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Full text of "The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies"

THE 

GEOGRAPHICAL 

AND 

HISTORICAL 

DICTIONARY 

OF 

AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES. 

CONTAINING 

AN ENTIRE TRANSLATION OF THE SPANISH WORK 

-OP 

COLONEL DON ANTONIO DE ALCEDO, 

CAPTAIN OF THE ROYAL SPANISH GUARDS, AND MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF HISTORY: 

WITH 

I JUrge 3U>Dition anb Compilations 

FROM MODERN VOYAGES AND TRAVELS, 

AND FROM 

ORIGINAL AND AUTHENTIC INFORMATION. 



G. A. THOMPSON, ESQ. 



IN FIVE VOLUMES. 



UNIVERSITY 




Magna modis mtiltis miranda videtur 



Gentibus humanis regio, visendaque fertur, 

Rebus opima bonis. LUCRETIUS, lib. I. line 727. 



lonuon : 

PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR, AND PUBLISHED BY 

CARPENTER AND SON, OLD BOND-STREET; LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN, PAT^UNOs TER-ROVT; WHIT E,COCHRANE, 
AND CO. FLEET-STREET, AND MURRAY, ALBEMARI.E STREET, LONDON; PAKKEK, OXFORD; ANU DEIGHTON, CAMBRIDGE. 

1814. 



. 



THE 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL 



DICTIONARY 

Lrj.YyJ.J.vn-n.AVl . *" OF THfc T 4*^ 



OF 




AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES, 



P A B 

, a settlement of the Nuevo Reyno 
de Leon in N.America; situate w. of the garri 
son of Santa Engracia. 

PABLO, S. or SAO PAULO. See PAULO. 

PABLO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimicnto "of Lipes in Peru, of the arch* 
bishopric of Charcas. It was also called Santa 
Isabel de Esmoruco, and was the residence of 
the curate. 

PABLO, another, of the province and corregi- 
miento of Otavalo in the kingdom of Quito, at 
the foot of a small mountain, from which issues a 
stream of water abounding in very small fish, 
called prenadillas, so delicate and salutary even 
for the sick, that they are potted and carried to 
all parts of the kingdom. 

PABLO, another, of the head settlement of the 
district of S. Juan del Rio, and alcaldia mayor 
of Queretaro, in Nueva Espana; containing 46 
families of Indians. 

PABLO, another, of the province and corregi- 
miento of Tinta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy 
of Cacha. 

PABLO, another settlement or ward, of the 
head settlement of the district of Zumpahuacan, 
and alcaldia mayor of Marinalco in Nueva Es 
pana. 

PABLO, another, of the head settlement of the 
district, and alcaldia mayor of Toluca in the same 
kingdom, containing 161 families of Indians; at 
a small distance n. of its capital. 

PABLO, another, a small settlement or ward 

VOL. IV. 



P A B 

of the alcaldia mayor of Guanchinango, in th 
same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of the 
settlement of Pahuatlan. 

PABLO, another, and head settlement of the 
district, of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta, in the 
same kingdom ; of a cold temperature, and con 
taining 51 Indian families. 

PABLO, another, of the missions which were 
held by the Jesuits, in the province of Topia and 
kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya; situate in the middle 
of the sierrtt of Topia, on the shore of the river 
Piastla. 

PABLO, another, of the province of Barcelona, 
and government of Cumana ; situate on the skirt 
of a mountain of the serrania, and on the shore 
of the river Sacaguar, s. of the settlement of 
Piritu. 

PABLO, another, a small settlement of the 
head settlement of the district of Texmelucan, 
and alcaldia mayor of Guajozinco in Nueva Es 
pana. 

PABLO, another, of the district of Chiriqui, in 
the province and government of Veragua, and 
kingdom of Tierra Firme: a league and an half 
from its head settlement, in the high road. 

PABLO, another, of the missions held by the 
Portuguese Carmelites, in the country of Las 
Amazonas, and on the shore of this river. 

PABLO, another, of the missions which were 

held by the French Jesuits, in the province and 

government of French Guayana : founded in 

1735, on the shore of the river Oyapoco, and 

B 



2 PAC 

consisting of Indians of many nations converted 
to the Catholic faith. 

PABLO, another, of the province and alcaldia 
mayor of Chiapa, in the kingdom of Guatemala. 

PABLO, another, of the province and alcaldia 
mayor of Los Zoques, in the same kingdom. 

PABLO, another, of the province and govern 
ment of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito ; situate 
on the shore of the river Santa Ana. 

PABLO, another, formerly of this name, in the 
same province and kingdom, but which was en 
tirely ruined by an epidemical disease. 

PABLO, another, of the province and govern 
ment of Sonora : situate in the country of the 
Cocomaricopas Indians : founded in 1699 by the 
Jesuits, on the shore of the river Grande de (jrila. 

PABLO, a lake of the province and corregimi- 
ento of Otavalo in the kingdom of Quito, close to 
the settlement of its name ; a league long, and 
half a league wide, abounding in geese, widgeons, 
and other aquatic fowl, and surrounded with reed 
called there totoras. It receives its water from 
the mountain of Mojanda, and from it issues an 
arm, which is the river Blanco. On the e. side 
of it is an estate called Caxas. 

PABLO, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Veragua in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, 
which rises in the sierras of Guanico, on the 5. 
and empties itself into the Pacific. 

PABLO, another river, having the surname of 
Los Paeces, in the province and government of 
Buenos Ayres. It runs w. and enters the Jacegua 
between the Joseph Diaz and the Paso delChileno. 

PABLO, another, of the province and govern 
ment of Choco, in the NuevoReynode Granada. 
It rises from a lake and joins the river Quito, 
which rises from another lake, and these toge 
ther form the Atrato. 

PABLO, an island in the strait of Magellan, 
near the e. coast, opposite cape Monmouth. 

PABLO, another, a small island of the S. sea, 
in the bay of Panama, opposite the gulf of San 

- - i A 

Miguel. 

[PABO, the Mickmac name of a river, on the 
n. side of Chaleur bay, about six leagues from 
Grand Riviere, w.n.w. of cape Despair.] 

PABON, a small river of the province and 
government of Buenos Ayres, which runs n.n.e. 
and enters the Parama, between that De en 
Medio and the Caracanal. 

PABON, another, also a small river, in the 
same province, which runs s. and enters the Plata 
at its mouth, on the side opposite the capital. 

PAC, a small lake of the province and govern 
ment of Yucatan, 



PAG 

PAC, a small river of the province and govern^ 
ment of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia. It rises 
in the country of the ferocious Caribes Indians, 
and enters the Caroni, just after it is entered by 
the abundant stream of the Arui. 

PACABARA, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito, 
which runs n. and enters the Beni. 

PACAIPAMPA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Piura ; annexed to the cu 
racy of Frias. 

PACAJAS, a river of the country of Las Ama- 
zonas, which runs n. between those of Jacunda 
and Guanapii, or Uanapu, and enters the Ma- 
ranon, or Amazon, in the arm formed by the 
island of Joanes. This river gives its name to a 
nation of Indians but little known, who dwell on 
the n. shore of the Maranon, nearly 80 leagues 
above the Paranaiba. 

PACAJES, a province and corregimiento of 
Peru; bounded by the province of Chucuito on 
the n. w.-, n. by the great lake of Titicaca; n.e. 
by the province of Omasuyos ; e. by the city of 
La Paz and province of Cicasica ; s. c. by the 
corregimiento of Oruro and province of Paria ; 
s. by the province of Charangas, and s.w. and w.. 
by the jurisdiction of Arica, the cordillera inter 
vening. Its length from the bridge of the river 
of the Desaguadero, which divides it from the 
province of Chucuito, as far as the province of 
Paria, is 56 leagues, and its greatest width 40. 

From the loftiness of its territory, and the 
proximity of the Cordilleras, its temperature is 
unpleasantly cold, and it is comparatively barren. 
Its productions are sweet and bitter papas, of 
which is made the chuno, or bread. There i& 
also grown here an abundance of the grain, 
called canahua, serving as food, and for making 
chicha drink. They cultivate some bark, and 
breed many flocks of native sheep, alpacas, vi 
cunas, and vizcachas. Here are many estates or 
pastures of sheep, of the milk of which they 
make well-flavoured cheese, killing every year 
some of the ewes for meat, which being salted 
and hardened by the frost, they call chalonas; and 
these, with a considerable portion of the chuno, 
they carry for sale to the coast ; where they take 
in exchange wine, brandy, and cotton ; and from 
the province of Cochabamba, maize, wheat, and 
other seeds. 

This province was formerly very rich in mines, 
those of Verenguela, San Juan, and Tampaya, 
being the most celebrated; but these, together 
with another mine of emeralds, are no longer 
worked. Near the first of these mines, in which 



P A C 

were discovered 700 veins of metal, and from 
whence an immense quantity was extracted, there 
was a large population of Spaniards, at least as 
far as the remains and ruins of a large town tes 
tify. This province has also a mine of very 
white and transparent talc, which furnishes the 
whole of Peru for glasses of windows, both in the 
churches and houses. 

The corregidor used to collect a repartimiento 
of 96,505 dollars, and it paid an alcabala of 772 
dollars yearly. Its population consists of the 
following settlements : 

Caquiaviri, Asiento de San Juan 

Viacha, ^ Berenguela, 

Tiahuanaco, Calacoto, 

Huaqui, Caquingora, 

S.AndresdeMachaca, Callapa, 

Jesus de Machaca, (in Carahicara de Pacages, 
which is a Beataria Hulloma, 
with 12 nuns,) Achocalla, 

Santiago de Machaca, S. Pedro del Desagua- 

dero. 

PACAMOROS YAGUARSONGO, or SAN 
JUAN DE SALINAS, a province and government, 
vulgarly called De Bracamoros, in the kingdom 
of Quito, to the *.; antiently called Silla and 
Chacainga, and now San Jean, from its capital ; 
bounded n. by the territory of Zamora and the 
province of Loxa, w. by the province of Piura, s. 
by the river Maranon, or Amazon, and e. by the 
woods and territories of the Xibaros Indians. 
Its population is included in the cities of Loyola, 
Valladolid, Jaen, and Santiago de Las Montanas, 
which is entirely destroyed; the others being 
also reduced to miserable villages, having no 
thing more about them of a city than the name. 
This province is watered by the rivers Guanca- 
bamba, Chinchipe, Paracasa, Tururnbasa, Num- 
balle, Palanda, Simanchi, Sangalla, and San 
Francisco, the which divides the bishopric of 
Quito from that of Truxillo. 

It has rich gold mines, but not of the best 
quality, and it is but thinly peopled, and with 
out any commerce. .The pastures are excellent, 
and there is very good tobacco, wild wax, and 
cotton, and the very finest cacao, though not in 
abundance. It is very subject to invasions from 
the Xibaros Indians, who dwell in the woods on 
the e. 

It is governed by a governor, who resides either 
in Jaar the capital, or in the settlement of Tome- 
pen da. 

PACANA, or PACAXA, a river of the province 
and country of Las Amazonas, which runs/?, pass 
ing through the country of the Yurunas Indians, 



P A C 3 

and enters the Xingu in the great bend which it 
makes before it enters the Maranon or Amazon. 

PACANAS, Indians of N. America. They 
are a small tribe of about 30 men, who live oh 
the Quelqueshoe river, which falls into the bay 
between Attakapi and Sabine, which heads in a 
prairie called Cooko Prairie, about 40 miles 
s. w. ofNatchitoches. They are known to have 
emigrated from West Florida, about 40 years 
ago. Their village is about 50 miles s. e. of the 
Conchattas ; they are said to be increasing a 
little in number; to be quiet, peaceable, and 
friendly people. Their own language differs 
from any other, but they speak Mobilian. 

PACANTIRO, a small settlement of the head 
settlement of the district of Xacona, and alcaldia 
mayor of Z amoria in N ue va Espaiia. It contains 
eight families of Mustees, and as many of Mula- 
toes, exercised in agriculture; three leagues from 
its head settlement. 

PACARAN, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Canete in Peru. 

PACARAOS, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Canta in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Pari. 

PACARICTAMBO, a settlement of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Piura in Peru, annex 
ed to the curacy of Frias. 

PACARNI, a settlement of the government of 
Neiba,in theNuevo Reynode Granada; annexed 
to the curacy of its capital : of an hot tempera 
ture, and abounding in gold mines, vegetable 
productions and cattle. 

PACAS, MELXORDOS, a settlement of the 
province and captainship of Para in Brasil; in 
the island of Caviana. 

PACASMAYU, a river of the province and 
corregimiento of Saria in Peru. It flows down 
from the mountains of Caxamarca, runs w. and 
laves the territories of San Pedro de Lloco, 20 
leagues from Lambayeque. Its shores are very 
delightful and charming, and it runs into the 
Pacific sea forming a bay, in which is caught 
excellent fish. Its mouth is in lat. 7 24 s. 

PACAYAAS, a settlement of the province and 
captains/lip of Para in Brasil; situate at the 
mouth of the river Tocantines. 

[PACAYITA, a volcano in Guatemala, in 
New Spain. In 1773, the lava which issued 
from it destroyed the city of St. Santiago, which 
was situated in the valley of Panchoi.J 

PACCHA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of Zui- 
to ; from which capital it is 56 leagues distant. In 
its district to the s. is an estate called Cuanacauri. 

B2 



4 P A C 

PACCHA, another settlement, in the province 
and corregimiento of Yamparaes and archbishop 
ric of Charcas in Peru. 

PACCHA, another, of the province and corre 
gimiento of Huanta in the same kingdom, annex 
ed to the curacy of Tiellas. 

PACCHA, another, of the province and cor 
regimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, 
near the river Tumblez. 

PACCHO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Chancay in Peru. 

PACHABAMBA, a settlement ofthe province 
and corregimiento of Guarucco in Peru ; annexed 
to the curacy of Santa Maria del Valle. 

PACHACAMAC, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Cercado in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Lurin : founded in the celebrated 
valley of its name, signifying in the Quechuan 
language Omnipotent, or Creator Preserver of all. 
Here the Indians had a magnificent temple 
dedicated to the invisible, supreme Being^, whom 
they acknowledged and adored. The Emperor 
Pachacutec, who was the tenth monarch of 
Peru, conquered this place with all its delightful 
and fertile territory, and founded there a house 
for Virgins, dedicated to the culture ofthe deity 
Pachacamac. Francisco Pizarro, when he con 
quered the kingdom, plundered this temple and 
the whole settlement of immense wealth, not 
withstanding the Indians had removed a great 
deal. In its vicinity is a small mountain, and a 
rivulet still keeping the same name. At the 
present day there is nothing remaining of the 
temple and the town but a few ruins. The 
illustrious Senor Don Bernardino de Almanza, 
Bishop of Santa Fe, had the honor of being curate 
here. It is 22 miles s. bv e. of Lima, in lat. 12 
19 s. 

PACHACHAC, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Guarochiri in Peru, annexed 
to the curacy of Yauli. 

PACHACHACA, a river of the kingdom of 
Peru, which rises in the province of Aimaraes, 
runs n. traversing the province of Abancay, and 
enters the Apurimac : on it are more than 40 
bridges of cords and willow-twigs. 

PACHACONAS, a settlement ofthe province 
and corregimiento of Aimaraes in Peru. 

PACHACOTO, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Guanuco in the same king 
dom as the former ; annexed to the curacy of 
Santa Maria del Valle. 

PACAMA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Arica in Peru : annexed to the 
curacy ofCopta. 



P A C 

PACHANGARA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annex 
ed to the curacy of Churin. 

PACHAS, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Guamalies in the same kingdom 
as the former, to the curacy of which it belongs. 
It is in the centre ofthe province, near the river 
Maranon, which is called Quivilla, and is the 
residence ofthe corregidor. 

[PACHEA, the most . ofthe islands called 
the Pearl or King s Islands, all low and woody, 
and about 12 leagues from Panama. Within 
a league of this island there is anchorage in 17 
fathoms.] 

PACHECA, a small island ofthe S. sea, in the 
gulf and bay of Panama : in which the inha 
bitants of this capital have some plantations of 
maize and other grain for the food ofthe Negroes 
employed in the pearl fisheries on those coasts. 
[This is one ofthe beautiful islands within the 
semicircular bay from Panama to point Mala. 
These islands yield wood, water, fruit, fowls, 
hogs, &c. and afford excellent harbour for ship 
ping, in lat. 8 3 n.l 

(TACHEGOIA, a lake of New South Wales, 
in N. America, in lat. 55 w.] 

PACHIA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Arica in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Tacua. 

PACHICA, a settlement ofthe same province 
and corregimiento and kingdom as the former ; 
annexed to the curacy of Copta. 

PACHICA, another settlement, in the same 
province and kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of 
Cibaya. 

PACHICA, a river of the province and corre 
gimiento of Pataz in the same kingdom. It 
rises in the sierra., runs n- n. c. and enters the 
Ucayale. 

PACHINA, a lake ofthe province and govern 
ment of Moxos and kingdom of Quito ; in the 
territory of Massamaes Indians, between the 
rivers Maranon or Amazon and Napo. 

PACHINI, a settlement . of the province and 
corregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru. 

PACHITEA. SEEMANOA. 

PACHO, a settlement of the corregimiento of 
Zipaquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; of 
an hot temperature, abounding in vegetable pro 
ductions. In its vicinity the Jesuits had one of 
the finest estates in the kingdom. It contains 200 
house-keepers, and lies at the back of the settle 
ment of Zipaquira, 14 leagues from Santa Fe. 

PACHUCA, a town and capital ofthe jurisdic 
tion and alcald m mayor of its name in Nueva 



P A C 



P A C 



3 



"Espafia : of a cold temperature, but beautiful to 
behold on account of the symmetry of its streets, 
publicplaces, and edifices, particularly of its parish 
church, which is most magnificent. It has like 
wise a convent of the missionaries of the bare 
footed Franciscans, another called the Hospital 
de San Juan de Dis, and an house of entertain 
ment of the monks of La Merced and several 
hermitages in the wards of the Indians, where 
mass is said. 

It was once more opulent, owing to its mines, 
which are now in a state of great decay, from 
their being partly filled with water which has 
flowed down from the sierra. Gemeli says 
that in the space of 60 leagues he counts more 
than 1,000 mines, and that from one only, called 
La Trinidad, were extracted in the course of 
10 years, 40 millions of dollars. In this town 
are the royal coffers, where the treasurer and 
accomptant reside, taking for the king one fifth 
of all the silver produced here. The trade of 
this metal is the principal of the place, although 
some of the Indians employ themselves in agri 
culture, sowing maize, French beans, and other 
seeds. Its population consists of 900 fami 
lies of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulatoes, and 
120 of Indians, with a special governor subject 
to the alcalde mayor, but who resides in another 
town called Pachuquilla. The jurisdiction con 
tains the following settlements : 

Real del Monte, Zapotlan, 

Tezayuca, Acayuca, 

Huaquilpa, Tolayuca. 

[Pachuca and Tasco are the oldest mining- 
places in the kingdom of Mexico : and the neigh 
bouring village Pachuquillo, is supposed to have 
been the first Christian village founded by the 
Spaniards. The height of Pachuca is 8,141 feet, 
and it is 45 miles n. e. of Mexico.] 

PACHUCA, a lake formed to drain the waters 
from the heights of the above province ; in which 
there is a sluice, by which the waters may on 
occasion be turned into the lake Zumpango ; the 
said sluice having been made in 1628, and lately 
much improved. 

PACIFIC Sea, a name improperly given to the 
S. sea, as every one will maintain who has navi 
gated it : for, although the part between the tro 
pics may justify the name, the rest of it does not 
merit such a title, as being subject to violent 
tempests, in lat. 20 and 23, equally strong as 
any in Europe. The first Spaniards who navi 
gated this sea gave it the name of Pacific for the 
serenity and gentle gales which they experienced 
in their first voyages, persuading themselves 
that it was equally calm all over it ; but the fury 



of the tempests in the winter, and the dreadful 
agitation of its waters, declare it well worthy 
of another name. 

The pilots of this sea have constantly observed 
that when a n. wind is about to blow, there will 
appear one or two days previous to hover round 
the ships a marine bird, which they callquebranta- 
huesos (break-bones), and which is seen on no 
other occasion ; neither do they know to where 
it resorts. This bird is of a very singular figure, 
and a sure omen of bad weather. 

[PACKERSFIELD, a township of New 
Hampshire, Cheshire county, e. of Keene, on 
the head branches of Ashuelot river. It is 56 
miles w. of Portsmouth, was incorporated in 
1774, and contains 721 inhabitants]. 

PACKOLET, a river of the province and 
colony of S. Carolina, which runs s. e. and 
unites itself with Large river. 

PACLAS, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Luya and Chillaos in Peru ; 
annexed to the curacy of its capital. 

PACLLON, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Caxatambo, in the same kingdom 
as the former ; annexed to the curacy of Man- 
gas. 

[PACMOTE, a bay on the e. side of the island 
of Martinica, between Vauclin bay on the n. and 
Fere A nee or Creek on the s.] 

PA CO, a small island in the lake Umamarca, 
of the province and corregimiento of Omasuyos 
in the kingdom of Peru. 

PACOCHA, a port of the coast of the S. sea, 
in the province and corregimiento of Arica in the 
same kingdom. 

[PACOLET, a small river of S. Carolina, which 
rises in the White Oak mountains, and unites 
with Broad river, 32 miles above Tiger river, 
and 8 s. of the N. Carolina line. Its course is 
about s. e. and on it are the celebrated Pacolet 
springs, 17 miles above its confluence with. 
Broad river.] 

PACOMARCA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Chilques and Masques, in 
the same kingdom; annexed to the curacy of 
Pampacucho. 

PACORA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Sana, in the same kingdom as 
the former : situate in the road of Valles, leading 
to Lima. 

PACORA, another settlement, in the province 
and kingdom of Tierra Firme and government 
of Panama, situate in a beautiful and extensive 
valley, which gives it its name, and through 
which a river runs. It is very fertile and of a, 
pleaiant temperature, and so healthy that all the 



6 PAD 

people of the neighbouring places come here to 
recruit their health. It abounds also in cattle, 
having excellent pastures; eight leagues from 
the capital. 

PACORA, the river which waters the valley 
aforesaid, runs s. until it enters the sea in the 
bay or gulf of Panama. 

PACTLICHAN, a settlement of the head set 
tlement of the district of Ancantepee, and alcaldia 
mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 
90 families of Indians, who employ themselves in 
cultivating and dressing cotton, and is of an hot 
temperature. 

PACA, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Buenos Ayres in Peru. It runs nearly 
due s. and enters the Plata, near the mouth where 
the Uruguay enters. 

PADAGUEL, a large lake of the kingdom of 
Chile, in the province and corregimiento of San 
tiago. It is formed of the rivers Colina and 
Lampa, the which, after a course of more than 
20 leagues, unite. This lake is more than two 
leagues long, is very deep, and in it are excel 
lent trout and bagres. The shores are very plea 
sant, covered with herbage and trees. It is at 
no great distance from the city of Santiago. 

PADAMO, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Guayana, which rises in the interior of 
the same, between the rivers Caura and Orinoco, 
and forming a curve to thes. enters the latter. 

PADDAVIRI, an arm of the river Parime or 
Paravillanas, one of the four into which it is di 
vided, and the second which enters the Negro. 

PADILLA, a town of the province and govern 
ment of Sierra Gorda in the bay of Mexico, and 
kingdom of Nueva Espana, founded in 1748 by 
the count of that title Don Joseph de Escandon, 
colonel of militia of Quereturo, who gave it this 
name of Dona Antonia de Pedilla, wife of the 
viceroy, who was then Count of Revillagigedo. 
It is small and poor, and has not increased in po 
pulation as was expected. 

PADOUCAS, or PADUCAS, a settlement of the 
province and government of Louisiana in N. 
America, on the shore and at the source of the 
river of its name, where there are also different 
villages of Indians of this name. 

[This once powerful Indian nation (of which 
our author speaks) has, apparently, entirely dis 
appeared; every inquiry made after them has 
proved ineffectual. In the year 1724, they resided in 
several villages on the heads of the Kansas river, 
and could, at that time, bring upwards of 2000 
men into the field. (See Mons. Dupratz History of 
Louisiana, page 71, and the map attached to that 



PAG 

work). The information that we have received 
is, that being oppressed by the nations residing 
on the Missouri, they removed to the upper part 
of the river Plate, where they afterwards had but 
little intercourse with the whites. They seem to 
have given name to the n. branch of that river, 
which is called the Paducas Fork. The most 
probable conjecture is, that being still fur 
ther reduced, they have divided into small wan 
dering bands, which assumed the names of the 
subdivisions of the Paducas nation., and are known 
to us at present under the appellation of Wete- 
pahatoes, Kiawas, Kanenavish, Katteka, Dotame, 
&c. who still inhabit the country to which the 
Paducas are said to have removed.] 

The aforesaid river runs s. e. then e. and enters 
the grand river Misouri. 

PADRE, PUNTA DE, an extremity of the n. 
coast of the island of Cuba, between port Ma- 
lagueta and the bay of Xavara. 

PAECES, a nation of barbarous Indians of the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada, who dwell in the 
woods near the cities of Cartago and Timana. 
They were ferocious and cannibals, and routed, 
in 1540, the Spanish troops of Aiiasco and Juan 
de Ampudia ; but they began to be reduced to 
the faith, together with the nation of the Yalcones 
in 1634. At present their numbers are much 
diminished. 

PAECES, a city of the province and govern 
ment of Popayan, in the kingdom of Quito, 
founded by captain Domingo Lozano, on the 
shore of the river Grande de la Magdalena in 
1563, in the valley of S. Saldana. It is nearly 
depopulated, since that it was destroyed by the 
Indians in the middle of the 16th century ; 60 
leagues from the city of San Juan de los Llanos. 

PAEZ, a river of the same province and go 
vernment as the former city. It rises in the 
valley of its name, passes .opposite the city of 
La Plata, and enters the Grande de la Magdalena 
at a small distance from this city. 

PAGAN, a small river of the province and 
colony of Virginia in N. America, and of the 
county of S. Isle of Wight. It runs e. and enters 
the sea at the mouth of the river John. 

PAGANAGANDI, a river of the province and 
government of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. It rises at the foot of the sierras of 
Choco, and running n. w. enters the sea in the 
bay of Candelaria of the gulf of Uraba. 

[FACET S Port, a small harbour within the 
great sound of the Bahama islands, and in the 
most e. part of the sound.] 

PAGUAROS, a nation of Indians but little 



P A I 



P A 1 



Known, inhabiting the s. part of the river Ma- 
ranon, a little above the mouth of the Madera. 

PAGUILLAS, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Atacama in Peru. 

[PAGtJISA, or PAQUISA, on the w. side of S. 
America, in lat. 21 55 5. and 10 leagues n. of 
the harbour of Cobija, in the bay of Atacama. 
Aguada de Paguisa, or the watering place of Pa- 
guisa, is 15 leagues from Cobija. The whole 
coast between is high, mountainous, and rocky, in 
the direction of n. n. e.~] 

PAHUATLAN, a settlement of the head set 
tlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of 
Guauchinango in Nueva Espaiia. It contains a 
convent of the order of San Agustin, and 490 
families of Otomies Indians, amongst which are 
included those of the wards of its district ; six 
leagues n. of its capital. 

PAICABI, a settlement of Indians of the king 
dom of Chile, situate on the coast, at the mouth 
of the river Tucapel, near the spot where the 
Indians put to death Pedro de Valdivia, conqueror 
of this kingdom. 

PAICANOS, a nation of Indians, of the pro 
vince and government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra 
in Peru, from which capital it is 20 leagues to the 
s. e. These Indians are poor, docile, and humble : 
the territory abounds in sugar-canes and cotton, 
and the climate is hot, save when the s. wind 
blows, which passing through the snow-clad 
mountains of the Andes, brings with it a refresh 
ing coolness. 

PAICO, a settlement of the province and cor 
regimiento of Lucanas in Peru. 

PAICO, a lake of the kingdom of Chile, be 
tween the rivers Valdivia and Callacalla. It is 
formed from the waste water of the Quillen. 

PAICOLLO^ SAN LUCAS DE, a settlement of 
the province and corregimiento of Pelaya and 
Paspaya in Peru. 

PAlJAN, or PAISAN, SAN SALVADOR DE, a 
settlement of the province and corregimiento of 
Truxillo in Peru, situate in the valley of Chi- 
in the hiffh road on the coast leading: to 



cam a, 



rom 



Quito, 30 miles from its capital, and eight 
the port of Malabrigo. 

PAILAS, a port of the river La Plata, in the 
province and government of Santa Cruz de la 
Sierra in Peru, n. of the capital. 

PAIME, a settlement of the jurisdiction of 
Muzo and corregimiento of Tanja in the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada. It contains 150 house 
keepers, who live by cultivating sugar-canes, 
cotton, and other fruits of a warm and mild 
climate.. 



[PAINTED Post, a station, so called in New 
York state, inTioga county on then, side of Tioga 
river, between Bath and Newtown, 40 miles 
n. w. by w. of Lockhartsbrough, 45 s. e. of Wil- 
liamsburg on Genesse river, and 163 n. w. of 
Philadelphia. A post-office is kept here.] 

(^PAINTED Rock is on French Broad river, by 
which the line runs between Virginia and Ten 
nessee.] 

[PAINTER S Harbour, on the w. coast of Cape 
Breton island, is nearly due e. of East Point in 
the island of St. John s, lat. 46" 22 n. long. 
61" 16 ..] 

PAIPA, a settlement of the same province and 
corregimiento and kingdom as the former, situate 
near the road which leads to Santa Fe> between 
its capital and the lake of Toca or Totta. It 
was very large and populous in the time of the 
Indians, and was taken by Gonzalo Ximinez de 
Quesada in 1537. It is at present reduced to a 
miserable village, 15 miles n. e. of its capital. 

PAIPIRU, SIERRAS DE, some mountains of 
the province and captainship of Rey in Brazil, 
which run from w. toe. following the same course 
from the river Lavacuan to the brink of the 
great lake of Los Patos. In these mountains 
the Portuguese have some rich gold mines, to 
which they give the same name. 

PAIRA, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Quixos and Macas, in the kingdom 
of Quito, belonging to the district of the second. 

PAIRACA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Aimaraes in Peru. Annexed to 
the curacy of Chuquinga. 

PAIRAPUPU, a small river of the province 
and colony of Surinam, or part of Guayana, 
possessed by the Dutch. It rises in the sierra 
of Usupama, and enters the Cuyuni. 

PAITA, a small city of the province and cor 
regimiento of Piura in Peru, situate on the coast 
of the S. sea, with a good port, and well fre 
quented by vessels from the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, Acapulco, Sonsonate, &c. Although this 
part, strictly speaking, is nothing more than a 
bay, it is considered one of the best in that coast, 
from the safety of its anchorage. It is the place 
where passengers disembark to go by land to 
Lima, and the other provinces of Peru, and 
where ships bound to Callao touch to take in 
provisions, &c. ; since, without this precaution, 
it would be almost impossible to make that 
voyage, so tedious by the usually contrary winds. 

The town is situate on a> sandy soil, which pro 
duces neither a sprout of herbage, or drop of 
fresh water. This is, therefore, brought from ; 



8 P A I 

the settlement of Colan, and though of a whitish 
and unpleasant look, is, nevertheless, accounted 
wholesome, and supposed to be impregnated with 
the medicinal virtues of sarzaparilla, through a 
wood of which trees it passes. They bring it in 
balzas or rafts, on which they also carry maize 
and other productions to the ships ; but they 
have no other cattle than goats, though plenty 
of fish, and particularly the sea-cats, which they 
catch in abundance, and carry for sale to the 
other provinces, when dried, and where they are 
used in the same manner as dried cod-fish. 

The houses are low, and the walls of earth and 
cane, with the exception of the house of the cor- 
regidor., the parish church, and a convent of the 
order of La Merced, which are all of stone ; but 
the slight structure of their buildings is only 
adapted to this climate, where it is something 
wonderful to rain ; and thus, when a considerable 
shower fell in 1728, the greater part of the houses 
were quite demolished. 

The climate is dry and hot, though healthy. 
There is a small castle for the defence of the 
fort, on the top of a small mountain, called the 
Silla de Paita. The English admiral George 
Anson, took, burnt, and destroyed this city in 
1741. It is 494 miles n. by w. from Lima, and 
192s. by w. of Guayaquil, in long. 80 50 w. 
lat. 5" 5 . 

PAIRAPUPU, a point of land of the coast of 
Peru, in the same province and corregimiento. 

PAITANABA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Copiapo in the kingdom of 
Chile, on the shore of the river Huasco, not far 
from the junction of the two rivers which form 
this. 

PAITILLA , a point in the bay of Panama, on 
the coast of the S. sea, one league from that capital. 
It forms with the point of Chiriqui, a small road, 
which is dry at ebb-tide, and is the place where 
the canoes come to carry on the traffic of the 
place. 

PAITITI, GRANO, a province and extensive 
country of the kingdom of Peru, little known as 
being inhabited by infidel Indians ; among w r hom 
there are, however, some of the missions of the 
monks of San Francisco. 

PAIX, PORT DE. See PORT DE PAIX. 
PAI-ZAMA, a large rock of the province and 
government of Buenos Ayresin Peru, near the city 
of Ascension, in the road leading to Brasil; on the 
top of which rock are to be seen in the stone the 
marks of a man s feet, which, according to the 
tradition of the Indians, were of a certain person, 
who preached to their ancestors after the Deluge, 



PAL 

and whose name was Paizuma, the same which the 
rock still retains. Some historians pretend to 
prove, that it was the apostle S. Thomas, sup 
porting their argument by the tradition of similar 
phenonmena in various other parts of America. 

[PAJARO, PAJAROS, or PAXAROS, islands on 
the coast of Chile, on the S. Pacific ocean. These 
are three or four rocks, the largest of which is 
called Pajaro Ninno, or Paxaro Ninno, and two 
miles n. w. by n. from the southernmost point of 
the main or point Tortugas, that closes the port 
of Coquimbo.] 

[PAJAROS, LES, or ISLANDS OF BIRDS, a clus 
ter of small islands on the coast of Chile, 29 
miles n. n. w. of the bay of Coquimbo, and 66 
5. s. w. of the harbour of Guasco or Huasco. 
The island of Choros is four miles n. of these 
islands, towards the harbour of Guasco.] 
[PAJAROS. See PAXAROS.] 
[PAKANOKIT,the seat of Masassoit, the fa 
mous Indian chief, was situated on Namasket 
river, which empties into Narraganset bay.] 

PAKEBSEY, orPouGHKEEPSiE, a city of the 
province and colony of New York, e. of the river 
Hudson, and 62 miles n. of the city of New York. 
[See POUGHKEEPSIE.] 

PALACE, an ancient province of the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada, now united to the pro 
vince of Popayan ; discovered by Sebastian de 
Benalcazar in 1536. Its natives are cruel and 
ferocious, and descendants of the Paeces. It is at 
present without inhabitants, although it has some 
gold mines not worked. 

PALACIO, a river of the province of Sucum- 
bios, in the kingdom of Quito, which runs from 
w. to e. and unites itself with the river which 
rises from the lake Mocoa, in lat. l u n. 

PALAGUA, a lake of the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada, in the province of Muzo or of Los 
Marquetones ; formed from a waste water of the 
river Grande de la Magdalena. 

PALANCA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Chochapoyas in Peru ; annexed 
to the curacy of Soritor. 

PALANDA, an ancient province of the king 
dom of Quito, belonging partly to the province 
of Jaen and partly to that of Piura, although 
the settlement remains in a very dilapidated state ; 
of the same name, and situate on the bank of a 
river, w. of the city of Loyola, in lat. 4 48 s. 

PALANDA, the aforesaid river, runs s. e. rising 
near the city of Valladolid ; waters the province, 
and enters the Chinchipe. 

PALANIZUELA, a settlement of the head 
settlement of the district of Juguila and akaldia 



V A L 

mayor of Xicayan in Nueva Espana. It contains 
24 families of Indians, and is 20 leagues e. of its 
head settlement. 

PALANTLA, a settlement of the head set 
tlement of the district of Zitlala and alcaldia 
mayor of Chilapa, in the same kingdom as the 
former. It contains 42 families of Indians, and 
is two leagues s. of its head settlement. 

PAL AT A, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Tucuman in Peru, and of the district 
and jurisdiction of the city of Salta. Its shores 
abound with the pasture of simbolar, resembling 
the cane, and with leaves like barley, and on 
which the mules thrive and fatten. It is also 
used by the natives for interweaving the heads 
of the carts used for transporting merchandize to 
Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and enters the Pasage. 

[PALATINE, New York. A part of this town 
was erected into two new towns by the legisla 
ture in 1797.] 

[PALATINE, or PALENTINE, a township in 
Montgomery county, New York, on the n. side 
of Mohawk river, and w. of Caghnawaga. In 
1790 it contained 3404 inhabitants, including 
192 slaves. In 1796, 585 of the inhabitants were 
electors. The compact part of it stands on the 
bank of the Mohawk, and contains a Reformed 
Dutch church, and 20 or 30 houses. It is 36 
miles above Schenectady.] 

[PALATINE Town, in the state of New York, 
lies on the e. bank of Hudson s river, and n. 
side of the mouth of Livingston river, which 
empties into the former; 10 miles n. of Rhyn- 
beck, and 14 southerly of Hudson s city.] 

PALATOS, a settlement of the jurisdiction 
and corregimiento of Bogota in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada. 

PALCA, a settlement of the province and cor 
regimiento of Angaraez in Peru ; annexed to the 
curacy of Acoria. 

PALCAMAYO, a river of the province and 
corregimiento of Pataz in Peru, which runs n. in 
the district of the missions of Caxamarquilla for 
many leagues, and then unites with the Pangon 
to enter in a very abundant stream the Ucayale. 

PALCAMAYO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to the 
curacy of Acobamba. 

PALCARO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Cotabambas in Peru. 

PALCIPA, a lake of the province and go 
vernment of Tucuman in Peru, formed from the 
river Andahuilas in the confines of the kingdom 
of Chile. On its shore is a fort for defence 
against the Infidel Indians. 

VOL. IV. 



PAL 



9 



PALCIPA, an extensive, fertile, and delightful 
valley of the same province. 

PALCO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to 
the curacy of Otoca. 

PALCO, another settlement, in the province 
and corregimiento of Concepcion in the kingdom 
of Chile, on the shore of the river Biobio. 

PALENA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada ; on the shore of the river S. Do 
mingo, to the s. of the city of Barinas Nueva. 

PALENQUE, a settlement of the province 
und kingdom of Tierra Firme, situate on the n. 
coast, in the jurisdiction of the city of Porto 
Bello, where terminates the jurisdiction of the 
province, and where that of the province of 
Darien begins. It is composed of negro refugee- 
slaves, who have, for the sake of better security, 
selected a place craggy and difficult of access on 
the shore of the river Sardinas. Many maintain 
their religion, and in 1743 they intreated the 
president of Panama that he would send them a 
curate. 

PALENQUE, another settlement, of the pro 
vince and government of Cartagena, and district 
of the town of Maria, n. of the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. 

PALENQUE, another, of the province and go 
vernment of Guayaquil in the kingdom of Quito, 
of the district of Baba ; situate on the shore of 
this river, to the n. of its head settlement, at 24 
leagues distance. 

PALENQUE, another, of the province and go 
vernment of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada, on the sea-coast. 

PALENQUE, a river in the same province and 
kingdom as the former. It enters the Sebastian. 

PALENQUE, a point of land on the 5. coast of 
the island S. Domingo, between the point of 
Nizao and the river Ozama. 

PALENQUES, a barbarous nation of Indians 
of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia. They took 
this name from the estacades which they made for 
their defence, and which resembled trenches. It 
is not numerous, but ferocious, and dwelling on 
the borders of the Orinoco; bounded by the na^ 
tion of the Guamos. 

PALIZADA. See MISSISIPPI. 

PALLACTANGA, a settlement of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Riobamba in the king 
dom of Quito ; celebrated for the rich mines of 
gold and silver in its district, and which were for 
merly worked to such profit as to exceed all the 
other mines of Peru ; one individual alone hay* 



JO 



ing a register, in which 18 veins of these metals 
were marked as his own property. These mines 
are no longer worked. 

PALLAHU A, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Arica in Peru; annexed to the 
curacy of Tacna. 

PALLALLA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Angaraez in Peru, where there 
is a coal-mine not worked. 

PALLAQUEZ, SAN MIGUEL DE, a settle 
ment of the province and corregimiento of Caxa- 
marca in Peru. 

PALLAS, a settlement of the province and cor 
regimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to the cu 
racy of Atabillosbaxos. 

PALLA3CA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Conchucos in Peru. 

PALLATE, a bay on the s. coast of the island 
Jamaica. 

[PALLISER S Islands, in the s. Pacific ocean, 
are between 15 and 16 of s. lat. and from 146 to 
147 of w. long. From lat. 14 to 20 s. and long. 
138 to 150 w. the ocean is strewed with low half- 
overflowed islands, which renders it necessary for 
navigators to proceed with much caution.] 

PALMA, NUESTRA SENORA DE LA, a city of 
the corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada; founded by Don Antonio de To 
ledo, in the country of the Colimas Indians, in 
1560, and not in 1512, as the Ex-jesuit Coleti as 
serts : translated to the spot where it now stands 
by Captain Gutierre de Ovalle in 1563 (and not 
in 1572, as that author also affirms), giving it the 
name of Ronda, in honour of his native place, but 
which it afterwards lost. 

It is of a moderately hot temperature, pro 
duces much cotton, maize, yucas, plantains, and 
sugar-cane, of which sugar is made in abun 
dance, with preserves, particularly of guayaba; 
and with these and some cotton and linen manu 
factures, it carries on a pretty trade. Money 
being very scarce here, articles of cotton are 
bartered for provisions, and nice versa. The 
principal food of the natives is what they call 
soata, which is composed of maize and reyamas. 
This city has, besides the parish-church, which is 
entitled Nuestra Senora de la Asuncion, a con 
vent of the religious order of San Francisco, so 
poor as to maintain only one individual. The 
copper mines, which are very fine, are worked. 

The inhabitants amount to 600 housekeepers, 
who by the commerce alone aforesaid of the sweets 
and linen^ have raised themselves to such a de 
gree of opulence and respectability as to vie with 
the inhabitants of the neighbouring town of 



PAL 

Pamplona, without the advantages of their silver 
and emerald mines. They have, however, 
fairer mine, the source of all happiness, virtue. 
It is this that renders them beloved and esteemed 
throughout the kingdom. This city is situate on 
the e. shore of the river Magdalena, 54 miles n. w. 
of Santa Fe, and 68 w. by s. of Tunja. Lat. 
5" 8 n. and long. 74 52 30 ? w. 

PALM A, a settlement of the head settlement of 
the district of Tamazunchale, and alcaldia mayor 
of Valles, in Nueva Espana; situate in a spot 
surrounded by serranias, in which dwell dispersed 
the Pames Indians. Few of these live in the set 
tlement, but prefer scattering themselves over the 
mountains and woods, according to their antient 
habits, and in different times of the year they 
take up their residence by the stalls where they 
pen their cattle. The population (including 
these mountaineers) amounts to 3000 families. 
It has a convent of the religious order of San 
Francisco, and is 22 leagues w. of its head set 
tlement. 

PALMA, another, of the head settlement of 
Zanguio, and alcaldia mayor of Zamora, in the 
same kingdom ; situate in an extensive and plea 
sant valley. 

It is of an hot and moist temperature ; bounded 
e. by the mountain of Las Canoas, and w. and n. 
by the sea of Chapala, from the shores of which 
it is distant a league and an half. Its population 
is of 24 families of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mu- 
lattoes, and 13 of Indians, who maintain them 
selves by fishing. Somewhat less than three 
leagues from its hea/d settlement. 

PALMA, another, of the province and corregi- 
miento of Valparaiso in the kingdom of Chile ; 
situate s. of the town of Santa Barbara. 

PALMA, another, with the dedicatory title of 
Nuestra Senora del Rosario, of the missions 
which are held by the religious order of S. Do 
mingo, in the district of the city of Pedraza, of 
the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. 

PALMA, a river of the kingdom of Brazil, 
which runs nearly w. with a slight inclination to 
s. w. and enters the Paratinga. 

PALMA, an island situate near the coast of the 
same kingdom as the former river, close to the 
mouth of the river La Plata. 

PALMA, another settlement, with the surname 
of Gorda, in the jurisdiction of Orizava, and al 
caldia mayor of Ixmiquilpan in Nueva Espana. 

PALMAR, SAN AGUSTIN DEL, a settlement 
and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia 
mayor of Tepeaca in Nueva Espana; of a cold 
and dry temperature, and containing 36 families 



PAL 

of Spaniards, 48 of Mustees, 12 of Mulattoes, and 
61 of Indians. Its territory is barren and fallow, 
so that the greater part of its inhabitants follow 
the trade of locksmiths. Eight leagues e. one 
quarter to s. e. of its capital. 

PALMAR, another settlement, of the province 
of Guayana and government of Cumana : one of 
the missions held there by the Capuchin fathers 
of Cataluna; situate s. of the city of S. Tomas. 

PALMAR, another, of the province and govern 
ment of Veragua, in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme. 

PALMAR, another, of the province and govern 
ment of Yucatan in the kingdom of Guatemala, 
on the side of the point of Piedra on the coast. 

PALMAR, a bay on the coast of the S. sea, of 
the province and government of Darien, of the 
kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate between the 
port Quemado and that of Pinas. It is a good 
port, called De la Hambre, where the river of 
the same name empties itself. 

PALMAR, a lake of the province and captain 
ship of Rey in Brazil, in the extremity of the 
coast formed by the river La Plata. 

PALMAR, a port on the coast of the S. sea, of 
the province and government of Esmeraldas, 
under the equinoctial line. 

PALMAR, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Guayaquil in the kingdom of Quito, of 
the district of Yaguache, to the n. It runs n. w. 
and enters the Babahoyo in lat. 1"45 s. 

PALMAR, a point of land of the interior points 
which form the entrance or channel of the lake 
of Maracaibo. 

PALMARES, SAN DIEGO DE LOS, or DE 
GUAMES, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom 
of Quito : one of those which form the missions 
of the Sucunbios Indians, and which were held 
at the charge of the Jesuits. It is situate on the 
shore of the river Guames, near where it is en 
tered by the Putumayo. 

PALMARES, another settlement, of the pro 
vince and captainship of Rey in Brazil ; situate 
on the coast, near lake Charqueada. 

PALMAS, SALAZAR DE LOS, a city of the 
government of S. Faustino in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada : founded by Diego de Montes in 
1553, by way of security to the silver mines of 
S. Pedro, on the shore of a river which traverses 
a beautiful date-grove ; but its inhabitants shortly 
abandoned it being pressed sore by the infidels, 
who succeeded in destroying it. In 1555 it was 
re-peopled by Captain Diego Parada, with the 
name of Nirua, from its having been removed to 



PAL 



11 



the shore of this river : but here it had not better 
fortune than in the former place, and in 1583 it 
was founded a third time in the spot where it 
now stands, by the Governor Francisco de Ca- 
ceres, by order of the Colonel Alonso Estevan 
Rangel, for the head of the alcaldia mat/or^ 
which title the successors of the governor pre 
served for many years. 

It is of an hot temperature, and lies amongst 
some rough and craggy mountains ; but is very 
abundant in cacao, sugar canes, plantains, yucas* 
and maize. It has, besides the parish church, a 
chapel of Nuesta Senora de Belen. Its popula 
tion is composed of 400 housekeepers, and it is 
16 leagues n.n.w. of Pamplona ; from the ju 
risdiction of which it is divided by the river Sa- 
lazar, or Sulia. 

PALM AS, another city, with the dedicatory title 
of San Miguel, in the same kingdom : founded 
by Fernando Valdes in 1544, on the shore of the 
grand river Magdalena, n. of Santa Fe ; but it 
has fallen into such decay as to be nothing more 
than a miserable hamlet. 

PALMAS, a settlement, with the dedicatory 
title of San Juan, in the province and govern 
ment of Cartagena, of the same kingdom as the 
former cities. It belongs to the district of the 
jurisdiction of the town of Sinu, and is situate at 
the bay of this name, near the coast. 

PALMAS, another, with the dedicatory title of 
San Luis, of the missions which are held by the 
religious order of S. Domingo, in the district 
and jurisdiction of the city of Pedraza, of the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada, on the shore of the 
river Canaguan. 

PALMAS, a river of the province and alcaldia 
mayor of Panuco in Nueva Espana, which runs 
into the sea in the bay of Mexico. 

PALMAS, another river, of the alcaldia mayor 
of Tabasco, in the same kingdom ; which also 
enters the sea between the rivers Santa Ana 
and De Dos Bocas. 

PALMAS, a bay on the coast of California, op 
posite Nueva Espana, between the bay of Cer- 
ralvo and the cape Porfia. 

PALMAS, a port of the province and govern 
ment of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada, in the river Grande de la Magdalena, 
with a settlement of considerable traffic. 

PALMAS, another river, of the province and 
government of Venezuela in the same kingdom, 
which runs s. and enters the Manapire. 

PALMAS, another port, on the n. coast of the 
island of Cuba, between the port of Sama and 
the bay of Baxanas. 

c 2 



PAL 



PAL 



PALM AS, an island of the S. sea, discovered 
by Francisco Pizarro in 1527, who gave it this 
name from the number of palms found upon it. 
It lies in the bay of Chiramina, is a league and 
an half in circumference, opposite the mouth of 
the river San Juan, of the province and govern 
ment of Choco. Twenty-six leagues from the cape 
of Corrientes, and is desert and uncultivated. 

PALMAS, another river, of the island of Gra 
nada, one of the lesser Antilles of the French. 
It runs e. and enters the sea in lat. 12 4 n. 

PALMAS. Some islands of the N. sea, near 
the coast of the province and government of Da- 
rien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. They are 
many, and form a semi-circle between the island 
Pinos and the Playon Grande and the bay of 
Mandinga. 

[PALMER, a rough and hilly township in 
Hampshire county, Massachusetts, 63 miles a . 
by s. of Boston ; it is situated on the n. side of 
Ouebang river, and bounded e. by Western in 
Worcester county. An act passed in last session, 
1796, to incorporate a society to make a turnpike- 
road between these two towns. It was incor 
porated in 1752, and contains 809 inhabitants. J 

[PALMER S River, a water of Narraganset 
bay, which empties with another small river, and 
forms Warren river, opposite the town of Warren.] 

PALMERAS, PUNTA DE, a point on the coast 
of Los Humos, of the province and captainship of 
Seara in Brazil ; between the island Corubun and 
port Tortuga. 

[PALMERSTON S Island, of which one in 
particular has been so named, is in lat. 18 10 s. 
and long. 163 20 w. and is the second in situation 
from the s. e. of a group of 9 or 10, all known 
by the same general name. It affords neither 
anchorage nor water ; but if the weather is mo 
derate, a ship that is passing the s. Pacific ocean 
in this track, may be supplied with grass for 
cattle, cocoa-nuts, fish, and other productions of 
the island. The principal island is not above a 
mile in circumference ; nor is it elevated more 
than three feet above the surface of the sea.] 

[PALMETTO, the most e. point of the bay 
so called, on the s. w. coast of the island of S. 
Christopher s, in the W. Indies. The shore is 
rocky, and a fort protects the bay. Also the most 
n. point of the island of Jamaica ; having Ma 
natee bay on the w. and Island bay on the e.] 

PALMILLA, SAN LUCAS DE LOS, a settle 
ment of the head settlement of the district and 
alcaldia mayor of Guejozinco in Nueva Espana. 
It contains 77 families of Indians, and lies n. of 
its capital. 



PALMILLA, another settlement, with the de 
dicatory title of Santa Cecilia ; a reduction of 
Indians made by the missionaries of the order oi 
San Francisco, in the district and jurisdiction 
of the alcaldia mayor of Guadalcazar in Nueva 
Espana. It contains 40 families of Indians, with 
out those who live dispersed about its precincts, 
and is 20 leagues from the head settlement of the 
district of Tula. 

PALMILLA, another, of the province and go 
vernment of Sierra Gorda in the bay of M exico, 
and kingdom of Nueva Espana, founded in 
1740, by Don Joseph de Escandon, Count of 
Sierra (jorda, colonel of militia of Queretaro. 

[PALMISTE Point, on the n. side of the 
n. w. part of the island of St. Domingo, three 
leagues s. of point Portugal, the e. point of 
the small island La Tortue, and five e. of Port 
de Paix.J 

PALMISTES, PUNTA DE, a point on the s. 
coast of the island of S. Christopher, one of the 
lesser Antilles, betw r een the river Pentecoste and 
the rivulet of Pelau. 

PALMITAL, a small river of the province 
and captainship of Portoseguro in Brazil. It rises 
near the coast, runs n. n. w. and enters the river 
of Las Piedras. 

PALMITO, a river of the province and coun 
try of the Canclos Indians, in the kingdom of 
Quito, which runs e. n. e. and enters the Bobo- 
nasa by the w. shore, between the Caspi-yacu to 
the n. and the Chambira to the s. in lat. 137 s. 

PALMITO, a point of land of the n. coast of the 
island Jamaica, between the river Annoto and 
the bay of Orange. 

[PALMYRA, a town and the only port of 
entry and delivery in the state of Tennesse, 
constituted a port of entry by law of the United 
States, January 31, 1797.] 

PALO, COLORADO, a settlement of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Quillota in the king 
dom of Chile ; situate on the coast at the mouth 
of the river Limari. 

PALO, ARECIFE DEL, an island near the coast 
of Vera Cruz in the bay of Mexico and kingdom 
of Nueva Espana, between the island Verde and 
La Anegada. 

PALOMAS, Is LA DE LOS, an island in the 
gulf of Venezuela, at the entrance or mouth of 
the lake of Maracaibo, to the n. of the city. It 
has a small settlement of the same name, and 
is in lat. 10 56 n. 

PALOMETA, a small river of the province 
and government of Santa Cruz de la Sieri a in 
Peru. It rises from some very lofty mountains 



P A M 

to the w. of the settlement of Los Desposorios, 
runs n. and enters the Piray. 

PALOMINO, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Revno 
de Granada, which rises in the sierra of the iPo- 
segueicas Indians, runs n. and enters the sea be 
tween the cape San Juan de Guia and the river 
Hacha. 

[PALOMINOS. Small islands on the coast 
of Peru, S. America ; three miles w. of St. Law 
rence island, or St. Lorenzo. They have from 
13 to 14 fathoms water on them.J 

PALOMOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, 
of the province of Gran Chaco in Peru. It 
extends from e. to w. from the river Bermejo, 
and the spacious llanuras of Manso to the s. 
These barbarians are ferocious, and issue from 
the woods to infest the neighbouring provinces ; 
and as a defence against them there is a fort 
called San Joseph, supplied by the Spaniards. 

[PALONQUE, the cape e. of Nisao point, 
at the mouth of Nisao river, on the s. side of 
the island of St. Domingo, in lat. 18 13 n. and 
long. 73 2 w. of Paris.] 

PALORA, a rapid river of the province and 
government of Macas in the kingdom of Quito, 
which rises in the province of Riobamba, to the 
n. of a lake of the mountain of Sangay, close to 
the settlement of Cebadas. It runs from w. to e. 
till it enters the Pastaza or Pastaca, and in the 
woods of its vicinity dwell some Indians of the na 
tion of Los Xibaros. Its mouth is in lat. 1 47 s. 

PALPA, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento of lea in Peru ; situate on the shore 
of the Rio Grande, not far from the sea-coast. 

PALPACACHI, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Cotabambas in Peru : an 
nexed to the curacy of Huaillati. 

PALPAL, a small river of the kingdom of 
Chile in the province and corregimiento of Itala. 
It runs n.n.zv. and unites itself with the Temuco 
to enter the Dinguilli. 

PALPA S, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed to 
the curacy of Gorgor. 

PALPAS, another settlement, in the same pro 
vince and kingdom as the former; annexed to 
the curacy of Churin. 

[PALTZ, NEW, a township on the w. side of 
Hudson s river in Ulster county, New York, 
about 18 miles n. of Newburgh, and 30 n.e. of 
Goshen. It contains 2309 inhabitants, including 
302 slaves.] 

PAMBAMARCA, a settlement of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru. 



13 



PAMBAMARCA, a very lofty paramo or moun 
tain, always covered with snow, of the kingdom 
of Quito ; one of those chosen by the acade 
micians of the sciences at Paris, who visited this 
kingdom to measure one of the degrees of the 
equator, on which to make their observations. 
On it are seen the ruins of four fortresses of the 
Incas, called pucares, consisting of concentrical 
ditches of three or four rows, and in the interior 
one a wall or parapet. The exterior one, which 
was in general about two toises wide and as 
many deep, is in some parts so wide as to be 
seen at a league s distance ; and indeed it was 
altogether so ordered for the safety of the be 
sieged, that the inner border should command 
the exterior ones. At the top of this mountain 
there blows a constant wind, so strong that 
people can scarcely live in it. It is 20 milea 
with a slight inclination to the n. of Quito. 

PAIMAUNKE. See YORK. 

[PAMLICO Sound, on the e. coast of N. 
Carolina, is a kind of lake or inland sea, from 
10 to 30 miles broad, and nearly 60 miles in 
length. It is separated from the Atlantic ocean, 
in its whole length, by a beach of land hardly a 
mile wide, generally covered with small trees 
or bushes. Through this bank are several small 
inlets by which boats may pass ; but Ocrecok 
inlet is the only one that will admit vessels of 
burden into the districts of Edenton and Nevv- 
bern. This inlet is in lat. 34 54 n. and opens 
between Ocrecok island and Core bank. This 
sound communicates with Core and Albemarle 
sounds, and receives Pamlico or Tar river, the 
river Neus, besides other small streams. See 
OCRECOK, Cape HATTERAS, &c.] 

PAMPACHIRI, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru. 

PAMPACOCHA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Canta, in the same kingdom 
as the former ; annexed to the curacy of Arahuay. 

PAMPACOLCA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Condesuios de Arequipa in 
the same kingdom. 

PAMPACUCHO, a settlement of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Chilques and Masques 
in the same kingdom. 

PAMPADEQUES, SAN PABLO DB, a settle 
ment of the missions which were held by the Je 
suits, in the province and government of Mainas 
of the kingdom of Quito. 

PAMPAHUACIS, a barbarous nation of waiv 
like Indians, who dwell n. of Cuzco ; subjected 
to the empire by Huayna Capac, thirteenth empe 
ror of the Incas, 



14 



P A M 



PAMPAMARCA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Aimaraes in Peru. 

PAMPAMARCA, another settlement, in the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Parinacochas, of the 
same kingdom. 

PAMPAMARCA, another, of the province and 
corregimiento of Tinta or Canes, and Canches, 
same kingdom. , 

PAMPANO, a small river of the province and 
government of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada : it enters the lake Atole at a small 
space from its head. 

PAMPAQUINCHIS, a settlement of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Yauyos in Peru ; an 
nexed to the curacy of Huanic. 

PAMPAROMAS, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru ; an 
nexed to the curacy of Moro in the province of 
Santa. 

PAMPAS, a barbarous nation of warlike 
Indians of the kingdom of Peru ; extending n. 
and w. of the Paraguay, and bounded by Cordoba 
del Tucuman. 

PAMPAS, some extensive llanuras of the pro 
vince and government of Buenos Ayres, running 
s. for more than 300 leagues, as far as the pro 
vince ofCuyoof the kingdom of Chile. In them 
there lives some wandering barbarous nations of 
Indians, the Huarcas or Pampas, the Aucaes, 
Pehuenches, Pulches and Uncas;,who for the 
most part go about on horseback, robbing, 
plundering, and murdering the travellers which 
fall into their way : accordingly it is necessary, 
in passing from Peru to Chile, and vice-versa, 
that the carts (these being the vehicles used for 
the purpose) should go in large parties, so as to 
give a more effectual resistance to this race of 
banditti : nor is the same precaution unobserved 
by such as go to collect salt from the great 
saline grounds 200 leagues from Buenos Ayres ; 
this salt being extremely white, and of excellent 
quality, and employing, in conveying it, no less 
than 300 carts, which, although in close company, 
are not unfrequently attacked in their journey. 
They start about November, and are two months 
away on their rout. 

In these vast plains are found many tigers, 
leopards, ostriches, quiriquinchos or armadillos^ 
partridges, hares, and other animals. In the pas 
tures which are exceedingly fine, and in some 
parts so lofty as to cover a man on horseback, 
breed a great number of bulls, horses, and mules, 
descendants of those brought from Spain at the 
time of the conquest. Many troops of these 
wild animals, in their rout from one place to an- 



P A M 

other, will often meet and attack the unwary 
traveller, and even the aforesaid carts in their 
way from Buenos Ayres to Mendoza in the king 
dom of Chile. Sometimes proceeding- in multi 
tudes to drink at one of the many rivers which 
irrigate these parts, they will rush with such 
violence into the water that the foremost will be 
driven so deep into the mud by the pressure of 
those behind, as to be unable to extricate them 
selves, and there perish ; and this is the reason 
why there are constantly seen such heaps of 
bones on the banks of the abrevaderos or drink 
ing places. 

The Indians have an easy method of catching 
any of the above animals by a small cord of two 
yards long, with a ball of iron or stone at one 
end, at the other a piece of wood or some light 
substance : this they use as a sling, and such is 
their dexterity in throwing it that, without ever 
missing the animal aimed at amongst the vast 
herd, they cause it so to entwine its legs, that, in 
effort to escape, it immediately falls, and becomes 
an easy prey. 

Here are also many asses, by which, in this 
province as well as that of Tucuman, they produce 
a fine and numerous breed of mules, which are 
carried for sale to Peru. There are likewise 
many dogs, so voracious and bold, that, in lack of 
cattle to feed on, they will fall upon the people ; 
nor is it uncommon that, under such circum 
stances, travellers have been sacrificed to their 
greediness : these dogs will not merely attack 
cattle, but they will go in troops and fight the 
tiger, and although many of them, as is generally 
the case, will fall victims to their presumption, 
they never fail to be finally victorious, and glut 
themselves on its flesh : the same system of 
warfare they practise, but with less cost, upon 
the bulls. Those who have seen these engage 
ments represent them as horrible though extreme 
ly fine and amusing ; more so, perhaps, could 
they be witnessed in security. 

In these Pampas blow several strong winds 
very similar to hurricanes, which they call pam 
peros ; and so impetuous are they as to arrest the 
force and progress of the carts drawn by six oxen 
and with a load of upwards of 600 arrobas. 

PAMPAS, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Yauyos in Peru, in the district 
of which is a road leading down to the settlement 
of Tupe, called de las cinco mil escalones (of the 
5000 steps), since it is asserted that there are this 
number in its descent. 

PAMPAS, another, of the province and corre 
gimiento of Gviailasci in the same kingdom. 



P A M 

PAMPAS, another, of the province and corregi- 
miento of Conchucos in the same kingdom ; annex 
ed to the curacy of Pallasca. 

PAMPAS, another, of the province and corregi- 
mienlo of Gunata in the same kingdom. 

PAMPAS, another, of the province and corre- 
gimicnto of Canta in the same kingdom ; annex 
ed to the curacy of Arahuay. 

PAMPAS, another, of the province and corre 
gimiento of Guailasci in the same kingdom ; dis 
tinct from that aforesaid, and annexed to the 
curacy of Marco 

PAMPAS, a large river, of the province and 
corregimiento of Lucanas in the same kingdom of 
Peru. It rises n. of the settlement of Sora, runs 
n. and enters the Apurimac, in the province of 
Guanta. It has a bridge of hurdles, of 30 yards 
long and one and an half wide, over which pass 
the goods on their way from Lima to Cuzco. 

PAMPAYATA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Aimaraes in Peru, an 
nexed to the curacy of Moro in the province of 
Santa. 

PAMPICHI, a settlement of the province and 
kingdom of Guatemala, annexed to the curacy of 
Amatitan, to which it is very near. 

PAMPLONA, a city of the province and corre 
gimiento of Tunga in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra 
nada : founded by Captain Pedro de Ursua and 
Orlien de Velasco in 1549, according to the 
order of the Most Illustrious Piedrahita, and not 
Miguel Diez de Armendariz, as the Ex-Jesuit 
Coleti asserts, in 1558. He gave it the name in 
memory of his native place of Ursua, capital of 
Navarra. It is situate on a plain or llano called 
Del Espiritu Santo, surrounded on all sides by 
mountains, which make its temperature extremely 
cold. It is very fertile, and abounding in cattle, 
vegetable productions, sugar- engines, and cotton 
munufactures, with all of which it has a greatcom- 
merce, as well as by gold and copper taken from 
some mines, the last of which and the best was 
discovered in 1765. 

The parish church is one of the handsomest 
buildings in the whole kingdom. Here are beau 
tiful houses, public edifices and squares, an her 
mitage which is a vice-parish, and in which is 
venerated an image of Christ crucified, with two 
of the thieves, all being fine pieces of sculpture ; 
some convents of the religious orders of San Fran 
cisco, Santo Domingo, San Agustin, a college 
which belonged to the Jesuits, an hospital, and a 
monastery of nuns of Santa Clara ; the which, 
together with the whole city, suffered much from 
an earthquake which happened in 1644. 



PAN 15 

Its jurisdiction extends as far as Tunja, 24 
leagues further on the part towards J iron, and 
the same distance to the e. and towards the town 
of San Christoval. It has, besides the governor, 
a corregidor of Indians, and an alcaldia mayor of the 
mines. It has been the native place of Fr. Fran 
cisco Vivar, of the order of San Francisco, a man 
of great virtue and science, 185 miles n. e. of 
Santa Fe, 124 n. e. of Velez, 156 w. s. w. of Trux- 
illo, 110 w. s. w. of Merida, and 131 w. with a 
slight inclination to the s. of Varinas, in lat. 7 1 
30 V/ n. and Ion. 72 21 w. 

PAMTICOE, an abundant river of the pro 
vince and colony of N. Carolina ; which runs s. e. 
and enters the sea in the strait of its name. 

This strait is formed by the coast of S. Carolina 
and the island of Hateras. 

[PAMUNKY, the ancient name of York river 
in Virginia ; but this name is now confined to 
the s. branch, formed by the confluence of the 
N. and S. Anna. This and the n. branch, Matta- 
pony, unite and form York river, just below the 
town of De La War.] 

PAMURACOCHA, a lake of the province and 
corregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru. It is long 
and narrow. 

PAN, BOCA DE, a creek of. the coast of the S. 
sea, in the province and corregimiento of Piura 
and kingdom of Peru ; situate in the bay of 
Tumbes. 

PAN, DE AZUCAR, a settlement of the province 
and government of Paraguay, situate near the 
strait of its name. 

PAN, another settlement, of the missions which 
were held by the Jesuits in the Orinoco, and 
now under the charge of the order of the Capu 
chins. 

PAN, a very lofty mountain, of a conical figure, 
on the shore of the river La Plata, at its entrance; 
in the province and government of Buenos Ayres, 
close to the river Solis Chico. 

PAN, another, on the s. coast of the strait of 
Magellan, at the mouth of the river Jelouzelt. 

PAN, another, on the n. e. coast of the island of 
Martinique, between the bay of S. Jacques and 
that of Charpentier. 

PAN, a strait or narrow pass formed by the 
river Paraguay, in the province of this name. 

[PANA^an island on the coast of Peru, 35 miles 
s. s. w. of Guayaquil. At point Arena, which is 
the n. w. point, all ships bound farther into 
Guayaquil bay stop for pilots, as there is good 
anchorage over against the middle of the town, 
in five fathoms, and a soft oozy ground. It is 
also called Puna.] 



16 P A N 

[PANACA, a burning mountain on the w. coast 
of New Mexico, about three leagues from the 
volcano of Sansonate.] 

PANACACHI, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Chayanta or Charcas in 
Peru. 

[PANADOU, or MENADOU, a bay on the 
coast of Cape Breton island, near the s. part of 
the gulf of St. Lawrence]. 

PANAMA, a city and capital of the kingdom 
and government of Tierra Firme ; founded on 
the coast of the Pacific or S. sea, upon an isthmus 
to which it gives its name, at the foot of a lofty 
mountain called Ancon. It was founded by 
Pedrarias Davila in 1518, in a part now called 
Panama la vieja (the old) where it was sacked 
and burnt in 1670 by the English pirate John 
Morgan, when it was in the following year trans 
lated to a league s distance by the Major-general 
Don Antonio Fernandez de Cordoba ; and was 
first fortified by Alonso Mercado de Villa-corta. 
It is irregularly and badly defended ; but has been 
one of the richest and most important towns of 
commerce in the whole world, as being the regular 
depot of all the goods going from Peru to 
Europe, before that the navigation of Buenos 
Ayres and of Cape Horn were so much practised. 

It is the head of a bishopric, created in 1521 ; 
has besides the cathedral, two parishes, one with 
the title of S. Felipe in the city, and another of 
the title of Santo Ava, in the suburbs without the 
wall, which are larger than the city itself: like 
wise the convents of the orders of San Francisco, 
S. Domingo, La Merced, the barefooted Angus- 
tins with the title of S. Joseph, a college which 
belonged to the Jesuits, with a seminary for stu 
dies, and an university founded by the bishop 
Don Francisco Xavier de Luna y Victoria in 
1571; an hospital of San Juan de Dios and a 
monastery of the nuns of Nuestra Senora de la 
Concepcion. 

In its early times it had a mint, which lasted but 
a short time. It was governed by a president 
and a tribunal of the royal audience, erected in 
1535, which was abolished in 1752, only a military 
o-overnor and viceroy being left. This city, 
from being once great and opulent, is reduced to 
a poor and miserable state from the decay of its 
commerce since that the galleons have ceased to 
go to Tierra Firme, and since that it had endured 
two dreadful conflagrations in 1737 and 1756. 
To the latter evil it was very liable, most of 
its houses being built of finely carved wood ; the 
cathedral, however, is of stone and of magnificent 
architecture. 



PAN 

The temperature of this city is burning hot. 
though the nights are fresh and agreeable. The 
territory is fertile but little cultivated, as the 
city is supplied with necessaries from the pro 
vinces and settlements of its jurisdiction, as well 
as from those of Peru by the S. sea, and from 
those of Europe and the foreign colonies by the 
N. sea, from whence it lies 11 leagues. It is ce 
lebrated for the meeting held in it by the Trium 
virate, who deliberated in 1525 concerning the 
discovery and conquest of Peru, who were Fran- 
ciso Pizarro, Diego de Almagro, and Hernando 
de Luque. 

The port is formed by some islands at the dis 
tance of two leagues and an half from the town, 
where vessels may lie sheltered from the winds. 
The tides are regular, and the high water is 
every three hours, when it runs to a great height, 
and falls with such rapidity as to leave three 
quarters of a league dry when down. 

The city of Panama has the arms which were 
granted it in 1521, by the emperor Charles V. 
with the title of very noble and very loyal ; a 
shield divided into a pale and gold field, having 
in the middle of the right side a yoke and a 
bundle of brown-coloured arrows, with blue 
points and silver feathers, this having been the 
device of the catholic kings : then in the other 
half, or the left side, two carvels, one above the 
other, and above them a star, which denoted the 
arctic pole, and in the orle of the shield castles 
and lions. It is the native place of father Agus- 
tin Hurtado, of the Jesuits ; put to death in the 
settlement of Gayes of the missions of Mainas, 
at the hands of the Indians, whilst instructing 
them in the faith in 1688 ; also of father Ignacio 
de Caceres, his companion. In lat. 9 30 n. 
loner. 79 19 w. 

Catalogue of the Bishops who have presided 
in Panama. 

1. Don Fr. Vicente de Valverde, a monk of 
the order of S. Domingo ; elected bishop of 
Santa Maria del Darien, the first church of the 
kingdom of Tierra Firme, in 1533. 

2. Don Fr. Juan de Quevedo ; a monk of the 
order of San Francisco, native of Bejori in the 
mountains of Burgos. He passed over to the 
church and returned to Spain, and had many 
disputes with Fr. Bartolome de los Casas, in 
presence of the emperor Charles V. on the sub 
ject of the liberty of the Indians, in which he 
was convinced and conquered by the bishop 
Casas ; he died at Barcelona. 

3. Don Fr. Juan de la Guardia, of the order 
of San Francisco, of whom we know no more 



PANAMA. 



17 



than that his name is mentioned in the catalogue 
of the bishops of that holy church. 

4. Don Fr. Martin de Bejar, of the order of 
San Francisco, native of Sevilla ; presented by 
the emperor Charles V. to be bishop of Santa 
Maria del Darien. In his time the See was 
translated to the city of Panama. 

5. Don Fr. Tomas de Berlanga, of the order 
of S. Domingo, native of the town of his name ; 
he passed to America, where he was provincial 
of his order, and elected bishop of Panama in 
1530. He renounced the bishopric in 1537 ; and 
died in his native place in 1551. 

6. Don Fr. Vicente de Peraza, of the order 
of S. Domingo, collegiate in the college of S. 
Gregorio de Valladolid. According to Fr. Alonso 
Fernandez, he was bishop in 1540. 

7. Don Fr. Pablo de Torres, of the order of 
S. Domingo, and not of San Geronimo, as Gil 
Gonzalez Davila wrongly asserts : he was bishop 
in 1560. 

8. Don Fr. Juan Vaca, of the order of S. 
Benito, abbot of the monasteries of Sahogun 
and Carrion ; presented by Philip II. to the 
bishopric of Panama, and died on his passage. 

9. Don Francisco Abrego, elected bishop of 
Panama in 1569 : he governed 15 years, and 
died in 1574. 

10. Don .Fr. Manuel de Mercado, of the order 
of San Geronimo : he entered Panama, and took 
possession of his bishopric in 1578, and died in 
1580. 

1 1 . Don Bartolome Martinez Menacho, native 
of Almendralejo in Estremadura, archdeacon of 
the holy church of Lima in 1587 : he was the 
first who made the visitation ; and passing to 
Santa Fe in 1593, he died at Cartagena. 

12. Don Pedro Duque de Ribera, collegiate 
of the college of Santa Maria de Jesus of Sevilla, 
and dean of the church of S. Domingo; elected 
bishop of Panama in 1594 : he also died at Car 
tagena, when about to take possession. 

13. Don Antonio Calderon, dean of the holy 
church of Santa Fe, bishop of Puerto-rico ; pro 
moted to the church of Panama in 1594 : he 
founded there a mass of the Virgin for every Sa 
turday, and another on Fridays, of Christ s pas 
sion ; he was promoted to the bishopric of Santa 
Cruz de la Sierra in 1605. 

14. Don Fr. Agustin de Carvajal, native of 
Mexico, of the order of S. Agustin, assistant ge 
neral of the same. When prior of his convent 
at Valladolid, he was elected to the bishopric of 
Panama, of which he took possession in 1608 : 
he consecrated the bells of its church, founded 

VOL. IV. 



the college of San Agustin with six collegiates, 
according to the Tridentine council, for the ser 
vice of the cathedral, and was promoted to the 
bishopric of Guamanga in 1612. 

15. Don Fr. Francisco de la Camera, of the 
order of S. Domingo : he passed to America as 
visitor of the provinces of Quito and Chile ; and, 
having finished the visitation, was presented to 
the bishopric of Panama, of which he took pos 
session in 1614 ; he endowed funds for two ad 
ditional collegiates in the college of San Agustin, 
and gave a prize of 300 dollars in the college of 
the Jesuits for promoting the study of the cases 
of conscience ; he also gave 4000 dollars for the 
finishing of the cathedral, which had been be 
gun, endowed two chaplains of the choir, and 
died in 1624. 

16. Don Fr. Christoval Martinez de Salas, 
Premonstratensian canon, native of Medina del 
Campo, definidor of his order, abbot of the con 
vent of Segovia, rector of the college of Santa 
Susana in Salamanca, and visitor-general of his 
order : presented by the king Don Philip IV. to 
the bishopric of Panama in 1625 ; endowed two 
masses sung to the Virgin on Wednesdays and 
Saturdays, gave 2000 dollars for building a col 
lateral chapel, and died blind and full of infir 
mities in 1640. 

17. Don Fr. Hernando Ramirez, a monk of 
the order of la Santisima Trinidad, native of the 
Arroyo del Puerco in the bishopric of Coria : he 
studied arts and theology in Salamanca, was 
vicar and preacher of the convent of Nuestra 
Senora de las Virtudes, procurator-general of 
his order at court, minister of the convents of 
Toledo, Fuente Santa, Alcala, and Talavera, 
commissary and visitor of the provinces of Ara- 
gon, Cataluna, and Valencia, provincial and 
vicar-general in that of Castilla ; elected bishop 
of Panama in 1640, he entered to take possession 
in 1643. In his time, when the city was on fire, 
he, abandoning his house to the flames, ran to 
save the sacred vases of the altar : he died in 
1652. 

18. Don Bernardo de Izaguivre, native of 
Toledo, fiscal of the inquisition of Cartagena of 
the Indies and of Lima, also inquisitor in the 
latter ; elected bishop of Panama in 1655 : he 
was promoted to the bishopric of Cuzco in 1660. 

19. Don Diego de Vergara, native of Lima, 
professor of sacred writings in its royal univer 
sity, penitentiary canon of its holy church, 
elected bishop of Panama in 1663 : he died be 
fore he could be consecrated. 

20. Don Sancho Pardo de Figueroa, native of 

n 



18 



PANAMA. 



Lima, dean of Truxillo, magisterial canon of the 
holy church of his native place : elected bishop 
of Panama in 1667, and promoted to the bishopric 
of Guamanga. 

21. Don Antonio de Leon, who was promoted 
to the bishopric of Truxillo in 1677, having been 
provisional president and captain-general by 
order of the king. 

22. Don Lucas Fernandez de Piedrahita, na 
tive of Santa Fe in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra 
nada, racionero and canon of this holy church, 
treasurer and chanter in the same, bishop of 
Santa Marta, and promoted to Panama in 1682 : 
he died in 1688. 

23. Don Diego Ladron de Guevara, collegiate 
mayor in the real de Alcala, canon of the cathe 
drals of Siqiienza and Malaga : presented to the 
bishopric of Panama in 1689, and promoted to 
that of Guamanga in 1699, when he was pro 
visional president. 

24. Don Fr. Juan de Arguelles, of the order 
of S. Agustin, native of Lima : elected bishop of 
Panama in 1694, and promoted to the bishopric 
of Arequipa. 

25. Don Fr. Manuel de Mimbela, of the order 
of San Francisco, native of Fraga in Aragon : 
he passed over as missionary apostolic to Zaca- 
tecas in Nueva Espana, where he was lecturer 
in theology, and twice guardian in his convent, 
and then returned to Spain as procurator-ge 
neral. After this, promoted to the church of 
Oaxaca ; and, before he took possession, to that 
of Guadalaxara. 

26. Don Fr. Juan Joseph de Llamas y Rivas, 
of the order of the Carmen Calzado, native of 
Murcia, provincial of his order in the province of 
Andalucia ; elected bishop of Panama, and after 
wards nominated provisional president, gover 
nor, and captain-general of the kingdom in 1716. 

27. Don Fr. Bernardo Serrada, of the order 
of Nuestra Seilora del Carmen Calzado, pro 
vincial in his religion ; elected bishop of Pa 
nama in 1720, and promoted to Cuzco in 1725. 

28. Don Agustin Rodriguez, curate of Hor- 
taleza in the bishopric of Toledo ; elected the 
aforesaid year of 1725, and promoted to La Paz 
in 1731. " 

29. Don Pedro Morcillo, who went as auxi 
liary bishop to Panama in 1732 : he died in 
1741. 

30. Don Fr. Diego de Salinas y Cabrera, of 
the order of San Agustin : he refused to accept 
the office. 

31. Don Juan de Castaneda, archdeacon of 
the holy cathedral church of Cuzco ; bishop of 



Panama in 1743, and promoted to that of Cuzco 
in 1749. 

32. Don Felipe Manrique de Lara, native of 
Lima; elected to the bishopric of Panama in 
1753, but he renounced it. 

33. Don Francisco Xavier de Luna y Vic 
toria, native of the same city of Panama ; founder 
of the university of San Xavier in the college of 
the Jesuits, presented to the bishopric of his 
native place in 1751, and to that of Truxillo in 
Peru in 1759. 

34. Don Manuel de Romani y Carrillo, native 
of Guamanza ; elected bishop in 1759, and pro 
moted to that of Cuzco in 1763. 

35. Don Miguel Moreno y Olio, native of Pa 
nama, canon of its holy church, commissary of 
the tribunal of the inquisition of Cartagena ; 
elected bishop in 1763, and promoted to Gua 
manga in 1770. 

36. Don Fr. Francisco de los Rios, of the or 
der of San Francisco ; elected, the above year, 
bishop of Panama : he died in 1777. 

37. Don Joseph Antonio Umeres de Miranda, 
inquisitor of the holy tribunal of La Fe in Car 
tagena of the Indies : elected bishop of Panama 
in 1777. 

Commandants-general, Presidents, and Gover 
nors, who have ruled in the Kingdom of Tierra 
Firme. 

1. Don Pedro Arias Davila, native of Segovia, 
brother of Count Punsolem-rostro ; elected by 
the emperor for his qualifications to command in 
Darien in 1514, where his glories were sullied 
from his having commanded, in a fit of passion, 
the heads of Vasco Nunez de Balboa and of 
Francisco Fernandez de Cordoba to be cut off : 
he governed until 1526, when his successor ar 
rived in, 

2. Don Pedro de los Rios, native of Cordoba, 
nominated on account of the complaints made 
against the former, and through the death of 
the Licentiate Lope de Sosa, also of Cordoba, 
who had been nominated, and had died suddenly. 
The clamours still persisting, the Licentiate An- 
tonio de la Gama was sent out as residentiary 
judge in 1528 ; and as successor to the govern 
ment was sent, 

3. Francisco de Barrionuevo, native of Soria, 
famed for his conquests in the islands of Puerto- 
rico and S. Domingo, appointed to the govern 
ment of Tierra Firme ; but receiving a commis 
sion to attend the treaty of pacification with the 
cazeque Enrique at S. Domingo, he did not take 
possession till 1533. 



PANAMA. 



19 



4. The Licentiate Pedro Vazquez de Acuna, 
who was nominated governor and residentiary 
judge ; and sore complaints having been raised, 
there was shortly sent out another in the per 
son of, 

5. Doctor Francisco Robles, with the same 
commission as the former : he entered on his of 
fice in 1539, filled it with prudence and justice; 
but whether it was the effect of the climate, or 
some malignant fate had sown the seeds of dis 
cord in this government, he could not escape, 
covered as he was with perfections, the shafts of 
calumny and malice. 

6. Pedro de Casaos, native of Sevilla, who, 
with the title of corregidor of Panama, was no 
minated by the king to govern it. In his time 
occurred the robberies and depredations per 
formed by Hernando Bachicao, captain Gon- 
zalo Pizarro. 

7. The Licentiate Don Pedro Ramires de Qui- 
nones, first president, with the title as such of 
that audience : he settled the existing disturb 
ances in the kingdom, and made war against the 
Negro Bayano, so as to succeed in restoring a 
perfect tranquillity. 

8. Juan de Bustos Villegas, who passed whilst 
governor of the plaza of Cartagena to the go 
vernment of Panama in 1551 : he died by a fall 
from his mule. 

9. The Licentiate Juan Lopez de Cepeda, 
who was oidor deacon of the island of S. Do 
mingo, when he went to Santa Fe in the same 
capacity : from thence he went to be alcalde del 
crimen of the audience of Panama, and promoted 
to Charcas in 1558. 

10. The Licentiate Francisco de Cardenas, the 
last robed president of Tierra Firme, from the 
establishment there of the commandancy-general 
of the kingdom, the city of Panama, its capital, 
being the place of arms, (plaza de armas): he 
died in 1594. 

11. Don Juan del Barrio Sepulveda, oidor 
deacon of the royal audience, provisional go 
vernor through the death of the former, and was 
holding the reins when arrived, 

12. Don Alonso de Sotomayor y Andia, Mar 
quis of Valparaiso, comendador of Villa-mayor in 
the order of Santiago, native of Tuxillo in Estre- 
madura, an officer of great credit in Flanders and, 
at Chile, where he had governed the king s ar 
mies : was at Lima, on his way to Europe, when 
he was nominated president of Panama, by the 
viceroy the Marquis of Canete, to defend the 
kingdom against an English armament, which, 
when arrived, he gloriously and completely re 



pulsed : he governed until 1596, when he passed 
to Spain. 

13. The aforesaid Juan del Barrio Sepul 
veda, oidor deacon of the audience, returned to 
be provisional governor till 1601, when there 



came, 



14. The same Don Alonso de Sotomayor, no 
minated by the king in consideration of his con 
duct and great ability in the fortification of the 
Plaza of Portobello, in company with the re 
nowned engineer Juan Baptista Antoneli. Al 
though he had received an order to proceed to 
the government of Chile, he embarked for Eu 
rope in 1605. 

15. Don Diego de Orozco, native of Lima. 

16. Don Rodrigo de Viveroy Velasco, in whose 
time the conquest and spiritual reduction of the 
Guaimies Indians of the province of Veragua 
was commenced by the religious order of S. Do 
mingo : his government ended in 1624. 

17. Don Alvaro de Quinones Osorio, knight 
of the order of Santiago, Marquis ofLorenzana : 
he governed until 1632, when he was promoted 
to the presidency of Guatemala. 

18. Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, pro 
moted from the presidency and captainship-gene 
ral of the Philippine isles in 1634, having held 
that of Panama only two years. 

19. Don Enrique Enriquez de Sotomayor, 
promoted from the government of Puertorico to 
this presidency, which he exercised until 1638, 
when he died, causing great sentiments of re 
gret. 

20. Don Inigo de la Mota Sarmiento, knight 
of the order of Santiago, chamberlain to his 
majesty the Archduke of Alberto, and of the 
supreme council and junta of war ; promoted to 
the government of Puertorico in 1639, and died 
at Portobello whilst assisting at the dispatch of 
the galleons under the charge of the general 
Don Francisco Diaz Pimienta, in 1642. 

21. Don Juan de Vega Bazan, who had been ad 
miral of galleons, nominated president, governor, 
and commandant-general of the kingdom of 
Tierra Firme. 

22. Don Juan de Bitrileante y Navarra, knight 
of the order of Calatrava : he died at Portobello, 
assisting at the dispatch of the armada of gal 
leons, commanded by admiral Don Juan de Ec- 
havarri, in 1651, as may be seen by the stone 
over his sepulchre in the church. 

23. Don Fernando de la Riva Aguero, knight 
of the order of Santiago, colonel, governor of 
Cartagena of the Indies, when he was nominated 
president of Panama : he died also at Porto~ 

D 2 



20 



PANAMA. 



bello, assisting at the dispatch of the galleons, in 
1663. 

24. Don Juan Perez de Guzman, knight of 
the order of Santiago, colonel, governor of Car 
tagena, and after having served in the militia 
and been governor of Antioquia and Puertorico, 
he was promoted to this presidency in 1665, 
through the death of the former. He went to 
retake the island of Santa Catalina, in the hands 
of the English pirate John Morgan, and was, 
nevertheless, deposed from the government by 
the viceroy of Peru, Count of Lemos, owing to 
some charges made against him by Don Bernardo 
Trilco de Figueroa, oidor deacon of that au 
dience. 

25. Don Agustin de Bracamonte, nominated 
provisional governor by the viceroy of Peru. 

26. The aforesaid Don Juan Perez, who was 
now fully and honourably acquitted of all the 
charges against him. In his time the city was 
ruined and destroyed by the English pirate in 
1670 ; when he was again suspended by the 
viceroy, and sent to answer for his conduct be 
fore the king. 

27. Don Antonio Fernandez de Cordoba, 
knight of the order of Santiago, nominated im 
mediately that the misfortune of the city was 
known, with orders to remove it to some more 
favourable spot. He accordingly embarked with 
a troop, called La Chamberga, and began to put 
his designs in execution on his arrival in 1671, 
when he died. 

28. Don Francisco Miguel de Marichalar, al 
calde del crimen of the royal audience of Lima, 
sent as provisional-governor by the viceroy, 
Count of Lemos : he ruled till the proprietor ar 
rived in 1676. 

29. Don Alonso Mercado de Villacorta, ma 
jor-general, who was serving as governor of the 
provinces of Tucuman, where he had performed 
singular services to the king. He was promoted 
to this presidency, and translated the city, as 
commanded, to the spot where it now stands ; 
who also began its fortification, as we find in 
scribed on the stone over the land-gates : but he 
died before he concluded his work, in 1681. 

30. Dr. Don Lucas Fernandez de Piedrahita, 
native of Santa Fe, bishop of the holy church of 
Panama, and celebrated author of the history of 
the conquest of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. 
He entered through the death of the former, and 
through the nomination of the viceroy of Peru, 
Count of Castellar. Although he manifested great 
powers, his reign was of but short duration, 
since in 1602 the proprietor arrived. 



31. Don Pedro Ponte y Llerena, count of 
Palmar : he was the only president who ful 
filled the term of the appointment, eight years, 
and this, notwithstanding that certain charges 
were made against him by the ministers of that 
audience. 

32. Don Pedro Joseph Guzman, Davalos, 
Ponce de Leon, Santillan y Mesia, Marquis of 
La Mina, native of Sevilla, general of artillery, 
who, on account of his extraordinary services by 
sea and land, was nominated president of Pa 
nama, and commandant-general of the kingdom, 
of which office he took possession in 1690 : he 
governed five years, when by charges made 
against him, he was seized and treated with a 
rigour theretofore unexampled, being confined 
for four years without being allowed any com 
munication with any one whatever. 

33. Dr. Don Diego Ladron de Guevara, bi 
shop of that holy church : encharged with the 
government by the king until the arrival of the 
proper successor. 

34. Don Pedro Luis Henriquez de Guzman, 
Count of Canillas, knight of the order of Cala- 
trava, corregidor of Potosi : he took possession 
in 1696, and ruled to 1699, when, from the com 
plaints of the people against the violence offered 
to the Marquis of La Mina, a successor was no 
minated in, 

35. Don Joseph Antonio de la Rocha y Car- 
ranga, Marquis of Villa Rocha, knight of the 
order of Calatrava, general of the artillery in 
1699, when he entered into the presidency ; but 
he, in six months after, received a cedule, or 
dering him to give up the government to the 



same. 



36. Don Pedro Luis Henriquez de Guzman, 
Count of Canillas, on account of his having falsely 
given the king to understand of services he had 
performed for the kingdom, and robbing the go 
vernor of Cartagena, Don Juan Diaz Pimienta, of 
the honour of having routed the Scotch from 
Darien ; for he, the count, having barely sent 
home an account of the success, without mention 
ing who had performed it, the king nominated 
him as viceroy of Peru, by way of reward for his 
prowess ; but he did not reap any fruits of his 
stratagems, as he died the same year that he re 
ceived his appointment, in 1699. 

37. Don Fernando D Avila Bravo de Laguna, 
knight of the order of Santiago, major-general, 
native of Lima : he entered in 1702, and go 
verned till 1707, when he died. 

38. Don Juan Eustaquio Vicentalo, Tello, 
Toledo y Leca, Marquis of Brenes, knight of the 



PANAMA. 



21 



order of Santiago, native of Sevilla, nominated 
on the death of the former, by the viceroy of 
Peru, the Marquis of Casteldios-rius. He only 
governed five months when the successor ar 
rived, 

39. The aforesaid Marquis of Villa Rocha, 
whose reign was of no long duration, as he was 
suspended in a few days by a cedule transmitted 
at the the instigation of the audience, who had 
certain charges against him. 

40. Don Fernando de Haro Monterroso : he 
exercised the power for six months, until 1709, 
when the viceroy of Peru sent a minister of the 
audience of Lima to try him upon certain ex 
cesses which he had committed ; upon which he 
was taken prisoner to Spain, and died in a prison 
at the court of Madrid. 

41. Don Juan Baptista deOrueta y Irusta, al 
calde del crimen of the royal audience of Lima ; 
commissioned on the deposition of the former : 
he governed till 1710, when the successor no 
minated by the king arrived, himself returning to 
Lima to the execution of his office. 

42. Don Joseph de Larraneta y Vera, briga 
dier of the royal armies; serving in the govern 
ment of Portobello, with the optional quality of 
accepting the precedency and captainship-general 
of the kingdom, in case of a vacancy of the pre 
sent one, by a cedule from the king nominating 
him as it were viceroy : he took the reins in 
1710, and half of the following year had not 
elapsed before two successors arrived at once. 

43. The one, a person twice mentioned, the 
Marquis of Villa Rocha. His reign was so short 
that it could only be counted by hours, for hav 
ing reached the capital from the fort of Chapo, 
where he had been confined, he took possession, 
and at five in the evening of the same day ar 
rived, 

44. Don Joseph Hurtado de Amezaga, briga 
dier-general of the royal armies : he took pos 
session in 1711, and governed till 1716, when he 
was deposed by the king s order, deposition 
being committed to the charge of the bishop of 
that church, and the tribunal of audience being 
at the same time abolished. 

45. Don Fr. Juan Joseph de Llamas y Rivas, 
of the order of Nuestra Senora del Carmen, bi 
shop of Parama, who also by the above-men 
tioned commisson was encharged with the go 
vernment in 1716 ; and he held it till 1718, when 
arrived, 

46 Don Geronimo Vadillo, brigadier of the 
royal armies, promoted to the government of 
Cartagena, which he was then exercising, ac 



cording to the new establishment of five years 
provision in the governments which have no au 
dience : his government lasted till 1723. 

47. Don Gaspar Perez Buelta, who had been 
oidor of the audience then abolished, but which 
was by order of the king restored in 1723 : he 
was there provisional deacon for three months 
and an half, when he embarked for Peru ; pro 
moted to the audience of Lima at the beginning 
of 1724. 

48. Don Joseph de Alzamora y Ursino, who 
became deacon of the audience at the departure 
of the former, and as such encharged with the 
provisional government, the presidency and the 
commandancy-general, when in a month the pro 
prietor arrived. 

49. Don Manuel de Alderete, knight of the 
order of Santiago, field- marshal of the royal ar 
mies : he was promoted from the situation of 
viceroy of the Plaza of Cadiz to this presidency, 
and took possession in 1724 ; he governed till 
1730, when he was deposed, and taken captive 
to the castle of Chapo, and being sent from 
thence at the departure of registrar of the house 
of commerce, in the frigate of war the Ginovesa, 
which was wrecked upon the shoal of La Vivora, 
he was there drowned. 

50. Don Juan Joseph de Andia Vivero y Ve- 
lasco, Marquis of Villa-hermosa, brigadier-gene 
ral : he was governing at Cartagena, when he was 
promoted to the presidency of Panama, with a 
commission to depose the predecessor the afore 
said year of 1730 ; and having solicited a licence 
to return to Spain, he obtained the permission of 
his majesty, who exalted him to the rank of 
lieutenant-general, in 1735 ; and shortly after his 
arrival he was made grandee, with the title of 
Marquis de Valparaiso. 

51. DonDionisio Martinez de la Vega, briga 
dier-general of the royal armies ; promoted from 
the government to relieve the former governor in 
1735. He remained till 1743, when his successor 
arrived, nominated by the king. As a reward 
for his services in making a peace with the In 
dians, his majesty raised him to the rank of 
lieutenant-general, as also admitted him to be 
gentleman of the bed-chamber. In his time the 
English, commanded by admiral Vernon, took 
the city of Portobello and castle of Chagre : he 
died at Panama in 1744, whilst arranging his 
voyage to Spain. 

52. Don Dionisio de A^edo y Herrera, who 
had served in the presidency of Quito and com 
mandancy-general of this kingdom, and found 
himself at court when nominated by the king to 



22 



proceed to Panama, and to undertake the de 
fence of Tierra Firme, threatened by invasion 
from the English from the year 1739. He was 
charged with different commissions, on account 
of his knowledge of America and his zeal in the 
service of his king ; fulfilled his important duties 
with the greatest ability till 1749, when he was 
separated from his office through some calumnies 
made against him by the oidors of that audience, 
the origin of all the discords of this province. 
During his government he chastised the smug 
glers of the province of Nata, who to the num 
ber of 200, and supported by the English, had 
taken up arms against his majesty : he returned 
to Spain, where he was honourably acquitted. 

53. Don Manuel de Montiano, brigadier-gene 
ral of the royal armies : he was promoted from the 
government of Florida, and entered Panama in 
1749, when the audience was abolished through 
the representations made by the former, proving 
it to be the only means whereby to ensure the 
tranquillity of the government, as was in fact 
proved till 1750, when arrived, 

54. Don Antonio Guill, colonel of the regi 
ment of infantry of Guadalaxara, a man of great 
talent, virtue, and military experience : he was 
shortly removed to the presidency and captain 
ship-general of Chile in 1761, his short reign 
being universally regretted. 

55. Don Joseph Raon, brigadier of the royal 
armies : he governed for little more than two 
years, as having been removed to the presidency 
and captainship-general of the Philippine isles in 
1763. 

56. Don Joseph Blasco de Orozco, knight of 
the order of San Juan, colonel of the regiment of 
infantry of Burgos : he passed over to this go 
vernment in the aforesaid year, and died in 
1767. 

57. Don Vicente de Olaziregui, colonel of the 
regiment of infantry of Granada : he governed in 
1769, and died in 1773. 

58. Don Pedro Carbonel, colonel of the regi 
ment of infantry of Aragon, nominated in 1775 : 
he governed till 1779. 

59. Don Ramon de Carvajal, colonel of infan 
try, who was governing at Vique in the province 
of Catalujaa, when he was destined to the go 
vernment of Guayaquil in the kingdom of Quito, 
and before he took possession was promoted to 
this of Panama in 1780 ; which he exercised till 
1785, when the king nominated a successor in, 

60. Don Joseph Domas, brigadier of the royal 
armada, nominated in 1785. 

PANAMA, or DEL DARIEN Isthmus, a wide 



PAN 

strip of land uniting N. and S. America, washed 
on the n. by the N. sea, and on the s. by the 
Pacific or S. sea, and forming the gulf of Pa 
nama. Its width from the mouth of the river 
Chagre in the N. sea, to that of the river Cai- 
mito or Capina in the S. is 41 miles, and at its 
narrowest part, namely, from the mouth of the 
river Bayame in the gulf of Panama, to the bay 
of Mandinga in the N.sea, it is 20 miles only. 
Its length from e. to w. is more than 200 miles. 
The cordillera of the Andes mountains, which are 
the lowest here, traverses its whole length, and 
then splits itself into several branches in N. Ame 
rica. This isthmus belongs in part to the pro 
vince of Tierra Firme, and in part to that of 
Darien. The climate is nearly throughout hot 
and moist. It takes its name from the city of 
Panama, which is situate upon it, on the shore 
of the S. sea ; and in the opposite part, to the n. 
is Portobello, where there used to be celebrated 
the large fair of merchandizes on the arrival of 
the galleons, inasmuch as all the riches that 
were carried from Peru to the mother-country 
were brought by this isthmus, as also the effects 
returned from Spain to the former; the same 
being carried by a round-about journey of 18 
leagues, owing to the asperity of the mountains 
and the immensity of the rivers that obstructed 
a direct communication. 

In the time of Philip II. it was projected to 
cut through this isthmus and to unite the two 
seas ; and accordingly two Flemish engineers 
were sent to reconnoitre it, but they found in 
superable difficulties; and the council of the In 
dies having represented the mischief which might 
ensue to the monarchy in case the idea were 
carried into effect, it was ordained by the Spanish 
government, that no one should afterwards treat 
on the subject on pain of death. Eugenic Ray- 
nondi calls it Strait San Miguel, but improperly, 
as there is no communication between the two 



seas. 



[Of all the subjects, either of political or com 
mercial consideration, relating to the continent 
of America, none perhaps is of greater moment 
than this idea of the communication of the At 
lantic and Pacific oceans. For a diffuse disqui 
sition on this topic, as likewise of the relative 
facilities for effecting the same object with re 
gard to other parts of America, see Index to 
new matter respecting MEXICO, Chap. X.J 

[PANAMBUCO, a harbour or bay on the 
coast of Brazil. See PERNAMBUCO.] 

PANAO, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Guanuco in Peru; annexed to the 



PAN 

curacy of Santa Maria del Valle ; situate on the 
confines of the Panataguas Indians. 

[PANAPA Island of the Orinoco. See Vol. HI. 
p. 491. of this Dictionary.] 

PANAQUIRE, a settlement of the province 
and government of Venezuela and NuevoReyno 
de Granada, founded in the seventeenth century 
for the greater convenience of commerce, after 
the establishment of the Guipuzcoanan com 
pany. 

PANATAGUAS, a barbarous nation of In 
dians of the kingdom of Peru, inhabiting the 
country bounded n. and e. by the province of 
Guanuco. From them are descended many other 
nations of different names, some of them having 
been reduced to the faith by the missionaries of 
the order of San Francisco in 1631 ; and although 
they once rebelled, putting to death their priests 
and flying to the mountains, they again returned 
to their obedience, since they are of a pacific 
and docile disposition ; and the first settlements 
which were made of them, have been ever since 
rapidly enlarging. 

PANCHES, a province and corregimiento of 
the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. Its length is 15 
leagues from e. to w. and its width 12 from n. to 
s. of an hot temperature and rough and craggy 
territory, full of mountains and ravines. It is 
watered by several rivers, the largest and principal 
of which is the Bogata. It is fertile in maize and 
vines, of which there are two gatherings yearly, 
although commercial regulations have prohibited 
the making of wine here. Here are, however, 
many sugar engines for the manufactory of sugar 
from the abundance of the canes. 

Its natives, and from whom it takes its name, 
are the most strong, robust, and valorous of any 
in the kingdom ; ferocious, of warlike appearance, 
and cannibals. They are at continual war with 
the Muzos, and did not marry the women of the 
same settlement, looking upon such as sisters : 
they adored the sun and moon, and although their 
number, with regard to other nations, was not 
large, they were so much feared by all, that the 
Zipas of Bogota had a garrison of them in the 
settlements on the boundary of their jurisdiction. 
Their arms were bows and arrows and wooden 
clubs. The greater part of them, at the present 
day, live in the woods and mountains. 

This province was conquered by Captain Venegas 
Carrillo, after that it had been attempted in vain 
by other Spaniards; but they have frequently 
risen in their different settlements and committed 
shocking murders. The capital is Tocaima. 

PANCHIMILCO, SAN JUAN DE, a settle- 



PAN 23 

ment of the head settlement of the district of 
Mazatepec, and alcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca, 
in Nueva Espana, on the shore of a river. It 
produces much maize, fruit, and cotton. Is five 
leagues from its head settlement, very close to 
the settlement of Tetelpa ; and contains only 26 
Indian families. 

PANCICHA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Porco in Peru, on the shore of 
the river Pilcornayo. 

PANCITARA, a settlement of the province 
and government of Popayan, in the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada. 

PANCRACE, S. a port of the w. coast of the 
river S. Lawrence in Canada, between the ri 
vers S. Nicholas and English. 

PANDABEQUES, a barbarous nation of In 
dians inhabiting the country of Las Amazonas, 
to the s. of the river Maranon or Amazons, and 
bounded by the Chingacuchuscas : reduced to 
the faith in 1652 by the missionaries of the Jesuits, 
who formed of them a settlement dependent upon 
that of Xiaweos, in the province of Muinas. 

PANDIYACU, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Pasto in the kingdom of 
Quito. 

[PANDO, a parish of the province and govern 
ment of Buenos Ayres, situate on the small river of 
this name, near the sea-coast about 20 miles n. e, 
of Monte Video, inlat. 34 41 18", Ion. 55 49 4".] 

PANDO, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Buenos Ayres in Peru, which runs s. and 
enters the Plata at its mouth, betwen the rivers 
Solis Chico and Monte Video. 

PANDOMINE, a chain of mountains of the 
province and corregimiento of Loxa, in the king 
dom of Quito, between the mountains Colay- 
Sacapy to the n. e. and Sosoranga to the s. w. 
It runs from n. w. to s. e. and unites itself with 
the chain of Pichinche. 

PANDIERO, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Sicasica, in Peru, eight 
leagues from its capital. 

PANECILLO, a small mountain in the llanura 
of Callo, in the province and corregimiento of 
Latacunga, and kingdom of Quito to the n. It is 
thought to have been made by the Indians, and 
stands near the antient palace of the princes of 
this kingdom, to serve as a place of look-out, 
from whence the whole of the surrounding coun 
try may be viewed. It is 85 fathoms high, mea 
sured perpendicularly ; is the figure of a very 
regular truncated cone ; and on the s. side it is 
washed by the river Callo ; and may be well dis 
covered by the height of Tio-pullu, and from the 



24 



PAN 



llanura of Mula-halo, as you proceed along the 
river Alajes, in lat. 44 32" s. 

PANECILLO, another, a small mountain of the 
same figure, and 100 Parisian toises high, near 
the city of Quito, and having at its skirts some 
houses of the suburbs. From its top may be 
seen the llanuras of Turu-bamba to the s. and of 
Inaquito Onaquito to the n. The skirts of this 
mountain are cultivated and sown with wheat, 
and in it is a quarry, from whence stone is ex 
tracted in large pieces for the works of the city. 
It had formerly a subterraneous rout cut through 
it by order of the prince, the symptoms of which 
are still observable on the part by Chimba-calle. 
In this mount spring various streams of delicious 
water, towards the Dominican convent, the best 
of which is drank at Quito. 

PANERIA, a river of the province and corre- 
gimiento of Pasto, in the kingdom of Quito, 
which runs e. and enters the Guames. 

PANGOA, a river of the province and cone- 
gimiento of Caxamarquilla, in Peru. 

PANGORA, a river of the province and corre- 
gimiento of Guanta in Peru. It rises in the pro 
vince of Castro- Virreyna, runs e. then turns n. 
and returning to e. unites itself in a large stream 
with the river La Sal, and these together run into 
the Angoyaco. 

PANGUE, a small river of the province and 
corregimiento of Maule, in the kingdom of Chile, 
which runs n. n. w. and enters the river Maule. 

PANHANONS, a river of the province and co 
lony of Pensylvania, in N. America, which runs n. 
then turns w. and enters the Ohio. 

PANIAS, a tribe of Indians of the province 
and government of Louisiana, where the French 
have a fort. They live in a settlement, situate 
on the shore of the river Arkansas. 

[With these Indians, the idea of the possession 
of soil is similar to that of the Ottoes. They 
hunt on the s. side of the river Plate, higher up 
and on the head of the Kanzas. A great pro 
portion of this country consists of open plains, 
interspersed however with groves of timber, 
which are most generally found in the vicinity of 
the water-courses. It is generally fertile and 
well watered : lies level, and free of stone. They 
have resided in the country which they now in 
habit since they were known to the whites. 
Their trade is a valuable one, from the large pro 
portion of beaver and otter which they furnish; 
and it may be expected yet to increase, as those 
animals are still abundant in their country. The 
periods of their residence at their village and 
hunting are similar to the Kanzas and Osages. 



P A IN 

Their population is increasing. They are friend 
ly and hospitable to all white persons ; pay great 
respect and deference to their traders, with whom 
they are punctual in the payment of their debts. 
They are, in all respects, a friendly, well-dis 
posed people. JThey cultivate corn, beans, me 
lons, &c.] 

[PANIAS LOUPS, or WOLVES. These In 
dians are a branch of the Panias Proper, who sepa 
rated themselves from that nation many years 
since, and established themselves on a n. branch of 
the river Plate, to which their name was given. 
These people have no idea of an exclusive right 
to any portion of country. They hunt on the 
Wolf river, above their village, and on the river 
Plate, above the mouth of that river. This 
country is very similar to that of the Panias Pro 
per, though there is an extensive body of fertile 
well-timbered land between the Wolf river, be 
low their village, and the river Corn de Cerf, or 
Elkhorn river They cultivate corn, beans, &c. 
The particulars related of the other Panias are 
also applicable to them. They are seldom visited 
by any trader, and therefore usually bring their 
furs and peltry to the village of the Panias Pro 
per, where they traffic with the whites.] 

[PANIAS PIQUE. These Indians have no inter 
course with the inhabitants of the Illinois ; the 
information, therefore, which we have been ena 
bled to obtain, with respect to them, is very 
imperfect. They were formerly known by the 
name of the White Panias, and are of the same 
family with the Panias of the river Plate. They 
are said to be a well-disposed people, and inhabit 
a very fertile country ; certain it is that they 
enjov a delightful climate.] 

[PANIAS REPUBLICANS, are a branch of Pania 
Proper, or, as they are frequently termed, the 
Big Paunch Indians. About ten years since they 
withdrew themselves from the mother-nation, 
and established a village on a large northwardly 
branch of the Kanzas, to which they have given 
name ; they afterwards subdivided and lived in 
different parts of the country, on the waters of 
Kanzas river ; but being harassed by their tur 
bulent neighbours, the Kanzas, they have lately 
rejoined the Panias Proper What has been said 
with respect to the Panias Proper is applicable 
to these people, except that they hunt principally 
on the Republican river, which is better stocked 
with timber than that hunted by the Panias.] 

PANICO, a settlement and alcaldia of the 
Portuguese, in the kingdom of Brazil, between 
the rivers Corixes and Tocantines, nearer the 
shore of the former than the second. 



P A N 



PAN 



PANIMA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Louisiana on the shore of the river 
Arkansas, with a fort built by the French. 

PANIMAHA, a settlement of the nation of 
the Bread Indians, in N. America, on the shore 
and at the source of the river Panis. In its 
vicinity are other settlements. 

PANIMALIAS, a settlement of Indians of the 
same nation as the former, situate also on the 
shore of the river by the other small settlements. 

PANINDIQUARO, SAN ANDRES DE, a set 
tlement of the head settlement of Puruandiro, and 
alcaldia mat/or of Y r alladolid, in the province and 
bishopric of Mechoacan ; situate in a flat bottom, 
of a hot and moist temperature, and containing 32 
families of Indians, who cultivate some wheat in 
its district: 18 leagues s. w. of Pasquaro. 

PANIO VASAS, a settlement of Indians of the 
province and government of Louisiana, on the 
shore of a small river which enters the Padoukas. 

PANIS, a settlement of Indians of the nation 
of this name, in the province and government of 
Louisiana in N. America, where the French had 
an establishment defended bv a fort. It is sur 
rounded with two small settlements on the shore 
of the river of its name. 

PANIS, another settlement, in the same pro 
vince, on the shore of the river Missouri, where 
also the French had a fort and establishment ; 
and round about it are upwards of 40 small set 
tlements of Indians. 

[The Indian tribe mentioned in the two above 
settlements, are called by the French Panis, 
and by the Spaniards Towiaches : the latter is 
the proper Indian name. They live on the s. 
side of Red river, by the course of the river, 
upwards of 800 miles above Natchitoches ; and 
by land, by the nearest path, it is estimated at 
about 340. They have, at present, two towns 
near together ; the lower town, where their chief 
lives, is called Niteheta, the other is called 
Towaahach. They call their present chief the 
Great Bear. They are at war with the Spaniards, 
but friendly to those French and American hun 
ters who have lately been among them. They 
are likewise at war with the Osages, as are 
every other nation. For many hundreds of miles 
round them the country is rich prairie, covered 
with luxuriant grass, which is green summer 
and winter, with skirts of wood on the river bank, 
by the springs and creeks. 

They have many horses and mules. They 
raise more corn, pumpkins, beans, and tobacco, 
than they want for their own consumption ; the 

VOL. IV. 



surplus they exchange with the Hietans for buf 
falo, rugs, horses, and mules. The pumpkin 
they cut round in its shreads, and w r hen it is 
in a state of dryness, that it is so tough it will 
not break but bend, they plait and work it into 
large mats, in which state they sell it to the 
Hietans ; who, as they travel, cut off and eat it 
as they want it. Their tobacco they manufacture 
and cut as fine as tea, which is put in leather 
bags of a certain size, and is likewise an article 
of trade. They have but few guns, and very 
little ammunition ; what they have they keep for 
war, and hunt with the bow. Their meat is 
principally buffalo ; seldom kill a deer, though 
they are so plentiful as to come into their villages, 
and about their houses, like a domestic animal. 
Elks, bears, wolves, antelopes, and wild hogs, 
are likewise plentiful in their country, and white 
rabbits, or hares, as well as the common rabbit : 
white bears sometimes come down amongst them, 
and wolves of various colours. The men gene 
rally go entirely naked, and the w r omen nearly 
so, only wearing a small flap of a piece of a skin. 
They have a number of Spaniards among them, 
of fair complexion, taken from the settlement of 
Santa Fe, when they were children, who live as 
they do, and have no knowledge of the place 
from whence they came. Their language differs 
from that of any other nation, the Tawakenoes 
excepted. Their present number of men is esti 
mated at about 400. A great number of them, 
about six years ago, were swept off by the small 
pox.] 

PANIS, a river of the territory in which the 
Indians of this name reside. It runs e. and 
enters the Missouri, in lat. 39 44 n. 

PANO, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Quixos and Macas, in the kingdom of 
Quito, which runs e. and uniting itself with the 
Tena enters the Hollin, in lat. 58 s. 

PANOJOUIS, a barbarous nation of Indians, 
little known, who inhabit the country of Las 
Amazonas, between the rivers Tigre and Cura- 
ray : from these are descended the Semigals. 

PANONKE, a lake of the province and colony 
of Sagadahook, formed from the river Penob- 
scot, at its mid-course ; on the confines of Nova 
Scotia, or Acadia. 

PANOS, a barbarous and numerous nation of 
Indians of the province of Las Amazonas, dwell 
ing in the woods near the river Ucayale to the e, 
bounded n. by the nation of the Cocamas, and s. 
by those of the Piros and Cunivos. They are 
ferocious, treacherous, and cruel : some were 



PAN 



PAN 



reduced to a settlement in 1608 ; but they rose in 
1723, and again retired to their native woods. 

[PANSE, DE LA, a branch of Wabash river, in 
the N. W. territory.] 

PANTALEON, 5. a settlement of the pro 
vince and government of Sonora in N. America, 
of the country and territory of the Apaches In 
dians ; on the shore of a river, between the set 
tlements of Rosario and San Eugenio. 

PANTALEON, another settlement, of the pro 
vince and government of Buenos Ayres in Peru ; 
situate on the shore and at the source of the 
river Las Conchas, and s. of the capital. 

PANTALEON, a lake of the same province and 
government as the former settlement, near the 
shore of the river Saladillo. 

PANTEPEC, a settlement and head settle 
ment of the district of the alcaldia mayor of 
Guauchinango in Nueva Espana. It contains 
470 families of Otomies and Totonacos Indians, 
and its territory is the most fertile of the whole 
jurisdiction ; producing in abundance, cotton, 
chile, tobacco, sugar, wax, maize, French beans, 
and various fruits. In its district are five wards, 
and it is 22 leagues n. of its capital. 

PANTEPEC, another settlement, of the pro 
vince and alcaldia mayor of Los Zoques in the 
kingdom of Guatemala. 

PANTIPATA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Abancay in Peru. 

[PANTON, a township in Addison county, 
Vermont ; situate on the e. side of lake Champ- 
lain, between Addison and Ferrisburg, and 
about 87 miles n. of Bennington. It contains 
200 inhabitants.] 

PANUAYA, a river of the province and cor 
regimiento of Mexico in Nueva Espana, which 
rises in the mountains of the sierra Nevada, and 
runs to empty itself in the lake of Chalco. 

PANUCO, a province and alcaldia mayor of 
Nueva Espana : bounded w. by theNuevo Reyno 
de Leon, and by one part of the audience of 
Guadalaxara, e. by the gulf of Mexico, 5. by the 
province of Tlaxcala and that of Mexico, and w. 
by the kingdom of Mechoacan. The tropic of 
Cancer traverses this province, so that it lies 
partly in the torrid, partly in the temperate 
zone ; 55 leagues long, and nearly the same wide. 
The part bordering upon the province of Mexico 
is the best and most fertile, and abounding in 
provisions, and having some gold mines and 
several salt earths ; but the other part, which 
is bounded by Leon, is miserable and barren. 
This country was one of the first discovered by 



Hernan Cortes, but its conquest and settlement 
caused him infinite labours. It is rather fertile 
and pleasant than rich, and by no means po 
pulous. 

PANUCO, the capital, situate on the shore of a 
river, from whence it takes its name; 39 miles 
from the sea, and 143 n. with a slight inclination 
to the e . of Mexico : founded by order of Her 
nan Cortes in 1520, with the title of San Estevan 
del Puerto. It contains about 500 families, and 
consists of some very neat houses of stone with 
roofs of palm leaves. The river is navigable for 
large vessels much above the city ; but the port 
has at its entrance a bar, so as to impede the 
passage of the vessels from coming up: a great 
disadvantage to its commerce. It is in lat. 
22 48 w. and long. 98 52" w. 

PANUCO, a settlement and real of silver mines, 
of the alcaldia mayor of Fresnillo in Nueva Es 
pana : of a small population, as being near to 
the city of Zacatecas, about three leagues dis 
tant. 

PANUCO, another settlement, of the province 
and government of Tucuman in Peru ; situate 
n. n. w. of the town of San Fernando. 

PANUELO, QUADRADO, a large square 
sand-bank, having in the midst several small 
isles, some of which are called Los Abrojos, 
and on which many vessels have been lost. 
This bank is n. of cape Rojo of S. Domingo, 
and e. of Los Caicos. 

PANUN, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Chancay in Peru ; annexed to 
the curacy of Canchas. 

PANZACOLA, a city and garrison of Flo 
rida, in the province of its name ; situate in the 
bay of Santa Maria de Galve : founded by D. 
Andres de Aveiola, by order of the viceroy of 
Nueva Espana, the Count de Galve, in 1596. 

It was formerly small, and is of a moderate 
temperature, the heat or cold never being ex 
cessive at the different seasons. The territory 
although sandy is fertile, and yields abundantly 
of whatsoever is sowed. It produces many wild 
fruits, such as bitter acorns, two kinds of wal 
nuts, the one of which is very delicate, medlars 
and chesnuts, which have the appearance of nuts, 
and are of the same taste as the Spanish nuts, 
and vines which yield large grapes of a purple 
colour and somewhat sour. 

In the forests are various sorts of wood, pine, 
sassafras, savines, and oaks ; of animals, as deer> 
cebolos, bears, and also of fowl as large as the 
turkies of Europe. 



PAO 

In 1719 this city was taken by the French, 
but restored in the same year by Alfonso Car- 
rascosa de la Torre, who constructed at the point 
of Sigiienza, one of those which form the en 
trance of the bay, a fort with the name of Prin 
cipe de Asturias; but the French, commanded 
by Count de Chamelin, returned again to attack 
it with a naval force, against which Don Afonso 
Carrascosa, with very limited means, in vain 
made an intrepid defence, and it was eventually 
burnt and destroyed. In 1762 it was ceded to 
the English by the peace of Versailles, and in 
1781 it was conquered and regained by the Spa 
niards under Count de Galves. Forty-five miles 
e.s.e. of Mobile, in lat. 30 33 n. and long. 78 
22 w. 

PAO, CONCEPCION DE, a town of the pro 
vince of Barcelona and government of Cumana : 
founded in 1744 by some islanders of La Marga 
rita and Trinidad, and other inhabitants of the 
Caracas who had their cattle and estates in this 
province ; situate at the source of the river of 
its name, and in its district its inhabitants, who 
(of all classes, should amount to 636 souls) have 
30 estates, consisting of some narrow glens 
planted Mith maize and yucas, also 19 farms of 
the larger cattle. 

The soil is the richest and most fertile of the 
province, and the natives being very laborious, 
it is extremely well furnished with provisions ; 
and its population, though small, instrumental 
to the guarding against invasion from the Ca- 
ribes Indians in the settlements of the missions 
of the Orinoco and llanos of San Juan. The 
geographer, Don Juan de la Cruz, places this 
city, in his map of S.America, in the province of 
Venezuela, to the 5. of the city of Valencia ; 
[but this is very erroneous, as it is situated 92 
miles s. by to. of Barcelona, 82 n.w. of St. Tome, 
and 152 s. e. of Caracas, in lat. 8 43 n. and 
long. 65 10 w.~\ 

PAO, SAN JUAN BAUTISTA DEL, a city of the 
province and government of Venezuela. Its 
population is 5400 souls. It has a large trade 
in horses, mules, and horned cattle, and a vast 
quantity of cheese is made here. The air is 
wholesome. The river Pao runs to the e. of the 
city, its course is n. and s. It discharged itself 
formerly into the lake of Valencia, but by a re 
volution of nature it is now made to fall into the 
Apure, and thus contribute to swell the Orinoco. 
A canal might easily be cut from about the 
source of the Pao to join the Orinoco, which 
would be of vast benefit to commerce, inasmuch 
as the trade from Venezuela to Guayana would 



PAP 



27 



not be liable to the interruption of enemies 
cruizers, and, in the event of an invasion of the 
latter province, it might receive early succour 
from the former. The city of Pao is in lat. 
9 22 n. and long. 68 21 w. and lies 105 miles 
s. w. of Caracas. 

PAO, a river of the former province and go 
vernment of Barcelona, and known also by the 
name of Macuros. It is large and abundant, 
rises at the back of the serrania, to the s. of the 
table-land of Guanipa, runs s. e. and collects 
some streams by the s. w. Near its source dwell 
some barbarian Indians of the Ivarecipes and 
Peritos Indians. It abounds in small fish, and 
on its shores grows excellent cacao. The geo 
grapher Cruz is also wrong respecting the course 
of this river, when he gives its source in the pro 
vince of Venezuela, and makes it enter the Por- 
tuguesa; the fact being that it runs into the 
Orinoco, 48 miles w. of St. Tome, and from 
whence it is navigable as far as the town of 
its name. Its mouth is on the n. shore of the 
Orinoco, in lat. 8 5 n. 

PAO, another, a small river in this province, 
which rises in the country and territory of the 
Pandacotos Indians, between the rivers Paragua 
and Arvi, runs n. and turning at mid-course to 
w. enters the latter of those two rivers. 

PAO, another, with the surname of Amarillo. 
in the province and captainship of Itamaraca in 
Brazil. It rises near the coast, runs e. and en 
ters the sea between the Doce, or Dulce, and the 
town of La Concepcion and fort of Orange. 

PAOBONCA, an island of the river Parana- 
pane, in the province and captainship of Rio 
Janeiro in Brazil. 

PAOS, a barbarous nation of Indians who dwell 
n. of the river Orinoco, and s. of the Apure. 
These barbarians are bounded w. by the Oto- 
macos, and n. w. by the Iraruros. Their con 
version was begun by the Jesuits in 1722. 

[PAPAGAYO, a gulf on the n. Pacific ocean, 
and on the w. side of the isthmus of Nicaragua, 
a small distance from the w. parts of the lake of 
Nicaragua, and in about lat. 11 10 n.~\ 

PAPAGAYOS, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Cuyo in the kingdom of 
Chile, n. of the town of Corocoto. 

PAPAGAYOS, a bay, called also Puerto Sil- 
vestra, on the e. coast of the strait of Magellan, 
between cape Verde and cape S. Valentin. 

PAPAGAYOSO, a settlement of the province 
and captainship of S. Vicente in Brazil, at the 
source of a small river which enters the Uru 
guay. 



28 PAP 

PAPAGUAI, a mountain of Cayenne, on the 
skirts of which the French have an establish 
ment. 

PAPALLACTA, a settlement, formerly large 
and commercial, in the province and government 
of Quixos and Macas, of the kingdom of Quito, 
to the a\, and at present reduced to a miserable 
village. It has tor its parochial curate a re 
ligious of the order of S. Domingo, who is sup 
ported by the synod from the royal treasury of 
Quito. The inhabitants live by cutting wood 
and planks on the mountains, and by making of 
them vaulted roofs, which they call baleas. It is 
situate at the foot of the Cordillera of the Andes, 
on the n. shore of the river of its name, and in 
the road leading from Quito to Archidona, in 
lat. 22 19 s. 

PAPALLACTA, the aforesaid river, flows down 
from the mountain of Pambamarca, and enters 
the Maranon. 

[PAPALOAPAIN,a large river ofVeraCruz 
in New Spain, called also Alvarada. It rises in 
the province of Oaxaca, and being enlarged by 
the accession of lesser rivers, falls into the bay 
of Mexico, 35 miles s. e. of the citv of Vera 
Cruz.] 

PAPA LOTIPAC, the principal or head settle- 
rnent of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Cui- 
catlan in Nueva Espana ; of a cold and dry tem 
perature. Its population is composed of 142 fa 
milies of Cuicatecos Indians, and it is five leagues 
e. of its capital. 

PAPALpTIPAN, a ward of the alcaldia mayor 
of Guauchinango in Nueva Espana ; annexed to 
the curacy of Tlacuilotepec. 

PAPALOTLA, SANTO TORIBIO DE, a settle 
ment of the head settlement of the district and 
alcaldia mayor of Tezcoco in Nueva Espana ; si 
tuate in a valley which produces wheat, maize, 
French beans, fruits, and garden herbs, the trade 
and support of the inhabitants. These are com 
posed of 189 families of Indians, and 32 of Spa 
niards, Mustees, and Mulattoes. One league n. 
of its capital. 

PAPALOTLA, another settlement, with the de 
dicatory title of S. Miguel, in the head settle 
ment of the district of Santa Isabel, and alcaldia 
mayor of Cholula, in the same kingdom. It con 
tains 44 Indian families, and is half a league 
nearly n. of its head settlement. 

PAPALOTLA, a river of the same kingdom, 
which rises in the mountains e. of the city of 
Mexico, and enters the lake of this capital. 

PAPAMENE, a rapid river which flows down 
from the mountains of Fosca, to the e. of Santa 



PAP 

Fe, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It runs 
through the llanos of San Juan and enters the 
Meta, and in its vicinity dwell the nations of the 
Guipis or Guaypis and Macos Indians. 

[PAPANAZES, Indians of Brazil. See ad 
ditional matter respecting the history, &c. of 
this kingdom.] 

PA PAN TLA, an alcaldia mayor and jurisdic 
tion of Nueva Espana; for the most part of an 
hot and moist temperature, extending 15 leagues 
along the sea-coast to the leeward of V r cra Cruz, 
beginning at the bar of the renowned river of 
Nantla, where it is divided from that govern 
ment, and running as far as the bar of Cora- 
zones, which serves as limits to the jurisdiction 
of Guauchinango, and as an impediment to even 
the smallest vessels to enter ; this however not 
being the case with the bar of Nantla ; for al 
though over this the water is less deep by three 
or four yards, yet it is navigable for bilanders 
and small craft as far as the river of Los Bar- 
riles. 

This alcaldia has several other rivers, all 
abounding in various kinds of fish, and affording 
thereby a commerce to the natives. The shores 
of these rivers are lined with cedars, mulberries, 
and other trees for ship-building. Of these was 
the frigate called the Tecolutena built, and since 
that various others. This jurisdiction produces 
also much wax, which the Indians collect from 
the bee-hives abounding in the woods ; pita- 
trees, which they call here magueycs de lechugitla, 
and from the milk of which is distilled from the 
trees of Zapota, a kind of resin called chicle, 
serving as a medicine. On the mountains are 
found also fine baynilla, which is bought by- 
traders to carry to Europe. The cultivation of 
tobacco, to which the soil is peculiarly adapted, 
was once the chief article of trade here, but its 
demand has diminished in proportion as its cul 
tivation in the other provinces has become com 
mon. But the sugar cane is still cultivated to 
great profit, and of it loaf-sugar is made : also 
is cultivated maize, which yields two abundant 
crops annually, one in October, the other in 
April ; the only labour required in agriculture 
being the scratching up the ground with the 
point of a stake. Here is likewise grown a con 
siderable portion of Chile pepper, fruit, garden- 
herbs, and common pepper, like that of Tabasco, 
despised by the Indians from the smallness of its 
worth. In the llanos are some ranchos., in which 
are bred some neat cattle and horses. 

PAPANTLA, the capital, is the settlement of 
the same name. It contains 535 families of 



PAP 

Mexican Indians, 15 of Spaniards, and 200 of 
Mulattoes, divided into two companies of militia. 
In its church is venerated an image of Nuestra 
Senora de la Concepcion, of beautiful sculpture, 
the which 140 years back was found by a mariner 
on the sea-shore in a closed chest, with a direc 
tion on the top, signifying- Para JPapantla, (for 
Papantla), and which, he having- caused to be 
carried on the shoulders of Indians to the settle 
ment, was opened in presence of many persons, 
the said imag-e being- discovered within. A tem 
ple was then built for it, and a devout brother 
hood attached : 105 miles n. e. of Mexico, in 
lat. 20 27 n. Long. 97 36 30" w. 

The other settlements of this province are, 
Espinal, Chumatlan, 

Quazintla, Metlatlan, 

Chiquaoloque, Santo Domingo, 

Zozocolco, Cuahuytlan, 

San Mateo, Coatlan. 

PA PARE, a settlement of the province and 
government of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada ; near the coast, on the shore of the 
Great Cienega, or swamp. 

PAPARO, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Cumana. 

PAPAS, a lake of the province and govern 
ment of Popayan in the kingdom of Quito, in the 
paramo or mountain of Guanacas ; and from it 
rises the great river of Magdalena. 

PAPA&QUIARO, a settlement of the missions 
which were held by the Jesuits, in the province 
of Tepeguana and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; 
founded on the shore of the river Las Nasas. 

PAPATERUANAS, a settlement of the pro 
vince and country of Las Amazonas, in the part 
possessed by the Portuguese, a reduction of the 
missions of the Carmelite fathers of that nation ; 
situate at the confluence of the rivers Paranaiba 
and Topinambaranas. 

PAPAXTLA, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district and akaldia mayor of Zo- 
chicoatlan in Nueva Espana ; containing 16 fa 
milies of Indians. 

PA PEG WAY, a large island of the coast of 
the province and government of Guayana, in the 
part possessed by the Dutch; at the mouth or 
entrance of the river Demerary. 

PAPILLONS, a bay on the n. w. coast of the 
island S. Christopher, one of the Antilles ; be 
tween the bays of Louvet and Ovignes, in the 
part possessed by the French before the island 
was ceded to the English at the peace of 
Utrecht. 



PAR 



29 



PAPIMOVAGANE, a lake of Canada in N. 
America ; of the district and country of the Pa- 
pinachois Indians. 

PAPINACHOIS, a bay on the n. shore of 
the river S. Lawrence, between cape Pidgeon 
and the island of Oziers. [It is five leagues s. w. 
of St. Margaret s river. An Indian nation of the 
same name inhabit the country s. of Piretibb lake 
in Lower Canada.] 

PAPOSO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimienio of Copiapo in the kingdom of Chile ; 
situate near the coast in the s. part. It has a 
large enclosure called the Chaco Baxo, in which 
the Indians catch the vicunas. 

[PAPPA Ford, on Peleson or Clinches river, 
lies five miles from Emery s river, and 18 from 
Campbell s station, near Holston.] 

PAPRES, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru. 

PAPUDO, a port of the kingdom of Chile, on 
the coast of the S. sea ; being a small retired bay- 
frequented by the vessels from Peru, to lade with 
the tallow, hides, and rigging of the settlements 
of Chicapa and Ligua ; a great preference being 
given to the hemp of this valley, it being the 
best made in the kingdom, and attributed to the 
waters here employed in its manufacture. The 
port is in lat. 32 36 s. 

PAPUJA, SANTIAGO DE, a settlement of the 
province and corregimiento of Asangaro in Peru. 

PAPULATLA , a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district and alcaldia mat/or of Chilapa 
in Nueva Espana. It contains 71 families of In 
dians, and is one league n. of its capital. 

PAPUNACAS, a barbarous and ancient na 
tion of Indians, dwelling in the woods and forests 
s. of the Maranon, and near the 5. shore of the 
river Cayari. It is but little known. 

PAQUITANET, a small river of Louisiana 

N.America. It runs s. w. between those of 



ui 



Vieux deserts and Quiovecovet, and enters the 
Mississippi. 

PAQUTIGASTA, a settlement of the pro 
vince and government of Tucuman, s. of the 
settlement of Catamarca. 

PARA, GRAN, a province and captainship of 
the kingdom of Brazil, bounded n. by the king 
dom of Granada, the provinces of Guyanas, and 
the great bay formed by the Atlantic sea at the 
entrance of the river of Las Amazonas, e. by the 
captainship of Marauan, s. by the provinces of 
Goias and Matto Groso and the kingdom of Peru, 
and w. by the kingdoms of Peru and Granada. 

It is watered by a river of the same name, 



30 



PARA. 



which traverses it and enters the sea in the 
aforesaid bay. It is very fertile in sugar canes, 
of which sugar is made, as also in cotton, cacao, 
baynilla, and coffee, of which productions ship 
ments were made annually to Lisbon. The cli 
mate is extremely hot, and in the woods is a va 
riety of timber, excellent for either colour or du 
rability, and amongst the which is a tree much 
esteemed, and called here umiri^ the trunk of 
which distils a very fragrant balsam. Besides 
the aforesaid river," there are five others very 
large which irrigate this province, the Negro, 
Topajos, Cambeas, and Xingu, the which abound 
in fish, and in a particular sort, called the mana- 
ties. Their shores are covered with woods, in 
which are a variety of birds and quadrupeds. 
All of them run into the Maranon. The islands 
of Joanes or Marajo, of Cahete and others, be 
long to this district. 

[The trade (observes Mr. Andrew Grant) be 
tween Brazil and Europe is chiefly carried on by 
three principal points, viz. Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, 
or the bay De Todos Santos, and Grand Para. 

The captainship of Grand Para is the most n. 
of any of the Portuguese settlements in Brazil. 
Belen, the capital, is situated on the banks of 
the river Para or Amazonas, and defended by a 
strong fortress, named Notre Dame de las Mer- 
ces, erected at the mouth of the river De Muja, 
which forms the port of Para. This port is dif 
ficult of access, from the currents which run in 
different directions, and which are occasioned by 
a multitude of small islands, rendering the navi 
gation of ships slow and uncertain. But when 
once they get into the harbour, they anchor in a 
muddy bottom, with four, five, or six fathoms of 
water. The canal which leads up to it grows, 
however, more shallow every day, and in a short 
time it will not be navigable, if, as it must be 
supposed, the waters continue to deposit as much 
earth as they have done for the last century. 

The foundation of Belen, which is situated at 
about 20 leagues from the sea, was laid in 1615 
by Francis Caldeira. It stands on a spot of 
ground which rises about 13 feet above the level 
of the sea, and for a long time afforded only a 
mart for the articles collected by the wandering 
Indians in the neighbourhood, such as the wild 
cocoa, vat/niUa, tortoise and crab-shells, sarsapa- 
rilla, different kinds of balsams, cotton, &c. 

The population of Belen amounts to about 
10,000 souls. The same indolence, superstition, 
and ignorance which characterise the Portuguese 
in general, are evident among the inhabitants of 



this city, though an equal degree of luxury does 
not prevail here as in the capitals of the more s. 
captainships. Another circumstance which has 
tended to modify the character of the Parabians 
is, that Negro slavery was introduced among 
them at a later period than in most of the other 
capfains/iips. Too poor to purchase these de 
voted victims of injustice and tyranny, they 
were long forced to content themselves with 
what feeble assistance they derived from the 
natives, who were longer kept in a state of sub 
jection in the n. parts of Brazil than in the cap 
tainships towards the s. 

In 1755 an exclusive company was appointed 
for Grand Para and M arafian, possessing a capital 
of about 125,000. Count d Oyeras was at the 
head of this monopoly. It was permitted to 
gain 15 per cent, exclusive of all expences, on 
articles of provisions, and to sell its merchandise 
at 45 per cent, more than they would have cost 
even at Lisbon. This company was also em 
powered to make its own price for what pro 
visions were furnished by the districts subject to 
its jurisdiction. These unjust and extraordinary 
privileges were granted to this company for 20 
years, after which period they could be renewed 
by application to the government of Portugal. 
It is easy to conceive the tendency which such a 
company must have had in paralizing the efforts 
of the colonists ; and, in fact, it was not until 
1778, at which period they were relieved from 
the oppression necessarily attending these exclu 
sive privileges, that the colony began to exhibit 
any signs of prosperity. 

The principal commodities received from Para 
are sugar, which is prepared in more than 30 in- 
genios, or sugar houses, in the interior of the 
district; coffee, cocoa, and Brazil wood, particu 
larly that species called by the Portuguese bura- 
pemina^ which is beautifully veined, and from 
which an odoriferous oil is extracted ; the bark 
is also burnt as a perfume. 

From the bark of a tree, called arariba, which 
is very common in the neighbourhood of Para, 
the inhabitants extract a fine purple colour, 
which is said to be extremely permanent. A 
new species of puchari, or precious fruit, is also 
met with in this division of Brazil. It does not 
attain to such a large size as the common kind ; 
but the fruit is more aromatic, and forms an ex 
cellent substitute for nutmegs. The real jalap- 
tree (convolvulus jalappa) abounds in Para ; as 
well as various kinds of contrayerva (dorstenia 
contrayeroa)) and many other medicinal plants.] 



PARA. 



31 



[Brazil abounds with gums of different kinds, 
well calculated to supply the place of gum ara- 
bic : the jutuicisica of Para is well calculated for 
making sealing-wax. Several parts of Para 
abound with yellow ochres (ochraferri), which is 
frequently intermixed with a red ochre, of as 
brilliant a colour as vermilion. White argil 
(argilln bolus alba), called by the colonists taba- 
tinga ; and likewise red bole (nrgilla bolus rubra)^ 
is very common in different parts of the province. 

The animals in this province are similar to 
those in the other districts of Brazil. Formerly 
the sale of the flocks which grazed in the island 
of Marajo was one of the principal resources of 
this colony ; but at present the number of oxen 
are greatly diminished. 

A large species of silk- worm (phalena atlas), 
whose ball is three times the size of the common 
silk-worm s, is found in great plenty in Para. 
It feeds on the leaves of the orange-trees, and 
the silk produced by it is of a dark yellow colour. 
Were this species cultivated with care, the silk 
obtained from them might prove a profitable ar 
ticle of commerce. The people of Minas Geraes 
have already set them the example, so far as re 
gards the common silk-worm. 

Eighty-seven miles from Para, on descending 
the river of the Amazonas, is a large tongue of land 
formed into several islands, the largest of which, 
that of Joannes, is very populous, and defended 
by a small fort. These isles belong to different 
Portuguese nobles, and have the title of baronies. 
A league and a half from the city stands the 
town of St. Georges dos Alamos, with a regular 
fortress. About 84 miles s. w. on the borders 
and on the w. side of the river Tocantines is 
another town, named Camuta, or Cameta, with 
the fort of Gurupa : along the river are the forts 
of Paru, which the French took and destroyed in 
the year 1698, of Tapergos, and Rio Negro. To 
the n. the province of Para is terminated by 
Cayenne ; on this side it is limited by the n. cape, 
where stands the fort of Cumanha, opposite that 
of Camon and that of Dos Aragoariz. In this 
province are four cities or towns ; viz. Para, St. 
Georges dos Alamos, Camonta, and Cahete, and 
about fifty thousand inhabitants. 

The Portuguese formed new establishments 
on the Rio Negro, where they discovered dia 
mond and gold mines : in 1766, four hundred 
soldiers and marines were sent from Lisbon, as 
well as workmen of all kinds ; and several fami 
lies were tempted, by the great encouragement 
offered them, to join this expedition, with the 
view of settling in this part of Brazil. 



During war with any nation which may be in 
possession of Guayana, this district would be 
much exposed to invasion from that quarter. Its 
great distance from Bahia, and even from Para 
and Maranan, renders it next to impossible for 
these provinces to afford it the necessary aid to 
repel an invading foe. 

The new colony of Rio Negro was extremely 
ill-conducted by Francois Xavier de Mendo^a, 
Minister of Marine. Sufficient advantages, in 
deed, have not yet been derived from this fine 
country, from the improper steps taken to colo 
nize it. It is true that the population of this 
district has been augmented by many families 
who have been forced to abandon G nay ana, from 
the bad success of the establishments attempted 
by France in the year 1764, along the banks of 
the Courou. It is a melancholy truth that colo 
nization which, if conducted with wisdom and 
benevolence, might prove a blessing to mankind, 
has in general proved most ruinous to those 
unfortunate individuals who, attracted by the 
love of gain, or driven from their country by 
the pressure of want, have sought an asylum in 
those new establishments. 

The government of Para is dependent upon 
that of Maranan, and this is separated from that 
of Para on the n. by the river Tocantines. 

The Portuguese were driven upon this pro 
vince by a storm in 1535, but did not form any 
settlement till 1599. The French, who invaded 
this colony in 1612, kept possession of it from 
that period till 1615, when it was wrested from 
them by the Dutch, from whom the Portuguese 
again recovered it in 1644. 

Before it was visited by the Portuguese, the 
chief employment of the savages was collecting 
the ambergrease which abounds on this part of 
the coast ; and this likewise became the occupa 
tion of the first European settlers. For many 
years after the re-settlement of the Portuguese, 
Maranan continued in a very languishing state, 
till some of the more enterprising colonists began 
to cultivate cotton, which is said to be superior 
to any other raised in the New World. For 
several years past, rice (oryza mutica), a species 
which is natural to Brazil, and differing from the 
aryza sativa^ in not being furnished with awns, 
has also been cultivated to a considerable extent, 
though it is inferior to Levant rice, and even to 
that produced in N. America. 

Several attempts were lately made to produce 
silk in this colony ; but either from the unfitness 
of the climate, the improper methods employed 
in the management of the insects, or from some] 



3-2 



PARA. 



[other cause, the project has proved wholly abor 
tive. The same want of success has not, how 
ever, attended the culture of indigo, as the nu 
merous plantations of this valuable vegetable 
are in a flourishing condition, and promise am 
ply to renumerate the proprietors. The finest 
Brazil arnotto is also brought from this district. 

The Island of St. Louis constitutes that part 
of the province of Maranan, which is by far the 
most populous. It is 26 leagues in circumference, 
extremely fertile, and only separated from the 
continent by a small river. The capital,^which 
is also named St. Louis, was built by the French 
in 1612. The only public building it contains wor 
thy of notice is the Episcopal Palace, the houses 
in general being ill-built and inconvenient. This 
town is defended by a citadel and several forts, 
and is the residence of the governor-general of 
the three northern provinces. All the trade of 
the island is transacted here ; the harbour is ca 
pacious, but might be greatly improved by art. 



The 



populati 
thousand 



ion of the island is estimated at about 



15 thousand souls. The plantations arc not 
here equally flourishing with those on the con 
tinent, particularly on the banks of the rivers 
Ytapicorie, Mony, &c. 

Towards the eastern part of the interior of the 
province, the natives have not yet been reduced 
to complete subjection. This part of the country, 
which is elevated and of a sandy soil, is princi 
pally inhabited by shepherds. The surface of 
the ground, which is covered with saltpetre, is 
altogether appropriated to rearing horses and 
horned cattle, which are sold t6 considerable 
advantage in the neighbouring countries ; but 
the sheep degenerate there as well as in the other 
parts of Brazil, except about Coritibe. Un 
fortunately, the too frequent droughts, and the 
excessive heats, often destroy whole flocks, when 
sufficient attention is not paid to lead them in 
time to distant pastures. 

Mines of sulphur, alum, copperas, iron, lead, 
and antimony, are extremely common, though 
very superficial in these mountains, and yet none 
of them have been opened. In 1572, permis 
sion was indeed granted to work a silver one, 
which had been discovered three or four years 
before ; but the court soon after retracted this 
permission, for reasons that were never fully 
explained. 

This government consists of 8993 white men, 
17,844 negroes, or free Mulattoes, and slaves ; 
and of 38,937 Indians, either scattered or assem 
bled in 10 villages. The exports have not as yet 
been equal to this degree of population. Their 



value has never been estimated at more than 
o29,000 ; but since the suppression of the com 
pany already mentioned, it is to be presumed 
they must every year become more considerable. 

The ecclesiastical, the military, and civil esta 
blishment of Maranan, aro on the same footing 
as those in the other captainships of Brazil. In 
matters of consequence, however, this province, 
as well as that of Grand Para, is allowed to ap 
peal directly to the mother-country, without 
being obliged to appear before the two inter 
mediate tribunals of Bahia and Rio de Janeiro.] 

PARA, GRAN, the capital of the above province 
and captainship of the same name, and with the 
dedicatory title of Nuestra Senora de Belen. It is 
commercial, handsome, and rich, and adorned with 
beautiful edifices ; amongst these the most con 
spicuous are two parish churches," the convents 
of the monks of Nuestra Senora del Carmen, of 
La Merced, San Francisco, and S. Domingo, of 
the Capuchins and of the chapel of Christo, which 
belongs to the troops. It had a college of the 
Jesuits, under whose charge was a seminary for 
studies and the principal missions of the Mara 
nan. It has a citadel and a castle called Nuestra 
Senora de Las Mercedes, at the entrance of the 
bar upon the river, both of them being furnished 
with plenty of good artillery of brass and iron, 
and garrisoned with four companies with a com 
mandant and serjeant-major. It is the head of 
a bishopric erected by pope Clement XI. at 
the instance of king D.Juan V. in 1720; Don Fr. 
Bartolome del Pilas, a Carmelite monk, being 
nominated as its first bishop. It had, indeed, been 
made a bishop s see by pope Innocent XI. at 
the desire of king Peter II. and D. Fr. Manuel 
de la Natividad, provincial of the Capuchins of 
Corral, had been appointed to its functions, when 
D. Fr. Gregorio de Los Angeles, who had 
hitherto presided over it as belonging to the 
bishopric of Maranan, disputed the claims of the 
new-comer, and had litigations with the court of 
Rome, which were only put an end to by the 
death of the two rivals. 

The population of this city amounts to 4000 
housekeepers. [Mr. Mawe, however, takes the 
present population at ten thousand inhabitants. 

The town of Para, continues the same traveller, 
is situated on the river of its name, called by 
some Tocantines, the navigation of which is dif 
ficult, and is seldom attempted, except by small 
craft : the Confiance sloop of war with great 
care sailed up it, and anchored near the town, 
several days previous to the expedition against 
Cayenne. The inhabitants are in general very] 



P A It 

i poor, probably from want of commerce ; for 
although the great rivers Tocantines and Ama- 
zonas have their source, the latter in Peru, and 
the former in the captainship of Goyaz, though 
they receive almost millions of inferior streams 
in their course through immense tracks of territo 
ry, yet they are not productive of any commerce 
of consequence. The few exports from Para 
consist of a little rice and cocoa, a few drugs, &c. 
to Maranan, from whence they are embarked 
for Europe. A few small brigs were sent hither 
from Barbadoes, after the taking of Cayenne : 
but the trade must be a bad one, as the inhabi 
tants are in general too poor to purchase English 
manufactures, except those of necessity ; nor 
could the produce of Para be an object of interest, 
as a cargo is at all times very precarious, and 
difficult to be obtained. 

The climate is hot, as may well be supposed, 
from its lying so near the equinoctial. Thunder, 
with lightning and rain, occur generally every 
afternoon, which cool the air very much, and 
render the heat less disagreeable. 

To the s. of Para is the captainship of Goyaz, 
bounded chiefly by Minas Geraes on the e. 
and Matto Grosso on the w. Its greatest extent 
in length is from lat. 6 to 21 30 s. Villa Boa, its 
principal town, is situate in lat. 16 22 s. about 
270 miles to the w. of Paracatu, from whence 
there is a good road. Here is a permutation- 
house, where all the gold found in the captainship 
is permuted. The governor is elected for three 
years, after which he is generally appointed to 
Bahia or Minas Geraes. In the captainship are 
many gold-mines, some of which produce gold 
of a very fine quality. Diamonds have been 
found in some parts, which are different in their 
appearance from those found in Cerro do Frio, 
having more brilliancy on their exterior ; but 
they are in general not of so pure a water, though 
of a very desirable size. As this fine district 
is so distant from the coast, it has very little 
commerce in any of its productions, except the 
valuable substances above-mentioned, and cattle, 
which are bred on the frontiers ; also some cotton, 
and occasionally a tew peculiar articles, which 
are sent to Rio de Janeyro. The mules on the 
return-journey are all loaded with salt, iron, 
cheap cotton-prints, woollens (particularly baizes), 
hats, fire-arms, powder and shot, and a variety 
of artificers tools. When any of the inhabitants 
have any thing peculiarly precious to dispose of, 
they generally take it tollio de Janeyro, and lay 
out the proceeds chiefly in the purchase of Negroes 
(they being at all times the first object), iron, 
alt, and other commodities. 



PAR 



3.1 



The population is very small in comparison to 
the extent of the district, but is likely to be in 
creased by new settlers ; although the indigent 
in Villa Rica, Tejuco, and other places in the 
mining country, are little inclined to remove 
out of society, even for the chance of riches ; in 
fact, having no Negroes fit to work, and being 
totally destitute of exertion themselves, all situa 
tions are to them indifferent. These are by no 
means the class of people who can be styled ad 
venturers. The poorer class of inhabitants who 
have obtained a small portion of gold, sometimes 
make a journey to Paracatu or Villa Rica to pur 
chase what Negroes they want. This captainship 
has been very little explored, and scarcely any 
thing is known of its productions beyond what is 
above stated, nor are any others sought after, 
though it cannot be doubted that there are many 
substances in all departments of natural history 
which might form the basis of a considerable 
commerce ; indeed, it is not unreasonable to pre 
sume that the soil contains the same variety of 
metals as the district of Minas Geraes. Many 
persons from thence speak of it with delight as 
being a fine country, having numerous rivers 
well stored with fish, and woods abounding with 
fine birds, which afford excellent diversion to the 
sportsman : also a great variety of animals. 

Para, together with Matto Grosso, and St. 
Paul s, communicates with the captainship of 
Goyas, by rivers which are navigable, though 
frequently interrupted by falls. The capital of 
Para is 60 miles from the mouth of the river, in 
lat. 1 30 s. and Ion. 48 33 a>.] 

PARA, a river of the above province and king 
dom, on the e. side of which the capital of this 
kingdom is situate. It is, properly speaking, one 
of the mouths of the Amazonas, formed by the 
island of Joanes. about 40 miles wide at its mouth. 
[This river is about 200 miles long.] 

PARA, another, a small river of the province and 
captainship of Espiritu Santo in the same king 
dom, rising in the mountains near the coast, run 
ning n. and forming various lakes. It then turns 
n. e. and enters the Paranauna with the name of 
Paracatus, opposite the settlement of Rosario, 

PARA, another. See PARANAIBA. 

PARA, a small island, near the coast of the pro 
vince and captainship of its name, between the 
island of Sipatubaand the bay of Cabelo de Velha. 

PARA, a settlement of the province and corre- 
gimicnto of Carrabaya in Peru. 

PARA, another, of the province and corregimi- 
ento of Lucanas in the same kingdom, annexed to 
the curacy of Paraisancos. 

PARA CAHUIN, a river of the division and 



VOL. iv. 



34 PAR 

district of Boroa in the kingdom of Chile, which 
runs . n. w. and enters the Cauten : at its source 
the Spaniards had built a fort which was destroyed 
by the Araucanos Indians. 

" PARACAS, a port of the S. sea, on the coast 
of the kingdom of Chile. It is small and of little 
security, and frequented by the vessels coming to 
this kingdom from Callao, in lat 29 II s. 

[Ships receive shelter here, when driven out of 
the harbour of Cangallan or Sangallan, which is 
three leagues s. e. of Carette Island, and n. n. w. 
of the island of Lobos.] 

PARACASSA, a river of the province and 
government of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king 
dom of Quito : it rises in the mountains of San 
tiago de Los Jorocos, and runs n. e. to enter the 
Maranon by its a?, shore, in lat. 4 42 s. 

[PARACATU, is the principal village or town 
of a district of the same name, which lies about 
90 leagues n. w. of Tejuco, bordering on the 
captainship of Goyas in Brazil, from which it is 
separated by a chain of high mountains that take 
a n. direction. The numerous rivers which rise 
on the e. side of the mountains, and flow into 
the great river St. Francisco, are rich in gold. 
The population of the village is estimated at 
above 1000 souls, and will shortly be very nume 
rous, as the reputed richness of some late dis 
coveries has tempted many families to migrate 
thither. It has all the advantages of a high and 
healthy situation, in the midst of a most fertile 
country, and has considerable intercourse with 
Sabora and Villa Rica, where the gold procured 
in its vicinity is permuted. It is governed by a 
captain Mor, who is subordinate to the governor 
of the latter place, to whom all disputes of conse 
quence are referred. To the s. is the rich dista- 
camcnto of Rio Plata, a river that yields fine 
diamonds, and has been much frequented by 
many adventurers, who, when discovered and 
seized, are called smugglers. A strong guard of 
soldiers is stationed here to prevent the precious 
stones from being sought for clandestinely.] 

PARACATUS, a small river of the province 
and captainship of Espiritu Santo in Brazil, which 
rises in the interior of the mountains, runs e. and 
enters with another small stream which it receives 
into the San Francisco. 

PARACAUSA, a river of the province and 
government of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king 
dom of Quito, which rises n. of its capital, and 
runs with various windings into the Maranon. 

PARACAY, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Nasca in Peru ; in the vicinity 
of which are some pools of water called Las 
Lagunillas. 



PAR 

PARACAS, a port of the S. sea, on the coast 
of the province andcorregimicnto of lea in Peru : 
little frequented by vessels, notwithstanding that 
it is convenient and sheltered. 

PARACEVINI, a river of the province and 
country of Las Amazonas : it is small, runs n. 
and enters the Madera. 

PARACHO, S. PEDRO DE, a settlement of the 
head settlement of the district of Arantzan and 
atcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and 
bishopric of Mechoacan : it contains 78 families 
of Indians, and 11 of Spaniards, Mustees, and 
Mulattoes, dedicated to the cultivation of seeds, 
cutting of woods, making of earthen-ware, and 
saddles for riding : 12 leagues w. of its capital. 

PARACUARI, a settlement of the province 
and captainship of Para in Brazil ; situate in the 
island of Joanes or Marajo. 

[PARADISE, a township of Pennsylvania, in 
York county. 

PARADISE. See PLATE FORME.] 

PARADOS, NUESTRA SENORA DE Los, a 
settlement of the province and government of 
Buenos Ayres ; situate on the shore of the river 
Tandil, near the coast, which lies between the 
river Plata and the strait of Magellan. It is of 
Patagones Indians reduced to the faith. 

PARAGOANA, a point of land or cape, called 
also de San Roman, on the coast of the province 
and government of Venezuela, 13 leagues from 
the city of Coro. It runs into the sea for up 
wards of 1 1 leagues, and is very lofty and crag 
gy, and forms with the point of Coquibacoa the 
gulf of Venezuela ; in lat. 11 52 n. 

PAR AGUA, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Maracaibo, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra 
nada. It rises at the foot of the Sierra Nevada, 
to the <?. of the city of Pedraza, runs s. s. e. and 
enters the Apure. 

PARAGUACA, a river of the province and 
captainship of Todos Santos in Brazil, which 
rises near the coast, runs e. and inclining to s. e. 
enters the bay. 

PARAGUAIRI, a town of the province and 
government of Paraguay ; situate to the e. of the 
city of Asuncion, on the opposite shore. 

PARAGUAN, a settlement of the government 
of Maracaibo, in the province of Venezuela and 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate in the penin 
sula formed by the cape San Roman on the s. op 
posite the coast. 

PARAGUAN A, a peninsula of the province and 
government of Venezuela, in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada. It is nearly of a square figure, and 
united to the rest of the coast merely by a very 
narrow isthmus, on which stands the city of Coro* 



P A R 



P A H 



PARAGUARI, a settlement of the missions 
held by the Carmelite fathers of Portugal in the 
country of Las Amazonas ; situate on the shore 
of this river, between that of Tefe and that of 
Yurba. Mr. Bellin calls it Paracari in his map 
and description ofOuayana. 

[PARAGU ARY, a parish of the province and 
government of Paraguay ; situate on a plain in 
the road from Asuncion to Villa Rica, and about 
31 miles from the former, in lat. 25 36 51" s. and 
Ion. 57" 19 50" w, \ 

PARAGUAY, a province and government of 
Peru, belonging to the viceroyalty of Buenos 
Ay res ; bounded by, or, more properly speaking, 
extending, on then, as far as, the lake Los Xarayes, 
[which bv the by is only the inundation of several 
rivers beginning in January and lasting three 
months] from whence issues the great river Para 
guay, which gives its name to the country ; ex 
tending e. as far as Brazil, and bounded s. by the 
missions of Parana, its jurisdiction ending at the 
river to the s. of the city of Asuncion, in lat. 26 48 
s. although it formerly extended as far as the em 
bouchure of the river Parana, in lat. 27 38 . It 
is bounded o>. by the country of Gran Chaco, in 
habited by many nations of infidel Indians, ex 
tending as far as the borders of the province of 
Tucuman, and divided from thence by the river 
Paraguay. 

Its extent is about 200 Italian miles from e. to 
ZD. and more than 300 from n. to s. It was dis 
covered by Sebastian Gaboto in 1526 ; is of a 
warm and moist temperature, from the number of 
w r oods, lakes, and rivers, with which it is covered, 
and from the various swamps, which are formed 
between the months of November and April, 
when the rains are most abundant. It is watered 
by an infinite number of rivers, the principal of 
which are, first that of its own name, and then 
those in the n. parts of Porrudos, Mboteley, To- 
bati, Ipane Piray, and others of less note ; and in 
the s. part, those of Canabe and Tibiquari, this 
dividing this province from that of the Rio de la 
Plata of Buenos Ayres. 

The woods are many and impenetrable, and in 
them grow in abundance sour oranges, citrons, 
limes, and other wild fruits, of which conserves 
are made. There are also trees of very good 
timber, and fine wood, such as cedars, petoroques, 
urundaiS) tajibos, and others ; of the first they make 
canoes and slabs, which they carry to Buenos 
Ayres for careening vessels and for other uses. In 
these woods are found a variety of birds and ani 
mals, such as rabbits, hares, partridges, wild- 
boar, deer, and other species of creatures less 
known, such as quiriquinchos, mulitas, and ape- 



riades ; but from the great quantity of neat 
cattle, the flesh of which is preferred to any 
other here, none of the above animals are ever 
hunted : sometimes, how r ever, the inhabitants 
will hunt geese, which abound in the lakes and 
the shores of the river, and kill great numbers. 
Here also breed goldfinches, nightingales, larks, 
green parrots, long-tailed parrots, others of most 
beautiful plumage, and peacocks ; nor are there 
wanting ostriches, and birds of prey ; amongst 
which there is one called tuca, resembling the 
crow, but having a beak which is singular, from 
being the length of a hand, and beautifully va 
riegated with a distribution of red, yellow, and 
black streaks. The water in which the tongue 
of this bird, which is a feather, has been steeped, 
is a sovereign remedy against the epilepsy, as 
has been proved by repeated experiments made 
in this country. 

The most ferocious animal is the tiger, of 
which there are great numbers, and which do 
great havoc amongst the cattle and the people. 
Here are bears, which are ant-eaters, with very 
long tongues ; and these they put into an ant s 
nest, and when they feel it covered with these 
insects they withdraw it, delighting in their food, 
Here is also found the great beast called the 
anta, and many monkies of various kinds, called 
in the language of the country car ay as. What 
are here called lions have no resemblance to 
those of Africa either in shape or ferocity. 

On the shores of the rivers breeds an animal 
called capihuara, which is amphibious, lives in 
the water, and breeds on land ; it resembles the 
pig, and differs from it only in the snout, which 
is shorter and less pointed. Nothing abounds in 
this province more than insects, and of these the 
plague of mosquitoes is equally distressing on the 
waters as on the land. Here are snakes both 
small and large, vipers, scorpions, &c. and in 
some parts abound the murcielagos, which suck 
the blood of a person asleep, and endanger his 
life should he not awake in time Also, it is not 
uncommon to see a species of butterfly, called 
utas, which, in whatever part it bites, causes a 
humour to appear like gum, and then corrodes 
the part, forming a nidus for a little worm, 
which, although extracted, leaves behind an un 
seemly wound, which increases daily, and is only 
got rid of by a very particular and tedious me 
thod of cure. 

The principal commerce of this province is in 
certain species of leaves of trees, which grow 
on some mountains about 100 leagues from the 
capital, known by the name of the herb of Pari- 
guay. In the gathering and preparing of this 



PARAGUAY. 



herb both natives and strangers are employed, 
and the operation consists in drying- the leaves, 
which are scattered on shelves for the purpose 
over a fire, when they are crumbled into bits no 
bigger than sawdust ; and then they are put up 
into packages of from seven to eight arrobas each. 
There are two sorts of this leaf; the first, and 
which is most esteemed, is that which is made of 
the tender part of the leaves, and is called herb 
camini; the other, the inferior sort, is made of 
the thick part of the leaves, and has the name of 
herb de Pahs. The consumption of this article, 
not only in these provinces but in those of Peru 
and Chile, is incredible, since there is scarcely 
any person who does not take it two or three 
times in the course of the day, making an infu 
sion of it like tea, with warm water and sugar, 
and calling it mate. 

The second great article of commerce is the 
tobacco, although the exports of this have not 
been so great since that the king has established 
a manufactory of slack and twisted tobacco, on 
account of the royal warehouses. 

They also make some sugar here, and gather 
a good quantity of cotton ; and the product of 
these articles, which are carried to Buenos Ayres, 
returns in the shape of European goods. Its 
only communication with the province of the Rio 
de la Plata is by the Paraguay, and the ship 
ments from one place to the other are never less 
than 12,000 arrobas annually : not but that the 
journey is sometimes performed by land, but 
then it is along the coast of the river, and never 
undertaken but by the couriers, or some persons 
by way of express, who lay themselves open to the 
inconvenience and necessity of passing many ri 
vers by wading 1 or swimming, there being no fer 
ries, and likewise to the continual risk of being 
surprised by the infidel Indians, who are con 
stantly prowling along the river s banks : but it 
must be allowed that this latter objection is 
equally applicable to such as make the voyage ; 
since the Payaguas Indians who dwell upon the 
shores of the river are terrible pirates, infesting 
the passage with their canoes, and joining GO or 
70 of them together, there being in each six or 
seven men armed with lances and clubs ; so that 
it is necessary for vessels to go supplied with 
plenty of ammunition or under convoy. 

A few years since a peace was made with these 
Indians, and although great insolence was at 
first manifested by them as barbarians, many of 
them have become domesticated and live in the 
vicinity of the capital, where they make them 
selves useful by supplying fish. 
Nearly the whole of this province is sur 



rounded by enemies, who have never ceased to 
invade it since its foundation. These enemies 
are, to the w. the barbarian Indians, the Len- 
guas, Tobas, and Mosccbies ; on the 5. the Abi- 
pones ; on the n. the tribe of Guaycurus, com 
monly called Mbayas, and the Panaguas ; and in 
the <?. part alone is it free from any immediate 
host ; not but that on the mountains of the 
Yerva dwell the Monteses, who although they 
do not infest the settlements, give great annoy 
ance to the parties employed in procuring the 
herb paraguay, and have even, not unfrequentlv, 
attacked the Indians w r ho have been reduced to 
the faith and have settled on the frontiers : and 
very lately the Portuguese of Brazil, when, hav 
ing destroyed the various settlements on the e. 
and the city of Xerez on the n. which served 
as an outwork of defence against them, they 
pushed forward in that direction by the passage 
at which, at the present day, stand the settle 
ments of Cuba va and Matogroso, as far as the 
head settlements of the Moxos, to establish a 
commerce with Santa Cruz de la Sierra and La 
Paz ; for these infidels, like ants, once con 
vinced of the existence of a booty, although 
turned a thousand times out of their course, will 
still keep travelling on in pursuit of their object. 

All the aforesaid infidels have frequently in 
vaded, and still continue to invade, this country 
in the most unseasonable and unexpected times, 
when they put to death all they meet, plunder 
ing the women and children, and laying waste 
whatever comes in their way. They have at 
times made peace with different nations, but they 
break such alliances with the greatest impudence, 
and for this system of conduct the Gnaycurus, a 
ferocious and intractable race, are peculiarly no 
torious. 

In order to guard against these enemies which 
thus threaten the existence of the province, the 
inhabitants have found it necessary to enrol 
themselves in a volunteer militia, procuring 
arms and horses at their own expence, and 
forming themselves into garrisons in such parts 
as may be most required ; and, although this 
duty is somewhat irksome, an arrangement has 
been lately made by which each individual is 
dispensed from actual service for 22 days in each 
month, whenever the steps taken by the enemy 
may not require it otherwise : but should these, 
as it frequently happens, lay hands on the cattle 
or other goods of the community, they are all 
obliged to come into the field to redeem their 
possessions, and the persons thus called into 
service are indemnified by a fund, called the 
Composition Fund, which arises from certain 



P"A R A G U A Y. 



37 



mulcts exacted from such as will not attend ; 
the amount of these being 60 dollars for the fe 
derative part of the inhabitants, and 40 for the 
others. These dollars are not however of cur 
rent coin, but their value is taken in the articles 
and merchandises of the country, seldom more 
than one-fourth being- paid in specie ; a system 
equally adhered to in the commercial intercourse 
with Buenos Ayres. 

The presidios, or garrisons of this province, 
are 19 in number, without counting the capital, 
in which is a body of 350 guards-men, (as well 
of infantry as of horse),, and of the following- 
names : 

San Miguel, on the shore of the river. 

San Ildefonso, the same, and five leagues from 
the capital. 

San Joseph, eight leagues within land. 

Arecutacoa, 12 leagues on the coast. 

La Emboscada, two leagues from the former. 

Mandoviiay, on the shore of the river Tobati, 
at 18 leagues. 

Mainrimbi, eight leagues from the former. 

Urunday-Yuru, three leagues from the former, 
in land. 

San Geronimo, without the walls of the city, 
on the coast. 

Lambare, two leagues from the city. 

San Marcos, four leagues off. 

La Villeta, 10 leagues off. 

El Reducto, 12 leagues off. 

Santa Rosa, a league from the former, removed 
from the coast. 

San Fernando, two leagues from the river 
Tibiquari, and 40 from the city. 

That of Villa-rica. 

That of Curuguati. 

Besides these there are some boats to run 
along the coasts to impede the passes to the 
infidels, or to surprise and cut off their retreats. 

The aforesaid garrisons are not only a check 
to the Indians, but they can exclude from the 
navigation of the river any foreign vessel, inde 
pendently that it requires great skill in any na 
vigator unexperienced with these parts not to 
take a wrong course, from the number of mouths 
and creeks which present themselves, and which 
have often misled. 

The population of this province consists of two 
towns, called Espiritu Santo, and Villa-rica.; and 
of the following settlements of Indians. 
Ipane, Tobati, 

Guarambarej Los Altosj 

Ita, Itape, 

Yaguarin, Caazapa, 

Altira, Yuti. 



In which are 6000 inhabitants of all ages, men, 
women, and children ; and these united to the 
number contained in the town and vallies give a 
total of 56,000. 

The greater part are of the Guarani nation, 
descendants of those who were converted by San 
Francisco Solano and his companions, with the 
exception of some families of the Monteses, Can- 
guias, and other nations since reduced. Here 
are also four new reductions made, which were 
under the charge of the Jesuits, called San Es- 
tanislao, San Joaquia, Nuestra Senora de Belen, 
and El Santo Corazon. In each of these settle 
ments is an Indian corregidor without jurisdic 
tion, and appointed only to regard the proceed 
ings of the other corrcgidors, and to cause to be 
fulfilled the orders of the curate and of the ad 
ministrator of the goods of the settlement. Each 
of them has two alcaldes, and the other officers of 
the cabildo, and these, as well as the corregidor, 
are elected by the influence of the curate, who 
knows the abilities of his Indians ; but these elec 
tions are afterwards confirmed by the governor 
of the province ; and to the curate is assigned 
10 per cent, of the profits of his settlement. 
Ever since the first establishment of these settle 
ments, there is allotted to each the territory 
thought necessary for sowing of seeds and the 
breeding of cattle, and when the harvest is 
gathered in, it is put into one common granary, 
to the end that it may be divided equally amongst 
all, as their necessities may require, by the ad 
ministrator ; the same practice being observed 
with regard to tlie rations of meat. With the 
excess of the corn and cattle a means is procured 
af adorning the churches, of assisting the sick, 
and of promoting public works. Neither Spa 
niards, Mulattoes, nor Negroes are admitted into 
these settlements except as traders. 

The ecclesiastical government is well orga 
nized under the religious order of San Fran 
cisco, and amongst the first converters are enu 
merated Fr. Alonso de Buenaventura, and Fr. 
Juan de San Bernardo, a lay-brother, who suf 
fered martyrdom under the Caazapas Indians. 
At day-break mass is said every morning, with 
fine music, and on festival days somewhat later, 
with a discourse regularly by the curate. This 
finished, the cubildo goes to receive its orders for 
the day, and the same are imparted to the whole 
settlement, that every one may know his occu 
pation. Tlie matrons have their tasks assigned 
to them proportionate to their strength and ca 
pacity, and the unmarried and girls remain sing 
ing and reciting prayers for the morning, after 
the mass is finished, in the court-yard of the. 



PARAGUAY. 



church, and repeat the same at night-fall. The 
rest of the day they are employed in assisting 
their mothers, whilst the men are employed in 
different handicraft works, as carpentering, sculp 
ture, musical instrument making, weaving, and 
other mechanical arts and employments, for 
which they have excellent masters. Every night 
the cabildo comes to the curate to inform him 
of what has happened in the course of the day, 
and the people, after saying the rosary, betake 
themselves to rest. 

These Indians cannot be said to pay any other 
tribute than personal service to those under 
whom they live, notwithstanding it has been at 
tempted by the king to introduce a different sys 



tem. In the settlement of Itape, for instance, 
there is no vassalage, but the Indians there assist 
with their persons and rafts all those who pass 
in the time of the floods a large arm of the river 
Tibiquari, by which lies the road to Villarica. 

This province has suffered, from its first forma 
tion, various convulsions and alterations, from 
being divided into parties, formed from vain 
ideas of honour or interest, and has been the 
scene of great bloodshed. To its bishopric, 
which was erected in 1547, belong also the 
settlements of Parana, situate to the s. e. and of 
which we speak in their proper place. [See PA 
RAGUAY River.] 



TABLE of the Population of the Government of Paraguay, according to AZARA S Work, 

published in 1809. 



NOTE. The letter c, indicates city ; t. town ; p. parish ; ,s. settlement of Indians ; m. settlement of Mulattocs or 
people of colour. 


Names of the cities, towns, settlements, and 
parishes. 


Years of 
their 
foundation. 


Latitude south. 


Longitude west 
from London. 


Number o 

souls. 


Yta, s 


1536 
1536 
1538 
1538 
1538 
1538 
1538 
1538 
1673 
1G07 
1610 
1592 
1592 
1555 
1609 
1698 
1634 
1614 
1627 
1633 
1622 
1706 
1685 
1746 
1749 
1760 
1536 


1 II 

25 30 30 
25 33 20 
25 27 44 
25 29 48 
25 18 1 
25 16 6 
25 16 45 
25 16 16 
25 52 
26 11 18 
26 36 56 
26 48 12 
27 8 40 
27 14 52 
26 54 36 
26 53 19 
27 18 55 
27 20 16 
27 26 46 
27 23 45 
27 7 23 
27 7 35 
27 2 36 
25 1 47 
24 38 31 
23 26 17 
25 16 40 

Carried fo 


1 II 

57 25 2 
57 18 14 
57 33 15 
57 30 16 
57 26 42 
57 18 30 
57 13 59 
57 8 59 
56 39 33 
56 29 49 
56 16 48 
56 58 54 
56 48 34 
55 35 14 
56 44 14 
56 54 39 
56 19 29 
55 52 59 
55 47 35 
55 38 39 
55 32 29 
55 44 59 
56 5 6 
56 13 20 
56 36 15 
57 8 
57 41 4 

rward . 


965 
2093 
278 
368 
200 
869 
972 
932 
124 
725 
674 
1144 
1097 
806 
864 
1283 
1036 
1409 
1514 
1430 
2267 
1017 
1185 
854 
729 
361 
7088 

32,284 


Ya"uaron, $ 


Ypane, s 


Guarambare, s 




i 
Altos, s 


Atira, s 


Tobaty, s 


Ytape, s 


Caazapa, s 


Yuty, ^ 


S. Maria de Fe, s 


Santiago, s 


S. Ignacio Miri, s 


S. Iriacio Guazu, s 


Santa Rosa, 5 




Ytapua, s. 


Candelaria, s 


Santa Ana, s 


Corpus, 5 


Trinidad, s 


Jesus, s 


S. Joaquin, s 


S. Estanislado, s 


Belen, s 





PARAGUAY. 



39 



Names of the cities, towns, settlements, and 
parishes. 


Years of 
their 
foundation. 


Latitude south. 


Longitude west 
from London. 


Number of 
souls. 


Brouffht forward . ... 








32,284 

3813 
2187 
825 
1769 
1551 
979 
2254 
972 
3014 
1232 
866 
427 
1227 
715 
654 
620 
3595 
1066 
733 
540 
2352 
507 
5305 
2235 
1720 
3098 
458 
3346 
1894 
1136 
858 
1500 
659 
1730 
621 
520 
840 
644 
1519 

92,347 
5,133 




1635 
1718 
1766 
1785 
1773 
1784 
1715 
1760 
1576 
1773 
1785 
1789 
1781 
1758 
1770 
1783 
d. 1640 
1770 
1770 
1783 
1769 
1775 
1640 
1728 
1775 
1714 
1777 
1725 
1733 
1777 
1783 
1766 
1787 
1779 
1790 
1791 
1740 
1653 
1555 

n settlemt 


o / // 

25 15 30 
25 23 50 
25 20 
25 10 25 
23 23 8 
24 6 12 
24 28 10 
24 33 35 
25 48 55 
25 44 42 
25 58 2 
26 54 46 
25 29 36 
25 26 34 
25 30 27 
25 45 43 
25 27 54 
25 24 21 
25 22 28 
24 23 25 
25 29 19 
25 36 51 
25 21 45 
25 24 44 
25 21 14 
25 30 56 
26 10 
25 45 31 
25 58 26 
26 13 13 
25 54 7 
26 54 
26 11 21 
26 52 24 
27 13 57 
26 50 43 
25 7 42 
25 54 56 
27 19 28 

mts not comprise 
T 


o / // 

57 32 19 
57 35 26 
57 41 4 
57 31 49 
57 16 4 
56 58 29 
56 54 25 
56 57 7 
56 31 59 
56 34 12 
56 32 19 
56 18 49 
56 47 15 
56 30 
56 52 6 
56 53 2 
57 4 37 
57 9 24 
57 3 19 
57 13 6 
57 15 12 
57 19 50 
57 31 48 
57 24 6 
57 37 
57 36 25 
58 3 48 
57 16 56 
57 14 49 
57 50 
57 9 1 
57 1 7 
57 15 23 
58 11 28 
57 20 34 
57 49 17 
57 24 5 
57 21 18 
55 34 39 

Total of souls, 
>d in the above, 

rial population, 








Concepcion, t 




















til- 75 r 
















Capiata, p. . . . /* . 




























TabaDv, m. 


T f j a 
l>oreto, o. 


Spaniards inhabiting India 


97,480 


" 



P A R A G U A Y. 



Bishops who have presided in Paraguay. 

1. Don Fr. Juan de los Barrios y Toledo, of 
the order of San Francisco, native of the town of 
Pedroche in Estremadura : he was one of the 
first of the religious who passed over to Peru, 
was elected first bishop of Paraguay in 1547, and 
after passing to his church, was promoted to that 
of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Hey no de Granada 
in 1550. 

2. Don Fr. Tomas de la Torre, of the order 
of S. Domingo, whom the father Pedro Xavier 
de Charlevoix wrongly denominates, Fr. Pedro 
de la Torre: he was of the order of S. Francisco: 
elected in 1552, and took possession in 1555. 

3. Don Fr. Fenian Gonzalez de la Cuesta : 
elected in 1559. 

4. Don Fr. Juan del Campo, of the order of 
San Francisco, presented in 1575 : he lived but 
a short time. 

5. Don Fr. Ahmso Guerra, of the order of 
S. Domingo ; presented in 1577, and promoted 
to the bishopric of Mechoacan. 

6. Don Fr. Juan de Almaraz, of the order of 
San Agustin, native of Salamanca, master in 
his religion, calificador of the holy office, pro 
fessor of writing, prior various times in his con 
vent of Lima, preacher of great repute, and pro 
vincial : elected bishop of Paraguay in 1591, 
but he died before he received the notice, in the 
following year. 

7. Don Tomas Vazquez del Cano, magisterial- 
canon of the holy church of Valladolid ; pre 
sented to the bishopric of Paraguay in 1596 : he 
died before he was consecrated. 

8. Don Fr. Baltasar deCovarrubias, of the order 
of San Agustin, native of Mexico; presented to 
the bishopric of Paraguay in 1601, and promoted 
to Nueva Carceres in the Philippines the same 
year. 

9. Don Fr. Martin Ignacio de Loyola, of the 
barefooted order of S. Francisco : he took the 
habit in the convent of Alaejos, passed to Ame 
rica with the title of commissary of twenty reli 
gious persons, returned to Spain, and was lec 
turer in theology in the convents of Cadahalso 
and Segovia, and presented by his majesty 
Philip III. to the bishopric of Paraguay in 1601 : 
afterwards promoted to the archbishopric of 
Charcas in 1607. 

10. Don Fr. Reginald de Lizarraga, of the 
order of S. Domingo, native of Lima : he was 
presented to a degree in his religion, and pro 
moted from the church of Imperial in Chile, to 
this of Paraguay in 1607. 

1}. Don Lorenzo de Grado, native of Sala 



manca, where he studied and graduated as licen 
tiate : he passed over to Peru, and was there 
made archdeacon of Cuzco, and elected bishop of 
Paraguay in 1607 : promoted to that church in 
1618. 

12. Don Fr. Tomas de Torres, of the order 
of S. Domingo, native of Madrid, collegiate in 
the college of San Gregorio de Valladolid ; pre 
sented to a mastership in his religion, destined 
as its general in Flanders ; and after having 
read theology in many convents, and studied in 
the university of Lobaina for eight years and an 
half; he returned to Spain, was prior of the 
convents of S. Domingo de Zamora anddeNuestra 
Senora de Atocha in Madrid, and was presented 
by king Philip III. to the bishopric of Paraguay 
in 1619, and in 1625 promoted to that of Tu- 
cuman. 

13. Don. Fr. Agustin de Vega, of the same 
order as the former, native of Lima, provincial 
of his religion, calificador of the holy office, pre 
sented to this bishopric in 1625 : he died the 
same year, before he took possession. 

14. Don Fr. Christoval de Aresti, of the order 
of San Benito, native of Valladolid : he took the 
habit in the royal monastery of San Julian of 
Sanios in Galicia, was lecturer of arts in San 
Vincenti of Oviedo, abbot of Corneliana, pro 
fessor of writing, twice abbot of Samos, and difi- 
nidor general ; elected to the bishopric of Para 
guay in 1626, and to that of the church of Buenos 
Ay res in 1635. 

15. Don Fr. Francisco de la Serna, of the 
order of San Agustin, native of the city of Gua- 
nuco in Peru : he studied and read arts and theo 
logy in the convent of Lima, was noon and even 
ing lecturer in its university, twice provincial 
calificador of the holy office, presented to tiie 
bishopric of Paraguay in 1635, and promoted to 
that ofLaPaz in 1640. 

16. Don Fr. Bernardeno de Cardenas, of the 
order of San Francisco, native of the city of 
Chuqniavo in Peru, lecturer of theology, difini- 
dor, vicar, guardian, and visitor of his religion, 
preacher apostolic, a true father to the needy 
and to the Indians, in the conversion of whom 
he laboured much ; presented to the bishopric of 
Paraguay in 1638, and settled in his commission 
in 1640. In his time there was great disputes 
and contentions with the Jesuits : he was pro 
moted to the church of Popayaan in 1637, but 
renounced the offer from his advanced age, 
though he was at last prevailed to accept that 
of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in 1666. 

17. Don Fr. Gabriel de Guillistegui, of the 



PARAGUAY. 



41 



order of San Francisco, commissary-general of 
his religion ; elected bishop of Paraguay in 1666, 
and promoted in the same year to that of La 
Paz, which he renounced : he made the visita 
tion of the missions of the Jesuits in that pro 
vince by a special commission from the king, 
and was promoted to the bishopric of La Paz in 
1671. 

18. Don Fernando de Balcazar, native of Lima, 
chanter of the holy church of Truxillo, theologi 
cal canon, treasurer and archdeacon in the church 
of his native place, elected bishop of Paraguay 
in 1672 : he died before he was consecrated. 

19. Don Fr. Faustino de las Casas, of the order 
of La Merced ; elected bishop of this church in 
1672, where he governed till 1683. 

20. Don Fr. Sebastian de Pastrana, of the 
order of La Merced, native of Lima, provincial 
and professor of Santo Tomas in its university, 
and bishop of Paraguay. 

21. Don Juan de Durana, archdeacon of Are- 
quipa, his native place, bishop elect of Para 
guay, but he never took possession ; so that 
the court were induced to confer upon him the 
appointment of coadjutor for upwards of 20 years 
after, to the end of his life. 

22. Don Fr. Joseph de Palos, of the order of 
San Francisco, native of Morella in the kingdom 
of Valencia, guardian in many convents of S. 
and N. America, where he was charged with va 
rious important commissions which he fulfilled 
with ability : he was living retired in the settle 
ment of La Sal, when he was nominated as titu 
lar bishop and coadjutor of the bishopric of Pa 
raguay during the sickness of the proprietor in 
1724 : he died with universal regret in 1738 ; 
and his life was not only memorable for his own 
singular talents, but through the tragical fate of 
Joseph de Antequera. 

23. Don Fr. Joseph Cayetano Palavicini, of 
the order of San Francisco, a theologist, califi- 
cador of the holy office, preacher general, difi- 
nidor of his province of Charcas, and pro- minis 
ter of the same to vote in the general chapter: 
elected bishop of Paraguay in 1739 : he was pro 
moted to Truxillo in 1748. 

24. Don Fernando Perez de Oblitas, native of 
Lima; elected in 1748, and promoted to the 
church of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in 1756, with 
out ever having passed to his diocess. 

25. Don Manuel de la Torre, elected in the 
aforesaid year ; promoted to the church of Bue 
nos Ayres in 1763. 

26. Don Manuel Lopez de Espinosa, elected 
in the above year : he died in 1772. 

YOL, iv. 



27. Don Fr. Juan Joseph Priego, of the order 
of San Francisco : he died in 1779. 

28. Don Fr. Luis de Velasco, of the order of 
San Francisco ? native of Madrid ; elected in 1779. 

Governors of the province of Paraguay. 

1. Don Manuel de Frias, first governor of this 
province ; nominated by the king, when it was 
separated from the jurisdiction of the province of 
the Rio de la Plata, and when the limits of both 
were settled in 1 620 : he had many disputes with 
the bishop, with respect to the rights of patron 
age ; when this prelate thought proper to ex 
communicate him, and to take the adminstration 
of the settlements out of the hands of the mis 
sions of the Jesuits ; a step which was con 
demned by the council of the Indies: he go 
verned till 1630. 

2. Don Luis de Cespedes, distinct from an 
other of the same name who was governor of 
Buenos Ayres and the Rio de la Plata : he took 
possession of the government of Paraguay the 
aforesaid year, and exercised it till 1636. 

3. Don Martin de Ledesma, nominated to suc 
ceed the former : he governed till 1639. 

4. Don Pedro de Lugo y Navarro, knight of 
the order of Santiago : he had a commission from 
the king to visit the settlements of the missions 
of the Jesuits, and to give them redress and 
protection against the insults of the Mamelucos 
Indians : he succeeded in completely routing 
these, and thereby revenged the death of his 
friend and companion, father Romero, a Jesuit, 
who was killed by them : he governed till 1642. 

5. Don Gregorio de Hinestrosa, native of 
Chile, in whose time occurred the disgraceful 
dissentions between the bishop Don Fr. Bernar 
dino de Cardenos and the Jesuits, the which laid 
the foundation of the disorders which this pro 
vince afterwards suffered, and which were not 
put a stop to trll that the governor removed 
the bishop of its diocess, he being, in return, 
thrice excommunicated : this government lasted 
for five years, until 1648. 

6. Don Diego de Escobar Osorio, oidor of the 
royal audience of Charcas, who, from the critical 
state in which affairs were left by his prede 
cessor, reigned but a short time ; for his death 
was hastened, and he died in 1649. 

7. Don Fr. Bernardino de Cardenos, bishop of 
this diocess, who was tumultuously proclaimed 
by his partizans as governor in the vacancy : he 
began his reign by exterminating the Jesuits 
from the city, as well a& from the other settle 
ments, and causing them, to leave the country 

G 



PARAGUAY. 



and to embark, with great violence. This gave 
rise to fresh disputes, and the Jesuits, by virtue 
of the pontifical bull which they possessed, esta 
blished a judge conservator. In the mean time 
the audience of Charcas disapproved this intru 
sive government, and nominated, provisionally, 

8. Don Andres Garavito of Leon, knight of 
the order of Santiago, oidor of the aforesaid au 
dience of Charcas, and whilst he was proceeding 
to his destination, Don Sebastian de Leon, a 
colonel, who was rejected by the bishop, who de 
fended himself by some armed Indians ; but 
these dissentions were soon put to an end on the 
arrival of the aforesaid governor Garavito ; and 
he took possession of the government and held it 
till 1651, when he returned to the duties of his 
place. 

9. Don Juan Vazquez of Valverde, oidor of 
the same royal audience as the former, and no 
minated by it as provisional governor, with a 
special commission of visiting the province, and 
of examining into the late occurrences : he en 
tered the government in 1661 and held it till 
1665. 

10. Don Felipe Rege Corbulon, till 1679. 

11. Don Juan Diaz de Andino, till 1685, when 
he died. 

12. Don Antonio de Vera Moxica, nominated 
provisionally by the viceroy of Peru. 

13. Don Baltasar Garcia Ros, serjeant-major 
of the plaza of Buenos Ayres, appointed here as 
a recompense by the king, for his services per 
formed in the conquest of the colony of Sacra 
mento, established by the Portuguese on the 
shore of the river La Plata of Buenos Ayres : 
he entered the government in 1705, with a par 
ticular charge to make the visit of the settle 
ments of the missions of the Jesuits, which he did, 
rendering an accurate account of his discoveries 
to his majesty. 

14. Don Juan Gregorio Bazan de Pedraza. 

15. Don Diego de los Reyes Balmaseda, na 
tive of the port of Santa Maria : he entered in 
1717, but the constant complaints made against 
him, and particularly of his partiality towards 
the Jesuits, obliged the audience of Charcas to 
nominate a provisional judge visitor, the same 
being made also provisional governor by the 
viceroy of Peru in 1721, and the person so ap 
pointed was, 

16. Don Joseph de Antequera y Castro, knight 
of the order of Alcantara, fiscal-protector of 
the Indians of the audience of Charcas. His 
unlucky stars had brought him hither to meet his 
death on a scaffold, in the city of Lima, through 



some riots which had lately arisen by certain 
misunderstandings between the bishop Don Fr. 
Joseph de Palos and the Jesuits. 

17. Don Martin de Barua, nominated provisi 
onally by the field-marshal Don Bruno Mauricio 
de Zavala, by special commission of the viceroy, 
the marquis del Castelfuerte, to pacify the pro 
vince, the administration of which underwent 
some changes from some representations which 
he made to the king concerning the Jesuits : he 
governed five years. 

18. Don Bartolome de Aldunate, captain of 
horse of the garrison of Buenos Ayres: who did 
not arrive to take possession, although nominated 
by the king. 

19. Don Iquacio de Soroeta, who had been 
corregidor of Cuzco : accredited for his skill and 
justice, and nominated by the viceroy of Peru in 
1730 : his entry was disputed by the inhabitants, 
who took up arms against him, and obliged him 
to fly. 

20. Don Isedro Mirones y Benavente, oidor 
of the audience of Charcas, whose prudence 
and talents, testified by his pacification of the dis 
turbances of the province of Cochabamba, led 
to his election to Paraguay by the viceroy, that 
he might call his talent into action on similar 
circumstances ; but, whilst on his journey, he 
received intelligence that the proper successor 
appointed by H. M. had arrived ; and upon this 
he returned to his former office. 

21. Don Manuel Augustin de Ruiloba, who 
was general of Callao, and general of the armies 
of Peru, when he entered Asuncion, 1733; but 
being out with a troop, and some Indians of the 
missions, for the purpose of quelling some dis 
turbances, and being deserted by his party, he fell 
a sacrifice at the hands of the insurgents in the 
same year. 

22. Don Fr. Juan de Arregui, of the order of 
San Francisco, bishop of this diocess, and pro 
claimed governor by the insurgents ; and, 
although he was endeavouring to escape secretly 
from the city, he was brought back and forced to 
reign till the arrival of the judge Don Juan Vaz 
quez de Aguero, as visitor, nominated by the 
king. 

23. Don Bruno Mauricio de Zavola, field- 
marshal and governor of Buenos Ayres ; promoted 
to the presidency of Chile, and ordered by the 
viceroy, the Marquis de Castelfuerte, to proceed 
with a force to Paraguay, to quell the disturban 
ces there ; accordingly causing himself to be ac 
knowledged governor, in 1735 he dispersed the 
insurgents, inflicted punishment on the chief 



PARAGUAY. 



43 



offenders, and re-established the peace of the pro 
vince ; afterwards, by a special commission from 
the Viceroy, he resigned the goverment to, 

24. Don Martin Joseph de Echaure, captain 
of dragoons : he remained here till 1755. 

25. Don Rafael de la Moneda. 

26. Don Marcos Larrazabal. 

27. Don Pedro Melo, of Portugal ; lieutenant 
colonel of dragoons of the regiment of Sagunto : 
he governed from 1777 to 1795. 

28. Don Joaquin de Alos, formerly captain of 
the infantry regiment of Aragon and Corregidor 
of Quispicanchi in Peru : nominated in 1785. 

PARAGUAY, a river which gives its name to 
the former province, and was first navigated by 
Sebastian Gabota, a Venetian, in 1526 : it rises 
in the great lake of LosLareyes orLaraye, in lat. 
24 18 s. and runs from n. to s. as far as the river 
Corrientes, and from thence s. w. to the city of 
Asuncion. Here it again takes its course to the s. 
to unite itself with the rivers Parana and Virmejo, 
in lat. 27 41s. On the w. near its banks, dwell 
the nations of the Guaicurus and Abipones In 
dians, and on the e. the Guaranies, Tobatines 
and Payaguas. This river is joined by the Tiba- 



quira, Lanabe, Upacay or Pirayu, Xexuy, Pil- 
comayo, Confuso, Guarumbare, Yuguy, Mboeri, 
Verde, Corrientes, and others of less size. The 
Portuguese of the colony of Sacrament, used to 
pass from the Parana to this river to get to the 
river Icipotiva or Yauri, by which they went to 
Matogroso, which is near the shore of the Itenes, 
w of the mines ofCuyaba. This river has many 
islands, abounds in excellent fish, and its shores 
are covered with lofty trees, which form extreme 
ly thick woods, in which dwell a multitude of 
rare birds and animals. 

[The fine river Paraguay (observes Mr. Mawe, 
the traveller) has its remote springs to the w. 
of the heads of the Arinas, in lat. 13 and after 
a 5. course of 600 leagues, enters the ocean 
under the appellation of the Rio de la Plata. 
The heads of the Paraguay are 270 miles n. e. 
from Villa Bella, and 164 miles K. from Cuiaba, 
and divided into many branches, and already 
forming complete rivers ; which, as they run s. 
successively unite, and form the channel of this 
immense river, which is immediately navigable. 
To the w. a short distance from the main source 
of the Paraguay is that of the Sypotuba, which 
disembogues on its w. bank, in lat. 15 50 after 
a course of 60 leagues. In the upper part of 
this river, and near its w. branch, called the Ju- 
rubanba, was formerly a gold mine, which was 
worked with considerable profit ; but the supe 



rior advantages derived from others subsequently 
explored in Matto Grosso and Cuiba, caused it to 
be abandoned, and its site is not now known with 
certainty. The little river Cabaral, also aurife 
rous, enters the Paraguay on the w. side three 
leagues below the mouth of the Sypotuba. On 
the banks of the latter lives a nation of Indians, 
called Barbados, from the distinction peculiar 
to themselves, among all the Indian nations, of 
having large beards. 

The Boriras Araviras inhabit the banks of the 
Cabaral : they are a mixture of two different 
nations, who in the year 1797 sent four chiefs of 
their tribe, accompanied by their mother, to 
Villa Bella, in order to solicit the friendship of 
the Portuguese. The nation called Pararione 
lives in their neighbourhood, close by the Sypo 
tuba. A league below the mouth of the Cabaral, 
on the e. bank of the Paraguay, is Villa Maria, a 
small and useful establishment, founded in 1778. 
Seven leagues s. of Villa Maria, and on the w. 
bank of the Paraguay, the river Jauru disem 
bogues into it in lat. 16 24 . This river is re 
markable for the boundary-mark erected at its 
mouth in 1754, as well as for being entirely 
Portuguese, together with lands on its s. bank, 
and bordering on tbe Spanish possessions. It 
rises in the plains of the Parexis in lat. 13 54 , 
and long. 58 14 , and running s. to lat. 15 43 , 
the situation of the Register of the same name, it 
there turns to the s. e. for 60 miles, till, by an 
entire course it reaches its junction with the Para 
guay. There are salt-water-pits, which in part 
have supplied Matto Grosso ever since its foun 
dation with salt : they are in the interior of the 
country, seven leagues from the Register, and 
extend to a place called Salina de llmeida, from 
the name of the person who first employed him 
self in these works. 

These salt-pits are situate along the margins of 
broad marshy bottoms, in which are found fish 
of the same kind with those in the Paraguay. 
The Salina de Almeida is not far distant from the 
bank of the Jauru, and the great quantity of saline 
liquid found in it continues three leagues further 
to the s. where a junction is formed with another 
from the w. called Pitas, w. of which are high 
and dry plains, where are found numerous large 
circles, formed by a species of palm called Caran- 
das. These plains terminate nine leagues w. of 
the Salina de Almeida, in a large pool of marsh, 
called Paopique, which runs to the s. 

The confluence of the Jauru with the Paraguay 
is a point of much importance : it guards and 
covers the great road between Villa Bella Cuia.-~[ 

G 2.. 



PARAGUAY. 



[ba, and their intermediate establishments, and in 
the same manner commands the navigation of 
both the rivers, and defends the entrance into 
the interior of the latter captainship. The Para 
guay from this place has a free navigation up 
wards, almost to its sources, which are scarcely 
70 leagues distant, with no other impediment 
than a large fall. These sources are said to 
contain diamonds. 

The mark placed at the mouth of the Jauru is 
a pyramid of beautiful marble, brought to this 
distant point from Lisbon. It bears inscriptions 
commemorative of the treaty between the courts 
of Spain and Portugal, by which the respective 
territories, of which it stands as the boundary, 
were defined. 

The lofty chain of mountains, which extends 
from the sources of the Paraguay near its e. bank, 
border the river opposite the mouth of the Jauru, 
and are terminated seven leagues below it by the 
Morro Excalvado in lat. 16 43 . E. of this 
mount or point, all is marsh, and nine leagues 
below it there flows into the e. side of the Para 
guay a deep stream or river, called Rio Novo, 
discovered in 1786, which may hereafter afford a 
navigation to near St. Pedro del Rey, when the 
aquatic plants that obstruct its channel are re 
moved. The most distant sources of this river 
are the rivulets of Sta. Anna, Bento Gomez, and 
others which cross the great road of Cuiaba to 
the w. of Cocaes. In lat. 17 33 , the w. banks of 
the Paraguay become mountainous at the n. 
point of the Serra da Insua, which, three leagues 
to the s. makes a deep break to form the mouth 
of the lake Gaiba. This lake extends w. and 
there is a broad canal of four leagues in ex 
tent, which comes from the n. communicating 
from the above lake to that of Uberava, some 
what larger than the Gaiba, situated exactly con 
tiguous to the Serra da Insua, on its n. side. Six 
leagues and a half below the mouth of the Gaiba, 
and opposite this mountainous bank of the Para 
guay, is the mouth of the St. Lourengo, formerly 
called Porrudos. Twenty-six leagues above this 
the river Cuiaba enters its w. bank in lat. 17 20 , 
and long. 56 50 : these two rivers are of great ex 
tent ; that of Louren9o has its sources in lat 15, 
40 leagues e. of the town of Cuaiba, receiving (be 
sides the branches crossed by the road from 
Goiaz) other great streams on its e. side, such as 
the Paraiba or Piquiri, which receives the Jaquari 
and the Itiquira, all of moderate size, and navi 
gable. The Itiquira has been navigated to its 
heads, from whence the canoes were dragged 
ver land to the Sucuriu, which falls into the 



Parana four leagues below the mouth of the 
river Tiete on the opposite side. The rivers 
Itiquira and Sucuriu were found to have fewer 
and smaller falls than the Taquari, and the land 
passage is much shorter and more convenient 
than that of the Camapuao, so that this naviga 
tion is preferable to that by the two last-men 
tioned rivers : it is attended by only two obsta 
cles many Indians, and a want of provisions. 

The navigation to the town of Cuiaba by the 
river of that name, from its above-mentioned con 
fluence, is short and easy : in the first 10 leagues, 
after passing the two small islands on Ariacuni 
and Tarumas, occurs a large plantation of bana 
nas, formed on an embankment on the e. side of 
the river. Three leagues above this place the 
Guacho-uassu enters the Cuiaba by its e. bank, 
and on the same side, seven leagues farther, the 
Guacho-mirim. From this point the river winds 
in a n. n. e. direction, 11 leagues to the island of 
Pirahim, and from thence makes a large bend to 
the e. receiving numerous streams, and passes 
the town of Cuiaba, which is situated a mile to the 
e. of it. This town is 96 leagues to the e. of 
Villa Bella, and the same distance by water from 
the confluence of its river with the Paraguay. 
It is large, and, together with its dependencies, 
may at present contain 30,000 souls. It is well 
provided with meat, fish, fruits, and all sorts of 
vegetables, at a much cheaper rate than at the 
sea-ports. The country is well adapted for 
cultivation, and has rich mines, but in some 
places little water to work them in dry weather. 
They were discovered in 1718, and have been 
estimated to produce annually above 20 arrobas 
of gold of extremely fine quality. 

Twenty leagues s. w. of the town of Cuiaba is 
the settlement of St. Pedro del Rey, the largest 
of all the adjacent settlements, and contains full 
2,000 inhabitants. It is situate near the w. side 
of the rivulet Bento Gomez, which, at the dis 
tance of a league and a half s. of the settlement, 
forms a large bay, called Rio de Janeiro. The 
river Cuiaba has its sources 190 miles above the 
town, and its banks are cultivated through the 
greater part of its extent, including 14 leagues 
below the town, down the stream. Four leagues 
below the principal mouth of the river Porrudos, 
the Paraguay is bordered by the mountains that 
separate it from Gaiba on its w. bank, and in this 
place they obtain the appellation of Serra das Pe- 
dras de Amolar, from being composed of a stone 
of which whet-stones are made. This is the only 
spot which is not inundated by the floods of the 
river, and is therefore much visited by the canoes] 



PARAGUAY. 



45 



[that navigate it. These Serras terminate two 
leagues to the s. in those of the Dourados, imme 
diately below which there is a channel on the w. 
side of the Paraguay, which, piercing between the 
two high detached mounts, called Cheines, leads 
to the lake Mendiuri, six leagues long, and the 
largest on the Paraguay. 

From the Dourados, the Paraguay runs s. to the 
Serras of Albuquerque, where it touches direct 
ly on the n. point, on which is situated a town of 
that name. These Serras form a compact square 
of 10 leagues, and contain much calcareous stone ; 
the land is considered the best on either side the 
Paraguay, from the river downwards, and only 
equalled by that on the w. margins of the lakes 
Mandiuri and Gaiba. From Albuquerque the 
Paraguay, turns to the s. w. It skirts its Serras, 
which terminate at the end of six leagues higher 
up in the Serra do Rabicho, opposite which, on 
the n. bank of the river, is situated the lower s. 
mouth of the Paraguay -mirim. This is an arm 
of the Paraguay, which, terminating here, forms 
an island 14 leagues in length from n. to s. : it is 
the usual channel for canoes in times of inunda 
tion. From the mouth of the Paraguay-mirim 
the river takes a s. direction to the mouth of the 
Taquari, navigated annually by flotillas of canoes 
and other craft, which come from St. Paul s to 
Cuiaba, and even as far as the Register of Jau- 
ru, when their destination happens to be Villa 
Bella. 

As this navigation is an object of great impor 
tance, from its connecting two distinct districts, 
the following compendious description of the 
rout pursued in it may not prove uninteresting. 
It is abstracted from the diary of a man of science, 
who performed the journey a few years ago, in 
the month of October, when the Paraguay begins 
to retire to its own channel. The description 
may commence at the Taquari, as the voyage 
from thence to Cuiaba and the Jauru has already 
been detailed. The largest of the many mouths 
of the Taquari in the Paraguay is in lat. 19 12 , 
and long. 54 5 . In the first ten leagues of navi 
gation, the channel of the river is lost, as it crosses 
some large plains, covered with water to the 
depth of several feet. This is contiguous to Ta 
quari, a place where the river is much confined. 

From this place it is 20 leagues to the resting- 
place of Allegre, in lat. 18 12 , and this space 
contains, on both banks of the Taquari, many 
entrances into the paths, which lead in time of 
the floods to various distant places on the Para 
guay, Poi rudos, and Cuiaba. From this resting- 
place there are 30 leagues of navigation, on the 



course of the river e. to the fall of Barra, where 
it is impeded and unnavigable above a mile, 
though a part of it may be passed in a half-loaded 
and part in empty canoes. At the head of this 
fall the river Cochim enters the Taquari, and the 
navigation here quits the latter for the Cochim. 
At its mouth it is 20 fathoms broad, and a league 
upwards receives on its s. bank the Taquari-mi- 
rim, a river nearly as broad as itself. A little 
above this confluence is situated its first fall, 
which is called Da Ilha, and may be passed in 
empty canoes. A league above is the fall of 
Giquitaya, passed with half cargoes, and a league 
and a quarter farther, that of the Choradeira, the 
current of which is very rapid. Beyond this is 
the fall of Avanhandava-uassu, where the cargoes 
are carried over land for half a mile, and the 
canoes are conducted through a difficult channel 
of three fathoms, at the end of which they are 
pushed over the rocks in order to pass the head 
or cataract. Half a league above is the fall Do 
Jauru, so called from a river of that name, which 
enters the Cochim above it, on the n. side. From 
this confluence upwards there occurs seven falls 
in the course of five leagues and a half, in the 
midst of which distauce the river cuts and is en- 
channelled in a mountain, through which it runs 
smoothly, although scarcely five fathoms broad, 
and receives on its s. side the stream of the Pare- 
dao, which is said to be auriferous. Haifa league 
above the last of the seven falls before-mentioned 
are three successive ones, called Tres Irmdos, 
and at an equal distance above them, that of 
Das Furnas, which is passed laboriously with 
canoes unloaded. From this place the navigation 
continues on the Cochim through a succession of 
falls, until that river is joined by the Camapuao, 
eight yards in breadth at its mouth. From this 
point to its junction with the Taquari, the course 
of the Cochim is 30 leagues. 

The river Camapuao, along which the naviga 
tion is continued, becomes narrower on passing 
some rivulets that flow into it, and so shallow, as 
to be in general scarcely two feet deep, and the 
canoes are rather dragged than navigated along 
its sandy bed. After two leagues of this labour, 
they quit the Camapuao-uassu, leaving it on the 
right hand, choked with fallen trees, &c. and 
enter into the Camapuao-mirim, up which they 
proceed one league, when they reach the fazenda, 
or estate of the same name. This is an important 
establishment, belonging to the Portuguese, in 
the centre of those vast and desert regions that 
interverne between the great rivers Paraguay 
and Parana, 90 leagues s. s. w. in a direct line] 



PA R A G U A Y. 



[from the town of Cuiaba. The place seems very 
proper for a Register, to prevent the smuggling 
of gold in this route, and to fix the duties on 
goods passing to Cuiaba and Motta Grosso. 
*The canoes and cargoes are transported from the 
Fazenda de Camapuao by land about a mile to 
the river Sanguixuga, the principal source of 
the Rio Pardo. From the end of the land pas 
sages the navigation continues down the Sanguix 
uga, and, in the interval of three leagues, they 
pass four falls to the Rio Vermelho (so called 
from the colour of its waters), which enters the 
Pardo. Half a league from the mouth of the 
Vermelho the Pardo has the fall of the Pedras 
de A molar, and a league below receives on its s. 
side the river Claro, from which, after proceeding 
two leagues of level stream, there occur nine falls 
in the space of two leagues more. The passage 
of them occupies 12 or 14 days in going up the 
river, though only one returning. Below the 
last of these, called the Bangue, the river Sucuriu 
enters the Pardo on its s. side. Three leagues 
below the mouth of the Sucuriu, is the cataract 
of Curare, about eight yards high, to avoid which 
the canoes are hauled over-land through a pas 
sage of 100 yards. From this cataract, in the 
space of 10 leagues, there occur 10 falls, which 
occupy 15 or 20 days, in ascending the river, 
though only one in descending. The breadth of 
the Rio Pardo in this part is 22 fathoms. Two 
leagues below the last of these falls is a deep inlet 
of 390 fathoms ; half a league lower the canoes 
are hauled over a space of land of 150 yards. 
Haifa league further is the fall of Sirga Negra ; 
one league further, that of Sirga Matto ; and a 
little more than a league from thence, the great 
cataract, or Salto da Cajuru, ten yards in height, 
to avoid which, the canoes are hauled through a 
narrow channel here formed by the river. A t a 
distance equal to the preceding is the Cajurii- 
mirim, and immediately after is found the fall of 
Da Ilha, the thirty-third and last on this river. 
Six leagues below this fall, the Rio Pardo re 
ceives on its n. side the river Orelha da Anta, 
(so called from abounding with ants) ; and four 
leagues lower down, on the same side, the Orelha 
da Ou9a, from the mouth of which, after 11 
leagues of navigation, is found the junction whicli, 
the river Anhandery-uassu makes from the s. 
with the Pardo, which, from the passage of Cama 
puao to this point, completes a s. e. course of 45. 
leagues in extent. The Anhandery and the Par- 
do from their confluence, run 16 leagues of na 
vigation w. in one channel, and disembogue in 
the w. bank of the Parana in lat. about 21. The 



velocity of the current of the Rio Pardo is very 
irregular ; it may be navigated downward in five 
or six days, but cannot be ascended in less than 
20 or 30, and that by hauling, for the force of the 
the stream in some places is too great for oars. 

The river Parana is of great breadth and 
weight of water, and is navigated against its cur 
rent up to the mouth of the Tiete. In the first 
three leagues occurs the island of Manuel Ho- 
mem. Five leagues above this island the Rio 
Verde falls into the Parana, by a mouth of 42 
fathoms, on its w. bank, and at an equal distance 
above, on the opposite c. side, the river Agua- 
pehy enters, by a mouth apparently above 20 
yards wide. Eight leagues above this river, and 
on the w. side of the Parana, the large river Sucu 
riu has its mouth, at least 53 fathoms wide, and, 
after four leagues of navigation further, on the 
Parana, is found the mouth of the large and 
interesting river, the Tiete. The distance be 
tween the rivers Tiete and Pardo, according to 
the winnings of the Parana, may be estimated at 
thirty-five leagues ; the direction n. inclining to 
the e. Passing up the Tiete, in the first three 
leagues is found the great Salto de Itapura (a 
great cascade), to avoid which the canoes are 
dragged 60 fathoms over land. A league above 
is the difficult fall of Itapura-mirim ; another 
league upwards are the three falls, called Tres 
Irmaos, and little more than that distance onward, 
that of Itapuru, half a league long ; two leagues 
further is the fall of U-aicurituba-mirim, and in 
the upper part of it the small river Sucury enters 
the Tiete upon its n. bank. One league above it 
is the fall of Utupiba, a quarter of a league in 
length. The same distance above is the fall of 
Araracangua-uassu, which is passed with unload 
ed canoes. Five leagues above this is found the 
Araracangua-mirim ; one league further, the 
Arassatuba, and at the same distance, the U-aicu- 
rituba, from which, in the space of nine leagues, 
occur seven falls. Three and a half leagues 
above the last of them is that of the Escaramunca, 
so called from the abrupt windings of the river 
among a thousand rocks and stoppages. Two 
leagues above this is the large fall of A van- 
handava, where the canoes are unloaded, and 
their cargoes carried half a mile over land, and 
the canoes hauled the greatest part of the way, 
to avoid a cataract 16 yards perpendicular. A 
league and a half above this is the fall of Avan- 
handava-mirim, and very near it, that of the 
Campo, from which there are 14 leagues o clear 
navigation to those of the Camboyu-voca, and 
next to the Tambau-mirim and Uassu, both] 



PARAGUAY. 



47 



[within the compass of two leagues. One league 
further is the fall of Tambitiririca ; three leagues 
from thence, the U-amicanga, and a little more 
than two leagues upwards, the Jacuripipira enters 
the Tiete, on the n. side, and has a mouth 15 
fathoms broad. A league and a half above this is 
the Jacuripipira-mirim, six leagues from whence 
is the fall ofCongouha, a league in length. For 
the space of eight leagues from this there are six 
falls, of which the last is Banharem. From this 
it is three leagues and a half to the mouth of the 
Paraniaba, 38 fathoms broad : it enters the Tiete 
on the n. ; and the latter river from this point 
immediately narrows itself to 40 fathoms wide. 
From the mouth of the Paraniaba there is a 
navigation of four leagues to the small fall of 
Ilha, and 14 leagues more, with frequent wind 
ings, to that of Itahy, near a populous village, 
called Jundahy. Six leagues from this is the 
fall of Pedrenegoa, which is a quarter of a league 
long ; and half a league above it, the river Sore- 
caba, which comes from the town of the same 
name, in lat. 23 35 , empties itself on the s. into 
the Tiete. Near this town are several mountains, 
called Guaraceaba, some of which abound with 
rich oxide of iron, which, on smelting, has proved 
very good. Upon them grows fine timber for 
machinery, and wood of every size fit for re 
ducing into carbon. Numerous streams flow 
from them, which may be employed to great 
advantage, and their base is washed by the river 
Campanhes, near the Capivara, both of which 
empty themselves into the Tiete at a short dis 
tance. From the river Sorecaba it is only six 
leagues to Porto Felix, where all the embarkation 
is now made to Matto Grosso from St. Paul s, 
the distance being about 23 leagues from that 
city. Through this conveyance, salt, iron, am 
munition, clothing for the troops, &c. are sent 
annually by government. Trading parties fre 
quently arrive at St. Paul s from Cuiaba in the 
montl^of February, and return in April or May. 
Resuming our account of the Paraguay, it is 
to be observed that the Embotetieu enters that 
river five leagues below the mouth of the Ta- 
quari, and on the same side. It is now called 
Mondego, and was formerly navigated by the 
traders from St. Paul s, who entered by the An- 
handery-uassu, the s. branch of the Pardo. On 
the n. bank of the Mondego, 20 leagues above its 
mouth, the Spaniards founded the city of Xerez, 
which the Paulistas destroyed. Ten leagues 
above this place, in the mountains that form the 
upper part of the Embotetieu, there is a tradition 
that there are rich mines which w r ere discovered 



50 years ago. One league below the mouth of 
the Mondego there are two high insulated mounts, 
fronting each other on the Paraguay : at the ex 
tremity of the s. declivity of the mount on the 
W. side, near the bank of the river, is the garri 
son of New Coimbra, founded in 1775 ; it is the 
last and southermost Portuguese establishment on 
the great Paraguay. Eleven leagues to the s. of 
Coimbra, on the w. side of the Paraguay, is the 
mouth of Bahia Negra, a large sheet of water 
of six leagues in extent, being five leagues long 
from n. to s. : it receives the waters of the wide- 
flooded plains and lands to the 5. and zo. of the 
mountains of Albuquerque. At this bay the 
Portuguese possessions on both banks of the Para 
guay terminate. From thence the river con 
tinues to lat. 21, where, on its w. bank, is situ 
ated a hill known to the Portuguese by the name 
of Miguel Jose, crowned with a Spansihfort with 
four pieces of artillery, called Bourbon. Three 
leagues above this the little river Guirino falls 
into the Paraguay on the e. side. Nine leagues 
to the s. of the above fort, and in lat. 21 22 , are 
other mountains on both sides the Paraguay, 
which command this river ; for the c. side is sur 
mounted with a lofty chain, extending to the in 
terior of the country, near which is the sugar- 
loaf mount : the opposite side is equally moun 
tainous, but not so high or extensive ; and in 
the middle of the river there is a high rocky 
island, which, with the mountainous banks on 
each side, forms two channels of about a musket- 
shot across. This, in case of war between the 
neighbouring nations, would be a post of the 
highest importance, as it forms a natural barrier, 
which w r ould require little fortification to render 
it an effectual obstacle to invasion. Here ter 
minate those extensive inundations, to which 
both banks of the Paraguay are subject : the^y 
commence at the mouth of the Jauru, and to this 
point cover an extent of 100 leagues from n. tos. 
and 40 in breadth at their highest floods, forming 
an apparent lake, which geographers of former 
days, as well as some moderns, have termed the 
Xarayes. This inundation confounds the chan 
nel of the great Paraguay with those of its vari 
ous confluents, in such a manner that, from 20 
to 30 leagues above their regular mouths, it is 
possible, in time of the floods, to navigate across 
from one to the other, always in deep water, 
without ever seeing or approaching the banks of 
the Paraguay. During this wonderful inunda 
tion, the high mountains and elevated land which 
it incloses appear like so many superb islands, 
and the lower grounds form a labyrinth of lakes,] 



PARAGUAY. 



[bays, and pools, many of which remain after the 
floods have subsided. From the intricacy of 
these inundated plains, the navigation is rendered 
impracticable to all who do not unite experience 
with skill. From this position, (the only barrier 
on the Paraguay), the banks downward are in 
general high and firm, particularly the e. or 
Portuguese side. In lat. 22 3 5 , a considerable 
river empties itself into it, which the Spaniards, 
at the demarcation in 1753, would have to be the 
Corrientes, whereas the heads of this river are 
20 leagues n. of the real Corrientes mentioned in 
the treaty. 

Between the Paraguay and the Parana there 
runs from n. to s. an extensive chain of moun 
tains, which have the appellation of Amanbay ; 
they terminate to the s. of the river Iguatimy, 
forming a ridge running s. and w. called Mara- 
cayer. From these mountains spring all the 
rivers which, from the Taquari s. enter the Pa 
raguay, and from the same chain also proceed 
many other rivers, which, taking a contrary di 
rection, flow into the Parana ; one of them, and 
the most s. being the Igoatimy, which has its 
mouth in lat. 23 47 , a little above the Seven 
Falls, or the wonderful cataract of the Parana. 
This cataract is a most sublime spectacle, being 
distinguished to the eye of the spectator from 
below by the appearance of six rainbows, and 
emitting from its fall a constant cloud of vapours, 
which impregnates the air to a great distance. 
On the n. side of the Igoatimy, 20 leagues from 
its mouth, the Portuguese had formerly the for 
tress of Bauris, which was abandoned in 1777. 
The Igoatimy has its sources 10 leagues above 
this place, among high and rugged mountains. 
The river Xexuy enters the Paraguay on the e. 
side in lat. 24 II 7 , twenty leagues below the 
Ipane, another small river, called the Ipane- 
mirim, intervening. 

This is a summary description of Portugueze 
Paraguay, to the point where the territory ought 
(as our tourist observes) to extend ; and such is 
the situation of this great river, that the above- 
mentioned rivers, which concentrate towards the 
interior of Brazil, enter it on the e. side; not one 
enters it on the w. from the Jauru to the parallel 
of the Ipane. Many parts of the banks of all 
those rivers are laid under water at the time of 
the floods, and the plains are covered to a con 
siderable depth. 

A river of such vast size as the Paraguay, in a 
temperate and salubrious climate, abounding 
with tish, bordered by extensive plains and high 
mountains, intersected by so many rivers, bays. 



lakes, and forests, must naturally have drawn 
many of the Indian nations to inhabit its banks: 
but, immediately after the discovery of the new 
continent, the incursions of the Paulistas and 
Spaniards seem to have dispersed and destroyed 
the numerous tribes: the Jesuits transplanted 
many thousands to their settlements on the L T ra- 
guay and Parana. Other nations fled from the 
avarice of the new settlers to countries less fa 
voured, but more secure by reason of their dis 
tance, and the difficulty of approach. This emi 
gration of one nation to districts occupied by an 
other, became the fruitful source of inveterate 
and sanguinary wars among them, which tended 
to reduce their numbers. There are, however, 
still some Indians left on the borders of the Pa 
raguay, among whom theGuaycurus, or Cavalier 
Indians, are principally distinguished for valour. 
They occupy the lands from the river Taquari, 
extending s. along all the rivers that enter the 
Paraguay on the e. side, as far as the river 
Ipane, and in like manner, on the opposite 
bank, from the mountains of Albuquerque down 
wards. They have made war repeatedly on the 
Spaniards and Portuguese, without ever being 
subdued. They are armed with lances of extra 
ordinary length, bows, arrows, &c. They make 
long incursions on horseback into the neighbour 
ing territories ; they procure horses in exchange 
for stout cotton cloaks, called ponchos, which 
they manufacture. There are other Indian na 
tions inhabiting these large tracts, some of whom 
have intermixed both with the Portuguese and 
Spaniards, there being few of the latter on any 
part of the confines without some traces of In 
dian physiognomy. 

From the river Xexuy, downwards, the Para 
guay takes its general course s. for 32 leagues to 
the city of Asuncion, the capital of Paraguay, 
and the residence of its governor. This city is 
situated on an obtuse angle made by the e. bank 
of the river ; the population is by no means 
trifling, and there are some Portuguese among 
the inhabitants. The government is of vast ex 
tent, and its total population is given by dif 
ferent authorities at from 97,000 to 120,000 souls. 
The land is fertile, and contains many rich 
farms : its principal product is the matte, which 
is exported to Tucuman and Buenos Ayres, from 
whence it is sent to various parts of the Spanish 
dominions, along the coast of Chile and Peru, 
being a general article of consumption among all 
ranks of people. Its other products are hides, 
tobacco, and sugar. From Buenos Ayres large 
boats arrive at the city of Asuncion, after two or ] 



PAR 

three months passage ; the only difficulty in na 
vigating is the great weight of the waters of the 
Paraguay, which flow with great rapidity : but this 
disadvantage is lessened by favourable winds, 
which blow the greater part of the year from the s. 

Six leagues below Asuncion, on the w. side of 
the Paraguay, the river Pilcomayo enters that 
river by its first mouth ; its second is 14 or 16 
leagues lower. In this space some other smaller 
rivers enter on the e. side, and amongst them 
the Tibiquari, on an arm of which, 20 leagues 
s. e. from Asuncion, is Villa Rica, a large Spanish 
town, with much property in cattle on its exten 
sive plains. The river veimecho enters the a), 
side of the Paraguay, in lat. 26 45 . On a re 
mote upper branch of this river is the town of 
Salto, near an accessible fall : it is an important 
point to the Spaniards who are transporting their 
goods from Buenos Ayres, Tucuman, &c. to 
Upper Peru.] 

PARAGUAYAURA, a small river of the 
province and government of Cumana, which rises 
in the sierra of Imataca, runs s. and enters the 
Cuyuni by the n. side. 

PARAGUAYJES., a settlement of the province 
and government of Buenos Ayres ; situate near 
the river Hueque-Leuvu. Near it, on the s. are 
two large lakes abounding in salt. 

PARAGUAYO, an abundant river of the 
country of Las Amazonas, which rises in the 
mountains of the Andes in the kingdom of Peru, 
runs for many leagues towards the n. collecting 
the waters of many others, until it enters that of 
Las A mazonas. 

PAR A HAM, a settlement of the province and 
government of Guayana. 

PARAHIBO, a river of the kingdom of Bra 
zil, which rises in the country of the Mari- 
quitas Indians, runs n. and turning its course to 
n. n. e. enters the sea, forming a great mouth or 
port close to cape Negro. 

PARAIBA, a province and captainship of the 
kingdom of Brazil: one of the 14 which compose 
it, and of the smaller. It takes its name from a 
river, by which it is irrigated and fertilized ; 
bounded n. by the river Grande, e. by the Bra 
zilian sea, s. by the province of Itamaraca, and 
divided from the same by the river Paraiba, and 
w. by the territory of the barbarous nations of 
the Tiguares and Petiguares Indians. This pro 
vince abounds more than any other in Brazil 
wood, and has many engines for making sugar, 
this being its principal article of commerce with 
Europe. The Petiguares Indians, enemies to 
the Portuguese, continually infest and destroy 

VOL. IV. 



PAR 



49 



their settlements. The climate is benign and 
the soil fertile. The French took possession of 
this beautiful country, keeping it till 1584, when 
they were driven out by the Portuguese. 

pTfcis captainship was bestowed by John III. 
on the celebrated historian De Bauos ; but he 
was compelled to restore it to the government 
after having nearly ruined himself by his unsuc 
cessful attempts to colonize it.] 

PARAIBA, the capital, is of the same name, a 
city and head of the bishopric, called also City 
de Federico and Nuestra Senora de las Nieves. 
It is situate opposite the fort of Tamaraca, at 
the s. mouth and shore of the river of its 
name ; is large, well peopled, mercantile, and 
rich. The buildings are handsome, particularly 
the cathedral-church, which is magnificent. It 
is defended by three forts ; two situate on islands, 
with the names of San Antonio and La Restinga, 
and the third on the point of Santa Catalina. It 
enjoys a fine healthy air and good climate. The 
Dutch, commanded by Captains Longk and War- 
denburg, took it in 1635, but it was afterwards 
recovered by the Portuguese, being under the 
dominion of the kings of Spain. 

[The above capital was built at the expence of 
the king. It stands near the river Paraiba, at 
the mouth of which is the harbour. A handsome 
custom-house has been erected near it, and a 
pentagonal fort, named St. Catherine, which de 
fends the entrance into this harbour. Seven or 
eight ships of about 250 tons burden used an 
nually to enter this port from the mother-coun 
try, loaded with different articles for the use of 
the colony. Their homeward bound cargoes 
consisted chiefly of sugar, more of which is 
raised in the n. captainships than in those of the 
s. ; especially since the discovery of the gold 
mines, which have rendered the inhabitants of 
these last districts more negligent respecting the 
improvement of their plantations. There are 21 
sugar houses in this province, and the sugar mar 
nufactured in them is said to be superior to any 
other in Brazil. 

Besides sugar, they also export dying woods, 
several sorts of drugs, and other valuable com 
modities, and it is generally allowed that these 
. captainships are the most populous, and the 
inhabitants in very easy circumstances, though no 
mines have yet been wrought in these parts. 
The capital is computed to contain nearly 4000 
souls, and the province about 20,000.] In lat. 
6 57 30" s. Long. 35 W 30" w. 

PARAIBA, a large river of the above province 

d kingdom, which rises in the mountains of the o>. 



an 



50 



PAR 



P A R 



and runs e. fertilizing the country of the Tigua- 
res, Petiguares, and Viatanis Indians. Its shores 
are covered with villages and sugar engines, 
and in the woods are quantities of Brazil-wood. 
At its embouchure it forms the great bay of Pa- 
raiba, which has at its entrance the island of 
San Antonio. 

PAR AID A, another small river, in the province 
and captainship of Espiritu Santo in the same 
kingdom. It flows down from the mountains, 
runs e. and enters the sea. 

PA RAID A, another large river, in the pro 
vince and captainship of Rio Janeyro; it has its 
source in the captainship of Sao Paulo in the 
mountains, within 10 miles of the sea in the 
bay of Cairussu. [From its source it has a very 
peculiar course, for the first 95 miles it runs w. 
by s. then turns n. for 2a miles, afterwards e. ap 
proaching its source within 23 miles, then wind 
ing its course in a serpentine direction through 
the captainship of Rio Janeyro, and enters the 
Atlantic ocean very much augmented by nume 
rous inferior rivers. In lat. 21 34 30" s.~] 

PARAIBA, another river, of the province and 
government of Guayana, which rises in the in 
terior of the same, near the sources of the Caura, 
and running n. enters in a very abundant stream 
into the Orinoco ; and, according to Don Juan 
de la Cruz, first into the Caroni. 

PARAIGUA, SIERRA DE, some very lofty 
mountains of the province of Barcelona and go 
vernment of Cumana, which run nearly from e. 
to w. parallel with the river Orinoco. 

PARAI-GUAZU, a small river of the pro 
vince and government of Paraguay, which runs 
e . and enters this river near the city of Asun 
cion. 

PARAINABA, a large river of the province 
and country of Las Amazonas, entering with a 
large stream into the river of this name, after 
running many leagues and collecting the waters 
of 30 other rivers. 

PARAISANCOS, a settlement of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru. 

PARAMARIBO, a city of the Dutch, in the 
part which they possess in Guayana ; the capital 
of the colony of Surinam ; situate on the w. side 
of the river, 10 miles from the sea, upon a sandy 
rock, which causes the streets to be very easy to 
the tread. It has this name from a settlement of 
Indians, which it formerly was. In the hot sea 
sons the sand becomes so burning as to penetrate 
the soles of the shoes and blister the feet. 

The houses, which amount to the number of 
800, are very regularly built, and nearly all of 



them without windows, on account of the heat ; 
and attached to them are pleasant gardens. To 
about three feet in height they are of brick, and 
upwards of wood, with the exception of the 
houses of the governor and commandant, which 
are of stone, although the former are sumptuous. 
In all the streets there is before the houses an 
orange-grove, which buds twice a year. The 
city-house is in a handsome spot, and surrounded 
also by orange-trees ; and here is the slave- 
market. It was, indeed, at first used as a bury- 
ing-ground, but from fear of any infection from 
the bodies, they were carried afterwards to the 
extreme part of the town, and interred in a rising 
ground. Divine service is performed here every 
Sunday, in Dutch in the morning, and after 
mid-day in French, there being two ministers 
for the former and one for the latter of these 
duties. Although a poor person is rarely seen 
here, there is a house for the reception of or 
phans, and of such as from age are incapacitated 
for labour, and thus the streets are entirely free 
of beggars. Here is a superb Lutheran church, 
situate on the shore of the river, where a sermon 
is preached every Sunday, morning and evening; 
also two synagogues of Portuguese and German 
Jews, that of the former being the best. 

The plaza, or place of arms, is garrisoned by 
two battalions of infantry, and these with the 
artillery-men form a body 1200 strong, whose 
pay is furnished one half by the society of the 
Jesuits, and the other half by the inhabitants of 
the colony : also for them is provided an hospi 
tal, with physicians, surgeon, drugs, &c. Besides 
this troop the inhabitants are formed into three 
companies of militia, who are obliged to take up 
arms at command ; and in the plantations on the 
banks of the river are as many more companies, 
who at the first signal gun are to repair armed 
to the city. 

The governor of this colony formerly settled 
all the differences without appeal, but a council 
was afterwards established, composed of 13 per 
sons, over which the governor is president ; nor 
can any one aspire to be of this council, except 
he have great influence in the country. [In lat. 
5 53 n. and long. 55 12 o>.] 

PARAMAXIBO, a settlement of the same 
colony and government as the former city ; si 
tuate on the shore of the river Surinam. It be 
longs to the Dutch, and has more than 400 
houses, and is of an healthy climate. 

PARAMERIN, a small river of the province 
and captainship of Todos Santos in Brazil. It 
runs w. and turning n. n. ?, enters the Rio Real, 



P A R 

PARAMOS. Some very lofty mountains of 
the cordillera of the Andes ; the heights of which 
are exceeding, but vary so much that the skirts 
of some rest upon the tops of others. They are 
the whole year round covered with snow, which 
is become hardened by time, so as to cause the 
temperature to be cold in the extreme, and to 
render them totally uninhabitable. 

The most celebrated of these mountains are in 
the kingdom of Quito ; and the lower parts of 
them are covered with a kind of straw like 
esparto (mat-weed), although less harsh, which 
grows in such abundance, and to such an height, 
as to be in some parts half a yard and in others 
three-quarters. Amongst this grows a tree, 
called quinual, of a strong wood and small dark 
green leaf, and rough to the touch ; also a plant, 
peculiar to the climate, called by the Indians palo 
de luz (tree of light), the which is about three 
feet high, grows in one perpendicular stem till 
the upper part, where it shoots some small 
branches, these also producing others, on each 
of which sprout two leaves. This plant being 
cut near the root and lighted when green, serves 
the Indians as a candle, and burns like one till 
the whole of the stick is consumed. There also 
grows in these paramos the achupalla, composed 
of stalks, like those of the savila, the trunk of 
which, when tender, serves for the Indians as 
salad, like that of the palmito. The canchalagua 
and the contrayerva, well known for their virtues, 
are also found here, as is the puchugchu^ which is 
a sort of bread formed of an herb, the leaves of 
which are round and of the figure of the musk- 
flower, and which unite and knit themselves to 
gether with such force as to form a body of two 
feet in diameter, so hard as to resist the weight 
of a man. 

Notwithstanding the severity of the climate of 
the Paramos, there are not wanting animals to 
breed upon them, such as deer and foxes : and 
birds, as partridges and condors, which are birds 
of prey, and of a magnitude above any of the 
feathered race ; and to them are these mountains 
peculiar, for they never leave them but in search 
of prey, when they fly into the valleys to pounce 
upon the lambs, which they carry up with their 
tallons in the air. The Indians have a method 
of catching them by anointing a concealed net 
with certain herbs which stupifies them ; but 
they are generally aware of the mischief, and 
betake themselves to flight. Here is also a 
bird which they call the zumbador^ which seldom 
allows itself to be seen though continually heard ; 
and another, to which they give the name of 
eancion, the note of which is like the bandurria. 



PAR 



51 



PARANA, a large and navigable river of the 
province and government of Paraguay, traversing 
this province from n. e. to w. It rises in the 
province of Minas Geraes to the s. of the city 
of Va. da. S. Joas del Rey, in some lofty 
sierras, and takes its course for the space of 
300 leagues, receiving innumerable other rivers 
which are on the n. part, the Iguayri, Pardo, 
Monici, Amamboy, Itaimbe, Guazuygua, Yaca- 
guaju, Itabo, Acaray, Munday, Tenibey, Pira- 
yubi, Pirapopo, Aguapey, and others ; and on 
the s. part those of Anemby, Aguapeyo, Para- 
napane, Huibay, Piquiri, Yari, Itapitay, Yacoy, 
Guiraitagua, Yequeimari, Piracabi, Cay, Iguazu, 
Paranay, Ibiray, Muruara, and others. 

At the distance of 125 leagues from its mouth 
it has two falls which impede its navigation, so 
that the boats are obliged to be carried for some 
little distance by land. The whole of that ex 
tent of its course s. from the river Paranape to 
27 or 28, is called Guayra. The country is of 
a fine temperature and very fertile, and popu 
lous in former times ; and in some valleys to 
wards the e. from the Uruguay, the territory 
of which they called Tape, dwelt some Indians, 
of whom are descended those of the missions of 
the present day, and lately converted. Those of 
the river Guayra call themselves Guaranis, and 
the others Tapes, being as it were a colony of 
the former. All of them spoke, and still speak, 
the same idiom, Avhich is the Guarani, and with 
greater or less purity, the other nations of the 
Guaicurus, the Chiriguanos, &c. 

This country was discovered by Alvar Nunez 
Cabeza de Vaca, in 1541, he being governor of 
Paraguay ; and he took possession of it in the 
name of the king, calling it the province of Vera. 
The inhabitants were laborious, lived in settle 
ments, sowed maize twice a year, cultivated 
yucas or mandioca, bred fowl, and eat human 
flesh, not only of their own prisoners, for they 
were very warlike, but even that of their own 
dead. 

Two monks of the order of San Francisco, 
called Fr. Bernardo de Armenta, and Fr. Alonso 
Lebron, who accompanied the governor in his 
voyage, were the first who gave these Indians 
the first insight into religion. Some years after 
wards others of their order came, and obtained 
great fruit by their labours ; but he that laboured 
most, and who stayed amongst them 50 years, 
was the venerable Fr. Luis de Bolanos, com 
panion of San Francisco Solano, who, accom 
panied by many other religious, erected many 
chapels or churches in Guayra, establishing six 
reductions^ and uniting the Indians in settlements 
H 2 



5*2 



PARANA. 



and in large and convenient parts on the shores 
of the rivers Ibajiba, Paranape, and Pirapo, 
and, for their instruction in their catechism, he 
made himself master of the Guarani tongue, 
many of his orations in this language having 
been since printed by the Jesuits. 

This great missionary, bent down with years 
and infirmities, and finding it impossible for him 
longer to fulfil his wonted duties, went with 
gladness to welcome the arrival of some Jesuits, 
entrusting them with his flock ; but such was the 
veneration of the Indians for their old masters, 
that they were with difficulty persuaded by the 
venerable Franciscan to accept of the offices of 
the new comers ; he at last, however, persuaded 
them, by assuring them that the Jesuits were 
their brothers, and that the only difference be 
tween the one and the other was the dress. The 
Jesuits followed up the advantages of their pre 
decessors, and founded some fresh settlements 
or doctrinal establishments in 1614. But the 
Mamelucos Paulistas of Brazil made various ir 
ruptions against those settlements, in order to 
entrap prisoners, which they might carry to sell 
to work in the mines of that kingdom and at the 
sugar engines ; nor did they carry thither less, 
at different times, than 100,000 souls ; and on 
this account the missionaries found themselves 
under the necessity of withdrawing the settle 
ments to a spot where they now stand ; where, 
being still infested, a permission was obtained 
from his majesty for these Indians to carry fire 
arms for their defence, in 1639, although they 
were not brought into action till some time 
after, when, being well instructed by the Jesuits, 
they succeeded in completely routing their ene 
mies. 

These settlements are nearer to Paraguay and 
Buenos Ayres than they were formerly, and of 
the 30, which was their number, 13 belong 
to the bishopric of the former, and the 17 others 
to the latter : the former were also of the tem 
poral government of that province till 1726, 
when the king ordered that they should all be 
dependent on the government of Buenos Ayres. 
They are of the following names : 
San Ignacio Guazu, Santa Rosa, 
San Cosme, Candelaria, 

Itapua, Santa Ana, 

La Trinidad, Loreto, 

Jesus, San Ignacio Miri, 

Santiago, Corpus Christi. 

NuestraSenora deFe, 

Of the which eight are to the s. of Parana, and 
the five others to the n. These last were ceded 
by the king to the crown of Portugal in 1755, in 



exchange for the colony of Sacramento; but this 
plan was disagreable to the Indians, who took 
up their arms against the Spaniards and Portu 
guese who were unitedly endeavouring to force 
them to the treaty, and such was their resolution 
that it was at last annulled. These settlement!? 
contain 41,000 souls, who cultivate the same fruits 
as those of Paraguay, but in greater abundance, 
namely wheat, maize, sugar, herb of Paraguay, 
tobacco, cotton, seeds, fruit and garden-herbs, 
besides the cutting of some trees to make planks. 
The territory abounds in such large and fine 
pastures that when the Jesuits quitted the coun 
try, there were found in the 30 settlements no 
less than 769,589 horses, 13,905 mules, and 
271,537 heads of sheep. The government, arts, 
and manufactures established here by the same 
missionaries, has for many years been a problem 
which could not be solved : whether, in fact, all 
this should prove, as some will have it, the per 
fection of a republic, or, as others, that it should 
be looked upon as a tyrannical despotism eager 
only for its own interests. More on this subject 
may be seen in the " Christianismo felice" of 
Muratori, the Italian, and in the general collec 
tion of the documents for the extermination of the 
Jesuits, printed by order of the government. 

In this province there is a constant tradition that 
the evangelist and apostle St. Thomas preached 
here. Dr. Xarque, dean of Albarracin, lays it 
down in his own mind as a fact, nor did he dwell 
a short time in the country. Besides this, there 
is in a certain road leading from Brazil, in the 
midst of unfrequented woods, a kind of bower or 
avenue, indisputably the work of art, which the 
Indians have always called the path of St. 
Thomas; also in the province of Paraguay is to 
be seen a cave, not a work of nature but of art, 
the which is seven yards long and proportion- 
ably wide, with a floor level and plain, and a 
roof composed of one flat stone, perfectly free 
from any inequalities of surface : this cave is in a 
lofty mountain, and both the mountain and the 
cave bear the name of St, Thomas ; and it is 
there thought that the saint used to make the 
same cave his abode, and that he there used to 
preach to the Indians of those valleys. Here also 
is found an hollow rock which is difficult of 
entrance, but in which is found the prints of 
feet and hands, the same phenomena existing in 
other parts of the coast of Paraguay ; and all 
agree in asserting that they are of that apostle, 
and that he first taught them the use of the herb 
of Paraguay. This at least cannot be doubted 
but that they knew the use of it before the arrival 
of the Spaniards. 



PAR 

The Indians of Brazil concur with this tradi 
tion, and assure us that the apostle St. Thomas 
landed at the port of Todos Santos, opposite the 
bar of San Vincente. Now, if to all these asser 
tions we take into consideration the information 
given by the Indians to the conquerors of Peru, 
respecting the orgin of the cross of the settle 
ment of Carabuco in the province of Omasuyos ; 
if we consider the stone which was found in the 
curacy of Ay aviri, of the province of Yauy os ; the 
signs at Caxamarca, and the vestiges of our reli 
gion found in a cave near Tarija, it may be in 
terred that it is most probable that St. Thomas 
did actually preach the gospel in these coun 
tries. 

[But to return to the description of the Parana. 
This great river (observes the traveller Mawe), 
which the first discoverers considered as the 
chief, on account of its abundant waters, unites 
with the e. side of the Paraguay in lat. 27 16 ; 
and their united streams take the name of the 
Rio de la Plata, which originated in the follow 
ing circumstance. Martini de Jousa, the first 
donatory of the captainship of St. Vicente, fur 
nished Alexo Garcia with an adequate escort to 
explore the hitherto untrodden wilds to the w. 
of the extensive coast of Brazil. This intrepid 
Portuguese, by the route of the Tiete, reached 
the Paraguay, which he crossed, and penetrated 
considerably into the interior, from whence he 
returned, it is said, loaded with silver, and some 
gold ; but he halted on the Paraguay, and waited 
for the coming of his son, a youth of tender 
years, with some of his people, whilst he sent 
forward an account of the discovery. He was 
surprised by a body of Indians, who killed him, 
took his son prisoner, and carried off all his 
riches ; the year following, 60 Portuguese, who 
were sent in search of Garcia, shared the same 
fate. The Spaniards who first settled on this 
river, seeing so much silver amongst these In 
dians, and supposing it to be the produce of the 
country, called the river La Plata. The Parana 
derives its principal sources from the w. side of the 
mountains of Mantiqueira, 25 leagues w. of the 
town of Paraty. For further descriptions con 
nected with this article, see Paraguay.] 

PARANA, a settlement of the island of Joanes 
or Marajo in Brazil ; on the n. coast, at the same 
mouth or entrance of the river of Las Amazonas. 

PARANA, another, a small river of the king 
dom of Brazil, which runs w. n. e. and enters the 
Preto or De Palma. 

PARANAGUA, a town of the province and 
captainship of San Vincente, in Brazil ; situate 



PAR 53 

on the shore of the river of its name, at the en 
trance of the bay of Ipetuba. 

The aforesaid river runs e. and enters the sea 
in the bay of Ipetuba. 

PARANAIBA, a large and abundant river of 
the province and captainship of Portoseguro in 
Brazil ; it runs s. s. e. for many leagues, and 
enters by the n. side into the Grande del Parana 
near its source. The ex-Jesuit Coleti asserts 
that it enters the Maranon by the w. part, below 
where it receives the Ginapape. On its shores 
dwell many nations of barbarous Indians, who 
are not known. 

PARANAIBA, another abundant river, in the 
province and government of Guayana. It is an 
arm of the Maranon, which runs out forming a 
curve, and returns to enter the same river, form 
ing the large island of Ramos. 

PARANAMERIN, or PARAMERI, a small 
river of the province and captainship of Seara in 
Brazil, which runs n. and enters the sea between 
the rivers Paragii and Iquarazii. 

PARANAMIRI, a river of the province and 
country of Las Amazonas. It is an arm of this 
which communicates with the lake Araraba, and 
forms the island of Variquiri. 

PARANAPANE, MINAS DE, some very rich 
and abundant gold mines of the province and 
captainship of San Vincente in Brazil. They lie 
between the rivers Yapo and Yaguariba, near 
where the Jesuits had the settlement of their 
missions, called San Francisco Xavier, in the 
province of Guayra, and which w r as destroyed by 
the Portuguese of San Pablo. 

PARANAPE, a large and abundant river of 
the province and government of Paraguay, and 
which enters the Parana. 

PARANAPITINGA. See YAGUXPIRI. 

PARANAPURAS, ENCARNACION DE, a set 
tlement of the province and government of Mai- 
nas in the kingdom of Quito ; a reduction of the 
missions of this name by the Jesuits, on the shore 
of the river also so called. 

This river rises in the cordillera of the Andes, 
runs e. and, making a curve, enters the Guallaga, 
by the side of the settlement of Yurimanguas. 

PARANAUNA, a river of the province and 
captainship of Portoseguro in Brazil. It rises in 
the mountains near the coast, runs n. and enters 
the head of the Grande del Francisco. 

PAR ANA Y, a small river of the province and 
government of Paraguay, which runs w. and 
enters the Parana between those of Caruguampu 
and Piray. 

PARANGATECUTIRO, SAN JUAN DE, a 



54 



PAR 



settlement of the head settlement of the district of 
Uruapan, and cdcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the 
province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It con 
tains 62 families of Indians, and is 10 leagues e. of 
its head settlement and 18 from the capital, and 
in it is a beautiful convent of the monks of San 
Agustin. 

PARANGS, a barbarous nation of Indians, 
who inhabit the woods of the province and govern 
ment of Nainas, between the river Blanco to the 
$. and the Curaray to the n. and bounded w. by 
the nation of the Iquitos. 

PARAPAMENA, a large and abundant river 
of the province and captainship of San Pablo in 
Brazil. It rises w. of the capital, and running 
w. n. w. enters the Parana. Don Juan de la 
Cruz wrongly calls it Paranapane. 

PARAPITI, a river of the province and 
government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru. 
It rises in a large lake in the territory of the 
Pampas de Huanacos, and shortly after loses 
itself in another lake, where the river Ubay 
heads. Some call it the Apure ; on its shores are 
seen the ruins of the antient capital of the province 
which was destroyed by the infidel Indians. 

PARAPITINGA, a lake of the province and 
captains/lip of Portoseguro in Brazil. It is form 
ed from a waste water of the river Paracatus, to 
the e. of the town of Minas Generates. 

PARAPU, a small river of the province and 
government of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia, 
which rises n. of the lake in which the river Ma- 
caoza heads, runs e. and enters the Maranon. 

PARAPURA, a settlement of the province and 

S>vernment of Venezuela in the Nuevo Reyno de 
ranada ; situate on the shore of the river Gua- 
rico, and s. s. e. of the lake Tacarigua. 

PARAQUARO, a settlement of the head set 
tlement of the district and akaldia mayor of 
Tanzitaro in Nueva Espana. It is of an hot 
temperature, situate in a beautiful and spacious 
valley ; abounding in salubrious waters, and 
affords fine crops of rice, with which the various 
provinces of the kingdom are supplied, and in 
the traffic of which this place is always filled 
with traders, 11 leagues s. of the capital. 

PARAQUARO, another settlement, with the de 
dicatory title of San Agustin, in the province 
of Cinagua of the same kingdom. It is of an hot 
temperature, contains 27 families of Indians, and 
is annexed to the curacy of Turicato ; abounds in 
maize, fruit, and larger cattle. But it is subject 
to the epidemic disorder of garrapalas (ticks), 
which the Indians call turicotas^ and which are 
extremely noxious ; 37 leagues s. e. of its capital. 



PAR 

PARARCA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru. 

PARARE, a river of the province and govern 
ment of San Juan de Los Llanos in the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada. It runs nearly due e. and 
enters the Cazanare close to the settlement of the 
reduction of San Salvadar. 

PARARIN, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Guailas in Peru. 

PARARUMA, a very lofty rock of a pyrami- 
dical form on the shore of the river Orinoco, the 
base of it being more than half a league in circum 
ference ; it is all of one piece, and can only be 
ascended on two sides with great difficulty. The 
top, which at a distance appears like a spear, is a 
plain of an oval figure, surrounded by a border or 
breast-work of the same stone ; but the soil is 
very fertile. The Indians of the Saliva nation 
have here a beautiful garden, always irrigated by 
an hidden stream of water which flows in the same 
rock. Here are plantains, pines, and various 
fruits in abundance ; but the greatest attraction 
of this spot is a certain bower, whither the In 
dians come to shelter themselves from the heat, 
and occasionally to amuse themselves, observing, 
from that eminence, the vessels passing along the 
river, and which are discernible at an immense 
distance. 

PARAS, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Vilcas Huaman in Peru ; annex 
ed to the curacy of Totos, celebrated for the 
first quicksilver mine, having been discovered 
there by Pedro Contreras, native of San Lucar 
de Barrameda in 1560, in company with Enrique 
Garces, a Portuguese, the viceroy of Peru at the 
time being Don Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza, 
Marquis of Canete ; but this mine was abandoned 
after three years, the profit not equalling the 
expenccs. 

PARASIS, a nation of barbarous Indians, who 
inhabit the n. w. shore of the river Paraguay, 
and the w. of the lake of Los Xarayes ; bounded 
on this part by the Moxos, and s. by some tribes 
of the Chiquitos. 

PARATAPA,asmall river of the province and 
government of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia, 
which runs e. in a serpentine course, and enters 
the Ami by this rhumb. 

PARATARI, a small river of the province 
and country of Las Amazonas, in the territory 
possessed by the Portuguese. An arm of this 
river returning into its native bed, forms a small 
island. 

PARATECA, a village and settlement of the 
Portuguese, of the province and captainship of 



P A 11 



PAR 



Todos Santos in Brazil ; situate on the w. shore 
of the Grande de San Francisco, and at the mouth 
where this enters the Rans. 

[PARATEE, a bay on the s. w. side of the 
island of Jamaica. It is s. e. of Banister bay ; 
its s. e. point is also called ParateeJ] 

PARATI, or ANGRA DE Los REYES, a small 
town of the province and captainship of Rio Ja- 
neyro in Brazil : situate near the coast, and 
opposite the Isla Grande. 

PARATINGA, a large river of the kingdom 
of Brazil, which rises in lat. 8, runs many leagues 
to s. s. w. and enters the Tocantines, opposite the 
Real of La Asuncion. 

PARATININGA. See XINGU. 

PARATINI, a river of the province and cap 
tainship of Hey in Brazil, which runs 5. and turn 
ing e. enters the grand lake of Los Patos. 

PARATIPANA, a small river of the province 
and captainship of Para in Brazil, which runs n. 
n. w. and enters the Xingu. 

PARAVARI, a large river of Peru, which 
rises in the province and corregimiento of Cara- 
baya, afterwards unites itself with the Beni, and 
thus forms the Castela. On its shores are many 
Indian nations, of whom nothing is known. 

PARAVINANAS. SeePARiME. 

PARAUPASA, a river of the kingdom of 
Brazil, which rises in the mountains of the Caria- 
putangas Indians, runs e. and enters the Piloens 
near the town of Boa. 

PARAUTE, a settlement of the province and 
government of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada ; situate on the e. shore of the lake of 
Marcaibo, and of the river of its name. 

This river, which is small, rises in the country 
of Giraharas Indians, runsty. and enters the lake. 

[PARAYBA. See PARAIBA.] 

PARAZU, a small river of the province and 
captainship of Seara in Brazil, which runs n. and 
enters the sea between the Iguarazu and the 
Paranamerin. ^ 

PARCELA, BAXO DE, a shoal on the coast of 
the province and captainship of Rio Janeyro in 
Brazil, close to cape Santo Tome. 

PARCO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Chilques and Masques in Peru; 
annexed to the curacy of Acchaamansaya. 

PARCOS, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Angaraez, in the same kingdom 
as the former ; 16 leagues from Guamanga, and 
13 from Guancavelica. 

PARCU, an ancient and small province of 
Peru, belonging at present to Cuzco. It was 
conquered and united to the empire by the Inca 
Viracocha, eighth emperor. 



PARDO, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Paraguay, which runs 5. and enters the 
great river of the Portuguese. It is also called 
Anemby. 

PARDO, another, a small river in the territory 
ofCuyaba of the kingdom of Brazil, which runs 
s. s. w. and enters the Parana. 

PARDO, another, called also Colorado, which 
runs nearly s. and turning n. n. w. enters the 
Parana by the s. side in a very large stream. 

PARDORA, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil ; situate w. 
of the city of San Augustin, near the coast. 

[PARt)UBA, a bay on the coast of Brazil, 10 
leagues w. n. w. of Brandihi bay.] 

PARE, a settlement of the corregimiento of the 
jurisdiction of Velez in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada, of a hot but healthy temperature ; and 



having a soil abounding 



111 



wheat and maize, of 



which it gathers two crops annually, in yucas, 
plantains, and sugar canes, which are worked in a 
great number of sugar engines which it has, and 
which render it a settlement of as considerable 
commerce as any in that kingdom. It contains 
600 housekeepers, and is seven leagues from the 
city of Velez. 

PARE, a small river of the province and 
government of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia, 
which rises n. of the settlement of San Joseph de 
Mapoyes, runs e. and then turning s. enters the 
Manapiari. 

PAREDONES, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Maule in the kingdom of 
Chile, annexed to the curacy of Vichuquen. 

PAREDONES, another settlement, in the island 
of Cuba ; on the n. coast, opposite the isle of 
Guinchos. 

PAREDONES, some shoals or rocks, near the 
coast of the province and government of Carta 
gena and Nuevo Reyno de Granada. 

[PAREN, a lake of Chile, S. America.] 

[PARHAM, town and harbour, on the n. side 
of the island of Antigua, in the W. Indies. The 
harbour is defended by Byram fort, at Barnacle 
point, on the w. side, and farther up by another 
fort on the e. side. The town is regularly built, 
and lies at the head of the harbour, and in St. 
Peter s parish.] 

PARHAM, a city of the island of Antigua, one 
of the Antilles; on the n. coast, with a good 
port. 

PARI, a settlement of the province and corre 
gimiento of Canta in Peru. 

PARI, an abundant river of the above province 
and kingdom, which rises in the lake Chinchai- 
cocha of the province of Tarma. laves the pro- 



56 PAR 

vinces of Canta, Xauja, and Huanta, runs s. till 
it reaches the province of Guarochiri, where it 
forms an elbow, and turning e. after collecting 
the waters of various other rivers, enters the 
Maranon, with which some have wrongly iden 
tified it. 

PARI, another, a small river of the province 
and government of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia, 
one of those which enters the Orinoco by the e. 
side. 

PARIA, a province and corregimiento of the 
kingdom of Peru, in the archbishopric of Char- 
cas ; bounded n. by the provinces of Pacages, 
n. e. by the jurisdiction of the town of Oruro, e. 
and s. e. by that of Porco, s. w. by that of Lipes, 
and za. by that of Carangas. It is of a cold tem 
perature, and the vegetable productions are those 
peculiar to the sierra ; such as papas, bark, 
barley, &c. It has large breeds of smaller cattle, 
some also of larger, and of llamas, vicunas, and 
huanacos. Here are salt mines, and a lake from 
which much is extracted ; also various streams of 
warm water. 

The corregidors of Oruro being alcaldes may- 
ores of the mines of the district of Veinte Leguas 
and Paria, the capital of this province, and the 
settlement of Sepulturas, being included in the 
same limits ; they appropriated to themselves, 
some years since, some silver mines of the cor- 
dillera of Condocondo, and some gold mines, of 
which many have filled with water, and others 
are not worked from the great expence. In this 
province runs a large river from the province of 
Pacages, which is called the Desaguadero, taking- 
its source in the great lake Titicaca or Chu- 
cuito ; and which being passed in various parts 
in rafts made of tortora or reed, runs s. e. and 
forms a lake of three to four leagues long and 
two wide, in which breeds a fish, called by some 
suckes, and by others bagres. 

This river, as being very abundant, and the 
lake continuing always at one height, it caused a 
suspicion that its waters had a subterraneous 
vent ; and in fact it is found to have a whirlpool, 
over which some old rafts being permitted to 
float, where, after giving two or three turns, 
sucked down. The water is thought to find itself 
a passage into the sea under the cordillera, and 
through the shore, close to the port of Iqueique. 
In 1748 its waters increased to an immense 
height, and it was concluded that some raft had 
blocked up its subterraneous passage ; a circum 
stance most likely, since, after a time, they sub 
sided to their ordinary state. One part of this 
province is inundated in the rainy seasons for 
many leagues. 



PAR 

The inhabitants, who amount to 10,000, make 
cheeses of sheep s milk, much esteemed in other 
provinces for their delicacy. Its corregirtor used 
to have a repartimiento of 50,200 dollars, and 
paid an alcava/a of 401 dollars yearly: the capital 
is the town of the same name. 

[The natives of this province, as well as those 
of Guayana and Debaiba, were originally very 
zealous in their worship of the devil and idols, to 
whom they sacrificed men, and then eat them ; 
when their gods were angry, they punished them 
selves with fasting. Their priests were stoned or 
burned, if they married against their vow of 
chastity. They believed in rewards and punish 
ments after this life. The spot in the moon they 
held to be a man imprisoned there for incest with 
his sister. They fed yearly the departed souls 
with maize and wine. They held the souls of great 
men only, and such as were buried with them, 
immortal. Their great men s funeral pomps 
were celebrated yearly with much lamentations, 
drinking, and bestial ceremonies, both men and 
women casting aside all modesty. These sub 
jects are further treated off by the authors, P. 
Martyr, Gomara, Linschoten, Cieza, &c.J 

PARIA, the lake of which we have above spoken, 
which receives the waters of the river by a chan 
nel of 80 fathoms. These waters are of very 
bad quality, but abound in excellent fish, and are 
thought, with great reason, to have a subterrane 
ous vent. 

PARIA, a province. See ANDALUCIA. 
PARIA, a gulf, between the coast of the province 
of Cumana to the s. s. w. and w. n. w. and the 
island Trinidad to the n. e. and s. e. terminating 
by the n. at the cape of Las Salinas and that of 
San Joseph, and by the e. at the cape or point of 
Blanquizales ; its entrance at the former part 
being by the mouth of the Drago or Dragon, at 
the latter by the point of Galera. Its extent 
from e. to w. is 88 miles, and from n. to s. 50, 
and off the coast of the island of Trinidad is very 
good anchorage. 

[This gulf is called by the Spaniards Triste 
(Sad), but as the whole of the coast of Tiera 
Firme which surrounds the gulf goes by the 
name of Paria, the English and the French geo 
graphers have given that name to the gulf itself. 
What these two latter nations mean by the gulf 
Sad, is a gulf which lies between cape Coderas 
and point Hicacos. 

From the two lands to the n. of this gulf, jut 
out two points, between which are three islands, 
which are nearly e. and w. of each other, and con 
sequently close the gulf to the n. excepting four 
channels left between the islands called Dra- 



PAR 

gon s mouths. The largest of these channels, 
being 6 miles broad, is that to the w. between 
the point Pena of Cumana, and the island named 
Chacachacares. There are several rocks above 
water in the channel lying close to the point, 
and one hidden rock two cables length from the 
island. 

Between this island and the next, which is 
called Navios, there is a second channel named 
Ship Channel (des vaisseaux,) which, as it runs 
from n. to n. e. is very good for vessels entering 
the gulf, but very bad for going out. The third 
channel is formed by the preceding island, and that 
which lies next to the e. named Monos ; it is called 
de Huevos, or Channel of Eggs. It runs from 
n. n. e. to 5. s. e. ; it is, like the preceding, better 
for entering than leaving the gulf. The fourth 
channel is formed by the preceding island M o- 
nas, and the w. n. w. point of Trinidad, and is 
called Apes Mouth. It is narrow and danger 
ous, on account of a rock in the middle of the 
passage. The small vessels that enter by this 
passage always pass between the rock and Tri 
nidad. 

This gulf forms one of the finest ports in the 
world ; its size and extent has been already men 
tioned ; it has in every part good anchorage, the 
bottom being mud, except by Camana, where 
there are some sands and banks, and the water is 
shallow. On the 5. some of the mouths of the 
Orinoco fall into the gulf in many branches, and 
with great velocity. It is probable that the 
Orinoco originally may have separated the island 
of Trinidad from the main land, and have also 
produced the four channels which are above des 
cribed. The current is certainly always run 
ning out, and for which reason, it is impossible 
for ships to enter if the winds are not favourable 
and sufficiently strong. 

On the coast of Paria there are several ports 
and roadsteads, which render the communication 
with Trinidad very easy.] 

PARIA, a point of the coast of the former gulf, 
which runs into the sea for many leagues, opposite 
the island ofTrinadad, and which is called alsode 
Megillones : in lat. 9 12 n., long. 62 I w. 

PARIACACA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru. 

PARIACOTO, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Guailas in Peru ; annexed 
to the curacy of Llautan in the province of Santa. 

PARIAGUAN, a settlement of the province 
of Barcelona and government of Cumaana, at 
the foot of the sierra of Paraigua, on the shore of 
the river Ipire. 

VOL. IY. 



PAR 



57 



PARIAHUANCA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Xauja in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Cochangara. 

PARIAMARCA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Canta in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of its capital. 

PARIANCHARCA, a settlement of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Tama in Peru. 

PARIARCA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Guamalies in Peru. 

PARICATUBA, a lake of the province and 
country of Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese 
possession, opposite the strait of Pauxis. 

PARIDA, CAYO DE LA, a rocky isle or shoal 
near the coast of Florida, at the extremity of the 
same between El Gran Martin and the Cayo 
Vizcaino. 

[PARILLO, a town of Peru, generally called 
Santa ; which see.] 

PARIME, an immense lake of the province of 
Dorado, being the deposit of the waters of in 
finite rivers, some of which are very large, which 
enter by a very wide arm of the river Branco 
and others. Some modern authors would have 
it, that this lake is merely fabulous and imaginary ; 
but, according to the late advices, it is said to be 
real and existing. Its extent is not known, but 
it varies according to its different parts : it is of 
a square figure, and the greater part of the tra 
vellers allow it to be 82 leagues long from e. to w. 
so as to resemble a little sea, its waters even 
being salt. 

From the mountains to the w. of it, flow down 
many rivers, all of which run into it, and on the 
n. side it has a channel by which it runs out into 
the river Paraba. In the midst of it are many 
islands, and in the mountains dwell many na 
tions of infidel Indians, supposed to be in pos 
session of that beautiful country the Dorado, but 
which, from the solicitude it has caused, has 
been fatal to so many. 

On the n. n. e. the river Cuyuni rises from this 
lake, and laves the territory of the Dutch colo 
nies, and afterwards unites itself with the Eseqiu> 
bo ; on the s. rises the Parana-piiinga or Ya- 
guapira, which means white water, the which 
enters the Maranan by three mouths by the n. 
part, and was discovered in 1745. Another 
river, also of the same name as the lake, issues 
from it. 

[It is now discovered beyond all question, and 
according to the latest maps and manuscript 
drawings of that country? that this lake is nothing 
but an overflow of tne head branches of the 
Branco, in the valley of Parimo.] 
I 



58 



PAR 



The above-named river, which is very large, 
runs continually s. collecting the waters of several 
other rivers, and, making various turns, enters 
the Negro by four mouths or arms, called Dara, 
Podaviri, Varaca, and the Principal mouth. From 
the spot where the first arm divides itself to its en 
trance into the Negro, it is called Paravillanas. 

PARINA-COCAS. See PARINACOCHAS. 

[PARINA, a point n. w. of the harbour of 
Payta, on the coast of Peru. The country within 
the point is high and mountainous. Between 
Payta and it is a large bay, having shoals. The 
land is low, and some white hills are found all 
the way.] 

PARlNACOCHAS, a province and corregimi- 
ento of the kingdom of Peru ; bounded n. by the 
province of Aimaraes, n. w. by that of Vilcas 
huaman, e. by that of Chumbivilcas, s. by that 
Condesuyos de Arequipa, and w. by that of 
Lucanas. Its length from n. e. to s. w. is 35 
leagues, and its width 12 by the opposite rhomb, 
though rather irregular, as are all the provinces 
of the sierra. Such being its situation, it is ex 
tremely cold, with exception of some ravines, 
where the temperature is so benign that pears, 
and other kinds of fruits, except chirimoyas, 
will grow all the year round, and this more par 
ticularly in the settlement of Pause, and in some 
others, where they grow wheat, beans, and bar 
ley in abundance. Here are breeds of cattle, 
particularly of the lanigerous sort, from the 
fineness and plenty of the pasture. They weave 
here some cloth, which they call chuspas^ ciimbes^ 
and lliellas of beautiful fabric, for which purpose 
they cultivate a sort of grain which they call the 
magno. In the mountains are found many hua- 
nacos, which are used in droves for carrying 
light burthens. 

In the curacy of Pullo,are various mines of gold, 
which they dress with quicksilver ; but the qua 
lity of that metal is uncertain, and the emolument 
it produces is not easily calculated ; but it ought 
not to be small, as a very considerable proportion 
of labourers and traders find employment by it. 

There are here salt mines, various streams of 
warm medicinal waters, and a lake of seven leagues 
long and one wide, on which breeds a kind of 
white bird, whose name, in the language of the 
country, is panuira, and it is from a corruption 
of this word, and the adjunct cucha. which sig 
nifies lake, that we have parinacocha. Many of 
the inhabitants, as well Indians as Mustees, are 
engaged in the occupation of drovers, and carry 
from the province of Cumana to that of Cuzco 
and other parts, wine, brandy, /V, olives, dried 



PAR 

fish, and prawns ; taking in exchange dried beef, 
tallow, papas , chuno, and clothes. The inha 
bitants, who are divided into 30 settlements, 
should amount to about 11,300. The corregidor 
used to have a repartimiento of 86,400 dollars, 
and it paid an alcavala of 691 dollars annually. 
The capital is the settlement of Pausa ; the 
others are, 

Coracoa, Quechualla, 

Chumbi, Pampamarca, 

Pullo, Huanicatas, 

Pararca, Huarhua, 

Pausa, Taurisma, 

Cascara, Ampi, 

Colta, Pausa. 

Oyolo, Mongui, 

Corculla, Arcos, 

Lam pa, Chiapi, 

Zayla, Quilcata, 

Charcana, Huataca, 

Andamarca. Opahuacho, 

Rebacaico, Alpabamba. 

Bellinga, Casiri. 

PARINACOTA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimicnto of Arica in Peru ; annexed to 
the curacy of Copta. 

PARIQUIZES, a river of the province and 
country of Las Amazonas in the Portuguese pos 
sessions. It rises between the rivers Juamunda 
and Guatuma, runs s. and enters the second just 
before this enters the Maranon. 

PARIS, a settlement of the island of Barba- 
does, in the district and parish of S. Thomas, on 
the w. coast, n. e. of the city of Bridge-town. 

PARIS, a small river of Louisiana in N. Ame 
rica, which runs w. and enters the Mississippi, 
between those of Mine and La Roche. 

[PARIS, a thriving township of excellent land 
in New York state, Herkemer county. It is 
s. w. of Whitestown six miles, from which it 
was taken, and incorporated in 1792. In 1795 
four townships were taken from it, viz. Hamil 
ton, Sherburne, Brookfield, and Sangersfield. 
It contained, by the state census of 1796, 3459 
inhabitants, of whom 564 were electors. Iron 
ore is found in the vicinity of Paris. Hamil 
ton academy is situated in this town, in Clinton 
parish, where also a Congregational church has 
lately been erected, and marks of rapid progress 
in improvements and wealth are visible.] 

[^PARIS, an island on the coast of S. Carolina; 
which see.] 

PARITA, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of 
Nata in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, near the 
coast of the S. sea. It produces maize, yucas. 



PAR 

and pigs, with which it supplies the capital of 
Panama, from whence it is 40 leagues distant. 

PARIVA, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Rejno de Gra 
nada. It enters the Zaripa. 

[PARKER S Island, in Lincoln county, dis 
trict of Maine, is formed by the waters oflienne- 
beck river on the w. by the sea on the s. by Je- 
remysquam bay on the e. and by a small strait 
which divides it from Arrowsick island on the n. 
It derives its name from John Parker, who pur 
chased it of the natives in 1650 ; and a part of 
it still remains to his posterity. It is in the 
township of Georgetown ; which see.] 

[PARKER S River, takes its rise in Rowley, 
in Essex county, Massachusetts, and after a 
course of a few miles, passes into the sound 
which separates Plumb island from the main 
land. It is navigable about two miles from its 
mouth, where a bridge crosses it 870 feet long 
and 26 feet wide, consisting of solid piers and 
eight wooden arches. It is on the post-road 
from Boston n. and was built in 1758. It is 
supported by a toll.] 

PARMUNCA, an extensive and beautiful 
valley of the kingdom of Peru, to the n.w. of 
Cuzco. It is fertile, of a sandy soil, and was 
anciently called Chimu, a name of one of the 
Indian chiefs. The Inca Pachacutec subjected 
and united it to the empire. La Martiniere calls 
it Parmonga, citing Mr. de 1 Isle, who is no au 
thority ; but Garcilaso Inca calls it Parmunga. 

PARNAIBA, a river of the kingdom of Brazil, 
in the territory of Cuyaba. It is small, runs 
s.s.w. and enters that of Las Porrudos. 

PARNAPICABA, a settlement of the province 
and captainship of San V^incente in Brazil; at 
the skirt of a mountain of the same name, and 
near the river Itaman. 

PARNASO, a very lofty mountain of the pro 
vince and government of Guayana, or part of 
the country of Las Amazonas possessed by the 
Dutch. 

PARO, a small island of the S. sea, near the 
coast of the province and government of Costa 
rica in the kingdom of Guatemala. It is in the 
gulf of Nicoya in the middle of its entrance. 

PAROQUE, a small river of the province 
and captainship of Todos Santos in Brazil, which 
rises near the coast, runs s. and enters the sea 
by the side of the bay. 

PARQUIN, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Chancay in Peru ; annexed to 
the curacy of Canchas. 

PARRA, a small island of the gulf of Pa- 



P A R 



59 



nama, between the islands Chapira and Cheto, 
and one of those called Las Perlas, on account 
of the pearls found there. In lat. 8 26 n. 

PARRAL, SAN JOSEPH DEL, a settlement 
and real of silver mines, of the province of 
Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, 
and one of the most populous settlements in that 
kingdom : of a mild temperature, fertile, and 
abounding in fruits, grain, and cattle ; situate 
on the bank of the stream of Oro. In its vi 
cinity are several mines, and different missions 
which were held by the Jesuits, as also the sum 
mer retreats which they call Del Canutillo. At 
nine leagues distance to the n. is a. cultivated 
estate, and where there are large breeds of 
cattle, called San Pedro. Seventy-five leagues 
n. n. w. of the capital, Guadiana, in lat. 27 10 . 
long. 261 30 . 

[PARRAMORE, one of the small islands in 
the Atlantic ocean, which line the e. coast of 
Northampton county, Virginia.] 

PARRAS, a town of the same province and 
kingdom as the former settlement ; situate in the 
vicinity of the -lake of its name, or of San Pedro 
and the stream of the Guanabal. In its district, 
especially to the s. are many cultivated estates 
and grazing lands, such as are those of Los Pa- 
tos, El Alamo, La Pena, and Oldin. Fifty 
leagues n. w. of the capital, Guadiana, in lat. 
26 35 . Long. 263 40 . 

[A species of wild vine found in this beau 
tiful situation has procured it the name of Par- 
ras from the Spaniards. The conquerors trans 
planted to this place the vitis vinifera of Asia ; 
and this branch of industry has been found to 
succeed very well.] 

PARRAS, another settlement, in the the same 
province and kingdom as the former town : one 
of those which compose the missions which were* 
held by the Jesuits. 

PARRAGOTES, a nation of barbarous In 
dians of Equinoctial France, near the n. coast 
of Cayenne ; bounded by the nation of the Su- 
payes, and having a communication and com 
merce with the Dutch, but being inveterate 
enemies to the French, fighting them whenever 
they meet them. Some geographers call them 
Paracotes. 

PARRILLA, SANTA MARIA DE LA. See 
SANTA. 

PARRIPARIES, a barbarous nation of In 
dians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, de 
scendants of the Panches. They dwell to the 
w. of the grand river of La Magdalena, and 
are bounded by the Amurcas and Calandaimas, 
i 2 



60 



PAR 



are few in numbers, but ferocious and cruel, and 
consequently feared by other nations. 

[PARR Town, a new and thriving town in 
Nova Scotia.] 

[PARR S Point, is the s.e. point of Half- 
moon bay, on the n. e. side of the island of St. 
Christopher s, in the W. Indies. The coast here 
is rocky.] 

[PARSONSFIELD, a township of the dis 
trict of Maine, in York county; situate on the 
New Hampshire line, between Great and Little 
Ossipee rivers, and is 98 miles n. of Boston. 
It was incorporated in 1785, and contains 655 
inhabitants.] 

PARTIDAS, ROCAS, some shoals of the S. 
sea, close to the coast of the province and go 
vernment of Veragua in the kingdom of Tierra 
Firme, opposite the settlement of San Pablo. 

PARTIDO, a river of the province and alcal- 
dia mayor of Nicoya, in the kingdom of Guate 
mala. It rises near its capital, runs n. n. w. and 
enters the great lake of Nicaragua. 

[PARTIDO, a small island, under the high 
hill of St. Martin, in the s.w. part of Campea- 
chy gulf. It lies in the fair- way across the bay 
from cape Catoche to Vera Cruz.] 

[PARTRIDGEFIELD, a township of Mas 
sachusetts, in Berkshire county ; 26 miles w.n.w. 
of Northampton, and 128 w. of Boston. It was 
incorporated in 1775, and contains 1041 inha 
bitants.] 

PARU, a town of the province and country 
of Las Amazonas, in the part settled by the Por 
tuguese ; situate towards the n. and on the shore 
of that river, where the Portuguese have built a 
fort. The town is in lat. 1 39 s. 

PARU, a river of this province, called by the 
Portuguese, Ginapape, it flows down from the 
Sierras de Tumucucuracjue to the s. and enters 
the Amazonas on the n. side, at no great distance 
from its mouth. 

PARU, another river, of the province and go 
vernment of Caguan, in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. It rises in a llanura^ runs n. e. and 
enters the Caura. 

PARU, a whirlpool of the river Caura, very 
large and rapid in the part where this river is 
entered by the Iniquari. 

PARUASI, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It 
runs n. through the territory of the Mapoyes In 
dians, abounds in excellent fish, and enters the 
Orinoco by its s. part. 

PARUIPA, a small river of the province and 
captainship of Portoseguro in Brazil. It rises 



PAS 

near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea be 
tween the rivers Caravelas and Perecipe. 

PARULARI, a river of the province and 
country of Las Amazonas in the Portuguese 
possessions. It is the same as the Apulaila- 
vare, which at its source has this name. 

PARARUMA, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia. It 
is one of those which enter the Orinoco, opposite 
the mouth of the Sinaruco. Mr. Bellin calls it 
Paruma. 

PARUPO, a river of the same province and 
government as the former. It rises from a lake 
which is near the settlement of Tapia, and enters 
the Arui by the e. part. 

PARURO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimicnto of Chilques and Masques in Peru. 

PASAGE, or DOTACIONES, a settlement 
and garrison of the kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. 
where there are 33 men and a captain to guard 
against the incursions of the infidel Indians. 
It is situate in a very fertile territory, where 
there are many gardens, in which are culti 
vated in abundance fruit trees and vines. It 
is equally surrounded by many estates, which 
are fertile in grain and cattle. Towards the 
n. runs a spacious and pleasant plain. Thirty 
leagues n. n. e. of the capital. 

PASAGE, a small city of the island of Ja 
maica; situate in the road which leads from 
Puerto Real to Spanish Town, seven miles s. e. 
of the latter, at the mouth of the river Cobre, 
where the English have a fort furnished with 10 
or 12 canon. It is a place of much commerce, 
and its population consists of 400 houses. 

PASAGE, a settlement of Indians of the nation 
of Los Colorados, who dwell in the mountains 
of this name in the province and corregimiento of 
Latacunga in the kingdom of Quito. 

PASAGE, another, of the province and go 
vernment of Tucuman in the district and juris 
diction of the city of Salta; situate on the shore 
of the river of its name, or otherwise called 
Salado. 

PASAGE, a river of the same province. See 
SALADO. 

PASAGE, another river, in the strait of Ma 
gellan, which enters the sea opposite the narrow 
pass of this name. 

PASAGE. This narrow pass is where the 
strait is most contracted, and is the third and 
last pass to enter the S. sea. 

PASAGERO, a small isle of the N. sea, be 
tween the Antilles, e. of the island of Puerto 
j and between this and St. Thomas. 



PAS 

PASAGOCHI, a settlement of the missions 
which were held by the Jesuits in the province 
of Taramara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. 
Thirty -two leagues w. s.w. of the town and real 
of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguagua. 

PASAMACADIE. [See PASSAMAQUODDY.] 

PASAMACADIE, an island situate near the 
coast, of the same province, within a bay, to 
the n. of Grand Menan. 

PASAMAYO, or PASAMAYU, a river of the 
kingdom of Per . It rises in the province and 
corregimiento of Canta, in the sierra which di 
vides this province from that of Chancay, from 
whence it runs w. and then into the S. sea, form 
ing a small bay. Eighteen miles s. of the town 
of Chancay. 

PASAO, or PASADO CABO, a point of the 
coast of the S. sea, in the province and govern 
ment of Guayaquil and kingdom of Quito. It is 
about 25 miles to the s. of the equinoctial line, 
and on it is a signal-house to give intelligence of 
vessels appearing on the coast. 

PASAOS, or PASAVES, a barbarous nation 
of Indians, of the province and government of 
Guayaquiland kingdom of Quito. They inhabit 
the w. part, and were bounded formerly by the 
Ration of the Mantas. The emperor Huaina- 
Capac, thirteenth monarch of Peru, conquered it, 
and fixed in its territory the boundary of the 
empire by this part, on the coast of the Pacific 
sea. This nation is at the present day extinct. 

PAS AT ARIA, a river of the province and 
country of Las Amazonas in the Portuguese pos 
sessions. It is an arm of the Maranon or Ama 
zonas, which runs in a curve, and forming an 
island, returns back into itself. 

PASATRES, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of Rey in Brazil ; situate at the 
source of the river Negro. 

PASCA, a settlement and head settlement of 
the district of the corregimiento of this name, in 
the Nuevo Rey no de Granada. It is of a benign 
temperature, abounding in the vegetable produc 
tions of a warm and cold climate, and is very 
healthy. Forty-eight miles s. with a slight in 
clination to the w. of Santa Fe. 

PASCA, another settlement, of the province and 
corregimiento of Cicasica in Peru ; on the shore 
of the lake Chinchaicocha. 

[PASCA, another, of the province and govern 
ment of Mariquita, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra 
nada, on the shore of the river Cauca.] 

PASCA, another, a large and abundant river 
which irrigates theprovince of Tocayma, in the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada, and which united 



PAS 



(31 



with the Sumapaz, enters the grand river Mag- 
dalena, with the name of Fusagasuga. In its 
vicinity a famous battle was fought between Sa- 
guanmachipa, zipa or king of Bogota, and Uza- 
tama of Tunja, when the former was victorious. 

PASCAGOULA, a settlement of Indians of 
the province and government of Louisiana, on 
the shore and at the mouth of the river of its 



name. 



[These Indians live in a small village on Red 
river, about 60 miles below Natchitoches ; are 
emigrants from Pascagola river in W. Florida ; 
25 men only of them remaining speak Mobilian, 
but have a language peculiar to themselves ; 
most of them speak and understand French. 
They raise good crops of corn and garden 
vegetables ; have cattle, horses, and poultry 
plenty.] 

PASCAGOULA, a bay of the above province, 
between the bay of Movila and the river Pas- 
cagpula. 

PASCAGOULA, this river runs s. e. and enters 
the sea between the former bay and that of San 
Luis. 

[The river Pascagoula passes through the 
Georgia western territory, pursues a s. by e. 
course through W. Florida, and empties into the 
gulf of Mexico by several mouths, which toge 
ther occupy a space of three or four miles ; which 
is one continued bed of oyster-shells, with very 
shoal water. The westernmost branch has four 
feet water, and is the deepest. After crossing 
the bar there is from three to six fathoms water 
for a great distance, and the river is said to 
be navigable more than 150 miles. The soil 
on this river, like that on all the others that 
pass through Georgia into the gulf of Mexico, 
grows better as you advance to its source.] 

PASCAMAYO, a port of the coast of Peru 
in the province and corregimiento of Sana : near 
it are the ruins of the ancient Lambayeque. 

PASCATA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Asangaro in Peru ; annexed 
to the curacy of Sandia, in the province of Ca- 
rabaya. 

[PASCATAQUA, or PISCATAQUA, is the 
only large river whose whole course is in New 
Hampshire. Its head is a pond in the n. e. corner 
of the town of Wakefield, and its general course 
thence to the sea is s. s. e. about 40 miles. It 
divides New Hampshire from York county in 
the district of Maine, and is called Salmon Fall 
river, from its head to the lower falls at Berwick, 
where it assumes the name of Newichawannock, 
which it bears till it meets with Cochecho river. 



62- 



P A S 



which comes from Dover, when both run toge 
ther in one channel to Hilton s point, where the 
w. branch meets it : from this junction to the 
sea the river is so rapid that it never freezes ; 
the distance is seven miles, and the course gene 
rally from s. to s. e. The w. branch is formed 
by Swamscot river, which comes from Exeter, 
Winnicot river, which comes through Greenland, 
and Lamprey river, which divides Newmarket 
from Durham; these empty into a bay four 
miles wide, called the Great Bay. The water, 
in its further progress, is contracted into a lesser 
bay, and then it receives Oyster river, which 
runs through Durham, and Back river, which 
comes from Dover, and at length meets with 
the main stream at Hilton s point. 

The tide rises into all these bays, and branches 
as far as the lower falls in each river, and forms 
a most rapid current, especially at the season of 
the freshets, when the ebb continues about two 
hours longer than the flood ; and were it not for 
the numerous eddies, formed by the indentings 
of the shore, the ferries would then be impas 
sable. 

At the lower falls in the several branches of 
the river are landing-places, whence lumber and 
other country produce is transported, and vessels 
or boats from below discharge their lading ; so 
that in each river there is a convenient trading 
place not more than 12 or 15 miles distant from 
Portsmouth, with which there is constant com 
munication by every tide. Thus the river, from 
its form and the situation of its branches, is ex 
tremely favourable to the purposes of navigation 
and commerce. A light-house, with a single 
light, stands at the entrance of Piscataqua har 
bour, in lat. 43 n. and long. 70 43 .] 

PASCO, a settlement of the province and corrc- 
gimiento of Xauja in Peru ; the residence of the 
treasurer, and place of the royal coffers. 

PASCO, another settlement, in the province and 
corregimiento of Tarma, of the same kingdom. 

PASCONO, a settlement of the province and 
government of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada ; situate on the shore of the grand river 
Magdalena. 

[PASCUARO. See PASAUARO.] 

PASIGA, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Darien in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. 
It rises in the mountains of the 5. coast, and runs 
into the sea at the side of the point of Men- 
glares. 

PASIMONI, an abundant river of the pro 
vince and government of Guayana or Nueva 
Andalucia. It rises in the mountains to the w. 



PAS 

of the great lake Parime, and enters, divided into 
two arms, by the one into the river Negro, by 
the other into the channel of Casiriaque, forming 
a great island. Its shores are covered with trees 
of wild cacao. 

PASO, a settlement of the province and cor 
regimiento of Cochabamba in Peru. 

PASO, another settlement, which is small, in 
the government of Neiva and Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada ; situate on the shore of the grand 
river Magdalena, where it is entered bv the Pao. 
It is much reduced, and its inhabitants, who 
scarcely amount to 20 Indians, are employed in 
procuring the gold from the lavaderos (washing- 
places) in which it abounds. It is eight leagues 
from its head settlement. 

PASO, another settlement and garrison, with 
the additional title Del Norte, in the Nuevo 
Reyno de Vizcaya of N. America ; founded to 
restrain the infidel Indians. One hundred and 
seventy-five leagues n. of the capital, Durango. 

[This presidio, or military post, on the right 
bank of the Rio del Norte, is separated (says 
Humboldt) from the town of Santa Fe by an un 
cultivated country of more than 300 miles in 
length. We must not confound this place, 
which some manuscript maps in the archives of 
Mexico consider as a dependance of New Bis 
cay, with the Presidio del Norte, or De las Jun 
tas, situated further to the s. at the s. side of the 
mouth of the Rio Conchos. Travellers stop at 
the Paso del Norte to lay in the necessary pro 
visions for continuing their route to Santa Fe. 
The environs of the Paso are delicious, and re 
semble the finest parts of Andalucia. The fields 
are cultivated with maize and wheat ; and the 
vineyards produce such excellent sweet wines 
that they are even preferred to the wines of 
Parras in New T Biscay. The gardens contain 
in abundance all the fruits of Europe, figs, 
peaches, apples, and pears. As the country is 
very dry, a canal of irrigation brings the water 
of the Rio del Norte to the Paso. It is with 
difficulty that the inhabitants of the presidio can 
keep up the dam, which forces the waters of the 
rivers when they are very low to enter into the 
canal (azequia). During the great swells of the 
Rio del Norte, the strength of the current de 
stroys this dam almost every year in the months 
of May and J une. The manner of restoring and 
strengthening the dam is very ingenious. The 
inhabitants form baskets of stakes, connected to 
gether by branches of trees, and filled with earth 
and stones. These gabions (cestones) are aban 
doned to the force of the current, which, in its 



PAS 

eddies, disposes them in the point where the canal 
separates from the river.] 

PASO, another, with the dedicatory title of 
Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe. See this article. 

fPASPAYA, a province in the archbishopric 
of La Plata. It is mountainous, but abounds in 
grain, pulse, and fruits.] 

PASPAYA, a settlement and capital of the 
above province and corregimiento, [about 76 miles 
s. of the city of Chusiquisaca or La Plata.] 

PA SPAY A, a river of this province and corre- 
gimiento. 

PASPE, a bay of the s. coast of Nova Scotia 
or Acadia, between port Prospect and point 
Blanche. 

PASPEBIA, a settlement of the same province 
and colony as the former bay ; situate near the 
s. coast, in the interior of the port of Castors. 

PASQUA, a valley of the province and go 
vernment of Cumana, on the confines of the 
province of Venezuela, between the rivers Huare 
and Manapire. 

PASQUA, an island near the coast of the pro 
vince and captainship of Ilheos in Brazil ; situate 
at the mouth of a great port formed by the bar 
of Camamu and the point Saguaripa Vieja. 

PASQUA, a point, with the surname of Mala, 
in the island of Puerto Rico, and looking to the 
island of S. Thomas. 

PASQUAL, a small river of the province and 
captainship of San Vincente in Brazil. It runs e. 
and enters the sea in the bay of San Vincente. 

PASQUAL, a point of land on the s. coast, and 
in the part possessed by the French of the island 
S. Domingo ; between the bay of Mesle and the 
isle of Orange. 

PASQUAL, a mountain of the province andcp- 
tainship of Portoseguro in Brazil; between the 
rivers Jaco and Sarnabitiva. 

PASQUARO, or UTZILA, the capital of the 
province and bishopric of Mechoacan in Nueva 
Espana, once the court of the king Calzontzi. 
It is of a cold and moist temperature. The 
principal buildings are not without elegance, 
and it is situate in a delightful country, as 
being just at the entrance of the sierra, sur 
rounded by mountains covered with fine foli 
age ; also in the gardens, which it has in its 
llanuras, are abundance of fruits and flowers of 
different kinds. 

Towards the n. part is a great lake, 12 leagues 
in circumference, and so abounding in excellent 
fish as not only to provide this city but also that 
of Valladolid and other settlements ; great por 
tions also being at times sent to Mexico, where 



PAS 



63 



they are sold as great dainties. In the middle 
of this lake are some small islands, inhabited 
by Indians living in huts, who make a daily trade 
by the fish they catch in their canoes. 

The plain on which the city stands being sur 
rounded with rising grounds, there is an en 
trance by a wide causeway entirely of stone, 
and the first building which you discover on 
the e. side is a chapel, in which is venerated 
the image of Christ crucified ; which spot they 
call the Humilladero (place of humiliation), since 
here it was that the Indians surrendered them 
selves to the Spaniards. The parish-church, 
which was first began to be erected where it now 
stands, by the first bishop, but which, from not 
being concluded, was removed to Valladolid, is 
as to what exists of it, a sumptuous edifice. One 
nave only is finished out of the five which should 
render it complete ; but this is the admiration of 
architects, who confess that were it finished ac 
cording to the design, it would be unrivalled by 
any building in America. In this church are two 
winding stair-cases made of stone, and which are 
so nicely constructed that it is a common amuse 
ment for the Indians to seat themselves at the 
top and let them slip round and round to the 
bottom. The other staircase is a lofty pillar, 
with two fans leading different ways, so that two 
persons may descend out of different doors, and 
without seeing each other. 

This city Tias the convents of the religious 
orders of San Francisco, San Agustin, San Juan 
de Dios, a college which belonged to the Jesuits, 
and which is the second that was founded in 
Nueva Espana after that of Mexico, its general 
being Francisco de Borja, who sent to it one of 
the images of Santa Maria of Rome. In this 
college are interred Don Vasco de Quiroga, se 
cond bishop of that diocess, and the venerable 
brother Pedro Calzontzi, nephew of the king of 
the province, who, taking the habit of the Je 
suits, lived a holy life in the profession of 
school-master, and died by an epidemic dis 
order which he caught in the discharge of his 
duties, and whilst assisting the sick. Here is 
also another sumptuous temple, dedicated to 
Maria Santisima, with the title of La Salud, 
destined as a monastery for the nuns of Santa 
Catalina. In one of the wards of the city is 
venerated a miraculous effigy of Santo Christo 
de Tupataro, found by an Indian in 1748, in the 
heart of a tree which he was cutting down, with 
the cross, nails, and other insignia, perfectly 
wrought. 

The population of this city is composed of 500 



64 PAS 

families of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes, 
and of 2000 Indians, who occupy themselves in 
the commerce and labour of the copper mines in 
the vicinity of the city, as also in making sugar, 
and in selling the merchandise of the country. 
It is the head of the alcaldia mayor, and the 
residence of the alcalde mayor, who nominates 14 
lieutenants for so many other districts of the ex 
tensive jurisdiction into which it is divided. 
[Thirty-one miles s. w. of Valladolid, and 125 w. 
of Mexico, in lat. 19 29 30" n. and long. 101 
21 .] 

The settlements of which its jurisdiction con 
sists are the following : 

Tacambaro, San Juan Copaquaro, 

Cocupao, Arentapaqua, 

S. Francisco Iguatzeo, Quintzio, 
San Pedro Cucuchu- Turiquaro, 

chau, Santa Clara del Cobre, 

San Diego Cocupa, Opopeo, 
Santa F6, S. Francisco Uruapan, 

S. Geronimo Purun- Jucotacato, 

choquaro, San Gregorio, 

Reyes de Tirindaro, San Lorenzo, 
NaVanja, Santiago Angagua, 

S. Francisco Tarexero, San Juan Parangare- 
Cuenco, cutiro, 

Sipiajo, San Salvador, 

Comauja, San Pedro Sacan, 

Santiago Azajo, Santa Ana Tzirosto, 

Santa Ana Zacapo, San Marcos Apo, 
S. Francisco Etuquaro, Xapuquirio, 
San Miguel del Monte, San Francisco Corupo, 
Capuyo, San Felipe de los Cer- 

Indaparapeo, ros, 

Santiago Inguyo, Guango, 

S. Miguel Tarimbaro, San Antonio Urecho, 
Santiago de la Pnente, Echucandiro, 
Santa Maria Siqui- Santiago Undameo, 

nam, Tiripitio, 

San Luis Naguatzen, Aruramba, 
San Francisco Cheran, Acutzio, 
Santa Maria Coma- San Juan Puruandiro, 
chuen, San Francisco Anga- 

San Geronimo Arant- moqutiro, 

zan, Santiago Conguripo, 

S. Pedro Paracho, S. Andres Panindi- 

S. Juan Pomaquaran, quaro, 
S. Mateo Aguiran, Sta. Maria Aquanato, 

Santa Maria U rap ichu, S.Miguel Epexam, 
S.BartolomeCucucho, Santiago Numaran, 
Sta Cruz Tanaco, Rincon de Zaragoza. 

[The town of Pa c quaro seems for nothing more 
notable than for containing the ashes of a man, 
whose memory, after a lapse of two centuries 



P A S 



and a half, is still venerated by the Indians, the 
famous Vasco de Quiroga, alluded to by our au 
thor, and who died in 1556 at the village of Urua- 
pa. This zealous prelate, whom the indigenous 
still call their father ( Tata don Vasco) , was more 
successful in his endeavours to protect the unfor 
tunate inhabitants of Mexico than the virtuous 
bishop of Chiapa, Bartholome de las Casas. 
Quiroga became in an especial manner the bene 
factor of the Tarasc Indians, whose industry 
he encouraged. He prescribed one particular 
branch of commerce to each Indian village. 
These useful institutions are in a great mea 
sure preserved to this day. The height of Pas- 
cuaro is 2200 metres (or 7217 feet). Its present 
population 6000.] 

[PASQUIARO, a small town of the inten- 
dancy of Durango, to the s. of the Rio de Nasas. 
Population 5600.] 

[PASQUOTANK, a county of N. Carolina 
in Edenton district, n. of Albemarle sound. It 
contains 5497 inhabitants, including 1623 slaves.] 

fPASQUOTANK, a small river of N. Carolina, 
which rises in the Great Dismal Swamp, and 
passing by Hertford, falls into Albemarle sound.] 

[PASSAGE Fort, a small town of the island 
of Jamaica ; situate in the road between Port 
Royal and Spanish town, seven miles s. e. of 
the latter, and at the mouth of Cobre river, 
where is a fort with 10 or 12 guns. It has a 
brisk trade, and contains about 400 houses, the 
greatest part of them houses of entertainment.] 

[PASSAGE Island, lies across the mouth of the 
river Cobeca, near the n. w. part of the island of 
Porto R co. The harbour for ships is at the e. 
end of the island.] 

[PASSAGE Islands, Great and Little, two of 
the Virgin islands in the W. Indies, near the e. 
end of the island of Porto Rico. Lat. 18 20 w. 
Long. 65 17 / w.~] 

[PASSAGE Point, in the straits of Magellan, 
lies at the a\ end of Royal Reach, and five leagues 
W.n.zo. of Fortescue s bay.] 

[PASSAIK, or PASAICK, is a very crooked 
river. It rises in a large swamp in Morris 
county, New Jersey, and its course is from 
w. n. w. to e. s. e. until it mingles with the 
Hackinsak at the head of Newark bay. It is 
navigable about 10 miles, and is 230 yards wide 
at the ferry. The cataract, or great falls, in this 
river, is one of the greatest natural curiosities in 
the state. The river is about 40 yards wide, and 
moves in a slow, gentle current, until, coming 
within a short distance of a deep cleft in a 
rock which crosses the channel, it descends and 



PASSAMAQUODDY. 



[falls above 70 feet perpendicular, in one entire 
sheet, presenting a most beautiful and tremen 
dous scene. The new manufacturing town of 
Patterson is erected on the great falls of this 
river ; and its banks are adorned with many 
elegant country seats. It abounds with fish of 
various kinds. There is a bridge 500 feet long, 
over this river, on the post road from Philadel 
phia to New York.] 

[PASSAMAQUODDY, a bay and river, near 
which is the division line between the British 
province of New Brunswick and the United 
States of America. The island of Campo Bello, 
in the N. Atlantic ocean, is at the middle or w. 
passage of the bay, in lat. 45 n. and long. 66 
52 / w. The distance of Cross Isle, Machias, to 
W. Passamaquoddy head is nine leagues n. e. by 
e. and from the head over the bar to Allen s Isle 
n. n. w. two leagues. When you corne from the 
$. w. and are bound into W. Passamaquoddy, 
you must give the Seal Hocks a birth of three 
quarters of a mile before you haul in from the 
harbour, as there is a whirlpool to the e. of them. 
The bay is about a league from this point. It is 
high water here at the full and change of the 
moon, about the same time as at Boston. There 
are three rivers which fall into this bay ; the 
largest is called by the modern Indians, the 
Scoodick ; but by De Mons and Champlaine, 
Etchemins. Its main source is near Penobscot 
river, and the carrying-place between the two 
rivers is but three miles. See NEW BRUNSWICK. 
The mouth of Passamaquoddy river has 25 fathoms 
water. 

The following official document consists of the 
joint address of his Majesty s council and the 
house of representatives of the province of New 
Brunswick, in general assembly, respecting the 
islands in Passamaquoddy Bay, which had been 
claimed by the Americans, and gives a just idea 
of their importance to the British government. 

Having long entertained a confident hope, that 
the possession of Moose island, Dudley island, 
and Frederic island, in Passamaquoddy Bay, 
usurped by the state of Massachusetts, would 
never be sanctioned by an act, or avowed acquies 
cence on the part of his Majesty s government ; 
but that his Majesty s indisputable right to these 
islands would in due time be effectually asserted ; 
it is with very great concern that we now find, 
from a passage in a letter from Mr. Merry to 
your honour, stating the communications made 
to him by Mr. Madison, the American secretary 
of state, on the subject of these islands, that the 
United States do actually consider their present 

VOL. IV. 



possession as having been so sanctioned ; and 
that they are prepared to construe his Majesty s 
forbearance in his behalf, as having already war 
ranted their claim of an entire right to these 
islands. 

In the letter above referred to, Mr. Merry states, 
" that the American minister observed to him, 
that since his Majesty s government have allowed 
the United States to remain in possession of the 
above-mentioned islands, the waters which sur 
round them, to the distance to which the jurisdic 
tion of any territory is usually understood to ex 
tend, ought equally to be considered as American ; 
and added, that although he could not properly 
refer, on this occasion, to the convention between 
his Majesty and the United States, concluded in 
London, on the 12th of May, 1803, because it had 
not been ratified, nevertheless, by that convention, 
the islands in question were declared to belong to 
the United States ; an arrangement which would 
probably be confirmed whenever the matter of the 
boundary line between the two territories should 
again be brought into discussion ; the more so, 
because it was not the article respecting the e. 
boundary on the side of New Brunswick which 
occasioned the convention to remain unratified." 

As a hope may be entertained that the conven 
tion referred to by Mr. Madison respecting these 
islands may not yet be ratified, we request your 
honour to transmit to his Majesty s ministers 
this our joint address, on a subject of such im 
portance to his Majesty s government, and the 
rights and interests of his faithful subjects in this 
province. 

After the full discussion of the question of 
right to these islands, in the correspondence 
between his Majesty s ministers and his excel 
lency the lieutenant-governor of this province, 
on former occasions, particularly his excellency s 
dispatch to his Grace the Duke of Portland, 
dated 5th August, 1799, and the letters and do 
cuments therein mentioned, it may be thought 
superfluous to do more than generally to refer to 
those papers on the present occasion. We trust, 
however, that the magnitude of the object will 
justify our attempt to bring within a small com 
pass the result of those discussions, adding thereto 
some further observations which more imme 
diately press upon our attention, and which we 
hope will merit the consideration of his Majesty s 
ministers. 

That part of the second article of the treaty of 
peace between his Majesty and the United States 
which respects the present question is expressed 
as follows : " East, by a line to be drawn along] 

K 



PASSAMAQUODDY. 



[the middle of the river St. Croix, from its mouth 
jn the Bay of Fundy, to its source, &c. compre 
hending all islands within 20 leagues of any part 
of the shores of the United States, and lying 
between lines to be drawn due e. from the point 
where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova 
Scotia on the one part, and E. Florida on the 
other part, shall respectively touch the Bay of 
Fundy, and the Atlantic Ocean, excepting such 
islands as now are, or heretofore have been, 
within the limits of the said province of Nova 
Scotia." 

6 The islands hereby granted are evidently such, 
and such only, as are within 20 leagues of the 
coast, and also lie between those parallels of 
latitudes by which the shores of the ceded country 
are limited at their n. and s. extremeties. Hence 
all islands, not with those parallels, however near 
they may be to the shore, are certainly excluded 
from the grant : and of those which are within 
the parallels, all such as then were, or ever had 
been, within the limits of Nova Scotia, are also 
excluded. From the treaty of peace, therefore, 
the United States can derive no shadow of claim 
to the islands in question ; and his Majesty s 
original right to them remains entire and incon- 
testible. 

* For, we believe, it has never been contro 
verted, -even by the American government, that 
these islands always before the treaty of peace, 
were comprehended within the limits, and con 
stituted a part of the province of Nova Scotia, 
which it was the obvious intention of the treaty 
to reserve to his Majesty, by its utmost limits ; 
a reference to the original boundaries of the 
province in Sir William Alexander s patent, and 
to the description of the boundaries in all the 
commissions to his Majesty s governors of the 
province and the actual grant of two of these 
islands to Francis Bernard, and others, by letters 
patent under the seal of the province of Nova 
Scotia, bearing date the 30th October, 1765, 
place this fact beyond all dispute. 

These islands, at the time when the province of 
New Brunswick was erected in the year 1784, 
were all possessed and inhabited by his Majesty s 
subjects ; they were, by an act of the general as 
sembly of the province, passed in January 1786, 
for the purpose of dividing the several countries 
into towns and parishes, expressly made a part of 
the parish of W. Isles, in the county of Charlotte ; 
and their inhabitants yielded obedience to the 
laws of the province, in attending to the several 
duties which they were called upon to perform 
by the courts and magistrates established and 



appointed in that county ; and we cannot but 
consider it as a matter of serious regret, that 
the possession of these islands, shortly after 
wards usurped by the State of Massachusetts, 
and hitherto continued, has given rise to a claim 
of territorial right, on the part of that state, 
founded merely upon that possession. 

We now beg leave briefly to hint at some of 
the mischiefs and inconveniences which have re 
sulted from this continued usurpation. Very 
large quantities of lumber, furnished from the 
neighbouring parts of the province, are purchased 
by the American subjects, and carried to these 
islands for exportation ; which lumber is paid for 
with prohibited articles from the United States; 
and they in the same manner engross almost the 
whole of the produce of the fisheries among these 
islands, which is also paid for in the same man 
ner ; and thus we sustain a double injury. The 
W. India islands are, in a great measure, pre 
cluded from receiving their supplies of fish and 
lumber in British bottoms ; and large quantities 
of contraband goods are introduced into this pro 
vince, to the great injury of the commercial 
interests of Great Britain, as well as of the fair 
merchants and traders residing here. 

Their situation enables the inhabitants of these 
islands to engross a very great proportion of the 
plaster trade from this and the neighbouring pro 
vince of Nova Scotia, which is now become of 
great magnitude and extent, whereby his Majes 
ty s subjects are deprived of a very highly valu 
able carrying trade in this article. 

These islands are become places of refuge for 
insolent debtors, and disorderly persons of every 
description, particularly of deserters from his 
Majesty s service : all attempts to recover whom 
are insolently resisted. 

By the possession of these islands, great facility 
is given to the conveyance, in small vessels, of 
contraband articles of every description to vari 
ous parts of this province and Nova Scotia : so 
that the fair British merchant can have no equal 
competition with these illicit traders, even in the 
sale of British and W. Indian goods. 

Whereas, on the contrary, if these islands were 
in the possession of his Majesty s subjects, very 
large quantities of fish and lumber would be 
thereby furnished by them for the supply of the 
British W. [ndia islands, the present ruinous 
contraband trade greatly interrupted, and a very 
beneficial carrying trade, in the article of plaster 
of Paris, in a great measure secured. 

Or, if the Americans were dispossessed of these 
islands, there is no other situation in that neigh-J 



PASSAMAQUODDY. 



67 



[bourhood which could give them the advantages 
arid opportunities to injure the trade of this pro 
vince, which they now enjoy. 

4 To these considerations it may be added, that 
in case of hostilities at any time in the United 
States, or countenance given by them to hostile 
attacks from any other country, the province, by 
the possession of these islands, would, in that 
quarter, be rendered more secure from attack, 
and capable of defence. 

Impressed with the importance of the foregoing 
considerations, we indulge the hope, that the 
transmission of the address by your honour to 
his Majesty s ministers may be productive of 
important benefits to the interests and welfare of 
his Majesty s subjects in this province. 

(Signed) 

G. D. Ludlow, Speaker of the Council. 
A.Botsford, Speaker of the House of Assembly. 

Presented in March, 1807. 
Transmitted in June, 1807.] 

[PASSAMAQUODDY Post-Office, on the above 
described bay, is kept at a little village at the 
mouth of Cobscook river, 17 miles this side Bre 
wer s, the easternmost post-office in the United 
States, 20 n. e. of Machias, 378 n. e. of Boston, 
and 728 in alike direction from Philadelphia ; the 
above distances includingthe turnings of the road.] 

[PASSAM AQUODDlES, a tribe of Indians 
who inhabit near the waters of Passamaquoddy 
Bay.] 

[PASSAO, a cape on the coast of Peru, on the 
S. Pacific ocean, under the equator.] 

[PASSO MAGNO, a river of Florida, in lat. 
S6n.l 

[PASSUMPSIC, a small river of Vermont, 
runs a s. course and empties into Connecticut 
river, below the Fifteen-Mile-Falls, in the town 
of Barnet.] 

[PASSYUNK, a township in Philadelphia 
county, Pennsylvania.] 

PASTA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Popayan and Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada; founded near the coast of the S. Sea, 
on the shores of a lake of the same name, and w. 
of the capital. 

PASTAGOROS, or PANTAGOROS, a nation 
of barbarous Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada, who inhabit the woods to the e. of the 
grand river Magdalena. They are cruel, feroci 
ous, and treacherous, and use poisoned arrows. 

PASTAR, a settlement of the province and 
government of Popayan in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. 



PASTAZA, or PASTACA, a large and naviga 
ble river of the kingdom of Quito ; which rises 
in the sierra of the provinces of Riobamba and 
Latacunga, runs for more than 100 leagues till it 
enters the Maranon or Amazon by the s. shore, 
with four mouths, and forming three islands near 
the settlement of Banos, by which it passes. It 
receives on the e . side 25 rivers, and on the w. 
15, and from that place takes the name of Pas- 
taza, first running into those of San Felipe, 
Patate, and others of the villages by which it 
passes. In the woods of its vicinity towards the 
w. dwell some barbarian Indians, the Muratas 
and Xibaros, and towards the e. the Gaes, Semi- 
gaes, and Mainas Zimarrones. Its mouth is in 
lat. 48 3" s. 

PASTEPEC, SAN JOSEPH DE, a settlement 
of the district and head settlement of Tlacolula, 
and alcafdia mayor of Xalupa in Nueva Espana ; 
founded at the skirt of a mountain, which gives 
it its name ; of a mild temperature, but far from 
being fertile. One league and a half e. n. e. of 
its head settlement. 

PASTO, a district and corregimiento of the 
province and government of Popayan in the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada; one of the 11 into 
which the same is divided, and the most s. : bound 
ed s. by the province of Ibarra. It is extremely 
abundant in fine pastures, and consequently in 
cattle, so that, on this account, its first founders 
gave it this name. It is irrigated by several 
large rivers, which incorporate themselves with 
the Napo and Putumayo, to enter the Maranon 
or Amazon ; and on the s. flow down from the 
cordillera, the river Guachicono, S. Jorqe, and 
Masamorras, which enter the Patia. 

It is of an hot temperature, and produces much 
wheat and of so fine a quality, that in no part of 
the world is the bread so fine as here. It has 
some gold mines, which are little worked from 
the want of Indians and Negroes ; the former 
being exempt from this labour by a royal edict, 
and devoting themselves rather to agricultural 
pursuits. In the woods are certain trees which 
distil a resin here called mopa-mopa, and of which 
they make all sorts of varnish, which is so durable, 
that neither have boiling water or acids any 
effect on it. The method of applying it is by 
putting into the mouth a part of the resin, and, 
when it is moistened, by rubbing the brush upon it, 
and then applying it to the object to be painted, 
when it becomes dry, and of a most beautiful and 
lively colour, imitating the China colours ; and 
with this particular recommendation, that it 
never fades, nor does moisture have any effect 



08 PAS 

upon it. The pictures and articles painted in 
this manner, are carried by the Indians to be 
sold at Quito and the other settlements of the 
kingdom, where they are in high estimation. 

In this province the rivers of Guaitara and 
Juanambu are passed en taravita, each person 
paying a silver-real, and the same being the 
price for every horse-load ; and the settlements 
of the above names take care to be well provided 
with ropes, and other articles necessary for this 
purpose. The population consists of 33 settle 
ments, which are as follows : 

Yascual, Pupiales, 

Ancuya y Abades, Potosi, 

Biusaco and Juan- Gualmata, 

ambu, Ingenios, 

Sapuyes, Sibunday, 

Tambo Pintado, Huacca, 

Jongobito, Tulcan, 

Mocoa, Carlozama, 

Yayanquer, Cumbal, 

Funes, Mayasquer, 

Sucumbios, Mallama, 

Puntal, Puerres, 

Tussa, Males, 

Hipiales, Canchala, 

Tuquerres, Galea, 

Mocondino, Anope or Guaypi, 

Nanegal, Esmeraldas. 

The capital is the city of the same name, with 
the dedicatory title of San Juan, and the surname 
of Villaviciosa ; founded by captain Lorenzo de 
Aldana, in 1539, in an extensive llanura. It is 
of a severe climate, but healthy, and fertile in 
vegetable productions, seeds, and sugar canes, 
of which they make much sugar. It is situate at 
the skirt of a mountain, at the top of which is a 
volcano, which, ever since the conquest, had 
never ceased to vomit fire and ashes until the 
year 1727, since which time, as no eruption has 
appeared, it is thought that all the inflammable 
materials have been consumed. 

It has a very good parish church, the convents 
of the order of San Francisco, Santo Domingo, 
San Agustin, La Merced, a college which belong 
ed to the Jesuits, a monastery of nuns of LaCon- 
cepcion, and two hermitages at the entrance and 
egress of the city. 

Its population is composed of 8000 souls, 
amongst whom are many noble, though poor, 
families. The natives are very clever and indus 
trious workmen ; their wooden manufactures 
are much esteemed in all parts, and they have a 
method of varnishing them with something that 
resembles japan. Eighty five miles nearly s. s. w. 



PAT 

of Popayan, and 115 n. n. e. of Quito, in lat. 1 
14 , and long. 77 6" w. 

PASTOCA, a very lofty mountain of the pro 
vince of Pasto in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, 
near its capital ; on its top is a lake of more than 
24 leagues long, and in its waters, which are 
always very cold, no fish will breed. 

PASTORA, LA DIVINA, a settlement of the 
province and government of La Guayana or 
Nueva Andalucia ; situate on the shore of the 
river Yaruario. 

PASTORIA, a large lake of the province of 
Tepeguana in Nuevo Vizcaya. It is formed of 
different streams of very fresh and wholesome 
water, and on its shores graze an infinite number 
of lesser cattle. 

PASUCHUA, a very lofty mountain or paramo 
of the kingdom of Quito, continually covered 
with snow. 

PASUDO, ASUNCIONDE, a settlement of the 
province of Pataz and of the missions of Caxa- 
marquilla, which are held at the charge of the 
religious observers of San Francisco ; on the 
shore and at the source of the river Guallaga. 

PASUNDELE, a settlement of the Indians of 
the kingdom of Chile, on the shore of the river 
Comoleuun. 

PASUQUE, a settlement of the Nuevo Mex 
ico in N. America ; situate on the shore of the 
river Grande del Norte, between those of Sitaj 
and Tesuque. 

PATA, a settlement of the province and corre- 
gimiento of Angaraez in Peru, annexed to the- 
curacy of Yulcamarca. Its natives are much 
given to carpenters-work, and make with great 
neatness tables, saddles, and benches, with which 
they trade with the other provinces. 

PAT A, a settlement in the province and govern 
ment of S. Juan de Los Llanos in the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada. 

PATA, a river, of the same province and king 
dom as the former settlement, which enters the 
Magdalena, opposite the settlement of Neiva 
Vieja. 

[PATAGOA, a river on the coast of Brazil, 
which enters the ocean s. w. of Rio Janeyro.] 

PATAGONES, or TIRUMENOS, a barbarous 
nation of Indians, who live in the mountains and 
woods of the lands of Magellan, n. of the strait, 
and e. of the kingdom of Chile, in the province 
called Chica. They go entirely naked and wan 
der about, sustaining themselves by the chace. 
They are of lofty stature, well made and valorous, 
but treacherous ; some have pretended that they 
were formidable giants, and called their country 



PAT 

de Los Gigantes (of the giants). The father 
Torrubia, in his Gigantologia, printed in 1756, 
to prove the existence of the giants, quotes the 
Patagonians of the lands of Magellan ; but who 
ever scrutinizes the strength of what he adv ances, 
will see that according to all appearance and 
agreeably with the assertion of D. Proxpero del 
Aguila, he brings forward nothing of greater 
authenticity than what had already been pro 
duced. Mr. Fraser, in his voyage to S. America, 
assures us of the existence of these giants, not 
only as he had seen them himself but by an im 
plicit credit of others who had also been eye-w it- 
nesses to them ; and he thus asserted them to 
be of nine or 10 feet in height. 

The general received opinion is, that they are 
certainly above the common stature, but not 
giants ; and with all the proofs and reasons pro 
duced by the father Torrubia, we cannot but 
rather give our assent to what is told us by Sir 
Hans Sloane, in his celebrated work inserted in 
the Philosophical Transactions, No. 404, and ex 
tracted as a supplement to the celebrated Cham 
bers Dictionary, as also to what has been so 
judiciously suggested on the subject by Dr. D. 
Casimiro, first professor of botany in the royal 
garden, in the translation of the voyage of com 
mandant Byron. Fernando de Magallanes was 
the first who knew these Indians, when he arrived 
at port S. Julian, in 1519. 

The country abounds in stags, wolves, bears, 
tigers and ostriches. The names given by Mr. 
de la Martiniere to the different tribes of Envo, 
Kemenetes, Kennecas, and Karaykes, are mere 
fables and inventions, of which we cannot discover 
the origin, as are also the provinces in which the 
said tribes are said to live, and which that author 
calls Cossi, Karay, Karamay, Morena, Coin, &c. 
Now, all that we can assert on the subject, is, 
that we call the coast of the Patagonians all 
that extent from the mouth of the river La 
Plata as far as the straits of Magellan, and that 
the same was reconnoitred, by order of the king, 
in 1745, by the naval captain D. Joaquin de 
Olivares, accompanied by the fathers Joseph Ca- 
rodiel and Joseph Quiroga, of the company of 
Jesus, and the pilot D. Diego Varela ; and that 
the extent of coast, included under the above 
title, is between lat. 36 40 and 52 20 s. and 
extends from Cape Antonio, to the bay of S. 
George, to the 5. e. From all the above we con- 
elude, that the Patagonians are a very large race 
of men, and that they are very numerous. 

PATAGAHATCHE, a river of the province 



PAT 



(39 



and colony of S. Carolina, which runs s. and 
enters the Chichachas. 

PATAHUASI, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Catabambas in Peru ; an 
nexed to the curacy of Llaqua. 

PATAMACK. [See PATOWMACK.] 

PATAMBA, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district, and alcaldia mayor of Peri- 
ban in Nueva Espaiia. It contains 292 fami 
lies of Indians, and 12 of Spaniards, Mustees, 
and Mulattoes ; also a convent of the monks of 
S. Francisco. Its commerce consists in making 
cups, jars, and other vessels of a very cele 
brated clay found in its district, and much 
esteemed in the other jurisdictions as giving a 
great fragrance to the water when drank, and 
inasmuch as it is also asserted to have bene 
ficial virtues against the flux of blood. A little 
more than eight leagues e. of its capital. 

PATAMBUCO, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru; annexed 
to the curacy of its capital. 

PATAMfcRAGOUCHE, a settlement of In 
dians of Nova Scotia, on the e. coast and at 
the strait of Canseau. 

PATANEIMA, a port of the province and 
government of Caracas in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada, to the w. and at a small distance from 
Port Cabello. 

PATAPA, SANTA MARIA DE, a settlement 
of the head settlement of the district, and al 
caldia mayor of Tehuantepec in Nueva Espana. 
It is of a mild temperature, contains a convent 
of the order of S. Domingo, and has a scanty 
population, employed in agriculture. Twelve 
leagues n. of its capital. 

[PATAPSCO, a navigable river of Mary 
land, which empties from the n. w. into Chesa- 
peak bay ; its mouth being formed by North 
point, and Bodkin point on the s. which last is in 
lat. 39 W n. It rises in York county, Penn- 
sylvani, and pursues a s. and s. e. course till it 
reaches Elkridge landing, about eight miles s. w. 
of Baltimore ; it there turns e. over falls, and 
widens into a broad bay-like stream to its mouth. 
It is about 30 or 40 yards wide just before it 
communicates with the bason, on which stands 
the large commercial town of Baltimore. The 
first discoverer called it Bolus river, from the 
red earth found near it, resembling bole-am 
moniac. It is navigable for vessels drawing 18 
feet water to Fell s point at Baltimore ; but the 
falls a little above Elkridge landing, prevents the 
navigation farther.] 



70 



P A T 



PATAQUENA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru ; an 
nexed to the curacy of Libitaco. 

PATARI, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito ; 
which runs from e. to w. and united with the 
Agua Sucia, forms the Tululvi. 

PATASASA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Guanta in Peru ; annexed to the 
curacy of Guamanguilla. 

PATATE. a district of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Ambato in the kingdom of Quito. 
It extends between two low chains of mountains, 
and is divided by the river of its name : is of an 
hot temperature, and territory fertile in all kinds 
of vegetable productions, and particularly in 
sugar canes. The mountain Tunguraqua, which 
is situate to the s. renders it somewhat unplea 
sant, from the continual winds blowing from that 
quarter ; but it is well peopled, and has some 
pretty and well cultivated gardens. 

Its name is taken from that of the principal 
settlement, situate on the e. shore of the river. 
Here is manufactured much sugar, the which is 
greatly esteemed in all the kingdom from the su 
perior quality of the sugar canes. There is one 
day in the week fixed for a holiday or public 
fair, at which meet numbers of people from Am 
bato, Tacunga, Rio Bamba, and Quito. In lat. 
lSlf 

PATATE, the aforesaid river rises in the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Tacunga, of the same 
kingdom. It is formed by other smaller rivers, 
such as that of San Felipe, which rises in the 
paramo of Cotopaxi, that of San Miguel, near the 
settlement of this name, and that of Ambato. It 
takes, itself, its name from the settlement by 
which it passes in a large stream, following its 
course to s. e. until it enters the river Pastaza, 
in the province and government of Mainas. 

[PATAVIRCA. See PATIVILCA.] 

[PATAZ, a jurisdiction in the diocess of 
Truxillo in S. America. It is situate among 
the mountains, and lias a variety of products, 
of which gold is the chief. The capital is the 
city of the same name, 97 miles e. of Truxillo.] 

PATAZ. See CAXAMARQUILLA. 

PATAZ, a settlement of the former province 
and corregimiento : also thus called as being the 
capital. 

PATAZCACHA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexed 
to the curacy of Guamanguilla. 

PATCOOTYEAK, a river of the province 



P A T 

and colony of Nova Scotia, which rims s. then 
turns s. e. and enters the great bay of Fundy. 

[PATEHUCA, or PATIOCA, a town of Mexico 
in N. America, having a silver-mine in its vi 
cinity ; n. n. e. of Mexico.] 

PATESONS, a small river of the province 
and colony of Virginia in N. America. It 
runs n. e. 

PATI, a river of the province of Bogota in 
the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises from the 
lake Guatavita, and forming nearly a circle, di 
rects its course through Santa Fe to enter the 
Magdalena. 

PATIA, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Popayan in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. 

PATIA, a large and abundant river of this pro 
vince, which is the boundary line to the kingdom 
of Quito. It runs from n. to s. for many leagues, 
traversing the celebrated valley to which it gives 
its name, and after collecting in its course the 
waters of the Mayu, turns w. laves the province 
of Barbacoas, and enters the Pacific or S. Sea by 
1 1 mouths which form different islands ; between 
lat. 2 W n. 

PATIA, the aforesaid valley is between the two 
chains of mountains, or cordilleras, in the pro 
vince of Popayan, and extend from n. to s. for 
many leagues. The climate is very hot and un 
healthy, and consequently barren. The territory 
is unpeopled, but produces excellent cotton, of 
which no use is made. 

[PATIENCE, an island in Narraganset bay, 
Rhode Island, and lies s. e. of Warwick neck, 
three-fourths of a mile. .It is about two miles 
long and one broad.] 

PATINO, a point on the coast of the pro 
vince and government of Darien, and kingdom of 
Tierra Firme of the S. Sea, within the gulf of 
San Miguel. 

PATIVA, a small river of the province and 
captainship of Los Ilheos in Brazil. It rises near 
the coast, runs e. and enters the sea between the 
rivers Grande and Juzia. 

PATIVILCA, or PATIVIRCA, as others have 
it, a settlement of the province and corregimiento 
of Santa in Peru ; situate in the road which they 
call De Valles, and which leads from Paita to Lima : 
[74 miles n. of that city.] It has 50 or 60 houses, 
with a proportionate number of inhabitants, but 
very few Spaniards. In its vicinity, towards the 
n. are seen the ruins and remains of a palace and 
fortress of the Incas of Peru, which, from the size 
of the stones and thickness of the walls, should 



PAT 



PAT 



71 



appeal; to have been works of great magnificence. 
Along; the whole road from this settlement to the 
town of Guarmey, we find ruins of other edi 
fices equally sumptuous ; and it is proved that 
these were the places which the Incas used for 
their recreation. 

PATLA, SANTA MARIA DE, a settlement of 
the head settlement of the district of Olintla, and 
alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan in Nueva Espana ; 
situate in a delightful glen, watered and fertilized 
by various rivers. Nine leagues from its head 
settlement. 

PATO, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada, and of the district of the Rio del 
Hacha ; situate on the shore of this river, to 
the n. of its capital. 

PATO, a river of the province and government 
of Popayan in the same kingdom ; which rises in 
the paramo of Guanacas, runs s. c. and enters the 
Caqueta by the n. part, in lat. 1 31 n. 

PATO, a small island, situate at the mouth of 
the gulf of Triste or Los Dragos, near the coast, 
in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. 

PATO, another, a small river of the province 
arid government of Guayana or Nueva Andalu- 
cia, which, according to Mr. Bellin, enters the 
Meta. 

PATOS, LAGUNA GRANDE DE, a large lake 
in the province and captainship of Rey in Brazil. 
It is many leagues in length from n. to s., is 
near the coast, and on its side the Portuguese 
have established two guards, called, the one Del 
Norte, the other De la Cabellada. 

PATOS, another lake, in the province and cap 
tainship of Todos Santos in the same kingdom. 
It is at the foot of the sierra of Mongavein, 
between the river Real and that of Paramerin. 

PATOS, a river in the province and govern 
ment of Florida, which runs s. and enters the 
sea to the w. of the river Apalacliicola. 

PATOS, another, a small river of the province 
and captainship of Rey in Brazil, which runs e. 
and enters the sea in the bay of Biraguera. 

[PATOWMACK, or POTOMACK, a large and 
noble river, which rises by two branches, the n. 
and the s. which originate in and near the Al- 
leghany mountains, and forms, through its whole 
course, part of the boundary between the states 
of Virginia and Maryland. Its course is n. e. 
to Fort Cumberland, thence turning to the e. it 
receives Conecochague creek from Pennsylvania; 
then pursuing a s. e. course, it receives the She- 
handoah from the s. w. ; after this it runs a s. e. 
and s. course till it reaches Maryland point ; 



thence to its mouth it runs s. e. In its course it 
receives several considerable streams, which are 
described under their respective heads. The 
distance from the capes of Virginia to the termi 
nation of the tide water in this river, is above 
300 miles including the windings ; and navigable 
for ships of the greatest burden nearly that dis 
tance. From thence this river, obstructed by 
four considerable falls, extends through a vast 
tract of inhabited country towards its source. 
Early in the year 1785, the legislatures of Vir 
ginia and Maryland passed acts to encourage 
opening the navigation of this river. It was esti 
mated that the expence of the works would 
amount to 50,000 sterling, and 10 years were 
allowed for their completion. This noble river 
passes by many flourishing towns; the chief of 
which are, Shepherdstown, Georgestown, Wash 
ington city, Alexandria, New Marlborough, and 
Charlestown or port Tobacco. It is 7| miles 
wide at its mouth, 4 at Nomony bay, three at 
Aquia, 1 1 at Hallowing point, and 1| at Alex 
andria. Its soundings are seven fathoms at the 
mouth, five at St. George s island, 4| at Lower 
Matchodic, three at Swan s point and thence up 
to Alexandria. The tides in the river are not 
very strong, excepting after great rains, when 
the ebb is pretty strong ; then there is little or 
no flood, and there is never more than four or 
five hours flood, except with long and strong s. 
winds. In order to form just conceptions of this 
inland navigation, it would be requisite to notice 
the long rivers which empty into the Patow- 
mack, and survey the geographical position of 
the w. waters. The distance of the waters of 
the Ohio to Patowmack will be from 15 to 40 
miles, according to the trouble which will be 

. . 

taken to approach the two navigations. The 
upper part of this river, until it passes the Blue 
ridge, is called, in Fry and Jefferson s map, 
Cohongoronto.l 

[PATRICK, St. a small town, the chief of 
Camden county, Georgia ; situate on Great Sa- 
tilla river, about 32 miles from its mouth, and 
the same distance n. zo. of the town of St. 
Mary sJ 

[PATTERSON, a town in Bergen county, 
New Jersey, called so in honour of the governor 
of the state of that name, and now oiie of the 
judges of the supreme federal court. It was 
established in consequence of an act of the le 
gislature of New Jersey, in 1791, incorporating 
a manufacturing company with peculiar privi 
leges. Its situation on the great falls of Pas- 
saic river, is healthy and agreeable. It now con- 



72 P A T 

tains about 50 dwelling-houses, independent of 
those appropriated for tli machinery ; and it is 
certainly one of the most convenient situations 
for a manufacturing town of any on the conti 
nent. This company was incorporated to en 
courage all kinds of manufactures, and the sum 
of 500,000 dollars was soon subscribed ; but for 
want of experience, and a proper knowledge of 
the business, much was expended to little pur 
pose ; and they were at last reduced to the ne 
cessity of having recourse to a lottery to assist 
them in carrying their plan into execution. It 
is said that matters are now conducted more 
judiciously, and that the undertaking promises to 
be useful to the public, and beneficial to the pro 
prietors. It is 19 miles n. e. of Morristown, and 
10 n. of Newark.] 

[PATUCKET, a small village about four 
miles n. e. of Providence, a busy place of con 
siderable trade, and where manufactures of seve 
ral kinds are carried on with spirit. Through 
this village runs Patucket, or Pawtucket river, 
which empties into Seehonk river at this place. 
The river Patucket, called more n. Blackstone s 
river, has a beautiful fall of water, directly over 
which a bridge has been built, on the line which 
divides the commonwealth of Massachusetts from 
the state of Rhode Island ; distant about 37 miles 
s. by w. of Boston. The confluent stream emp 
ties into Providence river about a mile below 
Weybossctt, or the Great bridge. The fall, in 
its whole length, is upwards of 50 feet ; and the 
water passes through several chasms in a rock, 
which, extending diametrically across the bed of 
the stream, serves as a dam to the water. Se 
veral mills have been erected upon these falls ; 
and the spouts and channels which have been 
constructed to conduct the streams of their re 
spective wheels, and the bridge, have taken very 
much from the beauty and grandeur of the scene ; 
which would otherwise have been indescribably 
charming and romantic.] 

PATUGOA, a river of the province and cap 
tainship of San Vincente in Brazil ; runs s. and 
enters the sea opposite the Isla Grande. 

PATURE, a point on the w. coast of the 
island S. Domingo, and in the part possessed by 
the French, between the Cayo Icarnier and the 
Trou Forban. 

PATUTE, a settlement of Indians of the 
Tuneba nation, a reduction of missions which 
were held by the Jesuits in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada ; situate near the river Cazanare. The 
natives are weak, idle, and are subject to a dis 
order similar to St. Anthony s fire, which they 



P A U 

call carate, and paint their skin of various co 
lours. They maintain themselves by collecting 
and selling the resins of certain trees of two 
kinds, called, the one carana, and the other 
otoba : they both have a fetid smell, but are 
good for curing the itch, worms which are apt 
to breed in the feet, and crab-lice. After the 
abolition of the order of the Jesuits, these mis 
sions fell under the charge of the religious order 
of S. Domingo. 

PATUXED, a large, handsome, and conve 
nient bay, of the province and colony of New 
England. 

PATUXENT, or PATUXET, a river of the 
province and colony of Maryland in N. America. 
[This river, which is navigable, rises about 10 
miles w. e. of Washington, empties into the w. side 
of Chesapeak bay, between Drum and Hog island 
points, 15 or 20 miles n. of the mouth of the Pa- 
towmac. It admits vessels of 250 tons to Not 
tingham, nearly 35 miles from its mouth, and of 
boats to Queen Anne, eight miles higher. Pa- 
tuxent is as remarkable a river as any in the 
bay, having very high land on its n. side, with 
red banks or cliffs. When you double Drum 
point, you come too in 2^ and 3 fathoms water, 
where you will be secure from all winds.] 

PAUCANNA, a river of the province and 
government of San Juan de los Llanos in the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises s. of the 
Sinaruco, and, forming a curve in its course to 
the e. enters the Orunuco, collecting in its mid- 
career the waters of the Sinaruco. 

PAUCAR, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to the 
curacy of Caina. 

PAUCARA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Angaraez in the same kingdom 
as the former. Seven leagues from Guancavelica 
and 22 from Guarnanga. 

PAUCARA, another settlement, in the province 
and corregimicnto of Lucanas in the same king 
dom ; annexed to the curacy of Paico. 

PAUCARBAMBA, a settlement of the pro 
vince and corregimicnto of Guanta in the same 
kingdom. 

PAUCARBAMBILLA, a settlement of the 
same province and kingdom as the former ; an 
nexed to the curacy of Mayoc. 

PAUCARCOLLA, a province and corregimi- 
cnto of Peru : bounded n. e. by the lake of Ti- 
ticaca, and being surrounded on the e. by the 
lake and the province of Chuicuito, n. by that 
of Lampa, w. by the province Moquehua, and 
s. by the provinces of Arica and Pacajes. It is 



, PAD 

86 leagues long, and 28 broad. The principal 
rivers by which it is laved are, the Suches and 
the Taraco. It is of a generally cold temperature, 
and in the parts near the lake are cultivated 
papas, bark, barley, and other seeds peculiar to 
Puno. 

The principal occupation of the inhabitants is 
in breeding neat cattle, sheep, and pigs, as also 
sheep of the country, or llamas. Here are many 
vicunas, xizcachas, deer, cut/es, partridges, and 
water fowl of the lake ; from which also there 
is a good supply of fish, both for this and the 
other provinces situate on its shore. The natives 
make voyages to the other provinces of the coast 
to carry chunos, dressed hides, and thread, and 
to take in exchange wines, brandies, and other 
productions. From the wools of the cattle the 
Indians fabricate their clothes, dying them of 
various colours. 

The capital of this province was the settlement 
of the same name, and afterwards, from the po 
pulation of this having declined, it was that of 
Huancane, until the discovery of the mines of 
Laicacota, when the latter asiento became the 
chief town ; and after that, and at the present 
day, the town of Puno. 

This province has various other rich mines 
in the mountains of Cancharani and of San Jo 
seph, which have been worked with great be 
nefit ; particularly the former. On the n. of the 
aforesaid mountains is the mountain called Del 
Azogue (quicksilver), as having veins of this 
metal, and which in the time of the viceroy, the 
Count de Alva de Liste, was worked to such ad 
vantage as to excel both in the quality and 
quantity of its metal the mine of Guancavelica : 
for motives, however, of higher consideration, its 
further working was prohibited by the govern 
ment ; but since that time large proportions of 
silver have still been extracted from those moun 
tains, and from that of Cancharani not less than 
50,000 marks annually. 

The Indians of some settlements of this pro 
vince, who breed cattle, have a traffic of carrying 
to the mineral engines and mills much cow-dung, 
which they call taquia, and which they use for 
heating the metal instead of wood and coal, these 
articles being extremely dear. This practice is 
also adopted in the other provinces of the same 
temperature. 

It had a repartimiento of 102.880 dollars, and 
it paid an alca cala of 832 dollars annually. Its 
inhabitants consists of more than 26,000 souls, 
divided into the following settlements : 

VOL. IV. 



P A U 



73 



Huancane, 

Toqupani, 

Hinchupalla, 

Ticani, 

S. Pedro de Vilques, 

Cojata, 

Moxa. 



Concepcion de Puno, 

S. Pedro de Icho, 

Paucarcolla, 

Tiquillaca, 

Conima, 

Coata, 

Capachica, 

Iscallani, 

PAUCARCOLLA, a settlement of this province, 
which, as we have observed, was the capital, 
until that having greatly fallen off in population 
it resigned this title in favour of the settlement 
of Huancane. It is situate on the shore of the 
lake Titicaca. Its natives became voluntarily 
subject to Iloque Yupanqui third emperor of 
Peru. It is inhabited by some Spanish families, 
and is of an healthy but cold climate. 

PAUCARPATA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. 

PAUCARTAMBO, a province and corregi 
miento of Peru ; bounded n. w. and w. by that 
of Calca and Lares, n. e. and e. by the frontier 
of the infidel Indians, and s. by that of Quispi- 
canchi. Its length is 26 leagues from n. to s. 
and from six to seven in width. Its temperature 
is cold on the heights, but in the low parts mo 
derately warm. It produces a good quantity of 
wheat, barley, maize, papas, seeds, and other 
fruits. It is a ravine or large valley terminating 
in the mountains of the Andes, in which different 
fruit trees grow, such as papayas, lemons, water 
melons, some cotton, and coca in abundance. 
The trees here are of excellent wood, and amongst 
the rest are fine cedars. Also here are parrots 
of different kinds, monkeys, tigers, and venom 
ous reptiles. 

Through this province passes a river, which 
comes from the lakes of the cordillera of Vilca- 
nota, which, augmented by the waters of vari 
ous small rivers and streams, forms a consider 
able body of water, in which they catch soles, 
dories, olive-fish, and other fish ; this river bear 
ing^ the name of the province. 

Towards the frontiers of the infidel Indians it 
is not remembered that any conversions having 
been made ; but, in 1767, a Dominican priest of 
the province of Quito, who arrived here whilst 
on the charitable commission of collecting funds 
for the building of the church of his convent, 
visited the mountain, and brought back with him 
some 300 barbarian Indians who, notwithstand 
ing their inconstancy and rudeness, give grounds 
of expectation of a numerous conversion. 

In the mountains of this province are clear in- 



74 



P A U 



dications of mines both of silver and gold, since 
the Indians, in some of the streams, pick up 
little lumps of these metals. There are no mines, 
however, that are worked, although there is 
evidently one of quicksilver. Its corregidor had 
a repartimiento of 59,600, dollars, and it paid an 
alcabala of 467 dollars annually. The inhabi 
tants should amount to about 8000. The ca 
pital is the settlement of the same name, situate 
on the e. shore of the river of its name, 33 miles 
e. n. e. of the city of Cuzco, in lat. 13 28 s. 
nnd the settlements of its jurisdiction are, 
Paucartambo, Huayac, 

Calle, Huancana, 

Colquepata, Cedros, 

Challabamba, Chimor, 

Catca, Amparaez. 

Catcay, 

PAUCARTAMBO, a settlement and asiento of 
mines of the former capital. 

PAUCARTAMBO, another, of the province and 
corregimiento of Tarma in the same kingdom : 
where a fort has been built to restrain the incur 
sions of the infidel Indians, the Chunchos inhabit 
ing the mountains. 

PAUCARTAMBO, a river of the province and 
corregimiento of its name, which rises near the 
capital, runs n. and joining itself with the Vil- 
comayo, the Vilcobamba, and afterwards the 
Apurimac, runs many leagues with various wind 
ings through the territory of the missions of 
Caxaraarquilla, and reaches the Maranon or 
Amazon with the name of Ucayale, with a much 
enlarged stream. 

PAUCAS, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Conchucos in Peru ; annexed to 
the curacy of Uco. 

PAUCHUTLA, a settlement of the head 
settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of 
Zochiacatlan in Nueva Espana : of an hot tem 
perature, and containing 50 families of Indians. 
Two leagues n. of its capital. 

PAUCURA, a large and extensive valley of 
the province and government of Autoquia, in the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada; bounded by the 
valley of Picara. 

PAUHANAM, a river of the province and 
colony of Virginia in N. America. 

PAU JI, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Venezuela in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada, on the coast. 

[PAUKATUCK, a small river which empties 
into Stonington harbour, and forms a part of 
the division line between Connecticut and Rhode 
Island.] 



P A U 

[PAUL S BAY, ST. on the n. w. shore of the 
river St. Lawrence, in N. America, is about six 
leagues below Cape Torment, where a chain of 
mountains of 400 leagues in length terminate 
from the w.~] 

[PAUL S BAY, ST. on the n. w. coast of New 
foundland Island. Lat. 4950 / w. long.5745 a>.~l 
[PAUL S ISLAND, ST. an island in the strait 
between Newfoundland and Cape Breton islands. 
It is about 15 miles n. e. of North Cape, in Cape 
Breton. Lat. 47 W n. long. 60 2 . w.] 

[PAUL, ST. a town of N. America, in New 
Mexico, situated at the confluence of the two 
main head branches of the Rio Bravo.] 

[PAUL, ST. the most s. of the Pearl islands, in 
the gulf of Panama, S. America. In the n. side 
is a safe channel ; where, if necessary, there is a 
place for careening ships.] 

[PAUL S, ST. a parish in Charlestown dis 
trict, S. Carolina, containing 3433 inhabitants; of 
whom 276 are whites, and 3202 slaves.] 

[PAULINGSTOWN, or PAWLING, a town 
ship in Duchess county, New York, lying on the 
w. boundary of Connecticut, and has South and 
East Town on the s. In 1790, it contained 4330 
inhabitants, of whom 42 were slaves ; in 1796, 
there were 560 of the inhabitants qualified 
electors.] 

[PAULIN S KILL. See SUSSEX COUNTY, 
New Jersey.] 

PAULO, S. or S. PABLO, a city of the pro 
vince and captainship of S. Vicente, in the king 
dom of Brazil, the capital of a small republic, 
separate from the government of the Portuguese, 
having its own laws, but tributary to this crown. 
It had its origin from some Mamelucs, a people 
composed of desperate banditti of all nations and 
colours, who, not conforming to the customs of 
more civilized life, and alike averse to all law, 
retired to the mountainous parts of the country, 
the same, however, not being deficient in natural 
fertility, and even in gold-mines. Here their 
numbers daily increased, till they became so 
formidable and independent as to call themselves 
the Paulistas, or inhabitants of the city of S. 
Paulo. This was the capital of their territory, 
and great was the zeal and skill they have mani 
fested in its defence, and in the maintenance of 
their self-established rights : they were, however, 
at last overcome, and rendered so far tributary 
to the Portuguese monarch, that they were to 
pay to him the fifth part of what they extracted 
from their mines. These mines are exceedingly 
rich, and to work at them they are sedulous in 
their endeavours to entrap Spaniards, Portu- 



PAULO. 



75 



o-uese, and Indians. They have no religion 
whatever, but some dealings with the Spaniards 
and Portuguese of Paraguay. 

The city is situate on an eminence, surrounded 
by the most craggy and inaccessible mountains, 
on the s. shore of the river Harihambu, or Tiete, 
in 46 38 to. long. 23 32 lat. s. 

[The following particulars relating to this city 
are extracted from the work of Mr. Mawe, the 
traveller St. Paul s, he observes, although on 
an elevated site, is not observed at any great 
distance in the road from Todos Santos. In its 
immediate neighbourhood the river runs parallel 
to the road, which it sometimes partially over 
flows, and covers with sand. To his left he ob 
served a large astallage, or inn, where numbers 
of mules are unloaded, and travellers commonly 
pass the night. It consists of a very large shed, 
supported upon upright pieces of timber, with 
separate divisions for receiving the cargoes or 
burdens of the mules, each traveller occupying 
as many as his goods require ; and there is a 
piece of ground, of about a hundred yards in 
circumference, planted with small upright stakes 
at ten or fifteen feet distance, to which the 
bridles of the mules are tied while they are fed, 
saddled, and loaded. These astallages are com 
mon in all parts of Brazil. 

On entering the town, he was struck with the 
neat appearance of its houses, stuccoed in va 
rious colours ; those in the principal streets were 
two or three stories high. 

St. Paul s is situated on a pleasing eminence 
of about two miles in extent, surrounded on 
three sides by low meadow-land, and washed at the 
base by rivulets, which almost insulate it in rainy 
weather ; it is connected with the high-land by 
a narrow ridge. The rivulets flow into a pretty 
large stream called Tieti, which runs within a 
mile of the town in a s. w. direction. Over them 
there are several bridges, some of stone and 
others of wood, built by the late governor. 
The streets of St. Paul s, owing to its elevation, 
(about 50 feet above the plain) and the water 
which almost surrounds it, are in general re 
markably clean ; the material with which they 
are paved is lamillary grit-stone, cemented by 
oxide of iron, and containing large pebbles of 
rounded miartz, approximating to the conglo 
merate. This pavement is an alluvial formation 
containing gold, many particles of which metal 
are found in the chinks and hollows after heavy 
rains, and at such seasons are diligently sought 
for by the poorer sort of people. 

This city was founded by the Jesuits, who were 



probably tempted by the gold mines in the vici 
nity, more than by the salubrity of its air, which 
however is not excelled by any on the whole 
continent of South America. The medium of 
the thermometer here is between 50 and 80 de 
grees ; in a morning Mr. Mawe observed it at 
48, and even lower, though he was not there 
in the winter months. The rains are by no 
means heavy or of long continuance, and the 
thunder-storms are far from being violent. The 
cold in the evenings was frequently considerable. 

Here are several squares, and about thirteen 
places of religious worship, namely, two con 
vents, three monasteries, and eight churches, the 
greater part of which, as well as of the whole 
town, is built of earth. The mode of erecting 
the walls is as follows : a frame is constructed of 
six moveable planks placed edge-wise, opposite 
each other, and secured in this position by cross- 
pieces bolted with moveable pins. Earth is put 
in by small quantities, which the workmen beat 
with rammers, and occasionally moisten with 
water to give it consistency. Having filled the 
frame or trough, they remove it and continue the 
same operation till the whole shell of the house 
is completed, taking care to leave vacancies, and 
put in the window-frames, door-frames, and 
beams, as they proceed. The mass, in course of 
time, becomes indurated, the walls are pared 
perfectly smooth inside, and take any colour the 
owner chooses to give them ; they are generally 
enriched with very ingenious devices. This 
species of structure is durable ; some houses thus 
built have lasted two hundred years, and most of 
them have several stories. The roofs are made 
to project two or three feet beyond the wall, in 
order to throw off the rain to a distance from the 
base ; spouts might be a more effectual preserva 
tive against wet, but their use is little known 
here. They cover their houses with gutter-tiles; 
but though the country affords excellent clay and 
plenty of wood, very few bricks are burnt. 

The population of this place amounts to full 
15,000 souls, perhaps nearer 20,000 ; the clergy, 
including all ranks of religious orders, may be 
ranked at 500. They are in general good mem 
bers of society, free from that excessive bigotry 
and illiberality which is the reproach of the neigh 
bouring colonies : and their example has so be 
neficial an effect on the rest of the inhabitants, 
that, according to Mr. Mawe s testimony, no 
stranger will be molested while he acts as a gen 
tleman, and does not insult the established re 
ligion. 

No endemial diseases at present prevail here.] 

L2 



PAULO. 



[The small-pox formerly, and indeed of late, made 
great havoc among- the inhabitants ; but its pro 
gress has been checked by the introduction of 
vaccine innoculation. Professors attended at a 
large hall belonging to the governor, to which 
the public were invited, and the operation was 
performed gratis. It is to be hoped, that the 
credit of this preventative will make its way 
among the people here, for they are not compe 
tent to enter into the merits of that controversy 
which injured it in Europe. 

Here are few manufactures of any consequence ; 
a little coarse cotton is spun by the hand, and 
woven into cloth, which serves for a variety of 
wearing apparel, sheets, &c. They make a 
beautiful kind of net- work for hammocks, which 
are fringed with lace, and form an elegant piece 
of furniture, being slung low, so as to answer 
the purpose of sofas. The ladies are particu 
larly fond of using them, especially when the 
heat of the weather disposes them to ease and 
indolence. The making of lace is a general em 
ployment for females, some of whom excel in it. 
The shopkeepers here are a numerous class, who, 
as in most colonial towns, deal in almost every 
thing, and sometimes make great fortunes. Here 
are few doctors of medicine, but many apothe 
caries ; some silversmiths, whose articles are 
equally indifferent both in metal and workman 
ship ; tailors and shoemakers in great numbers ; 
and joiners, who manufacture very beautiful 
wood, but are not so moderate in their charges 
as the former classes of tradesmen. In the out 
skirts of the city live a number of Creolian In 
dians, who make earthen-ware for culinary pur 
poses, large water-jars, and a variety of other 
utensils ornamented with some taste. The 

freatest proportion of the inhabitants consists in 
irmers and inferior husbandmen, who cultivate 
small portions of land, on which they breed large 
stocks of pigs and poultry for sale. With these 
the market is generally well supplied, and in the 
fruit season is also stored with pines, grapes, 
guavas, bananas, a few apples, and an enormous 
quantity of quinces. 

Esculent plants are grown in great profusion 
and variety. Here is a favourite bulbous root 
called the cara, which is equal to the best potatoe, 
and even more farinaceous ; it grows to about 
five inches in diameter, and affords excellent 
food, either boiled or roasted. Here are fine 
cabbages, salad-herbs, turnips, cauliflowers, arti 
chokes, and potatoes ; the latter, though very 
good, are little used : the sweet potatoe is in 
greater request among the natives. Maize, beans. 



green-peas, and every species of pulse, flourish 
amazingly. Fowls are cheap ; some are bought 
at three-pence and six-pence each ; small pigs 
from one to two shillings, and flitches of bacon, 
cured after the mode of the country, at about 
two-pence per pound. Turkeys, geese, and ducks, 
are abundant, and reasonable in price ; the latter 
are of the Muscovy breed, enormously large, 
some weighing ten or fourteen pounds. Here is 
a singular breed of cocks ; they resemble the 
common English in plumage and shape, but they 
crow very loud, and continue their last note for 
a minute or two. When their voice is good, 
they are much esteemed, and are sent for as cu 
riosities from all parts of Brazil. The cattle are 
in general good, considering that so little atten 
tion is paid to feeding them; when their pastures 
are full of grass, they are tolerably fat, but when 
otherwise, they become lean. A drove may be 
bought at 24s. or 30s. a head ; beef at about a 
penny or three halfpence per pound. The cur 
riers have a singular method of blackening- cow 
hides and calf-skins : when they have prepared 
them for that operation, they search tor some 
mud-hole at the bottom of a ferruginous stratum, 
a ditch for instance ; with the mud they cover 
that side of the skin required to be stained ; and 
they prefer this material to the solution of cop 
peras, probably with reason, as the sulphate of 
iron formed by the decomposed pyrites acts more 
mildly in this state than when applied in the 
common way. 

The horses are very fine, and in general do 
cile ; when well trained they make excellent 
chargers. Their size is from 12| to 14| hands, 
and they vary in price from 3 to 12. Mules 
are considered more useful beasts of burden. 
The breed of sheep is quite unattended to, and 
mutton is rarely or never eaten. Here is a very 
fine and large breed of goats, whose milk is 
generally used for domestic purposes. The dogs 
are very indifferent, and of no distinct race. 

Mr. Mawe, in his walks round the city, had 
frequent opportunities of examining the singular 
succession of horizontal strata, that form the 
eminence on which it stands. They lie in the 
following order: first, one of red vegetable 
earth of variable depth, impregnated with oxide 
of iron ; below that, sand and adventitious matter 
of different shades of colour, as ochre-red, brown, 
and dusky yellow, together with many rounded 
pebbles, which indicate it to be of rather recent 
formation ; it varies in depth from three to six 
feet, or perhaps to seven, and its lower part is 
uniformly yellow : under this is a bed of ex-] 



PAULO. 



77 



fceedingly fine clay of various colours, but for the 
the most part purple ; the white and yellow is 
the purest in quality ; it is interveined with thin 
layers of sand in various directions. Then suc 
ceeds a stratum of alluvial matter, which is very 
feruginous ; it rests on a half-decomposed sub 
stance, apparently migrating from a granite, in 
which the proportion of feld-spar exceeds that 
of the quartz and mica. The whole is incum 
bent on compact granite. The sides of the mount 
are steep, and in some places nearly perpen 
dicular. 

The fertility of the country around St. Paul s 
may be inferred from the quantities of produce, 
with which, as we have stated, its market is sup 
plied. About a century ago, this track abound 
ed with gold ; and it was not until they had 
exhausted it by washing, that the inhabitants 
thought of employing themselves in husbandry. 
As they did so more from necessity than from 
choice, they were tardy in pursuing those im 
provements which other nations have made in 
this noble art, and, pining at the disappearance 
of the precious mineral, considered their new 
occupation as vile and degrading. Indeed 
throughout the whole of Brazil, the husbandmen 
have ever been considered as forming a class 
greatly inferior in point of respectability to the 
miners ; and this prejudice will in all likelihood 
subsist until the country shall have been drained 
of its gold and diamonds, when the people will be 
compelled to seek in agriculture a constant and 
inexhaustible source of wealth. 

Mr. Mawe thus describes the system of farming 
which at present prevails in the neighbourhood 
of St. Paul s. Land, in this extensive empire, is 
granted in large tracks, on proper application ; 
and we may naturally suppose that the value of 
these tracts depends more or less on their situa 
tion. It therefore becomes the first object of a 
cultivator, to look out for unoccupied lands as 
near as possible to a large town ; good roads and 
navigable rivers are the desiderata next in point 
of consequence which he attends to. When he 
has made choice of a situation, he applies to the 
governor of the district, who orders the proper 
officers to mark out the extent required, generally 
a league or a league and a half square, sometimes 
more. The cultivator then purchases as many 
Negroes as he can, and commences his operations 
by erecting habitations for them and himself, 
which are generally miserable sheds, supported 
by four posts, and commonly called ranches. 
His Negroes are then directed to cut down the 
trees and brushwood growing on the land, to 



such an extent as he thinks they will be able 
to manage. This done, they set fire to all they 
have cut, as it lies on the ground. Much of the 
success of his harvest depends on this burning ; 
if the whole be reduced to ashes he expects a 
great crop ; if, through wet weather, the felled 
trees remain only half burnt, he prognosticates a 
bad one. When the ground is cleared, the Ne 
groes dibble it with their hoes, and sow their 
maize, beans, or other pulse ; during the operation 
they cut down any thing very much in the way, but 
never think of working the soil. After sowing 
as much seed as is thought requisite, they prepare 
other grounds for planting cassada, here called 
mandioca, the root of which is generally eaten as 
bread by all ranks in Brazil. The soil for this 
purpose is rather better prepared ; it is raked up 
in little round hillocks, not unlike mole-hills, 
about four feet asunder ; into which are stuck 
cuttings from branches of the plant, about an inch 
thick, and six or eight long ; these soon take root, 
and put forth leaves, shoots, and buds. When 
enough has been planted for the entire consump 
tion of the farm, the owner, if he is rich enough, 
prepares means for growing and manufacturing 
sugar. He first employs a carpenter to cut 
wood, and build a mill with wooden rollers for 
crushing the canes, by means of water if a stream 
is at hand, if not, by the help of mules. While 
some of the Negroes are assisting the carpenter, 
others are employed in preparing ground in the 
same way as for mandioca. Pieces of cane, con 
taining three or four joints, and in length about 
six inches, cut from the growing stem, are laid in 
the earth nearly horizontally, and are covered 
with soil to the depth of about four inches. They 
shoot up rapidly, and in three months have a 
bushy appearance not unlike flags ; in 12 or 15 
months more they are ready for cutting. In 
rich virgin soil it is not uncommon to see canes 
12 feet high, and astonishingly thick. 

The Indian corn and pulse are in general ripe 
in four months or 18 weeks. The average return 
is 200 for one ; it is a bad harvest when it falls 
short of 150. 

The mandioca is rarely ready to take up in less 
than 18 or 20 months ; if the land be suitable, it 
then produces from six to 12 pound weight per 
plant. They grow very little indigo in this 
neighbourhood, and what they have is of indif 
ferent quality. Their pumpkins are of enormous 
size, and sometimes are served up as table-vege 
tables, but more frequently given as food to the 
horses. Melons are here scarcely palatable. 

In no branch of husbandry are the farmers so] 



PAULO. 



[defective as in the management of cattle. No 
artificial grasses are cultivated, no enclosures are 
made, nor is any fodder laid up against the season 
of scarcity. The cows are never milked regu 
larly ; they seem to be considered rather as an 
encumbrance to a farm than a valuable part of 
the stock. They constantly require salt, which is 
given them once in 15 or 20 days, in small pro 
portions. Their dairies, if such they may be 
called, are managed in so slovenly a manner, 
that the little butter that is made becomes rancid 
in a few days, and the cheese is good for nothing. 
In this essential department they are deplorably 
deficient ; rarely indeed is there to be seen a 
farm with one convenience belonging to it. For 
want of proper places in which to store their 
produce, they are obliged to lay it in promiscuous 
heaps ; and it is not uncommon to see coffee, 
cotton, maize, and beans, thrown into the corners 
of a damp shed, and covered with a green hide, 
one half is invariably spoiled by mould and putri 
dity, and the remainder is much deteriorated, 
through this idle and stupid negligence. 

They feed their pigs on Indian corn in a crude 
state ; the time for confining them to fatten is at 
eight or 10 months old ; and the quantity con 
sumed for the purpose is eight or 10 Winchester 
bushels each. When killed, the lean is cut off 
the sides as clean as possible, the fat is cured 
with very little salt, and in a few days is ready 
for market. The ribs, chine-bone, and lean parts 
are dried for home consumption. 

The farm-houses are miserable hovels of one 
story, the floor neither paved nor boarded, and 
the walls and partitions formed of wicker-work 
plastered with mud, and never under-drawn. 
For an idea of the kitchen, which ought to be the 
cleanest and most comfortable part of the dwell 
ing, the reader may figure to himself a filthy 
room with an uneven muddy floor, interspersed 
with pools of slop-water, and in different parts 
fire-places formed by three round stones to hold 
the earthen pots that are used for boiling meat ; 
as green wood is the chief fuel, the place is almost 
always filled with smoke, which, finding no chim 
ney, vents itself through the doors and other 
apertures, and leaves all within as black as soot. 
Indeed, the kitchens of many opulent people are 
in not much better condition. 

It may well be imagined that in a country like 
this, a stranger finds the greatest comfort and 
enjoyment out of doors. The gardens in St. 
Paul s and its vicinity, are laid out with great 
taste, and many of them with curious elegance. 
The jasmine is every where a favourite tree, and 



in this fine climite bears flowers perennially, a? 
does the rose. Carnations, pinks, passion-flowers, 
cocks-combs, &c. grow in great plenty; one of 
their most estimable shrubs is the Palma Christi, 
which gives fruit the first year, and yields abun 
dance of castor-oil, which all families possess in 
such quantity, that no other sort is burnt. 

Bees are by no means uncommon ; they are 
easily domesticated, and, we believe, are perfectly 
harmless. Their honey is pleasant; the wax, 
particularly that generally sold, which is taken 
from their nests in old forest-trees, is very foul, 
but might be purified by a very simple process. 
The woods contain a great variety of animals of 
the monkey kind, and also beasts of prey, some 
of which have tolerable good fur. Among these 
may be classed a peculiar species of the otter. 
Insects are numerous, but the mosquitos are not 
so offensively so as in the Rio de la Plata. The 
animalculum, called the niagua, or jigger, is trou 
blesome ; it beds itself under the nails of the toes,, 
and sometimes of the fingers, but it may easily be 
banished by extracting it and its bag of eggs with a 
needle, and filling the cavity with calomel or snuff, 
for fear any should have remained. Reptiles are 
very numerous ; toads are accustomed in the 
evenings to crawl upon the foot paths, and even 
infest the streets of the city. The sorocooco or 
jararraca (serpents) are said to be very dan 
gerous. 

The woods produce large and durable timber, 
well calculated for building. Of their trees, all 
of which retain their Indian names, some yield 
very fine gums. The jacaranda, called in Eng 
land rose-wood, is here very common. Many 
of their shrubs bear beautiful flowers, and are 
very aromatic. Among the innumerable creep 
ing plants which clothe the soil of their uncleared 
lands, there are some distinguished as infallible 
antidotes to the bite of venomous reptiles ; one 
in particular, called the corazao de Jesu, with 
heart-shaped leaves, is universally esteemed. 

Mr. Mawe, during his stay at this city, was 
invited by the governor to visit the old gold 
mines of Jaragua, the first discovered in Brazil, 
which were now his property, together with a 
farm in their vicinity, distant about 24 miles from 
the city. 

He thus explains the mode of working these 
mines, more fitly to be denominated washings. 

Suppose a loose gravel-like stratum of rounded 
quartzose pebbles and adventitious matter, in 
cumbent on granite, and covered by earthy 
matter of variable thickness. Where water of 
sufficiently high level can be commanded, the] 



PAULO. 



79 



[ground Is cut in steps, each 20 or 30 feet wide, 
two or three broad, and about one deep. Near 
the bottom a trench is cut to the depth of two or 
three feet. On each step stand six or eight 
Negroes, who as the water flows gently from 
above, keep the earth continually in motion with 
shovels, until the whole is reduced to liquid mud 
and washed below. The particles of gold con 
tained in this earth descend to the trench, where, 
by reason of their specific gravity, they quickly 
precipitate. Workmen are continually employed 
at the trench to remove the stones, and clear 
away the surface, which operation is much as 
sisted by the current of water which falls into it. 
After five days washing, the precipitation in the 
trench is carried to some convenient stream, to 
undergo a second clearance. For this purpose 
wooden bowls are provided, of a funnel shape, 
about two feet wide at the mouth, and five or six 
inches deep, called gamellas. Each workman 
standing in the stream, takes into his bowl five or 
six pounds weight of the sediment, which gene 
rally consists of heavy matter, such as oxide of 
iron, pyrites, ferruginous quartz, &c. of a dark 
carbonaceous hue. They admit certain quan 
tities of water into the bowls, which they move 
about so dexterously, that the precious metal, 
separating from the inferior and lighter sub 
stances, settles to the bottom and sides of the 
vessel. They then rinse their bowls in a larger 
vessel of clean water, leaving the gold in it ; 
and begin again. The washing of each bowlful 
occupies from five to eight or nine minutes ; the 
gold produced is extremely variable in quantity, 
and in the size of its particles, some of which are 
so minute, that they float, while others are found 
as large as peas, and not unfrequently much larger. 
This operation is superintended by overseers, 
as the result is of considerable importance. 
When the whole is finished, the gold is borne 
home to be dried, and at a convenient time is 
taken to the permutation office, where it is 
weighed, and a fifth is reserved for the prince. 
The remainder is smelted by fusion with muriate 
of mercury, cast into ingots, assayed, and stamped 
according to its intrinsic value, a certificate of 
which is given with it : after a copy of that in 
strument has been duly entered at the mint-office, 
the ingots circulate as specie. 

But to return to the description of St. Paul s. 
This city is seldom visited by foreigners. The 
passes to it from the coast are so singularly si 
tuated, that it is almost impossible to avoid the 
guards who are stationed in them, to inspect 
all travellers and merchandize passing into the 



interior. Soldiers of the lowest rank on these 
stations have a right to examine all strangers 
who present themselves, and to detain them and 
their property, unless they can produce passports. 
The dress of the ladies abroad, and especially 
at church, consists of a garment of black silk, 
with a long veil of the same material, trimmed 
with broad lace ; in the cooler season black 
cassimere or baize. In the same veil they almost 
always appear in the streets, though it has been 
partially superseded by a long coat of coarse 
woollen, edged with velvet, gold lace, fustian, or 
plush, according to the rank of the wearer. This 
coat is used as a general sort of undress, at home, 
in their evening walks, and on a journey, and the 
ladies, whenever they wear it, appear in round 
hats. The appellation of Paulista is considered 
by all the females here as a great honour ; the 
Paulistas being celebrated throughout all Brazil 
for their attractions, and their dignity of cha 
racter. At table they are extremely abstemious ; 
their favourite amusement is dancing, in which 
they display much vivacity and grace. At balls 
and. other public festivals they generally appear 
in elegant white dresses, with a profusion of gold 
chains about their necks, their hair tastefully dis 
posed and fastened with combs. Their conver 
sation, at all times sprightly, seems to derive ad 
ditional life from music. Indeed the whole range 
of their education appears to be confined to super 
ficial accomplishments ; they trouble themselves 
very little with domestic concerns, confiding what 
ever relates to the inferior departments of the 
household to the negro or negra cook, and leav 
ing all other matters to the management of ser 
vants. Owing to this indifference, they are total 
strangers to the advantages of that order, neat 
ness and propriety, which reign in an English 
family : their time at home is mostly occupied in 
sewing, embroidery, and lace-making. Another 
circumstance repugnant to delicacy is, that they 
have no mantua-makers of their own sex ; all 
articles of female dress here are made by tailors. 
An almost universal debility prevails among 
them, which is partly attributable to their ab 
stemious living, but chiefly to want of exercise, 
and, in some degree, to the frequent warm bathings 
in which they indulge. They are extremely 
attentive to every means of improving the de 
licacy of their persons, perhaps to the injury of 
their health. 

The men in general, especially those of the 
higher rank, officers, and others, dress superbly ; 
in company they are very polite and attentive, 
and show every disposition to oblige ; they are] 



80 



P A U 



[great talkers and prone to conviviality. The 
lower ranks, compared with those of other colo 
nial towns, are in a very advanced state of civili 
zation. It were to be wished that some reform 
were instituted in their system of education ; the 
children of slaves are brought up during their 
early days with those of their masters ; they are 
play-mates and companions, and thus a familiar 
equality is established between them, which has 
to be forcibly abolished when they arrive at that 
age, at which one must command and live at his 
ease, while the other must labour and obey. It has 
been said, that by thus attaching the slave to his 
master, in early youth, they ensure his future 
fidelity ; but the custom seems fraught with many 
disadvantages, and ought at least to be so modi 
fied as to render the yoke of bondage less galling 
by the recollection of former liberty. 

The religious processions here are very splen 
did, grand, and solemn ; they have a striking 
effect, by reason of the profound veneration and 
enthusiastic zeal manifested by the populace. 
On particular occasions of this kind all the inha 
bitants of the city attend, and the throng is fre 
quently increased by numbers of the neighbour 
ing peasantry for several leagues round. The 
balconies of those houses, which command the 
best views of the spectacle, are crowded with 
ladies in their gala dresses, who consider the day 
as a kind of festival ; the evening is generally 
concluded by tea and card parties or dances. 

A traveller has no difficulty in accommodating 
himself in the general mode of living at St. Paul s. 
The bread is pretty good, and the butter tolera 
ble, but rarely used except with coffee for break 
fast or tea in the evening. A more common break 
fast is a very pleasant sort of beans, called feijones^ 
boiled or mixed with mandioca. Dinner, which 
is usually served up at noon or before, commonly 
consists of a quantity of greens boiled with a little 
fat pork or beef, a root of the potatoe kind, and a 
stewed fowl, with excellent salad, to which suc 
ceeds a great variety of delicious conserves and 
sweet-meats. Very little wine is taken at meals ; 
the usual beverage is water. On public occa 
sions, or when a feast is given to a large party, 
the table is most sumptuously spread; from 
30 to 50 dishes are served up at once, by which 
arrangement a succession of courses is obviated. 
Wine circulates copiously, and toasts are given 
during the repast, which usually occupies two or 
three hours, and is succeeded by sweet-meats, 
the pride of their tables ; after coffee the com 
pany pass the evening in dancing, music, or 
cards. 



P A U 

On the two first days of Lent, which are here 
celebrated with great festivity, persons of both 
sexes amuse themselves by throwing at each 
other balls, of artificial fruit, such as lemons or 
oranges, made very delicately of wax, and filled 
with perfumed water. The lady generally be 
gins the game, the gentleman return it with such 
spirit that it seldom ceases until several dozens 
are thrown, and both parties are as wet as if they 
had been drawn through a river. Sometimes a 
lady will dexterously drop one in to the bosom of 
a gentleman, which will infallibly oblige him to 
change his linen, as it usually contains three or 
four ounces of cold water. On these days of 
carnival the inhabitants parade the streets in 
masks, and the diversion of throwing fruit is 
practised by persons of all ages. It is reckoned 
improper for men to throw at each other. The 
manufacture of these missiles, at such periods, 
affords no inconsiderable occupation to certain 
classes of the inhabitants ; and in the capital of 
Brazil many hundreds of people derive a tem 
porary subsistence from the sale of them. The 
practice is very annoying to strangers, and not 
unfrequently engenders quarrels, which terminate 
seriously .J (Mawe s Travels.) 

[PAULSBURGH, a township in Grafton 
county, New Hampshire, on the head waters of 
Amonoosuck river, and through which passes 
Androscoggin river.] 

[PAULUS Hook, in Bergen county, New Jer 
sey, is on the w. bank of Hudson river, opposite 
New York city, where the river is 2000 yards 
wide. Here is the ferry, which is perhaps more 
used than any other in the United States. This 
was a fortified post in the late war. In 1780, 
the frost was so intense, that the passage across 
the river here was practicable for the heaviest 
cannon.] 

PA UN A, GRANDE, a settlement of the juris 
diction of Muzo and corregimiento of Tunja, in 
the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of an hot 
temperature, abounding in maize, cotton, sugar 
cane, rice, 1/ucas, and plantains. The natives 
make much thread, linens, and sweetmeats, of 
which their commerce consists. The population 
should be 100 housekeepers and 50 Indians. 

[PAUNCH Indians, of N. America, who are 
said to be a peaceable, well-disposed nation. 
Their country is a variegated one, consisting of 
mountains, valleys, plains, and woodlands, irre 
gularly interspersed. They might be induced to 
visit the Missouri, at the mouth of the Yellow 
Stone river; and from the great abundance of 
valuable furred animals, which their country, as 



PAW 

well as that of the Crow Indians, produces, their 
trade must become extremely valuable. They 
are a roving people, and have no idea of exclu 
sive right to the soil.] 

PAURAUTE, a river of the province and 
government of Venezuela, in the same kingdom 
as the settlement of Pauna. It rises in the moun 
tains of Carora, runs w. and empties itself into 
the lake of Maracaibo, in lat. 10 12 n. 

PAUSA, a settlement and captainship of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Parina Cochas, in Peru. 

PAUSA, another, in this province, annexed to 
the curacy of Pacca. 

PAUTE, a large and abundant river of the 
province and corregimiento of Cuenca, in the 
kingdom of Quito : it rises in the mountains of 
Tarqui, to the s. of that city, from the union of 
the rivers Machangara and Matadero, which 
unite themselves half a league from the settle 
ment of Jadan, and of two others, called Yu- 
nuncay and Tarque. These four running to the 
n. and receiving, after five leagues, those of 
Azogues and Santa Barbara, arrive at Cuenca, 
and there turning to e. n. e. and then e. till they 
pass the settlement to which they give a name, 
water and fertilize the valley ; and here they 
take their name, forming together one large na 
vigable stream, which, afterwards changing that 
name for Mayu, enters the Santiago in lat. 4 1 
s. On its shores is abundance of gold, and, in 
the district of Cuenca, they are covered with 
sugar-cane plantations and gardens, which ren 
der then very agreeable. By this river you may 
reach, by a four day s voyage, the province and 
country of the Xibaros Indians. 

PAUTE, a settlement of the same province and 
kingdom. 

PAUTE, a large, beautiful, and fertile valley of 
the same. 

PAUTIGUI, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru. 

PAUTO, a settlement of the missions that 
were held by the Jesuits of the province and go 
vernment of San Juan de los Llanos of the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada, to the e. of the moun 
tains of Bogota. It is a reduction of Indians of 
the Guajiba nation, situate near the source of 
Ihe river of its name ; is of an hot climate and 
fertile territory, and abounding in cotton, dates, 
and plantains, and other fruits peculiar to the 
country. 

PAUTO, a river of this province and kingdom, 
which rises near the settlement of Cazanare, and 
enters the Meta, being just before divided into 
two arms. 

[PAWLET, a township in Rutland county, 
VOL. iv. 



PAX 



81 



Vermont, having 1458 inhabitants. Jt stands 
on the New York line, has Wells on toie . and 
Rupert in Bennington county on the s. and is 
watered by Pawlet river, which joins Wood creek 
and the confluent stream, falls in South bay at 
Fiddler s Elbow. Haystack mountain is in this 
township.] 

[PAWTUCKET Falls, in Merrimack river, 
are in the township of Dracut.l 

[PAWTUXET, a village in the township of 
Cranston, Providence county, Rhode Island.] 

PAUXIS, a strait called Pungu or Puerta, 
where the Maranon or Amazonas is found en 
trenched in a very narrow channel. Here the 
Portuguese have a fort on the n. shore, [called 
Obidos orPauxis. The river Maranon or Ama 
zonas is 905 fathoms wide, and at this place ends 
the tide-water.] Just before this strait the Ma 
ranon or Amazon receives the waters of the river 
of Los Trompetas, in about lat. 2 s. 

PAXARA, a large island of the N. Sea, in the 
province and government of Maracaibo, in the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada, at the mouth of the 
great lake of this name. 

PAXAROS, Island of, which is small, within 
the port Deseado, on the coast between the river 
La Plata and the straits of Magellan, opposite 
the island of Olivares. 

PAXAROS, another, a small island of this name; 
and one of those which are at the s. point of the 
Caico Grande and the Panuelo Quadrado. 

PAXAROS, another, a small isle near the coast 
of Brazil, in the province and captainship of Por- 
toseguro, close to the bank of Los Escollos. 

PAXAROS, another island near the coast of the 
kingdom of Chile, in the province and corregi 
miento of Coquimbo, close to that of this name. 
[See PAJAROS.] 

PAXAROS, some other small isles or farallones 
of the Archipelago of the Antilles, between the 
islands Granada and Bequia. 

PAXAROS, some other islands, near the coast 
of the province and captainship of Sergipe, in 
Brazil, at the mouth or entrance of the river 
Grande de San Francisco. 

PAXAROS, a mountain, called Ancon de Paxa- 
ros, on the w. coast of the straits of Magellan, 
between the point of Nuestra Senora de Gracia, 
and the Entrada Real del Portete. 

PAXAROS, a point of land, on the coast of 
the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo, of 
the kingdom of Chile. 

PAXAROS, another, in the same province and 
kingdom ; distinct from the former ; between the 
point of Choros and that of Yervabuena. 

PAXAROS, three small lakes of tke province 



M 



82 PAY 

and government of Santa Marta in the Nuevo 
Reyno fee Granada, and of the district of the 
Rio del Hacha, situate on the shore of the Saco 
de Maracaibo. 

[PAXTON, UPPER and LOWER, two town 
ships in Dauphin county, Pennsylvania.] 

[PAXTON, a township of Massachusetts, situ 
ated in Worcester county, eight miles w. of Wor 
cester, and 44 w. of Boston. It was incorporated 
in 1765, and contains 558 inhabitants.] 

PAY, LA. See NUESTRA SENORA BE. 

PAYA, a settlement of the jurisdiction and 
district of the city of Santiago de la Atalaya, 
and government of San Juan de Los Llanos in 
the Nuevo Reyno de Granada : situate at the 
foot of the mountains of Bogota on the e. and 
at the entrance of the Llanos of Gazanare and 
Meta. It is of an hot temperature, abounding 
in neat cattle, as also in cotton, maize, yucas, 
and plantains. The natives, who should amount 
to about 150 Indians, fabricate much linen and 
woven stuffs of cotton in a very nice manner ; 
and of this consists their commerce : 68 miles 
e. n. e. of Tunja. 

PAYA, a river of the province and government 
of the kingdom of Tierra Firme : which rises 
in the interior, runs w. and enters the Grande of 
Tuira just after the source of this. 

PAYAGUAS, a barbarous and cruel nation 
of Indians of Paraguay, who dwell to the n. and 
to the w. of the city of La Asuncion. They are 
pirates, and infest the rivers Paraguay and Pa 
rana in canoes and small barks. Their arms are 
bows and arrows, and clubs of a very heavy 
wood. 

PAYAGUAS, a settlement in the province and 
country of Las Amazonas of Indians of the afore 
said nation : situate on the shore of the river 
Marauon. 

PAYAGUAS, a river of the same province, 
which rises in the territory of the aforesaid In 
dians, runs s. and enters the Maranon. 

PAYAMINO, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom 
of Quito ; which runs s. and receives the waters 
of the Tutapisco, Pauxi-yacu, Puninu, and others 
of less note , rises in the mountains called La 
Galera, runs 60 miles, and enters by the n. into 
the Napo, in lat. 12 X s. 

PAYANA, a river of the province and corre- 
gimiento of Piura in Peru, which runs w. and 
enters the sea in the bay of Machala. 

PAYANA, other two rivers, of the same name, 
in this province and kingdom, which run near 
to the above, and are distinguished by the titles 
of Second and Third. 



P A Z 

PAYANSOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, 
who dwell to the n. of the city of Guanuco, in 
the mountains of the Andes : bounded by the na 
tion of the barbarian Panataguas, and occupying 
a beautiful llanura^ surrounded by mountains, 
upwards of five leagues in extent. It is nume 
rous and warlike ; and their conversion was be 
gun in 1644 by the religious observers of San 
Francisco de Lima, who formed some settlements 
of them. 

PAYEL, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Yucatan, which enters the sea between 
the Niseco and the bay of Asension. 

PA YEN, a settlement of the kingdom of Chile, 
situate on the mountains, between the city of La 
Concepcion and Santiago. It is celebrated for 
an excellent mine of copper, from whence some 
pieces have been extracted of 50 to 100 quintals 
weight; but it is little worked, from the scarcity of 
hands ; [as also in consequence of the opposition 
of the Puelches, who inhabit that district. As 
fine a mine lias been since discovered at Curico.] 

[PAY JAN, a small town in the jurisdiction 
of rruxillo, in Peru, eight leagues s. of St. Pe 
dro.] 

[PAYRABA, a town and captainship in the n. 
division of Brazil.] 

[PAYTA. See PAITA.] 

PAYURUYAY, a river of the province and 
government of Mainas, in the kingdom of Quito; 
which rises s. of the lake Pachina, runs s. and 
enters the Maranon between the settlements of 
Yameos and Amaguas. 

PAZ, NUESTRA SENORA DE LA, or CHUQUI- 
AVO ; called also Pueblo Nuevo, a city of the 
kingdom of Peru : founded by Alonzo de Men- 
doza in 1548, and not in 1558, as some assert, in 
the ancient province of Pacajes, and in a beauti 
ful llanura, called Chuquiavo, by order of the 
licentiate Pedro de la Gasca, gov ernor of Peru : 
who gave it this name in memory of the pacifi 
cation of that kingdom from the civil wars it had 
experienced. 

It is the head of a bishopric, erected in 1605 
by the pontiff Paul V. It has a beautiful cathe 
dral-church, in which is venerated an image of 
Nuestra Senora del Pelar of Zaragoza, the gift 
of the emperor Charles V. ; four parishes, which 
are, El Sagrario, in which is reverenced a very 
small image of Jesus Nazarens, which, in 1622, 
underwent a miraculous sweat for several times, 
and to the evidence of the people ; Santa Bar 
bara; San Sebastian and San Pedro: five con 
vents of the religious orders of San Francisco ; 
Santo Domingo ; San Agustin ; La Merced ; 
San Juan de Dios, with an hospital; and a col- 



PAZ 



-e, which belonged to the Jesuits ; two monas 
teries of nuns, one of La Conception, another 
of barefooted Carmelites : a seminary college, 
with the dedicatory title of San Geronimo, for 
the instruction of youth, under the care of the 
Jesuits : and a house for recluse women. 

The territory of its situation is rough and un 
even, and its temperature cold, as bearing only 
three leagues from the cordillera. From this 
flows down a stream which intersects the town, 
and over which is thrown three stone bridges of 
one arch each. By this stream are frequently 
found washed up bits of gold of the finest quality; 
and, in 1730, a bit was found of the value of 
12,000 dollars, which was sent to the king. In 
the middle of the chief square is a beautiful 
fountain sprouting from three bodies of white 
stone. The country is fertile, pleasant, and 
abundant, in barley, papas, and coca. The word 
Chuquiavo is corrupted from Choqueyapu, which, 
in the Aimaran language, which is that of the 
natives, signifies an inheritance of gold. 

The bishop is suffragan to the archbishopric of 
Charcas, and not of Lima, as Mr. Martiniere as 
serts. The arms of this city, which were granted 
by the emperor Charles V., are a shield, and in 
the highest part of it an helmet and a dove with 
a branch of olive in its beak ; in the centre a 
crown ; below this, on one side, a lion, and on 
the other a lamb, both standing under a river, 
the motto being as follows : 

" Los discordes encontrados 
En paz y amor sejuntaron ; 
Y Pueblo de Paz fundaron 
Para perpetua. memorial 

The discordances, met together, 
United themselves in peace and love: 
And founded a settlement of peace 
In perpetual remembrance. 

It is 288 miles s. s. e. from Cuzco, 218 s. e. from 
Arequipa, 612 s. e. from Lima, and 234 w. of 
Sta. Cruz de la Sierra, and in lat. 17 30 s. long. 

68 25 a). 

Bishops who have presided in La Paz. 

1. Don Fr. Domingo deValderrama, of the order 
of Santo Domingo, native of Quito, a celebrated 
preacher and professor in the university of Lima: 
promoted from the archbishopric of Santo Do 
mingo to be first bishop of La Paz in 1606. He 
died in 1615. 

2. Don Pedro de Valencia, native of Lima; in 
which university he studied civil law and canons. 



and in both graduated as doctor : was chanter of 
that holy metropolitan church ; elected bishop of 
La Paz in 1616. After a most laudable zeal in 
the discharge of his duty, he died at 80 years of 
age in 1631. 

3. Don Feliciano de la Vega, native of Lima ; 
a man of extraordinary literature and talent : he 
was canon in his native place, chanter and pro- 
visor of the archbishop Don Bartolome Lobo 
Guerrero, and made governor of the archbishopric 
by Don Fernando Arias de Ugarte, commissary 
of crusade and of the inquisition, morning pro 
fessor of canons in that university ; and so pro 
found a lawyer, that Fr. Buenaventura de Salinas 
asserts, that of the four thousand sentences which 
he gave, civil or criminal, not one w r as ever re 
voked. He was elected bishop of Popayan, and 
from thence translated to the see of La Paz in 
1639, and promoted in the same year to the arch 
bishopric of Mexico. 

4. Don Alonso Franco de Luna, native of Ma 
drid ; collegiate in the chief college of San Ilde- 
fonso de Alcala, curate of the parish of San An 
dres in his native place, bishop of Nueva Viz- 
caya, and promoted to La Paz, where he died in 
1644. 

5. Don Fr. Francisco de la Sena, of the order 
of San Agustin, native of the city of Leon de 
Guanuco in Peru : he studied and read arts and 
theology, was master of studies, and in the uni 
versity of Lima noon and evening lecturer ; twice 
provincial in his religion and cdificador of the 
holy office ; presented to the bishopric of La Paz 
in 1645. He died before he took possession. 

6. Don Antonio de Castro y Castillo, native 
of Castro Xeris in the archbishopric of Burgos : 
he commenced his studies in the university of 
Alcala, and finished them at Salamanca, where 
he graduated as bachelor; also in Lima as licen 
tiate : he was curate of the grand church of Po- 
tosi, inquisitor of Lima for 20 years ; presented 
to the bishopric of Guamanga, which he re 
nounced, and afterwards to that of La Paz in 
1648. 

7. Don Fr. Francisco de Gamboa, of the order 
of San Agustin, evening theological lecturer; 
presented to the bishopric, but refused it. 

8. Don Martin de Velasco y Molina, native of 
the town of this name in Aragon; canon of Trux- 
illo, dean of Arequipa, penitentiary canon and 
chanter in the holy church of Lima ; morning 
lecturer in its university, provisor of the archbi 
shop Don Pedro de Villagomez; presented to 
the bishopric of Santa Marta, but which he did not 
accept, although he did of that of La Paz, in 1654, 

M 2 



84 



PAZ 



PAZ 



9. Don Fr. Bernardino de Cardenas, of whom 
we have spoken in the catalogue of the bishops 
of Paraguay ; and although it is there observed, 
that he was promoted to the church of Santa 
Cruz de la Sierra ; yet was he removed to that 
of La Paz in the same year of 1666, where he 
enjoyed greater quietude than he did in the 
former, and where he died. 

10. Don Fr. Gabriel de Guillistegui, also of 
the order of San Francisco, and bishop of Para 
guay ; promoted to the bishopric of La Paz in 
1671 : he died in 1675. 

11. Don. Fr. Bernardo Carrasco, of the order 
of S. Domingo, native of Lima, and provincial of 
his order ; presented to the bishopric of this dio- 
cess from that of La Paz in 1676. 

12. Don Fr. Diego Morcillo, of the order of 
La Santisima Trinidad Calzada, native of Rob- 
ledo in La Mancha, provincial of his religion ; 
elected bishop of Nicaragua, removed to that of 
La Paz in 1708, and promoted to the archbishop 
ric of Charcas in 1711. 

13. Don Mateo Villafane, of whom mention is 
made in the bishops of Popayan : he passed 
promoted from that church to this of La Paz 
in 1711. 

14. Don Agustin Rodrigueze Delgado ; pro 
moted from the bishopric of Panama in 1731. 

15. Don Salvador Bermudez ; promoted from 
the archbishopric of Charcas in 1746. 

16. Don Fr. Joseph de Peralta, of the order 
of St. Domingo ; promoted from the bishopric 
of Buenos Ayres in the aforesaid year, 1746, and 
died in the following. 

17. Don Matias de Ibanez, elected in 1748 : 
he died in 1752. 

18. Don Diego Antonio de Parada, canon of 
the cathedral of Astorga, many years pro visor of 
its bishopric ; elected to this of La Paz in 1752, 
and promoted to the metropolitan see of the 
archbishopric of Lima in 1761. 

19. Don Gregorio Francisco de Campos, 
elected in 1762, and who was actually govern 
ing in 1788. 

PAZ, SAN Luis DE LA, an alcaldia mayor and 
district of the kingdom and bishopric of Mechoa- 
can ; bounded s. e. by the jurisdiction of the town 
of Cadereita, w. by that of San Miguel el Grande, 
s. by that of Queretaro, and n. by that of San 
Luis de Potosi. It is very fertile, and abounds 
in vegetable productions, especially in vines, of 
which much wine and brandy are made, consti 
tuting the principal branches of the commerce of 
its limited jurisdiction ; this consisting of only 
the following settlements : 



Real de Pozos, 

San Francisco de los 

Amues, 

Real de Targea, 
PAZ, the capital of 



San Juan Baptista 

Tzichu, 
San Tomas Tierra 

Blanca. 
the same name, was 



founded by the Jesuits for the conversion of the 
infidels, and had in it a very good college. Its 
population is composed of 42 families of Spa 
niards, 68 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 614 
of Indians, applied to the cultivation of maize ? 
which the territory produces in abundance ; as 
also of vines, from which they make great quan 
tities of wine and brandy, much esteemed through 
out the kingdom. It is 120 miles n. with an in 
clination to n.w. of Mexico, iu lat. 20 J 59 / n. 
long. 10028 / aj. 

PAZ, a settlement, with the dedicatory title of 
San Nicholas, in the province and government 
of Cartagena and Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It 
is of the district of the town of Sinii, and one of 
those new settlements founded by the governor 
Don Francisco Pimienta in 1776. 

PAZ, another, of the missions which were held 
by the Jesuits in California ; situate on the shore 
of the bay of the same name, at a small distance 
from the inner coast of the gulf. 

PAZ, another, with a good port, which is a 
parish of the French, in the part which they pos 
sess in the island St. Domingo : on the n. coast, 
between the bay of Mosquito and the settlement 
of San Luis. 

PAZCA. See PASCA. 

PAZCALA, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Clanapa, and alcaldia 
mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains 
38 families of Indians, who live by cultivating 
and trading iu grain. Six leagues from its head 
settlement. 

[PAZQUARO, a lake in Mexico or New 



PA2UELOS, a settlement of the province 
and government of Cumana or Nueva Anda- 
lucia; situate on the coast, at the mouth of the 
river Nervi, and e. of the city of Barcelona. 

PAZULCO, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Tepoxtlan, and alcaldia 
mayor of Cuernavaca in Nueva Espana. It con 
tains 130 families of Indians, is annexed to the 
curacy of Ayacapixtla, and is situate on an en 
tirely barren plain, so that it is without all com 
merce, and supported by the mere labour of the 
inhabitants. It has been in a state of great dila 
pidation, or nearly depopulated since the year 
1744, when on one of the nights of Shrove-tide 
were murdered there of the ministers of justice 






P E B 

of the district of Ayotapec, who came in an un 
timely manner amongst the people whilst they 
were enjoying themselves. 

[PEACE, an island on the coast of Nova 
Scotia, a little to the s. of Mirachi point] 

[PEACE River, in N. America, was visited by 
Mackenzie in the year 1789 ; he ascended it to 
its source, and thence to the Pacific ocean, mak 
ing many discoveries, which he judiciously nar 
rated in his journal. Previously to this voyage 
this celebrated traveller had embarked from fort 
Chepewyan, in lat. 58 n. long. 110 w. from 
Greenwich, and with the greatest fortitude, un 
der embarrassing and perilous circumstances, ex 
plored with assiduity the n. region to nearly lat. 
70 n. where obstruction by ice compelled him 
to return to fort Chepewyan.] 

[PEACHAM, a township in Caledonia county, 
Vermont ; lies w. of Barnet on Connecticut river. 
It contains 365 inhabitants.] 

[PEACOCK, a township in Buck s county, 
Pennsylvania.] 

PEAD, a settlement of the island of Barba- 
does, in the s. part near the coast. 

[PEAKS OF OTTER, are thought to be the 
highest part of the Blue Ridge, or any other of 
that part of N.America, measuring from their 
base. The height is 4000 feet ; which, however, 
is not one-fifth of the height of the mountains of 
S. America.] 

[PEARL, an island in the >-ulf of Mexico, 
towards the mouth of the Mississippi, a few 
leagues from Dauphin island ; about six or seven 
miles in length, and four in breadth.] 

[PEARL, a river which rises in the Chactaw 
country, in the w. part of Georgia, has a s. 
course to the gulf of Mexico, and is navigable 
upwards of 150 miles. Its principal mouths are 
near the entrance at the e. end of the Regolets, 
through which is the passage to lake Ponchar- 
train. It has seven feet at its entrance, and deep 
water afterwards. In 1769 there were some set 
tlements on this river, where they raised tobacco, 
indigo, cotton, rice, Indian command all sorts of 
vegetables. The land produces a variety of tim 
ber, fit for pipe and hogshead staves, masts, 
yards, and all kinds of plank for ship-building.] 

[PEARN S Point, on the w. side of the island 
of Antigua, and the w. side of Mosquito cove. 
Off it are the Five Islands.] 

PEBAS Y CAUMARES, SAN IGNACIO DE, 
a settlement of the province and government of 
Mainas in the kingdom of Quito ; situate at the 
mouth of the river Shiquita, at its entrance into 
the Maraiion. 



FED 



85 



PEBOKE, a small river of Nova Scotia or 
Acadia in N. America, which runs e. between 
the coast and the bay of Fundy, and enters the 
Cheben. 

PECA, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom 
of Quito. 

PECHE, ANCE DE LA, a bay on the e. coast 
of lake Superior in N. America. 

PECHELIN, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Cartagena in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. It rises close to the town of Maria, 
runs w. and enters the sea near the town of San 
tiago de Tolu. 

PECHERA, a settlement of the missions which 
were held by the Jesuits, in the province of Ta- 
raumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. Thirty- 
two leagues w. s. w. one quarter s. of the town 
and real of mines of San Felipe Chiguagua. 

PECHEURS, an island of the N. Sea, near 
the coast of Guayana, in the part possessed by 
the French ; situate at the mouth of the river 
Aprovak. It is half a league long, but is very 
narrow, covered with trees, and having a sand 
bank, which extends another half league to the 
n. and forms two channels, of which that to the 
left is the best, as it has three fathoms depth of 
water, whereas the other has only two. 

PECKS, a small island of the N. Sea, near the 
coast of New Jersey ; between port Great Egg 
and the island of Sudley. 

[PECWALKET, an ancient Indian village, 
now called Fryburg. Sixty miles from the sea.] 
PECLLAN SIMIQUIES, a barbarous nation 
of Indians, descendants of the Mautas, who used 
to occupy the country of the coast in the pro 
vince called, at the present day, Puerto Viejo, 
in the government of Guayaquil ; subjected by 
the emperor Hayna Capac, thirteenth monarch 
of Peru. It is at present entirely extinguished. 

PECOIQUEN, a river of the island of La 
Laxa in the kingdom of Chile, which runs zp. and 
enters the Vergara. 

PECOMPTUCK, an abundant river of the 
province and colony of New England in N, 
America. 

PECOS, a settlement of the kingdom of 
Nuevo Mexico in N. America; situate at the 
source of a river which enters the Grande del 
Norte, between the settlements of Tesuque and 
Santa Fe, 

PECURIES, a settlement of the missions which 
are held by the religious of San Franciso in the 
kingdom of Nuevo Mexico. 

[PEDEE, a river which rises in N. Carolina, 



86 



FED 



where it is called Yadkin river. In S. Carolina 
it takes the name of Pedee ; and receiving the 
waters of Lynche s creek, Little Pedee, and 
Black river, it joins the Wakkamaw river near 
Georgetown. These united streams, with the 
accession of a small creek on which George 
town stands, from Winyaw bay, which, about 
12 miles below, communicates with the ocean.] 

PEDERNALES, a small river of the island 
St. Domingo, which rises in the sierras of Ba- 
ruco, runs w. through a long strip of land of 
the s. coast, and enters the sea between cape 
Colorado and the bay of Puer. 

PEDERNALES, another river, of this name, in 
the province and government of Florida, which 
runs s. and enters the sea between the Apalachi- 
cola and the point of Perro. 

PEDERNALES, a point of land or extremity of 
the coast, which looks to the e. of the island of 
Cuba. 

PEDERNALES, another, of the s. coast of the 
same island, close to that of Maisi. 

PEDI, an abundant river of S. Carolina, 
which runs s. e. for many leagues, and enters the 
sea by different mouths. 

PEDI, another, a small river in the same pro 
vince, which runs s. and unites itself with the 
Petite to enter the Pedi. 

[PEDRA Shoals, in the W. Indies, to the s. 
of Jamaica, extend from lat. 16 45 to 17 30 n. 
and from long. 76 28 to 78 W w.~] 

PEDRAL, S. JOSEPH DEL, otherwise called 
CHAMPAN, a settlement of the government of 
San Juan Jiron in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra 
nada, on the shore of the river Grande la Mag 
dalena, 16 leagues below the port of Carare, and 
eight above the fort of Morales, and 24 from its 
capital. It is of an hot and sickly temperature, 
but abounding in cacao, of which the inhabi 
tants, amounting to about 100, reap a great crop. 

[PEDRAS Point, on the coast of Brazil, is 
seven leagues e. s. e. from the strait of St. John s 
island, and 75 from cape North. Also a point 
on the same coast 10 leagues zo.n.w. of Bran- 
dihi bay.] 

[PEDRAS, a river on the n. w. side of Punta 
des Pedras, at the s. extremity of Amazon river.] 
PEDRAZA, a small city of the province and 
government of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada ; founded by Gonzalo Liduena, in 
1591, who gave it the name in honour of his na 
tive place in Estremadura. The infidel Indians 
destroyed it in 1614, and it was afterwards re 
built by Captain Diego de Luna. It is in the 
district of the city of Merida ; situate amidst 



P E I) 

some lofty and craggy mountains, and is fertile 
in cacao, tobacco, maize, yucas, plantains, &c. 
Its temperature is hot and very sickly, so that it 
was abandoned by the curate and the rest of the 
inhabitants, save by some 30 barbarian and un 
civilized Indians. 

PEDRAZA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Santa Marta in the same king 
dom, of the district of the Rio del Hacha ; si 
tuate on the shore of a river which enters the 
sea in the point of San Agustin. 

PEDREGAL, a small reduced settlement of 
the district of Tocaima, and government of Mari- 
quita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate 
on the further shore of the river Bogota, which 
is passed there en tarn-vita. It is of an hot tem 
perature, but healthy ; abounding in sugar canes, 
maize, yucas, plantains, &c. 

PEDREGAL, another, in the province and go 
vernment of Venezuela, of the same kingdom as 
the former ; situate s. one ciuarter w. of the citj 
of Coro, between the rivers seco and Tamayo. 

PEDREGAL, another, of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Tacunga in the kingdom of Quito ; 
situate e. of that of Alausi. 

PEDRERA, a settlement of the missions which 
are held by the Carmelite fathers of Portugal, in 
the province and country of Las Amazonas ; si 
tuate on the shore of the Rio Negro. 

PEDRERO, a settlement of the province and 
country of Las Amazonas in the territory of the 
Portuguese ; situate on the shore of the Negro, 
as is the former, opposite the mouth of the river 
Paravillanas. 

PEDRITO, a settlement of the province and 
government of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada ; on the shore of the Rio Grande de 
la Magdalena. 

PEDRO, S. a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district, and alcaldia mayor of Hue- 
jutla, in NuevaEspana; inhabited by 35 fami 
lies of Indians, who live by sowing maize, French 
beans, and cultivating many fruit trees. It is 
annexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence 
it lies eight leagues to the n. In its district are 
found 10 cultivated estates, in the which are In 
dians distributed in the following proportions ; 
in La Candelaria are 67, in La Herradura 24, 
in Tepozteco 20, in Tecal 12, in Tepanctlican 20, 
in Tuzantla 64, in Canchitlan 140, in Zitlan 25, 
in Los Romeros 43, and in San Felipe 45. In 
all these they make loaf-sugar, selling to the 
amount of lOOOcargas (loads) annually, this being 
their only commerce, owing to the drought and 
want of pastures. 



FED 

PEDRO, S. another settlement, of the pro 
vince and government of Santa Marta in the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate on the shore 
of the river Grande de la Magdalena, e. of the 
town of Tamalameque. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the head settlement of 
the district of Amatepec, and alcaldia mayor of 
Zultepec in Nueva Esparla ; of a warm and moist 
temperature. It contains 11 families of Indians, 
who maintain themselves by breeding the larger 
cattle, and by sowing maize and some fruits. 
Five leagues s. of its head settlement. 

PEDRO, S. another of the head settlement of 
Quechula, and alcaldia mayor of Tepeaca in the 
same kingdom. It contains nine families of 
JWustces, and 18 of Indians ; and is very close to 
its head settlement. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the alcaldia mayor of 
Huamelula in the same kingdom ; situate on the 
top of a mountain. It is of a mild temperature, 
and has various streams of sweet water, which 
fertilize its district. It is inhabited by 25 fami 
lies of Indians, who trade in cochineal, in rosa 
ries, which they make of a fruit called tepexilote. 
Three leagues w. of Pochutla. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the head settlement of 
the district of Huehuetlan, and alcaldia mayor of 
Cuicatlan in the same kingdom : situate between 
two lofty mountains, with 97 families of Indians, 
employed in the cultivation and commerce of 
cochineal and cotton, of which they make woven 
stuffs. One league from its head settlement. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the head settlement of 
Zanguio, and alcaldia mayor of Zamora in the 
same kingdom ; situate on the skirt of a lofty 
and woody mountain, of a somewhat hot and 
moist temperature, and containing 22 families of 
Indians. Three leagues n. of its head settle 
ment. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the head settlement of 
Taximaroa, and alcaldia mayor of Maravatio in 
the same kingdom, and in the province and bi 
shopric of Mechoacan. It contains 46 families 
of Indians, and is a little more than three leagues 
s. of its head settlement. 

PEDRO, S. another, which is the head settle 
ment of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Vil- 
lalta in the same kingdom : of a cold tempera 
ture, containing 82 families of Indians, and being 
distant somewhat more than eight leagues s. of 
its capital. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the head settlement of 
Papalotipac, and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan in 
the same kingdom. It contains 15 families of 
Indians, occupied in the collecting and prepar- 



P E D 



87 



ing of saltpetre, cochineal, and cotton, of which 
they make various woven stuffs. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the head settlement of 
the alcaldia mayor of La Barca in the kingdom of 
Nueva Galicia. Three leagues e. of the capital, 
and in its district, are many opulent cultivated 
estates, occupying a space of 17 leagues to the e. 
as far as Tarimoro. 

PEDRO, S. another, with the surname of Apos- 
tol, of the head settlement of the town of the 
Marquiseate del Valle, and the alcaldia mayor of 
Quatro Villas. It has 82 families of Indians, 
employed in the cultivation and commerce of 
wheat, cochineal, maize, fruits, woods, coal, and 
lime. In its vicinity are various ranchos (tempo 
rary habitations) for labour, belonging to the 
different merchants of the city of Oaxaca. Two 
leagues s.e. of its capital. 

PEDRO, S. another, which is the head settle 
ment of the district of the alcaldia mayor of To- 
nala. It is of a cold temperature, contains 83 
families of Indians, who cultivate the seeds and 
fruits of the country, in which consists their com 
merce, and it is two leagues K>. of its capital. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the head settlement, 
and alcaldia mayor of Compostela in the king 
dom of Nueva Galicia : on the shore of the 
river Tepee, and 10 leagues from its capital. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the head settlement 
and alcaldia mayor of Barca in the same kingdom 
as the former, close to its capital to the w. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the head settlement 
and alcaldia mayor of Toluca in Nueva Espana, 
with 141 families of Indians; at a small distance 
w. of its capital. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the head settlement of 
Zumpahuacan, and alcaldia mayor of Marinalco 
in the same kingdom ; distant a short league 
from its capital. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the head settlement and 
alcaldia mayor of Tetela Xonotla in the same 
kingdom : a league and a half w. of the same 
head settlement. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the head settlement 
and alcaldia mayor of Tecali in the same king 
dom ; with 17 Indian families. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the alcaldia mayor of 
Nexapa in the same kingdom ; with 51 Indian 
families. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Guanta in Peru ; annexed to the 
curacy of Tiellas. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and cor- 
regimiento ) of Lucanas in the same kingdom ; an 
nexed to the curacy of Pucquin, 



88 



FED 



PEDRO, S. another, of the province and cor- 
regimicnto of Tomina in the same kingdom ; an 
nexed to the curacy of Sopachui. 

PEDRO, S. another, a small settlement or ward 
of the district and jurisdiction of the city of Val- 
ladolid in the province and bishopric of Mecho- 
acan and kingdom of Nueva Espana. 

PEDRO, S. another, with the surname of Mar- 
tir, in the head settlement of Tepalcaltepec, and 
alcaldia mayor of Nejapa in Nueva Espana; si 
tuate on the plain of a deep glen, surrounded by 
many mountains of a great height, and on which 
the Indians, the inhabitants, plant their fig trees. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and go 
vernment of Popayan in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada : on the shore of the river Caquetii, 
near its source. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the island and govern 
ment of Margarita : on the s. coast, opposite the 
coast of Tierra Firme. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and go 
vernment of Sonora in Nueva Espana, in the 
country of the [Cocomaricopas Indians ; on the 
shore of the river Grande de Gila. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and alcaldia 
mayor of Vera Paz in the kingdom of Gua 
temala. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile ; 
on the shore of the river Quillota. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and go 
vernment of Tucuman in Peru ; of the jurisdic 
tion of the city of Cordoba ; on the shore of a 
river. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and go 
vernment of Buenos Ayres, in the same king 
dom as the former ; on the shore of the river 
Parana, and at the mouth where it enters the 
Sala. [This settlement constitues a parish, lying 
on the w. bank of the Parana, about 70 miles 
n.w. of Buenos Ayres. Lat. 33 39 / 47" s. Long. 
59 53 w.~\ 

[PEDRO, S. a settlement of Indians, of the pro 
vince and government of Buenos Ayres ; situate 
on a branch of the Parana, about 100 miles n. of 
Santa Fe. Lat. 29 57 s. Long. 60 17 a).] 

PEDRO, S. another, of the head settlement of 
the alcaldia mayor of Juchipila in Nueva Espana. 
Six leagues w. of its head settlement. 

PEDRO, S. another, a small settlement or ward 
of the head settlement of Texmelucan, and al 
caldia mayor of Guajozingo in the same kingdom. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the missions which were 
held by the Jesuits, in the province of Tepe- 
guana and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. 



FED 

PEDRO, S. another, which is a real of mines 
of silver, of the province of Taraumara and king 
dom of Nueva Vizcaya; on the shore of a river 
which enters the Conchos, and 120 leagues from 
the capital Guadiana, in about lat. 28 . 

PEDRO, S. another, of the missions which were 
held by the Jesuits in the province of Topia and 
kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya; in the midst of a 
sierra of that name, and on the shore of the 
river Piastla. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and go 
vernment of Venezuela in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada: founded in the sierra in the seven 
teenth century. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and go 
vernment of Quijos and Macas in the kingdom 
of Quito : one of the missions of the Sucumbios 
Indians, which were founded and held under the 
charge of the Jesuits. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and go 
vernment of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada ; between the coast and the great lake. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and corre- 
{rimiento of Rancagua in the kingdom of Chile ; 
in the district of which, towards the coast, is a 
lake called de Santo Domingo, as it is between 
an estate which belongs to the convent of the re 
ligious of this order in the city of Santiago, and 
another called Bucalemu, where the Jesuits had 
a good college, and the rich and abundant gold 
mine which was discovered 50 years since. 

PEDRO, S. another, with the addition of No- 
lasco, of the missions which were held by the 
Carmelite fathers of Portugal, in the territory 
and country of Las Amazonas ; on the shore of 
this river. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the missions which were 
held by the Jesuits in the province and govern 
ment of Mainas and kingdom of Quito ; situate 
on the shore of the river Napo, and at the mouth 
where this is entered by the Aguarico. 

PEDRO, S. another, which is a real of silver 
mines, of the province and government of So- 
nora. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and go 
vernment of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada ; on the shore of the river Canas, 
near the coast, in the country of the Taironas 
Indians. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and go 
vernment of Honduras in the kingdom of Gua 
temala. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the island of Guada- 
lupe, one of the Antilles ; situate at the n. head, 
with a good fort for its defence. 



FED 

PEDRO, S. another, of the island Martinique, 
where the French have a fort. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the missions which were 
held by the Jesuits in the province and govern 
ment of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; si 
tuate on the shore of the Maranon, and distinct 
from the other of the same name, of which we 
have already spoken. It is near the settlement 
of San Pablo de los Omaguas. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and go 
vernment of Moxos in the same kingdom as the 
Ibrmer. It was the military rendezvous of the 
expedition unsuccessfully undertaken by briga 
dier Don Francisco Pestana in 1768. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the island of Curazao ; 
situate on the coast of a bay in the n. part. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and go 
vernment of Maracaibo ; on the shore of the lake 
of this name, and the river Cuervo to the s.. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and alcal- 
dia mayor of Zacapula in the kingdom of Gua 
temala. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and alcal- 
dia mayor of Chiapa in the same kingdom. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and alcal- 
dia mayor of Zacatopeques in the same kingdom. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and corre- 
gimiento of Vera Paz in the same kingdom. 

PEDRO, S. another, with the addition of Nuevo, 
in the province and captainship of Todos Santos 
and kingdom of Brazil ; situate on the shore of 
the river Paraguaca, near the bay. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and king 
dom of Guatemala. 

PEDRO, S. a large city in the province and 
captainship of Rey in Brazil ; at the mouth of the 
great lake of Los Patos. 

PEDRO, S. a town of the province and corre- 
gimicnto of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile. 

PEDRO, S. a large river of the province of Ta- 
raumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya in N. 
America. It rises in lat. 28, runs nearly from 
e. to w. and enters the Grande del Norte on the 
confines of the province of Coaguila, where this 
province is divided from the kingdom of Nuevo 
Mexico. It is very pleasant, since its shores are 
covered with poplar trees, and as it has in one 
part an extensive pasture where neat cattle are 
bred. 

PEDRO, S. another river, of the province and 
government of Veragua in the kingdom ofTierra 
Firme. It rises in the part of the s. coast by the 
mountain of Tabaraba, and following its course 
to that rhumb, enters the Martin Grande just 
before this runs into the sea. 

VOL. IV. 



FED 



89 



PEDRO, S. another, of the province and king 
dom of Quito, which rises near the settlement of 
St. Domingo, and runs n. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and go 
vernment of Venezuela in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. It rises in a mountain near the city 
of Nirua, runs nearly from n. to s. and unites it 
self with another to enter the Coxede. 

PEDRO, S. another, a large and abundant river 
of the kingdom of Brazil, formed from several 
which rise in the mountains of the country and 
territory of the Guaranis Indians in various di 
rections. It follows its course along the coast, 
and very close to it, resembling a large lake, 
until it enters the sea, close to the fort of San 
Pedro ; but detaching another arm to form the 
lake ImerK 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and go 
vernment of Texas in Nueva Espaiia. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the kingdom of Nueva 
Vizcaya in N. America. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the name of San Pablo, 
in the province and alcaldia mayor of Tabasco, 
which at its source is called Lodazal. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and go 
vernment of Venezuela in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. It rises in the sierra, runs n. and en 
ters the lake Maracaibo. 

PEDRO, S. another, of the province and go 
vernment of Florida, which runs w. and enters 
the sea between the fall of Anclote and those of 
St. Martin. 

PEDRO, S; another, called also De San Pablo, 
in the province and government of Vera Cruz, 
in the alcaldia mayor of Tabasco. It enters the 
sea close to the settlement of Almeria. 

PEDRO, S. a bay in the s. coast of the straits 
iof Magellan, close to the cape of La Perdicion. 
It is called also by some, De la Navidad. 

PEDRO, S. another, on. the c. coast of Florida-, 
without the channel of Bahama. , fc^ 

PEDRO, S. a port on the s: coast of the island 
of Cuba; between the Capilia.de Santiago and 
the river De Sevilla. 1 *T 

PEDRO, S. another bay, on! the s. coast of the 
island of Jamaica. e/[J 

PEDRO, S. a bay on the coast, which lies be 
tween the river La Plata and the straits of Ma 
gellan. It is in lat. 51 20 s. between the river 
of Los Gallegos and the bay Grande. 

PEDRO, S. a small island of the S. Sea, in 
the bay of Panama, of the province and king 
dom of Tierra Firme; opposite the gulf of San 
Miguel. 

PEDRO, S. another island, also small, of the 

N 



90 P E H 

gulf of California ; situate in the interior of the 
same, and close to the coast of Nueva Espana. 

PEDRO, S. a fort of the kingdom of Chile ; si 
tuate on the opposite side of the river Biobio, as 
a frontier to the Araucanos Indians, who burnt 
and destroyed it in 1599. 

PEDRO, S. a lake in the kingdom of Nueva 
Vizcaya, formed from the river Las Nasas. 

[PEDRO POINT, Great, is on the s. coast of 
the island of Jamaica. From Portland point to 
this point, the course iso>. by n. about 11 leagues. 
About s. three-quarters e. distance 14 leagues 
from point Pedro, lies the easternmost Pedro 
keyj 

[PEDRO POINT, Little, on the s. coast of the 
same island, lies e. of great Pedro point, within 
a shoal partly dry ; but has five fathoms within, 
and 10 on the outer edge of it.] 
[PEDRO. See PETER.] 

PEDROSA, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of San Vincente in Brazil ; situate be 
tween the settlements of Cubar and Escamel. 

PEE, Port, a settlement of the French, in the 
part they possess in the island St. Domingo. 
Fourteen leagues from Guarico. 

[PEEK S Kill, a small post-town in W. Ches 
ter county, New York ; on the e. side of Hud 
son s river, and n. side of the creek of its name, 
four miles from its mouth.- It is 14 miles s. of 
Fish Kill, and 40 n. of New York. In the winter 
of 1780, General Washington encamped on the 
strong grounds in this vicinity.] 

PEGEBSCUL, a fall of the river Amaris- 
coggin in the province of Continent, near its 
mouth. 

PEGUAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of 
the province and government of Quixos and 
Macas in the kingdom of Quito, who dwell 
between the rivers Chamangui to the e. and Pu- 
ninu to the w. It was anciently very numerous, 
and occupied nearly the whole of the province. 
The principal settlement had the name of the 
former of the two rivers aforesaid, as being si 
tuate on its s . shore. This nation is at present 
reduced to a few Indians, who wander about the 
woods in the vicinity of the river Napo, main 
taining themselves by fishing and the chase. 

[PEGUNNOCK, a n. w. branch of Passaik 
river in New Jersey, which rises in Sussex 
county. The town of its name lies between it 
and Rockaway, another branch 5. of this river, 
n. w. of Morristown.] 

[PEHUENCHES, a valley of the Andes, in 
habited by Indians of this name in lat. 34 40 s. 
in the kingdom of Chile, In it are 11 springs of 



PEL 

very clear and limpid water, which overflow 
the surface, and become crystalized into a salt 
as white as snow. This valley is about 15 miles 
in circumference, and is entirely covered, for the 
depth of six feet, with a crust of salt, which is 
collected by the inhabitants in large pieces, and 
used for all domestic purposes. 

For a description of the Indians inhabiting 
these parts, see Index to additional matter con 
cerning CHILE. Chap. IV.] 

PEINE, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Atacama in Peru, and of the arch 
bishopric of Charcas ; annexed to the curacy of 
its capital. 

PEJENA, a small river of the province and 
government of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia. 
It runs w. and enters the Orinoco close to the 
settlement and torrent of the Carichana. 

PEJ ENDING, a settlement of the province 
and government of Popayan in the kingdom of 
Quito ; belonging to the district of the town of 
Pasto. 

[PEJEPSCOT, or PEJIPSKAEG Falls, in An- 
droscoggin river. See KENNEBECK River, &c.] 

PEL A DO, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of Rey in Brazil ; situate w. of the 
settlement of Porcos. 

PEL ADO, a very lofty mountain, destitute of 
tree or plant, in the province and government of 
Darien and kingdom of Tierra Firme, on the 
coast of the S. Sea, on the side of the point of 
Garachine ; which may be discovered at a great 
distance at sea. 

PELADO, a river, called Cano Pelado, of the 
province and captainship of Rey in Brazil. It 
runs s. s. e. and enters the great lake of Los 
Patos. 

PELAGATOS, CERRO DE, a lofty mountain 
of the province and corregimiento of Truxillo in 
Peru. 

PELAN, a small river of the island St. Chris 
topher, one of the Antilles. It enters the sea on 
the s. w. coast, between the great road and the 
point of Palmites. 

PELAYO, S. a settlement of the province and 
government of Cartagena in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada, and of the district of the town of 
Tolu ; founded in 1776 by the governor D. Fran 
cisco Pimienta. 

(TELDEHUES, a mine of the kingdom of 
Chile, near Santiago. It produced daily upwards 
of 1500 pounds weight of gold, but being sud 
denly inundated the workmen were compelled 
to abandon it.] 

PELECAHUIN, a settlement of the govern- 



PEL 

uient of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile ; 
situate on the shore and at the source of the 
river Valdivia. 

PELE, PELER or PELADA, a remarkable point 
of the . coast of lake Erie in Canada. 

PELE, also an island near the same point in 
the above lake. 

PELECHUCO, a settlement of the province 
and corre%imiento of Larecaja in Peru. 

PELEHUE, a settlement of Indians of the 
kingdom of Chile : near the sea coast, and on the 
shore of the river Tolten. 

PELEHUE, another settlement, of the same 
kingdom, in the island of Laxa ; on the shore of 
the river of Los Sauces. 

PELEPELQUA, a creek on the coast of the 
straits of Magellan, on the side of the river of 
the Pasage. 

PELES, a settlement of the province of Pen- 
sylvania in N. America, where the English have 
built a fort for the defence of the establishment 
which they founded there ; e. of the fort of Quene 
of the French, and not far from the river Ohio. 

[PELESON, a name sometimes applied to 
Clinch River ; which see.] 

[PELHAM, a township of Massachusetts, in 
Hampshire county, 1 1 miles n. e. of Northampton, 
and 78 w. of Boston. It was incorporated in 
1742, and contains 1040 inhabitants.] 

[PELHAM, a township of Rockingham county, 
New Hampshire, situate on the s. state line, 
which separates it from Dracut in Massachusetts. 
It lies on the e. side of Beaver river, 25 miles s. 
w. of Exeter, and 27 n. of Boston. It was incor 
porated in 1746, and contains 791 inhabitants.] 

[PELHAM, a township of New York, situate in 
W. Chester county, bounded s. and e. by the 
Sound, n. by the n. bounds of the manor of Pel- 
ham, including New City, Hart, and Applesby s 
islands. It contains 199 inhabitants ; of whom 
27 are electors, and 38 slaves.] 

[PELICAN, GREAT, an island a mile long and 
very narrow, e. of the bay of Mobile in the gulf 
of Mexico. Its concave side is towards the e. 
end of Dauphin island. Hawk s bay lies between 
these two islands. Little Pelican island is a 
small sand key, s. e. of great Pelican. Its e. curve 
meets a large shoal extending from Mobile Point.] 

[PELICAN, ISLANDS, on the s. coast of the island 
of Jamaica, are situate off the point so called, 
o. of Port Royal harbour.] 

[PELICAN, a small island at the s. w. point of 
the island of Antigua.] 

[PELICAN ROCKS, lie in Runaway bay, on the 
w. side of the island of Antigua, towards the 



P E M 



91 



n. a), they lie under water, and are very dan 
gerous.] 

[PELICAN SHOALS, small patches of sand banks 
about half a mile from the shore of the s. w. coast 
of the island of Barbadoes.] 

PELILEO, a settlement of the province and 
corre<rimiento of Riobamba, in the district and 
jurisdiction of Ambato of the kingdom of Quito; 
celebrated for the ability and ingenuity of the 
natives in carpenters work ; articles being made 
by them which vie in elegance with those of 
European manufacture. The climate here is 
benign and healthy. Its parish church is one of 
the best in the kingdom ; 10 miles 5. e of Ambato, 
and three w. of Palate, in lat. 1 21 s. 

PELINGARA, a river of the province and 
corregimiento of Piura in Peru. It runs w. and 
passes opposite the settlement to which it gives 
its name, and which is situate on its shore, and 
enters the Catamayu, opposite the settlement of 
Quirocotillo by the s. part, in lat. 4 44 *. 

PELISIPE, a river of N. Carolina, which runs 
s. s. w. and enters the Cherakees. 

PELOTAS, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of Rey in Brazil, near the coast, and 
at the source of the river Uruguay. 

PELOTAS, a river of the above province and 
kingdom ; which runs s. s. e. and enters the 
great lake of Los Patos. 

[PEMAGON, a settlement of the district of 
Maine, seven miles from Denney s river, and 14 
from Moose island.] 

[PEMAQUID, a bay on the sea-coast of Lin 
coln county, district of Maine. It lies e. of 
Sheepscot river, and contains a number of islands, 
many of which are under cultivation.] 

[PEMAQUID POINT, on the w. side of the above 
bay, lies two miles e. of Booth bay, and about 
four leagues n. w. of Menhegan island. Lat. 43 
48 n. Long. 69 27 a>.] 

[PEMBROKE, a township of Massachusetts, 
in Plymouth county, 31 miles s. by e. of Boston- 
It was incorporated in 1712, and contains 1954 
inhabitants. It lies IS miJtea.fihpm the mouth of 
the North river, and vessels? pf 300 tons have 
been built here. See NORTH RIVER.] 

[PEMBROKE, the Suncook of the Indians, a 
township of New Hampshire, in Rockingham 
county, on the e. side of Merrimack river, four 
miles s. e. of Concord. It lies upon two small 
rivers, Bowcook and Suncook, which run a s. by 
w. course into Merrimack river. In 1728, it was 
settled, and called Lovewell s town. It was incor 
porated in 1759, and contains 956 inhabitants.] 

[PEMIGEWASSET, a river of New Hamp- 



02 PEN 

shire, which springs from the e. part of the ridge 
called the Height of Land. Moose-hillock 
Mountain gives it one branch ; another comes 
from the s. w. extremity of the White Mountains, 
and a third comes from the township of Fran- 
conia. Its length is about 50 miles ; its course 
generally s. and it receives from both sides a 
number of streams. Winnipiseogee river, comes 
from the lake of that name, and unites its waters 
with the Pemigewasset at the lower end of San- 
born town. From this junction, the confluent 
stream bears the name of Merrimack, to the sea. 
See MERRIMACK.] 

PEMBERRY, a river of the province of 
Pennsylvania, in N. America. 

PEMAPECKA, a river of the same province 
as the former. 

PEMNAQUID, a river of the province of 
New England in N. America. 

PENA, LA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of 
the city of La Palma, in the corregimiento of 
Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate 
in a country rough and mountainous, and full of 
swamps. It produces cotton, tobacco, maize, 
sugar cane, plantains and yucas, and breeds much 
swine cattle : this being its principal commerce. 
It contains 300 housekeepers and a few Indians. 

PENA, BLANCA, another settlement, of the 
province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the 
kingdom of Chile. 

PENA, another, with the surname of Oradada, 
in the coast of the province and corregimiento of 
Oercado in Peru, opposite the island of Fronton. 

PENA, another, called Rancho de la Pena, in 
the missions which are held by the religious of 
San Francisco of Nuevo Mexico. 

PENA, a cape or point of land on the n. coast 
of the island St. Domingo, between the bay of 
Balsamo and cape Frances the old. 

PENA, another point, on the coast of the pro 
vince and captainship of Seara in Brazil, between 
the coast of Porcelados and the bay of Iguape. 

PENACHI, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Piura in the kingdom of Quito. 

PENAGARA, a very lofty mountain of the 
province and country of Guayana, towards the w. 
It is celebrated for the brilliant appearance of its 
sides, which gave rise to the fable of its being 
entirely of gold and precious stones. The fact is, 
that it abounds in the metal called marcasite, and 
that from this arises the glitter which is so uni 
versal on every part of it. 

PENALOLEN, a settlement of the kingdom 
of Chile ; situate in the llano, or plain of Tango. 

PENAS, CABO DE, a point of land on the 



coast of the island of Fuego, between the points 
of Arenas and Santa Ines. 

PEN AS, a settlement of the province and corre-> 
gimiento of Paria in Peru ; e. of the capital. 

PENAS, NUESTRA SENORA DE LAS, a cele 
brated sanctuary of the province and corregimi 
ento of Omasuyos in Peru ; annexed, as a chapel 
of ease, to the curacy of Huariiia. 

PENAS, a very lofty mountain of the province 
and country of Chaco in Peru; on the shore of 
the channel of Galban. 

PENASCO, SAN MATEO DEL, a settlement 
and head settlement of the district, and alcaldia 
mayor of Tepozcolula, in Nueva Espana. It 
contains 600 families of Indians, with those of 
the wards of its district, who are employed in 
cultivating wheat and cochineal; five leagues 
s. of its capital. 

PENASCO, a small river of the district of Re- 
pocura in the kingdom of Chile. 

PENCO. See CONCEPCION DE CHILE. 

PENDELEC, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of Quito, 
in the district of which are the estates of Lluglul 
and Quinaloma. 

[PENDLETON, a country of Virginia, bound 
ed n. w. by Randolph, and s. by Rockingharn 
countries ; watered by the s. branch of the Pa- 
towmack. It contains 2452 inhabitants, includ 
ing 73 slaves. Chief town, Frankford.J 

[PENDLETON, a country of Washington district, 
S. Carolina, on Keowee and Savannah rivers. It 
contained, in 1795, 9568 inhabitants, of whom 
834 are slaves ; and sends three representatives 
and one senator to the state legislature. The 
court-house in this county is 22 miles n. n. e. of 
Franklin court-house in Georgia, and 45 w. of 
Cambridge. A post-office is kept at this court 
house.] 

PENE, a cape on the s. coast of the island of 
Newfoundland ; one of those which form the 
bay of Trespasses. 

PENEDO, a large settlement of the province 
and captainship of Perambuco in Brazil ; situate 
on the shore of the river Grande S. Francisco, 
19 miles from its entrance into the sea ; and 
here the Portuguese have the fort of S. Mauricio 
to defend the pass of the river. 

PENEHUE, or PENHUE, a settlement of In 
dians of the district of Boroa in the kingdom of 
Chile ; on the shore of the river Tolten. 

PENENIO, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom of 
Quito ; it enters the Putumayo just after its 
source. 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



[PENGUIN, an island in the Atlantic Ocean, 
about 10 miles w. e. of the coast of Newfoundland. 
It has this name from the multitude of birds of 
that name which frequent it. Lat. 50 5 X . n. 
Long. 50 30 X w. There is also an island of the 
same name, on the coast of Patagonia, in the S. 
Atlantic Ocean, three leagues s .e. of Port Desire. 
It is an uninhabited rock, high at the ends and 
low in the middle, and is the largest and outer 
most of a number of small isles or rocks, and is 
about a musket shot from the main land. It 
abounds in an extraordinary manner with pen 
guins and seals. It is three-fourths of a mile in 
length, and half a mile in breadth from e. to w.~] 

PENGUIN, some islands near the s. coast of 
Newfoundland, close to point Hune. 

PENIPE, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Riobamba in the kingdom of 
Quito, near the river Achambo, which it has to 
the w. and to the n. the river of its name. It is of 
a small population, but delightful and healthy cli 
mate ; five leagues n. e. of Riobamba, and in lat. 
1 35 s. 

PENITENCIA, an island of the N. Sea, at 
the mouth of the river of Las Amazonas, between 
the coast of Guayana and the great island of 
Joanes or Marajo. 

PEN JAMO, a settlement and head settlement 
of the district of the ulcaldia mayor of the town 
of Leon in Nueva Espana, and province and 
bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 58 families 
oflndians. 

PENJAMILLO, a settlement of the head 
settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of 
Tlazasalca in Nueva Espana. It contains 10 
families of Spaniards and Mustees, and 63 of 
Indians, in some ranches (temporary habitations 
for labourers) in its district ; also 133 of Spa 
niards, Mustees, and Mulatoes, who trade in 
maize, French beans, and other seeds, which, 
together with some horse-cattle, are produced 
here in abundance, five leagues n. of its capital. 

PENNSYLVANIA, a province of N. Ame 
rica, one of those which compose the United 
States ; situate between New York to the n. 
New Jersey to the e. Virginia and Ohio to the w. 
and Maryland, Virginia, and Delaware to the s. 
It is about 265 miles long, and 158 wide ; between 
lat. 39 43 and 42 20 n. and long. 74 47 and 
80 37 X o>. This province is watered by several 
rivers, amongst the most considerable of which 
are the Delaware, Susquehannah, and Schuilkill. 
The first of these rises to the n. in the country of 
the Iroquees Indians, and of Bristol. The other 



two rivers have their origin in the same country, 
and are navigable to a greater extent, facilitating 
the internal commerce. This province is divided 
into the following counties : 

Philadelphia, Bucks, 

Northampton, York, 

Chester, Berks, 

Lancaster, Cumberland ; 

and the other part of the river Delaware into the 
counties of Newcastle, Kent, and Sussex. It was 
granted to the celebrated William Penn, son of 
the great admiral of the same name, in the time 
of the protector Cromwell and of king Charles 
II. of England, in 1680. It was first ceded to the 
admiral in reward for his services, but he dying, 
the son did not solicit the title, until the persecu 
tion of the Quakers in England had become 
general ; and he then set out for America, and 
bought this territory of the Indians at a very low 
rate. He afterwards entered into commercial 
dealings to a small extent with these natives, and 
impressed them with very favourable ideas of 
him ; and under such auspicious beginnings, he 
proceeded in peopling the country thus newly ac 
quired ; the disgust which the Quakers began to 
feel to their native home, and their consequent 
emigration, greatly conducing to this end. The 
territory was, to be sure, uncultivated, and the 
climate strange and unknown to them, but Penn 
did not cease to animate and increase his new 
colonists. He spent large sums of money in 
transporting and providing them with every 
necessary ; and, not aspiring to enrich himself 
suddenly, he sold at a fair price a piece of terri 
tory to each ; with the which, and by the letter of 
privilege which he gave them, he transformed 
the country from a forest into a garden. Thus 
it has been, and is, one of the most flourishing 
colonies of the New World, and where the name 
of Penn is held in grateful remembrance. 

The climate of Pennsylvania is very delightful, 
and the air soft and mild. The autumn begins 
here on the 20th of October, and lasts till the be 
ginning of December, when the winter commences. 
The cold and frosts are considerable, so that the 
river Delaware, although very wide, is frequently 
frozen, but the air is dry and healthy. The 
spring lasts from March till June, and then the 
weather is more fickle than at other times. The 
heat in the months of July, August, and Sep 
tember, is very great, but it is much mitigated by 
the cool refreshing breezes. The 5. w. wind 
lasts the greater part of the summer, and the n. 
and n. w. blow in the winter and spring ; and 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



these, passing 1 over the lakes which are frozen, 
and through the snowy mountains of Canada, 
are the cause of the coldness in those seasons. 

The soil is, in some parts, of a yellow or black 
sand, and in some of a kind of light earth, and in 
others of a clay, similar to that of the valleys in 
England ; and which is found here more particu 
larly near the sources of the shores of the rivers 
which irrigate the country. The land is fertile, 
rich, and easily cultivated, and the roots of the 
trees shoot down to a very small depth. 

Pennsylvania is watered by many rivers, and 
produces in the greatest abundance whatever con 
tributes to the convenience or luxury of life. In 
a word there is not a part of N. America so flour 
ishing, nor where, in a few years, the population 
has experienced so rapid an increase. In 1729 
no less than 6208 persons, four or five hundred of 
whom were Irish, came to establish themselves 
here ; and it is not wonderful that since the time of 
Penn, the value of lands has greatly risen. It 
contains 35,000 inhabitants, including the county 
of Delaware. There is no established religion ; 
and with the mixture of Germans, Swiss, Dutch 
and English, we find here, besides Catholics, 
Quakers, Calvinists, Lutherans, Methodists, 
Menists, Moravians, Independents, Anabaptists, 
and Shakers ; this being a sect of German origin, 
who live in religious society, and wear the habit 
of friars. Nor is it unworthy of our admiration 
to see how, in such a diversity of nations, tongues, 
and faiths, so great and universal harmony pre 
vails ; and notwithstanding that each is aware, 
in his own mind, of the other s error, and even 
some times endeavours to convince him of it, yet 
does not this even endanger, if not that Christian 
unity of faith, that religious fraternity which is 
observed to prevail. Again, the Quakers, the 
founders of this colony, have never been seen to 
exercise any conspicuous authority, save in the 
case of one William Keith, whom they seized and 
banished from the province as a disturber of the 
peace : but he, who was before a minister of the 
protestant church, turned Quaker, and then re 
turned to his former ministry, making such 
innovations with regard to the Quakers -creed 
as to have given rise to great domestic troubles. 
The fertility of this province is such as to 
afford naturally, and with very little cultivation, 
an infinite variety of trees, flowers, plants, and 
fruits. It also abounds greatly in cattle, and the 
rivers are stocked with fish. Before the distur 
bances with England, and the war which gave 
rise to its independence, 25 vessels were built 



here annually for the export of its productions, 
namely, skins, iron, fruits, &c. to the amount of 
750,000 ; and there were goods imported from 
England to the amount of 611,000. The 
capital is Philadelphia. 

[The revolution which affected the whole of the 
United States, seems to have been felt by none 
of them more strongly than Pennsylvania. The 
above information we believe to be a correct 
view of its situation at the time described by our 
author, but its whole political and physical ener 
gies have been within the last 30 years so com 
pletely enlarged, that we shall not fear entering 
into some degree of repetition by endeavouring 
to afford a true picture of its present state. 

Pennsylvania (except the purchase mentioned 
below) lies in the form of a parallelogram. The 
n. w. corner of this state, containing about 202,000 
acres, was lately purchased of Congress by this 
state. Pennsylvania at present contains 44,900 
square miles, and is divided into 23 counties, viz. 
Philadelphia, Northumberland, 

Chester, Franklin, 

Delaware, Bedford, 

Bucks, Huntingdon, 

Montgomery, Mifflin, 

Berks, Westmoreland, 

Lancaster, Somerset, 

Dauphin, Fayette, 

Northampton, Washington, 

Luzerne, Alleghany, 

York, Lycoming. 

Cumberland, 

These are subdivided into townships, not by 
any special law of the legislature, but on applica 
tion of a sufficient number of the citizens, in any 
neighbourhood, to the judges of the court of Com 
mon Pleas and general quarter sessions of the 
county. In each township the citizens have the 
privilege of assembling once a year, to choose two 
overseers of the poor, two assessors, a collector of 
taxes, two supervisors of the roads, and a consta 
ble. The number of inhabitants, according to 
the census of 1790, was 434,373, including 3737 
slaves, and by that of 1810, the total population 
amounted to 810,163 souls. But the emigration 
of foreigners has ever been, and continues to be, 
so considerable, that the number will always- be 
far greater than could be expected from the na 
tural increase of population. 

There are six considerable rivers, which, with 
their numerous branches, peninsulate the whole 
state, viz. The Delaware, Schuilkill, Susque- 
hannah, Youghiogany, Monongahela, andAlleg-] 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



[hany. The bay and river Delaware are naviga 
ble up to the Great or Lower Falls at Trenton, 
155 miles from the sea, and a ship of the line can 
ascend to Philadelphia, the metropolis, 120 miles 
from the sea, by the ship channel of the Del 
aware. 

A considerable part of the state may be called 
mountainous ; particularly the countries of Bed 
ford, Huntingdon, Cumberland, part of Franklin, 
Dauphin, and part of Bucks and Northampton, 
through which pass, under various names, the 
numerous ridges and spurs which collectively 
form the great range of Alleghany mountains. 
The principal ridges here are the Kittatinny, or 
Blue mountains, which pass n. of Nazareth in 
Northampton county, and pursue a s. w. course 
across the Lehigh, through Dauphin county, just 
above Harisburg, thence on the w. side of the 
Susquehannah, through Cumberland and Franklin 
counties. Back of these, and nearly parallel 
with them, are Peter s, Tuscarora, and Nescopek 
mountains, on the e. side of the Susquehannah ; 
and on the w. 9 Shareman s hills, Sideling hills, 
Ragged, Great Warriors, Evits and Wills moun 
tains ; then the great Alleghany ridge ; w. of this 
are the Chesnut ridges. Between the Juniatta 
and the w. branch of the Susquehannah are Jack s, 
Tussy s, Nitting, and Bald-Eagle mountains. 
The vales between these mountains are generally 
of a rich, black soil, suited to the various kinds 
of grain and grass. Some of the mountains will 
admit of cultivation almost to their tops. The 
other parts of the state are generally level, or 
agreeably variegated with hills and valleys. 

The soil of Pennsylvania is of various kinds ; 
in some parts it is barren, but a great proportion 
of the state is good land ; and no inconsiderable 
part of it is very good. The richest track that is 
settled, is Lancaster county, and the valley 
through Cumberland, York, and Franklin. The 
richest that is unsettled, is between Alleghany ri 
ver and lake Erie, in the n, w. part of the state, and 
in the country on the heads of the e. branches of 
the Alleghany. Pennsylvania includes the greater 
part of the kinds of trees, shrubs, and plants, that 
grow within the United States. Oaks, of several 
species, form the bulk of the wood. Hickory 
and walnut make a greater proportion than in 
the . tates. Sassafras, mulberry, tulip-tree, and 
cedar, are common, and grow to perfection. 
The magnolia glauca, or swamp-sassafras, are 
found in low grounds ; the twigs and roots are 
used both in bath and decoction for removing the 
rheumatism . The magnolia acuminata, or cucum 



ber-tree, grows very tall about the w. mountains. 
The magnolia tripetala, or umbrella-tree, is found 
in some parts 16 or 20 feet high. The bark is 
smooth, and the leaves sometimes exceed 12 or 
15 inches in length, and five or six in breadth, 
terminating in a point at each extremity. The 
leaves are placed at the ends of the branches, in 
a circular form, resembling an umbrella ; hence 
the name. The bark of the tulip-tree is esteemed 
a tolerable substitute for the Peruvian bark ; 
but the cornus Jlorida, or dog-wood, which is fre 
quent in the state, is preferred. Besides many 
other valuable trees and shrubs, are the several 
species of maple ; of these the scarlet-flowered 
and sugar maple are the most useful ; they are 
common in the n. and w. parts of the state, and 
are larger than the other species, growing from 
50 to 60 feet high, and yiela abundance of sap for 
the making of sugar. The ash-leaved tooth-ach 
tree, is found here and in Maryland. The bark 
and capsules have an acid taste, and are used in 
relieving the tooth-ach, whence it has got its 
name. The shrubby bithwort grows near Fort 
Pitt. It thrives in the shade, in a rich soil ; 
grows about 30 feet high, and sends off many 
twining branches. The roots have a lively 
aromatic taste, and are thought to have equal 
medicinal virtue to the small Virginia snake-root. 
The sambucus canadensis, or red-berried elder, is 
found here. Among the Indians it is called 
fever-bush ; and a decoction of its wood and 
buds is highly esteemed by them. Ct would be 
endless to describe the beautiful flowering shrubs, 
and useful as also ornamental plants in this state. 
Grapes of several sorts are common : the late 
kind, when mellowed by frost, make, with the 
addition of sugar, good wine. At present, the 
cultivation of the vine is much in vogue in Penn* 
sylvania, and good wine has been already made. 

Iron ore abounds in this state : copper, lead, 
and alum appear in some places. Lime-stone 
is common, as also several kinds of marble. In 
the middle and w. country is abundance of coal. 
At the head of the w. branch of Susquehannah 
is an extensive bed, which stretches over the 
country s. w. so as to be found in the greatest 
plenty about Pittsburg. There are also consider 
able bodies on the head waters of the Schuilkill 
and Lehigh ; and at Wyoming there is a bed 
open, which gives very intense heat. 

Useftil quadrupeds, in the new districts, are 
deer, in great numbers, beavers, otters, racoons, 
and martins. Buffaloes rarely cross the Ohio, 
and elks seldom advance from the n. Panthers,"] 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



[wild cats, bears, foxes, and wolves are not rare ; 
the last do most mischief, especially in the 
winter ; but the fur and skins of all are valuable. 
In the thick settlements, rabbits and squirrels are 
frequent ; also minks and musk-rats in marshes : 
partridges are yet numerous, though the late 
hard winters have destroyed many, and wild 
turkeys in the new settlements ; pheasants and 
grouse are become scarce ; pigeons, ducks, and 
wild geese are generally found in plenty in their 
proper seasons. Here are a great number of 
singing birds, as many migrate to the state from 
n. and s. in certain seasons. 

Trout are common in the rivulets, in length 
seldom above a foot. In the e. rivers, the prin 
cipal fish are rock and sheep s-head, with shad 
and herring, which in the spring come up from 
the sea in great shoals. These are not found in 
the w. waters, which are said to have their own 
valuable kinds, especially a species of cat-fish, 
weighing from 50 to 100 pounds ; yellow perch 
and pike are also in them mucl^ larger and more 
numerous. 

The s. side of Pennsylvania is the best settled 
throughout, owing entirely to the circumstance 
of the w. road having been run by the armies, 
prior to 1762, through the towns of Lancaster, 
Carlisle and Bedford, and thence to Pittsburg. 
For the purpose of turning the tide of settlers 
from this old channel into the unsettled parts of 
the state, the government and landed interest of 
Pennsylvania have been, and are still, busy in 
cutting convenient roads. During the summer 
of 1788, they laid out a road n. from the former 
roads beyond Bethlehem, to the n. portage 
between Delaware and Susquehannah ; and 
thence n. 80 w. to the mouth of the Tioga, the for 
mer 70 miles, and the latter above 60. It has 
been in contemplation to cut a road from Sun 
bury, at the forks of the e. and w. branches of 
Susquehannah, w. 150 miles, to the mouth of 
goby s Creek, which empties into the Alleghany 
from the e. but we are not enabled to say whether 
the plan may have taken effect. A road is also 
cut from the mouth of the Tioga, s. to the 
mouth of Loyal, which empties into the a;, branch 
of Susquehannah. Another road is cut from 
Huntingdon town, on Frank s town branch of 
the Juniatta, w. 30 miles to Conemagh, a navi 
gable branch of the Alleghany. A turnpike road 
has been lately completed from Philadelphia to 
Lancaster, which shortens the distance between 
these places eight miles ; and others are in con 
templation. From Swetara to the Tulpehoken 



branch of the Schnilkill, a canal and lock navi 
gation is undertaken, and the works commenced, 
by an incorporated company, whose capital is 
400,000 dollars. This leads" through the Schuil- 
kill to Philadelphia. By this means, it was pro 
posed to open a passage to Philadelphia from 
the Juniatta, the Tioga, and the e. and w. bran 
ches of the Susquehannah, which water at least 
15.000,000 of acres. From this junction, the 
general course of the Susquehannah is about s. e. 
until it falls into the head of Chesapeak Bay at 
Havre de Grace. See TIOGA RIVER. On the 
completion of the present plans, the state will be 
as conveniently intersected by roads as any other 
of its size in the Union, which will greatly faci 
litate the settlement of its new lands. A slight 
view of the map of Pennsylvania will best show 
how finely this state is situated for inland naviga 
tion. Nature has done so much for inland land- 
carriage, that although Philadelphia and lake 
Erie are distant from each other above 300 miles, 
there is no doubt but that the rivers of the state 
may be so improved, as to reduce the land car 
riage between them nine-tenths. In the same 
way the navigation to Pittsburg, after due im 
provement, may be used instead of land-carriage 
for the whole distance, except 23 miles. By 
these routes it is clear, that a large proportion of 
the foreign articles used on the w. waters must 
be transported, and their furs, skins, ginseng, 
hemp, flax, pot-ash, and other commodities 
brought to Philadelphia. 

Pennsylvania has the various kinds of grain, 
&c. common to the neighbouring states, but wheat 
is the principal grain of very general cultivation. 
In the year 1786, the exports of flour were 150,000 
barrels ; in 1789 369,618 barrels ; and much 
greater quantities in years since. 

The manufactures of this state are of numer 
ous kinds. Iron works are. of long standing, and 
their products increase in quantity, and improve 
in quality. The furnaces are 16, and the forges 
37. There are 18 rolling and slitting mills, 
which are said to cut and roll 150 tons a year. 
The forges will, it is thought, if properly con 
ducted, manufacture each 170 tons of bar iron a 
year-^total 6290 tons. Beside pigs cast at the 
furnaces, there are pots, kettles, pans, ovens, 
ladles, tongs, shovels, and irons, plough-irons, 
spades, hoes> sheet-iron, hoops ; iron and steel 
work for pleasure and working carriages, nails, 
bolts, spikes ; various iron-work for ships, mills 
and buildings, cannon-balls, and some muskets ; 
scythes, sickles, axes, drawing-knives, some saws] 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



j and planes, and other tools. The other extensive 
manufactures are numerous, viz. those of leather, 
skins and fur, wood, paper, gunpowder, bricks, 
earthen-ware, copper, lead, tin-wares, pewter, 
cotton, sugar, molasses, tobacco, &c. &c. There 
are 52 paper-mills in the state ; and their annual 
product is computed at 25,000 dollars. Since 
the year 1770, 25 gunpowder mills have been 
erected. There are about 300,000 wool and fur 
hats manufactured annually in the state ; nearly 
one half of which are of fur. In the manufacture 
of iron, paper, pleasure carriages, and cabinet 
work, Pennsylvania exceeds not only New York, 
but all her sister states. Much cotton is worked 
up in families ; and imported linen is now printed, 
in an increasing degree. The manufactures of 
Pennsylvania have greatly increased within a few 
years, as well by master workmen and journey 
men from abroad, as by the skill and industry of 
the natives. Some persons have begun to press 
oil from hickory nuts. The Messrs. Marshalls 
of Philadelphia have commenced the making of 
Glauber s salt, sal ammoniac, and volatile salts ; 
they already supply the whole Union with the 
first article, and export a part of the others. A 
mill of Rumsay s (the improvement of Barker s) 
near that city, grinds, by water, flour, chocolate, 
snufY, hair-powder, and mustard ; shells choco 
late nuts ; presses tobacco for chewing and 
smoaking ; and bolts meal. The water-works 
near the falls of Trenton, which grind grain, roll 
and slit iron, and pound plaster of Paris, ex 
hibit great mechanism. Card manufactories are 
lately set up. The hand machines for carding 
and spinning cotton have been introduced and 
improved. Sir Richard Arkwright s famous 
water-mill for spinning cotton yarn has been ob 
tained ; also the machinery to sliver, rove, and 
spin flax and hemp into thread, fit for linen of 30 
cuts to the pound ; which will also serve for the 
roving and spinning combed wool into worsted 
varn. Screws for paper-mills are now cut from 
solid cast iron. Lanterns for light-houses are 
made by Mr. Wheeler of Philadelphia ; who 
also executes work for sugar-mills in the W. 
Indies : during the war he made cannon from 
wrought iron. 

The commerce of Pennsylvania with the e. and 
s. states is, in great part, an exchange of staple 
commodities. Wheat flour and bar-iron are ex 
ported to New England for whale oil and bone, 
spermaceti, seal-skins, mackerel, cod fish, and sal 
mon ; to Rhode Island and Connecticut, cheese ; 
to S. Carolina and Georgia for live-oak, cedar, 

VOL. IY. 



cotton, rice, and indigo; to N. Carolina for tar, 
pitch, turpentine, and lumber. Much of the 
trade with the S. states arises from the superiority 
of Pennsylvania in manufactures and commerce. 
Great quantities of deer-skins, with those of 
otters, racoons, foxes, musk-rats, and beavers, 
are imported from the back country. Virginia 
sends a great deal of wheat and unmanufactured 
tobacco. In return, she receives many articles of 
clothing, furniture, farming utensils, equipage; 
some E. India and European goods ; and even 
W. India produce ; of all these, more or less, 
according to the local improvement and situation. 
Hats, saddlery, shoes, Windsor chairs, carriages, 
hewn stones, iron castings for domestic use, 
wheel tire, spades, hoes, axes, paper, books, tin 
ware, and brushes, constitute a great proportion 
of the exports to the s-. Numerous droves of 
lean cattle come from the w. parts of these states, 
where they have a wide range, but want mea 
dow. Virginia sends of late a considerable deal 
of coal, some lead, and peach brandy. This 
liquor also comes from Maryland ; but from both 
in quantity very small, considering the profit, 
and the facility of raising the fruit. The e. shore 
of Maryland sends to Philadelphia considerable 
quantities of wheat and Indian corn : from the 
w. comes the kite-foot tobacco. This state has 
also some trade with the s. of Pennsylvania, by 
the way of Chesapeak Bay ; some parts of it 
receive the same commodities as Virginia, espe 
cially pleasure carriages. The trade with New 
York depends chiefly on the fluctuation of the 
market ; American and foreign goods, of the 
same kinds, are carried between the two capital 
cities, as their prices fall and rise. Albany peas 
and craw-fish are, however, articles in regular 
demand from New York. Great part of New 
Jersey and Delaware state have, as neighbours, 
much intercourse with Pennsylvania. The first 
supports in a great measure the market of Phila 
delphia, furnishes rye-meal, much Indian corn 
and lumber, and some iron bloomery : the other 
sends great quantities of excellent flour from 
the mills of Brandy wine, lumber from the district 
on the bay, and fat cattle from the pastures ad 
joining Delaware. Many of these, and of those 
fattened in the vicinity of Philadelphia, are 
brought from the s. ; and also from the countries 
on the n. and Connecticut Rivers, as far as Ver 
mont and Massachusetts. 

The commerce of Pennsylvania, in the w* is by 
the Ohio with the Spanish, and by the lakes with 
the British, dominions ; and both ways with the] 



98 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



[Indian tribes. This trade mil probably be 
considerable, since commercial stipulations are 
formed with those powers, and peace is concluded 
with the Indians. At present nearly the whole 
foreign commerce is carried on by the port of Phi 
ladelphia. Its distance from the sea, and its 
closing by ice in the winter, are disadvantageous ; 
but the first is lessened by improved pilotage ; 
the other by the construction of the piers below, 
and by the occasional thaws which permit vessels 
to clear their way during the winter. In com 
mon seasons the navigation is obstructed six 
weeks ; a shorter period is as probable as a 
longer ; though, in the late hard winters, loads 
of wood have passed the river, near the city, in 
the first days of March. 

The population of this state has been already 
mentioned ; it is nearly 20 for every square 
mile. The number of militia is estimated at 
upwards of 90,000, between 18 and 53 years of 
age. The inhabitants are principally the de 
scendants of English, Irish, and Germans, with 
some Scotch, Welsh, Swedes, and a few Dutch. 
There are also many of the Irish and Germans 
who emigrated when young or middle aged. 
The Friends and Episcopalians are chiefly of 
English extraction, and compose about one-third 
of the inhabitants. They live chiefly in the me 
tropolis, and in the counties of Chester, Phila 
delphia, Bucks, and Montgomery. The Irish arc 
mostly Presbyterians, but some are Roman Ca 
tholics : their ancestors came from the n. of 
Ireland, which was latterly settled from Scotland; 
hence they have been sometimes called Scotch 
Irish, to denote their double descent. They in 
habit the w. and frontier countries, and are nu 
merous. The Germans composed about one 
quarter of the inhabitants of Pennsylvania. They 
are most numerous in the n. parts of the metro 
polis, and the counties of Philadelphia, Montgo 
mery, Bucks, Dauphin, Lancaster, York, and Nor 
thampton ; mostly in the four last, and are spread 
ing in other parts. They consist of Lutherans 
(who are the most numerous sect), Calvinists, or 
Reformed Church, Moravians, Roman Catholics, 
Mennonists, Tunkers, and Zwingfelters, who are 
a species of Quakers. These are all distin 
guished for their temperance, industry, and 
economy. The Baptists, except the Mennonists 
and Tunker Baptists, who are Germans, are 
chiefly descended of emigrants from Wales, and 
are not numerous. A proportionate assemblage 
of the national prejudices, the manners, customs, 
religions, and political sentiments of all these, 
will form the Pennsylvanian character. 



The number of congregations in the state is as 
follows : Presbyterians, 86 ; German Calvinists, 
84 ; nearly 84 of German Lutherans ; Friends or 
Quakers, 54 ; Episcopalians, 26 ; Baptists, 15 ; 
Roman Catholics, 11; Scotch Presbyterians, 8 ; 
Moravians, 8 ; Free Quakers, 1 ; Universalists, 
1 ; Covenanters, 1 ; Methodists, 3 or 4 ; and a 
Jewish Synagogue ; the whole amounting to 
384. The literary, humane, and other useful 
societies, are more numerous and flourishing in 
Pennsylvania than in any of the 16 states. The 
seminaries of learning are respectable. There is 
an university at Philadelphia, and colleges at 
Carlisle and Lancaster. The Episcopalians have 
an academy at Yorktown in York county. There 
are also academies at Germantown, at Pittsburg-, 
at Washington, at Allen s-Town, and other 
places ; these are endowed by donations from 
the legislature, and by liberal contributions of in 
dividuals. The legislature have also reserved 
60,000 acres of the public lands for the public 
schools. The United Brethren, or Moravians, 
have academies at Bethlehem and Nazareth, on 
the best establishment of any schools perhaps in 
America. Besides Philadelphia, the metropolis, 
the chief towns are Lancaster, the largest inland 
town of the United States, Carlisle, Pittsburg, 
Sunbury, Bethlehem, Reading, Yorktown, Har- 
risburg, Washington, &c. 

The first frame of government for Pennsylvania 
is dated in 1682. By this form, all legislative 
powers were vested in the governor and free 
men of the province, in the provincial council, 
and a general assembly. The council was to 
consist of 72 members, chosen by the freemen ; 
of which the governor, or his deputy, was per 
petual president, with a treble vote. One third 
of this council went out of office every year, and 
their seats were supplied by new elections. 

The general assembly was at first to consist 
of all the freemen, afterwards of 200, and never 
to exceed 500. 

In 1683 Mr. Penn offered another frame of 
government, in which the number of represen 
tatives was reduced, and the governor vested with 
a negative upon all bills passed in assembly. By 
several specious arguments the people were per 
suaded to accept this frame of government. 

Not long after, a dispute between Mr. Penn 
and Lord Baltimore required the former to go to 
England, and he committed the administration of 
government to five commissioners taken from the 
council. In 1686 Mr. Penn required the com 
missioners to dissolve the frame of government ; 
but not being able to effect his purpose, he, inj 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



("1688, appointed Captain John Blackwell his de 
puty. From this period the proprietors usually 
resided in England, and administered the govern 
ment by deputies, who were devoted to their 
interest. Jealousies arose between the people 
and their governors, which never ceased till the 
late revolution. The primary cause of these jea 
lousies was an attempt of the proprietary to ex 
tend his own power, and abridge that of the 
assembly ; and the consequence was, incessant 
disputes and dissensions in the legislature. 

In 1689, Governor Blackwell, finding himself 
opposed in his views, had recourse to artifice, 
and prevailed on certain members of the council 
to withdraw themselves from the house ; thus 
defeating the measures of the legislature. Two 
instances of a secession of members from the 
assembly, with similar views, have taken place 
since the revolution, and seem to have been 
copied from the example in 1689. 

In 1693, the king and queen assumed the 
government into their own hands. Colonel 
Fletcher was appointed governor of New York 
and Pennsylvania by one and the same commis 
sion, with equal powers in both provinces. By 
this commission, the number of counsellors in 
Pennsylvania was reduced. 

Under the administration of Governor Mark- 
ham in 1696, a new form of government was 
established in Pennsylvania. The election of the 
council and assembly now became annual, and 
the legislature, with their powers and forms of 
proceeding, was new modelled. 

In 1699, the proprietary arrived from England, 
and assumed the reins of government. While he 
remained in Pennsylvania, the last charter of 
privileges, or frame of government, which con 
tinued till the revolution, was agreed upon and 
established. This was completed and delivered 
to the people by the proprietary, October 28, 
1701, just on his embarking for England. The 
inhabitants of the Territory, as it was then called, 
or the lower counties, refused to accept this 
charter, and thus separated themselves from the 
province of Pennsylvania. They afterwards had 
their own assembly, in which the governor of 
Pennsylvania used to preside. 

In September 1700, the Susquehannah Indians 
granted to Mr. Penn all their lands on both sides 
the river. The Susquehannah, Shawanese, and 
Patomak Indians, however, entered into articles 
of agreement with Mr. Penn, by which, on 
certain conditions of peaceable and friendly be 
haviour, they were permitted to settle about the 



head of Patomak, in the province of Pennsylvania. 
The Conostoga chiefs also in 1701 ratified the 
grant of the Susquehannah Indians made the 
preceding year. 

In 1708, Mr. Penn obtained from the Sachems 
of the country, a confirmation of the grants made 
by former Indians, of all the lands from Duck 
Creek to the mountains, and from the Delaware 
to the Susquehannah. In this deed, the Sachems 
declared that " they had seen and heard read 
divers prior deeds, which had been given to Mr. 
Penn by former chiefs." 

While Mr. Penn was in America, he erected 
Philadelphia into a corporation. The charter 
was dated October 25, 1701, by which the police 
of the city was vested in a mayor, recorder, alder 
men, and common council, with power to inquire 
into treasons, murders, and other felonies ; and 
to inquire into and punish smaller crimes. The 
corporation had also extensive civil jurisdiction ; 
but it was dissolved at the late revolution, and 
Philadelphia was governed like other counties in 
the state, till 1789, when it was again incorpo 
rated. 

By the favourable terms which Mr. Penn 
offered to settlers, and an unlimited toleration of 
all religious denominations, the population of the 
province was extremely rapid. Notwithstanding 
the attempts of the proprietary or his governors 
to extend his own power, and accumulate pro 
perty by procuring grants from the people, and 
exempting his lands from taxation, the govern 
ment was generally mild, and the burdens of the 
people by no means oppressive. The selfish 
designs of the proprietaries were vigorously and 
constantly opposed by the assembly, whose 
firmness preserved the charter rights of the pro 
vince. 

At the revolution, the government was abo 
lished. The proprietaries were absent, and the 
people, by their representatives, formed a new 
constitution on republican principles. The pro 
prietaries were excluded from all share in the 
government, and the legislature offered them 
130,000 in lieu of all quit-rents, which was 
finally accepted. The proprietaries, however, 
still possess in Pennsylvania many large tracts of 
excellent land. 

It is to be regretted, that among all the able 
writers in this important state, none has yet 
gratified the public with its interesting histoiy. 

The present constitution of this state was ra 
tified June 12th, 1792. A convention, to amend 
the constitution, may be called where the ma-] 






V^rri^tfl^ 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



Hority of the people shall signify their wish for it. 
The expense of the government of this state 
amounts to ^22,280 annually. For an account 



of Exports and Imports of the state, see PHI 

LADELPHIA.] 



A LIST of the several PROPRIETORS, GOVERNORS, LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS, and PRESIDENTS 
of the PROVINCE, with the times of their respective Administration. 

Proprietors. 

The Honourable William Penn, born 1644, died 1718. 
f Thomas Penn, and 
1 Richard Penn, died 1771. 

f John Penn, sen. and 
( John Penn, jun. 



Lieutenant Governor, 

Pesident, 

Deputy Lieutenant Gov. 
President and Gouncil, - 
Deputy Governor, - - 
Lieutenant Governor, - 
Lieutenant Governor, - 
Deputy Lieutenant Gov. 
President and Council, -- 
Deputy Lieutenant Gov. 



President, - - - - 
Deputy Lieutenant Gov. 



Governors, < 

William Penn, Proprietor, 

Thomas Lloyd, - - - 

John Blackwell, - - - 

governed, 

Benjamin Fletcher, - - 
William Markham, 
William Penn, Proprietor, 
Andrew Hamilton, 

governed, - - - - - 
John Evans, ----- 

Charles Gookin, - - - 

Sir William Keith, Bart. - 

Patrick Gordon, - - - 

George Thomas, - - - 

Anthony Palmer, - - - 

James Hamilton, - - - 

Robert Hunter Morris, - 

William Denny, - - - 

James Hamilton, - - 

John Penn, - - - - - 

President, .... James Hamilton, - - ^ 

Lieutenant Gov. - - - Richard Penn, - * - - 

( Thomas Wharton, - - - 

President of the Supreme! Joseph Reed, - - - - 

Executive Council of) William Moore, - - - 

the state of Pennsyl- ] John Dickinson, - - 

"vania, f Benjamin Franklin, ^ - * 

^Thomas Mifflin, - - - 

Governor, Thomas Mifflin, - - - 

[PENN Fort, stands at the mouth of a small 
creek, on the w. side of Delaware river, in North 
ampton county, about 20 miles n. of the town of 
Easton, and near 65 n. of Philadelphia. Lat. 



from October 1682, to August 1684 
from August 1684, to December 1688 
from December 1688, to February 1689-90 
from February 1689-90, to April 26, 1693 
from 26 April 1693, to 3 June 1693 
from 3 June 1693, to December 1699 
from 3 December 1699, to 1 November 1701 
from 1 November 1701, to February 1702-3 
from February 1702-3, to February 1703-4 
from February 1703-4, to February 1708-9 
from March 1708-9, to February 1717 
from March 1717, to June 1726 
from June 1726, to June 1736 
from June 1738, to June 1747 
from June 1747, to June 1748 
from June 1748, to October 1754 
from October 1754, to 19 August 1756 
from 19 August 1756, to 17 November 1759 
from 17 November 1759, to 21 October 1763 
from 31 October 1733, to 6 May 1771 
from 6 May 1771, to 16 October 1771 
from 16 October 1771 
from March 1777, to April 1778 
from October 1778, to October 1781 
from November 1781, to November 1782 
from November 1782, to October 1785 
from October 1785, to October 1788 
from October 1788 to October 1790 
from October 1790.] 



40 59 . n. long. 75 12 w. The road from Phi 
ladelphia to Tioga Point passes through the 
opening in the Blue Mountains, called Wind Gap, 
about nine miles s. w, of this fort.] 



PEN 

{PENN, Port, in Newcastle county, Delaware, 
is situated on the w. bank of Delaware river, op 
posite to Reedy Island.] 

{TENN S, a township of Pennsylvania, on Sus- 
quehannah river. See Northumberland.] 

[PENN S Neck, in Salem county, New Jersey, 
lies on Old Man s Creek, which is part of the 
boundary between Salem and Gloucester coun 
ties. It is 12 miles n. e. by n. of Salem, 3y miles 
from the Delaware, and five below Swedesbo- 
rough.] 

[PENN S Neck, the name of a range of farms 
of excellent soil, situated about 1| miles s. e. of 
Princeton in New Jersey, on a point of land 
formed by Millstone river and stony brook. It 
derived its name from the celebrated legislator, 
William Penn, who formerly owned this tract.] 

[PENN S Rocks, three clusters of islands in 
the broadest and s. w. part of Hudson s Bay, N. 
America ; distinguished by the names of E. W. 
and Middle Penns.] 

[PENNINGTON, or PENN YTOWN, a pleasant 
and flourishing village in Hunterdon county, 
New Jersey, six miles w. of Princeton, and 27 
-n. e. by n. of Philadelphia. It contains a church 
for public worship, and about 40 houses.] 

[PENNSBOROUGH, E. and W. two town- 
ships in Cumberland county, Pennsylvania. 
There is also a township of this name in Chester 
county, Pennsylvania.] 

[P&NNSBURY, a small town of Pennsylva 
nia, in Buck s county, on a small creek of Dela 
ware river. It was a manor which the celebrated 
Mr. Penn reserved for himself. Here he built a 
house, and planted gardens and orchards ; which, 
with many additional buildings and improve 
ments, still continue.] 

PENNYCOOK, a river of the province of 
Hampshire, one of the four of New England. 
It rises in the White Mountain, runs s. then turns 
. and enters the sea opposite the bank of Jeffrey. 

[PENNYTOWN. See PENNINGTON.] 

PENOBSCOT, or PENTAGUET, a river of 
the province of Sagadahock in N. America ; it 
rises from various lakes, runs s. w. and enters 
the sea in the bay of its name. 

[The noble river which empties its waters into 
that bay, is the most considerable in the district 
of Maine, and rises by two branches in the high 
lands. The e. branch passes through several 
smaller lakes. From the Forks, as they are 
called, the Penobscot Indians pass to Canada, up 
either branch, principally the w. the source of 
which, they say, is not more than 20 miles from 



PEN 



101 



the waters which empty into the St. Lawrence. 
At the Forks is a remarkable high mountain : 
from thence down to Indian Old Town, situated 
on an island in this river, is about 60 miles (that 
is to say, by water), 40 of which the water flows 
in a still smooth stream, and in the whole dis 
tance there are no falls to interrupt the passage 
of boats : in this distance the river widens, and 
embraces a great number of islands. About 60 
rods below Indian Old Town are the Great Falls, 
where is a carrying-place of about 20 rods ; 
thence 12 miles to the head of the tide there are 
no falls to obstruct boats. Vessels of 30 tons 
come within a mile of the head of the tide. 
Thence 35 miles to the head of the bay, to the 
scite of Old Fort Povvnal, the river flows in a 
pretty straight course, and is easily navigated. 
Passing by Majabagaduse on the e. 7 miles, and 
Owl s Head 20 miles further, on the w. you en 
ter the ocean. It is high water here, at full and 
change, 43 minutes past 10. At the entrance of 
the river is 10 fathoms water. The Indians have 
a communication from this river to Scoodick ri 
ver by a portage of three miles. This river was 
the w. limits of Nova Scotia or Acadia, by the 
treaty of Utrecht.] 

PENOBSCOT. This bay is large, handsome, and 
convenient, and full of islands. [It lies on the 
coast of Hancock county, district of Maine, and 
was called Norombega by the first discoverer; is 
about 16 leagues wide from Naskeag Point and 
Burnt Coal Island, on the e. to the point near 
Musket s Island, on the w. side of the bay. The 
chief islands it encloses are Fox, Haut, Long, 
and Deer Islands, besides a number of small 
isles, rocks, and ledges. Through this bay to 
the mouth of the river of its name, the to. channel 
goes up by a head-land on the zv. called Owl s 
Head, and between Long^ Island on the w. and 
Cape Rosier on the e. to Bagaduce Point. The 
e. channel is between Haut Island on the w. and 
Burnt Coal Island on the e. and through a reach, 
called Long Reach, formed by the shores of 
Naskeag, or Sedwick, on the c. or n. e. and Deer 
Islands on the w. or s. w. till it unites with the 
other channel, between Point Rosier and Long 
Island. On a fine peninsula on the e. side of 
the bay the British built a fort, and made a set 
tlement, which is now the shire-town of the 
county of Hancock, and is a commodious place 
for the lumber trade. Haut Island, or Isle of 
Holt, lies in lat. 44 n. and long. 68 28 / w. and 
is the southernmost of the large isles.] 

[PENOBSCOT, a post-town of the district of 



102 



PEN 



PEN 



Maine, on the e. side of the bay of its name, situ 
ated in lat. 44 27 n. eight miles n. by w. of Blue 
Hill, 88 n. e. of Portland, 169 n. by e. of Boston, 
and 402 from Philadelphia. It is a port of en 
try, and carries on a small trade in fish and lum 
ber. The exports in 1794, ending- September 30, 
amounted to 5825 dollars. This township con 
tained, in 1790, 1048 inhabitants. In February, 
1796, it was divided into two towns ; the one re 
taining the name Penobscot ; the other, named 
Castine, was made the shire-town, is a port of 
entry, and contains the post-office.] 

fPENOBscox, a small tribe of Indians who live 
in Indian Old Town, on an island in Penobscot 
River. They aver, that they have possessed the 
island, on which their town stands, 500 years. 
It stands just above the Great Falls, and con 
sists of about 200 acres of land. See INDIAN 
OLD TOWN. In a former war this tribe lost their 
lands ; but at the commencement of the last war, 
the Provincial Congress forbad any person set 
tling on the lands from the head of the tide on 
Penobscot river, included in lines drawn six 
miles from the river on each side ; that is, a tract 
12 miles wide, intersected by the middle of the 
river. They, however, consider that they have 
a right to hunt and fish as far as the mouth of 
the Bay of Penobscot extends. This was their 
original right, in opposition to any other tribe, 
and they now occupy it.] 

PENOL, a city of Nuevo Mexico in N. Ame 
rica ; founded by the Indians in a situation so 
strong and singular, as to be without its equal. 
It formerly had 2000 houses so strong and large, 
that they were said to be inhabited by upwards 
of 7000 inhabitants. It stands in the middle of 
some extensive llanuras^ which extend upwards 
of 15 leagues in length, on the top of a rock, 
from whence it takes its name, and which is of 
such an extraordinary height as to be reckoned 
at a thousand fathoms, and is a league in length, 
entirely of rock, and with no other ascent than 
what is artificial, and where one person only can 
pass at a time, with some niches that one may 
retire should two happen to meet. At the top 
are several cisterns for catching water, and be 
low, in the plain, are the crops of corn and seeds. 

PENOL DEL MARQUES, an island of the lake 
of Mexico, situate in the middle of the lake, 
and s. of the capital. Here is a mountain, on 
which Herman Cortes, Marquis del Valle, or 
dered some baths to be constructed. 

PENOLES, an alcaldia mayor of the province 
nnd bishopric of Oaxaca, in the Nueva Espana. 



The whole of its territory is rough, cold, moun 
tainous, and barren ; so much so, that the na 
tives have no other commerce, save that of which 
arises from a little maize, and the cutting of tim 
ber in its serraniaS) which are covered with large 
firs and other trees, by which the neighbouring 
provinces are supplied. This consists, besides 
the capital, which is Ixquintepec, of the follow- 



S. Pedro Chilapa, 
S. Mateo Tepautepec, 
S. Pedro Totoma- 
chapa. 



ing settlements : 

S. Juan Elotepec, 

Santa Maria Hui tepee, 

Santiago Gajo otipac, 

Sta. Catarina Estella, 

Santiago Ilazoyaltepec, 

PENOLES, an unpeopled track of the province 
of Tepeguana and kingdom of Nueva Vizcava, 
in the direct road to the garrisons. At the dis 
tance of eight leagues to the n. w. is an estate 
called Sarca, very abundant in fowl and cattle ; 
23 leagues from the garrison and settlement of 
Mapimi. 

PENON, a settlement of the province and 
government of Cartagena in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada : situate on the shore of the river 
Grande de la Magdalena, opposite the mouth of 
the river Cesare. 

PENON, another settlement of the province 
and government of Venezuela, in the same king 
dom as the former ; on the coast near the port of 
Cabello. 

PENONES SIETE, a settlement of the pro 
vince and government of Antioquia in the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada, on the shore of the river 
Grande de la Magdalena. 

PENONOME, a settlement of the district and 
alcaldia mayor of Nata in the province and king 
dom of Tierra Firme; thus called from the name 
of a cacique, the master of that district. It is 
situate in a pleasant valley surrounded bv moun 
tains, and on the shore of the river Sara{i, which 
renders it fertile and delightful, abounding in 
maize, plantains, pulse, pigs, and tame fowl ; 
with all of which it supplies the city of Panama, 
the capital of the kingdom ; from whence it lies 
62 miles to the w, s. w. in lat. 8 42 n. 

PENONOME, a river of this province and kino-- 
dom, which rises in the mountains of the s. part, 
and, running n. enters the Cocle. Here there is 
nearly a communication between the N. and S. 
Seas, an isthmus of five leagues only inter 
vening ; and it was by this part that the contra 
band traders passed with their effects that they 
had bought of some foreigners in the N. Sea, and 
at the mouth of the Cocle. 



PEP 

PENSBURY. See PENNSBURY. 

[PENSACOLA, Harbour and Town. The 
harbour is on then, shore of the Gulf of Mexico, 
11 leagues e. of Port Lewis and Mobile. It is 
large, safe from all winds, and has four fathoms 
water at its entrance, deepening gradually to 
seven or eight. The bar lies in lat. 30 15 . 
and long. 87 14 w. The town of Pensacola, the 
capital of W. Florida, lies along the beach of 
the bay, is of an oblong form, about a mile in 
length, and a quarter of a mile in breadth. It 
contains several hundred habitations, and many 
of the public buildings and houses are spacious 
and elegant. The governor s palace is a large 
stone building, ornamented w ith a tower, built 
by the Spaniards. It is defended by a small fort, 
called St. Mary de Galve. The exports from 
this town, consisting of skins, logwood, dying- 
stufF, and silver dollars, amounted, while in the 
possession of the British, to ^63,000 annually. 
The average value of imports, for three years, 
from Great Britain, was 97,000. The town 
and fort of Pensacola surrendered to the arms of 
Spain in the year 1781, and with them the whole 
province. Escambria river, or Shambe, is the 
large stream which falls into Pensacola Bay. It 
admits shallops some miles up, and boats up 
wards of 50 miles.] 

PENTAGUET. See PENOBSCOT. 

[PENTECOST, an island in the Archipelago 
of the Great Cyclades, which see. It was dis 
covered by Bougainville, May 22, 1768, and 
named from the day, being the day of Pentecost. 
It is two leagues distant from Aurora Island, 
which is in lat. 15 8 $. and long. 165 58 e. from 
Paris.] 

PENTECOSTE, a river of the island St. 
Christopher, one of the Antilles ; it runs from 
. to s. and served as the limits on the coast of 
this rhumb, when the island was divided between 
the English and the French. It enters the sea 
between the point of Palmistes and the bay of 
Marigot. 

PENTUSOK, a city of the county of Hamp 
shire, in the province of Massachusetts of N. 
America, in the most w. part of the province ; 
on the arm of the river Housotouk, w r hich enters 
the strait of Long Island. 

[PENUCO, a province of Mexico ; separated 
from that of Angelos, or Tlascala, on the n. by 
Tuspa river.] 

PEOMO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimicnto of Rancagua, in the kingdom of 
Chile. 

[PEPCHIDIACHICH, a point or head-land, 



P E Q 



103 



on the s. shore of the Great Bay of Chaleurs 
near the n. e. extremity of the province of New 
Brunswick. It is also called Pepchidichi, and 
lies w. s. w. of Port David.] 

PEPETA, ESTERO DE, a lake in the same pro 
vince and kingdom as the former settlement, 
near the town of Alhuc. 

PEPIN, a lake of the province and govern 
ment of Louisiana, formed from the river Santa 
Cruz, before this enters the Mississippi. 

[PEPIN, a lake, or rather a dilatation of the 
river Mississippi, near where it receives the river 
Chippeway from the w. e. in lat. 43 43 n. and 
long. 91 48 w. below the Falls of St. Anthonv.] 

PEPIRI-GUAZU, a river of the province 
and government of Paraguay, which runs 5. and 
enters the Uruguay. 

PEPIRI-MINI, a river of the same province 
and government as the former, which runs s. s. w. 
and enters also the Uruguay. 

[PEPPERELL, a township of Massachusetts, 
on the e. branch of Nashaway river, and on the 
n. line of Middlesex county. It joins Groton on 
the s. e. and is 40 miles n. by w. of Boston. It 
was incorporated in 1753, and contains 1132 in 
habitants.*] 

[PEPPERELBORqUGH,atownshipinYork 
county, district of Maine, on the n. e. side of 
Saco river, near the mouth, and which separates 
it from Biddeford to the s. It is about 12 miles 
s. w. of Portland, and 80 n. of Boston. It was 
incorporated in 1772, and contains 1352 inhabi 
tants.] 

[PEPSIGUIACH Point, on the n. side of 
Chaleur Bay, now called Paspibiac Point, is about 
three leagues w. n. w. of East Nouville. It is a 
barren plain that is nearly a league in length. 
A very extensive fishery is carried on here, for 
such a small place.] 

[PEPSIGUIACHE, now called New Carlisle, 
is about three leagues from Paspibiac, on the n. 
side of Chaleur Bay.] 

[PEPY S Islands, the same with Falkland 
Islands. Pepy s Island, described in Commodore 
Anson s voyage, lies in lat. 47 s. eight leagues e. 
of Cape Blanco, on the coast of Patagonia, and 
was discovered by Captain Cowley in 1680, who 
represents it to be commodious for taking in 
wood and water, and provided with a harbour 
capable of holding 1000 sail of ships; abounding 
with fowls, and promising great plenty offish.] 

[PEQUANACK, a township of Morris county, 
New Jersev ; perhaps the same as in some maps 
is called regunnock, which is separated from 
Bergen county northward by Pegunnock river.] 



104 



P E Q 



[PEQUANNOCK Point and River. The ri 
ver is a small stream which runs s. through the 
towns of Huntington and Stratford, in Fairfield 
county, Connecticut, and empties into a bay in 
the Sound where vessels may anchor. The point 
forms the w. extremity of the bay, near which 
are some rocks ; from thence the outer bar ex 
tends n. by n. e. The point is five miles s. w. of 
Stratford River.] 

PEQUE, a small river of the province of 
Pennsylvania in N. America, which runs s. w. and 
enters the Susquehannah. 

PEQUENA, a bay on the e. coast of the island 
Jamaica, between those of Manchancel and Larga. 

PEQUENCHES, a barbarous nation of In 
dians of the kingdom of Chile, who dwell in the 
mountains of the Andes to the e. of the city of 
La Concepcion : it is ve/y numerous, robust, and 
warlike, but cruel and treacherous. It has been 
at various times attempted to reduce some of 
these Indians to the Catholic faith, and to a civi 
lized life, but always in vain. 

PEQUENI, an abundant river of the province 
and government of Tierra Firme in the kingdom 
of this name. It rises in the mountains of Man- 
dinga, near the point of S. Bias, and runs w. for 
many leagues till it enters the Chagre, increas 
ing its stream by several smaller rivers. 

PEQUENI, a small settlement of this province 
and kingdom, on the shore of the former river. 

PEQUENO, a river of the island of St. Do 
mingo, in the part possessed by the French ; it 
enters the sea on the n. coast, near the town of 
Leogan, between this town and the river Grande ; 
this name being given to the river to distinguish 
it from that of which we are treating. 

PEQUENO, another river, in the province and 
captainship of S. Vicente in Brazil ; it runs s. s. w. 
and enters the sea in the channel formed by the 
island of Nuestra Senora. 

PEQUENO, another river, of the province and 
captainship of Los Ilhers in the same kingdom ; 
it runs s. and enters the Tucombira. 

PEQUENO, a port of the French in the island 
St. Domingo, in the part which they possess on 
the s. coast, between the Bay of Peur aud the 
Trou Sal ado. 

PEQUERI, or ITAZU, a river of the province 
of Gaira, in the government of Paraguay; which 
runs w. for many leagues, and enters the Parana, 
in the part where it gives the great fall. 

PEQUI, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Antioquia, in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. 

PEQUICAS, a barbarous nation of Indians 



PER 

of Peru, who dwell e. of the nation of the Chi- 
quitos, and w. of the river Paraguay : it is very 
numerous, and began to be reduced to the faith 
in 1701. 

PEQUIMA, a district and jurisdiction of the 
province and colony of Virginia, on the shore of 
the strait of Albemarle. 

PEQUIN, a small river of the province and 
government of Paraguay ; which rises in some 
mountains bounding the kingdom of Brazil, be 
tween the rivers Curituba and Uruguay, runs 5. 
and enters the latter. 

PERALILLO, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Maule, in the kingdom of 
Chile ; situate on the shore of the river Mata- 
quino. 

[PERAMUS, or PER AMES, in Bergen county, 
New Jersey, lies on the point of land formed by 
the branches of Saddle river, a north water of 
Passaik ; about 18 miles n. of Bergen, 10 w. of 
Tappan, and 21 n. w. by n. of New York city.] 

PERAS, SAN MARTIN DE LAS, a settlement 
of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia 
mayor of Quatro Villas, in Nueva Espaiia. It 
contains 72 families of Indians, employed in the 
cultivation and commerce of coehineal, seeds, 
fruits, and coal, and in cutting of wood : a little 
more than seven leagues s. zo. of its head settle 
ment. 

PERAS, SAN PABLO DE, another settlement 
of this alcaldia mayor and kingdom ; inhabited 
by 22 families of Indians, employed in the same 
manner as the above ; and this is at a somewhat 
shorter distance from its head settlement. 

PERAY, an abundant river of Canada; which 
rises from lake Nepigon, runs e. and, turning n. 
enters Hudson s Bay, being very wide at its 
mouth. 

PERCA-HUMO, a settlement of the province 
and captainship of Para in Brazil, situate on the 
coast, between this and the river Caita-pera. 

[PERCEE, L IsLE, a small but remarkable 
island on the w. side of the gulf of St. Law 
rence, being a perpendicular rock, pierced with 
two natural arches, through which the sea flows. 
One of these arches is sufficiently high to admit 
a large boat to pass freely through it. It is 15 
miles s. of Cape Gaspee. It is asserted, that it 
was formerly joined to mount Joli, which lies, op 
posite to it on the continent. 

PERCEE, a point on the n. coast of the islancj 
St. Domingo, in the part possessed by the French, 
between the bay of Petit Goave and the isle oC 
Miraguana ; opposite the s. coast of the island 
Goanava. 



PER 

PERCIA, a large settlement of the province 
and government of San Juan de Los Llanos in 
the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate near the 
river Sinaruco. It was of the Indians of the 
Saliva nation, and in 1684 was taken and burnt 
by the Caribes. 

[PERCIPANY, a village in Morris county, 
New Jersey, situated on a branch of Passaik ri 
ver, and six miles n. of Morristown.] 

[PERCY, an extensive township in Grafton 
county, New Hampshire, watered by the several 
branches of Upper Amonoosuck river, bounded 
w. by Northumberland, on Connecticut river. It 
was incorporated in 1774, and contains only 48 
inhabitants.] 

PERDAMO, a small river of the province and 
corregimiento of Cuenca, in the kingdom of Quito ; 
which rises w. of the capital, runs to that rhumb, 
and enters the S. Sea in the gulf of Guayaquil. 

PERDICION, a cape on the s. coast of the 
strait of Magellan : one of those of the island of 
Luis el Grande, which looks to the w. 

PERDICES, Creek of the, on the n. coast of 
the island of Cuba. 

PERDIDO, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Florida, which runs s. and enters the sea 
between Pensacola and Mobile. 

[There is a bay on the coast of W. Florida, 
of the same name as the river. The mouth of 
the river is about 10 leagues e. of Mobile Point, 
and four w. of the bar of Pensacola. The en 
trance is narrow, with a bar of six feet, but 
afterwards it widens considerably. This was for 
merly the boundary between Florida and Lou 
isiana, dividing the French and Spanish domi 
nions. The river stretches in one place n. e. 
where it goes within a mile of the great lagoon w. 
of the entrance of Pensacola harbour.] 

PERDOMO, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Guayaquil, in the kingdom of Quito 
and district of Machala ; it runs w. and enters 
the sea in the Gulf of Guayaquil in lat. 3 s. 

PERDOMO, some banks of sand which have 
been formed at its entrance by the wind, and 
which often, in some degree, shift their situation. 

PERE, LE, a small island near the coast of 
the province and government of Guayana. 

PEREBERA, a large river of the province 
and government of the Rio del Hacha in the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It runs from s. to n. 
and laves on the n. the settlement of Ramada ; 
and then runs into the N. Sea, forming a great 
bay, but which is exposed and shallow : its mouth 
is in lat. 11 16 n. 

PEIiECIPE, a small river of the province 

VOL. IV. 



PER 



105 



and captainship of Portoseguro in Brazil : it rises 
near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea between 
the Querurupa and Paruipa. 

PpREDO, a point on the s. coast of the island 
of Jamaica. 

PEREGRIN A, a settlement and asiento of 
silver mines of the alcaldia mayor of Guanajuato, 
in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan and 
kingdom of Nueva Espana. 

PEREIRA, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of Paraiba in Brazil, on the shore of 
the river Aracai, near the coast. 

PEREIRAS, a bar of the coast of the pro 
vince and captainship of Maranan and kingdom 
of Brazil. It is close to the island Santa Ana, 
one of those at the mouth of the river Mara- 
ilon. 

PEREJA, a small river of the province and 
captainship of Maranan in Brazil ; which rises in 
the mountains near the coast, runs n. between 
the rivers Tapicuru and Canchug, and enters the 
sea in the bay of Maranon. 

PEREQUETE, a river of the jurisdiction and 
alcaldia mayor of Peronome, in the province and 
kingdom of Tierra Firme ; it rises in the moun 
tains of the settlement of Capira, and enters the 
S. Sea in the Bay and Gulf of Panama, opposite 
the island Taboga. 

PERES, River of the, in the island of Mar 
tinique, one pf the Antilles ; it rises at the foot 
of the great mountain of La Calebasse, runs from 
n. e. to s. w. and enters the sea between the river 
Blanches and fort S. Pierre. 

[PERES Island, or CONST ANTINE PERES, on the 
coast of Chile, S. America. It is opposite to 
Port Coral. On this island is a fort called Man- 
sera, and on the back of the island there is an 
entrance for boats into the harbour of Baldivia.] 

PEREZ, or CAYOS DE DIEGO, some shoals 
near the s. coast of the island of Cuba, opposite 
the bay of Cochinos. 

[PE RGAMINO, a town of the province and 
government of Buenos Ayrcs, situate on the road 
from Buenos Ayres to Cordova, and about 100 
miles from the former. Lat. 33 53 28", long. 
60 43 5".] 

PERGAMINO, a fortress of the province and 
government of Buenos Ayres. It is small and 
of wood, but having a good ditch and draw 
bridge, with four pieces of cannon, and a suffi 
cient number of arms to withstand the Pampas 
Indians of the frontier. Here resides an officer 
with four detachments from the capital, from 
whence the fortress is 44 leagues distant : in the 
road which leads to Lima. 



10(3 



PER 



PERGUICOS, a small river of the province 
and captainship of Maranan in Brazil ~, it rises 
near the coast, runs n. between the rivers Cai- 
mindey and Maripe, and enters the sea. 

PERIBAN, a settlement and capital of the 
nkaldia mayor of Xiquilpa in the province and 
bishopric of Mechoacan and kingdom of Nueva 
Espana ; it is of an hot temperature, and con 
tains a convent of the religious of San Fran 
cisco, with one of the best temples in that 
kingdom. The population is composed of 100 
families of Spaniards, Mitstees, and Mulattoes, 
and 66 of Tarascos Indians, who make many 
cups of pumpkins, in which the place abounds ; 
and these they paint in a very beautiful manner, 
so that they are greatly esteemed, and form the 
principal branch of the commerce of the place : 
80 leagues a>. of Mexico, in long. 270 30 , lat. 
21 15 . 

PERIBOACK, a small river of Canada in N. 
America, which rises from a small lake, runs s. 
and enters the lake San Juan. 

PERICO, a settlement of the province and 
government of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king 
dom of Quito. 

PERICO, another settlement, in the province 
and government of Tucuman, of the district of 
the city of Jujui, on the shore of the river of the 
same name. 

PERICO, some islands of the S. Sea in the 
Gulf of Panama, which forms a capacious port 
fit for smaller vessels, and well sheltered from 
the winds ; but these vessels cannot ride up to 
the road of the city, since the port is dry at low 
water. These islands are two leagues s. of the 
city, in lat. 8 56 n. 

PERICO, the aforesaid river, of the province 
and government of Tucuman, in the district and 
jurisdiction of the city of Jujui; from whence it 
is three leagues distant ; in the road which leads 
to Lima. At this river many accidents have oc 
curred in crossing it when much swollen. 

PERICO, another, a small river of the province 
of Gaira in the government of Paraguay. It 
runs n. and enters the Ibay. 

PERIJA, a city of the province and govern 
ment of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra 
nada, founded on the n. shore of the river of its 
name, 25 miles from the lake of Maracaibo, at 
the entrance, in the n. coast. 

PERIJA, the aforesaid river, rises in the sierra 
of the Pintados Indians of the province of Santa 
Marta, runs e. irrigating a large valley to which 
it gives its name, and empties itself in the lake 
of Maracaibo by the w. side. 



PER 

PERITIBA, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Paraguay, which runs w. and enters 
the great river Curitiva. 

PERITIBI, a lake of Canada, in the limits 
dividing this territory from the land of Labra 
dor. 

PERITO, or PIRITU, [in Morse called PERI- 
TAS ISLANDS,] some small isles near the coast of 
the province and government of Cumana, be 
tween Unare and Cumanagoto. 

PERITOES, a warlike nation of Indians of 
Nueva Andaluciato the ^.bounded e. by the na 
tion of the Palenques and by the territory of the 
jurisdiction of Cumana. 

PERKINS, a settlement of the island of Bar- 
badoes, in the parish and district of Santiago, 
situate near the w. coast. 

[PERKINS, Port, lies on the s. &. of Washing 
ton s Isle, on the n. w. coast of N. America, See 
MAGEE S SOUND.] 

[PERKIOMY, a township of Pennsylvania, in 
Montgomery county.] 

PERLA, LA, a small isle of the N. Sea, situate 
near the coast of the island Martinique, in the 
w. part, between the islands of Predicador and 
La Capilla de Santa Cruz. 

PERLA, a river of the island of Guadaloupe, 
which rises in the mountains, runs n. w. and en 
ters the sea in the Grand Ance at the back of the 
Gros Morne. 

PERLAS, some islands of the N. Sea, and 
in the Bay and Gulf of Panama, of the province 
and kingdom of Tierra Firme. They are many, 
and in them are established a certain portion of 
Negro slaves belonging to the inhabitants of that 
capital, employed in the fisheries for pearl, which 
are found in great abundance, and are of a great 
size and fine quality. In these islands are found 
much maize, plantains, yucas, fish, and game ; 
on all of which the Negroes feed. They are about 
45 miles from the city of Panama. 

PERLAS, some other islands, near the coast of 
the province and government of Honduras, in N. 
America. They are many, but all small, and 
situate near those of the Indians and Zambos, 
the Mosquitoes, and those of the Manglares, 
situate in about lat. 12 44 n. long. 82 30 w. 

PERLAS, a bay, situate about 35 miles w. from 
the above islands. 

PERLAS, a point of land, or cape of the coast, 
in the province and government of Nicaragua 
and kingdom of Guatemala. It has this name, 
since anciently in that pearls were found, though 
this be not the case at the present day. 

PERLAS, a bay on the coast of the ze. bead 



PER 

and extremity of Hispaniola, in that part pos 
sessed by the French, between the Cape of Los 
Locos and the Plata Forma. 

PERL, AS, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Louisiana in N. America, which runs 
s.s. w. then turns s. and enters the Lake Pont- 
chartrain. 

[PERLICAN, OLD, an indifferent ship-road, 
with rocky ground on the e. coast of Newfound 
land Island, two leagues s. w. by s. of Break- 
heart Point. Sherwick is the name of its n. 
point.] 

[PERLICAN, NEW, a noted harbour on the e. 
coast of Newfoundland Island, eight leagues 
w. s. w. of Old Perlican, and five leagues from 
Random Head. It has a wide and safe entrance, 
and ships may ride in it landlocked from all winds 
in from 10 to 5 fathoms water.] 

PERNAMBUCO, a province and captainship 
of the kingdom of Brazil ; bounded n. and e. by 
the sea, 5. by the captainship of Bahia, and w. by 
the province and government of Piauh. This 
captainship-general of Pernambuco is about 470 
miles in extent from n. to s. and about 370 from 
e. to zc. and is irrigated by the rivers Tapados, 
Bibiribe, Camuri, Cenebi, Periperi, S. Miguel, 
Cururui, Vazabazas, S. Francisco, Inaya, Galiole, 
Parachuy, Parapinzingua, Poyuca, and many 
others. 

It abounds greatly in sugar-cane, cotton, and 
Brazil-wood, in the which its chief commerce 
consists ; as also in sugar, which it manufactures 
in great quantities, and sends to Portugal. The 
climate of this province is for the most part hot, 
and in the interior of the country moist, on ac 
count of the waters which become stagnant, as 
unable to pass through the thickness of the 
woods. 

The king, Don Juan III. of Portugal, gave 
this territory as a property to Don Duarte Coello 
Pereyra, third son of Gonzalo Pirez Coello, 
Lord of Filgueiras, for the great services he had 
performed in India. He arrived here accompa 
nied with many noble families, with a great store 
of arms, provisions, and necessaries ; but finding 
an extraordinary resistance on the part of the 
barbarian Cahetes Indians, who had the domi 
nion of that whole country as far as the river 
of S. Francisco, being aided by some French, 
he was forced to dispute that ground inch by 
inch which had been granted to him by leagues ; 
and in one of the encounters he was badly 
wounded : but he, nevertheless, kept on acquiring 
greater portions of territory by degrees, and 
founded different settlements; whither, allured 



PER 



107 



by his generosity and the fertility of the country, 
many Portugueze of noble and opulent families 
came to establish themselves : and who have left 
descendants who shed a lustre on their fore 
fathers. 

The Dutch invaded and took possession of this 
province in 1630, keeping it till 1632, when it 
was recovered by the Portugueze. The male 
line of its first possessor having been extinct, 
this province was added to the crown. The ca 
pital is the city of Olinda, which has also the 
name of Pernambuco ; and the other settlements 
of which it is composed are the towns of 
S. Cosme and S. Da- Alagoas del Norte, 

mian, or Igarazu, S. Antonio, 
Serinhaem, or Villa- S. Miguel, 

hermosa, Alagoas del Sur, 

Puerto Calvo, Penedo. 

[Pernambuco (says Mr. Grant) formerly con 
tained above a hundred sugar plantations, exten 
sive forests, well-cultivated fields, and a great 
profusion of the most delicious fruits. It for 
merly produced, at every return, more than 
15,000 chests of sugar, but at present it scarcely 
furnishes 4000. 

The population of this province was, several 
years ago, including Negroes, people of colour, 
and Indians, estimated at about 90,000 ; but 
since this period many families have emigrated 
to Paraguay, Peru, and Chile. This emigration 
has principally arisen from the embarrassments 
occasioned by the debts with which this province 
is loaded. The settlement of Penedo, situate on 
the n. shore of the river St. Francis, terminates 
this province to the s. as the island of Tamaraca 
terminates it on the . The entrance into the sea 
by the said river St. Francis, is well defended by 
the fort of S. Mauricius, which the Portuguese 
have had the precaution to build in the vicinity. 
The island of Fernando de Noronha, which 
lies at the distance of 50 leagues from the coast 
of Pernambuco, is nevertheless included under 
the jurisdiction of this captainship. The Portu 
gueze, after having for many years deserted this 
island, returned to it in 1738 ; and, under the 
persuasion that the French East India Company 
intended to take possession of it, erected seven 
strong forts for its defence. These forts are pro 
vided with artillery, and garrisoned with regular 
troops, which are relieved every six months. 

A few exiles, a small number of indigent Mus- 
tecs, and the Indians employed on the public 
works, compose the whole of the inhabitants of 
this island. No kind of plantations hav e ever 
succeeded, though the soil is good, on account 
p 2 



103 



PER 



of the dryness of the climate ; whole years fre 
quently elapsing without any rain. 

From December till April turtles constitute 
the only food of the inhabitants; after this period 
they disappear, and leave them solely dependent 
on the provisions sent from the continent. 

There are two very good harbours in the island, 
where ships of any size may ride in safety, ex 
cept during the prevalence of n. and w. winds. 
See Index to additional matter respecting the 
history of Brazil, cap. i.J 

PERNAMBUCO, the capital of the above cap 
tainship. 

[PERNAMBUCO, another captainship, included 
in that above described.] 

PERO, a small river of the province of Nova 
Scotia, or Acadia, in N. America. It runs e. and 
enters the Bassin des Mines of the bay of Fundy. 
In its vicinity a silver mine has been discovered. 

PEROCHICO, a settlement and head settle 
ment of the district of the alcadia mayor of Gui- 
meo in Nueva Espafia; it contains HO families 
of Indians, including those of the wards of its 
district, and is w. of its capital. 

PEROHIBE, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of S. Vicente in Brazil, on the shore 
of the river Itaman, near the sea-coast. 

PEROQUET, a small island near the coast 
of the river St. Lawrence, in the country and 
land of Labrador, opposite the island of Anti- 
costi. 

PEROTE, a head settlement of the district 
of the alcadia mayor of Xicayan in Nueva Espana. 
It is of a cold and dry temperature, from the 
soil being sandy, but enjoys a pleasant and salu 
tary air : although this is hindered from blowing 
from the s. e. by the great mountain, called Cofre 
de Perote, one of the loftiest in that kingdom, 
and which is discovered more than 20 leagues at 
sea, being nearly of the same height with the 
volcano of Orizaba, and both of them serving as 
a landmark to make the port of Vcra Cruz. The 
expansion of its skirts are equal to its height ; 
since it extends from n. to s. for upwards of six 
leagues, all of which are of serranias^ and from 
which flow down many streams, forming at some 
of the tops various lakes, which remain the whole 
year round. 

This mountain is covered with firs and other 
trees of immense size, and principally with sa- 
bins, from which they cut very large and thick 
planks. But the greatest advantage made of 
this tree is when they distil it over a fire and 
extract a great quantity of tar, which is carried 
to Vera Cruz for careening vessels. On the 



PER 

skirts of this mountain graze infinite numbers 
of large and small cattle ; since it is, in every 
part, fertile, pleasant, and abounding in pasture. 

The population of the settlement is composed 
of 86 families of Spaniards, 46 of Musices, 30 
of Mulattoes, and 27 of Indians, who speak the 
Castillian idiom with the same perfection as the 
Spaniards. It has a convent of the religious of 
the order of La Caridad, with the dedicatory title 
of San Hipolito. These are dedicated to give 
hospitality to poor Europeans who arrive in the 
fleets which pass by here ; curing such as are 
sick, and exercising themselves in works of piety. 
The expense of this laudable establishment is 
defrayed by five cultivated estates, and 1 1 ran- 
c/ios in its district. Ten leagues n. of its ca 
pital. 

[PEROTE, (the ancient Pinahuizapan). The 
small fortress of San Carlos de Pcrote is situate 
in the intendancy of Vera Cruz, and to the n. 
of the town of Perote. It is rather an armed 
station fhan a fortress. The surrounding plains 
are very barren, and covered with pumice-stone. 
There are no trees, with the exception of a few 
solitary trunks of cypress and molina. Height 
of Perote 2353 metres, or 7719 feet.] 

[PERPETUA, Cape, on the n.w. coast of 
N.America. Lat. 44 26 n. Long. 124 8 w. 
Variation of the compass in the year 1779. 
17 50 c J 

PERPURA, a river of the province and cap 
tainship of Seara in Brazil, which enters the sea 
between the rivers Yaguaribe and Guarahu. 

PERQUILABQU^N, a river of the king 
dom of Chile, which runs w. and unites itself 
with that of Castillo to enter the Longomilla. 

[PERQUIMONS, a county of Edenton dis 
trict, N.Carolina, bounded w. by Chowan county, 
and e. by Pasquotank, from which last it is sepa 
rated by the river Pasquotank, a water of Albe- 
marle Sound. It contains 5440 inhabitants, of 
whom 1878 are slaves.] 

PERQUIMONS, a maritime county of the dis 
trict of Edenton in N. Carolina. 

PERQUIMONS, a river which enters the sea in 
the strait of Albernarle. 

PERRO-PUNTA, or DOG-POINT, is on the 
coast of the province and government of Flo 
rida. 

PERRO, CABEZA DEL, a point of land of the 
island of Tortuga, on the side of that called Del 
Leste. 

PERRO, BOCA DEL, a settlement of the island 
of Cuba; on the n. coast. 

PERRO, a river of the province and govern- 



PER 



PER 



109 



ment of Merida in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. 
It runs e. and enters the Apure. 

PERROQUETS, Islands of the, in the N. 
Sea, near the coast of the province and govern 
ment of Guayana, in the part possessed by the 
French, at the entrance of the river Oyapoco. 

PERROS, or DOG Islands, on the coast of 
the province and government of Florida ; oppo 
site the river Apalachicola. Between them and 
the coast is a narrow channel called Of Barks, 
lit only for the navigation of small vessels. 

PERSI, a river of the province and captain 
ship of Brazil, which enters the sea between the 
Manetuba and the point of Vul. 

[PERSON, a new county in Hillsborough 
district, N. Carolina. The court-house, where a 
post-office is kept, is 19 miles n. of Hillsborough, 
and 15. e, of Caswell new court-house.] 

PERTH-AMBOY, a city, the capital of the 
county of Middlesex in the province of New 
Jersey of N. America, thus called by Jacob 
Drumond, Count of Perth, and one of the an 
cient proprietors. It is in a most beautiful si 
tuation, namely, at the mouth of the river Ra- 
ritan, which here forms at its entrance into the 
sea a large and handsome bay, capable of con 
taining 500 vessels. But with all these advan 
tages the town has flourished but moderately, 
since it consists of only 40 small houses besides 
the governor s . The plan which was formed by 
the Scotch was very grand, and they laid out 
1070 acres of ground, divided into equal parts 
for purchasers to build on, reserving four acres 
for a public market, and three for store-houses, 
which, if they had been finished, according to the 
projection, Mould have vied with any of the 
finest cities in N. America. 

[This city lies open to Sandy Hook, and has 
one of the best harbours on the continent. Ves 
sels from sea may enter it on one side, in almost 
any weather. It is a port of entry and post- 
town ; but although it is admirably situated for 
trade, and the legislature has given every en 
couragement to induce merchants to settle here, 
it is far from being in a flourishing state. It 
now contains about 60 houses, and carries on a 
small trade to the W. Indies. Its exports for a 
year, ending September 30, 1794, were to the 
value of ,58, 159 dollars. It is 20 miles s.w. of 
New York, and 53 n. e. of Philadelphia. Lat. 
40 3V n. Long. 74 20 30" a>.] 

PERTIGALETE, a river of the province 
and government of Cumana in Nueva Anda- 
Jacia. 



PERTUIS, a bay on the s. coast of the island 
Jamaica. 

PERU, an extensive kingdom or empire of 
S. America, anciently governed by its own sove 
reigns, and now subject to the king of Spain, who 
sends thither a viceroy. It was discovered by 
Francisco Pizarro, Marquis of Los Charcas and 
Atavillos, in 1526, in the reign of the emperor 
Atahuallpa, whom some improperly called Ata- 
baliba. This same discoverer began its conquest 
in 1531. It was formerly called Biru, from the 
name of a cacique^ or prince, of one of its states 
on the coast of the Pacific. Some assert that the 
word Peru comes from Beru, a river which en 
ters itself into that sea, and which was the first 
passed by the same Pizarro. Others give its 
origin from a promontory of. the same coast, 
which at that time was called Pelu. 

The limits of this kingdom have been various, 
according to the difference of the governments. 
At present its jurisdiction extends to the three 
audiences of Lima, Charcas, and Chile ; separat 
ing that of Quito, which is dependent upon the 
government of the viceroyalty of Santa Fe de 
Bogota, both in ecclesiastical and temporal con 
cerns. The government of Peru begins from the 
Gulf of Guayaquil to the s., that is, at Cape 
Blanco, and from the corrcgimiento of Truxillo, 
which extends as far as Tumbez, in lat. 325 / s. 
as far as the Desert of Atacama, the n. boundary 
of the kingdom of Chile. It is thus 432 leagues 
in length from n. to s. and comprehending the 
kingdom of Chile as far as the lands of Magellan, 
that is, as far as lat. 57 s. Its measure from 
pole to pole is upwards of 1069 leagues. It has 
for limits on the e. the mountains which divide it 
from the kingdom of Brazil, on the celebrated 
line called Of Demarcation, or Alexandrian, 
drawn by Pope Alexander VI., determining the 
extent of the empire between the Spaniards and 
Portuguese of the new world. It is bounded 
w. by the Pacific or S. Sea, and its greatest ex 
tent here is 558 leagues. 

The ancient Indians called this country Ta- 
vantin-suyu, which signifies, the four parts. 
That of the e. in which is the imperial city of 
Cuzco, they called Colla-suyu, or eastern part of 
the empire ; that of the &. Chinchay-suyu ; that 
of the n. Anti-suyu ; and that of the s. Conti- 
suyu. This great country is divided into 96 pro 
vinces, in the district of the three aforefaid audi 
ences ; and as to its spiritual and ecclesiastical 
concerns into an archbishopric and 11 bishoprics. 
The proper language of the natives is the Que- 



110 



PERU. 



chuan or Quichuan ; but this is divided into 
many dialects, and is commonly known by the 
name of the Inca tongue, and is spoken by all 
the Indians, and many of the Spaniards. The 
greater part also of the places, rivers, and moun 
tains, keep the old names given them by the 
natives, and retain the same signification ; as 
will be observed in the following Catalogue, to 
which the corresponding Spanish titles are an 
nexed : 



Angas-mayiij 

Ango-yacu, 

Cachi-mayu, 

Cara, 

Chaqui, - 

Chaqui-yacu, - 

Chingacuchuscas, ~ 

Chita, 

Chumbe, - < 

Chupas, - - * 

Chuqui-mayu, - 

Cocha-Pampa, - * 

Cuy-cocha, - * 

Guaira, - - 

Guano, 

Guarco, - - * 

Guascar, - 

Hambato, - - 
Hambi, - 
Hatun-colla, 

Hatun-rucana, - 

Huaca, - - 

H uallahuangahuaicu, 

Huambra, - l 

Huarmi-cocha, - 

Laxa, - - - 

Llatacunga, - - 

Llulla, - 

Loro-cocha, 

Manta, 

Mayu, - - 

Muyumuyu, 

Muyu-pampa, - 

Papallacta, 

Parihuana-cocha, 

Paya, - - 

Pisco, - - 

Pisco-pampa, 

Piti, - 

Pucuna, - 

Puraa-cocha, - 



Rio Verde. 

Aqua Glutinosa. 

Rio de Sal. 

Piel. 

Lugar de Piedra. 

Agua de Pie. 

Los que tienen la Na- 
riz partida. 

Cabra. 

Frente. 

Cola. 

Rio Triste. 

Llanura de Lago. 

Lago de Conejos. 

Viento. 

Estiercol. 

Peso. 

Cuerda. 

Bota. 

Remedio. 

Altura Grande. 

Vejez Grande, Dedo 
Grande. 

Sepulcro. 

Profundidad de Cuer 
vos. 

Nino. 

Lago de Mugeres. 

Piedra. 

Cuello Desnudo. 

Mentira. 

Lago del Papagayo. 

Cobertura. 

Rio. 

Alreedor. 

Lllanura Sembrada. 

Tierra de Papas. 

Lago de Paros. 

Vieja. 

Aves. 

Llanura de Paxaros. 

Pedazo. 

Loco. 

Lago de Leones. 



Puma-llacta, 
Puma-tampti, - 
Puyuc-yacu, 
Quero, 
Quilca, * 
Quillasinga, 
Quispiquanchi, 
Rucana, 

Ruminavi, x? 
Rumi-pampa, - 
Runa-huanac, - 
Sara-yacu, 
Simi-jaca, 

Sinarucu, < 

Sullana, _:* ; . >* 

Sungu, : 

Tapu, 

Taucas, *. 

Tihuanacu, 

Titi-caca, 

Tungurahua, 

Turu-pampa, - 

Tuta-pisco, 

Ucuntaya, 

Ucu-pampa, *- 

Uramarca, 

Urcu-pampa, - 

Utspa-llacta, 

Villca-pampa, 

Yaguar-cocha, - 

Yaguar-singu, - 

Yanacunas, 

Yapuis, - 

Yura, 



- Tierra de Leones. 

- Mansion de Leones. 

- Agua de Nieves. 

- Leno. 

- Carta. 

- Nariz de la Luna. 

- Fuga. 

- Vejez, Dedo. 

- Ojo de Piedra. 

- Llanura de Piedras. 

- Cauto del Peligro. 

- Ao-ua de Maiz. 

- Piedra con Boca Abi- 

erta. 

- Como Viejo. 

- Aborto. 

- Corazon. 
Preguntador. 

- Monton. 

- Sentados Juntos. 

- Monte de Plomo. 

- Cuello Alto. 

- Llanura de Lodo. 

- Ave Matutina. 

- Pais Interior. 

- Campo Profundo. 

- Pais Inferior. 

- Campo de Montes. 

- Tierra de Cenizas. 

- Llanura Cavernosa. 

- Lago de Sangre. 

- Corazon de Sangre. 

- Criados. 

- Arador. 

- Arbol. 



The ancient religion of Peru was the idola 
trous worship of the sun, from which they thought 
that their emperors, the Incas, were descended. 
They acknowledged and adored an invisible and 
supreme being, whom they called Pachacamac, 
that is, creator and preserver of the universe. 
The founder of the monarchy of Peru was 
Manco Capac, in company with Mama Ocllo 
his sister ; and this empire remained for a series 
of 17 Incas monarchs, until the reign of Sayri- 
Tupac, who was the last ; and renounced the 
throne to the king of Spain, embracing the Ca 
tholic religion, and taking the name of Diego 
Sayri-Tupac-Inca. 

This empire is peopled with many barbarous 
nations, who live in the woods and on the moun 
tains like wild beasts. Many of them have em 
braced the Catholic faith, and have become re 
duced to a civilized state of life in the cities and 



PERU. 



Ill 



settlements which have been founded by the 
Spaniards. They are robust, pacific, and kind : 
their predominant vice is drunkenness ; but they 
are ingenious and easily imitate whatever they 
see. Since the conquest, the Spaniards have been 
established amongst them, and the descendants 
of these they call Creoles and Peruleros, a race 
at once clever, valorous, and docile, of fine 
temper, excellent understanding, and greatly at 
tached to strangers : but they have been without 
instruction or reward; or they would otherwise 
have made the greatest progress in literature, and 
carried the arts in this country to the highest 
pitch ; since, under all their disadvantages, there 
have not been wanting amongst them, men who 
have excelled in arms and letters. 

The European Spaniards are called Chape- 
tones, and are nearly all devoted to commercial 
pursuits. Some established themselves here, and 
formed new families : whilst others, after having 
made their fortunes, with great fatigues and pe 
rils by land and sea, returned to Europe. The 
English, French, and Dutch, have attempted 
several times to establish themselves in Peru; 
but their views have always been defeated by the 
Spanish government, who were aware of the im 
mense treasures they derived from it in gold, 
silver, jewels, quicksilver, copper, dyes, woods, 
balsams, spices, zarzaparilla, bai/nUla, bark, cacao, 
and a thousand other drugs and productions, 
not to mention animals, fruits, birds, and fish, in 
which a regular account will be given in each of 
the articles of the 98 provinces and corregimientos 
or governments into which this kingdom is di 
vided, and which are as follows : 

Provinces of Peru in the district of the audience 
of Lima. 



Cercado, 

Chancay, 

Santa, 

Truxillo, ,:: 

Sana, 

Piura, 

Caxamarca, 

Luya and Chillaos, 

Guamachuco, 

Chachapoyas, 

Pataz, 

Huamalies, 

Conchucos, 

Parinacochas, 

Abancay, 

Cuzco, 

Paucartambo, 



Huailas, 

Caxatambo, 

Huanuco, 

Tarma, 

Canta, 

Guarochiri, 

Yauyos, 

Xauxa, 

Canete, 

lea, 

Castro Virreyna, 

Angaraes, 

Guancavelica, 

Quispicanche, 

Canes and Caliches, 

A imaraez, 

Urubamba, 



Huanta, 
Lucanas, 
Camana, 
Arequipa, 
Moquelma, 
Arica, 

Collahuas,orCailloma, 
Condesuyos de Are 
quipa, 

The above amount to 50, reckoning as a pro 
vince the jurisdiction of Cercado of Lima and the 
city of Cuzco, which have corregidors. 

In the district of the audience of Charcas, 



Guamanga, 
Andahuailas, 
Vilcashuaman, 
Cotabamba, 
Calca and Lares, 
Chilques and Mas 
ques, 
Chumbivilcas. 



Lampa, 

Carabaya, 

Asangaro, 

Chucuito, 

Paucar-colla, 

Pacajes, or Veren- 

guela, 
Omasuyos, 
Larecaja, 
La Paz, 
Sicasica, 
Oruro, 
Paria, 
Carangas, 
Porco, 
Potosi, 



Chayanta, or Charcas, 
Pilaya, or Paspaya, 
Cochabamba, 
Pumabamba, 
Tomina, 
Atacama, 
Lipes, 
Yamparaes, 
Paraguay, 
Tucuman, 
Buenos Ayres, 
Apolabamba, 
Mizque, 

Santa Cruz de la Si 
erra, 
Tarija. 



These amount to 30. 

In the district of the audience of Santiago of 
Chile. 



Cuyp, 

Copiapo, 

Serena, or Coquimbo, 

Quillota, 

Aconcagua, 

Santiago, 

Melipilla, 

Rancagua, 

Colcagua, 

Maule, 



Itata, 

Chilian, 

Rede, or Estancia del 
Rey, 

Puchacay, 

La Concepcion, 

Valdivia, 

Chiloe, or Castro, 

Las Islas de Juan Fer 
nandez. 



Besides the above, this kingdom includes the 
immense countries and provinces of Chaco, the 
Moxos, Chiquitos, Baures, Chunchos, Lamas, 
and Araucanos Indians, amongst whom the Je 
suits had established and held very flourishing 
missions. 

The first bishops in Peru were Fernando de 
Luque and Olivera, native of Andalucia, with 
title of bishop of Tumbez in 1531, and Fr. Vi 
cente de Valverde, a Dominican, native of Oro- 



.112 



PERU. 



pesa, with title of bishop of Cuzco, in 1538 ; and 
who was put to death by the Indians of La Puna. 
The archbishopric of Lima has for suffragan the 
bishops of Cuzco, Santiago de Chile, Concepcion 
de Chile, Guamanca, Arequipa, Truxillo, Quito, 
and Panama : and the archbishopric of La Plata 
those of La Paz, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Buenos 
Ayres, Tucuman, and Paraguay. This vast em 
pire is governed by a viceroy, who resides at 
Lima, this being the capital and metropolis. He 
has the title of governor and captain-general of 
all the kingdoms and provinces of Peru, and is 
president of the royal audience and chancery of 
Lima ; this being the authority on which depend 
the other magistracies and tribunals, civil and 
criminal. The provinces are governed, some by 
governors, and others by corregidors nominated 
by the king, and in some settlements there 
remain the old caciques, or Indian governors, 
though under subordination to the former powers. 
The Indians pay an annual tribute to the king, 
the which is more moderate with regard to such 
as voluntarily acknowledged their obedience, and 
proportionably larger to those who were sub 
jected by force of arms : and, again, there are 
some entirely free from this exaction, namely, 
those who are descendants of the first allies of 
the Spaniards, and who assisted them in their 
conquests. 

Catalogue of the barbarous nations and principal 
places of Peru. 



Cities. 
Almagro, 
Arequipa, 
Arica, 
Bella Vista, 
Carrion, 

Castro- Virreyna, 
Caxamarca, 
Chachapoyas, 
Chuquisaca, or La 
Plata, or Charcas, 
Cuzco, 
Guamanga, 
Guancabelica, 
Guanuco, 
lea, 
Lamas, 
Lima, 
Mizque, 
Moquehua, 
Moyobamba, 
Nasca, 
Oropesa, 



Paz, 

Pisco, 

Piura, 

Poto, 

Potosi, 

Puno, 

Sana, 

S. Juan del Oro, 

Santa, 

Tarija, 

Tarma, 

Truxillo, 

Victoria. 

Barbarous Nations. 
Abiticas, 
Acos, 
Achives, 
Amamazos, 
Ancas, or Angas, 
Angaraes, 
Aruporecas, 
Asapupenas, 



Atavillos, 


Quechuas, 


Aullagas. 


Raches, 


Autis, 


Taucas, 


Ayahuacas, 


Xamoros, 


Ayaviris, 


Zepatos. 


Aimaraes, 




Borillos, 


Rivers. 


Boros, 


Amarumayu, 


Calca and Lares, 


Apere, 


Callisecas, 


Apiochana, 


Calluas, 


Apurimac, 


Canisienes, 


Boca de Pan, 


Cavinas, 


Cabirecu, 


Cabos, 


Cachi-mayu, 


Cenomonas, 


Calla-huaya, 


Charcas, 


Caravaillo, 


Chinataguas, 


Castela, 


Chiquiguanitas, 


Caica-mayu, 


Chiriguanos, 


Chila, 


Chiucas, 
Choromoros, 


Chuqui-mayu, 
Coroico, 


Chucunas, 


Corurula, 


Chunanas, 


De la Sal, 


Chunchos, 


Desaquadero, 


Chupachos, 


Enin, 


Chuscos, 


Guazumiri, 


Ciriones, 


Guaura, 


Cocmonomas, 


Huambra, 


Coniguas, 


Iraibi, 


Coscaocoas, 


Itenes, 


Coseremonianos, 


Lircay, 


Fimayos, 


Mages, 


Guatahuahuas, 


Mala, 


Guatinguapas, 


Manica, 


Guailas, 


Pacas-mayu, 


Hancohualluas, 


Paravari, 


Huancas, 


Paria, 


Huaras, 


Pilco-mayu* 


Hubinas, 


Pocona,. 


Ibitas, 


Rimac, 


Ipillos, 


Sama, 


Lamas, 


Tambo, 


Matupeyapes, 


Ucupampa, 


Masques, 


Xauxa, 


Masteles, 


Yetau. 


Mailonas, 




Mogolves, 


Lakes. 


Motilones, 


Aullaga, 


Moxos, 


Cayubabas, 


Mures, 


Chihuata, 


Nindasos, 


Chinchaicocha, 


Pacajes, 


Cullue, 


Panataguas, 


Huaichao, 


Payansos, 


Huaillaruiij 


Purasicas, 


Jacabamba, 



PERU. 



113 



Lauri-cocha, 


Chule, 


Loro-cocha, 


Guacho, 


Paria, 


Guanchoco, 


Parina-cocha, 


Guarco, 


Patan-cocha, 


Hilo, 


Punrun, 


Huanape, 


Puma-cocha, 


Ilai, 


Tiella-cocha, 


Iqueique, 


Titicaca, 


Malabrigo, 


Vilafro. 


Paita, 




Pisagua, 


Mountains, 


Quemado, 


Abitanis, 


Tarapaya, 


Acacuna, 


Tongora, 


Acochala, 


Tumbez. 


Ananea, 




Andes, 


Promontories. 


Aporoma. 


Acari, 


Arauro, 


Acaquini, 


Arcota, 


Atico, 


Arirahua, 


Blanco, 


Aupillan, 


Chao, 


Cara-huagra, 


Corrientes, 


Carangas, 


Del Ago, 


Chocaja, 


Ferol, 


Chumbilla, 


Hilo, 


Condonoma, 


Moreno, 


Huantajaya, 


Negrillos, 


Huatiapa, 


Paita, 


Huayana-putina, 


Piedra, 


Julcamarca, 


Quemado, 


Laicacota, 


S. Antonio, 


Ornate, 


S. Jorge, 


Oruro, 


S. Nicolas, 


Popo, 


Tarapaca. 


Porco, 




Poto, 


Islands. 


Potosi, 


Asia, 


Sahuancuca, 


Cocos, 


Santa?Juana, 


Dogs Island, 


Sunchull, 


Guano, 


Tampaya, 


Guara, 


Ucuntaya. 


Huanape, 




Iqueique, 


Ports. 


Lobos, 


Acari, 


Mancera, 


Arantac, 


Nonura, 


Atacama, 


S. Lorenzo, 


Callao, 


S. Martin. 


Casma, 




Chancay, 


Forts. 


Chancallo, 


S.Fernando, 


Cherrepe, 


Guarochiri. 



VOL. IV. 



[For the chronological series of the Inca Em 
perors of Peru, given by A^edo ; see the end of 
the following additional matter. 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION RESPECTING THE 
KINGDOM OF PERU. 

1. Climate, Soil, and Productions. 2. Mines, 
Exports, and Imports. 3. Population. 4. 
Revolutions. 5. Traits of the Religion of the 
Aborigines. 6. Table of Longitudes and La 
titudes. 

1. Climate, Soil, and Productions. From the 
situation of this country, which is within the tor 
rid zone, it is natural to suppose that it would 
be almost uninhabitable ; but the Andes Moun 
tains being on the one side, and the S. Sea on 
the other, it is not so hot as tropical countries in 
general are ; and in some parts it is disagreeably 
cold. In one part are mountains of a stupendous 
height and magnitude, having their summits co 
vered with snow ; on the other, volcanoes flam 
ing within, while their summits, chasms, and 
apertures, are involved in ice. The plains are 
temperate, the beaches and vallies hot; and 
lastly, according to the diposition of the country, 
its high or low situation, we find all the variety 
of gradations of temperature between the two 
extremes of heat and cold. It is remarkable that 
in some places it never rains, which defect is sup 
plied by a dew that falls every night and suffici 
ently refreshes the vegetable creation ; but in 
Quito they have prodigious rains, attended by 
dreadful storms of thunder and lightning. In 
the inland parts of Peru, and by the banks of the 
rivers, the soil is usually very fertile ; but along 
the sea-coast it is a barren sand. Vast numbers 
of cattle were imported by the Spaniards into 
Peru, when they took possession of that country; 
these are now so increased that they run wild, 
and are hunted like game. This country pro 
duces fruits peculiar to the climate, and most 
of those in Europe. The culture of maize, of 
pimento, and of cotton, which was found esta 
blished there, has not been neglected ; and that 
of wheat, barley, cassava, potatoes, sugar, and of 
the olive and vine is attended to. The goat has 
thriven very well ; but the sheep have degene 
rated, and their wool is become extremely coarse. 

There are certain waters in this country which 
in their course turn into stone ; and fountains of 
liquid matter, called coppey, resembling pitch 
and tar, and used by seamen for the same pur 
pose. On the coast of Guayaquil and Guate- 
Q 



14 



PERU. 



, and this at first gave rise 
more than a 



mala are found a certain species of snails, which 
yield the purple dye so celebrated by the an 
cients, and which the moderns have supposed 
to have been lost. The shell that contains them 
is fixed to rocks watered by the sea. It is of 
the size of a large nut. Various methods are 
used to extract the purple matter from the ani 
mal. There is no colour that can be compared 
to this, either in lustre or permanence. 

Here is also found a new substance, called 
the platina, and which may be considered as an 
eighth metal. In its native state it is mixed 
with gold and iron 
to a suspicion that it was nothin^ 
combination of these two metals ; but late expe 
riments of chemists fully prove, that it is a pure 
and simple metal, with properties peculiar to it 
self. It cannot be affected by any simple acid, 
or by any known solvent, except the aqua regia; 
it will not tarnish in the air, neither will it rust ; 
it unites to the fixedness of gold, and to the pro 
perty it has of not being susceptible of destruc 
tion, a hardness almost equal to that of iron, 
and a much greater difficulty of fusion. It is of 
an intermediate colour between that of iron and 
silver ; it can be forged and extended into thin 
plates ; and when dissolved in aqua regia, it 
may be made to assume, by precipitation, an 
infinite diversity of colours ; and Count Milby 
has succeeded in varying these precipitates so 
much, that he has a picture painted, in the 
colouring of which there is scarce any thing 
but platina made use of. Upon the whole, 
from considering the advantages of the platina, 
we cannot but conclude that this metal deserves, 
at least, from its superiority to all others, to 
share the title of king of metals., of which gold 
has so long been in possession. 

The Peruvian bark, so famous at present for 
curing intermittent fevers, is likewise found here. 
The tree from which it is taken grows upon the 
slope of mountains, and is about the size of a 
common cherry tree. It is distinguished into 
three kinds ; the red, yellow, and the white ; 
but the red is found to be the best and most effi 
cacious. The Jesuits carried this bark to Rome 
as early as 1639 ; but the natives are supposed 
to have been acquainted with its medicinal quali 
ties many ages before. 

2. Mines , Exports and Imports In the n. parts 
of Peru are several gold mines ; but those of 
silver are found all over the country, particularly 
in the neighbourhood of Potosi. Nature never 
afforded to the avidity of mankind, in any country 



on the globe, such rich mines as those of Potosi. 
These famous mines were accidentally discovered 
in the year 1545, in this manner. An Indian, 
named Hualpa, one day following some deer, 
which made directly up the hill of Potosi, came 
to a steep craggy part of the hill, and the better 
to enable him to climb up, laid hold of a shrub, 
which came up by the roots, and laid open a mass 
of silver ore. He for some time kept it a secret, 
but afterwards revealed it to his friend Guanca, 
who, because he would not discover to him the 
method of refining it, acquainted the Spaniard 
his master, named Valaroel, with the discovery. 
Valaroel registered the mine in 1545 ; and from 
that time till 1638 these mines of Potosi had 
yielded 95,619,000 pieces of eight, which is about 
4,255,000 pieces a year. 

But the annual sum derived from these mines, 
according to the latest accounts, and as calculated 
from the produce of the royal duties, and therefore 
considerably under the truth, amounts to 3,400 
Spanish marks of pure gold, and 513,000 ditto 
of pure silver. The value in dollars of both is 
5,317,988 ; the gold being estimated at 145 *, 
dollars, and the silver at 9 -^ dollars the Spanish 
mark. Besides this, we must add for contraband 
922,012 dollars ; and the total produce will then 
be 6,240,000. 

The following comparison of the value of the 
exports of that kingdom to Europe, at different 
periods of the last century, will show the growth 
and improvement of its commerce. 

DOLLARS. 

Annual exports of Peru to Europe for 
1714 to 1739, while the system of 
the Galleons continued - - - - 2,125,000 

.from 1748 to 1778, 

while the trade was carried on by 

register ships ------- 4,260,479 



from 1785 to 1794, 



since the establishment of the sys 
tem of free trade. 6,686,884 

According to Humboldt, the dollars imported 
into Peru and Chile in 1803, amounted to 
11,500,000, and the exports consisted of pro 
duce to the value of 4,000,000 dollars, besides 
8,000,000 dollars in specie. 

3. Population. The population of Peru, in 
1796, appears from the Viagero Universal and 
Alvear y Ponce, to amount in 1796, to 1,445,000 
souls, and that of Chile to 720,000, in 1806. But 
Mr. Walton greatly exceeds this estimate, for he 
states the number of inhabitants in this viceroy - 
alty, in the year 1812, as follows : 



PERU. 



115 



Indians, men, women and children - 2,846,351 

Mulattoes, Mestizos, Sambos, Qua 
droons, Negroes, men women, and 
children 1,227,040 

Creoles born in Peru, descendants of 
Spaniards 476,593 

Spaniards born in Old Spain, residents 

in Peru * ^*> fcri* vrnw*- - - 294,412 



Inhabitants in Peru 
Inhabitants in Mexico 



- 4,844,396 

- 4,798,479 



In Mexico and Peru, subjects to Spain 9,642,875 

Among all the inhabitants of Peru, pride and 
laziness are said to be the most predominant 
passions. Avarice may likewise be attributed to 
some of them with a great deal of propriety. 
There is very little commerce in this fine coun 
try, except in the cities and large towns, which 
are described under their respective names. The 
chief manufactures are carried on by the Indians ; 
these consist chiefly of leather, woollen and 
cotton stuffs, and earthen ware ; in the fabrication 
of which they are said to be peculiarly ingenious. 
The Indians and Negroes are forbidden, under 
the severest penalties, to intermarry ; for divi 
sion between these two classes, is the greatest 
instrument, in which the Spaniards trust for the 
preservation of the colonies. Peru is governed 
by a viceroy, who is absolute ; but it being im 
possible for him to superintend the whole extent 
of his government, he delegates a part of his 
authority to the several audiences and courts, 
established at different places throughout his terri 
tories. At Lima there is a treasury court for 
receiving a fifth of the mines, and certain taxes 
paid by the Indians, which belong to the king of 
Spain. 

4. Revolutions. About the year 1781, and the 
same period in which happened the revolution in 
Santa Fe ; an insurrection took place in this 
kingdom, under the direction of Tupac-Amaru, 
but which failed from the circumstance of this 
chief being so enraged against the Spaniards, 
and desirous of revenging his ancestors, as to 
have promulgated his resolution of extirpating 
every other race but the original one of the 
country ; when the Mustees, Mulattoes, and 
Creoles being more numerous and better in 
formed than the Indians, united against them, 
and rendered the attempt abortive. 

But the seeds of revolution that have germi 
nated in Mexico, Venezula and La Plata, have 
struck their roots deep in this kingdom, and 



although we have not as yet seen the spirit of 
rebellion which has spread as it were by an 
electric impulse through the former dominions, 
manifest itself so frequently and with such vio 
lence in Peru, we are, nevertheless, not without 
sufficient documents to prove that the old govern 
ment has need of all its energies, and even of 
submitting to some sacrifices to secure its power. 

On this subject the Buenos Ayres Gazette, of 
the 8th of May 1812, contains the following para 
graph : " It appears that the capital of the king 
dom of Peru, alive to the glorious example of the 
other American provinces, now exhibits some 
symptoms of rousing itself from the lethargy to 
which the influence of the despots and their satel 
lites had reduced it. In spite of the attempts to 
conceal from the Peruvians the desperate situation 
of the Peninsula, the truth begins to penetrate 
even into those remote countries ; and the day is 
not far distant when the people, undeceived, and 
no longer the subjects of delusion, will concur in 
supporting the great cause of the independence 
of the new world. On the 4th of March, 
Abascal, tired of striving against the current of 
our new system, offered at Lima to instal a 
junta, provided the presidency was secured to 
himself, and the expiring government of Cadiz 
recognized. This concession resulted from a 
commotion excited among the Mulatto militia, 
when they were ordered to march to the assist 
ance of Goyoneche. From the abov e Gazette, it 
appeared also, that Goyoneche was at the head of 
4000 men, and the province of Potosi, with the 
greater part of the country, still remained faith 
ful in their adherence to the mother country. 
But the province of Cochabamba continued its 
connections with the Junta of Buenos Ayres, and 
was said to have a military force of 4000 men. 
What was called the auxiliary army of the Junta 
in that country is commanded by one Pueyredon, 
but its amount is not stated. See LA PLATA. 

5. Traits of the Religion of the Aborigines. 
The chief god of the Peruvians was Wiracocha, 
by whom they understood the maker of all 
things ; next to him they worshipped the Sun, 
and after him, Thunder. The images of these 
three they never touched with their bare hands : 
they worshipped also the Stars, Earth, Sea, Rain 
bow, Rivers, Fountains, and Trees. They 
adored also wild beasts, that these might not hurt 
them ; and as marks of devotion, when they 
travelled, they left in the cross-ways, and dan- 

ferous places, old shoes and feathers, and if they 
ad nothing else, stones. They worshipped the 
Sun, by pulling off the hair from their eve-brows : 
Q2 



116 



PERU. 



when they were in fear, they would touch the 
Earth and look up to the Sun. They worshipped 
also the dead bodies of their Emperors, and in 
deed there was nothing so trifling, but it in some 
degree excited their fear and veneration. They 
have some glimmering knowledge of the begin 
ning of the world and of Noah s flood, and they be 
lieve in the end of the world, which they are ac 
customed to dread, whenever the sun is eclipsed ; 
and this luminary they take to be the moon s 
husband. Their Priests they held in such esteem, 
that no great matter was undertaken, either by 
prince or people, without their advice. 

None, except themselves, had access to the 
Idols, and then only when they were clothed in 
white, and then they would prostrate themselves 
on the ground. In sacrificing they abstained from 
women ; and some out of zeal would put out their 
own eyes. They used to consult with the devil, 
to whom they sacrificed men, and dedicated boys 
in their temples for sodomy. They had also 
their temples richly adorned with gold and silver, 
and their monasteries for priests and sorcerers. 
Their nuns were so strictly kept, that it was 
death to be defloured. After 14 years of age 
they were taken out of the monastery, either to 
serve their idols (and such must be virgins still) 
or else to serve as wives and concubines to the 
Inca, or Emperor. They are very frequent and 
strict in their confessions, and cheerfully under 
take what penance is enjoined them ; but the Inca 
used to confess only to the Sun ; after confession 
they all wash in baths, leaving their sins in the 
water. They used to sacrifice vegetables, animals, 
and men, chiefly children, for the health or pros 
perity of their Inca, and for victory in war. In 
some places they eat their men-sacrifices, in 
others they only dried and preserved them in 
silver coffins. They anointed with blood the 
faces of their idols, and doors of their temples, or 
rather slaughter-houses. See ACOSTA, CIEZA, 

GOMARA, &C. 

Peruvians, their festival days. They had feasts 
and sacrifices every month of the year, in which 
were offered multitudes of sheep of different 
colours, which they burned. The Inca s children 
were dedicated in these feasts ; their ears were 
pierced, then they were wiped, and their faces 
anointed with blood, in sign that they should be 
true in their allegiance to their Inca. During 
the month of this latter festival, no stranger 
might remain in Cuzco, but at the end thereof 
they were admitted, and had a morsel of bread 
presented to each man, that they should by eating 
thereof testify their fidelity to the Inca. lu the 



second month, which is our January, (for Decem 
ber, in which the sun returns from Capricorn, was 
their first month) they flung the ashes of their 
sacrifices into the river, following the same six 
leagues, and praying the river to carry that 
present to Viracocha. In the three following 
months, they offered 100 sheep ; in the 6th they 
offered 100 sheep more, and celebrated a feast 
for their maize-harvest ; in the 7th they sacrificed 
to the sun ; in the 8th and 9th month, 200 sheep 
were offered ; in the 10th 100 more ; and to the 
honour of the moon they burned torches, washed 
themselves, and then were drunk four days 
together ; in the llth month they offered 100 
sheep more, and upon a black sheep poured much 
chica or wine of maize to procure rain; in the 12th 
month they sacrificed 100 sheep and kept a feast. 
They had indeed many fasts, when they Avould 
continue in mourning and sad procession two 
days, and the two days after would be spent in feast 
ing, dancing, and drinking. See Jos. ACOSTA. 

Peruvians., their belief of the departed souls T hey 
believed that the departed souls wandered up 
and down, and suffered hunger, thirst, and cold ; 
therefore they carried them meat, drink, and 
clothes. They used also to put gold and silver 
in their mouths, hands, and bosoms, and indeed 
much treasure has at times been dug out of their 
graves. They believed that the souls of good 
men were at rest in glory. The bodies were ho 
noured after death ; sacrifices and garments were 
offered to them; the best-beloved wife was slain, 
and attendants of all sorts. To the Inca s ghost 
young children were sacrificed, and if the father 
was sick, they would commonly slay the son, 
thinking this murder should satisfy death for the 
father. Concerning these and other their im 
pious ceremonies, see ACOSTA. 

6. Table of Longitudes and Latitudes. For 
this Table of the Longitudes and Latitudes of the 
most important places in this kingdom, see the 
end of the General Preface.] 

Chronological Series of the Inca-Emperors who 
have presided in Peru. 

1. Manco-Inca was the first who reduced the 
barbarous Indians to a civilized life in 1100, ac 
cording to Garcilaso de la Vega, and taught them 
arts and agriculture. He feigned himself to be 
son of the Sun, and sent from his father for the 
good of mankind ; in the establishing of which 
ideas, and also in the foundation of the monarchy 
itself, he was not a little aided by his sister and 
wife Mama Ocllo Huaco. The Indians received 
him as a deity, and gave him the nn.me of Capac, 



PERU. 



117 



which signifies, Rich in virtue ; and they esta 
blished the insignias of prince in his successors, 
giving him to wear a turban, which was folded 
three times round the head with a red arrow 
pending in front. He made many humane and 
wise laws ; condemning as capital crimes homi 
cide, adultery, and theft ; and he commanded 
that each should select his wife out of his own 
family, but never till he was 20 years of age. 
He proposed the adoration of the Sun as the 
first Divinity, and built to it a temple at Cuzco, 
and close to it a house for the virgins consecrated 
to that deity ; and these, it appears, should be 
of the royal blood, or descended of the Incas. 
His reign is thought to have lasted 40 years, and 
he left as his successor, 

2. Sinchi-Roca, first-born of Manco-Capac : 
he succeeded to the empire of those barbarians, 
who had been civilized by his father, (the appel 
lation Sinchi signifying Strong,) and he extended 
his dominion to the s. of Cuzco for more than 60 
miles, as far as the settlement called Chuncara, 
and e. as far as the shore of the river Culla- 
huaya, reducing all those nations to his obedi 
ence by mild and conciliatory measures. His 
wife s name was Mama-Cora; by her he had 
many children, and left the government, at his 
death, to his first-born, after a 29 years reign. 

3. Lloque- Yupanqui, which first name signifies 
Left-handed ; as he was accustomed to this fault, 
and the second signifying prognosticator, alluding 
to the victories he foretold. He was the first 
who embodied an army. He subjected the Canes 
Indians, then the Ayaviris, and built a fortress 
called Pucara. He afterwards subjected the pro 
vinces of Paucar-Colla and Hatun-Colla, together 
with other settlements, and extended the empire 
as far as the channel or waste-water of the lake 
Titicaca to the s. and as far as the cordillera of 
the mountains of the Andes to the w. His wife 
was Mama-Cava, who bare him no other male 
children than one, who succeeded him. He died 
at Cuzco, of age 93 years, of which he had reigned 
34 years and seven months. 

4. Maita-Capac, who took the reins of the 
monarchy, through the death of his father, at the 
age of 51. He subjected the province of Tia- 
Huanaca, where he caused fine edifices to be 
constructed, and obliged, through his fame and 
reputation in conquests, the settlements of the 
province of Coc-yaviri to acknowledge their al 
legiance ; as also, to follow their example, the 
Indians of the provinces of Cauquicura, Mallama, 
Huarina, Cuchuna, Laricaja, Sancavan, and Col- 
las, though not till he had routed them in a battle 



fought at the place called Huaichu. He thus 
extended his empire as far as Caracolla, and as 
the lake Paria to the s. and e. as far as the beau 
tiful llanuras of Chuqui-apu. He also included 
in his conquests to the w. the provinces of Chum- 
bivillca, Allca, Taurisma, Cota-huahu, Puma- 
tampu, and Parina-cocha, and to the e. those of 
Aruni and Collahua. He had by his wife Mama- 
Cuca many sons, and died at 91 years of age, 
leaving his empire to his first-born. 

5. Capac- Yupangui, who passed with his army 
the river Auprimac, subjected the nation of the 
Pitis, and afterwards that of the Aimaraes, in 
whose territory he caused the fortress of Patirca 
to be built. He was the first who entered Cuzco, 
the capital, in triumph. In another expedition 
he subjected the settlements called Quechuas in 
the province of Cotapampa and Catanera, and 
afterwards those of Amampallpa, Hacari, Ubina, 
Camana, Caravilli, Pieta, and Quelca. He then 
undertook other conquests, namely, those of the 
provinces of Tapac-ric and Cochapampa, Chay anta 
and Charcas, and, lastly, those of Curahuaci, 
Amancay, Sura, Apucara, Rucana and Hatun- 
Rucana ; and, towards the coast of the Pacific 
Sea, those of Nanasca, Mama and Curiyllpay. 
He reigned 41 years, and the crown, at his death, 
descended to his son. 

6. Inca-Roca, (this name signifying Prudent 
Prince). His first plans of conquest were against 
Chinchasuya; when he succeeded in rendering 
subject to him the nations of Tacmaras and Qui- 
nuallas, with the country of Cochacasa and Cu- 
rampa. He was equally victorious over the Chan- 
cas and the nations of Hancohuallo, Utunsulla, 
Uramarca, and Villca. His second expedition, 
under the direction of his son Yahuar-huacac, 
brought under his dominion the settlements of 
Challa-pampa, Pillcupata, Havisca, and Tunu. 
The third, which consisted of an army of 30,000 
men, made him master of the provinces of Chun- 
curi, Pucuna, Muyumuyu, Misqui, Sacaca, Ma- 
chaca, and Characara. This prince was the first 
who founded schools for the princes of the blood 
royal, where they were instructed in the Quipus, 
which was a certain number of cords of various 
colours, full of different kinds of knots, and 
which served as writing. The annalist, or his 
torian of the empire, who preserved them in 
the temple of the Sun, was called Quipucana. 
or Keeper of the Quipus. He reigned 51 years, 
was married to Mama-micay, and succeeded by 
his son, 

7. Yahuar-Huacac, (meaning one that weeps 
blood). He succeeded to Inca Ro.ca, and he had 



118 



PERU. 



this name from its being said of him, that he 
wept blood from his nose. He entrusted to his 
brother Inca-mota the command of the armies, and 
conquered Colla-suyu. Jealous of the ferocious 
and unquiet disposition of his eldest son, Inca- 
Rapac, he destined him to the employment of 
watching the cattle of the Temple of the Sun 
near Cuyco ; where it was that Viracocha-Inca, 
brother of Manco-Capac, had the famous vision, 
which revealed to him the rebellion which was 
engendered in the provinces of Chincha-suyu. 
One should think, that it was some diabolical 
phantom which had thus appeared to the prince, 
and he immediately gave all the information to 
his father, although the latter was backward in 
crediting what was told him. Be this as it may, 
it is certain, that three months afterwards an 
account was received of the insurrection ; when 
Yaguar-Huacac, being greatly terrified, aban 
doned the court, and fled with his sons and many 
chieftains into the woods. The son, Inca-Rapac, 
assembled some people, and, having formed a 
small but resolute army of 8000 men, went out 
to meet the rebels ; receiving in his march a 
numerous succour from Rimares and Quechuas ; 
and he thus attacked the enemy, and, after a 
battle of eight hours, entirely defeated them. He 
afterwards re-established the peace of the coun 
try, and, returning home, he was received witli 
great joy by his father; who honoured him with 
the llauto, or imperial crown, and ceded to him 
the kingdom ; retiring himself into a private life 
at Muina, where he lived seven years with his 
wife Mama Chic-ya, and died 85 years of age. 

8. Inca-Rapac, who, as soon as he began to 
reign, acquired the name of Vtracocha-Inca, 
through the vision of the brother of Manco Ca- 
pac. He caused to be built to him a temple at 
Caccha, 16 leagues distant from Cuzco to the s. 
He conquered, with an army of 30,000 men, the 
provinces of Caranca, Ullaca, Llipi, Chicha, 
Huaytata, Poc-ra, Asancaru, Parcu, Picuy, and 
Acos : also the Lord of Tucma, or Tucuman, 
came to Cuzco to render him obedience. The 
Indians have a tradition from their ancestors, 
that this prince foretold the entrance of the 
Spaniards into that kingdom, and that they 
would destroy the empire of the Incas. He had 
by his wife Mama-Runtu a son named Inca- 
LJrco, his first-born, and who succeeded him ; 
also another son, named Titu Manco-Capac, af 
terwards called Pachacutec. He lived 73 years, 
and reigned 36. 

9. Inca-Urco, who had scarcely come to the 
inheritance of his father s crown, when he was, 



in eleven days time, deposed by the grandees 
and princes of the blood, who could not endure 
his stupidity. He thus retired into private life, 
leaving the kiiiffdom in the hands of his brother 

O O 

Titu Manco-Capac. 

10. Pachacutec, thus called in memory of his 
having been established in the empire the first 
year after the government of his father ; and his 
name signifies literally, He that gives a new 
existence to the world. This prince extended 
the empire with the conquest of the provinces of 
Sausa or Xauxa, Tarma, Pumpu or Bombon, 
Ancara, Chucurpu, and Huailas. He after 
wards subjected Pincu, Huaras, Pisco-Pampa, 
Chunchucu, Huamachucu, Caxamarca, Yauyu, 
lea, Pisco, Chiacha, Runahuanac, Huarcu, Malla, 
Chillca, Pachacamac, Rimac, Chancay, Huaman, 
Parmunca, Huallmi, Santa, Huanape, and El 
Chimu. He was constantly occupied in the war 
in whicli he made these conquests, and acquired 
the glorious name of conqueror, and built great 
temples, baths, aqueducts, &c. By his wife Marna- 
Huarcu he had a son named Inca-Yupanqui and 
several others ; and it is said that his concubines 
amounted to 300. He died at 103 years of age. 

11. Yupanqui, who followed the example of 
his father: for he subjected the Moxos atCopiaco 
and at Coquimbo, and stretched his route as far 
as the river Maule of Chile. He built the great 
fortress of Cuzco, and merited by his clemency 
the surname of Pious. He had by his wife Mama 
Chimpu-Ocllo, a son called Tupac-Yupanqui, 
who succeeded him to the throne. He died at 
the age of 79. 

12. Tupac-Yupanqui. The enterprizes of this 
prince attached to the conquests of the provinces 
of Huarachucu, Chachapuya, Muyu-pampa, Casa, 
Hayahuaca, Callua, Huanucu, now Guanuco, 
Tumi-Pampa, Alausi, Canaris, and Purwaes, as 
far as Mocha. He projected the conquest of the 
kingdom of Quito, but could not put it into ex 
ecution ; -and therefore sent his son, who suc 
ceeded in extending the empire towards the n. 
as far as the country of Pastu. He died, leaving 
as heir to the kingdom his first-born, borne to 
him with five other sons by his wife Mama-Ocllo. 

13. Huayna-CapaC) who prosecuted the con 
quests of his father, adding to the crown the 
countries of Chacma, Pacas-mayu, Sana, Collque, 
Tucmi, Sayanca, Mutupi, now Arnotape, Pichiu, 
Sullana, and Tumpiz, now called Tumbez : he 
also subjected the nations Chunana, Collonque, 
Cintuy, Yaquall, and the island of La Puna ; 
and afterwards reduced to his obedience the pro 
vinces of Manta, Apichiqui, Pichunsi, Sava, 



PERU. 



ill) 



Pecllansi-miqui, Pompalmachi, Saramissu, Pas- 
<ao : showing exemplary punishment against the 
rebellious Carangues; and commanding many 
soldiers to be beheaded on the lake which is now 
called Yaguar-cocha, or lake of blood. To this 
prince a son of the name of Inti-Gusi-Huallpa, 
or Huascar-Inca, was borne by his wife, the em 
press Rava-Ocllo ; and by his third wife, Mama- 
Ranta, a daughter of Augui-Amaru-Tupac-Inca, 
another son, named Manco-Inca, afterwards em 
peror. He had also by Sciri-paccha, the daugh 
ter of the king of Quito, and his concubine, 
Atahuallpa, whom some call Atalpa, others Ata- 
balipa and Atalipa, but improperly : and this son 
he was so fond of, that he made him king of 
Quito, but tributary to his brother Huascar-Inca. 
Whilst at his palace of Tumi-pampa, he received 
intelligence of the first Spaniards who had ar 
rived on the coast of his empire. He died at 
Quito, leaving this kingdom, as we have ob 
served, to Atahuallpa, and the monarchy to his 
first-born. 

14. Inti-Cusi-Huallpa, or Huascar-Inca. He 
entered into possession of the empire in the most 
lamentable times ; for Atahuallpa was aspiring 
to the crown, and was, at it were, openly attack 
ing the empire. The two brothers fought a des 
perate battle near Cuzco, in which the armies of 
the emperor suffered defeat ; and he was taken 
prisoner by the rebel, who treated him most 
barbarously, shutting him up in a very confined 
prison, and who, lastly, fearing that the Spa 
niards might restore him to the throne, caused 
him to be put to death at the age of 51. 

15. Atahuallpa^ an usurper of the empire, who 
put to death all those of the blood royal that fell 
into his hands. In his time Francisco Pizarro, 
with the Spaniards in his company, disembarked 
on the coast of Tumbez: and this person, after 
having proposed many treaties, whereby the 
reigning emperor should give up the reins in 
favour of his brother, at last made direct war 
against him : and, conquering him in a battle 
near to Caxamarca, took him prisoner, and 
caused him to be put to death privately in a pri 
son, he having been first converted to the faith, 
and received the baptism under the name of 
Juan. Thus he met with the same end that he 
caused to his brother, and he was, when he died, 
48 years old. 

16. Manco-Capac. There being no sons of 
Huascar-Inca, he was succeeded by his second 
brother of this name, whom Don Francisco Pi 
zarro, who passed with Diego de Almagro to 
Cuzco, permitted to be crowned. But this Inca 



soon found that he had but the shadow of a mo 
narchy, and, after ditferent treaties and negocia- 
tions, finding that Pizarro was bent upon the 
sovereignty, he resolved to shake himself off 
from his hospitality, and, accordingly, collecting 
an army of 300,000 men, he attacked Cuzco, 
where he found Fernando Pizarro, brother of 
Francisco, with 260 Spaniards ; and these, per 
ceiving that the enemy was already master of the 
city, retired to a fortress ; from whence they sal 
lied out by night, and made a terrible slaughter 
of the Indians ; obliging Manco-Capac to retire 
to the mountains of the province of Villca- 
pampa. Nothing further is heard of the family 
of this prince : but he is supposed to have died 
in 1553, leaving the crown to his eldest son by 
his wife Mama-Cusi. 

17. Sayri-Tupac, called Don Diego-Inca ; the 
last of the emperors of Peru. He was acknow 
ledged as sovereign of the provinces of Villca- 
pampa, Tarma, Muyu-pampa, and Chunchos. 
The viceroy of Peru, Don Andres Hurtardo de 
Mendoza, Marquis of Canete, through the me 
dium of the mother of that prince, her name 
being Beatrix, and w r ho was a convert, succeeded 
in persuading him to enter into a treaty of peace. 
Sairi-Tupac, of Villca-pampa, issued forth in great 
pomp and entered Lima, where he made a solemn 
renunciation into the hands of the viceroy of his 
imperial dignities and rights to the throne of 
Peru to Philip II. king of Spain, preserving, 
however, his royal honours and insignias, and, 
during his life, the absolute dominion of the pro 
vince of Yucay. He afterwards passed to Cuzco, 
and from thence to Yucay, where, after a short 
time, he was baptized, and named Don Diego 
Sayri-Tupac-Inca ; his mother also taking the 
name of Leonor Cusi-Huarcay. He lived but 
a short time after, and died at the age of 47, 
leaving an only daughter, who was married to 
Don Martin Garcia Oilez de Loyola, knight of 
the order of Santiago, from whom descends the 
family of the Marquises of Oropesa and Alca- 
iiices. 

Chronological Series of the Viceroys and Cap 
tains-General of Peru. 

1. Don Francisco Pizarro, marquis of Los 
Charcos and Atavillos, native of Truxillo in 
Estrernadura. He passed over to America with 
Alonso de Ojeda ; served in the conquest of Da- 
rien with much valour, and, finding himself at 
Panama, entered into company with Diego de 
Almagro and Hernando de Luque, lord of the 
island of Tabo^a and Maestre-Escuela of the 



120 



P E R U. 



church of that city, to the discovery and conquest 
of Peru. He left Panama in 1525, and arrived 
at Tumbez and Cape Blanco, of which he took 
possession in the name of the king of Spain, and 
the emperor granted him the title of adelantado 
mayor, and governor and captain -general of all 
the places he might conquer. He returned to 
these parts in 1529, founded the cities of Lima, 
S. Miguel de Piura, Truxillo, Guayaquil, and 
many others ; but certain dissensions having 
arisen between him and Almagro, since the re 
wards had not been equally divided between 
them, with respect to their shares of labours 
and expenses, they formed two parties, which 
caused great disturbances and tumults ; and thus 
it was that 13 persons of Almagro s party put to 
death Pizarro at 12 o clock in the open day, in 
the year 1541. 

2. The licentiate Christoval Vaca de Castro, 
of the royal council of Castilla. He was sent 
by the emperor Charles V. in the same year that 
his predecessor died, and to avenge the injury 
done to him ; and as he took out faculties em 
powering him to take the seat of government, in 
case it might be vacant, he did so ; and having 
commanded Diego de Almagro, the principal 
culprit, to appear, he not only did not obey the 
order, but, forming an army, went out in search 
of the governor, and finding him in the valley of 
Chupas, near Guamanga, with his army, a battle 
was fought, in which all the rebels were routed ; 
all those that were caught being made to undergo 
condign punishment, and among the rest his 
captive Almagro, who was decapitated in 1542. 
Thus all was rendered pacific, and the best esta 
blishment set on foot in those provinces ; and, 
notwithstanding the rectitude and good qualities 
of this governor, he did not want for calumnia 
tors ; and he was thus, when he had returned to 
Spain, made prisoner, though honourably ac 
quitted and restored to his office. 

3. Blasco Nunez Vela, knight of the order of 
Santiago, native of Avila, captain of the guards 
of the emperor Charles V. He was nominated 
for the viceroy of Peru, and was the first who 
enjoyed this title. He was charged with the 
establishment of new laws in the Indies, relative 
to the government of those countries, and the 
good treatment of the Indians. The royal au 
dience entered Lima in 1544, but the inflexibility 
and haughtiness of the viceroy s disposition turned 
into gall all the sweets of its wise institutions ; 
and some of the provinces having represented 
the difficulties they laboured under, and request 
ing that they might be made known to the king, 



instituting as prosecutor for that service Gonzalo 
Pizarro, brother of the marquis Francisco Pi- 
zarro ; he not only did not comply with their 
wishes, but began to use against them the most 
rigorous and absolute authority. In this state 
of things the audience seized the viceroy, and 
sent him to Spain ; but he, having obtained leave 
from the person who carried him over, to disem 
bark at Tumbez, united some people in arms to 
go in search of Gonzalo Pizarro with his army ; 
when, being himself pursued by the latter as far 
as the valley of Aiiaquito, the battle of this name 
was fought, and the viceroy lost his life in 1546. 

4. The Licentiate Pedro de la Gasca, native 
of Valladolid, of the supreme council of Inqui 
sition. Such was his literary and military repu 
tation, and the prudence and intelligence that 
he had manifested in the pacification of the tu 
mults of the Moors in the kingdom of Valencia, 
that no doubt was entertained of the fitness of 
his appointment to the viceroyalty of Peru ; nor 
did he in this capacity fail to show great skill and 
management from the year thathetook possession. 
Although he endeavoured,by all the mild measures 
possible, to bring round Gonzalo Pizarro to obe 
dience, he found himself, at last, under the ne 
cessity of taking up arms against this litigious 
person, and pursuing him with his army in 1548. 
In the plains of Sacxahuana a battle was fought, 
in which the greater part of the rebels deserted 
to the king s army ; the most obstinate of them 
taken prisoners, and, amongst the rest, Gonzalo 
Pizarro and his lieutenant-colonel Francisco de 
Carvajal ; who were afterwards beheaded in the 
plaza of Cuzco. Thus was the kingdom rendered 
pacific. This viceroy founded the city of La Paz, 
and returned to Spain, where, in 1551, as a re 
ward for his services, the emperor made him 
bishop of Palencia. 

5. Don Antonio de Mendoza, fourth son of the 
marquis of Mondejar, who had served many 
years as viceroy in Nueva Espana. He was or 
dered to pass to Peru, to put in practice that in 
tegrity and experience for which he was accre 
dited, and entered Lima in the same year, 1557 ; 
but his government lasted only a short time, for 
he died in the following year; and, notwith 
standing that, in that short time, he caused the 
visitation and description of those provinces to 
be made, the first description that the council 
ever was possessed of; he also took opportunity 
of founding the royal university of San Marcos, 
and the Guarda de Albarderos. At his decease 
the government fell to the charge of the au 
dience. 



PERT). 



13. Don Andres Hurtado de Mendoza, second 
Marquis of Caiiete, general of the city ofCuenca, 
and equerry to the king. After having served 
the emperor in the expedition in Germany and 
Flanders, he was nominated viceroy of Peru, and 
entered Lima in 1555 ; succeeded in completely 
quelling the disturbances, of which some were 
still remaining relative to Francisco Hernandez 
Giron ; established the company of lancemen 
of the viceroy s guard ; brought from the moun 
tains the Inca Sayri-Tupac, who embraced the 
catholic faith, and renounced his rights to 
the empire ; and governed with great address till 
1561, when he received intelligence of his suc 
cessor having landed at Paita. This had such 
an effect upon him, and so great was his mortifi 
cation, that he fell melancholy, and died even 
before he had resigned the government. 

7. Don Diego Lopez de Zuniga y Velasco, 
Count of Nieva. He made his entrance in the 
aforesaid year, 1561, and governed but a very 
short time, being found, in the following year, 
dead in his palace, with every circumstance war 
ranting a suspicion that he came to a violent end ; 
but the circumstance was, under the existing state 
of affairs, hushed up by the audience, as they 
dreaded the mischief which might occur from a 
different conduct. 

8. The Licentiate Lope Garcia de Castro, of 
the council of the Indies : elected president of 
the audience of Lima, governor, and captain- 
general of Peru. But he was immediately su 
perseded by the Licentiate Pedro de la Gasca, 
who was encharged to undertake the investiga 
tion of the affair of the death of the Count Nieva, 
and to bring the guilty to punishment. He en 
tered Lima in 1564, and beginning to put into 
execution the object of his mission, he received 
secret intelligence of the exact state of the case, 
which made it requisite for him to suspend all 
further proceedings, a circumstance which gave a 
deep stab to the honour of many noble indivi 
duals of that city. He continued to govern with 
a zeal and prudence which might have been ex 
pected from his learning and experience. In his 
time was established, in 1565, the audience of 
Quito, and Enrique Garces discovered the valu 
able quicksilver mine in Guancabelica in 1566. 
The president founded also the mint at Lima, 
and in the following year the Jesuits were intro 
duced into that capital. Events, all of which 
shed a lustre upon his government, and which 
terminated with the arrival of his successor, 

9. Don Francisco de Toledo, son of the Count 
of Oropesa, nominated viceroy of Peru, He 

VOL. IV. 



made his entry in 1569, and was during the first 
two years of his government employed with 
great ardour in the regulation of all public af 
fairs, and especially of the establishments of the 
mines ; where he laid down the law so expli 
citly and clearly as that there have never since 
been any question or litigations on the subject. 
He was resolved upon bringing down from the 
mountains of Villca-pampa the IncaTupac Amaru, 
brother of Sayri Tupac ; but, seeing that bribes 
and promises had no avail, he dispatched a troop 
under Martin Garcia de Loyola, to whom the 
Indian chief immediately surrendered; and, being 
brought to Cuzco, where the viceroy then was, 
he was put to trial, and beheaded, an event 
which caused an universal sentiment of sorrow 
from the known great qualities of this unfortu 
nate man. He met his death with firmness, and 
was first called Philip, being so baptized. In 
him terminated the legitimate line of the Incas. 
This was a stroke which tarnished all the glory 
this viceroy had acquired ; and it cast a shade 
over talents such as to place him amongst the 
most celebrated that ever governed. He re 
turned, however, to Spain in 1581, where he 
met a just reward for his barbarity, and a few 
days after his arrival put to death by command 
of Philip II. 

10. Don Martin Henriquez, son of the Mar 
quis of Alcanias. He was exercising the vice- 
royalty of Nueva Espaiia when he received a 
commission to pass to that of Peru. Here he ar 
rived in the aforesaid year, 1581, and gave signs 
of great talent, benignity, and skill, during the 
short time of his reign : for he died in 1583, 
when the authority devolved upon the royal 
audience. 

11. Don Fernando de Torres y Portugal, 
Count of Villar Don Pardo. He was elected 
viceroy in 1584, but did not arrive at Lima till 
1586 : he governed a little more than three 
years, leaving the government to his successor. 

12. Don Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza, fourth 
Marquis of Canete, who had been governor of 
Chile in the viceroyship of his father. He made 
his entrance in 1590 ; made arrangements for the 
discovery of the island of Salomon through Al- 
varo de Mendana, and formed an armament at 
the charge of his brother-in-law, Don Beltran de 
la Cueva, and Castro, against the pirate Richard 
Hawkins, who was taken prisoner, but defended 
from capital punishment by the said viceroy, in 
spite of the sentence of the audience of Lima, as 
he had surrendered upon conditions that his life 
should be spared ; and the king readily assented 

R 



122 



PERU. 



to the viceroy s discretion. He established the 
alcavalas in Peru, made various regulations for 
better government, and finished his reign in 1596, 
when he returned to Peru. 

13. Don Luis de Velasco, Marquis of Salinas. 
He was at the time viceroy of Nueva Espana, 
and was commissioned to pass to Peru to the 
same office. Here he arrived in 1596; was 
made fiscal and protector of the Indians in 
the audience of the abuses which had obtained 
against those miserable objects. In his time 
there was a new insurrection of the Arauca- 
nians in the kingdom of Chile ; when they de 
stroyed six cities, taking prisoners the inhabi 
tants, and putting to death the governor, Don 
Garcia Ones de Loyola. This viceroy was or 
dered to return to the government of Nueva Es 
pana, for which he embarked on the arrival of 
his successor, 

14. Don Gaspar de Zuniga y Acevedo, Count 
of Monterrey. He passed from Nueva Espana, 
where he was viceroy, to Peru in 1604. In his time 
was established the tribunal mayor of accounts, 
and the Southern lands were discovered by Pedro 
Fernandez de Quiros. He only governed two 
years, as he died in 1606, leaving the government 
in the hands of the royal audience until the 
arrival of his successor. 

15. Don Juan de Mendoza y Luna, third Mar 
quis of Montcs Claros, who also passed from the 
viceroy alty of Nueva Espana to that of Peru. 
He arrived in 1607 ; established the tribunal of 
the consulate of commerce; recommended to the 
king the freeing the Indians from personal ser 
vice, and this was put into effect ; commanded 
the grand bridge to be built, which communi 
cates the city with the suburb of San Lazaro, 
and reigned prudently for eight years, until the 
arrival in 1615 of 

16. Don Francisco de Borja y Aragon, Prince 
of Esquilache ; in whose time the strait was dis 
covered by Jacob le Maire, and which bears his 
name. This strait was also reconnoitred by the 
brothers, the Nodales. Immediately that he had 
fulfilled the term of six years, he, without waiting 
for a successor, embarked for Spain in 1621. 

17. Don Diego Fernandez de Cordoba, first 
Marquis of Guadalcasar. He also left the vice- 
royalty of Mexico for that of Peru, entered Lima 
in 1622, and immediately applied himself to the 
defence of the kingdom ; for about this time its 
safety was threatened by James Hermit Clerk, a 
pirate, who had entered the S. Sea by Cape Horn 
with a strong armament, and besieged Callao, 
sending into it a fire-ship. The active precau 



tions, however, of this viceroy annulled all his 
efforts. The pirate died of vexation, and his 
admiral abandoned the enterprise, leaving the 
character of the viceroy s prowess highly ex 
alted. In this reign were published the new 
laws concerning the collecting of the Indians ; 
and, having given full satisfaction, he returned 
to Spain, delivering up his office to his suc 
cessor, 

18. Don Geronimo Fernandez de Cabrera Bo- 
badilla y Mendoza, Count of Chinchon, of the 
councils of state and war. He entered Lima in 
1629, and governed near 10 years. In his time, 
in 1630, happened that terrible earthquake, which 
ruined the greater part of the city. He re 
signed his office to his successor, and returned to 
Europe. 

19. Don Pedro de Toledo y Leiba, Marquis of 
Mancera ; of the council of war. He made his 
entry into Lima in 1639, numbered the whole of 
the Indians of the kingdom, reformed the rates 
of tribute, fortified the port of Callao, furnishing 
it with very good artillery, for which he esta 
blished there a great foundery, and instituted and 
arranged the posts, with other useful dispensa 
tions, which perpetuate the remembrance of his 
government. This he resigned to 

20. Don Garcia Sarmiento de Sotomayor, 
Count of Salva Tierra, who, like many others, 
passed from the viceroyalty of Nueva Espana, 
where he was reigning, to Peru. He arrived in 
1648, erected the celebrated bronze ibuntain in 
the chief square, which has perpetuated his me 
mory, facilitated the establishment and conver 
sion of the Indians of the province of Mainas by 
the Jesuits, which has rendered such very great 
fruits to the church, and delivered the command 
to his successor in 1655. He was, however, de 
tained at Lima by the war, for more than three 
years and an half after ; and here he died in 1659. 

21. Don Luis Henriquez de Guzman, Count 
of Alva de Liste, grandee of Spain, and the first 
of this noble title. He passed over to Peru in 
the aforesaid year, 1655, from Nueva Espana, 
where he served as viceroy. His government 
was just and pacific, though not marked by any 
remarkable event, till his resigning it into the 
hands of his successor, when he returned to 
Spain. 

22. Don Diego de Benavides y de la Cueva, 
eighth Count of Santistevan, of the council of 
war, who had been viceroy of the kingdom of 
Navarra. He came to this of Peru in 1661, 
when there was an insurrection in the province 
of Chuquiavo, the principal instigators having 



PERU. 



been some Mustees : but these were made to suf 
fer condign punishment, and the insurrection was 
quelled by the corregidor Don Francisco Her- 
quiiiigo. Also in 1665 there was another insur 
rection in the province of Paucarcolla, between 
the Vascongaclos and Montaneses on one side, 
and the Andaluces and Creolles on the other ; the 
event of which was a bloody battle on the plain 
of Laycacota. Overcome by these calamities the 
viceroy died in the following year, 1666, leaving 
the government to the royal audience till the ar 
rival of the successor. 

23. Don Pedro Fernandez de Castro y An- 
drade, Count of Lemos, grandee of Spain, no 
minated viceroy of Peru ; where he arrived in 
1667, at the time that the tumults of Puno were 
at their highest pitch : and not having been able 
to quell them by the provisions he had made, 
and having now many prisoners in his hands, 
he caused them to be brought to trial, and sent 
Don Joseph de Salcedo captive to Lima, where 
he was sentenced to death without having been 
further concerned in those dissentions than be 
cause he was a man of great wealth. But heaven 
had directed that no advantage should be derived 
from the mine which had belonged to him, for at 
his death it filled with water, so that it never 
since could be worked. This viceroy settled the 
building of the Bethlemite hospitals in the seve 
ral cities of Peru, established a head-quarters be 
tween Lima and Panama, in order to assist the 
garrison of the latter, which was pillaged and 
burnt in 1670 by the English pirate John Mor 
gan, and died in 1672 ; the royal audience taking 
the government during the interregnum. 

24. Don Baltasar de la Cueva Henriquez y 
Saavedra, Count of Castellar, Marquis of Mala- 
gon, of the council of the Indies. He made his 
entry into Lima in 1674, and his government 
was of shorter duration than it should have 
been : for having been charged with an illicit 
introduction of China manufactures, he was or 
dered to resign his office to the archbishop of 
Lima, which he did in 1678 ; but his integrity 
being made evident, he was restored to his ho 
nours, and readmitted to the council. 

25. Don Melchor de Linan y Cisneros, arch 
bishop of the holy church of Los Reyes, pro 
visional viceroy. He governed from the afore 
said year, 1681, and without any thing extra 
ordinary happening, save that the S. Sea was 
again infested with pirates, who, commanded 
by Juan Guarlen, Edward Bohnen, and Bar- 
tolome Charps, had proceeded through the nar 
row pass of the Isthmus of Panama, and having 



in its port taken possession of two frigates, in 
fested the coasts of Peru : but they were driven 
away by the active precautions of the archbishop, 
and two of their captains were taken and put to 
death, the rest of the crews escaping to Eu 
rope by Cape Horn. Shortly after which event 
the successor arrived. 

26. Don Melchon de Navarra y Rocafall, Duke 
of Palata, Prince of Masa, and of the councils of 
state and war, a man of the most brilliant talent 
that ever visited America. He commanded the 
brick wall to be built which surrounds the city of 
Lima, and having finished it, he had the mortifi 
cation of seeing the city destroyed by those ter 
rible earthquakes which happened in 1687. He 
had great litigations with the archbishop Linan, 
respecting the correction of the proceedings of 
the doctrinal curacies of which the Indians were 
continually complaining. About this time too 
the English pirate, Edward David, had entered 
the S. Sea with a squadron of 10 vessels, which 
were attacked and conquered near to Panama by 
Don Beltran de la Cueva, brother-in-law to this 
viceroy, whose appointment had just now ended, 
and who, delivering his office to his successor, 
returned to Spain, and died in the city of Por- 
tobello. 

27. Don Melchor Portocarrero Laso de la 
Vega, Count ofMonclova, commendador of Zarza 
in the order of Alcantara, of the council of war, 
and viceroy of Nueva Espafia ; from whence, 
after two years government, he was ordered to 
proceed to Peru, where he entered in 1689, and 
where for the space of 15 years and four months 
he was constantly and busily employed in the 
war of succession, arising through the death of 
Charles II. and the question of right of the Sr. 
Duke of Anjou, with the name of Philip V. to 
the crown of Spain, so that the allied nations 
were in a state of insurrection. Thus he was 
engaged till his death, which occurred in 1706, 
leaving the government in charge of the royal 
audience, until the arrival of a successor nomi 
nated by the king. 

28. Don Manuel Oms de Santa Pau Olim de 
Semanat y de Lanuza, Marquis of Castel dos 
Rius, grandee of Spain, ambassador at the court 
of France when Philip V. inherited the crown ; 
and formerly ambassador at the court of Lisbon ; 
nominated by the viceroy of Peru before that 
the death of the predecessor was known. He 
did not enter Lima till 1707, and he governed 
till 1710, when he died. 

29. Don Diego Ladron de Guevara, bishop 
of Quito, and formerly bishop of Panama. He 

R 2 



124 



PERU. 



entered Lima, and took possession in 1710; and 
in 1713 he established the depot of Negroes with 
the English company for labour in America : but 
the king being informed of the frankness with 
which the bishop had permitted the commerce of 
French ships which had passed to the S. Sea, 
and of the little exertions which he manifested 
for the good of the government, gave him a 
permission to return to Spain, rather than allow 
him the disgrace of filling a lower office at 
Quito. The bishop, in consequence, set sail 
for Acapulco, and from thence to Mexico ; and 
in this citj he died in 1718. 

30. Don Fr. Diego Morcillo Rubio de Aunon, 
archbishop of the holy metropolitan church of 
La Plata, and who had formerly been bishop 
of those of Nicaragua and La Paz. Agreeably 
to advices from the audience, he put himself on 
the journey, and arrived at Lima in 1716. His 
government lasted but 50 days, for at that pe 
riod the proper successor arrived, appointed by 
the king. 

31. Don Carmine Nicholas Caracciolo, prince 
of Santo Bono, grandee of Spain, and formerly 
ambassador to the republic of Venice. He en 
tered Lima in 1716, and devoted his three years 
of government to the wisest dispensations, and 
succeeded in abolishing the trade of the French 
in the S. Sea. At this period he was permitted 
by his majesty to return to Europe, delivering 
tne government to the archbishop of La Plata 
in 1720 ; and embarking for Acapulco, and by 
way of Mexico, he reached Spain the following 
year. 

32. Don Fr. Diego Morcillo Rubio de Aunon, 
archbishop of La Plata, who had already been 
provisional viceroy between Don Diego Ladron 
de Guevara and his predecessor. He returned 
to the same functions for three years, giving his 
utmost attention to the defence of the coasts, 
against the mischief constantly threatened by 
the pirate John Cliperton : him he succeeded in 
overcoming ; and, whilst engaged in the lament 
able war against the Araucanos Indians, he was 
succeeded in 1724 by, 

33. Don Joseph de Armendariz, Marquis of 
Castel-fuerte, comendador of Montezon and Chi- 
clana in the order of Santiago, lieutenant-colonel 
of the regiment of the royal Spanish guards, 
lieutenant-general of the royal armies, who was 
exercising the commandancy-general of the pro 
vince of Guipuzcoa. Immediately that he re 
ceived the nomination of viceroy he embarked 
and arrived at Lima in the aforesaid year, 1724. 
At his entrance he pacificated Chile. He ap 



plied himself to the abolition of illicit commerce^ 
and to some new arrangements in behalf of the 
province of Paraguay, causing to be put to death 
Don Joseph de Antequera, of the order of Al 
cantara, focal, protector of the Indians of the 
audience of Charcas, and nominated by that tri 
bunal to make the visitation of the settlements of 
the missions of the Jesuits which were held 
there ; those missions which caused such great 
disturbances in the kingdom. He hindered the 
Portuguese from establishing themselves at the 
mouth of the river Aguarico ; and, having go 
verned with integrity and rectitude till 1736, he 
delivered the command to the successor and em 
barked for Acapulco, and arrived by Mexico and 
Vera Cruz at Valladolid. He then proceeded to 
court, where the king, in reward of his merits, 
promoted him to the rank of captain-general of 
the army, and to the golden collar. 

34. I)on Antonio Joseph de Mendoza Camano 
y Sotomayor, Marquis of Villagarcia, Count of 
Ban-antes, Lord of the towns of Rubianes, La 
mas, and Villa Nueva, mayor-domo of Semana, 
and chamberlain to his Majesty. He entered 
Lima in 1736, and, notwithstanding his pacific 
nature, found himself engaged in the wars with 
the English, whose object it was to make them 
selves masters of the Isthmus of Panama, and to 
which end their admiral, Vernon, had already 
made himself master of Portobello, he being as 
sisted by George Anson, who had entered the 
S. Sea. But this did not take effect, from an op 
portunity which was seized by the viceroy of 
sending a squadron with succour of men, arms, 
money, and ammunition, to Panama. Besidea 
all this he had to attend to the war of the 
Chunchos Indians, who had rose against him. 
He caused an equestrian statue of Philip V. 
to be made, and to be placed over an arch on 
the bridge at Lima; increased the fortifications 
of the garrison and port of Callao ; and, having 
resigned his government to the successor, em 
barked by Cape Hornos in the ship Hector, and 
died in his voyage. 

35. Don Joseph Manso deVelasco, first Count 
of Superunda, knight of the order of Santiago, 
lieutenant-colonel of the royal armies, being at 
the time president of Chile, governor and cap 
tain-general ; he received orders to come to 
Peru, notwithstanding that the king had nomi 
nated the viceroy of the Nuevo Reyno de Gra 
nada, Don Sebastian de Eslava, to this office, to 
undertake it, as he did in 1745, under the critical 
circumstances of the English war and the insur 
rection of the Chunchos Indians, to quell which 



PER 

he had sent the field-marshal Don Joseph de Lla 
mas, Marquis of Menahermosa, general of Callao. 
On the 28th of October 1746, happened that ter 
rible earthquake which entirely devastated the 
city, at the same time that the sea retreating from 
the shore, returned back with such an immense 
force as to destroy Callao, during all which af 
flicting; circumstances the viceroy exhibited that 
fortitude and constancy which alone could have 
borne him out as the faithful protector and father 
of that distressed kingdom. His government ter 
minated in 1761 ; when he delivered it to his 
successor, 

36. Don Manuel de Amat Junient Planella, 
Aimeric and Santa Pau, knight of the order of 
San Juan, brigadier of the royal armies, pre 
sident of Chile, governor and captain-general of 
the kingdom, as was his predecessor, when he re 
ceived orders of passing to the succession of the 
viceroyalty of Peru in the year aforementioned. 
He shortly after received notice of the declara 
tion of war by the English ; dedicating himself 
with the greatest zeal to fortify the kingdom 
against their intrigues. Nothing, however, was 
effected by them ; and he resigned the office of 
viceroy in 1775 to the successor, 

37. Don Manuel de Guirior, knight of the 
order of San Juan, lieutenant-general of the 
royal armada. He was serving as viceroy of 
the kingdom of Granada when he received or 
ders to pass to Peru, to the utmost sorrow of 
those whom he had governed: for his rectitude, 
affability, and skill, had acquired him the love 
and veneration of all classes. But his arrival 
at Peru was equally hailed as a fortunate event; 
he had to encounter little Jess of tumult and dif 
ficulty than existed in the former reign ; nor was 
he free from calumnies during a long career of 
useful services ; but even these calumnies, unjust 
as they were, were not loaded upon him by the 
Americans, but by the Europeans, the enemies to 
reason and justice, as was verified in the general 
absolution of the king at the consultum of the 
council of the Indies. 

38. Don Agustin de Jauregui, knight of the 
order of Santiago, lieutenant-general of the royal 
armies. He passed to the presidency and cap 
tainship-general of Chile in 1782, and exercised 
the viceroyship till 1785, when, embarking to re 
turn to Spain, he died on his voyage. 

39. Don Teodoro de Croix, knight of the order 
of Teutoniso in the German empire, lieutenant- 
general of the royal armies. He began to serve 
in the regiment of the royal Walloon guards, 
where he was lieutenant ; and was from thence 



P E S 



125 



promoted to the royal body guard, and then to 
the company of the guard of the viceroy of 
Mexico, the Marquis of Croix, his uncle. He 
returned to Spain, where he was nominated com 
mandant-general of the provinces of La Sonora, 
and from his extraordinary merits appointed by 
the king to the viceroyalty of Peru in 1785. 

[PERU, a new township of New York, in 
Clinton County, on the ty.side of Lake Champlain. 
It was taken from the towns of Plattsburg and 
Willsburg, and incorporated in 1792. It is an 
excellent tract of land, and settling fast. In 
1796 there were, of the inhabitants, 120 qualified 
electors ; 27 miles s. of Champlain Town, and 47 
n. of Ticonderoga at the n. end of Lake George.] 

PERUCHO, a settlement of the kingdom of 
Quito, in the district of the corregimiento of Las 
Cinco Leguas de la Capital ; situate to the w. of 
the same capital. It takes its name from the 
river Guallabamba, which is there called Peru- 
cho, the shores of which are very abundant in 
Guinea pepper, sugar canes, cotton, and every 
kind of fruit of a warm climate, this being its 
temperature, and one by no means healthy. In 
its district is a place called Tanlagua, and which 
was an estate of the Jesuits, where there are 
many hot medicinal fountains, which also have 
the quality of petrifying vegetable substances. 
At a short distance are the estates of Campanario 
and Casitagua. It is in lat. 8 n. 

[PERUVIANS, the aboriginal inhabitans of 
Peru, in S. America, who were the most civilized 
of any Indians on the continent. These people 
keep numerous Hocks ofpacos, whose wool they 
employ in the manufacture of several kinds of cloth 
which have the brillancy of silk, but there are 
none found in Chile, either in domestic or savage 
state.] 

PESAQUID, a city of the province of Nova 
Scotia or Acadia in N. America : situate on the 
shore of the Basin des Mines in the Bay ofFundy. 
and at the entrance of the river of its name. 

PESAQUID, a river which rises in the same pro 
vince, runs n.e. and enters the Basin des Mines of 
the Bay ofFundy. 

PESCA, a settlement of the province arid corre- 
gimientoof Tunja intheNuevo Reynode Granada. 
It is of a very cold temperature, abounds in wheat, 
maize, papas, c. is situate in the llano of Saga- 
moso, and near this settlement. It has large 
breeds of cattle, and from their wools are fabri 
cated some woven stuffs. It contains more than 
200 housekeepers and 100 Indians, and was in the 
time of the Indians a great, populous, and rich 
city, as being the court of the third elector of th? 



PET 



king of Tunja, from whence it lies 62 miles to the 
n. e. 

PESCA, a great lake in the province and cap 
tainship of the Rio Janeyro in Brazil ; on the 
shore of the Parayba. 

PESCA, a bay on the w. coast of the Straits of 
Magellan, between the Port Redondo and the 
point of Santa Ana. 

PESCADERO, a settlement of the province 
and government of Sonora; situate on the shore 
of the river Petiqui. 

PESCADO, CUEVA DEL, an hollow on the e. 
coast of the Straits of Magellan and channel of 
San Sebastian. 

PESCADORES, BANCO DE, a large sand-bank 
in the river La Plata, near the n. coast and the 
colony of Sacramento, by which there is a 
channel. 

PESCADORES, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Chancay in Peru ; on the coast, 
opposite the island Maracasi. 

PESCADORES, some isles near the coast of Peru, 
in the province and corregimiento of Camana. 

PESCADORES, another settlement, of the head 
settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of 
Acaponcta in Nueva Espana ; situate on the 
shore of a lake, into which the river San Pedro 
runs, and on the shores of which is the state of 
Chilapa ; 12 leagues of its capital. 

PESINAMIN, an island of the river Mara- 
iion in the part of the province and country of 
Las Amazonas, possessed by the Portuguese, 
opposite the mouth of the river Negro. 

PESMATLAN, a settlement of the head set 
tlement of the district and alcaldia mayor ofZo- 
chicoatlan in Nueva Espana. It is of an hot 
temperature, contains 50 Indian families, and is 
two leagues n. of its capital. 

PESQUERIA, VALLE GRANDE DE LA, a 
settlement of the Nuevo Reyno de Leon in N. 
America ; annexed to the curacy of its capital. 
It contains 20 families, and its territory is very 
abundant in goats, seeds, and other fruits. It has 
various silver mines, which render but sparingly 
owing to the great mixture of lead found with this 
metal. It lies in the road to the provinces of 
Mexico, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Toledo, Nuevo 
Mexico, and other provinces which lie to the n. 
and s. ; 23 miles n. of Monterrey, and 82 e. by n. 
of Castanuela. 

PESTEGUA, a great llanura of the province 
and government of Santa Marta in the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada ; discovered by Captain Luis 
Manjarres in 1537. It is of an extremely hot 
climate, and consequently not populous. 



PETAGUEI, a province of the kingdom of 
Brazil, bounded n. by that of Dele, e. by the sea, 
s. by the captainship of the Rio Grande, and w. 
by the country of the Tapuyos Indians. It is 
very fertile, and abounding in silver mines. 

PETAPA, S. MIGUEL DE, a settlement of the 
province and coffcgimiento of Guatemala in the 
kingdom and valley of this name. It is pleasant 
and fertile in vegetable productions ; contains 
830 Indians, who speak the Pocoman language ; 
in this number being included other three settle 
ments of its district, called Pinula, Mexico, and 
Chinauta, annexed to its curacy. It was a doc 
trinal establishment of the religious of St. Do 
mingo, and one of the most celebrated, and it 
had for some years as curate Fr. Thomas Gage, 
an Irishman of the same order, and author of 
an account of the voyage made to America, full 
of fables. There is in Petapa a family which 
descends from the princes of this kingdom, and 
it has the title of Guzman, and many privileges 
granted to it by the king. 

[This settlement is situate on the n. shore of 
the river Naccus, 20 miles n. e. of Guatemala.] 

PETAQUILLAS, a settlement of the jurisdic 
tion and alcaldia mayor of Tixtlan in Nueva Es 
pana. It is of a mild temperature, and contains 
152 families of Indians. 

PETARE, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Venezuela in the N uevo Reyno de 
Granada ; situate near the coast, to the e . of the 
city of Caracas. 

PETATCHOVAN, a lake of New France or 
Canada in N. America, in the limits which divide 
it from the country or land of Labrador. 

PETAS, a barbarous nation of Indians de 
scended from that of Los Chiquitos in Peru ; 
discovered by the missionaries of the Jesuits who 
had been in that country in 1549. It is but little 
known. 

PETATLAN, S. SEBASTIAN DE, a settlement 
of the head settlement of Atempa and alcaldia 
mayor of Teuzitlan in Nueva Espana ; annexed 
to the curacy of the former. It contains 70 In 
dians, and is three quarters of a league from its 
capital. 

PETATLAN, another settlement, of the head 
settlement ofZitlala and alcaldia mayor of Chi- 
lapa in the same kingdom ; inhabited by 88 
families of Indians, 4 leagues e. of its head settle 
ment. 

[PETAWONTAKAS, an Indian nation for 
merly in alliance with the Hurons.] 

PETEN, a castle of the province and govern 
ment of Cornayagua in the kingdom of Gua- 



PET 

temala, on the n. coast ; situate behind the river 
Balis, for the purpose of restraining the English, 
who had established themselves there to carry on 
an illicit trade in dyeing wood, and were making 
their way into the province. 

PETER, a fort of the province of Georgia in 
N. America ; on the shore of the river of its 
name. 

PETER, a river of S. Carolina, which enters the 
sea close to the Port Royal. 

PETEROA, a settlement of the province and 
corrcgimicnto of Maule in the kingdom of Chile ; 
on the shore of the river Lontue, between this 
and the river Claro. 

PETEROA, a volcano of the same province and 
kingdom, in one of the mountains of its cordillera. 
[The eruption of this volcano, which took place 
in 1760, was the greatest ever known in those 
parts. It happened on the third of December; 
the volcano then formed itself a new crater, and 
a neighbouring mountain was rent asunder for 
many miles in extent. It is 105 miles s. s. e. of 
Santiago, and 192 n. e. of Concepcion, in lat. 34 
53 s. and long. 69 40 w. ] 

PETERS, a small island of the N. Sea, one of 
the Virgin Isles ; situate between those of S. 
Juan and Copers, to the e. of that of Puertorico. 

[PETER S BANK, ST. a large fishing ground off 
the s. end of Newfoundland Island, and extends 
from Cape Race to St. Peter s Island, opposite 
Placentia, St. Mary and Trepassy Bays. It is 
ly degrees of latitude in breadth on the w. side. 
From St. Peter s Island it decreases as it ap 
proaches Race Point. It lies w. of the Great 
Bank, and has on the s. a considerable distance, 
Green and Whale Banks, which are among the 
smallest on the coast. It has from 45 to 30 
fathoms water on it.] 

[PETER S BAY, ST. on the s. coast of Cape Bre 
ton Island, having St. Peter s Island at its mouth.] 

[PETER S FORT, ST. on the island of Martinico, 
in the W. Indies. Lat. 14 44 n. Long. 61 
14 a>.] 

[PETER S HARBOUR, ST. on the n. coast of the 
island of St. John s, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
about 32 miles w. of E. Point. W. of it are An- 
guille Bay and Port Chimene.] 

[PETER S Haven. St. on the e. coast of La 
brador, lies round the s. e. point of Sadel Bay. 
Lat. 56 30 n. Long. 60 42 o>.] 

[PETER S Island, a small isle on the w. coast of 
St. John s Island, near to, and n. by w. of, Gover 
nor s Island, in the narrowest part of the strait 
between New Brunswick and St. John s Island.] 

[PETER S Island, ST. or ST. PIERRE S, on the s. 
coast of Newfoundland Island, lies s. s. <v. of the 



PET 



127 



s. e. point of Fortune Bay, and near to, and s. e- 
of, the s. point of Miquelon Island. Lat.J 46 41 
n. Long. 55 57 w.] 

[PETER S, ST. one of the Virgin Isles, in the W. 
Indies, dependent on Virgin Gorda.] 

[PETER S, ST. a harbour at the oxend of Sydney 
or Cape Breton Island; is a very commodious 
place for carrying on the fishery.] 

[PETER S, ST. a town at the s. extremity of Cape 
Breton Island. It stands on an isthmus about 
half a mile broad, which separates the harbour of 
St. Peter from the great lake of that name, also 
called Lake Labrador. It is about 10 miles n. e. 
of Point Toulouse. To this harbour vessels of 
the greatest burden can come with safety. Be 
fore the American revolution, a great fishery was 
carried on here.] 

[PETER S Lake, ST. a part of St. Lawrence 
River, into which empty, from the 5. and e., Sorel 
or Richlien River from Lake Champlain, the river 
St. Francis, and some smaller rivers, from the n. 
w. The Masquinonge, Omachis, &c. enter the 
lake. The centre of the lake is 73 miles above 
Quebec, and 208 n. e. of Kingston, at the mouth 
of Lake Ontario.] 

[PETER S Mountain, in Pennsylvania, lies on 
Susquehannah River, between Halifax and Har- 
risburg, in Dauphin County.] 

[PETER S ST. a river on the coast of Labrador ; 
about four leagues from the island of Bellisle, in 
the straits of that name.] 

[PETER S, ST. and ST. PAUL, a river at the 
bottom of the Gulf of Campeachy. Its branches 
form an island, called Tabasco. J he bar at the 
mouth of the e. branch admits small vessels. At 
flood there is 2y to three fathoms water, and 
very good anchorage within the bar.] 

[PETER S, ST. a parish of S. Carolina, in Beau</ 
fort district.] 

[PETER S, ST. one of the n. w.- branches of 
Mississippi River, which it joins, in lat. about 43 
58 n. and long. 92 57 w. N.B. For other 
places named Peter or Peter s, see PIERRE.] 

[PETER S, a township of Franklin County, 
Pennsylvania.] 

[PETERBOROUGH, a post town in Hills- 
borough County, New Hampshire. It was in 
corporated in 176(), and contains 861 inhabitants. 
It is 53 miles w. by s. of Portsmouth, 14 w. of 
Amherst, 15 e. of Keene, and 227 from Philadel 
phia. Lat. 42 51 n. Long. 71 54 w.~\ 

[PETERSBURG, a township of New York, in 
Rensselaer County, e. of the village of Troy, in 
corporated in 1793. In 1796 there were 512 of 
the inhabitants qualified electors.] 

[PETERSBURG, a post town of Pennsylvania. 



128 



PET 



in York County, 2 miles n. of the Maryland line. 
It contains a Roman Catholic church, and about 18 
houses. It is 22 miles 5. w. of York Town, 33 
n. of Baltimore , and 90 zo. by 5. of Philadelphia. 
Lat. 39 42 30" n. Long. 77 6 w.] 

[PETERSBURG, a small town of Kentucky ; 
situate in Woodford County, on the e. side of Ken 
tucky River, 13 miles w. s. w. of Lexington, and 
10 s. s. e. of Frankfort. It has a tobacco ware 
house, and a few dwelling-houses.] 

[PETERSBURG, a post town of Virginia, and a 
place of considerable trade ; situate in Dinwiddie 
County, on the s. e. bank of Appamatox River, 
just below the falls, about 20 miles s. of Rich 
mond. It contains about 300 houses, built irre 
gularly. The Free Mason s hall is a handsome 
building ; there are several tobacco warehouses, 
stores of dry goods, and some few neat and 
commodious dwelling-houses. This town is a 
corporation, and comprehends the village of 
Blanford in Prince George s County, and Pow- 
hatan in Chesterfield county, on the opposite side 
of the river. It Contains 2828 inhabitants, in 
cluding 1265 slaves. The situation of the town 
is low and rather unhealthy. From the inspec 
tor s books it appears that on an average, for some 
years back, the quantity of tobacco received 
here has considerably exceeded 20,000 hhds. per 
annum ; and that for some of the later years the 
quantity of flour made in this town, and within an 
hundred yards of it, has exceeded 38,000 barrels ; 
at other mills within a few miles, 16,000 barrels 
per annum; to this add the flour made at the 
several country mills, and brought to this place 
for sale, the whole quantity may safely be stated to 
exceed 60,000 barrels per annum . The whole ex 
ports of this town, valued at the usual peace prices, 
amount to 1,389,300 dollars, besides the value 
of peach and apple brandy, whiskey, &c. not 
included. The Indian princess, Pocahontas, the 
daughter of king Powhatan, from whom de 
scended the Randolph and Bowling families, 
formerly resided at this place. It is 68 miles w. 
by n. of Norfolk, 108 s. of Washington, and 205 
s. w. by 5. of Philadelphia. Lat. 37 14 n. Long. 
77 4F 30" o>.] 

[PETERSBURG, a very flourishing post town of 
Georgia, in Elbert County, in a pleasant and 
healthful situation, on the point of land formed 
by the confluence of Broad with Savannah River 
opposite to Vienna. Several respectable mer 
chants are settled in this town. It is 20 miles 
from Elberton, 25 n. by e. of Washington, 41 
above Augusta, and 62 n. n. e. of Louisville. 
Lat. 33 54 n. Long. 82 22 o>.] 

[PETERSHAM, a flourishing and pleasant 



PET 

township in Worcester County, Massachusetts, 
formerly called by the Indians Nichtwaug ; situ 
ate 23 miles n. w. of Worcester, and 54 w. of 
Boston. Swift River, a branch of Chickopee 
River, passes though this town. The soil is rich 
and fertile, and here are large and excellent 
orchards.] 

PETIGUARES,a barbarous nation of Indians 
of the kingdom of Brazil, to the w. of the cap 
tainship of Paraiba ; bounded w. by the Figuares. 
These infidels have been irreconcileable enemies 
to the Portuguese since the year 1584, when great 
hostilities prevailed between either. 

PETIT, a river of the province and colony 
of Virginia, which runs e. and is one of those 
issuing from the Pamunkey. 

[PETIT ANSE, a village on the n. side of the 
island of St. Domingo, 2| leagues s. of Cape 
Francois.] 

[PETIT CODIAK, a river which falls into an 
arm of the Bay of Fundy, called Chegnecto Chan 
nel. The Indians have a communication from 
the head of it with St. John s River, by a portage 
across to the head of Kennebecsius.] 

PETITE, a river of S. Carolina, which rises 
in the limits of Grenville territory, runs s. e. for 
many leagues, between those of Pedi Great and 
Little, and unites itself with the second to enter 
the former. 

PETITE, another river, of N. Carolina, which 
runs n. and enters the Conhaway. 

PETITE, another, of Canada, which runs n. and 
enters the sea in Hudson s Bay, at the entrance 
of the mouth of the river Albany. 

PETITE, another, of the province and country of 
Iroquees Indians in N. America, which runs e. in 
the territory of the Autaouacs, and enters the 
river of the Otaways near the island of Montreal. 

[PETIT GOAFRE, or the LITTE WHIRLPOOL, 
in Mississippi River ; is 16 miles from Fort Rosa 
lie, and four miles from Bayouk Pierre, or Stony 
River.] 

PETIT GUAVES, or GOAVE, a jurisdiction, 
town, and bay, on the n. coast of the s. peninsula 
of the island of St. Domingo, and near the head 
of the bay or bite of Leogane. The jurisdiction 
contains five parishes, and is the unhealthiest 
place in the colony, the inhabitants being con 
stantly subject to fevers, occasioned by the bad 
ness of the waters. Its dependencies, however, 
are healthy, and are remarkable for the culture 
of coffee. Its exports from January 1, 1789, to 
December 31,of the same year, were 27,090 Ibs. ; 
white sugar 655,1871bs.; brown sugar 807,865 
Ibs. ; coffee 50,053 Ibs. ; cotton : and 210 Ibs. 
indigo. The value on duties on exportation of 



P E T 

the above, was 4127 dollars 97 cents. The 
town lies on the e. side of the bay, 7 miles w. of 
Grand Guave, and 36 w. by s. of Port au Prince. 
Lat. 18 23 n. Long. 72 54 w. Some writers 
call the great bay, which is commonly called the 
Bay, Bight, or Bite of Leogane, by the name of 
Petit Guaves.] 

[PETIT Port, on the w. side of Newfoundland 
Island, towards the s. end ; is about 5| leagues 
. of Cape Ray, and one s. of Anguille Cape. 
Lat. 47 51 30". Long. 59 15 w.] 

[PETIT Port, on the coast of Peru, otherwise 
called Portete, or Little Port, lies a short way 
n. of the equator, and about five leagues to the 
s. e. within the bay from the Cape Francois to 
Cape Passado on the s. by w. There is anchor 
age in five fathoms, and plenty of fresh water 
near the head land, which is high. It is neces 
sary to sound, on account of the sand banks, 
called the Portetes.] 

[PETIT Rivere, a small town in the French 
part of the island of St. Domingo, close to the 
Spanish division line, 1| leagues n. by w. w. of 
Varettes, and separated from it by Artibonite; 
10 leagues e. by n. of St. Marc, and as far n. w. of 
Mirebalais. Lat. 19 8 X n. Long. 72 15 .] 

[PETIT Terre Island, near the Deseada, in the 
W. Indies. Lat. 16 12 n. Long. 61 10 o>.] 

[PETIT Trou, is on the n. side of the s. peninsula 
of the island of St. Domingo, on the point of land 
which forms the e. side of the entrance into the 
Bay of Baradaires ; 4| leagues w. of Anse a 
Veau, and 19 e. of Jeremie.] 

[PETIT Trou, a small cove on the s. side of the 
island of St. Domingo, s. by w. of the mouth of 
Neybe River, and about five leagues w. e. of Beate 
Island. Small barks come to this place from St. 
Domingo city, to fetch the meat, lard, and fowls 
derived from the chase. J 

PETLACALA, a settlement ofthe head settle 
ment of the district of Olinala and alcaldia mayor 
of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains 56 
families of Indians, and is three leagues n. e. of its 
head settlement. 

PETLALCALZINCO, a settlement of the 
same alcaldia mayor and kingdom as the former. 
It contains 33 families of Indians. 

PETLAPA, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Testalzinco and alcaldia 
mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana. It is of an 
hot temperature ; contains 84 Indian families, 
and is nine leagues n. ofthe capital. 

PETLASTAHUACA, SAN FRANCISCO DE, a 
principal and head settlement of the district of 
the alcaldia mayor of Tepezcolula in Nueva 



P E V 



Espana. It contains 184 families of Indians, with 
those of the wards of its district, who are em 
ployed in the cultivation of maize and wheat, in 
which it is very fertile. 

PETLAZINCO, a settlement of the head 
settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of 
Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains 17 families 
of Indians, and is three leagues w. of that head 
settlement. 

PETOBAMBA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Porco in Peru. 

PETORCA, a town ofthe province and corre 
gimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile, and 
the asiento of the celebrated gold mines of this 
name. In its district are many palms growing 
on the slope ofthe mountains which are very lofty 
and dry ; and in those alone to the w. are found 
small cocoa trees. When the stock of these trees 
are cut, liquor is distilled, which, being purified 
by the fire, comes to the consistency of honey, 
and is very well tasted. In the vicinity of this 
town breed merino sheep, from the wool of which, 
the same being very large and fine, are made 
excellent saddles for riding, which are much 
esteemed in Peru, being a branch of the com 
merce of this place. 

PETORCA, the mine mentioned in the above 
article, one ofthe richest and most abundant of all 
those discovered in this kingdom, it having pro 
duced immense riches. It is now much neglected, 
the metal having been discovered to be much 
allayed with silver, and the labour of working it 
being most expensive ; . ofthe city of Santiago, 
the capital ofthe kingdom. 

[PETTQUOTTING, a river ofthe N. W. 
Territory, which empties into Lake Erie, from 
the s. near Huron River.] 

PEVAS, a barbarous nation of Indians, who 
inhabit the woods n. of the river of Las Ama- 
zonas, near the river Cuchiquina. These infidels 
are numerous, and are divided into various tribes ; 
bounded e. by the Ticunas, and w. by the Mayo- 
runas. Some of these were reduced to the faith 
by the Jesuits, the missionaries in the province 
of Mainas, and who founded the settlement of San 
Ignacio de Pevas, 41 miles e. ofthe mouth ofthe 
river Napo, on the n, shore of the Maranon, or 
Amazon River, in lat. 3 28 s. 

PEVINGUES, a barbarous, ferocious, and 
untamed nation of Indians, of the kingdom of 
Chile, in the s. part, towards the mountains ofthe 
Andes, and who occupy the fertile and beautiful 
country of Tapatapa. It is very fertile in grain 
and cattle. These Indians are at continual war 
with the Pulches. 



VOL. IV. 



130 



P H 1 



[PEYTONSBURG, the chief town of Halifax 
County, Virginia, having a court-house and five 
or six other houses, three of which are ordinaries 
or taverns.] 

PEZ, a river of the province and captainship 
of San Vincente in Brazil, which runs s. s. w. and 
enters the Teviquari. 

PEZUAPA, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Tetela and alcaldia mayor 
of Azuchitlan in Nueva Espafia ; situate on the 
margin of the river of Los Balzas. Near its 
head passes another stream, which is so abundant 
in the rainy season as to inundate all the circum 
jacent country ; and it is found necessary to pass 
it en taravita. It contains 40 families of Indians 
and nine of Mustees, who trade in breeding the 
large cattle, and by cultivating seeds and fruits in 
the many gardens in its district ; 12 leagues s. e. 
of its head settlement. 

PEZUL, a settlement of the province and 
government of Paraguay, on the shore of the 
river Parana, s. of the town of Curuguato. 

PEZULAPA, a settlement of the province and 
alcaldia mayor of San Salvador in the kingdom of 
Guatemala. 

PEZULAPILLA, a settlement of the same 
province and kingdom as the former. 

PHILADELPHIA, a county of the province 
and colony of Pennsylvania in N.America, bound 
ed n. e. by the county of Bucks, s. e. by Jersey, s. 
w. by Chester, and n. w. by Berks. It takes the 
name of the capital of the whole province. 

It contains about 89,600 acres, and is divided 
into 12 townships. On the banks of Schuil- 
kill, in this county, is an excellent quarry of 
marble, from which the stone-cutters of Philadel 
phia are supplied. It contains, besides Philadel 
phia, its capital, upwards of 15,000 inhabitants, 
of whom 180 are slaves. 

Pennsylvania, the capital of the above province, 
is situate most delightfully, stretching along a strip 
of land upon the conflux of the two rivers Dela 
ware and Schuilkill ; it is of an oblong figure, 
extending two miles from river to river, and form 
ing eight short streets, which are intersected at 
right angles by about sixteen others of a mile and 
a half each ; wide, spacious and level, and leaving 
sufficient space for the public buildings, churches, 
and market places. In the centre is a large 
public place in the figure of a decagon. The two 
principal streets, called High Street and Wide 
Street, are 100 feet across ; the greater part of 
the houses, gardens, and orchards, are irrigated by 
small canals running from the river and supply 
ing to the use and necessities of the town, as also 
to the delight and recreation of its inhabitants. 



P H I 

The dock is beautiful and 100 feet large, and of 
such depth as to be capable of receiving to repair 
a vessel of 500 tons burden. The store-houses 
are numerous, capacious, and convenient, and the 
dock so large that 20 vessels have been built in 
it at once. The city, without including the store 
houses and the suburbs, contains 3000 houses, the 
greater part of brick, and all well built and of 
large size, the same containing 18,000 souls. The 
primitive plan of its foundation is not complete; 
but according to that which was laid down, and 
which has been regularly followed up, it promises 
to become in time one of the finest cities in America. 
It is inhabited by many very rich merchants, who 
have become domiciliated here, through the flou 
rishing commerce that it has, for many years, 
carried on with the colonies of the English, 
French, Spanish, and Dutch, with the islands of 
the Azores, Canaries, with those of Madeira, and 
with England, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, and Hol 
land, making immense profits. Not to mention 
the abundant quantity of all sorts of provisions 
which this province produces, and which are 
carried by the rivers Delaware and Schuilkill; 
the Dutch employ from eight to 9000 carts, each 
drawn by four horses, for transporting the produc 
tions of their estates to the Philadelphia market. 
There entered in its port, in 1749, no less than 303 
vessels, and the number that left it was about 290. 
Here are two churches of the reformed religion, 
one Catholic chapel, another of Swedes ; three 
Quakers meetings, two of Presbyterians, one of 
Lutherans, another of Dutch Calvinists, another 
of Anabaptists, and another of Moravians. The 
most sumptuous building in the whole town is 
the house of representatives of the colony, where 
the members meet frequently in the course of the 
year ; and on the side of this stands the great 
library which was built in 1732 by the celebrated 
Benjamin Franklin, the same being open to the 
public only on Sundays, but to the founders every 
day in the week. Any one may take out the 
books, paving something for the use of them, and 
being under an engagement to return them at a 
fixed time, with the which should any person not 
comply, he is forced to pay a fine which goes to the 
increasing the collection of books : many instru 
ments for mathematics and physics have been 
lately added, as also a fine cabinet of natural 
history. Near this library is another of Greek 
and Latin classics, with their most accredited 
commentations ; also of the best productions in 
the modern languages, the same having been be 
queathed as a legacy by the learned citizen Logan 
in 1752. It has a college where all the sciences 
are studied, the same having been established 



PHILADELPHIA. 



131 



in the year 1749, by the said illustrious founder, 
as was the library, the same being also an aca 
demy of sciences. In addition to what we have 
said, this city has been rendered celebrated, from 
the congress that was established here, in 1774, 
of the three American colonies which formed a 
body to separate themselves from the dominion 
of England ; which separation was decreed in 
1776. 

[Philadelphia, the metropolis of Pennsylvania, 
was the seat of the government of the United 
States, until this was removed to Washing 
ton in Maryland. It is situate in the county 
to which it gives name, on the w. bank of the 
river Delaware, which is here a mile broad. It 
lies in lat. 39 56 54" n. and long. 75 C 10 30" w. 
from Greenwich, distant about 120 miles from the 
Atlantic Ocean, by the course of the bay and 
river, and about 40 or 46 in the s. c. direction. A 
74 gun ship can come up to this city ; sloops go 
35 miles farther to Trenton ; and boats that carry 
eight or nine tons can go 100 mile farther up the 
Delaware. It was laid out by William Penn, the 
first proprietary and founder of the province, in 
the year 1683, and settled by a colony from 
England, which arrived from that and the pre 
ceding years, and was increased by a constant 
and regular influx of foreigners, to so great a 
degree, that in less than a century, and within 
the lifetime of the first person born within it of 
European parents, it was computed to contain 
6000 houses, and 40,000 inhabitants, in the city 
and suburbs. The ground-plot of the city is an 
oblong square, about one mile n. and s. and two 
c. and w. lying in the narrowest part of the isth 
mus betwen the Delaware and Schuilkill Rivers, 
about five miles in a right line above their con 
fluence. In the beginning of this settlement, it 
was expected that the fronts on both rivers would 
be first improved for the convenience of trade and 
navigation, and that the buildings would extend 
gradually in the rear of each, until they would 
meet and form one town, extending from e. to w. 
But it was soon found that the Delaware front was 
alone sufficient for quays and landing-places. 

The buildings now occupy a space not ex 
ceeding three miles in length from n. to s. and in 
the most extended part do not reach a mile from 
the Delaware. The city is intersected by a great 
number of streets, crossing each other at right 
angles. Of these there were originally nine, 
which extended from the Delaware to the Schuil 
kill ; these were crossed by 23 running n. and s. 
The e. and w. streets, except High Street, are 
named after the trees first found by the colony 



on their arrival in the country, viz. Vine, Sassa 
fras, Mulberry, Chesnut, Walnut, Spruce, Pine, 
and Cedar ; which last is the s. boundary of the 
city. The streets running n. and s. receive their 
names from their numerical order, beginning at 
Delaware River ; Front is first, then Second, 
and so on to Thirteenth Street, whence the nume 
rical order ceases from Delaware Front, and begins 
at Schuilkill in the same order, as First, Second, 
&c. to the Eighth Street, between which and 
Thirteenth Street, is Broad Street, so named from 
its being the widest in the city. The number of 
squares in the original plan was 184 ; but as 
several of the squares have lately been intersected 
by new streets, their number now amounts to 304 : 
and several of these are again intersected by lanes 
and alleys. Broad Street is 113 feet wide ; 
High Street 100 ; Mulberry, 60 ; and the other 
streets in the original plan 50 feet wide. Most 
of the city is well paved with neat foot-paths of 
brick, furnished with common sewers and gutters ; 
so that the streets are, in general, kept very clean 
and neat. Besides the streets already mentioned, 
there are several others not laid down in the ori 
ginal plan, as Water, Dock, Cherry, Penn, Prune, 
&c. Water Street is only 20 feet wide, and ex 
tends from the . liberties across the dock, to Pine 
Street, parallel to the course of the Delaware, 
and between it and Front Street. The space 
occupied by it was intended in the original plan 
to serve only as a cart-way to accommodate the 
wharfs and stores, so that the river should be 
open to the view from Front Street. It is now 
built with lofty houses (except a very few vacancies 
here and there) throughout the whole front, and 
commodious wharfs are extended into the river, 
at which the largest ships that use the port can lie 
in safety, to receive and discharge their cargoes ; 
and are defended from the ice, in winter, by the 
piers, made of logs, extending into the river, 
sunk with stone, and filled with earth, so as to be 
equally firm with the main land. Dock Street 
was formerly a swamp, with a small stream 
running through the middle of it. It is from 90 
to 100 feet wide, and winds n. w. in a serpentine 
track, through several streets. It is planted on 
each side with a row of Lombardy poplars, and 
promises to be one of the pleasantest streets in 
the city. No less than 662 lamps of two branches 
e*ach, disposed at convenient distances, in all 
parts of the city, are lighted every night, and are 
estimated to consume annually nearly 9000 
gallons of oil. 

The houses in the city and suburbs are gene 
rally of brick, three stories high, in a plain neat] 
s 2 



132 



PHILADELPHIA. 



[style, without much display of ornament. The 
general height of the ground on which the city 
stands is nearly 40 feet above the Delaware ; but 
some of the streets are considerably lower, par 
ticularly Water Street ; several stores in which 
have sometimes received much damage when the 
river happened to be raised by a high flood and 
a strong s. e. wind. 

Here are now 27 places of public worship, viz. 
five for Friends or Quakers, six for the Presby 
terians and Seceders, three for Episcopalians, 
three for Roman Catholics, two for German Lu 
therans, two for Methodists, one for German 
Calvinists, one for Swedish Lutherans, which is 
the oldest church in town, one for the Mora 
vians, one for Baptists, one for Africans, and a 
Jewish synagogue. The first Presbyterian church 
is finished with a degree of elegance that would 
do honour to any city in Europe. The roof is 
supported in front by six pillars, finished in the 
Corinthian order ; but as it stands in an obscure 
place, on the s. side of Market Street, it is seen 
to disadvantage. The German Lutheran church, 
which was built not many years since, was un 
fortunately burnt in the winter of 1795. The 
new building is 108 feet by 48; andw r as probably, 
when first completed, one of the handsomest and 
largest churches in the United States. Mr. D. 
Taneberger, a member of the society of the 
United Brethren at Letiz, a man of extraordi 
nary mechanical genius, completed and erected a 
large organ for this church, but it received much 
injury when the roof and inside of the building 
were consumed, before the pipes could be dis 
engaged. Christ Church stands on the zo. side 
of Second Street, between High and Mulberry 
Streets. It is an old Gothic structure, and is 
ornamented with a handsome steeple, and fur 
nished with a chime of bells. The second Pres 
byterian church, at the corner of Mulberry and 
Third Streets, is also ornamented with a hand 
some steeple. The Episcopalian churches are 
furnished each with an organ, as are the Ger- 
and two of the Roman Catholic churches. 



man 



The African church is a large neat building. It 
is supplied with a Negro clergyman, who has been 
lately ordained by the bishop. They are of the 
Episcopalian order. 

The other public buildings are, a state-house 
and offices, two city court-houses, a county court 
house, an university, the Philosophical Society s 
hall, a public library,, an hospital, dispensary, 
an almshouse, a gaol, three incorporated banks, 
two dramatic theatres, a medical theatre, a labo 
ratory, an amphitheatre, three brick market- 



houses, and one which is to be erected in Front 
Street : in the N. Liberties, a fish market, a 
house of correction, and a powder magazine 
which contains often upwards of 50,000 quarter 
casks of gunpowder. The state-house stands on 
the s. side of Chesnut Street, between Fifth and 
Sixth Streets, and was erected about the year 
1753 ; and considering the infancy of the co 
lony, the architecture is much admired. The 
state-house garden occupies a whole square ; it is 
a small neat place, ornamented with several rows 
of trees and gravel walks, and inclosed by a high 
brick wall on three sides, and the state-house, 
&c. on the other. Pottersfield, formerly a public 
burying ground, is now converted into a public 
walk, and planted with rows of Lombardy pop 
lars on each side. When the trees are grown, 
and the ground levelled, it will be one of the 
most pleasant promenades in the vicinity. The 
legislature of the United States used to hold 
their sessions in an elegant building in the n. w. 
corner of the state-house yard. In the n. e. corner 
of the yard, adjoining the left wing of the state- 
house, is the town-hall or new court-house ; s. 
of which is the Philosophical-hall. Here Mr. 
Peal keeps his museum, by permission of the 
Philosophical Society. It is the largest collec 
tion of natural curiosities that is to be found in 
America. In it are 400 species of birds, some 
living animals, &c. Opposite the Philosophical- 
hall is the Philadelphia library : these add much 
to the beauty and grandeur of the square. The 
Philadelphia library originated, as Albedo has 
observed, with Dr. Franklin, and was incorpo 
rated in 1742, since which time the collection of 
books has been greatly augmented. At present 
it contains upwards of 12,000 volumes, besides 
a museum and a valuable philosophical appa 
ratus. This library is furnished with tables and 
seats : and a stranger, without any introduction,, 
may call for any book he wants, and sit down 
and peruse it as long as he pleases. The pro 
prietors amount to several hundreds, and each 
subscriber pays 10 s. annually, for defraying ex 
penses and making new additions. To the li 
brary is annexed a rare and valuable collection 
of books, the bequest of James Logan, Esq. to 
the public. The building belonging to the li 
brary company is remarkably elegant, and has a 
fine appearance. In front of the building, in a 
nich over the door, is a handsome statue of Dr. 
Franklin, the donation of William Bingham, Esq. 
to the company. It is of white marble, was exe^ 
cuted in Italy, and is said to have cost 500. 
The public gaol stands in the next square, *.] 



PHILADELPHIA. 



133 



[of the state-house yard. It is a hollow square, 
100 feet in front, built of stone, three stories 
high. All the apartments are arched with stone, 
as a precaution against fire ; and it is the largest, 
strongest, and neatest building of the kind in the 
United States. To the gaol is annexed a work 
house, with yards to keep the sexes apart, and 
criminals from the debtors. There are also 
apartments lately added for the solitary con 
finement of criminals. The whole is securely 
inclosed by stone walls. 

The market-house, in High Street, is perhaps 
exceeded by none in the world, in the abundance, 
neatness, and variety of provisions, which are ex 
posed for sale every Wednesday and Saturday. 
Butchers meat and vegetables may be had any 
other day, except Sunday. It extends from Front 
to Fourth Street, and is supported by 300 pil 
lars. 

The new theatre in Chesnut Street, near the 
state-house, is large and convenient. It was 
finished in 1793. Further w. is a spacious build 
ing, which was intended for the accommodation 
of the president of the United States, but is not 
occupied by him. Opposite to the new theatre 
is the amphitheatre, wherein feats of horseman 
ship are, at certain seasons, performed with great 
dexterity, for the amusement of the citizens. 
It is a large commodious building. 

The university stands on the w. side of Fourth 
Street, between High and Mulberry Streets. It 
was formed by the union of two literary institu 
tions, which had previously existed a consider 
able time in Philadelphia, one designated by the 
above name ; the other by that of the college, 
academy, and charitable schools of Philadelphia. 
They now constitute a very respectable semi 
nary. It was incorporated in 1791. The phi 
losophical apparatus, which was before very com 
plete, has been lately increased to the value of 
several hundred pounds. The funds of the uni 
versity produce annually a revenue of about 
2365. The aggregate number of students, 
in the several schools, is, on an average, about 
510. And the number usually admitted to de 
grees in each year about 25. The Friends aca 
demy, and Young Ladies academy, are also re 
spectable and useful establishments. 

The chief literary and humane societies are the 
American Philosophical Society ; the College of 
Physicians ; the Society for promoting Political 
Inquiries ; the Pennsylvania hospital ; the Phi 
ladelphia dispensary ; the Pennsylvania society 
tor the abolition of slavery ; the society for alle 



viating the miseries of prisons ; the Pennsyl 
vania society for the encouragement of manu 
factures and useful arts ; the Philadelphia society 
for the information and assistance of emigrants, 
and two other societies of the same kind, one 
for the relief of German, and another for the re 
lief of Irish emigrants : and an humane, an agri 
cultural, marine, and various charitable socie 
ties. Here is a grand lodge of free and accepted 
masons, and eight subordinate lodges. The in 
surance company of N. America, lately esta 
blished here, is in high repute, and insure 
houses, goods, &c. against fire, on very reason 
able terms. 

Few cities in the world of the same popula 
tion and riches as Philadelphia are better pro 
vided with useful institutions, both public and 
private. There are also a sufficient number of 
academies for the instruction of both sexes. Al 
most every religious society has one or more 
schools under its immediate direction, where 
children belonging to the society are taught to 
read and write, and are furnished with books 
and stationary articles. 

In the city and suburbs are 10 rope-walks 
which manufacture about 800 tons of hemp an 
nually ; 13 breweries, which are said to con 
sume 50,000 bushels of barley yearly ; six sugar- 
houses ; seven hair-powder manufactories in and 
about town ; two rum distilleries, and one rec 
tifying distillery ; three card-manufactories. 
The other manufactories are, 15 for earthenware ; 
six for chocolate ; four for mustard ; three for 
cut-nails, and one for patent-nails ; one for steel : 
one for aqua-fortis ; one for sal-ammoniac and 
glauber-satts ; one for oil colours ; 1 1 for brushes ; 
two for buttons ; one for Morocco leather, and 
one for parchment ; besides gun-makers, copper 
smiths, hatters, tin plate-workers, coachmakers, 
cabinet-makers, and a variety of others. The 
public mint, at which the national money is 
coined, is in this city. The great number of 
paper-mills in the state enable the printers to 
carry on their business more extensively than 
is done in anv other place of America. There 
are 31 printing-offices in this city ; four of these 
publish each a daily gazette ; two others publish 
gazettes twice a week, one of these is in the 
French language ; besides two weekly papers, 
one of which is in the German language. The 
other offices are employed in printing books, 
p amphlets, &c. The catalogue of books for sale 
in this city, contains upwards of 300 sets of Phi 
ladelphia editions, beside? a greater variety of] 



134 



PHILADELPHIA. 



[maps and charts than is to be found any where 
else in America. 

The pleasure carriages within the city and 
liberties, according to enumeration, are as fol 
low, viz. two-wheeled carriages, 553 ; light wag 
gons, 80 ; coaches, 137; phaetons, 22; chariots, 
35 ; and coachees, 33 ; the whole amounting to 
307 four-wheeled carriages. The roads are good, 
and becoming better ; stage-coaches perform the 
journey from this city to Lancaster in 11 hours, 
on the new turnpike road : the distance is 58 
miles. 

This city is governed by a mayor, recorder, 
15 aldermen, and 30 common council-men ; ac 
cording to its present charter, granted in the 
year 1789. The mayor, recorder, eight alder 
men, and 16 common council-men make a quo 
rum to transact business ; they have full power 
to constitute and ordain laws and ordinances for 
the governing of the city ; the mayor, recorder, 
and aldermen are justices of the peace, and jus 
tices of oyer and terminer. They hold a court 
four times a year, to take cognizance of all 
crimes and misdemeanors committed within the 
city : two aldermen, appointed by the mayor and 
recorder, hold a court on the forenoon of Monday 
and Thursday of every week, to judge of all mat 
ters which are cognizable before a justice of the 
peace. 

The trade of Pennsylvania is principally car 
ried on from this city, and there are few com 
mercial ports in the world, where ships from 
Philadelphia may not be found in some season of 
the year. The number of vessels which entered 
this port in 1786, was 910; in 1787, 870; in 
1788, 851 ; in 1793, 1414, of which 477 were 
ships ; in 1795, 1620, viz. ; ships, 158 ; barks 
and snows, 26 ; brigs, 450 ; schooners, 506 ; 
sloops, 480. Clearances, 1789. It is not men 
tioned how many of these were coasting vessels. 
The number of vessels built in 1795 was 31, of 
which 23 were ships and brigs. In the year 
1792, Philadelphia shipped 420,000 barrels of 
flour and middlings ; in 1794, 300,751. 

The value of the exports from the state in the 
year ending September 30, 1791, was 3,436,092 
dollars, 58 cents; 1792, 3,820,662 dollars ; 1793, 
6,958,836 dollars ; 1794, 6,643,092 dollars ; 1795, 
11,518,260 dollars. The sickness in the autumn 
of 1793, and the embargo in the spring follow 
ing, interrupted the commerce of Philadelphia 
for nearly five months. The late war occasioned 
some extraordinary articles in the exportation of 
this place ; coffee, &c. were carried to Philadel 



phia, and from thence to Hamburg, as neutral 
ports. 

The environs of the city are very pleasant, 
and finely cultivated. In the n. are Kensing 
ton, near the suburbs on Delaware, noted for 
ship-building; Germantown, a populous neat 
village, with two German churches ; and Frank 
fort, another pretty village, both within seven 
miles, besides many country-seats. In the s. i 
Derby, a small pleasant borough, about seven 
miles distant ; and, on Schuilkill, four miles 
from the city, the botanical garden of Messrs. 
Bartrams. In the w. on the same river, 18 
acres of ground have been lately destined for 
a public botanical garden. 

According to a list published of the births and 
deaths in the several religious societies of Phila 
delphia, it appears that from August 1, 1792, to 
August 1, 1793, the births amounted to 2511, and 
the deaths to 1497. In the year 1793, Philadel 
phia was visited with a severe scourge, the yel 
low fever, which raged with uncommon violence 
for above three months, and in that short space 
swept off nearly 5000 inhabitants. The humane 
efforts of a committee of health, appointed by 
the citizens, were highly instrumental in di 
minishing the calamity. A few weeks after this 
disorder ceased to rage, the trade of the city was 
restored in a manner incredible to any but eye 
witnesses. It is an honourable proof of the 
humane attention paid to the prisoners in this 
city that of 4060 debtors, and 4000 criminals, 
who were confined in Philadelphia goal between 
the 28th of September, 1780, and the 5th of Sep 
tember, 1790, only 12 died a natural death. In 
1794, there were 9000 houses in this city, and 
400 which were building; and the present num 
ber of inhabitants may be estimated at about 
55,000. 

Philadelphia is 728 miles s. w. of Passama- 
quoddy, which is the easternmost part of the sea- 
coast of the United States, 347 s. w. of Boston, 
222 s. w. of Hartford, 95 s. w. of New York, 
102 n. e. of Baltimore, 278 n. e. of Richmond, 
144 n. e. of Washington s city, and 925 n. e. by 
n. of Savannah in Georgia. The above dis 
tances are English miles, and include the wind 
ings of the roads. The direct distances in geo 
graphical miles are as follows : Philadelphia is 
480 miles s. w. of Passamaquoddy, 235 s. w. of 
Boston, 161 s. w. of Hartford, 70 s. w. of New 
York, 83 n. e. of Baltimore, 190 n. e. of Rich 
mond, 110 n. e. of Washington, and 560 n. e. 
of Savannah. See PENNSYLVANIA, for an ac-] 



P H I 

count of several other particulars relating to this 
city.] 

[PHILADELPHIA, a township in Rutland 
County, Vermont ; about 15 miles e. of Orwell. 
It contains 39 inhabitants.] 

[PHILIP, a large island in Lake Superior, 
in the territory of the United States. It lies 
towards the s. side of the lake, and s. e. of Isle 
Royal.] 

[PHILIP, ST. a fort which commands the en 
trance of Maranhan Harbour, on the coast of 
Brazil.] 

[PHILIP, ST. a point within the harbour of 
Port Royal, S. Carolina.] 

[PHILIP S ST. a parish of S. Carolina ; si 
tuate in Charlestown district.] 

PHILIPOLIS, a city of the Straits of Ma 
gellan ; founded by the admiral Pedro Sarmiento 
de Gamba in 1584 ; and not in 1582, as is as 
serted by the ex-jesuit Coleti ; neither in 1584, 
as according to Mr. La Martiniere. Its name 
was given to it by its founder, in honour of 
King Philip II. It was situate in the narrowest 
part of the strait, with a good port, and on the 
n. coast : it had four bastions and some artillery, 
but it lasted only a short time, for in 1587, the 
English pirate Thomas Candish passing by, 
found it totally void of population, its inhabitants 
having died of hunger ; and from this cause it 
has been since called Port of Hunger. In lat. 
53 IT s. 

[PHILIPPE, S. a city of the province and go 
vernment of Venezuela, was once a miserable 
village, named Cocorote, but has become a city 
by the resort of people from Baraquisimeto arid 
the Canaries, and is now famous for the industry 
and activity of its inhabitants. The soil is fer 
tile, and is watered to the e. by the river Yarani, 
and to the w. by the Aroa, crossed by a vast 
number of rivulets. Cocoa, indigo, and coffee 
are cultivated, but they grow very little cotton 
and still less sugar. The inhabitants amount to 
6800. The city is regularly built; the streets 
are broad, and the church is handsome and well 
supported. The air is cold and wet, and the 
town therefore unwholesome. The police and 
justice are administered by a cabildo. It lies in 
lat. 10 12 w. 110 miles, with a slight inclina 
tion to the s. of Caracas ; 34 miles w. of Valen 
cia, and 17 n. w, of Niragua.] 

[PHILIPPEAU, an island on the n. side of 
Lake Superior, n. of Isle Royal.] 

[PHILIPPEAU, a bay on the n. shore of the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, near the Straits of Bellisle, 
and partly formed by islands which project s. on 



P I A 



135 



its e. part, and extend towards the w. The e. 
part of the bay lies in lat. 51 20 n. ] 

[PHILIPPINA, a small town of the province 
of Guatemala in New Spain ; situate on a bay 
of the N. Pacific Ocean, to the s. e. of Guate 
mala.] 

[PHILIPSBURG, a town of New Jersey; 
situate in Sussex County, on the e. bank of De 
laware River, opposite to Easton in Pennsyl 
vania. It is 35 miles n.w. of Trenton.] 

[PHILLIPSBURGH, or PHILIPSTOWN, a 
township of New York, in Dutchess County, on 
the e. side of Hudson s River, 26 miles above 
New York, near the s. end of Tappen Bay. It 
contains 2079 inhabitants, including 25 slaves. 
In 1796, there were 347 of the inhabitants elec 
tors. In this township is a silver- mine, which 
yields virgin silver.] 

[PHILLIPS Academy. See ANDOVER and 
EXETER.] 

[PHILOPOLIS, a settlement in Lucerne 
County, Pennsylvania ; 12 or 14 miles w. of 
Mount Ararat, and at the head of the w. branch 
of Tunkhanock Creek, about 45 miles s. e. of 
Athens, or Tioga Point. Lat. 41 40 n. Long. 
75 33 w.l 

PIACHIS, a river of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru. 

PIACOA, a settlement of the province of 
Guayana, and government of Cumana ; a re 
duction of the missions of the Indians, held 
there by the Capuchin Catalanian Fathers. 

PIAGUI, a river of the kingdom of Brazil, 
which rises between those of Acuracu andParai- 
nala, runs n. and enters the second ; detaching 
in its mid-course, an arm which joins the former 
river. 

PIAKEMINES, a river of the province and 
government of Louisiana in N.America. It is 
an arm which enters the Mississippi near the 
coast, runs n. w. and empties itself into the sea 
by two mouths, between N. Cape and Ascencion 
Bay. 

PIANDAMA, a river of the province and 
government of Popayiin, in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada. It rises s. of the city of Buga, and 
enters the river Grande de la Magdalena. 

[PIANKASHAWS, or PYANKISHAS, VER- 
MILLIONS, and MASCONTINS, are tribes of In 
dians in the N. W. Territory, who reside on 
the Wabash and its branches, arid Illinois River. 
These, with the Kickapoos, Musquitous, and 
Ouiatanons, could together furnish about 1000 
warriors, 20 years ago.] 

PIANKATANK, a river of the province and 



13CJ 



P I C 



It runs s. e. 



colony of Virginia in N. America, 
with a large body into the sea. 

PIAS, SANTA ISABEL DE, a settlement of the 
province and corregimiento of Caxamarquilla in 
Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chilia. 

PIASTLA, a settlement and head settlement 
of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Acatlan 
in Nueva Espana, in the district of which are 
many large saline earths, which afford a com 
merce to the natives. 

PIASTLA, an abundant river of the province 
and alcaldia mayor of Copale, and kingdom of 
Nueva Vizcaya. It rises in the vicinity of Du- 
rango, the capital, and running to e. s. e. enters 
the S. Soa in lat. 23 j, under the tropic of 
Cancer. It abounds greatly in fish, and on its 
shores is collected a tolerable portion of salt of 
very good quality, in which consists its trade, 
and by which the settlements on its shores profit ; 
three of these being of the reduccion of the In 
dians, although very small, and of the missions 
which were held by the Jesuits. 

PIAY, a river of the province and captain 
ship of SanVincente in Brazil, which runs n.n.w. 
and enters the Parana-pape. 

PIBIL, a settlement of the province and cor 
regimiento of Abancay in Peru. 

PIBINCO, a river of the district and pro 
vince of Maguegua in the kingdom of Chile, 
which runs w. and enters the Ngeloi. 

PIC, a small river of Canada, which runs s. w. 
and enters Lake Superior. 

PICA, a settlement of the province and cor 
regimiento of Arica in Peru. 

PICA, a river of this province and kingdom, 
which runs n. near the coast, then turns w. and 
enters the S. Sea. 

PICACHO, a settlement of the province and 
government of Sonora in N. America. 

PICACHOS, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Aca- 
poneta in Nueva Espana. Fifteen leagues n. e. 
of its capital. 

PICAMARAN, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Yauyos in Peru ; annexed 
to the curacy of Pacaran. 

PICAZURU, a river of the province and 
government of Paraguay. It runs w. in a very 
abundant stream, and enters the Parana. 

PICCHA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Guanta in Peru ; annexed to the 
curacy of Ticllas. 

PICCHOS, a settlement of the same province 
and kingdom as the former ; annexed to the 
curacy of Huaribamba. 



P I C 

PICHANA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Tucuman in Peru, on the skirt of 
a mountain, on the shore of the river of its 
name. 

PICHANA, another settlement, in the province 
and corregimiento of Caxamarquilla. 

PICHANA, the aforesaid river, which runs w. 

PICHAOMACA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Quillota and kingdom of 
Chile, between the port Papudo and the shoals 
of Mala Cara. 

PICHICPICUNTA, a river of the kingdom 
of Chile, which rises e. of the volcano of Tuca- 
pel, runs s. with some inclination to s. s. e. and 
loses itself in the lakes of the Desaguadero. 

PICHIDEGUA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru; annexed 
to the curacy of Pocoanca. 

PICHIDEGUA, another settlement, in the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Canes and Canches, 
or Tinta in Peru. 

PICHILINGUES, PUERTO DE LOS, a large, 
sheltered, and convenient bay of the Gulf of Ca 
lifornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes. Its entrance is 
closed up by the large island of Espiritu Santo, 
and on the side of this are two other small islands, 
called S. Lorenzo and La Gallina ; the which 
form channels or entrances which are very nar 
row. In the innermost part of this bay, is an 
other bay still more sheltered, called La Paz. 

PICHINCHE, a very lofty mountain and vol 
cano of the kingdom of Quito ; on the skirt of 
which stands this capital. On the top it is di 
vided into various points or pinnacles, the loftiest 
of which, called Rucu-Pichinche, or Pichinche- 
viejo, is raised 5605 fathoms, two inches, and 
eight lines, above the level of the sea, as was 
measured by the academicians of the sciences of 
Paris. It is constantly covered with snow. 

This volcano has burst, vomiting fire, in the 
years 1535, 1577, 1G60, and 1690, when it caused 
terrible mischief, and particularly to the pro 
vince of Esmeraldas to the w. that being the con 
stant scene of the greatest calamities, as the 
mouth of the volcano is turned this way. Nearlj 
the whole of the mountain is dry and barren, and 
the street only towards Quito is cultivated. On 
the top, where the snow is, the mercury rises 
16 inches, and the dilatation of the spirit of wine 
is from 995 to 1012 in Reaumur s thermometer, 
according to the observations made by the afore 
said academicians. 

From this mountain a society of literati of the 
city of Quito take their name, being called the 
Pichinchense Academy, and employed in astro- 



PIC 

noraical observations and physical phenomena ; 
an account of which we have given, that it might 
explain the meaning of certain letters found 
posted in parts of that capital, namely, A A. PP. 
Academicians Pichinchenses. But this society 
terminated in 1767, on the expulsion of the Je 
suits. Some few years back many silver-mines 
have been discovered in this mountain, but which 
have not been worked through want of capital in 
the natives. In lat. 1 1 32" s. 

PICHIPIL, a settlement of Indians of the 
district of the island of Laxa in the kingdom of 
Chile, between the rivers Buren and Recalgue. 

PICHIRHUA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru, annexed 
to the curacy of Sirca. 

PICHIU, a spacious llanera on the coast of the 
S. Sea, of the ancient province of Chimu in Peru, 
/?. of Lima. Its territory was conquered by the 
Inca Huavna-Capac, thirteenth emperor. 

PICHpTA, a settlement of the district of Pu 
erto V iejo in the province and government of 
Guayaquil and kingdom of Quito : s. e. of the 
settlement of Charapoto, on the shore of the river 
Chico. In its territory is produced abundance 
of cotton of the best quality. In lat. 55 / s. 

PICHUNSIS, a barbarous nation of Indians 
of the province and government of Guayaquil 
in the kingdom of Quito : they are descendants 
of the ancient Mantas, who inhabited the coast 
of the Pacific Sea, and were extremely dissolute. 
They were conquered by Huayna-Capac, thir 
teenth emperor of the Incas, who put to the sword 
or burnt as many of them as he could take, as a 
punishment for the detestable vice of sodomy to 
which they were so much addicted, and at last 
destroyed them entirely. 

PIC KAVILLANI, DEL OHIO, a settlement of 
the province and colony of Virginia in N. Ame 
rica ; where the English have built a fort, on the 
shore and at the source of the river Great 
Miamee. 

PICKERING, a settlement of the island of 
Barbadoes near the n. coast. 

PICKOVAGANI, a settlement of Indians of 
Canada in N. America, in the country and terri 
tory of the nation of the same name ; on the 
shore of the lake San Juan. 

PICO, Alto, a lofty mountain on the coast of 
Peru, in the province and corregimiento of Ca- 
fiete, close to the settlement of Chilca. 

Pico, another mountain, also very lofty, on 
the n. coast of the Straits of Magellan, behind the 
bay of the same denomination. 

VOL. IV. 



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137 



Pico, a port on the coast of the province and 
government of Venezuela of the Nuevo Rpyno 
de Granada, within the Gulf of Venezuela, at 
the entrance of the lake of Maracaibo. 

PICO AS A, a settlement of the district and ju 
risdiction of Puerto Viejo, in the province and 
government of Guayaquil and kingdom of Quito; 
on the zv. shore of the river of its name, but 
which is most commonly known by that of the 
district very near to it. On the n. w. opposite the 
point o^ Chama, which is towards that rhumb, 
is a hill called the Height de Picoasa, from 
whence may be discovered the vessels navigating 
that coast, and which serves as a watch-house. 
In lat. 1 % s. 

PICOI, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Tarma in Peru, annexed to the cu 
racy of Acobamba. 

PICOI, another settlement in the province and 
corregimiento of Chancay in Peru, annexed to the 
curacy of Canchas. 

PlCOLATA, a fort of the province and go 
vernment of Florida, on the same island as that 
on which stands the city of S. Augustin. 

PICOLER, ROCHE DU, a point on the n. coast 
of St. Domingo, in the part possessed by the 
French. It is between the shoal of Coquille- 
vielle and Port Frances. 

PICOPORO, a settlement of Indians reduced 
to the faith, of the missions held by the religious 
of St. Domingo, in the territory of the city of 
San Christoval of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; 
situate on the shore of the river Apure. It is of 
a very hot temperature, produces cacao, maize, 
plantains, yucas, and other fruits of a warm cli 
mate, and its population is composed of 100 In 
dians, who are given to sloth. 

PICT A, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of San Juan de los Llanos in the Nu 
evo Reyno de Granada. 

PICTA, a river of the same province ; which 
runs e. and then turning its course n. enters the 
sea in the strait of Canseau. 

PICTOU,a small island near the coast of Nova 
Scotia in N. America, and in the strait which it 
forms with the island St. John. 

PICUN, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Tucuman in Peru, which rises in the 
territory of the Puelches Indians, runs s. s. e. and 
enters the Moyalec. 

PICURIS, a river of the kingdom of Nuevo 
Mexico in N. America. 

PICURU, a small river of the district and 
territory of Cuyaba in Brtizil, which rises in the 
T 



138 



P I E 



mountains, runs ro. and unites itself with the 
Ipia^ui to enter that of Los Porrudos. 

PlCUY, an ancient province of Peru in the 
empire of the Incas ; to the n. of Cuzco. It was 
conquered and united to the monarchy by Vira- 
cocha-Incha, eighth emperor. It is now con 
founded in the division of the provinces made by 
the Spaniards after the conquest of the kingdom, 
and its limits cannot be justly defined. 

PIDGEON, a mountain on the point Ana of 
the coast of New England and province of Mas 
sachusetts in N. America. 

PIDGEON, a cape or point of land on the w. 
coast of the river St. Lawrence in Canada and 
N. America. 

PIE DE PALO, CERRO DE, a very lofty moun 
tain of the province and corrcgimtento of Cuyo 
in the kingdom of Chile, and at the source of the 
river Heuque-Leuva. 

PIEDAD, a principal and head settlement 
of the district of iheafca/dia mayor of Tlazasalca 
in Nueva Espafia, which is the ordinary resi 
dence of the alcaldes mayores of the jurisdiction. 
It contains 1 13 families of Spaniards, Mustees^ 
and Mulattoes, and 30 of Indians, and in the 
four cultivated estates of its district are 162 of 
all classes: 10 leagues n. of its capital. 

PIEDAD, another settlement, in the province 
and captainship of S. Vicente in Brazil, on the 
shore of the river Paraiba on the s. 

PIEDRA, PUNTA DE, a point on the coast of 
the province and government of Yucatan, between 
Port Sisal and El Palmar. 

PIEDRA, MONTE DE, a small isle near the 
coast of the province and captainship of Portose- 
guro in Brazil, close to the bank of Los Escollos. 

PIEDRA, GORDA, a principal and head set 
tlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of 
the town of Leon, in the province and bishopric 
of Mechoacan ; founded at the end of the sixteenth 
century : it contains 414 families of Spaniards, 
84 ofMustees, and 43 of Mulattoes, all of whom 
are employed in agriculture and in breeding 
cattle : six leagues s. of its capital. 

PIEDRA-IMAN, SIERRA DE, mountains of the 
province and government of Buenos Ayres in 
Peru, which run from n. to s. on the coast of the 
river La Plata, between the rivers San Joseph 
and Canelones. 

PIEDRAMELLERA, a settlement of the pro 
vince and government of Nueva Santander, or 
Sierra Gorda, in the Bay of Mexico and kingdom 
of Nueva Espana : one of those founded there 
in 1748 by the Count of Sierra Gorda, Don Jo- 



P I E 

seph de Escandon, colonel of militia of Quere- 
taro, the conqueror of the country. 

PIEDRAS, a settlement of the district and 
jurisdiction of the city of Tocaima, in the go 
vernment of Mariquita of the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. It is very scanty and poor, of an hot 
temperature, and producing only fruits of this 
climate. It takes its name from a river thus 
called, passing near it. 

[PIEDRAS, a parish ofthe province and govern 
ment of Buenos Ayres ; situate about 10 miles 
n. e. of Maldonado, in lat. 34 45 24", long. 56 
12 4".] 

PIEDRAS, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Tierra Firme, which runs n. between 
Portobello and Port Pilon. 

PIEDRAS, another, in the province and govern 
ment of Veragua, which runs s. between the city 
of Alanje and the settlement of Bugava. 

PIEDRAS, another, a small river ofthe province 
and corregimiento of Pasto in the kingdom of 
Quito, which, at a small distance from its source, 
enters the Caqueta. 

PIEDRAS, another, ofthe province and govern 
ment of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada, which rises in the sierra, runs n. in 
the country of the Taironas Indians, and enters 
the sea to the e. ofthe Cape St. Juan de Guia. 

PIEDRAS, another,a small river of the province 
and government of Tucuman in Peru, which 
rises in the mountains ofthe valley of Calchaqui, 
runs e. and enters the Grande of Salado, between 
the Blanco and the Concha. 

PIEDRAS, another, of the province and cap 
tainship of Portoseguro in Brazil, which runs n. 
and enters the Palmital. 

PIEDRAS, another, of the province and cap 
tainship of Todos Santos in the same kingdom 
as the former : it rises near the coast, runs s. s. e. 
and enters the sea between the Joana and the 
Ponica. 

PIEDRAS, a point of land on the coast of the 
province and captains/lip of Rio Janeyro, in Bra 
zil, between the settlements of Obrandive and 
Soapari. 

PIEDRAS, another, on the coast ofthe province 
and government of Cartagena and Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada, opposite the island Fuerte : it is 
one of the two which form the Bay of Rada. 

PIEDRAS, another, on the coast ofthe province 
and government of the Rio del Hacha in the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada. 

PIEDRAS, another settlement, called Valle de 
las Piedras, of the government and jurisdiction 



P I E 

of Merida in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada : it 
is of a temperate climate, annexed to the curacy 
of Santo Domingo, produces much maize and 
papas, neat cattle, horses, and sheep ; and its na 
tives make large and small hampers of leather 
very nicely worked, and thus maintain a good 
commerce. It has only 50 housekeepers. 

PIED R AS, a bay, on the coast of the province 
and alcaldia mayor of Tampico in Nueva Espana 
and Bay of Mexico, between Point Delgada and 
the Tierra Blanca. 

PIEDRAS, a convenient and secure port for 
canoes and small vessels in the river and province 
of Paraguay, seven leagues from the city of 
Asuncion. 

PIEDRAS, another port, on the coast of the 
province and captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, 
between Port Calbo and the settlement of Mon- 
gaguaba. 

PIEDRAS, some large shoals, or rocks, called 
Piedras Partidas, from their figure ; in the pro 
vince and government of Paraguay, on the shore 
of the river of this name, between the rocks of 
Itapua-quazu and Itapua-mini. 

PIERRE, S. River of the Fort of, in the island 
of Guadalupe. It enters the sea by the coast 
which looks to the n. between the fort of this 
name and the Grande A nee, thus called from a 
fort or castle which it has to defend the extremity 
of that coast. 

PIERRE, another river of the same island, 
which rises in the mountains of the 5. e. runs to 
this rhumb, and enters the sea between that of 
Baillie-argent and that of Des Hayes. 

PIERRE, a point of land, or extremity of the 
n. coast of the island of St. Domingo, in the part 
possessed by the French, between the bay of its 
name and that of Los Goanavas. 

PIERRE, a large bay in the same coast and 
island as the former, between this and the Morro 
del Diablo. 

PIERRE, another river, of the island of Mar 
tinique, one of the Antilles : it runs n. w. from 
the mountains of the n\ where it rises, and enters 
the sea between the settlement of its name and 
that of Movillage. 

PIERRE, a lake of Canada, in the territory and 
country of the Nekubanistes Indians ; formed 
from some waste waters of the other lakes. 

PIERRE, another lake of the same province, 
distinct from the former. It is a pool of water 
formed from the river St. Lawrence, between the 
city of Quebec and the island Montreal. 

PIERRE, a small island near the s. coast of 
Newfoundland; situate at the entrance of a 



PIE 



139 



channel formed by the coast of this island and 
that of Mickon. 

PIERRE, a very large sand-bank near the coast 
of the same island, Newfoundland, which extends 
from the island of its name as far as Race Cape. 

PIERRE, another sand-bank to the s. of New 
foundland ; and one of those which serve for the 
whale-fisheries. 

PIERRE, a port, on the e. coast of the island of 
St. John in Nova Scotia. 

PIERRE, a settlement of the island Cape Bri 
tain ; on the s. coast, at the entrance of the lake 
of Labrador. 

PIERRE, an isle near the e. coast of Cape Bri 
tain, between the Bay of Coul and the island 
Platte. 

[PIERRE, ST. the first town built in the island 
of Martinico in the West Indies, situated on a 
round bay on the a), coast of the island, five 
leagues s. of Fort Royal. It is a port of entry, 
the residence of merchants, and the centre of 
business. It has been four times burnt down, 
yet it contains at present about 2000 houses. 
The anchorage-ground is situate along the sea 
side on the strand, but is very unhealthy. An 
other port of the town is separated from it by a 
river, and the houses are built on a low hill, 
which is called the fort, from a small fortress 
which defends the road, which is commodious for 
loading and unloading ships, and is likewise easy 
of access ; but in the rainy season the shipping take 
shelter at Fort Royal, the capital of the island.] 

[PIERRE, ST. or ST. PETER S, a river in Loui 
siana, which empties into the Mississippi, from 
w. about 20 miles below the Falls of St. An 
thony. It passes through a most delightful 
country, abounding with many of the necessaries 
of life, which grow spontaneously. Wild rice is 
found here in great abundance, trees bending 
under loads of fruits, such as plums, grapes, and 
apples. The meadows are covered with hops, 
and many other vegetables ; while the ground is 
stored with useful roots, as angelica, spikenard, 
and ground-nuts, as large as hens eggs. On its 
e, side, about 20 miles from its mouth, is a coal 
mine. N.B. For other places named PIERRE, 
see PETER.J 

PIERRE-ROUGE, a small river of the pro 
vince and colony of Virginia ; which runs n. w. 
and enters the Ohio. On its shores are some 
large meadows or llamuras on the confines of 
Pennsylvania, and where the English fought a 
battle in the war of 1740. 

PIERS, a settlement of the island of Barba- 
does, in the s. part, near the coast. 
T 2 



140 



P I K 



PIFO, a settlement of the kingdom of Quito, 
in the district of the corregimicnto of Las Cinco 
Leguas de la Capital ; delightfully situate, and 
of an extremely agreeable climate. Its territory 
is very fertile and pleasant, and irrigated by seve 
ral streams. It is S. of the settlement of Oyam- 
baro, s.w. of that of Tumbaco, and . of Itulcache. 
in lat. 13 s. 

[PIGEON, the name of two s. zv. branches 
of French Broad River, in the State of Tennessee. 
The mouth of Little Pigeon is about 20 miles 
from the confluence of French Broad with Hols- 
ton River, and about three beloAv the mouth of 
Nolachucky. Big Pigeon falls into the French 
Broad nine miles abo^ e Little Pigeon River. 
They both rise in the Great Iron Mountains.] 

[PIGEON, a hill on Cape Ann, Massachusetts. 
See AGAMENTICUS.] 

[PIGEON, a small island, whose strong fortifi 
cations command and secure safe and good an 
chorage in Port Royal Bay, in the island of Mar- 
tinico, in the West Indies.] 

PIGNOCAS, PIGNOQUIS, or PINOCOS, a bar 
barous nation of Indians of Peru, who dwell s. 
of that of the Chiquitos : they are very numerous, 
and extend from the lake Maniore on the e. as 
far as the mountain of Yobibe to the w. The 
climate of this country is hot and moist, and con 
sequently unhealthy. These Indians are not 
known. 

PIGCJENA. See TIGRE. 

PIGWAKET, a river of the province of New 
Hampshire, one of the four of New England. 
It rises from a small lake, runs s. turns s. e. in 
the province of Continent, and enters the sea. 

PIJAGUA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Popayan in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada ; near the source of the river Cauca, to 
the w. of the capital. 

PIJAOS, a barbarous and ancient nation of 
Indians of the same province and kingdom as the 
former settlement. They are ferocious, warlike, 
cruel, and cannibals. United with the Manipos 
they gave much ado to the conquerors of that 
kingdom, and destroyed the cities of San Vi 
cente and Los Angeles, the first having been si 
tuate in the llanos of Saldana, the latter 22 leagues 
from Tocaima, and nine from Neiva. These 
barbarians had their cabins or dwellings on the 
tops of trees : they are now very few, and live 
retired on the mountains. 

[PIKE, Lake and River, in N. America, in 
the territory belonging to the Hudson s Bay 
Company. This lake is about 27 miles long from 
e . tow. and about 10 broad from . to s. From this 



P I L 

lake flows the river of its name, bending its 
course w. and enters an arm of Play Green Lake, 
which communicates with Lake Winnipy. Pike 
Lake is about 80 miles e. of the nearest part of 
Lake Winnipy.] 

[PIKELAND, a township in Chester County, 
Pennsylvania.] 

PILAGUIN, SANTA ROSA DE, a settlement 
of the jurisdiction of the asicnto of Ambato in 
the corrcgimiento of Riobarnba and kingdom of 
Quito : it abounds in barley, of which it reaps 
great crops, and which is esteemed to be the best 
in the whole kingdom. 

PILAHALO, a settlement of the province and 
corrcgimtento of Tacunga in the same kingdom 
as the former. 

PILALA, a lake of the province and govern 
ment of Guayana, which empties itself into the 
river Blanco by another river of its own name. 

PILAU, NUESTRA SENORA DEL, a settle 
ment of the missions which were held by the 
Jesuits in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada : founded 
in 1661 on the skirt of the Sierra Nevada by Fa 
ther Nicholas Pedroche. Its natives were very 
dirty, and were afflicted with a leprosy which 
was catching : it is on the shore of the river 
Tame, s. of the city of Pamplona. 

PILAR, another settlement, in the province of 
Barcelona and government of Cumana, s. of the 
capital. 

PILAR, another, of the missions held by the 
religious of San Francisco in the province and 
government of Texas in N. America. At the 
distance of 15 leagues from it are some very good 
and abundant saline ponds. 

PILAR, another, of the province and govern 
ment of Buenos Ayres; situate on the coast 
stretching between the river La Plata and the 
Straits of Magellan. It consists of the Puele- 
hes Indians reduced to the faith. [This parish 
lies in lat. 34 25 56", and long. 59 \3 40".] 

PILAR, another, in the province and govern 
ment of Tucuman in Peru. See MECAPILLO. 

PILAR, another, of the province and govern 
ment of Cumana ; on the shore of the river of 
its name between the coast and the interior bay 
of the Gulf of Triste. 

PILAR, the aforesaid river, rises in the Serra- 
nia on the e. part of the city of Ciriaco, runs to 
this rhurnb, and enters the sea in the Gulf of 
Triste. 

PILARES, CABO DE, or Pillar Cape, the ex 
tremity or point at the w. end of the s. coast of 
the Straits of Magellan, and one of those which 
form its mouth or entrance into the S. Sea. The 



P I L 

Nodales call it Cabo de Sejada. [It is in lat. 
52 45 *. and long. 74 52 X w. \ 

PILAS, a settlement of the province and cor 
regimiento of Yauyos in Peru ; annexed to the 
curacy of the settlement of Omos. 

PILATOS, a settlement and parish of the 
French in the part they possess in St. Domingo ; 
on the shore of the three rivers, near the settle 
ment of Plasencia. 

PILAYA Y PASPAYA, or CINTI, a province 
and corregimiento of Peru ; bounded n. e. by the 
province of Tomina, and nearly by the same 
rhumb by the province of Pomabamba ; e. s. e. 
by the territory of the infidel Chirig-uanos In 
dians ; s. and s. w. by the province of Chichas, 
and n. w. and n. by that of Porco. Its length 
from n. w. to s. e. is 30 leagues, and its width 40. 
It is intersected by many mountains, and amongst 
their ravines are situate the different settlements 
of its jurisdiction. 

It is of a moderately hot temperature, abound 
ing in fruits and seeds, and in some of the colder 
parts in the productions of the sierra. They ga 
ther here quantities of grapes, of which they 
make brandy, which is much esteemed in the 
neighbouring provinces. The rivers which lave 
this territory are the San Juan, which is very 
abundant, and has its origin in the province of 
Lipes ; the Toropalca, which enters the Chichas; 
the Cinti, which irrigates and fertilizes the valley 
to which it gives name; the Supas and the Ag- 
chilla, which run 5. and form the Paspaya, which, 
afterwards changing its course to c. incorporates 
itself with the Pilcomayo, serving as a boundary 
to this province, and dividing it from that of 
Pomabamba. 

It has many rich settlements, since the greater 
part of its inhabitants, who should amount to 
12,000 souls, are dispersed in different estates. 
The town of Playa, which was formerly the ca 
pital, was destroyed and depopulated by an ir 
ruption made by the infidel Chiriguanos Indians. 
As the territory is mountainous and rough, it is 
filled with wild beasts and noxious reptiles. The 
corregidor, since that time, resides in the valley 
of Cinti, which is delightfully pleasant, and ex 
tends for nearly 20 leagues. Paspaya experi 
enced the same misfortune as that which we 
have just observed happened to Pilaya ; both of 
these being equally on the frontiers of those 
barbarians ; but a fort has been built to restrain 
them in future in that part. In the settlement of 
Pototaca are some very abundant lead mines. 
The corregidor had a repartirniento of 37,400 
dollars, and it paid an alcavala of 299 yearly. 



P I L 



141 



PILCAYA, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Cozcatlan and alcaldia 
mayor of Tasco in NuevaEspana. It contains 
92 families of Indians, and is six leagues n. w. of 
its capital. 

PILCOMARCA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of 
Quito, annexed to the curacy of the settlement 
of Azogues. 

PILCOMAYU, or PILCOMAYO, a large and 
abundant river of the province of Charcas in 
Peru. It rises from various streams which unite in 
this province, and then joins itself with the river 
Tarapaya, which runs from the province of Porco, 
collecting the waters of the Potosi, the which, 
having been employed there for the working of 
the silver, carries with it a portion of quick 
silver, and from thence it is asserted, that in the 
Pilcomayo, fish will not breed for many leagues ; 
but this is not the fact, as within this jurisdiction 
some fish, though certainly not large, are caught. 
It then incorporates itself with the Cachimayo, 
which is that which passes through Chuquisaca, 
flows down to the province of Pilaya and Paspaya, 
and through that of Tomina enters the Chaco, 
running 80 leagues, as far as the llanos of Manso ; 
from whence it follows its course amongst ex 
tremely thick forests to the s. c. and enters the 
Paraguay a little to the s. of Cidade da Asuncion 
del Paraguay. The river here swarms with fish 
of various kinds, and particularly dories, of 
from 20 to 25 pounds weight. As it is so large, 
and has its origin in the provinces of Peru, it 
was attempted in 1702 to discover a communica 
tion by it between this kingdom and the province 
of Paraguay, but without effect. 

In 1721 the Jesuits made a like attempt, and 
proceeded on their discovery in a bark with two 
boats ; but they were obliged to return, not find 
ing sufficient depth of water, after that, from 
the winding of the river, they had proceeded a 
distance of 350 leagues : they had, indeed, chosen 
a bad season, namely, the months of September, 
October, and November, when it does not rain, 
and when the rivers suffer from drought. They 
might, therefore, perhaps have succeeded at any 
other time ; and could it be effected, the object 
were very great, as a round-about journey of 
500 leagues through the province of Tucuman 
would be avoided, and the reduction of many in 
fidel nationsto the faith would be the consequence. 
This river has a beautiful stone bridge in the 
high road leading to La Plata. The Ex-Jesuit, 
Coleti, says, that it enters the Guapay ; but lie 
is deceived. 



142 



P I L 



PILCOMAYA, with the dedicatory title of 
SAN CHRISTOVAL, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Yamparaes in Peru, belong 
ing to the archbishopric of Charcas. 

PILCOMAYA, a large island of the province and 
country of Chaco in Peru, formed by the river of 
its name, which divides itself into two arms to 
enter the Paraguay, inhabited by infidel In 
dians. 

PILCUj a settlement of Indians of the province 
and corregimiento of Maule in the kingdom of 
Chile ; situate on the shore of the river Biobio, 
in the part called Las Cruces; 

[PILDRAS, ST. on the e. shore of the Gulf of 
Campechy, in the Gulf of Mexico.] 

PILES, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Choco in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra 
nada ; on the coast of the S. Sea, and on the 
shore of the river Raposo, in the bay which is 
also called Piles. 

[PILES Grove, a township in Salem County, 
New Jersey.] 

PILETA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Cartagena in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada ; situate n. of the town of San Bcnito 
Abad. 

[PILGERRUH, or PILGRIM S REST, was a 
Moravian settlement of Christian Indians, on the 
scite of a forsaken town of the Ottawas; on the 
bank of a river, 20 miles n. w. of Cayahoga, in 
the N. W. Territory, near Lake Erie, and 102 
miles n. w. of Pittsburg.] 

[PILGRIM S Island, on the s. e. shore of St. 
Lawrence River, and below the island de Cou- 
dres.] 

PILLACHIQUIR, a mountain of the province 
and corregimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of 
Quito, to the s. and to the e. of that of Chumbe. 
It rises in the river Paccha, which runs from s. to 
n. till it enters the Paute, in lat. 3 6 s. 

PILLAO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Guanuco in Peru, annexed to 
the curacy of Santa Marta del Valle ; situate on 
the confines of the Panataguas infidel Indians. 

PILLAO, another settlement, in the province 
and government of Tarma in the same kingdom 
as the former ; annexed to the curacy of Tapu. 
[PILLAR. See PILARES, CABO DE.] 
PILLARO, a settlement of the district and 
jurisdiction oftheasientoof Ambato and province 
and corregimiento of San Miguel de Ibarra in 
the kingdom of Quito. It is to the s. of Isam- 
ba, and in its vicinity runs by the w. part the 
river San Felipe, which fertilizes its fields. The 
inhabitants of this settlement have the credit of 



being the most dexterous robbers of any in the 
kingdom. The climate is very agreeable, and 
the territory fertile, in lat. 1 \\ s. 

PILMAIQUEN, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of La Concepcion in the king 
dom of Chile, on the coast between this and the 
river Canchupel. 

PILOES, River of the, in the kingdom of 
Brazil. It runs s. s. e. and enters the Preto or 
La Palma. 

PILOENS, a river of the same kingdom as the 
former, which rises in the sierra of the country of 
the Araes Indians, runs n. and enters the Parau- 
pasa, to the w. of the town of Boa. 

PILON, VALLE DE SAN MATEO DEL, a set 
tlement of the Nuevo Reyno de Leon. It con 
tains 50 families of Spaniards, and the district of 
its territory is bounded by the nation of the 
Nazas Indians, who are called Pilones from some 
streaks which they have in their face, and being 
distinguished from the Nazones by the variety of 
colours. This country is watered by a river 
which is always of the same height, and by the 
irrigation of this the territory is rendered very 
abundant in sugar canes, also in breeds of large 
and small cattle, these being its productions ; 18 
leagues s. s. e. of its capital. 

PILOT, or ARARAT, some mountains of the 
province and colony of N. Carolina, which form 
a cordillera running from 5. w. to n. c. from the 
source of Little River. [See SURRY COUNTY, 
N. Carolina.] 

PILOTE, a settlement and parish of the 
French in the island of Martinique ; situate on 
the sea shore, on the ??. w. coast of Little Port. 

[PILOTO, or SALINAS DEL PILOTO, upright 
craggy rocks on the w. coast of Mexico, s. e. of 
Cape Corientes ; where there is good anchorage 
and shelter from n. w. and s. w. winds. There 
are salt-pits near this place.] 

PILOTO, a river of the same island as the 
former settlement, which runss. w. and enters the 
bay. 

[PILOT Town, in Sussex County, Delaware, 
lies near the mouth of Cool Spring Creek, which 
falls into Delaware Bay, near Lewiston, and six 
miles n. w. of Cape Henlopen.] 

PILPICHACA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Castro Virreyna in Peru, 
called de Los Cerros, as being situate in the 
cordillera. 

PILPILCO, a settlement of Indians of the 
territory of the Araucanos in the kingdom of 
Chile ; situate on the shore of the river of its 
name. 



P I M 

PILPILCO. This river runs s. s. w. and enters 
the Lebo. 

PILPINTO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Chilques and Masques in Peru ; 
annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Accha 
Urinzava. 

PIMACHI, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed 
to the curacy of Hachas. 

PIMAMPIRO, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of the town of Ibarra in the 
kingdom of Quito ; situate e. n. e. of the capital. 
It is small and poor, of an hot temperature, but 
of a fertile soil, particularly in sugar cane ; close 
to it, on the n. passes the river Pisco, which 
afterwards unites itself with that of Angel, and 
then enters the Mira. This settlement was of 
Indians of the Pimampiro nation, from whence 
it takes its name ; but these made an insurrection 
and fled to the mountains, in lat. 24 n. 

PIMAN, a spot in the province and corre gimi- 
ento of the Villa de Ibarra in the kingdom of 
Quito to the n. It is lofty and impracticable to 
pass in the winter time. It is watered on the s. 
by the lake Yaguar-cocha, where are found 
those numbers of ancient sepulchres of the In 
dians, called Guacas. 

[PIMENT Port, a village on the s. w. coast of 
the s. peninsula of the island of St. Domingo, 4 
leagues n. w. of Coteaux, between which are two 
coves affording anchorage ; that nearest Coteaux 
is called Anse a Damassin. Port Piment is 
nearly eight leagues e. by s. ofTiburon.] 

PIMERIA, an extensive province of N. Ame 
rica which take this name from the Pimes Indians, 
who inhabit it, although here are found many 
other nations. It is bounded n. by the prevince 
ofSonora, and extends upwards of 100 leagues. 
It is divided into parts, upper and lower ; and 
both abound with streams, which fertilize the 
territory, and cause it to produce great crops of 
wheat, and fine pastures, in which breed large 
herds of cattle. 

In the n. w. part are many settlements and 
farms of Indians, who, although Christians, act 
just as though they were not ; preserving their 
perverse customs, and all the richest having their 
five or six wives apiece, and this in spite of the 
remonstrances of the missionaries of San Fran 
cisco. They are much given to agriculture, 
and besides the wheat, as aforesaid, they cultivate 
maize, lentils, French beans, and cotton. 

The richest land of this province is near the 
sea coast to the w. where there are <jood saline 
earths, and especially at the Bay of Coborca, 



P I M 



143 



which is ISO leagues n. w. of San Juan, and close 
to the river of San Marcos ; 50 leagues higher 
up dwell the nation of the Papagos, an extremely 
docile and mild people, who live among the in 
accessible parts of the mountains, and who come 
at different seasons to the higher part of the pro 
vince, bringing with them their children to be 
baptized ; and they make the same journey s when 
ever the missionaries require them to come to 
labour. Here is also another nation more civi 
lized, namely, that of the Sobaipuris. They are 
docile friends to the Spaniards, numerous, and live 
in rancherias in the most fertile valleys, building 
their houses of sedges woven in form of a mat. 
They sow maize and wheat, and breed some 
sheep. In the mountains and mountain plains 
are many mines which are not worked. The 
climate in this part is of a very irregular tem 
perature, being moist, cold, and windy. The 
rain and snow fall continually during the winter, 
and they last six or eight days. 

These Sobaipuris Indians are bounded by 
others, called Cocomaricopas ; amongst the which 
are some, although few, who have embraced the 
faith, persuaded by some of the missionaries who 
have made their way amongst them ; but they, 
nevertheless, do not quit their barbarous habits. 
They are at continual war with the Niojoras, with 
whom they are bounded ; the territories of the 
two being divided by a large river which collects 
many streams flowing down from the sierra 
Madre, by the n. and empties itself into the sea 
by the w. From the enmity and hatred existing 
between these two nations, the Cocomaricopas 
steal away all the children of the Niojoras that 
they can lay hands on, and sell them as slaves 
to the Pirnes : these sell them to the Spaniards, 
who buy them at a very low price and bap 
tize them, keeping them till they are instructed 
in the faith for menial purposes, but this is 
generally a very long period, owing to the na 
tural stupidity of this race, and to the difficulty of 
instructing them in the Mexican tongue. 

These Niojoras have the credit of being very 
gentle, pusillanimous, and cowardly. Their 
numbers are small. They are bounded by the 
Moquinos, who dwell in the centre of the sierra 
Madre. On the n. part, bordering on Nuevo 
Mexico, there were formerly some Christians con 
verted by the zeal of apostolical missionaries 
of San Francisco; but all having rebelled, and 
put to death the ministers of the gospel, they still 
remain in their idolatry and barbarism, \\ ithout 
their reduction ever having again been able to 
be brought about. In this province of La Pime-* 



144 



P I N 



ria less progress in civilization has been made 
than might have been wished, owing to the re 
peated invasions of the Apaches Indians ; and 
thus it is that the greater part of it is seen to be 
uncultivated and unpeopled. As some check to 
the above grievances the garrison of San Felipe 
de Jesus Guevavi was founded in 1745. 

fPIMIENTO, Port. See PIMENT.] 

PIMIENTO, another port in the same island 
and territory, by the side of the Bay of Las Goa- 
navas. 

PIMITIOVI, a settlement of the province and 
colony of Virginia in N. America; on the shore 
of a lake of the same name, between this lake and 
the river Ouramani, where the French have a 
fort built. 

The above lake is formed of an arm or waste 
water of the river Mississippi. 

PIMOCHA, a settlement of the district of Ba- 
bahoyo, in the province and government of 
Guayaquil and kingdom of Quito. 

PlMPOLLO, a settlement of the province 
and government of Tucuman, s. of the settlement 
of Ambargasta. 

PIN, PADRE, a port of the n. coast of the 
island St. Domingo, between those of Plato and 
Santiago. 

PINAGOA, a small river of the province and 
government of Quito. It enters just below its 
source into the Putumayo. Mr. Bellin calls it 
Pinaya, in his chart of the course of the Ori 
noco. 

FINAL, PUNTA DEL, a point on the coast of 
the province and government of Choco in the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the S. Sea, be 
tween the mountain or port Quemado and the 
point of Garachine. 

PIN AL, a small settlement of the province and 
government of San Juan de los Llanos of the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot tem 
perature, poor and reduced, containing not more 
than 60 Indians, who cultivate some wheat, maize, 
and plantains. 

PINANCAI, a paramo or snowy mountain of 
the district and corregimicnto of Alausi in the 
kingdom of Quito. 

PINARE, a city of the province aud captain 
ship of Para in Brazil. 

PINARE, a very abundant river of the pro 
vince of Maranan in the same kingdom, which 
rises in the mountains, runs in a very rapid 
stream from n. to s. then turns to e. s. e. and 
enters the Miari. Near its source dwell some 
barbarian Indians who have fled from the Por 
tuguese. The trees, with which its shores are 



covered, are of most exquisite wood, and some 
are of Brazil wood. In the fields of its vicinity 
are sown cotton, and there are some plantations 
of sugar cane, of which sugar is made to export 
to Europe. 

PINAS, S. MATEO DE LAS, a settlement of 
the head settlement of the district- of Ostolotepec 
and alcaldia mayor of Miachuatlan in Nueva 
Espana. It is of an hot temperature, abounding 
in cochineal and other fruits of the climate. 

PINAS, another settlement, in the province and 
corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada, at the source of the river Chire. 

PINAS, a port on the coast of the province and 
government of Darien and kingdom of Tierra 
Firme in the S. Sea. It is very c<fmmodious and 
sheltered from the winds, but its entrance is 
narrow and dangerous from three small islands 
at its mouth. It has afforded a constant refuge 
and asylum to the pirates of the S. Sea ; and 
here it was that the pirate named John Cliperton 
careened his vessels, who at the beginning of the 
17th century infested these coasts. 

PINAS, a river in the district of the alcaldia 
mayor of Penonome and province and kingdom 
of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains of 
the vicinity of that settlement, and disembogues 
itself into the N. Sea, to the w. of Chagre. 

[PINAS Island, on the coast of the Gulf of 
Honduras, is situated off Trivigillo Bay,] 

PINAY, a small river of the province and 
government of Paraguay in Peru, which runs w. 
and enters the river of that name between the 
settlements of Guararnbare and Nuestra Seiiora 
de Belen. 

PENAYUBI, a river of the same province 
and government as the former, which runs s. 
and enters the Uruguay. 

PINCET, a small port of the w. coast of New 
foundland, between the Ports Orange and San- 
ton, in then. part. 

PINCHES, a barbarous nation of Indians of 
the province and government of Mainas in the 
kingdom of Quito, to the n. of the river Pastaza. 
Some of these infidels were introduced to the 
catholic faith together with others of the nation 
of the Semigaes, and formed the settlement of San 
Joseph de Los Pinches, on the store of the same 
river, near another of its name. It belonged to 
the missions held by the Jesuits of this province, in 
lat. 2 50 30" s. 

PINCHES, the aforesaid river, rises in the 
country of the Coronados Indians, runs 5. s. e. 
and enters the Pastaza just before the former 
settlement. 



P I N 

[PINCHINA, one of the Cordilleras in S. 
America. M. Baugier found the cold of this 
mountain, immediately under the equator, to ex 
tend from seven to nine degrees under the freezing 
point every morning before sun-rise.] 

PINCHOLLO, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Collahuas in Peru ; annexed 
the curacy of Chabanaconde. 

PINCHORROI, a settlement of the province 
and government of Cartagena in the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada, of the district of Sinii ; 
formed of various small settlements, which were 
united in 1776, by the governor Don Francisco 
Pimienta. It is on the shore of the river Sinu. 

PINCK, a settlement of the island of Barba- 
does, on the extremity of the n. coast. 

[PINCKNEY, an island on the coast of S. 
Carolina.] 

[PINCKNEY, a district of the .upper country of 
S. Carolina, lying w.of Camden and Cheraw dis 
tricts ; subdivided into the counties of York, 
Chester, Union, and Spartanburgh. It contains 
25,870 white inhabitants ; sends to the state 
legislature, nine representatives, and three sena 
tors ; and in conjunction with Washington, sends 
one member to Congress. It was formerly part 
of Camden and 96 districts. Chief town, Pink- 
neyville.] 

[PINCKNEY VILLE, a post town of S. Caro 
lina, and capital of the above district, in Union 
county, on the s. w. side of Broad River, at the 
mouth of Pacolet. It contains a handsome court 
house, a gaol, and a few compact houses. It is 
79 miles n. n. w. of Columbia, and 36 w. s. w. 
from Charlottesburg in N. Carolina.] 

PINCOS, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru ; six leagues 
irom its capital. 

PINCUS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the 
kingdom of Chile, in the province and corregimi 
ento of Coquimbo in the s. e. part. It was for 
merly very numerous and warlike, made resist 
ance to the Emperor Yupanqui, eleventh monarch 
of the Incas of Peru; and obliged him to put a 
limit to his conquests and empire on the s. part 
of the river Maule. 

PINE, a bay on the coast of the province and 
government of Louisiana, between the bays of 
Pascagoula and Mobila. 

PINE, a small river of S. Carolina, which runs 
n, w. and enters the Watery. 

PINE, another, also small, of the province and 
colony of Virginia ; which runs s. e. and enters 
the Ohio. 

[PiNE House, a settlement belonging to the 
VOL. iv. 



P I N 



145 



Hudson s Bay company ; situate on the n. side of 
Assineboine or Red River.] 

[PiNE, Cape, on the s. coast of the island of 
Newfoundland, is about eight leagues w. of Cape 
Race. Lat. 46 42 n. Long. 53 20 o>.] 

[PiNE Creek, in Northumberland county, 
Pennsylvania, a water of the w. branch of Sus- 
quehannah River. Its mouth is about 1 1 miles 
w. of Lycoming Creek, and 36 n. w. of the town 
of Northumberland.] 

[PINES. SeePiNos.] 

[PINE ISLAND LAKE, a lake of N. America, 
in the territory belonging to the Hudson s Bay 
company ; the river Saskashawan passes through 
this lake, and on its s. shore stands Cumberland 
house about 120 miles w. of the w. end of Lake 
Winnipy, its nearest distance.] 

PINGANTE, a river of the province and 
kingdom of Tierra Firme, to the e. of the city of 
Panama. It washes a very fertile and pleasant 
territory, and is one of the most delightful rivers 
of that country. It disembogues itself into the 
sea in the Gulf of Panama. Some call it Pinu- 
ganti. 

PINGOVIN, an island of the N. Sea, near 
the e. coast of Newfoundland. 

PINGOVINS, a small island situate near the 
coast of Port Deseado, in the coast which lies 
between the river La Plata and the straits of 
Magellan ; thus called from the number of birds 
of this name found in it. 

PINGUES, or PINGEO, a pleasant, fertile, 
and delightful spot of the province and govern 
ment of Riobamba in the kingdom of Quito ; on 
the shore of the river Patate. It belongs to the 
house of Velasco in that city, and lies in the 
territory of Ambato. It is a llanura of a very 
pleasant climate, abounding in the most choice 
fruits, and in sugar canes ; in lat. 1 22 6" s. 

PINGUINAS, some islands of the N. Sea, in 
the straits of Magellan ; situate opposite the 
point of San Silvestre. 

PINGULLA-YACA, a rapid river, which 
runs from w. to e. in the ancient province of Los 
Gayes, and enters the Bobonasa by the w. part, 
in lat. 147 *. 

PINHANGA, a town of the province and 
captainship of San Vicente in Brazil ; on the 
shore of a small river which enters the Paraiba 
del Sur, and between the towns of Jambute and 
Guratingueta to the n. and to the s. 

PINILLI, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Paraguay, which runs n. and enters the 
Picazuru, between those of Ipebra and Ibirapita- 
guazu. 

u 



146 



P I N 



PINNARI, a small river of the province and 
captainship of Maranan in Brazil, which runs e. 
and enters, by different mouths into which it is 
divided, into the bay which forms the mouth of 
the Maranan. 

PINNEBURG, a settlement of the province 
of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia, in the part 
possessed by the Dutch, in the colony of Suri 
nam ; situate on the shore of the river Cotica. 

PINO, S. BARTOLOME DEL, a settlement of 
the head settlement of the district of San Juan 
del Rio, and alcaldia mayor of Queretaro in 
Nueva Espana ; annexed to the curacy of the 
settlement of Tequisquiapan. It contains 36 
families of Indians. 

PINO, a small river of the province and govern 
ment of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra 
nada. It rises n. of the city of Merida, between 
this city and the great lake of Maracaibo, and 
empties itself into it. 

PINOS, a sierra of the jurisdiction and alcaldia 
mayor of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, and 
bishopric of Guadalaxara in N. America. It 
marks the limits of this kingdom and that of Me- 
choacan by the e. The capital, which is of the 
same name, with the dedicatory title of S. Matios, 
was formerly a real of mines, from the excellent 
silver found in its territory ; the labour of which, 
although the mines have greatly fallen to decay, 
is still sufficient for the support of the poor 
people. 

In 1720, there was discovered in a part of this 
jurisdiction, called de Los Angeles, and which is 
eight leagues n. w. of the capital, some mines 
which were worked by fire, the produce of which, 
on account of the abundance of the metals, 
was carried to the foundaries of S. Luis de 
Potosi. 

In this province dwell many families of Spa 
niards, Mustees, and Mulattoes, and some In 
dians, scattered in many cultivated estates sur 
rounding the capital ; and in these are large and 
abundant breeds of cattle. From n. to e. are 
those estates of the names of Ballena, Pendencia, 
Santa Teresa, Espiritu Santo Santa Gertrudis, 
and Santiago ; and from e. to s. are those of S. 
Martin, La Jaula, El Gallinero, and Los Ojuelos ; 
from s. to w. those of S. Nicholas, Buena Vista, 
Ajostadero, and El Lobo ; and between w. and n. 
those of Marquillos and Salitre. It has thus so 
few settlements, that they are reduced to two, 
the following ; Ojo Caliente and Cienega de 
Mata. 

PINOS, an island of the N. Sea, near the s. 
coast of the island Cuba ; from which it is sepa- 



P I N 

rated by a channel of 16 leagues long and six 
wide. It abounds in pastures and very large 
trees ; also in goats and other animals. It is de 
sert, and inhabited only by some fishermen on 
the coast. It has several very secure and well 
sheltered roads. [It is about 42 miles long, and 
34 broad, in lat. 21 38 n. long. 82 45 w.} 

PINOS, another island of the N. Sea, near the 
coast of the province and government of Darien 
in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It is covered 
with trees, and is of a very low territory. Be 
tween its shore on the s. and the continent is a 
channel of good depth for vessels, although the 
entrance is very dangerous. The Scotch, the 
settlers of Calidonia, had inhabited it in the six 
teenth century, but since they were routed by 
the Spaniards it has remained unpeopled. Its 
figure is in the form of a horse s hoof; and the 
frog forms a port, convenient and sheltered, and 
fit for small vessels. It Is two leagues long, 
abounds in good water, and is covered with firs, 
palms, cocos, dates, oranges, lemons, and fruits 
which grow wild, and it is only used by the In 
dians in their hunting and fishing excursions. 
[It is 115 miles e.s.e. of Rio Velo, in lat. 8 
57 n. and long. 77 39 o>.] 

PINOS, another, a small island of the N. Sea, 
one of those called the Caicos, and of the lesser. 
It is close to the head, or w. point of the Caico 
Grande, and forms with it a small bay or port, 
in which foreign trading vessels are accustomed 
to lie at anchor. 

PINOS, a settlement with the dedicatory title 
of San Pedro, in the province and corregimiento 
of Yauyos in Peru; annexed to the curacy of 
Saraos. 

PINOTEPA, a settlement and head settle 
ment of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Xi- 
cayan in Nueva Espana, the jurisdiction of which 
comprehends other six settlements. It contains 
80 families of Indians, employed in the commerce 
of cochineal, tobacco, and seeds. Six leagues 
n. e. of its capital. 

PINOTEPA, another settlement, with the ad 
ditional title Del Rey, in the same alcaldia mayor 
and kingdom as the former. It contains 40 fa 
milies of Spaniards, 74 of Mulattoes, and 236 of 
Indians, who are occupied in the same trade as 
those of the former settlement, as also in cotton. 
Eight leagues e. of its capital. 

PINQUET, a settlement of the island of Bar- 
badoes, near the parish of S. Felipe. 

PINS, Point of, on the n. coast of Lake Erie 
of Canada in N. America. 

PINSA, a settlement of the province and cap- 



P 1 N 

tainship of S. Vicente in Brazil ; between the 
settlements of Araraz and Samambaya. 

PJNTAC, a settlement of the kingdom of 
Quito, in the district of the corregimiento of 
Las Cinco Leguas de la Capital. In its territory 
are two large estates, called Ichubamba and 
Changalvi. 

PINTAC, a mountain in that district, to the n. 
of that of Sinchulagua, sometimes covered with 
snow. Many there are who assert that it is a 
volcano, and that it has vomited bitumen in an 
cient times. 

[PINTARD S Sound, on the n. w. coast of 
N. America, sets up in an e. direction, having in 
it many small islands. Its mouth extends from 
Cape Scott, on the s. side, in lat. 50 56 , and 
long. 128 57 w. to Point Disappointment, in 
lat. 52 5 , and long. 128 50 w. It communi 
cates with the Straits de Fuca; and thus the 
lands on both sides of Nootka Sound, from Cape 
Scott to Berkeley s Sound, (opposite Cape Flat 
tery, on the e. side of the Straits de Fuca) are 
called by Captain Inj^raham, Quadras Isles.] 

[PINTCHLUCCT River, a large branch of 
the Chata Uche, the upper part of Appalachi- 
cola River.] 

PINTO, a settlement of the province and 
government of Cartagena in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada ; situate on the shore of the river 
Grande de la Magdalena in the district of Mom- 
pox. 

PINULA, SANTA CATALINA DE, a settlement 
of the province and kingdom of Guatemala in 
N. America, in the valley called as is the pro 
vince. It is annexed to the curacy of San Mi 
guel de Petapa, contains 490 Indians, and was 
formerly a curacy of the religious of St. Do 
mingo. 

PINZANDARO, a town and head settlement 
of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Tanzitaro 
in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It 
is of a warm and moist temperature, and very 
sickly through the thickness of the air. It con 
tains some families, although few, of Spaniards, 
and 47 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and in its ran- 
chos are 21 others, their occupation being the 
breeding of large and small cattle, collecting 
wild wax, maize, and fruits. Ninety-two miles 
w. of Mexico. 

PINZON, Bay of, or PINCON, on the coast 
of the province and government of Dutch Gua- 
yana or Nueva Andalucia. It is large, conve 
nient, and sheltered, and had this name from 
Vicente Yanez Pinzon or Pincon, in 1498. This 
bay has been notorious, as having been the 



P I O 



147 



boundary between the dominions of the Spanish 
and Portuguese crowns, and the point from 
whence begins the famous line of demarcation 
drawn by Pope Alexander VI., the which has 
caused so many disputes between the two king 
doms. 

PIOCAZA, a settlement of the division and 
district of Puerto Viejo, in the parish and go 
vernment of Guayaquil, and kingdom of Quito. 

PIOCOCAS, a barbarous nation of Indians 
of the kingdom of Peru; bounded by that of the 
Pequicas, and in the n. e. part by the Chiqui- 
tos. It is not altogether well known. 

PIOJON, a settlement of the province and 
government of Cartagena ; between the point of 
Zamba and the river Grande de la Magdalena. 

PION, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimicnto of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed to 
the curacy of Pipincos in the province of Jaen de 
Bracarnoros. 

[PIORIAS Fort and Village, OLD, in the 
N. W. territory, on the w. shore of Illinois 
River, and at the s. end of Illinois Lake ; 155 
miles from Mississippi River, and 26 below the 
Crows Meadows River. The summit on which 
the stockaded fort stood, commands a fine pro 
spect of the country to the e. and up the lake, to 
the point where the river comes in at the n. end : 
to the K>. are large meadows. In the lake (which 
is only a dilatation of the river, 19y miles in 
length, and three in breadth) is great plenty of 
fish, and in particular sturgeon and picannau. 
The country to the zo. is low and very level, and 
full of swamps, some a mile w r ide, bordered with 
fine meadows, and in some places the high land 
comes to the river in points or narrow necks. 
Here is abundance of cherry, plum, and other 
fruit trees. The Indians at the treaty of Green 
ville, in 1795, ceded to the United States a tract 
of 12 miles square at this fort. Lat. 40 53 n. 
Long. 88 3 w.^ 

[PIORIAS Wintering Ground, a tract of land 
in the N. W. territory, on the s. e. side of Illi 
nois River, about 40 miles above, and n. e. of 
the Great Cave, on the Mississippi, opposite 
the mouth of the Missouri, and 27 below the 
island Pierre. About a quarter of a mile from 
the river, on the e. side of it, is a meadow of 
many miles long, and five or six miles broad. 
In this meadow are many small lakes, communi 
cating with each other, and by which there are 
passages for small boats or canoes ; and one leads 
to the Illinois river.] 

[PIORIAS, an Indian nation of the N.W. ter 
ritory, who with the Mitchigamias could furnish 
u 2 



148 



P I R 



P I R 



SOO warriors, 20 years ago. They inhabit near 
the settlements in the Illinois country. A tribe 
of this name inhabit a village on the Mississippi, 
a mile above Fort Chatres. It could furnish 
about the same period 170 warriors of the Pio- 
rias and Mitchigamias. They are idle and de 
bauched.] 

PIPI, a settlement of the jurisdiction of Muzo 
and corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada; annexed to the curacy of Yacopi, 
and as reduced and poor as is this. It produces 
the same fruits, and is of the same temperature. 

PIPI, a river of the province and colony of 
Surinam, in the part of Guayana possessed by 
the Dutch ; and one of those which enter the 
Caroni. 

PIPIBOUGOI, a small river of Nova Scotia 
or Acadia, which runs e. and enters the sea in 
the strait formed by the coast and the island St. 
John. 

PIPINCOS, a settlement of the province and 
government of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king 
dom of Quito. 

PIPIOLTEPEC, SANTA MARIA DE, a settle 
ment of the head settlement of the district of 
San Francisco del Valle, and nlcaldia mayor of 
Zultepec in Nueva Espana. Haifa league n. of 
the settlement of Ahuacatlan. 

PIQUETE, a fort of the province and go 
vernment of Tucuman in Peru ; built on the 
shore of a river, to serve as a defence against 
the infidel Indians. 

PIQUETE, another fort of this province, and of 
the same name. 

PIRA, a settlement of the province and cor 
regimiento ofGuailas in Peru; annexed to the 
curacy of Pampas. 

PIRA, a river, called also Horadado, in the 
province and government of Santa Marta in the 
Kuevo Reyno de Granada: it divides this pro 
vince from that of the Rio del Hacha. It flows 
down from the mountains of the former pro 
vince, and runs n. till it enters the sea in lat. 
11 18 n. 

PIRACABI, a small river of the province and 
government of Paraguay, which runs w. and 
enters the Parana between those of Yaquini and 
Ocoy. 

PIRACAI, a river of the same province and 
government as the former; which enters the 
Uruguay between that of Uruguay-pita and that 
of Cavaguan. 

PIRACIACABA, a small river of the kingdom 
of Brazil; which rises in the mountains, runs 
from e. to w. and enters the Harihambu or Tiete. 



PIRAGUA, Point of, on the coast of the pro 
vince and government of Venezuela in the Nueva 
Reyno de Granada ; opposite the island of Aves. 

PIRAGUAS, BOCA DE, an entrance by which 
the lake of Atole empties itself into the great 
lake of Maracaibo by the w. side, in the province 
and ^government of this name in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada. 

PIRAGURI, or, according to others, PIRA- 
GUIRI, a settlement of the province and cap 
tainship of Para in Brazil ; on the shore of the 
river Xingu. 

PIRAJANGUARA, a river of the province 
and country of Los Amazonas ; which rises in the 
territory of the Guarinumas Indians, runs n. and 
turning its course to w. enters the Madara. 

PIRANG, a small river of the province and 
captainship of Rio Grande in Brazil. It rises 
near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea be 
tween that of Los Buzos and the Ciudad Nueva. 

PIRAPO, a small river of the province and 
captainship of Rio Janeyro, in the same kingdom 
as the former. It runs n. n. w. and enters the 
Parana-pane. On its shores stood the settle 
ment of the missions of Loreto, which were de 
stroyed by the Portuguese of San Pablo. 

PIRAPOPO, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Paraguay ; between those of Gua- 
cay and Tembes. 

PIRARA, a lake of the country of Las Ama 
zonas, between the river Maho and the sources 
of the Esquivo. It is the waste-water of an arm 
of the former. 

PIRAS, a barbarous nation, and but little 
known, inhabiting the woods near the river Ara- 
ganatuba. They go entirely naked, and main 
tain themselves by the chase, having for arms 
bows and arrows. 

PIRATINI, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Paraguay, which runs from 5. e. to 
n. w. and enters the Uruguay between those of 
Yuy and Icabaqua. 

PIRATININGA, a settlement of the pro 
vince and captainship of Rio Janeyro in Brazil ; 
one of the first founded in this kingdom at the 

beginning: of the conquest. It still remains, but 
j i j 

is very poor and reduced. 

PIRATU, a small river of the province and 
government of Paraguay ; which runs w. and en 
ters the Piratini. 

PIRATUNUNGA, a small river of the pro 
vince and captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil. 
It rises near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea 
between the Tierra and the settlement of San 
Benito. 



P I R 

[PIRAUGY, a river of Brazil, S. America, 
s. s. e. of Rio Grande and Point Negro.] 

PIRAURE, a river of the province and country 
of Las Amazonas, which rises in the territory of 
the Chirivas Indians, n. of the mountains of the 
Andes of Cuahoa, runs n. and turning e. enters 
with a large stream into the Beni. On its shores 
dwell some Portuguese, who have intruded on 
the dominions of the king of Spain, and esta 
blished themselves there. 

PIRAUSU, a mountain of the coast of Bra- 
eil, in the province and captainship of Para, 
between the point of Latigioca and the settle 
ment of Munigituba. 

PI RAY, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru. It 
rises s. of the capital, from various rivers, which, 
united, form one very large, which runs to n. n. w. 
and enters the river La Plata to encrease the 
waters of the Marmore. 

Pi RAY, another, a small river, in the pro 
vince and government of Paraguay ; which runs 
o>. and enters the Parana between those of Pa- 
ranuay and Aguaray. 

Pi RAY, a settlement of Chiriguanos Indians of 
the province and government of Santa Cruz de 
la Sierra ; between the river of its name and 
that of La Plata. 

PIRAY-GUAZU, a river of the province and 
government of Buenos Ayres, which enters the 
Caraguatay. 

PIRAYMINI, a river of the same province 
and government as the former, and which also 
enters the same. 

PIRAYU, a lake of the province and govern 
ment of Paraguay. It is at the foot of some 
mountains near the river Paraguay, to the e. of 
the city of Asuncion. It empties itself into this 
same river. 

[PIRAYU, a parish of the above province and 
government ; situate in a plain about 26 miles 
5. e. from Asuncion, in lat. 25 29 19" s. and 
long. 57 15 12" w.] 

PIRAYX, a river of the kingdom of Peru, 
which rises in the territory and country of the 
Chiriguanos Indians, on the n. w. part, laves the 
territory of the Juracares, and, after running 40 
leagues from s. to n. enters by the w. shore into 
the Guapay, with the name of Pesca, at 54 miles 
distance from the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 
in lat. 1639 s. 

PIRCA, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the cu 
racy of Atabillos Altos. 



P I R 



149 



PIRHUANI, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Pilaya and Paspaya in Peru. 

[PIRIBEBUI, a parish of the province and 
government of Paraguay ; situate in the road 
from Asuncion to Villa de Curuguaty, and about 
32 miles s. e. from the former, in lat. 25 27 54" s. 
and long. 57 4 37" >.] 

PIRINBAI, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. It rises in the island formed by the 
river Catacumbo, at its entrance into the lake of 
Maracaibo, and runs into this lake. 

PIRINOTA, a small river of the province and 
government of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia : 
one of those which enter the Cuyuni by the n. 
side. 

PIRIOS, a settlement of Dutch Guayana or 
colony of Surinam; on the shore of the river 
Marawini. 

PIRIPIRI, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil ; near the 
sea-coast. 

PIRITI, a small river of the province and go 
vernment of Buenos Ayres in Peru. 

PIRITU, a province of the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada ; bounded by that of Venezuela on the 
e. at the Cape of Codera and by that of Cumana, 
on the w. by the river and vallies of Santa Fe. 
Its length of coast between the two aforesaid 
provinces is 70 leagues ; and its climate is in 
tolerably hot during calms, but temperate when 
the breezes are up. In the time of the rains the 
heat is more intense, from the vapours which ex 
hale from the earth ; and these begin from the 
month of June and last till October. The rains 
in common years are almost daily, and always 
attended with storms of thunder and lightning. 
The days are equal. 

This province is watered by many rivers, all 
of which run into the sea : the Pertigalete, Gu- 
antar, N every, Huare, Uchire, Cupira, Paparo, 
Higuerote, and Curiepe. 

On its coast are some bays, and convenient 
ports, which abound in fish of various kinds, and 
in shell-fish, of which the natives are very fond. 
Also in the mountains are a great variety of wild 
beasts, lions, tigers, very large and fierce ; two 
kinds of bears, antas, sanos ; porcupines, rabbits, 
squirrels, and four different sorts of monkies, 
one only of which, called araguata, is eaten by 
the Indians: these are large, of a red colour, and 
have long beards like goats. Here also breed 
numbers of deer, and plenty of noxious creatures, 
such as snakes of different species, rattle-snakes, 



150 



P I R I T U. 



ant-eaters, which they here call quiagucquenoto ; 
centipes, scorpions; very large spiders, black 
and hairy ; ticks, and musquitoes of many sorts, 
so troublesome, that it is impossible to sleep 
without a musquito-net. These latter insects 
sometimes appear in a cloud, obscuring- the sun. 
Here are also reremice, which, although preju 
dicial, since they sometimes bite the tops of the 
fingers of a person asleep, have the property of 
eating up the musquitoes, there being some of 
these latter most troublesome insects, which leave 
in the puncture the seed for a worm which breeds 
within the cutis, causing incredible pain unless it 
be killed with tobacco. 

This province is no less plagued with noxious 
ants, but there is a great, rare, and excellent variety 
of birds, as of parrots, which learn with greater 
facility to speak the Indian than the Spanish lan 
guage ; coloras, which are very loquacious ; car- 
denales, of a most beautiful colour ; and another 
bird, as small as the goldfinch, of a green colour, 
with the union of the wings blue, and the beak 
curved ; which imitates the song of the other 
birds, and is called by the Indians pupitiri ; an 
other called turicha, which has the breast and 
wings bl ck and white, and the rest of the body 
orange, and which is domesticated so as to eat 
from the hand or the table. Here are also par 
tridges, which, although resembling the Euro 
pean, are much larger and of a different colour 
and note ; quails, doves, turtle-doves, geese, 
white and black turkies with yellow feet, and 
wild fowl. 

This province was peopled by Indians of the 
nations of the Cumanagotos, Palenques or Gua- 
tines, Cores, Tumuzas, Chaimas, Farautes, Cua- 
cas, Arvacas, Caribes, and others. Its conquest 
was proposed to the king by Don Juan de Urpin, 
native of the principality of Cataluna ; when it 
fell out that the natives surrendered themselves 
up, seeking a peace. This person then founded 
the city of Barcelona, at a distance from that of 
the present day. A short time after he died, and 
was succeeded by Captain Diego de Urbes ; but 
the violences offered by the Indians induced 
his majesty Philip to ask the opinion of Don 
Fernando Lobo, bishop of Puerto Ilico, to whose 
diocess the province belonged : and this dignitary 
having returned for answer, that these Indians 
were rather to be conquered by mild than coer 
cive measures, and that the peaceful influence of 
the gospel would tend more to ensure their obe 
dience than the force of arms ; the monarch 
caused to be sent thither some religious of the 



order of San Francisco, who entered the province 
in 1656 from the convent of Abrojo ; and whoj 
with their commissary Fr. Juan de Mendoza, 
who had been provincial in Florida, and with 
others who have since succeeded to the mission, 
have reduced to the Catholic faith those infidels, 
founding 40 settlements which still exist, and in 
which dwell 12,000 Indians, and are as fol 
lows : 

Nra. Sra. de la Con- 
cepcion del Piritu, 

Sta. Clara de Lapata, 

S. Antonio de Mana- 
reima, 

S. Joseph de Chigua- 
tacuar, 

S. Miguel de A rave - 



neicuar, 
Jesus, Maria y Joseph 

de Caigua Patar, 
S. Antonio de Carines, 
Ntra. Sra. del Pilar de 

Guaimacuar, 
S. Juan Evangelista 

de Aguaritacuar, 
San Buena ventura de 

Chacopata, 
Mucuras, 
San Pedro Regalado 

de Cabrutico, 
S.Diego de Chacopata, 
S. Francisco de Cutu- 

aeuar, 
San Bernardino Guer- 

tecuar, 
San Pablo de Mata- 

ruco, 
Santisimo Christo de 

Pariaguan, 

Ntra. Sra. de los Do 
lores de Quiamare, 



Sta. Cruz de Cachipo, 
Sta. Clara de Aribe, 
Encarnacion de Mus- 

tacu, 
San Joseph de Cura- 

taquiche, 

San Juan del Guarive, 
Atapiriri, 
San Francisco Solano 

del Platonar, 
San Juan Evangelista 

del Tucuyo, 
San Juan Capistrano 

de Puruey, 

Holoanillo, 

San Diego de Cua- 

cuar, 
Santo Domingo de 

Araguita, 
San Pedro Alcantara 

de Chupaquire, 
San Mateo de Ori- 

tuco, 

Santa Ana, 
Santa Barbara, 
S. Joaquin de Pariri, 
Sta. Rosa de Ocopi, * 
Nra. Sra. de Chama- 

riapa, 
S. Antonio de Guazai- 

paro. 



It takes the name of Piritu from the country or 
territory inhabited by its natives, from the abun 
dance of a species of small palm found here, the 
fruit of which resembles unripe grapes, and 
having the trunk like a cane, covered with thorns 
very black, and so strong and close, as to be used 
for pipes for smoking, it resisting very strongly 
the influence of fire. If any one wishes to in 
struct himself further on the subject of this ar 
ticle, let him see the conversion of the Indians 
of Piritu, written by the Father, Fr. Matias Ruiz 
Blanco ; also the history of Nueva Andalucia, by 



PIR 



PIS 



151 



jpr. Antonio Caulin ; both missionaries of the 
order of San Francisco in this province. 

PIRITU, the capital, is the settlement of the 
game name, with the dedicatory title of Nuestra 
Seiiora de la Concepcion : founded in 1656 by 
Fr. Juan de Mendoza, commissary of the first 
missionaries of the order of San Francisco, who 
entered to preach the gospel there. It is situate 
in a moderate-sized ravine, which is surrounded 
by a serrania, about If miles from the sea, and 
15 from the city of Barcelona. The territory is 
scant of water, and the inhabitants are obliged 
to cultivate the lands at a league s distance : but 
it abounds in exquisite fish and shell-fish, as 
also in neat cattle. It has a magnificent church, 
the best of all that bishopric. Its population, at 
the present day, amounts to 1600 souls of all 
ages, who are of good dispositions and laborious, 
constant in the faith and friendly to the Spaniards. 

PIRITU, some isles of the N. Sea, situate near 
the coast of the former province, from which 
they are named : they are two in number, desert, 
and lie vs. of the city of Barcelona. 

PIROS, a barbarous and cruel nation of In 
dians dwelling in the woods near the river Uca- 
yale, e. and n. of the rivers Yapati and Manua, 
in the province and country of Las Amazonas. 
It is very numerous, and at continual war with 
the Cunivps. These Indians were reduced to the 
Catholic religion by the Jesuits ; but they sud 
denly rose and put to death their vicar Enrico 
Ricter, and betook themselves to the woods, re 
turning to their idolatry : in 1764 their reduction 
was again undertaken, and for this purpose there 
entered amongst them some of the religious of 
San Francisco, of the province of Lima. 

PIROYOL, a small river of the province and 
government of Venezuela in the IN uevo Reyno 
de Granada : it rises near the town of Sail Se 
bastian to the n. runs w. and enters the Guarico. 

PIRQUE, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Quispicanchi, in Peru, annexed 
to the curacy of Papres. 

PIRQUI, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Santiago in the kingdom of Chile; 
near the head of the river Maipo. 

PIRRI, a settlement of the province and go 
vernment of Darien and kingdom of Tierre- 
Firme ; on the shore of the river of its name, 
near its mouth. 

PIRRI, this river rises in the mountains of 
the 5. part, runs n. and enters the Grande de Tuira. 

PIRU. See PERU. 

PIRUBIPIBA, a river of the province and 
captainship of Espiritu Santo in Brazil, It rises 



in the mountains, runs n. and enters the Para- 
catus. 

PIRUMA, a settlement of Indians of the dis 
trict of Puchacay in the kingdom of Chile ; on 
the shore of the river Hueda, and to the w. of the 
town of the Nombre de Maria. 

PIRUSAI, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito : 
it runs from s. e. to n. w. and, after collecting the 
waters of the Nambillo and Canchupi, turns its 
course to w. laves the settlement of Mindo, which 
is on its n. shore, and, after being united with the 
Chaloya, takes the name of Rio Blanco, and, 
with others, augments the stream of the Gual- 
labamba, and forms that of Esmeraldas, in lat. 27 X . 

PISAGUA, or PISAHUA, a settlement of the 
province and corregimiento of Arica in Peru, an 
nexed to the curacy of the settlement of Camifia, 
with a port in the S. Sea. In it is caught 
abundance of fish by the natives, which is carried 
for sale to the internal provinces of the kingdom : 
inlat. 19 40 s. 

PISAGUA, a small river of this province and 
kingdom, which rises in the Cordillera from three 
or four streams, which unite, runs w. and enters 
tne sea opposite the rocks. 

PISAGUA, a part of the kingdom of Quito, in 
the province of Chimbo, of the road which leads 
to the settlement of Bodegas. It is noted from 
the danger attached to it, in its being so deep of 
mud from the quantities of water. 

PISANO, or PESANO SANTA CATALINA, a 
settlement of the missions held by the religious 
order of San F/ancisco, in the province of Caxa- 
marquilla and kingdom of Peru : on the shore 
of the river of its name. 

PISANO, the aforesaid river rises in the sierra 
which divides this province from that of Luya 
and Chillaos, runs e. and enters the Maranon. 

PISBA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of 
Santiago de las Atalayas in the province and go 
vernment of San Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo 
Reyno , de Granada. It is of an hot tempera 
ture, but more mild than that of the other settle 
ments of this province : it abounds in goats, and 
is very fertile in maize, yucas^ plantains, and 
cotton, of which a portion of linen is made, and of 
which is its chief commerce : 32 leagues fromTunja. 

[PISCA, a town of the audience of Lima in 
Peru. See PiscoJ 

[PISCADORES, or FISHERS, two great rocks 
on the coast of Peru, in lat. 16. 19 s. near the 
broken gap between Attico and Ocona.] 

[PISCADORES, rocks above the town of Callao, 
in Peru j five leagues n. n. w. of Callao Port : 



152 



PIS 



they are six in number ; the largest is w. of the 
port of Ancon de Rhodas, and three leagues s. e. 
of Chaucai Port.] 

PISCATAQUA, a port of the N. Sea, on the 
coast of the province of Continent, one of those 
of New England in N. America, where its boun 
daries touch upon the boundaries of New Hamp 
shire. It is formed by the river of this name, 
which runs 40 miles, and it is the only port in 
this province : moreover, the river for 15 miles 
appears rather a ditch than a river. It has at 
its entrance the island of Newcastle, of 1| miles 
long, and 1$ wide. This river is navigable for 
large vessels nine miles above the w. arm of the 
Exeter. [This port and river are more gene 
rally known by the title of PASCATAQUA, which 
see ; also Index to Additional History concern 
ing Massachusetts. Anno 1641.] 

[PISCATAQUA, Head. See YORK COUNTY, 
Maine.] 

[PISCATAQUA, the ancient name of lands in 
the district of Maine, supposed to comprehend 
the lands known by the name of Kittery and 
jRfti*\vick I 

PISCATAWAY, a city of the County of Mid 
dlesex in New Jersey. It contains 90 families, 
who possess 40,000 acres of land ; and is situate 
on the shore of the river Raritan, 6 miles from 
its mouth. [It has, at present, upwards of 3000 
inhabitants, including 300 slaves. It is 3| miles 
n.e. of New Brunswick, and 14 s. w. of Elizabeth 
Town.] 

[PISCATAWAY, a small post town of Prince 
George s County, Maryland ; situate on the creek 
of its name which runs v). into Patowmac River, 
opposite Mount Vernon in Virginia, and 13 miles 
s. of the Federal City. The town is 1 1 miles 
s. w. of Upper Marlborough, 14 w. of Port To 
bacco, and 38 5. w. by s. of Baltimore.] 

PISCATAWAY, a small river of the province 
and colony of Virginia, which runs e. and enters 
the Rapahanock, near its mouth. 

PISCO, a town of the province and corrcgi- 
miento of lea in Peru ; founded by order of the 
Marquis of Canete on the coast of the S. Sea, 
with a good port, much frequented by vessels, 
and abounding in fish, which the Indians salt, 
and carry to sell in the interior provinces. Its 
territory is extremely fertile in wheat, oil, maize, 
and especially in vines, of which is made a wine 
much esteemed for its quality throughout Peru. 
It was formerly a large and rich town, but now 
much reduced through the misfortunes it has ex 
perienced : the first, when it was sacked by the 
Dutch pirate James Hermit Clerk (whom the 



PIS 

Ex-Jesuit Coleti names Termin, and makes aft 
Englishman), in 1624 ; afterwards by Edward 
David, in 1G86; and at last it was quite de 
molished by an earthquake in 1687, and not in 
1682, as that author asserts ; the sea completely 
inundating it, and when it was, on that account, 
removed to the place where it now stands. It 
has two convents of religious ; the one of San 
Francisco ; the other of San Juan de Dios, with 
a good hospital ; and it had a small college of 
the Jesuits: 118 miles in a s. direction from 
Lima, in long. 76 9 a. lat. 13 46 s. 

Pisco, a river of the province and corregimi 
ento of the town of Ibarra in the kingdom of 
Quito. It runs w. through the territory of the 
settlement of Pimampiro, and then unites itself 
with the river of Los Angeles, in lat. 29 n. 

PISCHILIN, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Popayan in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada, which enters the Putumayo at a small 
distance from its source. 

PISCOBAMBA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru, an 
nexed to the curacy of Ongoy. 

PISCOBAMBA, another settlement in the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Conchucos in the same 
kingdom. 

PISCOPAMBA, an ancient province of Peru 
in the time of the Incas ; now united.to that of 
Cuzco : conquered and united to the empire by 
Pachacutec, tenth emperor, after a long and 
bloody war. 

PISMANTA, a settlement of Indians of the 
province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the 
kingdom of Chile, on the skirt of the volcano of 
Coquimbo. 

PISQUE, an abundant river of the kingdom 
of Quito, which rises in the mountain or paramo 
of Cayamburu on its x>. part, collecting the waters 
which flow by the s. from the Moxanda, and, 
following a w. course, enters the Guaillabamba. 

PISQUE, LADERA DE, a part of the road bor 
dering on the skirt of the mountain below which 
runs the former river. It is of a great extent, 
but very narrow and dangerous in some parts, 
so as to have become noted. It is in the direct 
road from the town of Ibarra to Quito. 

[PISS-POT, a bay on the s. shore of the 
Straits of Magellan, in the Long Reach, eight 
leagues w. by w. of Cape Notch, lat. 53 20 s. 
long. 73 28 w.l 

PISTOLA, CANO DE, an arm which runs from 
the river S. Felipe, after that this issues from the 
Gamalotal. 

PISTOLES, a river of Canada in N. Ame- 



P I T 



P I T 



15;) 



rrca; an arm issuing from the river St. Lawrence. 
It runs n. e. in Nova Scotia or Acadia, and enters 
the lake Modovia, forming in its course various 
other small lakes. 

[PISTOLET, a large bay at the n. end of 
Newfoundland, setting up from the Straits of 
Bellisle. Its w. side is formed by Cape Norman, 
and its e. point by Burnt Cape; three leagues 
apart.] 

PISUA, a settlement of Indians of the Mos- 
cas or Muiscas nation in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada : situate on the skirt of the mountains 
of Bogota, at the entrance of the lianas of San 
Juan. It is of a very hot temperature, and al 
though its district is small, produces abundance 
of maize and cotton. 

PIT, a county of the district of Newburn in 
N. Carolina. 

PITA, a rapid river of the kingdom of Quito 
in the e. s. e. part. It flows from the mountains 
and volcano of Cotopaxi, and runs with the name 
of the Rio del Pedregal as far as Ichubamba, 
where it precipitates down a beautiful cascade, 
called the Fall of Ichubamba ; and it then runs 
to fertilize the valley or llanura of Chillo with 
the name of Pita, passes near the spot where 
stands the royal college of Quito, called De 
Allangasi, and, at the foot of the mountain of 
Guangopolo, unites itself with the river Ama- 
guana, and in this place takes the name of Las 
Juntas. These two rivers, united, form the 
Tumbaco, which makes to itself a new channel, 
penetrating a hill of stone so as to form a natu 
ral bridge. The spot of Las Juntas is in lat, 
IV s. 

PITAHUA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Filcas Huaman in Peru, annexed 
to the curacy of Huancapi. 

PITANCrUI, u settlement of the province and 
captainship of Rey in Brazil ; on the share and 
at the source of the river Tubagi. 

PITANTORA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimienlo of Chayanta or Charcas, in 
Peru. 

PITANZA, a settlement of the French in 
their possessions of the island St. Domingo : the 
Spaniards burnt and destroyed it in 1691. 

PITAYO, a settlement of the province and 
government of Popayan in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. 

[PITCAIRN S Island, in the S. Pacific Ocean, 
is six or seven miles in length and two in breadth. 
It has neither river nor harbour ; but has some 
mountains which may be seen 15 leagues off to 

VOL. IV. 



the *. e. All the s. side is lined with rocks. Lat. 
25 2 s. long. 133 21 w. The variation of the 
needle off this island, in 1767, was 2 46 e.l 

PITI, a settlement of the ancient province of 
Llanahuara in Peru : of a very cold temperature, 
and of a barren territory, though abounding in 
good pastures, in which breed plenty of cattle, 
the best in that province. 

PITIC, a settlement of the province and cor 
regimiento of Cotabambas in Peru. 

PITIPITI, VIEGO, a settlement of the corre 
gimiento and province of Cercado in Peru. It is 
as it were a suburb of Callao, and in which dwell 
only some Indian fishermen. 

PITIPITI, another settlement in this province, 
with the additional title of Nuevo, to distinguish 
it from the other, to which it is very near. 

PITIQUI, SAN DIEGO DE, a settlement of the 
province and government of Sonora in Nueva 
Espana : on the shore of a river of the same 
name, between the settlements of Uquitoa and 
Caborca ; where there is a fortress furnished 
with troops for the defence of that country. 

PITIQUI, the aforesaid river, runs w. and en 
ters the sea in the Gulf of California. 

PITIQUIN, a settlement of the same pro 
vince and government as the former : distinct 
from it, if perchance it be not a mistake of Don 
Joseph de Villa-senor, in his chart of Nueva 
Espana and its internal provinces, published un 
der the title of Iconismo Hidrografico. 

PITO, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Darien and kingdom of Tierra Fierme, 
which rises in the mountains of the n. part, and 
enters the sea between the Bay of Calidonia and 
Cape Tiburon. 

[PITON Point, GREAT, the s. w. point of 
the island of St. Lucia, in the W. Indies, and 
the most w. point of the island. It is on a kind 
of a peninsula, the n. part of which is called 
Point Chimatchin.] 

PITOS, SAN Luis DE Los, a fort of the pro 
vince and government of Tucuman in Peru ; on 
the shore of the river of Pasage or Salado, and 
n. w. of the settlement of Nuestra Seiiora del 
Pilar, to restrain the infidel Indians. 

PITRACHIQUI, a settlement of the missions 
which were held by the Jesuits in the province of 
Taraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya : it 
is 36 leagues w. s. w. of the town and real of 
mines of San Felipe de Chiguagua, and has in 
its vicinity some large estates, called Teubachi, 
Cogimapuchi, and Lechuguilla. 

[PITT, a county of N. Carolina, in Newberw 



154 



P I T 



district, bounded n. e. by Beaufort, and s. w. by 
Glasgow. It contains 8275 inhabitants, includ 
ing 2367 slaves. Chief town, Greenville.] 

[PiTT, Fort, formerly Fort du Quesne. See 
PITTSBURG.] 

[PITTSBOROUGH, or PITTSBURG, the ca 
pital of Chatham County, N. Carolina, is situate 
on a rising ground, and contains a court-house, 
gaol, and about 40 or 50 houses. The country 
in its environs is rich and well cultivated ; and 
is much resorted to from the maritime parts of 
the state in the sickly months. The Hickory 
Mountain is not far distant, and the air and 
water here are as pure as any in the world. It 
is 21 miles s. of Hilsborough, 29 w. of Raleigh, 
and 39 n. n. w. of Fayetteville.] 

[PITTSBURGH, a post-town of Pennsylva 
nia, the capital of Alleghany County, situate on 
a delightful plain running to a point. The Al 
leghany, which is a beautiful clear stream, on 
the n. and the Monongahela, which is a muddy 
stream, on the s. uniting below where Fort du 
Quesne stood, form the majestic Ohio, which is 
there a quarter of a mile wide ; 1188 miles from 
its confluence with the Missisippi, and 500 above 
Limestone, in Kentucky, including the windings. 

This town was laid out on Penn s plan, in the 
year 1765, on the e. bank of the Monongahela, 
about 200 yards from Fort du Quesne, which 
Was taken from the French, by the British, in 
1760, and who changed its name to Fort Pitt, in 
honour of the late Earl of Chatham. It contains 
between 150 and 200 houses, a gaol, court-house, 
Presbyterian church, a church for German Lu 
therans, an academy, two breweries, and a dis 
tillery. It has been lately fortified, and a party 
of troops stationed in it. By an enumeration 
made Dec. 1795, it appears that there were then 
1353 inhabitants in this borough; the number 
has since increased to upwards of 2000, the 
most opulent of whom are Irish. 

The manufactories are described by Mr. Ashe 
as being various and flourishing, particularly 
that of glass ; and ship-building is practised to a 
considerable extent. In October, 1806, there 
were several vessels of 350 tons on the stocks. 
Through Pittsburg is carried on an extensive 
trade to the distant ports of Philadelphia and 
New Orleans. Here are storekeepers, who ex 
change the produce of the surrounding coun 
tries, within a circle which embraces a space of 
not less than 5650 miles. 

The hills on the Monongahela side are very 
high, extend down the Ohio, and abound with 



P 1 T 

coals. Before the revolution, one of these coal- 
hills, it is said, took fire, and continued burning 
eight years, when it was effectually extinguished 
by part of the hill giving way and filling up the 
crater. On the back side of the town, from 
Grant s Hill, (so called from his army being 
here cut to pieces by the Indians) there is a 
beautiful prospect ot the two rivers, wafting 
along their separate streams till they meet and 
join at the point of the town. On every side, 
hills covered with trees, appear to add simplicity 
and beauty to the scene. 

At the distance of 100 miles up the Alleghany 
is a small creek, which, in some places, boils or 
bubbles forth, like the waters of Hell Gate, in 
New York State, from which proceeds an oily 
substance, deemed by the people of this country 
singularly beneficial, and an infallible cure for 
weakness in the stomach, for rheumatic pains, 
for sore breasts in women, bruises, &c. The 
oil is gathered by the country people and In 
dians, who boil it and bring it to Pittsburg for 
sale ; and there is scarcely a single inhabitant 
who does not possess a bottle of it, and is able 
to recount its many virtues, and its many cures. 

The navigation of the Ohio, in a dry season, 
is rather troublesome from Pittsburg to the Min- 
go Town, about 75 miles by water, but from 
thence to the Mississippi there is always water 
enough for barges carrying from 100 to 200 tons 
burden, such as are used on the river Thames, 
between London and Oxford, viz. from 100 to 
to 120 feet keel, 16 to 18 feet in breadth, four 
feet in depth, and when loaded drawing about 
three feet water. During the season of the floods 
in the spring, vessels of 100 or 200 tons burden 
may go from Pittsburg to the sea with safety, in 
16 or 17 days, although the distance is upwards 
of 2000 miles. It is 132 miles w. of Carlisle ; 
233 in the same direction from Philadelphia; 
163 n. w. of Washington in Maryland. Lat. 40 
27 n. Long. 80 o>.] 

[PITTSF1ELD, a pleasant post-town of Mas 
sachusetts, situate on the w. line of Berkshire 
County, six miles n. of Lenox, 28 w. of North 
ampton, 104 w. of Boston, and 22 s. e. of Al 
bany. This township, and those n. and s. of it, 
on the banks of Housatonic river, are in a rich 
vale from one to seven miles wide. It was in 
corporated in 1761, and contains 1992 inhabit 
ants. The place of worship is a very handsome 
edifice, with a bell and cupola, from which there 
is a charming prospect.] 

[PITTSFIELD, a township of New Hampshire, 



P I T 

situate in Rockingham County. It was incorpo 
rated in 1782, and contains 888 inhabitants. It 
was taken from Chichester, on Suncook river, 
. e. of Concord.] 

[PITTSFIELD, the north-easternmost township 
of Rutland County, Vermont, containing 49 in 
habitants. It has Chittenden township on the 
*. w. and Philadelphia, in Addison County, on 
the n. wJ\ 

[PITTSFORD, a township of Vermont, in 
Rutland County.] 

[PITT s Grove, a village in Salem County, 
New Jersey.] 

[PITT S Island, on the n. w. coast of N. Ame 
rica, lies near the main land, about half way 
from Dixon s Entrance to Prince William s Sound, 
and between Cross Sound and Port Banks.] 

[PITTQUOTTING, an Indian settlement in 
the N. W. Territory, at the mouth of Huron 
river, which empties into Lake Erie.] 

[PITTSTOWN, a post-town of the district of 
Maine, situate in Lincoln County, on Kennebeck 
river, five miles below Hallowell Hook, 15 n. 
by w. of Wiscasset, 49 n. by e. of Portland, and 
123 n. by e. of Boston. It contained, in 1790, 
605 inhabitants. The w. part, called Cobisey or 
Cobesey, has an episcopal church, with an an 
nual income of 28 guineas, given by Dr. Gardi 
ner for the support of an episcopal minister.] 

[PITTSTOWN, a post town of New Jersey, in 
Hunterdon County, on the w. head waters of 
Rariton river, 10 miles e. by n. of Alexandria 
on Delaware river, 23 n. of Trenton, and 32 
n. n. e. of Philadelphia.] 

[PITTSTOWN, a township of New York, in 
Rensselaer County. It is bounded s. by Rens- 
selaerwyck and Stephentown, and n. by Schac- 
tekoke and Cambridge. In 1790 it contained 
2447 inhabitants, including 33 slaves ; 419 of 
its inhabitants, in 1796, were electors.] 

[PITTSYLVANIA, a county of Virginia, be 
tween the Blue Ridge and the Tide Waters; 
bounded s. by the state of N. Carolina, and n. 
by Campbell County. It contains 11,252 inha 
bitants, including 5932 slaves.] 

PITUHUANCA, a settlement of the province 
and corrcgimiento of Cochabambos, in Peru. 

PITU1, or PIRITU, some islands of the N. 
Sea, contiguous to the coast of the kingdom of 
Tierra Firme, in the province of Barcelora, and 
government of Cumana. There are six, and 
serve as a sheltering place for Dutch traders, 
which go to carry on an illicit commerce on that 
coast, opposite the settlement of Piritu. 
PITUMARCA, a settlement of the province 



P I U 



155 



and corregimiento of Tinta, or Canes and Canches, 
in Peru, annexed to the curacy of the settlement 
of Checacupi. 

PITRES, a river of the island of Guadeloupe, 
which runs w. and enters the sea in the bay of 
the Petit Cul de Sac. On its shores is a castle 
or fort, to defend the entrance of the port. 

PIURA, a province and corregimiento of the 
kingdom of Peru, in the bishopric of Truxillo : 
bounded n. e. by the province of Loxa, of the 
kingdom of Quito ; e. by that of Jaen de Braca- 
moros, of the same kingdom ; s. e. by the district 
of Huambos, of the province of Caxamarca; w. by 
the S. Sea, and n. w. by the Bay of Guayaquil. 
Its length is 66 leagues from n. to s. including the 
unpeopled tract of Sechura, and 14 in width. 

Its temperature is that of the other provinces 
of the coast, of no very intense heat, but mode 
rately cool and healthy, with the exception of 
that part which looks to the sierra, where the 
heat is felt somewhat stronger, but not so much 
as in the cordillera of the s. part of the king 
dom, as the country is not so elevated from Con- 
chucos towards the n. as in other parts where the 
cordillera runs. It abounds greatly in maize, 
cotton, sugar, which they make here of excellent 
quality ; pita, wheat, vetches, French beans, 
melons, quinces, and other European fruits ; but 
its principal commerce consists in soap and tan 
ned leather, which are carried for sale to the 
other provinces of the kingdom, to Quito, and 
exported to Panama. Here are also plenty of 
goats, herds of which are found over a great part 
of the province of Sana, and of the fat of which 
they make soap. There are many wild beasts in 
the woods : and these are crowded with various 
trees, of different sorts of wood, though those 
which abound most are the oaks, which are very 
large, strong, and incorruptible; the bridges of 
the river Lambayeque and those of other bridges 
being built on piles of the same timber, and 
which have lasted since the conquest of the king 
dom : on the acorns of these trees the goats 
fatten. Near the settlement of Amotape, to 
wards the coast, is a mine of naphta or bitumen, 
which is black and durable, and serves for ca 
reening vessels in lieu of pitch, although it be 
commonly used mixed with this. 

This province is watered by some rivers, which 
are considerable only in the months that it rains 
in the sierra. The principal are, the Tumbez 
towards the n. the Chira to the s. of the pro 
vince, and that which passes by the capital. The 
two latter have their source in the cordillera, to 
wards the province of Loxa, and empty them- 



15(5 



P I U 



P L A 



selves into the S. Sea. The latter is near the 
settlement of Sechura. On the shore of its dis 
trict is found quantities of the fish called tollo, 
which is the cod of Peru and Quito. It has a 
tolerably good port called Paita, where vessels 
arriving from Panama and other parts come to 
anchor. The inhabitants of this province amount 
to 11,000, divided into 26 settlements. The 
corregidor had a repartimiento of 50,000 dollars, 
and it paid an alcabala of 400 annually. 

The capital is of the same name with the de 
dicatory title of San Miguel: the first town 
founded in Peru by Don Francisco Pizarro, in 
1531, and where was erected the first temple 
wherein w r orship was offered to the true God in 
S. America. Its first situation was in the llanura 
of Targosala, from whence it was, a little after, 
translated to the part where it now stands, in an 
extensive sandy llanura, the former spot being 
unhealthy, which is not the case with this latter ; 
for it is, besides, of a delightful climate, with fine 
pure air, particularly for such as are recover 
ing from the venereal disease, which is cured 
with great ease in its hospital; so that patients 
come hither from the other provinces for this 
purpose, as also to benefit by the waters of the 
river, which runs amongst woods of zarzaparilla. 
Its territory is very fertile, and produces much 
Cotton, sugar, pita, maize, and other fruits. Its 
population consists of upwards of 7000 souls, 
and amongst them are many noble and grand 
families. Here are convents of the religious 
orders of San Francisco, La Merced, and an hos 
pital of the Bethlemite fathers. The church of 
Nuestra Senora del Carmen was destined for the 
Jesuits of the province of Quito, who had found 
ed a college there. It is the residence of the 
corregidor, and of the treasury and royal chests, 
and their ministers, who resides sometimes in the 
city, and at other times at the port of Paita. It 
suffered much from an earthquake in 1619: 480 
miles n. n. w. from Lima, 208 n. n. w. of Truxillo, 
on which it depends in ecclesiastical concerns, and 
not on Quito, as Mr. Martiniere, in the word 
San Miguel, asserts; 25 from Paita, and seven 
e. from the sea. It never rains here, and it is in 
lat. 5 11 2" s. and long. 80 36" w. The set 
tlements, of which its corregimiento are com 
posed, are 

Piura, Paita, 

La Punta, Colan, 

Morropon, Asiento de Chiran, 

Suipira, Tumbez, 

Catacaos-y Amotape, 

Sechura, Olmos, 



Sondorillo r 

Sondor, 

Chocan, 

Pacaipampa, 

Asiento de Chalacos, 

Frias, 

Cumbicos. 



Motupe, 

Salas, 

Penachi, 

Caiiares, 

Huarmacas, 

Huancabamba, 

Acabaca, 

The aforesaid river flows down from the 
mountains of Guanca-bamba to the e. and col 
lects in its course the waters of the Gualcas, 
Sauri, Morropon, and Frias, running to the n. w> 
It then turns w. towards the part called Corral 
Quemado, and from thence to s. w. It laves the 
capital, which is on its w. shore, and to which, 
in its floods, it lias done much mischief. In the 
spring it is nearly dry, and runs under the 
ground ; w r here wells are made to extract its 
waters. It disembogues itself into the Gulf of 
Sechura, by the s. part, in lat. 5 32" s. 

PIURASIRENTE, a settlement of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Caxamarquilla, in 
Peru. 

PIXCE, SAN MIGUEL DE, a settlement of the 
province and corregimento of Sana, in Peru, an 
nexed to the curacy of Chiclayo. 

PIZAC, a settlement of the province and corre 
gimiento of Calca and Lares, in Peru. 

PLACEIROS, NUESTRA SENORA DE LOS, a 
settlement of the province and captainship of Per- 
nambuco, in Brazil ; on the shore of the river 
San Angel. 

[PLACENTIA. See PLAISANCE.] 

[PLACENTIA Bay, on the s. coast of New 
foundland Island, opens between Chapeau-Rouge 
Point westward, and Cape St. Mary s on the e. 
49 miles apart. It is very spacious ; has several 
islands towards its head, and forms a good har 
bour for ships ; and is frequented by such vessels 
as are bound either into the gulf or river of 
St. Lawrence. The port-town, which gives name 
to the bay, is on the e. shore; 267 miles to 
the e. of the island of Cape Breton ; 40 miles w. 
by s. of St. John s, and in lat. 47 15" n. 1 

PLACER, a small island of the N. Sea, in 
the Gulf of Panama ; one of those called De 
Perlas, from the pearl fisheries carried on here. 
It is w. of the island of Rey, from which it is 
four leagues distant. 

PLACER, some shoals of the Archipelago of the 
Antilles. They are two small rocks, one opposite 
the point of Galera, off the coast of Cartagena,, 
and another opposite the cape of La Vela. 

PLACER, a large island of sand in the N. 
Sea, in this rhumb, off the island of Cuba. 

PLACER, another shoal or Jarge sand bank* 



P L A 



P L A 



covered with water, near the coast of the pro 
vince and government of Nicaragua, in the 
kingdom of Guatemala, between the shoals of 
Quitasuefios and La Serranilla. 

PL ACER, another, between the Caiman Grande 
and the coast of the province of Yucatan. 

PLACERES, some rocky shoals of the S. Sea, 
at the mouth of the Straits of Magellan, between 
the capes of Virgen Maria and Espiritu Santo. 

[PLAIN DU NORD, a town on the n. side of 
the island of St. Domingo, situate at the s. e. 
corner of Bay de 1 Acul, and on the road from 
Cape Francois to Port de Paix, nearly five 
leagues w. by s. of the Cape, and 13 s. e. by e. of 
Port de Paix.] 

PLAINE GRANDE, an extensive and lofty 
llanura of Canada, between the two lakes Huron 
and Michigan. It extends from n. to s. and is 
inhabited by Nicariariages Indians, which is one 
of the seven allied nations. 

PLAIN GRANDE, a small river of the island of 
Guadaloupe, which rises in the mountains, on 
the s. e. part, runs to this rhumb, and enters the 
sea between those of Caillou and Boursaul. 

[PLAINFIELD, a township of Massachusetts, 
county of Hampshire. It was incorporated in 
1785, and contains 458 inhabitants. It is 120 
miles w. by n. of Boston.] 

[PLAINFIELD, a township of Northampton, 
county of Pennsylvania.] 

[PLAINFIELD, a township inthew. w. corner 
of Cheshire County, New Hampshire, on the e. 
bank of Connecticut river, which separates it 
from Hartland in Vermont. It was incorporated 
in 1761, and contains 1024 inhabitants.] 

[PLAINFIELD, a township in the s. e. part of 
Windham County, Connecticut, on the e. side of 
Quinabaug river, which divides it from Brook 
lyn and Canterbury. It is about 14 miles n. e. of 
Norwich, has two Presbyterian churches, an 
academy, and was settled in 1689.] 

PLAISANCE, or PLACENTIA, a settlement 
of the s. coast of Newfoundland, with a cele 
brated bay and port, much frequented by vessels 
employed in the cod-fishery. The entrance is by 
a narrow channel, through which not more than 
one vessel can pass. It is of sufficient depth for 
large vessels, and is capable of containing 150 in 
perfect security, well sheltering them from the 
winds ; also, the fishing in it is as tranquil as in 
a river. In front of the channel is a road, which 
is a league and an half in extent, but much ex 
posed to the w. winds, which are frequent here. 
The narrow part of the channel is caused by a 
chain of dangerous rocks, to avoid running foul 



of which, it is requisite to bear upon the star 
board in entering the bay. In one of them the 
French had a fort, called San Louis. The cur- 
rents here are very violent. The coast, on which 
they fish for cod, is about a league in extent, 
between two rapid currents ; one of which, situ 
ate to the 5. w. is divided by a river which issues 
from the channel, and forms a sort of lake, called 
the Little Bay, and in which many salmon are 
caught. On this coast, or strand, is carried on 
a fishery, for lading 60 ships; and on another, 
called Little Strand, is caught the fish accus 
tomed to lie nearest the coast. 

Both these fisheries are carried on without the 
least danger. On the shore of the aforesaid 
stream the French have built some cabins, and, 
not very distant from these, is situate the settle 
ment which was ceded to the English, with the 
fishery, in the peace of Utrecht. 

PLAISANCE, another settlement and parish, of 
the French, in the island of St. Domingo, on the 
shore of the three rivers, near the n. coast. In 
its vicinity is a mine of sulphur. 

PLAISANT MONT, a mountain of the pro 
vince of Georgia, in N. America; on the shore 
of the river Savannah. 

PLAL, a river of the district of BOroa, in the 
kingdom of Chrle, which runs nff. and incorpo 
rates itself with the Hueco, changing its name to 
that of Quepe. 

[PLANTAIN Garden River, at the e. end of 
the island of Jamaica, and n. by w. of Point. 
Morant. There is a kind of bay at its mouth ; 
and on it, within land, is the town of Bath.] 

PLASENCIA, a city of the province of Los 
Panches, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, 
founded by Sebastian de Benalcazar, in 1539, on 
the shore of the river Grande de la Magdalena, 
and on the n. of that of Maraquita. It is at pre 
sent destroyed, and consists only of a few houses 
of poor Indians. 

[PLASTOW, orPLAisxow, a township in the 
s. e. part of Rockingham County, New Hamp 
shire, separated from Haverhill in Massachu 
setts, (of which it was formerly a part) by the 
s. state line. It was incorporated in 1749, and 
contains 521 inhabitants ; 12 or 14 miles s. w. of 
Exeter, and 30 s. w. of Portsmouth.] 

PLATA, a city, the capital of the province 
and archbishopric of Charcas in Peru. See Chu- 
quisaca. 

[The jurisdiction of this name is 200 leagues in 
length, and 100 in breadth, extending on each 
side the famous river La Plata. This city i 
seated upon the river Chimbo; but a full de* 



158 



PLATA. 



scription of it is given under the title Chuqui- 
saca, a name by which it is more properly known, 
and to which we have referred; the later his 
tory, however, of the above-mentioned jurisdic 
tion, will be found at the end of the article LA 
PLATA River.] 

PLATA, with the dedicatory title of S. Sebas 
tian, another city of the province and govern 
ment of Popayan in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra 
nada; founded by Sebastian Quintero, in 1551, 
and not in 1538, by Sebastian de Benalcazar, as 
the Ex-Jesuit Coleti asserts, in a beautiful and 
extensive llano called De Cambis, in the territory 
and country of the Jalcones Indians, on the shore 
of the river Guali, which laves it on the s. and 
12 miles from the river Magdalena. It is the 
head of the district of a temperature so hot, that 
even in the winter the heat is felt here. It is 
fertile and abundant in fruits and silver-mines, 
which afford its principal commerce, although it 
is nevertheless poor and reduced; and yet there 
are in its population some families of distinction : 
46 miles e. from Popayan, 165 5. s. w. of Santa 
Fe, and 35 w. n. w. of Timana, in lat. 2 24 >?. 
and long. 75 46 / w. 

PLATA, a large, abundant, and navigable 
river of S. America ; one of the largest known 
after the Maraiion or Amazonas, and giving its 
name to some very extensive provinces : disco 
vered by the pilot Juan Diaz de Solis in 1515; 
who navigated it as far as a small island in lat. 
34 23 30" s. and who, having seen on the shores 
some Indian cabins, had the boldness to disem 
bark with ten men ; when they were all put to 
death at the hands of those infidels. Five years 
afterwards there arrived here Sebastian Goboto, 
who passed from the service of the English to 
that of the Spaniards, by the former of whom 
he was sent to the discovery of the Strait of Ma 
gellan. But he, finding himself impeded in his 
views by an insurrection of the people, was un 
der the necessity of entering the river La Plata : 
by this he navigated as far as the island disco 
vered by Solis, and to which he gave the name 
of San Gabriel, Seven leagues above this island 
he discovered a river called San Salvador, and an 
other at 30 leagues distance, which the natives 
called Sarcana ; where he built a fort, which he 
named the Tower of Gaboto. He then pursued 
his voyage as far as the conflux of the rivers Pa 
rana and Paraguay, and leaving the former to 
the w. entered by the second, and had a battle 
with the Indians, in which he lost 25 men ; but suc 
ceeded in routing the infidels, taking from them 
many valuables of silver, which these had brought 



from Peru ; and he thus, supposing that there 
was an abundance of this metal in the territories 
washed by this river, called it Rio la Plata (Ri 
ver of Silver); whereby it lost the name of Solis, 
first given it by the discoverer. 

This river receives in its extensive course the 
water of various other very large rivers, so that 
it is accustomed to have such excessive high 
floods as to inundate the country for many leagues, 
fertilizing it, however, in the same manner as 
the Nile. When this rise occurs, the Indians 
take their families and effects, and retire to their 
canoes, where they live till the waters subside, 
and that they can return to their habitations. 
The current of this river, when it runs into the 
sea, is so rapid and violent, that its waters, which 
are clear and salutary, maintain themselves sweet, 
without mixing with the waters of the ocean, 
for many leagues from its entrance. It abounds 
with an incredible multitude of fish, and on its 
shores are many most beautiful birds. The dis 
tance from the conflux of the Paraguay and Pa 
rana to its mouth, is about 200 leagues by the 
course of the river, the whole space being filled 
with the most delightful islands, and being na 
vigable for the largest vessels. 

The country on either side of the river is most 
extensive and level, but so scantily supplied with 
fountains, lakes, or streams, as to render travel 
ling very precarious. It produces every species 
of American and European fruit, as also grain 
and seeds, cotton, sugar, honey, &c. but what 
is its chief recommendation is its excessively 
large breeds of cattle, inasmuch as it abounds 
in excellent pastures, from the llanuras extending 
for upwards of 200 leagues. The first heads of 
cattle brought from Europe have increased to 
such a degree, that it is impossible for any one 
to define those which belong to himself; from 
whence it arises that all are in common, and 
every one takes such as he may want, the num 
ber being so extraordinary, that, for lading all 
the vessels which come to Spain, many thousand 
animals are killed merely for the sake of their 
hides, the flesh being left to be devoured by the 
wild beasts and the birds of prey. Those who 
want milk, go out and profit by as many cows as 
they require, driving home with them the calves : 
nor is there a want of an equal abundance of 
horses ; the which are common to all, with no 
other expense or trouble than that of catching 
them : the birds and animals of the chase are 
also equally numerous, and the partridges, which 
are as large as the hens of Europe, are not un- 
frequently knocked down with sticks. In short, 



PLATA. 



there is nothing wanting in this country but salt 
and fuel ; the first, however, is brought in vessels, 
and, for the second, large plantations of peach- 
trees are made, which, from the richness of the 
soil, produce extremely well. 

This river is at its mouth about 60 leagues 
wide ; the said mouth being formed by the Cape 
San Antonio on the 5. part, and that of Santa 
Maria on the n. From thence as far as Buenos 
Ayres it preserves its name, being afterwards 
called the Parana. Although, as we have before 
observed, it is, the whole of it, navigable, it has 
many shoals and rocks, on which many vessels 
have been wrecked, especially during the preva 
lence of some very impetuous winds, which they 
here call pamperos ; and which blow from w. to 
s.w. acquiring from the shore so much the greater 
force in proportion to the smallness of the ob 
stacles they find to impede their course ; for 
they sweep over llanuras of 200 leagues with 
out being interrupted either by mountains or 
trees. On some occasions, though not very fre 
quently, a regular hurricane takes place here ; 
the which, if it takes its course along the river, 
no vessel can resist, but its masts are immediately 
snapped in twain, as has happened to some ships 
even when their top-masts and yard-arms were 
struck. In this river the storms are more fre 
quent than at sea. It laves the cities of Buenos 
Ayres, the colony of Sacramento, which belonged 
to the Portuguese, and Monte Video. It has 
some very good ports, and its mouth is in lat. 

[In continuation of the description of the ri 
ver La Plata, we shall first give some extracts 
respecting the jurisdiction of this name from the 
work of Mr. Mawe, and, afterwards, a concise 
account of the late revolutions with which that 
jurisdiction has been affected Mr. Mawe thus 
describes the approach to this mighty river : 

" Wearied and exhausted by frequent calms 
under a vertical sun, we were at length relieved 
by a breeze ; and crossing the line at long. 23 w. 
had a favourable passage to the mouth of the 
great river Plata, our entrance into which we 
were enabled to judge from the muddy colour of 
the water and from numerous flig-hts of sea birds, 
long before we saw land. 

" Our passage," he continues, " was impeded 
by a strong s. w. gale, in these parts called a 
pampero, which blew for several days, and 
obliged us to lay the vessel-to during the whole 
time ; we shipped so much water, that our boats 
were hourly in danger of being washed away, 
and, owing to the stupid carelessness of a Ge- 



noese sailor, our cabin was at one time half-filled. 
The gale at length ceased ; a breeze sprung up 
to the e. and we made all possible sail : after 
running a s. w. course for two days, we found 
soundings at 35 fathoms water, and on the second 
day following, at noon, saw the high land of 
Maldonado at a distance of about nine leagues, 
and the Isle of Lobos four or five leagues ahead. 
Passing through the channel which divides them, 
we encountered a strong breeze, and soon after 
wards found ourselves in a very critical situa 
tion ; a dark night, a heavy and increasing gale 
of wind, the violent uncertain currents of the 
river, the English bank to the s. and the Isle of 
Flores to the w. n. w. The captain knew nothing 
of the navigation, and I was obliged to com 
mand instead of advising. I caused the vessel 
to be laid-to, under the smallest and most 
manageable sail possible ; kept the lead conti 
nually going, and wore the vessel every two 
hours. The night was one of the most dreadful 
I ever witnessed ; the moon was overcast by 
heavy black clouds pouring torrents of rain, ac 
companied with terrible lightning and loud thun 
der; the waves, owing to the shallowness of the 
water (seven and eight fathoms), appeared like 
breakers. At daylight our prospect was not 
much bettered ; a dense fog hindered us from 
seeing at all beyond the vessel, and the conflict 
of the wind with the current rendered the waves 
still more boisterous. In the course of the 
morning the thunder moderated, but the stormy 
rain continued : no object was distinctly visible ; 
hidden rocks and sand-banks lay on each side of 
us ; and we were approaching a channel not a 
mile wide, rendered more formidable by a strong 
and ever-shifting current. In consequence of 
incessant exertion I was in a most exhausted 
state, but the captain and crew were incapable 
of affording me a moment s respite ; danger 
seemed to have deprived them of their reason, 
and they looked on all that passed with a fearful 
and senseless apathy. I had often had occasion 
to observe the intrepid constancy and activity of 
British seamen in similar emergencies, and I 
could not but be struck with the contrast. We 
shipped several heavy seas which had the ap 
pearance of broken-water, and hence it again 
became necessary to keep the lead continually 
going. At eleven A. M. on finding that we 
shoaled our water extremely fast, being already 
in four fathom and over very hard ground, I was 
convinced that we were at the head of the English 
bank, and ^therefore immediately wore on the 
other tack * toward the island of Flores. The] 



U50 



PLATA. 



[fog prevented us from taking a meridianal ob 
servation, but at three P. M. it cleared, and to 
our great joy we saw Monte Video before us at 
tour leagues distance. Our seamen now took 
heart, and began to be more expert ; we made 
all sail ; but the wind gradually declining, and 
a strong current setting directly from the har 
bour, we were obliged in the evening to let 
go our anchor about two leagues outside the 
port." 

Mr. Mawe, owing to his short stay at Buenos 
Ayres, had no time to make any geological re 
searches ; indeed the country behind it, being a 
vast plain, without any traces of rock, did not 
offer much scope for such an undertaking. With 
the exception of a part of the bank near the 
anole, which is of granite, he scarcely found an 
indurated substance during the whole route. 
Judging from the shells and other marine pro 
ductions which are occasionally found in the 
pampas he should conclude that those extensive 
level districts have formed, at some period, the 
bottom of the river, and that they have been 
left dry by the progressive precipitation of matter 
and the deepening of the Rio de la Plata in its 
present channel through a long course of ages. 
A circumstance which seems to support this con 
jecture is, that the land continually gains upon 
the river, and that at those times when the wind 
blows from the Pampas, a considerable extent of 
the bank on the side of Buenos Ayres is left dry. 

The population of Buenos Ayres and its im 
mediate suburbs, exclusive of the country in its 
vicinity, has been ascertained to amount to up 
wards of 60,000 souls. The proportion of females 
to males is said to be as four to one ; but if we 
take into consideration that many men are almost 
daily arriving from Europe, as well as from the 
S. American provinces, and that under the old 
government neither the militia nor the marine 
was recruited from the mass of the population, 
we shall find reason to conclude that the pro 
portion of the sexes is not so unequal. In the in 
terior the excess of males is very great, for as the 
lands are granted in large tracts only, and but 
poorly cultivated, there is no encouragement for 
the labouring classes to marry and settle upon 
them. The poor are compelled to remain single 
from the very bare resources on which they depend 
for subsistence, and are accustomed to consider the 
married state as fraught with heavy burdens and 
inevitable misfortunes. It is not uncommon to 
find estates larger than an English county with 
hardly more than 100 labourers upon them, who 
eubsJst upon the sale of a little corn, which each 



is permitted to grow for himself, but only to 
such an extent as a single man can plough. 

The various races which compose the popula 
tion are as follow : 

1. Legitimate Spaniards or Europeans. In 
Buenos Ayres there are about 3000 ; in the in 
terior the number is very trifling, except in 
Potosi, which, being a mining country, contains 
many. 

2. Creoles ; legitimate descendants from Spa 
niards or Europeans. 

3. Mestizos ; the offspring of European and 
Indian parents. 

4. Indians; almost all of whom have some 
mixture of Spanish blood. 

5. Brown mixtures of Africans and Europeans. 

6. Mulattoes of various degrees. 

All these races intermix without restraint, so 
that it is difficult to define the minor gradations, 
or to assign limits to the ever-multiplying varie 
ties. Few families are entirely exempt from 
characteristics of Indian origin, physical as well 
as moral. It is well known that in the Spanish 
colonies little regard is now paid to purity of 
blood ; the various regulations for preserving 
the races distinct have gradually become obsolete. 
This may be regarded as a momentary evil ; but 
may it not be conducive in the long-run to the 
good of society, by concentrating the interests of 
the various classes, which in remaining separate 
might one day endanger the stability of the go 
vernment, as has been the case in the French 
colony of St. Domingo ? 

In describing the orders of society in Buenos 
Ayres, it is necessary to premise that we class 
them, not by degrees of birth, rank, or profession, 
but by the relative estimation in which they 
stand, in point of property, of public usefulness. 

According to this scale, the first which comes 
under consideration is the commercial class. 
Every person belonging to it, from the huckster 
at the corner of the street, to the opulent trader 
in his warehouse, is dignified by the appellation 
of merchant, yet few individuals among them 
can lay just claim to that title, as they are 
wanting in that practical knowledge so essential 
in commercial dealings. They are averse to all 
speculation and enterprise ; the common routine 
of their business is to send orders to Spain for 
the articles they need, and to sell by retail at an 
exorbitant profit ; beyond this they have hardly 
a single idea, and it has been said that their 
great reason for opposing a free trade with 
foreign nations is a consciousness of their 
own mercantile inexperience. The more con-] 



PLATA. 



1(51 



fsiderable houses are almost all branches of some 
European establishment ; few of the Creoles 
have any regular trade. Those among them how 
ever, who engage in it are much more liberal in 
their transactions than the old Spaniards, and are 
observed to make less rapid fortunes, for their 
manly and independent character makes them 
spurn a miserable economy, and disdain to assume 
that church-going practice which must be ob 
served twice or thrice a day by those who would 
enrich themselves through the patronage of the 
opulent families. Among the inferior tradesmen, 
those who gain most are the pulperos, the ware 
housemen, and the shop-keepers. The pulperos 
retail wine, brandy, candles, sausages, salt, bread, 
spices, wood, grease, brimstone, &c. Their 
shops are generally lounging places for the idle 
and dissipated of the community. In Buenos 
Ayres there are about 700 of them, each more or 
less in the interest of some richer individual. 
The warehousemen sell earthen and glass ware, 
drugs, various articles of consumption, and some 
goods of home manufacture, wholesale and retail. 
The shop-keepers amount to nearly 600 in 
number ; they sell woollen cloths, silk, cotton 
goods of all sorts, hats, and various other articles 
of wearing apparel. Many of them make con 
siderable fortunes, those especially who trade to 
Lima, Peru, Chile, or Paraguay, by means of 
young men whom they send as agents or factors. 
There is another description of merchants, if 
such they may be called, who keep in the back 
ground and enrich themselves by monopolizing 
victuals, and by forestalling the grain brought to 
market from the interior, much to the injury of 
the agricultural interest. 

The second class of inhabitants consist of the 
proprietors of estates and houses. They are, in 
general, Creoles, for few Europeans employ their 
funds in building, or in the purchase of land, 
until they have realised a fortune to live upon, 
which commonly takes place when they are far 
advanced in life, so that their establishments pass 
immediately into the hands of their successors. 
The simple landholders derive so little revenue 
from their possessions, that they are generally in 
debt to their tradesmen ; their gains are but too 
commonly engrossed by the monopolists, and 
having no magistrate to represent them, they 
find themselves destitute of effectual resources 
against wrong and extortion. So defective and 
ill-regulated are the cbncerns of agriculture in 
this country, that the proprietor of an estate 
really worth 20,000 dollars can scarcely subsist 
upon it. 

VOL. IV. 



Under the class of landed proprietors we may 
reckon the cultivators, here called quinteros or 
chacareros, who grow wheat, maize, and other 
grain. These men are so depressed and impo 
verished that, notwithstanding the importance of 
their calling, and the public usefulness of their 
labours, they are ranked among the people of 
least consequence in society. 

The third class is composed of handicraftsmen, 
such as masons, carpenters, tailors, and shoe 
makers, who, although they work hard, and 
receive great wages, seldom realise property. 
The journeymen are usually people of colour; 
the masters for the most part Genoese, and uni 
versally foreigners, for the Spaniards despise 
these trades, and cannot stoop to work along 
with Negroes or Mulattoes. Many of the lower 
orders derive subsistence from these and other 
employments of a similar nature ; here are lime- 
burners, wood-cutters, tanners, curriers, &c. The 
free porters constitute a numerous body of men ; 
they ply about the streets to load and unload 
carts, and carry burdens, but they are so idle and 
dissolute, that no man can depend on their ser 
vices for a week together ; when they have a 
little money, they drink and gamble, and when 
pennyless betake themselves to pilfering. These 
habits have long rendered them a public nuisance, 
but no corrective measures have hitherto been 
taken, nor does there appear, on the part of the 
higher orders, any disposition to reform them. 

Persons employed in public offices may be 
comprehended under the fourth class. The best 
situations under government are held by native 
Spaniards ; those of less emolument by Creoles ; 
the former are regarded as mere sinecures, and 
the persons enjoying them are considered as in 
no way serviceable to the community, except by 
spending their large salaries within it. 

The fifth class is the militia or soldiery. Pre 
vious to the invasion of the English, the officers 
were not much noted for military science, or for 
that ardour which leads to the acquisition of it; 
their chief ambition was to obtain commands in 
towns and villages, especially those on the Portu 
guese frontier, where they might enrich them 
selves by smuggling. The privates were ill-dis 
ciplined, badly dressed, and badly paid. The 
effective force which the crown of Spain main 
tained in these possessions was one regiment of 
the line, which was to consist of 1200 men, but 
was reduced to less than half ; one regiment of 
dragoons amounted to 600, two of cavalry called 
blandengues, 600 each, and one or two com 
panies of artillery. With the exception of the j 



162 



PLATA. 



[Blandengues, all the troops were originally sent 
from the Peninsula, but not having for the last 
20 years been recruited from thence, their ranks 
were gradually filled by natives. By eminence 
they were called veterans, but they have been of 
late disbanded, and their officers have passed to 
the command of the new corps which were 
formed on the English invasion. The force of 
these corps may be estimated at 9000 men. 

The sixth class is the clergy, in number about 
1000. The seculars are distinguished by their 
learning, honour, and probity ; but the friars are, 
in general, grosly ignorant, and render but little 
real service to the public in any way. (Mawe.) 

With respect to the revolution of the Spanish 
colonies, no part of America has made bolder 
advances towards the objects of its wishes, free 
dom and independence, than that tract of country 
comprehended under the title of the jurisdiction 
of La Plata. 

It is true that the commotions of the S. Ame 
rican continent have proved beyond all question, 
from the simultaneous effect of their operation 
that they have all germinated from the same seed, 
though the growth of the tree has been stunted 
or forwarded by the peculiarities of circumstance 
or place. It is our object here to explain the 
origin and to trace the progress of the revolution 
of La Plata. The subject has already been re 
cently treated by various writers with much 
intelligence, and availing ourselves as we shall 
most freely of those sources of information, we 
fear not but that we shall be enabled to put the 
question, if not in a more concise, at least much 
clearer point of light than any in which it has 
hitherto been represented. 

In tracing from their origin the causes of 
this revolution, our attention is involuntarily, in 
a certain degree, drawn back to the circumstances 
which attended the English expedition to the 
shores of the river La Plata, in 1806 ; an ex 
pedition which, it has been justly observed, 
seemed planned with a view only to establish a 
military post, that imgh be thrown into the scale 
of considerations when peace was treated of in 
Europe ; since such a handful of men, acting in 
direct contradiction to the only means afforded 
by the state of the country of insuring the lasting 
good-will of its natives, could never have had in 
contemplation to conquer and garrison an ex 
tensive empire ; or to establish with it an enlarged 
commercial intercourse. 

It was attended, however, with one good, of 
which the British cabinet was not then aware, or 
its agent prepared to convert into national ad 



vantage. It gave an opportunity to those, who 
in the seclusion of their closets had pondered on 
the past wrongs of their country, who had ven 
tured to study those rights which constitute the 
inheritance of all free men, to be known to each 
other. No longer dreading the censure and 
shackles of their old government, they assembled, 
and discussed topics leading to a change of govern 
ment ; their numbers increased, and the protection 
of the British arms was deemed to afford a most 
favourable opportunity for extending the benefits 
of civil independence. Thus did a spark, which 
in its beginning was almost imperceptible, ac 
quire magnitude ; and had it then been fostered, 
had civil talents, combined with a protecting 
and conciliating policy, been then but used, the 
blood subsequently shed would have been spared, 
disgrace would not have fallen on the British 
arms, and instead of that enmity which naturally 
followed, instead of mourning, devastation, and 
reproach, all would have been converted into the 
lasting and sincere blessings of the emancipated 
inhabitants, in favour of a nation that came to 
aid them in a cause connected with their vital 
interests. 

That the British chiefs were early convinced 
that there existed a leading party in favour of in 
dependence and a change of government, evidently 
results from the many official reports produced 
in General Whitelocke s trial, but that they were 
also not provided with any instructions to im 
prove that spirit, seems equally conclusive. We 
feel no hesitation in saying, that on the appear- 
rance of the British army in the waters of La 
Plata, it was hailed as an happy omen by those 
who sought the melioration of their country , and 
the passive part of the community had sufficient 
reliance on the national honour to hope, that 
whatever was attempted would be honestly di 
rected to their relief and benefit. We know that 
men high in civil authority, repeatedly pressed 
the English to declare whether they came as 
emancipators or as conquerors ; and even the re 
ligious communities publicly testified their joy 
and their congratulations in a remarkable dis 
course held on the 28th June, 1806. But we 
also know full well on the other hand, that the 
English chiefs were necessarily silent, and that 
silence in such a case is almost worse than an 
unpropitious avowal. Too well we know how 
soon the interesting and favourable sentiments 
first excited vanished into air ; how rapidly the 
goaded pride and disappointed hopes of the peo 
ple exploded in open clamour ; how rancorously 
the deluded sagacity of the clergy converted thej 



PLATA. 



163 



[pulpits into vehicles of irritated feeling and out 
rageous declamation against the invaders. 

Precisely in this tone is the following extract, 
from the pastoral letter of the bishop of La Paz, 
dated the 3d of May, 1087 : 

" Que seria de nosotros, que seria de nuestras 
propriedades, y de nuestras familias, y que seria 
principalmente de nuetra religion, si llegaran los 
Ingleses a dominar y establecer se en Buenos 
Ayres, y con sus armas y su artificiosa seduccion 
intentasen tambien penetrar en el pais : sirian 
por ventura mas indulgentes con la America Es- 
panola que lo son con la Inlanda que es casi la 
misma patria?" 

The effect produced by discourses of this na 
ture, printed and circulated among a people ac 
customed to devour with avidity any thing in 
print, and to attach unbounded credit to every 
thing from their priests, may be better conceived 
than described. And sorry we are further to ob 
serve, that in the whole columns of the Estrella 
del Sur, a newspaper printed in Monte Video, 
in English and Spanish, and considered as the 
organ of the British chiefs, there is not a line cal 
culated to inspire the natives with the smallest 
confidence, to undo in the slightest degree the 
unfavourable impressions, or to convey any as 
surances of melioration and protection to the de 
sponding minds of a people, to whom fetters only 
in a new form were offered. 

With regard to the events attending this ex 
pedition, it is by no means improbable that its 
fate was decided by the delay which took place 
in the junction of the centre with the advanced 
division ; for, had they joined the day before, 
thev would most probably have entered the town 
immediately, while part of the enemy s forces 
were out of it, and unprepared. This delay, 
though short, gave the latter time to entrench 
and fortify their streets, and to post themselves 
in the most advantageous stations. But the re 
storation of Monte Video was the stipulation 
most to be regretted : for every principle of good 
policy required us to keep that town to the last 
extremity ; nay, some of the best informed 
among the Spaniards were of opinion, that our 
army should have been contented with the pos 
session of the n. side of the Plata, without ven 
turing any farther, because we should thus have 
commanded the trade of the interior, and Buenos 
Ayres would in the end have found it necessary 
to come to terms of accommodation highly to our 
advantage. 

We could willingly have spared ourselves the 
pain of attending to these well known and dis 



graceful circumstances, but we think it our duty 
to relieve the European public of one very gene 
ral error ; which is, that the successes of the La 
Plateans were entirely owing to their chief, Li- 
niers. Biography will have little to relate of a 
favourable nature respecting this man. Till he 
took the command of the Buenos Ayres troops 
he was a gambler, and to flattery and intrigue, 
joined to the courage and misplaced confidence 
of the people, whom he afterwards betrayed, he 
owed his advancement. That he was not even 
entitled to the praise of courage so generally at 
tached to him, we can cite as a proof, that he de 
serted the city in the second attack by General 
Whitelocke,and only returned when he found that 
the danger w r as over. 

He continued to exercise the authority of vice 
roy after the expulsion of the English, and an 
instance was not long wanting to convince the 
people of his secret intentions to deliver up the 
country to the French. As soon as the usurpa 
tion of the throne of Spain had placed on it a 
branch of the Corsican family, emissaries were 
sent to the principal ports of America, to ac 
quaint the governors of the transfer that had been 
made of these distant possessions, and to concert 
measures with them, under the previous promise 
of their continuance in power, how to conciliate 
the people to the new dynasty. The person 
deputed to Buenos Ayres arrived there about 
the 10th of August 1808, and on the 18th Li- 
niers issued a proclamation, advising the people 
" to follow the example of their American an 
cestors, who wisely .avoided the disasters which 
afflicted Spain during the war of the succession, 
by waiting till the fate of the mother country was 
determined, in order then to obey the legitimate 
authority that occupied the throne." To this 
were added insinuations that Spain had already 
yielded, and that opposition was not only un 
timely but criminal. 

It would not be difficult for one who has fol 
lowed the inhabitants of Buenos Ayres through 
every stage of their patriotic efforts, who have 
seen them fight for their invaded rights, to form 
an idea of their feelings on this occasion. To be 
hold a yoke, ten times more offensive than that 
w r hich they had just resisted, now offered to be 
imposed upon them, was not only to insult their 
feelings, patriotism, and national honour, but to 
impeach their judgment. The fact is, that Li- 
niers had concerted with the French emissary, 
that 30,000 men were necessary to keep the 
country in awe, and to penetrate into the in 
terior ; a fact which Avas discovered from the] 
Y 2 



164 



PLATA. 



[interception, by the British, of the dispatch to 
the viceroy Liniers, ordering him to make pre 
paration for their reception." 

Liniers continued to hold the reins of govern 
ment till the central Junta of Spain, on their as 
sumption of the supreme authority, sent out Cis- 
neros to supersede him, and to send him to Spain 
as a prisoner. Here again Liniers not only be 
trayed a weak spirit, but a want of judgment, for 
his powers, at least, had the merit of being con 
stitutional ; but he ceded, without an effort, to 
the new comer, and retired to Cordova, where 
we for the present leave him. 

No sooner had Viceroy Cisneros assumed his 
functions than he found the treasury empty, the 
people desponding of the success of Spain, and a 
freedom of speech, hostile to her supremacy, very 
prevalent. With the ordinary police of old- 
fashioned statesmen in a crisis of affairs which 
bids defiance to all regular habits, and requires 
depth and originality of judgment, he proceeded 
to fortify himself, by calling around him all the 
ancient instruments of the despotic system of the 
mother country. Those who, from the nature of 
their talents and employments, had every thing 
to lose and nothing to gain by a change, flocked 
round him, and the customary system of espio 
nage was organized. Dr. Canete prostituted his 
pen in the formation of 31 articles, which we 
confess that we have perused with horror : every 
measure, in short, was adopted which was thought 
calculated to rivet afresh the fetters in which per 
sonal liberty and the public opinion had so long 
been confined. 

The exhausted state to which the colonial trea 
sury had been reduced by the late military exer 
tions, now gave rise to many schemes for increas 
ing the financial resources of the capital, and af 
fording relief to the people. Amongst these, the 
most important was the free admission of British 
goods, advised by the leading Creoles, but op 
posed by all the ancient Spaniards, and by those 
who adhered to the old form of government. 
The discussion of this momentous question gave 
rise to a celebrated memorial by Dr. Mariano 
Moreno, of which, although from its merit, we 
could have wished to have given it verbatim, we 
must content ourselves with affording only a ge 
neral idea. 

The memorial, composed in elevated language, 
breathes a spirit of indignation against the sel 
fish and monopolizing spirit of the Cadiz mer 
chants, for whose private interests the colony 
was so shamefully oppressed; then addressing 
himself to the viceroy x he energetically adds ; 



" It is attempted to establish advantages on our 
ruin ; the government then ought to be doubly 
vigilant to frustrate so sinister a design. Our 
sovereign conferred on your excellency the high 
dignity of viceroy of these provinces, not to 
watch over and consult the dignity of the Cadiz 
merchants, but to preside over ours. How can 
a trading body, that has at all times raised the 
standard against the common good of other 
towns, that has uniformly been the advocate of 
monopoly, on such an occasion as this be admit 
ted as an antagonist ? Can it be supposed that 
the consulado of Cadiz has any interest or legiti 
mate intervention in the interior regulations of 
this province, or any vote on the means which 
may insure its prosperity ?" 

After successively refuting all the minor argu 
ments brought forward by the opposition, till he 
arrived at that so much insisted on by their cham 
pion, viz. that " it is to be feared, from grant 
ing a free trade to the English, in a few years 
the ties which bind us to the Peninsula will be 
rent asunder." Dr. Moreno proceeds with re 
gard to the English : 

" Our Americans will never be more secure 
than when trading with them ; for a wise and 
enterprizing commercial nation detests conquests, 
and attends less to military enterprise than to 
the interests of her trade. With regard to our 
selves, the days in which we live have afforded 
proofs of our fidelity, which might be envied even 
by the towns of Spain. The English themselves 
will ever view with respect the conquerors of the 
5th of July, and the Spaniards will not forget 
that our military hospitals were not filled with 
traders, but by natives who defended the country 
in which they were born, by shedding their best 
blood in defence of their invaded rights. 

" Nothing, in the present moment, can be 
more advantageous to Spain, than to bind and 
rivet, by every possible tie, the union and alli 
ance of England. This generous nation, strug 
gling almost alone under the weight of the pre 
sent contest in Europe, afforded to our mother 
country aid and succour, such as was before un 
exampled in the friendships of nations ; and cer 
tainly itbecomes us, in our own speculations, to 
consult the interests of her subjects. At such a 
period, he cannot be considered as a true Spa 
niard who beholds the trade of Britain with re 
pining ; let those fatal moments be remembered, 
in which our plundered and insulted monarchy 
found no resources within itself, for they had pre 
viously been destroyed by a subtle enemy. With 
what gratitude was then received the generous] 



PLATA. 



[assistance, with which the English genius placed 
in motion that great machine which, till then, ap 
peared useless and inert. With what jubilee was 
their alliance then celebrated, and with what 
pleasure was announced the imposing force which 
the friendship of that powerful nation imparted 
to us. It is a shameful vileness then to see, that 
scarcely have we thought of establishing a trade 
as the only means of our salvation, and one that 
cannot be carried on but through the means of 
our allies, than they are considered by our tra 
ders as interlopers, and treated with an execra 
tion no less injurious to them, than incompatible 
with our true interests. 

" Let us, then, prove ourselves to be good Spa 
niards, when we have it in our power to contri 
bute by commercial relations to a closer union 
with an opulent and generous nation, whose suc 
cour is absolutely necessary to the independence 
of Spain. We well know, that in the war of the 
succession, France obtained a free commerce with 
our Americas, and we ought to be ashamed to 
deny to gratitude what dependence and dread 
then snatched from us. Under the necessity of 
consulting our own good, let us not repine that 
a reciprocal advantage should fall to the lot of a 
nation to whom we owe so much, and without 
whose aid that amelioration which we propose 
can never be attained. Such are the united 
wishes of 20,000 landholders whom I represent, 
and the only means of establishing, with a dig 
nity suitable to the character of your excellency, 
the foundation of our felicity, and the replenish 
ment of your treasury." 

We cannot help considering this production of 
the Burke of S. America as a very respectable 
specimen of Creole eloquence ; and it was suc 
cessful. The establishment of a free trade with 
England gradually raised the country from its 
depressed state ; the operations of agriculture 
were resumed and increased, from the certainty 
of a vent for its produce ; and even hides which, 
as Dr. Moreno says, their grandfathers threw 
away as objects of no value, now became a staple 
commodity. 

The minds of the people were at length ma 
tured ; and the supposed certainty that Spain 
had fallen a prey to the rapacity of a foreign 
power, made them anxious for their own safety. 
Aware of those reiterated attempts by which the 
French had endeavoured to enthral their allegi 
ance, and that even the servants of the old go 
vernment could not be trusted, with one voice 
they resolved to place the executive power in 
the cabildo, to be exercised by that representa 



tive body of the people in the name of their sove 
reign Ferdinand VII. till a superior Junta should 
be assembled. Notwithstanding Cisneros had 
assured the people that he would adopt no mea 
sures without their concurrence, they would not 
permit him to retain any power, or even allow 
him to preside in their councils. 

On the 26th of May, 1810, the provisional 
Junta was installed, amidst the general accla 
mations of the inhabitants, and from that date, 
an established authority calmed everv fear, and 
removed the uncertainty and fluctuation of opi 
nion in the capital. 

Thus was a revolution effected, without a drop 
of blood shed, which levelled to the ground a 
vassalage of three centuries, and eternally en 
graved the names of its authors on the hearts of 
their fellow citizens. 

The first endeavours of the Junta were to in 
spire confidence in their constituents. It was 
ordained, that all the proceedings of their ses 
sions should be printed weekly, that the people 
might judge of the conduct of their representa 
tives ; who themselves considered, that mystery 
and reserve were only invented by power to 
cover or palliate crimes. Every citizen was in 
vited to give his opinion freely, in writing, on 
any public measure, and authorized to address 
himself, personally, to the Junta in session ; or 
to an individual deputy, in cases of complaint, 
claims, or remonstrance. Measures were taken 
to regulate the military establishment and trade, 
and to reform the system of police. Thus, with 
out a contention or civil broil, without anarchy 
or confusion, and without a change of civil po 
licy, did they lay the foundation of a representa 
tive and local government ; nor were the rela 
tions of domestic life, or the security of property 
for a moment affected. 

Monte Video had, during the government of 
Liniers, been the first to convene a Junta within 
itself, but it was more for the purpose of escap 
ing from the controul of Liniers, than to lay the 
foundation of a representative local government; 
and it was never carried into full effect. Its in 
habitants acknowledged that of Buenos Ayres, 
in a general assembly held on the fifth of June, 
after the communications from the latter were 
made known, and a public act of allegiance was 
registered ; the cabildo however opposed the 
measure the next day, and from that time, to 
the present, Monte Video has continued firm to 
the Cadiz regency, under the influence of Spa 
nish naval officers, and has remained the seat of 
the naval equipment for blockading the capital.] 



166 



PLATA. 



[Its population, added to that of the surrounding 
country, is estimated at 14,090 inhabitants, and 
from great desertion, the garrison of the town is 
reduced to 1500 men. The transactions of the 
interior have till very lately prevented the pa 
triotic army of the J unta from making any at 
tempt to dislodge this handful of opponents ; but 
the wishes of the people have universally tended 
to an union with the capital. 

Though the installation of the Junta of Bue 
nos Ayres and every measure that immediately 
followed, produced the sincere and unanimous 
acclamations of the people at large, yet the 
abridgment of power must naturally be expected 
to have created a dislike on the part of those 
who have hitherto been the immediate servants 
of the old government, and accustomed to give 
an account of their transactions to the councils of 
the Indies alone. The royal audience, consist 
ing of Europeans, nominated at home, had been 
left in the superintendance and administration of 
public justice, but was soon discovered caballing 
with Cisneros, in opposition to the Junta, whom 
they refused to acknowledge, or to take the usual 
oaths of office. To such a length was this spirit 
of party hostility carried, that the Junta, to se 
cure the public tranquillity, were under the ne 
cessity of sending back to Spain Cisneros, three 
oidores, and the ftscales of the royal audience, in 
order that they might be there judged by the 
supreme government. On the 29th of June the 
Junta published its manifesto, explaining the par 
ticulars which had given rise to this measure, 
and detailing their reiterated endeavours to 
bring the members of the royal audience to a 
sense of their duty, and as public functionaries 
to impress upon them the danger of disregarding 
the wishes of the people, and sowing the seeds 
of discord and disunion. 

But it is now time to return to Liniers, whom 
we left in Cordova ; and to illustrate a subject 
which, as well from distance as design, has been 
greatly misrepresented to the English public. 

No sooner had tranquillity been restored to 
the capital, by the departure of Cisneros, and 
his fellow-plotters, than it was discovered that a 
more formidable party was collecting in the in 
terior, and particularly at Cordova, headed by 
Liniers, the intendant Concha ; his assessor Ro- 
drigues, Bishop Orellana, Colonel Allende, and 
accomptant Joaquim Moreno. Their intention 
was not only to suppress the votes of the people, 
but to oppose by an armed force all obedience to 
the government established in the capital. They 
publicly declared the Junta " insurgent, and re 



volutionary," and even the bishop endeavoured, 
but in vain, to profane the pulpits, by rousing a 
party to his cause ; yet so firm was the public 
mind, though at the distance of much more than 
100 leagues, that very few partizans were made. 

In vain did the Junta of Buenos Ayres use 
every friendly remonstrance and exhortation to 
dissuade these leaders from their hostile designs, 
and not to deluge the country in the blood of 
their fellow citizens ; every overture was treated 
with disdain, nay, even rejected with outrage. 
All correspondence with the capital was inter 
dicted, every thing on the roads was intercepted, 
and a plan of raising an armed force to depose 
the Junta, and reinstate the old servants of the 
government, was resolved on. Every proclama 
tion breathed captivity, fire and sword, and every 
tool and despot of the old system was invited to 
join them. Liniers took the command of the few 
troops he could collect, and in vain did the peo 
ple of Cordova sigh for a release from the op 
pression of this French satellite. 

The account of these proceedings diffused 
through the patriots of La Plata a general feel 
ing of compassion for the distresses of the people 
of Cordova, and many volunteers stepped for 
ward, offering to march to their relief. Towards 
the beginning of August the patriot army reached 
the frontiers of Cordova, where they were re 
ceived by their fellow provincials as their so 
licited and sighed for liberators, who came as 
brothers to release them from the miseries of ra 
pine and civil discord, and to wrest from un 
worthy hands the power that oppressed them. 

Notwithstanding Liniers had previously con 
certed the defence of the town, after dilapidating 
the public treasury, and committing in the true 
French style other acts of coercion on its defence 
less inhabitants, he fled on the first of August at 
the approach of the Buenos Ayres army towards 
Peru, carrying with him his fellow conspirators, 
nine cannon, and 400 men. Havoc and destruc 
tion attended his footsteps ; the country was laid 
Waste, the farms and dwellings of the peaceable 
inhabitants who would not join him were burned 
to the ground ; on them he satiated his fury and 
his avarice, for they were the objects no less of 
his cruelty than of his pillage. But his career 
was soon stopped. On the fifth he was taken 
prisoner by a small party detached in pursuit, 
after having been abandoned by those whom he 
had in a great measure forced into his service, 
and with three other leaders was sent to the ca 
pital a prisoner for trial. Cordova, relieved 
from the presence of its tyrant, unanimously] 



PLATA. 



167 



[voted Dr. Funes as its deputy to the Junta, and 
peace and tranquillity were restored to its inha 
bitants. 

The incorporation of Chile with Buenos Ayres 
took place in September 1810, and the addition 
of this extensive and important kingdom, with 
the union of Cordova, completed a jurisdiction 
that reached to the shores of the S. Seas. The 
interesting province of Cochabamba bordering 
upon Peru, brought its little army into the field, 
secured part of the Cordova conspirators who 
had escaped, and relieved the neighbouring towns 
from their old oppressors, and from the influence 
held over them by the viceroy of Lima. Potosi, 
Charcas, La Paz, Cochabamba, Cordova, and 
Salta, have all joined : so that, with the excep 
tion of part of Paraguay still under the ascend 
ancy of the court of the Brazils, the jurisdiction 
of the Junta of Buenos Ayres extended itself 
over the whole of the vice-royalty of La Plata as 
it lately stood, with the kingdom of Chile, and 
2,500,000 inhabitants exulted in their new-born 
freedom. 

From the period of the first differences between 
the New Junta of Buenos Ayres and the Gover 
nor of Monte Video, the general aggregate of 
the events we have to record, up to the end of 
the year 1811, may be stated in these words; 
namely, that while the troops of Buenos Ayres 
were bombarding the town of Monte Video, the 
seamen of the latter place were assailing, in the 
like melancholy manner, the former city. These 
two powers were evidently the representatives 
of very different interests ; but the spirit of war 
seemed to be so determined in these unhappy re 
gions, that, even when there was a temporary 
cessation of hostilities between those natural 
rivals, the old and new Spaniards of the city of 
Buenos Ayres itself engaged in the most deadly 
enmities, and were constantly conspiring against 
each other s lives. From about the 2d of July 
to the beginning of August, 1812, the city of 
Buenos Ayres was in a state of the utmost com 
motion. The cause of this is said to have been 
the dissatisfaction which the European Spaniards 
had conceived, on account of the abject condi 
tion in which they were held by the Junta of 
Buenos Ayres. Hence they are said to have 
conceived the idea of overturning the existing 
government, with the view of taking into their 
own hands the supreme authority. They failed 
in their project, and upwards of 200 of the con 
spirators (comprising the first class of merchants) 
were made prisoners, of whom 25 were shot. The 



following extract of a letter contains some of the 
particulars of these unhappy occurrences. 

" The conspiracy was planned by Martin Al- 
zagu, a Spaniard, 60 years of age, who had ac 
cumulated a large fortune in Buenos Ayres. His 
chief assistants were Telechea Francisco Valde- 
pares, and a monk named Jose de las Animas. 
They had provided 1500 stand of arms. Accord 
ing to their project, the depots of ammunition 
and artillery, and the military guards in different 
parts of the city, were to be surprised at one 
and the same moment. They were then to at 
tack the fortress. It was planned that a party 
should secure the Fort Major, and compel him 
to open the principal gate, at which 300 of the 
conspirators were to be ready to enter. They 
had prepared false keys to open the sally port, 
and 400 were to enter on that side. The attempt 
was to be made at two o clock in the morning of 
the 4th of July. The Spanish sailors in the 
road were to land at day -break, by a signal 
agreed upon, to assist the conspirators. All the 
members of the government and the magistrates 
were to be immediately shot ; and all the native 
inhabitants, and the American settlers, were to 
be shipped off for Monte Video. The plot was 
discovered on the 2cl, by a slave belonging to 
one of the principal conspirators; and, on the 
3d, Alzaga and three more of the conspirators 
were secured, and instantly shot. Alzaga has 
left a wife and 14 children." 

The following is a list of the names of the al 
leged culprits, and the time of their death. Most 
of them were persons of distinction and opu 
lence. These persons were executed on the 
several days stated: 

July 3. Francisco Cara, Mathewes Camira, 
Sebastian Torres. 

July 6. Martin de Alzaga, Francisco Tele 
chea, Francisco Valdepares, Miguel Marco, Jose 
Bias, Diego Saintenac. 

July 13. Jose de Animos (Barbon Friar). 

July 16. Domingo Liargo, Valentin Sopina, 
Carlos Castelana. 

July 23. Carlos Durac, Fernandez Pares, 
Roque Laureta, Jose Carracela, Antonio Ver- 
duga, Juan Mourin, Mateo Fernandez Barula, 
Felipe Alonzo Conde. 

Besides these, one European Spaniard more, 
had been convicted of being a principal in the 
conspiracy, and had paid the forfeit of his life. 
In all 28 had been put to death. During these 
events, through the interference of Lord Strang- 
ford, a perfect good understanding was main-] 



168 



PLATA. 



[tained between the Portuguese government and 
the Junta; but, on the other hand, information 
had reached Buenos Ayres that all the Peruvian 
mines, and the mint at Potosti, were in the power 
of the army of Lima. The punishment of the 
conspirators had revived the animosity of the 
government and inhabitants of Monte Video, 
against the Junta of Buenos Ay res ; and active 
preparations were making for the recommence 
ment of hostilities. 

Whilst such continued to be the state of affairs 
in the colonies, the Cortes were at length pro 
ceeding at home to adopt some measures, with a 
view to conciliation. The following are extracts 
from the Cadiz papers, of Oct. 22. 

" CORTES, 21sx DAY. 

" In consequence of an official dispatch from 
the secretary of marine having been read, and 
various other documents, stating that general 
Monteverde had pacified all the province of Ca 
racas, and taken the rebel Miranda, and all the 
other insurgent chiefs prisoners. Senor Cala- 
trava proposed, that the regency should be in 
structed to inform Don Domingo Monteverde, 
that the Cortes had seen with ^reat satisfaction 
the happy results of his operations, as likewise 
the important services which he, and the troops 
under his command, had performed in the pacifi 
cation and reconquest of the Caracas. This pro 
position was approved, with the suppression of 
the word reconquest, on the proposal of Senor 
Mendiola. 

" The Cortes then proceeded to the consider 
ation of the ultramarine commission (see the 
sitting of the 12th August 1812) relative to the 
abolition of the Mitas, (1) and the other propo 
sitions of Senor Castello. This senor made a 
long and learned discourse, in which, with the 
most solid reasons he proved the inhumanity, 
injustice, and barbarity of such an establishment. 
Having concluded, he begged of Senor Conde de 
Toreno that they should immediately proceed to 
vote, as the point did not require greater illus 
tration, and all the deputies being convinced (ex 
cept, perhaps, Senor Astolza, who had made a 
proposition in favour of the Las Mitas) of the 
necessity of abolishing an establishment which 
opposed, the principles of equality established 
between the ultramarine Spaniards and those of 
the peninsula. After some discussion, in which 
senors Astolaza and Larrazabel took a part, the 
report of the commission was put to the vote and 
unanimously approved. 



" 1st. That Las Mitas should be for ever abo 
lished." (The Mitas are a certain contribution 
of men which the people are obliged to give for 
the cultivation of the land, working of the mines, 
&c.) 

" 2d. That the Indians should be exempted 
from the personal service they gave the clergy, 
or any other public functionary whatever; oblig 
ing them, however, to satisfy the parochial rights 
the same as the other classes. 

"3d. That the public charges, such as the 
building churches, making roads, &c. should be 
equally borne by all the inhabitants indiscrimi 
nately. 

" 4th. That divisions of land should be made 
to the Indians, leaving to the provincial deputies 
the care of assigning the quotas, &c. &c. 

" 5th. That in all the territories of America 
some of the dignitaries should necessarily remain 
with the Indians." 

By advices from Buenos Ayres, up to the 15th 
of the same month, in which the above decree 
was passed, it appeared that an extraordinary 
courier had arrived in that town from Chile, with 
the intelligence that the European and American 
Spaniards had come to an amicable understand 
ing, and that great rejoicings were going on ; 
but we do not consider this reconciliation as likely 
to be of any long standing. It was also observed!, 
that the British navigation would probably be 
much molested by the Lima cruizers on the coast 
of Chile. 

By the same post, it was asserted that the 
town of Buenos Ayres had been in a ferment 
ever since the commencement of the month, in 
consequence of the struggles of the different par 
ties for power, which had ended in the overthrow 
of the persons in office, and that a new set was 
brought forward for the three ensuing months, 
until the next general assembly met. This is 
the fourth attempt at an elective body for a po 
pular representation, and the next will probably 
share the fate of their predecessors, of being in 
terrupted in their debates, and turned out of 
doors by the military. The new executive body 
consists of Dr. Juan Jose de Pasos, Dr. Nicolas 
de la Pana, and Dr. Antonio Alvarez de Jonte. 
The public appeared to be reconciled to the 
change. 

It is, we should suspect, needless for us to ob 
serve, after the various changes of fortune exhi 
bited in the jurisdiction of La Plata, within the 
last three years, that no idea of the final issue of 
the revolution can be formed from the events last] 



PL A 

[ enumerated, any farther than as they tend to 
shew, and, as we believe, most justly, that the 
soil should perish ere the tree of freedom that 
has been planted in it should be rooted up; or, 
in other words, that those who have pledged 
themselves to the cause of emancipation, would 
leave no stratagem, no hardiness untried, to effect 
the object of their wishes. See the General Pre 
face.] 

PLATA, another, a large river of the province 
and government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, in 
Peru. It rises from some lakes, runs in a very 
abundant stream, forming a curve ; inclining to 
n. 11. w. and enters the Piray in the province and 
government of Moxos. It is also called Guapaix 
and Grinde; and to the n. of the capital of Santa 
Cruz it has a good port, called Pailas. 

PLATA, another, a small river, of the pro 
vince and government of Popayan in the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada. It runs from the e. to w. 
and a little from its source enters the Patu- 
mayo. 

PLATA, a small island of the S. Sea, near the 
cape or promontory of San Lorenzo, in the pro 
vince and government of Guayaquil. It is the 
gulf of this name, and belongs to the jurisdic 
tion of the district of Puerto Viejo. Francisco 
Pizarro called it thus, as having seen here the 
first silver of Peru amongst the Indians. It is 
two leagues long and one and an half wide, sur 
rounded with very lofty and pointed rocks, de 
sert and covered with trees, and filled with 
snakes and vipers. A little more than three 
leagues from the continent, in lat. 1 12 s. 

PLATA, some very large shoals or sand banks, 
to thes. of St. Domingo. They are two, the one 
round, the other long. 

PLATANAR, a settlement of the province of 
Barcelona, and government of Cumana. Al 
though it is situate in Guayana, it is one of the 
settlements founded by the religious observers of 
San Francisco del Piritu. 

PLATANAR, another settlement, in this pro 
vince, on the shore of a river, and near its en 
trance into the Orinoco. ^ 

PLATANOS, SAN JUAN DE LOS, a settle 
ment of the head settlement of the district and 
alcaldia mayor of Tanzitaro in Nueva Espana. 
It is of an hot temperature, inhabited by 44) fa 
milies of Indians, produces in abundance fruits 
and palms of cocos, much esteemed in the other 
jurisdictions ; and is 10 leagues n. of its head 
settlement. 

PLATANOS, a river of the island of Cuba. 
. iv. 



PL A 



16$ 



which rises in the Sierras, which it has to the e. 
runs n. n. e. and enters the sea between the point 
of Las Mulas and the bay of Nipes. 

PLATE, a small isle of the N. Sea, near the 
road of Nova Scotia, in the Gulph of St. Law 
rence, between the island of Buenaventura and 
Cape Gaspe. 

PLATE, another, a small island on the w. coast 
of Newfoundland. 

PLATE, another, near the e. coast of Cape 
Britain, between the bay of Miray and the Piedra 
de Fusil. 

PLATE, a point of land or cape, on the same e. 
coast of Cape Britain, between Port Delphin and 
the Bay of Naganiche. 

[PLATE, MONTE DE, a mountainous settle 
ment near the centre of the island of St. Domin 
go, towards its eastern extremity, 15 leagues n. 
of the mouth of Macoriz river, and 16 to the 
n. e. of the city of St. Domingo. It was formerly a 
flourishing place, and called a city ; but the whole 
parish does not now contain above 600 souls. 
Two leagues to the w. e. of it is the wretched set 
tlement of Boya, to which the cacique Henri re 
tired, with the small remnant of Indians, when 
the cruelties of the Spaniards, in the reign of 
Charles V. had driven him to a revolt. There 
does not now exist one pure descendant of their 
race.] 

[PLATE, POINT, the n. point of the entrance 
into Port Dauphin, on the e. coast of the island 
of Cape Breton, or Sydney ; and three leagues 
s. w. by s. of Cape Fumi, which is the s. w. 
boundary of the harbour of Achepe.] 

[PLATE, PORT DE, on the n. coast of the island 
of St. Domingo, is overlooked by a white moun 
tain, and lies 22 leagues w. of Old Cape Fran 
cois. It has three fathoms water at its entrance, 
but diminishes within; and is but an indifferent 
harbour. The bottom is in some parts sharp 
rocks, capable of cutting the cables. A vessel 
must, on entering, keep very close to the point 
of the breaker, near the eastern fort; when in, 
she anchors in the middle of the port. The can 
ton of Port de Plate greatly abounds in mines of 
gold, silver and copper. There are also mines 
of plaster. It is unhealthy, from the custom 
which the inhabitants have of drinking the water 
of a ravine. It has a handsome church, and about 
2,500 inhabitants.] 

[PLATE FORME, LA, a town on the s. side of 
the n. peninsula of St. Domingo, three leagues 
w. of Point du Paradis, which is opposite the 
settlement of that name, a league from the sea; 



170 



P L A 



miles s. by e. of Bombarde, and 21 s. e. 
of the Mole. Lat. 19 35 n. Long. 73 



eight 
by s. 
15 o 

PLATEROS, an ancient and barbarous nation 
of Indians, of the province and corregimiento of 
Cuenca in the kingdom of Quito. They occu 
pied the country which lies to the e. of the river 
Paute, and were excellent artificers of silver, 
from whence they had this name given to them. 
They are now entirely extinguished. 

[PLATFORM, a bay on the n. coast of the 
island of Jamaica, eastward of Dunklin s Cliff.] 

PLATO, a settlement of the province and 

government of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno 
e Granada, on the shore of the river Grande de 
la Magdalena, and s. of the town of Tenerife. 

PLATRIERE, a bay or large and convenient 
port of Cape Britain, in N. America. 

[TLATTE, LA, a small river of Vermont, 
which falls into Lake Champlain at Shelburne.] 

PLATTSBURG, a town near the n. shore of 
Lake George in the state of New York. Five 
miles w. of Ticonderoga, and 187 n. of New York 
city. 

IPLATTSBURGH, is an extensive township 
in Clinton County, New York ; situate on the w. 
margin of Lake Champlain, lying n. of Wills- 
borough, about 240 miles n. of New York city, 
and 146 s. s. w. of Quebec in Canada. From the 
s. part of the town the mountains recede wide 
away from the lake, and leave a charming tract 
of excellent land, of a rich loam, well watered ; 
and about an equal proportion suitable for mea 
dow and for tillage. The land rises in a gentle 
ascent for several miles from the lake, of which 
every farm will have a delightful view. Several 
years ago this township, and the whole county 
indeed, which at present contains several thou 
sand inhabitants, was a wilderness ; now they 
have a house for public worship, a court-house 
and gaol, the courts of common pleas and gene 
ral sessions of the peace sit here twice in a year ; 
they have artizans of almost every kind among 
them, and furnish among themselves all the ma 
terials for building, glass excepted. Polite cir 
cles may here be found, and the genteel traveller 
be entertained with the luxuries of a sea-port, a 
tune on the harpsichord, and a philosophical con 
versation. In 1790, it contained 458 inhabitants, 
including 13 slaves. In 1796 there were 123 of 
the inhabitants qualified electors.") 

PLAY-GREEN, or PUSCACOGAN, a lake in 
N. America, in the territory belonging to the 
Hudson s Bay Company ; lies near the n. shore 
of Lake Winnipy. 



P L E 

PLAYA, LA, a part of the coast of Peru, in 
the province and corregimiento of Truxillo ; be 
tween the port of Guanape and the settlement of 
Moche. 

PLAYA, another, with the addition of Parda. 
which is a port on the Strait of Magellan, at 
the entrance of the narrow pass called Del Pa- 
sage. 

PLAYA, another, with the addition of Blanca, 
and the dedicatory title of San Agustin, a settle 
ment of the province and government of Carta 
gena in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate 
on the shore of the river Grande de la Magda 
lena. It is one of the new towns founded in 
1776 by the governor Don Francisco Pimienta. 

PLAYA, another, with the addition of Grande, 
in the same province and government as the 
former. It lies upon a large strand at the en 
trance of the city of Cartagena. 

PLAZA, a settlement and asiento of gold 
mines of the province and corregimiento of Quil- 
lota in the kingdom of Chile ; in a fertile and 
beautiful valley. 

PLAZA, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Popayan in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra 
nada, which rises in the valley of Los Paces, and 
enters the Cauca. 

PLAZILLA, a settlement and asiento of gold 
mines of the province and corregimiento of Quil- 
lota in the kingdom of Chile. 

[PLEASANT Point, a n. e. head-land in 
Merry Meeting Bay, district of Maine, and in 
Lincoln County. See MERRY MEETING Bay.] 

[PLEASANT Point, the e. boundary of the- 
mouth of Hawk s or Sandwich River, in the 
harbour of Chebucto, on the s. coast of Nova 
Scotia.] 

[PLEASANT River, a small village, where is 
a post-office on the sea-coast of Washington 
County, district of Maine, and at the head of 
Narraguagus Bay ; 16 miles n. e. of Goldsbo- 
rough, and 24 w. by s. of Machias.] 

[PLEIN River, the n. head-water of Illinois 
River. It interlocks with Chicago River, a 
water of Lake Michigan. Forty miles from its 
source is the place called Hid Island ; 26 miles 
farther it passes through Dupage Lake; and 
five miles below the lake, and s. of Mount Ju 
liet, it joins Theakiki River, which comes from 
the e. Thence the united stream assumes the 
name of Illinois. The land between these 
branches is rich, and intermixed with swamps 
and ponds.] 

PLESIS, a river of the island Guadalupe, 
one of the Antilles. It rises in the mountains 



P L U 

of the s. e. runs w. and enters the sea between 
those of Vieux Habitans and Bailif. 

[PLUCKEMIN, a town or village of some 
trade in Somerset County, New Jersey ; 28 miles 
n. of Princeton, and about 18 s. w. of Brunswick. 
It derived its singular name from an old Irish 
man noted for his address in taking in people.] 

[PLUE, LAC LA, or RAINY Lake, lies zo. by 
n. of Lake Superior, and e. by s. of the Lake of 
the Woods, in Upper Canada. 

The Narrows are in n. lat. - - 49 3 2" 
Fort Lac la Plue - . *, 48 35 49 

Island Portage - - - 50 7 31 
At the Barrier - - 50 7 51 

W. long. - b+nJ - - 95 8 30 
[PLUMB Island, on the coast of Massachu 
setts, is about seven miles long, and about half a 
mile broad, extending from the entrance of Ips 
wich River on the s., nearly a n. course to the 
mouth of Merrimack River, and is separated from 
the main land by a narrow sound, called Plum 
Island River, which is fordable in several places 
at low water. It consists for the most part of 
sand, blown into curious heaps, and crowned 
with bushes bearing the beach-plum. There is 
however, a valuable property of salt-marsh, and 
at the s. end of the island are two or three good 
farms. On the n. end stands the light-houses, 
and the remains of a wooden fort, built during 
the war, for the defence of the harbour. On the 
sea-shore of this island, and on Salisbury Beach, 
the Marine Society, and other gentlemen of New- 
bury Port, have humanely erected several small 
houses, furnished with fuel and other conveni 
ences, for the relief of mariners who may be 
shipwrecked on this coast. The n. end lies in 
lat. 42 47 n. and long. 70 50 w. See NEW- 
BUR Y Port.] 

[PLUMB Island, on the n. e. coast of Long 
Island, in the state of New York, is annexed 
to Southhold in Suffolk County. It contains 
about 800 acres, and supports seven families. 
It is fertile, and produces wheat, corn, butter, 
cheese, and wool. It is three-fourths of a mile 
from the e. point of Southhold. This island, 
with the sandy point of Gardner s Island, form 
the entrance of Gardner s Bay.] 

[PLUMB Point, GREAT, on the s. coast of the 
island of Jamaica, forms the s. e. limit of the 
peninsula of Port Royal, which shelters the har 
bour of Kingston. Little Plumb Point lies w. 
of the former, towards the town of Port Royal, 
on the s. side of the peninsula.] 

[PLUMSTEAD, a post-town of Pennsylvania; 
situate on the w. side of Delaware River, 28 



PLY 



171 



miles w. of Philadelphia, and 14 s. by w. of Alex 
andria in New Jersey.] 

[PLYMOUTH, a maritime county in the e . 
part of the state of Massachusetts, having Massa 
chusetts Bay to the n. e.., Bristol County s. w. 9 
Barnstaple County s. e., and Norfolk County n.w. 
It is subdivided into 15 townships, of which Ply 
mouth is the chief; and contains 4240 houses 
and 29,535 inhabitants. Within the counties of 
Plymouth and Bristol, there are now in opera 
tion, 14 blast, and six air furnaces, 20 forges, 
seven slitting and rolling mills, besides a number 
of trip-hammer shops, and an almost incredible 
number of nail-shops, and others for common 
smithery. These furnaces, supplied from the 
neighbouring mines, produce annually from 1500 
to 1800 tons of iron ware. The forges, on an 
average, manufacture more than 1000 tons an 
nually, and the slitting and rolling mills, at least 
1500 tons. The various manufactures of these 
mills, have given rise to many other branches in 
iron and steel, viz. cut and hammered nails, 
spades and shovels, card-teeth, saws, scythes, 
metal buttons, cannon balls, bells, fire arms, &c. 
In these counties are also manufactured hand- 
bellows, combs, sheet-iron for the tin manufac 
ture, wire, linseed-oil, snuff, stone and earthen 
ware. The iron-works, called the Federal Fur 
nace, are seven miles from Plymouth Harbour.] 

[PLYMOUTH, a sea-port town in Massachu 
setts, shire town of the county of Plymouth, 26 
miles s. s. e. from Boston ; a post-town and 
port of entry ; bounded n. by Kingston, and a 
line- extending across the harbour to the Gur 
net, w. by Carver, s. by Wareham and Sand 
wich, and e. by the sea. The township is ex 
tensive, containing more than 80 square miles. 
It is about 16 miles in length, and more than five 
in breadth. The number of inhabitants, by the 
census of 1791, was 2995. The Town, or prin 
cipal settlement, which contains more than two- 
thirds of the inhabitants, is on the n. e. part of 
the township, near a stream called the Town 
Brook, which flows from a large pond, bearing 
the name of Billington Sea. One main street 
crosses the stream, and is intersected by three 
cross streets, extending to the shore : another 
street runs w. on the n. side of the brook. The 
town is compactly built, and contains about 200 
dwelling houses, (the greater part of which are 
on the n. side of the Town Brook), a handsome 
meeting-house, court-house, and gaol. There 
are two precincts ; one includes the town, and 
the districts of Hobbs Hole, and Eel River; the 
other is at Monument Ponds, a village lying] 
z 2 



J72 



PLYMOUTH. 



[about seven miles 5. from the town, beyond the 
high lands of Monument. 

The soil near the coast is generally good ; the 
residue of the township is barren, and notwith 
standing the antiquity of the settlement, is yet a 
forest. The wood is principally pine, though 
there are many tracts covered with oak. 

The harbour is capacious, but shallow, and is 
formed by a long and narrow neck of land, called 
Salt-house Beach, extending s. from Marshfield, 
and terminating at the Gurnet Head, and by a 
smaller beach within, running in an opposite di 
rection, and connected with the main land near 
Eel River, about three miles from the town. 
There is a light-house on the Gurnet, and on 
Salthouse Beach is placed one of the huts erected 
and maintained by the Humane Society of Mas 
sachusetts, for the reception and relief of ship 
wrecked mariners. There is a beach in the inner 
beach, which exposes the shipping, even at the 
wharfs, during an e. storm. 

The principal business of the town is the cod- 
fishery, in which are employed 2000 tons of 
shipping, and about 300 men annually. There 
are a few coasting vessels belonging to the place, 
and two brigs ; and 10 or 12 schooners, em 
ployed in foreign trade. Many of the fishing 
vessels make voyages to the 5. states in the 
winter season. The exports, which, at the com 
mencement of the present federal government, 
were very inconsiderable, not exceeding 8000 or 
9000 dollars annually, are now respectable. In 
1795, they exceeded 70,000 dollars, and in 1796, 
they amounted to near 130,000 dollars. For 
merly the produce of the fishery was sold at 
Boston or Salem ; it is now almost wholly ex 
ported from the town, and considerable quanti 
ties of fish have lately been purchased at Boston, 
and exported from Plymouth. The proceeds of 
the foreign voyages, are generally conveyed to 
Boston for a market. 

The losses and sufferings of the inhabitants of 
Plymouth, during the war for independence, were 
extreme. Their vessels were almost all captured 
or lost. The men who used to be employed in 
them, were dispersed in the sea and land service, 
in which many of them lost their lives : a great 
number of widows and orphans were left desti 
tute ; business languished, houses, stores, and 
wharfs went to decay, and a general appearance 
of poverty and oppression prevailed. A few 
years of peace and good government have re 
versed this melancholly state of things. A young, 
industrious, and enterprising race of seamen has 
succeeded to those who are gone : business has 



revived ; the navigation and commerce of the 
place are more respectable than at any former 
period ; the houses are in good repair, many 
new ones are erected, and a spirit of enterprize 
and improvement is apparent. An academy is 
contemplated : a valuable slitting-mill, and other 
works are erected on the Town Brook. A stage, 
which goes twice a week to Boston, is well sup 
ported ; and an aqueduct for bringing fresh water 
to the houses of the inhabitants is more than half 
completed. 

The township abounds with ponds and streams. 
More than 100 ponds appear on the map lately 
taken by a committee of the town, and transmit 
ted to the secretary s office. Billington Sea is 
about two miles from the town, and covers near 
300 acres. From the stream flowing from >his 
pond the aqueduct will be supplied. South Pond 
is much larger. Further s. is Halfway Pond, 
and Long Pond. Near Sandwich Line is the 
Great Herring Pond. To Billington Sea, Half 
way Pond, and the Great Herring Pond, ale- 
wives resort in their season in great abundance. 
The Great Herring Pond has been contemplated 
as a reservoir for the projected canal across the 
isthmus, between Buzzard and Barnstable Bays. 
Many of the ponds abound with white and red 
perch, pike, and other fresh water fish ; and in 
the numerous brooks which run into the sea in 
different parts of the township, are found excel 
lent trout. These ponds and streams are often 
the scenes of amusement for parties of both sexes 
in the summer season. 

At the village of Monument Ponds and Eel 
River, and in some other parts of the township, 
many of the inhabitants are farmers. In the 
town the gardens are numerous and well culti 
vated, and when aided by the aqueduct will be 
productive equal to the wants of the inhabi 
tants. 

The situation of the town is pleasant and 
healthful. The e. winds of the spring, how 
ever, are distressing to persons of tender habits, 
and are uncomfortable even to the robust. The 
market is not regularly supplied. Fuel, fish, 
poultry, and wild fowl are plentiful and cheaper, 
perhaps, than in any other sea-port of the size. 
The people are sober, friendly, and industrious. 
It is the first settlement in New England, and is 
peopled, principally, by the descendants of the 
ancient stock. But few foreigners are among) 
them. The rock on which their forefathers first 
landed, was conveyed, in 1774, from the shore to a 
square in the centre of the town. The senti 
mental traveller will not fail to view it ; and if] 



PLYMOUTH. 



173 



The is passing to Cape Cod, he will pause a mo 
ment at Clampudding Pond, about seven miles 
from the town, where the people in ancient days, 
when travelling from the cape to attend the 
courts of Plymouth, used to sit and regale them 
selves with the clams and pudding which they 
brought with them. A few miles further s., on 
the same road, are the Sacrifice Rocks, which are 
covered with the dry limbs of trees and pine- 
knots, heaped upon them by the Indians as they 
pass by, in observance of an ancient usage, the 
origin of which is uncertain. 

The cheapness of living, the plenty of fuel, and 
the convenient mill-seats which are to be found 
in Plymouth, will probably render it, at some 
future period, a considerable manufacturing town. 
Domestic manufactures are now very general 
there. I 1 ishery and foreign commerce at present 
engage almost all the active capital of the town ; 
but the contigencies to which they are exposed 
may lead to some other sources of employment 
and profit. 

In the three last quarters of 1796, the exports 
were as follow : 

Second quarter - - 56,243 dollars 
Third ditto - - 36,634 
Fourth ditto - - 36,006 
In the first quarter of the year 1797, they 
amounted only to 11,466 dollars. This diminu 
tion has been produced by the apprehensions ex 
cited by the depredations of the French on the 
commerce of the United States. 
\JVe shall conclude this article with an interesting 
and authentic summary of the affairs of the co 
lony of New Plymouth, from the first settle 
ment until the incorporation with Massachusetts 
Bay, 8fc. in one province. 

The first settlers of New Plymouth went, in 
the beginning of the seventeenth century, from 
England to Holland. Their removal to Holland 
was attended with no small difficulty and hazard. 
One of the company, by name Bradford, gives 
this account of it : " There was a large company 
of them proposed to get passage at Boston in 
Lincolnshire, and, for that end, had hired a ship 
wholly to themselves, and made agreement with 
the master to be ready at a certain day, and take 
them and their goods in at a convenient place, 
where accordingly they would all attend in readi 
ness. So after long waiting and large expense, 
though he kept not day with them, yet he came 
at length and took them in, in the night. But 
when he had them and their goods aboard he 
betrayed them, having beforehand complotted 
with the searchers and other officers so to do, 



who took them and put them into open boats, 
and then rifled and ransacked them, searching 
them to their shirts for money, yea even the 
women, further than became modesty ; and then 
carried them back into the town, and made them 
a spectacle and wonder to the multitude, which 
came flocking on all sides to behold them. Being 
thus, first by the catchpoles, rifled and stripped 
of their money, books, and much other goods, 
they were presented to the magistrates, and mes 
sengers sent to inform the lords of the council 
of them, and so they were committed to ward. 
Indeed the magistrates used them courteouslvj 
and showed them what favour they could ; but 
could not deliver them till order came from the 
council table, but the issue was that, after a 
month s imprisonment, the greatest part were 
dismissed, and sent to the places from whence 
they came ; but seven of the principal men were 
still kept in prison, and bound over to the as 
sizes. The next spring after there was another 
attempt made, by some of these and others, to 
get over at another place ; and so it fell out;, 
that they light of a Dutchman at Hull, having 
a ship of his own belonging to Zealand. They 
made agreement with him, and acquainted him 
with their condition, hoping to find more faith 
fulness in him than in the former of their own 
nation. He bade them not fear, for he would 
do well enough. He was by appointment to 
take them in between Grimstone and Hull, where 
was a large common a good way distant from 
any town. Now against the prefixed time, the 
women and children, with the goods, were sent 
to the place in a small bark, which they had 
hired for that end, and the men were to meet 
them by land ; but it so fell out that they were 
there a day before the ship came, and the sea 
being rough, and the women very sick, prevailed 
with the seamen to put into a creek hard by, 
where they lay on ground at low water. The 
next morning the ship came, but they were fast 
and could not stir till about noon. In the mean 
time, the shipmaster, perceiving how the matter 
was, sent his boat to get the men aboard whom 
he saw ready, walking about the shore : but after 
the first boatful was got aboard, and she was 
ready to go for more, the master espied a great 
company,, both horse and foot, with bills and 
guns, and other weapons ; for the country was 
raised to take them. The Dutchman, seeing 
that, swore his country oath, sacramentej and, 
having the wind fair, weighed anchor, hoisted 
sails and away. After ensuring a fearful storm 
at sea, for 14 days or more, seven whereof they] 



174 



PLYMOUTH. 



[never saw sun, moon, nor stars, and being driven 
near the coast of Norway, they arrived at their 
desired haven, where the people came flocking, 
admiring their deliverance, the storm having 
been so long and sore, in which much hurt had 
been done, as the master s friends related to him 
in their congratulations. The rest of the men 
that were in greatest danger, made a shift to 
escape away before the troop could surprize 
them, those only staying that best might be as 
sisting unto the women. But pitiful it was to 
see the heavy case of these poor women in dis 
tress ; what weeping and crying on every side, 
some for their husbands that were carried away 
in the ship, others not knowing what should be 
come of them and their little ones, crying for 
fear and quaking with cold. Being apprehended, 
they were hurried from one place to another, 
till, in the end, they knew not what to do with 
them ; for, to imprison so many women with their 
innocent children, for no other cause, many of 
them, but that they would go with their hus 
bands, seemed to be unreasonable, and all would 
cry out of them ; and to send them home again 
was as difficult, for they alleged, as the truth 
was, they had no homes to go to, for they had 
either sold or otherwise disposed of their houses 
and livings. To be short, after they had been 
thus turmoiled a good while, and conveyed from 
one constable to another, they were glad to be 
rid of them in the end upon any terms, though, 
in the mean time, they, poor souls, endured mi 
sery enough." 

After eleven or twelve years residence in Hol 
land, in which time they had contention among 
themselves, and divided and became two churches 
or congregations, one of the congregations, whose 
minister was Mr. John Robinson, determined to 
remove to America. There were many obstacles 
in their way, and it took up several years of 
their pilgrimage to make the necessary prepara 
tions for such an undertaking. At length, in 
the year 1620, about one half the congregation 
embarked, first from Holland to England, where 
two ships were ready to receive them ; and they 
actually sailed at a very seasonable time, but 
meeting with contrary winds and one of the ships 
proving leaky, they put back and were obliged 
to leave her with part of their company behind, 
the other ship proceeding upon her voyage late 
in the year, so that it was about the 8th or 9th of 
November before they made the coast of Ame 
rica, and falling more to the northward than they 
intended, they made another attempt to sail fur 
ther *.; but meeting with contrary wind and 



hazardous shoals, they were glad to put into the 
harbour of Cape Cod, determined to winter in the 
most convenient place they could find. This 
disappointment was grievous to them, but before 
spring, they considered it as a favourable provi 
dence. They were so reduced in the winter by 
sickness and death, that they supposed they must 
have fallen a sacrifice to the Indians upon Hud 
son s River, where they proposed to begin a 
colony. The master, or pilot, it is said, bribed 
by the Dutch West-India company, had engaged, 
at all events, not to land them at Hudson s River, 
but they were determined upon it, and earlier in 
the year he would have found it very difficult to 
have diverted them. 

The ship lay five weeks in Cape Cod harbour. 
They could not expect to find a better harbour, 
but the land was of no value. The passengers 
were employed, sometimes travelling by land, 
sometimes by water, in search of some other har 
bour, where there was better land, but could find 
none capable of receiving vessels of any burden. 
At length, December 6th, they resolved upon one 
attempt more, and after coasting many leagues, a 
violent storm arose and their pilot made for the 
first harbour, which he supposed to be Sagaquabe, 
where he was well acquainted, but soon found 
himself in a cove, since called the Gurnet s Nose, 
full of breakers, and crying out, my eyes never 
saw this place before, would have run the shallop 
ashore before the wind, if a stout seamen who 
was at the helm had not called to the oars men, 
About with her, if you are men ; and by this 
means he saved their lives, for he discovered an 
opening or sound a-head, and, in a short time, run 
the boat under the lee of an island, now well 
known by the name of Clark s Island. Here they 
road out the storm and in the morning went 
ashore, kindled a fire and rested, it being the 
first day of the week. The next day they sounded 
many parts of the harbour, and found good water 
for ships, and were pleased with the land, and 
judged it the best place they had seen, and the 
Indian corn-fields round the harbour encouraged 
them that they should be able also to raise bread 
for their support. Upon their return to the ship 
with this good news they weighed anchor, and 
the whole company arrived the 16th of December. 
The whole number, exclusive of the mariners, 
amounted to 101, about one fourth part heads of fa 
milies, the rest wives, children and servants. They 
supposed some at least of the company which 
they left behind in England, and most of the con 
gregation in Leyden, with Mr. Robinson the 
minister, would follow ; and this seems to havej 



PLYMOUTH. 



175 



[been the whole number expected upon their pi an, 
for completing the colony. In truth, as many 
as 35 did arrive the 9th of November the next 
year, but their minister never came. He en 
couraged them from year to year, and seems to 
have been prevented by disappointments from 
those in England, who undertook to provide for 
the passage of him and his congregation, until 
the year 1625, when he died, and his congrega 
tion dispersed, although some found their way to 
their brethren before and some after his death. 
He was at first a thorough separatist, and Mr. 
Hubbardsays " was transported with their prin 
ciples so far as to publish his opinions against 
hearing any of the preachers of the church of 
England were they never so learned and pious, 
but afterwards acknowledged his error in a judi 
cious and godly discourse," &c. He is said to have 
been a man of good learning and of a benevolent 
disposition, and Mr. Bradford relates an anecdote 
which shows him, as well as their congregation 
in general, to have been in no small esteem 
among the Dutch. 

Our new comers had obtained a grant of part 
of the continent near Hudson s River, before the 
year 1620, and expected to be under the govern 
ment of the colony in Virginia, but, before they 
embarked, they heard that the lands within their 
grant were made part of a new patent to the 
council of Plymouth in Devon ; so th?t they 
were going into a part of the world where there 
was no government subsisting by authority from 
any European state, nor did they carry other 
powers or authority with them, than what each 
of them brought into the world. 

They were convinced, upon their passage, that 
they could not long subsist without government. 
Some of the inferior class among them muttered, 
that when they should get ashore, one man 
would be as good as another, and they would do 
what seemed good in their own eyes. This led 
the graver sort to consider how to prevent it, 
and, for this purpose, they prepared the follow 
ing instrument for every man to sign before he 
landed. 

" In the name of God, Amen. We whose 
names are underwritten, the loyal subjects of 
our dread sovereign lord King James, by the 
grace of God of Great Britain, France and Ire 
land, king, defender of the faith, &c. Having 
undertaken, for the glory of God and advance 
ment of the Christian faith, and honour of our 
king and country, a voyage to plant the first 
colony in the northern parts of Virginia, do by 
these presents, solemnly and mutually, in the 



presence of God and one of another, covenant 
and combine ourselves together into a civil body 
politic, for our better ordering and preservation, 
and furtherence of the ends aforesaid, and by 
virtue hereof to enact, constitute and frame such 
just and equal laws and ordinances, acts, con 
stitutions and offices, from time to time, as shall 
be thought most meet and convenient for the 
general good of the colony, unto which we pro 
mise all due subjection and obedience. In wit 
ness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our 
names, at Cape Cod, the llth of November, in 
the year of the reign of our sovereign lord King 
James, of England, France and Ireland the 18th, 
and of Scotland the 54th, Anno Dora. 1620. 

(Signed by) 

John Carver, John Turner, 

Wm. Bradford, Francis Eaton, 

Edw. Winslow, James Chilton, 

Wm. Brewster, John Croxton, 

Isaac Allerton, John Billington, 

Miles Standish, Joses Fletcher, 

John Alden, John Goodman, 

Sam. Fuller, Digory Priest, 

Christopher Martin, Thomas Williams, 
Wm. Mullins, Gilbert Winslow, 

Wm. White, Edw. Mageson, 

Richard Warren, Peter Brown, 
John Howland, Richard Bitteridge, 

Steph i. Hopkins, George Soule, 
Edw. Tilley, Richard Clarke, 

John Tilley, Richard Gardner, 

Francis Cook, John Allerton, 

Thomas Rogers, Thomas English, 
Thomas Tinker, Edw. Doten, 
John Ridgsdale, Ed. Liester." 
Edw. Fuller, 

These we suppose to have been all the males, 
of age, in the company; 21 of whom died before 
the end of March, of the scurvy and other sick 
ness, caused by bad lodging and bad diet, and 
the hardships of the winter. About the same 
proportion of the women and children died also, 
50 being the whole number then surviving. In 
1650 there were 30 remaining alive, in 1679 only 
12, in 1694 only two; and Mary Cushman only, 
daughter of Isaac Allerton, was alive in 1698. 
We will now ^ive a brief account of several of 

o 

these persons. 

John Carver had been deacon of their church 
in Holland, was esteemed for his discreet dis 
charge of that office, and being a grave judicious 
man, their eyes were upon him for their chief 
ruler, before they embarked. He lived but a 
short time. His grandson died at Marshfield, at] 



170 



PLYMOUTH. 



[the age of 102. Not long before his death, this 
grandson with his son, his grandson and great 
grandson, were all at work together, without 
doors, and the great great grandson was in the 
house at the same time. 

William Bradford was one of the younger men 
of the company. Douglass says, he was a man 
of no family and no learning. His manuscripts 
shew that he was a plain sensible man, and in his 
public trust he was esteemed as a discreet, up 
right and faithful officer ; and he deserves a 
better character than many of superior birth and 
education. His son was deputy-governor after 
his death; his grandson and two of his great 
grandsons have been of the council for the pro 
vince. 

Edward Winslow was of a very reputable fa 
mily, and of a very active genius, which fitted 
him for employment abroad, and in a great mea 
sure prevented a competition between Bradford 
and him for the governor s place. He was con 
cerned in managing their treaties with the In 
dians and with the neighbouring colonies, made 
several voyages to the eastward and to Connec 
ticut river, as well as four or five voyages to 
England, in the service of the colony first, and 
afterwards of the Massachusetts; and so estab 
lished himself in the favour of the then supreme 
authority in England, as to be employed in some 
very important services. In 1651 he was one of 
the commissioners of Haberdasher s-hall, as they 
were called, from the place of meeting: and, in 
1655, was one of the three superintendents in 
Cromwell s West India expedition. In one of 
his embassies, viz. in 1635, he had a difficult 
task to manage in England ; the particular cir 
cumstances his friend Bradford has preserved 
from oblivion, though they are too prolix to be 
inserted here. 

Mr. Winslow s son was first an assistant, then 
governor of the colony ; his grandson one of the 
council for the province, and many years at the 
head of the county of Plymouth ; one of his 
great grandsons lost his life fighting for his 
country ; two others filled offices of honour and 
trust, and there are now many reputable branches 
of the name and family in different parts of the 
province. 

William Brewster was highly esteemed by the 
whole company, was their ruling elder in Hol 
land, which seems to have been the bar to his 
being their governor; civil and ecclesiastical 
office, in the same person, being then deemed 
incompatible. Mr. Bradford gives this account 
<of him : " After he had attained the knowledge 



of the Latin tongue, and some insight into the 
Greek, and spent some small time at Cambridge, 
and then, being first seasoned with the seeds of 
grace and virtue, he went to the court, and served 
that religious and godly gentleman Mr. Davison, 
divers years, when he was secretary of state; 
who found him so discreet and faithful, that he 
trusted him above all other that were about him, 
and only employed him in all matters of greatest 
trust and secrecy. He esteemed him rather as a 
son than a servant, and for his wisdom and god 
liness, in private, he would converse with him 
more like a friend and familiar than a master. 
He attended his master when he was sent in am- 
bassage by the queen to the Low Countries, in 
the Earl of Leicester s time. He afterwards re 
mained with him till his trouble, when he was 
put from his place about the death of the Queen 
of Scots, and some time after, doing him many 
faithful offices and services in the time of his 
troubles. Afterwards he went and lived in the 
country, in good esteem among his friends and 
the gentlemen of those parts, especially the 
godly and religious. He was the chief of those 
that were taken at Boston, and suffered the 
greatest loss. After he came into Holland he 
suffered much hardship, having spent most of his 
means, having a great charge and many chil 
dren; and, in regard of his former breeding and 
cours^ of life, not so fit for many employments 
as others were, especially such as were toilsome 
and laborious. In the latter part of the time 
spent in Holland, his outward condition was 
mended. He fell into a way, by reason he had 
the Latin tongue, to teach many students who 
had a desire to learn the English tongue, for he 
drew rules to learn it, after the Latin manner ; 
and many gentlemen, both Danes and Germans, 
resorted to him, as they had time from their 
other studies, some of them being great men s 
sons. Removing into this country, these things 
were laid aside, and a new course of living must 
be submitted to, in which he was no way un 
willing to take his part and to bear his burthen 
with the rest, living many times without bread 
or corn many months together, many times having 
nothing but fish, and often wanting that also; 
and drank nothing but water for many years to 
gether, yea, till within five or six years of his 
death, and yet he lived, by the blessing of God, 
in health till very old age, &c." He lived until 
1643, and then died at the age of 84. 

William Brewster, grandson of the above, was 
deacon of the church at Duxbury . Many of his pos 
terity, we are informed, are living in that colony.] 



PLYMOUTH. 



177 



[Isaac Allerton or Alderton, the first assistant, 
was employed several times to negociate matters 
in England, relative to their trade, and at length 
left them and settled there. His male posterity 
settled in Maryland. If they be extinct, Point 
Alderton, which took his name, will probably 
preserve it many ages. 

Miles Standish, is said by Morton, to have 
been a gentleman of Lancashire, heir to a great 
estate, surreptitiously detained from him; his 
great grandfather being a second or younger 
brother of the house of Standish. He had been 
a soldier in the Low Countries, and was thought, 
although of remarkable small stature, the most 
proper person for their chief military officer, as 
long as he lived. Many things are said of his 
notable strength and courage. It is said, that 
when the news of the first Indians being killed, 
by him, came to Mr. Robinson in Holland, he 
wrote to his church to consider the disposition 
of their captain, who was of a warm temper, and 
whom he hoped the Lord had sent among them 
for good, if they used him right; but Mr. Ro 
binson doubted, whether there was not wanting 
that tenderness of the life of man, made after God s 
image, which was meet, and he thought it would 
have been a happy thing, if they had converted 
some before they had killed any. It seems Stan- 
dish was not of their church at first; and Mr. 
Hubbard says, he had more of his education in 
the school of Mars than in the school of Christ. 
He acquired, however, the esteem of the whole 
colony, and died in 1656, much lamented. His 
farm in Duxbury retains the name of Captain s 
Hill to this day, and some part of it yet remains 
in the possession of one of his posterity. 

William White was remarkable for being the 
father of the first-born child, Peregrine White, 
who lived until 1704. 

Stephen Hopkins was one of the assistants, 
and seems to have been much employed in their 
public affairs. Purchase mentions one Stephen 
Hopkins, one of Sir George Somers s company 
at Bermudas, as being disaffected to their civil 
and ecclesiastical regulations, and a promoter of 
separation, and not unlikely to be the same per 
son. He was the ancestor of Mr. Hopkins of 
Providence, the present Governor of Rhode 
Island. 

Richard Warren is mentioned by Bradford, as 
a most useful man among them, the short time 
he lived; dying in 1628; his son, grandson, and 
great grandson, have been since employed in 
public posts in the colony and province. 

VOL. IV. 



John Alden was many years an assistant, and 
several of his descendants have sustained public 
offices, and some of them are now living : so are 
the descendants of John Howland. Of the rest 
of this company we can give little or no account. 

Timothy Hatherly, indeed, was a merchant of 
London, engaged with them from the beginning, 
and came over two or three years after the first. 
He was the principal founder of the town of 
Scituate, and was an assistant : so was Thomas 
Willet, who came from London in 1629, and was 
a principal trader with the Dutch at Manhados, 
and in such esteem with them, that they chose 
him a referree to settle their controverted boun 
dary with the colony of Newhaven. He lived 
many years after, and died at Swanzey. His son 
was one of the first settlers of the Naraganset 
country, in the beginning of last century; and 
his grandson, Francis Willet, Esq. was a person 
of distinguished character in that colony. 

William Thomas, Edmund Freeman, James 
Cudworth, Thomas Southworth, were all assist 
ants, and their families still remain in the colony. 

We must not, however, omit taking notice of 
Richard Bourne, an early settler, and a most 
zealous and indefatigable promoter of the gospel 
among the Indians ; and though we do not find 
him named in the magistracy himself, yet two of 
his descendants have been of the council for the 
province, and several more are now living, of 
very reputable characters, and distinguished by 
posts of honour and trust. 

These were the founders of the colony of New 
Plymouth. The settlement of this colony occa 
sioned the settlement of Massachusetts Bay, which 
was the source of all the other colonies of New 
England. Virginia was in a dying state, and 
seemed to revive and flourish from the example 
of New England. We are not preserving from 
oblivion the names of heroes, whose chief merit 
is the overthrow of cities, provinces, and empires, 
but the names of the founders of a flourishing 
town and colony, if not of the whole British 
empire in America. Such then were the leading 
characters who drew up and signed the instru 
ment already mentioned, for the purpose of pro 
viding against any disputes which might arise 
through want of a due subordination upon their 
first landing. 

By this instrument they formed themselves 
into a proper democracy, and, if they had gone 
no further, perhaps they would have done but 
little towards preserving order. But one great 
reason of this covenant seems to have been of a] 

A A 



PLYMOUTH. 



[mere moral nature, that they might remove all 
scruples of inflicting necessary punishments, even 
capital ones, seeing all had voluntarily subjected 
themselves to them. By common consent they 
agreed upon Mr. John Carver to be their first 
governor, " confiding in his prudence, that he 
would not adventure upon any matter of moment 
without consent of the rest, or, at least, advice 
of such as were known to be the wisest among 
them." (Hubbard.) They seem cautiously to 
have reserved as much of their natural liberty as 
could be consistent with the maintenance of go 
vernment and order. This was rational, and 
every thinking man, when he first quitted the 
state of nature, would do the same. Lord Chief 
Justice Holt said, in the case of Blankald versus 
Galdy, that in case of an uninhabited country 
newly found out by English subjects, all laws in 
force in England are in force there, and the 
court agreed with him. Until they should agree 
upon laws suited to their peculiar circumstances, 
our Plymotheans resolved to make the laws of 
England their rule of government, which, Mr. 
Hubbard says, "they were willing to be subject 
unto, although in a foreign land;" and it seems 
they differed much in this respect from the Mas 
sachusetts colonists, and never established any 
distinct code or body of laws, but " added some 
particular municipal laws of their own, suitable 
to their constitution, in such cases where the 
common law and the statutes of England could 
not well reach and afford them help in emergent 
difficulties, following the advice of Pacuvius to 
his neighbours of Capua, not to cashier their old 
magistrates till they could agree upon better to 
place in their room." Cartwright, who had a 
chief hand in reducing puritanism to a system, 
held, that the magistrate was bound to adhere to 
the judicial law of Moses, and might not punish 
nor pardon, otherwise than they prescribed, and 
him the Massachusetts people followed. 

It must be allowed that, in some instances, 
the Plymotheans ran into the same errors with 
the Massachusetts, and established penalties dis- 
proportioned to the offences. A young factor, 
who came from Virginia, was captivated with 
the charms of an Indian girl, and the effects of 
a criminal conversation soon appeared. He found 
suspicions rising against him, and had no other 
way to avoid whipping but to leave the colony. 
Accordingly he privately departed to the colony 
from whence he came, where we suppose his of 
fence would not have been thought very heinous. 
But the feet was, that these people thought the 



magistrates, being God s ministers, were bound 
to punish all offences in their courts in the same 
proportion as the supreme Judge would punish 
them in the court of heaven. 

They had no scruples of their authority, by 
virtue of their combination, to inflict corporal 
punishment for lesser offences. They had been 10 
years combined before any capital offence was 
committed. In 1630, John Billington, who had 
slipped in among them when they were at London, 
not being one of their church, lay in wait for his 
companion, with whom he was offended, and 
wounded him, so that he died presently after. 
They were in doubt of their authority to pass sen 
tence of death. They had just obtained their pa 
tent from the council of Plymouth, which gave all 
the powers which they had authority to give; but 
if the council, by their patent, had no authority to 
inflict capital punishment themselves, it might 
well be inquired, how they could give this power 
to their substitutes. Their chief reliance, there 
fore, seems to have been upon the voluntary 
submission of this offender, among the rest, to 
the laws and orders of the whole body. This, 
from a mere moral consideration, might induce 
them to proceed to trial and punishment; but, 
as they were within the dominions of Great Bri 
tain, and had no constitutional authority to erect 
courts of justice, scruples of the legality still re 
mained. They therefore applied to their neigh 
bours in the Massachusetts, and prayed their ad 
vice. Mr. Winthrop, having consulted with 
" the ablest gentlemen there," concurred with 
the opinion at Plymouth, that the man ought to 
die, and " the land be purged from blood." This 
was founded upon the divine command, " Who 
soever sheddeth man s blood," &c. which was 
not in any case to be dispensed with. Although 
they were not clothed with legal authority, they 
observed, nevertheless, the forms of law, and 
both grand jury and petty jury were impannelled, 
and, after indictment, verdict and sentence, the 
criminal was executed. 

Mr. Carver, the first governor, died suddenly, 
a few months after their arrival. They chose 
William Bradford to succeed him, and Isaac Al- 
lerton his assistant; but gave this reason for 
choosing an assistant, that Mr. Bradford was upon 
recovery from a fit of sickness, and unable to 
bear the whole burden ; however, it served for a 
precedent, and the same persons were annually 
elected governor and assistant until 1624, when 
they added four persons more for assistants, 
and gave the governor a double voice, and inj 



PLYMOUTH. 



[1633 two more; after which they kept to the 
number of seven assistants, until they submitted 
to King James II. his commission to Andros. In 
70 years they had no more than six different per 
sons governors. 

Bradford, who succeeded Carver, was chosen 
annually from 1621, until he died in 1657, ex 
cept in 1633, 1636, and 1644, when Edward 
Winslow was chosen, and 1634, when Thomas 
Prince was chosen; who also succeeded Brad 
ford, and was annually elected, until his death 
in 1673; when Josias Winslow succeeded, and 
continued until he died in 1680 ; and was suc 
ceeded by Thomas Hinkley, who held the place, 
except in the interruption by Andros, until the 
junction with the Massachusetts in 1692. 

We do not find when they first chose a deputy- 
governor, or gave an assistant the name of de 
puty-governor, for we know of no peculiar share 
of power; but, in the latter part of the patent, 
William Bradford, son to the first governor, is 
named deputy-governor. The charters of the 
three New England charter governments men 
tioning such an officer, probably led them to a 
conformity. They had no house of representa 
tives until the year 1639, when committees or de 
puties were sent from each town ; viz. four from 
Plymouth, two from Duxborough, two from Sci- 
tuate, two from Sandwich, two from Cohannet 
(Taunton), two from Yarmouth, two from Barn- 
stable. (Colony Records.) There seems to have 
been no occasion for a house of representatives 
before. Their number was small, the election of 
governor and assistants annual ; they were, to all 
intents and purposes, the representatives of the 
people: and indeed, when the colony increased, 
the increasing the number of assistants might have 
answered all the purposes of choosing the same 
number, with another name. The Massachusetts 
had some special reasons, which Plymouth had 
not. They were limited by charter to 18 assist 
ants. The people were not satisfied that the 
whole powers of government should be in so few 
hands. They could have a remedy in no other 
way than by creating a distinct body of men, to 
share with the governor and assistants in acts of 
government. The Massachusetts, from the be 
ginning, endeavoured to preserve two distinct 
ranks or orders of men, gentry and commonalty. 
There was a general disposition to elect the go 
vernor, &c. from the former rank ; their minis 
ters preached it as a Christian and moral duty. 
That the commonalty, or, as they expressed 
themselves, the generality, might come in for a 
*hare, they formed a new body, by the name of 



representatives, although their charter knew no 
thing of it. 

Whilst they were few in number, so that the 
whole body could assemble in one place, the 
whole were frequently convened, to determine 
upon matters executive as well as legislative. 
When they were increased, and were divided into 
towns remote from the centre, this became im 
practicable. They then seem to have followed 
the model of the Massachusetts, the governor 
and assistants being the supreme judiciary power, 
and sole in judging high offences ; lesser offences 
being cognizable before inferior courts and single 
magistrates, and in civil matters appeals also lay 
from inferior jurisdictions to the supreme. 

We shall briefly touch upon their ecclesiastical 
affairs. We suppose this people were the first 
who took or received the name of Independents, 
which, in a few years after, was the name given 
to a body of men in England, who assumed the 
government there. When they first went to Hol 
land they were known by the name of Brownists. 
Some of the characteristics of Brownism they af 
terwards disclaimed, and, at the same time, dis 
claimed the name, which was generally odious ; 
the character of the founder of the sect being, at 
best, problematical. Besides, he renounced his 
principles, and returned to episcopacy. The Pu 
ritans they could not conform to, and therefore 
considered themselves as a distinct church or 
by themselves, independent of all other. Cardinal 
Bentivoglio makes them a distinct sect in Hol 
land, by the name of Puritans, though he was 
unacquainted with their inducement to leave 
England, and supposes it commerce and not re 
ligion. (I Puritani ancora vi son tolerati, che 
sono i piu puri e i piu rigidi Calvinisti, i quail 
non vogliono riconoscere autorita alcuna ne ma- 
gistrati politici sopra il governo de loro ministri 
heretici, e sono quasi tutti de Puritani d lnghil- 
terra, che per occasion di commercio frequentan 
1 Ollanda, e le altro Provincie Unite. Delia re- 
latione delle Provincie, Sfc.) 

The Massachusetts people refined and took the 
name of Congregationalists, although it will 
perhaps be difficult, at this day, to show any ma 
terial difference between the churches of the two 
colonies ; for although Plymouth never establish 
ed, by act of government, the Massachusetts plat 
form, yet in practice they seem generally to have 
conformed to it. 

Whilst they expected their minister from Hol 
land, they were without the sacraments, they had 
constant public worship, their pious elder gene 
rally praying and preaching, or, as they then! 
A A 2 



180 



PLYMOUTH. 



[termed it, prophesying, and sometimes one or 
other of the brethren best gifted or qualified. After 
their minister s death, they made trial of four or 
five; but some were of bad morals, others of prin 
ciples not approved, and others met with better 
offers, so that they had no minister settled to 
their satisfaction until Mr. John Reyner came 
among them, in the year 1636. The whole colony 
made but one church until the year 1633, when 
those brethren who lived on the side of the bay 
opposite to the town, where Duxbury now is, 
broke from the rest, because of the difficulty of 
travel, and became a distinct society. Perhaps 
their being so long without a minister at first, 
might be the reason why they were less anxious 
to be furnished with ministers, immediately upon 
their spreading and forming new towns and set 
tlements, than their neighbours in Massachusetts 
and Connecticut. 

Considering the rapid increase of the Massa 
chusetts and Connecticut, it may not be amiss to 
give the reasons of the very slow growth of Ply 
mouth ; for in 13 or 14 years the whole colony 
was not become too numerous for one middling 
town. They had pitched upon some of the poorest 
land in New England, and had frequent thoughts 
of quitting it. In 1623, their brethren write from 
Leyden, and desire that, seeing by God s provi 
dence " that place fell to their lot, they would 
not leave it, nor languish after other places, 
though they had discovered more rivers and 
more fertile places than where they were;" but, 
in 1633, they took possession of Connecticut 
river, and built and fortified a house for trade, 
where Hartford now is; and afterwards, when 
the Massachusetts dispossessed them, they urged, 
among other reasons for holding possession, that 
" they lived upon a barren place, where they 
were by necessity cast, and neither they nor 
theirs could long continue upon the same, and 
why should they be deprived of that which they 
had provided and intended to remove to, as soon 
as they were able?" 

In the next place, the plan they set out upon 
was not to make a great colony in a little time, 
but to preserve a pure and distinct congregation ; 
they neither desired any people of a different 
persuasion to mix with them, nor did any such 
incline to go among them. When one of the 
number was hanged, 10 years after the settle 
ment began, it was remarked that he had been a 
profane person, and guilty of other miscarriages 
before that for which he suffered, and that by 
means of some of his friends in London, he had 
been shuffled in among them. If all in England, 



who called themselves Brownists and Indepen 
dents, at that day, had come over with them, they 
would scarcely have made one considerable town. 
Indeed, a few years after, most of those who 
had before been called Puritans, were willing 
enough to own the same principles with them, 
though they did not like the name. 

We may add one cause more, viz. that their 
views, when they left England, were rather to 
establish a factory than a colony. They had 
no notion of cultivating any more ground than 
would afford their own necessary provisions, but 
proposed that their chief secular employment 
should be commerce with the natives; and they 
entered into contract with a company of 20 or 
more merchants and others, many of them be 
longing to Bristol, who were to furnish them with 
foods ; and, at the end of seven years, the pro- 
ts were to be divided equally between the mer 
chants in England and the colonists, all the 
houses and improved land to be valued in the 
joint stock. This last circumstance was a suffi 
cient bar to any extraordinary improvement of 
the lands. Here we cannot help remarking, that 
they had a fine opportunity of making fortunes, 
having few or no rivals ; whilst the Indians were 
charmed with European goods, as well to adorn 
as to clothe themselves, and goods sold at great 
advance, and the furs came cheap ; though it is 
fair to acknowledge, that a variety of misfortunes 
and losses by sea, for several years together, kept 
the balance against them. 1 hey were but little 
acquainted with trade, and perhaps they were 
not so worldly-minded as their posterity have 
since been. At first they made every man a part 
ner. Every man s person was valued at 10 
interest in the stock, and his whole time was to 
be employed for the common benefit. He that 
had .90 in the general stock, with the addition 
of 10 for his person, was to share ten times 
as much as he who had no substance at all. This 
was a hard bargain for the poor, and we should 
not wonder if persons who could bring no money 
to put in the stock were discouraged from settling 
among them. After the expiration of the seven 
years, and a settlement with their partners in 
England, the principal persons were obliged to 
become bound for the balance which remained in 
the hand of the colony or factory, and from that 
time took the trade into their own hands, exclusive 
of the poorer sort, who had spent seven years in 
labour and toil, and had received subsistence 
only, and that oftentimes scarce enough. 

They had for eight or ten years almost the,- 
whole supply of the Indians who were nearl 



PLYMOUTH. 



181 



[neighbours to them, but their greatest expecta 
tions were from the eastern Indians; and they set 
up a truck-house at Penobscot and another upon 
Kennebeck river. The latter they found most 
advantageous, and sought for a grant of a con 
venient tract from the council of Plymouth, which 
they obtained in the year 1628, but it was " so 
strait and ill-bounded," that the next year, 1629, 
when a grant was made of the lands intended for 
the whole colony, the tract of country at Kenne 
beck was granted anew, and the limits enlarged. 
They met with some opposition in 1634, from 
persons employed by Lord Say and Lord Brook, 
who claimed a right of trading at the same place 
with the Plymouth people, we suppose by a grant 
from Gorges ; and a fray happened, in which one 
was killed on each side. Lord Say s company 
were Puritans, and those of Plymouth Indepen 
dents. This grant upon Kennebeck, within a few 
years past, from a different construction of the 
words which describe the limits, has been the 
cause of great contention. Perhaps the relation 
of this action, by Governor Bradford, may afford 
some light in the controversy. We shall there 
fore insert it, exactly as the words and points 
stood in his manuscripts. 

I am now (he writes) to enter upon one of 
the saddest things that befell them since they 
come. But before I begin it will be needful to 
premise such parte of their patente as gives them 
right and priviledge at Kenebeck. As followeth. 
The said counsel! hath further given, granted, 
bargained, sold, infeoffed, allotted, assigned and 
set over, and by these presents, doe clearly and 
absolutely give, grant, bargane, sell, alliene, en- 
fteofe, allote, assigne and confirme unto the said 
William Bradford, his heirs, associates, and as- 
sigries. All that tracte of land or part of New 
England in America afforesaid, which lyeth within 
betweene, and extendeth it selfe, from the 



or 



utmost limits of Cobiseconte which adjoyneth to 
the river of Kenebeck towards the westerne 
ocean, and a place called the falls of Nequam- 
kick in America aforesaid, And the space of 15 
English myles, on each side of the said river, 
commonly called Kenebeck river, and all the said 
river called Kenebeck, that lyeth within the said 
limits and bounds eastward, westward and north 
ward and southward, last above mentioned ; and 
all lands, grounds, soyles, rivers, waters, fish 
ing, &c. And by vertue of the authority to us 
derived by the said late Majesty s Lettres patent 
to take, apprehend, seise, and make prise of all 
fucb persons their ships and goods, as shall at- 



tempte to inhabite, or trade, with the savage 
people of that countrie within the severall pre- 
sincts, and limits of his, and their several plan 
tations, &c. 

Now it so fell out that one Hocking, belong 
ing to the plantation of Piscataway, wente with 
a barke, and comodities to trade in that river, 
and would needs press into their limits, and not 
only so but would needs goe up the river above 
their house (towards the falls of the river) and 
intercept the trade that should come to them. He 
that was cheefe of the place forbad them and 
prayed him that he would not offer them that in- 
jurie, nor go about to infringe their liberties, 
(which had cost them so dear) but he answered 
he would go up and trade there in dispite of 
them, and lye there as longe as he pleased ; the 
other told them he must then be forced to remove 
him from thence, or make seasure of him if he 
could. He bid him do his worste, and so w r ente 
up and anchored there. The other took a boat 
and some men, and went up to him, when he saw 
his time, and againe entreated him to departe, 
by what persuasion he could. But all in vaine, 
he could get nothing of him but ill words. So he 
considered that now was the season for the trade 
to come downe, and if he should suffer him to 
lye, and take it from them, all their former 
charge would be lost, and they had better throw 
up all. So consulting with his men, (who were 
willing therefor) he resolved to put him from his 
anchores, and let him drive down the river with 
the streame ; but commanded the men that none 
should shoote a shote upon any occasion except 
he commanded them. He spoake to him again 
but all in vaine, then he sent a euple in a canow 
to cutte his cable, the which one of them per- 
formes, but Hocking takes up a pece which he 
had layded ready, and as the barke shered by 
the canow he shot him close under her side, in 
the head (as I take it) so he fell down dead in 
stantly. One of his fellows (which loved him 
well) could not hold, but with a musket shot 
Hocking, who fell down dead and never spoake 
word ; this was the truth of the thing ; the rest 
of the men carried home the vessel and the sad 
tidings of these things. Now the Lord Saye and 
the Lord Brooke with some other great persons 
had a hand in this plantation ; they write home 
to them, as much as they could to exasperate 
them in the matter ; leaving out all the circum 
stances, as if he had been killed without any of 
fence of his parte, conceling that he had killed 
another first, and the just occasion that he had] 



182 



PLYMOUTH. 



["given in offering- such wrong- ; at which their 
Lordships were much offended till they were 
truly informed of the matter. (Bradford s MS.) 
But to return to our history Two or three 
years after the arrival of our colonists, all things 
were in common, no man having any property 
but what was put into the common stock, and 
every person furnished with clothing and pro 
visions out of this stock. A certain quantity of 
land in the beginning of the year was assigned 
for planting, and every one had such a proportion 
of the labour assigned him. Mr. Brad ford re marks, 
upon this occasion, that the ill success of this 
community of goods, even among godly and sober 
men, fully evinced the vanity of that conceit of 
Plato, that the taking away property and bring 
ing in community into a commonwealth would 
make them happy and flourishing : and, in fact, 
they raised so little provisions, that once, at least, 
they were in danger of starving ; and, before 
their crops were fully ripe, great part would be 
stolen out of the fields, to satisfy hungry bellies, 
and severe whipping of the offenders would not 
deter others in the like circumstances from com 
mitting the like offence. Besides, it occasioned 
constant discontent and murmuring, as the young 
men, most capable of labour, who had no families, 
thought much of labouring for other men s wives 
and children, whilst those in their full strength, 
complained that it was unjust to allow them no 
more in the division of victuals and clothing 
than them who were weak and could not do a 
quarter part of the labour : again, the aged and 
grave men thought it an indignity and disrespect 
to be upon a level, as in labour so in victuals 
and clothes, with the younger, and those in 
other respects of inferior condition. Husbands 
could not brook it that their wives should be 
commanded to do menial services, dressing meat, 
washing clothes, &c. for other men. All being 
obliged to do, and all accustomed to receive 
alike, it was inferred that, in all other respects, 
they ought to be alike, and one man was to all 
intents and purposes as good as another, and no 
subordination, no civil distinction could be pre 
served. After three years, they found it abso 
lutely necessary to come into some new measures, 
and began with assigning to each family a certain 
quantity of land, sufficient to raise corn enough 
for their support, but in all other respects to 
continue in the general way, until the seven 
years for which they had contracted with their 
partners in England for the profits of their la 
bour were expired. There was immediately a 



new face upon their affairs, much more corn was 
planted than the governor, by the exertion of all 
his authority, could ever cause them to plant in 
any year before. Women and children, who were 
weak and unable before, went cheerfully with 
their husbands and parents to plant corn, and 
every family had enough for their support, and 
many of them some to spare. An emulation was 
created and increased every year to exceed in 
quantity, and in a few years they were able to 
raise sufficient to make it a valuable article in 
their Indian trade, being then worth 6s. sterling 
a bushel. The Indians now, in a great measure, 
left off raising it, the hunting life being more 
agreeable to them, and finding, as they did, that 
with their furs they could purchase what they 
wanted. 

The colony had struggled for seven or eight 
years, and had made but small improvements in 
cultivating the ground, and was not numerous 
enough to think of dividing and extending to the 
inland parts of the country when Mr. Endicot ar 
rived at Salem to prepare the way for the grand 
undertaking of settling the Massachusetts. This 
must have given fresh spirits to the Plymotheans. 
Without this, we think, there is great reason to 
question whether the plantation would not in a 
few years have been deserted, and the settlers 
have removed to some more fertile part of Ame 
rica, or, which is more probable, have returned 
to England, where, from the change of times, they 
might have enjoyed civil and religious liberty, 
for the sake of which they first quitted it, in as 
great a latitude as their hearts could wish. 

In a small colony it cannot be expected that 
we should meet with many events of moment 
after they had grappled with the hardship which 
attended their first settlement. Mr. Bradford 
remarks, that the Spaniards were thought by 
Peter Martyr to have suffered hardships which 
none but a Spaniard could endure, when they 
were obliged to live for five days together upon 
the parched grain of maize only, and that not to 
satiety, whereas the Plymotheans the first two 
or three years thought a meal of their maize as 
good as a feast ; and sometimes not for five days 
only, but for two or three months together, were 
destitute of that and all other corn or bread of 
any kind. But with their miseries, he says, they 
opened a way to these new lands, for other men 
to come afterwards with ease and inhabit them. 
The fourth year after their arrival, they were 
threatened with the total destruction of their 
crop, and absolute famine. From about the] 



PLYMOUTH. 



183 



( middle of May to the middle of July, they had 
not one shower of rain, and the extreme heat 
of the sun upon their sandy soil had so dried up 
their corn, that they were almost in despair of 
its ever being restored ; but in the evening after 
a day of fasting and prater it began to rain, and 
by repeated showers their corn recovered its ver 
dure, and they had a plentiful harvest. They 
afterwards found by experience that such droughts 
are frequent in this climate ; but a kind Creator 
has so ordered the seasons, that these droughts 
have always been followed, before the end of the 
summer, with refreshing rains ; and, although 
the fruits of the earth have been much diminished, 
yet harvest hath never failed; men and beasts 
have been supported, and ordinarily, in the next 
succeeding year, there has been a remarkable 
plenty. 

The terror which fire-arms struck into the In 
dians, prevented them from destroying this small 
company. There were not above seven men ca 
pable of bearing arms in the time of sickness the 
first winter. Soon after the potent nation of 
Naraganset sent to the English a bundle of ar 
rows tied with a snake s skin, as a defiance and 
denunciation of war. The English filled the 
skin with bullets, and sent it back with this 
answer : that they had done them no wrong, 
did not fear them, and were provided for them 
come when they would. The Naragansets would 
not suffer the bullets to come near them, and they 
were moved about from place to place, till they 
found their way back to the English again, and 
the Indians remained quiet. As the Indians 
learned the use of fire-arms, the English increased 
in number, and until the year 1675, there was no 
open rupture, except the short offensive war with 
the Pequots in their own country, which ended 
in their destruction. 

However rigid the New Plymouth colonists 
may have been at their first separation from the 
church of England, yet they never discovered 
that peisecuting spirit which we have seen in the 
Massachusetts. When Mrs. Hutchinson and her 
adherents were banished from that colony, they 
applied to the colony of Plymouth for leave to 
settle upon Aquidnick or Rhode Island, which 
was then acknowledged to be within Plymouth 
patent, and it was readily granted, although their 
tenets were no more approved by Plymouth than 
by the Massachusetts. Some of the Quakers also 
fled to Plymouth bounds, and probably saved 
their lives ; for although laws were made severe 
enough against erroneous opinions, yet were 
these in no case capital. The Baptists also were 



still more favourably received ; the town of 
Swansey being principally settled by Baptist 
refugees from the Massachusetts colony, and 
w hen one of their ministers settled in the church 
of Plymouth, they were content that he should 
baptize by immersion, or dipping any who de 
sired it, provided he took no exception to the 
other minster s sprinkling such for whom immer 
sion was not judged necessary. 

Until 1629, they were in doubt about their 
title to their lands. They were constantly so 
liciting a grant, or, as they term it, an assurance 
from the council of Plymouth. In 1624, they 
employed one John Pierce, who procured a grant 
to himself for about 50, but he kept it in his 
own hands, and refused to assign it for less than 
500. This they justly complained of as a 
great breach of trust, and attributed to it seve 
ral losses and disappointments he met with in 
his intended voyage, which frightened him and 
made him also look upon them as the punish 
ment of his perfidy and to relinquish his claim. 
We do not find that those who employed him 
reaped any benefit from the grant. After they 
had their patent in 1629, they were easy until 
the restoration ; but when Connecticut and Rhode 
Island, who held their lands, or most of them, 
under patents from the council of Plymouth, 
thought it necessary to solicit, and had obtained 
a royal confirmation and charter, giving authority 
to govern, New Plymouth solicited also, but 
they were rather too late. The court began to 
be jealous of the colonists. Such sort of char 
ters as had been granted left them, it was said, 
too much to themselves, and although they were 
not peremptorily refused, they were put off from 
time to time, and told that the only difficulty was 
to settle such a form of government as should 
secure their dependence as a colony, and should 
nevertheless afford to them liberties and privi 
leges to their satisfaction. 

This was no easy matter for both sides to 
agree upon, and thus a state of suspense made 
the colony more pliable and obsequious than 
their neighbours of Massachusetts. This was 
particularly the case when the commissioners 
from King Charles came to New England in 
1664, and when Plymouth submitted to their 
determination a controversy between that colony 
and Rhode Island about bounds. At this time 
they received, indeed, a very gracious letter from 
the king, but all ended in mere professions. 
We can easily conceive of a parent state grow 
ing every day more and more popular in its go 
vernment, and nevertheless at the same time re-] 



184 



PLYMOUTH. 



j straining the liberties of its colonies for the sake 
of continuing- the connection ; but when there is 
a scheme of establishing absolute power in the 
parent state, how can it be expected that popular 
governments should be established in the colo 
nies ? However, no advantage was ever taken 
of their want of authority, and their proceedings 
were connived at until the general shipwreck of 
charters in 1684, when an arbitrary government 
was established in the other colonies, and they 
could not expect to escape. All their hopes 
being at an end, they made as loud complaints 
of oppression, under Andros, as any people of 
his government, and perhaps with as much rea 
son ; and when the Massachusetts imprisoned 
him and reassumed their charter, Plymouth as 
sumed their old form of government also. Now 
it was that they first sensibly found the want of 
a charter. Connecticut and Rhode Island, who 
had resigned their charters, were justified, by the 
example of the corporations in England, in as 
suming them again ; but Plymouth had none to 
assume. Their first attempt was to procure a 
charter and to continue a distinct government. 
In this they could not succeed. Perhaps, if it 
had been solicited in the best manner, they might 
have succeeded, but interior divisions prevented 
any proper measures being pursued. Mr. Hink- 
ley, their governor, wrote to Mr. Mather, the 
Massachusetts agent, to desire him to solicit in 
their behalf, but the people refused to advance 
any money, and so small a sum as 200 ster 
ling could not be raised. The inhabitants of 
some of the principal towns subscribed, upon 
condition the whole sum should be raised. Some 
of the towns refusing, the whole subscription 
failed. Such was the effect of their divisions, 
that neither party would acknowledge the au 
thority of the government when any act passed 
which they did not approve of. Mr. Wiswall, 
one of their ministers, by advice of some gentle 
men in Boston, went to England, but having no 
commission, and, which is more fatal to those 
who have affairs at court, no money, he never 
could make a public appearance, arid served only 
to give offence to the ministry, by offering ex 
ceptions to the proposal of joining Plymouth to 
the Massachusetts, and, eventually, occasioned 
their being annexed to New York. It is said, 
however, that they were taken out of Slaughter s 
commission by Mr. Mather s interest ; for al 
though Slaughter arrived at New York the year 
before Phipps arrived in the Massachusetts, and 
sent his orders to Little Compton in Plymouth 
colony, in terms as high and authoritative as if 



he had been their governor, or depended upon 
being such ; yet was their junction with New 
York suspended until they were actually included 
in the Massachusetts. 

It has been said this last determination gave, 
and continues to give, to this day, great satis 
faction to every individual in the colony of Ply 
mouth, and that there is not one who does not 
think it a most happy circumstance that they were 
annexed to Massachusetts rather than to New 
York. There might, indeed, at first, have been 
jealousies of unequal distinctions, upon some oc 
casions, in favour of the Massachusetts, yet they 
have long since been at an end, and the customs, 
manners, and religious opinions of the two colo 
nies being much the same, they mutually consider 
themselves as having one joint general interest 
as fully in all respects as if they had been one 
colony from the beginning. For a continuation 
of this history, see Index to additional matter 
concerning Massachusetts.] 

[PLYMOUTH, a town of New York in Onon- 
dago County, lately laid out and named by 
E. Watson, Esq. a native of Plymouth, New 
England. The town lies about 12 miles s. e. of 
Geneva, on a beautiful declivity on the e. side of 
Seneca Lake, and commands a charming and ex 
tensive view of the whole lake. The town plat 
is on the spot formerly called Apple Town, and 
w r as the head-quarters of the Seneca Indians, who 
were conquered and dispersed by General Sul 
livan, in his western expedition in 1779. The 
situation is healthful and pleasant, well watered 
by copious living springs. Twenty houses were 
building here in 1796, and as the new state-road 
from the Cayuga intersects the town, a ferry esta 
blished, and another town laid out on the oppo 
site side of the lake, it promises fair to become a 
considerable and very thriving village. It is 
well watered by copious springs.] 

[PLYMOUTH, a town in Litchfield County, 
Connecticut.] 

[PLYMOUTH, a post-town of New Hamp 
shire ; situate in Grafton County, at the mouth 
of Baker s River, on its s. side, where it falls 
into the river Pemigewasset ; 36 miles n. of 
Concord, 61 n. w. of Portsmouth, and 277 
n. e. of Philadelphia. The township was in 
corporated in 1763, and contains 625 inhabi 
tants.] 

[PLYMOUTH, the name of two townships in 
Pennsylvania, the one in Luzerne County, the 
other in that of Montgomery.] 

[PLYMOUTH, a small post-town of N. Caro 
lina, on the s. side of Roanoke River, about five 



P O G 

miles above Albemarle Sound. It is 14 miles 
s. w. by s. of Edenton.] 

[PLYMOUTH, a settlement on the s. peninsula 
of the island of St. Domingo, and in the depend 
ence of Jeremie.] 

[PLYMOUTH Town, in the island of Tobago 
in the W. Indies.] 

[PLYMPTOI\, a township in Plymouth 
County, Massachusetts ; 27 miles 5. e. of iBoston. 
It was incorporated in 1707, and contains 956 
inhabitants.] 

POANGUE, a river of the kingdom of Chile, 
which rises in the mountains of the cordillera, 
runs many leagues under ground, and enters the 
Maipo, From its source it proceeds through 
minerals of gold and through aqueducts ; is girt 
on either side by fine trees. Its waters are salu 
tary, and contribute greatly to digestion : and 
although the appetite they provoke is, perhaps, 
excessive, they cause an agreeable hilarity. This 
river is not without a beneficial influence, even 
in its subterraneous course, for communicating 
itself by veins all through the valley, it imparts 
a useful and fertilizing moisture from beneath ; 
so much so, that although it never rains during 
the summer, and the place does not obtain other 
irrigation, it is not wanting in the production of 
the most abundant and exquisite fruits, particu 
larly maize and melons, \vhich no where else are 
so good. 

POBLACION, NUEVA, a town of the pro 
vince and government of Paraguay, on the shore 
of the river Parana, in the part where it enters 
the grand river of Curitaba. 

POBLACION, another settlement, in the pro 
vince and captainship of Rey in Brazil, on the 
coast, between this province and the great lake 
of Los Patos. 

[POCAHONTAS, a town in Chesterfield 
County, Virginia ; within the jurisdiction of 
Petersburgh in Dinwiddie County. It probably 
derives its name from the famous Princess Poca- 
hontas, the daughter of King Powhatan.] 

POCHOTLA, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Atengo, and alcaldia 
mayor of Chilapa in Nueva Espana. It con 
tains only 11 families of Indians, and is one 
league from its head settlement. 

POCHUTLA, SAN PEDRO DE, a principal 
and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia 
mayor of Huamelula in Nueva Espana, at the 
foot of a lofty mountain-plain, six leagues from 
the sea ; on the shore of which is a bay known 
by the name of Barra de Coyula ; and in the 

VOL. IV. 



P O G 



185 



passage from this to the settlement of San Agus- 
tin, dwell 50 families of Indians, applied to the 
cultivation of cotton. Seven leagues from Hua- 
tulco. 

POCHUTLA, another, a small settlement or 
ward, in the head settlement of the district of 
Moloacan and alcaldia mayor of Acayuca in the 
same kingdom ; distant a musket-shot from its 
head settlement. 

[POCKREKESKO, a river of New Britain, 
N. America.] 

POCOANCA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Aimaraes in Peru. 

PbCOATA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Chayanta or Charcas in Peru. 

POCOMACK. [See PATOWMACK.] 

POCONA, a settlement of the province of 
Mizque, and government of Santa Cruz de la 
Sierra in Peru. It is of an agreeable and de 
lightful temperature, fertile in choice fruits ; and 
having in its vicinity a lake two leagues in cir 
cumference. 

POCOPO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Porco in Peru. 

POCORAI, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Chilques and Masques in Peru ; 
annexed to the curacy of Acchaamansaya. 

[POCOTALIGO, a village of S. "Carolina-, 
15 miles from Combahee Ferry, and 67 from 
Charlestown.] 

POCOTO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimienio of Yamparaes, and archbishopric 
of Charcas in Peru. It has in its district a very 
devout sanctuary of the title of Nuestra Senora 
de la Candelaria de Piosera, 

POCQUIURA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Abancay in Peru. 

POCRI, a river of the province and alcaldia 
mayor of Nata in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. 
It has its origin near the mountain of the mine 
of Guerrero, and empties itself into the S. Sea. 

POCSI, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimhnto of Moquehua in Peru. 

PODRE, a small river of the province and 
country of Las Amazonas, in the part and terri 
tory possessed by the Portuguese. It enters the 
Madera by the w. side. 

[POGE, Cape, the n. e. point of Chabaquid- 
dick Island, near Martha s Vineyard, Massachu 
setts. From Holmes s Hole to this cape the 
course is s. e. by e. 3\ leagues distant. In the 
channel between them there are 11 and 12 fa 
thoms water. Lat. 41 24 30" n. Long. 70 
22 30" w. from Greenwich.] 

B B 



186 



P O J 



POM 



POQUATANCATON, a sea-port on the 
coast of the province and colony of Maryland 
to the s. of Cold Cape. 

[POINT, a township in Northumberland 
County, Pennsylvania.] 

[POINT ALDERTON, the s. w. point of Boston 
Harbour. Lat. 42 17 X n. Long. 70 52 wJ] 

[POINT AU FER, a place near the head or n. 
part of Lake Champlain, within the limits of the 
United States. It was delivered up by the Bri 
tish in 1796.] 

[POINT LE PRO, the e. limit of Passama- 
quoddy Bay, on the coast of New Brunswick.] 

[PoiNTE DBS PIEGES, a cape on the s. side of 
the island of St. Domingo, two leagues w. of the 
mouth of Pedernales River.] 

[POINT JUDITH, in the township of S. Kings 
town, is the s. extremity of the w. shore of Nar- 



raganset Bay in Rhode Island. It is 10 miles 

Long. 71 



n. 



s. s. w. of Newport. Lat. 41 
28 a>.] 

[POINT PETRE, in the island of Guadalupe, 
has strong fortifications, and lies about 20 miles 
from Fort Louis.] 

POINTE BASSE, a settlement and parish of 
the island of Martinique, a curacy and establish 
ment of the religious of St. Domingo, on the n. 
coast, on the shore of the river of its name. 

POINTE, another, with the surname of Noire, 
in the island of Guadalupe, on the w. coast of 
Basse Terre, between the rivers Caillou and 
Bailie-argent. 

POINTE, a small river of the province of N. 
Carolina, which runs n. e. and enters the Cou- 
haway, between the settlements of Walker and 
Roseaux. 

POINTE, another, a small river of the island 
Martinque, which runs n. and enters the sea 
between those of Falaise and Roche. 

POINTE, a point of the . coast of Lake Erie, 
in Canada in N. America. 

[POINTE. See PUNTA.] 

POISON BLANC, Point of, on the s. coast 
of Lake Superior in Canada, one of those which 
form the mouth of the strait by which this lake 
communicates with Lake Huron. 

[POJAUHTECUL, called by the Spaniards, 
Volcan de Orizaba, a celebrated mountain in 
Mexico, or New Spain, which began to send 
forth smoke in 1545, and continued to do so for 
20 years ; but for two centuries past there has 
not been observed the smallest sign of burning. 
The mountain, which is of a conical figure, is 
the highest land in Mexico, and is descried by 



seamen, who are steering that way, at the dis 
tance of 50 leagues ; and is higher than the Peak 
of Teneriffe. Its top is always covered with 
snow, and its border adorned with large cedars, 
pine, and other trees of valuable wood, which 
make the prospect of it every way beautiful. 
It is 104 miles e. of the city of Mexico.} 

[POKONCA, a mountain in Northampton 
County, Pennsylvania ; 22 miles n. w. of Easton, 
and 26 s. e. of Wyoming Falls.] 

POLANCO, Asperities of. Some very craggy 
sierras of the province and captainship of Key 
in Brazil. 

POLANCO, a river of the province and govern 
ment of Buenos Ayres, which runs n. and enters 
the Gil. 

[POLAND, a township in Cumberland County, 
district of Maine.] 

POLINDERA, a large and ancient province, 
now incorporated with that of Popayan, of the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; discovered by Se 
bastian de Benalcazar, in 1536. It has in it 
some rich gold mines ; but these are not worked, 
the territory being desert and full of woods. 

POLLARD, a settlement of the island of 
Barbadoes ; situate on the e. coast of the s. part. 

[POLLIPLES Island, a small rocky island, 
about 80 or 100 rods in circumference, at the n. 
entrance of the high lands in Hudson s River ; 
remarkable only as the place where sailors re 
quire a treat of persons who have never before 
passed the river.] 

POLONIA, S. a settlement of Indians, of the 
missions which were held by the Jesuits in the 
province of Topia of N.America. 

POMA, a settlement of the province and cor- 
regimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to the 
curacy of Querobamba. 

POMABAMBA, a province and corregimiento 
of Peru ; bounded n. by that of Tomina, e. and 
s. e. by the lands of the infidel Indians ; s. and 
s. w. by the province of Pilaya and Paspaya, w. 
by that of Porco, and n.w. by that ofYampa- 
raes. Its length is 24 leagues from e. to w. with 
out any other curacy or settlement than the town 
of its name, and one settlement annexed, in the 
province of Tomina, called Taraita, all the other 
parts consisting of campaign-estates. It was se 
parated from the aforesaid province through a 
certain subject ; who having obtained of his ma 
jesty the title of Castellano, found himself under 
the necessity of posting a garrison in that part 
most advanced on the Chiriguanos Indians, and 
it thue also obtained the title of province and 



POM 

eorregimiento. Its inhabitants, who should amount 
to 3000, gain a scanty subsistence from their 
agriculture and cattle, the which are often plun 
dered by those infidels. 

It has at the distance of seven miles to the n. 
a river which they call Parapeti : and 30 leagues 
further on is the river Nuevo, just in the terri 
tory of the barbarian Indians ; whither the inha 
bitants repair, at great risk, to fish for very large 
dories and olive-fish, which they carry to La 
Plata and Potosi in the frosty season only, 
since in the hot weather they corrupt. 

The capital and only settlement is the town 
of the same name ; situate on the shore of the 
river Parapeti, about nine miles e. with a slight 
inclination to the s. of La Plata. Lat. 1955 / s. 
and long. 64 8 / w. 

POMABAMBA, another settlement, of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Vilcas Huaman in 
Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Cangallo. 

POMACANCHE, a settlement of the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Guarochiri in Peru ; 
annexed to the curacy of Huanchor. 

POMACANCHE, another settlement, in the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Quispicanchi in the 
same kingdom. 

POMACARAN, S. JUAN DE, a settlement of 
the head settlement of the district of Arantran, 
and akaldia mayor of Valladolid in the province 
and bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 36 fa 
milies of Indians applied to the culture of seeds, 
cutting woods, fabricating earthenware, and sad 
dle trees. 

POMACOCHA, or PUMACOCHA, a settle 
ment of the province and corregimiento of Gua 
rochiri in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of the 
settlement of Yauli. 

POMACOCHA, another settlement, in the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Andahuailas in the 
same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of the 
settlement of Pampachiri. 

POMACOCHA, another, of the province and 
corregimiento of Chachapoyas in the same king 
dom ; annexed to the curacy of the settlement of 
Corobamba. 

POMACOCHA, another, of the province and 
corregimiento of Canta in the same kingdom. 

POMACOCHA, a large and fertile valley of the 
province and corregimiento of Vilcas Huaman 
in Peru, on the shore of the river Pampas. 

POMACOCHA, a large lake, formed by three 
small ones, uniting by a short canal in the pro 
vince and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; si 
tuate in the mountains, and from it rises the 
river Paria. 






POM 



187 



POMAGUACA, a settlement of the province 
and government of Jaen de Bracamoros in the 
kingdom of Quito. 

POMALLACTA, a settlement of Indians of 
the province and corregimiento of Riobamba in 
the kingdom of Quito. It was celebrated in the 
time of the Incas, but now destroyed, nothing 
remaining but the ruins of a palace belonging 
to the emperors, and resembling- that mentioned 
in article ATUNCANAN, with the which this pa 
lace is said to have had a subterraneous commu 
nication, notwithstanding at the distance of six 
leagues from each other ; nor is it other than a 
fact, that there is in the palace of Atuncaiian a 
sort of door blocked up with earth in the interior 
of the tower. This settlement is annexed to the 
curacy of that of Guasuntos, and is four leagues 
from Quito. 

POMARE, SIERRAS DE, a cordillera of moun 
tains of the province and captainship of Seara in 
Brazil, which runs from s. to n. between the 
rivers of Concepcion or San Francisco and La 
Cruz, closest to the former. 

POMASQUE, a settlement of the kingdom 
of Quito, in the district of the corregimiento of 
Los Cinco Leguas de Esta Ciudad; celebrated 
for a miraculous image of Christ, which is vene 
rated in the convent of the religious Recoletans 
of San Francisco, much frequented from the de 
votion paid to it by the faithful of all those set 
tlements near the capital ; from whence this set 
tlement is four leagues distant. 

POMATA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Chucuito in Peru ; in which are 
two very good hermitages, one dedicated to Nu- 
estra Senora del Rosario, and the other to Santa 
Barbara. It is situate on the shore of the great 
lake of Chucuito, 17 leagues from its capital. 

[POMFRET, a township in Windsor County, 
Vermont : containing 710 inhabitants. It is 10 
miles v). of the ferry on Connecticut River, in 
the town of Hartford, and 55| n. n. e. of Ben- 
nington.] 

[POMFRET, a post-town of Connecticut, in 
Windham County. It is 29 miles e. of Hartford, 
56 s. w. of Boston, and contains a Congrega 
tional church, and a few neat houses. The town 
ship was first settled in 1686 by emigrants from 
Roxbury. It was part of the Mashamoquet pur 
chase, and in 1713 it was erected into a town 
ship. Quinabaug River separates it from Kil- 
lingly on the e. In Pomfret is the famous cave, 
where General Putnam conquered and slew the 
wolfj 

POMMES, River of, in the province of Nova 

BBS 



188 



PON 



Scotia. It is small, runs w. and enters the Ba 
sin of the Mines, in the interior of the Bay of 
Fundy. 

POMOBAMBA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimicnto of Conchucos in Peru. 

POMPATAO, or CESAR, a river of the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada. It flows down from the 
mountains of Santa Marta, runs w. laving the 
spacious territories of LJpar, then turns its course 
opposite the settlement of Los Reys to the s. and 
empties itself into Lake Zapatosa, with the name 
of Sesar; and from the above-mentioned lake 
it communicates with the river Grande de la 
Magdalena, in lat. 8 47 n. 

[POMPEY, a military township in Onondago 
County, New York ; incorporated in 1794. It 
comprehends the townships of Pompey, Tully, 
and Fabius, together with that part of the lands 
called the Onondago Reservation ; bounded n. 
by the Genessee Road, and w. by the Onondago 
Creek. In 1796, there were 179 of the inhabi 
tants qualified electors.] 

[POMPTON, in Bergen County, New Jer 
sey ; lies on Ringwood, a branch of Passaik 
River, about 18 miles n. w. of New York city.] 

PONAYA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Chachapoyas in Peru ; annexed 
to the curacv of the settlement of Quillay. 

PONCHE, a river of the island of Marti 
nique, which runs from e. to w. and enters above 
the river Grande into the sea, in lat. 14 49 n. 

PONGO, a settlement of the province and 
government of Popayan in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada. 

PONGO, DE MANSERICHE, a channel or strait 
of the Maranon or Amazonas, where it is for the 
space of three leagues confined by two stony 
mountains, being 50 or 60 Spanish yards across ; 
and where the current is so rapid that this whole 
distance is navigated in a quarter of an hour, 
not without the greatest hazard to such as ven 
ture to pass it ; although the general method is 
of emptying the vessel of all the passengers and 
effects, and to leave it to be carried by the 
stream, when it is afterwards caught by the In 
dians who swim out to meet it and bring it into 
shore for the purpose of relading what has been 
conveyed, for this distance, by land. Most com 
monly, however, the Indians accompany the ves 
sel in their canoes ; since, as they are excellent 
swimmers, they never hurt if these be upset. 

PONICA, a small river of the province and 
captainship of Todos Santos in Brazil ; which 
rises near the coast, runs s. s. e. and enters the 
sea between that of Piedras and that of Jacupa, 



PON 

in lat. 1228 / 5. In its mouth are caug-ht sea- 
calves. 

PONIENTE, PUERTO DEL, a port on the n. 
coast of the island of Cuba, between the bay 
of Caravelas Chicas and the settlement of Pa- 
drones. 

PONOGANTI, a river of the province and 
g-overnment of Choco, in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada, which rises in the mountains of the w. 
part, and enters the mouth of the Atrato. 

[PON PON. See EDISTO River, S. Caro 
lina.] 

PONT, MONTAGUE DU, or, Mountain of the 
Bridge, in the island of Cayenne ; on the skirt 
of which the French have an establishment. 

[TONTCHARTRAIN, a lake of W. Florida, 
which communicates e. with the Gulf of Mexico, 
and w. with Mississippi River, through Lake 
Maurepas and Ibberville River. It is about 34 
miles long-, 20 broad, and 18 feet deep. The 
following- creeks fall into it on the n. side, viz. 
Tangipaho, and Le Comble, four feet deep ; Che- 
functa, seven ; and Donfouca, six ; and from the 
peninsula of Orleans, Tigahoc, at the mouth of 
which was a small post. The Bayouk of St. John 
also communicates on the same side. The French 
inhabitants, who formerly resided on the n. side 
of this lake, chiefly employed themselves in mak 
ing pitch, tar, and turpentine, and raising stock, 
for which the country is very favourable. See 
MAUREPAS.] 

[PONTCHARTRAIN, an island in Lake Supe 
rior, s. by w. of Maurepas Island, and n. w. of 
Hocquart Island.] 

PONTCHARTRAIN, a fort built by the French 
in Canada, on the shore of the strait which com 
municates Lake Erie with Lake Superior. 

[PONTE DI DIO. Sec ATOYAQUE.] 

[PONTEQUE, or PONTIQUE, a point on the 
r;\ coast of Mexico, 10 leagues n. by e. of Cape 
Corientes, between which is the Bay de Valde- 
ras. To the w. of it are two small islands of its 
name, a league from the main. There are also 
rocks, called the Rocks of Ponteque, 20 leagues 
s. z&. of the port of Matanchel.] 

PONTEZUELOS, a settlement of the pro 
vince and government of Buenos Ayres, e. of 
the fort of Pergamino, on the shore of the river 
Sala. 

PONTONES, a river of the province and 
government of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king 
dom of Quito, which rises n. of the capital, and 
runs w. until it enters the Marafion. 

PONZITLAN, a settlement of the head set 
tlement, of the district of the akaldia mayor of 



POP 

N uevu Galicia ; situate in the line which divides 
this bishopric from that of Guadalaxara. It has 
a convent of the religious order of San Francisco, 
and is 10 leagues n. zo. of its capital. 

POOLS, an island of the N. Sea, in the 
county of Baltimore, of the province of Mary 
land ; situate in the interior of the Bay of 
Chesapeak. 

POOPO, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Paria in Peru, of the arch 
bishopric of Charcas. 

[POOUSOOMSUCK, a river of Vermont, 
which runs a 5. course, and falls into Connecticut 
River in the township of Barnet, near the lower 
bar of the Fifteen-mile Falls. It is 100 yards 
wide, and noted for the quantity and quality of 
salmon it produces. On this river, which is set 
tled 20 miles up, are some of the best townships 
in the state.] 

POPA, NUESTRA SENORA DE LA, a sanctuary 
and convent of the barefooted Augustins, in the 
province and government of Cartagena, of the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is a quarter of 
a league from that city, on the top of a very lofty 
mountain of the figure of a galley ; and which, 
being looked upon by the part where the convent 
stands, resembles the poop of the same ; from 
whence it has its name. Fr. Antonio Calancha 
asserts that it was full of woods, and abounded 
exceedingly in monkeys and reptiles ; serving 
also as a place of refuge for criminals ; to whom 
the devil was said to appear under the name of 
Busiraco : also that this infernal spirit had en 
tered into a compact with a certain Mitstee, 
named Luis Andrea ; who was punished by the 
Inquisition of that city in 1613; when he con 
fessed his guilt, and stated his vile agent to have 
been concerned in that terrible tempest and hur 
ricane which arose at the founding of the con 
vent of the Santisimo Sacramento, by the Father 
Vicente Mayon. Vessels on their voyage to 
Cartagena, as soon as they discover the moun 
tain of Popa, which is seen many leagues before 
you arrive at the port, raise a shout, giving 
thanks to the Virgin for their safe arrival. 

POPABA, a settlement of the corregimiento 
and jurisdiction of Velez in the Nuevo Rev no 
de Granada. It is of an hot temperature, poor 
in vegetable productions and population ; and to 
this are added some 40 Indians. Eight leagues 
from the city of Velez. 

[POPAMADRE, a town of S. America in 
Tierra Firme, 50 miles e. of Cartagena.] 

POPAPURA, a small river of the province 
and government of Mainas in the kingdom oi" 



POP 



189 



Quito ; which rises in the country of the Ura- 
rinas Indians, between the rivers fchambira and 
Tigre. It runs e. and enters the latter. 

POPA VAN, a province and government of 
the Nuevo Reyno de Granada in S. America ; 
bounded n. by the province of Los Llanos de 
Nieva, n. e. by that of Cagualan, w. by that of 
Raposo, and s. by that of Pastes of the kingdom 
of Quito. It is 128 leagues long from n. to s. 
and nearly 100 wide from (?. to w. and is one of 
those provinces called Equinoctial, from its im- 
mediation to the line, and being of a country, 
for the most part, mountainous and rough, al 
though not without beautiful and extensive val 
leys which are very fertile. 

The climate is, generally speaking, moderately 
hot, but in the sierras it is proportionably cold. 
It was much larger before the provinces of 
Choco-, Antioquia, and Neiva, were separated 
from it and formed into separate governments. 
This province is divided into various small juris 
dictions or districts. It was discovered and con 
quered by Sebastian de Belalcazar in 1536, at 
the expense of great labours, combats, and fa 
tigues, occasioned by the Indian natives, the 
Pacces, Pijaos, Xamundis, Timbas, Guanbas, 
Malvasaes, Polinderas, Palacees, Tembios, and 
Colazas ; who were most valorous and warlike, 
and governed by their caciques Popayan and Ca- 
lambaz ; the province taking the name of the 
former. It is extremely fertile, and abounds in 
cattle, provisions of every kind, pulse, delicate 
fruits, sugar canes, of which they make much 
sugar, honey and brandy, tallow, ropes made of 
Indian thread, tobacco and cotton. 

It maintains a great commerce with the king 
dom of Quito, sending clothes and fruits of Eu 
rope, which are carried to Cartagena in free- 
trading vessels, and taking in exchange cloths, 
baizes, linen, woven cotton stuffs, and other ma 
nufactures of that country. It buys in money at 
Santa Fe the linens, which are finer than those 
of Quito, tanned leather, mantles, blankets, and 
some European articles. With the province of 
Choco it barters small coin for gold-dust, or such 
as is extracted from the washing places ; although 
it sometimes gives in exchange all kind of Eu 
ropean and native clothes, iron, steel, flesh, 
cheese, and other provisions. The same pro 
vince it also does with the provinces of Antio 
quia, receiving in payment gold-dust. 

It has, itself, many mines of this class, which, 
like all the others of this kingdom, are worked: 
by companies of Negro slaves ; and in the terri 
tories of Neiva and Caloto are some very- rid*. 



190 



P O P A Y A N. 



mines of silver, the working of which is even 
now projected by Don Pedro Agustin de Valen 
cia, native and inhabitant of Popayan, through 
the medium of the companies called the Accio- 
nistas. The only silver, which circulates now in 
this province, is that which comes from Quito, 
in the remittances to Cartagena ; and those who 
carry it there take in exchange dobloons, paying 
a reduced premium of two or three per cent. 
This province is watered by several large rivers ; 
but the greater of them is the Cauca, which enters 
the Grande de la Magdalena, and traverses this 
province. 

The mountains and woods abound in a variety 
of animals and birds, as also in exquisite trees. 
The most illustrious Don Lucas de Piedrahita 
asserts that it had 600,000 inhabitants when the 
Spaniards entered it; but that there was no 
town whatever; the inhabitants living on the 
tops of trees, changing their situation in tribes, 
like the Arabs. At the present day, the number 
of inhabitants, compared with its natural advan 
tages, is very small ; for it has every thing that 
might render it one of the finest and most pro 
fitable provinces in all America. 

[The whole of the regular troops in the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada (as appears by the Foreigners 
Guide, published in Spain, in 1802), amounted 
to 3290, in which number is comprehended the 
garrison of this province, together with that of 
Panama, Cartagena, Quito, &c. j 

Population, Rivers, Mountains, &c. of the 

Province of Popayan. 
Cities. Pastas, 

Almaguer, Insa, 

Anserma Vieja, Pupiales, 

Anserma Nueva, Carlosama, 

Barbacoas, Guaitara or 

Buga, Guaitarilla, 

Cali, Tumaco, 

Caloto, Santa Lucia, 

Cartago, Yaquanquer, 

Pasto, S. Luis, 

Popayan, Mercaderes, 

Toro, Patia, 

Rondanillo. Quilichas, 

Town. Llano Grande, 

La Candelario. Tuloa, 

Settlements. La Cruz del Raposo, 

Tuqueres, Canas Gordas. 

Guachical, Of Indians. 

Cumbal, Cruz de Almaguar, 

Ipiales, Purase, 

Supia, Pulindara and 

Quiebralomo, Tortoro, 



Buisaco, 

Tambo or 

Alto del Rey, 

Cucunuco, 

Julumito, 

Paniquita, 

Timbio, 

Yanaconas, 

Puelenge, 

G nan via. 



Esmita, 
Guachicon, 
Yervas buenan, 
S. Jorge, 
Mayo, 
Malvasa, 
El Molino, 
Mo j arras, 
Ovejas, 
Ollucos, 



Nation of Indians. Palase, 
Andaquies. Palo bobo, 

Mountains. Patia, 

Cucunuco, Piendamo, 

Purase, Pulindara, 

Santa Barbara, Purase, 
Guanacas, Quilcase, 

Alto del Rey, Rio Negro, 

Quindio, Timbio, 

La Poblazon. Vinagre. 

Rivers. Port. 

Aguas Blancas, San Buenaventuta, in the 
Botijas, S. Sea, belonging to 

Bojoleo, the province of Rapo- 

Cauca, so, one of those of 

El Cofre, Choco, and 50 leagues 

Ejido, from Popayan. 

The capital, of the same name, was founded 
by the discoverer and conqueror of the province, 
Sebastian del Belalcazar, in 1536, on an exten 
sive and delightful llanera. In 1538 the king gave 
it the title of very Noble and very Loyal City, 
and for arms a shield having in one angle the 
sun in the middle of a city, and two rivers which 
surround it, with a tree above and another on 
the side of each river, and for orle four Jerusa 
lem crosses. 

It was erected into a bishopric by his Holiness 
Paul III. in 1547, when the choir was composed 
of five dignitaries ; though now only of three, 
which are the dean, the maestre-escuela, and 
treasurer, two canons of office, penitentiary and 
magisterial, two racioneros and two half racione- 
ros. It is a suffragan to the archbishopric of 
Santa Fe. 

The town does not correspond with the great 
advantages offered by the territory and the ex 
cellence of the climate; since the population 
amounts to only 8000 souls, including Spa 
niards, people of different casts, the clergy, and 
nuns. [This enumeration was probably correct at 
the time Alcede wrote, but the population, even 
in 1802, amounted to upwards of 25,000 souls.] 
Popayan has the convents of the religious or 
ders of S. Domingo, S. Agustin, of the Minis- 



P O P A Y A N . 



191 



tros Agonizantes of San Camilo de Lelis, a col 
lege of the missionaries of San Franciso, charged 
with the reduction of the Infidel Andaquies In 
dians, who dwell on the banks of the rivers Ca- 
queta and Putumayo, the which is a community 
whose austere and rigorous observance of their 
institutes affords the most edifying example, and 
whose temple, which has been lately finished, is 
magnificent, adorned with images of devotion 
made at Quito, and precious ornaments and sa 
cred vases; an hospital of Bethlemites, founded 
by D. Christoval Botin, who was an inhabitant 
of this city ; two monasteries of nuns, one of 
bare-footed Carmelites, the other of Calzadas 
Augustins, in the which there are upwards of 70 
nuns, and 230 secular women and ladies, who 
choose to live retired. It also had a college of 
the Jesuits, with a seminary of collegiates, in 
which were professorships of Latin, philosophy 
and theology, moral and scholastical : and, after 
the expulsion of this order from the kingdom, 
the same college fell under the charge of a secu 
lar clergyman, preserving only two of its pro 
fessorships, and having about 20 or 24 colle- 
fiates, with eight fellowships, endowed by the 
ing. In the time of the Jesuits, the higher 
degrees were conferred here ; and, now, for these 
they have recourse to the universities of Santa 
Fe and Quito, for the studies of theology, canons, 
and laws. The curacy of the cathedral was tran 
slated to the church of this college, from which 
it was before separated, and in which officiated 
a deputy-curate, nominated by the prebends. At 
the present day it serves as a cathedral, from the 
former being in ruins, but the rebuilding of which 
is in agitation. Here is a relic of St. Barbara, to 
which particular respect is paid by the whole 
of the city ; also other insignia of different saints, 
which were brought hither from Rome, through 
the zeal and piety of the present prebend, D. 
Manuel Ventura Hurtado. Here are also two 
hermitages ; the one at the foot of the mountain 
called De Belen, which is at an extremity of the 
city, and the other, with this dedicatory title, 
upon the same mountain, and offering a beautiful 
prospect. 

The streets of this town are all drawn at 
straight lines, of sufficient width, and the plots 
of the houses are equal ; so that they have the 
appearance of a draught-board ; and the build 
ings are very good. Here are some very pretty 
small squares, and a beautiful grand square. The 
temperature, though there be a continual pro 
pensity to rain, is that of a continual spring, 
without any greater distinction between the sum- 



mer and winter than that the rains are not so 
abundant in the months of June, July, and Au 
gust. There is, however, a much fresher air 
than in the summer, from the prevalence during 
that season of the winds blowing from the part of 
the Sierra Nevada or Paramo of Purase, which 
is distant half a day s journey from Popayan. 
The settlements close to this Paramo are very 
cold, but there are others near the city very hot, 
so that they easily procure the fruits of both tem 
peratures, such as melons, water-melons, apples 
of various kinds, peaches, strawberries larger 
than those of Europe, figs, calabashes, cucum 
bers, and many other fruits ; amongst the which the 
chirimoya deserves preference, from the delicacy 
of its flavour ; and some there are of this species 
from 10 to 12 Ibs. It abounds also in every kind 
of green herb, in neat cattle, and excellent wheat, 
though the natives are far from encouraging its 
cultivation ; their attention being rather drawn 
to the working of the gold-mines, so that they 
do not even gather sufficient corn for the con 
sumption of the city ; but provide themselves 
with flour from Almaguer, which is 20 leagues 
distant, and from Pasto, which is 50 ; and this 
too, when the grain of these places is of a very 
inferior sort. 

The tempests prevalent here, although very 
strong, are soon over, and then the heavens are 
quiet and serene. The same is the case with the 
earthquakes ; and from thence has arisen the 
proverb, " The sky, soil, and bread of Popayan." 
At the back of the town is a mountain covered 
with trees, called of the M, as it represents the 
form of this letter. The city is surrounded by 
the river Molino, and to pass this, there are two 
bridges of brick and mortar, at the two opposite 
extremes ; which are the wards of Callejon and 
that known by the name of Arrabal. v\ 7 hich, with 
the hospital of the Bethlemites, is divided from 
the city by this river, the waters of which are 
very good and salutary. Moreover, it passes 
through the settlement of Yanaconas, a little 
more than a quarter of a league distant ; from 
whence it flows by an aqueduct, which was made 
at the expense of Don Pedro Agnstin de Valen 
cia, to carry the water to the Mint, founded at 
his expense, according to the celebrated contract 
made in 1749 ; although, through the obstacles 
thrown in by the interested parties at Santa Fe,. 
metals were not wrought here until 1758, and 
even then, the litigations not being appeased, 
the king ordered it to be shut up in 1761. 

After this, in justice to Valencia, it was or 
dered that every indemnification should be 



P O P A Y A N. 



him for the loss he might sustain. This was ac 
cordingly done by the council of the Indies ; and 
the Mint was re-opened in 1766, for the advan 
tage of the royal treasury, and in 1770 the king 
determined to incorporate it with the crown- 
rights, not without taking into his consideration 
the protection which was due to the family of 
Valencia, for the great difficulties and losses that 
this individual had sustained : and this influence 
was immediately felt by D. Francisco de Valen 
cia, the eldest son, who, established in his father s 
properties, and vested with the appointment of 
Secretary to the Universal Dispatch of the In 
dies, was made Cross Pensioner of the Royal 
and distinguished Order of Charles III. his son 
too, Don Pedro de Valencia, was made Knight- 
Page of the Royal House, and he is now ac 
tually serving as Captain of the African Infantry 
Regiment. Also, in virtue of the celebrated 
contract between the same Don Francisco Valen- 
, the king determined, in 1687, that his son 



cia 



should be reinstated in all the rights of the fa 
mily, and, as a compensation for the losses it 
had sustained, made him treasurer of the same 
Mint, with the annual revenue of 5000 dollars, 
in quality of master, for himself and for his heirs 
for ever. At present there are made in this Mint 
annually from seven to 8000 dollars in dobloons, 
and a small quantity in silver. 

After the erection of this Mint, a public foun 
tain was made in the principal square, the water 
of which was supplied from the aqueduct above 
mentioned, and which was executed by Don Pe 
dro Augustin de Valencia, and ceded gratui 
tously, as were also several houses and convents. 
At a short space from the city runs another small 
river of the name of Ejido, since it passes through 
this place; and at a quarter of a league distance 
is the abundant stream of the Cauca, very rapid 
and deep, now united with the Vinagre, a river 
so called from the acidity of its waters, and which 
communicates the same qualities to those of the 
Cauca. To pass this river the Indians had, in 
the time of their gentilism, a prodigious bridge, 
formed by an arch of reeds twined within each 
other, which reeds the Spaniards used to use for 
making shades ; and after this there was built 
here a bridge of wood, upon a foundation laid in 
the middle of the river, of stone and mortar: but 
on account of the detriment arising from the in 
attention in repairing the wood-work of the 
bridge, and the circumstance of its lying in the 
direct road to all the provinces, the city was 
obliged, in 1768, to rebuild it on an improved 
plan, suggested by the engineer and chief of Car 



tagena, Don Antonio de Arevalo, over a part 
where the river is only 24 yards across, at a 
small distance from the old bridge. 

The new bridge is of only one arch, resting, 
in the part towards the city, upon a rock, and in 
the other upon an artificial foundation ; and on 
this side is a causeway made, upon arches of 93 
yards in extent, to equalize the road, and on the 
opposite side one of 32 yards. This work was 
undertaken through a contribution of the inha 
bitants ; but the sum thus procured not being 
equal to the purpose by 25,000 dollars, this dif 
ference was made up by Don Francisco Basilio 
de Angulo and Don Joseph Hidalgo, who were 
to be reimbursed by a toll upon the bridge ; and 
his majesty authorizing the profits so arising, 
after the satisfaction of their demands, to be car 
ried to the profit of the city. 

By the ward of the Arrabal or Suburbs there 
still exists the bridge made of oziers, which is 
repaired by the Indians every two years. This 
is only for foot passengers ; but it is very secure, 
as having strong breast- works of the same oziers 
on both sides of it. 

The city of Popayan is ennobled by many 
great and rich families, descended from the first 
conquerors and settlers, as also by various other 
distinguished persons, who have passed over in 
different employs, and who are : L)on Sebastian 
de Belalcazar, who married at Burgos Dona Ma 
ria de Herrera y Sarmiento ; the Captain Pedro 
de Velasco, descendant of the constables of Cas- 
tille, married to Doiia Catalina de Zuiiiga, daugh 
ter of the Marquis of Quintana ; Captain Diego 
del Campo, married to Dona Mariana del Cam- 
po Salazar ; Captain Francisco Mosquera de Fi- 
gueroa, descendant of the Dukes of Feria and 
Alva, married to Dona Leonor de Velasco; Juan 
Lopez Cabron de Viscarra, native of Navarra, 
married to Dona Jues de Vergara, who was born 
at Sevilla ; Captain Francisco de Aranas, and 
others, of whom are descended the distinguished 
families existing in Popayan ; the natives of which 
place are prudent, economical, and of clear un 
derstandings ; are faithful in their dealings, and 
of great circumspection. This city is also the 
native place of Father Francisco de Figueroa, 
of the Jesuits, first martyr of the missions of the 
Maranon, and killed by the Cocamas Indians, at 
the entrance of the river Apena, in 1666 ; also 
of various illustrious men, who have filled the 
civil, military, and ecclesiastical stations of the 
kingdom. 

In 1735 an earthquake was experienced here, 
which destroyed many houses, and the greater 



POPAYAN. 



193 



part of the temples, and amongst the rest that 
of St. Domingo, which was rebuilt very sumptu 
ously by the House of the Arboledas. [The po 
pulation of this city, in 1802, amounted to 25,000 
souls. It is 195 miles s. s. w. from Santa Fe, and 
the same distance n. n. e. from Quito, in lat. 2 
28 38" n. and long. 76 3V 30" a>.] 

Bishops who have presided in Popayan. 

1. The Master, Don Juan del Valle, first 
bishop of the holv cathedral church of Popayan, 
first presented in 1547 ; although many do not 
count him among the bishops, as he died before 
he took possession. This, however, was not the 
case, as appears by the chronicles of Fr. Antonio 
de Zamora. 

2. Don tr. Augustin de Coruna, monk of the 
order of San Agustin, called from his virtues the 
Saint Bishop. He was a native of Coruiia del 
Conde, passed over to America in 1554, with five 
other religious, was in Mexico professor of prime, 
prior of various convents, and provincial in 1560. 
He returned to Spain with the provincials of St. 
Francisco and St. Domingo, to treat of a remedy 
for the losses sustained by the Indians. Whilst 
in Se villa he was presented by King Philip II. to 
the bishopric of Popayan ; this he accepted by 
force, passed to his church, and founded the con 
vent of his order, where he lived as one of the 
religious. Assisted at the council of Lima in 
1567 ; and when he spoke with any one, he used 
to call him Angel of God ; was very zealous of 
the ecclesiastical community. This bishop died 
at Timana in 1590, in the greatest poverty, as 
he had given away all that he possessed in cha 
rity. When his body was removed from the ca 
thedral, it was found to be incorrupt. 

3. Don -Fr. Domingo de Ulloa, of the order of 
St. Domingo, native of Toro in Castilla, of the 
house of the Marquis of La Mota. He was col 
legiate in the college of San Gregorio de Valla- 
dolid, and its rector, prior of his convent of San 
Pablo in the same city, and formerly lecturer 
in the convent of Toro, vicar-general of the pro 
vince of Castilla ; presented to the bishopric of 
Nicaragua, promoted to Popayan in 1591, and 
from thence to the bishopric of Mechoacan in 
1596. 

4. Don Juan de la Roca, native of Lima, a 
man of great virtue and literature. He was doc- 
torial canon in his native place, judge in ordi 
nary of the Inquisition, elected bishop of Po 
payan in 1599 : was consecrated by St. Toribius, 
spent all he had in rebuilding temples and in 
charity, and died poor in 1605. 

VOL. IV. 



5. Don Diego de Vega Sarmiento, maestre- 
escuela of the Puebla de los Angeles : elected 
bishop of Popayan in 1608 ; he did not accept 
the office, and died dean of Mexico. 

6. Don Fr. Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza, reli 
gious of the order of San Agustin : native of 
Toledo. Being plenipotentiary apostolic in 1584, 
he was sent by Philip II. as ambassador to the 
Emperor of China; was bishop of Liparia in Si 
cily, and of Anillo in the archbishopric of Toledo : 
of Chiapa in 1607, and promoted to Popayan in 
1608, where he died in 1618. 

7. Don Fr. Ambrosio Vallejo. religious of the 
order of Nuestra Senora del Carmen, native of 
Madrid. He read arts and theology, was prior 
of the convents of Avila, Valladolid, Medina del 
Campo and Madrid, provincial of Castilla, and 
procurator-general of the provinces of Espana 
and kingdom of Portugal ; consultor of the holy 
office ; he was presented to the bishopric of Po 
payan in 1619, and promoted to the archbishopric 
of St. Domingo in 1628, and before he passed 
from thence, to the bishopric of Truxilloin 1630. 
He died in 1635, and his body was translated to 
his convent of Madrid, to which he had given 
30,000 dollars. 

8. Don Diego de Montoya y Mendoza, native 
of Mijancas in the bishopric of Calahorra. He 
studied grammar in the college of the company 
of Vergara, and arts and theology in Salamanca ; 
was collegiate of Santa Catalina del Burgo de 
Osma, and graduated as doctor in Avila. He 
gained, by opposition, a curacy in the arch 
bishopric of Toledo, and resigned it to oppose 
himself to the college of the archbishopric of 
Salamanca in 1623 : was there professor of arts, 
and by opposition magisterial canon of Coria. He 
was sent by its church to Madrid, for the quin 
quennial congregation, and was presented by the 
king to the bishopric of Popayan in 1632, where 
he entered the following year. He undertook 
the reduction of the Indians, the Chocoes and 
Noanamas, whither he went in person ; and was 
promoted to the bishopric of Truxillo in 1639, 
and being elected to that of Cuzco, he died ex 
ceedingly poor in 1640. 

9. Don Fr. Gonzalo de Lara, of the order of 
Merced, who did not accept the office. 

10. Don Feliciano de Vega, native of Lima, 
one of the wisest and most virtuous men that 
ever lived in Peru. Was canon, chantre and 
provisor in the archbishopric of that holy church, 
governor of the same, commissary of the holy 
crusade and of the inquisition, and councillor of 
the viceroys in the most arduous affairs, profes- 

c c 



194 



P O P A Y A N. 



sor of canons in the university, and presented to 
the bishopric of Popayan in 1628. He converted 
many barbarian Indians ; in which journeys he 
spent more than 20,000 dollars of his fortune, 
and was promoted to the bishopric of La Paz in 
1639. 

11. Don Fr. Francisco de la Serna, of the or 
der of San Agustin : native of Leon de Gua- 
nuco in Peru. He studied arts and theology, the 
latter for four years ; was master of students, 
lecturer and professor of theology, and noon and 
vespers lecturer in the university ; calificador of 
the holy office, and twice provincial. Presented 
to the bishopric of Paraguay, and, before he 
passed thither, removed to that of Popayan in 
1639 ; promoted to La Paz in 1645. 

12. Don Fr. Bernardino de Cardenas, of the 
order of San Francisco; promoted to the bishop 
ric of Paraguay, and, through his renunciation 
of the same, the see was offered Doctor Don 
Andres Juan Gaitan, Inquisitor of Lima, who 
also refused it ; and then to Don Juan Machado 
de Chaves y Mendoza, native of Quito, treasurer 
and archdeacon of the church of Charcas, who 
died before he was consecrated. The king then 
presented the bishopric to Don Agustin Velaz 
quez de Tineo, native of Cuellar, in the bishop 
ric of Segovia, friar of the order of Alcantara, 
doctor in theology, chaplain of honour to his 
majesty, and prior of Magacela, in 1653. 

13. Don Luis de Betancur y Figueroa. 

14. Doctor Don Vasco de Contreras, treasurer 
of the holy church of Lima, his native place ; 
dean of that of Cuzco. He studied in that uni 
versity, was presented to the bishopric of Po 
payan, and promoted to Guamanga in 1664. 

15. Don Fr. Francisco de la IVinidad y Ar- 
rieta, of the order of St. Domingo : promoted 
from the bishopric of Santa Marta. He died be 
fore he entered his church, in 1664. 

16. Don Melchon de Lilian y Cisneros, pro 
moted from the bishopric of Santa Marta, in 
which catalogue of bishops he is mentioned. He 
was promoted to the archbishopric of Charcas in 
1671. 

17. Don Christoval Bernaldo de Quiros, pro 
moted from the bishopric of Chiapa in the king 
dom of Guatemala, to this of Popayan, in 1670. 

18. Don Pedro Diaz de Cienfuegos, brother of 
the Cardinal Don Alvaro de Cienfuegos, of the 
Jesuits. He was elected bishop of Popayan, and 
promoted to the bishopric of Truxillo in Peru, 
in 1697. 

19. Don Mateo de Villafane, who was pro 
moted to La Paz in 1711. 



20. Don Juan de Laiseca Alvarado, elected 
bishop of Tucuman, and, before he took pos 
session, promoted to Popayan in 1711. 

21. Don Juan Gomez de Nava y Frias, being 
curate of the settlement of Mostoles in the arch 
bishopric of Toledo : presented by the king to 
the bishopric of Popayan in 1714 ; and promoted 
to the church of Quito in 1725. 

22. Don Juan Francisco Gomez Calleja, pro 
moted from the bishopric of Cartagena of the 
Indies to this of Popayan in 1725. He died in 
1731. 

23. Don Fr. Diego Fermin de Vergara, of 
the order of San Agustin : presented to the bi 
shopric of Popayan in 1732, and removed from 
thence to the archbishopric of Santa Fe in 1740. 

24. Don Francisco Joseph de Figucredo, ma- 
cstre-escuela of the church of Popayan, and 
elected bishop of the same in the aforesaid year 
1740 ; and promoted to the archbishopric of Gua 
temala in 1751. 

25. Don Diego de Corro, maestre-escuela of 
the holy metropolitan church of Lima; presented 
to the bishopric of Popayan in 1752, and pro 
moted to the archbishopric of Lima in 1758. 

26. Don Geronimo de Obregon y Mena, na 
tive of Lima : elected bishop of Popayan in 1758. 
He was the bishop who governed this church for 
the longest time, not quitting it till his death in 
1786. 

27. Don Joaquin Mateo Rubio de Arevalo, 
native of Quito, and bishop of Cubu in the 
Philippine Isles : he was elected on the 16th of 
August, 1787, and died even before he heard the 
news of his election. 

28. Don Angel Velarde Bustamante, arch 
deacon of Carrion of the cathedral of Palencia ; 
elected on the 13th March, 1788. 

Series of the Governors of Popayan. 

1. Don Sebastian de Belalcazar, conqueror of 
this province through the commission of Don 
Francisco Pizarro, founder of the city, and first 
governor perpetual of it, by the royal title of 
the 10th of March, 1540, till 1550, when he died. 

2. The Licentiate Francisco Briceno, native of 
Corral de Almagner, oidor of Santa Fe, who 
entered provisionally in 1551. He corrected 
the abuses committed in that province, and re 
turned to Santa Fe to serve in his old situation 
in 1552, leaving the government to 

3. The Captain Diego Delgado, justice major 
of Popayan, native of Alcandete in La Mancha, 
who chastised and cut off the head of the tyrant 
Alvaro de Yloyon. He governed until 1554, 



POPAYAN. 



195 



when the emperor nominated Garcia del Busto, 
native of Ocana ; but the ship he was sailing in 
having the misfortune to be set on fire, he pe 
rished with his wife and five children, though 
his brother was saved on a raft. 

4. Pedro Fernandez del Busto, who was picked 
up by another vessel of the fleet, and arrived at 
Santa Fe, where the misfortune caused such re 
gret, that the oidors vested the government in 
the brother who had been saved, and who re 
tained it until the arrival of 

5. Don Luis de Guzman, who entered in 1554, 
and governed till 1556. 

6. Don Pedro de Agreda ; till 1562. 

7. Don Alvaro de Mendoza Carvaial ; till 
1567. 

8. Don Geronimo de Silva ; till 1572. 

9. Don Pedro Fernandez del Busto ; thrice 
nominated by the king. He passed promoted to 
the government of Cartagena. 

10. Don Francisco Gamarra : nominated pro 
visionally by the president of Santa Fe, 1575, 
and who, for having married without the royal 
licence, was separated from it the same year. 

11. Don Bartolome de Mazmela; nominated 
by the president as provisional governor, by a 
title dated 19th December, 1575. 

12. Don Sancho Garcia del Espinal ; who was 
the same that caused the imprisonment of the 
bishop Don Fr. Agustin de Coruiia, in vengeance 
of an excommunication so rightly pronounced 
against him. He governed till 1579. 

13. The captain Francisco de Mosquera Fi- 
gueroa, till 1585. 

14. Don Diego Orbonez de Lara, native of 
Salamanca. He died whilst exercising the go 
vernment there, and in his place was nominated 
as provisional governor 

15. The Licentiate Cueva Montesdoca ; till 
1591. 

16. Don Diego de Noguera Valenzuela ; who 
took possession in 1593, and exercised the go 
vernment till his death. 

17. Don Francisco de Hoyos, provisionally, in 
1597. He was made secretary of the council of 
orders. 

18. Don Franciso de Berrio, also provisionally, 
in 1598. 

19. Don Francisco Sarmiento de Sotomayor ; 
from 1609. 

20. Don Pedro Laso de la Vega ; nominated 
in 1619. 

21. Don Juan Menendez Marquez, in 1620: 
he died in his employ. 

22. Don Juan de Borja, of the habit of San 



tiago : nominated provisionally by his father, the 
president of Santa Fe ; of his own name. 

23. Don Juan Bermudez de Castro, in 1627. 

24. Don Lorenzo de Villaquiran, in 1633. 

25. Don Juan de Borja, aforesaid, nominated, 
for the second time, governor by the king, in 
1638. 

26. Don Juan de Salazar; of the habit of 
Santiago, in 1644. 

27. Don Luis de Valenzuela Faxardo, of the 
habit of Alcantara ; in 1649. 

28. Don Luis Antonio de Guzman, knight of 
the habit of Santiago ; in 1658. 

29. Don Geronimo de Ojeda : nominated go 
vernor in 1662, being- at the time governor of 
the island of Santa Catalina : he died before he 
arrived. 

30. Don Gabriel Diaz de la Cuesta : nominated 
in 1667. 

31. Don Miguel Garcia; till 1675. 

32. Don Fernando Martinez de Fresneda, 
knight of the order of Calatrava; till 1681. 

33. Don Geronimo de Berrio y Mendoza ; till 
1689. 

34. Don Juan de Salazar. 

35. Don Baltasar Carlos Perez de Vivero, 
Marquis of San Miguel de la Vega ; till 1708. 

36. Don Fernando Perez Guerrero y Pena- 
loso ; till 1727. 

37. Don Pablo Fidalgo, ensign of the regi 
ment of the royal Spanish guards ; elected in 
1734. 

38. Don Joseph Francisco Carreno ; in 1737. 

39. Don Antonio Mola de Villacorta, in 1747; 
and succeeded, through his promotion, to be 
serjeant-major of the plaza of Cartagena, by 

40. Don Manuel Bernal de Huidobro, on the 
10th of November, 1748. It appears that he 
died before he took possession ; and in the inte 
rim the government fell to 

41. Don Juan Francisco de Equizabal, native 
of Popayan ; and to 

42. Don Francisco Damian de Espejo; until 
the arrival of the right proprietor ; who was 

43. Don Antonio de Alcala Galiano; nomi 
nated by the king on the 16th September, 1754. 

44. t)on Pedro de la Moneda, captain of the 
royal Spanish infantry guards, on the 27th De 
cember, 1759, finding himself at the time go 
vernor of the island of Trinidad. 

45. Don Juan Antonio de Celaya ; on whom 
the government was conferred, with the super- 
intendancy of the royal mint, when this became 
incorporated with the crown rights; on the 1st 
February, 1770. He died exercising the au- 

c c 2 



106 



FOR 



thority ; and in the interim was nominated by 
the viceroy of Santa Fe 

46. Don Joseph Ignacio Ortega, who kept 
it till the arrival of 

47. Don Pedro de Becaria; who was appointed 
on the 6th of June, 1776, though not to the su- 
perintendancy of the mint, this being conferred 
upon Don Joseph Jacob Ortiz Rojano. 

48. Don Joseph de Castro y Correa ; by decree 
of the 1st of December, 1787, although he has 
not taken possession. 

POPEGI, a settlement of the province of 
Taraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya in 
N. America. 

[POPLAR Spring, in the n. w. part of Ann 
Arundel county, Maryland, near a brook, three 
miles s. of the o>. branch of Patapsco River, on 
the high road from Baltimore to Frederick s 
Town, about 26 miles w. of Baltimore.] 

[POPLIN, a township of New Hampshire, 
in Rockingham county, 12 miles w. of Exeter, 
and 20 w. of Portsmouth. It was incorporated 
in 1764, and contains 493 inhabitants.] 

POPOLAPA, a settlement of the head set 
tlement of the district and alcadia mat/or of Igua- 
lapa in Nueva Espana; 3\ leagues s. e. of its 
capital. 

POPULO, a settlement of the province and 
government of Sonora in N. America: on the 
shore of the river of this name, between the 
settlements of Los Angeles and La Magdalena. 

POPUTLA, a settlement of the head settle 
ment of the district of Pinoteca del Rey, and 
alcadia mayor of Xicayan in Nueva Espana: it 
is much reduced, and seven leagues s. w. of its 
head settlement. 

[POQUE CHOUDIE, a low flat point be 
tween the Gut of Chepagan and the village of 
Caraquet, on the s. side of Chaleur Bay. It is 
about four leagues distant from the Gut, in a 
s. w. direction. The island of Caraquet, at the 
same distance from the Gut, lies in a w. direc 
tion from the main. The village is about three 
leagues in extent; its plantations, &c. has a 
church, and a number of inhabitants, all Roman 
Catholics. The oyster and cod-fisheries are car 
ried on herej 

PORACICABA, a river of the province and 
captains/tip of San Vicente in Brazil ; which runs 
re , and enters the Tiete or Anembi. 

PORATE, ARRAYAL DE, a settlement of the 
province and captainship of Para in Brazil : on 
the shore of the river Tocantines, at the mouth 
of the Taquanhuna. 



FOR 

PORCELADOS, Coast of, in the province 
and captainship of Seara in Brazil, between the 
Point of Pena and the Bay of Iguape. 

PORC-EPI, Cape of, on the coast of the pro 
vince of Nova Scotia in N. America. 

PORC-EPI, a small island of this province. 

PORC-EPINE, Cape of, on the same coast of 
the province as the former, and in the Bay of 
Fundy : one of those which form the entrance 
of the basin of the mines. 

PORCO, a province and corrcgimicnto of 
Peru : bounded n. by that of Orura, n. w. by 
that of Paria, w. e. by that of Yamparaes ; s. e. 
by that of Pomabamba ; s. by that of Pilaya and 
Paspaya, and by that of Chichas ; and w. by that 
of Lipes : it is 40 leagues in length from n. to 
s. and 60 broad from e. to w. at the widest part. 
Its temperature, with the exception of one or 
two valleys contiguous to the river Pilcomayo, 
which is the most considerable passing through 
this province. This river, in the n. w. part, has 
a bridge of shapeable stones, and another in the 
e. by which is the pass to the prov ince of Ampa- 
raes and the city of La Plata. Nearly in the 
centre of the province is found the city of Po- 
tosi. Its productions are similar to those of the 
other parts of the sierra; such as papas., barley, 
beans, bark, and some wheat ; and in the tem 
perate valleys are fruits and vineyards, from which 
they make some wine. The breeds of sheep here 
are considerable, as arc also the flocks of native 
sheep, vicunas, and liuancos. It has streams of 
warm water; and its principal commerce con 
sists in its many silver minerals, always celebrated 
for their abundance, and even now some of them 
producing well : in the district of Tomahave 
alone a miner extracted, a few years past, in a 
vein of metal formed by the junction of different 
veins, three millions of dollars. The inhabitants 
of this province amount to 22,000. The capital 
is Talavera de Puna ; and its corregidor had a 
repartimiento of 76,365 dollars, and it used to 
pay an alcabala of 610 annually. 

PORCO, a settlement of this same province 
and corregimicnto. 

PORCO, a mountain, also of the same, very 
abundant in silver ; and in which is one of the 
most celebrated mines of this metal ; and from 
whence the Indians, before the entrance of the 
Spaniards, extracted great wealth : 23 leagues 
from Chuquisaca. 

PORCON, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of San Vicente in Brazil : n. of that 
of Frutas and s. of that of Altos. 



FOR 

PORCOS, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of Rey in the same kingdom as the 
former ; situate w. of the town of Curituba. 

PORCOS, some islands of the river of Las 
Amazonas, near its mouth ; close to the coast of 
the fort and town of Macapa, at the back of the 
great island of Caviana. 

[PORCOS, MORRO DE, or HOG S STRAND, on 
the a/\ coast of New Mexico, is n. of Point Hi- 
guerra, the s. w. point of the peninsula which 
forms the Bay of Panama. From thence ships 
usually take their departure, to go s. for the coast 
of Peru.] 

PORCOZ, a settlement and asiento of silver- 
mines, of the province and corregimiento of Caxa- 
marquilla in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of the 
settlement of Chilia. 

PORE, SAN JOSEPH DE, a city of the pro 
vince and government of Los Llanos in the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; founded by the go 
vernor Anciso : it is of a very hot and unhealthy 
temperature, producing cacao, maize, yuc os, plan 
tains, &c. but its principal commerce is in 
dressed leathers and skamois, which they make 
from the deer-skins, which abound here greatly ; 
the said hides being almost esteemed as much 
as those of Florida. Here are also large breeds 
of cattle, with which the other provinces are 
provided. In the stamps and lakes is a great 
variety of fish ; and one which they call pabon 
or cttrbinata, which has above each eye a white 
transparent stone of the size of an olive, of 
special virtue against the stricture of urine, and 
to dissolve the stones forming in the bladder : 
this city should contain about 500 inhabitants, 
fit is 133 miles n. e. of Santa Fe and 82 s. of 
Pamplona. Lat. 5 40 n. long. 72 13 30" a?.] 

PORFICA, Cape of, a point of land of the 
coast of California; opposite Nueva Espana : 
one of those which form the bay of Magdalena. 

PORIANAS, a barbarous nation of Indians 
but little known ; inhabiting the woods border- 
in on the river Putumayu. All that is known 
ofthem is, that they use bows and arrows, and 
live like wild beasts, supporting themselves by 
the chace. 

PORLAND, QUARTEL DE, a part of the 
island of Guadalupe, one of the Antilles, towards 
the great land on the n. coast. 

PORLAND, a small island, near the coast of 
Nova Scotia ; opposite the Bank Frances. 

POIIOCOCHA, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Yauyos in Peru ; annexed 
to the curacy of the settlement of Tauripampa. 



FOR 



197 



POROMA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Yamparaes, and of the archbi 
shopric of Charcas, in the same kingdom as the 
former. 

PORONGO, SAN JUAN BAPTISTA DE, a 
settlement of Chiriguanos Indians ; reduced to 
the Catholic religion by the missionaries of Nu- 
estra Senora de la Merced ; subject to the pro 
vince and government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra 
in Peru. Its inhabitants amount to above 12,000; 
and they are most docile and laborious, and, in 
habiting the frontiers of the infidel Yucaraep, 
they serve to check the incursions of the latter 
against the province, from the capital of which 
this settlement is 16 miles distant. 

PORONGOS, Lakes of the, which are five : 
in the province and government of Tucuman and 
kingdom of Peru : they are very close to each 
other, and all of them communicate with one 
another ; the largest of which is the depot of the 
waters of the Dulec and Salado rivers. The 
waters of these lakes are salt ; and they are 83 
miles n.e. of the city of Cordoba, between lat. 30 
and 31 s. and long. 61 and 62 w. 

[PORPOISE, Cape, on the coast of York 
county, district of Maine, is seven leagues n. by 
e. of Cape Neddock, and five s. w. of Wood 
Island. It is known by the highlands of Kcn- 
nebunk, which lie to the n. w. of it. A vessel 
that draws 10 feet water will be a-ground at low 
water in the harbour here. It is so narrow that 
a vessel cannot turn round; is within 100 yards 
of the sea, and secure from all winds, whether 
you have anchor or not.] 

PORQUERA, a settlement of the province 
and government of Cartagena in the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada : situate in the road which 
leads to the river Grande de la Magdalena, and 
not far from this river. 

PORQUERA, another settlement in the pro 
vince and government of Maracaibo, and of the 
same kingdom as the former : on the shore of 
the great lake, and at the point of Santa Lucia ; 
which is formed at the s. entrance to the capital. 

PORRUDOS, River of the, in the province 
and government of Paraguay ; which runs w. 
and enters the Cayaba. Respecting its course 
there is a difference between the Father Charle- 
voix, in his history of that province, and Don 
Juan de la Cruz, in the great chart of S. Ame 
rica. 

PORT, a port of the w. coast of Newfound 
land, between the two bays of Three Islands and 
that of St. George. 



FOR 



FOR 



[PORT AMHERST, a bay on the s. e. coast of 
Nova Scotia, s. w. of Port Roseway, and 17 miles 
n. e. of Cape Sable.J 

[PORT ANGEL, a harbour on the w. coast of 
Mexico, about half-way between St. Pedro and 
Compostella. It is a broad and open bay, having 
good anchorage, but bad landing. Lat. 13 32 n. 
long. 97 w.~\ 

[PORT ANTONIO, in the n. e. part of the island 
of Jamaica, lies w. by n. of the n. c. point; hav 
ing Fort George and Navy Island on the w. and 
Wood s Island e. It is capable of holding a large 
fleet ; and if it were fortified and accommodated 
for refitting ships of war, would be of great 
importance, as it is only 36 leagues w. of Cape 
Tiburon, in St. Domingo, and opens directly 
into the Windward Passage. The town of T itch- 
field lies on this bay.] 

[PORT AU PRINCE, a jurisdiction and sea 
port, at the head of the Great Bay or Bight of 
Leogane, in the w. part of the island of St. Do 
mingo. The town, which is seated on the head 
of the bay, is the seat of the French government 
in the time of peace, and a place of considera- 1 
ble trade. Though singularly favoured with the 
e. winds, it was long the tomb of the unhappy 
Europeans, in consequence of the difficulty of 
obtaining good water. By the exertions of M. 
de Marbois, who resided here about five years, 
in constructing fountains, public basins, and airy 
prisons, the place has become far more healthy 
and desirable. 

The jurisdiction contains six parishes, and its 
exports, from January 1, 1789, to December 31, 
of the same year, were as follow : 2,497,321 Ibs. 
white sugar ; 44,716,225 Ibs. brown sugar ; 
17,829,424 Ibs. coffee ; 1,878,999 Ibs. cotton ; 
137,951 Ibs. indigo ; other articles, as hides, mo 
lasses, spirits, &c. to the value of 8,248j livres. 
The total value of duties on the above articles 
on exportation was 189,945 dollars, 46 cents. 
This fine town was nearly burnt down by the 
revolting negroes, in November and December, 
1791. 

It is only fit for a shipping-place for the pro 
duce of the adjacent country, and for that of the 
rich plains of the Cul de Sac to the n. The 
island of Gonave to the w. would enable a squa 
dron to block up the port. The line of commu 
nication between Port au Prince and the town of 
St. Domingo, is by the ponds, and through the 
towns of Neybe, Azua, Bani, &c. The distance 
from Port au Prince to St. Domingo City is 142 
miles e. Port au Prince is 19 miles e. of the 



town of Leogane, and about 90 s. s. e. from Port 
de Paix. Lat. 18 31 30" n. long. 72 19 o>.] 

[PORT BANKS, on the n. w. coast of N. Ame 
rica, lies s. e. of Pitt s Island, and n. w. of Point 
Bukarelli.] 

[PORT CABANAS, on the n. side of the Island 
of Cuba, lies e. by n. of Bahia Hondu, and w. of 
Port Mariel.] 

[PORT DAUPHIN, a bay on the e. coast of 
Cape Breton Island, about 18 leagues s. by w, 
of Cape Raye in Newfoundland.] 

[PORT DE PAIX, or PAZ, a jurisdiction and 
sea-port, on the n. side of the island of St. Do 
mingo, towards the w. end, and opposite the 
island of Tortue, seven miles distant. The ju 
risdiction contains seven parishes ; the ex 
ports from which, from January 1, 1789, to 
December 31, of the same year, were as follow : 
331,900 Ibs. white sugar; 515,500 Ibs. brown su 
gar; 1,957,618 Ibs. coffee; 35,154 Ibs. cotton; 
29,181 Ibs. indigo. The duties on exportation 
of the above amounted to 9,407 dollars, 60 cents. 
It is 54 miles n. of St. Marcos, 39 e. of the Mole, 
and 33 w. of Cape Francois. Lat. 19 54 n. 
long. 72= 46 30" wj 

[PORT DE LA CHAUDIERE, on the s. coast of 
the island of St. Domingo, lies at the e. entrance 
of the Bay of Ocoa, which is 18 leagues w. by 
*. of the city of St. Domingo. This port is large, 
open, and deep enough to admit vessels of any 
burden.] 

[PORT DESIRE, a harbour on the e. coast of 
Patagonia, S. America, where vessels sometimes 
touch in their passage to the S. Sea. It is about 
150 miles n. e. of Port St. Julian. Lat. 47 6 s.] 

[PORT DU PRINCE, a town on the n. coast of 
the Island of Cuba, having a good harbour. The 
town stands in a large meadow, where the Spa 
niards feed numerous herds of cattle.] 

[PORT EGMONT, on the n. coast of the w. of 
the Falkland Isles, and towards the w. end of 
that coast. It is one of the most extensive and 
commodious harbours in the world ; so that it 
has been asserted, that the whole navy of Great 
Britain might ride securely in it. Commodore 
Byron discovered this excellent harbour in 1775, 
on being sent to take possession of the islands for 
the British government.] 

[PORT JULIAN, or PORT ST. JULIAN, a har 
bour on the e. coast of Patagonia, in S. America, 
104 miles s. by w. of Port Descado. It has a free 
and open entrance, and salt is found near it. The 
continent is not above 100 leagues broad here. 
Besides salt ponds, here are plenty of wild cattle, 



FOR 

horses, Peruvian sheep, and wild dogs, but the 
water is bad. Lat. 49 10 s. long. 67 45 wJ] 

[PORT MARQUIS, a harbour on the coast of 
Mexico, in the N. Pacific Ocean, three miles e. 
of Acapulco, where ships from Peru frequently 
land their contraband goods. Lat. 17 27 n. 
long. 102 26 .] 

[PORT PAIX. See PORT DE PAIX.] 

[PoiiT OF SPAIN, the capital of the Island of 
Trinidad, in the W. Indies, situated on the w. 
side of the island. See TRINIDAD.] 

[PORTA MARIA, in the n. e. part of the 
Island of Jamaica, s. e. from Gallina Point.] 

[PORTA Port, on the w. w. side of the island of 
Newfoundland ; the s. entrance into which is 10 
or 12 leagues from Cape St. George.] 

PORTAGE, a river of the province and go 
vernment of Luisiana ; which rises from a small 
lake near the Lake Misigan, runs s. e. and enters 
the river St. Croix. 

[PORTAGE, Point, on the e. coast of New 
Brunswick, and in the s. w. part of the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, forms the n. limit of Miramichy 
Bay, as Point Ecoumenac does the s.~] 

PORTAGES, a sea-port of Nova Scotia ; at 
the entrance of the Bay of Fundy. 

PORTAHUELO, a small port of the S. Sea ; 
in the coast of the province and corregimiento of 
Truxillo and kingdom of Peru : near the settle 
ment of Moche. 

PORTAIL, a port of the s. coast of Lake 
Superior in Canada ; between the river Hicame- 
peque and the Bay of Grandes Sables. 

PORTALES, a settlement of the province 
and government of Santa Marta in the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada : on the coast on the shore 
of the Bay of Zinto, near Cape San Juan de 

r* J r 

truia. 

PORTE, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of Paraiba in Brazil : on the shore of 
the River Aracay, near the coast. 

PORTE-NEUVE, an island of the N. Sea, near 
the coast of Nova Scotia. 

PORTEE GRAND, a settlement of the pro 
vince and colony of Virginia ; on the shore of 
the river Ohio. 

[PORTER, a lake of Nova Scotia, which 
empties itself .into the ocean; five leagues e. of 
Halifax. It is 15 miles in length, and half a 
mile in width, with islands in it.J 

[PORTERFIELD, a small settlement in York 
County, district of Maine.] 

[PORTERO, a river of Peru, which empties 
itself into the sea at the City of Baldivia.] 



FOR 



199 



PORTETE, a sea-port in the province and 
government of the Rio del Hacha, in the Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada : situate to e. of Cape la 
Vela, and w. of that of Chichibacoa. 

PORTETE, another port, in the province and 
kingdom of Tierra Firme, on the side of the 
mouth of the river Chagre ; at the back of the 
point which this forms, and where there is a 
castle. 

PORTETE, another, of the n. coast of the pro 
vince and government of Costarica and kingdom 
of Guatemala; between the river Las Suerte 
and that of La Concepcion. 

[PORTLAND, a post-town and port of entry, 
in Cumberland County, district of Maine. It is 
the capital of the district, and is situated on a 
promontory in Casco Bay, and was formerly a 
part of Falmouth. It is 32 miles s. by w. of 
Wiscasset, 88 n. by e. of Boston. In July, 1786, 
this part of the town, being the most populous 
and mercantile, and situated on the harbour, 
together with the islands which belong: to Fal- 

~ 

mouth, was incorporated by the name of Port 
land. It has a most excellent, safe, and capacious 
harbour, which is seldom^ or never completely 
frozen over. It is near the main ocean, and is 
easy of access. The inhabitants carry on a con 
siderable foreign trade, build ships, and are 
largely concerned in the fishery. It is one of 
the most thriving commercial towns in the com 
monwealth of Massachusetts. 

Although three-fourths of it was laid in ashes 
by the British fleet in 1775, it has since been 
entirely rebuilt, and contains about 2300 inha 
bitants. Among its public buildings are three 
churches, two for Congregationalists, and one 
for Episcopalians, and a handsome court-house. 
A light-house was erected in 1790, on a point of 
land called Portland Head, at the entrance of 
the harbour. It is a ?tone edifice, 72 feet high, 
exclusive of the lanthorn, and stands in lat. 43 
47 / n. and long. 70 10 30" w. The following 
directions are to be observed in coming into the 
harbour. Bring the light to bear n. n. w. then 
run for it, allowing a small distance on the lar 
board hand : and when a-breast of the same, then 
n. by w. This course will give good anchorage 
from half a mile to a mile and a half. No va 
riation of the compass is allowed. The works 
erected in 1795, for the defence of Portland, 
consist of a fort, a citadel, a battery for 10 
pieces of cannon, an artillery-store, a guard 
house, an air furnace for heating shot, and a co 
vered way from the fort to the battery.] 



"200 



FOR 



[PORTLAND Head, in Casco Bay, in the dis 
trict of Maine, the promontory on which the 
light-house above described stands. From the 
light-house to Alden s Ledge is four leagues 5.s. e. 
High water in Portland harbour, at full and 
change, and 45 minutes after 10 o clock. See 
PORTLAND.] 

[PORTLAND Point, on the 5. coast of the Island 
of Jamaica, and the most s. land in it, lies in 
lat. 17 44 n. and long. 77 5 w. 

[PORTLOCK S Harbour, on the n. w. coast 
of N. America, has a narrow entrance compared 
with its circular form within. The middle of the 
entrance lies in lat. 57 43 30" and long. 136 
42 / 30 // ty.J 

PORTO, a settlement of the province and 
captainship of Ilheos in Brazil ; on the shore of 
the river Ilheos, on the coast and at the mouth 
of the river Santa Cruz. 

[PORTO DEL PRINCIPE, a sea-port on the n. 
coast of the island of Cuba, 300 miles s. e. of the 
Havannah, and 186 n. w. of Baracoa. It w r as 
formerly a large and rich town, but being taken 
by Captain Morgan, with his buccaneers, after a 
stout resistance, it never recovered itself. Near 
it are several springs of bitumen.] 

[PORTO Rico, one of the W. Indian isles. 
See PUERTO Rico.] 

[PORTO SANTO, a port situate in the mouth of 
the river of its name, on the coast of Peru, n. of 
Point Ferol, and 15 miles 5. e. of Cape de Chao, 
or Chau, and in lat. 8 58 30" s.l 

PORTOBELLO, a city and sea-port of the 
kingdom of Tierra Firme, on the declivity of a 
mountain surrounding the port. The greater 
part of the houses are of wood; although there 
be some which have the first body of stone : they 
are all large, and amount to about 130, which 
run in one long street ; this being intersected, 
however, with some other houses, and there being 
also some scattered about the mountain. It has 
two squares, one in front of the custom-house, 
which is of stone, and another opposite the parish 
church also of stone, and which is large, prettily 
adorned, and served by a parochial curate and 
other priests. There are other two churches, 
one which is a convent of the monks of La 
Merced, and another of those of San Juan de 
Dios, having under their charge the hospital ; 
but both these are poor and small, and nearly in 
a state of complete ruin. 

At the e. extremity of the city, and in the road 
which leads to PanamJi, is a place called Guinea ; 
this being where the Negroes dwell, as well the 



P O 11 

bondmen as the slaves of both sexes : and thi 
spot was, during the trade carried on by the gal 
leons, very thickly inhabited ; inasmuch as it 
was resorted to by the greater part of the neigh 
bourhood, in order to let out their houses to the 
people of the galleons, and by the many artisans 
who came down from Panama. 

This city, which is but poorly inhabited, was 
in the time of the galleons one of the most popu 
lous in the world ; for its situation upon an isth 
mus of the two seas, the n. and 5. the goodness 
of its port, and its vicinity to Panama, gave it 
the preference of all the other settlements of 
America for the celebration of the richest fair in 
the universe, and which was carried on nearly 
every year by the Spanish merchants of Spain 
and Peru. Immediately on the arrival at Pa 
nama of the fleet ef Peru with its riches, the gal 
leons of Cartagena dropped down to Portobello ; 
not doing it sooner in order to avoid many in 
conveniences, such as sickness and the exorbitant 
expences which arose from the vast concourse of 
people which used to assemble on the occasion ; 
when a moderate sized parlour and bed would 
cost 1000 dollars, and the houses let for 5000 or 
6000. Scarcely did the sailors bring their ves 
sels to anchor, but they formed with sails a large 
booth in the square of the town, where to dis 
embark and lodge cargoes ; each one recognizing 
his own effects by his mark. At the same time 
was to be seen the arrival of large mule-droves 
of 100 mules each, loaded with chests of gold and 
silver from Peru : some of these would lodge 
their valuable burdens in the custom-house, others 
in the square ; and it was, indeed, well worthy 
of admiration to see with what little disorder and 
confusion every thing was conducted amongst so 
great a diversity of men and characters ; robbery, 
murders, or any other less serious disturbances 
being entirely unknown on these occasions. 
Again, the spectator who had just before been 
considering Portobello in a poor, unpeopled 
state, without a ship in its port, and breathing 
nothing but misery and wretchedness, would re 
main thunderstruck at beholding the strange al 
teration which takes place at the time of this fair. 
Now he would see the houses crowded with peo 
ple, the square and the streets crammed with 
chests of gold and silver, and the port covered 
with vessels ; some of these having brought by 
the river Chagre from Panama the effects of 
Peru, such as cacao, bark, vicuna, wool, Bezoa 
stone, and other productions of those provinces. 
He would see others bringing provisions from 



PORTOBELLO. 



201 



Cartagena ; and he would reflect that, however 
detestable might be its climate, this city was the 
emporium of the riches of the two worlds, and 
the most considerable commercial depot that was 
ever known. 

Scarcely have the merchants of Spain disem 
barked their merchandise, and those of Peru, at 
tended by the president of Panama, arrived with 
their riches, than the general of the galleons and 
the deputies of the two trading parties proceed 
to regulate the prices of all the articles ; and this 
being once published nothing will alter. Thus 
the sales and exchanges used to be made in the 
course of 60 days, the time of the duration of the 
fair ; during which period the vessels laden with 
the newly purchased Spanish goods would pro 
ceed up the river Chagre, the same kind of arti 
cles being carried by land to Panama ; and the 
European merchants would begin to put a-board 
the treasures of America : the city at the end 
of the aforesaid period remaining in the same de 
plorable state as before. 

This port was discovered by Admiral Don 
Christoval Columbus in 1502 ; who, observing it 
to be so large, deep, and well sheltered, gave it 
the name of Puertobelo. Its entrance, though 
three-quarters of a mile in width, was well de 
fended by the castle of San Felipe de Todo Fi- 
erro, situate on the n. part ; for the s. part being 
full of rocks, vessels were under a necessity of 
passing between these and the aforesaid fort, 
where there is from 9 to 15 feet water. But in 
the s. part also, at the distance of 200 toises from 
the city, was another large castle, called De San 
tiago de la Gloria ; and opposite the city another 
castle, with the name of San Geronimo ; all 
which were built by the celebrated engineer Juan 
Baptista Antoneli, by order of Philip II., and 
which were destroyed by the English admiral 
Vernon in 1742, who took the city. 

To the n. w. of the city is a small bay, called 
La Caldera, sheltered from every wind, and ex 
cellent for careening vessels. Amongst the 
mountains which surround the port from the 
castle of Todo Fierro, as far as the opposite 
part, is one very peculiar, not only on account 
of its height, but as being the barometer of the 
country, and as announcing all the changes of 
the seasons : it is called Capira, and is in the in 
terior of the port, and in the road which leads 
to Panama : its top is perpetually covered with 
a very thick cloud, and they have a saying here 
of " calarse el gorro Capira," (Capira has put on 
his night-cap) since, when the cloud descends 

VOL. IV. 



lower than ordinary, it is a certain indication of 
a storm : indeed this occurs almost daily, and the 
top of the mountain is scarcely ever visible or 
uncloudy. The climate of this city is bad in the 
extreme, for the heat is excessive ; and this is 
encreased by its peculiarity of situation, as being 
hemmed in on all sides by a lofty mountain, such 
as will not admit of a free passage for the air. 
Again, the trees are so thick they will not per 
mit the rays of the sun to penetrate the ground, 
and they, of course, prevent this from being ever 
sufficiently dried, although they admit the exuda 
tion of sufficient vapours to condense into clouds, 
and form deluging rains. Scarcely are these over, 
than the activity of the sun dries up such parts 
of the ground as lie exposed and uncovered by 
trees, and the atmosphere becomes again subject 
to strong exhalations : let then the sun but dis 
appear, and it immediately rains again; and thus 
it is that, day and night, the heat is always the 
same and undiminished. These showers some 
times come accompanied with such tempests of 
thunder and lightning as to cause a general 
alarm ; and the terrifying peal will be prolonged 
in sullen echo through the caverns of the moun 
tains, and followed up with the outrageous chat 
tering of monkies of a thousand kinds which 
dwell therein. 

This continual intemperate state of the atmo 
sphere, united to the fatigues and labours of the 
mariners, causes them to have a debilitating 
sweat ; and to recover their strength they have 
recourse to brandy, of which there is an extra 
ordinary consumption ; and this spirit, together 
with the excess of toil ; in short a constant state 
of intoxication, and the natural malignity of the 
climate, ruin the best constitutions, and breed 
the most ruinous disorders. Thus the number 
of inhabitants of Portobello is extremely small, 
and the greater part is of Negroes and Mulat- 
toes, the whites being very few. 

The provisions are scarce and dear, particu 
larly so at the time of the fairs, though plenty 
were then brought from Panama and Cartagena. 
The onlv eatable abounding here is fish, which 
is of excellent quality and of all sorts. Water 
flows down in streams from the mountains; some 
passing without the city, and others through it ; 
and although the qualities of being light and easy 
to pass would render it estimable in any other 
place, in this country, destined to be unfortu 
nate, and in which even what is good degene 
rates into evil, the circumstance of its subtilty 
and digestive powers is attended with the pro- 
D D 



202 



FOR 



moting of dreadful dysenteries, causing other evils 
of no easy cure. 

As the woods closely surround the city, the 
tigers are accustomed to make frequent incursions 
by night through the streets ; carrying away fowls, 
pigs, and other domestic animals, and sometimes 
even human beings. The snakes are also very 
abundant, but the toads so as to exceed all be 
lief; for when it has rained during the night 
more than usual, on the morrow the streets are 
covered with these reptiles ; so that it is scarcely 
possible to walk without treading upon them and 
bein"- bitten by them ; which, added to the noise 
they 3 make, renders them insufferably unplea 
sant. 

This city w r as peopled from the inhabitants of 
Nombre de Dios : founded by Diego Nicuesa ; 
the which having been many times ruined by the 
Indians of Darien, was by command of Philip II. 
translated to this spot in 1584, for the greater 
security and better situation of its commerce. 
The Duke of La Plata, viceroy of Peru, began to 
fortify it. but did not follow this up, judging that 
the three castles aforesaid, which were rebuilt in 
1751, by the lieutenant-general Don Ignacio de 
Sala, a celebrated engineer and governor of 
Cartagena, were sufficient for its defence. It 
has experienced several invasions ; the first in 
1596, by the English pirate Francis Drake ; the 
second in 1668, by John Morgan ; the third in 
?680, by John Spring ; the fourth in 1702, by 
two English ships of war and three bilanders ; 
the fifth, by the English admiral Edward Vernon, 
who took it through a capitulation in 1742, its 
governor being Don Juan de la Vega Retes ; and 
the sixth in 1745, when it was ill-treated by the 
captain William Kinhills, who battered it with 
5000 cannon-balls to recover a prize he had lost, 
although he did not dare to disembark, as he 
had threatened. [It is 33 miles from Panama, 
and 248 from Cartagena, in lat. 10 27 n. long. 
79 26 w.~] 

PORTOBELLO, another port, of the province 
and captainship of Ilheos in Brazil ; between the 
river Dulce and that of Santa Cruz. 

PORTO-SEGURO, a province and captain 
ship of Rey in Brazil ; bounded n. by the pro 
vince of Los Ilheos, s. by that of Espiritu Santo, 
e. by the sea, and its jurisdiction terminating on 
the w, by the river Grande de San Francisco ; 
which serves it as a barrier. It was the first 
territorv and port discovered by the Portuguese 
in this kingdom in 1500. It is very fertile and 
delightful, although of a very hot climate ; 



FOR 

abounding in sugar canes, of which they make 
a considerable portion of sugar. Its extent is 
54 leagues ; and it is watered by the rivers S. 
Antonio, Yucara, Caravelas, Macuripe, Mara- 
nepe, and Curubabo. 

It was ceded by the king of Portugal to Pedro 
de Campos Tourinho, native of the town of 
Viana, who passed to take possession of it, with 
his family and other noble families of that king 
dom which accompanied him, and who disem 
barked in the same part, as did Pedro Alvarez 
Cabral its discoverer. He succeeded in all the 
engagements which he fought with the natives, 
and caused them to flee to the interior of the 
mountains. At his death, the heir to this pro 
vince was his daughter Dona Leonor de Cam 
pos ; who sold it to Don Juan de Lancaster, 
first Duke of Aveiro, son of Don Jorge, Duke of 
Coimbra, grand-master of the military orders of 
Santiago and Avis. 

The king of Spain and Portugal, Don Philip II. 
erected it into a marquisate in favour of Don 
Alonso de Lancaster, Marquis of Valdefuentes, 
son of the duke of Aveiro ; and to this house 
it belonged until 1758, when it was united to 
the crown. 

The governor-general, Luis Brito de Almeida, 
from intelligence he had received that there were 
in the interior of this province and on the con 
fines of that of Espiritu Santo precious stones ; 
sent in search of the same Sebastian Fernandez 
Tourinho, who navigated with some companions 
by the river Dulce and by an arm of that called 
the Mandy, where he disembarked, pursuing his 
rout by land for many leagues, until he arrived at 
a lake, which, from its size, was called by the In 
dians, Mouth of the Sea : pushing still forward 
for 70 leagues, as far as where the river Dulce 
enters into another called Acesi ; he traversed 
the shores of this for 50 leagues further on, and 
found some quarries of stone of various colours 
between blue and green. The Indians, who 
were his guides, also affirmed that on the top of 
the quarry were red and other coloured stones 
with veins of gold ; and that, at the foot of a 
sierra covered with trees, of more than a league 
long, there were some of the same sort. Here, 
indeed, he found an emerald and a zaphyr, both 
perfect ; and 70 leagues higher up, in another 
sierra, various green stones. 

It was asserted by the natives, that there 
were more of these, though much finer, in a 
mine of chrystal ; and this induced the governor 
to send out Antonio Diaz de Adorno, vvho, con- 



P O 11 T O - S E G U R O. 



203 



firming- the account, namely, that from the sierra 
of crystal, eastward, there were to be found 
emeralds, and, westward, zaphyrs, brought home 
some as a proof, which were forthwith transmit 
ted to the king. 

Just at this period the crown devolved on 
Philip II. king- of Spain, and these discoveries 
were pushed no father ; those valuable spots re 
maining in the possession of the infidels, and the 
different routs which had been taken being so 
completely lost sight of, as never since to admit 
of discovery, notwithstanding the frequent search 
that has been made after them. 

There are in this province two towns, which 
are, that of its name, and that of San Antonio 
de las Caravellas ; and two leagues distant from 
the former is the church of IS uestra Sefiora de 
Ayda ; celebrated for the miracle of a copious 
fountain, which burst forth on a sudden from 
the rock when the church was building, and 
when there was a lack of water. 

[We have extracted the following description 
of the province of Porto-Seguro, of the manners 
of its inhabitants, and of its trade, manufac 
tures, military establishments, &c. from the com 
pendious little history by Mr. Grant. 

The trade from Brazil to Europe is chiefly 
carried on by three principal ports. These are, 
Grand Para, Bahia, or the Bay of Santos, and 
Rio Janeiro. Into the last of these are poured 
the treasures from the mines of the s. ; and from 
this port are exported the commodities of Porto- 
Seguro, Spiritu-Santo, and S. Vicente. 

The province of Porto-Seguro is bounded on 
the n. by the Rio Grande, which separates it 
from the captainship of the Ilheos ; and on the s. 
by that of Spiritu-Santo. 

Porto-Seguro, so denominated from its being 
a safe harbour, is formed by a ledge of rocks 
that stretch out from an extended point of the 
main, about a mile, in a direction parallel to 
the land, forming a natural mole. These rocks, 
which are dry at low water, terminate abruptly, 
and again appear at the distance of half a 
league. 

The space between these rocks is the bar or 
entrance to the harbour, over which, during high 
tides, the depth of water is about 20 feet ; but, 
within, it decreases to 12 feet. A little farther 
up, how r ever, where a river disembogues itself 
into the harbour, the water again somewhat 
deepens. This port has a fine sandy bottom, ter 
minating in a broad beach. 

On entering the port, the adjacent country 



presents to the view a most delightful and va 
riegated landscape. Close to the shore we be 
hold a range of fishermen s cabins, shaded with 
luxuriant trees ; and in the back ground, exten 
sive woods, intersected with paths leading to 
various sequestered habitations. To the n. rises 
a steep hill, on the summit of which stands 
the capital, termed, like the province, Porto- 
Seguro. 

Though, from its commanding situation, this 
city certainly has an elegant aspect at a dis 
tance, yet, on a nearer approach, its general 
appearance is mean and wretched. The streets 
are straight and sufficiently wide ; but they are 
irregularly disposed, and the houses, in general, 
low and ill-constructed. Few of them are above 
one, and none of them exceed two stories ; they 
are built of a soft kind of brick, and covered 
over with plaster ; the windows are furnished 
with a kind of split-cane blinds, as a substitute 
for casements. 

There are no public edifices in Porto-Seguro 
deserving of attention. The town-house is a 
large quadrangular building ; and the prison is 
also of considerable extent. There are only two 
churches in the city, one of which is a neat plain 
building, furnished with glass casements ; but 
the other is no way distinguished from the ware 
houses, except by having been erected of better 
materials, which are a mixture of stone and red 
brick. 

In 1550 a monastery of Franciscans was esta 
blished, at the expence of the city, which has 
long since fallen into a state of decay. 

On the banks of the river running at the foot 
of the hill, on which stands the city, a village is 
situated equal in extent to the town itself. It 
consists of about 400 huts or cabins, and, in 
cluding Indians and slaves, contains a popula 
tion of nearly 3000 souls. The sole occupation, 
of these villagers consists in fishing off the is 
lands and rocks of Abrolhos, where a species 
of salmon abounds, which is salted for the 
market of Bahia. About 50 or 60 small ves 
sels are employed in this fishery, and remain at 
sea for a month or six weeks till their cargoes are 
completed. 

Those of the inhabitants not engaged in this 
fishery are employed in careening and repairing 
these vessels, and manufacturing the lines and 
nets. These lines are excellent, being composed 
of cotton well twisted, and afterwards several 
times rubbed over with the inner bark of a tree, 
which contains a glutinous substance that hardens} 
D D 2 



204 



P O R T O - S E G U R O. 



[on the exposure to the sun, and is proof against 
the action of salt water. These lines are there 
fore both strong- and elastic. 

These fishing vessels are the property of a 
few individuals, who are comparatively rich. 
At Bahia they either receive cash in return for 
their fish, or else exchange them for different 
articles of food or clothing, which they retail to 
such of their more indigent neighbours as can 
afford to purchase them. 

The food of the inhabitants consists princi 
pally of salt fish and the flour of the manioc, 
which is sold here at about 3s. 6d. per bushel. 
Scanty, however, as may be their means of en 
joyment, they at least live in a temperate cli 
mate, where they are exposed to fewer miseries, 
and experience fewer hardships, than the inhabi 
tants of colder regions. In the latter, a sheltered 
habitation, warm clothing, and fuel during the 
rigorous season of winter, are necessary to the 
comfort of existence ; whereas in a tropical cli 
mate these necessaries may with less inconveni 
ence be dispensed with, or a sufficiency of them 
more easily obtained ; while food is supplied in 
greater abundance by the bounteous hand of na 
ture, in warmer than in colder countries. Thus, 
for instance, oranges, bananas, cocoas, and a pro 
fusion of other delicious fruits, which arc so highly 
prized in Europe, form part of the sustenance 
of the poorest inhabitants of these climates. 

Various species of fish, besides that already 
mentioned, abound on the coast, but the inhabi 
tants are of too indolent a disposition to avail 
themselves of this advantage, consequently fresh 
fish is both scarce and bears a high price at 
Porto-Seguro. Beef, of a very indifferent qua 
lity, and of which but a scanty supply is brought 
to market, is in general sold at three vintims 
about 4d. per pound ; and mutton or pork is al 
most unknown. No attention is indeed paid in 
this district to the breeding of hogs or sheep, 
though the woods afford an inexhaustible store 
of food for these animals. 

The more opulent part of the inhabitants pos 
sess each a country-house*, with extensive plan 
tations of sugar-cane and manioc attached to 
them. These farms are in general situated on 
the banks of a river which runs past the city. 
They are well stored with poultry and domestic 
cattle, but from the total deficiency in the art of 
cookery, their tables are not much better sup 
plied here than in the city ; and indeed they may 
be said, in a great measure, to exist in poverty 
and want in the midst of abundance. 



The attention paid to literature and science 
in Rio is extremely small, but here, if we are 
to rest on the authority of Mr. Lindley, who 
was unwarrantably detained a considerable time 
in Porto-Seguro, the inhabitants are buried in a 
still greater degree of ignorance. 

" Employment of any sort," he observes, " is 
nearly unknown among the females. In some 
instances they fabricate a kind of coarse lace 
for their own use, but even this is by no means 
universal among them. The needle they are 
still less acquainted with ; for there are few who 
can sew the simple chemises (although their chief 
article of dress), and they have Mulatto slaves 
for that purpose. Cookery is entirely out of the 
question, their general diet not requiring nor ad 
mitting it ; and so completely ignorant are they 
of this addition to our comforts, that some flour 
which I had I could not get converted into bread 
throughout the town." 

The province naturally abounds in the most 
delicious fruits for preserves ; but this prepa 
ration too is totally neglected by the ladies, 
even the confections and marmalades of Bahia 
and Rio de Janeiro being manufactured by male 
slaves. In short, the people here merely vege 
tate in a senseless apathy and unnerving indo 
lence, increased by the equal neglect of their 
minds : for few of the females can read ; and 
writing is an art which not many of the men 
acquire. 

The same inanimate existence and constitu 
tional idleness characterise the male sex. They 
lose whole days in visiting each other, yawning 
in flimsy conversation, or playing at cards for 
pence ; while the plantations, &c. are carried 
on by European overseers, some favourite Mu- 
lattoes, or confidential slaves. Nor is the cli 
mate to be admitted as an excuse for want of 
exertion : for many weeks are moderate as an 
European September, and their winter months 
are generally so. Even during the hot days, 
there are intervals of cool breezes, besides some 
hours of every evening and morning, during 
which the sun s rays have but little force, and 
the ground is cool, from the excessive dews ge 
nerally found within the tropics, and particularly 
here. 

The inhabitants of Porto-Seguro plume them 
selves on the circumstances of their s being the 
immediate spot where Brazil was first discovered 
by Cabral ; and they still preserve with great 
veneration the holy cross that was erected under 
a spreading tree at the first high mass, with mu-] 



PORTO-SEGURO. 



fsic, discharge of ordnance, &c. during- which the 
Indians, they say, flocked in crowds at a sight so 
novel, and continued in profound silence, ab 
sorbed in amazement and curiosity ; and that 
the divine spirit so visibly manifested itself, that 
the natives, at the moment, were converted to 
the holy faith. 

The interior of the district abounds with wild 
cattle and horses, but they never approach the 
coast. The horses employed by the inhabitants 
are of the Buenos Ayres breed. They are in 
general 14 hands high, small boned, but capa 
ble of sustaining great fatigue ; they, however, 
neither possess much beauty of form, nor dis 
play much spirit in their motions. 

The sheep here, with a few exceptions, are of 
a small breed, and resemble those of Europe. 
There is one variety, however, that has several 
horns, and another apparently of the hairy Afri 
can breed. The ewes of Guinea (ovis Guineensis)^ 
might be transported from Angola to Brazil with 
the greatest advantage. 

The numerous herds of cattle that are found 
in this and indeed in the interior of all the pro 
vinces of Brazil, might, under proper manage 
ment, afford cheese and butter, not only for 
home consumption, but also for foreign com 
merce ; but at present these useful articles are 
prepared in small quantities, and rather for curi 
osity than use. The cheese made in the colony 
is of a very indifferent quality ; and it is a pretty 
general opinion, that butter cannot be prepared 
on account of the heat of the climate; though it is 
well known that in the East Indies, where the 
weather is much warmer, most excellent butter 
may always be procured. 

The vast number of oxen killed in Brazil are 
mostly slaughtered on account of their hides, 
though it is evident that, besides salting the 
carcase, other parts of the body might be appro 
priated to some useful purpose. But without the 
adoption of a liberal plan of policy, and judicious 
encouragements being offered for the promotion 
of agriculture, it will, in all probability, as well 
as its sister arts, continue to languish in a coun 
try possessing every advantage of climate and 
natural situation. 

The mules reared in and near Porto Seguro 
are large, well shaped, and extremely handsome. 
They are lively, and do not display, in their ge 
neral appearance, the sluggishness common to 
these animals. 

The wild animals of this district are similar to 
those of the other provinces of Brazil. The ra 
venous quadrupeds of the New World, such as 



ounces, leopards, tygers, hyenas, &c. display less 
ferocity, and are far inferior in size and strength 
to those of the same kind in the African and Asia 
tic continents. 

The pregusia or sloth is very common in this 
province, and perfectly harmless. Its head is 
round, with a very small round mouth, and small 
blunt teeth ; its nose is black, high and smooth, 
but the other parts of the body are covered with 
ash-coloured hair, and the eyes are small, black 
and heavy. This animal, which is about the size 
of a fox, feeds on the succulent leaves of trees, 
which serve it both for food and drink. Though 
its limbs appear to be exceedingly weak, it will 
nevertheless lay hold so firmly of the branches 
of trees, as not to be easily shaken off. So great 
an antipathy has the sloth to rain, that on its ap 
proach it carefully conceals itself. It cannot pro 
ceed above a stone s throw in the course of seve 
ral minutes, and derives its name from the un 
common slowness of its motion. Monkeys, which 
are so numerous in other parts of this colony, 
are here extremely scarce : the few that do fre 
quent the woods in the neighbourhood of Porto 
Seguro are chiefly of the grey sort. Armadilloes 
are, however, extremely numerous, and run about 
in every direction. One species possesses a qua 
lity similar to the hedge-hog, of rolling itself up 
into a ball when attacked, and presenting on all 
sides its scaly covering, which forms an impene 
trable shield. The saratue, which is about the 
size of our fox, is an extremely savage animal, 
and commits great depredations among the poul 
try in the vicinity of the city. This animal, when 
attacked, defends itself with great resolution. 

The woods and groves abound with various 
birds, some of which display the most brilliant 
and gaudy plumage, while others delight us by 
their melodious voices ; but as they do not differ 
from those in the other provinces, we shall not 
here enter into a particular description of them. 

The botanical productions are here, as in every 
part of this country, extremely abundant. They 
are, however, but little known to the inhabitants, 
and from the extreme jealousy of the govern 
ment, learned foreigners have been hitherto pre 
vented from examining them. Many of the trees 
round Porto Seguro exude gums of a resinous, 
mucilaginous, and balsamic nature. Among the 
latter is one similar to the balsam of Peru, which 
is collected by the inhabitants, and exported in 
considerable quantities to Europe. It is procured 
from the female of the pine tribe, and is collected 
in pans after the tree is cut down. Towards the 
northern extremity of this captainship, the banksj 



206 



PORTO-SEGURO. 



j of the Rio Grande are covered with immense 
forests, which are considered as the best in Brazil 
tor the purposes of ship-building. It is from 
hence that the king s yards are principally sup 
plied with timber. 

The trees chiefly employed for this purpose, 
are the sippipira^ which resembles the teak of In 
dia, and the peroba, oraubu, and louro, which 
are species or varieties of oak and larch. Cedar 
and other woods, which are used for deck planks, 
also abound in these forests, as well as brazil 
and logwood, mahogany, camwood, campeachy, 
and various other. The Rio Grande is naviga 
ble for canoes to a great distance, uninterrupted 
by any falls or rapids. After ascending the coun 
try to a considerable distance westward, it takes 
a direction to the south, and is supposed to ori 
ginate beyond the mines of Pitangui, though its 
source has not hitherto been explored. It is 
broad and deep at its mouth within the bar, and 
for a considerable distance above it. An expe 
dition was undertaken a few years ago by the 
two sons of the civil governor or judge of the 
province, Sen. Joze Dantes Coelho, accompanied 
by his servant and the capitian mor, or military 
captain of Port Seguro, attended by their ser 
vants and a party of Indians. During fifteen 
days they proceeded up the river in canoes, with 
out experiencing the slightest interruption. They 
found its banks clothed with the most valuable 
natural productions, the forests abounding with 
hogs, and the savannahs with cattle. At the 
termination of their voyage they observed small 
diamonds scattered over the ground, at a short 
distance from the river, as well as several other 
precious stones. The diamonds did not appear 
to them of great value ; but they proposed to 
repeat their excursion, with a view of more ac 
curately investigating this part of the district, 
when they were prevented, by the interposition 
of government, from carrying this resolution into 
effect. 

From the cursory observations which their 
short stay enabled them to make, it appears evi 
dent, that under an enlightened administration, 
and with proper encouragement, settlements 
might be formed on the Rio Grande of Porto 
Seguro, which in a short time would become a 
great national benefit, though at present, from 
the most absurd and mistaken policy, the Portu 
guese government wish it to remain unpeopled 
and unknown. 

On the coast, to the s. of the Rio Grande, has 
been lately established the settlement of Bel- 
mont, which is at present in a thriving condition : 



and, a little farther on, we meet with the town 
of Santa Cruz, which is about five leagues dis 
tant from Porto Seguro. The town, which has 
never been large, is now rapidly falling into a 
state of decay : the harbour admits only small 
vessels, drawing about 12 feet water ; but in the 
Coroa Vermeil, immediately adjoining, ships of 
anv burden may safely come to anchor. 

To the s. of Porto Seguro, the small shallow 
bav of Tranquoso indents the shore. This part 
of the coast is delightful, and covered with seve 
ral thriving plantations. At a small distance from 
Tranquoso, on the banks of the Rio des Fratrep, 
the country is uninhabited ; owing possibly to the 
risks to which vessels are exposed, on entering 
this river, from its mouth being choaked up by a 
very dangerous bar. 

To the s. of the Rio Fratres, the country be 
comes mountainous. Monte Pascoa serves as a 
land-mark to those mariners who navigate this 
part of the coast, which is extremely dangerous, 
on account of a continuation of reefs, sunken 
rocks and shallows, especially to those vessels 
which approach to the river Carevellos ; though 
the neighbouring pilots are so extremely skilful, 
that very few accidents are known to occur. 

From the Rio des Fratres to Villa Prado, the 
coast is inhabited by numerous hostile tribes of 
Indians, which renders travelling so extremely 
dangerous, as to cut off all communication by land 
between these two places. The latter is a flourish 
ing fishing town. The inhabitants in the vicinity 
of this village, as well as of Alcoabass, which is 
situated at a short distance from it, are chiefly- 
occupied with the culture of manioc, and the pre 
paration of the cassava powder, which they carry 
to the port of Carevellos. 

On account of a dangerous bar, only vessels of 
small burden can enter this harbour, though with 
in it the water deepens to 10 fathoms. 

The town of Carevellos is situated about six 
miles above the mouth of the river. It is more 
populous, and the buildings somewhat superior 
to those of Porto Seguro. The country around 
is covered with plantations of manioc, whence 
large quantities of this useful article are sent to 
Rio de Janeiro, Bahia and Pernambuco. Small 
craft are built at the port of Carevellos, not only 
for their own use, but in order to supply what is 
wanted at Porto Seguro. 

San Matthias, which forms the boundary of 
Porto Seguro in this direction, lies about 10 
leagues to the southward of Carevellos. Here 
likewise we meet with extensive plantations of 
manioc. The coast of this captainship extends] 



PORTO-SEGURO. 



207 



[for the length of 70 leagues, with an unbounded 
extent of country towards the HJ. though at pre 
sent there are no settlements in that direction 
above 10 or 12 leagues from the sea. Gold and 
many valuable minerals abound in the interior of 
this district. 

The extreme jealousy displayed by the Portu 
guese, respecting the admission of strangers into 
their colonies, renders our knowledge of the inte 
rior of this interesting country still extremely de 
fective. During Mr. Lindley s enforced stay at 
Porto Seguro,the commission empowered to seize 
his papers, found in his possession a small quantity 
of grain gold, intermixed with gold-coloured sand, 
which had been given to him by one of the colo 
nists, as a sample. This strongly attracted their 
curiosity, and he was strictly questioned respect 
ing it. This gentleman frankly informed them 
how it came into his possession, but declared 
that he was totally ignorant of the person from 
whom he received it, though he had reason to 
suppose that he was an inhabitant of a distant 
settlement ; on which he was ordered to prepare 
for a journey, in order, if possible, to discover 
and identify the individual from whom he ob 
tained it. 

In consequence of this determination, he was 
commanded to be in readiness to accompany the 
minister, &c. on the following morning, at five 
o clock ; and he gives the following interesting 
account of that part of the district which he was 
thus enabled to visit. 

" On the second of August," says he, " we 
mounted our horses, altogether seven of us, and 
took the beach to the s. After an hour s ride, 
abruptly turned to the w. into the country, and 
ascending a steep height, soon arrived at the 
chapel of Nossa Senhora de Judea, on its sum 
mit. The prospect from hence is grand indeed, 
not only of the surrounding country, but com 
manding the adjacent ocean, upon which the 
white walls of the chapel form an excellent sea 
mark ; and its patroness, the virgin, is particu 
larly invoked by the neighbouring coasting ves 
sels and fishing smacks, in cases of distress or 
contrary winds : her fame even extends to curing 
several disorders, if called on with proper faith. 
The inside of the building is decorated with rude 
drawings of vessels in distress, and of sick cham 
bers ; having inscriptions under each, of the dif 
ferent cases which they are intended to comme 
morate. 

" After eating a biscuit, and drinking some of 
the good vicar s water, we visited several plan 
tations and ingenios in the neighbourhood 3 at one 



of which we procured an Indian guide. Taking 
the course of the river, we had a beautiful ride 
over a fine champaign country, wanting only 
cultivation to form the best of meadow land ; the 
soil black mould, at times gravelly, clay patches 
and sandy flats. 

" Leaving the open land, we entered the woods 
of ages, through a narrow path, which admitted 
only one horseman abreast, and was impene 
trably defended from the sun s rays by the over 
hanging branches, which sometimes were so low 
as to be very inconvenient. After two hours 
smart ride, the country again opened ; and we 
passed several plantations of sugar-cane, man- 
diock, &c. with pieces of ground partly cleared, 
and numberless other spots capable of being 
converted into fine land, either for pasture or 
tillage. The scene now changed to a range of 
low hills, lying e. and zo. in the direction of the 
river, to which the land gradually descended ; 
but on the opposite bank it rose precipitately to 
a high cliff, covered with never-fading verdure. 
Riding parallel to these hills, about one o clock 
we arrived at the plantation and ingenio of Jaoa 
Furtado. Here we alighted, expecting better 
accommodation than we might meet with at the 
Villa Verde, a little further ; which, being an 
extreme settlement, is inhabited only by the vicar 
(a missionary), three whites, and a few converted 
Indians. 

" Our host was an old bachelor of 70, who re 
sided with a maiden sister, of nearly the same 
age. The old man \nd me he was born near the 
spot ; that his life had been a series of industry ; 
and the ingenio, building, furniture, &c. were 
almost entirely the work of his own hands. I 
found him very conversant in the natural history 
of the country around him, particularly in 
ornithology ; and I was sorry our momentary stay 
enabled me not to obtain more information. 

" The word ingenio is the Portuguese distinc 
tion of those who have a sugar-work, here very 
simple, consisting of three rollers of ponderous 
wood, two feet in diameter, and three in length, 
working horizontally in a frame : the upper part 
of the centre roller joins a square beam that 
ascends through the frame-work, and to which 
are affixed cross pieces, sufficiently low for the 
harness of two horses, that move the whole. The 
side-rollers work by cogs from the centre one. 
Underneath this machine is a long trough, slant 
ed, that receives the juice of the cane as pressed 
out by the rollers. The juice is then conveyed 
to a shallow boiler, of six feet in diameter, and 
skimmed from all impurities : after cooling in] 



208 



PORTO-SEGURO. 



[another vessel, they add an alkali of wood ashes, 
suffer it to stand some days, pour off the pure 
liquor, convey it to the same boiler, and evapo 
rate till the sugar is formed, the settlings, &c. 
being distilled to a powerful spirit. How widely 
different is this primitive sugar- making, from the 
immense works, machines, and engines, employed 
by our West India planters ! 

" I found the accommodation of the house far 
superior to what I had expected, from the gene 
ral poverty of Porto Seguro, and, in fact, the 
best I met with in this part of Brazil : our wel 
come was free, provision well cooked (for the 
country), and tolerably clean. We dined on the 
ground, mats being first laid, and a clean cloth 
spread over them. There was plenty of earthen 
ware (a rarity here), silver spoons, and knives 
and forks hafted with the same metal. At night, 
the bedding was decent and comfortable. 

" The next morning I arose with the sun, and 
was charmed with the country surrounding the 
plantation. The house itself was encircled with 
bannanas, cotton shrubs, cocoas, and orange 
trees : diverging from them, inclosures of canes, 
mandiock, &c. To the westward lay a large 
tract of herbage, reserved for grazing, irregularly 
fenced Avith native woods. On its descent to the 
river, the ground, unequal, formed some beau 
tiful hollows, patched with groups of trees, which, 
with the stream itself, and cattle on its banks, 
pictured the most delightful scene. 

" As I skirted the woods, I saw birds of the 
most brilliant plumage, one nearly the size of a 
turkey. Of these the moutou was particularly 
rich, of a deep blue, nearly approaching black, 
with a head and eye strikingly beautiful. Tou 
cans were numerous, and many others elegant 
indeed. Marmozets, both of the grey and silver 
lion colour, were in every bush ; but their pierc 
ing shriek is disagreeable, and, if near you, pe 
netrates to the very brain. I fancied I heard the 
distant growl of ounces, which are numerous, 
and fatal in their ravages, forming, with snakes, 
the chief scourge of the planters. 

" After dinner we began our return by the 
same route, passing several scattered plantations, 
situate near the river, for the better transporting 
their products to Porto Seguro, &c. The whole 
land besides (extending both ways to the next 
sea-ports) is entirely neglected, although finely 
watered with small streams in every part, where 
the cane, cotton, and mandiock, would grow 
with scarcely any labour, as well as the immense 
variety of other tropical produce : in short, where 
nature spontaneously offers her gifts, and invites 



the hand of man. But this beautiful country, 
one of the finest in the world, is entirely lost 
through want of inhabitants, of cultivation, and 
of industry ; mines of wealth being buried, far 
exceeding all their mineral or metallic ores. 

" Absorbed in these reflections, I rode along, 
our party returning very silent, probably cha 
grined at their want of success in discovering the 
presumptuous vassal who had dared to touch or 
think of so prohibited an article as gold ; but 
though the bird was flown, his rich nest remain 
ed. They found out the stream on whose margin 
the gold had been discovered. Guards were di 
rectly appointed over it, and all approach to its 
banks interdicted, in the dread name of her most 
faithful majesty ; while a further sample was 
taken for accurate inspection and assay on the 
arrival of the commission at Bahia." 

On Mr. Lindley s arrival at Porto Seguro, some 
of the inhabitants, who were officiously prying 
into every corner of his vessel, observing a me 
dicine chest, immediately concluded that he be 
longed to the medical profession. This mistake 
being disseminated through the city and its neigh 
bourhood, he was immediately beset with pati 
ents of every description ; some imploring his 
assistance por amor de Deos, and others entreat 
ing him in the name of Nossa Senhora Maria to 
cure their maladies. 

Many instances are recorded by this writer of 
the ignorance of the inhabitants in the city and 
neighbourhood of Porto Seguro, as well as of 
their extreme filthiness, indelicacy, and indo 
lence. The shocking custom of searching each 
others heads for vermin, which is only practised 
by the lowest vulgar in Spain and Portugal, here 
prevails among all ranks of the community ; nor 
does the presence of strangers prove any hinder- 
ance to this disgusting operation. 

To a certain cutaneous distemper (psora), here 
termed sarna, which is regarded as an opprobrium 
by the natives of other countries, no idea of 
shame or disgrace is attached in Brazil. It is 
common to hear even ladies complain of it with 
out a blush; nor, so far as we have been inform 
ed, is its cure ever attempted in this country. 
This disorder often terminates in a scaly leprosy, 
particularly on the stomachs of the men, who 
are provided with openings in the sides of their 
shirts, for the purpose of scratching, which they 
do without the least hesitation, whatever company 
may be present.] 

PORTO-SEGURO, the capital of the above pro 
vince, of the same name, on the sea-coast, and on 
the shore of a great port ; thus called by Pedro Al- 



FOR 



FOR 



20,0 



varez Cabral, when he discovered and found it 
secure from tempests. It has, besides the parish 
church, which is very good, with the dedicatory 
title of Nuestra Senora de la Pena, the churches 
of San Sebastian, La Misericordia, Nuestra Senora 
del Rosario, and an house of entertainment of the 
Jesuits. It is situate on an eminence, and de 
fended with good fortifications, and a castle 
well furnished, in which the governor resides. 
The town is small, but handsome, rich, com 
mercial, and well peopled. Amongst the inha 
bitants are some noble and distinguished Portu 
guese families. Its climate is hot, but healthy. It 
is 92 miles s. of S. Jorge, and 286 n. n. e, of lEspi- 
rito Santo, in lat. 16 7 s. and long. 39 37 w. 

PORTO-SEGURO, a river of this province, which 
is also called Seringham. It rises in the mountain 
of Frio, runs e. and enters the sea. 

[PORT PENN, a town of Newcastle County, 
Delaware, on the w. shore of Delaware River, 
and separated from Reedy Island on the e. by a 
narrow channel. It contains about 30 or 40 
houses, and lies 50 miles below Philadelphia. 
See PENN and REEDY ISLAND.] 

PORTQUESIN. a river of the province and 
colonv of Pennsylvania in N. America. 

PORT -ROYAL, a city of the island of Ja 
maica, formerly the capital ; situate on the ex 
tremity of a long strip of land, which, running 
into the sea, forms part of the circumference of 
a beautiful port, which gives it its name, where 
1000 vessels may lie at anchor in complete secu 
rity. The quay also is such, that vessels of the 
largest size can come close up, and can lade and 
unlade with the greatest convenience. Indeed, this 
was esteemed of such importance by the inhabi 
tants, that they made this the capital of the 
island, although the soil is dry and sandy, pro 
ducing nothing, and even in want of fresh water. 
From the aforesaid advantages, however, it had 
been the constant rendezvous of pirates, who by 
their riches had made it a place of great consi 
deration. 

It contained 2000 houses of beautiful struc 
ture, the water-conveyances of which were as 
costly as those of London, and at the time of its 
achme there were few cities in the world which 
could vie with it in commerce, riches, and vicious 
habits. Thus it remained till 1692, when a ter 
rible earthquake caused it to be overwhelmed by 
the water. It was again rebuilt, but, after stand 
ing 10 years, was burnt to ashes. Notwithstand- 

B O / 7 

ing this second catastrophe, the advantageous 
situation of the port was such as to induce its 
rebuilding for the third time : but, in 1722, a 

VOL. IV. 



hurricane, the strongest that ever was known? 
reduced it to a heap of ruins ; when, being as it 
were sensible that the wrath of heaven had 
marked out this devoted city to destruction, an 
act was passed by the assembly, decreeing the 
removal of the custom-house and other public 
buildings ; forbidding any fair to be carried on 
here in future. The bay of Kingston was then 
the great rendezvous of merchants ; for it is very 
deep, and affords accommodation for careening, 
and, accordingly, the vessels lie in it in the time 
of peace ; though, in the time of war with Spain, 
at the Point of Negrillo, to the n. of the island. 
At the extremity of the long strip of land is 
situate Fort Carlos, with 126 cannon, which de 
fend the entrance of the bay. Puerto Real is at 
present reduced to only three streets, which may 
contain 200 houses. It is 10 miles from the city 
of Spanish Town, [in lat. 18 n. long. 76 45 a> ] 

[PORT-ROYAL, an island on the coast of S. 
Carolina, is separated from the main land on the 
w. by Broad River. It consists of about 1000 
acres of excellent land ; and on it stands the town 
of Beaufort. It has an excellent harbour, suffi 
cient to contain the largest fleet in the world. It 
is 24 miles n. e. \ e. of Tybee Light-house, at 
the mouth of Savannah River. Lat. 32 30 n. 
Long. 80 50 w. At Port Royal Entrance it is 
higher water at full and change a quarter past 
eight o clock.] 

[PORT-ROYAL, in Nova Scotia. See ANNA 
POLIS ROYAL.] 

[PORT-ROYAL, a post-town of Virginia, seat 
ed on the s. bank of Rappahannock River, in 
Caroline County. It is laid out on a regular 
plan, and contains about 200 houses, which make 
a handsome appearance, being built of brick. 
Here are three churches, viz. for Episcopalians, 
Presbyterians, and Methodists. It is 16 miles 
5. e. of Fredericksburg, and 47 above Urbanna. 
Lat. 38 13 n. Long. 77 17 X w.l 

[PoRT-RoYAL, a town and harbour in the 
island of Martinico, in the W. Indies ; which, 
with St. Peter s, are the chief places of the island. 
Lat. 14 35 n. Long. 61 8 w.~] 

[PoRT-RoYAL, in the Island of Otaheite. See 
MATAVIA.] 

[PORT-ROYAL, an inland and harbour in the 
s. w. part of the Gulf of Mexico, at the bottom 
of the Bay of Carnpeachy. The harbour is 18 
leagues s. w. by s. of Champetan ; and the island 
three miles long and one broad, lies w. of the 
harbour.] 

PORT-ROYAL, a river in S. Carolina, 15 miles 
of the Mayo, having 17 feet of water at its en- 
E E 



210 



trance at the bar at ebb tide. It forms a large, 
convenient, and secure bay for ships, and runs 
through a territory which is fertile and delight 
ful, and the best in the province. At its mouth 
is a small island of its name. 

[PORT ST. JOHN, a small town in the pro 
vince of Nicaragua, in New Spain, at the mouth 
of a river on the N. Pacific Ocean. The harbour 
is safe and capacious, 85 miles to the s. e. of the 
City of Leon. Lat. 11 25 n. Long. 85 45 a>.] 

[PORTSMOUTH, the metropolis of New 
Hampshire, and the largest town in the State, 
and its only sea-port, is situate about two miles 
from the sea, on the s. side of Piscataqua River. 
It is the shire town of Rockingham County, and 
its harbour is one of the finest on the continent, 
having a sufficient depth of water for vessels of 
any burden. It is defended against storms by 
the adjacent land, in such a manner, as that ships 
may securely ride there in any season of the 
year ; nor is it ever frozen, by reason of the 
strength of the current, and narrowness of the 
channel. Besides, the harbour is so well forti 
fied by nature, that very little art will be neces 
sary to render it impregnable. Its vicinity to the 
sea renders it very convenient for naval trade. 
A light-house, with a single light, stands on 
Newcastle Island, at the entrance of the har 
bour, in lat. 43 3 n. and long. 70 41 w. Ships 
of war have been built here; among others, the 
America, of 74 guns, launched November, 1782, 
and presented to the King of France, by the Con 
gress of the United States. Portsmouth contains 
about 640 dwelling houses, and nearly as 
many other buildings, besides those for public 
use, Avhich are three Congregational churches, 
one Episcopal church, one for Universalists, a 
State-house, a market-house, four school-houses, 
a workhouse, and a bank. The exports for one 
year, ending September 30, 1794, amounted to 
the value of 153,865 dollars. A settlement was 
begun here in 1623, by Captain Mason and other 
merchants, among whom Sir F. Gorges had a 
share. They designed to carry on the fishery, 
to make salt, trade with the natives, and prepare 
lumber. As agriculture was only a secondary 
object, the settlement failed. The town was in 
corporated in 1633. It is eight miles s. w. of 
York, in the district of Maine, 18 n. of Newbury 
Port, 47 n. n.-e. of Boston, and 275 n. e. by n. of 
Philadelphia.] 

[PORTSMOUTH, a township of good land on the 
n. end of Rhode Island, Newport County, con 
taining 1560 inhabitants, including seventeen 
slaves j on the road from Newport to Bristol.] 



P O S 

[PORTSMOUTH, a small sea-port town of K. 
Carolina, in Carteret County, on the N. end of 
Core Bank, near Ocrecock Inlet. Its chief inha* 
bitants are fishermen and pilots.] 

[PORTSMOUTH, a pleasant, flourishing, and 
-regularly built town in Norfolk County, Virgi 
nia; situate on the w. side of Elizabeth River, 
opposite to and a mile distant from Norfolk ; 
both which constitute but one port of entry. It 
contains about 300 houses, and 1702 inhabitants, 
including 616 slaves. It is 67 miles e. by s. of 
Petersburg. See NORFOLK. 

[PORTSMOUTH, a town on the n. w. side of the 
Island of Dominica, in the W. Indies ; situate 
on Prince Rupert s Bay, between the salt-works 
arid the coast.] 

[PORT TOBACCO, a post-town of Mary 
land, and capital of Charles County, situate 
a little above the confluence of two small streams 
which form the creek of its name, which empties 
through the n. bank of the Patowmac, at Tho 
mas s Point, about four miles below the town. It 
contains about 80 houses, and a large Episcopal 
church, not in good repair, and a warehouse for 
the inspection of tobacco. In the vicinity are the 
celebrated cold waters of Mount Misery. It is 
37 miles s. w. of Annapolis, nine from Allen s 
Fresh-, and 49 s. s. w. of Baltimore.] 

PORTUGAL, Point of, in the Island of Tor- 
tuga, opposite St. Domingo. [See TORTUE.] 

PORTUGALETE, a settlement of the pro 
vince and government of Cumana, on the coast. 

PORTUGUESA, an abundant river of the 
province and government of Venzuela in the 
Nuevo Reynro de Granada. It rises in the pa 
ramo of La Rosa, to the n. of the city of Trux- 
illo, runs in the form of an S, and, collecting 
the waters of many others, enters with a large 
stream into the A pure. 

[PORTUGUESE AMERICA, or BRAZIL, lies 
between lat. 4 n. 33 s. and between long. 35 
and 73 w. On the coast are three small islands, 
where ships touch for provisions on their voyage 
to the S. Seas, viz. Fernando, St. Barbaro, and 
St. Catherines. See BRAZIL. Since the disco 
very of the mines of Brazil, that is, within the 
last 70 or 80 years, Portugal has drawn from 
Brazil 2400 million of livres, or 100 millions of 
pounds sterling. Besides these large sums of 
money, she receives from Brazil large quantities 
of cocoa, sugar, rice, train-oil, whale-bone, cof 
fee, and medicinal drugs.] 

POSSESSION Bay, on the n. coast of the 
Straits of Magellan : thus called as having been 
one of those places on which Pedro Sarmiento 



POT 



POT 



211 



took possession of that territory. It is just within 
the entrance of the strait. In one of the capes 
forming it, the said Pedro Sarmiento built a for 
tress, called Nombre de Jesus, the ruins of which 
are still remaining : it was on the coast of this 
bay the Commander Biron saw, in 1765, the pre 
tended Patagonian Giants, of which he speaks 
in his voyage. 

POSSESSION Bay, a port of the S. Sea, in the 
province and government of Nicaragua and king 
dom of Guatemala, on the shore of which is situ 
ate the town of Realejo. 

POS1GUEICA, a large, rich, and populous 
city in the time of the gentilism of the Indians, 
of the province and government of Santa Marta 
and Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It belonged to 
the nation of the Taironas Indians, and was 
plundered and burnt in 1530 by Garcia de Lerma. 
It is at present reduced to a miserable small set 
tlement, bearing the name of San Pedro. 

POSSO, Bay of, on the w. coast of the island St. 
Domingo, of the part possessed by the French, 
between the Port of Principe and the Cayo Icar- 
nier. 

Posso, a small settlement or ward of the alcal- 
dia mayor of Guauchinango in Nueva Espana, 
annexed to the curacy of Pautepec. 

POSTA, a small settlement of the province 
and government of Cumana, situate on the coast, 
on the shore of the river Moroa. 

POT AN, a small settlement of Indians of the 
province of Ostimurie in Nueva Espana, on the 
shore of the river Hiaqui, near its entrance into 
the sea, in the Gulf of California or Mar Roxo 
de Cortes. 

POTAQUISIMO, a river of the province and 
government of the Chiquitos Indians in Peru. 
It rises between the town of San Xavier and that 
of Mato Groso, of the territory of the Portu 
guese, which bears this name. It runs s. s. e. and 
enters the Zumunaca. 

[POTATOE, a bay so named, on the s. coast 
of the island of St. Christopher s Island, in the 
W. Indies.] 

POTEL, a river of the island of Guadaloupe, 
which rises in the mountains, runs w. and enters 
the sea between the Bay of La Barque, and the 
river of Vieux Habitans. 

POTE I INGA, Point of, on the coast of the 
province and captainship of the Rio Grande in 
Brazil. It is between the Point of Martinas and 
the Bay of Smiends. 

POTICHE, a great river of the Island of 
Martinique, one of the Antilles. It rises at the 



foot of the mountain Pelada, runs from s. to n. 
and enters the sea near the settlement of Mo* 
couba. 

POTINCHAN, a settlement of the head set 
tlement of the district of Acantepec and alcaldia 
mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It is of an 
hot temperature, and contains 90 families of In 
dians, who employ themselves in cultivating and 
selling cotton. 

POTO, a large settlement of the province and 
corregimienlo of Carabaya in Peru. It is cele 
brated for the rich gold-mines which are worked 
in its territory, the most famous being that of 
the name of Ananea, two leagues distant from 
the settlement. In this settlement reside the royal 
officers, who receive the royal shares, which are 
a fifth of the metal extracted from the mines. 

POTOSI, a province and government of the 
kingdom of Peru, in the archbishopric of Char- 
cas. It was formerlv a corregimiento, and its ju 
risdiction was bounded by the curacy of Salinas 
with the province of Paria, which is to the n. e. 
the w r hole of the rest of its district being sur 
rounded by the province of Porco. It is a moun 
tainous country, full of ravines and chasms, of a 
very cold temperature, and consequently barren 
in vegetable productions. It is 10 leagues long, 
from e. to w. and seven wide. In its territory 
they breed much sheep-cattle, native sheep, and 
some vicunas. It has many mines of crystalline 
salt ; and it is irrigated by the river Piicomayo, 
into which run many tributary streams. The 
inhabitants amount to 25,000 3 and the capital is 
of the same name. 

[This province joined the new government of 
Buenos Ayres in 1810. . See LA PLATA.] 

POTOSI, this town was founded in 1545, on 
the skirts of the mountain which is also thus 
called, and near a ravine, through which passes 
a stream which irrigates the town. Its popula 
tion was formed by the people who had collected 
for the working of the mine ; [and it amounted 
in 1802 to 30,000 souls.] It has a mint, which 
was established in 1562 ; six convents of religious 
orders, namely, of San Francisco, Santo Do 
mingo, San Augustin, La Merced, and San Juan 
de Dios and Bethlehemites, which are hospitals ; 
two monasteries of religious women, the one of 
Augustines, the other of Carmelites, a college 
which belonged to the Jesuits, and a h