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Full text of "A geographical, historical and statistical view of the central or middle United States; containing accounts of their early settlement; natural features; progress of improvement; form of government; civil divisions and internal improvements.."

LIBRARY OF 

KNOX COLLEGE 




FINLEY COLLECTION ONTHE 
HISTORY AND ROMANCE OF 
S€ • THE- NORTHWEST .^ 



PRESENTED 



BY 



C.F. Strong 



Digitized by tine Internet Arcliive 
in 2011 witli funding from 
CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in 



littp://www.archive.org/details/geograpliicalliistOOintann 



A 
GEOGRAPHICAL, 

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL 

VIEW 

OF THE 

CENTRAL OR MIDDLE 

UNITED STATES; 

containing accounts of 

their early settlement; natural features; progress of 
improvement; form of government; civil divi- 
sions AND internal IMPROVEMENTS, OF 

PENNSYLVANIA, NEW JERSEY, DELAWARE, MARYLAND, 

VIRGINIA, THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA AND PARTS 

OF NEW YORK AND THE OTHER ADJOINING 

STATES : 

Together with particular descriptions of the Citiea, Towns, and 

Villages ;: Public Buildings; Objects of Curiosity; Literary, 

Scientific, and other Institutions, &c. 



By H. S. tanner. 



3pi[)ilatJclpi)fa : 

H. TANNER, JUN'R., 189 CHESNUT STREET. 

Well) "STorfe: 

T. R. TANNER, 8 WALL STREET. 

1841. 



Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1841, 

By H. S. Tanner, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Eastern 
District of Pennsylvania. 




PREFACE. 



The object of the present work is to supply 
what is manifestly needed, not only by travel- 
lers, but by persons of every class, who desire a 
knowledge of the present condition of the inter- 
esting- portions of the United States, to which 
it is devoted. To such, a familiar and brief 
account, divested of all extraneous matter, of 
the primitive history, progressive geography 
and civil institutions of those states to which it 
has particular reference, cannot, we think, fail 
to be acceptible. 

The want of such knowledge, which often 
exposes to ridicule, persons otherwise well in- 
formed, has become a matter of reproach to 
those who are indifferent to its importance in 
the common occurrences of life. A newspaper 
can scarcely be read understandingly, without, 
at least, a partial insight into those leading fea- 
tures of history, geography and statistics, an 
acquaintance with which, now, more than at 
any former period, constitutes an important in- 
gredient in the education of every intelligent 
and respectable person. 

In arranging the various topics, a plan essen- 
tially different from that of most other works, 

B 



iV PREFACE. 

has been pursued. It is so framed, that every 
thin^ connected with any ^iven subject, is at 
once brought into view. Thus, for example : 
a general description of the history, physical 
and political geography of each state is given 
in the outset; then follows a topographical and 
statistical account of each city and important 
town, with the distances along the roads leading 
from it in every direction, to other large towns, 
which in turn, are also described. Each table 
of distances is succeeded by a complete ac- 
count of every town or other interesting local- 
ity along each route, which, in every case, con- 
nects important towns. 

In this manner, all the larger towns, whose 
public buildings and objects of interest, are 
minutely noticed, form starting points, at which 
a traveller may select his route, and by consult- 
ing that portion of the work containing the 
routes from the place he may be at, and this 
can be found by a reference to the index, he 
can learn all the particulars concerning the 
towns through which he is to pass. 

By this plan, which is the result of much 
reflection and personal observation, the reader, 
if a traveller, is informed, as he journeys along, 
of the name, character and condition of every 
town, as it presents itself during his progress 
through the country, and also has his attention 
directed to such interesting objects in the vici- 
nity of each, as he might desire to inspect. 
Whilst travelling, especially by rail-road, it is 
nearly impossible to obtain satisfactory infor- 
mation on these points ; and thus many an 
attractive object, both natural and artificial, 
perfectly accessible to the traveller, may be 
passed unheeded, because their presence is 



yREPACE. V 

unknown. These matters, though important 
to the traveller, are however, but secondary, 
in comparison with the more weighty object of 
the work, which is to fjrnish a just and com- 
prehensive VIEW OF THE ORIGIN, PROGRESS AND 
PRESENT CONDITION OF THE CENTRAL STATES OF 

THE North American Union. 

Whether we have succeeded in attaining 
this important object, is a problem which we 
submit to the candour of an indulgent public 



iv 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



GENERAL VIEW. 

The state of Pennsylvania is bounded on the 
north by New York ; east by the same and 
New Jersey ; south by Delaware, Maryland 
and Virginia ; and west by the latter and Ohio. 
The southern boundary is in lat. 39° 43' ; the 
northern, with the exception of a small projec- 
tion towards Lake Erie, is on lat. 42° The 
meridian of Washington passes across the state 
dividing it into two nearly equal parts. Its 
area is 47,500 square miles, and population 
about 1,700,000. The following is a list of the 
counties with their respective seats of justice. 
The small Italic letters annexed to each, indi- 
cate its situation in the state, as follows : e, 
east; w, west; n, north; s, south; n e, north- 
east; in, middle; n m, north of middle ; s m- 
south of middle, &c. 



Counties. 
Adams, s. 
Allegany, to, 
Armstrong, w, 
Beaver, w. 
Bedford, s. 
Berks, n. e, 
Bradford, n. 



Chief Towns. 
Gettysburg. 
Pittsburg. 
Kittanning. 
Beaver. 
Bedford. 
Reading. 
Meanville, 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



GENERAL VIEW. 

The state of Pennsylvania is bounded on the 
north by New York ; east by the same and 
New Jersey ; south by Delaware, Maryland 
and Virginia ; and west by the latter and Ohio. 
The southern boundary is in lat. 39° 43'; the 
northern, with the exception of a small projec- 
tion towards Lake Erie, is on lat. 42° The 
meridian of Washington passes across the state 
dividing it into two nearly equal parts. Its 
area is 47,500 square miles, and population 
about 1,700,000. The following is a hst of the 
counties with their respective seats of justice. 
The small Italic letters annexed to each, indi- 
cate lis situation in the state, as follows : e, 
east; w, west; v, north; s, south; n e, north- 
east; 711, middle; n m, north of middle ; s m- 
south of middle, &c. 



Counties. 
Adams, s. 
Allegany, w, 
Armstrong, w. 
Beaver, w. 
Bedford, s. 
Berks, n. e, 
Bradford, n. 



Chief Towns, 
Gettysburg. 
Pittsburg. 
Kittanning. 
Beaver. 
Bedford. 
Reading. 
Meanville. 



4 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



Counties. 
Bucks, e. 
Butler, w, 
Cambria, »«. w. 
Centre, m. 
Chester, s, e. 
Clarion, 

Clearfield, m. te. 
Clinton, 
Columbia, m. 
Crawford, n. w. 
Cumberland, m. s. 
Dauphin, m. 
Delaware, s. e. 
Erie, n. w. 
Fayette, s. w. 
Franklin, s. 
Greene, s. w. 
Huntingdon, m, 
Indiana, m. w. 
Jefferson, ?«. lo. 
Juniata, 
Lancaster, s. e. 
Lebanon, m, e, 
Lehigh, e. 
Luzerne, n. e, 
Lycoming, m. n. 
M'Kean, n. 
Mercer, w. 
Mifflin, m. 
Monroe, 

Montgomery, s. e, 
Northampton, e. 
Northumberland, m. 
Perry, m. 
Philadelphia, s, e. 
Pike, n. e. 



Chief Towns. 
Doylestown. 
Butler. 
Ebensburg, 
Bellefonte. 
West Chester. 

Clearfield. 

Danville. 

Meadville. 

Carlisle. 

Harrisburo. 

Chester. 

Erie. 

Uniontown. 

CJiambersburg. 

Waynesburg. 

Huntingdon, 

Armagh. 

Port Barnet. 

Mifflin. 

Lancaster. 

Lebanon. 

Allentown. 

Wilkesbarre. 

Williamsport 

Smethport. 

Mercer. 

Lewistown. 

Stroudsburg. 

Norristown. 

Easton. 

Sunbury. 

Bloomfield. 

Philadelphia. 

New Milford. 



PENNSYLVANIA. 5 

Counties. Chief Townt. 

Potter, n. Coudersport. 

Schuylkill, m. e. Orwigsburg. 

Somerset, s. w, Somerset. 

Susquehanna, n. e. Montrose. 

Tioga, n. Wellsboro. 

Union, m. New-Berlin. 

Venango, n. w. Franklin. 

Warren, u. w. Warren. 

Washington, s. to. Washington. 

Wayne, u. e. Bethany. 
Westmoreland,™, w. Greensburg. 

York, s. York. 

Physical Geography. — The eastern division 
of the state, includes extensive portions of the 
valleys of the Potomac, Susquehanna and Del- 
aware. From its extent, and from the wes- 
tern origin of its sources, the Susquehanna 
seems to form a natural chain of water commu- 
nication between the Atlantic slope and basins 
of the Mississippi and St. Lawrence. This 
valley penetrates more deeply into the central 
floetz formation than the Potomac. All its 
secondary confluents of any considerable length 
of course, enter from the right, and having their 
sources on that formation, the aggregate stream 
crosses the entire Allegany system. 

If we turn our attention to the general struc- 
ture of the Susquehanna valley, we find its 
extreme northern sources in Madison, Oneida, 
Herkimer, and Otsego counties, New York, as 
high as N. lat. 42° 55'; and in Ion. from 1° to 
2J° E. from Washington ; within 16 miles 
from Oneida lake, and 15 from the Erie canal, 
and in the angle between the sources of the 
Oneida and Mohawk rivers. That branch 
1* 



O PENNSYLVANIA. 

which rises farthest north is the Chenango, 
which after being augmented by many minor 
streams, flows by a general course south 60 
miles, and joins the Susquehanna proper, a 
much larger river, from the north-east. 

The Susquehanna originates in the northern 
spine of the Catskill mountains, and with its 
western branch, the Unadilla, drains the space 
between the Coquago branch of Delaware and 
the Chenango, and its most remote northern 
source reaches to within ten miles from the 
Mohawk river and Erie canal near Herkimer. 
The north-eastern branch of the Susquehanna 
is designated correctly the east branch. It ia in 
fact the most eastern water of the Chesapeake 
basin, and what is very well worthy of notice, 
the most north eastern fountains rise within 
about 40 miles from the level of tide water in 
Hudson river, immediately below Albany. The 
eastern branch, after a general course of 50 
miles south-west, receives the Unadilla at the 
south-west angle of Otsego county ; thence in- 
clining more to the south,'| enters into and 
rapidly curves out of Pennsylvania, again enters 
New York, turns to west, and receives the Che- 
nango at Binghamton, Continuing a western 
course 20 miles, passes Owego, and winding to 
south-west and south, re-enters Pennsylvania, 
and joins the Chemung or Tioga from the north- 
west, after an entire comparative course of 140 
miles. 

The Cheumng is composed of two branches ; 
the Chemung rising in Allegany and Steuben 
counties. New York, and the Tioga or Conne- 
wisque, in Tioga county, Pennsylvania. Join- 
ing in Steuben, the united waters turn to south- 
•ast, enter Pennsylvania, and form a junction 



PENNSYLVANIA, 7 

with the Susquehanna at Athens or Tioga 
point, after a comparative course of 80 miles. 

What renders the northern part of the Sus- 
quehanna valley in a particular manner worthy 
attention is, that the two great confluents, the 
Chemung and Susquehanna, encircle the two 
long and navigable lakes of New York, the 
Seneca and Cayuga. The latter stretching in 
an almost direct line from the Erie canal to 
within 20 miles from Newtown, on Chemung 
or Tioga river. At Newtown, the adjacent 
country, though very hilly, or, more correctly 
mountainous, is of peculiar structure. The 
intermediate space from the head of Seneca 
lake to Newtown, is a high valley. 

Nature in this section of country appears to 
have advanced half-way, to aid the efforts of 
man in forming channels of inter-communica- 
tion between the basins of the Susquehanna and 
St. Lawrence. The two fine lakes of Seneca 
and Cayuga are each upwards of 35 miles in 
length, and occupying the angle between the 
two main northern confluents of the Susque- 
hanna, appear to have been placed in their 
actual position, as if to give in their utmost 
extent the greatest assistance to the formation 
of canal lines. 

In the structure of the Susquehanna valley, 
we have before us some truly interesting phe- 
nomena. If we examine the rock formations, 
we find them in a great degree, though not 
altogether conformable to the range of the 
mountain chains, but the rivers flow evidently 
independent of either. It has been already 
noticed, that the Susquehanna pierces all the 
rock formations from the central secondary to 
the Atlantic alluvion. This river is seen pour- 



8 PENNSYLVANIA. 

ing down from an elevation above the base of 
the mountain, against which its various branch- 
es rush, and have in the lapse of time torn pas- 
sages through the rock barriers, and gradually- 
uniting, at length reach the level of the tides, 
and tranquilly mingle with the waves of the 
Atlantic ocean. This contest between the 
apparently stable mountains, and the fleeting- 
rivers, which began, it is most probable, with 
the creation, is far from having terminated. 
The various rivers of the Chesapeake, Delaware 
and Hudson basins, have had their struggle of 
ages to reach their respective recipients, and 
the beds of all yet retain much to remove before 
their streams can flow with tranquil or equal 
motion. 

This feature in the geography of the United 
States is highly favourable to canal operations, 
in forming a union between the Atlantic and 
central waters. The rivers have, during accu- 
mulated centuries, done that which man could 
not have dared to conceive. The rivers have 
torn the mountains to their bases, and given to 
human beings, and the fruits of their toil, a free 
passage. Man in his feebleness is relieved 
from labours beyond his aggregate force, and 
left to remove mere obstructions. When this 
subject is viewed with the eye of philosophy, it 
is one of those sources of reflection which 
gives exercise to every noble faculty of the 
mind. 

Below Tioga point, the already large volume 
of the Susquehanna flovs^s a little east of south 
15 miles to the north-western foot of the Alle- 
gany system, which it encounters at Towanda 
creek, near Meansville, in Bradford county, 
Pennsylvania, and thence, turning to south-east, 



PENNSYLVANIA. 9 

pierces the first chain, and flowing 30 miles, 
reaches the Tunkhannock creek and chain, 
having now passed over the secondary and 
entered on the transition formation. Breaking 
the Tunkhannock and some other cliains, the 
Susquehanna finally, at the mouth of the Lack- 
awana, 9 miles above the town of Wilkes- 
barre, enters the Wyoming valley, and winds 
to the south-west, continuing the latter course 
down the mountain valleys about 70 miles, to 
the confluence of the western branch, between 
the villages of Northumberland and Sunbury. 

In all its course of 120 miles, from Tioga 
Point to Sunbury, the Susquehanna receives no 
tributary stream of fifty miles comparative 
course. Wyalusing, Tunkhannock, Lacka- 
wana and INescopec from the left, and To- 
wanda, Mahoopeny, Bowman's and Fishing 
creeks from the right, are merely bold and 
fine, but only small mountain torrents. 

The western branch is, in all its extent, 
exclusively a river of Pennsylvania. Rising far 
within the central secondary, its extreme west- 
ern sources in Indiana and Cambria counties, 
are within 35 miles from the Allegany river at 
Kittanning, and about 60 miles from the junc- 
tion of the Allegany and Ohio at Pittsburg. 
Draining sections of Cambria, Indiana, Clinton 
and Clearfield counties by a general course of 
N. E. 70 miles, the West Branch receives the 
Sinnamahoning from the north-west. Below 
the entrance of Sinnamahoning, the West 
Branch continues north-east ten miles, thence 
turning 20 miles to the south-east, receives 
Bald Eagle creek from the south-west. Thus 
far of its course the West Branch drains the 
central secondary, but immediately above the 



10 PENNSYLVANIA. 

entrance of the Bald Eagle, it breaks through 
the Allegany, and entering on the transition, 
turns to a little north of east. Receiving the 
two large creeks Pine and Loyalsock from the 
northward, and passing Williamsport, this now 
noble stream continues its course of nearly 
east, forty miles from Bald Eagle to Muncyboro. 
In the vicinity of the latter village, the stream 
turns to nearly south, twenty-five miles to its 
junction with the north-east branch at Sunbury, 
and thirty-five from thence to the junction of 
the Juniata from the west. 

Juniata, the south-west branch of the Sus- 
quehanna, rises in and drains the northern part 
of Bedford county ; flowing from the south- 
eastern side of the Allegany chain, and thence 
about twenty miles nearly east, passes Bedford, 
and rushing through several minor chains, 
turns abruptly to a course a little east of north 
40 miles, receives the Frankstown branch near 
Huntingdon. The general course of Franks- 
town branch is from north-west to south-east, 
and below their junction the united stream 
continues that course 15 miles, to its passage 
through Jack's mountain, between Huntingdon 
and Mifflin counties. Again inflected to north- 
east, the Juniata enters Mifflin county, and 
pursuing that direction nearly thirtjr miles, 
passes Lewistown, and again winding to south- 
east, breaks through Shade mountain into Tus- 
carora valley ; and thence, crossing that valley, 
in a course of 10 miles reaches the north-west 
base of Tuscarora mountain, where it once 
more bends to the north-east, and following the 
base of the mountain 10 miles, turns to south- 
east, and forming a passage through, leaves 
Mifflin, Juniata, and enters Ferry county, over 



PENNSYLVANIA. 1 1 

which it continues 15 miles to its junction with 
the Susquehanna, nearly on the meridian of 
W. C. and N. lat 40° 23'. 

Like every other branch of the Susquehanna, 
the Juniata is as noted for the number of its 
rapids as for its exemption from perpendicular 
falls. Though originating- in, and having its 
whole course amongst craggy mountains, it is 
navigable at high water to near Bedford. 

The Juniata is the last tributary of impor- 
tance which enters the Susquehanna. The 
Conedogwinet, Yellow-Breeches, Conewago, 
Codorus and Deer creeks, from the right, and 
below Sunbury on the left, the Mahanoy, Ma- 
hantango, Svvatara, Conestoga and Octoraro, 
are comparatively creeks, none of them having 
a general course of 50 miles. The Swatara is 
important, however, as its valley forms part of 
the route of the Union Canal. 

We have already seen that from Muncy to 
the mouth of the Juniata, the Susquehanna 
pursues a course of very nearly due south 60 
miles. The southern course of the Susquehan- 
na, below Muncy boro to the mouth of the Juni- 
ata, is actually the most mountainous part of 
its course by either branch. Independent of 
minor ridges, in this distance of 60 miles, this 
remarkable river traverses six or seveii of the 
principal chains, and even at the last curve to 
tlie south-east, below the Juniata, it has not yet 
passed the Allegany system, but again in a 
course of 80 miles, it carries its now immense 
volume through the Blue Ridge, 8 miles below 
Harrisburg ; and lastly, the south-east mountain, 
below the Conestoga. From the Blue Ridge the 
channel becomes more and more interrupted 
with shoals and rapids, until the stream pours 



12 PENNSYLVANIA. 

over the last rocky ledge and loses its name 
and rank as a river in the Chesapeake bay. 

The valley of the Susquehanna, from its posi- 
tion naturally and politically, and from its pecu- 
liar features, must at all future times attract a 
full share of attention from the traveller and 
statesman. It has often been observed, that 
rivers are the most diversified objects in nature, 
and defy generalization most effectually. To 
be adequately understood, they must be studied 
individually. The Susquehanna and Delaware 
are contiguous to each other, and the former 
has interlocking sources with the latter, and 
they pierce the entire Allegany system ; and 
yet, in those intrinsic features which give char- 
acter, no two rivers can be more strikingly 
distinct. It is true, that in their respective 
courses, the Susquehanna and Delaware present 
an accordance, which must have arisen from 
some general and inherent structure of the 
country they drain ; but here the resemblance 
ceases. Including all its higher, and in parti- 
cular its north-east branches, the Susquehanna 
is peculiar in the physiognomy of its valleys. 
Very wide bottoms of two, and often three 
stages, spread along the convex side of the 
bends ; whilst along the concave rise steep, 
frequently precipitous, and sometimes mountain- 
ous banks. Here are at once, and over a large 
space, combined in never-ending variety, the 
most bold and the most soft and tranquil scene- 
ry ; the fine glassy surface of the rivers, bor- 
dered on one side by wide spreading vales, 
rising by acclivity after acclivity, and on the 
other by high swelling or abruptly rocky walls. 

Exuberant fertility is here followed on an 
almost perceptible line, by the sterile though 



PENNSYLVANIA. 13 

wood-clothed mountain. Tlie varied hue of 
the foliage again gives a truly rich drapery to 
the landscape. The natural timber of the bot- 
toms differ materially from that of the moun- 
tains. On the former, sugar-maple, black wal- 
nut, elm, beech, and other trees indicative of a 
productive soil abound. Rising to the higher 
stage, the deep green of the pine is seen inter, 
mingled with the softer and lighter lints of the 
timber of the vales. On the slopes and even 
summits of the moutains, we meet the pine, 
oak and chesnut, and above the Lackawana, the 
hemlock. 

As a navigable stream, the Susquehanna is 
much less interrupted by rapids or dangerous 
shoals, than might be expected from the tortuous 
course it pursues through an extensive moun- 
tain system. It is also a feature strongly 
marked, though common to the other rivers of 
the Atlantic slope, that where the volume of 
water passes the particular chains, rapids sel- 
dom, and perpendicular falls no where occur. 

On so large a space as that of the Susque- 
hanna valley, mere difference of latitude would 
superinduce a sensible difference of climate ; but 
here respective elevation enters as a very power- 
ful element, in changes of temperature. The 
mouth of the Susquehanna, at Havre de Grace, is 
at N. lat. 39° 33', one degree east from Washing- 
ton City. The extreme northern sources, are, 
as already noticed, at N. lat. 42° 55,' between 
one and two degrees east of Washington. This 
gives a difference of three degrees and twenty 
minutes of latitude ; the summit level between 
the Chemung at Newtown and Seneca lake, is 
885 feet above the level of the Atlantic tides, 
and the pass between Newtown and Seneca 



14 PENNSYLVANIA. 

being a mountain valley, falls far short of the 
mean elevation of that part of New York com- 
prised in the counties of Tioga, Cortland, Che- 
nango, and Otsego. The latter region is safely 
estimated at a height of 1000 feet, or equivalent 
to at least 2^ degrees of latitude. Thus we 
find, that in effect, the climate of the basin of 
Susqueharma differs upwards of five degrees in 
temperature. Again, if we examine the rela- 
tive position of the mountain valleys of Penn- 
sylvania, drained by the West Branch and the 
Juniata, it will be seen that the mean height of 
that region is 1200 feet, or equivalent to three 
degrees of latitude. Therefore all the higher 
sources of the Susquehanna, flow virtually from 
N. lat. 44° or 45°, if reduced to the ocean level. 
Though much less extensive than the prece- 
ding, the basin of the Delaware is a very impor- 
tant feature in the hydrography of Pennsylva- 
nia. It rises by two branches in the western 
spurs of the Catskill mountains. The Coquago 
to the north-west, and the Popachton to the 
south-east, flow from their sources, south-west 
50 miles, draining the central and south-eastern 
part of Delaware county, New York. Reaching 
within 5 miles from the north-east angle of 
Pennsylvania, and within 10 from the Susque- 
hanna river, the Coquago turns to south-east, 
and continuing that course 15 or 16 miles, 
receives the Popachton. With rather serpen- 
tine individual windings, the Delaware main- 
tains a south-east direction 60 miles from the 
north-east angle of Pennsylvania lo the mouth 
of the Nevisink river from Orange county, New 
York. Encountering the Kittatinny, the Dela- 
ware then turns to south-west, almost washing 
the mountain base, 35 miles, to the mouth of 
Broadhead's creek, I'rom Pike and Northampton 



PENNSVLVATVIA. 15 

counties. Curving to the south, the Delaware 
now passes the Delaware water gap, and enters 
the fine mountain valley between the Kittatinny 
and Blue Ridge. Continuing south, it receives 
the first large confluent, the Lehigh, at the foot 
of the latter ridge, at Easton; then pierces the 
chain, and again 5 miles below, breaks through 
the south-east mountain, and winds to the south- 
east, having flowed in a southern direction 30 
miles. Pursuing a south-eastern direction 35 
miles below the south-east mountain falls over 
the primitive ledge at Trenton, there meets the 
Atlantic tide, and at Bordentown, five miles still 
lower, once again bends to south-west. Passing 
alongor near theouter verge of the primitive, this 
now widening stream continues 40 miles, passes 
Philadelphia, 5 miles below that city, receives 
the Scliuylkill from the north-west; and thence 
passing Chester, Wilmington and Newcastle, 
opens into a bay 5 miles below the latter vil- 
lage. The Delaware bay again turns and opens 
to the Atlantic ocean to the south-east. 

The length of the Delaware from the Catskill 
to tide water at Trenton, is 185 miles, and 120 
from the rapids at Trenton to the Atlantic 
ocean, having an entire comparative course of 
305 miles. Though rolling over numerous 
rapids, no cataracts, in the true sense of that 
term, interrupt the navigation of this river, 
which, at seasons of high water, extends by 
both branches into New York. The general 
course is very nearly from north to south, along 
a meridian two degrees east from Washington 
City. 

Similar to the Susquehanna and the Potomac, 
the Delaware receives its only two large con- 
fluents from the right ; these are the Lehigh 
and Schuylkill. 



16 PENNSYLVANIA. 

From the positions of their valleys as chan- 
nels of intercommunication, and from the min- 
eral treasures found along- their mountain sourc- 
es, the Schuylkill and the Lehigh have become 
of great importance. The Lehigh rises by 
various mountain branches in Northampton, 
Pike, Wayne and Luzerne counties, uniting 
below Stoddartsville, and forming a small and 
precipitous river current, which pouring first to 
the south-west, gradually turns to south, and 
thence south-east, passes Mauch Chunk village, 
and struggling between mountain masses, fi- 
nally escapes through the Kittatinny range, and 
continuing to the south-east, meets the north- 
west base of the Blue Ridge at Allentown, in 
Lehigh county. Here it turns to the north-east, 
along the foot of the latter chain, and passing 
Bethlehem joins the Delaware at Easton. The 
Lehigh is truly a mountain torrent. There is 
perhaps no other stream of the United States, 
except Schoharie in New York, of equal length, 
which presents so great difference of level be- 
tween the points of source and discharge. 

In comparative course, it is about 25 miles 
from Stoddartsville to Mauch Chunk, and the 
intermediate fall amounts to 936 feet. Ten 
miles below Manch Chunk, in a direct line, this 
stream passes the Kittatinny. From the Lehigh 
water gap, or passage through the Kittatinny, 
to its junction with the Delaware, it falls 205 
feet in a comparative course of 35 miles. The 
entire fall from Stoddartsville to Easton is 1289 
feet : comparative course 70 miles. The dis- 
tance from the town of Stoddartsville to the 
extreme source is from 15 to 20 miles, with a 
fall it is probable of 500 feet, giving to this 
mall river a course of 100 miles, and falls of 
nearly 1800 feet; and what may be considered 



PENNSYLVANIA. 17 

in a peculiar manner remarkable, no actual 
cataract worthy notice exists in all its course. 

Above the water gap, the bed of the Lehigh 
lies at the base of steeply rising and often pre- 
cipitous mountains, leaving between them sel- 
dom more space than the mere width of the 
stream. The scenery is in a high degree wild, 
grand, picturesque and frequently sublime. 
Below the Kittatinny, the features of nature are 
less magnificent, but still follow in a romantic 
succession of strongly contrasted and elegant 
landscape. This varied and pleasing character, 
of its banks gives a delightful diversity to the 
vicinity of Allentown, Bethlehem and Easton. 
The banks of this beautiful river most highly 
reward the enlightened traveller; one scene 
alone upon it would repay a journey of many 
hundred miles : that scene is Mauch Chunk, 
with its inexhaustible mines of coal, and the 
stupendous works erected and erecting to pro- 
cure this valuable mineral. 

The Lehigh is now rendered navigable by 
dams and falling locks to Stoddartsville. The 
discovery of immense masses of anthracite 
coal, made in its vicinity, led to the improvement 
of the river, and the roads leading from it to the 
mines. 

Similar mineral wealth in interminable strata 
of anthracite coal, led to the improvement and 
importance of the Schuylkill. The latter rises 
in and drains about the five eighths of Schuylkill 
county. Formed by two branches interlocking 
sources tvith the Lehigh, Nescopec, Cattawissa, 
Mahanoy,Mahantangoand Swatara,the Schuyl- 
kill bursts through the Kittatinny chain, be- 
tween Berks and Schuylkill counties, after a 
course of 3S miles from the west. Below its 
2* 



18 PENNSYLVANIA. 

passage through the Kittatinny, it turns to 
nearly south 20 miles, in which distance it has 
received Maiden creek from the north, and Tul- 
pehocken from the west, and passes Reading, 
immediately below which town it pierces Blue 
Ridge, and assumes a south-eastern course. In 
the latter direction this river continues to the 
environs of Philadelphia 50 miles, winding to 
nearly south at the mouth of the Wissahicon, 
and passing through the western part of Phila- 
delphia, is lost in the superior volume of the 
Delaware 5 miles below that city. 

The entire comparative length of the valley 
of the Schuylkill is about 100 miles ; 20 above 
and 80 below the Kittatinny chain. 

A strong resemblance is perceivable between 
the Schuylkill and Lehigh, though the scener}' 
along the former is less rugged and rich than 
upon the latter stream. Flowing from the same 
mountain valley, the soil and mineral produc- 
tions are in a great measure similar on the two 
streams : but in situ, the respective masses of an- 
thracite are very differently distributed. That of 
Mauch Chunk lies in immense irregular strata, 
open in one place to the day on the summit of the 
mountain, and with little if any regular incli- 
nation ; on the contrary, the mines on the 
Schuylkill and the valley of Wyoming, near 
Wilkesbarrc, dip like the other incumbent and 
decumbent strata. 

The Schuylkill is now navigable by canals 
and locks to a few miles above Mount Carbon, 
near its source, ten miles above Orwigsburg ; 
and the Union Canal Company have completed 
a channel of water communication by the Tul- 
pehocken and Swatara, into the Susquehanna 
at Middletown. A canal is in operation from 
the Delaware, opposite Easton, through New 



PENNSYLVANIA. 19 

Jersey, which serves as an aquatic line of 
transmission between the Delaware and Hud- 
son basins. 

Beyond the mountain chain which separates 
the waters of the Susquehanna from those of 
the Ohio, the country is broken and hilly. 
Somerset, parts of Fayette, Westmoreland, 
Cambria, Indiana, Jefferson and McKean, are 
mountainous; whose valleys are from 1,000 to 
1,500 feet above the ocean level, and their 
ridges from 500 to 1,000 feet higher. Wash- 
ington, part of Fayette, Westmoreland and 
Allegany counties arc remarkable for their lofty 
insulated and fertile hills, with narrow and ex- 
uberant bottom lands intervening. The appear. 
ance of this country, variegated by elevated 
hills which are seldom in the shape of ridges, 
but rather disconnected and conical, with innu- 
merable vales, is exceedingly picturesque when 
viewed from some elevated part of the most 
western range of the Alleganies. The counties 
which lie northward of Pittsburg, although bro- 
ken, are not generally covered with such high 
hills as those just mentioned. They have also 
much more level bottom lands along the water 
courses. On French Creek, and many other 
of the confluents of the Allegany river, there 
are extensive bottoms, covered with beech, 
birch, sugar-maple, intermixed with the Wey- 
mouth pine and the hemlock spruce. It is from 
these extensive forests, and those on the sources 
of that river, that the vast quantities of lumber 
sent to the country below, as far as New Or- 
leans, are annually drawn. 

The soil of the southern counties is generally 
good, excepting Somerset county, and some 
portions of Greene, which are called glade 
lands. Corn, wheat, rye, barley, oats, flax, the 



20 PENNSYLVANIA. 

potatoe, &,c. grow well in every county, t'ew 
portions of the West have a soil belter adapted 
to these productions than Washington, Fayette, 
Westmoreland, Allegany, and parts of the other 
counties. The counties which lie towards 
Lake Erie and New York have a thinner and 
colder soil than those towards Virginia. They 
are well adapted 1o the purpose of grazing. 
They abound in herds of cattle and other live 
stock ; and, as has already been remarked, they 
furnish vast supplies of lumber, of which it is 
supposed that no less than 30,000,000 feet of 
plank annually descend the Allegany river, 
and find a ready market in the towns and cities 
which border on the river from Pittsburg to 
New Orleans. 

In a state of nature, this country was covered 
with continuous forests of oak, walnut, hickory, 
sugar maple, poplar, beech, elm, sycamore, and 
buck-eye along the streams, chesnut, &-c. &c. 
This region is watered by the Monongahela, 
Allegany, Youghioghany, Loyalhanna, Cone- 
maugh, French Creek and Beaver, and their 
common recipient the Ohio. By inspection of 
the map it will be seen, that all these confluents 
converge towards one district, the centre of 
which is Pittsburg. To this emporium the 
productions of this whole region are chiefly 
brought to market by the natural channels of 
these confluents, which are navigable for boats 
much of the year, excepting the north-western 
section, which trades with New York by Lake 
Erie and the Erie and Hudson canal. 

This is emphatically an agricultural country, 
but large quantities of live stock are driven 
annually to an eastern market, by way of the 
three excellent turnpike roads, which connect in 



PENNSYLVANIA. 21 

this state, the west with the cast, viz : the na- 
tional road which passes from Wheeling to 
Cumberland, through the southern part of this 
region: the southern Pennsylvania road; and 
the northern road from Pittsburg through 
Ebensburg, Huntingdon, &:c. to Philadelphia, 
uniting with the southern Pennsylvania road 
at Harrisburg. 

During the months of October, November, 
December, March, April, May and June, the 
Ohio is navigable for steam-boats up to Pitts- 
burg, and its confluents, for flat and keel boats, 
which convey the productions of this region to 
a market in the southern part of the valley. 
During January and February the navigation 
is usually interrupted by ice, and in July, Au- 
gust and September, by the want of sufficient 
depth of water in those streams. Steam-boats, 
during the fall and Spring high waters, run up 
to Brownsville on the Monongahela. The 
other rivers in Western Pennsylvania, are not 
yet navigated by steam-boats to any consider- 
able extent. 

Inexhaustible mines of bituminous coal exist 
throughout this section of our country, in 
the valleys and in the hills, in strata, varying, 
in different places, from a few inches to several 
feet in depth, and aftbrd abundance of fuel, 
cheaper even than the wood which its forests 
supply, and admirably suitable for manufactu- 
ring purposes. There is a great abundance of 
iron ore, particularly in the tier of counties 
which border the Allegany range, from which 
vast quantities of iron are manufactured. In 
the counties of Westmoreland and Fayette, are 
many furnaces and forges. Much of the iron 
of those counties is taken in the form of blooms 



22 PENNSYLVANIA. 

and pigs to Pittsburg, Brownsville, &c. and 
there manufactured into various forms of iron. 
On the Conemaugh and Kiskiminitas, salt is 
manufactured to a great extent. It is also made 
in some other places, but in comparatively 
small quantities. 

The natural advantages of this region, the 
general productiveness of its soil — for there is 
scarcely any part which cannot be cultivated 
with advantage, even the knobs of its hills — its 
facilities for intercourse, natural and artificial; 
and the salubrity of its climate, will render it a 
very populous country. When in addition to 
the Pennsylvania canal now completed, the 
canal uniting the Allegany river with Lake 
Erie, and the Ohio and Chesapeake canal now 
in progress, and also the Baltimore and Ohio 
rail-road expected to extend into this region, 
and already commenced, shall all be completed, 
no country will enjoy greater facilities for in- 
ter-communication and trade. The farmer and 
manufacturer of Western Pennsylvania will 
then have New Orleans, New York, Philadel- 
phia and Baltimore, with the places intermedi- 
ate, as the markets to which he can send the 
products of his labour. 

It may be doubted whether a more widely 
diversified and equally continuous region exists 
on the face of the earth than Pennsylvania, or 
one of similar area, on which the vegetable and 
mineral productions are generically or specifi- 
cally more numerous. In a state of nature the 
streams of this state flowed through a most 
dense forest. No part of Pennsylvania is level, 
and in respect to surface is divisible into three 
natural sections. First, a small but important 
hilly tract between the sea-sand alluvion and the 



PENNSYLVANIA. 23 

lower ridges of the Allegany system : second, 
the mountainous or middle section, and third, 
the western hilly. 

The relative level of the cultivatable soil of 
Pennsylvania, if the mountain plateaus are 
included, differs about 1200 feet or an equiva- 
lent to three degrees of latitude, therefore the 
extremes of latitude being 2° 17' or equal to 2° 
3 of Frht. the real extremes of temperature 
over the state amount to near 5^-° of that in- 
strument. Pennsylvania is emphatically a 
country congenial to wheat, meadow grass and 
the apple, but admits a wide diversity of other 
vegetable productions. Grain, except rice, em- 
braces the whole list of cerealia cultivated in 
the United States ; and amongst fruits, besides 
the apple, peaches, pears and plums abound. 

Of indigenous forest trees this state yields as 
great specific variety, as it is probable is to be 
found on the globe in a zone two degrees and 
one third wide, and not quite 6 degrees of lon- 
gitude in length. The terebinthine forests are 
in great part confined to the mountains, and 
the deciduous trees to the eastern and western 
sections. On the latter, the sugar maple, rare 
even in the mountain valleys except towards 
New York, becomes plentiful. These distinc- 
tions are however general, as the great moun- 
tain valleys differ in no essential respect from 
other hilly parts of the state. The productive 
soil is also, in a very remarkable manner, 
equally distributed. Some of the most fertile 
alluvial river bottoms in the state are included 
in the mountain section. 

Much of the northern part of the state has 
been and continues untenanted, from being 
held by owners who seem to consider their 



24 PENNSYLVANIA. 

property either of no value, or of such high value, 
as to reserve it for future ages. Tlie great body 
of the population has spread over the eastern, 
southern and western borders, and left the cen- 
tral and northern a comparative wilderness. 

On strict geographical principles, the whole 
of Pennsylvania is within the Allegany system. 
If due regard is paid to the courses of the rivers, 
this truth becomes undeniable. The same 
hypothesis is again sustained by the distribution 
of fossil bodies. Of these, the first advancing 
from the primitive ledge is marble of beautiful 
variety and excellent texture. This fine pro- 
duction has contributed to adorn the eastern 
towns, and even farm houses of the state. Iron 
and anthracite coal follow marble, and exist in 
masses which defy all human power to exhaust. 
Iron continues to abound over the whole state, 
and where the anthracite coal ceases, the bitu- 
minous coal commences, and seems to underlay 
great part of the western, and some of the cen- 
tral parts of the state. As if to complete the 
list of most useful fossil bodies, water holding 
muriate of soda (common salt) in solution, 
abounds where it is most valuable. In the 
region of bituminous coal, wherever the earth 
has been penetrated to any great depth, salt 
water has been found. Salt works, on a large 
scale exist on the Conemaugh and some other 
parts of the western section. 

Government. — Governor, term of office three 
years, salary $4,000 ; ineligible after an official 
term of nine years ; secretary of state ; treasu- 
rer ; auditor general ; surveyor general, and 
attorney general. 

Legislature, — Senate, members elected for 



PENNSYLVANIA. 25 

three years, one-third chosen annually. House 
of Representatives, members elected annually. 

Judiciary. — There is a supreme court, con- 
sisting of a chief justice and four associate 
judges, appointed by the governor and senate 
for a term of 15 years. This court holds its 
sessions in five places in the state, M?hich is 
divided into five districts for that purpose. The 
state is also divided into 16 districts, for the 
sessions of the courts of common pleas. Each 
of these circuits has a presiding judge, and two 
associates from each county. The judges of 
the supreme court receive a salary of $2,000 
per annum; the judges of the common pleas, 
$1,600 ; and the associates, $200. The latter 
hold their offices for five years. 

History. — The exact time when, or by what 
civilized nation, the first settlements in Penn- 
sylvania were made, is doubtful. The Dutch 
had discovered and named the Delaware, as 
early as the year 1612. They called the Hud- 
son North river, and the Delaware South river, 
relatively to their geographical position. A 
Swedish colony, under the auspices of Gustavus 
Adolphus, reached Delaware in 1628, and the 
Roman Catholic colony who planted Maryland, 
reached the Chesapeake in 1633. Pennsylva- 
nia was thus early claimed by three nations. 
The Dutch supplanted the Swedes, and were 
themselves subdued" by the English in 1664. 
In the interim, scattering settlements were 
made along the Delaware by, it is probable, 
individuals of all parties. Subsequently to 1664, 
the whole Delaware country was claimed by 
the Duke of York, and so remained until No- 
vember, 1680, when the famous charter of 
Pennsylvania was granted to William Penn, 
i 3 



26 PENNSYLVANIA. 

and in May, 1681, taken possession of in his 
name by his relation, Markham. Penn him- 
self arrived in the Delaware, and landed at New 
Castln, Oct. 24th, 1682, and found already in 
the country about 3000 people, Dutch, Swedes, 
Finns and English. The first assembly met, 
and we may say the iirst real foundation of 
Pennsylvania, as an English colony, was laid 
at Chester, December 4th, 1682. Pennsylvania 
acted a most conspicuous part in the revolution. 
It was in her capital that that declaration was 
made, which really changed the history of the 
world, and provided a vantage ground on which 
the claims of human rights could be sustained. 
In 1776, a constitution was formed, which 
was superseded by a second, adopted Septem- 
ber 2d, 1790, and amended in 1838. Since 
the former period the morning dawn of Penn- 
sylvania, with the exception of one or two dark 
and heavy clouds, has been clear, serene and 
brilliant. Her history has been for fifty years 
made up from the records of improvement in 
every thing which can secure the permanent 
happiness of her citizens. 

Chronology. 

1627 Swedes established on the Delaware, 

1642 Kieft, governor of New Netherlands, ex- 
pelled the English from the Delaware. 

1651 The Dutch erect trading houses on the 
Delaware. 

1655 The Swedes on the Delaware submit to 
the government of New Netherlands, 
under Governor Stuy vesant. 

1664 Pennsylvania with New Jersey, &c. 
granted to the Duke of York, by his 
brother, Charles II. 



PENNSYLVANIA. 27 

1681 Patent for Pennsylvania granted to Wil- 

liam Penn and first colony arrives. 

1682 First frame of Pennsylvania government 

formed. 
1692 Pennsylvania made subject to New York 

by the king of England. 
1694 William Penn restored to his rights over 

Pennsylvania. 
1696 Form of government of Pennsylvania, 

changed. 
1701 New charter granted by William Penn. 

Philadelphia incorporated, and Delaware 

separated from Pennsylvania. 
1710 Germantown founded. 
1719 First newspaper, the Weekly Mercury, 

published in Pennsylvania. 
1723 First paper currency issued and made a 

Jegal tender. 

1731 Philadelphia contains 12,000 inhabitants. 

1732 Boundary between Pennsylvania and 

Maryland fixed. 

1741 Bethlehem founded by the Moravians. 

1742 Treaty of Philadelphia with the Six Na- 

tions, for land on both sides of the Sus- 
quehanna. 

1753 Population of Philadelphia, 18,000. 

1755 Braddock defeated and slain by the French 
and Indians near Pittsburg. 

1764 Massacre of the Indians at Lancaster. 

1776 July 4th, Independence declared at Phil- 

adelphia, by Congress. December, 12, 
Congress retire from Philadelphia to 
Baltimore. 

1777 September, 11, Battle of Brandywine. 

20th, General Wayne surprised at 
Paoli in Chester county, and his troops 
massacred by the British. 27th, Phila, 



28 PHILADELPHIA. 

delphia taken by the British. Oct. 4, 
Battle of Germantown. 
1778 June 18, Philadelphia evacuated by the 
British. 

1781 Jan., Revolt of the Pennsylvania troops. 

1782 April 1st, Bank of North America char- 

tered. 

1787 Constitution of the United States, framed 
and adopted by Pennsylvania at Phila- 
delphia. 

1793 Philadelphia is visited by the yellow 
fever. 

1799 Seat of Government removed from Phila- 
delphia to Lancaster, and subsequently 
to Harrisburg, its present location. 



CHIEF CITIES AND TOWNS, 

With the Roads and Distances, 

PHILADELPHIA. 

Philadelphia, the metropolis of the state of 
Pennsylvania, and, after New York, the largest 
city in the United States, is situated between 
the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, about 5 
miles from the junction of the latter with the 
Delaware. The city proper, or that portion 
of it which is limited by the Delaware on 
the east, the Schuylkill on the west. Vine 
street on the north, and South or Cedar street 
on the south, is under the jurisdiction of the 
corporation. The adjoining districts have each 
separate and distinct municipal authorities and 
regulations, wholly unconnected, in a legal 
point of view, with the others, or either of 



PHILADELPHIA. 29 

them. These regulations, being merely locai 
in their operation, are unimportant in reference 
to the city, as it is generally understood, which, 
for all practical purposes, may be regarded as 
embracing the adjoining districts of Kensing- 
ton, the Northern Liberties, Spring Garden, 
Soutliwark, Moyamensing, &c. 

The densely built parts of the city and dis- 
tricts, have an outline of about 8i miles. Pre- 
sent population about 225,000. The princi- 
pal streets are Market or High, and Broad 
streets. The latter extends for several miles 
in a nearly north and south direction, and in- 
tersects Market street near the centre of the 
city plot. With some trifling exceptions, the 
streets of the city proper, cross each other at 
right angles : but those of the adjoining dis- 
tricts present a more irregular appearance. 
In advancing along Broad street, towards 
the north, from Market street, which ex- 
tends through the centre of the city, from the 
Delaware to the Schuylkill, the following 
streets present themselves in the order of the 
enumeration : — Filbert ; Mulberry or Arch ; 
Cherry ; Sassafras or Race ; Vine (the north- 
ern boundary of the city); Wood; Callowhill; 
Willow; Hamilton; Buttonwood; Spring Gar- 
den ; Green ; Coates, and some others : these 
are all parallel or nearly so with Market street. 
Going south from the latter, the following 
streets occur: Chesnut; George; Walnut; 
Locust ; Spruce ; Pine ; Lombard ; Cedar or 
South (the southern boundary of the city pro- 
per) ; Shippen ; Fitzwater ; Catherine ; Chris- 
tian; Tidmarsh ; Prime; Washington and 
Federal. Nearly all these extend from east 
to west, and from the Delaware to the Schuyl- 
3* 



30 PHILADELPHIA, 

kill, each about two miles in length. The 
streets running in the general direction of the 
Delaware river are designated by numbers, 
commencing on the Delaware side with Front, 
Second, Third, and so on up to Thirteenth, 
which latter is succeeded by Broad street. 
Those north of Market street have the term 
"north," and those running southward, 
"south," appended to each. A similar ar- 
rangement obtains with respect to the streets 
between Broad street and the river Schuylkill ; 
commencing near the river with Front, Second, 
&c. up to Eighth. These are distinguished 
from the eastern streets by having the word 
" Schuylkill" prefixed to them. 

In addition to the above, the city and each 
district has several cross streets and avenues, 
most of which are well built. 

HISTORY. 

The first civilized settlements at Coaquanoc, 
now Philadelphia, were made by the Swedes 
forty or fifty years before the arrival of William 
Penn. The prevailing opinion that it was he 
who first introduced members of the Society of 
Friends on the banks of the Delaware, is an 
error. There were regular meetings of that 
society on both sides of the river previous to 
the arrival of that great and good man. Some 
of these meetings, those at Chester for example, 
date back to 1675. 

The first mention made of this now fine city 
under its present name, was in 1682, when it 
was surveyed and regulated by Thomas Holme, 
on the first high ground above the confluence 
of the Delaware and Schuylkill. Philadelphia 



PHILADELPHIA. 31 

is built on the ancient alluvion, reposing upon 
the primitive rock formation which rises to the 
surface a short distance north of the city. Its 
site, with the exception of some gentle swells, 
consists of a nearly level plane. Along Mar- 
ket street it is within a small fraction of two 
miles from river to river ; but as both rivers 
curve towards each other in passing the city, 
the general plan widens above and below Mar- 
ket street. Along the Delaware from the lower 
part of Southwark to the northern street of 
Kensington, is about four and a half miles. In 
advancing westward, the built parts of the city 
gradually diminish in extent. From its ear- 
Hest settlement the general progress of im- 
provement has been and still is towards the 
north-west. The porous, sandy and deep allu- 
vion on which the city is built, contributes, 
with the judicious regulation of the streets, to 
render the cellars dry. From the northern 
sections particularly in Spring Garden and the 
incorporated part of the Northern Liberties, 
many of the positions are very commanding ; 
and on the Schuylkill above and below the 
city, the scenery becomes highly varied and 
beautiful. 



BRIDGES, &c. 

PERMANENT BRIDGE. 

Western termination of Market street. 

The city is connected with West Philadel- 
phia by a substantial bridge erected by a com- 
pany incorporated in 1798. The whole length 
of this structure is 1300 feet : the main bridge 
550 and abutments and wing walls 750 feet ; 



32 PHILADELPHIA. 

width 42 feet. It rests upon three arches and 
two stone piers. I'o place the western pier on 
the solid rock it was found necessary to extend 
tiie work 42 feet below common tide level. This 
was effected at great expense. The total cost 
of the bridge including grounds was $300,000. 

The ownership of this splendid structure has 
been transferred to the city authorities, and is 
now open for public use free from tolls. The 
old floating bridge at Gray's Ferry has been 
displaced by the viaduct over the Schuylkill, 
built by the Philadelphia, Wilmington and 
Baltimore Railroad Company. In addition to 
its uses for the rail-road travel, it is so con- 
structed as to admit the passage of ordinary 
carriages, &-c. 

These are now the only bridges which cross 
the Schuylkill at or near tiie city. The bridge 
formerly at the foot of Fairmount, consisting of 
one elliptical areh 348 feet span, was destroyed 
by fire in 1839. The arch of this beautiful 
structure was generally considered as the largest 
known, and being one curve of a very elonga- 
ted ellipsis, formed a striking object in the 
scenery about Fairmount. 

FAIRMOUNT WATER WORKS. 
In the north-west suburbs of the city. 

The hydraulic works by which the city of 
Philadelphia and the adjoining districts are sup- 
plied with water, are situated on the east bank 
of the Schuylkill, two miles north-west from 
the city. They occupy an area of 30 acres, 
which extends from the Schuylkill on the west, 
to Fairmonnt street on the east, and from Cal- 



PHILADELPHIA. 33 

lowhill and Biddle street on the south to Coates 
street and the Columbia Rail-road on the north. 
The greater part of this area consists of the 
" mount," an oval shaped eminence, about one 
hundred feet in height, with sides more or less 
inclined, according to the nature of the forma- 
tion and the uses to which they are applied. 

On the top of the hilJ, at an elevation of one 
hundred feet above mid-tide in the Schuylkill, 
and about 56 feet above the highest grounds in 
the city, there are four reservoirs, whose aggre- 
gate capacity is about twenty-two millions of 
gallons. One of these is divided into three 
sections for the purpose of filtration. They 
are inclosed by a substantial pale fence, which, 
while it serves to protect, does not obstruct the 
view of the reservoirs. The whole is surround- 
ed by a gravel footway, extending along the 
entire brow of the hill, which is attained by a 
flight of steps on the west, and several inclined 
planes, of easy ascent from the east, 

Fairmount originally extended to, and formed 
the immediate bank of the Schuylkill, and the 
entire site of the various structures, and the 
beautiful embellishments which now adorn the 
place, and render it an object of peculiar attrac- 
tion, is the result of expensive and laborious 
excavation into solid gneiss rock. It was com- 
menced in 1819, and continued with occasional 
intermissions from that time down to the pres- 
ent day. The requisite power for propelling 
the machinery, is obtained by means of a pool 
formed by a dam, erected across the Schuylkill, 
which backs the water for several miles, and 
thus serves the double purpose of improving the 
navigation of the river, and giving motion to 
the wheels and forcing pumps by which the 



34 PHILADELPHIA. 

reservoirs are supplied. The excavated plateau, 
extending from the foot of the mount to the 
precipitous bank of the river, is partly occupied 
by the wheel houses, forebays and other neces- 
sar}' structures, and the remaining- spaces are 
very tastefully arranged with flow^er gardens, 
gravel walks, fountains, statues and other orna- 
mental devices, which, viewed in connection 
with the romantic country around, and the ani- 
mating and busy scenes presented by tlie canals 
and rail-roads in the vicinity, form altogether, a 
prospect of uncommon interest and beauty. 

Previously to the erection of the works at 
Fairmount, the city had been supplied with 
water from the Schuylkill by means of two 
steam engines, one on Chesnut and Front 
streets, near the river, and the other at the in- 
tersection of Broad and Market streets. These 
were soon found to be wholly inadequate to the 
necessary supply, and were in a few years 
superseded by the works at Fairmount. By 
the first arrangement, the water was let into a 
basin, formed with suitable gates, at the foot of 
Chesnut street, and thence conveyed by an 
aqueduct, 460 feet in length to the water shall; 
at the lower engine house. Here it was raised 
by the engine and forcing pumps into a tunnel, 
6 feet in diameter, extending along Chesnut 
and Broad streets, 3144 feet, to the other engine 
house at the Centre, now called Penn square. 
At this point, the water was again elevated by 
the second engine into a reservoir 36 feet above 
the ground, and thence into an iron distributing 
tank, from which the wooden pipes then in use, 
conducted the water through the various parts 
of the city. The total cost of this establishment 
from its commencement in 1799, to its abandon- 



PHILADELPHIA. -35 

toent in 1815, was $657,398 91, including 
$898 94 "for whiskey;" and the amount of 
water rents received during the same period, 
was $105,351 18, leaving a balance chargeable 
to the city treasury of $552,047 73. 



PUBLIC SQUARES. 



INDEPENDENCE gaUARE. 

Between Chestmt and Walnut streets and 5th 

and 6th streets, 

Sometimes called the State House Garden, 
being in the rear of that building. It is sur- 
rounded by a solid brick wall to the height of 
three or four feci above the adjacent streets, 
upon which an iron railing is placed. 

The entire area is laid off with ground walks 
and grass plots, which with its majestic trees, 
forms one of the most inviting spots within the 
bounds of the city. It was within this enclosure 
that the Declaration of American Independence 
was first publicly read ; and here as in days 
of old, the people now assemble to hear, not the 
declaration of independence, but the noisy and 
senseless harangues of party leaders, and to 
witness the tumults and disorders to which they 
sometimes lead. 

WASHINGTON SQUARE. 

Between Walnut and Locust and Sixth and 

Washington streets. 

Among the vast multitudes of persons of all 



36 PHILADELPHIA. 

ages, sexes and conditions, who now frequent 
this delightful promenade, there are but few 
perhaps who are acquainted with its origin and 
the uses to which it was formerly applied. 
From the elegance and variety that here attract 
the eye, the aged citizen spontaneously recalls 
to memory the scenes of" 93" and " 98," when 
this now inviting spot, was made the receptacle 
of the dead ; " the bourne from whence no trav- 
eller returns ;" and pictures to his view the silent 
mansions to which many a victim of the then 
raging pestilence, was hurried by his afRrighted 
attendants. In this our day is seen nought but 
gayety and life, treading over the remains of the 
sepulchered dead. Scenes such as these, viewed 
in connection with the past, are well fitted to 
awaken emotions of the highest and most 
affecting character. We stand, as it were upon 
the confines of two worlds ; and as the mood of 
our minds may be, we gather lessons of pro- 
found wisdom by contrasting the one with the 
other, or indulge in dreams of hope and ambi- 
tion, or solace our hearts by melancholy medi- 
tions. — From the gloomy past we gladly turn to 
the cheerful and animating scenes of the pres- 
ent. — Washington square lies immediately to 
the south-west of Independence square, and 
like that beautiful spot, is laid out with gravel- 
led walks and planted with a variety of trees 
and shrubbery, and the whole environed by a 
substantial iron railing. It is proposed to erect 
in the centre of the square, a splendid monument 
to the memory of the great man whose name 
it bears. Measures for effecting this object 
have been for some time in progress, which it 
is hoped will speedily result in its accomplish- 
mf^nt. 



PHILADELPHIA. 3? 

FRANKLIN SaUARE. 

Between Race and Vine, and Sixth and Frank- 
lin streets. 

This square is also laid off as a public walk ; 
it is embellished with a great variety of trees 
grass plots, &c. A portion of this square has 
been used as a burying place by the German 
Society, which for several years manfully re- 
sisted all the attempts of the city authorities to 
desecrate their sanctuary. By repeated over- 
tures, and probably worried by the perseverance 
of their assailants, the Society was ultimately 
induced to yield ; and all traces of their ceme- 
tery are now entirely obliterated. The ai'ea 
now presents an unbroken parallelogram, 632 
by 550 feet ; in the centre of which has been 
erected a magnificent fountain, a sight of which 
will amply compensate the pedestrian for half 
an hour's walk in reaching it. 

LOGAN SaUARE, 

Between Race and Vine and Schuylkill Fifth 
and Logan streets. 

This square is now in course of improvement, 
the design being to throw it open to the public. 
It is somewhat larger than Franklin square, 
and when similarly improved will afford a de- 
lightful place of resort for the neighbouring cit- 
izens. 

RITTENHOUSE SQUARE. 

Between Walnut and Locust and Schuylkill 
Fifth and Third streets. 

Our remarks upon Logan square may be. 
4 



38 PHILADELPHIA. 

applied to Rittenhouse square; its objeet and 
present condition, being similar in all respects. 

PENN SaUARE. 
At the intersection of Broad and Market streets. 

The ground now occupied by Penn square 
or squares, for there are four distinct enclosures, 
formed what was originally called the " centre 
square," which " if we may be allowed the ex- 
pression," was a perfect circle, bounded by a 
pale fence and inclosing the distributing reser- 
voir of the city water works. 

Some years since this area was divided into 
four parts by running Market and Broad streets 
through it, the water works having been pre- 
viously removed. No improvements have yet 
been made within the enclosures, which now 
present nothing but a dull and monotonous 
expanse of grass and weeds. 

STATE HOUSE OR INDEPENDENCE HALL. 

This venei'able structure, built in 1735, stands 
on the northern side of Independence square, 
and is now occupied by the public offices, halls 
of the courts, &c. It fronts on Chesnut 
street, and including the wings, which are oi' 
modern construction, extends from Fifth to 
Sixth street. 

It was in this building that Congress, on the 
4th of July, 1776, adopted the memorable De- 
claration of Independence, which was publicly 
proclaimed from its steps on the same day. 

Some parts of the original building have 
been removed and others deiaced. Nearly the 
whole of the wood work of Independence 



I'HILADELPHIA. 39 

Hall was, some years since, displaced to make 
room for more modern decorations. These 
were scarcely completed, wlicn a new corpora- 
tion, more patriotic than their predecessors, 
directed the restoration of the hall to its origi- 
nal simplicity. It now presents the same ap- 
pearance it did at the moment when " these 
United States were first declared free, sovereign 
and independent." 



LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INSTI- 
TUTIONS. 



UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS. 

Situated on the west side of Ninth street between 
Market and Chesnut streets. 

They consist of two handsome and appro- 
priate brick edifices, stuccoed in imitation of 
granite, each 85 feet front and 112 deep, and 
surrounded by an open area tastefully arranged 
with gravel walks, &c. The whole is en- 
closed by substantial iron-railing. 

This admirable institution was formed in 
1791, by the union of the old University and 
College of Philadelphia. The most important 
branch of the University is that of the school of 
Medicine, the foundation of which was laid in 
1764 by Dr. Wm. Shippen. For a considerable 
number of years past, the students who attend- 
ed the medical lectures in the University have 
exceeded four hundred annually. There are 
eleven professorships besides those of medicine ; 
and a charity school supported by funds of the 
institution. 



40 PHILADELPHIA. 

JEFFERSON MEDICAL COLLEGE. 

In Tenth street below Chesnut street. 

The Jefferson Medical College, originally a 
brancli of Jefferson College at Canonsburg ; 
was instituted in 1825 and subsequently char- 
tered by the legislature with the customary 
powers. Within a few years this college, under 
the sanction of legislative enactments, separated 
itself from the parent institution, and is now in- 
dependent, and in a flourishing condition. The 
average annual number of its students for some 
years past was about three hundred. The ana- 
tomical museum attached to this institution, 
which is open to the inspection of any respect- 
able visiter, is admirably arranged, and cannot 
fail to gratify such as feel an interest in ana- 
tomical preparations. 

GIRARD COLLEGE. 
Ridge Road above Francisville. 

Stephen Girard, the founder of this admirable 
charity, was a native of France. Having in 
early life established himself in Philadelphia, 
in the first instance as a small dealer, and sub- 
sequently as a merchant and banker, he soon 
acquired considerable property, which by perse- 
vering industry and rigid economy, guided by 
a sound and discriminating mind, continued to 
accumulate until the moment of his death, in 
1831, when it exceeded $6,000,000, in value. 
A large portion of this immense estate con. 
sisted of houses and lots chiefly in Philadelphia, 
and lands in Pennsylvania and Louisiana, bank 
and other stocks, was appropriated to the erec- 
tion and support of the College for Orplians, 
which by tlje terms of his will, devolved upon 



PHILADLLPHIA. 41 

tlie city councils, who were charged with the 
execution of his benevolent detig-n. 

This splendid establishment when completed, 
will consist of live distinct edifices, extending 
in a line from east to west and facing Girard 
street at its intersection with College Avenue. 
The dimensions of the main building, which is 
tlie first object of attention in ascending the 
avenue from the south, are two hundred and 
eighteen feet from north to south, one hundred 
sixty feet from east to west, including the plat- 
form which supports the columns, and ninetj'- 
seven feet in height. 

The remaining four buildings, situated two 
on either side of the principal edifice, are fiftj'- 
two by one hundred and twenty-five feet each, 
and two stories high, with commodious base- 
ments. Tlie professors will occupy the east- 
ernmost building, which is so constructed as to 
accommodate four distinct families. The other 
three are designed for the residence of the pupils. 

The " college" or centre building, with its 
beautiful columns and gorgeous capitals, at once 
rivets the attention of the beholder. There are 
thirty-four columns resting upon a platform, ren- 
dered firm and substantial by a corresponding 
number of inverted arches. These support an 
entablature sixteen feet high, in imitation of a 
Grecian temple. Each column, including capi- 
tal and base, is fifty-five feet in height, and six 
feel in diameter at the base, which is three feet 
high and nine feet in diameter. Tliere is a 
clear space of fifteen feet between the columns 
and the body of the building. At each end of 
this space, is a doorway thirty-two feet in 
height and sixteen in width, decorated with 
massy architraves, beneath a figured cornice, 
4* 



42 PHILADELPHIA. 

supported by consoles. The vestibule at each 
door is twenty-six by forty-eight -feet ; the 
ceiling of each is supported by eight marble 
columns and eight antsB of the Ionic order. 
Immediately above these vestibules in the 
second story, are an equal number of lobbies, 
the ceilings of which are supported by Corin- 
thian columns. Marble stairways arc erected 
at each corner of the building, which are chiefly 
lighted from above. There are four apartments 
on each floor. The ceilings of those on the 
first and second floor, are groin-arched, and 
those of the third floor are vaulted, with a cen- 
tral sky light on a line with the roof. 

With the exception of the doors the entire 
structure is fire proof; and is warmed by fur- 
naces in the usual manner. 

From the great mass of material employed 
in these buildings, and the splendour of their 
decorations, it may be readily imagined that the 
cost of construction will be immense. In 
viewing the college and its ponderous but mag. 
nificent columns, the question naturally sug- 
gests itself, whether a building adapted to all 
the purposes of such an establishment, could 
not have been erected more speedily and eco- 
nomically than the one now in progress ? 

The vast amount (about one million one hun- 
dred thousand dollars) already expended upon the 
work and the sum still required to complete the 
edifice, cannot fail we think, to deprive the in- 
stitution to a large extent of its means of support, 
and thus limit its future usefulness. The delay 
in its organization, resulting from the adoption 
of so expensive and tedious a plan of construc- 
tion, is a matter of much regret to the friends 
of the institution, who cannot but view such 
delay and profuse expenditure, with apprehen- 
sion and alarm. 



PHILADELPHIA. 43 

AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

Hall, South Fifth below Chesnut street. 

This ancient and respectable institution ori- 
ginated under the present title in 1740, princi- 
pally through the exertions of Dr. Franklin. 
In 1766, another institution was formed called 
" The American Society for promoting useful 
knowledge." These societies being nearly 
similar in every respect, it was deemed expe- 
dient to consolidate them, and in 1769, they 
were united under the title of "The American 
Philosophical Society, held in Philadelphia for 
promoting useful knowledge." The building 
in which the Society holds its meetings, and 
which contains its collections of minerals and 
excellent library, stands on the west side of 
Fifth street in the rear of the State House. 

In addition to its library of nearly 10,000 
volumes, the Society has collected and arranged 
in admirable order, many rare specimens of 
minerals and fossils, and a vast number of an- 
cient relics, and other interesting objects. 

Respectable strangers find a ready admit- 
tance to the Hall on application to the venerable 
librarian, John Vaughan, Esq. Strangers, 
members of other learned societies, are also 
admitted to the meetings of the society when 
introduced by a member. The Society now 
issues, for the use of its members, monthly 
bulletins of its transactions ; and at convenient 
intervals the whole are embodied and published 
in a larger and more durable form. The 
Society is charged with the distribution of 
the " Magellanic fund," so called. This fund 
was presented in 1786 by John Hyacinth 
Magellan, of London, for the purchase of 
medals of gold, not exceeding $45 in value, to 



44 PHILADELPHIA. 

be awarded by the Society " to the author of 
the best discovery or most useful invention 
relating to navigation, astronomy or natural 
philosophy." 

ACADEMY OP NATURAL SCIENCKS. 

Though incorporated so late as ]817, this 
institution is already in a very flourishing con- 
dition. Besides a well chosen library, exceed- 
ing 9000 volumes, the Society possesses an ex- 
tensive collection of objects in natural history. 
It has lately removed to its new and splendid 
hall in Broad street between Chesnut and Wal- 
nut streets. The Society pubiishes its trans- 
actions under the title of the Journal of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences. Strangers are 
admitted to all its meetings except those of 
business. — The hall is open to visiters on the 
afternoon of every Saturday. 

FRANKLIN INSTITUTE. 

This useful institution which is situated in 
Seventh street below Market street, was incor- 
porated in 1824. Its members, nearly 3000 in 
number, consist of manufacturers, artists and 
mechanics, and persons friendly to the mechanic 
arts. According to its charter, the objects of 
the Institute are " The promotion and encour- 
agement of manufactures and the mechanic and 
useful arts, by the establishment of popular lec- 
tures on the sciences connected with them, by 
the formation of a cabinet of models and mine- 
rals, and a library; by ofl:ering premiums on 
all subjects deemed worthy of encouragement ; 
by examining all new inventions submitted to 
them, and by such other means as they may 



PHILADELPHIA. 45 

deem expedient." The annual contribution of 
each member is $3, but the payment of 25 con- 
stitutes a member for life without any further 
pecuniary contribution. Two-thirds of the 
managers must be manufacturers or mechanics. 
The annual exhibitions of this active and mer- 
itorious association, never fail to attract and 
gratify immense numbers of visiters. Lectures 
on mechanical and scientific subjects are deli- 
vered by professors appointed by the Institute 
during the winter months, and a journal of its 
transactions is published monthly. Attached 
to the Institute is a public reading room, where 
most of the periodical journals of the day may 
be found. Strangers are admitted to the rooms 
of the Institute on application to the actuary, 
Mr. Hamilton, whose obliging disposition is only 
equalled by his zeal in the discharge of his va- 
rious duties. 

ATHENEUM. 
Fifth, below Chesnut street. 

The Association which bears this name was 
incorporated in 1815, and established in the 
lower rooms of the Hall of the American Philo- 
sophical Society in South Fifth street, below 
Chesnut street. The Atheneum now contains, 
besides the current periodical journals, a library 
consisting of several thousand volumes. The 
rooms are open every day and evening, except 
Sunday, from 8 o'clock a. m. until 10 p. m., 
from November 1st to May 1st, and from 
7 o'clock A. M. until 10 p. m., from April 30th 
to October 31st of each year. 

Strangers are admitted gratuitously for one 
month on the introduction by a member, who 
is bound to insert the name of the visiter in a 



46 PHILADELPHIA. 

register kept for that purpose. Strangers may- 
avail themselves of tlie benefits of the institution 
on the payment of three dollars for three months, 
or six dollars for six months. The current 
expenses of the association are paid from funds 
contributed by stockholders and subscribers ; 
the former pay five dollars, and the latter ten 
dollars per annum. 

Its present location is merely temporary, as it 
is proposed to erect a building every way suited 
to the purposes of the institution. A donation 
often thousand dollars for this object, was lately 
made to the Atheneum by one of its leading 
members. 

MERCANTILE LIBRARY. 

Chesnut street, between Fourth and Fifth sis. 

This institution was formed in 1822, for the 
purpose of diffusing mercantile knowledge. 
It consists of some five or six thousand volumes, 
chiefly on subjects of commerce and its kin- 
dred pursuits. Within a few years the insti- 
tution has greatly extended the sphere of its 
usefulness. In connexion with the Athenian 
Institute, an association of more recent date, 
the Mercantile Library has caused the delivery 
of popular courses of lectures on commerce, 
commercial law, the arts, sciences and litera- 
ture. Though this union has been dissolved, 
the zeal of the members of both institutes ap- 
pears to have acquired additional vigor: lectures 
continue to be delivered at the halls of each 
during the winter months. The lectures are 
open to the public on the payment of a small 
fee, which goes to defray the expenses attend- 
ing their delivery. Members pay an initiative 
fee often dollars, and two dollars annually. 



PHILADELPHIA. 47 

ATHENIAN INSTITUTE. 
Lecture Room in the Musical Fund Hall. 

The objects of the Athenian Institute, are in 
some respects similar to those of its late col- 
league, tlie Mercantile Library. Its leading 
aim, however, is to improve the taste for literary 
pursuits, by the delivery of popular lectures on 
appropriate subjects. The success of the insti- 
tution has been most signal. Its efforts in the 
interesting course, have been seconded to a 
great extent by the most intelligent and influ- 
ential part of the public. The lectures are open 
to the public on terms similar to those of the 
Mercantile Librarj^. 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Fifth, helow Chesnut street. 

This institution was founded for the purpose 
of diffusing a knowledge of our local history, 
especially in relation to the state of Pennsylvania. 
It has caused to be published, a great mass of 
valuable information on subjects connected 
v/ith the early history of Pennsylvania, and it 
is now actively engaged in the promotion of 
these laudable objects. 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 
Zane, above Seventh street. 

This is a school in which Pharmacy, an im- 
portant branch of therapeutic science, is taught. 
It consists in an intimate acquaintance with 
the preparation of medical materials, and is 
hence the doctrine of procuring, arranging, and 



48 PHILADELPHIA. 

compounding the various articles of the Materia 
Medica. 

As the first regularly organised institution 
of the kind in the United States, its establish- 
ment forms an era in the medical history of our 
country. Its objects are to impart appropriate 
instruction; to inspect drugs; to examine the 
candidates for preferment; and to cultivate a 
taste for medical science. Its influence and 
growing reputation afford conclusive evidence 
of its great utility. 

MEDICAL INSTITUTE. 
Locust, above Eleventh Street. 

Is a school in which the elementary branches 
of medical science, in all their relations, are 
taught. Its operation is partly to prepare for 
the universities, and partly to furnish the means 
of appropriate instruction to students during 
the summer recess of the latter, and to examine 
them in the progress they make. Some of its 
active members are attached to the higher 
schools : these, with others equally eminent in 
the profession, render the institution exceeding- 
ly popular among the medical classes. 

THE MEDICAL SOCIETY, 

Is considered an old institution in the pro- 
fession. Its object is the general promotion of 
medical science, and the regulation of its 
ethics. The principal mode in which useful 
results are aimed at, is the delivery of lectures, 
followed by debates upon the subjects thus 
brought forward. A considerable number of 
students attend the discussions as junior mem- 
bers; and the practice has been thought of 
considerable utility. 



PHILADELPHIA. 49 



THE C0L1.EGE OF PHYSICIANS, 

Is also entitled to the respect derived from 
age — having existed before the revolution. It 
published a half volume of transactions at an 
early period, which, however, has not been 
repeated — various publications of its members 
having been made in other ways, with the 
permission or authority of the body. This 
association has been occasionally consulted by 
the executive of the state, on public questions 
requiring medical opinions. It is one of the 
principal sources from which proceeded the 
Pharmacopseia of the United States. The col 
lege also entertains discussions; but students 
and physicians under a certain age are not 
admitted. 

PENNSYLVANIA COLLEGE. 

The Medical department of this institution 
is established temporarily in Filbert street. It 
is of recent origin, the first course of lectures 
which was well attended having been delivered 
in the winter of 1839-'40. The medical faculty 
of this institution is authorised by law to con- 
fer degrees. 

PHILADELPHIA LIBRARY COMPANY. 

This valuable establishment, sometimes 
called "The Philadelphia Library," and again, 
" The Associate Library," is situated on the 
eastern side of Fifth street, and nearly opposite 
the Hall of the American Philosophical Society 
and AthensBum. Taken as a whole, the Phila- 
delphia Library is composed of the collection 
5 



50 PHILADELPHIA. 

made since its establishment by Dr. Franklin, 
in 1731, and of the Loganian Library. These 
collections are kept in separate rooms of the 
same edifice, but are under the direction of the 
same board of managers, and are in fact one 
librar}'. The front room, or Philadelphia 
Library, contains upwards of thirty thousand 
volumes, embracing works on almost every 
branch of general knowledge. The Loganian 
Library formerly belonged to the late Dr. 
Logan, and is composed of about eleven thou- 
sand volumes of rare books, chiefly classical. 

This library, when open, is free to every 
respectable person — for whose accommodation 
tables and seats are provided. 

friends' lirrary. 
Corner of Fourth and Arch streets. 

This collection, amounting to about three 
thousand volumes, is used on the most liberal 
terms ; the books being lent free of charge, to 
any respectable applicant, who is known or 
suitably recommended to those who have it in 
charge. 

apprentices' library. 
Seventh, between Market and Arch streets. 

Consists of a large and valuable collection of 
books, chiefly adapted to the taste and capaci- 
ties of young men, apprentices, for whose use 
the institution was established. The right of 
using the books is confined to contributors and 
their apprentices ; but the former have the 
power of granting permission to others — so 
that there are very few, desirous of participating 



PHILADELPHIA. 51 

in the benefits of the institution, who may not 
do so. 



NORTHERN LIBERTIES LIBRARY. 
No. 260 North Third street. 

SPRING GARDEN LIBRARY. 
No. 3 Spring Garden street, 

SOUTHWARK LIBRARY. 
Second, opposite German street. 

These three institutions are each provided 
with valuable collections — are conducted on 
the most liberal principles — afford the same 
facilities to readers, and are in most particulars 
organized on the same plan as the city libra- 
ry- 



COMMERCIAL INSTITUTIONS, 

CUSTOM HOUSE. 
Second, below Dock street. 

Is a neat structure, designed by Strickland. 
The front of the basement is of marble — the 
remainder of the exterior of brick. A niche 
in the front contains a statue emblematic of 
Commerce, by Rusli. Tlie principal building, 
as well as tlie stores attached to it, stand some 
distance from the line of the street with which 
they communicate, by means of an iron gate 
placed in the brick wall in front. 



52 



PHILADELPHIA. 



merchants' exchange. 
Between Dock, Walnut, and Third streets. 

Previously lo the erection of the present 
Exchange, the merchants and traders of the 
city assembled in the old building- in Second 
street, next the Pennsylvania Bank, now occu- 
pied as an auction store, by Mr. Birch. The 
new building, which is of marble, vi'as com. 
menccd in 1834, under the direction, and from 
the design of Mr. Strickland. It occupies a 
triangular space, formed by Third, Walnut, 
and Dock streets. It is in the form of a paral- 
lelogram, its greatest length, being in a di- 
rection from west to east. Its eastern facade 
presents a perfect peristyle, with Corinthian 
columns, raised upon a basement of about 
twelve feet in height. The columns form a 
fine piazza in the form of a semicircle, its 
chord being the eastern side of the main build- 
ing : the whole appearance of the structure is 
imposing and magnificent in a high degree. 
The principal door, on Third street, opens into 
a handsome vestibule in the basement story, 
which unites with a convenient passage, ex- 
tending the whole length of the building, with 
doors on each side, which communicate with 
apartments fronting on Walnut and Dock 
streets. Those on Walnut street are occupied 
by insurance and broker's offices. A spacious 
suite of rooms, fronting on Dock street, is 
appropriated to the business of the city post- 
office. The communications between the dif- 
ferent offices in the basement are managed in 
the most convenient manner imaginable. The 
first floor is divided into several apartments : 
that on the eastern side of the building is 



PHILADELPHIA. 53 

devoted to the use of tlie subscribers, who 
assemble during tiie business hours of the day. 
It is splendidly embellished by paintings and 
ornamental devices. The floor consists of 
beautiful mosaic, which supports four appro- 
priate columns. Immediately adjoining the 
rotunda, is a spacious reading-room, well sup- 
plied with the current literature of the day. 
The entire edifice is considered one of the most 
perfect and beautiful structures of the kind in 
the United States. 

ARCADE. 
C/iesnut, above Sixth street. 

The general plan of the Arcade, an imita- 
tion of a Greek temple, is well adapted to the 
purposes for which it was designed. Both of 
the fronts are of Pennsylvania marble, per- 
forated witli arches that extend through the 
entire building. Four arches springing from 
the sculptured caps of the arches, support a 
broad frieze, upon which rests a cornice sur- 
mounted by a balustrade. The elevation of 
the front on Chesnut street contains niches and 
friezes, enriched with figures emblematic of 
the character of the ediiice. On the ground 
floor there are two avenues, with stone floors, 
extending the entire depth of the building. 
The stores front upon these avenues — each 14 
feet in width: those adjoining the outer walls 
are about one half the size of those of the 
centre, which extend from one avenue to tlie 
other; each having two fronts. The second 
floor, which is attained by a double flight of 
marble steps at each end, is divided into stores 
similar to those on the ground floor, with a 
narrow gallery supported by iron framing, 
5* 



54 PHILADELPHIA. 

which is strongly imbedded in the walls : each 
store is fire-proof. 

The third story was prepared expressly for 
the Philadelphia Museum, which continued to 
occupy it until the completion of its beautiful 
hall in Ninth street, where it was transferred 
in 1839. The cellar is occupied as a refectory. 
The Arcade building has a front on Chesnut 
of one hundred feet, and extends back to Car- 
penter street one hundred and fifty feet. It is 
lighted from the roof, which consists of two 
immense sashes slightly inclined, one on each 
side of the central block, the third story of 
which receives most of its light from above. 



TNITED STATES MINT. 
Corner of Chesnut and Juniper streets. 

This establishment was formed by the 
government of the United States, in 1790, at 
Philadelphia, where it still continues. The 
operation of coining was commenced in 1793, 
in the building now occupied by the Appren- 
tices' Library, in Seventh street, whence the 
apparatus was removed in 1830, to its present 
location in Chesnut street, above Thirteenth. 

The whole of the exterior of this splendid 
edifice is of white marble. The plan, (furnished 
by Mr. Strickland,) is an imitation of a Grecian 
Ionic temple. It comprises several distinct 
apartments, some devoted to the various pro- 
cesses of melting the metal, and reducing it 
into thin plates, milling and stamping the coin, 
&c., and others to the administration of this 
department of the public service. 

The principal fagade, on Chesnut street, is 
one hundred and twenty-two feet, that on 
Juniper street is considerably more. 



PHILADELPHIA. 55 

The process of coinage is among the most 
interesting and attractive to those who have 
never witnessed such operations. Strangers 
are admitted during the morning houirs of each 
day, on application to the proper officer. 



BANKS. 



BANK OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Chesnut, ahove Third street. 

This bank, originally chartered by Congress, 
in 1781, is the first institution of the kind 
organised in the United States. Its charter 
was subsequently confirmed by the state legis- 
lature, and renewed from time to time, as occa- 
sion required. Like most untried measures, 
its establishment was stoutly resisted by many 
influential individuals, whose efforts were at 
length crowned with success, and its charter 
was repealed in 1785. This caused merely a 
temporary suspension of operations : a new 
charter having been obtained from the legisla- 
ture, it resumed business, and has continued its 
operations without further interruption, down 
to the present time. In its early days, the 
bank of North America became intimately and 
extensively connected with the affairs of the 
general government, which were so entirely 
merged in those of the bank, during the revo- 
lutionary struggle, that Robert Morris declared 
in the most emphatic manner, that, without its 
aid, the business of his department of finance 
could not be carried on. Such was the want 



56 PHILADELPHIA. 

of public confidence in the new institution, at 
the time of its formation, that only two hun- 
dred shares out of the one tliousand, which 
constituted the capital of the bank, were taken; 
and it was some time after the bank had com- 
menced operation, (January, 1783,) that the 
amount of subscriptions paid in exceeded 
$70,000. The present capital of the bank is 
$1,000,000, divided into shares of $400 each. 

BANK OF PEBfNSYLVANIA. 
Second, below Chesnut street. 

Was incorporated March 30th, 1793, for 
twenty years — since renewed. Capital stock 
$2,500,000 ; shares $400 each. The building, 
modelled after a Grecian temple, was designed 
by Mr. Latrobe, under whose superintendence 
it was erected. It has two Ionic porticoes of 
six columns each, supporting entablatures and 
pediments. The entire building, 125 feet by 
51, is of white Pennsylvania marble. The 
banking-room is circular, with a dome, and 
lighted by a lantern in the centre. The struc- 
ture, in all its parts, affords an admirable spe- 
cimen of Grecian architecture, and as such 
deserves especial notice. Its grounds are very 
tastefully arranged, and encircled by a solid 
stone wall, which supports an iron railing, suffi- 
ciently elevated and substantial to protect the 
plants and shrubbery which serve to beautify 
the area within. 

PHILADELPHIA BANK. 
Corrxr of Chesnut and Fourth streets. 

Incorporated in 1804 ; present capital $2,. 
000,000; shares $100 each. The banking- 



PHILADELPHIA. 57 

house is a beautiful structure, extending from 
Fourth street westward to the grounds belong- 
ing to the Bank of the United States. In 
addition to the apartments used for banking 
purposes, there are others, similar in form and 
size, on the same floor, now occupied by Messrs. 
Toppan & Co., as a bank nole engraving estab- 
lishment ; and the basement, along Chesnut 
street, is divided into four handsome stores. 
The whole, viewed in connection with the 
adjoining buildings, presents a very imposing 
and beautiful appearance. 

FARMERS AND MECHANICS BANK. 

Chesnut, between Fourth and Fifth streets. 

Originally chartered in 1809, and renewed 
in 1824. Present capital $1,250,000; shares 
$50 each. This is a plain, substantial building, 
originally a private dwelling house, altered to 
suit the purposes of the institution, but without 
any pretentions to architectural beauty — solid- 
ity and security, rather than showy display, 
having been aimed at by those who had charge 
of its arrangement. 

BANK OF THE NORTHERN LIBERTIES. 

Vine, near Third street. 

Chartered in 1813 ; capital $500,000 ; shares 
SCO each. 

mechanics' bank. 

Third, helow Market street. 

Chartered in 1814; capital $1,400,000 ; shares 
$50 each. The banking-house is a small, but 



58 PHILADELPHIA. 

remarkably neat and chaste building-, erected 
within a few years, expressly for the purposes 
of the institution. Like many other beautiful 
structures in our chief cities, the Mechanics' 
Bank is almost entirely hidden from public 
view by the adjoining- buildings, which stand 
on either side, considerably in advance of the 
banking-house, and thus exclude it from the 
sight of many who pass without observing it. 

COMMERCIAL BANK. 
Market street, between Second and Third. 

Chartered in 1814, renewed 1836; capital 
$1,000,000 ; shares $50 each. 

SCHUYLKILL BANK. 
Corner of Market and Sixth streets. 

Chartered in 1814; capital $1,000,000; 
shares $50 each. There is nothing remarkable 
in the building occupied by the Schuylkill 
Banking Company ; but the institution itself 
has recently acquired an unenviable notoriety 
by the unlawful and outrageous acts of its late 
cashier, and one of its subordinate officers. 

By these acts, the institution has been 
defrauded of nearly its entire capital — its busi- 
ness suspended, and its future prospects utterly 
blasted, unless means be speedily adopted to 
recover from its present degradation, and to 
restore to the unhappy v\idow and orphan the 
mite, which in an unlucky moment they con- 
fided to the keeping of those wretched men, 
who have tims violated the confidence reposed 
in them. The directors are now endeavouring 



PHILADELPHIA. 59 

to re-organise the institution, which, for the 
honor of our community, and in justice to its 
creditors, we sincerely hope may be accom- 
plished without unnecessary delay. 

SOUTHWARK BANK. 

Second street, below Cedar. 

Chartered in 1835; capital $250,000 ; shares 
$50 each. 

KENSINGTON BANK. 

Beach street, near Maiden. 

Re-chartered for fifteen years, from Novem- 
ber, 1826; capital $250,000 ; shares $50 each. 

BANK OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Chesnut street, between Fourth and Fifth. 

Chartered for thirty years, by the state of 
Pennsylvania, February 18, 1836 ; capital 
$35,000,000; shares $100 each. Originally 
incorporated by Congress, in 1816, the bank of 
the United States was generally regarded, espe- 
cially by foreigners, as a co-ordinate branch of 
the American government; and in consequence 
of this erroneous impression, the institution 
had acquired an almost unlimited credit, both 
at home and abroad — when, in 1836, its 
charter expired, and the bank descended 
from its elevated position, and became a 
state institution, under the title of the 
" United States Bank of Pennsylvania." 
Its course since that period is known to most 



60 PHILADELPHIA. 

persons. With the exception of the quarrel 
with the late and present administration of the 
general government, which have manifested on 
every occasion a decided hostihty towards the 
institution, its history resembles that of all 
similar establishments every where. 

The banking-house, with which we have 
most to do at present, is an imitation, both in 
form and order, of the Parthenon, a Doric 
temple at Athens, of which it is a copy, with 
the omission of the colonades at the flanks, and 
some other decorations. 

The ascent to the porticoes is by a flight of 
steps in front of the building. On the plat- 
form, 87 feet front, and 161 feet deep, including 
the porticoes, the building is erected. In front, 
steps of marble lead to the basement, project- 
ing 10 feet 6 inches, upon which rise eight 
Doric columns, 4 feet 6 inches in diameter, and 
27 feet high — supporting a plain entablature 
and a pediment, the vertical angle of which is 
153°. The door of entrance opens into a large 
vestibule with circular ends, opening into office 
rooms, and a lobby leading to the banking- 
room. The vestibule ceiling is a prolonged 
pannelled dome, divided into three compart- 
ments by bands enriched with guilloches, 
springing from a projecting impost, containing 
a sunken frette. The pavement is tessellated 
with American and Italian marble throughout. 
The banking-room occupies the centre of the 
building, and is 48 feet wide by 81 feet E. and 
W., and is lighted from either end. Two rows 
of fluted marble columns, of the Greek Ionic 
order, 22 inches in diameter, with full entabla- 
ture and blocking course, are placed, each ten 
feet distance from the side walls. On these th& 



PHILADELPHIA. 61 

great central and lateral arches of the roof are 
supported. The first is semi-cylindrical; is 
28 feet in diameter, 81 in length, and sub- 
divided into seven compartments, richly orna- 
mented. The ceiling is 35 feet from the floor 
to the crown of the arch, and is executed with 
great precision and effect. An Isthmian 
wreath, carved from an entire block of Penn- 
sylvania white marble, surrounds the clock 
face, which occupies the space of the first 
pannel over the entablature in the centre, the 
design of which is copied from the reverse of 
an antique gem, found at Corinth, and described 
by Stewart, in his work on the antiquities of 
Athens. The clerks' desks are placed within 
the intercolumniations — the tellers' counters, 
composed of marble, forming pannelled pedes- 
tals, across each end of the banking-room, 
commencing at the first column at each end of 
the walls. 

The stockholders' room is a parallelogram of 
28 by 50 feet, lighted from the portico of the 
south front, with a rich ceiling, and otherwise 
ornamented. The committee rooms, from the 
stockholders', open right and left, flanked by 
two flights of marble stairs, leading to the 
apartments of the upper story. A private stair- 
case from the banking-room leads to the direc- 
tors', engravers and copperplate printers' rooms, 
which are lighted from the roof. 

The interior corresponds in grandeur with 
the exterior, and the whole of this magnificent 
edifice presents an admirable example of the 
skill and taste of the accomplished architect, 
William Strickland. It was commenced in 
1819, and occupied nearly five years in its 
construction, the original cost of which was 



62 PHILADELPHIA. 

about $500,000 ; but on closing the old institu- 
tion, it was sold to the present proprietors for 
$300,000. 

GIRARD BANK. 

Third street below Chesnut street. 

Chartered in 1832; capital $5,000,000; 
shares $50 each. The building occupied by 
this institution was erected for, and used by, the 
old Bank of the United States, whose charter 
expired in 1810, when the late Stephen Girard 
became the owner of it, and commenced the 
business of banking on his own account. Soon 
after the decease of Mr. Girard, a company, 
under the name of the Girard Bank, purchased 
the building and its appliances, and continued 
with an augmented capital, the business which 
its late owner had so successfully prosecuted. 
The edifice is elegant and spacious, with ex- 
tensive grounds neatly laid out and ornamented. 
Its front is of marble, enriched by a portico and 
six Corinthian columns of the same material. 
Its side and back consist of red brick walls, 
forming a striking and disagreeable contrast 
with its white marble front and portico. 

BANK OF PENN TOWNSHIP. 
Corner of Sixth and Vine streets. 

Chartered in 1826 ; capital $250,000 ; shares 
$50 each. This is a remarkably neat and 
chaste structure, stuccoed in imitation of mar- 
ble, and is seen to great advantage from the 
public square in front. 



philadelphia. 63 

manufacturers' bank of the north- 
ern LIBERTIES 
Corner of Vine and Third streets. 

Chartered in 1832 ; capital $600,000 : shares 
$50 each. This is a very handsome, tliough 
small building-, well adapted to the purposes for 
which it was erected. 

moyamensing bank. 
Corner of Second and Chesnut streets. 

Chartered in 1832; capital $250,000 ; shares 
$50 each. 

WESTERN BANK. 

Marlcet street above Ninth street. 

Chartered in 1832 ; capital $50,000 ; shares 
$50 each. 



SAVINGS INSTITUTIONS AND LOAN 
COMPANIES. 



PHILADELPHIA SAVINGS FUND SOCIETY. 

Walnut above Third street. 

The common dwelling-house in which the 
business of this institution was commenced has 
been displaced by a neat marble building every 
way suited to its objects. 



64 PHILADELPHIA. 

Most of the following savings institutions 
occupy ordinary buildings. Philadelphia City 
Savings Institution, 99 North Second street. 
Kensington Savings Institution, 435 North 
Second street. Manufacturers and Mechan- 
ics^ Beneficial Savings Institution of the 
Northern Liberties, 346 North Second street. 
Northern Liberties Kensington and Spring 
Garden Saving Fund Society, 339 North 
Third street. Mechanics and Tradesmens' 
Loan Company of the state of Pennsylvania, 
16 South Sixth street. Southern Loan Com- 
pany, corner of Spruce and South Second 
streets. 



INSURANCE COMPANIES. 



North America, (Fire and Marine,) S. W. 
corner of Dock and Walnut streets. Insurance 
Company of the state of Pennsylvania, (Marine) 
N. E. corner of Dock and Second streets. 
Philadelphia Insurance Company, (Marine) S. 
W. corner of Second and Walnut streets. 
Phoenix, (Marine) 52 Walnut street. Union, 
(Marine) 6 Merchants' Exchange. Marine, 
50 Walnut. Delaware, (Marine) 3 Merchants' 
Exchange. United States, (Marine) 5 Mer- 
chants' Exchange. Atlantic, (Marine) 4 Mer- 
chants' Exchange. Ainerican, (Marine) N. E. 
corner of Walnut and Third streets. Pennsyl- 
vania, (Fire) 134 Walnut street. The ofRce of 
this company consists of a beautiful four story 
building, marble front, in imitation of the an- 
cient Egyptian style of architecture of which 



PHILADELPHIA. 65 

it presents an admirable, and we believe, the 
only specimen of the kind in Philadelphia. It 
is seen to great advantage from the open square 
in front. Mutual Assurance, (Fire) 54 Walnut 
street. American, (Fire) 101 Chesnut street. 
Franklin, (I'ire) 163^ Chesnut. Philadelphia 
Contributionship, (Fire) 96 South Fourth street. 
Fire Association, 34 North Fifth street. Coun- 
ty, (Fire) 248 North Third street. Southwark 
(Fire) 257 South Second street. Spring Gar- 
den, (Fire) N. W. corner of Wood and North 
Sixth streets. Philadelphia Fire and Inland 
Navigation, N. W. cornerof Walnut and Third 
streets. Delaware County, (Fire) 36 Walnut 
street. Washington, 48 Walnut street. Penn- 
sylvania, (Life) 72 South Third street. Girard 
(Life) 159 Chesnut street. 



CHURCHES. 



Among the great number of places of public 
worship in and about Philadelphia, and the al- 
most infinite variety in the style of their con- 
struction, there are but few which claim special 
notice : we shall therefore confine our descrip- 
tion to such only as from their antiquity or ar- 
chitectural beauty, deserve the attention of 
strangers, for whom our work is chiefly in- 
tended, and conclude our remarks upon this 
head, with a simple enumeration of the various 
churches, and tlieir localities respectively. 
6* 



66 PHILADELPHIA. 

CHRIST CHURCH. 

Second, above Market street. 

The primitive one story edifice which occu- 
pied the present site of Christ Church, was 
built under the direction of the Rev. Mr. Clay- 
ton, an Episcopal clergyman, in 1691, and en- 
larged in 1710. In 1727, it was further en- 
larged by an addition on the west, and in 1731, 
by another on the east side of the main build- 
ing. The spire one hundred and ninety-six feet 
in height, was commenced in 1753, and com- 
pleted in the following year, by means of a lot- 
tery ; a mode of raising money not uncommon 
in those days, for we find that " there was 
also a lottery for the benefit of the vestry" 
(of Christ Church) " by which $36,000 were 
obtained. 

During the revolutionary troubles, the bells, 
eight in number, which had so long delighted 
the citizens, were removed from the steeple 
and sunk in the Delaware, lest they should fall 
into the hands of the enemy. They were how- 
ever soon restored to their former position, which 
they have since been permitted to occupy witli- 
out farther molestation. 

As may be supposed, a church built at such 
different and distant periods, is wanting in 
unity of construction, but notwithstanding this 
defect, it is justly considered one of the finest 
edifices of the kind in the country ; and when 
associated with the primitive history and pro- 
gress of the city, possesses peculiar interest. 



PHILADELPHIA. 67 

ST. Stephen's church. 

[Protestant Episcopal.] 

Tenth street, between Market and Chesnut. 

Tliis is a fine specimen of Gothic architec- 
ture, about one hundred feet long, and fifty 
wide. On the front are two octangular towers, 
eighty-six feet in height, so constructed as to 
admit of farther elevation at some convenient 
season. The upper parts of the windows are 
embellished with cherubims in white glass on 
a field of blue, and the sashes are filled with 
diamond-shaped glass of various hues, orna- 
mented in the same manner — forming, with 
the beautiful pulpit and chancel, a scene highly 
attractive and impressive. 

ST. Andrew's church. 
Eighth street, above Spruce, 

This is also an Episcopal church, built 
expressly for the late Rev. Dr. Bedell. It affords 
a good specimen of the Grecian style of archi- 
tecture: but its decorations in front (bachanalian 
emblems), strike the beholder as inappropriate 
in a high degree. The general appearance of 
the entire structure is, however, very imposing. 
The interior of St. Andrew's is remarkably 
neat; and the disposition of the pulpit, with its 
appliances, though perhaps rather gaudy, is 
well conceived, and imparts to the whole a 
pleasing effect. 

The other Episcopal churches, are : 

St. James, in Seventh street, above Market. 

St. Peters, corner of Third and Pine street. 



68 PHILADELPHIA. 

This church, St. James, and Christ church, 
were formerly united in one act of incorpora- 
tion, with one vestry ; their property was held 
in common, and the services in each were per- 
formed by their rectors alternately. This 
union was dissolved some years since, and each 
church now transacts its secular affairs inde- 
pendently of the others. 

St. Paul's, Third street, below Walnut. 

St. John's, Brown street, near north Third. 

EPIPHANY. 

Corner of Chesnut and Schuylkill Eighth st. 
This is a remarkably neat and elegant 
structure, with an extensive portico and entab- 
lature, supported by several massive pillars. 

GRACE CHURCH. 
Corner of Twelfth street and Cherry. 

Also a beautiful structure, erected within a 
few years. 

Trinity Church, Catherine street, near 
Second. 

Church of the Ascension, Lombard street, 
above Eleventh. 

Church of the Evangelists, Fifth street 
above Catherine. 

St. Thomas (Alrican), Fifth street, below 
Walnut. 

Union (African), Coates street, below Old 
York road. 

SWEDES CHURCH. 
Swanson street, near the Navy Yard, 
The first church built on the west side of the 
Delaware, was on Tinnicum island, by the 



PHILADELPHIA. 69 

Swedes, and consecrated September 4tli, 1646. 
Their increasing numbers from emigration, 
and natural causes, and the extension of their 
settlement up the Delaware and Schuylkill, 
requiring in a few years a more convenient 
and central place of worship, a block-house 
was erected on the shore of the Delaware, near 
to where the present Swedish church stands, in 
Southwark, and was consecrated in the summer 
of 1677. By that time, the Swedes had settled 
as far up as Pennipack, and Neshaminy, the 
falls of Schuylkill, and through the peninsula 
or neck, below where Philadelphia now stands, 
in Wicocoa, Moyamensing, and Passajung, in 
all about twenty families. The present Swedish 
church was consecrated 2d July, 1700, and for 
many years was the only place of worship for 
the foreign emigrants, on both sides of the 
Delaware and Schuylkill. For nearly fifty 
years, divine worship was performed in the 
Swedish language. The Rev. Dr. Collin was 
the rector for more than half a century. 

The Swedes have also a church in Kingses- 
sing, about six miles from the city, and one in 
Merion township, Philadelphia county, of both 
of which Dr. Collin was rector. 



ST. JOHN S CHURCH. 

[Roman Catholic] 

Thirteenth street, above Chesnut. 

Is a splendid Gothic chapel, with projecting 
angles, surmounted by corresponding turrets. 
The gable end of the main building faces the 
street, from which it is entered by a noble 
flight of steps. The windows are composed of 



70 PHILADELPHIA. 

slained glass, and the interior is decorated with 
several appropriate pictures. The outside of 
the building is stuccoed in imitation of granite, 
which gives to the whole an appearance every 
way attractive. 

ST. Augustine's church. 
Fourth street, between Race and Vine. 

This is also a Roman Catholic chapel, hand- 
somely constructed. 

ST. Joseph's church. 

Willing's Alley, between Walnut, Spruce, Third 
and Fourth streets. 

This is a new and elegant building, erected 
on the site of the old one-story house, in which 
the congregation formerly worshipped. 

ST. Mary's church. 
Fourth street, above Spruce. 

TRINITY church. 
Corner of Spruce and Sixth streets. 

These, and one at Fairmount, are the only 
Catholic churches within the bounds of the 
city and incorporated districts. 

FIRST UNITARIAN CHURCH. 
Corner of Locust and Tenth streets. 

This is a very chaste and beautiful specimen 
of the Grecian Doric, with a handsome portico, 
upon which are placed four marble columns, 



rmiiADELPHIA. 71 

supporting an entablature of elegant propor- 
tions. The entire structure, surrounded as it 
is by a light and airy iron railing, has a very 
imposing appearance. 

FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 
Fronting on Washington Square. 

This is perhaps the most elegant structure 
yet erected by the Presbyterians. It consists 
of brick walls stuccoed in imitation of marble; 
and it resembles in form and decorations one 
of the Ionic temples at Athens. 

FIFTH PRESBYTERIArf CHURCH. 

Arch street, between Tenth and Eleventh. 

This church deserves especial notice, as it is 
one of the very few in Philadelphia which are 
decorated with spires. Its structure in general 
is neat, and admirably adapted to the purposes 
to which it is devoted. 

The other Presbyterian churches are : 

The Second, in Seventh street, near Arch, a 
handsome structure. 

The Third, corner of Fourth and Pine street. 

The Fourth, corner of Fifth and Gaskill 
streets. 

The Sixth, in Spruce street, near Seventh. 

The Seventh, in Ranstcad's court, in the rear 
of Chesnut street, west of Fourth. 

The Eighth, Spruce street, near Third. 

The Ninth, Thirteenth street, above Market. 

The Tenth, corner of Twelfth and Walnut 
streets. 

The Eleventh, Vine street, above Thirteenth. 

The Twelfth, Cedar street, above Twelrth. 



72 PHILADELPHIA. 

The Thirteenth, Lombard street, near Schuyl- 
kill Second. 

The Central, corner of Eighth and Cherry- 
streets. 

The Central, Coates street, between Third 
and Fourth. 

The Western. The Franklin Street. 

The First, (Northern Liberties,) Buttonwood 
street, near Sixth. 

The Second, (do.,) Sixth street, above Green. 

The First, (Southwark,) German street, 
between Third and Fourth. 

The Second, (do.,) corner of Second street 
and Moyamensing road. 

The First, (Kensington,) Palmer street. 

The Fairmount. 

The Associate, Walnut street, above Fourth. 

The Reformed, Twelfth street, below Market. 

The Reformed, Cherry street, near Eleventh. 

DUTCH REFORMED. 

The First, Crown street, near Race. 

The Second, corner of Tenth and Filbert. 

The First, (African,) Seventh street, below 
South. 

The Second, (do.,) St. Mary street, above 
Sixth. 

BAPTIST CHURCHES. 

The First, Second street, near Arch. 

The Second, Budd street, above Poplar lane. 

The Third, Second street, below Queen. 

The New Market Street. 

The Fifth, Sansom street, above Eighth. 

The Spruce Street, Spruce, below Fourth. 

The Central, N.E. cor. Thirteenth and Race. 



PHILADELPHIA. 73 

The Moyamensing, Ninth street, below 
Shippen. 

The Seventh Street, Seventh street, near 
Callowhill. 

The Tenth, Lawrence street, above Green. 

The Eleventh, Cherry and Fifth streets. 

The Union, (African,) Little Pine street, near 
Seventh. 

METHODIST CHURCHES. 

St, George's, Fourth street, above Race. 

St. John Street, St. John, above Beaver. 

Ebenezer, Christian street, below Fourth. 

Kensington, corner of Queen and Marlboro 
streets. 

Salem, Thirteenth street, below Spruce. 

Union, Fourth street, above Market. 

Nazareth, Thirteenth street, near Vine. 

Fifth Street, Fifth, near Green. 

Eighth Street, Eighth, above Noble. 

St. PauVs, Catherine street, between Sixth 
and Seventh. 

Harmony, Budd street, above Brown. 

Fairmount. 

Westei-n, or Brickmahers'' , Schuylkill Third 
street, below Walnut. 

East Kensington. 

Wesley Chapel, corner of Schuylkill Eighth 
and Market streets. 

African, Sixth street, near Lombard. 

Wesleyan, (African,) Lombard street, below 
Sixth. 

friends' meeting houses. 

Corner of Fourth and Arch streets. 
Washington Square. 
7 



74 PHILADELPHIA. 

Twelfth street, below Market. 

Sixth street and Noble. 

Corner of Ninth and Spruce streets. 

Cherry street, near Fifth. 

Green street, near Fourth. 

Corner of Fifth and Arch streets. 

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 
The First, South street, below Tenth. 

GERMAN REFORMED. 
The First, Race street, below Fourth, 

INDEPENDENT. 
Broad street, below Chesnut. 

JEWS' SYNAGOGUES. 

Cherry street, near Third. 

Church alley, between Second and Third. 

Pear street, above Dock. 

LUTHERAN CHURCHES. 

Evangelical Church of St. John, Race street 
near Fifth. 

St. Mattheio's, New street, near Fourth. 

St. Michael's, corner of Appletree alley and 
Fifth street. 

Zion, corner of Fourtli and Cherry streets. 

MORAVIAN CHURCH. 
Race street, near Second. 

SWEDENBORGIAN CHURCH. 
Fourth street, below German. 



PHILADELPHIA. 75 



MARIXERS' CHURCHES. 

Bethel, (Methodist,) corner of Shippen and 
Swanson streets. 

Eastburn, Water street, near Chesnut. 
Bethel, (Baptist,) Water street, near Race. 

UNIVERSALIST CHURCHES. 

The First, Lombard street, below Fifth. 
The Second, Callowhill street, below Fifth. 



PLACES OF AMUSEMENT. 



PHILADELPHIA THEATRE. 
Chesnut street, ahove Sixth. 

This establishment was founded in 1791 — 
rebuilt in 1805 — and, with all its scenery, &.c, 
destroyed by fire in 1821. On the 2nd of 
December, 1822, the present building was 
thrown open to the public. It has a front on 
Chesnut street, of ninety-two feet in length, 
and a depth of one hundred and fifty feet, 'i he 
centre building is flanked by two wings, deco- 
rated with niches containing emblematic figures 
of tragedy and comedy, and basso relievo, rcprc- 
resenting the tragic and comic muses, with 
the attributes of Apollo. In front of the mam 
building is an arcade, which supports a screen 
of marble columns, and a plain entablature. 

The approach to the boxes is from Chesnut 
street, through a close arcade of five entrances, 



76 PHILADELPHIA. 

wnich open into a vestibule 58 feet long, by 8 
in width. There are three rows of boxes, 
which, with tlie pit and gallery, will accommo- 
date upwards of two thousand persons. 

AMERICAJf THEATRE. 

Corner of Ninth and Walnut streets. 

This house was built in 18 14, by Victor 
Pepin, the famous equestrian, who employed it 
for several years as a circus. It was subse- 
quently altered so as to admit of dramatic, as 
well as equestrian performances : the latter, 
however, were entirely discontmued prior to 
1828, when the structure was completely reno- 
vated, and prepared for dramatic representa- 
tions exclusively. Its present front is of blue 
marble, supported in the centre by eight 
columns of the same material, which divide 
the grand entrance into three passages leading 
to the boxes and pit. Previously to its last 
alteration, the establishment was known as the 
" Olympic Theatre," which, owing to its varied 
entertainments, was, for a long time, an object 
of great attraction. 

ARCH STREET THEATRE. 
Arch street, above Sixth. 

Erected in 1828, by a joint stock company. 
Its front, as well as the pillars which support 
a Doric frieze, is of marble, and is decorated 
by an alto relievo, representing Apollo, by 
Gevelot. The interior is finished in a hand- 
some and appropriate style. This establish- 
ment is seldom open, excepting when the 



PHILADELPHIA. 77 

Chesnut street theatre is closed — as the mana- 
gers of the latter have become the lessees of 
the Arch street house. 

During- the winter of 1839-40, it was occu- 
pied by a company of German amateurs, whoso 
performances were in their native language. 

SUMMER THEATRE. 
Chesnut street, below Ninth. 

This was formerly employed as an equestrian 
circus ; but has recently been altered and 
adapted to dramatic entertainments, chiefly of 
a musical description. 

WASHINGTON THEATRE. 

Northern Liberties. 

Is a wooden building, originally erected in 
1828, for an equestrian company. It has since 
been fitted up for dramatic performances. 

PHILADEl^PHIA MUSEUM. 
Ninth street, below Chesnut. 

For more than half a century, Peale's 
Museum, by which name this establishment 
was known previously to its incorporation, has 
been celebrated as a repository of curiosities, 
both in nature and art. After undergoing 
various mutations, from the hall of the Philo- 
sophical Society to the State House, and thence 
to the Arcade, where it assumed its present 
appellation, it has at length, it is hoped, found a 
permanent resting place. 

In 1838, the building now occupied by the 
7* 



78 PHILADELPHIA. 

Philvidelpnia Museum was commenced at the 
northeast corner of Ninth and George streets, 
after a design by Isaac Holden. It was com- 
pleted in the following- year, when the entire 
collection which forms the Museum, was trans- 
ferred from the Arcade, and the hall opened for 
exhibition shortly afterwards. It consists of 
one immense structure, 238 feet in length, and 
70 in breadth, and two stories high. 

With the exception of its gi^rantic dimen- 
sions, there is nothing in its exterior particu- 
larly striking. In point of architectural beauty, 
the Museum hall is inferior to many other 
public buildings in the city ; and, but for its 
unusual size, it would fail to attract attention. 
The interior, however, compensates in a great 
measure for its outward deficiencies. The 
apartment devoted to the museum is on the 
second floor, and, with the exception of a small 
space at the western end, occupied by the stair- 
case, is co-extensive v.'ith the building, and of a 
corresponding height. On each side, along the 
entire lengtli of the hall, and at an elevation 
above the floor of some ten or twelve feet, a 
gallery of about fifteen feet in widtli is erected, 
which is effectually screened by a balustrade 
nearly breast high, extending the whole length 
of the room. 

The galleries are supported by square up- 
rights, which serve the purpose of bases for 
the beautiful columns, which reach to, and 
sustain the ceiling. If the hall is admirably 
adapted to the purposes for which it was con- 
structed, as it really is, the arrangement of its 
contents is no less admirable, in every sense of 
the term. The cases containing the various 
objects of curiosity, are situated between the 



PHILADELPHIA. 79 

windows, both on the floor and in the galleries. 
These project some eight or ten feet from the 
walls, and are glazed on all their exposed 
sides ; and thus, while they protect, do not 
obstruct the view of various objects within. 
The distribution of the infinite variety of speci- 
mens in every department of science and the 
arts, and the systematic arrangement of the 
whole collection, cannot fail to meet the appro- 
bation of all, and especially those who are 
experimentally acquainted with such tilings. 

In addition to the articles which legitimately 
belong to a museum, other and varied objects 
lend their aid to gratify the visiter. Those, 
combined with occasional musical entertain- 
ments, and the vast concourse of well dressed 
persons who nightly assemble here, render this 
branch of the establishment peculiarly attrac- 
tive. 

Attached to the museum, on the ground 
floor, at the eastern end of the building, is an 
extensive and commodious lecture-room, with 
seats arranged in form of an amphitheatre. 

The remainder of the ground floor is appro- 
priated to Mr. Dunn's magnificent 

CHINESE COLLECTION, 

Which presents a most splendid array of unique 
and interesting objects in every department of 
Chinese domestic economy, and illustrates, 
most satisfactorily, the manners, customs, and 
habits of that remarkable people. The general 
structure of the room and the disposition of the 
show cases do not differ materially from the 
museum above. The whole is well calculated 
for displaying the articles to the best advantage. 



80 PHILADELPHIA. 

The saloon, which is one hundred and sixty- 
three feet in length, on George street, and seventy 
in width on Ninth street, contains, at present, 
Jifly-three cases, in which most of this vast 
collection is arranged for exhibition. It com- 
prises figures in wax, male and female, of all 
classes of Chinese society, in their appropriate 
costume; household furniture; implements of 
trade; manufactures of all kinds; military 
weapons ; personal and other ornaments ; spe- 
cimens in every department of natural history; 
paintings, and other works of art — altogether 
forming one of the most delightful and instruc- 
tive exhibitions in which our city abounds. 

The collection was made by Nathan Dunn, 
Esq., during a residence of several }'ears in 
China — to whose assiduous labours the public 
is indebted for the rare gratification which all 
experience on viewing this admirable combina- 
tion of all that is beautiful and interesting in 
an empire whose character and condition are 
thus rendered familiar to us ; and whose politi- 
cal existence is now menaced for daring to 
maintain its laws in opposition to the European 
opium trafickers, and their equally base sup- 
porters. 

PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMY OF THE FINE 

ARTS. 

Chesnut street, above Tenth. 

This institution was founded in 1805, by a 
company of gentlemen, mostly amateurs. Its 
collection of pictures and other works of art, 
is extensive, and, with a few exceptions, valua- 
ble. It comprises, in addition to its stock pic- 



PHILADELPHIA. 81 

tures, a large collection of plaster casts. Among 
the paintings of a superior class, of which there 
are many iri the academy, the following de- 
serve especial notice : Death on the Pale Horse, 
by West — Christ entering Jerusalem, by Hay- 
don — Napoleon crossing the Alps, by David — 
Dead Man raised by touching the Prophet's 
Bones ; and others. The academy is open 
daily. 

artists' fund society. 
311 Chesnut street, in front of the preceding. 

This active and meritorious institution has 
been in existence only a iffw years ; but such 
is the zeal with which its afl'airs have been con- 
ducted, and such the industry of its active 
members, nearly all of whom are artists, that 
it has already assumed a position far in advance 
of its cotemporaries. 

The hall of the society, just completed, is 
designed for the exhibition of the works of its 
members, and others. It consists of one apart- 
ment, forty by fifty feet, well lighted during 
the day by a lantern in the centre of the roof, 
and at night by gas. The exhibition usually 
commences in the month of May, and continues 
open to the public for six or eight weeks. 

One of the leading objects of this society is 
to provide a fund for the support of decayed 
artists. This alone is a sufficient apology for 
its establishment ; but when superadded to the 
other, that of improving public taste, it cannot 
fail to receive that support and countenance 
from the community which are requisite to 
enable the institute to accomplish all its ends 
and aims. 



82 PHILADELPHIA. 

artists' and amateurs' ASSOCIATIOIV. 
Arcade — Chesnui street. 

This is also a new institution, established 
May, 1840. Its first public exhibition, which 
was numerously attended, was opened in April, 
and closed on the lOth June, of the same year. 
The objects of this association, similar in some 
respects to those of the Artists' Fund Society, 
are essentially different in others : while the 
latter makes provision for the future wants of 
aged and infirm members, the former contri- 
butes to the present support of its professional 
members, in a manner least repugnant to their 
feelings, by the purchase of their works, to 
whicli all the available funds of the institution 
are to be applied. The pictures thus acquired 
by the society are annually distributed by lot 
among its amateur members. 

The plan is excellent, and if judiciously car- 
ried out, and divested of its lottery feature, 
cannot fail to prove advantageous, in every 
point of view, to the artists themselves, vi'hose 
works, thus diffused throughout the community, 
will create and extend among its members a 
love for the art of painting, and a corresponding 
respect and regard for its professors. 

SULLY AND EARLE's PICTURE GALLERY. 
Chesnut street, above Fifth. 

This is a neat saloon, well filled with choice 
paintings, chiefly by Mr. Thomas Sully. 



philadelphia. 83 

west's picture. 

Spruce street, between Eighth and Ninth, 

The immense picture of Christ Healing in 
the Temple, presented by the late Benjamin 
West to the Pennsylvania Hospital, forms one 
of the leading objects to which the attention of 
strangers should be directed. 

This painting is equally deemed by the con- 
noisseur and the uninitiated, one of the finest 
productions of its distinguished author. 

PANORAMA BUILDING. 

Ninth street, below Chesnut. 

This is a large circular building, designed 
for the exhibition of panoramic pictures, for 
which it is well fitted, both in structure and 
locality. 

DIORAMA. 

Sansom street, above Eighth, 

This has been long used for the display of 
large paintings. The beautiful picture of the 
Departure of the Israelites, and several other 
similar works of art, have been successively 
exhibited here. 

MUSICAL FUND HALL. 
Locust street, between Eighth and Ninth, 

Without any especial pretension to architec- 
tural beauty, the Hall of the Musical Fund 
Society claims attention as the centre around 



84 PHILADELPHIA. 

which the musical talent of the city revolves, 
and to which the lovers of music are accus- 
tomed to repair. 

Constructed with particular reference to its 
primary object, for which it is admirably 
adapted, the hall is almost constantly employed, 
either by its owners, or by professional indi- 
viduals, whose musical entertainments scarcely 
ever fail to gratify the immense number of 
persons who usually attend on tliose occasions. 
In addition to the cultivation and improvement 
of public taste, another leading object of the 
society is to provide a fund for the future aid 
and support of such of its aged or infirm mem- 
bers and their families, as may require relief. 
To this benevolent feature in the organization 
of the society, may be fairly ascribed the great 
success which has uniformly attended its efforts 
for the establishment and augmentation of this 
fund, which, while it serves as a bond of union 
among its more fortunate members, stimulates 
the recipients of its bounty to increased dili- 
gence in ministering to the gratification of its 
supporters ; and thus, by a system of perfect 
reciprocity, all sense of obligation that might 
be entertained by either party, is entirely 
effaced. 



PUBLIC GARDENS. 



There are several Botanic gardens in the vici- 
nity of the city, at some of which musical and 
other entertainments are occasionally given. 



PHILADELPHIA. 85 



M ARANN S GARDEN. 

Filbert, between Schuylkill Fifth and Sixth 
streets. 

Forms now the ciiief attraction in this way. 
It is open every day and evening; when, in 
addition to the great variety of" beautiful plants, 
the visiter is entertained by music, fire- 
works, &.C. 

bartram's garden. 

West side of the Schuylkill, below Gray^s Ferry. 

Contains a vast collection of exotic and indi- 
genous plants. Among the trees is an immense 
cypress, brought from the Oregon mountains, 
when a mere twig : it now measures twenty- 
seven feet in circumference, three feet from the 
ground. The railroad cars to Wilmington pass 
through the grounds, and afford the means of 
reaching this delightful spot. 

landreth's garden. 

Federal, between Ashton and Schuylkill Front 
streets. 

Is also a very attractive place, being well sup- 
plied with plants and shrubbery of all kinds, 
and kept in the most perfect order, 

Parker's garden, 
Corner of Prime and Tenth streets, 

buist's garden, 

Lombard street, near Tenth, 
8 



86 philabelphia. 

hibbert's garden, 

Thirteenth street, above South, 

Also deserve attention. 



BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 



COUNTY ALMS-HOUSE. 

West side of the Schuylkill, opposite South 
street. 

This immense structure, as its name imports, 
is designed for the reception of such of the des- 
titute poor of the city and county of Pliiladel- 
phia as may choose to avail themselves of its 
accommodations. It consists of a centre build- 
ing with wings, flanked by two others, in addi- 
tion to two extensive structures, wholly detached 
from the rest, one at each end of the vast pile. 
The centre building is two, and the others 
three stories high : the whole faces the Schuyl- 
kill, and presents the appearance of a miniature 
city, when viewed from the opposite bank. The 
building, with the necessary enclosures, cover 
nearly ten of the one hundred and eighty acres 
which belong to, and surround the establisJi- 
ment. The site is considerably elevated above 
the river bank, and commands an extensive 
view of the city and adjacent country. 

The arrangements of the building within 
are on a scale corresponding with its exterior : 
the men's dining-room, on the first floor, being 



PHILADELPHIA. 87 

sufficient to aecommodate upwards of five hun- 
dred persons. The objects of this institution 
are rather more compreliensivc than tiiose of 
most others of the kind. In addition to its 
uses as a mere alms-house, there are worli- 
shops in wliich many of the inmates are em- 
ployed — an asylum, and a school for male and 
female children — an obstetric apartment, with 
the requisite appliances — an extensive library, 
lioth medical and miscellaneous — a depository 
for the manufactures of the house and others of 
a like nature. As the whole establishment is 
kept in excellent order, and provided with every 
necessary convenience for the comfort and 
accommodation of its inmates, it is not surpris- 
ing that many should partake of its ample pro- 
visions. The average number of paupers who 
are sheltered in this establishment, is about 
fifteen hundred, which is greatly augmented 
on the approach of winter, and diminished on 
the return of spring. The house is governed 
by twelve citizens, elected by the joint votes of 
the city and district corporations. The services 
perforined by these gentlemen, though arduous, 
are gratuitous. They appoint the superintend- 
ent, matron, and all the subordinate officers 
and attendants, regulate its fiscal affairs, and 
direct all such other matters as belong to the 
general management of the institution. 

friends' alms-house. 

Walnut street, below Fourth. 

This building is remarkable for its antique 
appearance. No one who visits the neighbour- 
hood can fail to observe its moss-covered roof, 



so PHILADELPHIA. 

scarcely beyond his read), and the time-worn 
steps which lead to its reversed front. The 
various tenements into which the structure is 
divided, front on a hollow square, used in 
common by their tenants, who are variously 
occupied : some in the practice of their trade, 
others in the cultivation of their little garden 
spots, and such other light employments as 
their decayed strength will permit. In this 
way the inhabitants of this little community 
partly maintain themselves. This establish- 
ment was formed and is supported by the 
Society of Friends, who thus relieve the county 
from the expense of maintaining the indigent 
members of that society. 



HALL OF THE UfDIGENT WIDOWS AND 
SINGLE women's SOCIETY. 

Cherry, between Schuylkill Fifth and Sixth 
streets. 

This is a neat two-story building, erected 
expressly for the accommodation of such 
females of respectable character, not less than 
sixty years of age, as may be unable to main- 
tain themselves. On entering the establish- 
ment, each inmate is required to consign her 
property to the institution ; and to pay thirty 
dollars, or fifty dollars, if no property is brought. 
These regulations refer to such as are entirely 
dependent upon the institution : others are 
admitted as boarders, but not to the exclusion 
of the former. Visiters are treated with respect 
and attention, and are conducted through any 
part of the building they may be disposed to 



PHILADELPHIA. 89 

examine. By a strict course of discipline, and 
a rigid observance of tlie rules, perfect harmony 
is preserved among the inmates, who appear to 
be quite contented with their lot. 



PHILADELPHIA ORPHANS ASYLUM. 
Adjoining the preceding. 

This truly admirable institution occupies a 
new building erected on the site of one which, 
with twenty-three of its inmates, was entirely 
destroyed by fire on the night of January 23d, 
1822. The new building, from a design by 
Strickland, is fire-proof — the basement being 
arched, and the stairs of stone. The object of 
this society is not only to provide a home for 
orphans, but also the means of educating them. 
It has been in successful operation for more 
than a quarter of a century, and it still con- 
tinues, with unabated energy, its benevolent 
labours. 

The following are some of the particulars in 
relation to the awful catastrophe just alluded 
to. At the time of its occurrence, there were 
ninety orphans in the family ; and of those who 
escaped, few saved more than the clothes in 
which they slept. In this condition they fled 
to the Widows' Asylum ; but such was the sym- 
pathy and liberality extended towards them by 
the citizens, that before night, comfortable 
accommodations were provided for all. The 
fire was first discovered by the matron, who 
immediately aroused the children, and assisted 
them in escaping. The stair. case was soon 
filled with smoke, and crowded with little crea- 
8* 



90 PHILADELPHIA. 

tures, who, seeing the light reflected from the 
adjoining- houses, and probably suffering from 
the intense cold, could with difficulty be per- 
suaded to leave the house. 

By this time, three of the watchmen of the 
neighborhood had reached the spot, by whose 
assistance the matron succeeded in saving most 
of the younger children. Owing to the smoke, 
neither of the men reached the third story. 
The last child saved, was handed through a 
window by one of the watchmen to another, 
wlio stood on the roof of the porch, and passed 
by him to some persons below; when, observing 
the stairs were on fire, they were obliged to 
retreat. An unsuccessful attempt was made to 
reach the windows of the second story, from 
without, which failed from the want of a ladder 
of sufficient length ; and the little sufferers that 
remained in the second and tliird stories were 
left to their fates. From the testimony pro- 
duced before the committee of investigation, it 
was conjectured that this painful calamity 
originated from the improper arrangement of 
the masonry in the kitchen. 

ST. Joseph's orphan asylum. 
Corner of Spruce and Seventh streets. 

This is a Catholic institution, whose objects 
are in all respects similar to those of the pre- 
ceding, with this difference only, that its 
inmates consist of the children of Catholic 
parents exclusively. Its house is a handsome 
brick building, resembling an ordinary dwelling 
house of the larger kind. 



PHILADELPHIA. 91 



ST. John's orphans* asylum. 

Chesnut, between Twelfth and Thirteenth 
streets. 

Is established in what is generally known as 
the " Gothic mansion," which has been reno- 
vated and adapted to the purposes for which it 
is now appropriated. This, as well as the 



ORPHANS ASYLUM OF ST. MARY, 
Fifth street, near Pine, 

Is also devoted to the care and instruction of 
the children of Catholics. 

SHELTER FOR COLORED ORPHANS. 
Thirteenth street, near Willow. 

This institution, as its name implies, is 
intended for the reception and education of 
colored orphans. It was established many 
years since, by some benevolent ladies of the 
Society of Friends, who, after surmounting 
many difficulties, succeeded in erecting a suit- 
able building for the accommodation of their 
numerous dependents. The building was 
scarcely completed, when it was attacked by a 
lawless mob, and, but for the timely and ener- 
getic interference of some spirited gentlemen 
of the neighborhood, would have been entirely 
demolished. Despite all these adverse circum- 
stances, the institution has advanced with a 



92 PHILADELPHIA. 

steady pace, and is now quietly engaged in the 
prosecution of its laudable designs. 



NAVAL ASYLUM, OR MARINE HOSPITAL. 
Graifs Ferry Road, below South street. 

This is designed as a home for the veterans 
of the navy. It was originally projected by 
the officers, who, with the common sailors, have 
for many years contributed to a fund for the 
erection and support of the establishment. 

The edifice, composed of white marble, is 
three hundred and eighty-six feet in front, con- 
sists of a centre building, one hundred and 
forty-two feet in front, and one hundred and 
seventy-five in depth, with two extensive wings. 
The centre, which is embellished by a hand- 
some portico and entablature, supported by 
eight Ionic columns, projects, both in front and 
rear, bej^ond the line of the wings, to which 
balconies, extending their entire length, and 
resting upon iron pillars, are affixed. The centre 
basement contains a refectory, one hundred and 
thirteen feet in length, a kitchen, and a furnace, 
by which the various apartments are warmed. 
The principal floor contains eight rooms, which 
are occupied by the keeper and his assistants ; 
a chapel in the rear, lighted from above, and 
several other apartments for the surgeons, 
apothecaries, &c. The second story is divided 
into dormitories, baths, &c. 

The wings, which are three stories high, 
contain halls, offices, operating rooms, work- 
shops, &-C. There are one h.undred and eighty 
dormitories, capable of lodging about four 



PHILADELPHIA. 93 

hundred persons. All the apartments are 
vaulted ; and the stairs being of marble, are 
thus rendered fire-proof. The whole is sur- 
rounded by ornamented grounds, and the front 
protected by a neat and substantial iron railing, 
resting upon a brick foundation. The entire 
cost of the establishn)ent is about 300,000 dol- 
lars. Its site is well chosen; and the country 
around it, from its great beauty, is calculated to 
give it an imposing appearance. 

PRESTON RETREAT. 
Hamilton street, near Schuylkill Third. 

This is a beautiful marble building, now in 
course of construction. It is designed, by its 
benevolent founder, Mr. Preston, for the recep- 
tion and acconnmodalion of indigent widows, 
and such married women as have become des- 
titute by the neglect of their husbands. 

ASYLUM FOR LOST CHILDREN. 
Commerce street, above Fifth. 

This is a building appropriated to the recep- 
tion of lost children, to which the parents or 
guardians of such children usually repair, and 
there find the object of their search. 

PENNSYLVANIA INSTITUTION FOR THE 

DEAF AND DUMB. 

Corner of Broad and Pine streets. 

The " Deaf and Dumb Asylum," generally 
so called, was incorporated in 1821 — and is 



94 PHILADELPHIA 

supported by voluntary contributions from citi- 
zens, and annual appropriations by the state 
legislature. Several of the pupils are main- 
tained by their friends, others by the states of 
New Jersey and Maryland. 

The main building, at present occupied by 
the institution, was completed in 1825, since 
which time, extensive additions have been made 
in the rear, and the whole is now well adapted 
to the various purposes for which it was 
designed. The sj'stem of instruction pursued 
here, is similar to that of Abbe Dc L'Epee and 
Abbe Sicard of Paris. In addition to the cul- 
ture bestowed upon the moral and intellectual 
faculties of the pupils, they are each taught 
some mechanical trade, by which they niay 
support themselves in after life. The public 
exhibitions, which take place on the afternoon 
of every Thursday, and to wiiich access may 
be had on application to one of the managers, 
are exceedingly interesting. They devclope 
fully and satisfactorily, the sj^stem by which 
the pupils are taught to communicate their 
ideas to others ; and the process bj' which they 
are enabled to attain an elevation in point of 
moral and intellectual improvement, truly 
astonishinjr. 



PE\NSYLVANIA INSTITUTION FOR THE 
INSTRUCTION OF THE BLIND. 

Race street, near Schuylkill Third. 

The edifice in which the institution and its 
interesting pupils are now comfortably estab- 
lished, is built of brick, stuccoed in imitation 



PHILADELnilA. 95 

of marble, and occupies a lot 247 feet on Race, 
and 220 on Third street. In front is an extensive 
esplanade, decorated with flower gardens, and 
in the rear are the play grounds of the pupils, 
who are provided with the usual appliances for 
gymnastic exercises. Thd plan of the building, 
which was designed and erected expressly for 
the institution, is admirably adapted to all its 
purposes. Besides the hall, which contains the 
school, exhibition, and lodging rooms, there is 
a commodious brick building, erected for the 
accommodation of the various trades in which 
the pupils are engaged, when not otherwise 
employed. 

It is to the indefatigable exertions of the late 
Julius R. Friedlander, aided by some benevo- 
lent individuals, among whom the venerable 
John Vaughan stands conspicuous, that this 
admirable charity owes its foundation ; and it 
is also indebted to the liberality of the state, 
and to the munificent bequests of William 
Young Birch, and others, for the means of its 
future support. 

By this excellent establishment, from forty to 
fifty blind children, of both sexes, are not only 
rendered happy in themselves, and useful to 
society, but are taught to execute many inge- 
nious works, with an accuracy and delicacy 
which the clear sighted can scarcely excel. 

Some are excellent musicians, others arith- 
meticians, printers, weavers, brush makers — in 
short, there is no employment beyond their 
power of attainment. All are instructed in 
reading, geography, and arithmetic : some 
write poetry and compose music; others are 
versed in geography, and its kindred sciences. 



96 PHILADELPHIA. 

Their exhibitions never fail to delight the 
numerous visiters by whom they are attended. 

The principal of the institution, Dr. Rhoads, 
is indefatigable in his attention to strangers, 
and takes pleasure in displaying to the curious 
all the interesting objects of his establishment. 

A public examination takes place at three 
o'clock in the afternoon, on the second Friday in 
each month. Tickets of admission may be pro- 
cured at the store of Mrs. Hobson, No. 196 
Chesnut street. 



WILLS S HOSPITAL. 

Race, between Schuylkill Fourth and Fifth 
streets. 

Mr. James Wills, a member of the Society 
of Friends, bequeathed to the city, as trustee, 
one hundred and eight thousand dollars, for the 
purpose of erecting and supporting a place of 
refuge for the indigent lame and blind of the 
city and county of Philadelphia. 

In obedience to his injunction, the city 
authorities caused a suitable edifice to be con- 
structed in Race street ; and the establishment 
soon after went into operation. The exterior 
of the building is of a beautiful sandstone, of 
very peculiar colour, two stories high, and 
appropriately arranged within. The grounds 
are tastefully laid out, and the whole presents 
an appearance of great neatness and good 
order. 



PHILADELPHIA. 97 

PENNSYLVANIA HOSPITAL. 
Pine street, between Eighth and Ninth. 

This really admirable institution was founded 
through the instrumentality of Doctors Frank- 
lin and Bond, who, by petition from themselves 
and others, to the legislature of Pennsylvania, 
in 1750, procured a donation of £2000, condi- 
tioned that a like sum should be raised by pri- 
vate subscription. 

These conditions were promptly complied 
with — a board of managers chosen, and a house 
hired, in which patients were received, in 1752. 
Increasing funds enabled the managers to pur- 
chase the lot on which the present edifice is 
erected. Their grounds were subsequently 
enlarged by a grant from the proprietaries, and 
in 1755, the foundation of the hospital was 
commenced. Further purchases extended the 
hospital grounds to a fraction above thirteen 
acres, wliich, with the elevation and magnitude 
of tlie buildings, environed with fine forest 
trees, gives an airy and imposing appearance 
to the whole. 

In front, and to the south of the hospital, in a 
fine area, stands a full length statue of William 
Penn, in bronzed lead. 

The hospital contains an anatomical museum, 
and a library amounting to upwards of eight 
thousand volumes. The works in this collection 
are chiefly on subjects appropriate to the insti- 
tution. 

It would exceed our limits to go into detail 
on this meritorious establishment ; but we quote 
9 



98 PHILADELPHIA. 

the following from the Philadelphia edition of 
Brewster's Encyclopedia. " There is perhaps 
no other institution where more attention is 
paid to cleanliness and the general comfort of 
the sufferers. The managers are indefatiga- 
ble in their attention to the interests of the 
establishment, and the extension and increase 
of its usefulness. The medical attendants are 
men of superior abilities, and the steward, 
nurses, and care-takers, well qualified for the 
duties of their offices." 

The managers of this hospital have just 
completed an extensive and commodious house 
for the reception of their insane patients and 
residents. By this arrangement, this branch 
of the establishment will be wholly detached 
from the old one in Pine street. The new 
building is situated in Biockley township, 
between the Havcrford and Westchester roads, 
about two miles west of the Market street 
bridge. 

CITY HOSPITAL. 

Corner of St. Andrew and Schuylkill Fourth 
streets. 

This extensive building was erected by the 
board of health, for the reception of yellow 
fever patients. 

The city having for many years escaped this 
awful visitation, the building has, for the most 
part of the time, remained unoccupied, except 
by those having charge of it. It is occasionally 
used as a small-pox hospital, &c. 



PHILADELPHIA. 99 

PHILADELPHIA DISPENSARY. 
Fifth street^ opposite Independence Square, 

This praiseworthy institution was established 
in 1766, with the design of afFordingf rehef to 
the indigent sick, who receive medicine and 
advice gratuitously. 

It is supported by private contributions and 
donations from the humane. 

NORTHERN DISPENSARY, 
373 North Front street, 

And the 

SOUTHERN DISPENSARY, 
98 Shippen street. 

Are designed for the same object, and are 
maintained by means similar to those of the 
Philadelphia Dispensary. 

ASYLUM FOR LUNATICS. 
Near the village of Frankford. 

This establishment, though five miles distant 
from Philadelphia, may be regarded as one of 
its institutions. 

It was founded in 1814, by members of the 
Society of Friends — and the buildings, which 
cost about $00,000, were soon after completed. 



100 PHILADELPHIA. 

The asylum is under the direction of twelve 
managers. Like the Pennsylvania Hospital, 
the asylum is, in every respect, a perfect pattern 
of cleanliness and g-ood order. Here " there is 
a place for every thing, and every thing is in 
its place." 



CHRIST CHURCH HOSPITAL. 
Cherry street, between Third and Fourth. 

Was founded by Dr. John Kearsley, for the 
relief of aged females, members of the Pro- 
testant Episcopal Church. Subsequent addi- 
tions to the funds of the institution have enabled 
the managers to erect a convenient building 
for its accommodation. 

GERMAN- society's HALL. 
Seventh street, between Market and Chesnut. 

This is a neat two-slory brick building, the 
upper part of which is occupied by the society 
as a place of meeting, and the lower part by 
the Schuylkill Navigation Company, as an 
oiBce. 

In addition to the benevolent institutions we 
have described, the following deserve notice ; 

American Sunday School Union, 1 46 Chesnut 
street, whence immense quantities of books, 
&c., designed for the use of Sunday School 
teachers and scholars, are distributed in all 
directions. 



PHILADELPHIA. 101 

Pkiladelpkia Bible Society — Domestic and 
Foreign Missionary Society, ] 58 Market street. 

Board of Missions, (Presbyterian,) 29 San- 
som street. 

Baptist Tract Society, 21 South Fourth 
street. 

Board of Education, (Presbyterian,) 29 San- 
som street. 

Philadelphia Tract Society, 13 North Seventh 
street. 

Union Benevolent Association, corner of 
Eighth and Lodge, near Chesnut street. 

Home Missionary Society, 134 Chesnut 
street. 

Pennsylvania Colonization Society, 27 San- 
som street. 

Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society, 31 North 
Fifth street. 

Philadelphia City Mission, Lombard street, 
above Ninth. 

Pennsylvania Missionary Society, Market 
street. 

Missionary Society of St. James — Philadel- 
phia Education Society, 134 Chesnut street. 

Seaman^s Friend Society, 121 South Second 
street. 

Seaman^s Friend Society, or Girard House, 
23 North Water street. 

Foster Home, Chesnut street, near Schuylkill 
Fourth street. 

Magdalen Asylum, corner of Race and 
Schuylkill Second street. 

Clarkson Hall, 10 Cherry street. 

Franklin Free School, 430 North Third 
street. 

Fuel Saving Society, corner of Locust and 
Schuylkill Seventh streets. 
9* 



102 PHILADELPHIA. 

House of Industry, 7 Ranstead's court, 
Fourth street, above Chesnut. 

Infant School, No. 1, Thirteenth street, near 
Race. 

Philadelphia Institute, Filbert street, above 
Eleventh. 

St. Mary's Free School, 104 South Fifth 
street. 

Evangelical Society, for promoting Christian- 
ity among the poor in the suburbs of Phila- 
delphia. 

Young Meri's Missionary Society. 

Female Missionary Society. 

Missionary Society of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. 

Common Prayer Book Society. 

Episcopal Society for the advancement of 
Christianity in Pennsylvania. 

Episcopal Female Tract Society. 

Religious Tract Society. 

Mosheim Society. 

Female Society for the Education of the 
Heathen. 

Education Society, for preparing young men 
for the Ministry. 

Philadelphia Auxiliary Colonization Society. 

Pennsylvania Peace Society. 

Pennsylvania Temperance Society. 

Young Men's Temperance Society. 

Pennsylvania Society for the promotion of 
Public Schools. 

Philadelphia Society for the establishment 
and support of Charity Schools. 

Philadelphia Auxiliary Society for amelio- 
rating the condition of the Jews, &c. 

Union Society for the instruction of poor 
female children. 



SOCIETIES. 103 

Aimwell School Society. 

Society for the Relief and Employment of 
the Poor. 

Provident Society, for the employment of the 
poor. 

Female Society, whose objects are similar to 
those of the preceding. 

City Soup Societies. 

Humane Society, for restoring drowned 
persons. 

St. Andrew''s Society, for aiding Scotchmen 
in distress. 

St. George'' s Society. 

Welch Society, 

Hibernian Society. 

German Society. 

The five last mentioned societies were formed 
for the relief of foreign emigrants. 

Philadelphia Society, for alleviating the 
miseries of Public Prisons. 

Pennsylvania Society, for the abolition pf 
slavery in Pennsylvania, and for the improve- 
ment of the African Race. 

And about forty Masonic Lodges, under 
the direction of the Grand Lodge of Penn- 
sylvania. 

Society of " Odd Fellows," whose object and 
discipline are similar to those of other Masonic 
institutions. They have a fine hall in Fifth 
street, below Walnut. 

Franklin Fund, bequeathed by Dr. Franklin, 
for aiding young mechanics in commencing 
business. 

Scott Fund, for the same purpose. 

Bleakly Fund, for the relief of persons in the 
City Hospital. 



104 flilLADELPHIA. 

Carter and Petty Fund, for supplying the 
poor with bread. 

Keble Fund, for such charitable purposes as 
the clergy of the Episcopal Churches of PJiila- 
delphia may determine. 

Adelpfd School, for the instruction of poor 
children. 

Friends^ School, for the gratuitous education 
of the blacks. 

Ship Masters'' Society, for the relief of poor 
and distressed masters of ships, their widows 
,aud children. 

Pilots^ Society, similar to the above. 

Mariners' Society, for the relief of sick meni- 
1bers, and the assistance of their families. 

Stone Cutters' Society, for the relief of poor 
end distressed stone cutters, their widows and 
children, and other purposes. 

Master Bricklayers' Society, similar to the 
preceding. 

Philadelphia Typographical Society, for 
mutual benefit, and to regulate the prices of 
work. 

Master Taylors'' Society. 

Provident Society of House Carpenters. 

Master Mechanics'' Benejicial Society. 

Philanthropic Society, lor the relief of sick 
members, and other purposes. 

Columbian Benevolent Society. 

American Beneficial Society. 
.St. Tammany Benevolent Society. 

Northern Liberties Benevolent &}ciefy. 

Union Benejicial Society. 

Philadelphia Benevolent Society. 

American Friendly Institution. 

Friendly Society of Philadelphia. 



PHILADELPHIA. 105 

Union Society of Philadelphia. 
Independent Benevolent Society. 
Pennsylvania Benefit Society. 
Friendly Society. 
United German Benefit Society, 
German American Mutual Assistance So- 
ciety. 

Caledonian Society. 

Scotts'' T/iislle Society. 

St. PutricWs Benevolent Society. 

Societe Frangaise de Bienfaisance. 

Association of the Friends of Ireland. 

Croghan Benevolent Society. 

Olive Branch Society. 

Rising Star Benevolent Society. 

United States Benevolent Association. 

Warren Beneficial Society. 



PUBLIC PRISONS. 

STATE PENITENTIARY. 

Coates street, toest of Broad, 

To the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating 
the Miseries of Public Prisons, belongs the 
credit of introducing the existing Penitentiary 
System — not only in Pennsylvania, or the 
United States, but of the civilized world — so 
far as that system has been adopted. It was 
in Philadelphia that the first essay was thus 
made towards an amelioration of the sanguinary 
penal codes of Europe, which no longer dis- 
figure the jurisprudence of our state. 



106 PHILADELPHIA. 

On the first introduction of this system into 
Pennsylvania, the Walnut street Prison, which 
stood immediately opposite the State House 
garden, was employed as a Penitentiary : but 
a new and greatly improved structure for such 
an establishment, has been erected, and is now 
fully organised in all its parts. 

It is an immense building, from a design by 
Haviland ; and in point both of magnitude and 
as a sample of the artist's skill, deserves atten- 
tion. In the general arrangement of the 
several parts, strength, convenience, and 
economy, are judiciously combined. 

The whole front externally, has the appear, 
ance of an extensive and solid edifice. 

One strong entrance in character with the 
architectural composition, is a conspicuous 
feature in the front. There is a strong station- 
ary wrought iron grating or portcullis over the 
gateway, which affords light to the entrance : 
between it and the rear gate, is sufficient room 
for a team and wagon to stand, that will admit 
of the keeper securing the front gate previous 
to the opening of the rear one. 

The watch towers command, from their 
height and position, the inside and outside of 
the external walls: their entrance is by means 
of two strong doors, hung of a sufficient dis- 
tance apart to allow of entering the outside one 
and securing it previously to opening the 
inside one. 

The exterior wall is estimated at thirty feet 
high from the level of the ground on the inside, 
and covered with an inclined coping that pro- 
jects on the inside four feet, that will frustrate 
any attempt to climb over it. This wall 
encloses an area of 650 feet square, in which 



PHILADELPHIA. 107 

the cells are disposed. Every window in the 
front building is constructed with an iron grat- 
ing, and the doors well bolted and locked, on 
the most improved plan; and every other neces- 
sary precaution adopted to render the prison 
secure. 

By the distribution of the several blocks of 
cells, forming so many radiating lines to the 
observatory or vi-atch house, which is equal in 
width to one of those blocks, a watchman 
can, from one point, command a view of the 
extremity of the passages of the cells, or tra- 
verse under cover unobserved by the prisoners, 
and overlook every cell : when they are exer- 
cising in their yards, the same watchman, by 
walking round a platform three feet wide, con- 
structed on the outside of this watch room, 
situated on a level with the first floor, can see 
into every yard, and detect any prisoner that 
may attempt to scale the minor walls. 

Each building contains 36 cells, 12 feet long, 
8 feet wide, and 10 feet high, with an exercis- 
ing yard to each. The partiiion walls between 
the cells are 18 inches in thickness, and their 
foundation three feet deep : the wall next the 
passage is of similar thickness and depth. The 
exterior wall 2 feet 3 inches thick, and 4 feet 
below the level of the yard. In each cell there 
is a floor of masonry, 18 inches in tliickness, 
on which is laid long curb-stones, 10 inches 
thick, that extend the whole width of the cells, 
and terminating under the partition wall, which 
effectually prevent escape by excavation. The 
windows are inserted in the barrelled ceilirtg, 
and formed by a convex reflector of eight 
inches in diameter, termed dead eyes.. This 
gives ample light to the cells, from a position, 



108 PHILADELPHIA. 

the best for ventilation and the admission of 
light, and desirable from its being out of the 
reach of the prisoners climbing' up to escape, 
or to converse from one cell to that of another. 
This glass is hung up at the apex of a cast iron 
cone that is securely fixed in the solid masonry 
of the ceiling, and is a cheap and excellent 
window. A simple bed is provided, that is 
hung against the wall, to which it is made to 
button in the day time, with the bedding 
enclosed in it, out of the way. 

The wall next the passage contains, annexed 
to each cell, a feeding drawer and peep hole. 
The drawer is of cast iron, six inches deep and 
sixteen wide, projecting of sufficient depth into 
the cell to form, v/hen closed, a table of twelve 
inches from the surface of the wall, on the 
inside, from which the prisoner eats his meals. 
This drawer, on the back, is made with a stop, 
that, when drawn out by the keeper in the pas- 
sage, for the purpose of depositing food or 
raiment, closes the aperture behind, and conse- 
quently prevents the prisoner seeing the super- 
intendent, or receiving by this opportunity, any 
thing but what is intended for him. 

A hollow cone of cast iron is fixed securely 
in the wall, with its apex next the passage, 
from which small aperture of one-fourth of an 
inch in diameter, you command a view of the 
cell, unobserved by the prisoner. A stopper is 
slid over this peep hole, and fixed on the out- 
side, so that no person can make use of it but 
the superintendent. The door of the entrance 
is next the yard, properly secured with the 
most approved fastenings, and provided with a 
wrought-iron grated door, in addition to a 
strpngly framed wooden one ; this wooden door 



PHILADELPHIA. 109 

being kept open in the summer, or when occa- 
sion may require, it permits the fresh air to 
pass into the cell, and the iron grated one 
secures the prisoner. There is also a strong 
iron door fixed on the outside wall of the exer- 
cising yards. 

A reservoir is constructed in the centre of 
the prison, under the floor of the watch house, 
arched over, of sufficient capacity for the pur- 
poses of the jail : from this basin of water are 
disposed, under ground, out of re&ch of the frost, 
seven cast iron main pipes or sewers, say of 
eight inches diameter in the bore, one imme- 
diately placed under the centre of the passages, 
into which is connected a pipe of four inches 
diameter, from each cell, of sufficient height to 
reach sixteen inches above the floor of the cell, 
the water being introduced into those pipes, is 
by means of a ball-cock in the reservoir, regu- 
lated to a height level within six inches of the 
seat or privy in the cell. By this means the 
pipe is always kept full of water, that prevents 
the prisoners from speaking through them, and 
the return of any foul air into the cell. At the 
extremity of esich block of cells is fixed a sluice 
gate that stops the water, and lets it off" as often 
as may be found necessary, by which means 
the filth of the pipes are effectually cleansed 
with rapidity and ease ; and by stopping, it fills 
the pipe instantaneously with a fresh supply of 
water. The dirt is carried into a common 
sewer, and conducted into the culvert of the 
adjoining street, or a well at the extremity of 
each radiating block. 

The ventilator of the cell is in the form of a 
funnel, stationed three feet over the seat of the 
privy, with a small pipe, six inches in diameter, 
10 



110 PHILADELPHIA. 

connected at its apex, through which the air 
passes from the cell through the ceiling into 
the open air. The passages are amply lighted, 
and ventilated by circular window at each end, 
four feet in diameter, and six conical windows 
in the ceilings. The arched ceilings of the 
cells and passages form a solid roof of masonry. 

The cells are heated by hot air supplied from 
two furnaces constructed in the rooms at the 
end of the buildings next to the observatory. 
By these means, the objections to the introduc- 
tion of a separate fire-place to each cell is 
removed, and less superintendence effected with 
greater economy, security, and privacy. 

A covered way 4s introduced from each radi- 
ating building of the cells to the centre, for the 
convenience of superintending the prisoners, 
and conveying their food in bad weather : this 
cheap screen is covered with a shingled roof, 
and enclosed by weather-boarded sides, in 
which are inserted windows, and finished with 
a floor. 

The centre building forms a cover for the 
reservoir — its basement is a general watch 
house, and the room over it is a chamber for 
the accommodation of the under-keepers and 
watchmen. At the outside of tlie building, on 
a level with this floor, is a platform ; a bell is 
hung in the roof for the watchmen and domes- 
tic purposes of the institution. 

The offices for cooking, washing, and other 
domestic purposes of the prison, are disposed 
in the basement of the front building. 

The rooms in which those who are to be 
employed to do the work of cookuig, baking, 
&c., arc in the left wing, with a yard and privy 
annexed to it for their accommodation. The 



PHILADELPHIA. Ill 

rooms in the right wing are applied for those 
purposes in which female domestics are gene- 
rally employed, such as the washing, ironing, 
&c. : they are also provided with a separate 
yard. The access to those rooms in the base- 
ment, from the entrance, is by a flight of steps 
that descend on the right, and on the left by a 
similar number of steps, you ascend to the 
rooms on both sides on the first floor, which is 
five feet above the level of the ground, and 
entrance over the bake-room, kitchen, &c. The 
rooms in the left side are appropriated for the 
officers of the prison, such as the commission- 
ers, clerks, and turnkeys' rooms. They are of 
suitable dimensions. The rooms on the right 
side, corresponding to those on the left, are 
used for the warden and turnkeys' purposes, 
&c. ; and care has been taken to dispose con- 
veniently of such rooms, or stores, that require 
the keepers' particular superintendence. 

In the centre room, over the entrance, is the 
apothecary's room. It occupies the second 
floor of the left wing. It is the most healthy 
and airy situation — is convenient for the care 
of the warden, and has a private entrance : it 
is a distinct and separate fire-proof section, 
without any door, window, or other aperture, 
connected with the other rooms of the building, 
provided with a private stone stair-case, and 
entrance from an external door in the rear, and 
approachable only through this entrance, except 
in time of alarm, when the keeper can pass 
from his chamber, through a fire-proof door 
into the apothecary's room ; thus, in case of 
any contagious disease in the infirmary, the 
chance of infection to the residents is greatly 
diminished. 



112 PHILADELPHIA. 

COUNTY PRISON. 
Passyunli road, below Federal street. 

If it were admissible to say that the structure 
and portalof a prison were agreeable, the build- 
ing- now under review deserves attention. The 
massive vaulting of the great entrances pre- 
sents a very fine specimen of Gothic architec- 
ture, and is one of the purest examples of that 
style, in this country. 

This prison serves the purpose of the old 
Arch street Prison, which, since the completion 
of the new one, has been demolished, and its 
place is now occupied by handsome dwellings. 
The County Prison is appropriated to the con- 
finement of persons accused of crimes, previous 
to trial, and others who are convicted and sen- 
tenced for short terms. That part of the house 
occupied by the prisoners, is divided into two 
extensive halls, with three tiers of cells on each 
side. The two upper tiers are approached by 
means of corridors or galleries extending the 
entire length of the halls, which are lighted 
from the roof. The cells resemble those of the 
State Penitentiary in all respects, except in the 
mode of lighting them, which is done by means 
of apertures in the side walls, instead of the 
roof. 

debtors' prison. 
Next to the County Prison. 

This really unique building is an object of 
universal attention to strangers. The style of 



PHILADELPHIA. 113 

architecture, and the colour of the material of 
which it is composed, are very peculiar. It is 
decorated with a portal, consisting- of two 
huge Egyptian columns, composed of red sand- 
stone, supporting a pediment of like dimensions. 
The remainder of the front partakes of the 
general character of its entrance, and the whole 
edifice strongly reminds us of Denon's vivid 
description of the architectural beauties of 
ancient Egypt, in the times of the Pharoahs. 



HOUSE OF CORRECTION. 
At Bush Hill. 

This is used for the confinement of disorderly 
persons, and such as are charged with minor 
offences. 



HOUSE or REFUGE. 
Corner of Coates street and Ridge road. 

This institution, founded by the benevolence 
of some citizens, is appropriated to the confine- 
ment of young delinquents, who, in addition to 
their moral culture, are taught the various 
elementary branches of an English education, 
together with the practice of some useful 
handicraft. 

By the establishment of this institution, the 
juvenile offender is effectually separated from 
those adepts in crime, with whom he was for- 
merly incarcerated; and, from its peculiar 
organization, it obviates not only the painful 
sentence of infamy which follows a public trial 
10* 



114 Pirif ADELPHIA. 

and conviction, but renders such trial and con- 
viction unnecessary. But the inquiry which 
precedes admission here, is not necessarily into 
the guilt or innocence of the subject, with a 
view to punishment. Such inquiry may be 
made ; and the law provides for the reception 
of children who have been thus exposed to it, 
in the regular and accustomed form. Convic- 
tion is one of the circumstances which will 
justify admission here ; and there is no other 
mode in which conviction can take place, 
except by jury. One class of subjects, there- 
fore, is formed by those who have been regu- 
larly tried and condemned. A much larger 
class happily finds a shelter here, where the 
inquiry has been directed mainly to the crim- 
inal tendency and manifestations of their con- 
dition — to their means of support — to the 
protection and guidance they receive from their 
natural friends. 

If adequate securities against guilt are 
wanting, and they must in ail probability 
become criminal as well as wretched, they are 
entitled to a place within th6se walls, even 
though they may not have committed specific 
crimes. The imputation of a crime is not a 
necessary passport to admission. If it has been 
committed, it furnishes strong evidence of the 
absence and necessity of proper guardianship, 
since it would not have taken place, if neither 
necessity nor bad example had been the induce- 
ment. But it is only in this respect that the 
crime is adverted to. A child is not the less 
wretched, because guilty. Its wretchedness 
alone gives it a just title to reception. The 
addition of criminality docs not take away its 
claims. Almost every child that steals, is a 



PHILADELPHIA. 115 

vagrant as well as a thief: for theft is the result 
of a want of honest occupation and support; 
and a want of honest means of subsistence, is 
vagrancy. When a commitment, therefore, is 
made by a magistrate, it is not simply or even 
necessarily because of a crime, but because of 
the want and bereavement, of which crime is 
both the proof and the consequence. It would 
be equally cruel and unnecessary to subject to 
trial and conviction, and thus to lasting- infamy, 
when the requisitions of the law are fulfilled 
without them, and the child is instructed, chcr- 
ished, saved, without exposing it to the melan- 
choly satisfaction of knowing that there are 
two motives for its restraint, when one is suffi- 
cient. 

The system is introduced for the purpose of 
preventing punishment. It humanely ascribes 
the errors of early youth, to the unconscious 
imitation of evil examples, to accident, to the 
disregard of parents, to any thing rather than 
moral guilt. It therefore treats them as defi- 
ciencies of education, and provides means bj 
which those deficiencies may be supplied. If 
the parent or the natural friend will show that 
there are no such deficiencies, or that proofs 
are wanting to substantiate them, the discipline 
of the house is at once withheld for other 
objects. 

The house is supported by funds received 
from the association, by annual donations from 
the state and county, and by individual dona- 
tions and bequests. It is governed by one 
president, two vice presidents, and board of 
twenty managers, who are assisted in the per- 
formance of their duties by a committee of 
twelve ladies. The domestic establishment 



116 PHILADELPHIA. 

consist of a superintendent, matron, teacher, 
two physicians, and such attendants as may be 
deemed necessary. The managers report their 
transactions annually to the association. The 
inmates now manufacture shoes, wearing appa- 
rel, baskets, book covers, bed ticks, quilts, stock- 
ings, shirts, &c., &LC. On the expiration of the 
term of confinement, the boys are apprenticed 
to respectable mechanics or farmers, and the 
girls to families, by whom they are taught to 
perform the customary duties of domestics. 

The building is erected on a lot of ground 
four hundred feet in front, on Coates street, and 
two hundred and thirty-one in depth — enclosed 
by a stone wall, two feet thick, and twenty -two 
feet high. The main building, ninety-two feet 
in length, fronts the north, and is occupied by 
the superintendent, managers' rooms, library, 
&c. The wings contain the dormitories, &c. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL. 
Juniper street, opposite S. E. Penn square. 

The building in which this school is estab- 
lished, is in the immediate vicinity of the 
United States mint. Its dimensions are sixty 
by forty feet and three stories higJi, with a 
marble front and handsome Ionic portico. The 
interior arrangements and apparatus are pecu- 
liarly fitted for the uses to which they are 



FIIILADELPIIIA. 117 

applied. They include a well stored library, 
philosophical instruments, mineralogical cabi- 
net; and in the upper apartments, an astrono- 
mical observatory has been erected, for which 
the requisite apparatus and furniture are pre- 
paring. In this institution, which was opened 
on the i22nd of October, 1838, are taught an- 
cient and modern languages, belle lettres, 
mathematics and natural science. None but 
pupils wlio shall have attended the primary 
public schools, for a period of at least six 
months, are admitted into tlie high scliool ; 
an arbitrary prohibition, which if not speedily 
removed, may ultimately load to the failure of 
tlie establishment. Ani/ restriction but such as 
may be imposed by a \\'ant of accommodation, 
is, we think, inconsistent with the spirit of our 
school laws, and in direct hostility to the bene- 
volent intentions of their framers. 

In addition to the high school, there are dis- 
tributed throughout the city and districts, 
several primary schools, which like the former 
are supported at public expense. In these 
schools, the usual elementary branches of a 
good English education are taught. They are 
situated as follows: — in Ashton street above 
Lombard ; in New Market street above Noble ; 
in Eleventh street corner of Buttonwood ; in 
Chester street corner of Maple ; in Race street 
above Broad ; in Eighth corner of Fitzwater ; 
in Second street corner of Master; in Cath- 
erine street above Third ; and at No. 432 North 
Third street 



118 PHILADELPHIAo 



CEMETERIES. 



LAUREL HILL CEMETERY. 

Ridge Road, three miles N. W. of the city. 

This celebrated burial place was originally 
the country seat of one of the opulent citizens 
of Philadelphia. It was afterwards occupied 
by numerous tenants as a public garden, col- 
lege, &c., when in 1836 it was finally pur- 
chased by some gentlemen of the city who 
formed themselves into a joint stock company, 
and laid it out as a public cemetery, having 
first obtained an act of incorporation. The 
cemetery of Laurel Hill is situated on the east 
bank of the Schuylkill at a mean elevation of 
eighty or ninety feet above the river. Its sur- 
face is exceedingly undulating, beautifully di- 
versified by hill and dale, and enriched by a 
vast number of forest and ornamental trees : 
the whole presenting a coup d^ceil, at once im- 
pressive and grand in a high degree. It is the 
most extensive cemetery in the vicinity of Phil- 
adelphia, having a front on the Ridge road, of 
two hundred and nineteen feet and extending 
from that road to the river bank, with an area 
of about twenty acres. The irregularity of the 
ground renders it extremely picturesque, and 
its beauty is still farther enhanced by the varied 
foliage of its numerous trees and shrubs shading 
tombs of every form. Few situations com- 
mand so extensive and diversified a prospect. 
On the west is seen the beautiful Schuvlkill 



PHILADELPHIA • 119 

reflecting the high and craggy hills of the op- 
posite bank ; on the south through a long vista 
of overhanging foliage, we view the Columbia 
viaduct and inclined plane; on the north the 
falls of Schuylkill and the crossing of the Read- 
ing Rail- road. In every view, nature seems to 
have pointed out this enchanting spot, with sig- 
nificant energy, as the appropriate mansion for 
the dead. In and around it are all the varied 
features of her beauty and grandeur; the forest 
crowned height, the abrupt acclivity, the shel- 
tered valley, the deep glen, the grassy glade 
and the silent grave, all combining to heighten 
the melancholy beauties of the scene. 

The first object that presents itself to the 
visiter on entering the gate is the admirable 
specimen of statuary of " Old Mortality," exe- 
cuted in sand-stone by Thom, a self taught 
artist. Many of the tombs are distinguished 
for their great beauty and simplicity. 

At the entrance is an open space between 
two avenues, on one side of which is the house 
of the keeper and the porter's lodge. The 
chapel, a beautiful Gothic building, illuminated 
by an immense window of variegated glass, is 
situated on the high ground to the right of the 
entrance, and the other structures erected for 
the accommodation of visiters and others are 
judiciously disposed according to the original 
plan. The ground is laid out with gravelled 
walks and divided in lots of various dimen- 
sions, arranged at suitable distances, along the 
winding passages. These are appropriated as 
family burial places, with the perpetual right 
to purchasers of inclosing, decorating and 
using them for that purpose. Strangers are 
permitted to view the ground on application at 



120 PHILADELPHIA. 

the gate or by producing- a ticket from one of 
the managers by which they can enter the 
enclosure with their carriages. 



MONUMENT CEMETERY. 

Broad street, near Turnefs Lane. 

This is situated in the northern suburbs of 
Philadelphia, about two miles beyond the city 
limits. Its general arrangements, with the ex- 
ception of some modifications in the courses of 
the avenues, are similar to those of Laurel Hill, 
and with regard to the mode of obtaining lots, 
and the tenure by which they are held, there is 
no difference between them. The site of Mon- 
ument Cemetery consists of an almost unbroken 
plane, whose surface is slightly inclined towards 
the south. Though possessing but few of the 
romantic characteristics of Laurel Hill, the 
Monument Cemetery possesses beauties peculiar 
to itself, and to some eyes, equal to those of the 
former. It was opened in 1838, and now con- 
tains a considerable number of tombs, some 
very chaste, with appropriate inscriptions. The 
whole ground is encompassed by a neat pale 
fence, with an iron gate in front supported by 
two marble pillars. Owing to a depression in 
Broad street fronting the cemetery, occasioned 
by a new regulation of that street, the ground 
is now elevated some eight or ten feet above 
the road, and is supported by a massive retain- 
ing wall, which contributes greatly to improve 
the appearance of this beautiful and attractive 
spot. 



PHILADELPHIA. 121 

RONALDSOPf 'S CEMETERY. 

Skippen, between Ninth and Tenth streets. 

The square which now forms this beautiful 
cemetery, originally belonged to Mr. James 
Konaldson, by whom it was parcelled off into 
lots and disposed of for the purposes of inter- 
ment. The numerous avenues which intersect 
each other at right angles, generally bound the 
burial plots on two sides and thus afford conve- 
nient access to every part of the ground. As 
this cemetery was opened long anterior to 
Laurel Hill and Monument cemetery, it con- 
tains a large number of splendid tombs and 
cenotaphs adorned on all sides by flowers of 
every hue, whose fragrance and beauty, with 
the plaintive shade of the surrounding foliage, 
render it an object of peculiar though mournful 
attention. 

There are several other cemeteries now in 
use, and arrangements are in progress for open- 
ing others on similar plans. Among the former 
are — Macphela Cemetery, in Prime street near 
Tenth; Pliilanthropic Cemetery, in Passyunk 
road, below the county prison : and among the 
latter are Franklin and Woodland Cemeteries. 



11 



122 PHILADELPHIA. 



MISCELLANEOUS INSTITUTIONS. 

NAVY YARD. 

Front below Prime street. 

The Philadelphia Navy Yard was established 
several years since under a special act of Con- 
gress. It contains within its limits about four- 
teen acres of land and is surrounded on its 
north, west and south sides by high and sub- 
stantial brick walls ; the east side fronts on and 
is open to the river Delaware. Its entrance 
from Front street is by a double gateway. In- 
side the enclosure are the necessary buildings, 
consisting of two immense " ship houses," 
mariner's barracks and officers' dwellings. 
The largest ship-house, in which the great ship 
Pennsylvania was constructed, is two hundred 
seventy-three feet long, one hundred and four 
wide and eighty-four high.. 

MASONIC HALL. 
Chesnut street, between Seventh and Eighth. 

This spacious and elegant Gothic structure^ 
is now the property of the Franklin Institute. 
It was built originally for the Grand Lodge of 
Pennsylvania, and used for many years as a 
place of meeting for that and several other 
masonic societies. The lower saloon, one of 
the most beautiful rooms in the city, is in 
almost constant requisition for exhibitions of 



PHILADELPHIA. 123 

all sorts, balls, fairs, musical entertainments, 
&c., &c. 

MASONIC HALL. 

Tkird street, below Walnut. 

This is a neat and commodious building, 
erected within a few years, and now occupied 
by the Masonic lodges, for their meetings, &c. 

ODD fellows' hall. 

Fifth street, below Walnut. 

The Philadelphia fraternity of " Odd Fel- 
lows," so called, is very considerable, both in 
number and character, being found in all quar- 
ters of the city, and consisting of persons of 
nearly every rank in society. " Secrecy" being 
the watchword of these odd fellows, as well as 
of their no less odd brethren the masons, we 
can say nothing with regard to their objects, 
and domestic arrangements. Their hall is a 
handsome structure, both within and without, 
so far as we have been permitted to examine 
the former. 

ASSEMBLY BUILDINGS. 

Corner of Tenth and Chesnut streets. 

This is one of the most extensive buildings 
of its class, in the city. Its length, on Tenth 
street, is two hundred and forty-five feet — its 



124 PHILADELPHIA. 

width, on Chesnut street, is about thirty — four 
stories high, and built of brick, and stuccoed in 
imitation of granite. The ground floor is 
divided into stores ; and the first floor, which 
is attained by a circular stairway of easy 
ascent, is occupied in its entire extent, by a 
beautiful saloon, so constructed as to admit of 
partition, by means of immense folding doors. 
The furniture and decorations of the saloon 
are on a scale corresponding with the style and 
magnitude of the building; and the whole 
establislnnent deserves the attention of stran- 
gers. The saloon, like that of the Masonic 
Hall, is used for many temporary purposes — 
such as concerts, exhibitions, balls, and the 
like. 



UNION BUILDINGS. 

Corner of Eighth and Chesnut streets. 

Are similar in form and uses to the Assembly 
Buildings. 

ATHENIAN BUILDINGS. 

Franklin Place, Chesnut street, between Third 
and Fourth. 

This structure is no way remarkable, except 
in point of size, and the purposes to which it is 
applied. One part of it is occupied as a public 
house, refectory, &c. ; and the other is appro- 
priated to political and other assemblies. 



philadelphia. 125 

bricklayers' hall. 

Corner of Thirteenth and Race streets. 

Is a handsome structure, erected for the 
accommodation of the Bricklayers' Society. 

carpenters' hall. 

Corner of Thirteenth and Race streets. 

Where also the Carpenters' Society hold their 
meetings, and regulate the prices of work. 

beck's shot tower. 

Cherry and Schuylkill Second streets. 

Was erected about thirty years since, by Mr. 
Paul Beck, who continued the manufacture of 
shot for a long time ; but, owing to the want of 
adequate protection from the government, he 
discontinued the business, the prosecution of 
which was attended by heavy losses. The 
building forms a striking object in the western 
part of the city, and serves as a land-mark to 
passengers. A splendid view of the city and 
surrounding country may be had from its sum- 
mit, which is one hundred and sixty-four feet 
above the ground. It forms a square, whose 
sides are each thirty -three feet at the base, and 
twenty-two at the top. 

11* 



126 philadelphia, 

spark's shot tower. 

Carpenter street, between Front and Second. 

This is a circular spire-like column, thirfy 
feet in diameter at its base, fifteen at the sum- 
mit, and about one hundred and forty feet in 
height. Like Beck's Tower, and the State 
House steeple. Spark's Tower affords a fine 
view of the adjacent country. 

PENNSYLVANIA STATE ARSENAL. 
Juniper street, opposite S. W, Penn Square. 

Sometimes called the State Armory — is the 
depository for the ordnance, arms, &c., belong- 
ing to the state. The building is of the ordi- 
nary description ; being adapted to the purposes 
for which it was erected, without any attempt 
at embellishment. 

UNITED STATES ARSENAL. 
Gray's Ferry road. 

The ground occupied by this establishment 
is bounded by Gray's Ferry road, Sutherland 
avenue, Paynter and Petty streets. It consists 
of three principal, and some minor buildings ; 
and the whole are enclosed by a solid brick 
wall. 



PHILADELPHIA. 127 

CITY TOBACCO WAREHOUSE. 

At the intersection of Dock and Front streets. 

This is an immense structure, erected by the 
city authorities, for the accommodation of the 
tobacco trade. The city branch of the Colum- 
bia railroad terminates here, and communicates 
with the shipping of the Delaware. 

SWAIM's BATH HOUSE. 

Seventh street, below Chesnut, 

This is the most extensive and complete 
bathing- establishment in the city. It is pro- 
vided with every suitable accommodation, and 
is in all respects deserving of the liberal patron- 
age which it has received since its foundation, 
in 1829. 

BATH HOUSE. 

Fromberger^s court, Second street, above Arch. 

This is a well conducted establishment. It 
accommodates the citizens of the north-eastern, 
as Swaim's does the middle and south-western 
parts of the city. 

HARMEr's BATH HOUSE. 
Third street, near Arch. 

PHILADELPHIA GAS WORKS. 

Schuylkill Front and Filbert streets. 

Scarcely a more striking picture of change, 
accompanied with immense improvement, can 



128 PHILADELPHIA. 

be presented to the imagination, than that of 
the general substitution of gas in the streets 
and shops of the city, in place of the oil lamps 
of former times. Among the gas establish- 
ments, the city works claim the first notice, 
being the first erected in the city. They pre- 
sent a very remarkable appearance — the gas- 
ometers, like immense inverted cauldrons, first 
attract attention, and lead to farther investi- 
gation. 

The gas meter, the retort, and purifying 
apartments, the pipes of conduit, and other 
apparatus, and the buildings themselves, deserve 
the especial attention of visiters. 



NORTHERN LIBERTIES GAS WORKS. 

Maiden street, below Front. 

These works supply the Northern Liberties, 
Kensington, &c., with gas. Their structure 
and management are similar to those of the 
city. 



MARKET HOUSES, 

Are established in Market street from the 
Delaware to Eighth street. In Market street 
from Schuylkill Seventh to Schuylkill Eighth 
street. In Callowhill street from Fourth to 
Seventh street. In Spring Garden from Mar- 
shall to Ninth street. In North Second from 
Coates street to Poplar Lane. In South Second 
street fi-om Pine to South street. In Moyaraen- 



PHILADELPHIA. 129 

sing road from Prime to Washington street. 
In Shippen from Third street to Passyunk 
road. In Eleventh street from Shippen to Fitz- 
water street. Corner Callowhill and New 
Market streets. 



HOTELS. 

Albion House, corner of Seventh and Chesnut 
streets. 

Arch street House, corner of Arch and North 
Wharves. 

Black Bear Inn, South Fifth near High. 

Broad Street House, N. E. corner Broad and 
Vine. 

Bull's Head, 235 North Third. 

City Hotel, Nortli Third, near Mulberry. 

Commercial Hotel, 31 Chesnut. 

Congress Hall, 27 South Third, and 83 Ches- 
nut. 

Golden Swan, North Third above Mulberry. 

Indian Queen, South Fourth near High. 

Madison House, 39 North Second. 

Mansion House, South Third below Walnut. 

Marshall House, Chesnut near Seventh. 

Morris House, Chesnut below Eighth. 

Merchant's Hotel, North Fourth above High. 

Philadelphia Hotel, North Second above Mul- 
berry. 

Red Lion Hotel, 200 High. 

Robinson Crusoe, South Third near Chesnut. 

Second Street House, 42 North Second. 

Third Street Hall, corner of North Third and 
Willow. 

Tremont House, 116 Chesnut, 



130 FHILADELrHIA. 

Union Hotel, Chesnut street, below Seventh. 

United States Hotel, Chesnut street, above 
Fourth. 

Washington House, 223 Chesnut street. 

Western Exchange, High street, west of 
Penn Square. 

Western Hotel, 288 High street. 

White Swan, 308 Race street. 



ROUTES FROM PHILADELPHIA. 



*:^* Towns marked thus, *, are described in other 
parts of the work. 



From Philadelphia to Lancaster^ by Railroad. 
[Depots in Market and Broad streets.] 



Viaduct over the 


Schuylkill, 




3 


Buck Tavern, 


, 


8 


11 


Paoli, 


, , 


. 10 


21 


West Chester road, 


2 


23 


Yellow Springs 


road 


4 


27 


Downingtown, 




5 


32 


Coatesville, 




8 


40 


Gap Tavern, 




. 11 


51 


Soudersburg, 




9 


60 


Lancaster, 




9 


69 



Schuylkill Viaduct. — The Columbia railroad 
crosses the Schuylkill by a viaduct, nine hun- 
dred and eighty-four feet in length. It leads 
to the foot of an inclined plane, 2805 feet long, 
with an ascent of 187 feet. The plane is 
ascended by means of a stationary engine at 
the top, from which an endless rope passes up 
and down, and conveys the cars from one end 
of the plane to the other. In passing from the 
city to the plane, many interesting objects 



132 INTERIOR. 

present themselves, and serve to render the 
excursion highly delightful. 

Buck Tavern. — A small settlement in Dela- 
ware county, which derives its name li"om the 
sign of its principal inn. 

Paoli — A noted public-house, near vyhieh 
Gen. Wayne, with fifteen hundred men, was 
defeated, on the night of Sept. 20, 1777, by the 
British General Grey, who commanded a very 
superior force. The loss of the Americans 
was one hundred and fifty men, many of whom 
were shot down after they had surrendered — 
their cry for quarter being entirely disregarded 
by their assailants. About two miles south- 
west of the Paoli tavern has been erected a 
suitable monument in memory of those who 
were thus inhumanly massacred ; and the adja- 
cent field is now appropriated for a parade 
ground, to which t!ie volunteers of the city and 
adjoining counties are accustomed to repair on 
each anniversary of the battle. 

West Chester Railroad. — This road diverges 
from the Columbia road, and proceeds in a 
south-western direction, about nine miles, to 

West Chester. — The seat of justice ofChester 
county, and one of the most attractive villages 
of the interior. 

On the removal of the county offices from 
Old Chester, where they had been long estab- 
lished, to their present position, at the " Turk's 
Head," as the f)lace was then called, the new 
seat of justice began to improve, and has since 
continued to advance with such rapid strides, 



ROUTE TO LANCASTER. 133 

that its population at present (August, 1840), 
does not fall luucli short of two thousand. The 
town is distinguished for the intelligence of its 
inhabitants, whose efforts for the intellectual 
and moral improvement of the rising genera- 
tion have been crowned with signal success. 
Among the literary and scientific institutions 
which adorn West Chester, there is a Cabinet 
of Natural Science, in which appropriate lec- 
tures are delivered ; an Atheneum, where the 
current literature of the day may be found ; a 
public Library ; several well conducted board- 
ing schools for both sexes ; and, in addition to 
these important aids, four or five weekly news- 
papers are engaged in the great work of mental 
and physical improvement. With such ele- 
ments, " What," in the emphatic language of 
one of its journals, " is to prevent the town 
from growing to four times its present size ?" 
Situated in a high and healthy region, sur- 
rounded by some of the richest and best culti- 
vated lands witiiin reach of three extensive 
markets — the county town of one of the most 
wealthy and populous counties of the state — 
there is no reason to doubt its rapid advance. 

The place was organized as a borough, in 
1779. Its pubUc buildings and institutions 
consist of the court-house, prison, and other 
county offices ; two market-houses ; a public 
academy; Roman Catholic, Episcopal, and 
Presbyterian churches ; two or three Friends' 
meeting-houses; a banking-house, (Bank of 
Chester County) ; several fire companies, &c. : 
tmd its manufactories, in addition to the ordi- 
nary products, consist of leather, pottery, hats, 
carriages and carriage furniture, tin ware, 
guns, wall paper, &c. &c. Raihoad cars leave 
12 



134 ROUTE TO 

the town twice a day, for Philadelphia, and 
stages depart daily in every direction. 

Yellow Springs Road. — Intersects the Co- 
lumbia railroad near the Ship Tavern, and 
extends to the Yellow Springs, distant about 
five miles. 

These springs have long been celebrated for 
their medicinal qualities. Situated in the midst 
of a beautiful and highly cultivated part of 
Chester county, they form one of the most 
attractive places of resort in the state. 

Downingtown. — A village situated in the 
great valley of Chester county, and in the 
centre of an exceedingly fertile and well culti- 
vated region. The houses being generally 
built of stone, present an appearance of great 
solidity ; and the inhabitants afford evidence of 
rural wealth and contentment. There are about 
fifty dwellings, several stores — mills, and other 
factories, along the east branch of the Brandy- 
wine, which runs through the village. 

It was upon the banks of this creek, about 
12 miles below Downingtown, that the battle 
of Brandy wine was fought, on the 11th Sep- 
tember, 1777. 

General Howe, in advancing from the head 
of Elk river, in Maryland, towards Philadel- 
phia, was met by General Washington, near 
Chad's Ford, when a most sanguinary conflict 
ensued. The American army, consisting of 
about sixteen thousand men, was commanded 
by General Washington in person, aided by 
Generals Lafayette, Greene, Wayne, and Sulli- 
van. The firing was commenced by the 
British, and immediately returned by the 



LANCASTER. 135 

American column in front. In the heat of the 
engagement, the right line of the Americans 
gave way — Sullivan's division was next routed, 
when Wayne, observing the movements around 
him, drew off his troops, and the whole then 
retreated to Chester. General Howe continued 
his march, and on the 27th, having been joined 
by Lord Cornwallis, entered, and took posses- 
sion of Philadelphia. 

The American loss, in the battle, was, three 
hundred killed, four hundred prisoners, and 
six hundred wounded, including General La- 
fayette, who received a wound in the leg ; but, 
refusing to abandon his post, continued to cheer 
and encourage the troops, to the end of the 
engagement. 

Several other French officers were engaged 
in this battle, as well as Count Pulaski, a 
Polish nobleman, who had accepted a commis- 
sion in the American army, 

Coatesville. — A manufacturing village, situ- 
ated on the west branch of Brandywine creek. 
It contains three extensive paper-mills, two 
cotton factories, a rolling-mill, nail, and some 
other factories. There is also near the village, 
a chalybeate spring, which has attracted some 
attention. 

Gap Tavern. — A noted stopping place at the' 
foot of Mine Ridge, in Lancaster county. 

Soudersburg. — A small village of Lampeter 
township, in Lancaster county. It contains 
twenty or thirty houses, with a due proportion 
of taverns. 



136 ROUTE TO 

Lancaster.* 



From Philadelphia to Reading, ly Railroad. 



[Depot at the 


corner of J 
streets.] 


3raad and Cherry 


Manayunk, 




8 


Norristown, 




9 17 


Trap, 




9 26 


Pottstown, 




. 11 37 


Warrensburg, 




6 43 


Exetertown, 




5 48 


Reading, 




9 57 



Manayunk. — A large manufacturing village of 
Roxboro township, Philadelphia co.,8milesfi-om 
the city. It owes its existence to the water power 
created by the improvement of the Schuylkill, 
which serves the double purpose of rendering the 
stream navigable, and of supplying hydraulic 
power to the numerous factories of the village. 
In 1819, the present site of Manayunk presented 
little else than a dense forest. It now contains 
about five hundred dwellings, twenty-five or 
thirty mills, for the construction of which, ex- 
tensive excavations into the adjoining hills have 
been made, and in some instances, dwellings 
"have been erected upon the hill tops, one hun- 
dred and fifty or two hundred feet above the bed 
of the river. 

There are two bridgfes across the Schuylkill, 
one at Flat Rock, and another a short distance 
lower down. The village is approached from 
the Ridge Road, by a McAdamiscd road, about 



HEADING. 137 

a mile in length. The Schuylkill canal and 
Norristown railroad, pass through the town, 
which, with the busy population, and the clatter 
of the machinery, present, altogether, a very 
animating and interesting spectacle. 

Norristown. — The seat of justice of Mont- 
gomery county, seventeen miles from Philadel- 
phia, is situated on the north-east bank of the 
Schuylkill. Population about three thousand. 
The public buildings are, a court-house, county 
offices, jail, bank, academy — an Episcopal and 
Presbyterian churches — library, saw and grist- 
mills, two cotton mills, &c. There are three 
weekly newspapers issued here. The bridge 
across the Schuylkill, eight hundred feet long, 
was erected by a company, at an expense of 
thirty-two thousand dollars. The situation of 
the town is pleasant and healthy ; and the 
water-power from the Schuylkill Company's 
works is entensively employed for manufactur- 
ing purposes. 

Trap. — A small village of Upper Providence, 
Montgomery county, twenty-six miles from 
Philadelphia, containing about twenty-five 
buildings, including a church, which is used in 
common by the Lutheran and German Re- 
formed congregations — a school-house, &c. 

Pottstown. — Is beautifully situated near the 
Schuylkill, in Pottsgrove township, Montgo- 
mery county. The buildings, about one hun- 
dred in number, are mostly built of stone, and 
ranged along one broad street, each surrounded 
by gardens, which give the village an air of 
much rural beauty. The population, in 1830, 
was six hundred and seventy-six : it is now 
12* 



138 



ROUTE TO 



(1840), probably eight hundred. About six 
miles below Pottstown, the Philadelphia and 
Reading railroad passes through the Black Rock 
tunnel, excavated through solid rock, at a cost 
of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 

Warrensburg. — A small village of Berks 
county, containing about twenty houses, and a 
Presbyterian church. 

Exetertown. — Is the central settlement of 
Exeter township, Berks county. It scarcely 
deserves the name of a village, having not more 
than a dozen houses, with their usual append- 
ages, as taverns, &-c. 

Reading.* 



From Philadelphia to Easton, by Stage, 
[Office, Race street, above Third.] 



Shoemakertown, 


9 


Jenkintown, 


1 10 


Abington, 

Willowgrove, 

Newville, 


1 11 

2 13 

7 20 


Doylestown, 
Ottsville, 


4 24 
. 15 39 


Easton, 


. 17 56 



Shoemahertovm. — A village of Montgomery 
county, nine miles from Philadelphia, contain- 
ing several fine houses, stores, grist-mill, &c. 

Jenkintown. — This pleasant village may be 
regarded as a part of the preceding, being situ- 



EASTON. 139 

ated only a mile to the north. It is, however, 
far superior in point of population and position, 
to Shoemakertown. It contains about three 
hundred inhabitants, chiefly Friends, who have 
a meeting house near the village. 

Abingion or Mooreslown, in Montgomery 
county, consists of twelve or fifteen dwellings, 
two stores, a Presbyterian church, and a board- 
ing school for boys. 

Willowgrove. — Thirteen miles from the city, 
is a beautiful village of Moreland township, 
Montgomery county. It contains about twenty 
buildings, including three stores, and three 
taverns, situated in a rich glen &t the termina- 
tion of the Willowgrove turnpike from Phila- 
delphia. 

Newville. — A small village in Bucks county, 
about four miles from Doylestown, containing 
ten or twelve houses. 

Doylestown. —Seat of justice of Bucks county. 
Its elevated situation commands an extensive 
view of the fertile and well settled country 
around it; which is not less remarkable for 
salubrity, than for its varied beauties. The 
town contains, in addition to the court-house, 
jail, and county offices, about one hundred and 
twenty buildings, including a Presbyterian 
church, academy, stores, taverns, &c. Three 
English, and one German weekly newspapers 
are issued here. 

Ottsville. — A small village of Nockamixon 
township, Bucks county. 

Easton.* 



140 



ROUTE TO 



From Philadelphia to Bethlehem, by Stage. 
[Office, Race street, above Third.] 



Sunville, 


3 


Germantown, 


3 6 


Flowertown, 


5 11 


Montgomery, 


10 21 


Lexington, 


4 25 


Sellersville, 


7 32 


Quakertown, 


5 37 


Fryburg, 


6 43 


Bethleheni, 


8 51 



Sunville. — A thriving village, situated at the 
junction of the Willowgrove and Germantown 
roads. It derives its name, like many other 
American towns, from the sign of its principal 
tavern, which resembles a huge pancake, rather 
than a " Rising Sun," which terms are legibly 
written underneath this non-descript exhibition. 
The village contains about seventy buildings, 
including stores and taverns, most of the latter 
have " Rising Suns," swinging between their 
sign-posts. 

Germantown. — Six miles north-west from 
Philadelphia. This singular town consists of 
but one street, compactly built and extending 
for four or five miles, in a direction from south 
east to north-west. It contains not less than 
eight hundred buildings of various kinds, in- 
cluding churches, a bank, academies, factories, 
workshops, &c. &c. The town was founded in 
1684, and incorporated as a borough by Wm. 



BETHLEHEM. 141 

Penn in 1689, but in 1704, it was deprived of 
its charter from inattention to its provisions. A 
new charter has been recently obtained from 
the legislature, and the town is now enjoying 
the benefits of a regular police. A railroad and 
numerous stages, afford a constant communica- 
tion between Philadelphia and Germantown, 
which may now be regarded as a mere suburb 
of the former. 

The name of Germantown is intimately con- 
nected with our revolutionary history, one of 
its principal events having occurred in the 
neighbourhood. 

On the morning of October 4th, 1777, a de- 
tachment from the American army, led by Gen- 
eral Sullivan, directed by the commander-in- 
chief, encountered and drove in a picket, which 
presently gave way, and his main body soon 
following, the engagement became general. 

It continued in a confused and desultory 
manner for some time, in the midst of a dense 
fog, which prevailed during the day, and served 
to embarrass the proceedings of both parties. 

Failing in his attempt to cut off supplies from 
Gen. Howe, who was then in possession of 
Philadelphia, Gen. Washington took advantage 
of the fog, and retired in good order, having 
lost in the engagement about nine hundred 
men, of whom two hundred were killed, and 
four hundred made prisoners. The British lost 
six hundred, killed and wounded. 

Flowertown, — A small village of about twenty 
five houses, in Springfield township, Montgo- 
mery county. 

Montgomery, — A mere hamlet, consisting of 



142 ROUTE TO 

eight or ten buildings, and a boarding-school 
for boys. 

Lexington. — A village of Montgomery co., 
containing twelve or fifteen dwellings, &c. 

Sellersville. — Another small liamlet of eight 
or ten houses, in Bucks county. 

Quakertown. — A very neat village of Bucks 
county, occupied chiefly by Friends, and con- 
sisting of about fifty buildings, including a 
meeting-house, stores, &c. 

Fryhurg. — In Upper Saucon township, Le- 
high county. It contains twelve or fifteen 
dwelling-houses, stores, tavern, and a Lutheran 
church. 

Bethlehem.* 



From Philadelphia to Trenton, by Railroad. 
[Depot, corner of Willow and Third streets.] 



Locomotive Depot, 

Frankford, 

Andalusia, 

Bristol, 

Morrisville, 

Trenton, 



2 
3 5 
6 11 

9 20 
9 29 
1 30 



Locomotive Depot. — Here the passenger cars 
are attached to the locomotive engine, wiiich 
conveys the train to Morrisville — from thence 
to Trenton, by horses. 



TRENTON. 143 

Frankford. — A town of Oxford township, 
Philadelphia county, 5 miles from the city, con- 
taining^ about 320 dwellings, and nearly two 
thousand inhabitants, with the usual comple- 
ment of stores, shops, taverns, factories, mills, 
&c. &c., forming altogether one of the most 
thriving and busy places in the state. The 
surrounding country is exceedingly fertile and 
well cultivated, and is much resorted to by the 
citizens of Philadelphia during the summer 
months. 

Andalusia. — A small settlement with a post 
office, in Bucks county, eleven miles north- 
east of Philadelphia. The place has become 
familiar to the public, as the scene of a most 
shocking tragedy, in which the ill-fated Chap- 
man, a teacher, was murdered by the seducer 
of his wife, who, it is supposed, participated in 
the unnatural crime. 

Bristol. — A beautiful village, situated on the 
west bank of the Delaware, nearly opposite to 
Burlington. Its high and commanding posi- 
tion early attracted the attention of the first 
settlers, and a town, called Buckingham, was 
laid off, and subsequently incorporated by Sir 
William Kieth, in 1720, under the name of 
Bristol. 

Among the numerous attractions of this 
beautiful spot, are two mineral springs, at which 
buildings, for the accommodation of visiters, 
were erected some years since, and dignified by 
the name of Bath. Bristol contains at present 
about two hundred and fifty dwellings, a bank, 
several places of worship, a masonic lodge, &c. 

The houses, especially those on the imme- 
diate bank of the river, present a remarkably 



144 



ROUTE TO 



neat and handsome appearance. The Delaware 
division of the Pennsylvania Canal terminates 
here, in a spacious basin, wfliich communicates 
with the Delaware river. This canal, with the 
Lehigh Company's canal, forms an uninter- 
rupted water communication with the antlira- 
cite coal region of Northampton county. 

MorrisviUe. — A growing village, situated at 
the western termination of the Trenton Dela- 
ware bridge, and formerly the residence of tlic 
unfortunate General Moreau. 

Trenton,* 



From Philadelphia to New York, by Steamboat 
and Railroad. 

[Chesnut street wharf.] 



Burlington. 
Bordentown, 






20 
10 30 


Hightstown, 
Spotswood, 
South Amboy, 






13 43 

. 13 56 

9 65 


Perth Amboy, 
Elizabethport, 
New Brighton, 
JNew York, 






2 67 

15 82 

5 87 

7 94 



Burlington. — A city of New Jersey, con- 
taining three hundred and twenty buildings, 
and about two thousand inhabitants. Among 
the former are an Episcopal, and two Methodist 
churches — a Friends' meeting-house — three 



NEW YORK. 145 

extensive boarding-schools, a free school, estab- 
lished in 1682, and several public primary 
schools. 

The town is regularlj' laid out, with the 
streets intersecting at rijiht angles. They are 
mostly well built, with side and front lots, which 
serve to beautify the town, and give it an airy 
appearance. The " bank," which is chiefly 
occupied by country seats belonging to Phila- 
delphians, consists of a beautiful grassy plane, 
inclining from the buildings to the margin of 
the river. Here is also the residence of the 
Rev. Mr. Doane, Bishop of New Jersey — a 
Gothic structure, surmounted by a cross, and 
resembling one of the Catholic missionary sta- 
tions of former times. 

Burlington was founded in 1677, by the pur- 
chasers from Lord Berkeley, and was incorpo- 
rated as " The City of Burlington," by the state 
legislature, in 1784. 

Bordentown. — A town in Burlington county, 
N. J., where travellers from Philadelphia to 
New York leave the steamboat and enter the 
railroad cars. The town is situated on a high 
bank, which, vi'hile it gives it a commanding 
position, serves in a great measure to obstruct 
its view from the river, and leads one to con- 
clude that it is an inconsiderable place. Such, 
however, is not the fact. It contains upwards 
of eleven hundred inhabitants, and about two 
hundred and thirty buildings of various kinds, 
including churches, meeting-houses, stores, &c. 
The Delaware and Raritan canal has its west- 
ern termination here. 

It was founded nearly a century ago, by a 
Mfi Joseph Borden, and incorporated in 1 825. 
13 



146 ROUTE TO 

Joseph Bonaparte, many years since, selected 
Bordentown as his residence. The dwellings 
and numerous out-houses on his estate, are 
among the most conspicuous objects of the 
place. They can be viewed, on application to 
to the superintendent. 

Hightstown. — A thriving little village, vehich, 
since the completion of the Camden and Amboy 
railroad, has become a place of some note. It 
is the point where passengers for Lon^ Branch 
and the neighbouring bathing places, leave the 
railroad. The town is rapidly improving, by 
the erection of many neat and substantial 
buildings, which now amount to about one 
hundred, with six hundred inhabitants. 

Spottswood. — A neat village of Middlesex 
county, N. J., containing about forty dwellings, 
two churches, and the usual factories, shops, 
&c., &c. 

South Ainboy. — Is a mere landing place, 
which derives its importance from its being the 
terminating point of the Camden and Amboy 
railroad. Here the passengers for New York 
quit the cars, and embark on board the steam- 
boat, which conveys them across Amboy Bay, 
and along Staten Island Sound, to " the city." 

Perth. Amhoy, — A city and port of entry of 
Middlesex county, at the confluence of Raritan 
river and Amboy Bay. It derives its name, in 
part, from James, Earl of Perth, one of the 
original proprietors of the ground, which was 
laid off into town lots in 1683, and incorpo- 
rated in 1784, with all the priviliges and immu- 



NEW YORK. 147 

nities of a city. A larg-e portion of the build- 
ings are elevated forty or fifty feet above the 
adjacent bay. The Brighton House, a large 
hotel, erected here several years since, forms a 
striking object of attention, on approaching 
the city. Like many other " experiments," 
the hotel failed to realise the expectations of its 
proprietors ; and it is now occupied, during the 
summer months, by a wealthy family of New 
York. 

Elizabethport. — A very neat and flourishing 
village, which has recently started into notice ; 
being at the eastern terminus of the Elizabeth- 
port and Somerville railroad, now in active 
operation as far as Plain field. 

Its site was until recently known as Eliza- 
bethtown Point, and was tlie landing place for 
Elizabethtown, which is situated a few miles 
in the interior. 

New Brighlon. — A village of country seats, 
erected for the accommodation of some of the 
" best society" of New York. It occupies the 
north-western angle of Staten Island, at the 
entrance of the " Kills," which separate the 
island from the Jersey shore. The town plot, 
which, for the most part, is the result of ex- 
pensive excavation, descends rapidly from the 
base of the adjoining hills, and the buildings 
range in a line with, and at nearly an equal 
distance from the margin of the strait. 

The houses, with their white fronts and 
massive columns, present a beautiful appear- 
ance from the water, upon which they front. 
A short distance to the south-west of New 
Brighton stands the " Sailor's Snug Harbor," 



148 ROUTE TO 

a sort of Greenwich hospital, or asylum for 
decayed mariners. It consists of a large build- 
ing, with wings, so adjusted as to accommodate 
a large number of inmates. 



From Philadelphia to Baltimore, by Railroad, 
[Depot, Market street, below Eleventh.] 



Gray's Ferry Viaduct, 
Chester, 


9 


5 
14 


Wilmington, 
Elkton, 


. 13 

. 18 


27 
45 


Havre De Grace, . 


. 15 


60 


Baltimore, 


. 35 


95 



Gray^s Ferry Viaduct. — The Philadelphia 
and Wilmington railroad crosses the Schuylkill 
by this viaduct — at the western end of which 
the cars are attached to the locomotive engine. 

Chester. — The seat of justice of Delaware 
county, 14 miles from Philadelphia, situated 
on the west bank of the Delaware, is the oldest 
town in Pennsylvania. Long prior to the 
grant to Wm. Penn, in 1681, there were several 
dwellings, and a Friends' meeting-house, at 
Upland, the name by which it was then called. 
In 1701, that of Chester was substituted by the 
proprietary. 

It now contains about one hundred and forty 
houses, mostly of stone or brick, including a 
Court-house, a prison, a bank, and other public 
edifices. Some of the primitive buildings are 



BALTIMORE. 149 

yet standing, which serve to indicate the early 
settlement of the place. 

Wilmington. — The metropolis of the state 
of Delaware, is situated on Christiana creek, 
about two miles from its discharge into the 
Delaware. It has a population of not less 
than eight thousand. It is incorporated, and 
governed by two burgesses and six assistants, 
who are elected annually. Most of ihe build- 
ings are of brick : the principal streets are 
wide, and cross each other at right angles. The 
public buildings are, a city iiall, two market 
houses, three banks, alms-house, arsenal, six- 
teen places of worship, including some Friends' 
meeting-houses. 

Wilmington, which is a port of entry, is not 
only extensively engaged in foreign commerce 
and the whale fishery, but is remarkable for 
the number, magnitude, and value of its manu- 
factories, — consisting of cotton and woollen 
cloth factories, flour mills, saw mills, powder, 
and paper mills, &c. 

The Brandy wine Springs, a favourite place of 
summer resort, for the citizens of Philadelphia, 
are situated about five miles west of Wil- 
mington. 

Havre De Grace. — A growing town, on the 
west bank of the Susquehanna, at its entrance 
into Chesapeake Bay. Since the completion of 
the railroad to Baltimore, and the Susquehanna 
canal, which terminates here, and connects the 
Chesapeake with the canals of Pennsylvania, 
the town has been greatly improved by the 
addition of several fine buildings, and an ex- 
tension of the town plot. 
13* 



150 



ROUTE TO 



Havre De Grace, then an inconsiderable vil- 
lage, became quite conspicuons during the late 
V7ar with Great Britain — having been attacked 
and destroyed in 1813, by a powerful squadron, 
commanded by Admiral Cockburn, who burnt 
and destroyed nearly every village and farm 
house within his reach, along the shores of 
Chesapeake Bay. 



From Philadelphia to Baltimore, by Steamboat 
and Railroad, 



[Dock street wharf.] 



Fort Mifflin, 


8 


Lazaretto, 


5 13 


Chester, 


5 18 


Marcus Hook, 


4 22 


Newcastle, 


. 13 35 


Frenchtown, 


. 16 51 


Baltimore, 


. 69 120 



Fort Mifflin. — One of the principal defences 
of the Delaware, erected during the revolution- 
ary war. It is situated near the mouth of the 
Schuylkill, on what was called Fort Island, and 
nearly opposite to Red Bank, the site of old 
Fort Mercer. Between these posts, in the 
channel of the Delaware, two ranges of che- 
vaux-de-frize were sunk, in 1777. These soon 
engaged the attention of the British General 
Howe, who, having overcome the obstructions 
in the river, attacked the forts at Red Bank and 
Fort Island, which, after a most spirited and 
protracted resistance, were abandoned by the 



BALTIMORE. 151 

garrison, on the approach of Comwallis, in 
November, 1777. Fort Mifflin is now in a 
dilapidated condition — and of that of Red Bank, 
scarcely a vestige remains. 

Lazaretto. — This establishment can be easily 
distinguished by its hospital ; and, during the 
summer months, by the vessels which are de- 
tained here, for the examination of the port 
physician. 

Chester.* 

Marcus Hook, — A village of Delaware cc, 
situated on the right bank of the Delaware, 
containing about forty dwelling-houses, Baptist 
and Episcopal churches, &c. 

New Castle. — Seat of justice of New Castle 
county, and, next to Wilmington, the largest 
town in the state of Delaware. Its present 
population is about three thousand. jPassen- 
gers from Philadelphia to Baltimore leave the 
steamboat here, and proceed by railroad, to 

Frenchtown. — A mere landing place, where 
they embark on board of a steamboat, which 
conveys them along the Chesapeake Bay, and 
up Patapsco river, to Baltimore. 



Frmn Philadelphia to Cape May, by Steamboat. 

Delaware City, ... 41 

Reedy Island, . . . 5 46 

Bombay Hook, . . . 17 63 

Cape Island, . . .39 102 



152 ROUTE TO 

Delaware City. — A new town of Newcastle 
county, Delaware, situated on the west bank of 
the Delaware, where the Chesapeake and Dela- 
ware canal enters the river. When laid out, 
the prospects of the " City" were rather flatter- 
ing ; but it has progressed very slowly, and is 
now nearly stationary, if not declining. It 
contains about thirty or forty large buildings, 
besides some minor ones. 

Reedy Island. — A small island in the Dela- 
ware in front of Port Penn. 

Bombay Hook. — A point, and small island in 
Kent county, Delaware. 

Cape Island. — The sourthernmost extremity 
of New Jersey, and a famous watering place, 
much frequented by the citizens of Philadel- 
phia, and others. The accommodations here 
are on the most liberal scale, and the beach is 
unsurpassed as a bathing place. 



From Philadelphia to Long Branch, via Higkts- 
town, by Steamboat, Sfc. 

[OfSce, Chesnut street wharf.] 

Bordentown, 
Hightstown, 
Monmouth, 
Eaton, 
Long Branch, 





30 


. 13 


43 


. 16 


59 


. 10 


69 


4 


73 



Bordentown.* 
Hightstown.* 



LONG BRANCH. 153 

Monmouth, or Freehold. — Seat of justice for 
Monmouth county, N. J., and one of the most 
thriving towns of this part of the state. In 
addition to the public buildings — a court-house, 
prison, and five or six handsome churches — 
there are upwards of one hundred dwellings, 
which, being mostly of wood, and painted 
white, present an air of great freshness and 
beauty. 

It was here, on the morning of the 28th of 
June, 1778, that Washington, after following, 
and harrassing the British army for several 
days, attacked, and compelled it to fall back, 
with a loss on the part of the British of three 
hundred and fifty-eight men, including several 
officers. The loss of the Americans was eight 
officers and sixty-one privates, killed, and about 
one hundred and sixty wounded. 

Eaton. — A neat village of Monmouth county, 
containing about forty buildings, situated in 
the midst of a delightful and fertile country. 

Long Branch. — A celebrated watering place, 
on the shore of the Atlantic ocean, seventy- 
three miles from Philadelphia, and forty-five 
from New- York. There are, in addition to 
four extensive and commodious boarding- 
houses, several private establishments, where, 
with less parade and show of " style," the 
invalid may enjoy the refreshing sea air, and 
bathing, in their utmost perfection, and at a 
moderate expense — whilst those who inhabit 
the former are expected, and expect, to pay 
liberally for their extravagant aeeommoda- 
tions. 



154 ROUTE TO 

From Philadelphia to Mount Holly, by Stage. 



Camden, 




1 


Waterfordville, 


5 


6 


Moorestovvn, 


4 


10 


Rankocus Creek, . 


6 


16 


Mount Holly, . 


3 


19 



Camden. — A city and port of entry of Glou- 
cester county, N. J., situated on the east bank 
of the Delaware, opposite to Philadelphia. 

It was originally settled by Messrs. Cooper, 
Morris, and Runyan,and incorporated in 1828, 
with very extensive limits. 

Including Cooper's Point, above, and Kaighn- 
ton, below, Camden contains a population of 
about two thousand six hundred. There are 
in Camden, in addition to upwards of four hun- 
dred neat dwellings, seventy or eighty build- 
ings occupied in the manufacture of leather, 
saddlery, carriages, in vast numbers, carriage 
furniture, clocks, trunks, cabinet-ware, plated- 
ware, tin-ware, &c. — one bank, two printing- 
ofBces, each of which issues a weekly news- 
paper several public gardens, &-c. Eight or 
ten steam ferry-boats ply constantly between 
Philadelphia and Camden, which latter, though 
situated in another state, may be regarded as a 
a suburb of the former. The railroad to Bor- 
dentown, towards the north, and that to Wood- 
bury, in the south, commence here. 

Waterfordville. — A small village of Water- 
ford township, Gloucester county, containing 
ten or twelve dwelling-houses, a tavern, store, 
&c., &.C. 



MOUNT HOLLY. 155 

Moorestoion. — Ten miles from Camden, in 
Chester township, Burlington county, is a 
remarkably neat village, containing about sixty 
or seventy dwellings, a Friends' meeting-house, 
a Methodist chapel, a boarding-school, &c. 

Rankocus Creek. — One of the most important 
confluents of the Delaware. It rises in Mon- 
mouth county, passes into Burlington, where it 
receives several extensive tributaries, and finally 
discharges itself into the Delaware, about four- 
teen miles above Philadelphia. 

Mount Holly, — Originally called Bridgetown, 
a large and handsome town, and seat of justice 
for Burlington county, situated on the Ranko- 
cus creek, seven miles south-east of the city of 
Burlington. One of the most striking objects 
presented to the eye of the traveller, on ap- 
proaching this place, is a natural mound of 
sand, based upon compact sandstone, and 
covered in part by holly trees. These, in con- 
nection with the adjacent hill, give name to the 
town, which has progressed but slowly during 
the last fifty years. The present population 
amounts to about twelve hundred. 

The public buildings consist of a brick 
court-house, a stone prison, one Episcopal, one 
Methodist, and one Baptist churches, 2 Friends' 
meeting-houses — one bank, two boarding, and 
several other schools, factories, paper, grist, 
and saw mills. Among the private dwellings 
in Mount Holly, many of which are large and 
handsome, is the splendid seat of Mr. Dunn, a 
gentleman well known in Philadelphia and 
elsewhere, as the liberal tounder of the beauti- 



156 



ROUTE TO 



ful Chinese collection in the Philadelphia 
Museum. 



From Philadelphia to Cape May, by Stage, SfC, 
[Office, in Camden.] 

Woodbury, by railroad, 

Glassboro, by stage, 

Malaga, 

Millville, 

Port Elizabeth, 

Dennis Creek, 

Goshen, 

Cape May, C. H. . 

Cold Spring, 

Cape Island, 





9 


10 


19 


10 


29 


13 


42 


6 


48 


14 


62 


4 


66 


4 


70 


9 


79 


2 


8i 



Woodbury. — Seat of justice for Gloucester 
county, contains a population of about eight 
hundred — a court-house, jail — one Friends'" 
meeting-house, one Presbyterian, and one 
Methodist church — several schools, libraries, 
and many other valuable and meritorious insti- 
tutions for the promotion of literature, and the 
moral improvement of the inhabitants. 

Glassboro. — A village near the source of 
Mantua creek, containing thirty or forty build- 
ings, two churches, stores, taverns, &c., and 
several glass factories. Population about two 
hundred. 



Malaga. — In Gloucester county, contains 



CAPE MAT. 157 

about Ihirty-five dwelling-houses, besides an 
extensive vvindow-glass factory, a grist-mill, 
&c. &c. 

Millville. — A large and thriving town on 
Maurice river, in Cumberland county, N. J. — 
celebrated for its manufactures of glass, iron, 
and iron-ware. The town consists of about 
sixty or seventy dwellings, several stores, fur- 
naces, glass works, &c. 

Pert Elizabeth. — Situated on Manamuskin 
creek, in Maurice river township, Cumberland 
county, N. J. It contains about one hundred 
and twenty buildings of various sorts, including 
a Baptist church, an academy, an extensive 
glass factory, &c. 

There are in the vicinity of the town several 
grist and saw mills; and the entire village and 
neighbourhood present a business-like appear- 
ance, which is not a little improved by numer- 
ous small craft which navigate Maurice river, 
and transport to market the fire-wood, lumber, 
manufactures, and surplus produce of this busy 
town. 

Dennis Creek. — A neat village of Cape May 
county, with a population of about three hun- 
dred, chiefly engaged in the lumber trade, and 
ship building. Its situation is flat, and is envi- 
roned on three sides by marsh, and on the other 
by a sandy loam. 

Goshen. — A small settlement in Cape May 
county, containing about twenty-five buildings. 

Cape May Court House, or Middletown. — 
Seat of justice of Cape May county, contains, 
14 



158 ROUTE TO TUCKERTON. 

in addition to the court-house, jail, &c., some 
ten or fifteen dwellings. 

Cold Spring. — A small village of about 
twenty-five houses, with a singular spring, 
which issues from the adjoining marsh, and is 
submerged at high tide. 

Cape Island.* 



From Philadelphia to Tuckerton, New Jersey, 
by Stage. 

Pensauken Creek, . . 9 

Hampton F. , . . 17 26 

Washington, . . . 9 35 

Tuckerton, . . . 14 49 



Pensauken Creek. — A branch of the Dela- 
ware, which rises near Evesham, in Burlington 
county, and flowing in a north-west direction, 
falls into the Delaware, eight miles above 
Camden. 

Hainpton. — A forge and furnace on Batsto 
river, in Burlington coimty. 

Washington. — A small village of Washing- 
ton township, Burlington county. 

Tuckerton. — A thriving town, and formerly 
a bathing place, situated at the south-eastern 
extremity of Burlington county, and near the 
shores of the Atlantic ocean. It contains about 
forty dwellings, with the usual public buildings, 



LANCASTER. 159 

and nearly three hundred inhabitants, many of 
whom are extensively engaged in the lumber 
and cord-wood business. 



LANCASTER, Pa. 

The city of Lancaster, formerly the capital 
of Pennsylvania, is a large and flourishing 
place, having a population of about eight thou- 
sand, principally Germans, or the descendants 
of Germans. It was originally chartered as a 
borough, in 1777, and as a city on the 22d 
March, 1800. Situated in the centre of one of 
the most productive and populous sections of 
the state, with every facility for an extensive 
intercourse with the Philadelphia and Balti- 
more markets, Lancaster cannot fail to enjoy 
the advantages incident to its peculiar position 
and circumstances. 

The great western turnpike, from Philadel- 
phia to Pittsburg, and the Philadelphia and 
Columbia railroad, pass through the city — 
which has also access to the Susquehanna by 
means of the Conestoga navigation. The plan 
of the city resembles that of Philadelphia, as 
the streets intersect each other at right angles ; 
are wide, well paved, and kept in a neat con- 
dition. 

One of the peculiarities which attract the 
attention of strangers in the city, is the low 
one-story buildings, erected in early times, by 
the primitive German settlers, which form a 
striking contrast with the modern dwellings of 
their more refined and fastidious descendants. 



160 LANCASTER. 

Many of the latter structures are elegant and 
commodious ; but are regarded by the stoical 
and hard-handed inmates of the former, as 
mere upstart intruders, calculated to disturb the 
even tenor of their way. 

Besides the buildings erected for the courts 
of Lancaster county, there are several devoted 
to literary and scientific purposes. Among 
these, is 

Franklin College, vrhich was founded in 
1787 — designed chiefly for the improvement 
of the German youth of the neighbourhood. 
Tliough liberally endowed by the legislature, 
and sustained for a time by private contribu- 
tions, the college gradually declined, and ulti- 
mately became a mere grammar school. 

The Lancaster County Academy, incorpo- 
rated in 1827, when it received a grant of three 
thousand dollars. 

A Lancasterian School ; two public libraries ; 
a reading-room ; a museum ; and several insti- 
tutions of a like description. 

It was in this place that a party of unoffend- 
ing Indians were massacred by the " Paxion 
Boys," a gang of ruffians from Paxton and 
Donegal townships, on the 14th December, 
1764. The party, consisting of thirty men, 
armed and mounted, attacked the unsuspecting 
Indians, on the Conestoga, and succeeded in 
murdering some women and children, with 
an aged chief, who had on every occasion 
manifested the strongest attachment to the 
whites. The survivors fled to Lancaster, where 
they were placed in the jail for protection ; but 
the murderers returned in augmented numbers, 
disguised as negroes, on the 27th, and forcing 
an entrance, concluded the diabolical work, 



LANCASTEB. 161 

which had been commenced on the 14th, by 
dehberately murdering the remainder of the 
unhappy and unresisting victims of their brutal 
rage. The plea of these wretches equals, in 
enormity, the act itself. It was done, they 
said, in retaliation for certain murders com- 
mitted by Indians in a remote part of he 
state, in which those of Conestoga had no 
share — nor indeed was it alleged that they had 
participated in the outrages, for which they 
were thus made the innocent sufferers. 



ROUTES FROM LANCASTER. 

From Lancaster to Harrisburg, by Railroad, 

Mount Joy, . . . 12 

Elizabethtown, . . . 7 19 

Middletown, . • . 7 26 

Harrisburg, . . . 9 35 



Mount Joy. — A small village of Lancaster 
county, near Cheques creek, containing some 
twenty or twenty-five dwellings. 

Elizabethtown. — An incorporated borough 
of Mount Joy township, Lancaster county, 
situated in the forks of Coney creek. It con- 
tains about fifty buildings, including several 
taverns, stores, and work-shops, 

Middletown, — A borough town in Swatara 
township, Dauphin county, on the left bank of 

14* 



162 



ROUTE TO 



the Susquehanna. It derives considerable ad- 
vantages from the trade of the Union canal, 
which here unites with the central division of 
the Pennsylvania canal, and also with the Sus- 
quehanna river by means of guard locks. By 
these channels, an extensive trade in grain, 
flour, lumber, coal, and iron, is carried on. 
The town, which was incorporated in 1828, 
contains about two hundred buildings, exclu- 
sive of the adjoining village of Portsmouth. 

In it are several neat churches, stores, and 
more than a due proportion of taverns and 
grog-shops. 

Harrisburg.* 



From Lancaster to Harrisburg, via Columbia, 
by Railroad and Canal. 



Columbia, by railroad. 
Marietta, by canal, 
Bainbridge, " 
Falmouth, " 
Middletown, " 
High spire, " 
Harrisburg, " 


3 
6 
4 
4 
3 
3 


13 
16 
22 
26 
30 
33 
36 


Columbia.* 







Marietta. — An incorporated town, on the 
east bank of the Susquehanna, in Lancaster 
county. As the adjoining villages of New 
Haven and Waterford are included within the 
corporate limits, they may be regarded as part 
of Marietta. Collectively, the town contains 



CHAMBERSBURC. 163 

about nine hundred inhabitants. Its connec- 
tion with the Pennsylvania canal, and other 
commercial facilities, gives to the town many 
advantages, which will be materially increased 
on the completion of the railroad from Colum- 
bia to Harrisburg, which will pass through the 
town. 

Bainbridge. — A small hamlet of fifteen or 
twenty houses, on the east bank of the Susque- 
hanna, in Lancaster county. 

Falmouth. — Opposite to York Haven, in 
Lancaster county, consists of some twenty or 
twenty-five buildings. 

Middletown.* 

Highspire, — A small village of Dauphin 
county, containing ten or twelve houses. 

Harrisburg.* 



From Lancaster to Chambersburg, via York, 
by Railroad and Stage. 



Columbia, 


12 


York, 


. J2 24 


Abbotstown, 


. 15 39 


Gettysburg, 


. 14 53 


Chambersburg, 


. 25 78 



Columbia. — A borough town of Lancaster 
county, situated on the east bank of the Sus- 
quehanna, about mid-way between Lancaster 



164 ROUTE TO 

and York. The town was incorporated in 
1814, and now contains about three thousand 
inhabitants. Its facilities for trade have been 
greatly augmented by the completion of the 
Susquehanna canal, which opens a navigable 
communication with Havre De Grace, at the 
mouth of the Susquehanna. The Central divi- 
sion of the Pennsylvania canal, and the Colum- 
bia and Philadelphia railroad, both terminate 
here, and give additional importance to the 
town, ill a commeicial point of view. Large 
quantities of lumber, coal, iron, and other pro- 
duce, are deposited in the numerous large ware- 
houses here, and transhipped to Baltimore and 
Philadelphia. 

Columbia is united to Wrightsville, on the 
west side of the Susquehanna, by a substantial 
bridge, five thousand six hundred and ninety 
feet in length, and thirty feet wide. It cost, 
originally, two hundred and thirty-one thou- 
sand, seven hundred and seventy-one dollars — 
to which a large sum has since been added for 
repairs, rendered necessary by the destructive 
freshet of 1832, which demolished nearly one 
half of this costly structure. 

The public buildings are — a town hall, a 
market-house, a Friends' meeting-house, a 
Roman Catholic chapel, churches for the Epis- 
copalians, Presbyterians, Methodists, Luther- 
ans, and two African churches. There are 
also, a bank, a library, and several benevolent 
associations — academy, and common schools — 
and a newspaper published weekly, in the 
town. It is also supplied with excellent water, 
by means of iron pipes, which communicate 
with two springs, near the town. Other springs, 



f 



CHAMBERSBURG. 165 

possessing medicinal qualities, have been dis' 
covered within the limits of the borough. 

York. — Seat of justice of York county, situ- 
ated on Codorus creek, the navigation of which 
has been improved by locks and pools. The 
streets of the town cross each other at right 
angles, which gives to the place a very regular 
appearance; and the buildings are generally 
neat and well built. The population is now 
about five thousand. 

The public buildings consist of a court- 
house — in which Congress held its sessions^ 
when driven from Philadelphia, during the 
revolutionary war — an academy, a prison, an 
alms-house, and ten or twelve churches, belong- 
ing to various denominations. 

A railroad extends from York to the Susque- 
hanna river, and another to Baltimore, which 
completes the connection, by railroad, between 
Philadelphia and Baltimore. There is also an 
unfinished railroad from York to Gettysburg,- 
which was commenced some years since, by 
the state. Its further execution has been 
abandoned. 

Abhotstown. — A pretty village, in Berwick 
township, Adams county, containing about 
eighty dwellings, four stores, and two churches. 

Gettysburg. — A borough town, and seat of 
justice of Adams county, containing about 
seventeen hundred inhabitants, who are chiefly 
occupied in mechanical pursuits. The great 
road from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, is inter- 
sected here by the road from Baltimore to the 
latter place. 



166 ROUTE TO 

Among- the important buildings, are a theo- 
logical seminary, an academy, in which pro- 
vision is made for the gratuitous education of 
a limited number of poor children — a court- 
house, jail, bunk, — two Presbj'terian, one Me- 
thodist, and one Lutheran church. 

There are three newspapers, one in German, 
and two in English, published in the town : 
which is abundantly supplied with pure and 
wholesome water, by means of iron pipes, from 
an adjoining spring. 

Chambersburg.* 



From Lancaster to Baltimore, by Railroad. 

Columbia,* 

York,* 

Strasburg, 

Hereford, 

Towsentown, 

Baltimore, 



From Lancaster to PhiladelpMa, by Railroad. 

Soudersburg,* ... 9 

Coatesville,* . , . 20 29 

Downingtown,* . . . 8 37 

Philadelphia,* -. . .32 69 



From Lancaster to Reading, by Stage. 

Ephrata, . . . 13 

Adams, . . . 9 22 

Reading,* , . . 9 31 





12 


12 


24 


16 


40 


15 


55 


17 


72 


8 


80 



READING. 167 

Ephrata. — A German settlement, on the road 
from Downingtown to Harrisburg-. It contains 
Old and New Ephrata — distant about one mile 
from each other, with a population of four hun- 
dred. This place was originally settled by a 
religious sect, called Tunkers, or Dunkers, now 
nearly extinct. This sect resembles, in one 
important particular, the Baptists, and in others, 
the Friends and Mononists. Like' the former, 
they advocate the doctrines of baptism by im- 
mersion, and like the latter, they refused to 
bear arms, or take the legal oath. Tracing 
their origin to the baptism of John, they made 
the New Testament their only guide in spiritual 
matters, and regarded the Sabbath of the Jews, 
though worshipping on the first day of the 
week, with peculiar veneration. In imitation 
of Christ's example, they administered the 
eucharist at night. Singular and remarkable 
as were their religious tenets, their outward 
appearance was no less so. The men wore 
long beards, and dressed in the coarsest appa- 
rel, disdaining to appear in the habiliments of 
the "children of vanity." 

In 17 19, the germ of this establishment, con- 
sisting of eight or ten persons, led by an indi- 
vidual named Mack, removed from Creyfeld, in 
northern Italy, to Germantown, Pa., where it 
increased rapidly. Schism, the bane of all reli- 
gious associations, soon disturbed the harmony 
which had hitherto marked their progress. 
One, more adroit than the rest, succeeded in 
fomenting a quarrel, which resulted in a sepa- 
ration of the members — and the settlement at 
Ephrata was the consequence. 

In all respects, these were a peculiar people. 
Their property was held in common — marriage 



168 HARRISBUEG. 

was forbidden. The sexes lived apart, and sub- 
sisted upon vegetables only : slept on benches, 
with wooden billets for pillows : were constant 
and fervent in the performance of their devo- 
tional duties ; and exceedingly austere in their 
general deportment. 

Adams, — A village of Cocalico township, 
Lancaster county, containing twenty-five or 
thirty buildings, including stores, taverns, &c. 

Reading.* 



HARRISBURG. 

This is an incorporated town — the present 
capital of Pennsylvania, and seat of justice of 
Dauphin county. ■ 

Its position, on the east bank of the Susque- 
hanna, is elevated, and commands an extensive 
view of that beautiful river, and adjoining 
country. From Capitol hill, the site of the 
state buildings, may be seen one of the finest 
landscapes in Pennsylvania — embracing a wide 
extent of cultivated country — swelling hills — 
the river, with its many islands — and the 
mountains in the distance. The town plot is 
regularly laid oW, with streets intersecting at 
right angles. 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS, ETC. 

State Capital, or Legislative Hall. — This 
splendid structure, which occupies the most 
elevated point within the borough, faces the 



HARRISBURO. 169 

river, to which there is a gradual descent. 
The main building is one hundred and eighty 
feet in front, eighty feet in depth, and two sto- 
ries high. The wings, whose fronts stand 
somewhat in advance, and range with the inner 
columns of the principal buildings, are appro- 
priated to the public offices. The whole exte- 
rior of the structure, with its surrounding 
railing and ornamented grounds, presents a 
grand and imposing appearance ; and its inte- 
rior arrangements are correspondent, both in 
design and execution, and admirably adapted 
to the purposes for which they were made. 

County Court House, — This is a large and 
commodious brick building, containing the 
halls of the courts, county offices, &c., and 
formerly occupied as a place of meeting by 
the legislature. It has a handsome cupola, 
with a bell. 

County Prison, — a large stone building with 
a spacious yard, inclosed by a high stone wall. 

Lancasterian School House. — A large two- 
story brick building, erected at the expense of 
the state. About one-third of the pupils in 
this institution pay for their tuition ; the re- 
mainder are taught gratuitously. 

Banks, — There are two banks in Harris- 
burg, viz. : the Harrisburg Bank, and a branch 
of the Pennsylvania Bank of Philadelphia. 

Churches. — Of these the Lutherans have 
one ; the Presbyterians one ; the Episcopalians 
one ; the German Reformed Congregation one ; 
15 



170 ROUTE TO 

the Roman Catholics one ; the Methodists one ; 
the Baptists one ; and the People of Colour 
have one. All of these are neat, and some of 
them are splendid structures. 

Masonic Hall. — A large and elegant edifice. 

Market House. — This is situated near the 
centre of the town, at the intersection of two 
of its principal streets. 

Harrisburg Bridge. — Over the Susquehan- 
na, is a fine wooden structure, supported by 
stone abutments and piers. It extends from 
the town to an island in the river, and thence 
to the opposite bank. It is two thousand eight 
hundred and seventy-six feet long, forty feet 
wide, and is elevated about fifty feet above the 
surface of the river. Cost $155,000 ; $90,000 
of which were subscribed by the state. 

There are eight or ten printing offices in 
Harrisburg, from most of which newspapers 
are issued ; semi-weekly during the session of 
the legislature ; and weekly during the recess. 
Hotels, taverns and grog-shops abound here. 
There are no less than four within thirty yards 
of each other ; one at each corner of two of 
the principal streets : a " coincidence," no 
doubt, peculiar to this highly favoured bor- 
ough. 

The population of Harrisburg, with its sub- 
urbs, in 1830, was 4,311. It is now (1840) 
probably not less than 5,000. 

Measures are now in progress for supplying 
the town with water from the Susquehanna. 
The basins are situated a short distance north 
of the CapitoL 



CHAMBERSBURG. 171 



ROUTES FROM HARRISBURG. 

From Harrishurg to Chamberslurg, by Rail 
Road. 

Carlisle, ... 18 

Stoughstown, . . . 13 31 

Shippensburg, . . . 7 38 

Chambersburg, . . . 11 43 



Carlisle. — An incorporated town, and seat 
of justice of Cumberland County. It is situa- 
ted about one mile from the Conadogvvinct 
creek, and eighteen miles from the Susque- 
hanna. Population about 4,000. The town 
was laid off in 1751, but did not improve 
much until after the revolutionary war. With- 
in the last thirty years it has improved rapidly. 
The streets intersect each other at right an- 
gles, and are generally well filled with neat and 
substantial brick and stone houses. Dickinson 
College, the most prominent object of Carlisle, 
occupies a commanding position in the west- 
ern part of the town. It is an elegant struc- 
ture, built of limestone, four stories high, and 
one hundred and fifty feet in length. After 
languishing for many years, and ultimately 
suspending its labours in 1816, the college 
was rc-opened in 1821, under the most favour- 
able circumstances, and is now in successful 
operation. The other public buildings are, 
eight or ten handsome churches ; court-house ; 
county offices ; market-house ; old barracks, 



17^-i 



ROUTE TC» 



&c. Among the other objects of interest, are 
the Sulphur Springs, four miles north from 
Carlisle; and nearer the town is another, called 
the Hogshead Spring. The basin of the latter 
resembles an inverted cone ; from the bottom 
of which the water is supplied, and maintains 
a nearly uniform level. 

About one mile west from the town is a 
cave; such as are common to limestone re- 
gions. Its two principal chambers are each 
about one hundred feet in length ; and varying 
in height from six to fifty feet. 

Stoughstown, a small hamlet of twelve or 
fifteen houses. 

Shippensburg, a large and flourishing town 
of Cumberland county, containing about 1,700 
inhabitants, and nearly 300 buildings, includ- 
ing four churches and several mills. 

Chambersbursr,* 



From Harrisburg to Pittsburg, by Canal and 
Portage Rail-road. 



' Gap of the Blue Mountain, 




5 


Port Lyon, 


3 


8 


Petersburg, 


7 


15 


Duncan's Island, 


2 


17 


Newport, . 


10 


27 


Thompsontown, 


11 


38 


Mexico, 


7 


45 


.MifHin, 


4 


49 



PITTSBURG. 



173 



o 



fLewistown, 

Waynesburg, 

Huntingdon, 

Petersburg', . 

Alexandria, . 

Williamsburg, 

Frankstown, 
(.Hollidaysburg, 

Gap of the Allegany Mountain, 
C Johnstown, . 

ILockport, 
Chesnut Hill, 
I Blairsville, 
J Saltzburg, 
I Warrentown, 
Leeciiburg, . 
Allegany Aqueduct, 
Logan's Ferry, . 

^Pittsburg, 



14 63 

14 77 
29 106 

7 113 

7 120 
12 132 
10 142 

3 145 
12 157 
25 182 

17 199 
5 204 

8 2l2 
16 228 
J 2 240 
10 250 

3 253 

15 268 

18 286 



Gap of the Blue Mountain. — With the excep- 
tion of the ridge, which forms the falls of the 
Delaware, Schuylkill, &c., the Blue Mountain 
may be regarded as the south-eastern ridge of 
the Allegany system. Broken and torn assun- 
der by the Susquehannah river, the mountain 
here presents a magnificent scene, combining 
some of the wildest and grandest features of 
nature with some of t!ie results of man's ingenu- 
ity. The canal which runs along the bank of 
the river, and at the foot of the mountain, is 
separated from the former by an enormous 
stone wall, which extends to the dam at Dun- 
can's Island. 

15* 



174 ROUTE TO 

Port Lyon, formerly called Dauphin, a 
thriving village of Dauphin county, situated on 
the east bank of the Susquehanna, at the out- 
let of Stony creek. It contains about one 
hundred and fifty inhabitants ; chiefly engaged 
in the coal trade; and is the principal depot of 
the Dauphin and Susquehanna Coal Company, 
whose mines are connected with the village by 
the Stony Creek Rail-road. 

Petersburg, a village of Perry county, on 
the west bank of the Susquehanna, contain- 
ing about 350 inhabitants. 

Duncari's Island, at the confluence of the 
Susquehanna and the Juniata. The Central 
Division of the PennsylvaniaCanal after crossing 
Duncan's Island leaves the Susquehanna, and 
enters the Juniata valley, which is pursued un- 
til it reaches the eastern base of the Allegany 
mountain. On leaving Duncan's Island, tlie 
traveller reaches a most romantic region, having 
the Juniata and the ever-varying scenery of 
its bold and picturesque banks constantly in 
view; now swelling into gentle hills, diversified 
by cultivated fields and majestic trees ; now 
rising abruptly into mountain-peaks, whose 
primeval forests, untrod by man, still maintain 
their ground ; now subsiding into plains and 
valleys, studded in every direction by towns and 
villages, presenting altogether a scene peculiarly 
charming. 

Newport. — A village of Perry county, with a 
population of about 150. 

Thonipsontown, in Juniata county, contains 
about fifty or sixty buildings, including several 
taverns, stores, &.C., and about 350 inhabitants. 



PITTSBURG. 175 

Mexico, a small village of Juniata county, 
situated on the north bank of the Juniata, and 
on the line of the Pennsylvania Canal. 

Mifflin, the seat of justice of Juniata county, 
situated on the left bank of the Juniata. 

Lewistown, an incorporated town and spat of 
justice of Mifflin county. The town, which 
contains about 2,000 inhabitants, is regularly 
laid off with the streets intersecting at right 
angles. There are within the borough limits 
about five hundred dwelling-houses, four or 
five places of worship, and an extensive edifice 
for the accommodation of the courts and coun- 
ty offices. The town is beautifully situated 
on the north bank of the Juniata, surrounded 
by the romantic scenery which characterises 
the entire Juniata valley. 

Wayneshurg, a village of Mifflin county, 
contains about 200 inhabitants, with a Presby- 
terian church, six or eight stores, as many 
taverns, and several mills. 

Huntingdon, an incorporated town of Hun- 
tingdon county, of which it is the seat of jus- 
tice. It contains about 1,000 inhabitants, with 
several fine churches, court-house, jail, acade- 
my, three printing offices, from each of which 
is issued a weekly journal ; and every other 
ingredient of a large and thriving town. 

Petersburg, a town of Huntingdon county, 
on the Frankstown Branch of the Juniata, con- 
taining about 250 inhabitants. The celebrated 
Juniata Forge is situated in this town. 



176 ROUTE TO 

Alexandria, an incorporated town of Hun- 
tingdon county, with a population of about 
200 ; three churches ; and the usual factories ; 
workshops; and more than the usual number of 
taverns. 

Williamshurg, an incorporated town of Hun- 
tingdon county, contains upwards of one hun- 
dred and thirty buildings of various kinds, in- 
cluding five churches, two extensive and sever- 
al minor schools, workshops, taverns, &,c. 

FranJcstown, a village of Huntingdon coun- 
ty, containing about 300 inhabitants. 

HoUidaysburg, a thriving town, situated at 
the western terminus of the Central Canal, in 
Huntingdon county, containing 400 inhabi- 
tants. Here the traveller by this route, leaves 
the canal, and commences the ascent of the 
Allegany mountain, by the Portage Rail-road. 
This is a most interesting part of the route, not 
only on account of the wildness and beauty of 
the scenery, but also of the excitement, min- 
gled with vague apprehension, which takes 
possession of the traveller in passing this won- 
der of the internal improvements of Pennsyl- 
vania. In a few hours the passenger is raised 
fourteen hundred feet of vertical height, and 
lowered eleven hundred and seventy-one feet 
of vertical descent, by means of complicated 
machinery. (A very elaborate and satisfactory 
description of the Portage Rail-road is contain- 
ed in a general account of the internal improve- 
ments of the United States, published in New 
York, by T. R. Tanner.) 



PITTSBURG. 177 

Gap of the Allegany Mountain. — In passing 
this gap, the Portage Rail-road attains an ele- 
vation of 2,390 feet above the ocean, and 1,399 
feet above Hollidaysburg ; vs^hich is overcome 
by ten inclined planes, and other grades more 
or less inclined according to the undulations of 
the surface. On the western declivity, is a 
magnificent tunnel, 900 feet in length, having 
a double track along its whole length, cut 
through the solid rock, or its equivalent. 

Johnstown, a town of Cambria county, and 
point of junction of the Portage Rail-road and 
the Western Division of the Pennsylvania 
Canal. Since the completion of these works, 
the town has been extensively improved, and 
is now one of the most important and thriving 
points in the interior. Its plan is regular, and 
the streets, which cross each other at right an- 
gles, are spacious and well adapted to the in- 
creasing trade of the place. Population about 
1,000. 

Lockport, a new and improving town on the 
Kiskiminitas, erected since the completion of 
the canal. It contains several fine houses, 
which, having been recently built, present a 
remarkably neat and fresh appearance. 

Chesnut Hill, one of the parallel ridges of 
the Allegany system. It extends from the 
Maryland line, in a north-east direction, through 
the counties of Fayette, Westmoreland, Indi- 
ana, &c. 

Blair sville. An incorporated town of Indi- 
ana county, situated on the Kiskiminitas, con- 



178 EOUTE TO 

taining about 800 inhabitants, five or six places 
of worship, and several substantial brick and 
stone buildings. "The Blairsville Recorder" 
is published here. 

Saltzburg, a town of Indiana county, fa- 
mous for its manufacture of salt; containing 
about 200 inhabitants. 

Warrentown, a small village of Armstrong 
county, on the Kiskiminitas, consisting of 
about thirty houses. 

Leechhurg, a little town of Armstrong coun- 
ty, on the Western Canal. 

Allegany Aqueduct. — This spletidid work, 
conveys the Western Division of the Pennsyl- 
vania Canal across the Allegany river. 

Logan^s Ferry, a noted crossing place over 
the Allegany river, eighteen miles above Pitts- 
burg. 

Pittshurg.* 



From Harrisburg to Havre De Grace, by 
Canal. 

Highspire,* ... 6 

Middletown* . . .39 

Falmouth* . . . . 4 13 

Bainbridge,* . . . 4 17 



FAREANDVII.LE. 



179 



Marietta,* . 
Columbia,* 
Muddy Creek, 
Deer Creek, 
Havre De Grace,* 



G 23 

3 26 

22 48 

55 103 

8 111 



From Harrisburg to Farrandville, by Canal. 



Port Lyon, 

Petersburg', 

Duncan's Island, 

Montgomery, 

Liverpool, 

Selin's Grove, 

Sunbury, 

Northumberland, 

Lewisburg, . 

Milton, 

Muncyboro, 

Williamsport, 

Jersey Shore, 

Dunnstown, 

Farrandville, 



7 


15 


2 


17 


8 


25 


6 


31 


17 


48 


6 


54 


2 


56 


7 


63 


5 


68 


16 


84 


14 


98 


15 


113 


10 


123 


6 


129 



Port Lyon.* 

Petersburg.* 

Duncan^s Island.* 

Montgomery, a small settlement which de- 
rives its name from the proprietor of a ferry 
across the Susquehanna, in Perry county. 



180 ROUTE TO 

Liverpool, a town in Perry county, on the 
right bank of the Susquehanna, contains about 
one hundred buildings, and extensive iron 
works. 

Selinsgrove, a town of Union county, situ- 
ated on the west bank of the Susquehanna. It 
contains about one hundred and thirty build- 
ings, including a church, stores, «&c., and 800 
or 900 inhabitants. 

Sunbury, seat of justice of Northumberland 
county, on the east bank of the Susquehanna. 
It occupies a beautiful situation, about two 
miles below the confluence of the north and 
west branches of the Susquehanna ; which is 
here improved by a dam 2,783 feet in length ; 
erected for the passage of the Pennsylvania 
Canal. The town contains three hundred and 
fifty buildings; several churches; county of- 
fices, &c. The Danville and Pottsville Rail- 
road terminates here. About a mile north 
of the town is a fine bridge across the east 
branch, which connects Sunbury with 

Northumberland ; a neat and thriving town 
of near two hundred buildings, situated at the 
junction of the two branches, where the Susque- 
hanna, North and West Branch Canals unite. 
Since the completion of the canals, the town 
has improved rapidly, and now enjoys an ex- 
tensive trade. 

Lewisburg, a town of Union county, situated 
on the right bank of the West Branch, near 
the outlet of Buffalo creek. In addition to 
about two hundred and fifty dwellings, there 



FARRANDVILLE. 181 

are in the town several mills, two churches, 
school-houses, manufactories, &c. A lateral 
canal about half a mile in length, opens a water 
communication with the West Branch Canal. 

Milton, an incorporated town of Northum- 
berland county, on the east brancli of the Sus- 
quehanna. It contains about two hundred and 
fifty dwellings, three churches, several stores, 
and 1,500 inhabitants. 

Muncyboro, formerly Pennsboro, a town of 
Lycoming county, situated on the high ground 
near the left bank of the Susquehanna, and 
about a mile from Muncy Creek. The town, 
which contains about 750 inhabitants, is the 
centre of an extensive manufacturing district ; 
for which it is the principal depository. 

Williamsport, seat of justice of Lycoming 
county, on the north bank of the west branch 
of the Susquehanna. It contains about two 
hundred and fifty buildings, of every sort ; in- 
cluding the court-house, county offices, two 
churches, &;c. In addition to the Pennsylva- 
nia Canal, which passes through the town, 
there are two important rail-roads, leading, 
one towards the north, and the other to the 
east; the former, called the VViJliamsport and 
Elmira Rail-road, connects the town with the 
village of Elmira, on the Tioga river ; and the 
latter with Tamaqua, the northern terminus of 
the Little Schuylkill Rail-road, of Schuylkill 
county. 

Jersey Shore, an incorporated town on the 
West Branch, containing one liundred and 
thirty buildings, and about 700 inhabitants. 
16 



182 



ROUTE TO 



Dunnstown, seat of justice of CliHton county, 
a small village on the left bank of the West 
Branch, containing about 150 inhabitants. 

Farrandville, a new town, situated at the 
western end of the West Branch Canal. Its 
site was, until recently, little else than a mere 
wilderness ; but owing to the discovery of coal 
and iron, which here abound in inexhaustible 
quantities, it has become a thriving town, and 
bids fair to engross the entire trade of that re- 
gion. (The distance by the stage route from 
Harrisburg to Sunbury and Northumberland, 
is nearly the same as that by the canal.) 



From Harrisburg to Wilkesbarre, by Canal. 



Northumberland, 


56 


Danville, 


12 68 


Catawissa, 


9 77 


Bloomsburg, 


4 81 


Berwick, . . 


12 93 


Nan ti coke Falls, 


18 111 


Wilkesbarre, 


7 118 



Northumberland.* 

Danville, seat of justice of Columbia county, 
situated on the right bank of the north branch 
of the Susquehanna. It contains about 1,000 
inhabitants, with the usual complement of stores 
and taverns, an Episcopal and a Presbyterian 
church, academ}', &c. It is proposed to con- 
struct a rail-road from the town to the rail-road 
from Sunbury to Pottsville. 



WILKESBAREE. 183 

Catawissa, a town of Columbia county, at 
the junction of the Catawissa creek with the 
Susquehanna. Its population, which in 1830 
did not exceed 500, now amounts to 1,000. 
This rapid increase may be ascribed to the 
completion of the canal and the Little Schuyl- 
kill and Catawissa Rail-road, which pass 
through the town, and give it a business-like 
appearance. 

Bloomsburg, also on the canal and rail-road, 
is a pleasant little town of Columbia county, 
containing about 600 inhabitants. 

Berwick, an incorporated town of Columbia 
county, on the right bank of the Susquehanna, 
co.ntains 800 inhabitants. The town is con- 
nected with the village of Nescopeck, on the 
north bank of the river, by a fine bridge, twelve 
hundred and sixty feet in length. 

NaniicoJce Falls, of the Susquehanna, in Wy- 
oming valley. 

Wilkesbarre, an incorporated town and seat 
of justice of Luzerne county, on the left or east 
bank of the Susquehanna. The public build- 
ings, consisting of the court-house and other 
county buildings, occupy a square, whose cor- 
ners are intersected by the four principal 
streets ; thus forming with its sides, angles of 
45°. Its plan in other respects is regular and 
well arranged. Besides the county buildings, 
there are an academy, a Methodist meeting, 
house, an Episcopal church, a bank, and about 
one hundred and fifty other buildings. 



184 ROUTE TO 

The town was laid out about the year 1775, 
by Colonel John Diirkee, from whom it recei- 
ved its name, in compliment to Wilkes and 
Barrc, two celebrated members of the British 
parliament, favourable to the American cause 
during- the revolution. 

The valley of Wyoming in which the town 
is situated, is a real natural curiosity. The 
Susquehanna river enters the Allegany sys- 
tem of mountains at Towanda, by breaking 
the western chain. Pursuing a south-east 
course of fifty miles from Towanda, the great 
volume of waters in its rocky bed rolls through 
several chains in rapid succession, and finally 
enters the Wyoming valley, by a very marked 
mountain pass, above the mouth of Lackawan- 
nock creek. Here the river turns at right an- 
gles, and flows SW. seventy miles, to where the 
two great branches unite between Northumber- 
land and Sunbury. The particular valley of 
Wyoming is a continuation of that of Locka- 
wannock, and commences about twenty-five 
miles NE. from Wilkesbarre, extending seven 
or eight miles SW. of that village. It is there- 
fore, something above thirty-two miles long, 
with a mean width of two and a half. After 
winding down this vale nine miles, the Susque- 
hanna, passes Wilkesbarre, and ibelow the 
village six miles, again breaks through the 
same ridge by which it entered. The latter 
pass or gap has been evidently first formed, and 
gradually lowered by abrasion. Above and 
below Wilkesbarre, extensive alluvial flats, of 
different elevations extend, having every ap- 
pearance of once forming the bottom of stand- 
ing water. Wilkesbarre itself stands on one 
of these alluvial plains, eighteen or twenty feet 



WILKESBARRE. 185 

above the ordinary level of the adjacent stream. 
The plains indeed, here, as every where else, 
along the upper Susquehanna, though differing 
in elevation, are generally in two stages. The 
lower, and more recent, is still exposed to occa- 
sional submersion, and is composed of soil but 
little admixed with rounded pebble. The se- 
cond stage is elevated above any rise that can 
now take place of the waters of the Susque- 
hanna, and is formed by a congeries of round- 
ed and amorphous stones and sand. 

From these plains the mountains rise abrupt- 
ly, though very seldom in precipices, and are 
mostly clothed with timber to their summits. 
Bald peaks, and precipices, though not frequent, 
do, however, present themselves, and give vari- 
ty to this truly picturesque region. 

Scenery every where richly deserving more 
attention than it has received, presents in the 
Wyoming valley an assemblage of natural 
beauties that cannot be viewed without the 
most intense interest. Here at one coup-de-oeil, 
are combined, the river, winding its fine volume 
through meadows and fields; alluvial plains 
relieved by swells of all forms, and on all sides 
mountains raising their broken and steep sides 
to the clouds. 

The mineral wealth of this mountain valley 
is as remarkable as its natural attractions. Iron 
and mineral coal abound. The formation is 
secondary ; the rocks inclining to the SE. The 
species of coal, anthracite, lies imbedded in 
inclined strata, from two or three, to twenty 
feet in thickness, and in innumerable quanti- 
ties. 

The Valley of Wyoming is not only inter- 
esting in a physical point of view, but posses- 
16* 



186 EOUTE TO 

ses peculiar interest, as the theatre of many 
tragic scenes in early times. 

In the month of July, 1778, the settlement 
at Wyoming, composed of persons chiefly from 
Connecticut, was reduced by the tories and 
Indians to a state of desolation and horror, 
almost beyond description. The settlement, 
consisting of about one thousand families, after 
an ineffectual resistance, was laid waste, and 
many of its inhabitants inhumanly massacred, 
amid the yells of their savage foes, and their 
no less savage allies — the tories. The condi- 
tions of the capitulation were wholly disregard- 
ed by the British and savage forces, and after 
the fort had surrendered, all kinds of barbarities 
were committed by them. The village of 
Wilkesbarre, then a mere hamlet, was burnt ; 
men and their wives were separated from each 
other, and carried into captivity; their proper- 
ty was plundered or destroyed ; and the entire 
valley depopulated and laid waste. 

Such of the inhabitants as succeeded in ef- 
fecting their escape, were compelled to proceed 
on foot sixty or seventy miles through the 
Great Swamp, since called the " Shades of 
Death," nearly destitute of food and clothing. 
A number perished on the journey ; principally 
women and children. Some died of their 
wounds ; others wandered from the path in 
search of food, and were lost. 



From Harrisburg to Reading, by Stage. 

Hummelstown, ... 9 

Palmyra, . . . . 6 15 

Millerstown, . . . 5 20 



READING. 



187 



Lebanon, 

Myerstown, . 
Stouchestown, 
Womelsdorf, 
Sinking Spring, 
Reading, 



5 


25 


6 


31 


5 


36 


2 


38 


9 


47 


4 


51 



Hummelstown, a town of Dauphin county, 
on the east bank of Svvatara creek. It con- 
tains about 800 inhabitants, chiefly Germans, 
or the descendants of Germans. 

Palmyra, a village near the western confines 
of Lebanon county, in which it is situated, 
containing some thirty-five or forty buildings. 

Miller stoion, in Lebanon county, on the 
Quitapahilla creek, contains one hundred and 
forty buildings, and about 700 inhabitants. 

Lebanon, a thriving and busy town, and seat 
of justice of Lebanon county. The houses are 
generally of biick or stone ; and the streets in- 
tersecting a' right angles, give to the whole a 
neat and regular appearance. Its population 
at present is about 2,500 ; mostly Germans. 

The town is divided into two nearly equal 
parts by the Union Canal. It contains, in ad- 
dition to the court-house, five or six handsome 
churches, academies, breweries, &c. 

Myerstown, in Lebanon county, contains one 
hundred and thirty buildings ; including a Lu- 
theran church, stores, taverns, »&c. 



188 CHAMBERSBURG. 

Stouchestown, in Berks county, near its 
south-western boundary, is an inconsiderable 
village, having thirty or thirty-five houses. 

Womelsdorf, an active and flourishing town 
in Berks county. Its population, chiefly Ger- 
man, now about eight hundred, is rapidly in- 
creasing in number. 

Sinking Spring, a village of Berks county, 
which derives its name from a small stream, 
which, after flowing a few miles, like many 
others in limestone regions, sinks among the 
rocks, and disappears. 

Reading.* 



CHAMBERSBURG. 

An important and flourishing town of 
Franklin county, of which it is the seat of jus- 
tice. The Cumberland Valley Rail-road from 
Harrisburg, and that to Williamsport, in Mary- 
land, unite here, and afford important commer- 
cial facilities to the place. 

It is finely situated, in the valley of the Con- 
ecocheague creek, a confluent of the Potomac, 
which furnishes extensive water power. Chara- 
bersburg is one of the oldest towns in this part 
of the state, having been founded in 1764. It 
contains about six hundred and fift;y buildings ; 
many of which are handsome and substantial 
structures ; and the present population is not 



KOUTES FROM CHAMEERSBURG. 189 

less than 3,500. The public buildings consist 
of a brick court-house, with the usual offices 
attached ; ten churclies ; an academy ; a 
bank; a masonic hall ; several grist, saw and 
fulling mills ; paper, woollen, cotton, and many 
other manufactories; forming altogether one 
of the most active and enterprising places in 
the interior. 



ROUTES FROM CHAMEERSBURG. 
From Chambersburg to Pittsburg, by Stage. 



M'Connellstown, 


19 


Bedford, 


. 31 50 


Shellsburg, . 


. 9 59 


Stoystown, 


. 19 78 


Laughlintown, 


. 16 94 


Greensburg, 


. 23 117 


Pittsburg, 


• 32 149 



M^Connellsiown, in Bedford county, situated 
in the valley, between Cove Mountain and 
Scrub ridge ; present population about 600. 

Bedford, seat of justice of Bedford county, 
Pennsylvania, is situated among the Allegany 
mountains, on the main road from Philadelphia 
to Pittsburg; two hundred miles from the for- 
mer, and ninety-eight miles from the latter 
place. Population about 1,000. Bedford has 
long been celebrated for its mineral springs, 
and is a favourite resort for invalids and others 



190 ROUTES FROM CHAMBERSBURG. 

in search of health or pleasure during the sum- 
mar season. These springs, which are used in 
chronic diseases, generally, contain carbonic 
acid, magnesia, sulphate of lime, muriate of 
soda, carbonate of iron, lime, &c. The water 
possesses laxative and sudorific powers in 
a high degree, and often acts as an emetic. 
The accommodations here are upon an exten- 
sive and respectable scale, and afford to visiters 
every convenience found in similar establish- 
ments elsewhere. 

Shellsburg, a small village, consisting of six- 
ty or seventy houses, in Bedford county. 

Stoystown, an incorporated town of Somerset 
county, containing about 300 inhabitants, a 
German Reformed church, with the customary 
supply of taverns. 

Laughlintown, in Westmoreland county, 
containing about sixty buildings. 

Greensiurg, an incorporated town, and seat of 
justice of Westmoreland county, contains 
about two hundred dwellings, three or four 
churches, academies, &c. 

Pittsburg.* 



From Chambershurg to WUliamsport, by 
Rail.road. 

Greencastle, .... 13 

Williamsport, . . . 17 30 



i 



READING. 191 

Greencastle, an incorporated town of Frank- 
lin county, of about two hundred and fifty 
buildings, including five churches, several 
schools, and several factories. Its present 
population is about 1,500, and rapidly increas- 
ing. Greeencastle is favourably situated in the 
midst of a fertile and productive limestone re- 
gion. 

Williamsport, a neat little town on the left 
bank of the Potomac, in Washington county, 
Maryland. 



READING. 

This town, the seat of justice of Berks coun- 
ty, on the left bank of the Schuylkill, is conve- 
niently situated for interna! commerce, being 
the entrepot of vast quantities of grain and lum- 
ber, which are brouglit here and conveyed 
hence by the canals and rail-road to Philadel- 
phia and its vicinity. The town is regularly 
planned and very neatly built, amid a well cul- 
tivated country. A large portion of the inhabi- 
tants are Germans or the descendants of Ger- 
mans, and are justly distinguished for indus- 
trious and orderly habits. 

The improvements by canals and rail-roads, 
just completed, conduce in a high degree to the 
prosperity of Reading, and must render it one 
of the most flourishing towns of the state. Pop- 
ulation, according to the census of 1840, 8,714. 

The Lutherans, Episcopalians, German Re- 
formed, Presbyterians, Universalists, Baptists, 



192 ROUTE TO 

Friends, Methodists and Catholics, have church- 
es in Reading, which is in every respect abun- 
dantly supplied with every appendage of a well 
ordered town. 

Among ,the numerous manufactures of the 
place, may be mentioned those of hats, carri- 
ages, cabinet work, shoes, stone ware, and many 
others. 

The town is supplied with excellent water, 
by means of iron pipes, which conduct it from 
a copious spring in the rear of the town. 



ROUTES FROM READING. 

Fi-om Reading to Poitsville, hy Stage, 

Hamburg, .... 23 

Port Clinton, . . . 4 27 

SchuylkiU-Haven, . . . 10 37 

Pottsville, . . . . 5 42 



Hamburg, a town of Berks county, situated 
at the base of the Blue Mountain, a mile or 
two below the Schuylkill Water Gap. It con- 
tains about one hundred houses, including a 
church, used in common by the Lutherans and 
German Presbyterians, and nearly 700 inhabi- 
tants. The Schuylkill Canal, from Philadel- 
phia to Pottsville, passes near the village. 

Port Clinton, a little village of recent origin, 
situated at the forks of the Little and Big 
Schuylkill, in the southern borders of Schuyl- 



EASTON. 



193 



kill county. The Schuylkill Canal passes 
through, and the Little Schuylkill Rail-road 
commences at Port Clinton. 

Schuylkill Haven, a town of Schuylkill coun- 
ty, on the principal branch of Scliuylkill river, 
containing by the census of 1840, 990 inhabi- 
tants, about one hundred and fifty dwellings and 
other erections, for the accommodation of the 
Schuylkill Navigation Company, whose canal 
passes through the town. The West Branch 
Rail-road extends from this town to the coal 
mines at the foot of the Broad mountain. 

Pottsville.* 



From Reading to Easton, via Bethlehem, by 
Stage. 



Kutztown, 


17 


Trexlerstown, 


9 26 


AUentown, 


8 34 


Bethlehem, . , 


6 40 


Easton, 


10 50 



Kutztown, an incorporated town of Berks 
county, containing about one hundred and 
forty buildings, including a church, and nearly 
600 inhabitants. 



Trexlerstown, a mere hamlet of about a do- 
zen houses, in Lehigh county. 
17 



194 ROUTE TO 

Allentown, seat of justice of Lehigh county^ 
oa the Little Lehigh creek, near the Lehigh 
river. It occupies a commanding position, and 
is regularly laid off, with streets intersecting 
at right angles, having an open square in the 
centre. The public buildings consist of a 
court-house, county offices, a jail, bank, and 
several handsome churches. Episcopalian, Lu- 
theran, German Reformed and Presbyterian ; 
an incorporated academy ; besides three hun- 
dred dwelling houses; with factories, work- 
shops, &c. Population about 2,000. A chain 
bridge over the Lehigh near this town, is an 
object worthy of attention. It is two hundred 
and thirty feet in length, and thirty feet wide. 

Bethlehem, a town of Northampton county, 
fifty miles north of Philadelphia. Its inhabi- 
tants consist, principally, of Moravians or Uni. 
tas Fratrium ; whose most extensive establish- 
ment was fixed here, by Count Zinzendorf, in 
1741. The town is characterised by a degree 
of neatness and order seldom surpassed, which, 
from the peculiar regulations and habits of the 
people, are readily maintained. It is supplied 
with water from the Lehigh, by means of for- 
cing pumps, erected nearly ninety years since. 
The dwellings, though not remarkable for ele- 
gance of construction, are neat and comforta- 
ble. The society has one house for public 
worship, a separate apartment for the residence 
of the single brethren, and another for the sis- 
ters. There likewise, is a seminary for the 
education of young ladies, in which are taught 
all the useful, and some of the ornamental 
branches of education ; and so great is the re- 
putation of these schools, for the attention paid 



BETHLEHEM. 1 95 

to the morals, as well as the literary improve- 
ment of tlie pupils, as to invite them from Piiil- 
adelphia and other capital cities. The scenery 
around Bethlehem, and the primitive manners 
of its inhabitants, give the place an aspect of 
peculiar interest to the eye of a traveller, and 
render it eminently calculated to refine the 
taste, and preserve the morals of the students. 
It may be doubted whether the world affords a 
more pleasing scene than can be enjoyed on a 
fine summer evening in Bethlehem, when the 
groups of beautiful, simply, but elegantly dress- 
ed, and happy young females, are " let loose 
from school." 

The town is situated on the north or left 
bank of the river Lehigh, in a township of the 
same name, at the mouth of Manockicy creek, 
on ground descending towards the river, and 
towards the creek, which gives it a fine appear- 
ance, when viewed from the south or west. 

It is closely built on three streets, the princi- 
pal one extending north and south, and the 
other two running from this towards the east. 
It contains a large stone church, built in the 
Gothic style, and plastered outside with a grey 
cement. The church is one hundred and forty- 
two feet long, and sixty-eight feet wide, of a 
proportionable height, and having a small tower 
rising from the centre of the top, surmounted 
with an elegant dome, in which is a small bell. 
It is handsomely furnished in the inside, Jiav- 
ing rows of benches on each side, for the two 
sexes. Their burial ground is in the north- 
east part of the town, and is laid out in regular 
avenues and walks, planted with trees. The 
graves, contrary to the custom of other Chris- 
tians, are laid with their feet to the south. 



196 



ROUTES FROM READING. 



The number of dwelling-houses is one hundred 
and thirty, besides shops and other out-houses. 
Here is a wooden bridge over Lehigh, four 
hundred feet long, with four arches. 

Easton.* 



From Reading to Philadelphia, by Stage. 
(For route by Rail-road, see Philadelphia.) 



Exetertown,* 


7 


Warren sburg,* 
Pottstown,* . 


. 5 12 
. 5 17 


Trap,* 
Norristown,* 


. 10 27 
. 9 36 


Manayunk,* 
Philadelphia,* 


. 9 45 
. 7 52 



From Reading to Philadelphia, by the 
Schulkill Canal, it is 64 miles, and to Pottsville, 
44 miles. 



From Reading to Middletown, by the Union 
Canal. 



Berneville, 


15 


Womelsdorf,* 


. 10 25 


Stouchtown,* 


. 3 28 


Myerstown,* 


. 5 33 


Lebanon,* 


. 8 41 


Middletown,* 


. 38 79 



PiOTTSVILLE. 1 97 

For routes to Lancaster and Harrisburgr, 
aee articles "Lancaster" and " Harrisburg." 



POTTSVILLE, 

A large and flourishing town in Norwegian 
township, Schuylkill county, and is the centre 
of the anthracite coal region, of Pennsylvania. 
The growth of this now important town, which, 
according to the census of 1840, contains 4274 
inhabitants, is almost unprecedented. Its site, 
which in 1822, presented little else than a dense 
forest, is now covered by splendid public and pri- 
vate edifices, and every other appendage of an ex- 
tensive and busy city. The place was incorpora- 
ted in 1828, and includes the towns of Mount 
Carbon and Morrisville. It is situated on the 
principal branch of the Schuylkill, 99 miles 
north-v7est from Philadelphia. The country 
about Pottsville is exceedingly uneven, and a 
large portion of the town itself, like ancient 
Petrai-oMupies a ravine, which has been exca- 
vated in some instances, to obtain the requisite 
sites for building. 

The upper section of the town expands over 
an extensive bottom, which is terminated on 
the north by the abrupt hills which abound 
throughout this entire region. 

The Schuytkill Canal passes by the town, 
which is connected with the innumerable coal 
mines in the vicinity, by rail-roads, extending 
in all directions. 

Pottsville, which possesses a great amount of 
trading capital, has been enriched principally 
by the coal trade, which centres here, and of 
17* 



198 POTTS VILLE. 

course still constitutes its chief dependence, 
though other staples have been added to that of 
coal. 

The anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania, 
will never cease to invite and reward the inves- 
tigation of the naturalist. They consist of 
three distinct and extensive beds or basins, 
wholly detached from each other ; or at least, 
having no visible connection, though perhaps 
closely united in their geological structure. 

The first commences at Mauch Chunk, on 
the Lehigh, in Northampton county, and ex- 
tends in a south-west direction into the valley 
of the Susquehanna, and terminates near Port 
Lyon, on that river. On leaving Mauch 
Chunk, the field gradually expands, and occa- 
sionally sends off lateral branches ; one of 
which reaches Lyken's valley, where mines 
are now worked ; and another proceeds towards 
Port Lyon, near which the Dauphin and Sus- 
quehanna Coal Company has its mines. 

Pottsville is situated in this field, near its 
south-eastern border. 

The second field, about equal in extent to the 
first, commences near the Lehigh, a few miles 
north of the former. Its width here is nearly 
ten miles, and embraces the Beaver Meadow, 
Hazleton, Nesquehoning, and several other 
mines. After proceeding some fifteen or twenty 
miles, the field appears to divide into two prongs 
of unequal lengths ; the lesser one tends towards 
the west ; and the longer, which comprehends 
the Girard estate, advances south-westwardly, 
and approaches to a point within nine miles of 
the Susquehanna. 

The third, or Wyoming coal field, commen- 
ces ia Wayne county, proceeds in a south-west 



POTTS VILLE. 199 

course, intersects and crosses the Susquehanna, 
and is finally lost among the hills of Columbia 
county. The Carbondale mines occupy the 
eastern end of this field, which also includes 
the entire valley of Wyoming, and the town 
of Wilkesbarre. 

With the exception of the western portion 
of the first field, which is bituminous, and a 
small section belonging to the transition class, 
the coal is anthracitous throughout the entire 
region. 

The length of the first field is about seventy- 
five miles, with a mean width of five miles ; 
length of the second, sixty-five miles, and 
width five miles ; and of the third, which 
is in the form of an elongated crescent, is 
sixty miles in length, and five miles in mean 
width. From these elements, it appears that 
the aggregate area of those important sections 
of the state, is one thousand square miles. 
Other fields greatly inferior in size, have been 
discovered ; and it is probable that those we 
have described may be found on further inves- 
tigation into their geognostic characteristics, to 
exceed the limits now assigned to them. The 
subject is one of deep interest, and will not be 
allowed to slumber, whilst any of the accessible 
riches of this interesting region remain to be 
developed. 

Some idea of the value and importance of 
the coal trade may be had from the fact, that 
the sum of $20,000,000 has been expended in 
fitting the four principal outlets from the coal 
region, for the conveyance of this mineral to 
market. This is exclusive of the various minor 
rail-roads and canals, which connect the mines 
with those avenues, the cost of which, if added, 



200 KOUTB TO 

would doubtless swell ths amount to thirty 

MILLLIONS OF DOLLARS, NOW INVESTED IN THE 
TRANSIT DEPARTiMRNT OF THE ANTHRACITE COAL 
TRADE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

That Pottsville, with which we have to do 
at present, should have advanced with unex- 
ampled rapidity, amid the distribution of this 
immense wealth, is by no means surprising. 
Its position, in reference to the most produc- 
tive mines ; at the head of one of the principal 
outlets ; with rail-roads diverging in every di- 
rection ; a hardy and industrious population ; 
and other local advantages ; it could scarcely 
fail of realizing all the anticipations of its 
founders; and the result verifies their predic- 
tions. 

The unsophisticated Dutchmen, by whom 
the country was first settled, must have wit- 
nessed with perfect amazement, those clianges 
which have, as if by magic, transformed their 
" log cabins" and " hard cider" into palaces and 
champaigne; and their fields into mines of 
wealth. They were, doubtless, highly edified, 
when told that their hills and valleys consisted of 
" Anthracite," " carboniferous beds," " red 
shales." " argillaceous sandstones and siliceous 
conglomerates ;" of " fossiliferous, ferruginous 
formations," "fucoides and chert;" that their 
hill tops and sides were neither more nor 
Jess than " antichinal and synclinal aares ;" and 
that, instead of their generic terms for all 
these " natural curiosities," they must learn to 
call them by their right names. Whether they 
have profited by these revelations remains to be 
seen. 



ERTE. 201 

ROUTES FROM POTTSVILLE. 



From Pottsville io Erie, by Rail-road and 
Stage, via Sunbury. 



n5 rMilltown, 
o . Girardvilie, 
^ 1 Mahanoy Mountain, 
Ph (^Sunbury, 


4 


. 9 13 


. 17 30 


. 12 42 


New Berlin, . 


. 11 53 


Hartleyton, • . 


. 9 62 


Millheim, 


. 16 78 


Earleysburg, 


. 12 90 


Bellefonte, 


. 9 99 


Allegany Mountain, . 


. 15 114 


Phillipsburg, 


. 12 126 


Curwinville, 


. 19 145 


Brookville, . 


. 37 182 


Shippensville, 


. 37 219 


Franklin, 


. 18 238 


Meadville, . 


. 25 263 


Waterford, . 


. 23 286 


Erie, 


. 15 301 



Milltown, a village of Schuylkill county, sit- 
uated in the Schuylkill valley. Its inhabi- 
tants are chiefly occupied in the coal business. 

Girardvilie, the principal seat of operations of 
the Girard coal mines, now the property of the 
city of Philadelphia. A coal tunnel, 2,500 feet in 
length, has been excavated on this estate, which 



202 ROUTE TO 

opens a communication between the Mahanoy 
and Shenandoah valleys. 

Mahanoy Mountain, a ridge which divides 
the waters of Shamokin creek from the Maha- 
noy. 

Sunbury,* 

NeiD Berlin, seat of justice of Union county, 
on the north bank of Penn's creek. It contains 
about one hundred buildings, besides a court- 
Ixouse, jail, &c., several churches, and six or 
eight grist mills, which manufacture large quan- 
tities of flour. 

Hartleyton, a small town of about forty 
houses, in Union county. 

MiUheim, a village of Centre county, contain- 
ing about thirty houses. Aaronshurg, on the 
opposite side of Mill creek, may be regarded as 
a part of the town; which, with this addition, 
contains about 400 inhabitants. 

Earleysburg, a mere hamlet of Centre coun- 

Bellefonte, seat of justice of Centre county, 
and the largest town in the county. It is the 
centre of a very extensive iron trade, which is 
prosecuted with great vigour by the enterprising 
inhabitants. The Bald Eagle and Spring creek 
Canal opens a water communication betvi^een 
the town and the West Branch Canal. The 
number of inhabitants, including those of 



ERIE. 203 

Smithfield, an adjoining village, cannot be less 
than 1,000. 

Allegany Mountain. — In crossing over this 
ridge, the traveller attains a height of near- 
ly three thousand feet above the ocean level, 
and then reaches an elevated plateau, which is 
flanked by the mountain, whose mean altitude 
is about two thousand feet. This table has a 
gradual ascent until it reaches the v/estern part 
of Clearfield county, where it begins to decline, 
and is finally terminated by an abrupt descent, 
which conducts to the shore of Lake Erie. 

Phillipsburg, a remarkably neat village, con- 
sisting of sixty or seventy buildings, including 
an Episcopal church, several mills, forge, &c. 

Curwinville, a small village about five miles 
south-west from Clearfield, the seat of justice 
of Clearfield county. 

BrooJiville, seat of justice of Jefferson coun- 
ty, is pleasantly situated at the forks of Red 
Bank creek. It is a new town, having been 
built since 1830; previous to which time, its 
site was a complete wilderness. In addition 
to the county buildings, there are about fifty 
houses of various kinds ; which being new, 
give to the village a very neat and fresh ap- 
pearance. 

Shippensville, a small village of Clarion 
county, consisting of twenty or twenty-five 
buildings. 

Franklin, seat of justice of Venango county, 



204 ROUTE TO 

situated on the right bank of French creek, 
near its confluence with the Allegany. It con- 
tains about one hundred and twenty buildings, 
including the court and other county buildings, 
an academy, twelve or fifteen stores, mills, &c. 
forming altogether a neat and thriving place. 

Meadville, the seat of justice of Crawford 
county, and next to Erie, the largest town in 
north-western Pennsylvania. It is handsome- 
ly situated on the east bank of French creek, 
over which a substantial bridge has been erect- 
ed. In the centre of the town is a beautiful 
open area, used by the people as a promenade. 
Immediately adjoining the square is the court- 
house, a remarkably chaste and commodious 
building of stone and brick, surmounted by an 
appropriate cupola, which, with the spire of 
the Presbyterian church, and the Gothic tow- 
ers of that belonging to the Episcopalians, 
give to this place, quite a city-like appear- 
ance. A large and well conducted acade- 
my, a Methodist chapel, the state arsenal, 
and Bentley Hall, (Allegany College) complete 
the list of public buildings. These, with an ex- 
tensive paper-mill and several other prominent 
structures, form an unusual proportion of such 
buildings for a town containing only 1,200 in- 
habitants. Allegany College, which forms a 
striking object among the "lions" of Mead- 
ville, was founded in 1815, and was soon after 
incorporated by the legislature, when $2,000 
were granted, and provision made for the fur- 
ther payment of $5,000 towards the main- 
tainance of the institution. 

Its library, which includes those of the Rev* 
Mr. Bentley, and Judge Winthrop, of Massa- 



POET CARBON. 



205 



chusetts, is one of the most valuable and exten- 
sive collections in the state. 

Waterford, a handsome little town, situated 
near the eastern margin of Lake Baeuf, a beau- 
tiful sheet of water, which falls into French 
creek. 

The town contains about eighty buildings, 
and nearly 500 inhabitants. 

Erie.* 



From Poitsville to Tamaqua, 



Port Carbon, 


2 


Wetherill, 


. 4 6 


Middleport, . 


. 2 8 


Patterson, 


. 2 . 10 


Tuscarora, 


. 2 12 


Tamaqua, 


. 5 17 



Fort Carbon, in Schuylkill county, at the 
junction of Mill creek with the Schuylkill. 
Situated at the head of canal navigation. Port 
Carbon must continue to engross a large share 
of the coal trade of that region. 

Next to Pottsville, it is the largest town in 
the valley ; and if both places continue to in- 
crease with the same rapidity as heretofore, 
they will, ere long, become one city. Port 
Carbon is connected with the little towns of 
Coaquennac, St. Clairsville, and Ravensdale, all 
18 



206 EASTON. 

mining stations, by means of the Mill creek 
rail-road, and its branches. 

Wetherill, 

Middleport, 

Patterson, and 

Tuscarora, are villages in Rush township, of 
Schuylkill county, inhabited chiefly by miners. 

Tamaqua, a village of Schuylkill county, on 
the Little Schuylkill river, at the northern ter- 
minus of the rail-road from Port Clinton. 
Though located in the midst of a wild and hilly 
country, it is rapidly improving, and has be- 
come an important point on the rail-road com- 
munication between Philadelphia and ■ Erie. 
Like its neighbouring villages, Tamaqua is 
mainly indebted to the coal trade for its pros- 
perity. 



EASTON. 

This is by far the largest and most impor- 
tant town in this section of the state, and is the 
seat of justice of Northampton county. It was 
incorporated as a borough in September, 1789, 
and now contains a population of 5,510. The 
town is situated on a point of land formed by 
the Delaware and Lehigh rivers and the Bush- 
kill creek. The streets are laid out at right 
angles to each other, and along the cardinal 



E ASTON. 207 

points. The lower part of the town, near the 
Delaware, is on an elevated level, but the west- 
ern extremity rises by a gradual acclivity, to a 
considerable elevation. The adjacent country 
is bold, broken and romantic. The soil is highly 
productive, and being well cultivated, gives a 
most pleasant aspect to the vicinity of Easton. 
Farm-houses, orchards, fields, and meadows, 
are commingled along the bottoms of the rivers 
and slopes of the adjacent hills. Bushkill creek 
is amongst the finest mill streams in the United 
States. This stream rises eight miles north 
from Nazareth, and has an almost uninterrupt- 
ed fall to the Delaware. Within the borough 
of Easton it passes the Chesnut ridge, and by 
a very winding and precipitous course reaches 
the Delaware, affording a rapid succession of 
mill seats. 

There are within the boundaries of the bo- 
rough, three oil mills, six grist mills, two saw 
mills, two distilleries, three tan-yards and tan- 
neries, one brewery, and thirty-one dry-goods 
and hardware stores. A library formed in 
1811, containing about four thousand volumes. 
A mineralogical cabinet. A college, called 
the Lafayette College, in which the learned lan- 
guages, &c. are taught. Several places of public 
worship ; one for Presbyterians, one for Epis- 
copalians, and two for German Lutherans, &c. 
A court-house, erected in 1758. Four fine 
bridges ; one over the Delaware, a most sub- 
stantial structure, erected at an expense of 
$80,000 ; one, a chain bridge, over the Lehigh, 
on the Philadelphia road ; and two over the 
Bushkill. There are two banks ; one the Easton 
Bank, with a capital of $400,000. The trade 



208 ROUTES FBOM 

of this town is very considerable, especially 
in the article of flour, which constitutes the 
principal staple of Northampton county. 

The Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company 
has located a town on the bank of the Dela- 
ware, immediately below the Lehigh, and at 
the junction of the Delaware and Lehigh Ca- 
nals. It is called South Easton, and promises, 
through the medium of the coal trade, to be- 
come an important place of deposit. The Mor- 
ris Canal of New Jersey, one hundred and 
two miles in length, commences immediately 
opposite Easton, and extends to Jersey City, on 
the Hudson. The Lehigh Canal, eighty-four 
miles long, from Sloddartsville, via Mauch 
Chunk, terminates, and the Delaware Division 
of the Pennsylvania Canal, to Bristol, sixty 
miles, commences at Easton. 



ROUTES FROM EASTON. 

Route from Easton to Philadelphia, see " Phil- 
adelphia." 

Route from Easton to Reading, see " Reading." 



From Easton to Mauck Chunk, and the Coal- 
mines, hy Stage. 

Bethlehem, .... 10 

Kreidersville, . . . 5 15 

Cherryville, . . . 5 20 



EASTON. 



209 



Berlinville, . 
Lehigh Water Gap, 
Lehightown, 
Mauch Chunk, 
Coal Mines, 



22 
23 



11 34 



36 

45 



Bethlehem,* 

Kreidersville, 

Cherryville, and 

Berlinville, are small settlements in North- 
ampton county, scarcely deserving the name of 
towns. 

Lehigh Water Gap, a gap in the Blue moun- 
tain, through which the Lehigh river passes in 
its course towards its recipient, the Delaware. 
The scenery here, is picturesque and romantic 
in a high degree. On each side of the pass 
the mountain reaches an elevation of near- 
ly one thousand two hundred feet above the bed 
of the river, which flows along the base of the 
mountain. The Lehigh Canal winds round the 
hill, whose nearly vertical side has been exca- 
vated for its passage. 

Lehigh Water Gap, a small settlement, con- 
sisting of some fifteen or twenty buildings, sit- 
uated in the gap. 

Lehighton, village, in Northampton county, 
Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Lehigh 
river, about half a mile above the mouth of Ma- 

18* 



210 KOUTE TO 

honing creek. It is thirty -four miles WNW. 
from Easton. In the neighbourhood of this vil- 
lage are some very strong chalybeate springs. 
The vicinity is in tlie highest degree romantic, 
and from the elevation of the ground, might 
become a most salubrious and elegible water- 
ing place in the summer. Near this tov^^n stood 
the old Moravian settlement of Gnaden Hutten, 
on the north bank of the Mahoning, about one 
hundred perches from its mouth, v?here the old 
church is still standing. Here a treaty of 
amity was held in July, 1752, between the Mo- 
ravian brethren, and the Shawnese Indians; 
and on the 24th of November, 1755, the broth- 
ers and sisters were surprised and murdered by 
a party of French Indians. Their grave is still 
marked by a large stone, with a most pathetic 
inscription ; it is on the hill, to the south of the 
village. Nearly opposite Gnaden Hutten, on 
the east side of the river, stand the remains of 
Fort Allen. There is a wooden bridge across 
the Lehigh, two hundred and fourteen feet long, 
and twenty-five feet wide. 

Mauch Chunlc, a town of Northampton coun- 
ty, situated on the right bank of the Lehigh, 
at the foot of Mauch Chunk (Bear) mountain. 
Mauch Chunk, originally founded by the Le- 
high Coal and Navigation Company, has, by 
judicious and prudent management, grown up, 
within a few years, and is now one of the most 
thriving and important places in the state. 

It is the principal entrepot for the coal trade 
of that region ; and until within a few years 
its inhabitants were almost exclusively en- 
gaged either directly or indirectly in that trade. 
Of late, however, the company has relaxed its 



COAL MINES. 211 

rigid discipline, and expanded its field of ope- 
rations. New towns have been built, and oth- 
ers are now contemplated by the company, 
which still maintains its control in these re- 
spects. 

Mauch Chunk, including the adjoining set- 
tlements, has a population of 1,200. It is con- 
nected with the great mine, by a rail-road, nine 
miles in length ; along which, the coal is con- 
veyed in cars by the force of gravity to an in- 
clined plane, seven hundred feet in length, 
with a descent of two hundred feet, at the 
landing in the village, where it is received in 
arks, and thus conveyed to the various marts. 

Mauch Chunk Coal Mine. — This is the prin- 
cipal mine of the Lehigh Company. It is sit- 
uated nine miles west from Mauch Chunk. 
The vein, which is fifty or sixty feet in width, 
lies as a saddle on the top of a hill, nearly as 
high as the principal mountain. The coal is 
removed by quarrying in open day. About 
thirty acres have been worked out from this 
single vein, which have produced upwards of 
1,200,000 tons. There is a neat little village 
near this mine, called Coalville, consisting of 
thirty or forty dwellings, occupied by the mi- 
ners. 

This company's coal lands, amounting to six 
thousand acres, comprise the whole of the 
east end of the first or southern anthracite coal 
field, beginning on the top of the mountain, 
about half a mile from the Lehigh river, and 
near Mauch Chunk and extending without in- 
terruption to Tamaqua, on the Little Schuyl- 
kill, a distance of thirteen to fourteen miles. 
On these lands are found, beginning on the 



212 ROUTE TO 

north side of the Coal Basin, nine veins, from 
five to twenty-eight feet in thickness, mak- 
ing together one hundred and eleven feet. 
On the south side, which has not been so fully 
examined, are found veins of fifty, twenty, fif- 
teen, and nine feet. This coal is now pene- 
trated, from the Room Run Valley, which cuts 
into the mountain on the northern side of the 
Coal Basin, and near to its base, and thus ex- 
poses the veins above-mentioned. 

Connected with the Lehigh Navigation, are 
several rail-roads leading from the various coal 
mines, situated in what are termed the first and 
second coal-fields, whence large quantities of 
anthracite coal are sent to Philadelphia by the 
Lehigh and Delaware Canal, and to New York 
by the Morris and Delaware and Raritan Ca- 
nal. Among these are the Beaver Meadow ; 
Hazleton ; Nesquehoning ; Wilkesbarre ; Mauch 
Chunk ; Buck Mountain ; Sugarloaf, and other 
small rail-roads. 

The geological structure of this coal forma- 
tion is extremely simple. The upper rock is 
commonly a sand-stone, or a fragmentary ag- 
gregate, of which the parts are more or less 
coarse or fine in different situations. In this 
region there is much pudding stone, or con- 
glomerate, and much that would be called 
graywacke, by most geologists. In these ag- 
gregates the parts are of every size, from large 
pebbles to sand. The pebbles are chiefly 
quartz ; and even in the firmest rocks are round, 
and appear to have been worn by attrition. 
The cement is silicious, and the masses fre- 
quently possess great firmness, resembling the 
mill-stone grit, and the sandstones of the En- 
glish coal measures. Beneath this rock there 



NEW YORK. 213 

is usually some variety of argillaceous slate, 
which cointnonly, though not universally, forms 
the roof of the coal ; sometimes the sand-stone 
is directly in contact with the coals, the slate 
beinor omitted. The slate also forms the floor. 



From Easton to the Wind Gap, via Nazareth. 

Nazareth, .... 7 

Wind Gap, . . . . 9 12 



Nazareth, a town of Northampton county 
settled chiefly by the Moravians. It is cele- 
brated for its school for boys, as Bethlehem is 
for girls ; — and like the latter, is a remarkably 
neat and well regulated place. 

Wind Gap, a breach in the Blue mountain, 
near the dividing line of Monroe and North- 
ampton counties. 

The country in the vicinity of the gap is ex- 
ceedingly romantic, and richly deserves the 
notice of the traveller. 



From Easton to New York, hy Stage and Rail- 
Road. 



Phillipsburg, 


1 


Mansfield, 


. 15 16 


Schooley's Mt. Springs, 


. 11 27 



214 



ROUTE TO 



German Valley, 

Chester, 

Mendham, 

Morristown, 

Columbia, 

Cheapside, 

So. Orange, 

Newark, 

Jersey City, 

New York, . 



2 


29 


6 


35 


6 


41 


7 


48 


S 


53 


2 


55 


5 


60 


5 


65 



10 75 
I 76 



Phillipshurg, a village of Warren county, 
New Jersey, immediately opposite Easton, 
with which it communicates by means of a 
fine bridge, over the Delaware. It contains 
about two hundred inhabitants. The Morris 
Canal commences here. 



Mansfield, a pretty little village of forty or 
fifty buildings in Warren county New Jersey. 
It is supplied with water by means of pipes, 
which conduct it to several fountains in the 
village. 

Schooley''s Mountain Springs. A celebrated 
place of resort of invalids and others, in search 
of health or pleasure. The water of these springs, 
which are situated in a small depression of Mus- 
conitong mountain, in Morris county N. J., 
is chalybeate, is strongly marked by the usual 
ferruginous impregnations, and the other cha- 
racteristics of such springs. They are used 
to great advantage in chronic cases and general 
debility. Independent of the benefit to be de- 



NEAV YOKK. 215 

rived from the use of the waters, the great ele- 
vation of the springs (nearly 1100 feet,) produces 
an agreeable temperature which braces and 
invigorates the frame. The accommodations 
here are in no way inferior to other establish- 
ments of the kind elsewhere. There are three 
extensive hotels besides several private boarding 
houses, which afford to visiters the opportunity 
of selecting the location, most congenial to their 
wishes. 

German Valley, a small settlement in Morris 
county, on the south branch of the Raritan. 

Chester, a village of Morris county, contain- 
ing forty or fifty buildings, including two 
churches, which extends for nearly a mile along 
the road from Easton to Morrisville. 

Mendkam, a village of Morris county, con- 
taining a Presbyterian church, a boarding- 
school, several stores, mills and about sixty 
dwellings. 

Morristown, seat of justice of Morris county, 
and one of the most populous and thriving towns 
of New Jersey. It is beautifully situated on an 
elevated plain, which rises gradually from the 
river bank. 

Most of the public buildings, and some of the 
best dwellings, face an open square in the centre 
of the town. There are besides the buildings 
devoted to county purposes, several handsome 
churches, an academy, and a due proportion of 
stores, manufactories, workshops, and taverns ; 
grist, paper, and saw mills. There are also 
printing offices from which weekly journals are 



216 ROUTE TO 

issued ; Sunday schools ; a bible society ; a 
temperance society, and several institutions of 
a like description. With but few exceptions, 
the houses are well built ; each is surrounded 
by cultivated gardens, which impart to the 
place, an air of much rural beauty. By means 
of pipes laid in the streets, most of the water 
used in the town is brought from a never- failing 
spring, about two miles distant. The Morris 
and Essex rail-road, twenty-two miles in length, 
from Newark, terminates here. 

Columbia, a mere hamlet of eight or ten 
houses, in Morris County. 

Cheapside, a small village of Essex county. 

South Orange, a village containing about 
forty dwellings, a Presbyterian church, &c. 

Newark.* 
Jersey City.* 



ERIE. 



The seat of justice of Erie county, Penn- 
sylvania, originally called by the French 
Presque Isle, is beautifully seated on the south 
shore of Lake Erie. The harbour is protected 
from the violence of the lake by a natural break- 
water or mole, which was formerly united to 
the mainland about four miles from Erie, but 
since the completion of tlie improvements at 



DETROIT. 217 

the entrance of the harbour, the peninsula has 
become detached, and now forms an island, 
which proceeding in a north-east direction, en- 
circles the basin in front of the town. Accord- 
ing to the plan, the town extends about three 
miles in the direction of the lake shore, and one 
mile back. There are about 500 buildings, 
including the court-house, four or five churches, 
prison, academy, &c. 

The site of the old fort and military works, 
erected by the French in early times, may be 
traced on the lake shore east of the town. Far- 
ther on is the block house, built in 1813. 



ROUTES FROM ERIE. 

From Erie to Pottsville, and thence to Phila- 
delphia, see " Pottsville" 

From Erie to Pittsburg, see " Pittsburg." 

From Erie to Buffalo, N. Y. by steamboat, 90 
miles. 

From Erie to Cleveland, O, 104 

" " Detroit, 135 



PITTSBURG. 

This town, or city, for it is incorporated as 
such, is situated in 40 deg. 27 min. of north 
latitude, and 3 deg. 02 min. west longitude 
fi:om Washington ; 300 miles west of Philadel- 
phia, 120 south of Lake Erie, 1,100 by land, 
and 2,029 by water, above New Orleans. It 
stands at the junction of the Monongahela and 
19 



218 PITTSBURG. 

the Allegany rivers. The Monongahela here 
runs nearly a due north-west course ; the Al- 
legany flows into it from the north-east ; and, 
both combining their streams, form the beautiful 
Ohio, which flows away in a north-western 
direction. The city stands upon a level alluvial 
bottom of quite a limited extent ; for immedi- 
ately back of it, and at a distance of less than 
a mile from the point, rises Grant's Hill, with 
Ayrcs's Hill on the west, and Quarry Hill on 
the east, which may be called the great secon- 
dary bank, and which spreads out so as to leave 
along the Allegany river, a strip of land of 
about one-third of a mile in width, of great 
fertility: and along the Monongahela, a still 
narrower margin of alluvial bottom. 

This city was founded in the year 1765 : a 
fort had been built five j'ears before by General 
Stanwix. This fort stood near the point of the 
junction of the rivers. It cost 60,000 pounds 
sterling. The stone magazine still remains 
entire. The fort was called Fort Pitt in honour 
of the celebrated Earl of Chatham, under whose 
auspices as Premier, almost the whole of the 
Valley of the Mississippi was wrested from the 
French in the war of 1754— 1763. Whilst this 
place was in tlie possession of the French, it 
was a most important post of trade. Here, 
surrounded by savage tribes, the trader found 
a ready market for his articles of traffic. A 
small fort, erected here by the French, was 
called Fort Du Quesne. It was in attempting 
the capture of this fortress that Braddock was 
defeated, on the eastern bank of the Mononga- 
hela, at the distance of about nine miles above 
'Pittsburg. And afterwards, Grant, with his 
eight hundred Caledonians, met with a similar 



PITTSBURG. 219 

disaster upon the hill Avhich has ever since 
served as a monument, commemorative of his 
name and liis defeat. 

The city of Pittsburg stands on the delta 
above described, having a triangular form. It 
is rapidly extending along the alluvial mar- 
gins of the Monongahela and Allegany rivers, 
by the side of the hills above mentioned — and 
is even encroaching upon them. Houses are 
built on their sides and summits. On the 
western side of the Monongahela, and about a 
mile above Pittsburg, lies the flourishing tovs'n 
of Birmingham, and immediately opposite the 
city, and on the west bank of the same river, 
and under the high and jutting hill called Coal 
Hill, is a street of manufacturing establishments, 
which may be considered as an extension of 
Birmingham, and is connected with Pittsburg 
by a bridge, built in 1818, at an expense of 
$110,000. In the opposite direction, and north 
of the Allegany river, stands Allegany town, on 
a beautiful alluvial plain of great extent, con- 
nected with Pittsburg by a bridge, erected in 
1819, at an expense of, $100,000. 

Pittsburg is admirably situated for trade and 
manufactures. It may be said to stand at the 
head of steam-boat navigation ; for the Allega- 
ny and Monongahela can only be ascended in 
times of high water. It is the mart of portions 
of Western Virginia and New York, as well as 
Western Pennsylvania ; while the Ohio opens 
to the enterprise of its citizens the whole of the 
Mississippi valley. The exhaustless banks of 
coal which exist in the neighbouring hills, and 
the excellent mines of iron ore which are found 
in great abundance in the counties along the 
mountains, and in the banks of the Ohio below. 



220 PITTSBURG. 

give to this city its preeminence over all other 
western cities, for manufacturing' purposes. 

In 1810, the population of Pittsburg- was about 
5,000; in 1820, it was 7,248; and at present, 
including its suburbs, it is 44,000. During a 
part of the period from 1817 to 1824, this city 
suffered much from the general stagnation of 
business, and the extensive bankruptcy which 
prevailed. During the last 14 or 15 years, its 
prosperity has been wonderful, and bids fair to 
continue. 

There are in Pittsburg, one Baptist church ; 
five Presbyterian ; four Methodist ; one Episco- 
pal ; one Roman Catholic, (besides which there 
is a cathedral of great dimensions on Grant's 
Hill) ; one Covenantors' ; one Seceders' ; one 
German Reformed ; one Unitarian ; one Asso- 
ciate Reformed ; one Lutheran, and one Afri- 
can: total 19. This statement includes tlie 
suburbs of the city. 

Besides the banks, hotels, churches, bridges, 
manufacturing establishments, «&c. the princi- 
pal objects worthy of the attention of a stranger 
are, The Western University of Pennsylvania, 
whose buildings stand near Grant's Hill, on the 
Monongahela side of the city. 2. Tlie State 
Prison, in Allegany town, which has cost the 
state avast amount of money, and is established 
somewhat upon the plan of the new Prison in 
Philadelphia. 3. Tfie Theological Seminary, 
located in Allegany town. The edifice of this 
important and rising institution stands on a 
beautiful, insulated hill, or knoll — rather of the 
form of a ridge than of a sugar-loaf — about one 
hundred feet higher than the waters of the 
Allegany river. It is literally quite a task to 
ascend this hill of science and religion. The 



PITTSBURG. 221 

centre building is four stories high, and the 
wings are three stories. The whole is 150 feet 
long, and contains 70 or 80 rooms for students. 
There are also rooms for the library, (which, 
by donations from Scotland, and from indivi- 
viduals in this country, is already quite respect- 
able,) a chapel, halls for recitation, rooms for a 
steward, &e. The prospect from this eminence 
is truly delightful. We get above the smoke 
of this smoky city, and breathe the pure at- 
mosphere, and look abroad over the city with 
its immense manufacturing establishments, and 
the noble rivers below, over whose waves boats 
of every description are constantly moving, pro- 
pelled by oars, sails or steam. 4. The Museum, 
established by Mr. Lambdin, whose efforts are 
worthy of the highest praise. There is not, in 
all this wonderful city, an object more worthy 
of a stranger's attention, than this Museum. 
It contains many fine specimens of the relics 
of aboriginal times and arts. 5. The United 
States Arsenal, about two miles above the 
city, on the south side of the Allegany river, at 
a village called Lawrenceville. This is a large 
depot of arms, ordnance, &c. It encloses about 
four acres. 6. The City Water Works, erected 
in 1828, — a noble and valuable monument of 
liberality and enterprise. The water is elevated 
116 feet, from the Allegany river, by a pipe of 
15 inches in diameter, and 2,439 feet in length, 
to a basin or reservoir, on Grant's Hill, 11 feet 
deep, and calculated to contain 1,000,000 of 
gallons. The water is raised by a steam engine 
of 84 horse power, which will elevate 1,500,000 
gallons in 24 hours. The beautiful aqueduct of 
the Pennsylvania canal, across the Allegany 
13* 



222 PITTSBURG. 

river a short distance above the bridge, also 
deserves notice. 

The great quantities of coal in all the hills 
around, and of iron manufactured in this entire 
region — particularly along the mountains, — 
combined with the fine situation of this city for 
commercial enterprise, have made it a vast as- 
semblage of manufacturing establishments, 
which are day and night rolling up immense 
volumes of smoke, darkening the verj heavens 
and discolouring every object — even the houses 
and inhabitants. There are here ten foundries, 
for various castings, including steam engines 
and ploughs. M'CIurg and Company's was 
erected in the year 1803, for the sum of 77,000 
dollars, and has cast many cannon, balls, &c. 
for government. There are six Glass Works. 
The excellence of the manufactures of this city 
in glass are well known. There are eight 
Rolling Mills, consuming 3,190 bushels of coal 
daily, and driven by ten steam engines, from 60 
to 100 horse power each. There are five Cotton 
Factories, propelled by steam, having many 
thousands of spindles. There are seven shops 
for making and repairing steam engines and 
machinery. There are 2 steam flour mills ; and 
an immense number of copper, tin, nail, and ear- 
thenware factories, manufactories of knixes, files, 
and other articles of cutlery. Also, saw mills, 
dye wood cutting mills, brass and bell foundries, 
&c., which employ 24 steam engines. This is 
one of the greatest places in the west, and in 
the world, for the building of steam boats. 

The preceding paragraph gives a brief state- 
ment of the manufactories of Pittsburg alone. 
The following statement, obtained from a per- 
fectly authentic source, embraces the manufac- 



PITTSBURG. 223 

lories of Pittsburg and its vicinity — and, in 
some cases, of Alleg-any and Westmoreland 
counties. We give it in detail, as it was fur- 
nished, that the reader may have some idea of 
the extent of the manufactures of this growing 
city, and of the region in the vicinity. 

1. There are the following nail factories 
and rolling mills, in Pittsburg and its vicinity, 
the weight of metal manufactured in lb31 by 
each, together with the value of the manufac- 
tures is given: 

Weifht in lbs. Value. 



Union, 


. 720,000 


$43,200 


Sligo, 


. 400,000 


32,000 


Pittsburg, . 


. 782,887 


86,544 


Grant's Hill, 


. 500,000 . 


30,000 


Juniata, 


. 500,000 . 


40,000 


Pine Creek, 


. 457,000 . 


34,100 


Miscellaneous Fact 


aries, 360,000 . 


28,800 



2. Foundries. — There are twelve foundries 
in and near Pittsburg. During the year 1831, 
2,963 tons of metal were converted into castings, 
132 hands employed, 87,000 bushels of coal 
consumed, and the value of the manufactures 
was $189,614. Exclusive of Pittsburg and its 
vicinity, there are five foundries in Allegany 
and Westmoreland counties. 

3. In and near Pittsburg, there are 37 steam 
engines, valued at $180,400, which employ 123 
hands, 

4. There are eight cotton factories, with 369 
looms, 598 hands, and worth $300,134. In the 
counties of Westmoreland and Allegany, there 
are five cotton factories. 

5. In Pittsburg, and the two counties above- 



224 PITTSBURG. 

named, there are eight paper mills, valued at 
$165,000. 

6. There are in Pittsburg and its vicinity, 
five steam mills, which employ fifty hands. 
Value of their products, annually, $'80,000. 

7. There are five brass foundries and eight 
coppersmiths' shops. Value of manufactures, 
$25,000. 

8. Within the limits of the city, there are 
thirty blacksmiths' shops, which employ one 
hundred and thirty-six hands. There are also 
four gunsmiths, and nine silversmiths and 
watch-repairers. 

9. In Pittsburg, and the counties of West- 
moreland and Allegany, there are twenty-six 
saddleries and forty-one tanneries. There are 
also sixty-four brick yards, and eleven potteries. 

10. There are four white lead factories in 
the city, and seven thousand four hundred kegs 
made annually — value, $27,900. There are 
also four breweries. 

11. There are six printing offices in Pitts- 
burg, and six more in the two counties. 

The estimated value of the manufactures of 
every kind in Pittsburg, and the counties of 
Allegany and Westmoreland, in 1831, was 
$3,978,469 ! 

In Allegany and Westmoreland counties, the 
number of distilleries was, in March, 1832, 
sixty-two; in 1830, it was one hundred and 
sixty-eight. 

The quantity of flour, whiskey, lumber, salt, 
&c., which is brought to this place by the 
roads, the canal, and the rivers, for exportation 
to the lower parts of the valley, is immense. 
We have no data for estimating accurately the 
worth of the merchandise which is at present 



PITTSBUHG. 225 

brought annually from the east. At present it 
cannot be less than thirty millions dollars. 
Much of the heavier kinds of merchandise, is 
now brought up from New-Orleans by steam- 
boats. 

The coal which abounds here is found in 
strata of from six inches to ten, or more, feet in 
depth. And what is remarkable, it is found in 
the hills which overlook Pittsburg at the height 
of about three hundred feet above the bottom 
of the rivers. Below this one stratum, which 
is of about equal elevation, no other is found 
until you descend into the base of the hills be- 
low the bottom of the rivers. It is not the fact 
that the great mass of these hills is coal. But 
a small portion of them is composed of this 
mineral. Coal Hill, immediately opposite the 
city, on the west side of the Monongahela, is 
a great source of this kind of fuel. The mi- 
ners have penetrated a great distance, and the 
coal slides down the hill into boats, or is depos- 
ited for the wagons, by a kind of rail-road, or 
inclined plane, to the alarm of many a passer- 
by. The perforations made in digging the 
coal, reach, in some places, very far into the 
hill. It is worthy of a stranger's attention to 
explore the interior of these gloomy regions, 
survey the dark caverns and the pillars which 
sustain the superimposed mass of mountain, 
and contemplate the leaden-coloured faces of 
the miners, as they meet his eye when the 
torch's gleam falls upon them. But let him 
not expect to escape without atoning for his 
temerity in entering these abodes of Pluto, or 
rather Plutus, by paying a suitable reward, 
cither in money, or, as is too commonly the 
case, in whiskey. 



226 PITTSBURG. 

To a stranger nothing is more imposing than 
to stand on the bank of the Monongahela 
above the Point, and survey the steam-boats as 
they depart on their long voyages down the 
Ohio, or when they arrive upon their return. 
There is sometliing grand in seeing the large 
boats, of a beautiful form, and great power, 
marching up, heavily loaded, overcoming the 
resistence of the current, and discharging at 
intervals their steam, which occasions a very 
loud and startling roar, re-echoed in quick suc- 
cession from the hills which environ the city. 
Nothing is more striking, to one who witnesses 
the scene for the first time. When the rivers 
are navigable, say during seven or eight months 
in the autumn and spring, nothing is more 
common than for several boats to arrive and 
depart daily, occasioning much activity in the 
trade of the city. Thousands of travellers here 
embark for the "far West." 

Pittsburg, or rather Fort Du Quesne, by which 
name it was called by the French, occupies a 
large place in the annals of our country. 

It is now eighty-five years since General 
Braddock, accompanied by General, then Colo- 
nel Washington, as his aid-de-camp, was de- 
feated by the combined forces of the French 
and Indians. 

The action took place on the east bank of 
the Monongahela, about nine miles above Pitts- 
burg. 

Braddock, who was mortally wounded in the 
engagement, died soon after, when the com- 
mand of the British and Colonial forces devolv- 
ed upon Washington ; whose masterly retreat, 
with the remnant of the army, amid all the 
discouragements of defeat, forms one of the 



PITTSBURG. 227 

brightest incidents in the brilliant career of 
that incomparable man. 

In 1758, Fort Du Quesnc, after a protracted 
investment, was surrendered to the British, by 
whom its name was changed to Fort Pitt. The 
capture of this post, which tended materially 
to bring the war to a speedy close, was follow- 
ed by that of Quebec ; and in ] 763, the " old 
French war," so called, was ended by the treaty 
of Paris. 

Pittsburg has also been the scene of civil 
commotions. In 1790, congress passed a law 
imposing excise duties upon spirits distilled in 
the U. States. This law was stoutly opposed here 
by many. Outrages were committed by the mal- 
contents ; and such was the general disorder 
resulting from this condition of things, that the 
government, after repeated efforts to conciliate 
the disaffected, was compelled to resort to mili- 
tary force, to quell this formidable insurrection. 

In the autumn of 1794, 12,000 men were 
assembled, and placed under the command of 
General Lee, then governor of Virginia. The 
appearance of this imposing force immediately 
brought the rebels to their senses. The prof, 
fered terms of pardon were accepted ; and thus 
ended the " Whiskey Insurrection." 

From the expulsion of the French, in 1758, 
Pittsburg began to revive, and has since ad- 
vanced with almost unexampled rapidity. The 
town was incorporated in 1816, and is now in 
the most emphatic sense of the term, a " city,^'' 
which has appropriately been denominated the 
" Birmingham of the West." 



228 ROUTES FROM 

ROUTES FROM PITTSBURG. 

For Stage and Canal Routes to the eastward, 
see articles " Harrisburg," '' Chamhersburg/' 
and " Philadelphia." 



From Pittsburg to Erie, by Stage, 



Wood vi lie, 


18 


Butler, 


. 9 27 


Centreville, . 


18 45 


Mercer, 


15 60 


Georgetown, 


. 15 75 


Meadville. . 


15 90 


Waterford, . 


23 113 


Erie, 


15 128 



Woodville, a small town of Butler county. 

Butler, an incorporated town, and seat of 
justice of Butler county, is situated on the head 
waters of Conequenessing creek. The chief 
buildings and objects of interest, are, — the 
court-house, which is a handsome structure, 
situated in the public square ; county offices ; 
Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, 
Unionist, and Methodist churches ; an acade- 
my ; mills ; salt works, &c. ; and about one 
hundred dwellings, with a population of 600. 

Centreville, a neat little village of some fifty 



PITTSBURG. 229 

or sixty buildings, chiefly of brick, in the north- 
west part of Butler county. 

Mercer, county town of Mercer county, con- 
taining about one hundred and fifty buildings, 
including Presbyterian, Unionist, Seceder and 
Methodist churches, and an incorporated acade- 
my. There are several good hotels in the town ; 
also several printing offices, from which two or 
three weekly papers are issued. 

Among the manufactures of the place, copper- 
as, which is produced here in great abimdance, 
forms an important item. 

Georgetown, a village of about forty houses, 
in the northern part of Mercer county. 

Meadville.* 
Waterford.* 
Erie.* 



From Pittsburg to Wheeling, Va., by Stage. 



Findlaysville, 


13 


Washington, 


. 11 24 


Martinsburg, 


. 5 29 


Claysville, 


. 4 31 


W. Alexandria, 


. 6 39 


Wheeling, 


. 16 55 



20 



230 ROUTE TO 

Findlaysville, an inconsiderable town, situa- 
ted in Washington county, near the borders of! 
Allegany county. 

Washington, an incorporated town, and seat 
of justice of Washington county. 

This is by far the largest and most impor- 
tant town in this section of the state. It con- 
tains upwards of four hundred buildings, most 
of which are large and well built. Among 
these are an extensive woollen factory ; five or 
six handsome churches; an academy, for the 
erection of which the state has contributed 
largely. In 1806 this academy was converted 
into a college, and after flourishing nearly 
twenty years, it declined, and finally suspended 
operations for some time. It has, however, re- 
commenced, under favourable auspices, and is 
now in a prosperous condition. 

About midway between Findlaysville and 
Washington, a mile or two to the west of the 
road, is Cannonsburg, the seat of Jefferson Col- 
lege. Its success hitherto has been most sig- 
nal. Originally a mere grammar school, it has 
grown up rapidly, and now enjoys a high repu- 
tation. 

The Jefferson Medical College of Philadel- 
phia, was formerly connected with this institu- 
tion ; but the union has been dissolved. 

Martinsburg, a town that is to be, in Wash- 
ington county. There are at present in the 
" town," some six or eight buildings of every 
sort. 

Claysville, a very neat village of Washing- 



WHEELING. 



231 



ton county, containing about eighty buildings, 
with a Presbyterian church. 

West Alexandria, a flourishing village of 
some fifty or sixty buildings, including a Pres- 
byterian church, at the junction of the Wash- 
ington and National roads, in Washington 
county, immediately within the state boundary 
line. 

Wheeling.* 



From Pittsburg to Wheeling, by Steam-hoat. 



Middleton, 


11 


Beavertown, 


. 18 29 


East Liverpool, 


. 19 48 


Steubenville, 


. 22 70 


Wellsburg, 


. 7 77 


Warrenton, 


. 6 83 


Wheeling, Va., 


. 8 91 



Middleton, a village of Allegany county, 
Pennsylvania, on the left bank of the Ohio, 
containing fifteen or twenty dwellings, a store, 
taverns, &c. 

Beavertown, seat of justice of Beaver coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania. It is a large and flourishing 
town, possessing extensive water power. New 
Brighton, and several other small villages, have 
lately been established above the town, along 
Big Beaver creek, which, by means of the valu- 



282 ROUTE TO 

able water power afforded by that stream, will, 
doubtless, attain to great importance as man- 
ufacturing towns. Including these, Beaver 
has a population of about 1,200. 

East Liverpool, formerly called Fawcetts- 
town, an incorporated town of Columbiana 
county, Ohio. It contains about one hundred 
buildings, mostly of brick, several saw and 
grist mills, &c. 

Steuhenville, an incorporated town, and seat 
of justice of Jefferson county, Ohio. Its streets 
cross each other at right angles, and is in other 
respects well planned. Situated in the midst 
of a populous and fertile country, with an active 
and enterprising population, Steuhenville bids 
fair to become a large and prosperous town. 
The public buildings consist of, the court-house 
and its appendages, six or seven handsome 
churches, a town-hall, a bank, an academy, 
about twenty houses of public entertainment, 
paper, woollen, cotton, and many other manu- 
factories. There are three printing offices, 
from each of which a weekly newspaper is 
issued. 

Wellsburg, the seat of justice of Brooke 
county, Virginia, is beautifully seated on the 
east bank of the Ohio, and in the midst of in- 
exhaustible beds of bituminous coal. It con- 
tains two hundred and fifty dwellings, in ad- 
dition to the court-house and county offices, 
two or three churches, several stores, an acade- 
my, manufactories of glass, cotton, and wool- 
len goods, carpets, salt, earthen-ware, leather, 



WHEELING. 233 

&c., together with a number of grist and saw 
mills, work-shops, breweries, &c. 

Warr^nton, a village of Jefferson county, 
Ohio, containing about forty dwellings, with 
the usual adjuncts of stores, shops, and taverns, 
and 160 inhabitants. 

Wheeling.,* 

The river Oliio, upon whose banks all the 
towns mentioned in the preceding table are sit- 
uated may be considered as commencing at 
Pittsburg, at the junction of the Monogahela 
and Allegany. From that point its general 
course is towards the north-west to Beaver, 
twenty-nine miles. From Beaver it pursues a 
course, a little south of west, to Wellsville, 
about seventy-seven miles below Pittsburg. 
From this place its general course is almost 
due south to Marietta, only verging a little to 
the west, as it approaches that place. From 
Marietta it pursues a south-west course to the 
mouth of the Sandy. From that point it pur- 
sues a westward, or rather a little north of west 
course, until, passing Cincinnati, it receives the 
Great Miami. From its junction with that 
river to its union with the Mississippi, its main 
direction is south-west. 

The length of the Ohio from Pittsburg to 
the Mississippi, is 952 miles. In the language of 
the boatmen it is called 1000, and even 1100 
miles long. Cincinnati is nearly midway from 
Pittsburg to its junction with the Mississippi. 
The captains of the steam-boats reckon Louis- 
ville to be nearly 650 miles below Pittsburg, 
and 450 above the mouth of the Ohio. 
20* 



234 OHIO RIVBR. 

The course of this river, like that of all the 
streams of the valley of the Mississippi, is sin- 
gularly crooked. Its bends, as they are called, 
or meanderings, are perpetual and uniform, and 
almost monotonous. In no place, from its 
source to its mouth, can the eye take in a sec- 
tion of more than five or ten miles in length ; 
and excepting a few " long reaches," — which is 
the boatmen's name for the straight portions of 
the river, — not more than from five to seven 
miles can often be seen in any one place. 

About seventy-five rivers and creeks empty 
into the Ohio, between Pittsburg and its mouth. 
The most important of these are, on the left 
hand as you descend, Chartiers, in West Penn- 
sylvania; Wheeling creek, Little Kanawha, 
Great Kanawha, Guyandot and Sandy, from 
West Virginia ; Little Sandy, Licking, Ken- 
tucky, Salt, Green, Cumberland and Tennessee, 
from the state of Kentucky. On the right, or 
west side, Beaver, from Pennsylvania ; Muskin- 
gum, Hocking, Scioto, Little Miami, Great Mi- 
ami, from Ohio ; Wabash, from Indiana. 

Between Pittsburg and the mouth of the 
Ohio, there are one hundred considerable 
islands. There are also a number of sand-bars, 
tow-heads, &c. Some of the islands are several 
miles long, but of a narrow width. Not a few 
possess great beauty, fertility of soil, and afford 
delightful sites for a retired residence. They 
are generally too low to be very safe situations 
in times of high floods. They are all covered 
with dense forests, save where cultivation has 
converted the wildernesss into fruitful fields. 

The current of the Ohio is remarkably uni- 
form, smooth and placid. In this respect it is 
surpassed by no otiier river on the earth. The 



OHIO RIVER. 235 

banks are generally high and abrupt, forming 
in many places bluffs and cliffs of the height 
of three or four hundred feet. Between these 
high bluffs and hills there are often strips of al- 
luvial land, commonly called bottoms. These in- 
terval or bottom lands possess astonishing fertili- 
ty. They are often of considerable width, so as to 
form farms of large extent, and of great beauty 
and value. The high hills which border the 
river, sometimes in immediate contiguity, at 
others standing off and leaving a considera- 
ble extent of bottom land, varying from a quar- 
ter of a mile to a mile in width, exhibit a wild 
and picturesque grandeur which cannot be con- 
ceived by those who have not witnessed such 
scenery. They are commonly covered, even to 
their very summits, with dense forests of oak, 
beech, walnut, &lc. &c. ; whilst along their 
base, and far beneath their summits, a continu- 
ous grove of the while-armed sycamore ; the 
beautiful sugar-maple, ash, elm ; and along the 
lower half of the river's course, cotton-wood, 
hackberry, cypress, (fcc, rear their heads, and 
add inexpressible beauty to the prospect. These 
trees are frequently of a gigantic size, and cast 
their broad shadows, in the mornings and even- 
ings, quite across the placid bosom of the gen- 
tle Ohio. And when seen, during the full 
moonlight, from the boat that floats peacefully 
down the calmly moving stream, while nothing 
is heard save the bells of the cattle on the banks, 
the distant barking of the watchful dog, or 
the dissonant notes of the " moping owl," the 
effect on the mind of the traveller is indescriba- 
ble. The constant shifting of the scene, the 
alternation of bright and dark sides of the hills, 
together with the variation in the appaarance 



236 OHIO RIVER. 

of the river — one plaee reflecting the beautiful 
beams of the moon, and another enveloped in 
the deep shadows cast from the lofty and over- 
hanging bluffs, — altogether form a scene of sur- 
passing beauty and loveliness. 

Before the introduction of steam-boats, every 
species of water-craft was employed in navi- 
gating this river — some of which were of the 
most whimsical and amusing structure. The 
barge, the keel-boat, the flat-bottom or family 
boat, the pirogue or canoe, ferry-boats, gondolas, 
skiffs, dug-outs, and others, formerly floated in 
great numbers down the Ohio and Mississippi, to 
points of destination sometimes more than 2000 
miles distant from the place from which they 
started. And even since the introduction of 
steam-boats, which now traverse this river and 
its branches, in great numbers, many hun- 
dreds — v.'e might almost say thousands of these 
boats — still continue to float on these waters. 
The keel-boats find much to do, during that 
portion of the summer and autumn when the 
river is too low for the steam-boats to run. 
Hundreds of flat-bottom boats, (called, in tlie 
western boatman's dialect, " broad horns") an- 
nually float down from a thousand places on 
the Ohio and other western streams, to Cin- 
cinnati, or Louisville, or New-Orleans. They 
may be seen rowing with their broad sweeps, 
or else floating leisurely with the current — of- 
ten two or three lashed or fastened close togeth- 
er — and thus allowing the hands and passen- 
gers to while away the hours in holding con- 
verse together on the extended roof, or in each 
other's cabins. 

This mode of navigation is slow, compared 
with the steam-boat, but it is cheap — and to 



OHIO RIVER. 237 

people who have but little to do, or who are not 
inclined to do much, time is reckoned of but 
little consequence. It is a great mistake to 
suppose that the introduction of steam-boats 
has been succeeded by the disappearace of all 
this sort of craft. The rapidly increasing 
trade of this region, together with the cheap- 
ness and convenience of the flat-boat navigation, 
seems to increase, rather than diminish their 
number. Convenient and pleasant as is a steam- 
boat for families of emigrants removing to the 
West, yet there are hundreds and thousands of 
such families, who prefer the flat-boat, slow as 
its motion is. Some prefer it, because they 
think that it is safer than the steam-boats, to 
which so many accidents have happened. 
Others cannot afford to bear the expense of a 
passage in a steam-boat. Besides, hundreds of 
farmers, who live on the small but navigable 
streams which flow into the Ohio and other 
large rivers of the West, build their own boats 
at little expense, load them with their own and 
their neighbours' produce, — and, when they 
have descended the small streams in the vicini- 
ty of which they live, find that it is often cheap- 
er to float on down to a distant market in their 
own boats, than to ship their cargoes on board 
of a passing steam-boat. 

These boats, however, are not only subject 
to great delays, but also exposed to some dan- 
gers from the rapids, sand-bars, rocks, and sud- 
den and violent storms and tornadoes, which 
sink them before they can reach the shore. 
Considering the form of these boats, and their 
unwieldy size, it is truly wonderful that more 
accidents of this kind do not happen. As it is, 
they are so seldom, that they are scarcely esti- 



238 OHIO RIVER. 

mated at all, by those whose business or choice 
it suits to descend to Cincinnati or New-Orleans, 
by this mode of navig-ation. There is not on 
earth a class of men of a more peculiar and 
marked character, than the western boatmen. 
They are as much a sui generis sort of men, as 
our sailors are. They have, it is true, lost 
much of the lawless and outrageous spirit 
which they had before the introduction of 
steam-boats upon the western waters. They 
have become less intemperate, more civil in 
their intercourse with other men, but yet, their 
distinguishing traits of character remain, — 
boldness, readiness to encounter almost any 
danger, recklessness of consequences, and in- 
difference to the wants of the future, amid the 
enjoyments, the noise, whiskey and fun, of the 
present. It is a mournful fact, that their own 
inclination, as well as their mode of life, almost 
always exclude them from the means of moral 
and religious instruction. 

There is probably no river scenery in our 
country through which it is more delightful 
to pass, than that which borders the Ohio river, 
in the spring or early part of summer, when all 
nature seems to be teeming with life — when 
the noble forests which crown both the hills 
and the vales on each side of this gracefully 
meandering river, have put on their dark-col- 
oured foliage — and when the balmy breezes, 
scented by the flowers of the shrubbery which 
forms the undergrowth along the banks, are 
wafted gently over the noble steam-boat, as she 
careers along. Or, when autumn is beginning 
to shed its mellow influence upon the vegetable 
world, and the forests, as the soft and serene 
day opens in the morning, or wears away to- 



OHIO RIVER, 239 

wards the evening, exhibit from the vales and 
the lofty banks on either side, the varied tints, — 
the yellow, the red, and the purple, intermixed 
with the yet unchanging green, — which give 
signs of the gradual decline of nature towards 
the lifelessness and coldness of approaching 
winter. Nothing can be more pleasant than to 
make a voyage at such a period, in an elegant 
boat, possessing suitable accommodations, (as 
many western steam-boats do,) in company 
with pleasant and intelligent passengers. Many 
an hour will glide swiftly away, while the deck 
is promenaded in tlie morning and the evening 
• — and the ever-varying scene contemplated with 
renewed admiration. 



A LIST OF THE 

CANALS AND RAIL-ROADS 

IN PENNSYLVANIA. 



f Cen. Div. fr. Colum. to Hollidaysb. 172.0() 
West. Div. fr. Johnst. to Pittsb. 104.25 
Susquehanna Div. fr. Duncan's Is- 
land to Northumberland, 39.00 
West Br. Div. fr. North'land toFar- 

randsville, 73.00 

North Br. Div. fr. North'land to 

Lackawana, 72.50: 

Del. Div. fr. Bristol to Easton, 59.75 

L Beav. Div. fr. Beav. to Shenango R. 30.7S 



240 CANALS AND RAIL-ROADS. 

Schuylk. Nav. fr. Phil, to Port Carbon, 108.00 

Union, fr. Reading to Middletown. 82.08 

Lehigh, fr. Easton to Stoddartsville, 84.48 

Lackawaxen, fr. Del. Riv. to Honesdale, 25.00 

Conestoga, fr. Lancaster to Safe Harbor, 18.00 

Codorus, fr. York to Susquehanna Riv. 11.00 
Bald Eagle, fr. West Br. Canal to Belle- 

fonte, 25.00 
Susquehanna, fr. Wrightsvllle to Havre 

de Grace, 45.00 

Minor Canals, 24.00 



EAIL-ROADS. 

Columbia and Phil. ft. Phil, to Colum, 81.60 

Portage, fr. Hollidaysburg to Johnst'n, 36.69 

Philadelphia City, &c, 6.00 

Valley, fr. Norristown to Columb. R. R. 20.25 
West Chest, fr. Columbia R. R. to West 

Chester, 10.00 

Harrisb. &. Lancaster, fr. Har. to Lan. 35.50 
Cumberland Valley, fr. Harrisburg to 

Chambersburg, 50.00 

Franklin, fr. Chambersb. to Williamsp't. 30.00 
York and Wrightsville, from York to 

Wrightsvllle, 13.00 

Strasburg, fr. C. Val. R. R. to Strasb'g, 7.00 

Philad. and Reading, fr. Phil, to Pottsv. 95.00 
Little Schuylkill, fr. Port Clinton to 

Tamaqua, 23.00 
Dansville and Pottsville, fr. PottsviUe to 

Sunbury, 44.54 
Lit. Sch. &. Susq. fr. Tamaqua to Wil- 

liamsport, 106.00 



KAIL-EOADS. 241 

Beaver Meadow Br. fr. Lindner's Gp. 

to Beaver Meadow R. R. 12.00 

Williamsp't & Elmira, from Williams- 
port to Elmira, 73.50 
Corning- and Blossburg, fr. Blossburg to 

Corning, 40.00 

Mount Carbon, fr. Mt. Carbon to Nor- 
wegian Cr. 7.24 
Schuylkill Valley, fr. Port Carbon to 

Tuscarora, 10.00 

Branches of do. 15.00 

Schuylkill, fr. Schuylkill to Valley, 13.00 

Mill Creek, fr. Ft. Carbon to Coal Mine, 9.00 
Mine Hill and Sch. Haven, from Sch. 

Haven to Mine Hill Gap, 20.00 

Mauch Chunk, fr. M. Chunk to Coal 

Mine, 9.00 

Branches of do. 16.00 

Room Run, fr. M. Chunk to Coal M. 5.26 

Beaven Meadow, fr. Parryville, to Coal 

Mine, 20.00 

Hazleton and Lehigh, fr. Hazleton M. 

to Beaver M. R. R. 8.00 

Nesquehoning, fr. Nesquehoning M. to 

Lehigh R. 5.00 

Lehigii and Susquehanna, fr. White Ha- 
ven, to Wilkesbarre, 19.58 
Carbondale and Honesdale, fr. Carbon- 
dale to Honesdale, 17.67 
Lykens Valley, fr. Broad Mountain to 

Millersburg, 16.50 

Pine Grove, fr. Pine Grove to Coal M. 4.00 
Phil, and Trent, fr. Phil, to Morrisville, 26.25 
Phil. Ger. & Norrist. fr. Phil, to Norris. 17.00 
Germantown Br. 4.00 

Phil. &, Wilmingt. fr. Phil, to Wilm. 27.00 

21 



.--V=iWafcv;iSljM,-,;JH„^,, 



.{9 



To l^ew Bnms"wick "br Del- 
aware £iiid Earitan Canal 



IiRlUican 
WUliamshurg 
Minifston 
Soiky mil 

Blavkwells 
Millstone 
Boundbrook 
Wew Bnmsmck 



2 18 

4 22 

3 25 

5 30 
7 37 



To Bordentoivn Toy Dela^ 

wai-e and Eaiitan Caiial 

Bloomslniiy 1 

Lambeiton 1 2 

Bordentomi 4 6 



To Saxtonville Irr Caual 

Yardleyville Feny 5 

JacoKi ('reek 2 7 

Titusville 3 10 

Belle Alt 3 13 

liimlvrttille and 

Weir Hope 
liollmlle 
Saxtonrille 



3 



3 



etau: 



fiishv 



•j^ 



^■/¥ 



Fielp 



7^ 



¥^ 



llllllllllllllllWlllllll llll 



Loi| 



Ktitfrf*/ itrrorMui/ to Act iif lontfrfxt.in tfi^ jvttr Iif.'i4, hv T. 



iliia, 



( 243 ) 



NEW JERSEY 



GENERAL VIEW. 



The state of New Jersey is bounded on the 
north by New York ; on the east by Hudson 
river, Raritan bay, and the Atlantic ocean ; on 
the south by the Atlantic ocean and Delaware 
bay ; and on the west by the states of Delaware 
and Pennsylvania, from which it is separated by 
the Delaware river. It extends from latitude 39° 
to 41° north, and from 1° to 3° east longitude. 
Its area is 7,500 square miles, and population 
about 400,000. The state is divided into the 
following counties; the names of their respec- 
tive seats of justice are contained in the second 
column. 

Counties. Chief towns, 

Atlantic, s. e. 

Bergen, n. e. Hackensack. 

Burlington, m. s. Mount Holly. 

Cape May, extreme s. Cape May, C. 11. 

Cumberland, s. Bridgetown: 



( 243 ) 



NEW JERSEY, 



GENERAL VIEW. 



The state of New Jersey is bounded on the 
north by New York ; on the east by Hudson 
river, Raritan bay, and the Atlantic ocean ; on 
the south by tlie Atlantic ocean and Delaware 
bay ; and on the west by the states of Delaware 
and Pennsylvania, from which it is separated by 
the Delaware river. It extends from latitude 39° 
to 41° north, and from 1° to 3° east longitude. 
Its area is 7,500 square miles, and population 
about 400,000. The state is divided into the 
following counties; the names of their respec- 
tive seats of justice are contained in the second 
column. 

Counties. Chief towns, 

Atlantic, s. e. 

Bergen, n. e. Hackensack. 

Burlington, m. s. Mount Holly. 

Cape May, extreme s. Cape May, C. II. 

Cumberland, s. Bridgetown. 



244 NEW JERSJfeT. 

Essex m. e \ Newark. 

' ' ■ ( Elizabethtown. 

Gloucester, s. Woodbury. 

Hudson, m. e. Bergen. 

Hunterdon, w. Flemington. 

Mercer, w. Trenton. 

Middlesex, m. e. New Brunswick. 

Monmouth, e. Freeliold. 

Morris, m. n. Morristown. 

Passaic, Paterson. 

Salem, s. w. Salem. 

Somerset, m. Somerville. 

Sussex, extreme n. Newtown. 

Warren, n. e. Belvidere. 

Physical Geography. — New Jersey presents 
three very marked divisions of soil; first, sea- 
sand alluvion ; second, hilly or middle section ; 
and thirdly, the mountainous or northern sec- 
tion. 

The first or sea-sand alluvion occupies near- 
ly one half the area of the state. A line from 
the mouth of Shrewsbury river to Bordentown, 
will very nearly separate the sea-sand alluvial 
from the hilly tract. Between this natural limit 
and the continuation of the Blue Ridge, New 
Jersey is delightfully variegated by rich and 
bold scenery. This hilly region contains the 
counties of Middlesex, Hunterdon, Mercer, Som- 
erset, Essex, Morris, Passaic and Bergen. This 
fine section is also variegated by several moun- 
tain ridges ; but the true mountain portion of 
New Jersey is the extreme northern part of the 
state, composed of the counties of Warren and 
Sussex. 

The descent from the mountain to the hilly 
region is not by gentle declivity, but abrupt, 



NEW JERSEY. 245 

like the steps of a stair. The relative elevation 
of the different sections, has not been very ac- 
curately determined, but the higher valleys of 
Sussex county must be from eight hundred to 
a thousand feet above tide water. This is ren- 
dered more probable by the fact that frosts have 
occurred at Newtown, in Sussex county, whilst 
no symptoms of such a phenomenon appeared 
in the vicinity of Somerville, in a difference of 
scarcely half a degree of latitude. 

Declining from north to south, difference of 
latitude and level co-operate in New Jersey, 
and in a difference less than two and a half 
degrees of the former, a very remarkable change 
of climate is perceptible. The level sandy 
plains of the southern extreme, approximate to 
the temperature of eastern Virginia, and admit 
of the cultivation of cotton, whilst the seasons 
of Warren and Sussex counties resemble those 
of Vermont and New Hampshire. 

This state, rich in iron ore and so much di- 
versified in soil and climate, abounds in a great 
variety of staples. It has the two large and 
increasing cities of New York and Philadel- 
phia on its borders. The staples of New Jer- 
sey are composed of every product of its 
woods, mines, fields, fisheries and manufacto- 
ries. Taken in every respect, it may be doubt- 
ed whether this state is not the most advanta- 
geously situated of any political subdivision of 
the United States. The peculiar local facilities 
by rivers, canals and rail-roads, may be seen by 
reference to the accompanying map. 

History. — The first settlement of New Jer- 
sey, was nearly cotemporary with that of New 
York, and by the same nation, the Dutch, who 
21* 



246 NEW JERSEY. 

fir^ sesited themselves on and near the month 
of the Hudson, about 1612. The lower parta 
of Delaware bay were settled partially by the 
Swedes, in 1 698. The Dutch claimed and pos- 
sessed themselves of the whole, which they 
held until supplanted by the English, in 1664, 
Under the English it was made a proprietary 
government, being granted by Charles II. to 
his brother James, duke of York, afterwards 
James II. Most happily for the prosperity of 
the colony it soon passed to more enlightened 
proprietors. The grant was in 1664 made to 
the duke of York, who in the same year sold 
his rights to Lord Berkely and Sir George Car- 
teret, under the name of New Jersey. The 
liberal and manly policy of the new proprietors 
was shown in the establishment of representa- 
tive government, and in the easy mode of con- 
veyance and secure tenure of landed property, 
and also in the maintenance of strict justice 
towards the Indians. This happy outset was 
marred by the momentary conquest of the coun- 
try by the Dutch, and on their expulsion, by 
the re-establishment, 1 674, of the authority of 
the duke of York. In that year Lord Berkely 
assigned his undivided moiety of New Jer- 
sey to William Penn, and three others. To 
avoid the inconvenience of joint ownership, 
Carteret retained East Jersey, and released the 
western to Penn and his associates. After 
some years of very unpleasant controversy, 
the authority of the duke of York ceased in 
1680, a year rendered memorable also by the 
arrival in the province of the first large body 
of Quakers, who settled and built Burlington 
and Salem. 
In 1682, the whole province passed under the 



NEW JERSEY. 247 

jurisdiction of Penn and his associates, but the 
ruinous and every where distressing interfe- 
rence of the infatuated Stuarts, and the claims 
to jurisdiction made by New York, operated to 
retard the prosperity of New Jersey. These 
evils were not removed, though mitigated, until 
1702, when the two fragments were re-united, 
and peace, order and security followed. This 
salutary change was effected by making the 
province a royal government ; but it was not 
until 1738, that New Jersey was ruled by a 
separate government from that of New York. 

In the revolutionary struggle, and in the in- 
cipient resistance to the oppressive measures of 
Great Britain, New Jersey bore her full share ; 
and in the hardships and privations of an eight 
years' war, no other colony of the confederacy, 
it is probable, suffered so much. Her devotion 
to the cause of freedom is fully recorded in the 
date of her constitution, July 2d, 1776, two 
days before the Declaration of Independence 
by the Continental Congress. 

Government. — The governor of New Jersey 
is chosen annually by a joint vote of the coun- 
cil and assembly ; or in other words, by the 
legislature. His salary is $2000 per annurai 
The governor and council, of which he is pres- 
ident, form a court of appeals. 

Legislature. — The legislature is compossd of 
a legislative council and general assembly. The 
members of both bodies are elected annually, 
on the second Tuesday in October, and meet 
on the fourth Tuesday of October, at Trenton. 

Judiciary. — Consists of a supreme court, 



248 NEW JERSEY. 

composed of a chief justice and two associate 
judges. All are appointed by the legislature, 
for a term of seven years. The salary of the 
chief justice is $1200 per annum ; and that of 
his associates, $1100 each. The judges of the 
inferior courts are appointed for five years. 



CHIEF CITIES AND TOWNS, 

With the Roads and Distances. 



TRENTON. 

The capital of the state of New Jersey, is 
situated on the left or east bank of the Dela- 
ware, in Mercer county, of which it is the seat 
of justice, twenty-eight miles north-east from 
Philadelphia, and fifty-nine south-west of New 
York. Its site is immediately upon the mouth 
of the Assanpink, near the lower falls of the 
Delaware. It is approached from the Pennsyl- 
vania side by a fine bridge of five arches, sup- 
ported by stone piers and abutments. Its spaa 
is 1100 feet, and of sufficient width to allow a 
double carriage way. One of these has lately 
been arranged for the accommodation of the 
rail-road to Philadelphia ; and the cars from 
that city to New York now pass over the 
bridge. 

It is now more than a century, since Wil- 
liam Trent, an enterprising merchant of Penn- 
sylvania, first established himself at " Little- 
worth," now Trenton. At that time the town 



NEW JERSEY. 249 

consisted of some ten or a dozen buildings, 
but under the judicious management of its 
founder, it advanced rapidly ; for we are told by 
Kalm, that in 1748, the number of dwellings 
had increased to upwards of one hundred, be- 
sides two churches, and several other public 
edifices. There are now about 1,100 buildings 
of every sort, and about 6,000 inhabitants. 
The place was incorporated as a city, on the 
13th November, 1792. Its public buildings 
and other objects of curiosity, consist of the 

State-house or Legislative Hall, which is 
finely situated on the bank of the Delaware, in 
view of its rapids and the beautiful country by 
which they are surrounded. 

This structure is of an oblong form, whose 
length is 100 and breadth 60 feet, with circular 
projections at either end. It is surmounted by 
an appropriate cupola, containing a bell. The 
interior arrangements are judicious, and well 
suited to their purposes. Its exterior is stuc- 
coed, so as to give it the appearance of granite, 
of wliich it is a good imitation. 

Governor''s House, near the capitol, is a neat 
building, but without any pretensions to archi- 
tectural beauty. 

County Offices, are plain but substantial 
buildings, with safes and other appropriate ap- 
pendages. 

State Prison, is an extensive stone building 
situated in the adjoining village of Lamberton, 



250 NEW JERSEY. 

which, fi'om its peculiar construction and forms 
of discipline, deserves the attention of visiters. 

City Hall, is a handsome structure, erected 
within a few years. 

In addition to the above, there are in and 
about Trenton, several beautiful churches, two 
banking houses, an academy, many boarding- 
schools, a vast number of common schools, and 
other institutions of a public nature ; together 
with the usual complement of stores, taverns, 
manufactories, cotton mills, printing offices, 
some of which issue weekly journals ; several 
literary and scientific institutions, and in short, 
all other components that constitute a little 
city, such as Trenton. 

As the adjoining villages of Lamberton, 
Eloomsbury and Mill Hill, are generally con- 
sidered as nothing more than suburbs of Tren- 
ton, a particular description of them is deemed 
unnecessary. Among the leading avenues of 
trade possessed by Trenton, tliose by the canals 
and rail-roads are the most important. The 
Delaware and Raritan Canal, from Borden- 
town to New Brunswick, and its navigable 
feeder, pass through Trenton ; whence rail- 
roads extend to Philadelphia, New Brunswick, 
and another, which intersects the Camden 
and Amboy Rail-road, a short distance from 
Bordentown. 

The manufacturing facilities of the city, 
have, of late, been materially improved. A com- 
pany, incorporated in 1831, has just completed a 
short canal and mill race, on the bank of the 
river, by which a valuable water power is 



ROUTES FROM TRENTON. 251 

afforded, and now extensively and profitably 
employed. 

The name of Trenton occupies a prominent 
place in the annals of our revolution. It was 
here, in 1776, that General Washington, with 
five thousand five hundred men, after crossing 
the Delaware, amid all the dangers of an incle- 
ment night, attacked the British forces, under 
Colonel Rahl, who was mortally wounded by 
the first fire. His men, in the utmost dismay, 
attempted to file off towards Princeton; but 
General Washington, perceiving their inten- 
tion, moved a portion of his troops into the road 
in front, and thus frustrated their design. 

Their artillery having been seized, and the 
Americans pressing upon them, they surren- 
dered. Many of the Hessians were killed — 
a thousand were made prisoners — while a few 
escaped, and fled in the direction of Borden- 
town. Of the American troops, only two were 
killed and two frozen to death. Washington, 
soon after this brilliant affair, re-crossed the De- 
laware with his prisoners, six pieces of artillery, 
a thousand stand of arms, and some military 
stores. 



ROUTES FROM TRENTON. 

From Trenton to New York, hy Rail-road. 

Princeton, .... 10 

Kingston, . . , . 4 14 

New Brunswick, . . . 14 28 

Matouchin, . . . , 4 32 



^53 


BOUTJE TO 






Rahway, 
Elizabethtown, 
Newark, 
Jersey City, 
New York, 




7 
6 
5 
. 9 
1 


39 

45 
50 
59 
60 



Princeton. — This attractive little town haa 
been long celebrated as the seat of Nassau Hall, 
one of the oldest and most respectable colleges 
in the country. It contains also a theological 
seminary, established some twelve or fifteen 
years since, by the Presbyterians. Both insti- 
tutions are in a flourishing condition, and are 
successfully prosecuting the objects which they 
have in view. 

Princeton, by the new arrangement of coun- 
ties, is embraced within the limits of Mercer 
county, and lies a small distance to the north 
of the rail-road to New Brunswick. Its posi- 
tion is considered one of the most salubrious in 
the state, being considerably elevated above the 
surrounding country, and of course is free from 
those exhalations, common to low lands. 
Princeton is an incorporated town, and con- 
tains about two hundred and thirty buildings, 
with 1,200 inhabitants, including the inmates 
of both colleges. There are five places of pub- 
lic worship, and several schools of a'high order for 
both males and females. Whether we regard 
the position of the town ; its neat and attractive 
dwellings ; or the general intelligence of its in- 
habitants, we know not a more desirable place 
of residence than Princeton. 

One of the most important incidents of the 
{evolution occurred in the neighbourhood of 



NEW YORK. 253 

this town. On the night of January 3d, 1777, 
the American and British armies lay encamp- 
ed on opposite hanks of the Assanpink creek, 
near Trenton. The Britisli commander, con- 
fident of success in the coming conflict, only 
awaited the approach of day to begin the 
work of destruction. In this critical situa- 
tion, and menaced by a force every way supe- 
rior to his own, Washington determined to 
abandon his position on the Assanpink, and, 
by a circuitous march along the left flank of 
the enemy, fall into their rear at Princeton. 
When it was dark, the army, leaving its fires 
lighted, and the sentinels on the margin of 
the creek, decamped with perfect secrecy. 
About sunrise, two British regiments, that 
were on their march to join the rear of the 
British army at Lawrence, fell in with the 
van of the Americans, conducted by General 
Mercer, and a very sharp action ensued. The 
advanced party of Americans, composed chiefly 
of militia, soon gave way, and the few regulars 
attached to them could not maintain their 
ground. General Mercer, while gallantly ex- 
erting himself to rally his broken troops, receiv- 
ed a mortal wound. General Washington, 
however, who followed close in their rear, now 
led on the main body of the army, and attacked 
the enemy with great spirit. While he expos- 
ed himself to their hottest fire, he was so well 
supported by the same troops which had aided 
him a few days before in the victory at Tren- 
ton, that the British were compelled to give 
way, and Washington pressed forward to 
Princeton. A party of the British, that had 
taken refuge in the college, after receiving a 
few discharges from the American field-pieces, 
'22 



254 ROUTE TO 

surrendered themselves prisoners of war ; but 
the principal part of the regiment that was let1; 
there, saved itself by a precipitate retreat to 
Brunswick. In tliis action upwards of a hun- 
dred of the British were killed, and nearly 
three hundred were taken prisoners. Great 
was the surprise of Lord Cornwallis, when the 
report of the artillery at Princeton, and the 
arrival of breathless messengers, apprised him 
that the enemy was in the rear. Alarmed by 
the danger of his position, he commenced a re- 
treat ; and, being harrassed by the militia and 
the countrypeople who had suffered by the out- 
rages perpetrated by his troops on their advance, 
he did not deem himself in safety till he arrived 
at Brunswick, from whence, by means of the 
Raritan, he had communication with New 
York. 

Kingston, a town situated on the line between 
Middlesex and Somerset counties, and partly 
in each. It contains, in addition to several ex- 
tensive factories and mills, on the Millstone 
river, about sixty buildings, including a Presby- 
terian church, academy, &c. The Delaware 
and Raritan Canal passes through the town. 

New Brunswick.* 

Malouchin, a mere hamlet of Middlesex coun- 
ty, containing about twenty buildings. It is, 
liowever, situated in the centre of a populous and 
fertile country, which, from the numerous build- 
ings, may be regarded as an extended village. 

Railway, a large and thriving town of Mid- 
dlesex county, formed by the union of several 



NEW YORK. 255 

villages. One of these was formerly called 
" Bridgetown ;" but as there was another 
Bridgetown in the state, the legislature, by 
special enactment, united the whole, under the 
name of Rahway, after the river upon whose 
banks they are situated, by which name they 
are now generally known. Their united popu- 
lation is above 4,000, originally from New En- 
gland. The Presbyterians, Methodists, Bap- 
tists and Friends have places of worship here. 
That of the Presbyterians is a beautiful struc- 
ture. Among the liberal institutions of the 
place, which possesses many, there are a public 
library, an " Athenean Academy," so called, a 
fine building, erected by a company expressly 
for the institution, which partakes, in some 
measure, of the nature of a high school. There 
are also Sunday schools attached to most of the 
churches ; six or eight well conducted public 
schools, a bank, a printing office, from which a 
weekly newspaper is issued. If the people of 
Rahway have been thus liberal in providing 
means for the moral and intellectual improve- 
ment of their youth, they have been no less so 
in the erection and embellishment of their 
dwellings, which present a remarkably neat 
appearance. Rahway may be, with truth, 
styled a manufacturing place. Establishments 
on an extensive scale are in daily operation 
here. The manufactures consist of silk print- 
ing, carriages and carriage furniture, hats, 
shoes, clothing, clocks, earthen-ware and cotton 



Elizabethtown, a beautiful town, situated on 
Elizabeth creek, in Essex county, containing 
about five hundred buildings and 3,000 inhabi- 



256 EOUTE TO 

tants. It is a borough town, and one of the 
•oldest in the state, its site having been pur- 
chased from the Indians by a company from 
Long Island, so early as the year 1664. Owing 
to its contiguity to New York, the quiet of 
Elizabethtown was frequently disturbed by the 
contending parties during the revolutionary 
war. In one of these conflicts, a resident cler- 
gyman of the Presbyterian church was killed, 
after witnessing the destruction of his church, 
which was burnt by the British. There is in 
this town an unusual proportion of handsome 
dwellings and churches, which, with the wide 
and regular streets, impart an air of great neat- 
ness and beauty to the place, and render it a 
very desirable residence. 

The Ehzabethport and Somerville Rail-road, 
as well as that from Jersey City to New Bruns- 
wick, pass through the town. These, with 
turnpikes and several good common roads, af- 
ford extensive facilities for conveying to mar- 
ket, the agricultural products and manufactures 
of the town and adjacent country. 

Among the latter may be mentioned, oil- 
cloth, earthenware, ropes and cordage, cotton 
bagging, tin and sheet-iron ware, clocks, car- 
riages, leather, iron castings, steam engines, 
and machinery of all kinds. The place is also 
provided with several literary, scientific and be- 
nevolent institutes, which afford to the inhabi- 
tants the means of intellectual enjoyment and 
moral culture, amid the busy scenes of their 
daily occupation. 

With all these advantages, it is scarcely ne- 
cessary for us to add that Elizabethtown is a 
flourishing place. 



NEW YORK. 



257 



Newarh.* 
Jersey City.* 

From Trenton to PMladelpMa, by Rail-road. 



Morrisville,* 




1 


Bristol,* 


. 9 


10 


Andalusia,* . 


. 9 


19 


Frankford,* 


. 6 


25 


Locomotive Depot,* 


. 3 


28 


Philadelphia,* 


. 2 


30 



From Trenton to Easton, Penn'a, by Stage. 



Penington, 
Snidertown, 


8 
6 14 


Rocktown, 


. 2 16 


Rangoes, 

Flemington, . , 

Mt. Carmel, 


2 18 
5 23 
2 25 


Fairview, 


4 29 


Pittstown, 


2 31 


Perryville, 
Bloomsbury, 
Phillipsburg, 
Easton, 


4 35 

7 42 
7 49 
1 50 



Penington, a neat village of Mercer county, 
22* 



258 EOUTE TO 

containing about fifty buildings, including a 
Presbyterian and a Methodist church, an aca- 
demy and public library. 

Snidertown, consists of a few buildings, situ- 
ated on the road to Flemington. 

Rocktown, a mere hamlet of some ten or 
twelve buildings, situated in a gap of Rock 
mountain, in Hunterdon county. 

Ringoes, a pleasant village, delightfully situ- 
ated on the northern declivity of Rock moun- 
tain, in Hunterdon county. It consists of about 
forty buildings, among which are a Presbyte- 
rian church, an academy, a cotton and woollen 
factory, several mills and work-shops, with an 
abundant supply of taverns. 

Flemington, a handsome town of Hunterdon 
county, situated in the Raritan valley, at the 
base of Mt. Carmel. It occupies a pleasant 
position, in the centre of a well cultivated and 
productive country, and is the seat of justice of 
Hunterdon county. 

There are in the town, besides the court- 
house, a beautiful and commodious structure, 
and its adjuncts, nearly eighty buildings, inclu- 
ding several handsome churches, belonging to 
the Presbyterians, Baptists and Methodists, a 
public library, and some other institutions of 
a like description. 

Mount Carmel, a little village of Hunterdon 
county, containing eight or ten dwellings, a 
store and tavern. 



EASTON. 



259 



Fairview, another inconsiderable village of 
Hunterdon county, inhabited mostly by Friends 
or Quakers, who have a meeting-house here. 

Piltstown, a small village of twenty or twen- 
ty-five houses, mills, &c., situated in the valley 
of the Raritan, in Hunterdon county. 

Perryville, a village of Hunterdon county, 
situated at the south-eastern foot of Muscon- 
etcong mountain. 

Bloomsbury, a neat village, situated partly in 
Hunterdon aud partly in Warren county, on 
the banks of the Musconetcong creek, it con- 
sists of about fifty dwellings, a cotton manu- 
factory, an oil mill, grist mills, &c. 

Phillipsburg.* 

Easton,* 



From Trenton to Freehold, via Cranberry. 



Princeton, 

Plainsboro, 

Cranberry, 

Englishtown, 

Freehold, 





10 


. 5 


15 


. 5 


20 


. 10 


30 


. 5 


35 



Princeton.* 



260 NEWARK. 

Plainsboro, a village of Middlesex county, 
containing about twenty buildings of various 
sorts. 

Cranberry, a town of Middlesex county, 
and in the Millstone valley. It is a thriving 
town, with a population of about 500. 

Englishtoion, a village of Monmouth county, 
containing about forty buildings. 

Freehold.* ' 



From Trenton to Mount Holly. 

Bordentown, . . . 7 

Jacksonville, . . . 7 14 

Mount Holly, . • . 5 19 



Bordentown.* 

Jacksonville, a mere hamlet of Burlington 
county, in which a post-office, called Jack- 
sonville, is established. 

Mount Holly.* 



NEWARK. 

This is by far the largest, and as a manufac- 
turing place, the most important town, or rather 



NEWARK. 261 

city — for it is organized as such — in the state 
of New Jersey. Its population according to 
the census of 184(1, is 17,292, a large portion 
of which, is engaged in the various manu- 
factories, which abound here to an unusual 
extent. Newark was first settled in 1666, by 
people from New England. It is the seat of 
justice of Essex county, and may now be 
regarded as the metropolis of the state. 

The Passaic, here a beautiful stream, flows 
along the eastern side of the town, and gradu- 
ally curves towards the east, in its passage into 
Newark bay, three miles distant from the city. 
The town plot, except in the immediate vicini. 
ty of the Passaic, is elevated some thirty or 
forty feet above the river ; and the country, on 
the west, continues to rise for a few miles, and 
then descends in the direction of Elizabeth- 
town. Its streets and avenues are wide, and 
shaded by an abundance of trees, which add 
greatly to the beauty of the city and to the 
comfort of passengers. The city is supplied 
with water from a copious spring, a short 
distance from the town. The commercial facil- 
ities of Newark have been greatly augmented 
of late, by the completion of the Morris Canal, 
and the various rail-roads which now pass 
through the city. These, superadded to the 
almost innumerable manufacturing establish- 
ments, in and about the place, give it an active 
and business-like appearance, gratifying alike, 
to those who are practically engaged in them, 
and to those who witness their operations. 

Among the articles manufactured here, most 
of which are sent to distant markets, may be 
mentioned, leather, saddlery and harness, car- 
riages and carriage furniture, hats, boots and 



262 NEWARK. 

shoes, in immense quantities, brass and iron 
castings, soap and candles, tin and sheet-iron 
ware, clothing- of all sorts, Venetian blinds, cabi- 
net furniture, jewellery, clocks, tools and agri- 
cultural implements, ropes and cordage, malt 
liquors, pottery, together with a host of other 
matters, " too numerous to mention." 

Besides the factories, most of which are on a 
large scale, there are several breweries, grist 
and saw mills, dj'eing-liouses, printing offices, 
each of which issues a newspaper, &,c. There 
are scliools innumerable, academies, and several 
literary and scientific institutions. Of church- 
es, the Episcopalians have two ; the Presbyte- 
rians five ; the Baptists two ; the Dutch Re- 
formed one ; the Methodists three ; and the 
Roman Catholics one. The other public build- 
ings are the court-house, county offices, three 
banks, and the immense depot of the New Jer- 
sey Rail-road Company. 

Situated in the immediate neighbourhood of 
the hostile armies, the people of Newark were 
kept in a constant state of alarm during the 
revolutionary struggle. On one occasion the 
British sent from New York, a detachment 
consisting of five hundred men, who burnt the 
academy, and committed other excesses. They 
were, however, induced to quit the town before 
they could accomplish the destruction of the 
place, which, no doubt, was their object. 



ROUTES FROM NEWARK. 26S 

ROUTES FROM NEWARK. 
From Newark to Trenton, by RaiLroad. 



Elizabethtown,* 




5 


Rahway,* 


. 6 


11 


Matouchin,* 


. 7 


18 


New Brunswick,* 


. 4 


22 


Kingston,* 


. 14 


36 


Princeton,* 


. 4 


40 


Trenton,* 


. 10 


50 



From Newark to New York, by Rail-road. 



Jersey City,* 
New York, 



9 
1 10 



From Newark to Paterson, by Stage. 



Belleville 

Aquakanonck, 

Paterson, 



4 
10 
15 



Belleville, a pleasant town, situated on the 
west bank of the Passaic, in Essex county, 
about four miles east of Bloomfield. It is built 
mostly along the bank of the river, and extends 
nearly three miles. The buildings are remark-, 
ably neat, and the whole town presents quite an 



264 ROUTE TO 

imposing appearance, on approaching it from 
the east. Besides the three churches, which 
are fine substantial structures, and several 
school-houses, there are upwards of two hun- 
dred and fifty buildings, including a large ho- 
tel and two or three taverns. 

The vicinity of Belleville affords extensive 
and valuable water-power, which is partly em- 
ployed by a brass rolling mill, button factory, 
foundries, calico and silk printing aparatus, 
Britannia metal factory, &c. 

AquacJcanonclc, a village, partly in Essex and 
partly in Hudson counties. The rail-road from 
Jersey City to Paterson passes through the vil- 
lage. 

Paterson, an important manufacturing town 
of Passaic county. It is admirably situated for 
manufacturing purposes, at the Great Falls of 
the Passaic, which afford a constant and abun- 
dant supply of water, for the vast number of 
factories now in operation in the town. 

The company under whose auspices the place 
was established, was incorporated in 1791, and 
in 1794, the first manufactory was erected. In 
1796 the operations of the company were sus- 
pended — its funds having been exhausted — and 
in 1807 the buildings were totally destroyed by 
fire. In 1814 the company was re-organized, 
and commenced anew the business of manufac- 
turing, with every prospect of success. 

During the period from 1801 to 1814, many 
private establishments were erected ; so tliat a 
large portion of the valuable water-power was 
employed, in addition to that used by the old 
company. The town, from this period up to 
the present time, has continued to improve, and 



MILFORD. 265 

is now one of the most important manufacturing 
places in the United States. 

The number of buildings, including ten 
churches, at present in Paterson and New 
Manchester, an adjoining village, is nearly- 
one thousand; and by the census of 1840, that 
of the inhabitants is 7,598. Among the latter 
may be found Presbyterians, both of the old 
and new schools, Reformed Dutch, Roman Ca- 
tholics, Episcopalians, Baptists, Methodists, Se- 
ceders, Lutherans, Friends, Universalists, Unita- 
rians, &c. Sunday and common schools are very 
numerous. In some of the latter, instruction is 
also afforded gratuitously, and all are conducted 
upon the most liberal principles. There are also 
in the town, a society for the promotion of litera- 
ture and science, which has an excellent library ; 
a mechanics' institute ; a museum ; a circulating 
library ; a public library, and some other insti- 
tutions of a similar description. Two weekly 
journals are published here. 

Taken altogether, Paterson, with its numer- 
ous factories, fine dwellings, public institutions, 
religious, moral, literary, and scientific, and its 
busy population, presents more the appearance 
of a well organized city, than that of a town of 
artizans — as it is in reality. 



From Newark to Milford, Pa., by Stage. 

Bloomfield, ... 4 

Cedarville, . , . 6 10 

Mead's Basin, . . . 4 14 

Pompton, . . . . 6 20 

Bloomingsdale, . . . 3 23 
23 



266 ROUTE to' 

Snufftown, . , . . 12 35 

Hamburg, . . . . 6 41 

Deckertown, . . . f 5 46 

Milford, . . . 15 61 



Bloomfield, a neat town on the Morris Canal 
in Essex county. It contains about three hun- 
dred buildings, and nearly 1,800 inhabitants; 
several public houses ; a boarding-school ; an 
academy ; six or eight common schools ; one 
Presbyterian, and two Methodist churches. 
The manufacture of leather, woollen and cotton 
goods, paper, &c., is extensively carried on 
here. 

Cedarville, a small manufacturing village in 
the northern part of Essex county. 

Mead's Basin, a mere landing place for the 
Morris Canal, with a post office, in Passaic 
county. 

Pompton or Ryersons, a village in Passaic 
county, consisting of about twenty-five dwel- 
lings, a Dutch Reformed church, a furnace, 
carding machine, four grist mills, and four or 
five taverns. 

Blooming dale, a village of Passaic county, 
which extends along the north bank of Pequan- 
nock creek, containing about twenty buildings, 
including a bark mill, a grist mill, a forge, saw 
mill, &c. 

Snufftown, a small village, situated on the 



MILFORD. 267 

eastern border of Sussex county, and at the 
base of Hamburg mountain, which separates 
the valley of Raritan from that of the Walkill. 
It contains some ten or twelve dwellings, be- 
sides a Methodist chapel, store and tannery. 

Hamburg, a village of the Walkill valley, in 
Sussex county, containing about thirty build- 
ings, among which there are several saw and 
grist mills, a church, and three taverns. 

Deckertown, a small village of about twenty, 
five buildings, in Sussex county, with the usual 
number of mills, taverns, &c. About five 
miles west of this village, the traveller cross- 
es the Blue mountain, and enters the valley of 
the Delaware, upon whose right bank is situ- 
ated the thriving town of 

Milford, the seat of justice of Pike county, 
Pa., with a population of 750. It contains, in 
addition to two churches and an incorporated 
academy, upwards of 150 buildings, and a fine 
bridge across the Delaware. 



From Newark to Milford, via Morristown. 



South Orange,' 


5 


Cheapside, 


. 5 10 


Columbia, 


. 2 12 


Morristown, 


. 5 17 


Dover, 


. 8 25 


Mount Pleasant, 


. 3 28 



268 



ROUTE TO 



Sparta, 

Lafayette, 

Augusta, 

Branchville, 

Eenville, 

Milford, 



10 38 



43 
46 
49 
54 



10 64 



South Omnse.* 



Columbia.* 



Morristown.* 

Dover, a village of Morris county, on the 
Morris Canal, in Rockaway valley, containing 
about fifty dwellings, a church, a foundry, a 
furnace, saw mill, a machine factory, and seve- 
ral rolling and slitting mills. It is a very neat 
village, and presents quite a business-like ap- 
pearance. 

Mount Pleasant, a hamlet of Morris county, 
consisting of eight or ten houses, and some 
mills. A valuable iron mine near the village 
has been profitably worked for several years 
past. 

Sparta, a small village of Sussex county, at 
the western base of Hamburg mountain, and 
in the Walkill valley. It contains about fifty 
buildings, including a Presbyterian church, a 



EASTON. 



269 



school-house, several saw and grist mills, four 
fbrgfes, stores, taverns, &c. 

Beds of zinc and iron ore ahound here. 

Lafayette, a small village of Sussex county, 
and in the valley of Paulin's Kill, consisting of 
about twenty dwellings, a Baptist church, a 
furnace, and a grist mill. 



L mere hamlet of ten or twelve 
buildings, in Sussex county. 

Branchville, in Sussex county, and in Paul- 
in's Kill valley, a small village consisting of 
twelve or fifteen houses, some saw and grist 
mills. 

Benville, a village situated on the western 
declivity of the Blue mountain, in Sussex coun- 
ty, consisting of six or eight houses. 

Milford* 



From Newark to Easton, Pa., via Morristown. 



Morristown,* as above. 




17 


Mendham,* 


. 7 


24 


Chester,* 


. 5 


29 


German Valley,* 


. 5 


34 


Schooley's Mt. Springs,* 


. 3 


37 


Mansfield,* 


. 9 


46 


Easton* 


. 15 


61 



23* 



270 EOUTK TO SOMEEVILLE. 

From Newark to Somerville. 

Springfield, , i 

Scotch Plains, 

Plainfield, . 

Warren, 

Somerville, « 



7 15 
2 17 
6 23 

8 31 



Springfield, a town of Essex county, on the 
head waters of Rahway river. This is a large 
and handsome town, containing upwards of 
two hundred and thirty buildings, several 
churches, mills, &c. It is celebrated for its 
manufacture of paper, of which immense quan- 
tities, are sent to the neighbouring cities, 

Scotch Plains, a village of Essex county, 
consisting of eighty dwellings, a Baptist church, 
an academy, six or eight saw and grist mills, 
one oil mill, one paper mill, and the usual 
number of work-shops and taverns. The vil- 
lage occupies a fine position, in an extensive 
plain, which inclines towards, and is termina- 
ted by, the Green branch of Raritan river. 

Plainfield, also in Essex county, and on the 
southern margin of the plain above-mentioned. 
The place is large, and possesses all the ele- 
ments of a well-established and prosperous 
town of the better sort. Here are Presbyte- 
rian, Methodist, and Baptist churches ; Friends' 
meeting houses; an insurance company; a 
fire engine ; two public libraries ; an appren- 
tices' library ; lawyers, physicians and clergy- 
men; three or four grist and saw mills; several 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 271 

schools ; some extensive factories; and in short, 
all other things which constitute a city, except 
the name. 

Warren, a small village, with a post-office, 
and some ten or twelve houses, in Somerset 
county. 

Somerville, seat of justice of Somerset coun- 
ty, is beautifully situated on the south branch 
of the Raritan, eleven miles north-west from 
New Brunswick, and contains about 800 
inhabitants. In addition to the court-house, 
jail, &c., there are three churches ; an exten- 
sive boarding-school for young ladies ; an aca- 
demy, and several minor schools ; mills, &c. 

The Elizabethport and Somerville Rail-road 
has its western terminus here. 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 

This place is partly situated in the two coun- 
ties of Somerset and Middlesex, and is the 
seat of justice of the latter. It is an incorpo- 
rated city, and next to Newark, the largest 
town in the state. It is situated on the right 
bank of the Raritan, about twelve miles above 
Amboy bay. Its population is 8,000, and the 
number of buildings is about twelve hundred. 
The public buildings, &c., consist of the court- 
house and its appendages, college edifice (Rut- 
ger's College) and grammar school, an Episco- 
pal church, a Tresbyterian church, a Bap- 
tist church. Catholic chapel, two Methodist 



272 NEW BRUNSWICK. 

churches, one Dutch Reformed church, two 
academies, some incorporated schools, several 
common schools, and two or three banks. In ad- 
dition to the splendid viaduct of the New Jersey 
Rail-road, there is a fine wooden bridge across 
the Raritan, one thousand feet long, with 
double ways. The Delaware and Raritan Canal 
terminates, and the New Jersey Rail-road and 
that to Trenton unite, here. These rail-roads 
form an important link in the great north and 
south line, which will, ere long, extend without 
interruption, from Portsmouth, in New Hamp- 
shire, to New Orleans, Pensacola, &c. Some 
of the buildings have an antiquated appearance, 
having been erected on the first settlement of 
the place, in 1713, which was then called 
" Prigmore's Swamp." Those built by the 
Dutch colony, which emigrated from Albany, 
though of a more recent date, are no less re- 
markable, not only in their peculiar construc- 
tion, but also from their position, having their 
gable ends fronting on the streets. Albany 
street may be readily distinguished by its char- 
acteristic edifices. Constant communication 
between New Brunswick and the city of New 
York is afforded by several steam-boats, rail- 
roads and turnpikes. There are also excellent 
turnpike and common roads leading in every 
direction, by which the city of New Brunswick 
enjoys considerable commerce, not only in the 
agricultural products of the contiguous country, 
but also, in the manufactures of its numerous 
work-shops. 



ROUTES FR03I NEW BRUNSWICK. 273 



ROUTES FROM NEW BRUNSWICK. 

For route to Trenton, and that to New York, 
see " Newark" 



From New Brunswick to Middletown, and 
thence to Long Branch, 



Washington, 


5 


Middletown Point, . 


. 9 14 


Middletown, 


. 8 22 


Shrewsbury, 


. 6 28 


Eaton, 


. 1 29 


Long Branch, 


. 5 34 



Washington, a small village of Middlesex 
county, and formerly the steam-boat landing 
for the line between New York and Philadel- 
phia. It contains about fifty buildings, includ- 
ing taverns, stores, &e. The remains of a 
canal, extending from the Raritan to the 
village, are still visible, though long since aban- 
doned. 



Middletown Point, a town situated in the 
north-west angle of Monmouth county, on an 
elevated blutf, which bounds the marsh in front 
of the town. 

There are about 500 inhabitants, whose dwel- 
lings are in general well built, and present a 
neat appearance. 

It is the depot for the produce of the sur- 
rounding country, consisting of garden vegeta- 



274 



ROUTE TO 



bles, corn, grain, and fire-wood, which is ship- 
ped to the New York markets. 

Middletown, in Monmouth county, consisting 
of about thirty dwelling-houses, three churches, 
and several stores, shops and taverns. 

Shrewsbury, a clever little town, of twenty 
houses and two churches, situated on the high 
ground, west of Shrewsbury river, in Monmouth 
county. 

Eaton.* 

Long Branch.* 



From New Brunswick to Flemington, and 
thence to Alexandria. 



Millstone, 


9 


riagtown. 


. 5 14 


Koughstown, 


. 6 20 


Flemington, 


. 4 24 


Baptist-town, 


. 8 32 


Alexandria, 


. 3 35 



Millstone, a very neat village of about fifty 
buildings, of Somerset county, in the valley of 
the Millstone, and on the Delaware and Rari- 
tan Canal. There are two churches, and tlie 
customary supply of stores and taverns. 



EASTON. 



275 



Flagiown, a mere liamlet of twelve or fifteen 
houses, in Somerset county. 

Flemington.* 

Baptist-town, a village of Hunterdon county, 
containing about a dozen buildings, including 
two churches. 

Alexandria, a pretty little village, situated on 
the east bank of the Delaware, containing 
about twenty-five buildings. 



From New Brunswick to Easton, Pa. 



Bound Brook, 






7 


Somerville, 






4 11 


Bailey's, 
White House, 






4 15 

4 29 


Potterstown, 






3 22 


Lebanon, 






. 3 25 


Clinton, 






3 28 


Perryville, 

Jugtown, 

Bloomsbury, 

Phillipsburg, 

Easton, 






. 3 31 
. 4 35 
. 3 38 

. 7 45 
. 1 4G 



Bound Brook, a village of Somerset county, 
situated in the apex of the great bend of the 
Eariton, about seven miles north-west from 
New Brunswick. The Delaware and Raritan 
Canal passes along the opposite bank of the 
Raritan. 



276 EOTJTB TO 

The village consists of some thirty buildings, 
scattered over a considerable space, resembling 
a thickly settled hamlet, rather than a com- 
pact village. Since the completion of the canal, 
the place has increased in size, and is now in a 
prosperous condition. 

SomervUle.* 

Bailey^s, a noted public house in Somerset 
county. 

White House, a small village of Hunterdon 
county, consisting of about twenty-five dwel- 
lings, two churches, some grist mills, and three 
taverns. 

Potterstown, i mere hamlets of six or eight 
> dwellings each, in Hunter- 
Lebanon, ^ don county. 

Clinton, a very handsome and well built town, 
situated in the valley of the Raritan, south 
branch. 

The village is completely environed by hills, 
which contain iron ore and plumbago (black 
lead) in great abundance. It contains about 
fifty dwellings, besides a Presbyterian church, 
an extensive woollen factory, fulling mill, &c. 
and possesses valuable water-power, which as 
yet, has been only partially brought into use. 

Perryville, and 

Jugtoten, two small villages, of ten or twelve 
houses each, in Hunterdon county. 



BASKING RIDGK. 



277 



Bloomsbury, a neat village of Warren coun- 
ty, situated in the Musconetcong valley, con- 
sisting of about fifty buildings, including a 
large vifoollen factory, one grist mill and one 
oil mill, &c. 

Phillipshurg.* 

Easton.* 



From New Brunswick to Morristown. 



Bound Brook, 
Warren, 
Liberty Creek, 
Basking Ridge, 
Logansville, 
Morristown, 



7 

12 
16 

20 
22 

28 



Bound Brook.* 



Warren.* 

Liberty Creek, a small village of 25 or 30 
buildings, in Somerset county. 

Basking Ridge, a beautiful village, situated 
on a branch of the Passaic, in the north-eastern 
quarter of Somerset county. The position of 
the village is elevated, in the midst of a fertile 
and well cultivated country, and is regarded as 
one of the most salubrious sections of the state. 
24 



278 



ROUTES FROM CAMDEN. 



Ih the village, which contains about 400 inhab- 
itants, there is a Presbyterian church, an aca- 
demy, and a boarding-school for boys. 

Logansville, an extended settlement in the 
southern part of Morris county. 

Morristown.* 



CAMDEN.* 

ROUTES FROM CAMDEN. 

For Stage routes from Camden to Woodbury, 
Cape May, Tuckerton, &c., see " Philadelphia." 

From Camden to Bordentown, By Rail-road. 



Pensauken Creek, 


7 


Westfield, 


.29 


Drawbridge, 


. 3 12 


Cooperstown, 


. 3 15 


Burlington, 


. 3 18 


Bordentown, 


. 9 27 



Pensauken Creek.* 

Westfield^ on the road from Camden to Bur- 
lington — eight miles from the latter — contains 
ten or twelve buildings, and a Friends' meeting- 
house. 



HADDONFIKLD. 



279 



Drawbridge, a little villagfe, three and a half 
miles north-east from Westfield ; which derives 
its name from a bridge over the Rancocus 
creek. 

Cooperstown, a small village of ten or twelve 
liouses, in Burlington county. 

Burlington.* 

Bordentown* 



From Camden to May^s Landing, and thence to 
Bargaintown. 



Haddonfield, 

Longacoming, 

Blue Anchor, 

Pennypot, 

Weymouth, 

May's Landing, 

Bargaintown, 





6 


. 9 


15 


. 6 


21 


. 8 


29 


. 4 


33 


. 6 


39 


. 10 


49 



Haddonfield, six miles south-east from Cam- 
den, is, in comparison with its neighbouring 
towns, quite an important and agreeable place. 
It contains about one hundred and thirty build- 
ings, chiefly owned and occupied by Friends, 
who have a large meeting-house in the town. 
Haddonfield is situated in the midst of a fertile 
and highly productive country — a sort of oasis 
among the surrounding sands. The internal 
arrangements of Haddonfield partake in some 
degree, of those of a well ordered city. 



280 ROUTE TO BARGAINTOWN. 

There are two engine companies, a public 
library, and other like institutions, which speak 
well for the intelHgence and forethought of the 
people. Some of the houses of this ancient 
town were erected more than one hundred and 
fifty years since ; many of the early buildings 
still remain. 

Longacoming, a village of Gloucester county, 
containing about forty buildings, including a 
Methodist church. 

Blue Anchor, a noted tavern in Gloucester 
county, around which several dwellings have 
been erected, and form a little village. 

Pennypot, another tavern and small assem- 
blage of dwellings, in Atlantic county. 

Weymouth, a village inhabited chiefly by 
workmen, employed at Weymouth furnace and 
forge, in Atlantic county. There are also 
some grist and saw mills. Population about 450. 

May's Landing, a village of Atlantic county, 
situated at the head of navigation on Great Egg 
Harbour river, about eighteen miles from the 
shore of the Atlantic ocean. Including Hamil- 
ton, a small village on the west, which is gener- 
ally regarded as a part of the town, the popula- 
tion is about two hundred and fifty, chiefly em- 
ployed in ship building and the lumber busi- 
ness. There are a Methodist church, five 
stores, and as many taverns. 

Bargaintown, a small settlement on a branch 
of Great Egg Harbour river, in Atlantic coun- 
ty. It contains some forty or fifty buildings, 
including a Methodist church. 



chew's landing. 281 

From Camden to Blackwoodtoivn. 

Mount Ephraim, ... 5 

Chew's Landing, . . . 7 12 

Blackwoodtown, . . . 2 I4 



Mount Ephraiin, five miles south-east from 
Camden, with about twenty-five buildings, and 
several mills. The hill in its vicinity affords an 
extensive view of the neighbouring villages, the 
Delaware, &c. 

Chew^s Landing. — This is also a place of 
deposit for the lumber and cord-wood from the 
surrounding forests. It is situated on the east 
branch of Big Timber creek, on the road lead- 
ing from Camden to Blackwoodtown. It con- 
sists of fifty dwellings, three stores, four taverns, 
two grist mills, one Episcopal, and one Metho- 
dist church. 

Blackwoodtown, a town of some sixty or 
seventy buildings, south of Chew's Landing. 
Among the buildings are two or three taverns, 
a woollen manufactory, a Methodist, and a 
Presbyterian church. 



From Camden to Salem, by Stage and Rail R, 

• i Kaighnton, ... 1 

. < Gloucester, ... .23 

^ ( Woodbury, ... .69 

24* 



282 ROUTE TO 

Carpenter's Landing, . . 3 12 

MuUicaHill, . . . 5 17 

Woodslown, . • . 8 25 

Salem, - • • . 10 35 



Kaighnton, a small village of Newton 
township, Gloucester county, and a landing for 
the steam-boat from South street, Philadelphia. 
It has lately received important accessions in 
the erection of several fine houses, mostly built 
on the high ground in the rear of the old set- 
tlement. It now contains about forty dwell- 
ings. 

Gloucester, a small village of about twenty- 
five houses, four miles from Camden, on the 
Delaware, opposite Greenwich Point. 

Woodbury.* 

Carpenter^s Landing. — This is a busy and 
thriving town, situated on Mantua creek, about 
twelve miles south of Camden, and is the centre 
of an extensive lumber trade. A large portion 
of the fire-wood consumed in the city is carried 
to this place, and thence through Mantua creek 
and the Delaware, to Philadelphia. Its popula- 
tion is about 250. The Methodists have a neat 
chapel here. 

Mullica Hill, a village in Gloucester county, 
consisting of about seventy-five buildings^ in- 
eluding an Episcopal church, a Friends' meet- 
ing-house, &c. 



SALEM. 283 

Woodstown, a large and flourishing town, of 
Salem county, on the north fork of Salem 
creek, containing about 700 inhabitants, several 
churches, schools, &c. 

Salem, seat of justice of Salem county, and 
one of the oldest towns in the state, is situated 
on the left bank of Salem creek, about three 
miles from its discharge into the Delaware. 
The town plot is well arranged, with paved 
walks along the principal streets. The houses 
generally stand apart from each other, and have 
gardens attached, which impart quite a rural 
aspect to the place. Besides the court-house 
and jail, and five or six churches, belonging to 
the Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Baptists, 
Friends and Methodists, there are about 
three hundred buildings in the town, and 
upwards of 2,000 inhabitants ; it is distin- 
guished for its neatness, and for the general in- 
telligence of its inhabitants. Institutions for 
the promotion of literature and science, news- 
papers, Sunday and common schools, have been 
established, and liberally sustained by the great 
body of the people. The trade of Salem con- 
sists principally in grain, maize, cord-wood and 
lumber. 



( 284 ) 



A LIST OF THE 

CANALS AND RAIL-ROADS 

IN NEW JERSEY. 



Delaware and Raritan, fr. Bordentown 

to New Brunswick, 42.00 

Morris, fr. Jersey City to N. Easton, Pa. 101.75 

Salem, fr. Salem creek to Del. river, 4.00 



BAIL-ROADS. 

Camden and Amboy, fr. Camden to S. 

Amboy, 61.00 

Trenton Branch, to Trenton, 8.00 

Jobstown Br. fr. Jobst. to Craft's creek, 13.00 
Paterson and Hudson, fr. Jersey City to 

Paterson, 16.30 

Cam. & Woodb. fr. Cam. to Woodb. 9.00 

N. Jersey, fr. Jer. City to N. Brunsw. 31.00 
Trenton and Brunswick, fr. Trenton 

to New Brunswick, 27.00 

Morris and Essex, fr. Newark to Mor- 

ristown, 22.00 

Elizabethport and Somervilie, fr. Eliza- 

bethport to Somervilie, 2.5.00 



( 285 ) 



STATE OP 

DELAWARE, 



GENERAL VIEW. 



The state of Delaware is bounded on the 
north by Pennsylvania ; on the west and south 
by Maryland ; and on the east by Delaware 
bay and river, which separate it from New 
Jersey. It extends from north latitude 38° 30' 
to 39° 50", and 1° 17' to 3° east from the me- 
ridian of Washington. Its area is 2,200 square 
miles ; and population, by the census of ] 830, 
was 76,739. "The state is divided into three 
counties ; Newcastle, in the north ; Kent, in the 
centre ; and Sussex, in the south. Newcastle 
is the seat of justice of the first; Dover, of the 
second; and Georgetown, of the third. Dover 
is also the capital of the state. 

Government, — The governor, whose term of 
office is four years, beyond which he is no 
longer eligible, is elected by the people. His 
salary is $1,334. 



286 DELAWARE. 

The Legislative Power, consists of a senate 
and house of representatives. 

Judiciary, comprehends a court of errors 
and appeals ; a superior court ; a court of chan- 
cery; an orphans' court; a court of oyer and 
terminer, and some minor courts. 

Physical Geography. — The more northern 
part of the state is hilly and waving, but gradu- 
ally becomes more monotonous advancing to- 
wards the Atlantic ocean. The actual dividing 
line between the waters of the Delaware and 
Chesapeake bay, is in Delaware, but so far 
from being a ridge, is mostly an extended flat, 
from which the Pocomoke, Nanticoke, Chop- 
tank, Chester, and Sassafras rivers flow slug- 
gishly into Chesapeake bay ; and a number 
of unimportant creeks flow into the Delaware. 
The soil, in some places excellent, is generally 
thin, and in many places marshy. The cli- 
mate more distinctly different, at the extremes, 
than could be expected from a difference of lati- 
tude of only 1° 23', and no considerable differ- 
ence of level. Fruits are abundant, grain 
and meadow-grass the general objects of agri- 
cultural pursuit. From the mean annual tem- 
perature of Baltimore, it is evident cotton 
might be made a staple crop of Delaware, and 
the eastern shore of Maryland. Wherever 
there is a hundred and fijrty days without frost, 
cotton will fully ripen, and produce sufficient- 
ly for profitable cultivation. But little metallic 
wealth can be expected in a region so approach- 
ing to recent alluvion as Delaware. 

History. — Delaware was peopled by the 



DELAWARE. 287 

Swedes and Fins as early as 1627. The colony 
was formed under the auspices of Gustavus 
Adolphus, king of Sweden, who named the 
country Nova Suecia. Hoarkill, now Lewis- 
town, was founded 1630, but the Dutch claim- 
ing the country, it passed under their power in 
1655. In 1664, the colony on the Delaware, 
fell, with other parts of New Amsterdam, into 
the hands of the English, and was granted by 
Charles II. to his brother, James, Duke of 
York, who, in 1683, conveyed it, as far as Cape 
Henlopen, to William Penn. In 1704, Dela- 
ware, though under the same proprietor, be- 
came a separate colonial establishment, and 
remained such until the revolution. Constitu- 
tion formed 1776. 

The important Chesapeake and Delaware 
Canal crosses this state, and in its creation 
forms one of the most remarkable periods of 
its history. As a manufacturing state, Dela- 
ware holds a rank far above its relative extent 
and population. The works near Wilmington 
are extensive and highly valuable. As early 
as 1810, the value of the various manufactures 
exceeded $1,733,000. 



288 



DOVER. 



CHIEF CITIES AND TOWNS, 

With the Roads and Distances. 



DOVER. 



This is the capital of the state of Delaware, 
and seat of justice of Kent county. It is situ- 
ated very near the centre of the state, on the 
high ground between the two principal forks of 
Jones's creek, about ten miles from its entrance 
into Delaware bay. The town is regularly 
laid off into squares, with wide streets, and the 
houses are well built, chiefly of brick. The 
capitol, and the other state buildings, occupy 
an extensive square, which is also used as a 
public promenade. The whole town presents 
a neat appearance, and is justly regarded as 
one of the most desirable places of residence, 
in point, both of locality and society, of this 
part of the state. 



ROUTES FROM DOVER. 
From Dover to Lewistown, by Stage. 



Camden, 


3 


Canterbury, . 


. 7 10 


Frederica, 


. 5 15 


Milford, 


. 7 22 


Williams, 


. 7 29 



ROUTE TO LEWISTOWN. 289 

Broad Kill, . . . . 6 35 

Lewistown, . . . . 7 42 



Camden, a small village of Kent county, sit- 
uated on the south branch of Jones's creek, 
containing some twenty or thirty dwellings. 

Canterbury, and 

Frederica, are inconsiderable villages in Kent 
county. The latter is situated on the left bank 
of Motherkill creek. 

Milford, a town of Kent county, on the left 
bank of Mispillion creek, which forms a part 
of the boundary between Kent and Sussex 
counties. 

Williams, a mere hamlet of Sussex county. 

Broad Kill, a settlement which extends 
along the banks of the Broad Kill a tributary 
of Delaware bay. 

Lewistown, in Sussex county, situated on 
Lewis creek. It is the residence of many of the 
pilots, who are engaged in the navigation of the 
Delaware. The Delaware break-water, con- 
structed by order of the general government, 
at an immense expense, is immediately in front 
of the town, which, in consequence of that 
work, has become an important point. 



25 



290 ROUTE TO 

From Dover to Vienna. 



Canterbury, 


10 


Guinealown, 


. 11 21 


Teatown, 


. 4 25 


St. Johns 


. 5 30 


Bridgetown, 


. 5 35 


Seaford, 


. 7 42 


Vienna, 


. 20 62 


Canterbury,* 





Guineatown, a small village of Kent county, 
situated in Mispillion valley, about eight miles 
west from Milford. 

Teatown, a mere hamlet of Sussex county. 

St. Johns, and 

Bridgetown, two small villages of Sussex 
county, situated on the head waters of Nan- 
ticoke river. 

Seaford, a new town at the head of naviga- 
tion of the Nanticoke, and formerly a landing 
for steam-boats from Norfolk. 

Vienna, a small village of Dorchester coun- 
ty, Maryland, situated on the west bank of the 
Nanticoke, on the road from Snowhill to Cam- 
bridge. 



WILMINGTON. 291 

From Dover to Centreville, Maryland. 



Georgetown, 

Beartown, 

Centreville, 



12 20 

13 33 



Georgetown, a village of Kent county, con- 
taining about thirty buildings, including a 
church, two stores, taverns, &c. 

BeartoiDn, a small village of fifteen or twen- 
ty dwellings, in Caroline county, Maryland. 

Centreville, a neat and pleasant town, in 
Queen Ann county, Maryland, of which it is 
the scat of justice. 

Besides the court-house, jail, and county of- 
fices, there are about sixty buildings of various 
sorts, including the customary stores, work- 
shops, &c. 



From Dover to Wilmington. 



Hammsville, 

Smyrna, 

Salisbury, 

Blackbird, 

Fieldsboro, 

Cantwells, 

Trap, 

St. George, 

Red Lion, 





7 


6 


13 


1 


14 


5 


19 


4 


23 


3 


26 


2 


28 


5 


33 


4 


37 



292 ROUTE TO WILMINGTON. 

Clark's Corner, . . . 5 42 

Wilmington, . . . 6 48 



Hammsville, a small assemblage of build- 
ings, including a Methodist church, and a 
tavern, in Kent county. 

Smyrna, a large and flourishing town in the 
northern part of Kent county. It is pleasantly 
situated between the two principal branches of 
Duck creek, about nine miles above its conflu- 
ence with the Delaware. It enjoys considera- 
ble trade in grain, which is raised in large 
quantities in the neighbourhood; the population 
of Smyrna is about 1 ,200. 

Salisbury, a small village nearly west of 
Smyrna, of which it may be considered a part. 

Blackbird, a small settlement, consisting of 
a dozen or twenty houses, situated on Blackbird 
creek, in Newcastle county. 

Fieldsboro, a little town, beautifully situated 
on the neck formed by Blackbird and Appo- 
quinimink creeks, in Newcastle county. 

CantweWs, an extensive and thriving town, 
which has grown up in the vicinity of Cant- 
well's Bridge, in Newcastle county. 

Trap, a small village, with a tavern, in New- 
castle county. 



St. George, a village of Newcastle county, 



« 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 293 

situated on the Chesapeake and Delaware Ca- 
nal, about five miles from its eastern terminus, 
at Delaware city. 

Red Lion, a town situated on Red Lion creek, 
which derives its name from the principal 
tavern. 

Clark^s Corner, a public house situated at the 
intersection of the Newcastle and Frenchtown 
turnpike, and that from Red Lion to Wilming- 
ton. There is a Baptist Church near this 
point. 

Wilmington.* 



For Routes from Wilmington, see " Routes 
from Philadelphia." 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, from Del- 
aware city to Back creek, a branch of Elk 
river. 

New Castle and Frenchtown Rail-road, from 
Newcastle, on the Delaware, to Frenchtown, on 
Elk river, two miles below Elkton; 16.19 miles 
in length. 

Wilmington and Susquehanna Rail-road, 
from Wilmington to Havre De Grace ; 32 miles 
in length, is partly in Delaware. 

25* 



•."*•• M 



Ja 



i 



( 295 ) 



STATE OF 



MARYLAND 



GENERAL VIEW. 



The state of Maryland is bounded on the 
north by Pennsylvania; east by Delaware and 
the Atlantic ocean ; south and west by Virgi- 
nia. It extends from north latitude 38° 02' to 
39° 42', and from 2° east, to 2° 28' west, of the 
meridian of Washington. Its area is 11,150 
square miles, and population about 475,000. 



Counties. 

Allegany, w. 
Ann Arundel, m. w. 
Baltimore, n. 
Calvert, s. w, 
Caroline, E. e. 
Carroll, m. 
Charles, s. w. 
Cecil, E. n. e. 



Chief Towns. 

Cumberland. 
Annapolis, 
Baltimore. 
Prince Frederick. 
Denton. 

Port Tobacco. 
Elkton. 



TAI-'CTIEK'S TI^KISlfSSAIl, ATlLASo 



Si S, S ■« ^ t!| ^ 







( 295 ) 



STATE OF 



MARYLAND 



GENERAL VIEW. 



The state of Maryland is bounded on the 
north by Pennsylvania; east by Delaware and 
the Atlantic ocean ; south and v/est by Virgi- 
nia. It extends from north latitude 38° 02' to 
39° 42', and from 2° east, to 2° 28' west, of the 
meridian of Washington. Its area is 11,150 
square miles, and population about 475,000. 



Counties. 

Allegany, w. 
Ann Arundel, m. w. 
Baltimore, n, 
Calvert, s. w. 
Caroline, E. c. 
Carroll, m. 
Charles, s. w. 
Cecil, E. n. e. 



Chief Towns. 

Cumberland. 
Annapolis. 
Baltimore. 
Prince Frederick. 
Denton. 

Port Tobacco. 
Elkton. 



296 MARYLAND. 

Dorchester, E. s. e. Cambridge. 

Frederick, n.w, Frederick (city). 

Hartford, n, Bellair. 

Kent, E. e. Chestertown. 

Montgomery, s. w. Rockville. 

Prince Georges, s. w. Upper Marlboro. 

Queen Anne, E. e. Centreville. 

St. Mary's, s. w. Lconardstown. 

Somerset, E. s. e. Princess Anne. 

Talbot, E. m. Easton. 

Washington, n, w, Hagerstown. 

Worcester, E. s. e. Snow Hill. 

Government, — The governor, who receives a 
salary of $4,200, is elected by the people, on 
the first Wednesday of October of each year. 

Legislature, consists of a senate and house 
of delegates, and are styled the "general as- 
sembly," which meets annually, on the last 
Monday in December, at Annapolis. The 
members of both branches are elected annually 
by the people. 

Judiciary, comprehends a chancery court; a 
court of appeals, with a chief judge and five 
associate judges ; and some other courts. 

Physical Geography. — All those parts of 
Maryland, east from Chesapeake, and west 
from that bay to the head of tides, may be con- 
sidered as recent alluvion. Above tide-water, 
the surface rises, thor rfi not very rapidly, into 
hills, which reach the foot of the mountains. 
The third, or mountainous section, constitutes 
the western part of the state. In respect to 
the soil, much that is highly productive exists 



MARYLAND. 297 

in each section, but in general, the intermediate 
valleys of the mountainous part, contain the 
most productive. The limestone tracts of 
Frederick and Washington, exiiibit a fertility 
not surpassed in the United States. The hilly 
or middle section is very varied in respect to 
soil; in a very limited extent is frequently 
found the extremes of sterility and fertility. 
The sea-sand and river alluvial section, though 
not affording any surface equally productive 
with the calcareous parts of the western, is 
more uniform than the middle portion. The 
surface of the alluvial region, tliough not rising 
into hills of any considerable elevation, is far 
from being a dead plain. 

In a state of nature, Maryland was, with 
little exception, covered with a dense forest, 
composed of a great variety of timber; the 
principal genera, oak, hickory, pine, and the 
liriodendron tuUpifera. The diversity of soil, 
and of relative elevation, superinduces in Ma- 
ryland a very extended facility of vegetable 
production, from whence the staples have been 
greatly multiplied. From recent investigation, 
the height of the western valleys of the state is 
shown to exceed 800 feet ; an elevation equiva- 
lent to two degrees of latitude. The whole 
arable surface of Frederick, Washington and 
Allegany counties, may be regarded as lying 
more than 500 feet above the ocean. 

The Allegany system of mountains forms 
the western part of Maryland, and gives source 
to its most considerabl' river, the Potomac. 
The ridges or chains, in traversing the state, 
rise into a barrier, in no place less than 2,500 
feet, and in many places exceed 3,000 feet. 
This mountain mass, when compared with oth- 



298 MARYLAND. 

ers, even in the United States, is humble ; but 
when viewed as opposed to the formation of 
canals or of roads, it swells into an object of 
stupenduous magnitude, and particularly rises 
as a most formidable impediment to canal con- 
struction. An elevation of 2,500 feet is more 
than equivalent to six degrees of latitude, and 
in winter gives to the mountain ridges of Ma- 
ryland, a temperature similar to that on the 
Atlantic ocean in latitude 45°. 

Maryland abounds, in the mountainous sec- 
tions, with iron ore and bituminous coal. The 
latter exists in immense strata near the United 
States road, a few miles west from Cumber- 
land, and is of excellent quality. One great 
object of the Baltimore Rail-way, is to p'oducc 
an easy mode of conveying this invaluable fos- 
sil to the Atlantic coast. The western counties 
also contain limestone in immense formations 
or masses, one of wliich crosses the eastern 
side of Allegany county, and is the extension 
of the great limestone range of the Kittatinny 
valley, in Pennsylvania. The completion of 
the rail-road will tend to develop these inex- 
haustible fossil resources. 

History. — Maryland was intended as a re- 
fuge to the persecuted Roman Catholics, under 
a charter or grant to George Calvert Lord 
Baltimore, who died before the deed was con- 
summated, and left his claims to his son, Ce- 
cilius Lord Baltimore, to whom the patent was 
granted, June 29, 1632. The vagueness of 
both proprietary patents, involved the two colo- 
nial proprietary families of Calvert and Penn, 
in a long and intricate dispute respecting the 
boundaries of Maryland and Pennsylvania; 



MARYLAND. 299 

disputes which arose upwards of fifty years 
after the actual settlement of Maryland, and 
were not finally adjusted until after the middle 
of the 18th century. 

In 1699, the seat of government was fixed at 
Annapolis, where it has ever since remained. 
This colony early and zealously joined and sup- 
ported an opposition to the arbitrary proceed- 
ings of tiie British government. The constitu- 
tion of this state was adopted August 14th, 
3776, and dates next in order after Virginia. 
It was amended in 1838. 



CHIEF CITIES AND TOWNS, 

With the Roads and Distances. 



BALTIMORE. 

The metropolis of the state of Maryland, and 
the third city in point of size and population in 
the United States. It was founded in 1729, in 
conformity with a decree of the colonial legis- 
lature. In 17f)7 it became the seat of justice of 
Baltimore county, and in 1796 it was incorpo- 
rated as a city. The city occupies a favourable 
position on tlie Patapsco, at the confluence of 
its two principal sources, which uniting, swell 
out and form a spacious and convenient har- 
bour. Below the city, the river narrows to a 
confined strait, which is effectually command- 
ed by Fort M'Henry. Jones's Falls, one of 
the confluents of the Patapsco, divides the city 



300 BALTIMORE. 

and harbour into two parts. The lower part is 
called Fell's Point, to which vessels of 600 tons 
can ascend ; but the water rapidly diminishes 
in depth on approaching the cily. 

The local government of the city is confided to 
a mayor, who is, elected for two years, by elect- 
ors chosen by the citizens; and a council, com- 
posed of two branches, the members of which are 
elected by the people. Nearly all the subordinate 
officers of the city are appointed by the mayor, 
with the approbation and consent of a joint com- 
mittee of councils. The city is lighted by gas, 
and well supplied with pure and wholesome 
water. Its population is now about 105,000. 



WATER-WORKS. 

The waterjis conducted from an elevated part 
of Jones's Falls, by means of an aqueduct, 
about half a mile in length, to the distributing 
basin on Calvert street, and thence conveyed 
through the streets by subterraneous pipes to 
the various parts of the city. 



FOUNTAINS. 

In addition to the supply afforded by the 
water-works, there are several fountains, or 
rather springs, distributed over the city, which 
are used in common by the citizens. 

The springs, being surrounded by ornamental 
devices in marble, and otherwise embellish- 
ed, deserve especial notice. Among them the 
following are the most conspicuous. 



BALTIMORE. 301 

City Spring, in Calvert street, which is deco- 
rated by a beautiful circular temple, supported by 
eight Tuscan columns, resting upon a pedestal, 
three feet in height. Upon this base, and ex- 
tending from column to column, an iron rail- 
ing, about six feet in height, is erected, which 
with the chaste dome, and the ornamented 
grounds, form a striking object in this part of 
the city. 

Western Fountain, at the intersection of 
Camden and Soutli Charles street, is ornament- 
ed somewhat in the style of the preceding. 

Centre Fountain, corner of Market and Har- 
rison streets. This is, in the proper sense of 
the term, a fountain. The water is thrown 
with considerable force from two apertures in a 
marble pedestal, which, like the others, is rich- 
ly ornamented. 

Eastern Fountain, corner of Eden and Pratt 
streets. The improvements about this fountain 
surpass all others, in architectural beauty. 
They consist of an appropriate temple, support- 
ed by twelve plain Ionic columns, and an iron 
railing, which surrounds the basin. The whole 
is remarkably neat and chaste, both in design 
and execution. 

A singular phenomenon has been noticed 
at a new reservoir of water recently opened 
on the high grounds north of Howard's 
Park. At the eastern side of the reservoir a 
large iron pipe or cylinder is inserted near the 
base of the wall, by which the water may be 
let out when desired. Through this pipe there 
26 



302 BALTIMOE. 

is a constant trickling, and the water falling 
upon various substances, such as chips, thistles, 
shavings, &c., lying under the mouth of the 
pipe, turns them into stone. It is not stated 
how long a time is taken in the process, but it 
is said to be short. The petrifying quality in 
the water of the reservoir is probably derived 
from a combination with some adventitious 
substance at the bottom of the reservoir, as 
the native stream at Jones's Fall, which sup- 
plies it, has never been known to possess the 
peculiarity. 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

City Hall, Holliday street. This is a plain 
building, with but little pretention to architect- 
ural beauty. It is three stories high, with a 
portico and entablature, supported by four mas- 
sive pillars. It was originally employed as a ■ 
museum, but is now occupied by the city coun- 
cil, as a place of meeting, and by the city com- 
missioners, register, &c., whose offices are kept 
here. 

Court-house, corner of Monument square and 
Lexington street, is a large and commodious 
structure, erected for the accommodation of the 
various city and county courts, grand jury, 
sheriff, county commissioners, &c. Its dimen- 
sions are 145 feet in length from east to west, 
and 65 feet in width, from north to south, and 
two stories high, built of brick and marble. 
Owing to the inequalities of the ground on 
which this building is erected, the beauty of 



BALTIMORE. 303 

its front is greatly marred by a retaining wall, 
Sonne ten or twelve feet above the adjacent 
streets. The building is approached by steps 
in front and rear, leading to a platform, which 
supports several Tuscan columns ; upon these 
a plain entablature reposes. The entire build- 
ing, which is surmounted by a lantern-shaped 
cupola, presents quite an imposing appearance, 
and well deserves the inspection of strangers. 

Centre Market, Harrison street, between 
Water and Market streets. 

Lexington MarJcet, Lexington street, between 
Paca and Eutaw street. 

Belle air Market, Forrest, between Low and 
Gay streets. 

Hanover Market, corner of Camden and Han- 
over streets. 

Richmond Market, in the angle formed by 
Biddle and Richmond streets. 

FelVs Point Market, Market and Lancaster 
streets. 

Fort M'Henry, — This fortress, which com- 
mands the entire harbour of Baltimore, is sit- 
uated on the right bank of the Patapsco, on 
Whitestone point, about two miles below the city. 

The memorable and gallant defence of this 
post, during the late war with Great Britain, 
has rendered it an object of peculiar interest. 
The fort was attacked on the 13th of Septem- 
ber, 1814, by a British squadron, consisting of 



304 BALTIMORE. 

sixteen ships, and a land force of 1,200 
troops. 

After a bombardment of twenty-four hours, 
during- which the battle raged with great fury 
on all sides, the assailants were obliged to re- 
tire, leaving the garrison in the triumphant pos- 
session of the place. Thus foiled in its at- 
tempt to reduce the fortress, the fleet departed, 
and hastened to join the army at North Point, 
when the whole force soon alter left the Ches- 
apeake. Fort M'Henry, on this memorable 
occasion, was commanded by Major Armis- 
tead, whose efforts were seconded by Lieuten- 
ant Newcomb, who was stationed in Fort Cov- 
ington, a work situated about a mile east of 
Fort M'Henry. 



PRISONS. 

State Penitentiary, corner of Forrest and 
Madison streets. This establishment consists 
of three large edifices, wholly detached from 
each other ; two small lodges, designed for the 
accommodation of the attendants; and several 
work-shops. These, with the gardens, walks, 
&c., occupy an area of about four acres, and 
the whole is surrounded by a massive stone- 
wall, twenty feet in height. The principal 
buildings, which are four stories high, have a 
stone basement, with a brick superstructure. 
The centre building- is occupied by the keep- 
er, guard, &c. The west wing by the female 
convicts ; and the east wing contains the dor- 
mitories, 320 in number, which range on both 



BALTIMORE. 305 

sides of the building^, with corridors extending 
from one end to the other, by which the cells 
are entered. The discipline pursued here, dlf- 
fei-s in some respects, from that recently adopt- 
ed in Pennsylvania. 

Here the convicts labour together during 
the day, but at night they are locked up, each 
in a separate apartment. In Pennsylvania, 
nothing like association is permitted — the pun- 
ishment being solitary, in the strictest sense of 
the term. 

County Prison, near tiie penitentiary. This 
is a handsome structure, possessing but few of 
the external attributes of a prison. It is of an 
oblong form, with a semi-octagon tower at 
either end, two stories high, exclusive of the 
basement, and the attic story, which is light- 
ed by windows corresponding with those of 
the principal apartments. On the top is a 
neat and appropriate cupola, which, with the 
embattled towers at the ends, imparts to the 
entire building, a very handsome appearance. 

House of Refuge. — This^building resembles, 
both in its structure and internal economy, the 
house of refuge of Philadelphia. (See page 113.) 



MONUMENTS. 

Washington Monument, at the intersection 

of Charles and Monument streets. This is a 

noble specimen of art, alike creditable to Mr. 

Mills, from whose design it was erected, and 

26* 



306 BALTIMORE. 

to the liberal and spirited gentlemen by whose 
efforts it was commenced and completed. It 
consists of a Doric column, one hundred and 
sixty feet in height, supported by a square base, 
twenty feet high, whose sides are fifty feet 
each, and with an intervening pedestal. On 
the top of the column, at an elevation of one 
hundred and eighty feet, is placed the statue 
of Washington, 13 feet in height, a chef d'ouvre 
ofthe distinguished artist, Causici. The site of 
the monument being considerably elevated above 
the surrounding grounds, adds greatly to the 
effect; and, while it forms a beautiful embel- 
lishment for the neighbourhood, serves as a 
land-mark to travellers and voyagers. 

Battle Monument, corner of Calvert and 
Fayette streets. This monument is justly 
considered as one of the finest of the sort ex- 
isting in the country. It was erected in 1815, 
from designs by Godefroy, as a memorial of 
those who fell in the battle of North Point, 
on the 12th of September, 1814. 

The monument rests upon a square sub- 
base, the sides of which incline inward at an 
angle of about 5 degrees from a vertical line ; 
each fa9ade is decorated with a door, composed 
of marble tablets, having appropriate inscrip- 
tions, and basso relievo, representing some of 
the incidents of the battle; and immediately 
above the sub-base is the plinth, each angle of 
which is decorated with a griffin; and upon 
this is erected a circular columnar fascis, in 
marble, eighteen feet in height. The fascis is 
encircled by fillets or bands, on which are in- 
scribed, in letters of gold, the names of those 
men whose memory is thus perpetuated. The 
whole is surmounted by a marble figure, em- 



BALTIMORE. 307 

blematic of the city of Baltimore. The mon- 
ument, which is surrounded by an iron railing^ 
and brilliantly illuminated at night, is fifty -two 
feet in heigfht, including the statue, whose el- 
egance of form and simplicity of contour, at 
once strike the beholder. The harmony of the 
entire structure is greatly admired, and the ex- 
quisite taste and skill of its author, are visible 
throughout. 

The battle to which we have alluded, and 
the remembrance of which this beautiful work 
is partly designed to perpetuate, was fought 
at North Point, on the left bank of the Pataps- 
co, about six miles south-east from Baltimore. 

About the middle of September, 18i4, the 
British land forces under General Ross, in con- 
junction with the fleet, consisting of forty or fifty 
vessels, commenced a series of extensive opera- 
tions under Admirals Cochrane and Cockburn, 
against the defences of Baltimore. On the 12th 
the enemy landed at North Point, in number 
about 9000, including 2000 marines and sailors. 
They immediately advanced without interrup- 
tion, until within six miles of the city, when 
they were met by General Strieker, with the 
Baltimore brigade, consisting of 3,200 men. 
Soon after, a reconnoitering party, which had 
been detached from the main body, was sud- 
denly attacked by the British in very supe- 
rior numbers, and driven in with severe loss. 
General Ross having been shot in the early part 
of the engagement, the command devolved 
on Colonel Brook, who continued the attack. 
As the enemy advanced, the artillery opened a 
destructive fire upon them, which was promptly 
returned, when the action became general along 
the front line. The battle now raged with 
great fury, and the carnage on both sides was 



308 BALTIMORE. 

appalling. It continued for some time, when, 
pressed by vastly superior numbers, the Amer- 
icans gave way and retreated towards tlie city. 
The enem}' followed slowly, and on the 13th, at 
night, approached within 2 miles of the Ameri- 
can entrenchments. Measures were taken to cut 
them off, and punish them for their temerity ; 
but before they could be carried into effect, 
the British, admonished by these hostile "de- 
monstrations," precipitately decamped in the 
night, and hastened on board their vessels' 
which immediately left the bay. 

Armistead Monument, near the City Spring. 
The design of this monument is exceedingly 
unique. It consists of a base and pedestal, 
wilh tablets flanked by inverted cannon, and 
the whole capped by a marble slab, upon which 
repose chain-shot and shells. Though singu- 
lar in design, it presents a beautiful specimen 
of sculpture. It was erected to the memory 
of Colonel George Armistead, the intrepid de- 
fender of Fort M'Henry, who died on the 25th 
of April, 1818, in the 39th year of his age. 



PLACES OF AMUSEMENT. 

Holliday street Theatre, between Fayette 
street and Orange alley, was erected in 1813. 
It is four stories high, and has three tiers of 
boxes, which occupy a semi-circle, the chord of 
which is the proceneum. Though not large, 
it is a neat and tasty structure, and well adapt- 
ed to its purposes. This establishment, as well 
as the succeeding, is lighted with gas. 



BALTIMORE. 309 

Theatre and Circus, in Old town, corner of 
Low and Front streets. This is a large build- 
ing, with four rows of boxes, designed for both 
dramatic and equestrian performances. There 
is nothing remarkable, either in its exterior or 
interior structure, and, [but for its immense 
size, would fail to attract attention. 

Adeljyhi Theatre, corner of Belvidere and 
Saratoga streets, is, in comparison with the 
preceding, quite a small affair. It was, if we 
may be allowed the expression, erected by in- 
stalments, — its] nucleus, the " Mud Theatre," 
so called, having received from time to time, 
certain accessions, which have at length en- 
titled the place to its present classic name. 

Museum, corner of Calvert and Market 
streets. This establishment is now under the 
control of trustees and a curator. Originally 
founded by Mr. Peale, a son of Mr. C. W. 
Peale, formerly of Philadelphia, the Baltimore 
museum is but little inferior to, and resembles, 
both in variety of specimens, and order of ar- 
rangement, that of Philadelphia. It richly de- 
serves the attention of the curious. 

Assembly Rooms, corner of Fayette and Hol- 
liday streets, consisting of several handsomely 
furnished apartments, variously devoted to the 
pleasure of those who frequent them. Dancing 
and eating are the " staple commodities." 

Assemhly Rooms, Commerce street, similar 
in design and uses, to the preceding. 

Concert Hall, in South Charles street. 



310 BALTIMORE. 

Though designed for musical entertainments, 
this building is mostly occupied for balls, danc- 
ing schools, &c. 

Colonade Bath House, Saratoga, between 
Belvidere and Calvert streets, a handsome and 
appropriate building. 



LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INSTI- 
TUT IONS. 

Atheneum Buildings, corner of Lexington 
and St. Paul streets. This building was erect- 
ed many years since, by the Atheneum compa- 
ny, for its own use, and was occupied for 
some time as a public reading-room ; but for 
want of adequate support, the institution de- 
clined, and ultimately ceased to exist. The 
building is now occupied by the 

Maryland Institute, a society established for 
the promotion of the mechanic arts, somewhat 
on the plan of the Franklin Institute of Phil- 
adelphia, (see page 44). The objects are, to 
diffuse scientific knowledge by lectures and 
otherwise; to establish drawing-schools and 
exhibitions of the works of its members, and 
others ; to offer premiums ; to form collections 
of minerals, books, Slc, &c. 

The institute has a fine chemical laboratory, 
and a very complete philosophical aparatus. 

Maryland Academy of Science and Litera- 
ture. — This society is also located in the Athe- 
neum buildings. Its collections in tlie several 



BALTIMORK. 311 

departments of natural history, plaster casts, 
&c., are rare and valuable. The lower rooms 
are variously occupied by other public institu- 
tions, and by individuals. 

Maryland University, Lombard street, be- 
tween Green and Paca streets, was incorporated 
in 1812. Since its establishment, the Balti- 
more College has been merged in the Univer- 
sity, and constitutes the chair of ancient lan- 
guages. The institution is now fully organ- 
ized. The several chairs of mathematics, and 
moral and intellectual philosophy, are ably fil- 
led, and the various professorships, complete. 

The medical department, which has ample 
accommodations, is established in the univer- 
sity ; whilst that of law occupies a separate 
building in St. Paul's street, where is also the 
law library of the institution. 

The university edifice is but an indifferent 
specimen of architecture. The portico, its 
chief ornament, consists of eight non-descript 
shafts, with Tuscan caps, surmounted by a 
triangular pediment. The entrance is by a 
single door in front, which conducts to a ro- 
tunda in the rear building, crowned by an im- 
mense dome, which is well proportioned. Much 
cannot, however, be said in favour of the gener- 
al arrangement of the structure. 

Baltimore Infirmary. — Tliis is an appendage 
of the medical college. Students here have the 
opportunity of attending clinical lectures, il- 
lustrated by actual practice. 

St, Marifs College, corner of Franklin and 



312 BALTIMORE. 

Green streets, was established in 1791, and is 
now in a prosperous condition. 

Mount Hope Institution, in the northern sub- 
urbs, occupies a beautiful situation, every way 
adapted to the system of instruction pursued 
here, which combines mental culture, with the 
developement of physical powers. 

Asbury College, corner of Fayette and South 
street. 

M^Kimm's Free School, corner of Market 
and Aisquith streets. This school, as its name 
imports, was founded and endowed by Mr. 
John M'Kimm, whose son has since erected 
the edifice in which it is now established. 

The building-, which is an imitation of a 
Gothic temple at Athens, with the omission of 
the colonades at the sides and in the rear, con- 
sists of a quadrangular structure, having a 
portico of six fluted columns, which support a 
fine entablature. The whole appearance of the 
building is imposing and beautiful to a high 
degree. It is considered one of the most per- 
fect edifices of the kind in Baltimore. 

Oliver Hibernian Free School, Belvidere, be- 
tween Saratoga and Lexington streets. Though 
this institution was designed by its benevolent 
founder, mainly for the education of the children 
of Irishmen, there.are none who may not partici- 
pate in its benefits. 

It is fixed in a large and commodious build- 
ing, erected expressly for its use. 

City Library, corner of Fayette and Holli- 



BALTIMORE. 313 

day streets, was established in 1796. None but 
stockholders have tlie right to use the books; 
but they may grant permission to others. 

Apprentices^ Library, Atheneum, St. Paul's 
street. This useful institution has been merged 
in the Institute for the Promotion of the Me- 
chanic Arts. 

Exchange Reading Rooms. — These, as the 
name implies, are in the Exchange edifice, in 
Gay street. They are supported by subscrip- 
tion ; but strangers and masters of vessels 
have free access to the nevpspapers and other 
periodical journals with which the rooms are 
supplied. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

No. \. Corner of Green and Fayette streets, 
is remarkably neat and handsome in its external 
appearance, having an extensive portico, with 
columns and entablature in front. Its inter- 
nal arrangements are very appropriate, and the 
school furniture and apparatus are ample, and 
of the most approved sort. 

No. 2. Corner of Alice and Market streets. 
Fell's Point. 

No. 3. In Aisquith, near Pitt street, is held 
in a building similar to that of No. 1. Both 
No. 1 and No. 2 claim attention, not only for 
their architectural beaut}', but also from their 
excellent organization. 
27 



314 BALTIMORE. 

There are several other public schools distri- 
buted over the city and Fell's Point. 



COMMERCIAL INSTITUTIONS. 

Exchange, in Gay, between Water and Se- 
cond streets. This splendid structure, which 
is an object of attention to visiters, was com- 
menced in 1815, after a plan by H. B. La- 
trobe, and was not completed until 1821. It is 
the property of a joint-stock company. The 
dimensions are, 255 feet in front on Gay street, 
141 in depth, and three stories high, exclusive 
of the basement. The principal room, 53 feet 
square, in which the merchants assemble, is 
in the centre building. It has colonnades, con- 
sisting of six Ionic columns, on its east and 
west sides, which are flanked by passages 
leading to the stairs. Above the colonnades 
are galleries with arched ceilings, over which 
there is another gallery, protected by railing 
from below. This part of the structure is 
covered by an immense dome, whose apex is 
115 feet above the street. This is provided 
with an index, which, communicating with a 
vane above, indicates the course of the wind. 

The basement story, which is vaulted through- 
out, is tenanted by brokers and others ; and the 
principal and second floors are occupied by in- 
surance offices. 

The northern wing of the Exchange was 
formerly occupied by the Branch of the Bank 
of the United States ; and the southern wing, 
by the 

Custom House, which is entered from Water 



BALTIMOKE, 315 

street. It consists of a spacious saloon, co-ex- 
tensive with this part of the building. By 
means of two colonnades, this saloon is divided 
into three parts. The centre is used in com- 
mon by persons having business here, the offi- 
cers' desks being ranged between the columns, 
and the collector's room at the upper end of the 
hall. 

Post Office, in Calvert, north of Market street, 
occupies some of the lower rooms in the City 
Hotel. 

Telegraph, on Federal Hill, near the Basin. 
This, with a similar establishment at Bodkin 
Point, on the Chesapeake Bay, serves to an- 
nounce the approach of vessels. Information 
is thus conveyed from the mouth of the Pataps- 
co to an observatory in the Exchange, in a few 
minutes. 

Tobacco Warehouse, on the Basin, at the 
foot of Harrison street, is a building no way re- 
markable, except for its gigantic dimensions. 
It is the principal depository of the tobacco, 
one of the chief staples of Maryland, for which 
Baltimore is the great mart. Here the article 
is subjected to a strict examination, and its 
character and quality ascertained, by persons 
authorised for the purpose by the state. 



BANKS. 

Union Bank, corner of Fayette and Charles 
streets. This is by far, the most splendid bank- 



316 BALTIMORE. 

ing house in Baltimore. It is in the form of a 
parallelogram, the length being sixty-eight feet, 
and width about sixty. On the west is presented, 
a colonnade in front of a depression, consisting 
of four Ionic columns and one pilaster at each 
of the external angles. The whole is crowned 
by a pediment, containing the armorial bear- 
ings cf the state, and other ornamental de- 
vices. The flanks correspond with the front, 
and the entire structure speaks well for the taste 
and liberality of the company. 

The capital of the Union Bank is $2,000,000. 
Shares, first class, $75 — second class $37 50 
each. 

Commercial and Farmers^ Bank, corner of 
German and Howard streets. This is truly 
an unique building, having the principal en- 
trance at one of its angles. 

It is elevated considerably above the pave- 
ment, and consists of a semi-circular vestibule, 
with a corresponding dome, the concave of 
which is ornamented by radiating blocks. 

It is a one-story structure, with a single win- 
dow in one of the fronts, and two on the other. 

Though singular in appearance, the building 
is neat and attractive. 

, Bank of Baltimore, corner of Paul and Mar- 
ket streets; capital ^1,200,000— shares $300 
each. 

Bank of Maryland, South, between Market 
and Second streets; capital $200,000 — shares 
$100. 

Mechanics^ Bank, Monument Square ; capi- 
tal $640,000— shares $9 each. 



BALTIMOEE. 317 

Farmers and Mechanics^ Bank, Calvert, be- 
tween Market and Fayette streets; capital 
$465,000— shares $50 each. 

Franklin BanJc, corner of Belvidere and Mar- 
ket streets; capital $415,000 — shares $20 each. 

Marine Bank, corner of Gay and Second 
streets ; capital $235,000 — shares $25 each. 

Susquehanna Bridge and Bank, at Port De- 
posit, has an ofSce at 1 36 Market street. 



SAVINGS INSTITUTIONS. 

Savings Bank, in the Exchange building. 

Maryland Savings Institution, corner of 
Belvidere and Lafayette streets. This institu- 
tion, which is established in a handsome build- 
ing erected for its use, differs from ordinary 
savings banks, in requiring from each depo- 
siter a specified sum, weekly. Most other 
banks of this description receive any sum on 
deposit, however small. A depositor has the 
privilege of withdrawing a part of his funds, 
by giving his note for the amount thus taken. 



INSURANCE COMPANIES. 

Maryland, (mai'me) in the Exchange; capi- 
tal $500,000— shares $500 and $1,000 each. 

27* 



318 BALTIMORE. 

Baltimore, (marine) in the Exchange ; Cajii- 
tal $300,000— shares $300 each, 

American, (marine) in the Exchange ; Capi- 
tal $200,000— shares $100 each. 

Neptune, (marine) in the Exchange ; Capital 
$200,000— shares $100 each. 

Baltimore, (fire) No. 18 Market street; 
(mutual assurance.) 

Baliimore,{&r:e) No. 11 South street; Capital 
$500,000— shares $50 each. 

Firemen's, No. 25 Second street; capital 
,000— shares $20 each. 



United States, insures against losses of almost 
every description: office in South street ; capi- 
tal $200,000— shares $20 each. 

Baltimore, (life) No. 22 Paul street ; capital 
$50,000— shares $50 each. 



CHURCHES. 

EPISCOPALIAIf. 

St. PauVs Church, corner of Saratoga and 
Charles streets. This beautiful edifice occu- 
pies the site of a one-story building, erected in 
1744, which was called St. Paul's church. It 
was demolished in 1779 to make room for an- 
other, which, in its turn, was razed and sue- 



BALTIMORE. 319 

ceeded by the present structure. The body of 
the church, which partakes in some measure 
of the Grecian Doric, was completed in 1817. 
The spire is a combination of almost every or- 
der, Corinthian, Doric, and composite. The 
decorations are composed principally of marble 
or sand-stone, and the body of the church is of 
brick, 

Christ Church, corner of Market and Front 
streets. This church, which was erected in 
1785, was formerly owned by a congregation 
of German Calvinists. In 1795 it was pur- 
chased by the Episcopalians, who gave the 
church its present name, and added the spire, 
with a chime of six bells. 

St. Peter^s Church, corner of Sharp and Lit- 
tle German streets. 

Trinity Church, Trinity street, between 
High and Exeter streets. 

Grace Church, William, between Warren 
and Montgomery streets, on Federal Hill. 

KOMAN CATHOLIC. 

Cathedral, corner of Mulberry and Cathedral 
streets. This magnificent building, which af- 
fords an admirable specimen of the Grecian 
Ionic, is remarkable for its design and masterly 
execution. It is 190 feet in length, 177 in 
width, and 127 in height, from the principal 
floor to the apex of the dome, the external dia- 
meter of which is about 72 feet. 



320 BALTIMORE. 

The building is illuminated by windows in 
the external dome, which, though hidden from 
the spectator below, diffuse a strong light 
throughout the body of the church. There is 
an eliptical arch between each of the supports 
of the dome ; that at the head of the cross 
forming the exterior of a lesser dome, which is 
above the grand altar. The rear spaces, be- 
tween the carved partition and the outer wall, 
are used for the vestry rooms, sacristy, &c. 
The left arch under the principal dome, covers 
the organ loft, which is supported by several 
Ionic columns. The opposing arch is divided 
into two galleries, which are entered by circu- 
lar stairs, and is supported in like manner. 

Immediately adjoining the nave is a maho- 
gany balustrade, which encloses the altars. 
From the grand dome there are three openings; 
the principal one is covered by two others, and 
is supported bj' pillars. 

The side aisles are entered from three domes, 
which are lighted by six large windows. 

The gallery for coloured people, supported 
by four Ionic columns, is immediately over the 
principal entrance, which is to be flanked by 
two massive towers. 

The spectacle on entering this noble fabric 
is truly superb. The pictures — the descent 
from the cross, and St. Louis before Tunis — 
the former presented by Louis XVI., and the 
latter by Charles X., — add greatly to the effect. 
Besides ail these attractions, the cathedral con- 
tains an immense organ, which is the largest 
in the United States, and having thirly-six 
stops and six thousand pipes. 

No church in Baltimore so well deserves the 



BALTIMORE. 321 

attention of strangers as this ; and no stranger 
should leave the city without visiting it. 

St. Mary^s Chapel, Pennsylvania Avenue, 
near Grant street, is a beautiful Gothic struc- 
ture, 8G feet in length and 50 wide, erected in 
1791. It is surmounted by several appropriate 
turrets, which serve to heighten the effect. The 
whole affords a chaste example of the Gothic, 
and deserves attention. 

St. John's Church, corner of Park and Sara- 
toga streets, was built in 1797, and is occu- 
pied by a congregation of German Catholics. 
There is nothing remarkable in its appearance. 

St. Peter^s Church, Saratoga, near Charles 
street. This is a plain structure, built in 1771 
by the French residents of Baltimore, and is 
the oldest Catholic church in the city. Owing 
to pecuniary difficulties the church soon after 
its erection began to decline, and was at length 
publicly sold to one of its principal creditors, 
who closed it forthwith. It was, however, re- 
covered and renovated by the congregation, and 
in 1784 the customary services were resumed. 

St. Peter^s Church, Apple alley, between Fleet 
and Wilkes street. Fell's Point. 

St, Patriclc's Church, corner of Bank and 
Market streets, Fell's Point. This church was 
built in 1807 from a design by Conway. It is 
only remarkable for the extreme simplicity of 
its architecture, the order of which it is difficult 
to describe. 

The spire, which is in front, is exceedingly 



322 BALTIMORE. 

uncouth in its construction, and appears to 
have been erected without any regard to 
those fixed rules of proportion, which cannot 
be violated without manifest injury to the struc- 
ture. 



PEESBYTERIAN. 

First Presbyterian Church, corner of North 
and Fayette streets. This church consists of 
an oblong structure, with a large portico and 
entablature in front, supported by four Ionic 
columns. 

On a line with the front of the main build- 
ing are two towers, one at each angle, which 
are surmounted by cupolas, elevated to nearly 
double the height of the principal building. 
With the exception of the columns just men- 
tioned, it is difficult to indicate the order of 
architecture which the builder has adopted. 
If there is nothing very remarkable in its style, 
it possesses one redeeming quality at least 
— that of unity of construction, by which the 
harmony of the various parts is preserved. 

Second Preshyterian Church, Market street, 
near Jones's Falls, is one of the most extensive 
churches in Baltimore. Though possessing but 
few of the architectural beauties of some oth- 
ers, this church claims the attention of visiters, 
on account of its neat and appropriate interior 
arrangements. 

Third Presbyterian Church, Eutaw, between 
Saratoga and Mulberry streets. 



BALTIMORE. 323 

Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, 
Fayette, between Charles and Liberty streets. 

Reformed Presbyterian Church, corner of 
Pitt and Aisquith streets, Old town. Tlie three 
last mentioned churches are plain but commo- 
dious structures, well adapted to the purposes 
for which they were intended. 

BAPTIST. 

First Baptist Church, corner of Lombard 
and Sharp streets. This is a handsome circu- 
lar building', with an immense dome, perforated 
in tlie centre for the admission of light, and an 
Ionic portico. It is of beautiful proportions, 
and seems altogether one of the most attractive 
buildings in the city. 

Second Baptist Church, Fleet, between Mar- 
ket street and Argyle alley, Fell's Point. 

TJiird Baptist Church, corner of Baltimore 
and Exeter streets. 

Ebenezer Baptist Church, Calvert, between 
Saratoga and Lexington streets. 

LUTHERAN. 

German Lutheran Church, Gay, between 
Saratoga street and Orange alley. 

GERMAN REFORMED. 

German Reformed Church, Second bet' 



324 BALTIMORE. 

Gay and Belvidere streets. This, with its lofty 
and beautiful spire, is one of the prettiest church- 
es in Baltimore. 

Evangelical Reformed Church, corner of 
Sharp and Conway streets. 

English Lutheran Church, Lexington, be- 
tween Howard and Park streets, a neat and 
chaste structure. 



Meeting-houses for the Friends are establish- 
ed at the corner of Pitt and Aisquith streets; 
in Lombard, between Eutaw and Howard 
streets ; and at the corner of Courtlandt and 
Howard streets. 

METHODISTS. 

Have churches at the corner of Mulberry 
and Eutaw streets; in Light, below Market 
street; in Exeter, near Gay street; in Wilkes, 
near Market street. Fell's Point ; in Caroline, 
near Market street. Fell's Point; at the corner 
of Sharp and Little Hughes streets; in Liberty, 
between Lexington and Fayette streets ; at the 
corner of Aisquith and Pitt streets; and in 
Harford avenue. 

CHURCHES VARIOUS. 

First Unitarian Church, corner of Charles 
and Franklin streets. This truly beautiful 
temple is from a drawing by M. Godefroy, un- 



BALTIMORE. 325 

der whose superintendence the building was 
erected, in 1818. It is 108 feet in length, and 
78 in width. In front is a colonnade, con- 
sisting of four columns and two pilasters, 
which form three arcades. Above there is a 
cornice extending around the pediment, which 
is decorated by emblematic figures, and inscrip- 
tions. The body of the church is entered by 
three doors in the centre, and the galleries, by 
two others, one on each side of the peristyle. 
The dome, which is fifty-five feet in diameter, 
is supported by four arches, each thirty-three 
feet in diameter. The interior of the building 
corresponds in beauty with its exterior, and the 
whole is justly regarded as an ornament to the 
city. 

Seamen^s Union Bethel, Black street. Fell's 
Point, is a handsome structure, built expressly 
for the purpose to which it is now devoted. 

Swedenborgian Chapel, corner of Market 
and Exeter streets. 

Independent Tabernacle, St. Paul's, near 
Saratoga street. This building, formerly occu- 
pied by the adherents of a Mr. Warfield, who 
has exerted himself to establish a new religious 
sect, is now employed as a place of worship by 
a congregation of Universalists. 

African Methodists, have churches in Sharp, 
near Pratt street; at the corner of Douglass 
and East streets ; in Strawberry Alley, Fell's 
Point ; and in Saratoga street. 

US 



326 BALTIMORE. 

African Protestant Episcopalians, corner of 
Saratoga and Belvidere streets. 



CEMETERIES. 

There are several rural cemeteries in the 
neighbourhood of Baltimore, and others are 
proposed. The environs of the city present 
many beautiful sites for burial places, such as 
Laurel Hill and the Woodlands, near Philadel- 
phia, and Mount Auburn, in Cambridge, Mas- 
sachusetts; some of which, in the hands of 
the enterprising Baltimorians, will, no doubt, 
be prepared as places of sepulture. 



BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 

Hospital. — The grounds occupied by this 
institution, are bounded by Market, Jefferson, 
Wolf, and Monument streets, in the north- 
western suburbs of Baltimore. The build- 
ing being greatly elevated above the basin, 
commands a fine view of the city and sur- 
rounding country. The centre ^building, 
which is much higher than the others, has a 
handsome cupola, and is four stories high, in- 
cluding a basement, the floor of which is but 
little elevated above the lawn in front. 

This is flanked by wings, extending to two 
other structures, which form the ends of this 
vast pile, and range in a line with the front of the 



BALTIMORE. 327 

main building. The intervening structures or 
wings recede from this line, and of course have 
a diminished depth. All the buildings except 
the centre, are three stories high, and built of 
brick. 

The arrangements within, as well as the 
mode of treatment, resemble those of similar 
institutions elsewhere; and in point of order 
and cleanliness, the establishment is, in no re- 
spect, inferior to them. Its organization how- 
ever, differs from most others, as it partakes 
more of the character of a private infirmary, 
than that of a public hospital. Though found- 
ed and partly supported by the public authori- 
ties, its management, controlled to a certain ex- 
tent by a committee appointed by the legisla- 
ture, is intrusted to an individual who has leas- 
ed the premises, under certain limitations, and 
on terms which secure to the city the privilege 
of sending patients to the hospital. The in- 
come from this source, and fees from insane 
and other patients, enable the lessee to support 
the establishment. The anatomical museum 
attached to this hospital, is said to be equal to 
any in the country. The entire cost of the 
buildings. Sec, was nearly $150,000. 

Alms-house. — This immense structure, which 
has a front of 375 feet, consists of a centre 
building and two wings, each three stories 
high, including the basement. The former is 
occupied by the keepers, physicians, &c., and 
the wings by the paupers. Attached to the 
establishment are extensive grounds, which 
serve to employ such of the inmates as are able 
to work ; and in this way they are enabled to 



328 BALTIMORE. 

defray a part of the expense of their maintain- 
ance. 

City Dispensary, corner of Orange alley 
and Holliday street, and 

Eastern Dispensary, corner of Market street 
and Harford Run Avenue. The leading object 
of these meritorious institutions is to afford 
medical advice, and to furnish medicines gratu- 
itously to the indigent sick. 

Indigent Sick Society, 'an excellent institu- 
tion, the members of which, vcho are ladies, 
visit the sick, and minister to their comfort. 

Humane Impartial Society, South street, near 
Water. The object of this society is to furnish 
employment at a fair price, to females who are 
dependent on their daily labour, and whose in- 
come from other sources, is inadequate to their 
support. 

Female Orphans^ Asylum, Mulberry, be- 
tween Park and Charles streets. This admira- 
ble charity has been in existence upwards of 
thirty years, and is still pursuing its benevo- 
lent labours with unabated energy. It not on- 
ly affords shelter to destitute orphans, but pro- 
vides, also, the means of educating them. Its 
affairs are managed by six gentlemen and nine 
ladies, and its expenses defrayed by fimds re- 
ceived from members, from donations, and from 
bequests. 

St. Mary^s Orphans^ Asylum, Franklin, be- 



BALTIMORE. 329 

tween Park and Charles streets. This is also 
designed for the reception of female orphans, 
children of Catholic parents. 

Society for Educating and Supporting Fe- 
male Children, North Howard street. The 
benefits of this institution are extended alike 
to orphans and others, whose parents or friends 
neglect, or are unable, to protect them. 

Society for the Relief of the Poor of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Charitable Marine Society. 

Female Penitents^ Refuge Society. — The 
nature and objects of this society are sufficient- 
ly indicated by its title. 

Maria Marthian Society. — The objects of 
this are similar to the above. Though its 
members are Catholics, its benefits are dispens- 
ed without regard to sectarian considerations. 

Dorcas Society, consists of ladies who employ 
themselves in making up garments, which are 
given to the poor. The materials are procured 
by funds subscribed by the members, donations, 
&c. 

Colonization Society. — This institution is 
auxiliary to the Maryland State Society, and 
actively employed in the promotion of its laud- 
able object. 

28* 



330 BALTIMORE. 

MISCELLANEOUS INSTITUTIONS. 

Masonic Hall, corner of St. Paul's street and 
Court House lane, is a beautiful building, 100 
feet in length, 42 in width, and three stories 
high. It deserves the attention of visiters. 

Odd Fellows'' Hall, is also a handsome build- 
ing, resembling an ordinary dwelling-house of 
the better sort. 

Shot Tower, corner of Front and Pitt streets. 
This is only remarkable on account of its great 
height. An extensive view of the city and ad- 
jacent country may be had from its summit 

Fire Engine Houses. — There are many of 
these distributed over the city. Some of them 
display great taste in their construction, and 
are well worthy of inspection. ^ 



PRINCIPAL HOTELS. 

City Hotel, Calvert, near Market street. 

Eutaw House, Monument Square. 

Exchange Hotel, corner of Eutaw and Mar- 
ket streets. 

Fountain Inn, Light street. 

Globe Hotel, Market street. 



BALTIMORE. 331 

Tammany Hall, Water, between South and 

Gay streets. 

Wheatjield Inn, Howard, near Market street. 



RAIL-ROADS. 

Baltimore and Port Deposit Rail-road, depot 
in Pratt street. This is a part of the great 
rail-road hue to Philadelphia and the north. 
It extends to Havre De Grace, 36 miles, thence 
by the Wilmington and Susquehanna Rail-road 
to Wilmington, and thence to Philadelphia, by 
the Philadelphia and Wilmington Rail-road. 
The distance from Baltimore to Philadelphia 
by this route is 95 miles. 

Washington Branch of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Rail-road, depot in Pratt street. This is 
also a link in the great North and South chain, 
which, for the sake of convenience, we shall 
hereafter distinguish as the ATLANTIC 
RAIL-ROAD.* This section extends to Wash- 
ington city, and there unites with the stage and 



*This line, when completed, will extend from 
Maine to Louisiana, passing through Portland, 
Portsmouth, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, 
Baltimore, Washington, Richmond, Raleigh, 
Columbia, Montgomery, (where a branch leaves 
for Pensacola,) Columbus, and terminate at 
New Orleans. 



332 BALTIMORE. 

steam-boat line to Fredericksburg. The distance 
to Washington is thirty-eight and a half miles. 

Baltimore and Ohio Rail-road, depot in Pratt 
street. This road is now completed to Har- 
per's Ferry, on the Potomac, a distance of 
eighty and a half miles, whence it is to be con- 
tinued, through the northern part of Virginia, 
to Wheeling, on the Ohio. 

Baltimore and Susquehanna Rail-road, depot 
corner of Saratoga and North streets. This 
road extends to York, in Pennsylvania, where 
it meets the York and Wrightsville Rail-road, 
which unites with tlie Columbia and Philadel- 
phia Rail-road. 



STEAM-BOATS. 

Philadelphia Steam-hoat, landing at Bow- 
ley's wharf. Passengers by this route pass 
down the Patapsco, up Chesapeake bay to 
Frenchtown, thence by rail-road to Newcastle, 
and thence by steam-boat to Philadelphia. — 
Entire distance, 120 miles. 

Norfolk Steam-boat, landing at Bowley's 
wharf. This line, which connects with the 
preceding, passes down Chesapeake bay, and 
proceeds to Norfolk, via Hampton Roads and 



ROUTE FROM BALTIMORE. 333 

Elizabeth river. Distance from Baltimore to 

Norfolk, 200 miles. 



ROUTES TROM BALTIMORE. 
Fro7}i Baltimore to Washington, hy Rail-road. 



Carrollton Viaduct, 


2 


Eliiridge Landing, . 
Vansville, . 


6 8 
15 23 


B'adensburg-, 
Washington, 


9^ 32^ 
6 38^ 



Carrollton Viaduct. — This splendid bridge 
conducts the Baltimore and Ohio Rail-road 
across Gwynn's falls, a branch of the Patapsco. 
It is 300 feet in length, and is elevated 65 feet 
above the surface of the stream, which is cross- 
ed by a segmental arch of eighty feet span. 
The structure is also perforated by an inferior 
arch, designed as a road-way. The whole is 
built of stone, quarried on the Patapsco, and 
cost upwards of $55,000. 

Elkridge Landing, a village situated on the 
right bank of the Patapsco, in Ann Arundel 
county, a depository for the tobacco of the 
neighbourhood. Its position, in the midst of 
romantic hills, is well chosen ; the buildings 
are neat : and the whole presents a very pretty 
appearance. The famous Avalon works are 
situated here. 



334 ROTJTE TO 

The rail-road here crosses the Patapsco by a 
fine viaduct, and thence proceeds to 

Vansville, a small town of twenty or thirty 
houses, situated on the ridge which divides the 
waters of the Patapsco from those of the East- 
ern Branch of the Potomac. 

Bladenshurg, a large and thriving town of 
Prince George county, containing about one 
hundred and fifty buildings, including church- 
es, taverns, stores, &c. This place is famous 
in the annals of the late war with Great Brit- 
ain. It was near Bladensburg that Commodore 
Barney gave the British army a signal check 
in their advance upon Washington City, in 
1814, when they burnt the capitol and many 
other buildings, (See article " Washington.") 



From Baltimore to Philadelphia,by the Atlantic 
Rail-road. 



Havre De Grace,* 


. , 


35 


Elkton,* 


. 15 


50 


Wilmington,* 


. 18 


68 


Chester,* 


. 13 


81 


Philadelphia,* 


. 14 


95 



FREDERICK. 335 

From Baltimore to Frederick, by Baltimore 
and Ohio Rail-road, 



Carrollton Viaduct, . 




2 


Patterson Viaduct, 


. 8 


10 


Ellicotts, 


. 2 


12 


Parrsville, 


.30 


42 


New Market, 


. 6 


46 


Frederick, 


. 13 


59 



Carrollton Viaduct.* 

Patterson Viaduct. — Here the rail-road pass- 
es from the left to the right bank of the Pataps- 
00, over a stone bridge with four arches, at an 
elevation of forty-five feet above the water. The 
arches at either end are used for carriage-ways; 
the others allow a free passage to the stream. 
The entire structure is about three hundred feet 
in length. 

Ellicotts. — This place, which now presents 
such an imposing and business-like appearance, 
consisted, until recently, of a small assemblage 
of buildings, in some way connected with the 
mills which have been long established here. It 
is now a large and flourishing town, contain- 
ing churches, stores, hotels, and all the other 
concomitants of such a town. It is situated in 
the midst of a hilly and rocky country, which 
nothing but the valuable water-power afforded 
here by the Patapsco, could have impelled the 
original settlers, to reduce to cultivation. The 
entire region is wild and romantic to a high 
degree. At a short distance above Ellicotts, the 



336 PARRSVILLE. 

rail-road passes what is here termed the Tar 
peian rock, which at this place presents, on 
one side, a vertical face, whilst the other pro- 
jects considerably over the road, thus forming 
an almost complete tunnel for the road-way. 
At a distance of twenty miles from EUicotts, 
the road re-crosses the Patapsco by a fine via- 
duct, and continues its course through a beau- 
tiful and picturesque country, to an inclined 
plane, 2,150 feet in length, which is succeeded 
by another, 3,000 feet long, which reaches the 
summit near Parr's Spring. The aggregate 
ascent of these two planes is 180 feet. 

Parrsville, a small village, which, since the 
completion of the rail-road, has grown up 
around Parr's Spring, the head fountain of the 
Patapsco. 

Here the traveller after having attained an 
elevation of 813 feet above the ocean, com- 
mences the descent of the Monococy valley by 
two other inclined planes, with a descent of 
241 feet, and soon enters 

Newmarket, a clever little town of Frederick 
county, situated on the north branch of Bush 
creek. 

Nothing can be finer than the view from 
Parr's ridge. Far in the west are seen the 
Cotoctin mountains, decked with foliage of 
every hue ; the beautiful valley of the Mono- 
cocy, and all its varied charms; and the silvery 
stream, which, like a wily serpent, glides 
silently along. These, combined with the 
hamlets and neat cottages which every where 



ROUTE TO LANCASTER. 



337 



attract the eye, form a landscape highly pictur- 
esque and beautiful. 

Frederick.* 



From Baltimore to Lancaster, Pa., by Rail- 
Road. 



Towsontown, 

Hereford, 

Strasburg, 

York, 

Columbia, 

Lancaster, 



8 
17 25 

15 40 

16 56 
12 68 
12 80 



Towsontown, and 

Hereford, two small villages in Baltimore 
county, containing some twenty or thirty build- 
ings each. 

Strasburg, a village of York county, Penn- 
sylvania, consisting of thirty or forty dwellings, 
chiefly on the Baltimore and York turnpike. 
It is situated upon the ridge between Cadorus 
and Deer creeks, a mile or two north of the 
state boundary. 

York.* 

Columbia.* 

Lancaster.* 

29 



338 ANNAPOLIS. 

From Baltimore to AriTiapolis, by Stage. 

Patapsco Ferry, ... 7 

Indian Landing, . . . 14 21 

Annapolis, . . . 9 30 

ANNAPOLIS. 

The capital of the state, and seat of justice 
of Ann Arundel county, is situated on the 
right bank of the Severn, near its confluence 
with Chesapeake bay. Besides the state and 
county buildings, there are about three hun- 
dred and fifty dwellings, stores, taverns, shops, 
&c. 

The former occupy a beautiful site in the 
centre of the town, from which the principal 
streets proceed in every direction. The capitol 
or legislative hall is a remarkably fine building, 
and forms the chief object of interest in the 
city. The others are substantially built, and 
well adapted to the various purposes for which 
they were constructed. The University of 
Maryland has one of its edifices here ; the oth- 
er is in Chester, on the Eastern shore. The 
former is known by the name of St. John's 
College ; and the latter, by that of Washing- 
ton. The population of Annapolis, by the cen- 
sus of 1830, was 2,623. 



Si 



40 miles. 


30 




40 




31 




33 




45 




100 


(t 


92 


i> 



FREDERICK. 339 



ROUTES FROM ANNAPOLIS. 

Washington, 
Baltimore, 

Chester, Kent coimty, . 
Centreville, Queen Anne co. 
Easton, Talbot co. 
Cambridge, Dorchester co. 
Snow Hill, Worcester co. 
. Princess Ann, Somerset co. 

The six last mentioned towns, which are Bit- 
uated on the Eastern shore of Maryland, are 
the seats of justice of the counties in which 
they are respectively located. They are all 
small towns; none of them (except Easton, 
which has about 2,000 inhabitants) having a 
population exceeding 1,000 or 1,500 each. 
Those enumerated below are generally of the 
same description, and are also the county 
towns of their respective counties. 

S f Upper Marlboro, Pr. Geo. co. 26 miles. 

c J Pr, Frederick, Calvert co. . 43 " 

'^. 1 Port Tobacco, Chester co. . 61 " 

£ t Leonardtown, St. Mary co. . 76 " 



FREDERICK. 

This is an incorporated city, the seat of 
justice of Frederick county, and next to Balti- 
more, the largest town in the state ; its popu- 
lation, by the census of 1840, is 5,158. 



340 FREDERICK. 

It is regularly laid out, with the streets inter- 
secting each other at riglit angles, and is finely 
situated on Carroll's creek, a branch of the 
Monococy, about three miles from its western 
bank. The great road from Baltimore to 
Wheeling passes through the city, which, by 
means of a branch rail-road, three miles in 
length, communicates with the Baltimore and 
Ohio Rail-oad, near the Monococy viaduct. 

In addition to the court-house, which is an 
elegant structure, and the county offices, there 
are twelve or fifteen places of public worship, 
some of which are large and handsome ; and 
several banks. 

Besides the buildings devoted to public uses, 
there is in Frederick, a vast number of elegant 
private dwellings, mostly of stone or brick; 
these give to the city a very attractive appear- 
ance, and add great beauty to its wide and well 
regulated streets. 

Situated at the immediate base of the Cotoc- 
tin mountain, in the midst of a fine undulating 
and variegated country, and possessing a popu- 
lation distinguished for its intelligence and en- 
terprise, with many literary and scientific in- 
stitutions, the city of Frederick is justly consid- 
ered one of the most desirable places of resi- 
dence in the state. That such a place should 
increase rapidly, is not a matter of surprise. 



MIDDIETOWN. 



341 



ROUTES FROM FREDERICK. 



For Route by Rail-road to Baltimore, see 
" Baltimore." 

From Frederick to Cumberland, by the State 
Turnpike, and thence to Wheeling, by the 
National road, by Stage. 



Middletown, 

Boonsboro, 

Williamsport, 

Big Spring, 

Hancock, 

Prattsville, 

Cumberland, 

Mt. Pleasant, 

Petersburg, 

Smythfield, 

Union, 

Brownsville, 

Hillsboro, 

Washington, 

W. Alexandria, 

Wheeling, 





9 


7 


16 


12 


28 


10 


38 


17 


55 


18 


73 


21 


94 


10 


104 


25 


129 


4 


133 


21 


]54 


12 166 


11 


177 


12 


189 


15 204 


16 220 



Middletown, a small village of Frederick 
county, situated on Middle creek, a branch of 
the Catoctin. 

Boonshoro, situated in Washington county, 
at the western base of South mountain, is a 
small place, containing about twenty-five build- 
ings. 

29* 



342 ROUTE TO 

Williamsportf a thriving town of Washing. 
ton county, situated on the left bank of the 
Potomac, at the mouth of Conecocheague creek. 
The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, from Wash- 
ington, passes through the town, and the 
Franklin Rail-road, from Chambersburg, termi- 
nates here. 

About six miles north-east from Williams- 
port, and nine north-west from Boonsboro, is 
the large and beautiful town of 

Hagerstown, the seat of justice of Washing- 
ton county, and the third in point of population 
in the state. 

It is finely situated in the fertile and well 
cultivated valley of Conecocheague creek, and 
near the western bank of that stream ; is well 
built, with handsome stone and brick houses. 
Population about 4,000, and rapidly increasing. 

Big Spring, a noted place in Washington 
county, near the north bank of the Potomac. 

Hancock, village of Washington county, con- 
taining some thirty or forty dwellings, two 
churches, three or four stores, and a few 
taverns. 

Praitsville, a new village, situated at the 
eastern foot of Rugged mountain, in Washing- 
ton county. 

Cumberland, a large and well built town, 
and seat of justice of Allegany county. It is 
beautifully situated on the north bank of the 
Potomac, at the mouth of Wills creek, and con- 



WHEELING. ^3 

tains, besides the court-house, &.C., upwards of 
130 dwellings, with stores, taverns, shops, &c. 
The State road from Baltimore, terminates, and 
the National oi; Cumberland road, commences, 
here. The line of the Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal, as located, passes through the town, 
which is now in a flourishing condition. 

Mount Pleasant, a small village of Allegany 
county. In passing westward from Mount 
Pleasant, the traveller ascends the great Alle- 
gany mountain or " Back Bone," so called, of 
the Allegany system. It is here about 2,700 
feet above the ocean ; an elevation which ren- 
ders the temperature highly delightful in sum- 
mer, and affords one of the most beautiful and 
picturesque landscapes of this most picturesque 
region. Soon after descending this mountain, 
the Pennsylvania state line is crossed, and the 
traveller enters the pretty little town of 

Petersburg, in Fayette county, Pennsylva- 
nia, a village containing thirty or forty build- 
ings of various sorts. 

Smythfield, a town of Fayette county, con- 
taining seventy or eighty neat, and some hand- 
some buildings. 

Union, the seat of justice of Fayette county, is 
a large and well built town, with about 1,600 
inhabitants, situated in Redstone valley. This 
is the seat of Madison College, a thriving in- 
stitution, established in 1825, by the Methodists. 
There are in the town five churches, with the 
usual stores, taverns, and some manufactories. 



344 ROUTE TO WHEELING. 

Brownsville, on the right bank of the Men- 
ongahela, at the mouth of Redstone creek, 
containing about two hundred and fifty dwell- 
ings. It is situated in the centre of a rich 
and fertile country, inhabited chiefly by 
Friends. The National road crosses the Mon- 
ongahela by a fine bridge, which unites Browns- 
ville with 

Bridgeport, a small village on the opposite 
side of the river, which may be regarded as a 
part of Brownsville. 

Hillsboro, a small village of about twenty 
dwellings, distributed at irregular intervals for 
a considerable distance along the National road. 
It occupies a station nearly equi-distant between 
Brownsville and Washington, and is elevated, 
according to measurement, 1,750 feet above tide- 
water; 917 above the Monongahela at Browns- 
ville; and 1,002 feet above the Ohio at Wheel- 
ing. 

Washington.* 

West Alexandria* 

Wheeling.* 



( 345 ) 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS, 

In addition to those works mentioned at page 
331, are the following : 

Annapolis and Elkridge Rail-road, 19.75 
miles in length, from a point on the Baltimore 
and Washington Rail-road, 18 miles from the 
former, and proceeds to Annapolis. 

Eastern Shore Rail-road, 170 miles long. 
Though commenced, but little has been done 
on this work. The line, as located, commences 
at Elkton, and proceeds through the counties 
of Cecil, Kent, Queen Ann, Caroline, Dorches- 
ter, Somerset and Worcester, in Maryland, and 
Accomac and Northampton counties, in Vir- 
ginia. 

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. — This work is 
completed, or nearly so, from Georgetown, D. 
C. to Hancock, a distance of 136 miles. An- 
other section, extending thence to Cumberland, 
is now in progress. Beyond this point, nothing 
has been done towards its execution. 



( 347 ) 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 



GENERAL VIEW. 



The District of Columbia is bounded on the 
north and east by the counties of Montgomery 
and Prince Georg-e's, of Maryland ; and on the 
west by Fairfax county, of Virginia. It ex- 
tends from north latitude 38° 47' to 38= 59', 
and from 0° 4' east, to 0° 10' west of llie meri- 
dian of Washington, which divides the district 
into two unequal parts. Its area, which is di- 
vided into two counties, Washington and Alex- 
andria, is 100 square miles, and population 
about 45,000. 

Physical Structure. — The surface of the dis- 
trict, which is intersected by the Potomac, is 
beautifully diversified by hill and dale. The soil 
in its natural state is rather sterile, but the cli- 
mate is justly esteemed very healtiiy ; the mean 
temperature being about 55° of Fahrenheit. 

History. — The District of Columbia was 
formed out of parts of Prince George's and 



348 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

Montgomery counties, of Maryland, and part 
of Fairfax county, of Virginia ; and in 1790^ 
was ceded by those states to the United States, 
of which it became the seat of government, in 
the year 1800. It is under the immediate con- 
trol of congress, and for local purposes, subdi. 
vided into counties, &c. 

Government. — Though subject to the general 
government, each section of the district has 
its own local or municipal bodies, whose acts 
are, in some respects, limited and controlled 
by congress, which, on all important points, 
regulate the affairs of the district. The govern- 
ment of the district and that of the United 
States, being, to a certain extent, identical, we 
proceed to point out some of its leading fea- 
tures. 

The executive department consists of a pres- 
ident, who receives $25,000, and a vice-presi- 
dent, $5,000 per annum. Four secretaries, who 
are respectively charged with the duties of the 
various departments of state, the treasury, 
war, and the navy. Each of the secretaries 
receives a salary of $6,000 per annum ; one 
post-master-general, $6,000; and the attorney- 
general, $3,000. These hold their offices at 
the will of the president. 

Department of State. — The secretary of this 
branch of the government, conducts the diplo- 
matic correspondence at home and abroad ; ne- 
gotiates treaties with foreign powers ; dissemi- 
nates the acts of congress and all treaties ; 
grants passports ; has charge of the patent-office, 
and of the seal of the United States, &c. 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 349 

The secretary of tlic treasury, superintends 
all fiscal concerns of the government, and upon 
his own responsibility, recommends to congress 
measures for improving the condition of the 
revenue, and settles all government accounts, in 
wliich he is aided by two comptrollers, five 
auditors, a treasurer and a register. The gen- 
eral land office is a subordinate branch of this 
department. 

The secretary of war has the superintendence 
of military affairs generally ; the erection of 
fortifications ; of making topographical surveys; 
surveying and leasing the national lead mines, 
and of the intercourse with Indian tribes. 

The secretary of the navy issues all orders to 
the navy of the United States, and superintends 
the concerns of the navy establishment gener- 
rally. The board of navy commissioners, con- 
sisting of three officers of the navy, is attached 
to the office of the secretary of the navy. This 
board discharges all the ministerial duties of 
that office. 

General Post Office. — This department is un- 
der the superintendence of the post-master-gen- 
erai, who has two assistants. The post-master- 
general has the sole appointment of all the post- 
masters through the United States, and the 
direction of every thing relating to this depart- 
ment. 

The Legislature, — Consists of a senate and 
house of representatives, styled the Congress of 
the United States; meet once every year. The 
senate is composed of 52 members ; two from 
each state. They are chosen by the legislature 

30 



350 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

of the several states, for the term of six years, 
one third of them being elected biennially. 

The vice-president of the United States is 
president of the senate. In his absence a pres- 
ident pro-tempore is chosen by the senate. 

The house of representatives is composed of 
members from each of the states, elected by 
the people for a term of two years. The pre- 
sent number of representatives is 235, and three 
delegates, one from each of the territories. 

The Judiciary. — The supreme court consists 
of a chief justice, with a salary of $5,000 per 
annum, and six associate justices, who receive 
annually $4,500 each; one attorney-general, 
clerk, marshal, &c. The supreme court meets 
once a year, on the second Monday in January. 

Circuit Courts. Each of the justices of the 
supreme court, attends also in a certain circuit, 
consisting of two or more districts, appropri- 
ated to each, and, in conjunction with the judge 
of the district, compose a circuit court, which 
is held in each district of the circuit twice a 
year. The district courts are held respectively 
by the district judge alone. They are composed 
of twenty-eight judges, to each of whom a cer- 
tain district is assigned. Each of these districts 
embraces an entire state, except those of New 
York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Alabama, Louis- 
iana and Tennessee, which are divided into two 
districts each. 



WASHINGTON. 351 

CHIEF CITIES AND TOWNS, 

With the Roads and Dislaacet, 



CITY OF WASHINGTON. 

Tlie capital of the United States, is situated 
on the left bank of the Potomac, above its in- 
tersection with the Anacostia, or Eastern 
Branch, in latitude 38° 53' north, and in longi- 
tude 77° west from Greenwich, or 79° 20" from 
Paris, It is surrounded by forest-clad hills of 
every shape, which diversify the prospect, and 
impart great beauty to the scenery around. 

The city, which is laid out on a great scale, 
occupies an area of about eight square miles. 
Its avenues and principal streets radiate from 
centres, formed by some of the public build- 
ings, and are from 130 to IGO feel in width. 
The former are named after some of the states, 
Pennsylvania Avenue, on which the capitol and 
the president's house are situated, is the princi- 
pal place of business, and the great promenade 
of the city. It is finely M*Adamized betweea 
those buildings. Many of the other streets 
which vary from 70 to 110 feet in width, are 
well built ; the greater part of the city plot, 
however, remains unoccupied. The avenues 
and streets of 100 feet and upwards, have fiKit- 
ways of 20 feet in width; those under 100 and 
over 80, have footways of 17 feet; and those 
under 80 feet have footways of 12 feet. The 
avenues, in addition to the paved footways, 
have each a gravel walk, 30 feet in width. 



352 WASHINGTON. 

Those minor streets which run from north to 
south, are named in the order of their progres- 
sion, and called First, Second, Third, and so on. 
Those running east and west are arranged al- 
phabetically, and are so called. 

The city government consists of a mayor, a 
board of aldermen, and common council, elect- 
ed annually, by the citizens. Present popula- 
tion about 30,000. 

The city of Washington suffered severely 
during the late contest with England, when 
property to an immense amount was destroyed 
by the British army under General Ross. 

Having landed at Benedict, they proceeded 
towards the city, and reached Bladensburg, on 
the 24th August, 18J4. Here they encountered 
the American forces under General Winder. 
Commodore Barney, who had charge of the gun- 
boats in the Patuxent, blew them up, lest they 
should fall into the enemy's hands, and hurried 
with his maHnes to join the army, which had 
taken post on the adjoining heights. The British 
advanced, without much interruption, until 
checked by the battery of Commodore Barney, 
which had been hastily manned with the sailors 
and marines, who had just left the gun-boats. 
These maintained their ground for some time, 
battling with the foe, who suffered severely by 
the well-directed fire of this gallant little band, 
until, finding themselves deserted by the mili- 
tia, their commander wounded, and surrounded 
by the enemy ; the whole party surrendered. 

The way being thus cleared, the British 
pushed forward and entered the city on the 
evening of the 24th. They immediately pro- 
eeeded to burn the capitol and other public 
buildings, which, with many private dwellings, 



WASHINGTON. 353 

and the contents of the navy-yard, were en- 
tirely destroyed. The next day they decamp- 
ed and hastened towards the fleet, tlien await- 
ingf their return at Benedict. 

Though the destruction of property on this 
occasion was immense, and the disgrace to the 
country, great beyond expression, the moral 
effects of the catastrophe, were most salutary. 
Previously to this event, the war had been con- 
ducted on the part of the Americans with 
perfect apathy — ^something of the sort was ne- 
cessary to arouse the government and people to 
a just sense of tlieir danger, and this act of 
vandalism on tlie part of tlieir enemy, had the 
desired effect. 

From this moment, the country, whicii, untiJ 
aow, had indulged in the vain hope of a speedy 
and amicable adjustment of the difficulties with 
Great Britain, arose in its strength, and thence- 
forward, nearly every conflict in which the 
army or navy were engaged, resulted in fa- 
vour of the Americans. 

These successes, more potent than negotia- 
tion, had the effect of terminating the unnatu- 
ral contest, the unhappy consequences of which 
were immeasurably aggravated by the barbar- 
ous course pursued by the enemy. 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS, 

Capitol. — This truly splendid structure, is 
situated near the centre of the city plot, on 
*' Capitol Hill." The ground floor of the build- 
ing is 72 feet above tide- water in the Potomac 
30* 



354 WASHINGTON. 

Though centrally located with reference to 
the corporate limits, the capitol is some distance 
from the most densely built part of the city, 
which is on Pennsylvania Avenue, between the 
capitol and the president's house, distant about 
one mile from each other. Owing to the im- 
mense size of the capitol, and its elevated po- 
sition, it forms the most striking object on ap- 
proaching the city. Its dimensions, are 352 feet 
in lengtli, depth of wings 121 feet, west pro- 
jection, including steps, 83, and east projection 
and steps 65 feet. Cost of construction 
$1,750,000. It affords an admirable specimen 
of the Corinthian order of architecture, which 
has been rigidly adhered to throughout the 
whole of its exterior. The portico, its prin- 
cipal ornament on the eastern front, is unsur- 
passed in grandeur of design and beauty of 
execution. It is co-extensive with the centre, 
and consists of several Corinthian columns, of 
corresponding proportions, which sustain the 
pediment. 

The whole is enriched by allegorical devices 
in alio relievo, and the entrance to the rotunda 
is embellished by two beautiful statues, in tlie 
act of crowning with laurel, the bust of Wash- 
ington, which is above the entrance. 

The rotunda, in the centre of the building, 
is ninety-six feet high and the same in dia- 
meter. This is crowned by a cupola, which is 
approached by a stairway between the roof and 
the ceiling. From this elevation a most splen 
•did view of the city and surrounding country 
may be had. 

The walls of the rotunda are decorated with 
pictures, which represent the following inter- 
esting incidents in American history : Decla- 



WASHINGTON. 355 

ration of Independence, by Trumbull; Sur- 
render of Burgoyne ; Surrender of Cornwal- 
lis ; and General Washington resigning his 
commission as commander-in-chief of the 
American armies, by Trumbull. 

Beside these paintings, are alto relievos, 
with similar designs, sculptured on stone pan- 
nels, which are inserted in the walls. 

The subjects of these are : The rescue of 
Captain Smith from death, by the interposition 
of Pocaliontas ; Landing of the Pilgrims on 
Plymouth rock ; Conflict between Daniel Boone 
and some Indians ; and Penn's Treaty with the 
Indians at Coaquenac. 

These and other ornamental devices never 
fail to attract the attention of visiters. 

The Senate Chamber, the next interesting 
object, is in the northern wing. It is an exact 
semi-circle, whose chord is 75 feet, and is 45 feet 
in height. A gallery, supported by iron pil- 
lars, with a balustrade, projects from its circu- 
lar wall, and another on the opposite side, sup- 
ported by several Ionic columns of Potomac 
marble, which form a sort of vestibule or ante- 
room below. The walls, which are richly orna- 
mented with stucco, and the gorgeous lamps 
and furniture, present quite an imposing ap- 
pearance. 

The secretary of the senate has his office 
adjoining the senate chamber. There are also 
separate apartments for the accommodation of 
the president and vice-president when their 
presence is required. 

The Representatives Hall, occupies nearly the 
entire second story of the southern wing. It 
is 95 feet in length, and 60 feet high to the 



356 WASHINGTON. 

ring of the cupola. The dome is supported by 
26 columns of breccia or pudding-stone, which 
rest upon bases of freestone, the capitals being of 
Italian marble. The speaker's chair is consid- 
erably elevated above the floor, and the seats 
are so arranged that each member faces the 
speaker ; they are approached by avenues 
which radiate from the speaker's chair as a 
centre. Behind the columns is the gentlemen's 
gallery ; and that appropriated to the ladies, is 
over the speaker's chair. 

This hall, like the senate chamber, is richly 
decorated with sculpture and other ornamental 
devices, paintings, &c, presenting altogether 
a very imposing and magnificent appearance. 

In addition to the apartment just mentioned, 
there are many others designed for the use of 
the officers of congress, committee-rooms, &,c,, 
all of which deserve attention. 

Library Room. — This is a beautiful saloon, 
92 feet long, 34 wide and 36 high, the sides of 
which consist of several cases which support 
two galleries, with recesses similar to those be- 
low. The library consists of about 30,000 vol- 
umes, including many rare and valuable works 
in the various departments of literature, science, 
and the arts, many of which formerly belonged 
to Mr. Jeiferson, wiiose entire library now 
forms a part of this collection. Besides these, 
the librar}' has received some valuable presents 
consisting in part of a collection of historical 
medals, designed by Denon, tlie Egyptian 
traveller. Paintings, statuary, medallions, 
&c., are distributed about the room, which 
is carpettcd and well provided with seats and 
other accommodations. The rooms are open 



WASHINGTON. 



357 



every day during the session of congress, ex- 
cept Sunday, from 9 a. m. to 3, and from 5 to 7 
p. M., and during the recess at the same hours, 
on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. 

Court Room. — The supreme court of the 
United States holds its sessions here, which 
commence on the second Monday in January 
of each year. It is under the senate chamber, 
and, in some respects, is similar to that apart- 
ment. It is handsomely furnished with maho- 
gany chairs, sofas, &c., and is embellished by 
emblematic figures, marble busts, &c. 

PresidenVs House. — This fine structure is 
of the Ionic order, and built of sand-stone. It 
occupies a beautiful site, somewhat elevated 
above the surrounding grounds. Its length is 
170 feet, and is 86 in width. A handsome porti- 
co of four Ionic columns in fi:ont, and projecting 
with three others, decorates the north front ; and 
that on the south, is embellished by a circular 
colonnade, consisting of six columns. The north 
entrance opens into a large hall, 40 by 50 feet, 
which is succeeded by a columnar passage, lead- 
ing into an oval-shaped room, 30 by 40 feet, rich- 
ly garnished with carpets, curtains, chairs, chan- 
deliers, &c. This room is flanked with two 
rooms, which communicate with it by large 
doors. These are the " reception-rooms." The 
visiters' dining-room is on the west; and that of 
the family adjoins the latter. The " East Room," 
so called, occupies the east end of the building, is 
80 by 40 feet, and is used as a banqueting-room. 
The entire saloon is furnished and decorated in a 
most splendid style, and richly deserves the at- 
tention of tlie curious in such matters. The 



358 WASHINGTON. 

rooms of tlie second floor consist of a splendid 
ante-chamber, which adjoins the president's 
cabinet room, and the remainder of the apart- 
ments are devoted to domestic uses. The sur- 
rounding grounds, which are handsomely laid 
out and ornamented, are enclosed by an iron 
railing. 

The Departments, occupy four large two- 
story buildings, two on each side of the presi- 
dent's house, all handsomely arranged, with 
court-yards, gardens, &c. That on the north- 
west is appropriated to the department of war; 
that on the south-west is devoted to the navy 
department; that on the north-east to the state; 
and that on the south-west, to the treasury de- 
partment. All, except the last mentioned, are 
of brick. 

The first is 130 feet long and 60 wide ; the 
second is 159 feet long and 57 wide; the third 
is similar in dimensions to the first; and the 
last, which is a new building, just erected, is 
occupied by the treasury department. This 
stands on the site of the old edifice, which was 
destroyed by fire on the Slst of March, 1833. 
It is built of freestone, and is about 300 feet in 
length, with a wing in the rear, 100 feet long. 
It has a beautiful colonnade hi front, compris- 
ing thirty-two massive columns. The corridors 
are fpaved with squares of variegated mar- 
ble ; and its various extensive flights of stairs, 
looking as if suspended in the air, are con- 
structed of the finest white marble. 

One of the basements contains the " Treasu- 
ry of the United States." Besides this, there 
are in the building 149 apartments, ranged on 
either side, with a passage extending longitud- 
inally of the structure, between them. 



WASHINGTON. 359 

General Post-Office, corner of North E and 
Seventh streets, is a marble structure, 209 feet 
long, with two wings, and is to be three stories 
high, decorated in front and at the ends with 
fluted marble columns, which are exceedingly 
graceful. It will be, it is said, one of the most 
beautiful buildings in the Union. 

At present the building is in quite an unfin- 
ished condition, and cannot be completed in 
less than two years. 

It occupies the site of the old post-office, 
which was burnt on the 15th December, 1836. 

Patent Office, on F street, in the rear of the 
preceding. This is also a beautiful specimen 
of architectural taste and skill. It is built of 
like materials with the treasury building, (free- 
stone and marble) is about 2G0 feet in length, 
and 70 in width. The second story, consisting 
of one immense saloon, 250 by 70 feet, cano- 
pied and surrounded by magnificent arches 
and alcoves, is appropriated as the future depos- 
itory of patents. In the story immediately 
below, is a room 125 feet in length, superbly 
arched, and embellished by beautiful columns. 
This apartment is fitted up with appropriate 
glass cases, and filled with models and other 
specimens of articles patented. The east end 
of the lower story is divided into two suites of 
apartments, which are separated from the mod- 
el room by a corridor, 20 feet wide, elegantly 
furnished for the accommodation of the com- 
missioner of patents and his clerks. 

Navy Yard, in the southern part of the city, 
and on the Eastern Branch. This establish- 
ment occupies an area of 27 acres, and is en- 



E60 WASHINGTON. 

closed by a substantial wall of brick. All the 
building's, consisting of warehouses, work- 
shops, ship-houses, &c., together with those of 
the commandant, are contained within the en- 
closure, as well as the armory, which, like the 
rest of the establishment, is kept in admirable 
order. 

Navy Magazine, at a puint on the Eastern 
Branch. This is a large brick building, situ- 
ated in the south-eastern quarter of a field of 70 
acres, belonging to the United States. 

Marine Barracks, situated in a square, bound- 
ed by G, I, Eighth and Ninth streets, and extends 
upwards of 700 feet on Eighth street. It con- 
sists of a two-story building in the centre, with 
a portico in front and another in the rear, and 
two rooms of diminished height, which are oc- 
cupied by the officers. On each side of this 
centre is a wing, in which the marines are 
quartered. 

In addition to these structures, there are 
others ; one occupied by the colonel of the 
corps, and another as an armory, «fcc. 

Arsenal, at Greenleaf 's Point, in the extreme 
southern part of the city. This establishment, 
in addition to its uses as a depository for arms 
and ordnance, is employed in the manufac- 
ture of military stores. It consists of store- 
houses, quarters for the officers and workmen, 
model rooms, magazine, a steam-engine, and 
other apparatus for manufacturing purposes. 

City Hall, North D street, between Fourth 



WASHINGTON. 361 

and Fifth streets. This structure, which was 
designed to be an elegant building, (and so far 
as completed is so) is in an unfinished condition, 
although commenced twenty years ago. When 
finished, the building, with its centre and end 
porticos and stuccoed walls, will present a 
handsome appearance. A portion of it is, how- 
ever, now occupied by some of the United 
States courts and their offices, and others, by 
the city comicils, the mayor, grand jury, regis- 
ter, city surveyors, and others. 



PRISONS. 

Penitentiary, at the southern termination 
of Delaware Avenue. This is a large build- 
ing, of freestone, constructed with special re- 
ference to its purposes. The interior arrange- 
ment consists of four tiers of cells, well secured, 
which open into wide corridors. The resi- 
dences of the warden and his attendants are 
within the principal building. The whole 
is surrounded by a stone wall, of sufficient 
height to prevent the escape of the convicts. 
Here, as in the Baltimore penitentiary, the in- 
mates labour together during the day, but si- 
lence is strictly enjoined upon them. At night, 
each is locked in a separate cell, and thus 
prevented from holding intercourse with the 
others. 

Jail, immediately north of the City Hall. 
This is an old and dilapidated building, which 
will soon give place to a new jail. 

31 



362 WASHINGTON. 

County Jail, near the preceding, and now in 
course of construction, and nearly completed. 

It is a large and well arranged building of 
brick, three stories in height. 



PUBLIC SQUARES, &c. 

Capitol Square. — This, as its name imports, 
comprehends the entire area, a part of which 
is occupied by the capitol, bounded by First, 
North and South A streets, and a circular way 
at the intersection of Pennsylvania Avenue. 
It is environed on all sides by a light and beau- 
tiful iron railing, with parallel lines of orna- 
mental trees, and arranged with gravel walks, 
affording altogether, one of the finest prome- 
nades in the district. Immediately adjoining 
the capitol is a beautiful terrace, faced with 
grass, and which is ascended by the stone steps 
that lead into the capitol. Near this is a mar- 
ble fountain, supplied with water, by means of 
subterraneous pipes, which conduct it from 
some neighbouring springs. The water is 
ejected with considerable force, and is precipi- 
tated into a basin of white marble, from which 
it flows into another basin, and thence washes 
the base of a small monument, erected to the 
memory of those naval officers who perished in 
the attack on Tripoli, in 1804. 

Presidenfs Square. — This square is partly 
enclosed by an iron palisade, and improved by 
gravelled walks, ornamental trees and shrub- 
bery. 

AH the southern portion of the ground appro* 



WASHINGTON. 363 

priated to this square, remains in a state of na- 
ture, nothing of consequence having as yet been 
done towards its embellishment. 



LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INSTI- 
TUTIONS. 

Columbia College, in the northern part of 
the city, was established in 1821, under the 
auspices of the Baptists. It occupies a hand- 
some edifice, beautifully situated on elevated 
ground, which commands an extensive view of 
the adjacent country, including Mount Vernon, 
distant about 15 miles. The college edifice is 
three stories high, exclusive of the basement, 
built of brick, 117 feet long and 47 wide. 
There are two other buildings, occupied by 
the professors. It possesses a library of 5,000 
volumes. 

Catholic Theological Seminary. — Attached 
to this flourishing institution, is a school for 
the education of youth generally. 

Columbian Institute. — This is one of the 
oldest institutions of the kind in Washing- 
ton. It was established in 1816, for the diffu- 
sion of scientific knowledge, and the advance- 
ment of the arts. 

Columbian Horticultural Society. — This in- 
stitution, as its name indicates, was established, 
mainly, for the promotion, by public exhibitions, 
premiums, &c., of practical horticulture and 
botany. Its annual exhibitions, which are al- 



364 WASHINGTON. 

ways well supplied, never fail to gratify their 
numerous visiters. 

American Historical Society. — Though estab- 
lished within a few years, this meritorious 
institution has done much towards the accom- 
plishment of its laudable objects. It has already 
issued several volumes, consisting, in part, of 
its miscellaneous transactions, but principally of 
papers relative to the discovery and primitive 
history of the country. By these means, and 
b};- occasional lectures and discourses, much 
valuable information has been diffused, and 
many rare and valuable documents, rescued 
from neglect or destruction. 

National Institution for the Promotion of 
Science. — This is a young society, established 
in May 1840. Its objects and aims, though 
very comprehensive, if judiciously and syste- 
matically prosecuted, cannot, we think, fail of 
accomplishment. They are, to collect and dif- 
fuse information upon chemistry, geology, min- 
eralogy and natural history, geography, astro- 
nomy and natural philosophy, and to teach the 
practical application of the former to the useful 
arts. 

In addition to these important branches of 
science, the institution proposes to devote a 
share of its attention to the promotion of his- 
torical and agricultural knowledge, literature, 
and the fine arts. 

City Library, corner of North C and West 
Eleventh streets. This library, which is the 
property of a company, consists of about 7000 
volumes. 



WASHINGTON. 365 

Atheneum, Pennsylvania Avenue, corner of 
West Sixth street. This is a public reading- 
room, in which most of the current literature 
of the day may be found. 

Public Schools. — Two of these schools, in 
which the pupils are taught gratuitously, are 
now in operation in the city ; one in the se- 
cond, and another in the fourth ward. They 
were originally founded, and maintained for a 
time, by funds obtained for this purpose from 
the several wards, but are now supported by 
means derived from certain lottery arrange- 
ments, authorised by Congress I under the im- 
pression, no doubt, that " the end sanctifies the 
means." 



BANKS. 

Bank of Washington, corner of Louisiana 
Avenue and C street; capital $500,000 — char- 
tered 1811. 

Bank of the Metropolis, Fifteenth street, op- 
posite the Department of State; capital $500,000 
— chartered 1817. 



Patriotic Bank, West Seventh street ; capi- 
tal $500,000— chartered 1817. 

31* 



366 WASHINGTON. 

INSURANCE COMPANIES. 

Franklin, (fire) Pennsylvania Avenue, be- 
tween Fourth and Sixth streets. 

Firemen's, Pennsylvania Avenue, between 
Sixth and Seventh streets. 

This company is composed ot the members 
of the Perseverance, Union, Columbian, Frank- 
lin and Navy Yard Fire Companies. 



CHURCHES. 

Among the twenty-four churches contained 
within the bounds of the city, there are some 
six or eight beautiful structures, which richly 
deserve inspection. As the space allotted to 
this branch of our work does not admit of 
much detail, we must be content with a mere 
enumeration, with their respective localities, by 
which the attention of our readers will be drawn 
to them. 

St. John's (Episcopal) corner of N. Eighth 
and W. Sixteenth streets. 

Trinity, (Episcopal) West Fifth, opposite the 
City Hall. 

Christ''s, (Episcopal) South G, between East 
Sixth and Seventh streets. 

St. Patrick's (Catholic) corner of North F, 
and West Tenth streets. 



WASHINGTON. 367 

St. Mary^s, (Catholic) between Capitol street 
and West First street. 

St. Peter^s, (Catholic) corner of East Second 
and North D streets. 

First Presbyterian, Four and a half street. 

Second do. First street. 

Third do. West Fifteenth street. 

Fourth. do. Ninth street. 

Baptist Churches, corner of West Nineteenth 
and North I streets; West Tenth, between N. 
E and First streets; South D, near West Fourth 
street; and at the corner of Pennsylvania 
Avenue and East Fifth streets. 

Methodist Chapels, corner of North G and 
West Fourth streets ; corner of West Fifth and 
North F streets; West Ninth near North E 
street ; E. Fourth near South Carolina Avenue ; 
E. Sixth near South G street ; South Capitol 
and South B streets ; South Fourth and South 
Carolina Avenue. 

Unitarian, corner of North D and West 
Sixth streets. 

Friends, North I, between West Eighteenth 
and Nineteenth streets. 

German, corner of North G and West Twen- 
ty-first streets. 



368 WASHINGTON. 

CEMETERIES. 

Congressional Cemetery. — This celebrated 
place of sepulture is situated near Massachu- 
setts Avenue, and a short distance to the north- 
west of the Marine Hospital fields. It consists 
of ten acres of ground, which, being greatly 
elevated above the river, commands a fine pros- 
pect of the beautiful scenery in all directions. 
Some years since, it was appropriated by con- 
gress, as a place of interment for its deceased 
members. Hence this spot derives its present 
name, although in charge of the vestry of 
Christ Church. 

The irregularity of the ground, serves to 
diversify the surface ; and its beauty is still 
further increased by the young trees and shrub- 
bery that are tastefully distributed throughout. 
Few situations within the district combine so 
many advantages as this ; and none is more 
appropriate to its object. It is environed with 
a high wall of brick, with several gateways, 
through which access is had to the ground, 
which is intersected by several wide avenues 
and cross-ways, leading in every direction. 

Near the centre of the ground, is an exten- 
sive vault, constructed by order of congress, 
for the temporary reception of the dead. This 
forms a striking object of the place, being 
very tastefully ornamented by iron-work, shrub- 
bery, &c. Several of the tombs are distin- 
guished for their architectural beauty; and 
many contain the remains of some of our most 
highly gifted and talented citizens. Though it 
is only a few years since this now beautiful 
spot, formed a part of the common, by which 
it is still surrounded, there is many a green 



WASHINGTON. 369 

hillock, " which tells the tale of man's mortal- 
ity," and reminds us of our own transitory 
existence. 

Western Cemetery, at the intersection of 
Boundary and N. T streets. 

Eastern Cemetery, is bounded by North H, 
Boundary, East Thirteenth and Fourteenth 
streets. 

East Branch Cemetery, is bounded by East 
Eighteenth and Nineteenth, and South G 

streets. 

St. Patricks Cemetery, on Boundary street, 
near the intersection of West Third street. 

St. John''s Cemetery, Vermont Avenue, near 

West Twelfth Street. 

Methodists^ Cemetery, between North V and 
W, and West Thirteenth and Fourteenth 

streets. 

Methodists^ Cemetery, in Georgia Avenue, 
between East Seventeenth and Eighteenth 
streets. 

St. Peter^s Cemetery, is bounded by North 
H and I, and West Fourth and Fifth streets. 

African Cemetery, on Boundary street, be- 
tween West Fifth and Sixth streets. 



370 WASHINGTON. 

BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 

Alms House. — This is an extensive brick 
buildings, designed for the reception and accom- 
modation of such indigent persons as may be 
entitled to the benefit of its provisions. Here 
is also a work-house, in which ofFenders against 
the municipal laws, are confined and made to 
labour. 

St. VincenVs Orphans^ Asylum, in North E, 
between West Tenth and Eleventh streets. 
This institution is under the care of the sisters 
of charity, and the 

Washington Orphans'' Asylum, North H, 
between West Ninth and Tenth streets, is in 
charge of some ladies of Washington. These 
admirable institutions, which are quietly pur- 
suing their benevolent objects, have been in 
existence only a few years, but such is the zeal, 
and such the economy with which they have 
prosecuted their labours, that a large number 
of helpless children has been comfortably pro- 
vided with a home, by very inadequate means. 

Howard Society. — This society furnishes em- 
ployment to poor females, who receive a. fair 
compensation for their work. The clothes 
which are made in this way are sold at a low 
rate, or furnished gratuitously, to the poor. 

Colonization Society. — The objects of this 
institution, are, to establish colonies of blacks 
from the United States, in Liberia. It is se- 
conded in its laudable efforts by several auxi- 
liary societies, whose united labours, together 
with those of the parent institution, have been 



WASHINGTON. 371 

productive of great good. Thousands of col- 
oured persons have been conveyed to the shores 
of Africa, through the inslrumentahty of these 
meritorious associations. 

ClerVs Provident Society, for assisting the 
widows and orplians of deceased members. 

In addition to these, there are in Washington, 
several other institutions of a like description. 
Among these may be mentioned, the Bible So- 
ciety ; Dorcas Society ; two Masonic Lodges ; 
Missionary and Tract Societies. 



PLACES OF AMUSEMENT. 

Kivg^s Picture Gallery, North E, between 
West Tenth and Eleventh streets. This is the 
only exhibition of the sort in Washington. It 
deserves the attention of the amateur, who 
cannot fail to be gratified, not only with the 
pictures themselves, but also with their judi- 
cious arrangement. 

Washington Theatre, on Louisiana Avenue, 
between West Fourth and Sixth streets. 

National Theatre, North E, between West 
Thirteenth and Fourteenth streets. 

Assembly Rooms, corner of North C and 
West Tenth streets. 



372 WASHINGTON. 

MISCELLANEOUS INSTITUTIONS. 

Washington National Monument Society. — 
The name of this institution indicates its ob- 
ject, which is to erect a monument to the mem- 
ory of Washington. The sum of $34,000, 
which is now at interest, has been collected by 
the society for that purpose. 

Public Baths, North C, between West Fourth 
and Sixth streets. 

West Market, Pennsylvania Avenue betweeu 
West Twentieth and Twenty-first streets. 

Centre Market, at the intersection of Penn- 
sylvania and Louisiana Avenues. 

Capitol Hill Market, East Capitol, between 
First and Second streets. 

Eastern Market, East Sixth, between South 
K and L streets. 

Masonic Hall, corner of North D and West 
Fourth streets. 

Medical College, West Tenth, between North 
E and F streets. 

Glass Factory, near the Potomac, between 
West Twenty -first and Twenty-second streets. 



WASHINGTON. 373 

HOTELS. 

Brown's N. W. corner of Pennsylvania Ave- 
nue and West Sixth street. 

Fuller'' s, corner of Pennsylvania Avenue and 
West Fourteenth street. 

Gadsby^s N. £. corner of Pennsylvania Ave- 
nue and West Sixth street. 



CONVEYANCES. 

Hacks or common carriages are so numer- 
ous in Washington, that accommodation in this 
way may be had at almost any moment. The 
drivers are regulated and restricted in their 
conduct and charges by special law^s, to which 
reference may be had in each carriage, the owner 
being required to post an abstract of the laws 
containing the rates of fare, &lc., in some con- 
spicuous place within each vehicle thus employ- 
ed. The hacks are all numbered, so that in 
case of neglect of duty, or an attempt at impo- 
sition on the part of the driver, the passenger 
need only report his grievance at the police of- 
fice, when the aggressor will be called upon to 
" show cause" why he should not be fined or 
otherwise punished. 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

Washington Canal. — This is an extension 
32 



374 WASHINGTON. 

of the Ohio and Chesapeake Canal, which ter- 
minates in a capacious basin, at the foot of 
West Seventeenth street. It extends from that 
point through the south-western parts of the 
city, and enters the eastern branch, near the 
penitentiary. Its minimum width is 45 feet; 
depth 4 feet ; and length about four miles. Cost 
$230,000. 

Rail-road to Baltimore. — The Washington 
Branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail-road 
has its southern terminus here. It enters the 
corporate limits near the intersection of Boun- 
dary and East Ninth streets ; thence curving 
towards the west, it enters Delaware Avenue, 
which is followed to North E street, where it 
deflects westward, and proceeds across North 
Capitol street, and finally reaches Pennsylvania 
Avenue, near West Second street, where it 
terminates. Length within the city limits about 
two miles. 

Potomac Bridge. — This fine structure, about 
one mile long, unites the city, at the foot of 
Maryland Avenue, with the right bank of the 
Potomac, and forms a part of the way to Alex- 
andria, (fee. It is of wood, and constructed at 
the expense of the general government. 

There are two bridges from the city, and one 
beyond the city limits, across the Eastern 
Branch ; all of wood, and built by private en- 
terprise; and two others across Rock creek, 
which communicate with Georgetown. 

As Georgetown is so nearly and intimately 
connected with Washington, we shall, before 



WASHINGTON. 375 

proceeding with the routes from the latter, de- 
scribe the former. 

Georgetown, is situated immediately to the 
west of Washington, the two being separated 
by a small stream, Rock creek, which dis- 
charges itself into the canal basin, opposite 
Mason's Island. It is a regularly organized 
city, with a mayor, recorder, board of alder- 
men and common council. 

With some exceptions, the streets intersect 
each other at right angles, and are generally 
wide and well paved. Most of those running 
east and west are numbered consecutively, and 
called First, Second, Third streets, and so on. 
The others are designated by various names. 
Commencing in the east, and proceeding west- 
wardly, we find Monroe, Montgomery, Greene, 
Washington, Congress, High, Market, Frede- 
rick, Lafayette, and several others. 

Georgetown has long enjoyed a considerable 
trade, chiefly inj flour and tobacco, of which it 
is the principal depot for the adjacent counties. 
The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal passes through 
the southern part of the city, and flows into a 
large basin, formed by a pier across Rock creek, 
which also serves the purpose of a bridge. 
Population, by census of 1830, 8,441. 



376 ROUTE TO 

ROUTES FROM WASHINGTOIV. 

From Washington to Port Tobacco, and thence 
to Point Lookout. 



Piscataway, 


16 


Port Tobacco, 


. 16 32 


Newport, 


. 11 43 


Leonard town. 


. 10 53 


Point Lookout, 


. 30 83 



Piscataway, a village of Prince George 
county, Maryland, situated on a stream of the 
same name, which flows into Potomac river, 
near old Fort Washington. 

Port Tobacco, seat of justice of Charles 
county, situated at the head of Tobacco river, 
a branch of the Potomac. There are, besides 
the court-house and its adjuncts, several stores 
and taverns, and about one hundred and twenty 
dwellings, with a population of 600. 

Newport, a very small village, in the same 
county, situated in Allen's Fresh valley. 

Leonardtown, seat of justice of St. Mary's 
county, on Britton's Branch of the Potomac. 

Point Lookout. — Here the Potomac joins 
the Chesapeake bay, leaving Point Lookout to 
the north. 



BENEDICT. 377 

From Washington to Pr. Frederick, via Ben- 
edict, 

Piscataway, ... 16 

Bryantown, . . . 18 34 

Benedict, . . . 9 43 

Pr. Frederick, . . . 8 51 



Piscataway.* 

Bryantown, a mere hamlet of Charles coun- 
ty, situated on the eastern declivity of Allen's 
Fresh. 

Benedict, another small village of the same 
county, situated on the left or west bank of the 
Patuxent. It was here that the British army 
landed on its way to Washington, in August 
1814. 

Prince Frederick, seat of justice of Calvert 
county, situated near the centre of the county, 
on Parker's creek, a branch of Chesapeake 
bay. 



From Washington to Annapolis, see page'339. 
" " Baltimore, " 333. 



32* 



378 



ROUTE TO 



From Washington to Frederick, Md., and thence 
to Emmitsburg. 



Rockville, 


16 


Seneca Mills, 


. 8 24 


Middlebrook, 


. 4 28 


Clarksburg-, 


. 3 31 


Frederick, 


. 15 46 


Georgetown, 


. 12 58 


Emmitsburg, 


. 10 68 



RocJcville, seat of justice of Montgomery 
county, is handsomely situated on the head 
waters of Watt's branch of the Potomac, and 
contains, besides a court-house, jail, and other 
county offices, about sixty dwellings and 300 
inhabitants. 

Seneca Mills, a small assemblage of houses 
in the neighbourhood of those mills, on Seneca 
creek. This, with 

Middlebrook, and 

Clarksburg, two other small villages, is in 
Montgomery county. 

Frederick,* [There is a rail-road from Fred- 
erick to Harper's Ferry, distant 27 miles.] 

Georgetown, a mere hamlet in Frederick 
county, consisting of 10 or 15 buildings. 

Emmitsburg, a beautiful village of Frede- 
rick county, Maryland, and seat of Mount St 



. 17 


26 


. 9 


35 


. 9 


44 


. 14 


58 



RICHMOND. 379 

Mary's College, which, though sometime since 
in a languishing condition, is now efficiently 
organized, and well supported. 



From Washington to Richmond, Va., by Stage 
and Rail-road. 

Alexandria, 

Occoquan, 

Dumfries, . . 

Aquia, . . 

Fredericksburg, 

[Travellers generally take the steam-boat 
from Washington, proceed to Potomac creek, 
and thence by land, 14 miles, to Fredericks- 
burg, where the Atlantic Rail-road re-com- 
menccs. The distance by this route does not 
differ materially from the stage route, as above.] 

Bowlinggreen, . . . 21 70 

Hanover Court House, . . 22 101 

Richmond, . . .18 119 



Alexandria, a city of the District of Colum- 
bia, situated in the extreme southern angle of 
the district, and on the right bank of the Poto- 
mac. It was incorporated in 1779, and subse- 
quently ceded by Virginia to the United States, 
being a part of the " Ten miles square," which 
now forms the district. The local government 
consists of a council of sixteen members, who 



380 ROUTE TO 

are chosen annually, and a mayor, who is 
elected by the council for one year. 

From the anomalous position in which the 
people of Alexandria, are placed, in a political 
point of view, they have no voice, nor are their 
sentiments officially heard, in any of the politi- 
cal concerns of the country. The president of 
the United States is regarded in the light of a 
governor, and congress, as the legislature of 
the district. 

Thus it appears, that Alexandria, in com- 
mon with the rest of the district, is, to a cer- 
tain extent, deprived of its privileges and im- 
munities.* 

Alexandria is one of the most beautiful 
places of its size in the country. Its streets, 
which cross each other at right angles, and are 
well paved, have sufficient inclination to carry 
off the water, and hence they are generally 
clean. On viewing the gentle declivity of its 
site, the wide and airy streets, and the neat 
and orderly appearance of the city in all re- 
spects, a Philadelphian is at once reminded of 
his own " beautiful city," of which Alexandria 
is the miniature. The comparison, however, 
ceases here, for the environs of each differ es- 
sentially. With a few exceptions, those of 
Philadelphia are level and monotonous ; whilst 
the country about Alexandria, presents a con- 
tinned succession of hill and dale, which di- 
versiiy the surface, and give it a very pictu- 
resque and romantic aspect. The population 
of Alexandria, according to the census of 1840, 
is 8,492. 

About six miles below Alexandria, on the 
bank of the Potomac, is Mount Vernon, the 
former residence of General Washington. 



FREDERICKSBURG. 881 

Occoquan, a flourishing village of Prince 
William county, Virginia, beautifully situated 
on the right bank of Occoquan creek, a branch 
of the Potomac. 

Though its site is exceedingly rough and 
uneven, the town is regularly laid out. It con- 
tains about seventy buildings, including an ex- 
tensive cotton factory, and several grist and 
sav7 mills, which are kept in motion by a fell 
in the creek of seventy-two feet, in a distance 
of a mile and a half. 

Dumfries, a village on Quantico creek, con- 
taining about eighty dwellings, besides a Bap- 
tist and Methodist church, a woollen factory, 
and the customary proportions of stores and 
taverns. 

Aquia, a dilapidated village of Stafford coun- 
ty, Virginia, situated on a creek of the same 
name, containing a post-office and a few dwel- 



FredeHcJcsburg, an incorporated city and 
seat of justice of Spottsylvania county, situated 
on the right bank of the Rappahannock, near 
the head of tide. 

It was founded in 1727, and derives its name 
from Prince Frederick, the father of George 
III. Seated in a rich and luxuriant valley, the 
city presents a beautiful appearance, when 
viewed from the heights by which it is encom- 
passed. 

The public buildings consist of the court- 
house, county offices, jail, market, five places of 
worship, belonging to the Episcopalians, Pres- 



382 ROUTE TO 

byterians, Baptists, Methodists and Reformed 
Baptists, respectively. 

In addition to many public and private 
schools, there are several other meritorious in- 
stitutions, amongst which are four or five Sun- 
day schools and an asylum for orphan chil- 
dren, instituted and conducted on a plan simi- 
lar to like institutions elsewhere. Two semi- 
weekly journals are published in the city, which 
is abundantly supplied with mechanics and ar- 
tizans of every description. It is also supplied 
with excellent water from the Rappahannock, 
by means of subterraneous pipes, laid by a joint 
stock company. A canal extending from the 
town to a point on the Rappahannock, thirty, 
five miles above, has been commenced and 
partly completed. 

Fredericksburg enjoys considerable trade, 
chiefly in grain, flour, tobacco, maize, &c. 
Population about 4,000. The famous Rappa- 
hannock gold mine, mostly owned by a compa- 
ny in Philadelphia, is situated about nine miles 
above Fredericksburg, in Stafford county. 

Afl:er expending nearly $50,000 on " experi- 
ments" in reducing the ore and extracting the 
metal, the company abandoned the enterprise, 
and relinquished the mine to its original pro- 
prietors. 

Bowlinggreen, formerly called New Hope, is 
the seat of justice of Caroline county, Virginia. 
It occupies a beautiful site on a level green, 
richly embeUished with a profusion of shrubs 
and trees. Besides a court-house and other 
public buildings, which are remarkably neat, 
there is an Episcopal church, and another for 
the Reformed Baptists, together with some 35 



WARRENTON. 383 

or 40 dwellings. Sunday and common schools, 
a temperance society, and some other institu- 
tions of a like description, have been estab- 
lished here, and are well sustained by the peo- 
pie. The village contains about 400 inhabi- 
tants. 

Hanover Court House, a village situated on 
the high ground near the Pamunky river, con- 
taining about 70 inhabitants. This village 
claims some distinction as the birth-place of 
Patrick Henry, whose eloquence gave an im- 
pulse to the ball of the revolution, which the 
power of Great Britain was unable to resist. 
This is also the native place of Henry Clay. 

Richmond.* 



From Washington to Warrenton, Va. 





9 


u 


23 


8 


31 


18 


49 


6 


55 



Alexandria, 

Fairfax Court House, 

Centreville, 

New Baltimore, 

Warrenton, 



Alexandria.* 

Fairfax Court House, a village of some 60 
or 70 buildings, including the court-house, and 
about 250 inhabitants, in Fairfax county. 

Centreville, in the same county, occupies 



384 ROUTE TO 

an elevated and remarkably healthy position, 
which commands an extensive view of the ad- 
jacent highly picturesque country. The vil- 
lage consists of about 50 buildings, including 
a iVIethodist meeting-house, stores and taverns. 

New Baltimore, a small village of Fauquier 
county, Virginia, containing about 40 persons. 

Warrenton, a large, thriving and beautiful 
town, and seat of justice of Fauquier county, 
Virginia. It is situated near the centre of the 
county, on the head waters of Cedar creek, 
and consists of about 230 buildings, compactly 
and well built. Among these are churches, 
belonging to the Episcopalians, Methodists and 
Presbyterians, and a very neat and commodious 
market-house and town hall. The population, 
which includes clergymen, lawyers, physicians, 
and mechanics of every description usually 
found in such towns, amounts to upwards of 
1200. The town is intersected by several good 
turnpike and common roads. Among the for- 
mer, those leading to Winchester, Alexandria, 
Charlottesville and Fredericksburg, are the most 
important. There is also a fine M'Adamized 
road to Alexandria. These, with other means 
of intercommunication, together with the busy 
and active inhabitants, give to the town quite 
a business-like appearance. 

Lee's sulphur springs, which have of late 
become a place of fashionable resort, are situ- 
ated about six miles south-west from Warren- 
ton, on the north bank of Hedgeman's branch of 
the Rappahannock. 



WINCHESTER. i 


585 


From Washington to Winchester. 




Alexandria, 


9 


Fairfax Court House, 


. 14 


23 


Aldie, 


. 24 


47 


Middleburg, 


, 5 


52 


Upperville, 


. 8 


60 


Paris, 


. 4 


64 


Shenandoah river, 


4 


68 


Millwood, 


2 


70 


Winchester, 


*. 11 


81 



Alexandria.* 

Fairfax Court House.* 

Aldie, an inconsiderable village of Loudoun 
county, situated in the Little river gap of Bull 
run mountain. 

Middleburg, a village situated in the midst 
of a fine and well cultivated country, in the 
southern part of Loudoun county, about ten 
miles west of the Blue ridge. It contains about 
one hundred buildings, and nearly five hun- 
dred inhabitants, with the usual proportion 
of mechanics, shops and taverns. The public 
buildings and institutions are, two churches, 
five or six schools, mills, &c. Several mineral 
springs have been discovered in the neighbour- 
hood, but as yet, their medicinal value has not 
been fully tested. 

Upperville, a small village, situated in the 
33 



386 EOUTE TO 

extreme northern part of Fauquier county, on 
the Pantherskin branch of Goose creek. 

Paris, a village of the same county, seated 
on the eastern declivity of the Blue ridge, at 
Ashby's gap, which forms the north-west an- 
gle of Fauquier county. The roads from 
Alexandria and Fredericksburg unite at the 
village, and thence proceeds through the gap 
to Winchester. 

It contains about two hundred inhabitants, 
who are alike distinguished for their gene- 
ral intelligence and hospitality to strangers. 

The vile practices of horse-racing, and its 
usual attendants, gambling and drunkenness 
so common at the present day, are almost un- 
known here. 

Shenandoah River. — The principal branch 
of the Potomac, rises in Augusta county, and 
flows in a general north-east direction, along 
the western base of the Blue ridge, through the 
counties of Rockingham, Page, and Frederick, 
and enters the Potomac, in Jefferson county, 
near Harper's Ferry. It is about one hundred 
and fifty miles in length, and its banks afford 
some of the most beautiful and romantic sce- 
nery in the state. Though at the foot of the 
Blue ridge, the bed of the Shenandoah is con- 
siderably elevated above the ocean, its course, 
being frequently interrupted by falls of a great- 
er or lesser magnitude. 

Millwood, a very neat little village of Shen- 
andoah valley, in Frederick county, Virginia, 



WINCHESTER. 387 

consisting of twenty or twenty-five buildings, 
including an Episcopal church, with a popula- 
tion of about one hundred and thirty. It is 
the centre of a populous and fertile country, 
and, as such, enjoys a considerable trade in the 
products of its mechanics, who compose a 
large portion of the inhabitants 

Winchester.* 




1 



( 389 ) 



STATE OP 

VIRGINIA, 



GENERAL VIEW. 



The state of Virginia is bounded on (he north 
by Maryland and Ohio ; on the west by Ken- 
tucky ; on the south by Tennessee and North 
Carolina ; and on the east by the Atlantic ocean. 
It extends from latitude 36° 33', to 41° 40', 
north, and from 2° 41' east, to 6° 30', west, of 
the meridian of Washington. Its area is 66,624 
square miles, and population about 1,400,000. 

Virginia is divided into the following coun- 
ties, to each of which the seat of justice is 
added. 

EASTERN COUNTIES. 

Counties. Chief towns, 

Accomac, e. Drummondstown. 

Caroline, e. Bowling Green. 

33* 



( 389 ) 



STATE OF 

VIRGINIA 



GENERAL VIEW. 



The state of Virginia is bounded on tlie north 
by Maryland and Ohio; on the west by Ken- 
tucky ; on the south by Tennessee and North 
Carolina ; and on the east by the Atlantic ocean. 
It extends from latitude 36° 33', to 41° 40', 
north, and from 2° 41' east, to 6° 30', west, of 
the meridian of Washington. Its area is 66,624 
square miles, and population about 1,400,000. 

Virginia is divided into the following coun- 
ties, to each of which the seat of justice is 
added. 

EASTERN COUNTIES. 

Counties. Chief towns. 

Accomac, e. Drummondstown. 

Caroline, e. Bowling Green. 

33* 



390 



VIRGINIA. 



Counties. 

Charles City, s. e. 
Elizabeth City, s. e, 
Essex, e. 
Gloucester, e. 
Greensville, s. 
Isle of Wight, s. e. 
James City, e. 
King and Queen, e. 
King George, e. 
King William, e. 
Lancaster, e. 
Mathews, e, 
Middlesex, e. 
Nansemond, s. e. 
New Kent, e. 
Norfolk, s. e. 
Northampton, e. 
Northumberland, e. 
Princess Anne, s. e. 
Prince George's, m. s 
Prince William, e. n. 
Richmond, e. 
Southampton, s. e, 
Surry, s. e. 
Sussex, s. e. 
Warwick, e. 
Westmoreland, e. 
York, e. 



Chief Towns. 

Charles City. 

Hampton. 

Tappahannock. 

Gloucester C. H. 

Hicksford. 

Isle of Wight C. H. 

Williamsburg. 

King and Queen C. H. 

King George C. H. 

King William C. H. 

Lancaster C. H. 

Mathews C. H. 

Urban a. 

Suffolk. 

New Kent C. H. 

Norfolk. 

Eastyille. 

Northumberland C.H. 

Kempsville. 

City Point. 

Brentsville. 

Richmond. 

Jerusalem. 

Surry C. H. 

Sussex C. H. 

Warwick. 

Westmoreland C. H. 

Yorktown. 



MIDDLE'COTTNTIES. 



Albemarle, m. 
Allegany, m. 
Amelia, m. s. 
Amherst, m. 



Charlottesville. 
Covington. 
Amelia C. H. 
Amherst C. H. 



VIRGINIA. 



391 



Counties. 

Augusta, m. 
Bath, 

Bedford, m. s. 
Berkeley, n. 
Botetourt, m, w. 
Braxton, 
Brunswick, s. 
Buckingham, m. 
Campbell, m. s. 
Charlotte, s. 
Chesterfield, ?n. e. 
Clarke, 

Culpepper, m. n. 
Cumberland, m. 
Dinwiddle, m. s. 
Fairfax, n. e. 
Fayette, 
Fauquier, n. e. 
Fluvanna, m. 
Franklin, s. 
Frederick, n. 
Goochland, m. 
Halifax, s. 
Hampshire, n. 
Hanover, m. e. 
Hardy, n. 
Henrico, m. e. 
Henry, s. 
Jefferson, n. 
Loudoun, n. e. 
Louisa, m. 
Lunenburg, s. 
Madison, m. 
Mecklenburg, s. 
Morgan, w. 



Chief Towns. 

Staunton. 

Bath C. H. 

Liberty. 

Martinsburg. 

Fin castle. 

Braxton C. H. 

Gholsonville. 

Buckingham C. H. 

Lynchburg. 

Charlotte C. H. 

Chesterfield C. H 

Milwood. 

Culpepper C. H. 

Cumberland C. H. 

Dinwiddie C. H. 

Fairfax C.H. 

Fayette C. H. 

Warrenton. 

Columbia. 

Rocky Mount. 

Winchester. 

Goochland C. H. 

Bannister. 

Romney. 

Hanover C. H. 

Moorefields. 

Richmond. 

Martinsville. 

Charleston. 

Leesburg. 

Louisa C. H. 

Lewistown. 

Madison. 

Boydton. 

Bath. 



392 VIRGINIA. 


Counties. 


Chief towns. 


Nelson, m. 
Nottaway, m. s. 
Orange, m. 
Page, 
Patrick, s. 
Pendleton, m. 


Lovingston. 
Nottaway C. H. 
Orange C. H. 
Milford. 
Taylorsville. 
Franklin. 


Pittsylvania, s. 
Prince Edward, m. s. 


Competition. 
Prince Edward C. H. 


Pocahontas, m. w. 


Huntersville. 


Powhatan, m. 


Scottsville. 


Rappahannock, m. n. 
Rockbridge, m. 
Rockingham, m. 
Shenandoah, m. n. 


Flint Hill. 
Lexington. 
Harrisonburg. 
Woodstock. 


Spottsylvania, m. e. 
Stafford, n. e. 


Fredericksburg. 
Stafford C.H. 


WESTERN COUNTIES. 


Brooke, n. w. 
Cabell, 10. 


Wellsburg. 
Cabell C. H. 


Floyd, 
Giles, w. 
Grayson, s. to. 
Greenbrier, m. w. 


Floyd C. H. 
Parisburg. 
Grayson C. H. 
Greenbrier C. H. 


Harrison, n, w. 
Jackson, 


Clarksburg. 
Jackson C. H. 


Kanawha, w. 


Charleston, 


Lee, s. to. 


Lee C. H. 


Lewis, n. w. 


Weston. 


Logan. 




Marshall. 




Mason, w. 


Point Pleasant. 


Mercer, 




Monongalia, n. w. 


Morgantown. 



VIRGINIA. 



893 



Counties. 

Monroe, ?n. w. 
Montgomery, s. w. 
Morgan, 
Nicholas, w. 
Ohio, n. 10. 
Preston, n. w. 
Randolph, n. w. 
Russel, s. w. 
Scott, s. w. 
Smyth, 

Tazewell, s. w. 
Tyler, n. w. 
Warren, 

Washington, s. w. 
Wood, n, w. 
Wythe, s, w. 



Chief towns. 

Union. 

Christiansburg. 

Bath. 

Nicholas C. H. 

Wheeling. 

Kingvvood. 

Beverly. 

Lebanon. 

Estillville. 

JefFersonville. 

Middlebourne. 

Front Royal. 

Abingdon. 

Parkersburg. 

Evansham. 



Physical Geography. — Virginia, next to 
Georgia and Illinois, has the greatest range of 
latitude, of any state of the United States, and 
if we duly regard the high valleys of the Alle- 
gany system, it may be doubted whether Vir- 
ginia does not exceed even Georgia in extremes 
of temperature. The extremes of latitude be- 
tween the northern limit of North Carolina, 
and the north-west angle on Ohio, are 4°, 07', 
and the difference arising from relative level 
cannot fall short of three degrees of Fahren- 
heit, consequently the difference of seasons 
is about equal to seven degrees of latitude on the 
Atlantic coast. The whole surface of the state 
is composed of two unequally inclined planes ; 
the larger declining towards the Atlantic ocean, 
and the lesser towards Ohio river, and a cen- 



394 VIRGINIA. 

tral valley. The latter, which separates those 
planes, traverses the state obliquely. 

In point of soil, Virginia is divisible into 
three sections; the eastern part sea-sand and 
alluvial ; the middle or hilly ; and the v?estern 
or mountainous. 

Though the habitable portions of Virginia 
are not so very distinctly marked as in the 
Carolinas and Georgia, yet in the former as in 
the latter cases, each part has its appropriate 
character. The Atlantic section of Virginia 
is its tropical climate. Latitude, exposure, and 
depressed level, all combine to give the Chesa- 
peake counties a much more elevated tempera- 
ture than is found in the interior. This differ- 
ence is seen on vegetation. In the lower coun- 
ties, cotton may be cultivated successfully, 
whilst the uncertainty of grain and meadow- 
grasses, evinces a southern summer. 

The middle, as in fact in all the Atlantic 
states south from Pennsylvania, we find the 
Arcadia of the state. Middle Virginia is, 
however, blended with the mountainous; the 
former containing the whole or great part of 
the valley counties, Berkley, Jefferson, Freder- 
ick, Shenandoah, Rockingham, Augusta, Rock- 
bridge, Botetourt, Montgomery, Wythe, and 
Washington. 

The real mountain section lies north-west 
from the middle, and extends to the Ohio. The 
extreme western part is indeed composed of a 
congeries of hills, with alluvial bottoms, but 
the actual mountain ridges encroach so near 
Ohio river, and the hills are in themselves so 
generally abrupt and lofty, as to give an Alpine 
appearance to the country. 

Taken as a whole, Central Virginia is the 
best in respect to soil, though in the mountain- 



VIRGINIA, 395 

ous part, there is much that is excellent. Den- 
sity of population has in this state been less 
influenced by fertility of soil than on any other 
section of tlie United States. 

With the exception of the south-eastern 
counties, grain and orchard fruits are highly 
congenial to Virginia, and the various products 
of the latter are the natural, actual, and we may 
safely say, the permanent staples of the state. 
Of metals, iron ore is abundant in the central 
and western sections ; gold also has been found 
in considerable quantities. Salt-water has been 
procured on the Great Kanawha, where that in- 
dispensable article is extensively manufactured. 
The natural navigable facilities, and the evi- 
dent meliorations they admit, call loudly on Vir- 
ginia to rival, in canal and road improvements, 
the most active and powerful of her sister 
states. 

Among the principal hydrographical features 
of Virginia, Chesapeake bay is the most impor- 
tant in every point of view. 

By the caprice and accident of geographical 
nomenclature, the Susquehanna loses its name 
at the head of its tides, or at the point where it 
passes from the primitive to the sea alluvion. 
The Chesapeake must therefore give name to 
this, the most extensive of the Atlantic basins 
of the United States ; and under this general 
head, we have before us a navigable expanse, 
in form of an immense triangle, the base of 
which, from the mouth of Chesapeake bay to 
the sources of Susquehanna river, amounts to 
400 miles; side along the valley of James 
river 250 miles; area, including every inflec- 
tion, at least 65,000 square miles. Extending 
from nortli latitude 36= 40' to north latitude 



396 VIRGINIA. 

42° 55', and from 1° 45' east, to 3° 30' west 
longitude, W. C. 

Chesapeake bay differs from the other sounds 
upon the Atlantic slope, only in having- one 
outlet, in place of two or more. It differs, how- 
ever, in another greatly more important circum- 
stance, that is in depth of water. The shal- 
lowness of the rivers and sounds to the south- 
west of Chesapeake, is well known. This fea- 
ture is at once reversed in this great recipient. 

Entering Chesapeake from the Atlantic 
ocean about twenty miles, an opening appears 
on the left, which is found to be the capacious 
mouth of jfames river. This great confluent 
derives its remote sources from the central val- 
leys of the Allegany system. If a line was 
drawn from the extreme western fountains of 
the Roanoke, and extended also along those of 
James river, it would intersect that [part of 
the mountain system at an angle of forty-five 
degrees, nearly ; and here we perceive at once 
the peculiar inflections of the river valleys of 
the basins of Susquehanna and Delaware. In 
the higher branches of James river those in- 
flections either pursue the course of the moun- 
tain valleys, or cross them and the mountain 
chains at right angles. This structure prevails 
from the sources of Roanoke to those of the 
Delaware, with a regularity which evinces a 
general cause. 

Thus influenced in their courses, the two 
north-western branches of James river, rising 
in Pendleton and Bath counties, Virginia, flow 
down tlie mountain valleys S. S. W., meet oth- 
er streams flowing in a directly opposite course, 
gradually unite, turn to the N. E. by E., enter 
into and receive the waters of Rockbrido;e 



VIRGIMA. 397 

county, at the north-west base of the Blue 
Ridge, Turning again at right-angles, and 
piercing the opposing mountain chain, leaves 
the great elevated table land of Central Virgi- 
nia. 

Interlocking sources with the Kanawha, the 
Monongahela, and Potomac, this mountain sec- 
tion of James river is, by actual survey, ele- 
vated at a mean of about 1500 feet above the 
Atlantic level; between 37° 20' and 38° 20' 
north, with a barometrical height equivalent to 
four degrees, the climate is virtually that of 
north latitude 42° on the Atlantic ocean. 

Below the Blue Ridge, James river flows 
south-east 20 miles, to Lynchburg ; turns thence 
north-east 40, and again abruptly inflects to 
S. E. by E. With many partial bends, the lat- 
ter general course is maintained 140 miles, to 
its entrance into Chesapeake bay, between Wil- 
loughbay point and Old Point Comfort, at north 
latitude 37°, longitude W. C. 0° 45' east. 

The Appomattox, entering from the right, 
23' west from the meridian of Washington, is 
the only large tributary stream which contri- 
butes to augment James's river on that side 
below the Blue Ridge. The Appomattox rises 
in Prince Edward and Buckingham counties, 
flows by a general course nearly east, falls over 
the primitive ledge at Petersburg, and joins 
the main stream 35 miles below Richmond. 

Rivanna, from Albemarle and Fluvanna 
counties, and Chickahominy entering almost 
on the meridian of Washington, are the only 
streams worthy of notice, which flow into 
James river from the left. 

Following the general line of each particular 
course, this fine river has a. comparative channel 
34 



398 VIRGINIA. 

of 270 miles below the Blue Ridge, and 50 
miles in the Great Valley, below the outlet of 
Cow Pasture river ; having- an entire navigable 
channel of 320 miles, something above 100 be- 
low, and the residue above, tide-water. The 
tide reaches to Richmond in James river, and 
to Petersburg in the Appomattox. Ships of 
the line can enter Hampton Roads, and those 
carrying forty guns can be navigated to James- 
town, 25 miles higher. Merchant ships of 250 
tons ascend to Warwick, and those of 130, to 
Rocketts, or the port of Richmond. The canal 
round the falls at Richmond unites ship to boat 
navigation, the latter extending upwards of 200 
miles. Petersburg is little, if any, less acces- 
sible than Richmond to sea vessels. 

Since the very dawn of internal improvement 
in the United States, and particularly since the 
rapid augmentation of population in the Ohio 
valley, the channel of James river has at- 
tracted public attention, as offering a route in 
connection with the Great Kanawha, to reach 
the Ohio river. 

Independent of elevation, the higher branch- 
es of James river, and those of Great Kana- 
wha, below the bend of the latter, in Montgo- 
mery county, Virginia, are so relatively placed 
as to facihtate greatly, canal operations. 

The general range of the channel is inter- 
rupted by this mountain influence as low as 
the mouth of Rivanna, and even to the falls and 
head of tide-water at Richmond. A humble, 
but a very distinct, and on the rivers a very 
influential chain of mountains, traverses North 
Carolina, Virginia, Pennsj'lvania and New Jer- 
sey. This chain rises in Rutherford county. 
North Carolina, extends through Burke, thence 



VIRGINIA. 399 

separates Wilkes from Iredell, and reaches in 
broken links through Surry and Stokes; enters 
Virginia in Henry, about longitude 3° west 
from W. C. In North Carolina this chain takeB 
several local names. In Rutiierford, Flint hill 
is its first distinct mass ; it is known as Mon- 
tague hills in Burke ; as the Iron mountain 
between Wilkes and Iredell; and as the Pilot 
mountain in Surry ; and as Sawraton moun- 
tain in Stokes. It again, as Turkey Cock 
mountain, separates Henry from Franklin 
counties, Virginia ; appears in Buckingham 
and Nelson counties, and assumes distinctness 
as a chain known as South-west mountain in 
Albemarle. Thence it may be traced into 
Maryland, over Orange, Culpeper, Fauquier, 
and past Leesburg, in Loudoun, crossing the 
Potomac below the Monococy. Rising into a 
noted peak, the Sugar Loaf, in the western 
angle of Montgomery county, Maryland; thence 
it separates Montgomery from Frederick, and 
Frederick from Baltimore, merging into Penn- 
sylvania, in York county, nearly on the meri- 
dian of Washington. Traversing the south- 
eastern parts of York and Lancaster counties, 
separates Chester and Montgomery from Berks, 
and Lehigh and Northampton from Bucks, 
crosses the Delaware river below Musconetcunk 
river, ranges over Hunterdon, Morris, and Ber- 
gen counties, New Jersey, and is known as 
the Havrestraw mountains in New York. 

In all this distance of six hundred miles, 
any person well acquainted with the physical 
geography of the United States, would detect 
a chain of mountains from a correct map of the 
intermediate rivers. The mountain agency is 
completely apparent in the higher branches 



400 VIEGINIA. 

of the Santee, Pedee, and Roanoke ; in the 
course of James river above and below Lynch, 
burg^, and in the sources of Rivanna, Rapid 
Ann and Rappahannock rivers. It is again 
very visible in the courses of Potomac above 
and below the Monococy. Similar effects are 
easily traced in the Susquehanna, Schuylkill, 
Delaware, Raritan and Passaic rivers. 

The minor valley of York river follows that 
of James river. The Pamunkey and North 
Anna, both rise in the south-west mountain, 
1° 20' west from W. C, north latitude 38° 10', 
in Orange, Albemarle, and Louisa counties, 
and after a course of sixty miles each, they 
unite between Hanover and Caroline, to form 
the Pamunkey river. The latter, after a very 
tortuous course of perhaps seventy, but com- 
paratively only forty miles, receives a smaller 
stream, the Mattapony, from the north-west. 
At their junction, the united stream opens into 
a bay or river, thence in a distance of forty 
miles, known as York river, to its entrance 
into Chesapeake bay. 

The remarkable valley of the Rappahannock 
intervenes between that of York and the Poto- 
mac. The Rappahannock rises in the Blue 
Ridge, and in the northern part of Culpeper 
and Western part of Fauquier counties, one 
degree west from Washington, and at latitude 
38° 52' north. Assuming a course 40 miles 
to the south-east, receives from the west, a 
much more considerable stream, the Rapid 
Ann. The latter rises also in the Blue Ridge, and 
in the counties of Madison and Orange. The 
united volume retains the name of Rappahan- 
nock, and twelve miles below their junction 



VIRGINIA. 401 

falls over the primitive ledge, and meets the 
tides betw^een Fredericksburg and Falmouth. 
The Rappahannock, below its main fork above 
Fredericksburg, in a course of S, E. by E. 130 
miles, does not receive even a large rivulet. 
Below the falls, similar to other rivers of the 
Chesapeake basin, this river imperceptibly 
widens into a bay, up which vessels of 140 
tons can ascend to Fredericksburg. 

The progress of our survey now brings us 
into the very important valley of the Potomac. 
If we turn our eye to a map of Virginia, 
Maryland and Pennsylvania, we find, inter- 
locking sources with James river. Great Kana- 
wha, Monongahela, and Susquehanna, a series 
of rivers, north-west from the Blue Ridge, and 
flowing along the mountain valleys ; those of 
Virginia and Maryland having their courses 
to the north-east, and those of Pennsylvania 
to the south-west, whilst a middle stream is 
perceived rising west of all the chains but two, 
of the Allegany system, and forcing its devious 
way across the system towards the Atlantic 
ocean. This series of rivers unite to form the 
Potomac, the extreme western sources of which 
rise 2° 45' west from W. C. The south main 
branch of Potomac rises in and drains Pendle- 
ton county, in Virginia, heading with, but flow- 
ing in a directly opposite course, to Greenbriar 
branch of Great Kanawha, and Jackson's and 
Cow Pasture branches of James river. The 
south branch rises as far south as north latitude 
38° 25', completely overheading the sources of 
the Monongahela. Flowing north-east about 
1 00 miles, between the Allegany and Kittatin- 
ny chains, meets from the west an inferior 

34* 



402 VIRGINIA. 

stream, but to which the general name of Po- 
tomac is applied. 

The Potomac rises in a ridge locally called 
the Backbone mountain, at north latitude 39 <^ 
12', and flowing thence north-east 30 miles, re- 
reives a small but important branch, Savage 
river, from the north-east ; then turns at right- 
angles to the south-east, and piercing two 
chains of mountains in about ten miles, inflects 
again to the north-east twenty miles to Cum- 
berland. Here once more the Potomac is in- 
flected to the south-east, by the opposing moun- 
tain masses, across which its volume is precip- 
itated, and twenty miles below Cumberland 
meets the south branch, and a short distance 
below once more turns to north-east to Han- 
cock's town. At this point the Potomac has 
reached its most northern bend, north latitude 
39° 40', and within little more than two miles 
from the southern boundary of Pennsylvania. 
Turning to the south-east below Hancock's 
town, it passes the Kittatinny chain, and with 
many partial windings, but a general course of 
forty miles, receives the Shenandoah from the 
south-west, and breaks through the Blue Ridge 
at Harper's Ferry. 

The Shenandoah is the southermost branch 
of Potomac, rising in the south-west angle of 
Augusta county, at north latitude 38° 55'. 
Draining the whole of Augusta, Rockingham, 
and Shenandoah, and part of Frederick and 
Jefferson counties, the Shenandoah is truly a 
river of the great Allegany valley, between 
the two chains of Blue Ridge and Kittatinny. 
The main stream follows the range of the for- 
mer chain, at a distance of from two to five 



VIRGINIA. 403 

miles, receiving its tributary branches from the 
west or left. 

The Shenandoah valley is one hundred and 
thirty miles in length, with a mean width of 
twenty ; area, 2,G00 square miles, with a con- 
siderable difference of elevation. The surface 
of the water at Harper's Ferry is 182 feet 
above tide-water at Georgetown, whilst the 
sources of Shenandoah must exceed one thou- 
sand feet. 

Harper's Ferry, where the Potomac and 
Shenandoah intermingle, is at north latitude 
390 18', longitude W. C. 0° 38' west. That 
part of the valley of Potomac above the Blue 
Ridge extends in latitude from 38° to the 
sources of the Conococheague, 40°, or through 
two degress of latitude, in the direction nearly 
of south-west and north-east. It lies in form 
of a nearly regular parallelogram, 150 by 50 ; 
area, 75,000 square miles. 

Leaving the attractive mountain pass at 
Harper's Ferry, the general course to south-east 
is continued to the mouth of Monococy, ten or 
twelve miles, where it passes the last distinct 
chain of mountains, and inflecting a few miles 
to the south, resumes a south-east course, which 
is maintained to the head of tide-water at 
Georgetown, fifty miles below the mountain 
pass at Harper's Ferry. Below tide-water the 
Potomac imperceptibly loses the features of a 
river, in that of a bay, winds between George- 
town and the Navy-yard at Washington, to a 
southern course, and below Alexandria, inclines 
to the west of south, forty miles ; sweeps round 
to the north-east fifteen miles, and finally re- 
gaining a south-east direction about fifty miles, 



404 VIRGINIA. 

opens into Chesapeake bay, at north latitude 
38°, having returned to the latitude of its most 
southern source, the Shenandoah. 

In its natural state the Potomac is the most 
navigable branch of Chesapeake ; ships of any 
burthen, of war or commerce, can be navigated 
to Alexandria, and vessels of very heavy bur- 
then to Washington navy-yard. This is the 
most distant point from the ocean that ships of 
the line can be navigated in the United States. 
It is upwards of one hundred miles from the 
Atlantic ocean, at the mouth of the Delavsrare, 
the nearest point of that ocean ; and from the 
entrance of the Chesapeake, near two hundred 
miles. 

The attention of the philosopher and states- 
man will be secured to the central position of 
the Potomac valley ; its reaching almost over 
the Allegany system of mountains, and with 
these natural, the political advantage of con- 
taining the capital of the nation. 

We now pass to the western section of the 
state, or that portion of it which is compre- 
hended in the Mississippi valley. 

The entire region west of the AUeganies 
was evidently once an almost unbroken plane, 
which commenced at the base of the Central 
mountains, and extended to the Ohio river. 
This plane, being slightly inclined in the di- 
rection of the Ohio, was, in process of time, 
abraided by the action of the waters, which 
formed for themselves those deep channels 
through which nearly all tlie large streams 
now flow. On viewing the banks of those 
streams from bulow, they appear to be flanked 
by mountains, whose heights are in proportion 



VIRGINIA. 405 

to the magnitude of the rivers. They are not, 
however, mountains in the strict sense of the 
term. What appear to be such, are merely 
buttresses which are made by the action of the 
streams; and although these buttresses or 
banks on the rivers or larger creeks, approach 
the size of mountains, yet the tops are general- 
ly level, being the remains of the original 
plane. 

The eastern part of Western Virginia is 
composed of a section of the Allegany system 
of mountains. This mountainous section is 
much wider on the south than on the north, 
for the dividing line which separates the east- 
ern from the western streams, crosses over 
from the Blue Ridge, to one of the western 
ranges of this system of mountains, at a short 
distance north of the New River, which is 
the main branch of the Kanawha. So that 
whilst many ridges and spurs of the Alleganies 
are in the southern part, there are but two or 
three mountain ridges, exclusive of the detach- 
ed portions, in the middle and northern parts of 
Western Virginia. 

The valleys which lie between these moun- 
tains are by no means always narrow strips of 
even comparatively level land ; they often expand 
until they seem, to one surveying them from 
an elevated spot, like vast basins, surrounded 
by elevated mountains. Such is the valley in 
which Abingdon is situated, and that which 
embosoms a large portion of East Tennessee, 
having the Clinch, and further south the Cum- 
berland mountains, on the west, and the Blue 
Ridge on the east. Much, however, of this 
vast basm in East Tennessee is interrupted by 



406 VIRGINIA. 

minor mountains and ridges, which, when 
compared with the great natural boundaries, in 
the distance, arc insignificant. In Virginia, 
the ridges are more compact, so to speak, than 
in East Tennessee; still the valley. in which 
Wythe and Washington counties are situated, 
having Walker's mountain on the west, resem- 
bles more a basin than a valley. Smaller ba- 
sins, such as Burke's Garden are to be found 
tliroughout the whole mountainous region in 
Virginia. 

Nothing can be more beautiful to the eye of 
the traveller, as he pursues his way over these 
successive ridges, than to survey, from tlieir 
summits, the valleys and basins which lie be- 
fore him, and on his right and left. They ap- 
pear often like vast oceans of trees, lying at an 
immense distance below him, waving their 
green surfaces to the various blasts of wind 
which agitate them. They are not now conti- 
nuous forests. Here and there, the green sur- 
face is interrupted by cultivated farms, fields of 
grass, of corn, or of wheat, adding variety to 
the scene, as well as giving assurance to the 
traveller that he is in a land inhabited by civi- 
lized men. 

The mountainous lelt, in Virginia, is about 
120 miles in width, being composed of succes- 
sive parallel ridges or mountains, interrupted 
by the rivers and smaller streams, which inter- 
sect them in various places. Beyond these 
mountains lies the hilly portion of Western 
Virginia, sloping down to the Ohio river. 

An examination of this mountain zone, 
stretching from north-west to the south-east, 
presents this remarkable phenomenon, viz. these 
mountain ridges have little or no effect upon 



VIRGINIA. 407 

the course of the rivers which rise and flow 
from this elevated region. They run east or 
west, without having their courses affected by 
opposing mountains ; for when necessary, they 
seem to cut through them, as if these barriers op- 
posed no impediment whatever to their course. 
And their sources interlocli with, and pass by 
each other, pursuing their opposite ways, with- 
out any reference to the mountain ridges, so 
that you can select no one of these ridges as 
the great dividing hne, separating the western 
from the eastern waters. In fact they rise on 
the great elevated table-land upon which the 
mountains seem to have been superimposed, 
and have their courses shaped entirely by the 
declinations of its surface, without reference to 
the mountains at all ; so that if one could 
imagine these mountains to be removed the 
rivers would still pursue their channels, form- 
ed in the base, unaffected by the removal 
of the mountain mass. 

Beginning at the southern end of this moun- 
tain system, as it regards Virginia, on the Ten- 
nessee and North Carolina line, and advancing 
northward, you first find the Holston, Clinch, 
&c., flowing south-westward into the Tennes- 
see, and so into the Mississippi. Next you 
come to the New River, or main branch of the 
Great Kanawha, which rises in the north-west 
angle of North Carolina, and runs north-west 
through every ridge of the Allegany system, 
(including what is called the Allegany ridge) 
excepting the Blue Ridge, on the west side of 
which it rises. As you proceed further north- 
ward, you come to the Roanoke, which rises 
west of the Blue Ridge, and in its course south- 
eastward, cuts through that mountain. Next 



408 VIRGINIA. 

you come to the James river, which also cuts 
the Blue Ridge ; and some of its main branches 
rising far to the west, and cutting through every 
ridge of the system, save the most western one 
or two. Still further north you find that the 
Potomac and its branches, rising almost in the 
western sides of the mountainous region, and 
cutting in its way eastward almost all the 
ridges ; and on the opposite side, you find the 
Monongahela, and its branches, the Cheat and 
Youghiogany, in their course westward, cutting 
through the remaining ridges. Indeed these 
remarks might be extended to those parts of 
the Allegany system which lie south and north 
of Virginia. 

The valleys which lie between these moun- 
tain ridges, possess, generally, great fertility of 
soil ; and no climate is more salubrious. The 
traveller who would spend the summer months 
in visiting this region, whether in quest of 
health or pleasure, will not find himself disap- 
pointed. 

The country which reaches down from the 
mountain range to the Ohio, in Western Virgi- 
nia, is generally hilly. These hills, which re- 
pose upon the primitive plain, are often of 
great height, of a round and conical shape, 
insulated by ravines, or by narrow bottom 
lands, which separate their bases. The surface 
of this portion of the state is, therefore, exceed- 
ingly diversified ; and much of the hilly parts 
is not susceptible of cultivation, on account of 
its unevenness. 

The soil of the bottom lands is generally of 
great fertility. Along the water- courses, there 
is much land of a fine quality. The sides and 
summits of the hills, in many cases, have a 
productive soil. In some places, however, the 



VIRGINIA. 409 

hills are rocky and barren. The whole coun- 
try, in a state of nature, was covered with 
dense forests of oak, ash, elm, sugar-niaple, sy- 
camore, poplar, &,c. The sycamore grows 
along the water-courses ; the maple, elm, buck- 
eye, and paw-paw, grow on the alluvial bot- 
toms chiefly. 

The productions are wheat, rye, maize or In- 
dian corn, oats, buckwheat, Irish potatoes, &c. 
Tobacco is raised in some counties to a consid- 
erable extent. Cattle, horses and hogs, are here 
raised for an eastern market. Flour, corn, &c,, 
are in great quantities sent by the various 
rivers of this section of our country, to New- 
Orleans and other places in the lower part of 
the valley. 

Salt is manufactured in great quantities, on 
the Kanawha river, in the vicinity of Charles- 
ton, about sixty-five miles above its mouth. At 
the point where the salt factories are establish- 
ed, the Kanawha river is about 150 yards wide. 
The " salt region" extends 15 miles along the 
river, and the quantity of salt now manufactu- 
red annually, is about 1,500,000 bushels ; and 
may be extended to an indefinite amount. The 
salt water is obtained by boring through a for- 
mation rock, to the depth of from 300 to 500 
feet. Copper or tin tubes are introduced to 
keep out the fresh water, which lies above the 
salt water, and tlie latter rises as high as the 
surface of the river, along the margin of which, 
and in the water's edge, though all communi- 
cation with it is cut off, the wells are sunk. 
It is then raised to the top of the bank of the 
river, about forty feet, by forcing-pumps, pro- 
pelled by steam-engines, and conveyed to the 
furnaces as required. Bituminous coal abounds 
35 



410 VIRGINIA. 

on the spot, and is used for the purposes of 
evaporating the water. 

These works at present employ about 1,000 
men, as salt-makers, coopers, boat-builders, &c. 
The average price of salt has hardly exceeded 
30 or 35 cents per bushel at them. By means 
of the increasing channels of cheap transporta- 
tion, which are now opening by canals, rail, 
roads, &c., supplies of salt may be obtained 
from the West in future emergencies. 

No state in the Union is richer in valuable 
minerals than Virginia, and particularly the 
western part of it. Iron is every where abun- 
dant in the mountainous regions. Coal, gyp- 
sum, lead, copper, &c., are also found in the 
south-western counties, and will probably be 
abundant. Mineral springs of the most valua- 
ble character are found in several places. The 
most celebrared of these are the Warm, Hot, 
Sweet, White Sulphur, and Red Sulphur 
Springs, in the midst of the mountains ; and 
partly in West, and partly in Central Virginia 
— and are found in Greenbrier, Bath and Mon- 
roe counties. There are fine orchards in West- 
ern Virginia ; and apples and cider constitute 
important articles of exportation. Lumber of 
every description, is also, in large quantities, 
sent down the rivers to the Ohio, and thence to 
the towns in the lower part of the valley. 

Western Virginia is drained by a considera- 
ble number of streams, which are navigable 
for flat-boats, and some for steam-boats, during 
the spring and fall months. On the north is 
the Monongahela and its branches , on the 
west, Wheeling creek. Little Kanawha, Great 
Kanawha, Guyandot, Sandy, and many smaller 
streams ; and on the south, is the Holston and 



VIRGINIA. 411 

its branches. These streams, flowing down 
from the mountains, are rapid in their currents, 
and have numerous cataracts towards their 
sources, which furnisli fine water-power for 
mills, &c. 

History. — Virginia was the first Anglo-Amer- 
ican colony, and " the first germ of a mighty 
nation." The name of Virginia was derived 
from Raleigh's patent, and was, at the period of 
colonization, the common English name for 
the eastern coast of North America. James I., 
by letters patent, April 10th, 1606, granted to 
two companies, the London Company and the 
Plymouth Company, all that part of the Amer- 
ican coast from north latitude 34° to 45°, un- 
der the names of North Virginia and South 
Virginia. The latter effected an actual settle- 
ment on Powhatan, now James river, May 15, 
1607. 

During the revolution in England, from 
1642 to 1660, Virginia espoused the royal cause, 
and was the first place where Charles II. was 
proclaimed on his restoration. 

The assembly by its injudicious acts gave 
offence to some of the colonists, who, in conse- 
quence fomented a rebellion in the colony, in 
which the capital, Jamestown, was burned. 
The instigator of the insurrection. Bacon, 
died suddenly, but Virginia was rewarded for 
its devotion to the Stewarts, by oppression 
which terminated only by the ruin of that mis- 
guided house. The revolution in 1 688, extend- 
ed its salutary effects into every section of 
English domination, and Virginia shared the 
benefits. Nearly eighty years of peace and pros- 
perity was followed by the revolutionary strug- 
gle, in which Virginia gave to her sister colo= 



412 VIRGINIA. 

nies the whole of her energies, and, what was 
perhaps more, she gave them a leader whose 
name adorns history, and whose character 
proves to what exalted elevation human nature 
may be raised. 

The constitution of Virginia was adopted 
July 5th, 1776, and, except the illustrious acts 
of her sons in the two wars with Great Britain, 
the state has, since the latter period, afforded 
few events for history. The establishment of 
the University of Virginia at Charlottesville, 
March, 1825, and recent attempts at an amend, 
ment of her constitution, are the only recent 
public acts particular to this state. 

Government, consists of a governor, who is 
elected by the general assembly, for three 
years; a lieutenant-governor ; two counsellors; 
a treasurer, and an auditor. 

Legislature, styled the General Assembly, 
consists of a senate and house of delegates. 
The Legislature meets annually, on the first 
Monday in December. 

Judiciary, comprehends a court of appeals, 
consisting of a president and four associate 
judges, who hold two sessions annually, one at 
Richmond and the other at Lewisburg, and a 
general court, consisting of twenty judges, one 
for each of the twenty circuits into which the 
state is divided. A circuit superior court of 
law and chancery is held twice a year in each 
county and corporation. 



RICHMOND. 413 

CHIEF CITIES AND TOWNS, 

With the Roads and Distances. 



RICHMOND. 

The capital and metropolis of Virginia, is 
beautifully situated on the left or north bank of 
James river, at the Great Falls, in Henrico 
county. 

The city now contains about fourteen hun- 
dred houses, of which probably more than 
one thousand are of brick, generally covered 
with slate, the rest of wood. The buildings in 
Richmond are mostly plain, without much dis- 
play of architectural taste, or refererence ,to 
other objects than utility ; to this remark, there 
are however some exceptions ; had the model 
of the Capitol been equalled by its execution, it 
would be the finest building in the United 
States; its proportions are perfectly correct, 
and its plan chaste ; and even as it is, when 
seen from a distance, it seems to rise in great 
grandeur and beauty before the spectator. The 
public square on which the capitol stands, con- 
tains about eight acres, and has been enclosed 
by a substantial railing of cast iron. Many 
other improvements have been designed and in 
part executed, which, when completed, will 
render it a place of greater beauty. Near the 
capitol stands the government house and city 
hall, a handsome and costly building. The 
Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Baptists, Metho- 
.35* 



414 RICHMOND. 

dists, the Friends, Roman Catholics and Jews, 
have each churches here. Of these, that 
which will be regarded with most interest by 
the traveller, is called the Monumental Church, 
now an Episcopalian place of worship, erected 
on the site of the theatre, which, on the 26th 
December, 1811, was consumed by fire, and 
in which the governor of Virginia, G. W. 
Smith, Esq., and seventy-one other persons, 
many of them highly respectable, perished. 
The monument commemorates this mournful 
event. A new theatre has been erected, suf- 
ficiently spacious for the purposes for which it 
is intended. 

The town of Richmond was established by 
an act of the general assembly of Virginia, in 
the year 1742, and the seat of government for 
the state, was removed from Williamsburg in 
1780; at which period the population may be 
conjectured at 500 persons ; in the year 1830, 
tlie number of inhabitants of the city and of 
such of the suburbs as are immediately con- 
nected with it, was 1G,060, a majority being 
white persons. This rapid increase of population 
during the last 32 years, may in part be ascrib- 
ed to the transfer of the seat of government, 
with its attendant advantages, but as the num- 
ber of officers connected with the state gov. 
ernment is not considerable, and the courts 
of higher jurisdiction, which for a few years 
sat in the capital, have since been branched 
out in such a manner that their sessions are 
held in other places as well as here — other 
causes must be sought for to account for the 
whole effect produced in the period first men- 
tioned. The very fruitful country bordering 
on James river, above its falls, was partially 



RICHMOND. 415 

and imperfectly cnltivated, and tlie impossibili- 
ty of obtaining a navigation through the 
rapids immediately above Kichmond, had de- 
prived the inhabitants of a free use of the river 
for the transportation of the products of the 
state. In the year 1794, the canal was so far 
completed that all difficulty of passing the 
rapids was removed, and gradually since that 
time, the navigation has been in course of im- 
provement. 

The natural situation of Richmond is beauti- 
ful, and even romantic. Siiockoeand Richmond 
hills stand opposite to each other, with Shoc- 
koe creek, a bold and lively stream between 
them. The city is spread over those hills, and 
along the margin of tlie river tlie hills have 
been tiirown into various undulations, and pre- 
sent a great many points, from which different 
views may be taken, highly picturesque and 
beautiful; the falls and rapids of the river, which 
descends more than 6 miles ; the island ; the town 
of Manchester, connected by two bridges with 
Richmond ; the rich plantations adjoining the 
town; the river winding and stretching below 
to a great extent; the waving hills on its north 
side, and the valley through which Shockoe 
creek passes, are the principal objects on which 
the eye fixes, and from every eminence they are 
seen in some new form, and under some new 
colouring of light and shade ; the whole pre- 
senting the three great requisites of landscape, 
viz. grandeur, beauty, and variety — besides, 
Richmond is one of the healthiest cities in the 
United States, or perhaps in the world — the 
annual amount of deaths on an average, is one 
in eighty.Jive. 

With some trifling exceptions, the streets of 



416 VIEGINIA. 

Richmond, intersect each other at right-angles. 
Those running north-east and south-west are 
numerically arranged and called First, Second, 
and so on, up to Thirty-first street. These 
commence on the north-west side of the city, 
near the penitentiary, and terminate in the 
south-east, on Bloody run. The intersecting 
streets commencing with A street, on the old 
boundary line, near the river, run in a north- 
west and south-east direction, and are desig- 
nated as A, B, C, &c., streets. Nearly all the 
leading streets, with the exception of H street, 
which varies in width from sixty-six to one 
hundred and eighteen feet, are sixty-five feet 
wide. Some exceed this, and others are much 
narrower. D street for example, south of 
Thirteenth street, is only forty-five feet in 
width ; and this is still further reduced after 
passing Seventeenth street. 

The city plot has been greatly extended 
within a few years by additions made by Ruth- 
erford, Bullock, Duval, Coutts, Johnson and 
others. Including these additions, the city has 
an outline of about seven miles in length, and 
an area of three and a half square miles, a 
large portion of which, however, is unoccupied 
by buildings. 

James river, immediately in front of the prin- 
cipal improvements, is interrupted by a ledge 
of rocks, which occasions a considerable fall 
in the stream. Some of these rocks rise above 
the surface of the water, and form several islands, 
one of which is employed as a support for a 
bridge across James river. 

A navigable communication was opened 
around the falls, by means of a canal and sev- 
eral locks, constructed many years since. 



RICHMOKD. 417 

These now form the outlet of James river Ca- 
nal, with which they are connected by a capa- 
cious basisi, situated between Eighth and Elev- 
enth, and B and D streets. 

The city is divided into two unequal parts 
by Shockoo creek, which rises in the central 
part of Henrico county, flows in a south direc- 
tion through the lands of Craig, Southgate and 
Adams, and intersecting North Fourteenth, H, 
and some other streets, enters the James river, 
about eight hundred feet east from Mayo's 
bridge. The banks of Shockoe, which are con- 
siderably elevated above the river, are occupied 
by many beautiful buildings, both public and 
private. Viewed altogether, we know of no 
cit)'^ whose position surpasses in beauty, that of 
Richmond. From Shockoe Hill the prospect is 
uncommonly fine. It embraces at a single 
glance, many of those attractive features by 
which the city is surrounded ; a sight of which 
will amply compensate the visiter for his labour 
in obtaining it. 

PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS, 
PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS, &c. 

The Capitol, or Legislative Hall, is situated 
in a fine and elevated area, 1,000 by 600 feet ia 
extent, which is bounded on the north-west by 
Ninth street ; on the north-east by Capitol 
street ; on the south-west by Bank street ; and 
on the south-east by the old county road, from 
which it is separated by an iron railing. Its 
surface is tastefully arranged with grass plots, 
gravel walks, and other decorations. In tha 



418 KICHMOND. 

centre of this area stands the capitol, a beautiful 
structure, with a portico and entablature, sup- 
ported by several Ionic columns. 

The body of the edifice, which fronts on the 
eouth-west, is in the form of a parallelogram, 
nearly approaching to a square. When seen 
from a distance, it presents a fine appearance. 

From so inviting an exterior, we naturally 
look for correspondent arrangements within, 
but with some exceptions the interior of the 
capitol presents nothing very remarkable, either 
in design or execution. Hodouu's statue of 
Washington, a beautiful specimen of statuary, 
and a bust of Lafayette, both of marble, deco- 
rate the grand saloon. 

Henrico Court House, is situated in the 
southern angle of Capitol square, fronting on 
Twelfth street. It is a long and narrow build- 
ing, extending from the north-eastern side of 
F to Bank street, and is occupied by tlie coun- 
ty courts and their various ofSces, for which 
it was expressly erected. 

Cit7j Hall, at the corner of Capitol and 
Eleventh streets, and within a hundred yards of 
the capitol. This is a very neat and chaste 
structure, erected for the accommodation of the 
city courts, councils, &c. It is decorated at 
each end by a fine portico of four Doric col- 
umns, and flanked by neat verandas. The en- 
tire edifice afibrds the best, and altogether the 
most consistent example of the Grecian Doric 
to be found in the city. 

Penitentiary. — This extensive fabric is situ- 
ated in the western suburbs of the city, adjoin- 
ing Rutherford's grounds on the south. It is 



RICHMOND. 419 

an immense building, surrounding a hollow 
square, and extending nearly three hundred 
feet in a north and south direction, and about 
one hundred and ten from east to west. The 
entrance is on the south. There is a field of 
several acres, belonging to the establishment, 
which is enclosed. 

■^ County Jail, on E street, between Twelfth 
and Thirteenth streets, is also a large and ap- 
propriate building. 

City Jail, I street, between Fourteenth and 
Fifteenth streets. 

Government House. — This building, which 
has no pretensions to architectural beauty, ia 
situated on the eastern part of Capitol square, 
immediately opposite to the great avenue, lead- 
ing to G street. It is the residence of the gov- 
ernor. 

Old Market and Watch House, is on the left 
bank of Shockoe creek, and extends from F to 
E streets. 

JSeio Market, corner of I and Sixth Streets. 

Alms House. — The ground in which the 
Poor House is situated, is in the northern sub- 
urb of the city, and extends from Third to 
Fourth streets, along Marshall street. The 
edifice, which occupies the centre of the field, 
is very capacious and appropriate, having been 
erected for the object to which it is now de- 
voted. 

Orphati's Asylum. — This meritorious insti- 
tution, is designed as a shelter for female or- 



420 EicnjioNu. 

phans, who are not only provided with food and 
clothing, but also with instruction in the ele- 
mentary branches of education. It is under 
the management of some benevolent females, 
and is supported by funds received from the 
corporation, from donations, and other sources. 

School for the Education of Poor Children. — 
On I Street, between Fourteenth and Fifteenth 
Streets. This is conducted in a large building 
erected expressly for the institution, which was 
organized in 1816, on the Lancasterian plan. 
It is partly supported by the State, and partly 
by the city government, which appoints the 
trustees by whom its affairs are managed. 

Richmond Academy, corner of Tenth and I 
streets. 

Theatre, corner of Seventh and H streets. 
This is a remarkably handsome and commo- 
dious structure, every way adapted to the uses 
for which it was erected. The establishment, 
it is said, is languishing for want of adequate 
support, which is ascribed in some measure, to 
the awful conflagration of the old theatre, some 
years since, when seventy or eighty of the in- 
habitants perished in the flames. 

Museum, — This is also in a declining state, 
notwithstanding the ample and valuable col- 
lections of appropriate articles of which it con- 
sists. 

Masonic Hall, F streeet, between Eighteenth 
and Nineteenth Streets. 

Guard House and Engine House. — These 



RICHMOND. 421 

are located on the western angle of the Capitol 
Square, from which the ground occupied by 
them has been detached. 

Water Works. — The works by which the 
city is supplied with water, are situated on the 
bank of James river, where the water is 
elevated by means of water wheels and forcing 
pumps into the reservoirs, a distance of 2,400 
feet, from whence it is distributed through the 
city — 400,000 gallons are thus raised during 
each day, and conveyed into the reservoirs, 
which contain 1,000,000 gallons each. Fire 
plugs are distributed at convenient intervals 
through the city, from which an abundant 
supply of water can be obtained incases of fire. 
The cost of these works was about $120,000, 
which is in course of reimbursement from the 
rents paid by those citizens who have the water 
introduced into their premises. The water 
works, like those of Philadelphia, form one of 
the most attractive " Lions" of the city, which 
every stranger should visit. 

Armory, near the foot of Sixth street, is an 
immense structure, about 320 feet in length, 
and 280 in width. It surrounds an open area, 
which is employed, in common with the other 
parts of the establishment, for the reception 
and safe keeping of ordnance, arms and 
military stores. 

Tobacco Warehouses. — There are four of 
these buildings in the city, which are used for 
storing the tobacco which is subject to inspec- 
tion. They are all large, but that situated at 
the S. E, termination of C street, near the 
36 



422 RICH3I0ND. 

canal, is llie most extensive. Its front, on 
Thirteenth street, is 365 feet, with a correspon- 
ding depth. With tlie exception of its unusual 
dimensions, there is nothing remarkable in its 
external appearance. 

Bank of Virginia, and the 

Farmers Bank of Virginia, are established 
in an elegant structure on E street, between 
Tenth and Eleventh streets, which is divided 
into two tenements, one being occupied by 
each of those institutions. 

St. John's Church, (Episcopal,) is situated in 
the centre of a square, formed by G, H, 
Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth streets. It is 
a large and handsome edifice, built in the 
shape of a cross. 

Christ Church, (Episcopal.) — This is also 
a neat structure, in the form of aparellelogram, 
situated on G street, between Seventeenth and 
Eighteenth Streets. Its decorations within are 
very handsome and appropriate. 

Monumental Church, (Episcopal.) — This 
beautiful church, the sight of which never fails 
to excite in the beholder the most painful recol- 
lections, is situated at the intersection of H and 
Church streets, and upon the site of the Rich- 
mond Theatre, whose destruction by fire, and 
its melancholly effects, can never be forgotten. 
It is an octangular building, two sides of which 
project beyond the main body, and thus form 
two wings, one on its north-east side, and 
another at the opposite side of the building. 



Richmond. 423 

The whole, being surrounded by open ground, 
presents a very beautiful and imposing appear- 



First Presbyterian Church, H street, be- 
tween Thirteenth and Fourteenth streets. This 
is one of the most extensive eiiurches in Rich- 
mond, being nearly 110 feet in length, and 100 
in width. 

Second Presbyterian Church, corner of F 
and Eighth streets. 

The Baptists have churches, at the corner of 
H and Church streets ; in Eleventh, between 
D and E streets; at the corner of I and Second 
streets, and in Eleventh, between H and I 
streets. 

The Methodists have meeting houses, at the 
corner of F and New streets, and on Sho^-koe 
Hill, in I street, between Fourth and Fifth 
streets. 

Roman Catholic Chapel, on C street, near 
Twelfth street. 

Friends Meeting House, on D street, be- 
tween Nineteenth and Twentieth streets. 

First Independent Church, Mayo street, 
south of H street. 

Jews Synagogue, Mayo street, north of F 
street. 

Maya's Bridge. — This is a fine structure, 



424 RICHMOND. 

extending from the southern terminus of 
Fourteenth street, across James river, to the 
town of Manchester. 

Treufs Bridge, also crosses James river, 
a short distance above Mayo's Bridge, and 
connects the city, at the foot of Ninth, with the 
upper part of Manchester, near Broad Rock 
Island. 

The municipal government of Richmond 
consists of a mayor, who is elected by 
the city councils, a recorder, and eleven alder- 
men. The recorder and aldermen are chosen 
from a body of twenty-seven individuals, who 
are elected by the people, and the remaining 
fifteen constitute the city council. 

Though Richmond enjoys a large trade in 
tobacco, flour, coal, iron, &c. its chief depen- 
dence must be upon its manufacturing facili- 
ties, which its position at the great falls of 
James river affords. There are already seve- 
ral extensive manufactories in successfiil ope- 
ration at the falls, which including the rapids 
above, have a vertical descent of nearly one 
hundred feet. A water power so extensive and 
valuable, will not, it may be presumed, remain 
long unemployed. 

Manchester, — This town, which is situated 
immediately opposite Richmond, on the south 
or right bank of James river, may be regarded 
as a part of the latter, though seated in another 
county, (Chesterfield.) It is a large and 
flourishing town, containing about 400 build- 
ings of every description, including churches, 
manufactories, mills, work shops, &c. 

The Chesterfield and Manchester rail-road, 





18 


5 


23 


. 17 


40 


. 10 


50 


. 12 


62 


. 20 


82 



RICHMOND. 425 

from the bitumenous coal field of Chesterfield 
county, passes through Manchester, and termi- 
nates on the bank of James river, about a mile 
below the falls. 



ROUTES FROM RICHMOND. 

From Richmond to Weldon, N. C. by the At- 
lantic Rail Road. 

Osborn, 

Petersburg, 

Stoney Creek, 

Nottoway River, . • 

Hicksford, 

Weldon, 



Osborn, a small village situated a short dis- 
tance to the right on James river, opposite 
Farrars Island, in Chesterfield county. 

Petersburg, a large and important town, 
situated in the extreme north-west angle of 
Dinwiddle county, on the south bank of the 
Appomattox, about twelve miles from its en- 
trance into James river. 

Its situation, at the falls of the Appomattox, 
and within a Tew miles of James river, is admi- 
rably adapted botli to manufactures and com- 
merce. The falls present excellent sites for 
machinery ; whilst a canal cut around them, 
extends the navigation to the town, and thus 
opens an uninterrupted water communication 
with the upper counties. 
36* 



426 ROUTE TO 

Including the little village of Blandford, in 
Prince George, and that of Pocahontas, io 
Chesterfield county, which are nothing more 
than appendages to Petersburg, the town con- 
tains about 1,000 buildings, most of which 
have been erected since the great fire of 1815, 
and a population of about 10,000. Among 
the buildings are seven churches, a masonic 
hall, a female orphans' asylum, a free school, 
(Anderson's Seminary) two banking offices and 
an insurance office; six tobacco warehouses, 
six flouring mills, one foundery, four cotton 
factories, belonging to joint-stock companies ; 
two potteries, two oil mills, four carriage manu- 
factories, together with the usual compelment 
of mechanics' shops, stores, hotels and taverns. 
Two weekly journals are issued here. 

The completion of the rail-roads extending 
north and south, has« given an impulse to the 
trade of Petersburg, which must tend to its 
rapid advancement. 

Stoney Creek, a stream which runs through 
the centre of Dinwiddle county, and falls into 
the Nottoway in Sussex county. 

Nottoway River, rises in Nottoway county, 
and flowing between the counties of Dinwiddie 
and Lunenberg, and through Sussex and 
Northampton, enters Chowan river in Gates 
county, N. C. 

Hicksford, seat of justice of Greenesville 
county, containing, besides the court house, 
jail, &c. about thirty-five buildings. It is 
pleasantly situated on the right bank of the 
Meherrin river, immediately opposite to the 
little village of Belfield. The rail-road to Gas- 



WELDON. 



427 



ton and thence to Raleigh, N. C, leaves the 
letersburg and Roanoke Rail Road at Hicks- 
ford. 

Weldon, a town of Hallifax county, N. C, 
situated at the foot of the great falls of Roa- 
noke. It is the depot for a large portion of the 
produce which descends the Roanoke. The 
navigation has been materially improved by 
means of dams. 

The falls are passed by a small canal, exten- 
ding along the right bank of the Roanoke, from 
Gaston to Weldon. 

Passengers for the south may take the rail 
road at Weldon, and proceed to Wilmington, 
161 miles, and thence by steam boat, 180 miles, 
to Charleston, S. C. 



From Richmond to Norfolk, by stage. 



Petersburg, 
Prince George C. H. 
Cabin Point, 
Surry C. H. 
Smithfield, , 

Norfolk, 





23 


7 


30 


19 


49 


14 


63 


18 


81 



35 116 



Petersburg.* 

Prince George Court House, a village con- 
sisting of a few scattered buildings, besides the 
court house, &,c. in the centre of Prince George 
county. 



428 ROUTE TO 

Cabin Point, a small settlement near Chi- 
poak's Creek, in the north-west part of Surry 
county, consisting of 18 or 20 dwellings, a store 
and tavern. 

Surry Court House. — In addition to the 
county buildings, there are some eight or ten 
dwellings, two stores, a tavern, an armory, and 
a cotton manufactory. Population about sixty. 

Smithjield, a large and finely situated town, 
of Isle of Wight county, containing about 400 
buildings, and nearly 900 inhabitants. Its lo- 
cation is well chosen, on an elevated bank near 
the forks of Cypress and Smithfield creeks, 
which unite near the town, and flow into Pagan 
creek, an inlet of James river. It commands 
an extensive view of the adjacent country, and 
is esteemed one of tlie most salubrious towns 
in this quarter of the state. 

There are in the town ten or twelve stores, a 
drug store; one Episcopal, one Baptist, and 
one Methodist church ; one large hotel, several 
schools, with the usual proportion of mechanics 
and tradesmen. Smithfield has acquired noto- 
riety, from the excellence of its bacon, which 
is cured here in immense quantities, and sent 
to the neighbouring markets. 

Norfolk, an incorporated town of Norfolk 
county, containing about 10,000 inhabitants, 
situated on the right bank of Elizabeth river, at 
the confluence of its two principal branches. 
Norfolk, next to Richmond, is the largest town 
in Virginia. 

Though admirably situated for trade, the 
facilities for which have been greatly multi- 



NORFOLK. 429 

plied by the completion of the Dismal Swamp 
canal, and a rail-road to the Roanoke ; the 
commerce of Norfolk is by no means commen- 
surate to the advantages which its position, and 
those means of intercommunication, would 
seem to indicate. It, however, enjoys con- 
siderable foreign commerce, chiefly in corn, 
lumber, cotton and naval stores. The plan of 
the town is somewhat irregular, owing to the 
peculiar nature of its site, which is intersected 
in almost every direction by ravines and small 
water courses. Most of the streets are wide 
and well paved, which have of late been much 
improved by the erection of a large number of 
handsome buildings, mostly with stone fronts. 
These, with other improvements and embellish- 
ments, give to the place an air of great neat- 
ness. 

Among the public buildings are a cus- 
tom house, alms house, academy, marine hospi- 
tal, masonic hall, two Episcopalian, one Bap- 
tist, two Methodist, one Presbyterian, one 
Catholic and one African church ; theatre ; 
two banks, (Virginia Bank, and Farmers Bank 
of Virginia;) ten or twelve hotels ; three steam 
mills. The public literary and scientific insti- 
tutions, consists of eighteen or twenty schools 
of different sorts ; a public library ; a news 
room, a Lyceum, &c. Besides the burying 
grounds attached to the various churches, an 
extensive cemetery, handsomely arranged and 
appropriately embellished, has been prepared by 
the civil authorities. Immediately to the south 
of Norfolk, on the opposite side of Eliza- 
beth river, is the flourishing town of 

Portsmouth, the seat of justice for Norfolk 



430 ROUTE TO 

county, situated on one of the finest harbors in 
the United States. The United States govern- 
ment has an extensive Navy Yard and Dry 
Dock at Gosport, a suburb of Portsmouth, 
where vessels of the largest class are prepared 
for sea. Population about 2,500. Another 
suburb of Norfolk, called 

Little Washington, is situated in the angle 
formed by the eastern and southern branches 
of Elizabeth river. It contains some fifteen 
or twenty houses, chiefly occupied by workmen 
employed in the adjoining town. 

Steam boats depart daily, for Baltimore, 
Richmond and other places ; and by means of 
the Portsmouth and Roanoke Rail Road, tra- 
vellers are conveyed to Weldon, on the Roa- 
noke, where the Rail Road to Wilmington, 
N. C, commences. The Dismal Swamp canal 
opens a direct communication between Norfolk 
and Albemarle Sound, of North Carolina. 
Coney Island, which became famous during 
the late war, is situated about five miles north- 
west from Norfolk ; the " Rip Raps," and 
Fort Calhoun, are about fourteen, and Old 
Point Comfort, a fashionable bathing place, is 
sixteen miles north of Norfolk. 



Prom Richmond to Yorktown, and thence to 
Old Point Comfort. 



Bottoms Bridge, 




15 


Cross Roads, 


5 


20 


New Kent, C. H. , 


9 


29 


Hackaday's Spring, . 


13 


42 


Williamsburg, 


14 


56 



POINT COMFORT. 431 

Yorktown, . . . 12 68 

Hampton, . . ' . 20 88 

Old Point, . . . 3 91 



Bottoms Bridge, a bridge across the Chicka- 
homia, which here forms a part of the boundary 
between Henrico and New Kent counties. 

Cross Roads, a small settlement in New 
Kent county, consisting of a tavern and some 
six or eight other buildings, at the intersection 
of a road leading to Putney's Ferry. 

New Kent Court House, a village consisting 
of the Court House, twelve or fifteen dwellings, 
a large number of stores, and of taverns " not 
a i'ew." 

HacJcaday^s Springs, the head fountain of 
Ware creek, a branch of York river, which is 
a part of the boundary between James city and 
New Kent counties. 

Williamsburg, seat of justice of James city 
county, and the oldest incorporated town in 
Virginia. It was settled in 1632, and in 1698 
it became the seat of the colonial government. 
The town is finely seated, on the high grounds 
between branches of York and James riv- 
ers, and immediately on the division line of 
James city and York counties. It contains 
about two hundred dwellings, some of which 
are in a dilapidated condition, with 1,600 inha- 
bitants. The streets intersect each other at 
right angles, and thus give a regular appear- 



432 KOUTE TO 

ance to the town. The county buildings, 
which as situated in a large square in the cen- 
tre of the town, consist of the court house, 
jail, clerks' office, &c. The remains of the old 
Capitol, the former residence of the colonial 
governor, and the old Raleigh tavern, famous 
in revolutionary annals, now form interesting 
objects, to which the attention of strangers is 
directed. This is also the seat of William 
and Mary college, an old and respectable insti- 
tution, founded in 1693, and still in successful 
operation. The edifice, which is of brick, with 
accommodations for one hundred students, 
stands in the rear of an open square, contain- 
ing about four acres, near the centre of which 
stands a marble statue of Lord Bottetourt, for- 
merly governor of the province. The other 
public buildings, are a lunatic asylum, Episco- 
pal, Methodist *and Baptist churches, together 
with the usual number of factories, work shops, 
taverns, &c. 

Yorktown, seat of justice of York county, is 
beautifully situated on the right bank of York 
river, and immediately opposite the little town 
of Gloucester. There are in the village, be- 
sides the court house and county offices, about 
forty buildings, many of which are untenanted 
and in a dilapidated condition. Present popu- 
lation about 300. 

It was here, on the 19th October, 1781, that 
Lord Cornwallis, after a protracted seige, sur- 
rendered the whole of the British army, then 
concentrated in Yorktown, to the American 
forces under General Washino^ton — an act 
which concluded the revolutionary drama, and 
confirmed American Independence. 



HEATHSVIILE. 433 

Hampton, seat of justice of Elizabeth City 
county, situated on Hampton Creek, a branch 
of James river. It contains about 1,200 inhabi- 
tants, many of whom are engaged as pilots in 
the navigation of James river, Hampton Roads, 
&c. There are, besides the county buildings, 
several places of worship, schools and the cus- 
tomary mechanical establishments. 

Old Point Comfort, or Fortress Monroe. — 
This is the northern point of James river en- 
trance ; Willoughby point, its southern projec- 
tion, is about three miles distant. Fort Monroe 
is on the immediate point, about a mile from 
Fort Calhoun, on the Rip Raps. 

These two forts command the entrance to 
James river, Hampton Roads, and to a great 
extent, the Chesapeake Bay. The latter was 
constructed at an immense expense, A large 
part of its site was from eighteen to twenty- 
two feet below the surface of the sea, which 
was elevated to its present point by throwing 
rocks into the water. The beach, at old Point, 
affords excellent bathing ground, which is 
much resorted to during the summer months. 
There is a large and commodious hotel near 
the fort. 



From Richmond to Tappahannoc, and thence 
to Heaihsville. 

Cold Harbour, ... 11 

Newcastle, . . . 8 19 

Brandywine, . . . 6 25 

Dunkirk, . . . 7 32 
37 



434 ROUTE TO 

Clarksville, . . . 2 34 

Tappahannoc, . . . ]8 52 

Richmond C. H. . . . 7 59 

Heathsville, . . . 19 78 



Cold Harbour, a noted tavern, in the south- 
ern part of Hanover county. 

Newcastle, a small village of some ten or 
fifteen houses, on the right bank of Pamunkey 
river, at a ferry, in Hanover. 

Brandywine, a mere hamlet of King William 
county. 

Dunkirk, t village of three houses, situated 
on the JVIattapony, in King and Queen county. 
It contained, formerly, many buildings, but in 
consequence of its unfavourable position, in 
point of health, the place has been abandoned, 
and the dwellings suffered to go to decay. 

Clarksville, a small village of eight or ten 
houses, in the centre of King and Queen 
county. 

Tappahannoc, seat of justice of Essex coun- 
ty, situated on the right bank of Rappahannoc 
river. It contains some thirty or forty build- 
ings, including the court house, a church, 
used in common by all denominations ; two 
hotels, a female boarding school, with me- 
chanics' shops, &c. A ferry across the Rap- 
pahannoc is established here. 



HARRISONBUKG. 435 

Heathsville, a neat and thriving village of 
Northumberland county, of which it is the seat 
of justice, beautifully situated in the centre of 
the county, near the head of Coan river. 

It contains a court liouse, jail, a Methodist 
chapel, an academy, a flourishing mill, a tan 
yard, and about sixty dwelling houses. This 
is said to be the most pleasant village in this 
part of the state. 



For route to the north, see " Washington." 
From Richmond to Harrisonburg, 



Louisa C. H. 


51 


Gordonsville, 


. 15 66 


Barbourville, 


6 72 


Stannardsville, 


. 15 87 


Magaughytown, 


. 22 109 


Harrisonburg, 


. 12 121 



Louisa Court House, a clever village, con- 
sisting of the court house, jail, &c. ; a large 
church, several stores, workshops, and about 
forty other buildings. Here are silversmiths, 
blacksmiths, tailors, cabinet makers, saddlers, 
&c. 

Gordonsville, a small village, situated in the 
extreme north-west angle of Louisa county. 

Stannardsville, a village of Orange county. 



436 



ROUTE TO 



finely situated at the eastern base of the Blue 
Ridge. It contains twenty-four dwellings, 
several stores and manufactories, with about 
100 inhabitants. 

Magaughytown, an inconsiderable village of 
Rockingham county. 

Harrisonburg, seat of justice of Rockingham 
county, is a large and handsome town of one 
hundred and fifty buildings, and about 1,100 
inhabitants. Among the buildings are the 
court house, jail, market house, one Methodist 
chapel, and one Presbyterian church. There are 
several ordinary schools, a temperance society, 
a printing office, from which a weekly journal 
is issued, together with tanyards, saddle and 
shoe factories; smiths, hatters, tailors, wheel. 
Wrights, gun-smiths, chair-makers, cabinet- 
makers, copper-smiths, tin-plate workers, and 
many other establishments of the like descrip- 
tion. The entire place presents an appearance 
of great industry and thrift, every way credit- 
able to its inhabitants. There are several neat 
little villages in the neighbourhood, which may 
be regarded as appendages of Harrisonburg. 



From Richmond to Staunton, via Charlottesville. 



Scuffletown, 




3 


Tuckahoe creek. 


. 9 


12 


Goochland C. H. 


. 17 


29 


Columbia, . . 


. 19 


48 


Monticello, 


. 28 


76 


Charlottesville, 


. 3 


79 



STAUNTON. 437 

York, . . . . 19 98 

Eockfish Gap, . . . 3 101 

Waynesboro, . . .3 104 

Staunton, . . . 12 116 



Scuffletown, a village of some ten or fifteen 
houses, in Henrico county, situated a quarter 
of a mile from the main road. 

TvcJcakoe Creeic, a branch of James river, 
which forms a part of the boundary between 
Henrico and Goochland counties. 

Goochland Court House, a handsome little 
town, consisting of several buildings, in addi- 
tion to the court-house, jail, and county offices. 
Among these are a tavern, stores, mechanics' 
shops, and all the other items which constitute 
a busy village. 

Columbia, a town of Fluvanna county, situ- 
ated on the left bank of James river, at the 
mouth of the Rivanna, and in the extreme 
south-east angle of the county. It contains 
about two hundred inhabitants, including one 
hundred coloured persons, chiefly engaged in 
mechanical pursuits. There are several stores, 
taverns, and a church used in common by all 
religious sects. 

Monticetlo, formerly the residence of Mr. Jef- 
ferson. It is beautifully seated on the summit 
of an insulated point of Carter's mountain, in 
.Albemarle county, about half a mile from the 

37* 



438 ROUTE TO 

riglit bank of the Rivanna. From its great 
elevation, about five hundred feet above the 
river, a magnificent view of the surrounding 
country is obtained. 

To the west, stretching away to the north 
and south., it commands a prospect of the Blue 
Ridge for a hundred and fifty miles, and brings 
under the eye one of tlie boldest and most en- 
chanting horizons in the world; while on the east, 
it presents a prospect of surpassing beauty and 
grandeur. The mansion, now divested of all 
its objects of science and taste, and no longer 
tenanted by him whose benignant smile and 
outstretched hand, confirmed the courteous wel- 
come of his lips, presents a sad scene of deso- 
lation, and inspires in the beholder, feelings of 
gloom and despondency, which the enchanting 
scenery 3round, is incapable of dispelling. 

The grounds, as well as the buildings, have 
been greatly injured by neglect. The beauti- 
ful shade and ornamental trees which Mr. Jef- 
ferson valued so highly, have been cut down, 
and the lawn in front is now devoted to agri- 
cultural purposes. 

Descending Monticello, and after crossing 
Moore's creek, the traveller enters the town of 

Charlottesville, the seat of the University of 
Virginia, for the establishment of which, Mr. 
Jefferson devoted much of his time and wealth. 
The university buildings are many, various in 
architecture, and handsomely arranged, on 
three sides of a grassy parallelogram, at the up- 
per end of which stands a large rotunda, con- 
taining lecture rooms, and a large, commodious 
and well filled library. It is also amply pro- 
vided with philosophical and chemical appara- 



STAUKTON. 439 

tus, together with a fine cabinet of minerals 
and fossils, and an anatomical and miscellaneous 
museum. At a short distance from the univer- 
sity, on the apex of a hill, stands the observa- 
tory, constructed and furnished with the requi- 
site apparatus and instruments for astronomi- 
cal investigations. 

This institution is, in every respect, organized 
and justly regarded, as a university of the first 
class. Its professorships are numerous, and 
generally well filled. They comprehend an- 
cient and modern languages, mathematics, 
geography and history, natural philosophy, 
chemistry and materia medica and its kindred 
sciences, moral philosophy, &c. 

Though entitled to great consideration, and 
completely prepared in all its branches, as a 
school of the highest order, the University of 
Virginia has not received from the community 
that countenance and support, to which it is 
justly entitled, and which are indispensable to 
the successful attainment of all its objects and 
purposes. 

Charlottesville is finely situated on the left 
■declivity of Moore's creek about two miles 
from its discharge into the Rivanna. It 
presents rather an irregular plan, but the 
houses being generally of brick, and neatly 
finished, give the town a handsoaie appear- 
ance. 

There are about two hundred and thirty 
buildings of all sorts in the town, including a 
court-house and its adjuncts, four churches, be- 
longing to the Episcopalians, Presbyterians, 
Baptists and Methodists, respectively ; three 
extensive and well kept hotels ; together with 
an academy, several school-houses, &rC. 



440 



ROUTE TO 



Among the other advantages of the place 
may be enumerated, book-stores ; a circulating 
library ; a weekly journal ; an agricultural so- 
ciety ; a fire engine ; mechanics of all descrip- 
tions ; and several flouring and saw mills in the 
vicinity. Population about 1000. 

York, an inconsiderable village, situated at 
the source of Stockton's Fork of the Rivanna, 
near the western confines of Albemarle county. 

Rock-Jish Gap, a depression in the Blue Ridge, 
through which the road to Staunton passes. 

Waynesboro, a fine little village, beautifully 
situated in the midst of a picturesque and fer- 
tile country, consisting of some seventy or 
eighty ilwellings, two churches, an incorporated 
academy, a public library, and several institu- 
tions of a like nature, together with some 
extensive manufacturing establishments, mills, 
&c. 

The ancient town of Waynesboro, which is 
" among the things that were," was situated a 
little to tlie north of the modern town. 

Staunton.* 



From Richmond to Lynchburg. 



Coal Mines, 


13 


Tower Hill, 


. 14 27 


Scottsville, 


. 5 32 


Cartersville, 


. 15 47 


New Canton, 


. 16 63 


Maysville, 


. 24 87 


Lynchburg, 


. 45 132 



LYNCHBURG. 441 

Coal Mines. — These coal mines are on the 
south side of James river, about tliirteen miles 
above the city ol' Richmond. 

Between the city and the mines, the country 
is rolling, and has the aspect of barrenness and 
poverty — yet good husbandry would soon give 
to it freshness and beauty. The ascent is 
gradual to the west, the summit level, at the 
mouth of the principal mine, being about three 
hundred feet above tide-water in James river. 

Within the circumference of about a mile 
square, there have been several mines opened, 
and seven or eight are now wrought. The 
rock is not many feet below the surface, and is 
from two hundred and fifty to four hundred and 
fifty feet thick. The prevailing rock is a light 
grey coarse sand-stone, rather hard, and some 
of it sparkling with chrystalized quartz. This 
rock alternates with a bluish clay in a state of 
considerable compactness, and with shell. — 
Much of these last two are so filled with sul- 
phate of iron, minutely disseminated, that they 
soon decompose in the atmosphere. There is 
no trace of the lime rock, nor as yet of the old 
red sand-stone. It is doubtful, however, wheth- 
er they have reached the bottom of the coal 
formation. At the bottom of one of the shafts, 
the floor upon which the coal rests is called 
granite — but from the description of the rock, 
it must be the hardest of the sienitic rocks. 

The coal here is bituminous. The basins 
appear to be small, and the colliers complain of 
the faults or disruptions that trouble them. The 
coal seams are from a few inches to several feet 
in thicknes — one has been found nearly twen- 
ty feet thick. The dip rarely exceeds forty-five 



442 ROUTE TO 

degrees. Woodbridge's mine is the deepest, 
and the only one which has a steam-engine to 
raise the coal and the water out of the pit. The 
others employ mules. The mines are worked 
day and night, except Sundays — when tiie 
water is drawn as often as necessary to keep 
the works below from being flooded. Drifts 
are cut from the foot of the shafts, and some of 
these have been carried oat several hundred 
yards. They are from ten to twenty feet wide, 
and from five to twenty or thirty feet high. 
Mules are employed in the mines, to draw the 
coal to the foot of the shafts. These are fed 
and stabled in the chambers of the mine, they 
appear, nevertheless, to be in a thriving condi tion. 
And what is certainly not a little remarkable to 
a novice, these mines abound in rats. They go 
down, it seems, on the ropes, attracted into 
these tartarean abodes by the provisions and 
provender, which are sent down for the negroes 
and mules. 

All these mines raise about two hundred 
tons of coal in each twenty-four hours. This 
coal is sent daily, in a team of seventy to a 
hundred cars, over a fine rail-way, thirteen 
miles, to the river. 

There are several valuable coal mines on 
the north side of James river, in the western 
part of Henrico county. Coal has likewise 
been discovered in Goochland and Powhatan 
counties. 

Tower Hill, an insulated natural mound, at 
the source of Jones creek in Powhatan county. 

Scottsville, seat of justice of Powhatan coun- 



LYNCHBURG. 443 

ty, is situated on the high ground, which di- 
vides the waters of Appomattox and James 
rivers. It contains about thirty buildings, in- 
cluding the court-house, &c., several stores, 
shops and taverns. 

Cartersville, a village of Cumberland coun- 
ty, on the south bank of James river, contain- 
ing fifty dwellings, a church, a public school, 
many stores, mechanics' shops, and other me- 
chanical establishments, with about 300 inhabi- 
tants. 

New Canton, a neat little village, of some 
thirty or forty houses, situated on the right 
bank of James river, at the mouth of Bear 
Garden creek, in the north-east corner of 
Buckingham county. Its high position com- 
mands a fine view of the river and adjacent 
country. 

Maysville, seat of justice of Buckingham 
county, on the right bank of Slate river, and 
near the centre of the county. 

In addition to the court-house, jail, &c., 
there are about seventy buildings, including 
two churches, a female academy, two primary 
schools, with the usual complement of stores, 
taverns and work-shops. 

Lynchburg.* 



The distance by the southern route, which 
passes through Cumberland C. H., is a fev/ 



444 WINCHESTER. 

miles less than that by Maysville, &c. It 
leaves the latter near Scottsville, and re-joins 
it at Fish-pond creek, in Buckingham county. 



WINCHESTER. 

This important and thriving town is situated 
in the centre of Frederick county, of which it 
is the seat of justice, on Abraham's Branch of 
Opequan creek, a branch of the Potomac, in 
north latitude 39° U', and west longitude 
1° 10'. 

It is the oldest, and by far the most consider- 
able, town in the great central valley of Virgi- 
nia, the settlement of which forms an important 
and exceedingly interesting item in the primi- 
tive history of the colony. 

During the old French war, Winchester be- 
came the theatre of highly important events, 
if not the immediate seat of war, in this part 
of the country. It was here that Washington 
procured his supplies for his mission to Fort 
Du Quesne, and subsequently fixed his head- 
quarters on the commencement of hostilities in 
1754, between the British and Anglo-Americans 
on the one side, and the combined French and 
Indian forces on tlie other. It was here that he 
retreated with the remnant of the Virginia troops 
after the disastrous defeat of Braddock, on the 
bank of the Monongahela ; and here also, that 
he assembled the troops destined for the descent 
upon Fort Du Quesne, which resulted in the 
capture of that post. 



WINCHESTER. 445 

The war liaving been thus brought to a close, 
the victorious Virginians again repaired to 
Winchester, whence they returned to their 
homes. 

Amid all these exciting events, and constant- 
ly menaced by the French and Indians, the 
people of Winchester could devote but a small 
share of attention to the improvement of their 
town. 

Of the early history of the town itself, a few 
words will suffice. It is now one hundred and 
five years since the first building was erected 
upon the site of Winchester, which was then 
in the possession of a large and powerful tribe 
of the Shawnees. Owing to difficulties inci- 
dent to the settlement of a new country, to 
which the pioneers of the valley were in a pecu- 
liar manner subjected, the town advanced but 
slowly; and it was not until the year 1752 that 
any legal measures were adopted for its estab- 
lishment and regulation. In 1758 it was found 
necessary to extend the town plot, by annexing 
certain lands belonging to Wood, Lord Fairfax, 
and others, and subsequently, by still further 
additions. In consequence of the unsettled 
state of the times, during the war with Eng- 
land, the town began to decline ; but on the 
close of the revolutionary struggle it revived, 
and has since continued to advance with an 
accellerated step, down to the present moment. 

The town plot presents a very regular ap- 
pearance, the streets, which are mostly well 
paved, intersecting each other at right-angles. 
Most of the dwelling-houses are of brick or 
stone, compactly built along the principal 
streets; some with commodious garden spots 
38 



446 WINCHESTER. 

in front, which add greatly to the rural beauty 
of the place. Population about 4000. 

There are, besides the public buildings, about 
600 houses, including factories, work-shops, 
&LC. Among the former are, a court-house, 
council hall, jail, market-house, masonic hall, 
and library and lyceum buildings. Of churches, 
there are, two for Presbyterians, one for Epis- 
copalians, (a beautiful Gothic structure, with a 
fine organ) two for Methodists, one for Roman 
Catholics, one for Lutherans, and one for the 
Friends. The remains of old Fort Loudoun, 
erected during the French war, are still to be 
seen here. The public institutions embrace a 
public library, a lyceum of natural history, two 
printing offices, each of which issues a weekly 
journal, a bible society, Sunday-school union, a 
tract society, female society for the relief of the 
indigent sick, female colonization society aux- 
iliary to the state society, two temperance socie- 
ties, mechanics' institute, established for the dif- 
fusion of mechanical knowledge, an incorporated 
academy, and many common schools, masonic 
society, and some others. Those of a mercan- 
tile or miscellaneous character are, two banks, 
one savings institution, two furnaces, two brew- 
eries, three large carriage manufactories, six 
or eight flouring mills, one carpet and one cot- 
ton manufactory, besides a host of minor estab- 
lishments, employed in every department of the 
mechanic arts, with a full proportion of stores, 
hotels and taverns. 

Winchester is, and has been long, supplied 
with an abundance of pure water, by means of 
iron mains, which conduct it from a copious 
spring about half a mile distant, into the distri- 



ROUTE FROM WINCHESTER. 447 

buting pipes, which are laid in all the principal 
streets. 

In addition to several turnpike and good 
common roads through the town, there is a 
rail-road now in use, extending from Winches- 
ter to Harper's Ferry, on the Potomac, where 
it unites with the rail-road to Frederick, Balti- 
more, &c. A M'Adamized road is now in pro- 
gress, extending through Winchester, along the 
valley. With these commercial facilities, an 
industrious, hardy and enterprising population, 
and a highly salubrious position, which secures 
for it an unusual share of health, Winchester 
cannot but continue to prosper, even amid the 
disasters of these disasterous times. 



ROUTES FROM WINCHESTER. 

From Winchester to Frederick, via Harper^s 
Ferry, by Rail-road. 

Charlestown, ... 24 

Harper's Ferry, . . . 8 32 

Point of Rocks, . . . 4 36 

Frederick, . . . 20 5G 



Charlestown, seat of justice of Jefferson coun- 
ty, is a large and flourishing town, consisting 
of upwards of two hundred and thirty well built 
houses, among which are Episcopal, Presbyto 
rian and Methodist churches; a bank; an aca 
demy ; and the usual proportion of mechanics 



448 ROUTE TO 

shops, manufactories, stores, taverns, &c. The 
Shannoiidale springs, ibrmerly much resorted 
to by invalids and others, are situated about 
seven miles due soutli from Charlestown, on 
the opposite side of the Shenandoah river. 

Harper'' s Ferry, a manufacturing village of 
Jefferson county, situated at the confluence of 
the Shenandoah and Potomac rivers. It derives 
its name from a lerry long since established 
across the Potomac, where the river pierces 
the Blue Ridge, and presents a scene of un- 
common beauty and grandeur. 

The mountain, here upwards of twelve hun- 
dred feet high, has evidently been rent and torn 
asunder by the impetuous streams which unite 
immediately above the breach, and send down 
their accumulated waters. 

The prospect from the adjoining hills is in- 
deed beautiful and romantic to a high degree. 
Jefferson's rock, so called, constitutes the apex 
of a high mount which overhangs the town. 
Its top is flat — almost level, and nearly twelve 
feet square; its base, which does not exceed 
five feet in width, rests upon the top of a larger 
rock ; and its height is about five feet. The 
whole mass is so nicely balanced that the appli- 
cation of a small force will cause it to vibrate 
considerably. From this and another rock, 
called " IMaryland Pinnacle," a splendid view 
of the gap and the romantic country around, 
may be had. 

The lovers of the picturesque, will here 
find abundance to admire, in the beauty, gran- 
deur, and simplicity of the spot. 

The town, which contains about six hundred 
buildings, extends with but little regard to or- 



FREDERICK. 449 

der, along both sides of the point, which is 
formed by the union of the two streams, into 
the gap itself — but principally along the Shen- 
andoah bank. The United Stales armory is 
upon this point, and the various work-shops ex- 
tend up that of the Potomac. These establish- 
ments, as well as the great depository of arms, 
the national arsenal, deserve the attention of 
visiters. In the latter, eighty or ninety thou- 
sand stand of arms are usually kept, which, as 
they are sent away, are replaced by others from 
the factories. 

It is interesting to observe the facility with 
which a weapon, so complicated as the musket 
is produced. A bar of iron is forged into a 
rough tube, the interior of which is formed into 
a smooth surface by drills turned by the power 
of water. At first, the barrel, strongly fasten- 
ed, is moved slowly forward, whilst the drill, a 
cylindrical rod of iron, terminating in a rect- 
angular bar, ten or twelve inches long, revolves 
with rapidity, but without progressive motion ; 
tiic barrel is surrounded by water, which, 
though constantly renewed, becomes warm to 
the touch. The barrel is not made cylindri- 
cal by a single drill; a succession is employ- 
ed, until, in the application of the finer drills, 
the barrel, only fastened in the middle, is left 
free to adapt itself to the motion of the drill. 

The outside of the barrel is polished by enor- 
mous grindstones, turning with great rapidity. 
These stones are guarded by thick cheeks of 
wood, to which is fixed a covering, that lessens 
the danger, should the centrifugal force, arising 
from so rapid a motion, burst the stone asun- 
der, and project the pieces forward. The bar- 
rel passing through these cheeks, bears against 
.38* 



450 ROUTE TO 

the slone, and is drawn across it with a motion 
resembling that of a screw. 

The stocks are shaped by a machine, the 
idea of which seems to have been borrowed 
from an admirable contrivance in the celebrated 
Block Machinery of Brunei. The writer was 
struck immediately with the resemblance, and 
on inquiry, found that the inventor, Blanchard, 
had previously introduced the use of Brunei's 
machinery in this country. 

The reader will readily form a general idea 
of this machine. Let him imagine two wheels, 
eight or ten inches in diameter, placed one be- 
hind the other, and in the same plane; one of 
these has a smooth, round edge , the other is 
furnished with steel cutters, which are parallel 
to the circumference. Further let him suppose 
two turning lathes, placed side by side, in the 
one an iron stock as a guide or pattern, in the 
other the wooden stock to be turned. Now let 
him suppose, that, whilst these two stocks are in 
a rapid rotary motion, the plane wheel of which 
we have spoken, is made to traverse the whole 
length of the iron, and is pressed against it by 
a strong spring ; this wheel, it will be remem. 
bered, is connected invariably with that which 
is furnished with cutters; if, then, the latter be 
brought into contact with the wooden stock at 
the moment when the first wheel commences 
its motion along the pattern, it will perform a 
similar journej' along the wooden stock and 
only requires, that it should be kept in a rapid 
rotary motion, in order that it may shape, by 
its cutters, this stock to the form of the iron 
pattern, against which the guiding wheel is 
pressed. Some contrivance is requisite to pro- 
vide the rotary motion, spoken of, in the second 



FREDERICK. 451 

wheel; as this wlicel moves longitudinally the 
strap by which it turns, must have a like mo- 
tion ; to effect this, it is passed below, round a 
large cylinder, in lieu of an ordinary drum- 
wheel, and, being confined above by the sides 
of the drum over which it passes, shifts itself 
without difficulty along the cylender, and re- 
mains always vertical. This machine will shapa 
a musket stock in about eight seconds. 

There are several dwellings, and a beautiful 
Catholic chapel, perched upon sites cut from 
the sohd rock, at elevations from fifty to one 
hundred feet, wliich are approached by steps 
also cut from the rock. They present a very 
attractive appearance, and afford a fine view of 
the scene below. In addition to this chapel, 
there are several other places of worship, two 
academies, many schools, two masonic lodges, 
a printing office, wliich issues a weekly jour- 
nal ; with every other accompaniment to a 
large, busy, and thriving town. 

The Chesapeake and Ohio canal passes along 
the lelt bank of the Potomac; and the Balti- 
more and Ohio Rail-road has its western termi- 
nus opposite the town. The Potomac is cross- 
ed here by a fine bridge, 750 feet from one abut- 
ment to the other, which connects the town 
with the Maryland side. 

Point of Rocks, a narrow pass, at the Short 
Hills, on the Maryland side, through which the 
Potomac makes its exit from the mountain re- 
gion, and enters the plains below. The moun- 
tain here rises abruptly from the river bank, 
leaving scarcely space enough for a common 
road. It was for the possession of this modern 
Thermopylaj that two rival companies contend- 



452 ROUTE TO 

ed — not like the Spartans of old, by force of 
arms, but by the less "glorious uncertainty of 
the law." This gorge now gives passage to the 
works of both — a canal and a rail-road. 

Frederick.* 



From Winchester to Hagerstown, Maryland, 
via Martinsburg. 

Buckletown, . - . 16 

Martinsburg, . . . 7 23 

Williamsport, . . . 14 37 

Hagerstown, . . . 6 43 



Buckletown, a small village of Berkeley coun- 
ty, consisting principally of houses occupied 
by persons engaged in the numerous mills on 
Middle creek. 

Martinsburg, seat of justice of Berkeley 
county, and one of the most considerable towns 
of this part of the state. There are not less 
than 1,700 inhabitants, and about three hun- 
dred and fifty buildings in the town ; among 
the latter, are several handsome brick dwellings, 
neatly and tastefully finished. 

The court-house is a substantial and appro- 
priate structure, as are the various county of- 
fices, markets, &c. The Episcopalians, Pres- 
byterians, Lutherans and Roman Catholics, 
have each a churcli here. There are also, two 



LEESBaRG. 453 

academics; several common schools; four Sun- 
day-schools; bible, temperance, missionary and 
colonization societies ; an extensive alms-house; 
a woollen manufactory ; an iron and brass 
foundry; together with an abundant supply of 
work-shops, stores, &c., from which the inhab- 
itants are supplied with almost every requisite 
article. 



From Warrenton to Leeshurg. 

Berry ville, . . . . 11 

Snickersville, . . . 10 21 

Leesburg-, . . . J7 38 



Berryville, a neat and flourishing- village of 
Clarke county, containing about thirty-five 
dwellings, an Episcopal church, an academy, 
three or four well conducted schools. Popula- 
tion about 350. 

Snickersville, a thriving village of Loudoun 
county, situated at the intersection of the Alex- 
andria and Leesburg roads, about one mile 
from Snicker's Gap of the Blue ridge, in the 
centre of a well settled and fertile country. The 
village enjoys considerable trade, which tends 
to its rapid increase. 

There are at present some twenty or twenty- 
five dwellings, besides stores, work-shops and 
taverns, a fine church, a masonic hall, &c. 

Leesburg, an incorporated town, and seat of 



454 



ROUTE TO 



justice of Loudoun county. It is a handsome 
and well built town, beautifully situated at tlie 
eastern base of Kitoctin mountain. The streets 
are generally paved, and the town is supplied 
with water, by means of wooden pipes, which 
extend to the adjoining mountains. Its popu- 
lation is about 1,800, and rapidly increasing. 
There are in the town, besides a handsome and 
commodious court-house, situated in the public 
square, and other county buildings, about five 
hundred and fifty dwelling-houses, stores, &c. 
three churches, belonging to the Episcopalians, 
Presbyterians and Methodists ; a bank ; one 
classical, and several common schools; two 
weekly newspapers; stores; taverns, &c. ; to- 
gether with the usual complement of mechanical 
establishments ; forming altogether one of the 
most active and busy places in the state. There 
is a good turnpike road from the town to 
Washington ; distant 34 miles. 



From Winchester to Washington, via Alexan- 
dria. 



Milwood,* • 


, , 


11 


Shenandoah river,* . 


. 2 


13 


Paris,* 


. 4 


17 


Upperville,* 


. 4 


21 


Middleburg,* 


8 


29 


Aldie,* 


. 5 


34 


Fairfax Court House,* 


. 24 


58 


Alexandria,* 


. 14 


72 


Washington,* 


. 9 


81 



WARRENTON. 



455 



From Winchester to Warrenton. 



Millwood, 
Paris, 

Goose creek, 
Salem, 
Warrenton, 



11 
17 
24 
29 



14 43 



Millwood.* 

Paris* 

Goose creek, a valuable mill stream, which 
rises at the eastern base of the Blue Ridge, 
and flowing through the northern part of Fau- 
quier, and the centre of Loudoun counties, en- 
ters the Potomac, about five miles south-east of 
Leesburg. 

Salem, a pretty little town of Fauquier coun- 
ty, consisting almost entirely of a single street, 
running along a ridge at the head of Goose 
creek. It contains some thirty-five or forty 
dwellings, an academy, two churches, three 
stores, several Sunday-schools, and mechanics 
of every kind. 



Warrenton.* 





14 


8 


22 


4 


26 


11 


37 


22 


59 



456 ROUTE TO 

Fr07n Winchester to Fairfax. 

Ninneveh, 
Front Royal, 
Chester Gap, 
Flint Hill, 
Fairfax, 



Ninneveh, a mere hamlet, situated in the 
southern part of Frederick county, consisting 
of ten or twelve buildings. 

Front Royal, a village delighlfnlly situated 
on Happy creek, about a mile from the Shen- 
andoah, in the extreme southern angle of War- 
ren county, containing forty dwellings, with 
about 300 inhabitants, two churches, two 
academies, several stores, taverns, mechanics' 
shops, saw and grist mills. 

About three miles south-west from the vil- 
lage, is Attends Cave, an extensive and highly 
curious limestone cavern, the entrance to which 
is on the east bank of the Siienandoah. In 
point of beauty and magnificence of scenery, 
it is in no respect inferior to Weyer's cave, 
though not so extensive as that celebrated 
cavern. The sparry incrustations and concre- 
tions of " Sarah's Saloon," one of its principal 
apartments, present some of the most gorgeous 
and splendid scenes that can be imagined. Its 
innumerable cells and grottoes form a perfect 
labyrinth, from which an uninitiated explorer 
finds it difficult to extricate himself 

The distance from its entrance to the ultirna 



BATH. 457 

thule of explorers, is about twelve hundred 
feet. 

Chester Gap, a depression in the Blue Ridge, 
in which one of the Iiead brandies of Hedge- 
man's river rises. 

Flint Hill, a small village of Culpeper coun- 
ty, in Jordan's valley, near the north angle of 
the county. 

Fairfax, seat of justice of Culpeper county, 
situated on the south bank of Mountain creek, 
in the southern part of the county. With the 
exception of the court-house and its appendages, 
there are but few buildings here of any conse- 
quence. 



From l^'inchester to 

Bath, . . . .40 miles 

Romney, . . . . 39 " 

Moorfields, . . . . 50 " 



Balh, seat of justice of Morgan county. Berke- 
ley Springs, which are situated near this vil- 
lage, are much frequented by invalids and oth- 
ers, in search of health or pleasure. Though 
the waters are but slightly impregnated by the 
mineral ingredients, their eifects are said to be 
highly beneficial in many diseases. To the 
exhilerating effects of pure air, and a sojourn in 
a beautiful and romantic country, may be fairly 
39 



458 



ROUTE TO 



ascribed a large portion of the benefit de- 
rived by invalids, from a visit to Bath. 

Romney, seat of justice of Hampshire county, 
is situated on the south branch of the Potomac, 
and contains a population of about 400. 

Moorjields, is a large and pretty village of 
Hardy county, of which it is the seat of justice. 
It ia situated on the south branch of Potomac 
river, and consists of a court-house, jail, church, 
and about sixty other buildings, with a popula- 
tion of nearly 400. It has a bible society, a 
tract and a temperance society, a public library, 
several stores, and the usual proportion of work- 
shops. 



From Winchester to Staunton. 



Kerrtown, 






4 


Newtown, 






4 8 


Middletown, 






5 13 


Strasburg, 
Woodstock, . 






6 19 
11 30 


Hawkinsburg, 
Mount Pleasant, 






. n 41 
3 44 


New Market, 






. 7 51 


Harrisonburg, 
Mount Crawford, 






18 69 
. 7 76 


Mount Sidney, 
Staunton, 






. 9 85 
9 94 



Kerrtown, a hamlet of Frederick county> 



STAUNTON. 459 

consisting of six or eight dwellings, a tavern, 
and some work-shops. 

Newtown, a thriving and very neat little 
town, situated at the source of Crooked creek, 
a branch of the Shenandoah, in Frederick 
county. There are about one hundred build- 
ings, including two churches, a market-house, 
four or five schools, ten or twelve extensive 
shops for the manufacture of wagons, for which 
the place is celebrated ; together with many 
other mechanical and mercantile establish- 
ments, which give it quite a business-like ap- 
pearance. Population about 800. 

J\liddletown, another busy little village of the 
same county, occupies a gentle declivity in the 
ravine of Meadow run, upon which there are 
several mills. The village contains about 400 
inhabitants, who are, like those of Newtown, 
chiefly engaged in mechanical pursuits — 
wagons being the " staple commodity" of the 
place. 

It contains two churches; four or five 
stores ; two hotels, and a due proportion of 
taverns; and an extensive and well conducted 
academy in the vicinity. 

Strasburg, a pleasant and thriving village 
situated on tlie left bank of the north fork of 
Shenandoah, two miles above its confluence with 
Cedar creek, in the northern part of Shenandoah 
county. It contains about 100 buildings, among 
which are three churches, a handsome acade- 
my, an extensive pottery, a large number of 
stores and shops, with about 500 inhabitants. 



460 ROUTE TO 

Woodstock, a large and beautiful town and 
seat of justice of Shenandoah county. It is 
finely seated on the western declivity of the 
north fork of Shenandoah river, about a mile 
from its banks. 

In addition to the court-house and its ad- 
juncts, there are in the town, three cliurches, 
occupied respectively by Lutherans, Methodists, 
and Reformed Germans ; a masonic hall ; a 
fine academy, and several minor schools; a 
printing-office, which issues a weekly jour- 
nal ; together with stores, taverns, &c., and 
about one hundred and twenty-five dwelling- 
houses. Population 1,000. 

Hawkinshurg, and 

Mount Pleasant, two inconsiderable villages, 
situated on the left bank of North Fork ofShen- 
andoah river, in the southern part of Shenan- 
doah county. 

New Market, a manufacturing town of Shen- 
andoah county, beautifully situated on the high 
ground between the North Fork and Smith's 
creek, and within a mile of the south-west 
boundary of the county. 

It contains about 800 inhabitants, and nearly 
one hundred and twenty-five buildings, includ- 
ing three churches ; one fine academy ; and 
several other edifices devoted to public use. 
Among the articles manufactured, are thresh- 
ing machines; wagons, carts, &c. ; leather; 
harness; boots and shoes in great quantities; 
hats; tin-ware; guns; pottery; iron-ware, 
&c. There are two forges and several mills 
on the neighbouring streams. 



STAUNTON. 461 

MassanuUen Fall. — This is a beautiful sheet 
of water, which presents an unbroken fall of 
nearly fifty feet. It is situated about three 
miles to the east of New Market, on the Mas- 
sanutten mountain. The rocks in the vicinity 
of the fall, are mill-stone grit, freestone and 
slaty limestone ; the latter predominates, and 
constitutes the nearly vertical banks of the 
chasm, lliroueh which the water from the fall 
now flows. It is obviously retreating, as the 
abraidcd banks below testify. No spectacle can 
be more beautiful than is presented by this fall- 
ing water, as it glides gently and almost imper- 
ceptibly over tlie smooth table above. 

Harrisonburg.* 

Mount Crawford, a village of about thirty 
buildings, and 1200 inhabitants, situated in the 
southern part of Rockingham county, on the 
left bank of North river. There are in the vil- 
lage, one free church, several school-houses, 
stores and taverns. 

Mount Sidney, a village of Augusta county, 
containing some thirty-five or forty buildings, 
including a free church, an academy, and seve- 
ral mechanics' shops, stores, &c. 



STAUNTON. 

An incorporated town, and seat of justice of 

Augusta county, situated among the head waters 

of Shenandoah valley, near the centre of the 

county. Next to Winchester, Staunton is the 

39* 



462 STAUNTON. 

oldest town in middle Virginia, having been 
founded nearly one hundred years ago. It was 
originally built upon the immediate banks of 
Lewis creek ; but most of the recent improve- 
ments extend up the sides of the adjoining hills. 
The streets, though narrow, are regularly laid 
off, and well and compactly built, with neat 
and commodious dwellings. There are about 
two hundred and fifty buildings, including an 
elegant court-house and other public buildings ; 
three churches ; mechanics' shops, &c., with a 
population of nearly 2,500, 

The place is admirably provided witli 
schools, some of which are of a high order, to 
which c])ildren from all parts of the adjacent 
country are sent. 

The Western Lunatic Asylum is located 
here, in a beautiful and appropriate building, 
prepared with every accommodation for its 
unfortunate inmates. 

About twenty miles north-east of Staunton, 
on the left bank of North river, are the en- 
trances to Wever's and Madison's Caves ; two 
of those caverns so common in limestone re- 
gions. 

Those just mentioned however, deserve es- 
pecial notice. Tlieir entrances are both situ- 
ated in the north-eastern part of Augusta coun- 
ty, in tlie same ridge, and about two hundred 
yards from each other. 

VVeyer's Cave, with its innumerable and 
splendid apartments, is by far the most curious, 
as it is the largest of the two. Its length, so 
far as it has been explored in a right-line, is 
nearly one thousand seven hundred feet; but 
the distance by its tortuous course is quite 
double that length. No spectacle can be more 



EOUTES FROM STAUNTON. 



463 



magnificent than that presented by the beauti- 
ful stalactytes and stalegmytes which assume 
every hue and form, in the torch-light with 
which each visiter is provided. Some of the 
most extensive apartments are designated as, 
" Deacon's Room," "Solomon's Temple," "Con- 
gress Hall," " Washington Hall," and many oth- 
ers. Those who have a taste for such things, will 
be amply recompensed for their labour in de- 
scending these extraordinary caverns, and 
none such should quit the neighbourhood with- 
out visiting them. • 



Routes from Staunton to the Virginia Springs. 



Jenning's Gap, 




17 


Pocahontas, 


. 12 


29 


Warm Springs, 


. 23 


52 


Hot Springs, 


. 5 


57 


Shumate's, 


. 9 


66 


Callaghan's, 


. 13 


79 


White Sulphur Springs, 


. 16 


95 



Jenning^s Gap, a depression in the crest of 
North mountain, where the mountain is crossed 
by the state road from Staunton to Guyandot. 
There are several houses here which have as- 
sumed tiie name of the Gap. 

About six miles north-east from Jenning's 
Gap are the celebrated Augusta Springs, which 
are greatly esteemed for their medicinal quali- 
ties. 



464 ROTJTE TO 

Pocahontas, a noted and well kept tavern in 
the western part of Augusta county, the propri- 
etor of which is a remarkably civil and obliging 
Frenchman, named Lange. 

Warm Springs. — These springs, which are 
situated in Bath county, are approached by a 
road over the Warm Springs mountain, which 
is very skilfully graded, and leads by a very 
easy ascent, through a gap in the mountain, 
from which the view towards the east is exten- 
s^t'e and grand ; and towards the west, far be- 
low, are seen the hotel and cabins of the Warm 
Springs. They repose in an elevated valley, 
at the western foot of the mountain, and arc 
about three quarters of a mile from the pass. 
The descent is not steep, but has, in its course, 
several very acute angles, which the coach de- 
scribes with fearful rapidity; but, fortunately, 
the traveller's sense of danger has worn away 
before he has reached the descent. 

The Warm Springs' Hotel, is a two-storied 
brick building, about one hundred feet in front, 
immediately on the road, and having a spacious 
piazza extending along its wliole front. There 
is a large and airy eating-room, in wliich, thrice 
a day, is spread a table amply supplied with a 
variety of good things. Each plate has a card 
near it, bearing the name of the person who 
has the right to use it; a custom which pre- 
vails at all llie Virginia springs, and wliich can- 
not be too much commended. After the meal 
is over, the cards are taken up in their order, 
and replaced in the same way at the next meal; 
the cards of the departed being withdrawn, 
and their place being filled by promoting the 
next in order ; the last comers always begin- 



VIRGINIA SPKINGSo 465 

ning' at the foot of the table. It is easy to see 
that tliis system must effectually prevent con- 
fusion, and disputation about seats. 

Besides the large house, there are five or six 
rows of huts, some built of logs and mud, and 
some of brick and mortar. Mott of them con- 
tain two small rooms, in one of which is gener- 
ally a fire-place. 

Tiie place derives its name from an abun- 
dant spring of limpid water, containing a small 
quantity of sulphuretted hydrogen, and emit- 
ting bubbles of nitrogen, which flows through 
an octagonal bath, thirty-eight feet in diame- 
ter, having the sides of stone masonry, and the 
bottom of large loose rounded pebbles. 

It is covered with a wooden building, having 
a large opening in the middle of the roof to 
admit air and light. The water in the bath 
always exhibits a temperature of ninety-six 
degrees of Fahrenheit, and is so pellucid, that 
you scarcely see it upon first entering the bath- 
house. There is a small room at each side of 
the bath with a little fire, to undress and redress 
by. There are stone steps leading from these 
rooms to the bottom of the bath. 

The water is five feet deep for the gentlemen, 
and four for the ladies. The two sexes bathe 
alternately ; spaces of two hours each being 
allotted, from 6 a. m. to 10 p. m. 

Every visiter should ascend to the top of the 
mountain, which can be reached in half an 
hour on horseback ; and whence may be seen 
a sublime mountain view, consisting of parallel 
mountain ridges, one beyond the other as far as 
tlie eye can reach, like a dark green sea of gi- 
ant billows, instantly stricken solid by nature's 
magic wand. 



466 VIRGINIA SPRINGS. 

Hot Springs. — The Hot Springs are seated 
in a valley, deeply embosomed among moun- 
tain peaks, and at first sight as you descend the 
hill coming from the Warm springs, appear- 
ances do not invite a long sojourn. 

The scenery, however, is interesting, and 
grows into your afiection the deeper, the long- 
er you remain. 

The old frame hotel stands on the southern 
side of the road, and presents its narrow piazza 
to the north, in which direction the land de- 
scends by a gentle slope to the valley of ther- 
mal springs, in which stand the bathing houses 
and several rows of cabins, and which is bound- 
ed by an abrupt, forest-clad mountain top. 

Towards the left, the valley spreads out into 
a beautiful verdant meadow of many acres, 
bounded on all sides by forests, rising on the 
steep mountain side, embellished by many bril- 
liant tints. 

There are two famous baths here, the Spout 
and the Boiler. The temperature of both is 
about 106° Fahrenheit, a degree of heat which 
is reduced to about 103° when in the basin. 
The water is a little scalding at first, but be- 
comes pleasant as soon as the bather is immers- 
ed. 

The Gentleman's Hot Spout Bath is about 
eighteen feet square and five feet deep, and is 
supplied by a spout which constantly pours into 
the bath a stream of water from a height of 
four or five feet above the surface of the 
pool. 

The Gentleman's Boiler or Sweat Bath al- 
ways exhibits a temperature of 106 degrees, 



VIRGINIA SPRINGS. 467 

and is large enough to allow four persons to 
bathe together. 

The Ladies' Baths are contained in a new 
and convenient building, with dressing-rooms, 
and are two in number, viz ; 

The Lady's Boiler, having a temperature 

of 103° 

" Hot Spout, 106° 

In addition to the four baths above-mention- 
ed, there is another of great size, supplied by 
very copious hot springs lately discovered ; 
this is called the Pleasure Bath, and is contain- 
ed in an octagonal pool, whose circumference is 
ninety feet, depth five feet, and diameter thirty 
feet; there are two spouts of two inches diame- 
ter constantly pouring streams of hot water 
into the pool. The temperature of the water 
in the pool is between 98° and 99°, and the 
whole is covered by an octagonal building, fur- 
nished with a dressing-room. This bath is 
used alternately by the ladies and gentlemen, 
for periods of two hours. 

The beneficial efi^ects of hot spouts topical- 
ly applied, are so miraculous, in many painful 
and obstinate complaints, that words cannot 
adequately describe them; therefore the pris- 
oners of pain are strongly recommended to 
expose their rheumatic joints, gouty toes, and 
enlarged livers, to the comfortable outpour- 
ings of these healing streams. 

The water of the hot springs contains nitro- 
gen and carbonic acid, carbonate of lime, sul- 
phate of lime, sulphate of soda, sulphate of 
magnesia, muriate of soda, silicia, and a trace 



468 VIRGINIA SPRINGS. 

of oxide of iron. It may be taken internally 
with much advantage, particularly as a sure 
and gentle diuretic. 

The effect of this bath on rheumatic and 
gouty affections, and on old deep-seated and 
chronic complaints, that medicine does not 
seem to reach, is very beneficial. It restores 
the surface to a good condition, and promotes 
the healthy action of the skin ; and every 
person who drinks the water of the various 
Sulphur springs, should afterwards stop here 
two or three weeks, and try the virtue of the 
boiler. 

There are near the hotel, a hot and cold 
spring issuing so near each other, that you 
can dip the tliumb and fore-finger of the same 
hand into liot and cold water at the same time. 
These two springs run in the same water- 
course, wliich is inhabited by a beautiful spe- 
cies of Physa, multitudes of which seem to 
linger about the line of junction of the hot and 
cold water ; so that they can change tiieir cli- 
mate, to suit the fancy of the moment. 

A great source of amusement to the young 
and adventurous lias lately been discovered 
in a magnificent cave, the entrance to which 
is above the cold spring; and as it has not 
yet been fully explored, there is yet room 
for daring adventure to make new and bril- 
liant discoveries. In entering the cave you 
first descend vertically twenty-four feet to 
the bottom of the first chamber ; then you 
proceed horizontally twenty-nine feet along a 
gallery, ten feet wide and six feet high ; then 
through the second, to the bottom of the 
third chamber, descending thirty feet at an 
angle of about 45° ; you then descend twenty 



VIRGINIA SPEI]N'GS. 469 

feet nearly vertically into a perfect laby. 
rinth, having five different openings, one of 
which leads by a gentle rise twenty-five feet 
in length, to a large chamber one hun- 
dred feet long, sixty feet high and thirty-five 
feet wide. From the labyrinth to this cham- 
ber there is another communicalion by a cir- 
cuitous route. In the floor of the large cham- 
ber are numerous openings, leading to other 
cavities below ; one of which is nearly circu- 
lar, is five feet in diameter, and vertical for 
thirty feet, and then gradually slopes off to an 
unknown distance; but a stone thrown in, 
shows that the bottom of tlie chamber below 
cannot be at a less distance than one hundred 
feet. The further exploration of this wonder- 
ful cavern will be a source of much amusement 
to those who possess curiosity and nerve enough 
to undertake the adventure. 

Shumate^s, a tavern in the northern part of 
Allegany county. 

Callaghan's, an excellent public house, near 
Ogley's creek, in Allegany county. 



WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS. 

These celebrated springs are situated in the 
valley of Howard's creek, a branch of Green- 
brier river, in Greenbrier county. 

The principal spring is covered with a hand- 
some dome, surmountedby a figure of Hygeia, 
supported on columns, and is contained in an 
octagonal marble case, about seven feet long, 
40 



470 VIRGINIA SPRINGS. 

five feet wide, and four and a half feet deep, 
the bottom being formed of the rock from which 
the water gushes. 

The White Sulphur water is an excellent al- 
terative, and combined with the exercise neces- 
sary to reach it, the pure mountain air and 
agreeable society found in these elevated re- 
gions, performs wonderful cures in many chro- 
nic complaints not removable by medicine swal- 
lowed at liome. 

It contains sulphuretted hydrogen, nitrogen, 
and oxygen ; sulphate, carbonate and mui'iate 
of lime, and sulphate of magnesia. 

The buildings consist of a frame dining- 
room, about one hundred and twenty feet long, 
with which is connected a large kitchen and 
bakery ; a frame ball-room, with lodging-rooms 
over it and at each end ; tvvo very large frame 
stables, with eighty stalls in each, of which the 
exterior rows are open to the air ; and many 
rows of cabins tastefully arranged around the 
larger edifices, and standing on rising ground. 
The cabins are composed of various materials, 
brick, frame or logs, and the view of the tout- 
ensemble, is very pleasing. Most of the mo- 
dern cabins are furnished with little piazzas, 
and shaded by forest trees, purposely rescued 
from the ruthless axe. There are several straight 
and dusty walks laid out with rectangular art; 
and many artless paths, more agreeable to the 
foot and eye. 

This elysium of summer, is the property of 
one individual, whose venerable silver locks, 
placid and care-free countenance, frank and 
agreeable manners, win the favourable regard 
of all who have the pleasure of making his 
acquaintance ; and it is under the management 



WHITE SULPHUR SPKINGS. 471 

of a gentleman who spares no pains to accom- 
modate his guests, and succeeds beyond hope, 
in making four hundred people comfortable in 
quarters calculated for half the number. 

Those who have carriages, can make plea- 
sant excursions to Lewisburg and the Sweet 
Springs. The former is distant from the White 
Sulphur ten and the latter sixteen miles. 
The road to Lewisburg crosses the Greenbrier 
river and one of its tributaries ; and passes over 
several hills, affords some beautiful and roman- 
tic views, is turnpiked all the way, and is in 
very good order. 

The road to the Sweet Springs is also very 
good and the ride there and back feasible in 
one day. The turnpike crosses the main Al- 
legany ridge, which divides the waters flowing 
into the Atlantic from the tributaries of the 
Ohio. The direct distance is not supposed to 
exceed ten miles, but the windings of the 
road necessary to overcome the interposed ele- 
vation, make it extend to sixteen. The road is 
so judiciously laid out, that you go up and down 
the mountain without being aware of the great 
height you have passed. The scenery on the 
eastern is more beautiful, but less wild, than 
that on the western side of the ridge, and the 
geological phenomena are very interesting. 

The fascinations of the White Sulphur are 
so many, that you do not soon wish to leave 
them ; and when you have made up your mind 
that you are ready to go, it is no easy matter 
to gel away, unless you have your own convey- 
ance. The supply of travelling conveniences is 
by no means commensurate with the demand, 
at certain seasons, and therefore, a week before 



472 EXCURSIONS FROM 

you go, you must engage your seat in some 
coach going wliitlier you wish. 



EXCURSIONS FROM WHITE SULPHUR 

SPRINGS. 

From White Sulphur to Grey Sulphur. 



Organ Cave, 




15 


Union, 


.' 8 


23 


Sweet Sulphur Springs, > 
Salt Sulphur Springs, ^ 
Red Sulphur, 
Peterstovvn, 


. 3 

. 14 
. 9 


26 

40 
49 


Grey Sulphur Springs, 


. 3 


52 



Organ Cave. — This curious cavern is situ- 
ated in the valley of Second creek, in Monroe 
county, fifteen miles south-west from White 
Sulphur. 

The route follows the course of a mountain 
rivulet, which it crosses more than a dozen 
times, and in some places, passes for many 
yards along its stony bed. The scene for miles 
is wild and romantic, being laid in the heart 
of an ancient forest, flanked at intervals by 
mountain spurs, terminating in lofty promon> 
tories of rock. 

Its mouth is situated nearly under the road, 
at the bottom of a deep ravine, which seems as 
if it had formerly discharged a large stream of 
water into the cave. The superincumbent 



WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS. 473 

earth over which the road passes, is supported 
by an almost horizontal and very thick stra- 
tum of secondary limestone. The approach is 
very romantic, descending the steep and wood- 
ed side of the ravine, by a zigzag path, which 
leads by an easy slope, to the black and yawn- 
ing chasm. 

It opens into a spacious apartment, about 
thirty feet high, fifty broad, and three hundred 
long, arched with rock, of which fallen frag- 
ments strew the floor. 

The floor dips about ten degrees from the 
entrance ; and near the lower end of this apart- 
ment, on the right hand, is a small aperture, 
just large enough to suffer a man to creep 
through, which leads into a passage about ten 
feet wide, four feet high, and two hundred and 
fifty feet long. The floor of this passage is 
almost smooth and nearly level, and the sides 
and roof formed of compact rock. No frag- 
ments seem to have fallen here from the roof; 
but it lias very much the air of shutting down 
upon you bodily, and you suffer much incon- 
venience from the necessity of stooping, and 
now and then rubbing your back against the 
impending rock. 

This passage leads to another apartment, 
rough and rocky, and full of yawning gulphs 
and dangerous passes. A stone thrown into 
one of these awful pits, is heard for a time to 
bound from side to side, and then sullenly to 
plunge into the water far below. 

After some distance, this great apartment 
branches to the left and right. 

This room is not very large, but is extreme- 
ly interesting from the numerous stalactites of 
various forms which it contains. Near the 
40* 



474 SALT SULPHUR SPRINGS. 

entrance is a perfect column, extending from 
the floor to the roof, which it seems to sup- 
port. 

In another part of the room depend from 
the roof, a great number of distinct but paral- 
lel stalactites, which do not reach the floor, are 
arranged after the manner of organ pipes, and 
upon being gently stricken with a stick or 
stone, emit harmonious sounds. The organ 
room is distant from the cave's mouth about 
three quarters of a mile. 

Union. — This beautiful little village contains 
the court-house and other county buildings of 
Monroe county. It is situated on the head 
waters of Indian creek, a branch of New river, 
about five miles from Peter's mountain, and 
twenty-three S. W. from White Sulphur. The 
village consists of about fifty dwellings, two 
churches, two hotels, two or three good schools, 
together with the customary supply of mechan- 
ics, and a population of about 500. 

Sweet Sulphur Springs, a watering-place situ- 
ated on tlie left bank of Indian creek, twenty, 
six miles south-west from White Sulphur, in 
the midst of a beautiful and romantic country. 

The accommodations are sufficient for 250 
persons, and from July until the middle of 
September, there is a large and agreeable 
society to be found here, consisting chiefly of 
families from the more southern states. About 
five hundred yards from this spring, in a south- 
west direction, is another called the 

Salt Sulphur Springs, which contain nearly 
the same ingredients as the White Sulphur, 



RED SULPHUR SPRING. 475 

with the addition of a little sulphate of soda. 
The temperature of both, which is uniform at 
all seasons, is 50° of Fahrenheit. 

The improvements consist of a large and 
handsome building', decorated with pillars; and 
the accommodations here are in no respect 
inferior to those of the other watering-places 
of this region. 

Red Sulphur Springs, are also situated in 
Monroe county, on Indian creek, about forty 
miles south-west from White Sulphur. 

It is one of the most beautiful and interest- 
ing objects in the Virginia mountains. It flows 
from the rock into a quadrangular reservoir, 
composed of four slabs of white marble, the 
lower edges of which rest on the rock from 
which the water gushes. The reservoir is 
about six feet long, five wide, and four and a 
half deep; and a beautiful red and mysterious 
substance covers the bottom, which, extending 
some distance up the sides, sheds through the 
transparency of the water, its own lovely hue. 

The water is clear and cool, (its temperature 
being fifty-four of Fahrenheit,) is very strong- 
ly charged with sulphuretted hydrogen gas, and 
contains portions of several neutral salts. It 
possesses in a high degree, the valuable property 
of retarding a quick pulse, and is gently diu- 
retic and aperient. 

The spring is situated near one side of a 
little triangular plain, almost buried in moun- 
tains, and therefore cut short of its fair pro- 
portion of sunshine. It is covered by an octa- 
gon building, the second story of which is 
used as a chapel. The buildings, consisting of 
two large and commodious hotels and three 



476 GREY SULPHUR SPRINGS. 

rows of cabins, are convenientlyfarranged upon 
the plain. The best row of cabins is called 
Philadelphia row, and each cabin contains two 
good rooms, in one of which is a fire-place. 

The table and other accommodations are 
very good, and Mr. Burke, the proprietor, is 
making every effort, by new and expensive 
improvements, to increase the comforts of his 
future guests. 

Peterstown, a village of twenty-five houses, 
situated in the extreme southern angle of Mon- 
roe county, on Rich creek, about two miles 
above its discharge into New river. The creek 
here affords a valuable water-power, which is 
partly employed by several mills, and in other 
mechanical operations. 

Grey Sulphur Spring, — This is a new estab- 
lishment, grown up as if by magic. It be- 
longs to a gentleman of South Carolina, who, 
by his great enterprise and good taste, has 
made this lovely wilderness blossom like the 
rose, and bring forth the fruits of civilization 
and comfort. There is a comfortable new 
brick house standing near the middle of a 
gently sloping plain of about twenty acres, 
nearly cleared of trees, and entirely surrounded 
by forest- covered mountains, between whose 
base and the house are several beautiful coni- 
cal hills, rendering the view from the portico 
exceedingly pleasing. 

There are two springs under the same cover, 
within ten feet of each other ; one containing 
bicarbonate of soda, which is an excellent anti- 
dyspeptic ; the other contains some sulphuret- 



SWEET SPKINGS. 477 

ted hydrogen and several neutral sails, render- 
ing it aperient and diuretic. 

TJie little plain is skirted on one side by a 
rivulet, which flows close at the base of Chim- 
ney Ridge, a spur of Peter's mountain, and 
washes a very thick stratum of limestone, con- 
sisting almost entirely of casts of several gene- 
ra of marine shells. 

Sweet Springs, eighteen miles south-east 
from White Sulphur, in Giles county. The 
establishment here is one of the most ancient 
and celebrated watering places in the United 
States. 

The aspect of the place is lovely, the harsh 
and rough features which belong to more re- 
cent clearings, having been mellowed and 
moulded into symmetry by the gentle touch of 
time, that great innovator ; and in this part of 
the Virginia mountains, almost the sole im- 
prover. 

You drive into a spacious green undulating 
area, shaded here and there with trees, and 
surrounded by motley groups of frame build- 
ings of all shapes and ages, and you see in 
front of you, rising behind a row of modern 
cabins, a remarkably beautiful rounded hill, 
whose tree-clad top seems to lead by a gentle 
acclivity to a mountain range which bounds the 
view. 

In a little valley on your left, is a frame 
building, containing two large and separate 
baths for the two sexes, and under its piazza 
is a famous spring, sweet in name, but slightly 
acidulous in taste, sparkling and spirit-stirring 
like champaigne, and ever copiously flowing. 

This spring, sends forth a large stream, and 



478 BLUE SULPHUR SPRINGS. 

it fills two plunging^-baths, which is very agree- 
able, from the sparkling transparency and high 
temperature of the element. Its temperature 
is about 70° of Fahrenheit. 

Blue Sulphur Spring, is situated on Kitch- 
en's branch of Muddy river, about twenty miles 
W. N. W. from White Sulphur. 

The buildings at this place are a large brick 
hotel, one hundred feet in front, and fifty feet 
deep, three stories high, with a finished garret 
and a three-storied piazza in front, wide enough 
to make it a convenient promenade. There is 
a dining-room one hundred feet long, by thirty 
wide, well aired and lighted; and there are 
two large parlours, and thirty lodging-rooms. 
There are twenty neat frame cabins, contain- 
ing two or three rooms each, and hot mineral 
water and vapour baths, very conveniently ar- 
ranged in a brick building. On the same line 
of front with the hotel, distant eighty-six feet, 
is a two-story brick building containing twelve 
single rooms; the front of this building is to 
be increased to one hundred and forty feet, 
and in the space between it and the hotel, is 
a ball-room and drawing-room, over which are 
lodging-rooms, and in front a piazza. 

In front of the hotel is a beautiful plain, per- 
fectly level, perhaps three hundred yards wide, 
and six hundred long, flanked on both sides by 
mountains, and bearing near the house a de- 
lightful grove of sugar-maples, and along its 
centre a wide, smooth walk, leading to the 
spring and baths. 

The Blue Sulphur water, in taste, resembles 
the White so nearly, that the nicest palate 
would find it difficult to discriminate between 



NEW WHITE SULPHUR. 479 

them. The spring is not so copious as the 
White, hut more abundant than the Salt. It 
is at present contained in a rectangular wooden 
box, about two feet v^ide and four feet long; 
and the bottom is covered with a red substance, 
looking like that in the Red Sulphur, which 
lends the water a purplish hue ; and there is 
deposited on the sides of the box, along the 
edge of the water, and extending a little below, 
a white substance, which looks like that at the 
White Sulphur. 

This water contains much free sulphuretted 
hydrogen, and a small quantity of nitrogen, 
and carbonic acid. 

Thirty -two cubic inches of the water con- 
tain about fourteen grains of solid matter, 
consisting of sulphate of lime, carbonate of 
lime, sulphate of magnesia, sulphate of soda, 
muriate of soda, muriate of magnesia, with a 
trace of organic matter, sulphur, &c. 

The deposit, which is of a purplish colour, 
is analagous to that of the Red Sulphur, and 
some other springs in this state ; and is a pe- 
culiar organic matter, mingled with a trace of 
sulphur. 

It is of the nature of a substance found in 
some of the sulphuretted waters of France and 
Spain, and is called Glairine, or glarea. 

New White Sulphur Spring. — This is a new 
establishment, situated in the valley of Dunlap's 
creek, about eighteen miles nearly due east 
from the other. 





10 


. 79 


89 


. 7 


96 


. 37 


133 


. 4 137 



480 ROUTE TO 

From White Sulphur Springs to Guyandot, 

Lewisburg^, 

Shrewsbury, 

Charleston, 

Barboursville, 

Guyandot, 



Lewislurg, the seat of justice of Greenbrier 
county, is finely situated on the high grounds 
between Greenbrier river and Millegan's 
branch. Besides the court-house, there are 
about one hundred and twenty buildings, in- 
cluding a Presbyterian, a Baptist and a Metho- 
dist church; an academy; several schools; a 
printing-otii ;e, from which a weekly journal is 
issued ; tog.ther with stores, taverns and work- 
shops. 

The place is rapidly improving, and now con- 
tains at least 800 inhabitants. 

Shrewsbury, or Kanawha Saline, a small vil- 
lage on the right bank of the Kanawha, in- 
habited mostly by persons employed at the 
neighbouring salt-works. It contains twenty- 
five dwellings, two churches, &c. 

Charleston, the scat of justice of Kanawha 
county, is a large and thriving town, finely sit- 
uated on the Kanawha, at the mouth of Elk 
creek. There are about one hundred and fifty 
buildings in the town — mostly handsome and 
well finished structures. Among them are the 
court-house and county offices ; two churches ; 
an academy and several good schools ; a bank ; 



GUYANDOT. 481 

a masonic hall. There are a colonization, a 
bible, a tract, and Sunday-school societies ; be- 
sides many other institutions, which speak 
well for the intelligence and public spirit of its 
inhabitants. Stores, factories, and work-shops 
abound here, which furnish an abundant sup- 
ply of all necessary articles. Population about 

yoo. 

The salt-works, which extend for several 
miles along both banks of the Kanawha, above 
the town, are well worthy of inspection. 

Salt-water is obtained by boring the rock in 
the bottom of the river, to the depth of from 
three hundred to five hundred feet, when it 
ascends to the top of the rock, and is thence 
conducted to the surface through metal tubes, 
and along other pipes to the furnaces. Coal is 
used exclusively in the furnaces, to which it is 
conveyed from the adjacent mines on rail- 
roads. 

Barboursville, a neat little village of some 
thirty or thirty-five houses, including a court- 
house, on the right bank of the Kanawha, in 
Cabell county, of which it is the seat of justice. 

Guyandot, a village of Cabell county, situat- 
ed on the Ohio, immediately above the mouth 
of Guyandot river. 

It consists of about sixty buildings, including 
a free church, a public school, several grist and 
saw mills, a steam carding machine ; together 
with the usual proportion of mechanics' shops, 
&c. 

Guyandot is one of the principal landings 
for the numerous steam-boats which pass up 
and down the Ohio, by means of which the 
41 



482 



ROUTE TO 



traveller to the west is enabled to proceed with- 
out delay to his destination. 



From Staunton to Fincastle, and thence to Big 
Lick. 



Greenville, 






12 


Fairfield, 






12 24 


Lexington, 






11 35 


Natural Bridge, 






14 49 


Springfield, 






2 51 


Buchannan, 






9 60 


Fincastle, 






12 72 


Amsterdam, 






6 78 


Big Lick, 






11 89 



Gfreenville, a pleasant village in the southern 
part of Augusta county, containing about fifty 
dwellings, besides several stores and taverns. 

Fairfield, a little village of some twenty or 
twenty-five buildings, including a free church, 
in the north-eastern part of Rockbridge coun- 

Lexington, seat of justice of Rockbridge 
county, beautifully situated on an elevated 
bank, on the west side of North river. 

It was founded in 1778, and was originally 
composed of wooden buildings, almost exclu- 
sively, most of which were destroyed by fire in 
1794. The town however, speedily recovered 



BIG LICK. 483 

from the effects of this catastrophe, and now 
consists of well built and handsome houses. 

In addition to the county buildings, which 
are remarkably neat and appropriate, there are 
not less than one hundred and seventy dwel- 
lings, exclusive of an extensive arsenal, two 
churches, factories, work-shops, &c., and a 
printing-ofRce, from which a weekly newspaper 
is issued. 

This is the seat of Washington College, 
which is handsomely endowed. The edifice 
consists of two brick buildings, which afford 
accommodation for about sixty students, and 
one other for the philosophical apparatus. 

Natural Bridge. — This wonder of Virginia 
is situated in the southern part of Rockbridge 
county, about two miles from the left bank of 
James river. Cedar creek, a small branch of 
James river, rises in the Short hills, and flowing 
in a general south-east direction, passes beneath 
the bridge, and enters James river, near the 
Bottetourt boundary. The bridge consists of 
an enormous rocky stratum of limestone, which 
extends across the abyss. 

The bed of Cedar creek is more than two 
hundred feet below the surface of the plain, 
and the sides of the chasm, at the bottom of 
which the water flows, are composed of solid 
rock, maintaining a position almost vertical. 
These adamantine walls do not seem to be 
waterworn, but suggest the idea of an enor- 
mous cavern, that in remote ages may have 
been covered for miles by the continuation of 
that stratum of which all that now remains is 
the arch of the Natural Bridge. This stupen. 
dous object is no doubt, the ruin of a cave 



484 ROUTE TO 

one of those antres vast, in whicli our limestone 
regions abound. 

The first sensation of the beholder is one 
of double astonishment ; first, at the absolute 
sublimity of the scene; next, at the total 
inadequacy of the descriptions he has read 
and the pictures he has seen, to produce in his 
mind the faintest idea of the reality. The 
great lieight gives the arch an air of grace 
and lightness that must be seen to be felt, and 
the power of speech is for a moment lost in 
contemplating the immense dimensions of the 
surrounding objects. The middle of the arch 
is forty-five feet in perpendicular thickness, 
which increases to sixty at its junction with 
the vast abutments. Its top, which is covered 
with soil supporting shrubs of various sizes, 
is two hundred and ten feet high. It is sixty 
feet wide, and its span is about ninety feet. 
Across the top passes a public road, and being 
in the same plane with the neighbouring coun- 
try, you maj' cross it in a coach, without be- 
ing aware of the interesting pass. There 
are several forest trees of large dimensions 
growing near the edge of the creek directly 
under the arch, which do not nearly reach its 
lowest part. 

The most imposing view is from about six- 
ty yards below the bridge close to the edge of 
the creek ; from that position the arch appears 
thinner, lighter and loftier. From the edge of 
the creek at some distance above the bridge, 
you look at the thicker side of the arch, 
which from this point of view approaches 
somewhat to the Gotiiic. A little above the 
bridge, on the western side of the creek, the 
wall of rock is broken into buttress-like masses. 



BIG LICK. 485 

which rise almost vertically, to a height of 
nearly two hundred and fifty feet, terminating 
in separate pinnacles which overlook the 
bridge. It requires a strong head, to stand on 
one of these narrow eminences and look into 
the yawning gulph below. 

When you are exactly under the arch and 
cast your glances upwards, the space appears 
immense; and the symmetry of the elliptical con- 
cave formed by the arch and the gigantic walls 
from which it springs, is wonderfully pleasing. 
From this position the views in both directions 
are sublime and striking, from the immense 
height of the rocky walls stretching away in 
various curves, covered in some places by the 
drapery of the forest, green and graceful, and in 
others without a bramble or a bush, bare and blue. 

No adequate idea of this magnificent work of 
nature can be obtained from the efforts of eith- 
er the pencil or pen ; and though both have 
been employed in its delineation, yet neither 
has done hall justice to the subject. One of the 
best representations of the Natural Bridge yet 
attempted, is contained in a Map of North 
America, published some years since in Phila- 
delphia. 

Visiters to the " Natural Bridge of Virginia," 
will ever find a rich and varied field for obser- 
vation ; for, in addition to the objects of curi- 
osity which have been enumerated and de- 
scribed, " the overhanging rocks" and nume- 
rous other grand and interesting objects up the 
valley and wiihin the neighbourhood, there is 
" Powell's mountain," upon which are found 
various marine fossils and within which 
are " Johnson's cave," affording an easy de- 
scent among a variety of subterranean cavi- 
41* 



486 ROUTE TO 

ties, and " Chapin's cave," of yet unfathomable 
depth. And last, though not least, among the 
objects of consideration with visiters to these 
interesting and romantic scenes, Mr. Johnson, 
the gentlemanly and accommodating proprietor 
of the public house at the bridge, will afford 
every facility for their observation, and every 
means for their enjoyment. 

Springfield, a small settlement in Rockbridge 
county. 

Buchannan, a village of Bottetourt county, 
situated on the James river, immediately op- 
posite to the little town of Patlonshurg, with 
which it is connected by a fine bridge. 

Each of these villages has a population of 
about 200 persons, among whom are mechanics 
of nearly every description, 

Fincastle, an incorporated town and seat of 
justice of Bottetourt county, is beautifully situ- 
ated on the south-east declivity of Catawba val- 
ley. 

It is a handsome and flourishing town, con- 
taining the county court-house, three or four 
churches, an academy and about three hundred 
dwellings. Among its public establishments 
are a fire company, a temperance society, a 
weekly newspaper, several good hotels, a man- 
ufacturing flour mill, and carding machine ; to- 
gether vvitli the usual mechanics' shops. Pop- 
ulation about 800. 

Amsterdam, a village of some thirty-five or 



LYNCHBURG. 487 

forty houses, a free church, and about 1,500 
inhabitants. 

Big Lick.* 



LYNCHBURG. 

This is the most important and extensive 
town in this part of the state, having a popula- 
tion of about 6,000. It occupies an advanta- 
geous and commanding position, on the south 
bank of James river, in the north-west corner 
of Campbell county. Its plan is regular, the 
streets intersecting each other at right-angles. 
The principal streets run in the direction of the 
river, and are generally well built, with good, 
substantial houses. Second and Third streets 
extend along a terrace, elevated upwards of 
one hundred feet above the river; and Fourth 
street, the next in order, is considerably higher. 
Owing to the rapid descent of the ground 
towards the river, those streets, or rather the 
alleys which cross the principal streets, are 
used as mere outlets for the buildings on the 
leading avenues. 

There are nearly one thousand buildings in 
the place, which include a court-house; jail; 
market-house ; seven large tobacco warehouses; 
two banks ; eight churches, belonging to the 
Episcopalians, Methodists, Presbyterians, Bap. 
tists, and Friends, respectively. — None of them 
can lay claim to architectural beauty. 

Many of the private dwellings, however, are 
remarkably handsome, and present quite an 
ornamental appearance. 



488 



ROUTES FEOM 



Among the manufactures of Lynchburg are, 
bricks, leather, tobacco, cotton goods, and an 
infinite variety of other articles, fabricated by 
the mechanics and artizans of the place. 

A bible society, a colonization society, and 
temperance society, have been established in 
the town. 

The town is supplied with excellent water, 
which is conducted through the principal streets 
by pipes, from an arm of James river, by which 
a valuable water-power is created. 

The water is elevated by means of a forcing- 
pump, two hundred and forty feet above the 
river, into a capacious reservoir, from whence 
it is distributed through the town. 

There are pretty good roads from Lynch- 
burg to Charlottsville, to Richmond, to Lexing- 
ton, passing near the Natural bridge, and 
thence to Covington, to Liberty, to Danville 
and Salem, North Carolina : respectively. 

These roads are all travelled by stages, which 
start from Lynchburg almost daily. 



ROUTES FROM LYNCHBURG. 

From Lynchburg to Knoxville, Tenn., via 
Chrisiiansburff and Abinsdon. 



New London, 


11 


Liberty, 


. 15 26 


Buford's Gap, 


. 16 42 


Big Lick, 


. 12 54 


Salem, 


. 7 61 



LYNCHBURG. 




489 


Chrisliansburg, 


. 27 


88 


Nev/bern, 




. 17 


105 


Evansham, 




. 27 


132 


Mt. Airy, 




. 14 


146 


Abingdon, 




. 41 


187 


Blountville, Tenn., 




. 24 


211 


King-sport, " 




. 17 


228 


Rogersville, " 




. 26 


254 


Rutledge, " 




. 31 


285 


Knoxville, " 




. 32 


317 



New London, an incorporated town, situated 
near the western confines of Campbell county, 
on a branch of Staunton river. Though it is 
one of the oldest towns in the state, having 
been founded a century ago, it contains only 
twenty-five or thirty buildings, besides a Meth- 
odist church and a handsome academy, with 
which a fine brick church is connected. 

It was formerly a place of considerable im- 
portance, but within the last forty years its 
population has been greatly diminished, owing 
to the removal of the United States armory to 
Harper's Ferry, which was originally fixed 
here. 

An agricultural society, composed of gentle- 
men of this and one of the adjoining counties, 
has been established here. 



Liberty, the seat of justice of Bedford coun- 
ty, consists of the court-house, a free and twb 
Biiptist churches, and about eighty dwellings, 
with a population of 400. 

The famous Peaks of Otter, heights on the 



490 ROUTE TO ' 

Blue Ridge, are situated about eight miles N. W. 
from Liberty. That towards the south is call- 
ed " Flat Top Peak," which is supposed to be 
more than 4,500 feet above the ocean. It is 
the most elevated ground in Virginia, and 
forms a land-mark for more than a hundred 
miles around. 

Buford's Gap, a pass in the Blue Ridge, on 
the line between Bedford and Botetourt coun- 
ties. 

Big Lick, a small village of Bottetort coun- 
ty, situated at the intersection of the Fincastle 
road with that to Christiansburg. 

Salem, a pretty village of seventy-five or 
eighty houses, situated on the left bank of the 
Roanoke, in the southern part of Botetourt 
county. 

There are three churches, and several exten- 
sive factories, mills, carding machines, &c., in 
or near the town. The navigation of the Roan- 
oke has been materially improved by means 
of dams and short canals, from Salem to tide- 
water at Weldon, a distance of 244 miles. 

Christiansburg, seat of justice of Montgom- 
ery county, contains the court-house and other 
county buildings, two churches, and about fifty 
dwelling-houses. 

Neivbcrn, a large and beautifully located 
town of the same county, but recently establish- 
ed. It consists of upwards of one hundred and 
twenty buildings, which, being mostly new, 
present a fresh and very attractive appearance. 
There are several interesting objects of curios- 



KNOXVILLE. 491 

ity in the vicinity of Salem. Among these 
are the " Glass Windows," so called, which 
consist of vertical rocks, nearly 500 feet high, 
and forming the immediate bank of New River, 
for a distance of about four miles. The face 
of these rocks are perforated by a vast number 
of cavities, which no doubt, lead to cells or 
caves within the mountain. Some of these 
cells have been explored, and were found to 
contain salt-petre, stalactytes and other concre- 
tions. Mineral springs abound in the neigh- 
bourhood, some of which are said to possess 
valuable medicinal qualities. 

Evansham, the seat of justice of Wythe 
county, is a large and thriving town, of about 
one hundred and twenty.five buildings, includ- 
ing a handsome court-house, a methodist chap- 
el, a large portion of mechanics' shops, and 
upwards of 700 inhabitants. 

Mount Airy, a small village of a dozen or 
twenty houses, finely situated on an eleva- 
ted ridge, at the sources of Glade and Holston 
rivers. 

Abingdon, seat of justice of Washington 
county, in the south-western part of the state. 
This is by far the most considerable and active 
town in this section of Virginia. It contains 
upwards of two hundred buildings, besides the 
court-house, &c., and about 1,100 inhabitants. 
Many of the houses are of brick, well built, 
substantial and neat. The principal street is 
handsomely M'Adamized. There are four 
churches, two occupied by the Presbyterians, 
and two by the Methodists. One of the latter 



492 ROUTE TO 

is occasionally used by a society of Swedenbor- 
gians, which embraces a considerable portion 
of the inhabitants. Ail the other institutions, 
factories and work-shops, found in other towns 
of its class are established in Abingdon, which 
may be regarded as a manufacturing town, up- 
on which a large portion of the surrounding 
country depends for supplies. 

Blountville. This, as well as the four fol- 
lowing towns are situated in the state of Ten- 
nessee. Blountville is located in the north-eastern 
part of the state, in the valley of the Holston, 
and is the seat of justice of Sullivan county. 

Kingsport, formerly called the Boat Yard, a 
small village in the western part of the same 
county. 

Rogersville, seat of justice of Hawkins coun- 
ty, is a neat village, situated on the north decli- 
vity of Holston river, about three miles from 
its bank. 

Rutledge, the seat of justice of Hawkins 
county, is beautifully situated at the eastern 
base of Clinch mountain, on Richland creek. 

Knoxville, the chief town of East Tennes- 
see, occupies a beautiful site on the right bank 
of Holston river, in Knox county, of which 
it is also the seat of justice. Its population is 
about 3,000. 

East Tennessee College, a thriving and well 
conducted institution, is located here. The 
Hiwassee Rail-road, which leaves the Western 
and Atlantic Rail-road of Georgia, near Ross- 



KNOXVILLE. 



493 



ville, terminates at Knoxville, from wlieme it 
is proposed to extend it to meet the contem ilat- 
ed rail-road along the great valley of Virginia. 



From Lynchburg to Jonesville, via White Sul- 
phur Springs. 



Balcony Falls, 
Lexington, 


. 17 


25 

42 


Colliertown, 


. 12 


54 


Covington, 

White Sulphur Springs, 


. 28 
. 20 


82 
102 


Union, 


. 23 


125 


Grey Sulphur Springs, 
Jeffersonville, 


. 29 
. 54 


154 

208 


Lebanon, 


. 42 


250 


Estillville, 


. 40 


290 


Natural Bridge, 
Jonesville, 


. 13 

. 24 


303 
327 



Balcony Falls, — Here James river breaks 
through the Blue Ridge, and is precipitated 
over a dam constructed across the stream for 
the purpose of supplying the Blue Ridge Canal 
(a part of the James river navigation) with 
water. The country around the falls is roman- 
tic and picturesque to a high degree. Two of 
the highest peaks of the Blue Ridge are in 
sight, which serve to add grandeur to the scene. 

Lexington.* 

Colliertown, a mere hamlet of some eight or 
42 



494 ROUTE TO 

ten houses, situated on Collier creek, in the 
western part of Rockbridge county. 

Covington, a neat and well built town in, and 
seat of justice of, Alleg-any county, beautifully 
situated among the mountains on Jackson's 
river, near its intersection with Potts creek, at 
the western terminus of James river navigation, 
and the commencement of the proposed rail-road 
to Loup Shoals, on the Kanawha. It contains 
about one hundred and twenty buildings, of all 
sorts, including those erected for the county 
courts, about sixty dwelling-houses, some of 
which are handsome brick structures, two 
churches, and the usual mercantile and manu- 
facturing establishments. Population about 
500. 

White Sulphur Spring.* 

Union,* 

Grey Sulphur Spring.* About four miles 
south-east from these Springs, is Parisburg, the 
seat of justice of Giles county, beautifully seat- 
ed in the valley of New River, at the gap of 
Wolf creek mountain. It contains, in addition 
to the county buildings, about forty stone dwel- 
ling-houses, and some others of wood, with a 
population of about 300. 

"Pompey's Pillar," a huge basaltic rock, 
and " Cesar's Cave," two remarkable objects, 
are within a few miles of this place. 

The great " Salt Pond" of Giles county, is 
also in this vicinity. It is situated on the top 
of an elevated mountain, and was originally 
what its name implies; but by some unknown 



JONESVILLE. 495 

means, its waters found an outlet into an ad- 
joining stream, by which its surplus waters 
escaped, and thus, in process of time, the pond 
was deprived of its saHnc qualities, and became 
what it now is, a " Salt pond," only in name. 

Jeffersonville, seat of justice of Tazewell 
county, a village of about thirty-five buildings, 
including a court-house, jail, a free church, and 
the customary mechanics' shops, with a popula- 
tion of 200. 

Lebanon, seat of justice of Russell county, 
containing a substantial stone court-house, and 
several dwellings and stores, mostly of wood. 
It is beautifully situated in the valley of Clinch 
river, and in the midst of a romantic and pictur- 
esque mountain region. 

Estillville,^ villageof Scott county, of which 
it is the seat of justice, containing about eighty 
buildings, including a court-house, a Presbyte- 
rian and a Methodist church, a school-house, 
and the usual quantity of mechanics and trades- 
men. It is advantageously and finely situated 
for manuf icturing purposes, on the high ground 
between Holston and Clinch rivers and within 
a few miles of Holston Springs, which are much 
resorted to, by invalids and others. The waters, 
it is said, resemble, very closely, those of the 
White Sulphur. 

Natural Bridge. — This interesting work of 
nature extends over Stock creek, a small tribu- 
tary of Clinch river, in the south-west part of the 
state. The creek rises on an elevated plateau, 
which is abruptly terminated in the south-east, 



496 ROUTE TO 

by a rocky cliff, which appears to have been 
undermined by the creek, leaving the upper 
stratum of rock undisturbed. It is this por- 
tion of the cliff that now forms the bridge ; the 
top of which, on its southern side, is nearly 
four hundred feet in height. 

JoncsvUle. — This is the westernmost town in 
the state of Virginia. It is situated in the val- 
ley of Powell's river, in Lee county, of which 
it is the seat of justice. The town is located 
in one of the most rugged and mountainous re- 
gions of the state, having Walden's ridge on 
one side, and Stone mountain on the other. 
There are about fifty buildings, exclusive of a 
handsome court-house, and a free church. Pop- 
ulation about 250. 



From Lynckhurg to Charlottesville. 

Amherst C.H. . . . IG 

New Glasgow, . . . 4 20 

Lovingston, . . . 18 38 

Charlottesville, . . . 32 70 



Amherst Court House, a small village of 
Bome ten or fifteen dwellings, besides the coun- 
ty buildings. 

New Glasgow, a mere hamlet of Amherst 
county. 

Lovingston, a thriving town, and seat of jus- 



CHARLOTTESVILLE. 497 

tice of Nelson county, containing' about one 
hundred and fifty buildings, including the 
court-house, jail, two churches, and the usual 
variety of mercantile and mechanical establish- 
ments. 

The situation is one of uncommon beauty. 
Loving's Gap, and the Sugar-loaf mountain, 
are near the town. These, with many other 
interesting objects, give to its neighbourhood a 
romantic and attractive appearance. 

Charlottesville,* 



From Lynchburg to Danville. 

Ward's Bridge, ... 25 

Ward's Spring, . . . 15 40 

Competition, . . . 9 49 

Danville, . . . . 18 67 



Wnrd^s Bridge, a noted crossing-place on 
Staunton river, about two miles below Otter 
river, in Campbell county. 

Ward''s Spring, one of the head fountains of 
White Thorn creek, in Pittsylvania county. 

Competition, seat of justice of Pittsylvania 
county, situated near its centre, on the Cherry- 
stone branch of Banister river. It contains a 
court house, jail, a Methodist chapel, about one 
hundred and thirty dwellings, some remarkably 
42* 



498 



DANVILLE. 



handsome brick structures, with nearly 300 
inhabitants, 

Danville, a handsome and thriving village of 
Pittsylvania county, consisting of about two 
hundred buildings, including two banks, branch- 
es of other banks, a masonic hall, two tobacco 
warehouses, two academies, a female boarding- 
school, a Sunday-school, several saw and grist 
mills, and an iron foundery, one printing-of- 
fice, which issues a weekly journal, and the 
ordinary proportion of stores, shops and taverns. 
The population is not less than 1,200 and 
rapidly increasing. 

Situated at the Great Falls of Dan river, this 
place possesses superior advantages as a manu- 
facturing town. Its water-power is yet but 
partially employed, is extensive, and will, no 
doubt, soon be brought into active and profitable 
operation. 



From Lynchburg to Richmond, 



Maysville,* 




24 


New Canton,* 


. 16 


40 


Cartersvillc,* 


. 15 


55 


Scottsville,* 


. 5 


60 


Tower Hill,* 


. 14 


74 


Coal Mines,* 


. 13 


87 


Richmond,* 


. 45 


132 



WHEELIKG. 499 



WHEELING. 



This highly important and flourishing city, 
is situated on the left bank of the Ohio, at the 
mouth of Wheeling' creek. It is the seat of 
justice of Ohio county, and may, from its local 
position and extent, be regarded as the capital 
of Western Virginia. 

The nucleus of Wheeling, like that of most 
other western towns, consisted of a military 
post, established shortly after the commence- 
ment of the revolutionary war. In 1783, the 
town plot was arranged, but oving to difficul- 
ties with the Indians, and other retarding 
causes, but little progress was made in its ex- 
tension. Of late, liowever, it has advanced, and 
continues to advance, rapidly, the present pop- 
ulation being, according to the census of 1840, 
8,793 persons, of whom 373 only are coloured. 

The public buildings in and about Wheeling, 
are, a handsome and commodious court-house, 
with its appendages ; one Episcopalian, two 
Presbyterian, one Catholic, one Friends, one 
Baptist, one Campbellite, and two Methodist 
churches ; an edifice for the Wheeling Insti- 
tute ; one academy; one theatre; and one ma- 
sonic hall. The manufactories, which are nu- 
merous and extensive, consist, in part, of the 
Wheeling Iron-works, which produce sheet- 
iron, nails, &c., in great abundance ; four or 
five iron foundries ; four steam-engine factories ; 
eight glass-houses, in some of which glass-cut- 
ting is carried on ; one brewery ; one or two 
distilleries; four woollen and cotton factories, 
and carding machines; two paper mills; three 
or four saw mills ; three factories, employed in 



500 WHEELING. 

making copperas, white-lead and sheet-lead; 
and upwards of 140 manufacturing flour mills ; 
together with a vast number of other establish- 
ments of a similar description, which consti- 
tute Wheeling the most extensive manufactur- 
ing city, as it is the most important commercial 
place in Western Virginia. 

Among the literary and scientific institutions 
of Wheeling, the following may be mentioned, 
the Wheeling Institute for the instruction of 
children in the various branches of an English 
education ; the Wheeling Lancasterian Acade- 
my ; the Wheeling Classical Academy ; a female 
seminary ; and two or three public journals. 

The city is supplied with water from the 
Ohio, by means of steam works, lately erected, 
which send the water through all the principal 
streets. 

Coal, which is used exclusively in the manu- 
factories, is found in inexhaustible quantities 
near the city. 

The commercial facilities of Wheeling are 
scarcely inferior to those for manufacturing. 
In addition to twenty or twenty-five steam- 
boats owned by citizens of Wheeling, nearly 
all those engaged in the navigation of this part 
of the Ohio, stop at its wharves, in both their 
up and down trips. The National road, from 
Cumberland to the west, passes through the 
city, by which, and the Maryland state turn- 
pike, a profitable communication is maintained 
with Baltimore and other eastern towns. 
Stages depart from Wheeling in all directions, 
nearly every hour of tiie day. These, with the 
innumerable steam-boats which are plying up 
and down the Ohio, enable the traveller, on his 
arrival here, to proceed on his journey without 



EOTJTES PROM WHEELING. 



501 



any delay. The vast multitudes of emigrants 
and others, who are constantly passing through 
the town, on tlicir way to the far west, increase 
greatly, the trade of Wheeling, and give it an 
air of bustle and business, peculiarly animating. 



ROUTES FROM WHEELING. 



From Wheeling to Cincinnati, by Steam-boat. 



Elizabeth town, 






13 


Sistersville, 






35 48 


Newport, 






17 65 


Marietta, 






16 81 


Parkersburg, 






13 84 


Belleville, 






17 111 


Letart's Rapids, 






30 141 


Point Pleasant, 






29 170 


Gallipolis, 






3 173 


Guyandot, 






34 207 


Burlington, 






7 214 


Portsmouth, 






41 255 


Manchester 






. 36 291 


Maysville, 






10 301 


Cincinnati, 






57 358 



ElizabetMown, a small village of Ohio coun- 
ty, Va., situated on Little Grove creek, about a 
mile from its discharge into the Ohio. There 
are several Indian mounds in the vicinity of 
this village, which deserve the attention of an- 
tiquarians. One of these is very large, of a 
conical form, and surrounded by a ditch. 



602 KOUTE TO 

Sistersville, a pretty little village and steam- 
boat landing, finely situated on the left bank of 
the Ohio, in Tyler county, Va., consisting of 
thirty or thirty-five dwellings, three stores, two 
taverns, and a school-house. 

Newport, a town of Washington county, 
Ohio, situated on the right hank of the Ohio 
river, below the mouth of French creek. It 
contains about eighty dwellings, a church, two 
school-houses, and several mechanics' shops. 

Marietta, an incorporated town and seat of 
justice of Washington county, situated on tlie 
Ohio, on both sides of the Muskingum. This 
is the oldest town in the state of Ohio, having 
been founded in 1788. It is regularly laid into 
squares, with wide and airy streets, compactly 
built, with ornamented grounds in front. The 
remains of old Fort Harmer are still to be 
seen, on the Ohio, immediately below the Mus- 
kingum. There are, besides the county build- 
ings, which are handsome structures, four 
churches, a banking-house, a library building, 
a market-house, a collegiate institute, (a four- 
story handsome building,) an incorporated aca- 
demy, two steam saw mills, and a large flour- 
mill, two carding machines, an iron founde- 
ry, a steam-boat and ship yard, rope- walk, about 
200 dwelling-houses, and 1,300 inhabitants. 
There also are extensive and interesting tumuli, 
which invite and will reward investigation. 

Parkershurg, seat of justice of Wood coun- 
ty, Virginia, is pleasantly seated on the Ohio, 
at the mouth of Little Kanawha river. The 
buildings consist of a court-house, jail, church, 



CINCINNATI. 503 

school-house, and about eighty dwellings, with 
a population of about 450. 

About three miles below Parkersburg, is the 
beautiful island, which was formerly the resi- 
dence of Mr. Blennerhasset. The beauty and 
charms of this delightful spot, like the once 
cheering prospects of its former possessor, have 
long since departed. 

Belleville, a small village of the same county, 
containing some fifteen or twenty houses. 

LetarVs Rapids. — These rapids, improperly 
so called, are situated in the Ohio river, a few 
miles below Mill creek, in Monroe county. 
Owing to an abrupt bend in the river, which 
serves to contract its width, the velocity of the 
current is somewhat augmented, but in so slight 
a degree as to be almost imperceptible, unless 
during the lowest stages of the water. 

Point Pleasant, a small but very neat village 
situated on the Ohio, immediately above the 
mouth of Kanawha river, in Mason county, 
Va., of which it is the seat of justice. It con- 
tains a court-house, jail, and about fifty dwel- 
ling-houses, with 300 inhabitants. 

Gallipolis, seat of justice of Gallia county, 
Ohio. It occupies an elevated position on the 
bank of the Ohio, commanding a fine view of 
the river and adjacent country. 

There are in the town, a court-house, jail, an 
academy, three steam mills, a printing-office, 
and about eighty private dwellings, mostly 
builtof brick, and handsomely finished. Present 
population about 800. 



504 ROUTE TO 

There is a circular mound, about three hun- 
dred feet in circumference, near the academy, 
the work of the Indians. 

Guyandot^* 

Burlington, seat of justice of Lav/rence coun- 
ty, Ohio, situated in the apex of the g^reat bend 
of the Ohio, nearly opposite the outlet of Big 
Sandy river. It contains a population of about 
250. The public buildings consist of a court- 
house, jail, one Presbyterian and one Methodist 
church, a school-house, a steam saw mill, two 
carding machines, two potteries; together with 
the ordinary mechanics' shops, stores and 
taverns. 

Portsmouth, a large and flourishing town, 
and seat of justice of Scioto county, Ohio, situ- 
ated on the right bank of the Ohio, at the 
mouth of Scioto river. Its population at pre- 
sent (1841) cannot be less than 1,500 and is 
rapidly increasing, in consequence of the com- 
pletion of the Oliio and Erie Canal, which ter- 
minates here. Besides the county buildings, 
there are three or four churches, a bank, a 
steam saw and grist mill, one flouring mill, one 
rolhng and slitting mill, a nail factory, an iron 
foundery, one carding machine, and a vast 
number of mechanics' work-shops. The town 
is supplied with water from the Ohio. 

Manchester, a small village of some tliirty or 
thirty- five houses, and a population of 200, situ- 
ated on the north bank of the Ohio, in Adams 
county. 



CINCINNATI. 505 

Maysville, seat of justice of Mason county, 
Kentucky, containing the court-house, jail, and 
other county offices, and several neat, and some 
handsome dwellings. This is one of the chief 
steam-boat landings. Passengers from abo p, 
who are destined for Lexington, Frankfort, &c., 
in Kentucky, usually land at Maysville, from 
whence a good turnpike extends to the former 
place. 

Cincinnati. — This is the great commercial 
emporium of this state — and, next to New Or- 
leans, the largest city in the Valley of the Mis- 
sissippi. It is situated on the right or north- 
ern bank of the Ohio, at north latitude 39° 06', 
and west longitude 7° 25'. It stands on the first 
and second banks of the river — the former of 
which is above ordinary high water, and the 
latter generally rises about sixty feet more, 
and then spreads out in an extended, level 
plain. 

No city has a more beautiful site than that 
which Cincinnati occupies. The Ohio here 
pursues its meandering way towards the v/est. 
Immediately opposite to the city, it runs nearly 
due west; consequently, the city faces the 
south. But the river bends, both above and be- 
low the city, and pursues a straight course but 
a short distance. 

The reader will have a good idea of Cincin- 
nati, by imagining an extensive circijlar plain, 
bounded by high wooded hills, forming a cir- 
cumference of about twelve miles; and that 
this plain is divided by a gently meandering 
npd beautiful river, flowing through it on its 
westward way. The city spreads out on the 
northern bank, whilst opposite stand the beau- 
43 



506 KOUTE TO 

tiful and rapidly growing villages of Newport 
and Covington, divided by the Licking river, 
which here flows into the Ohio. When viewed 
from the top of the hills which bound the hori- 
zon, this extensive plain is covered in the cen- 
tral part with a growing city, extending up 
and down the river, with its bustle, and its 
beautiful houses; whilst around are spread fer- 
tile fields, and the river is adorned with boats 
of various descriptions, from the humble flat- 
boat to the noble steamers which are almost 
constantly hoving in sight, rounding to the 
wharf, or setting out for a distant port. 

Cincinnati was founded in 1789. But it 
was not until 1808, that it began to grow rapid- 
ly. At that period the government sold the 
land on which it stands. Fort Washington, 
erected many years before, stood on this site. 
In 18-26, the population was 16,230; in 1830, 
26,515; and in 1831, 28,014. At present, 
according to the census of 1840, it is 46,382, 
exclusive of a flouling population of 2,000 or 
3,000. 



From Wheeling to Pittsburg, by Steam-hoai. 

Warren ton,* 

Wellsburg,* 

Steubenville,* 

East Liverpool,* 

Beavertown,* . . 

Middletown,* 

Pittsburg,* 





8 


6 


14 


7 


21 


22 


43 


19 


62 


18 


80 


11 


91 



ZA.NESVILLE. 507 

Front Wheeling to Pittsburg by Stage. 



West Alexandria,* 




16 


Claysville,* 


. 6 


22 


Martinsburg,* 


. 4 


26 


Washington,* 


. 5 


31 


Findlaysville,* 


. 11 


42 


Pittsburg,* 


. 13 


55 



From Wheeling to Cumberland, by the National 
Road, and thence to Baltimore, by State Turn- 
pike, 



West Alexandria,;,^ . 


, 


16 


Washington,* 


. 15 


31 


Hillsboro,* 


. 12 


43 


Brownsville,* 


. 11 


54 


Union,* 


. 12 


66 


Smythfield,* 


. 21 


87 


Petersburg,* 


. 4 


91 


Mt. Pleasant,* 


. 24 


116 


Cumberland,* 


. 10 


126 


Baltimore,* 


. 94 


220 



From Wheeling to Zanesville, Ohio, by the 
National Road, 



St. Clairsville, 


10 


Morristown, 


. 12 22 


Fairview, 


. 12 34 


Washington, 


• 14 48 


Cambridge, 


. 7 55 


Norwich, 


. 15 70 


Zanesville, 


. 10 80 



508 ROUTE TO 

St. ClairsviUe, seat of justice of Belmont 
county, Ohio, situated near tlie north-east quar- 
ter of the county, in an elevated plain, in the 
midst of a rich and populous neighbourhood. 
It contains the usual county buildings, six 
churches, a market-house, a masonic hall, a 
town hall, an academy and a banking-house, 
with about 1000 inhabitants. 

Morristown, a village situated near the cen- 
tre of Belmont county, containing about sixty 
buildings, including a Presbyterian church, a 
carding machine, and fulling-mill, four taverns, 
with several mechanics' shops. Population 
about 300, 

Fairvieio, a village of Guernsey county, O., 
containing about 220 inhabitants. 

Washington, a flourishing town of Guernsey 
county, O., consisting of eighty buildings, in- 
eluding four churches, several stores, and about 
400 inhabitants. 

Cambridge, a large and thriving town, and 
seat of justice of Guernsey county, O., situated 
on the right bank of Wills creek. It contains 
about one hundred and thirty buildings, includ- 
ing the court-house, jail, &c., and nearly 700 
inhabitants. 

ISorwich, a town of one hundred and twenty 
dwellings, two churches, a brewery, a steam 
saw mill, two school-houses, and about 600 in- 
habitants. 

Zanesville, a flourishing town, and seat of 



EOMNEY. 509 

justice of Muskingum county, beautifully seat- 
ed on the left bank of Muskingum river. The 
public buildings are, a handsome and appropri- 
ate court-house, and its appendages ; a market- 
house ; two banking-houses; two academies; 
an atheneum; a public library, consisting of 
1,100 volumes; a cabinet of minerals; a lyce- 
um and reading-room; nine churches; eight or 
ten mills; an insurance office; three woollen and 
one cotton manufactory ; two breweries; three 
carriage manufactories; two glass-works; three 
iron founderies; six saw and paper mills; five 
printing-offices, from four of which newspapers 
are issued ; together with an abundance of minor 
establishmentsof a like kind, mechanics' shops, 
&c., &c. Zanesviile, including several small 
adjacent villages, contains about 7,000 inhabi- 
tants. The river is crossed by two fine 
bridges. 

The navigation, as well as the water-power, 
of the Muskingum, has been greatly improved 
by means of dams, locks and side canals. 



From ^S'heelivg to Romney, via Morgantown. 



csiottersviiie, 
Morgantown, 


. 12 


64 


Kingwood, 


. 23 


87 


Burlington, 


. 40 


127 


Romney, 


. 10 


137 



Morgantown, the seat of justice of Mononga- 
lia county, situated on the right bank of the 
43* 



510 ROUTE TO 

Monongahela, is the thriving centre of an ex- 
tensive manufacturing region, in the north-west 
part of Virginia. 

It contains a court-house, &c., two churches, 
an incorporated academy, several well conduct- 
ed scJiools, including a sunday-school, a bible 
society, two temperance and one colonization 
society; together with a due proportion of me- 
chanical establishments, and a population of 
about 700. 

lungiDOod, a pleasant little town, and seat of 
justice of Preston county, containing a court- 
house, jail, about thirty dwellings and 200 in- 
habitants. 

Burlington, a small village of Hampshire 
county, consisting of a free church, a tavern, 
and a few dwellings. 

Romney.* 



From Wheeling to Clarksburg. 



Elizabethtown, 
Sistersville, 
Middlebourn, 
Clarksburg, 



Elizabethtownfi 
Sisiersville.* 





13 


35 


48 


10 


58 


41 


99 



LEWISBURG. 



511 



Middlebourn, seat of justice of Tyler county, 
situated on the north bank of Middle Island 
creek, consists of the county buildings, and 
some thirty or thirty-five dwellings, a methodist 
chapel, work-shops, &c. 

Clarksburg, an incorporated town of Harri- 
son county, of which it is the seat of justice, 
finely situated on the Monongahela, near the 
centre of the county. There are, besides the 
court-house, jail, &c., upwards of one hundred 
and twenty well built dwellings, with nearly 
800 inhabitants, a Methodist chapel, and seve- 
ral schools, including a Sunday-school. Here 
are also some active societies for the promotion 
of the temperance cause, and the distribution of 
the bible. A weekly newspaper, is published 
here. 



ROUTES FROM CLARKSBURG. 
From Clarksburg to Lewisburg. 



Milford, 




7 


Westfield, 


. 11 


18 


Weston, 


. 6 


24 


Eulltown, 


. 22 


46 


Summerville, 


. 40 


86 


Lewisburg, 


. 45 


131 



Milford, a neat little hamlet of some twenty 
or twenty-five buildings, including a Methodist 
chapel and several mills, situated in the midst 



512 ROUTE TO 

of an extensive grazing district, in the southern 
part of Harrison county. 

Westjield., a small village of Lewis county, 
situated in the Monongahela valley. 

Weston, seat of justice for Lewis county, in 
the same valley, consists of the court-house and 
its offices, and about forty dwellings, several 
schools, mechanics' shops, &c. 

Bulltown. — This is merely the site of an old 
Indian village, long since abandoned, situated 
in the valley of Little Kanawha. 

Summersville, seat of justice of Nicholas 
county, consists of a court-house, a jail, and 
about twenty dwellings, with a population of 
J 30. 



From Clarksburg to Harrisonburg. 



Weston, 
Beverly, 
Franklin, 
Harrisonburg, 



Weston.* 





24 


39 


63 


55 


118 


43 


161 



Beverly, seat of justice of Randolph county, 
contains about twenty-five buildings, including 



HARRISONBURG. 513 

a court-house, jail, and other county offices. It 
is surrounded by a fertile and well cultivated 
and populous country, which resembles an 
extended village for several miles in all direc- 
tions. 

Franklin, county scat of Pendleton, prettily 
situated on the west declivity of the south 
branch of Potomac. Besides the usual county 
buildings, there are about forty other dwellings 
and other houses. Among its public institu- 
tions, a temperance and a bible society, schools, 
&c. 

Harrisonburg.* 



( 514 ) 



A LIST OF THE 

CANALS AND RAIL-ROADS 

IX VIRGINIA. 



RAIL-UOADS, 



Richmond, Fredericksburg and Poto- 
mac, fr. Richmond to Aquia creek, 75.00 
Louisa Br. fr. 24 m. from Richmond to 

Gordonsville, 49.00 

Rich'd and Petersb. fr. Rich, to Petersb. 23.00 
Petersb. and Roanoke, fr. Petersb. to 

Weldon, 59.00 

Greensville, fr. near Hicksford to Gas- 
ton, N. a, 18.00 
City Point, fr. Petersb. to City Point, 12.00 
Chetterf'd, fr. Coal Mines to Richmond, 13.50 
Portsin'th and Roanoke, from Portsm'th 

to Weldon, N. C. 80.00 

Winch, and Potomac, fr. Harper's Ferry 

Winchester, 32.00 



Alexandria Canal, fr. Georgt. to Alexan. 7.25 

James River and Kanawha, from Rich- 
mond to Bachannan, 175.00 

Dismal Swamp, fr. Deep Cr. to Joyce's 

Creek, 23.00 

Branches, 11.00 



INDEX. 




Abbotstown 


165 


Bargain-town 


280 


Abingdon 


491 


Baskingridge 


277 


Abington 


139 


Bath, Va. 


457 


Adams 


168 


Battle of Paoli 


132 


Aldie 


385 


Battle of Brandy- 




AJexandria, Pa. 


176 


wine 


134 


Alexandria, N. J. 


275 


Battle ofGermant 


141 


Alexandria, D. C. 


379 


Battle of Red B'k 


150 


Allegany Aq. 


178 


Battle of Monm'th 


153 


Allegany Mt. 


203 


Battle of Wyom- 




Allen's Cave 


456 


ing 


186 


Allentown 


194 


Battle of Monong 


226 


Am boy 


146 


Battle of Trenton 


251 


Amherst C. H. 


496 


Battle of Princct. 


152 


Amsterdam 


480 


Battle of Newark 


162 


Andalusia 


143 


Battle of Baltim. 


307 


Annapolis 


338 


Battle of Biadens- 




Aquackanonck 


264 


burg 


334 


Aquia 


381 


Battle of Yorkt'n 


432 


Augusta, N. J. 


269 


Beartown 


291 


Augusta Springs 


463 


Beavertown 


231 






Bedford 


189 


Bailey's 


276 


Bellefonte 


202 


Bainbridge 


163 


Belleville 


263 


Balcony Falls 


493 


Belviile 


503 


Baltimore 


299 


Benedict 


377 


Baptist-town 


275 


Benville 


269 


Barboursville 


481 


Berryville 


453 



516 


INDEX. 




Berwick 


183 


Buckletown 


452 


Bethlehem 


194 


Buford's Gap 


490 


Beverly- 


512 


Bulltown 


512 


Big Lick 


490 


Burlington 


144 


Big Spring 


342 


Burlington, 0. 


504 


Blackbird 


292 


Burlington, Va. 


510 


Blackwood town 


281 


Butler 


228 


Bladensburg 


334 






Blairsville 


177 


Cabin-point 


428 


Blennerhassett's 




Callaghan's 


469 


Island 


503 


Cambridge 


508 


Bloomfield 


266 


Camden, N. J. 


154 


Bloomingdale 


266 


Camden, Del. 


289 


Bloomsburg 


183 


Canals of Pa. 


239 


Bloomsbury 


259 


Canals of N. J. 


284 


Blountville 


492 


Canals of Del. 


293 


Blue Anchor 


280 


Canals of Maryl. 


645 


Blue Sulph. Spr. 


478 


Canals of Virg. 


514 


Boatyard 


492 


Canterbury 


289 


Bombay-hook 


152 


Cantwells 


292 


Boonboro' 


341 


Cape May 


152 


Bordentown 


145 


Carlisle 


171 


Bottom's Bridge 


431 


Carlisle Springs 


172 


Bound Brook 


275 


Carpenter's Land- 




Bowlinggreen 


382 


ing 


282 


Branchville 


269 


Carrollton Viad'ct 


333 


Brandy wine Spr. 


149 


Cartersville 


443 


Brandywine, Va. 


434 


Catawissa 


183 


Bridgport 


344 


Cedarville 


266 


Bridgetown 


290 


Centreville, Pa. 


288 


Bristol 


143 


Centreville, DeL^ 


,291 


Broadkill 


289 


Centreville, Va. 


"383 


Brookville 


203 


Cesar's Cave 


494 


Brownsville, 


344 


Chambersburg 


188 


Bryantown 


377 


Charleston, Va. 


447 


Buchannan 


486 


Charleston, Va. 


480 


Buck Tavern 


132 


Charlottesville 







INDEX. 


517 


Cheapside 


216 


Dockertown 


267 


Cherrysville 


209 


Delaware City 


152 


Chesnut Hill 


177 


Delaware, State of 285 


Chester 


143 


Dennis Creek 


157 


Chester Gap 


457 


Dist. of Columb. 


347 


Chester 


215 


Dover, Del. 


288 


Chew's Landing 


281 


Dover, N. J. 


268 


Christiansburg 


490 


Downingstown 


134 


Cincinnati 


505 


Doylestown 


139 


Clarksboro, Va. 


511 


Drawbridge 


279 


Clarksburg, Md. 


378 


Dunkers 


167 


Clark's Corner 


293 


Dumfries 


381 


Clarkesville, Va. 


434 


Duncan's Isl'd 


174 


Claysville 


230 


Dunkirk 


433 


Clinton, N. J. 


276 


Dunnstown 


182 


Coal Regions of 






Pa. 198 


,211 


Earleysburg 


202 


Coal Regions ol 




East Liverpool 


232 


Va. 


441 


Easton 


206 


Coatesville 


135 


Eaton 


153 


Gold Harbour 


434 


Elizabeth port 


147 


Gold Spring 


158 


Elizabethtown 


161 


CoUiertown 


493 


Elizabetht'n, N. J 


255 


Columbia 


163 


Elizabethtown 


501 


Columbia 


216 


Elkridge Landing 


333 


Columbia, Dist. of 347 


Ellicott's 


335 


Columbia, Va. 


437 


Emmetsburg 


378 


Competition 


497 


Englishtown 


260 


Cooperstown 


279 


Ephrata 


167 


Covington 


494 


Erie 


216 


Cranberry 


260 


Estillville 


495 


Cross-roads, Va. 


431 


Evansham 


491 


Cumberland, Md. 


342 


Exetertown 


138 


Curwinville 


203 










Fairfax, Va. 


457 


Danville 


182 


Fairfax G. H. Va. 


383 


Danville 


498 


Fairfield 
14 


482 



&1« 


INDEX. 




Fairview, Pa. 
Fairview, 0. 


259 

508 


Gettysburg 
Girardville 


165 

201 


Falmouth 


163 


Glass boro 


156 


Farrandville 


182 


Glass Windows 


491 


Fieldsboro 


292 


Gloucester, N. J. 


282 


Fincastle 


486 


Goochland C. H. 


437 


Fiiidlaysville 


230 


Goose Creek 


455 


Flagtovvn 


275 


GordoiisvilJe 


435 


Flemington 


258 


Goshen 


157 


Flint Hill 


457 


Gray's Ferry 


148 


Flowertown 


141 


Greencastle 


191 


Fort Loudoun 
Fort Mifflin 


446 
150 


Greensburg 
Greenville 


190 

482 


Fort M'Henry 
Fort Monroe 


303 
433 


Grey Sulph. Spr. 
Guineatovvn 


476 
290 


Frankford 


143 


Guyandot 


481 


Franklin 


203 






Franklin, Va., 


513 


Hackaday's Sp. 


431 


Frankstown 


175 


Haddonfield 


279 


Frederica 
Frederick 


289 
339 


Hagerstown 
Hamburg, Pa. 


342 

192 


Fredericksburg 


381 


Hamburg, N. J. 


267 


Freehold 


153 


liammsville 


292 


Frenchtown 


151 


Hampton 


158 


Front Royal 


456 


Hampton, Va. 


433 


Fry burg 


142 


Hancock 
Hanover C. H. Va 


342 
383 


Galltpolts, 0. 


503 


Harper's Ferry 


448 


Gap of Blue Mt. 


173 


Harrisburg 


168 


Gap of Allegany 
Mt. 


177 


Harrisonburg 
Hartleyton 


436 

202 


Gap Tavern 


135 


Havre De Grace 


149 


Georgetown 


229 


Hawkinsburg 


460 


Georgetown, Del. 


291 


Heathsville 


435 


Georgetown, Md. 


378 


Hereford 


337 


Germantown 


140 


Hicksford 


426 


German Valley 


215 


Hightstown 


146 



INDEX. 



519 



High Spire 
Hillsboro, Pa. 
Hollidaysburg 
Hot Springs 
Hummelstown 
Huntingdon 

Indian Massacre 

Jacksonville 

Jefferson's Rock 

JefFersonville 

Jenkintown 

Jenning's Gap 

Jersey Shore 

Johnson's Cave 

Johnslown 

Jonesville 

Jugtown 

Kaignton 

Kanawha Salt W. 

Kerrtown 

Kings port 

Knoxville 

Kreidersville 

Kutztown 

Lafayette, N. J 

Lancaster 

Laughlintown 

Lazaretto 

Lebanon 

Lebanon, N. J. 

Lebanon, Va. 

Lee's Sulphur Sp. 

Leechburg 

Leesburg 



163 

344 

176 
466 
187 
175 

160 
260 
448 
495 
138 
463 
181 
485 
177 
496 
276 

282 
409 
458 
492 
492 
209 
193 

269 
159 
190 
150 

187 
276 
495 
384 
178 
453 



Lehigh Gap 

Lehighton 
Leonardtown 
Letart's Rapids 
Lewisburg, Pa. 
Lewisburg, Va. 
Lewistown, Pa. 
Lewistown, Del. 
Lexington 
Lexington, Va. 
Liberty 
Liberty Creek 



209 

209 
376 
503 
180 
480 
175 
289 
142 
482 
489 
277 



Little Washington 430 

Liverpool 

Lockport 

Logan's Ferry 

Logansville 

Long-a-coming 

Long Branch 

Louisa C. H. 

Loving's Gap 

Lovingslon 

Lynchburg 



Madison's Cave 

Mahanoy Mt. 

Malaga 

Manayunk 

Manchester, O. 

Manchester 

Mansfield 

Marcus Hook 

Marietta 

Marietta, Pa. 

Martinsburg 

Marlinsburg, Va. 

Maryland Pinnae. 448 



180 
177 
178 
278 
280 
153 
435 
497 
496 
487 

462 
202 
156 
136 
504 
424 
214 
151 
502 
162 
230 
452 



520 



Maryl'd State of 


295 


Massanutton Fall 


s46l 


Matouchin 


254 


Mauch Chunk 


210 


May's Landing- 


2,'^0 


Mays ville 


443 


Maysville, Ky. 


.505 


M'Connelstown 


189 


M'Gaheetown 


436 


Mead's Basin 


266 


Mead ville 


204 


Mendham 


215 


Mercer 


229 


Mexico 


175 


Middlebourn 


511 


Middiebrook, MA 


378 


Middleburg, Va. 


385 


Middleport 


206 


Middleton 


231 


Middletown 


157 


Middletown, Pa. 


161 


Middletown, N. J. 


274 


Middletown Point 273 


Middletown, Md. 


341 


Middlelov;n, Va. 


459 


Mifflin 


175 


Miltbrd, Pa. 


267 


Milford, Del. 


289 


Milford, Va. 


511 


Millcrstown 


187 


JWillheim 


202 


Millstone 


274 


Millville 


157 


Millwood 


386 


Milton 


181 


Miltontown 


201 


Monmouth 


153 



Montgomery, Pa. 141 

Montgomery, Pa. 179 

Monticello 437 

Moorestown 155 

Moorefields 458 

Morgantown 509 

Morristown 215 

Morristown, O. 508 

Morrisville 144 

Mount Airy 491 

Mount Carmel 258 

Mount Crawford 460 

Mount Ephraim 281 

Mount Holly 155 

Mountjoy 161 
Mount Pleasant, 

N. J. 268 
Mount Pleasant, 

Md. 343 
Mount Pleasant, 

Va. 460 

Mount Sydney 461 

Mount Vernon 380 

Mullica Hill 282 

Muncyboro 181 

Myerstown 187 

Nanticoke Falls 183 

Natural Bridge 482 

Natural Bridge 495 

Nazareth 213 

Newark 260 

New Baltimore 384 

New Berlin 202 

New Brighton 147 

New Brunswick 271 

New burn 490 



INDEX. 



521 



I'M ew Canton 443 
Newcastle, Dal. 151 
Newcastle, Va. 434 
New Glasgow 496 
New Jersey, St. of 243 
New Kent C. H. 431 
New London, 439 
Newmarket, Md. 336 
Newmarket, Va. 460 
Newport 174 
Newport 376 
Newport, O. 502 
Newtown 459 
Newville 139 
New White Sul- 
phur Springs 479 
Ninneveh 456 
Norfolk 428 
Norristown 137 
Northumberland 180 
Norwich 508 
Nottoway Riv. 426 

OCCOQUAN 381 

Ohio River 233 

Old Pt. Comfort 433 

Organ Cave 473 

Osborn 425 

Ottsville 139 



Palmtra 

Paoli 

Paris, Va. 

Parkersburg 

Parrsville 

Paterson 

Patterson 



187 
132 
386 
502 
336 
264 
206 



Patterson Viaduct 335 

Pattonsburg 486 

Peaks of Otter 489 

Penington 257 
Pennsylvania, SL 

of 3 

Pennypot 280 

Pensauken Cr. 158 

Perryville, N. J 276 

Perryville 259 

Perth Amboy 146 

Petersburg, Pa. 174 

Petersburg, Pa. 175 

Petersburg, Pa. 343 

Petersburg, Va- 425 

Peterstown 476 

Philadelphia 28 

Phillipsburg 203 

Phillipsburg 214 

Piscataway 376 

Pittsburg 217 

Piltstown 259 

Plainfield 270 

Plainsboro 260 

Pocahontas 464 

Point Lookout 376 

Point of Rocks 451 

Point Pleasant 503 

Pompey's Pillar 494 

Pompton 266 

Port Carbon 205 

Port Clinton 192 

Port Elizabetli 157 

Port Lyon 174 

Portsmouth, Va. 429 

Portsmouth, O. 504 

Port Tobacco 376 



522 



INDEX. 



Potterstown 

Pottstown 
Pottsville 
Praltsville 



276 
137 

194 
342 



Prince Frederick 377 
Prince George, Va. 427 
Princeton 252 



QUAKERTOWN 



142 



Rahway 254 

R. Roads of Pa, 240 
R, Roads of N. J. 284 

R. Roads in Del. 293 

R. Roads in Md. 345 

R. Roads of Va. 514 

Rancocus Creek 155 

Reading 191 

Red Lion 293 

Red Sulph. Spr. 475 

Reedy Island 152 

Richmond, Va. 413 

Ringoes 258 

Ringwood 510 

Roclitown 258 

Rockfish Gap 440 

Rockville 378 

RogersvillG 492 

Romney 458 

Rutledge 492 

Salem, N. J. 283 

Salem, Va. 455 

Salem, Va. 490 

Salisbury, Del. 292 

Salt Pond 494 

Salt Sulph Spr. 474 



Salt Works of 

Kanawha 481 

Saltzburg 178 
Schooley's Mt. Sp. 214 

Schuylkill Viad. 131 

Schuylkill Haven 193 

Scotch Plains 270 

Scoltsville 443 

Scuffletown 437 

Seaford 290 

Selinsgrove 180 

Sellersville 142 

Seneca Mills 378 

Shellsburg 190 

Shenandoah Riv. 336 

Shippensburg 172 

Shippensville 203 

Shoemakertown 138 
Shrewsbury, N. J. 274 

Shrewsbury, Va. 480 

Shumate's 469 

Sinking Spring 188 

Sistersville 502 

Smithfield 203 

Smithfield, Va. 428 

Smyrna, Del. 292 

Smythfield 343 

Snickersville 453 

Snidertown 258 

Snufftown 266 

Somerville 271 

Soudersburg 135 

South Amboy 146 

South Orange 216 

Sparta 268 

Spottswood 146 

Springfield, N. J. 270 





INDEX. 


523 


Springfield, Va. 


486 


U. S. Armory 


449 


St, Clairsville 


508 


Upperville 


385 


St. Genrjxe, 


292 






St. John's 


290 


Vansvh.le 


334 


Stannardsville 


435 


Vienna, Md. 


290 


Staunton 


461 


Virginia, State of 


389 


Sleubenville 


232 






Stoney Creek 


426 


Ward's Bridge 


497 


Stouchcstown 


188 


Ward's Spring 


497 


Stoughstown 


172 


Warm Springs 


464 


Stoystown 


190 


Warren 


271 


Strasburg, Pa. 


337 


Warrentown 


178 


Strasburg, Va. 


459 


Warrensburg 


138 


Sugarloaf Mt. 


497 


Warrenlon, O. 


233 


Summersviile 


512 


Warrenton, Va. 


384 


Sunbiiry 


180 


Washington, D. C. 351 


Sunville 


140 


Vv^iishington, N. J 


.158 


Surry C. H. 


428 


Wasliington, N. J. 27 1 


Sweet Springs 


476 


Washington Pa. 


230 


Sweet Sulph. Spr. 


474 


VVaterfordville 


154 






Waterford 


205 


Tamaqua 


206 


Waynesboro, Va. 


440 


Tappahannock 


434 


Waynesburg 


175 


Teatown 


290 


Weldon 


427 


Thompson town 


174 


Wellsburg 


232 


Tower Hill 


443 


West Alexandria 


231 


Towsontown 


337 


West Chester 


132 


Trap, Pa. 


137 


Westfield 


278 


Trap, Del. 


292 


Westfield, Va. 


512 


Trenton 


248 


Weston 


512 


Trexlerstown 


193 


Wetherill 


206 


Tuckahoe Creek 


437 


Weycr's Cave 


462 


Tuckerton 


153 


Weymouth 


280 


Tuscarora 


206 


Wheeling 


499 






Whiskey Insur. 


227 


Union, Pa. 


343 


Whitehouse 


276 


Union, Va. 


474 


White Sulph. Spi 


. 46 



524 


INDEX. 




Wilkesbarre 


183 


Woodbury 


156 


Williams, Del. 


289 


Woodville 


228 


■Williamsburg, Pa 


176 


Woodstock 


460 


Williamsburg, Va. 


131 


Woodstown 


283 


Williamsport 


181 


Wyoming Valley 


185 


Wrliiamsport 


191 






Williamsport, Md 


342 


Yellow Springs 


134 


Willow Grove 


139 


York 


165 


Wilmington 


149 


York, Va, 


440 


Winchester 


444 


Yorktown 


432 


Wind Gap 


213 






Womelsdorf 


188 


Zanesville 


508