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Bittrict o/NeW'Tori, w. ' 

Bk it rembmbbrbd, That on the eleTenth day of Aurust^ in the 
thirty.third year of the Independence of the United States of America, 
Isaac Riley, of the said District, hath deposited in this Office the 
title of a Book, the rijht whereof he claim» as Proprietor, in the words 
and figure following, to wit : 

«< The Geographical,^ Natural and Civil History of Chili. By Abbe 
*' Don J. Ip^atius Molina. Illustrated by a half-sheet Map of the Coun- 
'* try. With Notes from the Spanif h ¥id Freqch yer^ions, and an A|i- 
*' pendiz, containing copious extracts fít)m the Araucana of Don Alonzo 
*' de Ercilla. Translated from the or^n^ Italian, by an American 
** Gentleman. In two. Volumes.** 

In conformity to the act of tfie Gopgre^ of the United States, en- 
titled ** An Act for the encouragement of I^eaming, by securing the 
« copi^ of Maps, Charts and Books to the Authors and Proprietors of 
'* such copies, during the times therein mentioned," and also to an Act 
entitled " An Act supplementary to ^n Act entitled an Act for the en- 
** courkg^ment of Learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts 
** and Books to the Antlers and Prçprietors of such copies, during the 
'* times therein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the 
** arts of designing, engrftving and etching Historical and other Prints, 

ClciEk of *c Diftriot of Ncw-York. 

M, Alsop^ Printer i 












Vol. I 




Situation, Climate and Natural Phenomena, 



SECTION 1.— Limits, 



2.^— Name, 



3.— Natural Divisions, 



4.— -Political Divisions, - 


5.— Of Rain, &c. 



6— Winds, 



7.— Meteors, 



8. — Volcanoes, 



9. — ^Earthquakes, 



* 10.— Salubrity of Climate, 




Waters, Earths, Stones, Salte, Bitumens and Metals, 


SECTION 1.— Rivers, 


■ 30 

2.— Lakes, 



5.— Mineral Waters, 



4.— SoU, 



5.— Ph3W5Ícal Organization, 



6.— Earths, 



r.— Stones, 



8.— Saks; 



9. — ^Bitumens, 



10.— .Pyrites, 



11.— Semi-Metais 



12.— Metals, 





Herbs, Shi*ubs and TreeS) - - - . 85 

SECTION 1.— Herbs, .... 86 

2. — Alimentary Herbs or Plants, - 89 

3. — ^Herbs used in Dying, - - 97 

4t, — ^Medicinal Plants, - - 102 

5.«— Grasses, . - - - io6 

6.-— Climbing Plants, - - lOf 

7.— Shrubs, - - - . - 109 

8.— Trees, - - - - 115 


Worms, Insects, Reptiles, JPishes, Birds and Quadrupeds, 136 

SECTION 1— MoUuscas, ... 135 

2. — Crustacequs Fishes i^nd Inspects - 14^ 

3.— Reptiles, ... 151 

4.— Fishes, . • - . - 153 

5.— Birds, - - - - 162 

6. — Quadrupeds, - . - 189 

A Methodical Table of the various species of Natural Pro- 
ductions described in this Work, - - 239 

A, Supplement to the Table of the Vegetable Kingdom, 249 

Supplementary Notes, ilkistratiye of the History of Chili, 251 


IMPORTANT and interesting as has ever been 
the Htstpiy of llie Spanish settlements in Amçrica, 
particularly to the inhabitants of the same continent^ 
that impcMtance and interest is at the present period 
\ greatly increased, by the occurrence of events of 
roch magnitude, as will most probably be attended 
with the toftal sererance of those colonies from 
Europe, and the establishment of a new empire in 
the -west. Of these settlements, Chili is in many re- 
^eets one of the most important. Blest with a soil 
fertile beyond description, a climate mild and salu- 
brieus in the highest degree, productive of every 
convenience and most of the luxuries of life, and 
rich in the precious metals, Nature appears to have 
been delighted in lavishing its bounties upon this 
favoured portion of the globe. In its minerals, its 
plants and its animals, the naturalist will find an in. 
teresting and copious field of research ; and the cha- 
racter of its natives fumii^es a subject no less curi- 
ous and interesting to the moralist. The proud and 
invincible Araucanian exhibits some characterbtic 
traits altogether i^ew in the aborigines o^ this conti- 
nent, and scarcely to be parallelled in any nation of 
tl^e ok). The long and successful resistance of this 
brave people to the arms of Spain, even in the meri- 
4iaa of its military glory, is a wonderful instance of 


what a natipn can perform when animated by a spirit 
of liberty, and determined upon freedom or death. 
The Araucanians, it is true, to their high sense of 
independence and unyielding courage, had the good 
fortune of uniting a system of tactics so excellent as 
even to excite the admiration of their enemies, and 
to this in a great measure maybe ascribed their ^c- 
cessfully opposing, with far inferior arms, a powerful 
and disciplined foe. 

Whether the peculiar character of the Araucani^- 
ans proceeds from the influence of climate combi- 
ning with moral causes, or is wholly derived from 
their institutions and free form of government; 
whether, with the Chilians in general, they arc 
of foreign origin and a distinct race from the other 
natives of America, the remains, as the author sup- 
poses, of a great and powerful people, who had 
attained a high degree of civilization, and possessed 
a polished and cq)ious language ;. or whether their 
agricultural knowledge, military skill, and the cul- 
tivation of their idiom, are owing merely to fortui- 
tous circumstances, are points of curious inquiry, 
and such as will afford an ample field for conjecture. 

The author of the present work, Don Juan Ignar 
tins Molina, was a native of Chili, distinguished for 
his literary acquirements, and particularly his know- 
ledge of natural history, large collections in which 
he had made during his residence in that country. 
On the dissolution of the celebrated order of the 
Jesuits, of which he was a member, he shared the 
general fate of that community, in being expelled 
from the territories of Spain, and was at the same. 


time deprived not only of his collections in natural 
history, but also of his manuscripts. The most im- 
portant of the latter relative to Chili he had, how- 
ever, the good fortune to regain by accident some 
time after his residence in Bologna, in Italy, whither 
he had gone on his arrival in Europe. 

Furnished with t^ese materials, he applied'himself 
to writing the History of that country, which was 
published at two different periods ; the first part, 
comprising the Natural History, in the year 1787, 
and the second, containing the Civil, for reasons 
mentioned in his preface, not until some years after. 
This work, which was written in Italian, has obtained 
a very high reputation on the continent of Europe, 
where it has been translated into the French, Ger- 
man and Spanish languages. The celebrated Abbe 
Clavigero, in his history of Mexico, in referring in a 
note to that of Chili, mentions it in the most respect- 
, able terms, and calls the author his learned friend. 

In rendering this work into English, reference 
has been had both to the French and Spanish ver- 
sions, which contain some valuable additional notes. 
Through the politeness of a gentleman of his ac- 
quaintance, the translator has also been furnished 
with an anonymous compendium of the history of 
^Chili, printed in Bologna in 1776, from which the 
^supplementary notes to this volume are taken. 




The attention of Europe is at this time more 
than ever directed to America. We are desirous of 
obtaining information of its climate, its natural pro- 
ductions, and its inhabitants ; in short, every thing 
that is worthy of notice in that part of the world is 
now a subject of interest to the most enlightened 

Chili is acknowledged, by all who have written 
upon America, to be one of those provinces that 
merits the most attention. This country is distin- 
guished, not so much by its extent, as by the mild- 
ness of its climate ; and it may be said to enjoy all 
the advantages of the most favoured countries with- 
out their inconveniences. 

In my opinion, it may, with propriety, be compared 
to Italy ; as this is called the garden of Europe, that 
with more justice may be styled the garden of South 
America. The climate of the two countries is nearly 
the same, and they are situated under nearly similar 
parallels of latitude. They likewise resemble each 
other in the circumstance of their being of much 

VoL.L B 


greater extent in length than in breadth, and that 
they are both divided43v a chain of mountains. The 
Cordilleras or the Andes are to Chili, what the 
Apennines are to Italy, the source of almost all 
the rivers that water the country, and diffuse over 
it fertility and abundance. This chain of mountains 
has as sensible an influence on the salubrity of the 
air of Chili, as the Apennines have upon that of Italy ; 
and so firmly are the inhabitants convinced of this 
fact, that whenever they attempt to account for any 
change in the state of the atmosphere, they attribute 
it to the effect of these mountains, which they con- 
sider as powerful and infallible agenti^. 

A country so remarkable, both for its natural 
productions, and its political state, certainly merits 
to be well known ; yet, the accounts that we have 
of it are merely superficial, and little is to be found 
respecting its natural productions in writers upon 
natural history. Of the language and the customs of 
the inhabitants we are equally ignorant, and scarcely 
any thing is known of the exertions which the Chi- 
lians have made, even in our days, to defend their 

A few well informed travellers who have been in 
the country, have published some valuable accounts, 
but too concise to furnish a competent idea of it. 
Father Louis Feuille, a French Minim friar, has 
given a scientific description of the plants that he 
found upon the coast, to which he has added an 
account of several animals that he noticed there. 
This is a work of great merit; the descriptions are 
precise, and perfectly correct j but as it was pub- 

mSFACX. viî 

Üshfid by the order and at the expense of the king^ 
the cqnes of it have become very scarce, and are in 
the possession of but few. 

A number of Spanish authors have treated of this 
country. The last century produced several, not to 
menticm those of the present; but few of their wri- 
tings, however, have been published, for reasons 
which I ^all hei^after assign. Of these, the first 
in point of merit are those of Don Pedro de Figue- 
roa^and the Abbés Michael de Oiivarez and Philip 
Vidaurre. The two former treat of the political 
liistory of the country, from the arrival of the Span- 
iards to the present time. That of the Abbé Oii- 
varez merits particular attention, from the great 
number of interesting facts relative to the long war; 
between the Spaniards and Araucanians, which he 
has collected with no less judgment than industry* 
Thç work of the Abbé Vidaurre is principally em- 
ployed upon die natural productions a|id customs of 
Chili, ^id di^lays much intelligence and acute* 
ness of research. 

Besides die histories, or more properly speaking, 
the accounts that have been written of this coun« 
try, there are four poems that have for their sub- 
ject the Araucanian wars; also doi anonymous 
abridgement in Italian of the geographical and na- 
tural history of Chili, published in l^TTô, which, in 
some respects, particularly with regard ta geogra- 
phy and natural history, furnishes a more, complete 
account of Chili than we have had. But as that 
compendium is much too concise, I presume I shall 
render an important service to those who feel an in- 

vlii PREFACE. 

terest in what respects America by presenting^ them 
with this essay, in which I have dwelt more fuMjr 
and precisely upon the natural productions of Chiii^ 
as well as upon the most conspicuous events that 
Aave occurred in that country. 

At an early period of life I began to turn my at- 
tention both to the natural and political history of 
Chili, with the view of publishing, at some future 
time, the result of my inquiries. Some unto- 
-ward circumstances, however, interrupted my. pro- 
gress, and I had even relinquished the hope of hav- 
ing it in my power to carry my plan into eflFect, 
ifrhen a fortunate accident. put me into possession of 
the requisite materials, and enabled me to oflFer the 
jw^sent work to the public ; to which, in a short time, 
I propose adding another essay or compendium of 
the civil and political hiistpry of the same country. . 
. The method that I have adopted in arrsoiging 
this work has beeii^ to divide it into four chapters: 
The first, after a succinct geographical account of 
Chili, which may serve as an introduction, treats of 
the seasons, winds, meteors, volcanoes, earthquakes 
and state of the climate. The other three I have de* 
voted to adciscription of natural objects, proceeding 
from the simplest to the most complex, that is, from 
the mineral t|^|he vegetable and animal kingdoms; 
ftnd in th/e last^ve added some conjectures of my 
owni^respect^ng the inhabitants of Chili and the Pa^ 
tagoniaq^, Qr pretended giants, whom I consider as 
the mountaineers of that country. 

I have referred, as far as was in my power, the vari- 
ous objects noticed to the genera of Linnssus, but ia 


some instances where I have not been able to reduce 
them to those that are known, I have invented new, 
in conformity to his system. That author's mode o£ 
classification I have not, however, pursued, as it ap- 
peared to me. incompatible with the plan of my work» 
Though I have followed the system of that cele» 
brated Swedish naturalist, it is not from a convic- 
tion of its superiority to that of any other, but be- 
cause it has been of late so generally adopted; for 
great as is the respect which I feel for that learned 
writer, I cannot always approve of his nomen- 
clature, and should have preferred pursuing the 
system of Wallerius and Bomare in mineralogy, 
that of Toumefort in botany, and of Brisson in zoo- 
logy, as I think them to be more simple and better 
known to the world in general. 

In describing objects of natural history I have 
avoided the use of technical terms, as being difficult 
to be understood by those not conversant with that 
study ; but for the gratification of such as are fami- 
liar with that science, I have given, at the bottom of 
the page, the Linnasan characters in Latin, both of 
the known species, and of those that are new, which 
I have discovered.* My descriptions will, for the 
most part, be found to be short, and such as merely 
furnish the essential character of the species. The 
common characteristics of the genus I have passed 
over intentionally, and it will be found that the,samc 

* It has been thought advisable in this version to make some va* 
rtation in this rçsfiect^ andy conformably thereto, the technical de* 
êcrifitions vnll be found at the end of the volume^ arranged un* 
áer their respective heads.,^AmGr. Trans. 


brevity prevails throu|[^hout the work, which is writf 
ten in a plain and unaffected manner, without be*? 
itildering myself with vague coi^ectures and hazarr 
dqus hypotheses, which would have been deviating 
altogether from the limits that I had prescribed to 

I have frequently quoted those auAors who have 
written upon Chili, and have judged this precautioa 
the more necessary, as, in treating of a country so re- 
mote and so little known, I could not expect to b^ 
believed on my own unsupported assertion ; b^ut thi^ 
passages that I have selected will evince that 1 havo 
not exaggerated in my accounts of the salubrity of 
the climate, and the excellence of the soil, and that 
I might have been justified in saying still more. 

With respect to this work, it is no more than a 
compendium, or an abridged history of machy of 
the natural productions of Chili, The reflecting rear 
der will not look in it for a complete natural history 
of that country ; such a work would have required 
much greater means than I possess, and such as^ 
sistance as I have not been able to procure. 

Those acquainted with M. de Pauw's philosophic 
cal inquiries respecting the Americans, will per4 
haps be surprised to find in my work some re- 
marks which do not correspond with what that 
author has said respecting America in general. 
But whatever I have asserted respecting ChiK is» 
founded upon personal experience and attentive 
observation during a residence of many years in that 
country, and, in support of what I have advanced, I 
have cited the authority of several respectable au- 

FREFACtt. ii 

thotÈy who were eye-witnesses, and not hear-say re-^ 
laters ctf what they have written, M. de Pauw, on 
the contrary, not only never saw the countjy that 
he has undertaken to characterize, but even appears 
iiot to have been solicitous to consult those authors 
Mohave written upon it; for although he frequenter 
mentionis Frazier and UUoa, he cites their opinions 
<MiIy as ftr as they tend to confirm his theory. Bodi 
those âuthOTs speak of Chili as very fertile, but lyi» 
de Pauw has not thought proper to insert those pas* 
teges,but only observes, in general terms, that wheat 
cannot he raised except in some of the North Ameri- 
can provinces. 

Led away by inferences drawn from an ideal sys- 
tem of his own invention, he has carried his visionarj^ 
notions so far that his work partakes more of the na- 
ture of a romance than a philosophical disquisition^ 
It is sufficient for his purpose to find, in the vast ex- 
tent of America, some small district or unimportant 
island labouring under the disadvantages of an unfa, 
vourable climate or unproductive soil, to attribute 
these circumstances as general to all the provinces of 
that country. A wretched tribe of the most obscure 
savages serves as his model of character for all the 
Americans. Such is the logic of M. de Pauw-^it 
would be an endless task were I to esideavour to con-, 
fute the numerous erroneous opinions that he has, 
advanced respecting America; upon that subject 
he has deduced his conclusions from the most un- 
founded premises, and employed a mode of reason- 
ing that might, with equal propriety, be applied to 
the prejudice of any other portion of the globe ; a 


proceeding that can neitlwr be justified by reason 
or philosophy. In short, De Pauw has made use of 
as muct freedom with regard to America as if he had 
been writing upon the moon and its inhabitants. 
But to appreciate properly the observations of this 
author, I shall refer the reader to the opinions of 
many learned men who have visited that country, 
and have fully refuted his assertions. Among those 
who merit particular attention on this subject is Count 
Juan Reynaldes Carli, so well known by his vari- 
ous literary productions, particularly his American 
Letters,* in which, w:ith much critical and philoso- 
phical investigation, he has comprised whatever 
may serve to convey a clear and correct idea of 

N. B. The reader is informed that the mile made 
use of in this work is the geographical mile of sixty 
to a degree, the foot the French foot, and the pound 
that of Italy of twelve ounces. I would also observe 
that the map, that accompanies it, is a copy of the 
one published in 1776; which is very correct. 

• Those literati who arc desirous of becoming perfectly ac- 
quainted with America, will do well to consult tljis work, whicU 
consists of three volume».... iS/i. Trans, 







Situation^ Climate^ and natural Phenomena^ 

CfilLI, a country of South America, is sitii* 
ated upon the South Sea or Pacific Ocean, between 
the 24th and 45th degrees of south latitude, and the 
304th and 308th degrees of longitude from the meri- 
dian of Ferro* 

Its length is estimated at 1260 geographical miles, 
but it varies in breadth as the great range of moun- 
tains, called the Cordilleras or the Andes^ approach 
<ir recede from the sea ; or, to speak with more pre- 
cision, as the sea approaches or retires from those 
mountains^ Between the 24th and 32d degrees of 
latitude, the distance of the sea from the mountains 
is about 210 miles ; from the 32d to the 37th it is 
but 120 ; and in the broadest part of Chili, near the 
Archipelago of Chiloé, it is little less than 300 
miles,» In calculating from these variQus extents, 
VoL.L c 

the surface of Chili may be estimated at 378,000 
square miles. 

Sect. I. Limits. — Chili is bounded upon the 
Ivest by the Pacific Ocean, on the north by Peru, on 
the east by Tucuiñan, Cujo and Patagonia, and on 
the south by the land of Magellan. It is separated 
from all these countries by the Cordilleras, which 
form an insurmountable b^mler on the land side, 
while the sea renders it secure upon that quarter. 
The few roads which lead to Chili from the neigh* 
bouring province's arc impassible, except in summer, 
and are 'so narrow and dangerous that a man on 
horseback can with difficulty pass them.* 

Thç PT^tcnt vhich modem geographers assign to 
Chili Í3 much greater than that which the inhabi- 
tanta ^ow it ; the former usually comprehend with- 

* TJierc arc abo\it eight or nine road« which cro^s the Coi^illc* 
raí of Chill, of which that leading from the province of Acou- 
cagiui to Cu{o is the most travelled. Thi$ road, which eannet be 
passed in less than eight days, is bordered on one,9Í4f t>X ^ 4p^ 
beds which the Chile and the; Mcndíoza, two considçfajblç riv^s, 
have worn there j on the other side, by very lofty and perpendi- 
cular mêuntaÎB^ It is se narrow and incommodious, that, in many 
pla<sc% ^Ti^yislJi^rQ arf obliged ^ quit thm ?i)ul^;th© «Uy amioolt 
^^t, cau b^ çiïvplpyed, auí to proceed ou í(^\;, cprdoen there í|, 
year pass when some loaded mules aré not precipitated from these 
roads iiito the rivers. These precipices, however, do not follow the 
wh9le c^urs9 of the nmd; for occasionally, it passes ovet iscrjr 
açreeablç ^Ô plqj^sçajt pifias, wh?rf; travellers hí^}t to r?fpçA' 
themsçlv^t In tbese places tjie Ine^s, when they conc^uçred 
Cusco and the northern provinces of Chili, caused some stont 
houses td be constructod fov the aoçommodation of Ibeit ofteeri f 
oi|e w^kh hf^« been ruined; b^t the Others s^ remaio ^aHpq^v 
The Spaniards have built some more, fpr thé greater convç- . 
nience of travellers. 

in it, Cujo, Pata^nia^ and Üi^ Imd <rf Miigellan. But 
these countries are not only ^ep^at^d from it by 
natural limit:^^ but their climate and production^ 
differ ; their inhabitants have countenancef totally 
unlike the Chilians, ^id their langage and custoxn^ 
have no resemblance.* 

Sect. II. Name. — The writers upon Am^ica 
have givçn various derivation* of the name of Chili» 
which are either wholly false, or founded on absurd 
conjectures. It is certain, however, that it was 
kr^own by its present ^iame long before the arrival of 
the Sjpaniards. The inhabitants derive the name 
from certain birds ctf the thrush kind, that are 
very common in the country, and whose note has 
some resemblance to the word Chili. And it is |iot 
improbable, that the, first tribes, who settled there^ 
considered this note as a good omen, and named 
the country accordingly»! 

» Aldioügíi «he printi{yal moutitàih of the Côrdillctài is the na- 
tural tf^rmmatSbn of Chili té ^e east^ I o^Anprehetod irlthia its 
conünes wA <Bily th^ western vailles <?£ that mountain, aa neces- 
sarily attached to it, but also the eastern ; as, though not compris- 
ed Wittôft k* natural lifnitS, havbg bé€rt occupied bjr Chiliáft tXy^ 
Ml^9 frvm #Ai^ knmetnoHal. 

t The colonists who went from the south^rh |iatt of Chili to 
«ettle tb^ AnEfhipelago of C^iloé^ an eihigratioh that look ^lace 
$0me ages prior to the arrival of the S^aniards^ called those islan4s 
Cîhil-hue, which signifies a district or province of Chili, influenced, 
undoubtedly^ by the desire <# preserving the memorjr of thétr 
original country ; and all the Chilians, those w1k> havft continuad 
free as well as the subjugated) call their country Chili-mapu, that 
Is, the land of Chili, and its language Chili-dugu, the language q( 

Sect. Ill: JVatural Dibision^. -^Chili naturally di- 
vides itself into three parts, the first comprehending 
the islands; the second, Chili properly called; and 
the third, the Andes, or the country occupied by that 
range of moimtains. The islands that belong to 
Chili are : the three Coquimbanes, ^Jugillon, Toto- 
ral, and Pajaro. These islands are desert ; and are 
said to-be six or eight miles in* circutnfèrence. 

The two islands of Juan Fernandez ; one of which, 
known by the nameof Isola de Terra (the shore-island) 
from its being the nearest to the' continent, is about 
42 miles in circumference. Lord Ansoti, who re- 
mained there some time, describes it as a terrestrial 
paradise ; it is at present inhabited by the Spaniards: 
Ther other, which bears the name of Másáfuera, 
{the more distant) is snialler, and although its ap- 
pearance is as* beautiful and inviting aá that of the 
Isola di Terra, it has renlaîned till the present time 
uncultivated and uninhabited. 

The isUtnd of Carrama. This is rather a rock 
than an island capable of cultivation. Quirinquina, 
at the entrance of the harbotir of Conception, and 
Talca or Santa Maria, are two islands of about fouir 
miles in length; and are the property of twO' wealthy 
inhabitants of Conception. 

Mocha. This island, which is more than €0 
miles in circtimference, is handsome and fertile. It 
was in the last century inhabited by the Spaniards^ 
but is at present deserted. 

The Archipelago of Chiloé, with that of the Chones, 
which is dependant upoïi it, comprehends eighty two 

islands that are inhabited by some Spaniards and 
Indians. The largest of these islands, which has 
given its name to the Archipelago, is Chiloé ; it is' 
about 150 miles in length ; the capital of it is Castro. 

AH these islands are near the coast, except those 
of Juan Fernandez, the first of which is 330, and 
the second 420 miles distant.* 

Chili properly called, or that part which is situated 
between the Andes and the sea, is at least 120 miles 
in breadth : It is commonly divided into two equal 
parts, that is, the maritime country, and the midland 

* In the same sea, but very remote, are situated the little 
islands oí St. Ambrosio, St. Felix, and that of Pasqua, much ce- 
lebrated for the great number of statues which the natives have 
erected in various parts of it, either as ornaments, or, -what is 
more probable, as tutelary divinities. The two first, which are 
desert, are distant 200 leagues from the coast of Chili, and are 
situated in 26 deg. 27 min. south latitude; but that of Pasqua, 
which is probably the same with Davis*s land, and is in 27 deg. 
and 5 min. south latitude, and about the 268th deg. of longitude, 
is 600 leagues distant from that coast. This island is but a little 
more than five leagues in extent, and its inhabitants, who do not 
exceed 800, are whiter than most of the Indians, and permit their 
beards to grow. The statues that are met with throughout the 
island are very numerous, and* of various sizes; some of them 
being 27 feet in height, and others not exceeding that of a man. 
To the sight and touch they appear like stone ; but as they are all 
of a single piece, and there are no quarries on the island capable 
of furnishing stones of that size, it is probable that they are form- 
ed of «ome kind of plaister or cement that, when dry, assumes 
the consistency and colour of stone. The Dutch admiral, Rogge- 
wein, who was the first that visited this island, in the year 1722, 
says, that these statues were wrought with much skill. Don 
Philip Gonsalez, commander of the ship of war Rosalia, who was 
there in the year 1770, and Captain Cook, in March; 1774, both 
agree with Roggewein as respects the number and size of these 

country ; the maritime country is intersected by 
three chains of mountains, running parallel to the 
Andes, between which are numerous vallies watered 
by delightful rivers. The midland country is almost 
flat ; a few isolated hills only are to be seen, that 
diversify and render the appearance of it more 

The Andes, which are considered as the loftiest 
ir.ountains in the world, cross the whole continent of 
^Vîîierica, in a direction from south to north, for I 
consider the mountains in North America, as only 
i\ continuation of the Cordilleras. The part that 
rppertains to Chili may be 120 miles in breadth ; it 
consists of a great number of mountains, all of them 
of a prodigious height, which appear to be chained 
to each other ; and where nature displays all the 
beauties and all the horrors of the most picturesque 
ijituations. Although it abounds witii frightful pre* ' 
c^îpices, many agreeable vallies and fertile pastures 
.re to be found there ; and the rivers that derive 
tlicir sources from the mountains,* often exhibit the 

♦ tile highest momit;aiti« of the Cordilleras of Chili are the 
Mànflosi in SO deg. 4S vain, the Tupungato, in 33. 24. the Dcsca- 
}fi:t*àào in 35 deg. the Blanquillo in 33. 4. the Longavi m 35. 30. the 
X^hillaA in 3«. and the Cortobade in 43. 1 had no oppoituiiity', 
ivhile iA thé country, to tneaaure the height of those mountain^, 
-vrhkh hatüralísts assert are tnore than 20,000 feet abot^e the level 
(»f the sea. Bufibn asserts, that the highest trtoantaini^ of the earth 
are to be found under the equator ; but havbg seen ahd particu- 
Î \?*ly noticed both those of Peru and of Chili, I doubt much the 
ci^rectnes» of this ftjfiort», and afld more inclined to adopt the 
o\^niOn of M. Aertrand, 'whof iu his Mentones upon the Struc* 
vu re Of the £atth, says, ^< it is ^pt true that the highest nunin- 

ïâosi pleasing as well as the most terrifying features. 
That portion of the Cordilleras which is situated be- 
tween the 24th and 33d degrees of latitude, is 
wholly desert ; but the remainder, as far as the 45th 
degree, is inhabited by some colonies of Chilians, 
who are called Chiquillanes, Pehuenches, Puelches, 
and Huilliches, but are more generally known by 
the name of Patagonians. 

Sect. IV. Political Divisions. — The political 
divisions of Chili consist of the part occupied by 
the Spaniards, and fhat which is inhabited by the 
Indians. The Spanish part is situated between the 
24th and 37th degrees of south latitude, and is 
divided into thirteen provinces, to wit: Copiapo, 
Coquimbo, Quillota, Aconcagua, Melipilla, and St. 
Jago, (which contains the capital city of the country 
of the same name) Rancagua, Calchagua, Maule, 
Ytata Chilian, Puchacay and Huilquilemu.* The 

tains are found under the equator, since the Andes increase in 
height in proportion as they recede from it" The Cordilleras is 
lower at Copiapo, notwithstanding it is nearer the tropic, than in 
the other parts of Chili. 

* I havç thought proper in this place to give a short account of 
the situation and extent of all these provinces, with their capitals, 
ports and principal rlveiMs. I should also have given a statement 
of their population, but was not able to obtain an estimate which 
satisfied me. 

Copiapcs-^etending from the Andes to the sea, is 100 leagues ii% 
length,^ and 70 in breadth. Its capital^^Cof^apo, situate in 26 deg, 
50 min. south latitude. Ports — Copiapo and Guaseo. Rivers — tht 
Salado, Copiapo, Totoral, Quebrada, Guaseo and Chollay. 

Coqnimbo-^xtending frcan the Andes to the sea ; in length 45 
leagues; in breadth 70, Its capital — Coquimbo, in £9 ckg. 5^ 

division of these provinces is very irregular, and 
imperfectly designated : there are some of them 
which extend from the sea to the Andes ; others 
occupy but the half of that space, and are situated 

min. Ports^Coquimbo and Tongoy. Rivers— Coquimbo, Ton- 
goy, Limari and Chuapa. 

Quillota— situated on the sea-coast, in length 25 leagues, in 
breadth 21. Its capital — Quillota, in 32 deg, 56 min. Ports— Pa- 
pudo, Herradura, Quintero and Valparaiso, in 33 deg. 2 min. 
Rivers — ^Longotoma, Ligua, Chile and Ldmache. 

Aconcagua — in the vicinity of the Andes ; 25 leagues in length, 
and of equal width. Its capital — Aconcagua, in 32 deg. 48 min. 
Rivers — ^Longotoma, Ligua and Chile. 

Melipilla— on the sea-coast ; 11 leagues in length, in breadth 23. 
Its capital — Melipilla, in 33 deg. 32 min. Port — St. Antonio. 
Rivers— Maypo, Mapoche and Poangue. 

Santiago — ^near the Andes ; 11 leagues in length, in breadth 20. 
Its capital — Santiago, in 33 deg. 31 min. Rivers — Colina, Lampa, 
Mapoche and Maypo. \ 

Rancagua — from the Andes to the sea ; in length 13 leagues, in 
breadth 40. Its capital — Rancagua, in 34 deg. Rivers — Maypo, 
Codegùa, Chocalan and Cachapoal. 

Colchagua — ^from the Andes to the sea ; 15 leagues in length, 
and 43 in breadth. Its capital — St. Fernando, in 34 deg. 18 min. 
Ports — Topocalma and Navidad. Rivers — ^Rio-Clarillo, Tingiri- 
rica, Chimbarongo, Nilahue and Teno. 

Maule — ^from the Andes to the sea; 44 leagues long and 48 
broad. Its capital — Talca, in 34 deg. 33 min. Port — Astillero. 
Rivers — Mataquito, Rioclaro, Lircay, Maule, Putagan, Achihu- 
cnu, Liguay, Longavi, Loncomilla and PurapéL 

Itata — on the sea-coast; 11 leagues in length and 23 in breadth. 
Its capital — Coulemu, in 36 deg. 2 min. Rivers^^^-Lonquen and 

Chilian— near the Andes ; in length 12 leagues, in breadth 25. 
Its capital — Chilian, in, 36 deg. Rivers— Catillo, Cato, Nuble 
and Chillam. f 

Puchacay — on the sea^K^oast ; 12 leagues long and 25 broad. Its 
capital — Gualqui, in 36 deg. 42 rain. Rivers— Lirquen, Andalién 
and Bio-bio. 

near the mountains or upon the coast. Their extent 
is also very various, some of them being six or 
seven times larger than others. These provinces 
were formerly inhabited by the Copiapins, Coquim*' 
branes, Quillotanes, Mapochinins, Promaucques> 
Cures, Cauques, and Pcnquons, At present there 
exist but few remains of any <rf these nations. 
The Indian country is situated between the river 
Bio-bio and the Archipelago of Chiloé, or the 36tlt 
and 41st degrees of latitude. It is inhabited by 
three different nations : the Araucanians, the Cun- 
ches and the Huilichies, The Araucanians da not, 
as M. de Pauw pretends, inhabit the barren rocks of 
Chili, but, on the contrary, the finest plains in the 
whole country, situated between the rivers Bio-bio 
and Valdivia. Araucania lies upon the sea coast, 
and is calculated to be 186 miles in length ; it is 
generally considered as the most pleasant and fertile 
part of Chili ; its breadth, fix>m the sea to the foot 
of the Andes, was formerly estimated at 300 miles, 
but the Puelches, a nation inhabiting thç western 
part of the mountains, having joined the Arauca- 
nians in the last century, it cannot at present be less 
than 420 miles in breadth, and the whole of their 
territory is calculated tp contain 78,120 square 

. Huilquilemu-— near the Andes; 12 leagues long and 25 
broad. Its capital— Huilquilemu, in 36 deg. 42 min. Rivers— 
Itata, Claro and Laxa. ^ 

llie Spaniards likewise possess the port and town of Valdivia 
with its territory, situated upon the south shore of the river of the 
same name, in 39 dec. 55 min. south latitude. 

Vol. I. Jy 


The AraticaïiîàtîS have divided their côuntiy into 
four principalities, or "Uthanmapu^ to which they 
have given the ioUowing names : Lavquemnapu, car 
the maritime country ; Lelvunmapù, or the flat 
country ; Inapiremapu, or tíie country at the foot 
of the Andes ; and PiremapB^ or the coraitry of the 
Andes* Each principality is divided into five pro* 
vinces, or ttilh-rehuey and each province into nine 
commanderies, or rehut* The maritime principality 
contains five provinces ; Arauco, Tucapel, Bicura, 
Boroa and Nagtolten, The principality of the 
plain, Encol, Puren, Repocura, Maquehue, and Ma- 
riquina- The principality at the foot of the Andes, 
Marven, Colhue, Chacaico, Quecheregua, and Gu- 
anahue. The principality of the Andes compre- 
hends all the vailles situated between the limits 
heretofore mentioned. The country of the Cunches 
extends along the coast, between the Valdivia and 
the Archipelago of Chiloé* Cunches is derived 
from die word cuncoy which signifies a bunch ^ 
grapes, and is allusive to the great fecundity of tiiat 
nation- The Huilliches occupy all the plains to the 
east of the Cunches, from whom they are separated 
partly by an imaginary line, and partly by that chain 
of the Andes which extèncfe from the Valdivia to 
the extremity of Chili- They are called Huilliches, 
which signifies southern men, from their country 
being the farthest towards the south- Both the 
Cunches and the Huilliches are warlike nationîs, and 
allies of the Araucan^ans, to whom they rendered 
important services in their wars with the Spaniards. 

Chili is one of the best countries in America. 


f he beauty ofi ks sky, tbe cQ»stant milctoess of its 
cUmate, aod its abundant fertiUtyj render it, as a 
place of residence^ extremely agreeable; and with 
respect to. its natoral productions, it may be said, 
without exagération, aot to be. inferior to any por- 
tion of the globe. The seasons succeed each other 
regularly, and are sufficiently marked, althou^ th? 
tmraition from cold to heat is very moderate* Th^ 
ispring ift Chill commences, aa in all the countries 
of the southern hemisphiere, the 23d September, tho 
mmmiw ia December, the autumn in MArcb» and 
the winter in June** 

* That part of Chili which may properly be deemed a Spanish 
province, is a narrow district, extending along the coast from the 
desert of Atacamas to the island of Chiloé, aboye 900 miles. It* 
climate is the racist dcliciou* of the New World, and is hardly 
equajled by that of any region on the face of the earth. Though 
bordering on the toj*rid zone, it never feels the extremity of heat, 
being screened on the east by the Andes, and refreshed from the 
west by cooling sea-breeze». The temperature of the air is so mil4 
and equable, that the Spaniards give it the preference to that of 
the southern provinces in their native country. The fertility of 
the sou coiresponds with <he beni^ity of the climsM^e, and is won- 
derfully accommodated to European productions. The most va- 
luable of these, com, wine and oil, abound in Chili, as if tliey had 
been native to the country. All the fruits imported from Europe 
attain to full maturity there. The animals of our hemisphere not 
oa\y njiultiply, bu|t improve m this d^^tful region. The hpmedr 
cattle are of larger size than those of Spain, Its breed of horses 
surpasses, both iii beauty and in spirit, the famous Andalusian race, 
from which they sprang, I^or has natui*e exhausted her bounty on 
the surface of the earth ; she has stored its bowels with riches. 
Valuable mines of gold, of silver, of copper, and of lead, have 
been discovered in various parts of it. A country distmguished by 
so many blessings, we may be apt to conclude, would early become 
a favourite station of the Spaniards, and must have been cultivated 
with pecuUs^r predilection and care. Instead of this, a ^eat part 


, Sect. V. O/* i?a¿n, &fr.— From the beginning 
of spring until autumn, there is throughout Chili a 
constant succession of .fine weather, particularly be- 
tween the 24th and 36th degrees of latitude; but in 
the islands, which for the most part iire covered 
with wood, the rains are very frequent even in sum- 
mer. The rainy season on the continent usually 
Commences in April, and continues until the last of 
August. In the northern provinces of Coquimbo 
and Copiapo it very rarely rains; in the central ones 
it usually rains three or four days in succession, and 
the pleasant weather continues fifteen or twenty days. 
In the southern the rains are much more frequent, and 
often continue for nine or ten days without cessation. 
These rains are never accompanied with storms or 
hail ; and thunder is scarcely known in the country, 
particularly in places at a distance from the Andes, 
where, even in summer, it is seldom ever heard.* 
Among those mountains, and near the sea, storms 
occasionally arise, which, according to the direction 
of the wind, pass over, and take their course to the 
north or south, 

In the maritime provinces snow is never seen. In 
those nearer the Andes, it falls about once in í ve 
years ; sometimes not so often, and the quantity 

of it remains unoccupied, In all this extent of country, títere arc 
not above eighty thousand white inhabitants, and about three times 
that number of negi'oes and people of a mixed race. The most 
fertile soil in America lies uncultivated, and some of its nxost pro-:- 
mising mines remain unwrought — JRoicrtaon's HietQry of jimçi 
rfcq^ vol. iv. chap. 7, 

* " Lightning is wholjy i^iknown in the province of Chili, not- 
withstanding thunder is occasionally heard at a çreat distance 
over the Andes." — American Gazetteer, 


l^ery trifling ; it usually melts while falling, and it 
is very uncommon to have it remain on the ground 
for a day. 

In the Andes, on the contrary, it falb in such 
quantities from April to November, that it not only 
lies there constantly during that time, but even 
renders them wholly impassable during the greater 
part of the year.* The highest summits of these 
mountains, which are constantly covered with snow, 
are distinguishable at a great distance by their 
whiteness, and form a very singular and pleasing 
appearance. Those of the inhabitants who are not 
sufficiently M^ealthy to have ice-houses, procure 
snow from the mountains, which they transport 
upon mules. The con:>umption of this article is 
very considerable, as a general use is made of it 
in summer to cool their liquors. The maritime 
countries, being at a distance from the Andes, 
do not enjoy this advantage, but they feel the pri- 

♦ Those who venture to pass the Andes in the depth of whiter, 
when overtaken by snow storms are frequently frozen, as happenr 
ed to the Spaniards under the command of Diego de Almagro, in 
the year 1535. This has led some authors to assert confidently, 
without attending to the difference of places, that such is the seve- 
rity of the winter in Chili, that men frequently perish with cold ; 
yet it has been repeatedly proved, that in those parts not comprised 
Vithin the Andes, the weather is so mild, that it is very unusual 
for the mercury in Reaumur's thermometer to sink to the freezing 
point, and none of the rivers or streams are ever frozen. Abbé 
Gauri says, in his Treatise upon Natural Philosophy, that the cold 
is so extreme in the plains of Cliili, that the inhabitants are com- 
pelled to forsake their houses, and, like the wretched inhabitant» 
of the polar regions, to -shelter themselves in caverns ; a story 
which betrays no less ignorance of the real situation of Chili, thaqi 
f, total ^tsrei^ard of .probability. 


ration of it less^ 9d the beat is muoh more moderate 
upon the coast than in the interior. In the mid- 
land provinces is sometimes seen, in the ndOBth <^ 
August, *a white £ro»t, accooopamed by a slight de- 
gree of cold, which is the greatest that is exp^^ 
rieneed in those districts. This coldness continues 
two or three hours after smu lise ; firom which 
tíme the weather is lïk^ that of a ñm d^y in 

* So general is the opinion of the excessive cold in the southern 
CKtremity: of America, that it is hazardous to contradict it I 
tbaU, howerer,. venture to suggest some doubts nespectísg sog^n^ 
lally an admitted fact At the same time that Cammodgre Byrom 
compares the temperature of the Straits of Magellan ii^ summer 
with the climate of England in midwinter, he describes tlie coun- 
tiy ia the ¿Dllowing manner : ^ Upon Simdy Point we fûund a plenty 
•f wopd and very good wat«r, and for four or five mik» the çhor« 
was exceedingly pleasant Over the point there is a fine level 
country, with a soil that, to au appearance, is extremely rich, fop 
the ground was covered with fiewers (^various kinds, that per^ 
f^nifd the air with ti^eir fragrance ; ai^^npo^gt^oqa were berrief 
almost innumerable, where the blossoms had been shed ; we ob- 
çerved that the grass was very good, and that it was intermixed 
with a great number of peas in blossNMii, Among this hixiiriance of 
herbage we saw many hundreds of birds feedmg, which, fro» theiip 
form» and the uncommon beauty of ttieir plumagei we caUçd painted 
g^ae. We w^edmwe than twelve miles, and found great plen- 
^.of fine fresh water." "The place abounded with g^ese, teal, 
«oipea, and other birds tliat were excellent food^*' " On eack side of 
Sedger river there are the ñnest treeí> I ever saw." '^ Some of then* 
f^re ÍÁ % great height, aini noore than e%ht feet in diameter, which^ 
is pfoportionAbly more than elf^t yarda ia circomferencè ; so that 
Iduv men» joinbg hand in hand, could not compass thçm ; an^KHig 
^otbers we knad the pepper tree, or Winter's bark, in great pletóy * 
Among these woods» notwit^hstaading the coldnesiiof ^» dimate, 
there are innumerable parrots, and other birds, of the «ost beautá-^* 
ill plumage." " The coi^itry between Port ¥ambe and Ca|>e 
Forward, Which is distant about four leagues, is extremel^ ixn^i 


Tlie dews trre sjfcrundant throughout Chili, in the 
feprfaig, summer, áitd autumnal nights, and in a great 
measure supply the want of rain during those sea- 
sons. Although the atmosphere is then loaded with 

the soil appears tobe very good, and therc'áre ao tess tiwài tíu*ee 
pretty large rivers, besides several brooks." *' I made anotlier 
excursion along the shore to the northward, and found the countty 
for many miles exceedingly pleasant, the ground being covcreâ 
trith liowcrs, vfMdk were not inferior to those tha* are ^ommooly 
found in our gardens, either in l^eauty or fragrancei"— Jïiîttire** 
worth's Voyages^ vol. i. chap. 4. 

This description is no doubt correct, and k is conformable to 
that given of the -country by many other voyagers. But how is % 
possible that so pleasing and plentiful a vegetation Ccmld be met 
with amidst such excessive cold, or that parrots, birds so attached to 
heat, should voluntarily inhabit a climate condemned to perpetual 
winter? And if the summer is so <5old that,' according to this 
author, it may be compared to midwinter in England, what 
idea must we form of the Magellanic winters. It is certain that 
Winter's bark is not only met with in abundance on the northern 
shores of this strait, but also from the account of Capt. Cook, în 
his second voyage, on the island of Fuego; yet this tree, which 
grows so plentifully in the open air, cannot endure the winter oC 
England, whither it ha^ been carried, unless aided by the artiikial 
warmth of a hot-house. To which may be added, that the «ea 
which surrounds those shores is never frozen, notwithstanding the 
great quantities of fresh water that flow into it ; a fact which aH 
the European navigators who double Cape Horn in midwinter caa 
testify. In the month of June, 1768, 1 was myself upon a voyage m 
that sea, as far as the 61st degree of latitude, without meeting 
, with the least indication of freezing ; and though it snowed very 
often, the cold was not severer than that which is usually felt 
during the winter in Bologna. The floatii^ islands of ice which 
are frequently met with in those seas, particularfy in the sum- 
mer, are driven by the southern winds which blow from the an- 
tarctic regions. 

The French who, in 1765, formed a settlement upon the Ma- 
îuine' islands, in 51 deg. 40 min. lat. affirmed, that the winter which 
they passed there was by no means severe, and that the ¿now was 


humidity, its salubrity is not injured thereby, for 
both husbandmen and travellers sleep in the open 
air with perfect security. 

Fogs are common on the coast, especially in the 
autumn ; they continue but a few hours in the 
morning, and, as they consist only of watery par- 
ticles, are not prejudicial either to the health of the 
inhabitants, or to the vegetation. 

Sect. VI. Winds* — The north and north-west 
winds usually bring rain, and the south and south- 
east a clear sky. These serve as infallible indica- 
tions to the inhabitants, who are observant of them, 
and furnish them .with a kind of barometer to 
determine previously the state of the weather. The 
same winds produce directly contrary effects in the 

never in such quantities as to cover the soles of their shoes.* I 
have no doubt of the unpleasant occurrence which befèl Mr. Banks 
and his companion on the island of Fuego ; but a single iact is not 
sufficient to establish a theory. The crew of the Spanish ship 
Conceptionpassed the whole winter of 1766 there, without experi- 
encing any thing of a similar nature, which might have been pro^ 
duced by a concurrence of various accidental causes. Whenever 
this part of the world becomes well peopled, the cold, which 
is now considered as natural to it, will be very sensibly de- 
creased \ on the lands being cultivated^ the air will be rendered as 
mild and pleasant as that which is enjoyed by the inhabitants of the 
northern hemisphere situated under similar parallels of latitude, it 
being a fact well ascertained, that a desert country covered with 
woods is much more subject to all the inconveniences of the atmos- 
phere, than one ñlled with inhabitants, and impi^ved by cultivation. 
The account given by Julius X^xsar of the climate of 
France, which at that period was covered with wood and unculti- 
vated, corresponds with ^at which the writers of our times have 
given of the Magellanic countries. 

* See M de Mrville'9 Letters. " 


southern and in the northern hemispheres. The 
north and northerly winds, before they arrive at Chili, 
cross the torrid zone, and there becoming loaded with 
vapours, bring with them heat and rain. This heat 
is, however, very moderate, and it would seem that 
these winds, in crossing the Andes, which are con- 
stantly covered with snow, become qualified, and lose 
much of their heat and unhealthy properties. In Tu- 
cuman and Cujo, where they are known by the name 
of Sonda, they are much more incommodious and 
are more suffocating than even the Siroc in Italy. 
The southerly winds coming immediately from the 
antarctic pole, are cold and dry. These are usually 
from the south-west, and prevail in Chili during the 
time that the sun is in the southern hemisphere. 
They blow constantly towards the equator, the at- 
mosphere at that period being highly rarefied, and 
tio adverse current of air opposing itself to their 
course. As they disperse the vapours, arid drive them 
towards the Andes, it rains but seldom during their 
continuance. The clouds collected upon these moun- 
tains, uniting with diose which come from the north, 
occasion very heavy rains, accompanied with thun- 
der, in all the provinces beyond the Andes, particu- 
larly in those of Tucuman and Cujo, while, at the 
same time, the atmosphere of Chili is constantly clear, 
and its inhabitants enjoy their finest season. The 
contrary takes place innvinter, which is the fine sea- 
son in these provinces, and the rainy in Chili. The 
south wind never continues blowing during the 
whole day with the same force : as the sun ap- 
Vol. T. . E 


preaches the meridian it falls very considerably, and 
rises again in the afternoon. At noon, when this 
wind is scarcely perceptible, a fresh breeze is felt 
from the sea, which continues about two or three 
hours. The husbandmen give it the name of the 
twelve o'clock breeze, or the countryman's watch, 
as it serves to regulate them in determining that 
hour. This sea breeze returns regularly at mid- 
night, and is supposed to be produced by the tide. 
It is stronger in autumn and sometimes accompanied 
with hail. The east winds rarely prevail in Chili, 
their course being obstructed by the Andes. Hur- 
ricanes, so common in the Antilles, are iniknown 
there ; there exists, indeed, a solitary example of a 
hurricane, which, in 1633, did much injury to the 
fortress of , Caremalpo, in the southern part of 

The mild temperature which Chili almost always 
enjoys, must depend entirely upon the succession 
of these winds, as a situation so near the tropic 
would naturally expose it to a more violent de- 
gree of heat. In addition to these, the tide, the 
abundant dews, and certain winds from the Andes, 
which are* distinct from the east wind, cool the air 
so much in summer that, in the shade, no one is 
ever incommoded with perspiration. The dress of 
the inhabitants of the sea coast is the same in win- 
ter as in summer ; and in the interior, where the 
heat is more perceptible than elsewhere, Reaumur's 
thermometer scarcely ever exceeds 25 degrees. The 
nights, throughout the country, are generally of a 


very agreeable temperature. Notwithstanding the 
moderate heat of Chili, all the fruits of warm coun- 
tries, and even those of the tropics arrive, to great 
perfection^ there, ^ which renders it probable, that 

* Contiguous to Peru is situated the province of Chili, which 
extends in a long, narrow strip upon the coast of the South 
Sea. The air is remarkably clear and serene, and for three quar- 
ters of the year this country enjoys an almost constant tempera- 
ture, as it rains very little during that period. The want of rain 
is amply compensated by the copious dews and the many streams 
which, descending from the Andes, fertilize the plains, and render 
them productive of every kind of grain, as well as wine, oil, and 
all those fruits which its inhabitants, who are much reduced 
in their numbers, and not remarkable for their industry, think 
proper to cultivate. Were the government to show itself a little 
more favourable to the encouragement of its industry and the in- 
crease of Its population, no country in the world could rival it ; 
since, at the same time, it enjoys a clear sky and a degree of heat 
which, though temperate, perfectly matures those tropical fruits 
that do jiot grow spontaneously except in the torrid zonç. The 
plains of this country furnish in abundance whatever is necessary 
or conducible to the comfort of life, while the mountains contam 
the richest treasures, in mines of gold, silver, copper, lead, iron 
and quicksilver. Those that are principally wrought are the 
gold mines, and there is scarcely in the whole country a stream 
whose sands do not contain this pi-ecicus metal in greater or less 
abundance. But the indolence of the inhabitants prevents many of 
the mines from being wrought, and, what is a still greater evil, 
the soil frottvbeing cultivated in the manner it deserves. Notwith- 
standing so few are employed in cultivation, and those by no means 
Very industrious, a sufficient, quantity of wheat for jthe subsistence 
of 60,000 persons, is annually sent from Chili to Callao, and the 
other ports of Peru, for there are not in the world lands more pro- 
ductive of every kind of grain. Besides the great quantities of 
wine and hemp that are exported every year, the last of which 
is cultivated in no other part of tlie South Sea, those of hides, tal- 
iow, jerked beef, gold and other metals, which constitute the 
most valuable cargoes, and are shipped from all the ports, are 
much more considerable. The chief occupati<Mi of the inhabitants 
is the breeding of cattle, which are so plenty, that an ox . may be 


the Mrarmth of the soil far exceeds that of the at- 
mosphere. The countries bordering on the east of 
Chili do not enjoy these refreshing winds ; the air 
there ia suffocatîïig, and as oppressive as in Africa 
under the same latitude. 

Sect. VIL Meteors. — Meteors are very fre- 
quent in Chili, especially those called shooting stars, 
which are to be seen there almost the whole year, 
and balls of fire that usually rise from the Andes 
and fall into the sea. The aurora australis, on the 
contrary, is very uncommon. That which was ob- 
served in 1640 was one of the largest; it was 
visible, from the accounts that have been left us, 
from the month of February until April. During 
this century they have appeared at four different 
times, but I cannot tell their particular periods. 
This phenomenon is more frequently visible in the 
Archipelago of Chiloé, from the greater elevation of 
the pole in that part of the country. 

Sect. VIII. Volcanoes. — That a country pro- 
ducing such an abundance of sulphureous, ni^ous, 
and bituminous substances, should be subject to 
volcanic eruptions, is not to be wondered at. The 
numerous volcanoes in the Cordilleras would, of 
themselves, furnish a suflGicient proof of the quan- 
tity of these combustible materials. . There are said 

bought for a trifling sum ; an unequivocal proof of the fertility of 
the country, where money is comparatively of little value.— 
History qf the European Settlements in America^ vol. i. part 3. 
chap. 11. 

21 . 

to be fourteen, which are in a constant state of erup- 
tion, and a still greater number that discharge 
smoke only at intervals. These are all situated in 
that part of the Andes appertaining to Chili, and 
nearly in the middle of that range of mountains ; so 
that the lava and ashes thrown out by them never 
extend beyond their limits. These mount^ns and 
their vicinities are found, on examination, to contain 
great quantities of sulphur and sal-ammoniac, mar- 
casite in an entire and decomposed state, calcined 
and chrystallized stones,, and various metallic sub- 

The greatest eruption ever known in Chili was 
that of Peteroa, which happened on the 3d of De^ 
cember, 1760, when that volcano formed itself a new 
crater, and a neighbouring mountain was rent 
asunder for many miles in extent. The erup- 
tion was accompanied by a dreadful explosion, 
which was heard throughout the whole country ; 
fortunately it was not succeeded by any very violent 
shocks of an earthquake. The quantity of the lava 
and ashes was; so great, that it filled the neighbour- 
ing vailles, and occasioned a rise of the waters of 
the Tingeraca, which continued for many days. At 
the same time the course of the Lontue, a very con- 
siderable river, was impeded for ten days, by a part 
of the mountain which fell and filled its bed. The 
water at length forced itself a passage, overflowed 
all the neighbouring plains, and formed a lake 
which still renmins. In the whole of the country 
not included in the Andes, there are but two volca- 
noes, the first, situated at the mouth of the river 

22 ' 

Rapel, is small, and discharges only a littíe smoke 
from time to time. The second is the great volcano 
of Villarica, near the lake of the same name in the 
country of Arauco. This volcano may he seen at 
the distance of 150 miles, and although it appears 
to be isolated, it is said to be connected by its baác 
with the Andes. The summit of the mountain is 
covered with snow, and is in a constant state of erup* 
tion. It is fourteen miles in circumference at its 
base, which is principally covered with pleasant 
forests. A great number of rivers derive their 
sources from it, and its perpetual verdure furnishes 
a proof that its eruptions have never been very vio- 

Sect. IX. Eartliqt^akes. — The quantity of in-^ 
flammable substances with which the soil of Chili 
abounds, rendered active by the electric fluid, may 
be considered as one of the principal causes of the 
earthquake, the only scourge that afflicts this fa- 
voured country. Another, however, not less capa- 
ble, in my opinion, of producing this terrible phe- 
nomenon, is the elasticity of the air contained in thé 
bowels of the earth, in consequence of the water 
which, insinuating itself by subterranea^n passages 
from the sea, becomes changed into vapour. This 
hypothesis will explain why the provinces to the east 
of the Andes, at a distance from the sea, are so 
Kttle incommoded by earthquakes. Two, however, 
Copiapo and Coquimbo, although near the sea, and 
as rich in minerals as the others, have never suffered 
from earthquakes ; and while the other parts of the 


country have been violently shaken these have not 
experienced the least shock, or been but slightly 
agitated. It is a general opinion that the earth in 
these provinces is intersected by large caverns. 
The noises heard in many places, and which appear 
to indicate the passage of waters or subterraneous 
winds, seem to confirm this opinion, and it is highly 
probable that by affording a free vent to the inflamed 
substances, these caverns may serve to counteract 
the progress of those convulsions to which the neigh- 
bouring country is subject. 

The inhabitants usually calculate three or four 
earthquakes at Chili annually, but they are very slight, 
and little attention is paid to them. The great earth- 
quakes happen but rarely.* The shocks were pro- 

* In a period of 244 years, from the arrival of the Spaniards to 
the year 1782, five great earthquakes have occurred in Chili. The 
first, which was in the year 1520, destroyed some villages in the 
southern provinces ; the second, on the 13th of May, in the year 
1647, ruined many of the houses of St. Jago ; the third, on the 15th 
of March, 1657, destroyed a great part of that capital ; the fourth 
took place on the 18th of June, 1730, when the sea was driven 
against the city of Conception, and overthrew its walls ; and the 
fifth, on the 26th of May, 1751, completely destroyed that city, 
which was again mundated by the sea, and levelled with the ground 
all the fortresses and villages situated between the 34th« and 40th 
degrees of latitude. Its course was from south to north, and it 
was announced by some slight shocks on the preceding nights ; more 
especially by one about a quarter of an hour before its commence- 
ment, accompanied by a ball of fire that precipitated itself from 
the Andes into the sea. The great shocks began about midnight, 
and continued four or five minutes each, but the earth was in a 
state of almost constant vibration until day-break. Just before the 
earthquake the sky was perfectly clear in every quarter, but im- ^ 
mediately after its commencement it became covered with black 
clouds, which poured down a continual ram for the space of eight 


bably more violent before the inflammable materials 
found outlets by the means of volcanoes. At pre- 
sent they produce only horizontal or oscillatory 
motions. From a course of accurate observations it 
has been ascertained, that earthquakes never occur 
unexpectedly in this country, but are always an- 
nounced by a hollow sound proceeding from a vi« 
bration of the air ; and as the shocks do not succeed 
each other rapidly, the hihabitants have sufficient 
time to provide for tlieir safety. They have, how- ' 
ever, in order to secure themselves, at all events, 
built their cities in a very judicious manner ; the 
streets are left so broad, that the inhabitants would 
be safe in the middle of them, should even the houses 
fall upon both sides. 

In addition to this, all the houses have spacious 
courts and gardens, which would serve as places of 
refuge. Those who are wealthy, have usually in 
their gardens, several neat wooden barracks, where 
they pass the night whenever they are threatened 
with an earthquake. Under these circumstances, 
the Chilians live without apprehension, and consider 
themselves in perfect security ; especially, as the 
earthquakes have never been hitherto attended with 
any considerable sinking of the earth, or falling of 
buildings. This, in my opinion, is owing to subterra- 

days, at the end of which there was a recurrence of slight ti'em- 
blings that continued during a month, with short intervals between 
each of fifteen or twenty minutes. It is not supposed that on thi» 
occasion a single person perished in the whole province, except- 
ing seven invalids, who were drowned in the city of Conception ; 
and the loss of lives was no greater, if any, in the preceding 


nean passages communicating with the volcanoes of 
the Andes, which are so many vent holes for the in- 
flamed substances, and serve to counteract their 
effects. Were it not for the number of these vol- 
canoes, Chili would, in all probability, be rendered 

Some pretend that they can foretell an eartliquakc 
from certain changes in the atmosphere. Although 
this does not appear to me impossible, I must ac- 
knowledge that my own experience has furnished 
me with nothing to induce me to credit it. I was 
bom and educated in Chili, and while in that coun^ 
try paid great attention to the state of the air during 
earthquakes: I have known them occur both in 
the rainy and dry seasons, during a storm as well as 
a calm. 

Sect. X. Salubrity of Climate. — The inhabi- 
tants of Chili, notwithstanding the frequent occur- 
rence of earthquakes, are very well satisfied with 
their country, and I am convinced would not rea- 
dily be induced to quit it for any other exempt from 
this calamity. 

This preference is not founded solely upon that 
natural attachment to country, which is common 
to all men, but is derived from some advantages 
peculiar to Chili ; a soil naturally fertile, and well 
adapted to every useful and valuable produc- 
tion, a mild and almost equable temperature of 
climate, and a remarkable salubrity, are the bles- 
VoL. L F 


Sings enjoyed by this ddightful country.* Before 
the arrival of the Spaniards contagious disorders 
ürere unknown : the small pox, which occasionally 
itlakés its appearance in the nortliem provinces, and 
is known by the name of the plague, was first intro- 
duced by them. At such times, the inhabitants of 
the neighbouring provinces oblige every person 

* If Chili is not populous, it cannot be attributed to the fault of 
its climate, which is one of the most salubrious of any known, the 
contiguity of the Cordilleras communicating to it a delightful tem- 
perature, i^hich, from its latitude, it could not be expected to en- 
joy. Nor does Spain possess a province more pleasant and agreed 
able as a place of residence. — Philosophical History of the Eu- 
rófiean Establishment s y book yiii. chap. 2. 

There are two reasons which, have impeded the population 
of Chili, and counterbalanced the advantages it has receiyéd 
from nature : The first, the almost continual wars between the 
Spaniards and the Araucanians from its first discovery, whicïi 
have destroyed an infinite number of people. The second (and the 
principal) the commercial restrictions which were imposed upon 
that country, as for a century the Chilians had no direct commu- 
nication with Europe, nor were they permitted to send any of their 
produce to any other place than Callao, from whence it followed, 
that every species of exportation and importation was conducted 
by the merchants of Peru, who of course reaped all the profit of 
this trade. This pernicious system discouraged industry, and had 
a sensible effect upon the population ; but of late, since a direct 
commerce has been carried on with European ships, which arrive 
every year in some of the ports of Chili, that delightful country 
begins to increase in numbers, and, in some measure, to raise itself 
to that important station which its natural advantages claim. In 
the year 1755, in the province of Maule alone, there were calcu- 
lated to be 14,000 whites capable of bearing arms, and the popu-* 
lation of the other provinces had increased in a degree proportionate 
to the extent of their limits. The estimates, therefore, made by 
Dr. Robertson and the Abbé Raynal, in their histories, are, in this 
particular, incorrect, being founded on accounts furnished during^ 
%& last century. 


«omîng from the infected district to perform a rigo- 
rous quarantine, and by that means have preserved 
themselves from the ravages of that destructive 
malady. Whenever the Indians suspect any one to 
be attacked with it, which sometimes happens from 
their intercourse with the Spaniards, they burn him 
in his own hut, by means of fiery arrows. By this 
method, which is truly a violent one, they have 
hitherto prevented its progress, and been exempted 
from this disorder. 

A physician of the country, Matthias Verdugo, a 
monk of the order of St. John, was the first who, in 
1761, introduced inoculation, and since that period it 
has been practised with great success. Tertian and 
quartan fevers are also unknown there ; and the in- 
habitants of the neighbouring provinces who are 
afflicted with them, are accustomed to come into 
Chili for the benefit of their health, where they very 
soon~recover. A violent fever, accompanied with 
delirium is sometimes prevalent among the country 
people, particularly in summer and in autumn. 
This complaint which the Indians cure with certain 
herbs, whose properties they have learnt by ex- 
perience, bears the name of chavo hngo^ which 
signifies the disorder of the head. The venereal 
disease is but little known in the Spanish settle- 
ments, and still less among the Indians. As the 
last have no word in their language expressive of 
it, there is every reason to presume that this malady 
was not known among them until after the arrival of 
the Spaniards. The rickets, a disease which for 
three centuries has been such a scourge to Europe, 



is as yet unknown within the boundaries of Chili, 
and lame or deformed persons are very rarely to be 
met with.* To many of the maladies, peculiar to 
hot countries, such as the Siam fever, the black vomit, 
and the leprosy, its inhabitants are likewise equally 
strangers. No instance of the hydrophobia has ever 
occurred, and M. delà Condamine justly observes, 
that in South America the dogs, cats, and other 
animals are never afflicted with madness. 

Chili produces none of those dangerous or venc- 
mous animals which are so much dreaded in hot 
countries ; and it has but one species of small ser- 
pent, which is perfectly harmless, as the French 
Academicians ascertained when they went to Peru, in 
1736, to measure a degree of the meridian.f The 
lions which are sometimes met with in the thickest 

* The Creoles are generally well shaped, and there are scarce 
any of those deformed persons, so common in other countries, to 
be seen among them ; besides which, they almost all possess great 
flexibility and activity of limbs. — PhiloftofilHcal. Histori^^ book xi. 
chap. 18. 

Not only the Creoles, who are descended from the Europeans, 
but also the aborigines of the country, display equal perfection of 
form. Some authors pretend, that the reason why none who are 
deformed, or cripples, are to be found among these people, is owing 
to the savage custom which the parents have of destroying such 
unfortunate children at their birth ; but this is a mere picture of 
the imagination ; at least, among the Chilians no trace of so inhu- 
man a practice has ever been discovered, as numbers who have 
lived with them for years have positively assured me. 

t This country is not infested by any kind of insect except tlie 
chiguas, or pricker, or any poisonous reptile ; and although in the 
woods and ñelds some snakes are to be found, their bite is by no 
means dangerous ; nor does any savage or ferocious beast exckp 
terror in its plains.— .i/Z/oa'* Voyage^ partii. vol.3. 


and least frequented forests, are distinguished from 
the African lion, both by their being without hair, 
and their timidity ; there is no instance of their 
ever having attacked a man, and a person may not 
only travel, but lie down to sleep with perfect se- 
curit}% in any part of the plain, and even in the 
thickest forests of the mountains. Neither tygers, 
wolves, nor many other ferocious beasts that infest 
the neighbouring countries, are known there. Pro- 
bably the great ridge of the Andes which is every 
where extremely steep, and covered witli snow, 
serves as a barrier to their passage. The mildness 
of the climate may also be unfavourable to them, as 
the greater part of these animals are natives of the 
hottest countries. 



ÎVaterSy Earths^ Stones, Salts, Bitumens and 

CHILI is a plane very perceptibly inclined to- 
wards the sea, and may be considered as a prolon- 
gation of the western base of the Andes. From 
its situation it naturally receives the waters produc- 
ed by the melting of that immense body of snow 
that annually falls upon those mountains, while 
the provinces to the east are frequently in want of 
water. The number of rivers, streams and springs, 
which irrigate the country, is inconceivable. They 
are to be found in every part, even on the tops of 
some of the niaritime mountains. 

Sec T. I. Hivers. — It is difficult to determine the 
number of rivers and streams that have their sour- 
ces in the Andes; the principal, however, amount 
to one hundred and twenty-three, fifty-two of which 
communicate directly with the sea, and convey 
thither the waters of all the others. Although, from 
the inconsiderable breadth of the country, the course 
of these rivers is short, there are several of them 
that are navigable at least half their distance for 
ships of the line. Of this number are, the Maule, 
in the province of the same name ; the Bio-bio, 
which is two miles in breadth ; the Cauten ; the 

Toltcn ; the Valdivia, iñ the country of Arauco ; 
tiîè Chaivin ; the Riobueno, in the country of the 
Cunchcs ; and the Sinfondo, which discharges it*, 
self ihto the Archipelago of Chiloe, 

The course of these rivers is extremely rapid as 
far as the maritime mountains, where, from the 
make of the ground, they flow more slowly. The 
beds are very broad, their bottoms generally stony, 
and die banks lowi 

This last circumstance is of great service to the 
husbandmen, who avail themselves of it to let thé 
Water into canals, from which, in times of drought, 
they water their fields ; by this means they are never 
in want of water, even in the dry season, as the 
rivers are then always full, in consequence of the 
melting of the snow on the Andes at that period.* 

From the latter part of September to February, 
the Water in these rivers is at its greatest height ; 
their rise is, however, by no means uniform, since 
some of them are observed to increase most in the 
morning, others at mid day, and others towards 
evening ; a circumstance which may probably be 
owing to tfie greater or less exposure of their springs 
to the sun. Notwithstanding these floods are copi- 

* The rivers which water and fertilize the whole country upon 
tíie western side of the Andes, from whence they spring, are very 
numerous, and discharge themselves into the Pacific Ocean. The 
banks, covered with beautiful trees that always retain their ver- 
dure, and the clearness and coolness of so many chrystal streams^ 
render this country the most delightful in the world. Its thermal 
and mineral waters likewise contribute much to the health of the 
inhabitants.-^ Co/ec^i'« Dictionary qf South- Americas article 


pus, they never inundate the adjacent plains, from 
the bed^ of the rivers being, as I have aheady ob- 
served, very broad. Though many of these streams 
appear to be shallow, frequent instances have oc- 
curred of persons being drowned who have attempt- 
ed to ford them on horseback. The common opin- 
ion that snow-water produces goitres, appears to be 
unfounded, if we may be allowed to form a judg- 
ment from that of these rivers. Their waters which 
are excellent, and constantly drank by the inhabi- 
tants, cannot be considered as any thing but lique- 
fied snow, yet is this disease wholly unknown in 

Sect. II. Lakes. — Lakes of salt and fresh wa- 
ter are common in Chili. The first are situated in 
the marshes of the Spanish provinces; the most 
remarkable are the Bucalemu, the Cagüil and the 
Bojeruca, which are from 12 to 20 miles in length. 
Thosfe of fresh water are contained in the interior 
provinces, and are the Ridaguel, the Aculeu, the 
Taguatagua, the Laquen, and the Nahuelguapi ; 
the two latter, situated in the country of the Arau- 
canians, are the largest. The Laquen, which th^ 
Spaniards call the lake of Villarica, is 72 miles in 
circumference, and in the centre of it rises a beauti- 
ful little hill in the form of a cone. The Nahuel- 
guapi is 80 miles m circumference, and has like- 
wise in the middle a pleasant island covered with 
trees. These lakes are the sources of two conside- 
rable rivers ; the first of the Talten, which falls into 
the Pacific Ocean ; the latter of the Nahuelguapi, 


which empties itself into the Patagonian Sea, neat 
the straits -of Magellan.' Within the Andes are 
also many lakes, but they are of little importance. 

Sect. III. Mineral fFaters. — A country like 
Chili, abounding in mineral and bituminous sub- 
stances, must necessarily produce a great number of 
mineral springs, the virtues of whose waters must 
have become known to the inhabitants. Gaseous 
and acidulated ^vaters are common in all the provin- 
ces, particularly in the values at the foot of the 
Andes. Some springs are vitric4ic and impreg^ 
nated with iron, others sulphuric or muriatic ; their 
temperature is in general that of the atmosphere j 
but there are some that are cold in summer, a qual^ 
ity probably derived from their sources being in 
the vicinity of mines or springs of salt But as I 
have never carefully analyzed these waters, I am 
not able to give accurate information respecting 

The provinces of Copiapo and Coquimbo are rich 
in salt springs. In the former, there is a river called 
from its saltness Salado^ which, like the other large 
rivers, has its source in the Andes, and falls into the 
Pacific Ocean. The water of this river is Very clear 
and extremely salt ; and its specific gravity is, ac- 
cording to the season of the year, from fifteen to 
eighteen degrees. 

The salt chrystallizes naturally upon the shores^; 
it is excellent and fit for use without any prepara- 
tion, as it is very pure and not mixed with calca- 
reous earth, or any heterogeneous salts» In a valley 

Ydl. I. G 


of the Andes, inhabited by the Pehuenchcs, in 34 
deg. 40 min. latitude, ' are eleven springs of very 
clear and limpid water, which overflows the surface, 
and becomes crystallized into a salt as white as 
snow. This valley is about fifteen miles in circum- 
ference, and is entirely covered, for the depth of six 
feet, with a crust of salt, which is collected by the 
inhabitants* in large pieces and used for all domestic 
purposes. The surrounding mountains afibrd no 
external indication of mineral salt, but they must 
necessarily abound with it, from the great quanti- 
ties deposited by these springs. r 
Mineral waters are common in Chili. The most 
celebrated are those of the Spanish settlements of 
Peldehues and Cauquenes. The source of the for* 
mer is on the summit of one of the exterior moun- 
tains of the Andes, to the north of St. Jago. It 
consists of two springs of very different tempera- 
tures, one hot and the other cold ; the former is 
sixty degrees above the freezing point by Reaumur's 
thermometer, the latter four degrees below it. They 
are about eighty feet distant, and their waters are uni- 
ted, by means of canals, so as to form a tepid bath, 
which is found very efficacious in many disorders. 
The water of the hot spring is oily to the touch, 
and foams like soap suds ; it abounds with mi- 
neral alkali, which appears to be combined Vv îth 
an unctuous substance in a state of solution. V is 
clear, inodorous, impregnated with a very little üy dl 
àir, and its specific weight is but two degrees . ve 
that of common distilled water. Its heat is pi ^ if 
owing to the effervescence of a large body of îj ; ^e» 


in the vicinity of its source. The water of the cold 
spring is iron and vitriolic, and, when mixed with 
that of the warm, deposits .Glauber's salt and a yel- 
lowish ochre. 

The baths of Cauquenes are in one of the vallics 
of the Cordilleras, near the source of the Caciapoal, 
a very considerable river. As the situation is very 
pleasant, great numbers of persons resort there dur- 
ing the summer, as well for amusement as for the 
recovery of health. 

The springs are numerous and of various qualities 
and temperatures. Some of them are cold, others 
hot; some acidulated, and impregnated in a greater 
or less degree with iron ; while others are alkalescent 
or vitriolic, and several, like those of Pisa, arc merely 
gaseous. The principal spring is very warm and sul- 
phuric; its margin is covered with a yellow efflores- 
cence of sulphjur, and the Water has a strong hepatic 
smell ; it contains besides an alkali and a neutral salt. 
The surrounding mountains abound with every kind 
of mineral, and near the spring are great numbers of 
willows, which are covered with a species of manna^ 
in globules of the size of grains of gun-powder. 

Three mineral springs, adjoining the high road to 
.Cujo, afford a neutral salt, with a calcareous base, of 
a sharp and bitter taste and easily soluble ; it is col- 
. lected in great quantities upon the borders of these 
springs, where it shoots into cristals that are usually 
of a quadrangular prismatic form. The inhabitants 
use it for Glauber's salt, which they believe it to 
be ; but I am more inclined to think it a species of 
Epsom salt, as it has neither the base nor the form 


of tlie true Glauber, yet as I have never had an op- 
portunity of analyzing it critically, I cannot deter- 
mine with positiveness. Mineral \>^aters are in great 
estimation with the Araucanians, who consider theiYi 
as peculiarly beneficial, and as under the particular 
care and protection of Meulétiy one of their benevo- 
lent deites, whom they call Gejicovuncoy or. Lord of 
the mineral waters. 

Sect. IV. Soil — The soil of Chili is wonder- 
fully fertile; its fertility is not, however, equal 
throughout the country, but is increased in propor- 
tion to its distance from the sea.* The maritime 
are less productive than the middle districts, and 
the latter are inferior in quality of soil to the vailles 
of the Andes. In these last, the vegetation is more 
luxuriant and vigorous, and the animals larger and 
stronger than in the other parts of the country; 
but as the people who inhabit these rich vailles are 
Nomades, or herdsmen, and in reality cultivate no- 
thing, it is difficult to determine with precision the 
degi-ee of their fertility. The various salts and other 
principles of fecundity contained in these mountains, ' 
and by means of the air and the rivers distributed 
throughout the country, combining with the natural 
heat of the soil, may be considered- as the real 
causes of that inexhaustible fertility which requires 
pot the aid of manure. The husbandmen have dis- 

♦ The plains, the mountains, the values, in short, all Chili, 
w'.hout exception, is an object of wonder ; since, from its extreme 
fertility, it "would seem as if every particle of earth was converted 
into seed. — American Gazetteer \ article Cmn. 


covered by experience that all artificial manures are 
superfluous, if not injurious; they allege in proof 
the great fertility of the land in the vicinity of St. 
Jago, which, notwithstanding it has never been ma-- 
nured since the settlement of the Spaniards, a period 
of two hundred and thirty-nine years, though con- 
stantly cultivated by them, and for an unknown time 
by the Indians before them, has lost nothing of its 
productive properties. 

Another advantage resulting from the richness of 
the soil is, that Chili is not infested with those 
worms so destructive to grain in the blade, which 
are produced or multiplied by the fermentation and 
putrefaction of manure. 

Those who have written upon Chili are not agreed 
as to the product of the soil. Some say that it yields 
from sixty to eighty, and even a hundred fold;* 

* The river of Chile, called also the river of Aconcagua, from 
its rising in a valley of that name, is celebrated for the prodigiout 
quantity of wheat which is every year produced upon its shores ; 
from whence, and the vicinity of St. Jago, is broyght all the grain 
exported from Valparaiso to Callao, Lima, and other parts of 
Peru. Such is the quantity, that it is inconceivable to any one un- 
acquainted with the excellence of the soil, which usually yields 
from sixty to eighty for one, how a country so thinly peopled, 
whose cultivable lanas are comprised within a few vallies of not 
more than ten leagues square, can furnish such quantities of grain 
in addition to what is wanted for the support of the inhabitants. 
During the eight months while we were at Valparaiso, there sail- 
ed from that port alone thirty vessels loaded with wheat, each of 
which would average six thousojad faneg'asj or three thousand 
mule loads, a quantity sufficient for the subsistence of sixty thou- 
sand persons for a year. — Frazier^a Voyage^ vol. i. 
. Besides the commerce of hides, tallow and dried beef, the inha- 
bitants of Conception carry on a trade in wheat, with which they 


others, that the crop is considered as poor if it does 
not exceed a hundr«i;* while fhere ai-e those who 
assure us that it often amounts to three hundred for 
one.f I am not diq^osed to question the account of 
respectable writers, several of whom have been eye 
witnesses of what they describe ; especially, as in- 
stances of fertility occasionally occur that are truly 
wonderful- I have myself seen lands that produced 
â hundred and twenty, and even a hundred and sixty 

annually load eight or ten ships of four or five hundred tons bur- 
then for Callao, exclusive of the flouf and ship-bread for the sup- 
ply of the Prench ships that stop at Peru on their return to France^ 
But all this would be little fot this excellent country, if the earth 
iwas properly cultivated, which is so fertile and easy of tillage, 
that the inhabitants merely scratch it: over with a plough, or more 
frequently with the crooked branch of a tree, used for that purpose, 
drawn by a pair of oxen ; and so prolific is the soil, that, for the 
purpose of vegetation, the seed scarcely requires a slight covering, 
and win yield a hundred for one. — Ibid, 

* Another more' imî>ortant source of wealth, although less ap- 
preciated by its possessors, is what arises from the fertility of the 
soil, which is truly astonishing. AU the European fruits attain, 
perfection in this favoured climate, and the wines would be excel- 
lent were it not for a bitter taste acquired in consequence of their 
being kept in jars smeared with a kind of rosin, and afterwards 
put into skins for transportation. When the crop of grain does 
not exceed an hundred for one> it is considered as poor and scanty. 
r^Philosofihical History ^ book 8. 

It is not a good year when tlie crop of wheat does not exceed a 
hundred for one^ and it b the same with all other grain.— C7//oa'* 
Voyagey vol. iii. 

t The soil is excellent, but differing, in some degree, as it ap- 
proaches ov- recedes from the equator. The vaHies of Copiapo 
ù'equeutly yield three hundred for one;' the plains of Guaseo and 
Coquimbo, are nearly as productive, and the lands on the river 
Chile are so fertile thjit' they have given its name to the country'.—-» 
^a^on^s {of Ahkerville) Geografihy^; article Chili. - 


for one, but these arc extraordinary cases, and can- 
not serve as data for a general estimate. 
\ The common crop in thé middle districts is from 
sixty to seventy for one, and from forty to fifty in 
the maritime. Between the 24th and 34th degrees 
of latitude the husbandmen irrigate their fields by 
artificial means, which renders their crops generally 
more certain than in the southern provinces, where 
they depend upon the dews, although the rivers and 
streams offer them the same advantages. The esti- 
mate which I have made might, howeyer, be increas- 
ed, were the grain which is lost during the harvesting 
to bé taken into account ; as the husbandmen have 
adopted a very injurious custom of not reaping their 
corn until it begins to shell out, in consequence of 
which much is wasted and serves as food for the 
birds ; and it happens not unfrequently, that what is 
left produces a second crop without any tillage or 
farther sowing of the ground. 

The difference in the vegetation of the maritjimc. 
and middle provinces depends upon the qualities of 
their respective soils. That upon the coast resem- 
bles the rich grounds of Bologna; its colour is 
brown, inclining to red, it is brittle, clayey, con- 
tains a little marie, and is filled with flint, stones, 
pyrites, shells, and other marine substances. In the 
interior, and in the vallies of the Andes, the soil is 
of a blackish colour, inclining to yellow; it is brit- 
tle^ and frequently mingled with gravel and marine 
substances in a state of decomposition. This qua- 
lity of the soil is continued to a considerable depth, 


as is discoverable iu the ravines and beds of the 


Sect. V. Physical Organization. — The marine 
substances that are met with in every part of Chili, 
are incontestible proofs of its having been formerly 
covered by the ocean, v^rhich, gradually retiring, 
has left the narrow strip of land extending from 
the shore to the Andes.* Every thing within these 

* The retrocession of the sea from the coast of Chili, is every 
year very perceptible, although not the same in every part. In 
some places it does not exceed two inches, while in others, espe- 
cially at the mouths of the rivers, it is more than half a foot- 
This circumstance, apart from other more general causes, is most 
probably owing to the shoals produced by the flowing of so many 
large rivers into the sea ; these consist the first year only of a 
light sand, in the second they produce a little grass, and in the 
third are entirely clothed with verdure. To this cause is the con- 
formation of the shores assignable, which consist in general of a 
plain two leagues broad between the sea and the maritime moun- 
tains. Upon the western declivities of these mountains, the ves- 
tiges of the ocean are still very perceptible ; they are excavated 
in various modes, and exhibit many singular grottoes, containing 
rooms hung with shells and beautiful spars, which afford shelter 
to the cattle during the heats of summer. On the left bank of thft 
river Maule, at four hundred paces distance from its mouth, is an 
insulated mass of white marble, consisting of a single piece, seven** 
ty-five feet in height, two hundred and twenty-four in length, and 
fifty-four in breadth. Tliis immense block, called, from its appear* 
anee, the churchy is excavated within like an arch the third part 
of its height, and has on the outside three doors of a semi-circular 
form, and proportionate height and breadth. Through tíie one on 
the western front the sea continually flows ; the two others, which 
are on the north and south sides, and placed opposite, serve to ad- 
mit those who wish to visit it at the tide of ebb* This natural edi- 
fice, constantly washed by the sea, serves aa a place of resort for 
the sea- wolves, who hetd in great numbers in the lower part, and 
make the cavity re-echo with their lugubrious cries ; while the up- 


. ïtAiSto olMs lUpmteBtíUé pit^fe, iha( die latul has 
been for a long time covered by the* 0<^an } the thret 
pamlkl chains of tttaritime irbuDtams^ the hill^ that 
unite them with the Andes, in fijie^^ the ramifica^ 
idons of tile hitter appear to hare been sucéessivefy 
formed bjr die skgency of tts^ watera» 

The interior structure of the Andes every t/rhere 
exhibits a very different origin, and appears to be 
(Coeval with the creation of the worlds This immense 
taioun^n, rising abruptly, forms but a small ang^e 
^h its base ; its general diape is that of a p}rramid^ 
crooned ^ intervals mih conical, and, as it were^ 
crystallized ekvaticms^ It is composçd of primitive 
rocks of quarts of an enormous size and almost uni¿ 
form configuration, containing no marine substances^ 
which abound in the secondary mountainS(» On the 
top of Descabezado, a very lofty mountain in the 

per is occupied by a species of sea-bird, very "white^ called 
iili^ in figure and size resembling a house-pigeon. On the shore of 
the province of Rancagua, at a shoH distance from the sea, is ft 
mass of stose, excarated in a similar lnaI^ler) called ^y the inh^-ii 
bitants tàe church of Rosario^ Grottos and caverns of this sort 
are very numerous in the Andes, and of great extent. In the 
mountains near the source of the river Longavi, is a cavern of an 
oval foirm, and so large that it wiU readily admit a man on horse- 
back ; but what renders this cave particularly remarkable is^ that 
at sunrise, before the summits of the Andes are tinged by its 
beams, the rays of that luminary, penetrating through some aper*" 
ture, presents to the eye a wonderitil phenomenoa» In tlie same 
raag^ of moimtains is> likewise, the celebi*ated bridge of the inca^ 
which is nothing but a large mountain, cut through by the river 
Mendoza. This mountain principally consists of gypsum, and 
large clusters of beautiful^ étalactkes, formed by the- crys* 
t^satiçn ci thai 9úi}stancci> surt suppeodied fran the arch of the 
Vol. I. ■ '" ' H 


hiidst of the principal chain of tte Andes, latíoste 
height appears to me not inferior to tluüt of the cele- 
brated Chimboraso of Quito, various shells, evi* 
útnúy the production of the sea, oysters, ccmchs» 
periwinkles, &c. are found in a calcined or petrified 
state, that were doubtless dqiosited there, by the wa? 
ters of the deluge* 

The summit of this mountain, whose form ap* 
pears to be owing to some volcanic eruption, is fiat^ 
and exhibits a plain of more than six miles square ; 
in the middle isa very deep lake, which, from every 
appearance, was formerly the crater of a volcano, i 

The principal chain of the Andes is situated be- 
tween two of less height that are parallel to it* These 
lateral chains are about twenty five or thirty miles 
distant from the principal, but are connected with it 
by transverse ramifications, apparently of the same 
age and organization, although their bases are more 
extensive and variegated. From the lateral ridges 
many other branches extend outwardly, composed 
of small mountains, occasionally rutming in difier* 
ent directions» 

These external mountains, as Well as the middle 
and maritime, are of a secondary formation, and an 
order essentially different. Their summits are gene- 
rally more rounded, and they consist of horizontal 
strata of various substances and unequal thick-* 
ness, which abound with marine productions, and 
often exhibit the impressions of animals and vege- 
tables* I have observed both in excavations formed 
by the water, and those made by the inhabitants^ 
that the inferiw stratum of these mountains is gene- 


idfy a kind of whetstone, of a reddish colour and 
a saiMly grain, sometimes a quartzeous sand, or a 
^compact dark grey sandstone ; this is succeeded by 
layers of clay, msu^le, various kinds of marble, schis- 
tus, spar, gypsum and coal ; beneath tiie whole are 
found veins of pre, ocher, quartz, granite, porphy- 
ry^ sand, and rocks of various degrees of hardness. 

The disposition of the strata varies very conside- 
rably in di&rent places, and in these derangements 
the laws of gravitation are seldom observed, as whai 
forms the upper stratum in one mountain I have dis- 
xovered to be the inferior in another^ They in gen- 
eral, however,' preserve a degree of regularity in 
their inclination, which is from south to north, a 
^Kttle tending towards the west, corresponding with 
the relative situation of the ocean, whMe currents ^ce 
from south to north. 

Notwithstanding these mountains in gcnerd arc 
.composed of various strata, tl^re are several that 
areimiform; some are entirely calcareous, others 
^are of gypsum, of granite, of freestone, of quarts?, 
of basaltes, of lava, and other volcanic substances; 
.while, as IJlloa justjy observes, some appear to con* 
$ist entirely of s^eUs, scarcely, if at all, decompos- 
ed. But all these homogeneous mountains are 
> barren, and produce only a few languid shrubs, while 
the stratified mountains, which are covered with a 
depth of cultivable soil, are always clothed with a 
. plentiful and vigorous vegetation. 

' The exterior of the stratified mountains likewise 
furnishes a proof of their formation by the oceaci^ 
. TTieir ba^ea arc almost always very extensive, heiçhv 


cnîng progreMÎvely, and forming various váOieá, 
whose inflections are correspôndefit to the undula^ 
tion of the wav^. On examining tíie valliea, tfïeîr 
organization is readHy percdted to be the same witi 
that of the stratified mountains: similat matenals, 
and a like disposition of them, are found evay 
where, tfiough, in general, more pulverized cir re* 
diieed to earth. 

The variety (^fossils with which the earth abounds^ 
must necessarily add to the value of this delightful 
country 5 and although at present the precious tog^ 
tais appear to attract the sole attention and regard cf' 
the inhabitants, there will doubtless be a time' when, 
stimulated by science, they will apply themselves to 
the discovery of various minerals not less worthy c€ 

Sect, VL JEarths.-^If Nature 1ms been prodi- 
gal of the precious metals to Chili, she has not been 
sparing in the variety of its earths. Under different 
modifications, I have discovered both the argilla- 
ceous, the calcareous, the sandy, and the mineral. 
It contains all the kinds of clay described by Lin- 
naeus and Wallerius, excepting the ftesh-eolôurefl 
clay, or terra kmnh; but, in place of this, I have met 
with five other kinds that appear to me to be entirely 
distinct from those of Linnççus. 

The first of these is the clay of Bucean (argilla 
Buccarina). It is a species of bolar earth found ih 
the province of St, Jago, It is very fine and lightj^ 
of an agreeable smell, and of a brown colour spotted 
with yellow, dissolves readily inthe mouthy and like 

41 , . • 

tB those kimlsr of'^eartfa, adheres strongly to liié 
imgiie. In many of the convents of the ^pital, ÜOí 
ïnonks manufectü^e from this^clay, jars^ bottles, ctij* 
and sevend other articles of beautiñil ware, which 
they varnish and paint very handsomely, on the out- 
ride, with the figures of plants and animals^ 

These vessels communicate a very pleasant smeft 
ittrid fla%x)ur to the water that is put into them, which 
undoubtedly i)Eoceeds from the solution of some bit- 
uminous substance contained in the clay. But as 
no appearance of Mtumen is perceptible in the vi- 
clnity of the pits from whence it is procured, iti 
qualities can only be ascertained by atíalys^atiotl. 
Considerable quantities of this ware is exported to 
Peru and Spain, where it is held in great estima- 
tion, and known by the name of Búcaros. The Pe- 
ruvians eat the broken pieces of these vessels as the 
natives of Indostan do those of Patna. 

The second kind is the clay of Maule (argüía 
Maulica). This clay is as white as snow, smooth 
and greasy to the touch, extremely fine and sprinkled 
Irith brilliant ispecks. It is found on the bcmief s of 
tivers and brooks in the province of Maiile, in stratft 
which run deep into the ground, and its surfoee 
when seen at a distance has the appearance of ground 
covered with snow, and is so unctuous and slippery 
that it is almost impossible to walk upon it without 
falling. It does not effervesce with acids, and instead 
of losing in the fire any portion of its shining whiteC 
ness, it acquires a slight degree of transparency. 
From its external appearance, when I first saw thfe 
day, I supposed it a kind of fulleras earth very 



çômmon in the ccmntry» but I afterwards dÍ9Cávextd 
:that it was not lamellous, was easily wrought, and 
retained the form that was given it, and, aIthoug|t 
saponaceous to tl^ touch, did not foam with water. 
These circumstances induce me to believe that thip 
clay is very analogous to the k€u>lin of the Chinese, 
and that combined with fusible spar, of \i4uch there 
are great quantities in the tome province, it would 
furnish an excellent pon^lain. , 

The third ^cies is the subdola (argilla subdola) 
.80 called from the places where it is found, which 
.^e usually marshes, containing pits very danger 
TOUS {or animals, especially horses, who, if they 
fall in them, are sure to perish unless immediate as> 
distance is obtained. This clay is black, viscous, 
and composed of coarse particles of various sizes; the 
pits arc from fifteen to twenty feet in circumference 
an^ of an immense depth. Wallerius and Linnieup 
describe a clay, found in Sweden, that has some re- 
semblance to this, to which they have given die 
naimeof argilla tumescensj but on investigation it ap* 
pears to be very different both in its cdour and pr(v 
perties. The Chilian clay is a little alkalescentf 
continues in the same state throughout the year, 
and is constantly covered with a very fine verdure 
that attracts the animals, who are fi'equei^y mired 
and perish in it; while that of Sweden inclines to an 
acid, s\^ells much in certain seasons, and is natu- 
jpally barren. 

The fouidi kind is the rovo (argilla rovia) fron> 
which the inhabitants procure an e?:cellent black j 
it is usedin dying woql, and repr^çnted by FeiiiUé 


«nd Fra2ier as superiw to the best Earope^i* 
blacks. This clay is of a very fine grain, of a deep 
black, a little bituminous, and very vitriolic ; it is 
ibund in almost all the forests, and has the prop^ty 
of communicating to pkces of wood that are buri- 
ed in it for a sh(»t time, a sort of black varnish, very 
shining and durable. The colour is obtained l^ 
boiling the clay with the leaves of a jdant called the 
ponke tmctoriaj hereafter described. 

The grey clay, which is the fifth species, possesses 
all the properties requisite'for pottery. It ai^>earsto 
be of a kind suitable for retorts, crucibles, &c. as 
the vessels that I have seen of it are very strong, and 
capable of resisting the most violent fire.^ 

JVmong the calcareous earths is a kind of lime or 
^velly chalk, foimd in the Ccnxlilleras, in quarries 
of many miles in extent and of a depth hitl^rto un- 
explored. I have given it the name of volcanic 
lime (calx vulcanicá) as I am convinced it was ori- 
ginally marble reduced to this state t^ volcanoes or 
subterranean fires. Its surfiice a{]^)ears to have 
been burnt, and the surrounding mountains a£ford 
unequivocal proofs of an extinguished volcano. 

This substance is distinguished from common 
lime by several particulars : it is not so caustic even 
when4>umt; and, when mixed with acids, effervesces 
but slightly, and de{losits a neutral salt of a very* 
irregular crystallization. The only use to which 
âiis lime is i^^ed by the inhabitants is to white- 
wa^ their houses. It is of two kinds, one perfectly 
white and easily reducible to ^i impalpable powder, 
found in the mountains of Chakagua and Maule ; 


Üie Qther^ which h of a ydlow hue, but becoiME* 
p^er ma <^oloured with ^y is brought îrom ^ 
pcorinpe of Chilian. 

The metallic carth$ or chalks, discovered in ChiU^ 
are the mwhtain greeai and blue, native cenise^ 
lapia calimisiaris, browo, yellow and red ockvtñ ; of 
tiie la^T tk^re are two varieties, one of a p«ic aiut 
Ae other of a bright red luce cinnebar, the last id 
called Qnenchuy .and is metóioned by commodow 
Anson as being found in great quantities in the 
ialai^ of Juan. Femandci. Some give it the nanwi 
of natlvçmbium from its appearance, and its weight 
diSers very little from that of red lead ; it id 
supposed to have been produced from the calcina- 
tion of mines of lead by subterraneous fires. The 
ipeins of bc^h these ochres run deep into the groujody 
and their quality is found to improve in proportion» 
to their depth. 

Few places in Chili arc in reality sandy, or so 
covered with sand as to be incs^ble of vegeta* 
tkwi. But the rivers abound with it, owing to the 
constant fricti(Hi of the pebbles with which their 
beds are lined, and on their shores all the various 
kmda of sand described by naturalists may be found. 
The black sand of Virginia (arena micácea ni^a): 
first described by Woodward, is common on the 
sea shore and on the banks of several rivers ; it m 
black and very heavy from the quantity of forugi* 
nous particles it contains. In the same {daces is, 
dso found an<rther kind, differing from the former- 
only in ccdour, which is a beautiful Pru^ian blue s 
fpr this reason I have calkd it the black blue $and 


(arena cyanea). Near Talca, the ciqi^ital' of th(^ 
province of Maule, is a little hiU which furnishes a 
species of cemept sand, iinown by the name of Talca 
sand (arena talcensis). This sand is finer than that 
of Puzzdi in Italy, and appears to be a vcdcanic 
production^ as its earthy and foruginous parts are 
half calcined. The inhabitants employ it in their 
buildingsibr those walls which they intend to white», 
as of itself it forms a very strong cen^it, to which 
the lime adheres firmly. 

Sect. VII. JStones. — ^In Chili, a country who^ 
mineralogy is so imperfectly known, very few new 
species of stones have been discovered, in either of 
the four orders into which naturalists have divided 
them. In the short excursions which my occupa* 
tions allowed me to make among the mountains, I 
have noticed, of the argillaceous kind, various sorts 
of schistus, slate, talc, asbestos and mica. Of the 
^Htter the memln^anaceous mica of Chili, otherwise 
called Muscovy glass, is found there in its greatest 
perfection, both as respects its transparency an^ the 
l&ize of its laminae ; of this substance the country 
people manufacture artificial flowers, and, like the 
Russians, make use of it for glazing their hopees» 
The thin plates which are used for windows are by^ 
many preferred to glass, from their being pliable 
^d less fragile, and possessing what appears to be 
a peculiar property, of freely admitting tlie light 
and a view of external objects to those within, while 

persons without are prevented from seeing any thing 
Vol. I. I 


in thé houte. It is as white and transparent as the 
best glass, and is frequently found in plates of a 
foot long ; and I am convinced if a little care was 
used in digging it, they might be procured of dou- 
ble that size. There is a second kind, found in very 
large plates, which I have called mica variegate. It is 
spotted with yellow, red and blue, but as it cannot 
be applied to the uses of the first, it is of course held 
in much less estimation. 

Those of the calcarious kind are limestones, 
marbles, calcarious spars and gypsums. Of the 
limestones, there are those that are very compact 
and of all colours, the shining red, the coarse \\4iite, 
the blue and the grey. 

The plain marbles, or those of but one colour, 
hitherto discovered in Chili, are the white statuary 
marble, the black, the green, the ydlow and the 
grey. Two mountains, one in the Cordilleras of 
Copiapo, and the other in the marshes of Maule, 
consist wholly of a marble striped with bands cS 
various colours which have a very beautiful appear- 
anee. The variegated marbles are the ash-coloured 
with veins of white, yellow and blue ; the green 
speckled mth black ; and the yellow with irregular 
spots of green, black and grey. This last is found 
at St. Fernando, Ae capital of Calchagua ; it is in 
high estimation, is easily wrought, and becomes 
harder from exposure to the air. The Chilian mar- 
Wes are generally of an excellent quality, and take a 
fine polish. Several who have examined the inte- 
ri(M* Andes, have informed me that those mountains 


abound mût marbles of various kinds, and of almost 
all colours ; but their observations. were too super* 
ficial to afford me a correct descrq)tion* 

In the ¡dains near the dty of Coquimbo, at the 
depth of three or four feet, is found a white testa- 
ceous marble, somewhat granulated. It is filled with 
shells of the snail kind more or less entire, which 
give it the appearance of shell work. The quarry 
is several miles in extent, and generally about two 
&et in thickness, but varying according to the num- 
ber of strata, which are from five to eight, frequent- 
ly interrupted by very thin layers of sand. These 
strata increase in hardness in proportion to their 
depth ; the upper consists wholly of a coarse brittle 
stone, which is only proper for lime ; but the marble 
of the others is very compact, requires but little Isl* 
bour to dig, and after a short exposure to the air, 
obtains a degree of solidity and firmness sufficient 
tp resist the injuries of the weather. 
. Spar, a substance common to all metallic mines, 
and which often serves as a guide to the miners, to 
determine the character of the ore, abounds in Chili, 
where all the known species have been discovered 
excepting the crystal of Iceland. Of these species 
the varieties are infinite, and many of them, if exa- 
nûncd attentively,^ might be found to be real and 
distinct species. Coloured spar, known by the names 
of false emerald, topaz, and sapphire, is one of the 
species most frequently met with. But the most 
curious of all the Chilian spars is one of an hexago- 
nal form, and perfectly transparent ; it is found in the 


gold mine of Quillata, and is crossed in various di- 
rections by very fine golden filaments, which give it 
a most beautiful appearance. 

Quarries of the common or parallelopipiedal gjrp- 
sum, the rhomboidal and the striated are numerous 
in Chili. But the inhabitants make little use of 
cither, preferring a species of gypsum, of a beau-' 
tiful white a little inclining to blue, which is very 
brittle and composed of small irregular particles ; 
it is always found in the vicinity of volcanoes, in a 
semi-calcined state, from whence I have denomi- 
nated it the volcanic gypsum (gypsum volcanicum) 
The quarries from whence it is procured are of great 
extent ; it is principally employed for plaistering 
walls, to which its slight tint of blue gives a^ 
very agreeable appearance ; it may be used in its 
native state, but the masons generally prcparie it by 
a slight calcination. The Andes abound with quar- 
ries of fine alabaster, and a species of pellucid sele- 
nite, which is used by the inhabitants of St. Jago 
instead of glass for the windows of their churches. • 

Of the sandstone there are various kinds,^ the 
whetstone, flint, quartz and rock crystal. The first 
contains three varieties, the white, the grey and the 
yellow; the millor grindstone, and the freestone, 
which likewise belong to the same class, are ^ very 
common in Chili. The mountains contain great 
quantities of quartz, both the opake, the pellucid 
and that of different colours, as well as common - 
flint and several species of agate. Of the plain 
jaspers there are the fine red, the green, the grey. 



the white, and the true lapis lazuli ;* and among 
the variegated, the grey spotted with black, the 
whitish interspersed with yellow and blue, and the 
yellow marked with blue, red and grey spots. Be- 
sides the pieces of rock crystal found in all parts 
of the country, blocks of it are obtained from the 
Cordilleras of a size sufficient for columns of six ot 
seven feet in height. They also contain great quan- 
tities of coloured crystals, or spurious precious 
stones, resembling in appearance rubies, jacinths, 
diamonds, &c. Not many years since a real topaz 
of a very large size, was found in the province of 
St. Jago, and a beautiful emerald at Coquimbo. From 
time to time the rivers wash down with their sands, 
various kinds of precious stones, particularly rubies 
and sapphires, which, though small and of little value, 
fully prove that the mountains producing them con- 
tain those that are of great worth. But the indolence 
of the inhabitants, which induces them to neglect 
many odier important branches of commerce, has 
hitherto prevented them from attending to this, not- 
withstanding it might become of the utmost im- 

A little hill at the north east of Talca consists^ 
almost entirely of amethysts. Some arc found en- 

* In the plains of Copiapo, are also great quantities of load- 
stone, and of lapis lazuli, which the inhabitants consider as of 
no value. These mines are at the distance of fourteen or fifteen 
leagues from Copiapo, and in the vicinity of a tract of country- 
abounding in mines of lead. — Frazier'a Voyage^ vol. i. 

The lapia laztUiy according to th^ opinions of tht Best in/wmud 
mineralogiatSy belongs to the genua of zfo/¿/M..«.Fr. Trans. 


closed in a grey quartz, which serves them for a ma- 
trix, and others isolated among the sand. They are 
more perfect both in colour and hardness in propor* 
tion to their depth, and were those who search fot 
them to dig deeper, they would, most probably, dis- 
cover them in the highest state of perfection. A 
short time before I left Chili I saw some that were 
of a beautiful violet, and would cut glasfi repeat- 
edly without injuring their points. Among them 
virere a few of as fine a water as the diamond, and 
perhaps they may serve as precursors to that most 
valuable gem. They are so abundant that, in some 
of the crevices of the rocks, those of a fine purple 
may be discovered at almost every step. 

The province of Copiapo owes its name, accord- 
ing to the Indian tradition, to the great quantity of 
turquoises found in its mountains. Though these 
stones ought,, vnth propriety, to be classed among 
the qoncretions, as they are only the petrified teeth 
or bones of animals, coloured by metallic vapours^ 
I have thought proper to menticni them here, as they 
are placed by many ^mong the precious stones. The 
turquoises of Copiapo are usually of a greenish Mue, 
some, however, arc found of a deep blue, which are 
very hard, and known by the name of the turquoises 
of the old rock. 

Mixed stones, or those formed by the combina- 
tion of several heterogeneous substances, are here, 
as elsewhere, the most numerous, and form a c<mi. 
siderable portion of the Chilian mountains. Beside 
the common stones of this class, various kinds of 


porphyry and granite of the fifst quality are con* 
stantly met with ; and the skirts of the mountains 
bordering the high road across the Andes to Cujo, 
consist wholly of red, green, black and other co- 
loured porphyries. Among these is one which de-, 
serves particular attention ; it is yellow, spotted with ^ 
red and blue, and from its being found in the 
neighbourhood of the river Chili, I have given it 
the name of saxum Chilense, 

In the plains near the confluence of the Rio-claro, 
á large quarry of brown porphyry with black spots 
has been discovered. It is disposed in strata of two 
feet broad and four inches thick, a proportion which 
hitherto has been found invariable; and notwith- 
standing the layers are frequently broken by crevi- 
ces or some foreign substance, pieces have been 
procured of more than eight feet in length. These 
pieces are so even and smooth, that they are used 
by the painters to grind their colours upon, without 
any preparation. It is not easy to account for the 
arrangement and regular formation of this stone ; 
the earth in the environs is composed of sand, clay 
or marie, and between the layers only is a coarse 
sparry or quartzeous sand to be found. 

In the plains, and upon most of the mountains, 
are to be seen a great number of flat circular stones^ 
of five or six inches in diameter, with a hole through 
the middle. These stones which are either granite 
or porphyry, have doubtless received this form by 
artificial means, and I am induced to believe that 
they were the clubs or maces of tKe ancient Chi» 


lians, and that the holes were perforated to receive 
the handles.* 

Sect- VIII. Salts.— Th^t part of the Andes ' 
corresponding with the provinces of Copiapo and 
Coquimbo, contains several mountains of fossil salt, 
dispersed in strata or layers, crystallized in trans- 
parent cubes, frequently coloured with yeílow, blue, 
and red. The surface generally consists of an ar- 
gillaceous earth. This salt is excellent, but it is 
used only by such as live in the vicinity; as those 
who are at a distance prefer "the sea salt, which is 
obtained in great quantities, and of a fine quality 
upon the coast, particularly at Bucalemu, Boyeruca 
and Vichuquen. In the middle districts, however, 
the salt from the springs of Pehuenches, which I 
have already mentioned in treating of mineral wa- 
ters, is most generally used. 

Sal-ammoniac, either incrusted or in a state of 
efflorescence, is very common in many parts of Chili. 
It is also found of various colours, in a fossil state, 
in the vicinity of volcanoes, of which it appears to 
be a production. 

Much of the marly ground in the neighbourhood of 
the city of Coquimbo is covered with a crust of some 
inches of crystailizednitre, with abase of fixed alkali, t 

* The nations of the South Sea Islarulsj diacovered by cafitain 
Cooki have among" thtir xveafiorut clubs of a similar form ia 
what our author suji/iose^ these to have becn^,..Y\\ Trans. 

, t Nor is saltpetre less comnir,n there, which is frequently 
found in the yallies an inch thick upon tlie surface of the earth. — 
Frazier^a Voi/aj^c^ vol. i. 


In other parts of the sai^ac province this sdt is 
found with a calcareous base ; but we must not' con- 
sider as nitre all the salts which the inhabitants re. 
present as such, for the natron is likewise found 
there, or earthy alkaline salt, combined with sea 
salt, and sometimes with the volatile alkali, to which 
they improperly give the name of nitre. 

Besides common alum, and that called the plum- 
ed,* which are found in many parts of Chili, a 
semi-crystallized aluminólas stone has been discos 
verecj in the Andes. This stone, called by the inhab- 
itants polcuray is brittle and of a pale white, of a 
very fine grain and a vitriolic taste ; its external ap- 
pearance is like that of white marble, but it contains 
no calcareous particles, nor is it in reality any thing 
but a clay saturated with vitriolic acid, analagous to 
the aluminous stone of Tolfa. It is useful in dying, 
and the quarries from whence it is procured com- 
prehend a space of many leagues among the motm- 
tains, which also afford another stone in some mea- 
sure resembling it, but coarser and of much less 
value. Its yellow hue, and the quantity of sulphur 
and pyrites it contains, distinguish this last from the 
real polcuruy which is very pure, and not combined 
with any metallic substance. 

The four principal kinds of vitriol, the green 
or iron, the blue or copper, the white with a zinc 
base, and the mixed, are found in a «talactite or 

♦ ThU name ta given to a species of talc^ consisting qf 

JilamcntSy otherwise called the asbestos «^on<?.--iDictkmnaire de 

Vol. I. K 


crystallized state as well as that of efflorescence in 
the mines, and esv^en isolated in different earths ; the 
niietallic substances which produce it being, under 
different modifications, dispersed throughout the 

Sect. IX. Bitumens. — The Andes, heated by 
subterraneous fires, produce in many places white 
and red naphtha, petroleum, asphaltos, and mineral 
pitch of two kinds, the common, and another of a 
bluish black, which when burnt exhales an agree- 
able odour like amber. This bitumen, which I 
believe to be condensed naphtha, I have named bit- 
umen andinum, and it is perhaps only a variety of 
the Persian mummy. It is not uncommon, and is 
discovered in large quantities in those places that 
produce it. Jet is very plentiful in the Araucaniaïl 
provinces ; and near the city of Conception, and in 
various other parts of Chili, pit-coal is found in great 

Considerable quantities of ambergris are thrown 
i^p by the sea upon the Araucanian coast and the 
islands of Chiloe. The Indians call it meyene (the 
excrement of wkales) and pretend that when it is 
first thrown up it is black, that it next becomes 
brown, and after along exposure to tliesun acquires 
a grey colour. Pieces of yellow amber are occa- 
sionally found upon the shores, which prove that 

* The mountains in the neighbourhotd of tlie Puelches afford 
mines of sulphur and of salt ; and in Talcaguano, Irequin, and 
ei^en in the city of"Ccnception, seyeral good mines of coal have 
been discovered at the depth of one or two feet from the surlace.— 
Frazier^a FoyagCy vol. L 


Chili contains also this valuable production. In 
the province of Copiapo, one of the richest parts of 
the world in minerals*, are two little mountains al- 
most entit-ely composed of the most beautiful crys- 
tallized sulphur, so pure that it does not require 
refining,* And there is scarce a valley in the Andes 
but what contains a reservoir of this mineral. 

Sect. X. Fyrit es. -^Thc whole territory of Chi- 
li is sown with pyrites. They are of different qual- 
ities and shapes, and discovered at various depths, 
frequently in groupes, but more usually in veins va- 
rying in extent and thickness. They most generally 
accqmpany metals of some kind, and are found both 
in veins of ore, in chalk, clay and common stone, 
but rarely in quartz or in rock crystal. 

In the three divisions, under which they may be 
classed, the iron, the copper and the arsenic, they 
present themselves with such different modifications, 
that a particular enumeration and description of 
them would require a volume. The most remark- 
able species of those that I have seen, is the aurife- 
rous pyrites, generally denominated the Inca sjtone. 
M. Bomare, in his Dictionary of Natural Histor}^ 
observes, that this stone is very rare, and found only 
in the tombs of the ancient Peruvians. This may 
perhaps be the case in Peru, but it is otherwise in 

* Oii the high ridge of the Cordilleras, forty leagues south-east 
from the harbour of Copiapo, are the best mines of sulphur. It is 
procured, from veins about two feet wide, in a state so pure as to 
require no refining. — Frazier'^s Voyage^ vol. i. 


Chili, where it is, found in great quantities upon^the 
Campana, a high mountain in the province of Quil- 
lota, and is known by the same name. This pyrites 
is of a cubical figure, and contains a mixture of gold 
and copper mineralized with sulphur. It emits but 
à very few sparkîs with the steel, a circumstance 
\yhich distinguishes it from all the other species. 

Sect. XI; Semi-metals. — All the known kinds 
of semi-metals are met with in Chili, and are found 
either in mines by themselves, or combined with 
metallic ores, and generally in a state of minerali- 
zation. But the working them is neglected or pro- 
hibited, and antimony is the only one sought for, 
as it is necessary for refining the precious metala. 
1 his mineral is discovered under various forms, as, 
the red antimony combined with arsenic and sul- 
phur, the striated a^id the compact, all of which arc 
found in mines of gold, silver, iron and lead. One 
mine alone has furnished crystallized antimony. 

The digging of quicksilver is rigorously prohib- 
ited in consequence of its being a royal monopoly. 
It is found in a metallic form, or mineralized with 
sulphur under that of cinnabar. The two richest 
mines are in the provinces of Coquimbo and Copia- 
po, from whence vast quantities might be obtained 
if it were permitted to work them, the greater part 
of which would probably be sold in the country it- 
self, as much is required for the amalgamation of. 
the precious metals. The mine of Coquimbo is in 
one of the midland mountains. The bed or matrix 


of the quicksilver is a species of brownish clay, w^ 
very brittie black stone ; in this the quicksilver is 
found in great abundance in its natural state, in hori- 
zontal veins, occasionally intersected by mineralized 
mercury or cinnabar. That of Quillota is situated 
in a very high mountain near Limache, and appears 
to be as rich as the former. The quicksilver is mi- 
neralized witli sulphui^ its matrix is a calcarious 
stone, which would serve very well, as an interme* 
diate substance, to retain the sulphur, if the mer- 
cury were to be separated from it by a chemical 

Sect. XII. Metals. — The Chilians set little va- 
lue upon lead mines, although they possess those 
that are of an excellent quality. No more of this 
metal is dug than what is wanted in the foundries 
for the melting of silver, or is employed for domes- 
tic purposes. Lead is not only found in all the sil- 
ver mines, but, in cubes of various sizes with the 
galena or black lead, in mines of pure ore, or in- 
termixed with spar of different colours. All the lead 
mines contain either gold or silver, but in too small 
a quantity to excite the attention of the miners. The 
mines of tin, although excellent, are equally neg- 
lected with those of lead. This ore is usually found 
in sandy mountains, not like other metals in con- 
tinued veins, but under the appearance erf black 
stones, very brittle and heavy, of an unequal size 
and irregular shape. In this state, the tin contains a 
small portion of iron, mineralized with a little arse- 


nie. Crystals of tin, of various colours, are also 
Common throughout Chili. 

M. de Pau w, with a dash of his pen, has driven out 
of this country all its iron mines, since he boldly • 
asserts that *^ Chili does not contain a single mine 
of iron.'* But Frazier, and other writers who have 
been in that country, deélare the contrary.* 

~ So plentiful is this metal in the country, that as I 
have already observed, the brooks and rivers deposit 
great quantities of sand, replete with particles of 
iron upon their shores, the sea also washes it up at 
times in great abundance. 

The provinces of Coquimbo, Copiapo, Aconca- 
gua and Huilquilemu, are very rich in mines of 
iron ; it is found under various appearances, as a 
Iblack, a grey compact ore, or crystallfzed in bluish 
cubes. From the eásays that have been made, the 

* "^n order the more to depreciate America, Pauw asserts, 
that there are but few iron mines in that quarter of the world. 
And, What is still more singular, that the iron procured from 
them is 6f a very inferior quality to that of the old continent, so 
much so tliat it will not answer even for v>ails ; and that, in con- 
sequence, it is so dear as to be sold in Peru at the rate of a crown, 
and steel at a crown and a half for the peund weight." 

Tlie iron, however, so much decried by this author, who sup- 
poses it to be American, is what is impofrted from Europe. But 
supposing his assertion to he true, for what purpose has the Span- 
ish government prohibited the working or selling any iron but 
that which is brought from Spain ? 

*^ In the vicinity of Copiapo, besides the mines of gold, there 
are many of iron, copper, tin and lead, that are not worked.'» 
And in the year 1710, a number of mines of all kinds of metal, 
such as gold, silver, iron, lead, copper and tin, were discovered 
at h3mpsi^VLe,p^Frazier*3 Fogaje, vol. i. 


iron of these mines is of the very best quality ; but the 
working of it is prohibited, in order to favour the trade 
of Spain, from whence all the iron used in the country 
is brought. But during the last war between Eng- 
land and Spain, wlxen iron was at an exorbitant price, 
several quintak were secretly wrought which prov- 
ed to be of a superior quality. The Araucauian pro- 
vinces likewise produce excellent iron, and I have 
been assured by an intelligent Biscayan smith, that 
^it was no way inferior to the best in Spain. In the 
same country has likewise been discovered a spe- 
cies of that mitieral substance called refractarias ; 
and there is scarce a province that does hot contain a 
mine of load- stone : Frazier speaks of a mountain 
in the Andes, called St. Agnes, which is entirely 
composed of this substance. 

If the Chilians have neglected the working of 
mines in general, this cannot be said of those of 
gold, silver and copper, to which the greatest atten- 
tion has been paid, from the conquest to the present 
time. The richest mines of the latter are found 
betwixt the 24th and 36th degrees of latitude ; the 
ore obtained from them is of various qualities, some- 
very fine and some but indifferent. UUoa, in speak- 
ing of this copper generally, assigns to it the second 
place after that of Corinth, which is properly consi- 
dered as an artificial pietal.* Almost all the copper 

Ç In the province of Coquimbo aU kinds of metals are so com- 
mon, that it would seem as if the earth was entirely composed of 
mineral. In that province are thoas mines of copper which sup- 
ply the consumption of Chili and Peru, and although it is consi- 
^ered as the best of any hitherto known, it is dug very sparingly. 
American Gazetteer; article Chili. 


in Chili contains a greater or less proportion oí gold. 
This was well known to the French, who, in the be- 
ginning of the present century, carried on a profit- 
able commerce with that country for copper, g^eat 
quantities of which they exported and extracted the 
gold from it. The proportions of these metals arc 
very various, there are some copper ores which con- 
tain a tenth, and others a third part of gold ; but in 
these cases both substances are found in a metallic 
state, without having been mineralized. 

The copper ores, containing but little or no gold, 
are usually mineralized with arsenic or sulphur, some- 
times with both, and mixed with iron and silver. They 
are found under the forms of vitreous and hepatic 
ore, of ultramarine stone, and of malachite and white 
copper ore. These several ores ai^ rich in metal, 
but, from the expense of refining them, they arc 
considered as of no value. The ores that arc wrou ght 
are but two kinds, the grey or bell metal, and the 
malleable copper. The gréy ore, or bell metal, is 
usually mineralized with arsenic and sulphur; it 
contains no gold or other metal, except a small por- 
tion of tin.* From this mixture and its grey colour^ 
which it retains «ven after having been melted and 
refined, it may be considered as a species of nfrtive 
bronze ; it has anotfier characterestic of that facti- 
tious metal in its brittleness, although its specific 
gravity, is much greater than that of the metals com- 

* If the author has given an accurate descrifition oftkU metals 
it is of a very singular sfiecies, and nothing similar to it ha% been 
discovered in the mines of £urofi€^.»VT. Trans. 



poàiiig it, when artificially combined. This brittle, 
ness renders it unfit for any thing but the casting 
of cannon, bells, &c. 

Large quantities of this metal are sent to Spain 
for the use of foundries, whence M. Bomare has 
been led to observe, in his Dictionary of Natural 
History, that the copper of Coquimbo is of little 
value. The matrix of this ore is a grey sandy stone, 
easily broken ; and the relative proportions of the 
copper to the tin vary considerably. 

The malleable copper is found in many of the 
other provinces as well as Coquimbo; it possesses 
every quality requisite in that metal, and is the spe- 
cies from whence the Chilian copper has principally 
derived its high reputation. Its matrix is a soft brown 
and sometimes white stone ; the ore, which is minera- 
lized with a small portion of sulphur, in its appear- 
anee and ductility resembles native copper, a sim- 
ple roasting being sufficient to expel the sulphur 
and render it malleable and fit for use. The miners, 
however, refine it in the usuáEh manner, ;as they pre- 
tend that by this means it acquires a brighter coloun 
There is a remarkable affinity between this .copper 
and gold ; those metals are not only always found 
conibined, but veins of pure gold are frequently met 
with in the deepest copper mines. In this circum* 
stance has originated the error of many miners, who 
assert that copper, when it extends to a certain 
depth, becomes transmuted into gold. The veins do 
not always preserve the same course, and are fre- 
quently divided into small ramifications ; and there 

Vol. L L 


îs a still greBicr diversity in their gangas or matrices. 
A great number of mines have been opened, but 
those only arc worked whose ore is so rich as to 
yield at least one half its weight in refined copper ; 
those of a less product having been relinquished as 
too expensive ; notwithstanding which, between the 
cities of Coquimbo and Copiapo there are now in 
work more than a thousand mines, besides those in 
the province of Aconcagua. 

The most celebrated copper mine in Chili was 
the old mine of Payen, but the working of it has 
been for many years relinquished, in consequence of 
the opposition of the Puelches, who inhabit that dis- 
trict.* On its first discovery this jnine furnished 

* Mines of copper are very frequent in the vîiîinity of Coquim- 
bo, at three leagues distance to the north-east of that city. It 
is also said, that mines of iron and of quicksilver are found 
there. — Frazier*^ Voyage^ vol. i. 

All the parts of the Cordilleras near St Jago and Conception 
abound in copper mines, and particularly a place called Payen^ 
some of which were formerly wrought, and pieces of pure copper 
of fifty and a hundred quintals weight obtained from them. — 
American Gazetteer; article Chili. 

Among the mountains of the Cordilleras a great number of 
mines of all kinds of metals and minerals are to be met with, par- 
ticularly in two ridges, distant only twelve leagues from the Pam* 
fias (or great plains) of Paraguay, and a hundred from Conception ; 
in one of which have been discovered mines of copper so produc- 
tive that they have yielded pieces of pure ore of a hundred quin- 
tals weight. To one of these spots, which the Indians call Payen, 
that is copper, the discoverer, Don Juan Melendez, gave the name 
of St. Joseph. I saw at Conception a piece of ore of forty quin- 
tals weight, from which, when smelted, were cast six field pieces 
of six pounds caliber. And nothing is more common than to meet 
with stones composed partly of pure and partly of impure copper, 
which has given rise to the observation, that the soil of this country 


pepitasy or pieces of pure copper, from fifty to a hun- 
dred weight, which the writers of those times repre- 
sent as of a beautiful colour resembling pinchbeck, 
and containing in general more than an equal por- 
tion of gold. This metal was so pure and easily sepa- 
rated from its matrix that it required only a common 
fire to melt it. 

A mine has lately been discovered at Curico which 
is as rich as that of Payen. The ore consists of gold 
and copper in equal proportions, and the inhabitants 
have named it natural avanturine* from its being 
filled with brilliant particles that give it a beautiful 
appearance. This metal is used by the goldsmiths 
for rings, bracelets, and other ornaments of jewelry. 

In the province of Huilquilemu are hills that fur- 
nish a copper ore combined with zinc, or a real native 
brass. It is found in pieces pf various sizes, and the 
matrix is a brittle earthy stone of a yellow colour, or 
a dull green. This substance, which has hitherto 
been obtained only by artificial means, probably 
owes its formation to subterraneous fires, which sub- 
limating the zinc, and combining it with the copper, 
has produced this extraordinary natural mixture. It 
is of a fine yellow colour, and as malleable as the 

is creative; that is, that copper is constantly produced or created 
in it. The same mountain contains mines of lapis lazuli, and the 
other which is near it, called by the Spaniards Cerro de Santa 
Inis, is particularly remarkable for great quantities of load-stcme, 
of which it appears to be entirely composed.—- /VaziVr'* Voyage^ 
vol. i. é 

* A precious stone of a yellowish colour, full of small specks 
of gold. 


best artificial brass, and is called Laxa copper, from, 
the river of tkat name in the vicinity of the mine. 

The method of melting the ore is very pimple : 
After separating it from tte earth and superfluous 
matrix, it i% broken into small pieces with wooden 
pestles. These pieces are placed between layers of 
wood, which are set on fire, and the heat kept up 
with a large bellows moved by water. The furnace 
is constructed of an adhesive cky ; but the bot- 
tom, which is slightly inclined towards the centre, 
is formed of a cement of plaister and calcined 
bones. The vault contains a sufficient number of 
outlets for the smoke, and at the top is an aperture 
that may be closed or opened at pleasure, which 
serves for the introduction of ore and fuel. 

At the bottom of the furnace is a hole for the 
passage of the liquefied metal, which is conveyed 
into a receptacle, and from thence taken and refined 
in the European manner. 

I do not know what quantity of copper is annu- 
ally obtain/ed from the mines, but from the expor- 
tation it must be very considerable. Five or six 
ships sail every year for Spain, each of which usually 
carries twenty thousand quintals or upwards, Much 
is also sent to Buenos- Ayres by land ; and the Pe- 
ruvians, who have an extensive commerce with the 
coast, exfxort at least thirty thousand quintals yearly, 
♦which is principally employed in their sugar works. 
Besides which the quantity made use of in the can- 
non foundries, and for domestic purposes, is by no 
means inconsiderable. 


The mines of copper are not confined to any par-^ 
ticular district, but scattered throughout the coun- 
try ; those of silver, on the contrary, are found only" 
in the highest and coldest parts of the Andes. This 
situati<»i, so unfavourable for working them, and 
the vast expense of refining, has caused a great 
number of mines, though rich in ore, to be aban- 
doned, and there are but three or four that are at 
present worked. But it may be presumed, when the 
population of this country becomes increased and 
its industry excited, that these mines, now neglected, 
will become an object of attention, ana that the en- 
terprise of a future generation will conquer those 
obstructions which impede the labours of the présentai 
AU the provinces bordering upon the Andes pro- 
duce some silver mines, but the richest are in those 
of St. Jago, Aconcagua, Coquimbo and Copiapo. 
In these it is found not only in a metallic form, but 
. under the appearance of vitreous ore, hombend, and 
* red, grey and white ore, wherein the silver is mine- 
ralized with sulphur and arsenic, and it is occasion- 
ally found combined with other metals. In the year 
1767, a piece of silver ore was found in the neigh-t 
bourhood of Copiapo ; it was of a green colour, and, 
on being assayed, was found to contain three-fourths, 
of pure silver. It was mineralized with a small 
quantity of sulphur, and much search has since been, 
ineffiectuaUy made by the inhabitants to discover 
the vein from which it was detached. 

The ore held in the highest estimation by the mi- 
ners is the black, so called from its matrix being of 


a dark colour. Those of them who are experienced 
are scarcely ever deceived in this ore, and whenever 
they strike upon 1a new vein can nearly determine by 
the eye the quantity of silver which it will yield. 
This ore presents three very distinct varieties, though 
differing but little in appearance. The first, called 
negrillo J resembles the scoria^of iron, and affords no 
apparent indication of silver. The second, the rossi- 
ckzroy which is distinct from the red silver ore, yields 
a red powder when filed ; it is very rich although 
its external appearance is not promising. The third, 
the piombo ronca^ is the richest of all ; as it is mine- 
ralized with a very small quantity of sulphur, it is 
much more easily separated than the others, whichr 
require a more laborious and complicated operation. 
These three varieties of ore are obtained from the 
mine of Uspallata, the largest and richest of any of 
the silver mines in Chili. It is situated upon the 
eastern mountains of that portion of the Andes which 
forms a part of the province of Aconcagua. On the 
topof these mountains isalarge plain called Uspallata, 
of more than seventeen leagues in length and three 
in breadth, it is watered by a pleasant river and 
covered with delightful groves, the air is healthy and 
temperate, and the soil fertile. This plain serves as a 
base to another more elevated, called Paramillo^ 
upon which the Andes of the first rank rise to such 
a height as to be seen distinctly at St. Louis de la 
Punta, a distance of one hundred and twenty leagues. 
The ridge of these immense mountains is a blackish 
clay stone, containing a great number of round stones 


similar to those of rivers. This phenomenon ap- 
pears to me unexplainable in any other way but on 
the principle of a general deluge; though some au- 
thors have, ridiculously enough, accounted for it, 
by supposing that the ancient Indians amused them- 
selves in throwing these stones upon this mass, while 
it was yet soft and in a state of clay. But besides the 
irrationality of such a conjecture, the Abbé Morales 
of Cujo, an intelligent paturalist, who carefully exa- 
mined these mountains, affirms that the interior of 
this mass is no less filled with these stones than the 
exterior, which of itself aíFords a sufficient proof to 
the contrary. 

The mine of Uspallata extends along the base of 
the eastern mountains of the plain of the same 
name, from the thirty-third degree of latitude, in a 
direct northerly course ; but the termination of it is 
unknown, .for I have been assured, by persons who 
have followed it for thirty leagues, that it continues 
to be equally abundant at that distance, and there arc 
those who assert that it is a ramification of the cele- 
brated mine of Potosi. 

The principal vein is nine feet in breadth, but it 
branches out upon both sides into several that are 
smaller, which extend to the neighbouring mountains, 
and are said to exceed thirty miles in length. The 
matrix of the great vein is a various coloured earth, 
which separates it into five parallel divisions or lay- 
ers, of different thicknesses. The middle layer is but 
two inches thick ; the ore, which is called by the 
miners the guidüT^ is black, but so filled with metallic 

particles as to have a whitish appearance ; the two 
next strata are brown and are called pinterias, the' 
two exterior ones are of a dark grey and known by 
the name of brozas. Although the general direc- 
tion of this vein is horizontal, it sometimes runs per- 
pendicularly, ' and is found to increase in richness 
in proportion to its depth. From assays which have 
been made at Lima, on the ore of Uspallata, it ap- 
pears that the guida yields more than two hundred 
'marks of silver the caxon ;* the pintariasy mixed 
with the guiday fifty ; and the brozas fourteen ; 
a produce riot inferior to that of the mine of Potosi. 
The mine of Uspallata was discovered in the year 
1638, but although on its first discovery it furnish- 
ed the strongest indication of its wealth, from want 
of labourers, or some other cause, it was neglected 
until 1763, but since that period has been constantly 
wrought with immense profit. 

Before the arrival of the Europeans, the Indians 
employed a very simple method to separate the sil- 
ver from the ore, especially when the metal was in a 
metallic form, and not mineralized or combined with 
other substances. This method consisted in merely 
exposing the ore to a degree of heat capable of melt- 
ing the metal which it contained. When tlie ore 
was united with other substances, or mineralized» 
and of course more difficult to be melted, they 

* A term made use of by the American metallurgists to express 
the quantity of ore which a single miner can dig in a day, usually 
calculated at fifty quintals ; but, as this quantity contains more or 
less of the matrix, it is impossible to ascertain the amount of 
pure ore contained in each caxon. 

/ , 


made use of a kind of open furnace, constructed 
upon elevated ground, in order that the fire should 
be kept up by a constant current of air. This appears 
to have beeen adopted with a view to save labour, as 
they were not unacquainted with .the use of the bel- 
lows, which was known to them under the name of 
pimahue ; and even at present this mode is preferred 
by the poorer class, who practise it, and no small 
part of the silver,-^ employed as a circulating medium 
in Chili, is obtained from these clandestine foundries. 
The process generally pursued, particularly by the 
wealthy proprietors, is that of amalgamation.^ In this 

* Almost all the precipitous and broken grounds of Chili contain 
gold ^in greater or less quantities, the surface of the earth in ^hich 
it is found is generally of a reddish colour and soft to the touch. 

These lavaderos^ or places producing earth which yields gold 
by agitating it in water, are very common in Chili, but the indo- 
lence of the Spaniards and the want of labourers suffer immense 
treasures to remain in the earth which might easily be obtained ; 
but, not satisfied with small gabs, they work those mines only which 
yield a great profit ; of course, whenever any one of this cha- 
racter is discovered numbers flock to it from all quarters, as was 
the case with Copiapo and Lampagua, \Yhich by this means became 
peopled so rapidly, from the great concourse of labourers, that in 
the space of two years six mills were established at the latter placé. 
The city of Conception is situated in a country abounding not only 
with all the necessaries of life, but with immense riches, particu- 
larly a place called tjie King's Camp, about twelve leagues to 
the east, from whence is obtained by the lavadero pieces of pure 
gold, cdled in the caantry: fie/iitaêj of from eight to ten marks* in 
weight. It has likewise been discovered in the vicinity of Angol ; 
and if the inhabitants of the country were industrious, many other 
spots would be explored where it is believed there arc very good 
lavaderos. Nine or ten leagues to the east of Coquimbo are the 

• TÂe Sfiani9h mark is ei^ht ounces. 
V<yL. I. W - 


case they begin with reducing the ore to powd» 
by grinding it in a mill. This powder i$ then passed 
through a wire sieve and spread upon the hides of 
cattle, where it is mixed with sea salt, quicksilver 
and rotten (hmg. After wetting this mixture from 
time to time, and beating and treading it well for the 
space t)f eight days, in order to incorporate the sil* 
ver and the mercury, it is put into a stone trough 

lavaderoê of AndacoH, which produce gold of 23 carats fine, and 
ar%woii:ed constantly with great profit when there is no scarcity 
of water. This has g^ven rise to a saying of the iohabitante that 
|hp çrpund is creative^ that is, that gold is continually formecj 
in it; founded in the circumstance of their finding that metal 
in as great quantities as at first, although it is sixty or eighty 
years since these lavaderos have been worked. Besides the 
lavaderos^ which arp in all the rallies, so numerous are the mines 
of gold and some of silver that are met with in the mountains, 
that they would furnish employment for more than forty thour 
sand men. — Frazier^a Voyage» 

Chili abound* in mines of all kinds, more especially in those of 
^Id and copper, which are very common. Coquimbo, Copiapp 
and Guaseo have gold mines, the ore of which is called by way 
of distinction, oro cafiote^ as being the niost valuable of any that 
has hitherto been discovered,.. ../fmenVan Gazetteer; article Ch i li. 

These vallies contain besides mines of silver, those of lead, cop- 
per and quicksilver, and a very great number of gold. Of this 
last there is so much found in the sands of the rivulets", that a cer- 
tain author has said that Chili is a composition of this precious^ 
metal. The quantity obtained by Pedro de Valdivia, who entere^ 
Chili after Almagro, was immense. That general opened mines 
of gold which were so rich that each Indian furnished from thirty 
to forty ducats daily, as, when only twelve or fifteen were employed^ 
he obtained three or four hundred ducats a day. This concurs^ 
with what Garcilassp says in his history of Peru, that a part of 
Chili fell to the lot of Valdivia, who received from his vassals an 
annual tribute of more than one hundred thousand pieces of gold.— 
Sanson's (o^ Abbeville) Geography ; article Chil|, 


with water sufficient to dilute it. In this situation, 
the silver amalgamated with the mercuryj frota its 
weight sinks to the bottoín, While the lighter hétéro* 
genêous píuticles are drawn off with the \>irater 
through a hole in the trough into a Vessel placed to 
receive it. This amalgam, after having been repeat* 
edly washed to cleanse it from all foreign substancefc, 
is put into a linnen bag, and the mercury, which has 
not become incorporated with the silver^ expressed 
from it. In this state of paste the amalgam receive» 
any shape, but it is usually formed with mouldis into 
small cylindrical tubes. The last process is that of 
separating the mercury from the silver j this is done, 
by means of evaporation, in a receiver which is filled 
with water and closely fitted with a head. The i$maH 
quantity of lead or other metal that maiy remain after 
this process can only be detached by melting it. 

Gold of all the metals is that Which is most abun- 
dant in Chili, and it may be said that there is not à 
iñountain or hill but contáini it in a greater <h* less 
degree ; it is found also in tii© sanjds of the fáainí, 
bût more especially in those washed down by the* 
brooks and rivers*. Several French and Ei^^fi;^ 
authors affirm that the gold of Chili is the pùred 
and most valuable of any ; and it íé true that its genii. 

* A person, on opening a water course to an estate in the plain 
of Huilquilemu, discovered, with nluch surpt^ise, a vein of gold 
düSt, Which produced more than fifty thousand doflai's without 
iht least labour. The same good fortune occurred to another îh 
ploughing a piece of land for grain. These instances are not unu- 
sual ; and naturalists have given the name of montas to these 
kind of casual mines which are always of small eictent 


ral standard is from twenty-two to twenty-three and 
a half carats. In the southern provinces, between 
the river Bio-bio and the Archipelago of Chiloé, se- 
veral very rich mines of gold were formerly disco- 
vered which yielded immense sums ; but since the 
expulsion of the Spaniards from those provinces by 
the Araucanians, these mines have been in the pos- 
session of that warlike people, who have prohibited 
the opening them anew by any one under pain of 

The most important mines that are at present 
wrought are those of Copiapo, Guase, Coquimbo, 
PetcM-ca, Ligua, Tiltil, Putaendo, Caen, Alhue, 
Chibato, and Huilli-patagua. AU these, excepting 
the three last, which are of recent discovery, have 
been wrought ever since the conquest, and have con- 
stantly yielded a great product" But this is by no 
means the case with all die mines that are discovered : 
in many the miners are allured at first widi appear- 
ances of great riches, but soon find the ore entirely 
fail, or in so small quantities as not to repay them for 
•their labour. The metallurgists of Chili call this 
kind of wandering mine bolsón ; the same name 
is also applied to the ramifications, which in general 
arc circular, and to the richest veins where the ore 
is found lodged in heaps and cavities. Another ob- 
struction to working the mines are the inumlations to 
which they are subject from subterraneous springs. 
These are frequent, and when they occur compel the 
miners to abandon the mine, who seldom attempt to 
free it by drawing off or diverting the water. Some 


years since £ui accident of this kind occurred to the 
celebrated mine of Peldehues, in the nei^bourhood 
of St. Jago'. That mine, which produced daily up- 
wards of fifteen hundred pounds weight of gold, was 
suddenly inundated, and the workmen were com- 
pcUed to abandon it, after having in vain made every 
exertion to free it from tl^ water. 

The matrix of the gold is very variable, and it 
may be said that there is no kind of stone or earth 
but what serves it for that purpose. It is to be seen 
every where, cither in small grains or brilliant span- 
gles, under singular forms, or in irregular masses 
that may be cut by the chissel. The most usual 
matrix is a very brittle red clay stone. The salbandaj 
or the exterior covering of the veins, called by miners 
caxasj is as variable as the matrix ; it is sometimes 
of spar or quartz, at others it consists chiefly of flint, 
marble or hornbend. The principal veins are fre- 
quently ramified into a number df smaller ones that 
are generally very rich. They sometimes descend 
almost vertically into the earth, and in those instan- 
ces require great labour and expense to be pursued ; 
at others they take a circular direction a few feet uii- 
der ground and meet, particularly at the foot of moun- 
tains. The usual course of the veins, though sub- 
ject to some variations, is from south to north. 

The mines are worked both with the pickaxe and 

.by explosion. The ore is reduced to powder in a 

•mill of a very simple construction, called trapiche^ 

of which two stones, the lower placed horizontally, 

and the upper vertically, form the mechanism. The 


horizontal is about six feet in diameter, and has near 
its. circumference a groove of eighteen inches deep> 
in which the ore is placed ; through the centre passes 
a vertical cylinder connected with a cog-wheel turn- 
ed by water* The vertical stone is about four feet 
in diameter and ten or fifteen inches thick, and is 
furnished with a horizontal axis which permits it to 
turn freely within the groove. When the ore is 
sufficiently pulverized, a proportionate quantity of 
quicksilver is added to it, which is immediately 
amalgamated with the gold; to mokten the ma^i 
and incorporate it more fully a small stream of wa- 
tier is then directed above it, which also serves to 
carry off the amalgam into reservoirs placed beneath 
the stone. The gold combined with the mercury 
falls to the bottom of these reservoirs in the form of 
whitish globules ; the mercury is next evaporated 
by heat, and the gold appears in its true colour and 
in all its brilliancy. In each of these mills upwards 
of two thousand M^eight of otc is daily ground and 

As the digfping of the stone ore obtained from the 
mines is very expensive, from the number of work- 
men and the materials required, it is pursued only 
by the rich ; but it furnishes a much greater profit 
than the lavaderoy or the ore procured by the wadi- 
ing of auriferous sands, which is ¡M^actfôed only by 
the poorer clasd, and those wlio cannot afford théi 
necessary expenses for mining. The^ washing is 
performed in the fcdlowing manner : tlie earth oc 
sand containing particles of gold is put into a vessel 


of wood or horn, called poruña^ which is placed in 
a rmining stream and constantly shaken ; by this 
meaas the sand which contains no metallic particles, 
being lighter, is thrown out over the top, and the 
more weighty or the gold remains at the bottom. 
This operation is necessary to be repeated several 
times in order to carry off aU the ferruginous earth 
which is always united with gold. But as many of 
the smaller metallic particles must necessarily be 
wasl^d away with the earth by this process, a mode, 
in my opinion, much more economical, is that em- 
ployed in some places of washing the sand upon in- 
clined planks covered with shjeep skin. Defective as 
tile process of washing is, the profit that accrues from 
it is frequently almost incredible, as it is not unusual 
to find among the sand large pieces of gold, qalled/^- 
j&íVfl5í, which sometimes exceed a pound in weight; but 
it is more commonly found in a pulverized state, and 
in the form of little round or lenticular grains. This 
gold is sold in the cities in little purses made of the 
scrotums of sheep as in the time of Pliny, and is gene^ 
rally more esteemed than that of the mines, as it is 
of a better colour and a finer standard. 

The quantity of gold ¿annually dug in Chili is diffi- 
cult to be estimated. That called oroquintado^ which 
pays the fifth to the royal treasury, does not amount 
to leas than fiiur millions of dollars, of which there is 
coined at the mint of St. Jago a million and a half, the 
residue is exported in bullion, or used in the country 
for plate and jewelry. The amount smuggled without 
paying the duty canqot be calculated, but it certainly 


is very considerable. I have made much search, 
but without success, to discover the platina, or white 
gold, found in Peru. What bears the name of wlrite 
gold in Chili is a mixture of gold and silver in whidi 
the latter predominates. But since I left that country 
a new immalleable metal, of a kind unknown to tbe 
miners, has been discovered in the gold mine of 
Capati on the mountains of Copiapo, which I ima- 
gine can be no other than platina. 

Many obstacles present themselves to impede the 
working of the mines, both in the danger to which 
the miners are exposed from the mephitic vapours, 
called mountain fires, and in the vast expense at- 
tending the digging them. The great number of 
tools, the timber required for pn^pihg the arches, 
which is very scarce and expensive in the country, 
the numerous workmen who must be paid and sub- 
^ted, together with the uncertainty of the product, 
aire reasons wJiich operate powerfully to discount 
those who are inclined to engage in mining ; of course, 
the number of those who pursue this business is very 
small in comparison to that of the mines. 

When any persons are desirous of opening a mine, 
application is made to the government, wiách rea- 
dily grants its permission and appoints an inspector, 
under whose authority and direction they begin by 
dividing the mine into three equal parts, or estacas^ 
each two hundred and forty-six feet long and one 
hundred and twenty-three broad. The first portioii 
belongs to the king, in whose name it is sold, the 
second to the owner of the land, and the third to the 


dîscoyera: of the mine. As the opening erf a mini? 
is very injurious to the cultivation of the land' in 
Mdiich it is situated, the proprietors of the soil' en^: 
deavour to prevent as much as possible the discovery 
of vdns in their grounds. The nuihber of persons 
who flock from all quarters to a newly ofïened mme 
ûnt; promises to be profitable is alimost incredible* 
S^ne come thuher to work, others to sell their 
provisions, which at such times are m great de- 
mand ; and in this manner a kind of fair is gra- 
dually es^ablished, which leads to the ' erection ol 
houses, and finally to the formation of a permai^nt 
town or vïHage. A magistrate, with the title of the* 
Alcayde of the mine, is then appointed by the govern- * 
ment to regulate and superintend it, and as this 
office is almost always very lucrative the governor of 
the province generally assumes it and appoints a 
deputy to manage it for his account. 

The miners of Chili are in general well acquainted 
with metallurgy. They are expert in mining and 
in the art of assaying and refining metals ; but their 
knowledge is wholly practical and they are entirely 
ignorant of the theory or the real principles of the 
art. They are divided into tíiree classes, tibe first 
those who labour in the mine, the second the foun- 
ders and refinení^íhe third the porters or those who 
earry off die mineral. In general they are a bold, 
enterprising and prodigal class of men. Familiarized 
to the sight of the precious metals, they learn to dis^ 
regard them, and attach but little value to money; 

Vol. I. N ' * 


They are extravagant mtíieir ex{5enses, and passkm^ 
ately addicted to gaming, in which they pass afanort 
all their leisure moments ; and instances are not un*^ 
frequent of a miner losing (me or two tfaonsaml 
crowns of anight. Losses of this nature ^ffe ooosi^ 
dered by them as triâes, and on such occaskms they 
gayly console themselves with a professional pro- 
verb, that ** the mountains never keep accounto.**. 
Nothing is more abhorrent to them tlian frugality j^ 
ancJ^M^henever they find one of their com^nions who 
hasi amassed a sum of money by his economy, iimf 
Iteave no naeans untried to strip him of it, observing, 
that avaride is a vice peculiarly degrading to the 
' diaractcr of a miner; and so addicted are tfiey to 
ebriety that those who on first joining them arc re* 
markable for their abstemiousness, are soon led, from 
the influence of example, to participate in the general 
intemperance. From these causes none of them ac- 
quire property, and they generally die in the greatest 
poverty and distress, while the profits of their labour 
are wholly absorbed by those who supply them iSfith 
provisions and liquor. 

Sect. XIIL Concretions.-^Tht last class of the 
mineral kingdom, the concretions, oiflfers nothing 
very remarkable in Chili. Punpoe stone is s6 
common in the interior of the Andes that it forms 
the substance of several mountains. A species of it 
ef a light grey is in much estimation with the inhabi- 
tants w4io use it for filtering stones. Petrified wood . 
has been disCQvered in many places. I have seen 
pieces of hewn timber completely petrified dug out 

^ 83 

<rf a little hill BffiM- Valparaiso, scme.QÎ which wcte 
eight fiset^ioBg and bore the visible marks of the 
£urc^^n axe, a proof that tins wood must have be- 
come pétrifia since tíic arrival of the Spaniards.^ 
Of all kind^of wood the Chilwn willow is perhaps 
the most susceptible of petrifaction, and pieces of it 
are every where to be met with that have undergone 
this change ; to eflfect which, it requires to be buried 

* That the marks in this wood were produced by an axe, or 
some tool of a similar kind, I am not disposed to question ; but that 
it must have been an European axe, will fairly admit of doubt. 
The Mexicans, on the arrival of the Spaniards, made use of axes 
or hatchets of copper, and, as we are assured by some respectable 
authors, possessed the art of tempering thp-t metal for tools in a 
manner entirely unknown to the Europeans ; and ihat this secret 
was known to the ancient Chilians is by no means improbable, con- 
sidering their contiguity and intercourse with the Peruvians, a peo- 
ple whose progress in the arts was not inferior to that of the Mexi- 
cans. As the period when this timber was cut Í9 however wholly 
conjectural, it may perhaps be referred to an earlier date than 
any authenticated or even traditionary accounts of the country ; to 
an era when the use of iron was very possibly known, perhaps ante- 
rior to the deluge, when the face of the globe exhibited far diflferent 
aspects and relations thain at present That this hypothecs is not 
wholly destitute of verisimilitude, the following may serve to show : 
One of the numbers of the Richmond Enquirer, for the present 
year, 1807, in giving an account of the antiquities of the interior 
of America, observes, that " a copper mine was opened some years 
since further down the Mississippi (below the falls of St Anthony) 
when, to the great surprise of the labourers, a large collection of 
mining tools were found several fathoms below the surface ;'* 
and the writer of this note has been informed from respectajblc 
authority, that within a short time since, in the state of Kentucky, 
some labourers, in digging a well, discovered at the depth of one 
hundred feet from the surface, the stump of a large tree, with an 
axe adhering to it, apparently of iron, as on attempting to disen- 
gage it, it fell into pieces which resembled the rusty scales of that 
metal... ..^m. Trans, 


but for a short time in a moist and sandy soil. Ihavc 
also found pieces of the Peruvian taper with the 
thorns adhering to them' completely petrified^ though 
instances of this are less frequent, as die moist and 
spungy texture of that tree renders it not so favour- 
able to petrifoction. 



Herhsy Shrubs^ and Trees. 

WHENEVER mineralogists undertake to cha- 
racterize the external appearance çf a mineral coun- 
tr}% they describe it as particularly recognizable by 
the weakness of its vegetation and the faded colour 
of the plants, occasioned by the mineral vapours. 
This observation is in general too bold, and fre- 
quently contrary to experience. M. Macquer* ob- 
serves very properly, tíiat there are some countries 
which are rich in mines, whose vegetation is not 
injured thereby. This is precisely the situation of 
Chili, a country, as we have seen, rich in mineral 
productions of every kind, and enjoying at the same 
time a vigorous and profuse vegetation. The plains, 
the vallies, and the mountains are covered with 
beautiful trees, many of which scarcely ever lose 
their verdure, and each season produces vegetables 
suited to the climate in the greatest perfection. 
Feuille has given an accoimt of those plants only 
which grow upon the sea shore, or in marshy places 
in its vicinity. The interior part of the country has 
never been explored by an able botanist, and I am 
convinced that a great number of unknown plants 
might be discovered there. 

• Dictionary of Chemistry ; article Mines. 


Had I been desirous of enlarging the limits of thi* 
work I might have given a very copious enumera- 
tion of the plants of Chili ; but I prefer confining 
myself to those only which are most important and 
useful. As these may be reduced to a small num- 
ber, I have divided them into herbs, grasses,^ climb- 
ing plants, shrubs and trees. I am aware that this 
division is not scientific, but it is convenient, and 
better suited to the plan I have pursued in my de- 
^criptjion of vegetables. 

Sect. I. Herbs, — Many of the plants which arc 
found in the country, such as the mallows, trefoil, 
plaintain, endive, mint, nettles, ,&c. are common 
both to Chili and to Europe. Others that are care- 
fully cultivated in the European gardens grow natu- 
rally there, such as lupins, love apples, Spanish pi- 
mento, . celery, cresses, mustard, fennel, Sccf. Of 
the tropical plants, several succeed very well in the 
northern provinces, among which are the sugar-cane, 
the pine-apple,^ the cotton, the banana, the sweet po- 

* I have rendered grasses what the author has called in ICaliaa 
canna (reífí/«)«,«Fr. Trans. 

t All our plants are cultivated there without difficulty, and pro- 
duce abundantly, and there are soifae that grow naturally in the 
i^elds,'as the turiji^. succory, ^dive, &c. , Nor are the aromatic 
herbs less common, as bahn, mug- wort, camomile, and a kind of 
mouse-ear, which has the smell of a hyacinth ; the alkengi, or 
winter-cherry, whose fruit is more odoriferous than that of France ; 
a species of sage, called by the Indians /fa/j'^i, that grows like a 
shrub, with a leaf resembling rosemary and an odour like Hungary 
water. Roses grow naturally upon the hills, the most common 
k;ind are entirely destitute of thorns, or have but a very few; I* 


(atoe, jalap>mechoaçân, andothersof lessimportance. 
Besides these Chili produces a great number of plants 
that appear to be peculiar to it. T^iere are some that 
^e common to all the provinces, others are confined 
to certain districts. In my different herborizations 
'while in ChUi, I collected about three thousand 
plants, the greater part of which are non-descript 
and not to be found in any botanical work. Among 
these were a number whose flowers are remarkable 
for their beauty and fragrance, and which, m their 
season, give the fields the appearance of so many 
parterres ; but the inhabitants in general pay but 
little attention to theiq,f,3p,d prefer decorating their 
gardens with exotic flqwers received from Europe 
rather than to cultivate their own. 

The domç3tic animals live during the whole year 
in the open fields, and from their feeding on the 
axomatic plants^ so abimdant in Chili, their flesh ac- 
quires a flavQUr superior to what it has in any other 
(Jountry. The ChiliansMiaye no occasion to provide 
hay for their cattle, as the herbage never fails, and 
there is t constant succession of the different plants 
)vMch serve them for food. In the cities the horses 
are fed with barley and a species of clover. Tre- 
foil, called by the Indians gualputhe^ is one of 
the most common plants of the country ; of this 
there are not less than twelve different kinds to be 
found in the meadows, which contain much lucerne, 

the fields is found a flower similar to the kind of lily called ih 
Brittany guerneziaiaea^ the Indian name of which is Huto ; it con- 
sists of six petals, two pf which are in the form of a plume. The 
root when dried in an- oven furnishes a very white meal which is 
excellent for pastry.— -FraztVr'* Voyage^ vol, i. 


and a species of Vcnus*s comb, comm(Hily called 
hiqui lahuen or alfilerilloy of which the cattle are pe- 
culiarly fond. This plant, which I have named 
scandix chilensis^ is distinguished from the Euro- 
pean species by its aromatic odour, by its stem, 
which is not striated, and by its leaves, these are 
larger, and although winged like the Venus's comb 
of Europe, have some of their lesser leaves entire 
and fleshy. This plant is reputed to be vulnerary, 
and its Chilian name, signifying the herb of wounds, 
is expressive of this quality. 

The soil is so fertile that the herbage grows to 
■such a height in many pastures as completely to con- 
ceal the sheep, especially in the vailles of the Andes, 
where tíie vegetation is always the most vigorous. 
But amidst this luxuriant growth there are two or 
three species of plants injurious to cattle, which are 
much dreaded, especially a kind known' in the coun- 
try by the name of yerba locüj or herb of madnesis^ 
from its rendering those animals who eat of it madi 
particularly horses. 

This plant, which forms a new geíius^ I havecsá- 
led hyppomanica. Its stalks are of an angular shape, 
a foot and a half in height ; the leaves are opposite, 
lanceolated, entire and fleshy, of a clear grey, about 
an inch in length, and attached to the branches 
without a foot-stalk; the flower is formed like a rose, 
and grows at the top of the branches, it consista 
of five oval petals of a yellow colour, supported by 
a calyx divided into five parts ; when ripe the pistil 
becomes changed into a capsula separated into four 
cells, which contain some black kidney-shaped seeds. 


The juice of this plant is viscous, of a yellowish co- 
lour and sweetish ^ taste ; the husbandmen takfe 
great pains to destroy it, notwithstanding which, 
It constantly springs up again, and if a horse 
eats of it, he is sure to die, unless immediate mea- 
sures arc taken to make him sweat profusely by vio- 
lent exercise. 

Besides those which have been brought from Eu- 
rope Chili produces a great number of valuable 
plants, both alimentary, medicinal and such as are 
useful in the arts. Many of these, particularly the 
alimentary kind, were well known and cultivated 
before the arrival of the Spaniards. 

• Sect. II. Alimentary herbs or plants* — The 
maize (zea mais) or Turkey wheat, called by the 
Chilians gua^ was well known in America whefi 
Columbus first arrived there. This fact is confirmed 
by all the writers of that period, and it is very cer- 
tain that it was the only species of com at that 
time made use of by the natives. The improper 
application of the name of the Indies to Amer- 
ica has probably led M. Bomare to observe, 
that the maize is indigenous to Asia, from whence 
it was carried into Europe, and from thence to 
America. There are likewise some authors, as C. 
Durante, in his herbal, who improperly denominate 
it Turkey wheat, considering it as originally from 

Maize grows extremely well in Chili,* and the 

• In the (dd continent wheat is the most common grain, but in 
the new world maize has always been, and still is, the most gene* 
Vol. I. O 


inhabitants cultivate eight or nine varieties of it,' se- 
veral of which are very productive. But that which 
is in the highest repute with them is called uminta ; 
from this they prepare a dish by bruising the corn 
while it is green between two stones into the form 
of paste, to which is added sufficient salt or butter 
and sugar to season it ; it is then divided into small 
portions or cakes, which are enclosed , separately 
within the inner skin or husk of the corn and boiled. 

When the maize is ripe the Indians prepare it for 
winter in two different modes, either by slightly 
roasting it, which they call chuchoca, or by drying it 
in the sun ; from the former they make a kind of 
soup, by boiling it in water, and from the latter a 
beer of a very pleasant taste. They sometimes re- 
duce it to meal, but before grinding, roast and crack 
it by means of heated sand. For this purpose they 
prefer a kind of maize called curagua, the grains of 
which are smaller than the others, and furnish a meal 
that is more light, whiter and in greater quantity. 
From this meal, mixed with sugar and water, either 
hot or cold, they make two different beverages called 
ulpo and cherchan. 

A ispéeles of rye called magu, and of barley called 
tuca, were cultivated by the Araucanians before the 
arrival of the Spaniards ; but since the introduction 
of the European wheat, the cultivation of these Jias 
been entirely neglected, and I have not been able 
even to procure a specimen, for the purpose of de- 

ral ; it is produced in all parts of the West-Indies, in Peru, in New 
Spain, in Guatimala, in Chili, and throughout Terra Firma— ^co*- 
ta^s Jstatural History, book 4 


scribing them. AU that is known at present is that 
the Araucanians made a bread from them called cov- 
que^ which name they give to that made from maize 
or European grain. 

The quinua is a species of chenopodium from 
three to four feet in height ; it has large rhomboidal 
sinuated leaves of a deep green, and the flowers are 
disposed upon long spikes; the graiii is black and 
spirally twisted, which gives it, of course, a lenticular 
appearance. There is a variety of this plant called 
dahue by the Indians, which has gieyish leaves, and 
produces a Avhite grain. The grain of the quinua 
serves for making a very pleasant stomachic beve- 
rage ; that of the dahue ^ on being boiled, lengthens 
out in the form of worms, and is excellent in soup. 
The leaves are also eaten, and are tentfcr and of an 
agreeable taste. 

The degul is a species of bean (phaseolus vulga- 
ris). Before this country was conquered by the 
Spaniards, thirteen or fourteen kinds of the bean, 
var}âng but little from the common European bean, 
were cultivated by the natives. One of these has a 
straight stalk, the other thirteen are climbers ; of 
these, two are very remarkable, the phaseolis pallar, 
the bean of which is half an inch long, and the pha- 
seolus asellus, which is spherical and pulpy. 

Chili is considered by M. Bomare as the native 
soil of that valuable esculent the potatoe (solanum 
tuberosum) an indigenous American root, likewise 
known by the names oí papa zxApogny. It is, indeed, 
found in all the fields of. that country ; but those 
plants that grow wild, called by the Indians maglia^ 



produce only very small roots of a bitterish taste. 
It is distinguished by two different species, and more 
than thirty varieties, several of which are carefully 
cultivated. The first is the common kind ; the se-^ 
cond, called solatium cari, bears white flowers with 
a large nectary in the middle like the narcissus ; its 
root is cylindrical and very sweet. The usual mode 
of cooking it is by roasting it under the ashes. 

The oca (oxalis tuberosa) appears to be of a dif- 
ferent kind from the oca of Peru ; in its form and 
fructification it resembles the yellow wood sorrel ; 
its leaves are disposed by threes, and are of an acid 
taste, and the flowers are oval ; its root extends 
itself into five or six tuberosities of three or four 
inches in length, covered with a thin smooth skin. 
They are eaten cooked, and have a pleasant subacid 
taste. This plant is also, like tlie potatoe, multiplied 
by means of its bulbs ; there are several species of 
it, one of which, called by the Chilians red tailj 
is held in much estimation for dying, and is consi- 
dered as a specific in inflammatory fevers. Among 
them is likewise the barilla, or the alleluia virgosa of 
Coquimbo: This last produces but a few radical 
trilocated leaves ; its stalks, which are numerous, 
are very tender, and of an acid taste ; they are 
five feet in length, of the size of a man's finger, and 
covered with yellow flowers suspended in vertical 

Of the gourd, two principal species are known in 
Chili, the white flowered, and the yellow flowered, 
or the Indian gourd. Of the first kind, called by the 


Indians yttocfa, there are t>venty-six varieties, several 
of which produce fruit tliat is sweet and edible, but 
that of the others is bitter. Of the bitter kinds the 
most distinguished is the cider gourd (cucúrbita 
eiceraria*) so called from the Indians making 
use of it, after extracting the seeds and perfum- 
ing it, to ferment their cider. It is naturally of a 
round form, and frequently grows to a large size. 
It is also used by the natives instead of baskets, and 
in such cases they give it whatever shape they think 
proper. The yellow flowered or Indian gourd, called 
penca^ is of two kinds, the common and the mamil* 
lary ; this last in its leaves and flowers resembles the 
first, but the figure of the fruit is spheroidal, with 
a large nipple at the end ; the pulpas sweet, and its 
taste is very similar to a kind of potatoe known by 
the name of camote. 

The quclghen, or the strawberry of Chili, differs 
from the European in its leaves, which are rough and 
succulent, and in the size of its fruit, which is fre^ 
quently that of a hen's egg. The strawberries, like 
those of Europe, are generally red or white, but 
those that are yellow are also to be found in the pro^ 
vinces of Puchacay and Huilquilemu, whei^e they 

* The calabashes of the Indians are another wonderful produc- 
tion for their size and tíie luxuriance of their growth ; especially 
^ those called za^ialios, the pulp of which, particularly in Quaresma, 
Are eaten boiled or fried. There is a great variety of this species 
of the calabash ; some of them are so large that ¿when dried, 
and the shell divided in the middle and cleansed, they are used 
as covered baskets to put provisions in ; others that are smaller 
Are employed as vessels to drink from, or handsomely wrought for 
various purposes. — Acostaos J\íaíural History ^ bookiv. 


attain greater perfection than elsewhere.* The 
strawberry of Chili was introduced many years 
since into Europe, and I have seen in the botanic 
garden at Bologna the white kind, which is the most 
common in Chili, but it had lost much by transplan- 
tation ; its fruit was small, and little of the fragrance 
was left which renders it so highly esteemed in 

* The strawberry of Chili is an hermaphrodite and dioical^ and 
the plants brought by Frazier to Europe were probably only some 
female hermaphrodite slioots, which produced fruit in consequence 
of being impregnated by some of our strawberries which were in the 
vicinity. Had the author been in a situation to have become ac- 
quainted with this circumstance, he would not have called that 
degeneration which is merely the result of an unnatural fecundity. 

The want of male plants, as appears from Miller, is also the 
reason of the English having abandoned the cultivation of this 
strawberry.....i^r. Trans, 

t We found in the desert strawberries of a very fine flavour, 
equal in size to our largest nuts, and of a pale white ; and although 
they resembled the European neither in colour nor in taste they 
were nevertheless excellent. — Feii illy vol. i. 

There are whole fields where a species of strawberry is cultivat- 
ed that differs from ours in its leaves, which are rounder, and more 
fleshy and hairy ; the fruit is usually the size of a nut, and some- 
times that of a hen's egg. The colour is a whitish red, and the 
taste not so delicate as that of our strawberries. But there is not 
wanting in the woods a great plenty of the European kind. — Fra- 
zier^» Voyage, vol. i. 

The finiits most abundant in Chili are of the same kinds with 
those knowa in Europe, among which are>cherries that are large 
and of a delicate iastc, strawberries of two kinds, one called /t'w 
tilla, which is of the size of a small hen's egg ; and another, in co- 
lour, smell and taste, is like that of Spain, which grows wild at the 
foot of the little hills ; likewise all kinds of flowers are found there 
without any other cultivation than what they receive from the hands 
of nature itself. — Ullca^s Voyage, 2d part, vol. iii. 


The madi (madia, gen. nov.) Of this plantthcrc 
are two kinds, the one wild the otlicr cultivated. 
The cultivated, which I have Cdlltd madia sativa, has 
a branching hairy stalk, nearly five feet in height ; the 
leaves are villous and placed by threes ; they are four 
inches in length, half an inch in breadth, and of a 
bright green like the leaves of the rose laurel ; itsflow- 
ers are radiated and of a yellow colour ; the seeds are 
convex on one side, and covered with a very thin 
brownish pellicle on the other; they are from four to 
five lines in length, and enclosed in a spherical peri- 
carpium of about eight or nine lines in diameter. An 
excellent oil is obtained from the seed, either by ex- 
pression, or merely boiling them ; it is of an agree- 
able taste, very mild, and as clear as the best olive 
oil. Feuille, who resided three y ears in Chili, praises 
it highly, and gives it the preference to any olive oil 
used in France.* This plant, hitherto unknown in 
Europe, would become a valuable acquisition to 
those countries where the olive cannot be raised. 
The wild madi (madia mellosa) is distinguished 
from the other by its leaves which are amplexicaul 
and glutinous to the feeling. 

The pimento (capsicum) called by the Indians 
thapi. Of this plant many species are cultivated in 
Chill, among others the annual pimento, which is 
there perennial, the berry pimento, and the pimento 

* From the seed of this plant is obtained an admirable oil^ 
which the inhabitants of the comitry use in various ways — to alle- 
viate pain by rubbing with it the diseased part, to season their 
victuals^ and also for light. To my taste it is sweeter and more 
pleasant than most of our olive oil, which it resembles in co- 
lour. — Feuille J vol. iih 


with a sublîgneous stalk. The inhabitants inake use 
equally of all the three to season their food. 

Besides those which I have mentioned the Chili- 
ans make use of many other excellent plants which, 
though natural to the country, require a more atten- 
tive cultivation; of these the principal are the umbel- 
lifera, the bermudiana or illmu, and the hemerocallis 
of Feuille. The umbellifera, or heracleum tubero- 
sum, in its leaves, flowers and seed resembles the 
illmu, but is distinguished from it by the quantity 
of its bulbs, which are frequently six inches long and 
three broad ; the colour of the bulbs is yellow and 
their taste very pleasant, it grows naturally in sandy 
places near hedges, and produces abundantly. 

The bermudiana bulbosa, or the illmu of Feuille, 
has a branchy stalk, and its leaves are very similar tQ 
those of the leek ; the flower is of a violet colour, and 
divided into six parts, which are turned back towards 
the foot-stalk ; it has six stamens and a triangular 
pistil ; the seeds are black and round, and the bulbs 
when boiled or roasted are excellent food.* 

The hemerQcallis, or, the liuto of the Indians, has a 
stalk of a foot in height ; the leaves are pointed and 
embrace the stem, which divides itself at the top 
into a number of pedicles bearing a beautiful red 
flower of the shape of a lily. The root is bulbous, 
ajid yields a very light white ^nd nutritious flour, 
which is used for the sick. 

♦ The natives of the country make use of the root of this plant 
in their soups, and it is very pleasant to the taste, as I have my- 
self experienced. — Feuilles 


The liliaceous plants offer a great variety through- 
out Chili, and are known to the Araucanians by the 
generic name of gil. I have collected myself mcMre 
than twenty- three different species of them, many of 
which were adorned with superb flowers. 

In the province of St, Jago is found a species of 
wild basil (ocymum salinum) differing in its appear- 
ance from the common or garden species only in its 
stalk, which is round and jointed; but in its smell and 
taste it resembles more the alga, or sea- weed, than 
the basil. This plant continues to increase in growth 
from the first opening of the spring to the commence- 
ment of winter, and is every morning covered wiüi 
saline globules that are hard and shining, and ^ve 
it the appearance of being coated with dew. The 
husbandmen collect and make use of this salt instead 
of the common kind, which it far exceeds in taste. 
Each plant produces daily about half an ounce, a 
phenomenon, the cause of which I am not able satis- 
factorily to explain, as if grows in a very fertile 
soil, exhibiting no appearance of salt, and at more 
than sixty miles distance from the se^a. 

Sect. III. Herbs used in Dying. — From time im- 
memorial have the Chilians, made use of indigenous 
plants for dying; and such is their excellence, that 
they communicate tlie liveliest and most durable 
colours to their cloths, without the aid of any foreign 
production.* I have m my possession a piece of 

* Besides the medicinal herbs, they have others for dying, the 
colours of which are very durable and do not change in washing. 
Among these is the rr/Mo», a species of madder, with a leaf some;- 
' Vofc.L F 


cloth dyed in thiat country, which in thirty years' 
use has lost nothing of the original lustre of it3 
colours, which are blue, yellow, red and green, nei- 
ther from exposure to the air or the use of soap. 
The natives of the southern provinces obtain a blue 
from a plant with which I am unacquainted; but in 
the Araucanian and the Spanish possessions they 
make use of indigo diluted with fermented urine, 
which gives 'to the substance dyed a beautiful and 
durable colour. 

Red is obtained from a species of madder called 
relbun (rubia Chilensis). It usually grows under 
shrubs in sandy places ; its stalk is nearly round, the 
leaves oval, pointed and whitish, and placed by fours 
as in the filbert; its flowers are m(Miopetalous, and 
divided into four parts; the seed is contained in two 
little red berries, which are united like those of the' 
European madder; the root is red, runs deep into 
the earth, and its lateral fibres frequently occupy a 
space of many feet in circumference. 

A species of agrimony (eupatorium Chilense) 
known in the country by the name of contra yerha^ 
furnishes the yellow. This plant has a violet stalk 
of about two feet in height, divided by small knots, 
from whence issue the leaves in pairs opposite to 
each other; they are of a bright green, three or four 
hjches in length, narrow and indented ; the branches 
are axillary, and produce some flosculous flow- 
ers of a yelloti^ colour, resembling those of the agri» 

what less than the European, the root of which is boiled in water 
in the same mannei» to extract the dye. The poquell is a species 
of southern wood, of a golden colour. — Frazier^ vol. i. 


mony. In the centre of the flower a small worm is 
almost always discoverable, whose body is composed 
of deven very distinct rings. A yellow is also ob- 
tained from the poquel (santolina tinctoria) a spe- 
cies of cress, with long and narrow leaves resem- 
bling wild flax ; tt puts forth three or four stalks 
two feet in height, striated and crowned at the top 
with a yellow semi-globular flower, composed of 
several small ones. The stalks furnish a green 

The root of a perennial plant, called j&anA-e (panke 
tinctoria, gen. no v.) furnishes a fine black, and is 
acknowled^^ed to be one of the most useful plants in 
Chili. Some writers have given it the name of 
bardana Chiknsis, from the resemblance of its leaves 
to those of the burdock, although its fructification is 
entirely different. The root is very long, frequently 
five inches thick, rough and black without, and 
white within. The leaves are attached to long pe- 
tioles, and are palmated ; they are of a bri^t green 
above and ash-coloured beneath, frequently two 
feet in diameter, and of a subacid taste. From 
the centre of the radical leaves shoots up a single 
stalk, five feet in height and three inches thick, co- 
vered with a rough bark furnished Avith thorns. This 
stalk has no leaves except at the top, where there are 
three or four much smaller than those at the root, 
surmounted by a large conical fasciculus, or bunch, 
which produces the flowers and the seed; the flowers 
are white, a little inclining to red, bell-shaped, and 
monopetalous ; the seed is greenish, round, and en- 
closed in a capsule of the same form. 


This plant is peculiar to moist places, and it always 
perishes when not supplied with water. It grows 
more luxuriantly and to a larger úzc in the vailles 
between the Andes, where it frequently ekceeds the 
height which I have mentioned; in low grounds 
near the sea it is only of a moderate height. The 
black for dying is obtained from the juice of the 
root, and it might answer equally as well for ink, as 
its viscosity and the beautiful black it acquires from 
tin^, give it all the requisite qualities. It is also 
used for tanning leather; but for this purpose it be- 
comes necessary to pound it, and the smell it exhales 
is so st)X)ng, that the workmen can rarely endure it 
above half an hour at a time. The stalk contains a 
white pith of an acidulous taste, which the country 
people eat in summer,* and the shoemakers use the 
wood for their lasts, as they believe it more durable 
than any other. Another species of the panke 
(panke acaulis) called in the language of the coun- 
try dinacioy grows in sandy and moist places; the 
root is of the shape of a turnip, as large as a man's 
arm, and of a sweetish taste; it is highly esteemed 
by the inhabitants, but producer no kind of dye. 
This plant is without a stalk, and puts forth from 
the root a group of small leaves, ornamented in the 

* This plant is refrigeratory, and a decoction of the leaves is 
given in fevers. The ends of the leaves, stripped of their exte- 
rior covering, are also eaten raw, and are of a sweet and veiy 
pleasant taste. The dyers make use of the root to obtain a black, 
by cutting it into small pieces, which they boil with a certain por- 
tion of black earth, and the tanners prepare their skins by boiling 
tliem with it in warm water.-— ^ez«7/^', voL ii. 


centre with a bouquet of flowers similar to those of 
the preceding. 

The Chilians obtain a violet colour from the ber- 
ries of several shk-ubs; but the culUy or red tail, 
which I have mentioned among the alimentary herbs, 
produces that which is most esteemed; it is reduced 
into the form of paste like the woad, and the dyers 
make use of it in the same manner. After the first 
autumnal rains a small plant springs up in the fields, 
called the herb of rosoli^ which appears to be of a 
new genus, and which I have denominated sassia. 
It bears three or four quadripetal flowers of a purple 
hue, which are used to colour and to communicate 
an agreeable flavour to a kind of liqueur called the 
purple. A single flower, although smaller than that 
of thyme, will colour five or six pounds of liquor. 
The cabinet-makers likewise make use of it to stain 
their work. I am of opinion that this plant might 
be advantageously employed in the dying of wool 
and linen, particularly the latter, sinCe merely by 
tinging it with the expressed juice of the flower, it 
acquires a beautiful colour that continues a long 
time. Of the same genus is the sassia perdicaria, 
called by the inhabitants rimuj or the partridge- 
flower, from its being the favourite food of that bird. 
It bears but one flower, of a golden yellow, similar 
in form to that of the panke tinctoria, which gives a 
beautiful appearance to the meadows, where it is 
found in great abundance in autumn. The Chilian 
names of the months of April and of May are deri- 
ved from that of this plant, April being called unen- 


rimùj the first rimú, arid May, inan-rîmîiy or the 
second rimú. 

Sect. IV. Medicinal Plants.-^ A knowledge of 
the virtues of plants and herbs, acquired by long 
experience, forms almost the whole of the medical 
science of the Chilians, particularly of those abori- 
gines who have never embraced Christianity. The 
machis and ampiveSy names given to their physicians, 
are only skilful herborists, who, in reality, often per- 
form extraordinary cures. The virtues of many 
plants are known only to them, as, either front 
hatred to the Spaniards, or to enhance their own 
consequence, they studiously conceal their proper- 
. ties : notwithstanding which, near two hundred va- 
luable medicinal herbs have been discovered, besides 
a great number of shrubs and trees, which at present 
form an important branch of foreign commerce, the 
most celebrated of which are the cachanlahuerij the 
viravira^ the retamilla, the payco and the quincha- 

The cachanlahuen (gentian cachanlahuen) called 
by M. Bomare and some other authors chancelague 
and chanchalagua, is not a native of Panama, as is 
stated in the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences 
for 1707, nor does it grow, as M. Bomare has men- 
tioned, in Guayaquil, but only in Chili, from whence 
k has been transported to the other parts of Ame- 
rica, and to Europe. This plant is a species of 
the centaury, and greatly resembles the common 
kind, but it differs from it in having a rounder stalk, 
a less fibrous leaf, and branches opposed to each 

other in pairs placed almost horizontally. Its name 
in the Chilian signifies the herb for curing the pleu- 
risy, in which complaint it is found very efficacious; 
it is also considered as purgative, dissolvent, worm- 
destroying, an excellent febrifuge, and a specific for 
the sore throat.* The infusion of it is extremely 
bitter, and in its smell resembles the balsam of Peru, 
The viravira (gnaphalium viravira) is a species of 
houseleek very aromatic ; it is recommended in in- 
termitting fevers; the infusion is an excellent sudo- 
rific, and the Chilians make use of it in catarrhal 
complaints. The leaves are extremely villous, and 
appear to be covered with cotton ; the flowers, which 
do not exceed four, are composite and flosculated, 
they are of a golden colour and placed at the top of 
the branches, and the seed resembles much that of 
the stoechas citrina, f 

* This plant Is extremely bitter ; an infusion of it is aperient 
and sudorific ; it strengthens the stomach, destroys worms, fre- 
quently cures intermitting fevers, and is very serviceable in rheu- 
matic complaints.— -F««///, voL ii. 

The cachenlahuen, or the canchalagua, which is called cahenla- 
gua in Chili, is very similar in its appearance to the smaller Eu- 
ropean centaury, although not so high. A decoction of it in warm 
water, in the manner of tea, is considered as an excellent purifier 
of the blood. This plant is highly celebrated in Chili, from whence 
it is exported to other parts, as a febrifuge. I think it preferable 
to the European centaury, and it is considered as very efficacious 
in complaints of the throsLt.~^Perneity*8 Voyage^ vol. L 

t Among the herbs that cover the mountains there are many 
that are aromatic and medicinal ; of the latter, the most in esteem 
with the country people is, the cachinlagua, or little centaury, 
which appears to me to be bitterer than that of France, and, of 
course, more abundant in that salt which is considered as an ex- 
cellent febrifuge. The viravira is a species of houseleek, an infu- 


The retathUla (lînum aquîlinum) or gnancu lahuerij 
grows usually at the foot of the mountains. The 
root is very long and perennial; it puts forth several 
branchy stalks, furnished with smáU alternate lanceo- 
lated leaves; the flowers are yellow, with five petals^ 
and are attached by pairs to a common pedicle; 
the pistil becomes changed into a membranaceous 
pentagonal capsule, containing a number of little 
seeds. This plant possesses the same virtues as the 
viravira, and is used in the same cases. 

The payco (hemiaria payco*) by which name it is 
known in many modem medical works, is also deno- 
minated tea of the third species, although it apper- 
tains to the gçnus of hemiaria. It puts forth seve- 
ral trailing shoots, covered with small oval leaves, 
notched like a saw, and attached to the stalk without 
a petiole. The flowers have many stamina, and 
are very numerous; the seed is enclosed in a spheri- 
cal capsule ; the colour of the plant is a light green, 
and its smell is something like that of a rotten lime. 
As a medicine it promotes digestion, is excellent in 
complaints of the stomach, and very useful in the 

sîon of which was found to be very serviceable by a French sur- 
geon in the cure of tertian fevers. There is also a species of 
senna perfectly resembling that of the Levant, in the place of 
which it is used by the apothecaries of St. Jago ; it is called by the 
Indians unofierquctU'^Frazitr^a Voyage^ vol. i. 

* All the plants of the genus hemiaria that are known, and 
have an affinity to them, as the ilecebrum, tlie achyrantes, &c. have 
their leaves entire, without being jagged or indented ; of course 
this instance presents an exceptirai from the general rule...«^r. 

t The payco is a plant of middling height, whose leaves are a 
little dentatcd, and )iave a smell like a rotten lime ; a decoction 


The quinchamaii (quinchamalium Cbilense). As 
this plant forms a new genus, I have retained the 
name by which it is known in the country ; it pro- 
duces a great number of stalks of nine inches in 
height, with alternate leaves similar to those of the 
linaria áurea tra^ ; the flowers are umbellated, yellow 
and tubulous, with a border divided into four parts 
like the jessamin; the seed is black, lenticular, and 
enclosed in a spherical capsule, containii^ three 
cells. The country people make use of the expressed 
juice, or the decoction, as a resolutive after falls or 
brui3es, and it is found to be an excellent remedy 
in cases of that kind.* Feuille, whose memory 
vnH be ever dear to the Chilians, has furnished an 
account of a great number of medicinal plan^, with 
very accurate delineations of them. I shall, howe* 
ver, merely mentipn a few pf-the principal ones ; as 
the pichocy the cüncliriy the guilnoy all of which are 
purgative plants; the diuca-lakue^^ a good vulnerary 
medicine; the jsandia-lahuertj serviceable in men* 
strual suppressions ; the corecore^ sl specific for the 

of them are sudorific, and are good in pleuritic complaints. 
There is likewise a great quantity of bastard rosemary, which 
produces the same effects.--/^/*airzVr'* Voyage^ vol. u 

* A drink made of the decoction of a certain herb called quin- 
chatnali is esteemed as an infallible remedy for the bleeding of tlie 
nose, when caused by a fall or violent blow. It is a species of th* 
lavender, which bears a small red and yellow flower. Many of 
the medicinal herbs that we have in France are also natural to the 
country ; as several species of the maiden-hair, some of which are 
' equal to the Canadian, the mallows, the fox -glove, polipody, 
spleenwort, and £ome others whose names I am unacquainted 
with. — FrazÍ€T'9 V-cyng^Cf vol. i. 

Vol. i. Q 


' tooth-'achy and the gnUhue^. n^ùch esteemed as a 
purifier of the blood. 

Tobacco, called by the Indians pu^hem^ is of two 
kinds, the cultivated and the wild. The cultivated 
is subdivided into the commcm tobacco, which is 
equal to the best Brazilian, and the little tobat^ 
(nicotiana minima) whose leaves resemble those of 
the Cretan dittany; its fructification is like that of 
the common kind, but the tobacco itself is mu^I} 
stronger, and more violent in its effects. 

\ Sect. V. Grasses. — The banks of the rivers and 
other moist.places produce in general a ^reat num- 
ber of reeds and rushes, many of which are unknown 
to botanists. A species of the latter, which I have 
called scirpus eliehnariusy serves to make wicks fw 
candles. This rush grows to the height of about 
four feet; the stem is round; from the top protrude 
three sword-shaped leaves, in the midst of which 
axt four globulous spikes or heads. 

From a species of rush, produced in tíie vailles of 
the Andes, the Araucanians manufacture baskets of 
4o close a texture ajs to hold water, which are eni- 
ployed for many domestic purposes. Of these great 
numbers are sold at the ani)ual fairs in the Spanish 
provinces. But notwithstanding I have been assu- 
red by many that the plant employed in this manu- 
iiicture is a real rush, from examination I am more 
inclined to believe it a species of cane, as its fibres 
afe ivoody, and the whole substance very solid. 

Among those rushes whose characters are well 
defined, tb^e solid rush of Chili deserves to be no- 


ticed: of this there are many kinds, comprehended 
under the general name of coliu. All these rushes 
resemble the bamboo; they have a smooth, hard^ 
yellowish bark; the inside is generally filled with a 
filaceous substance, a little harder than cork; the 
leaves are long and very slender, and grow upon se- 
veral little branches intr> vhich the top divides itself. 
The three most remarifsfole kinds 'are the rugiy the 
^¿z, and the rush of Valdivia. 

The rugi (arundo rugi) is about as large as the 
common European rush, which is also well known 
in Chili, At the foot of the Andes this plant often 
grows to the height of twenty feet, but diminishes 
considerably as it approaches the sea, where it scarce- 
ly attains twelve. 

The quila (arundo quila) is three ot four times 
larger than the rugi^ but its shoots are not more than 
a foot distant from each other. 

The rush of Valdivia (arundo Valdiviana) has re- 
ceived this name from the circumstance of its grow- 
ing in the vicinity of that city; it is of an orange 
colour; the shoots are very short, and the joints 
almost touch each other. The country people make '• 
of it cages and other little manufactures; they also 
use it for their hedges, and sometimes to cover their 
houses, as it is very durable when it has not been too 
long exposed to moisture. The Araucanians make 
use of the quila for their lances, and the rush of 
Valdivia for canes, which are much esteemed. 

Sect. VL Climbing Plants. — Climbing plants, 
or creepers, are found in great abundance in all the 


thickets. Sevo^ of the most beautiful arc employ- 
ed to decorate the trellices of gardens. Amcmg 
others, the copm deserves to be noticed; its flowers, 
each <rf which is composed of six petals, three inches 
in length, are of the most beautiful crimson, spewed' 
within with white. This plant climbs up the highest 
trees; its leaves are disposed by threes, and^are of a 
beautiful green, and an oval shape; the fruit is an 
inch in diameter, cylindrical, of , a dull yellow, and 
contains a white tender pulp of a sweety and pleasant 
taste. In Chili is likewise found the pa^ion-fiorwer 
(passiflora tiliae folia) the caracote the sûrsapariUa^ 
the aktroemeria salsilh, and four or five other species 
of those vines called by the French Hayies, and by 
the inhabitants voqui. One of the most useful is the 
rcgt^/ (dolichœ funarius). The vine is round and 
ligneous, and of the size of pack-thread, and it» 
flowers resemble those of the copiù. It climbs upon 
the trees like the ivy, but without attaching itself to 
them. When it reaches the top of a tree, it descends 
from it perpendicularly, and as it continues to grow 
extends itself from tree to tree, until at length it 
offers to the eye a confused tissue, exhibiting some 
resemblance to the rigging of a «hip. This singular 
plant produces a leguminous flower of a purple 
colour; its pod is an inch thick, and about ^ fbot 
and a half long ; it contains an oily pulp of a sweet 
and very agreeable taste, and five seeds resembling 
those of the cotton. The vine, which is much 
tougher and more flexible than osier, serves for 
many purposes, and can be procured firom one to 
two hundred fathoms in length, as when it desceiiicb 


it does, not take root in the earthy like another plant 
analagoûs to it, which is a native of the torrid zone. 
The husbandmen,^ befo^ they make use of thÍ3 vine, 
pass it lightly through the flames, which not (m\y 
loosens the tmrk, but at the same time renders it 
mwe flexible. They employ it both in making large 
badiets, and as wattling for their hedges; it is some- 
times even used as cables for vessels, which wear 
better than those made of hemp, as they are capable 
of resisting moisture for a longer time. In the Ar* 
chipelago of Chiloé is another plant called pepoi, in 
some respects resembling the cogul, which the inha- 
bitants of those islands use as rop^ for their peri- 
augres. The voqui, or vochi, described by Feuille, 
which comm^y grows in the woods of the mari- 
time provinces, is of a distinct species, as is the 
urceolaria of the same author, the flower of which iâ 
an inch in length, and is divided into five equal lobes 
of a beautiful red. 

Sí;ct. vil Shrubs. — In my catalogue of the 
plants of Chili I have noticed more than fifty-three 
indigenous shrubs; but I am convinced, if an op-. 
pOTtunity had been a&rded me of exploring a 
greater extent of country, that I might have more 
than doubled that number. Every province or dis- 
trict offers some variety in this class of vegetables 
of more or less utility to the inhabitants. 

The bark and leaves of the shrubs called deu, 
thUco and uthiu, serve to dye black. The berries 
of the tara (poinciana spinosa) and of the matfU, 
furnish a black juice which is a good substitute for 


ink. The guiacunif which in Chili never acquires 
the si^e of a tree, is employed in turnery. The ca- 
binel^makers use, for inlaying, the wood of several 
shrubs whose approja-iate names I am unacquainted 
with, but which, from their hardness, are generdJy 
called ebony wood. The wild rosemary smd several 
other resinous shrubs, are used as fuel in the for- 
nace» for melting copper. The wood of the coiü- 
guay (colliguaja, gen. nov.) when burnt, exhates a 
vely agreeable smell like roses, without producing 
the least inconvenience. 

The incense is not inferior to that brought from 
Arabia, ^nd is obtained from a shrub that grows in 
the province of Coquimbo, to which I have given 
the name of thuraria^ gen. nov. It usually grows 
to the height of four feet; the trunk is of an ash' 
colour, from whence proceed a great number of 
branches loaded with oval leaves that are alternate, 
foiu* inches long, rough, very succulent, and of a 
pale yellow ; the flowers are small, funnel-shaped, 
and of a light green ; the capsule is spherical and 
^îvyed into two cells, containing as many elongat- 
ed seeds of a brown colour. In the summer the in- 
cense exudes through the pores of the bark around 
the limbs in the form of little drops or tears, and is 
collected ia great quantities in the autumn, when 
the leaves begin to fall. The globules are hard, 
white, transparent and shinihg, and have a bitter 
taste and a highly aromatic smell. In the hills near 
Valparaiso is found a species of sun-flower with a lig- 
neous trunk, which produces a resinous substance 
resembling incense. 


: The trunk of Ûy^ puya (puya, gen. nov.) is used 
for cork throughout Chili. This shrub has a great 
resemblance to the anana. From its root issue three 
or four monstr(»2s shoots of a conical form, as large 
as a man's body, but not exceeding twenty inches in 
length; these are covered with a spungy bark dis- 
.posed in the manner of scales ; from the top of these 
shoots, or trunks, proceed the leaves ; these are four 
feet long, furnished at the sides with crooked prickles 
perfectly similar to those of the anana; from the 
centre of the leaves rises a stalk nine feet in length 
and three inches in diameter, covered with a very 
hard green bark, enclosing a whitish . spungy sub- 
stance resembling cork. At the top the stalk is di* 
vided into a number of branches covered with leaves 
much smaller than those of the root, and with yellow 
fiowers four inches long composed of ,six irregular 
petals, which form together a large and beautiful 
pyramid. This singular vegetable produces no other 
fruit than a triangular capsule containing a great 
number of very small black seeds. The nectaries 
of the flowers are always filled with honey, which is 
eagerly sought after by the children. The Arauca- 
nian provinces furnish several varieties of this plants 
from whence the inhabitants, collect great quantities 
of honey. 

Besides the kali of Alicant (salsosa kali) which 
grows in great abundance on all the marshes of the 
sea-shore, a climbing shrub is found on the coast of 
Coquimbo, from whence the soap-boilers obtain 
large quantities of alkaline salu 


Chili produces seven sacies of the myrtle, all 
estimable for their Jbeauty and fragrance. Butüie 
most valuable is the one called by the Indians tigni^ 
and by the Spaniards murtiOa. The French, who 
found it in the Malouine islands, have given to this 
shrub the name oi lucet muscat. "^ It usually grows 
to the height of four feet, and resembles much die 
myrtle of Tarentum, its branches and leaves being 
placed opposite each other in pairs; the flowers are 
white, have five petals, and produce a round or red 
berry, the size of a small prune, marked with four 
green points like the pomegranate. This fruit con- 
tains several seeds that are flat and brown, and has a 
very pleasant aromatic smell perceptible at a great 
distance. The inhabitants obtain from it a very 
agreeable odoriferous liquor, which* is preferred by 
foreigners to the best muscat. It requires a long 
time to ferment, but, when once clarified, is very 
clear and has a delicious taste. Before the arrival 
of the Spaniards and the introduction oi Jhe grape, 
the natives used to prepare vinous liquors from se- 
veral kinds of shrubs at present neglected, among 
these were two or three species of the Indian fig, or 
opuntia, called by the Chilians tuna^ whose fruit is 
very fine, and as large as the best European figs. 

A great number of shrubs, from time immemo- 
rial^have been employed as efficacious medicines by 

* It» fruit is of a beautiful appearance and veiy pleasant taste; 
'by being put into brandy with a little sugar, it forms a very deli- 
cious liquor, which has in a slight degree the smell of amber and 
of musk, by no means cUsagreeable even to those who dislike those 
perfumes. — Pemetty*8 Voyage^ voL iL 


the physicianís of the country. Among these is the 
cuilen (psoralea glandulosa) well known m Europe; 
It is considered as a pov/erful vermiftige and one of 
the best stomachics; the leaves are used in illusion, 
and from their aromatic taste çire by many preferred 
to tea, and occasionally serve as a substitute for it* 
This shrub is indigenous to Chili, where it crows 
spontaneously, and frequently attains the height of a 
common sized tree. There is another variety which 
is called the ycU&iv cuUeriy from the colour of its 
leaves, which, like tíiose of the other, are disposed by 
threes, but are very thin and crisped, and, cemglome- 
ratin^ towards the end of the limbs, form at the top 
of the tree a thick globular tuft that frequently causes 
the branches to bend. Its flowers, Kke those of the 
other species, are leguminous, the seed solitary, and 
the leaves of both are vulnerary and very balsamic* 
The guakuru (plcgorhiza guaicuru, gen. nov.) 
grows in the northern provinces. The root is rou^ 
And of a red colour, and is used as a specific for aH 
kinds of wounds; it puts forth a gpreat number of 
leaves resembling those of the myrtle, in die centre 

* The albaquilla, in Indian cuilen^ is a ihrub wYio^ leaves emit 
an odour like that of the sweet basil, and produce a balsam of 
'great ei&cacy in the cure of wounds, as I witnessed in the case of 
W Indian at Irequin, who had received a very àeep one in his 
neck, and I have also experienced the beneficial effects c^ it my- 
6el£ The flower is large, of a pale violet, and disposed upon 
spikes, and is one of that species comprehended in the class of the 
legumiaous. Another shrub, called karUlo^ is empl(^ed for the 
«ame fmrpo^e. This is di&rent from the harillo of Tucuman, 
and its leaves, which are very small, emit a strong smell some- 
thing like that of honey, and are so replete with balsam that they 
«iq^r tobe covered with it.— Crazier** Foyage, voL i. 

Vol. L R 


of which rises a stem of about six inches in height, 
divided at the top into many branches covered with 
leaves less than the radical, and very small bell- 
shaped flowers arranged in an umbellate order. 
Pemetty, in his Voyage to the Malouine Islands, 
observes, that this plant, particularly the root, is one 
of the most powerful vegetable astringents known, 
and is likewise very excellent for the cure of ul- 
. cers and scroj^lous complaints, and of great ser- 
vice in the dysentery— j^operties asceitained by the 
daily experience of the Chilians. 

In the province of Quillota is a species of the 
acacia, or mimosa, called by the Spaniards Jari/ÍEar, 
which affords a balsam of great efficacy in heding 
/bounds. This balsam exudes from the branches 
and the leaves, and renders them viscous to the 
touch; it exhales a very agreeable odour which is 
perceptible at a great distance. The jarilla grows 
to about five feet ; the leaves are winged and notched 
at the edges; the flowers are yellow and divided 
into five petals, and produce a small berry, contain- 
ing two or three kidney- shaped seeds. 

The expressed juice of the palqui (cestrum noc- 
tumum) is considered as the best known remedy 
for inflammatory fevers ; it is bitter and of ap un- 
pleasant taste, but very cool and refreshing. The 
leaves of this shiiib were formerly considered 
by the husbandmen as poisonous to cattle, but 
modem experiments have proved the unfoundednes^ 
of this opinion. In its appearance and smell the 
palqui resembles the elder, but the leaves are single, 
alternate and oblong; the flowers are corymbic, 


yellow, anchlibe those of the jesss^min, aiid the berries 
ovd and of a» purple colour. The wood is very brit- 
tle, but is preferred to any other by the Indians 
fer the purpose of producing fire by friction accor- 
ding to their cnstcmi. This is done by turning 
rapidly between their hands a small stick of this 
wood in a hole made in ant^faer piece of tíie same 

. Among the shrubs used for medicinal purposes 
is also the cas^ sena, \diich is in no way different 
from that of the Levant. It grows in abuüdancc 
near, the source G^f the river Maypo. Sage is like- 
wise found in many places, particulariy in the low 
grounds near the sea. 

Se c T. VIII. Trees. — The forests of Chili offer a 
great variety of trees, the most of which never lose 
their foliage. Those kinds that are known amount 
to ninety-seven, and of these only thirteen shed 
their leaves. Among the former are many that are 
remarkable for their fragrance,* and are well de- 

* The woods are filll of aromatic shrubs ; such as several kinds 
.^f myrtle, a sfiecies of laurel whose leaves are of the smell of sa^ 
Iron, but more pleasant ; the boldu^ the leaves of which have the 
odour of incense, and the bark a biting taste something like that 
of cinnamon;' it isa different tree, however, from that called the 
cinnamon, which produces a bark similar to that of the East In<- 
^es. < The leaves of the boldu are like those of the greater laurel, 
but rather larger. There is also another tree called /zeumo, a dQ- 
-•octioQ of the bark of whiehris very beneficial in the dropsy. The 
fruit is red and resembles «n oUve, and the wood is very proper 
for ship^mUdiiie ;l)ut .the titest tree for this purpose is a species of 
evergreen oak, very hard and durable, whose bark is a cork equal 
to that of the cork tree. On the shores of the river Bio»bio arc 
ygat <|ttapti^jtes'^ o«dar amiable for building, and excellent Ibr 


flying cultivation. Those that are aimikr or vaiy 
]>ut Ultie from the European trees» or^hidi are to 
be met with ia almost all botasikal gardais» I shall 
mtrdy emimeratc, reserving my (fescriplioais fiar 
audi as are lesa known, or distinguishable for some 

The vallies of the Andes proaacc natondlj die 
white cedar and the red, called alerces^ the C3rpresa|t 
ate pine, and ÛttptUin0Sj whidi is a qiecies td oak. 
A3X tjhese trees grow to a great \m^ and atze, but 
«one of tiiem can oompare in that reject with tiie 
red^ cedar which» in the Archipelago of Chik^é, 
^ro ws so large» that a sin^ tree wiU iirequenây ba* 
nish from six to eight hundred beards of twenty 
feet in length. 

In the other parts of Chili are found the wülow» 
the moife, tíie Peruvian ts^r or cherry» the wikl 
orange» the Jloripandioy the white cinnamon» tibe 
carob tree, the tnaqui a species of cornel, the hitna 
a species of myrtle, the mulberry, the chirimoya^ 
and lihe tamarind. Hie island of Juan Femandes 
produces the red» yellow and white sandal» the yel- 
low wood, cr/kgus /t^aa, and a tree whose genus I 
am unacquainted with, that produces a species of 
pepper inferior to that of the East Indies. 

^ars. The bamboo reed is likewise veiy common in every par^ 
9f the country.— -FVazitfr** Fot/age^ voL u 

♦ On my passage from Chili to Europe I observed that th* 
tracer which was in caiks made <^t^ red cedar kept sweet for a 
much lQDg;er time than that in the others. Tbis water had ac« 
quired a red tinge, but tKe taste was not in the least changed, and 
II appaarad to ba as fresh a« if just taken f i^om the fountain» 


The tháge (saUx CMüeosb) dÜers from the £a^ 
ropean willow in its leaves^ whfch are entire, slen- 
der, and of a yellowish green. This tree yields an- 
nually a great qiumtity of manna; the country 
people also optake use of the bark, which they believe 
poss^ses a highly febrifugal quality. 

Of the moUe ûnstt are two kinds» the commcm 
(schintfô mollis) which is usually found in the 
;nim^he9, aad another c^ed huigm (schinus huigan)» 
Tlfê kst grows i^uiîally in any soil, apd its leaves 
ve yery small. The inhabitants prepare i^om the 
berries of these trees a kind of red wine of an 
agfesab^ fiavoui* but very he^kg.^ 

The Peruvian tapa-, called in Chili çuisco, is <rf 
two kinds, the common (cactus Peruvianus) and 
that of Coquimbo (caçti^ Coquîmbaaus) the thon» 
íof wMch are eight inches long, and are used by the 
women for knitting->needles. 

Thi^ Jltnipondio (datura arbórea) is a tree much 
e^steemed &»* its beauty and the fra^'anoe of its 
flowem, which diffuse an ambery odour to a great 
distancent The trunk grows to the height of twelve 

* The Indians prepare a beverage from the moUe as pleasant 
Und as strong as -wine, if not more so, and make useof thesohition 
of the gam as a purgative medicine. The sap, procured by BEiaking 
an incision in the bark, is said to be a cure for fihns, and a liquor 
obtained from the pith of the young shoots excellent for clearing; 
and strengthening the eyes. The ñshermen of Concón, and Val- 
limraiso boil the bark, which produces a dye of the ccdour <^ burnt 
coffee, with which they stain their nets. — Frazter^s Voyage jYq\X -^ 

t We have no tree in Europe that equals in beauty the fioripon- 
¿ia When in blossom it far exceeds in fragrance any of our trees^ 
and one of themes Mifficient to perfiune a whole garden*«>-/V2a7//, 


feet, but rardy exceeds six msbts m.ámo!tí&i and 
is pithy within. The branch unite at the top and 
form a spherical croM)^i which prodi^:«s a most de<^ 
lightful effect. The leaves are woolly and in the £exrm 
of an elongated heart ei^t or tm inches in length 
by three in breadth; the flowers^ are turned back in 
the form of a funnel, and nfe divided into five point* 
cd lobes; they are white, frcan eight 4tot«i incl^ 
loiig and three in breadth. The fruit is nearly round, 
<^ the size of an orange and covered wkà a greenish 
rind, containing a number of oval seeds, but it k 
never eaten. 

The wild orange tree (citrus Chllensis} is distin- 
guished from the cultivated by its senile leaves, 
and its fruit, which is oval and not larger than a M* 
bert, but has the taste of a commcm orange. This, 
tree frequently grows to a consklerable. height, and 
the wood is much esteemed by tumors on account 
of its beautiful yellow ccáour. 

The white cinnamon, called by the Chilians bmglj^^ 
and the Spaniards caneUoymSij be found iu ^ the 
thickets of Chili. It is commonly known by the 
naipe of Winter^s cinnamon, from its being first in- 
troduced into Europe by Captain Wintçr.* The 
trunk of this tree frequentíy rises to the height of 
fifty feet; the branches are placed opposite each 
other by fours, in the form of a cross; the leaves 

* The boighe of Chili, or canello of the Spaniards, is not the 
tree which furnishes the "white cinnamon of merchants, and, of 
course, not the same with that described by Linnaeus under thct 
name of winteriana canella. The boighe of Chili is a real drymia^ 
and appears to be the same with that described by the Ckevjilkr 
^e la Mark under the name of drymis puDCtata.»^r. Tram* 


are large, alteitiate, and like those of the laurel ; the 
âowers are whife, quadtipetal, and very odoriferous, 
the henries oval and of a changeable black mid blue. 
Like the cinnamon of Ceylon, this tree produces 
two barks; the exterior rf a greenish brown, the 
other, when first taken from the tree, is of a dirty 
If hite, butw^endry becomes erf the colour of the 
true cinnamon, which it very much resembles in 
taste, and in FeuiUé's opinion might serve as a suc- 
cedaneuia for it.** I am of the sarne sentiment, 
particularly if proper attention tv^as paid to the cul- 
tivation of it, which would probably tend to correct 
that sharp taste which renders it un|)leasant. The 
natives employ the timber for building, Imt make no 
use of the bark. The Araucanians from time im- 
inenK)rial have regarded the boighe as a sacred tree t 
in their religious ceremonies they carry branches of 
it in their hands, and when they conclude a peace 
they present them in token of amity and alliance, as 
the ancient nations of Europe did those of the olive. 

The carob tree of Chili (ceratonia Chilensis) is 
distingui^edfrom that of Europe, (siliqua Europea) 
by its thorns, which are usually four inches long 
and so hard that they are used by the country pecóle 
instead of naiis. Its pod resembles that of the Eu- 
ropean carob. 

The maqui (cornus Chilensis) does not usually 
exceed ten or twelve feet in height, and the wood 
is too Wittle for use. The leaves are opposite, heart- 

♦ Tke bark of the boighe may be applied to the same uses as 
^lè cînnaîmoA ; its úméñ is similar, and it acquires the same colour 
•when it i» iñoá^-^FeuHl^^ Yd. iif . 


shaped, denticulated, juicy, and three inches long ; 
tíie flowers are white, witíi four petíüs, and the ber- 
ries purple. The Indians eat these berries or wild 
grapes, which are very sweet, and also prepare fipom 
them a beverage called theca. The juice of the leaves 
is esteemed a specific in the sore throat, and I am 
convinced of its efficacy from my own experience. 
There is a variety of this tree which bears a \i4iitc 

The luma (myrtus luma) is distinguishable from 
the cofnmon myrtk by its round leaves and its height, 
which is frequently forty feet. Its wood is the best 
of any known ïor the use of coach-makers, and large 
quantities of it are annudly exported to Peru fiw 
that purpose. Hie Indians make from the berries à 
pleasant wine, in high repute as a stomachic. There 
is likewise another spetâes of lofty myrtle (mjrrtus 
vnaxima) which grows in the same plsK^es with the 
hinia^ «id frequently to the height of seventy fe^ ; the 
wood of this is also very valuable. 

Among those trees which produce the most use- 
fci W4X)ds, bebdes the cedars already mentioned, 
arc the cavèn^ the çuillai^ the lithi^ the mayten^ and 
the temu. 

The coven (mimosa caven) called by the Spa- 
niards espino J resembles much the acacia folio scot- 
picndis leguminosa of Egypt. The trunk is winding 
and 6(^; the bark black and filled with cracks; the 
branches scattered and furnished with thorns; the 
leaves disposed in pairs on a common footstalk, and 
two inches in length; the flower» are fiosculousand 
yellow, and form a round bouquet like those of tiic 


acacia nilotîca, but differ in being attached with- 
out peduncles to the boughs, which they com- 
pletely cover, and their odour is so very fragrant 
that they arc denominated aromas. The pod is 
from three to four inclus long; it is cylindrical, of a 
dark brown, and contains many oval seeds marked 
with a yellow stripe; these are envelc^d in an as- 
tringent mucilage, from which a very good ink is 
made. The caven grows spontaneously in all the 
midland provinces, chiefly between the 24th and 37th 
degrees of latitude, wl^re its wood serves as fuel. 
It is more m^ral to Ûkc richest soils, and frequently 
grows to the height of an oak. The wood is hard 
and compact, of a dark brown veined with black and 
yellow, receives an excellent polish, and is used by 
several kinds of artisans for the handles c^ their tools. 
The quiliai (quillaja saponaria, gen. nov.*) derives 
itsnamefromtheChilian wordquilkariy to wash. The 
trunk of this tree exceeds the middle height, and is 
covered with a thick bark of a greyish ash colour; 
it divides itself at the top into two ch: three branches, 
which produce leaves like those of tibe ever-green oak ; 
itsflowersare also furnished with stamina, buttheseed 
is enclosed in a quadrangular capsule. The wood 
of the quillsd is very hard and does not easily split, 
for which reason the country people make use of it 
for stirri^. But wiiat renders this tree really valua- 
ble is the bark, which, when pulverised and mixed 

* The quillai is a tree whose leaves resemble those of the ever- 
green oak. The bark ferments in water like soap, and is prefei-ablc 
to it for the washing of woollen cloth, but is apt to give linen a 
yello^wishhtte,— -^Vff2iVr'# Voyagfi-i vol. L 

VOB. I. S 


with a certain qu^itity of water, foams like soap, 
and is as efficacious in cleansing wooUena and oth^ 
kinds of cloth. A very considerable commerce i$ 
carried on with this bark ; the Peruvians particulm'ly 
import every year great quantities of it. 

The fáhi (lauras caustica) a species of middle 
sized laurel, is scattered over the whole country. 
Its leaves are oval, wrinkled, an inch in length, and 
of a dark green; the flowers, though much smaller» 
and the firuit resemble those of the comm^on laurel. 
The effluvium fitHn this tree, e^>ecially in summer, 
produces painful pustules and swellings on the Junda 
and faces of those who ^op beneath its shade. Thti^ 
effect k various, however, with various persona: 
there are scmie who are very little, if at aU, incom- 
moded by it, while others who merely pass by tl^ 
tree are severely affected; though never atten- 
ded with £sital consequences, it is nevertheless very 
ti^oublesome. Gireat pi^écaution is requisite in cut* 
ting the tree, as its viscous juice is extremely caus- 
tic; but when dry the wood loses all its injurious 
qualities, and is employed fc»* building. Its colour 
is a handsome red veined with l^^own, and it ac- 
quires, after having been for some time under water, 
a very great degree of hardness, which might render 
it very useful in ship building.* . There is another 
large tree which I have reascm to believe is truly 

* The Hthi is a tree very proper for building ships ; it is cut 
•with great care when it is green, but when dry, particularly if it 
has J}een for some time under water, the wood becomes almost as 
hard as iron. It is employed by the natives in building their houses. 
Its colour whe . st cut is white, but when it is dried and seascmed 
it changes to a rery handsome red.«-/'<ff(^''« /«um. 


poisonous; it usually grows in tlie vicmity <á tbe 
ssea, is called d^ imihriy and h one of tl^ most beau«- 
tiful trees of .CfaUi« The physicians, however, in 
critical cases, direct the buds to be taken in powder 
not exceeding half a scruple, as a powerful emetic. 
The sap of this tree is a jtSkm inclining to green, 
Init is not lacteous. Its fiowo^ and fruct^lcation I 
s^U not pretend to describe, never havir^ se^i it 
in a flowering state. 

The mat/ten (maytenus boarta, gen. nov.) is a 
beautiful tree, and alws^ retains its fdiage. It grows 
in the same places wkh the lithi, and is sm anti* 
^ote to its poison. It is rarely more than thirty feet 
high ; ks branches, which are numerous, and com- 
mence at the height of eight feet from the root, form 
a very beautiful top; die kaves are dentkulated and 
pointed, about two inches in l^igdi, smd of a bril- 
liant green; the lowers are monopetalous, bdl- 
shaped, and of a pur[de hue, but so smaU as not to 
be distinguishable at a little distance. These flow- 
ers eiákely cover tlie yoimg shoots, and are suc- 
c^ded by a smaH round capsufe cootunii^ a single 
Hack seed. The wood is very hard, and of an wange 
cokmr spotted with red airf^ green. The cattle are 
very fond of the leaves and wiU forsake any herbage 
for tfiem ; and were it not for the hedges and ditches 
with which the inhabitants surround the young trees, 
Üie s^>ecies would probably before this time have 
been destroyed. 

The Umo (temus moscata, gen. nov.) is a tree of 
very thick foliage. The leaves are alternate, oval, 
smooth, and of a bright green. There are two va- 


rietics of this tree, distinguished by their yeltow or 
white flowers, which are divided intoeighteen narrow 
petals of two or three inches in length. The seeds 
resemble coffee, and are not unlike it in taste, but 
have a certain bitterness that renders them unplea- 
sant. The bark is yellow, the wood grey, v«ry» hard, 
and much used in various manufactures. 

The patagua (cmodendron patagua, gen. nov*) 
is much valued for its flowers, which are small, but 
f esemble in shape and smell the lily. The leaves are 
placed opposite in pairs, lanceolated, serrated, and 
of a bright green. The trunk frequently grows to 
such a size that four men can scarcely encircle it 
with their arms; the wood is white and easily 
wrought, but held in little estimation. 

Chili, in comparison with those countries in Ame- 
rica situated between the tropics, produces but few 
trees whose fruits are e£ble; the principal of those 
are the coconut^ the pehnen^ the gevum^ the peutw 
and the lúcuma. 

In the provinces of Quillota, Calchagua and Maule 
are large forests of the coconut tree (palma Chilemis) 
This species differs from the others of the same ge- 
nus in the size of its fruit, which does not usually 
exceed that of a walnut. The trunk is about the 
hei^t and diameter of a date tree, and its growth is 
very slow; it is without branch^ and perfectly cy- 
lindrical, but when young is covered with the 
footstalks of leaves, which fall off as the tree increases 
in size. The leaves and flowers are analogous to 
those T)f the palm ; tlie last are monoica!, and dis- 
posed in four clusters which hang around the tree. 


When in the bud they are enclosed within a spath, 
or woody sheajh, which opens as the flower expands. 
When the fruit begins to form, the spath separates 
itself into two hemispherical parts of about three 
Jeet long by two broad. Each of these bunches pro- 
ckices more than a thousand coconuts, and nothing 
can be more beautiful than ^ see one of tliese trees 
covered with fruit, shaded by the upper branches 
which bend over in the form of an arch* 

The fruit, like the tropical coconut, has two co- 
verings; the outer is hard externally and of a green 
colour, which gradually changes into^a yellow, and 
thû inside is filled with a kind of filaceous wool; the 
interior shell is woody, smooth and round, and so 
hard that it would be difficult for the nut to germi- 
nate were it not for the two stems which are attach- 
ed td the upper part of the shell, and separated from 
the nut only by a thin pellicle* The kernel is spheri- 
cal, a littíe hallow in the middle, white, and of a very 
agreeable taste, and when fresh contains a milky 
liquor which is pleasant and refrigeratOTy. A great 
. number of these nuts are exported every year to 
Peru, where they are highly esteemed. The oil 
obtained from them by expression is well tasted and 
much used. The country people make use of the 
sheaths as bags for little articles of dress, and with 
the leaves manufacture baskets and thatch their 
cabins* The buds, if cut when young, yield great 
xjuantities of sap, which is thick, and furnishes a 
more agreeable sirop than that of the sugar cane ; 
but the tree commonly dies aftqr this operation. 


The date is found in the province d[ Copiftpo; hat 
I know not whether it is indigenous or was broughl 
thither from some other pbce. The islands of Juail 
Fernandez produce a species of palm csàlta ch&rUm. 
The trunk) like that of most otho* pahns, is hollow^ 
and the wood is black ami as hard as ebony. Anc^iier 
tree, which I have o^led atnpelo musa^ rœembles 
the palm, and grows in great quantities in the numibeâ 
of Maule; the leaves proceed direcdy from the top 
«f the trunk, and are large and green like those <^ 
the banana; the fruit is di^>osed in four clusters like 
those of tte vine, aiKl the resemUance is so perfect 
^Úiat were it not fcH* a sharp and astringent taste it 
might readily be mistaken for a grape. 

Tht pe/men (pkms Araucana) called by the Spa^ 
niards j&»8o de la tierra, resemUes the fir more dum 
the p^, although in some respects it dificrs £rom 
bmh. It is tiie most beautifid of the trees of ChiU, 
and grows spontaneously in the Araucanian pro- 
vinces, but is cultivflited in a31 other parts of the 
country, and, fixrni its properties, partakes of the 
nature of the pine, the chesnut and the fnmkincense. 
The trunk is freqoendy eighty feet in height, and its 
usual circumference is eight; the wood is very re- 
sinous, and of a yellowish brown, and the l^irk 
smooth and greeni^; the tree as it increases in 
height shedding all the little branches and leaves 
with which it is covered while young. When it 
attains the half of its growth it puts forth, in a hori- 
zontal direction, four durable limbs opposite to each 
other in the form of a cross; the four following 
branches are disposed in the same manner but 


âhortér, and at the distance of four or five feet from 
the fii^t ; the others decrease in length in proportion 
a$ they approach the tc^, which terminates in a poh^t. 
The ext^remities of all these branches incline pcrpcn- 
diculaiiy, and give to the tree the form of a quad- 
rangular pyramid. This pyramidal shape becomes 
still more perfect from the number of Uttle boughs 
which project laterally from the principal branches in 
H cruciform manner, decreasing gradually from the 
common axis. The prin<^ipal tu^anche:^ as well as 
tte boughs» are set round with stiff leaves enchased 
in each other, of about three inches Icajg by oa^ 
broad; these are heart-shaped, convex above, very 
ahiningi and so hard that they appear like wood* 
The flower is amentaceous or conical, and perfectly 
reicmbles that of the pii^ ; the fruit is of the si^se of 
a man's head; it is smooth, spherical, ligneous, sus- 
pended to a very short pedicle, and divided within 
by thin shells into several cells, which contain the 
kernels in pairs; the kernels are about two inches in 
}et^h and as large as the little finger, of a conical 
fcmn, a tranqmrent white, and covered with a pelli- 
ek like that of tbt chesnut, which they resemble in 
taste, and, though rather liarder, are eaten in the 
same manner. The ^um exudes through the barl^, 
is yellowish, and its odour very pleasant,^ 

* This is the dombey of Chili of M. de la Mark. This tree is 
not a pine, as M. Molina supposes ; it is a new genus, well defitied 
by its fructiâcation, and clearly distinguishable frosn any of those 
that are known. In fact, besides its Rowers being diœcial, they 
have this very singular discrimination, that they grow upon catkins, 
with no other pericarpium than what is produced by the genera- 
tive organs— the fprked appendages that terminate the props of 


The gevutn (gevuina avellina, gen. nov.) called 
by the Spaniards avellano^ or the hazle, fh>m the 
appearance of its fruit, grows to a middle height in 
marshes and in the values of the Andes. Its leaves 
are winged and terminated with one dissimilar like 
those of the ash, but the leaflets are rounder, more 
solid, slightly denticulated, and disposed by four or 
five couple upon a common pedicle. The flowers 
are white, quadripetal, and attached by pairs to a 
spike which proceeds from the hollow part of the 
leaves. The fçuit is round, nine lines in diameter, 
and covered with a coriaceous shell, which is at first 
green, afterwards becomes yellow, and at length 
black; the kernel is divided into two lobes, and in 
taste resembles the European walnut. 

The peumo (peumus, gen. nov.) is a tree consist- 
ing of four very diflferent species, and a great num- 
ber of varieties ; all of these are tall and covered with 
stiff" aromatic leaves; the fruit is like the olive, but 
a little smaller, having a kernel more or less hard, ac- 
cording to the species. The flowers are white or of 
a rose colour, with six petals shorter than the calyx. - 
The first species (peumus rubra) has alternate leaves, 
oval, petiolated, entire and large, like those of the 
hornbeam, and bears a red fruit; the second (peumus 
alba) has denticulated leaves and a white fruit; the 

the stamina forming the pericarpÎHm of the male catkin, and the 
two valves of each stigma that of the female. 

The fruit is also singular ; it consists of large oval rounded cones, 
composed of a great number of elongated seeds, fixed naked around 
©ne common axis. These seeds, of course, are not to be found in 
pairs in the hollow of each shell of the cone as in the pine, since^ 
that of the dombeya has no shellSoMi^?*. Tran*. 


tiiîrd (peumus mammosa) tes sessile leaves in shape 
of a heart, and the fruit is terminated by a kind of 
nipple; the fourth (peumus boldus) bears oval leaves 
placed opposite in pairs, about four inches in length, 
woolly beneath and of a dark green. The fruit of 
this last species is smaller than that of the others and 
almost round, arid the kernel so hard that the inha- 
bitants make their rosaries of it. They aliso give to 
the fruit the name of boldo^ and use the shells to per- 
fume the vessels in which they put their wine. The 
fruits of the three first kinds are eaten; to prepare 
•them for that purpose they are iperely dipped in 
warm water, as a greater degree of heat would burn 
^nd render them bitter. The interior pulp is white, 
t)uttery, and of an agreeable taste, and the kernel con- 
tairis much oil which might be used both for lamps 
and for eating, The bark serves for tanning leather, 
and is also used in dying. 

The lúcuma (lúcuma, gen. nov.) comprehends 
five different species and many varieties, all of them 
large trees, with stiff leaves resembling the laurel. 
Tfee. flowers have a great number of stamina, and 
produce a fruit which, in size and taste, has some 
similarity to the peach; the outside skin is yellowish 
and the pulp sweet, and usually contains one or two 
kelmels of an irregular shape. Two kinds of lúcuma 
are cultivated — ^the lúcuma bífera and the turbinata^ 
The bifera bears twice a year, early in summer and 
in autumn; but the autunmal fruits alone produce 
kernels; these are two, and have the appearance of 
chesnuts. The fruit is round and a little sloped, 
but less so than that of the turbinata, which has the 
VguL T 


form of a whipping-top. Notwitfistanding botli 
these fruits ripen upon the tree, it is necessary 
to keep them some time in straw, which ameliorates 
them and corrects their natural roughness, and by 
this means they acquire that pleasait taste which 
renders them so much esteemed. 

Of the wild lúcuma three species are known in 
Chili by the names of heUota^ kettle and ehagnar. 

The ¿e^/Zotó (lúcuma Valparaidisea) grows in great 
quantities in the environs of Valparaiso, and is dis* 
tinguished from the others by its leaves, which are 
<^posite, and its round or oval fruit, which is usually 

The keule (lúcuma keule) which frequtotly grows 
to the height of a hundred feet, has oval leaves about 
six inches long and of a brilliant green. This feec 
usually bears a great quantity of fruit which is per* 
fectly round and of a shining yellow, forming a fine 
Contrast with the beautiful verdure of the foliage- 

The ehagnar (lúcuma spinosa) has a trunk about 
thirty feet high; the branches are thorny, the leaves 
oval and sessile, and the fruit resembles that of the 
keule, but has a more agreeable taste. The wood i$ 
hard, of a yellow colour, and much valued by cabinet 

The different kinds erf pulse, flowers, garden 
herbs, vines and fruit trees, which the Spaniards 
have brought from Eur(^, thrive as well in Chili as 
in their native country.* 

• Each house has a garden in which may be found all kinds of 
fruit trees, which produce every year such abundance of fruit that 
the inhabitants pluck off a ^reat part of it when it first forms, as 


The melons, of which there are many kinds, arc 
almost always long; the rind is very thin and the 
flavour excellent. Among them the musk melon 
and the scrittij two marked and constant varieties, 
are preferred to any other; and I have seen many 
that were two feet in length. The melons begin to 
ripen in the month of December, and continue until 
the end of May. These last, which I have called 
winter melons (invernizi) are green, and will keep 
perfectly well during the winter if they are placed 
in a situation where the air may have free access to 

The inhabitants cultivate seven species of water 
melons of an excellent kind, but the most esteemed* 
is that called pellata^ which has a thin rind like the 
skin of an apple. This fruit is a native of Jamaica, 
from whence the Spaniards imported it into Europe, 
but it is probable that the cuchugna^ which is of the 
same species and of an excellent flavour, was culti- 
vated in Chili long before the arrival of the Spa- 

I have already spoken of the great fertility of the 
soil in the production of difierent kinds of grain ; 

otherwise it would not only endanger breaking the limbs, but wouk} 
never come to maturity. The fruits are not inferior in quality 
to those of Europe, except the chesmit which is much legs, but 
in place of this there are many other kinds of fruit unknown in 
our climate.-^i^d'wr///, vol. ii. 

All the houses in Coquimbo have large gardens surrounded with 
walls, in which, m their season, are produced apples, pears, prunes, 
delicious cherries, nuts, almonds, olives, lemons, oranges, pomegra- 
nates, figs, grapes and many other fruits, peculiar to the country, 
not known in Europe. All these fruits are very odoriferouSji as I 
have myself experienced. — Ftuilli^ vol. ii. 


and shall merely observe in this place that the spe- 
cies of wheat most generally cultivated is one with- 
out beard called mutica ; this is sowed in August 
and the crop reaped in December. Hemp and flax 
grow extremely well in Chili, but as the exportation 
of it is rigorously prohibited, the inhabitants raise 
no more than is wanted for internal consumption. 

The vine produces wonderfully, and the soil ap- 
pears to be peculiarly favourable to it, as the thick- 
ets are filled with wild vines (the seeds having been 
carried thither by birds) from whose grapes the 
country people obtain a very good wine ; but the 
cultivated vines produce delicious grapes of the best 
'Quality. From the borders of Peru to the river of 
Maule, the mode of cultivating tlie vines is by rais- 
ing the sets to the height of three or four feet by 
means of props or forked stakes which support them ; 
but beyond that river they are planted upon the de- 
clivities of hills and reclined on the ground. The 
grapes in the highest estimation are those that grow 
upon the shores of the Itata. The wine obtained from 
them is the best in Chili, it is called Conception 
wine, and is usually red, of a good body, an excel- 
lent flavour, and not inferior to the first wines in 
Europe.* A great quantity of this wine is annually 
exported to Peru, but it loses much of its pleasant 
flavour from being put into casks that are daubed 
over on the inside with a kind of mineral pitch. 

* The country is full of hills, "with fine vineyards on their tops, 
which produce very excellent wines. — Feuille ^ vol. ii. 

The wines of St. Jaco are of several kinds, and although inferior 
to those of Conception, are very well tasted, and of a gooi. 
body.— ^mmcan Gazetteer; article Chili. 


The muscadel wine is, according to Ulloa, of as 
good a quality as the best of Spain.* These wines 
are in general very strong, and great quantities are 
used for distilling brandy. The vintage takes place 
in the months of April and May. About twenty 
years since some vines of a black muscadel grapç, 
of an excellent quality, were discovered in. the val- 
lies of the Andes, and from thence transplanted into 
the other provinces. As these values had never been 
inhabited, and until that time no such grape had been 
known in any other part of the country, it is difficult 
to determine whether it is a native of Chili or brought 
from Europe. It has besides some peculiarities that 
distinguish it, as the leaves being more indented, 
and the clusters perfectly conical, while the grapes 
grow so close to each other as to render it impossi- 
ble to detach one without crushing several. 

All the European fruit trees yield abundantly, and 
their fruit is as fine in Chili as in their native coun- 
try, f The greater part are also remarkable for their 
numbers and the increase of their size. In the south- 
em provinces are forests of apple and quince trees 
from three to four leagues in extent, from* vVhence 

* Chili has in no less abundance grapes of rarious kinds, add 
among them those which produce a wine more highly ralued in 
Peru than any other ; it is mostly red, and a muscadel is also 
made, which in its smell and the deliciousness of its taste sui^assea 
any kind known in Spain. — Ulloa* 8 Voyage, 

t The plain of QuiUota is very pleasant. We were there at 
the time of the carnival, which occurs in that country in the. be- 
ginning of autumn, and were much surprised to see a great quan- 
tity of all kinds of the best European fruit trees which have, been 
transplanted thither. They all produced in abundance, particu- 
larly the peaches, of which there were large thickets, while the 


proceeds that great variety of apples, the fruit of 
many of which is excellent. Among these, howe- 
ver, those of Quillota are the most in estimation* 
The quinces are remarkable for tlieir size and good- 
ness ;* like those of Europe they have an acid and 
astringent taste, but if suffered to attain perfect ma- 
turity, and not gathered until the end of autumn, they 
are very sweet, and are called in the countr}»- corcia. 
It is a well known fact that tliis fruit loses its astrin- 
gency by being allowed to remain a long time upon 
the tree, but in this country they pretend that the 
autunmal rains and the slight white frosts of that 
seasctfi are necessary to perfect it. There is likewise 
a particular species of the quince, improperly called 
lúcuma. The fruit is very different from that of the real 
lúcuma, and is always sweet, of a conical shape, and 
in a small degree umbilical ; the skin, as well as the 
pulp, is of an orange colour, and the tree is a real 
quince tree. 

The peaches amount to fourteen species, and fre- 
quently produce fruit of more than sixteen ounces 

only attention paid to their cultivation was by introducing some 
jmall streams of water among them, from the river Chile, to sup- 
ply the want of rain during the summer. — Fraileras Voyage ^ vol. L 
Pears and apples grow so naturally in the bushes, that it is 
difficult to conceive, on seeing such quantities of them, how it is 
possible for these trees to have mullîplied since the conquest to 
such a degree, if it is true, as is said, that they were not in the 
country before tliat period.-^i^rúr2z>r*« Voyage^ voh i. 

* What I most admired was the size of the quinces, for they 
arc larger than a man's head. But what was no less aa object of 
isarprisc, was the little account made of them by the inhabitants, 
who suffered them to rot upon the ground without .paying any at 
Mention tp collecting them. — Fcmlléj vd. iii. 


Height* Among the duraeines, that kind called in 
the country albercAigos, is the most in estimation ; 
the fruit is large and very excellent, the pulp is of 
a reddish white, and the stone perfecíl)tred. The tree, 
like the fig, bears twice ayear; in the month of Janua- 
ry it yields large and pulpy peaches, and in April 
a small fruit, resembling the almond, of a delicious 
taste, called almendruchos. The pears and cher- 
ries produce also twice a year, but the latter growth 
rarely obtains perfect miaturity.* Oranges, lemçns 
and citrons, of which there dxc many varieties ia 
Chili^ grow every where in the open fields» and their 
vegetation is not inferior to that oi the other trees. 
Besides the commcm kind a species of small lemon 
is mu^ cultivated, the fruit of which is about the 
size of a walnut, mid very juicy. The leaver are 
fnmll and resemble those of the ormige more ihasi 
the lemon, a very delicious sweetmeat is made from 
the fruit, and the juice is much used in inflam^ 
matory fevers. 

The olive grows very well, particularly in the vi- 
cinity of St. Jago, where I have seen trees of three 
feet in diameter and of a proportional height. Med- 
lars, service apples, the three-grained medlar and 
the jujube, are the only European fruits at pre* 
sent unknown in Chili. . 

* The fruit trees brought from Europe thrive very well in that 
country, whose climate is so favourable as respects vegetation that 
<hc trees bear fhik there the whole year. I hav« frequently see^ 
in the same orchard, what is common in orangeries, the fruit in 
all states, in the bud, in flower, green and perfectly ripe at the 
same time.— iiVaz/cr'« Voyage^ vol. i. 



fFormSy Imects^ Reptiles^ Fishes^ Birds and 

CHILI is not quite so abundant in animals as the 
other countries of America. The reptiles, for in- 
stance, are but few, and the indigenous quadrupeds 
do not exceed thirty-six species. The classes of 
worms, of fishes and of birds are those that contain 
the greatest number of species and of individuals. 
From my observations, however, I am led to believe 
that insects are less abundant than in Itahr, and that 
Chili produces a greater number of worms, particu- 
larly the marine kind; the whole coast of the Pacific 
Ocean being filled with zoophytes and inblluscaSj 
many of which are wholly unknown to naturalists. 

Sect. L Moluscos. — The pyura (pyura, gen. 
nov.) is a moUusca, remarkable for its shape and its 
mode of dwelling. This animal, which scarcely 
merits the name, is about an inch in diameter, and of 
the shape of a pear, or it may more properly be com- 
pared to a small fleshy purse, of nearly a conical 
form, filled with salt water ; it is of a red colour, and 
is furnished on the upper part with two very short 
trunks, one of which serves for a mouth the other 
as an anus. Between these are two shining black 


points which I suppose are the eyes. Oa the strict- 
est examination I have not been able to discover any 
organs or intestines separate from ïht flesh compos- 
ing the body of this animal, which is smooth on the 
outside, and within mammiform. .It is not, however, 
destitute of sensitAlity, as, on being touched or drawn 
from its cell, it qects with violence from both 
trunks the water which it contains. Several of these 
animals live together in a kind of c(HÍaceous hive ; 
this is of a different form in different places, arid ap- 
pears to be completely closed on the outside, but 
within is divided into ten or more cells by means of 
strong membranes. Each individual has his separate 
cell, where he lives a recluse life without any visible 
communication with his companions, and in which he 
is compelled to remain, though there is no perceptible 
l%ament that attaches him to it. From this circum- 
stance it may fairly be presumed that these animals 
are hermaphrodites of the first spccieá, or such as 
produce their like without coupling. 

The hives, which serve as habitations for these 
mottuscas, resemble alcyoniums^ and are attached to 
rocks, covered by the water, from whence they are 
torn by the waves and driven on the shore. The in- 
habitants of Chili eat the pyures,' either boiled or 
roasted in the shells, and when fresh they have the 
taste of a lobster. Great quantities of them are dried 
annually and sent to Cujo, where they are in great 
request I believe the animal which Kolbcn, in his 
description of the Gape of Good Hope, calls the sea 
fountain, is of the same family. 
Vol. I. Ü 


Various species of the holothuria, esfpecially tfee 
fiolothuria physalis^ or the galley, are frequently found, 
upon the shore, whither they are driven by the waves. 
This moUusca, called by several authors the se^ net- 
tje, from its producing an inflamm^oi) of the .skin 
when touched^ is of the shape and size c^ ¿m ox- blad- 
der filled with air. It is furnished within with a 
great number of branching feelers, or tentaçulae, in- 
tertwined with each other, in the centre of which is 
placed the mouth, of a very deformed appearance* 

These tentacular are of several cc4ours, red, pur- 
ple or blue ; the skin that fwms the vesicle or bladr» 
der is transparent, and appears to consist of difièrent 
longitudinal and transverse fibres, within which a 
peristaltic motion is perceptible. The top of thi^^ 
bladder is ornamented with a membrane in the shape 
of a crest, which serves the apjlmal as a sail, and Qon- 
tains nothing excepting a little clear water, confined 
to one of its extremities by a membrane or dia- 
phragm, which prevents it from spreading; through- 
out the whole cavity of the bladder. 

Besides the common cuttle fish (sepia octopodia) 
three other singular species are found in the sea of 
Chili. The first, the ungulated cuttle fish (sepia un- 
guiculata) is of a great size, and instead of suckers^ 
has paws armed with a double row of pointed n^ils^ 
like those of a cat, which it can, at its pleasure, draw 
into a kind of sheath. This fish is of a delicate tai^te, 
but is not very common. The seccmd I have cal* 
l^d thetunicated cuttlefish (sepia t^nicata) from i^ 
body being covered with a second skin, in the form, 
of a tunic ; this is transparent, and terminates in two 


IHtle semicircular appendages like wings, which pro- 
ject from either side of the tail. Many Wonderful 
and incredible stories are told by sailors of the buHc 
and strength of this fish, but it is certain that if is 
frequently caught of one hundred and uñy pounds 
weight on the coast of Chili, and the flesh is esteemed 
a great delicacy. The third is the cuttle fish with 
SIX feet (sepia hexapodia). This species is of a vcrj^ 
singular figure, and when seen in a stote of quie^ 
cence, appears much more like à broken piece of the 
small 1>ránch of a tree than an animal. Its body does 
not exceed six inchesfin length, andáis of the size of 
a man's finger, divided into four or five articula- 
tions decreasing in size towards the tail. Its feet 
are ^usually drawn up near the head, but when ex- 
tended have the appearance of so many floating roots > 
like those of other cuttle fish, they are furiiiáhcd with 
suckers, but so small as to be scarcely discernible. 
The head is misshapen, and supplied with two aifi^ 
teniiae, or trunks. The black liquor is contained in 
a little bladder or vesicle, common to all the genus; 
and is very good for writing. The animal, when 
taken in the naked hand, produces^a sKght degree of 
numbness, which is not, however, attended with any 
disagreeable consequences. 

Of the urchins, or sea-eggs, there are several spe- 
efes, but the principal are the white and tlie black. 
The White urchin (echinus albus) is of a globular 
form, and about three inches in diameter; the shell 
and spines are white, but the interior substance ft 
, yellowish, and of an excellent taste* The black ur- 
chin (echinus niger) is a little larger than the white, 


and of an oral form ; the exterior and the e^s are 
black; it is called the deviPs hedge-hog, and is 
never eaten. 

Of the class of Vermes, or worms, the (x^r of 
testacei are most abundant in Chili ; the sea shore 
being covered with all kinds of shells, of which seve- 
ral hills are formed, from whence the inhabitants col- 
lect great quantities for linie. I have no doubt that 
among them might be discovered not only some of 
a new species, but of a new genus ; but as the limits, 
of my w(n*k will not permit mç to go into a full de- 
çoription of them, I shall confine myself to those 
kinds that are the most esteemed and made us^ of 
by the inhabitants. 

. Oysters are found in many places on the coast ; 
there are several varieties, but the largest and best 
9XC taken near Coquimbo. Escallops are found in 
the same places with the oyster, not only those with 
convex, but those with flat shells. 

The principal species of the muscle are tíie com- 
n^n, the pearly muscle (mytilus margaritifer) the 
large and small Magellanic muscle, the chorus, and 
the Uack muscle. The large Magellanic muscle is 
six inches long and three broad^ the shell is covered 
on the outside with a brownish skin, beneath whic^ 
it is of a beautiful sky blue, crossed transversely wáth 
piuple stripes, and within is of a rich mother of pearl 
colour striped with red. The litüe IVfogçllaiïic 
muscle is nearly of the same colour, but of rathçr a 
iqiore oval form. Both these kinds commonly con- 
tain some small pearls, of litde lustre ; those, on the 


contrary, that are found in the pearly muscle, are of 
a filie water, but almost always very small. 

The chorus (mytilus chorus) is seven inches long 
by three and a half broad. The skin is of a deep 
blue, but the shell, when stripped of it, is of a shining 
white inclining to blue ; the muscle itself is very 
white and excellently tasted. It is principally found 
on the island of Quiriquina, and the coast of Arau- 
cania. The black muscle (mytilus ater) is nearly as 
large as the chorus, the shell is rough and of a dark 
blucy and the flesh black and never eaten. 

Fresh water muscles are also found in abundance 
in the rivers and the ponds. I have noticed three 
species of them, known by the names of dollüniy^ 
pelJu and uthify but they are all of an insipid and 
disagreeable taste. 

The tellinae are also common in Chili, particularly 
the mayco^ a species of rayed tellens, or sun beam, 
and the chalguay which is entirely white. 

The thaca (chama thaca) is a cockle that is nearly 
round, about four inches in diameter ; the shell is 
striated longitudinally, and spotted on the outside 
with white, yellow and purple, the inner part is of 
a beautiful yellow, and the flesh excellent eating. 
The macha (solen macha) is ^ species of razor-áiell, 
a genus of shell-fish so called from their form. It iâ 
six or seven inches long, and variegated with sky- 
blue and brown* Both these kinds bury themselves 
in the sand, from whence the fishermen take them 
in great numbers. 

The rocks of Chiloe aflbrd a residence to a species 
of pholades (pholus Chilensis) which t:he inhabitants 


iáll cóm&s. The shell is biralve, büt has some cre- 
taceous appendages on the upper part, and is (rften 
SIX inches long and two broad. 

Barnacles of various species are found in abun- 
dance upon all the coast. Of these, one called the- 
parrot-bill (lepas psittacus) is much esteemed by the 
inhabitants. From ten to twenty of these animals 
inhabit as many small separate cells, formed in a 
pyramid of a cretaceous substance. These pyramids 
arc usually attached to the steepest parts of rocks, 
at the water's edge, and the animal derives its sub- 
sistence from the sea by means of a little hole at 
tîie top of each cell. The shell consists of six valves, 
two large and four small ; the large ones project ex- 
ternally in the form of a parrot's bill, from whence, 
the animal has received its name. When detachedt 
fh>m the rocks they are kept alive in their cells for 
four Or five days, during which time they occasion- 
ally protrude their bills as if to breathe. They are 
of diBerent sizes, though the lar^st do not exceed 
an inch in length, and are very white, tender, and 
excellent eating. 

Of the bucclnum and the murex there are like- 
wise a great number of species. One of the latter, 
the loco (murex loco) is highly esteemed. It is very 
white, and of a delicious taste, but rather tough, and 
in order to render it tender, it is generally beaten with 
á sttirfl stick before it is cooked. The shell is oval, 
and covered ^vith knots or tuberosities ; the animal 
is about four or five inches in length, and near the 
fleck has a small vesicle which contains a few drops 
of à purple liquor. 

! As far iSs I Imve h»d it in. my i>ow^i; to obscrtc^ 
tíiere are no naked snails or slugs in Chili, but those 
that are covered with a shell ^re very numerous iq, 
all the thickets. One of the most ctirious species is. 
iomd m the vicinity of Conception ; I have called it 
the serpentine^ from its skin being hard and covered 
with scales like that of a serpent* The shell is coni- 
cal, and lai^r than a turkey's egg ; it is slighdy 
striated, and of a whitish grey colour, and the edgp 
of the aperture is turned back and forms a b(»'der of 
a beautiful red. 

Sect. IL Crustaceous Fishes and Insects* — Thir- 
teen different species of crabs and craw-ftsh have 
t)een discovered cm the sea coast of Chili, and there 
are four kinds inhabiting the fresh waters. Amoi^ 
the crabs the most remarkable ariç the talicuna^ the 
xaiva, the apancora^ the hairt/y the santolluy and the 

The talicuna (cancer talicuna) has a round, smooth 
and convex shell, about four inches in diameter. The 
claws are denticulated, the head and the eyes very, 
protrusive, and the belly is almost entirely covered 
with the tail. When alive it is of a dark brown, but, 
becomes red when boiled. 

. The xaivfa (cancer xaiva) has a shell that isneaiiy 
sjidierical, about two inches and a half in diameter,, 
furnished with spines upon the edges. 

The apancora (cancer apancora) is larger than the 
talicuna. The shell is oval and wholly denticulated, 
the claws are haii^, and the tail of a triangular form 
and very long^ 


The hairy erab (çander se^susjí is of the wae of the 
preceding, and is entirely cloathed with rough hair 
Uke bristles ; the back shell is in the shapeof a l^art^ 
mid covered with protuberances. The beak is di- 
vided and reverted, and furnished with a gtieat num- 
ber of hairs. 

The sahtolla (cancer santoUa) surpasses all the 
others in its size, and the delicacy of its taâte« Ita 
shell is orbicular, convex, and of a coriaceous con* 
^stence ; it is covered with large spines, which are 
easily detached when it is roasted, and the daws are 
very long and large, and covered with a wrinkled 

The crowned crab (cancer cwonatas) is furnished 
with a shell nearly oval, of about four mches ^id ahalf 
in diameter, with an excrescence in the centre re- 
presenting a mural crown. 

Crawfish are no less abundant on the Chilian coast» 
Lord Anson mentions having caught them at Juan 
Fernandez of eight and nine pounds weight, that 
were of an excellent flavour. Lobsters are also found 
in such quantities on the same island, that the fisher- 
men have no other ' trouble to take them, than to 
strew a little meat upon the shore, and when they 
come to devour this bait, as they do in immense 
numbers, to turn them on their babks with a sticlc. 
By this simple method, many thousands are taken 
annually, and the tails, which are in high estimation, 
dried and sent to Chili. 

Of the fresh water crabs, the most remarkable is 
that called the mason (cancer cementarius). It is 
^about eight inches long, of a brown colour striped 


witfi rod I die e^sAi m veiy wldte/ âttd prefbral^e to 
Attlofai^^her specks of liver w^eacrab* Tbe^ 
af&foutid In dbfiiidftnce in almost all tíné riv^-s andr 
faéookS) on^ whose fibres tliej buüdtibemsdrres, wiütf 
cb^) á smaU cylindrical tenemeáty wiiîck rises sbr 
laches sdbove the siufice trf* the gtoond, but admit» 
die wMer, by means of a subterranean cai^le^Kl^id* 
ii^ to the bed of the river. They are readily cangh* 
by let^g down á basket or osier pot; with a piew 
of meat in it, into the water. 
■' The insects which I have noticed inO&K were 
in general like tíiQse of Italy ; a great humbétv how^ 
ever, app^r to be viery distinct, and to merit a par-' 
ticnlar description. Among the latter is a singahc* 
^>ecies of the ekrysomela (chiysombla maulica) which, 
is found ûpon^the flowers of ^ mmtgiu It is of aa 
oval figure, a litde larger thmi a house-fly^ and is tn^ 
tírely of a golden colour, and extremely brilliant. Tee 
cwntry people in the province .of Afaále, where it ia 
principally to be met with, string .together a num-* 
ber of these insects fte- necklafees and oútdc orna- 
ments, wlifefa preserve theii beauty and brilliancy &k% 
alwgtin^. . ,• " 

In the same province is fiound á black beetle of 
m<ffe titan hsdf atí inch hi length, calted'ji&f/mo (luca- 
nus p&mis) which is veiy destnietivetoieguminous 
pbmts, particularly tlie bean. -But the husbandmen 
have succeeded in nearly ex&ri«ting thw species, by 
«baking the plairts, upon which ihey are, oyer vessels 
of hot water placed beneath. 


ChSKis iwckks^ infested widi gcÉi9hi(»pp|ii^tliAil 
€hi|o, and many oiber countries in. Aixiecioa. Theriç. 
is but one 6peoi«s widi wfaii^ I am «loqfgiaÂiSLted ; it ia^ 
found tipoa ftoit trees, and b at>out six inches kn^t 
Whm the insect extends its tegs, it reseml^es vecy 
«wch. a twig of die tree upon which it keeps. Thç^ 
common people» according to the vulgar Ao^iou tbfft 
every thing iteformed has some connectiez ii^.evik 
spiril^, call it die devil's horse.^ It is not a c«PM(U|pi 
insect, and appears to me to rescnU^le H^griiim ck". 
^im of Linnaeus. Bed^bi^ were unknovm in Chili 
an withki' die last sixty years. They are said to haxC 
been firet introduced \)y the £uir(qiean ships, but hgy^ 
since increased very much ia the northem provins^s^ 
paitioularly iu S^ Jago« The southern, provim;^ m>, 
as ycÉ exempt from this troublesomie insect* 

The g^ow worms that I have seen werq ii?, gçperal, 
^láifáhr to those of Italy. But one m^t^^Iw;^ 
pdu9râg a little wood, I obsen^ed throe iciseçts i^ larg^ 
as the d!f^A*^Aeac/^jbima?(^hinx átropos) whi^^ 
a very bright light. My attempts to tal(e thq^i,, ho^^. 
ewer,, werefruidess,* and I was neyer aft^rvvj^^^bl^ 
to discover any of them, but I am of opinions tj^ they- 
were a species of the isiitem*fly. 

Of o^rpilbofs Aene is a groat variety of species.^ 
and in the summer the fields of Chili are emh^^shodî 
with, the most beautiful, butterflies. Attgn^ th^. . 
are some that are remarkable ïot tibyeir ^i^e and the. 
splendour of^ttircdknuis. ,. Oiúv^m^ ih^mptíiaifit^ 

. ' 'A *.) 

* From the mltítcrVéescríptioD, this insect appears ratbdv to 
^eloDg to the genus of mantis than any othet^mJ^r. Trana, 


«Shguii^ed is one that I have denominated tkejtorr^ 
étitterfly (paptUo psittacus). This is very large and 
1/vonderfully beautiflil ; the lop of the head is of a fiiic 
vermilion, marked with ytílow ; thfc baek yelloir, 
with red, azure, and green spots ; the upper part of 
the wings is green, spotted with yellow and blue, and 
the lower of a pale red ; the bdly is blue, speckled 
with brown and grey, and the antenn^ whieh art 
i^ped like à club, are purple» There is another of 
the same size (papilio leucothea) called by the chil* 
drcn paJkima. Thâs butterfly is etitioefy of a sihset|r 
white, except the antennae and legs, whidi «oré Uadî^ 

In the ticinity of the sea, between the rivais Rape) 
and Metaquito, is a kind of caterpillar ^d to reai^i»* 
bk the silk worm, which formis upon the forest trc» 
^mall cocoohs bf a beautiful sttk^ not irrferior to the 
European, Nor can it be doubted^ that a cUnúO^ 
so mild as that of Chili should be peculiarly Êivour- 
able to the propagation of the^silk worai, but i» yet 
ño attention ha» been paid thereto, fa»d all the auk 
used in that country is imported from Europe. 

It would not readily be believed that the rorài, 
^icfa is collectée^ in such quantities in the province 
of Coquimbo, from a shrub called ¿^A¿&ra, a spe- 
cies of origanum, is not a real gum, and, like others, 
an exudation of the sap thrcmgh the- bark. , Bui 
otieof my countrymen, the AUbé Panda, who ha» 
examined with much attention the natural prodiu:- 
tions of that province, has lately discovered that this 
supposed rosin is produced by a small smooth cater- 
pillar, of a red colour, and about half an inch in 


length.^ These insects odfect iñ great liunp^bers in 
llie beginning erf the spring on the branches of the 
ehUcai where they form their cdls of a kind of scat 
white wax. In these they become changed iití» â 
«mall yellowish moth, with black stripes upon the 
wingsy which I have named phalena ceraria. The 
wax is at first very white, by degrees becomes yel- 
low, and finally brown ; this change, and the bitter 
taste which it |hen acquires, is supposed tobe owing 
to f the fogs, which are very frequent in the province»* 
i»4iere it is found. It is collected in autumn by 
the inhabitants, who boil it in water^ and afterwards 
make it up into little cakes, in which form it is 
brought to market. In order to increase its weighs 
maHy are accustomed to mix it with the rosan ob- 
tained firom another resinous shrub daüedpajatv bobo^ 
and in this state great quantities of it are sdd to ship- 
masters, wllo use it for paying their vessds, the only 
purpose to which it has hitherto been applied. It 
is to be regretted that the situation of the Abbé 
would not permit him to pursue his experiments, in 
ot^r to determine whether this rosin might not serve 
for candles equally as wdii as beeswax, which it great- 
ly resembles. 

Upon the branches of Ae wild rosem^ is alsbc 
found a whitish viscous substance, in globules (rfthe 
âze of a kaaeUnut, containing a very limpid oil> 

* I am convinced that this resinous substance is a production ^ 

the tree itself, and that the caterpillar merely facilitates its exuda- 
tion, by biting the bu(^s in the spring ; the same circumstance oc- 
curs 19 many of the resinous trees t>fEurope.^.-Fr. Trarvs, 

which unquestioimWy proceeds from that shrub, and 
wiight be found useful for many purposes. TTiese 
glmids s^rve at the same time for the habitation of a 
kind of caterpillar, which becomes transformed into 
a small fly with four brown wings, of the genus of 

: In Chili there arc many species of the bee, par- 
tfeularly in the southern provinces, where those that 
produce honey make their hives in hollow trees, or 
in bc^ in the earth ; all the wax used in the Archi- 
liekgo of Chiloé is the product of these wild bees. 

As fiar as I have been able to ascertain, none of the 
commoiï wasps are to be found in Chili, and as to mus- 
quitoes, gnats, and other species of stinging flies, so 
troublesome to the inhabitants of warm countries, 
tíiey are entirely unknown there. In the vicinity of 
sl^ignaxrt waters oidy have I observed a gnat of the 
qiecies denominated by Linnaeus culex ciliaris. 
^ Of the water-fly, there are several species ; they 
Bstt always met with in the neighbouri^ood of dwell- 
îngs, and diflerin no respect from those of Europe, 
excepting one of a middle size, found only in the 
province of Calchagua. This is remarkable for its 
pleasant £usky smell, and is used by the inhabitants 
to perfume their clothes, from which circumstance I 
have named it tipula moschifera. 
: As to the ants, they appear to me to be of the same 
kind with those of Europe, and not to offer any dis- 
cfûminaitive mark of chamcten 

The Chigua (pulex penetrans) called by the Chi- 
lians nigu0 Otvpequiy is foimd only in the epvirons of 
the city of Coquimb#, and so rarely is it met with 


even there, that I have been assured by a person who 
resided there many years, that a single child was Üie 
only instance he had heard of any one's having beta 
îh(;ommoded by this insect Nigua is a generic 
term in Chilian, signifying all kinds of vermin or 
^nimalculse which infest animals, particularly tiift 
feathered tribe ; these are precisely similar to thbse of 
Eutope. UUoa appears, therefore, to have beeh ig- 
norant of the extensive signification of this word in 
Chilian, as what he says in his voyage, that the dfi* 
guas, or pricker, is found upon the whbfe coast of 
Chili, is contradicted by universal experience» 

Of the ciders there is but one ^ecies that is re* 
markable ; this is the great spider with fangs, which 
I have called arànea scrojh. It is Bound in thé ti* 
einity of St. Jago, and lives Mnétr ground ; the bcxiy 
is as large as a hen^s egg, and covered with soft 
brown hair, and tíie daWs very long and large ; in the 
ttiiddle of its forehead are four large eyes, disponed 
in the form of a square, and at the sides of the head 
two others that are less, and the mouth is fumisdied 
with two pincers of a shining black, adboilt two 
lines in length, turned back towards the foreheads 
Notwithstanding ife f<M-mídablé appearand!, this spi- 
der is not dangerous, áüid serves as an amu^ment 
for children, who pluck out its pincers without tq)* 
J)rehension, which are by the common people believed 
to be a specific for the tocth-ach* 

Scorpions, called in the language of the countfy 
tkehuanque (scorpio Chilensis) diifer but little or no- 
ttting in size or appearance from those of EuropieJ 
They 2ffe uëu«Jly met with in t jme of the secondary 

VÊmtsitÊàfinAi the Aades^ The covnoa colour is i| 
<Iark bf^awn^ bit tjtiose found under atones upon the 
9ha^^ of the river Co<|uUnbo 93^ yellow.^ It 19 aaid 
thfi^ mtiber o£ them, ace venomous, ^d that those 
who:9re hîtien by them experience no b^onveaience. 
l;Wmonoe present ndtt» a young man was bit by one 
^tbçm» who merely copoplained of a slight smarting 
9£^ pact, which continued, inflamed for not more 
tbmihalf m houx. . Such e^cperimeiite, however» are 
tM i$up^JSoial to. prove satis&iqtory. 

Se c T. III. lieptilâs. — I have already observed, thajl 
tiaiefe ¡m but &w reptiles in Chili ; and, in tsutb,. all 
thaft are known are water turtles, two species of frogs» 
the \»Bâ and water toad, a few lizards of the aquatic 
ândt^yocestribul kmd^ and one q>ecies of serpent ; nor 
«e eiitter of these venomous. . 
. Xhe ttotks are of two species ; one is an inhabi- 
tent of the sea, denominated by Liinnaeus testudo 
Qtuiacea; the other, testudo lutaria, is found in 
fresh water» particulady in the lakes of the southera 

: line üogSí arc the green frog (rana esculenta) and 
the tempocaigr. frog, (rana temporaria). 

The land toads are similar to those of Italy, and 
Uve. altogether in moist and wet places* The water 
toads are of two kinds, the arunco (rana arunco) and 
tilt th«ul; (nma lutea). The m^nco is a little larger 

* The ËQropean scorpions are yellow when yout^^ and continue 
so while they remain under gtones, but on exposure to the air be- 
come brown..../V. 'Trans. , ' . 


Úim tibe ttrnpc/fOEty fi^, aod ixwlj-ctf tKgiw ii ^ ^^m* 
lour. The body is teb^^ated, and tbe 4ê^w^^ 
\í^ ; tíie fope feet tuire four to^ asid tbe famiiei^ 
five, all funii^ed with smaU nails lúaüost împercepti^ 
bk. It is allied i^ the Aranca&iaiis guftco^ wlâdr 
signifies loKd of the. water, as úkeybtímvp tba^^ 
patches over the po^servatiíHt and cooCrifa^testotllfall 
salubrity oTthe '*watef s. The thaul is less than* ^tiie 
eomm^m or greoi frog whidiitreœmblesinitsfosrmi^ 
Itê skin is yellow and covered with ttá>e8cfes, atid II»' 
feet are shaped like those of the arunco, but not pal* 
iM^ed. ù . ^ 

The most remaH^abie of- tte torrestrial lixards -W 
^pallum (lacerm pal^un) of iwiKiae skin the {yaa-^ 
sants make their .puises. This^ lizard: lives utfoaliy 
under gxouad in the pkias ; its laigth, cxtímiva^ 
the tail, is a little more than etevtn inches, and it iá 
three inches in ciroumfarenee $ die tail is m long as 
^ body, the head triangufar, eovo^ with imiaff 
square scales, the nose very long, the ears round and 
U¿e those of all' lizards, placed at the hinder> part of 
the head. The upper part of ks body is coverad 
with small rhomboid^ scales, grec^, yeUk>w,^black 
and blue ; the skin of the bellyis smqolil-atidof a 
yellowish green ; the feet have each five toes, ftir- 
ni^ed with strong nails, and the tail is rout^ and 
of the san^ colour as the body. 
' Of the aquatíe lisard but oiie)^pè<^hasbe«i)i? 
discovered, to which Feuille, who saw it, has given 
the name of the water salamander (salamandra aqua- 
üca nigra). It is fourteen inches and a half in leng(ji>. 
including the tail ; the skin is without scales, roi^h 


Vi atsfi^t degree^ and of a Uaok iadmiiig to blue ; 
the^lead is devabed and tather'loogi the eyes large 
«ild yellow with a blue' pupi}> and the nostrils op&uk 
vritb a Beshy bc»rder ; its oose is poimèd, tíie mouth 
wide and furnished ynûi two rows of small crooked 
teeth; the tcn^e is large, of a bright red, and at^^ 
lacked at the base to the gullet, in which is a large 
crop that the animal can contract and expand at plea* 
«ture ; like other water lizards it is without ears, and 
ftoQi the top of its head to the extremity of its tail 
exten^ a kind of i^ented ci:e$t. The fore feet are 
much shorter than the hind, they have each five toeS) 
if^cl^ instead of nails, are fumidied with round car^ 
tUages ; the tail is strait and rounded at the base, but 
towards the end becomes flattened and expanded 
Kke a ^tuk ; it is about two inches in breadth, and 
the edges are notched like a saw. 
: The only arpent of Chili is that known to natu- 
ralists by the name of colub» esculapii. It is striped 
ivith black, yellow and white, sometimes mingled 
with brown. The largest that I have seen was not 
mcwe tíian three feet in length, it is perfectly harm- 
less,, and the peasants handle it without the least ap- 

' Sect. IV. Fishes. — The various kinds of escu- 
lent fish, found on the coast of Chili, are by the 
fiflhermen computed to be ^seventy-six, the most of 
which differ from those^ of the northern hemisphere, 
and appear to be peculiar to that sea. There are 
many, however, that are merely varieties of specie» 
that are common to almo^ all seas, ^ch, amodg 

Vol, I. Y 


tteampkibiowor c&vtílágib^ «fe the mfi 

the torpedo, state, dog-fiah, MW-fish, fisUng-frog^ 
«id old-wife ; 4nd mioag die sp&iom fidbes, Ûm 
electrical eel, the conger^ the swbid-fi^^ tíieMd» 
ú^ üdiitifig, the ftole, the turbot, tíie dondo, the bo« 
mto, the tuimy, the mackarel, Ûnt roach, the bai^d, 
the mullet, the flftiad, the pildiard, the^aiehovy, ^mê 
several odi^^s. ^ 

Whetíier ^ vast munhers oi fish on <he cotât of 
Chili, are owh^ to some peou&tr local causM, or to 
the small mimber o( fishermen, it is a fitcf , Mp^ 
ported by thetestimmy of the best mfemsiedâaviga^ 
^otSj thatnocoimtiryintheworldftiMishesagiraMef 
^imntity of those that are exceUcnt^ 

The bays, harbours, and, m a partieukir mÊOÊoeti 
the mouths of the large rivers, sirarm mitík dmn «i 

* la tlte it)9d oC Va%Mraito U OKislit an sbuidASoe 
fish of aU kinds, as kimp*fiBk,breiu0, soles, Sec. beud^s an mStiUf 
number of those that are migratory, as pilchards, aad a species of 
cod th^t come apon tíie coast in the months of October, KoTember 
and December ; alsoihad, and a kind «f JUidievjr, wl^^ at ti«e< 
are in such mnUiUideSi thalt they ftre cavght i^lth baskets on t^ 
surface of the water.— /Vaz¿^r*# Voyage^ vol. L 

We had also fish in such plenty, that one boat would, Irith hooka 
and lines, catch, in a few hours, as mnch as would senre a krgt 
ship^s company two days ; they were of various sorts, ailexcdlent 
in their kind, and many of then weighed Irom twenty to thirty 
pounds,— /few;l-ff«wor/^* Voyage tf Commodore Byron^ chap.viSi, 

This part of Maáafuero is a very good place fer l 'efte shmen ti 
especially in &e aatraner season ; ti>e goats kavebeen mentissftd 
already^ and there is all round the island soch plenty of fish, thata 
boat may, with three hooks and lines, catch as much as wül serve 
an hundred people ; among others we caught ercettent soal fish, 
eMFalties,ood,haUb«t,aiidcmww&ih>l(c.«--iifo«tc«wo^ . 

t^Cafi^. Caritr^i chap, ik 



attliattt, &riftm«(^iie|)kcea^litfy «e caught with- 
out any trqáble. The river Cauten^ which is three 
liañdred^tcasQtbRMdatitafmmth» and of sufficient 
^eiftài to aAtnit a ab^ ci the 1^, is> at certain sea« 
fonof the year, sa filled with fish, for seven leagues 
ftom its mouthy tliat the Indians flock thither in 
hg^ cosopanies, and take an a^:oni^ing quantity 
fagr striking them from the shores With their lances, 
fiormèdof a reed, which I have ahready described, 
«rolled eolm ; and an equal abundance is to be found 
in the mouths of all the southern rivers* 

In the Arc3iipeli^ of Chiloé, wtere thd^fish are 
still more ple^ifiil, d^ inhabiumts place m the 
mouths of the rivtrs, and even in certain places on 
the sea shore, paKaades, leavii^ an qpenkig towards 
die sea, nditch, when the tide begins to ebb, they 
carefully close. On the retiring (^ the water, the 
Mt enclosed in these wears are left upon the sand, 
and taken without difficulty. There is almost al- 
ways a greater quaiatity enclosed than is wanted by 
die inhabitante, who come ÜMÚier from all quarters 
to obtain a supply, to that they frequently open the 
gate^ and permit the most part to escape with the re- 
turning flood. 

The cod is as abundant upoh the coast of Juan 
Fernandez as upon the banks of NewfoiukUand, and 
caught with equal fiH^ty, for no sooner is the Hue 
thrown in, than a fish is drawn up. These fish wive 
bi large shoals, in the nibnths of November and De- 
eember, upon the ooast of Valparaiso. The inhaUU 
tiBts formerty paid no attention to ÛÂi iroportanl 


fishery, but of fete have pursued it witfa g«eat mca 
cess. * 

In some parts of the coast, great immbers of fidi 
are occasionally found upon the shore. These fish, 
when pursued by the wb^, retire to the diattows^ 
where, unable to contend against thé vitdcncc of Ac 
waves, they arfe thrown upon the beach, and become 
the prey of birds, or when found alive by thé inhabit 
tants, are taken and salted for use. Of the fiíái, &e 
most esteemed are the robaloy the corvmo^ the Sbo^ 
and the king-fiah. '• - 

The robah (esox Chilensis) is nearly of a cy&i- 
drical form, and from two to three feet l<wig. It is 
clothed with angular scales, of a golden o^our upon 
the back, and silver on the belly, the fins lare softm^ 
without spkies, the tail is truncated, and the back 
marked lon^tudinally with a blue stripe, bordered 
with yellow. The flesh is very white, almost trans- 
parent, fight, and of a delicious t^e. Those taken 
upon the Araucanian coast are the most in repute, 
where they are sometimes caught of eight pounds 
weight. The Indians of Chiloé smoke them, after 
having cleaned and soaked them for twenty-four 
hours in sea water, and when sufficiently dried, padk 
them up in casks of one hundred each, whieh are 
generally sold from two to three dtdlars; The robaùi 
prepared in this manner is superior to any other kind^ ^ 
of dried fish. \ : 

- The corvina (spams Chilensis) is nearly of the 
same size as the preceding ; it is sometimes, how- 
ever, found of five ot six feet in length. This fi^h 
has a small head, and a large oval body, cov^*d§ 


wkb farorà rfaoÉuïeîâid scA^ <^a mother pf pearl 
coloi»-, markjed'with white ; the tail k forked, and 
^e body enciixded.obUqijêtyfroiiQ. tile i^oulç^^ tq 
ikGhüly witKa jmmb^ cf browm^ lines. The fins 
^m¡:&ssúttQí&i with q>iny. ra]?», aü4 the J^e^ m white, 
fcvi^ii»idt>£âgoQdtaste, particularly ivben fried* 
B iTQuld probaUy he still better if it were prepared 
lilipe that of the tunny. ( 

V Thejiwa (imigU.Chiknsia),!» its form, scaler, má 
tai^, IS ntiich like the c^nupon mul^t, but is disn 
tmgukhed l^ the dorsal fin^ w|||çh jÜQ t^ie lisa is en* 
lire* Thci^ Me two i^^ies ^ tlii^.iish, the sea and 
lee rirexy ç^^tber of which e2:cjeedâ foot in len^.$ 
âke first is a. very goodjsh, fojuit the latter is so ex- 
i|râHt(e that it is cpreferred by niany to. the best of 

The kmg-^sh (cyprinus rpgius) so called from the 
exedkiK^of itsAavonr, is nearly of the size of a 
herring ; .it is of a cyliqdrieal^ form, covered with 
goMen scale» up<m the back, and with sUver upon 
the iskies. It has a short blunt mouth without teeti^, 
yeHbw ^es, with pui|de irides and blue pupils ; its 
ens are ydlow and ^fr, and that of the back extend$ 
fuom the head to tl^ tail which is divided into two 
pouts. These fish ^e cai^ht in such abundance, 
Aat a^bundred i;if ihem may be bought for a real. 

Aldiough the fresh lifters dp not afibrd as many 
Querent species of fi^sh as the sea, the number of in* 
dl¥K|i)als is much greatf»** The rivers, streamy, 
Ukes, and evoi the small ]t>roqk$y produce a surpris- 
ing qumitity, ei^pecially tho^ beyond the 34th de- 
pee of latitude. Tht ki^ds most in ejftimation are 


tfie ÜM» wMeh I have lipa^ MÉtoBd r ihiK trmet^ 
the cauqui (cyprimift eaucut) ;• the maM» (cyprmott 
inalchus) ; the yuk (cjrprkms julrn) ; the eamarm^ 
or pdadUk (stromaleus eomana^; «ad tbe àtgre^ 
or luvor (juhirus Chitaiais). The begre has « 
smooth skin without aeaies, and b broim upoa ite 
aides» and uriutib^ under the bdly« In itafimft it 
reaembles a tadpole, the head hemgof a siae dsipno^ 
portionate to .the leitgdi of the bcK^jr, vphiohdocsiiok 
exceed eleven imthes at the most. It hm a Wat 
mouth, fumiabed, Kke that oí the barbel, with faart»; 
It has a sharp spioe oh the hade fin, Hkcthetropiail 
bagre, but Hs puncture is not vettomoaa, m that il 
saidtobe. The fleriiisfeflów, atd the most dett; 
eious of any esculentfish thi^ is knoiim. Thtneis 
said to be another spates or variety of this fish, in* 
habiting the ^a, âuit is bUKsk, and whieh I in- 
sume is the same that Commodore Anwa^-s ai^ors 
called, from its colour, the (^mnêy-svnsep. 

Eels are found only dn the Araueaniaii pKnmMij 
where they are exceedingly plenty, and ar6 taketi^ 
the Indians in a kind of basket, placed- against th< 
current The river Talten, which Waters those 
provinces, produces a smáH fiísh catted payé^ Whidi^ 
as I have been assured l^ tfiose who have seen tbem¿ 
is so diaphanous, that if several are placed upoif^^^h 
other, any object beneath them may be ^Kstim^y 
seen. If thb property is not greatly exaggcrtttied, 
this fiaái might serve to discover the tiecret' pWoesli 
of c^gesti(Hi, and the motion of the Aaids^ 

Among die great varieties of fish with whkji ^ 
waters of Chili abound, die tlfeee following are mof* 


{Mtdbsbrlf émti^ion of iKiáce. Hiese inh^^ tbe 
gea, Mid are útí^^gUtchatoém^ ^ voek^JhAi and the 

of 4(u^ovd:Íbáiii: aboo^afi)^ w kagth, and covered 
niMi i^erjr^nifdl seaks« It Í6 of a bright gdd co- 
lour; mù mtítktd with five dfotinct band^, of nuure 
âiaftbdf tui inch Ift width, aomegref» and <^her» 
bbKik« The&si b blwk, comfnences at the ha^ 
4)f thene^^andpasses in^a oirciilar directkm through 
uteres ; the tiii^in ^ centre are grey, atid encircle 
tbe l^ddy^ and tbr two last are bbck «ad grey 9 and 
surround llie root <tf dw taU^ which h c^ a ékv^ ca# 
lour. This bcMtifisl fid hu» a ^ma&head, anehm» 
gifted moudi, âimiahedwkh small teeth, and tim 
bade enârely covered fixmi tl^ he«l to tihe tail with 
a Ififge spinous yeUovr fin. The taâ is in the form 
of a fim/'^md is bwdered with yellow, and the flesh i$ 
exoaHent ¿atíng. 

thet^iHtk-^hh^ (áámmn calloryndius) placed by 
Lkmwis aOM^g^e an^phtbiousswiannersy is about 
three feet long, its body is round, larger torwarda the 
n^ddlethaii'theextremities, and coveted witha whitidi 
d^nxlevoid ctf scales. Its head is surmounted with 
a Cfutilag^ous crest extending five or six tines be« 
yood the upper lip, fnnn whoiee it has obtained die 
nameof die cock-fid, or ^udgua achagual in the 
Anaic»iian knguage. It has five fins ; the dorsal 
ipommenoes' immediately behind die head, and ex* 
tends itself to the middle of the back, it is very 
large, of a tiismgular fwm, mipported by a strong 
diarp spine, five inches in length ; dits ^ne, 
«^ioh is kmger than Ü*e fin, is the only bony part of 



the fisb, all thé rest beiii^ cartili^iBoiiSy etren.the 
back bone, which, like that c£ the lamfuiey, is fur- 
nished mth neither marrow nor áervesw The StUif 
other fins are placed i^tt* the ^gûk& and bcbetthithe 
anus ; these are douUe, which b.veiy uneominoii» 
lind the tail is shaped like a leaf, wkh the pc^ 
turned towards the belly. Thia fish, when eMen^ jb 
served up m(n^ as an object of ciniosii^ than fipom 
a regard for its flavour, which is verjr iodilferefit* >^j 
The toUo (squalus FemaBdÍQus).is a specif ^^ 
dog-fish, a litde larg^ than die cock-fish, md vt.^ 
markaUe for two dorsal spines, like tlK>se of Hm 
squalus acanthias. These sjpinesare triimgular, bexA 
at the point, as hard as ivory, and two inches anda 
half long, and five lines broad. They are said 
an efficacious remedy for the tooth-ache, by hoddiog 
the point of one of them to the a&oted too^h* ^ i 
Notwithstanding the whale belongs to the class of 
lactiferous animals, Iliave thought proper to n<rtice it 
in this place, as many authors, firom its e^Uonal 
conformation, have ranked it among fishes. The 
species that frequent the Chilian seas ai?e die great 
whale (bolaena mysticetus) called by the Arau^ 
niahs t/ene ; die little whale (balaena boops)v called 
koly and the lliree known ^ecies of the dglphin» 
Both these kinds of whale are very common in that 
îBca, and at certain seasons they .are seen in great 
numbers, particularly near the moiiths of rivers, 
whither they come inquest of fii^. > 

The late English navigators speak of the great 
quantity of whales which they met with upon the 
coast of Teita del Fuego, and in the Straits oiM»^* 


BíArí mid in £he account of Captain Cook's last voyage, 
tte little whale is particularly mentioned. I have 
good reason to believe that, besides the two kinds 
of whales above mentioned, all the species discover- 
ed in the northern may likewise be found in the 
southern seas ; but aá the Chilians have never paid 
attention to the whale fidiery, I am not able to as- 
sert it with positivencss, nor to determine the dif- 
ference, if Aere be any, between the northern and 
southern whale ; this, however, is certain, that the 
*rhales of the south are not inferior in size to those 
of the north. T have myself seen a whale that had 
been driven ashore on the coast of the Chones, that 
was nintety-six feet long, and on the same coast 
was also found the rib of another twenty-two feet in 
length. I cannot but be surprised that Mr. Buffon, 
in contradiction to the testimony of the most re- 
spectable navigators, has asserted that the southern 
ieas produce no whales,* and that the largest animal 
ijiat IS found in them is the manatí ; that learned 
nàturalist,^ who too frequently suffers himself to bç 
misled by his favourite system, should have recol- 
lected diat tíie great phoca, improperly denominated 
the sea-Hon, an animal which he has himself de- 
scribed, fkr exceeds in size the manati. 

There arfe occasionally seen upon the coast of 
Araucania, certain animals called by the Indians sea- 

* On thci 30th we^éered for âtatcB-land, and on the passage 
fell in with so great a number of whales, of the largest size, that 
Uie crew were apprehensive lest they would sink the ship. We / 
«isto saw great numbers of sea-wolves and penguins.— /owrwa/ of 
CêpUûk CàotB 9tC9Hd Foyagt^ page 5»2. 

Vol. L Z 


cows» From the imperfect description whidi I have 
received of them, I cannot determine whether they 
are manatis, morses, or a species of phocas. I an, 
however, more inclined to believe them to be ma- 
natis, as great numbers of these animals were foundL 
by the first Spanish settlers of Juan Fenumdez àa 
the shores of that island ; but the immense destruc- 
tion which they made of them, as they were eagerly 
h unt ed for their flesh, has entirely driven them from 
those shores. 

The Indians pretend that in certain lakes in Chili 
is to be found an animal of a monstrous size, which, 
they call guruvibij or the fox-serpent* They believe 
that it devours men, and on that account nev^ bathe 
in those lakes. But the descriptions^ which they give 
of its size and form scarcely ever agree : some rt-^ 
presenting it as having the body of a serpent with 
the head of a fox ; others, as being of a circular 
form, and resembling an inflated ox-hide. It is, how- 
ever, probable that this animal has no other exis- 
tence than in the imaginations of these people. 

Sect. V. Birdg. — After that of insects, the most 
numerous class of animals in CMli is that of birds. 
Those that inhabit the land alone amount to a hun- 
dred and thirty -five species, and the number of those 
belonging to the sea, is almost impossible to be esti* 
mated. The genus of gulls alone is known to contain 
twenty-six difierçnt species, and many others are 
not less numerous* 

That vast chain of mountains, the Andes, may be 
considered as the nursery ofbirds of all kinds. They 


assemble there in great numbers in the spring, in 
order to breed and rear • their young in greater 
security ; and on the falliiig of the first snows 
in winter, they quit them in large flocks, and 
seek the plains and the maritin^e mountains. To 
their residence in the Andes, which are almost al- 
ways c^ered with snow, I think may be attributed 
that difference of plumage frequently observable in 
individuals of many of these species, of which I have 
seen ^me that were perfectly white. 

Many of tlie birds of Chili are merely simple va- 
rieties of species that are found in Italy and many 
other parts of Europe. Of this number are the geese, 
ducks, divers, plovers, herons, kites, falcons, black- 
birds, pigeons, crows, partridges, and domestic 
fowls.* The sportsmen enumerate sixteen species of 
wild ducks, and six of geese. Among the former, 
the roj/alduck (anas regia) is principally distinguish-^ 
able ; it is much larger than the common duck, the 
upper part of the body is of a beautiful blue, and the 


♦ The countiy abounds with . an infinity of birds, particularly , 
•wild pigeons, turtle-doves, and partridges, though the latter are 
inferior to those of Europe, and with grouse and duelas of all kinds ; 
among the latter is one called the royal ducky which has a red 
comb upon its head. TJiere are likewise curlews, and a kmd of 
widgeon, (resembling the sea-bird called mahna) which has a long, 
strait, narrow, scarlet bill, flat upon the upper side, and a stripe 
of the same colour over the eyes ; the feet are like those of the 
ostrich, and the fl^h is very good eating. Parrots are in plenty, 
and there are some swans and flamingoes, whose feathers are highly 
prized by the Indians for ornamenting tlieir heads upon public oc- 
casions ; these are of a beautiful white and carnation, colours that 
arc in the greatest est^ation among them. — Ftazicr*9 V§yage^ 


low er part grey ; the head is adorned with a hrg^ 
red comb, and thelieck with a collar of beautiful 
white feathers. 

Of the geese, the most remarka^ble is therof £ron>¿a| 
(anas coscoroba). It is highly esteemed both for it$ 
î^ize, and for the ease with which it is tanied^ as U 
becomes strongly attached to those who &ç^it^ an4 
follows them around like a dog. The plumage i^ 
entirely white, the feet and bill are red, ^d tkeeye^ 
of a fine black. 

The swan of Chili (anas melancoripha) is nearly 
of the same size with that of Europe ; its form h 
likewise similar, but its plumage is different, that 
on the head and upper part of the neck being black, 
and the residue of a snowy white. The female has 
six young at a brood, which she is careful never to 
quit, but takes them with her upon her bae^ ifhisa- 
ever she leaves lier nest. 

Of herons there are five very beautiful spe^^i^s. 
The first is the large European heron (ardea m^jpr)* 
The second, the i^d-headed heron, (ardea erytroce- 
phala) is of the size of the first ; it is entirely white 
excepting the head, which is crowned with a Ipn^ 
red crest that hangs down upon its back*. The jthÍ2:d, 
the galatea heron (ardeagalatea^isof a milk white 
colour, the neck is two feet and a half long, the leg^ 
are of the same length and red, and the bill, which 
i^ yellow, four inches long. The fqurth, t]^ henn) 
with a blue head (ardea cyanocephala). The head 
and .back of this species is blue, the wings black 
edged with white, the belly qf a yellowish green, thç 
tail green, the bill black, and the legs yellow. The 


^fth k Ifae thula (árdea titula) a name derived fron^ 
the Chilian ; it is entirely white, and its head is 
lü4orned with a beautiful crest of the same odour* 

Of the two kinds of eagles in Chili, one is the y€% 
]aw eagle of Ëurq>e, called by the Indians gna^ca^r 
wd dsiouier ^>ecies called calquin, which appears to 
me to differ but little frcan the ifzqimuhtU of Mexico^ 
apd the urutaurana of Brasi). I'hi^ eagle, from ther 
extrejBiittes ci its wings, measures about ten and 
b^ffeet; Hs t^'east is whitç, spotted with brown^ 
and the neck, back md wings are black inclining to 
blue ; the tail is marked transversely with black and 
thrown stripes, and the head decorated with a blue 

The turtle-doves are of two species ; the one is 
^bmilar to that of Europe ; the other (columba mc« 
)An(^tera) has an ash-coloured body and black 

There are four species of the woodpecker; thd 
green, the Virginian, the carpenter, and the pitiu. 
The carpenter (picus lignarius) is less than a star-^ 
ling, and has a^red crest, and the body is variegated 
with white and blue. The bill is so strong that it 
perfcnrates wkfa it not only dry but green trees, and 
proves voy injurious to the fruit trees, by making 
deep holes in them, wherein it deposits its eggs. 
The pitiu (picus pitius) is of the size of a pigeon. 
Its plumage is brown, qxdted with white, and its 
flesh is held in much estimation. This bird lays four 
eg^, but it does not, like others of its species, nest 
in the holes of trces^ l^ut in excavations which it 


tnakcs in the high banks of rivers, ot on th^ sides of 

Grey and red partridges, which, according to 
Feuille, are larger than those of Euro]pe, are very- 
numerous throug^ut the country. They have an 
excellent flavour, particularly during the months rf 
April and May, when they feed upon the flowo^ of 
the sassia perdicaria. In the marshes is found â 
species that is smaller, whose flesh is mudi less 
delicate. * Quails are wholly unknown in Chili, A- 
though common in many of the Amerioui settle- 
ments. ^ 

The domestic fowl, which tíie Indians call achau^ 
is of the same breed as that of Europe, but it id as- 
serted on tiie Muí of an ancient tradition, diat it h3e& 
always been known in the country, and what ternas 
to confirm this opinion, is tiie proper name whjdi it 
has in the Chilian language^ which is not the case 
wÜh other birds of foreign extraction, such as the 
common pigeon¿ the tame duck, the goose, and 
the turkey. From whence it would seem that the 
domestic fowl, the Jic^ and the dog, are animals 
destined to accompany man in whatever country he 
maybe placed. This opinion is Confirmed by tbe 
late English navigators, who have met with them^in 
almost all the islands of the Pacific. 
. Among the numerous birds that inhalât CfaiU, I 
shall notice those only that are the most ]%markd>le, 
which I shall divide into two general classes, the 
palmated or web ft)oted, and the cloven footed. The 
first have tl^ir toes united I^ a membrane, ^idfre* 


qoent tke water, where they feed upon fish, aqwtio 
plants or insects. 

Of the9e> the principal is the penguin (diomedea 
Chila:^is}. This ^ird, on tte part of the feathered 
tribe, fornvs a link of union between the classes of 
birds and fishes, as the Ajring-fishdoesonthatafthe 
finny race. The feet are palmated like those of a 
duck, but its ¡dmnage is so fine that it appears/nc^ 
Uke hakthan feathers, and instead of whags it haa 
two pendent fins, covered with very short feathers 
reaemblii^ axiles, whkh are.c^ great use to it in 
swimming, but much too small for the purpose of 
fljf^* It is of the siee of a common duck, but its 
neck is much longer; the head is compressed at the 
sides, and veiy small m proportion to the sisse of the 
body ; the bill is slender, mid beat a little towards^ 
the point; the upper part of the body, the wings and 
the tail, which is nothijog mort than an extension of 
the feathers of the rump, are of a cl^ngeable grey 
and btue^ and the breast and bdly are white. The 
feet, which have but three toes, are skuated near the 
amis, and it walks in an ertxt pos^ire, with its head 
elevated like thatof a man^ keeping it constantly in 
motion, in order to preserve its equilibrium. This 
gives it at a distance the i^pcaranoe of a child just 
beginning to walk, whence the dûlians have de- 
noimnateditthe child-biid. • 

. Although the penguin is. an excellait swimmer, 
it cannot keep the ^ea during a storm, and the bodies 
of those whieh have periled at such times are fre- 
quently fiumd upon the. beach. I have neve^ known 
it eaten in Chili, though several navigators repre- 

mú it as very good foc4» The êlsàti is â^ tiiiek ^ 
that of a hog, and very easily sepamted fî^m aie 
fiesb» The fem^ make» heriu^t m the sand, in 
whkih ^he %s six ot seven witàle eggs, £potted m^ 

The ^eiku (i^Homedi^ Ghiktisis) is^ tite smite 
geiitis, sise and ferat as the {«receding) but is di^iiH 
giMshcd l]^ ks wings; wiécA^ alto wfaoHy destitute of 
others, aifd t^ having fi>»r toes oil èaedi foot. Thé 
body iscovered with a very long thtefe a^ a^Aúateá 
limage, ú Kttle ctirted^ aad so. soft^thaf the ii^àxah* 
itantsof ChUoé, wheïe these bk^dsare very comí' 
iDton, spin it, a^ make bed eoveiings of it| thát^are^ 
itíghly prised in thé oratitry. 

The thage (pelicanua thi^s) called by âte Spft^ 
niards ^ aleatmee, is a i^eoies of pdioai of a brown 
colour, remarkaUe for the sise <^ to sacas* TMiü 
bird is as lafge as a torkey-^i^ek, tihè €ieok is abó«rif 
afoot, ami die legs twenty-tn^ iMhes tong. h» 
Ifêad is l^cgt Qiid well prapottioiied^ a^ die bittf 
which is a litde b^t 9t the point, is a foot» lengdf;- 
and seiraled at the edges, a eharactemtiematfc that- 
dbtiAgtt^es thb pelican from that of £^rc^>e, iN^^>sé 
bUl is entire and smoodi; The lower : mandible^ m 
a little distoice froin the point, js divided inta tWú^ 
parts, that are vexy elastic andextensible^atthe bás^, 
where they open into, the nuembiuneous sack. Thfe- 
is only aneHlargeHD^t of the skin whieb e0?«rà the 
lower jaw and the neck ; it is dotiied with a very 
slH»t grey down, and is capal;^ of ^¡eàt expâasiom.^ 
When this sack is empty it is sx^a^f p<^ee{itíble^ 
' bift when fified wtth^i, partie^^arfy at tl^ árüe 


when Û^ bird has young, its àize is really astonisb* 
ing. Nature, ever attentive to ad^t the mean to 
the end, has furnished this bird with a large pair of 
wings, which are nearly nine feet in breadth from 
one extremity to the other; the quills are very long, 
aiKl are preferred for writing to those of the goose 
or. the swan ; its tail is short and round, and the feet 
have four toes united by a strong membrane. It is 
a solitary and indolent bird, almost constantly to be 
Wn upon the rocks, where it makes its nest, and it 
hM usually five young at a brood. Thje inhabitants, 
afiber dressing them, make use of these sacks for* 
txd^acco pouches ; they are also employed for lan- 
terns, and from their tran^arency answer the pur- 
pose very lyell. 

. The o^^ (anas hybrida) is a species of goos^ 
which frequents the islands in the Archipelago of 
CfaUoe. It is remarkable for the difference of colour 
between the m^e and the female; the former be|ng 
entirely white, with. a yellow bill and legs; whereas 
the female is black, except a narrow wh^e^stripp 
with which the edgçs of some of the;,fe^ers arc 
marked, and the bill and legs are red. ] ;Ii^ consç*. 
(^ence of this remarkable dissimilarity, I have given, 
tothisr bird the name of the hybrid, or musito. .The 
cd^e is of the size of a tame goose, but it ^s a 
shorter neck, and a longer tail and wings; the feet 
are shaped like those of the European goose The 
male and female appear to be strongly at^ched to 
each other ; they keep in pairs, and are never to be. 
met with, like oti^r aquatic birds, in lar|^ flocks. 
During the breeding season they retire to ^ sea 

Vol. L a a 


shore, where the kmalt usually hty^ eight whAe ^gs 
in a hole which she m^es in the sind. 

The^mi;3|ro(phaBnicopterüsChitaisis) is ode cf 
^ most beautiful birds of CMi. it frequents coif 
the fre$h waters, and is distmguished by its size and 
the beautiful iame-colour of its back and wings, 
which produces a most pleasing e&ct when con* 
trasted with the pure white of the rest of its plumage<r 
Its length, from the tip of Ihe bill to the end of the 
claws, is five feet, but . the body itself does not ex« 
ceed a fiiot in lengA ; it has a small oblong head, 
decon^ed with a kmd of crest; the eyes are small 
but lively ; the biU denticulated, a little bent towardii 
the point, about five inches long, and covered with a 
reddish pellicle ; the feet have four toes, three for- 
Ward and one behind ; the taH is sh^rt and rounded, 
and the wings tare of a length propcnrúoned to the siise 
of its body ; the quills ate perfectly white, while those 
of the flaniingos pt the other pMts (rf America atid 
of Africa, are Wack. It has been ssuid, that when 
young ihtx birds are grey ; but as I have mysetf 
seen them of au ages, I can assert that they sort 
always df theaame colour. It is also said that when» 
ever ^se \nré& feed, one of the flock is placed as t 
cenând, to give the alarm in case (tf danger to the 
others. Tins circumstance I have never wiüíessed ; 
it is, however, true, that they are extremdy ^IríiAf 
and can rardy be approached witfiin gun-diot. At 
the legs of this bird are too long to permit it oonve* 
niently to^cover its nest, it is eompdled to obviate 
tins incoi^enience by the x>09iti<m of Üie latter ; ans 
is tli^ually constructed at the edge of Ûkù water, ift 


fthafe of a truncated ccme, a foot aad a jhalf high ; 
on the tof) of this cone is a Uttk excavation lined 
vfxtk very sc^doK^é The bird while in the act of 
incubation places itself in a standing posture, with 
^e hinder part of its body supported upon the nestj 
as if seated in a chair. The Araucan^ans value 
the flamingo highly, and make use of its feathers 
to ornament their helmets and the ends of their 

mh^piUu (tantalus pOÍu) is a species of the ibis. 
Its plumage is If4iite, mottled witli blacky and its 
general resort is the rivers and the fresh water lakes. 
Of aU the aquatic birds, the pillu has the longest 
fegs, which, comprehending the thighs, are tWo feat 
eight inches in length. The size of the body, which 
is nearly that df atatne goose, is by no means jmto^ 
iKirtioiiale to the lei^th of the legs ; tiie neck is 
two feet three indbes long, and thé region of tiró Gr<^^ 
ti4iich is stoall) is destitute of feathers* The head ii 
of a micUle size, the biH laffge> conveic, apd sharp* 
pointed^ about four inches in lengthy and etitittly 
bare of feathers; k has foiur toes on each foot^ 
Whtchareunitedat their base by a Very sknril ment^ 
brane; the tail is short and entile like tl»t of almost 
tíX aquatic bir^b. The Spaniards csU it the stodft 
of Cinli; butitdi&rs from the stork in vmi^tia 
reii^^ectB. I have never seetti it light upon tred$ or 
any elevated ceject, aàd it almost always cc»itínaett 
in die tnarsl^s and on the bailks Of riverfty whem 
Ik {(Beds upon reptiles; it vMaH&f sàakeâ its nest 
aiiàong ru^s, in whtdi it lajrs two Hfrinte egg^ H 
little indilñng fa bbie ' 


Those birds which have the toes separate and not 
United by a membrane, are by natarai|st& denomi- 
nated cloven-footed ; these for the greater part in- 
habit the plains and the woods, and feed upon in- 
sects, fruits or flesh. Of this class I shall select thos^ 
that are most remarkable for the beauty of their 
plumage, the melody of their song, ot any other 
quality. - ^ - 

The pigda, known under the different names of 
pica-flora, humming-bird, &c. is tlte trochilus* of 
Linnaeus, who has described twenty-two species of 
it. It is generally very small ; the neck is short, the 
head well proportioned, the eyes are black and vivid, 
the bill is of the size of a pin and nearly of the samé 
length as the body, the tongue bifurcated, and the 
legs are short with four toes ; the tail consists of 
seven or nine feathers the length of the body, and 
the wmgs are very long. Their colours vary accord- 
ing to their species ; but they are in general very ridi, 
and combine the splendour of gold and ¡nrecioús ^ones 
with the* most beautiful ^ades of every hue, which 
they retain even after their death. They arc vtty 
common diroughout Cfatt^ and during the summer 
are seen like butterflies hovering around the flowers, 
and appear as if sus^hded in the aii^. They make 
a humming noise with their wings, but their nc^ is 
nothing more than a low warblin|^ or chattering^ 
The mates are distinguishaUe from the females by 
the brilliancy of their heads, which diiae like fire. 
These birds build their nests upon trees, and form 
them of small straws and down; they lay two white 
eggs, speckled with yelloiv, of the size of á chick- 


pea, which the male and female cover alternately. 
On the approach erf winter^ this little bird^ sus|)ends 
itsdtfby its bill to a twig, and ia this position falls 
into a lethargic sleep, which coiïtinues the whole 
season. This is tJie time when they are chiefly 
taken, for when they are in full vigour it is almost 
impossible to catch them; 

I have observed three species of this bird in Chili ; 
the little, the blue-headed, and the crested humming- 

The Kttle humming-bird (trocliilus minimus) 
weighs only two grains, and its prevailing colour is 
a V€!fy brilli^it green. 

The blue-headed humming-bird (trpchilus cyano- 
cej^lus) has a tail thrice as long as its body, which 
is of the size of a filbert; the b^ is strait, poiiited 
and whitish; the head is blue with. a gdd^i lustre; 
the back of a slûning green ; the belly of a reddish 
yellow ; and the wings blue, motded with pui^e. 

The crested humming-bird (trochilus galeiitus) 
is the largest g[ these three kinds, and is a little less 
than the Eurc^ean wren. Its bill is slightly curved, 
and its Itead adowicd with a small crest striped with 
gold and purple; its neck and back are gireen, the 
krge feathers of the wings and t^l brown, q)Otted 
with gold, and all the lower part of the body of a 
changeable flame^^c^our. . 

The siu ^fringilla barbata) called by the .Spaniards 
gilgheroy or the goldfinch, is nésaly of ,the size and 
fôrtn of the canary-bird. It has a sirait, sharp-point- 
ed, conical bill, which is white at the base and black 
at the point. The male 1ms a black velvety head, 


and a yellow body slightly marküd with green ; it» 
wings are variegated widi greeH» yeUow, red and 
black, and the tail is brown; wben young its throat 
is yeUow, but as it advance^ in years is ieirtirely 
covered with a black hair» whioli. begins to be visible 
when the bird is six months old^ and contímtes 
growing until it attains the age of ten years^ the usual 
period of its life, at which time it reaches to the 
middle of the breast, and its age may be very acctf ^ 
rately ascertained by the length of its beard. The 
female is entirely grey, witíi a few yellow spots t^n 
the wings; it has no beard, nor any song, but onljr 
a kind of occasional whistle ; the note of the male is» 
however J very tiarmonmu^y and &r surpasses that of 
the canary-bird ; i^t^ien it begins to sing, it elevates 
its voice by little and little, continues its strain for a 
considerable time, and closes with some \^ry sweet 
trills ; it sings all the year, and is readily taught ta 
imitate with remaikable grace the notes of other 
birds. In the maritime mountains the m may be 
m^ with at any season, but it is found in üie fkkm 
of the middle provinces only during the winter, as ik 
qi^ them in the qpringfbr the Andes^ where it 
bree<jb. It makes its nest upon ai^ kind<^tree tátk 
small straws and feaâiers; it has but two young at i^ 
broody but I am inclined to believe that it breeds sfnr&- 
ral times in a season. This bird multiplies astonish*, 
ingly, and may be seen every where; and although 
<he peasants, who eat as well lis encage them^ take 
thousands every year, their numbers vre not at all di- 
mküdied ; it becomes after a Utde time very familiar^ 
and even attached to those whom it is accustomed 


>a'86e; it feeds tai' snetú kinds of 9e€â$i but ita 
fiüvourite food is ûm f^ain of the madia sativa, an4 
the aromsvtic Iraves of tl^ scswdix C^h^ensis* 

The i/ffic(i(fri]igilla diuca) î^ of the sajoe genus 
as the preeeding, tot < a little, larger, and of a blue 
eoioQr; its note isirery agreeable particularly towards 
áay-break; it keeps about houses like the sps^row»^ 
whidi it resemU^s in many respects, and I think it 
highly probable that it is the same bird with the blue 
af>arrow of Congo, mentioned by MeroUa and Ca« 
vazzi^ and the New ^^lealand bird of Captaiu Cpok» 
which sung so harmoniously at sunrise» 
; Hie ttíli^ or Chili (turdus thiUus) is a species of 
tiinish which, as I have already observed, appears 
tóhave giv^ its name to the country where it is 
ioundin great numba*a. Lkm^us, has described 
£rom Feufllé the female of this bird under the name 
c£ tardus pbimieus. The female is indeed of a grey 
odour, but the male is entirely black except a yeU 
low spat which it has under the wings ^ it» has the 
shape of a thrush^ butthe tail is umfarm<; it makes 
its nest upon trees near the river with wet mud, in 
which it lays four eggs; its song is very sweet and 
knid, but it wUl nott bear confinement; it is never 
cAten^ as its flesh has a rank and disagreeable smell. 
The tfiMca (turdus thenca) in my opinion is mere- 
ly a varfcty of the Virginian thrush (turdus ix)ly. 
glottus) (H- (^ the turdus Orpheus, or centzpntlatotle 
of Mexico, called the four hundred tongues, from 
the variety of its notts ; it is x)f the size of the com- 
mon thrush, but ita wings and its tail, which is entire 
and rounded, are longer; its eyes, bill and feet are 


brown; ûk u})per part of its body is of an ash^ 
colour, spotted with brown and white ; tlie ends of 
the quills and die tall^fea^rs are white, and the 
breast ^d belly of a light grey ; it builds its nest 
ttpon trees; this isa foot in lengthy of a cylindrical 
form, lined within with wool and feathers, and com- 
pletely guarded upon the outside with th(»*na, ex- 
cept a smail opening, by which the female enters and 
deposits her eggs, which are four or five, and are 
white speckled with brown* 

It is not in the power of language to convey an 
idea of the song of the thenca, which has the sound 
of a great number c^|>irds whote notes are in accord; 
it also posses^s the property of imitating the liote 
erf any other bird, and its strain is generally much^ 
louder and more harmonious than that jof the n%ht^ 
ingale ; it is a gay and active bhcd, always in motion, 
and even while singing continues hopping from one/ 
bough to anolhen For this reason it will not boar* 
confinement, and if shut up in a cage soon dies. It 
is usually to be met with near country-houses,, and, 
feeds upon almost any thing, but appears to have a 
decided preference for flics and tallow. 

The cureu (turdus cureüs) aj^ears to be of a spe-. 
cies between the thrush and the black-bird? to the- 
latter of which it has son^e resemblance, and is of the 
same size. The bill is a litde angular and bent towards ' 
the point, the nostrils are covered with a thin mem- 
brane, and the comers of the mouth furnished with 
hairs ; the feet and position of the toes are like those 
oftheblackbird, and itstail is cuneiform ándaboütfive 
inches long : the whole plumage is of a glossy black, 



of this colour are also the eyes, bill, feet, aiKleven 
the flesh and bones. 

] This bird is highly prized for the melody and 
compass of its note; it imitates very well the song 
of other birds, and when in a cage is easily taught to 
speak ; it feeds upon seeds, worms and fle^, and 
frequently pursues and kills small birds, the brains 
of which it eats. Notwithstanding this ravenous 
propensity it is easily tamed, anda few days are suf- 
ficient to reconcile it to confinement. 
' The cureu, Hke the starling, is a social bird, and 
is daily to be seen in large flocks feeding in the mea- 
dows, which, when at evening they reti^^e to their 
roosts, make the air resound with their sjn'ightly 
notes. They build their nests, with much skill, of 
small twigs interwove with rushes, and cemented 
with clay, which they bring in their bills and claws. 
When the nest is fonned, the female smooths it upon 
Úié outside with her tail, which serves as a trowel,, 
and lines it within widi hair, upon which she lays 
three white eggs of a blueish cast. 

The loyca (stumu3 loyca) is larger than the star- 
ling, which it resemt^es in Its bill, tongue, feet, tail, 
and manner of feeding. The male is of a dark grey^ 
spotted with white, except the throat, which is scar- 
let; the female is of a Ughtcr ,^y, an^ the red on 
the throat is paler ; it builds its nest, in a careless 
n^mner, in any hole which i{ finds in the ground, 
and lays but durée girey eggs marked with brown* 
This bird is also vakied fc^ its singing, and is easily 
tamed. In ks state dtfre^^dom, the nude, accompa- 
nied by the female, rises perpotdlcula^ly in th|^ air, 


èonstafrdy sîrtging, and descends in the same nteftl 
nen The Indiana entertain >^súmt Mperstiticta^ 
¿pÎTjiôns respecting the sîn^ng of this bkd, and they 
employ the feattcrs of its breast td omaMient titei^ 
head-dresses. . . - 

The rtírf¿r(phytótottia n^á, gen, nov,) &i^ttt tfié 
' íizc of a quûH, and appears to be the only spetdéft t)f 
hs genus, the passéres of Lmttseus. Its bill is tMckv 
conical, strait-pohited, serrated dEt tííc edgeá, and half 
an inch long, the tongue short and bhirnt, the J>úpí 
Of the eye brown, the tall of a middle lengtfi tod 
rounded, and upon each fo(^ it has four l^s, ^3!ltét 
before, and one behfeid, rather shorter; ks gcfteftd 
colour is grey, dark upon the back, and Hg^r upôii 
the belly ; die prime feadiers of the ivings and fl» 
side feathefs of the tall are tipped with Black. R* 
note is harsh and broken, and sûund l&e Utt twb 
syllables that form its name. It feeds upon gfaaoi 
which h has a mischievous propensity of puHittg ttp 
from the roots, and often, tíiítjtrgh meíe xi^tonMs», 
a much greater quantity than it eats* Oti this ac- 
count the husbandmen are at contitiu^ *^ with it, 
aaid the children arc rewarded for destjfoyiftg its eggs;* 
It builds its nest in dark and solitary places updit 
the highest trees, and, by tíiis iheans, escapes, in ir 
great measure, tiie pursuits of its enemies ; but iti 
numbers have^ however, become consâderabîy di- 
minished, either from this catíse, oNrom the specieir 
being naturally unprolific* 

There are three different kíndá of the partrot in 
Chiii, one of which is constantly to be found in the 
cotmtry, bulthe others are birds of passage. The 


firai^pecies, caUed tbtcm (psittacus cywjaywos) W 
^ Uttle^ larger than a common pi^on^ and i$ decorat- 
ed witk a wpevb blue coUar j the head» wing;^ and 
tail are green spotted with yellow ; but the bac]^» 
thro^ and belly are yellow ; the tail is of a middle 
kfigtíi and e9[md. These bkds afe very numerous^ 
und very destructive to th^ cpifn i they fly in large 
4ock$, and whenever they light npoa a field to fted^ 
one of their number is stationed upon a tree as a 
Q^ntincl» who advertios his compaivi<ws by frecjUient 
criea of the approach of daiUger, Tbiss renders jJhem 
difficult to be approached, and the only means of 
obtaining a number of them ^ a ^ot is by throwing 
a bat in the air, which they fly at with inqrçdiblè 
csageraess. They make their nesAs among the stet p- 
<wt declivitiea, in which they scog^i deep íwd wii\d- 
ing hotea, and lay two white eggs of the si^se pf a. 
pigeon's». Although theix* nests appear to be in^c- 
cessiblct the peasants take great number^ pf their 
young. In otàfx ta do this, th|y let themselve;^ 
down by a rope to. th/e ntouth of the bples^ and draw 
the young parrots out with a kind of hook made for 
the purpose. These are a cheap and excellent food) 
I have seen eight of them sold for the smallest coi^ 
of the country^ about threesous. When the first 
brood Í3 tafceai away, th^ hatch a second} sometunea 
a third, and even a fourth; ta this wonderful feçim- 
dity i^ owing the great numbers pf these birds,,wh¡ch. 
frequently destroy tíie crops- They are easU^ tamed^ 
and readi^ taught to spesJc* 

Thqse.which are mlgp^ory are the choroi and tb& 
jjigngnuu I calj^tbenvQ)¿gr^tpvy^&oía>t^eiriji^^^ 


ing the Andes ift summer, and not appearing in Chili 
until the winter. Botii these species are of the size 
6f à turtle-dove, and belong to the ñimily of parro- 

The upper part of the body of the choroi (psit* 
tacus choraeus) is of a beaútiñil green, thebcBjris 
Of an ash colour, and the tait well proportioned. This 
bird is taught to ^ak much better than either of 
thé others. 

The jaguilma (psittacus jaguUma) is entirely 
green, excepting the edges of the wings, which are 
brown. The tail is very long and pointed. This 
species appears to be the most proKfic. In tíie plams 
situated between the S4th and 45th degrees of lati- 
tude, it is frequently seen in tsuch numerous docks as 
almost to surpass belief. ' When they quit a field 
where they have been feeding, in order to fell upon 
another, they frequently obscure the sim, and their 
chattering, which is very unpleasant, is heard at a 
great distance. Fortunately, this destructive race 
does not arrive till after the harvest, and departs be- 
fóre the trees begin to put forth, otherwise they 
would lay waste the whole country. It is^ incredible 
what havoc they make while they stay, as they de- 
voùr not only the topsof the plants, but çven the roots. 
An incoriceiveable quantity bf them is killed in the 
fields, but so far from diminishing their numbers, oa 
the coi>tniry, fliey appear to be increased at every re- 
turn. Whenever âiese birds alight upon a field, the 
husbandmen furnish themselves with long poles, and, 
mounted on swift horses, fall upon tíiem unexpect- 
edfy, andas they are táways in large flocks, and keep 


very <:lose together, fliey cannot fly off so quickly 
but that great numbers of tficm are generally left 
dead on the ground The flesh is delicious, and 
preferable to that of any other species of tíie parrot. 

In almost all parts of America is found a species of 
water hen, with armed wings, especially at Brasil, 
where it iÉ called the jacana. That of Chili, called 
the th^hel (parra Chilensis) is of the size of a pic, 
but its legs are longer ; its head is black, ornament. 
ed with a small crest, the neck, back and upper part 
of the wings are purple, the throait and upper part of 
the breast black, and the belly is white. The quills o( 
the wings and Üie tail are shmt and of a deep brown ; ' 
on the foï^head it has a red fleshy excresûence, di- 
vîded into two lobes ; the iris of the eyes are yellow, 
and the' pujiU brown ; the bill is conical, a little bent 
towards the point, and about two inches long ; the 
nostrils are oUong and very open, and the legs, 
which are bare of feathers below the knees, have 
four lohg toes that are separate, but more propor- 
tionate to its size than those of the Brasil species. 
The spur, which is placed on the joint of the wing» 
is six lines long and three broad, and is of a yellow- 
ish colour and conical form. 

A bird as well armed as this cannot want for 
mean^ of defence in case of necessity, and it of course 
fights with great courage ma vigour every thing 
that attempts to molest it. It is never seen in de- 
viated places, and never perches upon trees, but Kves 
whoHy in tibie plains, and feeds upcm insects and 
worms. It btlilds its nest in Úie grass, where it lajni 
four fawtt-cdoured eggs, spotted mth Mack» a U^ 


htg» úidík diGise «f a partridge. It keeps in ppt^ 
j^nd thiç ma^ and feoaale are almost always togethfer^ 
^i^it is veiy rarely to be seen ini^ocka. When they 
pcrc^iy^ any oae searching for their n^$t» thc|^ at 
4sst<coQee9J thüm&elves in the grass^ without dis- 
Ç<}V^rilig ^ny apprehension, but as âoc»i à^ey see 
^ person approaching the 9po% where the nest is^ 
jfUec^y they rx^ put with fuiy to defendí it^ It i| 
observed that this bird never makes the least noi^e 
^jnàiog the day, and that it cries at ni^xtQnlji whm 
^ Im^ 9omc cme p^asiog^ For this, reaawv ^ 
^rwcaniins,' when at ^^ht^ are j^ustproed to ijratcK 
tji.e cipy of^ this bird, which serves thenii as. a c/entiti^ 
tQ infown tibtón of the apjwfoach of an^ fnjÇj»|r,, Thcjf 
iy^# formerly acci^stomed in ChUi to. hjunt thfgfe 
l?ir4* witji the falcon, b«M; this mode has. feeçnlwg^ 
out of use, imd thçy are at present shot with fowling; 
pieces. Itris good |pmc^ awl ia no r^^fict infcrjiiW^ 
U^ the woodcock. 

Th^fii4qum (otis Cbilen^is;^ is ^^pt^cies^çf hn*r 
tard lar jpf than that of Ejuropç. It is ^^m>^ çntifç- 
ly wiWte, excepting ite head and the ujpçiex ^«rt of iüf 
wingp^ which aie grey, and Hm fif s4 qnills^ wWch are 
black. Its tail is short, aa$l cosi^sicd of ei^bj^e^ 
white feajthf cs.» It ha$i n^excçe^ence either b^neíith 
the thiwrt, or i^pontbe bill,, which re^embtes that of 
the OQmmo^ bmstard- Its feet aire, divided ^tp thr^^ 
toeifc heííw, wd ^ fowtii, mtl^r more elçvated^ b^;» 
Ivn4^ it in^hijt&the pbins» where it i% ^Impsft al- 
ways foniju) in ftocksj. it'feed^^ upQn fgf^^^ ma do^ 
lyyt bc^ tQ, breipd ipfii two years old ; H la;g^ sif 
^wÍMí» ^îSB^ brfsç tlrn^ ttoos^ oí the geofsic, Í9^?«ily 


tatrted, atrà ttiaüy of the country people hav'eilomesi 
ticátedit. ' 

Tte cftenqaej or Atnerican ostrich (átrúthío rea) 
is princîpaiiy ifouhd in tiite environs of thé celebrated 
lake ^t Nahüiáguapí, in the valleys of the Andes. 
In height it is neariy equal to a man ; its neck is tW6 
feet tight itiches long, and its tegs of the $àm6 
îèiigth, its head sinall and round, and covered with 
feathers*; îtstyes and eydiids are Wack, and fur: 
ftished tirith eytbi-ows ; its bill is short attd broad 
like that of the dtick, and the feet have three toe* 
entirdly separate before, and the vestige of a fourth 
behind ; its tail is ccmiposed of several short ffeathm 
tíf an equal length, which grow xmt of the rump. Its 
#ittgS aré eight feet in length from their extremities, 
bût tíoi calculated fot- fiight, owing to the great flexi-' 
bflity and Weakness of the feathers. The plumage of 
the batk and wings is of à dark grey, but that of 
úíü other parts of the btdy is white. Among these 
bifds aie found some that are entirely white, and 
others that are black, but Î considei- them merely as 

The cheuqufe hafe not, like the African ostrich, a 
hof ny Substance upon its wings, nor callosities on 
pit sternum, but it is quite as A'oracious, and swal- 
loVà whatever is oflfered it, even iron. Its favourite 
food is lileSj which it catches with much dexterity. 
It has tío defence but its feet, which it employs 
ítgaiñst those who molest it. Its whistle, when it 
calls its yoUhg, resembles that of a man. It lays 
from forty to sixt}^ eggs in a careless manner upon 
the gteund ; they are well tasted, and so lai^e that 



they wilT contain about two pounds of liquor. The 
feathers are employed for many purposes ; the In- 
dians make of them, plumes, parasols. Sec. 
Pauw, who frequently loses sight of the title of hb 
wwk, represents the cheuque as a degenerate species 
of the African ostrich, because it has three toes in- 
stead of two ; but were these birds of the same 
species, which is far from being the case, I am of 
opinion that the term degenerate would be more ap- 
plicable to the African ostrich, as being less perfect 
in its limbs, than to that of America. 

The pequen (strix cunicularia) a species of the 
owl, is remarkable for the large burrows which it 
digs in the ground to deposit its eggs. Feuille 
asserts that he himself had endeavoured to dig 
to the end of one of them, but was obliged to 
relinqubh the attempt, This bird is of the size of 
a pigeon, but its bedt is very strong and crooked, it 
has large nostrils, and large eyes with a yellow iris ; 
the upper part of its body is grey, spotted with white, 
the lower part of a dirty white ; the tail, which 
scarcely extends beyond the quills of the wings, is 
of the same colour ; its thighs are covered with fea- 
thers, and the feet with tubercles, upon which arc 
some short hairs ; the toes are strong, and armed 
with black crooked talons. It is not so averse to 
light as otiiers of its species, and is frequently seen 
by day in company with the female, near the mouth 
of its hole. Its principal food is insects and reptiles, 
the remains of which are. often found in small frag- 
ments before its hole. Its cry is lugubrious and 
broken, and imitative of its name. The eggs arc 


usus^y foavy and arc whitip spotted wîth. yellow. The . 
Abbé Fèuaié praises the fleshiof this bird, but I ne- 
ver xîowld learn that it was eatep byjthe inhabitants. 

The tharu (falco tharus) is a species of eagle very 
cotnmQn in Chili, of tl^ size of a capon. The male is 
whitish, marked with black spots, and ha§ upon its 
head a kind of crown formed of biack feathers, longer 
* at the sides than the middle* Its back is whitish like 
that of the common eagle ; the fçet are yellow, mid 
covo^ with scales, and the toes armed with crookçd 
talons i the great feathers of ¿the wings and the tail 
are black. The female is less than the male, iis of a 
grey colow, and has a black comb upon her head. 
This bird builds its nest upcm the loftiest trees, with 
sticks placed in the manner of a square grate, upon 
which it hep|)S a considerable quantity of wool, tow 
and feathers. It lays five white eggs, speckled with 
brown, and feeds upon several kinds of animals, 
and even upNcm carcasses, but is never seen openly to 
pursue its prey like others of its spei^ies, but seizes 
it by stratagem. The male walks erect with an air 
of gravity ; his cry is harsh and disagreeable, and 
whenever he utters it he throws his head back upon 
his rump. 

Tht Jota (vultur jota) resembles much the aura, 
a species of vulture, of which there is perhaps but 
<Mie variety. It is distinguished, however, by the 
beak, which is grçy with a black point. All the 
plumage is black, except the quills of the wings, 
which are brown ; its head is destitute of feathers, 
and covered with a wrinkled skin of a reddish colour ; 
the legs are brown. It acquires its colour with age ; 

Vol. I. > C c 


for when it is young it is almost whUe^ aâd does nut 
begin to change until after it has quitted the nest^ 
The first black spot aj^stfs upon the back, and is 
Very small, but extends gradually over the whole 
body. Notwithstanding %ht size of this bird, which 
is nearly that of the tüirkey^, and its stnM3gand crook* 
ed talons, it attacks no irther» but feeds jmncipally 
upon carcasses and reptiles* It is extremely indo* 
lent, and will frequency remain fer a long time id* 
most motionless, with its wings extendi, sunnii]^ 
itself upon the rocks or the roo£i c^ the houses 
When in pain, ^Hiich is the only time that it is 
known to make any noise, it utters a sh«p cry like 
that d[ a rat, and usually disgorges what it ha^ eaten. 
The flesh of this bird emits a fetíd smell tlun is high* 
ly offensive. The manner in which it builds its 
hest is perfectly correspondent to its natural indo» 
fence ; it Carelessly places between rocks^ or evea 
Upon the ground, a few dry leaves út feaídiersi upcsi 
which it lays two eggs of a dirty white. 

The bird universally known in Peru t^y the nsmm 
bf condor (vultur gryphus) is in Chui oaB^ martípse^ 
and is unquestionably the largest that has the power 
of supporting itself in the air. Linnasus makes its 
wings, when extended, sixteen feet from < one ex<» 
tremity txj the other, but the largest that I have seen 
was but fourteen feet and some inches. Its body »l 
much larger than that of the royal eagle, and isea» 
tirely covered with black feàâiers, excepting the 
back, which is white. The neck is encircled with 
a white fringe, composed of projecting feathers about 
an inch in length. The head is covered with short 


and thin hairs, the Hdes of the eyes are of a reddbh 
Iwrown, and the pupils black» Thet>eak is four inchei* 
long, very lai^ge and crooked, Uack at its base, and 
white tavrards the point, Tlie greater quills of tbp 
wings are usually two feet nine inches long, and one 
third of an inch in diameter. The thigh is ten inches 
and two thirds in length, but the leg does not ex- 
ceed six inches ; the foot is furnished with four 
strong toes, the hindmost of which is about two inches 
long, with but one joint, and a black nail an inch in 
length ; the middle toe has three joints, it is nearly 
six inches long, and is terminated by a crooked 
whitish nail of two inches ; the other toes are a little 
çhortçr, and are armed with sdrong and crooked 
talpns. The tail i^ entire, but smsâï in proportion 
to the si^ of the bird* The female is tess than ûm 
male, and of a brownish colour ; she has no fringe 
«bout ÚjíQ neck, but asmall tuft upon the hinder part 
cfk. She builds her nest upon the most st^p and in- 
accessible di&, and lays two white eggs larger than 
those of the turkey^ 

The condors feed either vjpm carcasses, or upfm 
animals which diey kill themselves, md thus siij^ly 
the place of wolves, which are unknown in Chili. 
They frequently attack flocks of sheep or goats, ami 
ey^n calves M^âben^they ai« vcpam^^ frofi the c&ws. 
In the latter case tfacne are always several of ihfm 
together, who iy upon 1^ «alf with tl^ir wingp^x- 
toided, dig out ite eyes, md in t trw mowients tesijK 

Hie hiiiriM»>dmeitmakie use Qfw^rf ^^rm^m t9 
daftroyMdan§erowabind* For thia purpose they 
smietiiiiM mv^opt th»Mcivts, in thr ski» <4m m 


newly flayed, and place themselveà on their backs 
upon the ground ; the condor, deceived by the ap- 
pearance, approaches the supposed dead animal to 
devour it, when the person within, whose hands arc 
protected by strong ^oves, dexterously seizes the 
legs of the bird, and holds it until his companions^ 
concealed haitl by, run up to his assistance, and db- 
patch it with clubs. Another mode is ta form a 
small circular enclosure with paliSades, in which is 
placed the carcass of some aninul. The condors, 
who possess ^ great acuteness of sight and âméll, are 
immediately attracted thereby, and, as they are ex- 
tremely voracious, they gorge themselves to sudi a 
degree with food, that not being able readSy to 
rise, and obstructed by the narrowness of Ac 
faiclósure, they are easily killed by those who lie in 
wait for them. The condor, however, possesses 
great strength of wing, and though filled with food, 
if it can once raise itself, or is upon an eminence, it 
will fly with great swiftness, and soon disappears in 
the air. M. de Bomare observes, that there is very 
little difference, except in its colour, between the 
condor and the laemmergeyer of Switzerland ; and I 
àm of opinion that it is only a variety of the saitie 
species. * . ^ 

' Of bats, an animal that holdá a middle station be- 
tween birds and quadrupeds, tfiere «re but two cy- 
cles in Chtti : the house^bat, which is m no respect 
<jtifferent from die Eurc^iean, atul the mountainr-bat, 
which is of the same size and shape, and .distin- 
guishaHe only by its being of an orange colour. 
Neither pf these are vampyresi as are ÚKtse of die 
southern tiMxid zone, but fetd entirely upon insects. 


: Sect. VI. Qucukt^eds.^-'A have already estimat- 
ed the number of- quadrupeds in Chili at thirty-six 
species, without including those that have been im- 
ported. I have even excepted the hog and the dog, 
although I do not consider them as proceeding from 
a £uropean stock, as the proper names which they 
bodi have in the Chilism language distinguish them 
from foreign animals. Even Acosta, who wrote 
shortly after the conquest, does not venture to give a 
decisive opinion respecting the origin of the domestic 
hog of Peru. Tlie hog of Chili, called by the In- 
dians ¿^^oncAt/, is similar in its appearance to that of 
Europe ; it is full as large, and generally white^ in 
which respect it difiers from that of Peru, which is 
always Uack. 

As to the d(^, vidthout pretending that all the 
kinds at futisent found in the country were there be- 
fore tíie arrival of the Spaniards, I have reason to 
believe that the little barbet^ called kilthd^ and the 
comnKHi dog fthegua in Chilian, the breeds of which 
are found in all parts oí AUtierica» as far as Cape Horn, 
were known in Chili before that period. These dogs, 
it is true, bark lik^ Üiose of Europe, but this is not 
a conclusive reason for supposing them to be derived 
irom that race. The general opinion that the Ameri- 
can dog is dumb,' has unqueslkmaUy arisen from 
the circumstance of the first écmquerors faaViog given 
similar names to tho^e anismds of the new world 
which bore some resemblance to those of the old. 
This is confirmed by the learned Abbé Clavigero, 
who, in his history oi Mexico, says that the first 
Spaniards who came to that country gave the name 


of dog to the techieiy^ á dumb áaifrál, résemUifig 
the dog in its appearance, but of a very diff^'eirt 
genus. This external resembbnce has giv^n rise 
eventually to the opinion that the American dc^ 
never bark, and many naturalists, who iacautiou^ 
adopted this error, have been the means of perpetuati» 
ing it to die present day. Another opinion, equdly 
destitute of foundation, is, that the European dogs 
that were left on the island of Juan Fenifu^?, at the 
time it was uninhabited, had k»t their voices, and 
were unable to bark, which I have been wdU ^stoed 
by the present irdiabitants is an utter falsehood* 

The erroneous names given to particular ai^nvds» 
many of whácb are stiB retained, have {»t>ved v^ 
injurious to the natural history of America. Froia 
tíiis source have proceeded those visionary hypo* 
theses of die degeneracy of its quadrupeds, the sup* 
posed Ikde ^mgs, bears and boars of ÛM country» 
conádered^ so many pigmy breeds, aldioiii^ they 
have no odier conneçrion with the pretooded primi- 
tive race than these ill applied names, A very re^ 
qiectal^ modem autbsr mentbns as â proof of this 
d^eoemcy, the ant-eater, caUed 1^ somie authors iN 
ant-bear, and considered as a degeners^e species of 
the bean But this quadruped differs essaitiafif 
frcMn the bear in otfaer respects thfm its size, »d 
ail wcttrnformBcd natunátsts are agreed that Üú^ ani* 
mal bdoags «dther to the gesms nor the ondkr of 
bears; itis of coi]Meridiailoastobring%ivardin 

prioc^mU/ ujKm crabs. 


iâpp^rt of this hyf)othesis, two f^n^Jt sodbtinpt 
as to have nothii^ in common but a mime so impro* 
perly given to one of them. I could adduce a great 
mimber^in^ancesof this kind» were I togothrou^ 
witli Ae Vsuious quiidmpeds of America that have 
been considered as ^cies of the old ciHitinent, al- 
tered by the {^y^cal influence of the new. 

South America possesses but a very few species 
of aninskls that are similar to th(»e of tbe old worlds 
and these Imve preserved their original appearance, 
or rather, as mig^t be expected from the influence 
of so^ mild a climate, have improved it. Of thif 
number, in Chili, are the fox, the hare, the otter, 
ma Üie mouse* The foxes aire of three kinds :' the 
guru, or the common fbx, die chiiiaj or the field fox, 
wd the patfne^ru^ or the blue fox. This last is 
very ccmimon in the' Ar<üiipelago of Chiloé, where 
it is Uack. All these fb^es are of Üie same size as 
the European fox. 

In its form the hare of Chili resembles that of 
Europe, but is superiorato it in size, for it is some- 
times fQund of twen^ pounds we^;)[¥t, a fact con- 
firmed by Comm<xlc»re Byron, whose sailors killed 
several of them upon the coast of Patagonia. These 
hares are found in great numbers in the provioces 
of Coquimbo, Puchaqay, and Huil^ilemu. The 
flesh is perfectly white, and of a much supérieur fla- 
vour to that of the European hare- The otter iu- 
habits the fresh watei:s of the southern provinces, 
and differs in no respect from thatgof Europe. The 
rat has been imp(Hted in foreign vessels, and of the 
mouse there are various species ; the domestic moused 


the ground mouse, tind several others, which I sliall 
more partîôularly describe hareañer. 

In confining the number of quadrupeds in Chili to 
thirty-six species, I have reference only to those .that 
are well kifown ; but I am fiiHy persuaded that there 
is a much greater number, e^cially in the interior 
of the Andes, tíiat are as yet undiscovered or very 
imperfectly kiK)wn. This opinion is ccuifirmed by 
the common traditions of the country; and I have 
been informed of eight new ^cies that have been 
discovered at various times; but as the descriptions 
I have received of them have been very imperfect» 
and the aninials have been seen but by few, I have 
thoujght them not suficiratly characterised to mmt 
a place among those whose economy is well known. ^ 

Such, for instance, fe the ptguekeuy a winged 
quadruped, or spectes of krf^ bat, which, tf its ex- 
istence is real, forms a very important link betweoi 
birds and quadrupeds* This animal is said to be 
of the size and shape of a tame rabbit, and to be 
covered with a fine hair of a cinnamcm colour ; die 
nose sharp, the eyes round and shining, die ears 
almost invisible, the wings membranaceous, the paws 
short and like tíibse of the lizard, the tail round at 
the root, and ending like that of a fish. It inhabits 
holes in trees, which it leaves only at night, ami 
does no injury to any thing but insects, which serve 
it for food; 

Of this kind is likewise the hippc^otamus of the 
rivers and the lakes of Arauco, which is different 
from that of Africa, and in its form and stature re* 
sembles the horse, but the feet are palmated like 


those pf>the seaL . The existence of this animal b 
tmivo-saUy . crediteîd , throughout the country, and 
there are sómt perdus who pretend to have seen 
the^kin, which, they say, is çoyerçd with a very soft 
and sleek hair, resembling in colour that of , the sea? 
wolf. , . . * 

. But leaving .the examination of these animals to 
those who h^ye an oj^œtunity of making farther 
discoveries respecting them, I sáiall proceed to treat 
of tho^ that ^e known, which I shall divide intQ 
thosethsrt; have toes, or are digitated, pnd those 
that are hoofed This division, although imper-^ 
fect^ appears to me to be better adapted than a 
more, technical o^ne, for the arrangement of so smal^ 
a number of species. Those which have toes are 
cither web fo(^d or clavent footed. . The former 
live in the iwter, and feed upcpi fish. Those; whp in-» 
habit the ^are the following : 

The urigne (phoca lupina). This species of phoca,: 
which the French and Sp^ai;ds call the sea- wolf, 
differs but littíe from the i^gmnwn seal ; this.differ-r 
ence principayy consists in its $ize and colour- 1% 
is from threç to six and even eight feet in length y 
and its cçlour is brown, grey, and sometimes whitish, 
bnt all of these are merdy varieties^ of the samie 
species. This animal is large formràf but gradually 
diniinishjes, like a fisb^ tjçwards the hinder feet, wb&ch 
are united within the sa^me skiui ^nd.form the ex^ 
tremity of its body. It is covered with two kiods of 
hair^ one stiff, and the otbçrfoiptJ^e that g^ ^n ox« 
The head is large and rou^, ^d ressembles Ûmt of 
a dogrWith the ears cut off, and;instea4 of thç }at^ 


h has two oblic{uê holes which serré for úit saitoé 
purpose. The eyes are large, globular, and furnish- 
ed with long eyelashes ; the nose is like that of flié 
calf, as is the tongue ; the muzzle is short and bhmt, 
Witfi long whiskers, the lips being of equal size, but 
the upper a litde channelled like that of the lion, 
fhe te^ are thirty-four in number ; ten incisws»' 
four canine, and twenty grinders. The fore feet, or ' 
more properly fins, haVe two very perceptible jmnts, 
tone correspcmding with the shoulder blade, the otíief 
with the elbow ; thé metacarpal bones and the toei 
are cartilaginous, and enclosed in a membraneous 
àfcéath, which performs the office of a fiore paw; 
Each of these feet has four toes, which distinguishes 
Hits fix)m the other species of the phocá. The ex- 
tremity of the body, which is tapered ^most to á 
point, is divided into tui^o very short parts, repre- 
s»ting the hind feet, the joints of wli£3f aiie rtrf 
risible. Tl^se feet are furnished with five fing^^^ 
of ail unequal lengdi, like tl^>se on the hand of á 
mâii, united from die first to the uárá jbitit by li 
rbugh membrane, which completely envelops each 
finger, and even extends bèytmd it. At the junc-^ 
lion of Ûic hmd feet is ntooted the taH, wfaidi is 
about three htehes m length. In both ^xfes úé 
generative parts are placed at the lower part of tl^e 
béHy.' They usuaHy copulate the fcttef part bf tó- 
tuÀn, and the fbtialè brings forth her youtig* m( tfaéf 
spring; of which j^e has generaUy twù; sdttóítmies 
thrte át a birth, ¿he b iffistâignlUhed ùotti^c maíe 
ib^ á Imiger necí:, añS a i^bre deficale áñd bteutíftrt 


ever it is woundedi floirs £rom it in great ^pianttt^^ 
^ke ma^ ptiier aquatvç animals, ithasbçne^th thç 
skin a covering oí soft hi ; this is five inches i|i 
thickne$S| and easily reducible to oil. Notwitlu 
standing the inconvenient conformatioi^ of their feet 
for that puiposc, they readily climb up the PKks^ 
on which they are fond of deeping, though they 
walk very badly, ot rather draw themselves, wl^ii 
on shore, from one place to another* It wcmld, how- 
ever, be very imprucfent to approach them careless- 
ly, for although so heavy and clum^sy in appearance^ 
their necks have great flexibility, and they are capa* 
ble of inflicting severe wounds with their l<mg teeth» 
These phpcae swim with great swiftness, and make; 
^se principally of their hind feet, which they extend 
i^ a strait line, so as at a distance to resemble the 
tail of a fish. They cannot remain long ux^ler wgteii^ 
and frequently raise their heads tobrea^, ortp watch 
the approach of penguins and other aquatic bir^, 
of which they make their prey. The cry of tibe old 
t|rignes4^sembles the roaring of a bull or the ^¡nmt» 
kigofahog, while that of tbeyoui^ is more like the 
l)leatmg of a sheep* T^^ ^^ common uppn aQ 
the coast of Chili, and in the islands ; where, cv&f 
year, the inhabitants k^ a vast number of thenx widi 
clubs, a slight blow across the nose, which is their, 
most tender part, being sufficient to dispatcJh thcan. 
Hie skin is employed fo^ vanouapwposes, particur , 
larly for m^is^ a kind of float, ytíáfíh is tised itt , 
fishing aod bi paasiiig rivers. This coi^^ts of tw^t 
large b^Upf^^ irçm eight to mm leet m loogthi . 


ixïé inflfttod with air ; upon these are pkced several 
pieces of wood laid transversely, which wül cbntain 
6ñe or more persons. When tlie skin is welltiress- 
ed it resembles coarse-grained morocco Jeather, but 
is superior to it in point of consistency and durabili- 
ty ; shoes and boots are also made of it ttûit are iith* 
penetrable to water. The oil which is obtained ñdaí 
the fat forms a considerable article of commerce 
with the inhabitants of Chiloé. It is used for dressa* 
ing leather, and, when clarified, for burning, and is 
preferred to that i>f the whale, as it keeps better, and 
retains its clearness for a longer time. The Piloris 
make use of it for flying their fish, and the taste is 
not unpleasant when it is fresh. In the stohiach of thiis 
ailimal is frequently found stones of several pounds 
weight, which it probably swallows to triturate i& 
food, and accelerate the process <rf digestion. - 

The sea-hog (phoca porcina) resenibles the uri^ae 
in its shape, hair, and manner of living, but. differs 
ftoni it in the conformation of its mouth, which is 
longer, and resembles the snout of a hog. Its ears 
are likewise more raised, and the fore feet divided 
into five very distinct toes, covered with á mem- 
brane. This phoca, which is from three to fbui^ 
fcet in length, is but rarely met with on the coast 
rif Chili. 

' The&Twe, sea-elephant, or elephantine seal (phoca 
elephantica) is similar in form to the preceding, but 
dSistihguished fix)m it by very striking characteristics, 
ft' is of a very g^at size, being frequently fifteen 
féet îri circumference around the In^ast^ and twctúf^ 
two feet in length» Upon its nose is a coqab, w 


glandular trunk) extending from the forehead bç- 
yond the upper lip, and serving as a species of de- 
fensive armour against blows, which upon that part 
are almost always fatal. The tu$ks of the lower javr 
project at least four inches from it, and this singu- 
larity, together with the trunk, give it some faint 
resemblance to the elephant.* The feet are divided 
into five tfaes, half covered with a coriaceous mem- 
i>rane indented upon the sides, each furnished with 
a strong crooked nail. The ears, at first sight, ap-' 
pear to be truncated, but, on nearer view, are found 
to be nearly half an inch long, and in shape like those 
of a dog. The skin is thicker than that of the urigne, 
and covered with short, thick and soft hair, the colour 
^wfaich is various, being a mixture of dun, yellow, 
grey, and dirty white. The female is of a less size, 
and not so fat as the male, and has but á slight ap* 
pearance of a trunk upon the nose. 

Lord Anson has improperiy called this animal the 
sea-lion; and Linnaeus, from his authority, haá de- 
nominated it phoca leonina, an appellation much 
more appropriate to another animal of the same ge- 
nus, but of a very different species. The lames arc ' 
found in the greatest numbers 6n the island of Juan 
Fernandez, the Araucanian coast, thé Atchîpelago 
of Chiloé, and the Straits of Magellan. They herd 
together in large companies, and during the summer 
aï^ almost continually in the sea, but on the com- 
mencement of vnnter they go on shore, where they^ 
bring*forth their young. They copulate, like the 
iirignes, by raising themselves on their hind feet, 
and have the same number of young with them.' 

Whon on fihùrt Ûsty ireqaetit miry {daces, whem 
they wallow and frèqueirtly sleep, placing, as a cen« 
tine!, one of their number upon a rising grqind^ 
who gives notice of the approadi of any dang^ by 
frightful bowlings^ 

The sea-elephant b the largest of ti» jhoc^ and 
IKToduces more oil than any of the otl^s ; it is 90 &t 
that, whenever it moves, the oil is seen to undulate 
beneath the skin. The males appear to be verf 
amorous, and frequently fight for ÚK exclusive pos^ 
session of the females, until the death c^ one of them 
terminates the contest ; from this cause the skins of 
so many of them are covered with scars. Whenever 
the males fight, the females retire apart, awaiting 
the issue of a combat which is to place them in pos* 
session of the victor. 

The sea-lion (phoca léonin^) is of a better pro* 
portioned and more elegant form than any other 
species of phoca, though like the rest its shape is eo* 
nical. It b covered with a yellowish hair, which 
from the shoulders to the tau is short, but <m the 
neck and near the head is as long as that of a goat^ 
vA forms a very perceptible mme, tha^ distinguishes 
this from every other kind of phoca« The Indmns 
c^ it thafiei'lamej that b, the lame with a mane, 
ks head resembles that of tl» lion, it has a bu^^ 
flat nose, without hair from the middle to the tip ; 
the cars are almost round, and stand out about two* 
thirds of an inch from the head ; its eyes» the pupiU 
of which are greenish^ are very bright and qHurkling^ 
^md the upper lip is furnished with long white whis« 
kcrs, like those of a tiger. The mouth i« very wide^ 


and h¿s âûrty-four teedi set ideep m the jaw^ which 
arc very large and solid, and as white as ivory ; thtó 
íñiddle teeth are ajbout four inches in length, and an 
inch and a half in diameter ; the incisors do not pro- 
ject from the mouth, like those of the lame, butdieir 
disposition is similar to those of the urigne. In the 
eonf(^m»ticm of die hinder feet it also resembles 
ihvA animal, except that those of the sea-lion are pal- 
tnated. The fore feet are cartilaginous, very short 
In pn^xntion to its sise, sart divided into five toes» 
icrmlMted by nails, and united by a membrane, 
in tte manner of those of the elephantine seal. The 
tail is about nine inches long, and is round and 

The female Is much smaller than the male, and 
fcas no mane ; it hais; two teats, and produces but 
one young at a birth, towards which it discovers 
great atfecticm. The Abbé Pemetty, in the account 
of his v<^ge to the Malouine iskuids, menticms his 
havingseen sea-lions of twenty-two feet in length, 
but the lai^gesl that I have seen in Chilr did not ex^ 
ceed Airteeñ or fourteen feet. These animals are 
very fat, and no less sanguineous tl^n the urigi^. 
When wounded, they immediately throw themselves 
bto the sea, and leave a long track of blood behind 
^em, wliich serves as a guidé for the lames and 
urignes, who in this state , of Weakness attack and 
easily overcome and devour them. This disposition, 
towever, is BOt reciprocal, as thé sea-lion never at-^ 
tempts to harm any of the other phocse, even when 
they are unable to protect themselves^ 

I have been informed by the ^sbormen that úfitf 
have occasionally seen in tl^se seas various other 
l^inds of phocsy which may be sin^ilar to those found 
in the North Sea, described by Steller, and very pro- 
bably some that are entirely unknown to naturalists^ 
for I am of opinion that this genus is more abundant 
in species than is generally imagined. - y 

The chinchimen (mustela felina) called by the Spa- 
niards the sea-cat, is about twenty inches in length 
from the muzzle to the root of the tail. It has a 
strong resemblance to a cat in its head^ ears and eyes, 
^nd in the shape and length of its tail. The npse 
is furnished with whiskers, ^nd it has thirty-two 
teeth : twelve incisors which are strait and sharp 
pointed, four canine teeth, and sixteen grinders. 
Each foothasfivepalmated toes, terminated by strong^ 
crookednails. The skin, like thatof the otter, iscover- 
ed with two kinds of hair, of a light grey colour, one 
very short and soft, the other longer and harsh. This 
animal lives almost altogether in the sea, but is only 
seen in pairs, and never in companies. In pleasant 
weather it is fond of basking in the sun, and is fre- 
quently taken in snares upon the rocks, whither at, 
such times it is accustomed to resort. The chinchi- 
men has a hoarse cry like the tiger, it is as ferocious 
as the wild-cat, and like that animal springs at an/. 
one that approaches it. ^ 

Besides the otter, of which I have already spoken^ 
the fresh waters of Chili are inhabited by Xhtguillino 
and the coypu. . 

The guillino (castor Huidobrius) which I have 
thus named in memory of a deceased friend of great. 

201 V 

Ikerary attaînméîïts, Don Ignacîus Huidobrio, Mar- 
quis of Casa Rèak, is a species of beaver, in high 
ei^imation for Ôie fineness of its fur. Its length, 
from the end of the nose to the insertion of thé tali, 
is about three feet, and its height two. The colour 
of the hair is grey, dark upon the back, and whitish 
on tííe belly ; of this, like the northern beaver, it has 
two kinds, the one short and fine and softer than that 
of a rabbit, the other long and coarse and easily de- 
tached from the skin- The short fur readily takes 
any colour, and I have seen cloth manufactured frotn 
it dyed black and blue, which had all the beauty of 
velvet; it is also used for making hats, that are 
noway inferior to the real beaver. The head of 
this animal is almost square, the ears are short and 
round, and Úie eyes smaH, the nose is blunt, and the 
mouth< is furnished with two very sharp incisors in 
each jaw, and with sixteen grinders ; on each foot it 
has five toes, those before are edged wkh a narrow 
membrane, and the hinder ones are palmated ; its 
back is very broad, and the tail long, flat, andtíover- 
cd' i>eith hair. The guillino produces no substance 
analogous to the castor ; it inhabits the rivers and 
the deepest lakes, and can remain a Ipngtime under 
water without respiring. It feeds upon fish and 
crabs^ and is usually surprised and killed by tlie 
hunters when it goes to void its excrements, whi6h 
it regularly does every day, like a cat, in the same 
place. It is a voraéious animal, and so fearless that 
it frequently rdbs the nets and baskets of fish in the 
presence of the fishermen. The female ha3 two or 

Vot.î. Ee 

Î02 * 

three young at a litter, and the period of gestation, 
if I am not misinibrmed, is about five months. 

Tlie coypu (mus coypu) is a species of water rat, 
pf the size of the otter, which it resetobles iaits hair 
and external appearance. It has round eais, and a 
long nose covered with whiskers ; the feet arc diort, 
the tail large and of a moderate length well covered 
Trfth hair, and in each jaw are two very sharp incisors* 
The feet have each five toes, those- of the fore feet 
are uncomiected by a membrane, but those of, the 
hind are palmated. Though the conforma^n of 
this animal evinces that it is intended as an inhabits^ 
of the water, it nevertheless lives very well upcm tiio 
land, and even in houses, where it b ea»!^ tained» 
and »3on becomes reconciled to a domestic state* 
It eats any thitíg that is given it, and appears to be 
susceptible of much attachment to the person who 
feeds it. Its cry is a sharp shriek, but it nev» itf • 
ters it except wheti hurt. With a little patience and 
care, it might be rendered still more useful than the 
otter for the purpose of taking fi^. The female 
has five or six young at a birth, by whom she is al- 
ways accompanied. 

Of tíie cloven footed terres^ial quadrupeds of 
Chili, some are gramenivorpus, or such as feed uppo^ 
vegetables, and others carnivorous ; of the latter are 
the cíúnghu€y xhtct^a, Ui^.^uifiiiyihcp^ct^mt^ A» 
culpeu^ the guigna^ the colocóla^ ^^dtí^pagi. 

The chinghue (viverra chinga) is oí the size, of a 
cat ; its colour is Uack inclining to blae, exoq;>t 
upon the back, which is nxsu^ked with a broad sftripe, 
composed of round white spots, extending from the 

fca'ehead to tíie taH» The head is long, the ears aré 
broad and well 43óv€r0d with hair^ the eyes large with 
black pu|Hh, tiie nose is sharp, the upper lip extend- 
ed beyond the lower, and the mouth, which is deeply 
cleft^f ^contains twelve incisorial teeth, four sharp 
canine, and sixteen grinders. The hind feet arc 
longer Ûmn the fore, and on each foot are five toes 
sffmed with naib, which serve the animal to dig deep 
bïirrowsin the ^arth, where it secures its^ young. 
It 9bmys carries its head down, and the tail, which 
is covered widi long hair, turned over upon its back 
like the squin^l. 

The urine of the chinghue is not, as is generally 
supposed, ü^id, but the odour, so disgusting to every 
0&er animal, proceeds from a greenish oil contained 
in a ve^de placed, as in the pole-cat, near the anus. 
When the animal is attacked^ it elevates its posteriors 
and scatters this loathsome liquid upon its assailant. 
Nothing can equal the offensiveness of its smell ; it 
paietr^es every where, and may be perceived al a 
great dis^mce. Garments' that are infected with it 
cannot be wwn for a l«ag time, and not until repeat- 
ed washings ; and the dogs, after having been en- 
gaged with the chinghue^ run to die water, rpU them- 
selves in the mud, howl as if they were mad^ and 
will eat nothing as long as the smell contiiiues about 

The cimghuey when attacked, nçver makes use 
of its t»th or claws, but relies entirely upon this 
singular mode of defence. It appears tp be attached 
to ^ society of men, and approaches them wiüiout 
ikuc least apprehension, boldly enters the country 

204 ^ 

l^uaes to search for egg^ aad passes. iemlcsAy 
through the midst of ^ dogs, vfho imtead of at*- 
tacking him generally fly at his approach. The hw- 
bandmen themselves are averse to shooting this ani- 
mal on such occasions, lest, ^ould they fiiil of Jkilling 
it outright, they should he annoyed by its nairaeous 
stench. In order to free tl^msehres from this iHt- 
welcome visiten*, they have recourse to anoth^ 
method, which is attended with less risque. ScMoe 
of the company begin by caressing it, until an op- 
portunity offers for one of them to seize it by the 
tail and hdd it suspended. In this position the 
muscles becoming contracted, the animal is unable 
to eject the fluid, and is dispatched with si^ty. 
The cAinguCy however, never has recourse to thk 
mode of annoyance against those of its own ^»eeiesy 
but employs in fighting with them its teeth and claws* 
It preys upon eg^^ and poultry, which it is .very 
dexterous in taking. Its skin is closdy covered 
with very soft long hair, and retains nothing of that 
ofiensive smell which might naturally be supposed. 
The Indians, when they can obtain a sufficient imnu 
ber of these skins, make of them coverings far their 
beds, which they value highly fyr their beauty and 
the softness of the hair. 

The cuja (mustela cuja) is a small animal resem- 
bling a ferret in its size, form and teeth, and also in 
the disposition of its toes, and its manner of living. 
The eyes are black, and the nose a little turned up 
at the end like a hog's ; its hair is black, thick, imd 
extremely soft, and the tail, which is of the length 
of its body, is closely covered with it. Its principal 


food is mice, wfôch it is in constmit pursuit of. The 
femde breeds twice a year, aiid has four or five 
young at a birth. 

The qnijui (mustela quiqui) is a ^ecies of weasel 
of a brown colour, thirteen inches long from the 
noBe ta tbe tail. The head is flat, the ears short and 
round, the eyes small and sunken, the nose cunei- 
£9rm, the nostrils compressed, with a white spot be* 
tween them, the mouüi broad like that of a toad, 
aoid Üie' legs mid tail short. It has twelve incisors, 
tile same number of grinders, and four canine teeth, 
and the tongue is very slender and smooth. The 
paws résemble those of the lizard, and have five toes 
armed with very crooked nails. It is naturally fe- 
rocious, and so very irascible, that the inhabitants 
give the name of quiqui to those persons who are 
ei^y irritated. It lives under ground, and feeds 
upon mice and moles like the cuja ; the female breeds 
several times in a year, and always produces the 
same number at a birth. 

The^ porcupine (histrix Chilensis) is found in the 
northon Andes of Chili. The inlmbitants kill them 
for the sake of their skins. I have never seen this 
animal, but from the description which I have had of 
it, it diilèrs litde or nothing from the histrix ¡tensile, 
or coandu of Brasil. 

The caipeu (canis culpasus) is a wild d<^, or ra- 
dier a species of large fox, diíFering but little from 
the common fox, except in its size and its colour, 
which is a dark brown, and in having a long strait 
tail covered with short hsar like that of the common 
dog. From the point of the nose to the root of the 

^ Í206 

tail it is two and a half feet in length, an4 its height 
is about twenty-two inches. The shape of its ears, 
the position of its eyes, its teeth, and the dispositioa 
of its toes, are precisely like those of the fox ; like 
that animal it also burrows in the fields. Its Cry is 
feeble, and resembles the barking erf a Kttle dog ; 
and it preys upon small aniinals. Whenever the 
eûlpeu perceives a man, it comes strait towards him, 
and at the distance of five or six paces stops and 
looks attentively at him. . If the person docs Mt 
move, the animal remains for some minutes in thâ 
situation, and without attempting to do him any in** 
jury retires. This singular curiosity of the culpeu 
is so well known to the inhabitants, that no one is 
afraid of it, and I have myself several times met 
with it in the woods, when it has uniform^ acted in 
the same manner. The name appears to be derived 
from the Chilian word cutpem^ which signifies naad- 
ness or fofly, and is strikingly applicable to the con- 
' duct of this animal, which constantly exposes it to 
be shot by the hunters, and is probably the reason 
why it is less common in Chili than the fox, though 
it is equally prdific. It is mentioned by Commodore 
Byron, who saw it iathe Falkland islands, and sup- 
posed it at first sonie ferocious wild beast, from the 
manner of its approaching his men. Although the 
culpeu does not appear to be stronger than the 
fox, it is with much difficulty that a dog can over- 
come it. 

The guigfta (felis guigna) and the colocólo (felia 
colocólo) are two species of wild-cats which inhabit 
the forests. They resemble the domestic cat, but 


have a larger bead an¿ tail. The guigna is of a fawn 
colour, markçd with round black spots about fiv.e 
lines in diameter, extending along the back to the 
end of tíie tail. The colocólo has a white body^ 
marked with irregular black and yellow spots, and 
the tail is encircled with black rings. They prey 
upon mice and bkds, and sometióles are seen near 
country houses, whither they are attracted l^ the 
poultry. I have been informed by some of the in- 
tmbitants that there are several other species of the 
wild* cat, but I have seen only the two described above. 
The pagi (felis puma) called by the Mexicans 
mtzliy and in Peru pumoy the name by which it is 
best known to naturalists, has by the Spaniards been 
denominated the lion, which it resembles in its shape 
and its roaring, but is wholly destitute of a ifiaiie«. 
The hair on the upper part of its body is of a greyish 
ash-cdour, niarked with yellow spots, and is longer 
than that of the tiger^ particularly on the buttocks, 
but that on the belly is of a dusky white. Its length 
from the nose to the root of the tail is about five feet, 
and its hei^t from the bottom of the foot to the 
shoulder twenty-six and a half inches. Itha«around 
head shaped much like that of a cat, the ears are 
short and pointed, the eyes large with yellow irides 
and brown pupils* Its nose is broad and flat, the 
muzzle shorty the upper lip entire and fumi^ed with 
whiskers, the mouth deep, and the tongue large and 
ixMigh. In each jaw it has fcmr incises, four shaip 
flirted canine teeth, and sixteen grinders. Its breast 
it broad, the paws have each five toes armed with 


very strong nâus, atid its taU i&u]^K^!»^s of two feet 
in length and like that of the tigen 

The number of toes on the Irifiáer feet would alone 
be a sufficient chcu^oterislic to distinguish it from 
the real Uon, which ha» but four. The pagi tmj. 
However, be considered as an intermediate qiecies 
between the lion and the tiger. Its cry, althou^ 
not s^loud, differs not materially fvànà, the roaring 
of the Afiican lion, but in the season of its loves be- 
comes (Ranged into a shrill whistle, or rather a fright<- 
ful hiss Uke that of a serpent. The fem^ is rallar 
less than the male, and is of a paler cdfour ; like the 
Afiácan lioness, die has two dugs, and brings forth 
but two young at a time. The seasonof cc^uktion 
is the end of winter, and the pemod of gestatk^n* 
three 1m>nths. 

Such is the lioa of Chili ; it may, perhaps, in 
other parts of An^rica, o&r some shades of dis- 
crimination, as I have been infiarmed that diose of 
Peru have a longer and more pointed mu^e. Tb& 
pa^ inhabits the tíiickest forets and the most inac- 
cesible mountains» from whence it makes incurtsipi» 
into ^e plains to attack domestic aninmls, particu- 
larly horses, whose flesh it pnefers to Ûmt of any^ 
other. In its mode of scáfiing its pr^ it resembles 
the c^t; it approaches it by drawing itself upon its bd*^ 
ly, glides softly through the sharubs and bushes, con¿ 
coals it$elf in the ditches, or, if it shews itsdf, as¿ 
sumes a mild and fawing appearance, and, watc}iing^ 
the favourable opportunity of sizing the anim^' 
which itrhas marked for its victim, at one leap fastens* 
itself upon its bac]^, seizes it with its left paw and 



tp^ tn snoba mümer as to rcanáttr it ÍB^>o»ibIe for 
It to escape while wkh the r^it paw iii a few mi* 
nutes it tears it to pieces. It then aucks the bloody 
devours the iesh of the breast, aod carries the car- 
oiss into the nearest wood, whem it conceals it with 
leaves and bou^^ of tí-ees, in oi^r toci^itat^ 

As it is 4 ccfflfimcm {practice for the hn^bai^teiieii 
to&sten two of their horses together in the fields^ 
whmever tl^ pa^ fii^ them in this skoitfim it kilb 
ofté and drags it awaf , oompelling the other to fol*' 
ïfifw by striking it from ûtac to time with its pan^ 
aad in ^S» manner almost always suceeols in getting 
poss^sic^of botlu^ Its &voiirite hauQtsaretíie 
stücams to whidi animals usually rqiair to driidE, 
whsfc it Conceals itself upop a tree, aûdscaroeljr 
€¥» faâs oi seizipg one oí them. The horses» 
bcmever, have an instinctive dread of ^se plaee% 
and eve» when pressed by thirst s{^oa€di them 
with giMt preeautim, care^ly examinio^ uptm 
every side to discover if tha% is dangçr. At o^er 
times one of the boldest go)ts focw^rdy and on finding 
thf pboe secure, gives noáce to his ce^mpsiüons by 
ndgliing in a sprightly manner. 

The cowsdrfend themselves well i^QSt tif» pagi ; 
as soon a^ he isppears they raii|^ themselves in a 

• The fPol/U êaid occasionally to adofit a similar mode ofée» 
piring tU firey. I Aave been assured by an intel&gent foreigner^ 
than it iê not imfrtguent m FraMceftmthat animaly when thepnt-- 
adnce qf the sh^hkerdj or ony other circumstance^ firevents il 
from killing the sheefi which it has singled out for its victim at its 
ieièure^ to seize it by the wool of the neck^ and comfielit to go OjJT 
with it èf. êtrrkrngit^ with it9 trnkm^^Sgatx* Trans. 

Vol. I. Ff 


circle around their calves, with their boni3 turned 
towards their assailant, await his attack in that posi- 
tion, and not unfrequently destroy him. 

The mares, when there area.number of them, 
place themselves in the same manner, though in an 
inverted order, m-ound their colts, and attempt tore- 
pel their enemy with their heels, but one of them 
almost always becomes a victim to. this proof of ma- 
ternal love. All those animals that have not young 
on the approach of the pagi attempt to save them- 
selves by flight; the ass alone, from, his want of 
$peed, is compelled to defend himself with his heels, 
which frequently proves successful ; but should the 
pagi notwithstanding his efforts leap upon his back, 
he immediately throws himself on the ground and 
endeav( crush him, or runs with all his force 
against the trunks of trees, holding his head down sa 
96 not to dislocate his neck. By these n^ians he 
generally succeeds in freeing himself from his assail- 
ant, and there are but few, asses destroyed by an 
enemy so frequently fatal to much strongei^ animals* 
Notwithstanding his ferocity, the pagi never ven- 
tifres^ to attack a man, alt}K)u^ he is continually 
hunted and persecuted by the latter. : He is patu- 
rally a coward, and a woman or child will make him 
fly and abandon his prey. He is hunted with dog^* 
trained for the purpose, and when hard pressed by 
them, either leaps upon a tree, seeks an asylum upon, 
a rock, or, placing himself against the trunk of some . 
large tree, defends himself in a furious naanner, kill- 
ing many of his enemies, until the hunter, watching 
his opportunity, slips a noose around his neck. . As' 



soon a9 the animal finds himself taken in Ifais manner, 
h^ roars terribly, and sheds a tcMreht of tears. TW 
skin Serves ft^r various uses ; good leather for boots 
oi* shoes is mantifacituredfn^n if, and the hi is con- 
sidered as a specific in the sciatica* * 

Of the cloven footed quadrupeds tiiat fted upon 
vegetables, the mœt remarkable in Chili are the 
gtmnqùcyihc chinchêllaj tíie great wood-náoüse, thé 
tovurj the cuy, and thé visaccia. 

The guan^ue (mus cyanus) is á species of groutíd^ 
mouse, which it resembles in its f(ttin and size, but 
itsi ears 2ùrc rounder and its hair blue. It is a yerjr 
timid animal, atid digs a burrow in form of a gallery 
ten feet long, upon each ¡side of which it excavates 
seven cells of a foot in depth opposite eachothçr. 
These cells serve as a ][4ace of deposit for its winter 
provision, wMch consists of certain grey bulbous 
roots ^f the size of awalnutw S<mie pretend that 
these are a species of truffle, to which they bear 
«ome resemblance in taàte, but I am raüier inclined 
to believe Aem the roitrts of a plant. The manner in 
^which this little animal arranges these roots is really 
admirable. They sixt of an angular form, but in or- . 
der to leave no vacant spaces, it places diem wit b 
sudi skill that the projecting angles dT one root are 
fitted to the hollows of anodien 

In the rainy season, whenthe^^ait^t^^can no longer 
seek its food in the fields, it has recourse to its win- 
ter hoard, and begins with the roots deposited in the 
farthest ceils, as being the oldest, and in this manner 
regularly proceeds from <»ie to the othen Its bur- 
row, is ^ways vefy neat, and it is careful to cany out 


af k all tlic iragntflits of die roots wfách it lut etteti. 
The female breeds twice a y^ar^ m the ^ñAg êiiA in 
die autumn, and has six jroung at a filter. Indie 
Jointer die male and female, widi the young of tl^ 
last breed, inhabit the same buirow, those of the 
first being old ettoaghto provide for themsdlvi^s. 
The provbionsIaB up in tfaeir nngazities are ittore 
Aan sufficient for the subsisteaoex)f diis Ütüeikmilf , 
as every spring a number of die old tooHb are ft»ind 
atdie mouths of their holes, whieh havie been brought 
out to make romii for new. The country peofde are 
very fond of these roots, ^and eagerly sœrch for the 
biUTows, which they plunder and destroy widiout 
r^pfltrd tx) die isite of their innocent inhabitatits. 

The ckhkMtia (mus kiniger) is anodier specks oi 
ground-mouse or rat* Instead xxt hair It is ccnmteA 
widi an extremely fine md scAmsh*cok>ureii wool, 
of a sufieient length for spinning. This ani- 
maA is about six inches fong; it has very mÊiiSl 
tmw A short nose, teeth like those of the comme» 
mouse, and a tail erf* a moderate length covered widi 
sUky hair. It lives in the fields undfir ground in 
large oMnpanics, and is |tt*kicipaUy fimoA in die 
96iithem provínoos; its usual food is the buttons 
fpÑíts with which diat pwct of die conmtry abounds. 
The female breeds twice a year, and has five or six 
young at each biith. It is an extremely gende and 
mild animal^ and may be handled without the lemt 
danger of its biting, nor will it ^Kttempâ to eao^, 
but on the eontiwy appears to be pksu^d with bong 
caressed. It b very neat, has bo ofienaive «n^ 
attd mif be kept widi v^ry tittle inconramenot 


i» a house, and the triSing^ expense irtleti^g ktt 
keeping' wiH be «unplj reptid by its beautiful wool. 
The ancient Peruvians employed this wool in tlw 
ttianufoctore of several kinds of cloth, to which they 
attached great value. 

The great woodonouse (mus Maulinus) is an ani- 
mal of mote than twice the size of a marmot, and 
was fir^ discovered in If M in a wood in the pro- 
vince of Maule, and sq vigorous was the defence 
^XÊt it made, that die dogs who attacked it had much 
difficulty HI overcoming it. lis hair is of the sâm<e 
ccdour as âiat of the marm<^, but its ears are nnire 
pointed, the nose » longer, the whii^ers are dispo- 
sed in four rows, it has four toes on each foot, ¡u^ 
it has a longer tait, 9nd ctoser covered with hsdr. 
The number saA order of the teeth are the same at 
tiiose of the comm<m mouse. 

The degu (sciurus degus) is a species of dc»"- 
BMu$e, a litde larger than the hbuse-rat. Its colour 
is a dirty white, except a blackish line upon ^ 
shouhiers which reaches to the first joint of the leg ; 
Âe tail is terminated by a little tuft of hair of Use 
same colour as the body. The head is ^ort, the 
ears round, the nose sharp and famished with whis<- 
kers ; of the upper jajw the two incisor^ are cunei« 
form,'those of the lower flat ; the fore feet have four 
toes, ti^ hinder five. * The degu is a social animal, 
and is found in the vicinity of St. Jago in numerous 
companies near Úic hedges or bushes, where they 
dig burrows that have a communication with each 
<Mher, and feed upon roots and fruit, of which they 
^ m ^01 ample stwc for the winter. It does not, 


like the dormouse and die badger» itecp darii^ the 
winter, which is probably in a gresd; measure owing 
to the mildness of the climate. These animals were 
formerly eaten by the inhabitants, but at present 
they make no use of them whatever. 
- The couuTy known to naturalists by the name of 
tatouy and by the Spankrds called the armadiliOf from 
the uj^r part of its body being covered with a kind 
of bony armour, is very comm<to in Cujo, where it 
is called quiriquincho. It is of variou& sizes, bejng 
from six to thirteen inches long, á ma^ütude, how.^ 
ever, much inferior to wh^ it attains in tiie tropica^ 
regions. In its extern^ appearance, its fatness, and 
the bristles which cover the lower part of the bo<tyt 
the ¿rozmr resembles the guitiea-pig. Its head is long, 
but the nose is short ; it has no teeth except grind* 
ers ; the eyes are small, the ears naked, and the teil i& 
Im^ and scaly like that of a rat. The number of ttie 
toes vary accordmg to the species. The bony ar* 
mour which covers the body of the animal is com- 
posed of two parts, divided into several bands kt iitóo 
oach other, so that the animal can at its pleasurç^ 
dilate OT contract them. The females are very pro- 
lific ; they have four young aft a birth, and breed 
every month* The fleáh is delicate, and much pre* 
flei^ble to that of the guinea-pig. 

In the vailles of the Andes are found four speciea; 
of this animal : 

^ The pkhij or four banded covur, which is about 
six inches in length. 

/ . The, hairy, or the eight banded, which is. seven 
inches long, and covered with hair as well aboye as:. 


/' ^e nmtük^óTÚít eleven banded, which is very 
little lai^r than the preceding^ but its ears are 
much longer. ^ , 

The bokts^ or the eighteen banded, which is the 
kfigest, and is thirteen inches in length from the nose, 
to tht root of the tail. 

These four species belong to the qtariquinci oi 
Bu&n, a nsune which has been given them from 
their possessing the property of contracting and roll- 
ing themselves up like a ball. When they are hard 
pressed by the hunters, they frequently coiitract and 
roll themselves doMrn a precipice, like the hedge* 
h(^, and usually escape without injury, being pro* 
tected by their coat of mail. But they have not 
the same means of escape when they are found in 
the jdains ; they arc then eaiftly taken, and when they 
roll themselves up are compelled to resume their na.' 
tural form by meai» of fire. The three first kinds run 
very fast in a strait line, being prevented by the con- 
formation of their armour from making turns. When 
they get at a certain distance from tlieir pursuers, 
tíiey endeavour to dig à hole in the ground to con- 
ceal themsdves, and hold so fast with their fore paws 
tluit it is almost impossible to force them away ; upon 
these occasions the hunters have contrived a singu- 
lar expedient to make them quit their hold, by intro-; 
ducing the point of a small stick into the anus. 

The cuy (lepus minimus) is a species of small 
rabbit, which has been by some confounded with 
the guinea-pig, though it is not only distinguished 
from that animal by its form, but by its generic cha- 
racter. It is a little larger than the field-moUse, and 


ks shape is nearly, corneal. The tan «e tat¿a¡&^ 
iKÂnted and hairjr^ theaiofie is long, mdtiic teeth ate 
precisely like those of the hare and the rafabit; ^ 
tote paws have four toes, and the hinder five» and 
the tail is so diort that it caa scarce^ be soom 
This animal has been domesticated in Chili, and is of 
varioi» colours, white, brown, gny and qK>ttëd. 
Its hair is very fine and silky, but toa short for qm^ 
nii^ ; the flesh is very white and délicat^ tasted* 
The female breeds every mcmth, and has from wt 
to eight young. The cuy, though it resembles th^ 
rabbit,, avoids its socicQr, and never copulates with 
it* It is very much afira^ of cats and rats, which 
«{^ar to be its destroyers. In Perutbereisanam^ 
mal which bears the same name, andisalso dc»oe^<* 
oated, but as I have ndver seen it, I cannot deter* 
mine whether it is of the, same species or otberwisCi 
It may be l»t>per, however, to observe, that eu^ is 
a.general name in America for a number of l^bi 
animals like rabbits, which are most^ of the gwua 
of the cavy. 

The viscacha (lepiis viscacia) b an animal resenii^. 
bliqg both the rabbit and the fox. It is rather lar- 
ger, but has the head, ears, moudi, whiskers, teeth^ 
feet, and nearly the same mamier of feeding as the 
rabbit. In its colour said tail it resembles the fox ; 
the Imr on the body is very fine and scrft, and isca? 
pable of being advantageously en^loyed for many 
purposes. The ancient Peruvians made beautiful 
cloths of it, and it is now used in Chili for the manu* 
factiu^ c^ hats. The tail, with which it dffends it* 
self against its enemies^ is very long, turned up^ 


imircûvered wkh long doaiisc hair* The t^ac/ia 
htttém in the ^sáme n^iiiner as ^e riibbit. It Uve» 
tinder g^owá^ m a bforrour consisting of twastories» 
wiroh cQimAimieate bjr medJEts of a wisidk^ çtair- 
way; Ae, first story «îrves fiwa maga:&ine for i^ 
provisaonsy ^ other fiw a place of resicfe^ncfi for it-^ 
delf ' and its young. In this it remainsf dui9p)g;|l^> 
^y;; and <mly goes out at ni^, when it brkgs to^^ 
its hole whatevier it meets lyith, even suc^ atîicles of 
wieaiihg'i^ïjparel asfaave been drc^ped by traveUw^ 
its fledh is very iiidiite and tender, and Is pr^^red to 
tíiat OÏ tíic hare or the rabbit. - i 

Of^^ homy-fbcrtêd animab, or those tlmt have 
ho(^ whether isdatgic or divided, Ghili fumines but 
five ^species that are indi^nous. The puda^ the nî^ 
ct^na, the éhiSkuefUé^ the guan(k:Oj àoà the guesmd 
whMemuL ' * 

The pttda (capra poda) is a spedes of wild goi^^ 
with bit>wn hair, of die size of a six months kid; 
the male is furnished with v^ small horns, bat 
Úie ftmale* is destitute» The J^ia&kids caS it 
the roçwbiidki but very impfc^iíy, asithas nore-» 
semblance to that animal, but eveiy chaiaeteríi^c of 
the godt exce](N: the beard, ahd in having its horns 
round, amooth asid diverging^ Oni the approach oS 
winter; âiese animals^ in very numerous ftooks, come 
down fitkn the Andes, in ocátt to feed in the plains 
of the somâiem provinces. Great ñumb^^ ^re then 
killed by die inhabitants for food, ^d caught for 
the purpose <^ domesticatiág them, Mdiich is easiLy 
done, as üiis aniinal fe extremely mild, and i» ra^icli 
delighted in paying widi children. 

Vol. I. Of 


^ht vicugna^ the ukiiêkueçue^ and tbtgumuuê majr- 
beconsidered as m many mktiotBptcms of die camelot 
to which may be atôcd iht'aijfmca and the Aimi of 
P^ii. All diese aittmals have a great rcsembtotiee 
to the camei, although dief arc $maUert and tbrâr 
íbriñs are more elegant an4 better torned ; like die 
catnd they have a smaHfaead widiout honiS) a vtíy 
lohg neck, middle-sisedcaors, large and round eyea^ 
a short muzzle, die tt]^>6r li}> more or lea& cle&v tha 
legs longer than the size of theixidy iqppeara to rc^ 
quke, the feet divided^ the tail shmt, and die haiÉ 
IcHigand of a sufficient foeness ft>r spimüng* Theoí 
giínital parts are similar to those c^the camtl^ and the 
audes in like manner vc»d thek* wine backwards^ 
Itpdieir internal confiNtnatbn diey differ but litdd 
iTrom the camd^and, like all nmilrtating animab^ 
have four stomachs ; die sec<Hid of which contains^ 
between the two memt»ancs that con^^oseiti agreat 
number of cavities which appear to be intended 
solely for rcsbrroirs of water. 

These Ameripan camels jresemble Ahobe aíS tbt 
M continent also in their, dispositions apa ditírivodft 
of living ; fike Uiem^ they are extremely docile, and 
generally very mild. The alpaca and the ibunfi are 
kmplc^ed» like the^tamely to carry biirdensy andpost 
«ess the -following properties ifk common with. ÜMl 
fuiimal t they kned in order to receive or dtechargk 
their loads V their hools are so firm aandt to req|aire 
shoeing) anddieir skins so ^ick as to render a pack 
saddleunnecti^ftsary, and tiheir atop is slow, bat suit 
even in the steepest mxamtaina. The efai)ihueque 
was formerly enjoyed by the ChiUann, as die pac^ 
is by the Peruvians ; but die introduction of the use 


^Miile%lHiiioh have flow beoOme verynwaenn^ 
hm evéxely'snp^^^Ciatíi that of ^ chtmiiie<^« Âi\ 
^Me «miiMilsípas» agréât paît <^ the i%ht in xnváh 
miiigv ai^ M'^i^ever th^ wish to deep, kid the^; 
kg» unàùr thdr bcltyi ^ support ^maelyes upoff 
the breast. , 

Though theíieqttadüupe^^ are analogous to *the 
eanlel, ^y have likewise some peculiar characterise 
tkd whleh distinguish' them ipom th^t amnial. . Des* 
ttileâ by^iiature to live among ice ;md snow, their bo- 
dies are oovered with a thick ^t betweentheskifi an4 
^ flesh» like almost all polar animus ; like timm top 
tbey abound !Ín Uood^ which is the more necessary t9 
them, jaS they require a greater degree of warmth than 
^oae animals w^h inteibit the plains : the fat pre^ 
venting the evapowition of the heat,and thereby kcpp. 
ing up that tempemture of the bl^od without whi^ 
they would not he able to endure the severity of tbiç 
cold. The lower jaw, like that of the^camel^ is fur<» 
niâhed with $ix iiietaOrs,two camue teeth, and sev^id 
grinders ; but tfaeiipper is mhMy destitute of in^ 
eisws and tmim leeth i a eharacter which appears 
to me sufficiendy mipA^ed to .eoqstitQte a separate 
genua. Besides tMnhdisfiiiction, their ears are smaller 
and; more etegam thiM those ctf the camel ; tibe nose 
iarstnooth, theneck strait^ aiid better praportíoned^ 
Aíí back more Içve^ except the guapaco% wb¡ic|ti ¡a 
% fUtde arehedv <he tail handaconer, apd suppled 
wM\ a greater ¡quwitity ojT hak,. tb^ legs are better 
shaped and fitted £9r rupning, . aM the hair <^ 
dieir bodies is longer, softer, ai|d. more Hke woo^ 
Placed by the side of one; of these ^mals, the c^ 
loel would appear tike a monatjer* Their oati)i>4 


cfy resembles the ticîghîng c^ a horse. To defend 
tifômselves they emj^ôy their ^saiKva, wfáéh thqr- 
^ow upon those who n^lest them. It' is áAserfóé, 
but it appears tobe without foundatton/that-thtodttt'' 
Hva is naturally caustic, arid produces Uisteri upon 
the skin. 

They are in heal in the latter part of siminiefv 
during which time they become very thin, and shc^ 
their hair. Before copuíatíon they make much noise, 
throw out their saMva, and appear to be *iadw The 
female has two dugs, which aré àways wcH filled 
with milk ; her period of gestation is five or si» 
months, and she produces but orie yotmg ata birth..^ 
These three kinds of animals mutually avoid leaclf 
other, nor have they ever been known to copulate.^ 
To what age they Kve lam unable precisely to dê^* 
termine, though I believe them shwter^ fired Ümí 
flie camel j the period generally assigned «he«h by 
die ChHians is thirty years. - - • > 

I conisider these aniüíals as intermeèbiEtie q>eére8 
which unite the goat, siieep, slag and tile catMl; 
arid from the ibUowinjg- descn'iptibns^it wUlbeiièeii 
that my opinion îà not unfounded i . 7 

' The vict^na (camellus vitüna*) is> according M 
M. Buffoh, only the paco in its original state q€ V^ 
berty ; bttt in this, as wcD as in mtâiy^citherpanieii^ 
iai^ which concern America, didt great mmn^afilil 
has' been mi§inftM*ied. The paco, or Ae id^ô, abii 
Ihfe vicugna are two animals of tiié^wme genu», but 
itf very' dilferbit species. It is certàih that tíley^tl©. 
ver copúlate, although tíiey liVe upon the - same 
tñóüntains, and the mid paco, as well as the táme^ 
îs'very common la Peni. The vieugdals nearty-tiié ^ 


«fee^^f Ac tatnc goat ; it rcsçfi^^ it pmrtíiculai:^. 
Ui#ie shape of its back^ ramp and taU> but dilTcf» 
from it ia having a mtich loi^rt^ek^^whiçh ía fire*, 
quenüjf twenty inches in length, iaiit3he94wbic^Í9 
round and wi^oixtihiHiis, in ite ears which are sviaU 
ai»i strait, iit its muzzle which is shdrt xuid without: % 
beard, and m its legs which are twice. tl^J^^ht of 
AK)se of the goat* It is covered with a very fiM wool of 
the cdour <^ dried roses, which: wiU take any dye^ 
and is used in tl^ ccmntry in the manufacture; of a 
variety of clodis. This wool i& known in Enropeií^^ 
and v«y highly valued. The paco is more robust- 
and 'of a flicker make than the vicugna, its muzz)<^ 
hi longer, and its wool is also Icaiger and^not ^o finef: 
The Peruvians keep numerous flocks ofpacps^, whose 
wool they emjdoy in the manufacture of several 
kimis of doth which have the brilHancy of silk. Oint 
the paco is not found in Chili either, in a dom^tict 
or savage stated , 

' The vicugnas appear to be more particularly at- 
tach»! to that part of the Andes i?^cb appertains 
to ihe provinces of C<^iiapo andCpqiumbq, where 
they are found in the greatest numhere» and inhabit 
die highest and most inaccessible ridges of. mc^m-; 
tains perpetually covered with ice and snçw, Thi« 
c<4d dimateáeems tobe best adapted tQ th^ nature^ 
for all those which the inhabitants Jbaye attemq^ed tç 
raise in the i^ns have been attacked by ^ spepies of 
mange, which has soon destroyed them ; and it is nqiost 
probably owing to this cause that th^ m^^thods which 
have been hitherto used to transport Jhis animal to 
Europe Imve &iled of success... Tfee viçugiiat aW; 


tfwajrs in flocks, and, like the goats, a^ seen feed^ 
M^ on die tops of rocks. As soon as diejr percme^ 
a man they run off, taking their, young with them»' 
The hunters, when they go in pursuit of them, en*^ 
deavout to surround the mwntainsupoaiwhiehthey 
are fitMind, and by pressing them closer and closer^ 
tfiey at lengdi collect Üie whole within ai ^naUcom'- 
jfiass, when they encircle the spot with a rq>e, ter 
which they tie a great number of pieoes of dothur 
Tl^ vicugnas, who ^ veiy timid, dare úc/t pass tins. 
<eord, and easily fall into the hands of their pur^iers/ 
who usually kill the yi4iole of them; > As'the Woo} of 
these animals is the dnef inducemoxt ùm hunting. ' 
them, instead of killing, it wcmki,/pcs*hs^, be more 
prudent merely to shear them, an opeffation whiek 
might be repeatedly performed. Their luimbei^* 
however, notwithstanding these, massacres, -do not 
i^ieár to bedimihished, \i^ch inducesme to believer 
that they have more young at a birth thanis generalljf^ 
supposed. The inhabitants have never yet been»if>lc 
to domesticate this useful aninúd, bi^ Idàrnot doubt 
it wilt be effiscte^i, when the natioJial industry , whi^ iá 
beginning to exert itself, atta^^ li greater degree <tf 
aCtivitJr, Tl^ vknigna isexceUeotgame, anditsieslr 
is pt'eferred to veal ; it is used us a specific- m cases 
of the oi^tedmy, by external iipptieatien. The be- 
zoar which is found in its stomach is in hig^ re^^^ 
pute with thdse persons who ha^e oon&lence in such 

' Thé dU^e/^^e (camellus Aráñennos) was origk 
nally called hueque, but the Araueaniwns, with whom 
this animal lived in a domestic state, in order to dis* 

Ai^ish hfroni tHe European sh^p, wbicb has jbe-^ 
come very dommcm since the arrival of ^ Spania^^ 
gwt k the name of cliUihueque or rehueque» which 
^gnifiesthe sheep of Chili« This name is well ^« 
fAied to it, for excepting the length» of its neck and 
It^s, it has considerable resenvbl^ce to the sheep* 
The head of the chilihueque is very much Uke ,th^| 
of the she^ ; its ears are also oval an.^ flaccid, the 
eyes large antt black, the nose loi^ and bunched, the 
Ups tíiick and hanging, the tail of asimilar form but 
shorter, and the whole, body covered with a very 
long and s(^ wooU . The length of the chilihueque, 
fircnn the upper lip to the root of the tail, is aboi,i^ 
sbc ieet, and its height, measured from behind, is 
nearly four feet* The individuals of this specie^ 
vary in. colour ; there ^re ^me of them which are 
white, others brown, b^aick and grey. 

.The ancient Chilians made use of these animals 
as beasts of burden, and w^re accustonied to lead 
ibem by a rope fasteped to a hole made in the rim 
of the ear, from whence Jias arben the errors of seve* 
ral geographical writers, who have asfijerted, thai the 
aheq> which had been carried to Chili had so far en* 
cpeasedin size, that they were loaded and çmployed 
as muks in the ü*ansportation of merchandise. Some 
wf i^rs pretend that, before the arrival of the Spar 
niards, the Chilians employed the huçque in the cnU 
tivation of their lands, and for drawing a kind of 
cart which they called quetahue. . This agrees with 
^account of Admiral Spilsberg, who says that the 
iolmbitai^ of Mocha made use of them when he 
landed thçre. The chllihueques are highly vahiçd 


by the AratiGánians, who, though Úity ave t&od ot 
-^leir flesh, .never kill them except upon festivals, or 
on some scdeBin sacrifice. Before the conqueit tbejp^ 
employed the wool of thb animal to make their, 
clothes, but since ^eep havemukipUedsonmchp 
they make tise of the wool of the chilihueque onlj 
for the most valuable cloth. 

What M. de Buflbn and die celebauted Linnaeus 
have said respecting the paco and the vicugna bemg 
<^the same species, they have likewise asserted ú£ 
the guanaco and the llama. Both these naturalists 
Imve taken the llama for the dcnnesticafeed guanaco^ 
but I have good reasons for being of a diffeneat 
epinion. Besides the natural averûon which mb- 
tísts between thèse two animals, and which prevents 
them from ever mingling, they also offer some very 
striking difierences which can never be attributed to 
tile change of situation akme. Ttte Uuna has a stnut 
back, all its legs n^u-ly of an equal length, imd an 
excrescence on thé hrtast which is almost always 
moistened with a yellowish oily exudaticn. The 
guanaco, on the contrary, has a bunched or ratha- 
an arched back, the hind feet are so long that when 
it is pursued it never attempts to ascend the momh 
tains, like the llama, the paco, and the vicugim, bot 
descends them leaping like the buck and the dea*, a 
course well suitrà to^ the peculhr conformatioD of 
its legs. 

The gtianaco (camellus huanacus) exceeds the 
chilihueque in size, and I have seen some of them 
that werç the height of a horse. Its usual length, 
liowever, from the nose to the tail, is about sevtn 

«nd the lieiglif 5 tnèa^red bdbre, four feet 

find tliree iiiehei« Hie body is covered vHth very 

iûtig hs^^ of a tieddidi colour upon die back, and 

whitttli under tbe b^ ; its head is round, tl^î nosd 

^intedand bla^^k, die ears strait like those of a 

^rse, the tail short, and turned back like that of die 

«tag. The mme guanaco^ by which it is commonly 

fcábwn, is Peruvian f k is called ¡mn in ChilL Th« 

guanaeo ísíppts^ to be less attadi^ to a c^^ cli^ 

itiai^ tlMU the Vicugna* In the Jbieg^nning of winter 

dbèse itfiiihkds quit ûte mountains they inhibit du« 

tkig the sumtner, and appear in die vsúlies in krgf 

herds, usually of a hundred or two hundredi The 

6hUiaii8 ^nt them with dogs> but tkey Cdmmonly 

úik» only the youngest, which are the least swift ; 

ike old ones run with astonishing napidity, aad it h 

ë^K^ft to ovêitaàe them with a good horse. Wheh 

tiiey are put^ued, Ihey turn èrom time to time to 

hKÀi ^ the huntsman, neigtung as loud as diey can, 

and then set off anew with increased velocity. It 

sometimes happens that the Indians Who are mount* 

ed upon very swift horses, take them alive, by means 

of a lioose or sling, which they throw from a distance 

between tteir legs. This noose, which the Indians 

tJBiihfkif Í» nuide of a strip of leathfer about fihrc or 

six feet long, to each end of which is fiswtened a stone 

6f iâ^ùM two pounds weight. The huntsman, who is 

cm horseback, holds one of these stones in his hand, 

and whirls the other around Kke a sling, as swift as 

possible, in order to hurl it with more force 5 When 

he tiurows it at the animal he has singled out, whdtn 

he is almost certain of striking, frequently at more 

H h 


than three buii4r<id -paces (tistanc^e; In aider to tgké 
the aiumal alive, the álhig must be thrown ao dex« 
terously, as only to twist itself att)nnd tte feet. Tl^ 
guanaco is naturally gebtle, and resdBy becomes ao 
.customed to a dome$tic state; it can be tamed to 
i^Uch a degree us to follow its master wherever he 
wishes. The: meat, especially when the animal is 
young; iis excellent, and as good as'veal ; that <^ íhú 
old ones is tougher, but is very good when salted 5 
it keeps well On long voyages, and is often put up for 

": the use of seamen^ Very good hats are mîièc fraSi 

ihc hair, and it may be used in the m^iufa«$l6rer()f 

camlet, ' _ 1. ^ rî 

The güemul, or kuemul (equus bisulcus) is an ^ifU 

mal whjch I have cls^ssed; with the horse, alâiou|^ 

It ought to forma separate genus, in consequence c^ 

its hoofs being divided like those of ruminating aié- 

pials. Its teeth, and tíie manner in which they are 

disposed, are precisely like those of the lioi^cj bill 

its sizej hair and colour give it a greater resemblance 

to the ass, with which it might readily be ccmfound^ 

ed, were it not for the ears, which are sh<^^ s^t 

and pdnted like those of the horse. It also w^its 

the black stripe upon the bgck which is peculiar tor 

that species. The huemul is farther distinguished 

from the ass by a handsomer head, and a more ele* 

gant appearance ; the neck and buttocks ^jre f)}sp» 

better forced. A great différence likewise prcyails 

in its internal conformation, and its voice i^ more. 

like the neighing of a horse than the; brayin^j of aii 

ass. This animal is more unruly than the vicuna, 

and far exceeds it in swiftness ; it inhabits the 

UiMcëflGil^ j»»rts c^ the Ainfeá, which is the 
]%atoi3Uof itsbMj^ûig so^îfficult to be taken. It is the 
same anim^ wUch Captain Wallb found at the 
straits of Magellan, and, mmy (pinion, forms the link 
b^ireen the ruminating and single-hoofed animals. 
Horses, asses, cattle, sheep, goats, many kinds 
0( dogs, cats, and even mice, have been brought 
hither by the Spaniards. All these animals have 
xmiltiplied exceedingly, and have increased in size, 
as might be expected from so favourable a cli-> 
mate* The horses of Chili possess all the good quali- 
ties <rf, their ^cies : they have spirit, vigour and 
swiftness. Those which are bred in the plains re-^ 
semble the Arabian horses ; they are of a middle 
size, but reiparkably active. The niouptain horses 
are sti^nger and closer set, and are very good for the 
harness; theyhave,ingeneral, an elegant appearance,^ 
^smail and handsome head, the tail well furnished' 
with hair, and jx little rais^, the chest broad and^ 
weU tonped, Üie thighs round and plump, the legs 
júender and nervous, smd the hoof so hard as not to"' 
cequire to be shod except in cities. The great num-* 
ber of horses, an^ their cbe^nbss, is the reason why: 
they are worse treated in Chili than almost any coun-^ 
tryiin the world. A common horse will cost a Jh- 
lij^ (four livres tournois) a mare about five Roman 
paolis, or nearly forty *two sous.. They are fed en- 
tirely upon grass, and are kept in the field through J 
out the year. It is very aiK^ommon to see a peasant- 
walk half a league ; iht moment he rises he goes* 
and saddles one of his horses, and uses him the wbóle 
day, without allowing him any time to rest or to feed. 

To tMs inay be fuUb^the i(»^ j«^^ 
leagues and .more, wbkb these poD^ j^bdie ivritb tiwr 
same horse, 4uwg,tíie,wíi((>k.ofi¿hiahytJw,i^^ 
only permittejd to. uesit at BXgl\U 

Horses capable of enduring fituch han]5hîp»,.i«iiiat 
be naturally of a ûx-mmà strc«>g C9(»yiteit«»t; but 
it is perhaps, in 9 great mea/iure, awing to tjbeir be- 
ing early ^ccustom6d to severe fatijile^ mi tlm tm^ 
ture of their food, as I have seeatboewi wWdtwoçct 
very pld, and had beea in coostopt «ervic^ The 
horses, \n consequence of their diffisirei^tt gait9, ase 
divided into thre^ breeds» the most conünoii oCiHûcà^ 
is the trotters. The horses of this bra^^ as the most 
Fobfist and vigorous» are principally used by Urn 
oountry people. The secondai^ the paoets^ «rhi» 
^e joaore ea^y g^ted than the be^ ü^ndetosisa 
horsey* It is said that this strp is rpcículíiar. to. tdbw 
breedi and th^ it is . observable even in fim colts ;. 
it is the best aupportçd, and théqiiîcke^apoaar 
long jçomey, &f whichi reason this bn^4>is^ nicmr 
request than either of the otber^ The {«J»de hfnack 
constitute the third breed; these nevevgo out of afirat 
pa^e, j^ove with much grace, anda]mpp!iác;t^V\m 
demand in Pe^i,. wher^.they arc emplogied on oq^ 
sion^ qf parade and cei^mony ;. Ihe price of them 
is frpm one hundred tot five huadred ccowbs. 

The.Cliilians are ycty careful to f^servç the 
bree<L of their horses pure^ and not svdSer any ioterv. 
mixture. IHirmg the wintev almoin all the horses 
^re i^pt^ at pasture in the val|ies of the, And^ 
frcm whence they return in thç sprmg very fitt and 


^%otoii8. When the iiih^bitahts tiidn their ¿oUsv 
which is cenÉmoiÀY'àcxK «it three years of age^ ikty 
begin I^ scoring the upper* muscle of the taii^ to pre- 
veía the Imotion of it, whidi operation thc^ call: 

Thte assee of Chili are so strong and taêX^ that it is: 
difficult to recognise in diem the original stock. X 
sksarcely know to what circumstance to attijbote this^ 
ÜBíroiirabie a&eration, unless it may be the state of 
UberQ^ in which these animals live, for they are mader 
but very little use of ; in the vallies of the Andes? 
diey ase ev^i found in a wSd state^ and are liunted) 
by die Chiiians for the sake of thdr skins; .am(»3g 
^se are some that have hair sufficiently long to be 
fipmi with ea^. ^ The mules are an exoellen;t breed r 
thiey are very strongs and are particularly distin-; 
^fuished for beaigTery sure footed and active* 

The homed eattlie, upon iiiiich the influence c^ 
climate ^ippears to be greailer than on otíiérs, have 
in Chfli, owing to its favcxirable temperature, ac* 
^ñred a làrge# siae, idiilé their flesh has become 
benw and moie milütive. The oxen of ilie mari* 
time are, however, of an inferior siae to diose of the 
middle provinces, nor can these U^st be ccmipared to 
those which are bred in die vallies of the Andes. 
These cattle are kept the whcde year in the agtn field, 
and their food, which never fails tl^m, consists esi^ 
tirely of tjie diflferent kindis oS herbs and grasses 
which fellow each other in succession, llie species, 
£ur firom exhibiting any degeneracy, has improved 
considdlftbly, and though I have observed that the 
cattíe of die maritime provinces are small^ it is only 


in rehtion to the others, for I hare. ¿íen ^CHiie <rf 
them which weighed near. tffo thousand poutids. 

There are some landholders in ChUi, wlK>se finrm» 
are si^cient to keep twel^ thousand head Qicatíh^ 
At the end of each winter they usually select a thoa^ 
sand head, either cows or oxen, in ofder to£^ them ; 
fi>r this purpose, they drive them to the richest pas-j 
tures; where they nsuíúly keep them tul abmtli 
Chrktmas, when they kill them. Th£s skugbtev,: 
which is always a great festival for the peasants, is, 
expected w:ith the utmost impatience, ai^ they con*! 
duct it as follows* The herdsmen drive twes^ cr: 
tl^y of these fai cattle into an enclo^re made withj 
stakes, which is always erected upon a;{dain ; tfaifc 
peasants, well mounted, surround .the enelo^ire,. 
and when thay have taken their stations, pne.of the; 
cattle is let out* As soon as the bçast Onds himself 
at liberty he takes flight, and all the eoibpany pitrsüe 
htm, e^h endeavouring adrcMtt^ to hamstring him 
with a sharp iron shaped like a £rcS(;?ent alt^c^d toi 
the end of a lance. Whenever a heast! falls, thç. 
butdiers immediately, dispatch him^ .by thmstiog a. 
kindof long cknifié into the. nape of his neck. When, 
all the beasts are killed, they are dn^^ged to. one 
spot, where they are flayed, and the taUow sepatatedi 
from the beef. This las¿ they usuaUy. cut up iirto 
long narrow strips, salt it aUttle^.and.dry :it in the. 
sun. A vîcry considérée, commerce is carried oïl 
in this beef^ especially «rith. Peru and the nünes. It 
keeps very well,, and, .as it is not j^rongly. malted,, 
is. preferred to the salt provisions reçei vea from 
Holland &oá England. The tallow .is mostly ex^ 


jportedto Pfem, very Httie bckig uscdin tlie «oum 
try; iHs thé samé with the hides*, the greater part 
4>fiifdiich are sold to strangers. The ihilk is of thé 
best and richest quality, and the inhabitants malEé 
excellent cheesci from it, whíiéh is no way inferior to 
die best of Lbdi. Of the cheese, i:hat of Chanco, 
in. the province of Maóle) ^îs the itóost celebratedl 
ffhe cattle are not employed in labour tíff three years 
old, and never more than two are tackled to a plough^ 
even in bredLing up new grounds. Instead of a 
ybke beii% suspended to their necks, a rope, agree- 
able to the Spanish custom, is run through their 
horns, by which they draw the plough. The common 
price of cattle throughout the country is from three 
to four fflippi (fifteen or twenty francs) but in the 
aem^portsthe price is fixed by an ancient regulation 
at ten crowns, of which the commandant of the port 
receives four and the owner six. 

The sheep imported from Spain have lost no-' 
ûiag in Chili ; they ifre of the same size, and their 
wool is as beautiful as that of the best Spanish 
àystp. Each sheep j^lds annually from ten to fif-* 
teen pounds of wool; the mutton, especially that 
of the wctíiers, is very fine. They generally breed 
twice a year, as is common in temperate climates,* 
Mdffircqiienûy have two at a birth. The sheep have* 
DO horns, butiama «re frequently jsasn which have 
four andevcn'six horns. The owners leate thehi 
the whole yearih. the open fields without any she!-' 
ter, and oniy shut Aem up in a kind of pen to se-i^ 
iiurc them from ^le wild beasts. Those wîiîèhC 


fure bred' m fhe Atidbi are larger, and prodotx m 
Icmger and finer wool/ The Pehoenches, a irntkm 
i^ick Udiabite a piut of these moinUttias, have crosse 
ed the breed of the ^heep wkh die goat^ and dni 
mixed breed is madi Ürgcif thaa die other dbeep i 
their hair, whi<^ b man w less curied, has dn firm* 
ness and the softnfisis 4f i^rool» and is frequently t\ro 
feet long; h ressembles much the bur of the Angom 

The goals have ¿so mnhtidied astonidni^y^ 
they live almost alwiQra in the moiKitaiiia ; tècir 
skins are employed ior manufoctniii^ morooeb^ of 
^ts much i^ Qonsumed in thb coimtry, and great 
guantitiei^are sent to Peru. ^ ^ 

Man in ChUi enfoys all the adv a ntages which té* 
suit from a mild uncfaangeabfe climate, and ibose 
perscHis who do ikA shorten their lives by hrcgulari*» 
ties» attain to a very advanced agew Notwithstandfai^ 
w)»it 'M; de Pauw has asserted, I l^ve myself known 
several old men of a hundred and four, a humlrèft 
and five, and one instance even cf a hundred and 
fifteen years of age. It is but a few years since "dist 
Don Antonio Boza died there at die age of or^ bun* 
dred and six. My grandfiüher and my: gtieat grande 
father, both crefoles, lived, die first to tibe age of 
niMty-fivQ^ the other to ninety-six. These imttantear 
are not uncommon among die mtiwes of the eomrtry; 
The woi^M «re generalty prolific, and there aie fiewi 
countries where diey more frequendy give birdi t» 
twins^ Thi$ feoubdhyf and the aboKtídn of sonu^' 
practiecs which were ifijurious ta die fnt^pagation of 

ëaèhiûakm specks, v^'M expiain ^etapid intràfôettf 
popuhràân, wUeh ha$ taken flacê mtïah the Idst 
ii¿tty yéâss. 

' TheinhjMtit^ctf ChiH are eiâier àbori^fial) or 
tlie dewcbdtttits of Ëtiitq>ettiis or Africans. Those 
descended: frott£ürdpeán¿ are weÜ ^ped» partlcu- 
larly thâ tv^othetiy some ctf whom ate wry beaiártiftíl. 
The aborigines fttttfi but one máion divided into^ 
Utany tribea, all of whom speak 'the same language/ 
Wliiefa tfa^ call Chiliduga, or the Chilkn tongue* 
TbbÈ lái^uage ià so^^ harmonious, exprei^ve and 
it^teTy {tua pos^eââééa great ilut»ber of words not 
útáy eigpitenBwe of natural ob}e<^' but also of mor^l 
and metaphysical ideas. The colour of the natives 
is a fedâièh or &3pp€ry brown, eixoepcing the fia- 
rt)éb<te> Káio ^e iñí tht náast of ite Araucacfko pro-' 
i&ioes^ tti the thirty-ninth ^grteof Isâitude; these 
aveívtrliteí^ as^as wdl&rrmed as the nordiern Euro- 
praihsw N^tl áág a^ p eaiy to me ^ be mc^ ridiculoifs 
ttea ti» asser^iki of sideral mithors, úkt aU tlm* 
itoietíeáAs resemble eaeh btfaér, and thai from seebg 
one ywtÈShtiAân to judge of the whole. These gentle-^ 
nittiBeemk) have buen led imo thberit^ by ü v^ry 
si^|^tnenl)lance'2tt^ingiro^ Coloun Itis only 
ilecetssr^to aMdüb^rat indiiriduaifetobeconvinK^i^ 
ai^Êb contrai^* A Chilkn is as easily díítíii^xifih- 
adbie^ncmaPerüviaíias an Itiúiaufroma German. L 
iârt^eietonitfivesofCujo, ofParaguirr, and of the 
Stáfáh^of Mi^fam^ andl can confideiitly affirm that 
tlidi^ eotoiiâruâioes |»tsàit a very striking dHêr^iœ. 
The Chiites^ like die Tarera, have but lltlle beaid^ 

Vol. L * I i 


and the custom whách úiey have of j^iicjkii^ out the 
hair as fast as it grows makes them apfHÊBr as if 
beardless ; for this purpose tl^y always oarrf widi 
them a small pair of pmoecs, wfaiehiibrms a p«rt<^ 
their toilette. Theyt «re some. of ttem* hmttver^ 
who have as thick a beard as the S^imiante* The 
hah* whidi marks the age of {nabeity tbegr haye in 
still greater quantities than the heaed. The !0|»AÍ<m 
that a thin beard is tlye> mark of ja feetde body-is jiot 
verified in the case of these people*. Jlm.hiíláime 
are generally vigorousyand are better able tp.e3idure 
fatigue than the creóles^ for which reasKm.they are 
always preferred in those em|rfoymeate thai requhv 

Those who inhabit aie plains are of the aame 
height as the £urq)eans ; but the nat^vi». <rf:the 
mountains are diitingukhed by a taUer «tabirp» waà 
I am wdl continued that these aredie âmioiis.BïUa* 
gonians of- whom so jnudi4)as beei^ said. LocdAm 
son is (^ the same c^tm<m* and the descsripttoagîsrœ 
by Byron, WaOié, Carteret, BougñueviHe, Da Ck», 
and De la Girau<kis, of these pretended gimts, agroe 
perfectly wdl with die ^)pearance of the. mcmn- 
taineers of Chili. What confirms raue in my opimoii 
is, that their language, from the apecimais < 
which Üiose navigators have given, is the Chitíftn ; 
Lhave elsewhere diowed that the ChiUan language 
does tiot extend beyond the limits mention«4 j^lhe 
comm^cement <tf this work, besides wl^ch, the 
Patagonian contains a ^eat number of Spanish 
words, which pipves ñiUy a- communfca>ion be^ 


twteñ une? two nations^ The usual height of these 
kihid^lMts of the mountains is five feet seven 
ifielies ; the taâlest timt I have seen did not exceed 
six feet* ihïee inches ; but what makes them ap- 
pear much hrger is tl^ enormous size of their limbs, 
trhich do not appear to be adapted to their height, 
except the hands and feet, which, in prc^ortion. 
to the rcst> are very smadL The tout ensemble of 
their countenances is not bad ; they have usually a 
itmnd&ce, a nose rather large, very sprightly eyes, 
re^intetrfcably whit^ teeth, black and coarse hair^ and 
some of them wei» whbkers. They have generally 
a browner coitq>lexioli than the other CliUians, from 
their being constantly in the open air. 

The dresâ of those who live iiithe western vallies 
ctf tíie Andes, consista of various kinds of woollen 
cloth ; ïmt those who inhabit the eastern, or the true 
Pai^onians, cover theniselves with the skins of 
guanacos and other wild animals* Some of them 
wéartíie jle^irAo of the Araucamans, which is a kind 
of doak of an oblong fbrm, with a hole in the middle 
to put the head through. The Pehuelques, who oc- 
cupy the southern Amies, wear a leathern hat, deco- 
ttíaa with'fettíiers ; they paint tiieir bodies and áices 
0f various cdioi]^, particularly their eyelids. The 
women, Vfko are ^1 of a lofty stature, dress much 
like tb&m|Kn>, except tlmt instead of breeches they 
wear a small ïipron. 

All these people live under tents made of skins, 
whü^ tíi^) éâisily n^sm^rt from one place to ano- 
Acr, wlúthertiiéy remove for the convenience of pas- 

turage. They we diytdrd kitnmevenil tiá^^i «lAi 
erf* which has its particular chief, tQ vAma Ûi^ 
give the name of Uiman ; Uke the cfiiii» Chttii^th^ 
are idolaters* Their lai^^ ta wwy wbet^ the 
came, except that the eairterR tribea iMvê r^i^ a 
guttural pronuociation, Th^se peof^ are abnost 
constantty dwii)g the d^yonhi;H^ba(^ ; thiitr mdàk% 
are made Uke the packri^ddlea qí our ants, tím 
bridle is a kaijier atring> the Wt &tim»pa and sfuiH 
^re of wood, byt notwiihstaiHÜi^ the r^depeiA oStjm 
equipage they are good h<»^m^ wá ahuast alwif a 
ride upon the full gallop, followed by a gn^ num- 
ber of dogs who are trained to hold die horse by 
the bits when the rider alights. The castor ChiU-^ 
ans have no boraea that exceed the middle «ze, pro- 
bably from their riding them wJhen veiy y^uog, and 
allowing them too little rest Al^^on^th^a^reaot 
in want of cattle for food, they ^«fer g^me to aiiy 
thing else ; and they are almoat always to be aeea in 
chase of ^e guanaco or the o^ich, in the raat pkina 
that extend from the north of Plata to the eaateto 
part of the straits of Magellan. Tl^ woipmi id^cà 
they employ in hunting and in var is the hpn^ of 
which I have already ^piokem It was with tWa that 
they killed forty Spaniards m ^ skiimi^ at Saint 
LuifrdfUa Punta, in 1767. Tbeae mcm^ráieert 
^ometiipjBs attack ' tl^ c^^vwa which fnaa fcom 
Buenos Ay res to Chili, and frequif^tly thi^ coi^atry 
houses belonging. tC! the capital ^ 

Between the spi^thern bouj^d^iíet$.^jQiSíaild;tht 
straits of Mag^lkn there are «o nalkvia. 6m&b^ tiw 
Pojas and the Caucaus. The Pojas are of a gigantic 

23Î \ 

Stature, but their language is entirely different from 
that of the Chilians, and they never approach their 
territories. The Caucaus are of a middle stature, 
and their language is also very different from the 
Chilians; these last dress themselves in garments 
made of the skins of sea- wolves. 

The above sketch will serve to give some idea of 
the inhabitants of Chili; but inmy secondpart, which 
I intend puUishing shortly, containing the civil histo- 
ry of those people, I shall treat more fully of their 
maimers anfl customs as well as of their military 
expeditions. ^ 


or THE 




BRUTA— Danput guadricinctuê cingulis quatuor, ptdibus pen- 

Dasipus oetodnctua cingulis octo, palmb tetradactylis, jAantii 

Dasipus undecimcinctuB cingulis undecim, palxnis tetradactylisi 

plantas pcntadactylis. 
Dasipus octodecimcincius cingulis duodeviginti| palmb tetradac- 

tylis, plantis pentadactylis. 

Fe r ae. — ^Phoca Lufdna capite subauriculato, pahnis tetradactylis. 
Fhoca Porcina capite auriculato, rostro truncato prominente. 
Phoca EUfihantina ci4>ite antice cristato. 
noca Leonina capite postice jubato. « 
Canis Cui/iétuê cauda recta ekmgata, apice omcolore l±vL 
Felis Puma cauda elongata, corpere cinéreo subtus albicante. 
FeHs Gtdgna cauda elongata, corpore maculis omnibus orbiculatis. 
Felis Colocóla cauda elongata, corpore aU>o maculis irreg. atris, 

Viverra Chinga atro caerulea, maculis quinqué dorsualibus rotun- 

dis albis. 
Mustela FeHna plantis palmatis pilosis, cauda tereti elongata. 
Mustela Cuja pedibus fissis, corpore atro labio superiore sub- 

, Mustela Quiqui pedibus fissis, corpore fusco, rostro cuneifbrmi. 

Glires.— Lepus Viêcacia cauda elongata setosa. 

Lepus Minimum cauda brevissima, auriculis pilosis concoloribv^. 


CftStiMT HuidoèHiu cauda loi^ compresto-lanceolata) palœis 1o^ 

bâtis, pláiltik j^aliliátis» . _ . ^ 

Mus Cyanuê cauda medioeri subpilosa, palrais 4^ctyUs, plaotU 

5-dactylÍ8, corpore ceroleo subtcit albida 
Mú&Lanigcr cauda medioeri, palmis^-dactjUsyplau^S-dactylis^ 

corpoi*e ciaereolanato. 
Mus MauUnua cauda áledtocH piloâa, aurictúis àcuminatis, pedi* 

bus pentadactylî&r 
Mus Coyfiuè cauda medioeri subcompressa pilosa, plantis palmatis. 
Sciurus Degua fusco-stavescenS| linea humerali uigra. 

Pécora.— Camelus Huanacuê corpore piloso, dorso gibbo, cauda 

Camelus Vicugna corpore UUlatO} tdstfïa simo obtuso, cauda erecta. 
Camelus ^raucmmê corpore lanato, rostro supe^iie eurvo^ can^i 

Capra Puda ceroibus teret&us laevibus^ ¿Iv^ggeutibusi gula iiaf 


ÈSLLUAEi— Equus Èisuicuê pedibus bisulcis. 

AcciPiTRES.— Vultur Jbía niger reniigibus ñiscis, rcatro cinc- 

Vultur Gryphvs maximus, carúncula verticali longitudinecapitÍA^ 

gula nuda. í. 

Falco Tharua cera, pedibusque luteis, corpore albo-nigrescente, 

vértice cristata 
Strix Cuni€u¿aria capite laevi,, corpore supra fusco» subtus albo, 

pedibus U)berculatis pilosis. , . 

dcAE. — Psittacus Jaguilma macrourus viridís, remigibus apíc© 

fuscis, orbitis fulvis. 
Psittacus Cyanalysioa brachiurus luteo-virens, coílarl cacruleo^ 

uropygio rubro. 
Psittacus Chorus brachyurus viridis, subtus cinereus orbitis ia* 

Picus LignariuB pnleo coccíneo, corpore albo, caeruleoqiie vittato* 
ViQxnhPitiuê cauda brevi^ corpot^ fusco maculís ovalíbus albis 

Trochilus Cyanoce/ihulua rectirostris capke remigibus, rcct|¡c4j- 

busque caeruleis, abdomine rubro. 


Trochilut 6tf/n^¿/«« curvirostris viridl^aurevis, remigibus, rectricl- 

busque fuscis, crista purpurea. 
Trochilus Mtnimua rectirostris, rectricibus latei»a1ibus margine 

exteriore albis, corpbre viridi nitente, subtus albiro. 

Anseres^ — Anas Melancorypha rostro semicylindrico rubro, 

capita nigroy corpore albo. 
Antís Jlybrida rostro semicylindrico, cera rubra, cauda acutî- 

Anas i?e^a carúncula compressa frontali corpore caeruleo subtus 

fusco, collari albo. 
Diomedea Chilerma alis impennibus, pedibus compedibus trydac- 

tylis^ digitis omnibus connexis. 
Diomedea Chilenais alis iropennibus, pedibus compedibus tetradac* 

tylis palmatis, corpore lanuginoso cinéreo. 
Pelecanus Thagua cauda rotunda, rostro serrato, gula saccata. 

Gralla;:. — Phaenicopterus ChilensU ruber, remigibus albis. 

Árdea Mrythrocefihala crista dependente rubra, corpore albo. 

' Árdea Galatea occipite subcristato, corpore lacteolo, rostro lúteo 
pedibus coccineis. 

Árdea Cyanocefihala vértice cristato caeruleo, remigibus nigrís 
idbo roai^ina^s. 

Árdea Thula occipite cristato concolorc, corpore alba 

Tantalus Pilhu üacie, rostro, pedibusque fuscis, corpore albo, re 
migibus rectricibusque nigris. 

Parra Chüenaia unguibus modicis, pedibus fuscis occipite subcris- 

.Otís C/dlenaia capite, juguloque laevi, corpore albo, vértice rectri 
cibusque ciñereis, remigibus primor, nigris. 

Struthio Rea^ pedibus tridactylis, dígito postico rotundato mutico. 

PASSBREs.-p-Columba Mekmcofitêra dauda cuneata, corpore 

caerulescente, remigibus nigris 
Stumus Loyca fusco, alboque maculatus, pectore coccíneo. 
Turdus Thiliua ater, axiUis hit^s, cauda cuneata. 
Turdus Thenca fusco-cinereus, subtus pallido-cinereus remigibus 

rectricibusque ápice albis. 
Turdus Curaeua ater nitens, rostro substriatQ cauda cuneata* 
^ringilla. Barbota lútea, alis viridibus nigro nibroque maiculatit 

gula barbata. 
Fringilla Diuca caernlea, gula alba. 

K k 


FMtotoma (^m. notf.) rostrum conicomy rectnm, aerratum* 

Nares oratae. 
1 Phitoloroa Rare* 

Lingua breris obtusa. 

Reptilia. — ^Rana trunco corpore vcmicoso, pedios palmatiSr 
Rana Lútea corpore verrucoso luteo pedibus subpalinatis. 
Lacerta Pallutna cauda vertidllata loogiuscula, squamis rhom* 

Lacerta Aguatica Mgra^ (caudhrerbera) cauda depresso-plana, 

pinnatifida, pedibus palmatis. 
Nantes. — Chimxra Callorinchuê rostro subtus labro inflexolœvî» 
Squalus Femandinua pinna aninulla, dorsalibus spinous, corpore 

tereti oceUato. 


Apodes. — Stromateus Cumarca dorso caeruleo, abdomine albo. 
Thoracici.— Chaetodon jíureua cauda integra, spinb dorsalibus 

11, corpore áureo, fasciis 5 discolor ibus distincte. 
Spams Chilen9Í9 cauda bifida, lioeis utrinque traasversis fuscis.. 
Abdominales — Silurus JLio/t^r pinna dorsali posüca adiposa, cir- 

ris 4, cauda lancedata. 
Esox Chilensis mazillis aequalibus, linea lateral! caerulea. 
Mugil ChilenHê dorso monopterygio. 
Cyprinus R(gius pinna ani radiis 11, dorsali longitudinaH. 
Cyprinus Caucus pinna ani radiis 13, corpore tuberoso argenteolo. 
C)rprinus Malchua j^na ani radiis 8, corpoi*e cónico subcaeruleow 
Cyprinus lulus pinna ani radiis 10, caudae lobatae. . 


Coleóptera.-— Xiucanus Pümua exscutellatua ater, corpore de*- 

presso, thorace striate. 
Chrysomela MauUca ovata aurata, antennis caeruleis. 
Lepidopter A. — ^Papilio LeucotheaD. aHs integerritnisTotundatis 

albis concoloribus, antennis, aterrimis. 
Papilio PHttacua N. alis dentatis virescentibos, lúteo caerulcoque 

maculatis, subtus flavis. 
Pb^aena Ccraria B. elingms, alis defiexis fiarescentibus, üscm 



HtmenopTERA.— Cynîps JîotwaW;» Çhilcnsii. 

Tipula ilíb«cA(/irra alis iocumbcntíbus cLaereis, tKorace, abdomi- 

neque flayîs. 
Áptera. — ^Aranca Scrofa abdomine senüorbiculato fusco,'dcnti- 

buà laniarîis inferbribas cxscrtis. 
Scorpio Chilerma pectinibuslô dentatis, manibus subangulatis. 
Cancer Talicuna brachyurus thorace orbiculato laevi integerrimi, 

chelis muricatis. 
Cancer Xaiva brachyurus, thorace lacvi lateribus tridentato, 

fronte truncata. 
Cancer Apancora brachyurus, thorace laevi ovato utrinque den- 

ticulato, cauda trígona. 
Cancer Setoaus brachyurus, thorace hirsuto obcordatotuberculato, 

rostro biñdoinflexp. 
Cancer Santolla brachyurus, thorace aculeato arcuatosubcoriaceo, 

manibus pelliculatis. 
Cancer Coronatuè brachyurus, thorace dîovato, apqphyci dorsaïi 

Cancer Cementariuê macrourus, thoraci laevi cylindrico, rostro 

obtuso, chelis aculeatis. 


MoLLüsCAd— Pyura {gen.nov,) Corpus conicum nidulans : Pro- 
bóscides binae terminales perforatae. Oculi inter {Probóscides. 

X Pyura Chilensia, 

Sepia ünguiculata corpore ecaudato, brachiis unguiculatis^ 

Sepia Tunicata corpore prorsus vaginante, cauda alata. 

Sepia Hexafiodia corpore caudato segmentata 

Echinus Mbuê hemisphsrico giobosus, ambulacris dénis: arrâ 
longitudinaliter verrucosis. 

Echinus Niger ovatus, ambulacris quiñis : aréis muricatis verru- 

Te s tace A. — ^Lepas Paittacu* testa postice adunpa, sex val vi, 

Pholas ChUoennê testa oblonga depressiuscula, ttriis longitud!- 

nalibus distantibus. 
Solen Macha testa ovali oblonga antice truncata, cardîne altero 

Chama Thaca subrotunda longitudinaliter striata, ano retuso. 
MjTtilos Atcr testa sulcata postice squamosa. 


Murex Locuê tesU ecâudâta obovatlt anltce nodota» apertiq» 

edentula subôrbiculaUi. 
Helix Serfientina testa subcarinata impefforata cónica, kttgkudi- 

naliter striata^ apertura patulomarginata. 



MoNOGTNiA. — ^Rosmarinus CfUlenaU foliis petiolatis. 

Maytenus {gen^ nov.) Cor. 1 pétela caoaj^anulata. Cal. l*phyllnt. 

Caps. 1 sperma. 
1 Mayteuus Boaria^ 


MowoOTNïA. — Scirpus Eitychmarius Culmo tcretl nudo, spiclK 
globosis quatemis. 

Dyginia. — Arundo Rugi calyc. tri|loris, foliis subulatis glabris. 
Aruudo Quila calyc. trifloris, foliis ensiformibus serratîs. 
Arundo Valdiviana calyc. trifloris, foliis subulatis pubesceotibus. 


MoKOGYNiA. — ^Rubia Chilenaia foliis atinub, caule flubrottlndo 

Çorous CMlensia arbórea, cymis nudis, foliis cordatis denUtís» 


MoNOGYNiA.— ^Nicotiana Minima foliis sessilibixâ ovatls, tiorSbuft 

Solanum Cari caule inermi herb. fol. pinhatîs iateg. nect. campa- 

nulato subaequante pétala. 

DiGYNiA. — Hemiaria Payco foliis serratîs. 

Solsola Coquimtana fruiicosa^ cauL aphyllis, calyc McculeRtî»^ 

Gentiana Cachanlahuen Cor.quinquefidis infundib. ramis oppositis 

Heracleum Tuberosum fol. pinnatis, foliolis septenis, flor, radiatis. 
Seandix éhikmeis semin. rostro longissimo, foliolis integrîs ovato- 


TaiGVNiA. — Quinchamayum {gen, nov.) caL 5-fidus, Cor.5-fida. 
Caps. 3-loculatis pblysperma. 
Quinchamalium Chilense. 


Pentagtttia. — ^Linum ./i^ifof/m fd. altérais lanceoUtis, pedun- 
, cults bifiork. 


MoNOGYNiA. — ^Peumus (¿-en. nov,) Cal. 6-fidus, Cor. 6-petala. 
Drupa l-sperma. 

1 Peumus Rubra foL alternis, petiolatis, ovalibusi int^seirimia* 

2 Peumus Alba fol. altérais, petiolatis, ovalibus, dentatis. 

3 Peumus Mammosa fol. altérais, sessilibus, cordatis, integerríroís. 

4 Peumus Boldua fol. oppositis, petiolatis, oralibus, subtus viUosis. 
Puya (^en. nov,) Pétala 6. inaequalia, tribus major, fornicativ; 

Cap. 3-locülarÍ8. 
1 Puya Chüensie. 


M0NOGYNIA.J— Sassia (^en.nov,) cal. *4-phyllus. Cor. 4-petala. 
Caps. 2-loculari8, 2-spertna. 

1 Sassia Tïnctoria fol. ovatis, scapo multifbro. 

2 Sassia PercUcaria foL cordatis, scapo unifloro. 


MoNOGTKiA. — Laurus Caustica fol. ovalibus rugosis, perenaaa- 

tibus, flor, quadrifidis. 
Panke {gen. nov.) cal. 4-fldus. Cor. 4-fida. Caps, l-sperma. 

1, Panke Tincioria caule erecto racemifero. \ - 

2. Panke AcauUs racemo acauli. 

Plegorhiza {gen. nov.) caL ó. Cor. 1-petala. Caps, l-locularis, 

1. Plegorhiza Gatdctirtt. 

MoNOGTNiA. — ^Hippomanica {gen. nov.) caL 5-partitu8. Pétala 

5-ovata. Caps. 4-locularis. 
1. Hii^omauica Insana. 

DiGYNiA. — Thuraria {gen. nory.) Cor. l-petala» Caly^^ tiilmkMMit.t 
Caps. 2-1 ocularis, 2-sperma 

1. Thuraria Chilenaia. 

Pentagtnia. — ^Oxalis Tuberosa pedunc. ttmbeilMerj«| cauls ra- 
moso, radice tuberosa. 

Oxalis Vtrgosa scapo roultiflore, foL teraatis ovatis. 



MoKOGTVl A.— «Cactus Coçuimbanus erectas, long;as, 10-aogulariS| 

angulis obtusis, spiois longissimis rectis. 
Myrta? Vgni flor, s^litariis, ramis oppositis, foliis ovalibus subse»- 

Mjrrtiis Luma flor, solîtarîis, fol. suborbiculatîs. 
Myrtua Maxima pedimc multifloriS| ioL altérais subovalibus. 

I>SGTNiA.— lúcuma (f en. 710P.) CaL 4-fidu8 duplicatui. Cor. 6. 

Drtipa l-seu S-sperma. 
1. Lucarna Bífera fái altemis, petiolatis, ovato oblongis. 
3. Lucoma Turbinata fcH altemis, petiolatis, lancedatis. 
3. Luçilma Valfiaradiséta foL oppositis, petiolatis, ovato^longfo. 
^ 4h Lúcuma Keule foL altei nis, petiolatis, ovalibus, subserratis. 
5. Lúcuma Sfiinoêa fol. altérais sessilibus, ramis spinosis. 

DiGTNiA— Tcmus(^tfw.»ov.) CaLS-fidus. Cw. la-petala. Bacca 

1. Temus Moêchata. 


Gtmnosfermia.— Ocymum Salinum foL ovatis glabris, caule 

AiroiospERMiA.— Gcvuina {gen. nov.) cal. dt Cor. 4-pfetahi. 

Caps. 1-locularis coriácea. 
1. Gevuina AvelUma. 


Decakdria.— Crinodcndron {gen. nov.) Monogynîa. Caps. S-go- 

na sperma. 
l. Crinodendron Patagua. 

Dec ANDRIA.— Phaseolus PaUar caule volubili, leg. pendulis, cy- 

lindricis, torulosis. 
mi^sftt\^ï%Jhi€Uu8 caule Tolubili, fol. sagîttatis, scmin. globosîs. 
DoUchos-Fzmûnw* volubili caule pei-enni, legum. penduUs penU* 

spermis, fol. ovalibus utrinque glabris. 
PioraleaXw^ foL tematís fasciculatis, foliolis ovatis rugosis, «pic, 

peclunculatis. ' 



IçosANORiA.— Ckrus ChilensU foL sessiUbos acuminatís» 

POLYfe. ^QUAL. — Enpatorium Chilenec fd. oppodtis aoiptexl^ 

caulibus, lanceolatis, denticulatis, calycis quinqaefloris. 
Santolina Tinfitoria pe4unc. uniflor. foL linearibus integemmifi 

caulibus striatis. 

PoLTG. Super F. — Gnaphalium Ftrcrpira herb. foL decurrentibus, 

spatulatis, utrinque tomento9Ís. 
Madia {gen, novJ) Recept. nudum, pappi^ nnllus : caL 8-phillus t 

sem. planoconvexa. 

1. Madia Sativa fol. lineari lanceolatid, pctiolatis. 

2. Madia Melloaa foL ample xicaulibus lanceolatis. 

PoLTG. Frustr.— -Helianthus Thwifer cauk finictlcoso, foL line 


Triandria. — Zea Curagua foliis denticulatis. 

PoLTANDRiA. — ^CoUiguaja [gen.nov,) Mase. Cal. 4.fidus^ cor. 6* 
Scam. 8. 
Fcm, Cal. 4-fidus. Cor. ó. Styli 3-Caps. angularis, 3-sperma. 
1. CoUiguaja Odorífera, 
Quillaja {gen. nov.) Mase. Cal. 4-phyllus. Cor. ó. Stam. 12. 

Fe^). Cal. 4-phyllus. Cor. 6. Styli 4-Caps. 4-locularis. Scm. 
1. Quillaja Safionaria. 

Ad s L PHI A. — Pinus CufireMêoidea fol. imbricatis acutis. 

Pinus JÍraucana fol. turbinatis iifnbricatis hinc mucronatis, ramif 

quatemis cruciatis. 
Stngenesia. — Cucúrbita Sic eraría fol. angulato sublobatis tO' 

mentosis, pomis lignosis globosis. 
Cuctirbita Mammeata foL multipartitis, pomis sphseroideis mam- 


DiANPRiA.--Salix ChiÎendê fol. integerfîmis glabris, lanceolatis, 

DtCANDRiA.-i-Schinus Huyganiol, pinnatis: fbliolis serratis pcti^ 
olatis, Imi^ri breviss}ma 



MovoECiA. — ^Mimosa Balaamicamtrmis M. bipionatit, partialis* 

bus 6-jugis subdentiçulatis, fior. octandris. 
Mîmosa Cavenia spinis stipnlaribus patenubiivfoLbipî>^<L^*i spl- 

cUglobosisverticUlatis sessUibus. 

Trioecia. — Ceratonia ChUermê fol. cnralibus carioatís^ ràxnîi 


Cocos Chilenêis inermis, frond, pînpatîs, fblioL complicatis ensifor- 
mibus, spadicibus quaternis. 


CAi<CARiA<-4jrypsiim Ft^^TaTucum particulis mdetermmaü» ca« 

AR6iLLACEJK.-^Mica Varieguta membranácea fissUis, fiexili$| 
pellttcida, variegata. 

A66R£OATJE.-*Saxum Chillciue impalpabile, luteum^ miiculis 
apatosU mbris caeruleisque. 

Sulphur A. — Bitumen Andinuài tenax exatro caeniletciniB. 

Me TALL A. — Cuprum CamfianUe mineralisatum staRnosum cine- 

Cuprum Láxense zinco naturaliter mixtum. 

Te RRjE.— Arena Cyanea ferri micans caerulea* 
Areaa Talcenm$ ferruginea in aqua durescen^ 
Argilla Bucarina fusca, luteo-punctata, odorüera* 
AitgiUa MauUca nivea, lubrica, atomis nitidisk 
Argilla Subdola atra, aquosa, tenacissima. 
Argilla R<nna aterrima, tinctoria. 
Calx Vulcamu solubilis, pulvereo-granulata. 





Page 91— Chenopodium foUo sinuato, saturate virenti, julgo Qui- 

nva. JFeuiUe* 
Page 92— Oxalis roseo flore ercctior, vulgo CuUe. Feuille. 
Page 93— Fragraria (Chilcnsis) fructn máximo, fdüs carnoai» 

Page 96— Bermudiana bulbosa, flore reflexo cœruîeo. Femlle. 
Alstroemeria (Ligta) caule ascendeutc. Heiherocallis ftoribut 

striatis. Feuille. 
Page 105— Tithymalus fol. trinervüs et cordatis, vulgo Pichoa. 

Polygala cœrulea angustis et densioribus folîife. Clinclin. FeuiUe. 
Gramen bromoides catharticum. Guüna, Feuille. 
Virga aurca leucoi foUoincano. Diuca-lahuen. Feuille. 
Lichnidea verbenœ tenui foliœ, foUa Sandia.lahuen. Feuille. 
Geranium columbinum, corecore. Feuille. 
Page 106-Jacobœa leucinthemi vulgaris folio, Gmlgue. Femlle 
Pag6 lOS^Bochi Uüaceo, amplissimoque, flore carmesine. Copm. 


Page 109— Urcedaria foUis carnosis scandens. Femlle. 
Coriaria (ruscifoUa) fol. cordatorovatís sessiUbus. Deu. 
Lonicera (corymbosa) corymbis terminalibus, fol. ovatis, acuU». 


Poincianaspinosa, vulgo Tara. FeuiUe. 

Pseudo-acacia foUis mucronatis, flore luteo, Mayn. Feuille. 

• It having been found diffictdt from the imfierfect descriptions 
of several of these sfiecies to arrmge them under their proper 
iusIIZ orders, this collocation has been adopted inpreferencs 
Í0 any o<A«r»«Amer. Trans. 

Vol. I. ^^ 


Page 113 — ^Ptoralea glandolbsa, foL omnibus tematís, íqUoUs ova- 
to-lanceolatís, spic. pedunculatis, vulgo Cullen. 

Page 414— Cestrum nocturnum floríbus pedunculatis, vulgo Pal* 

Arbuscula 8*pedalis. 'Caules plurimi, fistulosi, erecti, teretes^ acu- 
leati, sópeme dichótomL -Folia alterna, petíolata, oblonga, 
integra, venosa^ carnosa, 4-pollicarea. Flores corymbosi pe- 
dunculatL Calyx 5-fidu8. Corolla brevior. Corolla mono- 

Eetala, infundibu]ifo]:mis, limbo plano 5-partitO) fiavescent. 
ucea ovalis violácea. 
Page lir — ^Datura arbórea, pericarp ; glabris inermibus nutanü- 

bus, caule arbórea Floripondia 
Page 118— Boighe cinamomifera otir» firucta^ Fttdlle, ^ 







IN BOLOGNA, 1776. 

THE Spaniards have divided that part of Chili belonging to 
them, between the Andes and sea, into foarteeh provinces, to 
which may be added the Archipelago of Chiloe, the islands of 
Juan Fernandez, and the province of Cujo. Each of these, ex- 
cepting Valdivia and the islands of Juan Fernandez, is the re- 
sidence of a prefect called the Corregidor j who presides over the 
civil and military officers of his department, and on whom -the 
Cabildo, or magistrate, is dependant. These provinces, coÁmen- 
mencing on the side of Peru, are : 

1st. COPIAPO. 

THIS province is bounded on the North by the desarts of Pern, 
on the East by the Andes, on the South by Coquimbo, and on the 
West by the Pacifick Ocean. It is in length from North to South 
about one hundred leagues, and in breadth from East to West 
forty-four. It is watered by the rivers Salado, Copiapo, from 
whence it derives its name, Castagnp, Totoral, Quebradaponda^ 
'Guaseo and ChollaL It abounds with gold, lapis lazuli, sulphur, 
and fossile salt, which is found in almost all the mountains that 
terminate it to the East. Its capital, of the same name, is situated 
uponthe river Copiapo, in 26. deg. 50. min. S. latitude, and 305. 5. 
W. longitude. It contains a parish, a convent of Mercedarii, and 
a college which formerly belonged to tlie Jesuits. On the river 
Guaseo are situated the towns of Santa Rosa and Guascoalto, both 
in 29 deg. of latitude, the first at four leagues distance from the 
tea, and the second in the neighbourhood of the Ande^ Thi» 
province has two ports, one at the mouth of the river Copiapo, and 
the other at that of the Guaseo, which are known by the names of 
, th9M rivers. •^ 

• 252 


COQUIMBO, bounded on the North by Copiapo, on the Eaat 
by thé Andes, on the South East by Aconcagua, on the South 
West by QuUlota, and on the West by the sea, is forty-five leaguM 
in length, and forty in breadth. It» rivers are the Coquimbo^ 
Tongcû, Limari and Chuapa. It is rich hi gold, copper, iron, wine, 
olives, and other fruits, both those of European origin, and such as 
are natural to the country. Its capital is Coquimbo, otherwise 
called la Serena^ which was founded in the year 1544, by Pedro de 
Valdivia. This city is the residence of several noble and ancient 
families ; it is pleasantly situated upon the river Coquimbo, in 39. 
deg. 49. mm. of latitude and 304. 32. of longitude. The fields 
around it are in a constant state of verdure, though it seldom 
rains there, and the temperature of the air ia very mild. It has 
been several times taken and plundered by the English. Bssides 
the parochial church, it contains several convents of monks of dif- 
ferent orders, and a college foo^merly belonging to the Jesuits, 
There are two ports in this province, that of Coquimbo, near the 
mouth of the river of that name, at two leagues distance from the 
city, where some vessels from Peru load annually; and that cl 
Tongoi, towards the confines of Quillota. 


THIS province is bounded by that of Coquimbo on the north, on 
tiie east by Aconcagua, on the south by Melipilla, and on the west 
by the sea. It is twenty-five leagues in length, and sixteen vx, 
breadth. Its rivers are the Longotoroa, Ligua, Aconcagua, and 
Limache. This district is one of the most populous and the richest 
in gold of any in Chili. Its hemp and honey are much esteemed. 
Thf: capital, Quillota, or St Martin, is situated in a pleasant 
valley on the borders of tlie river Aconcagua, in 32. 56. (^ latitude^ 
and 304. 20. of longitude. It has a parish, with the churches of St, 
Dommick,St. Francis, St Augustine, and a college formerly of the 
Jesuits. This province contains also the cities of Piazza, Plazilla» 
Ingenio, Casablanca, and Petrorca. This last is very populous, in; 
consequence of the .great number of miners who resort thither to. 
work in the gold mines in its vicinity. It is situated on the river 
Longotoma, in 31. 30* southla titude, and 305. longitude. Qaillota. 
contains a number of ports, the most considerable of which are< 
Papudo, Quintiro l'Érradura, Concón, and Valparaiso. The 
four first are not frequented ; Valparaiso, or Valparadisb, the 



most commercial port ctf ChUi, from whence all the trade to Spam 
and Peru is carried on, is in 33. 2^. of latitude, and 304. 11. of 
longkude. The harbour is very capacious, and so deep that shipd 
of the lai^est size can lie close to the shore. Its convenience for 
trafilck, and the salubrity of its atmosphere, have rendered it a place 
of considerable population. A governor froml^am resides there, 
who has the command in the civil and military departments, and 
is amenable only to the President of Chill Besides the college, 
which formerly belonged to the Jesuits, Valparaiso contains a parish 
church and several convents of monks.- Upon the shore which 
forms the harbour is a weU peopled town, three miles distant 
from Valparaiso, called l^AlmendraL 


ACONCAGUA is enclosed between the provinces efCoquimb<v 
Quiüota, Saa^go, and the Andes. It is of the same size as Quil- 
la, and is watered by the same rivers. It produces great quan* 
titles of grain and fruits, and much copper is procured from its' 
mountains. The famous silver mines of Uspallata are situated in 
thatpart of the Andes corresponding to it. Its capital is Aconcagua, 
or St PhîUfi^ upon the river <^ the same name in 32. 4^. of latitude, 
and 305. 50. of longitude* Besides a parochial church, it contains 
several convents of various religious orders, and a house which 
belonged to the Jesuits. Near the Andes is a village called Curimon, 
Inhere the strict Franciscans have a numerous convent. 


MELIPILLA is bounded on the north by Quillota, on the east 
by Santiago, on the south by the river Maypo, which divides it 
from Rancagua, and dn the west by the^ sea. This province is of 
, small extent upon the sea, but is about twenty-five leagues from 
east to west. Its rivers are the Mapocho and Poangue, and 
it abounds with wine and grain. Melipilla, or St. Joaefihde Lo- 
gronnoy situated not far from the Maypo, in 32. 32. of latitude, 
and 304. 5. of longitude, is the capital. Although the situation of 
this place Is beautiful, and the land near it very fertile, yet 
from its vicinity to St. Jago, where the greater part of the proprie- 
tors reside, it is but thinly peopled. Notwithstanding, besides a parish 
church, the Augustines and the Mercedarii have establishments 
there, and the Jesuits had also a college. Near the river Mapocho 
b 1^ town of St. Francis del Monte, so called from an ancient 


Mnvent of Franciscans, ai'ound whkh a nmpber of poor &milies 
baving collected^ formed the populatíoír of this place. ^In its 
Ticimty are several country houses belonging to some of the princi- 
pal inhabitants of St. Jago. Not far from the mouth of the river 
Maypo is the port of St Antcmio ; this was much frequented at an 
early period of the Spanish settlement, but since the trade 
has been transferred to Valparaiso, few or no vessels continue to 
load there. 


.THE province of St Jago is bounded by that (tf Aconcagua to the 
north, the Andes to the east, the river Maypo to the south, and 
Melipilla to the west It is fifteen leagues in extent frcmieastto 
west, and twelve from north to south, and is watered by the rivers 
Mapocho, Colina, and Zampa, and by several. other beautifol 
streams. It also contains the lake Pudaguel, which is abput three 
leagues in length. It is the most fertile of any part of Chiü^ pro» 
ducing great quanties ofcom, wine and fruits, particularly peaches 
which in size and flavour surpass any others of the country. The 
mountains of Caren abound with mines of golfi, and that part of the 
Andes which is attached to it with silver. But the chief impor- 
tance of this province is derived from its being the seat of the capitiá 
of the kingdom, founded in 1541 by Pedro de Valdivia. This beautiful 
city called St Jago stands on an extensive and delightful plain on the 
southern shore of the river Mapocho, which separates it from the 
suburbs of Chimba, Cannadilla and Renca. It is supplied with 
v^ter by a great numb^ ^ aqueducts which are carried to all 
the houses. On each side of the river mounds of stone have been 
built as a security against inundations, and over it b a beautiful 
bridge that connect^ the city with the suburbs. It is situated in 33 deg. 
SI min« south latitude, and in 305. 40. longitude, at the distance of 
thirty leagues from the sea, and seven from the Andes, whose 
lofty snow-clad heights form a beautiful contrast with the verdure 
of its scenery. The streets, like those of all tlie other cities and 
villages in Chili, are strait and int( rsected at -right angles, and are 
thirty-six geometrical feet in breadth. The great square is quad- 
rangular, being four hundred and fifty feet on each side. In the 
midst is a handsome fountain of bronze. The noi'th side is occupied 
by the palaces of the presidents of the audience and of the city, 
beneath which are the public prisons. On the opposite side is the 
palace of the Count de Sierra-bella, On the western are the cathe- 


drftiy&Bd the palace of the Archbbhc^ and on the eastern three 
heuses belonging to noblemen. The most remarkaUe edifice» ar« 
tlie cathedral, the churches of St Dominick, and that of the great 
college formerly belonging to the Jesoits. The private houses are 
handsome and pleasant, but, on account of earthquakes,«are usu* 
ally of but «me story. Besides the suburbs on the other side of the 
river, there is one to the south, called St Isidqre ; it is very large, 
and separated from the city by a street four times as broad as 
the others, called Carinada, In the eastern part of the city is a 
hill, called St, Lucia^ which forn^rly served as a fortress against 
the Indians. The inhabitants amount to forty-six thousand, and 
their numbers increase rapidly, inconsequence of the great com'- 
mercé of the place, which is very extensive in poportion to its 
population, as the houses are in general very commodious. The 
parochial churches are but four, tnecathedral, St. Anna, St. Isidore, 
and Renca. There are, however, several convents of monks, two 
Dominican, four Franciscan, two Augustin, twoof theMercedarii, 
and one belonging to the brothers of Charity with a hospital, be- 
Mdes seven nunneries» a house of correction ior women, a foundling 
hospital, several private endowments, a college of nobility, which 
was under Uie direction of the Jesuits, and a Tridentine semináiy. 
The Jesuits had likewise here a house of devotion, and three col- 
leges with public schools, wherein were taught the various branches 
of learning. St Jago also contains a royal university, a mint for 
coining gold and silver and barracks for the soldiers, who are em- 
ployed to maintain the police and as guards to the president, ah4 
' is the,|ieat of the grand tríbuI^ds of the kugdom. The principal 
court is composed of twelve Regidores^ or perpetual senators, and 
of all the other officers who form the magistracy of the other 
cities of the country. It has a numerous nobility, consisting of 
several dignities of Castile, grandees, knights of the military or- 
ders of Spain, and honorary officers of his Catholick Majesty. Being 
the centre of all the commerce îâ Chili, it abounds with every 
convenience of life, and as all kinds of meat, fish and other ar- 
ticles of food are obtained from the neighbouring provinces ia 
great quantities, provisions are very cheap. 


KAKCAGUA is enclosed between the rivers Majrpo and Cacha- 
poal, and extends IV-om the Andes to the sea. Its breadth between 
these rivers it very unequal, -being from serenteeii to only eight 


letgMcs. It b watered by the rivers Co^egua, Cbocatai», mn^ 
several otkers that are of ¡ess importance; it contains sdso the 
lakes Aculeu aud Bucaletmi. The ñrst, which iç near the centre 
of the prorince) is about six miles in circnmference, and the other» 
in the neighbourhood of the sea> is from six to seven miles «in. 
length. From another lake» not far from the latter, large quantities 
of s^ are obtained. The lands of Rftncagua are very fertile aiul 
produce much grain. Santa Croce di Trianna^ or Riancagua, the 
capita» is in 34 deg. of latitude, and 305. 32. longitude. It has a 
parish church» a convent of Fraa&iscans, and another of Mercedarii. 
Algue» a town recently founded» at eight leagues from the capital 
towards the sea coast^ has a very rich mine of gold. 


THIS province is situated between the rivers Cachapoal ana 
Teno, and between the Andes and the sea. Its breadth from north 
to south near the Andes is twenty-five leagues, and near the seft 
about fourteen. Its rivers are the Rio-clarillo, Tinguiririca, and 
Chimbarongo. In it are also the great lakes Taguatagua, and 
Cagüil» the first of which is full of beautiful islands, and the other 
abounds with large clamps, that are highly esteemed. This pro- 
vince is very fertile in grain, wine and fruits, and produces much 
gold. It forms a part of the district occupied by the Promaucians» 
a name» signifying people of delight, derived from the beauty 
of the -country which they inhabit. The capital is St. Ferdinando» 
which was built in the year 1742, not far from the pleasant river 
Tinguiririca in 34. 18. deg. of latitude, and 305. 30. of longitude^ 
Besides the parish church, it has a convent of Franciscans, and a 
college with a handsome church» which belonged te the Jesuits. 
The towns of Rio-clarillo» Malloa and Roma» are also situated in 
the same province. 

Oth. MAULE. 
MAULE is bounded on the north by Calcha gua» on the east by 
the Andes» on the south cast by Chilian, the south west by Itata» 
and on the west by the sea, Thjs province is forty-four leagues 
long, and forty broad, and is watered by the rivers Lantue» Rio- 
claro» Pangue» Lircai, Huénchullami, Maule s from which it de- 
rives its name» Putagan» Achiguemu, |Liongavi» Loncomilla» Pura- 
pcl and otliers of hiferMHr consideration. This province» as weU aa 
the preceding, abounds in graio» wine, fruits, gold, salt, cattle, and 
sea and river fish. The cheese made here is the best in C)^!!» ^nd 


Is no way inferior to that o^Placeotia or Holland. Its inhabitants, 
who arc mostly the descendants of the ancient Prpmaueians, are 
courageous, robust, and warlike. The capital Talca, or St. Au- 
gustin was built in the year 1742. It is situated among hills on the 
rirer Rioclaro, in latitude 34. 47. and 304. 45. of longitude. Its po- 
pulation is very considerable, owing, not only to the rich mines of 
gold that are found in its mountains, but to theplentifulness'of pror 
visions which are cheaper than in any other part of Chili. This 
latter- circumstance has induced several noble families from St. 
Jago áild Conception, whose finances had become diminished, to re- 
tire thither ; an emigration which has been denominated in deri- 
sion the bankrupt ccdony. It contains a parish wi^h convents çf 
Hionksof the Franciscan, Dominican, Augustin and 31ercedarii 
OTúérsj and a college that belonged to the Jesuits. In this province 
are also the towns of Curico, Cauquenes, St Saverio di Bella-Isla, 
St Antonio della Florida, Lora» andtlu*ee or four other Indian vil- 
lages. Curico, or St Joseph of Bueno Vista, was built in the year 
1742, and is situated in a pleasant plain at the foot of a beautiful 
hill, in 34. 14. degrees of latitude, and 305 degi*ees of longitude. It 
<»)ntains a parish church, a convent of Mercedarii and another of 
strict Franciscans which is veiy large. Cauquenes, was byilt the 
same year, and lies in 35. 40. degrees of latitude, and in 304. 30. of lon- 
gitude, between the two small rivers Tutuben and Cauquenes. Be- 
sides the {parish church, it has a convent of Franciscans. St. Save- 
rio di Bella Isla and St Antonio della Florida, were founded ia 
the year ^1755 ; the first is in 35. 4. degrees of latitude and 304. 59, 
of longitucle, and theiiecond in 35. 20. of latitude, and 304. 41. of 
longitude. Laro, situatf near the diseraboguement of the river 
Mataquito, is a numerous settlement of Promaucian Indians, and 
Is governed by a Cacique or Ulmen.. 

10th. IT AT A. 

THE province of Jtata lies upon the sea coast, between MauU 
Mid Puchacay, and'is bounded on the east by Chilian. From east 
to west it is twenty leagues inlength„^d from north to south eleven^ 
and is intersected by the river Itata, from whence it derives its 
name. The best wine of any in Chili is obtained from this pro- 
Tince, which from its being produced from lands belonging to the in- 
habitants of Conception, has received the name .of Conception 
wine, ^i^h gold is also fiund in the mountains, and in the sands 
•of the rivers. Its capital, Jesus of Coulemu^is situated near the 

Vol. li * -Mm 


motttli of the river lUU, in 3Ó. 2. degrees of laütude, ilid SOS. 41. 
«f longiTude, and was founded in the year 1743. 

11th. CHILLAN. 

CHILLAN is ¿omided on the north by Mank, on tíieeastby the 
Andes, oh the south by HuUquilema, and on the west by thcpro- 
▼ince of ftata. It is of the same extent as the preceding, and ia 
watered by the rivers Nuble, Cato, Chillan, IMguiU^ andDaanir- 
calquin. This whole district is a plah^ and very fevOurabietothe 
raising of sheep, which are highly esteemed for their woel throng 
eut the kingdom. Com and fruits arc also produced there m great 
quantities. The capital is catted 5^. ^arr^oibmev </ C^toiit. R 
was founded in the year 1580, andis situated eo the river Chiila% 
hi 36 degrees of latitude, and 305. 3. of longitude. It ha» beett 
destroyed several times by the Araucanians, and in the year 1751 
was overthrown by an earthquake. In consequence of this acci- 
dent, the inhabitants transferred it the succeeding year to a mer« 
commodious site and one less exposed to the inundations of th« 
river. This city is well peopled, notwithstandmg which it con- 
tains but one parish church, with convents of tíie Frañciacan, Do- 
minican and Mercedarii orders, and a coDegr which bekmged *• 
the Jesuits. 

12th. PÜCHACAY. 

PUCHACAY is bounded on the north by the province of Itata» 
on the east by Hullquilerou, on the south by the river Bio-bio, and 
on the weit'by the s^. From north to south it is twelve leagues 
in extent, and twenty from cast to west It b irr%ated by the 
river Andalien and several other small streams. It produces gold 
dust in abundance, and also great quantities of straw-berries both 
wild and cultivated, which are the largest in ChilL Gualqui, or 
Si. John the Bafitietjíoünáeá in the year 1754, upon the n^urthem 
shore of the river Bio-bio, in 36. 44. degrees of latitude, and SOê. 
48. of lon^tude, is properly the capital, and the residence of th* 
'prefect or Corregidor, This province comprehends the Prefèc- 
turateof Conception, whi¿h extends a little beyond the city of thtrt 

Conception, called in the language of the country PoncOf was 
founded, by Pedro dl Valdivia, in a dell, or valley, formed on tîiè 
sea coast by some beautiful hills, in latitude 36.4!?. and longftud^ 


303. 23. This city is the second in the kingdom. At its commence* 
ment it flourished greatly, from the vast quantities of gold that 
were dug in its vicinity ; but after the unfortunate battle of Mar» 
riqueno in the year 1554, it was abandoned by Villagran the go- 
vemor, and the inhabitants, on the approach of Lautaro, the Arau- 
canian general, and 'by him taken and burned. It was, however, 
rebuilt in the month of November of the following year after a 
period of six months, but Lautaro, returning, again rendered hira- 
■df master of it, slew in the assault the greater part of the garri- 
•OD, and razed it to its foundations. Don Garcia de Mendoza, af- 
ter his victories over Caupolican, restored it anew and fortified 
it strongly. Having successfully resisted the attempt of the Arau- 
canians to take it, who besieged it for ñfty days, it continued to 
iouri^ in great qilendour until the year 1603, when, with the other 
soothem cities of the Spaniards, it was taken and burned by the 
Toqui PaiUamachu. It soon, however, began to rise again from 
its ashe% and resume its former lustre, in consequence of the 
great commerce which was carried on there ; and becoming more 
strong and p<q)ulous than ever the Ar^ucanians ceased to molest 
iU But in the year 1730 a calamity of a new kind assailed it. It 
was almost totally destroyed by an earthquake, attended by an 
inundation of the sea which overflowed the greater part, and 
•wepl away every thing that it met in its course. Notwithstand- 
* ing these repeated misfortunes, the inhabitants obstinately re- 
solved t9 persevere, and built it anew in a handsome manner, but 
did not enjoy it long, fi>r in the month of May of the year 1751, 
this devoted city was again destroyed by an earthquake and an 
Influx JQ^ the sea, which entirely covered it They fortunately 
^soaped and took refuge on the neighbouring liills, but continued for 
tliirteen years in an unsettled state, not being able to agree among 
themselves in rebuilding the city. At length they resolved to 
abandon its former site, and foimded a new city, at the distance (^ 
ft league from the sea, in a beautiful plain, called Mocha, upon 
the northern shore of the Bia.bia The Prefect, or Corregidor 
is at the same time, by the royal decree, commander of thb 
«rany, this being the principal place for the rendezvous of th» 
militia of the country. It has for many years been the residenùa 
(^ the camp^master-general, and of late that \ of the 9ei;feant 
voBJer» The royal treasury in this place, from whence the M^ 
dkrs of the frontiers, as well as those belonging to the city, av« 
paid, is conflded to the care of a treasurer, a cashier, and an 
inspector* The AjucUenza, errsyal cooacil, was fif st estabusheil 


in Conception in the year 1^67^ but was afterwards abdished^ and 
re-established some^years after in the capital of St. Jago. The 
president is, however, obliged to reside in this dty for dz 
months, and has a palace in it built at the expense of the go- 
vernment. After the destruction of the city of ImperiaU in the 
year 1603, it was erected into a bishq)ric Besides containing 
convents of all the religious orders establbhed in Chili, it has one 
*of the sisters of the Trinity, a college which belonged to the Je- 
suits, with public schools, in which were taught the sciences of bu<* 
inanity, philosophy and theology, a college of nobility, wliich was 
likewise under the direction of the Jesuits, and a Tridentine semi- 
nary. The inhabitants, in consequence of so many misfortunes, 
scarcely amount at present to thirteen thousand. The temperature 
of the air is at all seasocs very mild ; the soil fe^^tile, and- the sea 
coast abounds with every kind of fish of the most delicious kinds, 
both scaled and testaceous. The harbour, or bay, is spacious, ex- 
tending fun three leagues and a half from north to south, and as 
many from east to west The Quiriquina, a beautiful and fertile 
island, situated at its mouth, forms two entrances to it, th^ east- 
cm of which, called Bocça Grande j is two miles wide, and the^ 
western, caMed Bocea Chiea, is but a little more than a mile. The 
harbour affords good and safe anchorage for vessels of an^mr- 
den, especially in a port called Talcaguanoy where ships at 
present lie, as the new city is not far (tistant. • 


THE province of Huilquilemu, commonly called Estanzia del 
Rei, the royal possession, is situated between Chilian, the Audes, 
the river Bio-bio and Puchacay, and is in length and In^eadth the 
same as the preceding. Its rivers are the Itata, Claro, JLaxa and 
Duqueco. This district is rich in gold dust, and produces an exr 
cellent muscadel wine. The inhabitants are valiant and warlike, 
having been accustomed to fight with their formidable neighbours 
the Araucanians. The capital is called Estancia del Rei,^ or St, 
Levds di GonzagUj and was-bmlt not many years sinct, near the 
Biobio in 36 deg. 45 minutes of latitude, and 304. 48. of longitude. 
Besides the parish church there is an ancient college of the Jesuits 
To protect this province from the incursions of the Araucani- 
ans, the Spaniards have erected, upon the shore of the Bio^bio 
within their tcwitory, the forts pf Jumbel, Tucapen, St* Barbara 
land Puren. Their barrier, however, is situated on the southern 


jbank of that riverj and consists of the forts of Arauco, Colcúra, 
St^'Pedro, St. Joanna^ Na^cimento and Angeles. 

14th. VALDIVIA. 

THIS ptqivincc is entirely separated fronaall the others possess- 
ed by the Spaniards in Chili, being situated in the midst of the 
country occupied by the Araucanians, which comprehends a tract 
of about seventy leagues in length. It lies upon the sea coast, on 
bquï sides of the great river Valdivia, and on the south is bounded ' 
by the Guinchi, or Cunchiy who are in possession of its southern 
part It is about twelve leagues long and six broad, and abounds 
with valuable timber^ and with gold dust, esteemed the purest of any 
inCliili. Its capital is the famous city, fortress, and port of Valdi- 
via, situat«d on the southern shore of the river of that name, at 
three leagues distance from the sea, in 39. 58, degrees of latitude, 
and 305. 2. of longitude. This city was founded in the year 1551, 
by the conqueror Pedro de Valdivia, who gave it his name, and ob- 
tained immense sums of gold from its vicinity. Its wealth allured 
man^ inhabitants thither, and it became, even at its commence- 
ment, one of the most populous cities in the kingdom. It was twice 
besieged ineffectually by the Toqui Caupolican, but it was not so 
fo^unate in resisting the talents and activity of the celebrated 
Paillamachu. In the year 1599 it was sui*prised at night by that 
general with four thousand men, who killed the greater part of the 
garrison, consisting of eight hundred soldiers, and, having burned 
the city, carried off a million in^ gold, and a valuable booty, con-, 
sistingof the effects of the inhabitants, together with agréât num- 
ber, of priscmers. The Spaniards, convinced of the importance of 
this situation, rebuilt it anew, and fortified it so strongly, that it re- 
sisted alllhe attempts of the Araucanians. It was, however, ta« 
ken in the year 1640 by the Dutch, who, notwithstanding they were 
determined to keep it, were compelled to abandon it, being 
frusU'ated in their attempts to form an alliance with the Arauca<» 
nians and the Cunchi, who even refused to supply them with pro- 
visions, of which they were in great want. The Spaniards, who 
had fitted out a considerable ñeet to retake it, finding it on their 
arrival abandoned, repaired and foi^tified it in a better manner 
than before, adding four strong castles or forts upon both sides of 
the river towards the sea to defend it from foreign invasion, and 
anctther on the north to protect it from the inclusions of the Arau- 
caniaiis. These precautions have hitherto succeeded in- securing it 


against external enemies, but it has saffered sererely from fire, 
which has twice almost entirely destroyed it The harbour is sittt* 
ated in a beautiful bay formed by the river, and is the sa^st, the 
strongest from its natural position, and the most capacious of any 
of tlK ports in the South Sea. The island of Manzera, utuated 
just in the mouth of the river, forms two passages, bordered by 
•teep mountains, and strongly fortified. As this is a post oÍ the 
most importance of any in the Pacific, a governor is sdways sent 
from ^ain, who possesses reputation as a military officer, and is 
under the immediate direction of the president of the kkigdom» 
He has under his command a considerable number of troops, whe 
arc officered by the five castellans, or commanders of the castles, a 
serfeant major, a provediior, an inspector, and several captains. 
For the pay of the soldiers thirty-six thousand crowns are annu- 
ally sent hither fi'om the royal treasury of Peru, and the previ- 
sions requisite for their subsistence from tlie other ports oi Chili. 
ITie Jesuits had formerly a college here ; tliere are besides some 
invents of Franciscans and of the Brothers of Charity, with a 
royal hospital, and the parish church. 


/ ISa great, gulph or bay at the southern extremity of ChUi, 
tcooped out, as it were, in a circular form by the South Sea to the 

* «kirts of the Andes. This gulph extends from latitude 41. 30. te 
44. 4a and from lon^de 303. to 804. 50. file islands that it 
contains amount to forty-seven, of which thirty-two have been 
peopled by the Spaniards or Indians, and the remaining are enin** 
^bited. Among the former there is one that is very large, sovie 
that are of a moderate size, being from twelve to fifteen teaguesia 
length, bat the oUiers are smalL The large island, which is cal- 
led Chiloe, has in later times communicated its name tothte Archi-* 
pelago, which was formerly known by that of Ancud. Thisisliuid^ 
whose western coast runs from north to aouth, the same course as 
that of the continent, b situated in the very mouth af the gidpb^ 
leaving only two passages, one of which, between its northern ^at-* 
tremity and the shore of thje continent, is little moue than three 
miles in breadth ; but the other, between its southern point and the 
foot ei the Andes, is more than twelve leagues. This island is ttta<* 
ated between the forty-^first and a half and the forty-ÂHirth degrees 
of latitude, and isjtbout sixty leagues in length, and twenty in its 
greatest breadth. The land, like thiit of all the other islasdsi ia 


IttottifttaiiiQUS) and covered with almost impenetrable thickets, XhtL 
\ nÛQB are exeea^ve, a^id only in the autumn do the inhabitants ea- 
jof fifteen or twenty days of fair weather in succession. During 
any other season, ^ere eight days to pass without rain, it would be 
•sDeemed a singular phenomenon. The atmosphere, d course, is 
very humid, and streams and rivers are to be found in every part. 
The air, notwithstanding, is very salubrious, and the temperature 
10 mild, that it is nerer known tobe either hot or very cold. Owing , 
to the great degree of moisture, grain and fruits produce but vei*y 
indifferently in these islands ; the corn, however, that is raised there 
is sufficient for the supply of the inhabitants. Barley, beans and 
llax produce very well. Of kitchen herbs, the cabbage and gar- 
lic are the only ones that grow there» The grape never attain» 
to maturity, and the same is the case with all other fruits, except 
t^ fq)ple ami some wildings. Beef, though not so i^nty as in Chili^ 
is by no meiœs scarce. ^Horses, though not in such numbers aa 
on the continent, are yet common, and there is scarcely a per- 
son who is not the owner of one or two. Asses die in a short time 
after they are transported thither, whence there is not a mule to 
be found throughout the whole of the Archipelaga llie animals 
that are met with in the greatest abundance are sheep and hogsy 
in which the inhabitants carry on a considerable trade. The wild 
animals^ natural to the country, are deers, otters, and a species o€ 
hlack fox. Domestic fowls, as well as wild, are produced there in 
' great numbers. In addition to these, the benevolent author of na^ 
ture has, asan indemnity for those things of which they are desti- 
tute, provided all/ these islands i^ith vast quantities of excellent 
ft^ of aU kinds. Ambergris of a superior quality is also found 
there, and much honey, which is made by the wild bees. Wood i» 
Bkewise very plentiful, and of a kind fitted for every sort of man- 
ufiftcture and ship-building. 

This Archipelago was first discovered in the year 1558, by Don 
Oarcia de Mendoza, governor of Chili, but no attempt was then 
«lade to conqmer it But in 1565, Don Martbo Ruiz Gamboa was 
sent there, who, with only sixty men, subjected its inhabitants to 
l£e mimber of seventy thousand, witliput experiencing the least re- 
mstance^ and founded in tt^ principal island, the city of Castro and 
the port of Chaca. These Indians, called Chilotes, remained sub- 
missive to Spain, until the present century, when they threw off die 
yoke, but were soon brought under subjection, through the conduct 
of general Don P^dro Molina, who was sent from Conception to 
reduce them to obedience^ Although descended from the Chilians^ 


whom ibey resemble in appearance, custom and language, these 
people are extremely timid and very docile. They are remarka- 
ble for their ingenuity, and readily acquire a knowledge of any 
thing to which they apply themselves, lliere are among them 
tery expert carpenters, cabinet-makers, and formers. In the 
manufacturing of flax and wool they display much dtül, and make 
beautiful bed coverings from these materials mixed with feathers, 
,and also some cloths, which they embroider with various colours. 
They have a strong attachment to a sea life, and become excellent 
sailors. Their barks, called piragues, consist of three or four 
large planks sewed together, and caulked with a kind of oakum 
or moss, collected from a shrub» These are very numerous through- 
out the Archipelago, and are managed with sails and oars, and 
voyages are <^en made in them as far as Conception. The Chi- 
lotes educate their sons well, anil accustom them to labour at an 
early age. When taught, they make a rapid progress- in learning. 
Some years since, a school was established for them in a village 
called Chonchi, into which one hundred and sixty were i^dmitted, 
and all of them in thé space of a single year were taught to read 
and write, the fírstjrules of arithmetic, the doctrines of Christiani- 
ty, and the Spanish language. They were easily converted to 
Christianity, and they live in such strict regard to its duties, 
that the purity of the primitive church appears to be revived in 
them. Some tribes of savages, have likewise settled in these 
islands, who have been the missionaries to leave the 
Magellanic districts in order to establish themselves in' the Archi- 
pelago. , ) 

The government is vested in a governor, who is dependant 
upon the president of Chili, and resides at Chacao^ a babildo, 
or magistrate, with his Prefect, or Corregidor^ in the. city of 
Castro, who have conjunctively cognisance of the private suits 
of the Indians, and a commandant in the island of Calbuco, 
situated in the northermost part of the Gulph. The Archipelago 
is divided into three parishes, dependant upon the diocese of Con- 
ception, the bishops of which, except one and a bishop Tn/uzr^¿u«, 
never go there, because of the danger of the voyage. It contahis 
seventy-five towns, mostly inhabited by Indians, who ^re under 
the government of their Ulmenes, in e^ch of which, the Jesuits 
had a misionary church. The two principal places are Castro and 
Chacao. . ' 

Castro, the capital of the whole Archipelago, is situated in the 
pastern part of the great island, upon an arm or gulph xif theséa, 
in 4^. 58. degrees of latitude, and 303. 15. of longitude. The houses^ 


Mke those in all the other islands, are built of wood. The inhahi- 
tantSy who are not numerous, usually live upon their own possessions. 
Besides the parish church and the college, formerly belonging to the 
Jesuits, there is a convent of Franciscans, and another of Mer- 
cedarii, in which ^two or three monks reside. The port of Chacao 
lies nearly in the middle of the northern coast of the same island, 
upon the principal channel, which runs between that shore and the 
continent, in 42 degrees of latitude, and 307. 37. of longitude. This 
port has good anchorage,vand is well defended from the winds, but 
the entrance is very difficult, owing in some measure to the currents 
ana eddies that prevail in the channel, but principally to a rock 
that rises in the narrowest part of it, and is not visible exceptât 
ebb. The whole commerce of the Archipelago is carried onfrMn 
this port, in four or five ships that come here annually from Ppru, 
or from the ports on the continent of Chili; This traffic is entirely 
conducted by bartering the productions of the country for those 
articles that are brought, money bemg very scarce in these islands. 
Upon the arrival of the ships, the Cabudo, or magistrate of Castro, 
¿as the privilege of sending two deputies, to tax the goods brought 
in them, and make an estimate of their prices, which is to regulate 
the sale. This trade, by the royal grant, is not subjected to the 
duties that are paid in the other ports. 


THESE islands are about one hundred and thirty leagues dis- 
tant from the coast of Chili. They are situated in about 32. 42. de- 
greet of latitude, and 297. 32. of longitude. The island of Fuerft 
is about three miles in length ; the land is very high, or rather a steep 
mountain, nsing abn^tly from the sea, having no harbours, or 
statíons, where ships may remain secure, «in consequence of the 
great depth ol water that surrounds^ it. This island is full of beauti- 
ful trees and stream* of good water, according to the in^rma* 
tion of the fishermen, who are in the habit of landing there. The 
island of Terra is eleven or twelve miles long by three broad. The 
land is principally mot^itainouá, broken, and intersected by ra- 
vines, caused by the frequent torrents, and streams which descend 
from the mountains. It abounds with excellent wood, among 
which are the landai, the yellow wood and the. chonta, a specie» 
of the palm, which' produces a fruit that is far from unpleasant ¡ 
the wood of the trunk, which is hollow like a reed, becomes oS a 
beautifol black, and is nearly as hard as iron. Lord Ansen reprer 
seats this island as a terrestrial paradise, but in reality its soil il' 

Vol. I. K a 


Infested with worms that destroy every thin|;. The Coast aboandt 
with lobsters, cod and other fish, and with aqoatic animals, in 
which ¡ifi trade, which is very considerable, consists. This island 
was first discovered by Juan Fernandez, from whom it received 
its name, and who formed a settlement there, and bronght over 
from the continent some goats that multiplied to an astonishing de* 
gree. After his death it was deserted, in which state it continued 
for some time, but the Spaniards perceiving of what importance to 
them the possession oi these islands had become, in 1750 made a 
permanent establishment in that of Terra, and settled the port call- 
ed Juan Fernandez, on the south-west coast The president of Chili 
appoints its governor, who is usually one of the commanders upon 
the Araucanian frontier. Besides the port of Juan Fernandez, 
there is another, lybg towardsihe south, called the English harbour, 
from the circumstance of Lord Anscm's squadron having anchored 
there, but it u insecure, being too much exposed to the winds. 

17th. CUJO. 

ALTHOUGH Cujo is not strictly withm the limits of Chili, yet 
as it b dependant upon the presidency of that kingdom, it will 
not be improper to take a brief notice of it in this account It is 
bounded on the north by Tucuman, on the east by the Pampas, or 
deserts of Buenos Ayres, on the south by Patagonia, and on the 
west by the Andes, which separate it from Chili. Its length from 
east to west u one hundred and clevm leagues, and its breadth 
from north to south about one hundred and ten, being compre^ 
hended between the 39tk and 35th degrees of latitude. In i^s 
femperaturt, as well as in the greater part of its productions, this 
' province differs materially from Chili. The winter, although it ¡a 
there the dry season^ is very cold ; in the summer the heat is 
exoesûvè asirell during the night as the day, and storms of thun-» 
der and hail are very frequent In the western part of the prp* 
vince these storms commonly rise and disperse in the space of 
half an hour, and the heat of the sun, bursting with increased 
radiance from the ckmds, in a few minutes dries up the moisture. 
In consequence of this sudden exnccation the land, if not watmced 
by artificial means, becomes arid, and will beat neither grass nor 
trees, but when irrigated by canals it produces almost every ve- 
getable in astonishing abundaih:e. The fruits and grains of Ear^Q 
thrive there extremely wett, ai^ come to maturity a month earlier 
i^iao in Chüii and the wines are rich and of an excellent bo^. _ 


This province is intersected by three rivers from the Andes, 
that dF St Juan, and those of Mendoza and Tunujan. The two 
first receive their names from the cities that they lave, and after, a 
course of from twenty-five to thirty leagues become stationary and- 
form the celebrated lakes of Guanasache, which extend morç than 
fifty leagues from nortli to south ; and, at length, through a channel 
that receives the river Tunujan, lose themselves in the Pampas. 
These lakes abound with excellent trout and king-fish, and all the 
salt that is used in Cujo is obtained from them. The eastern part of 
this province, called la Punta, presents an appearance entirely 
difierent from the rest, and is watered by the rivers Contara and 
Quinto, and by several other streams. The plains aix covered 
with beautiful trees, and the herbage grows to such a height, as in 
many places to conceal the horses ; but thunder storms are more 
Tiolent than in any other part of Cujo, and continue for hour» 
accompanied with immoderate rain. 

Of the trees o( Cujo^ one of the most remarkable is that called 
Palma, from its resembling, in its branches and fruit, the palm of 
Chili; it differs, however, in its height, which never exceeds 
eighteen feet, and in the manner of putting forth its branches, 
which are so near the ground as to prevent the trunk from being 
seen. Its leaves are hard and terminate in a point as sharp as that 
of a sword. The fruit, though similar in appearance to the cocoa- 
nut, contains no kernel or substance that is ediUe, but merely a 
few round hard seeds. The i^ost singular part of this tree is the 
i^m, or trunk, which is very large. The outer bark is blacki^ 
and is easily detached, this is succeeded \>y five or six interior 
layers, of so perfect a texture that they appear as if wrought in a 
loom. The first is of a yellowish colour and of the consistenpy of 
sail cloth ; the others regularly décroise in thickness and become 
gradually whiter to the innermost, which b as fine and white at 
cambric, but of a looser texture. The thread of these cloths is 
strong and flexible, but not so soft to the touch as that of flax. Cuj o 
also contains great quantities of the Opuntia, a spiidesdf Cactus 
that furnishes the cochineal. The natives have a ]^actice of 
stringing these insects upon a thread with a needle, whiUi commu- 
nicates to them a blackish tint. This plant produces a woolly 
fruit of the sixeof a peach, of a glutinous substance,, containing a 
great quantity of seeds. It is sweet and well flavoured, and is 
ea^ly preserved by cutüng it into slices and drying them in the 
sun. The tree that produces the Greek or Turkey bean, is common 
throughout the province ; it is of four kinds, two of >^hich arc 


good eating ; of the other*) one is used as provender for horses, 
and the other in making ink. Among the plants of Ci^o, is 
one that is very singular ; it is called tht Jl(mer of the <drj from 
its having no root nor ever being fired to the earth. Its native 
situation is an arid rock or a dry tree around which it entwines 
itself. This plant consists of a single shoot, resembling the stalk of 
the gillyflower, but its leaves are larger and thicker, and so hard 
that they seem to the touch like wood. Each shoot, or stalk, 
produces two or three white transparent flowers, in size and shape 
resembling the lily ; they are full as odoriferous as that flower, and ^ 
may be preserved fresh for more than two months on their stalks, 
and for several days when plucked off. But the most wonderful 
property of this plant is, that it may be transported without any 
tiifficulty for upward of three hundred mil^s, and will produce 
flowers annually if only suspended upon a nail. 

This province abounds with birds, among which are two parrots 
that are difiereat from those ci Chili. The first is a little less than 
the turtle dove, and has a greenback and whitish belly ; the other, 
called fterigîàtOy is rather larger. Its plumage is a dark green, ex- 
cept the head, which is black, and a mixture of red upon the back. 
Tlie partridges are of two kinds. The first called martinetta is oi 
the size ctf a domestic fowl, has a beautiful tuft upon its head, and 
is adorned with handsome plumes of various colours ; its flesh is 
very delicate, and its eggs are green. The common partridge is 
in great abundance, and so tatne that a man with a reed, to which a 
snare is fastened, will take twenty or thirty of them in afe^ hours. 
The abàanilj or mason, so called from the manner of constructing 
its habitation, is a snuff coloured bird, of the size of a thrush ; be- 
fore )ff begins to build, It mixes clay very carefoUy^With foathers and 
piecl^ of straw, then dividing it into little balls, carries them kk \Ui 
claws and bill to its mate, who first forms the bottom upon Üie trunk 
of a tree. Into a circle of ei^t or nine inches in diameter, making 
it perfectly smooth ; upon this it raises a wall about a hand's breadth 
in height, leaving a small aperture to go in at ; «k next proceeds 
to lay a second floor, which contain s the nest, ancl also an opening 
communicating with tíie lower room ; when this is completed it 
continues the surrounding wall to the same height as the firsts and 
covers the whole with a handsome areh. This edifice becomes, 
when dry, so firm astorewstthe most violent winds and rain. In 
the northern parts of this province is a species 6f f)heasant called 
thunna, which isas large as a hen, and <^ an ash eokmr ; the flesh 
is as delicate as that of the European pheasant This bird is easily 

269 - 

domesticated, and petforms in houses the office of a cat, freeing 
them from mice, which \t eats very readily ; but it is kept by few 
tm account of its disagreeable note, and a mischievous propensity 
"erf carrying away in its beak and concealing whatever it finds. Of 
turtle doves, besides the common species, there is one that is not 
larger than a sparrow. Ostriches are common, imd bees arc found 
every where, particularly in the eastern plains, and produce ex- 
cellent honey. Grasshoppers appear there occasionally in suc|i 
numbers that they cover many miles of country, and destroy every 
green thing that they meet with ; these are usually three inches 
in length, but they arc sometimes tobe seen as large as a pilchard, 
and from seven to eijght inches long. 

There arc many animals in Cujo that are not to be found in 
Chili, as tigers, boih*s, stags, the land tortoise, the viper. Iguana^ 
and several others. The tigers are ferocious like those of Africa, 
and as large as an ass, but with shorter legs ;, the skin is mottled 
with white, yellow and black. The inhabitants kill them with 
lances of five or six feet in lei^h, armed with a sharp iron. The 
method they ad(^t is for two persons to be in readiness^ while a 
third, who has the spear, prevokes the tiger, who rushes upon him 
with inconceivable fury, and impales himself upon the weapon, 
which thehtmter keeps constantly directed towards him, when the 
two others come up and dispatch him. The Iguai^a is an animal 
of the lizard kind, about three feet in length ; the colour is black- 
ish, the eyes round, asd the flesh white and tender. It feeds upon 
grass and wild fruits. The country people, who eat it, think itsflesh 
far preferable to tiiat of a chicken. 

In tíie northern parts of this province are mines of gold and 
copper, but they are not worked, owing to the ind(dence of the in* 
habitants* There are also rich mines of lead, vitriol, sulphur^ 
salt, coal, gypsum and talc. The mountains in the neighbourhood 
of St. Juan are wholly composed of strata of white marine, from 
five to six £eet in length, and from six to seven inches thick,, which 
are regulariy cut and polished by the hand of nature. The inhabi- 
tants make from it a beautiful lime, and employ it in building bridges 
over their canals. Between the cities of Mendoza and La Punta, 
upon a low range ef hills, is a large stone pillar, one hundred and 
fifty feet high, and twelve feet in diameter. It is called the^iant> 
and contains certain marks or inscriptions, resembling Chinese 
characters. Near the Diamond river is also another stone, con- 
taining some marks, which appear to be ciphers or characters, and 
the impression of a man's feet, with the figures of sereral ani- 


mais. The Spaniards call it the ttone of St Thomas^ from aa 
account which they pretend the first settlers received from the 
IndianS) that a white man^ with a Im^g; beard formerly preached 
to their ancestors a new religion from that stone, and as a prooT 
of its sanctity, left upon it the impression of his feet, and the figures 
<^the animals that came to hear him. This man^ they suppose to 
have been St Thomas, from- a tradition of his having preached in 

The aboriginal inhabitants of Cujo, of whom thereare at present 
but a^ fe^ remaining, are called Goarpes, they are thin, brown and 
of a lofty stature, and speak a different language from the Chilians. 
The Peruvians were the first who conquered these people, after 
having possessed themselves of the northern provinces of ChilL 
On the road, over the Andes, from CujotoChiH,are still to be seen 
some small stone edifices, erected for the accommodation of the offi- 
cers and messengers of that empire. The first ^aniards who 
entered this province were commanded by Francis Aguirre, who 
was sent from Chili by Valdivia, and who quitted it on learning 
the death of that general. In the year 1560, Don Garcia di Men- 
doza, sent thither Pedro Castillo, who subdued the Guarpes, and 
ibunded the cities of St. Juan and Mendoza. 

Mendoza, the capital, is situated on a plain at the foot of the 
Andes, in 33 degrees 19 minutes south latitude, and in 308. 31. west 
longitude. Tlie number of its inhabitants is estimated at six 
thousand. Besides the parish church, it contains a college, which 
belonged to the Jesuits, convents of the orders of St Francis, St 
l>ominic, St Augustine and the Mercedarii. This city carries 
on a considerable commerce, in wine and fruits, with Buenoa 
Ayres; and its population is continually increased, from its vicinity 
to tiie famous silver mine of Uspallata, which the inhabitants 
work to great profit 

St Juan, which is forty-five leag;uesfrom Mendoza, is also situa- 
ted near the Andes, in 31. 4. degrees of latitude, and 308. 31. (^ lon- 
gitude. It has the same number of inhabitants, churches and con" 
vents as Mendoza ; and trades with Buenos Ayres, in brandy, fruita 
and Vicugna skins. The pomegranates of its vicinity are greatly 
esteemed in Chili, for their size and sweetness. This city is go- 
verned by a Cabildo, and a Lieutenant of the Prefect, or Corregí- 
dor of Mendoza. 

In the year 1596, the small city of La Punta, or StLodovico of 
LoyoUif was founded in the eastern part of Cujo ; it received kt 
nftme from Don Martin Loyola, at' that time governor of Chilif 

271 • 

and is situated in 33.47. degrees of latitude, and in 311. 33. of longi- 
tude, at the distance of about 62 leagues from Mendoza Not with* 
standing it is the thoroughfare of all the commerce between Chili, 
Cujo and Buenos Ayres,it is a miserable place, and the inhabitants 
scarcely amount te two hundred. It has a parisli church, one that 
belonged to the Jesuits, and a convent of Dominicans. The civil 
and military government of this city, as well as of its jurisdiction, 
which is very extensive and populous, is administered by a Lieu- 
tenant, or Vicar of the Corregidor of Mendoza. Besides these 
cities, Cujo contains the towns of Jachal, Vallofertil, Mogna, 
Corocorto, Leonsito, Calingarta and Pismanta, but these do not 
merit particular attention. 

The Patagonians, who border upon Chili, and of whose gigantic 
stature so much has been written in Europe, from the most accu- 
rate information, diíFer not materially in this respect from other 
men. The Pojas, who form one of their tribes, live undet the go- 
vernment of several petty princes, indépendant of each other. 
These people acknowledge the existence of a Supreme Being, and 
believe in the immortality of the soul. A singular kind of polygamy 
prevails aknong them, the women bemg permitted by their laws 
to have several husbands. As to the Cesari, the sftpposed neigh- 
bours of the Chilians, of whom such wonderful stories are told, 
they are merely an imaginary people, who have no existence but 
in the fancy of those who take a pleasure in the marvellous. 




Pages, line 9, (author's preface) ybr " those provinces that me- 
rits" read its provinces meriting. 
7 8, (author's preface) for " these" read the latter. 

4 9, for " which" read these. • . ^ 

6 c 26, /or "those" re«ci these. 

7 20, /or " is" read are. 

17 21, fl/?er " clouds" ¿Twer/ thus. 

22 26, /)r "provinces" recti? countries. 

22 28, afier " two" insert provinces. 

24 6, (note) /or " was no greater, if any," read if any, 

was no greater. 
45 14, for « is" read are. 

^ 1, for ** gangas" read gangues. 

92 19, for « tail" read culle. 

29, after " gourd" insert or pumpkin. 
94 1, (note)/or " doical" read dioecial. 

101 4, ûf^«orredtail." 

11, afïer " sassia" insert tinctoria. 
128 6, (note) /or " shell" read scale. 

7, (note) ybr " shells" read scales. 
165 9, after " and" insert a. 

169, insert the following note to the Thage or Pelican : — ^Thc 
attachment of the pelican to its young is proverbial, 
but from a fact communicated by a gentleman who was 
an eye witness, it would seem that the afiectionate care 
of this bird is extended to all its species. The natives 
of California, in order to procure themselves fish, fre- 
quently fasten a disabled pelican to a rock, by which 
means, from the vast quantities brought it by others of 
its specie^, they are abundantly supplied. 
178, line 17, for " sound" read sounds. 
184 14, for " digs" read makes. 

192 21, after " with" dele a. 

199 10, dele " are.'* 

228 13, for " is" read arc. 

233 IS J for " Baroanes" read Boroanes. 

18, for " white, and as well formed" read fair and 
ruddy, have blue eyes and red hair, and are 
as well featured. Sec. 

234 20^ for " description" read descriptions. 
236 3, for " Ulman" read Ulmen. 

21, for " north oP* read mouth of the» 
246 27, before " sperraa" insert 3. 

2^5 3, rfe/e"that" 

256 5^ for "miles" rwrf leagues. 

at64 5, i/or "farmers" r^ac? turner A 

18, for " «;ity " read fifty.