
quital. 



ATE 

ATEMAXAQUE, a settlement of the head set 
tlement of the district of Amaqueca, and alcaldia 
mayor of Zayula, in Nueva Espana, situate on the 
skirt of a mountain. It is of a cold temperature, 
and contains 112 families of Indians, who trade in 
the bark of trees. Six leagues from its head set 
tlement. 

ATEMPA, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor 
of Tenzitlan in Nueva Espafia. It contains 248 
families of Indians, and is nine leagues to the s. w. 
of its capital. 

ATEMPA, another settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Zochi- 
coatlan in the same kingdom, situate in a hollow, 
and surrounded by very rugged mountaias. It 
contains 43 families of Indians, and is 14 leagues 
to the w. of its capital. 

ATEN, SAN ANTONIO DE, a settlement of the 
missions belonging to the monks of St. Francis, 
in the province of Apolabamba in Peru. 

ATENGO, SAN SALVADOR DE, a settlement 
of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia 
mayor of Tezcuco in Nueva Espana, situate on 
the shore of the lake of Mexico. It contains 196 
families of Indians, who trade in salt, wool, maize, 
fruits, and seeds. It is half a league to the n. of 
its capital. 

ATENGO, another, with the dedicatory title of 
Santa Maria, in the head settlement of the district 
of Mizquiaguala, and alcaldia mayor of Tepetan- 
go, in the same kingdom. It contains 18 families 
of Indians. 

ATENGO, another, with the dedicatory title of 
San Mateo. It is the head settlement of the dis 
trict of the alcaldia mayor of Metepec in the same 
kingdom, and contains 280 families of Indians. 

ATENGO, another, a head settlement of the dis 
trict of the alcaldia mayor of Chilapa in the same 
kingdom. It contains 70 families of Indians, and 
is distant five leagues from the settlement of Toli- 
man. 

ATENGO, another, of the head settlement of the 
district and alcaldia mayor of Autlan in the same 
kingdom, with 33 families of Indians, who gather 
seeds and fruits in abundance. It is 39 leagues to 
the s. with an inclination to the w. of its head set 
tlement. 

ATENGUILLO, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Hua- 
chinango in Nueva Espana, situate in the s. part 
of that district. 

ATTEPEC, SAN JUAN DE, a settlement of the 
head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor 
of Teocuilco in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild 



A T 1 

and somewhat moist temperature, contains 88 fa 
milies of Indians, and is three leagues directly s. e. 
of its capital. 

ATEQUARO, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor 
of Valladolid in Nueva Espana, near its capital. 

ATEZCAPO, SAN JUAN DE, a settlement of 
the head settlement of the district of San Francisco 
del Valle, and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec, in Nu 
eva Espana, situate on a spacious plain. It con 
tains 50 families of Indians, and is six leagues 
to the e. of its capital. 

[ATHAPESCOW Lake. See ARATHAPES- 
cow and SLAVE Lakes.] 

[ATHENS, a township in Windham county, 
Vermont, 32 miles n. e. from Bennington, and 
about six w. from Connecticut river, having 450 
inhabitants. Sextons river, which rises in London 
derry passes, s. e. by Athens into the township of 
Westminster to Connecticut river.] 

[ATHOL, a township in Worcester county, 
Massachusetts, containing 16,000 acres of land, 
very rocky and uneven, but well watered with 
rivers and streams. On these stand 4 grist-mills, 
six saw-mills, a fulling-mill, and a trip-hammer. 
It contains 848 inhabitants, is 35 miles n. v). from 
Worcester, and 72 from Boston. A medicinal 
spring, famed for its many virtues, issues out of a 
high bank on Miller s river, 20 feet above the sur 
face of the river.] 

ATICO, VALLE DE, a settlement of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Cumana in Peru, an 
nexed to the curacy of Caraveli. 

ATICO, MORIIO DE, a mountain on the coast of 
Peru, of the same province. 

ATIGOUANTINES, a nation of Indians of 
New France in N. America, towards the 44 of 
lat. In their dwellings many families live toge 
ther, and the continual fires which they are obliged 
to make produce such a quantity of smoke that 
they are universally blind in old age. Their 
extravagant mode of living is similar to that of 
the other Indians, excepting that in their repasts, 
these give a decided preference to the eye of their 
victims, which they pluck out with the greatest 
avidity, avowing it to be a most precious morsel. 
After human flesh, they esteem most that of dogs. 
Their method of curing infirmity is not less pecu 
liar, and every one of them may practise as a phy 
sician, since the same remedy is observed as is 
given in Europe for the treatment of the bite of 
the tarantula, namely, the endeavouring to divert 
the patient by means of music and songs. It is not 
known that these Indians worship any deity, but 
through an impulse of terror they own a certain 
respect for the devil. They nevertheless believe 



A T K 



109 



in the immortality of the soul, and promise them 
selves a place of jubilee and merriment in the 
other world, persuaded also that they shall there 
be united to their friends. 

ATIMUEN-CUDIARA, a lake of the country 
of Las Amazonas. in the territory of the Portu 
guese, on the shore of the river Maranon, and 
formed by a channel of this river. 

ATINGUI, a small river of the province and 
government of Paraguay ; it rises to the s. of the 
settlement of Nuestra Senora de Fe, runs s. and 
enters the Parana near the settlement of Santiago. 

ATIPAC, a settlement of the head settlement 
of the district of Tepexpan, and alcaldia mayor of 
Theotihuacan, in Nueva Espana. It is of a cold 
temperature. 

ATIQUIPA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Cumana in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Choler. In its district are large fertile 
hills of the same name, abounding in pastures, 
which feed numbers of large and small cattle, as 
well as mules and asses, which are its articles of 
commerce. It is near the sea, and has a small 
port or creek, in which abundance of fish are 
caught. Also a mountain called Morro de Ate- 
quipa. 

ATIRA, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Paraguay, situate on the shore of the 
river of its name, opposite the city of Asuncion. 

[AxiRA, a settlement of Indians, of the pro 
vince and government of Paraguay, about seven 
leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 25 16 45" s. 
Long. 57 14 w.~\ 

ATITALAQUIA % a head settlement of the 
district of the alcaldia mayor of Tetepango in 
Nueva Espana. It is of a pleasant temperature, 
but ill provided with water. Its territory is 
peopled by estates and ranchos, in which are 
grown wheat, maize, seeds, and fruits ; but it is 
particularly famous for the breeding of small cattle 
for slaughter. Its natives are 200 families of 
Othomies Indians, and 30 of Spaniards, Mulattoes, 
and Mustces. Twenty-one leagues to the n. of 
Mexico. 

AT1TAN, a head settlement of the district of 
the alcaldia mayor of Solola in the kingdom of 
Guatemala. 

ATITLAN, a head settlement of the district of 
the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana 
It is of a hot temperature, contains 171 families 
of Indians, and is 15 leagues to the e. of its 
capital. 

[ATKINSON, a township in Rockingham 
county, N. Hampshire, which was incorporated in 
1767, and in 1775 contained 575 inhabitants, in 



110 



A T L 



1790 only 479. It is distant 30 miles from Ports 
mouth, and has an academy which was founded in 
1789 by the hon. N. Peabody, who endowed it 
with 1000 acres of land. In this township is a 
large meadow, wherein is an island of six or seven 
acres, which was formerly loaded with valuable 
pine timber and other forest wood. When the 
meadow is overflowed by means of an artifical 
dam, this island rises with the water, which is 
sometimes six feet. In a pond in the middle of 
the island there have been fish, which, when the 
meadow has been overflowed, have appeared there 
when the water has been drawn off, and the island 
settled to its usual place. The pond is now al 
most covered with verdure. In it a pole 50 feet 
long has disappeared without finding a bot 
tom.] 

ATLA, a small settlement or ward of the alcal- 
dia mayor of Guauchinango in Nueva Espana, 
annexed to the curacy of Naupan. 

ATLA, another settlement of the same alcaldia 
mayor, annexed to the curacy of Pahuatlan. 

ATLACA, SAN JUAN DE, a settlement of the 
head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor 
of Orizaba in Nueva Espana, situate between two 
lofty hills. It is of a cold temperature, and con 
tains 28 families of Indians, whose trade consists 
in fattening herds of swine. Seven leagues to the 
s. s. e. of its capital. 

ATLACAHUALOIA, a settlement of the head 
settlement of the district of Xonacatepec, and /- 
ealdia mayor of Cuernavaca, in Nueva Espana. 

ATLACHICHILCO, SAN AUGUSTIN DE, a 
head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor 
of Guaiacocotla in Nueya Espana. It contains 
400 families of Indians, including those within the 
wards of its district ; and they are employed in 
the cultivation of the soil. 

ATLACO, a head settlement of the district and 
alcaldia mayor of Zayula in Nueva Espana, situ 
ate on the top of a hill, and of a cold tempe 
rature. It contains 60 families of Indians, and a 
convent or hospital of the order of St. Francis. Six 
leagues to the w. of its head settlement. 

ATLAHU1LCO, SAN MARTIN DE, a settle 
ment of the head settlement of the district of The- 
quilan, and alcaldia mayor of Orizaba, in Nueva 
Espana. It contains 110 families of Indians, who 
trade in seeds, tobacco, small cattle, and swine ; 
is six leagues from its head settlement, and situate 
at the foot of the sierra. 

ATLAMA JAC1NGO, a settlement of the head 
settlement of the district of Atlistac, and alcaldia 
mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 
42 families of Indians, whose only trade consists 



A T L 

in the barter of some maize and fruits. It is two 
leagues to the w. s. w. of its head settlement. 

ATLAMAXACZINGO DEI, MONTE, a set 
tlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in Nueva 
Espana. It contains 85 families of TIapeneco* 
Indians, and is four leagues and a half to the s. of 
its capital. 

ATLAMAZUQUE, a settlement of the alcal 
dia mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains 
45 families of Indians, and is one league to the e. 
of its capital. 

ATLAMULCO, SANTA MARIA DE, a settle 
ment of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Mete- 
pec in Nueva Espana. It contains 1235 families 
of Indians, including those of the wards of its 
district. 

[ATLANTIC OCEAN, The, separates America 
from Europe and Africa. See SEA.] 

ATLAPANALA, a small settlement or ward 
of the alcaldia mayor of Guauchinango in Nueva 
Espana, annexed to the curacy of Tlaola. 

ATLAPULCO, SAN PEDRO DE, a head settle 
ment of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Mete- 
pec in Nueva Espana. It contains 290 families 
of Indians, and is five leagues to the w. s. w. of its 
capital. It is the head of its curacy, to which are 
annexed many other settlements. 

ATLATLAUCA, an alcaldia mayor of Nueva 
Espana, in the province and bishopric of Oaxaca. 
It is the smallest population and jurisdiction of any 
district in this province, consisting only of two 
head settlements at a small distance from each other. 
It is at the same time the most barren in produc 
tions and commerce ; on which account it is the 
last in reputation in the kingdom, and is thought 
but little of, since it yields scarcely sufficient to sup 
ply its own necessities. The capital has the same 
name. This is situate in a hot temperature, and 
contains 78 families of Zapotecas Indians. The 
abundant stream of the Cuicatlan passes through 
its vicinity ; but such is the sterility of the soil, 
that no advantage can be derived from its waters. 
It, in short, produces nothing but a moderate 
quantity of maize. It is 70 leagues s. e. of 
Mexico. 

ATLATLAUCA, with the dedicatory title of San 
Esteven, another head settlement of the district of 
the alcaldia mayor of Tepozcolula in the same 
kingdom, situale upon a mountain covered with 
lofty trees ; and from these the inhabitants, who 
consist of 108 families of Indians, cut tablets and 
planks, which, with seeds and some cotton manu 
factures, constitute their commerce. Eight league* 
s. w. of its capital. 
ATLATLAUCA, a head settlement of the district 



A T O 

of the alcaldia mayor of Tenango del Valle in the 
same kingdom. It contains 165 families of In 
dians. 

ATLATITLA, SAN MIGUEL DE, a head set 
tlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of 
Chalco in Nueva Espana. It contains 181 fami 
lies, and a convent of monks of St. Dominic*. It 
is five leagues to the s. | to the *. w. of its capi 
tal. 

ATLATONGO, SANTIAGO DE, a settlement 
of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia 
mayor of Tezcoco in Nueva Espana, annexed to 
that of Acolman, from whence it lies a quarter of 
a league to the n. It contains 111 families of In 
dians, and four of Spaniards. 

ATLEBOROUGH, an English settlement in 
the province and colony of Massachusetts, at the 
mouth of the river Patucket. 

ATLIACAN, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Tixtlan in Nueva Espana. 
It contains 180 families of Indians, and lies three 
leagues and a half from its capital. 

ATL1STAC, a head settlement of the district 
and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. 
It has a convent of Agustin monks, and 66 fami 
lies of Indians, whose principal commerce con 
sists in cotton, which it yields in abundance, and 
in the fabricating of blankets, cloths, huapiles, 
and other vestments. It is six leagues to the w. 
of its capital. 

[ATLIXCO, a town of the intendancy of 
Puebla, in the kingdom of Nueva Espana, justly 
celebrated for the fineness of its climate, great 
fertility, and savoury fruits with which it abounds, 
especially the anona cheremolia, Lin. (chilimoyd), 
and several sorts of passiflores (parchas) produced 
in the environs.] 

a ATOCHA, Lake of, in the province and cap 
tainship of Rey in Brazil. It is at the extremity 
of the coast formed by the Rio de la Plata. 

ATOGU1, a river of the province and cap 
tainship of Seara in Brazil, which runs n. and 
enters the Parana. 

ATOKAS, a small river of New France, or 
Canada. It runs n. and enters lake Superior, be 
tween the rivers Probavie and de Fond. 

ATOLE, a large lake of the province and go 
vernment of Maracaibo, formed by different rivers, 
and principally by the Pampano and Olaga. It 
afterwards joins the grand lake Maracaibo, 
through a narrow mouth called De las Piraguas ; 
in it are many small islands. 

ATOLUA, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor 
of Teazitlau in Nueva Espana. It contains 47 



A T O 



111 



families of Indians, and is half a league n. of its 
capital. 

ATONTAQUI, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Otavolo in the kingdom of 
Quito. 

.ATOTONILCAO, a head settlement of the 
district of the alcaldia mayor of Tulanzingo in 
Nueva Espana. It has a convent of Agustin 
monks, 265 families of Indians, and some Spa 
niards, Mulattoes, and Mustees, who occupy 
themselves in tilling and cultivating the land for 
fruits and seeds. Seven leagues n. e. of its capi 
tal. 

ATOTONILCAO, another settlement, in the head 
settlement of the district of Atitalaquia, and alcal 
dia mayor of Tepetango, in the same kingdom, 
containing 150 families of Indians. 

ATOTONILCAO, another, of the head settlement 
of the district of Xonacatepec, and alcaldia mayor 
of Cuernavaca, in the same kingdom. There 
still remains here a bath which was built by the 
order of Herman Cortes, which is raised on arches, 
and with such ingenuity that the water can be 
made deep or shallow at will. The water it 
crystalline and pure, and a cure for many infir 
mities. 

ATOTONILCAO, another, of the same head set 
tlement of th district and alcaldia mayor as the 
former. 

ATOTONILCAO, another, of the head settlement 
of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlaxomulco 
in the same kingdom. It contains a convent of 
monks of St. Francis. 

ATOTONILCAO, another, of the head settlement 
of the district and alcaldia mayor of La Barca in 
the kingdom of Nueva Galicia. It has a large 
population of Indians, Mustees, and Mulattoes, 
who breed large and small cattle, and cultivate 
wheat and other grain. In its district are many 
estates, as San Andres la Cienega, Milpillas, Sa- 
pote, and Aio. It is 12 leagues to the n. e. of its 
capital. 

ATOTONILCAO, another, ofthe head settlement 
of the district of Amaqueca, and alcaldia mayor 
of Zayula, in the same kingdom. It contains 
120 families of Indians, and lies four leagues n. of 
its head settlement. 

ATOTONILCAO, another, ofthe missions belong 
ing to the monks of St. Francis, in the province 
of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. 
It is five leagues from the real of the mines and 
the settlement of Parral. 

ATOFAQUE, a settlement ofthe head settle- 
ment of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Za- 



112 



R 



yala in Nueva Espana, situate in a valley of an 
agreeable temperature. It contains 50 families of 
Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes, 150 of In 
dians, and a convent of monks of St. Francis. 
Four leagues to the e. of its capital. 

ATOYAQUE, another, with the dedicatory title 
of La Concepcion, the head settlement of the dis 
trict of the alcaldia mayor of Tepozcolula, in the 
province and bishopric of Oaxaca in the same 
kingdom. It is of a hot temperature, situate near 
the large river of its name, which fertilizes the 
greater part of the territory, and in it, at certain 
seasons, trout are caught and carried to be sold 
in the capital of the province, where they are 
held in high estimation, their price varying in 
proportion to their scarcity. It produces an infi 
nite quantity of cotton, the manufacture of which 
is the principal source of commerce to the natives, 
who consist of 29 families of Indians. Fifteen 
leagues to the s. with a slight inclination to the w. 
of its capital. 

ATOYAQUE, another, formerly called Maxal- 
tepec, of the head settlement of the district and 
alcaldia mayor of Zacatula. It contains 175 fami 
lies of Indians, including those of the wards of its 
district. 

ATOYAQUE, another, ahead settlement of the 
district of the alcaldia mayor of Xicayan in the 
same kingdom. It contains 172 families of In 
dians, who trade in cotton and seeds. Nine 
leagues n. w. of its capital. 

[ATOYAQUE, a deep and large river in Mexico, 
or New Spain. On it is the famous natural bridge, 
called Ponti di Dio, 100 miles s. e. of Mexico, 
over which coaches and carriages conveniently 
pass.] 

ATOYAQUILLO, a head settlement of the 
district of the alcaldia mayor of Tepozcolula in 
Nueva Espana, of the province and bishopric of 
Oaxaca. It is of a hot temperature, and contains 
70 families of Indians, who trade in woven cotton 
manufactures, bartering them for salt found on 
the coast of Xicayan. Twenty-four leagues s. w. 
of its capital. 

ATRATO, a large and abundant river of the 
province and government of Dfirien in the king 
dom of Tierra Firme. It has its origin and source 
in the mountains of the province of Choco, from 
two lakes which form the rivers Quito and San 
Pablo, which latter become immediately united. 
It runs nearly straight from s. to n. for more than 
95 leagues, and empties itself into the N. sea ; 
collecting in its course the waters of the Tigre, 
Torren, and Pequest, the waters of the lake 



A T R 

Luina, and several other streams of such magni 
tude as to cause it to form a mouth upwards of 
five leagues broad, in the great bay or gulph 
called Darien, near the limits which divide the 
two governments and jurisdictions of Cartagena 
and Pamana. This river, which in that country 
is also known by the names of Darien and Choco, 
is navigable for many leagues ; but its navigation 
is prohibited on pain of death, without any ex 
ception whatever, in order to avoid any prejudice 
which might arise to the provinces of the Nuevo 
Reyno, by means of the facility with which this 
kingdom might be thus entered. Neverthless the 
viceroy of that kingdom, Don Manuel Guiriol, 
proposed that this passage should be free and open, 
though with the proper precautions against any 
probable mischief. Its sands abound with gold. 
Just at its entrance into the sea, are 17 small 
islands lying in two lines. Its mouth is in lat. 8 

2 77. 

ATRIS, a very fertile valley of the province 
and government of Quito, belonging to the juris 
diction of Pasto, and where this city was founded. 
It is of a cold temperature, and is washed by the 
river Pascamayu on the e. : it abounds in pastures 
and cattle. 

ATRISCO, or CARRION, a capital town of 
the alcaldia mayor and jurisdiction of its name 
in Nueva Espana. It is very beautiful and large, 
abounding in streams, which irrigate the whole 
of its district and render it agreeable both in 
appearance and fertility. It has two parishes, 
one for the Spaniards and another for the Indians ; 
five con vents of the religious orders of St. Fran 
ciscans, La Merced, San Juan de Dios, in which 
there is a good hospital and building for con 
valescents, of barefooted Carmelites, and of the 
nuns of Santa Clara ; different chapels and her 
mitages in the wards, which are peopled by In 
dians, and of which the most extensive is that 
called De los Solares, a small population living in 
orchards and gardens which are filled with flowers, 
fruits, and vegetables ; the same charming spot 
being rendered fertile by different streams encom 
passing it on all sides, and affording refresh 
ment and recreation to the inhabitants of the ca 
pital, who amount to 400 families of Spaniards, 
Mustees, and Mulattoes, (from whom three com 
panies of militia have been formed), and also to 
1250 families of Mexican Indians. The valley 
of Atrisco, celebrated for its beauty and fertility, 
has cultivated estates which produce immense 
abundance of wheat, maize, barley, and other 
grains, by which other provinces are supplied, 



A T U 



A T U 



113 



t!ire being the principal sources of trade in this 
province; and although it is not without a sulli- 
cient quantity of flax and hemp, yet of these little 
is made ; nor indeed docs the small attention 
"which is paid to their cultivation, warrant the ex-, 
pedation of any considerable emolument to, be 
derived from them. In the estates are 150 families 
of Spaniards, and innumerable parties of Indians, 
who assist in their cultivation. It abounds also 
in large and small cattle, and its woods in hares, 
rabbits, partridges, and other birds. It is water 
ed by several large rivers, from which not only 
the estates, but also all the gardens of the greater 
part of the settlements of its district, derive great 
benefit. The Indians arc much given to the cul 
tivation of cotton, of which they make particu 
larly fine garments, and indeed they are natu 
rally very indusrious. Thirty leagues s. e. of 
Mexico. 

The settlements of this jurisdiction are, 
Zoyatlitlanapa, Amecaque, 

Tianguismanalco, SanAndrcsdeCalpa. 

Guaquechula, 

ATRISCO, another town of the* same name, in 
the kingdom of Mexico. 

ATROPICHE, a small river of the province 
and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalu- 
cia. It runs from s. to n. and enters the Orinoco, 
on the side of the new city of San Gabriel de 
Guayana. 

[ATTAKAPAS. See ATACAPAS.] 
f ATTLEBOROUGfl. See ARTLEBURGH.] 
ATUJNCANAK, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of 
Quito. It is of an agreeable and healthy tempe 
rature, abounding in productions, especially in 
sugar-canes and cochineal. In the lime of the 
IncasofPeru, it was a very wealthy population, 
having a temple dedicated to the sun, a palace 
and a fort, of which the ruins still remain, at 
the distance of two leagues towards the n. and 
which is the most regular, capacious, and well 
constructed of any in that kingdom. At the 
entrance of this tort, and in the front, is a small 
river, which runs close up to its walls ; and on the 
opposite side it is terminated by a moderately lofty 
hill, and hemmed in by a strong wall. Nearly in 
the centre is a turret of an oval figure, which rises 
on the interior of the wall to about the height 
of two toises, and to six or eight on the exterior. 
In the middle of it is a square inclosed by walls, 
which, towards the part which looks into the 
country, has all its angles touching the circum 
ference of the oval, without leaving any pass; and 
there is, indeed, nothing left on the other side 

VOL. I. 



save a very narrow way. In the middle of the 
square is a division forming two small apartments, 
which have no cornmunieaiioii with each other; 
and they arc entered by a door placed at the side 
opposite the division. In the sides which front the 
country are small holes, which served as a watch 
ing place, and where, to all appearance, a guard 
used to be mounted. Close upon the exterior of 
this oval runs the wall, to the extent of 40 toises on 
the left hand, and 25 on the right. This wall 
afterwards becomes doubled, forming different 
irregular angles, and including a large space. 
Close to the rocky place from which the river has 
its source, is a gate or entrance, and near to this 
runs a narrow pass, where two persons only can 
go abreast ; and this pass, when it comes to the 
opposite wall, turns about and leads to the tower, 
being still of the t,ame breadth. It afterwards 
inclines rather towards the rocky place, but at 
length widening, forms an half pl-iin before the 
same tower. In this narrow pass, at the distance 
of three feet from each other, are disposed niches, 
formed in the solid wall like sentry boxes, and in 
another part of the wall are two gates, which are 
capable of admitting very large stores and accom 
modations for the lodging of the troops. Tli.3 
interior space is formed into various compartments, 
and from the height of the walls, the gates, and the 
nice economy which prevails, the whole fabric 
seems evidently to have been the habitation of 
some prince. All the walls are full of holes, and 
there are many small stones of six or eight inches 
long, and three or four broad, jetting out from their 
sides, and which no doubt served as pegs, upon 
which the soldiers might hang up their arms. 
The whole of the wall is very thick, having a fine 
parapet and a deep ditch without, and a very 
capacious terrace within ; and although there is a 
way entirely round the top, it has only one en 
trance, namely, by means of a staircase close to 
the oval tower, which, after rising some steps, 
forms the main staircase for the tower itself. The 
structure, as well of the walls as of the interior 
buildings, is entirely of unequal stones of irregular 
figure ; but these are so neatly and so firmly put 
together, that it is scarcely possible to perceive 
where they are joined. Opposite this settlement, 
the Inca Atahualpa conquered his brother Huascar, 
and put to the sword 60,000 of his vassals. In 
its (listrict-towards the e. is an estate called Bue- 
ran. 

ATUNCOLLA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Lam pa in Peru , at one league s 
distance from the great lake Titicaca, in which 
there is an island four leagues in circumference, 



114 



Z 



ami where arc to he seen vestiges of the palace of 
the Great Colin. Jt is of a triangular figure, and 
built of imshaperl stones, similar to the fort of 
Cuzco. This edifice was destroyed by the hands 
of some avaricious persons, who found in it con 
siderable hidden treasure. It was anciently the 
court of the aforesaid (ircut Colla, bul it is at pre 
sent the most wretched population of any in the 
province. 

ATL NJAUXA, a settlement of the province 
rid cprrcsimiehio of .Jauxa in Peru. 

ATUN QUILLACAS, a settlement of the pro 
vince and corrcginricnlo of Paria in Peru. 

ATUXQL1XOS, a scttlemeiit of the province 
and government of Quixos and Macas in the King 
dom of Quito. 

ATURES, a settlement of the missions which 
belonged to the Jesuits in the Orinoco. It is at pre 
sent under Use care of the Capuchin monks. 

ATI:RI:S, t he Torrents of the Three "Water-falls of. 
The>e are very tremendous, and at a small distance 
from each other, in the river Orinoco. They 
check the navigation here, and make it requisite 
for ves.*-els to be carried on men s shoulders by 
land. These falls arc 35 leagues from the mouth 
of the river. 

[AT WOOD S Key, one of the uninhabited Ba 
hama i.->I:inds, situate in the Atlantic ocean, about 
ei-ht or ten leagues in a n.e. direction fromCrookcd 
i>land,and about. ^.) due e. from the middle part of 
Long island. See BAHAMAS.] 

AT/AT/A, SAN MATIAS DE, a settlement of 
the head settlement of the district and alcaldia 
in ci i/or of Guejozingp. Tt contains 24 families of 
Indians, and is situate to the e. of its capital. 

ATZALAN, a head settlement of the alcaldia 
mayor of Xalapa in Nueva Espaila. This dis 
trict is bounded by that of TIacoIula, of the same 
jurisdiction : s. w. by that of Thepayahualco, to 
which belongs the extensive territory of Perote ; 
nnd from its being situated lower than this moun 
tain, its temperature is not so cold, although it is 
verv subject to fogs and dews. It abounds in 
fruits, seeds, tobacco, and fish called bobos, which 
are found in two rivers which run immediately by 
the settlement. Its population amounts to 70 
families of Spaniards, including those of the wards 
of Santa Maria TIapacoya, vluch, for the most 
part, are under the care of Don Felipe Moteguma. 
The name of this settlement, which in the Mexican 
language signifies, " a population between two 
rivers," is derived from the aforesaid rivers, the 
largest of \vhich runs to the s. of it. It is a league 
and an half s. e. of Xalacingo. 

A fZOLA, a head settlement of the district of 



A U A 

the akalriia mat/or of Ohicapa in Nneva Esprma, 
of the province and bishopric of Oaxaca. It is 
of a mild temperature, and abounds greatly in 
cochineal and seeds. It is inhabited by ^85 fami 
lies of Indians, comprehending tho.se of the wards 
of its district. Twelve leagues to the s. s. e. of its 
capital. 

ATZOMPA, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor 
of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains JJ6 
families of Mexican Indians, including those of a 
ward in its vicinity, who are very much given to 
the culture of the soil, which produces in abun 
dance seeds, fruits, garden herbs, cochineal, nnd 
cotton. Seven leagues from the real of the mines 
of silver in the district of Alcozauca. 

AT/OMIM, another settlement of the same name, 
with the dedicatory title of Santa Maria, in the 
head settlement of the district of Cuilaya, and alcal 
dia mayor of Quatro Villas, in the same kingdom. 
It contains 143 families of Indians, who nre em 
ployed in the commerce of cochineal, seeds, fruits, 
coal, and bark of trees. It is little more than a 
league ;;. n\ of its head settlement. 

AT/OPAN,, SAN AGUSTIN nu, a settlement of 
the head settlement of the district and alcaldia 
mayor of (luejocingo in Nueva Espana. It con 
tains !27 families of Indians, and lies s. of its 
capital. 

AUACA, a small river of the province and 
government of Guayana in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme. Jt rises in the sierra of the country of the 
Macirinabis Indians, runs nearly due e. and enters 
the Cauca. 

AUALOS, a settlement of the province arid 
government of Tucuman, in the jurisdiction of the 
city of Cordova, and kingdom of Peru. It lies 
upon a narrow strip of land or peninsula, formed 
by the river Primcro. 

AUANA, a river of the province and govern 
ment ol Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia, in the king 
dom of Tierra Firme. It rises s. of the settlement 
of San Joseph de Mapoyes, runs s. and enters the 
Sipapu. 

AUANDA, a settlement of the Portuguese, 
being a reduction of Indians of the missions of the 
Carmelite monks of that nation, in the province 
and country of the Arnazonas. It is on the shore 
of the river Negro, at the same mouth by which 
this is entered by the Nuisi. Mr. Bellin, in his 
maps, calls it the Anivida. 

AUAIIA, a small river of the province and 
county, of the Amazonas. It runs from w. to e. 
for a small space, and enters the river Madera, 
above the \ aruba. 

a small river of the province and 



A tr E 

government of Guayana, or Nueya Andatucia, ia 
tJie kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the 
scrrania of Parimc, runs e. forming a curve, and 
enters (lie river Parhne or Parnrna, near its source. 

AUBIN, a s.nall island of the N. sea, close to 
the coast ot the island of Martinique, on the n. c. 
part, between the small river Salado and fort 
Trinidad. 

AUCAIAMA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimienlo of Chancay in Pern, founded in 
1551 ; in which is venerated a miraculous image of 
the Virgin del Rosario, which, with ornaments 
corresponding to it, were senl hither by the Empe 
ror Charles V. 

AUCAMPI, a settlement of the province and 
correginuento of Yauyos in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of its capital. 

AUCI1JAPA, a settlement of the head settlement 
of the district and a. ca dia mayor of Tlapa in 
Nueva Espana. It contains 42 families of Indians, 
and is three leagues .v. of its capital. 

AUCO, a settlement of the province and corre- 
gimiento of Yauyos in Peru, annexed to the curacy 
of its capital. 

AUECII1CA, a settlement of the province of 
Guayana, and government of Cumana, one of the 
missions held here by the Catalauian Capuchin 
fathers ; situate on the shore of the river Cuiuni. 

AUENARAC, a settlement of the province and 
government of Tucuman, in the jurisdiction of the 
city of Santiago del Estero, and kingdom of Peru, 
situate on the shore of the river Chorouioros. 

AIJENDANO, LAG UNAS DE, lakes in the 
province and district of Itata, of the kingdom of 
Chile. They are nine in number, great and small, 
and are situate bctsveen the rivers Itata and Laxa. 

AUENICO, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom of 
Quito. It rises close to the settlement ot Yubal, 
runs from w. to e. and enters the Maranon. 

AUES, an island of the N. sea, one of the 
Antilles, sitirite s. c. of Bonaire, l(j leagues from 
the coast of Venezuela, in thegulphTriste, or Coro. 
It is a league and a halt long, and very narrow, 
Laving before it some rocks, lying in the shape of 
a half-moon, on which, in the year 1678, the 
whole of the French squadron, commanded by 
Count d Estres, was wrecked. It has a large and 
convenient bay, and is called the island of Birds, 
(Isla de Ares), from its abounding with an infinite 
variety of them, and, as it were, destitute of in 
habitants, these consisting only of a few Dutch 
fishermen. Close to it is another very small island 
of the same name, and they are distinguished by 
the one being called Large and the other Small, In 



A U G 115 

this there are some orange and lemon trees, but it 
is otherwise barren, and of a sandy and desert soil. 
Its circumference is about three leagues, and it 
also belongs to the Dutch. They are in long. 16, 
and lat. 11 56 n. 

AUGARAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of 
the kingdom of Brazil, who inhabit the woods arid 
mountains which lie to the w. of the captains/tip 
of Puerto Seguro, of whom but little is known, 
and rare accounts been received. 

AUGUSTA, a fort and establishment of the 
English, in the province and colony of Georgia, on 
the shore of the river Savannah ; it is the place of 
commerce whereto those residing in this province 
and that of Carolina resort, to carry on the traffic 
with the Indians, by means of the river, which 
is navigable in canoes. It is 230 miles distant 
from the mouth of that river, and has a good road 
which leads to the town of Cherokee, peopled by 
Indians of this nation. [Augusta, in the upper 
district of Georgia, was till lately the seat of go 
vernment. It is situated on a fine plain in Rich 
mond county, on the s, zo. bank of Savannah 
river, where it is near 500 yards broad, at a 
bend of the river ; 127 miles n. w. from Savan 
nah ; from Washington s. e. by e. and from 
Louisville s. zc. 50 miles; and 934 miles s. w. 
from Philadelphia. At the first settlement of 
the colony, General Oglethorpe erected a fort 
here for protecting the Indian trade, and hold 
ing treaties with the natives. In 1739 about 600 
people separated themselves from the maritime set 
tlements, and removed to its neighbourhood, to 
carry on a peltry trade with the Indians. Them 
were, however, but three or four houses in the town 
of Augusta in 1780, and in 1787 it contained 200. 
The country round it has an excellent soil, which, 
with its central situation, between the upper and 
lower countries, will bring it fast into importance. 
Lat. 33 19 n. Long. 80 46 zo. ] 

AUGUSTA, a county of the province and colony 
of Virginia, sittnte between the mountains which 
divide it on the c. from Albemarie; bounded?/, 
by the territory of Lord Fairfax, and s. w. by the 
mountains. It is watered by different rivers ? 
which pass across the high road leading from Vir 
ginia to Maryland. [The soil is fertile, and the 
county contains 10,886 inhabitants,, including 
1567 slaves. Here is a remarkable cascade, called 
the Falling spring. It is a branch of the James, 
where it is called Jackson s river, rising in the 
mountains 20 miles s. w. from the \Varru spring, 
or Hot spring, winch lies in lat. 38 13 ;?. long. 
80 z0. At the Falling spring, the water falls 
200 feet, which is about 50 feet higher than ihs 



no 



A U I 



fall of Niagara. Between the sheet of wuter and 
the rock below, a mnn may walk across dry. The 
sheet of water is only 12 or 15 feet wide above, 
and somewhat wider below : it is broken in ils 
breadth in two or three places, but not at all in its 
height] 

AUGUSTINE, Cape ST. Sec AGUSTIV, SAN. 

AUGUSTINE, ST. capital of E. Florida. See 
AGUSTIX. 

[AUGUSTINE S, Sr. a port and river on the 
coast of Labrador, near the straits of Bellisle and 
opposite St. John s bay, Newfoundland. There 
are two small islands in the harbour, and about 
two miles a. w. runs a chain of little islands, called 
St. Augustine s chain ; the outermost of which is 
a remarkable smooth rock. It is about 25 miles 
from Great Mccatina island. Lat. 5P J-i n. Long. 
58 58 a.] 

[AUGUSTINE S Square, Sr. a number of small 
islands on the coast of Labrador, in the gulph of 
St. Lawrence, the largest of which are from She- 
catica bay on the n. e. to Outer island s. w. ; viz. 
Large, Sandy, and Outer islands. These are near 
the mouth of the St. Lawrence.] 

AUILA DE LOS COFANF.S, a city of the pro 
vince and government of Quixos y Macas in the 
kingdom of Quito. Its temperature is mild, and its 
soil fertile, but its natives cultivate only i/ucas, 
plantains, and maize, upon which they live. Its 
population is very scanty, and it scarcely deserves 
the name of one, owing to the invasions of the in- 
iidel Indians, by whom it has been destroyed. It 
is on the shore of the river Suno, which enters the 
JVnpo, in lat. 28 s. 

AUILA, a mountain of the serrania, which lies 
between the city of Caracas and the port of Guaira. 
It serves as a mark for pilots to know the port, 
since it is discernible at a great distance. It is 
called by the sailors the Ensillada de Caracas, 
from a fissure it has in it of the form of a saddle. 

AU1RAMAS, a settlement of the province and 
government of Popaytin in the kingdom of Quito. 

AU1SADO, a settlement of the province and 
corrcgiuiiento of Chachapoyas in Peru, annexed to 
tiie curacy of Soritor. 

A U1TAI1 UA, a very lofty mountain of the pro 
vince of Canelos in the kingdom of Quito, to the 
s. of Llanganate, arid n. of the river Pastaza. 
From its top run the rivers Alpayacu,Zhina, Chiu- 
loaya, and Otalluc, which run from n. to s. and 
enter the Pastaza, in lat. 1 23 s. 

AUIUPO, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia, situate 
on the shore of the river Caura, in the country of 
4\iQ Paudacotos Indians. 



A U R 

AULLAGAS, a settlement of the province and 
corregimienlo of Ch ayanla in Peru. 

AULLAGAS, a large lake of Peru, which is nine 
leagues distant from that of Potosi, and 28 from Ch ar 
eas. It is two leagues long, and four and a halt in cir 
cumference ; has no fish in it whatever ; and in its 
environs dwell the Anlhgas Indian?, from whom it 
takes its name. From this lake is formed the river 
Desagnadcro, which enters immediately into the 
lake Guanacache. 

AULLAGAS, the nation of Indians aforesaid, who 
inhabit the .shores of the rivers Desaguadero and 
Tigre. It is not very numerous, nor is it much 
known. 

AUNALOS, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Mamas in the kingdom of Quito. It rises 
in the territory which lies between the rivers 
Chambira and Tigre, runs e. forming an angle, 
and enters the latter, in lat. 2 6 s. 

AUOYELES, an island of the river Colorado, 
in the province and government of Louisiana, 
near its entrance into the Mississippi, from the 
mouth of which it is 220 miles distant. 

AUOYELES, a nation of Indians who inhabit the 
same province and government, on the shores of 
the river Colorado. They supply the province 
of Nucvo Mexico with mules, horses, and oxen, 
in such abundance, that they are commonly sold for 
the trifling sum of 20 pesetas (40 reals of silver) 
each. 

AUQUILLA, a settlement of the province and 
carregimicnto of Vilcas Huaman in Peru, annexed 
to the curacy of Chuschi. 

AUQUIMARCA, a settlement of the province 
and correginncnto of Chancay in Peru, annexed 
to the curacy of Paccho. 

AURA, a town of the province and government 
of Maracubo in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, 
situate to the s. of the city of Truxillo, where the 
river Bocono has its source. 

AUHAMBA, a settlement of the head settlement 
of the district of Tiripitio, and alcaldia nuti/oro 
Yalladolid, in the province and bishopric of Me- 
choacan. It contains 22 families of Indians, and 
two of Spaniards ; and in two estates of its district 
27 of Spaniards, three of Mulattoes, and 17 of 
Indians. Two leagues to the w. of its head set 
tlement. 

AURE, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Guayana : one of those which enter the 
Apure. 

[AUREAN Academy, a respectable seminary 
of learning in AMHEUST, New Hampshire, which 
see.] 

AUREGA, a large river of the island of Cuba, 



A U T 

](. ri.-es in (he surras of the 5. coast, runs s. and 
enters the sea between the river Artiboaito, and 
another of its own name : the latter is distinguished 
by the surname of Little ; it has the same origin and 
course as the other, and runs into the sea between 
it mid the city of Santiago. 

[AURELIUS, a military township in New 
York, Onond ago county, on Owasco lake, having 
the Cayuaga Reservation lands w. and Marccllus 
e. ; and nine miles c. of the ferry on Cayuaga 
lake. By the state census of 1796, 213 of the 
inhabitants are electors. See MILITARY Town 
ships.] 

[AURORA, an island belonging to the Archi 
pelago of the Great Cyclades. Lat. 15*. Long. 
168 30 e. from Paris, discovered by Bougainville, 
May 22, 176S. It is about 20 leagues long and 
two broad. Its eastern shore is steep, and covered 
w i th wood.l 

AUSTRIA, SAX FFLIPE DE, or CARIACO, a 
city of the province and government of Cumana, 
situate upon a plain on the skirt of the serrania, 
and which is called the valley of Cariaco, and is 
About eight or ten leagues in circumference. It is 
very fertile, especially in maize and i/ucas, -which 
the natives cultivate : of the former they usually 
collect from 20 to 24,000 bushels, which is carried 
by the gulph to Cumana, and other parts of the 
province. This valiey has 11 cacao estates, which 
belong to the inhabitants of the city, and which 
never produce more than 100 bushels : they are, 
however, held in high estimation ; and when there 
is a deficiency in the crops of maize, great priva 
tions are felt throughout the settlements on the 
coast; for this valley is the granary of the pro 
vince. The population of this city is composed of 
25 i families ; and it is 16 leagues from Cumana. 
Lat. 10 31 n. Long. 63 41 w. 

AUSTRIA, another city, (with the dedicatory 
title of San Carlos), in the same province and go 
vernment, founded in some lofty and cold desert 
mountains, from whence, on account of the inva 
sions it continually experienced from the Cliaribbec 
Indians, it was afterwards removed to a warmer 
spot. It produces much cattle and honey, which 
is made by various sorts of bees; also many and 
exquisite kinds of wood, as Brazil wood, ebony, 
pomegranates, zarzaparilla, canajisicffa^ tobacco, 
and a great quantity of oil of Canime. Four leagues 
jr. ro. of Cumana. 

AUTIS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, 
who inhabit the mountains of the province and go 
vernment of Tiirn, in the e. part, and who are 
confederates and allies of the Chunchos Indians, 
through the harmony of their manners. 



A V A 



117 



AUTLAN^ an alcnldia mayor of Nueva Es- 
paila, in the province and bishopric of Guada- 
laxara, of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, bounded 
on the e. by that of Zayula, where it terminates in 
a pleasant valley, which is five leagues long; 
n. by the province of Guachiuango ; and just be 
fore the line of division is the lofty mountain of 
Ameca, abounding in minerals of gold of a supe 
rior quality, which is only worked at intervals, a 
great number of poor people being employed, who 
with a very little labour earn all they wish, that is 
to say, enough to maintain themselves. It is also 
bounded s. by the province of Agualulco. The 
country is very fertile in productions, and abounds 
in canes, from which sugar is manufactured in 
several mills. The capital bears the same name : 
it is of a warm temperature, situate 30 leagues from 
the coast of the S. sea: it is often filled with 
country shop-keepers, and is a piace of meeting 
for the natives and traders of other jurisdictions to 
merchandize in salt, which is its principal article 
of commerce. All tiiis part, as far as the sea, is 
guarded by a militia of the settlement, whenever 
notice is given of pirates being off the coast, or 
when the China fleet is expected in the months of 
January and February. It has a convent of monks 
of St. Francis. Its population consists of 400 
families of Spaniards, Mustces, and Mulattoes, and 
of a very few Indians. In its precincts are various 
ranches and sugar-mills. They have a method of 
making up some of their grains in small round 
cakes, and they cultivate largely maize and French 
beans. One hundred and seventy-five leagues w. 
of Mexico. Its jurisdiction consists of the follow 
ing settlements : 

Zacapala, Exutla, 

Tecolotlan, Tenamaztlan, 

Zoyatlan, Ayutla, 

Mil pa, Yxthhuacar:, 

Zuchitlan, Atengo, 

Tepantla, Ameca. 

AUYAMAS, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Santa Marta in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme : it is very abundant, rises in the snowy 
sierra, traversing in a rapid course the valiey of 
Upar, and after running 72 leagues, it enters thec. 
side of the river Magda .cua. 

AV ALON, a province and colony of the Eng 
lish, in the island of Newfoundland, founded in 
1623 by George Calvert, secretary of state, and 
lord of Baltimore ; to whom was ceded by ill? 
king of England a certain portion of land in these 
pans, where he established a settlement ; building 
a house and fort, which was the residence of Mr. 
Baltimore and hi* family, aud which after iiis 



118 A X A 

death descended 1u his children and heirs. This 
colony is a peninsula, uniting .itself to that island 
by a narrow ilshinus of kind, which lies s. of the 
b.iy of Trinity, ami n. of that of Plasencia. In 
the disturbances of the English, it was taken pos 
session of by David Kirk, but afterwards fell into 
(he hands of its former masters, when the king 
redressed and repaired all the mischiefs and 
damages it had su/lerec). [The e. part of this pen 
insula is encompassed by the Great bank, and has, 
besides the two fo tncr bays, the bay of Conception 
on the n. and the bay of St. Mary and Trepassy 
bay on the a. It contains several excellent har 
bours, bays, and capes, among which are St. Ma 
ry s, Pine, Race, Ballard, St. Francis, &c.] 

[AYANCY, a jurisdiction subject to the bishop 
of Cusco, and lies four leagues n. e. of that city. 
Sec ABANCAV.] 

[AVERIL, ;i township in Essex county, Ver 
mont, formerly in that of Orange. It joins Ha 
milton on the n. w. Canaan on the //. e. and its n. 
corner is the Canada line.] 

[AVES, or BIRD S Island, in the West In 
dies, situated in lat. 15 SO n. long. (j J 15 a>. 
named so from the great number ol birds that breed 
there, yet is without a tree, which obliges them to 
lay their eggs in the sand. There is another island 
of this name among the Little Antilles, between the 
coast of St. lago de Leon in Tierra Finne, and the 
island of Bonaire.] 

[A VINO LA PANEA, a town in the a>. part 
of the kingdom of Leon in Nona America, be 
tween two of the head branches of Nassas river.] 

A VOCAT, a bay of the province and colony 
of Nova Scotia, within the great bay of Fundy. 

[AVON, a river of Nova Scotia, which empties 
into the Atlantic ocean, a little eastward of Hali 
fax. It is navigable as far as Fort Edward for vcs- 
fds of 400 tons, and for vessels of 60 tons two 
miles higher. A river called St. Croix runs into 
the Avon, whose source is in lakes and springs, 
about seven miles from its entrance, where it is 
crossed by a bridge on the road leading to Wind 
sor. It is navigable for vessels of 60 tons three 
miles, and for large boats seven miles.] 

AW EG EN, a settlement of Indians of Penn 
sylvania, situr.tc on the shore, and at the source of 
the e. arm of the river Susquehannah. 

AXACALA, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Acatlan, and ale al din may 
or of Sentipae, in Nucva Espana. It contains 38 
families of Indians, and is seven leagues w. of its 
capital. 

AXACUBA, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Iluipuxtla, and akaldia 

2 



A Y A 

mayor of Tepetnngo, in Nueva Espufu-u It con 
tains 76 families of Indians. 

AXAPUSCO, a settlement of the ah-ahlln 
mayor of Otumba in Nueva Espana. It contains 
90 families otlndians, and is half a league n. of 
its capital. 

[AXAS, a town in the interior part of Ne\r 
Albion. SeeQuiviKA.] 

AX1XIQUE, a head settlement of the district 
of the alcald ui mayor of /ayula in Nueva Espana, 
situate near the shore of the sea of Chapala. It 
contains a convent of monks of St. Francis, and 
is composed of 1.30 families of Indians. Twenty 
leagues n. e. of its capital. 

AXIXIQUK, another, a settlement in the head 
settlement of the district and akaldia mayor of 
Caxititlan, also situate on the shore of the grand 
lake or sea of Chapala, in a valley altogether 
fertile, and abounding in every kind of seed which 
is cultivated here, namely, wheat, maize, and 
French beans, with various fruits and pulse. 

AXOGI, a small river of the kingdom of Bra 
zil, which runs n. n. w. and enters on the 5. side 
of the grand river of Parana. 

AXUCH1TLAN, a settlement of the akaldia 
mayor of Tula in Nucva Espana, annexed to the 
curacy of its capital, from whence it lies three 
quarters of a league n. w. It contains 51 families 
of India/is. 

AXUCHITLAX, another, a small settlement or 
ward in the head settlement of the district of Santa 
Ana, and alcaldia mayor of Zultepcc, in the same 
kingdom. It is united to that of Tetcolmaloya, 
from whence it lies three leagues to the s. It con 
tains 20 families of Indians. 

A V A CORKS, a barbarous nation of Indians, 
who inhabit the country lying between the river 
Curaray to the n. and the Tigrc to the s. ; on the 
ti.n.w. it is bounded by the nation of the Semi- 
gaes, and s. by that of the Iquitos ; also on the e. it 
is close to the Puranos, and on the n. to the Yetes. 
Some of its tribes live in the forests upon the bor 
ders of the river Manay. 

AYAHUACAS, a barbarous nation of Indians, 
which were formerly in Peru, but now extinguish 
ed. Jt made great resistance to the Jnca Tupac 
Yupanqui, twelfth Emperor, by whom it was sub 
jected and made tributary. 

AYAUHUS, or AVAVIRIES, a barbarous na 
tion of Indians of Peru, who inhabited the moun 
tains to the n. e. of Cuzco. They were very 
valorous, and resisted for a long time Lloque 
Yupangi, third Emperor of the Incas, by whom, 
they were at last conquered, and so became united 
to his monarchy. At the present day nothing of 



A Z E 

them is left but (heir nanv*, from (heir having be 
come mixed and dispersed amongst the infinite 
nations of Indians which are in Peru. 

A YEN IS, a nation of barbarous Indians who 
inhabit Florida, of whose customs but little is 
known. 

[AYFI STOVTN, or AVKSTOWN, in Iurling- 
(0:1 county, New Jersey, lies on the middle branch 
of Ancocus creek, 1C miles from the-mouth of the 
creek in the Delaware, and V) s. c. from iiur- 
lington. 1 "] 

A YRl. NU, a river of the province of Q- iixos 
in the kingdom of Quito. It runs from s. w. to 
n. c. and runs to disembogue itself into the Napo, 
at its .?. side, in lat. 1 3 s. 

AZACANGO, a settlement of the he;id settle 
ment of the district of Atcngo, and alcaldia mayor 
of Chalapa, in Nueva Esp:ma. It contains 24 
families of Indians, and is three leagues to the n. 
of its head settlement. 

AZA.JO, SANTIAGO DF, a settlement of the 
head settlement of the district of Tirindaro, and 
alcaldia nun/or of Valladolid, iu the ])rovince and 
bishopric of Mechoacan in Nueva Esp:\na, situ 
ate in a sierra crowded with pines. It is of a cold 
temperature, abounding in salutary Avatcrs, and 
inhabited by 125 families of Indians. Two leagues 
s. of its head settlement. 

AZALAN, SANTIAGO DE, a settlement of the 
head settlement of the district of Chietlan, and 
alcaldia mayor of Izucar, in Nueva Espafia. 

AZAQU ALOIA, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of Zitlala, and alcaldia mnynr of Chilapa, 
in Nueva Espana. It contains 108 families of 
Indians, and is two leagues to the w. of its head 
settlement. 

AZAROMA, a settlement of the province and 
forregimiento of Carabaya in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Ayapata. 

A Z ATI AN, a river of the province and alcal 
dia of Tecoantepec in the kingdom of Guatemala. 
It runs to the S. sea, to the is. of the river Co- 
late. 

AZF1TE, SIERRAS DEL, mountains of the 
province and government of Santa Maria in the 
kingdom of Tierra Firme, near the sea-coast. 

AZEQl IAS, a settlement of the government 
and jurisdiction of Therida in the Nucvo Rev no 
de Granada, of a mild and healthy temperature, 
abounding in wheat, maize, truffles, beans, 
vetches, cabbages, and other productions of its 
climate. Its inhabitants amount to about 100 In. 
diansand 50 poor house-keepers; but its breeds 
of cattle are nevertheless very large. It is very 
near its capital. 



A z t us 

.A Z IT LA, SAN SIMON DE, a settlement of the 
head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Guejocingo 
in Nueva Espana. It contains 30 families of 
Indians, and is situate to the c. of its capital. 

AZOQl ES, a large settlement, fertile and 
abundant in productio is, of the province and cor* 
rcghmentt) of Cucnca in the kingdom of Quito, 
situate in the celebrated valley of Yunguilla, 
which is so fertile that it is wanting in nothing 
which can contribute to the pleasures and conve 
niences of life, on which account this curacy is 
rated at 1000 dollars ; and whosoever may be 
happy enough to be appointed to it, seldom 
wishes to be promoted <o any other benefice. It 
has mines of quicksilver, which were formerly 
worked, and from which it took its name. Lately 
some mines of silver were discovered. In the 
middle of it runs a stream, in the sands of which 
are found most exquisite rubies. 

AZONTAMATLAN, SAN FKANCISCO DE, a 
head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mat/ 
or of Guayacocotla in Nueva Espana. It con 
tains 3K) families of Indians, including those who 
inhabit the wards of its district. 

AZORES, small islands of the N. sea, lying . 
of St. Domingo, and s.c. of the sho:d of Plata. 
They are many and very dangerous, and upon 
them great numbers of vessels have been wrecked. 

AZOTZl, a settlement of the province and 
government of La Sonora in Nueva Espana. It 
is on the shore of the river of this name, between 
the settlements Harbiacora and Guspaca. 

AZOZALCO, a head settlement of the district 
of the alcaldia mayor and jurisdiction of Tasco 
in Nueva Espana. It contains 40 families of In 
dians, and is three leagues s. s. e. of i s capital. 

AZTACALCO, SANTA M.MUA DE, a settle 
ment of the alcaldia. mayor of E cat e pec in Nueva 
Espana. It contains 277 families of Indians. 

AZTAIUJACAN, SANTA MADIA DE, a setr 
tlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of 
Mexilcalzingo in Nueva Espana, with J05 fami 
lies of Indians. 

AZTATLA, SANTIAGO DE, a head settlement 
of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Huamelul.i. 
in Nueva Espana, situate at the distance of one 
league from the S. sea, on the skirt of a lofty 
mountain plain. It is of a hot temperature, and 
contains 30 families of Indians. In its vicinitj 
runs a river, which in the wet season is very abun 
dant. This river unites itself with the lluame- 
lula, and these, thus incorporated, run into the sea ; 
first fertilizing the arable lands and estates which 
lie upon their bank^. At a small distance is a 
lake, abounding in Jish, ami around it- the crops 



ISO 



AZU 



of seeds and fruits are remarkably fine. Along 
the coast, at the distance of four leagues, there is 
another lake, much deeper than the former, and 
indeed one of the largest to be found on thoie 
coasts : this communicates its waters by a natural 
channel with those of the lake of Las Salinas, 
which at certain times of the year deposits a 
white salt, from which greut emolument is derived, 
as \vell as from the fi.>h found in it ; amongst other 
sorts are shrimps, in sullicient quantities to supply 
all this jurisdiction, and even those bordering 
upon it. Two leagues s. of its capital. 

AZTLA, SANTA CATALINA OK, a settlement 
of the head settlement of the district of Coxcallan, 
and alcaldiu mayor of V r ailes, in Nueva Espaiia, 
situate upon the shores of the large river Goachi- 
goayan, where quantities of extremely fine fish 
are caught. It is of u hot and moist temperature, 
annexed to the curacy of its head settlement, and 
has a magnificent parish church. It contains 300 
families of Indians, who gain their livelihood by 
the culture and trallic of tobacco. Twenty leagues 
from its capital. 

AZU, JOSEPH DE, a settlement of the pro 
vince and captainship of Para in Brazil, situate on 
the shore of the river Tocantines, near the settle 
ment of Carambava. 

AZUA, or AZUCA, a town of the island and 
government of St. Domingo, settled by the Adc- 
Jantado Velazquez in 1504. It was called Com- 
postela from the Comendador Gallego, who had 
here an inheritance. This name, however, it 
afterwards lost, and took that of Azua, which it 
had held in the time of the Indians. It is very 
fertile in sugar-canes, from which much sugar is 
made. In this district are also some mines of 
gold, which were formerly worked, but are at 
present abandoned. It has a very good port on 
the S. sea, and is 24 leagues from the capital of 
St. Domingo. 

AZUCAR, PAN DE, a mountain of the pro 
vince and captainship of Espirita Santo in Brazil, 
0,1 the S. side of the town of Ilha. 



AZU 

AZ17CI1ITLAN, a head settlement and capt- 
tal of the ale aid i a mayor of this name in Nueva 
Espana. It is of an excessively warm and dry 
temperature. Its commerce is in large and small 
cattle, in crops of maize, French beans, cotton, 
and some fruits peculiar to the country. Its po 
pulation consists of 17 families of Spaniards, 26 
of Afuftees, 114 of Mulattoes, and 28o of Mexi 
can Indians. It is situate between two large rivers, 
Las Balzas, which runs w. and Las Truchas, 
which runs A 1 . ; and to the n. of it, at the distance 
of two leagues, it has a mine called De San Gre- 
gorio, of quicksilver and copper. This was for 
merly worked on the account of the king, but it 
is at present destroyed and lies waste. The settle 
ment is 50 leagues to the w. of Mexico. 

AZU El, Lake of, in the island of St. Do 
mingo, near the coast, and in the w. head by the 
great lake of Enriquillo, in the line which divides 
the possessions of the French and Spaniards. 

AZUELA, a large river of the province and 
government of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom 
of Quito. It rises in the vicinity of the town of 
San Miguel de Ibarra, and enters the Marauon. 

AZUFRERA, Mountain of, in the island of 
St. Domingo, and in the French possessions, 
where there is a mineral of sulphur. It is on the 
w. shore of the river Montroni. 

AZ LJL, a large river of the province of the 
Apaches in Nuevo Mexico. It runs from n. to s. 
and enters the large river Gila, opposite the 
town of San Felipe. 

AZUL, a sierra or cordil/era of mountains in the 
province and government of La Sonora. 

AZULEMA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada, situate near the source of the river 
Cauca. 

AZULES, SIERRAS, Cordilleras of mountains of 
the island of Jamaica, in the centre of the e. head. 
They arc thus called from appearing at sea of a 
blue colour. 



BAB 



BAB 



121 



B 



JtjAAL s River and Bay, in W. Greenland, lie 
between Bear sound on the s. e. arid Delft s point 
on th n. w. and opposite the mouth of Hudson s 
strait. 

BABA, a district of the province and govern 
ment of Guayaquil in the kingdom of Quito, one 
of the seven which compose the same, and one of 
the largest, extending 22 leagues from the mouth 
of the river of its name to the skirt of the moun 
tain Zamborondon, bounded by the Colarados 
Indians, in the heights of the asiento and province 
of Tacunga. Its territory is low, being com 
pletely inundated in the winter, and it then be 
comes necessary to take their cattle and their other 
productions into what they style winter-quarters, 
namely, to the very summits of the mountains ; 
but in the summer it is fertile, and produces quan 
tities of pasture ; and so great is the increase of its 
herds of cattle, that the natives are taught to con 
sider these inundations as one of their greatest 
benefits, since hereby much cattle is carried off 
and destroyed, which would otherwise overstock 
the country. It is equally fertile in cacao, in 
which consists its principal commerce, since it 
regularly gathers to the amount of 32,000 mea 
sures of 81 pound weight each; also in canoes 
which are made of one entire trunk, and often so 
large as to be capable of holding 60 bushels of salt ; 
in different woods ; in soap, colts, horses, and 
some cainilla, and butter of cacao. In this district 
grows the tree called matapalo, which destroys 
every plant that may be near it, and which has 
been seen of the immense size of 20 geometrical 
feet in circumference. The inhabitants may 
amount to about 4000, and the capital of the dis 
trict has the same name. It was situated on the 
shores of the river, which, although it still exists, 
has changed its course, running at present through 
a distant plain, seven leagues from the town, and 
leaving the inhabitants in some distress for a 
means of watering their cacao plantations, and for 
this reason, the productions became much dimi 
nished. Twenty leagues from the capital of the 
province. 

BABA, a large river of this district, rising in 
the mountains of Zamborondon in the province 
ofLatacunga. It runs 32 leagues till it empties 
itself into the river of Guayaquil, at its mouth. 

BABAHOYO, a district of the province and 

VOL. I. 



government of Guayaquil in the kingdom of 
Quito, one of the seven which compose the same ; 
bounded by the provinces of Chimbo and Rio- 
bamba. It is a tract of country so level and so 
low that it is commonly the first to be inundated 
by the swelling of the rivers in the winter, which, 
as they subside in the summer, leave the ground 
covered with a tall, rank, and thick grass called 
gamalole. It is very fertile, and abounding in. 
cattle of every kind ; in rice, cotton, soap, to* 
bacco, cacao, honey, and fruits, with which it 
carries on a great commerce, by means of its river, 
with the other provinces ; so that this district is, as 
it were, a continual fair, and is one of the richest 
districts of the province. 

BABAHOYO, a capital settlement of the above dis 
trict, situate on the shore of the river which bears 
the same name, where are the custom-houses and 
royal arsenals, which are called bodegas, and in 
which are deposited, for the supply of the pro 
vinces of the sierra, both its own and the produc 
tions of the ultra-marine provinces of Peru, Chile, 
Tierra Firme, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, as 
also what is brought by the muleteers who come 
down from Quito, Latacunga, Ambato, Chimbo, 
and Riobamba ; so that a continual fair is held 
for the space of six months, the same being a ge 
neral sale of the productions of the above pro 
vince. Lat. 1 47 s. 

BABAMOYO, a large river of the same district, 
formed by the Jilca and Caluma, which rise in 
the mountains of Chimbo and Riobamba, and join 
in the strand from whence this river takes its 
name. It then runs 24 leagues, until it empties 
itself into the Guayaquil. It is by means of this 
that the traffic of the whole district is carried on, 
and unladed in the custom-houses or royal 
arsenals. The embarkations are, fof the most part, 
effected by rafts, which are made as follows : 
Upon a plain of thick and tolerably stout timbers, 
consisting of a wood very limber and as light as 
cork, (corcho), from whence they take their de 
nomination, and which are united by strong pli 
able reeds, they raise some large joists of cedar, 
crossing each other and forming squares, at the 
extremities of which are fixed uprights of the 
same for forming the walls, roofs, &c. ; these they 
cover and interweave with split cane, leaving 
holes for the doors and windows ; then the roof 

R 



BAG 



B A C 



being covered with a stout cotton awning, which 
is impregnated with pitch, in order to resist the 
sun and rain, the whole becomes a perfect float 
ing house, with all its corresponding offices and 
conveniencies. Others are made in a less perfect 
manner, and with less accommodation, although- 
stronger, for the purpose of carrying victuals, cat 
tle, and fruits ; for lading and unlading ships and 
other vessels which enter here to be repaired. This 
river, somewhat below the bodegas, and after be 
ing increased by the waters which it collects in the 
serranias of Alausi and Riobamba, is joined by 
the Caracol. 

BABIACORA, a settlement of the province and 
government of La Sonora in Nueva Espana, on 
the shore of the river of this name, between the 
settlements of Urcs and Azotzi. 

BABILLA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Santa Malta in the kingdom of 
I ierra Firme, situate on the shore of the river 
Magdalena. 

BABILLO, a river of the province and Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada. It springs from three grand 
lakes, and waters the valley of Upar : it afterwards 
enters the Ce"sar or Pompatao, and terminates its 
course in the Magdalena. Its waters are of an ob 
scure green colour, and abound in excellent fish. 
La Matiniere, mistaking it, calls it Badillo. 

BABONOIBA, a settlement of the mission which 
belonged to the religious order of St. Francis, in the 
province of Taraumara and kingdom of Nueva 
Vizcaya, situate 14 leagues to the s. of the real of 
San Felipe of Chiguagua. 

[BABOPAS, a town in the interior part of New 
Albion, e. of the long range of mountains which 
extend n. from the head of the peninsula of Cali 
fornia. See QUIVIRA.] 

BABORIGAME, a settlement and reduction of 
Indians, of the missions which where held by 
the Jesuits, in the province and government of La 
Sonora in Nueva Espana. 

BABORIGAMES, a settlement of the missions 
which belonged to the regulars of the company of 
Jesuits, in the province of Tepeguana and king 
dom of Nueva Vizcaya. 

BABOROCO, a port of the province and go 
vernment of La Sonora. 

BAC, a town belonging to the French, in New 
France or Canada, situate on the shore of the St. 
Lawrence ,and at the mouth of that of ThreeRi vieres . 

BAC, a settlement, with the dedicatory title of 
San Francisco Xavier, one of those of the missions, 
and of the reducciones of the Indians, belonging to 
the Jesuits, in the province and government of La 
Sonora in Nueva Espana. 



BACA, an island %>f the N. sea, one of the 
Smaller Antilles, near the island of St. Domingo, 
on the n. coast, 45 leagues from the point of La 
Beata. Long. 301 40 . Lat. 17 2 . [Our best 
modern maps make no mention of this island."] 

BACA, a settlement of the missions held by the 
Jesuits, in the province and government of Cina- 
I6a. 

BACA BOB A, a mountain of the coast of 
Brazil, in the province and captainship of Seara, 
between the rivers Acuracu and Mordahu. 

BACADE, a town of the province and govern 
ment of La Sonora in Nueva Espana. 

BAG ALAR, PLAZA DE, a large and beautiful 
plain on the coast and in the province of the go 
vernment of Yucatan. 

BACALLAOS Islands, situate opposite the 
coast of Newfoundland, and surrounding the Great 
bank. They are small and numerous : discovered 
by Sebastian Gabot. lie gave them this name from 
the abundance of cod-fish caught on their coasts. 
This fishery has employed yearly upwards of 
400 vessels of different nations, and it is effected 
by angling. The fish is accustomed to bite im 
mediately that the hook is dropped into the water, 
and being hauled upon the ship s deck, a person 
stands ready to chop off its head ; another takes 
out its intestines and bones it, after which it is salt 
ed and barrelled, and sent to all parts of the world. 
TIi is fishery can be carried on only in the day, as 
the fish will not bite in the dark. It is also pecu 
liar to the spring season, and ends in September, 
since in the winter these fish like the bottom of the 
sea. Sometimes their abundance is wonderful, 
and it has been said that a certain person, of the 
name of Juan Poon, once caught 100 in the space 
of an hour. These islands are 70 miles distant 
from Tierra Firme. 

BACANGA, a river of the province and cap 
tainship of Marafion in Brazil. 

BACANORA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Ostimuri in Nueva Espana. 

BACANUCHI, a settlement of the province and 
government of La Sonora in Nueva Espana, situ 
ate at the head of the river of this name. 

BACAPA, SAN Luis DE, a settlement of the 
province and government of La Sonora in Nueva 
Espana, situate between those of Bateque and San 
Antonio de Uquitoa. 

BACAREAU, PASAGE DE, a passage between 
the coast of Acadia and the island of Cap de Sa- 
gle. It is very narrow, and only passable for small 
craft, and for these not without a skilful pilot. 
Mr. Chabert, of the academy of sciences of raris, 
made here, in 1750, several astronomical obser- 



B A E 

vations, and likewise laid down its longitude at 
68*. 

BACAREAU, a point or cape of the same coast. 

BACAS, a small river of the province and go 
vernment of Buenos Ayres in Peru. It runs w. 
and enters the Plata. 

BACCALOONS, a settlement of the English, in 
the province and country of the Iroquees Indians, 
and bounded by the province and colony of Penn 
sylvania, situate on the shore of the Ohio. 

BACHE, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Popayan in the kingdom of Quito. It 
runs e . and enters the river Magdalena. 

BACHILLER, Rio DEL, or Del gran Valle, 
a river in the strait of Magellan. It runs w. and 
enters the sea at the bay of San Isabel. 

BACHOUANAN, a small river of Canada. It 
runs 5. w. and enters lake Superior, in the bay of 
its name. 

BACHOUANAN, a bay in the e. part of lake Su 
perior. 

[BACK River. See BALTIMORE County.] 

BACOBERTO, a settlement of the province 
and government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana. 

BACUACHI, a settlement of the province and 
government of La Sonora in Nueva Espana, situ 
ate at the source of the river of its name, near the 
Bacanuchi. 

BACUN, a, settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana, situate on 
the shore of the river Hiaqui. It is one of the 
reducciones, and belongs to the missions held there 
of the Jesuits, between the settlements of Tor in 
and Cocorin. 

BADILLO, a settlement of the province and 
government of Cartagena, situate on the shore of 
the river Magdalena. It is six leagues from the 
city of Zimiti. 

BAD1RAGUATO, a settlement of the province 
and alcaldia mayor of Copala in the kingdom of 
Nueva Vizcaya, situate to the e. of the real of 
the mines of Charcas. 

BADIIIAGUATO, another settlement, in the pro 
vince of Topia, one of those belonging to the mis 
sions which were held here by the regulars of the 
company of Jesuits. 

BAEZA, a city of the province and govern 
ment of Quixos y Macas in the kingdom of Quito, 
founded by Gil Ramirez Davalos in 1559. It was 
a large population, and numerous and rich in 
former times, and capital of the province ; but the 
continual irruptions of the infidels ha ve so destroyed 
and reduced it to such a state, that it scarcely now 
contains above SO families, and has been united to 
the curacy of the settlement of Pomallacta. It is 



123 

of the mildest temperature of any settlement in the 
province, and the territory is fertile, though only 
in cotton, which its natives manufacture. The 
roads which lead to it are very rugged and diffi 
cult, and are not to be passed without great labour. 
Lat. 26 s. 

BAFFEN, a settlement of the island of Barba- 
does, in the jurisdiction of the city of Bridgetown. 

[BAFFIN S Bay is the largeit and most n. 
gulf or bay that has yet been discovered in N. 
America, and lies between 70 and 80 of n. lat. 
It opens into the Atlantic ocean through Baffin s 
and Davis s straits, between cape Chidley on the 
Labrador coast, and cape Farewell on that of W. 
Greenland, both of which are in about 60 of n. 
lat. It abounds with whales, and on the s. w. side 
of Davis s straits has a communication with Hud 
son s bay, through a cluster of islands. It was dis 
covered by the navigator whose name it bears, in 
the year 1662. Some maps shew a communication 
with Hudson s bay in 70 n. lat. and in 70 w. 
long.] 

[BAGADUCE Point, a headland within Pe- 
nobscot bay, in the district of Maine.] 

BAGANIQUE, an ancient and large settlement 
of the nation of the Moscas Indians, in the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada, founded in the llanura of the 
same name, now called the valley of Venegas, to 
the e. of Santa Fe. It was discoverd by Captain 
Juan de San Martin in 1537. 

BAGMA, an island of the river of Las Amazo- 
nas, opposite Ivari. 

BAGNALS, PUNTA DE, a point on the w. 
coast of the island of Barbadoes, between Indian 
river and the bay of Carlisle. 

BAGORES, a river of the province and cap 
tainship of the Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. It runs 
s.s.e. and enters the sea between the rivers Ostras 
and Salvador, near cape Frio. 

BAGOUACHE, a small river of Canada, which 
rises in the n. mountains on the side of lake Supe 
rior, runs s. and enters the Mississippi. 

BAGRE, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada, situate on the shore of the river Nechi. 
In its vicinity are the gold washing places, labade- 
rosj of Penemc, San Pedro, San Pedrito, Chilona, 
and Olaya. 

BAGRES, a small river of the province and go 
vernment of Maracaibo in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme. It rises at the side of the lake Atole, runs 
e. and enters the great lake Maracaibo. 

BAGUA, or ONDA, a settlement of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Luya and Chillaos in 
Peru, annexed to the curacy of Ron. 
R 2 



124 



BAH 



BAGUACHICA, a settlement of the province 
and government of Jaen de Bracamoros in the 
kingdom of Quito. 

BAHA1RE, a settlement of the province and 
government of Cartagena in the kingdom of 
Tierra Firme. It was in the time of the Indians 
a very populous city, containing upwards of 
200,000 souls. It was conquered with great diffi 
culty by Pedro de Heredia. 

[BAHAMA, Great Island of, one of the Ba 
hamas, of great extent, situate on the s. side of 
the Little Bahama bank, and extending from the 
Florida stream almost to the island of Abaco. It 
contains a great quantity of fine timber, but which 
is difficult of access. It is totally uninhabited. 
See BAHAMAS.] 

[BAHAMA Channel, or Gulph of Florida, is the 
passage between the island of Bahama and the 
continent. Its navigation is dangerous, and it has 
been very erroneously set down in most of the best 
maps. See the BAHAMAS.] 

BAHAMA, NEW, a port of the island of Cuba, 
on the n. coast, between those of La Ciudad del 
Principe and Manati. 

BAHAMAS, Islands of the N. sea, situate to 
the e. of, and opposite to Florida. They are of the 
Lucayos, and were discovered by Columbus, in 
his first voyage, in 1404. From them the fine 
channel of Bahama takes its name, the same being 
formed by the above coast, the principal of these 
islands, and a long sand-bank of the same name, 
to then, of the island of Cuba, and being 16 leagues 
wide and 45 long. The currents in the gulpii 
are most violent, and in it numbers of ves 
sels have been wrecked. It is the direct pass into 
the open sea, and for the route to Europe. It was 
first attempted by the celebrated pilot Anton de 
Alaminos, who risked its navigation with immi 
nent hazard, when he went to Spain with the 
agents of Hernan Cortes, to give account to the 
Emperor Charles V. of the progress of the con 
quest of Mexico. The principal island is 13 
leagues long and eight wide ; is very fertile, of 
an agreeable climate, and full of streams and 
rivulets. It formerly produced much sassafras, 
zarzaparrilla, and red wood; but its present 
productions are principally maize, birds, and a 
kind of rabbit ; and it procures for itself other ne 
cessaries from Carolina. Its principal commerce 
consists in supplying provisions to ships which 
come here for convenience. Although these 
islands are near 500, many of them are nothing 
but cliffs or rocks. 

[General Description, Climate, #c. The Baha 
ma islands, called Lucayos by the Spaniards, com- 



BAH 

prehend, under that denomination, all that chain 
of West India islands lying to the n. of Cuba and 
St. Domingo, and situate between the 21 and 
28 of n. lat. and the 71 and 81 of w. long. 
These islands have never been regularly surveyed, 
nor their numbers at all ascertained. Those most 
worthy of attention are as follows ; and a more 
particular description of each will be found under 
its proper head. 

Abaco, Hog island, 

Acklin s island, Hog key, 

Andros island, Harbour island, 

Atwood s key, Heneaguas, 

Great Bahama, Little island, 

Berry islands, Long island, 

Biminis, Long key, 

Caicos, Mayaguana, 

Castle island, Ragged island, 

Cat island, or St. Sal- Rose island, 

vador, Royal island, 

Crooked island, Rum key, 

Eleuthera, Russel island, 

Exumas, St. Salvador, 

French keys, Turk s islands, 

Guanahani, or St. Sal- Watling s island. 

vador, 

The Bahama islands have never been correctly 
set down or delineated in any of the maps or 
charts of the West Indies. Many of them arc 
situated upon the Great Bahama bank, others 
upon the Little Bahama bank, and others out of 
soundings, in the Atlantic ocean. They stretch 
from Turk s islands (which are at no great dis 
tance from St. Domingo) in a n. w. direction to 
the n. end of the Great Bahama bank, near the 
coast of Florida. The climate is in general salu 
brious. The more n. of the islands during the 
winter months are rendered cool and agreeable by 
the n. w. breezes from the continent of America. 
At New Providence the thermometer, (Farenheit), 
in the shade, varies from about 85 or 90 in sum 
mer to 60 or 65 in winter. The more s. islands, 
however, are hotter throughout the year ; but 
these enjoy the cooling sea breezes that blow in the 
West Indies within the tropics, and which do not 
extend to several of the mostw. of the Bahamas. 

There is but little variety of soil throughout the 
Bahama islands. They are almost all low, flat, 
barren, and rocky. They are well provided with 
natural woods, generally however of a small 
growth. The soil is mostly either light and sandy, 
or very rocky and broken, with partial spots of 
good land. The rock is of a soft and porous na 
ture, but hard, and generally irregular on the sur 
face. The Bahamas are but ill supplied with] 



BAHAMAS. 



135 



[fresh water; it is found however by digging 
wells in the rocks, to the depth of the sea level, 
and also very often by making holes in the sand 
along the coasts, a few feet from the surface. In 
several of the islands are small natural fresh- water 
ponds, produced by the rain collected from the 
rocks ; but there is not supposed to exist, through 
out the Bahamas, a single spring of fresh water 
or rivulet. 

General History. One of the Bahama islands 
(the ancient Indian name of which is stated to be 
Guanahani) has been generally fixed upon by 
historians and geographers as the spot where the 
first discovery of the new world took place, by 
Columbus, upon the llth of October 1492. The 
island was named by him St. Salvador, by 
which appellation, as also that of Cat island, it 
is now generally known. There appears, how 
ever, to exist some doubt with respect to the point 
of land first actually discovered by Columbus in 
the new world. The accounts of his first voyage 
to America generally state that his squadron kept 
almost a due w. course from the Canary islands 
(the last land from which he took his departure) 
across the Atlantic ; and that, for two or three 
days before land was discovered, he found himself 
in soundings. It is also stated that he landed at 
a secure and spacious harbour, and that the 
island (St. Salvador) had verdant fields, watered 
with many rivulets. If these accounts were true, 
and if the island now known by that name was ac 
tually the land first discovered by Columbus, it 
may be concluded that some great change or con 
vulsion must have taken place in that quarter of 
the world since its discovery. At present there 
are no soundings to the e. of St. Salvador ; and 
along the whole of the e. coast of that island, is a 
reef which would prevent any landing on that 
side. There is no harbour but a small one round 
the s. end of the island, facing the s. w. in one of 
the shallow Bahama banks. No verdant fields can 
now be found upon the island of St. Salvador, 
which is barren and rocky, like the rest of the 
Bahama islands; throughout the whole of which, 
as was before observed, no rivulet of any descrip 
tion has been discovered. There can be no doubt, 
however, that one of the Bahama islands was the 
first land discovered by Columbus. The island of 
Abaco is situated nearer the latitude of the Canaries, 
and there is a good harbour on the e. side of that 
island ; but there are no soundings at any distance 
from the shore on that side. It is perhaps more 
likely that Abaco (or one of the other most n. of 
the Bahama islands) was the first point of disco 
very, particularly if it be true what is stated, that 



a few days after he discovered land he touched at 
New Providence and Andros island (which it is 
said he named Fernandina and Isabella) in his 
way to Cuba ; and it is extremely improbable that 
he would touch at those islands in his way to 
Cuba from St. Salvador. 

The Bahama islands, when discovered by Co 
lumbus, are stated to have been inhabited by a 
numerous race of Indians, of a mild and peace 
able disposition, indolent in their habits, and little, 
if at all, accustomed to the cultivation of the soil. 
They are described as being of a dark and dingy 
hue, with long black hair, and with their bodies 
painted with different colours. Many thousands 
of these unfortunate people are stated to have been 
carried over by the Spaniards, in their subsequent 
settlements, and compelled to work in the mines of 
S. America. The early accounts of the Bahama 
islands, after their discovery, are, however, ex 
tremely obscure. There appears scarcely any 
trace of the original Indian inhabitants. The ear 
liest settlement of Europeans which took place in the 
Bahama islands, was under a patent of Charles 
If. (1668), which granted those islands to certain 
proprietary lords. Shortly after that period, some at 
tempts appear to have been made to cultivate several 
of the islands ; but, about the beginning of the last 
century, they were again without inhabitants. 
Some time afterwards, however, they became the 
resort of numerous pirates, Bucaniers, and free 
booters ; the situation of these islands, from the 
difficulties of the navigation, and their being near 
the passages through which the valuable vessels 
returned to Europe, being well-adapted for plun 
der and concealment. Among these pirates was 
the noted Captain Teach, known by the name of 
Blackbeard, who had the supreme command over 
them, and of whom, as well as of Captain Vane, 
and others who resorted to the Bahamas, a curi 
ous account may be found in Johnson s Lives of 
the Pirates, and in the History of the Bucaniers 
of America. 

For the purpose of protecting the trade, and 
destroying these nests of free-booters, Captain 
Woods Rogers was sent out from England as go 
vernor to the Bahamas, in the year 1718, and the 
seat of government was fixed at New Providence, 
upon which island Fort Nassau was built. From 
that period, a regular colonial administration ap* 
pears to have taken place ; but for a considerable 
time, little cultivation or improvement seems to 
have occurred at the Bahamas. 

The island of New Providence was taken pos 
session of in the American war by an Ame 
rican captain, ft was shortly afterwards, how-] 



126 



BAHAMAS. 



[ever, abandoned by its new possessor. In 1781 
the Bahama islands were surrendered to the 
Spaniards, and restored to the British by treaty at 
the end of the war. Previous, however, to the 
notification of the treaty, New Providence and its 
forts were recovered by means of a very gallant 
and well-conducted enterprise, under the com 
mand of Lieutenant-colonel Deveaux of the S. 
Carolina militia. After the termination of the 
American war, many of the British loyalists, and 
other planters, repaired to the Bahamas, chiefly 
from the s. states of N. America, from which pe 
riod most of the principal islands began to be re 
gularly settled and inhabited. 

Productions. The chief article which has been 
cultivated in this colony is cotton ; and for several 
years^ with very considerable success, though for 
some time past that success has greatly diminish 
ed, owing probably to the natural barrenness of 
the soil, and perhaps to the rains being less fre 
quent from the woods, from many parts of these hav 
ing been much cut down. The cultivation of sugar 
has been attempted, (particularly on the Caicos), 
but with little success. Coffee has been raised on 
several of the islands. Provisions, such as Gui 
nea and Indian corn, yams, sweet potatoes, plan 
tains, cassava, Indian and pigeon peas, grow in 
abundance. Most of the tropical fruits are found 
here; oranges, lemons, limes, shaddocks, pine 
apples, cocoa nuts, &c. &c. &c. Cattle and 
sheep thrive on most of the islands ; and the shores 
and creeks of all the Bahamas abound in turtle, 
and excellent fish of various sorts. Wild ducks, 
snipes, pelicans, gualdings, wild pigeons, flamin 
goes, and a variety of other birds, abound among 
the islands ; and among the woods are found wild 
hogs, agoutis, guanas^ land crabs, &c. Am 
bergris is frequently found cast ashore upon the 
coast. Various sorts of timber and dye woods 
are found growing in the Bahamas, such as maho 
gany, (generally of a small and very hard sort, 
commonly called Madeira and horse-flesh maho 
gany), brazilletto, fustick, lignum-vitae, Spanish 
oak, or black gregory, tamarind, lana wood, iron 
wood, wild cinnamon, pimento, or naked wood, 
yellow saunders, satin wood, pines, cedars, and 
many others adapted for building small vessels, 
and well calculated for the purposes of the mecha 
nic and cabinet-maker. 

The principal and most valuable article which 
has, perhaps, of late years been exported from 
the Bahamas, is salt. In many of the islands 
there are valuable natural salt-ponds, to which the 



attention of the inhabitants has been much direct 
ed, and for the subdivision and management of 
which, legislative and colonial regulations have 
been enacted. In dry and favourable seasons great 
quantities of salt are produced from these ponds, 
and exported by the Americans to the United 
States. 

Many of the small vessels of the Bahamas are 
not only employed as drogging (or carrying) ves 
sels among the different islands, and in catching 
turtle, but also among the numerous passages, 
(particularly towards the Florida stream), in watch 
ing for wrecked vessels. They are licenced for 
this purpose by the governor of the Bahamas. 
Many valuable lives are saved by the exertions of 
these vessels, and much property secured for the 
owners and insurers of the ships employed in the 
West India trade, and those bound from Vera 
Cruz and the Havanah to Europe. 

Government and Statistics. The colonial esta 
blishment of the Bahamas is similar to that of the 
other West India islands, consisting of a governor, 
a lieutenant-governor, a council, and a legislative 
assembly. The following islands send represen 
tatives to the house of assembly : New providence, 
and the town of Nassau, eight;; Harbour island, 
three ; Eleuthera, three ; Abaco, three ; St. Sal 
vador, one ; Long island, two ; Exuma, three ; 
Andros island, two ; Crooked island, one ; 
Watling s island, one ; Caicos, one ; Turk s 
island, two. The courts of justice are similar also 
to those established in the rest of the West India 
colonies. There are four regular ports of entry 
in the Bahamas, viz. at New Providence, Great 
Exuma, at the Caicos, and at Turk s islands. 
Besides the usual garrison at New Providence, 
there is a militia established in several of the islands. 
Previous to May 1?03, lands were granted by the 
crown in the whole of the Bahamas, to the amount 
of 265,381 acres, for the purpose of cultivation. 
The population at that time amounted to about 
14,318, including 11,395 blacks and people of 
colour ; and it appears by a return to the house of 
commons in 1805, at a medium of two years to 
1803, the number of slaves imported amounted to 
2523, of whom 2230 were exported ; leaving a 
remainder of ouly 293 for the use of the colony. 

The official value of the imports and exports of 
the Bahamas were, in 

Imports. Exports. 

1809 .133,515 .504,567 

1810 .108,485 481,372] 



B A I B A L 

* / 

[And the quantities of the principal articles imported into Great Britain were, in 



127 



Coffee. 


Sugar. 


Rum. 


Pimento. 


Cotton wool. 


Brit. Plant. 


For. Plant. 


Brit. Plant. 


For. Plant. 


Cwt. 

1809, 
1810, 


Cwt. 
9143 

4315 


Cwt. 
130 


Cwt. 
12,884 
6,413 


Galls. 
26 
11 


Ibs. 
1528 

2227" 


Ibs. 
1,139,793 
1,348,828 



See NEW PROVIDENCE.] 

BAHIA, HONDA, a large, well sheltered, and 
convenient port of the island of Cuba, on the n. 
side, much frequented by vessels which carry on 
an illicit commerce. [The bay has 15 and 10 
fathoms water, the entrance into the harbour 
eight, and anchorage in four and five fathoms.] 
Long. 83 6 . Lat.2258 . 

[BAHIA, or BAY, sometimes applied to St. 
Salvador, the capital of Brazil, and to the bay 
of All Saints, in which captainship it is situated. 
See SAN ros.] 

[BAHIA, DE CHETUMEL, called by the British 
Hanover bay, lies on the e. side of the peninsula 
of Yucatan in the sea of Honduras, and into which 
falls Honda river. It has the logwood country on 
the s. ; at its mouth are two large islands and a 
number of islets. The largest island is Amber" 
grise key, which runs along the mouth of the 
bay, and is 70 miles long.] 

BAH1AGA, a river of the island of St. Domin 
go, in the territory possessed by the French. It 
rises near the coast towards the n, and enters the 
sea in the bay of Manzanillo. 

BAHIAS, CABO DE DOS, a cape on the coast, 
which lies between the Rio de la Plata arid the 
straits of Magellan, one of the two which form the 
bay of Camarones. 

BAILADORES, NUESTRA SENORA DE LA 
CANDELARIA DE LOS, a settlement of the juris 
diction of La Grita in the government of Mara- 
caibo. It is a mild and healthy country, abound 
ing in good water, and in all the productions of a 
warm climate, as cacao, sugar-cane, tobacco, 
maize, t/ucas 9 and other productions and fruits. 
It is situate at the slope of a mountain, in the way 
which leads from La Grita to Mericla, being some 
what more that eight leagues distant from the 
former. It contains 100 housekeepers, and has 
also the denomination of Bailadores, (Dancers), 
from the partiality exhibited by its natives for 
this sort of amusement in the time of its gentilism. 

BAILADORES, a river of this province and 
government, which rises in the city of La Grita, 
and runs from s. to n. until it enters the lake of 
Maracaibo, through two mouths which form an 
island. 



BAILADORES, a bay on ihes. coast of the island 
of Cuba. 

BAIL1F, a small river of the island of Gua- 
dalupe, which rises in the mountains, runs w. 
and enters the sea in the bay of Gros Francois. 
On its shores, and at its mouth, there is a good 
castle for defending the bay. 

BAINE, a river of the province and govern 
ment of La Guayana, rising in the serrania of 
Imataca, and running into the sea by the e, ooast. 

[BAIRDSTOWN, or BEARDSTOWN, in Nelson 
county, Kentucky, is a flourishing town, of 216 
inhabitants, situated on the head waters of Salt 
river, 50 miles s. e. from Louisville, and nearly the 
same distance s. w. from Danville.] 

BAIT A, a settlement of the missions of the 
order of St. Francis, in the province of Culiacan, 
and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, situate on the 
shores of the river Elota. It produces maize and 
French beans in great abundance, as also honey 
and wax, of which its commerce consists. 

BA JO, a cape on the coast of the province and 
government of Florida, between the mouth of the 
river Mississippi and the bay of La Ascencion. 

BAJO, with the additional title of Nuevo, an 
island of the N. sea. 

BAJU, a small river of the province and go 
vernment of Paraguay, which runs n. n. w. and 
enters the Uruguay, close to that of Jiupa. 

BAKER, a bay on the e. coast of the island of 
Barbadoes, between the points Bell and Ragged. 

[BAKERSFIELD, a newly settled township 
in Tranklin county, Vermont, formerly in Chit- 
tenden county. In 1790 it had only 13 inha 
bitants.] 

[BAKERSTOWN, in Cumberland county, 
district of Maine, contains 1276 inhal itants ; 162 
miles n. e. from Boston.] 

BALANDRAN, CAYO DE LA, a small island 
of the coast of the island of St. Domingo, at the 
entrance ;> the gieat bay of Samana, close to the 
islet tj? Levantndos. 

BALAO, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Guayaquil in the kingdom of Quito. It 
runs info (he sea at the gulf of that name, opposite 
the island of La Puna. 



128 



B A L 



BALBANEDA, a small settlement of the king 
dom of Quito, in the jurisdiction of Riobamba, to 
the s. of this town, and n. of the great lake of 
Colta. It is called also Nuestra Senora de Balba- 
neda, from its having a sacred shrine of the image 
of our Lady of this title, which was much revered 
in times past. It is a population consisting of 
Puruayes Indians. 

BALBUENA, SAN JUAN BAPTISTA DE, a 
settlement of the province and government of 
Tucuman, in the district of Chaco. Its popula 
tion consists of the Ixistinieses and Toquistineses 
Indians, who are a reduction made by the missions 
which were held here by the regulars of the com 
pany of the Jesuits, and at the present day are 
under the care of the order of St. Francis. 

BALBUENA, a fort of the same province and 
government, founded on the shore of the river 
Salado, to restrain the incursions of the infidel 
Indians. 

BALCALAR, LAOUNA DE, a lake of the pro 
vince and government of Yucatan. It is large 
and broad, and lies on the sea shore, between the 
bay of La Ascencion and the island of Cozumel. 

[BALCDUTHA, a settlement in the e. part of 
Kentucky, on the w. side of Big Sandy river. 
Near this is Clay Lick, and about a mile s. e. 
stand* Vancouver s fort, on the point of land 
formed by the fork of the Big Sandy.] 

BALCHO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Luya and Chilloas in Peru. 

[BALD EAGLE or WARRIOR Mountains, lie 
about 200 miles w. of Philadelphia, in Bedford 
county, Pennsylvania, and form the w. boundary 
of Bald Eagle valley.] 

[BALD EAGLE is likewise the name of a river 
which runs an. e. course 44 miles, and falls into the 
w. branch of Susquehanna river. The head water 
of Huron river, which falls into lake Erie, is called 
Bald Eagle creek.] 

[BALD EAGLE Valley, or, as it is commonly 
called, Sinking Spring Valley, lies upon the fron 
tiers of Bedford county in Pennsylvania, about. 
200 miles w. from Philadelphia. It has on the 
e. a chain of high, rugged mountains, called the 
Canoe Ridge, and on the w. the Bald Eagle or 
Warrior mountains. This is a pleasant vale, of 
limestone bottom, five miles in extent where widest; 
and in the vicinity are great quantities of lead ore. 
It contained, in 1779, about 60 or 70 families, 
living in log-houses, who formed, in the spice of 
seven or eight years, several valuable plantations, 
some of which are remarkably agreeable on ac 
count of their situation. During the late war with 
Great Britain, lead was much wanted, and very 



B A L 

difficult to be procured, which induced a coin- 
pany, under the patronage of the state, to settle 
here, and establish a regular set of works. A fort 
of logs was erected for the protection of the miners ; 
and a considerable quantity of ore was produced, 
from which lead enough was made to give a 
competent idea of the real value of the mines in 
general. The danger of the situation, however, 
while an Indian war continued, occasioned the 
failure of the undertaking. The lead ore was of 
many kinds ; some in broad flakes, and others of 
the steely texture. Several regular shafts were 
sunk to a considerable depth ; one of which was 
on the hill upon which the fort was erected, and 
from which many large masses of ore were pro 
cured ; but not forming a regular vein, it was dis 
continued, and another opened about a mile from 
the fort, nearer to Frank s Town. Here the 
miners continued until they finally relinquished 
the business. When they first began, they found 
in the upper surface or vegetable earth several 
hundred weight of cubic lead ore, clean and un 
mixed with any substance whatever, which con 
tinued as a clue, leading them down through the 
different strata of earth, marl, &c. until they came 
to the rock, which is here in general of the lime 
stone kind. Among other curiosities of this place, 
is that called the Swallows, which absorb several of 
the largest streams of the valley, and after convey 
ing them several miles under ground, in a sub- 
terrananeous course, return them again upon the 
surface. These subterraneous passages have given 
rise to the name Sinking Spring valley. Of these 
the most remarkable is called the Arch springs, 
and run close upon the road from the town to the 
fort. It is a deep hollow formed in the limestone 
rock, about 30 feet wide, with a rude natural stone 
arch hanging over it, forming a passage for the 
water, which it throws out with some degree of 
violence, and in such plenty as to form a fine 
stream, which at length buries itself again in the 
bowels of the earth. Some of these pits are near 
300 feet deep ; the water at the bottom seems in 
rapid motion, and is apparently as black as ink, 
though it is as pure as the finest springs can pro 
duce. Many of these pits are placed along the 
course of this subterraneous river, which soon 
after takes an opportunity of an opening at a 
declivity of the ground, and keeps along the sur 
face among the rocky hills for a few rods, then 
enters the mouth of a large cave, whose exterior 
aperture would be sufficient to admit a shallop 
with her sails full spread. In the inside it keeps 
from 18 to 20 feet wide. The roof declines as you 
advance, and a ledge of loose rugged rocks extends 



B A L 

in tolerable order on one side, affording means to 
scramble along. In the midst of this cave is 
much timber, bodies of trees, branches, &c. which 
being lodged up to the roof of this passage, shews 
that the water is swelled up to the very top during 
freshets. This opening in the hill continues about 
400 yards, when the cave widens, after you have 
got round a sudden turning, (which prevents its 
being discovered till you are within it), into a spa 
cious room, at the bottom of which is a vortex ; 
the water that falls into it whirling round with 
amazing force : sticks, or even pieces of timber, are 
immediately absorbed, and carried out of sight, 
the water boiling up with excessive violence, 
and subsiding by{ degrees, and at certain inter 
vals. From the top of the Bald Eagle moun 
tains is a fine prospect of those of the Alleghany, 
stretching along until they seem to meet the clouds. 
Much slate is found here, with strong signs of pit 
coal. Such as visit these parts must cross the 
Juniata river three or four times, from Standing 
Stone or Huntingdon to the fort, travelling a dis 
tance of about 22 miles.] 

[BALD Mountains. See TENESSEE.] 

[BALD Head, at the mouth of cape Fear river, 
N. Carolina, is at the s. w. end of Smith s island, 
and with Oak island forms the main entrance 
into the river. The light-house, which was erect 
ed here in Dec. 1794, bears n. n. w. from the 
point of cape Fear, and is 24 miles n. w. by n. 
from the extremity of the Frying Pan shoal.] 

[BALD Head makes the s. w. part of what is 
called Wells bay, in the district of Maine. Between 
cape Neddie harbour on the s. s. w. and Well s 
bay, are several coves, where small vessels in a 
smooth time, and with a zo. wind, haul ashore, 
and are loaded with wood in the course of a tide, 
with case and safety.] 

[BALDiVIA. See VALDIVIA.] 

BALDWIN, an English settlement in the 
island of Barbadoes, and in the district of the 
parish of San Juan. 

BAL1NA, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Yucatan. It runs into the sea at the e. 
coast of the gulf of Honduras. 

BALIS, Rio DE, a river in the province and 
government of Yucatan, which runs into the sea 
upon the same coast, near the strand of Bacalar, 
and into the bay which is formed by that strand 
and Long island. 

BALISA, a port of the coast of Lousiana, by 
some called Balija. 

BAL1SGAN, a French settlement in Canada, 
situate on the shore of the river of St. Lawrence, 
in the mouth of that of Batiscan. 

VOL. I. 



B A L 



129 



BALISES Bay, a settlement of the island of 
Barbadoes, in the district of the parish of San 
Juan. 

[BALIZE, a fort at the mouth of Mississippi 
river.] 

BALLENA, PUNTA DE LA, a cape or extre 
mity of land of the island of Margarita, which 
faces the e. 

BALLENA, PUOMONTORIO 6 PUNTA DE LA, 
a promontory or point in the kingdom of Quito, 
and on the shore of the Pacific or S. sea, to the 
s. s. e. of the cape of Los Borrachos, and n. n. e. 
of that of Palmar. On its n. side, and very close 
to it, the river Jama runs into the sea ; the soil is 
sandy and level, but of little depth. 

BALLENA, another point or promontory, on the 
coast of the province and corregimiento of Quillota 
in the kingdom of Chile, between the river and the 
Quebrada de Chcoapa. 

BALLENA, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Florida, which runs e. and enters the sea 
between the river San Juan and the island of 
Sapala. 

BALLENA, a canal formed between the islands 
Lucaya and Bahama. 

BALLENAS, PUNTA DE LAS, a point on the 
coast, and in the w. head of the island of St. 
Domingo, and in the territory of the French. It 
lies between point Irois and cape Dona Maria. 

BALLENAS, a canal or narrow pass of the gulf 
of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes, formed in 
the most interior part of the same. It is by 
the coast and the island of the Angel de la 
Guarda. 

BALLESTA, PUNTA DE LA, a point on the 
coast of the province and government of Guaya 
quil in the kingdom of Quito. 

[BALLEZE, BALLIZF, or WALLIS, a river 
in the peninsula of Yucatan, New Spain, Avhich 
runs n. e. above 200 miles, and empties into (he 
bay of Honduras, opposite the n. end of Turneff 
island. By the treaty of peace in 1783, it is 
agreed that British subjects shall have the right of 
cutting and carrying away logwood in the district 
lying between this river and that of Rio Hondo, 
on the n. which falls into Hanover bay. The 
course of the rivers are to be the unalterable 
boundaries.] 

[BALLTO WN, a township in Saratoga county, 
New York, formerly in Albany county, and con 
tained in 1790, 7333 inhabitants, including 69 
slaves. By the state census in 1796, there appears 
to be 266 electors in this township. It lies 36 
miles n. of Albany, has a presbyterian meeting 
house, and is in a thriving state. The medicinal 
s 



ISO 



B A L 



waters called Ballfown springs, from their being 
found within the limits of this town, are of great 
celebrity, both on account of their healing virtue 
and the superior accommodation found near them 
for valetudinarians. They are situated about 12 
miles w. of Still water, 14 from that part of the 
banks of the Hudson famous for the victory of 
General Gates over General Burgoyne, 36 n. of 
Albany, SO s. of lake George, and 196 above the 
city of New York. The springs are found in the 
bottom of a valley, or excavation, forming a kind 
of basin, of about 50 acres in extent. In this 
hollow grow lofty pines, which are overtopped by 
others, and rise at a greater or less distance above 
the brim of this basin. The woods are pretty well 
cleared near the springs. There is a large house 
for entertainment, with neat bathing-houses and 
shower-baths for the convenience of invalids. 
These, as also the greatest part of the valley, be 
long to an eminent merchant of New York ; the 
largest spring, however, belongs to the public. 
Sir William Johnson made this observation when 
he sold this tract of land to private individuals : 
* In tracing the history of these medicinal springs, 
1 could only learn that an Indian chief discovered 
them to a sick French officer in the early part of 
their wars with the English : but whether they 
were these very springs in this basin, or those at 
ten miles distance, properly called the Saratoga 
springs, I know not." The soil for half a dozen 
miles round this place is poor and sandy, producing 
little else than pine trees, shrub-oaks, fern, and 
mullen. In the hills in the vicinity ores have been 
accidentally found, especially iron and copper, or 
rather what the mineralogists call ferruginous and 
cupreous pyrites. The valley of Balltown and 
its environs may be made an enchanting spot, equal, 
nay superior, in some respects, to any of the water 
ing places in Europe. The Kayaderassoras river, 
which is about 10 yards wide, gives several hints 
to the man of taste, to turn its waters to the use 
and beauty of the future town, which these medi 
cinal springs will one day raise in this place. The 
medicinal waters which have made this spot so 
famous of late are remarkably limpid, considering 
they contain iron, a mineral alkali, common salt, 
and lime. They are brisk and sparkling like cham- 
paigne. In drinking they affect the nose and palate 
like bottled beer, and slightly affect the head of 
some people by their inebriating quality. They 
derive this exhilarating quality from what Dr. 
Priestley calls^.rerf#/r, and is that animating some 
thing which gives activity to yeast, and life to 
malt liquors. It is used, in the neighbourhood of 
the springs, instead of yeast in making bread j and 



B A L 

makes it rise more speedily and effectually thaw 
any other ferment in ordinary use. Horses drink 
these waters with avidity. The ignorant country 
people see, with astonishment, that a candle will 
not burn near the surface of these waters. Fish 
and frogs are killed in a few minutes, and geese 
and ducks can only swim in them a few minutes 
before they expire. These waters arc apt to burst 
bottles when corked in very warm weather, espe 
cially during a thunder storm ; but with care may 
be transported in bottles to any distance. They 
boil with a very moderate degree of heat ; they 
are nevertheless remarkably cold ; for when the 
mercury in Fahrenheit s thermometer stood at 86 in 
the open air, and 79 in the brook running near 
the spring, it stood in one of these mineral springs 
at 49, and in the other at 51 : the first was con 
stantly excluded from the rays of the sun, the last 
always exposed without a covering. Physician* 
seldom direct their patients to drink more than 
three quarts of these waters in twelve hours ; but 
some drink the enormous quantity of three gallons r 
and even more, in a day. Cold as they are, they 
may be drank with safety in the hottest weather. 
They increase every natural evacuation, nay, they 
are cathartic, diuretic, and sudorific, at the same 
time. On the first trial they are apt to disagree 
with many people ; they create uneasiness in the 
stomach and bowels, and cause a heat in the glands 
of the throat, until they begin to pass off freely by 
the kidneys ; they then become pleasant, and 
operate agreeably. They blacken the teeth and 
also the alvine faeces : they are deemed a specific 
in loss of appetite and indigestion : they are highly 
serviceable in hypochondriac eases, in obstructions, 
and in the stone and gravel, and cutaneous dis 
orders : their credit is not so well established in 
the gout or rheumatism : they are hurtful in in 
flammatory disorders and consumptions : their use 
occasions heat in the glands of the throat, and stiff 
ness of the neck ; and in such as are subject to the 
tooth-ache, an aggravation of the pain : they are 
a powerful and precious remedy in the hands of the 
judicious, but ought never to be used without the 
advice of a skilful physician.] 

[BALLSTOWN, or BALLTOWN, a township 
in Lincoln county, district of Maine, contain 
ing 1072 inhabitants. One hundred and ninety- 
five miles n. e. from Boston.] 

BALSAMO, BAHIA DE, a bay on the n. coast 
of the island of St. Domingo, between cape La 
Pena and the point of Macuri. 

BALSAQUILLO, an extensive and beautiful 
valley of the alcaldia mayor of La Puebla de los 
Angeles in Nucva Espaim, so fertile as to have no 



B A L 

loss than 56 estates and country seats. It is half a 
league from its capital. 

BALSAR, a settlement of the district of Daule, 
in the province and government of Guayaquil, of 
the kingdom of Quito, very fertile, and abound 
ing in cacao, tobacco, cotton, and sugar-cane. It 
is 26 leagues from the capital, on the shore of the 
river Daule. 

BALSAS, SAX CHRISTOBAL DE LAS, a settle 
ment of the province and corregimienlo of Chacha- 
poyas in Peru, situate on the e. shore of the Ma- 
raiion : through it lies the road to Cajamarca. 
Lat. 6 16 . 

BALSAS, another settlement in the same province 
and corregimiento as the former. 

BALSAS, another, in the province and govern 
ment of Cartagena in the same kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, situate on the bank of the dike which 
communicates the sea with the river Magdalena. 

BALSAS, a lake thus called, in the province of 
Guayaquil and kingdom of Quito ; it is between 
the river Perdomo to the s.; n. of the river Ma- 
chala, and at one league s distance from the settle 
ment of its name. 

BALSO, a river of the kingdom of Quito, 
which flows down from the mountain called Sucha- 
huaca-urca ; and after washing those forests, run 
ning from n. to s. it enters the Bobonasa. 

BALTASAR, SAN, a settlement of the pro 
vince and alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan in Nueva 
Espana. Five leagues from its capital. 

BALTASAR, SAN, another settlement, in the head 
settlement and alcaldia mayor of Nexapa in the 
same kingdom, situated at the foot of an elevated 
mountain. It contains 34 families of Indians, and 
is four leagues to the n. e. of its capital. 

[BALTIMORE County, in Maryland, lies be 
tween Patapsco and Gunpowder rivers, the former 
dividing it from Ann Arundel county on the s. and 
ft. w. ; Gunpowder and Little Gunpowder separat 
ing it from Harford county on the e. and n. e. It 
has Frederick county, on the w. and n. w. Penn 
sylvania on the n. and Chesapeak bay on the s. e. 
Besides the rivers which bound it, and their 
branches, this county has Back and Middle rivers 
between the two former, but they are rather arms 
of Chesapeak bay than rivers. Back river, four or 
five miles e. of Patapsco, receives two small 
streams; the north-westernmost is called Herring 
Run. Middle river has little or no supply of fresh 
water. There are numerous iron works in this 
county ; and it contains 25,434 inhabitants, includ 
ing 587 slaves. Its chief town is Baltimore.] 

[BALTIMORE, the chief town in the above 
county, is the largest in the state of Maryland. 



B A L 



131 



In size it is the fourth, and in commerce the fifth 
in rank in the United States. It is situated on the 
n. side of Palapsco river, at a small distance from 
its junction with the Chesapeak : the entrance of 
the harbour is defended by Whetstone fort, hardly 
a pistol-shot across, and of course may easily be 
defended against naval force. From the head of 
Elk river, at the head of the bay to Baltimore, is 
about 60 miles. The town is built around what is 
called the basin, reckoned one of the finest har 
bours in America : the water rises five or six feet 
at common tides : it is divided into \vhat is called 
the Town and Fell s point, by a creek, over which 
are two bridges, but the houses extend in an irre 
gular manner from the one to the other. At Fell s 
point the water is deep enough for ships of burden, 
but small vessels only go up to the town. The 
situation is low, and was formerly thought un 
healthy ; but by its rapid increase, improvements 
have taken place which have corrected the damp 
ness of the air, and it is now judged to be tole 
rably healthy. In 1787 it contained 1955 dwelling- 
houses, of which 1200 were in the town, and the 
rest at Fell s point. It then contained 152 store 
houses. The number of the inhabitants of the town 
and precincts, in 1791, were 13,503, including 1255 
slaves. The number of houses and inhabitants 
have been greatly increased since. Before the 
emigration of the French people from cape Fran- 
<^ois, and other islands, the houses had increased to 
2300. Those unfortunate people, flying from their 
merciless countrymen, who had burned and pillag 
ed their cities and towns, and murdered their rela 
tions and friends, found here an hospitable asylum, 
after sufferings hardly paralleled in the annals of 
history. Here are nine places of public worship, 
which belong to Roman Catholics, German Calvi- 
nists and Lutherans, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, 
Baptists, Methodists, Quakers, and Nicolites, or 
New Quakers, who all live together in peace. It 
is inhabited by people from most parts of Europe. 
The principal street is Market Street, which runs 
nearly e. and zr. a mile in length, parallel with the 
water : this is crossed by a number of other streets, 
which run from the water, a number of >v Inch, 
particularly Calvert and Gay streets, are well 
built. N. and e. of the town the land rises, and 
presents a noble view of the town and bay. In 
1790, this city owned 27 ships, 1 snow, 31 bri- 
gantines, 34 schooners, and 9 sloops, total 102; 
tonnage 13,564. The exports in the same year 
amounted to 2,027,770, and the imports to 
1,949,899 dollars. The exports in July, August, 
and September, in 1790, amounted only to 343,584 
dollars; but in these months in 1795, they amouut- 
s2 



132 



BAN 



to 1,675,748 dollars. The affairs of the town are 
managed by a board of town commissioners, a 
board of special commissioners, and a board of 
wardens; the first board fills its own vacancies, 
and is perpetual ; the two last are appointed by 
electors, chosen every fifth year by the citizens. 
It is 53 milc^s s. a), from Elktown, J76 n.e. from 
Richmond in V irginia, 50 n. e. from the city of 
Washington, and 103 s. w. from Philadelphia. 
Lat. 39 19 w. Long. 76 44 a?.] 

BAMBA, a small river of the province and cor- 
regimicnto of Caxamarca la Grande. ft rises 
ia the valley of Condebamba, and enters the Ma 
ra non. 

BAMBAMARCA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru, an 
nexed to the curacy of the capital. 

BAMOA, a settlement of the missions which 
were held here by the regulars of the company of 
the Jesuits, in the province and government of 
Ciualoa. 

BANAIIATU, a small river of the province 
and government of San Juan de los Llanos in the 
Nuevo Reyiio de Granada ; it rises between the 
rivers Cinaruco and Cantanapalo, runs e. and 
enters the Orinoco on the w. side, between the 
mouths of those two rivers. 

BANAICHI, or BANAMICHI, a settlement of 
the province and government of La Sonora in 
Nueva Espaiia, on the shore of a river of this 
name, between the settlements of Guspaca and 
Gnopique. 

BANANA, a small settlement of the province 
and government of Darien ; it consists of gentile 
Indians, and is situate on the shore of the gulph 
of this name, or Uraba. 

BANANIERES, GRAND, a river of the island 
of Guadalupe ; it rises in the mountains towards 
the e. runs e. and enters the sea between the rivers 
Trou, Au, Chat, and Orange. 

BAN ARE, MARIE, a river of the province of 
La Guayana, in the French possessions. 

BANASIA, SIENNA DE, a chain of mountains 
of the island of St. Domingo, in the French pos 
sessions ; they are near the n. coast, at the zo. head, 
and run from n. to e. for many leagues. 

BANCHERAU, a cape or point of land on the 
coast of A cad ia. 

BANCO, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment ot Santa Marta in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, situate on the shore of the river Magdalena, 
at the mouth formed by the river Cesare. 

BANCO DE PKRDOMO, a sand bank, just appear 
ing above the water, in the gulph of Guayaquil, 
opposite to the coast of Machala, (from whence it 



BAN 

is one league distant), and to the Punta de Arenas 
of the island of La Puna. It extends upwards or" 
three leagues from n. to n. e. to s. to s. t. 

BANCOS, small islands or rocks of the N. sea, 
near the coast of the province and government of 
Honduras, close to the cape of Camaron. 

BANDITS, a small river of Canada, which runs 
s. w. and enters lake Superior. 

BANEGAS, a settlement of the province and 
government of Venezuela, situate on the shore of 
the river Guarico, at the mouth where this river is 
entered by that of Los Aceytes. 

[BANGOR, a township in Hancock county, 
district of Maine, on the w. side of Penobscot 
river, 25 miles from its mouth at Belfast bay, 65 
w. w. by zo. from Machias, 63 n. e. from Hal- 
lowell, and 280 n. e. from Boston.] 

BAN I, a large and beautiful valley of the island 
of St. Domingo, on the s. coast. 

BAN i, a river of the same island, rising in the 
mountains of the coast. It runs s. crosses the 
aforesaid valley, and enters the sea between the 
point of La Salina and the bay of Ocoa. 

BANICA, a settlement of Hispaniola, or St. 
Domingo, founded by Diego Velasques in 1504, 
in a valley of the same name, near the river Arti- 
bonito. It has a guard of 40 men, on account of 
its bordering upon the limits of the French; and 
is seven leagues from the town of Azua, or Com- 
postela . 

BANICA, a valley of the island, in which is the 
former settlement. It is arge, fertile, and beauti 
ful, surrounded on all sides by the rivers of the 
Indians, the Artibonito, and the Neiba. 

BANICA, a small river of the same island, 
which rises at the foot of two mountains near the 
n. coast, runs s, e. and enters the Libon. 

[BANKS, Port, a harbour on the n. w. coast of 
America, s. e. from cape Edgecombe, and . w. 
from Sea Otter sound.] 

[BANN, a township in York county, Penn 
sylvania.] 

BANNISTER, a small river of Virginia, which 
runs s. e. and enters the Hicotimos. 

BANNOS, a settlement of the province and 
corregitmtnto of Hunmlies in Peru. In its neigh 
bourhood are the vestiges of a stone road, which 
are also found in the immediate provinces of Con- 
chucos, Tarma, and others : its direction is from 
Caxamarca towards the s. The Incas used to 
travel along this road, and it is said to have ex 
tended as far as Quito ; its remains shew it to have 
been a sumptuous work. Not far from hence are 
other monuments of antiquity, such as a palace 
for bathing, in which the stones of the building 



B A Q 

were fitted together with such nicety that it is 
almost impossible to discover where they were 
joined ; the ruins of a temple and a fort, at the 
summit of a mountain, which has its side watered 
by the Maranon ; and anothjer fort at a little dis 
tance. Lat. 10 10 s. 

BANNOS, another settlement, of the asiento and 
jurisdiction of Arnbato, in the con-cgimiento of 
Riobamba and kingdom of Quito ; situate at the 
skirts of the mountain of Tunguragua. There 
are some baths here which were much frequented, 
and the settlement was consecrated to the religious 
of the order of St. Dominic, and in its church 
was held in high veneration the image of our 
Lady. 

BANNOS, another, of the province and govern 
ment of Canta in Peru, annexed to the curacy of 
Atavillos Altos. 

BANNOS, another, in the province and corregi- 
miento of Cuenca in the kingdom of Quito, in the 
vicinity of which there is at the top of the moun 
tain a spring of mineral waters, sprouting through 
several holes of about four or five inches in diame 
ter : they come out boiling, so that they will, 
harden an egg in a very few minutes. From these 
waters flows a stream of very beneficial properties, 
which deposits on its banks a yellow colour. The 
Incas had their baths here, and vestiges of 
these are still to be seen. Two leagues from its 
capital, in lat. 2 56 s. 

BANNOS, another, in the province and corregi- 
miento of Kancagua in the kingdom of Chile. 

BANXOS, a river of the province and corregi- 
miento of Cuenca in the kingdom of Quito. It 
rises in the mountainous deserts of the cordillera, 
takes its name from the settlement thus called, and 
passes at a quarter of a league s distance from the 
city of Cuenca. 

BANOMAS, a barbarous nation of Indians, 
who inhabit the forests of the river Maranon, in the 
province of Quito. They were bounded by the 
Omagnas and Aysuares, and were reduced to the 
Catholic faith, and brought to live in settlements, 
by the celebrated Jesuit and mathematician, Samuel 
Frit, in 1683. 

BANTAN, ROCHER DE, a shoal or small rocky 
isle, of the s. coast of Nova Scotia, between the 
capes IN egre and Sable. 

BAN TRY. See BRAINTREE. 
BAQUERIA DEI, MAR, a territory of the 
province and captainship of Rey in Brazil, and in 
the country of the Guanoas Indians. 

BAQUERIA, another, an extensive territory of 
the province and government of Paraguay, between 
the rivers Alboapioni and Yucas. 



BAR 



133 



BAR, a small river of Nova Scotia, which 
runs s. and enters the sea in the bay of Fundy. 

BARA, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Venezuela in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, situate on the sea coast, near the river 
Guaique. 

[BARACOA, a sea-porttown in the n. e. part of 
the island of Cuba in the West Indies ; 50 miles 
n. e. of St. Jago de Cuba. Lat. 21 n. Long. 
76 10 a>.] 

BARACOA, a port of the missions belonging to 
the Portuguese Carmelite fathers, in the country of 
Las Amazonas, situate on the shores of the Rio 
Negro. 

BARADERO, SAN FRANCISO REGIS DEL, a 
settlement of the province and government of 
Mainas in the kingdom of Quito, one of those be 
longing to the Jesuits. 

BARADERO, SANTIAGO DE, another settle 
ment, of the province and government of Buenos 
Ayres, situate to the w. of its capital, at a small 
distance from the river La Plata. 

BARAnERO, a bay of the coast of Brazil, in the 
captainship of Rey, between the lake of Los De- 
funtos, and the small island of Castillos Chicos. 

BARADEROS, a port of the coast of the pro 
vince and government of Yucatan, near the river 
Champoton. 

BARADEROS, a bay on the n. coast of the w. 
head of the island of St. Domingo, in the French 
possessions, between the Bee de Marsowin and the 
Petit Trou. 

[BARADERO, a settlement of Indians, of the 
province and government of Buenos Ayres, found 
ed in 1580 by the Guaranos, in Lat. 54 46 35". 
Long. 59 46 30" a).] 

BARAGUA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Venezuela in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, situate on the shore of the river Tucuyo, 
and to the . of the city of Bariquisimeto. 

BARANOA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Cartagena in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, situate on the banks of a stream which 
runs from the swamp of Turbaco into the sea. 

BARAONA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Quixos and Macas in the king 
dom of Quito. 

BARARAUA, a settlement of the Portuguese 
in the province and country of the Amazonas, 
situate on the shore of the river Negro. 

BARBA, PUNT A DE, a cape on the coast of 
Tierra Firme, in the province and government of 
Santiago de Veragua, in the the S. sea, one of 
those which form the bay of La Soledad. 

BARBACOA, an island of the N. sea, in the 



134 



BAR 



province and government of Darien, situate Tvitlnn 
the gulph of tl>e same name, near the coast, and 
in front of the mouth of the river Choco. 

BARBACOA, a point of land on the coast of the 
province and government of Cartagena, between 
the month of Latuna and the island of Barn. 

BARBACOA, a settlement of the island of St. 
Domingo, situate on the e, head, and on the shore 
of the bay of its name. 

BARBACOAS, a city of the province and go 
vernment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito, 
situate between the rivers Pati and Guaxi, near 
the coast of the S. sea, is also called Nnestra Se- 
iiora del Puerto del Nuevo Toledo. Its soil is 
warm and moist, and the houses, although built of 
wood and a certain cane called guadua, and cover 
ed in with large dried leaves instead of tiles, are 
nevertheless very commodious and of a decent 
construction. Its inhabitants are docile, amiable, 
and courteous, and of singular genius. It has 
many families of distinction, who possess gold 
mines which are worked by the Negro slaves. 
The gold is of the best quality, and is carried to 
be coined at the mint of Popayan. Victuals and 
clothing are very dear, since they are brought 
from Pasto, Popayan, the town of Ibarra, and 
from Quito : it is governed by a vice-governor and 
two alcaldes, who are elected yearly. Here is an 
official real and a commissary of the inquisition ; 
and with regard to its ecclesiastical concerns, it is 
governed by a vicar belonging to the bishopric 
of Quito. The first person who found his way 
Amongst these mountains, for the sake of convert 
ing the nation of Barbacoas, of whom but few are 
now remaining, was Father Lucas de la Cneva, 
of the abolished company of the Jesuits, in 1640. 
It has four dependent settlements, and lies between 
the river Huachi to the ?0. and the Telembi to the 
n. e. in Lat. 1 42 s. Long. 78 8 a>. 

BARBACOAS, a settlement of the province and 
government of Venezuela, lying to the s. of the 
city of Caroa at the source of the river Tucuyo. 

BARBACOAS, a bay of the n. coast of the island of 
St. Domingo, formed by the cape of Frances Viejo 
and that of Samana, is very large and capacious. 

BARBACOAS, another settlement of the province 
and government of Venezuela, on the shore of the 
lake of Maracaibo. 

BARBADOES, an island of the N. sea, one of 
the Lesser Antillas, situate to the n. of that of St. 
Vincent, and to the s. of Martinica ; is eight 
leagues long and five wide, and is of an oval 
shape. It was discovered by William Courteen 
in 1625, in the reign of James 1. king of England, 
who was returning from Pernambuco in Brazil, 



BAR 

and was driven hither by a tempest, when he 
went on shore to reconnoitre, and found the island 
was crowded with wood ; indeed it was supposed 
that there was not a clear spot of ground upon it, 
and it seemed altogether desert, and uninhabited 
even by savages. There were neither pastures, 
grain, or herbs to be found upon it; but as the 
climate was good, and the soil appeared to be fer 
tile, it was settled by some English of small for 
tunes, who, after infinite pains and difficulty, suc 
ceeded in clearing away some of the timber with 
which it was so covered : the first crops were of 
course but scanty, but this, however, did not 
cause these new colonists to give up their enter 
prise ; and they were afterwards kept in counte 
nance and joined by some of their brethren who 
fled hither on account of the English civil wars. 
It was then granted by the king as a property to 
his favourite the Earl of Carlisle, and it thus 
so far increased in population, that in 20 years 
afterwards, namely in 1650, it contained 50,000 
whites, and a greater number of Negro slaves. 
The king created 13 barons in this colony, who, 
in 1676, had upwards of 1000 Negroes, and em 
ployed more than 400 vessels, from 50 to 100 tons 
burthen, in their commerce of sugar, indigo, cot 
ton, ginger, and other productions. The in 
crease of the English colonies in the other islands 
caused the extraordinary elevation of fortune and 
dignity then prevalent in this, in some degree, to 
subside ; and what did not in a less degree con 
tribute to its downfal, was the terrible plague 
which broke out here in 1692, and continued for 
some years. It is by nature very strong, and 
completely surrounded by rocks, so that it is 
thoroughly sheltered to the windward ; to the 
leeward it has many good bays, and the whole 
coast is defended by a line of small forts. The 
country has the most beautiful appearance, being 
a series of valleys and mountains, cultivated in all 
parts, and full of plantations of sugar-cane, 
oranges, lemons, citrons, limes, guanas, papas, 
aloes, and many other kinds of delicious fruits, 
and interspersed with country villas and dwell 
ings : one of the principal branches of its com 
merce is rum, which is esteemed of the finest qua 
lity ; it abounds in fish and birds, and has many 
great caves or caverns, some of which are large 
enough to contain 500 men, and are used as hid 
ing places by the Negroes who run away from 
their masters. Its temperature is very hot, espe 
cially in the eight summer months, and the heat 
would indeed be intolerable, were it not for the 
n. e. breeze which springs up about sun-rise, and 
lasts as long as this luminary is above the horizon. 



BARBADOES. 



135 



It has only one river, called Tuigh, the waters of 
which are covered by a fluid similar to oil, and 
which is used for lamps. The island is divided 
into 11 parishes, which contain 14 churches and 
chapels. The names of the parishes of this island 
are, to the n. St. Lucy s, St. Peter s, and St. An 
drew s ; to the s. St. Michael s, Christ Church, 
and St. Philip s ; and in the centre, St. James s, 
St. Thomas s, St. Joseph s, St. George s, and 
St. John s, which are divided into five districts : 
and it contains four towns, called Bridge Town, 
the capital, St. James s, formerly called the Hole, 
Speight s Town, and Ostin s, or Charles Town. 

[Barbadoes, notwithstanding what Alcedo re 
marks, was probably first discovered by the Por 
tuguese in their voyages from Brazil, and from 
them it received the name which it still retains. 
It is said not to have been noticed in any sea- 
chart before the year 1600. It is usually ranked 
amongst the windward division of the Charibbes, 
being a day or two s sail from Surinam. From 
its being the first discovered of any of these islands, 
it is called the Mother of the Sugar Colonies. It 
was found without occupants or claimants. The 
Charibbes, for reasons altogether unknown to us, 
had deserted it, and the Portuguese, satisfied 
with the splendid regions they had acquired on 
the continent, seem to have considered it as of 
little valne. Having furnished it with a breed of 
swine for the benefit of such of their countrymen 
as might navigate the same track, they left the 
island in all other respects as they found it. Of 
the English, the first who are known to have land 
ed in this island, were the crew of a ship called 
the Olive Blossom, bound from London to Suri 
nam in 1605, and fitted out at the expence of Sir 
Olive Leigh. Some years after this, a ship of 
Sir William Courteen s, a merchant of London, 
returning from Brazil, was driven by stress of 
weather into this island, and finding refreshments 
on it, the master and seamen, on their arrival in 
England, made so favourable a report of the 
beauty and fertility of the country, that Lord 
Ley (afterwards Earl of Marlborough, and lord 
high treasurer) immediately obtained from King 
James I. a grant of the island to himself 
and his heirs in perpetuity. Accordingly Wil 
liam Dean, with 30 settlers, under the instiga 
tion of Courteen, arrived here safe in the latter 
end of the year 1624, and laid the foundations of 
a town, which, in the honour of the sovereign, 
they denominated James Town ; and thus began 
the first English settlement in the island of Bar 
badoes. In 1627 it was made over by patent to 
the Earl of Carlisle, afterwards to William, Earl 



of Pembroke, in trust for Courteen, and again 
restored by other letters to the Earl of Carlisle. 
The latter person, in order completely to ruin all 
the interests in the colony of his competitor, pro 
ceeded to distribute the lands to such persons as 
chose to receive grants at his hands on the terms 
proposed to them. A society of London mer 
chants accepted 10,000 acres, on conditions which 
promised great advantage to the proprietor ; but 
they were allowed the liberty of sending out a per 
son to preside over their concerns in the colony j 
and they made choice for this purpose of Charles 
Woolferstone, who repaired to the island, accom 
panied with 64 persons, each of whom was au 
thorised to take up ICO acres of land. These 
people landed on the 5th of July 1628, at which 
time Courteen s settlement was in a very promis 
ing condition ; but Woolferstone declared it an 
encroachment and usurpation, and being sup 
ported by the arrival of Sir William Tufton, who 
was sent out as chief governor by Lord Carlisle, 
in 1629, with a force sufficient for the mainte 
nance of his pretensions, he compelled the friends 
of Courteen to submit ; and the interests of the 
latter were thenceforth swallowed up and forgotten. 
Owing to a civil war in England/ many people of 
peaceable tempers and dispositions, chiefly royal 
ists, took refuge in this island ; and the conse 
quent ruin of the king s affairs induced a still 
greater number, many of whom had been officers 
of rank in his service, to follow their example. 
The emigration from the mother-country to this 
island was indeed so great during the commotions 
in England, that in 1650 it was computed there 
were 20,000 white men in Barbadoes, half of them 
able to bear arms, and furnishing even a regiment of 
horse to the number of 1000. " These adventurers, * 
says Lord Clarendon, " planted themselves with 
out any body s leave, and without being opposed 
or contradicted by any body." The colony, left 
to its own efforts, and enjoying an unlimited free- 
doom of trade, flourished beyond example. In 
the year 1646, however, the then Earl of Car 
lisle, who was son and heir of the patentee, stimu 
lated by the renown of its wealth and prosperity, 
began to revive his claims as hereditary proprie 
tor ; and entering into a treaty with Lord Wil- 
loughby of Parham, conveyed to that nobleman 
all his rights by lease for 21 years, on condition of 
receiving one half the profits in the mean time; 
but justly apprehending that the resident planters 
might dispute his pretensions, he very readily 
concurred with Lord Willoughby in soliciting a 
commission for the latter, as chief governor, un 
der the sanction of regal authority. Soon after-] 



136 



BARBADOS S. 



[wards the whole island became the possession of 
the crown, and many indeed were the disturb 
ances that succeeded respecting the -right of pro 
prietorship, until the assembly passed an act, on 
the 12th September 1663, entitled, " An Act 
for settling the Impost on the Commodities of the 
Growth of this Island." 

The earliest planters of Barbadoes were some 
times reproached with the guilt of forcing or de 
coying into slavery the Indians of the neigh 
bouring continent. The history of Inkle and 
Yarico, which the Spectator has recorded for 
the detestation of mankind, took its rise in this 
island ; but happily this species of slavery was 
soon abolished. The Barbadoes tar (the oil allud 
ed to by A Icedo) is a particular production of this 
island. It vises out of the earth, and swims on the 
surface of the water. It is of great use in the dry 
belly -ach, and in diseases or" the breast. The 
form of the government of this island so very 
nearly resembles that of Jamaica, which may be 
found described under that article, that it is un 
necessary to enter into detail, except to observe 
that the council is composed of 12 members, and 
the assemby of 22. The most important variation 
respects the court of chancery, which in Barba 
does is constituted of the governor and council, 
whereas in Jamaica the governor is sole chancel 
lor. On the other hand, in Barbadoes the go 
vernor sits in council, even when the latter are 
acting in a legislative capacity. This, in Jamai 
ca, would be considered improper and unconsti 
tutional. It may also be observed, that the courts 
of grand sessions, common picas, and exchequer, 
in Barbadoes, are distinct from each other, and 
not, as in Jamaica, united and blended in one 
supreme court of judicature. Here is a college 
founded by Colonel Codrington, the only institu 
tion of the kind in the W. Indies ; but it has not 
answered the intention of the founder. The houses 
of the planters are very thickly sown all along the 
country, which, with the luxuriant productions of 
the soil, and the gently swelling hills, form a de 
lightful scene. That the dreadful succession of 
hurricanes, with which this and the other West 
Indian islands have been infested, has contributed 
to the great defalcation of its revenues, cannot be 
doubted. The capital of this island was scarce 
risen from the ashes to which it had been reduced 
by two dreadful fires, when it was torn from its 
foundations, and the whole country made a scene 
of desolation, by the storm of the 10th of October 
17SO, in which no less than 4326 of the inhabi 
tants (blacks and whites) miserably perished; 
and the damage to the country was computed at 



j 1,320,564, 15.?. sterling. Moreover, the trade 
of this and some others of the islands, suffers con 
siderably by a duty of 4| per cent, on exported 
produce; out of which, however, the governor s 
salary, ^2000 a-year, is paid. The crown ac 
quired this revenue in the reign of Charles II. 
which the planters agreed to, in order to secure 
possessions to which they had uncertain titles. 

Barbadoes is about 21 miles in length from High 
point, its northern extremity, to South point ; 
and 14 in breadth, from the Chair near Kitridge 
bay, e. to Valiant Royalist fort, w. ; and con 
tains 106,470 acres of land, most of which is un 
der cultivation. It lies 20 leagues e. from St. 
Vincent, which may be seen in a clear day, 25 
from St. Lucia, 28 s. r. from Martinico, 60 n. c. 
from Trinidad, and 100 s.e. from St. Christo 
pher s. The soil in the low lands is black, some 
what reddish in the shallow parts, on the hills of 
a chalky marl, and near the sea generally sandy. 
Of this variety of soil, the black mould is best 
suited for the cultivation of the cane, and, with 
the aid of manure, has given as great returns of 
sugar, in favourable seasons, as any in the West 
Indies, the prime lands of St. Kitt s exccpted. 
We are assured, that about the year 1670, Bar 
badoes could boast of 50,000 white, and upwards 
of 100,000 black inhabitant?, whose labours, it is 
said, gave 1 employment to 60,000 tons of ship 
ping. This account is supposed to be much ex 
aggerated. It cannot however be doubted, that 
the inhabitants of this island have decreased with, 
a rapidity seldom known in any other country. 
According to the most authentic returns of the 
number of whites in 1724, and of its Negroes in 
1753, the former consisted of no more than 
18,295, the latter of 69,870. In 1786 the num 
bers were 16,167 whites, 838 free people of co 
lour, and 6 L ^,1I5 Negroes. It appears too that 
the annual produce of this island (particularly 
sugar) has decreased in a much greater propor 
tion than in any other of the West Indian colo 
nies. Postlcthwayte states the crop of sugar, in 
1736, at 22,769 hogsheads of 13cwt. which is 
equal to 19,800 of 15 cwt. ; and the author of the 
European Settlements, published in 1761, cal 
culates the average crop at 25,000 hogsheads. 
As the author first quoted gives a precise num^ 
ber, it is probable his statement was grounded on 
good authority. If so, the island has fallen off 
nearly one half in the annual growth of its princi 
pal staple. On an average of eight years (from 
1740 to 1748) the exports were, 13,948 hogsheads 
of sugar, of 15 cwt. 12,884 puncheons of rum, of 
100 gallons, 60 hogsheads of molasses, 4667 bags] 



BARBADOS S. 



[of ginger, 600 bags of cotton, and 397 gourds of 
aloes. The exports, on an average of 1784, 1785, 
and 1786, had fallen to 9554 hogsheads of sugar, 
5448 puncheons of mm, 6320 bags of ginger, 
8331 bags of cotton ; exclusive of some smaller 
articles, as aloes, sweetmeats, &e. of which the 
quantities are not ascertained. The variation in 
the produce of sugar is from 6000 to 13,000 
hogsheads ; whilst Grenada, St. Vincent s, and 
Tobago, vary only as from 12,000 to 16,000 
hogsheads. 



By report of privy council, 1788, the British- 
property vested here is estimated at 106,470 taxed 
acres of patented estates ; and the Negroes are com 
puted at 60,000, at 50/. each Negro. The same 
report, in a general appraisement of British pro 
perty vested in the British colonies, makes the 
land, buildings, and stock, double the value of 
the Negroes ; and the towns, stores, and ship- 
ing, about one twenty-second part of the lands. 



Produce of the island of Barbadoes exported, for seven years, from 1786 to 1792, both inclusive. 



A. D. 


Snijar. 


Melasses. 


Rum. 


Gilder. 


Aloes. 


Cotton. 


Hds. Trees. Bark 


Hds. Trees. 


HcK Trees. Bails. 


Bags and Barls. 


Hds. Trees. Gourds. 


Bags. Ibs. 


1786 


8,659 82 34! 9 


114 


199 39 6P3 


8070 


1 409 


8,864 


1787111,929 183 2415 


87 37 


1872 27 614 


6095 


1 1 688 


10,511 


1788 


10,309 63 3674 





-;;^6 607 


5364 


303 


1,894,365 


1789 9,021 J)6 4520 





C J172 397 


5180 


372 


1,327,840 


1790 


9,998 123 2935 





2331 261 


4565 


475 


1,287,088 


1791 11,333 60 2346 


30 


008 411 


3735 


770 


1,163,157 


1792 


17,073 12.5 269S 


188 


5064 512 


3046 


515 


974,178 



From this great increase in the export of sugar, 
and decrease in that of the minor staples, it seems 
probable that the advanced price of that article in 
Europe in the year 1792, had encouraged the cul 
tivation of that article on plantations which had 
formerly been abandoned or appropriated to a dif 
ferent line of culture. 



To the year 1736 this island returned, 

on yearly average, of sugar, - - 

To 1761, on average crops, - ... 

To 1787, only 

To 1805, only 



lids. 

22,769 

25,000 

12,21 1 

9.554 



The official value of the Imports and Exports of Barbadoes were, in 

1809, imports .288,4)2, exports ^450,760. 

1810, 311,400, 271,597. 

And the quantities of the principal articles imported into Great Britain were, in 



Coffee. 


Sugar. 


Rum. 


Cotton Wool. 


Brit. Plant. 


For. Plant. 


Brit. Plant. 


For . Plant. 






Cwt. 
1809, 3471 
1810, 30S 


r\vt. 
1345 
9 


Cwt. 
139,717 

181,440 


Cwt. 
3 


Galls. 

19,764 
7,1)09 


Lbs. 

1,359,823 
1,453,738 



The above statements will, it is conceived, give 
a good general view of the commercial relations of 
Bardadoes from the earliest period ; and it will be 
found that its produce for the European market 
has been regularly on the decline, though some 
what uniform, since 1787 to the present year. In 
dependently of all political circumstances, to which 
the cau"se might possibly be traced, we shall con 
tent ourselves in quoting the physical causes as 
cribed by Sir Charles Young, " As this decrease 



(Iw observes) ff has been constant and progressive, 
it is to be apprehended that the cause is of certain 
and continued effect ; namely, diminished and di 
minishing fertility, if not from exhausted soil, yet 
from the country being over-cleared and deprived 
of woods, and therewith deprived of moisture, un 
der their shade and covert, to form reservoirs for 
rivulets ; and deprived too of the attraction to 
clouds and rain, which, in the tropical climates, 
are indispensable to fertility, and which the wooded} 



158 



BAR 



[hills of islands constantly afford, and are in ex 
ample of." To the above causes of the decline of 
the exports, we would have our readers bear in - 
mind the dreadful succession of hurricanes which 
took place in 178-1. The state of the population of 
this island at different periods, will be seen by the 
following authentic documents. 

Account of the number of Negroes in Barbadoes, 
and amount of the Public Taxes for seven 
years, from 1786 to 1792, both inclusive. 
(Extracted from Bryan Edwards.) 



A.D. 


No. of Slave*. 


Do. imported. 


Amount of Taxes. 


1786 


62,115 


511 


.10,138 14 g* 


1787 


62,712 


528 


13,528 15 11| 


1788 


63,557 


1585 


8,382 12 4i 


1789 


63,870 


556 


5,534 18 3 


1790 


64,068 


131 


13,482 19 


1791 


63,250 


426 


6,203 2 11| 


1792 


64,330 


744 


9,443 19 3 



BAR 

The taxes thus levied on the public consist 
of a capitation tax on Negroes ; a tax on sugar- 
mills, dwelling-houses, and carriages ; together 
with an excise, &c. on wines imported. Besides 
all which, there is a parochial tax on land, 
amounting, on average throughout the island, to 
about two shillings per acre, and an assessment in 
labour for the repair of the highways. The whole 
is altogether exclusive of the heavy duty of 4| per 
cent, to the crown. 

By report of privy council, 1788, and by subse 
quent estimates, the population amounted to 



1787 
1805 


Whites. 


People of 
Colour. 


,> 

Slaves. 


16,127 
15,000 


2229 
2130 


64,405 
60,000 



By return to the house of commons, March 18th, 1790, the following was the Slave Trade from 
Africa to this island in the undermentioned years. 



it K Arrivals from Africa. 




Negroes exported. 




Years. 


Number of 
Vessels. 


Tonnage. 


Total number 
of Negroes im 
ported. 


To Foreign West 
[ndies, in British 
Bottoms. 


To the 

States of 
America. 


Total 
Exported. 


Negroes re 
tained for 
cultivation. 


1787 


7 


831 


713 


85 


__ 


85 


628 


1788 


8 


801 


1099 


356 


6 


362 


737 



And the Import of Slaves into Barbadoes, by re 
port of privy council, 1788, at a medium of 
four years, and by a return to house of com 
mons in 1805, on a medium of two years from 
1803, were, 



Average of 

Four years to 1787 
Two years to 1803 


Imports, 


Re-exports. 


Retained. 


367 
1050 


5 

28 


362 
1022 



Barbadoes is situate in 13 10 n. lat. and in 
59 w. long.] 

BARBARA, SANTA, a settlement of Indians, 
of the missions belonging to the religion of St. Do 
mingo, in the jurisdiction of the townof San Chris- 
tobal in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It con 
sists of 100 Indians, is of a hot temperaturey and 
lies on the shor of the river A pure. 



BARBARA, another settlement of the alcaldia 
mayor of Coautitlan in Nueva Espana, annexed 
to the curacy of its capital. It contains 218 fami 
lies of Indians, and is a little more than a quarter 
of a league distant from its capital. 

BARBARA, another, of the head settlement and 
alcaldia mayor of Marinalco in the same kingdom, 
is of a cold and moist temperature, inhabited by 
nine families of Spaniards and Mustees, and 69 of 
Indians, who are accustomed to make pulque, 
(a liquor prepared of a species of aloes), and to 
sow some seeds and fruits which are peculiar to the 
climate. Close to this settlement is an estate in 
which dwell 10 families of Spaniards ami 13 of 
Indians. It is somewhat more than two leagues 
distant from its head settlement. 

BARBARA, SANTA, another, of the head settle 
ment of Ahuacatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Zacat- 
lan, in the same kingdom. One league from its 
head settlement. 



BAR 

BAR BAB A) SAN, another, of the head settle 
ment and alcnldia mayor of Cholula in the same 
kingdom, contains 36 families of Indians, and is 
a quarter of a league n. of its capital. 

BARBARA, SAN, another, of the province and 
corregimiento of Angaries in Peru. 

BARBARA, SAN, another, of the province and 
corregimiento of Barbacoas in the kingdom of 
Quito. 

BARBARA, SAN, another, of the missions \vhich 
belonged to the regulars of the company of Jesuits, 
in the province of Tepegnana and kingdom of 
Nueva Vizcaya, situate on the shores of the river 
Florido ; is six leagues to the 5. of the settlement 
and garrison of the valley of San Bartolome. 

BARBARA, SAN, another, of the island ofCu- 
ra^oa, situate on the w. coast, opposite the island of 
Tierra Firme, and near to the e. extremity. 

BARBARA, SAX, another, in the above island, 
situate on the s. coast. 

BARBARA, SAN, another, of the missions which 
were held by the regulars of the company of Je 
suits, in the province and government of Alainas, 
of the kingdom of Quito, and in the country of 
the Ardas Indians. 

BAIIBARA, SAN, another, of the missions which 
were held by the same regulars of the company of 
Jesuits in Orinoco, is composed of Indians of the 
nation of Saruca, having been founded between the 
rivers Sinaruco and Meta in 1739. 

BARBARA, SAN, another, of the province and 
.government of Maracaibo, situate on the shore of 
the river Pariba. 

BARBARA, SAN, another settlement and rra/ of 
the mines of the province of Tepeguana and king 
dom of Nueva Vizcaya, situate close on the s. e. 
side of the settlement of Parral. [In its vicinity 
are very rich silver mines. It lies 500 miles n. w. 
of the city of Mexico.] 

BARBARA, SAN, another, of the province of 
Barcelona and government of Cumana in the king 
dom of Tierra Firrae ; one of those which are un 
der the care of the religious observers of St. Fran 
cis, of the missions of Piritu ; situate in the serra- 
nia, on the shore and at the source of the river 
Unare. 

BARBARA, SAN, another, of the province and 
government of Sierra Gorda, in the bay of Mexi 
co arid kingdom of Nueva Espana ; founded in 
the year 1750 by the Count Sierra Gorda, Don Jo 
seph de Escandon, colonel of the militia of Que- 
rataro. 

BARBARA, SAN, a town of the island of Laxa, 
in the kingdom of Chile, situate on the shore of the 
river Biobio, near its source, with a fort of the 



BAR 



139 



same name to restrain the Indians. It was found- 
by the president Don Joseph de Rozas, Count de 
Poblaciones, who thus called it, out of respect to 
the queen Doiia Maria Barbara of Portugal, who 
reigned at that time. 

BARBARA, SAN, another town, of the province 
and government of Valparaiso, in the same king 
dom of Chile, and to the e. of the capital. 

BARBARA, SAN, a channel in the strait of Ma 
gellan, by which this communicates itself with 
the S. sea, from the island of Luis el Grande, on 
the w. side of the Tierra del Fuego. 

BARBARA, SAN, a fort of the province and 
government of Tucuman. 

BARBARA, SAN, another fort, in the province 
and government of Guayana, of the kingdom of 
Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore of the Orinoco. 

BARBE, 8 ANTE, a small island of the e. coast 
of Newfoundland, opposite Green bay. 

BARBE, SANTE, a bay on the w. coast of the 
same island of Newfoundland, at the entrance of 
the strait of Bellisle. 

BARBON, a town of the province and govern 
ment of Guayana in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. 

BARBOSA, an island of the coast of Tierra 
Firme, in the government of Maracaibo and pro 
vince of Venezuela, is of a triangular form, and 
sit uate opposite to the mouth of the lake of Mara 
caibo. 

BARBUDA, an island of the N. sea, one of the 
Lesser Antilles, in the English possessions, and situ- 
tuate n. of Antigua, or Antego, is five leagues 
long, and of a fertile soil, abounding in cattle and 
fruits, especially in cocoa-trees, which are here 
extremely fine. It also yields cotton, pepper, 
tobacco, indigo, ginger, and sugar-cane ; not to 
mention the other fine productions of exquisite 
woods, herbs, and roots, with which it is plenti 
fully stocked. The English, however, derive but 
little advantage from it, from the frequent attacks 
made against them by the Charibbee Indians ; and 
by these they are frequently put to death. Here 
grows the sensitive plant, which withers as soon as 
touched. It abounds in different kinds of snakes ; 
and amongst these there is a certain species which 
is of a yellow and red colour, and having a flat 
head, the bite of which produces certain death, 
if recourse be not had to immediate remedy. It is 
12 leagues to the n. e. of Antigua, and 24 to the 
n. n. e. of St. Christopher s. It belongs to the fa 
mily of Codrington, to which it is worth upwards 
of 5000/. per annum. It abounds in swine, sheep, 
and in birds; and its natives employ themselves in 
the breeding of the former. The inhabitants should 
amount to 1200, and they merchandize to the 

T2 



140 



BAR 



neighbouring parts. [They have since increased 
to upwards of 1500. Lat. 17 36 n. Long. 61 
46 w.l 

BARBUDO, a settlement of the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada, founded by Francisco Henriquez, on 
the shore of the river of La Magdalena, in 154 1 , in 
the province of the Malebueyes : it was a large 
population, and rich in gold mines : these are 
close in its vicinity, but are not worked at the pre 
sent day, upon which account it has fallen into the 
utmost state of misery and decay. 

BAltBUDOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, 
who inhabit the woods to the s. of the river Mara- 
fion, and to the e. of the Guallaga. They are ene 
mies of the Aguanos and of the Cocamas ; but they 
are at present for the most part united, and re 
duced to a settled population by the missionaries, 
the Jesuits of Mainas. 

BARBURES, a barbarous nation of the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada, inhabiting the mountains close 
to the city of Pamplona. They are descendants 
of the Chitarcros, but are at present very few in 
number, and are but little known. 

BARBUE, a river of Canada. It rises from a 
lake, runs ay. between the rivers Raisin and Mara- 
meg, and enters the lake Nichigan. [Us mouth, 
CO yards wide, lies 72 miles n. by w. from fort 
St. Joseph.] 

[BARBUE, the name of a river which empties 
into lake Erie, from the n. by e. 40 miles w. n. w. 
from the extremity of Long point in that lake, and 
22 e. by s. from Tonty river.] 

BARCA, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Pariain Peru, annexed to the cura 
cy of Toledo. 

The settlements of the jurisdiction are, 
San Pedro, Quisco, 

O cat Ian, Totan, 

Ponzitlan, San Luis, 

Atotonilco, Sula. 

Zapotlan, 

BARCAS, the alcaldia mayor of the kingdom 
of Nuera Galicia, but of the bishopric of Mecho- 
acan. Its capital, which bears the same name, is a 
large town, having a numerous population of 
Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes. Its vicinity 
ateo is well stocked with inhabitants, and near it 
>are many country-houses, estates, farm-houses, 
and grazing lands for cattle of the large and small 
sort. It is very pleasant and fertile, and in its 
confines runs the large river of Guadalaxara, from 
whence it lies 25 leagues to the e. s. e. 

BARCELLOS, or SAN CAYETANO, a city of 
the province and country of the Amazonas, in the 
Portuguese possessions, is on the shore of the 



abundant river Negro, opposite the second deep 
chasm of Varaca, the same forming one of the 
arms by which this river is entered by that of Pa- 
ravinanas, or Parime. 

BARCELONA, a province of the government 
of Cumana, one of the three which compose that, 
government; bounded on the w. by Cuniaua, e. by 
Caracas, and s. by the river Orinoco, which also 
divides it from Guayana. All the front looking to 
the n. is a part of the serrania, which commences 
at the Punta de Paria, and runs as far as Santa 
Marta. At the distance of nine leagues to the 
back of this province, begin the extensive llanos, 
which beaf i(s name, and which, uniting with those 
of Caracas, run s. as far as the Orinoco ; but these 
llanos are nothing more than barren wastes, pro 
ducing no herbs, though they are nevertheless well 
stocked with cattle, which breed here in great 
abundance, and which derive their food from the 
rank herbage which grows upon the banks of the 
rivers ; and when these suffer from drought, the fa 
tality amongst these poor creatures is, of course, ter 
rible. The temperature here is the same as that of 
Cumana, though not so unhealthy. This province 
produces nothing but maize, yucas, plantains, and 
such other fruits as are found in the above-mention 
ed province, and even these in nogreat abundance. 
It is however noted for its cattle ; and the inhabi 
tants have a method of salting down meats, which 
they call tasajo, and which they export to the 
islands of Margarita, Trinidad, and to other parts. 
With regard to the skins, a third part of them are 
sent to St. Domingo and Puertorico, and the rest 
are exported by the Dutch ; and it is calculated 
that not less than from 8 to 9000 head of cattle 
are killed here annually. Its coast abounds in fish, 
but they are neither so plentiful, nor of so fine a fla 
vour, as upon the coast of Cumana. It has four 
small salt-pits, of which the natives make free use, 
and this without any other trouble than that of 
merely extracting the salt. Its principal rivers are 
those of Barcelona and Unare, both of which run 
n. A species of palm is very common throughout 
the whole province ; it resembles the date-tree, 
which is called here moricke, producing every 
year a rivulet of water, and many of them toge 
ther a very tolerable stream, from a tendency 
which has been discovered in this plant to ab 
sorb the moisture from the earth. This province 
contains 32 settlements, viz. three head-towns, the 
capital of its name, Aragua, and Concepcion de 
Pao, 15 consecrated villages, and 17 of mission* 
or reducciones of Indians, which arc as follows .: 
Pozuelos, Clarines, 

San Miguel, Caigua_, 



BARCELONA. 



141 



San Bernardino, Pilar, 

Piritu, Tocuyo, 

San Francisco, San Pablo, 

San Lorenzo, Purey. 

And of the missions, 
Quiaraare, Platanar, 

Gary, Santa Barbara, 

Candelaria, Unare, 

Micures, Santa Rosa, 

Santa Ana, Alapirire, 

Guazaiparo, Cachipo, 

Margarita, Arivi, 

Chamariapa, San Joaquin. 

Santa Clara, 

[The above province, on or before the 7th De 
cember 1811, had declared for independence. 
See VENEZUELA.] 

The capital was founded in 1634 by Don Juan 
de Urpin, on a level upon the shores of the river of 
its name, at half a league s distance from the sea. 
Its soil is very uneven ; and as it is not paved, it 
becomes in the winter extremely rugged and incon 
venient, through the rains, as also dusty and dis 
agreeable in the summer, on account of the dust, 
which flies about in all directions, if the wind blow 
ever so mildly. It is an open town, without any 
fortification, small, and containing 500 house 
keepers, who are masters of 50 small estates, some 
of which are of cacao, situate in the valley of 
Cupira, in the province of Caracas, and from 
whence the productions are not allowed to be ex 
ported. The other estates are of the larger cattle, 
in which are counted upwards of 40,000 head, 
which would be sufficient completely to enrich 
any other country where they might not be rated 
at so low a price ; for it is common for one head 
to bring no more than two dollars and a half, if 
paid in real money, and four if in effects ; and 
this may be considered the cause why this place is 
so poor, notwithstanding that its natives are the 
most industrious of any in the province. It con 
tains, besides the parish church, which is not yet 
finished, another, with a hospital for the religious 
Franciscansof the missions of Piritu. Twelve leagues 
from the capital, Cumana; but this distance, on ac 
count of the badness of the roads, and unevenncss 
of the country, should be estimated at no less than 
0. [Its population, according to Depons, is 
1 1,000 souls, and it has only one parish church, 
and an hospital for the Fnuicjscans, who bear the 
expence of the missions to these parts. The great 
number of hogs that are bred here cause in the city 
infectious sewers, which corrupt the air and en 
gender diseases. The cabildo, whose principal 
oftics is to watch over the salubrity of the inhabi 



tants, leave them indifferently exposed to all the 
malignity of the infectious effluvia , the danger of 
which they themselves partake. However, towards 
the end of 1803, M. Cagigal, the commander of 
the place, took some wise measures to rid the city 
of an infection which could not but be fatal to per 
sons staying there. This ci(y was originally 
peopled by inhabitants from Si. Christophe de Cu- 
managoto, for which it has been in some manner 
substituted. Agriculture is much neglected in 
Barcelona and the environs. The most cultivated 
valleys are those of Capirimal and Brigantin. 
There are others as fertile,which have never receiv 
ed the plough-share. Depons asserts, that they 
do not yield above 3000 quintals of cacao, with 
some little cotton ; and Humboldt admits, at an 
average of four years, from 1799 to 1803, the 
quantity of cacao exported from hence to have 
amounted to 5000 fanegas. This part of the 
country is almost without slaves ; they compute 
but 2000 on a surface which would employ 600,000, 
and one half of the 2000 are occupied in domestic 
services. Besides the horned cattle that they sold 
for the use of the country, or for exportation, the 
inhabitants killed a prodigious quantity, which 
they salted and sold in the neighbouring islands, 
and at the Havannah, at a profit of cent, per cent. 
The tallow and hides were also a considerable 
article of traffic. At present this resource is great 
ly diminished, without being destroyed. The 
robbers, who, since 1807, commit with impunity 
their devastations on the herds, have reduced this 
province to such a scarcity in animals, that they 
have hardly enough for their butchers shops. 

The population of Barcelona is composed of 
one half whites and the other people of colour. 
The latter are as useless in agriculture here as every 
where else. Among the whites there are some Cata- 
lonians, who are entirely merchants, whose specu 
lations are in prohibited as well as in la-.yful goods. 
By their frequent voyages to the ports of Trinidad, 
they bring in return only contraband goods, for 
which Barcelona is the emporium, and which af 
terwards are diffused throughout the provinces, 
as well by sea as by land. It is computed that 
400,000 piastres fortes are annually exported from 
Barcelona for this clandestine trade. The city 
lies in Lat. K; 10 . Long. 64 47 ^ .] 

BAIIGKI.O.N r A, a river of the above province and 
kingdom. It rises in the loftiest part of the ser- 
ranifi of Cumana, and collecting the waters of 
smaller rivers, which descend from the table-land 
of Guanipas, takes a course from n. tos. and en 
ters the &ea close to the ci<y ot its name. In the 
winter it is accustomed to prodigious overflow^ 



142 



BAR 



and in the summer it is deep enough to be navi 
gated by bilanders ; but neither at one time nor 
the other is it accessible except for small craft, on 
account of the sand bank which lies at its en 
trance. 

BARCO, PEVA DEL, a point of the*, coast, 
in the w. head of the island of S. Domingo, in the 
territory of the French, between the bay of Judio 
and that of Los Collados. 

BARECIES, a barbarous nation immediately 
upon the shores of the river Paraguay, at no great 
distance from the lake of Los Xareyes. 

BARICHARA, SAN LORENZO DE, a settle 
ment of the jurisdiction of the town of San Gil and 
corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. It was annexed to the curacy of the 
above town, and was separated from it in 1751 ; 
is of a hot though healthy temperature, but very 
subject to strong currents of air. It produces 
sugar-cane, cotton, plantains, rice, and a mo 
derate quantity of tobacco. From these, and from 
the making of cotton garments, the inhabitants 
derive their principal source of commerce ; and 
they should amount to 700. It is nearly upon the 
shore of the river of the Mochuelo, two leagues 
from the town of San Gil. 

BARIMA, a small river of the province and 
government of Cumana in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme ; it rises in the middle of the sierra of Ima- 
taca, runs n. and enters the sea at the same mouth 
of. the Orinoco, which, on account of its size, is 
called De Navios. 

BARIMA, a point or strip of land of the same 
province and government ; it is one of those which 
form the principal mouth of the river Orinoco, 
and is on the left side. 

BAR1NAS, a city of the government of Mara- 
caibo, founded in 1576 by Juan Varela, on the 
shore and at the source of the river of St. Domin 
go, is famous for the tobacco which it produces, 
and which is esteemed the very best ; is of an ex 
tremely hot temperature, but very fertile, and 
abounds in the above article and cacao, both of 
which are carried to Caracas, and sold at the rate 
of 20 dollars a cargo.. It abounds in neat cattle, 
and in some of its estates are upwards of 30 or 
40,000 head, and an equal number of horses and 
mules of an excellent quality ; also in sugar-cane : 
and it has many mills for the manufactures of this 
article and brandy. There are quantities of maize, 
plantains, yucas y uyamas, potatoes, curas, and 
names i which latter is a species of root like truf 
fles, grows spontaneously, and comes to such a 
size as to be of a pound weight : it is, consequent 
ly, the custom to cut away parts of it for use, with- 



B A R 

out pulling up the whole root at once : of 
cas is made cazane, which is the common bread. 
In the level plains are found a remarkable number 
of pines, water melons, which are called palillas / 
other melons, annonus, tucuraguas, of a very fine 
smell, and which have the property of causing fe 
vers ; and plaintains of many sorts. In the moun 
tains are woods of cacao trees, which grow with 
out being sown, the nuts of which are small. There 
are also found groves of limes and oranges, exten 
sive mountains of exquisite woods, some of do- 
licious fragrance and aromatic gums, others of an 
excessive hardness and durability, such as cedars, 
granadillos, red and black, here called cana- 
guate, <\nd many herbs, fruits, and medicinal roots ; 
the espongilta fruit, which being infused in water, 
is an excellent and certain purgative ; the pasalla 
root, and the zarzaparilla. This territory has 
many navigable rivers, and in them an abundance 
of excellent fish, trout, tortoises, morrocoyes, sea- 
calves, and alligators. The parish church is good, 
but the city is reduced, owing to its inhabitants, 
who amount to about 300 house-keepers, having 
agreed, for the most part, to remove themselves to a 
spot at some distance, and to their having already 
in a great measure put their design into execution. 
In its jurisdiction, and in the jurisdiction of the 
town of Pedraza, are eight settlements of missions 
or reducciones of Indians, which are under the care 
of monks of St. Dominic. Notwithstanding all the 
advantages this city enjoys, it is much infested 
with swarms of mosquitoes of various sorts, spi 
ders, snakes, lice, and various other sorts of 
noxious and filthy vermin. Its heat also is ex 
cessively troublesome. This city had formerly the 
name of Altamira de Caceres, from the governor 
Francisco de Caceres ; and at his order it was 
founded by Juan Varela, at the top of a sierra, 
which served it as a wall. It had only two en 
trances, the one leading out to the llanos to the $. e 
and the other to the n. w. which facilitated the 
communication with the cities of Merida and Trux- 
illo. After some years, when the infidel Indians 
retired from its territory, the inhabitants removed 
tht settlement to the s. side of the river St. D6- 
mirigo, upon a spacious table-land theretofore 
called Moromy, but afterwards Barinas, this be 
ing the name of that territory. There it remained 
until the year 1646, when some of the religious 
order of St. Dominic, having pacified the Indians 
who remained, established different estates, and 
founded various settlements, under the assistance 
of an escort of troops. Again the Captain Miguel 
de Ochagavia, native of this city, in 1634, having 
discovered the navigation oi the rivers Apure and 



BAR 

Orinoco as far as Guayana and the island of Tri 
nidad ; the inhabitants, as well to deliver them 
selves from the plagues of the venomous serpents, 
ants, mosquitoes, and other insects, agreed to-be- 
take themselves to a certain level plain, and actu 
ally departed in 1752, under the permission of Don 
Joseph de Sol is, viceroy of Santa Fe. The city 
was then founded on a spacious plot of ground, of 
an healthy temperature, of a pure air and atmos 
phere, at the distance of a quarter of a league from 
the river of St; Domingo, which runs to the n. of 
the city, the king approving this translation in the 
letters patent of 1760. In the old city there was 
a house of entertainment belonging to the monks 
of St. Augustine, which was broken up in 1776, 
and two hermitages, called El Calvario and San 
Pedro, which were ruined by an earthquake in 
1740. At the present day it has only, in addition 
to the parish church, one hermitage, with the de 
dicatory title of Santa Barbara ; being however 
authorised to build another, with the title of Nues- 
tra Senora del Carmen. In the former year, 1785, 
the king thought it worthy to be erected into a 
province and government, independent of, and 
situate from, that of Maracaibo, subject to the in- 
tendancy and captainship-general of Venezuela, 
and in its ecclesiastic concerns, to the bishopric 
newly erected in Merida. Its district abounds in 
neat cattle, mules, and horses ; also in sugar, to 
bacco, cotton, and some cacao; and, for some little 
time past, there have been here some rich establish 
ments of indigo, which, for its quality, is highly 
esteemed in all parts. Its missions have always 
been of the religious order of St. Dominic, of the 
province of Santa Fe. Sixteen leagues to the e. of 
Merida. [The chief officer at Marinas has but the 
title of political commander, although his functions 
in his district are the same, in civil, military, and 
religious matters, as those of other governors. 
His salary is also the same as theirs, 4000 piastres 
fortes. The increase, of late years, of this part of 
the province, open to invasion by the navigable 
rivers which flow into the Orinoco, was the reason 
of the establishment of this government ; and for 
its better defence, a militia was formed in 1803, and 
the city was furnished with a garrison consisting of 
a company of troops of the line newly raised, and 
composed of 77 men. The city of Barinas has 
been long known in the European markets for its 
tobacco, which, from prejudice, is considered su 
perior to all other, but, in reality, it is inferior in 
every respect to that cultivated in other places, 
and particularly in Cumanacoa in the province of 
Cuiuana. The prepossession in its favour is never 
theless ;so, great, .that at Amsterdam or Hamburgh, 



BAR 



143 



tobacco of any other description, whatever may be 
its quality, sells for 20 or 25 per cent. less. The 
Spaniards ixung aware of this, ail tobacco, from 
whatever province it may be produced, is shipped 
by them under this recommendatory title, and the 
European purchaser experiences no loss from the 
deception. It is observed of late, that the tobacco 
of Barinas is more subject to spoil than any other. 
Hardly is the last process of preparation finished 
when a destructive worm gets into the heart of the 
plant, corrodes the interior of it, and converts it 
into a powder ; the surface appears but slightly in 
jured, and the injury is therefore more difficult to 
discover. The inhabitants, for a long time intent 
solely on the cultivation of tobacco, conceived that 
the country was not capable of yielding any thing 
else, but at present they grow, or endeavour to 
grow, every thing. The produce is transported in 
a great degree by water to the Guayana : the place 
of loading is on the Portuguese river, five leagues 
below the city, and is called Torunos. The air of 
the city is very pure, although Reaumur s thermo 
meter is seldom below 24. The inhabitants are 
computed at 10,000. Barinas lies 100 league* 
s. s.e. of Caracas. Lat. 7 35 n. Long. 70 15 a>.] 
BARINAS, with the additional title of Nueva, 
another city of the same province and government, 
founded on the shore of the river of St. Domingo, 
as is also the other, but lower down than the 
former. 

BARIQUISIMETO, or NUEVA SEGOVIA, a 
city of the province and government of Venezuela 
in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, founded in 1552 
by Captain Juan de Villegas on the shores of the 
river Buria, with the name of Nueva Segovia, in 
the vicinity of the gold mines which are in the val 
ley of Mirua, to the e. of Tucuyo ; but its bad 
climate and scarcity of every necessary induced 
the Governor Villacinda to remove it two leagues 
from Tucuyo ; from whence it was again removed 
by Pablo Collado to a spot lying between the riven 
Turbio and Claro ; and a third time, by the Go 
vernor Manzaneda, to where it still remains, on 
some lofty llanuras. These are very open, and 
abound in all the fruits peculiar to Castillc, in ex 
cellent wheat, which is gathered in the valley of 
Quibon. The soil of this valley is extremely hot, 
but pleasantly irrigated by a stream flowing from a 
chasm or cleft in the serrama, where the native* 
often betake themselves during the summer nights 
to repose, on account of its refreshing coolness. It 
has a very good parish church, in which there is a 
very fine and miraculous image of our Savioulr 
crucified, and to which singular respect is paid ; 
also a convent of Francisnw moats. This city 



144 



BAR 



is notorious, from being the place \vherc Lope de 
Aguirre met with his death, and where he put a 
period to his cruelties ; lor being the country of 
I)on Fray Gasper dc Villaroel, the very learned 
Archbishop of Charcas in Peru. Lat. 9 40 n. 
Lori"-. 69 28 re. See BARQUISIMETO. 

[BARK A DARES, the name of a part of the log 
wood country, on the e. side of the peninsula of 
Yucatan, through which the river Balize ruiis in 
to the se of Honduras. It has Hicks keys on the 
.v. and S. Lagoon on the n.] 

[8ARKHAMSTEAD, a township in the n. 
pan of Connecticut, in Litchtield county, having 
Haartland on the n. and Granby e. About 25 
miles zo. of Hartford.] 

BARLOVENTO, LACUNA DE, a lake of the 
kingdom of Chile, in the province and corregimi- 
fnto of Copiapo, between the settlement ancl the 
mountain of this name. 

BARM A, PUNT A DE, a point on the coast of 
the province and government of Cumana in the 
kingdom of Tierra Firme, one of those which form 
the mouths of the Orinoco, and that which runs 
furthest into the sea. 

BARNABY, ST. a settlement of Nova Scotia, 
or Acadia, situate on the shore of the river St. 
Lawrence. 

[BARNARD, a township in Windsor county, 
Wrmoiit, containing 673 inhabitants. It has Stock- 
bridge w. and gives rise to the n. branch ofWater- 
qneche river, and is 65 miles n. e. of Bennington. 

BARNAWELDT, or S. BERNARDO, a small 
island, which is barren and uninhabited, on the*, 
of the Tierra del Fuego, and n. of the island of 
Diego Ramirez. It Avas discovered by the Dutch, 
under the command of Captain Henry Bnm, in 
1616 ; they built upon it a small fort, which they 
immediately abandoned. 

BARNEGAT, OLD, an island of the coast of 
New Jersey, between that of Beach and the port 
of Little Egg. 

[BARNEGAT Inlet, called in some maps New In 
let, is the passage from the sea into Flat bay 
sound, on the s. e. coast of New Jersey, 68 miles 
n-.e. from cape May. Lat. 39 43 n. Barnegat 
beach lies below this inlet, between it and Little 
Egg harbour, 16 miles distant s. zw.J 

[BA UN EG AT, the name of a small village of eight 
or ten houses on the e. bank of Hudson river, five 
miles- s. of Ponghkeepsie, and 75 n.of New York. 
The sole businessof the few inhabitants of this place 
is burning lime, from the vast quantities of lime 
stone which are found here. Their lime is market 
ed in New York, whither they carry it in great 
annually.] 



BAR 

[BARNET, a township in Caledonia county, Ver 
mont, formerly in Orange county, containing 477 
inhabitants, and 112 miles n. e. from Bennington. 
The lower bar of the Fifteen-M ile falls in Connecticut 
river is situated at the n.e. corner of this town 
ship. Into that river it sends Stephens river, 
which rises in Peachum, the adjoinging town on 
the w.l 

BARNSTABLE Bay, a large and beauti 
ful bay of New England, in the colony and pro 
vince of Massachusetts, which gives its name to a 
county and capital city, situate at the n. extremity, 
near the cape and the shore of the river Tloyenas. 

[Barnstable, the Mattacheese, or Mattacheeset, 
of the ancient Indians, is a port of entry and post 
town, and is the shire town of Barnstable county. 
It extends across the peninsula, and is washed by 
the sea on the n. and s. having Sandwich, and the 
district called Marshpee or Mashpee, on the w. : 
is about five miles broad and nine long : 67 miles 
. e. from Boston. Sandy Neck, on the n. shore, 
runs e. almost the length of the town, and forms 
the harbour, embosoming a large body of salt 
marsh. The harbour is about a mile wide and 4 
long, in which the tide rises from eight to fourteen 
feet. It has a bar running off n. e. from the Neck 
several mites, which prevents the entrance of large 
ships, but small vessels may pass any part of it 
at high water ; and where it is commonly crossed, 
it seldom has less than six or seven feet at low 
water. There is another harbour on the s. called 
Lewis s bay ; its entrance is within Barnstable, and 
it extends almost two miles into Yarmouth. It is 
commodious and safe, and is completely landlock 
ed, and has five feet water at a middling tide. A 
mile or two to the w. and near the entrance of 
Lewis s bay, lies Hyanis road ; it is formed prin 
cipally by an island joined by a beach to Yarmouth, 
which together make the outside of the bay before 
mentioned. The s. head of this island is called 
point Gammon. Oyster bay, ?>par the s. w. limit 
of the town, admits small vessels, and which, with 
Lewis s bay, has in years past produced excellent 
oysters in great quantities,though they are now much 
reduced. There are about 20 or 30 ponds in Barn- 
stable. The land here produces about 25 bushels 
of Indian corn to an acre, and rye and other grain 
in proportion. Wheat and flax are cultivated, 
the latter with success. From 12 to 18,000 bushels 
of onions are raised for the supply of the neigh 
bouring towns. Upwards of 1UO men are employ 
ed in the fishery, which is yearly increasing. 
VV hales seldom come into Massachusetts bay now, 
and that fishery is discontinued. No quarrels 
with the ancient natives of the-country are recorded 



P> A R 

in the accounts of tins town, where the English 
settlors of New England first landed, Nov. Jl, 
16 iO. The people, 2610 in number, are generally 
healthy, and many instances of longevity are to 
be met with. Numbers of the farmers are occa 
sionally seamen ; and this town has afforded, and 
continues to furnish, many, masters of vessels and 
mariners who sail from other ports. Lai. 4143 w. 
Long. 70 15 a>.] 

[BARNSTABT-E County lies upon the peninsula, 
the point of which is cape Cod, the s. e. point of 
Massachusetts bay, opposite cape Ann. Cape 
Cod gives name to the whole peninsula, which is 
surrounded by water on all sides, except the w. 
where it is bounded by Plymouth county. 
It is 65 miles long, as the road runs, from the 
isthmus, between Barnstablc and Buzzard s bays 
to Race point; and its breadth for 30 miles not 
more than three, and above half the remainder 
from six to nine miles. It contains 11 townships 
and the plantation of Marshpee, having 2343 
houses, and 17,354 inhabitants. Barnstable was 
made a shire in 1685. See CAPE COD.] 

[BARNSTEAD, a township inStraftbrd county, 
New Hampshire, containing 807 inhabitants ; 32 
miles n. to. of Portsmouth, and 16 e. by s. from 
Canterbury, on Connecticut river.] 

BARNWEL, a fort of N. Carolina, 20 miles 
n. w. of New Bern, in the county of Craven. 

BARQUE, a small river of the province and 
government of Louisiana. It runs s. w. between 
those of Sioux and Sureau, and enters the Missouri. 

BARQUE, a bay of the island of Guadalupe, 
on the w. coast, between the rivers Pottel and 
Petit village. 

BARQUE, another bay of the same island, 
distinct from the former, on the s. coast, opposite 
the island of Marigalantc, between Los dos Dia- 
mantes, and the Puerta De los Castillos. 

BARQU1S1METO or BAIUQUISIMETO. This 
city was (according to Depons) founded 15 years 
before the city of Caracas: it lies on a plain of such 
an elevation as to allow it the enjoyment of every 
refreshing breeze that blows ; and owing to this for 
tunate situation, the excessive heat experienced here 
becomes supportable. The thermometer of Reau 
mur rises to 28 or 2S whenever the rays of the 
fcun do not meet, in the atmosphere, any thing to 
moderate their heat. The most prevalent wind is 
the n. e. The inhabitants find in the plains, the 
valleys, and on the hills forming the environs of 
the city, the means of exercising, according to 
their inclination, their industry and application. 
The excellent pasture in the plains renders the 
rearing of all sorts of animals for commerce easy. 

VOL. i. 



BAR 



14,5 



A great many people prefer this kind of specu 
lation, and find it to their advantage ; they also 
cultivate the sugar-cane and wheat. The valleys 
by their verdure, preserved to them by means of 
canals, produce abundantly the best cacao, and 
the hills have for some time past been planted with 
coffee, which, to be excellent, only requires a more 
careful preparation. To consider merely the vast 
quantity of fertile land in the neighbourhood of 
Barquisimeto, which can be watered and which 
remains uncultivated, one would be inclined to 
accuse the inhabitants of indolence : but in ex 
tending our views to the plantations of all sorts of 
produce, and to the animals spread over the plains; 
in contemplating too the great difficulty in the 
carriage of merchandize to the sea-ports, the nearest 
and most frequented of which is at a distance of 
50 leagues, one is rather inclined to think favour 
ably of their industry. The city consists of 3300 
persons, who live very comfortably ; the houses 
are well built, the streets in parallel lines, and wide 
enough for the free circulation of air. The paro 
chial church is handsome, and the duty is per 
formed by two curates. A cabildo and a lieute 
nant of the governor perform the functions of the 
police, and of the administration of justice. It is 
80 leagues w. s. w. of Caracas, 150 leagues n. n. e. 
of Santa Fe, and 15 leagues n. e. of Tocuyo.] 
See BAIUQUISIMETO. 

BARK A, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Maracaibo, in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, in the island Pajara, at the mouth of the 
great lake. 

BARRACAN, a settlement of the province and 
government of Buenos Ayres in Peru, situate by 
the bay of its name, at the mouth of the river 
La Plata. 

BARRACAN, a small river of the same province 
and government, which runs n. and enters the 
river La Plata, forming a bay or port, serving as 
a place to take in water for vessels, and likewise 
to give advice of their arrival. It has on its 
shore a watch-tower. 

BARRAGUAN, a very lofty mountain of the 
province and government of Guayana,or Nueva 
Andalucja. It is upon the shore of the Orinoco, 
close to the settlement which belonged to the mis 
sionaries, the regulars of the company of St. 
Joseph de Otomacos. It is said, that after the name 
of this mountain, the Orinoco was anciently called. 

BARRANCA DE MATEO, a settlement of the 
province and government of Santa Marta in the 
kingdom of Tierra Fhme, founded on the shores 
of the grand river of the Magdalena ; is the port 
where are embarked all the goods which arc 



BAR 



brou wlit to and carried from the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. It is 30 leagues n. e. of Cartagena, 
20 from Santa Marta, and six from the sea. 

BARRANCA, another settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Chancay in Peru. 

BARRANCA, another, called Barranca Nueva, 
in the same province and government, situate near 
the sea shore on the s. side. 

BARRANCA, another, called Barranca Vieja, 
in the same province and government, situate 
very near the former, between that and the Bar 
ranca of Yucal. 

BARRANCA, another, or chasm caused by moun 
tain floods, called Del Roy, in the same province 
and government, on (he shore of the river of La 
Mngd;ilena, where there is a port and lading 
place for goods, which are sent in great quantities 
to the Nuevo Reynode Granada* 

BARRANCA, another, also of the same pro 
vince and government, situate in the road which 
leads down to the river of La Magdalena. 

BARRANCA, a river of the province and corre 
gimiento of Chancay in Peru. It rises in the pro- 
Ainceof Caxatambo, and runs into the sea close to 
the settlement of Pativilca. 

BARRANCAS, NUESTRA SHNORA DE Cin- 
QUINQUIRA DL LAS, a settlement of the province 
and government of Barinas, situate on the side of 
a chasm which gives it its name, between the 
rivers Yuca and Masparro. In its district are 
many cultivated estates and forests, which abound 
in cedar and oilier esteemed woods, some cacao 
estates, some of indigo and sugar-cane, and par 
ticularly tobacco, to the cultivation of which the 
natives are much inclined. 

BARRANCAS, another settlement, with the dedi 
catory title of San Joseph, in the province of V r e- 
nczuela, situate on the shore of the river Tiznado. 

BARRANCO, a settlement of the province and 
captains/tip of the Rio Grande in Brazil, situate 
on the shore of the river Caxabatang. 

BARRANQU1LLA, a settlement of the pro 
vince and government of Cartagena in the king 
dom of Tierra Firme, situate on the shore of the 
river Magdalena. 

BARRANQUILLA, another, with the dedicatory 
title of San Nicolas, in the same province and 
government. 

BARRAZO, VALL.E DE, a valley of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the king 
dom of Chile, on the shore of the river Limary. 

[BARRE, a township in Worcester county, 
Massachusetts, containing 1613 inhabitants, 24 
miles n. w. of Worcester, and 66 w. of Boston, 
deriving its name from Col. Barre, a distinguished 



BAR 

member of the British house of commons. This 
town has good pastures, and here are fatted mul 
titudes of cattle, and it is supposed more butter 
and cheese is carried from hence to the market 
annually, than from any other town of the same 
size in the state.] 

[BAR RE, a township in Huntingdon county, 
Pennsylvania.] 

[BARRELL s Sound, on the n. &. coast of 
America, called by the natives Conget-hoi-toi, 
is situated about six leagues frorn the southern 
extremity of Washington or Charlotte islands, in 
a n. w. direction. It has two inlets, one on the e. 
the other on the w. side of the island ; the latter is 
the best, the other is dangerous. The shores are 
of a craggy black rock; the banks lined with 
trees of various kinds, as pines, spruce, hemlock, 
alder, &c. Mr. Hoskins, in the summer of 1791, 
measured one of these trees, which was 10 fathoms 
in circumference. On one side of it a hole had 
been cut, large enough to admit a man; within 
was a spacious and convenient room, which had 
apparently been dug and burnt out with much 
labour. Mr. Hoskins concluded that it must 
have been occasionally inhabited by the natives, 
as he found in it a box, fire-works, dried wood, 
and several domestic utensils. This sound was 
named after Joseph Bar roll, Esq. of Chariest own, 
Massachusetts, and was first visited by Capt. Grey, 
in the Washington, in 1789.] 

[BARREN Creek rises in the n. w. corner of 
Delaware state, runs about nine miles s. w. and 
empties into Nanticoke river. A triangular tract 
of land in the n. part of Somerset county, Mary 
land, is enclosed between this creek on the s. ; 
Delaware state, e. ; and Nanticoke river on the w. 
and n. w.~] 

[BARREN River. Both Big and Little Barren 
rivers are s. e. branches of Green river, in Ken 
tucky. BLUE Spring lies between these rivers, 
which see.] 

[BARRKN island, a small isle in Chesnpeak bay, 
n. e. from the mouth of Patuxent river, which 
is separated from Hooper s island by a narrow 
channel on the e.~\ 

BARRERAS, CABO OK LAS, a cape on the 
coast, which lies between the river La Plata 
and the straits of Magellan, between the bay of San 
Julian and the port of Santa Crnz, in 50 s. lat. 

BARRKRA", a settlement of the province and 
captainship of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil ; situate 
upon the coast, between the rivers Irutiba and 
Taprana. 

BARREROS, a river of the province and cap 
tainship of Espiritu Sunto in Brazil. It is small, 



BAR 



BAR 



147 



rises near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea 
l>et\veen the island Tiburgo, or Tiburon, and the 
isl /id Del Reposo. 

BARRETEROS, SAN SIMON DE LOS, a settle 
ment of the alcaldia mayor and real of the mines 
of Temascaltepec in Nueva Espana, contains 49 
families of Indians, who work the mines with 
small crows or bars of iron ; it is annexed to the 
curacy of its capital, and in its vicinity are two 
cultivated estates, containing 11 families of Spa 
niards and Mustees ; is one league a;, of its head 
settlement. 

BARRETO, a settlement of the province and 
government of Tucuman, situate on the shore of 
the river Dulce. 

BARRETO, another settlement of the province 
and captains/tip of Pariba in the kingdom of 
Brazil, on the shore of the river Aracav. 

[BARRETSTOWN, a plantation "in Hancock 
county, district of Maine, having 173 inhabit 
ants.] 

BARR1NGTON, a township in Queen s county, 
Nova Scotia, on the s. side of the hay of Fundy, 
settled by Quakers from Nantucket island.] 

[BARRINGTON, a township in Strailbrd county, 
N. Hampshire, about 22 miles n. w. from Ports 
mouth, incorporated in 1722, containing 2470 inha 
bitants. Alurn is found here ; and the first ridge 
of the first hills, one of the three inferior summits 
of Agamenticus, is continued through this town. 
Its situation is very healthy ; and 14 of the first 
settlers in 1732 were alive in 1785, who were 
between 80 and 90 years old.] 

[BARRINGTON, a township in Bristol county, 
Rhode Island, on the .v. &. side of the n. zo. branch 
of Warren river, little niore than two miles and a 
half w. w. of Warren, and about seven miles s. e. 
from Fox point, in the town of Providence. It 
contains 683 inhabitants, including 12 slaves.] 

[BARRINGTON, GREAT, is the second town 
ship in rank in Berkshire county, Massachusetts. 
It contains 1373 inhabitants, and lies 140 miles 
a;, from Boston, and s. of Stockbridge, adjoining.] 

BAR ROSA, a lake of the province and govern 
ment of Tucuman, in the jurisdiction of the city of 
Cordova, close to the lakes of Los Porangos. 

[BARROW Harbour is an extensive bay in 
that of Bonavista, Newfoundland island, divided 
by Keel s head on the e. from the port of Bona 
vista, and from Bloody bay on the w. by a large 
peninsula, joined to the island by a narrow isthmus, 
which forms Newman s sound ; which, as well as 
C .ocle sound, are within Barrow harbour.] 

[HART, a port on the s, coast of Nova Scotia.] 



[BART, a township in Lancaster county, Penn~ 
sylvan in.] 

BARTHOLO, a settlement of the province 
and corregimienlo of Porco in Peru, eight leagues 
from Potosi. 

BARTHOLO, another settlement, of the province 
and corregimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of 
Quito, is on the shores of the river Paute, near 
its source, and in the w. part of its district. It has 
an estate called La Borma. 

BARTHOLOME, SAN, a settlement of the 
head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Toluca in 
Nueva Espana. It contains 89 families of In 
dians, and lies at a small distance to the s. of it* 
head settlement. 

BARTHOLOME, SAN, another settlement of the 
head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tepeaca in the 
same kingdom, five leagues distant from its capital. 

BARTHOLOME, SAN, another, of the head settle 
ment of Huatnzca, and alcaldia mayor of Cordova, 
in the same kingdom. It contains 66 families of 
Indians, and is 12 leagues to the n. n. e. of its 
capital. 

BARTHOLOME, SAN, another, of the head settle 
ment of Toxtepec, and alcaldia mayor of Tecali, in 
the same kingdom. It contains 54 families of 
Indians. 

BARTHOLOME, SAV, another, of the head settle 
ment of Taxirnara, and alcaldia mayor of Mara- 
vatio, in the same kingdom, and of the bishopric of 
Mechoacan. It contains 115 families of Indians, 
and is three leagues to the s. of its head settlement. 

BARTHOLOME, SAN, another, of the head settle 
ment of the Rincon,and alcaldiamayor of Maravatio, 
in the same kingdom, and of the bishopric of 
Mechoacan, to the e. of its head settlement. 

BARTHOLOME, SAN, another, of the missions 
which were held by the regulars of the company of 
Jesuits, in the province and government ofMainas 
of the kingdom of Quito, on the shore of the river 
Napo. 

B A RTHOLOMF,S^N, another, of the province and 
government of Antioquia v: the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada, on the shore of th? grand river of La 
Magdalena. 

B A RT n o LOM E, SAN, another, of the province and 
corregimienio of Tunja, in the same kingdom. 

BARTHOLOMF, SAN, another, of the province 
and alcaldia mayor of Zacapula in the kingdom of 
Guatemala. 

BARTIIO; OME, SAN, an island of the N. sea, one 
of the Antilles, inhabited by the French, who es 
tablished themselves here in 1648. It is eight 
leagues in circumference, very fertile in sugar. 
u2 



148 



BAR 



B A S 



cotton, tobacco, cazave, and indigo; is s. of the 
island of St. Martin, and n. of that of St. Chris 
topher. Its trees of the highest estimation are the 
soup or a/or, the calebuck, the canapia^ from which 
a gam of excellent cathartic qualities is extracted, 
and the parolane, the branches of which growing 
downwards, afterwards turn up, thus causing an 
impenetrable barrier or defence to any one at 
tacked. The coast is full of other trees, whicli 
are called marine trees, the branches of which 
entangle themselves one amongst the other. In this 
island breeds the star of the sea, ( estrelln del mar ) ^ 
and the bee of the sea, (abeja del mar), and a 
great variety of birds. There is also found here a 
species of lime-stone, which is carried into the 
other islands. [They have plenty of lignum- vit;e 
and iron wood. Its shores are dangerous, and the 
approaching them requires a good pilot ; but it has 
an excellent harbour, in which ships of any size 
are sheltered from all winds. Half its inhabitants 
are Irish Roman Catholics, whose predecessors 
settled here in 1666 ; the others are French, to 
whom the island lately belonged. It was ceded 
by France to the crown of Sweden in 1785. They 
depend on the skies for wat r, which they keep in 
cisterns. It was a nest for privateers when in the 
hands of the French, and at one time had 50 
British prizes in its harbour. It was for a short 
time possessed by the English, having been taken 
by two privateers of that nation in 1746, but was 
restored to the French by the treaty of Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle. Lat. 17 53 n. Long. 62 54 a?.] 

BAUTHOLOME, SAN, a settlement, with the sur 
name of Valle de, a garrison of the province of Te- 
peguana and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, in which 
reside a captain, lieutenant, ensign, and 27 soldiers. 
Its situation is in a pleasant valley, which gives it 
its name. It is inhabited by more than 500 fami 
lies of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattocs, who 
are agriculturists, and masters of some very con 
siderable and luxuriant estates, in which, by help 
of irrigation, they grow vast crops of wheat, 
maize, &c. In their gardens they have abundance 
of garden herbs, fruit trees of America and of 
Castille, and also vines, of whicli they make much 
wine. In other estates there are considerable herds 
of large and small cattle, and of swine. This 
valley was anciently infested by the extortions, 
murders, and robberies of the infidel Indians, the 
Cocoyoraes ; but this race having been rooted out, 
it enjoys at present a state of tranquillity. Long. 
I04 J 38 . Lat, 27 7 . 

BARTHOLOME, SAN, a river of the province and 
government of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno de 



turning 



valley of Corpus 
enters the Mair- 



c. 



Granada ; it rises near the 
Christi, runs n. and 
dalena. 

BARTHOLOME, SAN, another river, of flic pro 
vince and government of Venezuela ; it rises in the 
province of Cumana, and enters the lake Caicara. 

BARTHOLOME, SAN, a mountain of the province 
and ale a(dia mayor of Tlaxcala in Nueva Espana. 

BARTHOLOME, SAN, a large island of the S. sea, 
discovered in 1525 by Alfonzo de Salazar. [Lat. 
15l5 w. Long. 164 e. SeeNsw HEBRIDES.] 

[BARTHOLOMEW, ST. a parish in Charles- 
town district, S.Carolina, containing 2 138 persons. 
By the census of 1790, it contained 12,606 inha 
bitants, of whom 10,338 were slaves. It sends 
three representatives and one senator to the state 
legislature. Amount of taxes, 1566/. 10s. 4rf. 
sterling.] 

[BARTHOLOMEW, Cape, ST. is the southernmost 
point of Staten Laud in Le Maire straits, at the .?. 
end of S. America, and far surpasses Terra del 
Fuego in its horrible appearance.] 

[BARTLET, a plantation in Hillsborough 
county, New Hampshire, having 248 inhabitants.] 

[BARTON, a township in Orleans county, 
Vermont, formerly in that of Orange, lies s. vs. of 
Brownington, six miles s. w. by w. from Wil- 
loughby lake, and 140 w. e. from Bennington.] 

BARTRAN, a port of the 5. coast of the island 
of Newfoundland, between the two bays of De 
spair atid Fortune. 

BARU, SAN BERNARDO DE, a large island of 
the N. sea, in the province and government of 
Cartagena, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It 
forms a bay which serves as a watering place to 
foreign vessels, from the convenience of its port, 
and from its vicinity to Cartagena. It is well 
peopled, and abounds in fruits and herbs, which 
are carried to supply the city. The water is scarce, 
but wholesome. It is the residence of a curate 
and a lieutenant-governor. 

BAItUCO, SIERRAS DE, a chain of very lofty 
and rugged mountains of the island of St. Do 
mingo, on the *. coast, on a lon^ slip or point of 
land, which runs into the sea in this direction. 

BARUTA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Venezuela, famous for its rich gold 
mines ; these have yielded immensely, but are 
now destroyed. It is three leagues distant from 
Caracas. 

BAS-CHATEAU, a settlement of the English, 
in the province and colony of New York, situate 
on the shore of the river Schoharie. 

BASILIO, SAN, a settlement of the province 



B A S 

and government of Cartagena in the kingdom of 
Tierra Firme. situate in the mountains of the dis 
trict of Maria, near the channel of the dike (cano 
del dique). It is one of the new settlements 
which were founded in 1776 by the Governor 
Don Juan tie Pimienta. 

[BASIN OF MINAS is a body of water of con 
siderable extent and irregular form, situated in 
Nova Scotia, at the e. end of the bay of Fundy, 
and connected with its n. e. branch by a short and 
narrow strait. The country on its banks is gene 
rally a rich soil, and is watered by many small 
rivers. The spring tides rise here 40 feet.] 

[BASKINRIDGE, in Somerset county, New 
Jersey, lies on the w. side of a n. w. branch of 
Passaic river, nearly six miles n. e. from Pluc- 
kemin, and seven s. s. w. from Morristown. It 
was here that Colonel Harcourt surprised and made 
a prisoner of General Lee, December 13, 1776.] 

BASOCHUCA, a settlement and real of mines, 
of the province and government of La Sonora in 
Nueva Espana. 

BASON, a small river of the land or country 
of Labrador. It runs s. and enters the river St. 
Lawrence. 

[BASO\ Harbour lies on the e. side of lake 
Cliamplain, in the township of Ferrisburgh, Ver 
mont, four miles and a half s. a?, from the mouth 
of Otter creek.] 

BASQUE, S . a bay on the n. coast of Royal 
island, or Cape Breton, between the bay of Idiot 
and the river Salmon. 

BASQUES, Rio DR, a river in the province 
and government of Costa-rica in the kingdom of 
Guatemala. It rises near the coast of the N. sea, 
runs w. and enters the sea between the rivers An- 
zuclos and Matina. 

[BASS Harbour, district of Maine, a harbour of 
Massachusetts, Desert island, seven miles from 
Soil cove.] 

[BAS^E-TERRE, the chief town in the island 
of St. Christopher s in the West Indies, situated at 
the s. c. end of the island. It consists of a long 
street along the sea shore ; is a place of consider 
able trade, the seat of government, and is defended 
by three batteries. Lat. 17 17 n. Long. 62 
46 s?.] 

BASSF.-TERRE, FORT DE I.A, a castle of the 
island of Guadalupe, situate on the w. const, on 
the shore of the bay of Gallion, and of the river 
Herbes. [This is also the name of a part of the 
same island, between a point of which, called Grosse 
Morne, to that of Antigua in the Grande Terre, 
tlic basin called the Great Cul de Sac is five or 



BAT 



149 



six leagues in length, wherein is safe riding for 
ships of all rates.] 

BASSE V1LLE, a settlement of the province 
and colony of N. Carolina, situate on the shore of 
the river Chio. 

BASTIMENTOS, a port formed by some 
islands of the coast of Tierra Firme, by the side 
of that of Portovelo. It serves as a watering place 
for vessels carrying on an illicit commerce. These 
islands are very near the coast, being not further 
off th;tn 500 paces. They are two of them large, 
and the other so small as indeed rather to deserve 
the name of a rock : inasmuch as they are barren 
they are not inhabited, but they nevertheless afford 
convenient shelter to vessels in distress, as hap 
pened in the case of the English Admiral Hosier, 
with his squadron, and to cruisers in the time 
of war. [It is a very unhealthy station, and proved 
fatal to the grealer part of the crews of Admiral 
Hosier s fleet.] The bottom of the straits lying be 
tween these islands and the shore is extremely 
level and good, and the islands abound in fi:ie 
timber. 

BASYILLE, a city of Hispaniola, or St. Do 
mingo, in the French possessions. It has a con 
venient and capacious port. 

BAT, a settlement of the province and colony of 
N. Carolina, in the district and upon the shore of 
the river Pamticoe. 

[BATABANO, a town on the s. side of the 
island of Cuba in the West Indies, situated on the 
side of a large bay, opposite Pinos isles, and about 
50 miles s.u\ from the Havannah.] 

BATACAO, a settlement of the province and 
government of Merida in the Nuevo Reyno, 
situate in the road which leads down to Maracaibo. 

BATACOSA, a settlement of the missions which 
were held by the regulars of the company of Jesu 
its, in the province of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana. 

BATAND, a cape of the s. coast of the island 
of Newfound In ml . It is the extremity which 
looks to the zo. close to Race cape. 

BATAVANO, a port of the island of Cuba, on 
the s. side, suited only for small vessels, for the de 
fence of which it has a battery manned by a guard 
which is sent from the Havannah, from whence it 
is 14 leagues distant, being separated by a plain 
and beautiful road, made at the expence of the 
commercial company of that city, and covered 
vrith lime tret s. 

[B ATA VI A, a settlement in New York, at the 
head of Schoharie creek, about 39 miles from its 
mouth, and 38 s. &. from Albany, and as far . tc 1 . 
of Esopus.] 



150 



BAT 



BATCHOUEN, a small island of the coast of 
the river St. Lawrence, in the country of Labra 
dor, opposite the island St. Anticosti, and between 
that of Geniveve and the point of .Esquimaux. 

BATECA, a settlement of the government and 
jurisdiction of Pamplona in the Nuevo Rev no de 
Granada. It is also called Vallede las Angustias, 
awl.cornmonly Do los Locos. Its situation is in a 
hollow : the country is mild, pleasant, and fertile, 
abounding in sugar-cane, maize, cotton, plantains, 
and in mounts of oranges and other fruits. In its 
church is venerated an image of the Virgin, paint 
ed on linen ; and the tradition goes that it renews 
its colours, whenever they fade, in a miraculous 
manner ; and on account of this image the settle 
ment is frequently visited by foreigners and reli 
gious devotees. It is 12 leagues to the e. of Pam 
plona; the road all around it is very bad, but there 
is nevertheless a short cut to it through a rocky 
pass. 

BATEPITO, a settlement of the province and 
government of La Sonora in Nueva Espana. 

BATEQU1, a settlement of the province and 
government of La Sonora in Nueva Espana, 
situate near the coast of the gulph of California, or 
Mar Roxo de Cortes, opposite the large island of 
the Angel de la Guarda. 

BATEROS, a settlement of the province and 
government of Antioquia in the Nuevo Key no de 
Granada, situate between two mountains. 

[BATH, a township of Lincoln county, district 
of Maine, containing 949 inhabitants. It lies on 
the a\ side of Kennebeck river, about 13 miles 
from Wiscasset, GO n.e. from Portland, 32 from 
Ilallowell, 13 from Pownalborough, and 165 n, e. 
from Boston. Lat. 43 52 .] 

[BATH, a county of Virginia, about GO miles in 
length, and 50 in breadth ; bounded e. by the 
counly of Augusta. It is noted tor its medicinal 
springs, called the Hot and Warm springs, near the 
foot of JACKSON S Mountain, which see.] 

[BATH, a thriving town in Berkley county, Vir 
ginia, situated at the foot of the Warm Spring 
mountain. The springs in the neighbourhood of 
this town, although less efficacious than the Warm 
springs in Bath county, draw upwards of 1000 
people here during summer from various parts of 
the United States. The water is little more than 
milk-warm, and weakly impregnated with minerals. 
The country in the environs is agreeably diversi 
fied with hills and valleys ; the soil rich and in 
good cultivation. Twenty-five miles from Mar- 
tinsburgh. and 269 miles s. w. from Philadel 
phia. ] 



BAT 

[BATH, a township in Grafton county, New 
Hampshire, containing 493 inhabitants. It lies on 
the e. bank of Connecticut river. Thirty-five 
miles n. e. by n. from Dartmouth college, and 97 
n. w. from Portsmouth.] 

[BATH, or PORT BATH, an ancient town in Hyde 
county, N. Carolina, on the w. side of Tar river, 
about 24 miles from Pamplico sound, 61 s. by w. 
of Edenton, and in the port of entry on Tar river. 
It contains about 12 houses, and is rather de 
clining.] 

[BATH, a village in the e. parish of St. Tho 
mas, in the island of Jamaica in the West In 
dies. It has its rise and name from a famous hot 
spring in its vicinity, said to be highly efficacious 
in curing the dry belly-ache. The water is sul 
phureous, and flows out of a rocky mountain about 
one mile distant, and is too hot to admit a hand be 
ing held in it.] 

[BATH, a village in the county of Renssalacr, 
New York, pleasantly situated on the e. bank of 
Hudson s river, nearly opposite the city of Albany, 
at the head of sloop navigation. A mineral spring 
has been discovered here, said to possess valuable 
qualities; and a commodious bathing-house has 
been erected, at a considerable expence, contain 
ing hot, cold, and shower baths.] 

[BATH, a thriving post town in New York, 
Steuben county, of about 50 houses, situate on 
the n. bank of Corihocton creek, a 77. head-water 
of Tioga river ; 42 miles s. e. from Williams- 
burg, on Chenesse river, 18 w. w. from the Painted 
post, 120 from Niagara, 59 w. from Geneva, 
and 221 w. of Hudson city. Lat. 42 13 n. 
Long. 77 28 w.] 

I3ATHTOWN, a small settlement of the coun 
ty of Craven in N. Carolina, situate on the shore 
of the river Pantejo, in lat. 35 30 n. and long. 
7G 10 a>. 

BATISCAN, a river of Canada. It runs from 
the lake of Santa Cruz, in the country of the Al- 
gonovins Indians, runs s. and enters the river St. 
Lawrence. 

[BATOBY, a town of the province and go- 
ment of Buenos Ayres, situate in Lat.. 30 36 . 
Long. 54 46 24" a>.] 

BATOPILAES, a settlement of the province 
and government of Nueva Vizcaya in Nueva 
Espana. 

[BATOPILAS, SAN PEDRO DE, a settlement 
of the intendancy of Durango in the kingdom of 
Nueva Espana, formerly celebrated for the great 
wealth of its mines, to the w. of the Rio de Con- 
chos. Its population is 8000 souls.] 



B A X 

BATSO, a settlement of the English in the 
island of Barbadoes, of the jurisdiction of the city 
of Bridgetown. 

[BATTEN Kill, a small river which rises in 
Vermont, and after running n. and n. w. about 
SO miles, falls into Hudson, near Saratoga.] 

[BATTLE River, in New South Wales, runs 
n. e. into Saskahawen river, s. e. from Manches 
ter house. Its course is short.] 

BATUBA, a river of the province and cap- 
iamship of Maranan in Brazil. 

BATUCO, a settlement of the province and 
government of La Sonora in Nueva Espana. 
3 [BAULEM S Kill, a western water of Hudson 
river, ei<rht miles and a half below Albany.] 

BAlJRES, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito. It rises 
w. of the mountain Tiririco, runs n. many leagues, 
and then turning a little to the n. n. w.. enters with 
a large stream into the Itenes, and in the midst 
of its course forms a lake. 

BAURIGAME, a settlement of the missions 
which were held by the regulars of the company 
of Jesuits, in the province of Topia, of the king 
dom of Nueva Vizcaya. 

BAUROS, a barbarous nation, anciently can 
nibals, of the province of Moxos, to the e. n. e. of 
Santa Cruz de la Sierra, dwelling on some large 
plains, which have the rivers Guazimire to the e . 
and Iraibi to the w. These plains are very fertile, 
though, on account of their dampness, unhealthy. 
This nation was discovered by the Father Cipriano 
Barrera, of the company of Jesuits, in J701, 
when he lost his life at their hands. The mission 
aries, however, continued their labours here until 
the year 1767. 

BAURUM, or BAURUMA, a river of the pro 
vince and government of Guayana. It rises in 
the serrania of Imataca, and enters the sea on the 
e. coast. 

BALJYA, SAN ANTONIO BUCARELI DE LA, 
a settlement and garrison of the province of Coa- 
guila, established by the viceroy of Nueva Es 
pana, Don Antonio Bucareli, who gave it his 
name in 1776. 

BAXA, PUNTA, a point on the s. coast of the 
strait of Magellan, at the entrance of the second 
narrow pass called La Barranca de S. Simon. 

[BAXADA, a town of the province and go 
vernment of Buenos Ayres, situate on the Parana 
near Sante Fe, on the opposite side of the river, 
in Lat, 31 44 15". Long. 60 44 30" w.l 

BAXANE8, orBAXANAS, a [jort of the island 
of Cuba, on the n. coast, between the bay of 
Xavara and the river of Las Palraas. 



BAY 



151 



[BAXOS DE BABUCA. See ABROJOS.] 

[BAY OF FRI-.SH WATER, in the n. part of 
the gulph of Mexico, lies 5. of Ascension bay.] 

[BAY OF FUND v washes the shores of the 
British provinces of New Brunswick on the n. 
and Nova Scotia on the e. and s. This bay is 12 
leagues across, from the gut of Annapolis to St. 
John s, the principal town of New Brunswick. 
The tides are very rapid in this bay, and rise at 
Annapolis basin about 30 feet ; at the basin of 
Minas, which may be termed the n. arm of this 
bay, 40 feet; and at the head of Chignecto chan 
nel, an arm of this bay, the spring tides rise 60 
feet. See FUNDY.] 

[BAY DE ROCHE FENDE lies on the w. side of 
lake Champlain, and in the state of New York, 
17 miles above Crown point.] 

BAY OF ISLANDS lies on the w. side of New 
foundland island, in the gulph of St. Lawrence. 
This bay is very extensive, having three arms, by 
which several rivers empty into it. It has several 
islands, the chief of which are called Harbour, 
Pearl, and Tweed.] 

[BAY OF ST. Louis, on the Labrador coast, 
has cape St. Louis on ihe n. and cape Charles on 
s. It hns many small islands, the largest of which 
is Battle island, in the mouth of the bay.] 

BAYACONI, a settlement of the province and 
government of La Sonora in Nueva Espana. 

BAYAGOULAS, a settlement of Indians of 
the province and government of Louisiana, situate 
on the shore of the river Mississippi, between this 
and the lake Ovachas. 

BAYAGUANA, a settlement of the island of 
St. Domingo, situate at the source of the river 
Macoris, and in the middle of the e. head of the 
island. 

BAYALA, a river of the island of St. Domingo. 
It rises near the n. coast, and the settlement of 
Dondori, in the limits of the French possessions 
in that part ; it runs s. s. e. and enters the 
Neiva. On its shores are established two bodies 
of guards, who are called De la Angostura, and 
Del Pie del Indio, as a warning to the French 
not to penetrate farther in that part. 

BAYAMO, a town of the island of Cuba, 
founded by Diego Velasqucs. It is of a good 
temperature, and abounds in vegetable productions, 
especially tobacco. It has a large and handsome 
church, a convent of monks of St. Francis, an 
hospital, with the title of La Misericordia , and a 
school tor studies, founded by Francisro Parada. 
Twenty-five leagues from Santiago de Cuba. 

[BAYAMO, a town in the "e. part of the 
island of Cuba, having the town of Almo w. and 



B A Z 



St. Barbara on the s. It lies on the e. side of 
Kstero river, about 20 miles from the sea.] 

[BAYAMO Channel, in the island of Cuba, 
rims between the numerous small islands and rocks 
called Jardin de la Reyna, on (he n. w. and the 
shoals, and rocks which line the coast on the s. e. 
side of it, from the bold point called Cabo de 
Cruz. This channel leads to the bay of Estero, 
which receives two rivers ; the southernmost of 
which leads to the town of Bayamo.] 

BAYANA, a small port of the island of Cuba, 
on the n. n. e. coast, and in the e. head, between 
those of Sebasos and Taragua. 

BAYAJNO, a large river of the kingdom of 
Tierra Firme, in the province and government of 
Panama. It rises in the province of Darien, and 
runs 26 leagues from e. to w. afterwards to n. n.ro. 
and then s. emptying itself into the sea, opposite 
the island of Chepillo, 8 leagues from the bay of 
Panama ; and gathering in its course the waters 
of many other rivers, it is thereby at length navi 
gable by large vessels. It takes its name from a 
fugitive Negro slave, who having fled to the 
mountains, was joined by a number of unhappy 
creature s who were in the snme condition of life as 
himself. These in time began to treat the Spa 
niards so cruelly, whenever, in their rencounters, 
they happened to meet with them, that the Mar 
quis de Cafiete, viceroy of Peru, was under the 
necessity of giving orders, with the sanction of the 
court, to Captain Pedro de Ursua, to destroy and 
chastise these enemies ; which orders were com 
pletely executed, after a tedious and difficult 
campaign in 155.3; and the memory of this suc 
cess is perpetuated by the name of the river. Its 
mouth is in Long. 78 55 . Lat. 9 3 . 

BAYAS, a settlement and asiento of the mines 
of the alca/dia mayor of Guanajuato in Nueva 
Espaiia, of the province and bishopric of Me- 
choacan. 

BAY E, Gw AND, a large bay of the island of 
Guadalupe, on the n. coast, between the island 
of Cochon and that ot Los Diamantes. 

BAYO, a small river of the province and go 
vernment of Buenos Ayres, which runs s. and 
enters the Tepuonga. 

[BAYNET, a town and bay on the .?. side of the 
island of St. Domingo, 4| leagues from Petit 
Goave, on the n. side of the island. It is about 
eight leagues w. of Jackmel. Lat. 18 17 .] 

BAZARACA, a settlement of the missions 
which were held by the regulars of the company 
of Jesuits, in the province and government of La 
Sonora in Nueva Espaiia. 



B E A 

BEACH, a small island of the province and 
colony of New Jersey. 

[BEACH Fork, a branch of Salt river, which 
rises in Nelson county, Kentucky. A fine clay 
is found on this river, which might, it is thought, 
be manufactured into good porcelain.] 

BEACON, a point on the s. coast of the island 
of Jamaica, between the point or cape Yallah 
and Port Royal. 

[BEALSBURG, a small town in Nelson county, 
Kentucky, on the e. bank of Rolling Fork, whick 
contains 20 houses, as also a tobacco warehouse. 
It is 15 miles tc.s.ze. of Bairdstown, 50 s. w. of 
Frankfort, and 890 from Philadelphia.] 

BEAR, a small river of the province and colony 
of Nova Scotia. It runs w. and enters the sea in 
the port of Annapolis real. 

[BEAU Cove lies on the e. side of the s. e. 
corner of Newfoundland island, at the head of which 
is the settlement of FORMOSE, which see. Re- 
neau s rocks lie between Bear cove and Fresh 
Water bay on the s. 52 miles n. from cape 
Race.] 

[BEAR GRASS Creek, a small creek on the e. 
side of Ohio river, a few hundred yards w. of the 
town of Louisville in Kentucky. This is the spot 
where the intended canal is proposed to be cut to 
the upper side of the Rapids. From the mouth 
of the creek to the upper side of the Rapids, is 
not quite two miles. This would render the 
navigation of the Ohio safe and easy. The coun 
try on the sides of this creek, between Salt river 
and Kentucky river, is beautiful and rich. See 
RAPIDS OF THE OHIO.] 

[BEAR Lake, GREAT, in the n. w. part of N. 
America, lies near the Arctic circle, and sends a 
river a w. s. w. course.] 

[BEAR Lake, BLACK, in New South Wales, 
lies in lat. 55 50 n. long. 105 40 w. It lies 
n. w* from Cumberland House.] 

[BEAR Lake, WHITE, lies due w. from an 
other small lake called Bear lake, both in lat. 46 
38 n. and the long, of the former is 96 w. These 
are said to give rise to the Mississippi river.] 

[BrAR Town, in Caroline county, Maryland, 
lies about seven miles n. from Greensburgh, and 
about 15 s. e. from Chester town.] 

[BEAR Creek, a water of Tennessee river. See 
OCCOCHAPPO.] 

[BEARDSTOWN. See BAIRDSTOWN.] 

JBEATA, CABO DE LA, a point of the island of 
St. Domingo, on the s. coast, and running a great 
way into the sea. It is 85 leagues from the city 
of St. Domingo. Long. 71 18 . Lat. 17 42 . 



B E A 

BEATA, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Maracaibo. It rises n. of the city of 
Gibraltar, runs w. and enters the Great lake. 

BCATA, a small island close to the s. coast of 
the island of St. Domingo, and opposite the point 
of its name. 

BEAUCIIESNE, a desert island of the sea 
of Magellan, which took its name from a French 
captain, who arrived here in the year 1701. 
Some believe it to be one of the Malviri isles. It 
lies 5. of the Sibaldes isles, almost in front of the 
t. moutli of the strait of Magellan, from which it 
is 152 leagues distant. 

BEAUER, an island of the lake Michigan in 
New Prance, or Canada, opposite the Grand 
bay. 

BEAUFORT, a city of the island of Port 
Royal, in the county of Granville, of the province 
and colony of Carolina, is small, but pleasantly 
situate, fertile, and rich. The English, after the 
separation of their colonies, made this the capital 
of the province, from the convenience of its port, 
and owing to its affording an harbour for their 
squadrons. It is 50 miles from Purrisburg, and 
45 from Charlestown, to the s. w. [The courts 
which were formerly held here, are now removed 
to the town of Coosawhatchie, on the river. It is 
a little pleasant town of about 60 houses, and 200 
inhabitants, who are distinguished for their hos 
pitality and politeness. It has a fine harbour, 
and bids lair to become a considerable town, 
and is noted for its healthy situation. Lat. 32 
SO n. Long. 80 46 a?.] 

BEAUFOBT, a settlement of Georgia, situate on 
an island at the mouth of the river Consuhatche, 
or Port Royal. 

[BEAUFORT, a sea-port town in Carterct county, 
cm the n. e. side of Core sound, and district of 
New Bern, N. Carolina. It contains about 20 
houses, a couit-house and goal, and the county 
courts are held here. It is 55 miles s. by e. of 
New Bern, and about 27 from cape Lookout.] 

[BEAUFORT District, in the lower country of 
S. Carolina, lies on the sea-coast, between Com- 
bahee and Savannah rivers. It is 69 miles in 
length, and 37 in breadth, and is divided into 
four parishes, viz. St. Helena, St. Luke, Prince 
William, and St. Peter, which contain 18,753 
inhabitants, of whom only 4346 are whites. The 
northern, part of this district abounds with large 
forests of cypress ; the lands, however, are fit for 
raising rice, indigo, &c. It sends 12 representa 
tives and four senators to the state legislature ; 
each parish sending an equal number. Amount 
of taxes, 3022/. 2s. Lid. sterling.] 

VOL. I. 



B E B 



BEAUGENDRE, a river of the island of 
Guadalupe. It rises in the w. mountains of La 
Basse Terre, runs ts. and enters the sea between 
the rivers Potel and La A nee de la Barque. 
^ BEAUHARNOIS, a port of Canada, in lake 
Superior. 

BEAUMONT, a settlement of Canada, situate 
on the shore of the river St. Lawrence, 10 leagues 
from the capital of Quebec. 

BEAUSEJOIR, a settlement and fort of the 
English in Nova Scotia, on the shore of the most 
interior part of the bay of Funrly. 

[BEAVER Creek runs inio lake Erie at its 
e. end, about seven miles s. e. from fort Erie.] 

[BLAVER Creek, B.G, falls into the Aileghany 
river, after having received several branches from 
the n.e. about 28 miles n. w. from Pittsburg, 
It rises in the s. runs n. about six miles, thence 
n. e. 12 more to the Salt lick town, then past 
the Mahoning town and Salt springs, 34 miles 
s. c. to the Kishkush town, from which to 
its mouth is 22 miles s. : in all about 74 
miles.] 

[BEAVER Dam, a township in Pennsylvania, 
on the 02. side of Susquehannah river. See NOR 
THUMBERLAND County.] 

[BEAVER Kill is a s. e. arm of the Popachton 
branch of the Delaware. Its mouth is 17| miles 
e. from the Cook house, and 24| n. a\ from Kush*- 
ichton falls.] 

[BEAVER Lake, in New South Wales, lies in 
about lat. 54 30 . and long. 102 10 w. A 
little w. e. from it is the source of Churchill river ; 
s. e. from it is Cumberland house, on Grass river, 
which has communication by lakes with Nelson 
river; s. w. of it is Saskashawen river, on which, 
towards its head, area number of houses belong 
ing to the Hudson s bay company.] 

[BFAVEK S Town, at Tuskarawas, lies be 
tween Margaret s creek, an upper n. zo. branch of 
Muskingum river, and the n. branch of that river; 
at the head of which n. branch there is only a 
mile s portage to Cayahoga river. Beaver s town 
lies about 85 miles n. w. from Pittsburg. A little 
below this, a fort was erected in 1764.] 

[BEAZA, the chief town of the district of 
Quixos, in the province of Quito in Peru, and 
the residence of the governor. It was built in 
1559 by Don Rameirod Avilos. The chief ma 
nufacture here is cotton cloth.] 

BEBARA, SAN ANTONIO DE, a settlement of 
the province and government of Choco in the 
^kingdom of Tierra Firme, situate on the shore of 
the river of its name. 

BEBARA, the river which rises in the great 



154 



BED 



sierras of the same province, runs w. and enters 
the Atrato. 

BECAUAS, a barbarous nation inhabiting the 
forests to the w. of tlue river Aguarico. It is very 
numerous, and is continually at war with the En- 
cabellados. 

BECI1AI, a small river of the province and go 
vernment of Paraguay. It runs s. and enters the 
Uruguay, between the rivers Igau and Ibicuy. 

[BECKET, a township in Berkshire county, 
Massachusetts, containing 751 inhabitants. It is 
10 miles c. of Stockbridgc, 17 from Lenox, and 
130 w. from Boston.] 

BECOYA, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. 
It runs nearly due s. from n. parallel to that of 
Carnboya, and enters the Napo. 

BECOYA, an island of the N. sea. It is one 
of the Lesser Antillas, situate to then, of Gra 
nada. 

[BEDE Point is the eastern cape at the mouth 
of Cook s river, on the n. w. coast of N. Ame 
rica.] 

BLDEC, a settlement of the island of St. 
John, in the province and colony of Nova Scotia, 
situate on the w. coast, and in the strait formed 
with that coast. 

BEDFORD, a province and county of Vir 
ginia. [It is separated from that of Amherst on 
the n. by James river ; lias Campbell e. Botetourt 
t. and Franklin county on the s. It is 34 miles 
long, 25 broad, and contains 10,531 inhabitants, 
including 2754 slaves. It has a good soil, and is 
agreeably diversified with hills and valleys. In 
some parts chalk and gypsum have been discover 
ed. Its chief town is New London.] 

[BEDFORD, a township in Hillsborough county, 
New Hampshire, which was incorporated in 1750, 
and contains 898 inhabitants. It lies on the w. 
bank of Merrirnack river, 56 miles w. of Ports 
mouth.] 

[BEDFORD, a township in Middlesex county, 
Massachusetts, containing 523 inhabitants, 13 
miles n. from Boston.] 

[BEDFORD, NMV, is a flourishing town in 
B ristol county in fi so same state, containing 3313 
inhabitants, 58 miL s s. of Boston. It lies at 
the head of navigation on Accushnet river. Lat. 
40 35 n.~] 

[BEDFORD, a township in W. Chester county, 
"New York, containing 2470 inhabitants, includ 
ing 38 slaves. It lies contiguous to Connecticut, 
12 miles n. from Long island sound, and 35 from 
the city of New York. In the state census of 
T796, there appears to be 302 electors.] 



BEG 

[BEDFORD, a town on the tz>; end of Long 
island, New York, four miles n. w. from Jamaica 
bay, and six e. from the city of New York.] 

[BEDFORD, a village near the Georgia side of 
Savannah river, four miles above Augusta.] 

[BEDFORD County, in Pennsylvania, lies on 
Juniatta river ; has part of the state of Maryland 
on the s. and Huntingdon county n. and n. e. It 
contains 13,124 inhabitants, including 46 slaves; 
and has one half of its lands settled, and is divided 
into nine townships. Its chief town, Bedford, 
lies on the 5. side of Raystown branch of the same 
river, 25 miles e. of Berlin, and 210 w. of 
Philadelphia. It is regularly laid out, and the 
inhabitants, who live in 41 log houses and nine of 
stone, have water conveyed in wooden pipes to 
a reservoir in the middle of the town. They have 
a stone gaol; the market-house, court-house, and 
record-office, are built of brick. Bedford was 
incorporated in 1795, and their charter is similar 
to that of Chester. Lat. 40 n. Long. 78 32 
w.l 

[BED1ES. These are Indians of N. America, 
dwelling on the Trinity river, about 60 miles 
to the .9. of Nacogdoches ; have JOO men, are 
good hunters for deer, which are very large, 
and plenty about them ; plant, and make good 
crops of corn; their language differs from all 
other, but they speak Caddo ; are a peaceable, 
quiet people, and have an excellent character for 
their honesty and punctuality.] 

[BEDM1NSTER, in Somerset county, New 
Jersey, is a township containing 1197 inhabitants, 
including 169 slaves.] 

[BEfiF Island, one of the Smaller Virgin 
islands in the W. Indies, situated between Dog 
island on the w. and Tortula on the c. It is about 
five miles long and one broad, in Sir Francis 
Drake s bay.] 

BEEKE, a settlement of the island ofB.arba* 
does, in the parish and district of St. George, 
near the e. coast, and at the s. extremity of the 
same. 

[BEEKMAN, a considerable township in 
Duchess county, New York, containing 3597 
inhabitants, including 106 slaves. In the state 
census of 1796, there appears to be 502 electors in 
this township.] 

BEETLE, a settlement of the island oFBarba- 
does, in the parish and district of St. George^ situ 
ate upon the e. coast. 

BEF1EN, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Arica in Peru, annexed to tlie 
curacy of Copta. 

BEGA, a settlement of the province and go- 



B E J 

rernment of Venezuela in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, situate near the coast, in the district of 
Caracas, from whence it is distant six leagues to 
the s. 5 to the s. w. 

BEGON, a lake of Canada, formed by "the 
drains of those of St. Peter and Miskouaikane, in 
the country of the Chemonchovanistcs Indians. 

[BEH RING S Bay, on the n. w. coast of N. 
America, is separated from Admiralty bay on 
the n. by a point of land, and lies n. w. from 
Cross sound. See ADMIRALTY Bay.] 

[BEHRING S Straits, separate Asia from Ame 
rica, are so called from the Russian navigator, 
Captain Behring, who, with Tshirikow, sailed 
from Kamptschatka in Siberia, on the Asiatic 
coast, in quest of the new world, in a quarter 
where it had perhaps never been approached. 
They both discovered land within a few degrees 
of the n. w. coast of America. But the more re 
cent discoveries of Captain Cook, and his succes 
sor, Clarke, have confirmed the near approxima 
tion of the two continents. Cape Prince of Wales 
is the most westerly point of the American conti 
nent hitherto known. It is situated in lat. 65 
46 n. long. 168 15 e. and is 39 miles distant 
from the e. coast of Asia. The sea, from the 
s. of Behring s straits, to the crescent of isles be 
tween Asia and America, is very shallow. It 
deepens from these straits (as the British seas do from 
Dover) till soundings are lost in the Pacific ocean, 
but that does not take place but to the s. of the 
isles. Between them and the straits is an increase 
from 12 to 54 fathoms, except only off St. Thad- 
deus Noss, where there is a channel of greater 
depth. From the volcanic disposition, it has been 
fudged probable, not only that there was a separa 
tion of the continents at these straits, but that the 
whole space from the isles to that small opening 
had once been dry land ; and that the fury of the 
watery element, actuated by that of fire, had, in 
very remote times, subverted and overwhelmed 
the tract, and left the islands to serve as monumen 
tal fragments. The famous Japanese map places 
some islands seemingly within these straits, on 
which is bestowed the title of Ya Zue, or the 
Kingdom of the Dwarfs. This gives some reason 
to suppose that America was not unknown to the 
Japanese ; and that they had, as is mentioned by 
Kav. pfer and Charlevoix, made voyages of dis 
covery ; and, according to the last, actually 
wintered upon the continent, where probably 
meeting with the Esquimaux, they might, in 
comparUon of themselves, and justly, distinguish 
them by the name of dwarfs.] 

BEJIREQUE, a settlement of the province 



BEL 



155 



and government of Cartagena, situate on one of 
the islands which are formed by the river Cauca. 
It is four leagues n. n. zo. of the city of Zimiti. 

BEJUCAL, a small city, but beautifully and 
well situate in the island of Cuba, is of a good 
temperature, fertile, and abounding in fruits and 
cattle, particularly in tobacco, of which it has 
considerable crops. It belongs to the domain and 
lordship of the Marquises of San Felipe and San 
tiago, who reside in the Havannah, from whence 
it is divided by a level and agreeable road, and is 
seven leagues distant. 

[BEKIA, or BBCOUYA, or BOQUIO, a small 
British island among the Granadillas, 55 miles 
n. e. of Granada, and 65 leagues from Barbadoes. 
It was called Little Martinico by the French, and 
has a safe harbour from all winds, but no fresh 
water. It is only frequented by those who catch 
turtle. The soil produces wild cotton, and plenty 
of water melons.] 

BELADERO, PLJNTA DEL, a point on the 
coast of Cartagena, of the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, near Santa Marta, where there is a small 
fort and a watch-tower, for the purpose of giving 
notice when vessels appear, and this is done by 
striking a bell fixed there for the purpose. 

[BELCHER, a township in Hampshire coun 
ty, Massachusetts, containing 1485 inhabitants, 
who subsist chiefly by farming. It lies 12 miles e. 
of Hartley, and 85 w. of Boston.] 

BELEN, a settlement of the province and cor- 
refrimiento o[ Carangasin Peru, of the archbishopric 
of Charcas, annexed to the curacy of that of 
Andamarca. 

BLLEN, another, in the province and corregi- 
miento of Porco, also of the archbishopric of 
Charcas and kingdom of Peru. It has a celebrat 
ed sanctuary, whither numbers of people repair in 
October. 

BELEN, another, of the province and corregi- 
miento of Lucanas in the same kingdom, annex 
ed to the curacy of Cahuanca. 

BELEN, another, of the province and corregi- 
miento of Paria in the same kingdom, annexed to 
the curacy of Toledo. 

BELEN, another, of the province and akaldia 
mayor of Ostimuri in Nueva Espaiia, situate at 
the mouth of the river Hiaqui, and at the point 
of Lobos, in the gulf of California. 

BKLEN, another, of the province and corregi- 
niiento of Ornasuyos in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Achacache. 

B;LEJV, a town, with the dedicatory title of 
Nuestra Senora, in the province and government 
of Paraguay, on the shore of the river of this name. 

x 2 



B E I, 



at the mouth of the river Ipane-guazu, in Lat. 23 
26 17" TO. Long. !>7 8 a\] 

BE LENT), a river of the province of TMacas in 
the kingdom of Quito. It rises at the foot of the 
Paramo of Sangay, runs from w. to e. and enters 
the C ura ray, or rather changes its name here before 
it enters the Napo. 

[BELEZ, a city of New Grenada, Tierra Firme, 
S. America.] 

[BELFAST, a township and bay in Hancock 
county, district of Maine, both situated in what is 
called the WaUlo patent, at the mouth of Penob- 
scot river and on its 10. side ; 38 miles n. e. by e. 
from Nallowell, and 246 n. e. from Boston. The 
town contains 215 inhal)itants. The bay, on the 
n. zo. part of which the town stands, runs up into 
the land by three short arms. Isleborough island lies 
in the middle of it, and forms two channels leading 
to the month of Penobscot river. 

[BELGRADE, a township in Lincoln county, 
district of Maine, incorporated in Feb. 1796. It 
was formerly called Washington plantation. It 
lies w. of Sidney, and between Androscoggin and 
Kennebeck rivers.] 

[BELHAVEN, the former name of Alexan 
dria, in FAIIIFAX County, Virginia, which see. It 
lies 14- miles n. e. of Colchester, 86 s. w. of Win 
chester, SO o>. of Annapolis, and 2 14 s. w. of Phi 
ladelphia.] 

BELII7LE, a settlement of the province and 
corregtmiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru, situate on 
the shore of the river Apurirnac. 

[BELIM, or PA HA, a town in Brazil. See 
PA HA.] 

BELL, a point on the e. coast of the island 
of Barbadoes, between the point of Consets and 
Baker bay. 

BELT,, a settlement of the same island, in the 
parish and district of St. George. 

BELLA, POBLACIOV, a settlement of the pro 
vince and captainship of Los Ilheos in Brazil, on 
the sea-shore, and close to the port called Bello, 
which is formed by the mouth of the river Dulce. 

BELLACO, ARROYO, a small river of the 
province and government of Buenos Ayres. It 
runs w. and enters the Uruguay, between the 
rivers Negro and Santa Rosa. 

BELLACON, a small river of the prorince 
and captainship of Rey in Brazil. It runs s. and 
enters the Jacuaron. 

[BELLA1RE, a post-town near the centre of 
Hartbrd county, Varyland, and the chief of the 
county. It contains a court-house and gaol, and is 
tliinJy inhabited ; distant from Harford 6 miles 

2 



BEL 

n. w. 29 n. e. from Baltimore, and 86 o>. s. w. 
from Philadelphia.] 

BELLA VISTA, SAN JOSEPH DE, a settlement 
of the province and corrfgimiento of Cercado in 
Peru ; founded near the sea by the Count of Su- 
perunda, viceroy of the kingdom, in 1747, a quar 
ter of a league from the spot wfure Callao stood. 
It has a good castle, called San Fernanda, with a 
sufficient garrison for the defence and security of 
the bay. This is covered on the ^. zo. by a barren 
island, called S-m Lorenzo, where all the vessels 
cominsr from the s. ports of America, as well as 
from Europe, cast anchor. It is two leagues from 
Lima. 

B^Lr.AViST \, a river of the kingdom of Brazil, 
which runs n. n. e. and enters that of Tocantines 
on the i0. side. 

BELLEALJ, PUERTO rE, a port in the strait 
of Magellan, and in the third narrow pass, called 
El Pasaije, or the Passage. 

[BELLE DUNE, LA, or HANDSOME DOWN, 
a long, projecting, barren point on the s. side of 
Chaleur bay, about 8 leagues n. n. w. of Nipisi- 
guit, where temporary cod and herring fisheries 
are carried on by different people; there being no 
established trader at the place.] 

[BELLGROVE, in Bt-rgen county, N. Jersey, 
on the road to Albany, lies within half a mile of 
the line which separates New York from New Jer 
sey, which extends from Delaware river to that of 
Hudson. It is three miles n. from Brabant, and 
24 n. by za. from New York city.] 

BELLICHASSE, a settlement of Canada, situ 
ate on the shore of the river St. Lawrence, not far 
distant from Quebec. 

BELLICHASSE, a river of the above country, 
which rises to the e. of the bay of Saguinarn, runs 
*. e. in a serpentine course, and enters lake Huron, 
at the mouth where this communicates itself with 
the lake Erie. 

[BELLINGHAM, a small farming township 
in Norfolk county, Massachusetts, containing 735 
inhabitants, 20 miles n. from Providence, and 
34 s. from Boston.] 

BELLINGA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimienlo of Parinacochas in Peru, annexed 
to the curacy of Salamanca, in the province of 
Condesuyos de Arequipa. 

[BELLISLE, an island at the mouth of the 
straits of this name, between the country of the 
Esquimaux, or New Britain, and the n. end of 
Newfoundland island, which straits lead into the 
gulf of St. Lawrence from the n. e. The island is 
about seven leagues in circumference, and lies 16 



BEL 

miles from the nearest land 0:1 the coast of Labra 
dor, or New Britain. On the n. za. side it lias a 
harbour for fishing vessels, or small craft, and on 
the r. point it has a cove which will admit shal 
lops. Lat. 51 58 n. Long. 55 15 a>.] 

[BrLLisiE, an island of the e. side of the n. 
part of Newfoundland island, e. of Canada head.] 

Br.LLisLE, another island of thee. const of the 
Ksland of Newfoundland, distinct from the others, 
between the islands of Grois and Casronge. 

BMLLISLE, a strait formed by the coast of the 
county of Labrador, and the Island of Newfound 
land. It runs from s. ay. to n. e. 

BELLO, REAL, a settlement of the province 
and captainship of Rio Janeiro in Brazil, on the 
shore of the river of Los Muertes. 

[BELL S MILL, a settlement in N.Carolina, near 
the Moravian settlements, at the source of Deep river, 
the north-westernmost branch of the n. w. branch of 
cape Fear, and about 50 miles w. of Hillsborough.] 

BELLUDA Sierra, a chain of mountains of 
the kingdom of Chile, in the territory of the infi 
dels. It runs nearly due 5. from n. in the country 
of the Pehuenchcs Indians, from the settlement of 
Puren to the volcano of Callaqui. 

[BELPRE, a post-town and small settlement 
in the territory n. w. of the Ohio, on the n. w. 
bank of Ohio river, between the Hockhocking and 
Muskingum rivers, and opposite the mouth of the 
Little Kanhaway, about 14 miles below Marietta, 
and 480 s. i. by zo. from Philadelphia.] 

BELSAMITE, a river of Canada. It rises 
from different lakes in the country of the Papina- 
chois Indians, runs s. e. between the rivers Mis- 
sipinac and Outardes, and meets the river St. 
Lawrence at its mouth or entrance into the sea. 

BELSAMONT, a settlement of the country 
and land of Labrador, situated on the coast, at the 
mouth of the strait of Bellisle. 

BELTRAN, a settlement of the jurisdiction of 
Tocaima, and government of Mariquita, in the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada, situated on the shores 
of the Rio Grande de la Magdalena, annexed to 
the curacy of Ambolayma ; is of a very hot tem 
perature, and much infested with mosquitoes, lice, 
and other insects. Its population is scanty, and con 
sists of only 80 housekeepers ; its productions are 
merely sugar-canes, yucas, maize, and plantains. 
It is 14 leagues to the 5. o>. of Santa Fe. 

[BEL VIDE RE, a new township in Franklin 
county, Vermont. Also a village in New Jersey, 
in Sussex county, situated on Delaware river, at 
the mouth of Pequest river, and 11 miles above 
Easton in Pennsylvania.] 



BEN 



157 



BLANDISH, a settlement of the island of Bar- 
bailors, in the district of the parish of Sail Felipe. 

[BENEDIC r,atownin Charles county, Mary 
land, on Patuxent river, opposite Mackall s ferry ; 
w. from port Tobacco 16 miles, as the road runs 
through B yrantown ; 30 s. e. from the Federal 
city, and 20 from Drum s point, at the mouth of 
the river.] 

BENE11ISSA, a river of the province and 
government of Quixosy Macas in the kingdom of 
Quito, and of the district of the second. It runs 
from the n. n. w. to s. s. e. and enters the river 
Santiago. 

BENET, or BAINKT, a town of the French, in 
their possessions in the island of St. Domingo, 
situate on the s. shore of the river of its name. 
This river rises near (he s. coast of the same island ; 
it runs s. ami enters the sea between ihe cape of 
its name and the point of Moral. The above cape 
is also on the same s. coast, between the former 
river and the cape of Tres Latanniers. 

BENI, a large and navigable river of the pro 
vince and corregitniento of Cuzco in the kingdom 
of Peru. It rises near the settlement of Los Reyes 
in the cordillera, and runs from e. to zo. until it 
enters the Ucayale. According to Cruz, it rises 
from the river Chinquiavo, or De la Paz, and runs 
continually n. collecting the waters of several other 
rivers, when in a very large body it enters the 
Ucayale. It is also called De la Serpiente, and 
Mr. D Anville names it Amarumayu, to agree with 
the Inca Garcilasco, who maintains that it was ex 
plored by order of the Inca Yupanqui, for the 
discovery and conquest of the province of Musu, 
or De los Moxos. On its shores are many reduc* 
clones or settlements made by the missions of the 
Moxos. 

BEN1TEZ, JUAN, a river of the province 
and government of Maracaibo in the kingdom of 
Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains which 
lie between the coast and the lake of Maracaibo, 
runs s. and enters this lake at the side of the 
mouth or entrance of the same. 

BENITO, SAN, a settlement of the corregimi- 
ento of the jurisdiction of Velez in the Nuevo 
Reyno. It is of a healthy but very hot tempera 
ture, producing fruits peculiar to the same. It 
contains 200 housekeepers, and somewhat fewer 
families of Indians. Annexed to its curacy is a 
chapel, called De las Juntas, where there is a small 
neighbourhood. 

BKNITO, another settlement, of the province 
and corregimiento of Cajamarca in Peru, annexed 
to the curacy of Guzmanga. 



158 



BEN 



BENITO, another, of the province and govern 
ment of Cartagena in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, 
situate in the road which leads down to |the river of 
La Magdalena, between this and the city of Car 
tagena. 

BENITO, another town, with the surname of 
Abad, in the same province and government ; 
situate near one of the arms of the river Cauca. 

BENITO, another settlement of the province and 
captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil ; situate on 
the coast, between the river Piratununga and the 
port Calvo. 

BENITO, another, of the missions which were 
held by the regulars of the company of the Jesuits, 
in the province of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana. 

BENITO, a river of the kingdom of Brazil. It 
is small, runs n. and enters that of Preto, or La 
Palma, opposite the mouth of the river Claro. 

BENNETS, a small river of the province and 
colony of Virginia ; it runs s. and enters the 
Chowan. 

BENNETS, a point or cape of the coast, in the 
province and colony of Maryland and bay of 
Chesapeak. 

[BENN1NGTON, a county in the s. w. 
corner of Vermont, having Wind ham county 
on the e. and the state of New York on the w. ; 
into which state it sends Batten kill and Hoosack 
rivers, which both rise here, and fall into Hudson 
river, 14 miles apart. Rutland comity lies on 
the n. and the state of Massachusetts on the s. 
It contains 19 townships, of Avhich Pennington 
and Manchester are the chief. It has 12,254 in 
habitants, including 16 slaves. The mountains 
here furnish iron ore in abundance, and employ 
already a furnace and two forges. 

[BENNINOTON, the shire town of the above 
county, and the largest town in the state of Ver 
mont, having about 160 houses in the compact 
part of the town, is situated at the foot of the great 
mountain, near the s. w. corner of the state, 
24 miles e. from the junction of Hudson and 
Mohawk rivers, and about 52 from the s. end of 
lake Champlain, at the confluence of the e. and s. 
bays ; and lies 35 miles from Rutland, 202 miles 
n. e. from New York, and 300 in the same 
direction from Philadelphia. Lat. 42 52 n. 
Long. 73 4 w. Bennington has several elegant 
buildings. Its public edifices are a congregational 
church, state-house, and gaol. It is the oldest 
town in the state, having been first settled in 1764, 
and is in a flourishing condition, containing 2400 
inhabitants. Within the township is mount An 
thony, which rises very high in a conical form. 
Two actions were fought in or near this town in 



B E R 

one day, Aug. /6, 1777, in which the British suf 
fered a considerable loss. This disaster contri 
buted in a great measure to the subsequent sur 
render of General Burgoyne s army. 

[BENSON, the north-westernmost township in 
Rutland county, Vermont, is situated on the e. 
side of lake Champlain, 57 miles n. n. w. of Ben 
nington, and has 658 inhabitants. Hubberton 
river passes through Benson in its way to East 
bay. Cockburne s creek, which feeds the same 
bay, rises here. 

BEPITANGA, an island of the coast of Brazil, 
in the province and captainship of Rey. 

BEQUIA, an island of the N. sea, one of the 
Lesser Antilles, between the islands of St.Vincente 
and Granada. It is 12 leagues in circumference, 
and has a good bay, frequented only by the Clia- 
ribbee Indians, who inhabit this island, and by the 
English of the island of St. Vincente, who come 
hither to fish for tortoises. It produces wild cot 
ton trees, and abounds in water melons ; but it 
is ill supplied with water, and is filled with vipers, 
snakes, and venomous insects. Lat. 13 2 w. 

[BERABZAN is a long lake in New North 
Wales, lying w. and s. and narrows gradually 
from its n. end, till it mixes with the waters of 
Shechary lake at the s. end, where these -waters 
form Seal river, which empties into Hudson s bay 
at Churchill fort. The middle of Berabzan lies 
in lat. 60 10 n. and in long. 97 w. See SHE- 
CHARY Lake, and CHURCHILL River.] 

BERBICE, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia, in the 
Dutch possessions, this being the only river in this 
country. It however renders the land very fer 
tile, and causes it to produce cotton in abundance. 
It rises in the sierra of Tumucuraque, , runs from 
s. tow. and enters the sea about a league in breadth. 
The territory upon its shores lies low, and is 
covered with groves. Its mouth is divided into 
two arms by an island, which is called by the 
Dutch Krabben ; and through that of the e. side 
moderate-sized vessels only can pass, as the water 
does not exceed two or three yards in depth. A 
little beyond the aforesaid island the waters of the 
small river Canse join this river, increasing its 
depth to five yards, when it becomes navigable 
as far up us the fort of Nassau, which is situate 
upon the e. shore, at the distance of 10 leagues 
from (lie river s mouth ; though by water, owing 
to the river s winding course, the distance is at 
least 20 leagues. The shores on both sides are 
covered with houses and plantations belonging to 
the Dutch, for upwards of 30 leagues. It enters 
the sea in lat. 6 25 n. 



B E R 

BERBICE, the capital of the Dutch colony, 
taking the name of the former river, by which it 



B E R 



159 



1763 the Negro slaves made an insurrection here, 
but this was suppressed in the following year. 



is washed. It is fortified, and is the residence of [This settlement, with the other adjoining ones of 
the governor, who maintains here a tolerable gar 
rison. The town is reduced and was badly built. 
Its principal commerce is in cotton and sugar. In 



Surinam and Essiquibo, surrendered to the Bri 
tish in 1796. 



The official value of the Imports and Exports of Berbice were, in 

1809, imports ,193,663, exports .49,662. 

1810, 191,556, 51,785. 

And the quantities of the principal articles imported into Great Britain were, in 



Coffee. 


Sugar. 


Hum. 


Cotton wool. 


Brit. Plant. 


For. Plant. 


Brit. Plant. 


For. Plant. 


Cwt. 

1809, 17,665 
1810, 2 J,532 


Cwt. 


Cwt. 

7760 
3827 


Cwt. 


Galls. 
20,355 
6,193 


Lbs. 

1,874,196 
1,656,057- 



BERENGUELA, SAN JUAN DE, a settlement 
find real of the mines of silver, which were for 
merly worked in the province and corregimiento 
of Pacajes in Peru. They were the richest and 
most renowned of any in the kingdom, having 
700 veins ; and from the vestiges which appear 
here at the present day, there must have been no 
inconsiderable population of Spaniards. 

BCRENGUELA, another settlement of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Cochabamba in the 
same kingdom. 

BERGANS, an island of the s. coast of New 
foundland, at the entrance of the gulf of St. 
Lawrence. 

BERGANTIN,CERROS DEL, mountains of the 
province of Barcelona, and government of Cu- 
mana. They run nearly in a straight line from 
s. to n. for the space of many leagues. 

BERGEN, a city and county of the province 
and colony of New Jersey, above the river Hud 
son, opposite New York. It was the first spot on 
which plantations were made. The greater part 
of its inhabitants are Dutch; Three miles from 
the city of New York. 

[BER.GEN County, in New Jersey, on Hudson 
river, lies opposite New York, on the e. and was 
first planted by the Dutch from New York. It 
contains six townships, of which the chief are 
Bergen and Hackinsack, and 12,601 inhabitants, 
including 2301 slaves. Here are seven Dutch 
Calvinist churches, and two of Dutch Luther 
ans. There is a copper mine here, which, when 
worked by the Schuylors (to whom it belonged) 
was considerably productive; but it has been 
neglected for many years. It is a mountainous; 



See SURINAM.] 

rough, and hilly county, 30 miles long, and 
25 broad. It forms part of the e. and n. end 
of the state 5 and its n. w. extremity meets the 
n. e. part of Sussex county ; so that these two 
counties embosom Morris and Essex counties, ex 
cept on the s. w. and form the whole breadth of 
the state in that quarter. 

[B ERG EN Neck is the southern extremity of 
the above township.] 

BERITO, a small river of the island of St. Do 
mingo. It rises near the . coast, in the valley of 
Inojtielo, runs e. and enters the Balala. 

[BERKHEMSTEAD, or BARKHEMSTEAI>, a 
township in Litchfield county, Connecticut, hav 
ing Hartland n. and New Hartford s.~\ 

[BERKLEY, a township in Bristol county, 
Massachusetts, containing 850 inhabitants; 50 
miles s. of Boston.] 

BERKLEY, a county and city of S. Carolina, 
situate n. of the county of Colleton, near the rivers 
Cooper and Ashley : to the w. it has another small 
river, called Bowal, which forms an island in the 
middle of a small bay. Opposite the coast are 
other islands, called Casia and Sullivan, and be 
tween this and the river Bowal is a chain of moun 
tains, called Sandy. The river Wanda washes 
the n. w. part of this county, and afterwards en 
ters the Cowper, both of these joining the Ashley 
.in Charlestown. [In the census of 1791, it was 
called St. John s parish in Berkley county, and 
contained 752 free persons and 5170 slaves. 

[BEKKLEY County, in Virginia, lies w. of the 
Blue Ridge, n. of Frederick county, and separated 
from the state of Maryland, on the n. and e. bj 
Potowmack river. This fertile county, about 40 



166 



B E R 



miles long and 20 broad, has 16,781 free inhabi 
tants and 2932 slaves. Martinsburgh is its chief 
town.J 

[BERKLEY S Sound, on the n. w. coast of N. 
America, lies on the e. side of Quadras isles. 
The land on its e. side is opposite cape Flat 
tery, and forms the n. side of the straits de Fuca. 

[BERK S County, in Pennsylvania, has North 
ampton county oa the n. e. Northumberland on 
the n. zo. part of Luzern o;i the n. Dauphin 
and Lancaster counties s. a?, and Chester and 
Montgomery s. e. It is watered by Schuylkill 
river, and is 53 miles long and near 29 broad, con 
taining 1,030,400 acres. Here iron ore and coal 
are found in plenty, which supply several iron 
works. The n. parts are rough and hilly. Berks 
contains 30,179 inhabitants, of whom 65 only 
are slaves. It has 29 townships, of which Reading- 
is the chief.] 

[BERKSHIRE County, in Massachusetts, is 
bounded to. by New York state, s. by the state 
of Connecticut, e. by Hampshire county, and n. 
by the state of Vermont. It thus runs the whole 
extent of the state from n. to s. and contains 26 
townships ; the chief of which are Stockbridge, 
Lenox, Great Barrington, Williamslown, and 
Pittsfield ; and the number of inhabitants 30,291. 
AVhite and clouded marble is found in several 
towns in the rough and hilly parts of this country. 
In February 1796, the legislature passed an act 
to establish a college in VVilliamstown, by the 
name of Williams College.] 

[BERKSHIRE, a newly settled township in 
Franklin county, Vermont,] 

BERLIN, a neat and flourishing town of 
York county, Pennsylvania, containing about 100 
houses. It is regularly laid out, on the s. w. side 
of Conewago creek, 13 miles w. of Vorktown, and 
101 w. of Philadelphia. Lat. 39 56 n. 

[BKRLIN, a township in Orange county, Ver 
mont, on Dog river, a branch of Onion river from 
the s. ; which las>t separates Berlin from Montpe- 
lier on the n. n. w. Berlin contains 134 inhabi 
tants, and is about 94 miles n. e. from Ben- 
nirigton.] 

[B RLIN, a township in Hartford county, 
Connecticut, 12 miles s. s. w. of Hartford, 42 
n. zs. of New London ; and 26 n. n. e. of New 
Haven.] 

[BERLIN, a township in Worcester county, 
Massachusetts, containing 512 inhabitants; 34 
.miles w. of Boston, and 15 n. e. of Vv orcester. 
Hops have been cultivated here lately, and pro 
mise to be a valuable article of husbandry. 

[BERLIN, in Somerset county, formerly in that 



B E R 

of Bedford, Pennsylvania, lies on a branch of 
Stoney creek, a s. water of Conemaugh river, on 
the w. side of the Allegliany mountain ; 25 miles 
w. of Bedford, 23 n. w. of fort Cumberland in 
Virginia, and 200 w. of Philadelphia. Stone creek, 
the chief source of Kiskeminitas river, rises n.n.c. 
of Berlin. Lat. 39 54 n. 

BERMEJA, LA, a shallow of the bay of 
Campeche, near the coast. 

BERMEO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Chichas and Tarrija in Peru. 
It is of the district of the former, annexed to the 
curacy of Tarija. 

BERMUDA, a city of the province and colony 
of Virginia. 

[BERMUDA Hundred, or CITY POINT, as it is 
sometimes called, is a port of entry and post-town 
in Chesterfield county, Virginia, situated on the 
point of the peninsula formed by the confluence 
of the Appamattox with James river, 36 miles zo. 
from Williamsburg, 64 from point Comfort in 
Chcsapeak bay, and 315 5. w. by s. from Philadel 
phia. City Point, from which it is named, lies on 
the s. bank of James river, four miles s. s. w. 
from this town. The exports from this place, 
chiefly collected at Richmond, 20 miles above it, 
amounted in 1794 to the value of 773,549 dollars; 
and from the first of October to the first of De 
cember 1795 were as follows: 15 kegs of butter, 
578bbls. S. fine flour, 101 half do. "789 fine do. 
3931bs. indigo, 10 tons pig iron, 100 Ibs. sassa 
fras, 80,320 hhd. staves, 66,300 bbl. staves, J819 
hhds. tobacco, and 3 kegs manufactured do. 
Total exports, 90,859 dollars, 45 cents. There 
are about 40 houses here, including some ware 
houses. It trades chiefly with the West Indies, arid 
the different states. City Point, in James river, 
lies in Lat. 37 20 n. Long. 77 31 } w. ] See. 
RICHMOND. 

BERMUDAS, islands of N. America, in the N. 
sea ; thus callid from having been discovered by 
Juan Bermudez in 1522. They are more than 
400 in number, and for the most part desert and 
uninhabited. The largest is S. George, which is 
five leagues long and one broad ; and it is on ac 
count of its comparative consequence that this 
alone is treated of. The English who inhabit it 
call it also Sommers, on account of Sir George 
Summers having been shipwrecked upon it soon 
after its discovery. It has different ports, and 
two castles, called Dowre and Warwick ; but so 
surrounded are they by rocks, and so defended by 
nature, that it is with difficulty that a vessel of 10 
tons burthen c;m enter the roads, or at least with 
out considerable caution and assistance. Tht> 



BERMUDAS. 



161 



temperature is so good, that it is spring nearly tlie 
whole year round, tlie fields ami trees being clad 
in eternal green ; but the tempests of thunder and 
lightning, together with the hurricanes, are at 
times tremendous. They are, however, antici 
pated by the inhabitants, who can tell their ap 
proach by watching the circle of the moon. These 
i -lands are so fertile that it is usual to gather in 
two crops or harvests in each year. They pro 
duce much amber, pearls, cochineal, and abun 
dance of turtles, the flesh of which is a great deli 
cacy among the English. This island abounds 
in swine, and in birds of different species : among 
these is that which, among naturalists, is called the 
crane, being a marine bird, and building its nest 
in the holes of the earth. Ttic climate is so 
healthy, that scarcely any one is observed to die 
except through old age. In these islands are 
found no species whatever of venomous animals ; 
and they abound with a sort of cedar, of which are 
built brigs and other small craft, which arc much 
prized in America ; and this wood forms one p irt 
of its commerce The English established them 
selves here in 1612, and formed a colony, which 
was enlarged by Captain Turquer in 1^16, lie 
being the first who planted in it tobacco and 
wheat. From this time the prosperity of it in 
creased daily ; and shortly after, a fresh supply of 
500 men arrived under the direction of Captain 
Butler, who divided the island into counties and 
parishes. Its population, however, was at the 
highest during the civil wars of England, when a 
hr^e portion of the English nobility betook them 
selves to America, and among the rest, the poet 
Waller to this island, who afterwards wrote a de 
scription of it in a beautiful English poem. I(s 
inhabitants may amount to about 5000. Formerly 
it carried on a great traffic in the article of hats 
made of palm-trees, and which were much 
esteemed by the ladies in all parts ; but this has 
greatly fallen to decay. [They lie in the form of 
a shepherd s crook, and are distant from the Land s 
End in England 1500 leagues, from the Madei 
ras 1200, from Hispaniola 400, and 200 from cape 
Ilatteras in Carolina, which last is the nearest land 
to them. The islands are walled with rocks ; and 
by reason of these, together with shoals, are diffi 
cult to approach. The entrances into the Inr- 
bours and channels are narrow as well as slioullv, 
and are more dangerous by reason of the strong 
cMirrent which sets to the n. e. from the gnlf of 
Florida. The Bermudians arc chiefly sea-faring 
men, aixl the Negroes are very expert mariners. 
Jn Ihe late war there were at one time between 15 

VOf-. I. 



and 20 privateers fitted out from hence, which 
were manned by Negro slaves, who behaved irre 
proachably ; and such is the state of slavery here, 
and so much are they attached to their masters, 
that such as were captured always returned when 
it was in their power; a singular instance of which 
occurred in the state of Massachusetts. The ship 
Regulator, a privateer, was carried into Boston, 
and had 70 slaves on board : 60 of them returned 
in a flag of trace, 9 returned by way of New 
York, one only was missing, who died. The 
government is conducted under a governor, named 
by the British crown, a council, and a general as 
sembly. There are nine churches, of which three 
clergymen have tlie charge ; and there is one 
Presbyterian church. These islands contain from 
12 to 13,000 acres of poor land, of which nine 
pirfs in ten are either uncultivated, or reserved in 
woods, which consist chiefly of cedar, for the 
supply of ship-building. There are about 200 
acres laid out in cotton. The main island is about 
16 miles long, and from one to two in breadth. 
The parish of St. George is an island to the e. of 
the main land, in which stands the town of St. 
George s, containing about 500 houses. Contigu 
ous to that is St. David s island, which supplies 
the town with provisions. The air is healthy, and 
a continual spring prevails ; and most of the pro 
ductions of the West Indies might be cultivated 
here. The houses are built of a soft stone, which 
is sawn like timber, but being washed with lime, 
it becomes hard ; these stones are greatly in request 
throughout the West Indies for filtrating water. 
The houses are white as snow, which, beheld from 
an eminence, contrasted with the greenness of the 
cedars and pasture ground, and the multitude of 
islands full in view, realize what the poets have 
feigned of the Elysian fields. In the present war 
the Bermudas have been the usual winter station 
of the British naval force in the American seas ; 
and even ships of 74- guns have lately been car 
ried into and out of the harbour, notwithstanding 
the extreme narrowness of the entrance. The 
climate is delightful in winter, but very hot in 
summer. Some accounts say that these islands 
contain from 15 to 20,000 inhabitants ; but Mr. 
Edwards says the number of white people is 
5462, of blacks 4910. Old writers observe that 
there were 3009 English in these islands in 
1623. Three or four hundred go annually to 
Turk s island to rake salt, which is carried to 
America for provisions, or sold to such as may 
call for it there for cash. Lat. 32 J2 n. Long. 
64 40 *. 



162 



B E R 



[The official value of the Imports and Exports 
of Bermudas were, in 

1809, imports \ 1,648, exports rf34,279. 

1810, 1,137, 36,613. 

And the quantities of the principal articles im 
ported into Great Britain were, in 



Coffee. 


Cotton Wool. 


Brit. Plant. 


For. Plant. 


Cwt. 

1809, 8 
1810, 


Cwt. 

988 


Lbs. 

21,656 
9,095 



BERNA, NEW, a settlement of N. Carolina, 
in the district of Craven, on the shore of the river 
Pampticoe, or Pantego, in lat. 35 18 n. and 
long. 77 17 a), and near to the mouth of that 
river. 

BERNABE, S. a settlement of the province 
and alcaldia mayor of Capanabastala in the king 
dom ol Guatemala. 

BERNABE, S. another of the province and eorre- 
gimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, situate 
on the skirt of a mountain to the to. of its capital. 

BERNABE, S. another, which is a village of the 
province and captainship of the Rio Janeiro in 
Brazil. 

BE UN ABE, S. a bay on the coast of the province 
of California, at the back of the cape of San 
Lucas, and opposite the coast of Nueva Espana. 
It is here that the vessels coming from Felipinas, 
or Philippines, touch to take in water and pro 
visions. 

BERNABE, S. a point on the s. coast of the strait 
of Magellan, which looks to the w. of the island 
of Luis el Grande. 

BERNAB: , S. a small island of the gulf of Cali 
fornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes, situate in the in 
nermost part of that gulf, near the coast. 

BERNALILLO, RANCHO DE, a small settle 
ment belonging to the religious of St. Francis, in 
Nuevo Mexico. 

B; RNAM : T-O, a river of the same kingdom. 

BERNARDINO, S. a settlement of the mis 
sions held by the religious order of St. Francis, 
in theprovince^^araumara, of the kingdom of 
Nueva Vizcaya: lying six leagues to the s. of 
San Andres. 

BERNARDINO, S. another settlement of the pro 
vince of Barcelona, and government of Cumana, 
in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, situate by the 



B E R 

side of the settlement of Pilar, and to the s. of the 
city of Barcelona. 

BERNARDINO, S. another, of the head settlement 
of Santa Isabel, and alcaldia mayor of Cholula, 
in Nueva Espana. It contains 40 families of In 
dians, and is two leagues to the ra. of its head 
settlement. 

BERNARDO, SAN ABAD, a settlement of the 
province and government of Cartagena ; one of the 
new settlements which were founded in 1776 by 
Don Juan Pimienta. It is near the sea-coast, be 
tween the points of Piedras and V enados. 

BP-RNARDO, SAN ABAD, another, of the province 
and government of Nicaragua in the kingdom of 
Guatemala, situate on the shore of the lake. 

BERNARDO, SAN ABAD, another, with the sur 
name of Arcos, in the province and government of 
Buenos Ayres, on the shore of the river Feliciano, 
and at the mouth where it enters the Parana. 

BERNARDO, SAN ABAD, a bay on the coast of 
the province of Texas, in the bay or gulf of Mexico. 
[The passage into it, between several islands, is 
called Paso de Cavallo.] 

BERNARDO, SAN ABAD, a point in the coast of 
the province and government of Cartagena, oppo 
site tiie islands of the same name. It forms one of 
the extremities of the bay ofTolu. 

BERNARDO, SAN ABAD, some islands in the N. 
sea, of the province and government of Carta 
gena, situate near the point of this name. They 
are many in number, and lie at the outer part 
of the bay of Tolu, at the distance of five leagues. 
They are inhabited by some poor families. 

[BERNARDSTOWN, in Somerset county, 
New Jersey, contains 2377 inhabitants, including 
93 slaves.] 

[BERNARDSTOW.N, also the name of a township 
in Hampshire county, Massachusetts, containing 
691 inhabitants ; distant 110 miles w. from Boston. 

[BERNE, a township in Albany county, New 
York. By the state census of 1796, it appears 
there are 477 -of the inhabitants who are electors.] 

BERRACOS, PUNTA DE, a point on the s. 
coast of the island of Cuba, between the port of 
this city and that of Guantanamo. 

BKRRERJSSA, a river of ihe province of Quito. 
It runs amongst the woods inhabited by the nation 
of the Kibaros, in a direction from n. to .?. and 
enters the river of San Jacome on the n. side. 

[BERRY Islands, a cluster of small islands 
among the Bahamas, situate to the n. 70. of New 
Providence, and upon the s. side of the channel 
communicating with tiie Florida stream. See BA 
HAMAS. 1 



BET 

BERSCHOOR, a port on the w. coast of the 
island of Maire, between the cape of St. V incente 
and that of Diego. 

[BERTIE, a maritime county in N. Carolina, 
in Edenton district, with the Roanoke its s. boun 
dary, and Albernarle sound on the e. In it is 
situated the ancient Indian tower of Tuscarora. 
It contains 12,606 souls, of which number 5141 
are slaves.] 

[BERWICK, or ARBOTSTOWN, a neat town in 
York county, Pennsylvania, at the hend of Cone- 
wago Creek, 13 miles w. of York, 26 s. s. w. of 
Harrisburgh, and 103 w. by s. of Philadelphia. 
The town is regularly laid out, and contains about 
]00 houses, a German Lutheran, and Calvinist 
church. Lat. 39 52 .] 

[BERWICK, or NEW BERWICK, a small town of 
Northumberland county, Pennsylvania, on the n. 
w. side of the e. branch of Susquehannah river, 
opposite Nescopeck falls and Nescopeck creek, 
32y miles n. e. from Northumberland and Sunbury, 
at the junction of the e. with the zw. branch of Sus 
quehannah, and 160 n. w. of Philadelphia. Lat. 
41 4 w.] 

[BERWICK, a township in York county, district 
of Maine, containing 3894 inhabitants. It has an 
incorporated academy, and lies on the e. side of 
Salmon fall river, 7 miles n. w. of York, and 86 
e. of n. from Boston.] 

BETA, CIENEG A DE, a large lake formed by the 
waters of the river Cauca, the river Peries, and 
many other streams. It is also called La Raya. 

BETA, a settlement and real of mines of the 
alcaldia mayor of Fresnillo, and of the province of 
Zacatecas, in Nucva Espana, It is two leagues 
from the real of Zacatecas. 

BETANCOUR, a settlement of Canada, situated 
on the shore of the river St. Lawrence, near the 
lake of St. Pierre. 

BETANZI, MONTANAS DE, mountains in the 
province and government of Cartagena : they run 
from n. to s. between the rivers of Sinu and Cauca. 

BETANZI, an arm of the river Sinu, in the 
same province and government, which has no 
place of disemboguement, and forms a large pool 
or lake. 

BETANZOS, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Asangaro in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Arapa. 

BETAS, a settlement and real of mines of the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the. territory of the 
government of Pamplona, and of the jurisdiction 
of the; alcalde mayor of the mines, who resides in 
Bocaneme. The mines of this settlement have been 
most rich and abundant, but they are at present de- 



BET 



163 



serted, on account of their immense depth, and of 
the consequent expence and labour of working 
them. Its temperature is very cold. 

BETAS, a port of the coast of the kingdom of 
Chile, in the district of the province and corregi- 
miento of Copiapo. Lat. 25 33 s. 

BETAZA, a settlement and head settlement of 
the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana. 
It is of ahot temperature, and contains 65 families 
of Indians ; is lour leagues to the s. of its capital. 
At three leagues distance there is another settle 
ment, in which dwell 122 families, \vho exercise 
themselves in the cultivation of maize. 

BETEIT1VA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimie.Hto of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada. It is of a moderately cold tempera 
ture, producing fruits natural to such a climate ; 
contains 150 housekeepers, and a very few Indians. 
Fourteen leagues n. of its capital. 

BETEO, a small river of the province and go 
vernment of Merida in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra 
nada. It runs from w. to e. and enters the Apure 
close to its source. 

[BETHABARA, the first settlement of the Mo 
ravians in the lands of Wachovia in N. Carolina, 
begun in 1753; 6 miles n. of Salem, and 183 so. 
of Halifax, in lat. 36 9 n. It is situated on the 
w. side of Graffy creek, -which unites with the 
Gargales and several others, and falls into the 
Yadkin. It contains a church of the United Bre 
thren, and about 50 dwelling houses. 

[BETHANY, or BETHANIA, a Moravian set 
tlement and post town in the lands of Wachovia 
in N. Carolina, begun in 1760 ; 9 miles n. a?, of 
Salem, 4 n. w. of Bethabara, and 568 s. w. by s. 
of Philadelphia. It contains about 60 houses and 
a church built on a regular plan. See WA 
CHOVIA.] 

BETHE, SAN Luis DE, a settlement of the 
province and government of Darien in the king 
dom of Tierra Firme, situate at the mouth of the 
river of its name, and on the shore of the Atrato. 

BETHE, a river of the same province and go 
vernment, rises in the mouutains of Choc6, rum 
from e. to w. and enters the Atrato. 

[BETHEL, a small Moravian settlement on 
Swetara river, in Pennsylvania, 12 miles from 
Mount Joy. A township in Dauphin county.] 

[BETH;:L, a townhip in Windsor county, Ver 
mont, containing 473 inhabitants ; n. n. w. of, and 
bounded by Stockbridge, and about 67 miles n. n. 
e. of Benninglon. It gives rise to a small branch 
of White river.] 

BETHEL, a township in Delaware county, Penn. 
sylvania. 

Y 2 



164 



BET 



BETHLEM, a settlement of the province and 
government of Tucuman, and of the jurisdiction 
of the city of Bioxa, in the kingdom of Peru. 

BETHLEM, a valley of the same province and 
government, bounded by the kingdom of Chile. 

BETHLEM, another settlement of the province 
and district of Catamarca. It is SO leagues from 
that place, and in its district arc four small settle 
ments of Indians towards the valley of Calchaqui ; 
also some very abundant salt mines. 

BETHLEM, another settlement of the missions 
\vhich were held by the regulars of the company 
of Jesuits, in the province of Cinaloa in Nueva 
Espana. 

BETHLEM, another settlement of the province of 
Ostimuri in the same kingdom of Nueva Espana. 

[BETHLEHEM, a town in Albany county, 
New York, very fruitful in pastures, and has large 
quantities of excellent butter. By the state cen 
sus of 1796, 388 of the inhabitants arc electors.] 

[BETHLEHEM, a township in Berkshire county, 
Massachusetts, having 261 inhabitants. It lies 
about 10 miles s. of e. from Stockbridge, 10 from 
Lenox, and 130 from Boston. It borders on Ty- 
ringham and Loudon, 

[BETHLEHEM, a township in Hunterdon county, 
New Jersey, situated at the head of the s. branch 
of Rariton river. It contains 1335 inhabitants, 
including 31 slaves. Turf for firing is found here.] 

[BETHLEHEM, a township in Lit ch field county, 
Connecticut, joins Litchfield on the n. and Wood- 
bury on the s.~\ 

[BETHLEHEM, a post town in Northampton 
county, Pennsylvania, is a celebrated settlement 
of the Moravians, or United Brethren, of the Pro 
testant Episcopal church, as they term themselves. 
It is situated on Leigh river, a western branch of 
the Delaware, 53 miles n. from Philadelphia, and 
12 5. from the Wind Gap. The town stands partly 
on the lower banks of the Manakes, a fine creek, 
which affords trout and other fish. The situation 
is healthful and pleasant, and in summer is fre 
quented by gentry from different pails. Irv 1787 
there were 60 dwelling houses of stone, well built, 
and 600 inhabitants. Besides the meeting-house, 
are three other public buildings, large and spa 
cious; one for the single brethren, one for the 
single sisters, and the other for the widows. The 
literary establishments, as well as the religious re 
gulations here, deserve notice. In a house adjoin 
ing to the church is a school for females ; and since 
1787, a boarding school was built for young ladies, 
who are sent here from different parts, and are in 
structed in reading and writing, (in the English and 
German tongues) , grammar, arithmetic, geography, 



B E U 

needle-work, music, &c. The minister of the place 
has the direction of this as well as of the boys 7 
school, which is kept in a separate house, where 
they are initiated in the fundamental branches of 
literature. These schools, especially that for 
the young ladies, arc deservedly in very high re 
pute ; and scholars, more than can be accommo 
dated, are offered from all parts of the United 
States. There is at the lower part of the town 
a machine, of simple construction, which raises 
the water from a spring into a reservoir, to tho 
height of JOO feet; whence it is conducted by 
pipes into the several streets of the town. There 
is a genteel tavern at the n. end of the town, 
the profit arising from which belongs to the 
society. There is also a store, with a general as~ 
sortment of goods, an apothecary s shop, a large 
tan-yard, a currier s and a dyer s shop, a grist 
mill, a tulling-mill, an oil-mill, and a saw-mill, 
and on the banks of the Leigh a brewery. Lat. 
40 57 . Long. 75 23 aC] 

BETO1ES, a settlement of Indians of this na 
tion in the Nucvo Ileyno de Granada ; reduced 
and formed by the regulars of the company of Je 
suits, in the beginning of this century, in 1717, on 
the shores of the large river of Casanare ; is very 
numerous, but pays no tribute whatever to the 
king. It produces wheat, maize, and many other 
productions; is in the limits of the province of 
Caracas, and one of the six which compose this 
mission, which is at present under the care of the 
religious of St. Domingo. 

BETQN*ij a division or small diskict of the 
province and government of Santa Mar-fa- in the 
Nuevo Key no de Granada. It abounds in all the 
friuts peculiar either to Europe or America, and 
is not without some mines of the very finest gold, 
copper, and emeralds ; but none of them are worked, 
from the scarcity of labourers, the territory being 
almost depopulated. 

BEUEK, a small river of the island of New 
foundland, in the .v. part. It runs w. and enters 
the sea between the buy of St. Genevieve and the 
port V ieux-a-choix. 

B^UER, another Fiver of Canada,, which rises 
in a small lake to the s. of lake Erie, runs s. and 
enters tlve sea. 

BLUER, another, of the province and colony of 
Pennsylvania, which runs from s. to w. and en-tecs 
the Ohio. 

[BE II F, Tli vi ERE A u, empties e. into Mississippi 
river, about 48 miles, by the course of the river, 
above the month of the Illinois, and 7 miles s. from 
Riviere Oahaha.] 

[15t:ur, SMALL LE. See LE BOEUF/} 



B I C 

, a township and post (own in Essex 
county, Massachusetts, containing 32f)0 inhabi 
tants, is separated from Salem by a handsome 
bridge, and is about 20 miles e. of u. of Boston, 
and 22 s. to. of Ne\vburyport. It has two pa 
rishes. In the parish next the harbour, are a num 
ber of handsome houses, exhibiting the cheering 
rewards of enterprise and industry, and the inha 
bitants are devoted to the fishery and olhcrbranches 
of navigation. In the other part of the town, 
which is chiefly agricultural, is a cotton manu 
factory. The bridge mentioned before is 1500 feet 
in length, erected in 17S8, and connects this town 
with Salem. It has a draw for vessels.] 

[BEVERLY S MANOR, or IRISH TRACT, in Vir 
ginia, is a tract of land, in lat. 38 10 n. at the 
head of Masanuten s river, a w. branch of the 
Shenandoah, which rises here by three branches, 
viz. Middle river, Le\vis and Christian creeks. 
It lies between the Blue and the North ridge. The 
road from Yadkin river, through Virginia to Phi 
ladelphia, passes through here.] 

BEXAR, S. ANTONIO DE, a garrison and ca 
pital settlement of the province of los Texas, or 
Nuevas Felipinas. It is of a mild temperature, 
and is the residence of a captain, lieutenant, and 
ensign, with aserjeant and 47 soldiers, to restrain 
the infidel Indians. It is 122 leagues distant from 
La Monclova, and 360 n. n. e. of Mexico. 

BEZANI, a settlement and garrison of the pro 
vince and government of La Sonora, situate at the 
source of the river of ils name. 

BEZANJ. This river rises in the Primeria Alta, 
runs s. and enters the sea in the gulf of Cali 
fornia. 

BEZANT, a settlement of the English in the 
island of Barbados, of the district and parish of 
St. Thomas. 

BIABOMA, a river of the province of Mara- 
iian. It runs from e. s. e. to ic. n. o\ in the woods 
which lie s. of the river Maranon, and on its e. 
side enters thnt of the Guallaga. 

BIB 1 RICE, a large river of the kingdom of 
Brazil, in the province and captainship of Pernam- 
buco. It runs from u\ to e. and enters the sea near 
Olinda. 

BIBLIAN, a settlement of the province and cor- 
rcginncnto of Cuenca in the kingdom of Quito, 
situate n. of the paramo of Burgay. 

BIBORILLAS, a settlement of the mission 
which belonged to the regulars of the company of 
Jesuits, of the province of Tepeguana, and king 
dom of Nueva Vizcaya. 
BIG, a small river of Nova Scotia, or Acadia. 



B I E 



165 



It runs from n. to &. and enters that of St. Law 
rence. 

B1CAN, a settlement of the province of Osti- 
muri in Nueva Espana, situate on the shore 
of the river Iliaquij between the settlements of Po- 
tan and Torin. 

BICHADA8, a large river of the province and 
government of San Juan de los Llanos in the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises in the serranius of 
Tunja, and after, in its extended course, receiving 
into its bed the tributary streams of very many 
other rivers, enters tlie Orinoco. Its shores are 
peopled by the Charibbee Indians. In the lastccn- 
tury (17th) the missions of the regulars of the com 
pany of Jesuits established themselves here, but 
they were cut off by these infidels, when the fol 
lowing suffered martyrdom, viz. Ignacio Fiol, 
Caspar Bee, and Ignacio Teobast, Francisco Fi- 
gucroa, Francisco Castan, and Vicente Loberzo^ 
with the Captain Don Lorenzo de Medina. 

BICIIE, a very small island of the N. sea, 
situate within the bay of the Gran Cul de Sac, in 
the island of Guadaloupe. 

BICMES, ISLA E, an island of the coast of 
Guayana, and in the French possessions, at the en 
trance of the river Ovapoco. 

BICH UQUEN, a river of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Itata in the kingdom of Chile, be 
tween the port of La Navidad and the point of 
Tacopalma. 

BIDA1E, a settlement of the province and sro- 
vernmcnt of Texas, situate in the country of the 
Cenis Indians, on the shore of the river Trinidad . 

[BlDDEF()RD,a port of entry and post town 
in York county, district of Maine, on the s. w. 
side of Saco river, on the sea coast, 14 miles s. zo. 
from Portland, 24 n. e. from York, and 105 from 
Boston. It contains 1018 inhabitants; and here 
the county courts are held, as likewise at York. 
Lat. 43 23 w.] 

[MIDDLES, a settlement on a branch of Lick 
ing river, in Bourbon county, Kentucky, about 6 
miles n. z?. from Millers, on the n. e. side of the 
same branch, and 32 miles n. n. e. from Lexington.] 

[BIEQUE, a small island of the N. sea, one ot 
the Lucayas, situate close to the port of Puertorico.] 

[BICQUE Island, or BOUIQUEN, or CRAKS 
Isle, one of the Virgin isles, 2 leagues from 
Porto Rico, 6 leagues long and 2 broad. The 
English settled here twice, and have been driven 
away by the Spaniards, whose interest it is to let 
it remain desolate. It has a rich soil, and a 
good road on its s. side. Lat. 18 7 n. 
65 21 a?.] 



BIG 



BIEZMES, orALconoN, a settlement of the 
province and corregimicnto of Caxaiuarquilla in 
Peru. 

[BIG BONE Creek, in Wood ford couniy, 
Kentucky, falls into the Ohio from the e. in about 
lat. 38 29 . long. 84 33 w. It is very small in 
size, and has three brandies ; the north-western 
most interlocks with Bank Lick creek, which falls 
into Licking river. It is only noticeable for the 
large bones and salt licks near it.] 

[BiG BONE Licks, The, lie on each side of the 
abovementioned creek, a little below the junction 
of the two e. branches, about 8 miles from the 
mouth of the creek. These, as also the other salt 
springs in the w. country are called licks, because 
the earth about them is furrowed up in a most cu 
rious manner by the buffaloes and deer which lick 
the earth, on account of the saline particles with 
which it is impregnated. A stream of brackish 
water runs through these licks, the soil of which 
is a soft clay. The large bones found here, and in 
several other places near Salt licks, and in low soft 
grounds, thought to belong to the mammoth, still 
puzzle the most learned naturalists to determine to 
what animal they have belonged. A thigh-bone 
found here by Gen. Parsons measured 49 inches 
in length. A tooth of this animal is deposited ki 
Yale college. Bones of a similar kind have been 
found in other parts of America. A skeleton, 
nearly complete, and above 11 feet high, which 
was found near Hudson s river, was brought to 
England some years ago ; and another of nearly 
the same size is preserved in the college of New 
Jersey. Of this animal the natives have no tra 
dition, but what is so fabulous that no conjecture 
can be aided by it, except that the animal was 
carnivorous ; and this is the general opinion, and 
was admitted by the late Dr. Hunter of London, 
from an examination of the tusks, &c.] 

[BIG HILL Creek runs w. into Kaskaskias ri 
ver, 25 miles below Beaver creek, 17 above 
Blind creek, and 26 n. from the mouth of Kas 
kaskias.] 

[BIG ROCK, a large rock on the s. e. bank of 
Au Vaze river, about three miles . e. from its 
mouth in the Missisippi, and about eight miles 
s. e. from cape St. Antonio on that river.] 

[BIG ROCK Branch, the n. e. head-branch of 
Alleghany river. The branch called Big Hole 
Town joins it, and forms the Alleghany, 85 miles 
n. e. from and above Venango fort.J 

[BIG SALT Lick, a garrison in the state of 
Teuessie, near the Salt lick, on Cumberland river ; 
115 miles from Knoxville, 80 from South-west 



BIO 

point on Clinch river, 32 from Bledsoc lick, and 
b S from Nashville.] 

[BIG SANDY River, orToiTEUVY, has its source 
near that of Cumberland river, and separating Vir 
ginia from Kentucky, empties into the Ohio, op 
posite the French purchase of Galiopolis, in about 
n. lat. 38 30 . Vancouver s and Harmar s forts 
stand on this river. On its banks are several salt 
licks and springs. Little Sandy is a short small 
river, which falls into the Ohio, about 20 miles w. 
of Big Sandy river, in Mason county, Kentucky.] 
[BIGGIN Swamp. See SANTEE River.] 
[B1LLERICA, a township in Middlesex county, 
Massachusetts, incorporated in 1655. It has 1200 
inhabitants ; nor has there been much variation in 
the number for half a century. It lies 20 miles n. 
of Boston, and is watered by Concord and Shaw- 
sheen rivers, which run n. e. into Merrimack 
river.] 

[BILLINGSPORT, on Delaware river, lies 
12 miles below Philadelphia, was fortified in the 
late war for the defence of the channel. Opposite 
this fort, several large frames of timber, headed 
with iron spikes, called chevaux-de-j rizes, were 
sunk to prevent the British ships from passing. 
Since the peace, a curious machine has. been in 
vented in Philadelphia to raise them.] 
[BILLET. See HATBOROUGH.J 
[BILLYMEAD, in Caledonia county, in Ver 
mont.] 

BILOCI, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Louisiana, situate on the coast, to 
the e. of the mouth of the river Pascagoula. 

B1MINI, a small island of the N. sea, one of 
the Lucayas, situate opposite the coast of Florida, 
and one of those which form the mouth of the canal 
of Bahama. It is five leagues in length, covered 
with beautiful groves, and inhabited by savage In 
dians. Its coasts are very dangerous for vessels, 
on account of the numerous rocks with which they 
are surrounded. [The Biminis are more properly 
a cluster of small uninhabited islands, situated on 
the Florida stream, and near the n. w. extremity of 
the Great Bahama bank. See BAHAMAS.] 

B1NAPA, a settlement of the province of Cu- 
liacan, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, one of 
those of the missions which were held there by the 
religious order of St. Francis, situate on the shores 
of the river Elota. It produces maize, beans, and 
abundance of honey and wax. 

B1NNEI, a settlement of the English in the 
island of Barbadoes, in the parish and district of 
St. George. 
B1OBIO, a large river of the kingdom of 



B L A 

Chile ; it rises in the cordillera of the Andes, and 
enters the S. sea two leagues from the bay of Con- 
cepcion, passing through minerals of gold and 
xarsa, upon which acc6tmt its waters are very 
salutary. It is celebrated for having been con 
tinually the theatre of war between the Spaniards 
and Araucanians, whose numerous feats of valour 
and prowess have been exhibited on either side of 
its banks : it is the line or boundary of the country 
possessed by cither party, and is so acknowledged 
by the latter. The Spaniards have several forts 
built upon its banks, called San Rafael, Puren, 
and Santa Barbara ; and near its mouth, or en 
trance into the sea, those of San Pedro and Cal- 
cura, between which two a famous battle Avas 
fought by the Spaniards and the Araucanians. 
[On the shores of this river are found quantities of 
fine cedar, fit for building.] 

BIOBIO, TJLTAS DE, two mountains of the same 
kingdom near the coast, at the entrance of the 
former river. 

B1POS, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Tucuman in Peru, situate on the shore 
of the river of its name. 

Biros. This rivers runs s. s. e. and enters the 
Choromoros. 

[BIRD Fort, on Monongahela river, 40 miles 
5. of fort Pitt.] 

[BIRDS Keys, a rock or island among the 
Virgin isles in the West Indies: it is round, and 
lies about two leagues .. of St. John s. It has 
its name from the quantities of birds which resort 
there.] 

[BIRU, a town 10 leagues from Truxilla, in 
the S. sea, in the empire of Peru, inhabited by 
about 80 Indians, Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mus- 
tces. It is very fertile, and well watered by canals 
cut from the river, and so conveyed to great dis 
tances, as at Truxilla. Lat. 8 35 *.] 

BISCAS, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Canta in Peru, annexed to the curacy 
of A rah nay. 

[BISCAY. SeeViscAY.] 

BISSI, TOUR DE, an island or shoal situate 
close to the n. coast of the Mai vine or Falkland 
isles. 

[BLACK Lick lies in Westmoreland county, 
Pennsylvania, about 36 miles e. of Pittsburgh^] 

BLACK Log, a town of the province and co 
lony of Pennsylvania, on the shore of the river 
Jumata. 

BLACK Log, a river of N. Carolina, which runs 
in a very abundant stream from s. e. and then turn 
ing s. enters the river of cape Fear, near its en 
trance into the sea. 



B L A 



167 



[BLACK Point, and BLUE Point, are capes 
within those of Elizabeth and Porpoise, in the dis 
trict of Maine.] 

[BLACK River. There are two small rivers of 
this name in Vermont; one falls into Connecticut 
river at Springfield, the other runs n. into lake 
Mcmphremagog. ] 

[BLACK River, in New York, interlocks with 
Canada creek, and runs n. w. into Iroquois river, 
boatable 60 miles. Also a long river which rises 
in Virginia, and passes s. e. into Nottaway river, 
in N. Carolina.] 

[BLACK River, a British settlement at the mouth 
of Tinto river, 20 leagues to the e. of cape Hon 
duras, the only harbour on the coast of Tierra 
Finne from the island of Rattan to cape Gracias-a- 
Dios, and was for more than 60 years the refuge 
of the logwood-cutters, when the Spaniards drove 
them from the forests of East Yucatan, which oc 
casioned adventurers of different kinds to settle 
here, where the coast is sandy, low, and swampy : 
higher up, near the rivers and lagoons, which are 
full of fish, the soil is more fertile, and produces 
plantains, cacao trees, maize, yams, potatoes, and 
a variety of vegetables ; and the passion for drink 
ing spirits made them plant sugar-canes. The 
forests are full of deer, Mexican swine, and game; 
The shores abound with turtle, and the woods with 
mahogany, zebra-wood, sarsaparilla, &c. ; and in 
deed the whole settlement flourishes spontaneously 
without cultivation. See HONDURAS.] 

[BLACK Kiver, in the island of Jamaica, 
passes through a level country, is the deepest and 
largest in the island, and will admit flat-bottomed 
boats and canoes for about 30 miles.] 

BLACK-ROCK, a city of the island of Barba- 
does. 

BLACK-WATER, a river of the province and 
colony of Virginia : it runs s. e. arid afterwards 
turning s. enters the sea in Albernarle straits. 

[BLACKSTONE, a small river which has its 
source in Ramshorn pond, in Sutton, Massachu 
setts, and after passing through Providence, empties 
into Narragansct bay, at Bristol, receiving in its 
course a number of tributary streams.] 

BLACKIN1NGO, a river of S. Carolina, in 
the county of Craven. It runs s. e, and enters the 
Pedi. 

[BLADEN, a county of N. Carolina, in Wil 
mington district. It has 5084 inhabitants, includ 
ing 1676 slaves.] 

BLADENSBURGH, a settlement of the pro 
vince and colony of Maryland, in the county of 
Frederick, oa the shore and at the head of the c. 
arm of the river Patowmack. [It is nine miles 



B L A 



from its mouth at the Federal city, 58 s. w. from 
Baltimore, and 12 n. e . from Alexandria in Vir 
ginia. It contains about 150 houses, and a ware 
house for the inspection of tobacco.] 

BLADWEL, MONTAGNC DK, a mountain of 
the island of Cayenne, on the skirts of which the 
French have an establishment. 

[BLA1ZE, Cape, on the coast of West Florida, 
in the gulf of Mexico, is a promontory which 
separates the bay of Apalache on the c. from that 
of St. Joseph; into which last it turns in the 
shape of a shepherd s crook.] 

BLANC, Cape, of the -coast of Nova Scotia, 
one of those which form the bay of Tor. 

BLANCA, an island of the N. sea, near the 
coast of Tierra Firme, and n. of La Margarita. 
It is five leagues in circumference, and abounds in 
lizards and turtles. It is desert, and inhabited 
only by some fishermen. Long. 313. Lat. IP 
56 . 

BLANCA, a small inland, close to the coast, 
which lies between the Rio de la Plata and the 
straits of Magellan, at the entrance of port De- 
sea do. 

[BLANCA, a river in the province of Chiapa, in 
the audience of Mexico in New Spain, North 
America. Its water is said to have a petrifying 
quality, yet is clear, and docs no harm to man or 
beast that drinks of it.] 

BLANCA, a piece of land of the coast of the 
ulcaldia viuyor of Tampico in Nueva Espana, be 
tween the river Nauta and the bay of Piedras. 

BLANCA, a point of the coast of the S. sea, of 
the province and government of Veragua in the 
kingdom of Tierra Firme, between the point of 
Mercalo and the settlement of Snn Pablo. 

BLANCA, an island, also called De lobos Marines, 
or of Marine Wolves, in the S. sea, near the coast 
of Peru, in the province and corregimienlo of Ca- 
iictc, opposite the port of Sangallo. 

BLANCA, a sierra, or chain of mountains, of 
the province and corrcifimicnto of Cuyo in the 
kingdom of Chile. They run from n. u\ to 5. e. ; 
and upon their skirts are the estates of Uanchillos, 
Piramidales, Estancia de Salinas, and Arbol del 
Mf:lon. 

BLANCHE, a small river of New France. It 
rises near the lake Erie and the fort of Sandoski, 
runs s. and enters the Ohio. 

BLANCHE, another river of the same province, 
which rises from the lake Ostandckcrt, runs n. and 
enters the great lake of Erie, or Oswego. 

BLANCHE, a bay on the e. coast of the island 
of Newfoundland, between the capes Argente and 
Den. 



B L A 

BLANCHE, a point or cape of the e. coast of 
Nova Scotia, one of those which form the entrance 
of the strait of Canseau, or Canso. 

BLANCHE, another point of the s. coast, in tha 
same province, between the two bays of Paspe and 
Sante Marguerite. 

BLANCHE, another small river of New France, 
which runs w. between the bay of Saguinam and 
the lake Michigan, the latter of which it enters. 

BLANCHES, islands of the s. coast of Nova 
Scotia: they are various, all of them small, and 
lie between the port of Castors and the islands of 
Liscomb. 

BLANCHES, with the additional title of Femmes, 
a settlement of Indians, of New France, situate on 
the shore of the river of its name. 

BLANCO, CAYO, a small island of the N. sea, 
situate s. of the island of Cuba, opposite the bay of 
Casilda. 

BLANCO, CAYO, a cape or point of land, on the 
coast of the province and government of Costarrica, 
of the N. sea, in the kingdom of Guatemala, op 
posite the island of Santa Catalina. 

BLANCO, CAYO, another cape, of the coast of the 
S. sea, and province and corregimiento of Piura in 
Pern, one of those which form the great bay and 
gulf of Tumbez. [It is 120 miles w. of Guaya 
quil. Lat. 4 18 5. Long. 81 6 .] 

BLANCO, CAYO, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Guayana in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme. It rises near the lake Pilola, and enters 
that of Las Arnazonas. 

BLANCO, CAYO, a settlement of the province and 
government of Aiacames, or Esmeraldas, in the 
kingdom of Quito, situate on the shore of a small 
river. 

BLANCO, CAYO, a settlement of the province 
and government of Mariquita in the kingdom 
of Granada, situate on the shore of the river 
Cauca. 

BLANCO, CAYO, a small river of the province 
and government of Tucuman in Peru. It runs e. 
and enters the Salado, between those of Guachipi 
and Piedras. 

BLANCO, CAYO, another small river of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Chicas and Tarija in 
Peru. 

BLANCO, CAYO, another river of the pro 
vince and government of Tucuman in Peru, of 
the district of Xuxuy. It runs e. and enters the 
Salado. 

BLANCO, CAYO, another river of the same pro 
vince and kingdom, in the jurisdiction of Salta. 
It inns e. and enters the Pasage, between those of 
Piedras and Guachipa. 



;B L A 

BLANCO, CAYO, another river of the province 
of Yapizlaga, or Llanos de Manso, in Peru. It 
runs e. and enters the Paraguay, below the port of 
San Fernando. 

BLANCO, CAYO, another river of the province 
and government of Louisiana. It rises in the 
country of the Ossages Indians, runs s, and enters 
the Mississippi. 

BLAKCO, CAYO, a ryo, or small island, near 
the n. coast of the island of Cuba, between the 
bay of Nicolas and the settlement of Paredones. 

BLANCO, CAYO, a large river of the country of 
Las Amazonas. It rises in the mountains of 
Guayana, near the line, runs w. and turning*, 
enters the Rio Negro. 

BLANCO, CAYO, a small river of the island of 
St. Domingo. It rises in the e. head, in the 
mountains of Ciboo, runs e. and then turning n. 
enters the Yuna, near where this joins the sea. 

BLANCO, CAYO, a cape or point of land on the 
coast of Brazil, and captainship of Parayba, be 
tween the capital of this name and cape Leda. 

BLANCO, CAYO, another cape on the coast of 
Tierra Firme, in the province and government of 
Venezuela, close to cape S. Roman. 

[BLANCO, CAYO, another, on the n. w. point of 
the bay of Salinas, in lat. J0. / and in some 
maps called the n. w. point of the gulf of 
Nicoya.} nm>f< 

[BLANCO, CAYO, another cape on the coast of 
California, at the broadest part of the peninsula.] 

[B i, AN co, CAYO, another cape on the n. w. 
coast of America, in New Albion, s. of the mouth 
of what has been called the River of the West.] 

[BLANCO, CAYO, another cape in the S. ocean, 
on the e. side of Patagonia, s. e. of Julian bay, 
in lat. 47 15 7 s. Eight leagues w. of Pepys s 
island.] 

[BLANDFORD, a township in Lunenburg 
county, on Mahon bay, Nova Scotia, settled by a 
few families.] 

[BLANDFORD, a township in Hampshire county, 
Massachusetts, zs. of Connecticut river, about 25 
miles s. ZL\ of Northampton, and 116 <. of Bos 
ton. Jt has 235 houses and 1416 inhabitants.] 

[BLANDFORD, a town in Prince George county, 
Virginia, about four miles n. e. from Petersburg!}, 
and is within its jurisdiction. It contains 200 
houses and 1200 inhabitants, and is pleasantly 
situated on a plain, on the e. branch of Appamat- 
tox river. Here are many large stores, and three 
tobacco warehouses, which receive annually 6 or 
7000 hogsheads. It is a thriving place, and the 
marshes in its vicinity being now drained, the air 

VOL. I. 



B L E 



169 



of this town, and that of Petersburgh, is much 
meliorated.] 

BLANQUILLA, a small island of the N. sea, 
near the coast of V era Cruz and the river Alva- 
rado, close to the island of Sacrificios. 

BLANQUJZALES, a settlement of the island 
and government of Trinidad, on the e. coast. 

BLAS, Cape ST. a cape on the coast of the 
province and government of Florida, one of those 
which form the bay of San Joseph. 

BLAS, a province and alcalciia mayor of Nueva 
Espaiia, which is very much reduced, and of a 
very limited jurisdiction. 

BLAS, a settlement of the missions which were 
held by the monks of St. Francis, of the al~ 
cald ia mayor of Acaponeta, and kingdom of 
Nueva Galicia ; situate 20 leagues e. of its ca 
pital. 

BLAS, a point or cape of the coast of Darien in 
the kingdom of Tierra Firme, which runs two 
leagues into the sea, and is very dangerous whilst 
the breza wind prevails ; indeed many vessels 
have been wrecked here in their voyage from Car 
tagena to Portobelo. It is 18 leagues distant from 
the latter place, and 62 from the former. 

[BLAS, SAN, a port in the intendancy of Gua- 
dalaxara in the kingdom of Nueva Espana. It is 
the residence of the deparlimiento de marina, 
(marine department), at the mouth of the Rio de 
Santiago. The official people (officiates reales) 
remain at Tepee, a small town, of which the 
climate is not so hot, and more salubrious. With 
in these few years the question has been discussed, 
if it would be useful to transfer the dock-yards r 
magazines, and the whole marine department from 
San Bias to Acapulco. This last port wauls wood 
for ship-building. The air there is also equally 
unhealthy as at San Bias, but the projected 
change, by favouring the concentration of the 
naval force, would give the government a greater 
facility in knowing the wants of the marine, and 
the means of supplying them. Lat. 21 32 a. 
Long. 105 W K.~\ 

BLAZA, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Darien in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, situate between two rivers, on a point of 
land which enters the grand river of Tnira. 

[BLEDSOE Lick, in the state of Tenessee, 
lies 32 miles from Big Salt lick garrison, and 36 
from Nashville.] 

BLENFIELD, PUKTA J>F, a point of laud in 
the province ami government of Nicaragua, of 
the kingdom of Guatemala, and of the coast of the 
N. sea. 



170 



B L U 



[BLENHEIM, a new town of New Yerk, in 
Sclioharie county, incorporated in 1797.] 

BLEU, a small river of tbe province and go 
vernment of Louisiana, which runs nearly due 
n. and enters the Missouri. 

BLITAS, LAS, a settlement of the province 
and government of Nicaragua in the kingdom of 
Guatemala, situate upon an island within the lake 
of Nicaragua. 

[BLOCK Island, called by the Indians Ma- 
Kisses, lies about 21 miles s. s.w. of Newport, and 
is in Newport county, state of Rhode island. It 
"was erected into a township, named New Shore- 
Ijam, in 1672. This island is 4(i miles in length, 
and its extreme breadth is 38 miles. It has 682 
inhabitants, including 47 slaves. It is famous for 
cattle and sheep, butter and cheese : round the 
edges of the island considerable quantities of cod 
fish are caught. The s. part of it is in lat. 41 
8 w.] 

BLOCK, a river of the province and colony of 
New Hampshire ; it runs e. and enters the Con 
necticut. 

[BLOCKLEY, a township in Philadelphia 
county, Pennsylvania.] 

BLONDEL, CAYOS DE, islands situated be 
tween the Caicos, to the w. of the Turks islands, in 
the N. sea. 

[BLOOMFIELD, a township in Ontario coun 
ty, New York. By the slate census of 1796, 151 
of the inhabitants were electors.] 

[BLOOMING Vale, a tract of land in the 
township of Manlius, New York state, on But 
ternut creek.] 

BLOUING, PUNT A DE, a point on the n. 
coast of the island of Jamaica, opposite the island 
of Cuba. 

[BLOUNT, a new county in the state of Te- 
iiessee.] 

[BLOUNTSVILLE, in N. Carolina, is on 
the post road from Halifax to Plymouth, 49 miles 
from Plymouth, and 55 from \Villiamstown.] 

[BLUE FIELDS Bay, lies s. e. of Savannah- 
la-mar, in the island of Jamaica, having good 
anchorage for large vessels. Lat. 18 10{ n. 
Long. 78 .] 

[BLUE HILL, a township in Hancock county, 
district of Maine, on the w. side of Union river, 
344 miles n. e. of Boston, and 13 c. of Penobscot ; 
having 274 inhabitants.] 

[BLUE HILL Bay is formed by Naskeag 
point on the w. and mount Desert island on the e. 
It extends . up to a mountain on the e. of Penob 
scot river, which, from its appearance at sea, is 



! 



BOA 

called Blue hill. Union river empties into this 
bay.] 

BLUR hills, a range of mountains in New 
England, whose first ridge in New Hampshire 
passes through Rochester, Barrington, and Not 
tingham.] 

[BLUE Mountains, in Northampton county, 
Pennsylvania, extend from s. w. to n. e. and a 
short way across the Delaware. Also a range of 
mountains which run from s. e. to n. w. through 
Surry county, in the island of Jamaica.] 

[BLUE Ridge. The first ridge of the Alleghany 
mountains in Pennsylvania and Virginia is called 
the Blue Ridge, and is about 130 miles from the 
Atlantic. It is about 4000 feet high, measuring 
from its base, and between it and the North moun 
tain is a large fertile vale. The passage of the Potow- 
mack through this ridge is one of the most stu 
pendous scenes in nature. See ALLEGHANY 
Mountains and POTOWMACK River.] 

{BLUE Licks, on the main branch of Licking 
river in Kentucky, are situated about eight miles 
w. from the Upper Blue licks. Both are on the 
n. e. side of the river ; the latter is about 15 miles 
n. e. of Millers,] 

[BLUE Spring lies between Big Barren and 
Little Barren river, s. branches of Green river, in 
Mercer s county, Kentucky ; about 22 miles s. v\ 
from Sulphur spring, and 13 s. of Craig s fort, on 
the n. side of Green river.] 

[BLUE STONE Creek, a small w. branch of 
the Great Kanhaway.] 

BOA VISTA, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of Para in Brazil, situate on the shore 
of the river of Las Amazonas, near the towil of 
Cum pa. 

BOAVfTA, a settlement of the province iand 
corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Rcyno tie 
Granada. It is of a hot temperature, tolerably 
fertile, and abounding in wheat, well-tasted maize, 
and much sugar-cane, from which is made the 
best sugar in the kingdom, and in exquisite pre 
serves. In the gardens are many date trees, as 
also a tree called estonoque, the resin of which is 
very fragrant and universally esteemed ; here it is 
used in the churches instead of incense. There 
is a place close by, where the road is so bad that 
it has obtained the name of infierno, or infernal. 
Its inhabitants, who may amount to 800 whites, 
and 150 *ndians, are much subject to the epi 
demic disorder called cotos r which is a moxbid 
swelling of the glands of the throat, and which 
causes a very unsightly appearance. It is 30 
leagues w. of Tunja, and close to the- settlement 
oi uoitoiuteib/njnoj al b tlhvj audi yi J{ 



B O C 

of Suata, being divided by the river Chicamocho, 
or Sogamoso. 

BOBANAZA, a settlement of the province 
and government of Quixos and Macas in the king 
dom of Quito, situate on the shore of the river of 
its name, with a good port. In its district there 
are trees of cinnamon, from which some have 
given it the name of San Joseph de los Canelos. 

BoBAiNAZA,the river, upon the shores of which 
is the former settlement. It is large and navi 
gable, and runs in a very crooked course till it enters 
the Pasta za ; is entered on the s. coast by the 
fivers Pabayacutinguiza, Capaguari, Aulapi, 
Caspiyacu, Pahnito, Chambira, and Pungulla- 
yacu, and on the n. by those of Umuc, Balso, 
Sarayacu, Butuno, Pujayacu, and others of less 
note. It washes the country of the ancient Gayes 
and Inuris, which is filled with woods. 

BO BARE, a settlement of the province and 
government of Venezuela, situate to the n. of the 
city of Barquisimeto, and on the shore of the 
river Tucuyo. 

BOBURES, a nation of Indians, of the pro 
vince and government of Venezuela, to the n. of 
the lake of Maracaibo, and s. of the city of Me- 
rida. They have never been subjected, and even 
now frequently make incursions upon the neigh 
bouring countries. The part which they inhabit 
is by no means the healthiest, since it lays ex 
tremely low, and is very moist. 

[BOBY, a parish of the province and govern 
ment of Paraguay, situate on a branch of the river 
Aguapey, in Lat. 26 54 46". Long. 56 IS 49" 



B O C 



171 



w.] 
B< 



IOCA DEL PEHRO, a settlement of the island 
of Cuba, on the s. coast. 

BOCA, GHANDE, a mouth of a river of the 
province and government of Nicaragua in the 
kingdom of Guatemala, namely, of the river Su- 
crte, between the rivers Anzuelos and Portete. 

BOCA CHICA, a liver of the province and 
government of Texas iu Nueva Espaiia. It runs 
s. between those of La Trinidad and La Magda- 
lena, and enters the sea. 

i* JBocA CHICA, a strait or narrow and small 
mouth of the entrance to the port of Cartagena. 
It is formed by the island of Baru on the s. and 
by the Tierra-boraba on the n. ; on the right hand 
,it has the castle of San Joseph, and on the left 
that of San Fernando, built by the Lieutenant- 
general Don Ignacio Sala, to replace those which 
were destroyed by Admiral Vernon in 1741. 
Vessels car* only enter by means of the canal, 
fibice in the other parts t here is not sufficient depth 
of water. It is thus called in contradistinction to 



the other, named Grande. For some little time 
it has been open to the sea, and it has been assi 
duously attempted to close it up, not only on ac 
count of the danger which threatens the walls and 
houses, but for the sake of impeding the entrance 
of an enemy, who can now come up within gun 
shot of the city, rendering the defence of the forts 
and of the port entirely useless. [Sec CARTA 
GENA.] 

[BocA DEI, DRAGO, a strait between the island 
of Trinidad and Andalusia, in the province of 
Tierra Firme, S. America.] 

BOCA NUEVA, one of the entrances of the 
lake of Terminos, in the province of Tobasco, 
formed by the islands of Tris. 

BOCA DE PAN, a river of the province of 
Tumbez in Peru, which receives the title from the 
gulf of Guayaquil, and runs to the bay of Tum 
bez, taking a course from s. w. to n. e. 

BOCACA, a cape or point of land in the 
island of Puna, of the province and government 
of Guayaquil. The island is low and sandy. 
This cape looks to the e. of the district of Macha- 
lay, and to the s. za. of the point or cape of Man- 
dinga, in lat. 2 26 s. 

BOCANEME, a mean settlement of the go 
vernment of Mariquitain theNuevo Reynode Gra 
nada. It is of a hot temperature, and its pro 
ductions arc few in proportion to the scarcity of 
its inhabitants, who consist of Indians. It is, 
however, noted for its rich gold mines. 

BOCAS, LAS, a settlement of the missions which 
were held by the regulars of the company of Je 
suits, in the province of Tepeguana, and king 
dom of Nueva Vizcaya, situate on the shore of 
the river Florido, and lying 15 leagues s. of the 
settlement and garrison of the valley of San Bar- 
tolome. 

BOCAS, a small island of the river of Las Ama- 
zonns, opposite the mouth or entrance of that of 
Tocantines. moit bsoi Jzoq scfi 

BOCAS, a river called De dos Bocas, in the 
country of the Ama/onas, and of the territory of 
the Portuguese. It is very abundant, rising in 
the country of the Bacaris and Cariputangas In 
dians, running many leagues n. and entering the 
Maranon, a little before this joins the sea. 

BOCAS, a settlement of the province and cap 
tainship of Para in Brazil, situate on the shore of 
the river Jacunda. 

BOCAS, another settlement of the same captain 
ship and kingdom, on the shore of the river 
Tapera, near its mouth or entrance into the sea. 

BOCAS, ariverofthe province and alcaldia mayor 
of Tobasco, which runs into the sea in the bay of 



BOD 



Mexico, between the rivers of Santa Ana and 
Cuplicos. 

BOCAS, another river of tbc province and /- 
caldia of Suehitepcc in the kingdom of Guatemala. 
It runs a;, and enters the sea opposite the barra or 
sand bank of Istapa. 

BOCAS, a settlement of (lie province and corre- 
ginriento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile, 
at the mouth of the river Choapa. 

BOCAUERITO, a settlement of the missions 
which were held by the regulars of the company 
of Jesuits, in the province of Cinaloa. 

BOCHALEMA, COIIAZON m: JESUS DE, a 
settlement of the government and jurisdiction of 
Pamplona in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is of 
a hot temperature, and produces canes, plantains, 
and other fruits peculiar to its climate. It con 
tains 150 very poor inhabitants, and is 12 leagues 
n. c. of Pamplona. 

BOCOABRI, a settlement of the province and 
government of La Sonora in Nueva Espana, 
situate to the e. of that of Los Remedies, at the 
head of a river. 

BOCON, a settlement of the province of Osti- 
muri in Nueva Espana. 

BOCONO, a settlement of the province and 
government of Caracas in the kingdom of Ticrra 
Firme, situate at the source of a river of its name. 
It has the dedicatory title of San Janeiro, and 
was founded by the Capuchin fathers of the pro 
vince of Venezuela , in the royal road which leads 
from the city of Guanare to that of Uarinas. 

BOCONO, the river which rises in the same 
province and kingdom, at the side of the moun 
tains of the city of Truxillo. After leaving the 
narrow defile through which it runs in the ser- 
rania, it begins to serve as a line of demarcation 
to the provinces of Burinas and Venezuela ; and 
then passing through some levels, where it irrigates 
some estates of cacao, indigo, and sugar-cane, 
established upon its fertile plains, it enters the 
Guanare near the settlement of San Juan Bautista 
del Miiagual, of the province of Burinas. 

BODEGA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Cartagena, situate on the sea-shore, 
at the entrance of Boca Chica. 

BODEGAS, a settlement of the province and 
government of Guayaquil. 

BOD i GAS, another settlement of the province 
and government of Honduras, situate on the 
shore of the Folso Dulce. 

BODEGON, a settlement of the province and 
correziiuicnto of Cumana in Peru, situate on the 

O * 

bea-co >st. 

BODIGUAS, a barbarous and ferocious nation 



BOG 

of the province and government of Santa Marta 
in the Nuevo Reyno, to the n. w. These Indians, 
united with the Bondas and Jeribocas, had many 
desperate struggles with the first conquerors. They 
inhabit the mountains and woods without any fixed 
residence. 

BODINGA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Santa Marta in the kingdom of 
Tierru Firme ; it was first founded by the Spaniards 
in 1529, after which the tirst followers of the reli 
gion of St. Domingo established themselves here for 
the purpose of converting and reducing to the faith 
all the Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. 

[BOD WELL S Falls, in Merrimac kriver, lie 
between Andover and Methuen, about five miles 
below Ratucket falls. A company was incorpo 
rated in Feb. 1796, for building a bridge near this 
spot, between the two states of Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire.] 

[BOEUF, LE, a place in the n. w. corner of 
Pennsylvania, at the head of the n. branch of 
French creek, and 50 miles from fort Franklin, 
where this creek joins the Alleghany, measuring 
the distance by water. The French fort of Le 
Boeuf, from which the place has its name, lies 
about two miles e. from Small lake, which is on 
the n. branch of French creek ; and from Le 
Boeuf there is a portage of 14 miles n. to Presquc 
isle, in lake Erie, where the French had another 
fort. From Le Boeuf to Prcsque isle is a con 
tinued chesnut-bottom swamp (except for about 
one mile from the former, and two from the latter); 
and the road between these two places, for nine 
miles, 15 years ago, was made with logs laid upon 
the swamp. Lat. 4156 w. Long. 80 w.] 

BOGUE, small islands near the coast of 8. 
Carolina. 

BOGOTA, a settlement and capital of the 
corregimiento of this name, also called La Sabana, 
in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate on a 
beautiful and agreeable plain, on the shores of a 
river \\hich bears the same name, and in which 
there are quantities of fine fish, especially a sort 
called caption, which is of a delicious flavour, 
and highly esteemed. It is of a cold tempera 
ture, and abounds in the seeds and fruits corres 
ponding with its climate. It was formerly a great 
and rich population, as well as having been the 
court of the native kings or zipas ; is at present 
reduced to a miserable settlement. It had once 
for its curate the Fray Juan de Labrador, of the 
order of St. Domingo, afterwards bishop of Car 
tagena. Its jurisdiction comprehends seven other 
settlements, and is two leagues w. of Santa Fe. 
[Lat. 4 35 n. Long. 74 8 w. See VENEZUELA.] 



B o r 

BOGOTA, a large river of the same kingdom, 
which rises near to Santa Fe, in the paramo of 
Albarracin, between the above city and that of 
Tunja, and after fertilizing a level space, precipi 
tates itself with a thundering noise down an im 
mense cataract, called Tequendama ; it then tra 
verses the province to which it gives its name, 
afterwards the province of Los Panches, where it 
is known to the Indians by the title of Eunzha, 
and at last enters the Magdalena. 

BOGOTA, another river of the province and 
government of Atacames, or Esmeraldas, in the 
kingdom of Quito. It runs from c. to w. for more 
than 30 leagues, receiving on the c. the waters of 
the Durango and Tululvi, and those of Cachavi. 
On the w. it irrigates many uncultivated lands 
of the nation of the Malaguas, and unites itself 
with the rivers of Santiago and San Miguel, 
before it enters the S. sea, where it forms the port 
of Limones. 

[BOHEMIA, a broad, navigable river, 10 
miles long, which runs w. n. tc 1 . into Elk river, in 
Maryland, 11 miles below Elkton.] 

[HoHio, a river of Chile in S. America.] 

BOIA, a settlement of the island of St. Domin 
go, situate in the centre of the c. head, on the 
shore of a river. 

BO1CACES, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Verajjua in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. 

O ~ 

It runs n. n. e. and enters the N. sea, between 
the rivers Culebras and Talamancas. 

BOIERUCA, LACUNAS DR, or De BOIERACO, 
as some will have it, lakes in the province and 
corregimiento of Itata in the kingdom of Chile. 
They are upon the coast, and run out into the 
sea between the quebrada (ravine) of Lora, and 
the month of the river Mataqutno. 

BOIPENA, a town of the province and cap 
tainship oi Jlheos in Brazil. 

BO1NHAY, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Paraguay in Peru. It runs;?, through 
some plains arid very fertile lands, and enters the 
Paraguay. 

BOIS, a point on the coast of the country of 
Labrador, and in the strait of Bellisle. 

BOIS, a small river of Lous tana, which runs e. 
and enters the Mississippi, between the rivers Ecors 
and San Pedro. 

BOIS, an island in the lake Huron of Canada, 
at the mouth of the strait of Michillimakinac. 

BOIS, another island of the coast of the pro 
vince of Connecticut, one of those of New England, 
at the mouth of the river Pigwaket. 

BOIS, a small river of the country and land of 



B O L 



173 



Labrador. 1 1 runs .?. between (hat of ForcJme, 
and enters the sea in the strait of Bellisle. 

Bo is, a lake of New France, of an oval figure, 
containing many islands, and communicating with 
Long lake. 

BOLA. a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Atacanas in the kingdom of Quito, 
situate on the shore of a small river, which enters 
that of Guailiabamba. 

[BOLANOLA, one of the SOCIETY Isles, 
which see.] 

BOLA IS OS, Cuuz DC, a settlement of the mis 
sions which were held by the regulars of the com 
pany of Jesuits in the province of Paraguay. It 
was destroyed at the clse of the last century by 
the infidel Indians, and the ruins of it are now 
alone to be seen near the river Nandui-Gazu. 

BOLANOS, another settlement and real of mines 
of the afcatdia mayor of Colotlan in Nueva Espana, 
where there is a convent of monks of St. Francis ; 
14 leagues ?. of its head settlement, Tlaltenango. 

BOLAS, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Guayaquil, in the district of Machala. 
It runs from e. to w. through some uncultivated 
and desert countries, and empties itself in the gulf 
of Guayaquil, nearly opposite the point of Bocona, 
of the island of Puna. 

BOL1UA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Cartagena, and of the district of 
Sinn, situate on the coast. 

[BOL1NBROKE, a town in Talbot county, 
f. shore of Maryland, and five miles e. of Oxford. 
It lies on the n. w. point of Choptank river.] 

BOLLERA, a hike of the province and govern 
ment of Maracaibo, on the shore of the grand 
river of this name, between the rivers Sulia and 
Chamn. 

BOLOS, a small river of the province and go 
vernment of Guayaquil. It runs into the sea 
through the gulf of that name, opposite the island 
of .La Puna. 

[BOLTON, a .township in Chitfcnden county, 
Vermont, on Onion river, about 104 miles n. n. c. 
from Bennington, having 88 inhabitants.] 

[BOLTON, a township in Tolhmd county, Con 
necticut, incorporated in 1720, and was settled 
from Weathersfield, Hartford, and Windsor ; 14 
miles e. from Hartford.] 

[BOLTON, a township in Worcester county, 
Massachusetts, 18 miles n. c. from Worcester, and 
34 w, from Boston. It contains 861 inhabitants. 
There is a fine bed of limestone in this town, from 
which considerable quantities of good lime are 
made yearly.] 



174 



BON 



. 

BOMB A I, a settlement of the province and 
government of Maracaibo, situate in the way which 
leads from Gibraltar to Merida, through the 
Nuevo Reyno to the n. n. e. of this last city. 

[BOMBARDE, a fort and village on the n. 
peninsula of St. Domingo island, about three 
leagues n. of La Plate Jorme; six s. e. of the 
Mole, and 22 from Port de Paix, as the road runs. 
Here it was intended by the French government 
to erect a fortress of great strength ; but the works 
to the sea only were completed when the revolu 
tion broke out.] 

BOMBSICAKO, a river of the province of 
Loxa in the kingdom of Quito. It flows down 
from the mountains of San Lucas, runs from n. 
to s. and joins the Savanilla, which enters the 
Zamora. 

f BOMBAY" HOOK, an island at the mouth of 
Delaware river, about eight miles long and two 
broad, formed by the Delaware on the e\ side, and 
Duck creek and Little Duck creek on the Mary 
land skle ; these are united together by a natural 
canal. It is proposed to connect Delaware river 
with Chesapeak bay, by a canal from Duck creek 
to that bay, through Chester river. See CHESTER 
River,.- The n. w. end of Bombay Hook is about 
47 miles from capes llenlopen and May ; from the 
Hook to Reedy island is nine miles.] 

[BOMBAZINE Rapids, on a river in Lincoln 
county, district of Maine, are navigable for boats 
with some lading, at a middling pitch of water. 
They took their name from Bombazine, an Indian 
warrior, who was slain by the English in attempt 
ing to cross them. Jr,^ C 

[BOMBAZINE, a lake, seven or eight miles long, 
in the township of Castletown, Rutland county, 
Vermont!,, , $ jn^jpiu 

BQMBE, a capital settlement and establish 
ment oi the missions which were held by the regu 
lars pf the company of Jesuits, in the province of 
ofSpuayana,- and in the part possessed by the 

Fjeneh, _ biiL, 4 LfirI /,]. C.I 

BOMBOLAN, a settlement of the province and 
government of Tucuman, in the district of the 
jurisdiction oi Salta, annexed to the curacy of 
Chjquiana. 

BOM13ON TROU, a small port of (he island 
of St. Domingo, on the n. coast of the w. head, 
and in the territory of the French. It is between 
port Jcremias and the point of Abricots or Alba- 

Jic SR\ tew 

BONA, a small island or the S. 5ea, in the bay 
r gulf of Panama, situate near, and a little to *. e. 
fttatofOteque. 



BON 

BONAIRE, or BUEN AYRE, an island of the 
N. sea, situate near Tierra Firme, in the province 
and government of Cumana, to the s. e. of the 
island of Curaoa, and n. w. of Margarita. It 
abounds in salt-mines, is renowned for a peculiar 
sort offish, called alcatraccs % of a very large size, 
and is inhabited by the Dutch. It has a good 
port, with a small settlement, but the anchorage is 
bad, the bottom being very rocky. The chief 
setllement, which is about a mile from the port, is 
nevertheless immediately on the sea-shore, and is 
the residence of the Dutch lieutenant, who is 
dependent upon the governor of Cura9oa. This 
island abounds in cattle, and besides the Dutch it 
has also some Indians. Nineteen leagues from the 
coast, and 10 from Cu.rac.oa, in Lat. 12 13 #, 
Long. G8 19 . 

[BONAMY s Point, on the $. side of Chaleiir 
bay, is at the n. w. extremity of Eel river cove, 
and forms the s. limit of the mouth of Ristigouche 
river.] 

[BONAVENTURA. See BUENAVENTURA."] 

[BONAVENTURE, on the w. side of Chaleur 
bay, lies about three leagues from New Carlisle, 
which is now called Hamilton. It was a place of 
considerable commerce, but is now declined.] 

BONAVENTURE, a small island of the gulf of 
St. Lawrence, on the coast of Nova Scotia, or 
Acadia, close .to the cape of Espom; 

BONAVENTUUE, a cape or point of the e. coast 
of the island of Newfoundland, at the entrance of 
the bay of Trinite. 

[BONAV1STA, Cape and Bay of, lie on the e. 
side of Newfoundland island. The cape lies in 
hit. 4852 w. long. 52 22 w. and was discovered 
by John Cabot and his son Sebastian in 1437,, ui 
the service of Henry VII. king of England.. Tiie 
bay is formed by this cape and that of cape 
Frecls, 15 leagues apart.] 

BOND, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, 
in the district of the parish of St. George. 

BONDA, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Santa Marta, situate on the e. side oF 

" A 1 1 

its capital. 

r>A\7T\4d i- C 1 T C At 

BONDAS, a nation of Indians of the province 
and government of Saata Marta. At the time of 
the conquest it was united with the nations of tlie 
Bodiguas and Jeribocas, in order the better 1 Jo 
counteract the power of the Spaniards^ . Jti.pre]- 
scntsome families of it only are remaining. 

[BONHAMTOWN, in Middlesex county, 
N.Jersey lies about six miles ! ju 
Brunswic 1 :. | 

BONIFACIO, SAN, a setllement 



B O Q 

vincc and government of Sonora in Nuova Espaua, 
situate on the shore of a small river, which enters 
thatofGila. 

BONIFACIO, Monno DE, a mountain of (he 
coast of the kingdom of Chile, in the district of 
Guadalabquen, between the point Del Ancla and 
the mouth of the river Meguin. 

BONNECHERE, a river of the province of 
the North Iroquees. It runs n. e. and enters the 
Utaway. 

BONZA, a settlement of the Nuevo Heyno de 
Granada. It is famous for the battle and victory 
which was gained by Gonzalo Ximinez dc Qtie- 
sada against the army of Tundama, prince of 
Tunja, in 1538, and for the imprisonment and death 
of Zacrezazipa, the last king of Bogota. The 
territory is pleasant and fertile, and irrigated by 
the river Sogamoso. 

BONZE, CABO DE, an extremity and point of 
the s. coast, which looks to the s. of the island of 
Cuba, between the point of Maizi and the river 
Guatapori. 

BOON, a .small island of the coast of New 
England, in the district of the province of Con 
necticut, lying between the main coast and Jcffry s 
bank. 

[BOONE Bay lies on the w. side of New 
foundland island, 22 leagues n. by e. of St. George s 
harbour. Lat. 49 35 n.] 

[BOONETON, a small post-town in Sussex 
county, New Jersey, on the post-road between 
Uockaway and Sussex court-house, 116 miles 
from Philadelphia.] 

[BOONS BO ROUGH, in Maddison county, 
Kentucky, lies on the s. side of Kentucky river, at 
the nimith of Otter creek, SO miles s. e. of Lex 
ington, and the same distance n. e. from Danville. 
La"t.3744 n.] 

[BOON S Creek, a small n. branch of Ken- 
tucky river.] 

[BOOTH Bay, a town and bay on the coast 
of JLincoln county, district of Maine, in n, lat. 
3* 42 about two miles w. of Pcmaquid point. 
The bay stretches within the land about 12 miles, 
and receives two small streams. On it is a (own, 
having 997 inhabitants.] 

[BOPQUAM or MQUAM Bay, on the e. 
side of lake Champlain, is situated in Swantown, 
Vermont, and has Hog island on the n. at the 
mouth of Michiscoui river.] 

BOQUEIION, VENTA DE, an entrance or open 
ing formed by the mountains, in the road uhich 
leads from Porto vel to Panama, i the kingdom of 
Tierra JFirmc. It is an indispensable pass, and 
there is here a house or inn, commonly the rev.- 



B O R 



175 



dence of a strong guard, for the detecting (he 
contraband trade. 

BOQUEROV, ft small island of the N. sea, on 
the coast and in the province of Cartagena, situate 
in the bay of Tolu. It is one of those which 
form this bay. 

BOQUEHON, a point on the e. coast of the straits 
of Magellan, between cape San Valentin and that 
of Monmouth. 

BOQUEUOX, an inlet or small bay on the same 
coast, close to the point of (he same name. 

BOQUERONES, CAUO DK, an extremity and 
point of the coast of the province of Darien, 
between port Acla and the island of Pinos. 

[BOQUET River passes through the town of 
Willsborough, in Clinton county, New York, and 
is navigcible for boats about two miles, and is there 
interrupted by falls, on which are mills. At this 
place are the remains of an entrenchment thrown 
up by General Burgoyne.] 

BOQUETA, an entrance made by the sea, in 
the province and government of Cartagena, on the 
side of this city, where (here is a guard for the 
discovery of con(rabands, and for noting down 

the small trading vessels which come to supply 
,1 ... * * J 

this city. 

BORANTE, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Venezuela. It runs near (he city of 
Nucva Segovia, abounds in very excellent fish, 
and the lands which it irrigates are fertile, and 
produce much maize. 

BORBON, REAL DE, a town of the province 
and government of Sierra Gorda, in the bay of 
Mexico, and the kingdom of Nueva Espana, 
founded in 1748 by Don Joseph dc Efcandon, 
Count of Sierra Gorda, and the Colonel of the 
Militia of Queretaro. 

[BOltDENTOWN, a pleasant town in Bur- 
lington county, New Jersey, is situated at the 
month of Crosswick*s creek, on the e. bank of a 
great bend of Delaware river, six miles below 
Trenton, nine n. e. from Burlington by water, 
and J5 by land, and 24 miles . e. from Phila 
delphia ; and th rough this (own, which contains 
about 100 houses, a line of stages passes from New 
York to Philadelphia. The second division of 
Hessians was placed in this town, in December 
1776, and by the road leading to it, GOO men of 
that nation escaped, when Gen. Washington sur 
prised and made prisoners of 886 privates, and 23 
Hessian officers, at Trenton.] 

BORDET, Tuou, a settlement and parish of 
the French, in the island of St. Domingo, situate 
in the w . head, on the side of a small port, which 
gives it its name. 






1T6 



B O R 



BORDONES, a settlement of the province and 
government of Cumana. It is composed of the 
Indians of Piritu, founded in 1688 by the Colonel 
and Governor Don Mateo Gaspar de Acosta. 

BORGNE, a lake of the province and govern 
ment of Louisiana. It is formed by a canal of 
water which enters the bay of St. Luis, and is 
near the e. coast of New Orleans. 

BORGNE, an island of the river of St. Lawrence 
in New France, or country of the Outacas Indians. 
It is formed by an arm of that river which runs 
from, and then returns to enter the mother bed. 

[BORGNE, Li, a town on the n. side of the 
n. peninsula of the island of St. Domingo, three 
leagues w. by n. of Port Margot, and eight e. by s. 
of Port de Paix.] 

J5ORICA, a small island, situate near the coast 
of Tierra Firme, in the province and government 
of Venezuela, and at the entrance of the lake of 
Maracaibo, 

BOR1LOS, a barbarous nation of Indians who 
dwell to the e. of the Chiquitos, and n. of the 
Purasicas, in Peru. It was discovered by (he mi--- 
sionaries of the order of Jesuits of the province of 
Lima, in 1718, who succeeded in making converts 
to the faith until the year 1767. 

BOKIQUEN; a point on the w. of the island of 
San Juan de Puerto-rico, between the river of 
Guaxayaca, and the port of A guada, opposite the 
cape Engano, of the island of Si. Domingo. It is 
one of those which form the port. 
BORIQUEN. eeBiEQii:. 
[BORIQUEX, or CRABS Island. Sec Bi our..] 
BORJA, SA.N FRANCISCO i,r:, a capital city of 
the province and government of Mainas in the 
kingdom of Quito, founded in 1619 by Captain 
Diego Vaca de Vega, with the name of Nneslra, 
Senora de la Concepcion, on the f. shore of the 
fiver Maranon, four leagues from Santiago de las 
Montanas, at the time that these parts were visited 
by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, with 
views of making discoveries, and of extending 
fheir missions. It was afterwards, in 15^4, re 
moved tothespotwhereitat present stands, near the 
source of ihc river Pastaza, and opposite (he mouth 
of that oi Cahuapanas, upon an eminence near to 
a stagnant pool of the Maranon, after the narrow 
sfrait or Channel of the Pongo. This name was 
given it out of compliment to Don Francisco de 
Borja, Prince of Esquilache, Viceroy of Peru, 
to whom it capitulated at its conquest. Its in 
habitants arc for the most part Indians ; its climate 
is warm and moist ; it is the residence of the 
lieutenant-governor of the province, and of a 
curate who belonged to the company of Jesuits, 



B O R 

until the year 1767. Its first inhabitants were the 
conquerors of all the barbarous nations of the 
Maranon. Lat. 4 28 s. Long. 76 24 w. 

BORJA, a settlement of the missions which were 
maintained by the regulars of the company of 
Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara in the king 
dom of Nueva Vizcaya ; distant 24 leagues s. w. % 
to the c . of the real of the mines and town of San 
F elipe de Chiguagua. 

BORJA, another, of the missions which were 
held by the same regulars of the company of 
Jesuits, in the province and government of Buenos 
Ayres, situate on the shore ot the river Uruguay r 
[in Lat. 28 39 5 1*. Long. 57 56 w.~] 

BORJA, another, in the province and govern 
ment of Moxos, of the kingdom of Quito, founded 
on the shore of the river Manique. 

BOROA, a district and province of the king 
dom of Chile. 

BOROJO, a settlement of the province and 
government of Maracaibo, situate on the coast, at 
the mouth of the river of its name; opposite the 
great lake, and on the s. side of it. 

BOROJO, a river of the same province and 
government, which rises near the coast, and enters 
tlie sea opposite (he former settlement. 

BOROMBON, SAN, a settlement of the pro- 
vince and government of Buenos Ayres, situate 
near the coast and bay of its name, ou the hide 
opposite to the colony of Sacramento. 

BOKOMBON, a bay of the former province and 
government, near the mouth of the river La Plata, 
and the capital. 

BOHONOTA, a large settlement of the Nucvo 
Reyno de Granada, and government of Santa 
Marta ; founded in the plains, or Uanuras? which 
lie towards die n. Its natives arc of the Guuranos 
and Guaxiros nations. It is governed by a cazique, 
and belongs to the missions of the Catalan ian Ca 
puchin fathers. 

BOROS, a barbarous nation of Peru, to the e. 
of (he province of the Chiquitos, which extends 
itself through those woods and pin ins as far as 
the river Paraguay. It is but little known. 

BOROTARE, a settlement of the province 
and government of Santa Marta, situate on the 
shore of a river which runs to empty itself into 
the lake of Maracaibo. 

BORQUIELES, islands or rocks of the N. 
sea, by the coast ot the province and government 
of Darien ; they are two, and lie at the w. moutli 
or entrance of the port of Arboleles. 

BORRACIIOS, PUNT A JJF, a point on the 
coast of the province and government of Guaya 
quil in the kingdom of Peru. 



BOS 

BORRACNA, an island of the N. sea, very 
near the coast of Tierra Firme, in the province of 
Barcelona and government of Cumana, between 
the cities of these names. 

BOHUCAS, SAN LORENZO DE, a town of the 
province and government of Costa-rica in the 
kingdom of Guatemala, situate on the coast of the 
S. sea. 

BORUGAj CABO DE, a cape on the coast of 
the province and government of Veragua and 
kingdom of Tierra Firme, between the gulf 
Dulce, and the port of Las Caravelas Grandes. 

[BOSCAWEN, a township in Ilillsborough 
county, New Hampshire, on the w. bank of 
Merrimack river, above Concord ; 43 miles n. w. 
of Exeter, and 38 s. e. of Dartmouth college, hav 
ing 1108 inhabitants. Boscawen hills are in this 
neighbourhood.] 

BOSTON, a large and opulent city, the me 
tropolis of New England, and of the county of 
Suffolk, in N. America. In the year 1774, its 
port was prohibited by an act of parliament of 
Great Britain, and it was shortly after entered by 
the king s troops, who destroyed many edifices, 
and caused considerable havoc. It was at that 
time the largest and most considerable city of any 
of New England, having been founded in 1630, 
by the English colonists who came to it from 
Charlestown, in a peninsula of nearly four miles 
in circumference, and 44 from the bay of Massa 
chusetts. It suffered much from an earthquake 
which took place on the 29th October 1727. It is 
the best situated for commerce of any city in 
America ; on the n. side of it are two small islands 
called Brewster, to one of which is also given the 
name of Noddle. The only entrance to the bay is 
through a channel so narrow, from the number of 
islands, as scarcely to admit three ships a-breast. 
There are, however, marks and buoys placed so 
as to ensure a safe entrance, and the bay itself 
is capable of containing 500 vessels, in a sufficient 
depth of water, where they might formerly lie 
defended by the cannon of a regular fortress, but 
this was destroyed in the said war. At the ex 
tremity of the bay is a quay 2000 feet in length, 
which on the n. part has a set of regular maga 
zines, beginning from the principal street in the 
city : this street, as well as all the others, is spa 
cious and straight. The town from the bay has a 
beautiful appearance ; it is in the form of an am 
phitheatre, with a house for the magistrate, in 
which are the tribunals, and a change, which is a 
very fine piece of architecture, surrounded by 
many libraries, well provided, and giving work 
for n ve printing houses. It contains 19 churches, 

VOL. i. 



BOS 



177 



nearly GOOO houses, and 30,000 inhabitants. To 
form some judgment of the riches of this capital, it is 
sufficient to know, that from Christmas in the year 
1747 to the following, 1748, no less than 500 
vessels left its port, and that 450 entered it, not 
to mention the fishing vessels and coasters, the 
number of which alone amounted to at least 1000. 
It suffered much in 1773 by a terrible tempest. 
The commerce of this city is very great, not only 
on account of its own productions, but with re 
gard to the productions of other parts, since its 
inhabitants are, as it were, the factors of all the 
other colonies of N. America, the E. Indies, 
and of some parts of Europe. Its principal ar 
ticles or eftects are trees and ship-masts, fish, tar, 
turpentine, planks, salted meats, as well pork as 
beef, butter, cheese, horses, large cattle, wheat, 
cider, honey, and flax ; and although it trades 
also in skins, yet these form no considerable p:irt 
of its commerce. On its coast arc large whale- 
fisheries, in which a great number of its inhabi 
tants are employed ; and it is computed that 30,000 
quintals of oil are annually sent to Italy, Spain, 
England, and (he islands of America, as also 
20,000 more to the Negroes of the W. Indies. 
The excessive quantity of liquors distilled in Bos 
ton from molasses, received in exchange or barter 
from the W. Indies, is such as to cause them to 
be sold for two shillings a barrel, and with thera 
are supplied all the colonies of N. America. Thcj 
are also sufficient for the traffic with the Indians, 
for that of the fisheries of Newfoundland, and for 
a great part of the trade to Africa. The rum is as 
much renowned for its plentifulness and cheap 
ness as for its quality. This may be looked upon 
as almost the only colony that has manufacture* 
equal to its consumption. The cloths made here 
are strong and close wove : these manufactories 
were established by some Irish Presbyterians, 
who fled from persecution, and through affinity of 
religion, settled here, introducing the manufac 
ture of linens of a very delicate texture ; thus 
having highly increased the commercial credit 
and reputation of the colony. They likewise 
make excellent hats here, and these, although 
contraband, are a great article of exportation to the 
other colonies. The vessels built here, through 
the commission of its dock, and which are after 
wards sold with their cargo in the ports of Spain, 
France, and Portugal, formed the principal source 
of its commerce. There used to be a light-house 
jn a rock for the direction of vessels in the night, 
the which was destroyed with the fortifications in 
the late war. This uar originated in this capital 
in 1774, when the inhabitants burnt the tea which 




178 



BOSTON. 



came from England, being unwilling to pay the 
heavy duties imposed on that article. The result 
of the struggle was, that they declared themselves 
independent of the English crown, together with 
the other colonies, as may be seen in the article 
UNITED STATES. All sects are tolerated in this 
city, and in it are ten churches. 

[Boston, the capital of the state of Massachu 
setts, the largest town in New England, is now the 
third in size and rank in the United States, and 
lies in lat. 42 18 15" n. and long. 70 59 53" w. 
This town, with the towns of Hingham, Chelsea, 
and Hull, constitute the county of Suffolk, 17(3 
miles s. ic. of Wiscasset, 61 s. by w. of Ports 
mouth, 164 n. e. of New Haven, 252 n. e. of 
New York, 347 n. e. of Philadelphia, and 500 
w. e. of the city of Washington. Boston is built 
upon a peninsula of irregular form at the bottom 
of Massachusetts bay, and is joined to the main 
land by an isthmus on the s, end of the town, lead 
ing to lloxbury. It is two miles long, but is of 
unequal breadth ; the broadest p-irt is 726 yards. 
The peninsula contains about 700 acres, (other ac 
counts say 1000), on which are 2376 dwelling 
bouses. The number of inhabitants in 1790 was 
18,038, but the increase has been very consider 
able since. The town is intersected by 97 streets, 
36 lanes, and 26 alleys, besides 18 courts, &c. ; 
most of these are irregular, and not very conve 
nient. State street, Common street, and a few 
others, are exceptions to this general character; 
the former is very spacious, and being on a line 
with Long wharf, where strangers usually land, 
exhibits a flattering idea of the town. Here are 
19 edifices for public worship, of which nine 
are for Congregationalists, three for Episcopalians, 
and two for Baptists the Friends, Roman Ca,- 
tholics, Methodists, Sandcmanians, and Univer- 
salists, have one each. Most of these are orna 
mented with beautiful spires, with clocks and bells. 
The other public buildings are the state-house, 
court-house, two theatres, concert-hall, faneuil- 
hall, gaol, an alms-house, a work-house, a bride 
well, and powder-magazine. Franklin place, 
adjoining Federal street theatre, is a great orna 
ment to the town ; it contains a monument of Dr. 
Franklin, from whom it takes its name, and is 
encompased on two sides with buildings, which, 
in point of elegance, are not exceeded perhaps in 
the United States. Here are kept in capacious 
rooms, given and fitted up for the purpose, the 
Boston library, and the valuable collections ot tiie 
historical society. Most of the public buildings 
are handsome, and some of them are elegant. A 
magnificent state-house is now erecting in Boston, 



on the s. side of Beacon hill, fronting the Mall, 
the corner-stone of which was laid with great 
formality and parade on the 4th of July 1795, 
and which overtops tbe monument on Beacon hill. 
The market-place, in which the faneuil-hall is situ 
ated, is supplied with all kinds of provisions wliich 
the country affords. The fish market, in particu 
lar, by the bounteous supplies of the ocean and 
rivers, not only furnishes the rich with the rarest 
productions, but often provides the poor with a 
cheap and grateful repast. Boston harbour is 
formed by point Alderton on the s. and by Nahant 
point on the;?. It is variegated with about forty 
islands, of which fifteen only can be properly 
called so ; the others being small rocks or banks 
of sand, slightly covered with verdure. These 
islands afford excellent pasturage, hay, and grain, 
and furnish agreeable places of resort in summer 
to parties of pleasure. Castle island is about three 
miles from the town ; its fortifications, formerly 
called Castle William, defend the entrance of the 
harbour. It is garrisoned by about 50 soldiers, 
who serve as a guard for the convicts, who are 
sent here to hard labour. The convicts are 
chiefly employed in making nails. The light 
house stands on a small island on the n. entrance 
of the channel, (point Alderton and Nantasket 
heights being on the s.), and is about 65 feet high. 
To steer for it from cape Cod, the course is w. n. w. 
when within one league of the cape ; from cape 
Cod to the light-house is about 16 leagues; from 
cape Ann the course is s. w. distant ten leagues. 
A cannon is lodged and mounted at the light 
house to answer signals. Only seven of the islands 
in the bay are within the jurisdiction of the town, 
and taxed with it, viz. Noddle s, Hog, Long, 
Deer, Spectacle, Governor s, and Apple islands. 
The wharfs and quays in Boston are about 80 
in number, and very convenient for vessels. 
Long wharf, or Boston pier, in particular, ex 
tends from the bottom of State street 1743 feet into 
the harbour in a straight line. The breadth is 
104 feet. At the end are 17 feet of water at ebb 
tide. Adjoining to this wharf on the ?;. is a con 
venient wharf called Minot T s T, from the name 
of its former proprietor and its form. Vessels are 
supplied here with fresh water from a well sur 
rounded by salt water, which has been dug at a 
great expence. Long wharf in every respect ex 
ceeds any thing of the kind in the United States. 
In February 1796, a company was incorporated 
to cut a canal b< hvcen this harbour and Hoxbury, 
which is neatly completed. Charles river and 
West Boston bridges are highly useful and orna 
mental to Boston; and both are on Charles river,! 



BOSTON. 



[which mingles its waters with those of Mystic 
river, in Boston harbour. Charles river bridge 
connects Boston with Charlestown in Middlesex 
county, and is 1503 feet long, 42 feet broad, 
stands on 75 piers, and cost the subscribers 50,000 
dollars. It was opened June 19, 1787. 

Feet long. 

West Boston bridge stands on 180 piers, is 3483 
Bridge over the gore, 14 piers, - - - 275 

Abutment, Boston side, ,-ejj, 87| 

Causeway, __..---.- 334 
Distance from the end of the causeway to 

Cambridge meeting-house, - - - - 7810 
"Width of the bridge, 40 

This beautiful bridge exceeds the other as much 
in elegance as in lenglb, and cost the subscribers 
76,700 dollars. Both bridges have draws for the 
admission of vessels, and lamps for the benefit of 
evening passengers. Seven free schools are sup 
ported here at the public ex pence, in which the 
children of every class of citizens may freely asso 
ciate together. The number of scholars is comput 
ed at about 900, of which 160 are taught Latin, 
&c. There are besides these many private schools. 
The principal societies in the commonwealth hold 
their meetings in this town, and are, the marine 
society, American academy of arts and sciences, 
Massachusetts agricultural society, Massachusetts 
charitable society, Boston Episcopal charitable 
society, Massachusetts historical society, society 
for propagating the gospel, Massachusetts congre 
gational society, medical society, humane society, 
Boston library society, Boston mechanic associa 
tion, society for the aid of emigrants, charitable 
fire society, and seven respectable lodges of free 
and accepted masons. The foreign and domestic 
trade of Boston is very considerable, to support 
which there are three banks, viz. the branch of the 
United States bank, the Union, and the Massa 
chusetts bank ; the latter consists of 800 shares of 
600 dollars, equal to 400,000; the capital of the 
Union bank is 1,200,000 dollars, 400,000 of which 
are the property of the stale. In 1784 the entries 
of foreign and coasting vessels were 372, and the 
clearances 450. In 1794 the entries from foreign 
ports were 567. In 1795 these entries amounted 
to 725, of which the ships were 96, barques 3, 
snows 9, polacre 1, brigs 185, dogirer 1, schooners 
362, shallop 1, and sloops 65. To the principal 
manufactures, above enumerated, we may add 
loaf-sugar, beer, sail-cloth, cordage, wool, and 
cotton cards, playing cards, pot and pearl ashes, 
paper hangings, plate, glass, tobacco, and cho 
colate. There are SO distilleries, two breweries, 
fight sugar-houses, and eleven rope-walks. 



Eight years ago, the intercourse with the country 
barely required two stages and twelve horses, on 
the great road between this and New Haven, dis 
tant 164 miles ; whereas there are now 20 car 
riages and 100 horses employed. The number 
of the different stages that run through the week 
from this town is upwards of 20 ; about 10 years 
ago there Mere on|y three. Attempts have been 
made to change the government of the town from 
its present form to that- of a city, but this mea 
sure, not according with the democratic spirit of 
the people, has as yet failed. At an annual meet 
ing in March, nine select men are chosen for the 
government of the town ; at the same time an? 
chosen a town-clerk, a treasurer, 12 overseers ot 
the poor, 24 fire wards, 12 clerks of the market, 
12 scavengers, 12 constables, besides a number 
of other officers. If the inhabitants do not reap 
all the advantages they have a right to expect from 
their numerous officers, it is said that it is not for 
want of wholesome laws for the regulation of the 
weights, measures, and quality of provisions, or 
other branches of police, but because the laws 
are not put in execution. Besides those called 
trained bands, there are four other military com 
panies in Boston, viz. the ancient and honourable 
artillery company, the cadets, fusileers, and 
artillery. The ancient and honourable artillery 
company was incorporated in 1638, and the elec 
tion of a captain and officers of it for the year is on 
the first Monday in June annually, which is ob 
served here as a day of festivity. Several officers 
in the American army, who signalized themselves 
in the late war, received their first knowledge of 
tactics in this military school. Boston Mas called 
Shaumut by the Indians; Trimountain by the 
settlers in Charlcstown, from the view of its three 
hills ; and had its present name in token of respect 
to the Rev. Mr. Cotton, a minister of Boston ia 
England, and afterwards minister of the first 
church here. Boston has suffered severely by 
numerous fires, the houses being mostly built of 
wood. The last large fire happened July 30, 
1794, and consumed 96 house*, rope-walks, &c. 
and the account of losses given in by the sufferers 
amounted to 209,861 dollars. Boston fee s a 
pride in having given birth to Benjamin Franklin, 
and a number of other patriots, who were airong 
the most active and influential characters in efiVcf- 
ing the revolution.] 

[BOSTON Corner, a tract of land adjoining 
mount "Washington, Berkshire county, Massachu 
setts, containing 67 inhabitants.] 

[BOSTON, NKW, a township in HiHt-boronf-h 
county, New Hampshire, containing 1202 
A A 2 



180 



B O U 



bitants, 12 miles s. w. by w. from Amuskeeg falls, 
60 miles w. of Portsmouth, and a like distance . w. 
of Boston. ] 

EOT EN Creek, a small river of the province and 
government of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions. 

[BOTETOURT, a county in Virginia, on the 
Blue ridge, w. of which are the Sweet springs, 
about 42 miles fro u the Warm springs. Its chief 
town is Fincastle.] 

BOTIN, a settlement of the kingdom of Nueva 
Espana, and province of Culiacan, near the capi 
tal town of this name. 

BOTONN, a settlement of the island of Bar- 
badors. 

[BOTTLEHILL, avilla^ein Somerset comty, 
New Jersey, two miles n. w. Lorn Chatham, and 
15 . w. of Elizabeth town.! 

BO UCAN-BROU, Rio DHL, a river in the island 
of St. Domingo, in the French possessions. It is 
small, rises in the w. coast, and rur.s by a w. course 
into the sea, between the river of Los Naranjos 
and the bay of Los Flamencos. 

BOUCAS1N, a mountain of the island of St. 
Domingo, in the French possessions, near the coast 
of the w. head of the point of Aracahy. 

BOUKFUKA, a settlement of Indians of S. 
Carolina, situate at the source, of the river of 
Pearls. The English have in it a fort and a com 
mercial establishment. 

BOUCHERU1LLE, a fort of the French, in 
the province and country of the Iroquees Indians, 
on the shore of the river St. Lawrence, opposite 
the island of Montreal. 

[BOUDOIR, LE, a smalt island in the Pacific 
ocean, lat. 17 52 .?. long, from Paris, 15 25 w. 
discovered, April 2, 1768, by Bougainville. This 
island, the year before, had been discovered by 
"Wallis, and named Osnaburg. The natives call 
it Muiten, according to the report of Captain 
Cook, who visited it in 1769. Quiris discovered 
this island in 1606, and called it La Dezana. See 

OSNABURGH.1 

BOUGAINVILLE, Rio DE, a river in the 
Malvine or Falkland islands. It was discovered 
and thus named by a naval captain, Don Luis de 
Bougainville, in 176.3. It runs into the sea through 
* bay in the largest of these islands. 

[BOLGANVILT,E S Straits are at the w. to. end 
*>f the isles of Solomon.] 

[BOUGIE Inlet, on the coast of N. Carolina, 
between Core sound and Little inlet.] 

BOUK11OUMA, a small river of the province 
and government of Louisiana, which runs s. be 
tween the rivers of Pearls and Estapacha, and 
tnkrs the sea in the bay of St. Louis. 



BOW 

BOULANGER, two small islands of the N. 
sea, situate within the bay and port of the great 
Cul de Sac in the island of Guadalupe. 

BOULANGEH, a small river of the island of 
Guadalupe, which runs n. e. and enters the sea 
in the bay and port of the great Cul de Sac, on 
the n. side of that island. 

[BOUNDBROOK, a village in Somerset coun 
ty, New Jersey, on the n. bank of Rariton 
river.] 

BOUQUETS, CROIX DES, a settlement and 
parish of the French, in their possessions in the 
island of St. Domingo, and of the jurisdiction of 
cape Frances. 

[BOURBON, a county laid out and orga 
nized in the year 1785 by the state of Georgia, 
in the s. w. corner of the state, on the Mississippi, 
including the Natchez country. The laws of 
Georgia were never carried into effect in this 
country, and it has been under the jurisdiction of 
the Spaniards since their conquest of this part of 
the country in 1780, till it was given up to the 
United States by the treaty of 1795. The law of 
Georgia, establishing the county of Bourbon, is 
now in force. See LOUISIANA.] 

[BOURBOX Fort, in the island of Martinico in 
the West Indies.] 

^ [BOURBON County, in Kentucky, between 
lacking and Kentucky rivers, contains 7837 inha 
bitants, including 908 slaves.] 

[BOURBON, a post-town and capital of the 
above county, stands on a point of land formed by 
two of the s. branches of Licking river; 22 
miles . e. of Lexington, 21 e. of .Lebanon, 
and 749 w. s. w. from Philadelphia, and contains 
about 60 houses, a Baptist church, a court-house, 
and gaol. There are several valuable mills in its 
vicinity J 

BOURSAUL, a river of the island of Guada 
lupe. It rises in the s. e. mountains, runs s. e. 
and enters the sea between the rivers of the Goy- 
aves and the Petite Plaine. 

BO V, a township of the English in the pro 
vince of Hampshire, situate on the shore of the 
river Pennycook, opposite the mouth of that of 
Contocook. 

[Bow is a township in Rockingham county, 
New Hampshire, on the w. bank of Merrimack 
river, a little s. of Concord, 53 miles from 
Portsmouth. It contains 56S inhabitants.] 

[BOWDOIN, a township in Lincoln county, 
district of Maine, on <hc n. e. bank of Audroscoggin 
river, distant from York n. e. 36 miles, andiiora 
the mouth of Kennebcck river 6 miles, and 166 
n. e. of Boston. It contains 983 inhabitants.] 



BOY 

[BOWDOINHAM, a township in Lincoln 
county, district of Maine, separated from Pownal- 
borough e. and Woolwich s. e. by Kenncbcck 
tiver. It has 455 inhabitants, and lies 171 miles 
n. e. from Boston] 

[BOWLING Green, a village in Virginia, 
on the post-road, 22 miles s. of Fredericksburg, 
48 n. of Richmond, and 25 n. of Hanover court 
house.] 

BOAACA, a settlement of the corregimicnto 
of Bogota in the Nuevo Reyno dc Granada. It 
is of an extremely cold temperature, produces 
\vh at, maize, birley, papas, and other fruits 
of - \ cold climate; contains 200 housekeepers and 
170 Indians, and is six leagues to the s. e. of 
Santa Fe. 

[BOXBOROUGH, a township in Middlesex 
county, Massachusetts, containing 412 inhabitants, 
30 miles n. w. from Boston.] 

[BOXFORD, a small township in Essex coun 
ty, Massachusetts, having 925 inhabitants. It 
lies on the s. e. side of Merrimack river, seven 
miles w. of Newbury port. In the southernmost 
of its two parishes is a blomary.] 

BOXOLEO, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Popayan. It is in the s. part, runs 
from e. to w. and is passed by a ford at the route 
which leads from Pasto to Popayan. It unites 
itself with Esinita, and these together enter the 
Quilcase*. 

BOYACA, a settlement of the province and 
cerrcgimfento of Tutija in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. It is of a cold temperature, produces 
in moderation wheat, maize, vetches, and apples, 
and with the latter of which the place abounds; 
but its principal traffic is in lime, which is made 
in abundance for the whole province, and for 
Santa Fe, being the best t mt can be made. It 
contains somewhat more than 25 housekeepers 
and 80 Indians, whose glory it is that their an 
cestors alone, in the obscurity of gentilism, had 
any notion of a Supreme Being, trie author of all 
created, one in essence and three in person. Thus 
it was that they adored a human image with three 
heads. It is distant an hour and an half s journey 
s. of Tunja. It was taken and sacked by Gonzalo 
Ximificz de Qucsada hi 1537. 

[BOYLSTON, a township in Worcester 
county, Massachusetts, having 839 inhabitants, 
10 miles n. e* of Worcester, and 45 n. zo. of Bos 
ton. It was incorporated in 1786, having been a 
parish of Shrewsbury since 1712, and contains by 
survey 14,396 acres of land, well watered, and of 
a rich soil.] 



B It A 



181 



BOZA, a settlement and head settlement of the 
corregimienlo of this name in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. It is of a cold temperature, but healthy 
and delightfully pleasant, from whence it was 
chosen, at certain seasons, as a place of recrea 
tion by the viceroy of that kingdom, Don Joseph 
de Solis, who was fond of duck-hunting; in 
which fowl it abounded, as well as in all the pro 
ductions of a cold climate. It has some very 
good pastures for cattle, contains upwards of 100 
housekeepers, and as many Indians, and its juris 
diction comprehends six other settlements. It is 
three leagues s. of Santa Fe. 

BOZA, another settlement of the island of Cuba, 
on the n. coast, between the settlement of Maza 
and the bay of Nipe. 

BOZAIRU, a village and settlement of the 
Portuguese, in the province and captainship of 
Pernambuco in Brazil, situate near the sea-coast. 

[BOZRA, a town in New London county, 
Connecticut, formerly a parish in the town of 
Norwich, 36 miles e. from Hartford.] 

BRACUAENDA, a river of the province and 
government of Buenos Ayres. It runs w. and en 
ters the Uruguay between the rivers Yacui and 
Cavayama. 

[BRADDOCK S Field, the place where Gen. 
Braddock, with the first division of his army, 
consisting of 1400 men, fell into an ambuscade of 
400 men, chiefly Indians, by whom he was de 
feated and mortally wounded, July 9, 1755. The 
American militia, who were disdainfuly turned 
in the rear, continued unbroken, and served as a 
rearguard, and, under Col. \V ashington, the late 
president of the United States of America, pre 
served the regulars from being entirely cut off. 
It is situate on Turtle creek, on the n. e. bank of 
Monongahela river, six miles e. s. e. from Pitts- 
burg.] 

[SHADDOCK S Bay, on the.?, side of lake On 
tario, 42 miles w. from Great Sodus, and 65 e. from 
fort Niagara.] 

BRADFORD, EAST and WEST, are townships 
in Chester county, Pennsylvania.] 

BRADFOKD, a township in Essex county, Mas 
sachusetts, situate on the s, side of Merrimack 
river, opposite Haverhill, and 10 miles to. of New 
bury port. It has two parishes, and 1371 inha 
bitants. Quantities of leather shoes are made here 
for exportation ; and in the lower parish some ves 
sels are built. Several streams fall into the Merri 
mack from this town, which support a number of 
mills of va 1 ious kinds. 

[BRADFORD, a township ia HillsborougU 



182 



BRA 



county, New Hampshire, containing 217 inhabi 
tants, incorporated in 1760 ; 20 miles e. of Charles- 
town.] 

[BRADFORD, a township in Orange county, 
Vermont, on the w. bank of Connecticut river, 
about 20 miles above Dartmouth college, having 
654 inhabitants. There is a remarkable ledge of 
rocks in this township, as much as 200 feet high. 
It appears to hang over, and threaten the traveller 
as he passes. The space between this ledge and 
Connecticut river is scarcely wide enough for a 
road.] 

[BRAGA, HA, now FORT DAUPHIN, in the 
island of Cuba.] 

BRAGADO, a small river of the province and 
government of Buenos Ayres, which runs e. and 
enters the Parana to the s. of the city of Santa Fe. 

[BRAINTREE, a township in Orange county, 
Vermont, lies 75 miles n. e. of Bennington. It 
joins Kingston w. Randolph on the e. and con 
tains 221 inhabitants.] 

[BiiAiNTREEjOne of the most ancient townships 
in Norfolk county, in the state of Massachusetts, 
was settled in 1625, and then called Mount Woo- 
laston, from the name of its founder. It lies on a 
bay, eight mi es e. of s. from Boston, and con 
tained, before its division, 400 houses and 2771 in 
habitants. Great quantities of granite stones are 
sent .to Boston from this town for sale. The bay 
abounds with fish and sea fowl, and particularly 
brants. This town is noted for having produced, 
in former and latter times, the first characters both 
in church and state ; and in distant ages will de 
rive no small degree of fame, for having given 
birth to John Adams, the first vice-president, and 
the second president of the United States of Ame 
rica; a man highly distinguished for his patriot 
ism as a citizen ; his justice, integrity, and ta 
lents, as a lawyer ; his profound and extensive 
erudition as a writer ; and his discernment, firm 
ness, and success, as a foreign minister and states 
man.] 

B KAMA DOR, CERRO, a mountain of the pro 
vince and corrcgimiento of Coquimbo in the king 
dom of Chile, to the s. of the town of Copiapo. 

BRANCO, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Guayana, in the Portuguese pos 
sess ons. 

[BRANCO DE M ATJAMBO, a town in the 

province of St. Marta in Tierra Firme, . S. Ame- 

r ; c i. It is a place of great trade, and seated on 

the river M gdalena, 75 miles n. of Cartagena, 

s a bishop s see. It has a good harbour. 

il40 . Long. 75-30 n.] 



BRA 

[BRANDY POTS, are isles, so called, in the 
river St. Lawrence, 40 leagues below Quebec.] 

BRANDY WINE, a large and convenient port 
of the province of Pennsylvania. 

BRANDY WINE, a small river of the same pro 
vince and colony, which runs s. s. e. and enters the 
Delaware. 

[BRANDY WINE Creek falls inio Christiana 
creek from the n. at Wilmington, in Delaware 
state, about 25 miles from its n. and n. w. sources, 
which both rise in Chester county, Pennsylvania. 
This creek is famous for a bloody battle, fought 
Sept. 11, 1777, between the British and Ameri 
cans, which lasted nearly the whole day, and the 
latter were defeated with considerable loss ; but it 
was far from being of that decisive kind which 
people had been led to expect, in the event of a 
meeting between the hostile armies on nearly 
equal terms, both as to numbers and the nature 
of the ground* on which each army was situated. 
It was fought at Chadd s ford, and in the neigh 
bourhood of, and on, the strong grounds at Bir 
mingham church. See DELAWARE, for an ac 
count of the celebrated mills on this creek.] 

[BRANDY WINE, a township in Chester county, 
Pennsylvania.] 

BRAN FORD, a township of the English in the 
province of Connecticut, one of the four of New 
England, situate on the side of the strait of Long 
island. This township is in New Haven county, 
considerable for its iron works. It lies on the s. 
side of a river of the same name, which runs into 
Lon<r island sound, 10 miles e. from New Haven, 
and 40.?. of Hartford. 

[BRASS D OR, called also LABRADOR, a lake 
which forms into arms and branches, in the island 
of Cape Breton, or Sydney, and opens an easy 
communication with all parts of the island. See 
BKETON, Cape.] 

[BRASS Island, one of the smaller Virgin islands, 
situated near the n. ro. end of St. Thomas s island, 
on which it is dependent.] 

[BRASS Town, in the state of Tennessee, is situ 
ated on the head waters of Iliwassee river, about 
100 miles .v. from Knoxville. Two miles s. from 
this town is the Enchanted mountain, much famed 
for the curiosities on it:> rocks. See ENCHANTED 
Mountain.] 

[BRATTLEBO ROUGH, a considerable town- 
ship and post-town in Windham county, Ver 
mont, having 1589 inhabitants; on the w. bank 
of Connecticut river, about 28 miles e. of Ben- 
nin^lon, 61 n. of Springfield in Massachusetts, and 
311 from Philadelphia. Lat. 42 52 n. 



BRA 

BllAVA, PUNTA, an extremity of the island of 
Trinidad, which lies in the w. front of the inner 
bay of the gulf Tristc, in the province and go 
vernment of Curnana. 

BRAVA, a point or cape of the island of Cuba. 

jBiiAVA, a lake of the province and govern 
ment of Buenos Ayres, on the shore of the river 
Salad illo. 

BRAVO, a large and abundant river of the 
kingdom of Nueva Espana, which rises in 40 
20 n. lat. and runs 5. till it enters the sea in 
the bay of Mexico, in 25 55 . [Under the 40 
of latitude, the sources of the Rio del Norte,, or 
Rio Bravo, are only separated from the sources of 
the Rio Colorado by a mountainous tract of from 
12 to 13 leagues of breadth. This tract is the 
continuation of the cordillera of the Cranes, which 
stretches towards (he sierra Verde and the lake of 
Tirnpanogos, celebrated in the Mexican history. 
The Rio S. Raiiu l and the Rio S. Xavier are the 
principal sources of the river Zaguananas. which, 
with the Rio de Nabajoa, forms the Rio Colorado : 
the latter has its embouchure in the gulf of Cali 
fornia. These regions, abounding in rock-salt, 
were examined in 1777 by two travellers full of 
zeal and intrepidity, monks of the order of St. 
Francis, Father Escalante and Father Antonio 
Velez. But however interesting the Rio Za^ua- 
iianas and the Rio del Norte may one day become 
for the internal commerce of this n. part of New 
Spain, and however easy the carriage may be 
across the mountains, no communication will ever, 
it is though!, result from it, comparable to that 
opened directly from sea to sea. 

BRAVO, another river in the province and go 
vernment of Maracaibo. It is one of the arms of 
the Catacumbo, which enters in a large body into 
the great lake. 

BRAVO, another, of the alcaldta mayor of Tam- 
pico in Nueva Espana. It rises in the mountains 
of that jurisdiction, and runs into the sea. 

BRAVO, a lake of the province and government 
of Buenos Ay res, which is a pool formed by the 
river Tandil, near the coast of the Patagones. 
, BRAZIL, a kingdom of S. America, situate in 
the torrid zone, extending from the mouth of the 
large river Maranon, or Amazonas, to that of La 
Plata, from 2 n. to 35 s. of the equinoctial line, 
it is of a triangular figure, two of its sides, the n. 
and c. being bounded by the sea, and the third, 
which is the greater, is the line of demarcation be 
tween this kingdom, which belongs to the crown of 
Portugal, and the dominions of the king of Spain. 
This country was discovered by Vinccnte Yafiez 
Pinzonin 1198; afterwards by Diego Lopez in!500; 



BRA 



183- 



by Americo Vespncio in 1501 ; and by Pedro Al 
varez Cabral in 1503, who was by chance sailing 
for the E. Indies, lie gave it the name of Santa 
Cruz, in memory of the day on which it was dis 
covered ; this, however, it did not retain, and it 
has been called continually BrazU, from the 
abundance of fine wood of this name found in it. 
On the deatli of (he king Don Sebastian, this king 
dom, as forming a part of the dominion of Portu 
gal, came to Philip III. by inheritance, as belong 
ing to the crown of Castille. The Dutch, under 
the command of the prince of Nassau, made them 
selves masters of the greater p?rt of it; but this 
loss was again recovered by the Spanish and Por 
tuguese, after a bloody war of many years dura 
tion, when it was restored to the dominion of the 
latter by a treaty of general peace. It is divided 
into 14 provinces or captainships, which are, Rio 
Janeiro, Todos Santos, Ilheos, Parayba, Para, 
Maranan, Espiritu Santo, Itamaraca, Seara, 
Puerto Seguro, Pernambuco, Sergipe del Rey, 
San Vincente, and Rio Grande; and in these are 
12 cities, 67 towns, and an infinite number of 
small settlements and villages, divided into four 
bishoprics, suffragan to an archbishop; and be 
sides these there is the district of San Pablo de los 
Mamelucos, which is governed after the manner 
of a republic, with some subordination to the 
crown of Portugal. Also there are the districts of 
Dole and Petagucy, which being in the centre of 
the captainship of Seara, belong to the barbarians, 
and to some Portuguese who are independent of 
the jurisdiction of Rey. The French, in 1584, 
established themselves in Parayba, the Rio Grande, 
and Canabata, from whence they were driven out 
by the Portuguese in 1600. In 1612, hoAvever, 
they returned to construct a fortress in (he island 
of Mara iion, with the name of San Luis, which 
was taken by the Dutch, and afterwards by the 
Portuguese in 1646. From that time this king 
dom has belonged to the crown of Portugal, and 
has given title to the heir apparent, who is called 
Prince of Brazil. It has man} fine rivers, and 
many large, safe, and convenient ports ; but these 
arc difficult to be entered, on account of the rocks 
and quicksands which abound on the coast. The 
interior of this kingdom is uncultivated, full of 
woods, mountains, and lakes; inhabited by wan 
dering nations, for the most part savage, and who 
kept up a continual warfare with the Portuguese ; 
some, however, have been civilized by the missions 
that have been established among them by the 
venerable Father Joseph de Ancheta, of the com 
pany of Jesuits, who has been called the Tauma- 
turgo [the word alluding to a saint of the fourth 



184 



BRAZIL. 



century, called Gregory Tliaumaturgus, from the 
miracles lie is said to perform] of Brazil, and by 
Father Antonio de vieira, a celebrated orator. 
These savage Indians feast upon the bodies of 
those whom they take in battle, fancying that they 
thereby revenge the deaths of their parents or re 
lations who may have fallen under tbe hands of the 
enemy. They enjoy a long life, not only from the 
salubrity of the climate, but from the temperance 
which is usual amongst them. They are poly- 
gamists, and all of them, men as well as women, 
go naked. They believe in the creation of the 
world and the deluge ; and they think that there 
is a paradise beyond their mountains, where they 
live for ever in sensual enjoyments, such as sing 
ing, dancing, &e. They have a very great terror 
of the devil, who, they aftirm, appears to them in 
an horrible shape, and whom they call in their 
language agnian. They have neither king nor 
prince, and in their affairs of state the decision 
always rests with the elders, who are universally 
reverenced and esteemed amongst them. Their 
weapons are bows and arrows, and cimeters, or, as 
they call them, mncanas. When they move from 
one quarter to another, the wife carries the arms, 
and the children the hainmoc, which is a net 
made of the bark of plants, which, being tied to 
two trees at its extremities, serves them for house 
and bed in their travels. They maintain them 
selves by the chase and by fishing. The greater 
part of them are of a fierce aspect, which they in 
crease by adorning themselves with the teeth and 
bones of monkeys, and with black and red paint, 
which they smear over their faces and bodies. 
They are of a lofty stature, robust, well made, and 
of an extraordinary agility in running. The tem 
perature of this country is very unequal ; for to 
wards the M. it is very warm and unhealthy. The 
soil is extremely fertile, and when cultivated yields 
every thing for the convenience and luxury of life. 
After the fine gold and diamond mines with which 
this country abounds were discovered, the natives 
gave themselves up entirely to the working of them, 
despising the culture of the land, and looking for 
the necessary supplies of food from other parts. 
Its principal productions may be reduced to sugar, 
maize, cotton, tobacco, indigo, ipecacuana, balsam 
of copaive, and Brazil-wood ; of this last consists 
the principal branch of its commerce, as well with 
the English as the Dutch, and to the coast of 
Africa as well as Europe. From the latter three 
fleets set out annually, one for Pernambuco, an 
other for Rio Janeiro, and a third for the bay of 
Todos Santos ; from whence, upon their return, they 
join and make for Portugal, loaded with immense 



treasures. [The se fleets have ceased to make their 
voyages.] After the expulsion of the Dutch, this 
country was, as it were, for a time disregarded by 
its possessors ; for they had not as yet ascertained 
or discovered its rich mines ; at least not before the 
year ]685. The minister of Portugal was well 
aware of the utility that would be derived to his 
country by the territories of this kingdom being 
well allotted and cultivated, and that by establish 
ing the capital in the bay of Todos Santos, it 
would be extremely convenient and centrical for 
the purposes of commerce ; but the rigour and 
cruelty with which the first founders treated the 
poor Indians, were a sufficient obstacle against his 
bringing about his laudable designs. The Mus- 
tees, who are the descendants of the Spaniards and 
the natives, having kept on good terms with both 
parties, were the means by which all things were 
brought to a mutual reconciliation. The govern 
ment was then vested in some priests of acknow 
ledged virtue : these immediatley scattered them 
selves over the whole coast, foundingsettlements, and 
penetrating into the interior; they first discovered 
the different gold mines, which have been since 
worked lo such prodigious emolument ; as also 
the mines of diamonds, topazes, and other precious 
stones. This kingdom abounds in birds, exqui 
site not less for the beauty of their plumage than 
for the sweetness of their note ; in many kinds of 
rare animals, in vipers and venomous insects, and 
in an incredible number of tigers and monkeys of 
all sorts. It abounds also in every kind of pulse 
and fruit ; and amongst these, the pine is most 
exquisite. This kingdom is governed by a vice 
roy appointed by (he king of Portugal, and who 
is always one of the head of the nobility of that 
kingdom ; his residence being in the city of St. 
Salvador, which is the capital. [The trade of 
Brazil is very great, and increases every year. 
They imnort as many as 40,000 Negroes annually. 
The exports of Brazil are diamonds, gold, sugar, 
tobacco, hides, drugs, and medicines ; and they 
receive in return woollen goods of all kinds, 
linens, laces, silks, hats, lead, tin, pewter, copper, 
iron, beef, and cheese. They also receive from 
Madeira a great quantity of wine, vinegar, and 
brandy ; and from the Azores 25,000/. worth of 
other liquors. The gold and diamond mines are 
but a recent discovery ; they were first opened in 
1681, and have since yielded above five millions 
sterling annually, of which a fifth part belongs to 
the crown. These, with the sugar plantations, 
occupy so many hands, that agriculture lies ne 
glected, and Brazil depends upon Europe for its 
daily bread ; although before the discovery of] 



BRAZIL. 



these mines, the soil was found very sufficient for 
subsisting the inhabitants. The diamonds here 
are neither so hard nor so clear as those of the 
East Indies, neither do they sparkle so much, but 
they are whiter ; the Brazilian diamonds are sold 
10 per cent, cheaper than the oriental ones, sup 
posing the weights to be equal. The crown reve 
nue arising from this colony amounts annually to 
two millions sterling in gold, if some lafe writers 
are to be credited, besides the duties and customs 
on merchandize imported from that quarter. This 
indeed is more than a fifth of the precious metal 
produced by the mines ; but, every other conse 
quent advantage considered, it probably does not 
much exceed the truth. The Portuguese here live 
in the most effeminate luxury. When people ap 
pear abroad, they are carried in a kind of cotton 
hammocs, called serpentines, which are borne on 
Negroes shoulders, similar to palanquins in India. 
The portrait drawn of the manners, customs, and 
morals of that nation in America, by judicious tra 
vellers, is very far from being favourable. For a 
detailed history of this country, see the end of the 
following catalogue.] 
Catalogue of the barbarous Nations and principal 

Places of the kingdom of lirazil. 
Barbarous Nations. ^ ^ aimores, 
Amacaches, Yiatanis. 

Amixocores, Cities. 

Annacioris, Angra, 

Apotons, Arracife, 

Apuyes, Comuta, 

Aquiguires, Goyana, 

Aracures, Gran Para, 

Arapes, llheos, 

Aryej;, Janeiro, 

Augaras, Matagroso, 

Guastacasios. Paraiba, 

Margajntes, Pernambuco Olinda, 

Maribuccs, Puerto Seguro, 

Mariquites, San Luis del Maranan, 

Obacatiaras, San Pablo, 

Petiguares, San Salvador, 

Quirig-ujes, San Vicente, 



Siguares, 

Tapnyes, 

Tibuares, 

Tobaxarcs, 

Tocantines, 

Tomomimes, 

Toparos, 

Topinambos, 

Tupiques, 

\ ayanabasones, 

VOL. I. 



Seregipe, 
Siara, 
Espiritu Santo, 
Todos Santos. 

Rivers. 
Alagoa, 
Aniembi, 
Arari, 
Araxay r 
Aruguaya, 



Bibirice, 

Cam.uri, 

Capi, 

Cirigi, 

Contas, 

Cunhao, 

Cururui, 

Dulce, 

De los llheos, 

Duna, 

Galiolo, 

Grande, 

Guaraiguazu, 

Ipoche, 

Janeiro, 

Laguaribe, 

Maracu, 

Martin, 

Meari, 

Mongaguaba, 

Meni, 

Muju, 

Ovaquezupi, 

Parinaiba, 

Parapinzingaa, 

Parashui, 

Paraiba, 

Paiipe, 

Patipinga, 

Paxaca, 

Periperi, 

Pinare, 

Ponica, 

Poyuca, 

Rio Real, 

San Francisco, 

San Miguel, 

Tapados, 

Tapocuru, 

Tocantines, 

Trembi, 

Varirin, 



Vazabazas, 

Vermellas, or Ipenin, 

Yari, 

Inaya, 

Itapemeri, 

Yucaru. 

Mines. 
Cuyaba, diamond, 

Bishops who have presided in Brazil up to the 
year 1722 ; [also the names of some who have 
governed since that period.] 
1. Don Ga>par Barata de Mendoza, elected first 

B B 



185 

Geraes, gold, 
Guayaz, diamond, 
Mato-gros, gold, 
Picuru, sjlver. 

Promontories. 
Blanco, 
Corso, 
Frio, 
Ledo, 
Potocalmo, 
San Roque, 
San Agustin, 
Sousa. 

Ports. 
Cayvo, 
Rio Janeiro, 
Para, 

San Luis de Maranan, 
San Salvador, or La Ba- 
hia de Todos Santos, 
Seregipe, 
Tamaraca, 
Tojuqua. 

Islands. 
Asuncion, 
Cananea, 
Catherina, 
Del Gallo, 
De los llheos, 
Goare, 
Grande, 
Machiana, 
Maivgnau, 
Marayo, 
Maricana, 
Martin Vas, 
Norona, 
Picos, 

San Salvador, 
Santa Ana, 
San Antonio, 
Santa Barbara, 
Sipotuba, 
Espiritu Santo,. 
Taparica, 
Tatipara, 
Trinidad, 
Upaya, 
Ygarapotoe. 



186 



BRAZIL. 



archbishop in 1677 : he took possession of his ap 
pointment through his procurator only, for he died 
before he reached it. 

2. Don Fr. J uan De la Mad re de Dios, of the order 
of St. Francis ; a provincial in that order, preacher 
to the king, and examiner of the military orders ; 
noted as being one of the most pleasing and elo 
quent orators of his time: he took possession of 
the archbishopric in 1583, and governed only three 
years, since he died in a plague which then pre 
vailed, in 1686. 

3. Don Fr. Manuel de la Resurreccion, colle 
gian of San Pedro, doctor in canons and laws, 
canon of the holy church of Lamego, and de 
puty of the holy office of the inquisition : disen 
gaging himself from the world, lie quitted these 
dignities, and entered the convent of Varatojo, 
where the fame of his virtues caused him to be 
elected archbishop of La Bahia. He entered his 
office in 1688, and died in 1691. 

4. Don Juan Franco de Oliveira, promoted to 
the archbishopric of Angola : he was adorned with 
this metropolitan mitre for eight years, from 
1692 to 1700, when he returned to Portugal to 
take that of the diocese of Miranda. 

5. Don Sebastian Monteiro de Vide, who had 
belonged to the company of Jesuits, but who, be 
ing expelled from the same, gave himself up to a 
military life, and became captain of infantry : be 
ing disgusted with this, he applied himself to study 
in the university of Coimbra,