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Full text of "A geographical and historical description of Asia Minor : with a map"

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GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL 



DESCRIPTION 



OF 



ASIA MINOR; 



WITH A MAP. 



BY 



J. A. CRAMER, D.D. 

PRINCIPAL OF NEW INN HALL, AND PUBLIC ORATOR OF THE 
UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 



Nvp S' av 7rappaXlr]S 'Aairjs nopov e^fvenoifii 
*Os pd re npos votov eicriv, e(f) 'EWrjarrovTov oBevav 
Kat TTOTi fiTjKiaTov vortov poov Alyaioio. 

DiONYS. Perieg. v. 799. 



VOL. IL 



OXFORD, 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 
MDCCCXXXII. 



u 



CONTENTS 



OF 



THE SECOND VOLUME. 



SECTION VII. 

PHRYGIA AND LYCAONIA. 

Migrations and history of the Phrygians— Different 
parts of Asia Minor to which the name of Phrygia has 
been apphed — Greater Phrygia, its boundaries and divi- 
sions — Topography — Lycaonia — Sketch of its history — 
Description. Page 1. 

SECTION VIII. 

GALATIA. 

Account of the migration of the Gauls into Asia, and their 
occupation of a large portion of ancient Phrygia — Their 
division into Tectosages, ToUstoboii, and Trocmi — Con- 
quest of Galatia by the Romans — Conversion to Chris- 
tianity — Description of the province, 79. 

SECTION IX. 

CAPPADOCIA AND ARMENIA MINOR. 

Origin of the Leucosyri or Cappadocians — Sketch of their 
history under the Assyrian, Median, and Persian em- 
pires — Cappadocian dynasty — Roman province of Cap- 
padocia — Its boundaries and geographical features — De- 
scription — Armenia Minor— Its several districts and 
topography. 105. 



iv CONTENTS. 

SECTION X. 
CARIA. 

Origin and early history of the Carians — Princes of Caria — 
Brief sketch of the principal events in the annals of the 
country, from its first conquest by Croesus to its becom- 
ing a part of the Roman empire — Boundaries and geogra- 
phy of the province — Dorian colonies, and other towns 
on the coast — Interior — Islands of Cos and Rhodes. 163. 

SECTION XI. 

LYCIA. 

Origin and history of the Lycians — Boundaries and mari- 
time topography — Interior — Milyas and Cabalia, districts 
of the ancient Solymi — Cibyra. 240. 

SECTION XII. 

PAMPHYIJA AND PISIDIA. 

Origin of the Pamphylians — Description of their coast and 

towns — Pisidia — Account of its inhabitants — Boundaries 

and geographical features of the country — Topography. 

273. 
SECTION XIII. 

CILICIA. 

Origin and history of the Cilicians — Boundaries and divi- 
sion of the province into Trachea or Aspera, and Cam- 
pestris — Chain of Taurus and mountain passes — Topo- 
graphy. 315. 
SECTION XIV. 

CYPRUS. 

Origin of its inhal)itants— Sketch of its history from the 
earliest period to the fall of the eastern empire — Natural 
liistory, productions and principal geographical features 
of the island— Pcripl us of the coast— Interior. 366. 



SECTION VII. 

PHRYGIA AND LYCAONTA. 



Migrations and history of the Phrygians — Different parts of Asia 
Minor to which the name of Phrygia has been applied — 
Greater Phrygia, its boundaries and divisions — Topography — 
Lycaonia — Sketch of its history — Description. 

Herodotus relates that Psamniitichus, king of 
Egypt, having made an experiment to discover 
vi^hich was the most ancient nation of the world, 
ascertained that the Phrygians surpassed all other 
people in priority of existence. (II. 2.) The story 
itself is childishly absurd ; but the fact that the 
Egyptians allowed the highest degree of antiquity 
to this nation is important, and deserves attention. 
What the Greeks knew of the origin of the Phry- 
gians does not accord, however, with the Egyptian 
hypothesis. Herodotus has elsewhere reported that 
they originally came from Macedonia, where they 
lived under the name of Briges, and that when they 
crossed over into Asia this was changed to Phryges. 
(VII. 73.) This account has been generally followed 
by subsequent writers, especially Strabo, (VII. p. 
295.) who appears to quote Xanthus and Mene- 
crates of Elaea, Artemidorus, and other writers, who 
made the origin of nations and cities the object of 
their inquiries. (XII. p. 572. XIV. p. 680. Cf. Plin. 

/,' VOL. II. B 



2 PHRYGIA AND LYCAONIA. 

V. 32. Steph. Byz. v. Bp/yesr.) It is certain indeed 
that there was a people named Briges, or Bryges, 
of Thraeian origin, living in Macedonia at the 
time that Herodotus was writing ; (VI. 45. VII. 
185.) and tradition had long fixed the abode of the 
Phrygian Midas, who was no doubt a chief of this 
people, near mount Bermius in Macedonia. (Herod. 
VIII. 138. Cf. Nicand. ap. Athen. XV. p. 683. Bion. 
ap. eund. II. p. 45.) Again, the strong affinity which 
was allowed to exist between the Phrygians, Ly- 
dians, Carians, and Mysians, who were all supposed 
to have crossed from Thrace into Asia Minor, serves 
to corroborate the hypothesis which regards the 
Phrygian migration in particular'': but whilst there 
seems no reasonable doubt of the Thraeian origin of 
this people, it is not so easy to establish the period 
at which they settled themselves in Asia. Xanthus 
is represented by Strabo as fixing their arrival in 
that country somewhat after the Trojan war ; (XIV. 
p. 680.) but the geographer justly observes, that, 
according to Homer, the Phrygians were already 
settled on the banks of the Sangarius before that 
era, and were engaged in a war with the Amazons ; 
(II. r. 187.) and if mythological accounts are to have 



^ Brig, or Briga, a word liis and Pelops, Atys and Cotys, 

allowed on all hands to be Cel- which again are Thraeian. It 

tic, is reported by .Tuba (ap. is not improbable also that the 

Hesych. v. Bpiye^) to have been Bebryces, {Rt^pvKti,) who are 

used by the Lydians in the sense spoken of in the poets as the 

of a " free man." The name of aboriginal inhabitants of Bi- 

Midas seems also to have been thynia, were the same as the 

common to the Lydians, since Bryges. The name of the Be- 

Midas, according to some ac- recyntii, an ancient Phrygian 

counts, was the husband of tribe, may be only another form 

Omphale. (Clearch. ap. Athen. for Brigantii. 
XII. p. 51C.) So also Tanta- 



PHRYGIA AND LYCAONIA. 3 

any weight, the existence of a Midas in Asia Minor, 
long before the period alhided to, would prove that 
there had been a Phrygian migration in times to 
which authentic history does not extend. (Cf. Conon. 
Narrat. ap. Phot. Cod. 186.) 

Great as was the ascendency of the Thracian 
stock, produced by so many tribes of that vast fa- 
mily pouring in at various times, there must have 
entered into the composition of the Phrygian nation 
some other elements besides the one which formed 
its leading feature. I have already stated in the 
introductory section, as well as in the one imme- 
diately preceding this, my belief that the Thracian 
Bryges found the country, which from them took 
the name of Phrygia, occupied by some earlier pos- 
sessors, but who were too weak to resist their in- 
vaders. What name this people bore cannot now 
be ascertained, but there can be little doubt that it 
was of Asiatic origin : probably they were Leuco- 
Syrians, or Cappadocians. At the time that Hero- 
dotus wrote, the Halys was the boundary of those 
nations which appeared to claim a European de- 
scent, and those which owned Asia for their mother- 
country. The Phrygians, who were on the left 
bank of the river, were the last of the Europeans in 
point of situation, but in order of time I conceive 
they were first, as the direction of the stream of 
migration, setting in from the Thracian Bosphorus, 
was from west to east. Herodotus, however, has 
stated a circumstance which, if true, must be allowed 
to overthrow what I am seeking to establish respect- 
ing the current of migration. In the muster he 
makes of Xerxes' myriads, he states that the Phry- 

B 2 



4 PHRYGIA AND LYCAONIA. 

gians and Armenians were armed alike ; the latter 
being, as he observes, colonists of the former. (VII. 

Herodotus is, I conceive, quite singular in this 
statement, which is moreover at variance with all 
received notions on the subject. The Armenians 
are a people of the highest antiquity, and we must 
not seek for their primitive stock beyond the upper 
valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates : in other words, 
they are a purely Asiatic people ; and if there ex- 
isted any resemblance between them and the Phry- 
gians, I should account for it rather by supposing 
that the latter were not altogether Europeans, but 
mingled with an indigenous breed of Asia, whose 
stock was also common to the Armenians. The 
greater part of the Phrygian superstitions, those 
especially which related to the worship of Cybele, 
or Rhea, and the Corybantes, were supposed by 
Strabo, who has entered largely into the account of 
those mysteries, to have been imported from Thrace, 
with whose religious rites they exhibited a striking 
similarity. (X. p. 466 — 474.'^) On the other hand, 
there are traces of a mythology which is certainly 
Asiatic. The worship of Sabazius, or Bacchus, 
which became mixed up with the mystic ceremonies 
of Rhea and Dindymene, is confessedly of that cha- 
racter. Again, that of Men, or Menes, which an- 
swers to Lunus in Latin, and which was so widely 

^ 'Apuevioi he Kcnd ire/j ^firya^ pour servir ;i I'histoire de la Re- 

€(j€<Td.y/ji.Tj, ioi/Tfi; <l>pvyZv anoiKot. ligion secrete. Dupuis, Origine 

c Cf. Heyn. Relig. et Sacr. de tous les Cultes, torn. II. b. 

cum furor, peract. Orig. Com- 2. p. 60. Freret, Rech. surles 

ment. Soc. R. Gotting. torn. Cabires, Acad, des Inscr. et B. 

VIII. p. 1. Ste Croix Mom. Lett. torn. XXVII. p. 10. 



PHRYGIA AND LYCAONIA. 5 

spread throughout Cappadocia, Phrygia, and the 
contiguous provinces, is certainly derived from Sy- 
ria, or Armenia. 

The Greeks concerned themselves but little about 
the real origin of nations, or received without dis- 
crimination such traditions as reached them on this 
head. In many cases their national vanity led them 
to assign to people, however distant or barbarous, a 
Greek consanguinity, founded solely on a mere ap- 
proximation of names, and divested of all historical 
evidence, and even probability. We are not to ex- 
pect therefore from them any philosophical investi- 
gation of the question which is here considered. 
They regarded the Phrygians as one only among 
the barbarous tribes which occupied Asia Minor 
under the dominion of the great king, and their lan- 
guage was too rude and uncouth for them to bestow 
much pains on analyzing its origin and structure ; 
and yet this, I conceive, is the only method by which 
we could ascertain at all satisfactorily the elements 
of their population. At a later period, when Asia 
Minor had been overspread, as it were, with Greek 
colonies, and some barbarous words had, by a natu- 
ral consequence of these relations, been rendered fa- 
miliar to Grecian ears, we find among others some 
Phrygian terms preserved by the lexicographers ; 
but they are too scanty to furnish a basis of in- 
quiry '\ without some further aid ; which, consider- 
ing the remote period to which it must ascend, is 
hardly to be expected ^. 

d These have been collected torn. III. Leyd. 1809. 

by Professor Jablonsky, in his e jhe remarkable Inscrip- 

Disquisitio de Lingua Lacao- tions, copied by Col. Leake, on 

nica, among his Opusc. Acad., the tombs of the kings of Phry- 

B 3 



6 



PHRYGIA AND LYCAONIA. 



We must also keep in mind the constant changes 
which were taking place almost daily in the popula- 
tion of the peninsula, both before and after the siege 
of Troy ; a circumstance which renders it impos- 
sible that any one language should have flourished 
above the rest, where all were exposed to the same 
vicissitudes and migrations^. As the Phrygians ap- 
pear to have occupied Asia Minor at an earlier pe- 
riod, and to have been more widely diffused than 
the other tribes, whose origin is referred to Thrace, 
their dialect would probably be more worthy of in- 
vestigation than the rest ; but as it does not appear 
ever to have been a cultivated language, the specu- 
lation, however it may amuse the antiquary, could 
scarcely be expected to confer much advantage either 
on literature or science. The political history of the 
Phrygians is neither so brilliant nor interesting as 
that of their neighbours the Lydians. What we 
gather respecting them from ancient writers is, ge- 
nerally, that they crossed over from Europe into 
Asia under the conduct of their leader Midas, nearly 
a hundred years before the Trojan war. (Conon. ap. 
Phot. Cod. 186.) That they settled first on the 
shores of the Hellespont and around mount Ida, 



gia, (Asia Minor, p. 23,) are 
certainly in Archaic Greek ; and 
it is extremely probable that 
the language of the Bryges, im- 
ported from Thrace or Mace- 
donia, was what might perhaps 
be called a dialect of the old I*e- 
lasgic tongue ; but this must 
liave been mixed up in process 
of time with the more ancient 
remnants of Asiatic languages, 
so as to make a barbarous 
tongue, which would not be in- 



telligible to Greeks of the age 
of Xenophon and Plato. 

f We know from Strabo that 
several Phrygian tribes had dis- 
appeared long before his time : 
the same might be said of the 
Lydians and Mysians. The 
Chalybes, too, had shifted their 
iibode in a surprising way, so 
that Ephorus, and other re- 
spectable authors, hardly knew 
where to place them. (Strab. 
XIV. p. 678.) 



PHRYGIA AND LYCAONIA. 7 

whence they gradually extended themselves to the 
shores of the Ascanian lake and the valley of the 
Sangarius. It is probable that the Doliones, Myg- 
dones, and Bebryces, who held originally the coasts 
of Mysia and Bithynia, were Phrygians. The Myg- 
dones were contiguous to the Bryges in Macedonian 
Thrace, and they are often classed with the Phry- 
gians by the poets. (Cf. Strab. XII. p. 575.) Driven 
afterwards from the Hellespont and the coast of the 
Propontis by the Teucri, Mysi, and Bithyni, the 
Phrygians took up a more central position in what 
may be called the great bason of Asia Minor. Still 
preserving the line of the Sangarius, they occupied 
to the south-west of that great river the upper val- 
leys of the Macestus and Rhyndacus, towards the 
Mysian Olympus, and those of the Hermus and 
Hyllus on the side of Lydia. On the west they 
ranged along Catacecaumene and ancient Maeonia, 
till they reached the Meander. The head of that 
river, with its tributary streams, was included within 
their territory. To the south they held the northern 
slope of mount Cadmus, which with its continua- 
tion, a branch of Tavirus, formed their frontier on 
the side of Caria, Milyas, and Pisidia, as far as the 
borders of Cilicia. In this direction are to be found 
the Lycaonians, who, though a distinct and peculiar 
people, will, for the sake of convenience, be included 
within the present section. To the east of the San- 
garius the ancient Phrygians spread along the borders 
of Paphlagonia till they met the great river Halys, 
which divided them from Pontus, and further south, 
from Cappadocia and Isauria. This extensive country 
was very unequal in its climate and fertility. That 
which lay in the plains and valleys, watered by ri- 

B 4 



8 PHRYGIA AND LYCAONIA. 

vers, exceeded in richness and beauty almost every 
other part of the peninsula ; (Herod. V. 49.) but 
many a tract was rendered bleak and desolate by vast 
ranges of mountains, or uninhabitable from exten- 
sive lakes and fens impregnated with salt, or scorch- 
ing deserts destitute of trees and vegetation. The 
Phrygians appear at first to have been under the do- 
minion of kings, but whether these were absolute 
over the whole country, or each was the chief of a 
petty canton, is not certain. I should rather ima- 
gine the latter to have been the case, since we hear 
of Midseum and Gordium, near the Sangarius, as 
royal towns, corresponding with the well known 
names of Midas and Gordius ; (Strab. XII. p. 568.) 
and again, Celaense, seated in a very opposite direc- 
tion, near the source of the Meander, appears to 
have been the chief city of a Phrygian principality. 
(Athen. X. p. 415.) The first Phrygian prince 
whose actions come within the sphere of authenti- 
cated history, is Midas, the son of Gordius, who, as 
Herodotus relates, was the first barbarian who made 
oiferings to the god of Delphi. He dedicated his 
. throne of justice, the workmanship of which, as the 
historian affirms, was worthy of admiration. (1. 14.) 
At this period the Phrygians were independent, but 
under the reign of Croesus the Lydian we liear of 
their being subject to that sovereign. (I. 28.) His- 
tory has not acquainted us with the particulars of 
this conquest ; but it seems to have cost the Lydians 
but little trouble, and the conqueror was probably 
content with exacting from the Phrygian chief an 
avowal of his inferiority, in the shape of a tribute 
or tax ; for the tragic tale of the Phrygian Adras- 
tus affords evidence that the ancient dynasty of that 



PHRYGIA AND LYCAONIA. 9 

country still held dominion, as the vassals of CrcE- 
sus. (I. 35.) Adrastus is said to have been the son 
of Gordiiis, who was himself the son of Midas. The 
latter was probably the grandson of the Midas who 
dedicated his throne to the shrine of Delphi, and is 
called son of Gordius ; so that we have a regular 
alternation of monarchs bearing those two names 
from father to son, for seven generations s. The 
first Gordius is probably the one who is indebted 
for a place in history to the puzzle which he in- 
vented ; but which, if it had not fallen into the way 
of Alexander, would probably never have given rise 
to the proverbial expression of " the Gordian knot." 
(Arrian. Exjd. Alex. II. 3.) According to Arrian's 
account, Gordius himself was a man of humble birth 
and means, but Midas, his son, was created king in 
compliance with an oracle. After the overthrow of 
the Lydian monarchy by Cyrus, Phrygia was an- 
nexed to the Persian empire, and under the division 
made by Darius formed part of the Hellespontine 
or Bithynian satrapy. (Herod. III. 91-) In the par- 
tition of Alexander's dominion, it fell at first into 
the hands of Antigonus, then of the Seleucidae, and 
after the defeat of Antiochus was ceded to Eumenes, 
king of Pergamum, but finally reverted to the Ro- 
mans. (Polyb. XXII. 27. 10. Liv. XXXVII. 56.) 
At that time Phrygia had sustained a considerable 
diminution of territorial extent, owing to the migra- 
tion of a large body of Gauls into Asia, where they 
settled in the very centre of the province ; and hav- 
ing succeeded in appropriating to themselves a con- 
siderable tract of country, formed a new province 

g These two names are so to have been appellatives, rather 
common that they would seem than proper names. 



10 PHRYGIA AND LYCAONIA. 

and people, named Galatia and Galatse, or Gallo- 
grseci. 

The Phrygians are generally stigmatized by the 
ancients as a slavish nation, destitute of courage or 
energy, and possessing but little skill in any thing 
save music and dancing. (Athen. I. p. 27. Virg. .^n. 
XII. 99. Eur. Ale. 678. Or. 1447. Athen. XIV. p. 

624—629.) 

Phrygia, considered with respect to the territory 
once occupied by the people from whom it obtained 
its appellation, was divided into the Great and Less. 
The latter, which was also called the Hellespontine 
Phrygia, still retained that name, even when the 
Phrygians had long retired from that part of Asia 
Minor to make way for the Mysians, Teucrians, 
and Dardanians ; and it would be hazardous to pro- 
nounce how much of what has been included under 
Mysia and Troas belonged to what was evidently 
only a political division. (Strab. XII. p. 563, 571. 
Arrian. Exp. Alex. 1. 13. Diod. Sic. XVIII. 3. Po- 
lyb. Exc. Legat. XXII. 27. 10.) 

The present section will be devoted to the consi- 
deration of the Greater Phrygia, such as we find it 
defined by the authors above cited, and according to 
the limits we have laid down in tracing the progress 
of tlie Phrygian settlements throughout the penin- 
sula. Following Strabo as our guide, we shall make 
a threefold division of this part of our subject, name- 
ly, into Phrygia Epictetus, Major, properly so called, 
and Parorius. It will be riglit to mention, that 
besides this ancient classification, we find in the 
Lower Empire the province divided into Phrygia 
Pacatianii, and Phrygia Salutaris. 



PHRYGIA EPICTETUS. 11 



PHRYGIA EPICTETUS. 

The name of Epictetus, or " the Acquired," was 
given to that portion of the province which was an- 
nexed by the Romans to the kingdom of Pergamum. 
It would appear from Strabo that the Attalic princes 
were themselves the authors of that appellation ; 
(XII. p. 563.) and it is also evident from his ac- 
count that it included not only some districts of the 
Hellespontine, but others also which must have be- 
longed to the Greater Phrygia. (XII. p. 571.) It 
would be vain to attempt any accuracy of demarca- 
tion, when this geographer has himself apologized 
for the imperfection of his divisions. We must 
content ourselves with tracing out those places he 
has assigned to Phrygia Epictetus, and comparing 
his account with such information as may be collect- 
ed from modern travellers of the actual state of this 
part of Asia Minor. This district was obtained jn-in- 
cipally from the territories of Prusias, king of Bithy- 
nia, (Strab. XII. p. 563.) consequently we should ex- 
pect to find it lying between the latter province and 
Mysia. And here, in fact, Strabo's description leads 
us. South of the Mysian Olympus, and on the borders 
of Lydia, we find a chain of mountains, which di- 
vides the waters flowing towards the Propontis from 
those which run in a south-westerly direction to the 
^gean. The rivers which have their termination 
in the Propontis have been already spoken of under 
the names of Macestus and Rhyndacus in the sec- 
tion which treated of Mysia. But Strabo has taught 
us to look upon their sources as belonging to Phry- 
gia. The Macestus he reports to flow from Abbai- '^j'^'f^^^ 



12 



PHRYGIA EPICTETUS. 



tis, (XII. p. 576.^) a district apparently belonging 
to the Mysians. For the coins with the inscription 

Ancyra. ABBArmN MTIQN, Can, I think, only be referred 
to that canton. The principal town of this people 
was Ancyra, situated at the head of the Macestus, 
and which Strabo elsewhere assigns to Phrygia, and 
places in the vicinity of Blaundus, a town of Lydia. 
(XII. p. 567. Cf. Ptol. p. 120. Plin. V. 32.) As no 
traveller has visited the upper valley of the Soiisou- 
gherli, which represents the Macestus, it is impos- 
sible to identify the position of Ancyra with any 
modern site. The Notitise class this town among 
the sees of Phrygia Pacatiana. (Hierocl. p. 668.') 
From some ecclesiastical documents adduced by Wes- 
seling, it appears that Ancyra was united to the see 

Synnaus. of Synnaus, which consequently cannot have been 
far removed from thence : and, accordingly, we find 
that town named by Hierocles immediately after 
Ancyra. It is also noticed by Ptolemy and the 
ecclesiastical historians. (Socrat. VII. 3. Nicephor. 
XIV. 11.) This place was probably seated between 
the sources of the Macestus and Rhyndacus, and 
not far from S'lmaul on Major Keppel's routers 
Strabo places near the head of the Rhyndacus, which 



•1 In the text of Strabo the 
name is written 'ASaaiTji:, and 
elsewhere the geographer speaks 
of the Ablites Mysi to the east 
of Pergamus, who are doubtless 
the same people. In both cases 
we ought to read 'A,.S(3afT«; and 
' ASi^dtrtt;, as may be seen from 
the coins, and an inscription 
found in the country by jMajOr 
Kepj)el. Travels, tom. II. p, 
244. 'O A-V*? MvaZv 'A^I3cceL 
Tuv. Sestini is therefore mis- 



taken in assigning these coins 
to Aba of Caria. 

i There are coins of Ancyra, 
but it is not easy to distinguish 
them from those of Ancyra in 
Galatia : the epigraph is AP- 
KTPANON. Sestini. p. 117. 

k Tom. ii. p. 2()(», It is to 
be regretted that this traveller 
did not explore the course of 
the Macestus, as well as those 
of the Rhyndacus and Hvllus. 



PHRYGIA EPICTETUS. 13 

flowed to the east of the Macestiis, the Phrygian 
city of Azani, or Aizani, which is also noticed by /Ezani, 
several writers. (Strab. XII. p. 576.) Herodian the 
grammarian, cited by Steph. Byz. (v. 'A^avoi) affirmed 
that it had been fonnded by M^zqw, the son of Tan- 
tains, and wrote the name consequently iEzani, 
kl'i^avo), which, from the inscriptions discovered re- 
cently as well as the coins of the town, appears to 
be the more usual orthography '. Hermogenes, who 
is also cited by Stephanus, accounted for the origin 
of the word very differently, but his etymology is 
not worthy of being repeated. It might seem, from 
a passage in Pausanias, that the Azani of Phrygia 
were supposed by some to be connected with the 
Arcadian people of the same name. (Arcad. c. 4. 
Phoc. c. 32.) Azani is also noticed by Ptolemy and 
Hierocles : (p. 668.) but the ruins which have re- 
cently been visited and described by Major Keppel, 
give a greater idea of its size and importance than 
we should otherwise have been led to fancy from 
the casual mention of it occurring in ancient autho- 
rities. Major Keppel, travelling south-west of Ku- 
taieh, arrived at " Tjaudere Hissar, a village built 
" entirely of the splendid ruins of the ancient Azani. 
" These ruins," says he, " occupy the banks of a 
" river, which, on my return to Constantinople, I 
" ascertained to be the Rhyndacus. Over this stream 
" are two ancient bridges, raised on elliptical arches ; 
" a superb quay connects these bridges together. 
" On the right bank of the river is the temple. 
" Tracing its north front at about a quarter of a 

1 Tom. II. p. 204. Tlie epi- TfiN, as in a medal of Julius 
graph on the coins is AIZANEI- Caesar, or Augustus. Gest. p. 
TON, and sometimes EZEANI- 116. 



14 PHRYGIA EPICTETUS. 

" mile distant is the theatre, and a little to its north- 
" west angle are the remains of a building con- 
" structed of huge blocks, standing on a low hill." 
These ruins are further detailed by the Major, with 
accompanying plans and sketches furnished by Dr. 
Hall '". The numerous inscriptions found at TJau- 
dere prove beyond a doubt that it represents Azani ; 
they appear, together with the temple, the principal 
building, to be of the reigns of Hadrian and Anto- 
ninus ". From Dr. Hall's account it would aj^pear 
that the Rhyndacus has its source in the mountains 
above Azani °, 
Cade. Proceeding from this town towards the south- 

west, we find a small place named Kedous, or Ghe- 
diz, which has long been conjectured to occupy the 
site of Cadi, a city commonly attributed to Phrygia, 
but reckoned by others within the confines of Mysia. 
(Strab. XH. p. 576. Ptol. p. 119. Steph. Byz. v. 
Ka^oi.) This conjecture has now been fully verified 
by the researches of that enterprising traveller Major 
Keppel, who found its site to agree with the infor- 
mation afforded by Strabo, and observed several re- 
mains of antic^uity. According to his account, G/ie- 
diz " occupies the base and slope of two mountains. 
" It contains 800 houses. The town is celebrated 
" for its scammony, which is abundant. It is watered 
" by a river called the Ghedh-tchai, which name it 
" retains until it disembogues into the Archipelago, 
" a little above Smyrna : this stream I have ascer- 

" This gentleman, then tra- Travels, p. 444. 

veiling under the foundation " Travels, p. 22 1 — 233. 

and bequest of Dr. Radcliffe, « Keppel's Travels, note to 

was the first to discover the site p. 234. 
of Azani. Appendix to Keppels 



PHRYGIA EPICTETUS. 15 

" tained to be the Hermus of ancient history, having 
" travelled along its banks from the source to the 
" whole extent of its course." The antiquities of 
Ghedh consist of capitals of pillars, and marble 
fragments with inscriptions. The principal mosque 
is built of large blocks of stone, which are supposed 
to have belonged formerly to an ancient temple. 
Among the stones of which the bridge is built are 
the fragments of two very fine white marble statues p. 
Cadi is generally supposed to be referred to in 
these verses of Propertius. (IV. 6, 7.) 

Spargite me Ijmphis, caniicnque recentibus aris 
Tibia Mygdoniis libet eburna Cadis. 

Stephanus Byz. gives Kalrivlg as the Gentile deriva- 
tive of this town, but the legend on its coins inva- 
riably exhibits KAAOHNON q. Hierocles and the 
Acts of the Councils prove it to have been an epi- 
scopal see. (p. 668.) 

Major Keppel, proceeding northwards from Ghe- 
dh, came, in three hours' march, to what he con- 
ceived to be the source of the Hermus. He says it 
issued from a circular aperture, about twelve feet in 
diameter, in the mountain, a little below the road 
on which he was travelling. The mountain itself, Dindyme- 
now called Morad-Uagh, is the Dindymene of He- 
rodotus, who says, distinctly, that it gives rise to 
the Hermus ; (I. 80.) and he is followed by Strabo. 
(XII. p. Q^Q.) I am inclined to think, however, 
that the source which Major Keppel saw was not 
that of the Hermus itself, but of a tributary stream ; 
for he says, " In three hours' march we crossed a 
" bridge over the Hermus, and at some distance 

P Travels, t. II. p. 239— 247. of these reference is mnde to 
q Sestini, p. 119. On some the river Hermus. 



ne mons. 



16 PHRYGIA EPICTETUS. 

" from the road saw a village called Deults-Sandik. 
" We then lost sight of the river for a short time, 
" but soon after fell in with a fine limpid stream 
" running in a southerly direction '"." It is evident, 
from this account, that the fine limpid stream is dif- 
ferent from the Hermus ; and I cannot help suspect- 

Peuceiia fl. ing that it is the stream called Peucella by Pausa- 
nias, who states that the Phrygians, who lived near 
it, shelved to strangers a remarkable cave named 
Steunos. (Phoc. c. 32.) He describes it as circular, 
and of a respectable height ; and he adds, that it 
was sacred to Cybele, and contained an image of the 
goddess. These Phrygians were supposed to be de- 
scended from the Azani of Arcadia, clearly because 
they belonged to Azanitis of Phrygia. (Arcad. c. 4.) 

stcunos From whence I conclude that the cave Steunos could 
not be far from Tjaudere-hissar, and most probably 
was the aperture observed by Major Keppel. The 
sacred character of the spot would lead naturally to 
the idea that the stream which issued from it was 
the Hermus ; but Pliny thought that this river rose 
more to the north-east, in the vicinity of Doryleum ; 
that, however, is much too far. (V. 29-) Mount 
Dindymene, or Dindyma, was celebrated in anti- 
quity, in connexion with the superstitious rites of 
Rhea, or Cybele. (Cf. Strab. X. p. 469. Steph. Byz. 

V. A/vouaa.) 

O vere Phrygiae, iieque enim Phryges, ite per alta 
Dintlyma; ubi assuetis biforem dat tibia cantuni. 

M^. IX. 617. 

Major Keppel describes the country around as very 
beautiful : " A rich plain is bounded by abrupt 
" mountains, wliich are thickly clothed with every 

«• P. 2.56. 



PHRYGIA EPICTETUS. 17 

" species of evergreen \" The same traveller jour- 
neying from Ktcfaiek to Azani, observed several j^laces 
which bore evident marks of former Grecian habita- 
tions, but only one contained written monuments, by 
which the locality could be identified. It was found 
at Tatar-J^axarjik; and the termination of the in- 
scription, Toiq Bewn-a/^-, jioints evidently to a townBenna. 
named Benna ; the only indication of which, besides 
the record traced by Major Keppel, is to be found in 
the Notitia3 Antiquae, which class Bana, or Beana, 
(Benna,) among the episcopal sees of Lydia *. 

Kufaija, or Kufaieh, a Turkish town of about Cotyaeum. 
8000 souls, has succeeded to the ancient Cotyaeum, 
or Cotiasum ", assigned by Strabo to Phrygia Epic- 
tetus, (XII. p. 576.) as well as Pliny (V. 32.) and 
Stephanus Byz. (v. Korvaeiov.) Suidas says that, ac- 
cording to some accounts, it was the birthplace of 
iEsop. {Korvaeiov.) Alexander, a grammarian of great 
learning, and a voluminous writer, was also a native 
of Cotyaeum. (Steph. Byz. in v.) It appears, from 
Socrates, (Eccl. Hist. IV. 5.) to have been a bishop- 
ric, though not noticed by Hierocles. The Notices 
place it in Phrygia Salutaris^. Late Byzantine 
writers term it the metropolis of Phrygia. (M. Due. 
p. 7. A.) In the Table Itinerary the name is cor- 
rupted into Cocleo. It does not appear that there are 
any remains of antiquity of consequence at Kutayay. 

Ptolemy places on the northern frontier of Phry- 

s p. 256. of the town^ the legend being 

' Keppel's Travels, torn. II. always KOTIAEON. Sestini, p. 

p. 220. J21. 

« The latter, judging from x Geogr. S. Paul. p. 244. 

coins, would be the more cor- y Keppel's Travels, torn. II. 

reel mode of writing the name p. 184. 

VOL. II. C 



18 PHRYGIA EPICTETUS. 

Cidyssus, gia towai'ds Bithynia, consequently in the direction 
of Cotyseum, a people named Kv^cra-ei^ ; and Hier- 
ocles acknowledges Cidyssus among the episcopal 
towns of Phrygia : (p. 668. Cf. Notit. Ant.) there 
are also some coins which prove its existence in the 
time of Domitian and Caracalla ^. 

Acmonia. The Table Itinerary furnishes a communication 
between Cotyseum and Philadelphia, to which we 
have already referred in the preceding section. The 
first station south of Cotyaeum is Acmonia^, at a 
distance of thirty-five miles from thence. Frequent 
mention is made of this town by Cicero in his ora- 
tion for Flaccus ; (^. 15, 16.) whence it would ap- 
pear to have been a place of some consequence. In 
Pliny's time it came under the Conventus Apame- 
nus. (V. 29. Cf. Hierocl. p. 667.) Alexander Poly- 
histor, in his account of Phrygia, ascribed its found- 
ation to Acmon, the son of Manes, (ap. Steph. Byz. 
V. AK[xoyta.) The site of Acmonia has not hitherto 
been identified ; but it must have been near the 
source of the river Thymbres, now Pursek, which 
flows near Kutaya. 

Aiydda. Alydda, which the Table lays down twenty-five 

miles further towards Philadelphia, is also men- 
tioned by Ptolemy; (p. 119.) but he appears to place 
it towards Mysia and Bithynia. It is proliably the 
same town which Steph. Byz. calls Attalyda, though 
he assigns it to Lydia. (v. 'ArraAu^a.) There is less 
certainty of its being identified with Attuda, a town 



z The legend on these monu- nia, both autonomous and iai- 

nients is KIATHSiEfiN. Sesti- perial : the inscription is both 

ni, p. 120. AKMONEDN and AKMONfiN. 

*» We liave coins of Acnio- Sestini, p. 1 16. 



jeius- 
sus. 



PHRYGIA EPICTETUS. 19 

of Phrygia, known only from its coins'^, and the 
Ecclesiastical Notitiae and Acts of Councils ^. Pto- 
lemy names with Alydda the town of Praepenissus, Praei 
which the Ecclesiastical Notices assign to Phrygia 
Salutaris '^ 

Returning to Cotyseum, and proceeding along the 
banks of the Thymbres, we shall arrive, not far from Uoiyieum 
its junction with the Sangarius, at the Turkish town 
of Eski-sJier, generally allowed to occupy the site 
of the ancient Doryleum ^, which Strabo fixes in 
Phrygia Epictetus, (XII. p. 576.) and the Table 
Itinerary on the road leading from Nicaea through 
the heart of Phrygia into the south-eastern pro- 
vinces. Doryleum is alluded to by Cicero in the 
Oration pro Flacco, (c. 17.) and noticed by Pliny, 
(V. 29.) Ptolemy, (p. 120.) and Stephanus Byz. 
(Aoj5uAaf;oj'.) Athenseus speaks of some warm sources 
which were to be found near it : (II. p. 43.) and 
this, as Col. Leake has observed, affords another in- 
dication of its identity with Eski-sher, which is 
celebrated for its hot baths ^ Doryleum is often 
mentioned by the Byzantine writers. It was a beau- 
tiful city under the Greek emperors : being adorned 
with baths and other buildings ; the climate was 
delightful, and it was surrounded by rich plains, 
through which flowed the rivers Bathys and Thy- 
aris, abounding with fish. It was afterwards nearly 
destroyed by the Turks, but restored by Manuel 
Comnenus in forty days. (Cinnam. p. 172-3. Nicet. 

b Sestini, Attuda. Epigraphe, ^ Geogr. Sacr. p. 243. 

ATTOTAEON. Cultus Mensis e This is satisfactorily esta- 

Cari. MHN. KAPOT. Imperato- blished by Col. Leake, Asia Mi- 

rii, August! indeque Vespasiani, nor, p. 18, 19. 

Hadriani, &c. p. 1 18. f Asia Minor, p. 18. 

c Geogr. Sacr. p. 242. 

C 2 



20 



PHRYGIA EPICTETUS. 



Ann. p. 114. B.) A great battle was fought here 
by the crusaders against the Turks. (Ann. Comn. 
p. 317. C.) The river, called Thyaris by Cinnamus, 
is doubtless the Pursek, which flows near Eski-she7% 
and joins the Sangarius to the north-east of that 
Thymbres towu. It is the Thvmbres, or Thymbrius, of the 

fluvius. . . 

Ancients. Livy says it united with the Sangarius 
on the borders of Phrygia and Bithynia. (XXXVIII. 
18.) Pliny calls it Tembrogius. (VI. 1.?) The 

Bathysfl. Bathys is the little river probably which traverses 
the town of Eski-sher, and afterwards joins the 
Puj'sek ^. There are but few vestiges of antiquity 
at Eshi-sher '. 

The Table Itinerary places to the east of Dory- 

3ri(i«nm. leum, and twenty-eight miles from it, Mida?um, 
which Strabo also assigns to Phrygia Epictetus. 
(XII. p. 576.) It evidently derives its name from 
Midas, a name so common with the ancient kings 
of Phrygia, of whom it was probably once the resi- 
dence. (Cf. Strab. XII. p. 568.) We learn from Dio 
Cassius that Sextus Pompeius fell here into the 
hands of Marc Antony's generals, and was after- 
wards put to death. (Dio Cass. XLIX. p. 403.) 
Hierocles and the Notitia? reckon it among the 
episcopal churches of Phrygia Salutaris, (p. 678. 
Cf. Plin. V. 32. Ptol. p. 120.) Mannert conceives 
it to be the Mygdone of Ammian. Marcell. (XXVI. 
8J.) The site of Midaeum should be sought for on 



? This was probably accord- 
ing to the Gahitian way of pro- 
nouncing the name. 

^ Col. Leake's Asia Minor, 
p. 18. 

i Tlie coins of Doryleum are 
of the reigns of Augustus and 



Titus. The legend, AOPTAA- 
EON. Sestini, p. 122. 

J Sestini gives the following 
description of the coins of Mi- 
daeum : Imperatorii tantum a 
Trajano, usque ad Philippunij 
Inn. Epigraphe, MIAAEQN. 



PHRYGIA EPICTETUS. 21 

the left bank of the Sangarius, near a village called 
Caragamons. Beyond was Tricomia, known from Tricomia. 
Ptolemy, (p. 120.) and the Table Itinerary, which 
places it twenty-eight miles from Midaeum and 
twenty-one from Pessinus. The latter, though ori- 
ginally a Phrygian town, is considered to belong to 
Galatia, and will therefore come under our notice in 
the following section. 

To the south of Doryleum we have to point out 
Nacolea, which Strabo includes within Phrygia Nacoiea. 
Ejjictetus. (XII. p. 576.) It is frequently mentioned 
by later writers ; and we may infer, from their ac- 
counts, that it became a place of some importance 
under the eastern emperors. Ammianus reports, 
that the usurper Procopius was here defeated by 
Valens. (XXVII. 27. Cf. Zosim. IV. 8. Socrat. Eccl. 
Hist. IV. 5. Sozom. IV. 8.) Under Arcadius Na- 
colea was occupied by Tribigild, chief of some Goths 
garrisoned in the town, and who revolted against 
the emperor. (Philostorg. XI. c. 8. p. 542.) This 
town is also noticed by Hierocles, (p. 678.) Ptolemy, 
(p. 120.) and Steph. Byz. (v. Na/coA/aK) The Table 
fixes its situation twenty miles south of Doryleum ; 
and Col. Leake is disposed to identify it with a 
ruined fortress called PisJimesh-Jealessi, near Do- 
ganlu, where he observed some most remarkable 
monuments, apparently sepulchral, and, from the in- 
scriptions, leading to the idea that they were the 
tombs of the Phrygian sovereigns^ As Nacolea, 
however, does not seem to have been a place of 
sufficient antiquity or note to accord with the de- 

ConditorMidas.TON KTICTHN- in Trajani nunimo, p. 125. 
MIAAEnN. Mentio situs a fl. k Xhe epigraph of its coins 

Elate vel a fonte sacio EAATH2 is NAKOAEON. ' P. 21 — 2\. 

c 3 



22 PHRYGIA MAGNA. 

scriptioii of these monuments, I think we must refer 
them to some other site ; especially as they appear 
to be removed from any regular line of road, which 
was not so with Nacolea. 

PHRYGIA MAGNA. 

Having now exhausted the towns which Strabo 
assigns to Phrygia Epictetus, we will pass on to 
consider what belonged to central Phrygia. This, 
as far as we may conclude from Strabo's rather hur- 
ried description, was formed of several valleys con- 
nected together; beginning from the Hyrcanian 
plain, near the junction of the Hyllus and Hermus, 

Cyri Cam- and the Cilbianus Campus, towards the head of the 
Cayster, he names successively the j^lain of Cyrus, 
which was so called by the Persians, but whether 
from the elder or younger Cyrus, he does not men- 
tion. (Xni. p. 629.) It is jjerhaps the same as the 

Campus Castoli Campus of Xenophon. Beyond was the plain 

Pelteuus. 11. 1' 

Peltene, which belonged to Phrygia: that of Cyrus 
must therefore have been in Lydia. It derived its 
Peitae. appellation from Pelte, the principal town in this 
part of the province, and situate, according to 
Xenophon, one day's march from Cela^na;, at the 
head of the Meander. (Anab. I. 2. 10.) The histo- 
rian describes it as a well inhabited city, and states 
that the army of Cyrus remained there three days, 
during which, games and sacrifices were performed; 
this implies a rich and fertile district. The Table 
confirms the topography of Xenoi)hon, by placing 
Peitae' twenty-six miles from Apamea Cibotus, which 
subsequently replaced Cehena'. Hie march of Cy- 
rus, as described by Xenophon, presents consider- 

' Falsely written Pella. 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 23 

able difficulties, so that many critics have been led 
to imagine that there has been some confusion in 
this part of the narrative, from the carelessness of 
transcribers, or some other cause'". The true way, 
however, of considering this part of the Anabasis, 
is to look upon these operations of Cyrus, not as a 
straight- forward march towards the ultimate object 
of his expedition, but rather as a circuitous pere- 
grination through his dominions, for the purpose of 
collecting supplies of men and money from the dif- 
ferent districts, at the same time that he kept mov- 
ing, and both supplied his troops and deceived the 
enemy as to his real project. Thus we find him 
moving from Sardes to the Meander, and along that 
river up to its source ; then northwards, by Pelta?, 
up to the confines of Mysia, and subsequently along 
the northern part of Phrygia and Galatia, into Ly- 
caonia. This, I say, must be taken into the account 
fully, and when we find the historian mentioning 
places, the names of which are strange to us, we 
are not therefore to conclude that there is any error 
or confusion in the narrative, unless it is so palpable 
that we cannot be mistaken. As I shall have occa- 
sion to revert again to the march of Cyrus, I need 
not pursue the subject further at present. 

Strabo ranks Peltae among the smaller towns of 
the province. (XII. p. 576.) It is also enumerated by 
Ptolemy, (p. 120. Steph. Byz. v. YleXrai.) Pliny 
states, that in his time Peltae was under the juris- 
diction of Apamea. (V. 29.) The Notitise name it 
among the episcopal towns of Phrygia Pacatiana". 
We must look for this ancient site to the north of 

™ Palmer. Exercit. in Auct. Gr. p. 59. " Geogr. Sacr. p. 240. 

c 4 



24 PHRYGIA MAGNA. 

the Meander, and probably in the valley and plain 
formed by the western branch of that river, now 
called. Askli-tchai, but formerly Glaucus°. The Ta- 
ble jjlaces north of Peltee, but without any indica- 

Eumenia. tion of distance, Eumenia, which probably derived 
its name from Eumenes, king of Pergamum. (Steph. 
Byz. V. Y^vfL^veia.) Pliny, if his text be not corrupt, 

ciiidrus fl. says that this town was situated on the river Clu- 

Giaiicus fl. drus, but names immediately after the Glaucus, which 
is also referred to on the coins of the place. (IV. 29 p.) 
We collect from Hierocles and the Notitia?, that it 
was the see of a Christian bishop, (p. 667.) Pococke 
observed at Ishekle, or Ashkli, where there were 
some ruins, an inscription with the name of Eume- 

Lysias. uia. Lysias, which Pliny names together with the 
Glaucus, must have been in this vicinity and on 
the borders of Caria : I should be inclined to place 
it therefore south of Peltaj and Eumenia. It is 
perhaps the station marked in the Table under tlie 
name of ad Vicum. (Cf. Strab. XII. p. 576. Ptol. 
p. 120. Notit. Episc.) The coins of Lysias imply its 
foundation or restoration by Alexander^. It is in 
this direction, about the Glaucus and Meander, on 
the borders of Caria, that Pliny (V. 29.) places the 
Berecynthian district, which took its name from the 

Berecyn- Berecyutliii, a Phrygian tribe celebrated by the 
l)oets in connexion with Cybele, so often styled 
" Berecynthia mater." Xanthus, the Lydian histo- 

*J The coins of Pcltae lead iis (ilaiico Fl. IWATKOS. Summus 

to suppose it had received at Poiitifex Asiai in iniiiiiiiis Ne- 

one time a Macedonian colony; ronis. 

the legend being nEATHNiix <1 Epigraphe, ATCIAAEflN. 

MAKEAONON. Sestini, p. 120. BOTAH. AAESANAPOC. KTICT. 

P iSestini, p. 122. ETMKNE- Sestini, p. 124. 
iJN AXAIQN. Menliu situs a 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 25 

riaii quoted by Strabo, (XIV. p. 680.) said the Bere- 
cynthii crossed over from Europe into Asia, after 
the Trojan war; but Strabo proves, from Homer, 
that there were Phrygians in the latter continent 
before that period. He elsewhere speaks of the Bere- 
cynthii as no longer existing in his time ; but he 
censures iEschylus for placing them around Ida and 
Sipylus, as if those mountains were close to each 
other. (XII. p. 580. Cf. X. p. 469.) The same geo- 
grapher speaks of another extinct Phrygian tribe, 
named Cerbesii, alluded to by the jioet Alcman, but Cerbesii. 
of whom no other memorial remained, but a charo- 
nium, or hole, which emitted noxious exhalations. 
It was called the Cerbesian foss, but Strabo does 
not tell us where it was situated. (XII. p. 580.) 

Eucarpia, according to the Table, was thirty miles Eucarpia 
from Eumenia ; (Cf. Strab. XII. p. 576.) it owed 
its name doubtless to the fertility of the country 
which surrounded it, and an ancient writer, quoted 
by Stephanus Byz. (v. EvKap-nia,) gave a marvellous 
account of the size of the grapes it produced. Pliny 
says Eucarpia was under the jurisdiction of Syn- 
nada. (V. 29- Cf. Ptol. p. 120. Hierocl. p. 676.) 
The site is unknown*'. 

Conni, another Phrygian town, is placed by theconni. 
Table between Eucarpia and Nacolea, thirty-two 
miles from the former, and forty from the latter. 
Pliny calls it Conium, (V. 32.) Ptolemy, Conna, 
(p. 120.) and Hierocles, Coniopolis, (p. 666. Cf. No- 
tit. Episc.) This place was probably situated not 
far from Altimtash, near the source of the Pnrsek. 

"■ There are coins of Eiicar- of Augustus to tluit of Treb. 
piu, both autonomous and im- GaUus. The inscription is ET- 
perial; the latter from the reign KAPITEliN. Sestini, p. \%2. 



26 



PHllYGIA MAGNA. 



Ceramo- 
iiim Fo- 
rum. 



Ceranae. 
Synuada. 



The town called Kepa/xiv ay&pa, Ceramorum Fo- 
rum, by Xenophon, in the Anabasis, (I. 2. 11.) was 
more to the west, on the borders of Mysia, or rather 
that doubtful part of Lydia which was called Cata- 
cecaumene, and which some writers assign to Phry- 
gia. It may be observed, that when Xenophon wrote, 
the Mysians were in the habit of making inroads on 
their neighbours, and were otherwise troublesome 
to the Persian king. It is possible that the town we 
are here considering may be the same as Ceranae, 
noticed by Pliny. (V. 32.) We now come to Syn- 
nada, the most considerable town of this part of 
Phrygia, at least in Pliny's time, since it was then 
the capital of a Conventus Juridicus, which in- 
cluded all the surrounding boroughs ; (V. 29.) Fo- 
rum Synnadense, as Cicero terms it. (Ad Att. V. 21.) 
Strabo, however, speaks of it as a small town, situ- 
ate at the extremity of a plain, about sixty stadia 
long, and planted with olives. It was, however, 
greatly famed among the Romans for the beautiful 
marble furnished by the neighbouring quarries, and 
which was commonly called Synnadic, from the town, 
l)ut the people of the country gave it the name of 
Docimites from Docimia, the precise place where it 
was excavated from the quarry. This beautiful sub- 
stance, so much prized l)y the Romans, and cele- 
brated by their poets, was of a light coloiu*, inter- 
s})ersed M'ith j)urple spots and veins ^ 

Sola nitet flavis Nomaduni dccisa nietallis 
Purpura, sola cavo Phrygia? quam Synnados antro 
Ipse cruentavit maculis lucentibus Atys. 

Stat. Silv. I. 5. 36. 

s For a full description of on ancient marbles, and the au- 
tliis costly marble, see the learn- ihors quoted bv him. 
ed work of Blasius Caryophilus 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 27 

It is elegantly described by Pauliis Silentiarius, in 
his Poem on the Church of S. Sophia. 

Tov jw-sv iScTv poiocVTU fJ.SjXiyiJ.EVOV Yjepi XeVKM 
Tov §' «]«.« zoppvpsoKTi xu) agyvgsoi<riv umtois, 

'A^pOV OtTraCTTpOiTTTOVTU. 

(Cf. Plin. XXXV. 1.) The central position of Syn- 
nada made it a place of passage and commerce * : it 
communicated with Celsenee, or Apamea Cibotus, as 
we learn from the Itineraries and the march of the 
consul Manlius, in his expedition against the Gallo- 
gTceci. (Liv. XXXVIII. 15. Cf. XLV. 34.) Cicero 
writes to Atticus, that he passed through Synnada 
on his way from Ephesus, by Laodicea and Apa- 
mea, into Cilicia ; he stayed there three days. (Epist. 
V. 20. Cf. ad Fam. XV. 4. III. 8. Ptol. p. 120. 
Steph. Byz. v^. ^vwa^a. Hierocl. p. 677^.) 

Docimia, whence, as we have seen, the Synnadic Dodmia. 
marble was extracted, appears from Strabo to have 
been at the extremity of the plain in which Synnada 
was situate, and the Table places it to the north of 
that town, on the road to Doryleum. The accom- 
panying number XXXII. denotes, I conceive, the 
distance which separates the latter city from Do- 
cimia, though it is placed between that town and 
Synnada. Strabo's description leads to the idea that 
Docimia, in his time, was but a small place ; but it 
must have subsequently increased considerably, from 
the celebrity of its marble, and the price affixed to 
it ; esi3ecially in the time of Hadrian. We learn 

t See Col. Leake, Asia Mi- On one appear the words AAPI- 

nor, p. 54. ANIA. nANA0HNAIA. The se- 

u Tliere are numerous coins ries of emperors extends from 

of Synnada; the epigraph, AH- Augustus to Gallienus. Sestini, 

MOC or BOTAH CTNNAAEQN. p. 127. 



28 THRYGIA MAGNA. 

from its coins that it had a senate, and a praetor or 
archon, as magistrates ; besides which, we collect 
from the same source, that it had received at one 
time a Macedonian colony^. (Cf. Steph. Byz. vv. 
"^vvva^a, AoKi[xeiov.) It was a bishopric of Phrygia 
Salutaris. (Hierocl. p. 677.) According to Col. Leake, 
there are aiJjjearances of extensive quarries between 
Kosrii-lihan and Sulwudun, which he is inclined to 
identify with those of Docimia ; consequently, Syn- 
nada could only have been a few miles to the south, 
or south-west. It is not, however^ improbable that 

Santahdrh. J)og/ia)ilu auswcrs to Docimia. Santabaris, which 
Anna Comnena notices in the exiDedition of the 
emperor Alexius, (p. 470,) beyond Doryleum, was 
perhaps near Seid G/iazi, where there are some 
ruins y. To the south of Symiada, the Table places 

Eui)hor- Euphorbiuin, at a distance of thirty-seven miles 
from that city, and thirty-six from Apamea. Pliny, 
too, assigns the Euphorbini to the Conventus Apa- 
menus ; (V. 29-) but besides these two authorities, 
there are no other vouchers for its existence, that I 
am aware of. It is commonly supposed, that this 
place corresponds with the site of Sandaldi^^ on a 
river which most probably is the Orgas of Pliny, if 

Prymnesia that of IskaJtU is the Glaucus. Prymnesia, or Prym- 

nessus. ucssus, was another small town in central Phrygia, 
according to Ptolemy's notation, (p. 120.) We learn 
from Hierocles, and the Ecclesiastical Notices, that 
it was the see of a bishop. 7''he former writes tlie 
name Prymnesus ; (p. 677".) Pococke found an in- 

X AOMOC; vel lEPA CTNKAH- c. 15. Otter's Travels, I. c. 7. 
TOC - AOKIMEQN - MAKEAO- z Col. Leake's Asia Minor, 

NON. Sestini, \). 121. p. IG."). 

> Pocucke's 'J'raveis, p. iii. -i On the coins it is Pryin- 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 29 

scriptioii near AJiom Carahiss(u\ in which mention 
was made of Prymnesia^. Metropolis is another Metropolis. 
Phrygian town in the vicinity of Synnada, as we 
collect from Athenseus, who mentions having him- 
self travelled from one town to the other. (XIII. 
p. 574. Cf. Liv. XXXVIII. 15.) It is also noticed 
by Ptolemy, (p. 120.) Stephanus Byz. (v. MvjrpoViA/f,) 
and Hierocles. (p. 677.) Pliny assigns it to the Con- 
ventvis of Apamea ; (V. 29.) and it appears from 
Artemidorus, quoted by Strabo, to have been situ- 
ate beyond that city, on the great road leading 
from Ephesus to Cappadocia and the Euphrates. 
(XIV. p. 663.) Elsewhere he enumerates Metropo- 
lis among the smaller towns of the province. (XII. 
p. 576^.) The position of Metrojiolis evidently de- 
pending on that of Apamea, nothing can be ascer- 
tained respecting it, till that of the latter has been 
determined. But if Apamea stood at JDlnai'e, or 
Dinglar, as Col. Leake is inclined to think, and 
many other antiquaries with him, there would then 
be little doubt that Metropolis was situate to the 
east of that place '^ General Lapie, in his map, fixes 
it at Tchoulahad, and Prymnesia at AJiom Cara- 
hissar. Between Synnada and Metropolis was a 
small place, named Melisse, rendered interesting byMeiisse 
the circumstance of Alcibiades having been interred iitsa. 
there, by the affectionate care of his mistress Tlieo- 
dote, after he had fallen by the hands of the Persians. 

nessus; these are not uncom- c Xhe coins of Metropolis 

mon, and the mention of Mi- lead to the idea that it was a 

das implies a place of some more considerable place under 

antiquity. Epigraphe, BOTAH, the later emperors. Sestini, p. 

or SYNI^AHTOC nPTMNH22E- 124. 

ON MIAA2 BACIaETC. Sestini, d Col. Leake, Asia Minor, 

p. 125. p. 55, 56. 
b Travels, p. iii. c. 15. 



30 PHRYGIA MAGNA. 

By order of Hadrian, a statue of that great man, in 
Parian marble, was afterwards erected on the toml), 
and a yearly sacrifice of an ox offered to his shade. 
(Athen. XIII. p. 574.) I am inclined to think that 
the Melitara of Ptolemy (p. 120.) is the same as the 
Melisse of Athenaeus; and on this hypothesis I should 
be disposed to alter in the former the name to Me- 
litaea, MeA/ra/a instead of MeXiTapa. Livy, in his 
narrative of the expedition of Cn. Manlius against 
the Gallo-graeci, places between Metropolis and 
Diniae. Symiada a spot named Dinise, (XXXVIII. 15.) of 
which no notice is taken by other writers ; unless 
some trace of it should be thought to lurk in the 
word XeXi^ovicov, applied by Strabo to a place which 
stood beyond Metropolis, on the great central road 
which traversed Asia Minor, from Ephesus to To- 
misa in Comagene. (XIV. p. 663.) The generality 
of critics are of opinion that XeXi'^oviav is a corrupt 
reading, and Palmerius would read i^iXojx-t^Xiov ; but 
that town is mentioned below. Mannert proposes 
KeXaivav; but this conjecture, though nearer the text, 
is geographically inadmissible. The position of Diniae 
answers sufficiently to that of the su2)posed Cheli- 
donia, l)ut it leaves the former part of the corrupt 
reading unaccounted for ; perliaps another name is 
disguised under this likewise, and I should not think 
it improbable to be Cilia, or Cylla, which gave its 
name to a Phrygian plain in this direction. Strabo 
names it, together with the plains of Cyrus, Peltae, 
and Tabae. (XIII. p. 629.) Of this district, I find 
no mention made by other geographers, except Pliny, 
who briefly alludes to it in his description of Gala- 
tia, as a canton bordering on Pisidia. His words 
are, (V. 42.) " Attingit Galatia et Pamphyliae Caba- 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 31 

" liam et Milyas, qui circa Bariii sunt, et Cyllanti- 
" cum, et Oroandicum Pisidiae tractum." The MSS. 
read " CvHaiiicum," which comes nearer to the K<A- 
Xaviov of Strabo : and since, according to Pliny's 
geography, the Cillanian district bordered on Pisi- 
dia, Galatia, and Lycaonia, it must have been some- 
where between Metropolis of Phrygia and Antioch 
of Pisidia, and it might therefore have some refer- 
ence to the faulty reading, XeXi^ovicov, discussed above. 
Finally, I may observe, that the Cillanian j^lain may 
possibly answer to the valley of Sitshanli, situated 
north-east of Domhai and SanduMi, and which is 
described by modern travellers as fertile and well 
inhabited^. Holmi is another place mentioned byHoimi. 
Strabo, on the road to Lycaonia, beyond Chelidonia; 
it was at the foot of a chain of mountains, and dis- 
stant 920 stadia from Carura, and 500 from Philo- 
melium. D'Anville identifies it with Houma. (Strab. 
XIV. p. 663.) 

Polybotus, a place mentioned only by Hierocles Poiybotus. 
and the Byzantine historians, Procopius, and Anna 
Comnena, is thought, with great appearance of pro- 
bability, by Col. Leake, to answer to the site of Sul- 
wudun^. (Hierocl. jd. 677. Procop. Hist. Arc. c. 18. 
Ann. Comn. p. 470.) 

Philomelium was beyond Metropolis, on the same Phiiome.. 
great road to Iconium and Cappadocia, being men- '""^* 
tioned as such by Cicero, (ad Fam. III. 8. XV. 4.) 
and Artemidorus, cited by Strabo. (XIV. p. 663.) 
It was on the borders of what Strabo calls Phrygia 
Parorius, that is, which stretches along the moun- 
tains, being situate in a plain of considerable extent 

e Gen. Koehler's Journal in Col. Leake's Asia Minor, p. 139. 
f Asia Minor, p. 53. 



32 PHIIYGIA MAGNA. 

from west to east. The chain of mountains above 
mentioned was a branch of Taurus, on the south 
side of which was Antioch of Pisidia. (Strab. XII. 
p. 577.) Philomelium, according to Pliny, was under 
the jurisdiction of Synnada. (V. 29-) Cf. Hierocl. p. 
673. Ptol. p. 120.) It is often alluded to by the 
Byzantine historians in the wars of the Greek em- 
perors with the sultans of Iconium. (Ann. Comn. 
p. 473. Procop. Hist. Arc. c. 18. Nicet. Ann. p. 
264. B.) From a coin struck under the emperor 
Decius, it would appear to have been seated near a 
river named Gallus ?. It is probable that Philome- 
lium was situate near the modern Ilgnn. Close 
to this place is a lake which answers, as Col. Leake 
observes, to the lake of the Forty Martyrs referred to 
by Anna Comnena. (loc. cit.^*) The same Byzantine 
writer mentions IVIesonacte and Zyganium as being 
places in the same district, (p. 473, 480.) The latter 
is probably the Cingulariuni of Nicetas. (p. 264. B.) 
Julia. The Table places beyond Philomelium, on the 

road to Iconium, a spot named Jullae, which Col. 
Leake is inclined to identify with Juliopolis, named 
by Ptolemy in Phrygia, (p. 120.) with Synnada and 
Melitoea. At the same time he observes, " that 
" there can be little doubt tliat so fine a position as 
" that of Ak-shehr was occu])ied before the time of 
" the Caesars by some important place, which, on 
" its being rej^aired or reestablished, may have as- 
" sumed the new name of Julia, or Juliopolis." 
Pliny assigns the Julienses to the Conventus Synna- 
dicus. (V. 29.') 

ff Sestiiii, p. 125. Epigraphe, nummo Decii. 

*IA0MHAEI2N. Imperatorii ab h Asia Elinor, p. 59. 

Augusto ad Galium. Mentio si- ' The name of the town ap- 

tus a fl. Gallo lAAAOC (sic) in pears from its coins to have been 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 33 

Laodicea, surnanied Catacecaumene by the Greeks, i^aodicea. 

'' ■ Catacecau- 

Combusta by the Latins, was twenty-eight miles '"^ne. 
from Philometium, according to the Table Itinerary. 
It is assigned by Ptolemy to Galatia, but Hierocles 
and the ecclesiastical writers name it amona: the 
episcopal sees of Pisidia. (Hierocl. p. 672. Socrat. 
Eccl. Hist. VI. 18.) According to Strabo, who 
qnotes Artemidorus, it stood on the great road which 
led from Ephesus to the Euphrates, and at that 
period it belonged to Lycaonia ; but previously it 
must have appertained to Phrygia. Ancient au- 
thorities are silent with respect to its foundation, but 
it was evidently built by some prince of the Seleu- 
cid dynasty. (Strab. XIV. p. 663. Steph. Byz. v. 
Aao^iKeta.) It obtained its surname of Catacecau- 
mene from the volcanic nature of the district in 
which it was situated. Laodicea retains the name 
of Laclik, and exhibits, as we are informed by Col. 
Leake, numerous remains of antiquity dispersed 
throughout the modern town, which is considerable, 
and famous for its manufacture of carpets^. 

In this part of Phrygia, but jjrobably nearer Syn- 
nada, we should seek for Ipsus, celebrated for the ipsus. 
great battle fought in its plains by Antigonus and 
his son Demetrius, against the combined forces of 
Cassander, Lysimachus, Ptolemy, and Seleucus. We 
have no detailed account of this decisive conflict, 
in which Antigonus lost all his conquests and his 
life. The reader may consult Plutarch in his life of 

Julia, and not Juliopolis : the There are a few imperial coins 

epigraph being lOT AEON. They belonging to Laodicea, of the 

are not anterior to the reign of reigns of Titus and Domitian. 

Nero. Sestini, p. 123. Sestini, p. 95. 
'^ Asia Minor, p. 43, 44. 

VOL. II. D 



34 PHRYGIA MAGNA. 

Pyrrhus, Appiaii in his history of Syria, and the 
mutilated narrative of Diodorus, as the best authori- 
ties to be procured ; but little is to be gained from 
them respecting the position of Ipsus. Hierocles 
(p. 677.) and the Acts of Councils afford evidence of 
its having been the see of a Christian bishop in the 
seventh and eighth centuries ^ 

To the north-east of Synnada, and distant from 
Ceudos it about five miles, was Beudos, surnamed Vetus, to 
distinguish it probably from a town of more recent 
foundation. Livy says, that the army of Manlius, 
marching from Synnada, came to Beudos, having 
scarcely performed five miles in one day; it was so 
encumbered with booty taken from the surrounding 
towns, whose inhabitants had deserted them on their 
approach. (XXXVIII. 15.) Beudos, I suspect, is 
the same town which Nonnus calls Budea. 

Kal (ppvyec eaTpuTOCJOvro Trap" EypsfioSx)/ (jr'iyjx AuSwv 
0>V' tKuyjt'J Boi>Sciav a£i5cijU,£yy3V re 7roA/p^v>jv 
AsvSpoxOjaov Tejxevsjav, sucrjciov uKo-og ocpov^y]g. 

DioxYs. XIII. 511. 

Temeneia. Tcmeueia, which the poet connects with it, is 
unknown, unless we should suppose Eumenia, or 
jierhaps Metropolis, is signified by that name. The 
epithet aet'^ofxevy] implies that it was a noted place. 

Dicsia. Dresia was also another place which the poet Diony- 
sius in his Bassarica, as well as Nonnus, introduces 
with Beudia. 

BouSsiav, ApsalrjV re xai o\ jxriKw^cu yaluv. 
(ap. Steph. Byz. vv. Apeaia, Bov'^eia.) The latter 

1 Numismatical writers as- r4^T, supposed to be iiniquo, to 
sign a coin, with the epigraph I|)sus. Sestini, p. 123. 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 35 

connects it with the Obrimus, or Obrimas, one of 
the tributary streams of the Meander. 

Qj Agstrivjy Ivs'jaovTo xaj "O^giixov oars pss^potg 
MajavSpou (Txo\io~i(Tiv kov Trupu^iWsTon v^cup 
Kal SaTTiSov AolavTog Ittcovuixov. 

The Doeantius Campus, mentioned in the last line, Doeamius 

Campus. 

IS perhaps only another name for the great jDlain of 
Pelta?, and the fertile country about Eucarpia and 
Euphorbium : (Cf. Steph. Byz. v. AoiavTog Tre^/ov.) 
and perhajis Doeas, which gave its name to it, is the 
Diniae of Livy. From Beudos, which is, with great 
j^robability, thought to agree with JSelacl, Manlius 
marched on to Anabura. In another day he came Anainua. 
to the sources of the Alander, and on the third to 
Abassus, on the frontiers of Galatia. The Alander Alander fl. 
appears to be an inconsiderable river, which rises 
somewhat to the north of Seiad, and falls into the 
Sangarius to the north-east of Eshi-sher, or Dory- 
leum. Abassus is certainly the Ambasus of Steph. Abassus. 
Byz., (v. "A^/Sacr&v,) and perhaps the same with the 
Alarnassus of Hierocles, (p. 678.) or Amadasse of 
the Councils "\ Following the Alandrus, the Roman 
army halted successively at Tyscon, Plitendus, and Tyscon vi- 

CllS. 

Alyatti. This part of Phrygia was named Axylos, PHtendus. 
(^k'ivy.uq,) from its being so destitute of wood that AxyiosVe- 
the inhabitants used cow-dung for fuel. (Liv.'' 
XXXVIII. 15.") Having advanced some way, the 
consul came to Cuballus, a fortress of Gallo-Grsecia, Cubaiius. 

"^ See Wesseling's note to tempt to penetrate into Gala- 

Hierocles. tia by the left bank of the San- 

n We must suppose the inarch garius, retraced its steps and 

to have been extremely slow and crossed to the other side. It 

cautious, in order to adapt the is to be regretted that we have 

narrative to the map : other- not Polybius's narrative of this 

wise we must admit that the Gallo-griEcian war. 
Roman army, baffled in its at- 

D 2 



mons. 



vicus. 



pons, 



36 PHRYGIA MAGNA. 

where he had a skirmish with the Gauls ; from 
thence he reached the river Saiigarius, after a conti- 
nuous march of some days. This river, according 

Adoreus to Livy, who copies Polybius, rises in mount Ado- 
reus of Phrygia, and after receiving the Thymbris 
on the borders of Bithynia, falls into the Propontis. 
Eustathius, in his commentary on the poet Diony- 

Sangia sius, (p. 143.) says, there was a village named San- 
gia near the source of this river. Ptolemy marks 
three considerable bendings in the course of the 
Sangarius : the first takes place near its junction 
with the Gallus ; the second below Sevrih'issar, near 
the ancient Gordium ; the third below Yerma. The 
Byzantine historians make frecjuent mention of a 

Zompi Ijridge at a place called Zompi, or Zompus, which 
seems to have been on the Sangarius. (Ann. Comn. 
p. 472. Curopal. p. 836. Niceph. Bryenn. II. p. 52.) 
We are informed by G. Pachymeres that the Sanga- 
rius was subject to overflow its banks, and to change 
its course. (Andr. Pal. p. 228.) We must now quit 
the Sangarius, and proceed in a very opposite direc- 
tion to the valley of the Meander, to explore the- 
course of that river and the towns seated on its 
banks, which were neither the least celebrated, nor 
the least considerable in the whole province. If we 
place ourselves at Tripolis in Lydia, the liighest 
point to which our descriptive tour has led us up 
the river, we shall gain, on crossing over to the left 
bank, the great road leading from Ephesus by 
Magnesia and Tralles into Phrygia, Lycaonia, Ci- 
licia, or Cappadocia. The first town we shall ar- 

Hierapo- rivc at after quitting Tripolis is Hierapolis, whicli 
Strabo is inclined to assign to Lydia ; (XIII. p. 
G29.) but other gcogra])hers include within the 



li 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 37 

limits of Phiygia. (Steph. Byz. v. 'lepairoXii. Hierocl. 
p. 665.) This city was celebrated for its warm 
springs, and a Plutonium, which is described very 
minutely by Strabo. (loc. cit.) It was a narrow 
cave or hole, wide enough to admit one person. 
This ajjerture was on the top of a hillock formed 
at the base of an adjoining mountain : it was of 
great depth, and surrounded outside by a square 
fence. A dense exhalation generally filled this space 
with vapour ; and if an animal was placed within 
it, it expired immediately. The Galli, or eunuch 
priests of the temple of Pluto, were said to be alone 
exempted from the suffocating influence of this va- 
pour. (Cf. Dio Cass. LXVIII. c. 27. Plin. V. 32. 
XXXI. 2. Ammian. XXIII. 6.) The waters of Hi- 
erapolis were remarkable for their petrifying or sta- 
lactitical properties. (Strab. loc. cit. Vitruv. VIII. 3. 
Pausan.) Chandler affirms that a cliff near the an- 
cient town was one entire encrustation : he describes 
its appearance as that of " an immense frozen cas- 
" cade, the surface wavy, as of water at once fixed, 
" or in its headlong course suddenly petrified °." Be- 
sides this singular property, the waters of this town 
possessed, in a remarkable degree, that of serving 
for the purposes of the dyer v. (Strab. XIII. p. 630.) 
Stephanus Byz. says, Hierapolis was so called from 
the number of its temples. (Cf. Apid. de Mund. c. 4. 
Damasc. ap. Phot. Cod. CXLII. Plin. II. 93.) We 
collect from St. Paul's mention of Hierapolis in his 
Epistle to the Colossians, (iv. 13.) that there were 

o Travels in Asia Minor, p. polls. These monuments nien- 

287. tion also Pythian and Aclian 

P The name of Chrysorrhoas, games: they occur from Au- 

denoting a stream or fountain, gustus to Gallienus. Sestini, p. 

appears on the coins of Hiera- 123. 

D 3 



38 PHRYGIA MAGNA. 

converts to Christianity in that town, chiefly owing 
to the zeal of EjDaphras, a fellow-labourer of the 
apostle. Some centuries after we find its church 
claiming the title of Metropolis of Phrygia. (Hierocl. 
p. 665. where see Wesseling's note.) The ruins of 
Hierapolis are conspicuous on the site called Pam- 
houk-kalessi, above the valley of the Lycus. Accord- 
ing to Chandler, they are placed " on a flat, about 
" 200 paces wide, and a mile in length. The theatre 
" was a very large and sumptuous structure, and the 
" least ruined of any we had seen. Opposite to it, 
" near the margin of the cliff, is the remains of an 
" amazing structure, once perhaps baths, or, as we 
" conjectured, a gymnasium ; further on are mas- 
" sive walls of edifices, several of them leaning from 
" their perpendicvdar, and seeming every moment 
" ready to fall, the effects and evidences of violent 
" and repeated earthquakes. In a recess of the 
" mountain, on the right hand, is the area of a 
" stadium. Then again sepulchres succeed ; some 
*' nearly buried in the mountain side, and one, a 
" square building, with an inscription in large let- 
" ters. All these remains are plain, and of the 
" stone created by the waters i." To the south of 
Hierapolis we come to the river Lycus, which joins 
i.aodicea the Meander, nearly opposite to Tripolis. On its 

ad Lycum. . . . 

left bank, and exactly facing Hierapolis, was Laodi- 
cea, surnamed ad Lycum from its proximity to the 
river in question. It was one of the largest towns 
in the province in the time of Strabo, though ori- 
ginally it was inconsiderable. This increase had 
been chiefly owing to the fertility of its territory, 
and the munificent bequests of some wealthy indi- 

1 Travels in Asia Minor, p. 290. 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 39 

viduals. Among these Strabo mentions Hiero, who, 
besides greatly embellishing it, left by his will the 
large sum of 2000 talents ; the orator Zeno, and 
his son Polemo, who was made king of part of Pon- 
tus by Augustus. These patriotic citizens amply 
repaired the damage which their native city had 
sustained when besieged by Mithridates. (Strab. XII. 
p. 578. Appian, Mithr. c. 20.) Stephanus,who places 
this city in Lydia, (v. Aao^Ueia,) says it was founded 
by Antiochus, son of Stratonice, and named after his 
wife Laodice. Pliny reports that it was previously 
called Diospolis and Rhous : he adds, that, besides 
the Lycus, its walls were washed by the Asopus ^ycus fl. 
and Caprus. (V. 29.) Strabo also states that the Ly- Capms fl. 
cus and Caprus united their waters, and afterwards 
joined the Meander ^ The Lycus, the most consider- 
able of the two, had its source in Mount Cadmus, Cadmus 
which rose above the town; but the river issued trom 
a more distant part of the chain, which prolonged 
its range to the east into Milyas and Lycia, where 
it joined mount Taurus. The Turks call it Baba- 
dagh. Strabo speaks of a small stream, also named 
Cadmus, which descended from it. The Lycus, ac- Cadmus fl 
cording to the same geographer, disappeared not far 
from its source, and flowed for a considerable space 
under ground : this was to be accounted for from 
the volcanic nature of the district, which rendered it 
full of caverns, and subject to earthquakes. Laodi- 
cea was frequently exposed to this calamity, as well 
as the surrounding towns and villages. (Strab. loc. 
cit. Cf. Tacit. Ann. II. 79. XIV. 27.) Herodotus 
states that the Lycus disappeared at Colossae ; and, 

r Sestini, p. 123. Epigraphe, KAHPOC. in numniis Commodi, 
AAOAIKEQN. Mentio situs a Gallieni, etifim in autonomo. 
fluviis Lyco et Capso, ATKOC. 

D 4 



40 PHRYGIA MAGNA. 

after remaining concealed at most for five stadia, re- 
appeared again and joined the Meander. It is cer- 
tain that the Lycus does not pass very near the an- 
cient Colossae ; we must not therefore take the his- 
torian's expression, (VII. 30.) ev ttj AvKog •noTafj.og h 
yaa-fxa yrji' ea/SoiXXccv acpavi^eTui, literally, but " in the 
*•' vicinity of Colossae ; in its territory." The mo- 
dern name of the Lycus is DJok-bomiai, or Sultan 
Emir-tchai; that of the Cain^ws, Giimiiskoi^. Lao- 
dicea was celebrated for the breed of sheep which 
fed in the plains around it ; their wool was even 
thought to be superior in softness and colour to that 
of Miletus ; so that this article was a source of great 
profit to the city. (Strab. XII. p. 578.) The his- 
tory of Laodicea derives further illustration from 
Polybius. (V. 57. 5.) Cicero, (Verr. I. 30. Ep. ad 
Fam. III. 5. 7. XII. 13. 14. ad Att. V. 15.) Tacitus, 
(Ann. IV. 55.) Philostratus. (p. 543.) 

The zeal of St. Paul for the church of Laodicea 
is attested by the mention he makes of it in his 
Epistle to the Colossians. (ii. 1.) " For I would that 
*' ye knew what great conflict I have for you, and 
" for them at Laodicea, and for as many as have not 
" seen my face in the flesh," (iv. 16.) "And when 
" this epistle is read among you, cause that it be 
" read also in tlie church of the Laodiceans ; and 
" that ye likewise read the epistle from Laodicea." 
From the mention here made of the epistle from 
Laodicea, it has been supposed that the apostle had 
written a special letter to the converts of that city, 
now lost ; but most critics are of opinion that this 
refers to another of his epistles, either that to the 
Ei)hesians or Timotliy I. Others imagine again that 

s Chandler, p. 284. note 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 41 

it was a letter written by the Laodiceans to the 
apostle ; but this is less jDrobable. 

The book of Revelations contains a severe rebuke 
on the lukewarm ness of the Laodicenes, and their 
worldly-mindedness, and threatens them with that 
ruin which has been so completely accomplished, 
iii. 14. "And unto the angel of the church of the 
" Laodiceans write ; These things saith the Amen, 
" the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the 
" creation of God ; I know thy works, that thou art 
" neither cold nor hot : I would thou wert cold or 
" hot. So then because thou art lukewarm, and 
" neither cold nor hot, I will spue thee out of my 
" mouth. Because thou sayest, I am rich, and in- 
" creased with goods, and have need of nothing ; 
" and knowest not that thou art wretched, and mi- 
" serable, and poor, and blind, and naked : I counsel 
" thee to buy of me gold tried in the fire, that thou 
" mayest be rich ; and white raiment, that thou 
" mayest be clothed, and that the shame of thy 
" nakedness do not appear ; and anoint thine eyes 
" with eyesalve, that thou mayest see. As many as 
" I love, I rebuke and chasten : be zealous there- 
" fore, and rejient." 

The Byzantine writers make frequent allusions to 
it in the time of the Comneni. It was fortified by 
the emperor Manuel. (Nicet. Chon. Ann. p. 9. 81.) 
Its ruins are now to be seen a little below DenisU, 
a Turkish town near the junction of the Lycus and 
Caprus. The site is called Eski-hissar, and some- 
times Ladik. "We had crossed the hill," says 
Chandler, " on which Laodicea stood, coming from 
" DenisU: on our approach to it we had on either 
" hand traces of buildings ; and on our right, of a 



42 PHRYGIA MAGNA. 



(( 



low duct, which has conveyed water. The first 
" ruin was of an amphitheatre, in a hollow ; the 
" form oblong, the area about 1000 feet in extent, 
" with many seats remaining. At the west end is 
" a wide vaulted passage, designed for the horses 
" and chariots, about one hundred and forty feet 
" long. On the north side of the amphitheatre, to- 
" ward the east end, is the ruin of a most ample 
" edifice : it consists of many piers and arches of 
" stone, with pedestals and marble fragments. From 
" this ruin you see the odeum, which fronted south- 
" ward. The seats remain in the side of the hill : 
" the materials of the front lie in a confused heap. 
" The whole was of marble. Sculpture had been 
*' lavished on it, and the style savoured less of Gre- 
" cian taste than Roman magnificence. Beyond the 
*' odeum are some marble arches standing, with pieces 
" of massive wall ; the ruin, as we conjectured, of a 
" gynmasium. This fabric, with one at a small dis- 
" tance, appeared to have been reedified, probably 
" after an earthquake, to which calamity Laodicea 
" was remarkably subject. Many traces of the city 
" wall may be seen, with broken columns and jneces 
" of marble used in its later repairs : within, the 
" whole surface is strewed with pedestals and frag- 
*' ments. The luxury of the citizens may be infer- 
" red from their other sumptuous Ijuildings, and 
" from two capacious theatres in the side of the hill, 
" fronting northward and westward ; each with its 
" seats still rising in numerous rows one above an- 
" other." 

About twenty miles to the west of Laodicea, and 

Caruia. ou tlie frontier of Caria, was a place named Carura, 

situate on the great road which followed the Me- 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 43 

ander from Ephesus, and apparently a town of con- 
siderable traffick, as there were many inns for the 
accommodation of travellers. There were also nu- 
merous warm springs, which gushed forth, some in 
the Meander itself, others on its banks : a sure indi- 
cation of a volcanic country. It was reported, that 
on one occasion a whole troop of courtesans, who 
were lodged at Carura, were engulphed during the 
night by the yawning earth. (Strab. XII. p. 578.) 
Near this town, and towards Laodicea, was the 
temple of Men-Carus, an object of great veneration 
among the surrounding people. Strabo states, that 
in his day a celebrated school of physicians, sur- 
named Herophilii, from Herophilus, who flourished 
under the Ptolemies, had been established there. 
(XII. p. 580.) Athenaeus speaks of a village named 
Men-Carus, and distinguishes it also from Carura, Men-Ca- 
which he seems to place in Caria ; both places had '""*" 
warm sources. (II. p. 43.) 

Returning to Laodicea and the Lycus, and ad- 
vancing to the north-east, we shall come upon the 
Meander again, where, after bending round the hills 
of Hierapoiis, it returns towards the south. Here 
we shall find, at a little distance from its left bank, 
the ancient town of Colossse, mentioned by Herodo- coiossaj. 
tus as a large and floiu"ishing town of Phrygia, at 
the time of Xerxes' expedition, who passed through 
it on his way to Sardes from Cappadocia. (VII. 
30.) Xenophon also reports that Cyrus the Younger 
halted there, on his march towards Babylon, and he 
terms it a populous and wealthy city. (Anab. I. 2.) 
Strabo, in one passage, seems to reckon Colossae 
among the minor towns of Phrygia : (XII. p. 576'.) 
but elsewhere he speaks of the great profit the in- 



44 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 



Chonae. 



habitants derived from their wool trade, as did their 
neighbours the Laodiceni. (XII. p. 578.) In the 
reign of Nero this city was nearly destroyed, and 
scarcely retained any trace of its former greatness. 
Its church however, which had been so great an 
object of solicitude to the ai)ostle of the Gentiles, 
though he had not visited it in person, (Coloss. ii. 
1.^) still flourished even as late as the time of Hie- 
rocles, who names it among the episcopal towns of 
Phrygia Pacatiana. (p. 666.) He writes the name 
KcXaa-a-ai, iu which mode of writing it several other 
authors concur, and numerous MSS. of St. Paul's 
Epistles, as Wesseling observes ^ But Herodotus, 
Xenophon, and Strabo must outweigh the contrary 
testimony, especially as they liave on their side the 
evidence of coins, whose authority is not to be dis- 
puted ". Under the Byzantine emperors, Colossae, 
being in a ruinous state, made way for a more mo- 
dern town, named Chonae, which was built at a 
short distance from it. This place is chiefly known 
to us from the account of Nicetas, the Byzantine 
annalist, who was born there ; whence his surname 
of Choniates. He reports that it was a large town, 



s It is certainly said, on the 
other hand, that he " went all 
" over the coiuitry of Gaiatia 
" and Phrygia ;" but this may 
mean only that central and 
northern part of Phrygia which 
bordered on Gaiatia. And in 
the whole of the epistle there 
is no expression which leads us 
to the direct inference that he 
had visited Colossae in person. 
On the contrary he says, (i. 3, 
4.) " We give thanks' to God 
" and the Father of our Lord 



" Jesus Christ, praying always 
" for you, since we heard of 
" your faith in Christ Jesus." 
Epaphras is particularly men- 
tioned as having preached the 
Gospel to them ; he being a na- 
tive of Colossae, as well as One- 
sinias. (iv. 0, 12.) 

t In his commentary on Hie- 
rocles. This must have been a 
late corruption- 

" The epigraph is AHMOC 
KOAOC CHNfiN. Sestini, p. 120. 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 45 

and possessed a magnificent church, dedicated to the 
archangel Michael, but which was afterwards bvu-nt 
by the Turks, (p. 115, D. p. 256, B.) The histo- 
rian Curopalates mentions also its destruction ; he 
speaks besides of the river, (Lycus,) and its subter- 
raneous channel, and an extraordinary rise of the 
water, which drowned several persons, (p. 834.) 
Some remains of Colossas and its more modern suc- 
cessor are to be seen near each other on the site 
called Khoncis, or Kanassi, by the Turks, to the 
north-east of Laodicea, and not far from the left 
bank of the Meander. They have been visited by 
Pococke ^, Picenini >', and, more recently, by Mr. 
Arundell. CJionos is a village of about 200 Greek 
families, situated near the Meander, and under a 
very high and almost inaccessible hill : the ruins 
may be traced for the space of nearly a mile. Mr. 
Arundell, on his way from T)em%U to Khonas, says 
he came to a beautifully clear stream, flowing close 
by the side of the road, on the left downwards to- 
wards the Meander : soon after, the same stream 
disappeared at once, or rather appeared to issue, 
by a subterraneous course, from under a low hill ^. 
Mr. A. says, '^KJionas is situated most picturesquely 
" under the immense range of mount Cadmus, which 
" rises to a very lofty and perpendicular height above 
" the village, with immense chasms and caverns. On 

"^ Travels in the East, torn. told that the river near ^M/iOH, 

III. part ii. c. 14. which is clearly the Lycus of 

y In Chandler's Travels, p. Strabo, disappeared about three 

298. hours above that place in a 

z AVisit to the Seven Church- chasm of the ground, and after 

es of Asia, by the Rev. V. J. 300 fathoms reemerged again, 

Arundell, British Chaplain at two hours from Denizli, and 

Smyrna. London, 8vo. 1828. two hours and a half from iiC/io- 

p. 92. The same traveller was nas. p. 100. 



46 PHRYGIA MAGNA. 

" the summit of tlie castle are several fragments of 
" old walls, but none of very ancient date. The 
" village on the eastern side is of considerable ex- 
" tent. The multitude of fragments of marble pil- 
" lars almost upon every terraced roof, used there 
" as rollers, proved the existence of some consider- 
" able ancient town in the neighbourhood." These 
are evidently the remains of Chonse. Those of Co- 
lossas are to be referred to other ruins, which he 
was shewn more to the west. He observed a place 
where " a number of large squared stones lay about, 
" and what seemed to have been a small church. 
" Passing through several fields, in which were 
" many more stones, he noticed an imperfect in- 
" scription. He was told also, that not far off were 
" the remains of two churches. Beyond this he 
" came to a level space, elevated by a perpendicular 
" brow of considerable height above the fields be- 
" low. Here were several vestiges of an ancient city, 
" arches, &c. ; and the whole of this and the adjoin- 
" ing grounds was strewed with broken pottery^." 
To the east of Colossa?, and towards the source of 
Anavaurbsthe Meander, was a town and lake named Anava. 

et lacus. 

The lake was salt, as we learn from Herodotus, who 
mentions the fact with reference to the march of 
Xerxes' army from Celaena? to Colossse. (VH. 30.) 
No other writer has mentioned this place, at least un- 
der the same name ; but I imagine it to be the same 
town which Strabo calls Sanaus, (XH. p. 576.) and 
Ptolemy Sanis ; (p. 120.) but Sanaos appears in 
Hierocles, (p. 66G.) and the Council of Chalcedon. 
p. 674.) Mr. Arundell passed l)y this lake, on his 

a Visit to the Seven Cliurches of Asia, p. 94 — 98. 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 47 

way from Khonas, and was told it was called Hagee 
Gliieul, or the bitter lake ; that the water was not 
fit to be drunk, and no fish would live in it. (p. 104, 
105.) He reports it to be sixteen miles long by four 
wide. (p. 106.) The site of Anava probably cor- 
responds with that of Alan-kevi, somewhat to the 
north of the lake. That of Bourdowr, further to 
the east, is of greater extent, and is doubtless the 
Ascania Palus of Arrian, which Alexander passed 
on his way from Sagalassus in Pisidia to Apamea. 
He says this lake was so impregnated with salt, 
that it formed of itself on the top, whence the na- 
tives collected it. (Anab. Alex. I. in fin.) 

Themisonium was a town of Phrygia, but situ- Themiso. 

Ilium. 

ate on the borders of Pisidia, and latterly came to 
be included within the limits of that province. (Hie- 
rocl. p. 674.) But Strabo distinctly assigns it to 
Phrygia, (XII. p. 576.) as well as Pausanias (Phoc. 
c. 32.) and Ptolemy, (p. 120.) Pausanias states that 
the Themisonians shewed a cave, about thirty stadia 
from their town, where, by the advice of Hercules, 
Apollo, and Mercury, they had concealed their wives 
and children during an irruption of the Gauls into 
this part of Asia : in consequence of this they after- 
wards erected statues to these deities within the 
cave. Themisonium, according to the Table, was 
thirty-four miles from Laodicea. Returning to the 
lake of Anava, and tracing the Meander up to its 
source, we shall arrive at Celaense, a city of great CeisenK. 
antiquity, and celebrated in Grecian mythology as 
the scene of the fabulous story of Marsyas and 
Apollo. It was also connected with the legendary 
tale of Midas, to which Nonnus alludes when he 
says, 



48 PHRYGIA MAGNA. 

O'i Apscr/rjv bvs^ovtq xa» "0/3p«/xov, og ts pseSpot; 
MaJ«v2poy (TKoXiolaiv gov Trapu^aWsrai vdcop 
Ka) SaTTcSov AolctvTog £7rc«vu,aov, ot' t£ KeAa«vaj 
Xpu(ro!pogoi)s Iv5/xovto. Dionys. XIII. 514. 

Athenaeus also speaks of it as the residence of Li- 
tyerses, son of Midas. (X. p. 415.) Herodotus is the 
earliest historian who gives us any account of the 
situation of this city, which was very remarkable. 
" There," says the historian, " burst forth the sources 
" of the Meander, and of another stream not less than 
" the Meander, whose name is Catarrhactes, which, 
" gushing forth from the agora itself of Celaenae, falls 
" into the Meander. In which place also, within 
" the city, is suspended the skin of the satyr Mar- 
" syas, who is said in story to have been flayed 
" by Apollo." Xerxes passed through Celaenae on 
his way from Cappadocia to Sardes, and was hospit- 
ably entertained by Pythius, an individual possessed 
of immense wealth, which he liberally offered to his 
sovereign. (VII. 26, et seq.) Celaenae was a favourite 
residence of the younger Cyrus. Xenophon reports, 
" that he had a palace there, and an extensive park, 
" full of wild beasts, in which he took the diversion 
" of hunting. The Meander had its source close to 
" the palace, and flowed through the park and the 
*' town. There was also a royal fortress, with a 
" palace of the king of Persia at the source of the 
" Marsyas, below the Acropolis ; this, too, flows 
" through the town, and falls into the Meander. 
" The breadth of the Marsyas is twenty-five feet. 
" There Ajiollo is said to have flayed Marsyas, hav- 
" ing vanquished him in a contest for musical skill, 
" and to have suspended his skin in the cave whence 
" the river flows. Hence the river is called Mar- 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 49 

" syas. It is said that Xerxes, after his defeat in 
" Greece, withdrew to this place, and built these 
" palaces and the acropolis of Celaenae." The river 
called Catarrhactes by Herodotus, appears to be the 
Marsyas of Xenophon and others. Among these 
Livy and Pliny assert, that both the Meander and 
Marsyas drew their sources from a lake above Ce- 
laenae, and named Aulocrene, from the excellence of 
the reeds which it produced : a circumstance which 
doubtless was connected with the fable of Marsyas. 
(Liv. XXXVIII. 13. Plin. V. 29. Strab. XII. p. 
578.) Pliny says, the mountain, at the foot of which signia 
Celaenae was placed, bore the name of Signia, and 
that it stood near the junction of the Marsyas, Obri- 
mas, and Orgas, with the Meander. Arrian reports 
that Alexander arrived at Celaenae in five days from 
Sagalassus. He found the citadel, which was built 
on a height precipitous on every side, occupied by 
the troops of the Phrygian satrap ; but these capi- 
tulated on receiving conditions which the strength 
of the place induced Alexander to grant. (Anab. 
Alex. I. fin.) After the death of this sovereign, 
when Asia Minor had passed under the dominion Apamea 
of the Seleucidae, we are told that Antiochus Soter 
rem.oved the inhabitants of Celaenae to a spot situ- 
ate above the junction of the Orgas and Meander, 
where he founded a city which he named Apamea, 
from his mother Apama, daughter of Artabazus, 
and espoused to Seleucus Nicator. The new city 
soon became a place of great importance, from the 
fertility of the surrounding country, the abundance 
and beauty of the rivers which flowed around it, 
and, above all, its situation on the great road to 
Cappadocia and the Euphrates ; so that when Strabo 

VOL. II. E 



50 PHIIVGIA MAGNA. 

wrote, its traffick yieirJed only to tliat of Ephfsus, 
and it was the largest town of Plirygia, (XI f. p. 
577.) The origin of the term Cihotus, attached to 
Apatnea probably as a distinctive a]>pellation from 
the Syrian town of the same name, has not been 
explained. (Plin. V. 29.^') Cicero makes frequent 
mention of Apainea in his letters, particularly during 
his government in A.sia Minor. He held a court of 
justice there as chief magistrate, (Rip. ad Att. V. 
16 et 21. Kam. If. 17. V. 20. Orat. pro Flacc. c. 
28.) Pliny states, that it was the capital of a con- 
ventus, which included several of the neighbouring 
towns. (Plin. V. 29.) 

We learn from Tacitus that under the reign of 
Claudius, Apamea, having been much injured by the 
hlnjck of an eartliquake, was exempted from taxes for 
five years. (Ann. Xll. 58.) It nuist have fjeen on 
some such cataMtrophe as this tljat entire lakes, as Ni- 
colaus of Damascus reported, disappeared in the vici- 
nity of Apamea, while others on the contrary, which 
Iiad never seen the light, sj)read themselves over 
the plains, and rivers and fountains gushed forth'. 
7'his is said to liave happened in tiie time of Mitliri- 
dates. (Athen. VIII. p. 332.) Apamea, however, ap- 
pears to have survived all these disasters, since we 
find iJio Chrysostonj, in one of his orations, extolling 
the greatness and flourishing condition of tlie town. 
(XXXV. p. 432.) The church of Apamea does not 
fignre /imongst the earliest in the j)n)vince of Pliry- 

^> It appears on the coiim of <" 'J'his circuin.stance may ac- 

Apanufi. KlfUlTOf. AflAMKdN, count for thu hceining disrre- 

Thest.' nioiiiiitii-iilH aliO fre- panry botwccn the accoimls of 

(pii-ntly iilliidi! l(» the riverM Mar- the aiicientH and the prexent 

nya» and Meander .Se^tlini, p. appearance of the country. 



rURVGIA MAGNA. 51 

gia ^. 111 Hierocles it is ranked with the episcopal 
cities of Pisidia. to which it then belonged, (p. 673 : 
see Wesseling's note.) I find no mention of Apa- 
niea in the Byzantine historians ^ ; bnt it api>ears in 
the Table Itinerary, and its bishops are knox^ii to 
hare sat in the councils of Nice. The kiio'w ledge 
of this ancient site is of importance for clearing up 
the to|X)graphy of this part of Asia Minor. Pococke 
was the first traveller who communicated anv in- 
fonnation Mhich led to the idea that it stood at a 
place called Dm^/nrr, or Deenare, but he did not 
\-isit the site himself, and what he collected was 
only from re}X)rt *. Mr. Arundell seems to have 
settled this interesting question. From his account, 
there can be little doubt that Apamea and Celama^ 
stood at the present town of Dccnarc. He de- 
scribes it as situate nearly east, but a little inclined 
to the north from Khonas, and near the junction of 
three rivers. " We walked behind the town to- 
** wards the nortli-west. and saw considerable frag- 
** ments of walls, which had been covered with soil, 
" but lateh^ again exposed to view, partly by exca- 
" vation. and partly from the accidental falling away 
" of the earth ; these were at the base of the hill, 
" and underneath them issued the sources of a small 
" river. Ascendins: the hill, we found nearlv at the 
'* summit a theatre, with the subsellia remaining, 
" but the stones removed. Above this was a large 
*' area covered with pottery, probably the acropo- 

"* I should be led to infer ^ Nicetas speaks only of Ce- 

from this fact, that St. Paul bad laenve and the sources of the 

not visited this part of Phrygia Meander and Mareyas. Ann. p. 

in person, or at least bad not 115. D. 

remained there long enough to ^ Travels, toni. 111. p. 2. c. 

found a church. 1.5. 



2 



Cj 



52 PHRYGIA MAGNA. 

" lis. Descending again, we saw a river flowing 
" down through the valley under the acropolis on 
" the south-east side, which, after supplying several 
" mills, united in the plain before the town with 
" the smaller stream, whose sources we had just be- 
" fore remarked, and then fell into the larger river 
" which we had crossed last evening ; which, being 
" much increased in size by these additions, flowed 
" down through the plain which lay between the 
" two ridges of mountains on the north-west." Mr. 
Arundell copied several inscriptions, but none con- 
tained the name of Ajoamea ?. " Walking along 
" the south and south-east sides of the town, we 
" met with fragments of cornices and capitals, pe- 
" destals and columns. We remarked no ancient 
" buildings, probably because our search was not 
" sufficiently extended ; but above the town, on the 
" southern side of the river vmder the Acrojiolis, I 
" remarked large masses of stone. Deenare will 
" afford a most ami)le field for the future traveller ; 
" the situation is magnificent, and at once bespeaks 
" the former importance of Apollonia." (Apamea.) 
On inquiry *' for a hill in the neighbourhood, which 
" had a lake on its top, out of which flowed a river, 
" an old Turk instantly said, that is at the source of 
" the Meander, four hours from Deenare ^\" 

e One, containing the name to Arundell's Visit, &c. p. 109. 
of Apollonia, led Mr. Arundell ^ Visit to the Seven Churches, 
to believe that Deenare was not &c. p. 1 07 — 1 1 1 . See also Col. 
Apamea, but Apollonia in Phry- Leake's Journal. The chief 
gia ; but Col. Leake justly ob- doubt arising from the descrip- 
served that the inscription re- tion of Mr. Arundell is, that 
fers to Apollonia on the Rhyn- the source of the Marsyas agrees 
dacus, and concludes there can very little with the river call- 
be no doubt of the identity of ed Catarrhactes by Herodotus, 
Apamea and Deenare. Note which must have fallen over the 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 53 

To the east of Apamea and Celaenae, and beyond siibium. 
the source of the Meander, was the small town of 
Siibium, named by Ptolemy (p. 120.) and Pliny. (V. 
29.) In the Byzantine writers it is not frequently 
mentioned under the corrupt form, Sybleum or Sib- 
lia. It was restored and fortified by Manuel Com- 
nenus, but afterwards dismantled. (Nic. Ann. p. 115. 
A. p. 124. D.) Cinnamus, who calls it Syblas, says, 
it was near the first source of the Meander ; (p. 
174.) so I translate Tre^i irpwTag ttov tov Matavtpov i^pv- 
[j.evov en/SoXaf, and not " ad prima Maeandri ostia," as 
the Latin version renders it. We learn from Hie- 
rocles (p. 6.) and the Notices, that it was a bishop's 
see \ Apollonia, as we learn from the Table, was Apoiionia, 
twenty-four miles to the south-east of Apamea, ongium.' 
the road to Antioch of Pisidia. It is mentioned by 
Strabo as one of the minor towns of the province. 
(XII. p. 576.) Stephanus Byz. in the large list of 
towns which bore this name, assigns the eighteenth 
to Phrygia, and remarks that it was previously called 
Margium. (v. 'A-TroXkcovia.) Col. Leake is inclined to 
place it at Ketsi-hoiirlu, not far from the lake Bou- 
dour, where Mr. Arundell observed some remains of 
antiquity. The Orgas, which receives the waters 
of the Meander and Marsyas soon after their junc- 
tion, is a larger river than the former, but neverthe- 
less yields its name to the ascendency of that more 

precipice, or at least down a is known to have undergone a 

rapid. On the other hand, it similar alteration. 

is possible tliat the character of 1 There is but one known 

this river may have been com- coin of Siblium : according to 

pletely changed, owing to some Sestini the legend is CEIBAIA- 

earthquake, or other physical NHN. 

cause, just as the Anio in Italy 

E 3 



54 PHRYGIA MAGNA. 

celebrated stream. It receives itself the Glaucus, 
and other streams which come from the Peltene 
plain, and the Obrimas, which flows from the central 
chain of mountains connected with Taurus, and runs 
nearly in a straight course from east to west, if at 
least it is the stream which passes in the valley of 
Domhai-ovassi. Its modern name appears to be 
Nabis ; that of the Orgas, Tc/iorouk ^. Livy, in 
his narrative of the expedition of Manlius against 
the Gallo-Graeci, (XXXVIII. 15.) says, that he ar- 
rived on his march from Sagalassus in Pisidia at 
the sources of the Obrimas, and encamped there 
Aporidos- near a village called Aporidos-come, but which no 

come. 

other author has named, unless it should be, as I 
suspect, the same place which the Ecclesiastical No- 

Apiia. tices call Apira, and assign to Phrygia Pacatiana ^ 
In Lapie's map Aporidos-come is identified with the 
modern site of Olon JSou?'lou, placed by him at the 
source of the river Domhai-ovassi, I know not on 
what authority. Besides the towns hitherto de- 
scribed, and the positions of which are all nearly de- 
termined, we have several others whose sites have 
not yet been ascertained. These I purpose taking 
in alphabetical order. 

Alia, sive Alia, or Alii, is known from the Ecclesiastical 

Alii. ^T • 

Notices, and Hierocles, (p. 668.'") and its coins ". 
Appia. Appia is classed with the episcopal towns of 

Phrygia Pacatiana by Hierocles ; (p. 668.) but it is 
further deserving of attention from being mentioned 

^ Lapie's Map of Greece AAIOI ; but Wesseling justly 

and Asia Minor. corrects it to AAIOI. 

1 Geogr. Sacr. p. 240. » The epigraph is AAIHNON. 

'" Where the name is written Sestini, p. I \7 . 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 55 

by Cicero in a letter to Ajjpius Pulclier, (ad Fain. 
III. 7.) who it appears took some interest in the 
place, perhaps as its founder. Pliny says the Appi- 
ani belonged to the conventus of Synnada. (V. 29.) 

Aristium appears only in Hierocles and the Acts Aristium. 
of Councils among the towns of Phrygia Pacatiana. 
(p. 668.) 

Attuda comes under the same description, but itAtuuia. 
boasts further of several coins, from which it ap- 
pears to have been a place of some consequence '^. 

Atusia, if a unique coin adduced by Sestinii' beAmsia. 
genuine, was situated on the Caprus. 

Augustopolis is assigned to Phrygia Salutaris byAugusto- 
the Notices. (Cf. Suid. Ann. Comn. p. 318. B.) ^'"^''' 

Blaeandrus occurs in Ptolemy (p. 120.) and the Biaeaudius. 
Acts of the Council of Chalcedony but it may be 
doubted whether this is not the same as Blaundus, 
which Stepli. Byz. assigns to Phrygia, (v. BAai)^o^,) 
but others to Lydia. 

Briana finds a place in the list of Hierocles under Bnana. 
Phrygia Pacatiana, (p. 667.) and has the further 
evidence of two coins ''. 

Bryzon occurs in Ptolemy, (p. 120.) but under Bryzou. 
the false reading Dryzon, (Apv^m,) which must be 
corrected from the coins of the town ^ 

Cercopia is known from Pliny to have formed Cercopia. 



Sestini, p. 1 18. Epigraphe, r Sestini, p. 119. Briana. 

lEPA.BOTAH.ATTOTAEON.Cul- Autoiiomus unicus. Epigraphe, 

tus Mensis Cari, MHN.KAPOT. BPIANQN. Imperatorius Dom- 

Imperatorii Augiisti, iiideque nee, 
Vespasiani, &c. s Sestini, p. 119. Briizus. 

P Attusia vel Atusia. Autono- Imperatorii tantuni ab Anto- 

miis unicus. Epigraphe, ATOT- nino Pio usque ad Gordianuni. 

SIEON nP02 KAHPON. p. 1 19. Epigraphe, BPOTZHNftN. 



<i Geogr. Sacr. p. 241 



E 4 



56 



PHRYGIA MAGxNA. 



Ceretape. 



Aiilimle- 
iiiis tons 
vel flu-iiiis. 
C'idramus. 



Crasus. 



Debalacia. 



Dioclia. 



Diocaesa- 
rea. 



Dionysopo- 

lis. 



Dorieiiin et 
Dareiiim. 



part of the conventus of Synnada. (V. 29- Cf. Ptol. 
p. 120.) 

Ceretape may be classed with the towns of Phry- 
gia Pacatiana, on the authority of Hierocles (p. 666.) 
and other ecclesiastical documents, besides several 
coins. These point out a river or fountain named 
Aulindenus in the vicinity of the town *. 

Cidramus is only known from its coins, a descrip- 
tion of which is to be found in Sestini ". 

Crasus, which Hierocles assigns to Phrygia Paca- 
tiana, (p. 666.) is also mentioned by Theophanes, 
with reference to a victory gained there by the 
Saracens over the emperor Nicephorus. (Chronogr. 
p. 406. ap. Wessel. ad Hierocl.) 

Debalacia, or Debalicia, is to be placed in Phrygia 
Salutaris, on the authority of Hierocles, (p. 677.) if 
the name is not corrupt. 

Dioclia of the same writer (p. 668.) and the Coun- 
cils is supposed by Wesseling to be the Docela of 
Ptolemy, (p. 120.^) 

The latter writer has also a Diocaesarea in Phry- 
gia. 

Dionysopolis obtains a place from Pliny, who 
ascribes it to the conventus of Synnada, (V. 29.) 
and its coins >'. 

Dorieum and Darieum, which Stephanus Byz. 
gives to Phrygia, are probably one and the same. 
(vv. Aapeiov, Aopieiov.) 



t Ceretape. KEPETAOEnN. 
Mentio situs a fl. vel fonte sa- 
cro ATAINAHNOC. Sestini, p. 
1 ID. 

" Epigraplie, KlAPAMHNnN. 
Iiiiperalorii M. Auieiii, Cara- 
callce, kc. p. 120. 



^ Sestini reads Diococlia, from 
a cuin of Gorclianus Pius, with 
the epigraph AlOKOKAIEflN ; 
but the legend is dubious, p. 
121. 

y Sestini, p. 121. Epigraphe, 

AioNTConoAErrnN. 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 57 

Eudocia is only known from Hierocles. (p. 668.) Eudoda. 
Gammaiisa, or Gambua, occurs in no other geo-Gammaii- 
graplier but Ptolemy, (p. 120.) The same may beGamima. 

Gazena. 

said or Gazena. 

Geranea is found in Stephanus Byz. (v. Vepaveia.) Geranea. 

Iluza belonged to Phrygia Pacatiana, as we learn iiuza. 
from Hierocles and the Acts of Councils, (p. 667.) 

Leontocephale is mentioned by Appian as a strong Leontoce- 
fortress of Phrygia ; (Mithrid. c. 20.) perhaps it is 
the same as the Leontos-come of Athenaeus, whoLeontos- 
speaks of its warm springs. (II. p. 43.) Appian also 
places near it Alexander's inn, (Ake^dv'^pov irav^oKehv.) dherso- 

Locozus is said by Xanthus the historian to have Locozus. 
been founded by some Thracians, but it was de- 
stroyed by inundation. (Steph. Byz. v. AoV^^o^-.) 

Lunda is known from Hierocles and the Councils. Limda. 

(p. 667.) 

Lycaon should have a place, on the same author- Lycaon. 
ity, in Phrygia Salutaris, strengthened by that of 
Pliny, who ranges the Lycaones under the jurisdic- 
tion of Synnada. (V. 29.) Ptolemy fixes the Lyca- 
ones of Phrygia with the Themisonii on the borders 
of Lycia. (Ptol. p. 120.) 

Manesium and Mantalus occur in Stephanus, onManesium. 
the authority of Alexander Polyhistor. (vv. Mavrjum, 

Merus is classed by Hierocles and the Councils Merus. 
among the sees of Phrygia Salutaris. (Hierocl. p. 
677. Cf. Socr. Hist. Eccl. III. 15. Sozom. V. 11.) 

Molpe, or Molte, named by Hierocles as a bishop's Moipe, sive 
see of Phrygia Pacatiana, is perhaps no other than 
the Moccle of Steph. Byz. (v. MokkX-^,) to which again Moccie. 
we must refer the Moccalesii of Ptolemy, whom he 
places in the northern part of the province towards 



58 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 



I\Joxiaiii. 



Otrus. 



Pepuza. 



Pulcheria 
iiopolis. 



Bithyiiia. (p. 120.) The Moxiani are ranged by 
the same geographer after the Peltini. 

Hierocles names Ostrus, or Otrus, in Phrygia 
Sahitaris, (p. 676.) and his authority derives con- 
firmation from the Councils, and also from Plutarch, 
in his life of Lucullus. 

Pepuza gave its name to an obscure set of here- 
tics noticed by Epiphanius ; but they did not flourish 
long, since their town was ruined and deserted when 
he wrote. (XLVIII. 14. Cf. Philost. Hist. Eccl. IV. 
8.) Hierocles names it among the sees of Phrygia 
Pacatiana. (p. 677.) 

Pulcherianopolis, probably named after the em- 
press Pulcheria, is only known from Hierocles. (p. 
668.) 
Pyiacaeum. PylaCcTeum rcsts on the sole authority of Ptolemy, 
(p. 120.) It is probable that the people whom he 
calls Phylacesii, a little below, were connected with 
this town. 

Sala claims a place in Phrygia, on the evidence 
of Ptolemy and its coins, which are numerous, but 
chiefly of emperors j)osterior to the twelve Caesars '-. 

Sebaste is recognised by Hierocles and the Coun- 
cils in Phrygia Pacatiana, and is further knovvai 
from its coins ^. 

Sibindus, which the Ecclesiastical Notices assign 
to Phrygia Salutaris, should be written Sibidunda, 
from a unique coin of the reign of Caracalla ^. Si- 
tupolis is only known from Hierocles. (p. Qi^^.) 

Stectorium finds a place in the geography of Pto- 



Sala, 



Sebaste. 



Sibindus. 



SitujiDlis. 



Stectori 
imi. 



z The epii^raph is 2AAHNilN. DomncC, Caracallae, &c. 
Sestini, p. 120. ^ Sestini, p. 120. Sibidunda 

a Sestini, p. 126. Sebaste. corrupte Sibiidi in Notitiis. Ini- 

Antononii. Epigraphe, AHMOC peratorius unicus Caracallae. E- 

CeBACTHNON. Imperatorii pigraphe, C'lBIAOTNAEON. 



THRYGIA MAGNA. 59 

leniy, according to some MSS. : others read Isto- 
rium ; but the former orthography is proved by 
Hierocles, who names it in Phrygia Salutaris ; and 
still further by the coins of the town '^. 

Struthia is placed in this province, but on thestruthia. 
borders of Lycaonia, by Steph. Byz. (v. Y.Tpov6eia.) 

Syassus is assigned to Phrygia by the samesyassus. 
geographer ; (v. Yvaaaog.) it is said to have re- 
mained for some time in the hands of the Cimme- 
rians. 

Tarandrus is a place in Phrygia, according to the Tarandius. 
same writer, (v. Tdpavtpog.) 

Tiberiopolis, probably founded or restored by the Tiberiopo- 
emjieror whose name it bore, is assigned to Phrygia 
by Ptolemy, (p. 120.) the historian Socrates, (VII. 
46.) Hierocles, (p. 668.) and the Councils. Its coins 
also are not uncommon, and prove it to have been a 
place of some note. On one of them reference is 
made, as Sestini imagines, to a river or fountain 
Tilius 'I. 

Tibium is a mountain of Phrygia, whence theTibium 

mous. 

name of Tibii commonly given to slaves, (bteph. 
Byz. V. TijSeiov, where see the note of Berkelius.) 

Trajanopolis would only be known from Ptolemy, Trajano- 
its coins % and the Council of Constantinople, (II. 
p. 240.) unless we are allowed to add to these author- 
ities that of Hierocles, who writes the name corruptly 
Tanupolis. Ptolemy (p. 119.) assigns Trajanopolis 

*^ Sestini, p. 126. Stectorium a fonte TIAI. Sestin. p. 127. 
Autonomi.Epigraphe,CTEKTO- e Sestini, p. 127. Trajanopo- 

PHNON. lis Autonomi. Epigraphe, AH- 

dEpigraphe, AHMOCorCTN- MOC — I EPA. CTNKAHTOC 

KAHTOC TIBEPIOnOAEITON. TPAIANOOOAITON. Imperato- 

Imperatorii Trajani, Hadriani, rii Trajani, Hadriani, L. Veri, 

&c. Menlio situs a fluvio vel &c. 



60 



PHRYGIA MAGNA. 



Tribanta. 



Trinessa. 



Tymenffi- 
um mons. 

Pharnacia. 



C'liarax 
Alexaiidri. 



Caria,Tan. 
talus. 



Charax. 



Clnlioco- 

mon. 

I^ampe. 



Limmo- 

cheir. 

Hyelium. 



Luma. 

I'entachi- 

ra. 

Myrioce- 
phalus. 

Choma. 



to the Trimenothyritaj, or Temenothyritae, of whom 
we have ah-eady spoken under the head of Mysia, 
which Pausanias (Attic, c. 35.) and others assigned 
to Lydia. 

Tribanta is only known from Ptolemy, who places 
it next to A^acolea. (p. 120.) 

Trinessa is placed by Stej^hanus Byz. in Phrygia, 
on the authority of Theopompus. (v. Tpivrjo-cja..) 

Tymenaeum was a mountain of the same province. 
(Id. V. Tvfxevaiov.) 

Pharnacia is given on the testimony of Alexan- 
der Polyhistor. (Id. v. ^apvuKia.) 

Charax Alexandri obtained its name from the 
encampment of that sovereign, near Celaense. (Id. v. 

Xapa^.) 

To this list, taken from ancient writers, may be 
added a few places derived from the more modern 
authority of the Byzantine historians. 

Caria and Tantalus, towns of Phrygia, taken 
and razed by the sultan of Iconium. (Nic. Ann. 
p. 319. C.) 

Charax, between Lampe and Graosgala, in Phry- 
gia. (Nicet. Ann. p. 127. B. p. 159. B.) 

Chiliocomon, near Doryleum. (Cedren. p. 531.) 

Lamjie, or Lampis, was near Celaenae. (Nicet. 
Ann. p. 115. D. p. 127. B.) 

Limmocheir and Hyelium, small places on the 
Meander, where there had once been a bridge. 
(Nicet. Ann. p. 125. D.) 

Luma and Pentachira, fortresses near the Mean- 
der, taken by the Turks. 

Myriocephalus, a fortress of Phrygia, near which 
the Greeks under Man. Comnenus were defeated by 
the Turks. Choma, a place near it, a defile between 



LYCAONIA. 61 

continuous mountains called Tzybitza, on the road TzyWtza 

to Iconium. (Nicet. Ann. p. 115, et seq.) 

Paipert, a fortress near Philomeliura. (Ann. Comn. Paipert. 

p. 326.) 

LYCAONIA. 

When Herodotus wrote his history, the Phry- 
gians, or at least tribes included under that general 
name, extended as far as the Halys, which divided 
them from Cappadocia. (I. 72.) He nowhere makes 
mention of the Lycaonians, who appear to have a 
place in history for the first time in the Anabasis of 
Xenophon. (I. 2. 19.) Cyrus marched through their 
country in five days, and gave it up to plunder, be- 
cause the inhabitants were hostile. Like the Pisi- 
dians, the Lycaonians were a hardy mountain race, 
who owned no subjection to the Persian king, but 
lived by plunder and foray. They nominally fol- 
lowed the revolutions which befell Asia Minor; 
first, in being under the rule of Alexander, then 
of the Seleucidae and Antiochus, Eumenes king 
of Pergamum, and finally of the Romans. (Liv. 
XXXVH. 54. XXXVIII. 39.) Under this change 
of rulers the character of the people remained the 
same : 

Dion. Pekieg. v. 857. 

daring and intractable, they still continued their law- 
less and marauding habits, till at last the Romans 
■were compelled to send an army against them, and 
to curb their system of plunder by force of arms. 
The Isauri, who were a Lycaonian tribe, are said to 
have offered the greatest resistance, and the consul 
Publius Ser villus, who achieved their subjection, 
was thought worthy of adding the title of Isauricus 



62 LYCAONIA. 

to the trophies he had gained on this occasion. 
(Strab. XII. p. 568. Eutrop. VI. 3. Flor. III. 6. 
Epit. Liv. XCIII.) The Lycaonians, though origin- 
ally a small and insignificant peojDle, had acquired 
a greater political consistency and extent of terri- 
tory, under the conduct of Aniyntas their chief, 
whom Strabo even dignifies with the appellation of 
king. This leader liad gained by force of arms a 
considerable part of Pisidia, and a portion of Lycao- 
nia, previously occupied by another bandit chief, 
named Antipater, whom he conquered and slew. 
(Strab. XII. p. 569.) The favour of Antony subse- 
quently obtained for Amyntas still greater acqui- 
sitions ; since he was put in possession of all the 
territory which had belonged to Dejotarus, tetrarch 
of Galatia, together with a great part of Pamphylia. 
(Appian. Bell. Civ. c. 75. Dio Cass. XLIX. c. 32.) 
This prosperity was, however, of short duration ; 
for in his attempt to reduce some of the mountain 
tribes on the borders of Cilicia, he fell into a snare 
laid for him by the Homonadenses, the principal 
clan of these highlanders, and was put to death by 
them : after which, the whole of his principality 
devolved to the Roman empire. (Strab. XII. p. 569.) 
The northern part of Lycaonia is described by Strabo 
as a cold and bleak country, especially where it bor- 
dered on Galatia, in the vicinity of the great salt 
lake Tattaea ; there, too, water was so scarce, that 
wells were sunk to an unusual depth, and in some 
places water was actually sold. The mountain pas- 
tures, however, afforded herbage for vast flocks of 
sheep, whose wool, though coarse, yielded a consi- 
derable profit to the j)roprietors. Augustus is said 
to have fed there more than 300 flocks. (Strab. XII. 



LYCAONIA. 63 

p. 568.) Towards the east, the Lycaonians bordered 
on Cappadocia, from which they were separated by 
the Halys ; while towards the south, they extended 
themselves from the frontiers of Cilicia to the coun- 
try of the Pisidians. Between them and the latter 
people, there seems to have been considerable affinity 
of character, and probably also of blood ; both na- 
tions, I conceive, being originally sprung from the 
ancient Solymi ; but subsequently distinguished from 
each other, from the various increments M'hich each 
received from the nations in their immediate vicinity. 
Thus, while the Pisidians were intermixed with the 
Carians, Lycians, and Phrygians, the Lycaonians 
received colonists probably from Cappadocia, Cilicia, 
Pamphylia, Phrygia, and Galatia ; at the same time 
that both, in common with all the nations of Asia 
Minor, had no small proportion of Greek settlers in 
their principal towns. It is a curious fact, which 
we derive from the New Testament, (Acts xiv. 11.) 
that the Lycaonians had a peculiar dialect, which 
therefore must have differed from the Pisidian lan- 
guage ; but even that, as we know from Strabo, was 
a distinct tongue from that of the ancient Solymi. 
(XIII. p. 631.) It is however very probable, that 
the Lycaonian idiom was only a mixture of these 
and the Phrygian language ^ 

Strabo includes Isauria within the limits of Ly- 
caonia ; but Pliny assigns the latter rather to Pam- 
phylia. (V. 27.) I shall here adopt the arrangement 
of the former geographer, as it accords with that of 
Hierocles and the Notitiae. 



f The reader will find this Jablonski de Ling. Lycaon. 
question elaborately discussed Opusc. torn. III. p. 8. 
in the learned treatise of Prof. 



64 LYCAONIA. 

iconium. The most considerable and celebrated town of 
Lycaonia was Iconium, to which we had nearly 
arrived in our periegesis of Phrygia, which termi- 
nated at Philomelium : that place, as we know from 
Cicero, being only one day's journey from the city 
of which we are now speaking. (Att. V. 20.) Xeno- 
phon, who mentions it for the first time in his Ana- 
basis, ascribes it to Phrygia. (I. 2.) Cicero, however, 
certainly places it in Lycaonia ; (Ep. Fam. XV. 3. 
Cf. III. 6 et 8.) he mentions his army being en- 
camped there for several days previous to entering 
on the Cilician campaign. Strabo says, Iconium 
was a small, but well inhabited town, situate in a 
more fertile tract of country than the northern part 
of Lycaonia : this district had once been subject to 
Polemo. (XII. p. 568.) Mythological writers as- 
serted, that the name of this city was derived from 
the image (eiKuv) of the Gorgon, brought there by 
Perseus. The grammarian Choeroboscus observes, 
however, that the first syllable was pronounced 
short by Menander ; (Cod. Barocc. 50. f. 134.) he 
has been copied by the Etymol. IM. and Eustath. 
(Dionys. Perieg. 857.) But the most interesting cir- 
cumstances connected with the history of Iconium, 
are those which relate to St. Paul's preaching there, 
towards the commencement of his apostolical mis- 
sion to the Gentiles. We read in Acts xiii. 51. that 
St. Paul and Barnabas, having been expelled from 
Antioch in Pisidia, by a persecution of the Jews, 
" shook off the dust of their feet against them, and 
" came unto Iconium. And the disciples were filled 
" with joy, and witli the Holy Ghost. And it came 
" to pass in Iconium, that they went both together 
" into the synagogue of the Jews, and so spake, that 



LYCAONIA. 05 

* a great multitude both of the Jews and also of the 
' Greeks believed. But the unbelieving Jews stirred 

* up the Gentiles, and made their minds evil affected 

* against the brethren. Long time therefore abode 
' they speaking boldly in the Lord, which gave tes- 

* timony unto the word of his grace, and granted 

* signs and wonders to be done by their hands. But 

* the multitude of the city was divided : and part 
' held with the Jews, and part with the apostles. 

* And when there was an assault made both of the 
Gentiles, and also of the Jews with their rulers, 
to use them despitefully, and to stone them, they 
were aware of it, and fled unto Lystra and Derbe, 

' cities of Lycaonia, and unto the region that lieth 

* round about." Even there, however, they were 
pursued by their furious enemies, and Paul was only 
preserved by divine interposition from the effects of 
their blind rage. Nevertheless he and Barnabas re- 
turned to Iconium after a time, to confirm and 
strengthen the disciples, and to appoint elders over the 
church, (v. 21 — 23.) This city appears from Hie- 
rocles, and the Acts of Councils, to have been always 
considered the metropolis of Lycaonia?. In Pliny's 
time Iconium had become a more considerable town 
than it was when Strabo wrote, for he says, " Datur 
" et tetrarchia ex Lycaonia qua parte Galatise con- 
" termina est, civitatum XIV. urbe celeberrima Ico- 
" nio." (V. 27. Cf. Steph. Byz. v. 'k-owov.) Under the 
Byzantine emperors frequent mention is made of this 
city, but it had been wrested from them first by the 
Saracens, and afterwards by the Turks, who made it 
the capital of an empire, the sovereigns of which 
took the title of sultans of Iconium. They were 

S See Wesseling on Hierocles, p. 675. 
VOL. II. F 



66 LYCAONIA. 

constantly engaged in hostilities with the Greek 
emperors and the crusaders, witli various success ; 
and they must be considered as having laid the 
foundation of the Ottoman power in Asia Minor, 
which commenced under Osman Oglou, and his de- 
scendants, on the termination of the Iconian dy- 
nasty, towards the beginning of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. Konia, as it is now called by the Turks, is a 
large and populous town, the residence of a Pasha. 
Col. Leake states, that he saw there several Greek 
inscriptions, and remains of architecture and sculp- 
ture, but they aj^peared to belong chiefly to the 
Byzantine Greeks'". 

Strabo mentions two lakes in the neighbourhood 
Caraiis pa- of Icouium ; the largest of these he names Caralis, 

Ills. , 

Trogitis the other Trogitis. The former was situated, as 

palus. 

we shall see, to the south-west of the town, on the 
borders of Pisidia and Pamphylia ; but Trogitis may 
have been the lake in the immediate vicinity of Ico- 
nium, and occupying, as Col. Leake observes, the 
centre of the plain in which that town is seated '. 
But on the side of Galatia was a much more exten- 
Tattrea give lake, named Tattsea, which had originally be- 
longed to Phrygia, but afterwards was annexed to 
the Lycaonian tetrarchy. Its waters were so im- 
pregnated with brine, that if any substance was 
dij)ped into the lake, it was presently incrusted with 
a thick coat of salt ; and even birds, when flying 

" Asia Minor, p. 48. The NIEON. But certainly under 

coins of Iconium prove that it Hadrian. Imperat. Gordiani 

had once obtained the distinc- Pii, Valeriani Sen. et Gallieni. 

lion of a Roman colony, per- Col. iEL. HAD. ICONIENSI. 
haps under Claudius. Sestini. i Col. Leake is inclined to 

Epigraphe, IKONIEnN. Impe- think that Trogitis was the lake 

ratorii Neronis, Hadriani, &c. of Ilgun, but that \vould be in 

p. 1)7. Ej)igraplic, KAATAEIKO- I'lirygia. 



LYCAONIA. 67 

near the surface, had their wings moistened with 
the saline particles, so as to become incapable of 
rising into the air, and were easily caught. (Strab. 
XII. p. 568. Dioscor. V. 126.) Stephanus Byz. 
s^ieaks of a lake Attaea in Phrygia, which j)roduced 
salt ; near it was the town of Botieum. (v. Borieiov.) Botieum. 
It is probably the Tattaea of Strabo. The Turks 
call it Ttizla, and it still continues to furnish in 
abundance the substance for which it was anciently 
famous '^. Soatra, or Sabatra ^, was a small town Soatia, 
in this direction, but nearer the Cappadocian iron-tra. 
tier. The Table Itinerary places it on a road lead- 
ing aj)parently from Laodicea Catacecaumene to Ico- 
nium, the distance from the former being fifty-five 
miles, and from the latter forty-four. But there 
must be some great error in the construction of the 
Itinerary, as the distance between Laodicea and Ico- 
nium, which is omitted, cannot be more than twenty- 
five miles. Sabatra is also noticed by Ptolemy, (jj. 
124.) Hierocles, (p. 676.) and the Councils. Ac- 
cording to Strabo, water was so scarce at Sabatra 
as to be an article for sale. On the neighbouring 
downs were wild asses. (XII. p. 568.) The last 
place of Lycaonia on the side of Cappadocia was 
Coropassus, or Coropissus'^\ on the great road to Coropissus. 
that province and the Euphrates. (Artemid. ap. 
Strab. XIV. p. 663. XII. p. 568.) It is not men- 
tioned, I believe, by other writers, and was appa- 
ll Leake's Asia Minor, p. 70. ^ Coropissus appears to be 
1 The real name, according the true mode of writing tlie 
to the coins, is Sabatra ; i. e. name, from the coins of this 
'Sa.ova.rpa in Greek. Sestini, p. town. Sestini, p. 97. Coropis- 
97. Savatra. Imperatorii tan- sus. Imperatorii Hadriani. Epi- 
tum Antonini Pii. Epigraphe, graphe, MHTPO. KOPOOIC- 
CAOTATPEnN. CEQN. 

F 2 



68 LYCAONIA. 

reiitly only a small town. It was 120 stadia from 
Garsabora on the frontier of Cappadocia. Towards 
Cappadocia also, but more to the south, we must 
seek for Derbe and Lystra, two towns of Lycaonia, 
which derive considerable interest from what befell 
St. Paul and Barnabas there on leaving Iconium. 
Derbe, as we learn from Strabo, had been the re- 
Derbe. sidcuce and capital of Antipater, the robber chief 
of Lycaonia, mentioned above : but he being con- 
quered and slain by Amyntas, Derbe and his other 
possessions fell into the hands of the latter. (XII. 
p. 569.) Stephanus Byz. reports, that this town was 
called by some Delbia, which in the Lycaonian lan- 
guage signified " the juniper." The same lexicogra- 
pher describes it as a fortress and port of Isauria ; 
but I agree with the French translators of Strabo in 
thinking that for A//x>jy we ought to substitute A/^vry, 
which would imply that the town was situated near 
some one of the numerous lakes that are to be found 
in this part of Asia Minor. Col. Leake is disposed 
to identify Derbe with some extensive ruins he heard 
of near Kassaha. They are called Bnihir-Krissciy 
or 1000 churches, and are situated at the foot of a 
lofty insulated mountain named Karadagh, to the 
south-east of Iconium ; but as he did not explore 
the site himself, we cannot be certain that it an- 
swers to Derbe ". Strabo places that town on the 
border of Isauria and towards Cappadocia : Ptolemy 
assigns it to a particular district, which he calls An- 
tiochiana, (p. 124.) distinct from Lycaonia, but con- 
tiguous to it to the south-east. Stephanus Byz. (v. 
Ae/?/3v;) says it was in Isauria, but St. Luke, in the 

" Asia Minor, p 101. 



LYCAONIA. 69 

Acts, and Hierocles (p. 675.) place it in Lycaonia. 
Cicero states, in one of his letters to Q. Philippus, 
that he had been treated with great civility and 
kindness by Antipater of Derbe ; whence it would 
seem that he had passed through or near it, on his way 
to Cilicia from Iconium. Philip, on the other hand, 
who had also been proconsul in Asia Minor, appears 
to have been much displeased with this Lycaonian 
chief. (Cic. ad Fam. XIII. 73.) Lystra, as Col. 
Leake remarks justly, must have been situated nearer 
to Iconium, since St. Paul proceeded there first on 
leaving the latter city. It is not noticed by Strabo, 
and probably was not so considerable a place. It is 
mentioned, however, by Ptolemy (p. 124.) and Hie- 
rocles. (p. 675.) What relates to the incidents which 
took place at Lystra and Derbe in the history of 
St. Paul, will best be collected from the words of 
St. Luke. Having been threatened with an assault 
on the part of the Gentiles and Jews of Iconium, he 
says, " they were ware of it, and fled unto Lystra 
" and Derbe, cities of Lycaonia, and unto the region 
" that lieth round about : and there they preached 
" the Gospel. And there sat a certain man at Lys- 
" tra, impotent in his feet, being a crij^ple from his 
" mother's womb, who never had walked : the same 
" heard Paul speak : who stedfastly beholding him, 
" and perceiving that he had faith to be healed, said 
" with a loud voice. Stand vipright on thy feet. And 
he leaped and walked. And when the people saw 
what Paul had done, they lifted up their voices, 
saying in the speech of Lycaonia, l^he gods are come 
" down to us in the likeness of men. And they 
" called Barnabas, Jupiter ; and Paul, Mercurius, 
" because he was the chief speaker. Then the priest 

F 3 



70 LYCAONIA. 

" of Jupiter, which was before their city, brought 
" oxen and garlands unto the gates, and would have 
" done sacrifice with the people. Which when the 
" apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of, they rent 
" their clothes, and ran in among the people, crying 
" out, and saying, Sirs, why do ye these things ? 
" We also are men of like passions with you, and 
" preach unto you that ye should turn from these 
" vanities unto the living God, which made heaven, 
" and earth, and the sea, and all things that are 
" therein : who in times past suffered all nations to 
" walk in their own ways. Nevertheless he left not 
" himself without witness, in that he did good, and 
" gave us rain from heaven, and fruitful seasons, 
" filling our hearts with food and gladness. And 
" with these sayings scarce restrained they the peo- 
" pie, that they had not done sacrifice unto them. 
" And there came thither certain Jews from An- 
" tioch and Iconium, who persuaded the people, and, 
" having stoned Paul, drew him out of the city, sup- 
" posing he had been dead. Howbeit, as the dis- 
" ciples stood round about him, he rose up, and 
" came into the city : and the next day he departed 
" with Barnabas to Derbe. And when they had 
" preached the Gospel to that city, and had taught 
" many, they returned again to Lystra, and to Ico- 
" nium, and Antioch." Acts xiv. 6 — 21. I find no 
mention of Derbe or Lystra in the Byzantine writ- 
ers, but a bishop of the latter see sat in the council of 
Chalcedon ". Col. Leake is inclined to place Lystra 
at K/tatoun Serai, about thirty miles to the south- 

" Wesscliiig's note to Hie- no coins extai)t of these two 
rofles, |). (i/."). It is somewhat towns. 
Nitigiilar that there shuiikl he 



LYCAONIA. 71 

ward of Iconium °. Larancla, which according toLaianda. 
Strabo belonged originally to Antipater of Derbe, 
must have stood at no great distance from the latter 
town. (Strab. XII. p. 569.) Diodorus seems to as- 
sign it to Pisidia, (XVIII. 22.) but Stephanus Byz. 
(v. Adpav'^a) and Hierocles (p. 675.) to Lycaonia. 
(Cf. Ammian. Marcell. XIV. 2.) Suidas says, La- 
randa was the birthplace of Nestor, an epic poet, 
and father of Pisander, also a poet, and of greater 
celebrity P. (Cf. Ptol. p. 124. Euseb. Hist. Eccl. VI. 
19. M. Due. p. 123.) Laranda has been replaced by 
the Turkish town of Karamaii, about three days' 
journey to the south of Iconium. Col. Leake says 
the ancient name is still in use among the Christian 
inhabitants of the place ; but there are no remains 
of any importance °^. lUisera, a small place in the 
same vicinity, is thought by the same geographer to 
represent Ilistra ^ an obscure town, assigned to this lUstra. 
province by Hierocles and the Notices ; its bishops 
are also known to have sat in the councils of Ephe- 
sus and Chalcedon *. Misthea, which Hierocles Misthea. 
names after Lystra, is known also from the Coun- 
cils and Theophanes. (Chron. p. 320.) Nicephorus, 
the Byzantine historian, seems to place it on the 
borders of Cilicia. (Niceph. Phoc. c. 20.) 

Vasoda, which occurs likewise in the list of Hie-Vasoda. 
rocles, must have been near Misthea, as Wesseling 
rightly observes from a passage in Basil. (Ep. 118.) 
This Lycaonian town is further known from Pto- 



o Asia Minor, p. 102. ^ Asia Minor, p. 98—100. 

P The lexicographer says, There are no coins of Laranda. 

N€(TT(<j/j AapavSev^eV Aw(a?,which i" Asia Minor, p. 102. 

is either a mistake, or else we * Wesseling's note to Hie- 

must substitute e/< Awacv/a^ rocles. 

F 4 



72 



LYCAONIA. 



Parlais. 

Coma. 

Canna. 

Casbia. 

Perta. 

Adopissus. 



Barate. lemy and the Acts of several councils. Barate, ac- 
cording to the Table Itinerary, was fifty miles from 
Iconium, and thirty-nine from Tyana in Cappadocia. 

Hyde. Ptolemy and Hierocles likewise notice it. Hyde 
stood, as Pliny remarks, on the confines of Galatia 

Thebasa. and Cappadocia. (V. 27- Cf. Hierocl. p. 675.) The- 
basa, according to the Latin geographer, was placed 
within mount Taurus. (Plin. loc. cit. Cf. Paul. Dia- 
con. XXIV. p. 770, 771.) 

Ptolemy assigns to Lycaonia, Parlais, Corna, 
Canna, Casbia, Perta, and Adopissus. Parlais, of 
which several coins are extant of the reigns of M. 
Aurelius, Gallienus, and other emperors, appears 
from these monuments to have been a place of some 
consequence, and a Roman colony ^ Corna is also 
mentioned by Hierocles, (p. 676.) in whose list we 
find Carna, (read Canna from Ptolemy and the 
Councils,) and Pterna, (read Perta from the same 

Giauama. authorities,) Glauama, and Rignum. The latter is 

Rignum. the Ricouium of Pliny, according to the reading of 
the best MSS., not Iconium. He places it in Cilicia. 
(V. 27.) 

ISAURIA. 

The Isauri, though classed by Strabo and other 
geographers under Lycaonia, are sufficiently cele- 
brated in history to deserve a separate mention in 
our work. They appear to have occupied the moun- 
tainous country south of Lycaonia, properly so called, 
and bordering on Cilicia and Pisidia. Living in a 



t Sestini, p. 97. Parlais Im- 
peratorii ColonicC nomine a M. 
Aiirelio ad jMaximinum. Epi- 
^raphcPARLAIS. COL— CO- 
LON. PAUL, vel IV L. AVG. 



COL. PARLAIS. Gallieni 
Graeci inscripti et abs(pie Colo- 
nise mentione Epigraphe IIAd- 
AAinN vel OAdAAlEnN. 



ISAURIA. 73 

wild and rugged tract, the character of this people 
partook of the nature of the air and soil in which 
they were bred. They descended into the plain 
country, and ravaged and plundered wherever they 
could overcome the resistance of the inhabitants of 
the valleys, whether in Cilicia, Phrygia, or Pisidia, 
These marauding habits rendered them so formida- 
ble to their neighbours, that the Roman senate was 
obliged at length to send a considerable force against 
them, under the command of P. Servilius, A. U. C. 
674. After several campaigns, and a laborious and 
harassing warfare, this general succeeded in con- 
quering most of their fortresses, and reducing them 
to submission. These successes were thought suf- 
ficiently important to obtain for him the honours of 
the triumph, and the surname of Isauricus. (Strab. 
XII. p. 568, 569. Eutrop.VI.3. Liv. Epitom. XCIII. 
Dio Cass. XLV. 16. Flor. III. 6.) The Isaurians 
were then separate from the Lycaonians, for Cicero 
distinguishes between the Forum Lycaonium and 
the Isauricum. (Att. V. 21. Cf. ad Fam. XV. 2.) 
Subsequently, however, we find that they still con- 
tinued to infest their neighbours, which induced 
Amyntas, the Lycaonian tetrarch, to attempt their 
extirpation. In this project, however, he lost his 
life ; and they continued to defy the power of Rome, 
from the difficult nature of their country and the 
celerity of their movements. To the Greek emperors 
they proved particularly formidable, since whole ar- 
mies are said to have been cut in pieces and de- 
stroyed by these hardy mountaineers ; (Suid. vv. 
Bpvxioi, 'UpaK^eiog.) and they even made inroads into 
distant parts of Asia Minor and Syria. (Philostorg. 
Hist. Eccl. XL 8.) They had once the honour of 



74 ISAURIA. 

giving an emperor to the east, Zeno, surnamed the 
Isaurian ; but they were subsequently much reduced 
by Anastasius, and were no longer formidable in the 
time of Justinian ". We are but little acquainted 
with the wild and retired district occupied by the 
Isaurians ; but I conceive it answers nearly to that 
portion of the pashalick oiKo)iieh, which the Turks 
call Sei-cher. It consists chiefly of a bason, sur- 
rounded by mountains, and occu2)ied partly by some 
extensive lakes. Taurus was its principal barrier to 
the west and south, and on the north and east it was 
separated by a secondary range of hills from the 
bason of Iconium. The principal town bore the 
isaura national name of Isaura. Strabo reports that it was 
Eu^ces. ceded by the Romans to Amyntas, who caused the 
old town to be destroyed, and commenced the founda- 
tion of a new city, which he surrounded with walls, 
but did not live to complete the work. Hence the 
distinction which the geographer elsewhere makes 
of Isaura Pala?a and Euerces. (XII. p. 568, 569- Cf. 
Plin. V. 27. Diod. Sic. XVIII. p. 605. Ammian. 
Marcell. XIV. 8. Steph. Byz. v. "laavpa. Hierocl. 
J). 675^.) The Table Itinerary leads us to look for 
this town on a line of road communicating between 
Iconium and Anemurium in Cilicia, agreeably to 
Pliny's account, who says that Isauria stretches 
down towards the sea in that direction ; (V. 27.) 
but the numbers are very defective and incorrect. 
Taspa. Taspa, which is placed between Iconium and Isau- 
ria, is j)erliaps the Thebasa of Pliny. At all events 

" See Gibbon, t. IX. c. 40. saura) Iinperatorii Getae etEla- 

|>- l.'iO— 33; and the numerous gabali. Epigraphe, MHTPOnO- 

autlioritics ([uoled l)y liini. AEI12 ICATPHN, 

* .'Seslini, p. *J(i, Isaiinis (I- 



ISAURIA. 75 

we must seek for the capital of the Isaurians in the 
plain country at the foot of Taurus, and where the 
chain affords some passage into the neighbouring- 
province of Cilicia. 

Lalassisy was higher up in the mountains, andLaiasMs, 
on the very border of Cilicia, as appears from Pliny. '|^^^j?j^^*^^ 
(loc. cit.) This town is probably the Lalisanda of 
Stephanus Byz. who informs us that, in his time, 
the name was changed to Dalisanda. (v. AaAiVav^a.) 
It occurs, under the latter form, in Hierocles (p.710.) 
and Ptolemy. We are informed by Basilius of Se- 
leucia, who is quoted by Wesseling in his notes to 
Hierocles, that this town stood on a lofty height, 
but well 211'ovided with water, and not destitute of 
other advantages. It was, however, greatly reduced, 
and almost deserted. (Mirac. S. Thee. II. 10.) Cli- ciibamis. 
banus, which Pliny assigns to the Isauri, is un- 
known. 

Carallia is another Isaurian city, according tocaraiiia. 
Steph. Byz. ; (v. KapaXKi$.) the same, doubtless, 
which Hierocles and the Councils assign to Pam- 
phylia. (p. 6S2^.) There is little doubt that we 
must refer to this town, or rather its vicinity, the 
lake Caralitis, which Strabo mentions as being not Caraiitis 

palus. 

far fromlconium; (XII. p. 568.) and accordingly we 
find, in modern maps, a lake called Kerali, to the 
west oi Konieh, in the direction of Isauria; and also 
another, more to the south, which is named after the 

y This appears to be the true ^ There are some scarce im- 

name from the coins of the ))erial coins of Karallia with 

town. Sestini, p. 96. Lalassis. the inscription KAPAAAIfiTON. 

Autononii. Epigraphe, AAAA. They belong to the reigns of 

EK. in nummo argenteo. AA- M. Aureiiiis^ Pescennius, and 

AACCEaN,vel AAAA22.ENTIM. Maximinus, Sestini, p. 96. 
in aeneis. 



76 ISAURIA. 

town of Bei-cher, situate near it ; and this may be 
the Trogitis of Strabo. But the maps express the 
reverse of his statement ; for they make the lake of 
JBei-cJier much more extensive than that of KeraU ; 
whereas, in the ancient geographer, Caralis is the 
larger. I have also other reasons for supposing that 
the representative of the latter is not well described 
in our maps. I find, in the Byzantine writers, men- 
tion made of a very extensive lake in the neighbour- 
hood of Iconium, which I imagine must be Caralis. 
The circumstances related by these historians are 
Pusgiisa curious. Nicetas, who calls it Pusgusa, says it con- 
tained several islands, the inhabitants of which were 
Christians, but supposed to be ill affected to the 
Greeks on account of their vicinity to the Turks of 
Iconium. The emperor John Comnenus determined, 
in consequence, to get rid of them ; but, as they re- 
fused to submit, he was obliged to besiege their 
islands by means of boats and bridges. This proved 
a work of great difficulty, especially on account of 
some storms, which raised the waters of the lake, 
and destroyed several of the besiegers ; the emperor 
was obliged, therefore, to give up the enterprise, 
and retire into Isauria, which at that time comprised 
Pamphylia. (Nicet. Ann. p. 25. A.) Cinnamus sup- 
plies some further information, in which the narra- 
tive of Nicetas is deficient. He calls the lake Pas- 
gusa, and says it was of very great extent. The 
islands in it had had fortifications raised on them in 
former times, which added to their natural strength. 
The emperor Comnenus, being then at war with the 
Turks, and in the vicinity, apparently, of Iconium, 
hearing that the enemy were besieging Sozopolis, a 
town of Pisidia, determined to march to the relief 



ISAURIA. 77 

of that place, but on his way he heard that the 
enemy had retreated. Finding himself then at li- 
berty in this quarter, he resolved on expelling the 
inhabitants of the islands on the lake Pasgusa, espe- 
cially when he learnt that they were able to go from 
thence to Iconium, and return the same day. He 
goes on then to describe the siege, and its difficulties, 
but he asserts that the Greek emperor at last suc- 
ceeded in his undertaking, (p. 12, 13.) Elsewhere 
the same writer speaks of a lake Pungusa, formerly 
called Sclerus, which was in some plains not far 
from Iconium apparently, which the emperor Ma- 
nuel Comnenus passed on his retreat from that city, 
(p. 32.) Allowing these facts to be correctly stated, 
we must expect to find a great lake, with islands, 
somewhere between Iconium and Pisidia, but not 
more than fifteen miles or so from the former, since 
the Christians, who lived on the lake, could go thi- 
ther and return the same day. Whether the lake 
of Kerali would answer to this description can only 
be ascertained from actual inspection ; and I am not 
aware that any traveller has explored it. Lucas, 
who must have passed between it and the lake of 
Sei-cher, only notices the latter, which he describes 
as very large and briny. The salt even formed 
small hillocks, from which it was collected. There 
appear to have been no islands on it, so it cannot 
answer to Pasgusa, or Pusgusa ; the water of which 
besides was probably not salt. With respect to the 
name of Sclerus, by which the latter lake, as Cinna- 
mus reports, was formerly known, I am inclined to 
look upon it as a corruption of Caralis. Pusgusa 
was perhaps a Turkish name. But the aspect of 
the country may have undergone great changes, and 



78 ISAURIA. 

it is not improbable that the lakes of Kerali and 
Sei-cher may have been united at the time alluded 
to by the Byzantine writers. 

We must add to the towns of Isauria, from Steph. 

Biismasdis. ByZ. Busmasdis, (v. ^ova-aaalig,) IsbuS, (v. "ia^og,) 
Isbus. . 

Cotrades. Cotradcs and Monabse, noticed in the Isaurica of 
Capito. (vv. Korpdlfig, Mova^ai.) Timyra was a town 

Psimada. in the viciuity of Isauria. (v. Tijxvpa.) Psimadae is 
likewise assigned to that province on the authority 
of Capito. (v. "^ifxa^a.) 



SECTION VIII. 

G A L A T I A. 



Account of the migration of the Gauls into Asia, and their occu- 
pation of a large portion of ancient Phrygia — Their division 
into Tectosages, Tolistoboii, and Trocnii — Conquest of Gala- 
tia by the Romans — Conversion to Christianity — Description 
of the province. 

Gtalatia being merely a dismembered portion of 
ancient Phrygia, it will only be necessary, in in- 
quiring into its former history, to account for its 
being occupied by the Gauls, or Gallo-graeci, from 
whom its new af)pellation was derived. We collect 
from Polybius and Livy, who however only copies 
from the Greek historian, that this Asiatic colony 
was in fact but a detachment of those vast hordes 
which had wandered from their native country Gaul, 
under the conduct of Brennus. On their arrival in 
Dardania, a dispute arose between some of the chiefs 
and the principal commander, when the discontented 
troops, to the number of 20,000, determined to aban- 
don the main body, and seek their fortunes else- 
where, under the direction of Leonorius and Luta- 
rius^. They traversed the plains of Thrace, and, 

a Polybius says, that they at Delphi. (IV. 46. Cf. I, 6, 5.) 

escaped from the defeat at Pausanias says not one escaped 

Delphi, {ha(pvyivT€i; zov nep] Ae?i- the defeat in Phocis. (Phoc. c. 

ipovi Kiv^vvov,) which perhaps only 23. Cf. Posidon. ap. Strab. IV. 

means, that they avoided the Justin. XXIV. 8.) 
danger, i. e. were not present. 



80 GALATIA. 

encamping near Byzantium, were for a time the 
bane and terror of its citizens, by the devastations 
they committed, and the galling tribute they im- 
posed. At length however, tempte<l by the beauti- 
ful asjK'ct of tlie shores of Asia, and the reputed 
wealth and fertility of that country, they were easily 
induced to listen to the offers of Nicomedes, king of 
Bithynia, for entering into his service. They ac- 
cordingly crossed the Bosphonis\ and having joined 
the troops of Nicomedes, were of great assistance to 
him in his wars with Zibof^tes. They now obtained 
a firm footing in Asia Minor; and though not more 
than 20,000 men, and of these not more than one 
half furnished with arms, they spread alarm and 
consternation throughout the peninsula, and com- 
pelled whole provinces, and even empires, to pay 
them tribute*. They even proceeded to divide the 
whole of Asia Minor l>e'tween their three tribes, al- 
lotting to each a portion on which it was to levy 
impositions. The IIellesj)ont was assigned to the 
Trocmi, ./Isolis and Ionia to the Tolistoboii, and 
the interior of the jx^ninsula to the Tectosages. The 
settled abode, however, of the three tribes was in 
the country between the Sangarius and the Halys, 
which they had seized, without resistance or diffi- 
culty, froni the unwarlike I'hrygians. As their 
numbers increased, they Ix-cxme more formidable, 
and also more imperioiLs in their exactions ; so that 
at length even the kings of Syria thought it j)rudent 

*• According U) Pausanias, Pdlybius plarcn the defeat and 

tli'm fonk |)lar«- oii<- year after jiassage of the (»auN in tlic name 

the defeat of Urenniin, that is, year; that uhi(h preceded tijc 

in the third year of the I'J.'ith expedition of Pyrrhiis into Ita- 

Olynipiad, when DeinoeleH was ly. (1.6.) 
arehon at Alherjs. (I'hor.e. 23.) 



galatia: 81 

to comply with their demands. Attains, king of 
Pergamum, was the only sovereign who had the re- 
solution to refuse at length to submit to this igno- 
minious extortion. He met the barbarians in the 
field, and, seconded by the bravery of his troops, 
obtained a victory over these Gallo-graeci, as they 
were now called, from their intermixture with the 
Greeks of Phrygia and Bithynia. (Liv. XXXVIII. 
16.) Prusias, king of Bithynia, not long after, cut 
to pieces another body of Gauls, and freed the Hel- 
lespont from their depredations. (Polyb. V. 111.^) 
These, however, were only partial advantages, and 
the Gauls remained the terror and tyrants of Asia 
Minor, so says at least the Roman historian, till the 
war with Antiochus brought the Roman armies into 
Asia. The victory of Magnesia having driven that 
monarch across the Taurus, there remained the 
Gallo-graeci only between the latter and the entire 
possession of the peninsula. There wanted but a 
slight pretext to justify an invasion of these barba- 
rian hordes in their own fastnesses. It was asserted 
that they had assisted Antiochus in the campaign 
which had just terminated ; and on this pretence 
war was determined on, and command was given to 
Cn. Manlius, the consul, to advance into their coun- 
try, and reduce them by force of arms. That gene- 
ral, being joined by Attains, brother of Eumenes, 
king of Pergamum, with a select body of troops, did 
not march at once towards the enemy ; but, setting 
out from Magnesia on the Meander, he crossed that 
river, traversed part of Caria and Cibyra, Lycia 

c Polybius makes no mention the Roman historian have con- 
of the victory of Attalus, nor founded the two names ? 
Livy of that of Prusias. Can 

VOL. II. G 



82 GALATIA. 

and Pamphylia, levying contributions upon such 
states and cities as afforded any pretext for the 
measure. From Pamphylia he then advanced into 
the interior of the peninsula, traversing Pisidia and 
Phrygia, till he reached the frontier of the Gallic 
territory, not far from the Sangarius. After throw- 
ing a bridge across that river, he passed over to the 
other side, and reached Gordium. Here he learnt 
that the Tolistoboii had retired to the highest part 
of mount Olympus, where they had formed an en- 
trenched camp, and, being reinforced by the Trocmi, 
were prepared to withstand his attack. Cn. Manlius 
determined to march against them without delay; 
and having arrived at the foot of the mountain, 
formed the bold resolution of carr\'ing the strong 
position of the Gauls by storm. He directed the at- 
tack on three points, and after an obstinate conflict 
succeeded in routing them with prodigious slaugh- 
ter, and forcing their camp. This victory having 
l)ut an end to the Tolistoboii and Trocmi, Manlius, 
after disposing of the captives and sj^oils, marched 
against the Tectosages, who occupied mount Ma- 
gaba, beyond Ancyra, towards Cappadocia and Pon- 
tus. A second victory, no less decisive than the 
former, crowned the efforts of the Roman legions, 
and terminated the war ; the small remnant of the 
Gauls being content to sue for peace on any condi- 
tions. After this triumphant expedition, Manlius 
led back his troops to Ionia, and placed them in 
winter quarters. (Liv. XXXVHI. 12—27. Polyb. 
Frag. XX H. 16 — 24.) The Roman senate, satisfied 
with having broken the power of the Gallo-gneci, 
allowed tliein to retain possession of their country, 
on condition of giving no offence to Eumenes, king 



GALATIA. 83 

of Pergamum, who might be considered as their lieu- 
tenant in Asia, and forsaking their former wander- 
ing and marauding habits. (Liv. XXXVIII. 40.) 
Formerly, as Strabo informs us, the whole of Ga- 
latia had been divided into four parts, each governed 
by a sejDarate chief called tetrarch. Each tetrarch 
had under him a jvidge and a military commander, 
who appointed two lieutenants. These collectively 
had the power of assembling the general council, 
which met in a sjjot called Drynemetum, and con- 
sisted of 300 members. This assembly decided only 
in criminal cases: all other business was transacted by 
the tetrarchs and judges. Subsequently the number 
of tetrarchs was reduced to three, and finally to one. 
The latter change was made by the Romans, in fa- 
vour of Dejotarus, who had rendered their arms 
essential service in the Mithridatic war, (Appian. 
Mithr. c. 114.) and is so often mentioned by Cicero 
in terms of the greatest esteem and friendship. Hav- 
ing been the warm friend and partisan of Pompey, 
Dejotarus incurred the displeasure of Caesar, and 
was stripped of a great part of his dominions. He 
was even accused by his own grandson of having 
conspired against the dictator ; but he was warmly 
and successfully defended by Cicero. (Orat. pro De- 
jotaro.) On his death, which took place at an ad- 
vanced age, part of his principality, as we have seen, 
was annexed to Paphlagonia and Pontus, under Po- 
lemo ; and part to the dominions of Amyntas, chief 
of Lycaonia. On the demise of the latter, the whole 
of Galatia came into the possession of the Romans, 
and formed one province of their vast empire. (Strab. 
XII. p. 566, 567. Plin. V. 32.) Though intermixed 
with Greeks, the Galatians retained throughout their 

g2 



84 GALATIA. 

original tongue, since we are assured by St. Jerome 
that in his day they spoke the same language as the 
Treviri of Gaul. Less effeminate also and debased 
by superstition than the natives of Phrygia, they 
were more ready to embrace the tidings of salvation 
brought to them by the great apostle of the Gentiles. 
Of his stay in their country we have indeed but lit- 
tle information from the Acts of the Apostles, except 
the general fact of his success in preaching the Gos- 
pel throughout the province, w^hich he must have 
visited soon after it had received a new political 
form from the Romans : this was his second journey 
through Asia Minor, and he appears, accompanied 
by Silas, to have revisited Lycaonia, and to have 
traversed part of Phrygia, and then come to Galatia. 
(Acts xvi. 6.) He himself alludes to his success in 
his epistle addressed to the converts of Galatia, (IV. 
15.) and certainly the adhesion of a whole province 
forms a remarkable feature in the j^redication of St. 
Paid'', when we consider the strong opposition he 
encountered in single cities ; though after he left 
them, there were not wanting men who endeavoured 
to turn the Galatians from the true Christian doc- 
trine, and persuade them to hold opinions contrary 
to what St. Paul had taught them. (Gal. iii. 1.) 
The aj)ostle revisited the Galatian churches, on his 
return from Greece to Antioch, when, " after he had 
" spent some time" in the latter city, " he departed, 
" and went over all the country of Galatia and Phry- 
" gia in order, strengthening all the disciples." (Acts 
xviii. 23.) The Ecclesiastical Notices assign about 

•' Probably there were fewer the aj)ostle met in his tour 
Jews ii) (Jiihuia, which would through Galatia. 
account tor liie little opposition 



GALATIA. 85 

sixteen bishoprics to Galatia, under two divisions ; 
one called Galatia Consularis, the other Salutaris. 
(Cf. Hierocl. p. 696.) Sometimes we find the epithet 
of " Lesser" apiJlied to the province, either with re- 
ference to this division, or to a distinction between 
the Galatse of Asia and their European ancestors. 
(Socrat. Hist. Eccl. I. 36. II. 15.) We should in 
vain seek for the precise limits which defined the 
extent of country occupied by the Gallo-graeci, since 
no ancient geographer has laid them down with 
accuracy. It is known generally that to the west 
it bordered on Phrygia Epictetus, and a portion of 
Bithynia, north of the Sangarius : on the north, it 
ranged along the Bithynian and Paphlagonian chains, 
till it met the Halys, which separated it from Cap- 
padocia towards the east: on the south we have 
seen that it was contiguous to Lycaonia, and part 
of Pisidia, till it met again the Phrygian frontier, 
somewhere between the sources of the Meander on 
the south and those of the Sangarius and Alander 
on the north. (Strab. XII. p. 567. Plin. V. 32.) In 
describing this province, I shall adhere to the ar- 
rangement prescribed by the division of the three 
original tribes of the Galatians; viz. the Tolisto- 
boii, Tectosages, and Trocmi ; and I shall take them 
in the order here specified. 

The Tolistoboii, under whom Pliny ranges the Vo- Toiisto- 
turi and Ambitrii, occupied that portion of ancient 
Phrygia which extended along the left bank of the 
Sangarius from its junction with the Thynbres to its 
source, and was separated from Bithynia by that river. 

The principal town of this tribe was Pessinus, Pessinus. 
situate near the left bank of the Sangarius, and 
celebrated in antiquity for the worship of the god- 

G 3 



raons. 



86 GALATIA. 

Diiidymus dess Rhea, or Cybele. Strabo says, that mount Din- 
dymiis, whence she was surnained Dindymene, rose 
above the town, and we have seen that there was a 
mount sacred to Dindymene near the source of the 
Hermus. So great was the fame of the shrine and 
statue of the goddess, that the Romans, enjoined, as 
it is said, by the Sibylline oracles, had caused the 
latter to be conveyed to Rome, since the safety of 
the state was declared to depend on its removal to 
Italy. A sjiecial embassy was sent to king Attains 
to request his assistance on this occasion : this sove- 
reign received the Roman deputies with great kind- 
ness and hosj^itality, and having conveyed them to 
Pessinus, obtained for them permission to remove 
the statue of the mother of the gods, which was 
nothing else but a great stone. On its arrival at 
Rome, it was received with great pomp and cere- 
mony by the Roman senate and people, headed by 
Scipio Nasica, selected for this office by the national 
voice as the best citizen, according to the injunction 
of the Pythian oracle. This took place in the year 
547, U. C. near the close of the second Punic war. 
(Liv. XXIX. 10—12. Strabo, XII. p. 567.) Ste- 
phanus Byz. affirms that Pessinus originally bore 
the name of Arabyza, when this district belonged 
to the Caucones : he does not mention from what 
author he derives this information, (v. \\pa^v^a.) 
Herodian and Ammianus give various derivations 
of the name of Pessinus, which are not worth re- 
peating. (Herodian. I. 11. Ammian. Marcell. XXII. 
22. Cf. Steph. Byz. v. Ylea-aivovg.) It appears from 
Livy that the worship of Cybele was still observed 
in this city after its occupation by the Gauls, since 
the priests of the goddess are said to have sent a 



mons. 



GALATIA. 87 

deputation to the army of Manlius, when on the 
banks of the Sangarius. (XXXVIII. 18.) Polybius 
mentions the names of the individuals who then 
presided over the worship and temple of Cybele. 
(Polyb. Frag. XX. 4^.) 

Strabo says Pessinus was the most commercial 
and flourishing town in this part of Asia, in his 
time, though the worship of Cybele, or Agdistis, as 
she was called by the Phrygians, had fallen into 
decay. The temple and its porticoes were of white 
marble, and surrounded by a beautiful grove : the 
city was indebted to the kings of Pergamum for these 
decorations. Formerly the priests of Cybele were 
high in rank and dignity, and possessed of great 
privileges and emoluments. (XII. p. 567.) Pausanias 
states that Pessinus was at the foot of mount Agdis- Agdistis 
tis, where Atys was said to have been buried ; (Attic. 
c. 4.) this is probably the same mountain which 
Strabo calls Dindymus. At a later period we find 
Pessinus the metropolis of Galatia Salutaris. (Hie- 
rocl. p. 697 f.) I am not aM'^are that any modern tra- 
veller has explored the ruins of this city, so that its 
site is not precisely ascertained : by the Antonine 

e I may remark, by the cross it likewise, unless we sup- 
way, ihat Polybius, with great- pose, with Col. Leake, that Pes- 
er appearance of truth, says, sinus was on the right bank, 
the priests and their proces- which hypothesis cannot, I ima- 
sion presented themselves be- gine, be correct, 
fore Manlius whilst he was en- f See Wesseling's note, and 
gaged in throwing a bridge over the ecclesiastical documents 
the Sangarius, and encamped quoted by him. The coins of 
on that river, i. e. on the left Pessinus exhibit a numerous 
bank, on which Pessinus also series from Augustus to Cara- 
stood. But Livy says, that the calla. They generally allude to 
procession met the Romans the worship of Cybele. The 
when they were already on the epigraph is riECClNOTNTION, 
opposite side of the river, con- sometimes rAATOAlCTO.IIEC- 
sequently it would have had to CINOT. Sestini, p. 128. 

G 4 



88 GALATIA. 

Itinerary we know it was ninety-nine miles from 
Ancyra, with which it communicated through Genua, 
Vindia, and Papira. Genua, the first of these sta- 
tions, is known to answer to Yerma, on the modern 
road leading from EsM-cJier to Ancyra : the Itine- 
rary would lead us to place it sixteen miles from 
that site, towards the Sangarius. The Table Itine- 
rary, on the other hand, gives a route from Dory- 
leum to Pessinus, by Midseum and Tricomia, and al- 
lows seventy-seven miles for the whole distance, thus 
distributed : from Doryleum to Midaeum XXVIII ; 
to Tricomia XXVIII ; to Pessinus XXI. But the 
road from Doryleum to Ancyra did not pass by 
Pessinus, but by Archelaium and Germa, as ap- 
pears from another route in the Antonine Itinerary; 
(p. 202 ^,) so that it is evident that Pessinus could 
not have been situated where Col. Leake would place 
it, beyond Juliopolis, or Gordium, on the right bank 
of the Sangarius, and near its junction with the 
Hierus, as it would then have been exactly on the 
road to Ancyra, and such a route as that by Germa 
would never have been given in the Antonine Itine- 
rary. On the whole, I should be inclined to look for 
the ruins of Pessinus not far from the left bank of 
the Sangarius, somewhere in the great angle it makes 
between its junction with the Yerma and the Pur- 
se/i. It is evident that Pessinus was to the right of 
the great road leading from Nicaea to Juliopolis, 
since Julian is said by Ammianus to have turned 
off from that route near the Bithynian frontier, pro- 
bably at Dadastana, to visit Pessinus. (XXII. c. 9.) 

>-' ( (>1. Leake supposes the ]). 201 ami p. 202, very nearly 
Duiiibers in the Antonine to be agree, 
incorrect, but the two routes. 



GALATIA. 89 

In Lapie's map I find the ruins of Pessinus laid 
down in the direction I have supposed, on a site 
called Kahe, but I know not on what authority. 
This name strongly resembles that of Caue, a large Caue. 
and populous place mentioned by Xenophon in the 
Hellenics ; it was situate in Phrygia, and on the 
road apparently leading into Paphlagonia. (Hell. 
IV. 1. 10. Cf. III. 4. 26.) 

Tricomia, mentioned above as being twenty-eight Tricomia. 
miles from Pessinus, according to the Table, is 
placed by Ptolemy in Phrygia. (p. 120.) These 
towns on the Sangarius are generally alluded to by 
the poet Nonnus, but I do not understand what dis- 
trict is referred to in the second line : 

ToJCTJ (TuvsaTpaTOMVTO xct) ot Xcc^ov uaTsoi vaniv 
TsItovu "^ixyyaplou xou 'EAscrTTiSo; eSpava yaivii. 

DioNYs. XIII. 518. 

Germa, which has been already mentioned moreGerma. 
than once, is stated by Ptolemy to have been a 
Roman colony ; (p. 120.) and this title is confirmed 
by its coins : the earliest are of the reign of Domi- 
tian, so that the colony cannot be older than the 
time of Vespasian and his sons '\ From Hierocles, 
and the Ecclesiastical Notices, we are led to consi- 
der Germa as an episcopal see of Galatia Salutaris ; 
and a Byzantine writer, quoted by Wesseling, in- 
forms us, that at a later period it took the name of 
Myriangeli, (Theophan. Chron. p. 203.) There can 
be little doubt that Yerma represents the ancient 
Germa'. Vindia, which the Itinerary removes invindia. 

h Sestini, p. 128. Imperato- MEN.vel.COL. AUG.F.GER- 
rii Domitiani. Epigraphe, COL. MENO. 
GERM. Commodi COL.GER- i Leake's Asia Minor, p. 70, 1 . 



90 



GALATIA. 



Papira. 



Arclielai- 
iim. 



one place twenty-four miles from Germ a, in another 
thirty-two, is also found in the list of Ptolemy, 
(p. 120.) Papira, which next follows, at a distance 
of thirty-two miles, and twenty-seven from Ancyra, 
is only known from Antonine. 

Archelaium, on the confines of Phrygia, thirty 
miles from Doryleum, and twenty from Germa, is to 
be met with in no other ancient authority but the 
above Itinerary ; unless, as Wesseling intimates, it 
may answer to the Demus Aiu*aclea of Hierocles. 

Eudoxia. (p. 678.) Eudoxia, assigned by the same authority 
to Galatia Salutaris, (p. 698.) is known to have 
stood not far from Germa, on the evidence of a pas- 
sage in the Life of Theodore Syceota, (c. 8.) quoted 
by Wesseling. 

The Table furnishes a communication between 
Pessinus and Laodicea Catacecaumene in Phrygia, 
with two intervening stations, Abrostola and Amo- 

Abrostoia. Hum. Abrostola, according to this Itinerary, was 
twenty-four miles from Pessinus. It is recognised 
by Ptolemy, (p. 120.) who assigns it to Phrygia 
Magna. Amorium was a place of greater conse- 
quence, being mentioned by Strabo as a town of 
Phrygia, (XII. p. 576.) Ptolemy, (p. 120.) and Steph. 
Byz. (v. 'Ajxopiov.) It is probable that in Hierocles 
we should substitute 'A[j.opiov for Aloipiov. (]). 697. ^) 
Amorium increased in importance under the Byzan- 
tine emperors, especially through the protection of 
Zeno, the Isaurian, who is called its founder by Ce- 
drenus. (p. 351.) But in the ninth century it was 



Amorium. 



kSeeWesseling's note. There ROTAH-AMOPIANHN. Imperu- 

are both autonomous and im- torii ab Augusto ad Gallienum. 

perial medals of Anioriuni. The Sestini, p. 117. 
fi)igraph IKPA 2TNKAH. or 



GALATIA. 91 

taken and sacked by the Saracens. (Zonar. Ann. XV. 
29.) The site still retains the name of Amorla. 
The Table reckons twenty-three miles to Abrostola, 
and twenty to Laodicea. Another route led from 
Aniorium into Cappadocia, through the southern 
part of Galatia. The first station is Tolosochorio, 
implying probably a fortress on the frontiers of the 
Tolistoboii. Orcistus, an episcopal see of Galatia, Orcistus. 
according to the Ecclesiastical Notices ^ is placed by 
Col. Leake, on the authority of an inscription dis- 
covered there by Pococke, at Alekiam, to the south- 
west of Yerma ™. The situation of Bloucium, which Bioucium, 
Strabo says was the residence of king Dejotarus, isum! 
unknown. (XII. p. 567.) Cicero calls it Castellum 
Luceium, in the oration he composed for that king. 
It was here that the enemies of Dejotarus accused 
him of having designed to murder Caesar. (Orat. pro 
Dejot. c. 6.) " Cum in Castellum Luceium venisses, 
" et domum regis, hospitis tui, divertisses : locus 
" erat quidam, in quo erant ea composita, quibus 
" rex te munerare constituerat. Hue te e balneo, 
" prius quam accumberes, ducere volebat. Ibi enim 
" erant armati, qui te interficerent, in eo ipso loco 
" collocati." From another passage in Cicero's Let- 
ters, (Fam. II. 12.) this residence of Dejotarus ap- 
pears to have been in the vicinity of Pessinus. Of 
Peium, another fortress belonging to the Tolisto- Peium. 
boii, we know nothing beyond the fact communi- 
cated by Strabo, who further states that Dejotarus 
kept his treasures there, (loc. cit.) 

The Tectosages, next in order to the Tolistoboii, Tectosages. 
occupied the central portion of the province between 
Paphlagonia on the north, and the Pisidians and 
1 Geogr. Sacr. p. 256. ™ Asia Minor, p. 70,71. 



92 GALATIA. 

Lycaonians towards the south. In the former di- 
rection they held the great chain of Olympus and 
its valleys ; in the latter, the barren tract which 
borders on the great salt lake Tattaea. 

Their towns were less numerous than those of 
their fellow tribes ; but, on the other hand, they 
could boast of having for their capital the largest 
and most celebrated city of the whole province. 
Ancyra. This was Ancyra, which even now still retains some 
vestiges of its ancient name under that of Angur^ 
or Angorah. Pausanias has recorded a tradition, 
which assigned its foundation to Midas : this prince 
was said to have named it from an anchor he found 
on the site, and which was exhibited, as Pausanias 
relates, in the temple of Jupiter. The Ancyraeans 
pointed out also the fountain where Midas is said to 
have caught Silenus, by mixing wine with its wa- 
ters. (Att. c. 4 ".) Apollonius, the historian of Caria, 
quoted by Stephanus Byz. (v. ''AyKvpa.) gives a dif- 
ferent account of the foundation of Ancyra, and sup- 
poses it to have been built by the Gauls ; but his 
narrative is easily disproved by the authority of 
Arrian, who states that Alexander passed through 
Ancyra on his way from Gordium, and received 
there a deputation from Paphlagonia °. (Exp. Alex. 
II. 4. 1.) Livy also informs us that Ancyra was 
already a large and flourishing town when Man- 
lius occupied it with his army, after defeating the 
Tolistoboii. (XXXVIII. 24.) There is no evidence 
of the Gauls having founded any but minor towns 

n According lo Xennphon, Macedonia. (Athen. II. p. 45.) 
the people of 'I'liynil)riuni, in « He calls it the Galatian 

Phrygia, laid claim to this foun- Ancyra, to distinguish it from 

tain; (Anal). I. 2. 13.) while Ancyra of Phrygia Epicletus. 
others placed it in Paionia or 



GALATIA. 93 

in this province : they only seized upon those which 
had been previously built by the Phrygians. (Cf. 
Memnon. ap. Phot. p. 722. Nonn. Narrat. ap. Creuz. 
Meletem, p. 75.) It is certainly surprising, as Cel- 
larius observes, that Strabo should have made so 
little mention of Ancyra, and have dismissed it with 
the inadequate notice of its being the fortress of the 
Tectosages. (XII. p. 567.) This is the more remark- 
able, when we learn that Ancyra had received great 
improvements and embellishments under the patron- 
age of Augustus, whence the grammarian Tzetzes is 
led to style him the founder of the city. Connected 
with the mention of that emperor is the celebrated 
inscribed monument found at Ancyra, detailing the 
several actions and public merits of Augustus ; and 
which, besides its general interest, proves in par- 
ticular that he had been a great patron of the An- 
cyrani p. Other inscriptions give Ancyra the title 
of metropolis of Galatia i ; and Libanius, the sophist, 

styles it, TrpcoTi^v Kai iJ.eyi(7TYjv Takarwv itoXiv. (Orat. 

XXVI. Cf. Plin. V. 32. Ptol. p. 120.) Ancyra con- 
tinued under the Byzantine emperors to be one of 
the most important cities of Asia Minor. Having 
been taken by the Turks, it was retaken by the cru- 
saders. (Nic. Ann. p. 304. D. In. 14.) It was the 
scene of the great conflict between the two vast 
armies of Bajazet and Tamerlane, in which the for- 



P The marmor Ancyranum Since then it has been often re- 
was first discovered, I believe, printed. It unfortunately ex- 
by the celebrated Busbequius at hibits many lacunae. 
Angorah; and from a copy that iThe coins of Ancyra exhibit 
he made then, was published at the same honourable distinction. 
Antwerp in 1579 by Andreas ANKTPA MHTPOnOAIC THC 
Schottus, with some remarks TAAATIAC, or ANKTPANflN. 
and emendations by Lipsius. MHT. Sestini, p. 128. 



94 GALATIA. 

mer lost his crown, and fell into the hands of his 
victorious enemy. (M. Due. p. 33, et seq.) 

Several roads led to Ancyra from different parts 
of Asia. The principal communication was with 
Niceea and Juliopolis of Bithynia. The Jerusalem 
Itinerary furnishes us with the greatest detail re- 
specting this route, the stations of which, between 
Juliopolis and Ancyra, are as follows : 

INI. p. 
Civit. Juliop. — Mutatio Hycron potamum ^ ..XIII. 

Mansio Agannia (Lagania) XI. 

Mutatio Ipeto-brogen VI. 

Mutatio Mnizcs X. 

Mutatio Prasmon XII. 

Mutatio Cenaxepalideni XIII. 

Civitas Anchira Galatia. 

The Antonine Itinerary does not give so many 
stations, Init increases the distance. 

luliopolini — Laganeos XXIIII. 

Minizo XXIII. 

]\Ianef;ordo XXVIII. 

Ancvra XXI I II. 

The Table differs very much from the two others, 
and its numbers are not to be relied upon. 

luliopolini — Valcaton « XII. 

Fines Cil icie (Galatia?) X. 

Lagania XX VIII t. 

Mizago- XXXVIII. 

Ancyra'' XXVIII >. 

r This is evidently the Hieriis XXVIII. In the Jerusalem 

potamus of Pliny, the Siberis Itinerary the distance from La- 

of Proco|Mns. ^^'esseling's con- gania to Minizus should be 

jecture about the Hypius is in- XXVI. 

admissible. x The name is omitted in the 

s Probably the Hieron pota- Table j but there is an indica- 

mon of the .lernsalem Itinerary. tion of a large town, which can 

t This should be XXIIII. be no other but Ancyra. 

u If this is Minizus, the Y This number should be 

number should be corrected to XXIIII. 



GALATIA. 95 

Lagania, which has a place in the three Itinera- Lagania. 
ries, is the Reganagalia of Hierocles. (p. 697. Read 
Regelagania, the first part of the word is only a cor- 
ruption of the Latin word Regio.) It was an epi- 
scopal see, and afterwards took the name of Anasta- 
siopolis. (Vit. Theod. Syc. c. 2.) =^Minizus (Re- Minizus. 
gemnezus in Hierocles, p. 697.) is known also from 
the councils in which its bishops are recorded. The 
other stations are unknown ; but Cenaxepalideni, incenaxe 
the Jerusalem Itinerary, refers probably to a lake ^'^ "*"" 
near Ancyra, mentioned in the Acts of Theodotus 
the martyr, (c. 2 ^.) Sebaste, whose inhabitants are 
the Sebasteni of Pliny, is known from an inscription, Sebaste. 
adduced by Cellarius, to have belonged to the Tec- 
tosages. (V. 32''.) Beyond Ancyra, and towards iMagai.a 
the Halys, was mount Magaba, where the second ™°"*' 
defeat of the Gauls by the army of the Consul Man- 
lius took place, according to Livy. (XXXVIII. 19 
— 26.) Rufus Festus reports that it was after- 
wards called Modiacus. (c. 11.) This chain was 
probably in the direction of Paphlagonia. Strabo 
places on the borders of Phrygia, and not far from 
the lake Tattsea, Pitinissus, and the Orcaorci. (XII. 
p. 568.) Pitnissus, or Petnissus, is also noticed byPitnissus. 
Ptolemy, p. 120. and Stephanus Byz. (v. Ylnviaa-a.) 
who assigns it to Lycaonia, but Hierocles to Galatia 
Salutaris. (p. 697.) 

Strabo appears to be the only writer who has 
mentioned the Orcaorici. In one passage he in- Orcaorici. 
eludes them within the limits of the Tectosages ; 

z Cited by Wesseling, who lem Itinerary, p. 575. 

points out the circumstance ad ^ This also appears from its 

Hierocl. p. 696, 697. coins. SEBASTHNON TEKTO- 

a Wesseling on the Jerusa- SArQN. Sestini, p. 128. 



96 GALATIA. 

(XII. p. 567.) in another he joins them rather with 
the Lycaonians, and the country south of the salt 
lake Tattaea. (XII. p. 568.) This part of Galatia 
was traversed by a road already alluded to in speak- 
ing of Abrostola and Amorium, in the territory of 
the Tolistoboii. The stations on this route furnished 
by the Table are — 

M.P. 

Amurio — Abrostola XI. 

Tolosochorio XXIIII. 

Bagr u m VII. 

Vetisso XX. 

Egdava XX. 

Pegella XX . 

Congusso XX . 

Petra XV. 

Ubinaca XX. 

Comitanasso XII. 

Salaberina XXIX. 

Egdaua is supposed by Col. Leake, with every ap- 
Ec.ian. pearance of probability, to be the Ecdaumana of 
c<)ii<,'^stus. Ptolemy, and Congusso the Congustus of the same 
geographer. At Salaberina, or Salambria, this road 
fell into the great route from Byzantium to Syria 
by Nicaea, Ancyra, and Tyana. The stations on 
this route, from Ancyra to the Cappadocian frontier 
of Galatia, are as follows in the Jerusalem Itinerary : 

M.P. 

Civitas Anchira — Mutatio Delemna X. 

Mansio Curveunta XI. 

Mutatio Rossolodiaco XII. 

Mutatio Aliassum XIII. 

Mutatio Arpona XVIII. 

Mutatio Galea XIII. 

Mutatio Andrapa IX. 

Finis Galatiae et CapjDadociae. 



GALATIA. 97 

The Antonine as usual, has fewer stations, but the 
distances agree. 

M. p. 

Ancyra — Corbeunca XX. 

Rosologiacum XII . 

Aspona XXXI . 

In these Itineraries the only names which are 
known from other sources are Corbeunca, Rosolo- 
giacum, and Aspona. The former is evidently the 
Corbeus, or Gorbeus, of Strabo, who informs us that Corbeus. 
it was the residence of Saocondarius, son-in-law of 
Dejotarus and father of Castor, who accused the 
latter before Caesar of plotting against his life. This 
conduct of his son involved Saocondarius in a quarrel 
with his father-in-law, who took Corbeus, and put 
Saocondarius and his daughter to death. This con- 
duct proves Dejotarus to have been such a tyrant as 
Plutarch represents him, though Cicero, his parti- 
cular friend, gives him a very different character. 
(Pint, de Stoic. Repugn, tom. X. p. 337. Reisk.) 
Corbeus was on this occasion nearly destroyed. 
(Strab. XII. p. 568.) It is, however, mentioned by 
Ptolemy as belonging to the Tectosages, (p. 120.) 
and by all the Itineraries ; but in the Table it is 
strangely misplaced ; indeed the whole route is per- 
fectly unintelligible ^. Corbeus answers, doubtless. 



c It seems as if the whole last. In the latter document 



route between Ancyra and Ar- 
chelais in Cappadocia of Anto- 
nine was reversed in the Table ; 
for Nitazus, the last station be- 
fore Archelais in the Ant. Iti- 
nerary, is first in tlie Table ; 
and Corbeus, which in all the 
other Itineraries occurs first 
after Ancyra in the Table, stands 

VOL. II. 



the distance between Aspona 
and the nameless station, which 
is doubtless meant for Arche- 
lais, is nearly the same as the 
distance between Aspona and 
Ancyra ; sothat it certainly looks 
as if the two extreme points 
had been transposed by the 
transcriber. 

H 



98 



GALATIA. 



Rosologia- 
cum. 



Aspona. 



Oleiius. 

Agrizala. 

Vincela. 

liandosia. 

Dictis. 

Carima. 



Trocmi. 



Tavium, 
sive Tavia. 



to the site of Corhega, a few miles from the mo- 
dern road leading from Angora to Kaisarieh. Ro- 
sologiacum is doubtless the Rosologia of Ptolemy. 
Aspona, which is named in all the Itineraries, is 
termed by Ammianus, (XXV. 10.) " Galatise muni- 
" cij^ium breve ;" it is found also in Hierocles, (p. 
696.) and the ecclesiastical historians Socrates and 
Nicephorus. Ptolemy has besides several obscure 
towns belonging to the Tectosages : these are Ole- 
nus, Agrizala, Vincela, Landosia, Dictis, and Ca- 
rima. To Dictis we should perhaps refer, as Har- 
duinus imagined, the Didyenses of Pliny, (V. 32.) 
in which case we must read Dictyenses. The latter 
geographer is the only writer who classes the Teu- 
tobodiaci with the Tectosages. The rest of Galatia 
belonged to the Trocmi, who occupied the north- 
eastern portion of that country towards Pontus and 
Cajopadocia, and chiefly, as it should seem, on the 
right bank of the river Halys. The territory of 
the Trocmi, as we are informed by Strabo, was the 
best and most productive of any that had fallen 
to the share of the Galatian tribes. (XII. p. 567.) 
Their chief town, according to the same geogra- 
pher and Ptolemy, was Tavium. Pliny, (V. 32.) 
Steplianus Byz. (v. "AyKvpa,) and Hierocles, (j). 696.) 
write Tavia. It was a city of considerable traf- 
fick, as Strabo likewise reports ; and this is fur- 
ther confirmed by the number of communications 
branching off from thence to different parts of Asia 
Minor. It was also celebrated for a bronze sta- 
tue of Jupiter, of colossal size, placed in a sacred 
grove, having the right of an asylum. (Strab. loc. 
cit.) It is known to have been an episcopal see, 
from the Ecclesiastical Notices and Acts of Coun- 



GALATIA. 99 

cils^l Tavium, as Col. Leake justly remarks, is 
an important point in the geography of Asia Mi- 
nor, from the number of routes which branched 
off from it. Besides the communication with An- 
cyra, the Table gives four other roads, passing 
from this town through Cappadocia and Pontus : 
that which traversed the former province to Cae- 
sarea, its capital, will be considered in the next sec- 
tion. Of the three others which intersected Pontus, 
one led to Comana Pontica, another to Neocae- 
sarea, by Zela, and the third to the same city by 
Amasia ; besides another to Sebastopolis and Se- 
bastia, which has been already discussed under the 
head of Pontus. We must therefore seek for some 
site in the same bearing towards all these places, 
as well as Angorah; that, Tavium seems to have 
been ; for the direction of roads, and the communi- 
cations between the principal points, have changed 
very little in Anatolia from what they were in an- 
cient times. It is for this reason that I entertain 
considerable doubts as to the agreement of the si- 
tuation of the modern Tcliorum with Tavium ; for 
though Tcliorum is a place of some note, and the 
capital of a district which once doubtless belonged 
to the Trocmi, and has probably formed its name 
by corruption from that people, still there is wanting 
in the site that great feature which marks the posi- 
tion of Tavium, the many roads which parted from 
it. According to the best modern maps, Tchorum 
stands on the right bank of the Halys, quite out of 
the direction of the great roads which traverse the 

fl Geogr. Sacr. p. 257. The epigraph is TAOTIANiiN TPO. 
coins of Tavium are not earlier Sestini, p. 129. 
than the reign of Severus. The 

II 2 



100 GALATIA. 

pachalick of Siwas, in which it is situated. It is 
nearly in the same latitude with Kiangary (Gan- 
gra) and Amasia, and half way between them ; and 
yet it appears to have no direct communication with 
either, nor with Angorah, nor with Tokat and 
N'lhsar. For these reasons, which to me appear con- 
clusive, I cannot agree with D'Anville in identifying 
Tcliorum with the capital of the Trocmi. But there 
is a place which completely satisfies the data requi- 
site to settle the site of Tavia ; I mean the town of 
Jeuzgatt, the capital of a large district of the same 
name, and having roads branching off from it in 
precisely those directions and in the same number 
that they did from Tavia, according to the Itinera- 
ries. The Table gives 124 miles from Ancyra to 
Tavia, and I find nearly 110 in a straight line from 
Angorah to Jeuxgatt ; so that 120 or 125 would be 
the probable distance, allowing for the mountainous 
nature of the country. Besides, the Antonine Itine- 
rary gives only 116 miles. Again, I find the Table 
allows seventy-three miles between Tavium and 
Amasia, and this agrees very well with the interval 
which SQ\)2iYiiies Jeiixgatt from Amas'ieli on the map. 
On the other hand, it must be allowed that the map 
does not furnish more than eighty or ninety miles 
between Jenxgatt and Zeleh, M^hereas the Table al- 
lows 124 from Tavium to Zela. We cannot judge 
so well of the distance between Tavium and Co- 
in ana, because two stations in the Table are defec- 
tive ; but, allowing forty miles to sui)})ly the probable 
deficiency, we shall have 115 for the road distance 
between those two ancient towns ; and this is pretty 
nearly the measurement of the maj). Again, on 
comparing the distance which the Antonine Itine- 



GALATIA. 101 

raiy reckons between Tavium and Caesarea, with that 
of JeuzgYift to Kaisarieh on the map, I find in one 
case 109 miles, in the other about 100, in a straight 
line, which, with allowance for hills, would make 
the two reckonings tally with all the accuracy which 
is required in such matters. On the other hand, 
whoever will make the corresponding measurements 
which have been just stated with respect to Tcho- 
rum, which is nearly forty miles to the north of 
Jeu%gatt, will find that they disagree with the reck- 
oning in the Itineraries in almost ever}'' instance ; so 
that it is not without reason that I attribute to the 
latter the honour of representing the ancient Tavium. 
It remains now for me to give the detail of the 
roads considered above, that is, their stations and 
distances from the Itineraries of antiquity. And 
first I shall give those of the road from Ancyra to 
Tavium, according to the Antonine Itinerary. 

Iter ab Ancyra Taviam, M. P. CXVI. Sic, 

Bolelasgus XXIIII. 

Sarnialius XXIIII. 

Ecobrogis XX . 

Adapera XXIIII. 

Tavia XXIIII. 

Among these stations Sarmalium is the only one 
which finds a name in any ancient writer ; it is 
the Sarmalia of Ptolemy, (p. 120.) Ecobriga oc-Sarmaiia. 
curs also in the Table, but its list in other respects 

is very different. 

M. p. 

Ancyra — Acitoriziaco XXXVI . 

Eccobriga XXXIII. 

Lassora XXV. 

H 3 



Androsia. 
Lascoria. 



IMithrida- 
tium. 

Danala. 



102 GALATIA. 

M. p. 
Stabiii XVII. 

Tavio e. 
Of these stations Acitoriziacum answers perhaps 
to Androsia in Ptolemy, and Lassora to Lascoria. 
Strabo informs us, that, besides Tavia, tliere were 
two other towns of note belonging to the Trocmi, 
Mithridatium and Danala : the former had been dis- 
membered from the kingdom of Pontus, and given 
to Bogodiatarus, a Gallic chief, by Pompey ^ Da- 
nala derived some notoriety from its being the sjDot 
where Lucullus and Pompey held a conference on 
the subject of the Mithridatic war, previous to the 
latter succeeding to the command. (Strab. XII. p. 
567.) Plutarch alludes to this meeting, but merely 
says it took place in some village of Galatia. (Lu- 
cull. c. 36.) Nothing seems to be known respecting 
these two sites ?. 

The road from Tavium to Neoctesarea by Ama- 
sia is arranged in the following manner in the Table 
Itinerary : 

M. p. 

Tavio— Tonea XIII. 

Garsih XXX. 

Amasia XXX. 

Palalce XV. 

Coloc XII. 

'^ The distance is wanting. gend is BASIAEOS BPoFITA- 

f Some of the commentators PoT. 'HAoPOMAIoT. Sestini, 

of Strabo have wished to sub- p. 129. 

slitute the well known name of g The MSS. differ with re- 

Dcjotarus for the more obscure spect to the name of Danala : 

one of IJogodiatarus, but with- see the note to the Fren(.|j 

out just cause, since that read- Strabo, torn. IV. b. ii. p. 91. 

ing is proved to be nearly the ^ Probably Gazioura . 

true one by a silver coin of this torn. I. p. 305. 
(ialIo-gra;cian ])rince. The le- 



GALATIA. 103 

M. p. 

Pidis X. 

Mirones XVI. 

Neocgesarea X. 

Route II. to Neocaesarea, by Zela. 

Tavio — Rogmor XXX VI . 

^gonne XXXVI. 

Ptemari XXVIII. 

Zela XXVI. 

Stabuluni XXXII. 

Seranusa XXII. 

Neocsesarea XV. 

Route III. to Comana Pontica. 

Tavio— Tomba XVI. 

Eugoni XXII. 

Ad Stabulum 

Mesyla XXII. 

Comana Pontica XV. 

Ptolemy assigns likewise to the Trocmi Claudio- ciaudio- 
polls, Carissa, Phuibagina, Dudua, Saralus, Ucena, carissa. 

_^, ., . 1 r-i 1 Phuiba- 

Rastia. Of these, Phuibagina and Saralus corre-gina. 
spond with Evagina of the Table, placed sixteen sal-aius". 
miles from Tavium on the road to Caesarea, and Sa- Rastia'. 
ralium twenty-four miles from Evagina. Pliny 
names besides, as belonging to Galatia, the Atta- 
lenses, Arasenses, Comenses, Didyenses, Hieronen- 
ses, or Hierorenses \ Lystreni, Neapolitan!, (Ean- 
denses, Seleucenses, Sebasteni, Timoniacenses, The- 
baseni ; but many of these are known to have been 
included in Pisidia and Lycaonia, and, as Mannert 
judiciously remarks, probably formed part of the 
dominions of Amyntas, the last tetrarch of Galatia. 
i See Harduinus' Notes and Emendations to Pliny, No. 97. 

H 4 



104 GALATIA. 

(Plin. V. 32.) To these may be added Maenalia, 
a town of Galatia. (Steph. Byz. v. MaivaKc^.) Aiiar, 
a river of Galatia, ('Avap. Choerobosc. ap. Bekker. 
Anecd. Gr. Ind.) probably the Araros of Ptolemy. 
Ciniia, an episcopal see, according to the Acts of 
Councils and Ecclesiastical Notices, confirmed by 
Hierocles, (p. 696 — 698.) together with Heliopolis, 
Regemauricium, Regetrocnada, Muricium, and Cla- 
neus. 



SECTION IX. 

CAPPADOCIA AND ARMENIA MINOR. 



Origin of the Leucosyri, or Cappadocians — Sketch of their his- 
tory under the Assyrian, Median, and Persian empires — Cap- 
padocian dynasty — Roman province of Cappadocia — Its boun- 
daries and geographical features — Description — Armenia Mi- 
nor — Its several districts and topograj^hy. 

Herodotus has stated that in the days of Croe- 
sus and Cyrus, the people commonly known in his- 
tory by the name of Cappadocians were termed Sy- 
rians by the Greeks, while the Persians employed 
the more usual appellation. (I. 72. VII. 72.) We 
have also seen that a portion of this nation, who 
occupied the coast of Pontus and Paphlagonia about 
Sinope and Amisus, had long retained the name of 
Leucosyri to distinguish them from the more swarthy 
and southern inhabitants of Syria and Palestine. 
(Strab. XII. p. 544.) The origin of the Cappado- 
cians, unlike that of most of the other nations of 
Asia Minor, was therefore of Asiatic growth, un- 
mixed with the Thracian hordes which had over- 
run Phrygia and all the western parts of the penin- 
sula. This would naturally be expected on the one 
hand from the proximity of Cappadocia to the passes 
of Cilicia and Amanus, which communicated with 
Syria, and the natural separation afforded on the 



106 CAPPADOCIA. 

other by the course of the Halys towards the west. 
This river, as we learn from Herodotus, formed the 
limit of the empires of Media and Lydia before they 
were united into one by the Persian Cyrus : but 
there is little doubt that this part of Asia Minor, if 
not the whole peninsula, had been previously sub- 
ject to the Assyrian monarchs, and on the dissolu- 
tion of their empire devolved to the victorious 
Medes. The great Semiramis had left monuments 
of her rule in Cappadocia, by founding Melitene on 
the Euphrates, and constructing a road extending 
apparently from Tyana on the borders of Cilicia, to 
Comana in Pontus. The Cappadocian Comana, and 
the worship of Men, owed their origin doubtless to 
the same people ; and, if we were acquainted with 
the language of the ancient Cappadocians, we should 
find further traces of their connexion with the As- 
syrians and Chaldees. The Cilicians, who derived 
their origin from the same stock, had formed one 
people and one province with the Cappadocians 
under the empires of Assyria and Media ; but they 
were subsequently divided by the Persians into two 
separate governments. In the time of Herodotus 
the Syrians, or Cappadocians, extended from mount 
Taurus and the confines of Cilicia to the shore of 
the Euxine, between the Plalys and Thermodon, and 
in the division made by Darius they constituted the 
third section of his vast empire. (HI. 90.) The Ci- 
licia of Herodotus, however, certainly comprised a 
jiortion of Cappadocia, since the tribute which that 
satrapy paid to the Persian monarch is said to have 
consisted in white horses; and we find at a later 
period Cappadocia celebrated for a beautiful breed 
of these animals. In a division made subsequently 



CAPPADOCIA. 107 

to the reign of Darius, Cappadocia was formed into 
two satrapies, one of which comprised the country- 
bordering on the Euxine, and afterwards known by 
the name of Pontus ; the other, the more southern 
districts, lying towards Taurus and Cilicia, and on 
the east as far as the Euphrates. It is with the 
latter, termed Magna Cappadocia by the geographers 
of antiquity, that we are concerned at present, since 
the former has been already discussed in the sec- 
tion relating to Pontus. According to Diodorus, in 
a passage preserved by Photius, (Cod. 244. p. 1157.) 
the early Cappadocian sovereigns, or rather satraps, 
were descended from one of the seven conspirators 
who slew the false Smerdis. This Persian noble- 
man was named Anaphus, and his grandson Da- 
tames was the first sovereign of the Cappadocian 
dynasty : after him, and his son Ariamnes, we 
have a long list of princes, all bearing the name of 
Ariarathes for several generations ^. Ariarathes I. 
was on the throne when Alexander invaded the Per- 
sian dominions, and he probably fled with Darius, 
since we learn from Arrian that the Macedonian 
prince appointed Sabictas governor of Cappadocia 
before the battle of Issus. (Exp. Alex. II. 4, 2.) 
After the death of Alexander, Ariarathes, then at 
the advanced age of eighty-two, attempted to re- 
cover his dominions ; but he was defeated by Perdic- 
cas, the Macedonian general, and, being taken, was 
cruelly put to death. (Diod. Sic. Exc. XVIII. 16. 
Arrian. ap. Phot. Cod. 92. p. 217.) 

a Cappadocia was probably name of Syennesis, from the 

much on the same footing as time of Croesus to that of the 

Cilicia, whose hereditary chiefs younger Cyrus, 
appear in history under the 



]08 CAPPADOCIA. 

Eumenes, the Cardian, one of Alexander's ablest 
generals, then for a time held the government of 
Cappadocia ; but on his death, by the hands of An- 
tigonus, and the subsequent contests between the 
latter and the other Macedonian chiefs, a favourable 
ojiportunity was afforded to Ariarathes, the nephew, 
but adojDted son of the first Ariarathes, to recover 
his principality. Assisted by Ardoatus, sovereign 
of Armenia, this young prince entered CapjDadocia 
with an army, defeated and killed Amyntas the 
governor in battle, and quickly expelled the Mace- 
donians from the country. (Diod. Exc. ap. Phot. 
p. 1160.) Ariarathes II. transmitted the crown to 
his son Ariamnes, and he was succeeded by another 
Ariarathes, of whom nothing is recorded, except that 
on his death he left a son of the same name in his 
infancy. (Diod. Sic. ap. Phot. loc. cit.) This Aria- 
rathes, the fourth of that name, was contemporary 
with Philip of Macedon, Antiochus the Great, and 
Ptolemy Philopator. (Polyb. IV. 2.) His marriage 
with the daughter of Antiochus involved him in a 
political alliance with that sovereign, and consequent 
hostilities with the Romans, which would probably 
have led to his dethronement, after the battle of 
Magnesia, if he had not deprecated the anger of the 
victors by a timely and submissive embassy. 

The Consul Manlius accepted his apology, and 
granted him peace, on condition that he should pay 
600 talents. (Polyb. Exc. XXII. 24. Liv. XXXVIII. 
37.) Soon after, we find this king of Cappadocia 
allied to Eumenes, king of Pergamum, who married 
his daughter, and by his means was admitted to 
the favour and friendship of the Romans. (Liv. 
XXXVIII. 39.) In conjunction with Eumenes he 



CAPPADOCIA. 109 

made war against Pharnaces and the Galatians. 
(Polyb. Exc. XXV. 2.) Ariarathes survived An- 
tiochus Epiphanes little more than a year; and after 
a reign of nearly fifty-eight years ^, transmitted the 
crown to his son Ariarathes V. who for some time 
was dethroned by Demetrius Soter, king of Syria, 
and Orophernes, who pretended to be the son of 
Ariarathes IV. ; but he was restored by the Ro- 
mans. (Polyb. III. 5.) In return for this assistance, 
he devoted himself to their service, and fell in the 
war they were carrying on against Aristonicus, the 
pretender to the throne of Pergamum. (Justin. 
XXX VII. 1.) He transmitted the crown to his son 
Ariarathes VI. who had married Laodice, sister 
of the celebrated Mithridates ; and, after reigning 
thirty-four years, was treacherously put to death by 
that crafty monarch. (Justin. XXXVIII. 1.) His 
two sons lost their lives in attempting to recover 
their paternal dominions ; and the royal line becom- 
ing extinct, the nation elected, at the instigation of 
the Roman senate, Ariobarzanes, a man of rank in 
the country, king of Cappadocia. This new sove- 
reign was, however, repeatedly expelled by Mithri- 
dates, and as often replaced by the Roman generals 
employed against him, till at length the death of 
that active and implacable enemy of the Roman 
name, left him in quiet possession of the throne, for 
which he was indebted to the latter. (Plut. Syll. et 
Lucull. Ap. Mithrid. c. 15. 60. Justin. XXXVIII. 2.) 
After three generations, the line of Ariobarzanes 
again failing on the death of his grandson Aria- 

t* For the succession and and accurate summary of Mr. 
chronology of the kings of Cap- Clinton, Fasti Hellen. torn. II. 
padocia, see the very learned Appendix, p. 429. 



110 CAPPADOCIA. 

rathes, seventh of that name, who was deposed and 
put to death by Marc Antony, the latter appointed 
Archelaus to succeed to the throne of Cappadocia. 
(Strab. XII. p. 540. Dio Cass. XLIX. 32.) This 
prince, though a creature of Antony, had the art to 
secure the favour of Augustus also, and obtained 
from that emperor a considerable accession to his 
territory, consisting of a part of Cilicia, and some 
districts of Lycaonia, which had belonged to Anti- 
pater. (Strab. XII. p. 535. Dio Cass. LIV. 9.) But 
he incurred the displeasure of Tiberius for having 
neglected to pay him his court when in the island 
of Rhodes. He was therefore summoned to Rome, 
under some pretended charge ; and, though acquit- 
ted of the offence imputed to him, chagrin and vex- 
ation at the treatment he received from the emperor, 
joined to old age and bodily infirmity, terminated his 
life, and with him ended the Cappadocian king- 
dom, which was converted into a j^roviuce under the 
charge of a proconsul. (Tacit. Ann. II. 42. Dio Cass. 
LVII. 17.) Strabo states that Magna Cappadocia, 
as it was then called, was divided into ten jn-aifec- 
turae, of which five lay towards Taurus, namely, 
Melitene, Cataonia, Cilicia, Tyanitis, and Garsauritis; 
the five others, further removed from the mountain 
above mentioned, were Laviniasene, Sargarausene, 
Saravene,Chammanene, and Morimene ; to these was 
added afterwards an eleventh, which comprised the 
cantons of Castabala and Cibystra, as far as Derbe 
in Lycaonia, and in favour of Archelaus, Cilicia 
Trachea, and the coast formerly infested by pirates. 
(XII. p. 535.) These divisions are, with some ex- 
ceptions, unknown to the later geographers. It is 
to be presumed, therefore, that they made way for 



CAPPADOCIA. Ill 

other changes in the distribution of the province ; 
and, as Strabo himself has not ventured to define 
their limits, we must content ourselves with such 
general indications of their extent and position, as 
can be collected from his succinct and rapid view of 
this portion of Asia Minor. Under the Greek em- 
perors, Cappadocia was divided into two sections, 
one of which was under a consular government, the 
other was administered by a count, (rjyeiJixv). This 
province, if we include within its limits certain dis- 
tricts, which, under a specific arrangement, are as- 
signable to Armenia Minor, will have for its bounda- 
ries the Euphrates and Mount Amanus, to the west 
and south-west ; to the north, a chain of mountains, 
running obliquely from the head of the Euj^hrates 
along the left bank of the Lycus, then passing by 
the source of the Halys, and following that river 
till it meets the Cilician, or southern arm, near the 
ancient Mocissus ; towards the west, it bordered on 
the Galatian Trocmi and Lycaonia ; and, finally, to- 
wards the south, Taurus interposed its great ridge 
between it and Cilicia. 

Cappadocia was thus surrounded on three sides 
by great ranges of mountains, besides being inter- 
sected by others of as great elevation as any in the 
peninsula. Hence its mineral productions were va- 
rious and abundant, and a source of wealth to the 
country. Strabo specifies the rich mineral colour 
called Sinople, from its being exported by the mer- 
chants of Sinope, but really dug in the mines of 
Cappadocia : also onyx ; crystal ; a kind of white 
agate employed for ornamental purposes; and the 
lapis specularis : this last was found in large masses, 
and was a considerable article of the export trade. 



112 CAPPADOCIA. 

The champaign country yielded ahiiost every kind 
of fruit and grain, and the wines of some districts 
vied with those of Greece in strength and flavour. 
Cappadocia was also rich in herds and flocks, but 
more particularly celebrated for its breed of horses ; 
and the onager, or wild ass, abounded in the moun- 
tains towards Lycaonia. (Strab. XII. p. 535 — 540.) 
The breadth of the whole province, taken from 
Pontus ^ to Mount Taurus, measiu'ed, according to 
Strabo, 1800 stadia; while its length, from Lyca- 
onia and Phrygia to the Euphrates, was not less 
than 3000. (XII. p. 539.) This geographer com- 
mences his periegesis of the province from the Eu- 
phrates ; but as our march is, on the contrary, from 
west to east, we shall begin rather from the Halys 
and the Lycaonian frontier. 
Garsau- The first district we enter upon in this direction 

(iarsaura, is Garsauritis, which took its name from Garsaura, 
i)ora. '^ or Garsabora, a small town, mentioned more than 
once by Strabo, as situated on the great road from 
Ephesus to the Euphrates. (XII. p. 537. Cf. XII. 
p. 568. XIV. p. 663.) It was 120 stadia from Co- 
ropassus, the last town of Lycaonia. Pliny says 
Garsauritis joins on to Phrygia. (VI. 3.) Ptolemy 
ascribes to this praefectura Archelais,Dioca?sarea,and 
Archeiais. Tetrapyrgia. (p. 125.) Archelais, as we are in- 
formed by Pliny, was situate on the Halys, and had 
received a colony in the reign of Claudius. It had its 
name from Archelaus, the last sovereign of Cappa- 
docia, but it was then only an inconsiderable place, 

c This imist mean from the if inchuling the kingdom of 

Eiixine, otherwise t-iiis dimen- Pontns. Ptolemy also unites 

sion vvonld be much exagger- them in his geographical sys- 

atedj and therefore Strabo is tem, p. 125. 
here speaking of Cappadocia as 



CAPPADOCIA. lis 

since no notice is taken of it by Strabo. We know 
from the Itineraries that Archelais was situate on 
the road by which Ancyra communicated with Ty- 
ana, or, to speak more generally, on the route lead- 
ing from Constantinople to Syria and Palestine. 
(Anton. Itin. p. 144. Itin. Hieros. p. 576.) As we 
find no mention of Archelais in Hierocles nor the 
Ecclesiastical Notices, it probably sunk into decay 
under the eastern emperors. D'Anville is certainly 
mistaken in identifying Archelais with Erkle, south- 
east of Iconium, as this position is totally incom- 
patible with the Itineraries. I should rather agree 
with Col. Leake, in supposing it may be represented 
by the modern Ah-serai^ on the right bank of the 
Halys, which gives its name to a district pro- 
bably corresponding with Garsauritis '^ Diocaesa-D 
rea, which Ptolemy places in this vicinity, is often 
noticed, as Wesseling has remarked, by Gregory of 
Nazianzus, and from his account it was evidently 
situated not far from the latter town, with which 
his name is always connected. Of Diocaesarea he 
says, 

Tpyiyoplov fxvyi<TaiTO tov erpeps Ka7r7ra8oxs(ro"Jv 
'H AioxaicrcipsMV ohlyr] ttoAjj. 

and again, 

TutSsv jOtsv irToXleQpov arap ttoKvv avspa dcuxoc 
Bjj/Aatrjv (QyS/xrjc r; AiOKaiirixpeoav 

It has been remarked that, as Diocaesarea is nei- 
ther mentioned in Hierocles nor the Notices, and 
other documents, it may have perhaps been united 
to Nazianzus, but Gregory himself speaks of the 
two as very distinct places. 

'^ Asia Minor, p. 75. 
VOL. II. I 



locaesa- 
rea. 



114 CAPPADOCIA. 

Nazianzus. Naziaiizus itsclf derives all its celebrity from that 
great writer and poet ; he appears to have been born 
at Arianzus, a small village in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood'', but to have been principally educated at 
Nazianzus% to the bishopric of which he was after- 
wards promoted. (Niceph. Call. XIV. 39. Philostorg. 
ap. Suid. V. TpYjyopiog.) He himself informs us, that 
liis father had built a beautiful church in that town. 
(Orat. XIX. p. 313.) Nazianzus is assigned by Hie- 
rocles to Cappadocia Secunda. The Itineraries re- 
move it twenty-four miles from Archelais. In that 
of Jerusalem, the name is strangely metamorphosed 
to Anathiango ; (p. 577.) and in Ptolemy to Nea- 

Athar nessus, or Nanessus. (p. 126.) Above the town was 

mons. / rr\ ' 

a hill or mountain, named Athar. (Act. Tergemin. 
Sasima. ap. Wcsseliug, loc. cit.) Sasima, another spot con- 
nected with the biograj^hy of Gregory, was twenty- 
five miles from Nazianzus, towards Tyana. It was 
the first church to which he was appointed, and he 
has given us a humorous description of the miseries 
of the placed 

T>55 KaTTTraSoxaJv og (jylX^zT ilg TpKrarjv oSov, 
"AvoSpoc, a^Xoug, ouS* oXwg IheoSifog, 

AsJVCOf OtTreVKTOV XU) (JTZVOV XCU/X'jSpJOV. 
KOHJ TO. TCUVrOL KOLi '^O'^Wi (TVV apjxacTt, 
&pYiVOl, (TTsvtxyiJio), TTpaxTopsg, (TTpijBXon, TTs'Saj, 
Aaog 8' o(Toi ^evoi rs xa) xXavcU|U,£voj. 
AuTj) '^aaliJ.ctiv twv e[j.a)v sKKXr^alv.. 

(Cf. Orat. XXV. p. 435.) Gregory's complaint of the 
want of water in this part of the country agrees 
with the indication we find in Ptolemy, of a place 

«l Note to Hierocles, p. 700, e Wesseling, ibid. ^ Cited 
by Wesseliiij 



If. 



CAPPADOCIA. 115 

called Phreata, or " the Wells," in Garsauritis. Pineata. 
(p. 125.) Salambria, which he assigns to the same 
district, is doubtless the Salaberina of the Table, Saiamima. 
from which we learn that it stood to the south of 
Archelais, and at the junction of two roads; the one 
coming from Ancyra, the other from Pessinus and 
Amorium. Tetrapyrgia, another Garsauritic town Tetrapyr- 
in the list of Ptolemy, cannot be identified with a^''*' 
station of the same name occurring in the Table, 
between Iconium and Pompeiopolis of Cilicia. The 
adjoining praefectura, to the north of the one we have iMorimene 
just described, is called Morimene by Strabo and^"'^ ^"^ ""^ ' 
Pliny, without any indication of the origin of the 
name. Pliny observes, that it was contiguous to 
Galatia ; the boundary of the two provinces was 
formed by the river Cappadox, from which the 
country we are now describing took its name. (VI. 
3.) This stream answers, I conceive, in modern 
geography to that now called ErJmrous, which, 
rising in the mountains of Pontus, flows in a south- 
westerly direction, and joins the Halys a little below 
Kirche7\ This being so, Morimene will answer 
nearly to the district of Kirclier. Strabo mentions 
no towns in Morimene, but he says it possessed a 
celebrated temple of Jupiter, at a place named Ve-Venasi. 
nasi. There were no less than 3000 slaves belong- 
ing to the establishment, and the high priest en- 
joyed an annual income of fifteen talents, arising 
from the produce of the lands belonging to the tem- 
ple. The sacerdotal office was held for life, and was 
next in dignity to that of Comana. (XII. p. 537.) 
If the Muriana of Ptolemy, as Cellarius imagines 
with great probability, should be identified with the 
Morimene of Strabo and Pliny, we shall have to place 

I 2 



116 CAPPADOCIA. 

in it, from his indication, some towns, which, how- 
ever obscure, ought not to be entirely omitted ; and 
the Itineraries will lend us their aid in settling some 
of the positions they occupied. The first Cappado- 
cian town, after passing the Galatian frontier, was 

Parnassus. Pamassus, as we learn from the Jerusalem Itine- 
rary, which removes it ninety-nine miles from An- 
cyra, and forty from Archelais. The Antonine Iti- 
nerary reckons only eighty-four from the former 
city. It was a jilace of some antiquity, being men- 
tioned by Polybius in a passage contained in the 
Excerpta Legat., wherein the historian, narrating 
the war carried on by Eumenes and Ariarathes, 
king of Cappadocia, against Pharnaces, king of Pon- 
tus, states tliat Emnenes, finding that his adversary 
was about to invade Cappadocia, determined to anti- 
cipate him : moving then rapidly through Galatia 
in five days, from Calpitum^, he reached the Halys, 
and in one day more he came to Parnassus, where 
he was joined by Ariarathes with his forces. (XXV. 
4. 8.) It is seen from the above passage that Par- 
nassus was on the right bank of the Halys, and one 
day's march from it. Parnassus is assigned by Hie- 
rocles to Cappadocia Secunda : (p. 700.) it is also 
mentioned by Constantine Porphyrogenetes ; and 
the Acts of Councils prove its having been a bi- 
shop's see*^. 

Sadagothi- We Icam from Pliilostorgius, that Sadagothina, a 
village situate in the vicinity of Parnassus, was the 
l)irthplace of Ulfilas, bishop of the Goths. (II. p. 
480.) From Parnassus, the traveller had tlie choice 
of two roads ; the one leading to Archelais and 

(^ Some imkiioun place or tian frontier, 
river of I'luvgia, on the Gala- •> Geogr. Sacr. p. 255. 



nu 



CAPPADOCIA. 117 

Tyana, the other to Csesarea, the capital of the pro- 
vince. There were two stages between Parnassus 
and Archelais ; Ozzala, or, as it is in the Jerusa- Ozzaia. 
lem Itinerary, logola, seventeen miles, and Nitazus, 
eio-hteen miles. Allusion seems to be made to the 
former station in Greg. Nazian. (Ep. XII.) Nitazus Nitazus. 
occurs in all the Itineraries, but in the Table it has 
exchanged places with Corbeus, and in the Hieroso- 
lymitanum it is corruptly written Nitalis. The road 
from Parnassus to Caesarea presents us with four 
stations: Nyssa twenty-four miles, Osiana thirty- Nyssa. 
two, Saceasena twenty-eight, Caesarea thirty. Of 
these, Nyssa is the only one which possesses any 
interest, from being associated with the fame of Gre- 
gory, brother of Basil, and surnamed Nyssenus, from 
his long residence there as bishop of its church. 
(Socr. Hist. Eccl. V. 8. Niceph. Call. XL 49.) Pto- 
lemy assigns Nyssa to Muriana, (Morimene,) and 
Hierocles to Cappadocia Prima, (p. 699.) The name 
of Noiir is still attached to the site on the Halys, 
below 31ochiour. This latter place represents Mocis- Modssus. 
sus, a town of some size and note in the time of 
Justinian, who built it on the site of an ancient for- 
tress. (Procop. Md. V. 4. Steph. Byz. v. MovKiaaog.) 
Ptolemy has several obscure towns in the same dis- 
trict, which occur in no other writer, and which 
render it still a matter of doubt whether his 
Muriana is the Morimene of other geographers. 
He names Sinzita, or Sindita, Cotaena, Zoro- sinzita, vei 
passus, Arasaxa, Carnalis, Garnace : this last is cotwna. 
perhaps the Garmias of the Table Itinerary, be-sus"^" 
tween Aspona in Galatia, and what should be Ni- carnaiis! 

Garnace. 

tazus. 

The next Cappadocian praefectura bore the name 

I 3 



118 CAPPADOCIA. 

Ciiicia prae. of CiHcia, like the well known province south of 
Taurus, and perhaps there was some local con- 
nexion subsisting between it and this part of Cappa- 
docia, which may have given rise to the appellation; 
but the reason has not been mentioned by Strabo, 
Mazaca, who merely states the fact. Its chief city, and also 
cSarea et the Capital of the whole j^rovince, was Mazaca, lat- 
mejia. ^gj,|y. better known by the name of Caesarea, with 
the topographical adjunct Ad Argceum, to denote 
its position at the foot of the high mountain so 
called. It was a city of great antic|uity, and its 
foundation was even ascribed by some -writers to 
Mesech, the son of Japhet. (Joseph. Ant. Jud. I. 
c. 6.) Philostorgius says it was first called Maza, 
from Mosoch, a Cappadocian chief; and afterwards 
Mazaca. (IX. p. 530.) This city, as Strabo reports, 
was exposed to great inconveniences, being ill sujd- 
plied v/ith water, and destitute of fortifications. The 
surrounding country was also unproductive ; con- 
sisting of a dry, sandy plain', with several volcanic 
pits for the space of many stadia around the town. 
Fuel was also scarce, for though mount Argaeus was 
well wooded toward its base, it was somewhat dan- 
gerous of access, from the marshes and quagmires 
with which it was girt : the soil of these forests was 
likewise volcanic. Mount Argoeus is a vast moun- 
tain covered with perpetual snow, and so high, that, 
as Strabo reports, those who had ascended to the 
sunnnit, and they were very few who could boast 
of such a feat, affirmed that they were able to dis- 

' It is worthy of remark, lie was told there was no part 

however, that Mr. Kiiiiieir was of Asia Minor which surpassed 

striirk with the great quantity the neighbourhood for the tjua- 

of vegetables oflercd for sale in lity and variety of its fruits, 

tlie market of Ka'isurieh, and j). 103. 



CAPPADOCIA. 119 

cover from thence both the Euxine, and the Cilician 
sea. (XII. p. 538.) Mr, Kinneir observes, " it is un- 
" doubtedly a mountain of prodigious elevation; but 
" he much questions whether any human being ever 
" reached its summit ; and indeed he was positively 
*' informed that this was quite impossible. It is 
" covered for some miles below the peak with snow, 
" which was said to be eight or ten feet in depth in 
" the month of October, when he was at Caesarea'^ ;" 
he adds, that " two branches of this mountain ad- 
" vance a short distance into the plain, forming a 
" small recess, in the centre of which stands Ca3- 
" sarea, surrounded on three sides by mountains'." 
Elsewhere he states, " that mount Argisk," as it is 
now called, " rises in a peak from the plain, and at 
" this season of the year, when the whole of the sur- 
" rounding country was parched with drought, the 
" mountain, halfway from its summit, was enve- 
" loped in the snows of perpetual winter "\" 

The river Melas had its source in the eternal gla- 
ciers of this lofty summit, but its bed being lower 
than the level of Mazaca, the inhabitants derived 
little benefit from it ; on the contrary, it was some- 
times apt to overflow and stagnate in the surround- 
ing plain, which bred contagious disorders. Its bed 
also covered some fine stone quarries, which would 
have been very valuable for building. Strabo re- 
lates, that king Ariarathes had once closed up a 
narrow passage by which the Melas found a vent 
for its waters in the direction of the Euphrates. 
By this contrivance the whole of the surrounding 
plains were immdated, and appeared like a vast sea 

^ Journey through Asia Minor, &c. p. 94, note. 
1 p. 100.' •" p. 105. 

I 4 



120 CAPPADOCIA. 

dotted with islands, in which the Cappadocian prince 
took his pastime : this childish amusement cost him 
dear, for the accumulated waters at length burst the 
dyke by which they were withheld, and hastened to 
the Euphrates with prodigious force. This great 
river rose in consequence far above its usual level, 
and inundated not only the plains of Cappadocia, 
and destroyed many habitations and farms ; but this 
accident caused besides considerable damage to some 
districts of the Galatians". These laid a formal 
complaint against Ariarathes before the Roman 
people, who condemned that monarch to pay a sum 
of 300 talents to the parties who had suffered. (XII. 
p. 538,539.) The Melas is now called Kara-sou, or 
the Slack Rive?'; it flows from west to east, enter- 
ing the Euphrates at Malatia : although an incon- 
siderable stream in the autumn, it frequently inun- 
dates the country during the melting of the snows'^. 
Notwithstanding these disadvantages attending its 
position, the kings of Cappadocia had fixed their 
residence at Mazaca, from its central situation in 
the midst of other districts more fertile, and better 
supi)lied with every article necessary for the pros- 
perity of a great city ; such as stones for building, 
and timber, and rich pastures required for the sub- 
sistence of the numerous herds and flocks which 
tliey possessed. Claudian alludes to these when he 
says, 

jam ])ascua fiimant 

Cappadocuiii, volucrunKjue parens Argapus equorum. 

In Ruf. II. 30. 

" Some of the waters pro- river also, and thus flooded the 
bahly found tlieir way to the Galatian territory. 
Ilalys, and caused a rise in that " Kinncir's Travels, p. 105. 



CAPPADOCIA. 121 

Mazaca assumed therefore the appearance of a 
large camp rather than of a regular city, being 
open and unfortified. The royal property, consisting 
chiefly in slaves, was kept in different fortresses 
throughout the country. 

Mancipiis locuples^ eget aeris Cappadocum rex. 

HoR. Ep. I. 6. 39. 

The whole nation might be said to be addicted 
to servitude ; for when they were offered a free 
constitution by the Romans, they declined the fa- 
vour, and preferred receiving a master from the 
hands of their allies. (Strab. XII. p. .540.) After 
the conquest of Pontus, Rome and Italy were filled 
with Cappadocian slaves. (Plut. Lucull, Cf. Athen. 
I. p. 20.) Many of these were excellent bakers and 
confectioners. (Athen. III. p. 112, 113.) Their 
orators were not in such good repute. (Anthol. Pal. 
XI. p. 539.) Strabo informs us that Mazaca was 
captured by Tigranes, king of Armenia, in a sudden 
irruption made into Cappadocia to befriend Mithri- 
dates. He caused the town immense loss by carry- 
ing away nearly all the inhabitants, whom he after- 
wards settled at Tigranocerta : but when that city 
was taken by Lucullus, several individuals were 
enabled to return to their country. (XII. p. 539- 
Appian. Mithr. c. 67.) The code of Charondas had 
been adopted at Mazaca ; and it was the business 
of a magistrate, especially appointed to this office, 
to explain the laws. (Strab. loc. cit.) This city re- 
tained its original name till the death of Archelaus 
took place, when Tiberius, having reduced Cappa- 
docia to the form of a Roman province, changed 
also the appellation of its capital. (Eutrop. VII. 6. 
Suid. V. Ti^epLOi.) It is remarkable, however, that 



122 CAPPADOCIA. 

Strabo takes no notice of this name, but says it 
was sometimes called Eusebia ad Argaeum. It pro- 
bably derived the latter from Ariobarzanes, who 
took the surname of ^AVo-^^-^g. Pliny is the earliest 
writer who applies to the Cappadocian capital the 
imperial title. (VI. 3. Ptol. p. 125. Ammian. Mar- 
cell. XX. c. 23.) It appears to have increased in 
size and consequence under successive emperors, till 
it was captured, after an obstinate defence, by the 
Persian Sapor, under the reign of the unfortunate 
Valerian. It is said to have been betrayed into the 
hands of the eastern monarch, who devoted thou- 
sands of the defenceless inhabitants to the sword. 
The population of the city at that period was esti- 
mated at 400,000 souls. (Zonar. Ann. XII. p. 630. 
Zosim. I. p. 25.) Caesarea, nevertheless, recovered from 
this disaster, being frequently mentioned subsequent- 
ly by the Byzantine historians, Cedrenus, (p. 575.) 
and Niceph. Bryennius. The latter annalist reports 
til at it was nearly destroyed by an earthquake. It 
was once more besieged and taken by the Saracens, 
and finally fell into the hands of the Turks, by whom 
it is called Kaisarieh. It was the metropolis of 
Cappadocia, and derived additional celebrity from 
the life and writings of St. Basil, who was born and 
educated there, and presided over its church for 
many years. (Socr. Hist. Eccl. V, 8. Niceph. Call. 
XI. 49. Cf. Hierocl. p. 698. Steph. Byz. v. Ma- 

Kaisarieh has a population of about 25,000 souls, 

I' Tliere are no medals wilh Epigraplie, ETiEBElAS. KAISA- 

the name of Mazaca, but those PEIA2, or KAIc. IIPOC AITAII). 

with the title of Eusebia, or Epocha ab anno Y. C. 770. 

Ciesarea, are very abundant, Sestini, p. 129. 
from Tiberius to L. Verus. 



CAPPADOCIA. 123 

and is the emporium of an extensive trade, and the 
resort of merchants from all parts of Asia Minor 
and Syria, who come to purchase cotton, cultivated 
here in great quantities i. Mr. Kinneir remarks, 
that the ancient city appears to have covered a much 
larger area than the modern one. The sides of the 
hills to the south of the town are strewed with 
mouldering piles of rubbish, and the ruins of other 
edifices may plainly be discovered towards the north 
and east. Those on the south side are about a quar- 
ter of a mile from the modern town, and are called 
Eshisher^ or " the old city," where, on the summit of 
a small hill, and close to a perpendicular rock, a mo- 
dern structure seems to have been erected upon the 
foundations of a more noble edifice. Under this 
building a number of subterraneous passages have 
been hewn out of the rock ; and about fifty paces 
more in advance you perceive the vestiges of a large 
and solid superstructure, which presents a parallelo- 
gram of one hundred and seventy paces in length, 
and eighty in width. In an adjacent suburb were 
ruins still more extensive, presenting the walls and 
end of a vast arched hall. The fragments of de- 
cayed buildings, mantled with shrubs and ivy, are 
to be seen on every side ; but there were no columns, 
no sculptured marbles, nor even a single Greek or 
Latin inscription. A considerable part of the city- 
wall is still standing ; but this in all probability owes 
its origin to the Mahomedans ''. Mazaca, according 
to the reckoning of Strabo, was 800 stadia from the 
frontier of Pontus, less than 1600 from the Eu- 
phrates, and six days' journey from the Pylae Cili- 
q Kinneir, p. 100. r Journey, p. 100, 102. 



124 



CAPPADOCIA. 



Dacora. 



IVIustilia. 

Siva. 

Campe. 

Cyzistra. 

El)agena. 

A rc-halla. 

Soroba. 



Chamma- 
iiene prae- 
fectura. 



Dasmenda. 



Zama. 

Andrara. 

Gadiana. 

Vadata. 

Sarveiia. 

Odogra. 



ciae. (XII. p. 539.) In the vicinity of this city we 
hear of Dacora, a village which gave birth to Eu- 
nomius, the Arian heretic, and whither he was 
banished by Theodosius. (Sozom. Hist. Eccl. VII. 
17. Philostorg. X. 6.) Cedrenus, when relating 
the expedition of the emperor Basilius into Cappa- 
docia and Syria, notices several petty fortresses in 
the same district ; such as Xylocastrmn, Phyrocas- 
trum, and Phalacrum. (p. 573.) Also a spot named 
BovKov xlSog, Buci lapis, (p. 687.) 

Ptolemy includes in his list of the prsefectura Ci- 
liciae, Mustilia, Siva, Campe, Cyzistra, or Cozistra, 
Ebagena, or Sebagena, Archalla, Soroba, or Sobara. 
Of these, Siva and Campe can be laid down in the 
map from the Table on the road from Mazaca to 
Tavium ; Campe sixteen miles from the former, and 
Siva twenty-two miles further. Archalla cannot be 
identified with Et'kle, or Ei'egli, south of Nigde, 
for that would certainly include it in Tyanitis, un- 
less we suppose Ptolemy to have been guilty of a 
mistake. North of the Cilician prsefectura towards 
Pontus was that of Chammanene : it was separated 
from the latter province by a chain of mountains 
parallel with Taurus. Strabo merely notices in it 
the fortress of Dasmenda, placed on a steep and lofty 
rock ; (XII. p. 540.) but Ptolemy names Zama, An- 
draca, Gadiana, or Gadusena, Vadata, Sarvena, Odo- 
gra, or Odoga. (p. 126.) Zama appears in the Table 
on the road from Tavium to Mazaca, and three 
stages from the former. I know not the name of 
the modern district, which answers properly to that 
of Chammanene. Contiguous to it, on the south- 
east, and towards Armenia, \vas that of Sargarau- 



CAPPADOCIA. 125 

sene, which Strabo barely mentions under the head 
of Cappadocia. (XII. p. 534.) Pliny (VI. 3.) seems 
to place it next to Phiygia, but the authority of 
the Itineraries leads to the conclusion that it was 
situate in the direction of Armenia. Ptolemy is 
the only writer who specifies the towns belonging to 
this praefectura : they are Phiara, Salae-ena, or Sa- Ptiara. 
daffena, Gaue:a?na, or Gauraena, Sabalassus, Ariara- c^augana. 

° ' => ' ' ' Sabalassus. 

tliia, and Masora, or Maroza. (p. 126.) Of these, Anarathia. 

. 1 , ^ T A Maroza. 

Ariarathia appears evidently from the Antonine Iti- 
nerary to have stood between Nicopolis of Armenia 
Minor and the Cappadocian Com ana. (p. 212, 213. 
Cf. p. 181.) Stephanus Byz. (v. 'Apiapadeta) says, it 
took its name from Ariarathes, who married the 
sister of Antiochus. It would seem therefore that 
the praefectura we are now considering must have 
occupied nearly the district of Diconhei'g in the 
pachalick of Siwas, on both banks of the Karasou, 
or Melas. 

Contiguous to it on the east, and reaching to the 
Euphrates, was the praefectura of Laviniasene ; for Lavinia- 
Strabo, when speaking of Pontus, gives us to under- fectma. 
stand it was contiguous to Armenia Minor and the 
Pontic districts of Coidopene and Camisene. Pto- 
lemy extends it quite up to the Euphrates, and this 
makes it altogether nearly agree with the canton of 
Arahhir also in the pachalick of Siwas. The latter Coma. 
geographer places on the Euphrates, Corne, Metita, Metita. 
and Claudias, which Cellarius thinks, with reason, ciaudias, 
should be identified with the Claudiopolis of Pliny. dVopoiis?^ 
(V. 24.) Corne and Metita occur also in the Table. 
At a greater distance from the river we have Car- ntXtra!*' 
pacelis, Dizoatra, or Zizoatra, Pasarne, Cizara, Saba- cfzara!*^" 
gena, Nolasene, Langasa, (p. 127.) Respecting these Noiafene.' 

Langa.sa. 



126 CAPPADOCIA. 

we have no furtlier information than what the Alex- 
andrian geographer affords. 
Meiitene Melitene was situate on the right bank of the 

praefectura. . ^ , ^ . . 

Euphrates, which separated it from the Syrian dis- 
trict of Sophene. Towards the south it bordered 
on the principality of Commagene, on the same side 
of the river, but also annexed to Syria. The soil 
was fertile, and yielded fruits of every kind ; in this 
differing from the rest of Cappadocia : the chief 
produce was oil, and a wine called Monarites, which 
equalled the best of Grecian growth. (Strab. XII. 
p. 535. Cf. Plin. VI. 3.) Ptolemy seems to include 
Melitene in Armenia Minor, (p. 127.) Strabo takes 
no notice of any town in this praefectura ; but sub- 
sequent to his time, that is, in the reign of Trajan, 
what had been only a camp or military station, was 
ivieiitene couverted by order of the emperor into a town, 
which became one of the most considerable places 
in Cappadocia. Justinian again enlarged its circuit, 
and decorated it with several buildings. At this 
period it was the capital of Armenia Minor. (Pro- 
cop, de Md. III. 4.) Melitene had been the station 
of the Christian legion, in whose behalf a miracle is 
said to have been performed for the preservation of 
the Roman army. (Euseb. Hist. Eccl. V. 5. Xiphil. 
Marc. Aurel. Cf. Dio Cass. LV. p. 564.) In the 
time of Hierocles it was the metropolis of Armenia 
Secunda ; (p. 703.) and frequent mention is made 
of it ])y the Byzantine writers ''. It retains some 
vestiges of its former name under that of ^lalatia. 
Modern travellers describe it as situate in a fine 
plain between the Euphrates and Melas, but in 

i" See the authorities cited bv Wesseling ad Anton. Itin. p. 
209. 



urfw, 



CAPPADOCIA, 127 

ruins ^ Ptolemy places near the Euphrates, together 
with Melitene, Sinis, which he terms a colony, butsiais. 
no other writer has named it I (p. 127.) Dascusa Dascusa. 
also in the list of the Alexandrine geographer, is 
placed by Pliny about seventy-four miles from Meli- 
tene, but only fifty by the Itineraries. (Cf. Oros. I. 2. 
Not. Imper.) At some distance from the Euphrates 
Ptolemy enumerates several minor towns, such as 
Zoparistus,Titarissus, Cianica, Phusipara, Eusimara, Zopaiistus. 
Jassus, Ciacis, Leugaesa, or Leuta^sa, Marcada, orcianica. 
Carmada, Semisus, Lalaenesis, or Ladsenesis. Ciacis Eusimara.' 
is designated in the Notitia Imperii as the station ciads." 
of a squadron of horse : " Ala prima Augusta Co- Marcada! 
" lonorum Chiacse." The Antonine Itinerary and LdKnesis. 
the Table remove this station, the one eighteen, the 
other twenty-eight miles from Melitene. The latter 
probably is more correct, as agreeing better with 
the distance reckoned by Pliny from Melitene to 
Dascusa. The prsefectura called Saravene (^.apaovmYi) Saravene 

^'11/ pi-aetectura. 

by Strabo, is, I imagine, the same as the Ravene, or 
Avarene, of Ptolemy : if so, we learn from the latter 
geographer that it was situate near the Euphrates. 
He places on the banks of that river Juliopolis and 
Barzalo, in the interior, Serasj)ere, Lacriassus, An- 
telia, and Adatha. Juliopolis appears to have been Juiiopoiis. 

1 ^ /^i T i- 1 -r> T . . . Barsalium. 

south or Claudiopolis ; and ±Jarsalmm, as it is writ- Seraspere. 

1 rn 1 1 r • -^ n i Lacriassus. 

ten 111 the 1 able, was lorty-six miles rrom the same Amelia. 
town. From this it may be inferred that Ravene, 
or Saravene, was the extreme canton of Cappadocia 
to the south-east, and that it bordered on Comma- 
gene. It answers therefore to the southern portion 
of the present district of 3Ialatia. 

s Kinneir'sJourtiey, Append. * Perhaps we should read se- 

p. 555, parately 2m?, KoXwma. 



128 CAPPADOCIA. 

Tyanitis Tvanitis comprised that portion of the province 

praefectura. 

which bordered on the defiles of Taurus and the 
passes leading into Cilicia. It took its name from 
Tyana. Tyaua, the principal to\yn, and a place of consider- 
able note and great antiquity. Strabo reports that 
it was built on what was called the causeway of 
Semiramis, and well fortified. (XII. p. 537 ".) Cel- 
larius is of oj^inion that the town called Dana by 
Xenophon in the Anabasis (I. 2. 20.) should be 
identified with Tyana ^ ; and this supposition has 
great probability to recommend it, Dana being, ac- 
cording to Xenophon, a town of Cappadocia, four 
days' march from Iconium, and populous and weal- 
thy ; moreover close to the defiles leading into Ci- 
licia. The Greeks, always led by a similarity of 
name to connect the origin of cities with their fables, 
pretended, that it owed its foundation to Thoas, the 
king of the Tauric Scythians, in his pursuit thither 
of Pylades and Orestes. (Arrian. Peripl. Eux. p. 6.) 
From him it was called Thoana, and afterwards 
Tuana. (Steph. Byz. v.Tvava.) It is probable that 
Alexander passed through Tyana on his way to the 
" Cilician Gates," but Arrian has not named it in 
his narrative. The proximity to so important a 
pass must have rendered this town a place of con- 
siderable traflftck and consequence ; it was besides 
situate in an extensive and fertile plain at the foot 
of mount Taurus, and between the Euphrates and 
Halys. Strabo does not accoimt for the origin of 
the name of Eusebia, which it afterwards assumed, 
(XII. p. 537.) but this was perhaps owing to the 
peculiar sanctity of the religious rites practised in 

" Zela, in Pont us, was also way, or mound, of Semiramis. 
said to be built on the cause- ^ cjeogr. Ant. t, II. p. 291. 



CAPrADOCIA. 129 

honour of Jupiter, whose temple was situate near 
a sacred lake and source named Asmabaeon, at a 
little distance from the town ; whence he was sur- 
named Asmabaeus. This lake, from which a source 
issued, though always appearing to rise, never over- 
flowed its banks. (Ammian. Marcell. XXIII. 19.) 
Mannert imagines that this is the same lake which 
Strabo reports to have been sacred to Jupita Dacius, 
and the priests of which ranked after those of Co- 
mana and Venasi. The lake in question was exten- 
sive and brackish, and the banks were so steep, that 
it was necessary to descend by steps cut in the rock. 
Its waters were never seen to rise or to diminish. 
(XII. p. 536.) I should imagine, however, that the 
lakes are different; that of Asmabaeus is also men- 
tioned by Philostratus in his Life of Apollonius. 
(I. 4.) This celebrated impostor derived his birth 
from Tyana, and conferred upon it in return a noto- 
riety which M^as not likely to survive the frauds 
which he practised. (Cf. Vopisc. Aurelian, c. 22. et 
24. Lucian. Pseudom, t. II. p. 213.) At a later 
period Tyana became the see of a Christian bishop, 
and the metropolis of Cappadocia Secunda. (Greg. 
Naz.Epist. 33.0rat. XX. p. 355.) This took place in 
the reign of Valens. (Cf. Basil. Magn. Ep. 74 et 75. 
Hierocl. p. 700.) Its capture by the Saracens is re- 
corded by Cedrenus. (p. 477.) The Itineraries place 
Tyana seventy-five miles south of Archelais, and 
thirty-four miles from Podandus, where the defile 
of Taurus was narrowest. On the other hand we 
know from Strabo that it was three days' journey 
from Mazaca. (XII. p. 539.) These data and other 
circumstances and topographical marks agree suf- 
ficiently in the position of Ketcli'Mssar between 

VOL. II. K 



130 CAPPADOCIA. 

Nigde and Erehli, and near the foot of the central 
chain of Taurus and the Cilician pass. Captain 
Kinneir, in one of his journeys, found there consi- 
derable ruins. He mentions particularly a beautiful 
aqueduct of granite, extending, as he was informed, 
seven or eight miles to the foot of the mountains. 
The massy foundations of several large edifices were 
also to be seen in several parts of the town ; shafts, 
pillars, and pedestals of pillars, lay half buried under 
ground, and near the vestiges of an old building 
was a handsome granite column yet standing. The 
aqueduct, as well as the other buildings, are all 
attributed to Nimrod by the natives ; but they are 
withovit doubt the work of the Romans, and are 
probably the ruins of the ancient town of Tyana^. 
According to the same traveller, Ketch-hissar stands 
south-west by west of Nigcleh, and is distant from 
it twelve miles ^. 

Not far from Tyana, but nearer mount Taurus, 
were the two small towns of Castabala and Cybis- 
tra, which belonged j^i'operly to an eleventh prse- 
fectura, added after the death of king Archelaus. 
(Strab. XII. p. 537.) Frequent mention is made of 
the latter place in the epistles of Cicero, during his 
Cybistra. commaud in Cilicia. It was at Cybistra that he fixed 
his head-quarters, in order, as he says, to protect 
Cappadocia from the Armenians, who were known 
to favour the Parthians ; and to be ready to move 
forward also into Cilicia, if the latter should make 
an irruption into that province. He remained fifteen 

y We find on the medals of racalla, that of KOAQNIA TTA- 

Tyana, the titles of lEPA ACT- NEON further appears. Scstini, 

AOf. ArrONOMOc: these are p. 130. 
of the reigns of Hadrian and An- '• P. 1 13 — 11.0. 

toniniis I'ius. On those of Ca- 



CAPPADOCIA. 131 

days at Cybistra, and then advanced towards mount 
Amanus, to threaten the enemy, and clear the coun- 
try of the robbers which infested it. (Ep. ad Fam. 
XV. 2 et 4. ad Att. V. 20.) Col. Leake is inclined 
to place Cybistra at Karahissar, near Mazaca, where 
there are considerable remains of antiquity, and 
the distance of which from the supposed site of 
Tyana agrees sufficiently with the sixty-four miles 
reckoned by the Table Itinerary. It must be con- 
tended, however, that this position does not corre- 
spond with Strabo's account ; who says that both 
Cybistra and Castabala stood nearer Taurus than 
Tyana did : and Cicero also clearly states that Cy- 
bistra was at the foot of that mountain, whereas 
Karahissar is rather at the foot of mount Argaeus. 
D'Anville had imagined, from a similarity of name, 
that Cybistra might be represented by JBustereh^ a 
small place near the source of one of the branches 
of the Halys, and several miles to the east of Nigde, 
towards Bostan; this locality would certainly agree 
better with the information of the ancients as to 
Cybistra ; but it is not stated whether there are any 
remains of antiquity at Bustereh, and besides. Col. 
Leake affirms that, according to the Arabian geo- 
grapher Hadjy Khalfa, the true name of the place 
is Kostere^. However this may be, I cannot agree 
with that able antiquary's opinion as to the identity 
of Cybistra with Karahissar, for Ptolemy assigns 
Cybistra to Cataonia, which could never have in- 
cluded Karahissar within its limits. Hierocles gives 
it to Cappadocia Secunda. (p. 700''.) 

^ Asia Minor, p. 63, note. epigraph is KTBICTPEnN. Ses- 

b There is but one coin ex- tini, p. 130. 
tant belonging to Cybistra ; the 

K 2 



132 CAPPADOCIA. 

Castabaia. Castabala was remarkable for a temple sacred to 
Diana Perasia. It was asserted that the priestesses 
of the goddess could tread with naked feet on burn- 
ing cinders, without receiving any injmy. The sta- 
tue of Diana was also said to have been the identical 
one brought by Orestes from Tauris, whence the 
name of Perasia, " from beyond sea," was thought 
to be derived. (Strab. XII. p. 538. Cf. Steph. Byz. 
V. KaTTa/SccXa.) Pliny also names Castabala among 
the chief towns of Cappadocia. (VI. 3.) Col. Leake 
is inclined to identify Castabala with Nigde, where 
there are several vestiges of antiquity*^; but D'An- 

Cad>Tia. ville says, Nigde is Cadyna, a town mentioned by 
Strabo as the residence of Sisina, a partisan of An- 
tony, by whom he was created king of Cappadocia, 
after expelling Ariarathes ; the latter, however, 
finally recovered his dominions. (Strab. XII. p. 537. 
Appian. Civ. Bell. V. 7.) If, as Strabo seems to 
state, Cadyna was on the borders of Lycaonia, the 
position of Wigde would not be ill suited in regard 
to that indication. I may add, with respect to Casta- 
bala, that some antiquaries place it at Kalat Mas- 
man, to the north-east of JVigdeh^^. Not far from 
the latter site is a ruined fortress, named Nonr, 

Nora,sive which recalls to mind Nora, where Eumenes, the 

^Tp j»/\ri ceil <I 

' general of Alexander, sustained a long and diffi- 
cult siege against Antigonus. (Strab. XII. p. 537. 
Diod. Sic. XVIII. 41. Plut. Eumen. c. 10—12.) 
This castle subsequently belonged to Sisina, who 
deposited there his treasures ; it then bore the name 
of Neroassus. (Strab. loc. cit.) Mr. Kinneir says, 
" At the end of the third mile (from Karahissar) 

c Asia Minor, p. 63. took the title of lEPOnOAIS 

<1 Seslini, p. 131. This city KA2TABAA. on its coins. 



CAPPADOCIA. 133 

" we passed under a high and perpendicular rock 
" crowned with an ancient fortress, called by the 
" natives Yengi Bar, or N^our:'''' in a note he adds, 
the castle of Nour is stated to have been two stadia " 
in circumference, and that of Yengi Bar exactly 
corresponds^. 

Argus was another fortress in this direction ; it Argus 
was near the foot of mount Taurus, and stood on a 
rock prodigiously elevated. (Strab. loc. cit.) The Iti- 
neraries indicate, north of Tyana, at a distance of 
sixteen miles, a station named Andabalis, or Anda- 
vilis. (Itin. Anton, p. 145.) The Jerusalem Itinerary 
has this remark annexed to the specification of the 
site and distance : " Mansio Andavilis. (M. XVI.) 
" Ibi est villa Pampali, unde veniunt equi curules." 
This Pampaius is supposed to be the same as Pal- 
matius, a famous breeder and trainer of race-horses 
under the emperor Valerian^. 

South of Tyana, towards Cilicia, was Faustino- Fausuno. 
polis, distant twelve miles from that city ; it was ^° 
named after the empress Faustina, the consort of 
Marcus Aurelius, who died there in returning from 
Syria. Her husband erected there a town and tem- 
ple to her memory. (Jul. Capit. M. Aur. c. 26.) It 
occurs both in the Antonine and Jerusalem Itinera- 
ries, and is assigned by Hierocles to Cappadocia Se- 
cunda. (p.700.) The exact position of this town has not 
been recognised, but it must have been close to the 
defiles leading to the Cilician gates, and perhaps on 
the site called the Camp of Cyrus, from the younger Cyn Cas- 
Cyrus having stationed his army there for some 
days previous to crossing the mountains. (Xen. 

"^ P. I 1 1 . ' See X^'esseling's note to the Jerusalem Itine- 

rary, p. 577. 

K 3 



tra. 



134 CAPPADOCIA. 

Anab. I. 2. 20.) Xenophon does not himself give 
this name to the spot, but it occurs in Arrian, who 
informs us that it was by the same pass Alexander 
led his army into the plains of Cilicia. (Exp. Alex. 
II. 4. Quint. Curt. III. 4.) Strabo also names the 
Camp of Cyrus, and states that it was six days 
march from Mazaca, and about half that distance 
from Tyana. (XII. p. 539.) ErJde, a place which 
stands on the modern road from Konieh to the Cili- 
cian defiles, is thought by Col. Leake to be Archalla, 
a town which belonged to the Cilician praefectura 
of Cappadocia, according to Ptolemy ; but the posi- 
tion of Erhle does not agree with this idea, as it 
would rather belong to Tyanitis. I should be in- 
clined to identify this site with a place named Her- 
culis Vicus by Cedrenus, who says it was in the 
vicinity of Tarsus, (p. 637.) Thirteen miles beyond 
Faustinopolis, the Jerusalem Itinerary has a post 
Caena. Called Cseua, and twelve miles further Podandus, a 

Podandus. . , . i -r» . • . 

Village often mentioned in the Byzantine writers m 
connexion with these defiles. It is described by Basil 
as the most miserable spot on earth. He says, figure 
to yourself " a Laconian Ceada," (i. e. hole or pit, 
down which criminals were thrown,) " a Charonium 
" breathing forth pestilential vapours: you will then 
" have an idea of the wretchedness of Podandus." 
(Epist. 74.) Constantine Porphyrogenetes, in his 
Life of the emperor Basilius, (c. 36.) says it took its 
name from a small stream, wliich flowed near \i^. 
(Cf. Cedr. p. 575. Jo. Scylitz. Hist. p. 829. p. 844.) 
It retains the name of Podend. Cedrenus speaks of 
a place called Chrysobulluin in this vicinity; (p. 576.) 

g Wesseling ad Itiii. Hieros. p. 578. 



CAPPADOCIA. 135 

and Curopolates of another, named Gytariuni. (p. 
829. p. 844.) The Pylae Cilicise were, according to 
the Jerusalem Itinerary, distant fourteen miles from 
Podandus. The passage, as Diodorus describes it, 
was formed by steep and lofty mountains, extending 
on each side of the road for the space of twenty 
stadia ; after this, a wall had been brought down to 
the road from the mountains on each side, and in 
this wall gates had been fixed ; beyond, you de- 
scended into the beautiful plains of Cilicia. (XIV. 
p. 250.) Xenophon merely says that it was a car- 
riage road, but very steep, and impracticable for an 
army if resistance was offered. (Anab. I. 2. 21.) 
Cyrus passed through the defiles without opposition, 
as well as Alexander. (Cf. Herodian. III. 3.) The 
Byzantine historians usually term them Kkiiaovpa. 
(Jo. Scylitz, p. 829. p. 844.) The following descrip- 
tion of this celebrated pass, from Capt. Kinneir, may 
not be unacceptable to the reader : " After quitting 
" Tchehisla, (a place about twenty-four miles from 
" Ketch-hissar, supposed to be Tyana,) we travelled 
" for sixteen miles east-south-east through a nar- 
" row vale, with a chain of hills on the left and a 
" ramification of mount Taurus on the right; at the 
" eighth mile we passed the remains of a Roman 
" camp, where troops were probably stationed in for- 
" mer times to guard the entrance of the Pyla? Cili- 
" ciae. The Selioun, here a little brook, flowed through 
" the valley parallel with the road. At the sixteenth 
" mile we ascended a mountain, and again descend- 
" ing by a steep and narrow path, found ourselves 
" enclosed in an intricate defile, at the bottom of 
" which flowed the Selioun. At the twenty-first 
" mile we halted at a khan, situate at the con- 

K 4 



136 CAPPADOCIA. 

" fluence of this and another small stream. The 
" next morning we continued our journey through 
" a dark and gloomy defile, and along the left bank , 
" of the Sehomi, which was gradually enlarged by 
" many tributary torrents that tumbled down the 
" sides of the mountains. For the first nine miles 
" the breadth of the pass varied from fifty to 200 
" yards ; the steeps of mount Taurus, covered with 
" pine trees, rising vertically on each side of us. At 
" the ninth mile we crossed the Sehoun, on an old 
" stone bridge of one arch, after which the pass be- 
" came more open, the mountains retiring on each 
" side to a distance of about half a mile. The re- 
" mains of an ancient way, in some parts hewn out 
" of the rock, and in others built ujion the side con- 
" tiguous to the river, were visible at times during 
" the journey. The khan where we halted stood 
" near two roads, one on the left leading to the 
" town of Adana, the other on the right to Tarsus; 
*' we followed the latter, and, entering a narrow glen, 
" directed our course along the left bank of a small 
" stream, which, flowing from the west, enters the 
" Sehoiin a few yards below the khan. At the end of 
" the fifth m.ile, we turned to the south, and during 
** three miles ascended the mountains by a jiatli so 
" rough and stony, and at the same time so steep, 
" that we were in many places compelled to dis- 
" mount from our horses. At the tenth mile, we 
" reached the posthouse, a mud building, surrounded 
" by stables. The third day we travelled for two 
" miles and a half over a tolerably good road, when 
" we descended to the left bank of a streandet, and 
" for five miles moved slowly through a roman- 
" tic pass, in several places not more than ten or 



CAPPADOCIA. 137 

" twelve paces wide from rock to rock. The cliffs 
" and sides of the mountains clothed with the most 
" beautiful evergreens and noble pine-trees, hung 
" like a vast canopy over the defile, whilst their 
" bare and desolate peaks towered above the clouds. 
*' The road ran along the brow of the precipice, 
" sometimes on one side and sometimes on the 
" other ; it was in so bad a condition that it could 
" only be passed during the day, many of the large 
" stones, which had been used in the construction of 
" the Roman way, having been either removed or 
" fallen down ; whilst the surfaces of those that still 
" remained in their places were so smooth and slip- 
" pery, that the horses could not tread upon them 
" without the momentary danger of being precipi- 
" tated over the rocks. This is undoubtedly the 
" part of the pass most capable of defence, and 
" where a handful of determined men, advantage- 
" ously posted, might bid defiance to the most nu- 
" raerous armies. At the end of the eighth mile the 
" mountains again expanded to the right, shewing 
" the ruins of a fortress built on the summit of a 
" stuiDendous cliff; and at the tenth mile we halted 
" near the mouth of the defile, which is in all likeli- 
" hood the Pylae, through which the armies of the 
" younger Cyrus and Alexander entered Cilicia'^. 

Ptolemy places in Tyanitis the unknown towns of 
Dratse, or Dagrae, Bazis, and Siala. (p. 127.) 

The remaining praefectura, which concludes ourcataonia 
account of Cappadocia, was named Cataonia ; and ^"^*^^^'""' 
originally, as Strabo imagines, was inhabited by a 
different people from the Cappadocians, though the 
customs and language of the two countries were the 
same. The geographer argues chiefly from their 

1' r. 1 1.-)— i!). 



138 CAPPADOCIA. 

ancient political separation prior to Ariarathes I., 
who conquered Cataonia and annexed it to his do- 
minions ; the Romans afterwards restored it to its 
original state under the administration of a sepa- 
rate governor. (XII. p. 533, 534.) 

Cataonia consisted chiefly of deep and extensive 
plains, surrounded however on all sides by chains 
of mountains. On the south by mount Amanus, a 
branch of the Cilician Taurus, which extends from 
Cataonia to the coast of Cilicia and Syria, and en- 
closes the bay of Issus. On the north it was bounded 
by Antitaurus, branching out from the central range 
of Taurus, and advancing first towards the east, and 
then northwards towards Armenia and the Moschic 
chain. (Strab. XIL p. 535.) This district answers 
chiefly to the modern canton of Aladeidi in the 
pashalick of Aclana, and it may perhaps have in- 
cluded a small portion of that of Miwasch. On the 
side flanked by Antitaurus were several deep valleys, 
which fed the two principal streams which watered 
the country : these were the Sarus and Pyramus, 
botli presenting the unusual phenomenon of rivers 
traversing the central chain of Taurus before reach- 
ing the plains of Cilicia, and finally discharging their 
waters into the sea which washes its shores. The 
Sarus, now called Seihoun, finds a passage through 
the defiles of Podandus, and falls into the Cilician 
sea a few miles below Adana. In the upper part 
of its course it traversed the town and territory of 
Comana. Comaua, the principal city of Cataonia, and cele- 
brated, like its Pontic namesake, for the worship of 
Ma, the Cappadocian Bellona. The population con- 
sisted, in a great degree, of soothsayers, priests, and 
slaves, belonging to the sacred institution : the lat- 
ter amounted, in the time of Strabo, to more than 



CAPPADOCIA. 139 

6000 of both sexes. These belonged exclusively 
to the high-priest, who stood next in rank to the 
king of Cappadocia, and was generally chosen from 
the royal family. The territory annexed to the 
temple was very considerable, and furnished a large 
income for the pontiff. (Cf. Cicer. Ep. ad Fam. XV. 
4.) It was asserted that the worship of Bellona, like 
that of Diana Tauropolos, had been brought from 
Tauris by Orestes and Iphigenia, and it was even 
pretended that the former had deposited within the 
temple his mourning locks, (aco/atjv,) whence the city 
was called Comana. (XII. p. 535.) These of course 
are fables of Greek invention. The Bellona of Co- 
mana was probably no other than the Anaitis of 
the Persians and Armenians, and perhaps the Ag- 
distis and Cybele of the Phrygians. Procopius 
says that Orestes founded, besides the temple of 
Diana, another to Iphigenia ; both of which build- 
ings were afterwards converted into churches by the 
Christians of Cappadocia. (Bell. Pers. I. c. 17. Dio 
Cass. XXXV. Plin. VI. 3.) Ptolemy assigns this 
town to Cataonia, but in the time of Hierocles it 
formed part of Armenia, (p. 702.) It was distin- 
guished from its Pontic namesake by the epithet of 
XpvdYj, as we learn from Procopius and Justinian. 
(Novell. XXXI.i) From the medals of Comana 
which are extant of the reign of Antoninus Pius, 
we learn that it had received a Roman colony at 
that period, and perhaps another under Caracalla ^. 

i Wesseling. ad Itin. Ant. p. NA ; in the second, COL. 

181. lUL.AUG.COMANENORU, 

k In the former case the epi- or COMAINORU. 
graph is COL. AUG. COMA- 



140 CAPPADOCIA. 

It is generally admitted that the Turkish town of 
AlSostan, seated on the Seihoun, or Sarus, not 
far from its source, represents the Cappadocian Co- 
mana. A modern traveller says, " it is situated in 
" a. noble plain, which supports forty villages depen- 
" dent on Al-Bostan. The city and villages are 
" surrounded with fine trees, cultivated fields, and 
" meadows, which are irrigated by numerous streams 
" of excellent water. Few spots in Asia Minor offer 
" a sight more agreeable. The population amounts 
" to eight or nine thousand souls I" 

According to the Antonine Itinerary, Comana 
was sixty-four miles from Caesarea, and sixty-two 
Cucusus. from Cucusus, a place of frequent occurrence in the 
Itinerary referred to, and noted in ecclesiastical his- 
tory as the spot to which St. Chrysostom was ba- 
nished in the reign of Arcadius. This Father has 
left an interesting account of his journey thither, 
and his abode in the place, which he describes as a 
most lonely and miserable spot. (Epist. 30. 87. et 
119.) Basiliscus was also banished there by Zeno. 
(Theodoret. Hist. Eccl. II. 5.) Mountain passes led 
from thence into Commagene and Syria. (Cedren. 
p. 352. Curopal. p. 825.) In the time of Hierocles 
it belonged to Armenia, (p. 704.) The name of 
Cocsou is said to be still attached to the site near the 
source of the Gihoun, or Pyramus, and south-east of 
13()stan, or Comana "'. The Pyramus traverses the 
greater part of Cataonia : its source is in the plain, 
and bursts forth from under ground with such 

1 Mr. Bnice's Itinerary in •" D'Ativille, Geog. Anc. p. 

Kimieir's 'Iravels, Append, p. 107. eti. fol. 



CAPPADOCIA. 141 

force that a dart hurled into the stream can scarcely 
penetrate the water. The bed of the river becomes 
soon broad and deep, and capable of receiving ves- 
sels, but on reaching the central chain of Taurus its 
channel narrows in a surprising manner, and it forces 
itself a passage through a chasm in the mountain, 
which presents a wonderful appearance. The rocks 
seem to have been rent asunder, for on observing 
the two opposite sides of the mountain, separated 
from each other by an interval of two or three jjle- 
thra, it may be seen that the ruptured parts corre- 
spond, and would unite again if brought near to 
each other. The chasm through which the river 
forces its way is so narrow below, that a hare or 
hound could easily bound across it. The river fills 
entirely this narrow channel, which is however of 
prodigious depth, and its waters, chafed and im- 
peded in their course, produce a sound loud as thun- 
der, and which may be heard at a considerable dis- 
tance. Issuing from the mountains it then bursts 
into the plains of Cilicia, and carries to the sea so 
much slime and mud, that an oracle had predicted 

Hiovx TvpoycMV UpYfV elg KuTrpov iKr^Tai. 

(Strab. XII. p. 536.) Besides the Pyramus there 
is another river of Cataonia, which, according to 
Strabo, passes into Cilicia. His account of this ri- 
ver, which he calls Carmalas, it must be allowed is Carmaias 
somewhat obscure, since in one passage he seems to 
assign it to Sargarausene, while in another he dis- 
tinctly ascribes it to Cataonia : for, speaking of that 
district, he says that it has no towns, but strong for- 
tresses on the heights, such as Azamora and Dastar- Azamora, 

_ ^ Dastar- 

cum, round which flows the river Carmalas. It cum. 



142 CAPPADOCIA. 

has a temple sacred to the Cataonian Apollo, who 
is revered throughout Cappadocia. (XII. p. 537.) 
A little below he says, " Now of the other praefec- 
" turae, in Sargarausene " there is the little town of 
" Herpa, and the river Carmalas, which empties it- 
" self also (that is, like the Pyramus previously 
" mentioned) into Cilicia." Mannert has supposed 
that Strabo was mistaken respecting the course of 
this river, and he has attempted to prove that the Car- 
malas is no other than the Melas, which flows by 
Caesarea. His argument rests mainly on the sup- 
Herpa. position, that the Herpa above named is the same 
place which elsewhere the geographer calls Herpha, 
and places, with Artemidorus, near the Euphrates, 
on the road to Tomisa, a fortress of Sophene, but, 
though on the left bank of the river, belonging to 
the Cappadocians, it having been ceded to them by 
Lucullus. (XII. p. 535. XIV. p. 664.) This may 
be easily granted, but it will not therefore follow 
that the Carmalas is the Melas ; nor can it be ad- 
mitted as at all probable that Strabo is again mis- 
taken in what he reports concerning the same river. 
(XII. p. 539.) Speaking of the ill-judged pastimes 
of Ariarathes in stopping the course of the Melas, 
he says that this prince did the same also to the 
Carmalas, near Herpa ; and the bursting of the 
dyke having caused some damage to the lands of 
Mallus, in Cilicia, the inhabitants of that town com- 
pelled him to pay them for the loss they sustained. 
(XII. p. 539.) Mannert does not scruple to disbe- 
lieve the facts, and to imagine that Strabo has made 
two inundations, whereas there was only one, and 

n For Sargarausene, we should perhaps read Saravene. 



CAPPADOCIA. 143 

that one caused by the waters of the Melas °. This 
is much too bold an assertion, and our modern maps 
fully bear out the ancient geographer in his state- 
ment. The Carmalas is there marked under the 
name of the ICermel-sou, as rising in the chain (of 
Antitaurus) which separates the waters which flow 
into the Karasou, or Melas, from those which fall 
into the Cilician sea : it runs for some miles from 
north-east to south-west, and then unites with the 
Gihoun, or Pyramus ; consequently it was by its ac- 
tion on the latter that the territory of Mallus, which 
it waters, received the damage recorded by Strabo. 
It is evident that the whole of this country, espe- 
cially as regards the course of its rivers, is extremely 
curious, and well worthy of being examined by some 
diligent and inquisitive traveller and artist, who 
might make us better acquainted with the wild and 
stupendous scenery of these mountains. The geolo- 
gist would there also find an ample field for inquiry 
into those extraordinary convulsions which have 
burst asunder the vast barrier of Taurus, and opened 
its rocks to the waters of the Cappadocian rivers. 

Ptolemy enables us to add to the list of Cata- 
onian towns (p. 128.) Cabassus, to which some Cabassu., 
writers applied the passage in which Homer, speak- 
ing of Othryoneus, the suitor of Cassandra, describes 
him as 

K^/SjitroSei/ gvSov lovra. 

II. N. 363. 

Apion the grammarian stated that Cabassus lay 
between Mazaca and Tarsus. (Steph. Byz. v. Ka- 

Tynna is unknown, as well as Tiralli, unless we^ynna. 
o Geogr. torn. VI. p. ii. p. 287, 288. 



144 CAPPADOCIA. 

should suppose it to be the same place which Hero- 
Critaiia. dotus calls Critalla. The historian says, that Xerxes 
assembled there the whole of his land army destined 
for the invasion of Greece. (VII. 26.) Claudiopolis 
has been already spoken of. Dalisandus is, by others, 
placed in Isauria. Polyandus is thought by Man- 
Tanadaris. ncrt to be a false reading for Podandus. Tanadaris 
is evidently the Ptanadari of the Antonine Itinera- 
ry, between Comana and Cucusus, twenty-four miles 
Leandis, from the ouc, and thirty-eight from the other. Le- 
randa. audis, which closes the list of Ptolemy, is perhai)s 
the Laranda of the same Itinerary, (p. 211.) eighteen 
miles south-west of Cucusus, on the road to Ana- 
zarba of Cilicia. It must not be confounded, as some 
critics have done, with the Laranda of Lycaonia or 
Isauria i'. In Cedrenus we have the narrative of an 
expedition, undertaken by the emperor Basilius, into 
these parts; which, though it throws but little light 
on ancient geography, yet deserves mention here. 
The Greek emperor, advancing from Caesarea, de- 
stroyed Casaman, Carba, Ardula, and Eremosgraea, 
fortresses belonging to the enemy: crossed the rivers 
Onopnictes and Sardus, and came to Cucusus : he 
then cleared the roads and difficult passes, and ad- 
vanced to Callipolis and Padasea, (Pindenissus of 
Cicero?) crossed the defiles of Taurus, (Amanus ra- 
ther,) and came to Germanicia of Commagene : he 
besieged Adana, then returned, laden with spoil, over 
mount Argseus to Caesarea. (p. 574, 575.) 

Strabo speaks of a Cappadocian district named 

Bagadao. Bagadaoiiia ; it was in the southernmost part of 

the country, and at the foot of Taurus ; but bleak, 

and scarcely bore any fruit-trees. (XII. p. 539- Cf. 

P Wesscling ad Itin. Ant. p. 21 1. 



CAPPADOCIA. 145 

Steph. Byz. v. Baya^aovia.) Another canton, formerly 
called Lapara, from its fertility, (as if AiTrapa,) bore Lapani, 

postea Lv- 

afterwards the name of Lycandus, as we learn from camius 

Cedrenus. (p. 687. Cf. Niceph. Phoc. p. 157 et p. 

162.) The same writer mentions also Charsiana, charsiana 

. regio. 

which took its name apparently from Charsia, acharsia 

castellum. 

fortress, (p. 692, p. 457.) Again, (p. 547.) he speaks 
of the Charsian defiles. Pancalea, a plain near the 
Halys. (p. 693.) Martyropolis and Tyropseum, near 
Caesarea. (p. 670.) The latter is also noticed by 
Curopalates, (p. 843.) who says it was very strong. 
Camuliani, likewise mentioned by Cedrenus, (p. 390.) 
is said in some acts of councils to have been also 
called Justinianopolis 1. The same documents assign 
to Cappadocia Prima, Ciscissa and Theodosiopolis ; 
to the Secunda, Justinopolis and Asuna '". Das- Dasmenda. 
menda, or Dasmena, a fortress seated on a steep 
rock near the frontier of Commagene, (Strab. XII. 
p. 540.) is, with reason, supposed by D'Anville to cor- 
respond with Tzamandus, a place of great strength, 
noticed by Cedrenus. (p. 688.) Drizium is another Drizium. 
Cappadocian castle, which occurs in the same writer, 
(p. 655.) Elsewhere he speaks of Lalacaeum and Laiac^um, 
Ptoson, and the river Gyres ; these were near Meli- Ptoson. 

Cryres fl. 

tene. (p. 547.) Stephanus assigns a Thebe to Ca-Thebe. 
taonia. (v. 0'>j/5>?.) Saricha, a Cappadocian town,Saiicha. 
according to the same geographer, (v. 'Za^iya^ is 
thought, on the authority of some very scarce me- 
dals, to belong to Morimene ^ 

The detail of the different routes which traversed 
Cappadocia in various directions will make us ac- 
quainted with a few more places in that province. 

q Geogr. Sacr. p. 2hA. s The legend is 2API. MOPI. 

r Ibid. p. 254, 2.55. Sestini, p. 130. 

VOL. II. L 



146 CAPPADOCIA. 

I shall commence with that which led from Galatia 
to Archelais, Tyana, and the Pylae Cilicia;, accord- 
ing to the Jenisalem Itinerary. 

M. p. 

Mutatio Andrapa — Finis Galatiae et Cappadociae. 

Mansio Parnasso XIII. 

Mansio logola XVI. 

Mansio Nitalis (Nitazus) XVIII. 

Mutatio Argustana XIII. 

Civitas Colonia (Archelais) XVI. 

Mutatio Momoasson^ XII. 

Mansio Anathiango (Nazianzus) XII. 

Mutatio Chusa XII. 

Mansio Sasiniam XII. 

Mansio Andavilis XVI. 

Civitas Thiana XVI. " 

Civitas Faustinopoli XII. 

Mutatio Caena XIII. 

Mansio Opodanda XII. 

Mutatio Pilas XIIII. 

Finis Cappadociae et Ciliciae. 

The next route is that which led from Tavium 
to Caesarea, which we find thus distributed in the 
Itineraiy of Antoninus : 

Iter a Tavia Casaream usque, M. P. CIX. Sic, 

Therma XVIIII. 

Soanda XVIII. 

Sacoena XXXII. 

Ochras XVI. 

Caesarea XX 1 1 II. 

Therma, the first station, is not unfrequently men- 
tioned by ecclesiastical writers as a bishopric of Cap- 
padocia^. (Cf. Hierocl. p. 699-) Cedrenus and the 

t Perhaps this is Mncissusj ing in the Itinerary, has been 

and at all events the Comita- supplied from Antonine. 

nasson of the Table. x See Wesseling, (Itin. An- 

u This number, being want- ton. p. 202.) who quotes an 



CAPPADOCIA. 147 

Notitia of the emperor Leo call it Basilica Tlierma. 
Soanda may be the Suenda of Frontimis, (Strat. III. 
2. 9.) but I doubt its being the Soandus of Strabo, 
because this spot, together with Sadacora, are men- 
tioned by that geographer as stations on the great 
road from Coropassus and Garsabora to Mazaca. 
(XIV. p. 663. y) The Table gives a very different 
route from Tavium to Csesarea, at least the stations 
are entirely dissimilar, and the distance is more con- 
siderable, being in all 191 miles. I should imagine 
that the latter was a much more circuitous route ^. 

M. p. 

Tavio — Evagina XVI. 

Saralio XXIIII. 

Zama XXII. 

Aquas Aravenas XXXV. 

Dona XX. 

Sermusa XX. 

Siva XVI. 

Cambe XXII. 

Mazaca Caesarea XVI. 

From Archelais to Tyana, according to the Table, 

Archelais ^ — -Salaberina XX . 

Csena XVI. 

Tracias XVI. 

Tyana XVI. 

From Mazaca to Iconium, by Tyana, in the same 
Itinerary. 

Mazaca Caesarea — Tetra^. 

Cibistra IX. 

epistle of Gregory Nazianzen, served any account of this route. 
in which mention is made of z Col. Leake imagines how- 

the Therma of Xanxaris. (Ep. ever that there is some error in 

n.) Antonine. (p. 312.) 
y It is singular that none of a Name omitted, 

the Itineraries should have pre- ^ Number omitted. 

L 2 



148 CAPPADOCIA. 

M. P. 

Scolla XXII. 

Addavalis XV. 

Tyana XXVII. 

Baratha c. 

Iconio L. 

From Tyana to Tarsus, by Podandus'^. 

Tyana — Aquis Calidis XXXIX. 

Paduando (Podandus) XII. 

Coriopio XXII. 

In Monte XII. 

Tarso Ciliciee XII. 

From Mazaca to Comana. 

Mazaca Csesarea — Sinispora XXIV. 

Arasaxa^ XIII. 

Larissa^ X. 

Incilissa XIII. 

Comana Cappadocia XX. 

ARMENIA MINOR. 

The name of Lesser Armenia was originally ap- 
plied to that extreme western part of Asia Minor 
which extends along the left bank of the Euphrates 
towards the source of that great river, and above 
the mountains of Trapezus and the territories of the 
Tibareni and Chaldsei, or Chalybes. The inhabit- 
ants of this country were doubtless of the same race 
as the j^eople of Greater Armenia, and spoke the 
same language ; they had also often been governed 
by the kings of the larger province, but not unfre- 
quently they had been subject to the dominion of 

c The number is wanting. ^ The Artaxata of Antonine. 

*1 The line of direction only <" Perhaps the Lacriassiis of 

is wanting in the Table to com- Ptolemy, 
plete this route. 



ARMENIA MINOR. 149 

their own princes. These, at one time, possessed a con- 
siderable extent of territory, and ruled over the Ti- 
bareni and Chaldaei as far asTrapezus and Pharnacia. 
Subsequently, however, they yielded to the ascend- 
ency of the great Mithridates: and Antij^ater Sisis^, 
the last of these chiefs, surrendered to that monarch 
the whole of his dominions. Mithridates, having 
become master of the country, perceived the advan- 
tages it afforded from the strength of its positions 
and the resources it possessed. He is said to have 
built there no less than seventy-five fortresses, in 
which he deposited his treasures and valuable effects. 
The chain of mount Paryadres was particularly fa- 
vourable for his views, as it was abundantly sup- 
plied with timber forests and water, and was every- 
where intersected by numerous ravines and rocky 
precipices. After his defeat and expulsion by Pom- 
pey, Armenia Minor was made over to Archelaus, 
king of Cappadocia. Nero afterwards gave it to 
Aristobulus, grandson of Herod the Great ; but on 
his death it again reverted to the Romans, who 
erected it into a separate province. (Strab. XII. 
p. 555. Dio Cass. XLIX. 12. Tacit. Ann. XIII. 7. 
Jos. Ant. Jud. XX. 5.) At a still later period we find 
that it had encroached gradually on the Cappadocian 
border, so that in the time of Ptolemy the whole 
of Melitene and Aravene, and a considerable part of 
Cataonia, were included within its limits. Under 
the eastern emperors we find it divided into two 
parts, called Prima and Secunda ; the one being 
under the government of a consul, the other of a 
count or duke, (Hyefxc^v.) Hierocl. p. 702, 703. Not. 
Imp. Orient, c. 1, 2.) The latter comprising chiefly 
S Or son of Sisis ; the Greek says, 'AiTntdrpov jov 2*V*8o?. 

L 3 



150 ARMENIA MINOR. 

the Cai)padocian prsefectura of Melitene and the dis- 
tricts of Coraana and Cucusus, which we have al- 
ready spoken of under the head of Cataonia in the 
same province. We shall therefore have now only 
to do with Armenia Prima ; but here again we find 
places assigned to this division which have been no- 
ticed in the description of Pontus. Confining our- 
selves therefore to Armenia Minor, such as it ap- 
pears to have been constituted in the time of Strabo, 
we may say generally, that it comprised at that pe- 
riod the districts of Arahkir and Devi'iM in the 
pashalick of Siivas, and those of Ei^xinghan and 
Turnheran in the pashalick of Er%eroiim along the 
Motirad-tchcd, or Euphrates, and north of that 
river, as far as the mountains of Baihout, the Scy- 
disces of the ancients. The Euphrates divided Ar- 
menia Minor from the district called Acilisene, which 
appears to have formed part of the modern Diar- 
hekh\ (Strab. XII. p. 555.) The northern part of 
the province comprised, according to Ptolemy, the 
minor districts of Orbalisene and iEtulana ; the cen- 
tre, iEretice and Orsena ; the south, Orbesine. 
The only city of any note or celebrity in this re- 
Nicopoiis. mote part of Asia Minor was Nicopolis, founded, as 
we learn from Strabo, by Pompey, near the position 
he had long occupied when blockading Mithridates 
in his last campaign, and where he obtained the de- 
cisive victory which he sought thus to commemo- 
rate. (Strab. loc. cit. Appian. Mithr. c. 101. c. 105. 
Dio Cass. XXXV. 33. Plin. VI. 9.) It is noticed 
by the writer of the Alexandrian war ; (c. 36.) and 
at a later period we learn from Procopius, that it 
was restored by Justinian, (de JKdif. III. 4.) It was 
an episcopal see, as may be collected from the Acts 



ARMENIA MINOR. 151 

of Councils and Notices. (Cf. Basil. Epist. 227.) 
Ptolemy places Nicopolis away from the Euphrates 
and towards the mountains, (p. 127.) The Itinerary 
of Antoninus reckons ninety-eight miles from Sebas- 
tia, or Siwas, to that city. It is the opinion of most 
antiquaries, that Nicopolis is represented by the 
Turkish town of DevriJd, seated near a river of the 
same name, which falls into the Er%inghan, a branch 
of the Euphrates. But if the writer in the Acta Mar- 
tyrum is correct, in stating that the Lycus flowed 
only six miles from Nicopolis ^^ it would follow that 
it stood in the valley of Koidei-hissar, through 
which the river of that name, the ancient Lycus, 
took its course. Koulei-kissar I moreover take to 
be Colonia, a town belonging originally to Pontus, 
and capital of the small district of Colopene, but 
afterwards annexed to Armenia. And it is further 
to be observed, that the letters of Basil, quoted by 
WesselingS lead to the inference that Colonia and 
Nicopolis were neighbouring cities. If Nicopolis 
then stood in the valley of the Lycus, I should be 
inclined to place it at Kara-hissar ; at the same 
time it appears to me that the direction of the seve- 
ral routes indicated by the Itineraries is rather in 
favour of DevriM. D'Anville supposes the Tephrice 
of the Byzantine writers, of which Devriki is evi- 
dently a corrujition, to be the same as Nicopolis; 
but he allows that they are mentioned as separate 
places in one of these historians. Of the seventy- 
five fortresses built by Mithridates in this country, 
Strabo has only named three which were more im- 
portant than the rest: these were Hydara, Basgse- Hydara. 

Basgffida- 

dariza, and Sinoria ; the two former of which are riza. 

ii Cited by Wesseling on Hierocles, p. 703. * Ibid. 

L 4 



152 ARMENIA MINOR. 

unknown to other geograi^hers. Basgaedariza offers 
some resemblance to a place called Hahoreg^ to the 

Sinoria. south-east of Erungliun. Sinoria was on the bor- 
ders of the Greater Armenia ; which circumstance 
gave rise to a pun of the historian Theophanes, who 
followed Pompey ; he writing the word Synhoria, 
Y.wo^ia. (Strab. XII. p. ^3o.) Appian calls this for- 
tress Sinorega, and reports that Mithridates took 
from thence a very considerable sum of money in 
his last flight from Pontus. (Mithr. c. 100.) Pto- 
lemy (p. 127.) places it under the name of Sinera, 
or Sinebra, near the Euphrates ; and the Itinerary 
of Antoninus coincides with the geographer in this 
proximity to the river. As we find it marked in 
the route entitled, " Iter a Satala Melitenam per 
" ripam (Euphratis) Samosata usque." (p. 207.) The 
name is there written Sinerva. The Sinara of the 
Table seems to be on a different route, leading 
from Satala however, but into the Greater Armenia. 
This place appears, in modern maps, under the name 
Qii Senarvir, a few miles below the junction of the 

Satala. Moiirud-tclicd and the Endnghan river. Satala, 
mentioned above, was a place of some traffick and 
consequence, as may be inferred from the numerous 
routes which branched off from thence to different 
parts of Pontus and Cai:)padocia. Ptolemy enu- 
merates it among the towns remote from the Eu- 
phrates ; but the Itinerary of Antoninus, in the 
route just referred to, shews that it could not have 
been very distant from it. The same Itinerary al- 
lows 122 miles between Nicopolis and Satala, and 
135 miles between Satala and Trapezus ; the Table 
only 123. From these data I should be inclined to 
look for the position of Satala near the junction of 



ARMENIA MINOR. 153 

the two roads leading from Trehisond by Gumich- 
kaneh to Er%eroum, and that from Er%inglian to 
Er%erotim. D'Anville identifies it with Er%i7ighan; 
but that town seems to be too much to the south to 
agree with the Itinerary distances. Mannert places 
it at Sukme, a sjjot about twenty-three hours' march 
from the Euphrates, where remains of antiquity have 
been observed by Tournefort and Tavernier^. Satala 
is mentioned by Dio Cassius; (XL VIII.) and we learn 
from Procopius that its walls were restored by Jus- 
tinian, (^dif. III. 4.) From the Antonine Itinerary 
and inscriptions we collect that it was the station of 
the fifteenth Roman legion, surnamed Apollinaris. 
(Anton. Itin. p. 183 1 Cf. Basil. Ep. 99. Hier. p. 73. 
Steph. Byz. v. EaraAa.) Ptolemy names besides Si- 
nera, or Sinebra, four other towns on the bank of the 
Euphrates, Aziris, Dalanda, or Ladana, Ismara, or Aziris. 
Simara, and Zimara. Mannert thinks Aziris may be Simara. * 
Er%inghcm; but that town is not on the Euphrates, 
but a stream which joins that river™ about twenty 
miles below the town. Zimara stands in the Anto- zimara. 
nine Itinerary, as well as the Table, on the route 
leading from Satala to Melitene along the Euphrates; 
and if it is the same town which Pliny calls Simy- 
ra, or Zimira, it was not more than twelve miles 
from the source of the Euphrates in mount Abus : 
(V. 24.) but this would ill accord with the Itinera- 
ries, which fix Zimara much lower down the river. 
I should rather imagine the site alluded to by Pliny 
is the Ismara, or Simara, of Ptolemy, also on the 

''LettreXXI. Voyages, c 2. 1 See Wesseliiig's note to 

p. 17. This is also the opinion Anton, p. 183. 
of INIajor Rennell. Asia Minor, •» Anc. Geogr. t. VI. P. 2. 

torn. II. p. 219. p. 308. 



154 ARMENIA MINOR. 

Euphrates, and apjiarently higher up than Zi- 
mara. 
Domana. Douiana, One of the inland towns of Ptolemy, 
stood, as we are apj)rised by the Itineraries, eighteen 
miles north-east of Satala, on the road to Trapezus. 
The Notitia Imp. Orient, marks it as the station of 
Tapura. the Equites Sagittarii Domauce. Tapura, Chorsa- 
charax. bia, Cliarax, which follow next in Ptolemy, receive 
no illustration from other sources ; but Dagona is 
the Dogana of the Table, thirty-eight miles east of 
Seieobo- Sebastia, and Seleoboreia is i)erhaps the Oloberda of 
the same Itinerary, twenty-one miles from Nicopolis. 
Caieorissa. CaleoHssa, fifteen miles further on the same route, 
Anaiiba. is Written Caltiorissa in Ptolemy. Analiba stands, 
according to Antoninus, sixteen miles above Zimara : 
the Table says fifteen. The Notitia Imp. describes 
Pisingara. it as a military station. Pisingara is unknown. 
Godasa is the Gundusa of Antoninus, between Ara- 
Eudixata. bissus and Nicopolis. Then follow, in Ptolemy, Eu- 
i\iariara. dixata, Cara})e, Marsara, Oromandrus, Ispa, obscure 
drus?^"" places on which the Itineraries and Notices throw 
pimphena. uo light I Phupheua may be the Euspoena of Anto- 
Arane. niuus. (p. 177.) Araue is certainly the Aranis of 
the same Itinerary, twenty-four miles beyond Eu- 
spoena, on a road leading from Sebastia to Melitene. 
Phupha-: Phuphagena, Mardara ", Vsesapa, or Varsapa, Or- 
Mardara. sara, or Orsa, which close the list of Ptolemy, are 

Vaesapa. 

Orsara. but bare names in ancient geography. 

The Itinerary of Antoninus is surjn-isingly co- 
pious in its catalogue of Armenian routes, and it is 
probable that we must refer these to a period when 
the line of the Euphrates was of such great import- 
ance to the protection of the eastern empire against 
n Marandara in Antoninus, as below. 



ARMENIA MINOR. 155 

the inroads of the Parthians, or Persians. The 
Table has also some which vary considerably as to 
the intermediate stations and distances. I shall com- 
mence with those which converge to Nicojjolis, the 
princi2)al city of the province. The first is that 
which leads from Csesarea of Cappadocia to Satala 
through Nicopolis, according to Antoninus, (jj. 206.) 

Iter a Csesarea Satala, M. P. CCCXXIIII. Sic, 

Eulepa XVI. 

Arniaxa XXIII I. 

Marandara XX\ III. 

Scanatus XXXVIII. 

Sebastia XX\ III. 

Camisa XXVII. 

Zara XXVII. 

Dagolasso XX. 

Nicopoli XXIIII. 

Olotoedariza XXII 1 1 . 

Dracontes XXVI. 

Aza XXIIII. 

Satala XXVI. 

The same route, according to the Table. 

Mazaca Caesarea — Sorpara XIII. 

Foroba XIIII. 

Armaza XIIII. 

Eudagina XV I . 

Magalasso XXXII . 

Comaralis XXXII. 

Sebastia XXII. 

Comassa XXIII. 

Doganis XV. 

Megalasso XXV. 

INI c so r om e XXII. 

Nicopoli XIII. 

Draconis XIIII. 



156 ARMENIA MINOR. 

M. p. 

Cunissa XIII. 

Hassis X . 

Ziziola XIII. 

Satala XII. 

The total of the Table is 317 miles, only five 
miles short of Antoiiine, though the stages are very 
different. Between Csesarea and Sebastia, Armaxa 
is the only station common to the two Itineraries. 
They differ still more between Sebastia and Nico- 
l^olis ; but between Nicopolis and Satala, they re- 
semble each other in regard to Dracones and Aza, 
or Hassa. Aza is assigned to the Lesser Armenia 
by Pliny (VI. 9.) 

In the Table we have a second route connecting 
Comana Pontica with Nicopolis, and a third drawn 
from Polemonium to the same city. 

Comana Pontica — Gagonda XVI. 

Magabula V. 

Danae XXV. 

Speluncis XXV. 

Nicopoliso p 

There appears to be no modern road whatever in 
this direction, which, generally speaking, is that 
from ToJtat to Dem^ihi. 

Polemonio — Sauronisena ^ 

Matuasco XVI. 

Anniaca XVIII. 

r XVIII. 

Nicopoli *. 

^ This road falls into the <i The number wanting, 

former between Mesorome and r Name omitted. 

Nicopolis. s Number wanting. 

P The number is wanting. 



ARMENIA MINOR. 157 

In the Antonine we have a variation in the route 
between Nicopolis and Satala. (p. 215.) 

Iter a Nicopoli Satalam, M. P. CXXII. Sic, 

Olotoedariza XXIIII. 

Carsatt XXIIII. 

Arauracos XXIIII. 

Suissa" XXIIII. 

Satala XXVI. 

From Nicopolis to Melitene, according to the 
Table, 

M. p. 

Nicopoli— Ole oberda'' XXI. 

Caltiorissa XV. 

Analiba XXIIII. 

Zimara y XV. 

Zenocopi XVIII. 

Vereuso XVIII. 

Saba XIII. 

Dascusa XVIII. 

Hispa XVIII. 

Arangas — XVIII. 

Ciaca Villi. 

Melitene XXVIII. 

From Nicopolis to Arabissus we have two routes 
in Antonine. 

Iter a Nicopoli Arabisso, M. P. CCXXVI. Sic, 

Dagalasso XXIIII. 

Zara XX. 

Camisa XVI 1 1 . 

Sebastia XXIIII. 

t Elsewhere called Carsagis, Suissse. 

p. 208. ^ This name is evidently cor- 

u Named in the Not. Pro- rupt ; it should be, I think, Se- 

vinciarura sub dispositione Du- leoboria. 

cis Armeniae de Minore later- y At Zimara this road meets 

culo, Ala prima Ulpia Dacorum one from Satala. 



158 ' ARMENIA MINOR. 

M. P. 

In Medio XXV. 

Ariarathia XXV. 

Coduzabala XX. 

Comana XII II . 

Ptandari XXIIII. 

Arabisso XXII. 

This was a very circuitous route, since it passed 
by Sebastia and Comana ; the second is entitled, 
" Iter ab Arabisso per compendium Satalam." (p. 
181.) Taking it from Nicopolis in an inverted or- 
der, we shall have the following stages : 

Dagolasso XXIIII . 

Zara XX. 

Euraeis XVIII. 

Gundusa XXX. 

Zoana XXIII. 

Tonosa XXV. 

Arabisso , XXVIII. 

The total distance is 168 miles, and therefore less 
than that of the former route by fifty-eight miles. 

The next set of roads to be considered are those 
which diverge from Satala ; but as many of these 
as pass through Nicopolis will of course be omitted. 
The first communication is that between Trapezus 
and Satala, which is given in the Antonine and the 
Table, but with considerable variations in the sta- 
tions : the total distance is however very nearly 
the same. In the former it is entitled, " Iter a 
*•' Trapezunte Satalam, M. P. CXXXV." 

Ad Vicesimum XX. 

Zigana XXXII. 

Thia XXIIII. 



ARMENIA MINOR. 159 

M. P. 

Sedisscapifonti y XVII. 

Domana XXIIII. 

Satala XVIII. 

According to the Table the same route stands 
thus : 

Trapezunte — Magnana XX. 

Gihenenica X. 

Bylse XVIII. 

Frigidarium VI. 

Patara VIII. 

Medocia XIIII.=^ 

Solonenica XII. 

Domana XVII I . 

Satala XVIII. 

The two routes are so very different that it is pro- 
bable they have no part in common except the first 
and last stages. I suppose one went by Gumich 
Khaneh, the other by Tekeh and Bmjhout^. 

2°. From Satala to Melitene, along the Euphrates, 
in Antoninus, (p. 207.) 

Suissa XVII. 

Arauracos XA/ III. 

Carsagis XXIIII. 

Sinervas XXVIII. 

Analiba XXVIII. 

Zimara XVI . 

Teucila XVI. 

Sabusb XXVIII. 

y The MSS. read Sedissa z In the original the first I 

Fiponti, which should be Se- is nearly effaced, 

dissa Finis Ponti. Sedissa is » Gihenenica seems to be 

probably connected with mount Gumich Khaneh, and Thia, Te- 

Scvdisces, which I take to be keh. 

the separation of Pontus and t. Mentioned in the Not. 

Armenia in this direction. Imp. Equites Sagittarii Sabu. 



160 ARMENIA MINOR. 

M.P. 

Dascusa XVI. 

Ciaca XXXII. 

Melitena XVIII. 

The Table differs widely from this arrangement, as 
far as Zimara. 

Satala — Ziziola XII. 

Hassis XI 1 1 . 

Cunissa X. 

Draconis XIII. 

Haris XVI. 

Elegarsina XVII. 

Bubalia VIII. 

Zimara XXV 1 1 . 

The remainder of the route to Melitene has been 
already given imder the road from Nicopolis to that 
city. (p. 157.) 

Melitene will be the last point, whose communi- 
cations we shall take notice of; those with Nicojio- 
lis and Satala have indeed already been considered. 
What remains will be chiefly in the direction of 
Sebastia, Comana, and Cucusus. In Antonine we 
have a route entitled : 

Iter a Sebastia Cocuso, per Melitenam, ]M. P. CCXCIII. 

Blandos XXIIII. 

Euspa?na XXV'III. 

Aranis XXIIII. 

Ad Praetorium XXVIII. 

Pisoncs XXXII. 

Melitena XXXII. 

Areas XXVI. 

Daiidaxina XXIIII. 

Ozdara XXIIII. 

Ptandari XXIIII. 

Cocuso XXXVIII. 



ARMENIA MINOR. 161 

But there was a road from Sebastia to Cucusiis, by 
Caesarea and Comana, without passing by Melitene. 
(Ibid. p. 178.) 

Iter a Sebastia Cocuso per Cassaream, M. P. CCLVIII. 

Scanatus .XXVIII. 

Malandara XXX . 

Arniaxa XXVIII. 

Eulepa XXIIII. 

Caesarea XVI. 

Artaxata XXIIII. 

Coduzabala XVIII. 

Comana XXIIII. 

Ptandari XXIIII. 

Cocuso XXXVIII. 

But the most direct road of all avoided Caesarea, 
which made a saving of fifty-two miles. 

Iter a Sebastia Cocuso per Compendium, M. P. CCVI. 

Tonosa L. 

Ariarathia L. 

Coduzabala XX . 

The remaining stages are the same as the last. 
The Table gives a route from Comana to Meli- 
tene, by Castabala, which can hardly be Coduzabala, 
as the distances do not correspond, unless there has 
been some transposition. 

Comana Cappadocia — Asarino XXIIII. 

Castabala XXIIII. 

Pagrum XX . 

Arcilapopolic XXX. 

Singa XXX. 

Arega XIIII. 

Zocotesso XII . 

Lagalasso XXIIII. 

c Perhaps Archelaopolis, and the Archalla of Ptolemv. 
VOL. II. M 



162 ARMENIA MINOR. 

M. P. 

Sama XVIII. 

Melitene .XIII. 

Another route from Caesarea to Melitene. (Anton. 
Itin. p. 210.) 

Artaxata XXIIII. 

Coduzabala XXI III. 

Comana XX VI , 

Siricis XXIIII. 

Ptandaris XVI. 

Arabisso XII. 

Osdara XXVIII. 

Dandexena XXIIII. 

Areas XXII. 

Melitenen XXVIII. 



SECTION X. 

C A R 1 A. 



Origin and early history of the Carians — Princes of Caria — Brief 
sketch of the principal events in the annals of the country, 
from its first conquest by Croesus to its becoming a part of 
the Roman empire — Boundaries and geography of the province 
— Dorian colonies, and other towns on the coast — Interior — 
Islands of Cos and Rhodes. 

The Carians were not considered by Herodotus, 
and other early Greek historians, as the aboriginal 
inhabitants of the country to which they communi- 
cated their name. Herodotus himself, a native of 
Caria, and who must therefore be allowed to have 
been well acquainted with its traditions, believed 
that the people who inhabited it had formerly occu- 
pied the islands of the Mgaean, under the name of 
Leleges ; but that being reduced by Minos, king of 
Crete, they were removed by that sovereign to the 
continent of Asia, where they still however con- 
tinued to be his vassals, and to serve him more 
especially in his maritime expeditions. At this pe- 
riod, says the historian, the Carians were by far the 
most celebrated of the existing nations ; they ex- 
celled in the manufacture of arms, and the Greeks 
ascribed to them the invention of crests, and the 
devices and handles of shields. (I. 171- Cf. Anacr. 
et Ale. ap. Strab. XIV. p. 661.) The occupation of 
many of the Cyclades by the Carians, at the earliest 

M 2 



]64 CARIA. 

period to which Grecian history, divested of fable, 
appears to reach, is satisfactorily confirmed by Thu- 
cydides, as well as the fact of their eximlsion by 
Minos. (I. 4.) In proof of the former, he states, that 
when the Athenians, under the direction of Pisis- 
tratus, purified Delos, by removing all the sepul- 
chres from that sacred island, they observed that 
more than half the graves belonged to the Carian 
nation. (I. 8.) The Carians, like the Tyrrheni Pe- 
lasgi, who belong to the same period, (Metrod. ap. 
Athen. XV. c. 12.) were notorious pirates, and it is 
for this reason, doubtless, that Minos expelled them 
from the islands ; while he was glad, at the same 
time, to avail himself of their skill and enterprise 
for the aggrandizement of his own empire. (Thuc. 
loc. cit.) Their reputation, indeed, for the manage- 
ment of ships was such, that they form one of the 
naval epochs recorded by Castor, a Greek writer, 
quoted by Syncellus, and other chronographers% 
who wrote on the nations that in ancient times had 
been powerful by sea. Such are the earliest accounts 
the Greeks have left us of this people ; but the Ca- 
rians themselves, as Herodotus admits, would not 
allow that they had been transplanted to the conti- 
nent of Asia from the islands of the JEigaenn, but 
maintained that they were an indigenous and abori- 
ginal people of the jieninsula. (I. 171.) From their 
own shewing, however, it is clear that they could 
not be considered as an autochthonous people, inde- 
pendent of the general argument against the fact ; 
for they claimed, as appears from Herodotus and 
Strabo, a near degree of affinity with two other 

a See Heyne, Comment, su- Nov. Comment. Soc. Gotting. 
praEpochis l*opul.0a>.aTTo/</!aT. vol. I. p. 80. 



CARIA. 165 

nations of Asia Minor ; I mean the Lydians and 
Mysians. This they expressed, by saying, that Ly- 
dus and Mysus were brothers of Car, the patriarch 
of their race. (Herod. I. 171. Strab. XIV. p. 659.) 
Now it has been stated that, according to the most 
accredited opinions, the Mysians and Lydians ori- 
ginally came from Thrace ; whence it would follow 
that the Carians likewise must have migrated to 
Asia from the same country. We have seen, in 
speaking of the population of Greece, that Thrace 
and Macedonia furnished those barbaric hordes, 
which, under the several names of Leleges, Caucones, 
and Pelasgi, spread themselves over the shores of 
the iEgaean, and the islands of that sea ; the Carians, 
therefore, must have belonged to the same great 
family, since they are confounded by the best au- 
thorities with the Leleges. It is difficult to say 
what nation inhabited Caria before Minos had re- 
moved thither the people from whom it took its 
name ; but it is not improbable that the Phoenicians 
occupied a portion of it. For we know that they 
had colonized Rhodes, and other islands off this 
coast; and Athenaeus remarks that certain poets 
applied the name of Phoenice to Caria. (IV. p. 174.) 
The Carians were already settled in Asia at the 
time of the Trojan war, since they are expressly 
mentioned by Homer in his catalogue of the auxi- 
liaries of Priam : 

NaffTjjj au KctpcJov Yjyy}(rciTO l3up(3cipo<pMvuiV 
Ma(«v8^ou Ts pocisy Mvxu\Yjg t anrsivoi x«priva. 

II. B. 867. 
The peculiar epithet of f3apPapo(pavoi, applied by 
the poet to this people, has given rise to much dis- 

M 3 



166 CARIA. 

cussion among his commentators. Apollodorus ima- 
gined that it was a term of contempt used by the 
lonians more especially to stigmatize a people with 
whom they were frequently at war. Others affirm- 
ed, that the reason of the epithet was to be sought 
for in the Carian language, which was more harsh 
and uncouth than those of other nations. This was 
denied again by others, especially by Philip of The- 
angela, a Carian writer, who had composed a history 
of the Carians and Leleges. (Strab. XIV, p. 661. 
Cf. Athen. VI. p. 271.) Strabo himself conceives 
that the word (3a.p(3apog was used originally to de- 
signate some harshness or defect in pronunciation, 
which the Greeks, who were peculiarly alive to such 
defects, came afterwards to transfer to all languages 
but their own. He further accounts for the term 
being peculiarly applied to the Carians by Homer, 
from the fact that this people had more intercoiu*se 
with the Greeks than the other tribes of Asia ; being 
often employed by them as mercenaries, and after- 
wards being still more intermixed with the lonians 
and Dorians, when these had formed their settle- 
ments in the Asiatic continent. The Carian lan- 
guage had certainly many words common to the 
Hellenic, and so doubtless had the Pelasgic, which 
must have formed the basis of this and many other 
dialects. Nevertheless, from disuse and want of culti- 
vation, the latter was accounted barbarous in the time 
of Herodotus. This was also the case with the Ca- 
rian tongue, since we know from the same writer 
that in the time of Xerxes a native of that country 
would not have been understood by those of Greece. 
(VIII. 135.) 

The Carians appear to have offered little resist- 



CARIA. 167 

ance to the Greek settlers who successively esta- 
blished themselves on their coast. The lonians first 
drove them from Miletus and Priene, and compelled 
them to retire to the left bank of the Meander. The 
Dorians next obtained a footing on their shore, and 
seized upon Halicarnassus and the peninsula of Cni- 
dus ; so that the Carians were confined chiefly to 
the southern coast and the valleys of those streams 
which are tributary to the Meander, towards the 
borders of Phrygia and Pisidia. Such being their 
weakness and inability to resist a foreign invader, it 
is not surprising that they should have yielded to 
the superior ascendency of the Lydians, under the 
direction of Alyattes and Croesus. (Nic. Damasc. p. 
243. Herod. I. 28.) On the overthrow of the Ly- 
dian empire they passed under the Persian domin- 
ion, together with the Dorians and other Greeks 
settled in their country ; having offered no resist- 
ance to the troops of Cyrus, commanded by Harpa- 
gus. (Herod. I. 174.) In the division of the Per- 
sian dominions, subsequently made by Darius, the 
Carians were attached to the first section of the em- 
pire, which comprehended .'Eolis, Ionia, Lycia, and 
Pamphylia ; and the governor of this province com- 
monly took the title of satrap of Caria, Miletus being 
the place of his residence. In the Ionian revolt, the 
Carians took a more active part than might have 
been expected from their previous want of energy 
and love of liberty. They fought two great battles 
with the Persian troops, who had hastened to re- 
press their insurrection ; and though they were de- 
feated on both occasions, they behaved with great 
bravery, and inflicted a severe loss on their enemies. 
In a third contest they obtained a signal victory, by 

M 4 



168 CxVRIA. 

means of a night ambuscade, and destroyed the en- 
tire force of the Persians, with their generals. (He- 
rod. V. 118 — 121.) They thus for a time averted 
the storm which threatened them ; but after the fall 
of Miletus, resistance became hopeless, and the whole 
jjrovince was brought once more under the Persian 
dominion. (VI. 25.) The policy of the sovereigns 
of Persia was to establish in each subject or tri- 
butary state a government apparently independent 
of them, but whose despotic authority at home af- 
forded the best guarantee that the people would 
every where be brought under the control of the 
court of Susa. This system, which had been ob- 
served by them throughout Ionia and JiI,olis, and the 
islands, was likewise adopted by them in Caria : and 
it is to this circumstance that the dynasty of the 
Carian princes, who fixed their residence at Hali- 
carnassus, owed its origin. There had always in- 
deed been native sovereigns in the country, but their 
power had been limited to their own barbarous sub- 
jects. Under the sanction and protection of Persia, 
they now exercised indiscriminate authority over 
Greek and barbarian ; a measure which tended at 
once to humble the pride of the former, and to abo- 
lish the distinction which they so fondly cherished. 
Herodotus has dwelt at length on the conduct and 
energy of Artemisia, daugliter of Lygdamis, tyrant 
of Halicarnassus, and who herself became after- 
wards sovereign of that city and Cos, together with 
other islands. The services she rendered Xerxes, 
and the zeal she displayed in his behalf, entitled her 
to his highest commendation and thanks; (Herod. 
VII. 91). VUl. 87, 88, 93.) and he testified his re- 
liance on lier ])rudence and fidelity by intrusting her 



CARIA. 169 

with the care of his children. (VIII. 101.) The 
succession of the Carian princes will be given more 
at length when we come to examine the history of 
Halicarnassus, with which it is more particularly- 
connected. When Athens had attained to that de- 
gree of maritime power, of which we have no other 
instance in the annals of Greece, Ionia and Caria 
became her tributaries. (Thuc. II. 9.) But it was 
along the coast that her power was alone acknow- 
ledged ; and if any detachments or parties advanced 
into the interior to levy contributions, they were 
either cut off or driven back with loss. (III. 19.) 
The peace of Antalcidas restored the whole of mari- 
time Asia to the sovereigns of Persia, and Caria con- 
tinued to form part of their empire till Alexander 
advanced into this quarter of the peninsula, after 
the battle of the Granicus, and effected its conquest, 
though not without considerable resistance, espe- 
cially from Halicarnassus. At a later period it ap- 
pears that Caria was for a time annexed to the king- 
dom of Egypt ; and Poly bins has given an account 
of the attempt made by Philip, the son of Deme- 
trius, to wrest it from Ptolemy Philopator. (III. 2. 
8.b Cf. XVI. 12. 1. XVII. 1. 14.) The Romans 
insisted afterwards on his restoring the towns he 
had conquered in this invasion. (XVII. 2, 3.) Caria 
next fell under the domination of Antiochus ; but 
on his defeat by Scipio, the Roman senate rewarded 
the services and fidelity of the Rhodians with this 
part of the conquered monarch's territory, which 
was so conveniently situated with respect to their 

^ See Prof. Schweighaeuser's have omitted the words il; Ka- 
note on the passage, where he ptav, which the best MSS. ex- 
confesses that he ought not to hibit. 



170 CARIA. 

island. (XXII. 27. 8. Liv. XXXIII. 16.) It was 
afterwards overrun and occupied for a short time 
by Mithridates, (Appian. Mithr. c. 20.) but finally- 
remained in the possession of the Romans, who an- 
nexed it to the proconsular province of Asia. 

Caria was bounded on the north by Ionia and 
Lydia, from which it was separated by the course of 
the Meander ; on the west and south, by the iEgean 
and Cretan seas ; on the east, by Lycia and Milyas, 
and a small portion of Southern Phrygia. In extent 
it is the least considerable of the divisions of Asia 
Minor ; but from the number of towns and villages 
assigned to it by the geographers of antiquity, it 
would seem to have been very populous. The cor- 
responding division of the Turkish provinces in 
modern geography is called Muntesha. Our de- 
scription of the western coast of Caria commences 
from the promontory of Posidium, south of Didymi, 
and the temple of Apollo, where our periplus of the 
Ionian shore terminated. South of cape Posidium 
the coast bends considerably to the east, and forms 
the opening of one of those deep gulfs which form 
a ju'ominent feature in the hydrography of Caria. 
The gulf in question, now called Assem-halessi, 
Jassicus was kuowu to tlic aucieuts by the name of Jassicus 

Sinus. 

Sinus, (Thuc. VIII. 26.) from the town of Jassus, 
situate at the head of the bay, nearly in the situ- 
ation occupied by the modern Assem^ or Assan. 
The first town within the bay, on the northern 
Tichiussa. sliorc, was Tichiussa, a fortress belonging to the 
Milesians, as we learn from Thucydides, and which 
appears to have possessed a port. (Thuc. ^^III. 26 — 
28.) A bou-mot of Stratonicus, tlie musician, with 
respect io tliis i)lace, is recorded by Athena^us : " As 



CARIA. 171 

" Tichiiis (Teixiovg) was inhabited by a mixed popu- 
" lation, he observed that most of the tombs were 
" those of foreigners ; on which he said to his lad, 
" Let us be off, since strangers seem to die here, 
" but not one of the natives." (VIII. p. 351.) The 
poet Archestratus commends highly the sprats of 
Tichiussa : 

s'j^i' I'M ^^(papfi Xri^^iiarctv Tsip^JOcCO"*) 
M«X:^rcu xcoju-rj, Kapcuv iriXag ayxuAoxwXaJv. 

Ap. ATHEN.VII.p.320. 

(Cf. Steph. Byz. v. Teixioei^, v. 1. Cod. Voss.) The 
remains of this place exist in a bay indenting the 
northern shore of the Sinus Jassicus, somewhat to 
the east of Jeronta and the ruins of Didymi. 

Jassus, or Jasus, which gave its name to the gulf Jassus. 
in which it was situated, but which, in the age of 
Polybius, was more commonly called Bargyliaticus 
Sinus, had been founded, as the inhabitants pre- 
tended, by a colony from Argos ; but these settlers, 
having sustained severe losses during their contests 
with the natives of Caria, they obtained a fresh sup- 
ply of colonists from the sons of Neleus, who had 
founded Miletus. (Polyb. XVI. 2.) It was attacked 
in the Peloponnesian war, after the Sicilian expedi- 
tion, by the Lacedaemonians and their allies ; it be- 
ing at that time held by Amorges, a Persian chief, 
who had revolted from Darius. Jassus was taken 
by assault, and Amorges fell into the hands of the 
Greeks, who delivered him up to Tissaphernes. 
(Thuc. VIII. 28.) Jassus was situate, as Strabo 
describes it, in an island close to the shore, with a 
good port. The soil was poor, but the sea made 
the inhabitants some amends by the liberal supply 
of fish it yielded for their market. The geographer 



172 CAR I A. 

has iutroduced a huiiiouroiis ston' "with reference to 
this commodity, on which the Jassians chiefly de- 
pended for their subsistence. (XIV. p. 658.) 

"'Hv ii TOT it: "laycv Kasiv xi>j» rlffa^/xTyOJ 

Ab(Hestr. ap. Athen. III. p. 105. 
Athena?us relates a story of a dolphin having formed 
an attachment for a boy of this town. (XIII. p. 606.) 
Jasus was besieged and taken by Philip king of Mace- 
don, but he was compelled by the Romans to restore 
it to Ptolemy. (Liv. XXXII. 33. Polyb. XVII. 2, 3.) 
The circumference of the town was about ten stadia. 
(Polyb. XVI. 12. Cf.Ptol. p.1'20. Steph.Byz. v. 'latr^sV. 
Plin.V. 29.) The Ecclesiastical Xotices and Hierocles 
(p. 689.) have also recorded it. The neighl>ouring 
mountains supplied a beautiful kind of marble, used 
by the ancients for ornamental purposes. The co- 
lour was blood-red and li\id white, striped. (Paul. 
Silent. Ecphr. S. Soph. P. II. 213.) We are told by 
Chandler, " that the rocky islet on which the town 
" was built is now united to the main land by a 
** small isthmus. The north side of the rock is 
" abrupt and inaccessible ; the summit is ocaipied 
" bv a mean but extensive fortress : at the foot is 
" a small portion of flat ground. On that, and on 
" the acclivities, the houses once stood, within a nar- 
•• row compass, bomided towards the sea by the city 
*' wall, which was regular, solid, and handsome, like 
" that of Ephesus. This, which has been repaired in 
•' many places, now encloses rubbish, with remnants 
'* of ordinary building^s, and a few pieces of marble. 
*' In the side of the rock is the theatre, with many 
" rows of seats remaining. On the left wing is an 
" inscription in ver\- large and well formed charac- 
" ters. ranging in a long line, and recording certain 



CARIA. 173 

" donations to Bacchus and the people. By the 
" isthmus is the vaulted substruction of a consider- 
" able edifice ; and on a jamb of the door- way are 
" decrees engraved in a fair character, but damaged, 
" and black with smoke. The sepulchres of the Ja- 
" sians on the continent are very numerous, rang- 
" ing along, above a mile, on the slope of the moun- 
" tain ^" 

Bargylia, which next follows, was noted for aCargjiia. 
temple and statue of Diana Cindyas, so named from 
the village of Cindye. Whenever it rained or snowed, Cindye. 
the image of the goddess was observed to be free 
from moisture. (Polyb. X^'I. 12.) Strabo applies 
the miracle to the temple rather than the statue. 
(XIV. p. 658.) Stephanus states, that the town 
was called Andanus by the Carians, who reported 
that it was built by Achilles. Other traditions re- 
presented it to have been founded by Bellerophon, 
and named after his companion Bargylus. (v. hdp- 
yvXa.) Bargylia was taken by Philip in his Carian 
campaign, and Polybius reports that he wintered 
there, though with considerable difficulty with re- 
gard to the subsistence of his array. (XVI. 24.) He 
was compelled by the Romans to evacuate the place 
not long after. (XVII. 2, 3. Liv. XXXII. 33. Cf. 
XXXIII. 18. 39. Mel. I. 16. Plin. V. 29.) Cicero 
calls the citizens Bargyletae ^. (ad Fam. Ep. XIII. 
56.) Bargylia, as Strabo informs us, was the birth- 
place of Protarchus, a celebrated Epicurean philo- 

c Travels in Asia Minor, p. ^ On the coins of Bargjiia 

226 — 228. Tliere are both au- we read BAPFTAIHTON. They 

tonomous and imperial coins of are both repuulican and impe- 

Jasus, w ith the legend lASEfiN rial. The latter from Titus to 

lACCEftN, in the medals ofHa- Geta. Sestini, p. 87. 
driao. Sestini, p. 88. 



174 CARIA. 

sopher, whose disciple was Demetrius Lacoii. (XIV. 
p. 658. Diog. Laert. X. 26.) The remains of this 
town have not been accurately explored, but Chand- 
ler conceives that he must have been near the site 
in a plain surrounded by mountains, about two 
hours from Jasus. Within the plain, which he 
supposes to have been formerly a recess of the 
bay, (Sinus Bargyleticus,) was a hillock, with ruins 
on it. This he recommends to the notice of future 
travellers ^. 
Portus et Next to Bargylia Strabo names the port of Gary- 
ryanda. anda, of the same name as an island situate near 
the shore. Scylax, the geographer, was a native of 
the latter, according to the same authority. (XIV. 
p. 658.) It is most probable that this is the Scylax 
who flourished, as Herodotus reports, in the time of 
Darius. (IV. 44.) But. some critics are of opinion 
that there was a junior Scylax posterior to Polybius, 
and who compiled the periplus which goes by his 
name f. (Cf. Steph. Byz. v. Kapuav^a. Plin. V. 29.) 
In Scylax, for Kp/v^a, we should read Kapvav^a. 
Col. Leake is inclined to think that the peninsula 
of Pasha Liman represents the former island of 
Caryanda, which would be another instance of the 
change produced by the action of the Meander on 
the coast of Caria^. But Pasha Lhnan seems too 
much to the soutli-west to answer to Strabo's topo- 
graphy ; and there is an island between Mentecha 
and Hassar-kalessi, which would better correspond 



« Travels in Asia Minor, }>. andian geographer, wilh alter- 

230, 23 I . ations and insertions by later 

f I am inclined to think that hands, 

the work in (niestion is fonndcd K Asia Minor, p. 22/. 
on the survey of the old Cary- 



CARIA. 175 

with the situation which that geographer assigns to 
Caryanda. 

Mentecha, or Muntecha, is probably the MyndusiMyndus. 
of Strabo, (XIV. p. 658.) which Polybius places 
on the extremity of the gulf of Jassus, opposite to 
Cape Posidium. (XVI. 12. Cf. XVI. 15.) It was 
founded, as we learn from Pausanias, by a party of 
Troezenians, together with Halicarnassus. (Corinth. 
c. 30.) Pliny, besides Myndus, speaks of Palaemyn- 
dus ; (V. 29.) and perhaps his Neapolis is no other 
than the new town. (Cf. Mel. I. 16.) It was the 
pvmishment inflicted on the captain of a Myndian 
vessel, which produced a rupture between Aristago- 
ras and the Persian admiral who commanded the 
fleet destined against Naxos, and finally brought on 
the Ionian revolt, the consequences of which were 
so important to Greece. (Herod. V. 33.) Frequent 
mention is made of Myndus, as a neighbouring town 
to Halicarnassus, in Arrian's account of the siege of 
that city by Alexander. That prince, conceiving 
that the possession of Myndus would be advantage- 
ous for the prosecution of the siege, endeavoured to 
surprise that place ; but the Myndians, with the aid 
of some reinforcements sent from Halicarnassus by 
sea, repulsed his attack with loss. (Arrian. Alex. Exp. 
I. 20. 8.) Other passages relative to Myndus occur 
in Livy (XXXVII. 15.) and Steph. Byz. (v. Mv^. 
Schol. Theocr. II. 29.) Athenseus says the wine of 
this district was good for digestion. (I. p. 32.) In 
Hierocles the name is corruptly written Amyndus. 
(p. 697.) The Table reckons fifty-six miles from 
Miletus, which distance agrees nearly with the in- 
terval between Palatcha and 3Ientesha. Col. Leake 
identifies Myndus with Gumishlu, a small port. 



176 CARTA. 

where captain Beaufort discovered some ruins ^\ Pa- 
Iccmyndus may have been situate, as Mannert sup- 
poses, near cape Astypalaea of Strabo, which derived 
its name probably from that circumstance, and which 
I take to be the peninsula of Pasha Liman ; but 
Myndus itself must be Meiitesha. Cape Zephyrium 
of the same geographer is the headland between Pa- 

Naziandus. sJia Limaii and Gumislilii. Naziandus, which Pliny 
places in this direction, is unknown. The Myndian 

Terrae- territory extended as far as cape Termerium, oppo- 

moluo™ site to a headland in the isle of Cos, named Scanda- 
rium, and only separated from the continent by a 

Termera. channel of forty stadia. Pliny enumerates Termera, 
which he terms free, among the maritime towns of 
Caria. (V. 29-) Steph. Byz, improperly assigns it 
to Lycia. (vv. Tep/xepa et TeX/xepa.) We find the 
ethnic Tepfxepea in Herodotus. (V. 37.) It appears 
from Suidas that this place gave rise to the pro- 
verbial expression Tepft-epia KaKa, it being used as a 
prison by the sovereigns of Caria \ Its site is pro- 
bably occupied by Carbaglar, or Gumishlu. 

On doubling cape Carahaglar, or Termerium, we 
enter the wide and extensive bay of Stanco, or Bou- 

Ceramicus drouH, aucieutly called Ceramicus Sinus. It is the 
deepest of the many bays by which the coast of Ca- 
ria is indented, and was formerly crowded with nu- 
merous towns. Of these, the most extensive, as well 

Haiicar- as most celebrated, was Halicarnassus, founded, ac- 

nassus. 

^ Beaufort's Karamania, p. > In Suidas we read further, 

I 10. Asia Elinor, p. 228. 1 he to 6e yjc/^oti i^vy.v</v rvyy^Mrji/ KtT- 

e|)igraph on the coins of Myn- rat /xeralL MvjXsv ko.) ' AXiKapyda-- 

dus is MTNAI and MTNAIflN j <rov. Holstenius would substitute 

they belong chiefly to the pe- Mvflov for Mv.ou, but MiK-^tov is 

riod of the Antonines. Sestini, nearer the reading of the MSS. 
p. 89. 



CARIA. 177 

cording to Strabo, by Anthes, at the head of a body 
of Troezenians. (XIV. p. 656.) These were joined 
afterwards by some Argives, headed by Melas and 
Areuanias. (Vitruv. II. 8. Cf. Pausan. Corinth, c. 30. 
Mel. I, 16.) Herodotus only recognises the former 
colonists. (VII. 99.) It was at first called Zephyria 
and Isthmus. (Strab. loc. cit. Steph. Byz. v. 'AkiKap- 
vaa-aog.) This famous town, on account of its origin, 
had naturally been included in the Dorian confede- 
racy, which consisted originally of six states ; but 
Agasicles, a citizen of Halicarnassus, having, con- 
trary to prescribed custom, carried off the tripod 
adjudged to him in the games celebrated in honour 
of the Triopian Apollo, instead of dedicating it to 
the god, the other five cities, in consequence of this 
offence, determined to exclude Halicarnassus from 
any participation in these festivities, which amounted 
in fact to an excommunication from the Dorian con- 
federacy, which from thenceforth was named Pen- 
tapolis. (Herod. I. 144.) Not long after this event, 
Halicarnassus may be supposed to have lost its in- 
dependence, Lygdamis, one of the principal citizens, 
having usurped the authority. He was succeeded 
by his daughter Artemisia, of whom Herodotus has 
made such honourable mention in his history. From 
his account it appears that this Carian princess was 
not only sovereign of Halicarnassus, but also of Cos, 
of Nisyrus, and Calydna. Her armament in the ex- 
pedition of Xerxes consisted only of five ships, but 
they were the best appointed in the whole fleet, 
next to those of the Sidonians. Artemisia, in all 
probability, transmitted this principality to her son, 
named Lygdamis, like his natural grandfather ; and 
it was during his reign that Herodotus, unwilling 
VOL. II. N 



178 CARIA. 

to see his native city under the domination of a 
despot, abandoned it for Samos, where he completed 
his studies. (Suid. vv. 'Hpo'^oro?, Yiavvaaig. Pamphil. 
ap. Aul. Gell. XV. 23.) Subsequent to this period 
we have little knowledge of what occurred at Hali- 
carnassus : but from Thucydides we learn that Ca- 
ria and Doris were tributary to Athens, (II. 9.) and 
Halicarnassus itself is mentioned, towards the close 
of his history, as being in the hands of her troops. 
(VIII. 42.) Somewhat later we find it subject to 
princes of Carian extraction. The first of these ap- 
pears to have been Hecatomnus, who is styled king 
of the Carians by Strabo. (XIV. p. 656.) This sove- 
reign had three sons, Mausolus, Hidrieus, and Pixo- 
darus ; and two daughters, Artemisia and Ada, who 
were married to the two elder brothers. Mausolus 
succeeded his father on the throne of Caria, and we 
find him taking part in the social war with Byzan- 
tium, Chios, and Rhodes against Athens, on account 
of the restrictions placed by that power on their 
commerce. (Diod. Sic. XVI. 21.) The firmness of 
the allies compelled the Athenians, after a contest 
of some duration, to relinquish their pretended com- 
mand of the sea, and to remove the grievances com- 
plained of. But not long after, we find the great 
Athenian orator exerting his eloquence to urge the 
Athenians to defend the Rhodians, whose independ- 
ence was threatened by Mausolus, their former ally. 
That prince, however, did not live to carry his de- 
signs, whether real or supposed, against the Rhodi- 
ans into execution. (Demosthen. de Rhod. Libert.) 
He died without offspring, and left the crown to his 
sister and consort Artemisia. If the merit of men 
is to be estimated by the regret they leave behind, 



CARIA. 179 

and again if that regret is adequately represented 
by external demonstration, the Carian prince must 
have been the best of sovereigns, and the most be- 
loved of husbands ; since the monument which was 
erected to his memory by his sorrowing wife far 
surpassed in magnitude, costliness, and beauty, every 
thing of the kind erected previously, and came to 
be looked upon as one of the seven wonders of the 
world, and finally supplied a name for sepulchral 
memorials of any magnitude. Pliny, describing this 
splendid pile, says it measured, from north to south, 
sixty-eight feet ; somewhat less in opposite dimen- 
sions ; and in circuit 411 feet. It measured twenty- 
five cubits in height, and was surrounded by thirty- 
six columns. The sculptvu-es on the eastern front 
were by the hand of Scopas, on the northern side 
the artist was Bryaxis, Timotheus towards the south, 
and Leochares to the east. Artemisia died of grief 
before the work was completed ; but the sculptors, 
from a love of glory, did not give up the undertak- 
ing till it was perfected. A fifth architect added a 
pyramid to the first story, having twenty-five steps, 
with a truncated vertex : on this was placed a four- 
horse chariot by Pythis. The height of the whole 
monument was 140 feet. The exterior was entirely 
cased with Proconnesian marble. (Plin. XXXVl. 5. 
Vitruv. Prcef. VII. Strab. XIV. p. 656. Pausan. 
Arcad. c. 16. Phil, de Sept. Mirac.) Artemisia was 
succeeded by Hidrieus, who, dying without issue, 
left the crown to Ada, his wife ; but Pixodarus, the 
youngest of Hecatomnus' sons, formed a party against 
her, and, with the assistance of Orontobates, a Per- 
sian satrap, succeeded in expelling her from Hali- 
carnassus. Orontobates, having married the daugh- 

N 2 



180 CARIA. 

ter of Pixodarus, remained, on the death of the lat- 
ter, in possession of Halicarnassiis. It was at this 
period that Alexander arrived with his forces in 
Caria, and laid siege to that city. It was long and 
severe, owing to the natural strength of the place, 
and the number and description of the troops which 
defended it, under the command of Memnon, the 
best general in the Persian service. But the courage 
and determination of Alexander prevailed at length 
over the resistance of the besieged, and they finally 
withdrew from the town, leaving only some troojDS 
in the citadel and forts. Alexander razed Halicar- 
nassus to the ground, and restored Ada to the sove- 
reignty of Caria. This princess, soon after, com- 
pelled the Persians to surrender the citadel and the 
other fortresses. (Arrian. Exp. Alex. I. 23. Strab. 
loc. cit.) Halicarnassus, to compensate the losses it 
had sustained, had six towns annexed to it by Alex- 
ander, as Pliny reports ; namely, Theangela, Sibde, 
Medmasa, Euranium, Pedasum, Telmissum. (VI. 
29.) The citadel was named Salmacis, from the 
fountain celebrated in the Metamorphoses of Ovid. 
(IV. 11. Cf. Strab. loc. cit. Vitruv. 11. 8.) This 
Acropolis was adorned with the palace of Mausolus 
and several fine temples and other buildings. (Vi- 
truv. II. 8.) According to Scylax, there were two 
ports at Halicarnassus : they were protected by the 
Arconne- little island named Arconnesus, now OraJiadasi. 
(Strab. loc, cit.) Halicarnassus could boast of hav- 
ing produced Herodotus, Dionysius, and Heraclitus 
the poet. (Strab. loc. cit.) We find incidental men- 
tion of this city occurring in Livy. (XXXIII. 20. 
XXXVII. 10. 16.) Cicero compliments his brother 
on having restored Samos and Halicarnassus, when 



sus insula. 



CARIA. 181 

nearly deserted. This condition was probably the 
effect of the Mithridatic war; (Ep. ad Q. Frat. I. 8.) 
but he accuses Verres of having carried oft* some 
statues from thence. (I. 19.) The Halicarnassians 
boasted, as we learn from Tacitus, when they com- 
peted for the honour of erecting a temple to Tibe- 
rius, that their city had stood for 1200 years with- 
out experiencing the shock of an earthquake. (Ann. 
IV. 55.) 

We have evidence of its existence from coins as 
late as the reign of Gordian^, and we can trace it still 
further by means of Hierocles, (p. 687.) Theodoret, 
(Hist. Eccl. II. p. 577.) the Ecclesiastical Notices, and 
Acts of Councils ^ Its ruins have long been known to 
exist at Boudroun, but they had not been explored 
accurately by any traveller before Capt. Beaufort, 
to whom we are indebted for a plan of the harbour 
and the Turkish town, with the adjacent coast. He 
observes, " that a more inviting or convenient situa- 
" tion could hardly have been selected for the capital 
" of the kingdom of Caria ; it rises gently from a 
". deep bay, and commands a view of the island of 
" Cos, and the southern shore of the Ceramic gulf, 
" as far as cape Krio. In front of the town a broad 
" square rock projects into the bay, on which stands 
" the citadel. The walls of the ancient city may be 
" here and there discerned ; and several fragments 
" of columns, mutilated sculpture, and broken in- 
" scriptions, are scattered in different parts of the 
" bazaar and streets. Above the town are the re- 



^ Sestini, Imperatorii ab A- also medals of the Carian dy- 

grippina Claudii usque ad Gor- nasts, from Hecatomnus to Pi- 

dianum. Epigraphe, AAIKAP- xodarus, p. 90. 
NACCEON. 1). 88. There are ' Geogr. Sacr. p. 246. 

N 3 



182 CARIA. 



a 



mains of a theatre ;" but though he searched for 
some traces of the celebrated Mausoleum, he was 
unsuccessful. He is of opinion that it occupied 
the site of the modern fortress, which seems to have 
been erected by the knights of Rhodes "\ 

Of the six towns which, as Pliny relates, Alexan- 
der j)laced under the jurisdiction of Halicarnassus, 

Tiieangeia. Thcaugela is known as the native place of Philip, 
the Carian historian, mentioned by Athenaeus. (VI. 

sihde. ^ p. 271. Steph. Byz. v. SeayyeXa.) Sibde and Med- 
masa are also acknowledged by the Byzantine geo- 

Eurauium. graplicr. (vv. YijS^a, Me^fxaa-a^.) Euranium is un- 

Pedasa. knowu to Other authors, but Pedasum or Pedasa, as 
Strabo writes the name, was an ancient city belong- 
ing once to the Leleges, and the capital of a district 
which included no less than eight cities within its 
limits. These Leleges held the whole of this part of 
Caria, as far as Myndus and Bargylia, and they even 
conquered a great part of Pisidia ; but they after- 
wards became blended with the Carians, and ceased 
to form a separate body. (XIII. p. 611.) Herodotus 
also notices Pedasa, on account of a strange pheno- 
menon which was stated to occur there. Whenever 
the inhabitants of Pedasus were threatened with 
any calamity, the priestess of Minerva's chin became 
furnished with a beard : this prodigy was reported 
to have happened three times. The Pedaseans alone, 
of all the Carians, resisted the army of Cyrus com- 
manded by Harpagus. They fortified a mountain, 

Lide mons. called Lide, and gave that general much trouble ; 
at length, however, they were reduced. (Herod. I. 

™ Beiiufort's Karaniania, p. to Medmasa, with the legend 
95—98. ME. Sestini, p. 88. 

n Some coins are assigned 



CARIA. 183 

175. Cf. VIII. 104.) The ruins of this town must 
be looked for above Halicarnassus, towards the east; 
indeed, Strabo leads us to suppose it was not far 
from Stratonicea, and I observe in this direction a 
place named Peitchin; this may represent Pedasa. 
Synagela, or Syagela, was another town in this vici- Syageia. 
nity, belonging to the Leleges, which, together with 
Myndus, was the only town allowed to subsist by 
Mausolus^, of the eight claimed by that people. 
(Strab. XIII. p. 611.) Steph. Byz. reports, that the 
name of Souagela was derived from the circumstance 
of its possessing the tomb of Car. In the language 
of the country, " Soua" meant a " tomb," and " gela," 
a " king." (v. HovayeKa.) Telmissus, the last of the six Telmissus. 
mentioned by Pliny, is not to be confounded with 
the more celebrated city of Lycia, whose seers were 
so famous throughout Asia Minor at a very early 
period. It is likewise acknowledged by Steph. Byz.; 
(v. TeA^/o-a&f.) many writers, however, attribute the 
faculty of divination to the Carian town. (Cic. de 
Div. I. 40. Clem. Alex. Strom. I. p. 334.) Mela 
gives the name of Leuca to a portion of the coast Leuca. 
between Halicarnassus and Myndus, (I. 16.) and 
some critics connect it with the Leucopolis of Pliny; 
but this seems to have been in the Dorian gulf. (V. 
29.) Ceramus, from which the bay of Halicarnassus Ceramus. 
derived its ancient appellation, was a small town 
and fortress on the northern side of the gulf, where 
the village of Keraino sufficiently indicates the site. 
(Strab. loc. cit. Ptol. p. 119- Galen, de Alim. Fac. 

o What Strabo says of Mau- translators of Strabo should 

solus, Pliny attributes to Alex- have Minos, instead of Mau- 

ander; it seems probable that solus, without any notice of this 

the former is the true version, departure from the usual read- 



It is strange that the French ing. 



N 4 



184 CARIA. 

p. 517. Hesych. v. Ke/aa/x&c. Eustath. in II. E. 387. 
Hierocl. p. 687 p.) Bargasa was another town on the 
gulf, probably more to the east : it is noticed by 
Strabo, (XIV. p. 656. Ptol. p. 119.) and Steph. Byz. 

Bargasa. (v. BoifyaTa.) According to Apollonius, the Carian 
annalist, it derived its name from Bargasus, the son 
of Barge and Hercules^. The ruins of this town are 
to be seen a little above the port of Giva, at the 
eastern extremity of the gulf of JBoudromi. We 
now enter upon the description of a remarkable 
peninsula, situate between the Ceramicus Sinus 
and the Dorian bay, now gulf of Symi. This was 

Doris, sive the Celebrated tract of country sometimes called Do- 

Triopiuin. 

ris, (Plin. V. 28.) at other times termed the Carian 
Chersonnese : (Pausan. Attic, c. 1.) by Herodotus 
it is denominated Triopium. (I. 174.) The extreme 
point towards the west, in the direction of Cos, was 
Triopium thcnce Called the Triopian jJi'omontory, TpioTriov aK^ico- 

])romonto- , /r^ -i -.r-, \ -rr- • tvt i . i 

rium. TTjpiov, (ocyl. p. 38.) now cape li^rio. JNear this head- 
land, a Lacedaemonian colony, headed by Triopas, 

Cnidiis. had founded the celebrated city of Cnidus, (Herod. 
I. 174. Pans. Phoc. c. 11. Diod. Sic. V. 61.) the 
metropolis of the Asiatic Dorians. We have seen, 
from Herodotus, that this confederacy, consisting 
originally of six cities, had been reduced to five by 
the exclusion of Halicarnassus : these were Cnidus, 
Cos, and the three Rhodian towns, Lindus, lalyssus, 
and Camirus. Like the Ionian states, they held their 
assemblies in a temple erected on the Triopian pro- 

P Sestini adduces a silver me- Q There are extant coins of 

dal, with the legend KEPAMIH- Bargasa, with theej)igraj)hBAP- 

nOAITflN, which he assigns to TASHNON. The imperial series 

('erannis; others in brass luive extends from Nero to M. Au- 

KEP. KEPAMI. and one of An- relius. Sestini, p. 87. 
toninus, KEPAMlHTaN. 



CARIA. 185 

montoiy, and consecrated to Apollo, in whose honour 
games were also celebrated ; these games were called 
aycbv roil TpioTriov ^ AnoXXavog, (Herod. I. 144.) or ay(hv 
Ac^^piog. (Aristid. ap. Schol. Theocr. Idyll. XVII. 69.) 
The whole Triopian peninsula belonged to the Cni- 
dians, and when they were threatened with an inva- 
sion by the Persian army, commanded by Harpagus, 
Herodotus relates that they had formed the project 
of separating it from the mainland, by cutting 
through the isthmus Avhich connected it with the 
continent. This neck of land was not broader than 
five stadia, but it was very rocky, and the workmen 
suffered so much more than usual from the opera- 
tion of cutting through the stone, particularly as to 
their eyes, that it was deemed necessary to consult 
the oracle on the reason of the impediment. The 
Pythian priestess answered, 

'l<T$[xov §6 _a^ TTupyouTs, jXYj^' 6p6<r(rsTS, 

The Cnidians, in consequence of this advice, desist- 
ed from their enterprise, and surrendered to the 
Persian general. (Herod. I. 174.) We have further 
incidental mention of this city in the same histo- 
rian. (II. 178. III. 138. IV. 164.) After the battle 
of Mycale, Cnidus, with the rest of Doris, became 
tributary to the Athenians ; (Thuc. II. 9.) but the 
inhabitants revolted to the Lacedaemonians when 
the war against Athens was transferred to the coast 
of Ionia and Caria ; nevertheless the Athenians 
seized upon the Triopian promontory, and captured 
the few ships they found stationed there, and very 
nearly took the city by a coup de main. (Thuc. VIII. 
35. 43.) 
Some years after these events, Conon, the Athenian 



186 CARIA. 

admiral, at the head of a Persian and Grecian fleet, 
gained a signal victory over the Peloponnesian fleet, 
commanded by Pisander. (Xen. Hell. IV. 3. 6. Pau- 
san. Attic, c. 1.) This event deprived Lacedsemon 
of the empire of the sea, and raised Athens from its 
state of weakness and dependence. (Diod. Sic. XIV. 
84.) At a later period Cnidus appears in history 
as the ally of Rhodes and friend of Rome ; (Liv. 
XXXVII. 16.) and the defender of Calynda against 
the Caunians. (Polyb. XXXI. 17.) Plundered by 
pirates, (Cic. Manil. c. 12.) it was favoured and pa- 
tronised by Julius Caesar, who had a great friend- 
ship for Theopompus, one of its principal citizens. 
(Plut. Caes. Strab. XIV. p. 656.) It is termed a free 
city by Pliny, (V. 28.) and described by Pausanias 
as a large and handsome town. Like Mitylene, 
Cnidus was divided into two parts by a euripus, 
over which a bridge was thrown ; one half being 
situated towards the Triopian promontory, the other 
towards the east. (Eliac. I. c. 24. Arcad. c. 30.) 
Among other remarkable works of art to be seen in 
this city, the famous statue of Venus, by Praxiteles, 
was more particularly an object of admiration. (Cic. 
in Verr. IV. 12.) Pliny says, " Sed ante omnia, et 
" non solum Praxitelis, verum et in toto orbe terra- 
" rum, Venus, quam ut viderent multi navigaverunt 
" Cnidum." He adds that Nicomedes, king of Bi- 
thyiiia, wished to purchase this admirable work, and 
actually offered to liquidate the debt of Cnidus, 
which was very considerable, if the citizens would 
cede it to him : but they refused to part with what 
they esteemed the glory of their city. There were 
besides several other works by the most eminent 
sculptors, such as Scopas and Bryaxis, but they 



CARIA. 187 

were scarcely noticed in the presence of such a ri- 
val. (XXXVI. 4. VII. 39.) Venus was the deity 
principally worshipped by the Cnidians ; and she 
had three temples erected to her, under the several 
surnames of Doritis, Acrcea, and Euploea : it was in 
the latter that the statue of Praxiteles was conspi- 
cuous. (Pausan. Attic, c. 1.) 

quae Cnidon 

Fulgentesque tenet Cycladas, et Paphon 

Junctis visit oloribus. Hon. Od. III. 28. 

Nunc o caeruleo creata ponto 

Quae sanctum Idalium, Syrosque apertos, 

Quaeque Ancona, Cnidumque arundinosam 

Colis. Catull. Carm. XXXVI. 11. 

The Cnidians, according to the same authority, 
made various offerings to the temple of Delphi. An 
equestrian statue of their founder Triopas ; and a 
group of Apollo and Diana piercing Tityus with 
their shafts. (Phoc. c. 11.) 

Besides these, they presented the magnificent paint- 
ings in the Lesche, by Polygnotus, which are so 
much dwelt upon and elaborately described by Pau- 
sanias. (Phoc. c. 25 — 22.) At Olympia the Cnidians 
had erected a statue of Pelops, and another of the 
river Alpheus. (Eliac. I. c. 24.) Strabo states that 
Cnidus possessed two harbours, one of which was 
destined for galleys, and a roadstead for thirty tri- 
remes. An island of seven stadia in circuit, and 
rising in the form of an amphitheatre, added to their 
security. This was connected with the mainland 
by a mole, and formed no inconsiderable part of the 
town. This agrees with what Pausanias says of 
the euripus, which divided Cnidus into two parts, 



188 CARTA. 

and had a bridge over it. (Eliac. I. c. 24.) The terri- 
tory of Cnidus produced wine, corn, oil, and various 
vegetables noticed by Athenaius (I. p. 33. II. p. 66. 
II. p. 59.) and Pliny. (XIII. 35. XV. 7. XXIII. 45. 
XIX. 32.) Its reeds were particularly esteemed for 
writing ; (XVI. 64.) whence the epithet of " arun- 
" dinosa," applied to the city by Catullus. (Cf. Auson. 
Ep. IV.) Cnidus gave birth to the historian Cte- 
sias, Eudoxus, a celebrated mathematician and dis- 
ciple of Plato, and Agatharcides, a peripatetic phi- 
losopher and historian. (Strab. loc. cit.) We have 
evidence of the existence of this city as late as the 
seventh and eighth centuries ^ from Hierocles, (p. 
687.) the Notices, and Acts of Councils. According 
to Captain Beaufort, " Cape Krio" the ancient Tri- 
opian promontory, " is a high peninsula, united to 
" the mainland by a sandy isthmus. On each side 
" of the isthmus there is aji artificial harbour ; the 
" smallest has a narrow entrance between high 
" piers, and was evidently the closed basin for tri- 
" remes, which Strabo mentions. The southern and 
" largest port is formed by two transverse moles ; 
" these noble works were carried into the sea to the 
" depth of nearly a hundred feet ; one of them is 
" almost perfect ; the other, which is more exposed 
" to the southwest swell, can only be seen under 
" water. Few places bear more incontestable proofs 
" of former magnificence than Cnidus ; the whole 
" area of the city is one promiscuous mass of ruins ; 
" among which may be traced streets and gateways, 
" porticoes and theatres ^." Colonel Leake observes, 

^The coins of Cnidus are not » Kaniniania, (p. 81,) where 

later tlian the reign of Cara- an enlarged sketch of the har- 

calla. The legend is KNI and hour of Cnidus is given. 
KNIAinN. Sestini, p. 88. 



CAR I A. 189 

there is hardly any ruined Greek city in existence 
which contains examples of Greek architecture in 
so many different branches. There are still to be 
seen remains of the city walls, of two closed ports, 
of several temples of stone, of artificial terraces for 
the public and private buildings, of three theatres, 
one of which is 400 feet in diameter, and of a great 
number of sepulchral monuments *. 

Herodotus, speaking of the work undertaken by 
the Cnidians to separate their territory from the 
mainland, says, that that part of it which is turned 
towards the sea is called Triopium, but that it com- 
mences from the Bybassian peninsula. It was there- Bybassia 
fore in this part that they attempted to cut a canal, nesus. 
Modern maps mark a great contraction in the neck 
of the Cnidian Chersonesus at a place called Lit/io- 
tronda, which has perhaps some reference to the cut 
in the rock. Bybassus, which gave its name to the 
peninsula, must have been in the same site, or nearly 
so. Pliny says, " regio Bubassus," (V. 28.) and Steph. 
Byz. (By/3a(7o-o?) says Ephorus called it Bybastus 
P. Mela speaks only of the Bubassian bay which 
enclosed the town of Acanthus. (1. 16.) Pliny says Acanthus, 

. . /, sive Doxxlo- 

it was also called Doulopolis, without accountmg tor poiis. 
the origin of the name. (V. 28.) Stephanus Byz. 
enumerates several places so denominated, under the 
head of AouAwv 7ro'A<f, without noticing the one of 
which we are now speaking ; but he refers to Acan- 
thus, which he places in the peninsula of Cnidus. 
(v. "A/cav5of.) 

If Mela is to be depended upon, there were three 
subordinate bays in what Pliny calls Doridis Sinus : |^,^®""** 
these were, the Bubassius, Thymnias, and Schoenus. Jiiymnias 

' ^ J -> Sinus. 

t Asia Minor, p. 226, note. 



190 CARIA. 

(I. 16.) But Pliny reckons only the two last ; and 
this agrees better with modern hydrography, which 
defines only two notable indentures, or arms, in the 
gulf of Symi; one towards the north, which I take 
to be Schoenus ; the other, advancing in an easterly 
direction, would then be Thymnias : the promon- 
Aphrodisi- tory wliich divided them was called Aphrodisias. 
torh'r""" (Mel. I. 16. Plin. V. 28.) The town of Hyda was 
seated within Schoenus. Our information respect- 
ing these places is very defective", as well as the 
following, which Pliny puts together without much 
Leucopoiis. arrangement. In the Dorian bay, he says, Leu- 
^^araasj- p^p^j^g^ Hamaxitus, Elceus, Euthene. Then follow 
Eiullene. the towus of CaHa, Pitaium, Eutane, Halicarnassus. 
Emane!' Elaeus is perhaps the island of Elaeussa near Lo- 
ryma ; but Euthene and Eutane can hardly be 
two different towns. Mela places Euthane, as he 
writes the name, between Cnidus and the Ceramic 
gulf, in a bay. (I. 16. Cf. Steph. Byz. vv. Ei/5^- 
vou, Undov.) The promontory, which terminates 
the southern shore of the Dorian gulf, is called 
Cynosse- Cyuosscma by Strabo, (XIV. p. ^55.) now cape 
Onugna- Aloiqjo, ov Volpe. It is opposite to the island of 
montori- Symi, the ancient Syme, and only four miles distant 
from it. Cynossema is probably the same headland 
which Ptolemy calls Onugnathos. (p. 119.) From 
this point commences the tract of country which 
Perseare- belonged to the Rhodians, and was named Persea 
from its being over against their island. It is men- 
tioned under this name of rj 'Vo^iwv ^a'pa, by Scylax. 
(p. 38.) Philip, king of Macedon, having seized 
upon it, was called upon to restore it to the Rho- 

« Captain Beaufort regrets gulf of Symi and the Cnidian 
that he could not explore the peninsula, p. 82, 83. 



gio. 



CARIA. 191 

dians by the Romans. (Polyb. XVII. 2, 3. Liv. 
XXXII. 33.) The Rhodians, however, were obliged 
to recover this territory by force of arms. (XXXIII. 
18. Cf. Polyb. XVII. 6. 6. XXXI. 25.) Close to 
cape Cynossema was Loryma, a small town with aLoryma. 
port, (Strab. XIV. p. 652, 655.) distant from Rhodes 
somewhat more than twenty miles. (Liv. XLV. 10. 
Cf. XXXVII. 17. Plin. V. 28. Ptol. p. 119. Steph. 
Byz. v. Awpv/Aa.) Constantinus Porphyrogenetes 
(Them. I.) says it was situated in a bay named 
(Edimus. To modern navigators it is known asffidimus 
JPo?'fo Cfwaliere^ or Aplotheka. Strabo reports that 
a high ridge of mountains runs along this part of the 
Carian coast, from cape Cynossema to the Caunian 
territory. 

The name of this mountain was Phoenix, and a Phoenix 
fortress, likewise so called, was placed on the summit, casteiium. 
(XIV. p. 652. Ptol. p. 119.) I am not acquainted 
with the modern name of mount Phoenix. The for- 
tress was opposite to the little island of Elaeussa, no- Eia-ussa 
ticed previously ; it was eight stadia in circuit, and 
only four from the land. In modern charts it bears 
the name Bai^hanicolo. Pliny and Mela notice, be- 
sides, some smaller havens with Loryma. Mela 
speaks of Gelos and Tisanusa ; (I. 16.) Pliny, Tisa- Geios por. 

tllS. 

nusa only; both mention Larymna. Paridion, orTisamisa. 
Panydon of the latter, is called Pandion by the former, Paridion.' 
and described as a headland advancing into the sea : 
it is probably cape Ma?'morice. The Stadiasmus, or 
maritime survey of the southern coast of Asia Mi- 
nor, places, after the island of Elaeusa, Phalarus, at Phaiams. 
a distance of fifty stadia ; then Posidium, at the same Posidium. 
distance : this was doubtless a cape ; and probably 
the Paridion and Pandion of Plinv and Mela are 



192 CARTA. 

only corruptions of the same word. At the head of 
the beautiful bay of Mmmorice stood the little town 

Physcus and port of Physcus, noted by Artemidorus and 
Strabo as the harbour, or emporium, by which Ephe- 
sus communicated with Rhodes. Its distance from 
the latter city by land was 1520 stadia. (XIV. p. 
QGS.) Here was a grove sacred to Latona. (XIV. 
p. 652.) Ptolemy calls it Physca. (p. 119. Cf. Steph. 
Byz. V. ^vcTKog.) The latter geographer seems to 
place one Physcus in Caria, another in the isle of 
Rhodes ; but they are the same, only Physcus be- 
longed to the Rhodian Peraea. It is surprising that 
Strabo should speak so little of the port of Phys- 
cus, which is so well known to modern navigators 
as one of the finest in the world for vessels of the 
largest size ^, under the name of 3Iarmo?'ice. Part 
of this noble bay is still called Physco. The site of 

Cressa Pliyscus itsclf is occupied by Castro Marmora. 

por us. pijjjy (jQgg YvoX, speak of Physcus, but mentions the 

port Cressa, known also to Ptolemy. The Stadias- 
mus omits both Cressa and Physcus, probably as 

Samus. being situated high up the bay, but marks Sanius at 
a distance of sixty stadia from cape Posidium ; then 

Rhodussa the island Rhopusa, which is the Rhodussa of Pliny. 
(V. 31.) It is marked in modern charts under the 
name of Limosa, or Karagash. It is situated at 
the entrance of the great bay or bason of Kara- 
gash, which I take to be the Cressa of Pliny and 
Ptolemy. Beyond, we find the mouth of a consider- 
able river coming from the northern part of Caria ; 

Caibis this is the ancient Calbis, which Strabo describes as 
navigable near its entrance into the sea, (XIV. p. 

^ Lord Nelson's fleet anchored here in 1801, just before the 
battle of the Nile. 



CARIA. 193 

651.) Tliis river finds a place also in the geogra- 
phical systems of Mela, (1.16.) Pliny, (V. 28.) and 
Ptolemy, (p. 119.) The modern name is Couindji, 
which is that of a small town also, seated at its 
mouth. This may answer either to the Pisilis, orPisiiis. 
Pilisis, of Strabo, (XIV. p. 651.) or the Pyrnus Pymus. 
of Pliny (V. 28.) and Steph. Byz., (v. Ylipvog) both 
situate between the Calbis and Caunus. The latter Caunus. 
city was of great antiquity, and is frequently men- 
tioned in the page of history. It appears from He- 
rodotus to have been the capital of a people, whom 
he looked upon as differing from the Carians in 
some important particulars, and possessing more of 
the character of an indigenous nation. " The Cau- 
" nians," says the historian, " are, in my estimation, 
" autochthonous, but they themselves affirm that 
" they come from Crete. And either they have 
" adopted the Carian language, or the Carians the 
" Caunian ; for this I am not able positively to de- 
" termine. But they use customs differing widely 
" from those of other nations, as well as the Ca- 
" rians : for they esteem it most seemly to unite to- 
" gether in their banquets societies of different ages 
" and sexes, both men and women, and boys ; and 
" when they had erected temples to foreign gods, 
" they afterwards changed their mind, and deter- 
" mined only to worship the deities of their coun- 
" try. The whole male population, therefore, from 
" the age of puberty, taking up arms, and striking 
" the air with their spears, advanced as far as the 
" borders of the Calyndians, pretending that they 
" were expelling the foreign gods." (I. 172.) The 
Caunians did not, like the Carians, tamely submit 
to Cyrus, but surrendered only to superior force. (I. 

VOL. II. O 



194 CARIA. 

176.) They also joined in the Ionian revolt. (V. 
103.) The name of Caunus occurs often in the last 
book of Thucydides as a port conveniently situated 
with regard to Phoenicia, Crete, and Rhodes ; and it 
is stated that Tissapliernes drew up a treaty while 
there with the Peloponnesian confederates. (VIII. 
39. 42. 57. Cf. I. 116.) The Caunians at a later 
period became subject to Rhodes ; but this arrange- 
ment seems to have given them little satisfaction, 
for they are stated to have afterwards thrown off 
their domination. The Romans, however, to whose 
arbitration they had committed their cause, decided 
against them. (Strab. XIV. p. 652. Liv. XLV. 25. 
Cf. XXXIII . 20.) It appears, from a fragment of 
Polybius, that the Rhodians had acquired Caunus by 
purchase from Ptolemy. (XXXI. 7. 6. Cf. XXX. 
5. 9. 19.) Appian relates that the Caunians dis- 
played a peculiar degree of animosity against the 
Romans in the massacre ordered by Mithridates. 
(Mith. c. 23. Dio Chrys. p. 349.) This city, though 
possessing the advantages of a good harbour and a 
very fertile territory, was nevertheless reckoned par- 
ticularly unhealthy during the heat of summer ; the 
abundance of fruit was also i)rejudicial to the health 
of its inhabitants. The musician Stratonicus, as 
Strabo reports, observing the pale and sallow com- 
plexion of the Caunians, humourously applied to 
them this quotation from Homer: (II. Z, 146.) 

On their complaining of this piece of ridicule, he re- 
plied still more sarcastically, " How could I presume 
" to stigmatize as unhealthy a town where even the 
" dead walk ?" (Strab. XIV. p. 651. Cf. Mel. I. 16. 
Steph. Byz. v. Kavvos. Dio Chrysost. Or. XXXII. 



CARIA. 195 

p. 390.) Under the Byzantine emperors Caunus 
formed part of Lycia. (Hierocl. p. 685.) See also 
the Acts of Councils and the Notitiae ^. Diodorus 
Sicukis speaks of two citadels or fortresses, belong- 
ing to Caunus, named Heracleum and Persicuni. 
(XX. p. 766.) Strabo mentions the fort Imbrus, on imbms. 
a height above the town. (loc. cit.) The site of 
Caunus is now occupied by a small town and sea- 
port named Kaiguez, or Kheugez, about four miles 
to the south of the entrance of the Calbis into the 
sea. Mr. Hamilton, who writes the name Coujek, 
says it is situate at the head of a lake, commu- 
nicating with the sea, and having a considerable 
fishery >\ Beyond Caunus the Maritime Itinerary 
reckons thirty stadia from that town to Pasada, a Pasada. 
station vmknown to other geographers ; thence to 
Cymaria sixty stadia, and from the latter to theCymaria. 
haven of the Caunians fifty stadia ^. This port an- Panormus 
swers to the bay and roadstead of Kaiguex^. This rum. 
bay receives, at its north-western extremity, a con- 
siderable stream, which takes its modern name 
from Kaigue'S,, but anciently was known by that 
of Indus. Pliny says it rises in the mountains of Indus 
the Cibyratae, and receives sixty perennial rivers, 
and more than a hundred torrents. (V. 38.) Livy 
also, in his narrative of the expedition of Manlius 
against the Gauls, places the Indus near the district 
of Cibyra, and adds that the name was derived from 
an Indian who had been thrown into it from an ele- 
phant. (XXXVIII. 14.) The river which Pliny 

X Geogr. Sacr. p. 248. In Minor, toin. II. p. 47. 

one of the Notices it is called z In the printed copy it is 

Acaleia. Kwvtuv na.vopi/.w, but it should 

y Rennell's Geogr. of Asia evidently be Kccwluv. 

o 2 



196 



CARIA. 



Axon 
fluvius. 



Calynda. 



Calyndici 
montes. 



Crya, sire 

Cryassus. 



Carj'sis in- 
siila. 

Alina in- 
sula. 



calls Axon must fall into the Indus from the east, 
and the Lycian mountains. Near their junction we 
must look for the site of Calynda, a town bordering 
on the Caunian territory, as we know from Herodo- 
tus, (I. 172.) and once subject to them. Polybius, 
in one of his fragments, states that the Calyndians, 
having revolted from Caunus, first had recourse to 
the Cnidians for aid, and afterwards placed them- 
selves under the jirotection of the Rhodians. (Polyb. 
XXXI. 17.) Strabo says Calynda was sixty stadia 
from the coast, where was a grove sacred to La- 
tona. (XIV. p. 651.) It nmst not be confounded 
with Calynda, a Carian island under Artemisia. (He- 
rod. VII. 99-) Calynda sent some ships to Salamis, 
and one of them was sunk by Artemisia during the 
engagement. (VIII. 87. Plin, V. 28. Steph. Byz. v. 
KaXvv^a.) Ptolemy assigns it to Lycia ^. The Ca- 
lyndian mountains, which formed the boundary on 
the side of Caunus, are probably on the right bank 
of the Indus. Continuing our course along the 
coast we have to notice Crya, with the singular ad- 
dition in Pliny of " fugitivorum." (V. 28.) Steph. 
Byz. assigns it to Lycia, (v. Kpva) which is the ar- 
rangement also of Ptolemy, in whose text it is cor- 
rupted to Carya. (p. 119-) It is probable that Cry- 
assus, spoken of by Plutarch, (de Virt. Mul. p. 24.6. 
Cf. Polyaen. Strat. VIII. c. 64.) is the same as 
Crya. Artemidorus, quoted by Steph. Byz., as- 
signed to Crya some islands, among which he men- 
tions by name Carysis and Alina. Pliny reckons 
three, but does not name them. (V. 35.) 

a Sestini assigns to Calynda vis laur. R. — Aquila alis expli- 
a very scarce coin, with the le- catis fulmini insistens, p. 87. 
gend KAAAINAEnx. Caput Jo- 



CARIA. 197 

These islands, which are situate in the gulf of 
Macri, or Scopea, guide us to the position occupied 
by the town of Crya ; and we have an additional 
clue in the little village and port of Cari^ which 
has an evident analogy to the ancient name. The 
jwrt or station of Clydae is placed, in the Stadias- ciydae. 
mus, to the west of Crya. Ptolemy names it Lydae, 
or Chydae. But the Stadiasmus gives us, besides, 
some other intermediate points between the Panor- 
mus of the Caunians and Crya. From the former 
to Ancon on the Glaucus'' 120 stadia. This AnconAncon, 
must be the headland which forms the bend of the 
Glaucian bay, now gulf of 3Iacri. Strabo calls the 
western extremity of this gulf cape Artemisium. It Artemi. 
appears to have derived this name from a temple of monto- 
Diana erected on the height. (XIV. p. 651.) It is 
the cape Boko7nadhi of modern geography. Then 
follows the headland Pedalium, distant eighty sta- Peciaiium 
dia : this answers probably to cape Contouri. From rium. 
thence to Clydse thirty stadia. To Cochlia the dis-Cochiia. 
tance is omitted ; but from that station to Crya we 
have fifty stadia. From Crya to Callimache sixty Caiiima- 
stadia : thence to Daedala fifty. The latter place, Dsedaia. 
according to Strabo, was the extreme point of Pe- 
raea to the east. (XIV. p. 651.) It is also noticed 
by Pliny, (V. 28.) Ptolemy, (p. 119.) and Steph. 
Byz. The two latter assign it to Lycia. The his- 
torian Alexander, in his account of Lycia, says it 
was called after Daedalus, who, being stung by a 
snake on crossing the river Ninus, died, and was Ninus fl. 
buried there. (Steph. Byz. v. Aa/^aAa.) This river 
seems to be the little stream which falls into the 
centre of the gulf of 3Iacri, and divides the Sand- 

'' Not on the river Glaucus, but the gulf of the same name. 

O 3 



198 



CARTA. 



Glaucus 
sinus. 



TEmis. 



jack of Mentesha from that of Teldeli; and it is 
veiy probable that in ancient geography it was the 
boundary of Caria and Lycia. Dccdala was also the 
name of a mountain on the confines of the latter 
province. (Strab. XIV. p. 664.) Pliny assigns two 
small islands off the coast to the Da3dalenses. (V. 31.) 
Strabo says the gulf Glaucus has some good har- 
bours ; and the names of these have been given in 
detail from the maritime Stadiasmus. Our know- 
ledge of the gulf of Macri, which answers to it 
in modern geography, is chiefly derived from the 
French hydrographers, as captain Beaufort did not 
take it in his Caramanian survey. Stephanus men- 
tions a place called iEnus in the Rhodian Peraea. 
(v. Aivog.) 

Having thus completed our circumnavigation of 
the Carian coast, we must now enter upon the exa- 
mination of the several towns and sites referred to 
by ancient authorities in the interior of the province. 
Commencing from the neighbourhood of Miletus, we 
have to j^oint out, south of that city, and beyond the 
chain of mount Grius, the towns of Chalcetor and 
Euronms. (Strab. XIV. p. 635, 658.) The former 
is an obscure place, noticed only by Strabo, unless 
we ought to identify it with Chalcetorium, which 
Steph. Byz. assigns to Crete, and on this supposi- 
tion improperly, (v. XaXKVjTopiov.) Strabo, in the first 
passage cited above, calls the place XaXK-^Tope^, which 
is in accordance with the authority of Craterus, a 

, writer quoted l)y Stephanus. Euromus was a town 
roims. of greater consequence, being founded by Idrieus, 
son of Car, and having borne formerly the names 
of Idrias and Chrysaoris. According to some writ- 
ers, the latter appellation was once applied to the 



C'lialceto- 
res, sive 
Chalceto- 



Eiiroimis 



CARIA. 199 

whole of Caria. (Steph. Byz. vv, Evpccfj-o^, 'I'^pik^, 
Xpva-aopi$.) Apollonius, in his Cariaii history, af- 
firmed that this town was of Lycian origin. (Steph. 
Byz. V. Xpvaaopi^.) Pliny calls it Eurome. (V. 29.) 
I agree with Berkeliiis in the opinion that Euromus 
and Europus are the same town. (Steph. Byz. v. 
EvpwTTOf.) Herodotus says that Mys, a Carian sent 
by Mardonius to consult the oracle of Apollo Isme- 
nius, was of Europus. (VIII. 133. Pausan. Boeot. 
c. 23.) The gentile name is, according to these 
writers, Evpanevg, like Evpccfjievg ; and not Evpdoiriog, as 
Stephanus and the Etymol. M. have it. (v. Evpunoi.) 
Euromus, as we learn from Poly bins, included some 
other towns within its territory ; but these were af- 
terwards taken by the neighbouring city of Mylasa. 
(XXX. 5. Cf. Liv. XLV. 25.) Philip, king of Ma- 
cedon, had held Euromus for a short time. (Polyb. 
XVII. 2. XVIII. 27. Liv. XXXII. 33. XXXIII. 
30.) The towns belonging to Euromus were pro- 
bably Tauropolis, Plarassa, and Chrysaoris, mention- Tamopo- 
ed by Apollonius in his history of Caria ; (ap. Steph. Plarassa. 
Byz. V. Xpvo-aopig. Cf. eund. vv. TavpoTroXic, HXdpaa-cra.) 
but Strabo refers Chrysaorium to Stratonicea. Eu- 
romus may be placed not far from the head of the 
gulf of lasus, or Bargylia, where some ruins were 
observed by Chandler and Choiseul Gouffier*^. Amy-Amyzon. 
zon, a small place noticed by Strabo, seems to have 
been in the same vicinity. (XIV. p. 658.) It is also 
found to occur in Ptolemy (p. 119-) and Hierocles. 
(p. 688.) The Councils prove that it was latterly an 
episcopal see. 

c Euromus has both autono- in a medal of Caracalla, ZET5; 
mous and imperial coins, with ETPOMETC. Sestini, p, 88. 
the legend ETPHMEaN ; and 

o 4 



200 CARIA. 

MyiasH. Mylasa, which next follows, was one of the most 

considerable towns of Caria. It had been the re- 
sidence of the Carian dynasts before Halicarnassus 
had fallen vmder their power ; (Strab. XIV. p. 659.) 
and its antiquity is further evinced by the circum- 
stance of its possessing a temple sacred to Jupiter 
Carius, to which the Lydians and Mysians likewise 
were admitted, in consequence of their consanguinity 
with the Carian nation. (Herod. I. 171. Strab. loc. 
cit.) Mylasa, as Strabo reports, was situate in a 
fertile plain, and at the foot of a mountain contain- 
ing veins of a beautiful white marble. This was of 
great advantage to the city, for the construction of 
public and other buildings; and the inhabitants were 
not slow in availing themselves of it ; few cities, as 
Strabo remarks, being so sumptuously embellished 
with handsome porticos and stately temples. (XIV. 
p. 659.) Athenaeus relates, that Stratonicus, the 
witty musician, on coming to Mylasa, and observ- 
ing there many temples, but few inhabitants, placed 
Iiimself in the middle of the forum, and cried out, 
" Hear, oh ye temples." (VIII. p. 348.) Mylasa, 
however, was inconveniently situated in one respect, 
being built in a hollow at the foot of a precipice; 
whence a governor of the pro^'ince, on coming 
there, was heard to remark, that the founder of the 
town ought at least to have been ashamed of his 
blunder, if not frightened. (Strab. loc. cit.) Philip 
of Macedon, son of Demetrius, had in vain endea- 
voured to obtain possession of Mylasa ; and it was 
probal)ly to reward their zeal that the Romans de- 
clared tlie citizens free, after the defeat of Antio- 
dius. (Polyb. XVI. 24. XXII. 27- Liv. XXXVIII. 
39.) In a petty war with their neighbours the Eu- 



CARIA. 201 

romians, they were victorious, and occupied some of 
their towns ; but in turn they were forced to yield 
to the Rhodians. (Polyb. XXX. 5. Liv. XLV. 25.) 
In the time of Strabo Mylasa could boast of two 
distinguished characters, Euthydemus and Hybreas, 
both eminent orators, and having great influence 
over their countrymen. The former was of an il- 
lustrious and wealthy family, but Hybreas owed 
his birth to obscure parents, who left him little or 
no provision. Having shewn some disposition for 
the law, he studied under Diotrephes of Antiochia, 
and acquired some reputation in his own city : this 
increased considerably after the death of Euthyde- 
mus, who naturally eclipsed him by his wealth and 
station. Hybreas then became the leading character 
at Mylasa, and acquired great fame as an orator 
and politician ; he incurred, however, the enmity of 
Labienus, the Roman partisan, and vainly endea- 
vouring to urge his countrymen to resist his pre- 
tensions, was forced to fly to Rhodes. Labienus, at 
the head of his troops, seized Mylasa, but finding 
his adversary had escajDed, plundered and destroyed 
his mansion, which was magnificently furnished, and 
caused great damage to the rest of the town. On 
his quitting Asia, Hybreas returned to his country. 
(XIV. p. 660.) The same geographer states that 
Physcus was the port of the Mylasians; (p. 659.) 
but Pausanias affirms that they had a haven, distant 
eighty stadia from the city; (Arcad. c. 10.) and 
Steph. Byz. says it was called Passala. (v. HaaaaXa.) Passaia. 
Mylasa is further noticed by Dio Cass, (XLVIII. 
p. 373. Plin. V. 29. Ptol. p. 119. Steph. Byz. v. 
MvXaia.) It is generally agreed that the site of 
this ancient city is occupied by Melasso, where con- 



202 CARIA. 

siderable remains were observed by Pococke'^ and 
Chandler*^. " Our first enquiry," says the latter, 
" was for the temple erected about twelve years be- 
" fore the Christian era by the people of Mylasa to 
" Augustus Caesar and the goddess Rome, which 
*' was standing not many years ago. We were 
" shewn the basement- which remains, and were in- 
" formed the ruin had been demolished, and a new 
" mosque, which we saw on the mountain side, above 
" the town, raised with the marble." Chandler also 
quotes an inscription on a pillar erected in honour 
of a descendant of Euthydemus, mentioned above : 
" Beneath the hill on the east side of the town is 
*' an arch or gateway of marble, of the Corinthian 
" order ; also a broad marble pavement, with ves- 
" tiges of a theatre : and round the town ranges of 
" broken columns, the remnants of porticoes. A large 
" portion of the plain is covered with scattered frag- 
" ments, besides inscriptions mostly ruined and ille- 
" gible. Some altars dedicated to Hecatomnus have 
" been discovered f." 
Labranda. Labrauda was a small town, dependent on My- 
lasa, and distant from it about sixty stadia ; it was 
especially celebrated for two temples sacred to Jupi- 
ter Labrandenus, or Labradeus, and Stratius : the 
Former title was supposed to be derived from the word 
" Labrys," which, in the Carian tongue, signified a 
hatchet, and the statue of the god was said to bear 
this utensil. (Plut. Quiust. Gr. torn. VII. p. 204. 
Reisk.) Others derive the name from Labrandus, 

<^ Tom. II. p. ii. c. G. which offer a series from Au- 

^ Asia INIinor, p. 234. giistus to Valerian, with theepi- 

^ The name of Ilybrcas ap- graph, MTAA2EON. Sestini, p. 

pears on the medals of Mylasa, 88, 89. 



CAR I A. 203 

one of the Curetes, (Etym. M. p. 389. Lactant. Fals. 
Rel. I.) But the temple of Jupiter Stratius was held 
ill great veneration by the Mylasians and the neigh- 
bouring peojile. A paved road, called the sacred 
way, led to it from Mylasa, reserved for processions 
and religious ceremonies. The priests were selected 
from the first families in that city, and their office 
was for life. The same god was worshipped at My- 
lasa, under the title of Jupiter Osogo, (Strab. XIV. 
p. 659.) or Ogoa. (Pausaii. Arcad. c. 10.) Herodotus 
reports that the Carians, after sustaining a defeat 
from the Persian forces in their revolt from Darius, 
retired to Labranda, where was a large temple 
sacred to Jupiter Stratius, and a grove of plane 
trees. (V. 119.) Chandler was of opinion that the 
ruins he observed near Mendelet were those of La- 
branda, as the distance and situation agreed with 
Strabo's accovmt. The chief ruin was that of a 
Corinthian temple with sixteen columns, and part 
of the entablature standing. A town has ranged 
with the temple on the north ; the wall beginning 
near it, makes a circuit on the hill, and descends on 
the side towards Mendelet : it had square towers at 
intervals, and was of a similar construction with the 
wall at Ejihesus ; within it is a theatre cut in the 
rock, with some seats remaining?. Messrs. ChoiseuP' 
and Barbier du Bocage^ were inclined, however, to 
think these ruins were those of Euromus, and they 
placed Labranda beyond Mendelet. 

Stratonicea, to the south-east of Mylasa, was also Stratoni- 
a city of some extent and importance : it appears to 

E Asia Minor, p. 245. i Notes sur le Voyage cle 

h Voyage Fitloresque de la Chandler, torn. II. p. 248. 
Grece, c. 11. 



cea. 



204 CAR I A. 

have been founded by Antiochus Soter, in honour of 
his queen Stratonice, and the Macedonian kings had 
adorned it subsequently with sumptuous edifices. 
(Strab. XIV. p. 660. Steph. Byz. v. ^TparcvtKeta.) 
It was ceded to the Rhodians by Seleucus and An- 
tiochus. (XXXI. 7. 6. Liv. XXXIII. 30.) Mithri- 
dates, during his residence at Stratonicea, became 
enamoured of Monima, a young lady, daughter of 
one of the jn'incijDal citizens, and married her. (Ap- 
pian. Mithr. c. 20.) Some years after, it was besieged 
by Labienus, and the obstinate and successful resist- 
ance it then made, entitled it to the thanks of Au- 
gustus and the senate. (Tacit. Ann, III. 62. Dio 
Cass. XLVIII. p. 379.) Hadrian is also said to have 
taken this city under his protection, and to have 
called it Hadrianopolis, a name which, however, 
never appears in use. (Steph. Byz.) Pliny styles it 
a free city. (V. 29.) Near the town was a celebrated 
Chrysao- temple of Jupitcr Chrysaorius, and there was a poli- 
tical union of certain Carian towns, which held their 
meetings here, under the name of Chrysaorium. The 
states had votes in proportion to the number of 
towns they possessed. The Stratoniceans, though 
not of Carian origin, were admitted into the union 
from their holding certain places, whicli formed part 
of it. We must refer to this head what has been 
already said under the article Euromus. (Strab. 
XIV. p. 660. Tacit. Ann. III. 62.) Menippus, sur- 
named Catochas, one of the most distinguished ora- 
tors of Iiis day in the opinion of Cicero, (Brut. c. 91) 
was a native of Stratonicea. (Strab. loc. cit.) " Eski- 
" hissar, once Stratonicea," says Chandler, " is a 
" small village, the houses scattered among woody 
" hills environed by huge mountains ; the site is 



num 



(( 



« 



CARIA. 205 

' strewed with marble fragments : some shafts of 
' columns are standing single. In the side of a hill 
is a theatre, with the seats remaining, and ruins 
of the proscenium or front, among which are pe- 
destals of statues ; one inscribed, and recording a 
citizen of great merit and magnificence. Without 
the village, on the opposite side, are broken arches, 
" with pieces of massive wall, and marble coffins*^." 

Lagina was a small town dependent on Strato- Lagina. 
nicea, where was a temple sacred to Hecate, or Tri- 
via, which attracted every year, at a certain time, a 
great concourse of people. (Strab. XIV. p. 660. Ta- 
cit. Ann. III. 62.) Lagina, according to Artemido- 
rus, was 850 stadia from Physcus ; but this distance 
is certainly much exaggerated, for Lakena^ which 
evidently corresponds with the ancient site, is by 
the map somewhat less than forty miles from Mar- 
7?torice, or Physcus. The whole of the distances 
between the latter place and Ephesus are very cor- 
rupt in Strabo. Tendeba and Astragon were twoTendeba. 

. /x • Astragon. 

fortresses m the territory or Stratonicea. (Livy, 
XXXIII. 18. Steph. Byz. v. Tlv^yjlSa.) 

Alabanda was 250 stadia to the north of Lagina. Aiabanda. 
It was situated, as the same geographer reports, at 
the foot of two hills, so placed that the town re- 
sembled in some sort an ass with a pack-saddle. 
Hence Apollonius Malacus, the orator, alluding also 
to the number of scorpions with which it was in- 
fested, called it in jest " the ass laden with scor- 
ia Asia Minor, p. 240. For the coins of Stratonicea we find 
several inscriptions belonging the surname of Indica, as IN- 
to this town, see the notes to AEI, or INAI. i;TPATONEI, or 
Brotier's Tacitus, (Ann. III. 2TPAT0NIKE0N. Sestini, p. 
62.) and the Oxford Marbles. 90. 
(Inscr. Ant. p. 28— 30.) On 



206 CARIA. 

" pious." Mylasa, and the whole chain of moun- 
tains which intervened, abounded with these noxious 
reptiles. The inhabitants of Alabanda were de- 
voted to pleasure, and the number of singing women 
was very great. (XIV. p. 660.) Alabanda was also 
famous for its quarries of a dark coloured marble, 
approaching to purple. (Plin. XXXVI. 8.) The 
town was said to derive its name from the hero Ala- 
bandus, (Steph. Byz. v. 'AA«5c/5av^a. Cf. Cic. de Nat. 
Deor. III. 19.) or from its having been founded 
after an equestrian victory. Ala, m the Carian lan- 
guage, signifying " a horse," and Banda, " victory." 
There was also a proverb, which implied that Ala- 
banda was the most fortunate of the Carian cities. 
(Steph. Byz.) Aridolis, tyrant of Alabanda, was 
taken, with his ship, by the Greeks before the battle 
of Artemisium: (Herod. VII. 195.) elsewhere the 
same writer calls Alabanda a town of Phrygia. 
(VIII. 136.) The Alabandians and Mylasians waged 
war with the Rhodians, but were conquered. (Li v. 
XLV. 25. Polyb. XXX. 5.) They erected a temple 
to the goddess Rome, and celebrated games in her 
honour. (XLIII. 6.) Their city sustained great loss 
during the irruption of the Parthians under Labie- 
nus. (Dio Cass. XLVIII. p. 425.) Pliny says, Ala- 
banda was the seat of a conventus juridicus. (V. 
29.) Juvenal mentions it rather contem])tu()usly. 
(Sat. III. 70. Cf. Cic. Ep. Fam. XIII. 5Q. 64. Ptol. 
p. 119- Hierocl. p. 688.) Most antiquaries fix the 
site of Alabanda at Carpuseli, a village, according 
to Chandler, twelve hours north of Mylasa. There 
are several ancient remains described by Pococke 
and the above named traveller. They are partly in 
a jilain, and partly on the slope of a mountain. 



CAR I A. 207 

*• They consist of a ruined stadium, part of the city 
" wall, and above the plain a terrace wall with a 
" square area, and vestiges of a colonnade. Beyond 
" these, in the rock, is a theatre, with remnants of the 
" front, &c. I was here again disappointed in find- 
" ing no inscription to inform us of the ancient name 
" of the place, but suppose it to have been Ala- 
" banda I" Col. Leake, however, has given reasons 
for thinking that Alabanda is rather represented by 
Arabi-hissar , where Pococke observed the remains 
of a considerable town on a site which agrees very 
well with Strabo's account ; and I am of opinion 
that they are satisfactory'". The ruins of Carpuseli 
may belong in that case to Trapezopolis, situated 
apparently not far from the Meander. (Plin. V. ^9- 
Ptol. p. 119.") Orthosia and Coscinia were two 
other towns of Caria in the vicinity of Alabanda, 
and on the left bank of the Meander. (Strab. XIV. 
p. 650.) In going from Coscinia to Alabanda the 
traveller crossed the same river several times. (XIII. 
p. 587.) This river is probably that of Tshina, or 
China, mentioned by Pococke and other travellers, 
and which Mons. Barbier du Bocage judiciously sup- 
poses to be the Carian Marsyas of Herodotus. (V. Marsyas fl. 
118.) The historian describes it as flowing from 
the district of Idrias, and falling into the Meander. 
Idrias was one of the names of Euromus, but it pro- 
bably included the whole of the Chrysaorian tract, 
and consequently Lagina and Stratonicea. It is from 

1 Chandler's Travels in Asia perors extend from Augustus to 

Minor, p. 231. Maximus. Sestini, p. 86. 

m Asia Minor, p. 233. There »i There are coins of Trape- 

are numerous coins of Alabanda zopolis, AHMOC TPAllEZOnO- 

with the legend AAA. AAABA, AEITON. Sest. p. 90. 
and AAABANAEfiN. The em- 



208 



CARIA. 



Coscinia. 



Ortliosia. 



Alinda. 



Ilien 



this direction that modern maps represent the river 
China as flowing. Coscinia, or Coscinus, as Pliny- 
calls it, is probably to be identified with China, 
where Pococke observed some remains indicative of 
an ancient site °. 

Orthosia is mentioned by Livy, (XLV. 25.) Poly- 
bius, (XXX. 5.) Ptolemy, (p. 119.) and Hierocles. 
(p. 688.) It is also known by the Acts of Councils, 
which prove its episcopal rank p, and by its coins ^. 
D'Anville places this town at Ortaki, without how- 
ever naming his authority for the existence of such 
a site, or any ruins marking its coincidence with 
the previously inhabited locality. In Pliny, for the 
word Halydienses, I would substitute Alindienses ; 
they are the people of Alinda, a Carian town of 
some note and strength, held by Ada, queen of Ca- 
ria, at the time that Alexander undertook the siege 
of Halicarnassus. (Arrian. Exp. Alex. I. 23. Strab. 
XIV. p. 657. Ptol. p. 119. Steph. Byz. v. "AA/va.) 
This site has been identified by many antiquaries 
with Moglah, the princijDal town of modern Caria, 
but on what authority is not apjjarent. Another 
traveller, from the similarity of name, places it at 
Aleina, between Moglah and Tshina '". Advancing 
along the Meander we have to point out Hiera- 
come, noticed by Livy in his account of the expedi- 
tion of Manlius. (XXXVIII. 13.) Here was a cele- 
brated temple and oracle of AjdoIIo. Answers were 



o Travels, vol. II. p. ii. c. 9. 
Leake'b Asia Minor, p. 234, 

P Geogr. Sacr. p. 24.5. 

q Sestini, p. 89. Autonomi. 
Epigraphe,OP0a5:iEfiN. Iinpe- 
ratorii ab .Augusto ad Maximi- 
II um. 



"■ Rennell's Geogr. of West- 
ern Asia, toui. II. p. 53. There 
are coins of this town, with the 
epigraph AAINAEftN, from Au- 
gustus to Faustina. Sestini, p. 



CARIA. 209 

delivered in verse. One day's march from thence 
led to the river Harpasus. (Liv. loc. cit.) The town 
of Harpasa was situated on its banks, as we learn Harpasa. 
from Pliny. (V. 39. Cf. Steph. Byz. v. " Apua^ja, 
Ptol. p. 119. Hierocl. 688.) The Notices assign to 
it the rank of an episcopal see. Pococke's researches 
enable ns to fix this site at Harpa%-Calessi near 
the junction of the Meander with a river now called 
Harpas, which is clearly the Harpasus. Continu- 
ing along the left bank of the Meander towards its 
source, we presently reach the site of Autioch, dis- Antiochia 
tinguished from other celebrated cities of that name drum. 
by a reference to the river on which it was seated. 
(Liv. XXXVIII. 13.) Pliny says it stood near the 
junction of the Meander and Orsinus. (V. 29.) The 
latter is now called Gongere. The same author re- 
ports that Antiochia was founded on the sites of 
two older towns named Seminethus, or Simmethus, 
and Cranaus. Stephanus Byz. states it was founded 
by Antiochus, son of Seleucus, in honour of his 
mother; it had been previously called Pythopolis. 
(v. 'AvTioyela.) Its territory extended on both banks 
of the river, over which a bridge was built. It 
abounded in fruit of every kind, but especially in 
the fig, called " triphylla." The town was of no 
great extent, and was much subject to earthquakes. 
It was the birthplace of Diotrephes, a celebrated 
sophist, the instructor of Hybreas. (Strab. XIII. p. 
630.) Antiochia of Caria is further mentioned by 
Ptolemy (p. 119- Sozomen. Hist. Eccl. VII. 2. 
Phlegon. Mirab. c. 6. Hierocles, p. 688.) and the 
Notitise. It is generally admitted that this ancient 
site corresponds with Jeni-sher, between the Mean- 
der and a small stream named Gengere. Here is 

VOL. II. P 



chos. 



sias 



210 CARIA. 

an old castle upon a hill, with arched caves or vaults 
at the foot; and beyond, thick walls, built with 

Gordiuti- small stones, and a few fragments of columns ^. Gor- 
diutichos was one day's march from Antioch, as we 
learn from Livy in his account of the expedition of 
Manlius. (XXXVIII. 13.) Steph.Byz. says it was 
founded by Gordius, son of Midas ; it must, in that 
case, have once belonged to Phrygia. (v. Top'^iov re?- 
Xo$.) The site of this obscure town was probably 
not far from Get/ra, which represents the ancient 

Aphrodi- Aplirodisias ; the latter was a considerable place, 
and in the time of Hierocles the metrojjolis of Ca- 
ria. (p. 688.) Stephanus states that it was founded 
by the Pelasgi Leleges, and was successively called 
city of the Leleges, Megalopolis, Ninoe, and Apliro- 
disias. (vv. N/vd'>;, MeyaXoTToXi^, ' kcppo^ia-iag.) In Strabo's 
time it appears to have belonged to Phrygia. (XII. 
p. 576.) Pliny, however, assigns it to Caria, and 
styles it a free city. (V. 29. Cf Tacit. Ann. III. 
62.^) The discovery of the site of Ai:)hrodisias at 
Geyra^ about two hours from Antiochia on the Me- 
ander, is to be ascribed to Pococke ". It was sub- 
sequently visited by Picenini and Dr. Sherard, who 
copied there several inscriptions, leaving no doubt 
as to the identity of the site with Aplirodisias. 
Drawings of the remains of antiquity have been since 

s Picenini's route in Cliand- Aplirodisias. It is a decree from 

ler's Travels in Asia Minor, p. the Roman senate, confirming 

269. and Pococke, torn. II. p. the privileges granted to that 

ii. c. J 1. The medals of An- town by .Tiilius Caesar, and the 

tiochia are very copious from triumviri who followed him. It 

the reign of Augustus to Salo- was first published by ChishuU 

nina. AHMOC, or STNKAHTOC in the Antiq. Asiat. p'. 152, but 

ANTIOXEflN. Sestini, p. 86. is emended by Brotier. 

t In Brotier's notes to this " Pococke, vol. II. p. ii. c. 

passage will be found an in- 12. 
teresting nioiunnent relating to 



CARIA. 211 

made by order of the Dilettanti Society''. From 
the existing coins of the city, it appears to have 
been situated on the Corsymus, or Corsynus river, 
which is doubtless the Orsinus, and another named 
Timeles. They also prove an alliance between 
Aphrodisias and Plarasa, in confirmation of the mo- piarasa. 
nument cited above with reference to a passage in 
Tacitus 5'. Plarasa, from that monument, appears 
also to have worshipped Venus. It is mentioned 
by Stephanus Byz. as a town of Caria. (v. Ylxdpaa-a.) 
There are also separate medals of this place ^. 

South of Aphrodisias was Tabae, which StraboTabae. 
includes, together with that city, within the limits of 
Phrygia, while some writers give it to Lydia, and 
others again to Caria. Steph. Byz. makes two dif- 
ferent cities of the same name ; one in Lydia, the 
other in Caria ; but it is highly probable that they 
are one and the same. It was said to have been 
founded by the hero Tabus. Others however de- 
rived the name from the word " Taba," which, in 
the Carian language, signified a " rock :" it being 
built on a height. Strabo informs us, that Tabce Tabenus 

c5 ' campus. 

was situated in an extensive plain, to which it com- 
municated its name, and which was inhabited by a 
mixed jDopulation of Phrygians, Pisidians, and other 
nations ; meaning, probably, the Cibyratae and Ca- 
balees, of whom we shall have occasion to speak in 
the next section. (Strab. XIII. p. 629- XII. p. 576.) 
Livy, in his narrative of the operations of Manlius, 



X Chandler's Travels in Asia cri, KOPCTMOC,vel KOPC;tNOC- 

Minor, p. 270. Leake's Asia TIMEAHC. Concordia cuui Pla- 

Minor, p. 250. rasa nAAPASQN KAI A*POAI- 

y Epigraphe, AHMOC A*PO- i;iEriN. Sestini, p. 87- 
AICIEnN. Fliivii, vel fontes sa- z Sestini, p. 89. 

P 2 



212 CARTA. 

states that he marched in three days from Gordiu- 
tichos to Tabae. (XVIII. 13.) It was a consider- 
able place ; and having provoked the hostility of the 
Romans, was compelled to pay twenty talents of sil- 
ver and 10,000 medimni of wheat. This proves that 
it was in a good corn country. The historian re- 
marks that it stood on the borders of Pisidia, to- 
wards the shore of the Pamphylian sea. D'Anville 
is no doubt correct in assigning to this ancient site 
the position of Thaous, or Davas, a place of some 
note north-east of Moglah, and seated on a river 
which is a branch of the Calbis. Col. Leake is in- 
clined to look for Tabse to the east of Apamea and 
Celaenae ; but I imagine he takes Strabo's statement 
of Tabse being in Phrygia in too literal a sense ^. 
Hierocles enumerates it among the Carian towns ^. 
(p. 689.) So do the Notitiae. A modern French 
traveller says Davas is a large and well built town, 
the capital of a considerable district. The governor's 
residence stands on a height overlooking the town. 
The view from thence over the surrounding plain 
is most magnificent*^. Three days' march from Tabae 

chaus fl. brought the Roman army to the Chaus, which is 
probably a branch of the Indus, or Keiighez river ; 

Eriza. beyoud it was the town of Eriza, which the Roman 
army took at the first onset. (XXXVIII. 14.) Pto- 
lemy places the Erizeli on the borders of Phrygia 
and Caria ; and there is little doubt that they are 
the people of Eriza ; but we must alter this name 
to Erizeni, which is the ethnic of Eriza ^. This 

a Asia Minor, p. 153, c Itineraire d'line partie de 

^ Geogr. Sacr. p. 245. There I'Asie Mineure, . Paris, 1816", 

are autonomous and imperial 8vo. p. 432. 

coins of Tabse, with the inscrip- d This is apparent from a 

tion TABHNON, very scarce medal of this town 



CARIA. 213 

town is the Erezus of Hierocles. (p. 689.) The 
Acts of Councils, which prove it to have been of 
episcopal rank, more correctly write the nameEriza^. 
It must have stood not far from the modern town 
of Ba%arkhan. Mr. Corancez, the traveller quoted 
above, says it is situated in a marshy plain at the 
foot of a chain of mountains which branch from 
mount Cadmus. He observed several marble sar- 
cophagi, which must have been brought there from 
Eriza^. In Lapie's map the ruins of Eriza are 
marked a little to the north-east of Ba%arJchan^ and 
on the left bank of its river, which must be the 
Caus. Thabusion was a fortress on a height above Thabu. 
the river Indus, and apparently the last place of Ca- 
ria towards the petty state of Cibyra. (Liv. XXXVIII. 
14.) Mr. Corancez, coming from Cibyra, observed 
on the road to Ba%arh]ian a remarkable rock over- 
hanging the valley, near which were several frag- 
ments of antiquity : this may have been the site of 
Thabusion ^. 

We have now gone over all the principal places 
in Caria, whose sites can be determined with any 
degree of probability and precision ; the rest are ob- 
scure, and of uncertain position. Pliny names Thy- Thydonos. 
donos, which is unknown to other writers ; he con- 
nects it with Pyrrha, Eurome, Heraclea, and Amy- 
zon ; so that it must have stood near the western 
coast between Miletus and Halicarnassus. He as- 
signs to the Forum Alabandicum, Hynidos, Cera- 
mus, Troezene, Phorontis ; of which Ceramus only 

described by Sestini. Eriza. Au- e Geogr. Sacr. p. 245. 

tonomi, epigraphe, EPI.EPIZH- f Itineraire d'une partie de 

NON. Mentio situs ab amne TAsie Mineiire, p. 429. 
Cao. KAOC. p. 88. g Itineraire, &c. p. 427. 

p 3 



214 CARIA. 

comes under the cognizance of history : the others 
probably were dependent upon it ; since we know 
from Strabo that the Ceramietae had several votes in 
the Chrysaorian assembly, from the number of their 
boroughs. Perhaps also Phorontis is only a distin- 
guishing epithet attached to Troezene, that it might 
not be confounded with the mother city in Argolis. 

At a greater distance from Alabanda he jDlaces 
the Orthronienses, who must exist upon his sole 
authority ; and the Halydienses, whom the better 
reading, Alidienses, has enabled us to restore to Alin- 

Euippe. da ; but when he adds, " seu Hippini," I suspect that 
here also the text requires correction ; and looking to 
the numismatic geography of Caria, I find a town 
named Euippe,the inhabitants of which are the Euip- 
pini, whose name has been corrupted by the transcrib- 
ers of the Latin geograjDher ^. (Cf. Steph. Byz. v. 

Xystis. EviTTTTV].) The Xystiani are to be referred to Xystis, 
assigned to Caria by Steph. Byz. (v. Bva-rt^.) The 
Hydissenses are the people of Hydissa, (Ptol. p. 119.) 

Apoiionia or Hydissus. (Steph. Byz. v. 'T'^iaao^.) Apollonia, 

num. surnamed ad Lambanum, according to Ptolemy, will 
be the city of the Apolloniatse, mentioned by Pliny ; 
but whether Lambanus is a river, or a mountain, is 
uncertain. Wesseling, in his notes to Hierocles, 
who recognises Apollonia in Caria ', would read Al- 
bacus for Lambanus. The reason of this alteration 
rests on the circumstance that there is another Ca- 

Hcraciea riau towu. Called Heraclea, with the surname of Al- 

Albace, 

she Sal- bacc, or Salbace ; the reader may, if he pleases, con- 

bace. 

h Sestini, p. 88. Euippe. Im- the Carian Apollonia, but the 

peratorii Liicillte, Domnae ET- ej)igraph gives the bare name 

innEQN. AnOAAQNIATON. Sestini, p. 

' There are several coins of 87. 



CARIA. 215 

suit Wesseling's observations on the subject, and his 
authorities. 

Trallicon had been seated on the Harpasus, butTraiHcon. 
it no longer existed when Pliny wrote. Ptolemy's 
catalogue contains the unknown towns of Bitoana, Bitoana. 
Bardissus, Idymus, Thera, and Pystus. (p. 119.) Baidissus. 

Idymus. 

But the Byzantine lexicographer turmshes more Thera, 
names in Caria than any other province, and hence 
I am inclined to suspect that many a place had more 
than one appellation. 

Aba, given on the authority of Herodian. (v. Aba. 
"ABai.) Abacaenum, according to the same gram-Abacae- 

' num. 

marian. (v. 'A^aKahov.) Agoresus, founded by some Agoresus. 
Argive colonists, (v. 'Kjoprjcrog.) Athense, the third in Athenae. 
the list. (v. 'AS^vai^.) Alexandria, near Latmus, Aiexan- 

/• * 1 • • 1 TT 1 (IriaadLat- 

where was a temple of Adonis, with a Venus by mum. 
Praxiteles, (v. ' AXelavtpaa.) Amos, noticed by Alex- Amos. 
ander in his Carian history, {y/'k^og,) and Argila, Argiia. 
(Y."\pyiXa.) Baebee. (v. Bar/5a<.) Bolbae, a town, andsajbae. 

^ i I ' ^ ' ITT Bolbae. 

Bolbseotes, a river : this place was also called Hera- Boibaeotes 

, . fluvius. 

clea, but which of the two noticed in this section 
does not appear. Dedmasa, (v. Ae^/xao-a,) probably Dedmasa. 
the same which Pliny called Medmasa. Delia, (v. Delia. 
AYjXia.) Dia, near Miletus, (v. A/a.) Didyinontei- Dia. 
chos. (v. Ai^v[xov Te7yog.) Dyndasum, which apjjears Dynda- 
from the passage cited out of the Carica of Aiexan- ^"°'" 
der, to have been near Calynda. (v. Avv^ao-ov.) Eunae, Eunae. 
and the river Eunaeus. (v. Ei/vai) Euonymia, (v. Ev-Eunaeusfl. 

Euonymia. 

wvv[xia.) Edyme, probably the same as the Idymus or Edyme. 
Ptolemy, (v. 'H^u^>;.) Thembrimus. (v. SefxfSpiixog.) Thembri- 
Berkelius thinks it may be Thymbria near Myus. ™'''' 
Themissus. (v. ee[xiaaog.) Thera, (v. 0>jpa,) which we ^eS''"'' 



''■ Can this be a false reading for Euthener 
p 4 



^16 



CARIA. 



Idyma. 



Hieramae. 
Hippone- 
sus. 
Callipolis. 



Candasa. 

Caropolis. 

Cedreae, 

Ciiropolis. 



Crade. 
Cyarda. 

CybassTis. 

Cylandnis. 

Cyon. 



Cyrbasa. 

Ijabara. 

Laea. 

Blasano- 

rada. 

IMelia. 

lMessal)a. 

Monogissa. 



Mumastus. 

JNIysrisi. 

Narcasus. 

Naxia. 

Xylus. 

fficus. 

Pedifis. 

Pigelasus. 

Piginda. 

Pisye. 

Plaraus. 

Plistar- 

rliia. 



have already noticed from Ptolemy, Idyma, and 
the river Idymus ; (v. *'l^v^a) see Edyme. Hie- 
ramae. (v. 'Upa[j.oci.) Hipponesus, a town noticed by 
Hecataeus, in his work on Asia. (v. 'iTrTroi/^o-o^-.) Cal- 
lipolis. (v. KaXXiTToXig.) I observe a place, called Gal- 
lipoli in modern maps, on the southern shore of the 
gulf of Boudroiin. Candasa, a fortress mentioned 
in the seventeenth book of Poly bins. (v. Ka'vWa.) 
Caropolis, on the authority of Alexander in his his- 
tory of Caria. (v. KapoiroXig.) Cedreae, on that of 
Hecataeus on Asia. (v. KtlpUi) Curopolis, on that 
of Apollonius, the historian of Caria. (v. KovpoTroXig.) 
Crade, named by Hecataeus. (v. Kpalri.) Cyarda. (v. 
Kvap^a.) Cybassus. (v. Kv/3aa-o-o$-.) Cylandus, men- 
tioned by Hecataeus. (v. KvXav^cg.) Cyon, before 
called Canebium, according to Apollonius. (v. Kvov^) 
Cyrbasa. (v. Kvp/Sacra.) Labara, mentioned by Alex- 
ander, (v. AdfSapa.) Laea, by Hecataeus. (v. Aae/a.) 
Masanorada. (v. Maaavxpa^a.) Melia, cited in the 
Genealogies of Hecataeus. (v. Me A/a.) Messaba, in 
the Asia of the same author, (v. MeVo-a/3a.) Mono- 
gissa, whence Diana was surnamed Monogissene, and 
founded by Daedalus. It is added, that Megissa, in 
the Carian language, signified a stone, (v. Movoyiaaa.) 
Mumastus, noticed by Alexander, (v. Movfxaa-Tog.) 

Mygisi, by Hecataeus. (v. Mvyia-ot.) Narcasus, (v. 
NdpKaiog.) Naxia, mentioned by Alexander, (v. 
Ka^ioc.) Xylus, by Hecataeus. (v. SvAo$-.) (Ecus. (v. 
07kov$.) Pedieis. (v. ne^/er>.) Pigelasus. (v. HeiyiXa- 
(76S-.) Piginda. (v. Hiyiv^a.) Pisye, or Pitye. (v. n<- 
o-vrj.) Plamus. (v. Tixdfjiog.) Plistarchia is given to 

' Cyon has a place in miniis- rius Jiiliie Domuce tantum. Ses- 
malic geography. Aiitononii, tini, p, 88. 
KT. KTI. KTrrtlN. Imperato- 



CARIA. 217 

a town called also Heraclea, but we have seen that 
there were two Heracleas in Caria. Polyara. (v. Poiyara. 
IloXvapa.) Prinassus (v. Yipivaa-aoi) is mentioned byprinassus. 
Polybius. It was besieged by Philip, king of Ma- 
cedon, and taken. (XVI. 11.) It is also known from 
its coins ^. Pyrinthus. (v. Uvpivdog.) Samylia, found- Pynnthus. 
ed by one Motylus. (v. ^afxvXia.) Sindessus. (v. S/v- sindessus. 
^7j(xcrog.) Sciritis : the explanation of this word issciritis. 
07 ^a^eKOLTroXig Trig Kap/a^, which itself requires a com- 
mentary. Syrna, founded by Podalirius. (v. Supi/a.) Syma. 
Sobala. (v. I.io/3aXa.) Telandrus, a town, and Te-Sobaia. 

Telandrus. 

landria, a promontory. The authority, Alexander Teiandria 
Polyhistor. (v. TrjXav^pog.) Tnyssus, Hecataeus on rrum.""^''" 
Asia. (v. Tvva-aog.) Tripolis, afterwards called Nea- Tripoiis.' 
polls, (v. TpiTioXii.) Tymnessus is doubtless the same Tymnessus 

ct Tvin- 

as Tymnus, though Steph. Byz. makes them two dif-nus. 
ferent towns. It is probably the same with the Thym- 
nia of Mela, near the Ceramicus Sinus, (vv. Tu^- 
vi(7(Tog, Tvfi.vog.) Hygassus, and the Hygasseian plain. Hygassus. 
(v- "Tyacra-og.) Hyllarima, a small town above Stra- seufs^cam- 
tonicea, of which Hierocles the philosopher was a S'yiiarima. 
native, (v. 'TAAa/j ///,«.) Hyllyala, a spot where Hyl-HyUaia. 
lus is said to have perished, and a temple was erected 
to Apollo, (v. 'TXXovaka.) Cholontichos, on the au- choiomi- 
thority of Apollonius. (v. XccXov reix'^g.) ''^°'' 

To complete this section, it will be necessary to 
take a view of the different islands off the coast of 
Caria, some of which, especially Rhodes and Cos, 
are celebrated and important. 

Leros, which yet retains its name, belongs to the Leros in. 
Sporades : it is situated in the Icarian sea to the ^" ^' 
south of Lipsia, and nearly facing the gulf of Jasus. 
m The epigraph is nPENA. or HPENAS. Sestini, p. 89. 



218 CARIA. 

The Milesians had colonized it, and on the breaking 
out of the Ionian revolt, Hecataeus the historian ad- 
vised the confederates to erect a fortress there, and 
make it their strong hold and centre of ojDerations, 
if they should be driven from Miletus. (Herod. V. 
125. Strab. XIV. p. 635. Plin. V. 31.) The epi- 
gram of Phocylides on the inhabitants of this island 
is well known : 

YlxvTsc, TiKrjv npoxXe'o'jj" x«» IlpoxXevjf Aigio;. 

(Strab. XIV. p. 488.) We learn from Athenaeus 
that there was a temple in Lerus sacred to Diana, 
where birds, called Meleagrides, supposed to be 
guinea-fowls, or turkeys, were kept. (XIV. p. 655.) 
Caiymna Calymua, separated by a narrow channel from Le- 
ins^a. ^^g^ .g jjgj^^gjj ^y Scylax (p. 38.) and Ovid, who 

praises its honey. (Metam. VIII. 222.) 

Dextra Lebynthos erat, foecundaque melle Calymne. 
Caiydnae It is probable that Calymne, together with the ad- 
jacent islands, which are numerous, lorraed the group 
which Homer calls Caiydnae. {v^Tovi re KaXvhag. II. 
B. 676.) We know also, from Herodotus, that the 
Calydnians were subject to Artemisia, queen of Ca- 
ria. (VII. 99. Strab. X. p. 488. Steph. Byz. vv. Kd- 
Xvha, KdXvixvct. Suid. et Etym. M. v. KdXv/xvof.) Ca- 
iymna in modern charts is called Calimyio, and the 
surrounding group towards Cos and the Carian 
shore, Kapperi and dwahaglilar. Pliny assigns 
three towns to Calydna, Notium, Nisyrus, and Men- 
Cos insula, deterus. (V. 36.) Cos, which next follows, is an 
island of considerable celebrity, which, in ancient 
times, bore the several names of Merope, Cea, and 
Nymphaea. (Plin. V. 31.) Thucydides in one place 



CARIA. 219 

uses the surname of Meropis. (VIII. 41. Cf. Pau- 
san. El. II. 14.) Pliny states that it was fifteen 
miles from Halicarnassus, and 100 in circumference; 
but Strabo gives only 550 stadia for its circuit, 
which is only between sixty and seventy miles, and 
this is more correct. (Strab. XIV. p. 657.) We are 
not informed by whom this island was first inha- 
bited, nor when it received a Grecian colony. This 
event, however, must have been prior to the siege of 
Troy, since Homer represents it as sending its war- 
riors there. 

II. B. 677. 

Tov (TV ^uv BopiYj uvsfjLcp TTSTri^oiKTa QusXKctc 
n='fx.vl/aj ett' arpoyBTOV ttovtov, xxko. jw-r^xjocucra, 

II. O. 26. 

At this period it appears to have been held by some 
descendants of Hercules, m^io, as Strabo imagines, 
were Cohans, or Thessalians. Subsequently, how- 
ever, it was occupied by a party of Dorians from Me- 
gara, united with an Argive colony, which, headed 
by Althaemenes, had settled in Crete, Rhodes, and 
Halicarnassus. (Strab. XIV. p. 653.) Hence it is 
always reckoned of Dorian origin, and obtained a 
place in the Triopian Pentapolis. (Herod. I. 144.) 
The Coans, as Herodotus further acquaints us, were 
under the government of hereditary princes, and he 
instances, as a noble act of justice, the resignation 
of his authority by Cadmus, sovereign of the island, 
who afterwards retired to Sicily, and was high in 
the favour of king Gelon. (VII. 164.) After the 
Persian war Cos became tributary to Athens, and 
continued so to the end of the Peloponnesian war, 



220 CAR I A. 

as may be seen from the attack made upon it by 
Alcibiades with a Spartan fleet. (Thuc. VIII. 41.) 
At a later period we find the Coans joining the 
Rhodians and Byzantines in the defence of their 
liberty and commerce, against the overbearing pre- 
tensions of the Athenians, and compelling them to 
recognise their independence. In general they fol- 
lowed the side which the Rhodians espoused, and 
we therefore find them united with that state against 
Antiochus in favour of the Romans. (Liv. XXXVII. 
16.) Some individuals, however, were known to 
lean towards Perseus, king of Macedon. (Polyb. 
XXX. 7. Cf. XVI. 15.) 

The city of Cos was anciently named Astypalaea, 
Cos civitas. and had formerly been seated on the coast towards 
the Icarian sea, but it was afterwards removed from 
thence, on account of a civil war, to the promontory 
Scandarium, opposite to cape Termerium in Caria, 
and received its name from the island. We learn 
from Thucydides that when Alcibiades landed there 
with a Spartan force he found it unfortified, and 
easily captured it, many of the inhabitants having 
deserted it on account of a disastrous earthquake 
which had shaken it to its foundations. (VIII. 41.) 
Strabo remarks that the city was not large, but very 
populous, and seen to great advantage by those who 
came there by sea. Without the walls was a cele- 
brated temple of ^Esculapius, enriched with many 
admirable works of art, and, among others, two fa- 
mous paintings of Apelles, the Antigonus and Venus 
Anadyomene. The latter painting was so much ad- 
mired that Augustus removed it to Rome, and con- 
secrated it to Julius Caesar ; and in consideration of 
the loss thus inflicted on the Coans, he is said to 



CARIA. 221 

have remitted a tribute of 100 talents which had 
been laid on them. Besides the great painter above 
mentioned, Cos could boast of ranking among her 
sons the first physician of antiquity, Hippocrates. 
This illustrious individual, who claimed descent from 
jEsculapius himself, was said to have derived the 
greater part of his aphorisms from the cases re- 
corded in the public documents, or archives of the 
temple of that god. Strabo mentions besides, among 
other distinguished natives of this island, Simus, 
another physician, Philetas, a poet and grammarian, 
Nicias, tyrant of Cos, and Ariston, a peripatetic. 
(XIV. p. 657.) Athenaeus quotes a history of Cos 
by a writer named Macareus. (VI. p. 262.) The 
town of Cos was again nearly destroyed by an earth- 
quake in the reign of Antoninus, and Pausanias 
records the liberality of that emperor in restoring it 
to its former condition. (Arcad. c. 43.) The soil of 
the I island was very productive, especially in wine, 
which vied with those of Lesbos and Chios. (Strab. 
loc. cit. Athen. I. 32.) It was also celebrated for its 
purple dye and embroidered work. 

Ilia gerat vestes tenues, quas foemina Coa 
Texuit, auratas disposuitque vias. 

TiBULL. VI. 35. 

Et tenues Coa veste movere sinus. 

Propebt. I. 2. 

Nee Coae referunt jam tibi purpurae, 
Nee clari lapides tempora. 

Hon. Od. IV. 13. 

Cos was celebrated for the beauty of its youths. 
(Athen. I. p. 15.) The scene of one of Theocritus' 



222 CARIA. 

Bucolics is laid in this island, (Idyll. VII.) and the 
Scholiast (v. 5.) states that the poet had sojourned 
there for some time. If this grammarian is correct, 
Aleus, which is mentioned in the same Idyl, was a 
demus of Cos, and Burina a fountain, (v. 6.) 

mentioned also by the Coan poet Philetas. (ap. Schol. 
ibid.) 

Nacrtraro S' Iv 7rpop^'.»;crj [/.iXai^TreTpoio BvpiVYjg. 

Oromedon is said to have been a mountain in the 
same island, (v. 46.) Pyxas, a spot sacred to Apollo, 
(v. 130.) 
Laceter Towards the south was a promontory named La- 

?iuT"'''' ceter, facing the isle of Nisyrus, and distant from 
Haiisarna. it about sixty stadia. Halisarna was a fortress, 
seated near the cape. Another headland, situated 
DrecaBum towards the west, bore the name of Drecanum. It 
S."""" was 200 stadia from the city of Cos ; Laceta, 235. 
I am not acquainted with the modern names of these 
Stoma. points. A harbour called Stomalimne, near Dre- 
canum, is probably Stafodino. (Strab. XIV. p. 657.) 
NisjTos Nisyros, ^vhich appears in the catalogue of Ho- 

mer, together with Cos, Carpathus, and other Spo- 
rades, (II. B. 676.) 

Ka» Ka)V, EvpvTTvXoio noKiv, vr,70vc re KaXuSvaf, 

is now called Nisarl, and is about eight miles 
to the south-west of cape Crio. It was pretended 
that it liad been torn from Cos by Neptune, that he 
might cast it against the giant Polybotes. (Strab. 
X. p. 488. Apollod. I. 6. 2. Pausan. Att. 2. Steph. 
Byz. V. "Sii^vpog.) We learn from Herodotus that 



CARIA. 223 

Nisyros was under the dominion of Artemisia, queen 
of Caria. (VII. 99) According to Strabo it was 
high and rocky, having a town of the same name, 
a port and temple of Neptune, and some warm 
baths. (X. p. 488.) There was also another town, 
named Argos. (Steph. Byz. v. ISiia-vpa.) 

Telos is to the south-east of Nisyros, and directly Teios in. 
south of Cnidos. Strabo is not correct in describing 
it as a long and narrow island, since it is rather of 
a circular form. He assigns 140 stadia for the cir- 
cuit, which is not far from the truth. (X. p. 488.) 
Herodotus acquaints us, that the family of Gelon, 
tyrant of Sicily, came originally into that island 
from Telos. (VII. 153.) Pliny says Telos was noted 
for a particular ointment. (XIII. 2.) The modern 
name is Tilo, or Piscojn. 

At the entrance of the Doridis Sinus is the isleSymein- 
of Symiy from which that gulf derives its modern 
name. The ancients called it Syme ; and Homer 
has conferred some celebrity upon it, as the country 
of the handsome Nireus. (II. B. 671.) 



5 



Njpsuc 5* «u 2'Jju.»i9£V ayvj Tf,fr. vriag sfcra: 

itpsvc, AyAuiTiC viog KapoTioio t avaKTOg 
Ni/Jsuf, be HuKXidTog uvY,p u-ko''1Kiov ^kQs 
Tcov «AAa)v Aoivacuv, /jIEt' ai/,Ujj.ova, Tl^Xeloova. 

Herodotus and Thucydides speak of it in connec- 
tion with Cnidus and Rhodes. (Herod. I. 174.) The 
Lacedaemonian Astyochus gained a victory off this 
island, over a small Athenian squadron. (Thucyd. 
VIII. 42.) In Scylax (p. 38.) Vossius has corrected 
'Evvyj(TOi to 'E^vfxYj vYjaog. (Plin. V. 31.) Stephanus says 
it was called first Metapontis and Mgle ; he adds, 
that it contained a town of the same name. (v. Hvfj-y]. 



224 RHODUS INSULA. 

Cf. Diod. Sic. V. 53. Mnas. ap. Athen. VII. p. 296.) 
Pliny says it has eight ports. 

Dieuchidas, a writer quoted by Athenaeus, (VI. 

p. 262.) speaks of certain islets or rocks, named 

Araein- Araeae, (Apaia),) between Cnidiis and Syme. Ste- 

SUlSB* 

phanus Byz. calls them 'Apai, and states that they 
were three in number. Symi is surrounded with 
islets, according to modern charts, but their names 
are not set down. 

RHODUS INSULA. 

Nearly facing Syme and the cape Cynossema, 
which terminates the ridge of Phoenix, stands, at 
a distance of not more than eight or ten miles from 
the latter, the isle of Rhodes, which, from its con- 
sequence and celebrity, deserves to hold a separate 
place in the present section. Rhodes having first 
borne the names of Ophiussa and Stadia, (Strab. 
XIV. p. 654.) and others which are to be found in 
Pliny, (V. 31.) assumed afterwards the appellation 
of Telchinis, from the Telchines, a people concern- 
ing whom many fabulous stories were propagated. 
Some pretended that they dealt in magical spells, 
and, being inclined to evil, that they destroyed ani- 
mals and plants, by sprinkling them with the water 
of Styx, mingled with sulphur. It was maintain- 
ed, on the other hand, by more rational and sober 
writers, that the Telchines were artists, who had 
made surprising progress, at a very early age, in 
the working of iron and brass. It was further sup- 
posed, that the reports which were spread to their 
disadvantage arose solely from envy of their supe- 
rior skill. These people were traced to Crete and 
Cypi-us, from whence they had made their way to 



IIHODUS INSULA. 005 

Rhodes. (Diod. Sic. V. 55. Strab. XIV. p. 65 L) 
According to some writers they were nine in num- 
ber, and were considered to be the same as the Cu- 
retes. (Strab. X. p. 472.) In fact there seems great 
affinity between them and the Ida^an and Phrygian 
Dactyli and Corybantes. (Cf. Suid. v. TeX'x/ve^- Bust. 
II. B. p. 291. Steph. Byz. v. TeA^/^.) There is 
reason to suppose that these people were, in reality, 
Phoenicians, who, from their skill and enterprise in 
maritime affairs, had formed settlements, first in Cy- 
prus, then in Crete and Rhodes, and other islands. 
It was through their means that the barbarous in- 
habitants of Asia Minor were first made acquainted 
with useful arts, which were afterwards imparted 
to the Greeks by means of the Pelasgi. We have 
the authority of Ergias, or Erxias, a Rhodian his- 
torian cited by Athenaeus, for the settlement of the 
Phoenicians in the island at a very early period ; 
and he reports, that they made way for the Greeks 
under Iphiclus. (VIII. p. 361. Cf. Conon. ap. Phot, 
p. 454.) But, before we come to this historical pe- 
riod of the annals of Rhodes, it may be right to 
speak of the poetical fiction which represented that 
island as occupied by the Heliades, or descendants 
of the Sun. Pindar has given a conspicuous place 
to this fiction in one of his odes, which is addressed 
to the Rhodian Diagoras : 

xa» vvv sn a[Jt.(poTeQcuv 

cvv Aiscyopa. kuts^xv, rdv Trovricnv 

V[xvea)V TralS' 'A(peoS/Taj 

as\ioi6 Ts, v6i/,(pav 

'P080V, svQv[j.ct^uv 

o<pga TtsXwpiov avdpu Trap' 'AA- 

VOL. II. Q 



226 RHODUS INSULA. 

cclvscrco TTvyfJiUi uTroivoc, 

x«* 'irapci K«o"TaA('a 

TCUTipa. T£ Aci[x,oiyriTOV a^ovTu AIku 

'Ao"»«5 supv^opov 

TplTToXiv vacov TTsAaj 

'EjOt/SoAw valovTUi 'Apysux. avv al^iJia. 

' Olymp. ViI. 23—35. 

Jove is said to have rained a shower of gold upon 
the island, when Minerva was born: (v. 61.) 

Svfla TTOTE 

Bps^s fiswv (5ci(nKsvg 6 jJ-syas 
ypv<ra.lg vKpix^ea'dt ttoKiv. 

The poet then goes on to state how it had risen 
from the depth of the sea to become the portion of 
the Sun, who by his union with the nymph Rhodus 
became the father of the Heliadae : 

BXacTTg /xev 1^ d\og vypac 
Nacroj* e^si re [j,iv 6- 

^eiav 6 ysvs^Xiog uktIvcov 7r«Trjp, 
TTvp TTVsovTcav oLpyog '{ttttcov, 
SvQa 'PoSoJ TTOTE fx.i^Qs)g 
TSKBV STTTU (rofw- 

Tora. VOYJI/.CIT It* irpoTspwv 
av^pwv 7r«p«8e^«j«,evou5 
TrajSaj* c6v elg fJLSV Kafxsipov 

7rp£0"/3uTaTOV TS *I«- 

Aucrov exexev, A/v8ov t . 'AiroiTeg&s 8' ep^ov 
Aia yaictv ipiyoi Sacr- 

aa[x,svoi, vuTpcuiuv 
'Aorecov fjiolgaV xexAjjvraj 8g 0"(p»v e5^«<. 

Ver. 127—140. 

The names of these seven Heliades have been pre- 
served by the Scholiast, and he agrees with Strabo 
that it was from Cercaphus, the eldest, that the 
three brothers above named derived their birth. 
(Strab. XIV. p. 654!. Schol. Find. v. 131.) After 



RHODUS INSULA. 227 

these events, to which it is impossible to assign a 
date, Rhodes was occupied by a colony of Greeks, 
or rather Pelasgi, under the command of Tlepole- 
mus, son of Hercules, and perhaps also of Ipliiclus, 
brother of that hero. (Athen. VIII. p. 361.) Pin- 
dar, hoAvever, names Tlepolemus alone, and says he 
came from Argolis ; (v. 60.) but Strabo imagines 
that these Heraclidse set out from Boeotia ; and, at 
all events, he contends that they were not Dorians, 
but iEolians. Homer, who dwells at some length 
on the history of Tlepolemus, agrees perfectly with 
Pindar : 

TA»i7ro'Asj«,oj 8' 'HpaxA£j8>j5 yj'v; ts [J-eyx.^ tj, 
*Ex 'PoSou hvvEu VYjas aysv 'PoS/wv ocyBpcuy^wj 
Q» 'PoSov aju,:pev£jtA0VTO tiar^iy^x xoCjayjSg'vTSj 
A/vSov, 'I>]Xu(r<ro'y t=, xcA agyivosvTa Kaix,=tpov. 

II. B. 653. 

Tlepolemus having unfortunately slain his maternal 
uncle, Licymnius, was forced to fly from Greece, and 
arrived in the course of his wanderings at Rhodes : 
(V. 667.) 

AvToip oy eg 'PoSov i^sv aKdi[t.svoc, aKyzix 'noKJ'vaov' 

'Ex AlOf, 0(TTS $iO~iirt x«i OCvSpCUTTOKTr/ a.va.<T<T£t. 
Ktxl (Ti^iv SstrTreViOv ttAoutov xocts^sus K.pov'icuv. 

The great prosperity and affluence implied in the 
last line of the passage relates doubtless to the mari- 
time skill and enterprise of the Rhodians, by which 
they signalized themselves, as Strabo reports, long 
before the institution of the Olyniijic games. Not 
only did they undertake distant voyages for com- 
mercial purposes, but they founded colonies in seve- 
ral parts of the Mediterranean. In Sicily they co- 
lonized Gela, in common with the Cretans, forty- 

Q 2 



228 RHODUS INSULA. 

five years after the foundation of Syracuse; and 108 
years later this city had become so prosperous that 
it was enabled to build Agrigentum. (Time. VI. 4.) 
In Italy the Rhodians are said by Strabo to have 
founded Parthenope, but the j^rincipal honour of 
that establishment is due to the Chalcidians of Eu- 
boea. In Apulia they colonized, together with the 
Coans, the town of Salapia, and they also formed 
a settlement in the country of the Chones, not far 
from Sybaris. In Sj^ain they formed an emporium 
at Rhode, now Rosas, on the Cataloniun coast, and 
which afterwards came into the possession of the 
Massilians. (Strab. XIV. p. 654. Steph. Byz. v. 
'Votri.) Notwithstanding this early application to 
naval affairs, it does not appear that the Rhodians 
were ranked with the leading maritime powers of 
Greece, since they neither figure among the confe- 
derate states in the Ionian revolt, nor in the Median 
war. Herodotus simply mentions them as forming 
part of the Dorian confederacy, of which Cos and 
Cnidus were the only members besides themselves 
after the exclusion of Halicarnassus. (I. 144. II. 
178.) Nor is there more frequent mention of their 
island in Thucydides ; we only collect from his his- 
tory that they were subject to the Athenians during 
the Peloponnesian war, and were reluctantly com- 
pelled to serve against the Syracusans and Geloans. 
(VII. 57.) The total defeat which the Athenians 
sustained in this quarter led however to the eman- 
cipation of the Rhodians, which was effected by As- 
tyochus, the Spartan admiral, with great facility. 
(VIII. 44.) The Rhodians excelled in the service 
of light troops, particularly as darters and slingers. 
(Thuc. VI. 43. Xen. Anab. III. 3. 11.) We find, 



RHODUS INSULA. 229 

however, the Rhodian navy rising in strength and 
consequence towards the time of Demosthenes. We 
hear of them at this period as the principal power 
opposed to the Athenians in what is called the Social 
war, but afterwards, alarmed at the growing power of 
the Carian dynasty, we find them soliciting through 
Demosthenes the protection of that people. (Dem. de 
Libert. Rhod. p. 190.) It appears from that orator 
that Mausolus had contrived to introduce a change 
into the constitution of Rhodes which was very fa- 
vourable to the oligarchical party, and very prejudi- 
cial to the democracy. Rhodes furnished Darius, 
the last king of Persia, with one of his bravest and 
ablest generals in the person of Memnon, and, had 
he been intrusted with the sole direction of affairs, 
Alexander might have been baffled in his enterprise, 
and his unfortunate adversary have remained in 
possession of his dominions and his life. The Rho- 
dians, after the death of the Macedonian king, added 
to their renown by the memorable siege which they 
sustained against Demetrius Poliorcetes, though they 
were at length compelled to yield to superior force. 
Of this siege we shall speak more at length when 
we come to speak of the city of Rhodes, as well as 
that which it maintained against Mithridates. Po- 
lybius has recorded that such was the esteem and 
regard entertained by the sovereigns of Sicily, Asia 
Minor, Syria, and Egypt, for the character and in- 
stitutions of the Rhodians, that when their island, 
and especially their city, had sustained great loss 
from a violent earthquake, they vied with each other 
in the liberality of the supplies and presents they 
sent to assist in repairing the effects of the calamity. 
It is surprising, says the historian, how speedily 

Q 3 



230 RHODUS INSULA. 

the state recovered from this blow, and what rapid 
progress was thenceforth made both towards af- 
fluence and prosperity, by private individuals, as 
well as by the commonwealth. After passing a just 
eulogium on the wise and able conduct of the Rho- 
dians in the administration of their affairs, he is led 
to form a comparison between the sovereigns of that 
period and the age in which he lived, which is little 
to the advantage of the latter. (V. 88 — 90.) Nor 
is Strabo less warm in his praise of their civil insti- 
tutions and regulations. Rhodes was distinguished, he 
says, for the excellence of its laws, as regarded every 
branch of the administration, but more especially of 
the navy, which was kept in the most efficient state, 
and contributed not a little to the renown and in- 
fluence it enjoyed among the principal states of the 
civilized world at the time of the wars waged by 
the Romans against Philip and Antiochus*'. The 
services rendered by the Rhodians to that people 
were of the most valuable kind in both these con- 
tests, and it is chiefly owing to their exertions that 
the naval operations of Livius, the Roman admi- 
ral, were so successful, a circumstance which had 
a material influence on the final issue of the two 
struggles. (Liv.XXXI. 14. 46. XXXII. 16. XXXVI. 
45. XXXVII. 9 — 30.) In return for these import- 
ant services the Rhodians received from the Ro- 
nian senate, after the defeat of Antiochus, a consi- 
derable accession to the territory they already pos- 
sessed on the continent of Asia : it consisted of the 
rest of Caria and the whole of Lvcia. (Liv. XXXVIII. 
.'i9. Polyb. XXII. 7. 7. 27- 8.) l^he Lycians, how- 

o Kluxles iiiiikcs nearly as |)Cii(»(I, as Venice (loos in tlie 
great a Hi^ure in history at this annals of njodern Enrupe. 



RHODUS INSULA. 231 

ever, dissatisfied with this arrangement, refused to 
consider the Rhodians as their masters : a war there- 
fore ensued, in which the Lycians, though secretly 
assisted by Eumenes, were vanquished. (Polyb. 
XXIII. 3. XXV. 5. XXVI. 7. Liv. XLI. 25.) The 
Romans, however, here interfered, and declaring that 
they had not given Lycia to Rhodes as a subject 
country, but as an ally and friend, forbad the latter 
power from carrying on hostilities any further. (Po- 
lyb. XXVI. 7.) The cause of this change in the dis- 
position of the Roman senate towards their old al- 
lies, and which induced them to have recourse to 
such a subterfuge in the matter of Lycia, is attri- 
buted by Polybius to the offence the Rhodians had 
given to that jealous and haughty people in convey- 
ing the princess Laodice, espoused to Perseus, king 
of Macedon, to the court of that sovereign with great 
pomp and display. They were openly accused of 
favouring the cause of Perseus, already considered 
as the avowed enemy of Rome ; and though it cer- 
tainly appears from Polybius that he had many par- 
tisans in the island, it is not reasonable to think that 
so prudent a republic would have adopted a line of 
policy so contrary to its former conduct, and at the 
same time so dangerous. It is true that they un- 
dertook the part of mediators between Perseus 
and the Romans, and we are told by Livy that the 
oration delivered by their ambassador at Rome was 
insolent and offensive; (XLIV. 14, 15.) but they 
obeyed implicitly the orders of the senate, and fur- 
nished the necessary supplies ; and they further sent 
the most submissive embassies to Rome to deprecate 
the anger of that jealous power. The senate for a 
long time refused to receive their deputations, and 

Q 4 



232 RHODUS INSULA. 

they were treated with contempt and insult ; (Polyb. 
XXIX. 7. XXX. 4.) a decree was even passed which 
declared Caria and Lycia independent provinces, 
and thus deprived the Rhodians of a considerable 
revenue and power. (XXX. 5. 12. XXXI. 7.) At 
length, however, when the anger of the Romans had 
been satisfied by these measures, and by the condem- 
nation of those citizens who had favoured Perseus, 
the Rhodian embassy was allowed to sue for the ho- 
nour of being received on the list of the allies of 
Rome. (Liv. XLV. 10—25. XLVI. 4—13.) 

Whatever doubts might have been entertained of 
their zeal for the Romans in the second Macedonian 
war, their conduct and courage in defending their 
city against the repeated attacks of Mithridates, 
must have secured for them the admiration and 
esteem of their allies. The king of Pontus, baffled 
in all his assaults by land and sea, was at length 
compelled to raise the siege and return to the conti- 
nent of Asia. (Appian. Mithr. c. 23. Liv, Epit. 
LXXXVIII. Diod. Sic. Frag.) The conduct of these 
islanders towards Pompej^ is less deserving of praise ; 
since, after they had received him with distinguished 
honours on his return from putting an end to the 
Mithridatic war, they deserted him in the hour of 
need, and even forbad his entering their port. (Cic. 
Ep. Fam. XII. 14. Pint. Pomp.) Their adherence 
to Caesar led them to resist, after his death, the 
arms of Cassius ; but that republican general, after 
defeating them in a naval engagement, entered the 
town by force, and having caused the principal lead- 
ers of the opposite faction to be beheaded, carried 
off all the public proj)erty, and even the offerings 
and ornaments of the temples. (Appian. Civ. Bell. 



RHODUS INSULA. 233 

IV. 72. Dio Cass.) Tiberius resided for some years 
at Rhodes before his accession to the throne, in a 
kind of honourable exile, which Tacitus terms " Rho- 
" dius secessus." (Ann. 1. 4. IV. 15.) Under Vespasian 
the island lost even the semblance of independence, 
and was erected into a Roman province. (Suet. 
Vesp. c. 8. Eutrop. VII. 15. Oros. VII. 9. Cf. Ta- 
cit. Ann. XII. 58.) This appears to have been a 
" Provincia Insularum" from Hierocles, (p. 685, 
686.) and Rhodes, standing first on the list, must 
have been the metropolis of this local government. 
Rhodes was the last barrier opposed by Christian 
chivalry to the overwhelming force of the Ottoman 
power ; and when the banners of the cross ceased to 
float over her ramparts, it must have seemed as if 
Asia was abandoned to her fate, and consigned to 
endless servitude and oppression. According to 
Strabo, the island is 920 stadia in circuit. (XIV. 
p. 654.) Pliny reckons 125 miles ; but Isidorus, as 
he reports, 103 : (V. 28.) it produced wine, and its 
dried raisins were much esteemed. (Athen. I. p. 31. 
I. p. 27. XIV. p. 654.) It was also famous for its 
manufacture of saffron oil. (XV. p. 658. Plin. 
XXXIV. 11. XXVIII. 17.) The sea, which washed 
its shores, supplied every kind of fish. (Athen. VIII. 
p. 360. XIV. p. 647.) No country could boast of hav- 
ing given to the public games of Greece so many suc- 
cessful contenders for the prize. (Pausan. Eliac. II. 
c. 7.) Other peculiarities relating to the customs, 
manners, religious rites, and language of the Rho- 
dians, may be extracted from Athenaeus. 

Rhodus, the capital of the island, was situate atRhodusd- 
its most northern extremity : it was not so ancient 
as the three Dorian cities, Lindus, lalysus, and 



vitas. 



234 RHODUS INSULA. 

Caniirus, having been founded, as Strabo affirms, 
at the time of the Peloponnesian war. The architect 
was the same who built the celebrated walls of the Pi- 
raeus, by name Hippodamus of Miletus. (Strab. XIV. 
jj. 654. Harpocr. v. 'l-mTo^djxeia.) It excelled all other 
cities in the estimation of Strabo for the beauty and 
convenience of its ports, streets, walls, and public 
edifices : these were adorned with a profusion of 
works of art, both in painting and sculj^ture. Of 
the former were lalysus, and a satyr, by Proto- 
genes, respecting which many anecdotes were re- 
lated. (Plut. Demetr. c. 22. Strab. loc. cit. Plin. 
XXXV. 10.) The principal statues were in the tem- 
ple of Bacchus and the gymnasium ; but the most 
extraordinary work was the famous Colossus of the 
Sun, cast by Chares of Lindus, a pupil of Lysippus: 
it was seventy cubits, or 105 feet high, and few men 
could encompass the thumb with their arms ; the 
fingers also were thicker than ordinary statues : it 
took the artist twelve years to model it, and it cost 
300 talents, which sum was chiefly raised from the 
materials left by Demetrius of Poliorcetes, after the 
siege. This prodigious statue, which ranked among 
the seven wonders of the world, stood at the entrance 
of the port, and it is said that ships would pass be- 
tween the legs ; but it was overthrown by a violent 
earthquake 506 years after its erection, as Pliny re- 
l)()rts, (XXXIV. 18.) or in the second year of the 
1.39th Olympiad, according to Eusebius, but Poly- 
bius seems to place it a little later, in the 140tli 
()lymj)iad. (V. 88.) The same writer adds, that the 
greater part of the walls and docks were thrown 
down at the same time. (Cf. Pausan. Corinth, c. 7.) 
The Colossus was never raised up again, as this had 



RHODUS INSULA. 235 

been forbidden by an oracle. (Strab. XIV. p. 652.) 
Cedrenus affirms that a king of the Saracens sold 
the fragments to a merchant, who employed up- 
wards of 900 camels to convey them away. 

Rhodes was also much admired for the excellence 
of its legislative system, particularly those regula- 
tions which regarded the navy, by means of which 
it attained to so high a rank among maritime states. 
Every branch of that service was attended to with 
the utmost care, whether in the construction of ships 
and warlike engines, or the depots of arms and stores. 
The entrance to some of the docks was forbidden 
under the severest penalty of the law. The legisla- 
tive enactments respecting the condition of the poorer 
classes were also very remarkable. The government, 
though far from being a democracy, had a special 
regard for the poor. They received an allowance of 
corn from the public stores ; and the rich were taxed 
for their support. There were likewise certain works 
and offices which they were called uijon by law to 
undertake, on receiving a certain fixed salary. (Strab. 
XIV. p. 6531'.) Rhodes produced many distinguished 
characters in philosophy and literature : among these 
may be mentioned Pansetius, (whom Cicero has so 
nuich followed in the Offices,) Stratocles, Andronicus, 
Eudemus, and Hieronymus. Posidonius the stoic 
resided for a long time in this island, and gave lec- 
tures in rhetoric and philosophy. The poet Pisan- 

P 'ilie reader will find some " dito ssepe magistratii, variis- 

other particulars respecting the " que in area sigillis. In seneis 

Rhodian jjoiity in the work of " TAMIA. Qiieestor, vel magis- 

Meursius. Sestini has the fol- " tratus sine dignitatis nientio- 

lou'ing notice respecting tiie " ne. Imperatorii a Tiberio us- 

Rhodian money, p. 01. " Au- " que ad Commodum. Cultus 

" tonomi c()])iosi. Epigraphe, " Neptnni AspLalli. noCEIAON 

" VO. POAION. POAinN. ad- " AC*AAEIOC." 



236 RHODUS INSULA. 

der, author of the Heracleid, as well as Simmias and 
Aristides, are likewise found in the list of Rhodian 
literati. Dionysius Thrax and the poet Apollonius 
obtained the surname of Rhodius from their long 
residence there. South of the city of Rhodes, and 
i,indus. on the eastern coast of the island, was Lindus, one 
of the three Dorian cities, and which contained a 
temple of Minerva of the highest antiquity, since it 
was reported to have been founded by Danaus. 
(Strab. XIV. p. 655. Diod. Sic. V. c. 58.) The sta- 
tue of the goddess was a shapeless stone. (Callim. 
ap. Euseb. Prsep. Ev. III. c. 8.) 

Jtaj yap 'A5i^vr/j 

'Ev A«v8aj Aavaoj \eiov eSjjxsv e^oc. 

There was also a temple of Hercules, whose rites 
were not celebrated with propitiatory expressions, 
but with vituperative and injurious language. (Lac- 
tant. Inst. I. 31.) It contained a painting of the god 
by Parrhasius. (Athen. XII. p. 543.) There were 
several other pictures by the same celebrated master 
at Lindus, inscribed with his name. (XV. p. 687.) 
This town was also famous for having produced 
Cleobulus, one of the seven sages. (Strab. loc. cit.) 
Athenaeus has preserved a pretty song, sung by the 
Lindian boys as they went round collecting money 
for the coming of the swallows ; this he ascribes to 
Cleobulus. (VIII. p. 360.) It was seated on a hill 
looking towards Egypt, and was still extant in the 
time of Eustathius; (ad Dion. Perieg. v. 505.) even 
now it retains the name of L,indo. Beyond was a 
ixia. small place named Ixia, according to Strabo. (XIV. 
p. 655.) It appears further from Artemidorus, quoted 
by Steph. Byz. (v. 'I^/a/,) that there was also a port 
Ixus, and that Apollo derived from thence the ejiithet 



RHODUS INSULA. 237 

of Ixius. It answers, j)robably, to the site of Uxilico. 
Not many miles to the south is cape TranquUlo, 
the extreme point of the island in this direction, 
and which answers perhaps to the Mnasyrium of 
Strabo. Mount Atabyris, whence Jove obtained the Atabyris 

mons. 

well-known surname of Atabyrius, was the most 
elevated mountain in the island. (Strab. loc. cit.) 

'AAX' <h ZsD TiaTsg vcu- 
ixe^ecav, Ti'fxa (xh vfxvov 

SVpOVTU. 

(Cf. Schol. ad loc. Steph. Byz. v. 'Ard(3vpov. Apollod. 

III. 2.) Camirus, to whose cliffs Homer has applied Camims. 

the epithet of chalky, follows next. 

A/vSov, 'IrjXva-crov ts, xal ixpyr^osVTtx. Kajxstpov. II. B. 656. 

It derived its name, as we have seen, from a son 
of Cercaphus, one of the Heliadae. We learn from 
Diodorus, that Juno Telchinia was worshipped here. 
(V. 57.) Pisander, the epic poet, was a native of 
Camirus. (Steph. Byz. v. Kafxipo^. Suid. v. Yleia-av^pog.) 
This town is also mentioned by Thucydides, (VIII. 
44.) Herodotus, (1. 144.) Ptolemy: (p. 121.) it retains 
the name of Camif'o ». The promontory Candura, a 
little to the south of this site, is perhaps the ancient 
Mylantia. (Steph. Byz. v. MvAavr/a.) That part of Myiantia 

. promonto- 

the coast which was situated between Camirus and num. 
lalysus, considerably to the north of the former, was 
named Thoantium ; but there was also a promontory Thoan. 
so called. (Strab. XIV. p. 655.) lalysus, which was laiys'us. 

o There are some very an- ., , KAMI o^^.- • „ qi 

c r- • -.u .. scribed, „„„,, bestini, p. y 1 . 

cient coins of Camirus, without ' PEQN. ' 

any epigraph 3 but some are in- 



238 RHODUS INSULA. 

founded at the same time with Lindus and Camirus, 
had previously been occupied by the Phoenicians, 
who called the site at that time Achaiai': (Athen. 
VIII. p. 360. Diod. Sic. V. 57.) or, rather, this was 
a fortress distant eighty stadia from lalysus, and 
Ochyroma. called Ocliyroma when Strabo wrote. (XIV. p. 
655.) lalysus, besides the authors already men- 
tioned, is noticed by Herodotus, (I. 144.) Thucydi- 
des, (VIII. 44.) and Steph. Byz. (v. 'laXva-o-og.) 

CiVTd Ib TTe'^lJ? 

AlyUTTTirji 'Po'Soj IcTTJV, 'lrj\'J(TlcUV TtS^OV ClvdfMV. 

Dion. Perieg. 505. 
Phgebeamque Rhodon, et lalysios Telchinas. 

Ovid. Metam. VII. 365. 

Near lalysus was a spot called Schedias. (Dieuch. 
ap. Athen. VI. p. 262. 

Rhodes is surrounded by numerous islets and 
rocks, some of which are recorded in history. Of 
Chaicia these the most considerable is Chalcia, now Karhi. 
Strabo says it was situate opposite to Thoantium 
of Rhodes : (XIV. p. 655.) in modern charts it is 
placed directly off Camho, about eight miles north- 
west. It is noticed by Thucydides, (VIII. 44.) Scy- 
lax, (p. 38.) and Pliny, (V. 31.) 
Cydopis. Pliny names besides, Cyclopis, Steganos, Cordy- 
Coniyiusa. lusa, Diabetic ; these last, we are told by Stephanus 
Byz., (v. A/a/37jTa/,) were a small group round Syme, 
Teutiusa. uow KishUles ; Hymos, Seutlusa, or, as Thucydides 
ciisa. calls it, Teutiusa, (VIII. 44.) perha])s IJmonia., north 
Procne. ' of Chalcc ; Narthecusa, Diuiastos, Procuc. Off Cni- 
Tiierio- ^' ' dus, Cisserussa, Therionarce. On the Carian coast. 



narcfi. 



P There was an Acliaia in Phoenicians. The word Akka, 
Crete, and another in Euboea, in tlieir language, expresses an 
islands equally occu|)ied by the elevated spot. 



RHODUS INSULA. ' 2;39 

the Argiae, twenty in number. Near Halicarnassus, p/li*;^ 
Pidosus. In the Ceramic gulf^ Priaponnesus, Hip-i*"'4J"'"ie- 
ponesus, Psyra, Mya, Lampsemandus ; this must be Hippone- 
the same as the Lepsemandus of Steph. Byz., who I'pra- 
quotes the authority of Craterus ; (v. Ayj^YJixavh?.) ^epsemau. 
Crusa, Pyrrha, Sepiussa, Melano; and a little fur-Cmsa. 

•' ^ Pyrrhe. 

ther from the land, Cinsedopolis, so called from some Sepiussa. 

3Ielano. 

worthless characters left there by Alexander. cinsdo- 

polis. 



SECTION XI. 

L Y C I A. 



Origin and history of the Lycians — Boundaries and maritime to- 
pography — Interior — Milyas and Cabalia districts of the ancient 
Solymi — Cibyra. 

XiERODOTUS is of opinioii that the Lycians were 
not an indigenous people, but that they came ori- 
ginally from Crete, under the lead of Sarpedon, 
brother of Minos. They were at first named Ter- 
milae, and this appellation they retained till the ar- 
rival of a Greek colony, led by Lycus, son of Pan- 
dion, from whom they took that of Lycians. (He- 
rod. I. 173. VII. 92.) The historian does not in- 
form us whence the word Termilae was derived, and 
Strabo seems altogether disposed to reject his ac- 
count, as being at variance with Homer's authority, 
who makes mention only of the Lycians under that 
name. But there can be no doubt that the appella- 
tion of Termilae, or Tremilae, was once applied to a 
part, at least, of the nation, as we see from several 
authorities quoted by Steph. Byz. (v. TpefuXai.) One 
of these is the poet Panyasis, who derives it from 
Tremilus, an ancient chief: 

"Ev&a. I' evaie (xeyas TpejU-jXof xai eyijjxs Suyarpoc 
NujX^rjv 'HyvylrjV, ijv Ylpa^ilixr^v xciXsov<Ti 
2//3gaj Itt' ccpyvfjccu TroTUfxcp Trupa. Sivi^evti. 

Hecataeus agreed with Herodotus in writing the 
word Tremilae. Alexander, the Lycian historian. 



LYCIA. 241 

reported, that Bellerophon, just before his death, 
changed the name to Lycians ^. The adventures of 
that hero in Lycia have afforded a fine field for the 
poets ; and Homer in particular has introduced them 
with great effect in the parley of Glaucus and Dio- 
med. It is evident from this episode that Lycia 
was a country well known to the Greeks at the pe- 
riod in which Homer flourished, and that the me- 
mory of Bellerophon and his exploits was still pre- 
served there : 

K«j [x,r}V ol Avxioi TS(j.cvo; ra^aov s^o^ov uKXmv, 

KaAov (furuXifji x«j ccpoupri;, oppa vi[j.oito. 1l. Z, 194. 

The Lycians, under the conduct of Sarpedon and 
Glaucus, are certainly the most distinguished of the 
allies of Priam. And if the people of the same 
name, who fought under Pandarus, were a colony 
from the part of Asia Minor which we are now con- 
sidering, it must be admitted that they were at that 
time a nation of greater power and consequence than 
at any subsequent period of their history. With re- 
spect to Sarpedon, it may be observed, though we 
are here treading on mythological ground, that the 
hero of that name, mentioned by Herodotus as the 
founder of the Lycian people, is very different from 
Homer's chieftain : they only agree in the fabulous 
circumstance of being both the reputed sons of Ju- 
piter. 

The Lycians, as we learn from Herodotus, at a 
later period became subject to Croesus ; (L 28.) but 
after the defeat of that sovereign by Cyrus they re- 

a The passage in Steph. Byz. 'AXt|«v§^6? U " TeMvT-^aa<; tovtov^ 

has not been understood by " Se tovi; TpiiA.tX€ovi;, Avkiov^ BeX- 

Berkelius : it should be read " Aepo(povT/i<; uvofAavev.'" 
as a quotation from Alexander: 

VOL. II. R 



242 LYCIA. 

fused to submit to the arms of the victorious Per- 
sians, until they were compelled by force ; differing 
in this respect from the Carians, their neighbours, 
who had surrendered without a conflict. (I. 176.) 
Darius assigned to them a place in the first satrapy 
of his empire. (III. 90.) They furnished fifty ships 
to the Persian armament under Xerxes; their troops, 
which excelled in the use of the bow as earlv as the 
siege of Troy, being armed chiefly after the Grecian 
manner. (VII. 92-) The Lycians are not mentioned 
by Thucydides, as having taken part in the Pelo- 
ponnesian war ; but it is probable that, as Rhodes 
was tributary to Athens, they would not be exempt 
from similar contributions : tliese were levied some- 
times as far as Aspendus in Pamphylia. Alexander 
traversed a part of the province in his march from 
Caria into Pisidia and Phrygia, and reduced it un- 
der his sway. (Arrian. Exp. Alex. I. 24.) From him 
it passed under the dominion of the Ptolemies and 
the Seleucidae ; but after the defeat of Antiochus 
was ceded by the Roman senate to the Rhodians. 
The Lycians, however, refused to be considered as 
the subjects of these islanders, and, secretly favoured 
by Eumenes, resisted the Rhodian authorities by 
force of arms. In this contest, however, they were 
worsted ; but the Romans, as we have seen, dis- 
pleased with the Rhodians, interfered, and declared 
the Lycians free. (Polyb. XXII. 7. XXIII. 3. XXVI. 
7. XXX. 5.) Strabo bestows a just encomium on 
the political system adopted by the Lycians ; owing 
to which, he thinks, they never fell into the piratical 
practices of their neighbours, the Pamphylians and 
Cilicians. According to this writer, the Lycian con- 
federacy consisted of twenty-three towns, which sent 



LYCIA. 243 

deputies to the general assembly held in one of them. 
The number of deputies sent was in proportion to 
the size and importance of the deputing place : the 
most considerable towns had three votes, the next 
class two, and the rest one vote. The same propor- 
tion was equally observed in the contributions of 
each to the taxes and other public expenses. The 
chief towns were six in number, as Artemidorus 
reported ; viz. Xanthus, Patara, Pinara, Olympus, 
Myra, and Tlos. The deliberative assembly first 
proceeded to the election of a chief magistrate, called 
Lyciarch ; after which the other officers of the state 
and judges were chosen. Formerly, the assembly de- 
liberated on war and peace, and alliances ; but under 
the Roman empire this was not permitted, except in 
some particular instances. In all other respects the 
Lycians retained their liberty and jDrivileges, a mark 
of confidence bestowed upon them by the Romans, 
on account of the wisdom and prudence exhibited in 
their federal association. (XIV. p. 665.) Pliny says 
that Lycia possessed once seventy towns, but that 
when he wrote they had diminished to twenty-six. 
(V. 28.) 

Lycia may be considered as divided into two dis- 
tinct parts : the one comprehending the maritime 
portion of the province ; the other, the mountainous 
country called Milyas, and Cabalis, or Cabalia, by 
the Greek geographers, and on the borders of Phry- 
gia the district of Cibyra, which is by some writers 
annexed to the latter province. The separation be- 
tween the two portions of territory, comprehended 
under the general name of Lycia, is effected by the 
great natural barrier of mount Taurus, which, com- 
mencing on the Carian frontier under the names of 

R 2 



244 LYCIA. 

Cragus and Anticragus, and the Solymjiean moun- 
tains, encloses maritime Lycia, and effectually di- 
vides it from Milyas by rejoining the sea again where 
Pamphylia begins. If we take in Milyas and Ci- 
byra within its limits, we may state that Lycia ge- 
nerally is bounded on the west by Caria, on the 
north by Phrygia, from which it was separated by 
mount Cadmus, on the east by Pisidia and Pamphy- 
lia, on the south by the sea. 

The first place which presented itself to the navi- 
gator who followed the course of the Lycian coast 

Teimissus. was Telmissus, a town noted in the history of an- 
cient divi)iation for the skill of its augurs. From 
Herodotus we learn that they were frequently con- 
sulted by the early kings of Lydia down to the time 
of Croesus. (I. 78.) Arrian also says their celebrity 
was great before the time of Gordius, father of Mi- 
das, first king of Phrygia. (Exp. Alex. II. 3, 4.) It 
is true there was a Telmissus in Caria, which might 
seem to dispute with the Lycian town the honour of 
having produced these soothsayers, but it was a 
much more obscure place than the one of which we 
are now speaking ^\ this last having given its name 
to the gulf whereon it stands, and which apjiears to 
be the same as the Glaucus Sinus of Strabo, now 
gulf of Macri. For Livy says that the Telmessi- 

Teimessi- cus Siuus Separated Lycia from Caria. (XXXVII. 
IG.) Strabo states that Telmissus Avas bestowed by 
the Roman senate on Eumenes at the conclusion of 
the war with Antiochus. (XIV. p. QQo.) This is 
confirmed by Livy, who informs us besides that its 
territory and fortresses had been under the separate 

^' This is the opinion of Cel- and Holsten. (ad Stcph. Byz. 
lariiis, (Geogr. Ant. HI. p. G.t.) v. TeXjtAio-o-J?.) 



LYCIA. 245 

jurisdiction of a chief named Ptolemy of Telmissus. 
(XXXVII. 56, Cf. XXXVIII. 39. Polyb. XXII. 
27.) Telmissus of Lycia is also spoken of by Scy- 
lax, (p. 3.) Mela, (1. 15.) Pliny, (V. 28.) and Steph. 
Byz. (v.TeXfjiiaaog.) Hierocl. (p. 684.) Ptol. (p. 121.) 
From the Acts of Councils we infer its episcopal 
rank ^. Some ancient vestiges, and a slight analogy 
of name, together with the agreement of situation, 
lead to a well grounded opinion that Telmissus is 
represented by the town of Myes, or 3feis, in the 
south-easternmost recess of the gulf of 3Iacri. 

Beyond Telmissus the coast rises abruptly, and 
presents the escarpment of a lofty and precipitous 
mountain, which was known in ancient geography 
bv the name of Anticrae'us. It is now called a^omw?- ^"ticragus 
hourlou. Captain Beaufort estimates the height of 
this summit to be not less than 6000 feet. At the 
foot of it, and in a recess opening towards the sea, 
stood the fortress of Carmylessus. (Strab. XIV. p. Carmyies- 

sus. 

6Q5.) Point Telmissis of Strabo is probably cape Teimissis 
Iria. Beyond is a mass of mountains, rising alsof'""^"^^''" 
precipitously from the sea, and which, from the num- 
ber of detached summits they offer to the spectator 
in that direction, have been called Yedl Bouroun, or 
the Seven Capes, by the Turks. This feature leads 
to the idea that the chain in question can be no 
other than the Cragus of antiquity, though Strabo dagus 
assigns to it eight summits. (XIV. p. 665^ Scylax 
calls Cragus a promontory, and makes it the separa- 
tion of Lycia and Caria. (p. 39. Cf. Plin. V. 28.) 

Nigris aut Erymanthi 
Silvis, aut viridis Cragi. 

HoR. I. Od. 21. 

c Geogr. Sacr. p. 247. 
R 3 



num. 



mons. 



246 LYCIA. 

Jam Cragon, et Lymiren, Xanthique reliquerat undas. 

Ovid. Met am. IX. 645. 

Cragus Strabo informs us there was a town of the same 

urbs. 

name, and this is confirmed by numismatic author- 
ity '^ According to mythologists, Cragus was the 
son of Tremilus. (Steph. Byz. vv. Tpefj.iXrj et Kpa- 
yog.) There was a cave in mount Cragus conse- 
crated to the gods, called Agrii. (Steph. Byz. v. Kpa- 
yog. Eustath. ap. Dionys. Perieg. v. 850.) Plutarch, 
in his treatise on Isis and Osiris, calls, them E/cA^ypo/, 
and says their names were Arsalus, Arytus, and 
Tosibis. (Cf. Euseb. Pra?p. Ev. V. p. 188.) 

At the foot of Cragus, on the north side of the 
mountain and towards the interior of Lvcia, stood 
Pinara. Pinara, one of the six principal towns of the pro- 
vince in which divine honours were paid to Panda- 
rus, a Lycian chief, perhaps the same as the cele- 
brated archer of Homer, though Strabo does not de- 
cide the question. (XIV. p. QQo.) It derived its 
name from Pinarus, son of Termilus. (Steph. Byz. 
v. TepfxiAY], Cf. V. Uivapa.) According to this geo- 
grapher, who quotes the Lyciaca of Menecrates, the 
original site was named Artymnesus. It was colo- 
nized by the Xanthians and called Pinara, from being 
seated on a round hill ; this being the signification 
of the name in the Lycian tongue, (v. \\pTvixvvjTog. 
Ptol. p. 121. Plin. V. 28. Hierocl. p. 684.) The 
precise site of this town remains yet to be disco- 
vered ; but Arrian seems to place it beyond the 
Xanthus, a river of which we are about to speak. 
(Exp. Alex. I. c. 25.) But we must first mention 
several small places, or rather stations, along the 

d Sestini, p. 92. Cragus. An- vel KPA. vel KPAF. Imperatorii 
tonomi. Epigraphe,ATKinNKP. Augustus et Julia. 



LYCIA. 247 

coast, which are pointed out in the Stadiasmus be- 
tween Tehnissus and the Xanthus. We have in this 
document an island named La^usa, five stadia from Lagusa in- 
Tehnissus. Pliny also notices this island, and says 
it was near the river Glaucus. The Glaucus mustGWus 
be the river of 3leis, which flows near the ruins of 
Tehnissus, and falls into the bay to which it gave 
its name. (V. 31.) Lagusa answers to Vlsle des 
Chevaliers, in Lapie's map. Besides this, Pliny no- 
tices Macris, from which the modern name of jyiakriMacrh. 
is probably attached to the bay ; Didymse, Helbo- Didymw. 

TTT A -//^r-o i-n» » /\ Helboscope 

scope, or Helioscope, Aspis, (Ci. oteph. Byz. v. Ao-Tni,) she He- 
and Telandria, w^hich once possessed a town. The Asms. 
Stadiasmus reckons eighty stadia from Lagusa toinsuiae. 
Cissides : this, as Col. Leake observes, was " a pen- Cissides. 
" insular promontory, on the south side of which 
" is the island and harbour of St. Nicolas :" some 
ruins, which he observed there, " indicate a late pe- 
" riod of the Roman empire ^." From Cissides to 
Perdiciae, fifty stadia. Stejjh. Byz. notices also this Perdida.-. 
port. (v. HephUia.) To Calabantia, fifty ; to cape Caiaban- 

tig 

Hiera, thirty. This promontory is thought by Col. Hiera pro. 
Leake to be one of the points of Cragus. From num. " 
thence to Pydna we have eighty stadia. This place 
is unknown to other geographers, unless we suppose, 
with the able antiquary quoted above, that it is the 
Cydna of Ptolemy. It may be remarked that this 
variation of orthography took place also in the Ma- 
cedonian Pydna. (Steph. Byz. v. Ku^va.) From 
Pydna to the mouth of the Xanthus, sixty stadia. Xantims 

•^ "^ fluvius. 

This river, the most considerable of the Lycian prius .sib- 
streams, anciently bore the name of Sirbes, as Strabo 

e Asia Minor, p. 182. 
R 4 



248 LYCIA. 

writes it ; but Sibrus, according to Panyasis. {Ap. 
Stejjh. Byz. v. T^e/x/Av?.) 

2i'/3^w stt' dpyvpeco ttotciixui Trapu SjvryjvTJ, 

Bccv^ov Ittj 7rpop^of,<nv suppe/rou TroTafx.oio, 
Ev9« ^a\lox.prjjj.voiO fac'tVcTut ovpsa "Ta'jpou. 

Dion. Perieg. 847. 

It was navigable for small vessels ; and at the dis- 
tance of ten stadia from its mouth was a temple of 
Xanthus Latona ; and sixty stadia further, Xanthus, the prin- 
cipal city of the Lycians. Pliny says it was fifteen 
miles from the sea, but that distance is too consider- 
able, there being no doubt that the Lycian capital 
occupied the site of Aksenide, which occurs in the 
situation described by Strabo. (XIV. p. QQQ. Cf. 
Hecat. ap. Stei)h. Byz. v. "EdvOog. Ptol. p. 121.) The 
Xanthians have twice been recorded in history for 
the dauntless courage and perseverance with which 
they defended their city against a hostile army. The 
first occasion occurred in the invasion of Lycia by 
the army of Cyrus under Harpagus, after the con- 
quest of Lydia, when they buried themselves under 
the ruins of their walls and houses. (Herod. I. 176.) 
The second event here alluded to took place many 
centuries later, during the civil wars consequent 
upon the death of Caesar. The Xanthians having 
refused to open their gates to the republican army 
commanded by Brutus, that general invested the 
town, and after repelling every attempt made by the 
citizens to break through his lines, finally entered 
it by force. The Xanthians are said to have re- 
sisted still, and even to have perished in the flames, 
with their wives and children, rather than fall into 



LYCIA. 249 

the hands of the Roman general, who made many- 
attempts to turn their desperate purpose. (Plut. 
Brut. Appian. Civ. Bell. IV. 18. Dio Cass. XLVII. 
34.) Xanthus finds a place also in Arrian, (Exp. 
Alex. I. 24. 7.) Ptolemy, (p. 121.) Mela, (1. 15.) and 
Hierocles, (p. 684.^) The ruins of this city have 
not been explored by any modern traveller. 

On the left bank of the Xanthus, and near itsPatara. 
mouth, stood the town and harbour of Patara, one 
of the most celebrated in the province, and adorned 
with several temples. The most famous of these 
was that of the Lycian Apollo, surnamed also Pata- 
rseus : it was very ancient, and second only to that 
of Delphi. (Mel. I. 15.) Some derived the name 
from Patarus, a son of Apollo. (Strab. XIV. p. 666. 
Cf. Steph. Byz. v. Uarapa.) Pliny affirms it was 
more anciently called Sataros. (V. 28.) Herodotus 
says the oracle was delivered by a priestess, for a 
certain period ; (I. 182.) which, according to Ser- 
vius, w^as during the six winter months. 

Quails, ubi hibernam Lyciam, Xanthique fluenta 
Deserit; ac Delum maternam invisit Apollo. 

tEn. IV. 143. 

mihi Delphica tellus, 

Et Claros, et Tenedos, Pataraeaque regia servit. 

Ovid. Metam. 1.515. 

. qui Lyciae tenet 
Dumeta, natalemque silvam, 
Delius et Patareus Apollo. 

HoR. Od. III. 4. 62. 

. . seu te Lyciae Pataraea nivosis 
Exercent dumeta jugis. Stat. Theb. I. 696. 

f The coins of Xanthus are according to Sestini, is ZA. AT- 
extremely scarce : the epigraph, KION. (p. 92.) 



^50 LYCIA. 

We learn from Strabo, that Ptolemy Philadelphiis 
restored Patara, and attempted to change its name 
to Arsinoe in Lycia ; but this alteration does not 
appear to have succeeded. Livy and other writers 
always use the former appellation. (XXXVII. 15 — 
17. XXXVIII. 39. Polyb. XXII. 26.) The com- 
mon ethnic name is Harapevg, in Latin Patarensis; 
but Cicero uses Pataranus. (Orat. in Flacc. c. 32.) 
This town is recorded among the Lycian bishoprics 
in the Acts of Councils ; (cf. Hierocl. p. 684.) and 
the name of Patera is still attached to its ruins. 
These, according to the accurate survey of Captain 
Beaufort, are situated on the sea-shore, a little to 
the eastward of the river Xanthus : they consist " of 
" a theatre excavated in the northern side of a small 
" hill, a ruined temple on the side of the same hill, 
" and a deep circular j^it, of singular appearance, 
" which may have been the seat of the oracle. The 
" town walls surrounded an area of considerable ex- 
" tent ; they may easily be traced, as well as the 
" situation of a castle which commanded the har- 
*' hour, and of several towers which flanked the 
" walls. On the outside of the walls there is a mul- 
" titude of stone sarcophagi, most of them bearing 
" inscriptions, but all open and empty ; and within 
" the walls, temples, altars, pedestals, and fragments 
" of sculi)ture appear in profusion, but ruined and 
" mutilated. The situation of the harbour is still 
" aj)parent, but at present it is a swamp, choked 
" up with sand and bushes "." 

A little to the east of Patara was a harbour named 

g Beaufort's Karaniania, p. inscription is ATKION IIA. or 
2, 6, The coins of Tatara are nATAPEQN. Sestini, p. 92. 
not of common occurrence. The 



LYCIA. 251 

Phoenicus, according to Livy, who states that a Ro- Piioenicus 

. . . , . portus. 

man fleet took up its station there, with a view or 
taking Patara, in which project they did not suc- 
ceed. (XXXVII. 16.) Phoenicus was less than two 
miles from Patara, and surrounded on all sides by 
high cliffs. Captain Beaufort observes, that this 
description answers accurately to the bay of Kala- 
maki^\ The same navigator states, that the shore 
beyond is lined with several barren islands. These, 
according to the Stadiasmus, are the isles of Xena- Xenagorae 

. insulae. 

goras, sixty stadia from Patara ; then Rhope, 300 Rbope. 
stadia ; (but this distance is evidently incorrect ;) 
and Megiste, fifty beyond. Strabo also mentions Megiste. 
this last island, and states that it had a town of the 
same name ; he further adds, that it was also called 
Cisthene. (XIV. p. 666.) Scylax says that Megiste 
belonged to the Rhodians. (p. 38. Cf. Liv. XXXVII. 
22 et 24. Steph. Byz. v. MeyiaTV}.) Pliny observes, 
that the town of Megiste no longer existed in his 
day. (V. 31. Cf. Ptol. p. 121.) Megiste answers to 
the modern Castelorho, which Captain Beaufort de- 
scribes as a large rocky island, with a small harbour 
for merchant-ships of any size. On the summit of 
the island, which is about 800 feet above the level 
of the sea, there is a small ruined fortress, which, 
from its situation, must have been impregnable \ 
Col. Leake ju^stly observes, that Rhope and the 
islands of Xenagoras answer to Rhoge and Ena- 
gora of Pliny. Rhoge is Sf. George, and the others 
Volo and Oketidra, at the mouth of the bay of 
Kalamakl^. It is doubtful whether the Cisthene 



h Karaniania, p. 7. i Ibid. p. 7 , 8. 

k Asia Minor, p. 184. 



252 LYCIA. 

{Kia-S-^vv}) of Isocrates is to be referred to the island 
mentioned by Strabo. (Paneg. {.41. p. 172.) 
sidyma. On the Continent, and not far from Patara, was 
Sidyma, situate on a hill, as we learn from Pliny. 
(V. 28.) It is also noticed by Ptolemy, (p. 121.) 
Steph. Byz., (v. S/^v/Aa.) the Ecclesiastical Records, 
and Acts of Comicils. Cedrenus reports, that a 
prodigy happened there to Marcianus. (p. 344.) 
Pheihis et Nearly opposite to Megiste were two ports, situ- 
lus. ate near each other, named Phellus and Antiphel- 

lus : these Strabo incorrectly places inland. (XIV. 
p. 666. Steph. Byz. vv. 4>fAAof, ' Avt icfteXXog. Ptol. p. 
121.) Phellus seems to answer to port Sevedo, 
and Antiphellus to Vathry ; but Captain Beaufort 
observes, that the name oi Antiphilo is still attached 
to the site. The same able officer observed several 
indications of an ancient town here, including re- 
mains of considerable buildings, a theatre, sepul- 
chral excavations, &c. ^ The Stadiasmus reckons 
fifty stadia from the isle Megiste to Antii)hellus. 
Acrote- The samc document then names in succession Acro- 
Aperiae. terium, fifty stadia further, and Aperlae, probably 
close to this headland. This last place is written 
Aperrae'" in Ptolemy, and Apyrae in Pliny; Aprillse 
in the Ecclesiastical Notices. (Hierocl, p. 684.) The 
site of this Lycian town has been fixed by Mr. 
Cockerell above Assar hay, where there are some 
sepulchral inscriptions and other remains ". The 
Cyaneae. Same traveller discovered the vestiges of Cyaneae, 

1 Karamaiiia, p. 13 — I G. Col. >" This reading is coiinte- 

Leake, Asia Minor, p. 18.5. nanced by some coins of Gor- 

There are coins of Antiphel- dian, with the inscription AflEP- 

lus, with the legend ANTI<I>EA- FAITON. 

AEITON. They are of the reign « Col. Leake's Asia Minor, 

of Gordianns Pius. p. 188. 



LYCIA. 253 



t 



or Cyane, mentioned by Pliny (V. 27.) and Hiero- 
cles, (p. 684.) near port Tristomo ^. From Aperlae 
to Somena the Maritime Survey counts sixty stadia. 
This, as Col. Leake well observes, is the Simena of simena. 
Pliny (V. 27.) and Steph. Byz. (v. S//x>jva.) Oppo- 
site this part of the Lycian coast, and near the 
shore, is the island of Kakava, whose lengthened 
shape induced the ancients to give it the name of 
Dolichiste. (Plin, V. 31. Steph. Byz. v. AoA/j^^t;.) Doiichiste 
Captain Beaufort describes Kakava as a long nar- 
row ridge of rock, now deserted, but with some ap- 
pearance of ancient habitations p. From Somena 
the Stadiasmus reckons four stadia to Andriace ; Andriace. 
and Captain Beaufort informs us, that, to the east- 
ward of Kakava, he came to the mouth of a small 
brackish river, named Andraki ; at the entrance of 
which he observed several ruined houses, sarcophagi, 
and tombs, with the remains of a spacious granary, 
erected ajiparently by the emperor Trajan ^. An- 
driace, as we learn from Ai)pian, was the port of 
Myra, a city of some note, situate higher up the 
river. (Civ. Bell. IV. p. 636. Cf. Ptol. p. 122.) It 
must therefore have been at Andriace that St. Paul 
and his companions were transferred from the Adra- 
myttian ship to that of Alexandria, in which they 
suffered shipwreck. The sacred historian states that, 
after quitting Sidon and passing by Cyprus, they 
" sailed over the sea of Cilicia and Pamphylia, and 
" came to Myra, a city of Lycia ; and there the 
" centurion found a ship of Alexandria sailing 
" into Italy ; and he put us therein." (Acts xxvii. 
5, 6.) Myra, according to Strabo, was seated on 

o Col. Leake's Asia Minor, p, 188. 

P Karamania, p. 21, 22. q Ibid. p. 22. 



254 LYCIA. 

the brow of a lofty hill at the distance of twenty 
stadia from the coast. (XR''. p. 666.) Pliny names 
it in conjunction with Andriace. Myra was one of 
the six chief towns of Lycia. (Artemid. ap. Strab. 
XIV. p. 665.) At a late period of the empire it be- 
came the metropolis of that province. (Malal. Chron. 
XIV. Hierocl. p. 684. Cf. Basil. Seleuc. A^it. Thecl. 
I. p. 272. ap. Wesseling.) Nicolas, bishop of Myra, 
is celebrated in the ecclesiastical writers of this pe- 
riod. (Const. Porphyr. Them. 14. Cf. Steph. Byz. 
V. Mvpa. Athen. II. p. 59.) Mr. Cockerell, who vi- 
sited the ruins of Myra, found them to be consider- 
able. The remains of the theatre are very perfect; 
there are also vestiges of other edifices and nume- 
rous inscribed sepulchres, with Lycian characters ^ 

Sura. Between Myra and Phellus was a spot named Sura, 
where divination was practised by means of fish. 
(Plut. de Solert. Anim. c, 23. Polycharra. ap. Steph. 
Byz. V. Yovpa. Cf. Athen. VIII. p. 333.) 

Continuing our suiwey of the coast, we have to 

Turrisisia. notice, wdth tlic Stadiasmus, the Isian tower, sixty 
stadia from Andriace ; this is the Pyrgo of Captain 

LimjTTis fl. Beaufort. Then follows the mouth of the river Li- 

Arjcandus myrus, joined by another stream, named Arycandus. 
(Plin. V. 27.) Strabo also notices the LimjTus, and 
adds, that the town of Limyra was situated at a 
distance of twenty stadia from its mouth. (XIV. 

Limyra. p. 666. Cf. Stcpli. Byz. vv. Aduvpa ct Xifxvpa.) Caius 
Caesar, the adopted son of Augustus, is reported by 
Velleius Paterculus to have died here. (II. c. 102.) 
This town is mentioned by Ptolemy and the Eccle- 

"■ Col. Leake's Asia Minor, epigraph, MTPEQN. Sestini, p. 
p. 183, 321. There are impe- 92. 
rial coins of Mvra, with the 



LYCIA. 255 

siastical Notitice. Captain Beaufort reports, that there 
are some considerable ruins inland above cape ^Pz- 
7iika, near which the Liniyrus falls into the sea. 
Arycanda, as we learn from Agatharcides, quoted Arycanda. 
by Athenseus, was another Lycian town in the vici- 
nity of Limyra : these two places are stated by that 
writer to have become so heavily burthened with 
debts, that, as the only means of clearing their affairs, 
they espoused the party of Mithridates. (XII. p. 555.) 
The scholiast of Pindar sjjeaks of a spot named 
Embolus, near Arycanda, ^yhich may have been Embolus. 
cape Finiha. Pliny seems to place Arycanda in 
Milyas, which is the interior of Lycia^ (Cf. Steph. 
Byz. V. 'ApvArav^a) The Stadiasmus places, after Li- 
myra, Menalippe, a naval station mentioned by Ste- Menaiippe. 
phanus Byz. as a river of Pamphylia or Lycia. This 
spot appears to have been sacred to Minerva, from 
a passage of Q. Calaber. 

III. 232. 
(v. MevaA/TTTTiov.) Then Gagse, which occurs in Scylax Gaga;. 
(p. 38.) and Pliny. (V. 27. Cf. Steph. Byz. v. Vi.'yai. 
Hierocl. p. 684-.) A particular sort of stone, called 
Gagates, from that circumstance, was found in the 
vicinity. (Dioscor. V. 14. Cf. Nicandr. Sch. p. 7.) 
Gagae appears to have been once named Palaeopolis. 
Col. Leake is of opinion that some ruins laid down 
in Captain Beaufort's chart at Alaja-dagh, above 
Finiha bay, may represent this Lycian town ^ The 
chain of mountains which encompasses that bay from 
cape Finiha seems to belong to Mount Massicytes 

s There are coins of Limyra to the curious ridge of gravel 

and Arycanda : those of the mentioned by Capt. Beaufort, 

former mention the river Li- p. 32. Seslini, p. 92. 
niyrus, and a mole called PH- t Asia Minor, p. 186. 

TMA, which probably answers 



256 LYCIA. 

Massicytes OF Massicytus, recoi'ded by Pliny and Ptolemy. (Cf. 
Qu. Cal. III. 232.) There was also a town or com- 
munity of the same name, as may be collected from 
some extant coins ^. 

The bay of Finika is closed towards the east by 
the lofty headland now called Kelidofiia, but which 

Sacrum was knowu to the ancients by the name of the Sa- 

proni. '' 

cred promontory. This cape obtained greater cele- 
brity from its being commonly looked upon as the 
commencement of the great chain of Taurus, which 
was accounted to traverse, under various names, the 
whole continent of Asia ; (Plin. V. 27.) but Strabo 
observes, that Taurus really began in Caria, opposite 
to Rhodes ; (XIV. p. Q6Q.) and other geographers 
even supposed it to commence with Mycale. (Arrian. 
Exp. Alex. V. 5. 2.) 

The Sacred promontory derives its modern name 
from a grouj) of islands situated within a short dis- 
cheiidoniffi tauce of it. The Chelidonian isles were two in num- 
ber, according to Scylax, (p. 38.) or three, as Strabo 
reports : the latter geographer says, that they were six 
stadia from the land, and five from each other. Capt. 
Beaufort, however, distinctly counted five of these 
islands ; whence he is led, not without reason, to 
think that this increase of number has been pro- 
duced by the shock of an earthquake : two are from 
four to five hundred feet high, the other three are 
small and barren y. Pliny's remark is, " deinde con- 
" tra Tauri promontorium pestiferae navigantibus 
" Chelidoniae totidem," (i. e. tres.) (V. 35.) 

A little beyond these to the east, is an island, 
Cramimsa, whose uamc, Gramhousci, clearly points out the 
sia insula. Crambusa of Strabo. (XIV. p. 666.) Other geogra- 

-^ The epigraph is ATKION MAS. Sestini, p. 92. 
y Karamania, p. 37, 38. 



LYCIA. 257 

pliers call it Dionysia. (Scyl. p. 39- Plin. loc. cit.) 
An accurate description is given of this rugged islet 
by Captain Beaufort^. 

The Stadiasmus places between the Sacred Pro- 
montory and Crambusa a spot with water, named 
Morum ; {Mcopov v^a>p',) fifty stadia from the former, 
and thirty stadia eastward, Posidarison ; (Posida- 
rion more probably ;) this was thirty stadia from 
Crambusa. Beyond, the coast becomes still more 
rugged, and the mountains, rising at the back of the 
perpendicular cliffs which line the shore, attain the 
height of six and seven thousand feet ; the highest, as 
we learn from Captain Beaufort, bears the name of 
Adratchmi ^, and appears to answer to the Olympus oiympus, 
or Phoenicus of Strabo. The Stadiasmus seems to nicusmmis, 
distinguish between Phoenicus and mount Olympus, 
and rather considers the former as a port. But there 
was also a town named Olympus, which ranked among oiympus 

iirbs. 

the six chief communities of Lycia. (Strab. XIV. 
p. ^^^.) Cicero also bears testimony to its impor- 
tance and opulence. Having become the residence 
and haunt of pirates, it was captured by Servilius 
Isauricus, and became afterwards a mere fortress. 
(Cic. in Verr. I. 21. Eutrop. VI. 3. Plin. V. 27. 
Flor. III. 6.) Strabo reports that it was the strong 
hold of the pirate Zenicetus ; and the situation was 
so elevated that it commanded a view of Lycia, 
Pamphylia, and Pisidia. (XIV. p. 671.) There is 
little doubt that in Hierocles, for OANAIIOE we 
should substitute OATMnOS. (p. 683.) We are in- 
debted to Captain Beaufort for the discovery of the 
ruins of this town, which exist in a small circular 

z P. 39—41. a Karamania, p. 43. 

VOL. II. S 



258 LYCIA. 

plain siUTOunded by the cliaiii of Ailratchan, and at 
a little distance from the sea. The only way lead- 
ing to the site is by a natural aperture in the cliff; 
it is now called DeliMasli, or " the perforated 
" rock." Among the ruins are the remains of a tem- 
ple with an inscription containing the name of the 
city^. 

Mount Olympus would appear to be the chain 
which Homer alludes to in the Odyssey, under the 

Soiymo- name of the Solymaean mountains ; whence he sup- 
rum mon- __ - iiiT'T. iTTi 

tes. poses JNeptune to nave beheld m his wrath Ulysses 

sailing towards Phoenicia. 

Tcv 8" 1^ AiSiOTTcuv avjojv xpsioov 'Evotrip^Scov 
T7}\o5ev sx ^oKu^uiv opiwv i'SeV s'kjuto yap o\ 
YlovTov sTimXuMv. Odyss. E, 282. 

For though the Solymi inhabited rather, as we shall 
see, the interior of Lycia, there is a decisive circum- 
stance which fixes the mountains alluded to by the 
poet on this part of the coast ; I mean the existence 
chimaera. of the Celebrated Chimsera, in the highlands, not far 
from mount Adratchan. Homer, it is well known, 
affirms that this fabled monster was encountered 
and slain by Bellerophon. 

ripuiTOV jw,£v pa, y^i^aiqav a.fx.at[x.aKSTr,v IxiKsucrs 
rir^v?/A=v Yj 8' ap' SYjv Si~iOv ysvo^, ouS' avS^oiTTcoy, 
llpoaSe Xswy, OTriSfv 8= dpuxcuVy ixsatrrj S= ^Ipiaipa, 
Aeivov aTTonveiova'a Ttupog fxsvo; a]So[x£voio. 
K.a) TYjV jxh xuTsnspvs, Siu>v ripaB(T(n 7rj5);crac. 

II. Z. 179. 
Hesiod's descrijition is somewhat different. 

1' OATNnHNfiN BOTAH KAI inscriptions which he obsen^edj 
O AHMOC, p. 44, 45. This or- but the coins of the town exhi- 
thography appeared on all the bit OATM. and OATMIIH. 



LYCIA. 259 

'H 5s XljU,«(paV STtTtTS, TTVSOUCraV OCpiailJiOLKSTOV Ttvp, 

"Trig S' V/V rpsi; xspaKal' [jlIoc juosv ^ctpoTTolo XiovTog, 
'H Ss p^/jM.ai'p>jj* rj 8' o^joj, xpuTcgolo tpunovTOc. 
T^v (Jisv VlriyoLdos slhe xai laOXoc; BsAAepo^oWvjj. 

The Latin jjoets have imitated, as usual, their Gre- 
cian masters : 

Prima leo, postrema draco, media ipsa Chimaira. 

LucRET. V. 903. 
Quoque Chimaera jugo mediis in partibus ignem, 
Pectus et ora leae, caudam serpen tis habebat. 

Ovid. Metam. IX. 646. 
And Virgil. {Mw. VI. 288.) 

flammisque armata Chimgera. 

Servius's explanation is curious : " This, in truth," 
says he, " is a mountain of Lycia, the top of which 
" is on fire at the present day : near it are lions : 
" but the middle region is occupied by pastures, 
" which abound in goats. The lower parts of the 
" mountain swarm with serpents." The geogra- 
phers agree in adapting this fable to the Lycian 
mountains ; but Strabo seems rather to place the 
site in mount Cragus ; (XIV. p. Q65.) while Pliny, 
on the authority of Ctesias, whose words have been 
preserved by Photius, (Cod. LXXII.) fixes it near 
Phaselis, beyond Olympus. The Greek historian 
says, ' Or; Ttvp ecxTiv eyyvg ^auYikitog ev tw opet, Kui Ttvp 
TToXv avTOjMaTOV eK TYjg yvig Kaierai, Kai ovOeTTore <7<j)ewvrai. 
Scylax has nearly the same words, (p. 39-) Pliny 
says, " Flagrat in Phaselitide mons Chimaera, et qui- 
" dem immortali diebus ac noctibus flamma." (II. 
106.) Seneca is still more particular in his account 
of this natural phenomenon. (Ep. LXXIX.) " In 
" Lycia regio notissima est, Hephaestion incolse vo- 
" cant, perforatum pluribus locis solum, quod sine 

s 2 



260 LYCIA. 

*' ullo nascentiiini danino ignis innoxius circuit. 
" Laeta itaque regio est et herbida, nil flammis adu- 
" rentibiis, sed tantiim vi remissa ac languida reful- 
" gentibus." From this description it is plain that 
the fire in question had little of the usual volcanic 
character, being perfectly harmless. Instances of 
this sort of flame are, however, by no means un- 
common : that of Pietra mala in the Apennines is 
well known, and there are others in Ej^irus and the 
Greek islands. We are indebted to Captain Beau- 
fort for an accurate account of the Chimaera flame, 
which, after the lapse of so many centuries, is still 
unsubdued. This able navigator and antiquary, 
being at the time to the east of 01ymi)us, says, 
' We had seen from the ship, the preceding night, 

* a small but steady light among the hills : on men- 

* tioning the circumstance to the inhabitants, we 
' learned that it was a yanar, or volcanic flame ; 

* and they offered to sujDply us with horses and 

* guides to examine it. We rode about two miles 
' through a fertile plain, partly cultivated ; and 

* then, winding up a rocky and thickly wooded 
' glen, we arrived at the place. In the inner corner 

* of a ruined building the wall is undermined, so as 

* to leave an aperture of about three feet diameter, 

* and shaped like the mouth of an oven ; from 
' thence the flame issues, giving out an intense 

heat, yet ])roducing no smoke on the wall; and 
though from the neck of the opening we detached 
' some small lumps of caked soot, the walls were 
' hardly discoloured. Trees, brushwood, and weeds 
' grow close round this little crater ; a small stream 
' trickles down the hill hard by ; and the ground 
' does not appear to feel the effect of its heat be- 



LYCIA. 261 

" yond the distance of a few yards. No volcanic 
" productions whatever were perceived in the neigh- 
" bourhood. The guide declared, that in the me- 
" mory of man there had been but one hole, and 
" that it had never changed its present size or ap- 
" pearance. It was never accompanied, he said, 
" by earthquakes or noises ; and it ejected neither 
" stones, smoke, nor noxious vapours ; nothing but 
" a brilliant and perpetual flame, which no quantity 
" of water could quench ^." 

Beyond Olympus Strabo states that the line ofcoiycus. 
coast bore the name of Corycus. The Stadiasmus 
makes it a naval station, distant thirty stadia from 
Olympus. 

Port Siderus of Scylax was probably the haven 
of Olympus, corresponding with the modern Porto 
Genovese. 

Phaselis is the last town of Lycia, in the direc- Phaseiis. 
tion of Pamphylia. Livy remarks that it was a 
conspicuous point for those sailing from Cilicia to 
Rhodes, since it advanced out towards the sea, and, 
on the other hand, a fleet could easily be descried 
from thence. (XXXVII. 23.) Hence the epithet of 
y]vefj(.oeaa-a applied to it by Dion. Perieg., (v. 854.) 
who, it may be observed, ascribes it to Pamphylia : 

We are informed by Herodotus, that this town was 
colonized by some Dorians. (II. 178.) Heropythus, 
a Colophonian writer, affirmed that it was colonized 
by his native city, under the conduct of Lacius ; but 
Philostephanus asserted that Lacius was an Argive, 
who accompanied Mopsus ; others said that he was 

c Karamania, p. 47 — 49. 
S 3 



262 LYCIA. 

a Lindian, and brother of Antiphemus, who founded 
Gela. (Athen. VII. p. 297.) Stephanus asserts that 
it was once named Pityussa. (v. (^aa-t]Xig.) Though 
united to Lycia, it did not form part of the Lycian 
confederacy, but was governed by its own laws. 
(XIV. p. 667.) It is mentioned by Thucydides as 
a place of some importance to the Athenian com- 
merce, with Phoenicia and Cilicia. (II. 69- Cf. VIII. 
88. 99. Polyb. XXX. 9.) Phaselis, at a later pe- 
riod, having become the haunt of pirates, was at- 
tacked and taken by Servilius Isauricus. (Flor. III. 
6. Eutrop. VI. 3.) Cicero, in his Orations against 
Verres, explains how, from the opportunity of its 
situation, it had fallen into the hands of the Cilician 
pirates. (IV. §. 10.) Lucan speaks of it as nearly 
deserted when visited by Pompey in his flight after 
the defeat of Pharsalus : 

te primum, parva Phaseli, 

Magnus adit : nam te metui vetat incola rarus, 
Exhaustaeque donius populis ; majorque carina?, 
Quam tua, turba fuit. VIII. 251. 

Nevertheless, Strabo states that it was a considerable 
town, and possessed three ports : he observes also, 
that it was taken by Alexander, as an advantageous 
post for the prosecution of his conquests into the 
interior. (XIV. p. 666. Cf. Arrian. Exp. Alex. I. 24. 
Plut. Vit. Alex. p. 674.) Phaselis, according to 
Athenaeus, was celebrated for the manufacture of 
rose-perfume. (XIV. p. 688.) Nicander certainly 
commends its roses. (Ap. eund. p. 683.) Pausanias 
reports tliat the spear of Achilles was pretended to 
be shewn in the temple of Minerva in that town. 
(Lacon. c. 3.) In Hierocles, Phaselis appears under 
the corrupt name <i>acrv^yji: The Acts of Councils 



LYCIA. 263 

prove it to have been of episcopal rank '^ Theodec- 
tes, a dramatic poet and rhetorician of some note, 
was a native of Phaselis. (Steph. Byz. v. ^ua-vjXi^.) 
" On a small peninsula, at the foot of mount Takh- 
" talit, (the highest point of the Solymsean moun- 
" tains,)" says Captain Beaufort, "are the remains 
" of the city of Phaselis, with its three ports and 
" lake, as described by Strabo. The lake is now a 
" mere swamp, occupying the middle of the isth- 
" mus, and was probably the source of those baneful 
" exhalations which, according to Livy and Cicero, 
" rendered Phaselis so unhealthy. The principal 
" port was formed by a stone pier, at the western 
" side of the isthmus ; it projected about 200 yards 
" into the sea, by which it has been entirely over- 
" thrown. The theatre is scooped out of the hill, 
'* and fronting it are the remains of several large 
" buildings. There are also numerous sarcophagi, 
" some of them of the whitest marble, and of very 
" neat workmanship. Several inscriptions were tran- 
" scribed. The modern name of Phaselis is Te- 
" krova ^." 

Beyond Phaselis the mountains press in upon the 
shore, and leave a very narrow passage along the 
strand, which at low water is practicable, but when 
storms prevail, and the sea is high, it is extremely 
dangerous : in this case travellers must pass the 
mountains, and proceed into the interior by a long 
circuit. The defile in question was called Climax *, climax. 
and it obtained celebrity from the fact that Alexan- 

d Geogr. Sacr. p. 248. The to express a narrow and diffi- 

legend on the coins of this city cult pass, (see Anc. Greece, 

is *AS. and <I>A2HA. ' torn. III. p. 305.) as that of 

e Karamania, p. 56. echelle in French, and scula in 

f This word was often used Italian. 

s 4 



264 LYCIA. 

der led his army along it after the conquest of Caria, 
under circumstances of great difficulty and danger. 
For though the wind blew violently, Alexander, im- 
patient of delay, hurried his troops forward along the 
shore, where they had water up to their middle, and 
had great difficulty in making their way. (Strab.XIV. 
p. 666, 667. Arrian. Exp. Alex. I. 26. Plut. Alex.) 
Captain Beaufort remarks, that " the shore at pre- 
" sent exhibits a remarkable coincidence with the 
" account of Alexander's march from Phaselis. The 
" road along the beach is however interrupted in 
" some places by projecting cliffs, which would have 
" been difficult to surmount, but round which the 
" men could readily pass by wading through the 
" waters." 

Diodorus speaks of a fortress built upon a lofty 

rock on the Lycian frontier, which was taken by 

Alexander; he calls the people who occupied it, 

Marma. Mapfxapei^. (XVII. c. 28.) ArHau adverts to this 

rensium ' 

rupis. event, but does not name the castle. (Exp. Alex. I.) 
Scylax assigns to Lycia the town of Idyrus, beyond 
Phaselis, (p. 39.) but Steph. Byz. places it, together 
with a river of the same name, in Pamphylia. (v. 
"l^vpo^.) Pliny notices in the Lycian sea the islets Illy- 

iiiyris, ris, Telendos, Attelebusa, and three Cypria?. (V. 35.) 

Telendos ^ x \ / 

Attelebusa Attelebusa is also named by Ptolemy. Captain Beau- 
fort identifies it with the isle of Eas/ial, near the 
pass of Climax'^ The Cypriae, according to the 
same navigator, are to be found between DeUldasJi 
and Tekrova, under the name of Trines'ia. There 
yet remain a few Lycian towns to be discussed in 
the interior of the province. 

P Karamania, p. 115, 1 IG. »> Karamania, p. 117, 118. 



LYCIA. 2C5 

Araxa is placed by Ptolemy on the borders of Araxa. 
Caria, and it is recognised by Stephanus (v. "Apa^a) 
and the ecclesiastical records ^ In the same direction 
we may notice Comba, known to Ptolemy (Hiero-Comba. 
cles, p. 684.) and the Notices. Octapolis stands on Octapoiis. 
the authority of the Alexandrian geographer only. 
Tlos was of greater consequence, being reckoned by Tios. 
Artemidorus among the six principal states, (ap. 
Strab. XIV. p. 665. Cf. Plin. V. 28. Ptol. p. 121. 
Hierocl. p. 684. Steph. Byz. v. TAwg.) Strabo says 
it was on the road to Cibyra : D'Anville has placed 
it, with some appearance of probability, in the upper 
valley of the Xanthus. Cana, noticed by Pliny, is Cana. 
said, in the episcopal records, to have been also called 
Acalea ; but this last should be identified more pro- 
bably with Acalissus, mentioned by Hierocles (p. AcaHssus. 
683.) and the Notitiae. Candyba had near it thecandyba. 
forest (Enium. (Plin. V. 28. Ptol. p. 121. Steph. (Enium 
Byz. V. KavhfSa. Hierocl. p. 684.) Choma was situ-choma. 
ate near the river Adesa. (Plin. loc. cit. Cf. Ptol.Adesafl. 
p. 121. Hierocl. p. 683.) Around mount Massicytes, 
and consequently not far from the coast, we have to 
point out Rhodia, or Rhodiopolis, (Steph. Byz. v. Rhodia, 
'Po^/a. Plin. loc. cit.) Corydalla, (Plin. loc. cit. Ptol. diopoiis. 
p. 121. Steph. Byz. v. Kopv'^aXXa^.) Podalia. (Plin. Podliil^ 
loc. cit. Ptol. loc. cit. Steph. Byz. v. Uo^aXeTa^. Hie- 
rocl. p. 683.) Pliny names alone Ascandalis, which Ascandaiis. 
however may be Acalissus, Amelas, Noscopium, andAmeias. 

*' rvoscopi- 

i Sestini adduces a very scarce AEON. Seslin. p. 92. 
coin, with the legend ATKinN ' The coins of Podalia, of 

APA. which he attributes to A- autonomous character, are very 

raxa, p. 92. scarce; the legend AT. IIOA. 

k There are some few coins The imperial medals bear the 

of Corydalla, with the inscrip- effigy of Tranquillina, with the 

tion ATKO ; and others of im- legend nOAAAiaTON. Sestin. 

perial die, inscribed KOPTAAA- p. 92. 



^66 LYCIA. 

Telandrus. Amelas has preserved some vestige of 
its name in that of Almali, above Myra. It is the 
Alimala of Steph. Byz. (v. 'Ax/^aXa.) In the Lexi- 
con of Stephaniis, the following places are set down 
Agathe in- to Lycia '. Agathe, an island ; (v. 'AyaQfj.) Adramyt- 
Adramyt- tis, an island ; (v. Mpauvrrig.) Acarassus, a town ; 

tis insula. , / \ a i • ■> / 

Acarassus. (v. XKapaafTog.) Apollonia, an island ; (v. AnoXXavia^.) 

AjKtllonia . ■• • i i a i /• -ir 

insula. Argais, an island. Arna, another name tor Xan- 

Argais in- - / v* \ a n i 

suia. thus ; (v. Apva.) Arneae, a small town, on the au- 

Arnek tlioHty of Capito, tlic Isaiu'lan historian. Aulae, a 
Giauci De- fortress ; (v. A:;Aa/.) Glauci Demus, a spot so called 
from the hero Glaucus ; (v. VXavKov A^/xof.) Daphne, 
Dias. a fort ; (v. Aoc(pvvj.) Dias, founded by Diades ; (v. 
Drys. Aiag.) Drys, a village on the river Arus, or as some 
Edebessus. read, Pinarus ; (v. A/jO,-.) Edebessus, a town, on the 
authority of Capito; (v. 'ESf/3>;craoV :) in Hierocles 
ELeiticLos. (p. 683.) it is erroueously written Elebessus. Elaei- 
Eigus. tichos ; (v. 'Ekaiov re'i')(og.) Elgus, on the authority of 
Eruatis. Xantlius ; (v/'EAyof.) Ereuatis ; {v.^Epevang.) Erym- 
Thryanda. nse, cited from the Lyciaca of Alexander. Thry- 
iiaris. anda ; (v. ^pvavla.) Ilaris, on the authority of Poly- 
charmus, a Lycian historian. Hippocome; (v/'Ittttou 
Cadrema. Kafj^Yj.) Cadrema, a colony of Olbia ; the word de- 
notes the drying or parching of corn; (v. Ka^pefxa.) 
Cochiiusa Carbaua ; (v. KapPavtg.) Cochliusa, an island so 
called from the shells found there; (v. Kox>^iov(7a.) 
Lyrnatia. Lymatia, a peninsula and fortress ; (v. Avpvarta.) 
iMeifense. Mcliienai, iioticcd by Alexander in the Lyciaca ; (v. 
."Menede- MeXaivai.) Mencdemium, from Capito ; (v. Meve^ixiov.) 

niiuin. , 1. \ II / 

,^ii<iea. Midea ; (v. Mihia.) Molyndea, cited from the Ly- 

.Alolvndi'u. fAi i//c\ 

piateisin- ciaca of Alcxaudcr ; [v.MoXwoeia.) Plateis, an island; 
Rax insula, (v. nAaT>?iV.) Rax, anothcr island ; {v.'Pdya.) Sidace, 

•" Sestini adduces some coins ATKI. which probably belong 
with the epigrajjh AnOAAflNI to this island. 



LYCIA. 267 

a town ; (v. 'Ei'^aKr].) Sidene, quoted from Xanthus ; 
(v.Hi'^YjVYi.) Sindia, from Hecatseus ; (v. S/v^/a.) Scari, Scari. 
a town and sacred fountain. Syessa, a hut, so called Syessa. 
from Syessa, an old woman, who entertained Latona. Teiepiii 
Telephi fons, a fountain, seven stadia from Patara. 
Trabala ; {v. Tpa(3aXa.) Tymenna ; (v.TvfjiYjwa.) Hy-Trai)aia. 
lami, from Alexander Polyhistor ; {v/'TXafj.oi.) Hy-Hytennk. 
tenna, a town of Lycia ; (v. "Trewa.) If I mistake 
not, the name of this place throws some light on an 
obscure peojjle mentioned by Herodotus. (III. 90.) 
The historian, speaking of the several nations who 
composed the second satrapy of Darius, names the 
Mysians, Lydians and Lasonians, Cabalians, and 
Hygennians. CTyewecov.) Sch weigh aeuser observes 
that this reading is suspicious, and some read Avre- 
v€Q}v. Comparing these with Stej^h. Byz., the true 
reading appears to be 'Trewexv. 

MILYAS, CABALIA, AND CIBYRA. 

There yet remain to be considered in the present 
section three petty districts, or rather one, which, 
under three successive titles, claims the attention of 
the historical student. The intermixture of races, 
names, and languages, which seems to have taken 
place in this corner of the peninsula is quite astonish- 
ing, and the geographical confusion resulting there- 
from, requires greater knowledge of the physical 
distribution of the localities than we possess, in 
order to set the matter in a clear point of view. 
Strabo, who was well aware of the intricacies of 
this i^art of his subject, has touched upon, rather 
than discussed it, in three several parts of his Asiatic 
geography. From these it aj^pears that he consi- 
dered the Solymi of Homer as the aboriginal in- 



268 LYCIA. 

habitants of Lycia, and some of the neighbouring- 
mountainous districts, especially in the direction of 
Pisidia. He moreover contends, on the authority of 
Homer, that the Lycians were a distinct race, since 
BellerojDhon is represented as sent by the king of 
Lycia to make war upon the Solymi. 

AevTspov a,\j, So^^u/iojcrj fxa^iUo-uTO xvZcthlixoto-i' 

II. Z. 184. 

And again, the son of Bellerophon is said to have 
fallen in battle against this i)eople. 

McipVUlJi,SVOV "XoKuj/.Otai KOLTiKTaVS KU^ahllMOKTl. 

II. Z. 204. 

These Solymi were probably of Phoenician origin, 
but it was a mere fancy of Josephus, reechoed by 
Eusebius, to imagine that there was any connexion 
between them and the Jews*^. The passage they 
quote in support of their opinion from the poet 
Choerilus, who describes the Solymi as forming part 
of the great army of Xerxes, undoubtedly applies 
to the Solymi of Asia Minor, as may be seen by 
comparing the passage of the Samian poet with 
Herodotus' account of the Milyae, in his catalogue 
of the Persian forces. (VI. 77.) The verses of Choe- 
rilus are as follows : 

Ttov 8' oniQsv dte^Mve ysvoc ^autJ.a(TToy JSeVSaj 

coxovv S' Iv ^oXufXOis op;<ri, TrKuTsr} Trctpoc KifLyr,, 
au;)^jxaA=o» xe^aXaj, Tpo^oxovPa^B; ctvrup vTrepQsv, 
jTrTTcov icipTU vpocrcun' e(p6povv e^xXriHOTu xuTtvio. 

Ap. Euseb. Pr.£P. Ev. IX. c. 9. 

" This was founded on a bare similarity of name between So- 
lymi and Hierosolyma. 



LYCIA. 269 

The lake here mentioned is supposed by Eusebius 
to be the AsjDhaltis, but it is much more probably 
that of Bourdour, or Egreder, in ancient Pisidia. 
Strabo affirms that the Solymi afterwards took the 
name of Milycfi ; (XII. p. 573. XIV. p. 667. cf. He- 
rod. I. 173.) he also speaks of their language as being 
different from those of Greece, Pisidia, and Lydia. 
(XIII. p. 631.) 

The Cabalees, from whom the tract of Cabalia, or 
Cabalis, took its name, are allowed by Herodotus to 
have been of Mseonian origin. Probably they were 
the only remnant of that ancient race subsisting 
when the historian composed his work. In his third 
book he distinguished the Lydians, the Lasonians, 
and Cabalians, though they all belonged to the same 
Persian satrapy ; (III. 90.) but in the seventh he 
states that the Maeonian Cabalians were called La- 
sonii. (VII. 77.) Strabo also affirms that Cabalis 
was the ancient country of the Solymi, and that it 
was afterwards colonized by the Lydians. This co- 
lony became again intermixed with the neighbouring 
race of Pisidia, and the name of Cabalis was lost in 
that of Cibyra, which makes some figure, more espe- 
cially in the Roman history. 

Cibja-a seems to have been originally a small town 
of Cabalis, but on the accession of the Pisidian co- 
lony the site was changed, and the town consider- 
ably enlarged, the whole circuit, as we learn from 
Strabo, being not less than 100 stadia. Its jDros- 
perity was chiefly owing to the excellence of its 
laws, though the government was that of an abso- 
lute monarchy. Under this government were in- 
cluded the three old Cabalian towns of Bubon, Bal- 
bura, and (Enoanda, and these, together with the 



270 LYCIA. 

capital, Cibyra, constituted a tetrapolis. Each of 
these towns had one vote in the general assembly of 
the states, except Cibyra, which had two, in consi- 
deration of its superior power. This city, as we are 
told by Strabo, could raise no less than 30,000 foot, 
and 2000 horse, and its influence and power ex- 
tended over a part of Pisidia, Milyas, and Lycia, as 
far as Peraea of the Rhodians. (XIII. p. 631.) 

The first mention which is made in history of 
Cibyra occurs in Livy's narrative of the Gallo-grae- 
cian war : a war which furnished the Romans with 
an occasion for settling several minor points of Asia- 
tic policy, according to their sovereign will and plea- 
sure. We learn from the Roman historian, that the 
consul Manlius, having crossed the Meander, and 
advanced through Caria to the Cibyratic frontier, 
detached C. Helvius, with a small corps, to discover 
whether Moagetes, tyrant of Cibyra, was disposed to 
submit. On his threatening to lay waste the territory 
of this chief, he came to the Roman camp, and was 
ordered to pay 500 talents. This sum, however, 
after much parleying, was reduced to 100 talents, 
with the addition of 10,000 medinnii of wheat. 
(XXXVIII. 14.) This sufficiently proves the opulence 
and fertility of this district, a circumstance which is 
also insisted on by Strabo. (XIII. p. 631. Cf. Po- 
lyb. Frag. XXII. 17.) The last tyrant of Cibyra 
bore also the name of Moagetes, and he was pro- 
bably the grandson of the above-mentioned prince, 
and son of Pancrates, who is incidentally noticed 
by Polybius as sovereign of Cibyra about the time 
of the second Macedonian war. (XXX. 9.) The 
last Moagetes became involved in hostilities with the 
Romans, and was conquered by Murena, who di- 



LYCIA. 271 

vided his territory into two parts ; Cibyra was an- 
nexed to Phrygia, but Bubon, Balbura, and (Eno- 
anda, to Lycia. (Strab. XIII. p. 631.') From this 
time we find Cibyra mentioned as the chief town of 
a considerable forum, or conventus, comprising not 
less than twenty-five towns. This conventus was 
however generally held, as it should seem, at Lao- 
dicea in Phrygia, to which province indeed most of 
its states belonged. (Cic. Att. Ep. V. 21. Plin. V. 
28.) We learn from Tacitus that Cibyra, having 
been nearly destroyed by an earthquake, was after- 
wards restored by Tiberius. (Tacit. Ann. IV. 13.) 
In later writers we find Cibyra included within the 
limits of Caria. (Hierocl. p. 690.) In Ptolemy, and 
some ancient inscriptions, we find the name written 
KifSvppa. We shall see that there was another Ci- 
byra on the coast of Pamphylia, which is not un- 
frequently noticed by the Byzantine writers. Strabo 
reports that there were four dialects in use at Ci- 
byra : that of the ancient Solymi, the Greek, the Pisi- 
dian, and the Lydian ; the latter, however, in his 
time was quite extinct, even in Lydia. He adds, 
that the Cibyratae excelled in engraving on iron, or 
steel. (XIII. p. 631.) Verres employed two bro- 
thers, named Tlepolemus and Hiero, artists of this 
town. (Cic. Verr. VI. c. 13.) No traces of the site 
of Cibyra have as yet been discovered, but it is pro- 
bable that they are to be found not far from Denisli, 
or Laodicea, on a river, which is either the Lycus, 
or a branch of it. Mons. Corancez, who is the only 

s There are extant coins of TQN. The title of KAI2A- 

Moagetes, and two other Ciby- PEfiN, which appears on some 

ratio chiefs, named Amintas few, is probably in acknowledg- 

and Chotes. The usual epi- ment of the benefit conferred 

graph is KIBTPA. and KIBTPA- by Tiberius. Sestin. p. 120, 



272 LYCIA. 

traveller who seems to have explored this valley, 
did not proceed so low down as the probable site of 
Cibyi'a, but he discovered some ruins on either bank 
of this river, which he supposed, not unreasonably, 

Bubon. to belong to the Cabalian towns, Bubon, Balbura, 

ffinoanda. ^^^ (Enoauda ^ These are always mentioned toge- 
ther by ancient geographers. (Cf. Strab. loc. cit. Plin. 
V. 28. Ptol. p. 122. Hierocl. p. 685. et Not. Eccl. 
Steph. Byz. Bov/3av, Ba\/3ovpa, OUoav^a.) Bubon is 
said to have been afterwards called Sophianopolis. 
(Not. Eccl. p. 15.) It may be observed that Livy, 
who doubtless copies from Polybius, assigns to Ci- 

Syieum. byra, in the time of Moagetes, Syleum, which Steph. 
Byz. on the other hand attributes to Phrygia, or 

AHmne. Pamphylia ; (v. '^vXhov) also Alimne, probably a cor- 
rupt reading for Alimala, noticed above ; Berkelius 

Sinda. thiuks it may be the Alychme of Stephanus. Sinda 
is another town which is noticed by Livy in this 
direction : (XXXVIII. 15.) and it must not be con- 
founded, as Berkelius has done, with Isionda, or 
Isinda, since the Roman historian has named them 
as two different towns in the same chapter. Steph. 
Byz. jDlaces Sinda, or Sindia, in Lycia ; (v. I^tvbla) 
Strabo has connected it with Cibyra, Cabalis, and 
Milyas ; (XIII. p. 630.) but elsewhere he seems to 
assign it to Pisidia. (XII. p. 570.) 

t Itineraire de I'Asie Min. p. 418. 



SECTION xir. 
PAMPHYLIA AND PISIDIA. 



Origin of the Pamphylians — Description of their coast and towns 
— Pisidiii — Accoimt of its inhabitants — Boundaries and geo- 
graphical features of the country — Topography. 

The Greeks, ever prone to those derivations which 
flattered their national vanity, attached to the word 
Pamphyli that meaning which the component words 
Tray and (f}vXov would in their language naturally con- 
vey, " an assemblage of different nations." (Strab. 
XIV. p. 668.) It was, however, further necessary to 
account for the importation of Grecian terms among 
a people as barbarous as the Carians, Lycians, and 
other tribes on the same line of coast; and the siege 
of Troy, so fertile a source of fiction, gave rise to the 
tale which supposed Calchas and Amphilochus to 
have settled on the Pamphylian shores, with their 
dispersed followers. This story, which seems to have 
obtained general credit, is to be traced in the first 
instance to the father of history, (VII. 92.) and after 
him it has been repeated by Strabo, (loc. cit.) Pau- 
sanias, (Ach. c. 3.) and others. Of the Grecian ori- 
gin of several towns on the Pamphylian coast we 
can indeed have no doubt ; but there is no reason for 
supposing that the main population of the country 
was of the same race. It is more probable that they 

VOL. II. T 



274 PAMPHYLIA. 

derived their origin from the Cilicians, or the an- 
cient Solymi. Other etymologies wiW be found in 
Stej^hanus Byz. (v. lla^^vA/a.) Pliny reports that 
this country was once called Mopsopia, probably 
from the celebrated Grecian soothsayer Mopsus. 
(V. 26.) 

Pamphylia possesses but little interest in an histo- 
rical point of view. It became subject in turn to 
Croesus, the Persian monarchs, Alexander, the Pto- 
lemies, Antiochus, and the Romans. The latter, 
however, had considerable difficulty in extirpating 
the pirates, who swarmed along the whole of the 
southern coast of Asia ]\Iinor, and even dared to in- 
sult the galleys of those proud republicans off the 
shores of Italy, and in sight of Ostia. (Cic. pro Leg. 
Manil.) Pamphylia was entirely a maritime coun- 
try : its coast is indented by a deep gulf, commenc- 
ing soon after the Sacred Promontory of Lycia, and 
extending to that of Anemurium in Cilicia. This 
wide bay was known to the ancients by the name 
of Mare Pamphylium, and in modern geography 
it bears that of G/f/J' of Aftalia. The bounda- 
ries of Pamphylia, according to Strabo, were the 
pass of Climax beyond Phaselis of Lycia on one 
side, and the fortress of Coracesium, belonging to 
Cilicia, on the other. This comprised an extent of 
coast of 640 stadia. (XIV. p. 667.) The Turks 
call this part of Kai'amania, 2\ke-Ili. 

Strabo, beginning his description of Pamphylia on 
oii>ia. the side of Lycia, names Olbia as the first town in 
this province ; (XIV. p. 667.) and Pliny, proceed- 
ing in an inverse order, places it last. (V. 26.) Pto- 
lemy mentions successively Phaselis, Olbia, and At- 
taleia. Stephanus censures Pliilo for ascribing this 



PAMrHYLIA. 275 

town to Pamphylia, since, as he asserts, it was situ- 
ate in the territory of the Solymi, and its real name 
was Olba. (v. 'OA/5/a.) The lexicographer is, how- 
ever, himself in error, as Holstenius has acutely ob- 
served ; and he has confounded Olbia with the Pi- 
sidian Olbasa. Strabo describes Olbia as a place of 
great strength, but without entering into any parti- 
culars as to its origin, which was probably Grecian. 
We have seen that Cydrema, a Lycian town, was 
colonized by the Olbians. 

Strabo then proceeds to notice the Catarrhactes, aCatanhac- 

■^ tes niivius. 

considerable river so called from its precipitating its 
waters over a high rock, with a thundering noise. 
(Cf. Plin. V. 26. P.Mel. I. 14.) Beyond was At-Attaieia. 
taleia, which owed its name and foundation to At- 
talus Philadelphus. This statement of the Greek 
geographer is precise, but it contains considerable 
difficulties in regard to the present topography of 
the coast. It seems reasonable to suppose, on the 
one hand, that the modern Adalia^ or Satcdia, which 
possesses numerous vestiges betokening a large and 
flourishing city, should represent Attaleia ; while, 
on the other, it is found impracticable to identify 
the Catarrhactes with any river discharging its wa- 
ters into the sea westward of Attaleia. This has 
led the judicious D'Anville, and also Captain Beau- 
fort, who, from his accurate knowledge of the coast, 
brings great weight along with him, to suppose that 
Adcdia occupies, in fact, the site of Olbia ; and that 
the ancient Attaleia stood more to the east, at a 
place called Pcdaia Attcdia, according to the French 
geographer ; but Laara, as reported by the English 
navigator. Captain Beaufort's account of the Ca- 
tarrhactes is so satisfactory, that I shall insert it 

T 2 



'276 PAMPHYLIA. 

here in his own words. " The principal difficulty 
*' is to ascertain the position of the river Cataractes, 
" which Strabo places between the cities of Olbia 
" and Attalia, and which, he says, precipitates itself 
" from a lofty rock, with a tremendous din : he does 
" not expressly state that this fall is into the sea, 
" but that seems to be implied by the context. Were 
" the present Adcdia and the ancient Attaleia the 
" same, this river should therefore be found to the 
" westward of the town ; yet on that side of it there 
" are only two small rivers, both of which glide qui- 
" etly into the sea through the sandy beach, and can 
" by no means answer the description of the Cata- 
" ractes. On the eastern side of Aclalia, however, 
" no great river is to be met with till we come to 
" the ancient Cestrus ; but it has been already no- 
" ticed, that a number of small rivers, which fer- 
" tilize the gardens, and turn the mills, near the 
" town, rush directly over the cliff into the sea ; 
" and if these rivulets had ever been united, they 
" must have formed a considerable body of water. 
" The water of those streams is so highly impreg- 
" nated with calcareous particles, as to be reckoned 
" unfit for man or beast ; and near some of the mills 
" we observed large masses of stalactites and pe- 
" trifactions. Now the broad and high plain, which 
" stretches to the eastward of the city, terminates in 
" abrupt cliffs along the shore : these cliffs are above 
" 100 feet high, and considerably overhang the sea ; 
" not in consequence of their base having crumbled 
" away, but from their summit projecting in a lip, 
" which consists of parallel laminae, each jutting out 
" beyond its inferior layer ; as if water had been 
" contiiuially flowing over them, and continually 



PAMPHYLIA. 277 

" forming fresh accretions. It is therefore not im- 
" possible that this accumulation may have gra- 
" dually impeded the course of that body of water 
" which had once formed here a magnificent fall, 
" and may have thus forced it to divide into various 
*' channels ^." Col. Leake however, whose opinion 
is also entitled to great consideration, is much dis- 
posed to think that Adal'ia really occupies the site 
of the ancient Attaleia ; and he supposes " that Ol- 
" bia may be found in some part of the plain, which 
" extends for seven miles from the modern Aclalia 
" to the foot of mount Solyma." This opinion, how- 
ever, seems to rest principally on the erroneous state- 
ment of Stephanus Byz.^; and though the question 
remains still uncertain, I feel rather disposed to ad- 
here to the hypothesis of D'Anville and Captain 
Beaufort. I would not, however, place Attalia so 
far as Laara, but suppose it to have stood first on 
the left bank of the river, and gradually to have ex- 
tended itself to the right shore, and finally to have 
included also Olbia within its circuit. Of the latter 
place there is no distinct mention subsequent to Pto- 
lemy. The Stadiasmus, which appears to be a later 
document, takes no notice of it, and places Attaleia 
west of the Catarrhactes. Scylax, on the other hand, 
who wrote before the foundation of the latter city, 
names only Olbia. (p. 39-) It appears, by compar- 
ing Strabo with Stephanus, that Attaleia stood on a 
spot originally called Corycus, and which must not 
be confounded with the Cilician site of the same 

a Karamania, p. 134 — 13G. jjoint of the coast, a little to 

Col. Leake states that, after the west of I<««ra. Asia Minor, 

heavy rains, the river precipi- p. 192. 
tates itself copiously over the ^ Asia Minor, p. 190. 

cliffs, near the most projecting 



S78 PAMPHYLIA. 

name. The appellation of Coiycus seems to have 
belonged to a tract of coast or portion of the gvilf. 
Attaleia was a sea-port town, since we are told in 
the Acts of the Apostles, that Paul and Barnabas 
sailed from thence to Antioch. (xiv. 25.) Its church 
attained to episcopal rank, being recorded as such 
in the Ecclesiastical Notices '^. The remains of an- 
tiquity, consisting of city walls, triumphal arches, 
aqueducts, and inscriptions, attest its former conse- 
quence''. Strabo reports, that the sites of two towns, 
named Thebes and Lyrnessus, were pointed out be- 
tween Phaselis and Attaleia ; these were founded, 
as Callisthenes affirmed, by the Cilicians of Troas, 
who quitted their country, and settled on the Pam- 
l)hylian coast. (XIV. p. 667.) The Stadiasmus has 
two places in the above-mentioned interval, named 
Tenedos and Lyrnas ; the latter is probably the 
Lyrnessus of Strabo and Pliny. It is said to retain 
the name of Ernatia ^. 

Magydus. Proceeding along the coast from Attaleia, we have 
to notice Magydus, a place mentioned by Ptolemy 
and the ecclesiastical records, which attest its epi- 
scopal rank. (Hierocl. p. 6.) If it is the same place 
which Scylax calls Mdo-'/j'^o^, it must lay claim to 
considerable antiquity. (Peripl. p. 39-) Magydus is 
probably to be identified with the Mygdala of the 
Stadiasmus. Col. Leake fixes it at Laafci '. The 

Masura. latter documeut marks beyond Mygdala, Masura, 

c Geogr. Sacr. p. 250. e French Strabo, note, torn. 

«l Karamunia, p. 126—129. III. part ii. p. 3G3. 

Leake's Asia Minor, p. 193. f Asia INIinor, p. 194. There 

There are imperial coins of this are numerous imperial coins of 

city from Aug\istus to Salonina : Magydus, of Augustus, Nero, 

legend ATTAAEnN. Sestini, p. Trajan, &c. : legend MAFTAE- 

93. fiN. Sestini, p. 93. 



PAMPHYLIA. 279 

seventy stadia. Then the Catarraets, Ruscopoda, Uuscopoda. 
and the river Cestrus. Before we quit the Catar- 
rhactes it may be proper to observe, that it answers 
to the river now called Duden. This is a consi- 
derable stream which issues from the great lake of 
Egredei\ and, after receiving several minor rivers, 
breaks through the great chain of Taurus, and falls 
into the gulf of Satalia. The Cestrus, a navigable ('estms fl. 
river, falls into the same gulf, about eight miles fur- 
ther to the east. At a distance of sixty stadia from 
its mouth stood inland the city of Perga, renowned Peiga. 
for the worship of Diana Pergaea. The temple of 
the goddess stood on a hill near the town, and a 
festival was celebrated annually in her honour. 

Callim. Hymn, in Dian. v. 187. 
(Strab. XIV. p. 667. Scyl. Peripl. p. 39-) 

Dion. Per. 854. 

Alexander occupied Perga with part of his army 
after cj[uittiug Phaselis ; and we are informed by 
Arrian, that the road between these two towns was 
long and difficult. (I. 26.) Polybius leads us to sup- 
[)ose Perga belonged rather to Pisidia than Pam- 
phylia. (V. 72. 9. Cf. XXII. 25. Liv. XXXVIII. 
37.) We learn from the Acts of the Apostles, that 
Paul and Barnabas, having " passed throughout Pi- 
" sidia, came to Pamphylia. And when they had 
" preached the word in Perga, they went down into 
" Attalia." (Acts xiv. 24, 25.) This was their se- 
cond visit to that town, since they had come there 
from Cyprus. It was here that John, surnamed 
Mark, departed from them ; for which he incurred 

T 4 



280 PAMPHYLIA. 

the censure of St. Paul. (Acts xiii. 13.) Perga, in 
the Ecclesiastical Notices and in Hierocles, (p. 679-) 
stands as the metropolis of Pamphylia. (Cf. Plin. V. 
28. Steph. Byz. v. UepyYjS.) The ruins of this city 
are probably those noticed by Gen. Koehler under 
the name of JEski ICelesi, between Stauros and 
Adalia^ on the left of a large and rapid stream, 
which must be the Cestrus '\ On the other side of 
SyUeum. the samc river stood Sylleum, or Syllium, at a dis- 
tance of forty stadia from the sea. Its site was so 
lofty as to be visible from Perga. (Strab. XIV. p. 
667.) Arrian reports that it was very strong, and 
resisted Alexander. (I. 25.) Scylax places it beyond 
the Eurymedon. (p. 40.) This town is also indi- 
cated by Ptolemy, Hierocles, (p. 679-) and the Ec- 
clesiastical Notices. I am of opinion, however, that 
it must be distinguished from the Syleum already 
mentioned under the head of Cibyra. 

Beyond the Cestrus, Strabo notices a lake of some 
Capria cxtcnt named Capria, and still so called in modern 
Euryme- cliarts. Somcwhat further we come to the Eury- 
medon, a river rendered celebrated in history from 
the double defeat sustained by land and sea by the 
Persian fleet, from the Greek forces commanded by 
Cimon. The Persian ships were drawn up at the 
mouth of the river to the amount of 350, or, as some 
affirm, 600 ; but on the first attack they fled to the 
shore, and were stranded. Cimon then landed his 
forces, and after a severe engagement routed the 
enemy, and took their camp and baggage. (Plut. 

% There are numerous coins Sestini, j). 93. 
of Perga, with the legend HEP- ^ In Col. Leake's Asia Mi- 

FA and nEPrAIEaN,\md some- nor, p. 132. 
times nEPFAIAS APTEMIAOI. 



PAMPHYLIA. 281 

Vit. Cim. Thuc. 1. 100.) This signal victory anni- 
hilated the Persian navy. Many years after this 
event, we read in Livy that a considerable Rhodian 
fleet anchored off the same river previous to en- 
gaging with the ships of Antiochus, commanded by 
Hannibal. (XXXVII. 22.) Captain Beaufort ob- 
serves, with respect to these naval events, that the 
state of the river must have undergone a consider- 
able change, since, though it is now 420 feet wide, 
the bar at its mouth is so shallow as to be impass- 
able to boats that draw more than one foot of water. 
I should not imagine, however, that on the above 
occasions either fleet advanced far up the river. 
The Persian fleet was certainly drawn up within it 
at first, but they advanced out to meet the enemy, 
and the engagement, if it deserves that name, took 
place off the mouth : and as to the Rhodian galleys, 
which were of the largest class, it appears that they 
only anchored near the coast. The modern name of 
the river is Caprisou. Aspen dus, a town of sizeAspendus. 
and note founded by the Argives, was seated about 
sixty stadia higher up the country. (Strab. XIV. p. 
667.) Thucydides seems to speak of Aspendus as a 
sea-port, but he meant probably the station at the 
mouth of the Eurymedon. (VIII. 81. 87. 108.) It 
was here that the Athenian patriot, Thrasybulus, 
terminated his life. Being off the coast, he levied 
contributions from the Aspendians, who, seizing an 
opportunity when he was on shore, surprised him in 
his tent at night, and slew him. (Xen. Hell. IV. 8. 
Diod. Sic. XIV. 99- Corn. Nep. Thrasyb. c. 4.) Ar- 
rian relates that Alexander, having traversed Caria 
and Lycia, advanced to the walls of Aspendus, when 
the inhabitants having at first consented to pay fifty 



283 PAMPHYLIA. 

talents, and give up the horses which they bred for 
the Persian king, afterwards refused to fulfil their 
agreement ; on which the Macedonian king sur- 
rounded the town, situated on a rocky precipice, 
at the foot of which flowed the Eurvmedon, and 
pre2)ared to besiege it. But they submitted on see- 
ing the attack about to be made. (I. ^6, 27.) They 
furnished contributions also at a later period to 
tlie army of the consul Manlius. (Liv. XXXVIII. 
15. Cf. Polyb. XXII. 18. 4. V. 73. 3. Scyl. Peripl. 
p. 39, 40. Plin. V. 26. Mel. I. 14.) 

K=73j S' oiv OL^r^rfiZiuc, V7:eif,u.\iov TCTOXU^pov, 

' EtV^U (7U0}iT0ViY,(n /SlCUVUlYjV iKoiOVTUi. 

Dion. Peu. 85^. 

It appears from this last passage that Venus had 
a peculiar worship in this town. (Vid. Eustath. ad 
loc.) The site of Asj)endus has not yet been ex- 
plored, but it would be easily discovered by ascend- 
ing the banks of the Eurymedon. General Koehler 
crossed that river between Dasha-cher and Stau- 
roSf on a bridge built upon the ruins of a magnifi- 
cent ancient bridge, one arch of which is still stand- 
Castnius inp- i. Steiih. Byz, mentions a mountain, called Cast- 

mons. " ^ "^ 

nius, at Aspendus. (v. KaVra^.) Pliny names, be- 
liciicoUa tween Perffa and Aspendus, the i)romontory Leu- 

])roinouto- *-' ^ _ ^ "' 

rium. colla, and mount Sardemisus : (V. 26.) the latter is 

Sardeinisus 

mons. also iioticed by Mela. (I. 14.) It is observed that 
Stei)hanus has in this direction a town called Sar- 
dessus. (v. ^aplvjo-aoi.) The Stadiasmus points out 

i Col. Leake's Asia Minor, E2TF. E3TFEANT2. In those 

p. 131, 132. The first medals of a more recent date the name 

of Aspendus beloken consider- of the city is exhibited in its 

able anticpiity, and the Doric usual form, A2. and ASIIEN- 

Icgend is curious: E2. E2T. AION. 



PAMPHYLIA. 283 

Cynosthrium, a spot between the Eiiiymedon andcvnos- 
Cestriis. The same document reckons 100 stadia 
from the former river to a station named Seleucia. Seieucia. 
This place must have been near the mouth of a 
nameless river pointed out by Strabo after the Eu- 
rymedon, and observed by Captain Beaufort, who 
says : "After quitting the Eurymedon we passed se- 
" veral streams, and one small river about fifty feet 
" wide, which winds round the ruins of a village 
" about half a mile from its mouth :" he adds, " that 
" the islands, mentioned by Strabo, appear as large 
" patches of sunken rocks near the mouth of the 
" above mentioned river ^." Col. Leake thinks Se- 
leucia may have been the port of Sylleum ^ Eighty 
stadia further we find the important town and har- 
bour of Side, founded, as several authors have re- Side. 
lated, by the Cumaeans of iEolis. (Scyl. Per. p. 40. 
Strab. XIV. p. 667.) Arrian relates that the Si- 
detse, soon after their settlement, forgot the Greek 
language, and spoke a barbarous tongue peculiar to 
themselves. It surrendered to Alexander in his 
march through PamiDhylia. (I. 26.) Side, many 
years after, was the scene of a severe naval action 
between the fleet of Antiochus, commanded by Han- 
nibal, and that of the Rhodians, in which the former 
was defeated. (Liv. XXXVII. 23, 24. Cf. XXXV. 
13 et 48.) Polybius intimates there was a great 
enmity between the Sidetae and Aspendians. (V. 
73. 3.) When the pirates of Asia Minor had at- 
tained to that degree of audacity and power which 
rendered them so formidable, we learn from Strabo 
that Side became their principal harbour, as well 

^ Karamauia, p. 145, 146. l Asia Minor, p. 195. 



284 PAMPHYLIA. 

as the market where they disposed of their pri- 
soners by auction. (XIV. p. 664.) Side was still a 
considerable town under the emjierors, and when a 
division was made of the provinces into two parts, 
it became the metropolis of Pamphylia prima. (Hie- 
rocl. p. 682. Concil. Const. II. p. 240.) Minerva was 
the deity principally worshipped here. (Strab. loc. 
cit.) Mention of Side occurs also in Xenophon, 
(Anab. I. 2. 12.) Athenaeus, (VIII. p. 350.) Cicero, 
(Fam. Ep. III. 6.) Steph. Byz. v. (I/^>?.°i) An in- 
teresting account of its ruins is to be found in Cap- 
tain Beaufort's valuable work, with an accurate plan. 
" It stands on a low peninsula, and was surrounded 
" by walls ; that which faces the land was of excel- 
" lent workmanship, and much of it is still perfect. 
" It was flanked at intervals by square towers. 
" There were four gates, one from the country, and 
" three from the sea. The agora, 180 feet in dia- 
" meter, was surrounded by a double row of co- 
" lumns. One side of the square is occupied by the 
" ruins of a temple and portico. The theatre ap- 
" pears like a lofty acropolis rising from the centre 
" of the town, and is by far the largest and best pre- 
" served of any that came under our observation in 
" Asia Minor. The harbour consisted of two small 
" moles, connected with the quay and principal sea- 
" gate. At the extremity of the peninsula were 
" two artificial harbours for larger craft. Both are 
" now almost filled with sand and stones, which 
" have been borne in by the swell "." In the middle 

™ The earliest coins of Side exhibit the proud titles of AAM- 

are extremely ancient ; the in- UPOTATH and ENA0H02. Ses- 

scriptions are in very barbarous tini, p. 9-1. 

characters, resembling the I'hre- " Karaniania, p. i Hi — \6'2. 
nician. The imperial medals 



PAMPHYLIA. 285 

ages the site bore the name of Scandelor, or Can- 
deloro, but it now is commonly called Esky Ada- 

lia. 

Eastward of Side we find the mouth of the 3fe- ijieia^ 

fliivius. 

noughat river, called Melas by the ancients. (Strab. 
XIV. p. 667. Mel. I. 14. Zozim. V. 16.) Pausanias 
says that it was remarkable for the coldness of 
its waters. (Arcad. p. 659.) The Stadiasmus places 
it at a distance of fiftv stadia from Side. Then fol- 
lows, according to the same document, a temple of 
Diana, nine stadia, and Cyberna, fifty stadia. This 
last place is supposed by Col. Leake, with great pro- 
bability, to be the Cibyra parva of Strabo, though Cibyi;.. 
that geographer has inadvertently placed it to the 
west of the Melas °. Ptolemy has annexed this 
town to Cilicia Trachea. From thence to cape Leu- Leuco- 

'■ theiini jiro- 

cotlieum we have in the Stadiasmus fiftv stadia. This monto- 

rium. 

headland answers to cape Karahoutmou. Some ruins, 
which exist on the headland which next follows, are 
referred by Captain Beaufort to Ptolemais, the last Ptoiemais. 
Pamphylian town in this direction, since Corace- 
sium, a well known fortress beyond it, appertained 
to Cilicia. The Stadiasmus does not notice Ptole- 
mais, but it has, after cape Leucotheum, Augse, fifty 
stadia to the east ; then Anaxia, seventy stadia ; and 
close to it a spot called Annesis, which Col. Leake 
thinks may have been the port of the former p. Our 
account of Pamphylia closes with the circumnaviga- 
tion of its coast ; for though it probably possessed 
some few places at a distance from the sea, it is 
hardly possible to distinguish which are those that 
are strictly Pamphylian, and which that ought to be 
assigned to the conterminous province of Pisidia. The 

o Asia Minor, p. 190. P Asia Minor, p. 197. 



286 



PAMPHYLIA. 



UUamljus. 

Tresena, or 

Canaura. 

Berbe. 

ISindaunda. 

Palaeopolis. 

Panenio- 

tichos. 

Maximia- 

nopolis. 

Itegesala- 

mara. 

Limo- 

hrama, 

Cordylus. 



Demusia. 

Demus 

Sabaeon. 

Primopolis. 

Serna, vel 

Senna. 

Cotana. 

OrjTnna, 

sive 

Erymne. 

Cyrbe. 



Lirnvtea. 



Rhopes. 



Singya. 



following list is derived from Hierocles (p. 279 — 
282.) and Stephanus Byz. The former names Uli- 
ambiis, Tresena, Canaura, Berbe, or Barbe, accord- 
ing to the Notitiae. Sindaunda, probably the same 
as Sindiandus of Pisidia. Palaeopolis, Panemo- 
tichos, likewise known from ecclesiastical records 
and ancient coins % Maximianopolis, an episcopal 
town, as we collect from the Acts of Councils. Re- 
gesalamara, and Limobrama, obscure places which 
occur nowhere else. Codryla is evidently the Cordy- 
lus of Steph. Byz., (v. Kop^vXog) and Cordyla of the 
Notitiae. Demusia, Demus Sabaeon. Primopolis, 
which Wesseling is inclined to identify with Aspen- 
dus ; Serna, or Senna ; Cotana, perhaps the Catenna 
of Strabo. Orymna, or, as it is written in the No- 
titiae, Erymne. 

Stephanus Byz. assigns to Pamphylia, Cyrbe, on 
the authority of Hecataeus, but this may be only a 
false reading for Lyrbe ; (v. Kj;'p/3>?) also Lirnytea, 
(v. Aipvvreia) but this is likewise a corruption, in- 
stead of Lyrnatia. Rhopes, a people of Pamphylia, 
mentioned by Phavorinus. (v. 'PcTrei'^-. Cf. v. 'Evonrj.) 
Singya, a town ; (v. Ytyyva.) Pharsalus, or Phana- 
lius, a town ; (v. fPapo-aXo$.) 



PISIDIA. 

The ancients seem to have known but little re- 
specting the origin of the Pisidians. They generally, 
however, agreed as to the fact of their having suc- 
ceeded to a portion of the territory once occupied 
by the Homeric Solymi. (Plin. V. 24. Steph. Byz. 
v. Yliai^ta.) Strabo states that, according to some 

q Paneiiioticlios. Iniperat. tantum Domnse, Epigr. riANEMO- 
TEIXEITON. 



PAMPHYLIA. 287 

accounts, they were intermixed with the Leleges, 
which is not improbable, considering their proximity 
to the Carians. (XII. p. 570.) The name of this 
people was unknown to Herodotus, but it is pro- 
bable that he included them under that of Milyae. 
There is little doubt also that the people, whom the 
poet Choerilus describefl in the catalogue of Xerxes' 
army as inhabiting the Solymaean mountains and 
the shores of a broad lake, were no other than the 
Pisidians. 

Occupying a wild and mountainous district around 
the highest summits of the chain of Taurus, their 
character and habits naturally partook of the rugged 
and untractable features of this highland region. 
As early as the epoch of tlie Peloponnesian war we 
hear them spoken of as a marauding race, hostile to 
the Persian monarchs, and whom it was found ne- 
cessary to curb and repress by force of arms. The 
younger Cyrus had more than once led expeditions 
into their country, and they furnished him with a 
pretext for collecting the troops intended to over- 
throw his brother. (Anab. I. 1. 11. I. 9- 9. HI. 2. 
14.) These turbulent and savage habits had under- 
gone but little change even in the time of Strabo, 
since he assures us that, like the Cilicians and Pam- 
phylians, they were governed by petty chiefs, and 
subsisted principally by plundering their more peace- 
ful neighbours. The Romans endeavoured, by esta- 
blishing colonies in the country, to civilize, or keep 
in check this rude and lawless people ; Christianity, 
too, lent its softening influence, and many a church 
was erected throughout the country ; but the wars 
with the Saracens and Turks, and the final ascen- 
dency ^of the latter, have plunged it once more into 



288 PISIDIA. 

its original wild and barbarous state. Our know- 
ledge of the ancient geography of Pisidia is princi- 
pally derived from Arrian, in his account of Alex- 
ander's march through the country ; also Livy's nar- 
rative of the expedition of Manlius, the consul, to- 
gether with the details which are found in Poly- 
bius, of the hostilities carried on by Garsyeris, gene- 
ral of Ach?eus, against the Belgians, one of the lead- 
ing states of Pisidia. Our information, as to the 
actual or physical aspect of the country, is very in- 
complete. The sites of some of the principal towns 
are yet undetermined, and the mountains and lakes 
cannot be laid down with any degree of precision. 
Some valuable accession to the topographical know- 
ledge of this part of Asia has, however, been de- 
rived from Mr. Arundell's journey through that tract 
of country which lies contiguous to the ancient pro- 
vinces of Caria and Phrygia. It will be seen, by a 
reference to the map, that Pisidia is an inland coun- 
try, having around it Caria on the west, Lycia on 
the south-west, Phrygia to the north, Lycaonia and 
Isauria, east and south-east, and Pamphylia to the 
south. The line of demarcation in regard to the lat- 
ter province, may be generally considered as formed 
by the chain of Taurus, though Strabo seems to al- 
low that some Pisidian cantons were situated on the 
southern slope of that ridge, towards Side and As- 
pendus. (XII. p. 570.) Pisidia in general corre- 
sponds to that portion oi Anatolia comiH'ised within 
the government of IsharteJi. 

The most convenient, as well as the most interest- 
ing mode of description which we can adopt with re- 
spect to this country, will be to take first for our text 
Livy's narrative of the expedition of Manlius; illus- 



PISIDIA. 289 

tratiiig it by a constant reference to the geographers ; 
and, secondly, that of Polybius, in regard to the opera- 
tions of Garsyeris. In our last section we traced 
the progress of the Roman consul through Cibyra 
and the dominions of Moagetes to the Lycian town 
of Sinda ••. (XXXVIII. 15.) Proceeding through 
the territory of the Sindians he crossed the Cau- Caidares 

•' fluvuis. 

lares, a small river, named by no other writer, but 
which is probably a branch of the Lycus. The next 
day the army passed the lake Caralis, and halted atCaraiis 
Mandropolis. The lake and town are alike un-Maudro- 
known, except that we find a Mandropolis assigned 
to Phrygia by Steph. Byz. ; (v. Mav^poTroKi^) but 
there is some uncertainty, as there was a IMandra in 
Troas, or Lesser Phrygia. On their next advance 
to the neighbouring town of Lagon, they found it 
deserted by the inhabitants, but well provided with 
stores of every description. This proves that it was 
a place of some consequence, and situated in a fertile 
country, but no other author seems to have recorded 
it ; and this part of the narrative is omitted in the 
fragments of Polybius. The Roman army was at 
this time near the source of the Lysis, a branch pro- Lysis iiu- 
bably of the Catarrhactes. From thence the consul' '""' 
advanced to the river Colobatus, as it is written bycoiobams, 
Polybius, (XXII. 18.) or Cobalatus, by Livy. This ^^;';X''' 
would seem to be the stream which now takes its^'^^^^* 
name from the modern town of Estenax, and also 
joins the Catarrhactes, or river of Diiden, Here 
the Roman general received a deputation from the 
neighbouring town of Isionda, the inhabitants ofjsionda. 
which were then besieged by the Termessians, a 

r P. 272. 

VOL. II. U 



290 PISIDIA. 

powerful people of Pisidia ^, and reduced to great 
straits. They were shut up within their citadel, 
and implored the assistance of the consul. Manlius, 
who was anxious for a fair opportunity of pene- 
trating into Pamphylia, advanced towards Isionda, 
raised the siege, and granted peace to the Termes- 
sians, on condition that they should pay fifty talents. 
It will be seen from this narrative that the Roman 
general was at this time on the borders of Pamphy- 
lia and Pisidia, or perhaps more correctly he was 
among the defiles leading from Milyas into Pam- 
phylia ; for Strabo says that the name of Milyas was 
more especially given to that portion of mountainous 
country which lay between the jDasses of Termessus, 
through the chain of Taurus, and Sinda ^ This 
mountainous ridge can be no other than that which 
forms tlie continuation of mount Climax above Pha- 
selis. (Strab. XIII. p. 631.) It is generally thought 
that in Ptolemy we should read Isinda for Pisinda. 
There is also some error in Stephanus, who places 
Isindus in Ionia, (v. "laivlo?.) The Episcopal No- 
tices record Isindus among the sees of Pamphylia. 
From the light afforded by the historians cited above, 
we should expect to discover the site of Isionda, or 
Isinda, on the Pamphylian side of mount Taurus, 
above Phaselis and Olbia, or Attalia : and it is in 

s There is one circumstance tov ireTicf/jKevai, Kal ttjv iti'/.m S»)/)- 
connectedwitli this event which wWva*. This mention of Phi- 
is peculiar to t!ie narrative of lomelium, a town of Thrygia, 
Polybius, and which re(juires to and very remote from the scene 
be considered. The Isiondans of action, seems very suspicious. 
came, says the historian, Sc6/>i€- I should be inclined to substi- 
voi <T<\n<n ^vfiOrjtTui' toIc, yap Tep- tutc fVaa-qKiv. 

fAfiaaeii iitia-Kaaayifvovii ^uUfji.r,\ov, ' Some MSS. read Isinda. 

T'jji/ T( yiipon '((poi.<rav avruv avaffru- 



sus. 



PISIDIA. 291 

this direction that a modern traveller, Mons. Co- 
rancez, observed some very considerable ruins as he 
was journeying from the latter town precisely in the 
line along which I have supposed the Roman consul 
to have moved, only in a contrary direction. Accord- 
ing to this gentleman, the remains in question are 
to be seen on some high land about twelve miles 
north-west of Adalia. They are very extensive, 
covering a space of ground of about a square league, 
and having the appearance of a city overthrown by 
an earthquake. Outside the walls were numberless 
tombs cut out of the rock ". 

Termessus, which has been already alluded to, is Termes- 
supposed by Strabo to have been a fortress of some 
note as early as the time of the ancient Solymi. 
(XIII. p. 630.) Its commanding situation at the 
entrance of the defiles, by which Pisidia communi- 
cated with Pamphylia and Lycia, must always have 
rendered it a place of importance, and in all military 
transactions we find its occupation considered to be 
of great consequence. 

Arrian relates that Alexander, after reducing As- 
pendus, Perga, and other towns of Pamph3'^lia, " set 
" out on his march into Phrygia. His route was by 
" the city of Termessus. These men are of the Pi- 
" sidian nation, and barbarians : they occupy a site 
" which is very lofty and precipitous on every side, 
" and the road which passes close to the city is diffi- 
" cult ; for the mountain reaches down from the city 
" to the road, and there it terminates. But there is 



u Itineraire, &c. p. 391 — Valerian; the legends vary in 

394. There are coins belong- I2;iN. and ISINAEON. Sestin. 

ing to this town as low down p. 93. 
as the reigns of Gordianus and 

u 2 



292 PISIDIA. 

" over against it another mountain, not less precipi- 
" tons ; and these heights form a gate, as it were, in 
" the road ; and it is possible, by occupying these 
" mountains with a small force, to render the passage 
" imjiracticable." On this occasion, the Termessians 
having come out with their whole force, had occu- 
pied both mountains. Alexander, however, having 
observed that the main body of the barbarians re- 
tired at night to the town, leaving a small force to 
guard the pass, seized this opportunity of pushing 
forward with the light troops ; and having easily 
dislodged the enemy, led his army in safety through 
the defiles. Alexander, however, despairing of taking 
the town, after receiving a deputation from the people 
of Selge, who though Pisidians were at enmity with 
the Termessians, continued his march. (I. 27, 28.) 
This must also have been the route of the consul 
Manlius, after having relieved Isionda, and received 
the submission of Termessus ; but we have many to- 
pographical details, as we shall presently see, in the 
Roman historian, which are wanting in the narra- 
tive of Arrian. To conclude with Termessus, the 
description of the latter historian agrees in a re- 
markable manner with General Koehler's observa- 
tions on his journey from Aclalia to Hiirdur. After 
quitting the former city he journeyed to BidJikU, 
seven hours due north along the river Duden, the 
Catarrhactes of antiquity. " From BidJiJdi to Ka- 
" rcd)unar Kivi, nine hours ; the first two hours 
" over the same rugged plain, not far from the ri- 
" ver. The two great ranges on the west and north 
" of the plains of Adcdia now approach each other, 
" and at length are only divided by the passes through 
*' whicli the river finds its way. The road, how- 



PISIDIA. 293 

" ever, leaves this gorge to the right, and ascends 
" the mountain by a paved winding causeway, a 
" work of great labour and ingenuity. At the foot 
" of it, in the plain, are the ruins of a castle, and of 
" many towers and gateways of elegant architecture, 
" with cornices, capitals, and fluted columns, lying 
" upon the ground. Sarcophagi, with their covers 
" beside them, are seen in great numbers, as well in 
" the plain, as for a considerable distance up the 
" side of the hill : some of them were of large size, 
" many with inscriptions. At the top of this for- 
" midable pass, which was anciently commanded by 
" the city, standing at the foot of it, the road enters 
" an elevated level surrounded with mountains, and 
" proceeds along a winding valley amidst rocks and 
" precipices ^." There can be no question that the 
pass and ruins in question are those of Termessus. 
In addition to the ancient authorities already ad- 
duced, I would quote the commentary of Eustathius 
on Dion. Perieg. (v. 858.) and Steph. Byz. (v. Tep- 
fxia-aog. Hierocl. p. 680.) It is to be noticed, that at 
a late period the see of Termessus had united to it 
the churches of two other neighbouring places, called 
Jovia ('I(5/3/a) and Eudocia ; (Hierocl. loc. cit. where 
see the commentary of Wesseling >'.) We may now 
return to Livy's account of the march of Manlius. 
Quitting Pamphylia, we are not told in what direc- 
tion, but probably by a different route from that by 
Termessus, he encamped on the first day near the 



X Leake's Asia Minor, page epigraph is generally TEPMH2- 

133 — 135. lEON, sometimes with the dis- 

y The medals of Termessus tinctive epithet of MEIZONON. 

go down in the series of empe- Sestin. p. 96. 
rors as low as Severus. The 

u 3 



294 PISIDIA. 

Taurus rivei' Taurus, which must be either a branch of the 
Cestrus, or the Euiymedon ; the next he halted at a 
small place called Xyline-Come, which imi:)lies a vil- 
lage composed of wooden houses, and probably si- 
tuate in the chain of Taurus. This pass is jier- 

Sapordfe haps that which Polybius calls Saporda : that which 

ssitus* 

he names Climax, I conceive to be the defile of Ter- 
messus. (V. 72.) Proceeding from thence, the con- 
sul reached, after some days successive marching, 

Cormasa. the towu of Cormasa : this Polybius, relating the 
same events, calls Kvpf/.a^a. (XXII. 19.) We have 
some indication also of the situation of this place in 
the Table Itinerary, which places it on the road 
leading from Laodicea on the Lycus to Perga. The 
distance between the latter city and Cormasa is 
twelve miles, which, as Col. Leake justly remarks, 
cannot be correct, since it was several days' march 
from the Pamphylian frontier, according to Livy^ 
and Ptolemy has placed it in Pisidia : instead there- 
fore of twelve, it is probable we should read forty. 
The distance from Cormasa to Themisonium in Phry- 
gia is thirty-four miles, according to the Itinerary ; 
but this likewise I should imagine to be defective. 

Darsa. From Cormasa the Roman army proceeded to Darsa, 
the nearest town, which the inhabitants had deserted, 
leaving however behind abundant supplies of every 
kind. The fragments of Polybius omit the mention 
of this place, nor does it occur in any other writer, 
unless it be the Dyrzela of Ptolemy ; in Hierocles (p. 
674.) it is Zorzila, but the Notitiae write Zarzela. 
On quitting Darsa the Roman forces passed by some 
lakes, or marshes, when a dejmtation was received 
from the town of Lysinoe, the citizens of which ten- 

Lvsmoe. 

dered their submission to the general. In Poly- 



PISIDIA. 295 

bins we read that " Cnaeus (Manlius) having taken 
" the town of Cyrmasa, and a great booty, proceeded 
" forward : and as they were marching along the 
" lake, there arrived deputies from Lysinoe siirren- 
" dering themselves." This town is clearly the same 
ais the Lysinia of Ptolemy, v/hich that geographer 
places to the north of Cormasa. The inhabitants 
were perhaps the Lasonii (Alysonii var. r.) of 
Herodotus. (III. 90. VII. 77.) The best clue 
to the discovery of its site would be furnished by 
that of the lake near which it stood. Col. Leake 
supposes it to be that of JSourdoiir, but this lay be- 
yond Sagalassus, which, as we shall see, the Roman 
army had not yet passed. I should rather imagine 
that it was the lake of Igridi, or Egreder, a very 
extensive bason, with islands, from which issues the 
river Duden. It appears to have been called Acrio- Acrioteri 
teri in the middle ages ^, a name from which Egre- 
der seems derived by corruption. This broad lake is 
probably alluded to in a passage already quoted from 
the poet Choerilus, and being well known generally 
as the Pisidian lake, would require no more definite 
appellation from Polybius, whom Livy closely copies. 

The army next entered on the territory of Saga- Sagalassus. 
lassus, which Livy describes " as fertile, and abound- 
" ing in every species of produce. The Pisidians 
" inhabit it, by far the most warlike people of 
" that country ; a circumstance which adds to their 
" spirit, in conjunction with the fertility of the 
" soil, and the thickness of the population, and the 
" strength of their town, in regard to which few 
" cities could be compared to it." This account 

z Le Martiniere erroneously Tattsea Palus, under the Mord 
supposes it, on the authority of Acrioteri. 
Delisle, to be the same as tlie 

u 4 



296 PISIDIA. 

agrees remarkably with what Arrian rejiorts of the 
same town ; he informs us that Alexander, after 
traversing the defiles of Termessus, marched on to 
Sagalassus. " This too," says he, " was no small 
" city. The Pisidians likewise inhabited it, and 
" whereas all the Pisidians are a warlike people, 
" these appeared to be the most warlike part of 
" them. On this occasion they had occupied a hill 
" in advance of their town, because it did not appear 
" less capable of defence than the wall, and awaited 
" the enemy." Alexander, however, after a sharp 
conflict, drove the Sagalassians from their position, 
and took their town by assault ; after which, the 
rest of Pisidia submitted to his arms. (I. 28.) 
The Roman general did not attack the city, but by 
ravaging their territory compelled the Sagalassians 
to come to terms. They submitted to a contribution 
of fifty talents, 20,000 medimni of wheat, and the 
same quantity of barley. Strabo states also that 
Sagalassus was one of the chief towns of Pisidia, 
and that after passing under the dominion of Amyn- 
tas, tetrarch of Lycaonia and Galatia, it was annexed 
to the Roman province ; he adds, that it was only 
one day's march from Apamea. (XII. p. 56'9.) It 
appears, however, from Arrian, that Alexander was 
five days on the road between the same towns, but 
this may be reckoned from his first arrival before 
Sagalassus, and he seems to have halted some time 
after the capture of the town to receive the submis- 
sion of the surrounding fortresses. Sagalassus is fur- 
ther noticed by Pliny, (V. 24.) Ptolemy, (p. 121.) Hie- 
rocles, (p. 673.) the Ecclesiastical Notices, and Acts 
of Councils, which prove it to have been a bishop- 
rick. The name was sometimes written Selgessus, 



PISIDIA. 297 

as we are told by Strabo. (loc. cit. Cf. Steph. Byz. 

Lucas, the celebrated traveller, had already re- 
ported the existence of considerable ruins at Agla- 
soun, a small place south of the Turkish town of 
Isharteh, and the affinity of names naturally led to 
the idea that these remains occupied the site of 
Sagalassus. This has since been satisfactorily con- 
firmed by the researches of Mr. Arundell. He de- 
scribes them as situate on the long terrace of a lofty 
mountain, rising above the village of Aglasomi, and 
consisting chiefly of massy walls, heaps of sculp- 
tured stones, and innumerable sepulchral vaults in 
the almost perpendicular side of the mountain. A 
little lower down the terrace are the considerable 
remains of a building, and a large paved oblong 
area, full of fluted columns, pedestals, &c. about 
240 feet long ; a portico, nearly 300 feet long, and 
twenty-seven wide ; and beyond this, some magni- 
ficent remains either of a temple or gymnasium. 
Above these rises a steep hill, with a few remains 
on the top, which was probably the Acropolis. There 
is also a large theatre in a fine state of preservation. 
Several inscriptions, with the words EAFAAASIEON 
nOAIS, left no doubt as to the identity of these no- 
ble ruins ^. Here our examination of the march of 
Cn. Manlius through Pisidia terminates, since he 
afterwards quits that province, and enters Phrygia. 
Of Alexander's route, beyond Sagalassus, we learn 
thus much from Arrian : " that he proceeded towards 
" Phrygia by the lake Ascania, in which salt crystal- 
" lizes naturally, nor do the inhabitants use any 

•> A Visit to the Seven Churches of Asia, &c. p. 132 — 143. 



298 PISIDIA. 

" other." (I. 29-) Pliny also alludes to the same lake, 
and its natural history. (XXXI. 10.) It is doubtless 
the modern lake oiBourdou}\ which exhibits the same 
phenomenon^. Before we quit the neighbourhood 
of Sagalassus, it may be as well to mention certain 
places, respecting which there is some uncertainty 
whether they belong to Pisidia, properly so called, 

Sre'cmo!'or to Milyas. Of these, Cressopolis, or Cretopolis, is 

polls. assigned by Polybius, in his account of the ope- 
rations of Garsyeris, to the latter district. That 
general having entered Milyas, is said to have en- 
camped near the town of the Cretans, (K^t^tcSv Wa^v,) 
close to the passes leading into Pamphylia, and at 
that time occupied by the Belgians. (V. 72.) Ptolemy, 
who writes the name Cressopolis, enumerates it 
among the towns of Cabalia, which in his system 
seems to include Milyas. (p. 123.) I should be dis- 
posed to identify this town with some ancient re- 
mains near BnttakU, between Termessus and Bour- 
"^ ^' dour, and south-west of Sagalassus. Pogla, also as- 
signed to Cabalia by Ptolemy, is corruptly written 
Socla, (Sw/.Aa,) by Hierocles, who gives it to Pam- 
phylia. (p. 680.) It was a small place at that time, 
as the word A^/xo^ prefixed to the name implies. It 
nevertheless had an episcopal church'', and some of 
its coins are yet extant '•. 

ivienede- Menedemiuui, which follows in Ptolemv's list of 
the Cabalian towns, is also assigned by Hierocles to 
Pami)hylia, (p. 680,) where Wesseling very properly 

Uranopo- corrects Avy^aoy Meve^evea to Meve^iy/x/ov. Uranopolis, 
which the Alexandrian geographer likewise ascribes 

'' Anindell's Visit, &c. Deciiis, epigraph, norAEflN. 

<• Geogr. Sacr. p. G72. Sestini, p. 94. 

^ Of the reigns of Geta and 



PISIDIA. 299 

to Cabalia, is unknown to other authorities. Arias- Ariassus, 
sus is probably the same with Aarassus, or Arassus, sus! ' ^^^^' 
one of the Pisidian cities mentioned by Strabo, from 
Artemidorus; (XII. p. 570.) but Hierocles also writes 
Ariassus under the head of PamjDhylia, (p. 681.) so 
do the Acts of Councils and medallic monuments'". 
Corbasa, as it is written in Ptolemy and the eccle- Corbasa. 
siastical records, is the Colbasa of Hierocles. (p. 681.) 
AVe find also, from Ptolemy, that there was a town 
named Milyas, and his authority derives support 3ii]yas 
from coins ^; and Hierocles, (p. 680.) who has a 
place called XcopiofxvXia^iKa, in Pamphylia. 

The Byzantine historians speak of a to\\Ti, named SozopoHs. 
Sozopolis, which must have been situate on the bor- 
ders of Pisidia and Pamphylia. Nicetas reports, that 
it was taken from the Turks by JolinComnenus,(Ann. 
p. 9.) but it was retaken by them. (Ann. p. 169- B.) 
Cinnamus says it was near the lake Pasgusa. (p. 13.) 
Hierocles assigns it to Pisidia ; (p. 672.) and from 
some ecclesiastical documents quoted by Wesseling, 
it appears to have been at no great distance from 
Antioch of Pisidia. (Evagr. Hist. Eccl. III. 33. Act. 
Zosim. tom. III. Jul.) Lucas observed some remains 
of antiquity at a site called Souxoif, south of Agla- 
soim and Isbarteh, on the road to Adalia, which 
probably belong to this town. 

We have now to enter upon that part of Pisidia 
which lies to the east, and north of Sagalassus. At 
the distance of thirty stadia from that city, in a 
northerly direction, was the important fortress of 
Cremna, which, as Strabo reports, had long beencrenma. 

e Seslin, p. 93. Imperatcrii f Milyas. Autonomi. Epig. 

lantuni Sept. Severi, &c. Epi- MI. Regii Alexandri Magni, 
graphe, APIA22EnN. p. 95. 



300 PISIDIA. 

looked upon as impregnable ; but it was at length 
taken by the tetrarch Aniyntas, with some other 
places, in his wars against the Pisidians. This port 
was considered afterwards by the Romans to be of 
such military consequence, that they established a 
colony there. (XII. p. 569. Cf. Ptol. p. 124. Hie- 
rocl. p. 681. Zozim. I, c. 60°.) It is generally sup- 
jjosed that this town is represented by the modern 
fort of KehrinaTL, occupying a commanding situation 
between Isharteh and the lake Egreder. Isharteh, 
which is the cajiital of the government of Hamecl, 
the modern name for Pisidia, has taken the place 

Baris. probably of Baris, which Ptolemy assigns to Phry- 
gian Pisidia. (p. 123.) Hierocles and the episcopal 
records also ascribe it to Pisidia^. A modern tra- 
veller reports the existence of some ruins in and 
near IsharteJiK 

Between Cremna and Sagalassus was another 

Sandaiium. fortress, named Sandalium, which Amyntas did not 
attempt to conquer. (Strab. loc. cit. Steph. Byz. v. 

Oroanda. YjavlaKiov^.) The Oroandenses were a people of Pi- 
sidia, occupying a considerable tract of country, and 
not unfrequently mentioned in history. Though 
their town Oroanda did not lie ajDparently on the 
route followed by Manlius, they were summoned to 
submit to the Roman power ; and their deputation 
followed the army to its camp on the borders of 
Galatia. The sum of 200 talents imposed on them 
as a contribution proves the wealth and consequence 



g The coins of Cremna are Sevcri Alexanclri. Epigraplie, 

all imperial. The epigraph is BAPHNQN. p. 95, 
COL.CRE.or CREMNA. Ses- i Arundell's Visit, &c. p. 13 i . 

tin. p. 95. ^ Sandalium. Autononius u- 

•» Baris. Imperatorius unicus nicus. Epigraphe, iAMAAAI. 



PISIDIA. 301 

of the place. They were employed afterwards as 
spies, to report the strength and position of the 
Gallogr^cian armies. (Liv. XXXVIII. 18,19.) This 
service did not, however, exempt them from the pay- 
ment of the sum at which they had been taxed. 
(XXXVIII. 37—39.) It is remarkable that Strabo 
should have made no mention of Oroanda, but it is 
noticed by Pliny as one of the principal cities of 
Pisidia ; (V. 24.) and elsewhere he speaks of the 
Oroandicus tractus, as a district of the same province, 
bordering on Galatia. He also connects it with part 
of Milyas and Baris ; (V. 42.) and if we have been 
right in identifying the latter place with Isharteh, 
this would fix Oroanda not far from the lake of 
Egrecle7', on the north side of it. Ptolemy stations 
the Oroandici between Isauria and Pisidia, which 
would remove them rather more to the south. D'An- 
ville imagined that there was some similarity be- 
tween the name of Oroanda and that of Hawircm, 
a fortress on the northern side of lake Egreder, a 
position which corresponds sufficiently with the data 
of ancient geography. 

At the north-eastern extremity of the province AmiocLia 
we must look for the site of the Pisidian Antioch, a '^ " 
city of considerable importance, and interesting from 
its historical recollections, especially those connected 
with the labours of St. Paul in Asia Minor. We 
learn from Strabo that it was founded by a colony 
from Magnesia on the Meander ; this probably took 
place under the auspices of Antiochus, from whom it 
derived its name. On the defeat of that monarch it 
was annexed at first to the territory of Eumenes ; 
then to the principality of Amyntas, and on his 
death it reverted to the Roman people, who sent a 



302 PISIDIA. 

colony there, and made it the capital of a procon- 
sular government. We find attached to this city 
one of those singular pontifical offices of which we 
have so many instances in Asia Minor. The wor- 
ship of Men Arcaeus, with which this priesthood was 
connected, had probably been derived from the Mag- 
nesians : it was apparently on a great scale, and ex- 
tensive estates and numerous slaves were annexed 
to the service of the temf)le, but the whole was abo- 
lished on the death of Amyntas. (Strab. XII. p. 577. 
Cf. XII. p. 557.) The circumstances connected with 
the visit of St. Paul and Barnabas to Antioch of 
Pisidia are related in the 13th chapter of the Acts. 
We there learn that the apostle and his companion had 
proceeded in the first instance to Perga from Cyprus, 
and from thence had reached Antioch of Pisidia, 
where they entered into a synagogue on the sabbath- 
day ; and when they had sat down, the rulers of the 
synagogue, probably judging from their appearance 
that they were strangers, and qualified to give in- 
struction to the people, invited them to address the 
assembly. Upon this Paul stood up, and delivered 
a short but most admirably comprehensive discourse, 
setting forth the promises made to the patriarchs, 
and their accomplishment in our Saviour's person ; 
his crucifixion, passion, and resurrection ; and, fi- 
nally, explaining the great doctrine of the atone- 
ment, and warning them of the danger of rejecting 
the proffered salvation. Such was the effect of this 
eloquent address, that the Gentiles besought the apo- 
stle that the same doctrine might be preached to 
them on the following sabbath. On this occasion it 
is said, '* that almost the M'hole city came together 
" to hear the word of God. But when the Jews 



PISIDIA. 303 

" saw the multitudes, they were filled with envy, 
" and spake against those things which were spoken 
" by Paul, contradicting and blaspheming. Then 
" Paul and Barnabas waxed bold, and said. It was 
" necessary that the word of God should first have 
" been spoken to you : but seeing ye put it from 
" you, and judge yourselves unworthy of everlasting 
" life, lo, we turn to the Gentiles." The effect of this 
declaration was very great, for the Gentiles flocked 
to the preaching of the apostles. " And the word 
" of the Lord was published throughout all the re- 
" gion. But the Jews stirred up the devout and 
" honourable women, and the chief men of the city, 
" and raised persecution against Paul and Barnabas, 
" and expelled them out of their coasts. But they 
" shook off the dust of their feet against them, and 
" came unto Iconium." It is evident from the whole 
narrative that Antioch was then a large and flou- 
rishing town, and the resort of a great many Jews. 
The sacred historian informs us, that St. Paul and 
his companion returned again thither on quitting 
Lycaonia, and passed through Pisidia, confirming 
the disciples, and appointing elders in every church. 
(XIV. 21.) In Pliny's time we find Antioch digni- 
fied with the title of Colonia Csesarea, (V. 24.) which 
is confirmed by the existing coins ; these afford rea- 
sons for supposing that it dates from the reign of 
Tiberius ^. Antioch seems originally to have been 
included in that part of Phrygia named Parorea, as 
we collect from Strabo, who terms it Antioch " near 



k Antiochia. Epigraplie, dium. COL. C^S. ANTIOCH. 

ANTIOC. vel ANTIOCH. et S. R. in muitis, et constans, 

COL. ANT. Imperatorii co- Cultus Dei Mensis. MEN, 

piosi a Tiberio usque ad Clau- MENSIS. Sestin. p. 95. 



304 PISIDIA. 

" Pisidia," rather than " of Pisidia." The geographer, 
describing the district above-mentioned, says, " Phry- 
" gia Parorea stretches from east to west, following 
*' the direction of a chain of mountains, on each side 
" of which we find an extensive plain, with a city. 
" On the north is situate Philomelium ; on the other, 
" or south side, lies Antioch, said to be near to Pisi- 
*' dia ; the former is in the plain, the latter on a 
" hill." (XII. p. 577.) This passage in Strabo, and 
the notation of the Table Itinerary, are the only 
data we have for fixing the locality of this once flou- 
rishing town, and yet these have not been sufficient 
to lead to the discovery of its ruins. D'Anville 
looked upon Ak-cher as the representative of An- 
tioch, but this would be placing that town on the 
great road from Apamea to Iconium, which does not 
appear to have been the case. According to the 
Table, it lay on a cross communication between Apa- 
mea and Side in Pamjihylia ; the stages being, from 
Apamea to Apollonia, twenty-four miles ; to Antioch 
in Pisidia, forty-five ; to Side, eighty. The same 
road appears to fall in with the great route above- 
mentioned at Iconium, distant from Antioch sixty 
miles. Antioch would thus seem to form a triangle 
with Iconium and Philomelium ; and if we have been 
right in placing Apamea-Cibotus at JDinglare, we 
must measure sixty-nine miles from thence towards 
Iconium, taking care to keep south of Philomelium 
This perhaps will lead to the discovery of this an- 
cient site ; but until this part of Asia is carefully ex- 
l)lored, we must remain ignorant of the precise po- 
sition it occupied. I see that in General Lapie's 
map it is fixed at a spot called Fermak, about twelve 
juiles to the west of Ak-cher, and on a little river 



PISIDIA. 305 

which falls into the lake called Aiou-Gheul in the 
same map. If there are any considerable ruins at 
Fei'mak, the localities would agree sufficiently well 
in point of distance, except that this spot is more 
than sixty miles from Iconium ; but it is certain 
that we cannot place much reliance on the state- 
ments of the Table Itinerary. Antioch would seem 
from its coins, to have been situated near a small 
stream called Anteus, which would agree with the 
Camua of General Lapie. 

It appears from Hierocles and the ecclesiastical 
records that Antioch was the metropolitan see of Pi- 
sidia till a late period. Mention, I think, is made 
of it in Cedrenus in the reign of Basilius. (p. 688.) 
We learn from Ulpian that the colonial rights of 
Antioch were of the class denominated jus Italicum. 
(Dig. Tit. XV. de Cens.) In this part of Pisidia 
were a few other towns, which at an earlier period 
belonged to Phrygia Parorea, and in Pliny's time 
had been annexed to Lycaonia, as he expresses it, 
" in Asiaticam jurisdictionem versa ;" he then enu- 
merates the Philomelienses, Tymbriani, Leucolithi, 
Pelteni, Tyrienses. (V. 24.) The former of these 
have been already discussed under the head of Phry- 
gia. The Tymbriani are probably the people ofTym. 

. . 11 -xr l>rium, sive 

Tymbrium, or I ymbrias, a place adverted to by Xe- Tymbrias. 
nophon in the Anabasis. He states that it lay on 
Cyrus's route to Iconium, and that near it was to be 
seen the fountain of Midas, where that king caught 
the satyr, (meaning Silenus,) after intoxicating him 
with wine. (I. 2. 13.) The Acts of Councils, and 
other ecclesiastical records, number Timbrias among 
the episcopal sees of Pisidia, and there is little doiibt 
vol.. II. X 



306 



PISIDIA. 



that we ought to adopt Wesseling's emendation of 
Strabo, and read Te[Mf3ptdoa for Bpia^a \ Steph. Byz. 
writes the name Tembriiim ; Charax, Tymbrium ; 
Menander, Tembricmn. (v. TeixfSpiov.) This town 
must be sought for near IsaMi, south of Bulwudim. 

Tyriaeiim. Tyriseuui, another Pisidian town on this border, 
was ten parasangs, and two days' march nearer to 
Iconium. Cyrus halted here three days, and re- 
viewed his troops : whence it appears that it was si- 
tuated in a plain, probably near the modern Ak- 
sJier. (Anab. I. 2. 13.) We have the authority of 
Artemidorus, quoted by Strabo, for knowing that 
Tyriaeum was on the great Phrygian road between 
Philomelium and Laodicea Combusta. The above- 
mentioned geographer reckoned 500 stadia, or ra- 
ther better, from Holmi, the first point in the Paro- 
rea to Tyriaeum, beyond which Lycaonia commenced. 
(XIV. p. 663.) We see, however, that Pliny in- 
cludes the latter town in Pisidia, as does also Hie- 
rocles. (p. 672.) 

Ami)iada, The followiug Pisidiau towns seem to have been 
situate on the same frontier. Amblada, which pro- 
duced a sort of wine useful for medicinal purposes. 
(Strab. XII. p. 570. Cf. Steph. Byz. v. "A/x/3Aa^a '".) 

Adada, Adada, named by Artemidorus, (ap. Strab. loc. cit.) 
Ptolemy, (p. 124.) and Hierocles, (p. 674.") 

Conana. Couaua is erroneously written Comana in Pto- 
lemy, (p. 124.) and Hierocles, (p. 680.) as we are 

1 Note to Hierocles, p. 674. Comniodiis,and Caracalla. Epi- 

Timbrias. Imperatorius unicus graph, AMBAAAEHN. Sestini, 

Hadriani. Epigraphe,TIMBPIA- p. 94. 
AEfiN. p. 127. n Coins of Valerian and Gal- 

I" There are imperial coins lienus, AAAAEON. p. 94. 
of Amblada, of M. Aurelius, 



PISIDIA. 307 

authorized to infer from the existing coins of this 
town*^, Prostanna is acknowledged by Ptolemy, Prostanna. 
(p. 124.) and the Acts of Councils. It has also a 
place in numismatic geography i\ Seleucia, surnamed Seieuda. 
Sidera, as appears from Hierocles (p. 673.) and the ^'^''^'^^" 
Notitiae, is assigned bj^ Ptolemy to Phrygian Pi- 
sidia. (p. 123.^) Ptolemy notices in the same dis- 
trict, Obasa, which is more correctly written Olbasa, oibaya. 
and affords proofs of having once been a Roman 
colony^. Dyrzela, we have supposed to be the Darsa Dyrzeia. 
of Livy. Orbanassa and Talbenda are unknown toOrbanassa. 

- Talbenda. 

other geographers. 

^Ve have yet to speak of that southernmost por- 
tion of Pisidia which follows the range of Taurus 
from Termessus to the confines of Isauria, and con- 
sequently borders on Pamphylia. This tract of 
country contained the most celebrated and powerful 
city of the whole country, I mean Selge, which Seige. 
boasted of a Grecian origin ; having first been 
founded, as it is reported by Calchas, and subse- 
quently having received a colony of Lacedaemonians. 
Whatever doubts may arise as to the former of these 
events, we cannot reasonably refuse to receive the 
latter, since it is spoken of as an acknowledged fact 
by authors of the highest credit, such as Polybius 
and Strabo. 

o Conane. Autonomus uni- POC. 
cus. Epigraphe, KONANEQN. 'i The name of KAATAICCE- 

ImperatoriiM. Aurelii,&c. Ses- AETKEON would lead to the 

tin. p. 95. idea that it had been restored 

P Prostanna. Autonomus u- by Claudius. Sestin. p. 96. 
nicus. Epigraphe, nOAIC. et in ^ Olbasa. Imperat. Msesse. 

R. nPOCTANNEON. Impera- Epigraphe, COL. JUL. AVG. 

torii cum capite CI. Gothici. OLBASEN. GordianiPii,COL. 

Epigr. nPOCTANNEflN. Men- OLBA. 
tio situs a Monte Viaro. OTIA- 

X 2 



308 PISIDIA. 

Tspfjucra-oc \vp(5r]TS, ku) T/V eTioXlacruTQ Kahg 

DioNYs. Perieg. 858. 

(Cf. Eustath. ad loc. Stepli. Byz. v. SeAy^?.) From 
the superiority of its laws and government, and the 
bravery of its citizens, Selge soon sm'passed all the 
neighbouring towns in population and power ; the 
number of its inhabitants being at one time, as 
Strabo reports, not less than 20,000. The nature of 
the country in which it was situate, greatly con- 
tributed also to the preservation of its independence. 
It was difficult of access, being surrounded by preci- 
pices and beds of torrents, M^hich joined the Cestrus 
and the Eurymedon, and required bridges to make 
them passable. Owing to these circumstances, the 
Belgians were never subject to foreign sway, but 
remained in the quiet enjoyment of their liberty. 
When Alexander traversed Pisidia, they dejmted an 
embassy to that monarch, and conciliated his favour 
and friendship. Arrian, who relates this circum- 
stance, reports that their city was large, and the 
people brave and warlike ; he adds, that they were 
at enmity with the Telmissians. (I. 28.) Polybius 
has made us acquainted with another interesting, 
but subsequent period, in the history of Selge. At 
the time when Achaeus had subjected the greatest 
portion of Asia Minor, and had attained to a degree 
of power enjoyed by no sovereign of that country 
since the time of Croesus, we learn from that histo- 
rian that the people of Pednelissus, a Pisidian town, 
on the Pampliylian frontier, were besieged by the 
Selgians. Despairing of resisting their powerful ad- 
versaries, the Pednelissians earnestly besought A- 



PISIDIA. 309 

chseus to send them succours. The ambitious monarch 
eagerly seized this opportunity of extending his con- 
quests, and immediately despatched a force of 6000 
foot and 500 horse, under the command of Garsye- 
ris, to their aid. The Belgians, having learnt that 
this succour was approaching, were not slow in 
occupying the different passes which led into their 
country, and destroying the roads and approaches. 
Garsyeris having advanced as far as Cretopolis, in 
Milyas, found his further progress obstructed by 
these measures ; he therefore had recourse to strata- 
gem, in the hope of deceiving the enemy. He with- 
drew his forces to the rear of the passes, and ap- 
peared to be in full retreat. The Belgians, deceived 
by this feint, abandoned the strong posts they had 
seized, and retired to their city. No sooner had 
they retired, than the general of Achaeus marched 
rapidly forward, passed the mountains without oppo- 
sition, and descended upon Perga, leaving an officer 
named Phayllus, to guard the defiles. He then com- 
menced negotiations with the principal towns of 
Pisidia and Pamphylia, for the purpose of increas- 
ing his army, which was too small to effect the con- 
quest of Selge. The Belgians having discovered 
their error, attempted to dislodge Phayllus from the 
passes ; but they were beaten back with loss, and 
forced to desist from the attempt. They neverthe- 
less persevered in the siege of Pednelissus, and 
pressed their attacks with greater vigour. Garsyeris 
having now succeeded in collecting a large force, 
advanced toward that town, and jntched his camp 
at some distance from it, in the hope of compelling 
the enemy to raise the siege. The Belgians, how- 
ever, not only intercepted a convoy, which lie at- 

X 3 



310 PISIDIA. 

teini)ted to introduce into the town, but proceeded 
to assault the camp of Garsyeris, Success seemed 
for a time to favour their daring enterprise, till at 
length Garsyeris leading out the cavalry, charged 
them in the rear, whilst the infantry, relieved by 
this manoeuvre, resumed the offensive in front. The 
Pednelissians now seized this opportunity to make a 
sally, and assailed the lines of the enemy, who, thus 
attacked on every side, gave way at all points, and 
fled in disorder to Selge. Garsyeris, following up 
his victory, advanced to that city, and prepared to 
invest it. The Belgians, greatly dejected by their 
late defeat, sent one of their principal citizens, 
named Logbasis, in whom they placed great con- 
fidence, to negociate with that general. Logbasis, 
however, betraying the trust reposed in him by his 
countrymen, concerted measiu'es with Garsyeris for 
putting Achaeus, who was daily expected, in pos- 
session of the city. 

On the day appointed, Logbasis and his friends 
and relatives armed themselves in his house, ready 
to cooperate with the enemy. Garsyeris led his 
troops against the Cesbedium, (Kfcr/Se^/cv,) or temple 
of Jupiter, which was the Acropolis ; and Achaeus 
himself, with the remainder, advanced towards the 
city. A shepherd, however, having beheld the troops 
in motion, brought the news to the senate, then 
assembled. The Belgians, alarmed at this intelli- 
gence, ran speedily to occupy the Cesbedium and 
other posts ; some also proceeded to the house of 
Logbasis, and discovering the treason he was plan- 
ning, destroyed him, together with his family and 
partisans. After this, they granted liberty to all 
their slaves, and prepared to defend their walls. 



PISIDIA. 311 

Garsyeris seeing the citadel guarded, did not think 
it prudent to hazard an attack. But AchaeuSj at- 
tempting to make himself master of the gates, was 
beaten back with loss. The Belgians, however, 
ultimately despairing of being able to resist his 
power, sent deputies to sue for peace, which was 
granted to them on the following conditions : they 
agreed to pay immediately 400 talents, to restore 
the prisoners they had taken from the Pednelissians, 
and, after a certain time, to pay 300 talents in addi- 
tion. The Belgians then, says the historian, having 
been thus brought into danger by the faithlessness 
of Logbasis, through their own courage, both pre- 
served their country, and did not disgrace their 
liberty, nor the affinity which subsisted between 
them and the Lacedaemonians. (V. 72 — 77-) 

The territory of Selge, as Strabo reports, though 
mountainous, was of an excellent quality, and very 
productive ; it yielded abundance of oil and wine, 
and afforded pasturage for great numbers of cattle. 
The forests too supplied a great variety of timber 
trees ; of these, the storax was particularly valua- 
ble, from its yielding a strong perfume. Selge was 
also noted for an ointment prepared from the iris 
root. (Strab. XII. p. 570, 571. Plin. XXI. 7. XV. 
7. XXIII. 4.) It is somewhat remarkable that Pliny 
should have omitted all mention of Selge in his geo- 
graphy, for we know, from its coins, that it still 
flourished in the time of Hadrian ^ It appears also 
in the System of Ptolemy and the Synecdemus of 

s Selge. Autonomi. Epigr. daemoniis in num. Decii, CEA- 
SE, SEA. SEAFEflN. Impera- TEfiN AAKEAAIMONION OMO- 
torii ab Hadriano usque ad Sa- NOIA, 
loninam. Concordia cum Lace- 

X 4 



312 ■ PISIDIA. 

Hierocles ; (p. 681.) but from the term noXixjy) ap- 
plied to it by Zosimus, (V. 15.) it had evidently 
much fallen off from its pristine state. The ruins of 
this once flourishing city are yet undiscovered, for 
no traveller has explored these solitary and pathless 
wilds of Taurus. We know generally from Strabo 
that it was situate near the sources of the Euryme- 
don and Cestrus ; and it is possible that its ruins 
may be those which Captain Beaufort heard of at 
Almja; they were described " as extensive remains 
" of an ancient Greek city, with many temples, about 
" fifteen hours distance to the north ward ^" 

Pedneiis- Pednelissus, which has already been brought under 
our notice in the history of Selge, is placed by Strabo 
near the Eurymedon, above Aspendus. (XIV. p. 
667.) He there seems to ascribe it to Pamphylia, 
but he distinctly enumerates it elsewhere in the list 
of Pisidian towns, borrowed from Artemidorus. (XII. 
p. 570. Cf. Stei)h. Byz. v. Yi^lvi>.irT(jog.) Ptolemy also 
attaches it to Pisidia, (p. 124,) but Hierocles, who 
gives great extension to Pamphylia, brings it, to- 
gether with Selge, under that province, (p. 681.) 
Pednelissus" is also known from the ecclesiastical 
annals, and its coins ^. To the east of Selge, and to- 

Etenna. wards the confines of Cilicia and Isauria, were the 
Etennians, or, as Strabo writes the name, the Caten- 
nians ; (Karewerf, XII. p. 570.) the former nomen- 
clature is that of Polybius, ('Erei/verf) and seems jire- 
ferable, being confirmed by the Ecclesiastical No- 
tices. (V. 73.) He states, that they inhabited a 

t Karamnnia, p. I G8. x Imperatorius aniens Maxi- 

" Where, instead of Dao-T'^- mi Ceesaris. Epigr. ITEANH- 

Xripia-aoi, we ought to read, with AISZEflN. Sest. p. 96. 

^Vesseling, IleSv/jXio-ao'^. 



PISIDIA. 313 

mountainous tract of Pisidia, above Side, and sent 
8000 heavy armed soldiers to reinforce the army of 
Garsyeris ; a fact which demonstrates that they were 
a numerous and warlike people. I am not aware, 
however, that any other author has noticed them, 
unless the name of their city is disguised in Hiero- 
cles under that of Atmenia-"^. We must look in the 
same canton for Lyrbe, a town of some note appa-Lyrbe. 
rently, since it is mentioned by Dionysius the poet, 
(v. 858.) and is known from its coins to have flou- 
rished in the reign of Alexander Severus>'. It is 
also ranked among the episcopal towns of Pamjihy- 
lia by the Not. Eccles., and there is little doubt that 
it should be identified with the Lyrope of Ptolemy, 
though he places that town in Cilicia Trachea, (p. 
124.) Vinzela, of the same geographer, is clearly vinzeia. 
the Unzela of the Council of Nicsea ^. Casa and CoJo- Casa. 
brassus, which he likewise attributes to Cilicia Tra-sus. 
chea, are assigned to Pamphylia by the ecclesiastical 
records ^ 

Hierocles enables us to add the following to our 
list of Pisidian towns: (p. 672, 673.) Neapolis andNeapoHs. 
Limense, which occur likewise in the Sacred Geo-Limense. 
graphy ; Sabinae, Sinethandus, or Siniandus, Ha-Sabinae. 

1 • T m ^ 11 Siiiethau- 

drianopolis, i ymandrus ; the three last are also tius, sive 
known to the councils. Eudoxiopolis, Justiniano- Hadriano-' 
polls, and Mallus ; these also find a place in the No-Tyman- 
tices. Tityassus occurs in the list of towns adduced i:udoxio- 
by Strabo from Arternidorus, but it is corruptly justinia- 

iiopolis. 
„ rn, , _, . , Titvassus. 

^ Ihere are autonomous and Epigr. ATPBEITflN. Sest. p. 96. 

imperial coins of Elenna. Epig. ^ Geogr. Sacr. p. 251. 

ET. ETEN. ETENNEQN. Sestin. a Geogr. Sacr. p. 249. Some 

p. 93. imperial coins, inscribed KA2A- 

y Lyrbe imperat. ab Alex. TON, exist in a few collections. 

Severo usque ad Saloninam. Sestin. p. 93. 



314 PISIOIA. 

written, as Wesseling has observed, Pityassus. The 
reading Tityassus is confiriried by Hierocles, the 

Ta/bassug. KccJesiastical Notices, and coirjs'', ^'arbassiis, also 
in Strabo's list, is unknown to the other geographi- 
cal authorities. Stephanus places, in the same i)ro- 

ThyessMs, viuce, Thyessus; (v. Ht/fcrcrof.) Narnialis, mentioned 

J. ",!,',"** '"■ ajjparently by Ephorus; (v. Nap/xaA/j.) Pera ; (v. 

Pydes m\jii \ l-^pa.) Pydes, a town and river; (v. i\v>jrjg.) Tlos, 
nanjed like the Lycian city; (v. TAciJf.) I^rus, perhaj)8 
the same as Tyriaeum; (v. Tvpog.) 

^ Tityassus. Imperal(»rii Iladriatii, Aiitoniiii I'ii, GeUe. Epi- 
graphe, T1TTA22E(1N. .Sestiui, p. [)6. 



SECTION XIII. 

C I L I C I A. 



Origin and history of the Cilicians — Boundaries and division of 
the province into Trachea, or Aspera, and Campestris — Chain 
of Taurus and mountain passes — Topography. 

The people whom the Greeks called Cilicians, (K/- 
/uK(i,) were, in ancient times, termed H}^)achaei, as 
Herodotus reports. The historian does not account 
for the origin of the name, which has somewhat of 
a Grecian air about it ; but he adds, that the appel- 
lation of Cilicians was subsequently derived from 
Cilix, the son of Agenor. a Phoenician. (VII. 91.) 
This passage proves, at least, that there was a gene- 
ral notion among the Greeks that this j>eople were 
an oflset of the Syrian or Phoenician family : and it 
must be admitted that this opinion is so probable in 
itself, from the contisruitv of the two nations, that it 
might be received on even less creditable testimony 
than that of the father of history. I am not aware 
that any ancient author has positively told us that 
the lans:uao:e of the Cilicians was the same %vith that 
of the Phoenicians; but this is ver\' probable^; and at 
all events history has informed us that some of the 
most ancient and considerable towns of their couu- 
trv were founded bv the Assyrians and Phoenicians^. 
The Cilicians again were from the first a maritime 

* See Bochart. Geogr. Sacr. I. ch. 5. 

*~ Viz. Tarsus, .\uchiale, and Celenderis. , 



316 CILICIA. 

people, which strengthens the notion of their con- 
nexion with the Phoenicians, since these are allowed 
on all hands to have first apj^lied themselves to nau- 
tical affairs. There is another political feature which 
seems to distinguish the people, who are the subject 
of the present section, from the other tribes of Asia 
Minor, I mean that of being under the government 
of a king with an hereditary title. We find this 
prince, named Syennesis, in conjunction with Laby- 
netus, king of Babylon, acting as mediator between 
Alyattes and Cyaxares, who were at war, and finally 
reconciling them with each other. (Herod. I. 74.) 
Another Syennesis is mentioned as king of Cilicia, 
in the reign of Darius. (V. 118.) Another is said to 
have been an admiral in the fleet of Xerxes, but he 
is not styled king, and he is described as the son of 
Oromedon. {VII. 98.) But we have frequent men- 
tion of a Cilician king of this name in the early part 
of the Anabasis, whence we collect that at this time, 
Cilicia, though tributary to the Persian king, was 
nominally under the government of its native princes. 
The Syennesis, of whom Xenophon writes, had in- 
tended opposing Cyrus in his march against his 
brother, and for that purpose is said to have guarded 
for a time the defiles of Taurus; but his wife Epyaxa, 
seduced, it ai)pears, by the Persian prince, prevailed 
on him to abandon the cause of Artaxerxes, and not 
only to desist from opj)osing the progress of Cyrus, 
but even to supply him with sums of money for the 
payment of his troops. (I. 2.) It appears, indeed, 
that Cilicia, more especially that part which con- 
sisted of plains, was a wealthy country ; since we 
are informed by Herodotus, that it yielded to Darius 
a revenue of 500 talents, equal to that of Mysia and 



CILICIA. 317 

Lydia together, besides 360 white horses. (III. 90.) 
Xenophoii also describes it as a broad and beautiful 
plain, well watered, and abounding in wine, and all 
kinds of trees, and yielding barley, millet, and other 
grain. (Anab. I. 2.) and Ammianus, " Cilicia late 
" distenta dives omnibus bonis terra." (XIV. 8.) 
In a military point of view the importance of Cilicia 
was also very great, since it was surrounded by lofty 
mountains, presenting only one or two passes, and 
these easily secured by a small force against the 
largest armies. Had the Persians known how to 
defend these, the younger Cyrus would never have 
reached the Euphrates, nor would Alexander have 
been able to penetrate to the plains of Issus, which 
witnessed the overthrow of Darius. (Arrian. II. 4.) 
At a later period we learn from Cicero, during 
his command there, what importance the Romans 
attached to the province of Cilicia when it became 
necessary to cover Asia against the growing power 
of the Parthians. (Att. Ep. V. 20.) Again, the 
mountain barrier of Cilicia served to protect for a 
time the tottering empire of the east against the des- 
perate attacks of the Arabs and Turks ; and when 
these had been once fairly forced, the standard of 
the prophet was soon beheld from the walls of Con- 
stantinople. As a maritime country, too, Cilicia 
makes a considerable figure in history, since it fur- 
nished numerous fleets to the Persian monarchs, as 
well as the Syrian and Egyptian successors of Alex- 
ander. But it was more especially from the for- 
midable character of her piratical navy that Cilicia 
has obtained a name in the seafaring annals of an- 
tiquity. Some idea of the alarm inspired by these 
daring rovers can be formed from the language of 



318 CILICIA. 

Cicero, hov/ever exaggerated we may suppose it to 
be for a political purpose. " Quis enim toto mari 
" locus per hos annos, aut tarn firmum habuit prae- 
" sidium ut tutus esset ? aut tarn abditus fuit, ut la- 
" teret ? Quis navigavit, qui non se aut mortis aut 
" servitutis periculo committeret cum aut liieme, aut 
" referto praedonum mari navigaret ? — Quam provin- 
" ciam tenuistis a prsedonibus liberam per hosce an- 
" nos ? quod vectigal vobis tutum fuit ? quem so- 
" cium defendistis ? cui prsesidio, classibus vestris 
" fuistis ? quam multas existimatis insulas esse de- 
" sertas ? quam multas aut metu relictas aut a prae- 
" donibus captas urbes esse sociorum." (Pro Leg. 
Man. '^. II.) Allowing the picture to be somewhat 
highly coloured, there remains enough to shew that 
the evil was one of considerable magnitude, and which 
called forth great exertions on the part of the Ro- 
man government. The selection they made of Pom- 
pey, the greatest captain of the age, and the unusual 
powers intrusted to his management, prove this, and 
the statements of Appian and Plutarch are hardly 
behind that of Cicero. (Bell. Mithr. c. 92, &c. Plut. 
Mithr. et Pomj).) With his name, and the im- 
mense means placed at his disposal, he began by re- 
storing confidence to the alarmed provinces and al- 
lies, and peace to the seas around Italy. Afterwards 
he proceeded to Cilicia, and in less than fifty days he 
reduced the whole province, either by force of arms 
or by terror. More than 20,000 of the pirates are 
said to have fallen into his hands : these he settled 
in the interior, or removed to more distant coun- 
tries, and thus entirely purged the shores of Asia of 
these nests of robbers. In the course of the war the 
Romans are said to have captured .S78 ships and 



CILICIA. 319 

burnt 1300, conquered 120 towns and castles, and 
to have slain 10,000 of the enemy. (Appian. Mith- 
rid. Plut. Pomp. Strab. XIV. p. 665.) The boun- 
daries of Cilicia are easily defined, being marked by 
the great chain of Taurus, which, skirting round the 
shores of the Pamphylian gulf, stretches afterwards 
towards the interior with a wide sweep, and finally 
closes round again upon the coast of the Issicus Si- 
nus at the Syrian gates. Cilicia is thus enclosed on 
all sides by the sea and the mountain belt of Taurus, 
and Amanus, which divides it from Isauria, Lycaonia, 
Cappadocia, and Syria. But the whole of the space 
thus girt round does not consist of plain : the most 
western part is nearly all occupied by the broad ridge 
of Taurus itself, which leaves scarcely any room for 
level land towards the sea. The rugged nature of 
this canton obtained for it the name of Trachea and 
Tracheotis ; while the larger and more easterly por- 
tion of the country was denominated Cilicia Cam- 
pestris, from its champaign character. Each of these 
will be discussed separately in their natural order. 
And first then, 

CILICIA TRACHEA. 

This highland tract extended along the shore from 
Coracesium, the first fortress on the side of Pam- 
phylia, to the river and town of Lamus, comprising 
an extent of about 1300 stadia. (Strab. XIV. p. 669.) 
Inland it reached to the higher summits of the cen- 
tral chain, on the confines of Isauria, properly so 
called. I say properly, because when the fierce ban- 
ditti, which occupied that country, had rendered 
themselves so formidable to the weak sovereigns of 
Constantinople, they found, in the fastnesses of Cili- 



Slum 



320 CILICIA. 

cia Trachea, a congenial soil for extending their sys- 
tem of robbery and plunder ; and in process of time 
the name of Isam*ia prevailed over that which had 
been attached to it in the age of classic geography. 
The Turks give generally the appellation of Itshil 
to Cilicia, but they divide it also into two pachaliks, 
those of Selefkieh and Adana : the former nearly 
comprises that which was anciently called Trachea. 
Corace- Coracesium, the first place we come to on passing 
the boundary of Pamphylia, is described by Strabo 
as a strong and important fortress, situate on a 
steep rock. It was held for a long time by Diodo- 
tus Tryphon, a patrician who had revolted from the 
kings of Syria, and maintained himself against their 
power as an independent chieftain, till he was at 
length blockaded within one of his castles by Antio- 
chus, and driven to destroy himself, that he might 
not fall into the hands of that prince. This Try- 
phon was the first who, taking advantage of the in- 
dolence and want of energy of the Syrian monarchs, 
led the way for that system of piracy for which Ci- 
licia became afterwards so notorious. (XIV. p. 668. 
Appian. Syr. c. 67. Justin. XXXVI. 1.) Corace- 
sium was taken by Pompey in the piratical war. 
(Appian. Mithr.) It is also incidentally noticed by 
Livy. (XXXIII. 20. Cf. Scyl. p. 40. Plin. V. 27. 
Ptol. p. 124.) In the time of Hierocles it was under 
the Pamphylian jurisdiction, (p. 682. Cf. Act. Con- 
cil*^.) The site of Coracesium corresponds with that 
of Alaya, which Captain Beaufort describes as " a 
" promontory rising abruptly from a low sandy isth- 
" mus, separated from the mountains by a broad 

•" There are imperial coins of this place, with the legend KO- 
PAKHSION. Sestin. p. 100. 



CILICIA. 321 

" plain ; two of its sides are cliffs, of great height, 
" and absolutely perpendicular ; and the eastern side, 
" on which the town is placed, is so steep, that the 
" houses seem to rest on each other : in short it 
" forms a natural fortress, that might be rendered 
" impregnable ; and the numerous walls and towers 
" prove how anxiously its former possessors laboured 
" to make it so d." After Coracesium follows Sye- Syedra. 
dra, which occurs in Strabo. (loc. cit. Flor. IV. 2.) 

Cilicum per littora tutus 

Parva puppe fugit : sequitur pars magna senatus, 
Ad profugum collecta ducem ; parvisque Syedris, 
Quo portu mittitque rates recipitque Selinus. 

LucAN. Phars. VIII. 257. 
(Cf. Ptol. p. 124. Steph. Byz. v.^i^elpa.) Hierocles 
assigns it to Pamphylia. (p. 682.^) Captain Beau- 
fort observed some ruins on the summit of a steep 
hill, whose rugged ascent from the sea-shore deterred 
him from visiting it, which he thinks may be the 
site of Syedra f. Beyond, Strabo places Amaxia, Amaxia. 
seated on a hill, and having a small harbour, where 
the timber cut in the woods was brought down to 
be shipped. This was mostly cedar, and it grew so 
plentifully in the country that Mark Antony made 
over the whole of this district to Cleopatra for the 
construction of her fleet. (XIV. p. 669. Steph. Byz. 
V. 'Ajxa^ia.) Then follows Laertes, a castle seated on Laertes. 
a breast-shaped hill, and having below a small ha- 
ven. (Strab. XIV. p. 669.) The Stadiasmus reck- 
ons 100 stadia between Coracesium and this place, 
which was probably not close to the sea, since Pto- 

d Karamania, p. 1/2. of Nero, Hadrian, &c. Epigr. 

6 There are coins belonging STEAPEON. 
to this town, struck in the reigns '^ Karamania, p. 178. 

VOL. II. Y 



322 CILICIA. 

lemy fixes it somewhat inland, (p. 124. Steph. Byz. 
V. Aa^pTfjg.) Diogenes, the author of the Lives of 
the Philosophers, was a native of this town ^. The 
ruins of Laertes are possibly those observed by Cap- 
tain Beaufort after the remains assigned to Syedra, 
above a little peninsula of rock where there is a 
cove, and from its head a considerable extent of ruin 
stretching up the hill. Several inscriptions were 
found, but none indicating the name of the place ^. 
Seiinusfl. Souiewhat further the navigator discovers the 
Seiinus, moutli of the river Selenti, the Selinus of antiquity, 

postea Tra- 

janopoiis. with a towu and port of the same name. 1 he latter 
existed in the time of Scylax, (p. 40.) and is noticed 
by Livy, (XXXIIL 20.) but not by Strabo, who 
speaks only of the river. (Cf. Ptol. p. 124. Plin. V. 
27.) This town became afterwards memorable for 
the death of Trajan, which suddenly occurred there 
A. D. 117. (Xiphil. in Traj.) After this event Seli- 
nus assumed for a time the name of Trajanopolis, 
but its bishops were titular of Selinus some centu- 
ries later ^ (Hierocl. j). 709.) Basil of Seleucia, in 
a passage cited by Wesseling, (Vit. S. Thecl. II. 11.) 
describes it as reduced to a state of insignificance in 
his time, though once great and commercial. It 
was surrounded on almost every side by the sea, and 
seated on a precipitous rock, by which position it 
was rendered nearly impregnable. The following 
description of this ancient locality is su])plied by 

5 The ethnic Aaf/jT/cl? is used '' Karamania, p. 17S, 1 79. 

with reference to this author, ' The coins of Selinus are 

but Steph. Byz. gives only Aa- chiefly imperial. The ej)igraph 

e'^TJo^- and AafprT^o,;. We find, is commonly 2EAINOTIIO. more 

besides, Acceprlrrji; on coins : they rarely TPAIANO. 2EAIN0. Ses- 

areofthe reigns of Hadrian and tin. p. 103. 
the Antonines. Sestini, p. 101. 



CILICIA. 323 

Captain Beaufort. '* The hill and cape of Selhity 
" rises steeply from the plain on one side, and breaks 
" off into a chain of magnificent cliffs on the other ; 
" on the highest point of these are the ruins of a 
" castle, which commands the ascent of the hill in 
" eveiy direction, and looks perpendicularly down 
" on the sea. The whole of this hill w^as not in- 
" eluded in the ancient line of fortification ; the 
" western side was divided from the rest by a wall, 
" which, slanting from the castle on the summit to 
" the mouth of the river, was broken into numerous 
" flanks, and guarded by towers. Inside of the wall 
" there are many traces of houses, but on the out- 
" side, and between the foot of the hill and the ri- 
" ver, the remains of some large buildings are yet 
" standing." They appear to be a mausoleum, per- 
haps that of Trajan, an agora, a theatre, an ac{ue- 
duct, and some tombs ^\ 

The neighbouring tract of country bore the name 
of Selenitis, as appears from Ptolemy, and contained Seiemti 
some places of inferior note, such as lotape, men-iotLpe. 
tioned also by Pliny, (V. 27.) Hierocles, (p. 709.) 
and the Councils ^ Pliny names with it Arsinoe Arsinoe. 
and Dorlon ; the former of which is known also to Dorion. 
Ptolemy. (Cf. Steph. Byz. v. 'Apanorj.) Returning to 
the coast we find a headland in the Stadiasmus, 
named Nesiazusa, distant 100 stadia from Selinus : Nesiazusa 
then Zephelium, or rather, as Col. Leake justly cor-^^°™' 
rects, A^ephelium. Nephelis is stated by Livy to be Nepheiis 
a promontory of Cilicia, rendered famous by an an-mbs.' 
dent treaty of the Athenians. (XXXIII. 20.) What 

k Karamania, p. 186 — 192. Philip jun. and Valerian. Epi- 
1 The coins of lotape belong graph, lOTAnEITHN. Seslin. 
to the reigns of the emperors p. 101. 

Y 2 



324 CILICIA. 

treaty is here alluded to is not very evident. Ne- 
phelis, according to Ptolemy, was also a town, and 
this fact is further confirmed by numismatical evi- 
dence '". Strabo does not speak of Nephelis, but he 
Cragiis points out, beyond Selinus, Cra^us, an abrupt rock 

scopulus. ^ "^ ^ 

rising from the sea ; (loc. cit.) and Ptolemy places 
Antiochia near it a town called Antiochia, with the surname of 
^1111^' ad Cragum. (p. 124.) There seem also to be some 
numismatic records of its existence ". The Stadias- 
mus fixes Cragus twenty-five stadia from Nephelis. 
Captain Beaufort has the following observations on 
the supposed remains of this place. " We next came 
" to the ruins of an ancient town, which I appre- 
" hend must have been the Antiochia ad Cragum of 
*' Ptolemy. Circumstances prevented an attentive 
" examination of this place, but it seems to have 
" been formerly of some consequence, though evi- 
" dently unfitted for a commercial settlement. A 
" square cliff', the top of which has been carefully 
" fortified, projects from the town into the sea ; 
" flights of stej)s cut in the rock lead from the land- 
" ing-place to the gates ; and on the other side there 
" is a singular arch in the cliffs, with a sloping chan- 
" nel, as if intended for a slip for boats." Beyond 
Charadrus. Cragus was Cliaradrus, distant, according to the ma- 
ritime geographer, 100 stadia. (Cf. Scyl. p. 40.) 
Strabo says it was a fortress, with a small harbour, 
situated at the foot of a lofty mountain named Ah- 
driclus, (the Stadiasmus writes Androclus.) From 
thence commenced a dangerous navigation, along a 

m These coins areveryancient, certa. Aiitonomus. Epigraphe, 

and the legend is in a character ANTIOXEfiN TON HPO 

part Phoenician, and partly AKni, read TON nP02 Tfl 

Greek. Sestin. p. 102. ' KPAmi. 

n Sestin. p. 99. Antiochia In- 



CILICIA. 325 

bleak and rugged coast called Platanistus, (Plata- 
niis in the Stadiasmus,) as far as cape Anemurium. 
The brief description of the Greek geographer is 
most aptly illustrated by Captain Beaufort's survey. 
" Some miles further to the eastward we came to an 
" opening through the mountains, with a small ri- 
" ver, on the banks of which there are a few shep- 
" herds' huts, and near to its mouth some modern 
" ruins. The natives call this place Kai'ciclrcm, 
" and both the name and situation accord with 
" those of Charadrus, a fort and harbour placed by 
" Strabo between Cragus and Anemurium, on a 
" rough coast called Platanistus. Rough and dreary 
" it may well be called, for between the plain of Se- 
" linty and the promontory of Anamoui\ a distance 
" of thirty miles, the ridge of bare rocky hills that 
" forms the coast is interrupted but twice by narrow 
" valleys, wiiich conduct the mountain torrents to 
*' the sea. The great arm of mount Taurus, which 
" proceeds in a direct line from Almja towards cape 
" Anamoui\ suddenly breaks off abreast of Kara- 
" clraii, and was probably the mount Andriclus, 
" which Strabo describes as overhanging Chara- 
" drus o." 

Anemurium was the southernmost point of allAnemu- 
Asia Minor, being only 350 stadia from cape Croni- erurbs"! 
myon in Cyprus. (Strab. XIV. p. 670. Cf. Livy, 
XXXIII. 20. Pomp. Mel. 1. 13.) There was also a 
town of the same name, as appears from Scylax, (p. 
40.) Pliny, (V. 27.) and Ptolemy. It answers to the 
modern Anamoiir p. 

o Karamania, p. 194, 195. the emperors. Epigr. ANEMOT- 
P 'J'here are numerous me- PIEflN. Sestin. p. 99. 
dais of Anemurium struck under 

Y 3 



326 CILICIA. 

" Cape Anamour^'' says Captain Beaufort, " ter- 
" minates in a high bhiff knob, one side of which is 
" inaccessible ; the other has been well fortified by 
" a castle, and outworks placed on the summit, from 
" whence a flanked wall, with towers, descends to 
" the shore, and separates it from the rest of the 
" promontory. Two aqueducts, that wind along the 
" hill for several miles, supplied this fortress with 
" water. Within the walls are the remains of some 
" large buildings, and two theatres, and outside a 
" vast number of tombs. The city is now altoge- 
" ther deserted q." 

Beyond Anamour a small but rai)id stream emjj- 
ties itself into the sea ; the modern name is, accord- 
ing to Captain Beaufort, D'lrek Ondessy, and he con- 

Arymag- ceives it to be the Arymagdus of Ptolemy ^. Some 
remains, on a hill near its mouth, may correspond 

Nagidus. with Nagidus, a town mentioned by Strabo. (XIV. 
p. 670.) Mela reports that it was colonized by the 
Samians. (I. 13.) Stephanus Byz. (v. "^ayihg) says 

Nagidusa there was also an island named Naffidusa. (Cf. Scyl. 

insula. '-' '' 

p. 40.) The latter answers to a little rock about 
200 feet long, close to the castle of Anamour, with 
some remains of buildings ^. 
Arsinoe. Eastward of Nagidus is the Arsinoe of Strabo, 
who observes that it had a small port. (Cf. Stei)h. 
Byz. v. ^ApaivoYj.) Captain Beaufort identified it 
with some ruins which covered a small and higli 
peninsula near cape Kixilma?i ; on the eastern side 
was a small harbour*. The cape here mentioned 

<i Karanmiiia, p. 1 !);") — 201. Autonomi Anepigraphi — In- 

'■ l^ '204. scripti NAFIAIKON — NAFI- 

s P. 206. The nit-dals of AEON. 

Naj^idiis are ancient and rare. t Karaaiania, p. 206. 



CILICIA. 327 

answers to the Posidium promoiitoriuin of Scylax, Posidium 

• TO prom. 

(p, 40, as corrected by Salmasius) and the Stadias- 
inus. The latter document furnishes some addi- 
tional detail of stations in the intervening space be- 
tween this headland and Anemurium, as follows : 
from Anemurium to Rygmana, (Pvyixavoi,) fifty sta- Hygmani. 
dia. Col. Leake thinks, with much probability, that 
this is the river Arymagdus ". To Dionysiophani, Dionysio. 
fifty stadia. The same antiquary imagines this to^'^'"* 
be the port of Arsinoe ^. To Mandane, thirty sta- 
dia ; and from thence seven to cape Posidium. This 
place I take to be the Myanda of Pliny, (V. 27.)Myanda, 
and Myus of Scylax, whose text therefore stands 
clear of error. The Stadiasmus reckons 100 stadia 
from thence to Celenderis. Strabo has another place 
in this vicinity, called Melania, which is vmknown Meiania. 
to other authorities. 

Celenderis, a city of some note, is said to have Celenderis. 
been indebted for its foundation to the Phoenicians, 
but subsequently to have received a colony from Sa- 
mos. This circumstance, recorded by P. Mela, (I. 
13.) is corroborated by a fragment of the geographer 
Scymnus, quoted by Herodian the grammarian, {irepl 
[J.OV. Ae^. p. 19, 5.y) We learn from the same passage 
several other particulars respecting the topograjjhy 
of Celenderis : that there was a temjile and grove 
consecrated to Juno near the town, and that a river 
named Is flowed into the sea close to the sacred 

11 Asia Minor, p. 201. be read, 'Ek^ia.vo; Iv tm t'^s 'Ao-Za; 

X P. 202, Trep/irXo). 

y The quotation is as fol- .... el'^y? 8' 6%€Taj KeXei/SeiJis 

lows : 2Kt/jM.vo? Iv tS ( T'^(; 'Ao-/a? YloXt^ ^af^iecv koI Itpov itapci ttj iroXe* 

'Tieph'Ka)' tvpeO'/j ep^eTa* KeXev^epi^ Kal aK<T0<;"Hp7ii;. 'Ic roTa/AO? Trap' 
iro'Xii; l.a.y.C'jiy , kcci Upov %apcc Ty no- avra. r' eli 

Kei v'opVi '^°" aXa-oi ; which should QccKcc^aav i^Uiatv. 

Y 4 



328 



CILICIA. 



precincts. Celenderis is also noticed by Scylax 
(p. 40.) and Ptolemy, (p. 124.) Tacitus describes an 
attempt made by Piso, the enemy of Germanicus, 
to occupy it, but which failed. He represents it as 
a place of great strength, built on a high and craggy 
precipice, surrounded by the sea. (Ann. II. 80.) In 
the ecclesiastical documents we find Celenderis rank- 
ed among the episcopal towns of Isauria ^. Chelin- 
dreli^ as it is now called, is, according to Captain 
Beaufort, a snug but very small port, from whence 
the couriers from Constantinople to Cyprus embark. 
There are the ruins of the fortress, some arched 
vaults, and a great number of sepulchres and sarco- 
phagi ^ Arfemidorus, as Strabo reports, looked 
upon Celenderis as the frontier town of Cilicia, and 
not Coracesium. 

The Stadiasmus names, to the east of Celenderis, 

Berenice, the bay of Berenice. That there was a place of this 
name in Cilicia we know from Stephanus Byz. (v. 
Be^evi'/ca;.) Then follows, after an interval of fifty 

Pisurgia. stadia, a spot called Pisurgia, (Ylia-ovpyia,) probably 
where pitch was manufactured, or fir timber cut ^. 

Crambusa Bcyoud is the isle Crambusa, probably now Pa- 
jmdotila, where Captain Beaufort observed some 
very old remnants of buildings ^. Cape Crauni, pro- 
bably Cruni, (Kpovvoi,) is a promontory near the T*a- 
padoula islets, forty-five stadia from Pisurgia ; and 

Meias fl. forty Stadia further is the river Melas, which is laid 



Crauni, 
sive 
Cruni 
prom. 



2 Geogr. Sacr. p. 301 . There 
are coins of the Syrian kings, 
and of the later Roman em- 
perors, struck at Celenderis, 
with the epigraph, KEAENAE- 
PITON. Sestini, p. DO. 

'^ Karainania, p. 209. 



b Captain Beaufort noticed 
in this direction several heaps 
of wood and deal boards, which 
lay on the beach ready for ex- 
portation, p. 211. 

c P. 210. 



CILICIA. 329 

down without a name in Captain Beaufort's chart. 
Thirty-five stadia more brought the navigator to a 
spot called Ciphisus ; and close to it, apparently, was ciphisus. 
the town and port of Aphrodisias, which appears Aphrodi- 
froni Livy to have been of some consequence in the 
reign of Antiochus Magnus. (XXXIII. 20. Cf. Diod. 
Sic. XIX. 61. Ptol. p. 124. Steph. Byz. v. 'A(f>poh- 
(Tiag.) Some ruins which Captain Beaufort noticed 
at the north-east corner of a bay west of cape Cava- 
liere, near a plain crossed by a small stream, and 
which he supposed to be those of Holmus, are ra- 
ther to be assigned to Aphrodisias ^. 

The Stadiasmus remarks that Aphrodisias lies 
nearly in a northerly direction with that part of 
Cyprus called Aulion, from which it is distant 500 
miles. The bay in which Aphrodisias is situate is 
separated from another more extensive bason, called 
Aghal'iman^ by a small peninsula, terminated by a 
headland named in modern charts cape Cavcdiere. 
This I conceive to be the cape Zephyrium of the Zephyrium 
Maritime Survey, but Pliny calls it Promontorium^'*"''' 
Veneris. The same document is very minute in its 
detail of the coast between that point and the mouth 
of the Calycadnus : it points out an island called 
Pityusa, distant forty-five stadia from the coast near pityusa 
Aphrodisias, which seems to agree rather with an ' 
islet off point Cavaliere, than with Provencal island, 
though the latter is more considerable. Then fol- 
lows Philaea, a station 130 stadia from Pityusa; thePhiieea. 
port Nesulium ; Mylae, a village near a cape and pe- Nesuiium. 
ninsula, perhaps Aghaliman ; (Cf. Plin. V. 27.) and ' ' 
forty stadia further Hormi, or Holmi, a town occu- Hoimi, 

sive 

pied, as Strabo reports, by the people of Seleucia, iionni. 
'1 Karamanirt, p. 212, 213. 



330 CILICIA. 

previous to the foundation of that city, but after- 
wards deserted by them. (XIV. p. 670.) The name 
of this town is disguised in Scylax under the cor- 
rupt reading 'Oavoi. (p. 40. Cf. Plin. V. 27. Steph. 
Byz. V. 'OAyai/.) The ruins of this place must be 
sought for near Aghuliman. Beyond is a long 
sandy tongue of land, which doubtless answers to 
Sarpedon cape Sarpedou, which, in the treaty made by An- 
^™™* tiochus with the Romans, was the boundary set to 
the navigation of his vessels. It is to be observed 
that in the extract of Polybius, specifying the con- 
Caiycadnus ditions, the cape is called Calycadnus ; (XXII. 26.) 
^^''^' whereas in Livy (XXXVIII. 38.) and Appian (Syr. 
c. 39.) both the points, Calycadnus and Sarpedon, 
are mentioned. At present, however, there seems 
to be only one low sandy point, called Lissan el 
Capheh, produced by the alluvium of the neigh- 
bouring river, the Calycadnus of antiquity, and 
therefore evidently subject to great change in the 
course of time. Scylax mentions Sarpedon rather 
as a town, but his text is very corrupt. Pliny, on 
the other hand, notices it as a promontory, and 
makes no mention of cape Calycadnus, This is also 
Calycadnus the case with the Stadiasmus. The Calycadnus, 
now Giuk-sou, is a large and rapid stream, which 
rises in the central chain of Taurus, and after re- 
ceiving some minor tributary streams, fcills into the 
sea a little to the east of the above mentioned pro- 
montory. 
Seleucia. Seleucia, founded, as Stephanus reports, by Seleu- 
cus Nicator, (v. leAevVe^a,) was situate in a fertile 
plain, watered by the Calycadnus, a few miles above 
its mouth. Its foundation, as we have seen from 
Strabo, was posterior to that of Holmi, which gra- 



CILICIA. 331 

dually sunk as its more flourishing neighbour rose 
into consequence and opulence. Under the protec- 
tion of the Syrian kings Seleucia became a distin- 
guished school of literature and philosophy, and 
its inhabitants were far more polished and better 
informed than the natives of Cilicia or Pamphylia. 
This city gave birth to Athena^us and Xenarchus, 
two distinguished Peripatetics, who flourished in 
the reign of Augustus. The latter taught at Alex- 
andria, Athens, and Rome, with great success, and 
Strabo himself attended his lectures. Seleucia con- 
tinued to flourish as late as the time of Ammianus 
Marcellinus. (XIV. 25. Cf. Ptol. p. 124.) Pliny re- 
ports that it was surnamed Tracheotis. (V. 27.) 
The ecclesiastical historians, Socrates and Sozome- 
nus, speaking of a council held there, call it Trachea. 
(Sozom. IV. lb*. Socrat. II. 39.) It is still named 
Selef'kieh by the natives. " Its remains," says Cap- 
tain Beaufort, " are scattered over a large extent of 
" ground, on the west side of the river. This river, 
" formerly the Calycadnus, and now called Giuk- 
" sold, or Heavenly river, is about 180 feet wide 
" abreast of the town, where a bridge of six arches 
" still exists in tolerable repair. The chief remains 
" are those of a theatre, partly cut out of the side 
" of a hill ; and in front of it, a long line of con- 
" siderable ruins, with porticoes and other large 
" buildings : farther on, a temple, which had been 
'' converted into a Christian church, several large 
*' Corinthian columns, about four feet in diameter, 
" a few of which are still standing." This may 
have been the temple of the Sarpedonian Apollo, 
mentioned by Zosimus. (I. 57. Cf. Basil. Seleuc. 
Vit. Thee. I. p. 275.) Strabo remarks that there 



332 



CILICIA. 



Diocsesa- 
rea. 

Philadel. 
phia. 



was also a temple in Cilicia consecrated to Diana 
Sarpedonia. (XIV. p. 676.) Near Seleucia was a 

Hyria. gpot Called Hyria, as Stephanus Byz. reports ; (v, 
'Tpla.) and higher up the valley of the Calycadnus 

ciaudiopo- we may take this opportunity of pointing out Clau- 
diopolis, a town founded by Claudius, as its name 
imports, and which is assigned by Ammianus and 
Hierocles to Isauria as well as Seleucia. (Ammian. 
Marcell. XIV. 25. Hierocl. p. 709.) According to 
Theophanes, quoted by Wesseling on Hierocles, Clau- 
diopolis was situate in a plain between two sum- 
mits of Taurus, (Chronogr. p. 119.) and probably 
also on the Calycadnus, or one of its branches. In 
the same district we must place, with Ptolemy, Dio- 
caesarea, known also to the ecclesiastical records and 
Hierocles. (p. 709.) Philadelphia, likewise named 
among the episcopal towns of Isauria. Capt. Beau- 
fort supposes that it may be represented by Moiity 
or 3[ood, a town of some size, situate near the 
junction of the two principal branches of the Caly- 
cadnus, one of which retains the name oi Kalikad^. 
It is near the source of the western branch, in the 
Isaurian mountains, that we must seek for the can- 

Homona- tou of the Homouadeuscs, a hardy tribe of moun- 

denses. 

taineers, bordering, as Strabo reports, on the Pisi- 
dians and the Etennenses of Pamphylia. It was in 
vain that Amyntas, the tetrarch of Galatia and Ly- 
caonia, after conquering a great part of Pisidia, en- 
deavoured to subject these highlanders. For though 
he succeeded in taking several of their fortresses, 
and slaying their chief, he himself fell into a snare 
laid for him by the wife of the deceased leader, 

6 Karamania, p. 223. Col. to be Claudiopolis. Asia Mi- 
Leake, however, supposes Mout nor, p. 17. 



CILICIA. 333 

assisted by the Cilicians, and was put to death. 
Subsequently, Sulpicius Quirinius, the Cyrenius of 
St, Luke, undertook to reduce the Honionadenses, 
and by surrounding their district, and cutting off all 
communications, forced them at last to surrender. 
He then removed to the neighbouring towns all the 
males capable of bearing arms, leaving none but the 
young and infirm. (Strab. XII. p. 569- Cf. Tacit. 
Ann. III. 48.) The district occupied by this people 
was extremely wild and mountainous, but neverthe- 
less it enclosed some fertile valleys, which the high- 
landers came down to cultivate, preferring however 
to occupy fastnesses and caves on the heights, whence 
they could issue forth with impunity to attack and 
plunder their lowland neighbours. (Strab. loc. cit.) 
D'Anville was of opinion that Homonada, their chief 
town, was represented by the fortress of Ermenak, 
situate near the source of the Gink-sou ; and this 
locality has been adopted by Gosselin and other 
antiquaries ^ ; but Col. Leake, in his map, supposes 
Ermenak to be Philadelphia, and Mout, Claudiopo- 
lis. The name of Cetis appears to have been given to Cetis regio. 
that part of Cilicia Trachea which comprised the 
valley of the eastern branch of the Calycadnus. (Ptol. 
p. 124. Basil. Seleuc. Vit. Thecl. I.) The principal 
town in this valley was Olba, celebrated for a temple oiim. 
of Jupiter, said to have been erected by Ajax, son of 
Teucer. The foundation was a considerable one, 
and the pontiffs enjoyed great wealth and powder, 
insomuch that at one time they were lords of the 
whole Trachea. But the principality of Olba ex- 
perienced subsequently different revolutions. When 
f French Strabo, torn. IV. p. ii. p. 100. 



334, CILICIA. 

Cilicia was under the dominion of pirates, these 
chiefs seized upon the sacerdotal revenues, but after 
their desti-uction the office was restored by the Ro- 
mans, who termed it the princij^ality and priestliood 
of Teucer, and the pontiffs were named after that 
hero, or Ajax. In the time of Strabo, Aba, daugh- 
ter of Xenophanes, a chief of the country, had 
usurped the pontifical domains, under the protection 
of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, but she was after- 
wards deposed, and the lineal descendants of the 
reigning house were reinstated in their rights ^. 
(Strab. XIV. p. 671.) It appears, from a coin struck 
in the reign of Severus, that Olba received a colony 
under the auspices of that emperor. We observe 
very generally on the medals of this city the title of 

Cennati. chief of the Ccnuati and Lalassei ?. Now we know 

Laiassis. fi'om Ptolemy that Lalassis was a small principality 
or district of Cilicia Trachea, (p. 129-) and the terri- 
tory of the Cennati formed another ; perhaps it was 
no other than the Cetis of the same geographer. 

Necica. Ptolcmy assigus to Lalassis the town of Necica, 
mentioned by no other writer, unless it should be 
the Sice of the anonymous geographer of Ravenna. 

Sycea. But this again is to be referred to the Sycea of Athe- 
nseus (III. p. 78.) and Stephanus Byz. (v. YvKai.) 
The position of Olba has not yet been ascertained ; 
we know generally from Strabo that it stood among 
the mountains above Soli. (loc. cit.) We must now 
return to the mouth of the Calycadnus, in order to 

f The coins of the pontifical g On a coin of Polemo, M. 

princes of Olba are numerous, ANTON lOT. nOAEMnN02 AP- 

and among the number we find XIEPEil2. KENNAT. ATNAS- 

Polemo and Augustus. Sestin. TOT. OABEQN TH2 IEPA2; K.\I 

p. 102. AAAASSEflN. 



CILICIA. 335 

complete our periplus of the coast of Cilicia Trachea. 
Strabo, beyond this river, points out a rock named 
Poecile, {YIoiKiXrj,) in which a passage was cut lead-Poedie 
ing to Seleucia. The Stadiasmus reckons forty sta-^^ '^' 
dia from tJience to the mouth of the Calycadnus. 
This spot answers nearly to PersJiendy, where Cap- 
tain Beaufort observed some considerable ruins, but, 
from an inscription he copied, they appeared to be of 
the time of Valentinian and Valens ^. 

Beyond Poecile, Strabo has another cape Anemu- Anemu- 
rium, which I take to be the Zephyrium of Ptolemy, ZepiiVrium 
and others. The isle Crambusa, noticed by the first Crambusa 

insiiln 

mentioned geographer, (XIV. p. 670.) answers to 
an islet near KorgJiox. The Stadiasmus sets east 
of Poecile seventy stadia the harbour called the Fair Puichrum 
Coracesium. Then follows Corycus, a small town, slum por- 
and cape Corycium. The former retains the name corycus. 
of iLoj'ghox, and, from Captain Beaufort's account, prom?""^ 
exhibits considerable remains of antiquity. It ap- 
pears to have been a fortress of great strength, and 
a mole of vast unhewn rocks is carried across the 
bay for about a hundred yards. There are numer- 
ous tombs, and other excavations '. Twenty stadia 
inland from the cape was the Corycian cave, cele- 
brated in mythology as the fabled abode of the giant 
Typhoeus : 

Tupws SKCtTOVTuxugcivo:' tov TTOre 
KjAi'xjov SgS^l/BV TTOAUCO- 

vujtAOv avrpov PrXD. Pyth. I. 31. 

and again he is called T'j(/)to$- K/A/^ fKaroyKpavog. (Pyth. 
VIU. 20.). So also ^schylus : 

ii Karamania, p. 238, 239. See also Col. Leake, p. 211. 
' Karamania, p. 240 — 247. 



336 



CILICIA. 



Toy yt\ysvri t= KiXjxjcov ol^rjopu 
"AvTp'jov 'idcov uiKTBipu Bix'iov T-pug 
' E,KUTO)>Tux.apTiVOv Ttpoc (S'uxv ^StpO'JIXSVOV 

Tv(pa'yu ^wgov. Prom. Vinct. 350. 

Ill fact many writers, as Strabo reports, placed 
Arima, or Arimi, the scene of Typhoeus's torments, 
alluded to by Homer, in Cilicia, while others sought 
it in Lydia, and others in Campania. The descrip- 
tion which Strabo has left us of this remarkable 
spot leads to the idea of its having once been the 
crater of a volcano. He says it was a deep and 
broad valley of a circular shape, surrounded on every 
side by lofty rocks. The lower part of this crater 
was rugged and strong, but covered nevertheless 
with shrubs and evergreens, and especially saffron, 
of which it produced a great quantity. There was 
also a cavity, from whence gushed a copious stream, 
which after a short course was again lost, and reap- 
peared near the sea, which it joined. It was called 
the " bitter water." (XIV. p. 671.) The account of 
Pomponius Mela, though evidently derived from the 
same source, perhaps Callisthenes, is yet more mi- 
nute and elaborate ; and as it is written with consi- 
derable elegance, I shall insert it below, for the gra- 
tification of the Latin reader^. I do not believe 



^ " Noil longe hinc Corycos 
" oppitlum, portu saloque in- 
" cingitur, angusto tergore con- 
" tinenti adnexuni. Supra spe- 
" cus est, nomine Coryci us, sin- 
" gulari ingenio ac supra quani 
" tlescribi facile sit eximius. 
" Grand! namque hiatu patens 
" montem littori ap|)osituni, et 
" decern stadioruni clivo satis 
" arduum ex summo statim 
" verlice aperit. Tunc alte de- 



" missus, et quantum demitti- 
" tur amplior, viret lucis pen- 
" dentibus undique, et totum se 
" nemoroso laterum orbe com- 
" plectitur ; adeo mirificus ac 
" pulcher, ut meutes acccden- 
'• tiuui primo adspectu consler- 
" nat -, ubi contemplati dura- 
" vere, non satiet. Unus in 
" eum descensus est, angustus, 
" asper, quingentorum et mille 
" passuum, per amtcnas um- 



CILICIA. 



S37 



that any modern traveller has explored this singular 
locality. Beyond Corycus was the island of Elaeussa, Eifeussa in 
situate close to the mainland. This spot was the """''■ 
favourite residence of Archelaus, king of Cappado- 
cia, to whom likewise the whole of Cilicia Trachea, 
with the exception of Seleucia, which remained a 
free town, had been conceded by the Romans. This 
politic people, wisely preferring to commit the go- 
vernment of a province, so difficult to manage, and 
offering such temptations and facilities for robbers 
and pirates, to the direction of a permanent governor, 
possessed of sufficient power and influence to cause 
his authority to be respected. (Strab. XIV. p. 671.) 
The island in question no longer exists, but Captain 
Beaufort points out " a little peninsula close to 
" Ayash, which is covered with ruins, and connected 
" with the beach by a low isthmus of drift sand." 
Ayash itself exhibits some extensive ruins, consist- 
ing of a temple of the composite order, which ap- 
pears to have been overthrown by an earthquake ; 



" bras et opaca silvas quiddam 
" agreste resonantis, rivis hinc 
" atqiie illinc fluitantibiis. Ubi 
" ad ima perventum est, rur- 
" sum specus alter aperitur ob 
" alia dicendus. Terret ingre- 
" dientes sonitii cymbalorumdi- 
" vinitus et magno fragore cre- 
" pitantiuni. Deiiide aliquam- 
" diu perspicuus, mox et quo 
" niagis subitur, obscurior, du- 
" cit ausos penitus, alteque 
" quasi cuniculo admittit. Ibi 
" ingens amnis ingenti fronte 
" se extollens, tantunimodo se 
" ostendit, et ubi magnum im- 
" petum brevi alveo traxit, ite- 
" rum demersus absconditur. 
" Intra spatium est, magis 

VOL. II. 



" quam ut progredi quispiam 
" ausit horribile, et ideo in- 
" cofjnitum. Totus autem au- 
" gustus et vere sacer, habi- 
" tarique a diis et dignus et 
" creditus, nihil non venerabile 
" et quasi cum aliquo numine 
" se ostentat. Alius ultra est, 
" quem Typhoneum vocant, ore 
" angusto, et multum (ut ex- 
" perti tradidere) pressus, et ob 
" id assidua nocte suffusus, ne- 
" que unquam perspici facilis ; 
" sed quia aliquando cubile Ty- 
" phonis fuit, et quia nunc de- 
" missa in se confestim exani- 
" mat, natura fabulaque memo- 
" randus." I. 13. 



338 CILICIA. 

there is also a theatre, and three aqueducts, one of 
which conveyed water to the town from a consider- 
able distance. These remains are assigned, by the 
judicious antiquary who has described them, to Se- 
baste, a town placed in this direction by Ptolemy, 
and the foundation of which is probably to be re- 
ferred to the residence of Archelaus at Elaeussa, close 
to which it is ^ Sebaste, according to the Stadias- 
mus, as corrected by Col. Leake, was twenty stadia 
from Corycus. Elseussa, in the same document, is 
called Eleeus ; and 100 stadia further is a small 

Lamus fl. place named Calanthia. The river Lamus, now La- 
7nas, a few miles beyond Ayash, or Sebaste, termi- 
nates Cilicia Trachea, since from this point the 
mountains recede from the coast, which assumes a 
flat and level character, and the wide plains of Cili- 
cia Campestris ojien to the sight. (Strab. XIV. p. 
671.) The Lamus gave its name to a small dis- 
trict, the principal town of which was Antiochia, 

Lamotis sumamed Lamotis. (Ptol. p. 129- Cf. Stej^h. Byz. 

Antiochia V. "" AvTio'/eia.) Hicrocles uauies both Lamus and An- 
tiochia ; Strabo only Lamus, (loc. cit.) From Theo- 
phanes, it appears to have been situated near the sea, 
(Chronogr. p. 119.) and this topography seems con- 
firmed by the authority of coins"\ Before we quit 
this part of Cilicia, it will be necessary to add to our 
list what few towns yet remain to be noticed from 

Cestri. Ptolemy. Of these Caystrus, or Clystrus, is doubt- 
less a corrupt reading for Cestri, Mdiich Hierocles 

Domitiopo- (p. 709.) and the Councils jointly acknowledge. Do- 
mitiopolis seems to have stood in the vicinity of the 
Arymagdus, and is confirmed by the authority of 

' Karamania, p. 2o 0—253. graphe, ANTIOXEfiN THC OA- 
"' Antiochia Maritinia. Epi- PAAIOT. Sestin. p. 99. 



CILICIA. 339 

Stephanus Byz. (v. i^ofxeTioinroXig.) Irenopolis, 'which Neronias, 
the Notices assign to Cilicia Secunda, is said to have irenopolis. 
been previously called Neronias. (Theodor. Hist. 
Eccl. I. 7. II. 8. Socr. II. 26.) Flavias, a townriavias. 
mentioned by Hierocles (p. 709.) and the Notices, is 
placed in the Antonine Itinerary, on a route leading 
from Cucusus in Cappadocia to Anazarbus in Cilicia 
Campestris, whence it appears to have stood on the 
confines of the former province. (Itin. Anton, p. 212. 
Cf. Ptol. p. 129. Concil. Chalced. p. 660.) Hierocles 
names also, in Isauria, (p. 709.) Titiopolis, Juliose- 
baste, Germanicopolis, Moloe, Darasus, Zede, Nea- 
polis, and Lauzados ; most of which are known 
from the other Notices, and the Acts of Councils. 
The Clitae are mentioned by Tacitus as a tribe of 
Cilician highlanders, who rebelled against Arche- 
laus, and defied his power. (Ann. VI. 41. XII. 55.) 

CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 

Champaign Cilicia was accounted to extend from 
the river Lamus to the Syrian gates at the extremity 
of the gulf of Issus, or Scanderoo7i, as it is now 
called. The whole extent of coast comprised within 
these limits amounted to about 1000 stadia, (Strab. 
XIV. p. 676.) The first maritime town which pre- 
sented itself after crossing the Lamus was Soli, ''?"i^ postea 

" Pompeio- 

founded, as we are informed by Strabo, by a mixed poiis. 
colony of Achaeans and Rhodians from Lindus. 
(XIV. p. 671.) This consanguinity was acknow- 
ledged by the latter in the course of their negotia- 
tions with the Romans. (Liv. XXXVII. 5^. Pom- 
pon. Mel. I. 13.) It is mentioned for the first time 
in history by Xenophon in the Anabasis as a mari- 
time town of Cilicia, (I. 2.) and its opulence in the 

z 2 



340 CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 

time of Alexander is evinced by the contribution of 
200 talents imposed on it by that prince. (Arrian. 
II. 5. Quint. Curt. III. 7.) It was the birthplace of 
Chrysippus the philosopher, and of two distinguished 
poets, Philemon and Aratus. (Strab. loc. cit.) Many 
writers affirmed that the term aoXoiKia-fx-og, which ex- 
pressed an incorrect and ungrammatical mode of 
speaking, was derived from Soli, the inhabitants of 
which used a mixed and corrupt language. This 
etymology, however, is not fully agreed upon. (Strab. 
XIV. p. 671. Eustath. ad Dion. Perieg. v. 875. Suid. 
V. SoAoi.) This town, having been nearly depopu- 
lated by an invasion of Tigranes, king of Armenia, 
received a new foundation, as it were, under Pompey 
the Great, who settled there a colony of the Cilician^ 
pirates, whom he had conquered. In consequence of 
this benefit. Soli assumed the name of Pompeiopolis. 
(Strab. loc. cit. Dio Cass. XXXVI. p. 18. Pomp. 
Mel. I. 13. Plin. V. 27. Steph. Byz. v. ^oXoi. Tacit. 
Ann. II. 58. Hierocl. p. 704.) We are indebted to 
CajDtain Beaufort for a detailed account of the topo- 
graphy and remains of this interesting city. " At 
" length," says that officer, " the elevated theatre, 
" and tall columns of Soli and Pompeiopolis, rose 
" above the horizon into view, and appeared to jus- 
" tify the representations which the pilots had given 
" of its magnificence. We were not altogether dis- 
" appointed. The first object that presented itself 
" on landing was a beautiful harbour, or basin, with 
" parallel sides and circular ends ; it is entirely arti- 
" ficial, being formed with surrounding walls, or 
" moles, which are fifty feet in thickness, and seven 
" in height. Opposite to the entrance of the har- 
" hour, a portico rises from the surrounding quay, 



CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 841 

'* and opens to a double row of 200 columns, which, 
" crossing the town, communicates with the prin- 
" cipal gate towards the country. Of the 200 
" columns no more than forty-four are now stand- 
" ing ; the remainder lie on the spot where they 
*' fell, intermixed with a vast assemblage of other 
" ruined buildings, which were connected with the 
" colonnade. The theatre is almost entirely de- 
" stroyed. The city walls, strengthened by nume- 
" rous towers, entirely surrounded the town. De- 
" tached ruins, tombs, and sarcophagi, were found, 
" scattered to some distance from the walls, on the 
" outside of the town, and it was evident that the 
" whole country had been once occupied by a nu- 
" merous and industrious people." Me%etlu is the 
name which most of the natives gave to the modern 
site ". 

Pliny mentions some bitumen springs in the vici- 
nity of Soli, (XXXI. 2.) and these were reported to 
Captain Beaufort as situated at Bikhardy, about six 
hours to the north-east oi Me%etlu^. The river of 
Soli was named Liparis, from the unctuous nature of 
its waters. (Vitruv. VIII. 3. Antigon. Car. c. 150. 
Plin. V. 27.) 

Strabo places after Soli cape Zephyrium, which the Zephy. 

. If rium prom. 

btadiasmus notices as a spot y/j^^^m) between Soli and 
Tarsus. It answers probably to a ruined castle, 
placed on a small round hill a little to the east of 

" Karamania, p. 2G 1—265. down from Pompey to the em- 

The autonomous coins of Soli are peror Gallus. nOMnHIonOAI- 

ancient,but not uncommon j the TnN. On one of these appears 

epigraph is variously written, the name of a fountain, Sunias. 

20AI, 20AI0N, and SOAIKON. nHFH 20TNIA2. 
Those of Pompeiopolis come o Karamania, p. 266. 

z3 



342 CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 

the former city, observed by Captain Beaufort p. 
Anthaie. Then follows Anchiale, a city of great antiquity, 
since it was said to owe its foundation to the Assy- 
rian Sardanapalus. The circumstances connected 
with this fact, as they are related by ancient writers, 
are very curious and interesting ; but it is to be 
wished that we had them on more unquestionable 
authority than that of Aristobulus, from whom Stra- 
bo, Arrian, and Athenaeus, have all derived their in- 
formation. These authors however evidently gave 
credence to the story, and Strabo has besides quoted 
some lines from the poet Choerilus, who had thereby 
paraphrased the inscription extant on the tomb of 
the Assyrian monarch. Aristotle also was well ac- 
quainted with the inscription, since, when alluding 
to it in one of his treatises, he said that the senti- 
ments it records are more worthy to be written on 
the grave of an ox than the tomb of a king. (Cicer. 
Tusc. Disp. V. 35.) It api)ears, however, from Athe- 
naeus that some historians placed the monument of 
Sardanapalus at Nineveh, and the inscription para- 
phrased by Chcerilus was taken from thence, and 
not from Anchiale. The latter, as Aristobulus re- 
lates, was engraved on the monument, which was de- 
corated with a statue of the Assyrian monarch. The 
figure appeared in the act of snapping its fingers, 
and giving utterance to these words, inscribed on 
the stone : " Sardanapalus, son of Anacyndaraxes, 
" erected in one day the cities of Anchiale and Tar- 
" sus. Stranger, eat, drink, and be merry, for all else 
" besides is not worth tlmV — meaning the snapping 
of the fingers. (Strab. XIV. p. 672. Athen. XII. p. 

1' P. 267. 



CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 343 

529.) Arrian relates that Alexander " came in one 
" day from Tarsus to Anchialus, which it is reported 
'* that Sardanapalus, the Assyrian, founded : and it 
'* apjDears from the circumference and foundations of 
" the walls to have been a great city, and to have at- 
" tained to a considerable degree of power." (II. 5.) 
I do not apprehend that Arrian speaks of the ruins 
of Anchiale as extant in his time, but as they were 
described by the Alexandrian historians, whom he 
copied. Athenodorus, a writer quoted by Stepha- 
nus Byz., (v. 'Kyx^aXri) and a native of that city, 
affirmed that it took its name from Anchiale, daugh- 
ter of lapetus, and that it was situate near the river 
Anchiales. It would seem, from Strabo, that An- AncWaies 

fluvius. 

chiale was still existing when he wrote ; and from 
Dionysius Perieg. (v. 8.) 

Avpvrj(T(roc, MaAXoj t= xa.) 'Ay^iocXBitx, "^oXoiTS. 

Pliny also names it, but perhaps as a place which 
once flourished ; subsequent writers make no men- 
tion of it, and its locality is marked by no apparent 
vestiges. They should be sought for near the mouth 
of the river Mersyn, which probably answers to the 
Anchiales of Stephanus Byz. Above Anchiale, to- 
wards the mountains, was Cyinda, a fortress, in 
which the Macedonians deposited their wealth after 
the death of Alexander. Eumenes seized these trea- 
sures during his contest with Antigonus. (Strab. 
XIV. p. 672.) Returning to the sea, and continu- 
ing along the coast, we come to the mouth of the 
Cydnus, the celebrated river of Tarsus. Strabo cydnus 
states, that it rises in the central chain of Taurus 
above that city, which it traverses, and then falls 
into a small lake, or bason, called Rhegma. (XIV. 

z 4 



344 



CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 



Rhegma 
lacus. 



Tarsus. 



p. 672.) It owes its chief celebrity to the coldness 
of its waters, which had nearly proved fatal to Alex- 
ander, who imprudently bathed in them when heated 
with marching. (Arrian. II. 4. Plut. Alex. c. 19.) 
That it was navigable, we learn from Plutarch's de- 
scription of Cleopatra's splendid pageant in sailing 
down its stream ; a passage so well known to the 
English reader from Shakespeare's beautiful version. 
(Plut. M. Anton.) It appears, however, from Capt. 
Beaufort, that the Tersoos river, as it is now called, 
" is at present inaccessible to any but the smallest 
" boat ; though within side of the bar, that obstructs 
" the entrance, it is deep enough, and about 160 
" feet wide. We ascended," says that officer, " but 
" a short distance from its mouth, nothing therefore 
" was seen of Rhegma, or of the stagnant lake which 
" Strabo calls the harbour of Tarsus." He further 
observes that the sea must have retired considerably 
from the mouth of the Cydnus ; since in the time of 
the crusades it is reported to have been six miles 
from Tarsus, and now that distance is more than 
doubled i. 

Tarsus, the metropolis of Cilicia, and one of the 
most important and celebrated cities of Asia Minor, 
according to some accounts, as we have seen under 
the head of Anchiale, owed its foundation to Sarda- 
napalus, king of Assyria. The name indeed seems 
to have some affinity with the Syrian or Phoenician 
language, and it is probable that so admirable a site 
as that which it occupied would not have been over- 
looked by the first settlers in the country. The 
Greeks however Averc not behindhand in claiming 
for themselves the honour of having colonized so 

q Karamania, p. 2/0, 



CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 345 

distinguished a city ; and among the many fabulous 
accounts recorded, we may select, as most worthy 
of notice, the story alluded to by Strabo of some 
Argives having arrived there with Triptolemus in 
search of lo. (Strab. XIV. p. 673. Steph. Byz. vv. 
Tapaog, 'Ayx^iaXv].) Tarsus appears for the first time 
in history as the capital of Cilicia and the residence 
of its princes, in the Anabasis of Xenophon. He 
describes it as a great and opulent city, seated in an 
extensive and fertile plain at the foot of the passes 
leading into Cappadocia and Lycaonia. These, as 
we have before seen, were the defiles of Tyana and 
Podandus. On taking possession of Tarsus, (Xeno- 
phon writes Tapao), in the plural,) the city was for a 
time given up to plunder, the troops of Cyrus being 
enraged at the loss sustained by a detachment in 
crossing the mountains. This force appears to have 
attempted to force a passage by the mountains of 
Isauria with Epyaxa, the Cilician princess. They 
set out from Iconium, and, with the exception of 
two companies that were cut off by the barbarians 
in the mountains, arrived safely at Tarsus five days 
before the main body of the army. The route jiur- 
sued by this detachment was probably by Laranda, 
Lalassis, and the valley of the Calycadnus. (Anab. 
I. 2.) Cyrus, after making a treaty with Syennesis, 
king of Cilicia, remained at Tarsus for twenty days. 
Alexander, after crossing the passes of Tyana, occu- 
pied also this city without resistance, and was de- 
tained there by a dangerous fever for some days. 
(Arrian. II. 4.) Tarsus continued to flourish under 
the successors of Alexander, and still more under the 
empire of the Romans, Julius Caesar having granted 
to the citizens considerable privileges and immunities 



346 CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 

on account of the zeal with which they had espoused 
his cause, privileges which were subsequently con- 
firmed by Augustus. (Dio Cass. XLVII. p. 342.) 
It is to these acts of favour and protection that 
St. Paul owed the right of being a free-born citizen 
of Tarsus. (Acts xxi. 39.) " But Paul said, I am a 
" man which am a Jew of Tarsus, a city in Cilicia, 
" a citizen of no mean city." And Acts xxii. 3. " I 
" am verily a man which am a Jew, born in Tarsus, 
" a city in Cilicia, yet brought up in this city at the 
" feet ofGamaliel." Again, V. 27. " Then the chief cap- 
*' tain came, and said unto him. Tell me, art thou a 
" Roman ? He said. Yea. And the chief captain an- 
" swered. With a great sum obtained I this freedom. 
" And Paul said, But I was free born." Respect- 
ing the great apostle's early residence in his native 
city, we derive little information from the scriptural 
narrative ; but it is evident, from the whole tenor of 
his history, that one important part of his education 
was completed there, namel)^, that part which was 
to fit him for becoming the chosen vessel of God to 
the Gentiles ; by being made thoroughly acquainted 
with their philosophy, literature, and even supersti- 
tions ; and we derive a valuable commentary on this 
feature of the apostle's ministry, from Strabo's re- 
marks on the studious character of the Tarsians. 
Such was the eagerness with which they cultivated 
literature and philosophy, that no other city, not 
even excepting Athens and Alexandria, could sur- 
j)ass it in the number and character of its schools. 
He adds that the learned however seldom remained 
in the city, but generally migrated after a time to 
complete their studies elsewhere. St. Paul, after his 
conversion, appears to have resided five years at 



CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 847 

Tarsus, where Barnabas came to seek him. (Acts x. 
30. — xi. 30.) Of the success the apostle met with 
in his native city the Acts are silent ; but as men- 
tion is made of the churches of Cilicia, of which Tar- 
sus was the principal town, it is not to be doubted 
that he preached there with zeal and effect. (Acts 
XV. 22 and 41.) 

Strabo says every species of instruction was pur- 
sued at Tarsus, and he gives a long list of literati 
who added to its celebrity. Antipater, Archedemus, 
and Nestor, stoics ; Athenodorus Cordylion, a friend 
of Cato of Utica; and Athenodorus of Cana, the 
preceptor of Augustus, who conferred upon him the 
greatest honours, and intrusted him with the regu- 
lation of the affairs of Tarsus, greatly disordered by 
the faction of Mark Antony. Nestor was another 
distinguished philosopher and politician of Tarsus ; 
he was tutor to young Marcellus, nephew of Augus- 
tus, and succeeded Athenodorus as chief magistrate. 
He was of the Academy. Plutiades and Diogenes 
were men of brilliant talents and conversation ; the 
latter especially excelled in extemporaneous compo- 
sition, a gift not uncommon at Tarsus. Artemido- 
rus and Diodorus were distinguished grammarians, 
and Dionysides, a tragic writer, whose merit ob- 
tained for him a place among the poetic Pleiads. 
(Strab. XIV. p. 673 — 75.) Tarsus continued to 
flourish under the emperors Hadrian, Commodus, 
and Severus, after whom it affected to be called ^. 
and it remained a large and opulent town till it fell 

q Tluis we have AAPIANH. of A. M. K. i. e. 'Ap.VTT;^. Me- 

KOMOAIANH.CETHPIANH.AN- yi<TTr,i. KaXX«7T^?. The legend 

TflNEINIANH. The distinction on the autonomous coins, which 

of MHTPOnOAI2 is also as- are uncommon, is TEPSIKON 

sumed, and the pompous titles and TAP^EflN. Sestini, p. 103. 



348 CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 

into the hands of the Saracens. It was taken from 
them, after sustaining a memorable siege, by the em- 
peror Nicephorus, (Leo Diacon. p. 37.) but was again 
restored to them soon after, according to the Arabian 
historian, Abulpharagius. (Append, ad Leo Diac. 
p. 381.) Though greatly reduced, it still continues, 
under the name of Tersoos, to be the chief town of 
this part of Karamania. There are, however, few 
remains of antiquity of any consequence ; but the 
country around is well cultivated, and very pro- 
ductive. 

To the west of Tarsus, at a distance of thirty 

Giaphyrae. stadia, was a village named Glaphyrpe, with a stream 
which fell from a rock and joined the Cydnus. (Steph. 

Till Cas. Byz. v. TXa<j)vpai Eustath. ad Iliad. B. p. 327.) Tili 
Castrum is mentioned as a strong fortress in the 
vicinity of Tarsus, by Cinnamus. (p. 104.) 

Resuming the line of the coast, after leaving the 

Sarus fl. Cydnus, we find the Sarus, at a distance of seventy 
stadia from the mouth of the former river''. The 
Sarus is a large and rapid stream, whose source in 
the mountains of Cataonia, and its course by the 
town of Comana, was noticed in our progress through 
that part of Cappadocia. On quitting that province, 
it encounters the central chain of Taurus, not far 
from the defiles of Tyana, and after many a struggle 
and winding amidst its dark recesses, finally bursts 
through the rocky barrier, and pours its waters along 
the Cilician plain into the Mediterranean. Xeno- 
phon, in the Anabasis, places the Sarus immediately 
after the Cydnus, (I. 4.) as well as Ptolemy; (p. 



^ This appears from the Stadiasmus, where we must read lipcv 
for kfiiiv. 



CILICIA CAMPESTllIS. (349 

129-) but Strabo omits all mention of its course 
through Cilicia, as well as of the city of Adana, by 
which it flowed, so that we have reason to suspect 
some omission in the text of the geographer. But 
Captain Beaufort thinks it possible that some change 
may have taken place in the course of the Sarus, and 
that it may have formerly joined the Pyramus, as 
Abulfeda, the Arabian geographer, asserts that it 
did in the fourteenth century. The two rivers, how- 
ever, are certainly distinctly laid down in the Sta- 
diasmus, which reckons 120 stadia from one to the 
other. Procopius informs us also that when Justi- 
nian repaired a remarkable bridge over the Sarus, 
above Adana, he turned the course of that river for 
a time, probably by uniting it with the Pyramus, 
(jEdif. V. 5.) which proves again the separation. 
We are informed, by Livy, that the fleet of Antio- 
chus was nearly destroyed near the mouth of this 
river by a violent storm. (XXXIII. 41.) The expres- 
sion is remarkable ; " ad capita, qua^ vocant. Sari 
" fluminis foeda tempestas oborta," the commentators 
observe that " ad capita" does not mean the source, 
but probably some cliffs near the mouth. But in the 
Stadiasmus we find mention made, not of the " ca- 
" pita Sari," but the head of the Pyramus, {KecpaXyj 
Tov Hvpafxov,) and it reckons 120 stadia between that 
point and the Sarus. The latter river is now called 
Sihoofi. 

Adana, situate on the Sarus, about thirty miles Adana. 
from its mouth, though not mentioned by early writ- 
ers, appears to have been a town of considerable 
antiquity, and of Phoenician origin. Stephanus Byz. 
(v. "A^ava) asserts that it was founded by Adanus 
and Sarus, who made war upon the Tarsians, but 



350 CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 

were defeated. Adanus is there stated to be the son 
of Terra and Uranus. 

Adana is mentioned by Appian, for the first time, 
in the Mithridatic war, who states that Pompey 
established there some of the Cilician pirates, (p. 
237.) But if the conjecture of Salmasius, who reads 
^A^dyy] for'AAavTj in the text of Scylax, (p. 40.) be ad- 
mitted, we have a much earlier authority for its exist- 
ence, though the geographer must be allowed to de- 
scribe it very inaccurately, when he states it to be an 
emporium and harbour beyond the Pyramus. The 
emendation, therefore, I think very doubtful. Dio 
Cassius reports, that its inhabitants had frequent 
disputes with those of Tarsus. (XL VII. p. 345.) 
Adana is mentioned by Pliny, {V. 27.) Ptolemy, (p. 
129.) Procopius, and several other Byzantine histo- 
rians, and it is still a large and populous town, caj)i- 
tal of a pashalik of the same name ^. 

Between the Cydnus and Sarus is a long sandy 
Ammodes touguc, whicli secms to auswcr to the Ammodes 

prom, , . /•■««■, 

promontorium of Mela. 
Pyramus fl. The Pyrauius, now Gi/ioon, rose, as we have seen, 
in the mountains of Cataonia, bordering on Comma- 
gene. We there referred to Strabo's description of 
its source and subterraneous bed, and the deep and 
narrow channel by which it forces its way tiirough 
the barrier of Taurus. Such was the quantity of 
soil it carried with it down to the sea, that an oracle 
affirmed that the day would come when it would 
reach the sacred isle of Cyprus. 

^^ There are early autonomous and other emperors. AAPIA- 

coins of Adana, with barbarous NON. AAANEON. MAKPEINIA- 

charactcrs. Like Tarsus, it as- NON, &c. Sestin. p. 99. 
sinned the name of Hadrian 



CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 351 

"EccsTa* l(ro"OjW.£VOJj ore TIvpoi[j,og siipvo^lvi^g 

(Strab. XII. p. 536.) This, however, has not taken 
place ; but the able navigator, to whose survey we 
are indebted for an accurate knowledge of this coast, 
informs us that a remarkable change has occurred 
with respect to the course of this river, which now 
finds its way into the sea twenty-three miles more 
to the east, in the gulf of Ishenderoon. Near the 
mouth of this river, which was navigable, ancient 
geographers and historians place Mallus, said toMaiius. 
have been founded by the soothsayers, Amphilochus 
and Mopsus, after the siege of Troy. The adventures 
of these heroes in Cilicia formed a favourite subject 
for poets and mythologists, and their tombs were 
pointed out at Megarsus, a place situate below Mai- Megarsus. 
lus, on a height close to the mouth of the Pyramus. 
(Strab. XIV. p. 676.) We learn from Arrian that 
Alexander, previous to the battle of Issus, marched 
along the coast from Soli to Megarsus, where he 
sacrificed to Minerva Megarsis, and poured libations 
on the tomb of Amphilochus. He then moved on to 
Mallus, where he was joined by his cavalry, which 
had marched across the Aleian plain from Tarsus, 
under Philotas. (Strab. loc. cit. Arrian. II. 5.) The 
Pyramus, according to Scylax, might be ascended in 
ships as far as Mallus. (p. 40. Cf. Mel. I. 13. Plin. 
V. 27. Ptol. p. 129. Steph. Byz. v. MaAAo^.) 

Megarsus, which is known, from Lycophron, to 
have been seated on a hill close to the shore : 

YlvpocfjLOv TTpOi lx/3oAa7j 



Msyapa-og. Cassand. v. 439- 



352 CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 

(See the Scholiasts.) Captain Beaufort has, with 
great appearance of probability, placed Megarsus on 
the height of Karadash^ a white cliff, about 130 
feet high, and twenty-six miles east of the Syhoon^ 
or Sarus*. The position, however, which he assigns 
to Mallus, close to the same spot, and his theory 
with respect to the change in the course of the Py- 
ramus, are not consistent with historical accounts. 
Megarsus certainly was not on the same side of the 
Pyramus as Mallus, for Alexander, according to 
Curtius, entered that town after throwing a bridge 
across the river. (III. 7.) Mallus, therefore, as Col. 
Leake justly observes, must have stood on a hill on 
the eastern bank of the Pyramus, near its mouth. 
In the middle ages it still retained the name of 
Malo. (Sanut. Secret. Fid. II. p. iv. c. 26 ".) 
ram"us '^^^ Aleian plain, which, as we have seen from 

Strabo, lay between Tarsus and Mallus, is celebrated 
in mythology as the scene of Bellerophon's catas- 
trophe : 

Htoj 6 xuTTTTsllov TO ' A\r,'i'jv olog uKoCTO, 
^Ov Suf^hv xarsSccy, ttutov avSfciTroiv aXislvoov. 

II. Z. 200. 

Dionysius, the geographical poet, has connected this 
tale with the legend of Tarsus, (v. 864 — 874.) 

KrTvOf TOJ KiKUcUV TTSpiO-ugSTCXl e^VSU KOXTTOg 

Maxpj STT uvTOklr,v. 'Aa/jjc Si (TTetvoi XtxkM(7l 
Ka» TO) [/.h irXsovwv 7roraju.«Jv £7rj|U,i'crycTaj u^mp 
Tr^Xokv sp^OfjiBVCtiv YlvpaiJi^oio ts xx) Uivapoio, 

t Karaiiiania, p. 289— 2[)3. gend of the former is MAAAO- 

11 Asia Minor, |). 21.5, 2Ifi. TON; of the latter, MErAP^EflN 

There are a few medals both of nP02 TO nTP.AMO. Sestin. p. 

Mallus and Megarsus. The le- 101. 



CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 353 

KySvoy Ti cxoKioio [xscrrjv hiac Tupirov lovTo; 
Tap(TOV eiJ)iTt[ji,;vr}v, odi drj ttots TlYjyixa-os mvog 
'TapiTov ot^ng X"^§V A/ttsv ouvoixa, rij^aoj otf' j'ttttoo 

Ks79< 8= xai TTsS/oi/ TO 'AA^^iov, ou xara vwra 

'AvSgCOTTWV OiTTUVSU&BV OckcUfJiiVOg SV^UXUCKS. 

These extensive plains appear to occupy the whole 
tract of country which intervenes between the Sarus 
and Pyramus. Above Mallus, on the latter river, 
was the town of Mopsuestia, in Greek Mo\pov eo-r/a, Mopsues- 
a name evidently derived from the hero Mopsus. "^' 
(Steph. Byz. in v.) Strabo, somewhat inaccurately, 
places this town on the gulf of Issus, (XIV. p. 676.) 
but Stephanus and other writers distinctly seat it on 
the Pyramus. Anna Comnena and Cedrenus have, 
on the other hand, confounded this river with the 
Sarus. The former speaks of the old and new town, 
(p. 349. C. Cedren. p. 654.) Procopius says Justi- 
nian repaired the bridge over the Pyramus. (iEdif. V. 
5.) Leo Diaconus also affirms it was on that river, 
(p. 33.) We learn from Pliny that it was a free city. 
(V. 27.) In the middle ages the name of this place 
was already corrupted to Mamista. (M. Glyc. p. 306. 
Hier. Itin. p. 580.) and it is now still further dis- 
torted to that of Messis^. 

Between the Pyramus and Sarus there was an-Antiochi;i 
other Antiochia, which took a local designation frommum^''* 
either river, since the Stadiasmus, which removes it 
150 stadia from Mallus, calls it after the former, 
and so likewise Stephanus Byz. ; (v. 'Avno'xjEia.) but 

X The ethnic of Mopsuestia others are Roman and imperial, 

is ^o^exTfii, as appears from The legend in some cases ex- 

Stephanus, and the medals of hibits the titles TH2 lEPAS. KAI 

the town. Some belong to the ATTONOMOT KAI A2TA0T. 
kings of the Seleucid dynasty 3 

VOL. II. A a 



354 CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 

there are medals inscribed ANTIOXEHN THN UPOY 
T£ll SAPOI, which could hardly be referred to any 
other town y. 

Above Mopsuestia, and still on the Pyrainus, was 
Anazarba, the town of Anazarba, so called apparently from a 

sive 

Caegarea mountain of that name, at the foot of which it was 

ad Anazar- . /ni-n ^ i <^ ^ / \ t n 

i)um. Situate, (oteph. rJyz. v. Ava^ap^a.) It afterwards 
took the appellation of Csesarea ad Anazarbum, from 
what emperor is not known, but prior to the time 
of Pliny. (V. 27. Ptol. p. 129.) The original ap- 
pellation however finally prevailed, as we find it so 
designated in Hierocles and the imperial Notitiae, at 
which period it had become the chief town of Cili- 
cia Secunda. (Hierocl. p. 705.) It was nearly de- 
stroyed by a terrible earthquake under Justinian. 
(Procop. Hist. Arc. c. 18. Cedren. p. 299.) It was 
the birthplace of the celebrated physician and na- 
turalist Dioscorides, and the poet Oppian ^. The 
Table Itinerary removes Ariazarbus eleven miles 
from Mopsuestia, and the Antonine places it on a 
road communicating with Caesarea in Cappadocia 
by Cucusus and Flavias, or Flaviopolis, from which 
latter place it was distant eighteen miles. (Itin. Ant. 
p. 211, 212.) 

Returning to the mouth of the Pyramus, we enter 

issicus si- upon the periplus of the great gulf of Issus, which 
begins, in fact, at the cliffs of Karadash^ the ancient 
Megarsus, on the western side of the river, and ter- 
minates with cape Hynxir, the Rossicus Scopulus 
of ancient navigators. This great bay forms a re- 

y Sestini imagines this to be belonging to this town, both 

another name for Adana, but I under its appellation of Cae- 

see no evidence of that fact. sarea and that of Anazarbus. 

P. 9f>. KAICAP. TOO, or OPOC TO 

z There are numerous medals ANAZAP. and ANAZAPBEON. 



nus 



CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 355 

markable indenture in the angular bend which the 
coast of Asia Minor here makes with that of Syria ; 
the latter commencing immediately after the cape of 
Rhosus, which forms the extremity of mount Pie- 
ria. Round the gulf was a considerable extent 
of plain, enclosed however by two chains of moun- 
tains meeting together in one point, and forming, 
with their extremities, the two capes above men- 
tioned. And in order to penetrate into the plains 
of Issus it was absolutely necessary to cross a chain, 
and its defile, whether advancing from the western 
parts of Cilicia, or the neighbouring province of Sy- 
ria on the south-east. The gulf of which we are 
now speaking took its name from the town of Issus, 
so celebrated for the victory of Alexander over the 
army of Darius : it is known to modern navigators 
by that of Iskanderoon, a town which has taken the 
place of Alexandria, once seated near its Syrian ex- 
tremity. We shall now follow the windings of its 
coast from the mouth of the Pyramus and Mallus. 
The Maritime Periplus names in succession several 
minor stations, respecting which other authorities 
are silent. Ionia, afterwards called Cephalus, nearionia,post- 
a headland, at the mouth of the Pyramus. The isles lus. 
called Didymi ; the point and village of Januaria ; Januaria 
Seretile, which is doubtless a corruption of Serre- prom.** 
polls, a town placed in this part of Cilicia by Pto- ^"*'^^'^* 
lemy. (p. 129.) Above this place, according to the 
Periplus, was a village named Pyramus and mount Pyramus 
Parium. Then follows ^gae, a seaport town ofParium 
greater note, being spoken of by Strabo, (XIV. p. ^g^'. 
676.) Ptolemy, (p. 129.) Pliny, (V. 27.) Philostra- 
tus, (I. c. 5.) and Lucan. 

A a 2 



356 CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 

Deseritur Taurique nemus, Perseaque Tarsos, 
Coryciumque patens exesis rupibus antrum, 
Mallos, et extremae resonant navalibus JEgas. 

Phars. IIL225. 

(Cf. Steph. Byz. v. AlyaL Hierocl. p. 705. Act. 
Coiicil. &c.) This place is now called ^hjas, a vil- 
lage possessing a small harbour, and a few vestiges 
of antiquity^. Beyond this point the mountains 
close in upon the shore, and present a narrow pas- 
sage, or defile, for those who travel on land. This 
pass was formed by that branch of mount Taurus 
known to the ancients by the name of Amanus ; and 
Amanides. hcucc the term of Amanides, or Amanica? Pylae, em- 
AmanicfB ployed by the Greek historians and geographers to 
^*' designate the passage in question. These writers 
have not always however been very clear and ex- 
plicit in distinguishing between the several defiles 
by which Cilicia and Syria communicated with each 
other ; hence the difficulties which this point of an- 
cient topography has presented to modern inquirers, 
particularly with respect to the ojierations of Alex- 
ander and the forces of Darius, which led to the 
battle of Issus ; since, without an accurate know- 
ledge of the surrounding country and mountains, it 
is impossible to comprehend the movements of the 
two armies on that memorable occasion. It is to 
be regretted that Captain Beaufort was prevented 
by untoward circumstances from completing his sur- 
vey of the gulf of Issus, as he would then have fur- 
nished us, according to his usual accuracy, with a 
perfect topographical view of the coast and plain, 
and surrounding mountains. 

a Karamania, p. 299— 301 . 



CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 357 

The Amanides Pylae then, according to Strabo, 
who is in harmony with Ptolemy (p. 129.) and the 
Stadiasmus, began soon after Mgae, after which oc- 
curred the several places to be observed on the shores 
and plains of Issus ; then the mountains closed again 
on the coast, and formed another defile, called the 
Cilician gates, on the frontier of Syria. Pliny, how- 
ever, has reversed the order observed by the above- 
mentioned geographers, and has placed the gates of 
Amanus nearest Syria, and those of Cilicia close to 
^gae. (V. 27.) The arrangement of Xenoj^hon in 
the Anabasis is again very different : he represents 
Cyrus as marching from Tarsus, across the Sarus 
and Pyramus, to Issus, which he calls the last town 
of Cilicia ; then he describes the Cilician and Svrian 
gates, two narrow passes between perpendicular 
rocks and the sea, closed by walls and gates, and 
distant from each other about three stadia, with a 
river flowing between. Here there is no mention 
whatever of the Pylae Amanides, nor iEgae, nor any 
pass in short before Issus. Let us now turn to the 
historians who relate the actions of Alexander. We 
shall find that Arrian states that when this prince 
was at M alius, he heard that Darius was at Sochi, 
a spot in Assyria about two days' journey from the 
Assyrian gates ; meaning in both cases Syria and 
the Syrian gates. Having then consulted his prin- 
cipal officers, Alexander moved rapidly forwards, 
crossed the defiles, and took up a position at My- 
riandrus, which, as we know from Xenophon, was a 
Phoenician town south of Issus and the Syrian 
gates. Meanwhile Darius, urged by his counsellors, 
advanced towards Cilicia, and having crossed the 
mountains by the defiles called the Amanicae Pylae, 

A a 3 



358 CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 

descended upon Issus, and thus found himself inter- 
posed between Cilicia and Alexander. (II. 7.) Quin- 
tus Curtius agrees in all the principal points with Ar- 
rian, and especially in distinctly stating that it was 
by the Amanicae Pylce that Darius advanced to Is- 
sus, the same night that Alexander penetrated into 
Syria. (Ill, 8.) The Roman historian however 
speaks of a defile which Alexander had to cross be- 
fore he could reach Issus, when advancing from 
Mallus. He is said to have moved in one day from 
that town to Castabalum, or Castabolum, where he 
luet Parmenio, " quem prtemiserat ad explorandum 
" iter saltus, per quem ad urbem Isson nomine pe- 
" netrandum erat." (III. 7.) That is, he marched 
by iEgae to Castabalum, or Castabala, as Ptolemy 
calls it, one of the interior towns of Cilicia Propria. 
In the Jerusalem Itinerary it occurs under the cor- 
rupt name of Catavolomis, on the road from Tarsus 
by Adana and Mopsuestia into Syria ; it is stated 
to be thirty-one miles from the latter town ; and 
the previous station, Tardequia, I take to be another 
corruption for Turris Mge?e, Tor (VEquia. The 
Itineraiy of Antoninus also places Catabolum be- 
yond ^Egeae. (p. 145, 146. Itin. Hieros. p. 580.) To 
these authorities we must add that of Callisthenes, 
the Alexandrian historian quoted by Polybius in 
one of his fragments. (XII. 17-) He stated, in con- 
formity with Arrian and Quintus Curtius, that Alex- 
ander traversed the Cilician gates, whilst Darius 
penetrated into Cilicia by the Pylae Amanides. And 
though Polybius censures and criticises severely tlie 
narrative of Callisthenes with respect to the manoeu- 
vres of both armies during the battle ; he never con- 
troverts the truth of the above fact. Cicero also, in 



CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 359 

his account of the operations in which he was en- 
gaged against the Parthians, speaks of having ma- 
noeuvred against the enemy in the vicinity of Issus, 
and having cleared the passes of mount Amanus. 
(Att. Ep. V. 20. Fam. XIV. 4.) 

From these several authorities brought together, it 
will appear that the description given by Strabo of 
the Pylae Amanicae is not correct, or at least that 
his Pylse Amanicae are not those of the Alexandrian 
historians. It must be charged to a laxity in the 
geography of that period to extend the name to the 
narrow way along the coast by Mg3e to Issus, when 
in fact it must have been originally and properly ap- 
plied to the pass which led from Syria over the chain 
of mount Amanus down upon Issus. The maritime 
pass of Mg<Q and Castabolum is clearly that which 
Parmenio was ordered to clear, and by which Alex- 
ander advanced upon Issus ; and though it is pro- 
bably formed by a root of mount Amanus detaching 
itself from the main chain, and closing upon the 
coast near the mouth of the Pyramus, it cannot fairly 
be called a pass in that mountain. I have thought 
it necessary to insist upon this point, because it is 
essential to a correct notion of the topography of 
the Issic gulf and district, and because, however cor- 
rect Col. Leake's remarks are on this head, it does 
not appear to me that he has sufficiently noticed the 
difference between the geography of Strabo and that 
of the Alexandrian annalists ^. 

Issus itself stood at the foot of the main chain of issus. 
Amanus, and nearly at the centre of the head of the 
gulf to which it gave its name. Xenojjhon describes 

b Asia Minor, p. 258. 
A a 4 



360 CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 

Issus C[(7(7ot, in the plural) as a considerable town in 
his time. Cyrus remained there three days, and was 
joined by his fleet from the Peloponnese. These 
ships anchored close to the shore where Cyrus had 
his quarters. (I. 4. Cf. Arrian. II. 7. Diod. Sic. 
XVII. 32.) In Strabo's time it was only a small 
place with a port. (XIV. p. 676.) Stephanus says 
it was called Nicopolis, in consequence of the vic- 
tory gained by Alexander, (v. "lo-o-of.) Strabo how- 
ever speaks of Nicopolis as a distinct place from Is- 
sus. Cicero reports that, during his expedition against 
the mountaineers of Amanus, he occupied Issus for 
some days. (Att. Ep. V. 20.) The breadth of plain 
between the sea and the mountains appears from 
Callisthenes, quoted by Polybius, not to exceed four- 
teen stadia, less than two miles, a space very inade- 
quate for the manoeuvres of so large an army as that 
of Darius. The ground was besides broken, and 
intersected by many ravines and torrents which de- 
scended from the mountains. The principal of these, 
and which is mentioned frequently in the narrative 
Pinarusfl. of this momcutous battle, is the Pinarus. Strabo 
places it after Issus, and such appears from Arrian, 
Plutarch, and the other historians, to have been the 
fact. The two armies were at first drawn up on 
opi)osite banks of this stream : Darius on the side 
of Issus, Alexander towards Syria. It will not be 
necessary to enter further into the examination of 
the field of battle, as the narratives of Arrian, Cur- 
tius, and Plutarch, with the critical remarks of Po- 
lybius on the statement of Callisthenes, give a very 
clear notion of the whole transaction. I am not 
aware of the name which now designates this me- 



CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 361 

morable site. The Pinarus is said to be called 
Deli sou ^. Pliny mentions, besides this stream, some 
other obscure torrents, such as the Andricus, Lycus, Andricus 
and Chlorus. (V. 27.) The latter may perhaps be LyVurti. 
the same as the Chersus, or Charsus, which Xeno- chiorus fl. 
phon mentions in the Syrian pass. 

The defile leading out of Cilicia into Syria, com- pyiae cm. 
monly termed the Cilician gates, began soon after 
Issus at a place now called Bayas, and which in the 
Itineraries appears under the corresponding name of 
Baia?, sixteen miles from Castabolum. (Itin. Anton. Baiae. 
p. 146. Itin. Hierocl. p. 580.) Here are some ruins 
of ancient fortifications, commonly called the " Pil- 
" lars of Jonas," which probably mark the site ^, 

Sixteen miles beyond Baiae was the town of Alex- Alexandria 

, . -I r~\ J.- • ^ "\ 1 • 1- ^*^ Issum. 

andria, surnamed Catisson, i. e. Kara iaaov, which 
probably owed its origin to the great victory ob- 
tained by Alexander on these shores. It is men- 
tioned by Strabo as situated on the gulf of Issus. 
Pliny includes it in Cilicia, as well as Steph. Byz. 
(v. \\Kelavdp^La,) and the Acts of Councils, which 
class it among the sees of that province ^. The mo- 
dern town is termed by the Franks Alessandrona^ 
or Alessandretta, and by the Turks Ishanderoon ; 
and it now communicates these different appellations 
to the gulf of Issus. Above Iskanderoon a pass leads 
across the chain of mount Am anus by jBeila7i and 
Pagras, the ancient Pagrae, to Antioch. This pas- 
sage, as Col. Leake observes, is the Syria;3 Pylaj of svriaj 

PyliK. 

c Gosselin's French Strabo, ^ There are Seleucid and ini- 

note, torn. IV. p. ii. p. ^384. perial medals of Alexandria, 

d See Pococke, Niebuhr, and with the legend AAEHAN- 

other travellers, quoted by Col. APEflN. Sestin. p. 98. 
Leake, Asia Minor, p. 209. 



362 



CILICIA CAMPESTRiy. 



Myrian- 
drus. 



Rhosus. 

Rhosicus 
Scopulus. 



Amaniis 
mons. 



Eleuthero- 
cilices. 



Erana. 
Sepyra. 
Commoris, 



Ar» Alex 
aiidri. 



Pindenis- 

i>US. 



Ptolemy. Beyond Alexandria was Myriandrus, a 
town inhabited by Phoenicians, and which Xenophon 
(Anab. I. 4.) places in Syria beyond the Pylae Cili- 
ciae, but Scylax includes it within the limits of Cili- 
cia, (p. 40.) as well as Strabo, who says that Seleucia 
of Pieria, near the mouth of the Orontes, was the 
first Syrian town beyond the gulf of Issus. The 
last Cilician town therefore was Rhosus, or Rhossus, 
whose cape, called Rhossicus Scopulus by Ptolemy, 
forms the southern extremity of the gulf, now cape 
Hynxir. (Cf. Steph. Byz. v. 'Paaog. Athen. XIII. p. 
586.) The earthenware of this town was much 
esteemed. (VI. p. 229.) It still retains the name of 
Rosas. The rock of Rhosus forms the termination 
of mount Amanus, the great eastern barrier of Cili- 
cia, which stretches to the north as far as Melitene 
and the Euphrates. (Strab. XI. p. 521.) It is now 
called Al-Liiccm. Its valleys and recesses were in- 
habited by wild and fierce tribes, who lived chiefly 
by plundering their neighbours, though they boasted 
of their freedom under the sounding name of Eleu- 
therocilices. It was against these mountain rob- 
bers that Cicero's Cilician campaign was chiefly 
directed. And he has acquainted us, in two of his 
letters, with the successes he obtained, and the for- 
tresses he captured. He mentions particularly Era- 
na, which he terms " Amani caput," and Sepyra, 
and Commoris ; these he took, with six fortresses 
not named, besides burning several others. He then 
encamped for four days near the Arse Alexandri, at 
the foot of the mountain ; this spot was doubtless 
close to Issus. From thence he proceeded to attack 
Pindenissus, a town of the Eleuthero-Cilicians, and 
seated on a height of great elevation and strength ; 



CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 368 

this place he took after a siege of fifty-seven days, 
and compelled the Tibarani, a neighbouring tribe, to Tiimrani 
submit likewise. (Ep. Fam. XV. 4. Att. Ep. V. 20.) ''"" 
In another letter he calls the inhabitants of these 
mountains Amanienses. (Fam. II. 10^.) Strabo ob- 
serves that Tarcondimotus, a chief of great merit, 
and who had been a zealous partisan of the Ro- 
mans, obtained from them a grant of the whole of 
this mountain district, with the title of king. (XIV. p. 
671.) Cicero likewise terms him, " fidelissimus socius 
" trans Taurum amicissimusque populi Romani s." 
(Fam. Ep. XV. 1. Cf. Pint. Anton, c. 61.) 

Epiphanea, a town which probably took its name Epipha- 
from Antiochus Epij^hanes, was situate, as we learn "^^' 
from Cicero, a day's march from mount Amanus. 
(Fam. Ep. XV. 4.) It is also mentioned by Pliny, 
who reports that it was first called GEniandus. (V. 
27.) Appian. (Mithrid. p. 237.) Ammian. Marcell. 
(XXII. p. 223.) Ptolemy, (p 129.) Stephanus Byz. 
(v. 'E7rt(f)dv€ia,) and the ecclesiastical records. The 
Table Itinerary fixes it between Anazarba and Alex- 
andria, thirty miles from each. Augusta was an- Augusta, 
other Cilician town situate in the interior. (Plin. V. 
27.) Ptolemy places it in a small district named 
Bryelice. (p. 129. Cf. Steph. Byz. v. AvyoZara.) WeBryeiice 
have now to close this section with a list of some 
places, the sites of which are altogether undeter- 
mined. Pliny commences his description of the coast 
from Syria, with the river Diaphanes, which inayDiaphanes 
be the Thapsacus of Scylax ; then mount Crocodi- Thapsa- 

cus fiuvius. 
Crocodilus 
, ... . r J mons. 

fTheethnic/A/xawTai, appears common in Cilicia, as we nnd 

on coins which are assigned to a bishop of ^gie subscribing it 

these people. Sestin. p. 98. in the councils of Nice and 

E The name was not un- Antioch. 



364 CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 

CassipoHs. lus. After the Aleian plains, Cassipolis, which took 
its name probably from the celebrated Cassius. Be- 
Thynus, yoncl the Pyramus, Thynus, or rather Tyrus, accord- 
nis. " ingto the MSS.; and after, Celenderis, Nymphaeum. 
um. logetner Avith Adana, he names Cibyra, Pinara, 

Alee. Pedalia, and Alae ; the latter receives some counte- 

nance from Stephanus Byz. (v/'AXai) and a coin of 
Paradiluf Hatlrian, with the legend AxXAIHN KIAIKONK In 
imbarus ^^^ intcHor he notices the rivers Bombus and Para- 
gons, disus, and mount Imbarus. 

Haiicus" Stephanus enables us to add the following : Ha- 
lice and Halicus, a district, and place, and moun- 
Argos, tain, near Augusta ; Argos, afterwards called Ar- 
Argeopoiis. geopolis ; (v. Apyo^.) Asine ; (v. Aaivr].) Aulae, a 
Aula.* naval station, between Tarsus and Anchiale ; (v. 
Didymae- AvXai.) Didymajum, a village ; Artemidorus spoke 
of two islands named Didyma, which are found also 
Dryaena, in the Stadiasmus ; Dryaena, afterwards called Chrv- 

pos.tea •' •' 

chrysopo- sopolis ; (vv. Apvaiva, XpvcronoXig.) Castalia, on the 
Paniana- authority of Thcagencs ; (v. KairaXia.) Pania, a 

vale. 1 A 

Petrossa port near the Aleian plain ; (v. Ylavla.) Petrossa, an 

insula. . , , , , 

Rhoexus island ; (v. HeTpoaaa.) Rhoexus, a port at the mouth 

pOrtUS. i" ii • r-t / c <- 

ot the river Sarus ; (v. Voil^g.) Rhogmi, another 

port, probably the Rhegini of Strabo ; (v. 'Pwy/xoi) 

Adir' ^^'^g^*^' ^ ^Pot said to be near Ades and Laertes, 

but of Ades we know as little; (v. :£vaypa.) Chry- 

Chrysippa. sippa, a towu founded by Chrysippus ; (v. Xpvcmnra.) 

Pseudo- Pseudocorasiurn, a tract of coast between Corvcus 

corasium. ^ '- "•- 

and Seleucia ; there was a bay and roadstead ; Ar- 
temidorus is quoted ; (v. "^ev^oKopacriov.) 

The Byzantine historians furnish also a few un- 

Baca. important sites : Baca, a castle besieged and taken 

by John Coiniienus; it was near some river; (Nicet. 

^ Seslin. p. 93. 



CILICIA CAMPESTRIS. 365 

Ann. p. 15. Cinnani. p. 10.) Cistramum, near Ana-cistra. 
zarba, taken by Alex. Comnenus ; (Cinnam. p. 104.) 
Corvorum nidi, a lofty mountain with two summits, Corvorum 
near which the emperor Jo. Comnenus wounded 
himself mortally in the chase. Herculis Pagus, neaniercuiis 
Tarsus ; (Cedr. p. 637.) Longinia, a place mentioned Longii'ia. 
in conjunction with Tarsus; Mamista, or Mopsuestia, 
and Adana, taken from the Turks by the Greeks ; 
(Ann. Comn. p. 340. D. Cinn. p. 104.) Marasia, aMarasia. 
place in Cilicia, probably now JSlarash. (Ann. Comn. 
p. 334. D.) In Nicephorus Phocas we have some 
curious details about the Cilician defiles above Ada- 
na ; the road leading to that town was called ViaviaMau- 
Mauriana ; river Cydnus, called Hierax by the na- 
tives; pass of Carydius. (p. 157.) The Itinerary carydius 
Table marks a communication which branches off*"* 
from the defiles of Podandus towards Adana ; this 
is noticed in Captain Kinneir's modern account of 
the pass. Papyrii Castrum, a fortress near Tarsus ; Papyrii 
(Theodor. Hist. Eccl. II. p. 571.) Praca, a town Prani. 
near Seleucia, taken from the Turks by Manuel 
Comnenus ; (Nicet. Ann. p. 35. B.) called Pracana 
by Cinnamus. (p. 21.) There was a passage leading 
from the valley of Seleucia over the mountains into 
the plain of Tarsus, near to Claudiopolis ; (Curopal. 
p. 833.) and Nicephorus Phocas speaks of the Cli- 
surse or passes of Seleucia ; (c. 23. p. 162.) Sisium, Sisium. 
a fort of Cilicia. (Cedr. p. 445.) 



SECTION XIV. 



CYPRUS. 



Origin of its inhabitants — Sketch of its history from the earliest 
period to the fall of the eastern empire — Natural history, pro- 
ductions, and principal geogra()hical features of the island — 
Periplus of the coast — Interior. 

The island of Cyprus, situate at nearly the same dis- 
tances from the shores of Phoenicia and Cilicia, might 
with equal facility receive her earliest colonists from 
either of these two countries ; but since we have 
seen that Cilicia itself was indebted to the former 
for her population, it is most probable that the island, 
into whose history we are now briefly inquiring, 
derived her first settlements from the same primary 
source ; nor is this a conjecture which has only pro- 
bability to urge in its behalf, since the earliest re- 
cords and traditions preserved by the Greeks tend 
to confirm the fact. Herodotus, in his catalogue of 
the Persian armament assembled by Xerxes, de- 
scribes the Cyprians as a mixed people, derived from 
Greece, Pha^nicia, and, as they themselves afllirmed, 
from ^Ethiopia. (VII. 90.) The latter tradition, pro- 
bably, referred to a colony which may have been 
imported by Amasis, king of Egypt, when he held 
Cyprus under his domination. It is generally sup- 
posed by the earlier biblical commentators, that the 



CYPRUS. 367 

word Chettim, by which the Greeks or Gentiles are 
designated in the Old Testament, had been derived, 
in the first instance, from the town of Citium in 
Cyprus, founded by Belus, king of the Phoenicians. 
(Joseph. Antiq. Jud. I. 7- Epiphan. Haer. I. 30. §. 
25. Hieron. in Esai. V. 23^.) Other towns are said 
also to have been founded by Belus, who, in Virgil, 
is supposed to be the father of Dido : 

. . . genitor turn Belus opimam 
Vastabat Cypruni, et victor ditione tenebat. 

^N. I. 622. 

but we have besides abundant proof of the fact we 
are seeking to establish, in the whole of the ceremo- 
nies and religious rites observed by the Cyprians, 
with respect to Venus and Adonis, w^hich were, 
without doubt, borrowed from Phoenicia. Cinyras, 
whom the Greeks called the father of Adonis, is re- 
presented in the Iliad as king of Cyprus, where the 
poet, speaking of Agamemnon, says : 

To'v TTOTE 01 Kivuprii Scojcs, ^uvriiov elvui. 
lls'jQcTO yoip KyTTCOvSs uisyu kKso;. 

II. a. 19. 

We hear also of Pygmalion, the son of Belus, having 
reigned in Cyprus. (Porphyr. Abst. Anim. IV. c. 
15.) and Elulseus is said, many years after, to have 
reconquered the Citians, who had revolted from him. 
This Phoenician prince is supposed to be contempo- 
rary with Shalmanezer, king of Assyria. (Menand. 
ap. Joseph. Ant. Jud. IX. 14.) Soon after the siege 
of Troy, if not before that period, the Greeks began 
to dispute with the Phoenicians possession of the 

a See other authorities in Meursius. Cypr, c. 10. Bochart. 
Geogr. Sacr. 



368 CYPRUS. 

island. The colony from Salamis and Athens, under 
the command of Teucer, was celebrated by poets, 
(Hor. Od. I. 7.) and acknowledged by historians. 
(Herod. VII. 90.) Other settlements were formed 
from Arcadia and Cythnus, (ibid.) and the Tel- 
chines were said to have crossed over from Crete. 

At first this great island was divided into several 
petty states, each of which was governed by its own 
tyrant or independent prince ; the number of these 
is stated by writers of authority to have been nine. 
(Plin. V. 31. Diod. Sic. XVI. P. Mel. II. 7.) 

Subsequently, the whole island was brought under 
subjection, for the first time, by Amasis, king of 
Egypt, and compelled to become tributary. Amasis 
was probably assisted in this enterprise by his ally, 
Polycrates, tyrant of Samos. (Herod. II. 182.) On 
the invasion of Egypt by Cambyses, the Cyprians 
surrendered readily to that monarch, and furnished 
a squadron for the naval part of the expedition. 
(III. 19-) They continued to form a portion of the 
Persian empire, and constituted, with Phoenicia and 
Palestine, the fifth division in the arrangement made 
by Darius; (III. 91.) but, during the Ionian revolt, 
the whole island, at the instigation of Onesilus, bro- 
ther of the tyrant of Salamis, threw off the Persian 
yoke, and joined the confederates, with the exception 
of Amathus, which was besieged by Onesilus and 
his allies. The Persians, however, speedily despatch- 
ed a large force of infantry and shijis to quell the 
insurrection, and obstinate engagements took place 
by land and sea, with various success. The lonians, 
who formed the naval force of the allies, defeated 
the Phoenician fleet opposed to them ; but the Cy- 
prians, who fought on land, were overcome by the 



CYPRUS. 369 

Persians, and Onesilus their leader was slain. Ar- 
tybius, the Persian general, fell also in the engage- 
ment. After this disaster, the whole of Cyprus again 
became subject to Darius. (Herod. V. 104 — 116.) In 
the expedition of Xerxes, the Cyprians furnished 150 
ships. (VII. 90.) After the overthrow of the Per- 
sians at Salamis and Mycale, a Grecian fleet invaded 
the island, and reduced the greater part of it. 
(Thuc. I. 94.) Another expedition was afterwards 
undertaken by the Athenians, under the command 
of Cimon ; but a plague having arisen, and that 
general dying, the undertaking was given up. (I. 
112.) 

Whilst the enfeebled empire of Persia was scarcely 
able to resist the attacks of the victorious Greeks, 
an opportunity was afforded to a wise and politic 
prince, Evagoras of Salamis, not only to recover his 
j)aternal possessions, of which he had been deprived 
by the Persians, but even to add considerably to 
their extent, and to raise the name and glory of 
Cyprus to a much higher pitch than it had ever at- 
tained before. He became the patron also of the 
arts and literature, and entertained at his court dis- 
tinguished men of all nations. It was in his do- 
minions that Conon, the celebrated Athenian gene- 
ral, sought refuge after the fatal battle of j^Egos 
Potamis, and by his aid was enabled to prepare a 
fleet, which restored the naval ascendency of his 
country. (Isocr. Evagor. p. 200. Xenoph. Hell. II. 
1. 19. Corn. Nep. Conon. Diod. Sic. XIV. 39.) 
Judging from the splendid panegyric passed upon 
his character by Isocrates, Evagoras was certainly 
a prince of rare and distinguished virtue and merit, 
and his fortune for a time kept pace with his shin- 
VOL. II. B b 



370 CYPRUS. 

iiig qualities ; unfortunately, however, he met with 
reverses towards the close of his reign, in a war 
against Artaxerxes, and died by the hand of a do- 
mestic assassin, leaving his dominions to his son 
Nicocles, also favourably known from the writings 
of Isocrates. Cyprus, however, at this period, must 
be considered as tributary to the Persian empire, 
and it remained so till the battle of Issus ; when the 
several states declared for Alexander, and joined the 
Macedonian fleet with 120 ships at the siege of Tyre. 
(Arrian, II. 20.) They were afterwards ordered to 
cruise off the Peloponnese with 100 ships, in con- 
junction with the Phoenicians. (III. 6.) A\lien the 
empire of Alexander was dissolved, Cyprus, together 
with Egypt, fell to the lot of Ptolemy, and remained 
annexed to that crown under his successors, till, on 
the death of the last sovereign of the dynasty, it was 
seized by the Romans, and erected into a province 
of the empire, under the government of a praetor. 
It had been ceded for a short time to Cleopatra and 
her sister Arsinoe, by Mark Antony ; but on his 
overthrow and death the island was once more an- 
nexed to the Roman dominions. (Strab. XIV. p. 684. 
Plut. in Caton. Plin. c. 34. 39- Flor. III. 9.) We 
find it governed by a proconsul when Paul and Bar- 
nabas first preached the Gosi)el in the island. This 
officer's name was Sergius Paulus, and he appears 
to have become a convert on witnessing the judg- 
ment of God on Elymas the sorcerer. (Acts xiii. 4 
— 13.) St. Barnabas is known to have been a native 
of the island. 

Under the Byzantine emperors Cyprus experienced 
several vicissitudes. It was invaded and ravaged by 
the Saracens for the first time in the reign of Con- 



CYPRUS. 371 

stans, and repeatedly afterwards. (Const. Porpliyr. 
de Adm. Imp. c. 20. Paul. Diacon. XIX.) Richard 
Cceur de Lion, having conquered it from Isaac Com- 
nenus, made it over to Lusignan, king of Jerusalem, 
to which title he added that of this new possession, 
and both are still retained by the sovereigns of the 
house of Savoy. Lusignan lost it to Saladin, after 
which it was taken by the Venetians, and finally 
wrested from them by the Turks. 

This celebrated island, like every other in the 
Grecian seas, appears to have borne several appella- 
tions in remote ages, but many of these are only 
poetical, and rest on dubious and obscure authority. 
Those which occur most commonly are Sphecia, Ce- 
rastis, and Cryptus, for which fanciful etymologies 
are adduced by Stephanus, Eustathius, and other 
authorities compiled by Meursius : that of Cyprus, 
which finally prevailed over every other, is also un- 
certain ; but the notion which derives it from the 
shrub cypress, is probably the most correct ; and 
Bochart, whose Phoenician analogies rest here on 
safer ground, insists strongly on its validity ^. 

Cyprus is reckoned by Strabo, or rather Timaeus, 
whom he quotes, the third in extent of the seven 
Mediterranean isles, which he classes in the follow- 
ing order : Sardinia, Sicily, Cyprus, Crete, Euboea, 
Corsica, Lesbos. (XIV. p. 654. Cf. Plin. V. 35.) Ac- 
cording to ancient measurements, its circuit amount- 
ed to 3,420 stadia, including the sinuosities of the 
coast. Its greatest length from west to east, be- 
tween cape Acamas and the little islands called 
elides, was reckoned at 1,400 stadia. (Strab. loc. cit. 
Plin. loc. cit. Agathem. Geogr. I. 5.) 

b Geogr. Sacr. p. 373. 
B b 2 



372 CYPRUS. 

The interior of Cyprus is mountainous ; a ridge 
being drawn across the entire length of the island 
from cape Acamas on the west to that of Dinaretum 
in the opposite direction ; it attains the highest ele- 
vation near the central region, and was anciently 
called Olympus. This physical conformation pre- 
cludes the existence of any considerable rivers. That 
of Famagosta is the largest. There are no lakes, 
but some salt marshes on the coast. 

Cyprus yielded to no other island in fertility, since 
it produced excellent wine and oil, and abundance of 
wheat and various fruits. There was also a great 
supply of timber for building ships. (Strab. XIV. 
p. 684 ^.) Its mineral productions were likewise very 
rich, especially copper, found at Tamasus, and sup- 
posed to be alluded to in the Odyssey. I am not 
aware that its mountains have a volcanic character, 
but we have evidence of its having been frequently 
exposed to earthquakes. (Senec. Epist. 91.) 

That the Cyprians spoke a language different 
from the Phoenicians, and peculiar to themselves, is 
evident from the scattered glosses preserved by the 
lexicographers and grammarians. As might be an- 
ticipated from the religious worship and rites of the 
goddess so universally established amongst them, 
they were a sensual and licentious people. Prosti- 
tution M^as sanctioned by the laws, (Herod. I. 199- 
Athen. XII. p. 516.) and hired flatterers and pro- 
fessed sycophants attended on the luxurious princes 
of the land. (Clearch. ap. Athen. VI. p. 255, 25Q.) 
Nevertheless, literature and the arts flourished here 

c Numerous passages from coUectecl by Meursius, on the 
Athenaeus, Pliny, and other productions of Cyprus, 
writers, have been industrio\islv 



CYPRUS. 373 

to a considerable extent, even at an early period, as 
the name of the Cypria Carmina, ascribed by some 
to Homer, (Herod. H. 118. Athen. XV. p. 682.) 
sufficiently attests. Several writers appear to have 
treated of the history and topography of Cyprus, 
and a list of these, as well as of the distinguished 
men whom that island produced, will be found in 
Meursius. 

Strabo commences his description at the western Acamas 
extremity from cape Acamas, which he states to be ^ 
a thickly wooded headland divided into two sum- 
mits rising towards the north. (XIV. p. 682.) The 
modern name is cape SaUzano. (Sext. Empir. in 
Math. I. 12. Lucian. Salt. c. 40. Ptol. p. 136.) 
Hence Venus, I imagine, was called Acamantis. 
(Steph. Byz. v. 'AKa[xavTiov.) The chain, of which 
this headland is the extremity, bore the name of 
Acamantis, and was connected with the central ridge 
of the island. Advancing along the coast in a south- 
erly direction, we meet with cape Trapano, evi- 
dently the Drepanum of Ptolemy; (p. 136.) then theDrepanum 
roadstead and harbour of Paphos, the most cele-^'" 
brated city perhaps in the whole island : the ancient 
town, called Palaepaphos, was said to have beenPaiwpa- 
founded by Cinyras, the reputed father of Adonis; 
(Apollod. in. 14.) it was seated on a height, at a 
distance of ten stadia from the sea, and near the lit- 
tle river Bocarus, which flowed from mount Acamas. Bocamsfl. 
(Hesych. v. Bw/capo?.) It is very vmcertain to what 
river Euripides alludes in connexion with Cyprus 
and Paphos : 

'Ixo/jM,aV TTOTJ TOiV KuTTfOV, 
VOLVOV Toii 'AfpoliTUC, 

Bb3 



374 CYPRUS. 

Vlaipov 9', av hiia.T6iJT0ii.0i 
fiap^apov TCOTtxixov poui 
xapTri^QviTtv civoix^poi. 

Bacch. v. 400. 

The best critics conceive that he refers to the Nile ; 
in that case it is difficult to imagine how that river 
can be said to fertilize Cyprus. It was reported that 
Venus had first landed on this part of the island. 
(Tacit. 11. Hist. II. 2. P. Mel. II. 7.) 

Tunc Cilicum liquere solum, Cyproque citatas 
Immisere rates, nullas cui praetulit aras 
Undse diva inemor Papliiae, si numina nasci 
Credimus, aut quemquam fas est coepisse deonim. 

LucAN. Phars. VIII. 456. 

We are told by Pausanias that the worship of Ve- 
nus was introduced into the island from Assyria. 
(Att. c. 14.) It appears to have been established at 
Paphos before the age of Homer. 

'H 8' cipci KuTtpov jxave pKoixixsi'^rji 'A^^oS/tij, 
'Ej nu(pov i'vSa U ol TS[j,sv05 ^caixo; ts QurjBig. 

Odyss. 0. 362. 

Ipsa Paphum sublimis abit, sedesque revisit 
Laeta suas : ubi templum illi, centumque Saba?o 
Thure calent arae, sertisque recentibus halant. 

ViRG. ^N. I. 415. 

O Venus, regina Cnidi Paphique, 
Sperne dilectam Cypi'on, et vocantis 
Thure te multo Glycerae decoram 
Transfer in aedem. 

HoR. Od. I. 30. 

Paphos. A new town subsequently was founded nearer the 
sea, at a distance of sixty stadia from the former, 



CYPRUS. 375 

by Agapenor, an Arcadian chief, who commanded 
at Troy, and after the siege, was driven to Cyprus 
by a storm. This new colony became in time very 
flourishing, and possessed many magnificent temples 
sacred to Venus ; but Palajpaphos always seems to 
have retained its preeminence in sanctity ; and in 
the annual festival of the goddess, the road to it, as 
Strabo reports, was crowded with her votaries, who 
resorted here from the other towns. (Strab. XIV. p. 
683. Pausan. Arcad. c. 5.) This colony from Arcadia 
is alluded to by Herodotus. (VII. 91.) Having been 
nearly overthrown by an earthquake, (Senec. Ep. 91. 
Nat. Qusest. VI. 26.) it was restored by Augustus, and 
named Augusta ; (Dio Cass. LIV.) it was the seat of 
government when visited by St. Paul, for we read in 
the Acts, (XIII. 6.) that when the apostle, accom- 
panied by Barnabas and John, surnamed Mark, " had 
" gone through the isle unto Paphos,they found a cer- 
" tain sorcerer, a false prophet, a Jew, whose name was 
*' Bar-jesus : which was with the deputy of the coun- 
" try, Sergius Paulus, a prudent man ; who called for 
" Barnabas and Saul, and desired to hear the word 
" of God. But Eiymas the sorcerer, (for so is his 
" name by interpretation.) withstood them, seeking 
" to turn away the deputy from the faith. Then 
" Saul, (who also is called Paul,) filled witli the 
" Holy Ghost, set his eyes on him, and said, O full 
" of all subtilty and all mischief, thou child of the 
" devil, thou enemy of all righteousness, wilt thou 
" not cease to pervert the right ways of the Lord ? 
" And now, behold, the hand of the Lord is upon 
" thee, and thou shalt be blind, not seeing the sun 
" for a season. And immediately there fell on him 
" a mist and a darkness ; and he went about seeking 

B b 4 



376 CYPRUS. 

" some to lead him by the hand. Then the deputy, 
" when he saw what was done, believed, being asto- 
" nished at the doctrine of the Lord." It appears, 
from Tacitus, that the worship of the heathen deity 
was yet remaining in the reign of Titus, who vi- 
sited Paphos, and made many inquiries respecting 
the customs and sacred rites of the place. (Hist. II. 
2. Ann. III. 62. Suet. Tit. c. 5.) Paphos appears 
in later writings, both civil and ecclesiastical, as an 
episcopal town, and one of the most noted in the 
island : the site is yet marked by some ruins, and 
the name of Sciffo serves sufficiently to attest their 
identity. The cape which closes the bay of I^ciffo to 

Zepi.yrium the wcst, must answer to the Zephyrium promonto- 
rium of Strabo. (XIV. p. 683.) The coast presents 

Arsinoe to the south-cast another headland, named Arsinoe, 
which afforded an anchorage to vessels, and possessed 
a grove, and temple. At a little distance further in- 

Hierocepia. land was Hieroccpis, or Hierocepia, a name which 
denotes a sacred enclosure, or pleasure-ground, pro- 
bably dedicated to the Paphian goddess. (Strab. loc. 
cit.) Pliny names Hierocepia, as a small island, si- 
tuate off New Paphos. (V. 35.) 

Palaepaphos is said to correspond with the site of 

Boosura. ConcVui ', then follow in succession Boosura, (Boo^- 
cvpa,) " the Ox's tail," noticed by Strabo and Pto- 

Treta. Icmy, (p. 136.) and Treta, only by the former. 7''he 

Curium, next town of consequence is Curium, said to have been 
founded by an Argive colony ; (Herod. V. 113. Strab. 
XIV. p. 683.) it was one of the nine regal cities, 
and Stesenor, its sovereign, is stigmatized in history 
as having betrayed his country's cause during the 
fight waged by the Cyi)rians against the Persians, 
towards the close of the Ionian revolt. (Herod, loc. 



CYPRUS. 37T 

cit.) It is also noticed by Ptolemy, (p. 136.) Ste- 
phaniis Byz. (v. Kovpiov) and Pliny. (V. 35.) The 
site seems to correspond with that now called Epi- 
scopia, implying the existence of a bishop's see, a 
circumstance which applies to Curium in the mid- 
dle ages. (Act. Concil. Ephes. p. 779- Hierocl. p. 
706.) Ancient writers report that the hills of Cu- 
rium contained rich veins of copper ore. (Theophr. 
de Vent. Aristot. de Mirab. Serv. ^n. III. 111.) 
Near the town was a cape, whence sacrilegious 
offenders, who had dared to touch the altar of 
Apollo, were hurled into the sea. (Strab. XIV. p. 
683.) The editor of the French Strabo supposes 
this may be the cape Phrurium of Ptolemy, andphruiium 
cape Bianco, of modern geography^. 

The point, named Curias, was more to the south- Curias 

■*■ prom. 

east, and was rather a peninsula than a promontory: 
it answers to what is now called cape Gatto, forming 
a low and rounded excrescence which terminates 
the island towards the south. At a little distance 
inland are some salt marshes, which receive an arm 
of a river corresponding apparently with the Lycus Lycus fl. 
of Ptolemy, (p. 136.) The main branch joins the 
sea close to the site of Curium. 

Amathus, which next follows, was a town of great Amatims. 
antiquity. Adonis, who was supposed to be the same 
as Osiris, was worshipped here, as well as Venus. 
(Steph. Byz. v. 'AixaBov?. Cf. Paus. Boeot. c. 41.) 
Scylax affirms that the Amathusians were autoch- 
thonous ; (Peripl. p. 41. Cf. Theopomp. ap. Phot. 
Bibl.) and it appears from Hesychius that they had 
a peculiar dialect, (vv. 'ErfiAa/, Kt;/3a/3^a, MaA^/ca.) 

c Tom. III. p. ii. p. 401. 



378 CYPRUS. 

Amathus was celebrated as a favourite residence of 

Venus : 

Est Amathus, est celsa mihl Paphos. 

JEn. X.51. 

Nunc o cceruleo creata ponto 
Quae sanctum Idalium, Syrosque apertos, 
Quaeque Ancona, Cnidumque arundinosam 
Colis, quaeque Amatlumta, quaeque Golgos. 

Catull. Ep. XXXVI. 

The goddess, as an author who wrote a history of 
Amathus, and is quoted by Hesychius, (v. 'Acppohro^,) 
reported, was represented with a beard. (Cf. Macrob. 
Sat. III. 8. Serv. ^n. II.) 

Some particulars connected with the history of 
Amathus are related by Herodotus. He informs us 
that it was the only town in the island which re- 
fused to join Onesilus in his revolt against Darius. 
Tliat chief in consequence laid siege to the place, 
but a Persian army having advanced to its succour, 
he was defeated and slain, and the Amathusians after 
the engagement cut off his head, and fixed it over 
one of their gates. A swarm of bees having subse- 
quently lodged in the skull, the Amathusians, in com- 
pliance with an oracle, buried the head, and paid di- 
vine honours to the memory of the Cyprian chief. 
(V. 114 — 116.) Other superstitions practised at 
Amathus are specified by Plutarch in the life of 
Theseus, and Ovid in his Metamorphoses. (X. 220.) 
Athenaeus relates that Pasicyprus, king of Citium, 
having sold his patrimony, retired to Amathus and 
died there. (IV. 7.) We also learn from Hesychius, 
on the authority of Eratosthenes, that Rhoecus, king 
of Amathus, having on one occasion been captured by 
the Athenians, and being afterwards released, acknow- 



CYPRUS. 879 

ledged the obligation by sending them annually a 
present of barley, (v. 'Poikov KpiSoTrofxTria.) Hipponax, 
who is quoted by Strabo, (VIII. p. 340.) affirmed 
that Amathus was famous for its wheat ; and Ovid 
has, in more than one passage, alluded to its mineral 
productions. 

At si forte roges foecundam Amathimta metalli. 

Metam. X.220. 

Piscosamque Cnidon, gravidamve Amathunta metalli. 

Ibid. X. 531. 

Amathus is mentioned by Strabo, (XIV. p. 683.) 
Pliny, (V. 35.) and Ptolemy, (p. 136.) and it is 
known to have been the see of a Christian bishop 
under the Byzantine emperors. (Hierocl. p. 706. 
Eccl. Not.) Its ruins are to be seen near the little 
town of Limeson, or Limasol, somewhat to the north- 
east of cape Gatto, 

Beyond was situate the little town of Palaea, at the Paiaea. 
foot of a mountain shaped like a breast, and named 
Olympus, (Strab. XIV. p. 683.) now Monte S<^. Croce. ojy^P^s 
Then follows Citium, one of the most ancient cities of citium. 
the island, and whence the name of Chetim or Chit- 
tim is not unreasonably supposed to have been de- 
rived. (Joseph. Antiq. Jud. I. 7. Epiphan. Haer. 
I. 30. Hieron. in Jes. V. 23.^) Diogenes Laertius, 
in his life of Zeno, reports that this town had been 
colonized by the Phoenicians ; a circumstance which 
is confirmed by Cicero, (de Fin. IV. 20.) and Sui- 
das. (v. ZrjViov.) It was even said that it owed its 
foimdation to Belus : 

B)jXou 8' av KItiov ts not) l[xspos<7(7a AaTTYjQog, 

(Alexand. Ephes. ap. Steph. Byz. v. Aa7t'>i&o$.) 

e See Bochart, Geogr. Sacr. 373. and Meurs. Cypr. I. 10. 



380 



CYPRUS. 



Malum. 



Tetius fl. 

Dades 

prom. 



Pedalium 
prom. 



Citium was besieged at the close of the Persian 
war by the Athenian forces under the command of 
Cimon. (Thuc. I. 112.) According to Diodorus, the 
place surrendered ; (XII. 3.) but it was the last ex- 
ploit of that distinguished general, for he was soon 
after taken ill, and died on board his ship in the 
harbour. (Cf. Plut. et Corn. Nep. Vit. Cim.) Pliny 
mentions some salt marshes near Citium. (XXI. 7. 
Antig. Caryst. c. 173.) This town was further ce- 
lebrated for having given birth to Zeno, the founder 
of the Stoical sect, and the physician Apollonius. 
(Strab. XII. p. 682.) It appears to have been a 
bishoprick under the Byzantine empire ^, and still 
retains the name of Chiti. 

Not far from Citium was a town named Malum, 
which surrendered likewise to Cimon the Athenian. 
(Diod. Sic. XII. 3.) The same historian reports 
that Ptolemy, son of Lagus, having deposed Stasioe- 
cus, prince of Malum, destroyed the town, and re- 
moved the inhabitants to Paphos. (XIX. 79.) Pto- 
lemy places, to the west of Citium, the little river 
Tetius ; and to the east the promontory Dades, 
which answers to Ccqw Chiti Then follows a rugged 
line of coast for several miles, along a bay which lies 
between the headland just mentioned and that of 
Pedalium : above the latter, according to Strabo, 
rose a hill, with a temple consecrated to Venus. 
(XIV. p. 682.) JMeursius was of opinion that the 
word Pedalium was corrupt, and proposed substi- 
tuting Idalium, a well known spot, beloved by Ve- 
nus ; but such a change does not derive any sup- 
port from manuscript authority ; and, besides, Pto- 
lemy recognises this cape to the east of Citium. 

f Geogr. Sacr. p. 306. 



CYPRUS. 881 

With respect to Idalium, or Idalia, we have no idaiium, 
precise indication of its locality in all the numerous 
passages of the Greek and Latin poets, which con- 
nect it with the worship of Venus. 

Est Amathus, est celsa mihi Paphos, atque Cythera, 
Idaliaeque domus. JEn. X. 51. 

Aut super Idalium sacrata sede recondam. 

^N. 1.681. 

. fotum gremio dea tollit in altos 
IdaliaB lucos. ^En. I. 692. 

Ae'cTTTOiv' a ToXyajg ts xa) 'iSaAjov i(pi\ci<rai. 

Theocr. Id. XV. 100. 

Quaeque regis Golgos, quaeque Idalium frondosum. 

Catull. Pel. et Thet. 96. 

pei'cussit Adonem 

Venantem Idalio vertice durus aper. 

Propert. II. 13. 

Lucan would seem to place it on the sea-shore : 

. . ab Idalio Cinyreae litore Cypri. 

Phars. VIII. 716. 

The Scholiast of Theocritus and Stephanus Byz. 
speak of a small town of the same name as the hill, 
or mountain, (v. 'l^dXiov.) Beyond cape Pedalium, 
Strabo points out the port of Leucolla, which seems i-eucoiia 

J ' J r^ r-i portus. 

to answer to that of Armida, near C«po Lrrego. 
This headland is probably to be identified with the 
sandy promontory called Ammochostos by Ptolemy. Ammo. 

, chostos 

The name of this cape seems to have been trans- prom. 
mitted by corruption to the neighbouring town of 
Famagosta, which figures in the modern annals of 
the island. In this vicinity must have stood Arsi- Arsinoe. 
noe, mentioned by Strabo. It possessed a harbour. 



382 CYPRUS. 

Throni (XIV. p. 682.) Throni is a spot noticed by the same 
prom! geographer, as being distant 700 stadia from Cu- 
rium. Ptolemy mentions both a town and promon- 
tory of the name, between capes Ammochostos and 
Dades. 
Saiamis. Further north by east was Salamis, a city of note 
and considerable antiquity, said to have been founded 
by Teucer, the son of Telamon. This fact indeed 
stands on the authority of so many writers of weighty 
testimony, that we cannot consider it as a mere my- 
thological fiction. Isocrates, in his address to Nico- 
cles, son of Evagoras, dwells much on the descent 
of that prince and the royal house of Salamis from 
Teucer. (Evagor. p. 192, 193. Nicocl. p. 33.) He- 
rodotus also admits that Cyprus had received a co- 
lony from the Athenian Salamis, though he makes 
no mention of Teucer. (A"II. 90.) ^^schylus like- 
wise bears witness to the truth of this tradition : 

TloovV uItIo. (TTevayaaTwv. 

Pers. 907. 

and Horace has made it a conspicuous feature in one 
of his odes, where he represents Teucer as address- 
ing the companions of his voyage. 

Quo nos cunque feret melior fortuna parente, 

Ibimus, o socii comitesque. 
Nil desperandum Teucro duce, et auspice Teucro. 

Certus enim promisit Apollo, 
Ambiguam tcllure nova Salamina futuram. 

Od. I. 7. 
(Cf. Tacit. Ann. III. 62.) 



CYPRUS. 383 

Previous to the arrival of Teucer the site had 
borne the name of Coronis. Porphyrins, who is our 
authority for this circumstance, records that human 
sacrifices were offered up to Jupiter and Venus, the 
tutelary deities of the place, and that this practice 
continued till the time of Hadrian. (Abst. II. Eu- 
seb. Praep. Ev. IV. 16. Lactant. I. 21.) 

We learn from Herodotus that Salamis was one 
of the leading cities of Cyprus in the reign of Cam- 
byses. At that time it was governed by Evethon, a 
jjrince who is said to have made some rich offerings 
to the shrine of Delphi, and to have received at his 
court Pheretime, mother of Arcesilaus, the ex-king 
of Cyrene, but to have declined assisting her with an 
army in reinstating her son. (IV. 162.) In the time 
of Darius we find Salamis ruled by Gorgus, great 
grandson of Evethon, whose brother Onesilus caused 
the whole island to revolt. (V. 104.) The battle 
which crushed this revolution, and brought back the 
Cyprians under the Persian yoke, was fought under 
the walls of Salamis. (V. 110.) It was afterwards 
besieged by Cimon, but peace being made with Per- 
sia, the siege was not persisted in. (Diod. Sic. XII. 3.) 
Several years after, it was again assailed by Demetrius 
Poliorcetes,but he retired on the approach of Ptolemy 
with a fleet. (Diod. Sic. XX. 48—50. Polyaen. IV. 
7.) During the reign of Evagoras it might be con- 
sidered as the principal city of the island, since it 
was the rendezvous of distinguished men from 
Greece, and other countries. Cicero speaks of hav- 
ing freed the Salaminians from the vexations to 
which they were exposed on the part of Scaptius, a 
Roman knight, and his satellites. (Ep. Att. V. 21. 
VI. 1 et 2.) It was taken and destroyed by a band 



384 CYPRUS. 

of seditious Jews in the reign of Trajan. (Euseb. 
Chron. Paul. Diacon. IX. Oros. VII. 12.) Over- 
whelmed by an earthquake in that of Constantine, 
and being restored, it took the name of Constantia, 
which it still preserves under the modern form of 
Constayixa. It was then the metropolitan see of the 
island, and derived some histre from being held by 
Epiphanius. (Sozom, VII. 26.) 

Salamis possessed a very ancient temple of Jupi- 
ter, founded by Teucer ; and another of Venus, al- 
luded to in the hymn ascribed to Homer : 

X«7p Sea, "^uXajxIvog luxTijaevjjc /xsSjouo'a. 

This city is casually noticed by Thucydides, (1. 112. 
Scylax. (Peripl. p. 41.) Pliny, (V. 31.) and Mela. (II. 
7.) We learn from Athenaeus that it was celebrated 
for its manufactures of embroidered stuffs. (II. 48. 
B.) It possessed also salt-works. (Plin. XXXI. 7. 
Dioscor. V. 126.) Hesychius has preserved some 
words of the Salaminian dialect ; Ev'/ov^. Seayov. 
Kaypa, &c. Beyond Salamis, Ptolemy notices a pro- 

Eieaprom. moutory Called Elea, which is still known to modern 
navigators under that name. The north-eastern ex- 
tremity of the island is formed by a long narrow 
neck of land, stretching ovit towards the mouth of 
the gulf of Issus. The cape by which it was ter- 
minated seems to have borne different ajDpellations ; 

Dinare- for Pliny calls it Dinaretum, but Ptolemy, Ovpk j3oog, 

elides or '' the Ox-tail," and in one MS. the reading is 
KAe7^ef a^pa. The latter variation is easily accounted 
for, from the existence of some small islands off the 

elides in- cape in question, which were called Glides, and are 
often mentioned in ancient history and geography. 
(Strab. XIV. p. 682. Plin. V. 31.) Herodotus has 



CYPRUS. 385 

also transferred the name of these islands to the 
cape. (V. 108.) Strabo does not name this head- 
land, but observes that above it was a mountain 
named Olympus, with a temple consecrated to Ve- oiympus 
nus Acraea, from which women were excluded. 
(XIV. p. 682.) Cape Dinaretum, or Glides, now 
bears the name of Sanf Andrea. Having turned this 
promontory, we now direct our course towards the 
west, along that side of the island which faces Cili- 
cia. Here we find the town and port of Cari)asia, Carpasia. 
named by Scylax, (p. 41.) Strabo, (loc. cit.) Pto- 
lemy, and Stephanus Byz. who states that it was 
founded by Pygmalion, (v. Kap-naaia.) Diodorus re- 
ports that it was taken by Demetrius Poliorcetes, 
together with a neighbouring place called Urania, 
or Erania ; perhaps the temple of Venus Urania, or 
Acrsea, mentioned by Strabo. (Diod. Sic. XX. 48.) 

xa\ Oipavlrig nslov s^prji 

A'lSsplov xevsoovog eTrcuvuaov, oVtj ttoxItsis 

' E,Tp-ipiv uarpaTTTOvra; sTioupuviMy tuttqv UcTpoiv. 

0\ T el^ov Y^poLTtciCTiiav aAiOTi-psj ou5aj upovpYji. 

NONN. DiONYS. XIII. 

Carpasia has preserved the name of Carjxis. 

A little to the west of Carpasia and near the coast, 
was a group of islands called Carpasiae. Strabo Carpasise 
seems to place them to the south of the Clides, but 
the passage is obscure, and probably not free from 
error ; and I cannot agree with the French transla- 
tors in supposing two towns, and two groups of 
islands of this name ^. (Strab. XIV. p. 682. Ptol. p. 
136.) The Carpasian islets are known by the name 
of Chiro. Westward of the town of Carpasia was a 
spot called the shore of the Greeks ; ('Avatwv a.KT\\) Achiyo- 
g Tom. III. p. ii. p. 300. 
VOL. II. C C 



386 CYPRUS. 

it being reported that Teucer and his colonists had 
landed there on their amval. (Strab. XIV. p. 682.) 
Beyond was Aphrodisium, situated in the narrowest 
part of the island, being only seventy stadia from 
Salamis. (Strab. loc. cit.) Beyond Carpasia, Scylax 
places Cerynea, (Per. p. 41.) which appears to be 
called Ceronia by Ptolemy, (p. 136.) and Cyrenia by 
Constantine Porphyrogenetes. (Them. I. 15. Cf. 
Diod. Sic. XIX.) This town is known to have 
been an episcopal see from ecclesiastical records. 
The name of Txerina is still attached to the spot, 
and there are a few remains of antiquity. Col. 
Leake, who landed there from Cilicia, says it is 
six hours from Lefkosia, or Nicosia, the modern 
capital of the island ?. Meursius thinks that Cery- 
nia ought to be identified with Cinyrea, noticed by 
Pliny (V. 31.) and Nonnus : 

'Ap^syovov Kivucao, DiONYS. XIII. 

Lapathus, but tliis is somcwliat doubtful. Then follows Lapa- 
thus. thus, or Lapethus, a town of considerable antiquity, 

and the foundation of which was assigned to the 

Phoenicians, headed by Belus : 

Bi^Xoo 8' av Kj'tjov re xa) ifj.spoc<7(J u Au.Trri$oc.^ 

(Steph. Byz. V. AaTrr/So^. Cf. Scyl. Per. p. 41.) Non- 
nus states that it derived its name from Lapethus, 
a follower of Bacchus. 

Ix 8s AaTT^flcov 

"Tarepov r}v exaXs<rcrav eTTiovojUOV riyi^iovrfii 
"Of TOTS Kuov ayeipEV hv £ti&vp(ra) Ss xu8o»jW,aJ 

KutSocvs xcii xTspsiaTO, xxl ovvofj^cn. KfmB TroXiVajj. 

DioNYs. XIII. 447. 

? Travels in Asia Minor, p. 1 18, 1 19. 



CYPRUS. 387 

We learn from Strabo that Lapethus subsequently 
received a Spartan colony, headed by Praxander. 
He adds that it was placed opposite to the town of 
Nagidus in Cilicia, and possessed a harbour and 
docks. (XIV. p. 682.) Diodorus Siculus mentions 
a king of this city, named Praxippus. (XIX. p. 715.) 

Cape Crommyon, now Cormachiti, to the north- Crom- 
west of Lapethus, was the most northern point of ^om. 
the island. It lay opposite to cape Anemurium of 
Cilicia, from which it was distant 350 stadia. (Strab. 
XIV. p. 682.) 

Soli, the most important town on the northern Soii. 
coast of Cyprus, was founded, as Plutarch reports in 
his life of Theseus, by Demophon, son of that hero. 
But Strabo ascribes its origin to two Athenian lead- 
ers named Phalerus and Acamas. (XIV. p. 683.) 
It derives celebrity from the circumstance of Solon 
having resided there for some years at the court of 
Philocyprus, the reigning prince. (Herod. V. 113. 
Diog. Laert. Solon.) Some writers affirmed that 
the Athenian philosopher ended his days at Soli. 
(Suid. V. ^okccv.) Aristocyprus, who succeeded his 
father Philocyprus, was one of the leaders in the 
revolt excited by Onesilus against the Persians, and 
fell in the battle fought near Amathus. Notwith- 
standing his death, the Solians made a vigorous de- 
fence when besieged by the enemy, and surrendered 
only after their walls had been undermined. (Herod. 
V. 115.) At a later period however they joined the 
Persians, together with the Amathusians and Chy- 
trians, against Evagoras. (Diod. Sic.) 

Stasanor, a distinguished officer in Alexander's 
service, was a native of Soli. (Strab. XIV. p. 683.) 
Soli possessed a port at the mouth of a river which 

c c 2 



388 CYPRUS. 

is not named, and a temple consecrated to Venus 
and Isis. (Cf. Plin. V. 35. Ptol. p. 136.) The ec- 
clesiastical records name Soli among the bishoprics 
of the island. (Cf. Hierocl. p. 707.) The inhabitants 
were called YoKioi, while those of Soli in Cilicia were 
named Ycke7g. The town of which we have been 
speaking has the name of Solea still attached to the 

Gerandnis. site. Near SoH was a spot named Gerandrus, whence 
a particular sort of marble was derived. (Apoll. 
Dysc. Hist. c. 36.) Galen speaks also of some mines 
near the same city. (Simpl. Rem. IX. p. 125.) Strabo 
places above Soli, and at some distance from the 

Limenia. coast, a Small town named Limenia ; it appears from 
some ecclesiastical documents, cited by Wesseling in 
a note to Hierocles, to have been four miles from 
Soli. 

Continuing along the northern part of the island 

Arsinoe. towards the west, we find a town named Arsinoe, 
but differing apparently from the one situate not far 
from Paphos. Strabo, who mentions both, speaks 

liucus of a grove sacred to Jupiter in the vicinity of the 
former. (XIV. p. 683.) A little beyond we come to 
cape Acamas, the point from whence our peri plus 
commenced. 

There are few places of note to be considered in 
the interior of Cyprus. The chief of these was Ta- 
masus, celebrated for its rich mines of copper, and 
the metallic composition prepared on the spot called 
calcanthum. (Strab. XIV. p. 683.) These mines ap- 
pear to have been known as early as the days of 
Homer, for he refers to them in the Odyssey : 

Od. a. 183. 



CYPRUS. 389 

It has been disputed, however, among commenta- 
tors, whether the poet in these lines alhided to the 
Cyprian Tamasus, or the Italian Temesa, or Tempsa, 
also famous for its copper mines ^. (Cf. Steph. Byz. v. 
Tafxoi^eog. Ptol. p. 137. Nonn. Dionys. XIII. 445. 
Plin. V. 31.) 

Ovid, in his Metamorphoses, alludes to it as the 
spot where the golden apples grew, by which Hij3po- 
menes won Atalanta. 

Est ager, indigenae Tamasenum nomine dicunt ; 
Telluris Cyprian pars optima : quern mihi prisci 
Sacravere senes : templisque accedere dotem 
Hanc jussere meis. Medio nitet arbor in arvo ; 
Fulva comam, fulvo ramis crepitantibus auro. 
Hinc tria forte mea veniens decerpta ferebam 
Aurea poma manu : nullique videnda, nisi ipsi, 
Hippomenen adii ; docuique, quis usus in illis. 

X. 644. 

Chytrium was a town of some note also in the Chytrium. 
interior, but at no great distance from the north- 
ern coast of the island. It was once governed by 
sovereign princes, as we learn from Alexander, 
whose work on Cyprus is quoted by Stephanus 
Byz. (v. XvTpoi.) The honey supplied by its terri- 
tory was much esteemed. (Diophan. Geopon. XV'.) 
Ptolemy calls it Chytrus, and the Ecclesiastical No- 
tices, from which we learn that it became an episco- 
pal see, Chytria. 

Tremithus, or Trimethus, is also placed in the Tremithus. 
interior by Ptolemy, (p. 137.) The Byzantine his- 
torians mention it as a place of some note. (Con- 
stant. Porphyr. Them. I. 15. Niceph. Callist. VIII. 
14. Socrat. I. 12.) The ecclesiastical records rank 
it among the episcopal towns of the island. (Hierocl. 

^ Ancient Italy, torn. II. p. 4 17. i Quoted by Meursius. 



390 



CYPRUS. 



Ainamas- 

sus. 



p. 707.) The name of Trimiti is still attached to 
the site. 

To these must be added the following places, 

^pea. whose positions are less defined. ^Epea, was a town 

in the vicinity of Soli, and existed before that city. 

The river Clarius ran near it. (Plut. Vit. Solon. 

Steph. Byz. v. AiVe^a.) 

Amamassus, a maritime town, as appears from a 
verse of the Bassarica of Dionysius, quoted by Ste- 
I^hanus Byz. (v. 'A/Aa/xao-o-osr.) 

Stephanus reports that Apollo Hylates was also 
worshipped there. 

Argus, a town of Cyprus, according to Ptolemy 
Hephaestion, quoted by Photius in his Bibliotheca. 
He speaks of a temple of Apollo Erithius there. 

Asine, mentioned by Stephanus Byz.; (v. 'Acr/v^.) 
Callinusa, a promontory, named by Ptolemy; (p. 136.) 
Cresium; (ap. eund. v. Kp^^/ov.) Dionia; (Theo23omp. 
ap. eund. v. Aiavia. 

Elmaeum, a river or mountain noticed by Apollo- 
nius Dyscolus ; (Mir. c. 36.) Epidarus, a town men- 
tioned by Pliny; (V. 31.) Erysthea, where Apollo 
Hylates was worshipped. (Stej^h. Byz. v. 'EpvaOeia.) 

OjV s)(^ov 'TAarao Qbov e5of, 'AttoAXccvo?, 

Goigi. Golgi, celebrated for the worship of Venus, was 

said to have been more ancient than Paphos. (Pau- 
san. Arcad. c. 5.) Stephanus Byz. reports that it 
was colonised by a party of Sicyonians, headed by 
Golgus. (v. VoXyoi.) 

Aio-Tioiv a FoKyiui re xai 'llocKiov h^lXxtj cue . 

Theocr. Id. XV. 



Argus. 



Asine. 

Callinusa 
prom. 
Cresium. 
Diunia. 



Elmaeum. 
Epidarus. 
Erysthea. 



CYPRUS. 391 

YleiXTtTOi TSTapTOt yalav 'i^ovron ^sag 

ToXyoov avaaa-fii. Lycophr. 589. 

Quae sanctum Idalium, Syrosque apertos 
Colis, quaeque Amathunta, quaeque Golgos. 
Catull. Ep. XXXVI. 14. 

Quaeque regis Golgos, quaeque Idalium frondosum. 

Id. Epithal. Pel. et Thet. v. 96. 

Hyle, whence Apollo obtained the surname ofHyie. 
Hylates. (Steph. Byz. x/'TXri.) Tzetzes, in his com- 
mentary on Lycophron, says this place was near 
Carium; {Kapiov) but I imagine we ought to read 
KovpioVf or Mdpiov. 

Lacedsemon, a place so called in Cyprus, accord- Lacedae- 
ing to Steph. Byz. (v. Aa/ce^a/^awv.) 

Ledrum, mentioned by ecclesiastical writers as aLedmm. 
bishop's see. (Sozom. v. 10. Niceph. Callis. VIII. 42.) 

Macaria, mentioned by Pliny (V. 31.) and Ptole- Macaria. 
my. (p. 136.) The latter geographer places it on the 
north side of the island. 

Marium is said by Steph. Byz. to have beenMarium. 
afterwards called Arsinoe. (v. 'Apa-ivorj.) It is noticed 
by Scylax; (Per. p. 41.) but no longer existed in 
Pliny's time. (V. 31k.) 

Otia is given by Steph. Byz. (v. 'Q^rmi) on the oda. 
authority of Ephorus. 

Panacra, a mountainous and woody tract. (Steph. Panacra. 
Byz. V. UdvaKpa.) 

Ka» TS(JLSV05 ^otSuOsvdpov 6pe<r(Tci6\oiO Uavaxpov. 

NoNN. DioNYs. XIII. 447. 
Satrachus, a town and river. Satrachus, 

urbs et fl. 
•^ There are coins of this town Salamis, and Idalium, are also 
with the epigraph MAPI. Sesti- to be met with, 
ni, p. 105. Coins of Paphos, 

C C 4 



392 CYPRUS. 

Lycophr. 448. 

Hp^i ^!X.Xa.(j<Tiyovou Ilaip/yjj vufji^riiov vSoop 
"^oLTpx^og IjjLsposig, odi voXXxxig oI8jU,a Xa^ouau 
KuTrpis avB^\ocivoo(js XsKovi^svov vlea Muppijr. 

NoNN. DioNYs. XIII. 458. 

Tegessus, Tcgessiis, a towii aiid promontory. (Dionys. Bas- 

urbs 6t 

prom. sar. ap. Steph. Byz. v. Teyvjo-ao^. Hesych. ead. v.) 
Tembrus. Tembrus, a place where AjdoIIo Hylates was wor- 
shijDped. 

TefxjSpov, 'Epva-Qsiciv re, xa) sIvuKIyjv 'AiJi,ct[/.ciiT(Tov. 

(Dionys. Bassar. ap. Steph. Byz. v. 'EpvaSeia. Id. v. 

Tefx^po^.) 

Sestus. Sestus, which Nonnus mentions in conjunction 

with it, and Tamasus is less known. 

0< T Ip/ov 'TKoltuo TreSov xai eSe'^Aja 2r;(7ToO 
K«i Tafxacrov xu) TsiJi,^poy, 'KpvaSsKxv ts iroKlyvriv. 

XIII. 444. 

chabyris. Chabyris, a spot mentioned by Sozomenus. (Eccl. 
Hist. V. 9.) 



1 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



N. B. The Roman numerals refer to the volume, the figures to the 
page. The Greek ethnic of each town or place has been subjoined 
where there was authority for it. 



Aba, ii. 215. 

Abacaenum, ii, 215. 

Abarnis promontorium, i. 68. 

Abassus, sive Ambasus, ii. 35. 

Ay,^aaoi;, 'Aja^acr/TTj?. 

Abbaites Mysi, ii. 11. 

Abbaitis regio, ii. 11. 

Ablata, i. 321. 

Aboniticbos, i. 226. 

'A^uvov Te7y^o<;, 'A/S^yvoTei^jVij^. 

Abrettene regio, i. 54. 

Abrinatse gens, i. 321. 

Abrostola, ii. 90. 

Absarum, sive Apsarum, i, 293. 

Abydos, i. 71- 

"A/5uSo?, 'A|3i;Sv;vo'?. 

Acalea, ii. 265. 

Acalissus, ii. 265. 

Acamantis, ii. 373. 

Acanias promontorium, ii. 373. 

Acampsis fluvius, i. 293. 

Acanthus insula, i. 49. 

• Car. quae et Doulo- 

polis, ii. 189. 
AkuvBoi;, 'AKcci/OiOi. 
Acarassus, ii. 266. 
' AKapatra-ot;, " AKapairaeiq. 
Achseium, i. 113. 
Achaeorum littus, ii. 385. 
Achaia Rhod. ii. 238. 
Acharaca, i. 468. 
Acherusia chersonesus, i, 206. 
Achillea insula, i. 412. 
Achilleum, i. 110. 



Achilleum, Lyd. i. 463. 
Acitoriazum, ii. 102. 
Acmonia, ii. 18. 

'AKfAOVia, 'AKfAOVKV^. 

Aconge, i. 206. 

'AKOvat, 'Akqvit/ji;. 

Acrasus, i. 471. 

' AKoatToi;, ^AKpuo'tuTfji;. 

Acrioteri lacus, ii. 295. 

Acritas promontorium, i. 186. 

Acrocon, i. 61. 

Acroterium, ii. 252. 

Acrunum, i. 178. 

Acte Mitylenseorum, i. 132. 

Adada, ii. 306. 

ASaSa, 'ASaSei/?. 

Adae, i. 150. 
Adana, ii. 349. 
ASava, 'Adavevi. 
Adapera, ii. 101. 
Adatha, ii. 127- 
Adesa fluvius, ii. 265. 
Adienus fluvius, i. 292. 
Adopissus, ii. 72. 
Adoreus mons, ii. 36. 
Ad Praetorium, ii. 160. 
Adramyttenus sinus, i. 121. 
Adramyttis insula, ii. 266. 
Adramyttium, i. 127. 
'AZpay-uTTeiov, 'Adpafj^vrTijvoi;. 
Adrastea regio, i. 35. 

urbs, i. 64. 

'AdpdaTeia, 'A^paa-nl^, et 'A8pa- 

Ad Vicesimum, ii. 158. 



394 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



^anteum, i, 83. 
Mgdi Mohd. i. 153. 
Cilic. ii. 355. 

Alyai, AlyaToi;, et Ai'yeaTij?. 
-^gan prom. i. 135. 
^gialus, i. 224. 
-^ginetes, i. 226. 

fluvius, i. 226. 

Mgheus, i. 161. 
^giroessa i. 153. 
^gyllus, i. 187. 
^nea, i. 88. 
^nius fluvius, i. 89. 
^nus, ii. 198. 
^olis, i. 142. 
^pea, ii. 389. 
Mretice ii. 150. 
-^sepus fluvius, i. 36. 
.i:Esius fluvius, i. 184. 
^syros fluvius, i. 184. 
.^thaloeis fluvius, i. 131. 
Aetorynchus, i. 194. 
iEtulana, ii. 150. 
Agamede, i. 163. 
Agamia, i. 111. 
Agathe insula, ii. 266. 
Agdistis mons. ii. 87. 
Agoresus, ii. 215. 

' Ayop'/jali;, 'Ayopv]a€Vi;. 

Agrilium, i. 183. 
Agrippenses, i. 214. 
Agrizala, ii. 97. 
Alabanda, ii. 206. 
'AXa/3avSa, 'AXa/3avSei;?. 
Alabastius fluvius, i. 129. 
Alse, ii. 364. 
Alander fluvius ii. 35. 
Alazia, i. 172. 
Alazones, i. 172. 
Aleius Campus, ii. 352. 
Aleos fluvius, i. 349. 
Aleus, ii. 222. 
Alexandra mons, i. 126. 
Alexandri diversorium, ii. 57. 
Alexandria Troas, i. 114. 

ad Latmum, ii. 215. 

— — — — ad Issum, ii. 361. 
'A'Ae^dvipiia, 'AXe|av8^ei/(?. 

Algiza, i. 414. 



Alia, sive Alii, ii. 54. 

'AX«0<, 'A>.(7JV6?. 

Aliassus, ii. 96. 
Aligomon fonSj i. 474. 
Alimala, ii. 266. 
Alimne, ii. 272. 
Alina insula, ii. 196. 
Alinda, ii. 208. 
"A'Aivta, 'AXivhvi;. 
Alisarna, i. 141. 
Alyatta, i. 215. 
Alyatti, ii. 35. 
Alyattis tumulus, i. 432. 
Alybe, i. 275. 

'AXv^'^, 'AAv^evi. 
Alychme, ii. 272. 
Alydda, ii. 18. 
Amamassus, ii. 389. 
Amanides, sive Amanicae Pylae, 

ii. 356. 
Amanus mons, ii. 362. 
Amasia, i. 303. 
^AfA.daeia, 'A^aav^. 
Amastris, i. 222. 
' Aixaa-rpiq, ' A^aaTfiavoc;. 
Amathus, ii. 377. 
'AfxaOovi, 'AjA.aBov<TK)(;. 

Amaxa, i. 215. 
Amaxia, ii. 321. 

'A/Aa?/a, 'Ai/,agiev<;. 
Ambiturii, ii. 85. 
Amblada, ii. 306. 
'AjiAjSXaSa, 'A/xSXaSev?. 
Amelas, ii. 65. 
Ameletum, i. 272. 
Ameria, i. 314. 
Amisus, i. 264. 
'AfAiffoi;, 'AjM.«r';)V5?. 
Ammochostos prom. ii. 381. 
Ammodes prom. ii. 350. 
Amnias fluvius, i.235. 
Amorium, ii, 90. 
'Af/Lopiov, 'A[A.opi€V(;. 
Amos, ii. 215. 

A/jio^, AfAKK;. 

Ampelus prom. i. 409. 
Amj)liilysus fluvius, i. 410. 
Anabura, ii. '6^^. 
Anactoria, i. 383. 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



395 



Anadynata, i. 240. 
Ansea, i. 4G2. 
'Avala, 'AvcuT'^i;, et 'Avaib?. 
Anagome, i. 474. 
Anagurdes, i. 182. 
Analiba, ii. 154. 
Anaplus, i. 194. 
Anar fluvius, ii. 104. 
Anava urbs, ii. 46. 

lacus, ii. 46. 

Anaxia, ii. 285. 
Anazarba, ii. 354. 
'Ava^ap^a, '' AvcCCjx^iv^. 
Anchiali Regia, i. 292. 
Anchiale, ii. 342. 
Anchiales fluvius, ii. 343. 
Ancon, i. 265. 

Glauci, ii. 197- 

Ancyra Phryg. ii. 12. 
Galat. ii. 92. 

' Ay Kvpa, 'AyKvpav6(;. 
Ancyreum prom. i. 195. 
Ancyron, i. 186. 
Andabalis, sive Andavilis, ii. 

133. 
Andeira, i. 125. 
Afdeipix, 'Avif iprivo^. 
Andraca, ii. 124. 
Andrapa, postea Neoclaudiopo- 

lis, i. 238. ii. 96. 
Andriace, ii. 253. 
And riclus, sive Androclus mons, 

ii. 324. 
Andrius fluvius, i. 120. 
Andricus fluvius, ii. 351. 
Androsia, ii. 102. 
Anemuriurn promontorium et 

urbs, ii. 324, 335. 
^AvefMvpiov, 'AvefA-ovptev^. 
Angelocome, i. 182. 
Angelocometes, fluvius, i. 37. 
Anhydros, i. 345. 

• insula, i. 402. 

Aninetum, sive Aninesiuui, i. 

469. 
^Avntjcrtov, 'Avtvijo'/o^. 
Annesis, ii. 285. 
Anniaca, ii. 156. 
Anolus, i. 471. 



Antandrus, i. 125. 

' AvTavdpoi;, ' Avrdv^pioi. 
Antelia, ii. 127. 
Anteus fluvius, ii. 305. 
Anthine, i. 402. 
Anticinolis, i. 227- 
Anticragus mons, ii. 245. 
Antigonea, i. 49. 

'AvTiyoveia, 'AuTiyovev(;. 
Antiochia ad Meandrum, ii. 
209. 

in Pisidia, ii. 301. 

Lamolis, ii. 338. 

ad Craguni, ii. 324. 

ad Pyramum, ii. 353. 

'Ai/T<o%e/a, 'Ai't;o%€v?. 
Antiphellus, ii. 251. 
'AvricpeKXat;, 'AvTi<peWiT7)(;. 
Antitaurus mons, i. 7- 
Antissa, i. 162. 

AvTKTcra, ' AvTKTaaioq. 
Antoniopolis, i. 240. 

Lyd. i. 469. 

Aorata saltus, i. 56. 
Apsesus, i. 65. 
'A-Kai(TO<;, ' A'7raicrv]vot;. 
Apaitse gens, i. 295. 
Apamea Bithyn. i. 173. 

Cibotus, ii. 49. 

Airdf/.eia, 'Ara/Aei;?. 

Aperlae, sive Aperrae, ii. 252. 
Aphneium, i. 471. 
Aphnitis palus, i. 471. 
Aphrodisias Car. ii. 210. 
Cilic. ii. 329. 

'Acppo^iaiaq, ^Acppo^icrtevt;. 

regio Mys. i. 132. 

prom. ii. 190. 

Aphrodisium, ii. 386. 
Apise Campus, i. 55. 
Apira, ii. 54. 
Apobathra, i. 72. 
Apocremnus, sive Hypocrem- 

nus promontorium i. 34(5. 
Apollonia ad Rhyndacum, i.52. 

Pergam, i. 141, 

Lyd. i. 427. 

Phryg. ii. 53. 

ad Lambanum,ii.2 1 4. 



396 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Apollonia insula, quae et Thy- 

neas, i. 199. 

Lye. ii. 266. 

'ATToXXufia, ' ATtoXXecvidT/ji. 
Apolloniatis palus, i. 50. 
Apollonis, i. 427. 
Apollonoshieron, i. 455. 
Aporidos come, ii. 54. 
Appia, ii. 55. 
'A'TtTTia, 'Anfffavo^. 
Apsarus, qui et Acampsis flu- 

vius, i. 293. 
Aquae Aravense, ii. 147. 
Arabissus, ii. 157, 158. 
Arabyza, ii. 86. 
Arse Alexandri, ii. 362. 
Arag insulse, ii. 224. 
Arane, ii. 154. 
Arangas, ii. 157. 
Araros, ii. 104. 
Arasaxa, ii. 117. 
Arasenses, ii. 103. 
Arassus, sive Aarassus, ii. 299. 
Arauracos, ii. 15/. 
Araxa, ii. 265. 
"Apix^a, 'Apa^evq. 

Arazus, i. 321. 
Arbanium, i. 321. 
Area, ii. 160. 
Arcadiopolis, i. 469. 
Archabis fluvius, i. 292. 
Archalla, ii. 124. 
Archaeopolis, i. 438. 
Arehelais, ii. 112. 
Archelaiuui, ii. 90. 
Arcilapopoli, ii. 161. 
Arconnesus insula, i. 355. 

Car. ii. 180. 

Arcton mons, i. 41. 
Ardula, ii. 144. 
Arega, ii. 161. 
Aretias insula, i. 282. 
Areus fluvius, i. 184. 
Argaeus mons, ii. 1 18. 
Argais insula, ii. 266. 
Arganthonius mons, i. 176. 
Argennon prom. i. .379. 
Argite insula, ii. 239. 
Argila, ii. 215. 



ApyiKa, 'ApyiKtT/ii, 
Arginusse insulas i. 166. 
Argiza, i. 58. 

Argos, sive Argeopolis, ii. 364. 
Argus castellum, ii. 133. 

Cypr. ii. 390. 

Argustana, ii. 146. 
Argyna, i. 283. 
Argyronium, i. 194. 
Ariacos, i. 50. probably the Ar- 

teei-tiehos ('Apaiou reTx'x;) of 
Steph. Byz. (v. 'Apraia.) 

Arianzus, ii. 114. 

Ariarathia, ii. 125. 

Ariassus, ii. 299. 

Arion fluvius, i. 295. 

Arisbe Troad, i. 70. 

Lesb. i. 164. 

'Apiufiyi, 'ApuT^aToi;. 
Aristium, ii. 55. 
Ariusia, i. 400. 
Armaxa, ii. 155. 
Arniene Paph. i. 227. 

Pont. i. 292. 

Armenia Minor, ii. 148. 

Prima et Seeunda, ii. 

149. 

Armeno eastrum, i. 183. 
Arna, ii. 266. 
Arnege, ii. 266. 
Aromata, i. 468. 
Arsinoe Cilie. ii. 323. 

Cypr. ii. 381.388. 

promontorium, ii. 376. 

Artaee, i. 47. 

'ApTuKfj, ' ApraKVji/ot;, et 'ApraKevi;, 
Artacie fons, i. 42. 
Artanes fluvius, i. 198. 
Artemisium prom. ii. 197. 
Artymnesus, ii. 246. 
Artynia lacus, i. 50. 
Arus fluvius, ii. 266. 
Aryeanda, ii. 255. 

'ApvKCtyZct, 'ApVKay^tvt;. 
Arycandus fluvius, ii. 254. 
Arymagdus fluvius, ii. 32<>. 
Asarino, ii. 161. 
Ascandalis, ii. 265. 
Ascania pagus, i, 180. 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



397 



Ascania regio, i. 179. 
Ascanius lacus Bithvn. I. 179. 

Phryg. ii. 297. 

Asia Minor, i. 3. 

Lyd. i. 471. 

Palus, i. 361. 

Propria, i. 3. 

Asiana, i. 4. 
Asias tribus, i. 1. 
Asiba, i. 321. 
Asiiie Cilic. ii. 363. 

Cypr. ii. 390. 

Asmabaeon lacus, ii. 129. 
Asopus fluvius, ii. 39, 
Aspendus, ii. 281. 
AcTTrevSof, *A<77revS*o?. 

Aspis, sive Arconnesus insula, 
i. 355. 

Lye. ii. 247. 

Aspona, ii. 98. 
Assessus, i. 394. 

'Afftrvjo-oc, 'Aaa-t](riO(;. 
Assorum, i. 410. 
Assus, i. 122. 

campus Lyd. i. 471. 

"a "a 

A<T<Toq, A(7(rjOf. 

Astacenus Sinus, i. 185. 
Astacus, i. 185. 
A>rTaKO<;, 'Ao-Ta/cijvo'f. 
Astragon^ ii. 205. 
Astron fluvius, i. 129. 
Astypalsea arx Sami, i. 408. 

prom. Car. ii. 176. 

Astyra Abyd. i. 175. 

'— Antandr. i. 128. 

Aa-rvpix, ' Aa-rvprjvoi;. 
Asuna, ii. 145. 
Atabyris mons, ii. 237. 
Alarneus, i. 132. 
sub Pitane, i. 134, 

'Arapveii;, 'ATapveir^i. 
Athar mons, ii. 114. 
Athenae Pont. i. 292. 

Car. ii. 215. 

Athymbra, i. 467. 
"ABvjji^fa, ' AOviA^pivi. 
Atmenia, ii. 313. 
Attsea, i. 132. 

palus, ii. 67. 



Attalenses, ii. 103. 

Atlalia Agroira, i. 153, 435, 

Pamphyl. ii. 275. 

'ATrdXeta, 'ArTaXet?. 
Attalyda, i. 471. 
Attelebusa insula, ii. 264. 
Attuda, ii. 55. 

ATTOfSa, 'AxTonSei;?. 
Atusia, ii. 55. 
^Arcvaia., 'AToi/<r(€i'?. 

Augae, ii. 285. 
Augusta, ii. 360. 
Avyova-Ta, Aiy(Jh(7Tavo<i, 
Augustopolis, ii. 55. 
Aulae, ii. 266. 

Cilic. ii. 364. 

Aulindenus fluvius, ii. 56. 
Auliucome, i. 474. 
Aulocrene, ii. 49. 
Auraclea, ii. 90. 
Aureliopolis, i. 454. 
Axon fluvius, ii. 196. 
Axylos regio, ii. 35. 
Aza, i. 321. ii. 155. 
Azala, i. 182. 
Azamora, ii. 141 . 
Azani, sive ^zani, ii. 12, 
AXCfiiV'A, At^aj't/T')j5. 
Azaritia fons, i, 193. 
Aziris, ii. 152. 
Babanomus, i. 305. 

Babras, sive Babrantium,i.401. 

Baca, ii. 364. 

Bajbae, ii. 215. 

BaTPoLt, Bdi^atct;. 

Bagadaonia regio, ii. 144. 

Bagae, i. 435. 

Bayai, Bayfjioq. 

Bagrum, ii. 96. 

Baiae, ii. 361. 

Balbura, ii. 272. 

BdK^ovpa, BaX^ovpevi;. 

Balcea, i. 141. 

Barate, ii. 72. 

Bardis.NUs, ii. 215. 

Barenus, sive Varenus fl. i. 37. 

Bares, i. 71. 

Baretta, i. 474. 

Bargasa, ii. 184. 



398 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Bargylia, ii. 173. 

BapyvAta, BapyvXi'/jr/jq. 

Bargyliaticus Sinus, ii. 171. 
Baris, ii. 300. 
Barsalium, ii. 127. 
Basgaedariza, ii. 151. 
Basilia, sive Basilionopolis, i. 

182. 
Bathys fluvius, ii. 20. 
Bazis, ii. 137- 
Bebryces^ i. 215. ii. 7- 
Bechires, i. 291. 
Bechireus portus, i. 292. 
Belocome, i. 182. 
Benna, ii. 17- 

Bevva, Bei/v/rij?, 
Bennamia, i. 363. 
Berbe, sive Barbe, ii. 286. 
Berecyntii, ii. 24. 
Berenice, ii. 328. 
Beris fluvius^ i. 272. 
Berissa, i. 318. 
Besbicus insula^ i. 53. 
Beudos Vetus, ii. 34. 
Biblis fons, i. 394. 
Billseus fluvius, i. 208. 
Bithyni, i. 168. 
Bitbynia^ i. 167. 
Bithynium, i. 209. 
BiOvviov, Bidwevi, et BtOvvfoiT'^i. 
Bitoana, ii. 215. 
Blabe insula, i. 194. 
Biandos, ii. 160, 
Bleeandrus, ii. 55. 
Blaene regio, i. 236. 
Bhicium, sive Luceiuni, ii. 91. 
Boane lacus, i. 19. 
Boas fluvius, i. 294. 
Bocarus fluvius, ii. 373. 
Boenasa, i. 320, 
Bolbae, ii. 215. 
Boibseotes fluvius, ii. 215. 
Boibulte insula, i. 402. 
Bolelasgus, ii. 101. 
Bolissus, i. 400. 
BoAJcrcre?, BoX/cro-io?, et Boakjo-^i;?. 
Bombus fluvius, ii. 364. 
Boona, i. 2/8. 
Booscoete, i. 173. 



Boosura, ii. 376. 

Briana, ii. 55. 

Bp/ava, Bptavoi. 

Borissus, i. 319. 

Boryza, i. 319. 

Bos promontorium, i. 193. 

Bosphoius Thracius, i. 192. 

Botieuni, ii. 67. 

Branchidee, i. 390. 

Bregmenteni, i. 153. 

Brisa, i. 165. 

Briula i. 468. 

Brunga, i. 185. 

Bryazon fl. et locus, i. 184. 

Bryges, sive Briges, ii. 2. 

Bryllis regio, i. 176. 

Bryllium, i. 176. 

Bryzon, ii. 55. 

Bpov^uv, Bpov^-tjuoi, 

Bubalia, ii. 160. 

Bubon, ii. 272. 

B&ii/3wv, Bov^ijvevi;. 

Buci lapis, ii. 124. 

Budea, ii. 34. 

Burinna fons, ii. 222. 

Busmasdis, ii. 78. 

Buthia, i. 395. 

Bybassia Chersonesus, ii. 189. 

Bybassus, ii. 189. 

Bv^aa-aoi;, Bv^dtraioq. 

Bybassius Sinus, ii. 189. 

Bylae, i. 300. 

Bysnaei gens, i. 215. 

Byzeres gens, i. 291. 

Cabalees, ii. 269. 

Cabalia, sive Cabalis, ii. 269. 

Cabassus, ii. 143. 

Cabira, i. 310. 

Cadi, i. 14. 

KaSsi, KaSsvji/o'?- 
Cadmus mons, 239. 

fluvius, ii. 39. 

Cadrema, ii. 266. 

Kadpef^a, KaSp€,M.€i??. 

Cadyna, ii. 132. 
Casna, ii. 134. 
Caesarea Bithyn. i. 173. 

Cappad. quge et Maza- 

ca, ii. 1 18. 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



399 



Kaiadfiia, Kai<ra,p€>ji. 
Caicus fluvius, i. 135. 
Calabantia, ii. 247. 
Calami, i. 409. 
Calanthia, ii. 338. 
Calbis fluvius, ii. 192. 
Cale, i. 141. 

Parembole, i. 291. 

Cales fl. et emporium, i. 202. 
Callatebus, i. 470. 

Callica, i. 214. 
Callichorus fluvius, i. 207. 
Callicolone, i. 102. 
Callimache, ii. 197. 
Callinusa prom. ii. 390. 
Callipolis Bithyn. i. 186. 

Cariae, ii. 216. 

Cappad. ii. 144. 

Callistratia, i. 226. 
Callvdium, sive Calvdnium, i. 

457. 
Caloe, i. 451. 
Calogrsea, i. 178. 
Calos fluvius, i. 290. 
Calpe portus, et fluvius, i. 198. 
Calpitum, ii. 116. 
Caltiorissa, ii. 154, 
Calycadnus fluvius, ii. 330. 

• prom. ii. 330. 

Calydnae insulse, Troad. i. 112. 

Cariae, ii. 218. 

Calymna insula, ii. 218. 
Calynda, ii. 196. 
Kd'Avv^a, KaXMioi. 
Calyndici montes, ii. 196. 
Camelides insulae, i. 412. 
Camirus, ii. 237. 
KscfAipoq, KaiAtpeijt;. 
Camisa Pont, marit. i. 273. 

mediter. i. 316. 

Camisene, i. 316. 
Campe, ii. 124. 
Camuliani, ii. 145. 
Camuresarbum, i. 321. 
Cana, ii. 265. 
Cause, i. 135. 
Ikdvai, l^avouctc. 
Canaius fluvius, i. 134. 
Canaura, ii. 286. 



Candara, i. 241. 

KavSapa, Kavhapfjvoq. 
Candasa, ii. 216. 

Candvba, ii. 265. 

Cane prom, et mons^ i. 134. 
Canna, ii. 72, 
Cantharium prom. i. 410. 
Cappadoces, ii. 105. 
Cappadocia, ii. 105. 
Cappadox fluvius, ii. 115. 
Capria palus, ii. 280. 
Caprus fluvius, ii. 39. 
Caralis palus Isaur. ii. 6(y, 75. 

Pisid. ii. 28. 

Carallia, ii. 75. 
Carambis, prom. i. 225. 

urbs, i. 226. 

Carana, i. 317- 
Caranitis, i. 317- 
Carape, ii. 154. 
Carba, ii. 144. 
Carbana, ii. 266. 
Kdp^ava, Kap^ctvevi. 
Cardamyle, i. 401. 
Caresene regio, i. 88. 
Caresus fluvius, i. 88. 

urbs, i. 88. 

Cares, ii. 163. 

Caria Phryg. urbs, ii. 60. 

Caria, ii. 163. 

Carima, ii. 97- 

Carine, i. 133. 

Carissa, ii. 103. 

Carius mons, i. 474. 

Carmalas fluvius, ii. 141. 

Carmylessus, ii. 245. 

Carnalis, ii. 117- 

Carnia, i. 395. 

Caropolis, ii. 216. 

Carpacelis, ii. 125. 

Carpasia, ii. 385. 

Carpasiae insula, ii. 385. 

Carsagis, sive Carsat, ii. 157, 

159. 
Carseae, i. 55. 
Carura, ii. 43. 
Carusa, i. 234. 



400 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Carus vicus, i. 214. 
Carydius saltus, ii. 365. 
Caryanda portus, ii. 174. 

insula, ii. 174. 

Kafvantsc, Kapvavtevi;. 
Carj'sis insula, ii. 196. 
Casa, ii. 313. 
Katra, KaadTtji. 
Casaman, ii. 144. 
Casbia, ii. 72. 
Cassiopolis, ii. 364. 
Castabala, ii. 132. 
Castabolum, ii. 356. 
Caslalia, ii. 364. 
Castamon, i. 239. 
Castoli Campus, i. 472. 
Castnius, mons, ii. 282. 
Casystes portus, i. 350. 
Catacecaumene regio, i. 452. 
Cataonia, ii. 137- 
Catenna, ii. 310. 
Catoecia, i. 182. 
Catangium, (Karayyeioy, ) i. 194. 
Catarrhactes fluvius, ii. 275. 
Caucasa Chior. portus Herod.V. 

33. 
Caucones, i. 298. 
Caue, ii. 89. 
Caulares fluvius, ii. 289. 
Caunii, ii. 193. 
Caunus, ii. 193. 

Kavvoi;, Kavviot;. 

Caystrus fluvius, i. 361. 
Cebren fluvius, i. 119. 
Cebrene, i. 119. 
Ke^p-qvr}, Ke/S/j'/jvioi;. 
Cebrenia regio, i. 119. 
Cedreae, ii. 216. 
Kfhpeai, KeS^eaTTj?. 
Celaenae Troad. i. 131. 
Phryg. ii.48. 

Celenderis, ii. 327. 
Ke/.tvSepK, KfAohfpeiTV)/;. 
Cenaxe palus, ii. 95. 
Cenchreae, i. 118. 
Cenchrius fluvius, i. 376. 
Cennati, ii. 334. 
Cephalus, ii. 355. 



Ceramlcus Sinus, ij. 1/6. 
Ceramus, ii. 183. 
Kepa/jicx;, Kfpaixf^T^t;. 
Ceramorum forum, ii. 26. 
Ceranse, ii. 26. 
Cerasae, i. 455. 
Cerasus, i. 280, 283. 

KepotiJoZc;, Kf^ao-ovJ-TJo?. 
Cerbesia fossa, ii. 25. 
Cerbesii, ii. 25. 
Cercetae gens, i. 295. 
Cercetius mons, i. 410. 
Cercopia, ii. 55. 
Ceretape, ii. 56. 
Keperdir-q, Ke per aT:€V(;. 
Certonium, i. 133. 
Cerynea, ii. 386. 
Cesbedium arx Selges, ii. 310. 
Cestri^ ii. 338. 
Cestrus fluvius, ii. 279. 
Ceteii gens, i. 136. 
Cetis regio, ii. 333. 
Cetius fluvius, i. 140 
Chabyris, ii. 392. 
Chadisia, i. 269. 
Chadisius fluvius, i. 265. 
Chalcedon, i. 189. 
XaAKTjSwv, XaA/c')jSono?. 
Chalcertores, si ve Chalcetorium, 

ii. 198. 
XaX/c'/jTope^, XaXKfjTopto;, Xa.\/cijTO- 

ptvi. 
Chalcis insula, ii. 238. 
Chalcis Erythr. i. 352. 
Chalcitis, i. 352. 

insula Prop. i. 192. 

Chaldaei, sive Chaldi gens, i. 

276. 
Chalybes gens, i. 273. 
Chammanene, ii. 124. 
Characometes fluvius, i. 466. 
Charadrus, ii. 324. 
Charax Bithyn. i. 215. 

Phryg. ii. 60. 

Alexandri, ii. 60. 

Lyd. i. 465. 

Armen. ii. 154. 

CliariniatiB gens, i. 322. 
Charonium, i. 468. 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDP:X. 



401 



Charsia, ii. 145. 
Charsiana regio, ii. 145. 
Charsianus saltus, ii. 145. 
Chaus fluvius, ii. 212. 
Chelae Bosph. i. 195. 

Thyn. i. 199. 

Chelidonia, ii. 30. 
Chelidonise insulse, ii. 256. 
Cliersus sive Charsus, fl. ii. 361 . 
Chesium proniontorium, i. 408. 
Chesius fluvius, i. 408. 
Chiliocomon campus, i. 305. 

■ — Phryg. ii. 60. 

Chimsera, ii. 258. 
Chios insula, i. 395. 

urbs, i. 399. 

Chliara, i. 440. 
Chlorus fluvius, ii. 361. 
Choerides, i. 282. 
Cholontichos, ii. 217- 

Choma, ii. 60. 
Chonse, ii. 44. 

Chorsabia, ii. 154. 
Chrysa, quae et Dia, i. 115. 

Adramytt. 5. 130. 

Chrysaoris, ii. 199. 
Chrysaorium, ii. 199. 204. 
Chrysippa, ii. 364. 
Chrysobullum, ii. 134. 
Chrysopolis, i. 191. 
X^'jcroTTcX*?, Xpv!70T:oKlTf]i;. 
Chrysorrhoas fluvius, i. 468. 
Chusa, ii. 146. 
Chytrium Ion. i. 343. 
Cypr. ii. 389. 

'X.ijTpiov, XvTpieiji;. 
Chytus portus Cyzic. i. 42. 
Ciacis, ii. 127. 
Ciauica, ii. 127. 
Cianus Sinus, i. 174. 
Cibyra Magna, ii. 269. 

Parva, ii. 285. 

Kl^vpa, Ki^vpato^. 
Ciconium, i. 194. 
Cidramus ii. 56. 
KthpafJ-oi;, KidpaixTjuoq. 
Cidyssus, ii. 18. 

VOL. II. 



Cilbiani Cetei, i. 451. 

Inferiores, i. 451. 

■ Nicsenses, i. 451. 

Pergameni, i. 451. 

Superiores, i. 451. 

Cilbianus Campus, i. 451. 
Cilices, ii. 314. 

Troad. i. 129. 

CILICIA, ii. 314. 

Trachea, ii. 319, 

Campestris, ii. 339. 

Cappad. Prsefect. ii. 

118. 
Ciiicum insulae, i. 273. 
Cilia Troad. i. 130. 

sive Cylla Phryg. ii. 30. 

Cillanius campus, ii. 30. 

Cill«um nions, i. 127- 

Cillseus fluvius, i. 130. 

Cimiata, i. 235. 

Cimiatene, i. 235. 

Cimpsus fluvius, i. 473. 

Cinsedopolis, ii. 239. 

Cindye, ii. 173. 

K.vS^;,, Kivhvevi. Herod. V. 110. 

Cingularium, ii. 32. 

Cinna, ii. 104. 

Cinolis, i. 227- 

Ciphisus, ii. 329. 

Ciscissa, ii. 145. 

Cissa, i. 295. 

Cisserusa insula, ii. 238. 

Cissides insulae, ii. 247. 

Cissus locus, i. 295. 

Cissus fluvius, i. 295. 

Cisthene, i. 132. 

—insula, ii. 251. 

Cistramum, ii. 365. 
Citium, ii. 379. 

Cius, i. 174. 

fluvius, i. 175. 

Cizara, ii. 125. 
Claneus, ii. 104. 
Clanudda, i. 457. 
Clarius fluvius, ii. 389. 
Claros, i. 359. 

Dd 



402 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Claudiopolis, prius Bithynium, 
i. 209. 

Galat. ii. 103. 

. Cappad. ii. 125. 

~ Ciiic. ii. 332. 

Clazomense, i. 342. 
KXa'C,oaeva,), K>.a^o,aevw«. 
Cleandria, i, 131. 
Clibanus, ii. 75. 
elides promontorium, ii. 384. 

insulae, ii. 384. 

Climax Paphlag, i. 225. 

Lyciae, ii. 263. 

Pisid. ii. 294. 

Clitse, i. 214. 

gens Cil. ii. 339. 

elite fons, i, 42. 
Cludrus fluvius, ii. 24. 
Clydae, ii. 197- 
Clystrus, ii. 338. 
Cnidus, ii. 184. 

Cnopupolis, i. 348. 

Cochlia, ii. 197. 

Cochliusa insula, ii. 206. 

Cocylia sive Cocylium, i. 118. 

KoKv'Aiav, KoKVAtVvj?. 

Coddini scopulus, i. 4.39. 

Codrvla, sive Codrylus, ii. 286. 

Coduzabala, ii. 158. 

Coena, i. 272. 

CcEnon Chorion, i. 313. 

Gallicanon, i. 214. 

Coeti, i. 296. 
Cogamus fluvius, i. 456. 
Collusa, i. 227. 

Colobatus, sive Cobalatus flu- 
vius, ii. 289. 
Colobrassus, ii. 313. 
Coloe, i. 319. 
KoXo'ij, KoXovjvo^. 
Colonae Troad, i. 113. 

Lampsac. i. 68. 

Colonia, ii. 151. 
Colope, i. 316. 
Colopene, i. 316. 
Colossse, ii. 43. 
KiXoa-aai, KoXoo-cnjvo'^. 



Colpe, i. 438; should probably 

be Coloe. 
Colophon, i. 357. 
Ko'Ao(pa!>, KoXo(pa)VU^. 
Comana Pont. i. 307. 
Cappad. ii. 138. 

KofAava, Ko/Aav/jyo?. 

Comania, i. 141. 

Coniaralis, ii. 155. 

Comassa, ii. 155. 

Comba, ii. 265. 

Conienses, ii. 103. 

Comitanasson, ii. 146. 

Commoris, ii. 362. 

Conana, sive Comana, ii. 306. 

Kovava, Kovavtvi;. 

Congustus, ii. 96. 

Conica, i. 238. 

Conisium, i. 141. 

Conni, ii. 25. 

Conopeium, i. 263. 

Constantia, ii. 384. 

Coracesium, ii. 320. 

Coracium promontorium, i. 195. 

Coralla, i. 283. 

Corassise, sive Corseae insulae, i. 

411. 
Corax, sive Coracium mens, i. 

359. 
Corbasa, sive Colbasa, ii. 299. 
Corbeus, ii. 97. 
Cordyle, i. 286. 
Cordylusa insula, ii. 238. 
Coressus mons, i. 374. 
Coriopium, ii. 148. 
Cormalus fluvius, i. 129. 
Cormasa, ii. 294. 
Coma Galat. ii. 72. 

Cappad. ii. 125. 

Corone, i. 215. 

Coropassus, sive Coropissus, ii. 

67. 

KofOTZKrao^, Kopoma(7€vq. 
Corsvmus, sive Corsynus fluvius, 

ii.'210. 
Corvorum nidi, ii. 365. 
Corybantiuni, i. 131. 
Corybissa, i. 131. 
Coryceon promontorium 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



403 



Corycium antrum, ii. 3 

— promont. ii. 335. 

Corycus mons, i. 351. 
Lye. ii. 261. 

Cilic. ii. 335. 

Corydalla, ii. 265. 
Kopv^aAAa, KopuhottAKev^. 
Coryleum, i. 241. 

Coryne promontorium, i. 350. 
Coryphas Troad. i. 132. 

Bithyn. i. 214. 

Cos insula, ii. 218. 

— urbs, ii. 220. 
Kut;, Kuoc, et Ko&j?. 
Coscinia, ii. 207. 
Cossus mons, i. 215. 
Cotaena, ii. 117- 
Cotana, ii. 286, 
Cotrades, ii. 78. 
Cotyseum, ii. 17- 
Korvdeiov, Korvaevi;. 
Cotylus mons, i. 37, 121. 
Cotyora, i. 278. 
KoTvupac, Korvuptr/ji;. 

Grade ii. 216. 

KpaSvj, KpccbiTfj^. 
Cragus mons, ii. 245, 

urbs, ii. 24(». 

scopulus, ii. 324. 

Crambusa ins. Lye. ii. 256, 

Cilic. ii. 328. 

ii, 335, 

Cranaus, ii, 209, 

Craspedites Sinus, i. 186. 

Crasus, ii. 56, 

Gratia, postea Flaviopolis, i . 2 1 0. 

Creinaste, i, 75. 

Creme, i. 322. 

KpfjW.'/j, KpeiAVjcrioi;. 

Gremna, ii, 299, 

Crenides, i, 207- 

Crentius vicus, Anton, Itin. p. 

201. 
Creon mons, i. 161. 
Gresium, ii. 390. 
Kp'/jO'iov, Kp-/j(Tievi. 
Gressa, i. 241. 

port. Gar. ii. 192. 

Gressopolis, s. Gretopolis, ii,298. 



Grobialus, i. 225. 

Kpupia/'O^, Kpo^iccKevt;. 

Crocodilus mons, ii. 363. 

Gromna, i. 223. 

KpufAva, Kpu[AVirri<;, et Kpufj-vaioi. 

Grommyon prom. ii. 387- 

Grossa, i. ,322. 

GruUa, i. 182. 

Cruni promontorium, ii. 328. 

Grusa, ii. 239, 

Grya, sive Gryassus, ii. 196. 

Grynis fluvius, i. 215. 

Cryon fluvius, i. 440, 

Guballus, ii. 35. 

Gueusus, ii. 140. 

Gunissa, ii. 156. 

Curias promontorium, ii. 377- 

Curium, ii. 376. 

Kovpiov, Kc)vpiev(;. 

Guropolis, ii. 216, 

Gyalus, i. 473, 

Cyanese Lye. ii. 252. 

insula, i. 195. 

Gyarda, ii. 216. 
Kvapda, Kvapiev^. 
Gybassus, ii. 216. 
Gybellia, i. 347. 
Cybistra, ii. 130. 
Kv^iOTTpcc, Kv^io-Tpeve. 
Gyclopis insula, ii. 238. 
Cydna, ii, 247. 
Cvdnus fluvius, ii. 343. 
Cydonea insula, ii. 216. 
Gyinda, ii. 343. 
Gylandus, ii. 216. 
Gymaria, ii. 195. 
Cyme, i. 147. 
Krij/.r}, KvjXcxToi;. 

Cyne, i. 473. 

Gynossema promontorium, ii. 

190. 
Gyon, ii. 216. 
Gypriae insulae, ii. 264. 
Cyprus, ii. 366. 
Cyptasia, i. 234. 
Cyrbasa, ii. 216. 
'Kvp^aaa, Kvp^aaevq. 
Gyrbe, ii. 286. 
Kvp^rj, Kvp^a.7oi. 

D d2 



404 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Cyri Campus, ii. 22. 

Castra, ii. 133. 

Cyssus portus, i. 353. 
Cytonium, i. 133. 
Cytorum, i. 224. 
KrjTupov, KvrupiTrj(;, Ct Kvrupioi. 
Cytorus mons, i. 224. 
Cyzicus, i. 29. 

Cvzistra, sive Cozistra, ii. 124. 

Dablfe, i. 211. 

Dacora, ii. 124. 

Dadastana, i. 211. 

Dadaucana, i. 214. 

Dades promontorium, ii. 380. 

Dadibra, i. 238. 

Daedala, ii. 197. 

mons, ii. 198. 

Daedalensium insulae, ii. 198. 

Dagolassus, ii. 155. 

Dagona, ii. 154. 

Dalanda, sive Ladana, ii. 153. 

Daldes, sive Daldia, i. 454. 

Dalisanda, ii. 75. 

Danae, sive Danati, i. 320. ii. 

156, 
Danala, ii. 102. 
Dandaxina, ii. 160. 
Daphne, i. 194. 

• Lye. ii. 206. 

Daphni portus, i. 289. 
Daphnus, i. 345. 

Daphnusia, i. 202. 
Daphnusis palus, i. 202. 
Daraanon, i. 294. 
Darazus, ii. 339. 
Dardani, i. 80. 
Dardania, i. 76. 
Dai danis, sive Dardanium pro- 
montorium, i. 81 . 
Dardanus, i. 81. 
Aa/;Savo<, ActpZaviOC, Ct Aap^avev(;. 
Daridna, i. 240. 
Adpiiva, Accpthvsc7o(;, 
Darium, ii. 56. 
Aapuov, Aapeifv:;. 
Darsa, ii. 294. 
Dascylitis palus, i. 171- 



Dascylium Bithyn. i. 171. 

Ephes. Steph. Byz. 

Aaa-KvKiOV, AacTKiKiOi;, et AatrKV- 

Dasmenda, ii. 124, 145. 
Dastarcum, ii. 141. 
Daximonitis, i. 306. 
Debalacia, ii. 56. 
Dedmasa, ii. 96. 
Ae8jM,ao"a, AtZ[Jt,a(revi;. 
Delemna, ii. 96. 
Delia, ii. 215. 
Avf/.ia, A-qKtev(;. 
Delphacia insula, i. 49. 
Delphinium, i. 401 . 
Demetrium, i. 211. 
Demonesi, i. 192. 
Demas Sabaeon, ii. 286. 
Demusia, ii. 286. 
Derbe, ii. 68. 
Aep^rj, Aep^-^rri<;. 
Dia Bithyn. i. 202. 

Car, ii. 215. 

A/oe, A(€t/{. 

Diabetae insulae, ii. 238. 

Diacopene regio, i. 305. 

Diaphanes fluvius, ii. 363. 

Diarrheusa insula, i. 402. 

Dias, ii. 266. 

Dicte mons, i. 121. 

Dictys, ii. 97- 

Didyenses, ii. 97. 103. 

Didyma, i. 390. 

AiSujt/ia, AiZvy.ot,7oq. 

Didymae insulae, ii. 247. 

Didyraaeum, ii. 364. 

Didymi tiche, i. 36. 

Didymon tichos, ii. 215. 

Dimastos, ii. 238. 

Dinaretum promontorium, ii. 

384. 
Dindymene mons, ii. 15. 
Dindymus mons Cyzic. i. 41. 

Pessin. ii. 87. 

Diniae, ii. 30. 
Diobulium, i. 321. 
Diocaesarea Phryg. ii. 56. 

Cappad. ii. 113. 

Cilic. ii. 332. 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



405 



Dioclia, ii. 56. 
Dionia, ii. 390. 
Dionysia insula, ii. 256. 
Dionysopolis, ii. 56. 
Dionysiophanae, ii. 327- 
Dioshieron Ion. i. 357. 

Lyd. i. 236. 

Diospolis, i. 471. 

Discus, i. 194. 

Dizoatra, sive Zizoatra, ii. 125. 

Docimia, ii. 27. 

AoKi[/.ia, Ao/ci/xelf, et AoKiy-'iTq^. 

Dceantius campus Pont. i. 269, 

Phryg. ii. 35. 

Dogana, ii. 154. 
Dolicliiste insula, ii. 253. 
Doliones gens, i. 39. 
Doraana, ii. 154. 
Donianitis regio. 
Domitiopolis, ii. 338. 
Dona, ii. 147. 
Doranon, i. 311. 
Doridis Sinus, ii. 389. 
Dorieum, ii. 56. 
Doris, ii. 184. 
Dorion, ii. 323. 
Doryleura, ii. 19. 
A.(jpvKd,eiov, A.opvXaevi;. 
Doulopolis, ii. 189. 
Dracanuni prom, et mons, i. 410. 

urbs, i. 411. 

Draco fluvius, i, 184. 
— — mons, i. 440. 
Dracontes, ii. 155. 
Dratrse, sive Dagrse, ii. 137. 
Drecanum prom. ii. 222. 
Drepane, i. 184. 
Drepanum prom. ii. 373. 
Dresia, ii. 34. 
Apetr/a, Apeo-jev?. 
Drilce gens, i. 286. 
Drizium, ii. 145. 
Drvsna, ii. 364. 
Drymusa insula, i. 345. 
Drjnemetum, ii. 83, 
Drjs, ii. 266. 

Dusis pros Olympum, i. 211. 
Dyndasum, ii. 215. 



AvvhaaoVf Ai/xSatret?. 

Dyrzela, ii. 294. 

Ebagena, sive Sebagena, ii. 124. 

Ecdaumana, ii. 96. 

Ecdaua, ii. 96. 

Ecechiries gens, i. 291. 

Echsea, i. 194. 

Ecobriga, ii. 101. 

Edebessus, ii. 266. 

'E&ejS>)(r(7o?, 'E8€/3»;cro-€i/?. 
Edyme, ii. 215. 

Elaphitis insula, i. 402. 

Elaphonnesus, i. 49. 

Elaea, i. 145. 

'EXa/a, 'EKatiTYji;, 

— — insula Bithyn. i. 192. 

Elseaticus Sinus, i. 145. 

Elaeitichos, ii. 266. 

Elaeum emporium, i. 202. 

Elseus, ii. 190. 

Elaeussa insula, Mys. i. 134. 

Car. ii. 191. 

Cil. ii. 337. 

Elea promontorium, ii. 384. 
Elaeus fluvius, i. 202. 
Elegarsina, ii. 160. 
Elespis regio, ii. 89. 
Eleutherocilices, ii. 362. 
Elgus, ii. 266. 
''EKyoi;, 'EKyioi;. 
Elmaeum, ii. 390. 
Elvia, i. 238. 
Embatum Ion. i. 350. 
Embolus, ii. 255. 
Empelus fluvius, i. 37. 
Enara, i. 469. 
Epetobrogium, ii. 94, 
Ephesus, i. 363. 

^(pecraq, 'Eifyiaiot;. 

Epidarus, ii. 390. 
Epiphanea Bithyn. 215. 
■ Cilic. ii. 363. 

'EiiKpciveia, ^EirKpacvevi;. 

Erge, sive Gerse, i. 352. 
Erana, ii.362. 
Erania, ii. 385. 
Erebinthodes insula, i. 192. 
Eremosgrsea, ii. 144. 
Dd3 



406 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Eressus, i. 162. 

'Epeaaoc, 'Epeiro-iO^. 

Ereuatis, ii. 266. 
Erezii, i. 59. 
Ergasterion, i. 58. 
Eribolum, siveEriboea, i. 187- 
Eriza, ii. 212. 

Eryannis fluvius, i. 129. 
Erymnae, ii, 266. 

'Epv/y-val, 'Epvjj.vaioi;. 

Erystliea, ii. 390. 
Erythini, i. 223. 
Erythrae Dardan. i. 84. 
— ^ Ion. i. 347. 

'Epidpa,], 'EpvOpaio^. 
Estiee promontorium, i. 195. 
Etenna, ii, 310. 
Erevva, 'Et€vv€V(;. 
Etiieleus fluvius, i, 131. 
Evagina, ii. 103. 
Evarchus fluvius, i. 234. 
Eucarpia, ii. 25. 
EvKizpTtioc, EtKapTcev^, 
Evenus fluvius, i. 129, 134. 
Eudagina, ii. 155. 
Eudiphus, i. 321. 
Eudixata, ii. 154. 
Eudon fluvius, i. 465. 
Eudocia, ii, 57. 

Pisid. ii. 293. 

Eudoxia, ii. 90. 
Eudoxiopolis, ii. 313. 
Euippe, ii. 214. 
Ewwirij, Evitf7tev(;. 
Eulepa, i. 321. ii. 155. 
Eiunenia, ii. 24. 

E^jW€V6/», EvfJi.€ViV(;. 

Eunae, ii. 215. 

Evi/ai, EiivaToi. 

Euna^us fluvius, ii. 215. 

Euonymia, ii. 215. 

Eupatoria, postea Magnopolis, 

i. 309, 
Eupatria, i. 4/1. 
Euphorbium, ii. 28. 
Euplirates, ii. 150. 
Eurariium, ii. 182. 
Eureis fluvius et vicus, i. 131. 



j' Euromus, sive Europus, ii. 198. 
I Evpccy.dq, sive EvpwTTo?, EvpufAilti et 
I i ElpccKevi. 

I Eurymedon fluvius, ii. 280. 
'! Eurynassa, i. 402. 

Eusebia ad Argaeum, ii. 122. 

Eusene, i. 263. 

Eusiraara, ii. 127. 

Euspoena, ii. 160. 

Eutane, ii. 190. 

Euthene, ii. 190. 

EiiB-fivat, Ei^'fivouoq, EtB-qvivif et Ev- 

Faustinopolis, ii. 133. 
Flavias, ii. 339. 
Foroba, ii. 155. 
Frigidarium, i. 300, 
Gadiana, sive Gadusena, ii, 124. 
Gadilonitis, sive Gazelonitis, i. 

263. 
Gadilon, sive Gazelon, i, 264, 

300. 
Gaeson fluvius, i. 381. 
Gaesonis palus, i. 381. 
Gagae, ii. 255. 
Tayai, Tayatoc. 
Galatia, ii. 79. 

Consularis, ii. 85. 

Sal u tar is, ii. 85, 

Galea, ii, 96. 

Gallesus nions, i, 359. 

Gallograeci, ii. 79. 

Gallus fluvius Bithvn. i. 183, 

Phng, ii, 32. 

Gambrium, i, 395. 
Tay.^peTov, Faij^^petevq. 
Gammaiisa, sive Gambua, ii. 57. 
Gangra, i. 237. 
rdyypx, TayypriVoi;. 
Gargara mons, i. 121. 

■ urbs, i. 124. 

Tdpyapa, Fapyapev^, 

Garium, i. 226. 

Garmias, ii. 1 17- 

Garnace, ii. 1 17. 

Garsaura, sive Garsabora, ii. 1 1 2. 

Garsauritis, ii. 1 12. 

Gaugaena, sive Gaureena, ii, 125. 

Gazaceua, i, 305. 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



407 



Gazena, ii. 57- 

Gazioura, i. 305. 

Gazorum, i. 234. 

Gebes, sive Gelbes fluvius, i. 

173. 
Gelos, ii. 191. 
Gendos fluvius, i. 184. 
Genetes prom, et fluvius, i. 278. 
Georgii castelluin, i. 182, 
Gerse, i. 352. 
Geraesticus portus, i. 352. 
Gerandrus, ii. 388, 
Geranea, ii. 57. 
Geren, i. 164. 
Gergis, sive Gergitha, i. 84. 
Tepy)/;, et ripytdoc, T€pyWio<;. 
Gergithiuni, i. 68. 
Germanicopolis Bithyn. i. 173, 

Paphlag. i. 238. 

Cil. ii. 339. 

Germe, sive Hiera Germe, i. 

60. 
Germa Lyd. i. 430. 
Gal. ii. 89. 

VepjJ.-q, re^//,'/)K3(;. 

Germiani colles, i. 60. 
Gerrhseidae, i. 352. 
Gigartho, i. 410. 
Gihenenica, i. 299. ii. 159. 
Glauama, ii. 72. 
Glauce, sive Glaucia, i. 380. 
Glauci demus, ii. 266, 
Glaucus Pont, fluvius, i. 294, 

' Phryg. ii. 24. 

Lye, ii. 247. 

Glaucus Sinus, ii. 198. 
Godasa, sive Gundusa, ii. 154. 
Golgi, ii. 390. 

Gordium, postea Juliopolis, i. 
212. 

Top^Uiov, ropStev?, 
Gordiu tichos, ii. 210. 
Fop^iov T«r%0(;, rop^iovreixiTYji;. 
Gordus, sive Juliagordus, i. 431 . 

Troad. i. 131. 

Gorgyia, i. 410. 
Granicus fluvius, i. 36. 
Graosgala, ii. 60. 
Grius nions, i. 394. 



Gronychiaj i. 194. 
Grylius fluvius, i. 132. 
Grynium, sive Grynea, i. 146. 
Tpvveiov, Tpvviioi, et Tpwivi;. 
Gunaria campus, i. 240. 
Gurzubanthon, i, 234. 
Gygaea palus, i. 432. 
Gymnias, i. 297. 
Gyres fluvius, ii. 145. 
Gytarium, ii. 135. 
Hadriani, i. 179. 
Hadrianopolis Bithyn, i. 210. 

Pisid. ii. 313. 

Hadrianotherae, i. 142. 
'AhpiavoO-^pai, 'Adpiavo6v]piTrj^. 
Hales fluvius, i. 359. 
Halesium, i. 116. 
Halicarnassus, ii. 176, 
'AXiKocpvaaao^, 'AKiKapvaaarioi;, 
Halice, et Halicus, ii, 364. 
Halisarna, ii. 222. 
Halizones, i. 172. 
Halizoniuni, i. 88. 
Halone insula, i. 402. 
Halonnesus, i. 351. 
Hamaxitus Troad. i. 116. 
Car. ii. 199. 

'AfA-a^tTo;, 'Af^a^trevq. 
Haris, ii. 160. 
Harmatus prom. i. 145. 
'■ Harpagium, sive Harpagia, i. 
35. 
Harpasa, ii. 209. 

"Apnaira, 'Apiracret;?. 

Harpasus fluvius Armen. i. 296. 

Car. ii. 209. 

Hassis, ii. 156. 
Hecatonnesi, i. 165. 
Helboscope, sive Helioscope in- 
sula, ii, 247- 
Helenopolis, i. 184. 
Helgas, i, 173. 
Heliopolis, ii. 104. 
! Hellespontus, i. 60. 
Heneti gens, i. 218. 
Heniochi gens, i. 295. 
Heptacometae gens, i. 291. 
Heptaporus, sive Polyporus Hu- 
vius, i. 131. 
D d 4 



408 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Heraclea Mys. i. 132. 

Pontica, i. 203. 

Latmi, i. 393. 

Magnes. i. 472. 

Albase, sive Salbace, 

ii. 214. 

'HpuKXeta, 'HpaKAeuT'^t;. 
Heracleum, i. 182. 

Caun. ii. 195. 



promont. et portus 

Ponti, i. 266. 

Herculis Vicus, ii. 134. 
Hermagoree fons, i. 193, 
Ilermaeum, i. 69. 
Hermesia, i. 438. 
Hermius Sinus, i. 342. 
Hermocapelia, i. 434. 
Hermonassa, i. 287. 
'Ep[/.c!iva.a-<x<x, 'EpiA.uvtxaaraToi, et 'E^- 
y.uva,(}-<7t(i<;. 

Hermopolis, i. 434. 
Hermus fluvius, i. 336. 
Herpa, sive Herplia, ii. 142. 
Hiera, i. 164. 

prom. ii. 247. 

Hieracsesarea, i. 431. 
Hieracome, ii. 208. 
Hieracometse, i. 153. 
Hieramse; ii. 216. 
'ltpaiA,ai, 'lepa/Aevf. 
Hierapolis, ii. 371. 

'lepccTcoXic, 'lepaiiOAlr'/jc. 

Hierocepia, sive Hierocepis, ii, 

376. 
Hierolophienses, i. 154. 
Hieron, sive Tempium Jovis 

Urii, i. 194. 

Oros. i. 285. 

Ilieronenses, sive Hierorenses^ 

ii. 103. 
Hierus fluvius Troad. i. 129. 

^ Bithyn. i. 213. 

Ilippi insula, i. 350. 
Hipi)ocome, ii. 266. 
Hipponesus, ii. 216,239. 
Hispa, ii. 157. 
Hodiopolis, i. 315. 

Holmi Phryg. ii. 31. 



Holmi Cilic. ii. 329. 
Homonadenses, ii. 332. 
Homonada, ii. 333. 

Horisius fluvius, i. 173. 
Hydara, ii. 151. 
Hyde Lyd. i. 434. 

Lycaon. ii. 72. 

Car. ii. 190. 

Hydra prom. i. 150. 
Hydissus, ii. 214. 
'Tiiaa-oi;, 'TStira-et;?. 
Hyelium, ii. 60. 
Hyettusa insula, i. 412. 
Hygassus, ii. 217. 
"Tyaa(j-li, 'Tydaaioq. 
Hygenna, ii. 267. 
"Tyevva, 'TyevviV(;. 
Hylami, ii. 266. 
Hyllarima, ii. 217- 
'TKXdpiiAa, 'TAAapijAfVi. 
Hylas fluvius, i. 176. 
Hyle, ii. 391. 
Hylluala, ii. 217- 

Hyllus, sive Phrygius fluvius, i. 

427. 
Hynidos, ii. 213. 
Hypachaei, ii. 315. 
Hypsepa, i. 450. 
'"[■nama, Tira.i'nrjvcc. 
Hyperdexion, i. 165. 
Hypii monies, i, 202, 
Hypius fluvius, i. 201. 
Hyrcanius campus, i. 428. 
Hyria, ii. 332. 
Hyris prom. i. 188. 
Hysbe, i. 472. 
"T^jS'-j, 'To-,3a?6?, et 'Tal^Uyji. 
Hyssus portus, i. 290. 
Hytenna, ii. 267. 

' Trevva, Yrevi'tvi;. 

lalysus, ii. 237. 
'Id'Avaoi;, 'laXi/Vjo;. 
Januaria, ii. 355. 
laonitae, i. 473. 
Jasonium prom. i. 273. 
lassicus ijinus, ii. 170. 
lassus Cappad. ii. 127. 

Car. ii. 170. 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



409 



Ibeni, 5. 473. 

Ibettes fluvius, i. 408. 

Ibibus mons, i. 37- 

Icaria insula, i. 410. 

Iconiuni, ii. 62. 

'I/covtov, '\Koyi€vq. 

Ida mons, i. 120. 

Idalium, sive Idalia, ii. 381. 

Idea, i. 437. 

Idyma, sive Idymus, ii. 215. 

Idynms fluvius, ii. 216. 

Ilaris, ii. 266. 

'IXajj^, 'IXa^et;?. 

Iliocolone, i. 65. 
Ilistra, ii. /I- 
Ilium vetus, i. 100. 

novum, i. 104. 

lilyris insula, ii. 264. 
Iluzi, ii. 57. 
Imbarus mons, ii. 364. 
Imbrasus fluA'ius, i. 408. 
Imbrus, ii. li)5, 
Incilissa, ii, 148. 
Indus fluAius, ii. 195. 
In Medio, ii. 158. 

In Monte, ii. 148. 
lones, i. 324. 
Ionia, i. 323. 

Cilic. loc. ii. 355. 

lotape, ii. 323. 

lovia, ii. 293. 
Ipnus, i. 410. 
Ipsus, ii. 33. 
Irenopolis, ii. 339. 
Iris fluvius, i. 266. 
Is fluvius, ii. 328. 
Isaura Palsea, ii. 74. 

Euerces, ii. 74. 

Isauri, ii. 72. 
Isauria, ii. 72. 
Isbus, ii. 78. 
Ischopolis, i. 283. 

Isinda, sive Isionda, ii. 289. 
IcTivSa, et la/ovSa, 'IcrivSeJ^, 
'IfJiov'bevi. 

Ismara, sive Siniara, ii. 153. 
Ispa, ii. 154. 



et 



Issa, i. 164. 

Issicus Sinus, ii. 354. 

Issus, ii. 360. 

Io"(70<;, 'I<7<7a7oi;. 

Isti promontorium, i. 410. 
Ilone, i. 473. 
Itonia, i. 320. 
Ixiae, ii. 2. 
Julia, ii. 32. 
Julianopolis, i. 454. 
Juliopolis, prius Gordium, i. 
212. 

Cappad. ii. 127. 

Juliagordus, i. 431 . 
Juliosebaste, ii. 339. 
Justinianopolis, ii. 313. 
Justinopolis, ii. 145. 
Labara, ii. 116. 

Ad^apa, Aa^apevi, 

Labranda, ii. 202. 

Aa/SfavSa, Aa^pai/^tijq. 

Laceter prom. ii. 222. 
Laeriassus, ii. 127. 
Lacus Jovis Dacii, ii. 129. 
Lade insula, i. 389. 
Ladepsi gens, i. 215. 
Lsea, ii. 216. 
Aae/a, AaiV'/j^. 
Laertes, ii. 321. 
Aae'pTi;?, Aafprielq, AaepTirvj^, et 
Aoctprioi;, 

Lagalassus, ii. 161. 

Lagania, ii. 95. 

Lagina, ii. 205. 

Laginea, i. 214. 

Lagon, ii. 289. 

Lagusa insula, ii. 247- 

Lagussse insula, i. 111. 

Lai us portus, i. 400. 

Lalaceeum, ii. 145. 

Lalassis, sive Lalisanda, ii. JH. 

ii. 334. 
Lalaenesis, sive Ladaenesis, ii. 

127. 
Lamotis regio, ii. 338. 
Lampe, ii. 60. 
Lampes fluvius, Mys. i. 53. 
Lamponia, sive Lamponium, i. 

125. 



410 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Lampsacus, i. 65. 

Adi/.\pa.Krj^, Aa/Ai/za/c'/jvo^. 

Lampsus, i. 345. 

Lamus fluvius, ii. 338. 

Landosia, ii. 97- 

Langasa, ii. 125. 

Laodicea Catacecaumene, ii.33. 

ad Lycum, ii. 38. 

AaohiKeta, Acco^iKtvi;. 

Lapara, ii, 145. 

Lapathus, siveLapethus, ii. 380. 

Aditrfioi, Aait'fiBioi;, et AaTT'/jSev;. 

Lapsias fluvius, i. 215. 

Laranda Lycaon, ii. 71- 

Larissa Troad. i. 113. 

Phriconis, i. 150. 

Ephes. i. 458. 

Cappad. ii. 148. 

Adpicra-a, AaoiTcraHoq. 
Larymna, ii. 191. 
Lascoria, ii. 102. 
Lasonii, ii. 295. 
Latania, i. 211. 
Latmicus Sinus, i. 389, 393. 
Latmus mons, i. 394. 
Lauzados, ii. 339. 
Laviniasene, ii. 125. 
Leandis, ii. 144. 
Lebade, i. 438. 
Lebedos, i. 355. 

AffjSeSs:, Ae^eZiOi. 

Lectum promontorium, i. 116. 
Ledruni, ii. 391. 
Leleges, i. 20. ii. 165, 182. 
Lembiis, i. 194. 
Lentiana regio, i. 56. 
Lentiani coUes, 1. 56. 
Leontocephale, ii. 57. 
Leontosconie, ii. 57- 
Leopodium, i. 350. 
Lepetynmus mons, i. 161. 
Lepria insula, i. 402. 
Lepsemandus insula, ii. 239. 
Lepsia insula, i. 4)2. 
Lepte prom. i. 227- 
Leros, ii. 217- 
A€po(;, AtpiOi;. 



Lesbos insula, i. 154. 
Lethseus fluvius, i. 461. 
Leuca Bithyn. i. 182. 

Car. prom. ii. 183. 

Leucse insulse, i. 166. 

Ionise, i. 335. 

Leucatas prom. i. 166. 
Leucolla prom. ii. 282. 

portus, ii. 381. 

Leuconium, i. 401. 
Leucophrys, i. 461. 
Leucopolis, ii. 190. 
Leucothea, i. 410. 
Leucotheum prom. ii. 285. 
Leucosyri, i. 186, 261. 
Leugaesa, sive Leutaesa, ii. 127- 
Liba, sive Libum, i. 187- 
Libyssa, i. 187. 

A{(3va-(7a, Aif^vaaaia^. 
Libyssus fluvius, i. 187- 
Lide mons, ii. 182. 
Lilium emporium, i. 202. 
Lilius fluvius, i. 202. 
Limense, ii. 313. 
Limenia, ii. 388. 
Limeneium, i. 392. 
Limobrama, ii. 286. 
Limmocheir, ii. 60. 
Limne, i. 292. 
Limon, i. 468. 
Limyra, ii. 254. 
Al[jLvpa, Aifjivpivt;. 
Limyrus fluvius, ii. 254. 
Lindus, ii. 236. 
A(ySo?, AiVSiO?. 
Liparis fluvius, ii. 341. 
Lirnytea, ii. 286. 
Litlirus mons, i. 310. 
Liviopolis, i. 287. 
Locozus, ii. 57. 

Ao'kOjOi,', AoKo'^io?, et AoKO^ttVjf. 

Longinia, ii. 365. 
Lopadium, i. 53. 
Lor}'ma, ii. 19L 
AupviAa, Aupvfj.a'ioi;. 
Luma, ii. 60. 
Lunda, ii. 57. 

Lvcadium, sive Cycladium, i. 
194. 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



411 



Lycseiis campus, i. 203. 
Lycandus, ii. 145. 
Lycaon, ii. 57. / 
Lycaones, ii. 61. 
Lycaonia, ii. 61. 
Lycapsus, i. 473. 

AvKCl-lpO^, AvKCCXpiO^. 

Lycastus, i. 265. 

fluvlus, i. 265. 

AvKaaro^, AvKacmoq. 

Lycia, ii. 240. 

Lycii, ii. 240. 

Lycide, i. 142. 

Lycosthene, i. 473. 

AvKoa-Oevvj, AvKoadevivi;, et AvKoaOe- 

Lycus fluvius Mys. i. 55. 

-^ Bithyn. i. 203. 

Pont. i. 294. 

i. 309. 

Phryg. ii. 39. 

Cypr. ii. 377. 



Lydia, i. 413. 
Lydi, i. 414. 
Lygdamum, i. 142. 
Lyperus nions, i. 215. 
Lyrbe, ii. 313. 
Avp^tj, AvpjSelrrji;. 
Lyrope, ii. 313. 
Lyrnatia, ii. 266. 
Lyrnessus Troad. i. 129. 

Pamph. ii. 278. 

Avpi/rjcrcrii^, Avpv^ffato^. 
Lysias, ii. 24. 

Avaisci;, Ava-ta.^rj(;. 

Lysinoe, ii. 296. 
Lysis fluvius, ii. 289. 
Lystra, ii. 69. 
AvcTTpa, Avarp-fivoi. 
Macarid, ii. .391. 
Macedones Hyrcani, i. 429. 
Macistus fluvius, i. 

nions, i. 161. 

Maclielones gens, i. 295. 
Macria prom. i. 355. 
Macris insula Ion. i. 355. 

Lye. ii. 247. 

Macrocephali, i. 285. 
Macrones, i. 285. 



Mgenalia, ii. 104. 
Msenomenus Campus, i. 464. 
Mseones, i. 21, 416. 
Mseonia, i. 416. 

urbs, i. 453. 

Magaba mons, ii. 95. 
Magalassus, ii. 155. 
Magnana, i. 299. ii. 159. 
Magnesia ad Sipylum, i. 436. 
Masandrum,i. 459. 

Magnopolis, i. 309. 
Magydus, ii. 278. 

Malea, i. 164. 
Malene, i. 133. 
Malius Troad. i. 88. 

Pisid. ii. 3. 

Cilic. ii. 351. 

MaXXo?, MaKkirri^, 
Malum, ii. 380. 
Mandane, ii. 327. 
Mandra, i. 55. 
Mandropolis, ii. 289. 
Manegordus, ii. 95. 
Manesium, ii. 57. 
Manoris, i. 240. 
Mantalus, ii. 57- 

M.avTaKoi;, MavTotA^voij. 

Mantinium, i. 239. 
Marasia, ii. 365. 
Marathesia, i. 377- 
Maralhusa, i. 345. 
Marcada, sive Carmada, ii. 127- 
Marcaeum mons, i. 85. 
Mardara, sive Marandara, i. 

321. ii. 154. 
Mare Pamphylium, ii. 274. 
Mares gens, i. 322. 
Mariandyni gens, i. 200. 
Marium, ii. 391. 

Mdpiov, Ma,piO(;. 

Marmarensium rupis, ii. 264. 
Marmolitis, i. 235. 
Maroscus mons, i. 189. 
Marsara, ii. 154. 
Marsyas fluvius Plirvg. ii. 

Car! ii. 207- 

Marthyla, i. 295. 



412 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Martyropolis, ii. 145. 
Martyrum Lacus, ii. 32. 
Masanorada, ii. 210. 

Mao-ay&SpaSa, Maa-avupatevi;, 

Masedus, ii, 278. 
Massicytes mons, ii. 256. 
Mastaiira, i. 468. 
Mastusia mons, i. 440. 
Mastya, i. 239. 
Masura, ii. 278. 
MatuHSco, ii. 156. 
Mausoleum, ii. 170, 
Maximianopolisj ii. 280. 
Mazaca, ii. 118. 
Mazseum, i. 215. 
Mazora, sive Maroza, ii. 125. 
Meander Huvius, i. 282. 
Meandrius Campus, i. 403. 
Medese turris, i. 195. 
Medmasa, ii. 182. 

Medocia, i. 300. ii. 159. 
Megabula, ii. 150. 
Megalassus, ii. 155. 
Megale insula, i. 192. 
Megalopolis, ii. 210. 
Megaricum, i. 183. 
Megarsus, ii. 351. 

Miyapaoq, Mfyapcreu?. 

Megiste insula, ii. 251. 
Meltena prom. Bithyn. i. 198. 

Ion. i. 340. 

Chior. i. 401. 

Melcfinas, ii. 200. 

Melampea, i. 473. 

Melane insula, i. 402. 

Melangia, i. 1/8. 

Melania, ii. 327. 

Melanippe et Melanippium, ii. 

255. 
Melano insula, ii. 239. 
Melanos prom. i. 48. 
Mehmudium, i. 392. 
Mclantliius fluvius, i. 279. 
Melaiitii scopuli, i. 411. 
Melas fluvius Cappad. ii. 118. 

PamphyL ii. 283. 

Cilic. ii. 329. 

Meles fluvius, i. 338, 342. 



Melia, ii. 216. 

MeXla^ MeXievi;. 

Melissa, sive Melitaea, ii. 29. 

Melitene Prsefect. ii. 126. 

urbs, ii. 126. 

MiXiT-/jv)j, MtXiT^voi;. 

\ Memnonis tumulus et vicus, i. 

1 38. 

I Men Cams, ii. 43. 

I Menedeterus, ii. 218. 

i Menedemium, ii. 298. 

Mermessus, sive Mvrmissus, i. 
08. 

Merus, ii. 57. 

Mesate promontorium, i. 350. 

Mesonacte, ii. 32. 

Mesorome, ii. 155. 

Mesotmolus, i. 443. 

Messaba, ii. 210. 

Metro- a/3a, Mea-cra^evi;. 

Messogis mons, i. 459. 

Metabole, i. 189. 

Metadula, sive Megabula, i. 320. 

MetalassuSj sive Megalassus, ii. 
155. 

Metaum, i. 105. 

Methymna, i. 1()0. 

Metita, ii. 125. 

Metorome, sive Mesorome, i. 
320. 

Metroum, i. 207. 

Metropolis Lyd. i. 451. 

Phryg. ii. 29. 

Mvjt^ottoXj?, M^t^ottoa/t'/j?. 

Midaeum, ii. 20. 

MtSaeiov, Mtdaevi;. 

Midea, ii. 2<)0. 
Miletopolis, i. 52. 
Miletopolitis palus, i. 50. 
Miletus Paphl. i. 38. 

Ion. i. 383. 

Milyas, ii. 207. 

urbs, ii. 299. 

Milyse, ii. 208. 
Mimas mons, i. 340. 
Minizus, ii. 95. 
Mirones, ii. 103. 
Misthea, ii. 7 '• 
Mithridatium, ii. 102. 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



4!;} 



Mitylene, i. 157. 

MvriX-^vfj, MvriXr}va7oq, 
Mnasyrium prom. ii. 237. 
Mocata, i, 215. 
Moccle, ii. 57. 
Mocissus, ii. 117. 
Modia, i. 183. 
Mogarissus, i. 321. 
Mogaron, i. 311. 
Molpe, sive Molte, ii. 57. 
Moloe, ii. 339. 
Molyndea, ii. 266. 
MoXvv^eia, MoXvi-Set;?. 
Momoasson, ii. 146. 
Monabae, ii. 78- 
Monarites, ii. 126. 
Monastia, i. 182. 
Monogissa, ii. 216. 
MovoyKTO-a. Moi/oyia-a-rivai. 
Mopsuestia, ii. 353. 
Moi/zov eat la, Moi//eaT'/j?. 
Morene regio, i. 54. 
Morimene, ii. 115. 
Moson, i. 238. 
Mossine, i. 474. 
Mostene, i. 429. 
Mosynoeci gens, i. 279. 
Moxiani, ii. 58. 
Mumastus, ii. 216. 
Movjj.a'TTOi;, MovixaaTiT'^q. 
Muriana, ii. 115. 
Muricium, ii. 104. 
Mya, ii. 239. 

Myanda, sive Myus, ii. 327 
Mycale nions, i. 378. 
Mycaporis Sinus, i. 194. 
Myes, i. 395. 
Mygdones, i. 7- 
Mygisi, ii. 216, 
Myis, ii. 329. 
Mylantia prom. ii. 237. 
Mylasa, ii. 200. 
MvXa.aa, MvKaaev^. 
Myndus, ii. 175. 
Mvi/ioi;, MMiOi;. 
Myonnesus, i. 354. 

Mvw'/jcrot;, Mvov'q<TiOi;. 

Myra, ii. 253. 

Mrjpa, Mvp€V(;. 



Myriandrus, ii. 362. 

Mvpiavhpo^, Mvpiavlipyjvo^. 

Myrina, i. 146. 

Mvpiva, MvptvaToi;. 
Myriocephalus, ii. 60. 
Myrlea, i. 173. 
MvpXeia, MvpX€av6(;. 
Myrleanus Sinus, i. 174. 
Myrmeces scopuli, i. 336. 
Myrmissus, i. 68. 
MvpiA,i(T(7oi;, Mvpy.ic3-anjt;. 
Mysi, i. 30. 
Mysia, i. 32. 

Major, i. 31. 

Minor, i. 31. 

Mysius fluvius, i. 135. 
Myso Macedones, i. 60. 
Mythopolis, i. 181. 
Myus, i. 392. 
Mvovi;, M.vovaio^. 
Nacolia, ii. 21. 
'Na.KCiAia, l>iaKoKev(;. 
Nacrasa, i. 430. 
'SuKpaaa., 'NaKpaa-eiT/ji;, 
Nagidus, ii. 326. 

Nagidusa insula, ii. 326. 
Nape, i. 165. 
Narcasus, ii. 216. 

NapKaa'cx;, 'NapKa<Tev(;. 

Narmalis, ii. 314. 

"Ndpy-ctAK;, 'Napf/.aAtvi;. 
Narthecusa insula, ii. 238. 
Nausiclea, i. 194. 
Nausimachium, i, 194. 
Naxia, ii. 216. 

Na|/«, Na^tev<;. 

Naziandus, ii. 176. 
Nazianzus, ii. 114. 

Neacome, i. 88. 
Neandria, i. 117- 
Neanessus, ii. 114. 
Neapolis Pont. i. 301. 

Galat. ii. 103. 

Ion. i. 377- 

Pisid. ii. 313. 

Cilic. ii. 339. 



Neauie, i. 474. 



414 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Necica, ii. 334. 
Nemicome, i. 182. 
Neocsesarea, i. 315. 

NcoKaitrdcptix, ^(.OKat(j-ap(v(;. 

Neoclaiidipolis, i. 238. 

Neontichos^ i. 151, 

Ne'ov TfT^o^, NeoTe<%»T»;?, et Neo- 

Nephelis prom. ii. 323. 
Neronias, ii. 339. 
Nesiazusa prom. ii. 323. 

• iirbs, ii. 323. 

Nesaulium, ii. 329. 
Nicsea, i. 180, 

Nicephorium, i, 138, 
Nicomedia, i. 185. 
N</fo/Avj86Ja, NjKOjM,-/)Sei;?. 
Nicomedium, i. 215, 
Nicopolis Bith. i. 194. 

Lyd. i. 474. 

Armen. ii. 150. 

Ninoe, ii. 10. 

Ninus fluviiis, ii. 197. 

Nisyrus, Calydn. ii. 218. 

insula, ii. 222. 

Nitazus, ii. 1 17. 
Nolasene^ ii. 125. 
Nora^ sive Neroassus, ii. 132. 
Noscopium, ii. 265. 
Notium Ion. i. 357- 

Chior. i. 400. 

Calydn. ii. 218. 

Nymphseum, i. 207. 

Lvd. i. 440. 

■ Ci'lic. ii. 364. 

Nysa, i. 466. 

Ni/tra, Nuo-aet'/;. 

Nyssa, ii. 117- 

Oaniis, i. 473. 
Obrimas fluvius, ii. 54. 
Ocaj sive Occa, i. 60. 
Ochosbanes, sive Ochthomanes 

fluvius, i. 228. 
Ochras, ii. 146. 
Ochyroma, ii. 238. 
Octapolis, ii, 265. 
Qilandenses, ii. 103. 



a:cus, ii. 216. 

Q^)dymus Sinus, ii. 191. 
Q^^niandus, ii. 363. 
CEnoe, i. 272. 
Q^noanda, ii. 272, 

OlvoavZa, OiVoavSeJ;. 

CEnussse insulse, i. 401. 
Odogra, ii. 124. 
Odryses fluvius, i. 172. 
Olachas flu^^us, i. 184. 
Olba, ii. 333. 
"OXSa, '0\Se4. 
Olbasa, ii. 307- 
'0/.,Sacra, 'OXjSaer'ijV'j'i, 
Olbia Bithyn. i. 185. 

Pamphyl. ii. 274. 

■OX/3/a, 'OX^iavoc,. 
Olbianus Sinus, i, 185. 
Olenus, ii. 97. 
Oleoberda, ii. 157- 
Olgasys mons, i. 235. 
Oiotoedariza, ii. 155. 
Olympus Mys. mons, i. 178. 

Lesb. i. 161. 

Bithyn. — i. 211. 

Lyciae urbs et mons, 

Cypr. ii. 379, 385. 

Onopnictes fluvius, ii. 144, 
Onugnathos prom. ii. 190. 
Ophiogeneis, i. 65. 
Ophius fluvius, i. 290. 
Ophiusa insula, i. 49. 
Ophlimus mons, i. 310. 
Ophrynium, i. 82. 
Opistholepre, i. 374. 
Orbalisene, ii. 150. 
Orbanassa, ii. 307. 
Orbesine, ii, 150, 
Orcaorici, ii. 95. 
Orcistus, ii. 91. 
Ordinius fluvius, i. 292. 
Ordymnus mons, i. 161. 
Orgas fluvius, ii. 53. 
Orgibate, i. 234. 
Oriens Medio, i. 214. 
Ormiiiius mons, i. 214. 



'.oj. 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



41'j 



Oroanda, ii. 300. 

'Opoav^ex,, ^Opoccvhevi;, et ^Opoav^iKO(;. 
Oromandrus, ii. 154. 
Orsara, sive Orsa, ii. 154. 
Orsena, ii. 150. 
Orsiniis fluviiis, ii. 200. 
Orthosia, ii. 207. 

'Opduaia, 'Op9cca-i€v<;. 

Orthronienses, ii. 214. 
Ortygia, i. 376. 
Oryrnna, ii. 286. 
Otrea, i. 183. 
Otrus, ii. 58. 
Oxinas fluvius, i. 207. 
Oxyopum, i. 142. 
Oxyrrhoum prom. i. 194. 
Ozdara, ii. 160. 
Ozzala, ii. 117- 
Pactolus fluvius, i. 441. 
Padasea, ii. 144. 
Psedopides fluvius, i. 207. 
Psesus, i. 65. 

UaKTOi, TLaKJ-'rit'Oi;. 

fluvius, i. 65. 

Pagrum, ii. 161. 
Pagus mons, i. 339. 
Pagus Uiensium, i. 102, 
Paipert, ii. 61. 
Palsea Troad. i. 125. 

Cypr. ii. 379. 

Palseapolis, Lyd. i. 474. 

Pamph. ii. 286. 

Palaegambrium, i. 395. 
Palaemyndus, ii. 176. 
Palaepaphos, ii. 373. 
Palsescamander fluvius, 1. 93. 
Palaescepsis, i. 85. 
Palalce, ii. 102. 
Palamedium, i. 122. 
Palinurus port. Sam. i. 409. 
Pampali villa, ii. 133. 
Pamphylia, ii. 273. 
Pamphylii, ii. 273. 
Panacra, ii. 391. 
Pancalea campus, ii. 145. 
Panemotichos, ii. 286. 

Pania, ii. 364. 
Panionium, i. 379. 



Panormus Cyzic. i. 42. 
Panormus Ephes. i, 375. 
Panormus Milet. i. 392. 

Sam. i. 409. 

Caun. ii. 195. 

Pantaenses, i. 154. 
Pantichium, i. 188, 

Bosph. i. 195. 

Paphlagones, i. 216. 
Paphlagonia, i. 216. 
Paphos, ii. 374. 
Tloctpo;, UacpiOi;. 
Papira, ii. 90. 
Papitium, i. 241. 
Papyrii Castrum, ii. 365, 
Paradisus fluvius, ii. 365. 
Paridion, ii. 191. 
Parium, i. 63, 
Hdptov, Tiaptavoi;. 

mons, ii. 355. 

Parlais, ii. 72. 
napX'jui;, UapXatevi;. 
Parnassus, ii. 116. 
Parparon, sive Ferine, i. 153. 
Parthenium, i. 141. 
Parthenius fluvius, i. 221, 
Pasada, ii. 195, 
Passala, ii. 201, 
i Pasarne, ii. 125. 
Patara, i. 300. 
Lye. ii. 249. 

TlaTapac, YIuTapeii;, 

Patavium, i. 214. 
Patmos insula, i. 412. 
Patrasvs, i. 322. 
Pedalia, ii. 364. 
Pedalium prom. ii. 197- 

Cypr. ii. 380. 

Pedasus, Troad. i. 122. 
Pedasum, sive Pedasa, Car. ii, 

182. 
IleSacrov, ITeSao-ci;?. 
Pedieis, ii. 216. 
Pednelissus, ii. 312. 

Pegasseum Stagnum, i. 362. 
Pegella, ii. 96. 
Peium, ii. 91. 
Pele insula, i. 345. 



416 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Pelecas mons, i. 56. 
Pelinasus mons, i. 401. 
Pelope, i. 4/3. 
Peltse, ii. 22. 

TleKra), TlehT/jvoq. 
Peltenus Campus, ii. 22. 
Pentademitse, i. 60. 
Pentachira, ii. 60. 
Pentliile, i. 165. 
Pepuza, ii. 58. 
Pera, ii. 314. 
Percote, i. 69. 
YlfpKUT'/j, UepK&xrtoi;. 
Peraea regio, ii. 191. 
Perdicise, ii. 247- 
Perga, ii. 279. 

Tlfpya, TlepycciOi;. 

Pergamum, i. 136. 
Tlfpyai^cii', Tlepyaiji.yjvoi;. 
Perirrheusa insula, i. 345. 
Perirrhous prom. i. 194. 
Perperene, i. 132. 
Persicum, ii. 195. 
Perta, ii. 72. 
Pessinus, ii. 85. 

Petraea, i. 189. 
Petrossa, ii. 364. 
Peucella fluvius, ii. 16. 
Pliadisana, i. 272. 
Plialacrum, ii. 124. 
Phalarus, ii. 191. 
Phanee portus et prom. i. 400. 
Phanaroea, i. 309, 310. 
Pharmacias fluvius, i. 215. 
Pharmacusa insula, i. 412. 
Pharmatenus fluvius, i. 280. 
Pharnacia Pont. i. 200. 

Pling. ii. 60. 

PharsaUis, ii. 286. 
Phaselis, ii. 261. 

Phazemon, i. 301 . 
Phazemonilis, i. 301. 
Phelius, ii. 252. 

Phiara, i. 310. 
Phiela, i. 194. 
Phigamus fluvius, i. 272. 



Philadelphia, Lvd. i. 456. 

Cilic. ii. 332. 

Philsa, ii. 329. 
Philocalea, i. 283. 
Philomelium, ii. 31. 

Philvreis regio, i. 283. 

'— insula, i. 283. 

Philyres gens, i. 283. 
Phocea, i. 330. 

Phoebe insula, i. 280. 
Phoenicus portus Ion. i. 347. 

Lye. ii. 251. 

'•2: 



mons, u. zi)/. 



Phoenix mons, ii. 191. 

castellum, ii. 191. 

Phorontis, ii. 213. 
Phreata, ii. 115. 
Phrixi portus, i. 194. 
Phrurium prom. ii. 377- 
Phryges, ii. 1. 
Phrygia, ii. 1. 

Epictetus, ii. 10. 

Hellespontina, ii. 10. 

Magna, ii. 22. 

Pacatiana, ii. 10. 

Paroreos, ii. 304. 

Salutaris, ii. 10. 

Phrygius fluvius, i. 427. 
Pthira mons, i. 394. 
Phuibagina, ii. 103. 
Phuphagena, ii. 154. 
Phuphena, ii. 154. 
Phusipara, ii. 127. 
Phylacesii, ii. 58. 
Phyrites fluvius, i. 362. 
Phyrocastrum, ii. 124. 
Physcus portus, ii. 192. 
Piala, i. 319. 

Pida, i. 319. 
Pidosus insula, ii. 239. 
Pigelasus, ii. 216. 
nnytXaa-oi;, Tleiy€'Aa<Ttvi. 
Piginda, ii. 216. 
Yllyivha, Tliyi'Aevi. 
Pimolisa, i. 237- 
Pimolisene, i. 237. 
Piiiara, Lye. ii. 246. 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



417 



Pinara Cilic. ii. 364. 

Uivapa, Ilivapevi. 

Pinarus fluvius, ii. 360. 

Pindasus mons, i. 140. 

Pindenissus, ii. 362. 

Pionia, i. 125. 

Pirossus nions, i. 38, 

Pisidae, ii. 287. 

Pisidia, ii. 286. 

Pisilis, sive Pilisis, ii. 193. 

Pisingara, ii. 154. 

Pisonos, ii. 160. 

Pisurgia, ii. 328. 

Pisye, ii. 216. 

Hktvtj, TTiirMjTij^. 

Pitane, i. 134. 

Pitaum, ii. 190. 

TliTciov, Tliraevi;. 

PitnissuS;, sive Petnissus, ii. 95. 

Pityea insula, i. 64. 

mons, i. 64. 

Pityodes insula, i. 188, 192. 
Pityusa insula, ii. 329. 
Placia, i. 49. 

Places mons, i. 129. 
Plamus, ii. 216. 
nXdy.oi;, UXaf^evi. 
Plarassa, ii. 198. 
JlXxpctatra, nXapaaae/K;, 
Platanea, i. 185. 
Plataneus, i. 184. 
Plateis insula, ii. 266. 
Plegra, i. 238. 
Pleuniaris, i. 320. 
Plistarchia, ii. 216. 
Plitendus, ii. 35. 
Plutonium, i. 468. 

Hieropol. ii. 37- 

Podalia, ii. 265. 
TlctddXeia, XloSaXewToj^. 
Podandus, ii. 134. 
PcEcile petra, ii. 335. 
Poemaninus, i. 56. 
Poemen mons, i. 222. 
Pogla,'Ji. 298. 

lluyKa, rTwyXei/ij. 
Polemonium, i. 272. 
Polichna Troad. i. 88. 
Ion. i. 343. ' 

'-' VOL. II. 



Polium, i. 165. 
Polyandus, ii. 144. 
Polyara, ii. 217. 
UoKvapcc, noXvctpe.v(;. 
Polybotus, ii. 31. 
Polydora insula, i. 49. 
Polymedium, i. 124. 
Pompeiopolis Paphl. i. 236. 

Cilic. ii. 339. 

Pontamus, i. 185. 
Pontus, i. 242. 

Euxinus, i. 195. 

Polemoniacus, i. 272. 

Pordoselene, sive Poroselene, 

i. 165. 
PorphjTione insula, i. 49. 
Portus Achiv. i. 146. 

Amyci, i. 194. 

Posidea, i. 153. 

Posidium prom. Bithyn. i. 176. 

Mariand. i. 207. 

— Ion. i. 391. 

Chior. i. 400. 

Sam. i. 409. 

Car. ii. 191. 

Cilic. ii. 327. 

Potami, i. 127. 
Potamia, i. 235. 

Cepora, i. 240. 

Potamonion, i. 194. 
Potamosacon, i. 153. 
Praca, ii. 365. 
Practius fluvius, i. 69. 
Prsenetus, i. 183. 
Prgepenissus, ii. 19. 
Pramnus mons, i. 411, 
Prasmon, ii. 94. 
Priaponnesus insula, ii. 239. 
Priapus, i. 

TlpidiTO^, Tlpia'!C'/juo<;. 

izisula, i, 402. 

Priene, i. 381. 
Hpffjvrj, Ilpivjve^^. 
Prinassus, ii. 217- 
Tlpiva<Tao<;, Ilpij/a<T<revc. 
Prion mons, i. 374. 
Procne insula, ii. 238, 
Proconnesus insula, i, 48, 
Progasia, i. 473. 
E e 



418 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Propontis, i. 34. 
Prostanna, ii. 307- 
UpifTtavva, Tlpci<rTavvev(;, 
Prote insula, i. 192. 
Protomacra, i. 214. 
Protopachium, i. 240. 
Prusa ad Olympum, i. 176. 
Ilpovaa, lIpov(j-aev<;. 
Prusias ad mare, i. 175. 

ad Hypiiim, i. 201. 

Prymnesia, sive Prymnessus. 
T[pv[jLV7}<T(Toi, TlpvjAy/j(7(revi. 
Prytanis fluvius, i. 292. 
Pseudocorasium, ii. 364. 
Psile insula, i. 345. 
Psilon insula^ i. 379. 
Psillis, vel Psillus fluvius, i. 198. 
Psimada, ii. 78. 
Psoron portus, i. 290. 
Psychrus fluvius, i. 291. 
Psyra insula, i. 401. ii. 239. 
Pt'anadari, ii. 144. 
Pteleos lacus, i. 82. 
Pteleum Ion. i. 350. 
IlTeKeov, IlTe/.eaTvj?. 
Pteria regio et urbs, i. 263. 
Ptolemais, ii. 285. 
Ptoson, ii. 145. 
Pulcherianopolis, ii. 58. 
Pulchra Picea, i. 131. 
Pulchrum Coracesiuni, ii. 335. 
Pusgusa, sive Pasgusa palus, ii. 

77. .. 

Pydes, ii. 314. 

Pydna, ii. 247- 

Pygela, sive Phygela, i. 377- 

IlvyeAa,, Tlvyekev<;, 

Pylacaeuni, ii. 58. 

Pylee Cilici* Cappad. ii. 135. 

J. ii. 301. 

Pyranuis fluvius, ii. 140, 350. 
-vicus, ii. 



Pyrinthus, ii. 217- 
Tlvpii>6</i;, Tlvpi^'Oev';. 
Pymus, ii. 193. 

rii/^vo^, Jlvpvioi. 

Pyrrha Lesb. i. 163. 

Ion. i. 393. 

insula, ii. 239. 



Pyrrha prom. i. 131. 
Pystus, ii. 215. 
Pytaue, i. 273. 
Pytheca, i. 178. 
Pythium, i. 182. 
P'ythopolis, i. 181. 
Pytna, i. 181. 
Pyxites fluvius, i. 292. 
Rastia, ii. 103. 

Ravene, sive Avarene, ii. 127. 
Rax insula, ii. 266. 
Regemauricium, ii. 104. 
Regesalamara, ii. 286. 
Rege trocnada, ii. 104. 
Rhebas fluvius, i. 197- 
Rhegma, ii. 255. 

— lacus, ii. 344. 

Rhizseum portus, i. 292. 
Rhizseus fluvius, i. 292. 
Rhodia, sive Rhodiopolis, ii. 

265. 
Rhodius fluvius, i. 76. 
Rhodomerus, i. 182. 
Rhodus insula, ii. 224. 

civit. ii. 233. 

'Po'So?, 'Po'S.o?. 

Rhodussae insula, i. 192. 
Rhodussa insula, ii. 192. 
Rhoe portus, i. 199. 
RhcexuSj ii. 364. 
Rhogmi, ii. 364. 
Rhope insula, ii. 251. 
Rhopes, ii. 286. 
Rhossicus Scopulus, ii. 362. 
Rhosus, sive Rhossus^ ii. 362. 

Rhyndacus fluvius, i. 50. 

Rhypara insula, i. 412. 

I locus, i. 53. 

i Voi^c,v(7at aKfai, 1. 194. 

! Rignuni, sive Riconium, ii. 72. 

Rosologiacum, ii. 98. 

Ruscopoda, ii. 279. 

Rygmani, ii. 327. 

Saba, ii. 157. 

Sabagena, ii. 125. 

Sabalia, i. 320. 

Sabalassus, i. 125. 

Sabinae, ii. 313, 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



419 



Sacoena, ii. 146. 
Sacorsa, i. 238. 
Sacrum prom. ii. 256. 
Sadacora, ii. 147. 
Sadagothina, ii. 116. 
Saettae, i. 434. 
Sagalassus, ii. 295. 

Sagylium, i. 302. 
Sala, ii. 58. 
^dcXcc, 2aXojvof. 

Salagena, sive Sadagena, ii. 125. 
Salambria, ii. 96. 
Salamis, ii. 382. 

^aXajAt^, 2aXa//./)'<0f. 

Sale palus, i. 437- 
Salmacis arx Halicarnassi, ii. 
180. 

— fons, ii. 180. 

Salone, i. 209. 
Sama, ii. 162. 
Samonius Campus, i. 117- 
Samos insula, i. 402. 
urbs, i. 

Samus, ii. 192. 
Samylia, ii. 217. 
'SiO.fjw'Kta,, 'ZoL^vkiavo^. 
Sancus, ii. 46. 
Sandaleon insula, i. 379. 
Sandaleon, i. 166. 
Sandalium, ii. 300. 
Sandaraca, i. 207- 
Sandaracurgium, i. 236. 
Sandius collis, i. 463. 
Sangarius fluvius, i. 199. 
Saugia, i. 200, ii. 36. 
Sanisene, i. 235. 
Sanni gens, i. 286. 
Santabaris, ii. 28. 
Sannice, i. 290. 
Saporda saltus, ii. 294. 
Sapra lacus, i. 128. 
Saralus, ii. 103. 
Saramene, i. 264. 
Saravene, ii. 127. 
Sarbanissa, i. 320. 
Sardemisus mons, ii. 282. 
Sardene mons, i. 150. 



Sardes, i. 443. 
Sardessus, ii. 282. 

Sardus fluvius, ii. 144. 

Sargarausene, ii. 124. 

Saricha, ii. 145. 

Sari capita, ii. 349. 

Sarmalia, ii. 101. 

Sarnaca, i. 142. 

Sarpedon prom. ii. 330. 

Sarvene, ii. 124. 

Sarus fluvius, ii. 138, 348. 

Sasima, ii. 114. 

Satala, ii. 152. 

Satnioeis fluvius, i. 122. 

Satrachus urbs et fluvius, ii. 

392. 
Satala Lyd. i. 455. 

Armcn. Min. ii. 152. 

Saurania i. 321. 

Sauronisena in the Table, ii. 

156. 
Scamander fluvius, i. 96. 
Scamandria, i. 109. 
Scanatus, ii. 155. 
Scari, ii. 267. 
Scelenta, i. 58. 
Scepsis, i. 85. 
XKTjtpii;, ^Krjxl/ioc. 
Schedias, ii. 238. 
Schoenus Sinus, ii. 189. 
Scleras lacus, ii. 77- 
Scolla, ii. 148. 
Scopas, sive Scopius fluvius, i. 

213. 
Scopelos insula Prop. i. 49. 

Paphl. i. 232. 

Ion. i. 345. 

Scorobas mons, i. 240. 
Scotius mons, i. 286. 
Scydisces mons, i. 286. 
Scylace, i. 49. 
Scylax fluvius, i. 305. 
Scyrmus, i. 49. 
Scythini gens, i. 286, 297- 
Sebaste Phryg. ii. 58. 

Gal. ii. 95. 

Cil. ii. 337. 

E e 2 



420 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Sebastia, i. 317. 
Sebastopolis, i. 311. 
Secora, i. 238. 
Sedisscapifonti, ii. 159. 
Selenltis regio, ii. 323. 
Seleoboria, ii. 154. 
Seleucenses, ii. 103. 
Seleucia Pamphyl. ii. 283. 

Sidera Pisid. ii. 307- 

Cilic. ii. 330. 

'ZeXevKeioi; XeXevKevi. 
Selge, ii. 307. 

le'Ayrj, lie'/.yevq. 

Selinus fluvius Pergam. i. 140. 

Cilic. ii. 322. 

— ' iirbs, postea Trajano- 



polis, ii. 322. 
"EeAivovi;, 'Ee}Mov(7ioi;, 
Seliniisia palus, i. 361. 
Seniinetluis, sive Simmethus, ii. 

209. 
Semisus, ii. 127- 
Sepyra, ii. 362. 
Seramusa, i. 319. 
Seraspere, ii. 127. 
Sermusa, ii. 147. 
Serna, ii. 286. 
Serrepolis, ii. 355. 
Sesamus, postea Aniastris, i. 

222. 
Sestus, ii. 392. 
Sete, i. 215. 
Siala, ii. 137, 
Sibde, ii. 182. 

Siberis fluvius, i. 213. 
Sibidunda, ii. 58. 

Sibrus, qui et Xanthus fluvius, 

ii. 247. 
Sidace, ii. 266. 

Side Pont. i. 271. 
Pampbyl. ii. 283. 

Sidele, i. 395. 
Sidene Mvs. i. 36. 

Pont. i. 271. 

Lye. ii. 2<)0. 



Siderus portus, ii. 261. 
Sidussa, i. 350. 

insula, i. 402. 

Sidyma, ii. 251. 

Sigeum, i. 109. 
^lyeioy, Scyet^?. 

prom. i. 110. 

Signia mons, ii. 49. 
Sigrium prom. i. 162. 
Silandus, i. 436. 
Silbium, sive Siblium, ii. 53. 

Sillyus, i. 395. 

Simana, i. 215. 

Simara, ii. 153. 

Simena, ii. 253. 

Itf/.rivcc, ^ifXYji/evt;. 

Simyra, sive Zimira, ii. 153. 

Simois fluvius, i. 97- 

Sinara, ii. 152. 

Sindessus, ii. 217- 

Singa, ii. 161. 

Sinda, sive Sindia, ii. 267, 272. 

Singya, ii. 286. 
Siniandus, ii. 213. 
Sinis, ii. 127- 
Sinope, i. 228. 

Sinoria, sive Sinebra, ii. 152. 
Sinzitaj sive Sindita, ii, 11 7. 
Sionia, i. 322. 
Sipylus nions, i. 437. 

urbs, 1. 437. 

Siricis, ii. 162. 
Sisium, ii. 365. 
Sisyrba, i. 363. 
Situpolis, ii. 58. 
Siva, ii. 124. 
Sminthium, i. 116. 
Smyrna, i. 337- 

'Zi/.vpva, 'Ef/.vpi'scToi;, 

Smyrnieus Sinus, i. 342. 
Soanda, ii. 146. 
Soandus, ii. 147. 
Soatra, sive Sabatra, ii. 67, 



I 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



421 



Sobala, ii. 217- 

Soli Cil. ii. 339. 

Cypr. ii. 387- 

EoXoi, EoXtoi;. 

Solmissiis mons, i. 376. 
Solonenica, ii. 159. 
Soloon fluvius, i. 182. 
Solymi, ii. 268. 
Solymorum montes, ii. 258. 
Soonautes fluvius, i. 207- 
Sophianopolis, ii. 272. 
Sophon lacus et mons, i. 188. 
Sora, i. 238. 

Soroba, sive Sobara, ii. 124. 
Sorpara, ii. 155. 
Sozopolis, ii. 299. 
Speluncse, ii. 156. 
Stabiu, ii. 102. 
Stabulum, ii. 103. 
Stectorium, ii. 58. 
^TeKTopiov, 1,reKrop7jvoi;. 
Steganos insula, ii. 238. 
Stephane, i. 227. 
Steunos antrum, ii. 16. 
Stiphane palus, i. 301. 
Stomalimne, i. 93. 

Cor. ii. 222. 

Stratonicea, ii. 203. 
XrpaToviKela, SrpaTOVJKev?. 
Strogola, i. 473. 
Struthia, ii. 59. 
Erpovdeia, J^TpovOev^. 
Suissa, ii. 15/. 
Sunias fons, ii. 344. 
Sunonensis lacus, i. 189. 
Sura, ii. 254. 
Susarniia, i. 290. 
Syagra, ii. 364. 
Syagela, ii. 183. 
'EovdyeXa, J^ovayeAtv^. 
Syassus, ii. 59. 
Eva(7(T0i, 2fao-<r€v?. 
Sycaei, i. 213. 
Sycea, ii. 334. 
Sycussa insula, i. 402. 
Syedra, ii. 321. 



Syessa, ii. 266. 
Syleum Cibyr. ii. 272. 
Sylleum Pamph. ii. 280. 
Syme insula, ii. 222. 
Evi/,7j, 1,vj/.v.7(ii;, et 'Evy.ivi;. 
Synnada, ii. 26. 
Evvuccda, Evvva^evi;. 
Synnaus, ii. 12. 
Syria insula, i. 377. 
Syrise Pylee, ii. 361. 
Syrias prom. i. 227. 
Syrius fluvius, i. 215. 
Syrna, ii. 217- 
Evpva, 'Evpvio^. 

Tabse, ii. 211. 

Ta^a), TxjSyivo:;. 

Tabenus Campus, ii. 211. 

Tabala, i. 454. 

Talauri, i. 313. 

Talbenda, ii.307. 

Tamasus, ii. 388. 

TdfAaaoc, et 'YaiA,aa-ao<;, TccfAaaiOi 

et TccjA-aanTj^. 
Tanadaris, ii. 144. 
Tantalis, i. 438. 
Tantalus mons, i. 165. 
Tapura, ii. 154. 
Tarandrus, ii. 59. 
Tdpavipoc, TapdvZpiQ^. 
Tarantus, i. 215. 
Tarbessus, ii. 314. 
Tardequia, ii. 358. 
Tarrha, sive Tyrrha, i. 4/3. 
Tarseia, i. 215. 
Tarsius fluvius, i. 39. 
Tarsus Bithyn. i. 215. 
Cilic. ii. 344. 

Tapaoi;, Taptrev^, 
Taspa, ii. 74. 
Tattsea palus, ii. 66. 
Tattseum, siveTottseumj i. 211. 
Tauropolis, ii. 199. 
Taurus mons, i. J. ii. 277- 

■ fluvius, ii. 294. 

Tebenda, sive Tebenna, i. 319. 
Tectosages, ii. 91. 
Tegessus, ii. 392. 

Te-yTjcrco?, Teyrjaaioq. 

Tegium, i. 142. 



422 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Telandria prom. ii. 217. 

ins. ii. 247. 

Telandrus, ii. 217. 
TvjXavSpo^, TijAavSpeuj. 
Telenisea, i. 189. 
Telendos insula, ii. 264. 
Telephi tons, ii. 267. 
Telniessicus Sinus, ii. 244. 
Telmissis prom. ii. 245. 
Telmissus Car. ii. 183. 
Lye. ii. 244. 

Telos insula, ii. 222. 

TvjXo?, TvjAjo?. 

Tembrus, ii. 392. 

TefA^poi;, T(iA,^ptO(;. 

Temenia, ii. 34. 

Te/AsVtia, Teixeviv;. Steph. Byz. 

in. V. 
Temenothyritae, i. 60. 
Temnus mons, i. 55. 
urbs, i. 151. 

T^fAVOi;, 'rriiA,vtTrj(;. 

Templum Menis Pharnacis, i. 

314. 

Jovis Urii, i. 194. 

Didvmeei ApoUinis, 

i. 390. 
Tendeba, ii. 205. 

Te'j/Svj^a, T€v8»)/3e^?. 
Tenedos insula, i. 111. 

Pamphyl. ii. 278. 

Teos, i. 352. 

Tephrice, ii. 151. 
Terea mons, i. 38, 69. 
Termera, ii. 176. 
TipiJ.epa, Tepi^t-eptvi;. 
Termerium prom. ii. 176. 
Termes mons, i. 440. 
Termessus, ii. 291. 
Tepiji-faali;, TepfAecraevi;. 
Termiiae, ii. 240. 
Tetius fluvius, ii. 380. 
Tetra, ii. 147, 
Tetracis, i. 228. 
Tetrapyrgia Cappad. ii. I 15. 

Cilic. ii. 1 15. 

Teuciia, ii. 159. 



Teucrij i. 77. 
Teuthranea regio, i. 135. 

— urbs, i. 135. 

Teutlussa insula, ii. 
Teutobodiaci, ii. 98. 
Thabusion, ii. 213. 
Thallusa insula, i. 401. 
Thapsacus fluvius, ii. 363. 
Thariba, i. 241. 
Theangela, ii. 182. 
GedyytKa, OeayyeKevi;. 
Thebais fons, i. 465. 
Thebasa, ii. 72. 
Thebe Hypoplacia, i. 129. 

M'ilet. i. 395. 

Cappad. ii. 145. 

Pamphyl. ii. 278. 

Thebes campus, i. 129. 

mons, i. 298. 

Thembrimus, ii. 215. 
©e'jWjSpjjUO?, Qeix^pijAiVi, 
Themissus, ii. 215. 
&f[xia-aoi;, GefA-KTo-evi;. 
Theodosiopolis, ii. 145. 
Thera, ii. 215. 
Therionarce insula, ii. 238. 
Therma Basilica, ii. 147. 

Xanxaris, ii. 147. 

Thermae Phazenionitarum, 
Thia, ii. 158. 

Thiba, i. 321. 
Thibii gens, i. 321. 
Thracia Cyzic. i. 43. 
Themiscyra, i. 271. 
Themisonium, ii. 47. 
@e(/.ia-uviov, ©efjiiawvievt;. 
Theodosiopolis, prius Perpe- 

rene, i. 132. 
Thermodon fluvius, i. 266,270. 
Thymnias Sinus, ii. 189. 
Thoantium jjrom. ii. 237. 
Thoaris fluvius, i. 272. 
Thorax mons, i. 461. 
Throni urbs et prom, ii, 282, 
Throsmos collis, i. 102. 
Thryanda, ii. 266. 

Q^pvccvia, &pvai/^iv;;. 

Thyaris fluvius, ii. 20. 
Thyatira, i. 429. 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



423 



&va.Teipcc, @var€tp'^vo(;. 
Thydonos, ii. 213. 
Thyessus Lyd. i. 472. 

Pisid. ii. 314. 

Thvmeua, i. 225. 
Tiiymbra Troj. i. 103. 

Mys. i. 142. 

Thymbrara, sive Thymbres fla- 
vins, ii. 20. 

Thymbra Lyd. i. 472. 

Thymbriuin, ii. 300. 

Thymbrius fluvius, i. 103. 

Thynias insula, i. 199. 

Thynus, ii. 364. 

Tiare, i. 142. 

Tibareni gens Pont. i. 277- 

Cilic. ii. 363. 

Tiberiopolis, ii. 59. 
Tibium nions, ii. 59. 
Tichiussa, ii. 170. 
Tilius fluvius, ii. 59. 
Tilicastrum, ii. 348. 
Timsea, i. 214. 
Timeles fluvius, ii. 21 1. 
Timolaeum, i. 225. 
Timoniacenses, ii. 103. 
Timonium, i. 241. 
Timonitis regio, i. 235, 
Timyra, ii. 78. 
Tiralli, ii. 143. 
Tiriza, i. 241. 
Tisanusa, ii. 191. 
Titarissus, ii. 127. 
Titiopolis, ii. 339. 
Tityassus, ii. 314. 
Tirvaacrot;, Tirva(Ta-ev(;. 
Tium, i. 207. 
Tlos, ii. 265. 
TX5<, TAcod;, et TXcciTrii;. 
Tmolus mons, i. 441. 

iirbs, i. 443. 

Tnyssus, ii. 217- 

Tolistoboii, ii. 85. 
Tolosochorium, sive Tolisto- 

choriuni, ii. 91. 
Tomarene, i. 474. 
Tomisa, ii. 142. 
Tonea, ii. 102. 



Tonosa, ii. 161. 
Tobata, i. 238. 
Torrhebia lacus i. 47. 
Torrhebis regio, i. 474. 
Torrhebus, i. 474. 
Trabala, ii. 267. 
T(3a,3aAa, Tpa^aKivi;. 
Trachea, i. 374. 
Trachia porta Cyzic. i. 45. 
Tracias, ii. 147. 
Tragasse, i. 116. 
Tragiae insula, i. 411. 
Trajanopolis Phryg. ii. 59. 
Tralles, i. 464. 
Trallicon, ii. 215. 
Trampe, i. 395. 
Tranipsi gens, i. 215. 
Trapeza prom. i. 81. 
Trapezopolis, ii. 207. 
T faneCfiitokii;, TpwKtCp'Kokl'['q<i. 
Trapezus, i. 287. 

Trarium Mys. i. 132. 

, sive Trallium Bith. i. 

188. 
Tremithus, sive Triniethus, ii. 

389. 
Tresena, ii. 286. 
Treta, ii. 376. 
Tribanta, ii. 60. 
Tricomia, ii. 21, 89. 
Trinessa, ii. 60. 

Tptyfjcraa, ^pivqcraaioq. 

Triopium prom. ii. 184. 
Tripolis Pont. i. 282. 

Lyd. i. 469. 

Car. ii. 217- 

Trisca, i. 189. 
Trocmi gens, ii. 98. 
Troezene, ii. 213. 
Trogilium prom. i. 378. 
Trogitis palus, ii. 66. 
Troj a, i. 100. 
Troj an us ager, i. 89. 
Turris Isia, ii. 254. 
Tyana, ii. 128. 

Tyanitis Preefect. ii. 128. 
Tymandrus, ii. 313. 



424 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Tymbrium, sive Tembrium, ii. 

305. 
Tymenseura nions, ii. 60. 
Tymenna, ii. 267. 
Tymnessus, ii. 217. 
Tymnus, ii. 217- 
Tyndaridae, i. 207. 
Tynna, ii. 143. 
Tyriaeum, ii. 306. 
Tyropseum, ii. 145. 
Tyrus, ii. 314. 
Tyscon, ii. 35. 
Tzamandus, ii. 145. 
Tzybitza, ii. 61. 
Vadata, ii. 124. 
Vsesapa, sive Varsapa, ii. 154. 
Valenta, ii. 95. 
Vasoda, ii. 71. 
Ubinaca, ii. 96. 
Ucena, ii. 103. 
Venasi, ii. 115. 
Venecuso, ii. 157- 
Vetissum, ii. 96. 
Via Mauriana, ii. 365. 
Vincela, siveUnzela, ii. 98. 313. 
Vindia, ii. 89. 
Voturi, ii. 85. 
Urania, ii. 386. 
Uraniopolis, ii. 298. 
Xanthus fluvius, ^ol. i. 150. 

Lye. ii. 247. 

. Lesb. i. 165. 

urbs Lye. ii. 248. 



SavSo?, B.a.v6io<;. 
Xenagorae insulse, ii. 251. 
Ximene regio, i. 305. 
Xoana, i. 238. 
Xviine, i. 295. 



Xylene come, ii. 294. 
Xyloeastrum, ii. 124. 
Xylus, ii. 216. 
Xystis, ii. 214. 

Zagatis fluvius, i. 292. 
Zagria, i. 238. 
Zagora, i. 234. 
Zalecus fluvius, i. 234. 
Zama, ii. 124. 
Zarzeia, ii. 294. 
Zede, ii. 239. 
Zela, i. 306. 

Zelea, i. 38. 

ZfXe'icc, Ze/.eiaT'/j?. 
Zenocopi, ii. 157. 
Zephyrium prom. Paphl. i. 

. Pont. i. 

. et urbs 



ii. 341. 



335. 



— Cilic. ii. 

- Cypr. ii. 



Zeugma, i. 73. 
Zigana, ii. 158. 
Zimara, ii. 153. 
ZipcEtium, i. 115. 
ZiTtOiTiov, ZmotTiot;. 
Ziziola, ii. 156. 
Zocotessus, ii. 16L 
Zompi, ii. 36. 
Zoparistus, ii. 127. 
Zoropassus, ii. 117- 
Zorzila, ii. 294. 
Zyganium, ii. 32, 
Zygi, sive Zychi gens, i. 
Zygopolis, i. 295. 



226. 

282. 
Cilic. 

329, 

376. 



295. 



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