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Full text of "Geographic names of Antarctica; official standard names approved by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names"

GAZETTEER NO. 14 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES 
OF ANTARCTICA 



UNITED STATES BOARD ON GEOGRAPHIC NAMES 



PLEASE RETURN 

TO 

INSTITUTION DATA LIBRARY 

D. E. S. C. 



Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 
ATLAS - GAZETTEER COLLECTION 



UNITED STATES BOARD ON GEOGRAPHIC NAMES 

H. Thompson Straw, Chairman 
Meredith F. Burrill, Executive Secretary 



Department of State Vacant 

Sophia A. Saucerman, deputy 

Department of the Army F. C. Shepard, member 

Walter M. Leech, deputy 

Department of the Navy W. G. Watt, member 

Charles D. Rouse, deputy 

Post Office Department Norman R. Grant, member 

C. B. Gels ton, deputy 

Department of the Interior Arthur A. Baker, member 

John B. Bennett, deputy 

Department of Agriculture Edward P. Cliff, memfter 

Fred W. Grover, deputy 

Department of Commerce Lawrence W. Swanson, member 

Lewis Heck, deputy 

Government Printing Office John W. Dollins, member 

Library of Congress Walter W. Ristow, member 

Leo LaMontagne, deputy 

Department of the Air Force H. Thompson Straw, member 

Robert Y. Ota, deputy 

Central Intelligence Agency 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
Douglas McKay, Secretary 

OFFICE OF GEOGRAPHY 

Meredith F. Burrill, Director 

Communications should be addressed to the Executive Secretary 



\PLEASE R^RN 
INSTITUTION'' DATA LIBRARY 

d.1BvS. c. 



Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 
ATLAS - GAZETTEER COLLECTION 



'^Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 
Data Librar\' 

GAZETTEER NO. 14 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES 
OF ANTARCTICA 

With a Foreword by Meredith F. Burrill and a List of Expeditions by Kenneth J. Bertrand and Fred G. Alberts 

Revised Edition 

OFFICIAL STANDARD NAMES 

approved by the 

UNITED STATES BOARD ON GEOGRAPHIC NAMES 

Prepared in the 

Office of Geography, Department of the Interior 

Washlnston, D. C. • January 1956 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washinston 25, D. C. 

Price S2.25 (paper cover) 



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Geographic names or fheir spellings do not necessarily 

reflect recognition of the political status of an area 

by the United States Government 



CORRECTIONS — ANTARCTICA 



PaRe Column Paragraph — Line 



Reads 



Should Read 



3 


1 


last — 2 


Board Meredith 


Board, Meredith 


12 


1 


first — 7 


Nathanial 


Nathaniel 


20 


1 


last — 2 


Beckman 


Beckmann 


20 


1 


last — 5 


Salveson 


Salvesen 


23 


1 


second — 24 


slighting 


sighting 


31 


1 


first — 14 


Canisto 


Canisteo 


34 


1 


third — 2 


Covandonga 


Covadonga 


34 


1 


last — 10 


Belleny 


Balleny 


Page 


Column 


Entry — Line 


Reads 


Should Read 


■ 50 


2 


Bailey Mount — 1 


BAILEY MOUNT 


BAILEY, MOUNT 


59 


1 


Bertram Glacier — 2 


Scott Polar Inst. 


Scott Polar Research 
Inst. 


59 


2 


Bienvenue, C^e — 4 


140° 15' E. 


140° 31' E. 


63 


1 


Black Ridge — 1 


BLACK RIDGE 


BLADE RIDGE 


65 


1 


Bolle, Mont 1 


BOLLE, MONT 


BOLLE, MOUNT 


72 


2 


Bruce Cape — 1 


BRUCE CAPE 


BRUCE, CAPE 


89 


1 


Colbeck, Cape — 4 


1908 


1902 


101 


1 


Davis Islets — 5 


Budd Coast 


Knox Coast 


106 


2 


Detroit Plateau — 4 


Russel Gl. 


Russell Gl, 


111 


1 


Downshire, Cape — 1 


DOWNSHIRE, Cape 


DOWNSHIRE, CAPE 


111 


2 


Drygalski Mountains — 4 


72°50' S. 


72°00' S. 


112 


1 


Dudley, Mount — 3 


side 


sides 


126 


1 


Ferrar Glacier — 29 


medcal 


medial 


131 


1 


Fort Rock — 2 


Greenwhich T. 


Greenwich I. 



Page Column Entry — Line 



131 


1 


Fort William — 2 


132 


1 


Fox Mount — 1 


135 


2 


Frost Glacier — 7 


143 


1 


Grace, Cape — 9 


143 


1 


Graham Coast — 8 


148 


2 


Habermehl Peak — 3 


154 


1 


Hatree, C^e — 1 



157 


2 


163 


1 


173 


1 


174 


1 


182 


2 


183 


2 


192 


2 


194 


2 


201 


2 


209 


2 


211 


2 


211 


2 


224 


2 


224 


2 


224 


2 



Herd Point — 5 
Horsburg Point — 1 
Johansen Islands — 3 
Jomfruene Island — 12 
Kreitzer Glacier — 6 
Kukri Hills — 9 
Lichen Peak — 2 
Little America — 3 
Madigan, Nunatak — 1 
McLennan Mount — 1 
Mentzel, Mount — 4 
Mercury Glacier — 3 
Neumayer Channel — 1 
Neumayer Escarpment — 2 
Neumayer Escarpment — 4 



Reads 

Green which I. 

FOX MOUNT 

boaswain 

J. Gist 

1831 

Mulilig-Hofman 

HATREE, CAPE 

R. D. Hard 
HORSBURG POINT 



72°07' W. 



probably 

72°45' E. 

Gurikha 

20 mi. 

Little America I. 

MADIGAN, NUNATAK 

McLENNAN MOUNT 

72° 19' S. 

flowing W. 

George von Neumayer 

11,800 ft. 



Should Read 

Greenwich I. 

FOX, MOUNT 

boatswain 

J. Grace 

1832 

Mulilig-Hofm ann 

HARTREE, CAPE [move 
to correct alph. 
place] 

R. D. Herd 

HORSBURGH POINT 



72°52' W. 



probable 

71°45' E. 

Gurkha 

6 mi. 

Little America I, 

MADIGAN NUNATAK 

McLENNAN, MOUNT 



71° 19' S. 



flowing E. 

Georg von Neumayer 

8,100 ft 



[after "Schwabenland" insert "; in about 73°15' S., 

1°25' W."] 



n 



Page Column Entry — Line 



Reads 



Should Read 



226 


1 


Nielson Glacier — 1 


NIELSON GLACIER 


NIELSEN GLACIER 


236 


1 


Parpen Crags — 4 


Surveyed and named by... 


Named by... 


239 


1 


Penelop Point — 1 


PENELOP POINT 


PENELOPE POINT 


256 


2 


Renaud Island — 3 


Rabat . . . Briscoe 


Rabot . . . Biscoe 


258 


2 


Richard Black Coast — 6 


US AD 


USAS 


259 


2 


Ritscher Peak — 4 


72° 22' S. 


71°22' S. 


260 


1 


Roberts Cape — 1 


ROBERTS CAPE 


ROBERTS, CAPE 


294 


1 


Stygian Cove — 9 


Cliffs 


cliffs 


303 


2 


Tofe Glacier — 1 


TOFE GLACIER 


TOFTE GLACIER 


308 


2 


Tucker Inlet — 2 


Diniell 


Daniell 


309 


1 


Tu Rocks — 4 


58°33' W. 


58°53' W. 


313 


1 


Vedel Islets — 5 


Vadel 


Vedel 


326 


1 


Will Hayes Mountains — 1 


WILL HAYES 
MOUNTAINS 


WILL HAYS MOUNTAINS 



CHANGES IN ALPHABETIZATION 
Correct the alphabetization of the decisions and cross-references listed below: 



Page Entry 

47 Arrival Heights 

47 Arronax, Mount 

82 Charcot, Port 

93 Comwallrs Island 

120 Emm Rock 

127 Fish Islands 

128 Flagon Point 

129 Flatiron, The 
131 Foreland Islet 



Page Entry 

131 Fort William 

131 Fortress Hill 

133 Frank Newnes Glacier 

135 Fryer Point 

252 Rabot, Mount 

258 Rex, Mount 

265 Rosamel Island 

265 Rosenthal Islets 



lU 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



CONTENTS 

Page 

The geographic name problem 1 

The nature of the problem 1 

Resolution of the problem 2 

Statement of policy covering geographic names 4 

Application of policy in decisions 7 

Expeditions 9 

List of expeditions 11 

Geographic names 37 



Abbreviations 

The following abbreviations are frequently, but not universally, used in the 
text of the name decisions included in this publication. 



ABBREVIATED TERMS 



Acad Academy, Academie 

Adm Admiral 

Arch Archipelago 

Assn Association 

Asst Assistant 

Aug August 

Brig. Gen. . Brigadier General 

Capt Captain 

Cdr Commander 

Chan Channel 

Co Company 

Col Colonel 

Dec December 

Dept Department 

Dir Director 

Disc discovered 

Dr Doctor 

E east 

el elevation 

ENE east-northeast 

Ens Ensign 

ESE east-southeast 

exp expedition 

Feb February 

ft feet 

Gen General 

Gl Glacier 

Gov Governor 

Govt Government 

Hbr. Harbor 

Hon Honorable 



I. Island 

Inst Institute, Institution 

Is Islands 

It Islet 

Its Islets 

Jan January 

Jr Junior 

Lt Lieutenant 

Maj Major 

mi mile, miles 

M.P Member of Parliament 

Mt Mount 

Mtn Mountain 

Mtns Mountains 

N north 

NE northeast 

NNE north-northeast 

NNW north-northwest 

Nov November 

NW northwest 

Oct October 

Pen Peninsula 

Pres President 

Prof Professor 

Pt Point 

q.v Quod vide (which see) 

R. Adm. . . . Rear Admiral 

RAN Royal Australian Navy 

Rep Representative 

RN Royal Navy 

RNR Royal Navy Reserve 

RNVR Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve 

Rt. Hon. . . . Right Honorable 



XV 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



ABBREVIATED TERMS (Continued) 



S south 

SE southeast 

Sec Secretary 

Sep September 

Soc Society, Societe 

Sr Senior 

SSE south-southeast 

SSW south-southwest 

Str Strait 

SW, southwest 



Univ. University 

USCG United States Coast Guard 

USMC United States Marine Corps 

USN United States Navy 

USNR United States Navy Reserve 

U.S United States 

V. Adm. . Vice Admiral 

V. Pres Vice President 

W west 

WNW west-northwest 

WSW. west-southwest 



ABBREVIATIONS FOR COMMITTEE TITLES 

Br-APC British Antarctic Place-names Committee 

US-ACAN United States Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names, 1947- 

US-SCAN United States Special Committee on Antarctic Names, 1943-1947 

ABBREVIATIONS FOR EXPEDITION TITLES 

AAE, 1911-14 Australasian Antarctic Expedition, 1911-14 

ANARE Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition (various 

dates and leaders) 

Arg. exp Argentine expedition 

BANZARE, 1929-31 British-Australian-New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedi- 
tion, 1929-31 

BelgAE, 1897-99 Belgian Antarctic Expedition, 1897-99 

BGLE, 1934-37 British Graham Land Expedition, 1934-37 

BrAE, 1898-1900 British Antarctic Expedition, 1898-1900 

BrAE, 1907-9 British Antarctic Expedition, 1907-9 

BrAE, 1910-13 British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13 

Br. exp British expedition 

BrNAE, 1901-4 British National Antarctic Expedition, 1901-4 

ByrdAE, 1928-30 Byrd Antarctic Expedition, 1928-30 

ByrdAE, 1933-35 Byrd Antarctic Expedition, 1933-35 

Chil. exp Chilean expedition 

DI Discovery Investigations (various dates and leaders) 

FIDS Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (various dates and 

leaders) 

FrAE, 1903-5 French Antarctic Expedition, 1903-5 

FrAE, 1908-10 French Antarctic Expedition, 1908-10 

FrAE, 1948-53 French Antarctic Expeditions, 1948-49; 1949-51; 1951-52 and 

1952-53 

Fr. exp French expedition 

GerAE, 1901-3 German Antarctic Expedition, 1901-3 

GerAE, 1911-12 German Antarctic Expedition, 1911-12 

GerAE, 1938-39 German Antarctic Expedition, 1938-39 

Ger. exp German expedition 

NBSAE, 1949-52 Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition, 1949-52 

Nor. exp Norwegian expedition 

RARE, 1947-48 Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition, 1947-48 

Russ. exp Russian expedition 

ScotNAE, 1902-4 Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, 1902-4 

SGS, 1951-52; 1953-54 South Georgia Survey, 1951-52; 1953-54 

SwedAE, 1901-4 Swedish Antarctic Expedition, 1901-4 

USAS, 1939-41 United States Antarctic Service, 1939-41 

USEE, 1838-42 United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-42 

USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47 United States Navy Operation Highjump, 1946-47 

USN Op. Wml., 1947-48 . United States Navy Operation Windmill, 1947-48 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



The Geographic Name Problem 



The Nature of the Problem 



The geographic nomenclature of Antarctica was 
long in need of an overall systematic treatment, 
objective in approach and based upon thorough 
examination of all the evidence. The results of 
such treatment over a period of about three years 
were presented in Geographical Names of Ant- 
arctica, Special Publication No. 86 of the Board on 
Geographical Names, in May 1947, two supple- 
ments to which were issued in 1949 and 1951. 
The continuing program since that publication 
has now covered most of the geographic naming in 
Antarctica. As research has filled in many of the 
previous gaps in knowledge, a number of names 
have been modified and minor amendments have 
been made in the policies. This revised publica- 
tion brings together the greatly enlarged body of 
names officially standardized for use by the United 
States Government, together with new pertinent 
background information. 

Questions of political sovereignty have not 
entered into consideration of the name policy, or 
of individual names. This statement of non- 
political character of the geographic name policy 
and decisions is also applicable to all statements 
in this publication. The Board on Geographic 
Names has therefore considered each name on its 
merits in the light of historical studies of explora- 
tion and of successive improvements in the 
mapping of Antarctica. The names of "lands" 
and "coasts" have been considered without politi- 
cal connotation, and have been described and 
delimited as physical entities as far as present 
knowledge permits. 

The Antarctic continent presents many nomen- 
clature problems for varied reasons. Modern spe- 
cialized tools were not available to the early ex- 
plorers primarily responsible for initial activity in 
Antarctic naming, and the nature of Antarctica 
put great obstacles in their way. The great size 
of the continent and its relative inaccessibility 
make it difficult to develop accurate concepts of 
the whole and the relationship of its parts. Many 
of the natural features in Antarctica are markedly 
similar in appearance, and, conversely, the appear- 
ance of a given feature varies with the angle of 
view or from time to time. It has not been easy 
for explorers to describe and locate features unmis- 
takably or to identify a feature reported previously 



by someone else. The extraordinary hazards of 
travel and frequent poor visibility have restricted 
observation. Practically all of the interior that is 
known, and much of the coast, are masked with a 
cover of snow and ice through which protrude only 
the upper parts of mountains or mountain ranges. 
Although many glaciers are perfectly distinct, 
except perhaps at their sources, the relationship 
of ice masses to one another is commonly not 
obvious. 

Another contributing difficulty in identification 
of features has been that the available records of 
exploration do not always permit exact fixing of 
positions at the present. Chronometer errors in 
the early days of Antarctic exploration resulted 
sometimes in considerable errors in reported longi- 
tude; looming and mirages may have caused wide 
errors in latitude; flight positions have not always 
been determined with the precision necessary to 
permit full and accurate use of aerial photographs; 
and many features have been named upon being 
viewed either from such a great 'distance or from 
such an angle that their relation to the local 
topographic detail could not be seen. 

Superimposition of names on previously named 
features in Antarctica has been largely the result 
either of mistaken identity or location of features 
arising from the foregoing causes, of simultaneous 
exploration, or of lack of knowledge of previous 
naming. The records of early sealers and some 
other visitors to Antarctica have contributed little 
to the literature on Antarctic nomenclature. 
Explorers and cartographers of many nations and 
languages have contributed to the nomenclature 
of Antarctica, often without recording for posterity 
an explanation of their naming actions and often 
without full appreciation of everything that had 
preceded. In some instances the preceding events 
could not possibly have been known by explorers, 
since priority of occurrence was a matter only of 
weeks or even days. 

Prior to the study of Antarctic names resulting 
in the first publication, resolution of problems 
arising from these natural causes had been com- 
plicated in the case of a few important features by 
strongly expressed differences of opinion. Sub- 
sequent resolution of these matters is being facil- 
itated by the adoption of developed policy. 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



The kinds of nomenclature problems encoun- 
tered in Antarctica fall largely in these classes: 
determination of the facts, circumstances and, in- 
sofar as possible the intent, of original and any 
subsequent naming; the choice between multiple 
names for a feature; the choice between alterna- 
tive generic terms such as land or coast; the correc- 



tioh of generic terms for features whose nature 
was not accurately known at the time of naming, 
such as a peninsula which turns out to be an 
island; identification and fixing of location; defini- 
tive description; and determination of the appro- 
priateness of names for application to specific 
features. 



Resolution of the Problem 



The need for systematic overall treatment of 
Antarctic names was brought to the attention of 
the then United States Board on Geographical 
Names by the requirements of the 1939-41 United 
States Antarctic Service expedition and by the 
concomitant preparation of a chart of Antarctica 
and a companion volume of Sailing Directions by 
the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office. 

The chart and Sailing Directions were prepared 
under the direction of Rear Admiral (then Lieu- 
tenant Commander) Robert A. J. English, USN 
(Retired), who was Executive Secretary of the 
United States Antarctic Service Interdepartmental 
Executive Committee. Admiral English discussed 
informally many problems of nomenclature and 
specific name proposals with Lawrence Martin 
(Library of Congress), and W. L. G. Joerg (Na- 
tional Archives), who had concerned themselves 
for some time with Antarctic nomenclature. Also 
available to Admiral English was such general 
information on policy and background as the Board 
had developed up to that time, which unfortunately 
did not include a definite and comprehensive state- 
ment of policy specifically pointed to the problems 
of Antarctic names. 

In preparing the chart and Sailing Directions, 
it became evident that the resolving of name con- 
flicts which had arisen over many years and the 
examination of new name proposals would involve 
specialized research. The U.S. Navy Hydrographic 
Office on Nov. 27, 1939 formally referred to the 
then Board on Geographical Names for its consid- 
eration, all names then appearing on the chart. 
A Special Committee on Antarctic Names was 
appointed on July 23, 1943, with, as members 
W. L. G. Joerg, Chairman, Capt. Harold E. Saun- 
ders, U.S.N., and, for a few months, Lawrence Mar- 
tin. The Committee met with the then Director of 
the Board on Jan. 5, 1944, made a preliminary 
appraisal of the situation, and considered several 
key names upon which it made recommendations. 
These recommendations were accepted and the 
names were approved and promulgated. In Ant- 
arctica, as elsewhere, it is necessary to examine 
the whole of the nomenclature berfore the relation 



of any one name to the general pattern becomes 
clear, and as further examination proceeded some 
of these decisions were appropriately revised. 

The Committee met at intervals during the 
early part of 1944 and worked out additional 
names, but the task progressively assumed ever- 
increasing size until staff assistance was neces- 
sary. A member of the then Division of Geog- 
raphy, Dept. of the Interior, was assigned in Dec. 
1944 to research, compile, index and analyze evi- 
dence of exploration and specific names. In 
March 1946 the Special Committee on Antarctic 
Names agreed to devote two or three half-days a 
week to their part of the program. Kenneth 
Bertrand was assigned the staff work on Antarctic 
names, and after joining the faculty of Catholic 
University of America in Sep. 1946 he continued 
his investigations as part of his University research 
program. Fred G. Alberts, in charge of the pro- 
gram since October 1949, was joined in March 1951 
by Gardner D. Blodgett. 

An act of Congress in July 1947 abolished the 
former Board and created the present one, respon- 
sible conjointly with the Secretary of the Interior 
for standardization of geographic names. Joerg 
and Saunders were appointed members of a new 
Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names that con- 
tinued without break the work of the former Spe- 
cial Committee. Bertrand was appointed a mem- 
ber of the Committee in October 1947 and rounded 
out an effective team. Meeting regularly one-half 
day or more each week for nine years, and irregu- 
larly after that, this group worked over a great 
quantity of data in the consideration of practically 
every name known to have been applied to, or 
proposed for, features in Antarctica. The Com- 
mittee was reduced to two by the death of Joerg 
in January 1952. 

The Office of Naval Research in May 1949, recog- 
nizing the value of an orderly Antarctic nomencla- 
ture, the availability of the members of the Com- 
mittee and the start that had been made in Special 
Publication No. 86, contracted for the completion 
of the study as a part of its program of support 
of basic research. Under that contract the greater 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



part of the remaining names were worked out, but 
not all. In two instances, Totten Coast and Norths 
Coast, the information gathered by Wilkes in 1840 
on the occasion of the original application of the 
names Totten and North and the subsequent ob- 
servations by Mawson in the periods 1911-14 and 
1930-31, though justifying the retention of these 
names, did not suffice for continuous delineation 
of the coast line. These "coasts" could not be 
delimited until the shore line was drawn on maps, 
and they were therefore defined as extending for 
an undetermined distance east and west of the 
respective landfalls that occasioned the original 
naming. 

The coast of Wilkes Land also presented a 
series of other name problems that could not be 
solved until the coast line was delineated. Aerial 
photographs of much of this coast were obtained 
by Operations Highjump and Windmill. A sec- 
ond contract was therefore made with the Office of 
Naval Research in December 1952 to produce a 
delineation of the coast between longitudes 98°E. 
and 160°E. (subsequently amended to 86°E. and 
144°E.), using techniques described by Saunders 
in the April 1933 Geographical Review, and fur- 
ther, on the basis of this delineation to assign 
limits to "coasts"; to determine the proper appli- 
cation of names from the Wilkes expedition, and 
Operations Highjump and Windmill; to suggest 
locations where ground control should be obtained 
by future expeditions; and to correlate the findings 
of Wilkes, Mawson and others with those of Oper- 
ation Highjump. This project was brought to vir- 
tual completion early in the summer of 1955, in 
time for the new information to be incorporated 
in maps and charts, and used in planning, for 
United States participation in the International 
Geophysical Year. The delineation and newly 
fixed nomenclature was also made available to 
several other countries participating in the Inter- 
national Geophysical Year. 

The formulation of a statement of guiding policy 
was a prerequisite to an objective approach not 
only to overall problems of nomenclature but also 
to specific problems of individual names. Board 
policy, in making decisions on domestic geographic 
names, has long been not to use the names of living 
persons, but the application of this policy to Ant- 
arctica appeared neither desirable nor possible. 
In the absence of specific positive policy to the 
contrary, however, this question has been one of 
the most serious obstacles to the resolution of the 
problem of Antarctic place names. 

A statement of policy for Antarctic names was 
drafted by the then Director of the Board Meredith 
F. Burrill, and Bertrand and reviewed by the Special 
Committee in the spring of 1946. It was further 
refined after discussion with several Antarctic 



explorers and particularly with Admiral English. 
The resulting policy statement was approved by 
the then Advisory Committee on Geographical 
Names on July 9, 1946, and by the Secretary of the 
Interior on July 13, 1946. Two minor amend- 
ments, covering commemoration of universities 
and university people that have helped train polar 
explorers, were approved on April 4, 1947. A fur- 
ther draft with minor changes that did not alter 
the provisions was approved on May 9, 1947. Since 
that time the policy has been tested through appli- 
cation to the choice of names in the many contro- 
versial cases considered. 

Special Publication No. 86 was especially con- 
cerned with the area covered by United States 
Navy Hydrographic Office publication No. 138, 
Sailing Directions for Antarctica. Thus the extent 
of Antarctica was not in question, and no decision 
on the name Antarctica was included. This pub- 
lication covers the names in a wider physical area 
and therefore includes a decision on "Antarctica," 
defined as the continent, together with the islands 
rising from the continental block. 

Since the terms "the Antarctic" and the "Ant- 
arctic region" have both been widely employed in 
reference to the area physically associated with 
Antarctica, it did not seem advisable to the Com- 
mittee to decide upon one to the exclusion of the 
other. It did seem advisable, however, to state 
precisely to what the terms referred. The Com- 
mittee therefore uses the terms "the Antarctic" 
or "Antarctic region" as denoting the area south 
of the Antarctic Convergence, the line encircling 
the globe roughly between 50° and 60°S., where 
the colder, fresher Antarctic waters sink beneath 
the warmer, saltier sub-Antarctic waters. This 
revision includes the names of features in the Ant- 
arctic region with exception of those in the Ker- 
guelen Islands, which lie on the line of conver- 
gence and which are not as closely associated with 
this history of Antarctic exploration. 

In Special Publication No. 86, a small group of 
non-personal Scandinavian and German names 
were processed into English forms. Experience 
proved that confusion resulted when comparing 
charts carrying these revised forms with charts 
carrying the original foreign names. Correlation 
of the English and foreign forms in gazetteers was 
hindered by the fact that their alphabetical list- 
ings were far removed from one another. 

The Statement of Policy was therefore amended 
in 1952, and the section on translation and treat- 
ment of the generic term in non-personal foreign 
names has been revised to provide for retention of 
the specific term in most cases as originally given; 
retention of the original name if it is well estab- 
lished in international usage; substitution of an 
English generic for an included foreign generic, or 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



generic plus definite article that is not readily 
understood, e.g., "Rund Bay" and "Trilling Peaks" 
for "Rundvika" and "Trillingnutane"; addition of 
an English generic to the foreign name so that the 
Anglicized form will agree basically with the 
original name, particularly with names containing 
frequently used specific terms of a numerical or 
locational nature, e.g., "Tvistein Pillars" and "Vor- 
posten Peak" for "Tvistein" and "Vorposten"; 
acceptance, in rare instances, of well established 
translated forms, e.g., "Ice Bay," that has become 
established for the feature originally named 
"Isfjorden." 

The definitive descriptions of the decisions on 
Antarctic names include reference to the actual 
naming and the attendant circumstances when 
known, to clarify as far as practicable the basis for 
approval. When the record is not explicit on the 
facts of naming but the attendant circumstances 
and association of names indicate a strong pre- 
sumption as to the identity of the person for whom 
a name is given, the feature has been described as 
"probably named for [such person]." 

The approval of surnames only, instead of full 
names, involved the question of naming for male 
relatives and friends on the basis of relationship 
or friendship and the commemoration of feminine 
relatives or friends because custom and usage for- 
bade commemoration of the explorers themselves. 
It was felt that orderly and appropriate geographic 
nomenclature for Antarctica would be achieved 
best by naming for persons who qualify under the 
policy. 

The Board on Geographic Names has essen- 
tially accomplished the bringing of order into the 
geographic names of Antarctica up to the present. 
A basis has been established upon which new geo- 
graphic nomenclature can be added, name by 
name, as exploration and survey proceed. This 
does not mean that every problem encountered has 
been solved. A few named features do not exist in 



the positions where they were thought to be. 
Some of these have been identified nevertheless 
and the error satisfactorily explained; others are 
still riddles that may never be solved. A great 
many positions assigned to features are correct in 
relation to nearby or associated features but un- 
doubtedly off in latitude and longitude. Most of 
these may some day be tied in to control points, 
of which there are relatively few so far. As more 
are established it will be possible to make much 
more use of the pictures, sketches, maps and 
charts that are already in hand. 

Photography is a valuable aid to identification 
of features to be named. Photographs may show 
many things other than the intended subject, and 
pictures of people or nearby objects have often 
furnished the necessary clues to the identity of 
distant features in the background. A few dark 
objects in a featureless white foreground and 
middle distance can be of great value, as can be a 
complete circle panorama from an identifiable 
spot, or the selection of a feature identifiable on 
aerial photographs as the site for an astronomical 
fix. 

In view of the publication of the extensive 
Antarctic Bibliography by the Department of the 
Navy in February 1951, the selected bibliography 
included in the Special Publication No. 86 has 
been omitted. 

While great care has been taken to focus on each 
name all the pertinent information that could be 
found, it is highly probable that the present pub- 
lication will bring forth additional data not now 
available. In the light of new evidence it may 
appear desirable to modify, as to description and 
perhaps as to name, some of the decisions listed 
herein. It is hoped that users of this present 
gazetteer who have pertinent information that 
appears not to have been considered will make it 
available for the record. 



Statement of Policy Covering Geographic Names 



A. Introduction 

These policies are for the guidance of the Board 
in deciding cases and should be helpful to ex- 
plorers and others in proposing names for natural 
features in Antarctica. 

The problem of geographic nomenclature in 
Antarctica is unlike that of any other area of com- 
parable size. Antarctica has no permanent settle- 
ments and even in the stations continuously occu- 



pied for a number of years the personnel is gener- 
ally rotated. There are undoubtedly many fea- 
tures that have never been seen by man, and even 
in the explored portions of the continent many of 
the features are unnamed. Antarctica has been 
visited and explored by the nationals of many na- 
tions, who, by their heroic efforts to broaden man's 
knowledge of this land of ice and snow, have fully 
demonstrated the international nature of the world 
of science. Names, therefore, will be considered 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



without reference to the nationaUty of the person 
honored. 

Under the policy here set forth, decisions on 
Antarctic names will be based on priority of appli- 
cation, appropriateness, and the extent to which 
usage has become established. The grouping of 
natural features into three orders of magnitude, 
with corresponding categories of persons according 
to the type of contribution which they have made, 
is intended to provide the greatest possible objec- 
tivity in determining the appropriateness of a 
name. It does not, however, exclude the use of 
other than personal names when appropriate. 
Non-personal names are discussed under a sep- 
arate heading. 

B. Types of Natural Features 

The kinds of things that have been named in 
Antarctica are roughly grouped below in three 
categories. There is considerable latitude for judg- 
ment in classifying individual features, since it is 
practically impossible to set size limits for "large 
glaciers," "great mountains," or "large bays," but 
this should facilitate rather than hamper the appli- 
cation of the principles and policies. 

Features having special significance or promi- 
nence in geographic discovery, scientific investiga- 
tion, or the history of Antarctica may be placed in 
the next higher category than their magnitude 
alone would warrant. 

1. FiRST-ORDEK FEATURES 

a. Regions or "lands" 

b. Coasts 

c. Seas 

d. Plateaus 

e. Extensive mountain ranges' 

f. Major submarine deeps, ridges, plateaus, or 
swells 

g. Ice shelves 

h. Large glaciers 

2. Second-order features. 

a. Peninsulas 

b. Mountain ranges, except the most extensive 

c. Great or prominent mountains 

d. Glaciers, except the largest 

e. Prominent capes 

f. Islands 

g. Gulfs 

h. Large bays 
i. Straits or passages 
j. Harbors 

k. Extensive submarine reefs, shoals, or shal- 
lows 



except the greater or more prom- 
inent ones 



3. Third-order features 

a. Minor mountains and hills 

b. Nunataks 

c. Cliffs 

d. Rocks 

e. Minor shore features 

f. Points 

g. Capes 
h. Glaciers 
i. Bays 
j. Coves 

k. Anchorages 

1. Parts of these features 

m. Submarine reefs, shoals, and shallows of 
small extent 

n. Camps or camp sites and depots (not nat- 
ural features and not necessarily perma- 
nent) 

C. Scheme for Application of Personal Names to 
These Features 

1. First-order features 

a. The leader or organizer of an expedition to 
Antarctica 

b. Persons who have made discoveries of out- 
standing significance in Antarctica, or lead- 
ers of field parties, or captains of ships, that 
have made such discoveries 

c. Persons who, through their work with Ant- 
arctic expeditions, have made outstanding 
contributions to scientific knowledge or to 
the techniques of Antarctic exploration 

d. A person who has provided the major finan- 
cial or material support to an expedition, 
thereby making such an undertaking pos- 
sible 

2. Second-order features 

a. Persons whose outstanding heroism, skill, 
spirit, or labor has made a signal contribu- 
tion to the success of an expedition 

b. Persons who have made important contribu- 
tions in the planning, organization, out- 
fitting, or operation of expeditions to Ant- 
arctica 

c. Ship captains or leaders of field parties of 
such expeditions 

d. Persons whose contributions to the knowl- 
edge of the Arctic either have advanced our 
knowledge of Antarctica or have expanded 
the possibilities of Antarctic exploration 

e. Persons who have made outstanding con- 
tributions to equipment for polar explo- 
ration 

f. The directors or heads of learned societies 
that have given significant support or made 
material contributions to Antarctic explo- 
ration 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



g. Persons who by substantial contributions of 
funds or supplies have made possible an 
Antarctic expedition 

h. Persons who have done outstanding work in 
the utilization of data, identification of 
specimens, or interpretation of the results of 
Antarctic exploration 

3. Third-order featltres 

a. Persons who have assisted in the work of 
organizing or conducting Antarctic explo- 
ration, or who have assisted in analysis of 
information gathered in the course of such 
exploration 

b. Members of expeditions, including ship- 
based personnel 

c. Persons whose contributions to knowledge 
in their respective fields have facilitated the 
discovery, recognition, identification, or re- 
cording of Antarctic phenomena 

d. Teachers or administrators in institutions 
of higher learning who have contributed to 
the training of polar explorers 

e. Persons who have made material contribu- 
tions in any form to Antarctic expeditions, 
and who have by their words or actions dem- 
onstrated an interest in further scientific 
exploration rather than in seeking commer- 
cial exploitation of such contributions 

D. The Application of Non-Personal Names 

In accord with the tradition of Antarctic explo- 
ration, it is considered appropriate to apply non- 
personal names to natural features. Names in the 
following categories may be appropriately applied 
to a feature in any order of magnitude with which 
there is association. Examples of non-personal 
names are: 

1. Names which commemorate events (e.g., 
Charcot's "Point Delivrance" and Nor- 
denskjold's "Hope Bay") 

2. Names of ships from which discoveries have 
been made (e.g., "Cape Gronland" and "Cape 
Norvegia") 

3. Names of organizations which have sponsored, 
supported, or given scientific or financial as- 
sistance to Antarctic expeditions (e.g., "Royal 
Society Range," "Admiralty Range," "Banzare 
Coast"), or names of institutions of higher 
learning that have contributed to the training 
of polar explorers 

4. Names which are peculiarly descriptive of the 
feature name (e.g., "Deception Island," 
"Mount Tricorn," or "Three Slice Nunatak") . 
Descriptive names which are not unique or 
particularly appropriate and for which there 



are likely to be duplicates are, however, un- 
desirable 

5. Any other non-personal name which because 
of its acknowledged importance occupies a 
major role in Antarctic exploration or Ant- 
arctic history 

E. Criteria of Appropriateness 

1. Newly proposed names will be considered for 
features of the first, second, or third order, as 
described above, in the light of their appropri- 
ateness, as evidenced by the following factors 
arranged in order cf weight: 

a. Chronological priority of discovery, naming, 
or other relevant action 

b. Actual association of the person, ship, or- 
ganization, event, etc., with the feature 

c. Association of the person, ship, organiza- 
tion, event, etc., with Antarctic exploration 

d. Contribution of the person to the knowledge 
of Antarctica 

e. Association of the person, ship, organization, 
event, etc., with other polar exploration 

f. Contribution of the person to relevant fields 
of knowledge 

g. Extent to which financial or material con- 
tributions have contributed to the success 
of an expedition or to the collection of valu- 
able scientific data 

h. Previous recognition through a geographic 
name in Antarctica. To prevent confusion, 
it is considered advisable, in future naming 
in Antarctica, to apply the name of one 
person or the names of persons having the 
same surname, to no more than one feature 
of a kind 

i. The possibility of ambiguity or confusion 
with names already in use 

(1) The duplication of names already in 
current usage is undesirable and, ex- 
cept in special cases, is to be avoided 

(2) Since descriptive names are often am- 
biguous and easily duplicated, they 
should be avoided, unless a descriptive 
name is peculiarly appropriate 

(3) The duplication in Antarctica of names 
well known in other parts of the world 
is undesirable even though qualified by 
adjectives such as "new," "south," and 
"little." 

2. Names already in use will be, considered in 
the light of: 

a. Appropriateness, as outlined above 

b. Wideness of acceptance, as evidenced by use 
in scientific and popular map and other 
literature. Usage which is considered suf- 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



ficiently fixed and/or unanimous may be 
accepted as valid grounds for approval of 
a name which would not otherwise qualify. 

F. Fields of Knowledge Pertinent to Antarctica 

The following is a list of fields of knowledge in 
which outstanding contributions may be consid- 
ered justification for commemoration in an Ant- 
arctic place name. It is to be considered neither 
exclusive nor exhaustive, and no order of priority is. 
intended. 

1. Navigation and astronomy 

2. Oceanography and hydrography 

3. Surveying, photogrammetry, and cartog- 
raphy 

4. Meteorology and climatology 

5. Geodesy and geophysics 

6. Glaciology and ice physics 

7. Radio, radar, and allied fields 

8. Geology, volcanology, and seismology 

9. Geography 

10. Botany and its subdivisions 

11. Zoology and its subdivisions 

G. Recommended Language and Form 

In keeping with long-established policies based 
upon trends in the normal evolution of geographic 
names, consideration will be given to brevity, sim- 
plicity, and unambiguity in selecting the form of 
names derived by these procedures: 

1. The application of full names and/or titles 
of persons will be considered appropriate only 
when required to avoid ambiguity, duplica- 
tion, or other confusion, or in the case of well 
known persons who were almost invariably 
referred to by their full names. Titles will 
be translated where their use is required. 



2. The names of organizations, ships, and other 
non-personal names, when unduly long and 
cumbersome, will ordinarily be used in some 
shortened, though intelligible, form. 

3. English generics will be used. Complete 
translation of names will generally be avoided, 
but well established translated forms may be 
accepted. 

4. An English generic may be added, or may be 
substituted for an included generic term, in 
the case of non-personal, non-English, single- 
word names that include a generic or a defi- 
nite article, or both. 

H. Inappropriate Names 

Names in the following categories will not be 
considered, unless otherwise appropriate according 
to the principles stated herein, or unless such 
names are widely and firmly established as of the 
date of approval of these principles. 

1. Names suggested because of relationship or 
friendship 

2. Names of contributors of funds, equipment, 
and supplies, who by the nature and tone of 
their advertising have endeavored to capital- 
ize or to gain some commercial advantage as 
a result of their donations. This would not 
include advantages resulting from testing of 
donated equipment under Antarctic condi- 
tions. In cases of doubt, the decision shall 
be in favor of the individual whose name has 
been proposed. 

3. The names of products, sled dogs, or pets will 
ordinarily not be considered as appropriate 
for application to natural features in Ant- 
arctica. 



Application of Policy in Decisions 



In applying the principles outlined in the pre- 
ceding pages, the Board on Geographic Names has 
attempted to disturb previous naming as little as 
possible, while giving recognition to the most ap- 
propriate associations of names and features. In 
general, old established names have been retained. 
Even when this resulted in two closely similar 
names for features in the same category, as two 
mountains or two bays, the names have been kept 
if particularly appropriate or without alternatives. 
In general, too, the Board has done little naming 
on its own part. It has shifted some names to 
features with which they are more logically asso- 



ciated, and in some insj;ances after deciding be- 
tween two names for the same feature, the Board 
has applied the rejected name to another feature 
for which it is appropriate. For example, after 
rejecting Wilkes' name "Cape Hudson" in favor of 
Cape Freshfield, a mountain range in the Thurston 
Peninsula area approached by Hudson was named 
for him. Some new names were supplied for 
prominent unnamed features to which reference 
has been necessary for purposes of this study, such 
as Bingham Glacier and Trail Bay. Other new 
names have been applied to commemorate mem- 
bers of expeditions or those who played a promi- 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



nent part in furthering Antarctic expeditions or 
Antarctic exploration in general, but whose names 
had by some chance not been selected previously 
for application to Antarctic features. These in- 
stances of naming by the Board, however, are few 
in relation to the number of names considered. 

In a number of cases it has not been possible, 
with data collected from all available sources, to 
find or to identify features previously discovered 
and named by Antarctic explorers, due to factors 
referred to above. In most cases these are either 
minor features or are not required for general 
reference at this time. 

Where the data at hand have been insufficient 
for locating on the latest maps various features 
discovered by explorers who worked earlier in Ant- 
arctic history, and where explorers have been un- 
able to find features reported by previous explorers, 
no recommendations have been made to assign or 
to fix the specific or generic parts of names, the 
positions, or the types of features. 

A case in point is Bob Island in the Palmer 
Archipelago. This island, which apparently lies 
off the southeast coast of Wiencke Island in De 
Gerlache Strait, cannot be located with certainty 
on the rather definitive maps now available. This 
name should be assigned as originally intended 
if that becomes possible. Of two examples cited 
in Special Publication No. 83, Mount Saint Michael 
has subsequently been identified; Underwood 
Rock, whose identification is less certain, may be 
Broka Island. 

If it becomes apparent that the nomenclature 
cannot be applied as originally intended, some 
of the names might be assigned to local features 
which will serve as distinctive landmarks to future 
explorers and travelers approaching the area either 
by sea or from the air. Names in this category 
have therefore been placed on file for considera- 
tion after future definitive exploration. 

Over a period of hundreds of years the terms 
"land" and "coast" have been applied quite un- 
systematically in Antarctica. The definitions de- 
veloped by the Committee are set forth at this 
point. 

As applied in the decisions on Antarctic names, 
the term "land" refers to a major physical (geo- 
graphical) subdivision of the continent. It implies 
a concept of area, as opposed to linear extent, 
gained either through observation over a great 
extent or through recognition of the areal unity 
of the named area. Although full or precise de- 
limitation of these entities is of course not pos- 
sible from the information now available, it seems 
logical to assume that regions delimited on the 
basis of physical or areal unity will be used more 
and more as terms of reference in Antarctica. It 



should be noted that a "land" may include 
"coasts" that may be differentiated and separately 
named on its seaward margin, and it may include 
fairly extensive features such as peninsulas or 
plateaus. 

As applied in the decisions on Antarctic names, 
the term "coast" refers to a zone or strip on the 
seaward margin of the continent, possessing a 
recognized degree of unity resulting either from 
physiographic homogeneity, or from marked 
breaks in the configuration of the coast line, or 
from the history of its exploration. A "coast" 
is usually of indeterminate depth. It includes the 
small islands immediately off shore and marine 
features of the transition zone. Whenever a 
"coast" presents recognized physical unity, it has 
been delimited by physical features. In the de- 
limitation of each coast due account has been 
taken of the history of its exploration, and when 
physical unity is lacking or not known, "coasts" 
have been delimited on the basis of exploration 
history alone, subject to later modification when 
more physiographic data are available. 

The name Mac-Robertson Coast illustrates the 
procedures followed. It is so designated, instead 
of as Mac-Robertson Land, because it was seen 
mostly from the sea and from short fiights over 
the coast line without deep penetration inland. 
The delimiting breaks in the shore line at Cape 
Darnley and William Scoresby Bay correspond with 
its exploration by Mawson, who named it. Simi- 
larly Lars Christensen Coast has been delimited 
to include the section discovered by the Nor- 
wegians, a somewhat more restricted application 
than has been suggested before but one that 
coincides with significant breaks in the coast line 
and does justice to the facts of exploration. 

Although it is customary to express distances 
in statute miles on land maps and in nautical 
miles on charts used by mariners, nautical miles 
are used in the texts of all decisions in this 
volume for several reasons. It is understood that 
in air navigation it is the practice to express 
distances and speeds in nautical miles, whether 
flying over either land or sea, and navigation 
around Antarctica will probably be principally 
by air or water for some time to come. The fact 
that a nautical mile is, to all intents and pur- 
poses, equal to one minute of latitude regardless 
of position on the earth, makes the scaling of 
distances from maps or the recording of distances 
in surface exploration on the land easier in terms 
of nautical miles. Furthermore, many of the geo- 
graphical positions on most of the various recon- 
naissance maps and miscellaneous charts used 
up to this time in the nomenclature work will 
be considerably revised as to positions of features 
as exploration proceeds. Since a nautical mile 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



is longer than a statute mile by only 15 percent, 
the difference is not of great consequence at this 
stage, particularly since practically no distances 
referred to in the texts of the decisions exceed 
150 miles and in those cases are ordinarily only 
approximations. 

Expeditious treatment of new names is in large 
part dependent upon the adequacy of the data 
relevant to the features under consideration. Ex- 
perience has shown that much of the labor in 
the approval of a new name can be eliminated 
if the proposal is accompanied by full informa- 
tion on the name, the reasons for its choice, 
and a definitive description of the feature to be 
named. As a step in this direction a form has 
been prepared for proposal of new Antarctic names. 
Copies may be obtained from the Board on Geo- 
graphic Names. 

The fact that a few names now entrenched in 
usage and some others bestowed by nationals of 
another country cannot well be brought into con- 
formity with the general framework of the prin- 
ciples set forth herein need not be disturbing. 
The names given by Americans since enunciation 
of the policy in 1947 have been in conformity with 
its letter and spirit. There has been general ac- 
ceptance abroad of the principles underlying the 



policy, and any points of difference are not in- 
soluble ones. 

The British Antarctic Place-names Committee, 
which has cooperated closely with this Commit- 
tee since 1948, has been of inestimable aid. The 
two Committees, through free exchange of infor- 
mation and views, have arrived at nearly com- 
plete agreement on both policy and names. Simi- 
lar cooperation with committees and individuals 
in other countries has helped greatly in establish- 
ing the facts of naming and in reducing the num- 
ber of different names for the same features. 

The following list of more than 3,000 standard- 
ized Antarctic names is the bulk of those known 
to have been applied or proposed en which there 
is adequate information. The list is the result 
of more than a decade of effort toward an orderly 
Antarctic geographic nomenclature attained by 
objective application of sound principles and re- 
flecting the history of Antarctic exploration. The 
list will require maintenance, improvement, and 
expansion. Further information is needed on the 
nature and the precise location of many fea- 
tures already named. New expeditions or new 
research can be expected to result in new names 
to be incorporated through the developed pro- 
cedures for the maintenance of orderly nomen- 
clature on Antarctica. 



Expeditions 



The following chronological listing of Antarctic 
exploration has been revised and brought up to 
date for this publication. First required as a 
ready reference for salient features of Antarctic 
history for use in the names study, the data proved 
so generally useful that much scattered informa- 
tion was filled in and the list published in the 
first edition of this publication so that dates, com- 
manders, ships, sponsors, and summaries of op- 
erations could be readily found for each expedition. 

Subsequently the second edition of the British 
Admiralty's Antarctic Pilot in 1948 carried a list 
that was considerably longer, mainly because a 
larger area involving sub-Antarctic islands was 
included. The Committee's acceptance, for this 
publication, of a physical concept of the Antarctic, 
namely the area within the Antarctic Convergence, 
excepting Kerguelen Islands, has necessitated the 
expansion of this revised list to include voyages 
earlier than the second voyage of Capt. James 
Cook with which the first list began. 



It is difficult, because of the scanty and con- 
fusing evidence of several almost legendary voy- 
ages, to state positively which expedition marked 
the beginning of Antarctic exploration. It may 
be doubted whether Amerigo Vespucci was any- 
where near South Georgia in 1502. The South 
Shetland Islands, however, may have been sighted 
by Laurens Claess, boatswain of the Dutch ship 
Blijde Bootschap (commanded by Dirck Gherritz 
before its capture) , and his Spanish captors when 
they were driven as far as 64°S. in 1603, and there 
is substantial evidence that the English merchant 
Antonio de la Roche discovered South Georgia 
and sought shelter there while running before a 
storm in 1675. Undoubtedly several merchant 
ships in the days of sail sighted, perhaps for the 
first time, portions of Antarctic islands while being 
driven from their courses by storms. Such was 
the Spanish merchantman Leon which sighted 
and circumnavigated South Georgia in 1756. 
Rarely, however, have permanent geographic 
names resulted from such occurrences. 



424589 O -57 -2 



GEOGRAPHIC SAMES OE ANTARCTICA 



Events since 1941 have emphasized the advis- 
ability of listing only those operations which 
have, either by design or accident, resulted in 
geographical or scientific discovery, or the naming 
of features in Antarctica. On the other hand, 
although they resulted in no geographical discov- 
eries there is ample justification for the inclusion 
of such historically important operations as Capt. 
C. A. Larsen's establishment of the first whaling 
station on South Georgia in 1904-5 and the maiden 
voyage of the Admiralen. the first floating factory. 
in 1905-6. 

Of the many voyages by sealers during the first 
half of the nineteenth century, only those have 
been included for which sufficient information was 
available to complete the listing. More may be 
gleaned from the records of that period, as old 
newspapers, diaries, and logbooks are occasionally 
brought to light. This material, however, is not 
expected to add much to Antarctic nomenclature, 
for the areas that were probably visited by the 
sealers are now fairly well charted and the geo- 
graphical names are well fixed by usage. 

It is believed that most of the whalers credited 
with actual discovery of new land have been listed. 
but it i" beyond the scope of this work to list all 
the modem whaling cruises in the Antarctic. 
Widespread publicity accompanied the Antarctic 
visit of the Soviet floating factory Slava which 
reported sighting Princess Martha Coast on March 
20, 1948, but such landfalls are commonplace 
among .whalers. The nvimber of ships annually 
engaged since 1905 has risen until in the 1938-39 
season 34 floating factories and 281 whale-catchers 
operated in Antarctic waters. Antarctic whaling 
was virtually suspended and most of the factory 
ships were lost during World War n. Only nine 
factories were active during the 1945-46 season, 
but their number increased until 19 were in use 
during the 1950-51 season. Whaling has been 
most actively carried on in three areas, the Scotia 
Sea and surrounding waters, the southern Indian 
Ocean westward of Enderby Land, and the waters 
off the Queen Mary Coast. Errors detected in 
existing charts are generally reported by the 
whalers, but the ships usually operate at sea and 
only incidentally sight land. Whaling captains 
employed by Lars Christensen have been instructed 
to investigate and chart new land when in the 
course of their work an opportunity presents 
itself. 

From 1925 imtU World War n the Discovery 
Committee of the British Colonial Office carried 
on, imder the title "Discovery Investigations," a 
comprehensive program of oceanographic and bio- 
logic research in Antarctic waters focusing on the 



study of whales and their habitat. In the course 
of these operations portions of the coast of Ant- 
arctica and several island groups were charted. 
The work of the Discovery II and its predecessor, 
the Discovery, has been outlined for each year of 
operation. The William Scoresby was principally 
engaged in the marking of whales, with incidental 
cooperation in the oceanographic work of the Dis- 
covery II: therefore, her activities have been listed 
only when they have included exploration or sur- 
veying. In 1949 the two ships, along with the 
staff and equipment of the Discovery Committee, 
were taken over by the newly created National 
Institute of Oceanography, in whose research pro- 
gram Antarctic work is only a part. 

Because they were not exploring expeditions and 
added no geographical names to the Antarctic 
recent voyages such as the 1941 cruises of the 
German commerce raiders "33" and "45," which 
first carried warfare into the far south, and the 
counter voyages of H.M.S. Queen of Bermuda and 
H.M.A.S. Australia in 1941 and H.M.S. Carnarvon 
Castle in 1943 are not included. Argentina car- 
ried on extensive naval maneuvers in Antarctic 
waters in the summer of 1947-48, but only those 
vessels which were in some degree concerned with 
establishing or supplying Antarctic base camps 
are listed. 

As a result of the contested territorial claims in 
the Palmer Peninsxila sector Great Britain. Argen- 
tina, and Chile have for the past several years 
maintained continuously-occupied bases in this 
area. While these bases have been ostensibly 
set up as meteorological stations and as focal 
points for geographical surveys, their maintenance 
has important political implications. Since 1904 
Argentina has maintained a weather station on 
Laurie Island in the South Orkney Islands and 
since 1906, when H.M.S. Sappho investigated con- 
flicting whaling rights. Great Britain has admin- 
istered the whaling industry on South Georgia. 
Thfse operations as well as the more recent accel- 
erated activity have resulted in numerous admin- 
istrative cruises for the relief of personnel and or 
inspection. Unless such operations have been defi- 
nitely associated with geographical discover,' or 
scientific investigation they are not included in 
the list. 

Because of incomplete information on some of 
the latest activity and because no names later than 
1954 have been included in the names section, 
except for a minute number of name corrections 
based upon preliminary reports of exploration, the 
list of expeditions is terminated with the 1954-55 
season. 



10 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



List of Expeditions 



1675. British expedition. 

Leader: Antonio de la Roche. Ships: Unknown. 
Summary : Two commercial vessels returning from 
Peru via Cape Horn in April were blown eastward 
from their course and sighted snow-covered land, 
now believed to be South Georgia, in 55'S. The 
ships were forced by a storm to anchor there two 
weeks. 

1738-39. French expedition. 

Leader: J. B. C. Bouvet de Lozier. Ships: Aigle 

and Marie. 

Summary: Discovered Bouvetoya on January 1, 

1739. Ships stayed near the island 12 days but ice 

and fog prevented a landing. Then cruised east 

along edge of pack to 38'E. before turning north on 

January 25. 

1756. Spanish expedition. 

Leader: Unknown. Ship: Leon. 

Summary: Sighted and circumnavigated South 

Georgia. Knowledge of expedition based upon 

narrative by passenger Ducloz Guyot. 

1772-75. British expedition. 

Leader: Capt. James Cook. Ships: Resolution and 
Adventure. 

Summary: Sponsored by the British Admiralty. 
A circumnavigation was made south of 50 'S., ex- 
cept for the area south of New Zealand. Pene- 
trated south of Antarctic Circle three times. 
Roughly charted the north coast of South Georgia, 
making the first known landing there near Posses- 
sion Bay. Discovered that part of the South Sand- 
wich Islands southward of the Traverse Islands 
and roughly charted them. Cook's voyage dis- 
proved existence of a "Terra Australis" in latitudes 
north of 60 'S. and thus profoundly modified con- 
cepts on which subsequent exploration was based. 
Farthest south reported, 71'10'S., 106=54'W., Janu- 
ary 30, 1774. 

1800. United States sealing expeditions. 
Leaders: Various. Ships: Various. 
Summary: Documentary evidence of sealing oper- 
ations in south Pacific and Atlantic Oceans exists, 
but desire for secrecy resulted in few contemporary 
announcements. Known records too scanty to re- 
construct actual routes. 

1808. British whaling expedition. 

Leaders: Captains James Lindsay and Thomas 
Hopper. Ships: Snow Swan and Otter. 



Summary: Lindsay in the Enderby whaler Snow 
Swan sighted Bouvetdya October 6; Hopper in 
Otter sighted the island October 10. Attempts to 
land were imsuccessful. 

1819. British expedition. 

Leader : Capt. William Smith. Ship : Williams. 
Summary: Discovered South Shetland Islands on 
commercial voyage from Buenos Aires to Valpa- 
raiso, February 1819. Confirmed discovery in Oc- 
tober by second voyage. Landed on King George 
Island on October 16. 

1819-20. Argentine sealing expedition. 

Leader: Capt. Carlos Timblon. Ship: San Juan 

Nepomuceno. 

Summary: First ship known to have taken fur 

seals in the South Shetland Islands. 

1819-20. British sealing expedition. 
Leader: Unknown. Ship: Espirito Santo. 
SuMrviARY : Set out from Buenos Aires. Met Capt. 
Nathaniel B. Palmer in Falkland Islands and later 
in South Shetland Islands. 

1819-20. United States sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. James P. SheflBeld. Ship: Hersilia. 
Summary: Sponsored by Edmund Fanning, WU- 
ham A. Fanning and others. Hunted seals in 
South Shetland Islands. Met British in the 
Espirito Santo. 

1819-20. British expedition. 

Leader: Edward Bransfield, Master, RN. Ship: 
Williams. 

Summary: Roughly charted South Shetland Is- 
lands. Sailed through Bransfield Strait, reported 
sighting land to the south. 

1819-21. Russian expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Thaddeus Bellingshausen. Ships: 
Vostok and Mirnyy. 

SuMiMARY : Sponsored by Alexander I and Russian 
Navy. Made a circumnavigation, mostly south of 
60'S., but no claims were made to have actually 
sighted the mainland. Discovered Traverse Is- 
lands, Peter I Island, and Alexander I Island. 
Bellingshausen made fairly accurate charts of the 
South Shetland and South Sandwich Islands, and 
was first to chart the south coast of South Georgia. 



11 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



1820-21. United States sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Benjamin Pendleton. Ships: Fred- 
erick, Hersilia, Express, Free Gift and Hero. 
Summary: Financed by Edmund Fanning, Wil- 
liam A. Fanning and others. The vessels explored 
South Shetland Islands for sealing grounds; Capt. 
Nathanial B. Palmer in the Hero sailed south from 
Deception Island, drawing close to the Antarctic 
mainland on November 17, 1820. In January 1821, 
Palmer further explored the west coast of Palmer 
Peninsula. [Eduard A. Stackpole's The Voyage of 
the Huron and the Huntress, published shortly be- 
fore this volume went to press suggests a different 
interpretation of the Hero's log for November 17, 
but time has not allowed reexamination of the 
original evidence.] 

1820-21. British sealing expedition. 

Leader: Capt. Richard Sherratt. Ship: Lady 

Trowbridge. 

Summary : Lady Trowbridge wrecked on December 

25, 1820 off Cape Melville, King George Island. 

Sherratt sketched a rough chart of central part of 

South Shetland Islands while awaiting relief of his 

crew at end of season. 

1820-21. United States sealing expedition. 
Leaders: Captains John Davis and Christopher 
Burdick. Ships: Huron, Huntress and Cecilia. 
Summary: The three vessels arrived in company 
at the South Shetland Islands on December 1, 1820. 
On December 8 they entered Yankee Harbor at 
Greenwich Island where the Huron and Huntress 
remained. Short cruises were made in the Cecilia 
along the south side of Livingston Island. Sailing 
northeastward on December 28, Davis circumnavi- 
gated the South Shetland Islands, transporting the 
crew of a wrecked British vessel, perhaps the Lady 
Trowbridge, from Cape Melville to Rugged Island. 
On January 30, 1821, Captain Davis in the Cecilia 
began a long cruise to the west and south. Coast- 
ing Livingston Island, he passed through Morton 
Strait and landed on the south coast of Smith Is- 
land on February 1. On February 2 he landed on 
Low Island, departing on February 6 and sailing 
past Hoseason Island toward high lands to the 
south. At 10 a. m. on February 7, 1821, he put 
men ashore at Hughes Bay, the first known in- 
stance of a landing on the Antarctic continent. 
Davis reported in his log, "I think this Southern 
Land to be a Continent." That afternoon, the 
weather deteriorating, he departed for Yankee Har- 
bor, arriving after a rough passage on February 10. 
On a second cruise, this time by Captain Burdick in 
the Cecilia, between February 12 and 19, a second 
landing was made on Low Island and the mainland 
was again sighted. 



1820-21. British sealing expedition. 
Leader: Captain Clark. Ship: Lord Melville. 
Summary: Provided with a hut and supplies, the 
chief officer and ten men engaged in sealing along 
northeast side of King George Island, making what 
may prove the first wintering in the Antarctic. 

1820-21. United States sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Charles H. Barnard. Ships: Char- 
ity, Aurora, Jane Maria: and Henry. 
Summary: Sponsored by James Byers of New 
York. Captains Barnard, Macy, Johnson and 
Bruno carried on sealing operations in the South 
Shetlands from Rugged Island and later from 
Yankee Harbor. Between January 5 and 27, 1821, 
Capt. Robert Johnson, in the Jane Maria, cruised 
southwestward to a reported position of 66°S., 
70°W. where the land continued to the south, "but 
appeared to be nothing but solid islands of ice and 
snow" — probably the Biscoe Islands. 

1820-21. British sealing expedition. 

Leader: Capt. James Weddell. Ships: Jane and 

Eliza. 

Summary: Carried on sealing operations in the 

South Shetlands. 

1820-21. United States sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Thomas Ray. Ships: Harmony and 
William and Nancy. 

Summary: Captains Ray and Folger, from Nan- 
tucket, carried on sealing in the South Shetland 
Islands. Their headquarters on Nelson Island was 
named Harmony Cove. 

1820-21. United States sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Jonathan Winship. Ships: O'Cain 
and Stranger. 

Summary: Captains Winship and Stranger of 
Boston conducted sealing operations in the South 
Shetland Islands with headquarters at Potter Cove. 
Nelson Island was called O'Cain Island by the early 
American sealers. 

1820-21. United States sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Alexander Clark. Ships: Clothier, 
Emiline, and Catherine. 

Summary: Captain Clark with Captains Jeremiah 
Holmes and Joseph Henfield, of Stonington, carried 
on sealing operations in the South Shetland Is- 
lands from headquarters at Clothier Harbor where 
the Clothier went aground and was wrecked on 
December 9, 1820. 

1820-21. United States sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. William B. Orne. Ships: General 
Knox, Nancy and Governor Brooks. 
Summary : Captain Orne with Captains Upton and 
Withem of Salem, Massachusetts, carried on seal- 
ing operations in the South Shetland Islands. 



12 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



1820-21. British sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. William Smith. Ship: Williams. 
Summary: Carried on sealing operations in the 
South Shetlands. 

1820-21. British sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Robert Fildes. Ship: Unknown. 
Summary: Carried on sealing operations in the 
South Shetlands. 

1820-21. British sealing expedition. 
Leader: Captain McFarlane. Ship: Dragon. 
Summary: Carried on sealing operations in the 
South Shetland Islands, principally on the north 
side of Livingston Island. 

1820-22. British sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. George Powell. Ship: Dove. 
Summary: Charted north side of South Shetland 
Islands. Made joint sealing cruise with Capt. 
Nathaniel B. Palmer, resulting in discovery and 
charting of South Orkney Islands, December 1821. 
The names on Powell's map of the South Shetland 
and South Orkney Islands, because of their early 
publication in 1822 and wide distribution, have 
been more widely accepted than those on later 
maps of contemporary explorers. 

1821-22. United States sealing expedition. 
Leader: Benjamin Pendleton. Ships: Frederick, 
Alabama Packet, Express, Free Gift, James Monroe 
and Hero. 

Summary: Sponsored by Edmund Fanning, Wil- 
liam A. Fanning and Benjamin Pendleton. Car- 
ried on sealing operations in the South Shetland 
Islands from Deception Island. Because of scar- 
city of seals, beaches, especially on King George, 
Clarence and Elephant Islands were extensively 
explored by Capt. Benjamin Cutler, Free Gift, 
Capt. Nathaniel B. Palmer, James Monroe, and 
Capt. Harris Pendleton, Hero. Capt. Harris Pen- 
dleton in the Hero appears to have skirted the 
Palmer Peninsula on a southwesterly cruise from 
Deception Island in November 1821, and then 
sailed northwestward to Smith Island. Captain 
Palmer in the James Monroe met Captain Powell in 
the South Shetlands, and with him made a joint 
cruise eastward in December 1821 on which the 
South Orkney Islands were discovered and mapped. 
Evidence suggests that Palmer also made a cruise 
along the coast of the Palmer Peninsula. 

1821-22. United States sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. John Davis. Ships: Huron and 
Cecilia. 

Summary: Carried on sealing in the South Shet- 
land Islands. 



1821-22. British sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. James Weddell. Ship: Jane. 
Summary: Visited South Orkney and South Shet- 
land Islands. 

1821-22. United States sealing expedition. 
Leaders: Captains Benjamin Morrell and Robert 
Johnson. Ships : Wasp and Jane Maria. 
Summary : Sponsored by James Byers of New York. 
Sailed separately for sealing in the South Shetland 
Islands. Returned in company. 

1822-23. United States sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Benjamin Morrell. Ship: Wasp. 
Summary: Sailed from New York to Bouvet0ya to 
Kerguelen Islands to 64°52'S., 118°27'W. Sailed 
west to South Sandwich Islands, from whence 
Weddell Sea was penetrated to reported 70°14'S., 
40°03' W. Retired northward. 

1822-24. British sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. James Weddell. Ships: Jane and 
Beaufoy. 

Summary: Matthew Brisbane in the Beaufoy 
roughly charted the south coast of South Orkney 
Islands. Weddell penetrated Weddell Sea to re- 
ported 74°15'S., 34°17'W. South Georgia visited, 
thence north to Falkland Islands for wintering. 
Visited and charted South Shetland Islands before 
returning home via Tierra del Fuego. Weddell's 
narrative, including a map of the South Shetlands, 
was published in 1825. 

1824-25. British sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Edward Hughes. Ship: Sprightly. 
Summary: Sealing operations in South Shetland 
Islands. Hughes Bay along west coast of Palmer 
Peninsula was roughly charted by James Hoseason, 
first mate. 

1828-31. British expedition. 

Leader: Capt. Henry Foster, RN. Ship: Chanti- 
cleer. 

Summary: Government sponsored scientific expe- 
dition. Magnetic and pendulum observations in 
South Shetland Islands, especially at Deception 
Island. Approached the north end of Palmer 
Archipelago, producing rough chart of this area. 

1829-31. United States expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Benjamin Pendleton. Ships: Ser- 
aph, Annawan, and Penguin. 
Summary: Sponsored by Edmund Fanning, Ben- 
jamin Pendleton and public subscription. Com- 
bined sealing operations and scientific observa- 
tions. The Annawan, Capt. Nathaniel B. Palmer, 
and the Penguin, Capt. Alexander S. Palmer, car- 
ried on sealing at Elephant Island and westward in 
the South Shetland Islands during January and 



13 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



February 1830. The two vessels sailed westward 
on February 22, holding a course between 62°S. and 
58-S. as far as 103°W., in an unsuccessful search of 
islands reported by Captains Swain, Gardiner and 
Macy. James Eights, geologist from Albany and 
the first American scientist to visit the Antarctic, 
was aboard the Annawan. He made remarkably 
accurate observations on the South Shetland 
Islands, pubhshed in 1833, and from evidence on 
the western cruise, surmised the existence of an 
extensive land area to the south. Meanwhile, Cap- 
tain Pendleton in the Seraph made an independent 
voyage to the west from the South Shetland 
Islands, reaching as far as 101°W. south of 60°S. 

1829-31. United States sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. James Brown. Ship: Pacific. 
Summary: Sealing operations carried on at South 
Georgia from December 1829 to March 1830. Vis- 
ited north part of South Sandwich Islands in De- 
cember 1830, making a landing on Zavodovski 
Island. 

1830-32. British expedition. 

Leader: Capt. John Biscoe. Ships: Tula and 
Lively. 

Summary: Made a circumnavigation, beginning in 
Falkland Islands. Land was discovered at Cape 
Ann, Enderby Land. Wintered in Hobart, Tas- 
mania. Returned south and proceeded eastward 
without sighting land until the peaks of Adelaide 
Island were viewed from a distance. Landed in 
Palmer Archipelago, probably at Anvers Island. 
Sailed north to Falkland Islands. 

1831. Australian sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Samuel Harvey. Ship: Venus. 
Summary: Sent out from Hobart, January 9, 1831, 
by Capt. J. Kelly to carry on sealing and whaling 
operations in the vicinity of Macquarie Island. 
Ship penetrated to 70°S., apparently in entrance 
to Ross Sea. Returned to Sydney December 31, 
1831. 

1833-34. British expedition. 

Leader: Lt. Henry Rea, RN. Ships: Hopeful and 
Rose. 

Summary: Sent out by Enderby Brothers to con- 
tinue Biscoe's explorations. A proposed westward 
circumnavigation was abandoned when the Hope- 
ful was crushed west of South Shetland Islands. 

1833-34. British expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Peter Kemp. Ship: Magnet. 
Summary: Sent out by Enderby Brothers, Kemp 
sailed south from Kerguelen Islands sighting land 
in vicinity of Kemp Coast. 



1837-40. French expedition. 

Leader: Capt. Dumont D'Urville. Ships: Astro- 
labe and Zelee. 

Summary: Sponsored by Ministry of Marine. 
During the 1837-38 season D'Urville sailed from 
Cape Horn across outermost part of Weddell Sea, 
thence north to South Orkney Islands before sail- 
ing southwest to South Shetland Islands and north 
tip of Palmer Peninsula. Moved to Pacific Ocean, 
March 1838. Returned from Oceania to the Ant- 
arctic in January 1840, exploring south of 60°S. 
between 125°E. and 145°E. Discovered Adelie 
Coast and made a landing on a small islet group 
close off coast. Discovered Clarie Coast before re- 
tiring north. 

1839. British expedition. 

Leader: Capt. John Balleny. Ships: Eliza Scott 

and Sabrina. 

Summary : Sent out by Enderby Brothers, Balleny 

sailed from New Zealand to Antarctic Circle at 

178°E. Moved southwest to discover Balleny 

Islands, thence west toward Sabrina Coast, where 

"appearance of land" was noted. Retired north at 

93°E. 

1838-42. United States Exploring Expedition. 
Leader: Lt. Charles Wilkes, USN. Ships: Vin- 
cennes, Peacock, Porpoise, Sea Gidl, Flying Fish 
and Relief. 

Summary: Sponsored by United States Navy with 
congressional appropriation.- Squadron split in 
Tierra del Fuego, February 1839, one group going 
south and east via South Shetland Islands to Louis 
Philippe Peninsula; the other sailing southwest to 
a point off Thurston Peninsula, seeing no land. 
Work in Pacific Ocean followed. Ships returned 
to the Antarctic, December 1839, and sailed west 
along coast of Wilkes Land, charting a series of 
landfalls for some 1,500 miles between about 160°E. 
and 98°E. In this voyage Wilkes established the 
existence of an Antarctic land mass of continental 
proportions. Ships retired north February 21, 
1840. 

1839-43. British expedition. 

Leader: Capt. James Clark Ross, RN. Ships: 
Erebus and Terror. 

Summary: Sponsored by British Admiralty, with 
cooperation of British Association and Royal So- 
ciety. Sailed south from Hobart to Cape Adare, 
discovering Ross Sea and Victoria Land, thence 
east along Ross Ice Shelf. Returned to Cape 
Adare and continued west, skirting cbast to about 
140°E. Wintered in Australian waters, returning 
to Ross Sea in December 1841. Sailed north, then 
east to Falkland Islands, arriving in April 1842. 
Season of 1842-43 spent exploring Erebus and 



14 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Terror Gulf and attempting penetration of Wed- 
dell Sea. 

1841-42. United States sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. William H. Smyley. Ship: Ohio. 
Summary: Sealing in South Shetland Islands and 
along west coast of Palmer Peninsula. Some of 
Smyley's explorations in Palmer Archipelago may 
antedate investigation of the islands by Dallmann. 
A reading of —5° F. was reported by Smyley from 
the minimum thermometer, left at Deception 
Island by Captain Foster in 1829, which he found 
there. This was the lowest temperature reported 
for Antarctica until 1898. 

1845. British expedition. 
Leader: Lt. T. E. L. Moore, RN. Ship: Pagoda. 
Summary: Sponsored by British Admiralty. 
Sailed from Cape Town to Albany, Australia, for 
purpose of magnetic observations in south Indian 
Ocean. Observations made from about 4°E. to 
about 98°E., south of 60°S. No claim of land 
sighted. 

1853-54. United States expedition. 
Leader: Capt. John J. Heard. Ship: Oriental. 
Summary: Discovered Heard Island on November 
25, 1853, while on voyage from Boston to Mel- 
bourne. 

1853-54. British expedition. 
Leader: Captain McDonald. Ship: Samarang. 
Summary: Discovered McDonald Islands January 
3, 1854. 

1855-56. United States sealing expedition. 
Leaders: Captains Erasmus Darwin Rogers and 
Franklin F. Smith. Ships: Corinthian and 
Laurens, with tenders Atlas, Exile, Franklin and 
Mechanic. 

Summary: Sent out by Perkins and Smith, whalers 
of New London, Conn.; Rogers in the Corinthian 
made the first landing on Heard Island in March 
1855. His report of numerous elephant seals to 
his employers caused Smith in the Laurens to join 
him at Heard Island. Together they engaged in 
extensive sealing operations, and exploration and 
mapping of the island. 

1857. United States sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Henry Rogers. Ship: Zoe. 
Summary: Shore party of 25 men engaged in ele- 
phant sealing operations; the first party to winter 
on Heard Island. 

1873-74. German expedition. 

Leader: Capt. Eduard Dallmann. Ship: Gron- 

land. 



Summary : Sponsored by Albert Rosenthal and the 
German Society for Polar Navigation. Dallmann 
combined sealing and exploration in the South 
Shetland Islands and along the west coast of 
Palmer Peninsula, especially in the Palmer Archi- 
pelago. Returned north via South Orkney Islands. 

1874. British expedition. 

Leaders: Capt. George S. Nares, RN, and Prof. C. 
Wyville Thomson. Ship: Challenger. 
Summary: Sponsored by the British Admiralty in 
cooperation with the Royal Society as part of a 
world-wide cruise, 1872-76, for oceanographic ob- 
servation. Antarctic waters were penetrated in 
February 1874 when Heard and McDonald Islands 
were visited. They published what long remained 
the standard chart of Heard Island. From Heard 
Island they sailed southward to 66°40'S., 78°22'E. 
on the outer margin of Prydz Bay. The ship re- 
mained south of 60°S., skirting the pack eastward 
to about 99°E., off Queen Mary Coast, then re- 
treated northward. The mainland was not 
sighted. 

1874. German expedition. 
Leader: Captain von Reibnitz. Shi.': Arkona. 
Summary: Investigated Kerguelen and Heard 
Islands as possible site for German base for the 
observation of the Transit of Venus. 

1882-83. German expedition. 
Leader: Dr. K. Schrader. Ships: Moltke and 
Marie. 

Summary: This expedition, the German group of 
the International Polar Year Investigations, estab- 
lished a base and wintered at Moltke Harbor, South 
Georgia. Took meteorological, magnetic, and 
astronomical observations and charted Royal Bay 
area. 

1892-93. Dundee (Scottish) whaling expedition. 
Leaders: Captains Alexander Fairweather, Robert 
Davidson, Thomas Robertson and James Davidson. 
Ships: Balaena, Diana, Active and Polar Star. 
Summary: A whaling expedition sent out by R. 
Kinnes of Dundee on which the ship's doctors, Wil- 
liam S. Bruce and C. W. Donald acted as natural- 
ists. Ships sailed from Falkland Islands to north- 
west part of Weddell Sea. Only the Active did 
actual exploring, discovering the channel between 
Dundee and Joinville Islands and making investi- 
gations in Erebus and Terror Gulf. Bruce on the 
Balaena succeeded in making incidental but valu- 
able observations. 

1892-93. Norwegian whaling expedition. 
Leader: Capt. C. A. Larsen. Ship: Jason. 
Summary: Sent out by Oceana Co. of Hamburg 
and Christen Christensen of Sandefjord. Larsen 
combined whaling, sealing and exploring in Erebus 



15 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



and Terror Gulf, returning with fossils from Sey- 
mour Island. 

1893-94. Norwegian sealing expedition. 
Leaders: Captains C. A. Larsen, C. J. Evensen, and 
M. Pedersen. Ships: Jason, Hertha and Castor. 
Summary: Sent out by Oceana Co. and Christen 
Christensen. Sealing and exploring was carried 
on by Larsen in the Jason in the James Ross Island 
group and along the edge of Larsen Ice Shelf. 
Foyn Coast, Oscar II Coast, and Seal Nunataks 
were discovered by Larsen; Cumberland Bay, South 
Georgia, was visited. The Castor and Hertha 
worked in the South Shetland Islands and along 
west coast of Palmer Peninsula. Evensen in the 
Hertha sailed south to within sight of Alexander I 
Island. 

1894-95. Norwegian expedition. 
Leaders: Capt. Leonard Kristensen and H. J. Bull. 
Ship: Antarctic. 

Summary: Sent out by Svend Foyn, the group car- 
ried on sealing at Macquarie Island. Later sailed 
from New Zealand to Balleny Islands. Sighted 
Cape Adare January 16, 1895, after two months in 
pack. Landed on Possession Islands. Reached 
74°S. off Coulman Island; returned to make a 
landing at Cape Adare. 

1897-99. Belgian Antarctic Expedition. 
Leader: Lt. Adrien de Gerlache. Ship: Belgica. 
Summary: Sponsored by government grants and 
private contributions. Broad program of scien- 
tific observations from Tierra del Fuego through 
Palmer Archipelago via South Shetland Islands. 
Discovered and charted De Gerlache Strait, thence 
moved southwest to within sight of Alexander I 
Island. Belgica penetrated to 71°30'S. before being 
beset in pack. Ship drifted with pack in Bellings- 
hausen Sea for year before released; first scientific 
expedition to winter in Antarctic realm. 

1898. German expedition 
Leader: Prof. Karl Chun. Ship: Valdivia. 
Summary: Sponsored by German government. 
Antarctic waters penetrated in November and De- 
cember incidental to more extensive oceanographic 
observations. Proceeded from Cape Town to Bou- 
vet0ya, thence to 64°15'S., 64°20'E., about 100 miles 
north of Enderby Land. Retreated to Kerguelen 
Islands. 

1898-1900. British Antarctic Expedition. 
Leader: C. E. Borchgrevink. Ship: Southern Cross. 
Summary : Sponsored by Sir George Newnes. Dif- 
ficult passage through pack from Hobart to Cape 
Adare where, in February 1899, a winter camp 
was set up for scientific staff. Ship returned in 
January 1900 and sailed south along Victoria Land 



with landings at Coulman Island, Wood Bay, 
Franklin Island, and Cape Crozier. Ross Ice Shelf 
skirted from Ross Island to Bay of Whales where 
landing was made. Returned to New Zealand. 

1901-3. German Antarctic Expedition. 
Leader : Prof. Erich von Drygalski. Ship : Gauss. 
Summary: Sponsored by government grant and 
support from Counts Baudissin and Posadowsky. 
Sailed south from Cape Town via Kerguelen 
Islands and Heard Island, penetrating Antarctic 
waters in 90 °E. Wilhelm II Coast discovered Feb- 
ruary 21, 1902. Gauss frozen in pack 50 miles 
from coast until February 8, 1903. Attempts to 
sail west proving futile, ship retreated north. 
Much scientific observation, but little exploration 
accomplished. 

1901-4. Swedish Antarctic Expedition. 
Leader: Dr. Otto Nordenskjbld. Ship: Antarctic. 
Summary: Supported by private donors. Sailed 
south through South Shetland Islands to chart 
De Gerlache Strait; returned northeast to Weddell 
Sea via Antarctic Sound. Winter quarters set up 
on Snow Hill Island, from which Nordenskjold 
sledged southwest on Larsen Ice Shelf to Richt- 
hofen Valley. Ship's crew under Capt. C. A. Lar- 
sen in the Antarctic wintered at South Georgia, 
charting Cumberland and Royal Bays and explor- 
ing north side of island. The Antarctic was beset 
and crushed February 1903, trying to return to 
Snow Hill Island. Following a second winter in 
camp, Nordenskjold sledged northeast through 
Prince Gustav Channel, meeting two men from 
the ship at Cape Well-met, Vega Island. Entire 
expedition rescued November 1903 by Capt. Julian 
Irizar in Argentine ship Uruguay. 

1901^. British National Antarctic Expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Robert F. Scott, RN. Ship: Dis- 
covery. 

Summary : Supported by government grant, Royal 
Geographical Society, Royal Society, and large 
private donations. Sailed from New Zealand, 
meeting pack near Antarctic Circle January 1, 
1902. Landed at Cape Adare and other places in 
Victoria Land on way to Ross Island. Skirted 
Ross Ice Shelf eastward and discovered Edward 
VII Peninsula. Returned to Hut Point, Ross 
Island; winter hut built and ship frozen in. Con- 
ducted scientific observation and geographic ex- 
ploration. Several sledge journeys made; one 380 
miles southward on Ross Ice Shelf, two westward 
via Ferrar and Taylor Glaciers onto 9,000-foot 
plateau of Victoria Land for 130 and 300 miles, 
respectively. Relief brought by the Morning, 
1902-3, and by the Morning and Terra Nova, 1903-4. 



16 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Discovery freed in 1904 and sailed north via Bal- 
leny Islands, thence west along Oates Coast and 
north to New Zealand. 

1902-3. British relief expedition. 
Leader: Lt. William Colbeck, RNR. Ship: Morn- 
ing. 

Summary: Relief expedition for British National 
Antarctic Expedition at Ross Island. Scott Island 
discovered enroute from New Zealand. 

1902-4. Scottish National Antarctic Expedition. 
Leader: Dr. William S. Bruce. Ship: Scotia. 
Summary: Sponsored by Coats family and other 
private donors. Sailed southeast from Falkland 
Islands to South Orkney Islands, thence east 
toward South Sandwich Islands and south to 
70°25'S., 17°12'W., where the pack forced a retreat 
February 22, 1903 to winter quarters in South 
Orkney Islands. Laurie Island charted. Sailed 
southeast into Weddell Sea February 14, 1904; 
Coats Land discovered March 6, but landing im- 
possible. Retreated northward. 

1903. Argentine relief expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Julian Irizar. Ship: Uruguay. 
Summary: Dispatched by Argentine government; 
sailed south to Snow Hill Island, relieving shore 
party of Swedish Antarctic Expedition November 
8, and rescuing ship party on Paulet Island No- 
vember 10. 

1903-4. British relief expedition. 
Leader: Lt. William Colbeck, RNR. Ships: Morn- 
ing and Terra Nova. 

Summary: Relief expedition for British National 
Antarctic Expedition at Ross Island. Aided in 
freeing the Discovery. 

1903-5. French Antarctic Expedition. 
Leader: Dr. Jean B. Charcot. Ship: Franqais. 
Summary: Financed by Charcot, government 
grant, and private contributions. Sailed from 
Falkland Islands to South Shetland Islands, thence 
south along west coast of Palmer Peninsula. 
Palmer Archipelago charted; wintered there at 
Port Charcot, Booth Island. Sailed south Decem- 
ber 25, 1904; Biscoe Islands roughly charted and 
Loubet Coast discovered. Alexander I Island 
sighted before turning north to South Shetland 
Islands. 

1904. Argentine expedition. 

Leader: Cdr. Ismael F. Galindez. Ship: Uruguay. 
Summary: Sponsored by Argentine government; 
took over meteorological station at Laurie Island 
in South Orkney Islands. Station continuously 
operated since 1904 by annual Argentine relief 
parties. 



1904-5. Norwegian-Argentine whaling expedition. 
Leader: Capt. C. A. Larsen, manager. Ships: For- 
tuna, Louisa, Rolf and Guardia Nacional. 
Summary: Financed by Compahia Argentina de 
Pesca; engaged in whaling in vicinity of South 
Georgia. Established first whaling station in 
South Georgia at Grytviken. 

1905-6. Norwegian whaling expedition. 
Leader: Alexander Lange, manager. Ship: Admi- 
ralen. 

Summary: Visit of first floating factory, the Ad- 
miralen, to South Shetland Islands marked begin- 
ning of Norwegian whaling industry in the Ant- 
arctic and increased tempo of whaling activity in 
southern waters. 

1906. British expedition. 

Leader: Capt. M. H. Hodges, RN. Ship: Sappho. 
Summary: Sent by British Admiralty to investi- 
gate whaling situation at South Georgia. Charted 
portions of Cumberland Bay. 

1907-9. British Antarctic Expedition. 
Leader: Lt. Ernest H. Shackleton, RNR. Ship: 
Nimrod. 

Summary: Sponsored by Sir William Beardmore, 
the Misses Dawson-Lambton, and other private 
and public donors. Sailed south from New Zealand 
January 1908, entering Ross Sea and skirting Ross 
Ice Shelf eastward to Bay of Whales. Failing 
to reach Edward VII Peninsula, returned to Cape 
Royds, Ross Island, and set up winter base. Short 
geological trips made from base, including scaling 
of Mount Erebus. South Pole journey begun Octo- 
ber 29, 1908, southward on Ross Ice Shelf, ascend- 
ing polar plateau via Beardmore Glacier. Lack of 
rations forced retreat from 88°23'S., 97 miles from 
pole, January 9, 1909. Another journey made 
north to Drygalski Ice Tongue, thence northwest 
on Victoria Land plateau, locating magnetic pole 
at 72°25'S., 155°16'E. Ferrar and Taylor Glaciers 
explored. Ship returned in January from winter- 
ing in New Zealand; entire expedition embarked 
March 4, 1909. 

1908-10. Second French Antarctic Expedition. 
Leader: Dr. Jean B. Charcot. Ship: Pourquoi- 
Pas?. 

Summary: Financed by government grant-in-aid 
with support and contributions of learned societies, 
government bureaus, and public and private do- 
nors. Sailed south from Punta Arenas to Palmer 
Archipelago via South Shetland Islands, thence 
south along west coast of Palmer Peninsula to 
beyond Adelaide Island. Marguerite Bay and Fal- 
lieres Coast discovered and area charted. Re- 
turned north to winter on Petermann Island, from 
whence short journeys were made onto Palmer 



17 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Peninsula. Left winter base for Deception Island 
November 26, 1909, where ship was coaled; Decep- 
tion Island and Admiralty Bay, King George Island 
charted. Returned south; Charcot Island discov- 
ered and Alexander I Island sighted. Continued 
west across Bellingshausen Sea south of Antarctic 
Circle to beyond 120 "W. before turning northward. 

1910. British expedition. 
Leader: Unknown. Ship: Wakefield. 
Summary: Searched for survivors of Australian 
liner Waratah. Lt. H. W. T. R. Seymour, RN, and 
four naval ratings lent by British Admiralty, car- 
ried out hydrographic observations in visits to 
Prince Edward, Crozet, Kerguelen, Heard and Mc- 
Donald Islands. 

1910. British-Norwegian sealing expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Anton Evensen. Ship: Mangoro. 
Summary: A landing was made on Heard Island 
March 25, 1910. 

1910-12. Norwegian expedition. 
Leader: Roald Amundsen. Ship: Fram. 
Summary: Sponsored by Don Pedro Christopher- 
sen and other private donors; Fram lent by Nor- 
wegian government. Sailed from Norway via 
Madeira to Bay of Whales in Ross Ice Shelf, arriv- 
ing January 14, 1911. Before winter set in, quar- 
ters were built and depots laid for next season's 
South Pole journey. Led by Amundsen, polar 
party left base October 19, 1911, sledging south 
on Ross Ice Shelf, ascending polar plateau via 
Axel Heiberg Glacier, and reaching vicinity of 
South Pole on December 14, 1911. December 15 
occupied taking numerous astronomical observa- 
tions indicating party's position as 89°55'S. Next 
day party continued south and on December 16 
and 17 took 24 hourly observations with satisfac- 
tion that position attained was as near South Pole 
as could be determined by instruments available. 
Return journey begun December 17, reaching Bay 
of Whales January 25, 1912. Meanwhile, Lt. K. 
Prestrud left base on November 7, 1911, sledged 
south to 80°S., thence east to about 158°W., thence 
north to edge of Ross Ice Shelf from where he 
traveled northeastward to Scott Nunataks. He 
returned to base December 15, 1911. Bay of 
Whales later charted. Following oceanographic 
work in south Atlantic Ocean during winter of 

1911, the Fram returned to Bay of Whales and 
expedition left January 29, 1912. 

1910-13. British Antarctic Expedition. 

Leader: Capt. Robert F. Scott, RN. Ship: Terra 

Nova. 

Summary: Financed by private contributions with 

support of Royal Geographical Society. Sailed 

from New Zealand, reaching Ross Island January 3, 



1911, where main base was set up on Cape Evans. 
After cruise to Bay of Whales and back, northern 
party was left on Cape Adare for winter; Terra 
Nova proceeded to New Zealand, discovering Oates 
Coast enroute. Remainder of season at main base 
occupied laying depots for polar journey. After 
preliminary journeys, which opened the 1911-12 
season, polar party headed south via Ross Ice Shelf 
and Beardmore Glacier, with two supporting 
parties. Reached South Pole January 17, 1912, 
but Scott and four companions succumbed on re- 
turn journey. Northern party charted Robertson 
Bay area before being removed by the Terra Nova, 
January 1912, to Terra Nova Bay where they were 
marooned during winter of 1912. From there the 
party sledged south to Ross Island. Meanwhile, 
geological party under Griffith Taylor explored 
McMurdo Sound region. Part of expedition re- 
turned home in 1912 and, after finding bodies of 
the polar party, remainder embarked on the 
Terra Nova January 1913. 

1911-12, Japanese expedition. 
Leader: Lt. Choku Shirase. Ship: Kainan Maru. 
Summary: Sponsored by Count Okuma. From 
Japan to Ross Sea via New Zealand, sighting Ad- 
miralty Range March 6, 1911. On March 12, 
forced by ice to retreat northward from 74°16'S., 
172°07'E., southeast of Coulman Island. Win- 
tered in Sydney, from which they departed Novem- 
ber 19, 1911, reaching Cape Adare January 3, 1912. 
Sailed southeastward and landed at Kainan Bay 
January 16. Then landed at Bay of Whales, from 
where 160-mile journey was made southeast on 
Ross Ice Shelf to 80°05'S., 156°37'W. Meanwhile, 
ship sailed east to 76°06'S., 151°20'W., off Edward 
VII Peninsula. From 76°56'S., 155°55'W., a party 
landed for sledge trip to edge of Alexandra Moun- 
tains. Okuma Bay visited on return to Bay of 
Whales, from where expedition embarked Febru- 
ary 4. 

1911-12. German Antarctic Expedition. 
Leader: Dr. Wilhelm Filchner. Ship: Deutschland. 
Summary: Sponsored by government grant and 
private contributions. From Germany to South 
Georgia via Buenos Aires, with oceanographic 
work enroute. Scientific work in South Georgia. 
Made survey among South Sandwich Islands. Left 
South Georgia for Weddell Sea December 11, 1911. 
Luitpold Coast discovered January 30, 1912. Ship 
stopped by Filchner Ice Shelf in 77°45'S. Attempts 
to erect base on ice failed when ice broke up dur- 
ing process. Depots laid on land ice February 24, 
and short reconnaissance journey made. Deutsch- 
land frozen in March 6, and began to drift with 
the ice on March 15. Ship drifted for nine months 
and 600 miles until freed November 26, 1912, in 
63°37'S., 36°34'W. Returned to South Georgia. 



18 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



1911-12. Norwegian whaling expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Ole Jorgensen. Ship: Thulla. 
Summary : Sought satisfactory anchorages for fac- 
tory ships in South Shetland and South Orkney 
Islands. Experimental whaling operation was car- 
ried on at South Sandwich Islands. 

1911-14. Australasian Antarctic Expedition. 
Leader: Sir Douglas Mawson. Ship: Aurora. 
Summary: Sponsored by Australian State and 
Commonwealth governments, British government, 
scientific societies and private contributors. In- 
termediate base set up on Macquarie Island to 
operate radio station and conduct scientific inves- 
tigation. Sailed south from Macquarie Island, De- 
cember 25, 1911, to George V Coast, establishing 
Main Base on Commonwealth Bay January 8, 1912. 
The Aurora sailed westward, skirting coast of 
Wilkes Land as near as ice and storms would 
permit. West Base established on Shackleton Ice 
Shelf, about 17 miles north of Queen Mary Coast. 
The Aurora left February 20, 1912, to conduct sub- 
Antarctic oceanographic investigations. From 
Main Base five major surveys were conducted: 
(1) Mawson led Far Eastern Party along edge of 
continental plateau for 316 miles to 68°54'S., 
151°33'E., (2) Southern Party sledged 301 miles 
to 70°36'S., 148°10'E., (3) Eastern Coastal Party 
sledged along coast, mostly on sea ice, across 
Mertz and Ninnis Glacier Tongues to 68°18'S., 
150°12'E., midway between Cape Freshfield and 
Horn Bluff, (4) Near Eastern Party made two 
journeys, exploring area between base and Mertz 
Glacier, and (5) Western Sledging Party sledged 
across Adelie Coast to 138°E., back of Cape Robert. 
From West Base the Eastern Party made a major 
trek across Shackleton Ice Shelf to Denman Gla- 
cier, while the Western Coastal Party journeyed 
on land to Gaussberg. West Base evacuated Feb- 
ruary 23, 1913, but delayed return of Far Eastern 
Party due to fatalities caused small search party 
to be left at Main Base during winter of 1913. 
This group relieved by the Aurora in December 
1913, following which the coast of Wilkes Land 
was again skirted to Wilhelm II Coast before re- 
tiring northward. 

1912-13. Norwegian whaling expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Petter S0rlle. Ship: Palmer. 
Summary: Whaling operations in South Orkney 
Islands. Made running surveys of Coronation, 
Signy, Powell, and Fredriksen Islands, plotting in 
detail the rocks and islets which fringe their 
coasts. Numerous soundings taken; sketch-plans 
made of important anchorages, notably EUefsen, 
Paal, and Falkland Harbors, and Borge Bay. 



1912-13. United States whaling expedition. 
Leaders: Capt. Benjamin D. Cleveland and Robert 
Cushman Murphy. Ship: Daisy. 
Summary: A private whaling and sealing expedi- 
tion on which Murphy served as naturalist. Sailed 
east from West Indies, July 31, 1912, to Cape Verde 
Islands, thence south to South Georgia, arriving 
there November 24. Sealing carried on for four 
months at South Georgia. Murphy engaged in 
natural history studies and made accurate sketch- 
chart of Bay of Isles. Left South Georgia March 
16, 1913. 

1913-14. Norwegian whaling expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Hans Borge. Ship: Polynesia. 
Summary: In the course of whaling operations, 
Borge undertook additional charting of Borge Bay 
in South Orkney Islands, supplementing S0rlle's 
chart of previous year. 

1914-16. British expedition. 

Leader: Sir Ernest Shackleton. Ships: Endurance 
and Aurora. 

Summary: Sponsored by Sir James Caird and 
other private donors, with aid from government 
and Royal Geographical Society. The Endurance 
sailed for Weddell Sea from South Georgia Decem- 
ber 5, 1914. Caird Coast discovered January 12, 
1915. Ship beset five days later in 76°34'S., 
31°30'W., from where she drifted with the ice 573 
miles northwestward until crushed October 27, 
1915, in 69°05'S., 51°30'W. Crew lived on the ice, 
drifting northward until they took to boats on 
April 9, 1916, within sight of Elephant Island, 
which was reached April 15. From there Shackle- 
ton, with five others, sailed in open whale boat 800 
miles to South Georgia where he chartered the 
whaler Southern Sky in an unsuccessful attempt 
to rescue his men. Attempts in Uruguayan 
trawler Instituto de Pesca and British schooner 
Emma also failed. Crew finally rescued on August 
30, 1916 by the Yelcho, loaned by Chile. 

The Aurora, under Capt. A. Mackintosh, sailed 
from Hobart carrying the Ross Sea party of the 
expedition and reached Cape Evans, Ross Island, 
where base was set up January 16, 1915. Ship 
was beset and drifted out to sea in the pack before 
completely unloading. She drifted northward out 
of Ross Sea and northeastward between Gates 
Coast and Balleny Islands before being freed in 
damaged condition in March 1915; ship continued 
north to New Zealand. Meanwhile, the winter 
party at Ross Island succeeded in laying depots 
between the base and Beardmore Glacier in prepa- 
ration for Shackleton 's proposed transcontinental 
journey. They were rescued by the Aurora under 
Capt. J. K. Davis in January 1916. 



19 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



1920. British expedition. 
Leader: H. W. W. Hope. Ship: Dartmouth. 
Summary: Sent out by British Admiralty; visited 
King Edward Cove, South Georgia. Made sketch 
of Cumberland Bay area. Sighted Shag Rocks. 

1921-22. British expedition. 

Leader: J. L. Cope. Ships: Various whaling ves- 
sels. 

Summary: Financed by private enterprise and 
aided by Norwegian whalers who furnished pas- 
sage. Party of four assembled at Deception Island. 
Ice conditions preventing a landing at Hope Bay, 
the whalers landed the party, January 12, 1921, 
near Andvord Bay on west coast of Palmer Penin- 
sula. Two of party returned home, but T. W. Bag- 
shawe and M. C. Lester spent winter there. They 
unsuccessfully sought route across Palmer Penin- 
sula. Made meteorological, tidal, and natural his- 
tory observations. Bagshawe and Lester picked 
up by Capt. O. Anderson in the Svend Foyn I, 
January 13, 1922. 

1921-22. British expedition. 
Leader: Sir Ernest Shackleton. Ship: Quest. 
Summary: Financed by John Q. Rowett. Arrived 
at South Georgia January 4, 1922, via Lisbon and 
Rio de Janeiro. Shackleton died at South Georgia 
and Frank Wild assumed command. The Quest 
left January 17, 1922, sailing east to Zavodovski 
Island in South Sandwich Islands, thence east and 
southeastward until stopped by pack in 69°17'S., 
17°09'E., February 12, 1922. Pack then skirted 
west-northwestward to Elephant Island where a 
running survey was conducted before returning to 
South Georgia, April 6. Scientific investigations 
made throughout cruise. 

1923-24. Norwegian whaling expedition. 
Leader: Capt. C. A. Larsen. Ships: Sir James 
Clark Ross, accompanied by Star I and four other 
whale catchers. 

Summary: First whaling expedition to Ross Sea. 
Finding the Bay of Whales unsuitable, the factory 
ship remained at Discovery Inlet, from December 
31, 1923 to March 8, 1924, while the Star I skirted 
Ross Ice Shelf and coast of Victoria Land from 
McMurdo Sound to Robertson Bay. 

1923-24. British whaling expedition. 

Leaders: Soren Beckman and Gustav Mathisen. 

Ships: Whale catchers attached to the Sevilla and 

Roald Amundsen. 

Summary: Sent out by Charles Salveson and Co. of 

Leith, Scotland. Beckmann, operating with the 

factory ship Sevilla, and Mathisen, with the factory 

Roald Amundsen, independently pushed south 

along west coast of Palmer Peninsula to Fallieres 

Coast in attempt to find safe harbor for their float- 



ing factories. Both thought they observed a trans- 
verse strait connecting with Weddell Sea. 

1924-25. Norwegian whaling expedition. 
Leader: Capt. C. A. Larsen. Ships: .Sir James 
Clark Ross and whale catchers. 
Summary: Whaling carried on in Ross Sea, where 
Captain Larsen died. 

1925. Discovery Investigations (British). 
Leader: N. A. Mackintosh. 

Summary: The Discovery Committee established 
a marine station with well-equipped biological 
laboratory at Grytviken, South Georgia in Janu- 
ary 1925. Laboratory work conducted each whal- 
ing season until 1931; staff periodically relieved. 
Survey of South Georgia harbors and anchorages 
carried out from this laboratory in the period 
1926-30 under direction of Lt. Cdr. J. M. Chaplin, 
RN. 

1925-26. Discovery Investigation (British). 
Leader: Dr. Stanley Kemp. Ship: Discovery. 
Summary: Left Cape Town, January 17, 1926, for 
South Georgia where two months were spent in 
biological and hydrographical surveying of whal- 
ing grounds. Ship proceeded to Falkland Islands 
April 17, later returning to Cape Town. Scientific 
work conducted throughout cruise. 

1925-26. German expedition. 
Leader: Dr. Alfred Merz. Ship: Meteor. 
Summary: Sponsored oy Emergency Fund for Ger- 
man Science, Dr. F. Schmidt-Ott, Chairman. As 
part of oceanographic survey of South Atlantic 
Ocean, the Meteor, under Capt. F. Spiess who suc- 
ceeded to command on death of Dr. Merz, August 
16, 1925, carried on investigations in vicinity of 
South Sandwich Islands before proceeding east- 
ward to Bouvet0ya. Ship then penetrated south- 
ward to 63°50'S., 5°20'E. before retiring northeast- 
ward. 

1926-27. Discovery Investigations (British). 
Leader: Dr. Stanley Kemp. Ships: Discovery and 
William Scoresby. 
Summary: The Discovery left Cape Town October 

1926, going southward into the pack; returned to 
Bouvet0ya before heading westward to South 
Georgia, which was reached December 5, 1926. 
After investigating whaling grounds in the vicinity, 
the Discovery left in February for South Orkney 
Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Palmer 
Archipelago; made running survey of part of 
Palmer Archipelago. Returning to South Shet- 
land Islands, a series of hydrological stations 
was run northward to Cape Horn and eastward 
to Falkland Islands. Meanwhile, the William 
Scoresby left Cape Town, October 21, 1926, for 



20 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



South Georgia where it worked in conjunction with 
the Discovery. In February it sailed to Falkland 
Islands where investigations were made between 
the islands and South America. The ship returned 
to Cape Town via South Georgia. 

1927. Norwegian expedition. 
Leader: Eyvind Tofte. Ship: Odd I. 
Summary: Financed by Lars Christensen. Left 
South Georgia January 6, 1927, and sailed west 
through Bransfield Strait to Deception Island. 
Enroute sighted largest iceberg ever recorded, an 
estimated 100 miles long, in 63°30'S., 52°00'W. 
Left Deception Island January 12, sailing south- 
westward inside of the Palmer Archipelago, thence 
westward in clear sea to Peter I Island, which was 
circumnavigated on January 17. Attempts to land 
unsuccessful, but running survey made. The 
Odd I then sailed south encountering the pack, 
which it skirted east and northeastward to Anvers 
Island before returning to South Georgia via De- 
ception Island. 

1927-28. Norwegian expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Harald Horntvedt. Ship: Norvegia. 
Summary: The Norvegia, sent out by Lars Chris- 
tensen, left Cape Town on November 19, 1927, 
and on November 30 reached Bouvet0ya. Landing 
made next day. After charting the island, the 
ship steamed southward on January 1, 1928 and 
vainly sought Pagoda Rock. Damaged condition 
of ship caused withdrawal January 7 from pack 
ice margin at 60°01'S., 2°24'E. A line of oceano- 
graphic stations was run to South Georgia, arriv- 
ing there January 22. The Norvegia was laid up 
for repairs, but the staff continued work with aid 
of whalers operating in the vicinity. 

1927-28. Norwegian expedition. 
Leaders: Dr. Ola Olstad and Prof. Olaf Holtedahl. 
Ships: Various whaling ships. 
Summary: Transported by various whaling ships, 
Olstad and Holtedahl conducted individual re- 
search in biology and geology, respectively, in 
South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and Pal- 
mer Archipelago. 



Ships : Various 



1928-29. German expedition. 

Leader: Ludwig Kohl-Larsen. 

whaling ships. 

Summary: Party of three, transported by various 

whaling ships, charted extensive coastal areas and 

much of the inland glacier system of South Georgia. 

1928-29. French Expedition. 

Leader: E. Aubert de la Riie. Ship: Austral. 

Summary: Geological reconnaissance of Kergue- 

len Island. Visited Heard Island in whale catcher 

Kildalkey for geological observations in January 

1929. 



1928-29. British and United States expedition. 
Leader: Sir Hubert Wilkins. Ship: Hektoria. 
Summary: Sponsored by American Geographical 
Society, William Randolph Hearst, Detroit Aviation 
Society, and private, public, and commercial do- 
nors. Two airplanes, supplies, and staff trans- 
ported to Deception Island by the floating factory 
Hektoria. Two reconnaissance flights made in 
vicinity on November 26. At 8:30 a.m., December 
20, 1928, Wilkins and pilot Carl B. Eielson took 
off from Deception Island, flew south toward 
Trinity Island, crossed Palmer Peninsula and flew 
south along its east coast to Stefansson Strait and 
return, essentially over same route. This pioneer 
Antarctic flight lasted ten hours. On January 10, 
1929, flight of 250 miles over northern sector of 
previous route repeated to confirm earlier obser- 
vations. Operations then postponed until next 
season. 

1928-29. Norwegian expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Nils Larsen. Ship: Norvegia. 
Summary: Financed by Lars Christensen. The 
Norvegia arrived at Bouvet0ya from South Georgia 
December 16, 1928. Made unsuccessful search for 
Thompson Island and the Chimnies for eight days, 
in clear weather. Failed to establish weather sta- 
tion on Bouvet0ya. The Norvegia then proceeded 
west to Peter I Island, making a landing on Feb- 
ruary 1, 1929. Second landing made next day, 
and house erected. Following six days of obser- 
vation, the ship sailed west across Amundsen Sea, 
skirting pack ice to 140 °W. From there, on Feb- 
ruary 20, she sailed north and thence eastward 
along the 60° parallel to South Georgia, which 
was reached on March 30. Dougherty Island 
could not be found in its reported position. 

1928-30. Byrd Antarctic Expedition. 
Leader: Rear Adm. Richard E. Byrd, USN (Ret.). 
Ships : City of New York and Eleanor Boiling. 
Summary: Sponsored by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., 
Edsel Ford, many other private donors, as well 
as scientific organizations. Expedition left Dune- 
din December 2, 1928, with the Eleanor Boiling 
towing the City of New York to edge of the pack, 
where the latter was taken in tow by the C. A. Lar- 
sen to open water in Ross Sea, being released De- 
cember 23. Bay of Whales reached December 29, 
and base site selected January 1, 1929. After un- 
loading, two attempts made by City of New York 
to penetrate to Edward VII Peninsula, before leav- 
ing for New Zealand February 22. Meanwhile, 
the Eleanor Boiling made two trips with supplies; 
a third prevented by ice conditions. Several 
flights made from base in the three planes. The 
first on January 27 to Edward VII Peninsula, dis- 
covering Rockefeller Mountains. Two more flights 
to this area made on February 18. On March 7 



21 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



a plane was wrecked in the mountains, marooning 
party in bad weather until rescued on March 19. 
During March and October depot laying for geo- 
logical trip to Queen Maud Range accomplished. 
This party, which was out from November 4, 1929 
to January 19, 1930, served as supporting party 
for the South Pole flight, provided weather reports, 
and mapped 175 miles of the front of Queen Maud 
Range. Flight made to the base of these moun- 
tains November 18, 1929 to lay gasoline depot. 
Byrd made South Pole flight on November 29 and 
30, 1929, by way of Liv Glacier pass. On December 
5, a flight eastward resulted in discovery of Edsel 
Ford Ranges and Marie Byrd Land. The City of 
New York reached Bay of Whales on February 18, 
1930 after a stormy passage from New Zealand; 
entire expedition departed next day. 

1929-30. British and United States expedition. 
Leader: Sir Hubert Wilkins. Ships: Whaling ships 
and the William Scoresby. 

Summary: Sponsored by American Geographical 
Society, William Randolph Hearst, British Colonial 
Office, Detroit Aviation Society, and other private, 
public and commercial donors. Staff and supplies 
transported from Montevideo to Deception Island 
by whalers. Conditions being unsatisfactory at 
Deception Island, the plane was put aboard the 
William Scoresby and taken south along west 
coast of Palmer Peninsula December 12, 1929. The 
ship moved through Neumayer Channel and Bis- 
marck Strait, then southwest along Adelaide 
Island. Finding no ice suitable for taking off or 
landing, the ship returned to Neumayer Channel 
December 18. Next day Wilkins and pilot S. A. 
Cheesman took ofT from the water and flew south 
along the coast to Leroux Bay, where they crossed 
Palmer Peninsula to Richthofen Valley on the east 
coast before returning. The William Scoresby then 
cruised southwestward along the pack to about 
67°45'S., 75"30'W. From there two flights made 
south on December 28 and 29, 1929. The first 
ended in fog just short of Charcot Island, but 
second encircled it in clear weather. The ship 
then worked back to Deception Island for fuel. 
The plane took off from Port Lockroy and flew over 
De Gerlache Strait to Deception Island. Refueled, 
the ship, with the plane, pushed southwestward 
to edge of pack, in the neighborhood of 70°S., 
100°W. Short flight from there January 30, 1930, 
stopped by snow storm; longer flight made on 
February 1 to 73''S., 101 °W. without seeing land. 
Expedition then returned to Deception Island. 

1929-30. Norwegian expedition. 

Leader: Capt. Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen. Ship: Nor- 

vegia. 



Summary: Financed by Lars Christensen. The 
Norvegia, after its party erected a hut on Bouve- 
t0ya, met the Thorshammer from which were 
transferred the captain, pilot, and two planes, and 
work began on November 8, 1929. A second hut 
was erected and Bouvet0ya photographed from the 
air. The Norvegia then followed edge of pack east- 
ward to north of Enderby Land in about 60°S., 
55°E., from where on December 1 she began to 
work south through the pack. On December 7, 
plane flight from the ship made in about 64°21'S., 
53°14'E. On another flight, from about 65°10'S., 
49°30'E. on December 22, the plane landed south- 
west of Cape Ann. The ship then retreated north 
and west, taking coal from the Thorshammer on 
January 4, 1930. Headed again for Enderby Land, 
the Norvegia met the Discovery with Sir Douglas 
Mawson on January 14. Next day she was stopped 
by ice within sight of land, but flight made over 
Ice Bay and westward, exploring coastal area be- 
tween 40° and 50°E. Ship moved west to 44°E. 
from where another flight was made southward. 
After riding out gale, the Norvegia sailed westward 
to Coats Land making series of oceanographic ob- 
servations. On February 1, Gunnerus Bank dis- 
covered. The Weddell Sea was entered on Febru- 
ary 16. Seal Bay discovered on the 18th, and flight 
made over Cape Norvegia and Princess Martha 
Coast. Another flight made on February 20. The 
ship rode out a gale for three days, then moved 
north to about 69°28'S. before being forced east- 
ward by the ice. She met the Thorshammer in 
66°50'S., 12°00'E., took on coal, transferred planes, 
and headed northward for Cape Town March 2, 
1930. 

1929-31. British-Australian-New Zealand Antarc- 
tic Research Expedition. 

Leader: Sir Douglas Mawson. Ship: Discovery. 
Summary: Sponsored by Australian, New Zealand, 
and British governments, Australian National Re- 
search Council, MacPherson Robertson, and other 
private, public, and commercial donors. The Dis- 
covery left Cape Town October 19, 1929, sailing 
southeastward with stops for scientific investiga- 
tion at Possession, Kerguelen, and Heard Islands. 
Banzare Bank discovered south of Heard Island. 
On December 16, ice halted southward progress in 
about 65°41'S., 79°30'E., and ship moved north and 
west for a more favorable southing. The Discovery 
pushed westward through storm and ice. Signs of 
land appeared on December 26 in 66°57'S., 71°57'E., 
and on the 31st a flight on which land was sighted 
was made from the ship in 66°10'S., 65°10'E. Land 
to the south sighted from ship on January 4, 1930, 
and conflrmed by flight next day from 66°30'S., 
61°07'E. This was named Mac-Robertson Coast. 
Storms prevailed until January 12 when Kemp 
Coast was sighted. Landing made on Proclama- 



22 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



tion Island January 13. Ship then sailed west 
beyond Cape Ann, meeting the Norvegia on Janu- 
ary 14. Driven westward by a storm to 43 °W., the 
Discovery returned eastward where, on January 24 
to 26, several short flights were made in vicinity of 
Proclamation Island. Lack of coal forced retreat 
on January 26 to Kerguelen Islands and Australia. 
The second season began when ship left Hobart, 
November 22, 1930. Mill Bank discovered enroute, 
observations made on Macquarie Island, and Hjort 
Rise discovered to the south. The Discovery 
pushed west to Adelie Coast, and landing made at 
Cape Denison January 7, 1931. Ship sailed west- 
ward along the pack fringing Wilkes Land, but bad 
weather resulted in few obsei'vations of land. 
Most notable were Cape Goodenough and Banzare 
Coast, seen from the air on January 15 and 16. 
Bowman Island was seen on January 28, and Leo- 
pold and Astrid Coast from the air on February 9. 
Westward from there Norwegian whalers and the 
Discovery were operating simultaneously, and 
many features were seen by both. On February 
11 Cape Darnley was sighted, and MacKenzie Bay 
entered. A flight enabled drafting of sketch map. 
As ship skirted Mac-Robertson Coast, landings 
made at Murray and Scullin Monoliths on Febru- 
ary 13, and several flights added features to the 
map. After being driven north by storm, landing 
made at Cape Bruce February 18, and next day, 
due to coal shortage, expedition was tei-minated. 

1929-31. Discovery Investigations (British). 
Leader: Dr. Stanley Kemp. Ship: Discovery II. 
Summary: The Discovery II left England Decem- 
ber 14, 1929, to begin her first commission in 
Scotia Sea and adjacent seas. Oceanographic 
work begun in vicinity of South Georgia. A line 
of observations was run along submarine ridge 
connecting South Sandwich and Falkland Islands. 
The South Sandwich Islands were charted from 
February 26 to March 18, 1930. The ship arrived 
at Cape Town May 28, 1930, and during southern 
winter carried on oceanographic investigations in 
South African waters. In October 1930 the Dis- 
covery II left Cape Town for South Georgia, via 
Bouvet0ya, making unsuccessful search for 
Thompson Island enroute. Heavy pack prevented 
survey of South Orkney Islands in December. 
While working in Bransfield Strait the same 
month, conditions were favorable for charting 
South Shetland Islands. During January and 
February 1931, cruise was made southwestward 
along Palmer Peninsula until stopped by pack ice 
around Adelaide Island. The ship turned west 
along edge of pack, slighting Alexander I Island, 
but not Charcot Island. Journey westward contin- 
ued to 101°00'W., where ship was forced southward 
through the pack until stopped by ice 20 feet thick 
in 69^49'S. No land seen; soundings showed 2,000 



fathoms. Returning from this point over much 
the same route, Peter I Island was sighted. Ade- 
laide Island was still bordered by pack. After 
running lines northwestward to edge of continen- 
tal shelf, the cruise continued into Matha Strait, 
Marin Darbel Bay, and out of Pendleton Strait. 
Bismarck Strait was entered and ship passed 
northward inside of Palmer Archipelago. In 
February additional surveying carried out in South 
Shetland Islands. Except for determining position 
of west end of Coronation Island, pack ice again 
prevented work in South Orkney Islands. The 
first commission was thus concluded. 

1930-31. Norwegian expedition. 
Leaders: Maj. Gunnar Isachsen and Capt. Hjalmar 
Riiser-Larsen. Ship: Norvegia. 
Summary: Financed by Lars Christensen. The 
Norvegia left Cape Town October 4, 1930, moving 
south beyond Bouvet0ya before beginning circum- 
navigation of Antarctica, between 55° and 65°S. 
She coaled from whalers and at Deception Island 
enroute. A series of oceanographic observations 
were completed, and unsuccessful searches made 
for Truls, Dougherty, and Nimrod Islands. Ice pre- 
vented close approach to Peter I Island. On Janu- 
ary 29, 1931 the circumnavigation of 11,500 miles 
was completed, in 102 days, in about 69°44'S., 
1°34'E. While moving toward rendezvous with the 
Thorshavn, Maud Bank was discovered on Janu- 
ary 30. On February 9, in about 68°00'S., 33'53'E., 
the Thorshavn was met, planes were transferred 
to the Norvegia, and Riiser-Larsen took command. 
Ship moved westward against the pack until a 
flight was possible on February 16 and 17, 1931. 
This permitted mapping Princess Ragnhild Coast, 
discovered early in 1931 by Capt. H. Halvorsen in 
the Sevilla. Other flights farther eastward made 
on February 21 and 23. On February 25 the 
planes were transferred to the Thorshammer and 
Capt. Nils Larsen took the Norvegia north to Nor- 
way, making first an unsuccessful search for Pa- 
goda Rock. 

1930-31. Norwegian whaling expeditions. 
Leaders: Various. Ships: Various whaling ships. 
Summary: During the 1930-31 season several 
firms conducted commercial whaling oft Lars 
Christensen and Mac-Robertson Coasts. On Janu- 
ary 12, 1931, land was seen by Capt. Arnold Brun- 
voU from the whale catcher Seksern, between 
64°00'E. and 66°34'E. On January 19 and succeed- 
ing days, Capt. Reider Bjerk0, in the whale catcher 
Bouvet II, sailed eastward from about 64 -E., In 
sight of land. He was followed by one day by 
Capt. Carl Sj0vold, in the Bouvet III, who also 
sighted land on January 24, from 68'S., 74"E. He 
was in turn followed by Capt. Rolf Walter, in the 
Thorgaut. 



23 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



1930-31. Norwegian whaling expedition. 
Leader: Capt. O. Borchgrevink. Ship: Antarctic. 
Summary: Borchgrevink, in the course of whaling 
operations, mapped along Kemp Coast and En- 
derby Land from 59°00'E. to 51°30'E. Aker Peaks 
discovered. Coast of Queen Maud Land mapped 
from 44°E. to 41°E. 

1930-31. Norwegian whaling expedition. 
Leader: Capt. H. Halvorsen. Ship: Sevilla. 
Summary: Financed by Lars Christensen. While 
carrying on whaling operations off coast of Ant- 
arctica, from February 9 to March 7, 1931, Prin- 
cess Ragnhild Coast was discovered. From March 
8 to April 7, Halvorsen charted along Princess 
Ragnhild, Princess Astrid, and Princess Martha 
Coasts between 24°E. and 0°. His entire range of 
operations extended from 42°E. to 9°W. 

1931. Norwegian whaling expedition. 
Leader: Lars Christensen. Ship: Thorshavn. 
Summary: The oil tanker Thorshavn left Cape 
Town January 6, 1931, with Lars Christensen 
aboard to inspect operations of his whaling fleet 
as the tanker supplied fuel oil to the various float- 
ing factories and collected whale oil from them. 
Capt. H. Riiser-Larsen, also aboard, was trans- 
ferred with two seaplanes to the ship Norvegia, 
and Maj. Gunnar Isachsen and J. K. Eggvin, who 
had just completed circum-Antarctic cruise in the 
Norvegia, joined the Thorshavn, February 9, in 
68°00'S., 33°55'E. Open water permitted far south- 
ern penetration between 70°E. and 75°E. Frequent 
sounding resulted in discovery of Fram Bank. 
Christensen directed Capt. Klarius Mikkelsen, in 
the whale catcher Torlyn, to attempt penetration 
into the pack ice. He worked far into MacKenzie 
Bay, reaching 68°50'S., 70°28'E., on February 13. 
On the 14th, the Torlyn worked north around 
Bjerk0 Peninsula and westward along Mac-Robert- 
son Coast. Mikkelsen sighted the same physical 
features Mawson saw a day earlier. The 
Thorshavn returned to Cape Town later in 
February. 

1931-33. Discovery Investigations (British). 
Leader: D. Dilwyn John. Ship: Discovery II. 
Summary: The Discovery II arrived at Port Stan- 
ley from England on November 4, 1931. Beginning 
at western entrance to the Strait of Magellan six 
north-south lines of oceanographic stations were 
run from edge of pack ice on the south to beyond 
the line of Antarctic Convergence on the north. 
The easternmost line of stations lay along 20°E. 
Additional lines were run between Falkland Is- 
lands and South Georgia, and others radiating 
from the latter. Following repairs the ship left 
South Africa, April 8, 1932, on its first circum- 
polar cruise. Echo soundings made each half 



hour and oceanographic stations carried out 
nightly. The course was laid in great zigzags from 
edge of pack ice to north of 45°S. From Cape 
Town the course was laid southeastward to a point 
off Enderby Land, then northeast to Fremantle. 
From Fremantle the ship sailed to a point off 
Banzare Coast and back to Melbourne, thence 
south to a position north of Balleny Islands, then 
north to New Zealand. From New Zealand the 
course was laid southeastward to 62°S., 159°W., 
north of Ross Sea, then northeast into south Pa- 
cific Ocean to 41°S., 126°W., and southeastward 
to 63°57'S., 101°16'W., west of Peter I Island. 
From here a diminishing fuel supply dictated fairly 
direct course to the Strait of Magellan. Port Stan- 
ley reached October 9, 1932, where cruise was 
interrupted until following March. From October 
until Christmas, 1932, oceanographic work carried 
on in Bransfield Strait and Scotia Sea. From 
January 2 to 30, 1933, the South Orkney Islands 
were charted and geological and biological speci- 
mens collected. Further oceanographic work in 
Scotia Sea, Bransfield Strait, and Drake Passage 
followed. Final leg of circumpolar cruise com- 
pleted in March by great V-shaped course from 
South Georgia south to 69°22'S., 9°37'E., then 
north to a point west of Cape Town. 

1932-33. Norwegian whaling expedition. 
Leader: Lars Christensen. Ship: Thorshavn. 
Summary: The tanker Thorshavn, with Capt. H. 
Riiser-Larsen's sledging party aboard (see below), 
left Cape Town January 25, 1933 for Enderby 
Land to service floating factories. Series of 
meteorological observations made. Ship returned 
via Bouvet0ya. 

1932-33. Norwegian expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen. Ships: 
Various whaling ships. 

Summary: Party of three with dogs and supplies 
accompanied Lars Christensen on the Thorshavn. 
Enderby Land sighted February 8, 1933. Two at- 
tempts to land on the ice failed and party trans- 
ferred first to the Thorshammer, then the Torlyn 
on March 5, off Princess Ragnhild Coast, where 
party finally landed on the ice for a sledge journey 
westward along the coast. By March 8, however, 
the ice broke up. Sledge party rescued by the 
whaler Globe on March 11 

1933-34. Norwegian expedition. 
Leader: Lars Christensen. Ship: Thorshavn. 
Summary: The Thorshavn left Cape Town De- 
cember 20, 1933; nearly circumnavigated Antarc- 
tica. Meteorological and hydrographical observa- 
tions made throughout cruise. Mac-Robertson 
Coast was sighted on January 9, 1934, in about 
65°E., and flight made from the ship by Lt. Alf 



24 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Gunnestad next day. On January 17, in about 
86°E., a plane was transferred to a whale catcher 
which worked south through the pack to 65°22'S., 
86°10'E., from where Gunnestad and Nils Larsen 
made two flights southward, discovering 150 miles 
of the Leopold and Astrid Coast behind the border- 
ing ice shelf. Beyond Ross Sea, in 134°11'W., the 
ship reached 71°44'S., but a flight from there 
showed only ice. Skirted pack ice to Peter I Island; 
thence to Drake Passage where Sars Bank was 
discovered. Reached Montevideo on February 27, 
1934. 

1933-34, United States expedition. 
Leader: Lincoln Ellsworth. Ship: Wyatt Earp. 
Summary: Left New Zealand December 5, 1933; 
arrived at Bay of Whales January 6, 1934, for trans- 
Antarctic flight to Weddell Sea. Plane was dam- 
aged by breaking up of the ice January 13, termi- 
nating the expedition. 

1933-35. Discovery Investigations (British). 
Leader: Dr. N. A. Mackintosh. Ship: Discovery II. 
Summary: The Discovery II left England in Oc- 
tober; work begun at Tristan da Cunha enroute to 
South Georgia. During two-year period five sets 
of oceanographic stations were run northward 
from the pack ice along 80 °W. to north of Cape 
Horn. First of these made in December, by sail- 
ing westward along pack ice margin and return- 
ing to South Georgia via the Strait of Magellan. 
On December 27, 1933, ship left for western cruise 
on a zigzag course across 200-mile-wide zone 
bordering the pack ice. At 160°W. the ship sailed 
north to New Zealand, returning to meet Byrd's 
Bear of Oakland at 72°S., 171 °W., on February 23, 
1934. From there the zigzag course was repeated 
eastward along the pack ice to 80°W., where the 
second line of stations was run northward. From 
South Georgia the Discovery II next sailed south 
to South Sandwich Islands and east along 60 °S. 
before steering southeastward to 64°38'S., 44°16'E., 
off Enderby Land. From there, on April 8, 1934, 
the ship returned to South Africa. After a refit, 
the ship left Cape Town August 1, 1934 for work 
in Scotia Sea and surrounding seas, running sev- 
eral lines across Scotia Sea, and the final three 
lines along 80 °W. South Shetland Islands were 
charted by January 9, 1935. Stores and equip- 
ment for the British Graham Land Expedition 
were then transported to Port Lockroy in Palmer 
Archipelago. Returning to South Georgia, the 
ship left February 7 on a southeast course to 
68°45'S., 9°20'W., at eastern entrance to Weddell 
Sea. From there pack ice was skirted in usual 
zigzag course to Enderby Land. Ship then sailed 
north to Cape Town. 



1933-35. Byrd Antarctic Expedition. 
Leader: Rear Adm. Richard E. Byrd, USN (Ret.). 
Ships: Bear of Oakland and Jacob Ruppert. 
Summary: Sponsored by Edsel Ford, William 
Horlick, Col. Jacob Ruppert, Thomas J. Watson, 
National Geographic Society, and numerous other 
public, private, and commercial donors. The 
Jacob Ruppert, sailing from New Zealand Decem- 
ber 12, 1933, skirted the pack from 65°55'S., 
151°10'W. eastward to 116°35'W. Three flights 
made southward from the ship without sight- 
ing land. Reached Bay of Whales January 17, 
1934, and the Bear of Oakland arrived Janu- 
ary 30. On February 6 the Bear of Oakland set 
out to push eastward beyond 151°W. Grad- 
ually forced northward by the ice, she reached 
75°06'S., 148°08'W., with Marie Byrd Land dimly 
seen to the south before retreating. During March 
depots were laid by plane, dog sled, and tractor 
200 miles to the south, and advance weather base 
set up at 80°08'S., 163°57'W. Tractor trip to 
Mount Grace McKinley made from September 27 
to October 18, 1934, to prepare for sledge journey 
to Marie Byrd Land. This geological party left 
on October 14, reaching Fosdick Mountains and 
returning December 29. The southern geological 
party left on October 16, reached Queen Maud 
Range on November 26, ascended to the plateau 
via Robert Scott Glacier, and returned to base 
January 11, 1935. On October 25, 1934, two trac- 
tors started south in support of the geological 
party. Halted by crevasses beyond 81°S., 193 miles 
from Little America, they turned eastward, reach- 
ing 79°07'S., 149°24'W. From there they moved 
northward along edge of continent and followed 
the eastern trail to base, arriving January 2, 1935. 
Seismic soundings taken on trip showed much of 
Ross Ice Shelf to be aground. Soimdings by Dr. 
Thomas Poulter revealed existence of Roosevelt 
Island, buried by the ice shelf. Six major explora- 
tory flights were made from Little America from 
November 15 to December 15, 1934. The first was 
a triangular flight, extending 275 miles southeast- 
ward to 81°05'S., 146°30'W., thence north to 
77°30'S., 146°30'W., and finally west to base. On 
November 16 a southeast flight was made to edge 
of continent and return. Another flight on No- 
vember 22 in same direction, across Rockefeller 
Plateau, reached 83°05'S., 119°00'W., and next day 
another southeast flight was made. On November 
18 a flight eastward reached 78°S., 135°W., where 
the surface elevation exceeded 4,000 feet. On De- 
cember 15 a flight northeastward across Sulzberger 
Bay returned to base by way of Mount Grace Mc- 
Kinley. After wintering in New Zealand both ships 
returned in January 1935, the Bear of Oakland 
chartine the edge of Ross Ice Shelf from Ross Is- 



424589 O -57 -3 



25 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



land to Bay of Whales. Base was evacuated Febru- 
ary 6, 1935. 

1934-35. Norwegian expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Klarius Mikkelsen. Ship: 
Thorshavn. 

Summary: Financed by Lars Christensen. While 
servicing floating factories in the area east of Mac- 
Robertson Coast in February 1935, the Thorshavn 
pushed southward through thick ice into open 
water over the continental shelf, as shown by 
soundings. Ship continued south in clear weather. 
On February 19 Mikkelsen saw the ice shelf, and 
next day, after drifting westward, discovered an 
ice-free area in a small bay. Landing made there 
in 68°29'S., 78°36'E. by party including Mikkelsen, 
his wife, and seven seamen. On February 21 he 
followed the newly discovered Ingrid Christensen 
Coast southwestward, charting Vestfold Hills, 
Larsemann Hills, and Mount Caroline Mikkelsen. 

1934-35. United States expedition. 
Leader: Lincoln Ellsworth. Ship: Wyatt Earp. 
Summary: Financed by Lincoln Ellsworth, the ex- 
pedition left New Zealand September 19, 1934, 
arriving at Deception Island October 14, from 
where it was proposed to begin a trans-Antarctic 
flight to Bay of Whales. Take-off delayed by 
broken connecting rod. Snow melting from run- 
way required move to new location on November 
29. Port Lockroy investigated, but Snow Hill Is- 
land selected and landing made there December 4. 
Flight begun January 3, 1935, but impending bad 
weather caused pilot to turn back over Seal 
Nunataks. Project then abandoned but, while sail- 
ing north to Montevideo, Dundee Island was se- 
lected as site for attempt next season. 

1934-37. British Graham Land Expedition. 
Leader: John Rymill. Ship: Penola. 
Summary: Sponsored by Colonial Office, British 
Admiralty, War Office, Royal Geographical So- 
ciety, and other public, private, and commercial 
donors. Leaving London September 10, 1934, the 
Penola reached Falkland Islands November 28, re- 
maining for repairs until December 31. Mean- 
while, expedition supplies had been transported 
by the Discovery II from Port Stanley to Port 
Lockroy, Wiencke Island, where the Penola ar- 
rived January 22, 1935. By means of aerial recon- 
naissance, base site was selected in Argentine Is- 
lands, 40 miles southwestward, where expedition 
wintered. Exploratory flight made from base to 
Matha Strait February 28, 1935. While awaiting 
firm ice, local biological, geological, and carto- 
graphical surveys were made by boat and plane. 
Open water south of Pendleton Strait confined 
survey work to area bordering Grandidier Channel. 
The Penola was freed on January 3, 1936, and re- 



turned from Deception Island with lumber for a 
new hut on January 27. On February 16, after 
aerial reconnaissance, the ship moved south 
through Grandidier Channel and Pendleton Strait, 
rounding Adelaide Island on the west and south, 
and entering Marguerite Bay. The plane then 
flew south, inside of Adelaide Island, on February 
26. Next day aerial reconnaissance revealed suit- 
able base just north of Neny Fjord, to which the 
ship sailed on February 28, 1936. Base established 
on one of the Debenham Islands. The Penola 
sailed on March 12 to winter in Falkland Islands. 
Exploratory flights made over Marguerite Bay on 
March 11 and 13, and another, between Adelaide 
Island and Palmer Peninsula, on March 31. After 
unsuccessful attempt in June to lay depots to 
the south, two sledging parties on July 20 com- 
menced survey northward finishing early in Au- 
gust. On August 15, flight made to north end of 
Alexander I Island, and better view of George VI 
Sound, seen first on March 13, was had. On Sep- 
tember 4, preliminary to a sledge journey, the 
sound was explored on a flight which penetrated 
it 40 miles, to 70°10'S. Sledge journey began next 
day. By October 17 the party, under A. Stephen- 
son, reached 72 = 00'S., 67°18'W., 200 miles from 
northern entrance, when they turned around. A 
second flight, on October 19, penetrated George 
VI Sound for 120 miles. Supported by a depot 
laid by air on Wordie Ice Shelf, Rymill and E. W. 
Bingham began eastern sledge journey across 
Palmer Peninsula on October 26, 1936. Going 
south to Wordie Ice Shelf, they turned eastward 
in about 69°50'S. and traveled along south side of 
Fleming and Bingham Glaciers to the east coast 
of Palmer Peninsula, in vicinity of Cape Rymill, 
returning to base on January 5, 1937. On Febru- 
ary 1, flight made to Douglas Range on Alexander 
I Island. On February 13, final fiight made north- 
ward to tie together the surveys made from the 
two bases. The Penola returned and expedition 
departed March 12, 1937, swinging southward 
along the pack fringing the northern end of Alex- 
ander I Island before sailing north. 

1935-36. United States expedition. 
Leader: Lincoln Ellsworth. Ship: Wyatt Earp. 
Summary: Financed by Lincoln Ellsworth. Expe- 
dition arrived at Deception Island from Montevideo 
November 4, 1935, proceeding on November 11 to 
Dundee Island, where a trans- Antarctic flight to 
the Bay of Whales was begun on November 21. 
After flying about 600 miles southwestward to be- 
yond Hearst Island, clogged fuel gauge forced re- 
turn. On November 23 the Polar Star again took 
to the air, with Ellsworth and pilot Herbert Hollick- 
Kenyon flying south along east coast of Palmer 
Peninsula to Mobiloil Inlet, then southwest across 



26 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



the peninsula range, Dyer Plateau, and George VI 
Sound to Ellsworth Highland. Landing made 
there on snow-covered surface in about 79°15'S., 
102°35'W. After 19 hours in camp, flight was con- 
tinued on November 24, but bad weather forced 
landing after a half hour in the air. A storm and 
clearing away the snow kept party grounded until 
late December 4. Four hours later (23 : 10 Decem- 
ber 4) another landing made for astronomical ob- 
servations, at about 79°29'S., 153°27'W. Plane 
took off at 09 : 50, December 5, and came down again 
at 10:05, 16 miles from the Bay of Whales, with 
gasoline exhausted. Ellsworth and HoUick-Ken- 
yon hiked to Little America to await arrival of the 
Wyatt Earp. On January 15, 1936, the Discovery 
II came to then- rescue, but before departing waited 
for the Wyatt Earp to arrive. 

1935-36. Discovery Investigations (British). 
Leader: G. W. Rayner. Ship: William Scoresby. 
Summary: The William Scoresby left London in 
October 1935 to mark whales in Indian Ocean. In 
February 1936, attempting great circle route from 
eastern whaling grounds off Queen Mary Coast to 
western grounds off Enderby Land, Rayner found 
coast unusually free of ice. In vicinity of 103°E., 
the existence of Bowman Island and Mill Island 
was verified. Working westward, MacKenzie Bay 
was found ice-free and was entered to 68°45'S., 
70°42'E. on February 24. Skirting Amery Ice 
Shelf to its north extremity, the William Scoresby 
continued west along the coast, landing at ScuUin 
Monolith on February 26. Next day Kemp Coast 
was reached; William Scoresby Bay discovered and 
landing made. Immediate coastal area charted. 
On March 6, ship again in sight of land off Cape 
Ann. She arrived at Cape Town April 3, 1936. 

1935-37. Discovery Investigations (British). 
Leader: Dr. G. E. R. Deacon. Ship: Discovery II. 
Summary: Leaving London in October, the Dis- 
covery II called at Cape Town before starting work, 
November 9, 1935. The course led eastward to 
Crozet Islands, then south to 58°29'S., 58°00'E., 
meeting the pack. Pack ice skirted eastward to 
about 59°47'S., 98°00'E. when, on December 4, 
1935, the Discovery II was called to Melbourne to 
begin search for Lincoln Ellsworth, presumed lost 
on his trans-Antarctic flight. She left Melbourne 
December 23 for Ross Sea, via Dunedin. After dif- 
ficult penetration of almost 400 miles of pack ice 
from January 6 to 14, with planes assisting to spot 
open leads, the ship arrived at Bay of Whales on 
January 15, 1936. Ellsworth found to be safe and 
the Discovery II left with him aboard on Jan- 
uary 22. Oceanographic work was carried out 
in Ross Sea, and landing made at Cape Crozier. 
Enroute to Australia, a running survey was 
made of Balleny Islands, from February 3 to 5. 



Work resumed by sailing south from Melbourne 
along 146 °E. Uncertain appearance of land noted 
to the south in 65°06'S., 127°02'E. on March 20, 
and in 65°05'S., 126°35'E. the next day. The pack 
ice was skirted in zigzag course from there to 
Shackleton Ice Shelf where, on March 26, a course 
was laid for Fremantle. After cruise across Indian 
Ocean along 32°S., from Fremantle to Cape Town, 
Antarctic work begun again on May 18, 1936, when 
ship cruised west and southward to beyond Bouve- 
t0ya, then followed the pack ice eastward to 17°E. 
before returning to Cape Town for routine repairs. 
Ship departed again on September 15, 1936, sailing 
westward to 0°, then south to 53°S., 0°. From 
there she turned westward on September 28, fol- 
lowing zigzag course north of 60°S. to South 
Georgia, arriving October 15. An indirect traverse 
was then made across Scotia Sea, first northwest, 
then south to South Orkney Islands, thence west 
to Clarence Island, making landing, and north to 
Falkland Islands. In November work carried on 
between Falkland Islands and Patagonia. Most 
of December spent in vicinity of South Georgia. 
In January 1937, topographic and biologic survey 
made in South Shetland Islands, followed by simi- 
lar work in South Orkney Islands in February. 
Final cruise began at South Georgia, sailing south- 
eastward to the Antarctic Circle, along which zig- 
zag course was followed to 0°40'E., then north to 
34°00'S., and eastward to Cape Town, which was 
reached April 7, 1937. 

1936-37. Norwegian expedition. 
Leader: Lars Christensen.. Ships: Thorshavn and 
Firern. 

Summary: Financed by Lars Christensen. Expe- 
dition left Cape Town December 28, 1936, with in- 
tention of photographing from the air the coast 
line of Antarctica from Shackleton Ice Shelf west 
to Princess Martha Coast. The floating factory 
Ole Wegger was met on January 14, 1936 in about 
62°S., 86°E. The plane was transferred next day 
from the Thorshavn to the whale catcher Firern, 
as were also Captains Nils Larsen and Klarius 
Mikkelsen, aviator Viggo Wider0e, and photog- 
rapher Nils Romnaes. On January 21 Gribb Bank 
and on January 25 Four Ladies Bank were dis- 
covered by the Thorshavn. Until January 25, 
when the Thorshavn joined the Firern, conditions 
were not entirely favorable. Aerial survey began 
next day, from 68°05'S., 78°55'E., with two flights 
in which coast line of Prydz Bay was photographed. 
On January 28 flights were made from about 
68°26'S., 70°03'E. in MacKenzie Bay, covering Lars 
Christensen and Mac-Robertson Coasts to 66°E. 
Landing was made by a party from the Thorshavn 
at ScuUin Monolith on January 30. Next day a 
third series of flights were made from 66°13'S., 
57°50'E., off Kemp Coast. Two more flights were 



27 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



made on February 1 from 65°47'S., 55°11'E., cover- 
ing a great part of Enderby Land. The Firern was 
then released, and the Thorshavn proceeded west 
past Cape Ann on February 2. Ice conditions were 
unsuitable for a take-ofi until February 4, at 
68°11'S., 35°47'E. On a flight from there, with Mrs. 
Christensen as passenger. Prince Harald Coast was 
discovered. Next day two flights were made from 
67°50'S., 34^03'E., photographing the coastal area 
bordering Havsbotn, from 40°E. to 34°E. On last 
flight, February 6, from 69°15'S., 26°00'E., S0r 
Rondane Mountains were photographed. The 
Thorshavn left for Cape Town on February 7, 1937. 

1937-38. Discovery Investigations (British). 
Leader : G. W. Rayner. Ship : William Scoresby. 
Summary : Beginning in September 1937, the Wil- 
liam Scoresby marked whales and carried on 
supplementary oceanographic work in south At- 
lantic Ocean and Bellingshausen Sea. Landing 
made on Saunders Island in South Sandwich Is- 
lands. Ship returned to London April 12, 1938. 

1937-39. Discovery Investigations (British). 
Leaders: Dr. N. A. Mackintosh, succeeded by H. F. 
P. Herdman. Ship: Discovery II. 
Summary: The Discovery II, with N. A. Mackin- 
tosh in charge of scientific work, left London Oc- 
tober 7, 1937 and, after calling at Cape Town in 
November, began circumpolar cruise carrying out 
program of daily oceanographic observations, par- 
ticularly pertaining to the whale. A zigzag course, 
based on the edge of the pack ice, was maintained 
throughout by tacking first southeast then north- 
east. The first part, between about 20 °E. and 
90°E., was north of 60°S. After a stop at Fre- 
mantle, the ship headed due south, on December 
29, 1937, to the pack ice off Budd Coast. From 
there, on January 11, 1938, the zigzag course east- 
ward was resumed, this time south of 60°S. Bal- 
leny Islands were sighted on January 21 and two 
days were spent in a running survey, in clear 
weather. Course then set for New Zealand, arriv- 
ing January 31, after a call at Campbell Island. 
On February 8, with H. F. P. Herdman in charge of 
scientific work, the ship left Dunedin for Antipodes 
Islands from which a course was set southward 
along 170°00'W. to the edge of the pack at 68°31'S. 
From there a zigzag course wajs followed south of 
60 °S. to Drake Passage. On March 20 the ship 
left Falkland Islands, sailing to the pack edge 90 
miles south of South Orkney Islands before turning 
northeastward to South Georgia, arriving March 
28, 1938. From there a coui'se was laid eastward 
to 50°S., 0°, then south to the pack ice. Skirting 
the pack to 20°E., the Discovery II then sailed north 
to Cape Town, arriving May 4. After a refit, the 
Discovery II, on July 1, 1938, began a series of seven 
cruises over a rectilinear course from Cape Town 



south westward to 40 °S. at 0°, then south on 0° to 
the edge of the pack ice, eastward to 20°E., and 
north to Cape Town. Regular observations across 
this area were made for period of nine months to 
show seasonal changes in pack ice, weather, sea 
temperatures, and marine life. On sixth cruise a 
landing was made on Bouvet0ya, in January. On 
seventh cruise, beginning February 15, 1939, edge 
of pack ice had retreated sufficiently along Princess 
Astrid Coast to enable staff to sight land from the 
ship on March 3 and 5. The Discovery II left for 
London on March 29, 1939. 

1938-39. United States expedition. 
Leader: Lincoln Ellsworth. Ship: Wyatt Earp. 
Summary: Financed by Lincoln Ellsworth. Ex- 
pedition left Cape Town October 29, 1938 and on 
November 20, in 55°27'S., 75°19'E., encountered 
pack ice from which the ship did not emerge until 
open water was reached off Ingrid Christensen 
Coast on January 2, 1939. A short flight was made 
in the small seaplane on December 31, and land 
sighted from the ship next day. A second flight, 
on January 2, revealed the coast line from Vestfold 
Hills to Amery Ice Shelf. Between January 3 and 
11 the coast line between Vestfold Hills and Rauer 
Islands was examined for ice suitable for a take-off 
by the large plane. Several boat landings and 
short flights were made. On January 11 the plane 
took off on the margin of the ice shelf east of Vest- 
fold Hills, flying southward over featureless, snow- 
covered continental plateau to 72°S., 79°E. The 
Wyatt Earp later skirted the ice shelf eastward, 
then emerged from the pack in 65°00'S., 80°05'E. 
on January 19. Hobart was reached February 4, 
1939. 

1938-39. German Antarctic Expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Alfred Ritscher. Ship: Schwaben- 
land. 

Summary : Sponsored by German government and 
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Re- 
search Society) of Berlin. The Schwabenland, a 
catapult ship carrying two flying boats, left Ham- 
burg December 17, 1938 on a quick dash to Ant- 
arctica for purpose of mapping, by means of aerial 
photography, and laying claim to a portion of the 
continent. On April 11, 1939, she returned to 
Cuxhaven after mapping Princess Martha Coast 
and Princess Astrid Coast between 12°W and 16°E. 
Area photographed extended from the shoreline 
across the coastal foreland up onto the continental 
plateau. Most southerly point claimed to have 
been reached was 74°25'S., 0°20'W. Arriving at 
edge of the ice shelf on January 19, 1939, the ship 
remained in area about three weeks. During this 
time there were only three periods when weather 
and ice conditions were favorable for flying. The 
flights were, accordingly, made from the ship in 



28 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



three series as she slowly worked eastward, be- 
ginning from 69°10'S., 4°20'W. and ending near 
69°05'S., 14°00'E. Meteorological, hydrographical, 
biological, and geophysical observations also made. 

1939-41. United States Antarctic Service. 
Leader: Rear Adm. Richard E. Byrd, USN (Ret.). 
Ships: Bear and North Star. 

Summary: Sponsored by United States govern- 
ment, and assisted in equipping expedition by pri- 
vate and commercial donors. The two expedition 
ships left the United States in November 1939, ar- 
riving at Bay of Whales January 11, 1940. West 
Base established there under Dr. Paul A. Siple. 
The North Star then departed for Valparaiso for 
equipment and supplies for the East Base, while 
the Bear, between January 19 and 30, pushed 
northeastward through the pack to 74°43'S., 
143° 52' W. Enroute, three flights to the east and 
south made from the ship. On February 1 the 
Bear left Bay of Whales, sailing westward along 
Ross Ice Shelf to Victoria Land, then northeast 
from Terra Nova Bay into south Pacific Ocean, 
thence eastward toward Palmer Peninsula. Dur- 
ing this cruise three flights were made south from 
the ship to Walgreen Coast, Thurston Peninsula, 
and Seraph Bay. The first was made on February 
24 from 70°43'S., 108°25'W., the second on Febru- 
ary 25 from 70°58'S., 105°33'W., and the third on 
February 27 from 70°04'S., 95°19'W. The Bear and 
North Star met at the entrance to Marguerite Bay 
on March 3, 1940. With aid of aerial reconnais- 
sance a site was selected on Stonington Island 
where East Base was established under Lt. Cdr. 
Richard B. Black, USNR. The ships left for the 
United States March 21. Winter at East Base 
was occupied with depot laying and aerial recon- 
naissance, preliminary to more extensive summer 
work. Flights were made to the east coast of 
Palmer Peninsula and this coast was photographed 
between Hearst Island and Cape Northrop on Sep- 
tember 21 and 28. From October 26 to December 
30 a weather station was maintained on the plateau 
east of base to aid flying operations. Three flights 
were made over Alexander I Island. The first, on 
November 4, followed a triangular course, south- 
westward across northern part of the island, south- 
eastward to George VI Sound, and north along the 
sound to base. On December 22 a flight was made 
westward over northern Alexander I Island to 
Charcot Island, then south to Ronne Entrance and 
westward to 72°55'S., 78°50'W., where the plane 
returned to base. On December 28 a flight was 
made along the entire length of George VI Sound. 
From November 7 to January 28 Finn Ronne and 
Carl R. Eklund sledged the entire length of the 
sound. A second party, under J. Glenn Dyer, left 
base in company with Ronne, separating on the 
Dyer Plateau south of Wordie Ice Shelf on No- 



vember 22. They sledged southeastward to tne 
Eternity Mountains, returning to base December 
12. These operations were supported by supplies 
laid by plane and dog team. The third major 
sledge journey began on November 18 and led across 
Palmer Peninsula and south along its east coast to 
71°51'S., 60°47'W. On December 30 the last major 
flight was made south into George VI Sound and 
southeast across Palmer Peninsula to Cape Dar- 
lington in 72°00'S., 60°43'W., thence south to 
Wright Inlet in 74"00'S., 61°15'W. Plane then re- 
turned to base following east side of Palmer Pen- 
insula to Trail Inlet. Three flights were made 
from West Base in February 1940. The first was 
to Ruppert Coast on the 8th. On February 12 a 
flight was made southwestward over Ross Ice Shelf 
to about 81°08'S., 176°15'W. The third flight, on 
February 29, followed a course southwestward to 
the mouth of Beardmore Glacier, then east along 
the front of Queen Maud Range, turning northeast, 
east, and northwest along the eastern edge of Ross 
Ice Shelf on the return to base. Major discoveries 
were Shackleton Glacier and an ice-drowned island 
similar to and lying southeast of Roosevelt Island. 
Depots were laid by tractor, tank and plane. Gaso- 
line dumps laid by plane greatly extended the ex- 
ploratory flights. Four long exploratory flights 
were made eastward and northeastward over Marie 
Byrd Land on December 9, 13, 16, and 18, 1940. 
All reached or exceeded 135°W. The flights of De- 
cember 9 and 18 revealed open water north of Rup- 
pert Coast. Westward flight along edge of Ross 
Ice Shelf was made on December 12. Three parties 
sledged from West Base into Marie Byrd Land in 
mid-October. The Biological Party visited Fos- 
dick Mountains on the eastern shore of Ross Sea. 
The Pacific Coast Party sledged to Mount Berlin, 
in Hal Flood Range, to establish ground control. 
The Geological Party sledged to the Edsel Ford 
Ranges. Cosmic ray and auroral observations were 
also carried out. The two ships returned to Bay 
of Whales in January 1941 for evacuation of West 
Base, and departed on February 1. They proceeded 
north to Scott Island and then eastward toward 
Marguerite Bay, arriving off Adelaide Island on 
February 24. Ice conditions, however, prevented 
entrance into Marguerite Bay. It was finally neces- 
sary on March 22, 1941, to evacuate East Base per- 
sonnel by plane to Watkins Island (formerly Mik- 
kelsen Island), in the Biscoe Islands. Personnel 
transferred on same day to the Bear and sailed 
northward. 

1942. Argentine expedition. 

Leader: Capt. A. J. Oddera. Ship: Primero de 

Mayo. 

Summary: Sponsored by Comision National del 

Antartico and Ministry of Marine. Expedition 

called at Deception Island in January and Febru- 



29 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



ary, making territorial claim to this sector. A 
beacon was installed and hydrographic survey 
made in Melchior Islands. 

1943. Argentine expedition. 

Leader: Capt. S. Harriague. Ship: Primero de 
Mayo. 

Summary: Sponsored by Comision National del 
Antartico and Ministry of Marine. Ships sailed 
south from Ushuaia on February 18, 1943, passing 
west of South Shetland Islands enroute to Melchior 
Islands. Hydrographic survey of Melchior Islands 
completed. Sailed south to Stonington Island in 
Marguerite Bay, where materials left by the 
United States Antarctic Service were collected. 
Flights were made from Port Lockroy. Called at 
Deception Island. 

1943-45. Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey 
(Operation Tabarin). 

Leader: Lt. Cdr. J. W. S. Marr, RNVR. Ships: 
William Scoresby and Fitzroy. 
Summary: Sponsored by British Colonial Office 
and Admiralty. The two ships sailed south from 
Falkland Islands and on February 3, 1944 reached 
Deception Island, where Base B was established for 
territorial administration and meteorological ob- 
servation. Vessels then sailed to Hope Bay, ar- 
riving February 7, but ice conditions prevented un- 
loading materials for base there. The ships turned 
north into Bransfield Strait, then southwestward 
along the west coast of Palmer Peninsula in search 
of possible base site. With coal running short on 
the Fitzroy, the ships were forced to run for the 
sheltered harbor of Port Lockroy where Base A was 
set up on Goudier Islet. On February 17, 1944, 
the vessels returned to Falkland Islands. Meteor- 
ological observations as well as geological, topo- 
graphical, and biological surveys were made in the 
Port Lockroy area. 

1945-46. Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey. 
Leader: Capt. A. Taylor, RCE. Ships: William 
Scoresby, Fitzroy and Eagle. 

Summary: Sponsored by British Colonial Office. 
Bases at Deception Island and Port Lockroy were 
visited in January and February 1945 and resup- 
plied and staffed with four men each as weather 
stations. A hut for future occupancy was erected 
on Coronation Island in South Orkney Islands. 
Base D was established by the Eagle at Hope Bay 
in February, but storms prevented complete un- 
loading of supplies on a return trip in March. 
Twelve men were stationed at Hope Bay, under 
Taylor, where a weather station was maintained 
and geological and biological investigations were 
carried on. James Ross Island and environs were 
surveyed in two sledge journeys. 



1946-47. Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey. 
Leader: Cdr. E. W. Bingham, RN. Ships: William 
Scoresby, Fitzroy and Trepassey. 
Summary: Sponsored by British Colonial Office. 
The ships sailed from Falkland Islands January 9, 
1946, and by January 17 the bases at Hope Bay, De- 
ception Island, and Port Lockroy were re-equipped 
and staffed by new personnel. Base C was estab- 
lished in the South Orkney Islands on Cape Geddes, 
Laurie Island, and additional supplies were landed 
at the hut on Coronation Island. Emergency 
stores were laid at the former base of the British 
Graham Land Expedition in Argentine Islands on 
way south to Stonington Island, where Base E was 
established on February 24, 1946. Weather sta- 
tions with four men each functioned at Deception 
Island, Port Lockroy, and Cape Geddes. Eight men 
were based at Hope Bay and ten men at Stonington 
Island. From November 1946 to January 1947 the 
plateau upland of Palmer Peninsula was charted 
between 68°00'S. and 66°30'S. by two Stonington 
Island sledge parties. Hope Bay sledge parties 
mapped Louis Philippe Peninsula from Cape 
Roquemaurel northeastward, as well as the coastal 
area northwest of Prince Gustav Channel. 

1946-47. British whaling expedition. 
Leader: Rupert Trouton (Capt. Reider Pedersen, 
John Grierson) . Snip: Balaena. 
Summary: Sent out by United Whalers, Limited, 
the ship engaged in whaling off Queen Mary Coast 
and Wilkes Land from January to March 1947. 
Land was sighted from ship on five days between 
109°E. and 111°E. Two amphibian planes used for 
ice reconnaissance and for spotting whales. Peaks 
were reported on flight of February 12, 1947 in 
about 66°S., 110°E. Scientific program included 
study of meteorology, ornithology, ice conditions, 
physiology of the whale and the suitability of 
whale meat for human consumption. 

1946-47. British expedition. 
Leader: Niall Rankin. Ship: Albatross. 
Summary: A private expedition to South Georgia 
for purpose of photographing wildlife. Operations 
carried on by three-man crew in a series of cruises 
from the base at Leith Harbor. Supplies were 
transported for the group by whalers. 

1946-47. United States Navy Operation Highjump 
Leaders: Rear Adm. Richard E. Byrd, USN (Ret.), 
and Rear Adm. Richard H. Cruzen, USN. Ships: 
Thirteen ships of "Task Force 68." 
Summary: Expedition split into three groups to 
photograph from the air a large part of the coast- 
line of Antarctica. Main objectives were to test 
equipment and train men under polar conditions. 
Central group under Admiral Cruzen consisted of 
the Mount Olympus, Yancey, Merrick, the ice- 



30 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



breaker Northwind, and submarine Sennet. This 
group established a base on Ross Ice Shelf at Bay 
of Whales, January 16, 1947. Six transport planes 
were flown to the base from the carrier Philippine 
Sea for 29 photographic flights over Ross Ice Shelf 
and lands bordering the shelf to the west and south, 
western Marie Byrd Land, and the polar plateau. 
A tractor journey to Rockefeller Mountains was 
made. A limited program of meteorology, glaci- 
ology, and geophysics was carried on. The base 
was evacuated on February 23, 1947 by the ice- 
breaker Burton Island. Eastern group under Capt. 
George J. Dufek consisted of seaplane tender Pine 
Island, destroyer Brownson, and tanker Canisto. 
This group rendezvoused near Peter I Island in 
late December. Bad weather curtailed flights over 
coastal area south of Bellingshausen Sea, and in 
latter part of January the group moved Westward 
and in clearer weather photographed the coast 
south of Amundsen Sea, roughly between 100 °W. 
and 125°W. This completed, the group returned 
eastward with flights over Charcot and Alexander 
I Islands, and by March had cruised east of the 
Greenwich meridian with flights over Princess 
Martha Coast. Western group under Capt. Charles 
A. Bond consisted of seaplane tender Currituck, de- 
stroyer Henderson, and tanker Cacapon. They 
rendezvoused north of Balleny Islands in Decem- 
ber, then cruised westward until March making 25 
photographic flights over the continental margin 
from Gates Coast, in 164°E., almost half way 
around Antarctica to Princess Astrid Coast in 15°E. 
Numerous geographic discoveries made, including 
an ice free area close south of Queen Mary Coast. 

1947. Argentine expedition. 

Leader: Capt. Luis Miguel Garcia. Ships: King, 
Murature, Ministro Ezcurra, Don Samuel, Gran- 
ville, Patagonia, Chaco, and Fournier. 
Summary: Sponsored by Comision Nacional del 
Antartico and Ministry of Marine. The Patagonia 
and Don Samuel proceeded from Ushuaia January 
24, 1947, calling at Deception Island January 29, to 
protest existence of Falkland Islands Dependencies 
Survey Base B. On January 31a base was started 
in Melchior Islands. An amphibian flight was 
made southward from the Patagonia. Other ships 
assisted in base construction while Garcia in the 
Don Samuel sailed south to Marguerite Bay, call- 
ing at Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey Base 
E at Stonington Island. Automatic lighthouses 
were erected at Py Point on Doumer Island, and 
Cape Anna on Palmer Peninsula. Eight men, un- 
der Lieutenant Nadau, remained to staff the Mel- 
chior Islands base. A navigational beacon was 
erected in May by the Fournier on Anvers Island. 
The King and Murature carried on reconnaissance 
in South Shetland Islands, South Orkney Islands, 
and Weddell Sea. Personnel at the Argentine 



weather station on Laurie Island in South Orkney 
Islands were relieved. 

1947. Chilean expedition. 

Leader: Capt. Frederico Guesalago Toro. Ships: 
Iquique and Angamos. 

Summary: Sponsored by Chilean Navy. The ships 
sailed from Valparaiso in January 1947. The 
Iquique visited the South Shetland Islands, calling 
at Deception Island, then sailed southward through 
De Gerlache Strait to Marguerite Bay. The An- 
gamos established a base at Discovery Bay, Green- 
wich Island in the South Shetland Islands before 
sailing south to Marguerite Bay in March. Five 
men wintered on Greenwich Island under Lt. Boris 
Kopaitic O'Neil. 

1947-48. Argentine expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Richardo Hermelo. Ships: Bou- 
chard, Granville, King, Pampa, Ministro Ezcurra, 
Murature, Chiriguano, Sanaviron, Seaver, Parker, 
Esiv Brunt and Charwa. 

Summary: Sponsored by Comision Nacional del 
Antartico and Ministry of Marine. An ice recon- 
naissance in Bransfield Strait was begun in No- 
vember 1947 by the Bouchard, Granville, and King. 
Construction of a base at Deception Island was 
started in December. A survey flight by a navy 
plane was made from Piedrabuena airfield in 
Patagonia across Deception Island, Melchior Is- 
lands, Adelaide Island and Palmer Peninsula. Ac- 
tivities were carried on under escort of naval ves- 
sels on maneuvers in Antarctic waters. Naviga- 
tional lights were erected in Melchior Islands. A 
temporary hut was erected at Admiralty Bay, King 
George Island. A winter party under Lt. Roberto 
A. Cabrera was left at Deception Island, and 
another under Lt. L. Roque de Costillas at Melchior 
Islands. 

1947-48. United States Navy Operation Windmill. 
Leader: Cdr. Gerald L. Ketchum, USN. Ships: 
Icebreakers Edisto and Burton Island. 
Summary: Objective of expedition was to secure 
ground control data for the aerial photography of 
Operation Highjump by landing at several points 
by means of helicopters. From Samoa the ships 
forced their way into the ice of Davis Sea in 92°E. 
in December 1947. Landing was made on Haswell 
Islet. Ships then cruised eastward along the edge 
of the pack with landings in about 105°E. and off 
Knox Coast. McMurdo Sound, Bay of Whales, and 
Peter I Island were visited before calling at Mar- 
guerite Bay. The expedition assisted in freeing 
the Port of Beaumont, Texas by breaking ice in 
Neny Bay before departing for home on February 
23, 1948. 



31 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



1947-48. Norwegian expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Nils Larsen. Ship: Brategg. 
Summary: Sponsored by Norske Hvalfangstsels- 
kapers Forbund (Federation of Norwegian Whaling 
Companies). Oceanographic research carried on 
from Peter I Island westward to 174°31'W., north 
of Ross Sea, following a zigzag course between the 
edge of the pack and 62°00'S. On returning a 
landing was made on Peter I Island for geological 
and zoological work. Ship departed February 13, 
1948 for Deception Island. The oceanographic 
program was mainly planned by the Norske Geo- 
grafiske Selskabs Havforsknings Komite (Commit- 
tee of Oceanographic Investigation of the Nor- 
wegian Geographic Society) . 

1947-48. Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition. 
Leader: Cdr. Finn Ronne, USNR. Ship: Port of 
Beaumont, Texas. 

Summary: Sponsored by American Geographical 
Society, Office of Naval Research, Air Force, and 
private donors, with aid of equipment borrowed 
from government agencies. Expedition sailed with 
three planes from Beaumont, Texas, on January 
23, 1947, through Panama Canal, and arrived in 
Marguerite Bay March 12. Former East Base of 
the United States Antarctic Service on Stonington 
Island was reoccupied and the Port of Beaumont, 
Texas frozen in for the winter. Seismological, 
meteorological, and geophysical observations car- 
ried on continuously at base; cosmic rays and 
marine tides were studied. During flying season, 
weather stations were maintained on the plateau 
east of the base and at Cape Keeler on east coast 
of Palmer Peninsula. Two major sledge journeys, 
a geological trip to George VI Sound and a joint 
trip with the Falkland Islands Dependencies Sur- 
vey from Stonington Island to the east coast of 
Palmer Peninsula and south to Bowman Peninsula 
in 74°47'S., 62°22'W., were carried out with air 
support. Nine major exploratory flights were 
made, resulting in 14,000 tri-metrogon aerial 
photographs. Several landings made in the field 
for geographical fixes and refueling. On Novem- 
ber 7, 1947 a triangular course was flown over 
Weddell Sea in the vicinity of Hearst Island. On 
November 21 a flight was made south along the 
east coast of Palmer Peninsula, landing on the ice 
in Gardner Inlet in 74°48'S., 62°50'W. to refuel, 
and then southwestward to Mount Hassage on 
Joerg Plateau. The edge of Filchner Ice Shelf at 
the head of Weddell Sea was next examined. 
Plane was forced down by fog off Cape Knowles on 
return to base, which was reached on November 
22. On November 27 a flight was made northward 
to Marin Darbel Bay, then southwestward over 
Alexander I Island. On December 3, George VI 
Sound was explored from the air southward to 
Batterbee Mountains, after which a flight was made 



across central Alexander I Island. Second flight 
to head of Weddell Sea began December 8, but 
heavy overcast forced planes down off Cape Wheeler 
until December 12 when the flight was continued 
south and eastward along edge of the ice shelf to 
78°30'S., 42°00'W. On December 22 and 23 flights 
were made northward beyond 66°S. on both sides 
of Palmer Peninsula. Last major flight occurred 
on December 23, flying southward along east side 
of George VI Sound, then west-southwest along its 
southern shore and landing at 74°30'S., 79°00'W. 
Plane then flew northeastward over Alexander I 
Island, then northwest to Charcot Island where 
another landing was made before returning to base. 
The expedition evacuated its base on February 20, 
1948. 

1947^8. Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey. 
Leader: Maj. K. S. P. Butler. Ships: Fitzroy and 
Trepassey. 

Summary: Sponsored by British Colonial Office. 
Base A, the meteorological station at Port Lockroy, 
was evacuated and closed for the winter April 9, 
1947. Base B at Deception Island was rebuilt fol- 
lowing a fire and maintained as a weather station 
with flve men; a plane table survey was carried on. 
Base C, Laurie Island, was evacuated March 17, 
1947. Base D, Hope Bay, was relieved in February 
1947. A weather station was maintained at Hope 
Bay and a survey of Prince Gustav Channel com- 
pleted. Depots were laid as far as Seal Nunataks 
in support of a long sledge journey south along the 
east coast of Palmer Peninsula which was begun 
October 27, 1947. This group was met near Three 
Slice Nunatak by a joint (Ronne Antarctic Re- 
search Expedition - Falkland Islands Dependencies 
Survey) assisting party from Stonington Jsland, 
which guided them across the peninsula to Stoning- 
ton Island. Base E, Stonington Island, was re- 
lieved February 5, 1947. A staff of 11 maintained 
a weather station there and, in cooperation with 
the Ronne expedition, a station on the plateau 
east of the base. They assisted Ronne's geological 
party on first part of journey into George VI 
Sound and from October 9, 1947 to January 16, 
1948 participated in a joint British- American 
sledge journey, with air support by Ronne, south- 
ward along the east coast of Palmer Peninsula 
from Joerg Peninsula in 68°12'S., 65°12'W. to Bow- 
man Peninsula in 74°47'S., 62°22'W. At Base F, 
Argentine Islands, a- new building was erected in 
January 1947 to replace the old hut of the British 
Graham Land Expedition which had been de- 
stroyed along with an emergency depot by a tidal 
wave. Four man staff at Base F operated a 
weather station, supplied seal meat for the other 
bases, and bred sledge dogs. Base G at Admiralty 
Bay, King Geprge Island, was established as two 
man weather station in January 1947. Erection 



32 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



of Base H on Signy Island was begun March 10, 
1947, to replace Base C. Weather station at Base 
H staffed by four men. Signy Island was surveyed 
and ice conditions were recorded. 

1947-48. Chilean expedition. 
Leader: E. G. Navarrete. Ships: Covadonga, Ran- 
cagua and Presidente Pinto. 

Summary: Sponsored by Chilean government. A 
base at Discovery Bay, Greenwich Island, was vis- 
ited in December 1947, and a second base erected at 
Cape Legoupil on Palmer Peninsula. Party of 
government officials, including President Gonzalez 
Videla, visited in the Presidente Pinto in February. 
Wintering parties were stationed at both bases. 

1947-55. Australian National Antarctic Research 
Expedition. 

Leaders: Group-Captain Stuart A. Campbell, suc- 
ceeded by Phillip G. Law. Ships: Wyatt Earp 
(1947-48), Labuan (1949-51), Tottan (1952-53), 
KistaDan (1954-55). 

Summary: Sponsored by the Antarctic Division, 
Australian Department of External Affairs. A 14 
man winter party under A. V. Gottly landed on 
Heard Island in December 1947, making observa- 
tions in meteorology, cosmic rays, geology, biology 
and geophysics. Topographic survey of the island 
was undertaken. After return for repairs the 
Wyatt Earp left Melbourne for the Antarctic in 
February 1948, but was prevented from reaching 
Commonwealth Bay on George V Coast by heavy 
ice. The ship cruised eastward to the Balleny Is- 
lands, landing on Borrodaile Island. A running 
survey was made of Young, Buckle, Borrodaile, 
Sabrina and Row Islands. Second attempt was 
made to reach George V Coast early in March, but 
aerial reconnaissance showed unfavorable ice con- 
ditions and the ship withdrew on the 14th. Relief 
of Heard Island personnel carried out by the La- 
buan in January 1949. Scientific program was 
continued by 11 man party under R. W. Allison. 
This group was in turn relieved by a 14 man party 
under J. W. P. McCarthy in January 1950. Heavy 
storm damage forced retirement of the Labuan 
from service in 1951 after a 14 man relief party 
under F. T. Hannan was established on the island. 
Meteorological, geophysical and biological observa- 
tions were continued by a 14 man party under L. F. 
Gibbney which accompanied the Tottan in Febru- 
ary 1952. Routine observations were continued by 
a 13 man party under John M. Bechervaise, upon 
return of the Tottan in February 1953. This party 
was in turn relieved by a 9 man party under Dr. 
G. Budd which accompanied the Kista Dan in 
January 1954. Collecting supplies at the Ker- 
guelen Islands, the Kista Dan continued south- 
ward to Mac-Robertson Coast and landed on Feb- 
ruary 13 in a protected cove indenting the main- 
land in 67°36'S., 62°53'E., as previously selected 



from United States Navy Operation High jump 
aerial photographs as the base site for "Mawson 
station." After the 10 man wintering party under 
Robert G. Dovers was established, the Kista Dan 
headed eastward, making solar and magnetic ob- 
servations close off Scullin Monolith and at "Mag- 
netic Islet" in Prydz Bay. The ship retired north- 
ward to Heard Island to collect the 1953 wintering 
party, and reached Melbourne in late March. Sci- 
entific work at the Heard Island station ceased on 
October 31 and the base was dismantled in early 
1955, except for living quarters and emergency 
supplies. Observations in meteorology, geology, 
glaciology, cosmic rays, seismology, ionospherical 
physics and geophysics were undertaken at "Maw- 
son station." Three major journeys, with empha- 
sis on topographic and geologic investigations, 
were completed by tractor parties. One extended 
about 160 miles westward to the head of Edward 
VIII Bay. The second extended about 130 miles 
southeastward to a prominent group of interior 
mountains sighted by Operation Highjump per- 
sonnel in March 1947 which lie south of the eastern 
end of Lars Christensen Coast. The third journey 
extended about 100 miles eastward to Scullin 
Monolith. Combined sea and land operations per- 
mitted solar observations to be completed at 13 
localities between 57°05'E. and 77°54'E. Relief of 
the 1954 mainland wintering party by a 15 man 
party under JOhri M. Bechervaise was completed in 
February 1955, and scientific observations were 
continued in the general base area. 

1948-49. Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey. 
Leader: V. E. Fuchs. Ships: John Biscoe, Snipe 
and Fitzroy. 

Summary: Sponsored by the British Colonial Of- 
fice. Base A, Port Lockroy was re-opened in Feb- 
ruary 1948 with a five man staff for geophysical 
observations. Base B, Deception Island, continued 
as a weather station with four men. Base D, Hope 
Bay, was relieved in March 1948, and staffed with 
seven men. Six sledge journeys made from Hope 
Bay to study geology and complete survey of Louis 
Philippe Peninsula. Base D was destroyed by fire 
which killed two men and was evacuated on Febru- 
ary 4, 1949. Base E, Stonington Island, was staffed 
with 11 men to run weather station and carry out 
topographical and geological surveys. A depot was 
laid at northeast end of Alexander I Island. Find- 
ing no practical route over or around the north end 
of Alexander I Island, a party sledged southward 
in George VI Sound to 71°35'S. Square Bay and 
southeast side of Adelaide Island were surveyed. 
Base F, Argentine Islands, was staffed by four men 
who continued a program of weather observation, 
dog breeding, and stocking seal meat for other 
bases. At Base G, Admiralty Bay, four men op- 
erated weather station and began geological sur- 



33 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



vey of King George Island. At Base H, Signy Is- 
land, three men operated weather station, studied 
elephant seals, and made survey of Signy and a 
part of Coronation Island. 

1948-49. Argentine expedition. 
Leader: Unknown. Ships: Pampa, Sanavir on and 
Chaco. 

Summary: Sponsored by Comision Nacional del 
Antartico and Ministry of Marine. Wintering par- 
ties at Melchior Islands, Deception Island, and 
Laurie Island were relieved. Further work pre- 
vented by unfavorable ice conditions. 

1948^9. Chilean expedition. 
Leader: Leopoldo Fontaine. Ships: Covandonga, 
Maipo and Lautaro. 

Summary: Sponsored by Chilean government. 
Severe ice conditions prevented a proposed estab- 
lishment of a base at Marguerite Bay. Bases at 
Discovery Bay on Greenwich Island, and Cape 
Legoupil on Palmer Peninsula were relieved and 
winter parties stationed. 

1948-53. French Antarctic Expedition. 
Leader: Andre F. Liotard, Michel Barre and Mario 
Marret. 

Ships: Commandant Charcot and Tottan. 
Summary: Sponsored by Expeditions Polaires 
Frangaises, a government organization. Left Ho- 
bart on February 4, 1949, but spent 23 days in 
vain attempt to break through 40 miles of pack 
ice off Adelie Coast. Commandant Charcot then 
retired to Belleny Islands, landing on Sabrina 
Islet March 7. Meteorological and hydrographic 
studies were made and a survey carried out. Re- 
turned to France via Macquarie Island and Aus- 
tralia. Left Hobart on second attempt December 
21, 1949. Reached Cape Decouverte, Adelie Coast, 
on January 18, 1950. Base established at Cape 
Margerie on January 20. Ship laid depots at Cape 
Jules and Cape Denison before returning home. 
Studies at "Port Martin" base included meteor- 
ology, cosmic rays, seismology, hydrography and 
zoology. A sledging program was carried on along 
the coastal margin to the borders of Adelie Coast. 
Astronomical control was obtained along the east- 
tern half of the coast for use in identifying United 
States Navy Operation High jump aerial photo- 
graphs which were later used in compiling maps 
of this coast. Biological studies made at newly 
discovered emperor penguin rookery at southern 
end of Geologie Archipelago. Liotard's party was 
relieved by a 14 man party under Michel Barre 
in January 1951. Reconnaissance of the coast was 
made from Commandant Charcot and a depot laid 
in Geologie Archipelago to assist additional bio- 
logical and topographic studies in the area. Mag- 
netic and astronomical observations were made 
at Cape Denison. Journey to South Magnetic Pole 



thwarted by tractor failure, but glacial and seis- 
mic studies were successful on later journey about 
200 miles south from the base. Sledge party trav- 
ersed to Cape Pepin area. Fire destroyed main 
buildings of "Port Martin" base in January 1952 
at the time the relief ship Tottan called. A seven 
man party under Mario Marret established another 
base in the Geologie Archipelago and made an in- 
tensive study of the nearby Emperor penquin 
rookery. Astronomical control and survey work 
completed along the western end of Adelie Coast. 
Party evacuated in January 1953 by the Tottan. 

1949-52. Norwegian - British - Swedish Antarctic 
Expedition. 

Leader: Capt. John Giaever. Ship: Norsel. 
Summary : Sponsored by Norsk Polarinstitutt, gov- 
ernment grants from Norway, United Kingdom 
and Sweden, Norske Geografiske Selskab, Royal 
Geographical Society, and Svenska Sallskapet for 
Anthropologi och Geografi. The Norsel left Lon- 
don on November 23, 1949 for rendezvous with the 
floating factory Thorsh0vdi near the South Sand- 
wich Islands, January 13, 1950; sledge dogs and 
three "weasels" transshipped. Air reconnaissance 
from February 1 to 3 led to landing in a small 
bay about 40 miles northeast of Cape Norvegia. 
On February 10, "Maudheim," the base, was estab- 
lished on the ice shelf about two miles south of 
the bay in 71°02'S., 10°55'W. During next few 
days an air reconnaissance unit of five men and 
two planes made numerous flights, sketching and 
photographing the coast. The air unit and planes 
returned north in the Norsel on February 20, leav- 
ing a winter party of 15 men. The scientific pro- 
gram was divided with Norwegians chiefly respon- 
sible for topography and meteorology, British for 
geology and Swedes for glaciology and aerial pho- 
tography. Subsidiary base for scientific work was 
set up about 185 miles south of the main base at 
an elevation of about 5,000 feet, in 72°16'S., 
3°49'W., from which a party under Schytt made a 
reconnaissance of the area in October and Novem- 
ber 1950. The Norsel returned to Maudheim on 
January 6, 1951, left three additional men and took 
back one of the 1950-51 group, departing on Janu- 
ary 30. The wintering party was reduced to 14 by 
the accidental death of three members. Air op- 
erations during this visit of the Norsel were held to 
a minimum by foul weather and damage to one of 
the two airplanes. The expedition was evacuated 
on January 15, 1952 by the Norsel, which had ar- 
rived on December 22, 1951. During the two field 
seasons the extensive scientific program included 
studies of ice, ice movement, snow accumulation, 
an ice-cap thickness profile to about 74°20'S. on 
the Greenwich meridian, geologic examination of 
all mountains and larger nunataks north of 
73°50'S. between 2°00'E., and 12°00'W., triangula- 



34 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



tion covering about 23,000 square miles and aerial 
photography that should extend the inland sur- 
vey to about 38,000 square miles, physiological re- 
actions of man to polar climates, geomagnetism 
and aurora, surface and upper air meteorology. 

1949-53. Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey. 
Leader: V. E. Fuchs. Ships: John Biscoe, Sparrow, 
Snipe and Burghead Bay. 

Summary: Sponsored by British Colonial Office. 
Base A, Port Lockroy, evacuated and closed Feb- 
ruary 1949. Reoccupied January 1950 to February 
1951, and continuously since February 1952, prin- 
cipally for meteorological and ionospheric obser- 
vations, the latter beginning in February 1952 with 
equipment transferred from Deception Island. 
Four men were stationed at Base B, Deception 
Island, to operate weather station and new power- 
ful transmitter for improved communications. 
Some geological and glaciological investigations as 
well as soundings and charting were carried on. 
Survivors of the fire at Base D, Hope Bay, were 
evacuated in February 1949. The rebuilt base was 
occupied in February 1952. In addition to 
meteorology, the survey of James Ross Island was 
completed and additional work done between Hope 
Bay and Stonington Island, with some geological 
work in both areas. A limited program of phys- 
iological investigation was carried on. Severe 
ice conditions prevented relief of personnel at 
Base E, Stonington Island. Program at Stoning- 
ton Island included study of emperor penguins on 
De Dion Islets. A long sledge journey was made 
through George VI Sound to open water at 
Eklund Islands. Base E was evacuated and closed 
by the John Biscoe in February 1950. Base F, 
Argentine Islands, was staffed with four men who 
operated a weather station and made short sur- 
vey journeys in the vicinity under handicap of mild 
weather and deteriorating ice. Base G, Admiralty 
Bay, was staffed with six men (five in the winters 
of 1951-53) , who maintained weather observations, 
rude geological and topographical surveys, and 
carried on glaciological investigations. The Burg- 
head Bay in February 1952 triangulated the inner 
harbor of Admiralty Bay and made running sur- 
veys of the seaward coasts of Deception Island, 
Visca Anchorage, Admiralty Bay and Signy Island. 
Four men (five from 1951 on) at Base H, Signy 
Island, continued study of elephant seals, surveyed 
the south side of Coronation Island, operated 
weather station, and made investigations of geol- 
ogy, tides, ice and fauna. Base M at Grytviken 
was occupied in January 1950. Wintering parties 
included five men in 1951, three in 1952, two in 
1953. The program included meteorological and 
sea ice observations, and twice-daily weather anal- 
ysis and forecasts, December 1950 to March 1951, 
and for a considerable period in 1952-53. 



1950-51. National Institute of Oceanography Ex- 
pedition (British). 

Leader: Dr. H. F. P. Herdman. Ship: Discovery II. 
Summary: This sixth two-year commission of the 
Discovery II, the first under the newly organized 
National Institute of Oceanography, was designed 
to complete the pre-war oceanographic work of the 
Discovery Committee in the Antarctic. The ship 
left England May 10, 1950, via Suez and the Indian 
Ocean for Australia with work enroute. In Au- 
gust a line of stations had been completed along 
90°E. through the central Indian Ocean to the 
edge of the pack ice. The remainder of 1950 was 
devoted to work in waters east and south of Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand with a cruise eastward in 
November to 150°W., and thence south to the ice 
edge which was skirted westward for 1,000 miles 
before returning to Dunedin. A lack of data for 
winter conditions was filled in by a winter circum- 
polar cruise conducted in 1951. 

1951-52. South Georgia Survey. 
Leader: Verner D. Carse. Ships: Various whaling 
vessels. 

Summary : A private British expedition, consisting 
of a party of six, left Glasgow on September 16, 
1951 in the whaling tanker Southern Opal and ar- 
rived at Leith Harbor, South Georgia, November 1. 
The object of the party was to map the south coast 
from Cape Disappointment to King Haakon Bay, 
and the interior south and west of AUardyce 
Range. The next day a base was set up in the jail 
at Grytviken. After making reconnaissance jour- 
neys north and south of Cumberland Bay, the 
party was taken on December 11 by the former 
catcher Stina to Royal Bay where they landed with 
supplies. Two sledges were man-hauled up Ross 
Glacier, hampered by poor weather. Ross Pass 
at the head of the glacier was reached on Decem- 
ber 15, and the party descended toward the south 
coast. Undine South Harbor was found to be 
about ten miles southeast of its charted position. 
Work was interrupted on January 1, 1952 when a 
party member was injured in a fall down a crevasse, 
necessitating a return to base. The return began 
on January 3, but a food depot was first left about 
five miles southeast of Undine South Harbor. 
Cumberland Bay was reached three days later via 
Ross Glacier, Cook Glacier and Nordenskjold Gla- 
cier, and on January 7 the catcher Skua took the 
party to Grytviken. On January 25 the five 
remaining members of the party were landed by 
catcher at Fortuna Bay on the north coast. Poor 
weather again made surveying difficult, but a short 
journey was made west and north to the isthmus 
between King Haakon Bay and Possession Bay. 
The party returned to Stromness Bay at the end of 
February. During the third week in March a four 
man party was landed at Royal Bay to complete the 



35 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



work started in December. They failed to locate 
the depot left on January 3 and had to return to 
base a few days later. Meanwhile, Carse spent a 
week aboard a sealer off the south coast making 
compass controlled sketches of the bays, until 
exceptionally bad weather brought the sealing 
season to a sudden close. The party left South 
Georgia for the United Kingdom in the Southern 
Opal on April 18, 1952. 

1953-54. South Georgia Survey. 
Leader: Verner D. Carse. Ships: Various whaling 
vessels. 

Summary: A private British expedition consisting 
of Verner D. Carse, G. Smillie, A. Trendall and K. 
Warburton left Glasgow in the whaling tanker 
Polar Maid on August 29, 1953, arriving at Leith 
Harbor in South Georgia on October 10. As in 
1951, a base was set up in the jail at Grytviken. In 
mid-October Carse made a brief preliminary recon- 
naissance around the northwestern end of the is- 
land in the sealer Albatros, while Smillie and Tren- 
dall did geological work in the Dartmouth Point 
area of Cumberland East Bay. The first main 
journey began on October 29 without Warburton, 
who was ill at Grytviken, when Carse, Smillie and 
Trendall were landed at Sunset Fjord in the Bay 
of Isles. Next day they started up Brunonia 
Glacier with two sledges. On November 5 they 
reached its head and began the descent toward the 
head of Ice Fjord. From this point on there was 
little snow cover and they had to backpack all their 
equipment. Turning northward, they travelled 
along the rugged north coast of the island, reach- 
ing the head of Right Whale Bay on November 14. 
After ten days of survey and geological work in this 
vicinity, the party returned to Brunonia Glacier. 
From there they hoped to link their survey with 
the 1951-52 survey to the east, but between De- 
cember 3 and 16 continued bad weather prevented 
this, and they were forced to withdraw to Ample 
Bay in the Bay of Isles. The party returned to 
Grytviken by sea on December 19. Later that 
month Smillie and Trendall visited the east side of 
Cumberland East Bay for four days' survey and 
geological work. Shortly after their return to base 
Warburton had to be invalided home. The second 
main journey began on January 11, 1954 when the 
party landed about two miles west of Cape Vahsel 
near the southeast extremity of the island. By 
January 25 the party had travelled southwest to 
the vicinity close northeast of Drygalski Fjord. 
There ten days were spent studying the geology 
and making a local survey. On February 6 and 7 
they travelled westward, intending to circle around 
the head of Drygalski Fjord and extend the survey 
toward Novosilski Bay. They were stopped short 
by ridges which extend from Salvesen Range down 
to the northern shore of Drygalski Fjord. Forced 



to turn eastward again, they reached the coast at 
Cooper Bay on February 16. The following day 
they signalled a passing catcher and on the 18th 
arrived back at Grytviken. Smillie returned home, 
but Carse and Trendall remained in South Georgia 
for two months, continuing the survey and geologi- 
cal work. Favorable weather on March 9, 10 and 
11 allowed them to land from a sealer on Annenkov 
Island.. Between March 23 and April 4 they com- 
pleted the survey of the Cape Charlotte peninsula 
on the southeast side of Royal Bay. They sailed 
for home in the whaling tanker Southern Opal on 
April 17, 1954. Lack of snow, poor weather and 
the illness of one member of the party resulted in 
curtailment nf the original plans, necessitating 
further work to complete the survey of the island. 

1954-55. Argentine expedition. 
Leader: Capt. Luis R. A. Capurro. Ship: General 
San Martin. 

Summary : The ship sailed south in late December 
from Scotia Bay in the South Orkney Islands and 
entered the eastern part of Weddell Sea, taking 
advantage of ice conditions in that portion of the 
sea. The frontal ice cliffs were quickly surveyed 
and photographed from the ship and by helicopters 
in the area between 33°E. and 45°E. A scientific 
base was established in early January near the 
head of Filchner Ice Shelf in about 78°00'S., 
38°33'W. Stancomb - Wills Ice Tongue was found 
to be non-existent, and no major glaciers were 
found by the expedition. A large open channel 
was found to parallel the ice front. Following 
completion of oceanographic, meteorologic and 
astronomic observations, the ship retired north- 
ward to the South Sandwich Islands. 

1954-55. United States Government expedition. 
Leader: Cdr. Glen Jacobsen. Ship: Atka. 
Summary: Sponsored by the United States Navy 
and other government agencies. The ship sailed 
south from the vicinity of Scott Island in early 
January 1955 with a primary purpose of examining 
a site for the main United States base to be estab- 
lished as part of the International Geophysical 
Year operations of 1957-58. A large section of the 
Ross Ice Shelf forming the west side of the Bay of 
Whales was noted as having cracked away and 
drifted out to sea, rendering the former natural 
harbor of little use at this time. Little America 
IV, the site of United States Navy Operation High- 
jump, 1946-47, was also found to have been broken 
away. Failing in attempts to enter the ice-filled 
Sulzberger Bay, the Atka returned to survey the 
Kainan Bay area. Coastal reconnaissance was 
also made along the Princess Martha Coast in the 
region between 0°30'W. and 20 °W., resulting in the 
delineation of several bays and ice tongues asso- 
ciated with the coastal ice cliffs in this area. 



36 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Geographic Names 



The following list includes decisions of the 
Board on Geographic Names, concurred in by the 
Secretary of the Interior, to January 1956. The 
names in capitals are official for United States 
Government use. 

Names following the words "not adopted" in- 
clude variant spellings and applications other than 
as approved. Such names are listed in italics and 
cross referenced when they would not immediately 
follow or precede the approved name in alphabeti- 
cal order. Names that have been dropped are 
listed in italics followed by the word VACATED. 

Explanation of abbreviations follows the table of 
contents. 

AAGAARD GLACIER: glacier about 8 mi. long, 
which lies close E. of East Gould Gl. and flows in 
a southerly direction into Mill Inlet, on the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°47'S., 64°31'W. 
Charted by the FIDS and photographed from the 
air by the RARE during December 1947. Named 
by the FIDS for Bjarne Aagaard, Norwegian 
authority on Antarctic whaling and exploration. 

AAGAARD ISLANDS: group of islets about 1 mi. 
W. of Proclamation I., along the coast of Enderby 
Land; in about 65°50'S., 53°37'E. Disc, in Janu- 
ary 1930 by the BANZARE under Mawson and 
named for Bjarne Aagaard. Not adopted: Bjarne 
Aagaard Islands, Bjarne- Aagaard Islands. 

ABBOTT, MOUNT: mountain about 3,000 ft. in 
el., which lies SW. of Mt. Melbourne and surmounts 
the southward projecting peninsula terminating 
in the Northern Foothills on the W. side of Terra 
Nova Bay, in Victoria Land; in about 74°50'S., 
163°45'E. Probably first sighted by the BrNAE, 
1901-4, under Scott. Named by the BrAE, 1910- 
13, under Scott for Petty Officer George P. Abbott, 
RN, member of the latter expedition. 

Ablation Bay: see Ablation Valley. 

ABLATION POINT: the E. extremity of a hook- 
shaped rock ridge, about 1,800 ft. in el., marking 
the N. side of the entrance to Ablation Valley on 
the E. coast of Alexander I Island; in 70°48'S., 
68°22'W. The point was first photographed from 
the air on Nov. 23, 1935 by Lincoln Ellsworth, and 
was mapped from these photographs by W. L. G. 
Joerg. It was roughly surveyed in 1936 by the 
BGLE under Rymill, and resurveyed in 1949 by 
the FIDS. Named by FIDS after nearby Ablation 
Valley. 



ABLATION VALLEY: a mainly ice-free valley on 
the E. coast of Alexander I Island, about 4 mi. long 
and 2 mi. wide, which lies immediately S. of Abla- 
tion Pt. and opens on George VI Sound; in 70''48'S., 
68°26'W. This feature was first photographed 
from the air on Nov. 23, 1935 by Lincoln Ellsworth, 
and was mapped from these photographs by 
W. L. G. Joerg. It was first visited and surveyed 
in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill, and so named 
by them because of the relatively small amounts 
of snow and ice found there. Not adopted: 
Ablation Bay. 

ABRAHAMSEN, POINT: point which separates 
Lighthouse Bay and Prince Olav Hbr., the two 
western arms of Cook Bay, on the N. coast of South 
Georgia; in 54^03'S., 37°08'W. Charted by DI per- 
sonnel in 1929. Probably named for Captain Abra- 
hamsen, manager of the whaling station at Prince 
Olav Hbr. at that time. 

ACTIVE SOUND: sound, averaging about 2 mi. 
wide, extending in an ENE. direction from Ant- 
arctic Sound and joining the Firth of Tay with 
which it separates Joinville and Dundee Islands; 
in 63°25'S., 56°10'W. Disc, in 1892-93 by Capt. 
Thomas Robertson of the Dundee whaling expe- 
dition. Robertson named the feature after his 
ship, the Active, first vessel to navigate the sound. 

ACUNA ISLET: islet which lies 0.2 mi. S. of Point 
Rae, off the S. coast of Laurie I. in the South 
Orkney Is.; in 60''46'S., 44°37'W. Charted by the 
ScotNAE, 1902-4, under Bruce, and named by him 
for H. Acuna, pioneer Argentine meteorologist at 
the South Orkney station. Not adopted: Acuna 
Island, Delta Island. 

ADAM, MOUNT: mountain about 10,000 ft. in 
el., which lies SW. of Mt. Wright in the Admiralty 
Range in Victoria Land; in about 71°25'S., 
169°00'E. Disc, in January 1841 by a Br. exp. 
under Ross, and named by him for V. Adm. Sir 
Charles Adam, Senior Naval Lord of the Admiralty 
and Commander-in-Chief in the West Indies. Not 
adopted: Mount Adams. 

ADAMS, CAPE: abrupt rock scarp marking the 
S. tip of Bowman Pen. and forming the N. side of 
the entrance to Gardner Inlet, on the E. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 75°04'S., 62°20'W. Disc, by the 
RARE, 1947-48, under Ronne, and named by him 
for Lt. Charles J. Adams of the then USAAF, pilot 
with the expedition. Not adopted: Cape Charles 
J. Adams. 



37 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



ADAMS, MOUNT: peak about 11,800 ft. in el., 
which marks the summit of the mountain mass 
immediately S. of Bingley Gl. on the W. side of 
Beardmore GI.; in about 84°26'S., 166°45'E. The 
BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton, originally gave 
the name Adams Mountains to the partially- 
defined mountains immediately S. of Bingley Gl. 
The BrAE, 1910-13, under Scott, restricted the 
name Adams to the highest peak in these moun- 
tains, the peak serving as an easily identifiable 
landmark. Named for Lt. Jameson B. Adams, 
RNR, second-in-command of Shackleton's expedi- 
tion. Not adopted: Adams Mountains. 

Adams Glacier: see John Quincy Adams Glacier. 

ADAMS ISLET: small rocky islet embedded in 
thick bay ice most of the year, lying at the W. side 
of McDonald Bay, about 9 mi. W. of Mabus Pt., 
off Queen Mary Coast; in about 66°31'S., 92°52'E. 
Disc, and charted by the Western Base Party of 
the AAE, 1911-14, under Mawson, and named by 
him for the boatswain on the exp. ship Aurora. 
Not adopted: Adams Island. 

ADARE, CAPE: cape which marks the NE. 
extremity of Victoria Land and the E. side of the 
entrance to Robertson Bay; in about 71°17'S., 
170°15'E. Disc, in 1831 by a Br. exp. under Ross, 
and named by him for his friend Viscount Adare, 
M.P. 

ADELAIDE ISLAND: large island, about 70 mi. 
long in a NE.-SW. direction and 20 mi. wide, lying 
N. of Marguerite Bay, off the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 67°15'S., 68°40'W. Disc, on Feb. 14, 1832 
by a Br. exp. under Biscoe, and named by him for 
Queen Adelaide of England. The island was first 
surveyed by the FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot. 

ADfiLIE COAST: that portion of the coast of 
Antarctica lying between the ice-covered cape in 
136°12'E., and Point Alden, in 142°02'E. Disc, in 
January 1840 by the Fr. exp. under D'Urville, and 
named by him for his wife. Not adopted: Adelie 
Land. 

Adelie Land: see Adelie Coast. 

ADIE INLET: ice-filled inlet, about 10 mi. long 
in a NW.-SE. direction, lying E. of the base of 
Churchill Pen. along the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 66°18'S., 62°35'W. Charted by the FIDS and 
photographed from the air by the RARE during 
1947. Named by the FIDS for R. J. Adie, South 
African geologist with the exp., 1947-49. 

A. Ditte, Mount: see Ditte, Mount. 

Admiralitdts Gebirge: see Admiralty Range. 



ADMIRALTY BAY: irregular bay, about 4 mi. 
wide at its entrance, indenting the S. coast of King 
George I. for about 10 mi., in the South Shetland 
Is.; in 62°10'S., 58°25'W. The name appears on 
an 1822 map of the Br. sealing exp., 1821, under 
Powell, and is now established international usage. 
Not adopted: Bale de I'Amiraute [French]. 

Admiralty Inlet: see Admiralty Sound. 

ADMIRALTY RANGE: extensive mountain 
range, with peaks above 10,000 ft. in el., along the 
N. and NE. coast of Victoria Land; in about 
71°20'S., 168°30'E. Disc, in 1841 by a Br. exp. 
under Ross, and named by him for the Lords of 
the Admiralty under whose orders the exp. sailed. 
Not adopted: Admiralitats Gebirge [German]. 

ADMIRALTY SOUND: a sound which extends 
in a NE.-SW. direction and separates Seymour 
and Snow Hill Islands from James Ross I., off the 
NE. end of Palmer Pen.; in 64°20'S., 57°10'W. 
The broad NE. part of the sound was named Ad- 
miralty Inlet by the Br. exp. under Ross, who disc, 
it on Jan. 6, 1843. The feature was determined to 
be a sound in March 1902 by the SwedAE under 
Nordenskjold. Not adopted: Admiralty Inlet, 
Detroit de I'Amiraute [French]. 

Adolph Ochs Glacier: see Ochs Glacier. 

ADRIASOLA, CAPE: rock outcrop marking the 
SW. end of Adelaide I., off the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 67°37'S., 69°20'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 
1908-10, under Charcot, and named by him for 
an acquaintance in Punta Arenas. Not adopted: 
Adriasola Cape. 

Adventure Bay; Adventure Harbor: see Undine 
Harbor. 

Aetna Insel: see Etna Island. 

AGASSIZ, CAPE: the E. tip of Hollick-Kenyon 
Pen., a narrow ice-drowned spur extending E. from 
the main mountain axis of Palmer Pen.; in 68°30'S., 
62°58'W. Disc, in December 1940 by the USAS 
who named it for W. L. G. Joerg, geographer and 
polar specialist. At his request it was named by 
the US-ACAN for Louis Agassiz, internationally 
famous American naturalist and geologist of Swiss 
origin, who first propounded the theory of conti- 
nental glaciation. Not adopted: Cape Joerg. 

AHLMANN GLACIER: southernmost of two gla- 
ciers flowing E. into Seligman Inlet, on the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°52'S., 65°45'W. The 
glacier was photographed from the air in 1940 by 
the USAS. Charted in 1947 by the FIDS, who 
named it for Prof. Hans Wilhelmsson Ahlmann, 
Swedish glaciologist and geographer. 



38 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Aidwich, Mount: see Aldrich, Mount. 

Aiguille de V Astrolabe: see Astrolabe Needle. 

AILSA CRAIG: precipitous islet about 1 mi. S. 
of Point Rae, oflf the S. coast of Laurie I. in the 
South Orkney Is.; in 60°47'S., 44°37'W. Charted 
by the ScotNAE, 1902-4, under Bruce, and named 
by him after the island in the Firth of Clyde in 
Scotland. Not adopted: Ailsa Craig Islet. 

AINS WORTH BAY: open bay lying between 
Capes Bage and Webb, along George V Coast; in 
about 67°48'S., 146°45'E. Disc, in 1912 by the 
Main Base party of the AAE under Mawson, and 
named, by him for G. F. Ainsworth, who served as 
leader and meteorologist with the AAE party based 
on Macquarie Island during 1911-13. 

AITCHO ISLANDS: group of small islands lying 
between Table and Dee Islands and extending 
across the central part of the N. entrance to Eng- 
lish Str., in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°23'S., 
59°50'W. Charted in 1935 by DI personnel on the 
Discovery II. The name appears to have been first 
used on a 1948 Admiralty chart based upon this 
survey. 

AITKEN COVE: cove which lies immediately NE. 
of Cape Whitson, along the S. coast of Laurie I. 
in South Orkney Is.; in 60°45'S., 44°32'W. 
Charted by the ScotNAE, 1902-4, under Bruce, and 
named by him for A. N. G. Aitken, solicitor to the 
expedition. 

Akar Peaks; Aker Range: see Aker Peaks. 

AKERLUNDH NUNATAK: nunatak which lies 1 
mi. NW. of Donald Nunatak and midway between 
Bruce and Burn Murdoch Nunataks in the Seal 
Nunataks group, off the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 65°04'S., 60°11'W. Charted in 1947 by the FIDS, 
who named it for Gustaf Akerlundh, a member of 
the SwedAE, 1901-4. 

AKER PEAKS: series of mainly snow-covered 
peaks, the highest about 5,900 ft. in el. They rise 
WNW. of Edward VIII Bay in Enderby Land and 
extend about 30 mi. in a NW.-SE. direction; in 
about 66°43'S., 55°20'E. Disc, on Jan. 14, 1931 by 
a Nor. whaling exp. under O. Borchgrevink, and 
named by him for the farm of Dir. Svend Foyn 
Bruun of the Antarctic Whaling Co. at T0nsberg. 
Not adopted: Akar Peaks, Aker Range. 

ALAMODE ISLAND: largest and southeastern- 
most of the Terra Firma Is., with steep rocky cliffs 
surmounted by a rock and snow cone rising to 
about 1,100 ft. in el., lying in Marguerite Bay off 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°43'S., 67°32'W. 



First visited and surveyed by the BGLE under 
Rymill in 1936. So named by the FIDS, following 
a 1948 resurvey, for its resemblance to some form of 
confection served with ice cream on it. 

Alan Thomson, Mount: see Allan Thomson, 
Mount. 

ALBANUS GLACIER: valley glacier about 8 mi. 
wide and of undetermined length which flows W. 
between the Tapley Mtns., on the N., and Mounts 
Danforth and Zanuck, on the S., in the Queen 
Maud Range, and enters Robert Scott Gl. about 
20 mi. S. of where it merges with the head of Ross 
Ice Shelf; in about 85°50'S., 150°00'E. Disc, in De- 
cember 1934 by the ByrdAE geological party under 
Quin Blackburn, and named by Byrd for Albanus 
Phillips, Jr., manufacturer of Cambridge, Md., 
and patron of the Byrd Antarctic Expeditions of 
1928-30 and 1933-35. Not adopted: Phillips 
Glacier. 

Albatros Insel: see Albatross Island. 

ALBATROSS ISLAND: island about 2 mi. SE. of 
Cape Buller, lying in the Bay of Isles, South 
Georgia; in about 54°02'S., 37°20'W. Charted in 
1912-13 by Robert Cushman Murphy, American 
naturalist aboard the brig Daisy, who gave this 
name because he observed albatrosses there. Not 
adopted: Albatros Insel [German], Albatross Islet. 

ALBERT DE MONACO, CAPE: cape which forms 
the SW. tip of Anvers I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 
64°42'S., 64°15'W. Disc, by a Ger. exp., 1873-74, 
under Dallmann, but its relationship to Anvers I. 
was not known at that time. It was later charted 
by the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, and named 
by him for Prince Albert de Monaco, a patron of 
the expedition. Not adopted: Cape Monaco. 

ALBERT MARKHAM, MOUNT: striking, flat- 
topped mountain, about 10,000 ft. in el., standing 
W. of Beaumont Bay and the Ross Ice Shelf; in 
about 81°25'S., 158°00'E. Disc, in December 1902 
by the BrNAE under Scott, and named by him for 
Adm. Sir Albert Markham, a member of the Ship 
Committee for the expedition. 

ALBRECHT PENCK GLACIER: short, deeply en- 
trenched glacier which is a southern tributary of 
Fry Gl., on the E. coast of Victoria Land; in about 
76°40'S., 162°30'E. First charted by the BrAE, 
1907-9, under Shackleton, who named it for Dr. 
Albrecht Penck, internationally known geographer, 
who at that time was Dir. of the Inst, for Oceanog- 
raphy and of the Geographical Inst, in Berlin. 
The US-ACAN added the Christian name to the 
surname to differentiate this feature from Penck 



39 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Glacier on the Luitpold Coast. Not adopted. 
Penck Glacier. 

ALDEN, POINT: ice-covered point with rock ex- 
posures along its seaward side, lying at the W. side 
of the entrance to Commonwealth Bay, and mark- 
ing the physical division between Adelie Coast 
and George V Coast; in about 66°49'S., 142°02'E. 
Disc, on Jan. 30, 1840 by the USEE under Wilkes, 
and named by him for Lt. James Alden on the 
USEE flagship Vincennes. 

ALDRICH, MOUNT: mountain about 8,050 ft. 
in el., which stands W. of Cape Kerr in the Britan- 
nia Range, on the W. side of Ross Ice Shelf; in 
about 80°06'S., 158°00'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 
1901-4, under Scott, and named by him for Adm. 
Pelham Aldrich, who gave assistance to Scott in 
preparing the expedition. Not adopted: Mount 
Aidwich, Mount Aldwich. 

Aldwich, Mount: see Aldrich, Mount. 

ALECTORIA ISLET: low islet about 0.5 mi. off 
the SE. coast of Louis Philippe Pen. and some 10 mi. 
SW. of Pitt Pt., lying in Prince Gustav Chan.; in 
63"59'S., 58°37'W. Disc, in 1945 by the FIDS, who 
named it after the lichen Alectoria which was pre- 
dominant on the islet at the time. 

ALENCAR PEAK: peak about 5,100 ft. in el., 
which lies 4.8 mi. E. of Mt. Rio Branco and is the 
more easterly of two snow-capped peaks situated 
toward the NW. end of the ridge separating Trooz 
Gl. from Beascochea Bay, on the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in about 65°27'S., 63°50'W. Disc, by the 
FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot, and named by him 
for Adm. Alexandrine de Alencar, at that time Min- 
ister of Marine of Brazil. Not adopted : Mount De 
Alencar. 

ALERT ROCK: submerged rock marked by break- 
ers, lying about 1.5 mi. ESE. of Barff Pt., the E. side 
of the entrance to Cumberland Bay, South Georgia; 
in 54°14'S., 36°22'W. Charted in 1929 by DI per- 
sonnel, who named it after the Alert, a small motor 
launch used during the survey. 

ALEXANDER, CAPE: cape which forms the S. 
end of Churchill Pen. and the E. side of the entrance 
to Cabinet Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
66°44'S., 62°37'W. Charted by the FIDS and pho- 
tographed from the air by the RARE in December 
1947. Named by the FIDS for Rt. Hon. Albert V. 
Alexander, M.P., First Lord of the Admiralty. Not 
adopted: Cape Foyn. 

ALEXANDER HUMBOLDT MOUNTAINS: ma- 
jor range of the Wohlthat Mtns. in New Schwaben- 
land which extends some 30 mi. in a N.-S. direction 



and rises to about 10,500 ft. in elevation. The range 
is separated from Petermann Range to the E. by 
the Humboldt Graben; in about 7r45'S., 11°30'E. 
Disc, by the GerAE, 1938-39, under Ritscher, and 
named by them for Alexander von Humboldt, famed 
German naturalist and geographer of the first half 
of the nineteenth century. Not adopted: Alexan- 
der v. Humboldt-Gebirge [German] . 

ALEXANDER I ISLAND: large island lying W. 
of the base of Palmer Pen., from which it is sep- 
arated by Marguerite Bay and George VI Sound; 
in 71°S., 70 °W. Shaped like the letter J, it is about 
235 mi. long in a N.-S. direction, 50 mi. wide in the 
N., and 150 mi. wide in the S. Disc, in 1821 by a 
Russ. exp. under Bellingshausen, who named it 
Alexander I Land after the reigning Tsar. Its 
insular nature was proven in December 1940 by a 
sledge party under Finn Ronne of the USAS. Not 
adopted: Alexander Land, Alexander I Land. 

Alexander Land: see Alexander I Island. 

Alexander Wetmore Glacier: see Wetmore 
Glacier. 

Alexander v. Humboldt-Gebirge: see Alexander 
Humboldt Mtns. 

ALEXANDRA, CAPE : cape which forms the NW. 
tip of South Georgia; in 54°00'S., 38°02'W. This 
cape was named Cape North in 1775 by a Br. exp. 
under Cook, but the name given by Cook has since 
become established for the cape about 10 mi. ENE. 
which forms the northernmost point of South 
Georgia. The name Cape Alexandra dates back to 
about 1912 and probable commemorates Queen 
Alexandra of England. Not adopted: Cape North 
(q.v.). 

ALEXANDRA, CAPE: cape which forms the SE. 
tip of Adelaide I., ofif the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 67°45'S., 68°36'W. Disc, on Jan. 14, 1909 by the 
FrAE under Charcot, and named by him for Alex- 
andra, then Queen of England. 

ALEXANDRA MOUNTAINS: series of low, sep- 
arated mountains in the NE. portion of Edward VII 
Pen.; in about 77°30'S., 152°00'W. Disc, in Jan- 
uary-February 1902 by the BrNAE, under Scott, 
during an exploratory cruise of the Discovery along 
Ross Ice Shelf. Named for' Alexandra, then Queen 
of England. Not to be confused with the Queen 
Alexandra Range in 84°S., 169°E. Not adopted: 
Alexandria Mountains. 

Alexandra Mountains; Alexandra Range: see 
Queen Alexandra Range. 

Alexandria Mountains: see Alexandra ^^ountains. 



40 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Alfa, Isla: see Alpha Island. 

ALFRED, MOUNT: ice-capped mountain, about 
7,400 ft. in el., standing 5.5 mi. inland from George 
VI Sound and 8 mi. SSE. of Mt. Athelstan in the 
Douglas Range of Alexander I Island; in 70°18'S., 
69°14'W. This mountain was first photographed 
from the air on Nov. 23, 1935 by Lincoln Ellsworth, 
and was mapped from these photographs by 
W. L. G. Joerg. It was roughly surveyed in 1936 by 
the BGLE under Rymill. Resurveyed in 1948 and 
1949 by the FIDS, who named it after Alfred, Saxon 
king of England, 871-899. 

ALICE CREEK: cove forming the southernmost 
portion of Port Lockroy, Wiencke I., in the Palmer 
Arch.; in 64°50'S., 63°30'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 
1903-5, under Charcot, and named by him for the 
wife of Edouard Lockroy, vice pres. of the French 
Chamber of Deputies who assisted Charcot in ob- 
taining govt, support for the expedition. 

ALICE GADE, MOUNT: mountain about 11,300 
ft. in el., which marks the highest peak of an ex- 
tensive broken massif forming the SE. flank of 
Isaiah Bowman Gl., standing in the Queen Maud 
Range near the head of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 
85°50'S., 162°00'W. Disc, in November 1911 by the 
Nor. exp. under Amundsen, and named by him for 
one of the daughters of the Norwegian minister to 
Brazil, a strong supporter of Amundsen. 

Alice Wedel-Jarlsberg: see Wedel-Jarlsberg, 
Mount. 

Allan McDonald Glacier: see McDonald Glacier. 

ALLAN THOMSON, MOUNT: conspicuous moun- 
tain surmounted by a dark peak about 4,200 ft. 
in el.; stands at the N. side of Mackay Gl. and about 
4 mi. W. of the mouth of Cleveland Gl., in Vic- 
toria Land; in about 76°57'S., 161°47'E. Charted 
by the BrAE, 1910-13, under Scott. Named by 
the exp. for Dr. J. Allan Thomson, British geolo- 
gist. Not adopted: Mount Alan Thomson. 

Allardyce Harbor: see Rosita Harbor. 

ALLARDYCE RANGE: mountain range attain- 
ing a maximum elevation of 9,200 ft. in Mt. Paget, 
rising S. of Cumberland Bay in the central part 
of South Georgia; in about 54°25'S., 36°33'W. Al- 
though not shown on the charts of South Georgia 
by Cook in 1775 or Bellingshausen in 1819, peaks 
of this range were probably sighted by those ex- 
plorers. Named in about 1915, for Sir William 
L. Allardyce, Gov. of the Falkland Islands, 1904-14. 

ALLEGHENY MOUNTAINS: group of moun- 
tains, about 4,000 ft. in el., between the upper part 
of Boyd Gl. and its northern tributary, in the 



Edsel Ford Ranges in Marie Byrd Land; in about 
77°15'S., 143°08'W. Disc, on aerial flights made in 
1934 by the ByrdAE, and mapped from aerial 
flights and ground surveys made by the USAS, 
1939-41. Named by the USAS for Allegheny Col- 
lege, Meadville, Pa., alma mater of Paul Siple, 
leader of the USAS West Base. 

ALLEN, CAPE: cape which lies close W of Mt. 
Hope and marks the W. side of the mouth of Beard- 
more Gl., at the head of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 
83°33'S., 170°45'E. Disc, and named by the BrAE, 
1907-9, under Shackleton, probably for Sir James 
Allen, M.P., New Zealand statesman who assisted 
in obtaining support for the expedition. 

ALLEN BAY : semi-circular bay about 1 mi. wide, 
lying NW. of Larsen Pt. at the N. side of the en- 
trance to Cumberland West Bay, South Georgia; 
in 54°11'S., 36°31'W. Charted in 1926 by DI per- 
sonnel on the Discovery, and named by them prob- 
ably for H. T. Allen, member of the Discovery Com- 
mittee at that time. 

ALLEN POINT: the SE. point of Montagu I., in 
the South Sandwich Is.; in 58°29'S., 26°15'W. 
Disc, in 1775 by a Br. exp. under Cook. Charted 
in 1930 by DI personnel on the Discovery II and 
named for H. T. Allen. 

ALLEN YOUNG, MOUNT: mountain about 9,450 
ft. in el., which rises about 10 mi. WSW. of Cape 
Maude and Mt. Asquith in the Queen Alexandra 
Range, on the W. side of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 
83°23'S., 167°25'E. Disc, by the BrAE, 1902-9, 
under Shackleton, and named by him for Sir Allen 
Young, polar explorer who led the successful 
search for Benjamin Leigh Smith in 1882. 

ALLIGATOR ISLET: steep, rocky islet, about 0.5 
mi. long and about 200 yards wide, rising about 
500 ft. above the Shackleton Ice Shelf, and lying 
in the Bay of Winds about 4 mi. W. of Jones Rocks, 
off Queen Mary Coast; in about 66°33'S., 97°33'E. 
Disc, by the Western Base Party of the AAE under 
Mawson, 1911-14, who so named it because of its 
shape. Not adopted: Alligator Island. 

All Johannesens Point: see Johannesen Point. 

ALLO, MOUNT: conspicuous, conical, snow- 
covered peak about 2,000 ft. in el., which rises from 
Cape Neyt near the NE. end of Liege I., in the 
Palmer Arch; in about 63°59'S., 61°46'W. Disc, 
and named by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De 
Gerlache. 

Alma McCoy, Mount: see McCoy, Mount. 



424589 O -57 -4 



41 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



ALMOND POINT: rocky point forming the E. 
side of the entrance to Whitecloud Cove at the 
head of Charcot Bay, on the NW. side of Louis 
Philippe Pen.; in 63°51'S., 59°24'W. Charted in 
1948 by the FIDS, and so named by them because 
of its distinctive shape. 

ALPHA ISLAND : small islet lying between Epsi- 
lon I. and Delta I. in the Melchior Is., Palmer 
Arch.; in 64'19°S., 63°00'W. The name Alpha, de- 
rived from the first letter of the Greek alphabet, 
was probably given by DI personnel who roughly 
surveyed the islet in 1927. The islet was sur- 
veyed by Argentine expeditions in 1942, 1943, and 
1948. Not adopted: Isla Alfa [Spanish], Isla 
Huidobro [Spanish]. 

Alzogaray, Islas: see Theta Islets. 

AMELANG PLATFORM: a relatively fiat- topped 
upland platform, about 11,500 ft. in el., projecting 
N. from the polar plateau and overlooking the New 
Schwabenland piedmont; in about 73°50'S., 5°15'W. 
Disc, by the GerAE, 1938-39, under Ritscher, and 
named by them for Herbert Amelang, first officer 
of the exp. ship Schwabenland. 

American Geographical Society Bay: see Gard- 
ner Inlet. 

AMERICAN HIGHLAND: that portion of Ant- 
arctica back of the Ingrid Christensen Coast, con- 
sisting of an upland area of undetermined physical 
extent with an elevation of about 7,500 feet; in 
about 72°S , 79°E. Disc, and named by Lincoln 
Ellsworth on Jan. 11, 1939, in an aerial flight from 
his ship, the Wyatt Earp. 

AMERY ICE SHELF : broad ice shelf along Lars 
Christensen Coast between MacKenzie Bay and 
Prydz Bay; in about 69°S., 72°E. Cape Amery was 
applied to a coastal angle mapped in an aerial 
flight on Feb. 11, 1931, by the BANZARE. Since 
this now appears to be an ice shelf, the name is 
applied to the whole shelf. Probably named for 
William B. Amery, Rep. of the United Kingdom 
in AustraUa, 1925-28. Not adopted: Amery Shelf 
Ice. 

Amery Shelf Ice: see Amery Ice Shelf. 

Ames Glacier: see Boyd Glacier. 

AMES RANGE: range of isolated, snow-covered, 
flat-topped, steep-sided mountains, lying along the 
W. shore of Wrigley Gulf in Marie Byrd Land; in 
about 75^^30'S., 131°00'W. Disc, by the USAS, 
1939-41, and named by Byrd for Joseph Ames, 
father-in-law of R. Adm. Richard E. Byrd, leader 
of the expedition. Not adopted: Joseph Ames 
Range. 



AMIOT ISLANDS: group of islets bordered by 
southwestward-extending reefs, about 14 mi. 
WNW. of Cape Adriasola, Adelaide I.; in 67°32'S., 
69°55'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 1908-10, under Char- 
cot, and named by him for A. Amiot, engineering 
director of the French Montevideo Co., Montevideo, 
Uruguay, which made repairs on the exp. ship 
Pourquoi-Pas? . 

Amiraute, Baie de V: see Admiralty Bay. 

Amiraute, Detroit de V: see Admiralty Sound. 

AMPHIBOLITE POINT: conspicuous, pyramidal 
point nearly 2 mi. NW. of Saunders Pt. on the S. 
coast of Coronation I., South Orkney Is.; in 
60°41'S., 45°22'W. Named by the FIDS following 
their survey of 1948-49. There is a large amount 
of amphibolite on this point. 

AMPHITHEATRE, THE: large bowl-shaped de- 
pression, about 0.75 mi. in diameter, at the S. side 
of the head of Northeast Gl. on Palmer Pen.; in 
68°06'S., 66°34'W. The feature lies adjacent to 
former bases of the BGLE, 1934-37, and the USAS, 
1939-41, and was charted by USAS sledging parties 
which crossed Palmer Pen. via Northeast Gl. and 
Bills Gulch. Named by the FIDS following its 
survey in 1946. 

AMPLE BAY: bay about 1.8 mi. wide, marked 
by Grace Gl. at its head, situated about 2 mi. E. 
of Sunset Fjord in the SW. part of the Bay of 
Isles, South Georgia; in 54°04'S., 37°23'W. A 
sketch of this bay was made in 1912-13 by Robert 
Cushman Murphy, American naturalist aboard the 
brig Daisy. The bay was named by DI personnel 
who charted it in 1929-30. 

AMUNDSEN, MOUNT: rocky summit about 
4,000 ft. in el., protruding above the icecap about 
10 mi. NNE. of Mt. Sandow, at the E. side of Den- 
man Gl., on Queen Mary Coast; in about 67°18'S., 
100°20'E. Disc, in December 1912 by Frank Wild 
and other members of the Western Base part of 
the AAE under Mawson. Named by Mawson for 
Roald Amundsen, Norwegian polar explorer and 
the first to attain the South Pole. 

Amundsen Bay: see Ice Bay. 

AMUNDSEN GLACIER: major glacier about 3 
to 6 mi. wide and over 60 mi. long, which descends 
from the south polar plateau between Mt. Helmer 
Hanssen and the Thorvald Nilsen Mtns. and flows 
N. to the head of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 85°35'S., 
159°20'W. Disc, in November 1929 by R. Adm. 
Byrd on the ByrdAE flight to the South Pole. 
Named for Roald Amundsen by Laurence Gould, 



42 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



leader of the ByrdAE geological party which 
sledged across the terminal flow of this glacier 
in December 1929. 

AMUNDSEN SEA: marginal sea off the coast of 
Antarctica between Thurston Pen., which termi- 
nates in about 71°50'S., 100°50'W., and Cape Dart, 
in about 73°10'S., 123°00'W. Named for Roald 
Amundsen by a Nor. exp. under Nils Larsen which 
explored this area in February 1929. Not adopted: 
Franklin D. Roosevelt Sea, Roald Amundsen Sea. 

Amy Guest Island: see Guest Island. 

ANCHORAGE BAY: small bay in the W. side of 
Fortuna Bay, about 2 mi. S. of Cape Best, along 
the N. coast of South Georgia; in 54°07'S., 36°49'W. 
Charted in 1929-30 by DI personnel and so named 
by them because it affords good anchorage. 

ANCHORAGE ISLET: islet which lies in the 
Leonie Is., about 0.5 mi. SE. of Lagoon Islet, off the 
SE. portion of Adelaide I. and the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 67°36'S., 68°13'W. Disc, by the 
FrAE under Charcot, 1908-10. Named by the 
BGLE under Rymill, who visited this islet in Febru- 
ary 1936. 

ANDERSEN HARBOR: small harbor in the Mel- 
chior Is., Palmer Arch., formed by the concave W. 
side of Eta I. and the N. end of Omega I.; in 
64°19'S., 62°56'W. The name appears on a chart 
based upon a 1927 survey by DI personnel, but 
this may reflect an earlier naming by whalers. 
The harbor was surveyed by Argentine expeditions 
in 1942, 1943 and 1948. Not adopted: Puerto 
Andersen [Spanish]. 

Andersen, Puerto: see Andersen Harbor. 

ANDERSON, CAPE: cape which marks the E. 
side of the entrance to Mill Cove on the S. coast 
of Laurie I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°46'S., 
44°34'W. Charted by the ScotNAE under Bruce, 
1902-4, and named by him for his secretary. Nan 
Anderson. Not adopted: Cape Nan Anderson. 

ANDERSON GLACIER: heavily crevassed gla- 
cier, about 12 mi. long, flowing SSE. into the W. 
side of Cabinet Inlet between Cape Casey and 
Balder Pt., on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
66°24'S., 63°55'W. Charted by the FIDS and pho- 
tographed from the air by the RARE in December 
1947. Named by the FIDS for Sir John Anderson, 
M.P., Lord Pres. of the Council and member of 
the British War Cabinet. 

ANDERSON ICEFALLS: an icefall terminating 
in a cliff face -about 100 ft." in el. and 5 mi. wide, 
lying SE. of Atkinson Cliffs along the N. coast of 



Victoria Land; in about 71°21'S., 169°00'E. 
Charted in 1911 by Cdr. Victor L. A. Campbell's 
Northern Party of the BrAE under Scott. Named 
by the BrAE, probably for Mr. Anderson of the firm 
of John Anderson and Sons, engineers, who owned 
Lyttelton Foundry, and who took great interest 
in the expedition. Not adopted: Anderson Ice 
Falls. 

ANDERSSON ISLAND: island about 9 mi. long 
and 4 mi. wide which lies 1 mi. S. of Jonassen I. 
at the W. side of the S. entrance to Antarctic 
Sound, off the NE. tip of Palmer Pen.; in 63°35'S., 
56°35'W. This island was named Uruguay Island 
by the SwedAE, 1901-4, under Nordenskjold, after 
the Argentine ship Uruguay which participated in 
the rescue of the shipwrecked SwedAE in 1903. 
In 1904, the FrAE under Charcot, apparently un- 
aware of the Swedish naming, gave the name 
Uruguay to an island off the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen. Since it is confusing to have two islands in 
close proximity identically named, and because 
Charcot's Uruguay Island has appeared more 
widely on maps and in reports, the US-ACAN 
accepts the decision of the Br-APC that the name 
given this island by Nordenskjold be altered. The 
new name commemorates J. Gunnar Anderssbn, 
who was second-in-command of Nordenskj old's 
expedition. Not adopted: Uruguay Island. 

ANDERSSON NUNATAK: nunatak which stands 
above the coastal ice cliffs on the NW. shore of 
Hope Bay, about 1 mi. W. of Sheppard Pt., at the 
NE. end of Palmer Pen.; in 63°22'S., 57°00'W. 
Disc, by J. Gunnar Andersson's party of the 
SwedAE, which wintered at Hope Bay in 1903. 
Named for Andersson by the FIDS following their 
survey of the area in 1945. 

ANDERSSON PEAK: ice-capped peak, about 
4,000 ft. in el., with rocky exposures on its E. side, 
lying some 7 mi. N. of Cape Fairweather on the 
E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 64°53'S., 61°03'W. 
Charted in 1947 by the FIDS, and named by them 
for Karl Andreas Andersson, zoologist with the 
SwedAE, who explored along this coast in 1902. 

ANDRESEN ISLAND: island about 2 mi. long 
and about 1,300 ft. in el., which lies at the SE. side 
of Detaille It. in the N. part of Lallemand Fjord, 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°56'S., 
66°36W. Disc, by the FrAE, 1908-10, under Char- 
cot, and named by him for the manager of the 
Magellan Whaling Co. at the company's Deception 
I. base, who provided coal for the expedition. 

ANDREW GLACIER: glacier about 1.5 mi. wide, 
which lies S. of Cape Kater and flows in an ENE. 
direction to the W. side of Charcot 6ay, on the 



43 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



NW. side of Louis Philippe Pen.; in 63°50'S., 
59°40'W. Charted in 1948 by the FIDS, and 
named by them for Dr. J. D. Andrew, medical 
officer at the expedition's Hope Bay base in 1946-47. 

ANDREW JACKSON, MOUNT: a massive moun- 
tain rising to about 13,750 ft. in el. and dominating 
the upland in the southern part of Palmer Pen.; in 
about 71°30'S., 63°30'W. It rises to a majestic 
summit peak on the S. and E., while the N. flank 
is occupied by a vast cirque. Disc, by members 
of the USAS, 1939-41, in aerial flights, and sighted 
by the ground survey party on the plateau. 
Named by USAS for Andrew Jackson, Pres. of the 
United States, 1829-42, who signed the bill author- 
izing the USEE, 1838-42, led by Lt. Charles Wilkes, 
USN. Not adopted : Mount Ernest Gruening. 

ANDREWS POINT: point at the E. side of the 
entrance to Inverleith Hbr. on the NE. coast of 
Anvers I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°30'S., 62°50'W. 
Charted and named in 1927 by DI personnel on 
the Discovery. 

ANDVORD BAY: bay about 5 mi. long and 3 mi. 
wide, which lies between Cape Van Beneden and 
Cape Lacaze-Duthiers along the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 64°49'S., 62°42'W. Disc, by the BelgAE, 
1897-99, under De Gerlache, and named by him for 
Rolf Andvord, Belgian consul at Christiania at that 
time. Not adopted: Andword Bay. 

Andword Bay: see Andvord Bay. 

Anglais, Detroit: see English Strait. 

ANGOT POINT: point which marks the S. tip 
of Hoseason I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 63°49'S., 
61°43'W. Named by the FrAE under Charcot, 
1903-5, for Alfred Angot, Asst. Dir. of the French 
Meteorological Service and member of the com- 
mission which published the scientific results of 
the expedition. 

ANILINE ISLET: small, flat-topped, rocky islet, 
about 15 ft. in el., lying 1 mi. SSW. of Dartmouth 
Pt. and about 150 yards off the E. shore of Moraine 
Fjord, South Georgia; in 54°19'S., 36°28'W. The 
islet appears on earlier charts, but the name was 
given by FIDS in 1951 following a sketch survey. 
The name is one of a group in the vicinity of Dart- 
mouth Pt., derived from the chemical stains used 
in the preparation of histological examination of 
biological material collected by FIDS. 

ANN, CAPE: projecting cape on the coast of 
Enderby Land, surmounted by Mt. Biscoe which 
rises to over 1,500 ft. in el., about 66°13'S., 51°17'E. 
Photographed from the air on Dec. 22, 1929 by a 
Nor. exp. under Riiser-Larsen in a flight from the 



Norvegia, and on Jan. 14, 1930 photographed from 
the Discovery by the BANZARE under Mawson. 
Both expeditions believed the peak rising above 
the cape to be the same as that disc, on March 16, 
1831 and named Cape Ann by a Br. exp. under 
Biscoe. The name Cape Ann, probably after Bis- 
coe's wife, has been retained for the projecting 
cape; the surmounting peak was named Mt. Biscoe 
by Mawson. Not adopted : Cape Anne. 

ANNA, CAPE: prominent black cliff, about 2,000 
ft. in el., forming the N. tip of Arctowski Pen., on 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 64°36'S., 62°26'W. 
Disc, and named by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under 
De Gerlache. 

Anne, Cape: see Ann, Cape. 

ANNE, CAPE: point which marks the SE. ex- 
tremity of Coulman I., located in the Ross Sea near 
the coast of Victoria Land; in about 73°35'S., 
170°00'E. Disc, in 1841 by a Br. exp. under Ross, 
and named by him for his wife. 

ANNE, MOUNT: mountain about 10,270 ft. in 
el., which stands on the S. side of Socks Gl. and 
W. of Beardmore Gl. in the Queen Alexandra 
Range; in about 83°56'S., 169°20'E. Disc, and 
named by the BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton. 

ANNENKOV ISLAND: irregularly-shaped island 
about 4 mi. long and about 2,000 ft. in el., lying 
some 8 mi. off the south-central coast of South 
Georgia; in about 54°29'S., 37°05'W. Disc, in 
January 1775 by a Br. exp. under Cook, who named 
it Pickersgills Island for Lt. Richard Pickersgill of 
the exp. ship Resolution. It was resighted in 1819 
by a Russ. exp. under Bellingshausen, who, think- 
ing he was the discoverer of the island, named it 
Annenkov Island for Lt. Mikhail Annenkov, officer 
on the exp. ship Mirnyy. The island has since 
retained the name Annenkov; the name Pickers- 
gill has become established for a group of islands 
15 mi. to the southeast. Not adopted: Annenkow 
Insel [German], Annenkov Islands, Pickersgills 
Island. 

Annenkow Insel: see Annenkov Island. 

ANN ISLAND: islet in the Debenham Is., lying 
SE. of Barbara I., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 68°08'S., 67°06'W. Disc, by the BGLE, 1934-37, 
under Rymill, and named by him for a daughter 
of Frank Debenham, member of the BGLE 
Advisory Committee. 

Ann Shirley, Mount: see Shirley, Mount. 

Anse des Baleiniers: see Whalers Bay. 



44 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



ANTARCTICA: continent, together with the is- 
lands rising from the continental block, centering 
roughly on the South Pole and lying almost wholly 
within the Antarctic Circle. It is a relatively high 
and compact mass, and is snow covered except for 
the protruding peaks of mountains and mountain 
ranges. Not adopted: Antarctic Continent, Ant- 
arktika [German]. 

Antarctic Archipelago: see Palmer Archipelago. 

ANTARCTIC BAY: bay about 2 mi. wide which 
recedes SW. about 4 mi., lying midway between 
Possession and Fortuna Bays along the N. coast 
of South Georgia; in 54°06'S., 36°57'W. Probably 
first sighted by a Br. exp. under Cook in 1775. It 
was explored in 1902 by members of the SwedAE, 
under Nordenskjold, who named it for their ship, 
the Antarctic. 

Antarctic Continent: see Antarctica. 

ANTARCTIC CONVERGENCE: a line encircling 
Antarctica where the cold, northward-flowing Ant- 
arctic waters sink beneath the relatively warmer 
water of the sub-Antarctic. The line is actually 
a zone approximately 20 to 30 miles wide, varying 
somewhat in latitude in different longitudes, ex- 
tending across the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian 
Oceans between the 48th and 61st parallels of south 
latitude. The precise location at any given place 
and time is made evident by the sudden change in 
surface temperature which averages five to ten de- 
grees Fahrenheit. Although this zone is a mobile 
one, it usually does not stray more than half a 
degree of latitude from its mean position. This 
line, like the tree line of the north, is a natural 
boundary rather than one derived from reasoning. 
It not only separates two hydrological regions, but 
also separates areas of distinctive marine life asso- 
ciations and of different climates. The South 
Shetland Is., South Orkney Is., South Sandwich 
Is., South Georgia, Bouvet I., Heard I. and Mc- 
Donald Is. all lie south of the Antarctic Conver- 
gence. The Kerguelen Is. lie approximately on the 
Convergence; the Falkland Is., Prince Edward Is., 
Crozet Is. and Macquarie I. lie north of the Con- 
vergence. 

ANTARCTIC POINT: point which marks the W. 
side of the entrance to Antarctic Bay, on the N. 
coast of South Georgia; in 54°04'S., 36°58'W. 
Charted in the period 1926-30 by DI personnel, who 
named it after nearby Antarctic Bay. 

ANTARCTIC SOUND: body of water about 30 
mi. long and from 6 to 12 mi. wide, separating the 
Joinville I. group from the NE. end of Palmer Pen.; 
in 63°20'S., 56°45'W. The sound was named by 



the SwedAE under Nordenskjold for the exp. ship 
Antarctic which in 1902, under the command of 
Capt. C. A. Larsen, was the first vessel to navigate it. 

Antarctic Tetons: see Lyttelton Ridge. 

Antarktika: see Antarctica. 

Antarktiske Arkipel: see Palmer Archipelago. 

ANTHONY GLACIER: glacier which flows in an 
ESE. direction to the E. coast of Palmer Pen. where 
it terminates opposite the S. tip of Hearst I.; in 
69°48'S., 62°39'W. The upper part of this glacier 
was seen by a sledge party of the BGLE under 
Rymill in 1936-37. The glacier was seen from the 
seaward side in 1940 by a sledging party from East 
Base of the USAS, and in 1947 was photographed 
from the air by the RARE under Ronne. Named 
by Ronne for Alexander Anthony of the J. P. 
Stevens Co., New York, which contributed wind- 
proof clothing to the RARE. 

Antwerpen Insel: Antwerp Island: see Anvers 
Island. 

ANVERS ISLAND: largest island in the Palmer 
Arch., lying off the W. coast of Palmer Pen., from 
which it is separated by De Gerlache Str.; in 
64°30'S., 63^30'W. Named in 1898 by the BelgAE 
under De Gerlache after the province of Anvers, 
Belgium. Not adopted: Antwerpen Insel [Ger- 
man] , Antwerp Island. 

ANVIL ROCK: rock which lies in the Argentine 
Is., between Grotto I. and the SE. end of the Horse- 
shoe Is., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°14'S., 
64°17'W. Charted and named in 1935 by the 
BGLE under Rymill. The name is descriptive. 

ANVIL STACKS: two conspicuous sea stacks 
which lie close S. of the entrance to Elephant Bay, 
off the S. coast and near the W. end of South 
Georgia; in 54°10'S., 37°45'W. The name "Ele- 
phant Bay Islands," derived from the nearby Ele- 
phant Bay, has been used locally for this feature by 
some South Georgia sealers. The descriptive name 
Anvil Stacks, a less cumbersome name, was ap- 
plied by the SGS following their survey in 1951-52. 
Not adopted: Elephant Bay Islands. 

APFEL GLACIER: channel glacier about 5 mi. 
wide and 20 mi. long, flowing NW. along the S. 
flank of Bunger Hills and terminating in Edisto 
Ice Tongue, near the junction of Queen Mary and 
Knox Coasts; in about 66°25'S., 101°00'E. Delin- 
eated from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. 
Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for 
Earl T. Apfel, prof, of geology at Syracuse Univ., 
who served as geologist with the USN Op. Wml. 



45 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



parties which established astronomical control sta- 
tions along Queen Mary, Knox and Budd Coasts 
during the 1947-48 summer. 

ARCHER, CAPE: cape which marks the N. side 
of the entrance to Granite Hbr., on the E. coast of 
Victoria Land; in about 76°50'S., 163°00'E. Named 
in 1912 by the Northern Party of the BrAE under 
Scott for W. W. Archer, chief steward of the 
expedition. 

ARCHER POINT: rocky point about 4 mi. W. of 
Williamson Head, on Gates Coast; in about 69°06'S., 
158°00'E. Disc, on February 1911 by Lt. H. L. L. 
Pennell, of the BrAE under Scott, while exploring 
the coast W. of Cape North in the Terra Nova. 
Probably named for W. W. Archer, chief steward of 
the expedition. 

Archipel de Pointe Geologie: see Geologie Archi- 
pelago. 

ARCTGWSKI NUNATAK: nunatak which lies 
1.5 mi. NNW. of Hertha Nunatak in the Seal Nuna- 
taks group, off the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
65°06'S., 60°02'W. Charted by the SwedAE under 
Nordenskjold during a sledge journey in 1902, and 
named by him from Henryk Arctowski, Polish 
geologist, oceanographer, and meteorologist of the 
BelgAE, 1897-99. Not adopted: Argtowski Nu- 
natak. 

ARCTGWSKI PEAK: a somewhat isolated ice- 
covered peak about 4,600 ft. in el., standing about 8 
mi. WSW. of the head of Howkins Inlet, on the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 73°44'S., 61°28'W. Disc, 
and photographed from the air in December 1940 
by members of the USAS. During 1947 the peak 
was photographed from the air by members of the 
RARE, under Ronne, who in conjunction with the 
FIDS charted it from the ground. Named by the 
FIDS for Henryk Arctowski. 

ARCTGWSKI PENINSULA: peninsula, about 15 
mi. long in a N.-S. direction, which lies between 
Andvord and Wilhelmina Bays and terminates in 
Cape Anna, on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
64°45'S., 62°25'W. Disc, by the BelgAE, 1897-99, 
under De Gerlache and named for Henryk Arc- 
towski. The name was suggested by the US-ACAN 
for this hitherto unnamed feature. 

ARGENTINE ISLANDS: group of islets about 5 
mi. SW. of Petermann I. and 3 mil. WNW. of Cape 
Tuxen, off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°15'S., 
64°17'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 1903-5, under Char- 
cot, and named by him for the Argentine Republic 
in appreciation of that government's generosity and 
kindness to his exp. The BGLE under Rymill was 
based in the Argentine Islands in 1935 and con- 



ducted a thorough survey of them. Not adopted: 
lies Argentines [French]. 

Argentines, lies: see Argentine Islands. 

ARMADILLG HILL: ice-covered hill which rises 
to about 5,900 ft. in el. and projects 400 ft. above 
the surrounding ice sheet, situated on the Palmer 
Pen. plateau about 4 mi. ESE. of the head of North- 
east Gl. and 10 mi. NE. of the head of Neny Fjord; 
in 68°07'S., 66°22'W. It was first roughly surveyed 
by the BGLE, 1934-37, and resurveyed in 1940 by 
sledging parties of the USAS on whose field charts 
the hill is labeled "Sawtooth." It was named 
Armadillo Hill by the FIDS following its 1946-47 
survey, because when viewed from the NE. the 
tumbled ice blocks on the summit and general 
shape of the hill resemble the side view of an 
armadillo. Not adopted: Sawtooth. 

ARMITAGE, CAPE : southernrpost point on Ross 
I., lying at the end of a long narrow peninsula pro- 
jecting SSE. about 10. mi. from Mt. Erebus; in 
77°50'S., 166°40'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, 
under Scott, and named by him for Lt. (later Capt.) 
Albert B. Armitage, navigator on the exp. ship 
Discovery^ 

Armitage, Mount: see Armytage, Mount. 

Armitage Promontory, Cape: see Hut Point Pen- 
insula. 

Army Range: see Le May Range. 

ARMYTAGE, MGUNT: dome-shaped mountain 
about 15 mi. W. of Mt. Smith, in the Prince Albert 
Mtns. of Victoria Land; in about 76°01'S., 160°50'E. 
First charted by the BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackle- 
ton, and named by him for Bertram Armytage, a 
member of the expedition. Not adopted: Mount 
Armitage. 

ARTHUR DAVIS GLACIER: valley glacier about 
30 mi. long and from 4 to 8 mi. wide, which flows 
W. from the Rockefeller Plateau to Sulzberger 
Bay, lying in the Edsel Ford Ranges between Swan- 
son Mtns. on the N. and Mounts Cooper and Rea 
on the S., in Marie Byrd Land; in about 77°03'S., 
145°25'W. Disc, by members of West Base of the 
USAS, in aerial flights and from the ground, dur- 
ing November-December 1940. Named by the 
US-SCAN for R. Adm. Arthur C. Davis, USN, a 
leader in aviation in the U.S. Navy. Not adopted: 
Warpasgiljo Glacier. 

Arthur Owen, Mount: see Owen, Mount. 

Arthur Sulzberger Bay: see Sulzberger Bay. 



46 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



ARRIVAL HEIGHTS: cliff-like heights which 
extend in a NE.-SW. direction-along the SW. side of 
Hut Point Pen., on Ross I.; in 77°49'S., 166°38'E. 
Disc, and named by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under 
Scott. The name suggests the expedition's arrival 
at its winter headquarters. Not adopted: Har- 
bour Heights. 

ARRONAX, MOITnT: ice-covered, pointed peak 
about 5,200 ft. in el., standing 5.5 mi. WSW. of 
Nautilus Head and dominating the N. part of Pour- 
quoi Pas I., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
67°40'S., 67°22'W. First surveyed in 1936 by the 
BGLE under Rymill. Resurveyed in 1948 by the 
FIDS and named after Prof. Pierre Arronax, cen- 
tral character in Jules Verne's Twenty Thousand 
Leagues Under the Sea. 

ASHLEY SNOW NUNATAKS: three isolated 
peaks rising through the icecap S. of Ronne En- 
trance and E. of Carroll Inlet, on Robert English 
Coast; in about 73°15'S., 76°00'W. Sighted from 
the land and from the air in December 1940 by 
members of the US AS, and named by them for 
Ashley C. Snow, aviation pilot on the expedition. 

ASH POINT: point which marks the SE. side of 
the entrance to Discovery Bay, on Greenwich I. in 
the South Shetland Is.; in 62°28'S., 59°38'W. The 
name appears to have been applied by DI per- 
sonnel on the Discovery II in 1935. 

ASHTON GLACIER: glacier about 9 mi. long, 
which flows ESE. from Mt. Thompson to the NW. 
side of Lehrke Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 70°44'S., 61°57'W. The glacier was photo- 
graphed from the air in December 1940 by the 
USAS, and was probably seen by the USAS ground 
survey party which explored this coast. A joint 
party consisting of members of the RARE and the 
FIDS charted the glacier in 1947. Named by the 
FIDS for L. Ashton, carpenter with the FIDS at 
the Port Lockroy and Hope Bay bases in 1944-45 
and 1945-46, respectively. 

ASMAN RIDGE: crescent-shaped, serrate ridge 
about 5 mi. long, rising to an elevation of 1,500 
ft. or more on the S. side of the middle part of 
Arthur Davis Gl., in the Edsel Ford Ranges in 
Marie Byrd Land; in about 77°10'S., 144°45'W. 
Disc, in 1934 on aerial flights of the ByrdAE. 
Named by the USAS, 1939-41, for Adam Asman, a 
member of the USAS West Base party. 

ASPASIA POINT : steep rocky point forming the 
W. extremity of Fanning Ridge, lying 10 mi. ESE. 
of Cape Nufiez on the S. coast of South Georgia; 
in 54°19'S., 37°07'W. The feature was named by 
the Br-APC following its mapping by the SGS in 
1951-52. The name derives from association with 



Fanning Ridge. The American armed corvette 
Aspasia under Capt. Edmund Fanning took 57,000 
fur seals at South Georgia in 1800-1. 

ASPLAND ISLAND : small island about 5 mi. W. 
of Gibbs I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 61°30'S., 
55°55'W. The name dates back to at least 1821 
and is now established international usage. Not 
adopted: Aspland's Island. 

ASQUITH, MOUNT: low, dark mountain in the 
Queen Alexandra Range, rising directly S. of Cape 
Maude along the W. edge of Ross Ice Shelf; in 
about 83°18'S., 168°00'E. Disc, by the BrAE, 
1907-9, under Shackleton, and named by him for 
Lord Asquith, Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1905-8, 
and Prime Minister, 1908-16. 

ASSES EARS, THE: three islets about 3 mi. 
NNW. of the W. tip of Robert I. and 1.75 mi. NE. 
of Table I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°19'S., 
59°48'W. These islets, presumably known to early 
sealers in the area, were charted and named in 1935 
by DI personnel on the Discovery II. The shape of 
the northeastern of the three islets suggests the 
name. 

ASSISTANCE BAY: small bay forming the head 
of Possession Bay, along the N. coast of South 
Georgia; in 54°08'S., 37°10'W. The bay was named 
by DI personnel who charted the area during the 
period 1926-30. 

ASTOR, MOUNT: high granitic peak in the Will 
Hays Mtns., rising to about 8,000 ft. in el., and 
standing on the E. side of Amundsen GL, close N. 
of the N. end of Faulkner Escarpment, in the 
Queen Maud Range; in about 85°57'S., 156°00'W. 
Disc, by R. Adm. Byrd on the ByrdAE flight to the 
South Pole in November 1929, and named by him 
for Vincent Astor, contributor to the expedition. 
Not adopted : Mount Vincent Astor. 

ASTROLABE GLACIER: glacier about 4 mi. 
wide and 15 mi. long, flowing NNE. from the conti- 
nental ice to Adelie Coast and terminating in a 
prominent tongue at the E. side of Geologic Arch.; 
in about 66°45'S., 139°55'E. Probably first sighted 
in 1840 by the Fr. exp. under D'Urville, although 
no glaciers were noted on D'Urville's chart of this 
coast. Photographed from the air by USN Op. Hjp. 
in January 1947. It was charted by the FrAE 
under Liotard, 1949-51, and named for D'Urville's 
flagship, the Astrolabe. Not adopted: Glacier 
Terra Nova [French]. 

ASTROLABE GLACIER TONGUE: prominent 
glacier tongue about 3 mi. wide and 4 mi. long, 
extending NE. from Astrolabe Gl. and fringed by 
numerous islets and rocks at the E. end of Geologie 



47 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Arch., along Adelie Coast; in 66°42'S., 140°05'E. 
Delineated from aerial photographs taken by USN 
Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named for the French 
corvette Astrolabe. 

ASTROLABE ISLAND: island, about 3 mi. long 
and 1,500 ft. in el., which lies in Bransfield Str. 
about 13 mi. WNW. of Cape Ducorps, Louis Phi- 
lippe Pen.; in 63°20'S., 58°40'W. Disc, by a Fr. 
exp., 1837-40, under D'Urville, and named by him 
after his chief exp. ship, the Astrolabe. 

Astrolabe Island: see Astrolabe Islet (64°38'S., 
62°52'W.). 

ASTROLABE ISLET: islet which lies 0.2 mi. off 
the E. coast of Anvers I. and about 4 mi. SW. of 
Van Ryswyck Pt., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°38'S., 
62°52'W. Charted in 1927 by DI personnel on the 
Discovery, who probably gave the name. Not 
adopted: Astrolabe Island. 

ASTROLABE NEEDLE: conspicuous pointed 
monolith about 150 ft. in el., standing near Claude 
Pt., off the NW. side of Brabant I., in the Palmer 
Arch.; in 64°07'S., 62°41'W. Disc, and named by 
the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot. The Astrolabe 
was one of the ships of the Fr. exp. under D'Urville, 
1837-40. Not adopted: Aiguille de 1' Astrolabe 
[French] . 

ASTRUP, CAPE : bold, dark-colored, bluff mark- 
ing the NE. end of Wiencke I., in the Palmer Arch.; 
in 64°43'S., 63°08'W. Disc, by the BelgAE, 1897-99, 
imder De Gerlache, and named by him for Eivind 
Astrup, Norwegian Arctic explorer and member of 
Robert E. Peary's expeditions to Greenland in 
1891-92 and 1893-95. Not adopted: Cap Edvind 
Astrup [French]. 

ATHELSTAN, MOUNT: prominent, partly ice- 
covered mountain, about 5,300 ft. in el., situated at 
the N. side of Trench Gl. on a spur which extends 
E. from the Douglas Range, on the E. coast of 
Alexander I Island; in 70°10'S., 69°16'W. The 
coast in this vicinity was first photographed from 
the air on Nov. 23, 1935 by Lincoln Ellsworth, and 
this feature was mapped from the photographs by 
W. L. G. Joerg. It was roughly surveyed in 1936 
by the BGLE under Rymill. Resurveyed in 1948 
and 1949 by the FIDS, and named by them after 
Athelstan, Saxon king of England, 924-937. 

ATHERTON ISLANDS: two conspicuous islets, 
about 140 ft. in el., lying about 8 mi. SW. of Stigant 
Pt., off the N. coast of King George I., in the South 
Shetland Is.; in about 62°03'S., 58°55'W. Charted 
and named in 1935 by DI personnel on the Dis- 
covery II. 



ATKINSON CLIFFS: steep cliffs, about 2,260 ft. 
in el., about 8 mi. NW. of Cape Barrow on the N. 
coast of Victoria Land; in about 71°20'S., 168°50'E. 
Charted in 1911 by the BrAE under Scott, and 
named for Dr. Edward L. Atkinson, surgeon of the 
expedition. 

ATLAS COVE: cove on the N. coast of Heard I., 
entered between the base of Laurens Pen. and 
Rogers Head; in 53°01'S., 73°22'E. Named by 
American sealers after the schooner Atlas, a tender 
to the Corinthian in Capt. Erasmus Darwin Rogers' 
sealing fleet which landed at Heard I. in 1855. The 
name appears on a chart by the Br. exp. under 
Nares, which visited the island in the Challenger 
in 1874 and utilized the names then in use by the 
sealers. 

ATRICEPS ISLET: the southernmost and larg- 
est of the Robertson Is., lying 2 mi. S. of the SE. 
end of Coronation I., South Orkney Is.; in 60°48'S., 
45°10'W. Named by the FIDS, following their 
survey of 1948-49, after the colony of blue-eyed 
shags (Phalacrocorax atriceps) nesting on the 
islet. 

ATTLEE GLACIER: glacier about 15 mi. long, 
which flows SSE. from the plateau escarpment o"n 
the E. side of Palmer Pen. to the head of Cabinet 
Inlet between the mouths of the Bevin and Mor- 
rison Glaciers; in 66°13'S., 63°43'W. During De- 
cember 1947, the glacier was charted from the 
ground by the FIDS and photographed from the 
air by the RARE. Named by the FIDS for Rt. 
Hon. Clement R. Attlee, M.P., British Sec. of State 
for Dominion Affairs, member of the War Cabinet, 
and later Prime Minister. 

ATWOOD, MOUNT: twin-peaked mountain, 
about 4,000 ft. in el., at the extreme W. edge of the 
Clark Mtns., rising above the icecap of the Rocke- 
feller Plateau in Marie Byrd Land; in about 
77°15'S., 142°09'W. Disc, by the USAS in 1940 in 
aerial flights from the West Base. Named by the 
USAS for Pres. Emeritus W. W. Atwood, Sr. of 
Clark Univ., noted geologist and geographer, and 
his son, W. W. Atwood, Jr., who has collaborated 
with his father in glaciological studies. 

AUDREY ISLAND: southernmost islet in the 
Debenham Is., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
68°08'S., 67°07'W. Disc, by the BGLE, 1934-37, 
under Rymill, and named by him for a daughter of 
Frank Debenham, member of the BGLE Advisory 
Committee. 

AUGUSTE ISLAND: flat-topped island about 1 
mi. long, lying in De Gerlache Str. about 4 mi. 
ENE. of the NW. tip of Two Hummock^ I., off the 



48 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 64°04'S., 6r32'W. 
Disc, by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Gerlache, 
and named by him for his father. 

AUREOLE HILLS: two smooth, conical, ice- 
covered hills about 2,800 ft. in el., standing close 
W. of the N. end of Detroit Plateau and about 6 
mi. S. of Bone Cove, on the NW. side of Louis 
Philippe Pen.; in 63°46'S., 58°54'W. Named by 
the FIDS following their survey in 1948. The 
name is descriptive. 

AURORA PEAK: peak about 1,750 ft. in el., 
which lies about 4 mi. SSW. of Mt. Murchison on 
George V Coast; in about 67°23'S., 144°12'E. Disc, 
in 1912 by the AAE under Mawson, and named by 
him for the exp. ship Aurora. 

AUSTIN, MOUNT: conspicuous rock mass about 
3,100 ft. in el., projecting into the W. side of 
Gardner Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
74°53'S., 63°10'W. Disc, by the RARE, 1947-48, 
under Ronne, and named by him for Stephen F. 
Austin, American colonizer in Texas and one of the 
founders of the Republic of Texas. Not adopted: 
Mount Stephen Austin. 

AUSTIN ROCKS: group of rocks which extend 
about 3 mi. in an ENE.-WSW. direction, lying in 
Bransfield Str. about 16 mi. NW. of the NW. end 
of Trinity I., in about 63°26'S., 61°05'W. Charted 
by a Br. exp., 1828-31, under Foster, and named 
by him for Lt. H. F. Austin, an officer of the 
expedition. 

AUSTNES POINT: sharp, narrow projection of 
the coastline at the E. edge of Enderby Land, 
forming the N. side of the entrance to Edward VIII 
Bay; in about 66°45'S., 57°17'E. Disc, and mapped 
by Norwegian cartographers from aerial photo- 
graphs taken by a Nor. exp. under Christensen in 
January-February 1937 and named Austnes by 
them because of its eastward projection. Not 
adopted: Austnes [Norwegian]. 

Austskotet: see East Stack. 

AUVERT BAY: embayment of undetermined 
length and a width of about 10 mi., lying between 
Cape Evensen and Cape Bellue along the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in about 66°15'S., 65°50'W. Disc, 
and named by the FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot. 
Not adopted: Auvert Fiord, Evensen Bay. 

Auvert Fiord: see Auvert Bay. 

AVALANCHE BAY: bay about 1 mi. wide at its 
entrance, which lies directly E. of Discovery Bluff 
in the S. part of Granite Hbr., along the E. coast of 
Victoria Land; in about 77°01'S., 162°44'E. 



Charted by the BrAE, 1910-13, under Scott. So 
named by members of the exp. because they heard 
several avalanches while sledging in this locality. 

AVALANCHE CORRIE: an ice-filled cirque, or 
corrie, close N. of Amphibolite Pt. on the S. coast 
of Coronation I., South Orkney Is.; in 60°41'S., 
45°22'W. So named by the FIDS, following their 
survey of 1948-49, because of the continuous ava- 
lanches from the hanging glaciers above the corrie. 

AVALANCHE ROCKS: vertical rock outcrop, 
about 400 yards long and about 600 ft. in el., stand- 
ing midway between Delay Pt. and Jones Rocks on 
Queen Mary Coast; in about 66°32'S., 97°56'E. 
Disc, in September 1912 by the AAE under Mawson, 
and so named because of the occurrence of a tre- 
mendous avalanche while members of the exp. 
were encamped nearby. 

AVERS, MOUNT: mountain about 4,500 ft. in 
el., which lies at the W. end of the main flat-topped 
massif of the Fosdick Mtns. of the Edsel Ford 
Ranges, in Marie Byrd Land; in about 76°28'S., 
145°25'W. Disc, in December 1929 by the ByrdAE 
and named for Henry G. Avers, chief mathemati- 
cian of the Division of Geodesy, U. S. Coast and 
Geodetic Survey, who was a member of the 
National Geographic Soc. Commission of Experts 
which determined that Cdr. (later R. Adm.) 
Richard E. Byrd reached the North Pole by air- 
plane, 1926, and the South Pole, 1929. 

AVERY PLATEAU: ice-covered plateau, about 
17 mi. long and 8 mi. wide, which rises above 6,000 
ft. in el. and stands midway between Loubet Coast 
and Foyn Coast on Palmer Pen.; in 67°00'S., 
65°35'W. The first sighting of this plateau is not 
ascertained, but it was presumably seen in January 
and February of 1909 by members of the FrAE 
under Charcot from various positions in Matha 
Strait. It was surveyed in 1946-47 by the FIDS, 
who named it for Mr. Avery, skipper of the cutter 
Lively, who, with Capt. John Biscoe in the brig 
Tula, approached this part of Palmer Pen. in 
February 1832. 

AVIAN ISLET: largest and easternmost of the 
Henkes Its., being 0.75 mi. long and 140 ft. in el., 
lying close off the S. coast of Adelaide I.; in 
67°46'S., 68°54'W. Disc, and charted by the FrAE, 
1908-10, under Charcot. First visited and sur- 
veyed in 1948 by the FIDS who so named it because 
of the large number and variety of birds found 
there. 

Avion, Islotes: see Sigma Islets. 



49 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



AXEL HEIBERG GLACIER: valley glacier about 
6 mi. wide and 30 mi. long, which descends from 
the south polar plateau and flows NE. between 
Mounts Fridtjof Nansen and Don Pedro Chris- 
tophersen, in the Queen Maud Range, and merges 
with the head of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 85°25'S., 
164°40'W. Disc, in 1911 by the Nor. exp. under 
Amundsen, and named by him for Consul Axel 
Heiberg, Norwegian businessman and patron of 
science, who contributed to numerous Norweigan 
polar expeditions. 

AZIMUTH HILL: rocky outcrop, about 700 ft. 
in el., lying at the terminus of East Russell Gl., on 
the SE. side of Louis Philippe Pen.; in 63°45'S., 
58°18'W. So named by the FIDS following their 
survey of the area in 1946 because a sun azimuth 
was obtained from a cairn built near the E. end 
of the hill. 

BABE ISLET: islet which lies in the entrance to 
Cobblers Cove, along the N. coast of South Georgia; 
in 54°16'S., 36°18'W. Charted and named by DI 
personnel in 1929. 

BACK BAY: bay about 0.5 mi. wide in the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen., entered between Boulder Pt., 
Stonington I, and Fitzroy It.; in 68°11'S., 67°00'W. 
The N. shore of the bay is formed by Northeast Gl. 
The bay was first surveyed by the USAS, 1939-41, 
and so named by them because of its location at the 
rear (northeast) side of Stonington Island. Not 
adopted: Back Bay Cove. 

BACKDOOR BAY: small bay lying at the E. side 
of Cape Royds, along the W. side of Ross I.; in 
77°33'S., 166°09'E. The BrAE, 1907-9, under 
Shackleton, unloaded supplies at Backdoor Bay 
for use at their winter headquarters on Cape Royds. 
So named by them because it lies at the back (east) 
side of Cape Royds, and opposite the small cove on 
the W. side of the cape known to the exp. as 
"Front Door" bay. 

BACKSTAIRS PASSAGE GLACIER: narrow, 
steep distributary of Larsen Gl. about 2 mi. long, 
flowing NE. between Mt. De Gerlache and Mt. 
Crummer to the confluent ice at the head of Terra 
Nova Bay, on the coast of Victoria Land; in about 
75°03'S., 162°40'E. Disc, by a party of the BrAE, 
1907-9, under Shackleton, and so named by them 
because of their circuitous climb up this glacier 
to get to Larsen Gl. on their way to the South 
Magnetic Pole. 

BAFFLE ROCK: small rock, just visible at the 
surface at high tide, lying in the center of the deep 
water channel approach to Stonington I., 0.6 mi. 
NW. of .the W. tip of Neny I. and the same distance 
NE. of Runaway It. in Marguerite Bay, in 68°12'S., 



67°05'W. The rock was surveyed in 1947 by the 
FIDS, and so named by them because it is difficult 
to see and hinders approaching ships. 

BAGE, CAPE: cape separating Ainsworth and 
Murphy Bays on George V Coast; in about 67'43'S., 
146°35'E. Disc, in 1912 by the AAE under Mawson, 
who named it for Lt. R. Bage, astronomer, asst. 
magnetician and recorder of tides with the Main 
Base Party. 

BAGSHAWE, MOUNT: southernmost and high- 
est of the Batterbee Mtns., about 7,300 ft. in el., 
standing about 10 mi. inland from George VI Sound 
on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 71°27'S., 
67°06'W. This mountain was first seen and photo- 
graphed from the air on Nov. 23, 1935 by Lincoln 
Ellsworth, and was mapped from these photographs 
by W. L. G. Joerg. It was surveyed in 1936 by the 
BGLE under Rymill, and later named for Sir Arthur 
W. G. Bagshawe, British authority on tropical medi- 
cine, who raised a special fund to defray the ex- 
penses of biological equipment for the BGLE, 
1934-37. 

BAIE: for names beginning thus see under the 
specific part of the name. For example, for Bale 
de I'Amiraute see Amiraute, Bale de 1'. (Bale is a 
French word for "bay.") 

Bale E. Fournier: see Fournier Bay. 

BAILEY MOUNT: mountain about 4,700 ft. in el., 
which stands S. of Anthony Gl. and about 6 mi. 
WSW. of Lewis Pt., on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 70°00'S., 63°13'W. Charted in 1936-37 by a 
BGLE sledge party under Rymill. It was recharted 
in 1947 by a joint sledge party consisting of mem- 
bers of the RARE, under Ronne, and the FIDS. 
Named by Ronne for Cdr. Clay W. Bailey, USN, 
member of the ByrdAE, 1933-35, and the West Base 
party of the USAS, 1939-41, who assisted in out- 
lining the RARE radio requirements. 

Bailey Glacier: see Friederichsen Glacier. 

BAILEY ISLAND: rocky island about 1.8 mi. 
long and 1 mi. wide, lying between Clark and 
Mitchell Islands which, collectively, form the group 
of three principal islands at the NE. end of the 
Windmill Is. that lie close against Budd Coast; in 
66°18'S., 110°28'E. Delineated from USN Op. Hjp. 
aerial photographs taken in February 1947 which 
indicate that these three islands are connected by 
a steep snow ramp to the continental ice overlying 
Budd Coast. Prominent end moraine deposits 
overlie and parallel the upper margin of this snow 
ramp about 1 mi. from its outer edge of Clark, 
Bailey and Mitchell Islands. Named by the 
US-ACAN for Cdr. Claude E. Bailey, USN, captain of 



50 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



the U.S.S. Henderson, destroyer escort of the 
western task group of USN Op. Hjp. Task Force 
68, 1946-47. 

BAILEY RIDGE: serrate ridge about 4 mi. long, 
on the N. side of the lower part of Boyd Gl., in the 
Edsel Ford Ranges of Marie Byrd Land; in about 
77°12'S., 144°55'W. Disc, on aerial flights of the 
ByrdAE in 1934, and named by the USAS, 1939-41, 
for Clay W. Bailey, a member of both expeditions. 

BAILLIEU PEAK: peak about 5,200 ft. in el., 
which lies about 27 mi. S. of Cape Bruce on Mac- 
Robertson Coast; in about 67°51'S., 60°50'E. Disc, 
and named by the BANZARE under Mawson on 
about Feb. 17, 1931. 

Bailys Island: see Ohlin Island. 

BAKER THREE GLACIER: major glacier, about 
12 to 15 mi. wide and of undetermined length, 
which flows NNE. from the mountain area behind 
the E. end of Lars Christensen Coast to the vicinity 
of Gillock I., in about 70°45'S., 70°30'E.; from this 
position the glacier then flows NE. between the SE. 
side of Amery Ice Shelf and the W. end of Ingrid 
Christensen Coast and terminates at the head of 
Sandefjord Ice Bay; in about 69°40'S., 73°00'E. 
Delineated in 1952 by John H. Roscoe from aerial 
photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp. in March 1947. 
The term "Baker Three" is the code designation of 
the Navy photographic aircraft which made three 
flights in this area, resulting in the discovery that 
Ingrid Christensen Coast extends some 50 mi. SW. 
from Sandefjord Ice Bay. 

BALAENA ISLETS: small group of rocky islets 
lying close off Budd Coast about 4 to 6 mi. NE. of 
Cape Folger; in about 66°00'S., 110°48'E. De- 
lineated from aerial photographs taken by USN 
Op. Hjp. in February 1947 and named by the 
US-ACAN for the Wh./F. Balaena, British factory 
ship from which sketches of the coastal ranges 
along Knox and Budd Coasts were obtained as the 
result of reconnaissance flights and shipboard ob- 
servations made in February-March 1947. 

BALCH, MOUNT: east-west trending mountain 
with numerous sharp peaks, the highest about 3,500 
ft. in el., between Mt. Peary and Mt. Mill on the W. 
coast- of Palmer Pen.; in about 65°16'S., 63°58'W. 
Disc, by the FrAE, 19Q8-19, under Charcot, and 
named by him fot- Kdwin Swift Balch, American 
author and authority on Antarctic exploration. 
Not adopted: Mount Swift Balch. 

BALCHEN GLACIER: crevassed glacier flowing 
W. between the Fosdick and Phillips Mtns. to Paul 
Block Bay, in Marie Byrd Land; in about 76°20'S., 
145°15'W. Disc, on Dec. 5, 1929 by the ByrdAE, 



and named by Byrd for Bernt Balchen, veteran 
Arctic pilot and chief pilot of the expedition. Not 
adopted: Bernt Balchen Glacier. 

BALDER POINT: point marking the eastern tip 
of a narrow, rocky "cockscomb" ridge, which ex- 
tends from Frigga Pk. about 6 mi. in an ESE. direc- 
tion to the W. side of Cabinet Inlet, on the E. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 66°27'S., 63°45'W. Charted in 
1947 by the FIDS, who named it after the Norse god 
Balder, the mythological son of Frigga and Odin. 

BALD HEAD: bare, ice-free headland, about 500 
ft. in el., about 8 mi. SW. of View Pt. on the SE. side 
of Louis Philippe Pen.; in 63°38'S., 57°36'W. Prob- 
ably first seen in 1902-3 by J. Gunnar Andersson's 
party of the SwedAE under Nordenskjold. The 
FIDS charted it and applied the descriptive name 
in 1945. 

BALDRED ROCK: a rock in Fitchie Bay, Laurie 
I., South Orkney Is.; in 60°44'S., 44°26'W. It lies 
close off the S. side of Ferrier Pen., 0.75 mi. ESE. of 
Graptolite I. This rock was mapped by the 
ScotNAE under Bruce, 1902-4, and was later named 
Bass Rock owing to its likeness to the Bass Rock 
in Scotland. The name Bass Rock has appeared 
on charts as an alternative name for an islet in 
the Firth of Tay in the Joinville Is. group. To 
avoid confusion of these names, in 1954 the Br-APC 
recommended an entirely new name for the rock 
at Fitchie Bay. Baldred Rock is named after Saint 
Baldred (died 606) , the first hermit known to have 
lived on the Scottish Base Rock. Not adopted: 
Bass Rock. 

BALDWIN POINT: prominent ice-covered point 
forming the E. side of the entrance to Henry Bay, 
Sabrina Coast; in about 66°40'S., 121°05'E. De- 
lineated from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. 
Hjp.', 1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for A. S. 
Baldwin, acting master of the brig Porpoise, which 
assisted the USEE squadron under Wilkes in chart- 
ing a series of coastal landfalls in Wilkes Land 
during January-February 1840. 

BALDWIN ROCKS: group of rock outcrops lying 
about 6 mi. NW. of Watson Bluff on the N. side of 
David I., off Queen Mary Coast; in about 66°25'S., 
98°38'E. Charted in November by the Western 
Base party of the AAE under Mawson, and named 
by him for Joseph M. Baldwin, astronomer with the 
Melbourne Observatory. 

Baleiniers, Anse des: see Whalers Bay. 

BALFOUR, MOUNT: bastion-like rocky moun- 
tain, above 2,500 ft. in el., which lies at the S. side 
of the mouth of Fleming GL, close to its junction 
with Wordie Ice Shelf, on the W. side of Palmer 



51 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Pen.; in 69°19'S., 67°12'W. First roughly surveyed 
in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill. Resurveyed 
by the FIDS in 1948 and named for Henry Balfour, 
Pres. of the Royal Geographical Soc, 1936-38. 

BALIN POINT: point which marks the N. side 
of the entrance to Borge Bay on the E. side of 
Signy I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°42'S., 
45°36'W. The name appears on a 1933 chart of 
Borge Bay by DI personnel on the Discovery II, but 
may reflect an earlier naming by whalers. 

BALIN ROCKS: small group of rocks close S. of 
Balin Pt., off the E. side of Signy I., in the South 
Orkney Is.; in 60°42'S., 45°36'W. Charted in 1933 
by DI personnel on the Discovery II. Probably 
named after nearby Balin Point. 

BALLENY ISLANDS : group of glaciated volcanic 
islands lying about 150 mi. N. of Oates Coast 
between 66°15' and 67°40'S., and 162°15' and 
164°45'E. Disc, in February 1839 by a Br. exp. 
under John Balleny, and named in his honor by 
Captain Beaufort, Hydrographer to the Admiralty. 

Ballesteros, Isotes: see Psi Islets. 

BALSAM BEACH: narrow boulder beach with 
jagged islets close off shore, lying 0.75 mi. E. of 
Dartmouth Pt. in Cumberland East Bay, South 
Georgia; in 54°19'S., 36°26'W. The beach appears 
on earlier charts, but the name was given by FIDS 
in 1951 following a sketch survey. The name is 
one of a group in the vicinity of Dartmouth Pt., 
derived from the chemical stains used in the prepa- 
ration for histological examination of biological 
material collected there by FIDS. 

Banck Island: (in about 64°55'S., 62°59'W.) 
the decision of August 1949 has been VACATED. 
Recent surveys indicate this feature may be a part 
of Palmer Peninsula. 

BANDSTONE BLOCK: an almost rectangular 
block of sandstone, about 1,000 ft. in el., standing 
2 mi. N. of Triton Pt. at the foot of Venus GL, on 
the E. coast of Alexander I Island; in 71°40'S., 
68°12'W. The coast in this vicinity was first seen 
from the air and partially photographed by Lincoln 
Ellsworth on Nov. 23, 1935. This rock was first 
surveyed in 1949 by the FIDS, who so named it 
because of its conspicuous sedimentary bands. 

BANZARE BANK: submarine bank in the south- 
ern part of the Indian Ocean, forming a part of the 
Kerguelen-Gaussberg Ridge; in about 58°50'S., 
77°44'E. Disc, by and named for the British- 
Australian-New Zealand Antarctic Research Expe- 
dition. Not adopted: Banzare Rise. 



BANZARE COAST: that portion of the coast of 
Antarctica lying between Cape Southard, in about 
122°05'E., and Cape Mose, in about 130°05'E. Seen 
from the air by the BANZARE under Mawson in 
1931 , and so named by him. Not adopted : Banzare 
Land. 

Banzare Land: see Banzare Coast. 

Banzare Rise: see Banzare Bank. 

BARBARA ISLAND: largest islet in the Deben- 
ham Is., lying off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
68°08'S., 67°06'W. Disc, by the BGLE, 1934-37, 
under Rymill, and named by him for a daughter 
of Frank Debenham, member of the BGLE Ad- 
visory Committee. 

BARCHANS, THE: group of snow-capped islets 
marking the W. end of the Argentine Is., off the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°14'S., 64°20'W. 
Charted by the BGLE, 1934-37, under Rymill, and 
so named by him because the snow caps resemble 
barchans (also barkhans), migrating, crescent- 
shaped sand dunes found in several very dry regions 
of the world. 

BARCLAY BAY: bay between Cape Shirreff and 
Start Pt. on the N. side of Livingston I., in the South 
Shetland Is.; in 62°31'S., 61°00'W. The name ap- 
pears on an 1825 chart of the Br. sealing exp. under 
Weddell, and is now established international 
usage. Not adopted: Barclay's Bay. 

BARE ROCK: rock which lies about 0.1 mi. NE. 
of Berntsen Pt. in the entrance to Borge Bay, off 
the E. side of Signy I. in the South Orkney Is.; in 
60°43'S., 45°36'W. Charted and named by DI per- 
sonnel on the Discovery in 1927. 

BARFF POINT: point which forms the E. side of 
the entrance to Cumberland Bay, on the N. coast 
of South Georgia; in 54°14'S., 36°24'W. Named for 
Lt. A. D. Barff, RN, of the Sappho, who, assisted by 
Capt. C. A. Larsen, made a sketch map of Cumber- 
land Bay in 1906. 

Barilar Bay: see Barilari Bay. 

BARILARI BAY: bay about 10 mi. long, in a 
NW.-SE. direction, and 6 mi. wide, entered im- 
mediately S. of Cape Garcia, along the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 65°55'S., 64°43'W. Disc, by the 
FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, and named by him 
for R. Adm. Atilio S. Barilari, Argentine Navy. 
The bay was charted by the BGLE, 1934-37, under 
Rymill. Not adopted: Barilar Bay. 



52 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



BAR ISLET: long, low, rocky Islet lying 0.25 mi. 
off the W. end of Red Rock Ridge, off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 68°17'S., 67°12'W. First roughly 
surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill. Re- 
surveyed in 1948-49 by the FIDS, who so named 
the islet because of its shape. 

BARKLEY MOUNTAINS: group of mountains 
rising to about 9,800 ft. in el. and projecting 
through the icecap immediately N. of the edge of 
the polar plateau, in New Schwabenland; in about 
72°45'S., 1°15'E. Disc, by the GerAE, 1938-39, 
under Ritscher, and named by them for Erich 
Barkley, biologist on the expedition. 

BARKOW, MOUNT: mountain about 4,600 ft. in 
el., which stands about 20 mi. W. of Court Nunatak 
and New Bedford Inlet and marks the E. end of the 
ridge separating Haines and Meinardus Glaciers, 
on the E. side of Palmer Pen.; in 73°22'S., 62°48'W. 
Disc, and photographed from the air in December 
1940 by the US AS. Photographed from the air by 
the RARE under Ronne, who in conjunction with 
the FIDS charted it from the ground in 1947. 
Named by the FIDS for Erich Barkow, German 
meteorologist and member of the GerAE, 1911-12, 
under Filchner. 

BARLAS, CAPE: cape which marks the N. end 
of Fredriksen I. in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°44'S., 
45°00'W. Fredriksen I. was charted by a Nor. exp., 
1912-13, under S0rlle. Cape Barlas appears to be 
first named on a chart based on a 1933 survey by DI 
personnel on the Discovery II. Probably named for 
William Barlas, British representative at Deception 
I. and South Shetland Is., for the season 1914-15, 
and at South Georgia on various occasions, 1928-41. 
Not adopted: Cape Barles. 

BARLAS BANK: small submarine bank about 
1.5 mi. E. of Cape Buller, at the W. side of the en- 
trance to the Bay of Isles, South Georgia; in 
54°00'S., 37°20'W. The name appears on a chart 
based on the DI survey at the Bay of Isles in 
1929-30, and was probably given for William Barlas. 

BARLAS CHANNEL: channel, about 8 mi. long 
and 2 mi. wide, in the N. part of Laubeuf Fjord, 
extending SW. from The Gullet and separating 
Day I. from Adelaide I.; in 67°13'S., 67°45'W. First 
roughly surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under 
Rymill. Resurveyed in 1948 by the FIDS, who 
named it for William Barlas. 

Barles, Cape: see Barlas, Cape. 

BARLOW ISLET: islet lying about 1.5 mi. WNW. 
of Cape Smith, the N. tip of Smith I., in the South 
Shetland Is.; in 62°52'S., 62°23'W. The name Cape 
Barlow, presumably after Peter Barlow, British 



physicist and mathematician, was applied to a cape 
on the E. side of Smith I. by a Br. exp. under Foster, 
1828-31. In 1 95 1-52 , the FIDS determined that no 
significant cape exists on the E. side of the island, 
but for the sake of historical continuity applied the 
name Barlow to the islet described above. 

BARNARD, MOUNT: mountain about 5,900 ft. 
in el., which lies about 5 mi. ENE. of the head of 
False Bay, Livingston I., in the South Shetland Is.; 
in 62°39'S., 60°09'W. The name appears on an 
1825 chart of the Br. sealing exp. under Weddell, 
and is probably named for Charles H. Barnard, cap- 
tain of the ship Charity of New York, who was seal- 
ing in the South Shetland Is. in 1820-21 when 
Weddell was also there. Weddell states in the 
narrative of his exp. that he later met Barnard in 
the Falkland Islands. Not adopted: Barnards 
Peak, Friesland Peak. 

BARNARD POINT: point which marks the SE. 
side of the entrance to False Bay on the S. side of 
Livingston I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°45'S., 
60°20'W. This point was known to sealers as early 
as 1822. The name was applied about a century 
later, probably after Mt. Barnard which surmounts 
it to the northeast. Not adopted: Pointe Bernard 
[French] . 

BARNE, CAPE: steep, rocky bluff about 300 ft. in 
el.; lies on the W. side of Ross I. between Cape Royds 
and Cape Evans; in about 77°35'S., 166°13'E. Disc, 
by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, and named 
by him for Lt. Michael Barne, RN, a member of 
the expedition. 

BARNE GLACIER: glacier about 3 mi. wide, 
which descends WSW. from the slopes of Mt. Erebus 
and terminates on the W. side of Ross I. between 
Cape Barne and Cape Evans, where it forms a steep 
ice cliff; in about 77°36'S., 166°20'E. Disc, by the 
BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott. Named by the BrAE, 
1907-9, under Shackleton after nearby Cape Barne. 
Not adopted: Cape Barne Glacier. 

BARNE INLET: a re-entrant about 12 mi. wide, 
between Cape Kerr and Cape Selborne on the W. 
side of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 80°15'S., 160°15'E. 
It is occupied by a glacier descending from the 
bordering highlands to the ice shelf. Disc, in 
December 1902 by the BrNAE under Scott, and 
named by him for Lt. Michael Barne, RN, a member 
of the expedition. 

BARNES, MOUNT: peak about 3,900 ft. in el., 
surmounting the west-central side of New Harbor 
and marking the E. end of the Kukri Hills, in 
Victoria Land; in about 77°39'S., 163°33'E. Disc. 
by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, and named on 
the exp. charts as New Harbour Heights. It was 



53 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



renamed Mount Barnes on the charts of Scott's 
second exp., the BrAE, 1910-13. Not adopted: 
New Harbour Heights. 

BARN ROCK: prominent rock, more than 300 
ft. in el., near the N. end of the Terra Firma Is. in 
Marguerite Bay; in 68°41'S., 67°32'W. First 
visited and surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under 
Rymill. Resurveyed in 1948 by the FIDS, who so 
named the rock because of its appearance when 
seen from the west. 

BARNUM PEAK: peak about 10,000 ft. in el., 
standing at the N. end of a prominent rock divide 
near the head of Liv Gl., where two tributary 
glaciers join to form the main glacier, in the Queen 
Maud Range; in about 85°30'S., 171°00'W. Disc, 
by R. Adm. Byrd on the ByrdAE flight to the South 
Pole in November 1929, and named by him for 
J. D. Barnum, publisher of the Syracuse Post- 
Standard and contributor to the expedition. 

BARRE, MOUNT: ice-covered, pyramidal peak, 
about 7,200 ft. in el., standing 2 mi. NW. of Mt. 
Gaudry in SE. Adelaide I.; in 67°30'S., 68°33'W. 
Disc, and surveyed in 1909 by the FrAE under 
Charcot. Resurveyed in 1948 by the FIDS, who 
named it for Michel Barre, leader of the French 
Antarctic Expedition to Adelie Coast, 1951-52. 

BARRE GLACIER: channel glacier about 5 mi. 
wide and 5 mi. long, flowing N. from the conti- 
nental ice to its terminus on Adelie Coast close E. 
of Cape Pepin; in about 66°35'S., 138°40'E. Delin- 
eated from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. 
Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for 
Michel Barre, leader of the FrAE wintering party 
of 1951-52, whose party extended reconnaissance 
of the coastal features as far westward as this 
glacier. Lt. de Vaisseau (Lt. Cdr.) Barre previ- 
ously served as radio officer on the French polar 
ship Commandant Charcot. 

BAR ROCKS : group of low rocks which lie near 
the head of Husvik Hbr. in Stromness Bay, South 
Georgia; in 54°10'S., 36°42'W. Charted by DI 
personnel in 1928, and so named by them, pre- 
sumably because their presence obstructs or im- 
pedes vessels approaching the head of the harbor. 

BARROS ROCKS: chain of rocks forming a 
crescentric arc and extending S. and E. from a 
point 2 mi. W. of Cape Tuxen to the Berthelot 
Islets, off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°18'S., 
64°12'W. Disc, and named by the FrAE, 1908-10, 
under Charcot. 

BARROW, CAPE: steep cliff forming the N. end 
of Hoseason I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 63°42'S., 
61°45'W. The cape appears in rough outline on 



an 1828 chart published by Laurie and was pre- 
sumably explored in 1824 by James Hoseason, mate 
of the Br. sealing exp. under Hughes. It was 
named by a Br. exp. under Foster, 1828-31, prob- 
ably for Sir John Barrow, Sec. of the Admiralty, 
1804-6 and 1807-45, and founder of the Royal 
Geographical Soc. The cape was more accurately 
charted by the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot. 

BARROW, CAPE: cape which forms the N. end 
of Flat I. and marks the W. side of the entrance to 
Robertson Bay, along the N. coast of Victoria Land; 
in about 71°20'S., 169°10'E. Disc, on Jan. 11, 1841 
by the Br. exp. under Ross, and named by him for 
Sir John Barrow. 

Barrows Isle: see Elephant Island. 

BARR SMITH, MOUNT: striking rock peak 
about 4,300 ft. in el., marking the northernmost 
peak of an intermittent line of peaks along the W. 
flank of Denman Gl., on Queen Mary Coast; in 
about 67°10'S., 99°03'E. Disc, in December 1912 
by members of the Western Base party of the 
AAE under Mawson, and named by him for Robert 
Barr Smith of Adelaide, patron of the expedition. 

BARRY ISLAND: islet lying in the center of the 
Debenham Is., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
68°08'S., 67°07'W. Charted by the BGLE under 
Rymill, who used this islet for a base in 1936 and 
1937. Named by Rymill for the eldest son of 
Frank Debenham, member of the BGLE Advisory 
Committee. 

Bart Bank: see Barth Bank. 

BARTH BANK: submarine bank lying SE. of the 
South Orkney Is. in the northernmost reaches of 
Weddell Sea; in about 62°58'S., 41°15'W. Named 
for Einar Barth, Norwegian whale gunner who disc. 
the bank in 1937. Not adopted: Bart Bank. 

BARTLETT, MOUNT: peak about 7,900 ft. in el., 
which lies close NW. of Mt. Buckley at the head of 
Beardmore Gl.; in about 84°58'S., 164°33'E. Disc. 
by the BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton, who named 
it for H. H. Bartlett of London, supporter of the 
expedition. 

BARTLETT GLACIER: tributary glacier, about 
30 mi. long and about 5 mi. wide at its terminus, 
flowing NNE. from the Rawson Mtns. and joining 
Robert Scott Gl. close N. of Mt. Gardiner; in about 
86°15'S., 152°00'W. Disc, in December 1934 by the 
ByrdAE geological party under Quin Blackburn, 
and named by Byrd for Capt. Robert A. Bartlett of 
Brigus, Newfoundland, noted Arctic navigator and 
explorer who recommended that the exp. acquire 
the Bear, an ice-ship which was purchased and 



54 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



rechristened by Byrd as the Bear of Oakland. Not 
adopted : Bob Bartlett Glacier: 

Basil Halls Island: see Snow Island. 

Bass Rock: see Baldred Rock. 

BASTION PEAK^ ice-capped peak, about 5,300 
ft. in el., with rocky 'exposures on its S. and E. sides, 
which forms a buttress to the plateau escarpment 
W. of Morrison Gl., or the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 66°10'S., 63°35'W. Charted in 1947 and given 
this descriptive name by the FIDS. It was photo- 
graphed from the air during 1947 by the RARE 
under Ronne. 

BATTERBEE, CAPE: ice-covered cape with 
prominent rock exposures protruding through the 
coastal ice cliffs, marking the most northerly pro- 
jection of Enderby Land, just E. of Proclamation I., 
in about 65°50'S., 53°47'E. Disc, on Jan. 13, 1930 
by the BANZARE under Mawson, and named by 
him probably for Sir Harry Fagg Batterbee, then 
Asst. Sec. of the Dominions Office. 

BATTERBEE MOUNTAINS: group of prominent 
mountains rising to about 7,300 ft. in el., which 
form part of the dissected edge of Dyer Plateau 
overlooking George VI Sound, On the W. side of 
Palmer Pen.; in about 71°23'S., 66°55'W. Disc, 
and photographed from the air by Lincoln Ells- 
worth on Nov. 23, 1935. Charted from the ground 
in October 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill, and 
named by him for Sir Harry Fagg Batterbee. 

BAUDIN PEAKS: group of four peaks, the high- 
est about 3,900 ft. in el., standing at the SE. corner 
of Mikkelsen Bay, immediately SW. of the mouth 
of Clarke GL, and about 9 mi. ENE. of Cape Ber- 
teaux, on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°49'S., 
67°03'W. This general area was first sighted and 
roughly charted in 1909 by the FrAE under 
Charcot, who gave the name "Cap Pierre Baudin" 
to a cape in this vicinity. The peaks previously 
described were roughly surveyed in 1936 by the 
BGLE under Rymill, but no name was assigned to 
them. The peaks were resurveyed in 1948-49 by 
the FIDS, who subsequently identified them as the 
feature named "Cap Pierre Baudin" by Charcot. 
Named by Charcot for Pierre Baudin, then port 
engineer at Pernambuco (now Recife), where the 
Pourquoi-Pas? put in on her return from the 
Antarctic. Not adopted: Cap Pierre Baudin 
[French] . 

BAXTER, MOUNT: truncated cone about 8,600 
ft. in el., between Mt. Levick and Mt. Mackintosh in 
Victoria Land; in about 74°20'S., 162°30'E. Disc, 
and named by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott. 



BAY POINT: point which marks the E. side of 
the entrance to Borgen Bay on the SE. coast of 
Anvers I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°46'S., 63°26'W. 
Disc, by the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 1897-99. 
The name appears on a chart based on a 1927 DI 
survey, but may reflect an earlier naming. 

BEACH POINT: the NE. tip of Thule I., conspic- 
uous by a bare rock ridge and a narrow beach of 
boulders and pebbles, in the South Sandwich Is.; 
in 59°26'S., 27°16'W. Charted and named in 1930 
by DI personnel on the Discovery II who made 
a landing there. 

BEACON HILL: ice-covered, dome-shaped hill, 
about 5,900 ft. in el., which rises 400 ft. above the 
surrounding ice, standing 2.5 mi. NE. of the head 
of Northeast Gl. on the W. side of Palmer Pen.; in 
68°04'S., 66°24'W. First roughly surveyed in 1936 
by the BGLE under Rymill. Resurveyed and 
named by the USAS, 1939-41. The hill may have 
been the site of a beacon at that time. 

BEAK ISLAND: arc-shaped island, about 4 mi. 
long and about 1,000 ft. in el., lying 0.25 mi. NE. 
of Eagle I. in the NE. part of Prince Gustav Chan.; 
in 63°37'S., 57°20'W. Probably first seen in 
1902-3 by members of the SwedAE under Norden- 
skjold. The FIDS surveyed Beak Island in 1945 
and so named it because of its shape and relative 
position to nearby Tail and Eagle Islands. 

BE ALE, CAPE : cape which marks the E. extrem- 
ity of Borradaile I. in the Balleny Is.; in about 
66°35'S., 162°50'E. Named for W. Beale, a sup- 
porter of the Br. exp. under Balleny which disc, 
these islands in 1839. 

BEALE PINNACLE : rock pinnacle about 200 ft. 
in el., lying close off Cape Beale, the E. extremity 
of Borradaile I., in the Balleny Is.; in about 
66°35'S., 162°51'E. Named for W. Beale, a sup- 
porter of the Br. exp. under Balleny which disc, 
these islands in 1839. 

BEARDMORE GLACIER: one of the largest 
known valley glaciers, having an average width of 
12 mi. and a length of 100 mi., descending from 
the polar plateau to the Ross Ice Shelf; in about 
83°30'S., 173°00'E. Disc, in December 1908 by the 
BrAE under Shackleton, and named by him for 
Sir William Beardmore (later Lord Invernairn) , a 
supporter of the expedition. 

BEAR ISLAND: glaciated island about 40 mi. 
long and 25 mi. wide, with several rocky summits 
rising to about 2,900 ft. in el., lying about 40 mi. 
E. of Martin Pen. at the head of Amundsen Sea; 
in about 74°20'S., 108°40'W. Delineated from 



55 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp. in De- 
cember 1946. Named by the US-ACAN for the 
ice-ship U.S.S. Bear, flagship of the USAS, from 
which three reconnaissance flights were made in 
late February 1940, resulting in the discovery of 
the Walgreen Coast and Thurston Pen. areas. 
This ship, under the name Bear of Oakland, also 
served as flagship of the ByrdAE, 1933-35, which 
based at the Bay of Whales area of the Ross Ice 
Shelf. 

BEAR ISLET: rocky islet lying 1 mi. W. of 
Stonington I. in Marguerite Bay; in 68°11'S., 
67°04'W. The islet was presumably known to the 
BGLE, 1934-37, and the USAS, 1939-41, both based 
in the Stonington I. area. It was surveyed in 1947 
by the FIDS, who named it for the U.S.S. Bear, 
flagship of the USAS which visited this area in 
1940. 

BEASCOCHEA BAY: embayment about 4 mi. 
wide between Cape Trois Perez and Nufiez Pt., in- 
denting the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°30'S., 
64°00'W. Disc, but incompletely deflned by the 
BelgAE under De Gerlache, 1897-99. Resighted 
by the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, and named 
by him for Commander Beascochea, Argentine 
Navy. The BGLE under Rymill, 1934-37, accu- 
rately charted the bay. 

Beaufort, Mount; Beaufurt, Mount: see Foster, 
Mount. 

BEAUFORT ISLAND: island which lies in the 
Ross Sea about 10 mi. NNE. of Cape Bird, the N. 
tip of Ross I.; in about 76°55'S., 167°05'E. Disc, in 
1841 by a Br. exp. under Ross, and named by him 
for Capt. Francis Beaufort, RN, Hydrographer to 
the Admiralty. 

BEAUFOY RIDGE: conspicuous black ridge, 
rising to about 2,100 ft. in el. at its NW. end, stand- 
ing at the W. side of Sunshine Gl., and close N. of 
Iceberg Bay on the S. coast of Coronation I., South 
Orkney Is.; in 60°38'S., 45°33'W. Named by the 
FIDS following their survey in 1948-49. On Dec. 
12, 1821, the cutter Beaufoy under Michael McLeod 
sailed to a position at least 60 mi. W. of the South 
Orkney Is., where a chart annotation indicates 
that land was sighted, probably Coronation Island. 

BEAUMONT BAY: small re-entrant lying E. of 
Mt. Albert Markham, along the W. edge of Ross 
Ice Shelf; in about 81°25'S., 160°30'E. Disc, in 
December 1902 by the BrNAE under Scott, and 
named by him for Adm. Sir Lewis Beaumont, RN, 
former Arctic explorer who took special interest in 
Scott's expedition. 



BEAUMONT GLACIER: broad glacier flowing in 
a NE. direction to the SW. part of Hilton Inlet, on 
the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in about 72°02'S., 
62°00'W. The USAS disc, and photographed it 
from the air in 1940. It was resighted in 1947 by 
the RARE under Ronne, who named it for the city 
of Beaumont, Texas, in recognition of the public 
support given his exp. by this city and the Tejas 
Chapter of the Daughters of the Republic of Texas, 
at Beaumont. Not adopted: Tejas Glacier. 

BEAUMONT ISLET: low, rocky islet in Neny 
Bay, about 0.4 mi. from the mouth of Centurion 
Gl., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°12'S., 
66°57'W. The islet was presumably first sighted 
in 1936 by the BGLE, and was roughly charted by 
them and by the USAS, 1939-41. It was surveyed 
in 1946 by the FIDS, who named it for the Port of 
Beaumont, Texas, exp. ship of the RARE under 
Ronne, which wintered nearby in Back Bay during 
the 1947-48 season. 

Beckman Fjord: see Beckmann Fjord. 

BECKMANN FJORD: small inlet immediately 
E. of Bellingshausen Pt., in the E. side of the Bay 
of Isles, South Georgia; in 54°04'S., 37°12'W. 
Charted in 1912-13 by Robert Cushman Murphy, 
American naturalist aboard the brig Daisy, who 
named it for Captain Beckmann, master gunner 
of the whaler Don Ernesto, who lost his life in a 
whaling accident in December 1912. Not adopted: 
Beckman Fjord. 

BEEHIVE HILL: ice-covered hill which rises to 
about 7,000 ft. in el. and projects 2,000 ft. above 
the surrounding ice sheet, situated on the plateau 
of Palmer Pen. about 10 mi. E. off the head of Neny 
Fjord and 13 mi. SE. of the head of Northeast GL; 
in 68°16'S., 66°10'W. First surveyed in 1940 by 
the USAS, on whose field charts the hill is labeled 
"Sphinx." It was resurveyed in 1946 by the FIDS 
who gave the present name because of the hill's 
resemblance to a wicker beehive. Not adopted: 
Sphinx. 

Beehive Nunatak: see Teall Nunatak. 

BEER ISLAND: island about 1 mi. long, which 
lies about 8 mi. W. of Ferin Head and 0.5 mi. S. 
of Jagged I., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
66°00'S., 65°45'W. The BGLE under Rymill, 
1934-37, charted and named the island. Not 
adopted: Mutton Cove Island. 

BELEMNITE POINT: the E. extremity of a 
mainly ice-free, hook-shaped ridge, about 2,000 ft. 
in el., standing midway between Lamina Peak and 
Ablation Pt., and 2 mi. inland from George VI 
Sound on the E. coast of Alexander I Islan^; in 



56 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



70°40'S., 68°32'W. This point was first photo- 
graphed from the air on Nov. 23, 1935 by Lincoln 
Ellsworth, and was mapped from these photo- 
graphs by W. L. G. Joerg. It was roughly sur- 
veyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill, and re- 
surveyed in 1949 by the FIDS. So named by FIDS 
because of belemnite fossils found there. 

Belgica Sea: see Bellingshausen Sea. 

BELINDA, MOUNT: mountain about 4,500 ft. in 
el., which marks the summit of Montagu I. in the 
South Sandwich Is.; in 58°25'S., 26°23'W. Mount 
Belinda was probably first sighted by a Br. exp. 
under Cook in 1775, and was accurately sketched 
in 1819 by a Russ. exp. under Bellingshausen. 
Named by DI personnel on the Discovery II follow- 
ing their survey in 1930, for Belinda Kemp, 
daughter of Stanley W. Kemp, Dir. of Research of 
the Discovery Committee, 1924-36. 

BELL, MOUNT: mountain about 10,500 ft. in el., 
which lies about 4 mi. WSW. of Mt. Mackellar, at 
the W. side of Beardmore Gl. in the Queen Alex- 
andra Range; in about 84°06'S., 167°40'E. Disc, 
by the BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton, and 
named by him for William Bell, a supporter of the 
expedition. 

BELL GLACIER: channel glacier about 4 mi. 
wide and 7 mi. long, flowing N. from the conti- 
nental ice at the W. flank of Norths Highland to 
the head of Maury Bay, where it terminates in a 
prominent tongue between the tongues of Blair 
and Power Glaciers, Banzare Coast; in about 
66°45'S., 124°50'E. Delineated from aerial photo- 
graphs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named 
by the US-ACAN for Thomas G. Bell, boatswain 
on the sloop of war Peacock of the USEE under 
Wilkes, 1838-42. 

Bellinghausen Sea: see Bellingshausen Sea. 

BELLINGSHAUSEN, MOUNT: conspicuous cone 
about 3,200 ft. in el., lying on the S. side of Larsen 
Gl. on the E. coast of Victoria Land; in about 
75°10'S., 162°18'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, under 
Scott, and named by him for Adm. Thaddeus 
Bellingshausen, leader of the Russian expedition 
of 1819-21. Not adopted: Mount Bellinghausen. 

BELLINGSHAUSEN ISLAND: easternmost is- 
land of Southern Thule, in the South Sandwich 
Is.; in 59°25'S., 27'=03'W. Probably sighted by a 
Br. exp. under Cook in 1775. The island was 
described by Bellingshausen, whose Russ. exp. 
visited the area in 1819-20. Charted in 1930 by 
DI personnel on the Discovery II, under Kemp, who 
named it for Adm. Thaddeus Bellingshausen. 



BELLINGSHAUSEN POINT: point between 
Beckmann and Sea Leopard Fjords, at the E. side 
of the Bay of Isles, South Georgia; in 54°03'S., 
37°14'W. Charted in 1912-13 by Robert Cushman 
Murphy, American naturalist aboard the brig 
Daisy, who named it for Adm. Thaddeus Bellings- 
hausen. 

BELLINGSHAUSEN SEA: marginal sea off the 
coast of Antarctica between Alexander I Island 
and Thurston Pen.; in about 71 °S., 85°W. Named 
for Adm. Thaddeus Bellingshausen. Not adopted: 
Belgica Sea, Bellinghausen Sea. 

BELLUE, CAPE : cape which forms the N. side of 
the entrance to Marin Darbel Bay, on the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 66°20'S., 65°59'W. Disc, by 
the FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot, and named by 
him for Admiral Bellue, Superintendent of the 
Dockyard at Cherbourg, France. 

BELSHAM, CAPE: prominent headland about 
7 mi. WNW. of Cape Valentine, on the N. side of 
Elephant I., in the South Shetland Is.; in about 
erol'S., 55°01'W. The name dates back to about 
1822 and is well established in international usage. 

Bennet, Cape: see Bennett, Cape. 

BENNETT, CAPE: bold promontory at the NE. 
end of Coronation I., In the South Orkney Is.; in 
60°37'S., 45°14'W. Disc, in December 1821 on the 
occasion of the joint cruise by Capt. George Powell, 
a British sealer in the sloop Dove, and Capt. 
Nathaniel Palmer, an American sealer in the sloop 
James Monroe. Named for Powell's employer. 
Not adopted : Cape Bennet. 

BENNETT ISLETS: chain of about four islets, 
lying at the SW. side of Liard I. in Hanusse Bay and 
extending in a SW. direction for about 6 mi., off 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°57'S., 67°35'W. 
These islets were sighted and sketched from the air 
in February 1937 by the BGLE under Rymill. They 
were named in 1954 by the Br-APC for Arthur G. 
Bennett, British representative on whaling in the 
South Shetland Is. and South Orkney Is. for many 
years between 1913 and 1927, and acting govern- 
ment naturalist in the Falkland Is., 1924-38. 

Beresino Island: see Greenwich Island. 

BERG BAY: bay about 3 mi. wide, which lies 
between Islands Pt. and the promontory ending 
in Birthday Pt. in the W. part of Robertson Bay, 
in northern Victoria Land; in about 71°27'S., 
169°23'E. Charted and named in 1911 by the 
Northern Party of the BrAE under Scott. 



424589 O -57 - 



57 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



BERGERSEN, MOUNT: mountain mass in the E. 
part of the S0r Rondane Mtns., lying S. of Princess 
Ragnhild Coast; in about 72°08'S., 24°35'E. Disc, 
and photographed from the air on Feb. 6, 1937 by 
members of a Nor. exp. under Christensen. Named 
for Ambassador Birger Bergersen, chairman of the 
Norwegian Whaling Board. 

Bergnes: see Byrd Head. 

BERLIN, MOUNT: prominent ridge-shaped 
mountain, about 10,400 ft. in el., forming the W. 
end of Hal Flood Range in Marie Byrd Land; in 
about 76°04'S., 135°50'W. Disc, by members of the 
ByrdAE on extended flights to the NE. and E. of 
Little America in November-December 1934. It 
was first named Mount Hal Flood, but this name 
has now been given to the entire range of moun- 
tains of which this one is a part. Named for 
Leonard M. Berlin, leader of the USAS party which 
sledged to this mountain in December 1940. Not 
adopted: Mount Hal Flood. 

BERNACCHI, CAPE : low rocky promontory lying 
between Bernacchi Bay and New Harbor on the E. 
coast of Victoria Land; in about 77°30'S., 163°45'E. 
Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, and 
named by him for Louis C. Bernacchi, physicist 
with the expedition. See also Bernacchi Head on 
Franklin Island. 

BERNACCHI BAY: bay about 3 mi. wide, which 
lies between Marble Pt. and Cape Bernacchi along 
the E. coast of Victoria Land; in about 77°28'S., 
163°47'E. The bay takes its name from Cape 
Bernacchi, S. entrance point to the bay, and was 
applied by the BrAE under Scott, 1910-13. 

BERNACCHI HEAD: precipitous, cliff forming 
the SE. end of Franklin I., in the Ross Sea; in about 
76°09'S., 168°20'E. Named by the BrAE, 1898- 
1900, under C. E. Borchgrevink, for Louis C. Bernac- 
chi, a member of the expedition. The generic has 
been changed by the Committee to avoid duplica- 
tion with Cape Bernacchi on the coast of Victoria 
Land. See also Cape Bernacchi. 

Bernard, Pointe: see Barnard Point. 

Bernard Home, Mount: see Home, Mount. 

Bernt Balchen Glacier: see Balchen Glacier. 

BERNTSEN POINT: point which forms the S. 
side of the entrance to Borge Bay, on the E. side 
of Signy I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°43'S., 
45''36'W. Charted in 1927 by DI personnel on the 
Discovery. Probably named for Capt. S0ren Bernt- 
sen, master of the Orwell, who was of assistance in 
transporting DI personnel the following year. 



BERRY HEAD: point which markes the E. side 
of the entrance to Stygian Cove, on the NE. side 
of Signy I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°42'S., 
45°36'W. Probably named by DI personnel on the 
Discovery II following their survey in 1933. 

BERTEAUX, CAPE: cape which lies at the N. 
side of Wordie Ice Shelf and projects into the SE. 
part of Marguerite Bay, on the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 68°51'S., 67°28'W. The FrAE under Char- 
cot, 1908-10, originally applied the name Berteaux 
to an island in essentially this position. The BGLE 
under Rymill, 1934-37, identified the feature 
sighted by Charcot as the cape described above. 
Named by Charcot for a Monsieur Berteaux who 
helped obtain funds for his expedition. Not 
adopted : Berteaux Island, Cape Pierre Baudin. 

Berteaux Island: see Berteaux, Cape. 

BERTHA ISLAND: island which lies at the E. 
side of the entrance to William Scoresby Bay and is 
separated from Mac-Robertson Coast by a narrow 
channel; in about 67°23'S., 59°40'E. Disc, and 
named in February 1936 by DI personnel on the 
William Scoresby. Not adopted: Hamreneset 
[Norwegian] . 

BERTHELOT ISLETS : group of rocky islets, the 
largest about 1 mi. long, lying about 1.5 mi. W. of 
Point Delivrance, off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 65°20'S., 64°09'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 1903-5, 
under Charcot, and named by him for Mar- 
celin Berthelot, prominent French chemist. Not 
adopted: Berthelot Islands. 

BERTRAB GLACIER: small glacier at the head 
of Gold Hbr., at the E. end of South Georgia; in 
54°37'S., 35°57'W. Charted by the GerAE, 1911-12, 
under Filchner, and named by him for Dr. von 
Bertrab, General and Chief Quartermaster in the 
German General Staff and Chief of the Land 
Survey, who was chairman of the expedition. 

BERTRAB NUNATAK: bare rock about 1,000 ft. 
in el. at the S. side of the entrance to Duke Ernst 
Bay, on Luitpold Coast; in about 77°55'S., 34°30'W. 
Disc, in January-February 1912 by the GerAE 
under Filchner, and named by him for Dr. von 
Bertrab. Not adopted: Bertrab Nunataks. 

BERTRAM GLACIER: glacier, about 15 mi. long 
and 18 mi. wide at its mouth, flowing W. from the 
Dyer Plateau of Palmer Pen. into George VI Sound 
between Wade Pt. and Gurney Pt.; in 70°48'S., 
67°28'W. Disc, and first surveyed in 1936 by 
Stephenson, Fleming and Bertram of the BGLE 
under Rymill. It was later named for George C. L. 
Bertram, biologist of the BGLE, 1934-37, and mem- 



58 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



ber of the discovery party, who in 1949 became 
Dir. of the Scott Polar Inst., Cambridge. 

BERTRANP ICE PIEDMONT: prominent ice 
piedmont which lies on the W. coast of Palmer Pen. 
between Rymill Bay and Mikkelsen Bay. It is 
bounded on its SE. and E. sides by Pavie Ridge and 
on its NE. side by Martin Gl.; in 68°31'S., 67°05'W. 
First surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill, 
and resurveyed in 1948-49 by the FIDS. Named 
by the British Antarctic Place-names Committee 
for Kenneth J. Bertrand, Associate Professor of 
Geography at the Catholic University of America, 
Washington, D. C, geomorphologist, Antarctic 
historian, and member of the U. S. Advisory Com- 
mittee on Antarctic Names. 

Bertrand Island: see Stanley Island. 

Berwick Glacier: see Swinford Glacier. 

BERWICK GLACIER: tributary glacier entering 
the W. side of Beardmore Gl. immediately S. of 
Marshall Mtns.; in about 84°45'S., 164°15'E. Origi- 
nally named Swinford Glacier in 1908 by the BrAE 
under Shackleton, a subsequent cartographic error 
exchanging the positions of Swinford and Berwick 
Glaciers on the charts of the BrAE under Scott, 
1910-13, has caused the name Berwick to become 
established for this glacier. Named for the Ber- 
wick, a vessel on which Lt. Jameson B. Adams, 
Shackleton's second-in-command, had served. 
Swinford Glacier lies about 10 mi. NE. of Berwick 
Glacier. Not adopted: Swinford Glacier (q.v.). 

BESNARD POINT: point which lies at the SE. 
side of Port Lockroy, Wiencke I., and marks the E. 
side of the entrance to Alice Creek, in the Palmer 
Arch.; in 64°50'S., 63°30'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 
1903-5, under Charcot, and named by him for A. 
Besnard, seaman on the exp. ship Franqais. 

BEST, CAPE: cape which marks the W. side of 
the entrance to Fortuna Bay, on the N. coast of 
South Georgia; in 54°05'S., 36°49'W. The name 
dates back to at least 1912 and is now well 
established. 

Besvikelsens Kap: see Disappointment, Cape. 

BETA ISLAND: small islet which lies immedi- 
ately N. of Kappa I. and close SW. of Alpha I. in 
the Melchior Is., Palmer Arch.; in 64°19'S., 63°00'W. 
The name Beta, derived from the second letter of 
the Greek alphabet, was probably given by DI 
personnel who roughly surveyed the islet in 1927. 
The islet was surveyed by Argentine expeditions 
in 1942, 1943 and 1948. Not adopted: Isla Rodeada 
[Spanish] . 



BETBEDER, CAPE: cape which marks the SW. 
end of Andersson I., lying in Antarctic Sound, off 
the NE. tip of Palmer Pen.; in 63°37'S., 56°39'W. 
Charted by the SwedAE, 1901-4, under Nordensk- 
jold, and named by him for R. Adm. Onofre 
Betbeder, Argentine Minister of Marine, upon 
whose orders the Argentine Ship Uruguay was dis- 
patched to rescue Nordenskjbld's expedition. 

BETBEDER ISLETS: group of islets and rocks 
about 12 mi. NE. of the N. end of the Biscoc. Is. and 
some 22 mi. W. of Cape Tuxen, off the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 65°16'S., 65°02'W. Disc, by the 
FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, and named by him 
for R. Adm. Onofre Betbeder. 

BETTY, MOUNT: small ridge about 1,200 ft. in 
el., standing about 3 mi. NE. of Mt. Cohen at the 
N. end of the foothills between Axel Heiberg and 
Strom Glaciers, in the Queen Maud Range over- 
looking the head of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 
85°13'S., 164°45'W. Disc, in November 1911 by the 
Nor. exp. under Amundsen, and named by him for 
Betty Andersson, nurse and housekeeper in the 
Amundsen family for many years. 

BEVIN GLACIER: glacier about 10 mi. long, 
which flows E. from the plateau escarpment on the 
E. side of Palmer Pen. into the NW. end of Cabinet 
Inlet between the mouths of Attlee and Anderson 
Glaciers; in 66°17'S., 63°47'W. During December 
1947, it was charted by the FIDS and photographed 
from the air by the RARE. Named by the FIDS 
for Rt. Hon. Ernest Bevin, M.P., British Minister 
of Labor and National Service and member of the 
War Cabinet. 

BICKERTON, CAPE: ice-covered point lying 
about 5 mi. ENE. of Gravenoire Rock, which marks 
the northernmost extremity of the Adelie Coast 
area lying eastward of Victor Bay; in about 66°20'S., 
136°56'E. Disc, by the AAE under Mawson, 1911- 
14, and named by him for F. H. Bickerton, engineer 
of the exp. and leader of the Western Party which 
sighted the cape from its farthest west camp. 

BIENVENUE, CAPE: small rocky cape, which is 
partially ice covered, rising to about 140 ft. in el., 
marking the E. side of the entrance to Piner Bay, 
on Adelie Coast; in 66°43'S., 140°15'E. Photo- 
graphed from the air by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47. 
Charted and named by the FrAE under Barre, 
1951-52, who established an astronomical control 
station on the cape. Bienvenue is a French word 
meaning welcome. 

BIG BEN: massive ice-covered mountain, about 
9,000 ft. in el., which is the central and dominating 
feature on Heard I., and toward which the relief 
of the island rises from all sides; in 53°06'S., 



59 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



73°3rE. The name was applied by American 
sealers at Heard I. following their initiation of seal- 
ing there in 1855. The name was found to be 
already in common use when the Br. exp. under 
Nares visited the island in the Challenger in 1874 
and made a survey of its salient features. The 
mountain was surveyed by the ANARE in 1948. 
Not adopted: Big Ben Peak, Emperor William Peak. 

BIGELOW ROCK: low, ice-covered rock about 
150 ft. long, with numerous rock exposures close 
above sea level, lying immediately W. of Shackleton 
Ice Shelf about 23 mi. NE. of Junction Corner, 
Queen Mary Coast; in about 66°09'S., 95°26'E. 
Delineated from aerial photographs taken by USN 
Op. Hjp., 1946-47. An astronomical control sta- 
tion was established on the rock by USN Op. Wml., 
1947-48. Named by the US-ACAN for Tech. Sgt. 
George H. Bigelow, USMC, tractor driver-mechanic 
with USN Op. Hjp. and USN Op. Wml. Not 
adopted: Burton Island Rock. 

BIGO, MOUNT: mountain about 5,300 ft. in el., 
which stands at the SW. side of Mt. Perchot at the 
head of Bigo Bay, on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 65°47'S., 64°17'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 1908-10, 
under Charcot, and named by him, probably for 
Robert Bigo of Calais, France, a member of the 
Lique Maritime Frangaise. 

BIGO BAY: bay about 5 mi. wide, which indents 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen. for 7 mi. between 
Cape Garcia and the peninsula surmounted by 
Magnier Peaks; in 65°43'S., 64°30'W. The FrAE 
under Charcot, 1908-10, first sighted this bay but 
charted it as the southern part of Leroux Bay. 
The BGLE under Rymill, 1934-37, determined that 
the peninsula surmounted by Magnier Peaks sepa- 
rates this bay from Leroux Bay. Named by Rymill 
after Mt. Bigo, a mountain at the head of the bay. 

BIGOURDAN FJORD : a sound about 14 mi. long, 
in an ENE.-WSW. direction, and averaging 2 mi. 
wide, lying between the N. side of Pourquoi Pas I. 
and the coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°33'S., 67°20'W. 
Disc, by the FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot, and 
named by him for Guillaume Bigourdan, noted 
French astronomer. It was roughly surveyed by 
the BGLE, 1934-37, under Rymill, and resurveyed 
by the FIDS, 1948-50. 

BIG RAZORBACK ISLAND: southeasternmost 
of the Dellbridge Is., lying in Erebus Bay off the 
W. side of Ross I.; in about 77°41'S., 166°29'E. 
Disc, and named by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under 
Scott. The name is descriptive. Not adopted: 
Large Razorback Island. 

Bikjebugten: see Hound Bay. 



BILLBOARD, THE : a massive granitic monolith, 
about 2,400 ft. in el., with vertical faces rising more 
than 1,000 ft. above the continental ice, standing 
just S. of Mt. Rea and forming a distinctive land- 
mark in this part of the Edsel Ford Ranges of Marie 
Byrd Land; in about 77°03'S., 145°35'W. Disc, in 
November 1934 by the ByrdAE sledge party under 
Paul Siple, and so named because of its form and 
appearance. 

BILLIE PEAK: peak about 2,400 ft. in el., which 
rises about 1.5 mi. ENE. of Bay Pt. on the SE. coast 
of Anvers L, in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°45'S., 
63°23'W. Disc, by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under 
De Gerlache. The name appears on a chart based 
on a 1927 DI survey, but may reflect on earlier 
naming. 

BILLIE ROCKS: group of rocks 0.1 mi. NE. of 
Drying Pt., lying in Borge Bay along the E. side 
of Signy I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°43'S., 
45°36'W. The name Billie Rock, for the eastern- 
most rock of the group, appeared on a chart based 
upon a 1927 sketch survey of Borge Bay by DI per- 
sonnel on the Discovery. The name has since been 
extended to include the entire group. Not adopted : 
Billie Rock. 

Billis Islet: see Bills Islet. 

BILL ROCK: rock which lies 0.3 mi. E. of the S. 
end of Grass I., in Stromness Bay, South Georgia; 
in 54°09'S., 36°40'W. Charted and named in 1928 
by DI personnel. 

BILLS GULCH: the northern of two glaciers 
flowing E. from the plateau upland into the head of 
Trail Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
68°07'S., 65°44'W. This glacier was used by the 
sledge party under Paul H. Knowles which trav- 
ersed Palmer Pen. from the East Base of the USAS 
on its way to Hilton Inlet in 1940. Named by the 
USAS for a lead dog that died at this point. The 
name has been approved because of its wide use on 
maps and in reports. Not adopted: Bill's Gulch. 

BILLS ISLET: islet which lies in the harbor of 
Port Lockroy, about 0.1 mi. NE. of Goudier It., in 
the Palmer Arch.; in 64°50'S., 63°31'W. Disc, and 
charted by the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot. The 
name appears on a chart based on a 1927 DI sur- 
vey, but may reflect an earlier naming. Not 
adopted: Billis Islet. 

BILLS POINT: point marking the S. extremity 
of Delta I. in the Melchior Is., Palmer Arch.; in 
64n9'S., 62"59'W. The name was probably given 
by DI personnel who roughly charted Delta I. in 
1927. The feature was surveyed by Argentine ex- 
peditions in 1942, 1943 and 1948. 



60 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



BILLYCOCK HILL: rounded, ice-covered hill 
which rises to about 6,000 ft. in el. and projects 
600 ft. above the surrounding ice sheet, situated 
4 mi. S. of the head of Northeast Gl. and the same 
distance NE. of the head of Neny Fjord on the W. 
side of Palmer Pen.; in 68°09'S., 66°32'W. First 
surveyed by the USAS, 1939-41. The hill was re- 
surveyed in 1946 by the FIDS and named by them 
for its resemblance to a billycock hat. 

Bingham Col: see Safety Col. 

BINGHAM GLACIER: large glacier flowing 
eastward to the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 69°22'S., 
63°02'W., with Cape Reichelderfer as its southern 
portal. Together with Fleming Gl., which flows 
W., it fills a major transverse depression across 
Palmer Pen. The point at which Bingham Glacier 
reaches the coast was photographed by Sir Hubert 
Wilkins in 1928 and by Lincoln Ellsworth in 1935, 
and it was mapped by the BGLE under Rymill, who 
with E. W. Bingham sledged across the peninsula 
a short distance S. of the transverse depression in 
1936. It was also mapped in 1940 by the USAS. 
Named by the US-ACAN for Lt. Cdr. E. W. Bing- 
ham, RN, of the BGLE. 

BINGLEY GLACIER: tributary glacier entering 
the W. side of Beardmore Gl. immediately NE. of 
Mt. Adams; in about 84°24'S., 167°30'E. Disc, by 
the BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton, and named 
by him after Bingley, England, location of the 
Shackleton family ancestral home. 

BIRCHALL PEAKS: cluster of peaks about 2,000 
ft. in el., lying at the NW. side of Mt. Iphigene and 
S. of Paul Block Bay, in the Edsel Ford Ranges of 
Marie Byrd Land; in about 76°27'S., 146°20'W. 
Disc, in 1929 by the ByrdAE. Named by Byrd for 
Frederick T. Birchall, member of the staff of the 
New York Times, which published the expedition's 
press dispatches. 

BIRD, CAPE: cape which marks the N. tip of 
Ross I.; in 77°08'S., 165°35'E. Disc, in 1841 by a 
Br. exp. under Ross, and named by him for Lt. 
Edward J. Bird of the exp. ship Erebus. 

BIRD, MOUNT: mountain which stands about 
7 mi. S. of Cape Bird, the N. tip of Ross I.; in 
77°15'S., 166°45'E. It was charted by the BrNAE 
under Scott, 1901-4, and apparently named by 
them after nearby Cape Bird. 

BIRD ISLAND: island, about 4 mi. long and 2 
mi. wide, which is separated from the W. end of 
South Georgia by Bird Sound; in 54°00'S., 38°05'W. 
Disc, in 1775 by a Br. exp. under Cook, who so 
named it because he saw numerous birds on the 
island. Not adopted: Vogel Insel [German]. 



BIRD SOUND: navigable sound, about 2.5 mi. 
long and 0.5 mi. wide, separating Bird I. from the 
W. end of South Georgia; in 54°01'S., 38^03'W. 
The names La Roche Strait and Bird Sound have 
both been used on charts for this feature for many 
years. The name Bird Sound is approved on the 
basis of local usage at South Georgia. The feature 
takes its name from nearby Bird Island. Not 
adopted : La Roche Strait. 

Birks, Mount: see Napier Birks, Mount. 

BIRLEY GLACIER: glacier, at least 6 mi. long, 
flowing W. into the NE. corner of Barilari Bay, on 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65^57'S., 64°30'W. 
This glacier was first seen and roughly surveyed in 
1909 by the FrAE under Charcot. It was resur- 
veyed in 1935-36 by the BGLE under Rymill, and 
later named for Kenneth P. Birley, who contrib- 
uted toward the cost of the BGLE, 1934-37. 

BIRTHDAY POINT: northernmost point of a 
bare, precipitous promontory forming the E. 
boundary of Pressure Bay, on the N. coast of Vic- 
toria Land; in about 71°26'S., 169°20'E. Charted 
and named in 1911 by the Northern Party of the 
BrAE under Scott. 

Bisco Bay: see Biscoe Bay. 

BISCOE, MOUNT: distinctive sharp black peak 
rising to over 1,500 ft. in el., surmounting Cape 
Ann on the coast of Enderby Land; in about 
63°13'S., 57°17'E. Photographed from the air on 
Dec. 22, 1929 by a Nor. exp. under Riiser-Larsen in 
a flight from the Norvegia, and on Jan. 14, 
1930 photographed from the Discovery by the 
BANZARE under Mawson. The peak is thought 
to be the feature disc, on March 16, 1831 and 
named Cape Ann by a Br. exp. under Biscoe. The 
name Cape Ann has been retained from the 
adjoining cape; Mawson named the peak for its 
apparent discoverer, John Biscoe, Master, RN, Ret., 
noted British Antarctic explorer. 

BISCOE BAY: bay which indents the SW. coast 
of Anvers I. immediately E. of Roland Bonaparte 
Pt., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°48'S., 63°48'W. 
First charted by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De 
Gerlache, and named by him for John Biscoe, who 
may have landed there in February 1832. Not 
adopted : Bisco Bay. 

Biscoe Bay: see Sulzberger Bay. 

BISCOE ISLANDS: chain of islands, of which 
the principal ones are Renaud, Rabot, Nansen, and 
Watkins, lying parallel to the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen. and extending in a NE.-SW. direction about 
75 miles; centering in about 66°00'S., 66°30'W. 



61 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Named for John Biscoe, leader of a Br. exp. which 
explored the islands on Feb. 17 and 18, 1832. 

BISMARCK STRAIT: a strait which lies between 
the S. end of Anvers and Wiencke Islands and the 
Palmer Pen.; in about 64°55'S., 63°45'W. It was 
explored in 1874 by a Ger. exp. under Dallmann, 
and was named by him for the German statesman, 
Prince Otto Bismarck. 

BJAALAND, MOUNT: one of a group of low- 
lying peaks barely protruding through the ice of 
the south polar plateau, rising to about 10,700 ft. 
in el. between Mounts Hassel and Prestrud, which 
stand about 20 mi. SW. of Thorvald Nilsen Mtns. 
in the Queen Maud Range; in about 86°33'S., 
162°35'W. Disc, in November 1911 by the Nor. 
exp. under Amundsen, and named by him for Olaf 
Bjaaland, a member of the South Pole Party. Not 
adopted: Mount Olaf Bjaaland. 

Bjarne Aagaard Islands: see Aagaard Islands. 

Bjerko Head; Bjerko Headland: see Darnley, 
Cape. 

BJERK0 PENINSULA: prominent peninsula on 
Mac-Robertson Coast, forming the NW. shore of 
MacKenzie Bay; in about 67°50'S., 69°30'E. Nor- 
wegian whalers explored this area in January and 
February 1931, naming the cape at the end of this 
peninsula for gunner Reidar Bjerko of the whale 
catcher Bouvet II, from whose deck the coast was 
sketched January 19. Since Sir Douglas Mawson 
probably saw this cape from a great distance as 
early as Dec. 26, 1929, the British name of Cape 
Darnley has been retained for the cape, while the 
Norwegian name has been applied to the peninsula. 

BLACK, MOUNT: mountain about 9,000 ft. in el., 
forming a distinctive landmark in its region, lying 
at the W. side of the upper reaches of Shackleton 
Gl. just S. of the high escarpment of the Queen 
Maud Range; in about 85°23'S., 179°45'W. Disc. 
by R. Adm. Byrd on flights to the Queen Maud 
Range in November 1929, and named by him for 
Van Lear Black, American financier and contrib- 
utor to the Byrd Antarctic Expeditions of 1928-30 
and 1933-35. 

Black, Mount: see Ruth Black, Mount. 

BLACKBURN, MOUNT: massive mountain 
standing E. of Robert Scott GL, about 10 mi. S. of 
the W. end of Watson Escarpment, in the Queen 
Maud Range; in about 86°12'S., 146°W. Disc, by 
and named for Quin A. Blackburn, geologist, leader 
of the ByrdAE geological party which sledged the 
full length of Robert Scott Gl. in December 1934. 
Not adopted: Mount Jessie O'Keefe. 



BLACK HEAD: dark, rugged promontory about 
200 ft. in el., separating Cook and Possession Bays, 
on the N. coast of South Georgia; in 54°04'S., 
37°07'W. Named by DI personnel who charted 
this area in 1929-30. 

BLACK HEAD: dark headland marking the S. 
side of the entrance to Holtedahl Bay, on the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°06'S., 65°40'W. Disc, 
and named by the BGLE under Rymill, 1934-37. 

Blackhead Rock: see Blackrock Head. 

BLACK ISLAND: islet about 0.25 mi. long, 
which lies in the Argentine Is., about 0.25 mi. SW. 
of Skua I., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
65°16'S., 64°18'W. Charted and named in 1935 by 
the BGLE under Rymill. 

BLACK ISLAND: wedge-shaped island about 13 
mi. long and wide; lies S. of Ross I. and projects 
through the ice shelf between Brown and White 
Islands to about 3,600 ft. in el.; in about 78°15'S., 
166°30'E. Disc, in 1902 by the BrNAE under Scott, 
and so named by him because of the black volcanic 
rocks on the island. Not adopted: Schwarze Insel 
[German], Svart Oya [Norwegian]. 

BLACK ISLAND CHANNEL: channel about 200 
yards wide, which lies between Black I. and Suka I. 
in the Argentine Is., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 65°15'S., 64°17'W. Charted and named in 1935 
by the BGLE under Rymill. 

BLACK PEAK: sharp, dark, double-pointed peak 
about 800 ft. in el., near the NW. end of Greenwich 
I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°27'S., 60°02'W. 
This peak, presumably known to early sealers in the 
area, was charted by DI personnel on the Discovery 
II in 1935 and given this descriptive name. 

BLACK POINT: point on the W. side of Right 
Whale Bay, about 2 mi. SSW. of Nameless Pt., on 
the N. coast of South Georgia; in 54°02'S., 37°42'W. 
Charted and named by DI personnel in 1930. 

BLACK POINT: point which lies 2.5 mi. SE. of 
Cape Shirreff on the N. coast of Livingston L, in 
the South Shetland Is.; in 62°28'S., 60°44'W. The 
point was known to sealers as early as 1822. It was 
charted and named in 1935 by DI personnel on the 
Discovery II. 

BLACK REEF: reef which lies about 2 mi. W. of 
Betbeder Its. and some 24 mi. W. of Cape Tuxen, 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°15'S., 
65°08'W. Disc, and named by the BGLE, 1934-37, 
under Rymill. 



62 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



BLACK RIDGE: narrow dividing ridge with 
sharp peaks about 3,500 ft. in el., between Corner 
Gl. and Priestley GL, in Victoria Land; in about 
74°37'S., 163°28'E. First explored by the Northern 
Party of the BrAE under Scott, 1910-13, and so 
named because of its appearance. 

BLACK ROCK: isolated rock about 0.7 mi. E. 
of Candlemas I., in the 'South Sandwich Is.; in 
57°02'S., 26°39'W. Charted and named in 1930 
by DI personnel on the Discovery II. 

BLACK ROCK: low rock about 10 mi. SE. of 
Shag Rocks, and lying some 105 mi. WNW. of South 
Georgia; in about 53°39'S., 41°48'W. Black Rock 
may have been considered as part of the "Aurora 
Islands" reported in this vicinity by the ship 
Aurora in 1762. It was charted in 1927 by DI per- 
sonnel on the William Scoresby. 

BLACKROCK HEAD: conspicuous rock outcrop 
on the shoreline of Kemp Coast, reported to lie 
about 8 mi. NNW. of the W. side of the entrance to 
Stefanson Bay; in about 67°10'S., 58°56'E. Disc, 
in February 1936 by DI personnel on the William 
Scoresby and so named by them for its appearance. 
Not adopted: Blackhead Rock. 

BLACK ROCKS: small group of rocks about 0.5 
mi. SE. of Framnaes Pt., in the N. part of Stromness 
Bay, South Georgia; in 54°08'S., 36°38'W. The 
name Blenheim Rocks has appeared for these rocks, 
but since about 1930 the name Black Rocks has 
been used more consistently. Not adopted: Blen- 
heim Rocks. 

BLACK THUMB MOUNTAIN: mountain with 
notched and precipitous sides, about 3,900 ft. in el., 
lying about 5 mi. SE. of Red Rock Ridge on the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°25'S., 66°53'W. 
Charted and named by the BGLE under Rymill, 
1934-37. 

BLACKWALL MOUNTAINS: group of moun- 
tains, the highest about 4,500 ft. in el., extending 
in a WNW.-ESE. direction for 5 mi. and lying close 
S. of Neny Fjord on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 68°22'S., 66°48'W. They are bounded to the E. 
by Remus Gl., to the S. by Romulus GL, and are 
separated from Red Rock Ridge to the W. by 
Safety Col. First roughly surveyed in 1936 by the 
BGLE under Rymill. Resurveyed in 1948-49 by 
the FIDS, and so named by them because the black 
cliffs of the mountains facing Rymill Bay remain 
snow free throughout the year. Not adopted: 
Climbing Range. 

BLACK RIDGE: sharp rock ridge marked by 
three peaks, about 1,500 ft. in el., forming the NW. 
wall of Depot Gl. at the head of Hope Bay, on the 



NE. end of Palmer Pen.; in 63°25'S., 57°05'W. Disc, 
by the SwedAE, 1901-4, under Nordenskjold. 
Named by the FIDS following their survey of the 
area in 1945. 

BLAIKLOCK ISLAND: high and rugged, irregu- 
lar-shaped island, about 9 mi. long, lying near the 
head of Bigourdan Fjord; in 67°33'S., 67°00'W. It 
is separated from Pourquoi Pas I., to the SW., by 
The Narrows and from the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen., to the N., by Jones Channel. The feature was 
partially surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Ry- 
mill, at which time it was charted as a promontory 
of Palmer Pen. It was resurveyed and determined 
to be an island in 1949 by Kenneth V. Blaiklock, 
FIDS surveyor for whom it is named. 

BLAIR GLACIER: channel glacier about 4 mi. 
wide and 5 mi. long, flowing N. from the continental 
ice at the W. flank of Norths Highland to the head 
of Maury Bay, where it terminates in a prominent 
tongue midway between Cape Lewis and Bell Gla- 
cier, Banzare Coast; in about 66°45'S., 124°40'E. 
Delineated from aerial photographs taken by USN 
Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for 
James L. Blair, midshipman on the sloop of war 
Peacock of the USEE under Wilkes, 1838-42. 

BLAIR ISLETS : small group of islets lying about 
4 mi. WNW. of Cape Gray, at the E. side of the en- 
trance to Commonwealth Bay, off George V Coast; 
in about 66°50'S., 143° 12' E. Disc, in 1912 by the 
Main Base party of the AAE under Mawson, and 
named by him for J. H. Blair, chief officer of the 
exp. ship Aurora. 

BLAKE, CAPE: rocky cape about 4 mi. WSW. 
of Cape Wild, on George V Coast; in about 
68°22'S., 148°58'E. Disc, in 1912 by the Main Base 
party of the AAE under Mawson, and named by 
him for L. R. Blake, geologist and cartographer 
with the AAE party based on Macquarie Island 
during 1912-13. 

BLAKE ISLET: narrow islet lying in the ap- 
proach to Bone Cove and about 4 mi. SSW. of Cape 
Roquemaurel, off the NW. coast of Louis Philippe 
Pen.; in 63°37'S., 58°58'W. Charted in 1948 by 
the FIDS and named by them for Pattrick J. Blake, 
midshipman on the brig Williams used in exploring 
the South Shetland Is. and Bransfield Str. in 1820. 

BLANCHARD RIDGE: rocky ridge about 1,100 
ft. in el., which lies between Chaigneau Peak and 
Mt. Scott on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in about 
65°12'S., 64°02'W. Charted by the FrAE, 1908-10, 
under Charcot, and named by him for a Monsieur 
Blanchard, then French Consul at Punta Arenas. 
Not adopted : Blanchard Peak. 



63 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Blenheim Rocks: see Black Rocks. 

BLIND BAY: small bay forming the.NE. ex- 
tremity and head of Bourgeois Fjord and marking 
the junction of Fallieres Coast and Loubet Coast, 
along the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°31'S., 
66""32'W. First surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE un- 
der Rymill. So named by the FIDS, following a 
1949 survey, because the bay proved a blind alley 
to sledging parties. 

Block Mount: see Paul Bloc, Mount; William 
Block, Mount. 

Block Bay: see Paul Block Bay. 

BLOCK MOUNTAIN: very prominent block- 
shaped mountain, about 4,800 ft. in el., which juts 
eastward from the Douglas Range of Alexander I 
Island immediately S. of Transition GL; in 
70°28'S., 68°52'W. Its N., E., and S. sides, which 
are demarked by sharply defined corners, are 
nearly vertical, and from its NE. corner a low spur 
connects this mountain with Tilt Rock. Block 
Mountain was first photographed from the air on 
Nov. 23, 1935 by Lincoln Ellsworth, and it was 
mapped from these photographs by W. L. G. Joerg. 
It was roughly surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under 
Rymill, and resurveyed in 1949 by the FIDS. The 
descriptive name was given by FIDS. 

BLOW-ME-DOWN BLUFF: prominent rock bluff, 
about 6,000 ft. in el., standing at the N. flank of 
Northeast Gl. on the W. side of Palmer Pen.; in 
68°03'S., 66°40'W. First roughly surveyed in 1936 
by the BGLE, and by the USAS in 1940. Resur- 
veyed in 1946 and 1948 by the FIDS who so named 
it because the bluff stands in the windiest part of 
Northeast Gl., and many members of FIDS sledge 
parties have fallen in this area in high winds. 

Bludau Mountains: (in about 73°30'S., 4°10'E.) 
the decision of May 1947 has been VACATED, as it 
is not possible to correlate the feature with subse- 
quent survey work. 

BLUE GLACIER: glacier about 2 to 4 mi. wide 
and about 20 mi. long, which flows into Bowers 
Piedmont Gl. about 10 mi. S. of New Harbor, in 
Victoria Land; in about 77°52'S., 164°10'E. Disc, 
by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, who gave it this 
name because of its clear blue ice at the time of 
discovery. 

BLUE WHALE HARBOR: small, sheltered an- 
chorage, entered about 1 mi. SW. of Cape Con- 
stance, along the N. coast of South Georgia; in 
54"04'S., 37°01'W. Charted in 1930 by DI per- 
sonnel. The blue whale is a commercially impor- 



tant species which is widely distributed in polar 
and subpolar waters. 

BLUNT COVE: small bay at the head of Vin- 
cennes Bay, lying immediately W. of the steep ter- 
minus of Bond Glacier and indenting the E. end of 
Knox Coast; in about 67°00'S., 109°05'E. Deline- 
ated from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. 
Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for 
Simon F. Blunt, passed midshipman on the sloop 
of war Vincennes of the USEE under Wilkes, 
1838-42. 

BLYTHE BAY: bay about 17 mi. wide, which in- 
dents for 5 mi. .the N. side of Livingston I. between 
Cape Shirreff and WiUiams Pt., in the South Shet- 
land Is.; in 62°29'S., 60°30'W. The name appears 
on Powell's chart of 1822 published by Laurie, as 
applying to a small bay on the SE. side of Desola- 
tion I. It has since been extended to the area de- 
scribed. Probably named after Blythe, England 
(now Blyth) , home of William Smith who reported 
the discovery of the South Shetland Is. in 1819. 

Blythe Bay: see Desolation Harbor. 

Boh Bartlett Glacier: see Bartlett Glacier. 

BODMAN POINT : rocky point which is situated 
centrally on the NW. coast of Saymour I. in the 
James Ross I. group; in 64°14'S., 56°48'W. First 
surveyed by the SwedAE under Nordenskjold, 
1901-4, who named it Cape Bodman after Dr. 
Gosta Bodman, hydrographer and meteorologist 
with the expedition. It was resurveyed by the 
FIDS in 1952. Point is considered a more suitable 
descriptive term for this feature than cape. Not 
adopted: Cape Bodman. 

BODYS, MOUNT: easternmost mountain on Ade- 
laide I.; in 67°09'S., 67°48'W. It is more than 4,000 
ft. in el. and is ice covered except for small rock 
exposures on the S. side. First roughly surveyed 
in 1909 by the FrAE under Charcot. Resurveyed 
in 1948 by the FIDS, and named by them for Sgt. 
William S. Bodys, mechanic for the expedition's 
Norseman airplane in 1950. 

BOECKELLA, LAKE: lake, about 400 yards long 
and 200 yards wide, which lies on the SE. shore of 
Hope Bay, at the NE. end of Palmer Pen.; in 
63°24'S., 57°00'W. Disc, and named by the 
SwedAE, 1901-4, under Nordenskjold. Boeckella 
is a species of crustaceans found in this area. 

BOGGS, CAPE: bold, ice-covered headland 
marking the E. end of Eielson Pen., on the E. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 70"33'S., 61°23'W. Disc, by 
members of East Base of the USAS who charted 
this coast by land and from the air in 1940. Named 



64 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



for S. W. Boggs, Geographer, Dept. of State, whose 
poUtical and geographical studies of Antarctica 
were used by the USAS. Not adopted: Cape 
Eielson. 

Boggs Strait: see Stefansson Strait. 

BOHNECKE GLACIER: steep glacier about 3 mi. 
wide, which flows SSE. to the NW. side of Violante 
Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 72°25'S., 
61°25'W. Disc, and photographed from the air in 
December 1940 by members of the USAS. During 
1947 the glacier was photographed from the air by 
members of the RARE, under Ronne, who in con- 
junction with the FIDS charted it from the ground. 
Named by the FIDS for Giinther Bohnecke, Ger- 
man oceanographer and member of the Ger. exp. 
in the Meteor, 1925-27. 

BOLAND, MOUNT: mountain over 3,500 ft. in 
el., about 3 mi. S. of Mt. Peary and about 4 mi. E. 
of Lumiere Peak, on the E.-W. trending ridge that 
borders the N. side of Trooz GL, on the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in about 65°19'S., 63°52'W. Disc, by 
the FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot, and named by 
.lim for Monsieur Boland, seaman, and later lieu- 
tenant on the Pourquoi-Pas? , Charcot's exp. ship. 

B0LINGEN ISLANDS: group of small islands, 
islets and rocks, about 8 mi. across, bounded on the 
S. by Polar arboken Glacier Tongue, lying about 5 
mi. WSW. of Larsemann Hills, off Ingrid Christen- 
sen Coast; in about 69°31'S., 75°10'E. Disc, and 
roughly charted in February 1935 by the Nor. exp. 
under Mikkelsen. B0lingen is a Norwegian word 
meaning the herd. More fully charted by Nor- 
wegian cartographers from aerial photographs 
taken in January 1937 by the Nor. exp. under Lars 
Christensen. Not adopted : Bolingen [Norwegian] . 

BOLLE, MONT: rather isolated peak rising 
through the icecap in New Schwabenland, about 
19 ml. N. of the edge of the polar plateau and a like 
distance WNW. of Kubus Mtn.; in about 72°18'S., 
6°15'E. Disc, by the GerAE under Rltscher, 1938- 
39, and named for Herbert BoUe, aviation super- 
visor of the expedition. 

BONAPARTE, MOUNT: northernmost of three 
summits lying about 45 ml. Inland from the W. side 
of Ross Ice Shelf, In the Queen Alexandra Range, 
and about 18 ml. SSE. of Mt. Markham; in about 
83°14'S., 161°30'E. Disc, by the BrAE, 1907-9, 
under Shackleton, and named by him for Prince 
Roland Bonaparte, Pres. of the Geographical Soc. 
of Paris. 

Bonaparte Point: see Roland Bonaparte Point. 



BOND GLACIER: steep glacier, about 10 mi. 
wide and of undetermined length, flowing NW. 
from the continental ice at the junction of Knox 
and Budd Coasts and terminating abruptly at the 
head of Vincenes Bay between Hatch Its. and 
Blunt Cove; in about 67°05'S., 109°20'E. Deline- 
ated from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. 
Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for 
Capt. Charles A. Bond, USN, commander of the 
western task group of USN Op. Hjp., Task Force 
68, 1946-47. 

BON DOCTEUR NUNATAK: small coastal nuna- 
tak, about 85 ft. in el., standing at the W. side 
of Astrolabe Glacier Tongue, about 0.5 mi. SSE. 
of Petrel I. in the Geologic Arch., on Adelie Coast; 
in 65°40'S., 140°01'E. Photographed from the air 
by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47. Charted by the FrAE 
under Marret, 1952-53, and named for Dr. Jean 
Cendron, medical officer and biologist with the 
FrAE under Barre, 1951-52. 

BONE COVE: semi-circular cove about 2 ml. 
wide, situated immediately S. of Young Pt. at the 
terminus of West Russell Gl., along the NW. side 
of Louis Philippe Pen.; in 63°38'S., 58°53'W. The 
FIDS charted the cove in 1948 and named it for 
Thomas M. Bone, midshipman on the Brig. Wil- 
liams, which made explorations in the South Shet- 
land Is. and Bransfield Str. in 1820. 

BONGRAIN, CAPE: cape which forms the S. 
side of the entrance to Dalgliesh Bay on the SW. 
side of Pourquol Pas I., off the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 67°44'S., 67°47'W. First surveyed in 1936 
by the BGLE under RymlU. Resurveyed in 1948 
by the FIDS, who named the cape for Maurice Bon- 
grain, surveyor and First Officer of the Pourquoi- 
Pas?, ship of the FrAE, 1908-10, who was respon- 
sible for the first surveys of this area. 

BONGRAIN ICE PIEDMONT: large Ice pied- 
mont, about 60 mi. long in a NE.-SW. direction, 
and at least 17 mi. wide in its widest part, occupy- 
ing the NW. coastal area of Alexander I Island; 
centering near 69°10'S., 72°05'W. First seen from 
a distance and roughly surveyed by the FrAE, 
1908-10, under Charcot. It was photographed 
from the air by the BGLE during a flight on Aug. 
15, 1936, and roughly mapped from these photo- 
graphs. Named by the BR-APC in 1954 for Mau- 
rice Bongrain, surveyor of the FrAE, 1908-10, who 
was responsible for the first map of this coast. 

BOOMERANG GLACIER: tributary glacier 
which flows S. from the slopes of Mt. Dickason to 
join Campbell Gl., in Victoria Land; in about 
74°41'S., 163°52'E. Disc, by the BrAE under Scott, 
1910-13, who so named it because of its shape. 



65 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



BOOTHBY, CAPE : rounded cape on a large pro- 
jection of the coast at the E. edge of Enderby Land, 
just N. of Edward VIII Bay; in about 66°36'S., 
57^15'E. Disc, by DI personnel on the William 
Scoresby on about Feb. 28, 1936, and named by 
them for the captain of the William Scoresby, Lt. 
Cdr. C. R. U. Boothby, RNR. 

BOOTH ISLAND: V-shaped island, about 5 mi. 
long and 3 mi wide at the N. end, rising to about 
3,100 ft. in el., lying in the Dannebrog Is. about 
7 mi. WSW. of Cape Renard, off the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 65°05'S., 64°00'W. Disc, and 
named by a Ger. exp., 1873-74, under Dallmann, 
probably for Oskar Booth, or Stanley Booth, or 
both, members of the Hamburg Geographical Soc. 
at that time. The US-AC AN has rejected the 
name Wandel Island, applied by the BelgAE under 
De Gerlache, 1897-99, in favor of the original nam- 
ing. Not adopted: Wandel Island. 

BOOT ROCK: rock about 105 ft. in el., which 
lies 0.1 mi. off the SE. side of Candlemas I., in 
the South Sandwich Is.; in 57°03'S., 26°39'W. 
Charted and named by DI personnel on the Dis- 
covery II in 1930. 

BORCHGREVINK NUNATAK: nunatak about 
2 mi. long and about 2,100 ft. in el., which stands 
at the S. side of the entrance to Richthofen Valley, 
on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°03'S., 62°30'W. 
Disc, in 1902 by the SwedAE under Nordenskjold, 
who named it for C. E. Borchgrevink, leader of the 
BrAE, 1898-1900. The nunatak was charted by 
the FIDS and photographed from the air by the 
RARE in 1947. Not adopted: Borchgrewingk 
Nunatak, Borchgrewink Nunatak. 

Borchgrewingk Nunatak; Borchgrewink Nuna- 
tak: see Borchgrevink Nunatak. 

BOREAS NUNATAK: a nunatak on Princess 
Martha Coast, standing close W. of Passat Nunatak 
and fronting on the large ice shelf that here 
fringes the coast; in about 71°18'S., 4°00'W. Disc. 
by the GerAE, 1938-39, under Ritscher, and named 
for one of the Dornier flying boats of the 
expedition. 

Bores Dal: see Bore Valley. 

BORE VALLEY: valley, almost 2 mi. long in a 
N.-S. direction, extending from Maiviken to 
Grytviken in Cumberland Bay, South Georgia; in 
54n6'S.', 36°31'W. It was first surveyed and 
named "Bores Dal" by the SwedAE under Nor- 
denskjold, 1901-4, but the form Bore Valley has 
since become well established for the feature. The 
discovery by J. Gunnar Andersson, of the SwedAE, 
of numerous traces of a former ice covering, prov- 



ing that ice had once filled the entire valley, sug- 
gested the name. Bore is the Swedish word for 
Boreas, the god of the north wind. Not adopted: 
Bores Dal [Swedish] , Mai Viken Glen. 

BORGE BAY: small bay between Balin and 
Berntsen Points, on the E. side of Signy I., in the 
South Orkney Is.; in 60°43'S., 45°36'W. Charted 
in 1912 by a Nor. exp. under S0rlle. Named for 
Capt. Hans Borge, master of the Polynesia, who 
undertook additional mapping of the bay during 
the following year. Not adopted: Borge Harbor, 
Queens Bay. 

Borge Harbor: see Borge Bay. 

Borge Havna: see Factory Cove. 

BoRGEN BAY: circular bay about 3 mi. wide, 
indenting the SE. coast of Anvers I. close W. of 
Bay Pt., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°44'S., 63°30'W. 
Disc, by the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 1897-99, 
and named by him, probably for Karl Borgen, Ger- 
man astronomer. Not adopted: Borgen Bay, Wil- 
liam Bay. 

BORLEY, CAPE: cape projecting slightly from 
the coast of Enderby Land; in about 65°57'S., 
55°13'E. Disc, by the BANZARE under Mawson 
on about Jan. 12, 1930. John Oliver Borley was 
a member of the Discovery Committee. 

BORLEY POINT: the NW. tip of Montagu I., 
in the South Sandwich Is.; in 58°23'S., 26°28'W. 
Charted in 1930 by DI personnel on the Discovery 
II and named for John Oliver Borley. 

Borodino Island: see Smith Island. 

BORRADAILE ISLAND: one of the Balleny Is., 
about 2 mi. long and 1 mi. wide, lying about 5 mi. 
S. of the SE. end of Young I.; in about 66°35'S., 
162°50'E. Disc, in February 1839 by a Br. exp. 
under Balleny, who named it for W. Borradaile, 
one of the merchants who united with Charles 
Enderby in sending out the expedition. Not 
adopted: Borradaille Island, Borradaile Oya [Nor- 
wegian] . 

Borradaille Island; Borradali Oya: see Borradaile 
Island. 

BOTANY BAY: small bight between Cape Geol- 
ogy and Discovery Bluff, on the S. side of Granite 
Hbr., along the E. coast of Victoria Land; in about 
77°00'S., 162°37'E. Charted by the Western Ge- 
ological Party of the BrAE under Scott, who ex- 
plored the Granite Hbr. area in 1911-12. Named 
T. Griffith Taylor and Frank Debenham, Austral- 



66 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



ian members of the party, after Botany Bay, Aus- 
tralia. 

BOTTRILL HEAD: rugged headland on the E. 
side of Bourgeois Fjord which forms the N. side 
of the entrance to Dogs Leg Fjord, on the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 67°42'S., 66°57'W. First sur- 
veyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill. The 
headland was resurveyed in 1948 by the FIDS who 
named it for Harold Bottrill, Chairman of the 
Board of Directors, later Gen. Mgr., of Maclean 
and Stapledon S.A., shipping agents at Montevideo, 
who gave great assistance to the BGLE, 1934-37, 
and to FIDS, 1943-48. 

BOULDER POINT: the S. extremity of Stoning- 
ton I., close off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
68°11'S., 67°00'W. First surveyed in 1940 by the 
USAS. Resurveyed in 1948 by the FIDS and so 
named by them because of a prominent granite 
boulder on this point. 

BOULDER ROCK: rock lying along the W. coast 
of the Cape Adare peninsula just S. of Ridley 
Beach, in northern Victoria Land; in about 
71°19'S., 170°14'E. Charted and named in 1911 
by the Northern Party of the BrAE under Scott. 

Boulier, Islotes: see Rho Islets. 

Bouquet Bay: see Bouquet de la Grye Bay. 

BOUQUET DE LA GRYE BAY: bay, about 10 
mi. long and wide, which indents the N. coast of 
Brabant I. immediately E. of Pasteur Pen., in the 
Palmer Arch.; in 64°05'S., 62°10'W. Disc, by the 
FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, and named by him 
for Jean Bouquet de la Grye, French hydrographic 
engineer and a member of the commission which 
published the scientific results of the expedition. 
Not adopted: Bouquet Bay. 

BOURGEOIS FJORD: inlet about 30 mi. long, 
in. a NE.-SW. direction, and 4 mi. wide, lying be- 
tween the E. sides of Pourquoi Pas and Blaiklock 
Islands and the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
67°40'S., 67°05'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 1908-10, 
under Charcot, and named by him for Col. Joseph 
E. Bourgeois, Dir. of the Geographic Service of the 
French Army. The outline of th^s inlet was more 
accurately delineated in 1936 by^the BGLE under 
Rymill, and in 1948-50 by the FIDS. 

Bouvet Island: see Bouvet0ya. 

BOUVET0YA [Norwegian]; BOUVET ISLAND 
or BOUVET [conventional] : island, about 5 mi. 
long in an E.-W. direction, and 4 mi. wide, which 
terminates in steep rock and ice cliffs on all sides 



and is surmounted by an ice-covered dome about 
3,100 ft. in el., in about 54°26'S., 3°24'E. Disc, on 
Jan. 1, 1739 by a Fr. exp. under J. B. C. Bouvet de 
Lozier. Heavy pack ice and fog prevented Bouvet 
from determining the nature of his discovery. Al- 
though evidence, recently uncovered, indicates that 
Bouvet0ya was resighted in 1808 and identified as 
an island by the British ships Snow Swan and 
Otter, it was not until the German ship Valdivia 
visited the island in 1898 that the insular nature 
and accurate position of the feature weie deter- 
mined and made known. 

BOUVIER, MOUNT: massive, mainly ice-covered 
mountain, about 6,800 ft. in el., standing imme- 
diately N. of the head of Stonehouse Bay in the E. 
part of Adelaide I.; in 67°14'S., 68°09'W. Disc, and 
roughly positioned by the FrAE, 1903-5, under 
Charcot, and named by him for Louis E. Bouvier, 
prominent French naturalist. The mountain was 
surveyed by the FrAE, 1908-10, also under Charcot, 
and by the FIDS in 1948-50. 

BOWEN, MOUNT: mountain of stratified sand- 
stone capped by a sharp black peak about 4,100 ft. 
in el., lying on the N. side of Davis Gl. and SSW. 
of Mt. Howard, in Victoria Land; in about 
75°46'S., 16r02'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4 
under Scott, who named this feature for the Hon. 
C. C. Bowen, one of the men who gave the exp. 
much assistance in New Zealand. 

Bower Hill: see Bowers Hills. 

BOWERS HILLS: rugged, snow-covered hills of 
moderate height between Capes Cheetham and 
Williams, on Oates Coast; in about 70°10'S., 
162°45'E. First sighted in February 1911 from the 
Terra Nova, under Lt. Harry L. L. Pennell, RN, of 
the BrAE. Lt. Henry R. Bowers perished with 
Capt. Robert F. Scott, leader of the BrAE, on the 
return from the South Pole in 1912. Not adopted: 
Bower Hill. 

BOWERS PIEDMONT GLACIER: piedmont gla- 
cier covering about. 25 square mi., lying S. of New 
Harbor and merging with Blue Gl. to the south, 
along the W. shore of McMudro Sound, in about 
77°45'S., 164°25'E. Disc, by the BrNAE under 
Scott, 1901-4. The BrAE under Scott, 1910-13, 
named this feature for Lt. Henry R. Bowers. Not 
adopted: Butter Point Piedmont, Butter Point 
Piedmont Glacier. 

BOWLES, CAPE: cliff forming the S. tip of Clar- 
ence I., in the South Shetland Is.; in about 
61°17'S., 54°03'W. Named in 1820 by a Br. exp. 
under Bransfield. 



67 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



BOWLES, MOUNT: mountain about 3,000 ft. in 
el., which stands about 4 mi. NW. of Mt. Barnard 
on the divide between South Bay and Moon Bay, 
on Livingston I. in the South Shetland Is.; in 
about 62°35'S., 60°15'W. The name appears on 
an 1829 chart based upon a Br. exp. under Foster. 

BOWLIN, MOUNT: mountain rising to about 
7,000 ft. in el., which stands on the E. side of Robert 
Scott GL, just W. of Mt. Noville, in the Queen 
Maud Range; in about 86°27'S., 146°45'W. Disc, 
in December 1934 by the ByrdAE geological party 
under Quin Blackburn, and named by Byrd for 
William H. Bowlin, airplane pilot with the expe- 
dition. 

BOWMAN COAST: that portion of the E. coast 
of Palmer Pen. extending from Cape Northrop, in 
67°24'S., 65°16'W., to Cape Agassiz, in 68°30'S., 
62°58'W. Disc, by Sir Hubert Wilkins in an aerial 
flight of Dec. 20, 1928. Named by Wilkins for 
Isaiah Bowman, then Dir. of the American Geo- 
graphical Society. 

BOWMAN ISLAND: ice-covered island about 15 
mi. long and from 2 to 6 mi. wide, with a coastal 
outline resembling the shape of the numeral 8, ly- 
ing about 21 mi. NE. of Cape Elliott off Knox Coast; 
in about 65°27'S., 103°18'E. Disc, by the BAN- 
ZARE under Mawson from the Discovery on Jan. 
28, 1931 and named for Isaiah Bowman. Not 
adopted: Bowman Islands. 

Bowman Peak: see John Bowman Peak. 

BOWMAN PENINSULA: peninsula, about 25 mi. 
long in a N.-S. direction and 15 mi. wide in its N. 
and central portions, lying between Nantucket 
and Gardner Inlets on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 74°47'S., 62°22'W. The peninsula is ice covered 
and narrows toward the S., terminating in Cape 
Adams. Disc, by the RARE, 1947-48, under Ronne, 
who named it for Isaiah Bowman. 

BOYD GLACIER: heavily-crevassed glacier, 
from 6 to 15 mi. wide, in the S. part of the Edsel 
Ford Ranges of Marie Byrd Land, rising in the vi- 
cinity of the Clark Mtns. and flowing WNW. about 
60 mi. to Sulzberger Bay. It is fed by two short, 
broad tributaries, one from the N., another from 
the S., and the terminus of the glacier lies in about 
77°10'S., 145°45'W. Disc, on aerial flights of the 
ByrdAE in 1934 and named for Vernon D. Boyd, 
machinist on the exp. and member of West Base 
of the USAS, 1939-41. Not adopted : Ames Glacier. 

BOYD STRAIT: lies between Snow I. and Smith 
I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°50'S., 62°00'W. 
Named in 1823 by a Br. exp. under Weddell for 
Capt. David Boyd, RN. 



BRABANT ISLAND: second largest island of the 
Palmer Arch., lying between Anvers and Liege 
Islands; in 64°15'S., 62°20'W. It is about 33 mi. 
long in a N.-S. direction, 20 mi. wide, and rises to 
about 6,300 ft. in el. in Mt. Parry. Named by the 
BelgAE under De Gerlache, 1897-99, for the prov- 
ince of Brabant, Belgium, in recognition of the 
support given to the BelgAE by its citizens. 

BRADLEY, MOUNT: pyramidal peak about 
2,800 ft. in el., which lies about 6 mi. WSW. of Pitt 
Pt. on the SE. side of Louis Philippe Pen.; in 
63°53'S., 58°37'W. First charted in 1945 by the 
FIDS, who named it for K. G. Bradley, at that time 
Colonial Sec. in the Falkland Islands. 

BRAIN ISLAND: islet at the N. side of Husvik 
Hbr., in Stromness Bay, South Georgia; in 
54°10'S., 36°42'W. Charted and named by DI 
personnel in 1928. 

Branca, Mount: see Rio Branco, Mount. 

Brand-Berg: see Brandt, Mount. 

BRANDT, MOUNT: mountain projecting 
through the icecap at the N. margin of the New 
Schwabenland piedmont; in about 72°25'S., 
1°00'E. Disc, by the GerAE under Ritscher, 
1938-39, and named for Emil Brandt, a sailor on 
the expedition. Not adopted: Brand-Berg [Ger- 
man]. 

BRANSFIELD, MOUNT: prominent, conical- 
topped, ice-covered mountain, about 2,500 ft. in el., 
about 2 mi. SW. of Cape Dubouzet, the NE. tip of 
Palmer Pen.; in 63°17'S., 57°06'W. Disc, by a Fr. 
exp., 1837-40, under D'Urville, who named it for 
Edward Bransfield, Master, RN, who circumnavi- 
gated and charted the South Shetland Is. in 1820. 
Not adopted: Mount Hope. 

Bransfield, Point: see Bransfield Island. 

BRANSFIELD ISLAND: circular island about 
3.5 mi. in diameter, lying 2 mi. SW. of D'Urville I., 
the northernmost of the Joinville I. group, off the 
NE. end of Palmer Pen.; in 63°12'S., 56°38'W. The 
name Point Bransfield, after Edward Bransfield, 
Master, RN, was given in 1842 by a Br. exp. under 
Ross to the low western termination of what is 
now the Joinville I. group. A 1947 survey by the 
FIDS determined that this western termination is 
a separate island. Not adopted: Point Bransfield. 

BRANSFIELD ROCKS: group of rocks lying 
some 23 mi. ENE. of North Foreland, King George 
I., in the South Shetland Is.; in about 61°45'S., 
56°51'W. These rocks were reported in 1926 to 
lie SW. of this position. Named for Edward Brans- 



68 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



field, Master, RN, who reported their presence in 
1820. 

BRANSFIELD STRAIT: body of water about 60 
mi. wide extending for 200 mi. in a general 
NE.-SW. direction between the South Shetland Is. 
and Palmer Pen.; centering in 63°S., 59°W. Named 
in about 1825 by James Weddell, Master, RN, for 
Edward Bransfield, Master, RN. 

BRANSTETTER ROCKS : small group of offshore 
rocks, lying about 1 mi. ENE. of Thil It. and about 
0.2 mi. W. of a small rocky bluff, which may later 
prove to be an island, close off Ingrid Christensen 
Coast; in about 70°08'S., 71°53'E. Delineated in 
1952 by John H. Roscoe from aerial photographs 
taken by USN Op. Hjp. in March 1947, and named 
by him for J. C. Branstetter, air crewman on USN 
Op. Hjp. photographic flights in this area and 
other coastal areas between 14° and 164°, east 
longitude. 

BRATEGG BANK: submarine bank lying W. of 
Palmer Pen., about 65 mi. NW. of the central part 
of the Biscoe Is.; in about 65°16'S., 68°35'W. The 
bank was charted by the Norwegian ship Brategg 
in 1948. Not adopted: Bratteggen [Norwegian]. 

Bratholm: see Steepholm. 

Bratteggen: see Brategg Bank. 

Braun Berg: see Brown Mountain. 

BREAKWATER ISLET: islet, marked by a string 
of rocks extending in a SW. arc, lying 0.5 mi. off 
the E. side of Wiencke I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 
64°47'S., 63°13'W. Disc, and named by the FIDS 
in 1944. 

BREAKWIND RIDGE: prominent rocky ridge, 
about 2 mi. long in a N.-S. direction and 2,000 ft. 
in el., standing close SW. of the head of Fortuna 
Bay on the N. coast of South Georgia; in 54°09'S., 
36°50'W. The name Breakwind Range was prob- 
ably applied by DI personnel who mapped Fortuna 
Bay in 1929-30. Following a resurvey by the SGS, 
1951-52, the descriptive term was altered to ridge, 
which is more suitable than range for this rela- 
tively small feature. The name Breakwind sug- 
gests a beneficial function of this ridge in protect- 
ing anchorages at Fortuna Bay from violent south- 
west and westerly winds. Not adopted : Breakwind 
Range. 

Breckenridge, Mount: see Breckinridge, Mount. 

BRECKINRIDGE, MOUNT: peak in the N. group 
of the Rockefeller Mtns., standing about 2.1 mi. SW. 
of Mt. Nilsen on Edward VII "Pen.; in about 



78°03'S., 155°28'W. Disc, by the BydrAE in 1929 
and named by R. Adm. Byrd for Col. and Mrs. 
Henry Breckinridge of New York. Not adopted: 
Mount Breckenridge. 

BREID BAY: bay about 20 mi. wide, which ir- 
regularly indents, for as much as 12 mi., the Prin- 
cess Ragnhild Coast; in about 70°20'S., 23°00'E. 
This bay wis charted and named Breidvika by 
H. E. Hansen, as a result of aerial photographs 
made on Feb. 6, 1937 by members of a Nor. exp. 
under Christensen. Not adopted: Breidvika [Nor- 
wegian], Broad Bay. 

Breidneset: see Breidnes Peninsula. 

BREIDNES PENINSULA : rocky peninsula, about 
7 mi. long and from 2 to 5 mi. wide, extending W. 
from the main section of the Vestfold Hills, on 
Ingrid Christensen Coast; in about 68°35'S., 
78°10'E. The name derives from Breidneset (the 
broad headland) as applied on the H. E. Hansen 
charts compiled from aerial photographs taken 
in January 1937 by the Nor. exp. under Lars 
Christensen. Not adopted: Breidneset [Norwe- 
gian]. 

Breidvika: see Breid Bay. 

BREITFUSS GLACIER: glacier about 10 mi. 
long, which flows S. from an el. of 5,000 ft. into Mill 
Inlet, close W. of Cape Chavanne, on the E. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 66°58'S., 64°52'W. Charted by 
the FIDS and photographed from the air by the 
RARE in 1947. Named by the FIDS for Leonid 
Breitfuss, German polar explorer, historian, and 
author of many polar bibliographies. Not adopted : 
Wilson Glacier. 

BREWSTER, MOUNT: mountain at the S. end 
of the Admiralty Range, about 4,000 ft. in el., 
standing on the SW. side of Tucker Inlet, near 
the N. end of Victoria Land; in about 72°50'S., 
169°20'E. Disc, in 1841 by a Br. exp. under Ross, 
who named it for Sir David Brewster, Scottish 
physicist. 

BREYER, MOUNT: sentinel- type mountain 
about 11,700 ft. in el., standing on the W. side of 
the upper reaches of Amundsen Gl. about 15 mi. 
ENE. of Mt. Helmer Hanssen, in the Queen Maud 
Range; in about 86°00'S., 160°30'W. This moun- 
tain was disc, by R. Adm. Byrd on the ByrdAE 
flight to the South Pole in November 1929. On 
a subsequent chart, however, the name Mount 
Breyer was applied to the mountain to the W. that 
has now been identified as the feature named 
Mount Helmer Hanssen by the Nor. exp. under 
Amundsen in November 1911. The US- AC AN ap- 
plied the name Mount Breyer to this hitherto un- 



69 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



named 11,700-foot mountain disc, by Byrd, and 
retained the name Mount Helmer Hanssen for the 
mountains so named by Amundsen. Mount Breyer 
is named for Robert S. Breyer, West Coast rep- 
resentative and patron of the ByrdAE, 1928-30. 
Not adopted: Mount Helmer Hanssen (q.v.). 

Breyer, Mount: see Helmer Hanssen, Mount. 

Brialmont Bay: see Brialmont Cove; Hughes Bay. 

BRIALMONT COVE : cove in Hughes Bay, lying 
between Cape Charles and Spring along the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 64°14'S., 61°07'W. 
Charted in 1898 by the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 
who named it for Lieutenant-General Brailmont, a 
member of the Belgica Commission. Not adopted: 
Brailmont Bay. 

BRIAN ISLAND: westernmost of the Debenham 
Is., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°08'S., 
67°07'W. Charted by the BGLE, 1934-37, under 
Rymill, who named it for a son of Frank Deben- 
ham, member of the BGLE Advisory Committee. 

BRIDGEMAN ISLAND : circular-shaped, volcanic 
island marked by steep sides, about 2 mi. in extent 
and about 760 ft. in el., lying about 25 mi. E. of the 
SE. end of King George I. in the South Shetland 
Is.; in 62°04'S., 56°40'W. Bridgeman is an old 
established name dating back to about 1820. Not 
adopted: Bridgeman's Island, Bridgman Island, 
Helena Island. 

Bridgman Island: see Bridgeman Island. 

BRIESEMEISTER PEAK: peak about 2,300 ft. 
in el., which stands about 7 mi. WNW. of Cape 
Rymill on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 69°28'S., 
62°45'W. This peak was photographed from the 
air by Sir Hubert Wilkins on Dec. 20, 1928, and 
by the USAS in 1940. It was named by the RARE 
under Ronne, 1947-48, for William A. Briesemeis- 
ter, chief cartographer with the American Geo- 
graphical Soc, who by recognizing this peak on 
two photographs taken by Wilkins established 
their continuity, an important clue to the identity 
and correct position of Stefansson Strait {Geo- 
graphical Review, July 1948, pp. 477, 484). Not 
adopted: Mount Briesemeister. 

BRIGGS POINT: point which forms the W. 
side of the entrance to Inverleigh Hbr., on the NE. 
coast of Anvers I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°31'S., 
63°00'W. Charted in 1927 by DI personnel on the 
Discovery, who named it for a member of the 
survey party. 

BRINDLE CLIFFS: precipitous mass of ice-free 
rock, about 2,000 ft. in el., standing about 6 mi. 
E. of Cape Jeremy on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; 



in 69'23'S., 68°33'W. First seen from the air and 
photographed on Aug. 16, 1936 by the BGLE under 
Rymill. Surveyed in 1948 by the FIDS who so 
named the feature because of its color. 

BRISBANE PLATEAU: plateau, about 7 mi. long 
and more than 3,000 ft. in el., extending from 
Worswick Hill to Beaufoy Ridge in the central 
part of Coronation I., South Orkney Is.; in 60°36'S., 
45°40'W. Named by the FIDS following their sur- 
vey of 1948-49. Matthew Brisbane, master of 
the cutter Beaufoy, accompanied James Weddell, 
master of the brig Jane, to the South Orkney Is. 
in January 1823, and roughly charted the S. coast 
of the group. 

BRISTOL ISLAND: island about 4 mi. long, 
which lies about midway between Montagu I. and 
Southern Thule, in the South Sandwich Is.; in 
59°02'S., 26^31'W. Disc, by a Br. exp. under Cook 
in 1775, and named by him for the title name 
of the noble family of Hervey. 

BRITANNIA RANGE: range of mountains ly- 
ing between the Cape Murray depression and 
Barne Inlet, W. of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 80°S., 
159°E. Disc, in 1902 by the BrNAE under Scott. 
The name appears on the charts of the BrAE under 
Shackleton, 1907-9. 

Broad Bay: see Breid Bay. 

BROAD VALLEY: glacier-filled valley which de- 
scends ESE. about 10 mi. from Misty Pass on NW. 
and Windy Gap on the extreme W. to the bay be- 
tween View Pt. and Bald Head, on the SE. coast 
of Louis Philippe Pen.; in 63°32'S., 57°55'W. First 
charted and named by the FIDS in 1946. The 
name is descriptive. 

BROCKLEHURST, MOUNT: dome-shaped 
mountain about 4,300 ft. in el., lying about 15 
mi. WSW. of Mt. Smith in the Prince Albert Mtns. 
of Victoria Land; in about 76°08'S., 160°55'E. First 
charted by the BrAE under Shackleton, 1907-9, 
who named it for Sir Philip Lee Brocklehurst, asst. 
geologist with the expedition. 

BR0DE ISLAND: small, rounded, tussock-cov- 
ered island, about 1 mi. SW. of Green I., off the S. 
tip of South Georgia; in 54°54'S., 36°07'W. This 
island was first charted in 1775 by a Br. exp. 
under Cook. It was roughly surveyed by a Ger. 
exp., 1928-29, under Kohl-Larsen, who appears to 
have used the name "Hauptinsel" (head island) 
for this feature. Following their survey in 1951-52, 
the SGS reported that the name Br0de (Nor- 
wegian word meaning loaf) is firmly established 
among whalers and sealers for this island. This 



70 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



name is approved on the basis of local usage. 
Not adopted: Hauptinsel [German-]. 

BRoGGER, MOUNT: mountain about 4,200 ft. 
in el., which forms part of the N. wall of Cleveland 
Gl. about 4 mi. NW. of the confluence of the Cleve- 
land and Mackay Glaciers, in Victoria Land; in 
about 76°52'S., 161°55'E. Charted by the BrAE, 
1910-13, under Scott, anti named for Prof. Walde- 
mar C. Brogger, Norwegian geologist and mineralo- 
gist. 

BRoGGER GLACIER: glacier which flows in a 
W. direction to the E. side of Undine South Hbr., 
on the S. coast of South Georgia; in 54°32'S., 
36°27'W. The name appears on a chart by Prof. 
Olaf Holtedahl, Norwegian geologist who con- 
ducted investigations in South Georgia in 1928, 
and is probably for Prof. Waldemar Brogger. 

BROKA ISLAND: rocky island about 4 mi. long 
and 3 mi. wide, rising to an el. of about 460 ft., 
lying about 2 mi. off Kemp Coast and about 18 
mi. NW. of the entrance to Stefansson Bay; in 
about 67°05'S., 58°40'E. This island may have 
been seen in February 1936 by DI personnel on the 
William Scoresby, but if so it was considered by 
them as part of the mainland. It was mapped 
as an island by Norwegian cartographers from 
aerial photographs taken on a Nor. exp. under 
Christensen in January-February 1937, and prob- 
ably so named by them because of its nature or 
appearance. 

BROKEN ISLAND : isla;nd about 3 mi. long and 
1.5 mi. wide, which lies 1 mi. N. of Centre I. in 
the N. part of Square Bay, off the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 67°49'S., 66°57'W. Disc, and 
named by the BGLE under Rymill, 1934-37. 

BROMS, CAPE: cape which marks the S. side 
of the entrance to Rdhss Bay on the SW. side of 
James Ross I., off the NE. end of Palmer Pen.; in 
64°20'S., 58°18'W. Disc, by the SwedAE, 1901-4, 
under Nordenskjold, who named it for G. E. Broms, 
a patron of the expedition. 

BROOKLYN ISLAND: island about 3 mi. long 
and 2 mi. wide, which lies about 1 mi. N. of Wyck 
I. in the E. part of Wilhelmina Bay, off the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 64°35'S., 61°51'W. Disc, 
by the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 1897-99, and 
named after the home of Dr. Frederick A. Cook, 
American member of the BelgAE who served as 
surgeon, anthropologist, and photographer. 

BROOKS, CAPE: cape marked by steep, con- 
spicuous walls which rise to about 1,500 ft. in el, 
forming the S. side of the entrance to New Bed- 
ford Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 



73"36'S., 60°46'W. Disc, and photographed from 
the air in December 1940 by members of the USAS. 
During 1947 the cape was photographed from the 
air by members of the RARE, who in conjunction 
with the FIDS charted it from the ground. Named 
by the FIDS for Charles E. P. Brooks, English 
meteorologist on the staff of the Meteorological 
Office, 1907-49. 

Brothers, The: see Sorn and Bernt. 

Brothers Hill: see Three Brothers Hill. 

BROTHERS ROCKS : group of rocks surrounded 
by foul ground, about 1 mi. E. of the N. part 
of Saunders I., in the South Sandwich Is.; in 
57°46'S., 26°25'W. Charted and named in 1930 
by DI personnel on the Discovery II. Not adopted: 
The Brothers Rocks. 

BROUARDEL POINT: point on the SW. side of 
the Mt. Lacroix peninsula, marking the E. side of 
the entrance to Port Charcot, Booth I., off the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in about 65°03'S., 64°00'W. 
First charted by the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot. 
Named for Doctor Brouardel, identified by Charcot 
as a member of the Institut de France. Not 
adopted: Point Brouardel. 

Broune Insel: see Brown Island. 

BROWN, CAPE: prominent ice-covered cape 
about 5.5 mi. NNE. of the summit of Mt. Nicholas, 
marking the E. side of the entrance to Schokalsky 
Bay on the NE. coast of Alexander I Island; in 
69°16'S., 69°45'W. First seen from a distance 
by the FrAE under Charcot in 1909, but charted as 
part of a small island. It was photographed from 
the air in 1937 by the BGLE under Rymill, and 
later roughly mapped from the photographs. Sur- 
veyed from the ground in 1948 by Colin C. Brown, 
FIDS surveyor at Stonington I., 1948-49, for whom 
the cape is named. 

BROWN, MOUNT: elongated rock peak protrud- 
ing slightly above the continental ice behind Wil- 
helm II Coast, rising to about 7,000 ft. in el., about 
100 mi. SSW. of Cape Penck; in about 68°15'S., 
86°30'E. This isolated nunatak lies at the E. side 
of a series of heavily crevassed domes on the ice 
surface, indicating an area of completely buried 
mountain peaks. Delineated from aerial photo- 
graphs taken by USN Op. Hjp, 1946-47, and named 
by the US-ACAN for Lt. (jg) Eduardo P. Brown, 
USN, photographic officer of the western task 
group of USN Op. Hjp., Task Force 68. 

BROWN BLUFF: ice-capped, fiat-topped moun- 
tain, about 2,400 ft. in el., with a prominent cliff 
of reddish-brown volcanic rock on the N. face, about 



71 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



9 mi. S. of Hope Bay on the E. side of Tabarin Pen., 
at the NE. end of Palmer Pen.; in 63°32'S., 56°55'W. 
First charted by the FIDS, who named it following 
their survey in 1946. 

BROWNING, MOUNT: mountain about 2,500 ft. 
in el., which stands at the N. end of the mountain 
mass dominated by Mt. Abbott, at the W. side of 
Terra Nova Bay, in Victoria Land; in about 
74°45'S., 164°00'E. Probably first seen by the 
BrNAE under Scott, 1901-4. Named by the BrAE 
under Scott, 1910-13, for Petty Officer Frank V. 
Browning, RN, a member of the party which ex- 
plored this area. 

BROWN ISLAND: small, brown, almost snow- 
free island about 5.5 mi. SW. of Cape Errera, 
Wiencke I., at the SW. end of the Palmer Arch.; in 
64°58'S., 63°47'W. Charted by the BGLE under 
Rymill, 1934-37, and so named because its brown 
color was distinguishable from adjacent snow- 
capped islands. 

feROWN ISLAND: an island-like promontory, 
about 10 mi. long and 4 mi. wide, protruding 
through the Ross Ice Shelf N. of Mt. Discovery, to 
which it is connected by a low isthmus; in about 
78°10'S., 165°25'E. Disc, in 1902 by the BrNAE 
under Scott, who so named it because of its color. 
Not adopted: Broune Insel [German], Brun oya 
[Norwegian] . 

BROWN MOUNTAIN: rounded hill, about 1,100 
ft. in el., standing 1 mi. S. of the whaling station at 
Grytviken, near the W. shore of Cumberland East 
Bay, South Georgia; in 54°17'S., 36°31'W. The 
feature was first surveyed by the SwedAE, 1901-4, 
under Nordenskjold. The descriptive name 
"Braun-Berg" or "Braun Berg" (meaning Brown 
Mountain) was given by A. Szielasko who mapped 
this area in 1906. The English form of the name 
was recommended by the Br-APC in 1954. Not 
adopted: Braun Berg [German], Braun-Berg 
[German] . 

BROWN PEAK: peak about 5,000 ft. in el., which 
rises in the N. part of Sturge I., in the Balleny Is.; 
in about 67°17'S., 164°10'E. Disc, in February 
1839 by a Br. exp. under Balleny, who named it for 
W. Brown, one of the merchants who helped Charles 
Enderby in sending out the exp. The peak was 
resighted in 1841 by a Br. exp. under Ross, who 
applied the name Russell Peak. Not adopted: Rus- 
sell Peak. 

BROWNS BAY: bay about 1.5 mi. wide, which 
lies between Capes Mabel and Geddes along the N. 
coast of Laurie I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 
60°43'S., 44°36'W. The bay was probably seen in 
1823 by a Br. sealing exp. under Weddell. It was 



charted by the ScotNAE under Bruce, 1902-4, who 
named it for R. N. Rudmose Brown, naturalist of 
the expedition. Not adopted: Brown's Bay. 

BROWNS GLACIER: channel glacier, about 2 
mi. wide and 4 mi. long, flowing W. from the conti- 
nental ice overlying Ingrid Christensen Coast, and 
terminating in a small tongue about 3 mi. SE. of 
Ranvik I., at the head of Ranvik Bay; in about 
68°57'S., 77°55'E. Charted by Norwegian car- 
tographers from aerial photographs taken in Janu- 
ary 1937 by the Nor. exp. under Lars Christensen. 
Named by John H. Roscoe, following his 1952 study 
of USN Op. Hjp. aerial photographs taken in March 
1947, for Lt. (j.g.) Eduardo P. Brown, USN, photo- 
graphic officer with the western task group of USN 
Op. Hjp., 1946-47. 

BROWNSON ISLANDS: small group of islands 
lying off the entrance to Pine Island Bay about 15 
mi. SW. of the SW. end of Canisteo Pen., off the 
Walgreen Coast of Marie Byrd Land; in about 
73°55'S., 102°00'W. Delineated from aerial photo- 
graphs taken by USN Op. Hjp. in December 1946. 
Named by the US-ACAN for the U.S.S. Brownson, 
destroyer escort of the eastern task group of USN 
Op. Hjp., Task Force 68, 1946-47. 

BROWNS POINT: point which forms the E. side 
of the entrance to Fournier Bay, on the NE. coast 
of Anvers I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°30'S., 
63°02'W. Charted and named by DI personnel on 
the Discovery in 1927. 

BRUCE CAPE: conspicuous bluff about 500 ft. 
in el., lying just W. of the mouth of Taylor Gl. and 
forming the E. side of the entrance of Oom Bay, on 
Mac-Robertson Coast; in about 67°25'S., 60°50'E. 
A landing was made here on Feb. 18, 1931 by the 
BANZARE under Mawson, who applied the name. 

Bruce Coast: VACATED. See Caird Coast and 
Princess Martha Coast. 

BRUCE, MOUNT: snow-covered peak, about 
2,800 ft. in el., which forms the highest summit in 
the Bowers Hills, on Oates Coast; in about 70°08'S., 
162°45'E. Disc, by members of the Terra Nova of 
the BrAE under Scott, who explored along Oates 
Coast under Lt. Harry L. L. Pennell, RN, in Febru- 
ary 1911. Named for Lt. Wilfred M. Bruce, RNR, 
officer in charge of zoological work aboard the 
Terra Nova. 

Bruce Harkness, Mount: see Harkness, Mount. 

BRUCE ISLANDS: group of islands and rocks 
about 1.5 mi. NW. of Eillium I. and about 3 mi. 
NW. of Route Pt., the NW. tip of Laurie I., in the 
South Orkney Is.; in 60°41'S., 44°54'W. These is- 
lands were roughly charted in 1912-13 by a JNor. 



72 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



whaling exp. under S0rlle. They were recharted 
in 1933 by DI personnel on the Discovery II and 
named for Dr. William S. Bruce, leader of the 
ScotNAE, 1902-4. 

BRUCE NUNATAK: nunatak which lies 2 mi. W. 
of Donald Nunatak in the Seal Nunataks group, 
off the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°05'S., 
60°15'W. Bruce Nunatak was first charted in 
1902 by the SwedAE under Nordenskjold, who 
named it for Dr. William S. Bruce, leader of the 
ScotNAE, 1902-4. 

BRUCE PLATEAU: ice-covered plateau, at least 
40 mi. long and about 6,000 ft. in el., standing be- 
tween Graham Coast and Foyn Coast on Palmer 
Pen.; in about 66°15'S., 64°30'W. Its W. escarp- 
ment extends NE. from West Gould Gl. at least as 
far as 66°S., but its N. and E. limits are still un- 
known. The first sighting of this plateau is not 
ascertained, but it was presumably seen in January 
1909 by members of the FrAE under Charcot from 
their position in Pendleton Strait. The S. and W. 
parts of this feature were roughly surveyed in 
1946-47 by the FIDS. It was named by them for 
William S. Bruce, Scottish polar explorer and leader 
of the ScotNAE, 1902-4. 

BRUGMANN MOUNTAINS: mountains, prob- 
ably about 2,000 ft. in el., which are steep and 
rugged on the E. slopes, but are icecapped and 
descend gently toward the W., extending in a 
NNE.-SSW. arc along the E. side of Liege I., in the 
Palmer Arch.; in about 64°03'S., 61°49'W. Disc, 
by the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 1897-99, and 
named by him for Georges Brugmann, a patron 
of the expedition. 

BRUNDAGE, MOUNT: mountain on the Joerg 
Plateau, in about 75°40'S., 65°00'W. Disc, by the 
RARE under Ronne, 1947-48, who named it for 
Burr Brundage, U. S. Dept. of State, who assisted 
in making arrangements for the expedition. Not 
adopted: Mount Burr Brundage. 

BRUNONIA GLACIER: glacier which flows E. to 
the head of Sunset Fjord in the Bay of Isles, on the 
N. coast of South Georgia; in 54°04'S., 37°29'W. 
Brunonia Glacier was charted in 1912-13 by Rob- 
ert Cushman Murphy, American naturalist aboard 
the brig Daisy, who named it for his alma mater 
Brown University. 

Brun oya: see Brown Island. 

BRUNS MOUNTAINS : group of mountains pro- 
jecting through the icecap at the N. margin of the 
New Schwabenland piedmont; in about 72° OS'S., 
0°40'E. Disc, by the GerAE under Ritscher, 
1938-39, and named for Herbert Bruns, electrical 
engineer on the expedition. 



BRUNVOLL GLACIER: broad glacier flowing N. 
to Mac-Robertson Coast, between Murray Mono- 
lith and Torlyn Mtn. on the E. and Scullin Mono- 
lith and Mikkelsen Peak on the W.; in about 
67°48'S., 66°18'E. The name was suggested by 
Bjarne Aagaard for the brothers Arnold and 
Saebj0rn BrunvoU, Norwegian whaling captains 
who explored along this coast in the Seksern in 
January 1931. 

BRUTUS ISLAND: small island lying near the 
center of Prince Olav Hbr. on the N. coast of South 
Georgia; in 54°04'S., 37°09'W. The descriptive 
name Saddle Island was probably given for this 
feature by a Br. exp. under Shackleton, 1921-22. 
This same name is used elsewhere in the Antarctic. 
To avoid confusion of these names, the Br-APC 
recommended that a new name be approved for 
this feature. The name Brutus Island, after the 
hulk Brutus, which was towed across with coal 
from South Africa by two small catchers, and has 
for many years been moored alongside the whaling 
station in Prince Olav Hbr., was proposed by Sir 
Harold Salvesen. Not adopted: Saddle Island. 

BRYANT, CAPE: high, snow-covered, dome- 
shaped cliff forming the N. side of the entrance to 
Palmer Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
71°12'S., 60°55'W. Disc, by members of East Base 
of the USAS in 1940. Named by the USAS for 
Herwil M. Bryant of the Smithsonian Inst., biolo- 
gist with the East Base. 

BRYDE ISLAND: island about 5 mi. long and 2 
mi. wide, which lies about 2 mi. S. of Lemaire I. 
and 4 mi. SW. of Cape Lacaze-Duthiers, off the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in about 64°52'S., 63°02'W. 
Disc, by the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 1897-99. 
Named for the representative of the BelgAE in 
Norway. 

BUCENTAUR ROCK: the outermost of three 
rocks lying close NE. of Busen Pt., at the SE. side 
of the entrance to Stromness Bay, South Georgia; 
in 54°09'S., 36°33'W. The name Low Rock was 
given for this feature, probably by DI personnel 
during their survey in 1927. This name is used 
elsewhere in the Antarctic. To avoid confusion of 
these names, the Br-APC has recommended that a 
new name, Bucentaur Rock, be approved for this 
feature. Bucentaur Rock is associated with the 
nearby Busen Pt., and is named after a floating 
factory which was anchored at Husvik in the early 
years of the whaling station after 1907, and from 
which the Husvik transport Busen and the catchers 
Busen I, -II, -III, etc., derive their names. Not 
adopted: Low Rock. 

Buchanan, Cape: see Valavielle, Cape. 



424589 O -57 -6 



73 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



BUCHANAN BAY: bay about 6 mi. wide, which 
lies between Mertz Glacier Tongue and Cape De la 
Motte along George V Coast; in about 67°05'S., 
144''45'E. Disc, in 1912 by the AAE under Maw- 
son, who named it for J. Y. Buchanan, who was a 
patron of the AAE and who had also been a mem- 
ber of the Br. exp. in the Challenger, 1872-76. 

BUCHANAN POINT: point about 2.5 mi. NW. of 
Cape Dundas and 1 mi. SE. of Mackintosh Cove, on 
the NE. coast of Laurie I., South Orkney Is.; in 
60°43'S., 44°28'W. In 1903 the ScotNAE under 
Bruce applied the name "Cape Buchanan," after 
J. Y. Buchanan, a member of the Challenger cruise 
of 1872-76, to the prominent cape 3 mi. northeast- 
ward, which had been named Cape Valavielle 
in 1838 by a Fr. exp. under D'Urville. At the same 
time, the French name (in English form but mis- 
spelled "Cape Vallavielle") was transferred to the 
point now described. The name Cape Valavielle 
has been retained for the prominent cape, as ap- 
plied by D'Urville, on the basis of priority and wide 
usage. For the sake of historical continuity, the 
Br-APC in 1954 recommended that the name Bu- 
chanan Point be applied to the point now described. 
Not adopted: Cape Vallavielle. 

BUCHAN BAY : small bay between Cape Hartree 
and Cape Burn Murdoch, near the SW. end of 
Laurie I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°47'S., 
44°43'W. Charted by the ScotNAE under Bruce, 
1902-4, who named it for Alexander Buchan, noted 
Scottish meteorologist. 

Bucht der Inseln: see Isles, Bay of. 

BUCKLE ISLAND: one of the Balleny Is., about 
13 mi. long and about 2.5 mi. wide, lying midway 
between Sturge and Young Islands; in about 
66°48'S., 163°15'E. Disc, in February 1839 by a 
Br. exp. under Balleny, who named it for J. W. 
Buckle, one of the merchants who united with 
Charles Enderby in sending out the expedition. 

BUCKLEY, MOUNT: peak about 8,400 ft. in el., 
lying close NE. of Mt. Darwin at the head of Beard- 
more Gl.; in about 84°59'S., 164°35'E. Disc, by the 
BrAE under Shackleton, 1907-9, and named for 
George Buckley of New Zealand, a supporter of the 
expedition. 

BUCKLEY BAY : open bay lying between Organ 
Pipe Cliffs and Ninnis Glacier Tongue, along 
George V Coast; in about 68°15'S., 148°20'E. Disc, 
in 1912 by the AAE under Mawson, who named it 
for George Buckley of New Zealand, a patron of 
the expedition. 

Buddah Rock: see Buddha Rock. 



BUDD COAST: that portion of the coast of Ant- 
arctica lying between the Hatch Its., in about 
109°42'S., and Cape Waldron, in about 116°02'E. 
Disc, in February 1840 by the USEE under Wilkes, 
and named by him for Thomas A. Budd, acting 
master on the USEE brig Peacock, who assisted 
Wilkes with correction of the exp. survey data. 
Not adopted: Budd Land, Budd's High Land, 
Budd's Land. 

BUDDENBROCK RANGE: mountain range 
about 8,500 ft. in el., which extends about 15 mi. 
in a general E.-W. direction, situated at the NE. 
side of the Luz Range in the Miihlig-Hofmann 
Mtns., in New Schwabenland; in about 71°45'S., 
5°30'E. Disc, by the GerAE under Ritscher, 
1938-39, and named for the dir. of the Atlantic 
division of the former German Lufthansa Cor- 
poration. 

BUDDHA ROCK: rock about 120 ft. in el., which 
lies 0.3 mi. W. of Vindication I. in the South Sand- 
wich Is.; in 57°04'S., 26°47'W. Charted and named 
in 1930 by DI personnel on the Discovery II. Not 
adopted : Buddah Rock. 

Budd Land; Budd's High Land: see Budd Coast. 

BUFF ISLET: islet which Ues about 5 mi. SW. 
of Joubin Its. and some 12 mi. SW. of Cape Albert 
de Monaco, Anvers I., at the SW. end of the Palmer 
Arch.; in 64°51'S., 64°34'W. The islet appears to 
be first shown and named on a 1936 chart by the 
BGLE under Rymill. Not adopted: Buff Island. 

BUGGE ISLAND: small group of ice-covered is- 
lands lying close off the front of Wordie Ice Shelf 
and between 4 and 11 mi. NW. of Mt. Guernsey, off 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 69°12'S., 68°25'W. 
First seen from the air and photographed by the 
BGLE in 1936, and later roughly mapped from the 
photographs. The islands were observed in 1947 
from the Port of Beaumont, Texas by the RARE 
under Ronne, who named these islands for his 
niece, Ruth Bugge, who supplied woolen clothing 
from Norway for the RARE. Not adopted: Ruth 
Bugge Islands. 

BULCKE, MOUNT: bold summit about 3,300 ft. 
in el., at the end of an ice-covered spur which ex- 
tends S. from the Solvay Mtns., in the S. extremity 
of Brabant I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°29'S., 
62°38'W. Disc, by the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 
1897-99, and named by him for a supporter of 
the expedition. 

Bull, Mount: see Gustav Bull Mountains. 



74 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



DULLER, CAPE: rugged cape forming the W. 
side of the entrance to the Bay of Isles, along the 
N. coast of South Georgia; in 53°59'S., 37°22'W. 
Disc, and named in 1775 by a Br. exp. under Cook. 

Duller Bay: see Sitka Bay. 

BULL NUNATAK: nunatak which lies about 3 
mi. W. of Bruce Nunatak in the Seal Nunataks 
group, off the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°05'S., 
60°26'W. Bull Nunatak was first charted in 1902 
by the SwedAE under Nordenskjold, who named it 
for H. J. Bull, leader with Capt. Leonard Kristensen 
of a Nor. exp. to the Antarctic, 1894-95. 

BULS BAY: bay about 3 mi. wide, which indents 
the E. side of Brabant I. just N. of Cape D'Ursel, in 
the Palmer Arch.; in 64°19'S., 62°08'W. Disc, by 
the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 1897-99, and named 
by him for a supporter of the expedition. 

BUMSTEAD, MOUNT: mountain about 10,500 
ft. in el., of the Grosvenor Range, standing SW. of 
the head of Shackleton Gl., at the edge of the south 
polar plateau in the Queen Maud Range; in about 
85°55'S., 177°10'W. Disc, by R. Adm. Byrd on the 
ByrdAE flight to the South Pole in November 1929 
and named by him for Albert H. Bumstead, chief 
cartographer of the National Geographic Soc. at 
that time, and inventor of the sun compass, a de- 
vice utilizing shadows of the sun to determine di- 
rections in areas where magnetic compasses are 
unreliable. 

Bundemann-Kette: see Bundermann Range. 

BUNDERMANN RANGE: range of mountains 
projecting through the icecap on the New 
Schwabenland piedmont as a northward extension 
en echelon of the Mayr Range. From a maximum 
summit el. of about 7,500 ft. in about 72°00'S., 
3°30'E., the range extends NNW. in a gentle arc 
for approximately 15 mi. to about 71°50'S., 3°10'E. 
Disc, by the GerAE under Ritscher, 1938-39, and 
named for Max Bundermann, aerial photographer 
on the Passat, one of the flying boats used by the 
expedition. Not adopted: Bundemann-Kette 
[German] . 

BUNGER HILLS: group of moderately low, 
rounded hills, overlain by mor^iinic drift and 
notably ice free in the summer months, which ex- 
tends W. from the W. end of Knox Coast; in about 
66°18'S., 100°45'E. This group is marked by nu- 
merous meltwater ponds and is bisected by a nar- 
row, sinuous inlet which extends in an E.-W. di- 
rection between Edisto Chan, on the W., which in 
this latitude is filled by Edisto Ice Tongue, and the 
continental ice overlying Knox Coast on the E. 



Delineated from aerial photographs taken by USN 
Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for 
Lt. Cdr. David E. Bunger, USN, plane commander 
of one of the three USN Op. Hjp. aircraft which 
engaged in photographic missions along most of 
the coastal area between 14°E. and 164°E. Bunger 
and members of his crew landed their airplane on 
the unfrozen E.-W. inlet bisecting the area while 
on a photographic mission along Knox Coast in 
February 1947. Not adopted: Bunger Lakes, Bun- 
ger Oasis, Bunger's Oasis. 

Bunger Lakes; Bunger Oasis: see Bunger Hills. 

BURD, CAPE: low rock cliff forming the SW. end 
of the Tabarin Pen., at the NE. tip of Palmer Pen.; 
in 63°39'S., 57°09'W. Charted by the FIDS in 

1946 and named for Oliver Burd, FIDS meteorolo- 
gist who lost his life when the base hut at Hope 
Bay burned in November 1948. 

BURDEN PASSAGE: passage which separates 
D'Urville I. from Bransfield I., off the NE. end of 
Palmer Pen.; in 63°10'S., 56°32'W. Charted in 

1947 by the FIDS, who named it for Eugene Bur- 
den, who, as master of the Trepassey, first navi- 
gated the passage. 

Burdick Channel: see Pendleton Strait. 

BURNET COVE: cove about 0.5 mi. SW. of Mai 
Pt., on the E. side of Maiviken in Cumberland Bay, 
South Georgia; in 54°14'S., 36°30'W. Roughly 
surveyed by the SwedAE, 1901-4, under Nord- 
enskjold. It was resurveyed in 1929 by DI per- 
sonnel, and in 1951 by the FIDS. The name Bur- 
net, given by the Br-APC, is the English name of 
a plant (genus Acaena) which is common in this 
vicinity. 

BURNHAM, MOUNT: mountain of the Clark 
Mtns. in the E. part of the Edsel Ford Ranges of 
Marie Byrd Land; in about 77°16'S., 141°57'W. 
Disc, on aerial flights from West Base of the USAS 
in 1940. Named by the USAS for Guy Burnham, 
Cartographer in the School of Geography of Clark 
University. 

BURN MURDOCH, CAPE : cape which forms the 
SE. tip of Mossman Pen. on the S. coast of Laurie 
I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°48'S., 44°41'W. 
Charted by the ScotNAE under Bruce, 1902-4, who 
named it for W. G. Burn Murdoch, Scottish artist 
on the Balaena, one of the Dundee whaling ships 
in the Antarctic in 1892-93, and a supporter of 
Bruce's expedition. Not adopted: Cape Burn 
Murdock. 

Burn Murdock, Cape: see Burn Murdoch, Cape. 



75 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



BURN MURDOCH NUNATAK: nunatak which 
lies about 2.5 mi. NNE. of Donald Nunatak in the 
Seal Nunataks group, off the E. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 65°02'S., 60°05'W. Burn Murdoch Nuna- 
tak was first charted by the FIDS in August 1947, 
and named by them for W. G. Burn Murdoch. 

BURSEY, MOUNT: hnear mountain forming the 
E. end of Hal Flood Range in Marie Byrd Land; in 
about 76°04'S., 132°30'W. Disc, by members of the 
US AS on aerial flights in 1940 and named for 
Jacob Bursey, member of the ByrdAE, 1928-30, 
and dog driver of the USAS party which sledged to 
the W. end of Hal Flood Range in December 1940. 

BURTON ISLAND GLACIER: channel glacier 
about 9 mi. wide and 7 mi. long, flowing N. from 
the continental ice to Wilhelm II Coast, midway 
between Krause Pt. and Posadowsky GL; in about 
66°50'S., 90°25'E. Delineated from aerial photo- 
graphs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named 
by the US-ACAN for the U.S.S. Burton Island, one 
of the two icebreakers of USN Op. Wml., 1947-48, 
which assisted in establishing astronomical con- 
trol stations along Wilhelm II, Queen Mary, Knox 
and Budd Coasts. 

Burton Island Rock: see Bigelow Rock. 

BURTON ROCKS : small group of three rocks ly- 
ing in Marguerite Bay, about 1 mi. S. of Neny I., 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°14'S., 
67°02'W. Surveyed in 1947 by the FIDS and 
named by them for the U.S.S. Burton Island, ice- 
breaker with USN Op. Wml., which visited Mar- 
guerite Bay in 1948 and assisted in the relief of the 
RARE and FIDS parties on Stonington Island. 

Burr Brundage, Mount: see Brundage, Mount. 

Busen Fjord: see Husvik Harbor. 

BUSEN POINT: point which forms the SE. side 
of the entrance to Stromness Bay, on the N. coast 
of South Georgia; in 54°09'S., 36°33'W. The point 
was known at a much earlier date, but the name 
may have been first published as an existing name 
on the charts based upon the 1927-29 survey by 
DI personnel. It is probably named for the Busen, 
a Norwegian whaling transport vessel which was 
often stationed at the head of Husvik Hbr. in 
Stromness Bay. 

Bush, Mount: see Wade, Mount. 

BUSH MOUNTAINS: group of rugged moun- 
tains which flank the W. side of Shackleton GL, 
standing in the Queen Maud Range near the head 
of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 84°45'S., 179°00'W. 



Photographed at a distance by the ByrdAE on 
several flights to the Queen Maud Range in No- 
vember 1929, and believed to form a W. extension 
of the Prince Olav Mtns. These mountains were 
further defined from aerial photographs taken by 
the USAS, 1939-41, and USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, 
and found to lie separate from the Prince Olav 
Mtns. on the E. and the Commonwealth Range on 
the W. Named by the US-SCAN for James I. 
Bush, American financier and patron of the 
ByrdAE, 1928-30. Not adopted: Prince Olav 
Mountains (q.v.). 

BUTLER, MOUNT: the SW. peak of the Rocke- 
feller Mtns., lying about 1 mi. S. of Mt. Tennant on 
Edward VII Pen. and almost submerged in the 
icecap; in about 78°09'S., 155°44'W. Disc, on Jan. 
27, 1929 by members of the ByrdAE on an explora- 
tory flight over this area. Named for Raymond 
Butler, member of the USAS party which occupied 
the Rockefeller Mtns. seismic station during No- 
vember and December 1940. Not adopted: Mount 
Navy. 

BUTLER ISLAND: circular, ice-covered island 
about 6 mi. wide and about 600 ft. in el., lying 12 
mi. SE. of Cape Darlington, off the E. coast of Pal- 
mer Pen.; in 72°13'S., 60°08'W. Disc, and photo- 
graphed from the air in December 1940 by the 
USAS. During 1947 it was photographed from the 
air by the RARE, who in conjunction with the FIDS 
charted it from the ground. Named by the FIDS 
for K. S. P. Butler, FIDS commander in 1947-48. 

BUTSON RIDGE: rocky ridge with a number of 
ice-covered summits, the highest about 4,300 ft. in 
el., forming the N. wall of Northeast Gl. on the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68° OS'S., 66°53'W. First 
surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill. Re- 
surveyed in 1946-1948 by the FIDS and named for 
Dr. Arthur R. C. Butson, FIDS medical officer at 
Stonington I., who in July 1947 rescued a member 
of the RARE from a crevasse in Northeast Glacier. 

BUTTER POINT: low point forming the S. side 
of the entrance to New Harbor, in Victoria Land; 
in about 77°40'S., 164°09'E. Disc, by the BrNAE 
under Scott, 1901-4. So named by the exp. be- 
cause the Ferrar Gl. party left a tin of butter here, 
in anticipation of obtaining fresh seal meat at this 
point on the return journey. 

Butter Point Piedmont: see Bowers Piedmont 
Glacier. 

BUTTONS, THE: two islets lying 0.25 mi. NW. of 
Galindez I. in the Argentine Is., off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 65°15'S., 64°17'W. Charted and 
named in 1935 by the BGLE under Rymill. 



76 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



BUTTRESS HILL: flat-topped hill, about 2,300 
ft. in el., with steep rock cliffs on the W. side, over- 
looking Duse Bay about 2 mi. E. of the most north- 
ern of the Seven Buttresses, in the NE. extremity 
of Palmer Pen.; in 63°34'S., 57°03'W. Charted and 
given this descriptive name by the FIDS following 
their survey in 1946. 

BUTTRESS NUNATAKS: group of prominent 
rock exposures, the highest about 2,100 ft. in el., 
lying close inland from George VI Sound and about 
13 mi. W. of the Seward Mtns., on the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 72°22'S., 66°47'W. First seen from 
a distance and roughly surveyed in 1936 by the 
BGLE under Rymill. Visited and resurveyed in 
1949 by the FIDS, who gave this descriptive name. 

BYRD, CAPE: sharp ice-covered cape forming 
the NW. extremity of Charcot I.; in about 69°58'S., 
75°55'W. Disc, by Sir Hubert Wilkins, Dec. 29, 
1929, in a flight from the William Scoresby. Named 
by Wilkins for R. Adm. Richard E. Byrd, USN 
(Ret.), Antarctic explorer. 

BYRD HEAD: rocky, conspicuous promontory 
on Mac-Robertson Coast, forming the W. side of 
the entrance of Howard Bay; in about 67°26'S., 
61°04'E. Toward the head of Howard Bay, Byrd 
Head rises to an el. of about 1,100 ft. Disc, on 
Feb. 18, 1931 by the BANZARE under Mawson, who 
named it for R. Adm. Richard E. Byrd, USN (Ret.) . 
Not adopted : Bergnes [Norwegian] . 

Byrd Mountains: see Harold Byrd Mountains. 

CABINET INLET: ice-filled inlet, about 36 mi. 
long in a NNW.-SSE. direction, and some 27 mi. 
wide at its entrance between Capes Alexander and 
Robinson, off the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
66°35'S., 63°10'W. Charted by the FIDS and 
photographed from the air by the RARE in De- 
cember 1947. Named by the FIDS for the British 
War Cabinet which authorized the FIDS in 1943. 

CACHALOT ROCK: isolated rock about 6 mi. 
SW. of Signy I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 
60°49'S., 45°49'W. The name appears on a map 
based upon a 1933 survey of the South Orkney 
Is. by DI personnel on the Discovery II. The term 
cachalot, of French origin, is applied to the sperm 
whale. Not adopted: Cachelot Rock. 

Cachelot Rock: see Cachalot Rock. 

CADBURY, MOUNT: easternmost of the Batter- 
bee Mtns., about 5,900 ft. in el., standing ESE. of 
Mt. Ness and about 18 mi. inland from George VI 
Sound on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 71°21'S., 
66'=38'W. The coast in this vicinity was first seen 
and photographed from the air on Nov. 23, 1935 



by Lincoln Ellsworth, but this mountain seems to 
have been obscured from Ellsworth's line of sight 
by clouds or intervening summits. Mount Cad- 
bury was surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under 
Rymill, and later named for Mrs. Henry Tyler 
Cadbury, who raised a special fund to defray the 
cost of refitting the Penola, the ship of the BGLE, 
at South Georgia in 1936. 

CADMAN GLACIER: glacier, about 1.5 mi. wide 
at its mouth and at least 7 mi. long, fiowing W. 
and then NW. into the head of the southern arm 
of Beascoches Bay, on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 65°37'S., 63°49'W. This glacier was first sighted 
and roughly surveyed in 1909 by the FrAE under 
Charcot. It was surveyed in 1935 by the BGLE 
under Rymill, and later named for John Cadman, 
1st Baron Cadman of Silverdale, who contributed 
toward the cost of the BGLE, 1934-37. 

CAIRD COAST: that portion of the coast of 
Coats Land between 20 °W. and 29 °W. Named in 
1915 by a Br. exp. under Shackleton for Sir James 
Caird, patron of the expedition. Not adopted: 
Caird Land. 

Caird Land: see Caird Coast. 

CAIRN HILL: hill with two summits, about 
1,500 ft. in el., about 2 mi. E. of the NE. shore 
of Duse Bay, at the NE. extremity of Palmer Pen.; 
in 63°30'S., 57°04'W. First charted by the FIDS 
in 1946, who so named it because a cairn was 
erected on the eastern of the two summits. 

CALAIS, MOUNT: massive mountain, about 
7,700 ft. in el., standing at the NW. side of Scho- 
kalsky Bay in the NE. part of Alexander I Island; 
in 69°11'S., 70°15'W. First roughly surveyed in 
1909 by the FrAE under Charcot. Named by Char- 
cot, presumably for the French city Calais. The 
mountain was resurveyed in 1948 by the FIDS. 
Not adopted : Massif Calais [French] . 

Calais, Massif: see Calais, Mount. 

CALF HEAD: rocky headland on the N. coast 
of South Georgia, about 3 mi. NW. of Cape Har- 
court, at the W. end of Sacramento Bight; in 
54°28'S., 36°03'W. The name "Kalber-Berg" 
(meaning Calf Mountain) was given by a Ger. exp. 
under Schrader, 1882-83, but was limited to the 
summit of the headland now described. The fea- 
ture was surveyed by the SGS, 1951-52, who re- 
ported that a name is more essential for its sea- 
ward extremity in order to distinguish it from 
Cape Harcourt, with which it is easily confused 
when viewed from N. and NW. The English form 
of the name. Calf Head, was recommended for 



77 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



this headland by the Br-Apc in 1954. Not 
adopted: Kalber-Berg [German]. 

CALF POINT: point which lies about 1 mi. W. 
of Penelope Pt. on the SW. shore of Robertson Bay, 
in northern Victoria Land; in about 71°30'S., 
169°45'E. Charted and named in 1911 by the 
Northern Party of the BrAE under Scott. 

CALF ROCK: rock mass on the E. coast of Al- 
exander I Island, about 1,500 ft. in el., rising above 
the coastal ice 2 mi. NE. of Lamina Peak and 2 
mi. inland from George VI Sound; in 70°31'S., 
68°38'W. This rock was first photographed from 
the air on Nov. 23, 1935 by Lincoln Ellsworth, and 
was mapped from these photographs by W. L. G. 
Joerg. Surveyed in 1949 by the FIDS, and so 
named by them because of its oflf-lying position; 
it is separated from the Lamina Peak ridge by 
faulting. 

CALMETTE, CAPE: cape marking the W. ex- 
tremity of a rocky peninsula, about 1,500 ft. in 
el., which projects from the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen. about 3 mi. to form the S. shore of Cal- 
mette Bay; in 68°04'S., 67°14'W. Disc, by the 
FrAE under Charcot, 1908-10, who, from a dis- 
tance, mistook this cape for an island. The BGLE 
under Rymill, 1934-37, determined the true na- 
ture of the feature. Named by Charcot for Gaston 
Calmette, editor of Le Figaro, who furnished the 
FrAE with copies of this newspaper for the two 
years preceding the expedition. Not adopted: He 
Calmette [French]. 

Calmette, He: see Calmette, Cape. 

CALMETTE BAY: small bay between Camp Pt. 
and Cape Calmette, along the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 68°03'S., 67°10'W. Charted by the BGLE 
under Rymill, 1934-37, who named the bay for its 
S. entrance point. Cape Calmette. 

CAMELS HUMP: dark bare knob about 7,600 
ft. in el., standing at the head of Blue Gl. about 
3 mi. S. of Cathedral Rocks, in the N. part of the 
Royal Society Range in Victoria Land; in about 
77°55'S., 162°34'E. Disc, and given this descriptive 
name by the BrNAE under Scott, 1901-4. Not 
adopted: Camel's Hump. 

CAMP BAY: small bay between Rosita Hbr. and 
Sunset Fjord, in the W. side of the Bay of Isles, 
South Georgia; in 54°02'S., 37°27'W. Charted 
in 1929 by DI personnel and so named because 
a temporary camp was set up on its S. shore. 

Campbell, Cape: see Tennyson, Cape. 



CAMPBELL GLACIER: glacier about 2.5 mi. 
wide, which flows SW. from the W. slopes of Mt. 
Melbourne and merges with the confluent ice W. 
of Mt. Abbott, on the E. coast of Victoria Land; 
in about 74°47'S., 163°46'E. Disc, by the BrNAE 
under Scott, 1901-4. Named by the BrAE, 1910-13, 
for Lt. Victor L. A. Campbell, RN, leader of the 
BrAE Northern Party. Not adopted: Melbourne 
Glacier. 

CAMPBELL HEAD: bold headland marking the 
W. side of the entrance to Oom Bay, on Mac- 
Robertson Coast; in about 67°25'S., 60°42'E. Disc, 
on Feb. 18, 1931 by the BANZARE under Mawson, 
and named by him for Lt. S. Campbell, pilot with 
the expedition. 

CAMP HILL: ice-free hill, about 400 ft. in el., 
which lies 1.5 mi. E. of Church Pt. on the SE. side 
of Louis Philippe Pen.; in 63°41'S., 57°52'W. 
Charted in 1946 by the FIDS, who so named it be- 
cause a geological camp was established at the 
foot of the hill. 

CAMP POINT: point which marks the W. ex- 
tremity of the pyramid-shaped promontory, about 
2,900 ft. in el., between Square Bay and Calmette 
Bay on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°58'S., 
67°19'W. First seen by the FrAE under Charcot, 
1908-10, but its relationship to adjacent features 
was unknown at that time. It was accurately 
charted by the BGLE under Rymill, 1934-37, who 
camped here during survey work in this area. 

CAM ROCK: rock lying 200 yards E. of Water- 
pipe Beach and the same distance NNW. of Billie 
Rocks in Borge Bay, Signy I., South Orkney Is.; 
in 60°43'S., 45°37'W. The rock is low and ice worn 
and is not normally covered at high water. 
Roughly surveyed in 1927 by DI personnel, and 
so named by them presumably because of its shape. 

CANADA GLACIER: small glacier flowing in a 
SE. direction to the N. side of Taylor Glacier Dry 
Valley immediately W. of Mt. McLennan, in Vic- 
toria Land; in about 77°37'S., 162°50'E. Charted 
and named by the BrAE, 1910-13, under Scott. 
Charles S. Wright, Canadian physicist, was a mem- 
ber of the party that explored this area. 

Canal Principal: see Sound, The. 

Candlemis Island: see Candlemas Island. 

CANDLEMAS ISLAND: largest and easternmost 
of the Candlemas Is., in the South Sandwich Is.; 
in 57°03'S., 26°40'W. Charted in 1930 by DI per- 
sonnel on the Discovery II, who named it after 
the Candlemas Is. group. Not adopted: Candle- 
mis Island. 



78 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



CANDLEMAS ISLANDS: small group of islands 
and rocks about 23 mi. SE. of ViSokoi I., in the 
South Sandwich Is.; centering in 57"03'S., 26°43'W. 
Disc, on Feb. 2, 1775 by a Br. exp. under Cook. 
So named by Cook to commemorate the day on 
which they were discovered. 

CANICULA, MOUNT: piountain surmounted by 
two peaks, the more easterly about 3,400 ft. in el., 
standing about 3 mi. E. of Sirius Knoll on the 
divide separating East Russell Gl. from West 
Russell Gl., in the central part of Louis Philippe 
Pen.; in 63°43'S., 58°30'W. Charted in 1946 by 
the FIDS, and so named by them because of its 
association with Sirius Knoll. Canicula is a 
synonym of Sirius, the dog star. 

CANISTEO PENINSULA: peninsula about 25 
mi. long and 18 mi. wide, projecting W. from the 
N. end of the Hudson Mtns., along the Walgreen 
Coast of Marie Byrd Land; in about 73°40'S., 
101°00'W. Delineated from aerial photographs 
taken by USN Op. Hjp. in December 1946. Named 
by the US-ACAN for the U.S.S. Canisteo, tanker of 
the eastern task group of the USN Op. Hjp., Task 
Force 68, 1946-47. 

CANWE, CAPE: high bluff marking the W. end 
of Mt. Abbott and the S. side of the terminus of 
Campbell GL, on the E. coast of Victoria Land; 
i^ about 74°50'S., 163°43'E. Charted and named 
by the BrAE under Scott, 1910-13. Not adopted: 
Cape Mossyface. 

CAP: for names beginning thus see under the 
specific part of the name. For example, for Cap 
Decousovte see Decousovte, Cap. {Cap is a French 
word for "cape.") 

CAPE-PIGEON ROCKS: twin rocky promon- 
tories about 3.5 mi. SSE. of Garnet Pt., on George 
V Coast; in about 66°59'S., 143°47'E. Disc, in 
1912 by the AAE under Mawson, and so named 
by him because a large Cape pigeon rookery is 
situated there. 

CARDINALL, MOUNT: conical mountain, about 
2,200 ft. in el., lying close SW. of Mt. Taylor and 
overlooking the NE. head of Duse Bay, at the NE. 
end of Palmer Pen.; in 63°27'S., 57°10'W. Prob- 
ably first seen by a party under J. Gunnar An- 
dersson of the SwedAE, 1901-4. Charted in 1945 
by the FIDS, who named it for Sir Allan Cardinall, 
then Gov. of the Falkland Islands. 

CARDOZO COVE: northern of two coves at the 
head of Ezcurra Inlet, Admiralty Bay, on King 
George I. in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°08'S., 
58°36'W. Probably named by the FrAE under 



Charcot, who charted Admiralty Bay in Decem- 
ber 1909. 

CAREY POINT: rocky point marking the W. 
extremity of Saunders I., South Sandwich Is.; in 
57°47'S., 26°32'W. It was named Rocky Point by 
DI personnel following their survey in 1930, but 
that name has been rejected because it has also 
been used for other features in the vicinity. The 
name Carey Point was recommended by the Br- 
APC in 1953, and is named after Cdr. W. M. Carey, 
RN, captain of the Discovery II at the time of the 
survey in 1930. Not adopted: Rocky Point. 

CARL PASSAGE : narrow channel, about 0.3 mi. 
long, which joins Elephant Lagoon to Cook Bay, 
along the N. coast of South Georgia; in 54°04'S., 
37°08'W. The name appears on a chart based 
upon 1929-30 surveys by DI personnel, but may 
reflect an earlier naming. 

Carlson Bay: see Carlsson Bay. 

CARLSON ISLAND: rocky island about 0.75 mi. 
long and about 1,000 ft. in el., lying in Prince Gus- 
tav Chan, about 4 mi. SE. of Pitt Pt., off the E. 
coast of Louis Philippe Pen.; in 63°53'S., 58°16'W. 
Disc, in 1903 by the SwedAE under Nordenskjold, 
who named it for Wilhelm Carlson, one of the chief 
patrons of the expedition. Not adopted: Wilh. 
Carlson Island, Wilh. Carlsons O [Swedish]. 

CARLSSON BAY: square bay, 2.5 mi. in extent, 
entered about 3.5 mi. NW. of Cape Foster on the 
SW. coast of James Ross I.; in 64°24'S., 58°04'W. 
First seen and surveyed in 1903 by the SwedAE 
under Nordenskjold, who named it for J. Carlsson 
of Sweden who contributed toward the cost of the 
expedition. The bay was surveyed by the FIDS in 
1952-53. Not adopted: Carlson Bay, J. Carlson 
Bay, John Carlsson Bucht [German] . 

CAROLINE MIKKELSEN, MOUNT: peak about 
800 ft. in el., standing at the head of Sandefjord 
Ice Bay between Polar Times and Hargreaves 
Glaciers, on Ingrid Christensen Coast; in about 
69°44'S., 73°50'E. Disc, on Feb. 20, 1935 by a Nor. 
whaling exp. under Capt. Klarius Mikkelsen. 
Named by Mikkelsen for his wife who accompanied 
him on this voyage. 

CARR, CAPE: prominent, ice-covered cape mark- 
ing the seaward projection of the W. portion of 
Clarie Coast; in about 65°55'S., 130°55'E. Deline- 
ated from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. 
Hjp., 1946-47. The USEE under Wilkes applied 
the name Cape Carr to an ice cape in about 
65°05'S., 131°30'E., after Lt. Overton Carr on the 
USEE flagship Vincennes, who assisted Wilkes with 
correction of the exp. survey data. Identification 



79 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



of Cape Carr is based on correlation of Wilkes' 
chart of 1840 with the US-ACAN reconnaissance 
map of 1955, compiled from aerial photographs, 
taking into account the relative southwestward 
shift of Porpoise Bay from 1840 to the 1955 map 
positions. 

CARREL, MOUNT: horseshoe-shaped mountain, 
about 2,100 ft. in el., at the E. side of Depot Gl. 
about 1.5 mi. S. of the head of Hope Bay, at the NE. 
end of Palmer Pen.; in 63°26'S., 57°03'W. Disc, in 
1903 by a party under J. Gunnar Andersson of the 
SwedAE. Named by the FIDS in 1945 for Tom 
Carrel, boatswain of the Eagle, a ship which par- 
ticipated in establishing the FIDS Hope Bay base in 
February 1945. 

Carrol Kettering, Mount: see Giles, Mount. 

CARROLL INLET: long narrow inlet lying SW. 
of Cape Smyley and extending SE. for a distance 
of 35 mi. into George Bryan Coast; in about 
73°15'S., 79°00'W. The upper part of the inlet is 
said to be divided into two arms by a long ice 
tongue. Disc, from the air on Dec. 22, 1940 by 
members of the USAS, who named it for Arthur J. 
Carroll, chief photographer on the flights from 
East Base. 

CARSE POINT: the W. extremity of a rock massif 
with four peaks, the highest about 3,800 ft. in el., 
standing at the S. side of the mouth of Riley Gl., 
on Palmer Pen., and fronting on George VI Sound; 
in 70°13'S., 68°13'W. It lies separated from Mt. 
Dixey to the NE. by a low ice-filled col, and from 
Mt. Flower to the E. by a small glacier. It appears 
that the massif, of which this is the W. extremity, 
was first photographed from the air on Nov. 23, 
1935 by Lincoln Ellsworth, and mapped from these 
photographs by W. L. G. Joerg. The point was 
first surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill, 
and later named for Verner D. Carse, member of 
the BGLE, 1934-37. 

CASABIANCA ISLET: low, rocky islet lying in 
Neumayer Chan, about 0.5 mi. NE. of Damoy Pt., 
Wiencke I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°49'S., 
63°32'W. Disc, by the FrAE under Charcot, 
1903-5, who named it for Monsieur Casablanca, 
then French Administrator of Naval Enlistment. 

Case, Point: see De la Motte, Cape. 

CASEY, CAPE: conspicuous cape, surmounted 
by a peak about 2,500 ft. in el., marking the E. end 
of the short peninsula projecting into Cabinet 
Inlet immediately S. of Bevin Gl., on the E. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 66°22'S., 63°35'W. Charted by 
the FIDS and photographed from the air by the 
RARE in 1947. Named by the FIDS for Rt. Hon. 



Richard G. Casey, Minister of State and Australian 
member of the British War Cabinet. 

Casey Channel: see Casey Glacier. 

CASEY GLACIER: glacier about 6 mi. wide, 
which flows E. to the E. coast of Palmer Pen. be- 
tween Cape Walcott and Miller Pt.; in 69°00'S., 
63°35'W. Disc, by Sir Hubert Wilkins on an aerial 
flight of Dec. 20, 1928. Wilkins believed the 
feature to be a channel cutting completely across 
Palmer Pen., naming it Casey Channel after Rt. 
Hon. Richard G. Casey. Correlation of aerial 
photographs taken by Lincoln Ellsworth in 1935 
and preliminary reports of the BGLE, 1934-37, led 
W. L. G. Joerg to interpret this glacier to be what 
Wilkins named Casey Channel. This interpreta- 
tion is borne out by the results of subsequent 
exploration by members of the East Base of the 
USAS in 1940. Not adopted: Casey Channel. 

CASEY RANGE: line of ridges rising to 3,100 ft. 
in el., extending in a N.-S. direction and parallel- 
ing the Masson Range, which lies about 15 mi. to 
the E., on Mac-Robertson Coast; in about 67°47'S., 
62°12'E. Disc, by the BANZARE, 1929-31, under 
Mawson, who named it for Rt. Hon. Richard G. 
Casey. 

CASTLE PEAK: prominent ice-covered peak, 
about 8,300 ft. in el., standing close off the W. side 
of Avery Plateau on Palmer Pen.; in 67°00'S., 
65°53'W. It is shaped like a truncated cone with 
a rounded summit and rises more than 2,000 ft. 
above the surrounding ice. First surveyed in 1946 
by the FIDS, and so named by them because of its 
resemblance to a ruined medieval castle. 

Castle Rock: see Fort Rock. 

CASTLE ROCK: conspicuous rock about 600 ft. 
in el., lying about 1 mi. off the west-central side 
of Snow I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°47'S., 
61°36'W. This descriptive name dates back to 
about 1822 and is now established in international 
usage. 

CASTLE ROCK: bold rock crag about 1,400 ft. in 
el., situated about 3 mi. NE. of Hut Pt. on the cen- 
tral ridge of Hut Point Peninsula, Ross I.; in about 
77°48'S., 166°44'E. Disc, by the BrNAE under 
Scott, 1901-4, who so named it beciause of its shape. 

CASTOR AND POLLUX: two large and several 
smaller rocks, about 0.2 mi. SE. of Vindication I. 
in the South Sandwich Is.; in 57°05'S., 26°46'W. 
Charted in 1930 by DI personnel on the Discovery 
II, who named them for the two brightest stars in 
the constellation Gemini. 



80 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Castor Insel: see Castor Nunatak. 

CASTOR NUNATAK: nunatak which lies about 
3 mi. SW. of Oceana Nunatak in the Seal Nunataks 
group, off the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°10'S., 
59°58'W. Disc, in December 1893 by a Nor. seal- 
ing exp. under C. A. Larsen, who named it after 
the Castor, a ship which combined sealing and 
exploring activities along the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen. under Capt. Morten Pedersen in 1893-94. 
The feature was determined to be a nunatak in 
1902 by the SwedAE under Nordenskjold. Not 
adopted: Castor Insel [German], Kastor Nunatak. 

CASY ISLET: islet about 0.5 mi. long, which 
lies about 2 mi. SE. of Lafarge Rocks and 5 mi. 
WSW. of Cape Siffrey, the N. tip of Palmer Pen.; 
in 63°15'S., 57°29'W. Disc, and named by a Fr. 
exp. under D'Urville, 1837-40. Not adopted: Casy 
Rock. 

Casy Rock: see Casy Islet. 

CATHEDRAL ROCKS: series of dark, abrupt 
cliffs interspersed by short glaciers and sur- 
mounted by sharp peaks about 6,700 ft. in el., 
forming the N. shoulder of the Royal Society 
Range, in Victoria Land; in about 77°51'S., 
162°30'E. The cliffs form a right angle which 
extends W. and then S. for about 10 mi. along the 
S. side of Ferrar Gl. Disc, by the BrNAE under 
Scott, 1901-4. Named for its suggestive appear- 
ance by Lt. Albert B. Armitage, RNR, leader of 
the BrNAE party that explored this area. 

Catherine, Mount: see Kathleen, Mount. 

Catherine Sweeney Mountains: see Sweeney 
Mountains. 

CAT ISLET: islet about 0.5 mi. long, which lies 
in Grandidier Chan, about 2.5 mi. N. of Larrouy I. 
and about 15 mi. WSW. of Cape Garcia, off the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°47'S., 65°15'W. Disc, 
and named by the BGLE under Rymill, 1934-37. 
Not adopted : Cat Island. 

CAUTION POINT: point about 4 mi. NE. of Mt. 
Napier Birks, marking the E. end of a rocky range 
which forms the N. wall of Crane GL, on the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°15'S., 62°01'W. Photo- 
graphed from the air by Sir Hubert Wilkins on a 
flight of Dec. 20, 1928. Named by the FIDS who 
charted it in 1947. 

Cavelier de Cuverville Island: see Cuverville 
Island. 

CAVE ROCK: rock marked by a large cavern in 
its S. side, lying at the E. end of the Meade Is. in 
the N. entrance to McFarlane Str., in the South 



Shetland Is.; in 62°26'S., 60°06'W. The name 
appears to have been applied by DI personnel on 
the Discovery II who charted the rock in 1935. 

CECIL CAVE: cave indenting the S. side of Cape 
Ingrid, on the W. side of Peter I Island; in about 
68°49'S., 90' 44'W. Disc, and named by a Nor. exp. 
under Tofte in January 1927. Members of the 
exp. rowed into the cave while attempting to land 
on Peter I Island. Not adopted : Cecil's Cave. 

CECILY, MOUNT: peak about 10,000 ft. in el.; 
lies about 6 mi. SE. of Mt. Emily, in the Dominion 
Range; in about 85°52'S., 173^20'E. Disc, by the 
BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton, who named it for 
his daughter. 

Center Island: see Centre Island. 

CENTRE ISLAND: island about 4.5 mi. long and 
2 mi. wide, which lies about 1 mi. S. of Broken I. 
in the S. part of Square Bay, off the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 67°52'S., 66°58'W. Disc, and 
named by the BGLE under Rymill, 1934-37. Not 
adopted : Center Island. 

CENTURION GLACIER: small steep glacier 
flowing NW. to Neny Bay between Mt. Nemesis 
and Roman Four Promontory, on the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 68°12'S., 66°56'W. First roughly 
surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill. Re- 
surveyed in 1947 by the FIDS. The name, given 
by FIDS, derives from association with Roman 
Four Promontory. 

CESNEY, CAPE: ice-covered cape marking the 
W. side of the entrance to Davis Bay, on Clarie 
Coast; in about 65°55'S., 133°55'E. Davis Bay was 
first sighted from a distance in January 1912 by 
AAE personnel on the Aurora, who roughly charted 
this coastal area. Cape Cesney was delineated 
from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 
1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for A. M. 
Cesney, masters mate on the tender Flying Fish of 
the USEE under Wilkes, 1838-42. 

CHABRIER ROCK: rock which lies in the E. side 
of the entrance to Admiralty Bay, about 0.2 mi. 
S. of Cape Vaureal, King George I., in the South 
Shetland Is.; in 62°10'S., 58°18'W. Charted and 
named in December 1909 by the FrAE under 
Charcot. 

Chaco, Islote: see L^vebrua Islet. 

CHAIGNEAU PEAK: sharp peak, about 2,400 ft. 
in el., lying immediately S. of Blanchard Ridge and 
about 3 mi. SE. of Mt. Scott, on the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 65°12'S., 64°02'W. Probably first 
sighted by the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 1897-99. 



81 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Charted by the FrAE under Charcot, 1908-10, who 
named it for Sehor Chaigneau, then Gov. of Pro- 
vincia de Magallanes, Chile. 

Challenger, Passe du: see Neptunes Bellows. 

CHALMERS, MOUNT: mountain about 7,860 ft. 
in el., which lies S. of Mt. Keltic and Mulock Inlet 
in the Conway Range, on the W. side of Ross Ice 
Shelf; in about 79°22'S., 159°30'E. Disc, by the 
BrNAE under Scott, 1901-4, who named it for 
Robert Chalmers (later Baron of Northiam) , Asst. 
Sec. of the Treasury, 1903-7. 

CHAMBERLIN GLACIER: glacier which flows 
NE. into Whirlwind Inlet about 4 mi. SE. of Matthes 
Gl., on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°34'S., 
65°31'W. Disc, by Sir Hubert Wilkins on a flight 
of Dec. 20, 1928, and in 1940 was photographed 
from the air by the US AS. Charted by the FIDS 
in 1947, who named it for American glaciologist and 
geomorphologist Thomas C. Chamberlin, educator 
and professor of geology at the Universities of Wis- 
consin and Chicago. 

CHANNEL GLACIER: a through glacier about 
1.5 mi. long, which extends in an E.-W. direction 
across the N. end of Wiencke I. immediately N. of 
Wall Range, in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°47'S., 
63°19'W. Disc, by the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 
1897-99. The name appears on a chart based on a 
1927 survey by DI personnel on the Discovery, but 
may reflect an earlier naming. 

CHANNEL ROCK: larger of two rocks lying about 
0.8 mi. S. of the Meade Is., in the South Shetland 
Is.; in 62°27'S., 60°08'W. The name appears to 
have been applied by DI personnel on the Discovery 
II who charted this rock in 1935. 

CHANNEL ROCK: rock which lies in the NW. 
entrance to Meek Chan, in the Argentine Is., off 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°15'S., 64°16'W. 
First surveyed and named in 1935 by the BGLE 
under Rymill. 

CHAOS GLACIER: channel glacier, about 2 mi. 
wide and 4 mi. long, flowing W. from the conti- 
nental ice overlying Ingrid Christensen Coast, and 
terminating in a small tongue about 3 mi. SE. of 
Browns GL, at the head of Ranvik Bay; in about 
69°01'S., 77°55'E. Charted by Norwegian cartog- 
raphers from aerial photographs taken in January 
1937 by the Nor. exp. under Lars Christensen. So 
named by John H. Roscoe, following his 1952 study 
of USN Op. Hjp. aerial photographs taken in March 
1947, because of the jumbled appearance of the 
terminal glacial flowage. 



CHAPEL HILL: hill, about 500 ft. in el., forming 
the summit of a headland about 2 mi. WSW. of 
Church Pt., on the SE. coast of Louis Philippe Pen.; 
in 63°41'S., 57°58'W. Charted by the FIDS in 1946, 
who so named it because of its proximity to Church 
Point. 

CHAPMAN GLACIER: glacier about 10 mi. long 
and 10 mi. wide in its central part, narrowing to 
about 3 mi. wide at its mouth, flowing W. from the 
W. coast of Palmer Pen. to George VI Sound im- 
mediately S. of Carse Pt.; in 70°17'S., 67°50'W. 
First surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill, 
and later named for Frederick S. Chapman, British 
mountaineer and Arctic explorer, who in 1934 
brought 64 dogs from West Greenland to England 
for the use of the BGLE, 1934-37. 

CHARCOT, CAPE : rocky point at the NE. end of 
Melba Pen., on Queen Mary Coast; in about 
66°28'S., 98°21'E. Disc, by the AAE under Mawson, 
1911-14, who named it for Dr. Jean B. Charcot, 
French Antarctic explorer. 

CHARCOT BAY: bay, about 7 mi. long and wide, 
which lies between Cape Kater and Cape Kjellman 
along the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 63°48'S., 
59°30'W. Disc, by the SwedAE, 1901-4, under 
Nordenskjold, who named it for Dr. Jean B. Char- 
cot, at that time a noted Arctic explorer preparing 
for his first Antarctic exp., on which he planned to 
look for Nordenskjold whose return was overdue. 

CHARCOT BAY: re-entrant about 1 mi. wide, 
lying on the N. side of Nordenskjold Ice Tongue, 
along the E. coast of Victoria Land; in about 
76°07'S., 162°45'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, 
under Scott, who named it for Dr. Jean B. Charcot. 

CHARCOT ISLAND: island about 45 mi. long and 
wide, lying NW. of Alexander I Island from which 
it is separated by Wilkins Str.; in about 70°15'S., 
74°45'W. Disc, on Jan. 11, 1910 by the FrAE under 
Charcot who, at the insistence of his crew and the 
recommendation of Edwin S. Balch and others, 
named it Charcot Land. He did so with the stated 
intention of honoring his father, a famous French 
physician. The insularity of Charcot Land was 
proved by Sir Hubert Wilkins who flew around it 
on Dec. 29, 1929. Not adopted: Charcot Land. 

Charcot Land: see Charcot Island. 

CHARCOT, PORT: bay, about 1.5 mi. wide, in- 
denting the N. shore of Booth I., off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 65°03'S., 64°00'W. Charted by 
the FrAE under Charcot, 1903-5, who named it for 
his father, Dr. Jean Martin Charcot, famous French 
neurologist. Charcot established the FrAE winter 
base at Port Charcot in 1904. 



82 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Charcot Strait: see Gullet, The. 

Charles, Cape: see Sterneck, Cape. 

CHARLES, CAPE: point forming the N. side of 
the entrance to Brialmont Cove, on the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 64°12'S., 61°08'W. This name, 
appearing on early maps in this approximate loca- 
tion, has sometimes been confused with Cape Ster- 
neck (q.v.) at the N. side of the entrance to Hughes 
Bay. Not adopted: Cape von Sterneck. 

CHARLES GOULD PEAK: peak standing about 
4.2 mi. WSW. of the S. peak of Mt. Helen Washing- 
ton, standing in the S. group of the Rockefeller 
Mtns. on Edward VII Pen.; in about 78°07'S., 
155°36'W. Disc, by the ByrdAE in 1929, and 
named by Byrd for Charles ("Chips") Gould, car- 
penter on the expedition. Not adopted: Mount 
Gould. 

Charles J. Adams, Cape: see Adams, Cape. 

CHARLES-ROUX ISLAND: circular island about 
2 mi. in diameter, situated close offshore at the W. 
side of the entrance to Lallemand Fjord, off the 
W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°54'S., 66°58'W. 
Disc, by the FrAE under Charcot, 1908-10, who 
named it for Jules Charles-Roux, French oceanog- 
rapher. Not adopted: Charles Roux Island, Roux 
Island. 

CHARLOTTE, CAPE: cape which forms the SE. 
side of the entrance to Royal Bay, on the N. coast 
near the E. end of South Georgia; in 54°32'S., 
35°53'W. Disc, in 1775 by a Br. exp. under Cook, 
who named it for Queen Charlotte, wife of King 
George III of Great Britain. 

CHARLOTTE BAY: bay indenting the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen. in a SE. direction for about 5 mi., 
between Capes Murray and Reclus; in 64°23'S., 
61°42'W. Disc, by the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 
1897-99. Named in honor of the fiancee of Georges 
Lecointe, executive officer, hydrographer, and 
second-in-command of the expedition. 

CHAVANNE, CAPE: prominent bluflf, about 3,800 
ft. in el., terminating to the S. in a rocky, T-shaped 
ridge, situated at the E. side of the mouth of Breit- 
fuss Gl. at the head of Mill Inlet, cm the E. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 66°59'S., 64°45'W., Charted by the 
FIDS and photographed from the* air by the RARE 
in 1947. Named by the FIDS for Josef Chavanne, 
Austrian polar bibliographer. 

Chaves, He: see Chavez Island. 

CHAVEZ ISLAND: island about 2.5 mi. long and 
about 1,800 ft. in el., which lies immediately W. of 
the narrow peninsula between Leroux and Bigo 



Bays, off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in GS^SS'S., 
64°33'W. Disc, and named by the FrAE, 1908-10, 
under Charcot. Probably named for Commandant 
Alfonso Chaves of Ponta Delgada, Azores, but the 
spelling Chavez has become well established 
through long usage. Not adopted: He Chaves 
[French] 

CHEAL POINT: rocky point nearly 1 mi. ESE. 
of Return Pt., the SW. extremity of Coronation I., 
South Orkney Is.; in 60°39'S., 46°01'W. First sur- 
veyed in 1933 by DI personnel. Named by the 
Br-APC for Joseph J. Cheal of the FIDS, general 
assistant in 1950 and leader in 1951 at the Signy 
I. base. The point marks the W. limit of Cheal's 
survey triangulation made in July-September 1950. 

CHEETHAM, CAPE: cape, marked by an isolated 
pinnacle, forming the E. side of the entrance to 
Rennick Bay, on Gates Coast; in about 70°08'S., 
162°20'E. Disc, by the BrAE under Scott, 1910-13, 
and named for Alfred B. Cheetham, boatswain of 
the exp. ship Terra Nova. 

Cheetham Ice Barrier Tongue; Cheetham Glacier 
Tongue; Cheetham Tongue: see Cheetham Ice 
Tongue. 

CHEETHAM ICE TONGUE: glacier tongue about 
2 mi. wide, forming the seaward extension of the 
Davis Gl. along the coast of Victoria Land; in about 
75°46'S., 162°55'E. First charted by the BrAE 
under Shackleton, 1907-9, at which time it was 
about 3 mi. long. Named by Shackleton for Alfred 
B. Cheetham, third officer and boatswain on the 
exp. ship Nimrod. This feature had become well 
established by the name Cheetham Ice Tongue 
prior to initiation of systematic application of com- 
mon specific names to a glacier and its glacier 
tongue. Although this feature is a glacier tongue, 
the generic term ice tongue is retained in the name 
to reduce ambiguity. Not adopted: Cheetham 
Glacier Tongue, Cheetham Ice Barrier Tongue, 
Cheetham Tongue. 

Cherry Gerrard, Mount: see Cherry-Garrard, 
Mount. 

CHERRY-GARRARD, MOUNT: conical peak 
about 3,200 ft. in el., rising behind Cape Barrow in 
the Admiralty Range, in northern Victoria Land; 
in about 71°20'S., 169°10'E. Disc, in January 
1841, but left unnamed, by a Br. exp. under Ross. 
Charted in 1911 by the Northern Party of the BrAE, 
1910-13, under Scott, who nained it for Apsley 
Cherry-Garrard, asst. zoologist with the expedition. 
Not adopted : Mount Cherry Garrard, Mount Cherry 
Gerrard, Conical Hill. 



83 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



CHESTER MOUNTAINS: group of mountains of 
the Edsel Ford Ranges, lying in a distinctive arc 
about 10 mi. SSE. of Mt. Iphigene, in Marie Byrd 
Land; in about 76°37'S., 145°35'W. Charted by the 
ByrdAE, 1933-35, and named for Colby M. Chester, 
then pres. of General Foods Corporation, who gave 
generous support to the Byrd expeditions. 

CHETWYND, MOUNT: a massif capped by black 
rock, about 5,000 ft. in el., lying about 3 mi. SW. of 
Mt. Gauss on the S. side of Mawson Gl., in the 
Prince Albert Mtns., Victoria Land; in about 
76°23'S., 162°13'E. Disc, and named by the BrNAE 
under Scott, 1901-4. 

CHEVREUX, MOUNT: mountain about 5,300 ft. 
in el., which lies about 4 mi. E. of Leroux Bay on 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°40'S., 64°00'W. 
Disc, by the FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot, who 
named it for fidouard Chevreux, French zoologist. 

CHICK ISLET: isolated rocky islet about 4 mi. 
ENE. of Baldwin Pt., lying immediately off the E. 
end of Sabrina Coast; in about 66°35'S., 121°15'E. 
Delineated from aerial photographs taken by USN 
Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN 
for Amos Chick, carpenter on the sloop of war 
Vincennes of the USEE under Wilkes, 1838-42. 

CHILD, CAPE: northward projection of the front 
of Amery Ice Shelf, separating Evans Bay and 
Thorshavn Bay along Lars Christensen Coast; in 
about 68°40'S., 71°35'E. Disc, by the BANZARE, 
under Mawson, during a flight over MacKenzie Bay 
on Feb. 10, 1931. Probably named for J. B. Child, 
third officer on the Discovery. 

CHOCOLATE, CAPE: seaward end of the lateral 
moraine bordering the W. wall of the Koettlitz Gl., 
along the coast of southern Victoria Land; in about 
77°58'S., 164°37'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, 
under Scott, who so named it because of the color 
of the morainic material. 

CHOLET ISLET: islet which lies about 50 yards 
N. of the small peninsula forming the SW. shore 
of Port Charcot and the NW. extremity of Booth I., 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°03'S., 
64°02'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, 
who named it for Ernest Cholet, skipper of the 
exp. ship Frangais, and later the Pourquoi-Pas? . 
Not adopted: Cholet Island, Cholet Isle. 

CHOYCE, CAPE: rocky bluff, about 3,000 ft. in 
el., at the N. side of the entrance to Seligman 
Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°42'S., 
65°25'W. Photographed from the air by the USAS 
in 1940. Charted in 1947 by the FIDS, who named 
it for M. A. Choyce, meteorologist at the FIDS Hope 
Bay base. 



CHRISTCHURCH, MOUNT: mountain in the 
Queen Alexandria Range, about 4,700 ft. in el., 
standing at the S. side of Shackleton Inlet on the 
W. side of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 82°34'S., 
163°10'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under 
Scott, who named it for the city of ChristchurcTi, 
New Zealand, which generously supported the ex- 
pedition. 

Christen Christensen, Mount; Christensen, Cape; 
Christensen, Mount: see Christensen Nunatak. 

CHRISTENSEN, MOUNT: prominent, ice-cov- 
ered dome about 4,000 ft. in el., about 45 mi. SW. 
of the head of Ice Bay, in Enderby Land; in about 
68°05'S., 48°15'E. Disc, on Jan. 13, 1930 by the 
BANZARE under Mawson, who named it for Con- 
sul Lars Christensen, Norwegian whaling magnate 
and promoter of several Norwegian expeditions. 

Christensen Coast: see Ingrid Christensen Coast; 
Lars Christensen Coast. 

CHRISTENSEN NUNATAK: nunatak about 900 
ft. in el., standing 1 mi. N. of Robertson I., off the 
E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°06'S., 59°34'W. Disc, 
in 1893 by a Nor. exp. under C. A. Larsen, who 
named it for Christen Christensen of Sandefjord, 
Norway, pioneer of modern Antarctic whaling. It 
was surveyed in 1902 by the SwedAE under Nord- 
enskjold, and in 1947 and 1953 by the FIDS. Not 
adopted: Cape Christensen, Christensen Peak, 
Mount Christen Christensen, Mount Christensen 
(q.v.). 

Christensen Peak: see Christensen Nunatak; 
Lars Christensen Peak. 

CHRISTI, MOUNT: mountain, about 4,200 ft. in 
el., standing nearly 3 mi. NE. of Mt. Pisgah in the 
NE. part of Smith I., South Shetland Is.; in 62°54'S., 
62°25'W. The name "Cape Christi" was given for 
the N. cape of Smith I. by a Br. exp. under Foster, 
1828-31, but that feature had already been named 
Cape Smith. Since the name Cape Smith is ap- 
proved for the cape referred to, the Br-APC recom- 
mended in 1953 that for the sake of historical con- 
tinuity the name Christi be approved for the moun- 
tain now described. 

CHRISTIANIA ISLANDS : small group of islands 
and rocks lying at the NE. end of the Palmer Arch., 
about 10 m. NW. of Cape Sterneck, off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 63°55'S., 61°24'W. Charted by 
the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Gerlache, who 
named the group for Christiania (now Oslo) , Nor- 
way, where he obtained assistance and equipment 
for the expedition. 



84 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



CHRISTIE, CAPE : cape which marks the S. side 
of the entrance to Moubray Bay, on the coast of 
Victoria Land; in about 72°15'S., 170°40'E. Disc, 
on Jan. 15, 1841 by a Br. exp. under Ross, who 
named it for Prof. Samuel Hunter Christie, of the 
Royal Military Acad., Woolwich. 

CHRISTMAS, CAPE: abrupt rock cape, about 
1,000 ft. in el., marking the N. side of the entrance 
to Wiist Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
72°20'S., 60°41'W. Disc, and photographed from 
the air in December 1940 by the USAS. During 
1947 it was photographed from the air by the RARE 
under Ronne, who in conjunction with the FIDS 
charted it from the ground. So named by the 
FIDS because the joint party in 1947 spent Christ- 
mas Day in this vicinity. 

CHRISTMAS, MOUNT: uniform, sharp cone, 
about 6,200 ft. in el. standing close W. of Cape 
William Henry May, somewhat isolated from the 
coastal range that overlooks the W. side of the Ross 
Ice Shelf; in about 82°S., 161°E. Disc, in December 
1902 by the BrNAE under Scott, and so named be- 
cause it was the most salient feature in view when 
the polar party was abreast of it on Christmas Day. 
Not adopted: Christmas Mountain. 

CHRISTOFFERSEN ISLAND: small island im- 
mediately W. of the S. end of Powell I., in the South 
Orkney Is.; in 60°45'S., 45°03'W. The name ap- 
pears on a chart by a Nor. whaling exp., 1912-13, 
under S0rlle, who made a running survey of these 
islands. Not adopted: Christophersen Island. 

Christopher sen, Mount: see Wilhelm Christo- 
phersen, Mount. 

Christophersen Island: see Christoffersen Island. 

CHURCH, CAPE: rocky bluff at the W. side of 
Seligman Inlet, marking the N. side of Ahlmann 
Gl., on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°51'S., 
65°35'W. Photographed from the air in 1940 by 
the USAS. Charted in 1947 by the FIDS, who 
named it for Prof. James E. Church of the Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, Univ. of Nevada, who 
developed techniques of snow surveying and melt- 
water run-off forecasts now widely used. 

CHURCHILL PENINSULA: ice-covered pen- 
insula between Cabinet and Adie Inlets, extending 
some 30 mi. in a SE. direction from the E. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 66°30'S., 62°45'W. During 1947 
it was photographed from the air by the RARE and 
charted from the ground by the FIDS. Named 
by the FIDS for Rt. Hon. (later Sir) Winston S. 
Churchill, M.P., British Prime Minister and leader 
of the War Cabinet which authorized the FIDS in 
1943. Not adopted: Flint Peninsula. 



CHURCH POINT: point surmounted by a dark, 
distinctive peak, about 1,100 ft. in el., lying about 
2 mi. W. of Camp Hill on the SE. coast of Louis 
Philippe Pen.; in 63°41'S., 57°55'W. Charted by 
the FIDS in 1945 and so named because of the 
resemblance of this peak to a low church steeple. 

CIRCONCISION, PORT: small inlet indenting 
the SE. side of Petermann I., off the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 65°11'S., 64°10'W. Disc, on Jan. 1, 
1909 by the FrAE under Charcot, who named it for 
the holy day on which it was first sighted. The 
inlet served as a base for the exp. ship Porquoi-Pas? 
during the 1909 winter season. Not adopted: Port 
Circumcision. 

Circumcision, Port: see Circoncision, Port. 

CLARENCE ISLAND: island about 17 mi. long 
and about 12 mi. wide; lies at the E. end of the 
South Shetland Is.; in 61°09'S., 54°06'W. The 
name dates back to at least 1821 and is now estab- 
lished international usage. Not adopted: Clar- 
ences Isle, ShishkofE's Island. 

Clarence Mackay, Mount: see Mackay Moun- 
tains. 

CLARIE COAST: that portion of the coast of 
Antarctica lying between Cape Mose, in about 
130°05'E., and the ice-covered cape in 136°10'E. 
Named in January 1840 by Capt. Dumont d'Urville, 
who recognized the existence of land lying S. of the 
ice cliffs to which he applied the name "Cote 
Clarie," after Madam Jacquinot, wife of the cap- 
tain of his second ship, the Zelee. Not adopted: 
Clarie Land. 

Clarie Land: see Clarie Coast. 

CLARKE, MOUNT: peak about 9,500 ft. in el., 
standing E. of the mountain group containing Mt. 
Iveagh, at the head of Keltie Gl., in the Queen 
Maud Range; in about 84°58'S., 174°10'W. Disc, 
and named in December 1908 by the Southern 
Journey Party of the BrAE under Shackleton. 

Clarke Barrier: see Clarke Glacier. 

CLARKE GLACIER: northern distributary of 
Davis Gl., about 1 mi. wide and 8 mi. long, which 
flows in a NNE. direction between Lamplugh I. and 
the mainland to Geikie Inlet, in Victoria Land; in 
about 75°35'S., 162°50'E. Disc, and named by the 
BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton. Not adopted: 
Clarke Barrier. 

CLARKE GLACIER: glacier, about 2 mi. wide 
and 8 mi. long, flowing NW. to Mikkelsen Bay along 
the N. side of Baudin Peaks, on the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 68°48'S., 66°56'W. First roughly 



85 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill. The 
glacier was traversed near its head by a USAS 
sledge party in January 1941. Its lower reaches 
were surveyed in 1948-49 by the FIDS, and the 
glacier was named by them for Louis C. G. Clarke, 
Dir. of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 
1937-46, who greatly assisted the BGLE, 1934-37. 

CLARK ISLAND: rocky island about 2 mi. long 
and 2 mi. wide, lying immediately N. of Bailey and 
Mitchell Islands which, collectively, form the group 
of three principal islands at the NE. end of the 
Windmill Is. that lie close against Budd Coast; in 
66°16'S., 110°27'E. Delineated from aerial pho- 
tographs taken by USN Op. Hjp. in February 1947 
which indicate that these three islands are con- 
nected by a steep snow ramp to the continental 
ice overlying Budd Coast. Prominent and moraine 
deposits overlie and parallel the upper margin of 
this snow ramp about 1 mi. from its outer edge on 
Clark, Bailey and Mitchell Islands. Named by 
the US-ACAN for Capt. John E. Clark, USN, cap- 
tain of the U.S.S. Currituck, seaplane tender and 
flagship of the western task group of USN Op. Hjp., 
Task Force 68, 1946-47. 

CLARK MOUNTAINS: group of low mountains 
rising from the Rockefeller Plateau in Marie Byrd 
Land, NE. of the head of Boyd Gl.; in about 77°16'S., 
141°55'W. Disc, and photographed on aerial flights 
in 1940 by the USAS, and named for Clark Uni- 
versity, Worcester, Mass. 

CLARK POINT: ice-covered point on the head- 
land at the E. side of the entrance to Paulding Bay, 
on Banzare Coast; in about 66°35'S., 123°55'e! 
Delineated from aerial photographs taken by USN 
Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for 
George W. Clark, midshipman on the sloop of war 
Peacock of the USEE under Wilkes, 1838-42. 

Clarkson Point: see Pylon Point. 

Claude, Cape: see Claude Point. 

CLAUDE POINT: point, distinguished by a re- 
markable vertical rock close S., forming the W. 
tip of the small peninsula at the S. side of Guyou 
Bay, northwestern Brabant I., in the Palmer Arch • 
in 64°06'S., 62°41'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 1903-5', 
under Charcot, who named it for Monsieur Claude^ 
an associate member of the Bureau des Longitudes.' 
Not adopted: Cape Claude. 

Claude Swanson Mountains: see Swanson Moun- 
tains. 

CLAYTON HILL: hill about 420 ft. in el. in the 
north-central part of Petermann I., off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 65°10'S., 64°irw. Charted and 
named by the FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot. 



CLEFT POINT: point on the E. side of Norway 
Bight, on the S. coast of Coronation I., South 
Orkney Is. It is the W. extremity of an islet, 
separated from Coronation I. by a very narrow 
channel; in 60°38'S., 45°47'W. It was mapped by 
DI personnel in 1933 as a point on Coronation I. 
The name, which is descriptive, was given by the 
FIDS following their survey of 1950. 

Clements Markham Bay: see Markham Bay. 

CLEMENTS MARKHAM ISLAND: circular island 
about 2 mi. in diameter, lying about 2 mi. S. of 
the E. end of Rabot I. in Grandidier Chan., off the 
W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°56'S., 66°05'W. 
Disc, by the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, who 
named it for Sir Clements Markham, Pres. of the 
Royal Geographical Soc, 1893-1905. Charcot ap- 
plied this name to an incompletely-defined island 
NE. of Renaud I., in what is now the Pitt Islands. 
The recommended application of the name is based 
upon the map of the BGLE under Rymill, 1934-37, 
which charted the island. The full name Clements 
Markham Island is retained to distinguish this 
feature from Markham I. in Terra Nova Bay, Vic- 
toria Land. Not adopted: Markham Island (q.v.). 

CLERKE ROCKS: group of rocks extending 
about 5 mi. in an E.-W. direction, lying some 40 
mi. ESE. of South Georgia; in 55°01'S., 34°41'W. 
Disc, in 1775 by a Br. exp. under Cook, who named 
them for Charles Gierke, officer on Cook's ship 
Resolution. Not adopted: Clerkes Rocks. 

CLfiRY PEAK: peak about 2,100 ft. in el. on the 
N. side of Mt. Lacroix, a conspicuous massif at the 
N. end of Booth I., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 65°03'S., 63°59'W. Charted by the FrAE, 1903-5, 
under Charcot, who named, it for his father-in- 
law, L. Clery, an eminent French lawyer. 

CLEVELAND GLACIER: glacier about 2 mi. wide, 
which descends from the highlands W. of Granite 
Hbr. in a SE. direction to Mackay GL, close W. of 
Mt. Marston, in Victoria Land; in about 76°56'S., 
162°05'E. Disc, by the Western Geological Party 
of the BrAE, 1910-13, and named by Frank Deben- 
ham, a member of the party. Cleveland was his 
mother's name. 

CLIFF ISLET: narrow cliffed islet at the E. 
side of Mutton Cove, lying immediately S. of Upper 
Islet about 8 mi. W. of Ferin Head, off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 66°00'S., 65°42'W. Charted and 
named by the BGLE under Rymill, 1934-37. Not 
adopted: Cliff Island. 

CLIFFORD GLACIER: broad glacier, about 40 
mi. long, flowing in an ENE. direction to the gap 
between Mt. Tenniel and the Eland Mtns. and then 
E. to Smith Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; 



86 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



in 70°22'S., 60°30'W. The upper part of this gla- 
cier was charted in 1936 by BGLE under Rymill; 
the seaward side by the USAS survey party which 
explored along this coast in 1940. During 1947 it 
was photographed from the air by the RARE under 
Ronne, who in conjunction with the FIDS charted 
it from the ground. Named by the FIDS for Sir 
G. Miles Clifford, Gov. oi the Falkland Islands. 

CLIFFORD PEAK: peak about 3,800 ft. in el., 
which stands in the Osterreith Mtns. about 4 mi. 
WSW. of Van Ryswyck Pt., Anvers I., in the Palmer 
Arch.; in 64°36'S., 62°57'W. Probably first seen 
by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Gerlache. The 
peak was named by members of H.M.S. Snipe fol- 
lowing an Antarctic cruise in January 1948, for Sir 
G. Miles Clifford. 

Climbing Range: see Blackwall Mountains. 

CLOOS, CAPE: cape surmounted by a sharp 
cone, about 3,200 ft. in el., fronting on Lemaire 
Chan, and marking the N. side of the entrance to 
Girard Bay, on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
65°08'S., 64°00'W. Disc, and named by the 
BelgAE 1897-99, under De Gerlache. 

Cloos, Massif: see Cloos, Mount. 

CLOOS, MOUNT: dome-shaped mountain prob- 
ably over 3,000 ft. in el., standing at the N. side of 
Girard Bay about 2 mi. E. of Cape Cloos on the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°08'S., 63°54'W. Disc, 
by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Gerlache. The 
FrAE under Charcot, 1908-10, named this moun- 
tain after the cape lying directly to the west. Not 
adopted: Massif Cloos [French]. 

CLOSE, CAPE: cape about 35 mi. W. of the As- 
gaard Is., on the coast of Enderby Land; in about 
65°55'S., 52°10'E. Disc, by the BANZARE, 
1929-31, under Mawson, who named it for Sir 
Charles Close, Pres. of the Royal Geographical 
Soc, 1927-30. 

CLOSE ISLETS : small group of islets, which are 
almost entirely ice capped, about 2 mi. ESE. of 
Cape De la Motte, off George V Coast; in about 
67°01'S., 144°27'E. Disc, in 1912 by the AAE un- 
der Mawson, who named the group for John H. 
Close, member of the expedition. 

CLOTHIER HARBOR: small harbor in the N. side 
of Robert I., about 4 mi. ENE. of the NW. end of 
the island, in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°20'S., 
59°40'W. Named by American sealers in about 
1820 after the sealing vessel Clothier. The Cloth- 
ier, under Capt. Alexander Clark, was one of sev- 
eral American sealing vessels headquartered at 
this harbor during the 1820-21 season. The Cloth- 



ier went aground here and sank on Dec. 9, 1820. 
Not adopted: Clothier's Harbour. 

Clothier's Harbour: see Clothier Harbor. 

CLOUDMAKER, THE: mountain about 10,000 ft. 
in el., lying E. of Mt. Kirkpatrick and forming the 
most conspicuous landmark along the W. side of 
Beardmore Gl.; in about 84°20'S., 169°15'E. Disc, 
by the BrAE, 1907-9 under Shackleton, who so 
named the mountain because a cloud usually ap- 
peared near the summit, providing a useful land- 
mark during the journey up the Beardmore Gla- 
cier. 

CLOWES BAY: bay about 1 mi. wide, entered be- 
tween Confusion Pt. and the Oliphant Its., along 
the S. side of Signy I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 
60°44'S., 45°37'W. Charted in 1933 by DI person- 
nel on the Discovery II, who named it for Archibald 
J. Clowes, English oceanographer on the staff of 
the Discovery Committee, 1924^6. 

CLOWES GLACIER: glacier about 2 mi. wide, 
which flows E. to enter Mason Inlet, on the E. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 72°56'S., 60°41'W. Disc, and 
photographed from the air in December 1940 by 
the USAS. During 1947 it was photographed from 
the air by the RARE under Ronne, who in conjunc- 
tion with the FIDS charted it from the ground. 
Named by the FIDS for Archibald J. Clowes. 

Club, Mount: see Touring Club, Mount. 

COAL HARBOR: small bay about 0.6 mi. E. of 
Undine Hbr., along the S. coast and near the W. 
end of South Georgia; in 54°02'S., 37°58'W. The 
name Coaling Harbor, given in about 1912, sug- 
gests a possible early use of the bay by sealers and 
whalers. The name was shortened to Coal Har- 
bor by DI personnel who charted the area during 
the period 1926-30. Not adopted: Coaling Harbor. 

Coaling Harbor: see Coal Harbor. 

COAL NUNATAK: flat-topped rock mass with 
steep cliffs facing S., standing 2 mi. SW. of Corner 
Cliffs on the SE. coast of Alexander I Island; in 
72°07'S., 68°32'W. This nunatak was first photo- 
graphed from the air by Lincoln Ellsworth on Nov. 
23, 1935. Observing this feature from the NW. 
(the direction from which Ellsworth photographed 
this nunatak) only the summit protrudes above 
the coastal ice, and it was uncertain at that time 
whether this was a peak on Alexander I Island or 
an island in George VI Sound. Its true nature was 
determined by the FIDS who visited and surveyed 
this nunatak in 1949. So named by FIDS because 



87 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



thin lenses of coal (about 6 feet by 1 inch in extent) 
occur there. 

COATES, MOUNT: mountain about 4,200 ft. in 
el., which stands in the N. part of the David Range 
of the Framnes Mtns., on Mac-Robertson Coast; in 
about 67°52'S., 62°33'E. Disc, and named by the 
BANZARE, under Mawson, on about Feb. 15, 1931. 

COATS LAND : that part of Antarctica which lies 
W. of Queen Maud Land and forms the E. shore 
of Weddell Sea, extending in a general NE.-SW. 
direction between 20 °W. and 37 °W. Named by 
the ScotNAE under Bruce, 1902-4, for James Coats, 
Jr., and Maj. Andrew Coats, supporters of the ex- 
pedition. 

COBALESCOU ISLET: snow-free islet about 0.5 
mi. long, with two rounded summits about 100 ft. 
in el., lying 1 mi. SE. of Two Hummock I. in the 
NE. part of De Gerlache Str., off the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 64°11'S., 61°36'W. Disc, and 
named by the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 1897-99. 

COBBLERS COVE : small cove which provides an 
anchorage about 0.5 mi. W. of Godthul, along the 
N. coast of South Georgia; in 54°16'S., 36°18'W. 
This feature was charted and named Pleasant 
Cove by DI persormel in 1929, but that name is not 
known locally. The SGS, 1951-52, reported that 
this feature is known to whalers and sealers as 
"Skomaker Hullet" (meaning cobbler's cove), be- 
cause it was first entered in thick fog by a Nor- 
wegian gunner who had once been a cobbler. An 
English form of this name has been approved. Not 
adopted: Pleasant Cove, Skomaker Hullet [Nor- 
wegian] . 

COCKBURN, CAPE: cape which marks the NE. 
extremity of Pasteur Pen. on Brabant I., in the 
Palmer Arch.; in 64°00'S., 62°22'W. The name 
appears on a chart based upon a Br. exp. under 
Foster, 1828-31, who perhaps gave the name for 
Adm. George Cockburn, British naval officer and 
Admiral of the Fleet in 1851. The cape was 
charted by the FrAE under Charcot, 1903-5. 

COCKBURN ISLAND: circular island about 1 
mi. in diameter, consisting of a high plateau with 
steep slopes surmounted on the NW. side by a 
pyramidal peak about 1,500 ft. in el., lying in the 
NE. entrance to Admiralty Sound, S. of the NE. end 
of Palmer Pen.; in 64°12'S., 56°50'W. Disc, by a 
Br. exp. under Ross, 1839-43, who named it for 
Adm. George Cockburn, RN. 

COCKS, MOUNT: peak which lies WSW. of Mt. 
Morning and surmounts the E. side of the entrance 
to Skelton Inlet, along the W. side of Ross Ice 
Shelf; in about 78°35'S., 162°30'E. Disc, by the 



BrNAE under Scott, 1901-4, who named it for E. L. 
Somers Cocks, then Treasurer of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society. 

COCKSCOMB BUTTRESS: prominent, isolated 
rock buttress, more than 1,000 ft. in el., standing 
1 mi. NW. of Echo Mtn. and overlooking the E. 
side of Norway Bight on the S. coast of Corona- 
tion I., South Orkney Is.; in 60°37'S., 45°44'W. 
The name, which is descriptive, was given by the 
FIDS following their survey of 1950. 

COCKSCOMB HILL: conspicuous hill shaped 
like a cockscomb, about 465 ft. in el., which rises 
through the glacier at the head of Mackellar Inlet 
in Admiralty Bay, King George I., South Shetland 
Is.; in 62°04'S., 58°29'W. First surveyed by the 
FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot. Named by Lt. Cdr. 
F. W. Hunt, RN, following his survey in 1951-52. 

CODRINGTON, MOUNT: prominent mountain 
about 4,900 ft. in el., lying about 23 mi. inland 
from the coast of Enderby Land; in about 66°18'S., 
52°46'E. Charted in 1930 by the BANZARE under 
Mawson as being the prominent peak sighted and 
so named by John Biscoe in March 1831. 

COFFER ISLET: small islet lying in the en- 
trance to the bay on the E. side of the peninsula 
which forms the SE. tip of Coronation I., in the 
South Orkney Is.; in 60°45'S., 45°09'W. The 
names "Koffer" and "Kotter" are used for this 
feature on two manuscript charts based on surveys 
by Capt. Petter S0rlle in 1912-15. The recom- 
mended spelling, the anglicized form of the first 
of the two terms, was used by DI personnel on the 
Discovery II who charted these islands in 1933. 
Not adopted: Coffer Island. 

COFFIN ROCK: rock which lies 1 mi. ESE. of 
Finger Pt. and 0.25 mi. off the N. side of Visokoi I., 
in the South Sandwich Is.; in 56°41'S., 27°11'W. 
Charted and named in 1930 by DI personnel on 
the Discovery II. 

COFFIN TOP: rocky, flattened summit, about 
3,000 ft. in el., standing about 3.5 mi. inland from 
the N. coast of South Georgia and an equal dis- 
tance WNW. of the head of Moltke Hbr.; in 54°30'S., 
36°10'W. The name "Sarg-Berg" (meaning Coffin 
Mountain) was given by a Ger. exp. under Schra- 
der, 1882-83. An English form of the name. Coffin 
Top, was recommended by the Br-APC in 1954. 
Not adopted: Sarg-Berg [German]. 

COHEN, MOUNT: peak in the foothills of the 
Queen Maud Range, which rises to about 2,500 ft. 
in el., standing just W. of the terminus of Axel 
Heiberg Gl., at the head of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 
85°16'S., 164°50'W. Disc, by R. Adm. Byrd on sev- 



88 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



eral ByrdAE flights to the Queen Maud Range in 
November 1929, and named by him for Emanuel 
Cohen of Paramount Pictures, who assisted in 
assembling the motion-picture records of the expe- 
dition. 

COLBECK, CAPE: prominent ice-covered cape 
which forms the NW. extremity of Edward VII 
Pen.; in about 77°05'S., 158°10'W. Disc, in Janu- 
ary 1908 by the BrNAE under Scott, and named by 
him for Lt. William Colbeck, RNR, who commanded 
Scott's relief ship, the Morning. 

COLBECK ARCHIPELAGO: group of rocky 
islands lying N. of the W. portion of Mac-Robert- 
son Coast; in about 67°20'S., 61°02'E. Disc, in 
January 1930 and charted in February 1931 by the 
BANZARE under Mawson. Named for W. R. Col- 
beck, second officer on the Discovery. Norwegian 
whalers, who explored this same area in January 
1931, named the group Thorfin Islands. Not 
adopted : Thorfin Islands. 

COLBECK BAY: bay about 1 mi. wide, which 
lies in the S. part of Robertson Bay, between the 
S. end of Duke of York I. and the N. coast of 
Victoria Land; in about 71°38'S., 170°07'E. First 
charted in 1899 by the BrAE under C. E. Borch- 
grevink, who named it for Lt. William Colbeck, 
RNR, magnetic observer of the expedition. 

COLBERT RANGE: mountain range lying NW. 
of Le May Range in the central part of Alexander I 
Island; in about 71°10'S., 70°45'W. Disc, by the 
RARE under Ronne, 1947-48, who named it for 
R. Adm. Leo Otis Colbert, head of the U.S. Coast 
and Geodetic Survey, which furnished equipment 
for the expedition. Not adopted: Navy Range, 
U.S. Navy Range. 

COLDBLOW COL: snow-covered col, about 1,000 
ft. in el., situated on the W. side and near the head 
of Laws Gl., between the S. side of Echo Mtn. and 
a 1,600 foot peak 1.5 mi. NNW. of Cape Vik, Coro- 
nation I., South Orkney Is.; in 60°38'S., 45°42'W. 
Surveyed in 1950 by the FIDS. The name derives 
from the fact that a FIDS party had their tent 
blown down in a gale when camped on this col in 
September 1948. 

COLEMAN, MOUNT: rounded moimtain about 
2,800 ft. in el., standing immediately E. of Common- 
wealth Gl. at the head of New Hbr., in Victoria 
Land; in about 77°33'S., 163°22'E. Charted and 
named by the BrAE under Scott, 1910-13. 

COLE PENINSULA: peninsula about 12 mi. 
long, in an E.-W. direction, and 8 mi. wide, lying 
between Cabinet and Mill Inlets, on the E. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 66°50'S., 64°00'W. It is largely 



ice covered except for several rocky spurs which 
radiate from Mt. Hayes. First sighted and photo- 
graphed from the air in 1940 by members of East 
Base of the USAS. During 1947 it was charted by 
the FIDS and photographed from the air by the 
RARE under Ronne. Named by Ronne for Rep. 
W. Sterling Cole of New York, member of the House 
Naval Affairs Committee, which assisted in obtain- 
ing Congressional support resulting in procure- 
ment of a ship for u^ by the Ronne expedition. 

COLLIER, CAPE: broad ice-covered cape on the 
E. coast of Palmer Pen., about midway between the 
S. end of Hearst I. and Cape Boggs; in 70°10'S., 
61°55'W. Disc, in 1940 by members of the USAS 
who explored this coast by land and from the air 
from the East Base. Named for Zadick Collier, 
machinist at the East Base. 

COLLINS HARBOR: bay indenting the W. side 
of King George I., about 2.5 mi. NNW. of Marian 
Cove, in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°10'S., 
58°50'W. The name appears on a chart by the 
Scottish geologist David Ferguson, who roughly 
charted the bay in 1913-14, but may reflect an 
earlier naming. 

COLLINS POINT: small but prominent point 
about 1 mi. W. of Neptunes Bellows, on the S. side 
of Port Foster, Deception I., in the South Shet- 
land Is.; in 63°00'S., 60°35'W. Charted by a Br. 
exp. under Foster, 1828-31. Named by Lt. Cdr. 
D. N. Penfold, RN, following his survey of the 
island in 1948-49, for Capt. K. St. B. Collins, RN, 
Superintendent of Charts in the Hydrographic 
Dept., Admiralty. 

COLOMBO, MOUNT: mountainous projection on 
the NE. end of the main massif of the Fosdick 
Mtns. in the Edsel Ford Ranges of Marie Byrd 
Land, rising to an estimated 3,000 ft. in el.; in 
about 76°28'S., 144°44'W. Disc, by the ByrdAE 
on the Eastern Flight of Dec. 5, 1929. Named for 
Louis P. Colombo, a member of the Edsel Ford 
Mountains Biological Party of the USAS which 
visited this area in December 1940. 

COLVOCORESSES BAY: open bay about 24 mi. 
wide and 10 mi. long, indenting the E. end of Budd 
Coast between Fox Gl. and Cape Hammersly; in 
about 65°55'S., 115°00'E. The bay is believed to 
be generally ice flUed and is marked by prominent 
tongues extending seaward from Williamson and 
Whittle Glaciers. Delineated from aerial photo- 
graphs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and 
named by the US-ACAN for George W. Colvoco- 
resses, midshipman on the sloop of war Vincennes 
of the USEE under Wilkes, 1838-42. Colvocoresses, 
later promoted to Captain, USN, also published in 



424589 O -57 -7 



89 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



1852-55 his own account of the voyage in Four 
Years in the Government Exploring Expedition 
Commanded by Captain Wilkes. 

COMAN, MOUNT: mountain about 12,000 ft. in 
el., which lies about 50 mi. W. of Mt. Tricorn, 
inland from the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in about 
74 02'S., 65''04'W. Disc, by the RARE under 
Ronne, 1947-48, who named it for Dr. F. Dana 
Coman, physician with the By^rdAE, 1928-30. Not 
adopted: Mount Dana Coman. 

COMB RIDGE: ridge about 400 ft. in el., which 
forms the E. and major part of the hill at the N. 
end of The Naze, a peninsula of northern James 
Ross I., lying S. of the NE. end of Palmer Pen.; 
in 63°55'S., 57°28'W. Probably first sighted in 
1902 by the SwedAE under Nordenskjbld. It was 
charted and given this descriptive name by the 
FIDS in 1946. 

COMBS, MOUNT: mountain which lies W. of 
Carroll Inlet on George Bryan Coast; in about 
73°03'S., 81°25'W. Disc, by the RARE under 
Ronne, 1947-48, who named it for Rep. J. M. 
Combs, of Beaumont, Texas, who did much to gain 
support for the expedition. 

COMMANDANT CHARCOT GLACIER : promi- 
nent glacier about 3 mi. wide and 12 mi. long, flow- 
ing NNW. from the continental ice to its terminus 
at the head of Victor Bay, on Adelie Coast, in 
66°25'S., 136°35'E. Delineated from aerial photo- 
graphs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47. The 
FrAE under Marret sledged W. along Adelie Coast 
to Victor Bay, close E. of this glacier, in December 
1952. Named for the French polar ship Com- 
mandant Charcot which transported expeditions 
under Liotard in 1948-49 and 1949-51, and Barre 
in 1951-52. Not adopted: Commandant Drovcot 
Glacier. 

Commandant Drovcot Glacier: see Coirmiandant 
Charcot Glacier. 

COMMITTEE BAY: small, bay-like body of 
water, near the center of the Bay of Isles, South 
Georgia, whose limits are formed by the semi- 
circular arrangement of Crescent It., Invisible It., 
Hogs Mouth Rocks and Albatross I.; in 54°01'S., 
37''20'W. Its entrance, between Crescent It. and 
Albatross I., faces west. The arrangement of the 
islets was first mapped in 1912-13 by Robert Cush- 
man Murphy, American naturalist aboard the brig 
Daisy. The bay was surveyed, by Discovery In- 
vestigations personnel in 1929-30, and presumably 
named by them for the Discovery Committee, spon- 
sors of Discovery Investigations. 



Committee Range: see Executive Committee 
Range. 

COMMONWEALTH BAY: open bay about 30 mi. 
wide at its entrance between Point Alden and Cape 
Gray, and about 12 mi. long, indenting the W. end 
of George V Coast; in about 66°40'S., 142°40'E. 
Disc, in January 1912 by the AAE under Mawson 
who established the Main Base on Cape Denison 
at the head of the bay, and named for the Com- 
monwealth of Australia. 

COMMONWEALTH GLACIER: glacier which 
flows in a SE. direction and enters the N. side of 
Taylor Glacier Dry Valley immediately W. of Mt. 
Coleman, in Victoria Land; in about 77°35'S., 
163°15'E. Charted and named by the BrAE under 
Scott, 1910-13. Named for the Commonwealth of 
Australia, which made a financial grant to the exp. 
and contributed two members to the expedition's 
Western Geological Party which explored this area. 

COMMONWEALTH RANGE: range of rugged 
mountains bordering the E. side of Beardmore Gl., 
near the head of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 84°30'S., 
173°00'E. Disc, in December 1908 by the BrAE 
under Shackleton and named for the Common- 
wealth of Australia, which so generously aided the 
expedition. 

COMPASS ISLET: small rocky islet, about 50 ft. 
in el., lying in Marguerite Bay about 7 mi. NW. of 
Terra Firma Is.; in 68°38'S., 67°48'W. First seen 
and photographed from the air on Feb. 1, 1937 by 
the BGLE. First visited by the FIDS in 1948, and 
surveyed by them in 1949. So named by FIDS 
because of difficulties experienced here with com- 
pass bearings, eventually proved to be due to sub- 
stitution of iron for copper wire in an anorak hood. 

COMRIE GLACIER: glacier, about 6 mi. long, 
flowing NW. into the SE. corner of Bigo Bay, on 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°48'S., 64°20'W. 
This glacier was first sighted and roughly surveyed 
in 1909 by the FrAE under Charcot. It was re- 
surveyed in 1935-36 by the BGLE under Rymill, 
and later named for Leslie J. Comrie, Founder and 
first Dir. of the Scientific Computing Service Ltd., 
London. As Supt. of the Nautical Almanac Office 
in 1934, he greatly assisted the BGLE, 1934-37, by 
providing advance copies of the Nautical Almanac 
up to 1937. 

Concepcion, Pointe: see Conception Point. 

CONCEPTION POINT: northernmost point on 
Coronation I., in the South Orkney Is.; in about 
60°31'S., 45°44'W. Disc, Dec. 8, 1821, in the course 
of the joint cruise by Capt. George Powell, British 
sealer, and Capt. Nathaniel Palmer, American 



90 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



sealer. Named by Powell. Not adopted: Pointe 
Concepcion [French]. 

CONE NUNATAK: nunatak, about 1,100 ft. in 
el., which appears conical on its N. side but has 
brown rock cliffs on its S. face, about 3 mi. SSE. of 
Buttress Hill and 4 mi. NE. of the SW. tip of 
Tabarin Pen., at the NE. extremity of Palmer Pen.; 
. in 63°36'S., 57°01'W. This area was first explored 
by a party under J. Gunnar Andersson of the 
SwedAE, 1901-4. Cone Nunatak was named by 
the FIDS following their survey of the area in 1946. 

CONE ROCK: small rock lying about midway 
between Pyramid I. and Meade Is., in the South 
Shetland Is.; in 62°25'S., 60°09'W. The name ap- 
pears to have been applied by DI personnel on the 
Discovery II, who charted the rock in 1935. Not 
adopted : Conical Rock. 

CONFUSION POINT: point which forms the S. 
tip of the islet at the W. side of the entrance to 
Clowes Bay, along the S. side of Signy I., in the 
South Orkney Is.; in 60°45'S., 45°38'W. Charted 
and named in 1933 by DI personnel on the 
Discovery II. 

CONGER GLACIER: channel glacier about 3 mi. 
wide and 7 mi. long flowing NNW. from the conti- 
nental ice to Knox Coast, about 5 mi. E. of Glenzer 
Gl.; in about 66°05'S., 103°42'E. Delineated from 
aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946- 
47, and named by the US-AC AN for Richard R. 
Conger, chief photographer's mate with USN Op. 
Wml., 1947-48, who assisted in establishing astro- 
nomical control stations along the coast from Wil- 
helm II Coast to Budd Coast. 

Conical Hill: see Cherry-Garrard, Mount. 

Conical Rock: see Cone Rock. 

CONICAL ROCK: rock lying at the E. side of 
Hell Gates, about midway between Snow and 
Livingston Islands, in the South Shetland Is.; in 
62°40'S., 61°10'W. Named by DI personnel on the 
Discovery II, who charted the area in 1930-31. 
Not adopted: Rocher Conique [French]. 

Conique, Rocher: see Conical Rock. 

CONRADI PEAK : isolated, almbst snow-covered 
peak, about 3,300 ft. in el., lying ^bout 28 mi. SSE. 
of Cape Batterbee, in Enderby Land; in about 
66°14'S., 54°22'E. Disc, and named by the BAN- 
ZARE under Mawson, in January 1930. 

CONRAD MOUNTAINS: mountain range about 
20 mi. long, in a N.-S. direction, and about 10,800 
ft. in el., lying between Mt. Dallmann and the 
Kurze Mtns. in New Schwabenland; in about 



72°00'S., 9°30'E. Disc, by the GerAE under 
Ritscher, 1938-39, and named for the dir. of 
meteorological division of the former Marine- 
leitung (German Admiralty). 

CONSORT ISLETS : group of two islets, the most 
northeasterly of the De Dion Its., lying about 6 mi. 
S. of Adelaide I. in Marguerite Bay; in 67°52'S., 
68°42'W. First sighted in 1909 by the FrAE under 
Charcot. Surveyed in 1948 by the FIDS. The 
name, given by FIDS, derives from association with 
Emperor Islet. 

Constance, Cape: see Jones, Cape. 

CONSTANCE, CAPE: cape which marks the N. 
tip of the peninsula between Antarctic and Pos- 
session Bays, on the N. coast of South Georgia; in 
54°03'S., 36°59'W. Cape Constance is an estab- 
lished name dating back to about 1912. 

CONTACT PEAK: prominent rock peak, about 
3,300 ft. in el., which is the southernmost peak on 
Pourquoi Pas I., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 67°47'S., 67°28'W. First sighted and roughly 
charted in 1909 by the FrAE under Charcot. It 
was surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE and in 1948 by 
the FIDS. So named by the FIDS because the 
peak marks the granite-volcanic contact in the 
cliffs which is visible at a considerable distance. 

CONTRAST ROCKS: small group of rocks about 
0.5 mi. E. of Antarctic Pt. along the N. coast of 
South Georgia; in 54°04'S., 36°57'W. Charted and 
named in the period 1926-30 by DI personnel. 

CONWAY, CAPE: cape which forms the S. tip 
of Snow I., in the South Shetlands Is.; in 62°49'S., 
61°25'W. Named by a Br. exp. under Foster, 
1828-31, for the Conway, a vessel on which Foster 
had previously served. 

CONWAY RANGE : mountain range between Mu- 
lock Inlet and the Cape Murray depression on the 
W. side of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 79°18'S., 
159°20'E. This area was disc, by the BrNAE under 
Scott, 1901-4. The name was used in the report 
of the BrAE under Shackleton, 1907-9. 

Cook Bay: see Joseph Cook Bay. 

COOK BAY: irregular bay, about 1.3 mi. wide at 
its entrance between Cape Crewe and Black Head, 
narrowing into two western arms. Lighthouse Bay 
and Prince Olav Hbr., along the N. coast of South 
Georgia; in 54°03'S., 37°08'W. Charted by DI 
personnel during the period 1926-30, and named by 
them for Capt. James Cook, who explored South 
Georgia and landed in this general vicinity in 1775. 



91 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



COOK GLACIER: glacier which flows in a N. 
direction to Saint Andrews Bay, on the N. coast of 
South Georgia; in 54°26'S., 36°12'W. Named by a 
Ger. exp. under Schrader, 1882-83, for Capt. James 
Cook. 

COOK ISLAND: central island of Southern 
Thule, in the South Sandwich Is.; in 59°27'S., 
27°09'W. Southern Thule was disc, by a Br. exp. 
under Capt. James Cook in 1775. The island was 
named for Cook by a Russ exp. under Bellings- 
hausen, which explored the South Sandwich Is. in 
1819-20. 

Cook Peninsula: see Riiser-Larsen Peninsula. 

COOK ROCK: arched rock about 150 ft. in el., 
lying E. of Trousers Rock, and about 0.3 mi. NE. of 
Vindication I., in the South Sandwich Is.; in 
57°04'S., 26°45'W. Charted in 1930 by DI person- 
nel on the Discovery II and named for Capt. James 
Cook. 

COOPER, MOUNT: large mountain mass, about 
5 mi. long and 1.5 mi. wide, rising over 3,500 ft. in 
el., in the Edsel Ford Ranges of Marie Byrd Land, 
on the N. side of Boyd Gl.; in about 77°07'S., 
145°24'W. Disc, on aerial flights in 1934 by the 
ByrdAE and named by R. Adm. Byrd for Merian C. 
Cooper, motion picture produce^ of Hollywood. 

COOPER BAY: small bay about 2 mi. SW. of 
Cape Vahsel and 1 mi. NW. of Cooper I., at the SE. 
end of South Georgia; in 54°47'S., 35°48'W. The 
bay derives its name from nearby Cooper Island. 

COOPER GLACIER: valley glacier about 3 to 8 
mi. wide and about 20 mi. long, which descends 
from the south polar plateau and flows NE. between 
Mounts Ruth Gade and Don Pedro Christophersen, 
in the Queen Maud Range, and merges with the 
head of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 85°30'S., 163°50'W. 
Disc, by R. Adm. Byrd on several ByrdAE flights to 
the Queen Maud Range in November 1929, and 
named by him for Kent Cooper, an official of the 
Associated Press. 

COOPER ISLAND: island about 2 mi. long which 
lies at the N. side of the entrance to Grygalski 
Fjord, ofif the SE. end of South Georgia; in 54°49'S., 
35°46'W. Disc, by a Br. exp. under Cook in 1775, 
and named for Lt. Robert P. Cooper, an officer 
aboard the Resolution. 

COOPER SOUND: navigable channel, about 1.5 
mi. wide, which separates Cooper I. from the SE. 
coast of South Georgia; in 54°48'S., 35°48'W. The 
existence of this channel was first noted in 1775 
by a Br. exp. under Cook. The name Cooper Sound, 



derived from the nearby Cooper I., is well estab- 
lished in use among the sealers in South Georgia. 

COPPER GLACIER: glacier which flows in a SE. 
direction to the SE. coast of Anvers I. between Cop- 
per Peak and Green Spur, on the N., and Billie Peak, 
on the S., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°44'S., 63°19'W. 
Probably first seen by the BelgAE under De 
Gerlache, 1897-99. The name appears on a chart 
based on a 1927 survey by DI personnel on the 
Discovery, but may reflect an earlier naming. 

COPPERMINE COVE: cove immediately SE. of 
Cape Morris, the NW. tip of Robert I., in the South 
Shetland Is.; in 62°22'S., 59°46'W. The name, de- 
rived from the reported existence of copper ore in 
the cove, was applied by sealers in about 1821 to a 
much larger bight farther SE. along the W. side 
of Robert I., but in recent years the name has be- 
come established for the cove described. Not 
adopted: Copper Mine Cove. 

COPPER PEAK: peak which is vivid green in 
color, about 3,700 ft. in el., about 2 mi. NNE. of 
Billie Peak and 2 mi. E. of the N. side of Borgen 
Bay, on Anvers I. in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°43'S., 
63°21'W. First seen by the BelgAE under De 
Gerlache, 1897-99. The name appears on a chart 
based on a 1927 survey by DI personnel on the Dis- 
covery, but may reflect an earlier naming. 

CORA COVE : small coye in the NW part of Deso- 
lation Hbr., along the SE. side of Desolation I. in 
the South Shetland Is.; in 62°27'S., 60°22'W. A 
Br. sealing exp. under Powell visited this cove in 
1821, reporting that the brig Cora, of Liverpool, 
was lost at this location during the preceding year. 
Not adopted: Cora's Cove. 

CORDELIA BAY: bight along the E. side of 
Saunders I., in the South Sandwich Is.; in 57°47'S., 
26°24'W. Charted in 1930 by DI personnel on the 
Discovery II. Named for Cordelia A. Carey, daugh- 
ter of Cdr. W. M. Carey, RN (Ret.), then captain of 
the Discovery II. 

CORDELL HULL BAY: ice-filled bay, about 18 
mi. wide, and 15 mi. long, fed by Cordell Hull Gl., 
indenting Hobbs Coast; in about 75°10'S., 136°20'W. 
Disc, by the USAS, 1939-41. The bay takes its 
name from Cordell Hull Gl., which was named for 
Sec. of State Cordell Hull. 

CORDELL HULL GLACIER: about 20 mi. wide; 
flows to the head of Cordell Hull Bay, on Hobbs 
Coast; in about 75°20'S., 136°15'W. Disc, by the 
USAS, 1939-41, and named for Sec. of State Cordell 
Hull. 



92 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



COREY, MOUNT: mountain about 2,000 ft. in 
el., which lies about 8 mi. S. of Fosdick Mtns., in 
the Edsel Ford Ranges in Marie Byrd Land; in 
about 76°38'S., 145°00'W. Disc, by the Marie 
Byrd Land Sledging Party of the ByrdAE in No- 
vember 1934, and named for Stevenson Corey, exp. 
supply officer and member of the sledge party. 

CORINTHIAN BAY: bay, which is about 3 mi. 
wide and recedes about 1.5 mi., entered between 
Rogers Head and Saddle Pt. on the N. coast of 
Heard I.; in 53°01'S., 73°27'E. It was probably 
named by Capt. Erasmus Darwin Rogers, American 
whaler and sealer, after his vessel Corinthian in 
which he made the first landing on Heard I. in 
March 1855. The name appears on a chart by the 
Br. exp. under Nares, which visited the island in 
the Challenger in 1874 and utilized the names then 
in use by the sealers. 

CORNER CLIFFS: rocky mass surmounted by 
two flat-topped summits about 1.5 mi. apart, stand- 
ing immediately S. of Saturn Gl. on the SE. coast 
of Alexander I Island; in 72°04'S., 68°25'W. The 
rocks of these cliffs were apparently hidden from 
the line of sight by intervening ice slopes to the 
W., but the two rock ridges forming the NW. shoul- 
der of this feature were first seen and photographed 
from the air by Lincoln Ellsworth on Nov. 23, 1935, 
and were mapped from these photographs by 
W. L. G. Joerg. The cliffs were first surveyed in 
1949 by the FIDS, who gave this name to mark the 
point where the exposed rock of eastern Alexander 
I Island turns from a N.-S. direction toward the 
southwest. 

CORNER GLACIER: steep, broken glacier about 
1 mi. wide, descending from the W. slopes of Mt. 
Dickason and merging with the confluent ice on 
the coast of Victoria Land; in about 74°36'S., 
163°30'E. Charted by the Northern Party of the 
BrAE under Scott, 1910-13, and so named by them 
because of its location. 

CORNER ISLANDS: two islets forming a crude 
right angle, lying 0.1 mi. NE. of Galindez I. in the 
Argentine Is., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
65°15'S., 64°15'W. Charted and named in 1935 by 
the BGLE under Rymill. 

CORNER PEAK: pyramidal peak, about 3,500 ft. 
in el., with considerable rock exposed on its N. face, 
lying 2.5 mi. SW. of the S. end of Marescot Ridge 
and some 8 mi. ESE. of Cape Roquemaurel, mark- 
ing the corner of a broad glacier valley which rises 
immediately to the SE. and fans out northwestward 
to form a piedmont ice sheet on the NW. side of 
Louis Philippe Pen.; in 63°35'S., 5^°39'W. Named 
by the FIDS following a survey of the area in 1946. 



CORNER ROCK: rock lying in the SE. entrance 
to Meek Chan, in the Argentine Is., off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 65°15'S., 64°15'W. Charted and 
named in 1935 by the BGLE under Rymill. 

CORNICE CHANNEL: narrow channel separat- 
ing Galindez I. from the E. part of Skua I. in the 
Argentine Is., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
65°15'S., 64°16'W. First surveyed in 1935-36 by 
the BGLE under Rymill. Named in 1954 by the 
Br-APC. A prominent cornice overhangs the ice 
cliff on the Galindez I. side of the channel. 

CORNISH, CAPE: cape which forms the N. tip 
of Buckle I. in the Balleny Is.; in about 66°42'S., 
163°09'E. Named by DI personnel on the Dis- 
covery II in 1938 for A. W. Cornish, meteorologist 
with the Australian Central Bureau who was an 
observer aboard the Discovery II during 1937-38. 

CORNWALL PEAKS: two conspicuous rock 
peaks, the highest about 3,400 ft. in el., standing at 
the W. side of Konig Gl., about 3 mi. SW. of For- 
tuna Bay, South Georgia; in 54°11'S., 36°52'W. 
The name Cornwall Peak was probably given by 
DI personnel during their survey of Fortuna Bay 
in 1929. During the SGS, 1951-52, this peak could 
not be re-identified. At the same time it was re- 
ported that the features now described, although 
lying farther south, together form a conspicuous 
landmark requiring a name. The name Cornwall 
Peaks was recommended for these peaks by the 
Br-APC in 1954; the name Cornwall Peak has been 
eliminated. Not adopted : Cornwall Peak. 

CORNWALLIS ISLAND : island about 3 mi. long 
and 1.5 mi. wide, which Ues about midway between 
Elephant and Clarence Islands in the South Shet- 
land Is.; in 61°03'S., 54°31'W. The name dates 
back to about 1821 and is now established interna- 
tional usage. Not adopted: Cornwallis's Island, 
Michailoff's Island. 

CORNWALL POINT: conspicuous point about 1.5 
mi. NE. of Cape Morris, on the N. side of Robert I., 
in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°21'S., 59°45'W. 
The name appears to have been applied by DI per- 
sonnel on the Discovery II who charted the point 
in 1935. 

CORONATION ISLAND: largest of the South 
Orkney Is., about 30 mi. long and 3 to 8 mi. wide; 
in about 60°37'S., 45°30'W. Disc, in December 1821 
in the course of the joint cruise by Capt. George 
Powell, British sealer, and Capt. Nathaniel Palmer, 
American sealer. Named by Powell in honor of the 
coronation of George IV, who had become King of 
Great Britain in 1820. Not adopted: Coronation 
Isle, Mainland, Pomona Island. 



93 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



CORRAL POINT: rocky point forming the SW. 
extremity of Moe I., South Orkney Is.; in 60°45'S., 
45°43'W. Roughly surveyed by DI personnel in 
1933. Named by the FIDS following their survey 
of 1947. The Corral Whaling Co. of Bergen, a sub- 
sidiary of Messrs. Christensen and Co., Corral, 
Chile, operated the floating factory Tioga, with its 
steam whalers Corral and Fyr, in the South Orkney 
Is. in 1912-13. 

CORRELL NUNATAK: nunatak on the W. mar- 
gin of Mertz Gl., standing about 20 mi. SSW. of the 
head of Buchanan Bay, on George V Coast; in about 
67°34'S., 144°07'E. Disc, in November 1912 by the 
AAE under Mawson, who named it for Percy E. 
Correll, mechanic with the Main Base party. 

Carry, Cape: see Corry Island. 

CORRY ISLAND: circular island about 2 mi. in 
diameter and about 1,600 ft. in el., lying off the SE. 
coast of Louis Philippe Pen. between Vega and 
Eagle Islands; in 63°43'S., 57°32'W. This is believed 
to be the cape sighted hereabout by a Br. exp. under 
Ross, 1839-43, who named it for Thomas L. Corry, 
a Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty. In 1945, 
the FIDS charted an archipelago in this area. The 
present application of the name is in accord with 
the FIDS "that the name of Corry should be per- 
petuated on the most conspicuous of these islands 
as seen from eastward (the direction from which it 
was seen by Ross)." Not adopted: Cape Corry. 

COTTER, CAPE: bold headland about 10 mi. S. 
of Cape Hallett, on the coast of Victoria Land; in 
about 72°40'S., 170°45'E. Named in 1841 by a Br. 
exp. under Ross, for Pownall P. Cotter, Master of 
the Terror, one of the two exp. ships used by Ross. 

COTTON GLACIER: an ill-defined stream of 
glacial ice lying at the S. side of Mackay Gl. With 
Mackay Gl. it occupies the broad basin opening out 
upon Granite Hbr., in Victoria Land; in about 
77°06'S., 161°47'E. Disc, and named by the BrAE 
under Scott, 1910-13. 

COULING ISLAND: island in the William 
Scoresby Arch., lying off Mac-Robertson Coast 
about 5 mi. NE. of the entrance to William Scoresby 
Bay; in about 67°20'S., 59°42'E. Disc, and named 
by DI personnel on the William Scoresby in Febru- 
ary 1936. Not adopted: Couling Island, Froa 
[Norwegian] . 

COULMAN ISLAND: island about 15 mi. long 
and 9 mi. wide, which lies about 8 mi. SSE. of Cape 
Jones, off the E. coast of Victoria Land; in about 
73°25'S., 169°50'E. Disc, in 1841 by a Br. exp. 
under Ross, who named it for his father-in-law, 
Thomas Coulman. 



COURTAULD, MOUNT: rounded, mainly ice- 
covered mountain, about 6,900 ft. in el., standing 
9 mi. E. of the rocky ridge marking the N. side 
of the mouth of Naess GL, on the W. side of Palmer 
Pen.; in 70°21'S., 67°28'W. First surveyed in 1936 
by the BGLE under Rymill, and later named for 
Augustine Courtauld, British Arctic explorer who 
was of assistance during the organization of the 
BGLE, 1934-37. 

COURTIER ISLETS: group of about 24 small 
islets and rocks, the highest about 90 ft. in el., lying 
close SW. of Emperor It. in the De Dion Its., ofT 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°52'S., 68°44'W. 
First sighted in 1909 by the FrAE under Charcot. 
The islets were visited and surveyed in 1949 by the 
FIDS. So named by FIDS because of their close 
association with Emperor Islet. 

COURT NUNATAK: nunatak about 2,200 ft. in 
el., standing close E. of the mouth of Meinardus 
Gl. on the W. side of New Bedford Inlet, on the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 73°22'S.', 61°36'W. Disc, 
and photographed from the air in December 1940 
by members of East Base of the USAS. During 
1947 it was photographed from the air by members 
of the RARE, who in conjunction with the FIDS 
charted it from the ground. Named by the FIDS 
for Arnold Court, American meteorologist and 
member of the West Base of the USAS, 1939^1. 

COURT RIDGE: low, ice-drowned ridge, about 
1,000 ft. in el., extending into Sulzberger Bay in a 
NNW. direction from the NW. extremity of the 
Haines Mtns. of the Edsel Ford Ranges in Marie 
Byrd Land; in about 77°20'S., 147°05'W. Disc, by 
members of the ByrdAE on the Northeastern Flight 
of December 15-16, 1934. Named for Arnold Court, 
meteorologist at the West Base of the USAS, 
1939-41. 

COVE ROCK: rock about 2.5 mi. W. of North 
Foreland, the NE. tip of King George I., in the 
South Shetland Is.; in 61°53'S., 57°46'W. Charted 
and named in 1937 by DI personnel on the Dis- 
covery II. 

COVEY ROCKS: group of about six rocks lying 
midway between Piiiero I. and Cape Saenz Pefia in 
Laubeuf Fjord, off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
67°33'S., 67°43'W. First roughly surveyed in 1936 
by the BGLE under Rymill. Resurveyed in 1948 by 
the FIDS who gave the name because of the re- 
semblance of these rocks to a covey of partridges 
sitting in a field. 

CRAGGY ISLET : narrow islet marked by crags, 
lying close off the E. side of Desolation I. and form- 
ing the NE. side of Desolation Hbr., in the South 
Shetland Is.; in 62°27'S., 60°20'W. It was charted 



94 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



in 1935 by DI personnel on the Discovery II, who 
gave this descriptive name. 

CRAIGIE POINT: point at the SE. side of the 
entrance to Right Whale Bay, on the N. coast of 
South Georgia; in 54°02'S., 37°38'W. Craigie Point 
is an established name dating back to about 1912. 
Not adopted: Graicie Point. 

Crane Channel; Crane Inlet: see Crane Glacier. 

CRANE GLACIER: narrow glacier which flows 
about 17 mi. in an ENE. direction through a deep 
trough into Exasperation Inlet, on the E. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 65°20'S., 62°20'W. Sir Hubert 
Wilkins photographed this feature from the air in 
1928 and gave it the name Crane Channel, after 
C. K. Crane of Los Angeles, reporting that it ap- 
peared to be a channel cutting in an E.-W. direc- 
tion across the peninsula. The name was altered 
to Crane Inlet following explorations along the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen. in 1936 by the BGLE, which 
proved that no through channel from the E. coast 
exists. Comparison of Wilkins' photograph of this 
feature with those taken in 1947 by the FIDS show 
that Wilkins' "Crane Channel" is this glacier, al- 
though it lies about 75 mi. NE. of the position origi- 
nally reported by Wilkins. Not adopted: Crane 
Channel, Crane Inlet. 

CRATER BAY: small bay at the NE. side of 
Leskov I., in the South Sandwich Is.; in 56°40'S., 
28°10'W. Disc, by the GerAE under Filchner, 
1911-12, who so named it because of its apparent 
formation as a result of volcanic eruption. Not 
adopted: Kraterbucht [German]. 

CRATER HILL: hill, about 1,100 ft. in el., marked 
by a volcanic crater at its summit, about 1 mi. N. 
of Observation Hill in the S. part of Hut Point 
Peninsula on Ross I.; in about 77°50'S., 166°41'E. 
Disc, and named by the BrNAE under Scott, 1901-4. 

CREAK, MOUNT: sharp peak about 5,200 ft. in 
el., lying N. of Fry Gl. in the Prince Albert Mtns. 
of Victoria Land; in about 76°34'S., 162°05'E. Disc, 
by the BrNAE under Scott, 1901-4, who named it 
for Capt. E. W. Creak, then Dir. of Compasses at the 
Admiralty. 

CR^PIN, CAPE: cape which marks the W. side 
of the entrance to Mackellar Inlet in Admiralty 
Bay, on King George I. in the South Shetland Is.; 
in 62°04'S., 58^29'W. Cape Crepin appears to have 
been named by the FrAE under Charcot, who 
charted Admiralty Bay in December 1909. 

CRESCENT BAY: small bay lying along the E. 
shore of Duke of York I. in the S. part of Robertson 
Bay, in northern Victoria Land; in about 71°36'S., 
170°05'E. First charted in 1899, and so named be- 



cause of its shape, by the BrAE under C. E. 
Borchgrevink. 

CRESCENT ISLET: small, roughly crescent- 
shaped islet, lying close S. of Mollyhawk It. in the 
Bay of Isles, South Georgia; in 54°01'S., 37°20'W. 
The islet was roughly charted in 1912-13, by Robert 
Cushman Murphy. It was surveyed in 1929-30 by 
DI personnel who named it Crescent Island. The 
name Crescent Islet is approved because of the 
small size of the feature. Not adopted: Crescent 
Island. 

CRESWICK PEAKS: an impressive mountain 
massif with several peaks, the highest about 4,800 
ft. in el., standing at the NE. side of Moore Pt. be- 
tween Naess and Meiklejohn Glaciers, and about 
3 mi. inland from George VI Sound on Palmer Pen.; 
in 70°28'S., 67°45'W. First surveyed in 1936 by the 
BGLE under Rymill, and later named for Miss 
Frances E. Creswick (now Mrs. James I. Moore — 
see Moore Pt.), Asst. to the Dir. of the Scott Polar 
Research Inst., Cambridge, 1931-38, who helped 
to organize the BGLE, 1934-37. 

CREVASSE VALLEY GLACIER: broad glacier 
distinguished by many crevasses, about 40 mi. long 
and from 8 to 12 mi. wide, flowing W. from the 
Rockefeller Plateau of Marie Byrd Land, through 
the Edsel Ford Ranges, to Sulzberger Bay. Its 
terminus Ues in about 76°44'S., 145°55'W. Disc. 
by the Marie Byrd Land Sledging Party of the 
ByrdAE, in November-December 1934, and so 
named because of its extensively crevassed surface. 
Not adopted : Crevassed Valley Glacier. 

CREWE, CAPE: cape which forms the N. side 
of the entrance to Cook Bay, on the N. coast of 
South Georgia; in 54°03'S., 37°08'W. Cape Crewe 
is an established name, dating back to about 1912. 

CREWE ROCK: rock about 10 ft. in el., which 
hes 0.1 mi. E. of Cape Crewe, off the N. coast of 
South Georgia; in 54°03'S., 37°08'W. Named after 
nearby Cape Crewe. 

CROCKETT, MOUNT : high granitic peak of the 
Will Hays Mountains, rising to about 7,200 ft. in 
el., standing between Robert Scott and Amundsen 
Glaciers in the Queen Maud Range; in about 
86°02'S. 155°00'W. Disc, in December 1929 by the 
ByrdAE geological party under Laurence Gould, 
and named by Byrd for Frederick E. Crockett, 
member of that party. 

CROFT BAY: bay which indents the north-cen- 
tral coast of James Ross I. and forms the S. part 
of Sidney Herbert Sound, S. of the NE. end of Palm- 
er Pen.; in 64°00'S., 57°45'W. Disc, in 1903 by 
the SwedAE under Nordenskjold. Charted in 1945 



95 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



by the FIDS, who named it for W. N. Croft, FIDS 
geologist at Hope Bay in 1946-47. 

Cross, Cape: see Hinks, Cape. 

CROSSCUT POINT: series of jagged roclcs form- 
ing the N. end of Vindication I., in the South Sand- 
wich Is.; in 57°04'S., 26°46'W. Charted in 1930 by 
DI personnel on the Discovery II, and so named 
because numerous crosscutting dikes have with- 
stood weathering and produced this irregular for- 
mation. 

CROSS VALLEY: valley about 1.75 mi. long, in 
a NW.-SE. direction, cutting through the NE. part 
of Seymour I., which lies S. of the NE. end of Palm- 
er Pen.; in 64°16'S., 56°42'W. Disc, by the 
SwedAE under Nordenskjold, 1901-4, and so named 
by him because of the transverse alignment of the 
valley. Not adopted: Querthal [German]. 

CROWN PEAK: ice-covered peak, about 3,700 ft. 
in el., topped by a conspicuous crown-shaped ice 
formation. It forms the highest summit and the 
S. end of Marescot Ridge and lies some 10 mi. ESE. 
of Cape Roquemaurel, on the NW. side of Louis 
Philippe Pen.; in 63°34'S., 58°33'W. Named by the 
FIDS following their survey of the area in 1946. 

Crown Prince Gustav Channel: see Prince Gus- 
tav Channel. 

Crown Prince Olaf . Land; Crown Prince Olav 
Coast; Crown Prince Olav Land: see Prince Olav 
Coast. 

Crown Prince Olaf Mountains; Crown Prince 
Olav Mountains: see Prince Olav Mountains. 

Crown Princess Martha Land: see Princess Mar- 
tha Coast. 

CROZIER, CAPE: cape which forms the E. tip 
of Ross I.; in about 77°29'S., 169°34'E. Disc, in 
1841 by a Br. exp. under Ross, and named for Cdr. 
Francis R. M. Crozier of the Terror, one of the two 
ships of Ross' expedition. 

Cruchleys Island: see Powell Island. 

CRUISER ROCKS : submerged rocks about 4 mi. 
SW. of Cape Lindsey, Elephant I., in the South 
Shetland Is.; in about 61°12'S., 55°45'W. These 
rocks were known to sealers as early as 1822, and 
appeared on charts of that period by the name 
Cruisers. Not adopted: Cruisers, Cruizer Rocks, 
Cruizers Rocks. 

Cruisers; Cruizers Rocks: see Cruiser Rocks. 

Crulls Islands: see Cruls Islets. 



CRULS ISLETS: group of islets about 10 mi. 
WNW. of the Argentine Is., lying off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 65°13'S., 54°35'W. Disc, by 
the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 1897-99, and named 
by him for Luis Cruls, Belgian astronomer and 
later Dir. of the Observatory at Rio de Janeiro. 
Not adopted: Crulls Islands, Crulls Islets. 

CRUMMER, MOUNT: brownish granite moun- 
tain about 3,000 ft. in el., lying SE. of Mt. De Ger- 
lache on the NE. side of Larsen Gl., on the coast 
of Victoria Land; in about 75°05'S., 162°40'E. First 
charted and named by the BrAE under Shackleton, 
1907-9. 

CRUTCH, THE: saddle-shaped depression on the 
ridge about 1.5 mi. NW. of Larsen Pt., at the W. 
side of the entrance to Cumberland Bay, South 
Georgia; in 54°11'S., 36°32'W. The name is de- 
scriptive. 

CRUTCH PEAK: dark, rocky peak about 900 ft. 
in el., which lies about 1.5 mi. E. of Black Peak 
and 2.5 mi. E. of the NW. tip of Greenwich I., in 
the South Shetland Is.; in about 62°26'S., 59°59'W. 
Probably named by DI personnel on the Discovery 
II, who charted the peak in 1935. 

CRUZEN ISLAND: rocky, snow-covered island 
about 75 mi. N. of the mouth of Emory Land Bay, 
Marie Byrd Land; in about 74°30'S., 141°30'W. 
Disc, in 1940 on flights from West Base of the 
USAS, and named for Cdr. Richard H. Cruzen, USN, 
commanding officer of the Bear and second-in- 
command of the expedition. 

CRYSTAL HILL: ice-free hill, about 500 ft. in 
el., forming the summit of a headland lying mid- 
way between Bald Head and Camp Hill, on the 
SE. side of Louis Philippe Pen.; in 63°39'S., 57°44'W. 
So named by the FIDS because crystals were col- 
lected at the foot of the hill in 1945 and 1946. 

Cube, The: see Kubus Mountain. 

CUFF CAPE: dark rock point which emerges 
from the ice at the S. side of the mouth of Mackay 
Gl., on the coast of Victoria Land; in about 76°59'S., 
162°24'E. Disc, by the BrAE under Shackleton, 
1907-9, and so named because it resembled "a 
black hand stretched out from a snowy cuff." Not 
adopted: Cape Cuff. 

CUMBERLAND BAY: bay, about 4 mi. wide at 
its entrance between Larsen and Barff Points, 
which separates into extensive arms that recede 
inland about 9 mi., along the N. coast of South 
Georgia; in 54°14'S., 36°28'W. Disc, and named 
in 1775 by a Br. exp. under Cook. 



96 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



CUMBERLAND EAST BAY: bay forming the 
eastern arm of Cumberland Bay, South Georgia; 
in 54°17'S., 36°27'W. It is entered between Sap- 
pho Pt. and Barflf Pt., where it is nearly 3 mi. 
wide, and extends 8 mi. in a SE. direction. This 
feature was surveyed by the SwedAE, 1901-4, who 
named it South Bay. It was remapped during 
1926-29 by DI personnel and renamed East Cum- 
berland Bay, which is more descriptive of its geo- 
graphic position. The shortened form East Bay 
was simultaneously used. Following the SGS, 
1951-52, the Br-APC proposed that the name be 
altered to Cumberland East Bay and that all other 
names be rejected. This change brings together 
information about the whole of Cumberland Bay 
in one place in indexes, and will avoid confusion 
with East Bay in Prince Olav Harbor, South 
Georgia. Not adopted: East Bay, East Cumber- 
land Bay, South Bay. 

CUMBERLAND WEST BAY: bay forming the 
western arm of Cumberland Bay, South Georgia; 
in 54°13'S., 36°32'W. It is entered southward of 
Larsen Pt., where it is 2 mi. wide, and extends 7 
mi. in a SW. direction. This feature was surveyed 
by the SwedAE, 1901-4, who named it West Bay. 
It was remapped during 1926-29 by DI personnel 
and renamed West Cumberland Bay. The short- 
ened form West Bay was simultaneously used. Fol- 
lowing the SGS, 1951-52, the Br-APC proposed that 
the name be altered to Cumberland West Bay and 
that all other names be rejected. This change 
brings together information about the whole Cum- 
berland Bay in one place in indexes. Not adopted: 
West Bay, West Cumberland Bay. 

GUMMING, MOUNT: peak in the Executive 
Committee Range, lying between Mounts Hamp- 
ton and Hartigan, in Marie Byrd Land; in about 
76°55'S., 127°15'W. Disc, by members of West 
Base of the USAS on a flight, Dec. 15, 1940, and 
named for Hugh S. Gumming, Jr., State Dept., 
member of the USAS Executive Committee. Not 
adopted: Mount Winifred Gumming. 

CUMMINGS COVE : cove entered between Jebsen 
Pt. and Porteous Pt. on the W. side of Signy I., 
South Orkney Is.; in 60°44'S., 45°41'W. Roughly 
surveyed by DI personnel in 1933, and resurveyed in 
1947 by the FIDS. Named by the Br-APC for E. T. 
Cummings of the FIDS, radio operator at Cape 
Geddes base in 1946 and at Deception I. in 1947. 

CURIE ISLET: small rocky islet near the E. 
end of Geologic Arch., lying midway between Derby 
It. and Lion It., close N. of Astrolabe Glacier 
Tongue, off Adelie Coast; in 66°39'S., 140°03'E. 
Photographed from the air by USN Operation High- 
jump, 1946-47. Charted by the FrAE under Lio- 
tard, 1949-51. Named by the FrAE under Barre, 



1951-52, for the noted Curie family, French phys- 
icists. 

CURIE POINT: point which forms the NE. tip 
of Doumer I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°50'S., 
63°29'W. Disc, by the FrAE under Charcot, 1903-5, 
and named by him for Pierre Curie, famous French 
chemist. Not adopted: Point Curie, Pointe P. 
Curie [French]. 

CURZON ISLETS: small group of rocky islets 
lying off the ice-covered cape which lies midway 
between Cape Mousse and the Sentinel Its., off 
Adelie Coast; in 66°46'S., 141°35'E. Disc, in Janu- 
ary 1912 by Capt. J. K. Davis, captain of the AAE 
exp. ship Aurora. Named by Mawson for Lord 
Curzon, Pres. of the Royal Geographical Soc, 
1911-14. 

CUT, THE: shallow, rock-strewn channel, be- 
tween Babe Islet and the W. side of the entrance 
to Cobblers Cove, along the N. coast of South 
Georgia; in 54°16'S., 36°18'W. Charted and named 
in 1929 by DI personnel. 

Cuverville Island: see De Ronge Island. 

CUVERVILLE ISLAND: dark, rocky island lying 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pen., about 1 mi. E. of 
the N. part of De Ronge I.; in about 64°43'S., 
62°36'W. Disc, by the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 
1897-99, who named it for J. M. A. Cavelier de 
Cuverville, a vice admiral of the French Navy. 
Not adopted: Cavelier de Cuverville Island. 

Cuyou Bucht: see Guyou Bay. 

CYRIL, MOUNT: mountain about 6,100 ft. in 
el., which stands in the Commonwealth Range, 
about 10 mi. SSE. of Mt. Kyflfln, on the E. side of 
Beardmore GL; in about 83°57'S., 172°55'E. Disc, 
and named by the BrAE under Shackleton, 1907-9. 

CZEGKA, MOUNT: mountain about 7,000 ft. in 
el., forming part of the E. wall of Robert Scott Gl., 
and standing SW. of Mt. Blackburn in the Queen 
Maud Range; in about 86°21'S., 148°20'W. Disc, 
in December 1934 by the ByrdAE geological party 
under Quin Blackburn, and named by Byrd for 
Victor H. Czegka, USMC, who served as a member 
with the ByrdAE, 1928-30, and also as member and 
supply manager with the ByrdAE, 1933-35. 

DAGGER PEAK: rock peak rising steeply from 
sea level to about 300 ft. in el. at the W. end of 
Comb Ridge, lying at the N. extremity of The Naze, 
a peninsula of northern James Ross I., close S. of 
the NE. end of Palmer Pen.; in 63°55'S., 57°29'W. 
This area was first explored in 1902 by the SwedAE 
under Nordenskjold. The peak was charted and 
given this descriptive name by the FIDS in 1945. 



97 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Dailey Archipelago: see Dailey Islands. 

DAILEY ISLANDS : group of volcanic islets lying 
in the N. part of the ice shelf of McMurdo Sound 
about 9 mi. NE. of Cape Chocolate, along the coast 
of Victoria Land; in about 77°53'S., 165°15'E. 
Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, who 
named this group for Fred E. Dailey, exp. carpen- 
ter. Not adopted : Dailey Archipelago. 

DAISY POINT: point extending seaward from 
the high rocky shore on the E. side of the Bay of 
Isles, South Georgia. It lies 0.5 mi. W. of Cape 
Wilson, near the entrance to Beckmann Fjord; in 
54°03'S., 37°11'W. The name Low Point was given 
for this feature, probably by DI personnel who 
charted this area in 1929. Following its survey in 
1951-52, the SGS reported that this part of the 
coast is high and rugged, and the point, though 
relatively low by comparison, does not merit the 
description "low." The new name, recommended 
by the Br-APC in 1954, is after the sealing brig 
Daisy of New Bedford, Mass., which under Capt. 
Benjamin D. Cleveland visited the Bay of Isles in 
1912-13. Not adopted: Low Point. 

DALES ISLAND: the outermost offshore island 
N. of the William Scoresby Arch., rising to about 
160 ft. in el. and lying about 13 mi. N. of Mac- 
Robertson Coast; in about 67°11'S., 59°46'E. Disc, 
and named by DI personnel on the William 
Scoresby in February 1936. 

DALGLIESH BAY: bay, about 1 mi. wide and 
indenting 3 mi., lying between Cape Lainez and 
Cape Bongrain on the SW. side of Pourquoi Pas I., 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°43'S., 
67°43'W. First roughly surveyed in 1936 by the 
BGLE under Rymill. Resurveyed in 1948 by the 
FIDS and named for David G. Dalgliesh, FIDS 
medical officer at Stonington I. in 1948-49, who 
accompanied the 1948 sledge survey party to this 
area. 

DALK GLACIER: channel glacier, about 2 mi. 
wide and 8 mi. long, flowing NNE. from the conti- 
nental ice to the Ingrid Christensen Coast, close E. 
of Larsemann Hills; in about 69°25'S., 75°57'E. 
Charted by Norwegian cartographers from aerial 
photographs taken in January 1937 by the Nor. 
exp. under Lars Christensen. So named by John 
H. Roscoe, following his 1952 study of USN Op. Hjp. 
aerial photographs taken in March 1947, because 
of its close association with Dalk Islet lying close 
off its terminus. 

DALK ISLET: rocky islet about 0.7 mi. long, 
marked by a small rock close off its N. end, lying 
about 8 mi. E. of the E. end of Larsemann Hills, 
close off Dilk Gl. on Ingrid Christensen Coast; in 



about 69°23'S., 76°00'E. Charted by Norwegian 
cartographers from aerial photographs taken in 
January 1937 by the Nor. exp. under Lars Christen- 
sen, who applied the name Dalkoy. The generic 
islet is approved because of the small size of this fea- 
ture. Not adopted: Dalkoy [Norwegian]. 

DALLMANN, MOUNT: peak about 9,000 ft. in 
el., lying about 8 mi. E. of the N. end of the Conrad 
Mtns., in New Schwabenland; in about 71°48'S., 
lOnO'E. Disc, by the GerAE, 1938-39, under 
Ritscher, and named for Eduard Dallmann. 

Dallman Bay: see Dallmann Bay. 

Dallmann Bay: see Flandres Bay. 

DALLMANN BAY: bay which lies between Bra- 
bant and Anvers Islands, and is connected to De 
Gerlache Str. by Schollaert Chan., in the Palmer 
Arch.; in 64°20'S., 62°55'W. Disc, and first roughly 
charted in 1874 by the German whaler Capt. 
Eduard Dallmann. It was named for Dallmann by 
the Society for Polar Navigation, Hamburg, which 
sponsored Dallmann's Antarctic exploration. The 
bay was later charted by the FrAE, 1903-5, under 
Charcot. Not adopted: Dallman Bay. 

Dallman Nunatak: See Dallmann Nunatak. 

DALLMANN NUNATAK: nunatak about 3 mi. 
NNW. of Bruce Nunatak in the Seal Nunataks 
group, off the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°01'S., 
60°20'W. Dallmann Nunatak was first charted in 
1902 by the SwedAE under Nordenskjold, who 
named it for Capt. Eduard Dallmann. Not 
adopted: Dallman Nunatak. 

DALMENY, MOUNT: the northwesternmost 
peak of the Admiralty Range, standing above the 
S. shore of Smith Inlet, in northern Victoria Land; 
in about 71°05'S., 167°07'E. Disc, in January 1841 
by a Br. exp. under Ross, who named it for Rt. Hon. 
Lord Dalmeny, then a junior Lord of the Admiralty. 

DALY, CAPE: ice-covered promontory on Mac- 
Robertson Coast; in about 67°31'S., 63°54'E. Disc, 
and named in February 1931 by the BANZARE 
under Mawson. 

DAMOCLES POINT: point on the E. coast of 
Alexander I Island, lying 3 mi. ESE. of the south- 
ern summit of Mt. Tyrrell; in 69°39'S., 69°21'W. 
A small rock exposure near sea level is surmounted 
by an ice cliff 200 ft. high. First photographed 
from the air in 1937 by the BGLE under Rymill. 
Surveyed from the ground in 1948 by the FIDS, and 
so named by them because the ice cliffs overhang- 
ing the spot where geological specimens were col- 
lected seemed like the sword of Damocles. 



98 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



DAMOY POINT: point which lies 0.5 mi. WNW. 
of Flag Pt., the N. entrance point to the harbor of 
Port Lockroy, on the W. side of Wiencke I. in the 
Palmer Arch.; in 64°49'S., 63°32'W. Disc, and 
named by the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot. 

Dana Coman, Mount: see Coman, Mount. 

BANCO COAST: that portion of the NW. coast 
of Palmer Pen. between Cape Kater, in 63°45'S., 
59°40'W., and Cape Renard, in 65°01'S., 63°43'W. 
This coast was explored in January and February 
of 1898 by the BelgAE under De Gerlache, who 
named it for Lt. Emile Danco, who died on the 
expedition. Not adopted: Danco Land. 

Danco Land: see Danco Coast. 

Danebrog, lies: see Dannebrog Islands. 

DANFORTH, MOUNT: Pyramid-shaped moun- 
tain rising to about 5,500 ft. in el., standing just 
W. of the W. end of Watson Escarpment, on the 
S. side of Albanus Gl., in the Queen Maud Range; 
in about 85°58'S., 148°20'W. Disc, in December 
1934 by the ByrdAE geological party under Quin 
Blackburn, and named by Byrd for William H. 
Danforth of the Purina Mills, St. Louis, contributor 
to the expedition. 

DANGER, CAPE : cape which forms the NW. tip 
of Desolation I., in the South Shetland Is., in 
62°26'S., 60°25'W. Charted in 1935 by DI per- 
sonnel on the Discovery II. So named because a 
group of sunken rocks extends about 0.4 mi. NW. 
from the cape. 

DANGER ISLETS: group of islets lying 13 mi. 
ESE. of Joinville I., in 63°25'S., 54°37'W. Disc. 
Dec. 28, 1842 by a Br. exp. under Ross, who so 
named them because, appearing amongst heavy 
fragments of ice, they were almost completely con- 
cealed until the ship was nearly upon them. 

DANIEL, MOUNT: peak in the Prince Olav 
Mtns., which rises to about 3,000 ft. in el., stand- 
ing W. of Liv Gl. and NE. of Mt. Wade, in the 
Queen Maud Range; in about 84°52'S., 171°10'W. 
Disc, by R. Adm. Byrd on ByrdAE flights to the 
Queen Maud Range in November 1929, and named 
by him for Robert W. Daniel of Lower Brandon, Va., 
contributor to the expedition. 

DANIELL, CAPE: cape which marks the S. side 
of the entrance to Tucker Inlet, on the coast of 
Victoria Land; in about 72°50'S., 170°00'E. Disc, 
in January 1841 by a Br. exp. under Ross who 
named it for Professor Daniell, chemist of King's 
College, Cambridge Univ., and Foreign Sec. of the 
Royal Society. 



Daniel Rex, Mount: see Rex, Mount. 

DANNEBROG ISLANDS: group of islands, the 
largest of which are Booth, Hovgaard and Peter- 
mann Islands, which lie separated from the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen. by Lemaire Chan.; in 65°06'S., 
64°15'W. Disc, by a Ger. exp. under Dallmann, 
1873-74, who named them Kaiser Wilhelm Inseln. 
They were later charted by the BelgAE under De 
Gerlache, 1897-99, who named them Dannebrog 
Islands in appreciation of support he received from 
Denmark. Since the Dallmann names have been 
retained for some of the individual islands, the 
US-ACAN recommends the use of the name Danne- 
brog Islands for the group in keeping with the 
naming by De Gerlache and because of the greater 
acceptance and use of this name on maps and 
reports. Not adopted: lies Danebrog [French], 
Kaiser Wilhelm Inseln [German] , Kaiser Wilhelm 
II Islands. 

Darbel Bay: see Marin Darbel Bay. 

DARBOUX ISLAND: island, about 1 mi. in 
diameter and about 900 ft. in el., lying about 3 mi. 
W. of Cape Trois Perez, off the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 65°25'S., 64°14'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 
1903-5, under Charcot, and named by him for Jean 
Gaston Darboux, noted French mathematician. 

DARLING, MOUNT: highest peak of the Alle- 
gheny Mtns., which lie in the E. part of the Edsel 
Ford Ranges in Marie Byrd Land; in about 77°14'S., 
143°13'W. Disc, on aerial flights from the West 
Base of the US AS in 1940, and named for Chester 
A. Darling of Allegheny College, Meadville, Penn- 
sylvania. 

DARLINGTON, CAPE: ice-covered headland, 
about 1,000 ft. in el., forming the S. side of the 
entrance to Hilton Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 72°00'S., 60°43'W. Disc, in 1940 by the 
USAS, but at that time it was thought to be an 
island. Its true nature was determined in an 
aerial flight by the RARE, under Ronne, in Novem- 
ber 1947. Named by the USAS for Harry Darling- 
ton III, member of the East Base sledging party 
that explored this coast as far S. as Hilton Inlet. 
Not adopted: Darlington Island. 

Darlington Island: see Darlington, Cape. 

DARNLEY, CAPE: cape which lies 6 mi. SE. of 
Newark Bay, on the south-central coast of South 
Georgia; in 54°26'S., 36°50'W. 'The name dates 
back to about 1920 and was given for E. R. Darnley 
of the Colonial Office, Chairman of the Discovery 
Committee, 1924-33. 



99 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



DARNLEY, CAPE: ice-covered cape forming the 
W. side of the entrance to MacKenzie Bay, on 
Mac-Robertson Coast; in about 67°42'S., 69°30'E. 
On Dec. 26, 1929 Sir Douglas Mawson, from the 
masthead of the Discovery while in 66°57'S., 
71°57'E., saw land miraged up on the SW. horizon. 
On Feb. 10, 1931 he returned in the Discovery and 
was able to approach close enough to see the head- 
land, naming it for E. R. Darnley, Chairman of 
the Discovery Committee of the British Colonial 
Office from 1923 to 1933. Not adopted: Bjerko 
Head, Bjerko Head, Bjerk0 Head, Bjerko Headland. 

DARNLEY, MOUNT: mountain about 3,600 ft. 
in el. in the south-central portion of Bristol I., in 
the South Sandwich Is., in 59°03'S., 26°30'W. 
Mount Darnley was charted in 1930 by DI per- 
sonnel on the Discovery II who named it for E. R. 
Darnley. 

Dart, Cape: see Flying Fish, Cape. 

DART, CAPE: cape at the foot of Mt. Siple, 
forming a prominent angle in the coast line of 
Marie Byrd Land, at the E. side of the entrance to 
Wrigley Gulf; in about 73°10'S., 123°00'W. Disc, 
by the USAS, December 1940, in a flight from West 
Base. Named after Justin W. Dart who, as an ex- 
ecutive of the Walgreen Drug Co., of Chicago, sup- 
ported the expedition. Not adopted: Cape Flying 
Fish. 

DARTMOUTH POINT: point which marks the 
N. end of the rugged promontory separating Mo- 
raine Fjord and the E. head of Cumberland East 
Bay, South Georgia; in 54°18'S., 36°27'W. The 
point was charted by the SwedAE, 1901-4. Named 
after H.M.S. Dartmouth, a vessel used in surveying 
Cumberland Bay in 1920. 

DARWIN, MOUNT: mountain lying at the head, 
and near the W. wall, of Beardmore Gl.; in about 
85°00'S., 164°30'E. Disc, in December 1908 by the 
BrAE under Shackleton, who named it for Maj. 
Leonard Darwin, Pres. of the Royal Geographical 
Sec, 1908-11. 

DARWIN ISLET: largest of the Danger Islets, 
lying 12 mi. ESE. of the E. tip of Joinville I., off the 
NE. end of Palmer Pen.; in 63°26'S., 54°38'W. 
Disc, in 1842 by a Br. exp. under Ross, and named 
by him for Charles Darwin, noted naturalist. Not 
adopted: Darwin Island. 

DARWIN MOUNTAINS: mountains about 6,200 
ft. in el. in the Britannia Range rising NW. of 
Barne Inlet, on the W. side of Ross Ice Shelf; in 
about 79°50'S., 157°10'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 
1901-4, under Scott, who named them for Maj. 
Leonard Darwin. 



DASPIT GLACIER: glacier about 3 mi. wide, 
which flows in an ENE. direction along the S. side of 
Mt. Shelby to the head of Trail Inlet, on the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°09'S., 65°43'W. Disc, 
by members of East Base of the USAS, 1939-41. 
It was photographed from the air in 1947 by the 
RARE under Ronne, and charted in 1948 by the 
FIDS. Named by Ronne for Capt. Lawrence R. 
Daspit, USN, who assisted in obtaining Navy sup- 
port for the Ronne expedition. 

David, Mount: see Kirkwood, Mount. 

DAVID GLACIER: glacier about 8 mi. in width 
and of undetermined length, flowing E. into the 
S. part of the Drygalski Ice Tongue, in Victoria 
Land; in about 75°20'S., 162°45'E. Disc, in No- 
vember 1908 by the Northern Party of the BrAE, 
under the leadership of Prof. Sir T. W. Edgeworth 
David, of Sydney Univ., for whom the feature was 
named. 

DAVID ISLAND: ice-covered island about 10 mi. 
long and 6 mi. wide, which is marked by prominent 
rock exposures along its N. and E. sides, lying off 
the mouth of Reid Gl. about 3 mi. N. of Queen Mary 
Coast and standing above the E. portion of Shackle- 
ton Ice Shelf; in about 66°27'S., 98°42'E. Disc, in 
November 1912 by the Western Base party of the 
AAE under Mawson, and named by him for Prof. 
Sir T. W. Edgeworth David, member of the AAE 
Advisory Committee. 

DAVID RANGE : range about 6 mi. W. of Masson 
Range, which it parallels, in the Framnes Mtns. on 
Mac-Robertson Coast; in about 67°52'S., 62°34'E. 
It extends about 10 mi. in a NNE.-SSW. direction, 
with peaks rising above 3,600 ft. in el. Disc, on 
Feb. 14, 1931 by the BANZARE under Mawson, who 
named it for Prof. Sir T. W. Edgeworth David. 

DAVIDSON, CAPE : cape which forms the S. tip 
of Mackenzie Pen. and the W. side of the entrance 
of Wilton Bay, on the W. side of Laurie I. in the 
South Orkney Is.; in 60°46'S., 44°46'W. Charted 
by the ScotNAE, 1902-4, under Bruce, who named it 
for J. Davidson, first mate of the exp. ship. Scotia. 

DAVIDSON, MOUNT: highest summit, about 
8,100 ft. in el., of the Prince Albert Mtns., lying NW. 
of Granite Hbr. in Victoria Land; in about 76°46'S., 
162°08'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, 
who named it for a member of the ship's company 
of the Morning, relief ship to the expedition. 

DA VIES BAY: bay about 5 mi. wide, between 
Cape Kinsey and Drake Head along Oates Coast; in 
about 69°15'S., 158°40'E. Disc, by members of the 
Terra Nova of the BrAE, 1910-13, who explored 
along Oates Coast under Lt. Harry L. L. Pennell, 



100 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



RN, in February 1911. Named for Francis E. C. 
Davies, leading shipwright aboard the Terra Nova. 
Not adopted : Davis Bay. 

DAVIES GILBERT STRAIT: strait which lies 
between Tower I. on the N. and Trinity I. and Cape 
Kater on the S., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
about 63°37'S., 60°00'W. Named by a Br. exp., 
1828-31, under Foster, for Davies Gilbert, Pres. of 
the Royal Soc, 1827-30, and of the committee 
which formulated the objectives of the expedition. 
The strait was charted by the SwedAE, 1901-4, 
under Nordenskjold. Not adopted: Davis Gilbert 
Strait. 

DAVIS, CAPE : rounded cape lying E. of Magnet 
Bay near the E. end of the coast of Enderby Land, 
just N. of Edward VIII Bay; in about 66°28'S., 
56°51'E. Disc, by the BANZARE under Mawson on 
about Jan. 12, 1930, and named for Capt. John King 
Davis, Dir. of Navigation under the Commonwealth 
Govt, and ship's captain and second-in-command 
of the BANZARE. 

DAVIS, POINT: point about 1.2 mi. WNW. of 
Point Rae on the N. side of Scotia Bay, Laurie I., in 
the South Orkney Is.; in 60°46'S., 44°39'W. 
Charted by the ScotNAE, 1902-4, under Bruce, 
who named it for W. G. Davis, Dir. of the Argentine 
Meteorological Service. 

Davis Bay: see Davies Bay. 

DAVIS BAY: bay about 10 mi. long and about 15 
mi. wide at its entrance, lying between Cape Cesney 
and the ice-covered coast close NE. of Lewis It. 
and indenting the E. end of Clarie Coast; in about 
65°55'S., 134°10'E. Disc, by the AAE under Maw- 
son from Aurora in January 1912, and named by 
him for Capt. John King Davis, master of the 
Aurora and second-in-command of the expedition. 

Davis Gilbert Strait: see Davies Gilbert Strait. 

Davis Glacier: see Arthur Davis Glacier. 

DAVIS GLACIER: heavily crevassed glacier, 
about 6 mi. wide and of undetermined length, de- 
scending from the interior upland of Victoria Land 
in a NE. and E. direction to Ross Sea; in about 
75°45'S., 162°45'E. First charted by the BrAE, 
1907-9 under Shackleton, who named it for Capt. 
John King Davis, first officer and later captain of 
the exp. ship Nimrod. 

DAVIS ISLETS: small group of rocky islets and 
rocks, marked by a prominent islet near the sea- 
ward end of the group, which lies close inside the 
W. side of the entrance to Vincennes Bay, about 6 
mi. ESE. of Cape Nutt, off Budd Coast; in about 



66°45'S., 108°35'E. Delineated from aerial photo- 
graphs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named 
by the US-ACAN for Malcolm Davis, bird curator 
with the Washington (D.C.) Zoo of the Smithso- 
nian Institution, who served as biologist aboard the 
USAS ship North Star, 1940-41, and as ornitholo- 
gist with the USN Op. Wml. parties which visited 
the High jump Arch, and Windmill Is. in January 
1948. 

DAVIS PENINSULA: elongated ice-covered pen- 
insula, about 3 mi. wide, between Reid Gl. and Rob- 
inson Bay, on Queen Mary Coast; in about 66°37'S., 
98°48'E. Disc, in November 1912 by the AAE under 
Mawson, who named it for Capt. John King Davis. 

DAVIS SEA : an area of the sea between Shackle- 
ton Ice Shelf and the West Ice Shelf, off Queen 
Mary Coast and Wilhelm II Coast; in about 66°S., 
92°E. Disc, in 1912 by the AAE under Mawson, 
who named it for Capt. John King Davis. 

Dausay Island; Daussy Island: see Hope Island. 

Dawson and Lambton, Mount: see Dawson- 
Lambton, Mount. 

DAWSON-LAMBTON, MOUNT: mountain about 
8,700 ft. in el., which lies about 6 mi. S. of Mt. 
Speyer in the Worcester Range, NW. of Moore Em- 
bayment on the W. side of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 
78°52'S., 160°22'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4 
under Scott, and named for the Misses Dawson- 
Lambton, contributors to the expedition. Not 
adopted: Mount Dawson Lambton, Mount Dawson 
and Lambton. 

DAWSON-LAMBTON GLACIER: heavily-broken 
glacier with a seaward face about 200 ft. in el. and 
40 mi. wide, flowing NW. from the high interior ice- 
covered hills and reaching the sea on the Caird 
Coast; in about 76°15'S., 27°30'W. Disc, in Jan- 
uary 1915 by a Br. exp. under Shackleton. Named 
for Miss Elizabeth Dawson-Lambton, benefactress 
of the Shackleton expeditions. Not adopted: Daw- 
son Lambton Glacier. 

DAY, CAPE: cape forming the S. portal of Maw- 
son Gl. where it becomes the Nordenskjold Ice 
Tongue, on the coast of Victoria Land; in about 
76°16'S., 162°37'E. First charted by the BrAE, 
1907-9, under Shackleton, who named this cape 
for Bernard C. Day, electrician and motor expert 
with the expedition. 

DAY ISLAND: island, about 6.5 mi. long and 2.5 
mi. wide, lying immediately S. of The Gullet and 
2 mi. N. of Wyatt I. in the N. part of Laubeuf Fjord, 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°15'S., 
67°42'W. First surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE 



101 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



under Rymill, who used the provisional name 
Middle Island for this feature. The island was re- 
surveyed in 1948 by the FIDS and renamed by them 
for V. Adm. Sir Archibald Day, Hydrographer to the 
Navy. Not adopted: Middle Island. 

DAYMAN, CAPE: cape which forms the E. side of 
the entrance to Yule Bay, in Victoria Land; in 
about 70°40'S., 166°45'E. Disc, in 1841 by a Br. 
exp. under Ross, who named it for Joseph Dayman, 
mate on the Erebus. 

DAYNe peak : distinctive pyramidal peak about 
2,400 ft. in el. rising immediately NE. of Cape 
Errera, the SW. tip of Wiencke I., in the Palmer 
Arch.; in 64°54'S., 63°35'W. Disc, by the BelgAE, 
1897-99, under De Gerlache. Named by the FrAE, 
1903-5, under Charcot, for Pierre Dayne, mountain 
guide and member of the expedition. Not adopted : 
Mount Dayne. 

DEACON, CAPE: ice-covered cape forming the 
SE. tip of Kemp Pen., on the E. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 73° IT'S., 59°53'W. Probably first seen by 
members of the USAS who photographed a portion 
of Kemp Pen. while exploring this coast from the 
air in December 1940. During 1947 the cape was 
photographed from the air by members of the 
RARE, who in conjunction with the FIDS charted 
it from the ground. Named by the FIDS for George 
E. R. Deacon, English oceanographer and member 
of the Discovery Investigations staff, 1927-39, and 
now Dir. of the National Inst, of Oceanography. 

DEACON HILL: conspicuous, ice-covered peak, 
rising abruptly above the icecap in NW. Coronation 
I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°34'S., 45°49'W. 
Named by DI personnel on the Discovery II follow- 
ing their survey of the South Orkney Is. in 1933, for 
George E. R. Deacon. 

DEACON PEAK: peak about 600 ft. in el. mark- 
ing the summit of Penguin I., at the E. side of the 
entrance to King George Bay, in the South Shet- 
land Is., in 62°05'S., 57°56'W. Charted and named 
during 1937 by DI personnel on the Discovery II 
for George E. R. Deacon. 

Dead Glacier: see Konig Glacier. 

DEAKIN, MOUNT: peak, about 9,100 ft. in el., in 
the Commonwealth Range, marking the N. side 
of Keltie Gl. at its confluence with Beardmore Gl.; 
in about 84°42'S., 171°15'E. Disc, and named by 
the BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton. 

DEAKIN BAY: wide-open bay lying W. of Cape 
Freshfield along George V Coast; in about 68°25'S., 
150°30'E. The USEE, 1834-42, under Wilkes, ex- 
plored this area in December 1840. The Peacock, 



under Capt. William L. Hudson, entered what the 
USEE thought was a bay, in 65°55'S., 151°18'E., 
and the bay thus explored was named for the ship 
Peacock. The mainland of George V Coast was 
first actually explored by the AAE, 1911-14, under 
Mawson, when the Eastern Coastal party reached 
as far as 150°12'E. They named the bay for Sir 
Alfred Deakin, Australian Prime Minister in 1910. 
Not adopted: Peacock Bay, Peacocks Bay. 

De Alencar, Mount: see Alencar Peak. 

DfiBARQUEMENT ROCK: ice-free rock marking 
the N. end of the Dumoulin Its. and the NE. end 
of Geologic Arch., lying close N. of Astrolabe Glacier 
Tongue, off Adelie Coast; in 66°36'S., 140°04'E. 
The Fr. exp. under D'Urville landed on a rocky islet 
in this vicinity in January 1840 and gave the name 
"Rocher du Debarquement." Positive identifica- 
tion of this feature has not been made, but on the 
basis of aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 
1946-47, and surveys and geological studies made 
by the FrAE during the 1950-52 period, the seaward 
position of Debarquement Rock is believed to cor- 
relate with the feature so named by D'Urville. 

DEBENHAM GLACIER: glacier which flows in 
an ENE. direction into the N. part of Wilson Pied- 
mont GL, on the coast of Victoria Land; in about 
77°07'S., 163°00'E. This feature was indicated on 
charts of the BrNAE under Scott, 1901-4, and the 
BrAE, under Shackleton, 1907-9. It was named 
by the BrAE under Scott, 1910-13, for Frank 
Debenham, geologist with this exp. and Dir. of the 
Scott Polar Research Inst., 1925-48. 

DEBENHAM ISLANDS: group of islets and rocks 
lying between Millerand I. and the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 68°08'S., 67°07'W. Disc, and 
named by the BGLE, 1934-37, under Rymill; the 
exp. base was on Barry I., in the center of the 
group, during part of this time. Named for Frank 
Debenham, who served as member of the BGLE 
Advisory Committee. 

DeBusk, Mount: see DeBusk Scarp. 

DeBUSK SCARP: nearly vertical rock cliff, about 
1,000 ft. in el., at the S. side of the mouth of Bing- 
ham Gl., on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 69°23'S., 
62°57'W. This feature was photographed from the 
air in 1928 by Sir Hubert Wilkins, and again in 
1940 by members of the USAS who also sledge sur- 
veyed along this coast. It was resighted by the 
RARE, 1947-48, under Ronne, who named it for 
Clarence DeBusk, executive secretary of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce, Beaumont, Texas, who was of as- 
sistance to the RARE in the preparation for the 
voyage south. Not adopted: Mount DeBusk. 



102 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



DEBUTANTE ISLAND: rocky island, about 1 mi. 
long and 0.2 mi. wide, marking the largest and 
southernmost of the S0strene Is., lying about 5 mi. 
W. of Ingrid Christensen Coast; in about 69°36'S., 
74°59'E. Charted by Norwegian cartographers, 
from aerial photographs taken in January 1937 by 
the Nor. exp. under Lars Christensen, as a small 
rock outcrop protruding above what was thought 
to form part of an ice shelf. So named by John 
H. Roscoe, following his 1952 compilation from USN 
Op. Hjp. aerial photographs taken in March 1947, 
because of the recent appearance of this feature 
above the consolidated sea ice between Polar Record 
and Polararboken Glacier Tongues. Not adopted: 
Debutante. 

DECAZES, POINT: southernmost point on the 
island marking the SW. end of the Biscoe Is., at the 
N. side of Matha Str.; in about 66°30'S., 67°29'W. 
Charted and named by the FrAE, 1908-10, under 
Charcot. Not adopted: Decazes Point. 

DECEPTION ISLAND : ring-shaped island about 
8 or 9 mi. in diameter, with a narrow entrance into 
a central landlocked harbor (a drowned breached 
crater), lying about 6 mi. S. of Livingston I., in 
the South Shetland Is.; in about 62°57'S., 60°38'W. 
The name dates back to at least 1821 and is now 
established international usage. Not adopted: 
Teil Island. 

Decousovte, Cap; Decouverte, Cap de la: see De- 
couverte. Cape. 

DECOUVERTE, CAPE: low rocky cape marking 
the NW. end of the large islet at the NW. end of 
the Curzon Its., close off Adelie Coast; in 66°46'S., 
141°33'E. Disc, by a Fr. exp. under D'Urville, who 
landed on the islet on Jan. 21, 1840, and so named 
because it marked the first rock outcrop observed 
along this coast. The name was applied on 
D'Urville's 1840 chart to the small cape on the ice- 
drowned coast immediately behind the Curzon 
Islets. Roughly charted by the AAE under Maw- 
son, 1911-14, who reassigned the name to the sea- 
ward end of the large islet upon which D'Urville's 
group landed. This interpretation was confirmed 
by the FrAE under Barre, who surveyed this coastal 
area in 1951-52. Not adopted: Cap Decousovte, 
Cape Decouverte, Cap de la Decouverte [French], 
Cape Discovery. 

DE DION ISLETS: group of islets surrounded 
by reefs, lying in the N. part of Marguerite Bay, 
about 8 mi. SW. of Cape Alexandra, Adelaide I.; in 
67°52'S., 68°43'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 1908-10, 
under Charcot, and named by him for the Marquis 
de Dion, who donated three motor sledges and 



whose De Dion-Bouton works produced equipment 
for the expedition. Not adopted: De Dion Islands, 
Dion Islets. 

DEE ISLAND: crescent-shaped island, with a 
conspicuous, sharp peak about 850 ft. in el. at its 
S. end, about 2.5 mi. WNW. of Fort William, close 
off the N. side of Greenwich I., in the South Shet- 
land Is.; in 62°25'S., 59°50'W. Charted and named 
in 1935 by DI personnel on the Discovery II. 

DEFANT GLACIER: glacier about 2 mi. wide at 
its mouth, which flows ESE. to the W. side of 
Violante Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
72°32'S., 61°35'W. Disc, and photographed from 
the air in December 1940 by the USAS. During 
1947 the glacier was photographed from the air by 
members of the RARE, who in conjunction with the 
FIDS charted it from the ground. Named by the 
FIDS for Prof. Albert Defant, German oceanog- 
rapher (Austrian born) who was Dir. of the Inst, 
fiir Meereskunde (German Hydrographic Office), 
1927-46. 

DE GERLACHE, CAPE: cape which forms the 
NE. tip of Davis Pen., on Queen Mary Coast; in 
about 66°33'S., 98°55'E. Disc, in November 1912 
by the AAE, 1911-14, under Mawson, who named it 
for Lt. Adrien de Gerlache, leader of the Belgium 
Antarctic Expedition 1897-99. Not adopted: Cape 
Gerlache. 

DE GERLACHE, MOUNT: huge tabular massif 
about 4,000 ft. in el. lying on the NE. side of Larsen 
Gl. about 8 mi. SSE. of Mt. Larsen, in Victoria Land; 
in about 74°58'S., 162°25'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 
1901-4, under Scott, who named it for Lt. Adrien 
de Gerlache. Not adopted: Mount Gerlache. 

De Gerlache, Pointe: see De Gerlache Point.' 

DE GERLACHE POINT: point on the W. coast 
of Anvers I. about 7 mi. NNE. of Cape Albert de 
Monaco, in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°35'S., 64°09'W. 
Disc, by the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, and 
named by him for Lt. Adrien de Gerlache. Not 
adopted: Gerlache Point, Pointe de Gerlache 
[French] . 

DE GERLACHE STRAIT: strait separating the 
Palmer Arch, from Palmer Pen.; in about 64°30'S., 
62°20'W. The BelgAE, under Lt. Adrien de Ger- 
lache, explored the strait in January and Febru- 
ary 1898, naming it for the exp. ship Belgica. The 
name was later changed to honor the commander 
himself. Not adopted: Gerlache Strait. 

De Guebriant Islets: see Guebriant Islets. 



103 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



DE HAVEN GLACIER: piedmont glacier about 
15 mi. wide, formed by the confluence of small 
channel glaciers which flow from the continental 
ice on the E. flank of Norths Highland to the W. 
side of Porpoise Bay, about 15 mi. SE. of Holmes 
Gl., on Banzare Coast; in about 66°45'S., 127°45'E. 
Delineated from aerial photographs taken by USN 
Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN 
for Edmund H. De Haven, acting master on the 
sloop of war Vincennes of the USEE under Wilkes, 
1838-42. 

DEIMOS RIDGE: prominent narrow rocky spur 
of sandstone and shales, standing close SW. of 
Phobos Ridge and Mars Glacier along the N. side 
of Saturn Gl., on the E. coast of Alexander I Island; 
in 71°56'S., 68°40'W. The coast in this vicinity was 
first seen from the air and partially photographed 
by Lincoln Ellsworth on Nov. 23, 1935. This ridge 
was first surveyed in 1949 by the FIDS, who gave 
it this name in association with Mars Glacier; 
Deimos being the outer of two satellites of Mars. 

DELAITE ISLAND: island about 1.5 mi. long 
and 1 mi. wide, which lies midway between Cape 
Anna and Cape Reclus in the north-central portion 
of Wilhelmina Bay off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in about 64°31'S., 62°03'W. Disc, by the BelgAE, 
1897-99, under De Gerlache, and named by him 
for J. Delaite, a supporter of the expedition. 

DE LA MOTTE, CAPE: prominent cape lying W. 
of Mertz Glacier Tongue, on George V Coast; in 
about 67°00'S., 144°20'E. Disc, by the AAE, 1911- 
14, under Mawson, who named it for C. P. de la 
Motte, third officer on the Aurora, the exp. ship. 
The high land behind this cape is thought to be 
"Point Case," which the USEE, 1838-42, under 
Wilkes, saw from what was called "Disappointment 
Bay" on Jan. 23, 1840. Not adopted: Cape de la 
Motte, Point Case. 

DELAY POINT: rocky point about 600 ft. in el., 
lying at the W. side of the N. end of Melba Pen., 
about 7 mi. W. of Cape Charcot, on Queen Mary 
Coast; in about 66°28'S., 98°07'E. Disc, by the AAE 
under Mawson, 1911-14, and so named by the East- 
ern Sledge Party of the Western Base because bad 
weather delayed the party near here for several 
days in November 1912. 

Delbert Little Glacier: see Kelsey Glacier. 

Delbridge Islands: see Dellbridge Islands. 

Deliverance, Cape: see Delivrance, Point. 

DlfiLIVRANCE POINT: rocky point, about 1 mi. 
W. of Lumiere Peak, projecting from the SW. side 
of the rugged peninsula whose seaward end is Cape 
Tuxen, on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°19'S., 



64°06'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 1908-10, under Char- 
cot. So named because Charcot and two compan- 
ions were rescued there, after being separated from 
the exp. ship Pourquoi-Pas? for several days, while 
on an exploration of this area in a small boat. Not 
adopted: Cape Deliverance. 

DELLBRIDGE ISLANDS: group of islets of vol- 
canic origin, lying in McMurdo Sound S. of Cape 
Evans, Ross I.; in about 77°40'S., 166°25'E. Disc, 
by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, who named 
them for James H. Dellbridge, second engineer with 
the expedition. Not adopted: Delbridge Islands. 

DELONCLE BAY: bay, about 1.5 mi. long, indent- 
ing the W. coast of Palmer Pen. between Loubat and 
Glandaz Points and opening on Lemaire Chan, op- 
posite Booth I.; in 65°06'S., 63°53'W. Disc, by the 
BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Gerlache. The bay 
was charted by the FrAE 1903-5, under Charcot, 
and named by him for Frangois Deloncle, French 
diplomat. 

De Loubat, Cape: see Loubat Point. 

DELTA ISLAND: islet, nearly 0.5 mi. long, lying 
close SE. of Lambda I. and E. of Alpha I. in the 
Melchior Is., Palmer Arch.; in 64°19'S., 62°59'W. 
The name Delta, derived from the fourth letter of 
the Greek alphabet, was probably given by DI per- 
sonnel who roughly surveyed the islet in 1927. The 
islet was surveyed by Argentine expeditions in 
1942, 1943 and 1948. Not adopted: Isla Hermelo 
[Spanish] . 

Delta Island: see Acuna Islet. 

DELUSION POINT: point which marks the E. 
end of a rocky range which forms the S. wall of 
Crane Gl., on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
65°23'S., 62°00'W. The feature was photographed 
from the air by Sir Hubert Wilkins on a flight of 
Dec. 20, 1928. Named by the FIDS, who charted 
it in 1947. 

DEMARIA, MOUNT: mountain with precipitous 
sides, about 1,900 ft. in el., rising immediately SE. 
of Cape Tuxen, on the W. coast of Palmer Pen., 
in 65°17'S., 64°05'W. Probably flrst sighted by the 
BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Gerlache. Charted by 
the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, and named prob- 
ably for the Demaria brothers, French developers 
of an anastigmatic lens used by the expedition's 
photographic section. Not adopted: Demaria 
Peak. 

DEMAS ICE TONGUE: conspicuous ice tongue, 
extending W. from the ice shelf of Peacock Bay 
into Amundsen Sea for about 30 mi. at the E. end 
of Walgreen Coast; in about 72°10'S, 102''45'W. 



104 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Disc, by the USAS in flights from the Bear, Febru- 
ary 1940, and named after E. J. Demas, member of 
the Byrd Antarctic Expeditions, 1928-30, and 
1933-35. 

Demas Mountains: see Walker Mountains. 

DEMAS ROCKS: group of rocks lying about 3 
mi. off the NW. coast of Louis Philippe Pen., about 
2 mi. NE. of Cape Ducorps; in 63°21'S., 58°02"W. 
Disc, by a Fr. exp., 1837-40, under D'Urville, and 
named by him for Lt. Frangois Barlatier Demas of 
the exp. ship Astrolabe. The rocks were charted 
by the FIDS in 1946. Not adopted: Demas Rock. 

DEMAY POINT: point which forms the W. side 
of the entrance to Admiralty Bay, King George I., 
in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°12'S., 58°25'W. 
This point was known to sealers as early as 1822. 
It was named almost 100 years later by the FrAE, 
1908-10, under Charcot. 

DEMIDOV, CAPE: cape which forms the S. side 
of the entrance to Wilson Hbr., on the S. coast and 
near the W. end of South Georgia; in 54°08'S., 
37°47'W. Disc, by a Russ. exp. under Bellings- 
hausen in 1819, and named for Lt. Dimitri Demi- 
dov of the Vostok. Not adopted: Cape Demidow. 

Demidow, Cape: see Demidov, Cape. 

DEMOREST GLACIER: glacier which flows SE. 
into Whirlwind Inlet, between Flint and Matthes 
Glaciers, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°23'S., 
65°32'W. Disc, by Sir Hubert Wilkins on a flight 
of Dec. 20, 1928, and photographed from the air 
by the USAS in 1940. Charted by the FIDS in 1947 
and named for Max H. Demorest, American gla- 
ciologist. 

DENAIS COVE: cove at the N. side of the en- 
trance to Ezcurra Inlet, Admiralty Bay, on King 
George I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°07'S., 
58°31'W. Charted by the FrAE, 1908-10, under 
Charcot, and named by him for a member of the 
expedition. 

DENIAU ISLET: islet which lies off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen. midway between Darboux I. and 
Lippmann It., and about 5 mi. W. of the entrance 
to Beascochea Bay; in 65°27'S., 64°21'W. Disc, by 
the FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot, and named by 
him for Monsieur Deniau, a donor of numerous 
gifts to the expedition. Not adopted: Deniau 
Island. 

DENISON, CAPE: rocky cape in the center of the 
S. shore of Commonwealth Bay, on George V 
Coast; in about 67°00'S., 142°40'E. Disc, in 1912 
by the AAE under Mawson who named it for Sir 



Hugh Denison of Sydney, a patron of the expedi- 
tion. This cape was the site of the Main Base, 
from which the AAE mapped George V Coast. 

DENMAN GLACIER: glacier about 7 to 10 mi. 
wide, descending N. some 70 mi. from an el. of 
4,500 ft. in a series of vast ice cascades and crevasses 
and debouching into Shackleton Ice Shelf E. of 
David I., on Queen Mary Coast; in about 66°50'S., 
99°15'E. Disc, in November 1912 by the AAE un- 
der Mawson, who named it for Lord Thomas Den- 
man, Governor-General of the Commonwealth of 
Australia in 1911 and a patron of the expedition. 

DENNISTOUN GLACIER: glacier descending 
from the ice-covered slopes of Mounts Troubridge 
and Parker to the coast of northern Victoria Land; 
in about 71°10'S., 168°25'E. Charted by the BrAE, 
1910-13, under Scott, and named for James R. 
Dennistoun who was in charge of the mules aboard 
the exp. ship Terra Nova on the way to the Ant- 
arctic. 

DENUCE, MOUNT: rounded mountain, about 
5,000 ft. in el., lying between Mounts Hulth and 
Haskell on the SW. side of Cabinet Inlet, on the 
E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°43'S., 64°12'W. 
Charted by the FIDS and photographed from the 
air by the RARE in December 1947. Named by 
the FIDS for Jean Denuce, Belgian polar bibliog- 
rapher. 

Depot Bay: see Farr Bay. 

DEPOT GLACIER: well-defined valley glacier, 
flanked by lateral moraines, which terminates in a 
high vertical ice cliff where it discharges into the 
head of Hope Bay, at the NE. end of Palmer Pen.; 
in 63°25'S., 57°03'W. Disc, by the SwedAE, 
1901-4, under Nordenskjold, and so named by him 
because, as seen from Antarctic Sound, it appeared 
to be a possible site for a depot. 

DEPOT ISLAND: small, glaciated, granite island 
about 2 mi. NW. of Cape Ross, off the coast of Vic- 
toria Land; in about 76°43'S., 163°00'E. First 
charted by the BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton and 
so named by the expedition's Magnetic Pole Party 
because they depoted specimens of rocks on this 
island. 

D]EP6T ISLET: small rocky islet, about 50 ft. in 
el. and less than 0.1 mi. long, lying about 0.6 mi. 
NW. of Pasteur It. near the center of the Du- 
moulin Its., in the Geologic Arch., off Adelie Coast; 
in 66°37'S., 140°05'E. Photographed from the air 
by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47. Charted by the FrAE 
under Liotard, 1950-51, and so named because per- 
sonnel on the exp. ship Commandant Charcot es- 



424589 O -57 -8 



105 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



tablished a depot there to support the party which 
surveyed the Geologie Arch. area. 

DERBY ISLET: small rocky islet near the E. end 
of Geologie Arch., lying close N. of Astrolabe Gla- 
cier Tongue and about 0.5 mi. SE. of Pasteur It., in 
the Dumoulin Its., off Adelie Coast; in 66°38'S., 
140°05'E. Photographed from the air by USN Op. 
Hjp., 1946-47. Charted by the FrAE under Lio- 
tard, 1949-51, and so named because separate field 
parties competed against each other for the honor 
of being first to reach the islet. 

DE RONGfi ISLAND: high, rugged island about 
5 mi. long in a NE.-SW. direction and about half 
as broad; largest island of the group which forms 
the W. side of Errera Chan.; off the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 64°43'S., 62°41'W. Disc, by the 
BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Gerlache, who named 
it for Madame de Ronge, a contributor to the ex- 
pedition. Not adopted: Cuverville Island (q.v.). 
Rouge Island, Rouge Island. 

DESOLATION HARBOR: anchorage in the SE. 
side of Desolation I., lying N. of Livingston I. in 
the South Shetland Is.; in 62°28'S., 60°22'W. Used 
as an anchorage by early sealers, this feature was 
charted as Blythe Bay by Capt. George Powell on 
a map published by Laurie in 1822. The anchor- 
age takes its name from Desolation I., and was 
charted by DI personnel on the Discovery II in 
1935. Not adopted: Blythe Bay (q.v.) . 

DESOLATION ISLAND: V-shaped island lying 
in the entrance to Blythe Bay, about 5 mi. W. of 
Williams Pt., Livingston I., in the South Shetland 
Is.; in 62°27'S., 60°23'W. Disc, in January 1820 by 
a Br., exp. under Bransfield, and so named by him 
because of the desolate appearance. 

DESPAIR ROCKS : group of rocks about 3 mi. S. 
of Melsom Rocks and some 8 mi. WSW. of Penguin 
Pt., the NW. tip of Coronation I., in the South 
Orkney Is.; in 60°33'S., 46°12'W. Disc, and named 
by Capt. Nathaniel B. Palmer, an American sealer, 
and Capt. George Powell, a British sealer, during 
their joint cruise in December 1821. Not adopted: 
Rocks of Despair. 

DETAILLE ISLET: islet which lies close off the 
NW. side of Andresen I. and about 4 mi. off the 
W. coast of Palmer Pen. in the N. part of Lallemand 
Fjord; in about 66°55'S., 66°37'W. Disc, by the 
FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot, who named it for 
Monsieur Detaille of Punta Arenas, shareholder in 
the Magellan Whaling Co., who assisted Charcot 
in obtaining supplies at the company's whaling 
base at Deception Island. 



DETROIT: for names beginning thus see under 
the specific part of the word. For example, for 
Detroit de MacFerlane see MacFerlane, Detroit de. 
(Detroit is a French word for "strait.") 

DETROIT PLATEAU: a major interior plateau 
of Palmer Pen., averaging between 5,000 and 5,500 
ft. in el., whose NW. limit is marked by the S. wall 
of Russel Gl., in 63°43'S., 58°40'W., and extends 
some 120 mi. in a general SW. direction to a S. 
limit not precisely defined, but believed to be in 
about 64°50'S., 62°30'W. The plateau was seen 
from the air by Sir Hubert Wilkins on a flight over 
Palmer Pen., Dec. 20, 1928. Wilkins named it 
Detroit Aviation Society Plateau after the society 
which aided in the organizing of his exp., but the 
US-ACAN recommends that the shortened form of 
the original name be used. The N. and E. sides 
of the plateau were charted by the FIDS in 1946-47. 
Not adopted: Detroit Aviation Society Plateau. 

DEVIL ISLAND : island about 1 mi. long, with a 
low summit on each end, lying in the center of a 
small bay about 1 mi. SE. of Cape Well-met, north- 
ern Vega Island, S. of the NE. end of Palmer Pen.; 
in 63°48'S., 57°17'W. Disc, and named by the 
SwedAE, 1901-4, under Nordenskjold. Not 
adopted: Djafvulson [Swedish] , Teufelsinsel [Ger- 
man]. 

Devils Ballroom: see Devils Glacier. 

DEVILS CORRIE: large and very spectacular 
cirque, or corrie, midway between Olivine Pt. and 
Amphibolite Pt. on the S. coast of Coronation I., 
South Orkney Is.; in 60°40'S., 45°25'W. Named 
by the FIDS following their survey of 1948-49. 

DEVILS GLACIER: a heavily crevassed area in 
the S. end of the Mohn Basin, lying to the W. and 
SW. of the mountain group consisting of Mounts 
Wisting, Hassel, Bjaaland and Prestrud, in the 
south polar plateau; its northern and lower end 
lies in about 86°30'S., 167°20'W. Disc, in Novem- 
ber 1911 on the journey to the South Pole by the 
Nor. exp. under Amundsen, and named by him to 
describe the extremely rough sledging in that area. 
Not adopted: Devils Ballroom. 

DEVILS PEAK: conspicuous rocky peak, about 
2,400 ft. in el., between Sunshine Gl. and Devils 
Corrie on the S. side of Coronation I., South Ork- 
ney Is.; in 60°40'S., 45°27'W. Surveyed in 1948-49 
by the FIDS, who so named it because of its 
proximity to Devils Corrie. 

DEVILS PUNCHBOWL: bowl-shaped cove (an 
empty cirque, the floor of which is below sea level) 
in the SW. corner of Granite Hbr., between Devils 
Ridge and the S. side of The Flatiron, in Victoria 



106 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Land; in about 77°01'S., 162°26'E. Charted and 
named by the BrAE 1910-13, under Scott. Not 
adopted : Devil's Punch Bowl, Punch Bowl. 

DEVILS RIDGE: rocky, siclsle-shaped ridge, 
about 800 ft. in el., extending from the S. end of 
The Flatiron and forming the N. wall of New Gl., 
situated close W. of Granite Hbr. in Victoria Land; 
in about 77°01'S., 162°25'E. Charted and named 
by the BrAE, 1910-13, under Scott. Not adopted: 
Devil's Ridge. 

DEVILS THUMB: rocky knob, about 800 ft. in 
el., marking the central part of Devils Ridge, situ- 
ated on the N. side of New Gl. close W. of Granite 
Hbr., in Victoria Land; in about 77°01'S., 162°25'E. 
Charted and named by the BrAE, 1910-13, under 
Scott. Not adopted: Devil's Thumb. 

DEWDROP GLACIER: small hanging glacier, 
discharging into the head of Devils Punchbowl 
between The Flatiron and Devils Ridge, at the SW. 
side of Granite Hbr., in Victoria Land; in about 
77°01'S., 162°24'E. Charted and named by the 
BrAE, 1910-13, under Scott. 

DIAZ COVE: cove about 11 mi. NW. of Cape 
Disappointment, near the E. end of the S. coast of 
South Georgia; in 54°45'S., 36°19'W. This cove 
was known to early sealers as shown by the 
remains of a sealing vessel found there. It was 
rediscovered in 1929 by Captain Johannesen and 
named for his ship Diaz. Not adopted: Sealer 
Cove. 

DIBBLE GLACIER: prominent channel glacier 
about 7 mi. wide and 35 mi. long, flowing NNE. 
from the continental ice close W. of a broad up- 
land rise in 66°20'S., and terminating in a promi- 
nent tongue at the E. side of Davis Bay, on Clarie 
Coast; in about 66°00'S., 134°50'E. Delineated 
from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 
1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for Jonas 
Dibble, ships carpenter on the sloop of war Pea- 
cock, and for the unsung crew members of the 
USEE squadron under Wilkes, 1838-42. Dibble is 
credited with leaving his sick bed and working 24 
hours without relief with the other carpenters to 
repair a broken rudder on the Peacock when the 
ship was partially crushed in an ice bay in 151°19'E. 
and ""forced to retire northward. 

DIBBLE GLAClEft TONGUE : prominent glacier 
tongue about 4 mi. wide and 6 mi. long, extending 
NNW. from Dibble Gl., close E. of Davis Bay, along 
Clarie Coast; in about 65°50'S., 134°45'E. Deline- 
ated from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. 
Hjp., 1946-47, and nametj by the US-ACAN for 
Jonas Dibble and the unsung crew members of the 
USEE squadron under Wilkes, 1838-42. 



Dibdins Island: see Powell Island. 

DICKASON, MOUNT: mountain about 7,000 ft. 
in el., lying WSW. of Mt. Melbourne at the head 
of Boomerang Gl., in Victoria Land; in about 
74°28'S., 163°40'E. First charted by the BrAE, 
1910-13, under Scott, and named for Seaman 
Harry Dickason, RN, who was with the expedition. 

Dion Islets: see De Dion Islets. 

DISAPPOINTMENT, CAPE: cape which forms 
the S. extremity of South Georgia; in 54°53'S., 
36°07'W. First charted and so named in 1775 by 
a Br. exp. under Cook, who upon reaching this 
position was greatly disappointed in realizing that 
South Georgia was an island rather than a conti- 
nent. 

DISAPPOINTMENT, CAPE: cape about midway 
along the W. side of Powell I., in the South Orkney 
Is.; in 60°42'S., 45°05'W. The name was originally 
applied to the S. end of Powell I. by Capt. George 
Powell and Capt. Nathaniel Palmer in 1821, prob- 
ably reflecting their reluctance to terminate their 
eastward cruise, necessitated by exhausted provi- 
sions and unfavorable winds. In recent years- the 
name has been consistently used for the cape on 
the W. side of the island. 

DISAPPOINTMENT, CAPE: cape which marks 
the tip of an ice-covered peninsula which extends 
about 9 mi. from the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
65°33'S., 61°45'W. Disc, in 1902 by the SwedAE, 
under Nordenskjold, and so named by him because 
he encountered many difficult crevasses in ap- 
proaching the cape. It was resighted and charted 
by the FIDS in 1947. Not adopted: Besvikelsens 
Kap [Swedish]. 

Discovery, Cape: see Decouverte, Cape. 

DISCOVERY, MOUNT: conspicuous, isolated 
volcanic cone about 9,100 ft. in el., lying at the 
head of McMurdo Sound and SE. of the Koettlitz 
Gl., overlooking the NW. portion of the Ross Ice 
Shelf; in about 78°20'S., 165°00'E. Disc, by the 
BrNAE, 1901-4 under Scott, and named for the 
exp. ship Discovery. 

DISCOVERY BAY: bay about 4 mi. long and 
wide, indenting the NW. coast of Greenwich I., in 
the South Shetland Is.; in 62°28'S., 59°43'W. This 
bay has been known to sealers in the area since 
about 1822. It was charted and named during 
1935 by DI personnel on the Discovery II. 

DISCOVERY BLUFF: conspicuous headland, 
about 1,600 ft. in el., forming the W. side of the 
entrance to Avalanche Bay in Granite Hbr., Vic- 



107 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



toria Land; in about 77°00'S., 162°41'E. Disc, by 
the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, who referred to 
this feature as Rendezvoux Bluff. It was re- 
named for the ship Discovery by the BrAE under 
Scott, 1910-13. Not adopted: Rendezvoux Bluff. 

DISCOVERY INLET: deep re-entrant extending 
ESE. into Ross Ice Shelf for about 20 mi.; in about 
78°20'S., 171°00'W. Disc, by the BrNAE under 
Scott, January 26, 1902, while coasting along the 
front of Ross Ice Shelf in the Discovery. This 
feature was last confirmed by USN Op. Wml., 
1947-48, though the configuration of such indenta- 
tions is continually changing. 

Discovery Island: see Guepratte Island. 

DISCOVERY POINT: a point formed of glacial 
moraine, marking the W. side of the entrance to 
Moraine Fjord, South Georgia; in 54°18'S., 36°29'W. 
The point was first surveyed by the SwedAE, 1901-4, 
under Nordenskjold. It appears that it was named 
by Discovery Investigations personnel in the period 
following their surveys of 1926-31, presumably for 
their organization or their ships, the Discovery or 
Discovery II, which were utilized in the surveys of 
South Georgia. 

DISCOVERY SOUND: an E.-W. trending chan- 
nel, about 0.5 mi. wide, separating Guepratte I. 
from the NE. side of Anvers I., in the Palmer Arch.; 
in 64°30'S., 63°01'W. The channel was disc, by a 
Ger. exp. under Dallmarm, 1873-74, and in 1903-5 
was charted by the FrAE under Charcot. During 
1927 it was explored by DI personnel on the Dis- 
covery who applied the name. 

DISMAL ISLET: islet, about 1 mi. long and 200 
ft. in el., which is mainly ice covered and is the 
largest of the Faure Is., lying in Marguerite Bay 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°06'S., 
68°50'W. The Faure Is. were disc, and first 
charted in 1909 by the FrAE under Charcot. The 
group was visited and surveyed in 1949 by the 
FIDS who so named this islet for its appearance 
of extreme desolation and lifelessness. 

DITTE, MOUNT: mountain, about 4,600 ft. in 
el., surmounting Cape Alexandra in the SE. ex- 
tremity of Adelaide I.; in 67°43'S., 68°37'W. Disc, 
by the FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot, and named 
by him for Alfred Ditte, noted French chemist. 
Not adopted: Mount A. Ditte. 

DIVIDE, THE: narrow isthmus joining a small 
peninsula to the SE. extremity of Coronation I., in 
the South Orkney Is.; in 60°45'S., 45°10'W. 
Charted in 1912-13 by a Nor. whaling exp. under 
S0rlle. Named by DI personnel on the Discovery II 
during their survey in 1933. 



DIVIDE RIDGE: series of ice-topped peaks, the 
highest about 2,100 ft. in el., extending in a NW. 
direction for about 3 mi. from The Divide in SE. 
Coronation I., South Orkney Is.; in 60''44'S., 
45°13'W. Surveyed in 1948-49 by the FIDS, and 
so named by them because of its proximity to The 
Divide. 

DIXEY, MOUNT: mountain, about 3,500 ft. in 
el., standing at the S. side of Riley Gl. and about 
3.5 mi. NE. of Carse Pt., on the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 70°10'S., 68°04'W. This mountain was 
first photographed from the air on Nov. 23, 1935 
by Lincoln Ellsworth, and was mapped from these 
photographs by W. L. G. Joerg. It was first sur- 
veyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill, and later 
named by the members of the expedition for Neville 
Dixey, Chairman of Lloyd's in 1934, who raised a 
special fund at Lloyd's as a contribution towards 
the cost of the BGLE, 1934-37. 

DIXSON ISLAND: ice-covered island about 10 
mi. long and 5 mi. wide, rising to about 1,100 ft. 
in el. at the W. side of the mouth of Ninnis Gl., 
along George V Coast; in about 68°08'S., 146°45'E. 
Disc, in November 1912 by the AAE under Maw- 
son, who named it for Sir Hugh Dixson, a patron 
of the expedition. 

Djdfvulson: see Devil Island. 

D. M. Little Glacier: see Kelsey Glacier. 

Doctor Rusch Glacier: see Reusch Glacier. 

DODMAN ISLAND: crescent-shaped island 
about 4 mi. long and 1.5 mi. wide, lying in Grandi- 
dier Chan, about 1.5 mi. W. of Jagged I. and 10 mi. 
W. of Ferin Head, off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 65°57'S., 65°50'W. Probably first seen by the 
FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot. Charted and 
named by the BGLE, 1934-37, under Rymill. 

Dodson Island: see Dodson Peninsula. 

DODSON PENINSULA: ice-covered peninsula at 
the W. end of Filchner Ice Shelf, lying in front of 
Orville Escarpment about 35 mi. S. of Gardner 
Inlet, at the E. side of the base of Palmer Pen.; in 
about 75°46'S., 62°50'W. Disc, from the air by the 
RARE, 1947-48, under Ronne, who named it Dod- 
son Island, in conformity with interpretation from 
the air. Re-examination of the RARE photo- 
graphs by Ronne revealed its peninsular nature. 
Named for Robert H. T. Dodson, asst. geologist and 
surveyor with the expedition. Not adopted: Dod- 
son Island, Harry Dodson Island. 



108 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



DOGS LEG FJORD: inlet about 8 mi. long in an 
E.-W. direction and 2 mi. wide, lying directly E. of 
Ridge I. and opening on Bourgeois Fjord, along the 
W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°43'S., 66°50'W. Disc, 
by the BGLE, 1934-37, under Rymill, and so named 
because of its shape. Not adopted: Dog's Leg 
Fiord. 

DOLLEMAN ISLAND: rounded, ice-covered is- 
land, about 13 mi. in diameter lying about 8 mi. E. 
of Cape Boggs, off the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
70°37'S., 60°45'W. Disc, in 1940 by members of 
East Base of the USAS. Named for Heinrich DoUe- 
man, tractor driver for the East Base. 

Dome, The: see McLeod Hill. 

DOME NUNATAK: dome-shaped nunatak, about 
2,800 ft. in el., protruding above Mackay Gl., about 
4 mi. WNW. of Mt. Suess, in Victoria Land; in about 
77°01'S., 162°29'E. Charted and named by the 
BrAE, under Scott, 1910-13. 

DOMINION RANGE: row of rugged peaks, some 
over 10,000 ft. in el., flanking the S. side of Mill Gl. 
and forming the polar plateau escarpment; in 
about 85°40'S. , 172"00'E. Disc, by the BrAE, 
under Shackleton, in December 1908 and named for 
the Dominion of New Zealand, which generously 
aided the expedition. 

DONALD NUNATAK: nunatak about 1.5 mi. N. 
of Gray Nunatak in the Seal Nunataks group, off 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°05'S., 60°08'W. 
Donald Nunatak was charted in 1902 by the 
SwedAE under Nordenskjold, who named it for 
Dr. C. W. Donald, ship's doctor and naturalist on 
the Active, one of the vessels of the Dundee whaling 
exp., 1892-93. 

Donald Woodward Mountains: see Woodward, 
Mount. 

Donati, Isla: see Kappa Island. 

DON PEDRO CHRISTOPHERSEN, MOUNT: 
smoothly-rounded, gabled peak, about 12,800 ft. in 
el., standing in the Queen Maud Range and flank- 
ing the S. side of Axel Heiberg Gl. at the head of 
Ross Ice Shelf; in about 85°35'S., 165°00'W. Disc, 
in 1911 by a Nor. exp. under Amundsen, who named 
it for one of the chief supporters of his expedition. 

DOOLETTE BAY: bay lying at the W. junction 
of Ninnis Glacier Tongue with the land, along 
George V. Coast; in about 67°55'S., 147°15'E. Disc, 
in 1912 by the AAE under Mawson, who named it 
for G. P. Doolette of Perth, a patron of the expe- 
dition. 



DOORLY, MOUNT: mountain about 3,500 ft. in 
el., which stands at the N. side of the mouth of 
Wright Gl. about 11 mi. WSW. of Spike Cape, in 
Victoria Land; in about 77°22'S., 162°50'E. Disc, 
by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, and named for 
Lt. Gerald S. Doorly, RN, of the Morning, relief ship 
to the expedition. 

DORIAN BAY: cove on the NW. side of Wiencke 
I., about 0.75 mi. ENE. of Damoy Pt., in the Palmer 
Arch.; in 64°49'S., 63°31'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 
1903-5, under Charcot, and named by him for 
Monsieur Dorian, a member of the French Cham- 
ber of Deputies. 

DORIS BAY: small bay which is next SE. of Saint 
Andrews Bay, along the N. coast of South Georgia; 
in 54°27'S., 36°09'W. The name dates back to 
about 1929 and is now well established in in- 
ternational usage. Not adopted: Little Bucht 
[Germany] . 

DORSEY ISLAND: small, rocky island lying off 
the W. coast of Alexander I Island in Wilkins Str.; 
in about 69°56'S., 72°00'W. Disc, in flights over 
the area in 1940 by members of East Base of the 
USAS. Named for Herbert G. Dorsey, Jr., of the 
U.S. Weather Bureau, who served as meteorologist 
at East Base and who devised a method of predict- 
ing with exceptional accuracy the periods in which 
weather would be suitable for flying. 

DOT ISLET: tiny islet lying 0.5 mi. W. of Tern It. 
in the S. part of the Bay of Isles, South Georgia; 
in 54°03'S., 37''21'W. First charted by Robert 
Cushman Murphy in 1912-13. It was surveyed in 
1929-30 by DI personnel, who probably named it 
Dot Island because of its size and minute appear- 
ance when represented on charts. The name Dot 
Islet is approved because of the small size of the 
feature. Not adopted: Dot Island. 

DOUBLEFINGER PEAK: peak, about 3,500 ft. in 
el., which appears to be joined to the NE. side of 
Mt. Marston, in Victoria Land; in about 76°54'S., 
162°17'E. Charted and named by the BrAE, 
1910-13, under Scott. A snow-filled cleft along 
the SE. face of the peak separates two dark, rock 
exposures, suggesting the origin of the name. Not 
adopted : Double Finger Peak. 

DOUBLE ISLETS: two small rocky islets, lying 
close E. of the tip of Zelee Glacier Tongue, about 
0.4 mi. NNW. of Triple Its., off Adelie Coast; in 
about 66°45'S., 141°11'E. Photographed from the 
air by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47. Charted and named 
by the FrAE under Liotard, 1949-51. 



109 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



DOUBTFUL BAY: small, but deeply indented 
bay, which lies 1.5 mi. ENE. of Smaaland Cove and 
immediately W. of Rumbolds Ft. on the SE. coast of 
South Georgia; in 54°52'S., 36°02'W. This bay was 
charted by the GerAE under Filchner, 1911-12, 
who named it for Walter Slossarczyk, third officer 
of the exp. ship Deutschland. Later the names 
Doubtful Bay and Smaaland Bay (now Smaaland 
Cove, q.v.) were erroneously transposed on charts 
of this area. The SGS, 1951-52, reported that the 
name Slossarczyk Bay is not known locally and that 
this feature is best known as Doubtful Bay. Despite 
the undoubted priority of Filchner's naming, the 
name Doubtful Bay is approved in order to conform 
with local usage. Not adopted: Green Bay, Slo- 
sarczyk Bay, Slossarczyk Bay, Smaaland Bay, 
Smedland Bay. 

Doubtful Bay: see Smaaland Cove. 

DOUGLAS, CAFE: rocky headland between 
Barne Inlet and Beaumont Bay along the W. edge 
of the Ross Ice Shelf; in about 81°00'S., 160°30'E. 
Disc, by the BrNAE under Scott in December 1902, 
and named for Adm. Sir Archibald Douglas, Lord 
of the Admiralty, who led the Admiralty to assign 
naval seamen to the expedition. 

DOUGLAS BAY: an indentation in the front of 
Amery Ice Shelf westward of Cape Thomas, in the 
SW. part of MacKenzie Bay along Lars Christensen 
Coast; in about 68°45'S., 70°30'E. Sketched from 
the air, Feb. 10, 1931, by the BANZARE under 
Mawson. Probably named for Air Pilot E. Douglas, 
one of the aviators on the expedition. 

Douglas Inlet: see New Bedford Inlet. 

DOUGLAS ISLANDS: group of islands about 14 
mi. NW. of Cape Daly, off Mac-Robertson Coast; in 
about 67°20'S., 63°32'E. Disc, by the BANZARE, 
1929-31, under Mawson. Lt. E. Douglas was one 
of the air pilots who first sighted these islands, 
when he explored the coast from an airplane in 
December 1929. 

DOUGLAS PEAK: peak about 5,000 ft. in el., 
lying about 12 mi. SSW. of Mt. Codrington, in 
Enderby Land; in about 66°32'S., 52°20'E. Disc, 
in January 1930 by the BANZARE under Mawson, 
and probably named for Air Pilot E. Douglas. 

DOUGLAS RANGE: sharp-crested range form- 
ing the steep E. escarpment of Alexander I Island, 
overlooking George VI Sound from about 69°20'S., 
69°50'W. to about 70°35'S. The narrow, linear 
divide of the range rises majestically to about 
8,000 ft. in el., surmounted by peaks which rise to 
9,800 ft. The S. end of this range was photo- 
graphed by Lincoln Ellsworth, Nov. 23, 1935, on his 



trans-Antarctic flight, and its N. end was seen 
dimly by Charcot on the Pourquoi-Pas? , Jan. 21 to 
23, 1909. Positive discovery, however, was made in 
1936 by members of the BGLE, under Rymill, who 
mapped the range as a result of aerial flights and 
of a sledge journey to beyond 72°S. in George VI 
Sound. Named for V. Adm. Sir Percy Douglas, 
chairman of the BGLE Advisory Committee, mem- 
ber of the Discovery Committee from 1928 until his 
death in 1939, formerly Hydrographer of the British 
Navy, and Vice Pres. of the Royal Geographical Soc. 
As Hydrographer, Sir Percy produced the first issue 
of the Antarctic Pilot in 1930. 

DOUGLASS, MOUNT: ice-covered mountain with 
several peaks rising to an estimated 1,500 ft. in el., 
on the SW. side of the lower part of Boyd Gl., in the 
Edsel Ford Ranges in Marie Byrd Land; in about 
77°19'S., 145°17'W. Disc, in 1934 on aerial flights 
of the ByrdAE. Named for Malcolm C. Douglass, 
dog driver at West Base of the USAS, 1939-41. 

DOUGLAS STRAIT: strait about 2 mi. wide be- 
tween Thule and Cook Islands, in the South Sand- 
wich Is.; in 59°27'S., 27°14'W. The existence of 
this strait was first noted by a Russ. exp. under 
Bellingshausen in 1820. It was charted by DI per- 
sonnel on the Discovery II and named for V. Adm. 
Sir Percy Douglas. 

DOUMER ISLAND: island, about 4.5 mi. long 
and 2 mi. wide, surmounted by a snow-covered 
pyramidal peak about 1,700 ft. in el., lying between 
the S. portions of Anvers I. and Wiencke I., in the 
Palmer Arch.; in 64°51'S., 63°35'W. First seen by 
the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Gerlache. It was 
resighted and charted by the FrAE, 1903-5, under 
Charcot, who named it for Paul Doumer, Pres. of 
the Chamber of Deputies and later Pres. of France. 

DOVE CHANNEL : narrow channel bisecting the 
Oliphant Its., trending in an E.-W. direction be- 
tween two large islets, on the N., and the main 
group of smaller islets and rocks, on the S., lying 
about 0.4 mi. S. of Gourlay Pt., the SE. tip of 
Signy I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°45'S., 
45°36'W. The name Dove Strait dates back to 
about 1930, but the generic term channel is ap- 
proved because of the small size of this feature. 
Not adopted: Dove Strait. 

DOVERS, CAPE: prominent cape about 5 mi. 
SSW. of Henderson I., on Queen Mary Coast; in 
about 66°32'S., 97°01'E. Disc, by the AAE, 1911-14, 
under Mawson, and named for G. Dovers, cartog- 
rapher at the expedition's Western Base. 

Dove Strait: see Dove Channel. 



110 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



DOWNSHIRE, Cape: cape about 35 mi. SSE. of 
Cape Adare, in the NE. part of Victoria Land; in 
about 71°45'S., 171°00'E. Disc, in 1841 by a Br. 
exp. under Ross, and named at the request of Cdr. 
Francis R. M. Crozier, after the latter's friend, the 
Marquis Downshire. 

DOYLE POINT:, point lying on the coast of En- 
derby Land about midway between Cape Batter- 
bee and Cape Borley; in about 65°45'S., 54°35'E. 
Disc, and named in January 1930 by the BANZARE 
under Mawson. Not adopted: Stuart Doyle Point. 

DRAKE HEAD: headland about 5 mi. W. of Cape 
Kinsey, forming the W. side of the entrance to 
Davies Bay, on Oates Coast; in about 69°12'S., 
158°35'E. Disc, by members of the Terra Nova 
of the BrAE, who explored along Oates Coast un- 
der Lt. Harry L. L. Pennell, RN, in February 1911. 
Named for Francis R. H. Drake, meteorologist 
aboard the Terra Nova. 

DREIKANTER HEAD: dark, triangular head- 
land, about 1,700 ft. in el., situated on the W. side 
of Granite Hbr. and separated by a small glacier 
from the N. side of Kar Plateau, in Victoria Land; 
in about 76°54'S., 162°31'E. Charted and named 
by the BrAE, 1910-13, under Scott. The trian- 
gular appearance of the feature when viewed from 
the SE. suggests the name; "dreikantig" is a Ger- 
man word meaning "three-edged." Not adopted: 
Dreikanter. 

DROMEDARY, MOUNT: hump-shaped moun- 
tain, about 9,600 ft. in el., with two slightly ele- 
vated summits, standing at the NW. side of Koet- 
tlitz Gl., about 4 mi. ENE. of Mt. Kempe, on the 
W. side of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 78°21'S., 
163°06'E. Charted by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under 
Scott, but was named by Scott's second expedi- 
tion to the area, the BrAE, 1910-13. So named be- 
cause the overall appearance of the mountain sug- 
gests the hump of a dromedary. 

Dronning Mary Land: see Queen Mary Coast. 

Dronning Maud Land: see Queen Maud Land. 

Dronning Mauds Fjell: see Queen Maud Range. 

Drygalski Barrier: see Drygalski Ice Tongue. 

Drygalski Bay: see Drygalski Glacier. 

DRYGALSKI FJORD: bay about 1 mi. wide 
which recedes NW. about 7 mi., entered immedi- 
ately N. of Nattriss Head along the SE coast of 
South Georgia; in 54°49'S., 36°00'W. Charted by 
the GerAE, 1911-12, under Filchner, and named 
for Prof. Erich von Drygalski, leader of the Ger- 
man Antarctic Expedition, 1901-3. 



DRYGALSKI GLACIER: glacier about 15 mi. 
long and 8 mi. wide, which flows in an ESE. direc- 
tion through a rectangular re-entrant about 15 mi. 
N. of Cape Fairweather, on the E. coast of. Palmer 
Pen.; in 64°44'S., 61°00'W. Disc, in 1902 by the 
SwedAE, under Nordenskjold, and named Drygalski 
Bay after Prof. Erich von Drygalski. The feature 
was determined to be a glacier by the FIDS in 1947. 
Not adopted: Drygalski Bay. 

Drygalski Glacier Tongue; Drygalski Tongue. 
see Drygalski Ice Tongue. 

DRYGALSKI ICE TONGUE: an ice tongue which 
is fed by the David and Larsen Glaciers and is about 
25 mi. wide at its base along the coast of Vic- 
toria Land, extending E. into Ross Sea for about 
38 mi.; in about 75°30'S., 164°30'E. Disc, in Jan- 
uary 1902 by the BrNAE under Scott, who named 
it for Prof. Erich von Drygalski. Not adopted: 
Drygalski Barrier, Drygalski Glacier Tongue, Dry- 
galski Tongue. 

DRYGALSKI ISLAND: ice-capped island, about 
9 mi. in diameter, with a flattened dome about 1,200 
ft. in el., lying about 45 mi. off Queen Mary Coast, 
NNE. of Cape FUchner; in about 65°43'S., 92°42'E. 
Viewed from the continental coast in November 
1912, by members of the Western Base of the AAE, 
and observed more closely from the Aurora, in 
January 1914, on the homeward journey of the 
exp. Thought to be "Drygalski's High Land" 
charted by Prof. Erich von Drygalski of the GerAE 
in 1902, his name was given to the island. 

DRYGALSKI MOUNTAINS: group of mountains 
in New Schwabenland, projecting through the ice- 
cap immediately N. of the edge of the polar pla- 
teau in about 72°50'S., 8°30'E. Disc, by the GerAE, 
1938-39, under Ritscher, and named for Prof. Erich 
von Drygalski. 

DRYING POINT: point on the SW. side of Borge 
Bay, about 0.2 mi. NW. of Mooring Pt., on the E. 
side of Signy I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°43'S., 
45°36'W. The name appears on a chart based 
upon a 1927 survey of Borge Bay by DI personnel 
on the Discovery. 

Dry Valley: see Taylor Glacier Dry Valley. 

DuBEAU GLACIER: channel glacier about 3 
mi. wide and 9 mi. long, flowing N. from the con- 
tinental ice to Knox Coast, about 6 mi. W. of Snede- 
ker Gl.; in about 66°25'S., 106°08'E. Delineated 
from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 
1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for Earl P. 
DuBeau, photo interpreter with USN Op. Wml., 
1947-48, who assisted in establishing astronomical 



111 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



control stations along Queen Mary, Knox and Budd 
Coasts. 

DUBOUZET, CAPE : the NE. extremity of Palmer 
Pen.; in 63°16'S., 57°02'W. Named in 1838 by a 
Fr. exp. under D'Urville, who first succeeded 
in outlining the N. coast of Louis Philippe Penin- 
sula. Named by D'Urville for Lieutenant Du 
Bouzet of the exp. ship Zelee. The approved spell- 
ing form has been established by usage. 

Duce Bay: see Duse Bay. 

Du Chaylard, He: see Duchaylard Island. 

DUCHAYLARD ISLAND: island about 2.5 mi. 
long and 1.5 mi. wide, which lies in Grandidier 
Chan, about 1.5 mi. SE. of Vieugue I. and 11 mi. 
WNW. of Cape Garcia, off the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 65°43'S., 65°08'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 
1903-5, under Charcot, and named by him for Mon- 
sieur du Chaylard, French Minister Plenipotentiary 
at Montevideo, Uruguay. The recommended spell- 
ing follows that of Bongrain's report of 1914. Not 
adopted: He du Chaylard [French]. 

DUCLOZ HEAD: headland which forms the NW. 
side of the entrance to Undine South Hbr. on the 
S. coast of South Georgia; in 54°30'S., 36°39'W. 
The headland was first charted in 1819 by a Russ. 
exp. under Bellingshausen. Named by the Br-APC, 
following a survey by the SGS, 1951-52, after Le 
Sieur Ducloz Guyot, a passenger in the Spanish 
vessel Leon, which resighted South Georgia in 1756. 

DUCORPS, CAPE: prominent bulb-shaped head- 
land, about 3 mi. long, joined to the coast by a 
narrow isthmus, lying between Capes Roquemaurel 
and Legoupil on the NW. coast of Louis Philippe 
Pen.; in 63°24'S., 58°08'W. Disc, by a Fr. exp., 
1837-40, under D'Urville, and named by him for 
Louis Ducorps, a member of the exp. The cape 
was re-identified and charted by the FIDS in 1946. 

DUDLEY, MOUNT: mountain, more than 5,500 
ft. in el., standing at the head of Neny Fjord and 
bounded on the N. and E. side by Neny Trough, 
on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°16'S., 
66°30'W. The W. side of this mountain was first 
roughly surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Ry- 
mill. It was surveyed in entirety in 1940 by the 
US AS. The feature was photographed from the 
air and ground by the RARE, 1947-48, under 
Ronne, who named it for Harold M. Dudley, Exec. 
Sec. of the American Council of Commercial Labo- 
ratories, Inc., Washington, D. C, who procured 
various types of equipment and arranged finan- 
cial aid for RARE. 

Duemler, Cape: see Robinson, Cape. 



DUEMLER, MOUNT: mountain, about 7,300 ft. 
in el., rising SW. of the head of Anthony Gl., and 
about 11 mi. W. of Mt. Bailey, inland from the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 70°01'S., 63°45'W. This 
feature was first charted by the BGLE under Ry- 
mill in 1936-37. It was photographed from the 
air by the USAS, in 1940, and the RARE under 
Ronne, in 1947, and recharted in 1947 by a joint 
sledge party consisting of members of the RARE 
and FIDS. Named by Ronne for R. F. Duemler, 
vice-pres. of the Delaware, Lackawanna and West- 
ern Coal Co., New York, which contributed coal to 
the expedition. 

Dufaure de Lajarte Islands: see Lajarte Islands. 

DUFAYEL ISLAND : island lying near the center 
of Ezcurra Inlet, Admiralty Bay, in the South Shet- 
land Is.; in 62°09'S., 58°34'W. Charted and named 
in December 1909 by the FrAE under Charcot. 

Duffs Straits: see McFarlane Strait. 

DU FIEF, SIERRA: mountain range with nu- 
merous sharp peaks, the highest about 4,600 ft. in 
el., extending in a NE.-SW. direction about 4 mi., 
in the SW. half of Wiencke I., in the Palmer Arch.; 
in 64°52'S., 63°28'W. Disc, by the BelgAE, 1897-99; 
under De Gerlache, and named by him for J. Du 
Fief, at that time Gen. Sec. of the Belgian Royal 
Geographical Society. Not adopted: Sierra du 
Fief. 

DUGDALE GLACIER: glacier descending from 
the high plateau of northern Victoria Land into 
Robertson Bay where it merges with Murray Gl. 
NW. of Duke of York I.; in about 71°35'S., 169°56'E. 
First charted in 1899 by the BrAE under C. E. 
Borchgrevink, who named it for Frank Dugdale, 
Esq., of Snitterfield, Stratford-on-Avon. 

DUKE ERNST BAY: bay, about 7 m. wide at the 
entrance and about 10 mi. long, lying between the 
shore of Luitpold Coast and the Filchner Ice Shelf; 
in about 77°50'S., 35°00'W. Disc, in 1912 by the 
GerAE under Filchner. Upon discovery Filchner 
named the bay for Capt. Richard Vahsel of the exp. 
ship Deutschland. He renamed it Herzog Ernst 
Bay after large portions of the ice shelf broke away, 
forming a much larger bay. , Not adopted : Hertug 
Ernst Bay, Herzog Ernst Bay [German], Vahsel 
Bay. 

DUKE OF YORK ISLAND: mountainous island 
lying in the S. part of Robertson Bay, along the N. 
coast of Victoria Land; in about 71°37'S., 170°03'E. 
First charted in 1899 by the BrAE under C. E. 
Borchgrevink, who named it for the Duke of York. 



112 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



DUMBBELL ISLET: low rocky islet lying about 
1 mi. W. of Alamode I. in the Terra Firma Is., off 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°43'S., 67°35'W. 
The islet was surveyed in 1948 by the FIDS, who so 
named it because of its shape. 

Dumoulin, lies; Dumoulin Islet: see Dumoulin 
Rock. 

DUMOULIN ISLETS : small group of rocky islets 
at the NE. end of the Geologie Arch., lying about 
2.5 mi. N. of Astrolabe Glacier Tongue, off Adelie 
Coast; in 66°37'S., 140°04'E. A Fr. exp. under 
D'Urville landed on one of these islets in 1840. The 
islets were roughly charted by the AAE, 1911-14, 
under Mawson, who named them after C. A. Vin- 
cendon-Dumoulin of the Fr. exp., who conducted 
observations on terrestrial magnetism in that local- 
ity. The group was photographed from the air by 
USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and recharted by the FrAE 
under Liotard, 1940-51. 

DUMOULIN ROCK: rock about 1.5 mi. N. of Cape 
Leguillou, the N. tip of Tower I., lying in Bransfield 
Str. about 22 mi. W. of Cape Roquemaurel, Louis 
Philippe Pen.; in 63°30'S., 59°50'W. The Fr. exp. 
under D'Urville, 1837-40, applied the name lies Du- 
moulin to what he charted as a small group of islets 
in this area, but in recent years usage has restricted 
the name Dumoulin to the single feature described. 
The name Dumoulin Rock is recommended because 
of its small size and to avoid confusion with the 
Dumoulin Islets off Adelie Coast. Named for C. A. 
Vincendon-Dumoulin, hydrographer with D'Ur- 
ville's expedition. Not adopted: Dumoulin Islet, 
lies Dumoulin [French] . 

DUMOUTIER, CAPE: point which forms the S. 
tip of Tower I., lying in Bransfield Str. about 23 mi. 
WSW. of Cape Roquemaurel, Louis Philippe Pen.; 
in 63°35'S., 59°50'W. Named by the Fr. exp., 
1837-40, under D'Urville, for Pierre Dumoutier, a 
member of the expedition. 

DUNCAN MOUNTAINS: group of ragged foot- 
hills rising to peaks about 4,800 ft. in el. and lying 
just E. of the mouth of Liv GL, fronting on Ross Ice 
Shelf for a distance of about 18 mi.; centering in 
about 85°S., 166°W. Disc, by the ByrdAE in No- 
vember 1929. Named by Byrd for James Duncan, 
Manager of Tapley, Ltd., shipping agents for the 
Byrd expedition at Dunedin, New Zealand. Not 
adopted: James Duncan Mountains. 

DUNDAS, CAPE: easternmost point of Laurie I., 
in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°44'S., 44°24'W. 
Sighted on Jan. 12, 1823 by a Br. sealing exp. under 
Weddell, who named it in honor of the illustrious 
Dundas family. 



DUNDEE ISLAND: ice-covered island lying E. of 
the NE. tip of Palmer Pen. and S. of Joinville I.; 
in 63°30'S., 55°55'W. Disc, and named on Jan. 8, 
1893, by Capt. Thomas Robertson of the Active for 
the home port, Dundee, Scotland, from whence the 
ship sailed in company with three other vessels in 
search of whales. 

DUNLOP, CAPE: rocky headland about 13 mi. 
SSE. of Cape Roberts, on the E. coast of Victoria 
Land; in about 77°12'S., 163°25'E. First charted by 
the BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton, who named 
this feature Rocky Point. It has since taken its 
name from Dunlop Island, situated just off this 
point and named for H. J. L. Dunlop, chief engineer 
of the exp. ship Nimrod. Not adopted: Dunlop 
Point, Rocky Point. 

DUNLOP ISLAND: triangular-shaped island, 
about 1 mi. long and 0.5 mi. wide, which lies along 
the Wilson Piedmont Gl. of Victoria Land, close 
NE. of Cape Dunlop; in about 77°12'S., 163°27'E. 
First charted by the BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackle- 
ton, who named it for H. J. L. Dunlop, chief engi- 
neer of the exp. ship Nimrod. Not adopted: Ter- 
race Island. 

DURHAM, MOUNT: small mountain about 1,800 
ft. in el., which forms a N. projection of the Tapley 
Mtns., in the Queen Maud Range, standing at the 
junction of Robert Scott and Leverett Glaciers with 
the head of the Ross Ice Shelf; in about 85°32'S., 
151°15'W. Disc, in December 1934 by the ByrdAE 
geological party under Blackburn, and named for 
Durham, N.H., the seat of the University of New 
Hampshire and home of Stuart D. L. Paine, a mem- 
ber of that party. 

DURHAM POINT: the northernmost exposed 
rock outcrop of Mt. Durham, lying at about 1,100 
ft. in el. at the NW. end of the Tapley Mtns., at the 
junction of Robert Scott and Leverett Glaciers with 
the head of the Ross Ice Shelf, in the Queen Maud 
Range; in about 85°31'S., 151°15'W. Disc, in De- 
cember 1934 by the ByrdAE geological party under 
Quin Blackburn, and so named because of its close 
association with Mt. Durham. 

DURNFORD BLUFF: rounded bluff about 7,020 
ft. in el., standing behind Cape Douglas on the W. 
side of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 80°56'S., 159°30'E. 
Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, who 
named it for Adm. Sir John Durnford, a Junior 
Naval Lord, 1901-4. 

DUROCH ISLETS: group of islets and rocks 
which extend over an area of about 3 mi. centering 
about 1 mi. NW. of Cape Legoupil, off the NW. 
coast of Louis Philippe Pen.; in 63°19'S., 57°53'W. 
Disc, by a Fr. exp., 1837-40, under D'Urville, who 



113 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



named features within the group Duroch Rock and 
Coupvent Rock. The FIDS, who charted the islets 
in 1946, found that the group could not satisfac- 
torily be divided into two parts and that individual 
islet names were unnecessary. The present de- 
scription is in accord with the FIDS that the name 
Duroch include the entire group of islets. Named 
for Ensign Joseph Duroch of D'Urville's ship, the 
Astrolabe. Not adopted: Duroch Rock, Durock 
Rock. 

Duroch Rock; Durock Rock: see Duroch Islets. 

D'URSEL, CAPE: cape which marks the S. side 
of the entrance to Buls Bay, which indents the 
center of the E. coast of Brabant I., in the Palmer 
Arch.; in 64°21'S., 62°08'W. Disc, by the BelgAE, 
1897-99, under De Gerlache, and named by him 
for Count Hippolyte d'Ursel, a supporter of the 
expedition. Not adopted: Cape d'Ursel. 

D'URVILLE, MOUNT: mountain about 3,500 ft. 
in el., which lies about 7 mi. S. of Cape Ducorps and 
some 20 mi. ENE. of Cape Roquemaurel, on the 
NW. coast of Louis Philippe Pen.; in 63°31'S., 
58°11'W. Disc, by the Fr. exp., 1837-40, and named 
for the exp. leader, Capt. (later Adm.) Dumont 
D'Urville. Not adopted: Mount d'Urville. 

D'URVILLE ISLAND: northernmost island of 
the Joinville I. group, about 13 mi. long, lying 
immediately N. of Joinville I., from which it is 
separated by Larsen Chan.; in 63°05'S., 56°20'W. 
Charted in 1902 by the SwedAE under Norden- 
skjold, who named it after Capt. Dumont D'Urville, 
French explorer who disc, land in the Joinville I. 
group. 

D'URVILLE MONUMENT: conspicuous conical 
summit about 1,900 ft. in el., at the SW. end of 
Joinville I., off the NE. end of Palmer Pen.; in 
63°25'S., 56°18'W. Disc, by a Br. exp., 1839-43, 
under Ross, and named by him for Capt. Dumont 
D'Urville. Not adopted: d'Urville Monument, 
D'Urville's Monument. 

D'URVILLE WALL: great glacier-cut wall of 
granite several thousand feet high, which forms 
the N. wall of David Gl., in Victoria Land; in about 
75°18'S., 162°00'E. Disc, by the BrAE, 1907-9, 
under Shackleton, who named it for Capt. Dumont 
D'Urville. 

DUSE, MOUNT: conspicuous mountain, about 
1,700 ft. in el., surmounting King Edward Pt. on 
the W. side of Cumberland East Bay, South 
Georgia; in 54n6'S., 36^29'W. Charted in 1902 by 
Lt. Samuel A. Duse, cartographer of the SwedAE, 
1901-4, for whom it is named. 



DUSE BAY: bay indenting the SE. coast of Louis 
Philippe Pen. between View Pt. and the SW. end 
of Tabarin Pen.; in 63°35'S., 57°15'W. Disc, by a 
party under J. Gunnar Andersson, of the SwedAE, 
1901-4. Named by Nordenskjold, leader of the 
SwedAE, for Lt. Samuel A. Duse. Not adopted: 
Duce Bay, Duses Bukt [Swedish] . 

DUSEBERG, CAPE: cape surmounted by a con- 
spicuous rocky cone, about 1,500 ft. in el., lying 
at the SW. side of Mt. Scott, on the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in about 65°11'S., 64°08'W. Disc, 
and named by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Ger- 
lache. 

Duses Bukt: see Duse Bay. 

DUSTIN ISLAND : the larger and more southern 
of the two Fletcher Is., lying near the W. end of 
Bellingshausen Sea, about 35 mi. ESE. of Cape 
Palmer, ofT Eights Coast; in about 72°05'S., 
95°05'W. Disc, by the USAS in a flight from the 
Bear on Feb. 27, 1940. Named by R. Adm. Byrd 
for Frederick G. Dustin, member of the ByrdAE, 
1933-35, and mechanic with the USAS, 1939-41. 

DUTHOIT POINT: point which forms the SE. 
tip of Nelson I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 
62°18'S., 58°50'W. The name is used on a chart 
based upon a 1935 survey of these islands by DI 
personnel on the Discovery II. 

DYER PLATEAU: broad upland with elevations 
ranging between 6,500 and 9,000 ft., bounded on 
the W. by George VI Sound, on the E. by Mt. 
Wakefield, the Eternity Mtns. and Mt. Andrew 
Jackson, on the N. by Fleming GL, and with a 
southern boundary not as yet determined; center- 
ing in about 70°45'S., 65°30'W. The plateau was 
explored on land and photographed, from the air 
by the USAS, 1939-41, and named for J. Glenn 
Dyer, surveyor with the then General Land Office, 
Dept. of Interior, and leader of the USAS party 
which sledged from the mouth of Fleming Gl. SW. 
across the plateau to the Eternity Mountains. 

DYNAMITE ISLET: small, low, rocky islet in 
Back Bay, lying 0.1 mi. E. of Stonington I., off 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°11'S., 67°00'W. 
First surveyed by the USAS, 1939-41, who referred 
to it as Petrel Island, a name not approved because 
it duplicates an existing name in the Antarctic. 
The name Dynamite Islet was prbposed by Finn 
Ronne, leader of RARE, 1947-48. In 1947 it was 
necessary to dynamite a passage for the Port of 
Beaumont, Texas through the ice to the E. of this 
islet. Not adopted: Petrel Island. 



114 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



EADIE ISLAND: island about 1 mi. long, which 
lies between Aspland and O'Brien Islands, in the 
South Shetland Is.; in 61°31'S., 55°57'W. The 
island was charted in February 1821 by a Russ. 
exp. under Bellingshausen. He left it unnamed 
but gave the name "Ostrova Tri Brata" (Three 
Brothers Islands) for the present Aspland, Eadie 
and O'Brien Islands. Eadie Island was named by 
Lt. L. C. Hill, RNR, captain of the Discovery II, 
which engaged in survey work in the area in 1936- 
37, for the dockyard manager of the Melbourne 
Harbour Trust of Williamstown, Australia. 

EAGLE COVE: small cove immediately W. of 
Seal Pt. in the E. portion of Hope Bay, at the NE. 
end of Palmer Pen.; in 63°24'S., 57°00'W. Disc. 
by J. Gunnar Andersson's party of the SwedAE, 
1901-4, who wintered at Hope Bay in 1903. Named 
by the FIDS after the ship Eagle, which partici- 
pated in the establishment of the FIDS base at 
Hope Bay in 1945. 

EAGLE ISLAND : island about 4 mi. long and 4 
mi. wide, with an el. of 1,800 ft. on the NE. side. 
It is the largest island in the archipelago which 
lies between Louis Philippe Pen. and Vega I., in 
63°40'S., 57°29'W. Probably first seen by a party 
under J. Gunnar Andersson of the SwedAE, 1901-4. 
Eagle Island was charted in ,1945 by the FIDS and 
named after the ship Eagle. 

Easson, Cape: see Little, Cape. 

EAST BALCH GLACIER: glacier, about 11 mi. 
long, lying SW. of East Gould Gl. on Palmer Pen. 
and flowing SE. into Mill Inlet; in 66°51'S., 
64°45'W. This glacier together with West Balch 
Gl., to the W., fills a transverse depression across 
Palmer Pen. It was charted by the FIDS and 
photographed from the air by the RARE in 1947. 
Named by FIDS, like its counterpart, for Edwin 
Swift Balch, American Antarctic historian. Not 
adopted : Martin Glacier. 

EAST BAY: bay, about 0.5 mi. wide and indent- 
ing 0.25 mi., lying east of South Bay in Prince Olav 
Hbr., South Georgia; in 54°04'S., 37°09'W. The 
name, which is descriptive of its position, was 
given -by a Br. exp. under Shackleton, which 
visited South Georgia in 1921-22. 

East Bay; East Cumberland Bay: see Cumber- 
land East Bay. 

EAST CAPE: cape about 1 mi. E. of Cape Ben- 
nett on the NE. coast of Coronation I., in the South 
Orkney Is.; in 60°38'S., 45°i3'W. First explored 
by Capt. George Powell and Capt. Nathaniel Pal- 



mer in December 1821, and roughly charted during 
1912-13 by Fetter S0rlle, Norwegian whaling cap- 
tain. Named by DI personnel on the Discovery II 
who charted the South Orkney Is. in 1933. It is 
the easternmost cape on the N. coast of Coronation 
Island. 

East Fork: see Ferrar Glacier. 

EAST GOULD GLACIER: glacier, about 13 mi. 
long, lying W. of Aagaard Gl. and flowing SE. into 
Mill Inlet on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
66°47'S., 64°38'W. This glacier together with West 
Gould Gl., to the W., fills a transverse depression 
across Palmer Pen. It was charted by the FIDS 
and photographed from the air by the RARE in 
1947. Named by FIDS, like its counterpart, for 
Lt. Cdr. Rupert T. Gould, British polar historian 
and cartographer. Not adopted: Shelby Glacier. 

EAST MELCHIOR ISLANDS: a group of small 
ice-covered islands and rocks which lie E. of The 
Sound in the Melchior Is., Palmer Arch.; in 
64°19'S., 62°55'W. The islands W. of The Sound 
are called West Melchior Islands. The name was 
probably given by DI personnel who roughly 
charted these islands in 1927. The islands were 
surveyed by Argentine expeditions in 1942, 1943 
and 1948. 

EAST POINT: bluff forming the E. end of Deso- 
lation I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°27'S., 
60°2rw. Charted and named by DI personnel on 
the Discovery II in 1935. 

EAST RUSSELL GLACIER: glacier, about 6 mi. 
long and 3 mi. wide, which lies at the N. end of 
Detroit Plateau and flows from Mt. Canicula east- 
ward into Prince Gustav Channel on the E. side 
of Louis Philippe Pen.; in 63°44'S., 58°17'W. This 
glacier together with West Russell Glacier, which 
flows westward into Bone Cove on the W. side of 
Louis Philippe Pen., form a through glacier across 
the N. part of Palmer Pen. It was first surveyed 
in 1946 by the FIDS. Named by the Br-APC for 
V. I. Russell, surveyor and leader of the FIDS base 
at Hope Bay in 1946. 

EAST SKERRY: small group of islets and rocks, 
forming the E. part of Skrap Skerries, about 2.3 
mi. NW. of Cape George, off the N. coast of South 
Georgia; in 54°15'S., 36°19'W. The name was 
applied in the period 1926-30, by DI personnel who 
charted these islets. Not' adopted: East Skrap- 
skjar. 

East Skrapskjar: see East Skerry. 



115 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



EAST STACK: rock outcrop, about 300 ft. in el., 
on the E. side of an ice-covered promontory on 
Kemp Coast that lies about 25 mi. SE. of the 
entrance to Edward VIII Bay; in about 67°04'S., 
58°15'E. Disc, and named by DI personnel on the 
William Scoresby, February 1936. Not adopted: 
Austskotet [Norwegian]. 

Ebba Glacier: see Liotard Glacier. 

EBONY WALL: dark, nearly vertical rock wall, 
about 1,000 ft. in el., standing at the head of a 
large glacier which flows northward along the E. 
side of the Ivory Pinnacles. The wall is about 2 
mi. long and forms a part of the W. escarpment of 
Detroit Plateau near the base of Louis Philippe 
Pen.; in 63°53'S., 59°04'W. Charted in 1948 by the 
FIDS who gave this descriptive name. 

ECHO MOUNTAIN: conspicuous mountain, 
about 2,600 ft. in el., standing on the W. side of 
Laws Gl., about 2.7 mi. NNW. of Cape Vik, Corona- 
tion I., South Orkney Is.; in 60°37'S., 45°42'W. 
Surveyed in 1948-49 by the FIDS, and so named 
by them because of the remarkable echoing noted 
in this part of Laws Glacier. 

ECHO PASS: pass, about 1,100 ft. in el., lying 1.5 
mi. SW. of Grytviken, South Georgia, in the chain 
of mountains which extend SW. from Mt. Hodges; 
in 54°17'S., 36°33'W. The pass provides a ski 
route from the whaling station at Grytviken to 
the head of Cumberland West Bay. The name is 
used on the chart of a Ger. exp., 1928-29, under 
Kohl-Larsen, who states that the name was already 
in use by whalers. Not adopted: Echopass, Echo- 
Pass. 

EDDYSTONE ROCKS: chain of rocks extending 
in a NE.-SW. direction for about 3 mi., lying about 
5 mi. W. of Start Pt., Livingston I., in the South 
Shetland Is.; in 62°33'S., 61°23'W. The name 
dates back to about 1822 and is now established 
international usage. Not adopted: Eddystone. 

EDEN GLACIER: glacier about 10 mi. long, 
which flows in a southerly direction into the head 
of Cabinet Inlet, close NW. of Lyttelton Ridge, on 
the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°15'S., 63°14'W. 
Charted by the FIDS and photographed from the 
air by the RARE in 1947. Named by the FIDS for 
Rt. Hon. Robert Anthony Eden, M.P., then British 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and member 
of the War Cabinet. 

EDGELL, MOUNT: mountain about 5,500 ft. in 
el., surmounting Cape Jeremy, the E. side of the 
N. entrance to George VI Sound, on the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 69°26'S., 68°16'W. Disc, by 



the FrAE under Charcot, 1908-10. Seen from a 
great distance and thought to be an island, it was 
named He Gordon Bennett for James Gordon Ben- 
nett, 1841-1918, of the New York Herald, who gave 
financial aid to the expedition. The BGLE under 
Rymill, surveying this area in 1936-37 and finding 
no island, applied the name Mount Edgell to the 
feature now recognized as Charcot's He Gordon 
Bennett. The name Mount Edgell, after Sir John 
Augustine Edgell, Hydrographer of the British 
Navy, 1932-45, has since become established 
through international usage. Not adopted: He 
Gordon Bennett [French]. 

EDGELL BAY: bay about 1.5 mi. long and wide 
indenting the NE. side of Nelson I., in the South 
Shetland Is.; in 62°15'S., 58°57'W. This bay ap- 
pears in rough outline on Powell's chart of the 
South Shetland Is. published in 1822. It was 
charted during 1934-35 by DI personnel on the 
Discovery II, who named it for V. Adm. Sir John 
Augustine Edgell. 

EDISTO CHANNEL: channel, filled in January 
1948 by Edisto Ice Tongue at its S. end, which ex- 
tends in a NE.-SW. direction between the Taylor 
Its. and the NW. islands of the Highjump Arch., on 
the W. and the Hunger Hills, Thomas I., and the 
remaining islands in the Highjump Arch, on the E., 
lying off the W. end of Knox Coast; in about 
66°05'S., 100°48'E. Delineated from aerial photo- 
graphs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named 
by the US-ACAN for the U.S.S. Edisto, one of the 
two icebreakers of USN Op. Wml., 1947-48, which 
assisted in establishing astronomical control sta- 
tions along Wilhelm II, Queen Mary, Knox and 
Budd Coasts. 

EDISTO ICE TONGUE: an ice tongue about 5 
mi. wide, forming an extension of Apfel Gl. and 
part of the main flow of Scott Gl., lying at the 
W. and NW. sides of the Bunger Hills and terminat- 
ing in Edisto Chan, against the W. side of Thomas 
I., off the W. end of Knox Coast; in about 66°10'S., 
100°40'E. Delineated from aerial photographs 
taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the 
US-ACAN because of its close association with 
Edisto Channel. 

EDISTO ROCK: low rock 1.2 mi. SW. of the W. 
tip of Neny I., lying in Marguerite Bay off the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°13'S., 67°08'W. Sur- 
veyed in 1947 by the FIDS, who named it for the 
U.S.S. Edisto, icebreaker with USN Op. Wml., which 
visited Marguerite Bay in February 1948 and as- 
sisted in the relief of the RARE and FIDS parties 
on Stonington Island. 



116 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



EDITH RONNE LAND: that portion of Ant- 
arctica extending from the base of Palmer Pen. 
southeastward to Coats Land. Disc, by the RARE, 
1947-48, under Cdr. Finn Ronne, USNR, in the 
flight to the base of Palmer Pen. and along Filchner 
Ice Shelf. Named for Edith Ronne, wife of Cdr. 
Ronne, who made important contributions to the 
planning, organization, and operation of the exp., 
who was the recorder of the exp., and who served as 
observer at the base while the exp. was in the field. 

EDRED, MOUNT: prominent ice-covered moun- 
tain, about 7,200 ft. in el., standing about 10 mi. 
inland from George VI Sound and marking the S. 
limit of the Douglas Range of Alexander I Island; 
in 70°35'S., 69°00'W. This mountain was first pho- 
tographed from the air on Nov. 23, 1935 by Lin- 
coln Ellsworth, and was mapped from these photo- 
graphs by W. L. G. Joerg. It was roughly surveyed 
in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill, and was resur- 
veyed in 1949 by the FIDS. Named by FIDS after 
Edred, Saxon king of England, 946-955. 

Edsel Ford Mountains: see Edsel Ford Ranges. 

EDSEL FORD RANGES: the mountain groups 
and ranges lying E. of Sulzberger Bay and Paul 
Block Bay in the NW. part of Marie Byrd Land; 
the known mountains in this group center in about 
77°00'S., 145°00'W. Disc, by the ByrdAE, Dec. 5, 
1929, and named by Byrd for Edsel Ford of the Ford 
Motor Co., who helped finance the expedition. Not 
adopted: Edsel Ford Mountains, Edsel Ford Range, 
Ford Range. 

Edvind Astrwp, Cap: see Astrup, Cape. 

EDWARD, MOUNT: highest summit in the 
Sweeney Mtns., lying in the center of the group 
which rises above the Joerg Plateau; in about 
75°48'S., 67°40'W. Disc, by the RARE, 1947-48, 
under Ronne, who named it for Cdr. Edward C. 
Sweeney, USNR, a contributor to the expedition. 

Edward Cove: see King Edward Cove. 

EDWARD VIII BAY: bay about 12 mi. wide at 
its entrance, lying between Kemp Coast and En- 
derby Land; in about 66°50'S., 57°20'E. Disc, in 
1936 by DI personnel on the William Scoresby, and 
named for Edward VIII, King of England. Not 
adopted: King Edward VIII Gulf. 

EDWARD VII PENINSULA: peninsula extending 
NW. from Marie Byrd Land into Ross Sea between 
Sulzberger Bay and the NE. corner of Ross Ice 
Shelf; in about 77°45'S., 156°W. Disc, on Jan 30, 
1902 by the BrNAE under Scott, who named it 
King Edward VII Land for the King of England. 
Its peninsular character was determined by ex- 



ploration conducted by the ByrdAE, 1933-35, and 
the USAS, 1939-41. Not adopted: King Edward 
VII Land, King Edward VII Peninsula, Kong Ed- 
ward VII Land [Norwegian], Konig Edward VII 
Land [German]. 

Edwards Point: see King Edward Point. 

EDWARDS POINT: point which marks the S. 
end of Robert I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 
62°28'S., 59°30'W. Charted in 1935 by DI person- 
nel on the Discovery II, but the name appears to be 
first used on a 1948 Admiralty chart based upon 
this survey. 

E. Fournier, Baie: see Fournier Bay. 

EGBERT, MOUNT: mainly ice-covered moun- 
tain, about 9,500 ft. in el., standing 8 mi. SSE. of 
Mt. Stephenson in the Douglas Range of Alexander 
I Island; in 69°57'S., 69°37'W. Possibly first seen 
in 1909 by the FrAE under Charcot, but not recog- 
nized as a part of Alexander I Island. Surveyed in 
1936 by the BGLE under Rymill. Resurveyed in 
1948 by the FIDS, who named the mountain after 
Egbert, Saxon king of England, 802-839. 

EGEBERG GLACIER: glacier which lies between 
Dugdale and Scott Keltie Glaciers and descends 
steeply into the W. part of Robertson Bay; in 
northern Victoria Land; in about 71°33'S., 169°52'E. 
First charted by the BrAE, 1898-1900, under C. E. 
Borchgrevink, who named it for Consul Westye 
Egeberg, of Christiania (now Oslo) , Norway. Not 
adopted : Westye Egeberg Glacier. 

EGERTON, MOUNT: peak about 7,660 ft. in el., 
stands about 10 mi. S. of Mt. Hamilton and about 
25 mi. WNW. of Cape Douglas, on the W. side of 
Ross Ice Shelf; in about 80°50'S., 158°25'E. Disc, 
by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, who named 
it for Adm. Sir George le Clerc Egerton, a member 
of the Arctic Expedition 1875-76, and one of Scott's 
advisers for the BrNAE. 

EGG ISLAND: circular island about 1.5 mi. in 
diameter and about 1,500 ft. in el., lying 1 mi. W. 
of Tail I. in the NE. part of Prince Gustav Chan.; 
in 63°41'S., 57°42'W. Probably first seen by a 
party under J. Gunnar Andersson of the SwedAE, 
1901-4. It was charted in 1945 by the FIDS, who 
named it because of its relative position to Tail, 
Eagle and Beak Islands. 

Eielson, Cape: see Boggs, Cape. 

EIELSON PENINSULA: rugged, mainly snow- 
covered peninsula, about 20 mi. long in an E.-W. 
direction and averaging about 10 mi. wide, lying 
between Smith Inlet and Lehrke Inlet on the E. 



117 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



coast of Palmer Pen.; in 70°35'S., 61°45'W. The 
rocky N. wall of this peninsula is probably the fea- 
ture which, on his flight on Dec. 20, 1928, Sir Hubert 
Wilkins sighted and named "Cape Eielson" from 
a position above Stefansson Str. (Wilkins gave 
the name to the farthest S. rock outcrop seen from 
this position.) This rock wall is conspicuous in 
the aerial photographs of the peninsula taken by 
members of the US AS in 1940 from an aerial posi- 
tion at the N. side of Stefansson Strait. The pen- 
insula is named for Carl B. Eielson, pilot on Wil- 
kins' flight of 1928. 

Eigg Rock: see Nigg Rock. 

EIGHTS COAST: that portion of the coast of 
Antarctica along the S. shore of Bellingshausen 
Sea, extending from about 88°00'W., to Cape Fly- 
ing Fish, in about 100°50'W. Named by the US- 
SCAN for James Eights of Albany, N. Y., geologist 
on the Annawan in 1830, who carried on geologic 
investigations in the South Shetland Is., and who 
cruised westward on the Annawan, in company 
with the Penguin, to 103°W. Eights, the earliest 
American scientist in the Antarctic, discovered the 
first known fossils in the Antarctic region, a tree 
section, in the South Shetland Islands. As a re- 
sult of these investigations Eights, in 1833, pub- 
lished in the Transactions of the Albany Institute 
(Vol. 2), what have proved to be remarkably ac- 
curate observations and conclusions on the natural 
phenomena of the region. Not adopted: Robert 
English Coast (western part), Walgreen Coast 
(eastern part). 

Eights Peninsula: see Thurston Peninsula. 

EILLIUM ISLAND: small island about 1.2 mi. 
NW. of Route Pt., off the NW. tip of Laurie I., in 
the South Orkney Is.; in 60°42'S., 44°51'W. Prob- 
ably first seen by Capt. George Powell and Capt. 
Nathaniel Palmer during their joint cruise in 1821. 
It was charted by the ScotNAE, 1902-4, under Dr. 
William S. Bruce, who named it for his son Eillium. 
Not adopted: Eillum Island. 

Eillum Island: see Eillium Island. 

Einstodingane: see Stanton Group. 

EKBLAW, MOUNT : easternmost mountain of the 
Clark Mtns., in the E. part of the Edsel Ford Ranges 
of Marie Byrd Land; in about 77°18'S., 141°40'W. 
Disc, on aerial flights from the West Base of the 
USAS in 1940 and named for Prof. W. E. Ekblaw, 
Prof, of Geography at Clark Univ. and a member of 
the Crocker Land Expedition in the Arctic, 
1913-17. 



EKELOF POINT: high rocky point which lies 5 
mi. SW. of Cape Gage and marks the N. side of 
the entrance to Markham Bay on the E. coast of 
James Ross I.; in 64°14'S., 57°12'W. First seen and 
surveyed by the SwedAE under Nordenskjold, 
1901-4, who named it Cape Ekelof after Dr. Eric 
Ekelof, medical officer of the expedition. It was 
surveyed by the FIDS in 1953. Point is considered 
a more suitable descriptive term for this feature 
than cape. Not adopted: Cape Ekelof, Cape 
Ekelof. 

EKLUND ISLANDS : group of islands which rise 
through the ice near the SW. end of George VI 
Sound; in 73°16'S., 71°45'W. The largest island, 
about 5 mi. in extent and 1,300 ft. in el., was disc, 
in December 1940 by Finn Ronne and Carl R. 
Eklund of the USAS during their 1,097-mile sledge 
Journey S. from Stonington I. to the SW. part of 
George VI Sound and return. At that time this 
large island, named by Ronne for Eklund, ornithol- 
ogist and assistant biologist of the exp., was the 
only land, protruding above an area of hummocky 
ice. V. E. Fuchs and R. J. Adie of the FIDS 
sledged to the SW. part of George VI Sound in 
1949, at which time, because of a recession of the 
ice in the sound, they were able to determine that 
the island disc, by Ronne and Eklund is the largest 
of a group of mainly ice-covered islands. On the 
basis of original discovery, the US-ACAN recom- 
mends that the name Eklund be applied to the 
island group rather than the single island disc, 
by Ronne and Eklund. 

ELAND MOUNTAINS: range of mountains 
which rise to above 8,000 ft. in el. and extend about 
20 mi. in a NE.-SW. direction along the S. side of 
Clifford Gl., on the E. .coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
70°35'S., 63°10'W. These mountains were disc, 
in 1936 by the BGLE, and they appear in aerial 
photographs taken by the USAS in September 1940. 
During 1947 the range was photographed from the 
air by members of the RARE, who in conjunction 
with the FIDS charted it from the ground. The 
name Eland, Lady Clifford's maiden name, was 
given by Sir Miles Clifford, Gov. of the Falkland 
Islands, at the request of members of the FIDS 
staff. 

Elefanten-Bucht: see Elephant Bay. 

Elefant oya: see Elephant Island. 

ELEPHANT BAY: small circular bay lying mid- 
way between Cape Demidov and , Klutschak Pt. 
along the S. coast and near the W. end of South 
Georgia; in 54°09'S., 37°44'W. The name, which 
was probably applied by early sealers at South 
Georgia, was recorded on the chart of the Ger. exp. 
under Kohl-Larsen, 1928-29, and the chart by DI 



118 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



personnel who mapped South Georgia in this pe- 
riod. Not adopted: Elefanten-Bucht [German]. 

Elephant Bay Islands: see Anvil Stacks. 

ELEPHANT FLATS: a tidal inlet in the inner, 
southwestern corner of Borge Bay, Signy I., South 
Orkney Is.; in 60°43'S., 45°37'W. It is enclosed by 
an old moraine whiCh dries at low water, leaving 
a lagoon with gently sloping mud banks. Surveyed 
in 1947 by the FIDS. So named by the Br-APC be- 
cause elephant seals frequent the mud fiats. 

ELEPHANT ISLAND: island about 28 mi. long 
and about 15 mi. wide, lying in the E. part of the 
South Shetland Is.; in about 61°10'S., 55°14'W. 
The name dates back to at least 1821 and is now 
established international usage. Not adopted: 
Barrows Isle, Elefant Oya [Norwegian], Mordrins 
Island. 

ELEPHANT LAGOON: lagoon, about 0.3 mi. 
long, situated close S. of Cook Bay to which it is 
connected by Carl Passage, on the N. coast of South 
Georgia; in 54°04'S., 37°08'W. Probably named by 
DI personnel who charted the area during the pe- 
riod 1926-30. 

ELEPHANT POINT: point which marks the S. 
end of the peninsula separating False and South 
Bays, on the S. coast of Livingston I., in the South 
Shetland Is.; in 62°43'S., 60°27'W. The name dates 
back to at least 1930 and is now established in in- 
ternational usage. 

Elisabeth, Mount: see Elizabeth, Mount. 

ELIZABETH, MOUNT: mountain about 10,760 
ft. in el. in the Queen Alexandra Range, rising SW. 
of Mt. Anne and Socks Gl. and W. of Beardmore Gl., 
at the head of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 83°58'S., 
168°10'E. Disc, and named by the BrAE, 1907-9, 
under Shackleton. Not adopted: Mount Elisabeth. 

ELIZA CONE: a pierced rock about 220 ft. in el., 
lying about 1 mi. W. of Cape McNab, the S. tip of 
Buckle I., in the Balleny Is.; in about 66°49'S., 
163°10'E. Located adjacent to Scott Cone, the two 
features appear to have been named after John 
Balleny's schooner, the Eliza Scott, in which he 
disc, the Balleny Is. in February 1839. 

ELLEFSEN HARBOR : harbor lying at the S. end 
of Powell I. in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°44'S., 
45°03'W. Disc, in the course of the joint cruise 
by Capt. George Powell and Capt. Nathaniel Palmer 
in December 1821. The name first appears on 
Powell's chart published in 1822. Not adopted: 
EUessen Harbour. 

Ellessen Harbour: see Ellefsen Harbor. 



ELLIOT, MOUNT: prominent peak lying NW. of 
the Admiralty Range and S. of Yule Bay, in north- 
ern Victoria Land; in about 70°50'S., 166°35'E. 
Disc, in February 1841 by a Br. exp. under.Ross, 
who named it for R. Adm. the Hon. George Elliot, 
commander-in-chief at the Cape of Good Hope 
station. Not adopted : Mount Elliott. 

ELLIOTT, CAPE: ice-covered cape marking the 
seaward extremity of Knox Coast, lying about 5 mi. 
E. of the E. flank of Tracy Gl.; in about 65°57'S., 
102°35'E. Delineated from aerial photographs 
taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named by 
the US-ACAN for J. L. Elliott, chaplain on the sloop 
of war Vincennes of the USEE under Wilkes, 
1838-42. 

Elliott, Mount: see Elliot, Mount. 

ELLIOTT, MOUNT: conspicuous mountain, 
about 4,200 ft. in el., with a few small rock expo- 
sures and ice-free clifTs on the SE. side, about 16 
mi. NW. of Cape Sobral, on the E. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 64°25'S., 60°06'W. Charted in 1947 by 
the FIDS and named for F. K. EUiott, leader of the 
FIDS base at Hope Bay in 1947-48. 

ELLIOTT GLACIER: channel glacier about 3 mi. 
wide and 3 mi. long, flowing NNE. from the conti- 
nental ice to Budd Coast, midway between Cape 
Hammersly and Cape Waldron; in about 66°05'S., 
115°50'E. Delineated from aerial photographs 
taken by USN Op Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the 
US-ACAN for Samuel Elliott, midshipman on the 
sloop of war Vincennes of the USEE under Wilkes, 
1838-42. 

ELLIS FJORD: narrow inlet about 18 mi. long, 
indenting the highest portion of the Vestfold Hills, 
between Breidnes Pen. and a small peninsula to 
the S., along Ingrid Christensen Coast; in about 
68°38'S., 78°05'E. Charted as an elongated rem- 
nant lake called "Langevatnet" by Norwegian 
cartographers from aerial photographs taken in 
January 1937 by the Nor. exp. under Lars Christen- 
sen. This feature was determined to open onto 
Prydz Bay by John H. Roscoe, following his 1952 
study of USN Op. Hjp. aerial photographs taken 
in March 1947, and renamed Ellis Fjord, for Edwin 
E. Ellis, who served as aerial photographer on USN 
Op. Hjp. flights in this area and other areas 
visited by the western task group. Not adopted: 
Langevatnet [Norwegian] . 

ELLSWORTH, CAPE: rocky bluff, about 950 ft. 
in el., forming the N. end of Young I., in the Bal- 
leny Is.; in about 66°14'S., 162°15'E. The Dis- 
covery II, in 1936, after rescuing Lincoln Ellsworth, 
made a running survey around the N. end of the 
Balleny Is. on the way back to Australia. 



119 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



ELLSWORTH, MOUNT: culminating summit of 
an elongated massif between Isaiah Bowman Gl. 
and Amundsen Gl., in the Queen Maud Range; in 
about 85°45'S., 160°15'W. Disc, by the ByrdAE 
on the South Polar Flight of November 1929. 
Named by Byrd for Lincoln Ellsworth, American 
Antarctic explorer. Not adopted: Mount Lincoln 
Ellsworth. 

ELLSWORTH HIGHLAND: that part of Ant- 
arctica comprising a belt of high land extending 
SSW. from the base of Palmer Pen. to the Rocke- 
feller Plateau. Traversed by Lincoln Ellsworth on 
an airplane flight during November-December 
1935, and named by him at that time for his father, 
James W. Ellsworth. Pending more definitive 
mapping which may make it possible to draw 
boundaries along lines of natural demarcation, the 
E. boundary is arbitrarily placed at the base of 
Palmer Pen. where the configuration of the coast 
hints that such a physical boundary might ulti- 
mately be found to lie. Not adopted: James W. 
Ellsworth Land. 

Elsa Bay; Else Cove; Else's Hole; Elsie Harbour: 
see Elsehul. 

ELSEHUL: bay about 0.5 mi. wide, entered W. of 
Cape Pride, along the N. coast of South Georgia; 
in 54°01'S., 37°59'W. The name dates back to the 
period 1905-12, and was probably applied by Nor- 
wegian sealers, and whalers working in the area. 
Not adopted: Elsa Bay, Else Cove, Else's Hole, Elsie 
Harbour. 

EMBASSY ROCK: small prominent rock, the 
southwesternmost of the De Dion Its., situated 
about 1 mi. SW. of Courtier Its. in Marguerite Bay, 
off the coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°54'S., 68°45'W. 
The De Dion Its. were first sighted and roughly 
charted in 1909 by the FrAE under Charcot. Em- 
bassy Rock was surveyed in 1949 by the FIDS, who 
so named it because of its detached position in asso- 
ciation with Emperor Islet. 

EMILY, MOUNT: peak, about 10,000 ft. in el., 
lying about 20 mi. SE of Mt. Ward, in the Dominion 
Range; in about 85°48'S., 172°30'E. Disc, by the 
BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton, who named it for 
his wife. Lady Emily Dorman Shackleton. 

Em Island: see Grassholm. 

EMM ROCK: conspicuous rock about 130 ft. in 
el., marking the E. side of the approach to Collins 
Hbr., King George I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 
62°15'S., 58°41'W. This rock, presumably known 
to early sealers in the area, was sketched by the 
FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot, and charted by DI 



personnel on the Discovery II in 1935. The name 
derives from the shape of the rock, which resembles 
the letter M. 

EMMA ISLAND: island about 1.5 mi. long with 
bare jagged peaks projecting through an icecap, 
lying midway between Cape Anna and Delaite I. 
in the SW. half of the entrance to Wilhelmina Bay, 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in about 64°32'S., 
62°16'W. Disc, by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De 
Gerlache, who named it for his mother. 

Emmons, Point: see Wild, Cape. 

EMORY LAND BAY: ice-filled bay, about 15 mi. 
wide and 15 mi. long, fed by Emory Land Gl. which 
descends into it on both sides of Mt. McCoy, in 
Marie Byrd Land; in about 75°30'S., 141°00'W. 
Disc, by the USAS, 1939-41. The bay takes its 
name from Emory Land Glacier. 

EMORY LAND GLACIER: heavily-crevassed gla- 
cier descending into Emory Land Bay on both sides 
of Mt. McCoy, in Marie Byrd Land; in about 
75°35'S., 141°00'W. Named in honor of R. Adm. 
Emory S. Land, Chairman of the United States 
Maritime Commission. 

EMPEREUR ISLET: low rocky islet about 1 mi. 
N. of Cape Margerie, lying immediately N. of 
Manchot It. in the entrance to Port Martin, off 
Adelie Coast; in 66°48'S., 141°24'E. Photographed 
from the air by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47. Charted 
by the FrAE under Liotard, 1949-51, and so named 
because the first emperor penguin captured by the 
exp. was taken on this islet. 

EMPEROR ISLET: islet close NE. of the Courtier 
Its. in the De Dion Its. group, lying in Marguerite 
Bay off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°52'S., 
68°43'W. It is largest of the De Dion Its., rising 
to 150 ft. in el., and has a N.-S. trending, narrow, 
sloping cleft which almost divides the islet in two. 
The islets in this group were disc, and roughly 
charted in 1909 by the FrAE under Charcot. This 
islet was surveyed in 1948 by the FIDS and so 
named by them because a low rock and shingle 
isthmus at the SE. end of the islet is the winter 
breeding site of emperor penguins. 

Emperor William Peak: see Big Ben. 

ENDERBY LAND: projecting land mass of 
Antarctica, extending from 45°00'E. to Edward 
VIII Bay, the mouth of which lies in about 66°50'S., 
57°20'E. Disc, in 1831 by a Br. exp. under Biscoe, 
who was sent out by the firm of Enderby Brothers 
of London, organizers of early Antarctic explora- 
tion. 



120 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



ENDRESEN ISLANDS: two small offshore 
islands, the highest about 200 ft. in el., lying just 
N. of the Kringholm Is., off Mac-Robertson Coast; 
in about 67°16'S., 60°05'E. Dis. and named by DI 
personnel on the William Scoresby in February 
1936. 

ENGEL PEAKS: a series of aligned peaks, the 
highest about 4,800 ft. in el., extending in a NNW.- 
SSE. direction for about 4 mi., standing about 15 
mi. W. of Cape Rymill on the E. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 69°31'S., 63°08'W. This feature was pho- 
tographed from the air in 1928 by Sir Hubert 
Wilkins, and again in 1940 by members of the 
USAS who also sledge surveyed along this coast. 
It was resighted by the RARE, 1947-48, under 
Ronne, who named this feature for Bud Engel, 
pres. of the Albert Richard Division of the Oster- 
man Co., Milwaukee, who contributed garments 
suitable for winter use to the expedition. 

ENGELSTAD, MOUNT: rounded summit about 
11,000 ft. in el., rising from the edge of the polar 
plateau at the head of Axel Heiberg Gl., in the 
Queen Maud Range; in about 85°35'S., 167°20'W. 
Disc, in November 1911 by a Nor. exp. under 
Amundsen, and named by him for Capt. Ole Engel- 
stad of the Norwegian Navy who was to be second- 
in-command of the exp. ship Fram, but who was 
killed prior to departure of the expedition. Ap- 
parently an error in the position of Mount Engel- 
stad and Mount Wilhelm Christophersen on the 
map in Amundsen's book, Sydpolen. gave rise to 
transposition in subsequent cartographic applica- 
tion of these names. The US-ACAN application of 
these names is based on an analysis of Amundsen's 
narrative. Not adopted: Mount Ole Engelstad, 
Mount Englestat, Mount Wilhelm Christophersen 
(q.v.), Mount W. Christopherson. 

ENGLAND, MOUNT: conical-topped mountain, 
about 4,700 ft. in el., situated immediately S. of 
New Gl. in the NE. part of Gonville and Caius 
Range, in Victoria Land; in about 77°12'S., 
162°30'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under 
Scott, who named it for Lt. Rupert England, RN, 
of the Morning, relief ship to the expedition. 

Englestat, Mount: see Engelstad, Mount; Wil- 
helm Christophersen, Mount. 

English, Mount: see Mooney, Mount. 

ENGLISH STRAIT: strait lying between Green- 
wich and Robert Islands, in the South Shetland 
Is.; in 62°26'S., 59°40'W. The name dates back to 
at least 1822 and is now established international 
usage. Not adopted: Detroit Anglais [French], 
Spencers Straits. 



ENTEN BAY: small bay lying SW. of Jason Hbr. 
in the W. side of Cumberland West Bay, South 
Georgia; in 54°13'S., 36°37'W. The name "Enten- 
bucht" (Duck Bay) seems to have been first used 
on a 1907 chart of Cumberland Bay by Dr. A. 
Szielasko, physician and ornithologist on the Nor- 
wegian whaler Fridtjof Nansen, who published an 
account of his natural history observations made at 
Cumberland Bay during the previous year. 

ENTRANCE POINT: point marking the S. side 
of Neptunes Bellows, the entrance to Port Foster, 
Deception I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 63°00'S., 
60°33'W. Deception I. was known to sealers in the 
area as early as 1821. The point was named by the 
Hydrographic Dept. of the British Admiralty fol- 
lowing a survey by Lt. Cdr. D. N. Penfold, RN, in 
1948-49. 

EOSIN HILL: hill, about 300 ft. in el., rising 0.5 
mi. SE. of Dartmouth Pt. in Cumberland East 
Bay, South Georgia; in 54°19'S., 36°26'W. Roughly 
surveyed by the SwedAE, 1901-4, under Norden- 
skjold. Named by the FIDS following their sketch 
survey in 1951. The name is one of a group in the 
vicinity of Dartmouth Pt., derived from the chemi- 
cal stains used in the preparation for histological 
examination of biological material collected there 
by FIDS. 

EPHRAIM, MOUNT: high bluff at the S. end of 
Greenwich I., overlooking the S. entrance to 
McFarlane Str., in the South Shetland Is.; in 
62°34°S., 59°42'W. The name has been in use 
since at least 1930 and is now established in inter- 
national usage. 

Epsilon, Isla: see Epsilon Island. 

EPSILON ISLAND: small islet lying between 
Alpha I and the S. extremity of Lambda I. in the 
Melchior Is., Palmer Arch.; in 64°19'S., 63°00'W. 
The islet was roughly surveyed by DI personnel in 
1927. The name, derived from the fifth letter of 
the Greek alphabet, appears to have been first 
used on a 1946 Argentine govt, chart following sur- 
veys of the Melchior Is. by Arg. expeditions in 1942 
and 1943. Not adopted: Isla Epsilon [Spanish]. 

EREBUS, MOUNT: an active volcano about 
13,200 ft. in el., which forms the summit of Ross I. 
at the SW. corner of Ross Sea; in about 77°35'S., 
167°10'E. Disc, in 1841 by a Br. exp. under Ross, 
who named it for his ship, the Erebus. 

EREBUS AND TERROR GULF: gulf on the SE. 
side of the NE. tip of Palmer Pen., bordered on the 
NE. by the Joinville I. group and on the SW. by the 
James Ross I. group; in about 63°50'S., 56°40'W. 
Named by a Br. exp. under Ross for the exp. ships 



4Z''589 O -57 -9 



121 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Erebus and Terror, used in exploring these waters 
in 1842-43. 

EREBUS BAY: bay about 12 mi. wide; lies 
between Cape Evans and Hut Point Pen., Ross I.; 
in about 77°44'S., 166°35'E. First explored by the 
BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott. The name was ap- 
plied by Scott's second exp., the BrAE, 1910-13, 
which built its headquarters on Cape Evans. The 
bay was probably so named because it is dominated 
by Mt. Erebus. 

Erebus Bay: see South Bay. 

Ernest Gruening, Mount: see Andrew Jackson, 
Mount. 

Ernst Bay: see Duke Ernst Bay. 

E. Roux, Cap: see Roux, Cape. 

ERRERA, CAPE : cape which forms the SW. end 
of Wiencke I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°55'S., 
63°36'W. Disc, by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De 
Gerlache, and named by him for Leo Errera, Paul 
Errera, and Madame M. Errera, contributors to the 
expedition. 

ERRERA CHANNEL: channel between the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen. and De Ronge I.; in about 
64°43'S., 62°36'W. Disc, by the BelgAE, 1897-99, 
under De Gerlache, who named this feature for 
Leo Errera, prof, at the Univ. of Brussels and a 
member of the Belgica Commission. 

ESBENSEN BAY: small bay lying 2 mi. WSW. of 
Nattriss Head, along the SE. end of South Georgia; 
in 54°52'S., 36°00'W. Charted by the GerAE, 
1911-12, under Filchner, and named for Capt. V. 
Esbensen, manager of the Cia. Argentina de Pesca 
whaling station at Grytviken. Not adopted: 
Espensen Bucht [German] . 

Eskers: see Strand Moraines, The. 

Espensen Bucht: see Esbensen Bay. 

ETA ISLAND: island, about 2 mi. long, which 
lies immediately N. of Omega I. in the Melchior Is., 
Palmer Arch.; in 64°19'S., 62°55'W. This island, 
the largest feature in the NE. part of the Melchior 
Is., is part of what was called "He Melchior" by 
the FrAE under Charcot, 1903-5, but the name 
Melchior now applies for the whole island group. 
Eta Island was roughly surveyed by DI personnel 
in 1927. The name Eta, derived from the seventh 
letter of the Greek alphabet, appears to have been 
first used on a 1946 Argentine govt, chart following 
surveys of the Melchior Is. by Arg. expeditions in 
1942 and 1943. Not adopted: Isla Piedrabuena 
[Spanish] . 



ETERNITY MOUNTAINS: massif surmounted 
by three prominent peaks, the highest about 12,000 
ft. in el., extending about 18 mi. in a general N.-S. 
direction and standing S. of Elant Mtns. on Palmer 
Pen.; in about 70°57'S., 63°35'W. These mountains 
were probably seen from the air by Ellsworth in 
1935 and their N. extremities were sketched in 1936 
by a BGLE sledge party under Rymill. In 1940 
they were photographed from the air and charted 
from the ground by the USAS, and in the exp. re- 
ports and charts were assumed to be Ellsworth's 
"Eternity Range." The US-ACAN is of the opinion 
that Ellsworth's "Eternity Range," so named be- 
cause of its impressive relief, is synonymous with 
the prominent peaks of the Mt. Wakefield group 
to the NNW., for which names have already been 
established. In order to perpetuate recognition of 
Ellsworth's discovery the US-ACAN therefore ac- 
cepts the USAS application of the name Eternity 
for the massif S. of Eland Mtns, and merely sub- 
stitutes the more appropriate term mountains. 

ETHELRED, MOUNT: mainly ice-covered moun- 
tain, about 8,100 ft. in el., standing 3 mi. SE. of 
Mt. Ethel wulf and 8 mi. inland from George VI 
Sound, in the Douglas Range of Alexander I Island; 
in 70°04'S., 69°29'W. Its E. face was roughly sur- 
veyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill. It was 
resurveyed in 1948 by the FIDS and named after 
Ethelred I, Saxon king of England, 865-871. 

ETHELWULF, MOUNT: mainly ice-covered 
mountain, over 8,500 ft. in el., standing between 
Mounts Egbert and Ethelred at the head of Tumble 
GL, in the Douglas Range of Alexander I Island; 
in 70°02'S., 69°34'W. Its E. face was roughly sur- 
veyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill. It was 
resurveyed in 1948 by the FIDS and named after 
Ethelwulf, Saxon king of England, 839-858. 

ETNA ISLAND : islet with a high summit, lying 
about 5 mi. N. of the eastern end of Joinville I., off 
the NE. tip of Palmer Pen.; in 63°05'S., 55°10'W. 
Disc, by a Br. exp. under Ross, 1839-43, who so 
named it because of its resemblance to volcanic 
Mount Etna. Not adopted : Aetna Insel [German] . 

EUREKA GLACIER: broad, gently sloping 
glacier, about 18 mi. long and 17 mi. wide at its 
mouth, which flows westward from the W. side 
of Palmer Pen. into George VI Sound; in 69°44'S., 
68°15'W. It is bounded on its N. side by the nuna- 
taks S. of Mt. Edgell, on its S. side by the Traverse 
Mtns. and Terminus Nunatak, and at its head Pros- 
pect Pass provides a route to Wordie Ice Shelf. 
First surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill, 
and resurveyed in 1948 by the FIDS. The name 
expresses triumph of discovery, and arose because 



122 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



the BGLE sledge party found their way to George 
VI Sound via this glacier in 1936. 

EVA, CAPE: cape which forms the NW. end of 
Peter I Island; in about 68°42'S., 90°39'W. Charted 
and named in 1927 by a Nor. exp. in the Odd I 
under Tofte. Not adopted: Evas Cape. 

EVANS, CAPE: cape on the W. side of Ross I., 
forming the N. side of the entrance to Erebus Bay; 
in about 77°38'S., 166°24'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 
1901-4, under Scott, who named it the Skuary. 
Scott's second exp., the BrAE, 1910-13, built its 
headquarters here, re-naming the cape for Lt. 
Edward R. G. R. Evans, RN, who was second-in- 
command of the expedition. Not adopted: Skuary. 

EVANS, MOUNT: mountain with twin summits, 
about 3,900 and 3,700 ft. in el., standing at the S. 
side of Debenham Gl. about 6 mi. WSW. of Lizards 
Foot, in Victoria Land; in about 77°14'S., 162°38'E. 
Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, who 
named it for Lt. Edward R. G. R. Evans, RN, of the 
Morning, relief ship to the expedition. 

EVANS BAY: bay about 15 mi. wide in the SE. 
part of MacKenzie Bay, formed by an indentation 
in the Amery Ice Shelf immediately E. of Cape 
Child, along Lars Christensen Coast; in about 
68°40'S., 71°45'E. Originally charted by the 
BANZARE, under Mawson, from an air survey of 
the boundaries of McKenzie Bay made on Feb. 10, 
1931. Probably named for Sir Edward R. G. R. 
Evans, then R. Adm. commanding the Royal Aus- 
tralian Navy. 

EVANS COVE: cove about 2.5 mi. wide, lying 
between Inexpressible I. and Northern Foothills 
along the coast of Victoria Land; in about 74°59'S., 
163°47'E. First charted by the BrAE, 1907-9, 
under Shackleton, and presumably named by him 
for Capt. F. P. Evans, master of the Koonya, which 
towed the exp. ship Nimrod S. in 1907, and later of 
the Nimrod during the last year of the expedition. 

EVANS INLET: circular embayment, about 9 mi. 
in diameter, lying between Shiver Pt. and White- 
side Pt., along the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
65°03'S., 61°36'W. Disc, by Sir Hubert Wilkins in 
an aerial flight, Dec. 20, 1928, and named by him 
for E. S. Evans of Detroit. It was resighted and 
charted by the FIDS in 1947. 

Evas Cape: see Eva, Cape. 

EVENSEN, CAPE: bold promontory lying W. of 
Waldeck-Rousseau Peak, on the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 66?10'S., 65°49'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 
1903-05, under Charcot, and named by him for 



Capt. C. J. Evensen of the Hertha, who explored 
along the W. coast of Palmer Pen. in 1893. Not 
adopted: Cape Evenson, Cape Waldeck Rousseau. 

Evensen Bay: see Auvert Bay. 

EVENSEN NUNATAK: nunatak about 1.5 mi. 
NW. of Dallmann Nunatak in the Seal Nunataks 
group, off the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 64°59'S., 
60°25'W. Evensen Nunatak was first charted by 
the FIDS in August 1947, and named by them 
for Capt. C. J. Evensen. 

Evenson, Cape: see Evensen, Cape. 

EWING ISLAND: ice-covered, dome-shaped is- 
land, about 8 mi. in diameter, lying about 15 mi. 
NE. of Cape Collier, off the E. coast of Palmer Pen.;' 
in 69°54'S., 61°13'W. Disc, from the air on Nov. 
7, 1947 by RARE, under Ronne, who named it for 
Maurice Ewing of Columbia Univ., who assisted 
in planning the RARE seismological program. 

EXASPERATION INLET: ice-filled inlet, about 
18 mi. long in an E.-W. direction and some 16 mi. 
wide at its entrance between Foyn Pt. and Cape 
Disappointment, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 65°20'S., 62°00'W. Charted in 1947 by the FIDS 
who so named it because the disturbed nature of 
the ice in the vicinity caused considerable diffi- 
culty to sledging parties. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE RANGE: range of 
mountain peaks extending in a NE.-SW. direction 
from about 76°30'S., 127°W. to 77°30'S., 130°00'W.; 
in Marie Byrd Land. Disc, by the USAS on a flight, 
Dec. 15, 1940, and named for the Antarctic Service 
Executive "Committee. Several peaks were named 
in honor of members of the committee, except Mt. 
Sidley, the most imposing mountain in the range, 
which was disc, by the ByrdAE on a flight in 1934. 

EXPEDITION ROCK: submerged rock lying in 
the entrance to Jessie Bay, about 2 mi. ENE. of 
Route Pt., off the N. coast of Laurie I., in the 
South Orkney Is.; in 60°43'S., 44°46'W. The rock 
appears to have been first chartered and named 
on a map based upon a survey of these islands in 
1933 by DI personnel on the Discovery II. 

EXPRESS COVE: small cove on the N. side of 
Foca Pt. on the W. coast of Signy I., South Orkney 
Is.; in 60°42'S., 45°39'W. It has a very indented 
shoreline with numerous offshore islets and rocks. 
It was roughly charted in 1933 by DI personnel, 
and surveyed in 1947 by .the FIDS. Named by the 
Br-APC after the American schooner Express, 
Thomas B. Lynch commanding, which visited the 
South Orkney Is. in 1880. 



123 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



EXTENSION REEF: reef lying in Grandidier 
Chan., about 10 mi. SW. of Clements Markham I., 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°01'S., 
66°14'W. Disc, and named by the BGLE, 1934-37, 
under Rymill. 

EZCURRA INLET: inlet forming the W. arm of 
Admiralty Bay, King George I., in the South Shet- 
land Is.; in 62°09'S., 58°31'W. Ezcurra Inlet was 
probably named by the FrAE, 1908-10, under Char- 
cot, who charted Admiralty Bay in December 1909. 

FACTORY COVE: small cove entered between 
Knife Pt. and Berntsen Pt. in the S. part of Borge 
Bay at Signy I., South Orkney Is.; in 60°43'S., 
45°37'W. The cove was roughly surveyed by the 
Norwegian whaling captain Hans Borge in 1913-14, 
and was named "Borge Havna" on a map of the 
period by Fetter S0rlle. The name of Borge was 
later transferred, and Borge Bay is now the name 
of the bay of which this cove forms a small part. 
The cove was resurveyed by DI personnel in 1927 
and renamed Factory Cove, because the ruins of 
the whaling factory built in 1920-21 by the T0ns- 
berg Hvalfangeri stand on its SE. shore. Not 
adopted: Borge Havna [Norwegian]. 

Factory Point: see Restitution Point. 

FACTORY POINT: small point on the W. side 
and close to the head of Leith Hbr., in Stromness 
Bay, South Georgia; in 54°08'S., 36°41'W. The 
name was probably given by whalers because of its 
nearness to Messrs. Salvesen and Company's whal- 
ing station near the head of Leith Harbor. 

FAIRWAY ROCK: submerged rock in the cen- 
tral part of Larsen Hbr., at the SE. end of South 
Georgia; in 54°50'S., 35°59'W. Charted in 1927 
by DI personnel, and so named by them because 
it Lies in the navigable portion of the harbor. 

FAIRWEATHER, CAPE : promontory about 2,200 
ft. in el., which is ice covered except for rocky ex- 
posures along its SE. and E. sides, lying midway 
between Drygalski Gl. and Evans Inlet, on the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°00'S., 61°05'W. Charted 
in 1947 by the FIDS, who named it for Alexander 
Fairweather, captain of the Dundee whaler Balaena 
which operated along the NE. coast of Palmer Pen. 
in 1892-93. 

FALKLAND HARBOR: shallow harbor along the 
SW. side of Powell I., in the South Orkney Is.; 
in 60°44'S., 45°03'W. Charted by a Nor. whaling 
exp. under S0rlle in 1912-13. Named after the 
floating whale factory Falkland which was badly 
damaged while entering the harbor in the 1912-13 
season. 



FALLA BLUFF: prominent rocky bluff, about 
950 ft. in el., lying at the head of Utstikkar Bay on 
Mac-Robertson Coast; in about 67°33'S., 61°29'E. 
Disc, on about Feb. 17, 1931 by the BANZARE under 
Mawson, and named by him for R. A. Falla, a 
member of the expedition. Not adopted: Svart- 
hovden [Norwegian]. 

FALLI£:RES COAST: that portion of the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen. lying between the head of 
Bourgeois Fjord in 67°31'S., 66°32'W. and Cape 
Jeremy in 69°24'S., 68°51'W. This coast was first 
explored in January 1909 by the FrAE under Char- 
cot, who named it for Clement Armand Fallieres, 
then Pres. of France. Not adopted: Fallieres Coast, 
Fallieres Coast, Fallieres Land. 

FALSE BAY: bay about 3 mi. wide, which lies 
between Barnard Pt. and Elephant Pt. on the S. 
side of Livingston I., in the South Shetland Is.; 
in 62°42'S., 60°22'W. The name False Bay has 
appeared on charts since about 1822 and is well 
established in international usage. Not adopted: 
Palmer Bay, Palmers Bay. 

FALSE BAY: small bight about 2 mi. NW. of 
Van Ryswyck Pt., the E. tip of An vers I., in the 
Palmer Arch.; in 64°33'S., 62°51'W. Charted and 
named by DI personnel on the Discovery in 1927. 
The name is probably suggestive of the limited 
indentation of this feature in the coast. 

FALSE ISLAND POINT: headland about 1 mi. 
long and 0.5 mi. wide, which is connected by a low, 
narrow, almost invisible isthmus to the S. side of 
Vega I., lying S. of the NE. end of Palmer Pen.; 
in 63°55'S., 57°20'W. First sighted in February 
1902 and charted as an island by the SwedAE under 
Nordenskjold. It was determined to be a part 
of Vega I. in 1945 by the FIDS, who applied this 
descriptive name. 

FALSE ISLET: largest of several islets lying 
at the E. side of Hackapike Bay, off the NE. coast 
of Anvers I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°31'S., 
62°52'W. Two islets were charted in this approxi- 
mate position by the FrAE under Charcot, 1903-5. 
False Islet was named by DI personnel on the 
Discovery in 1927. Not adopted: False Island. 

FALSE ROUND POINT: point about 7 mi. W. 
of North Foreland and 1.5 mi. S. of Ridley I., on 
the N. coast of King George I., in the South Shet- 
land Is.; in about 61°52'S., 57°58'W. This point 
has appeared on charts since about 1822. It was 
probably named after Round Pt., which lies about 
10 mi. WSW. by DI personnel on the Discovery II 
who charted along the N. coast of this in 1937. 



124 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



FANNING, CAPE : cape which forms the N. side 
of the entrance to Violante Inlet, on the E. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; 72°24'S., 60°39'W. Disc, by the 
USAS in a flight from East Base on Dec. 30, 1940. 
Named by the Committee for Edmund Fanning, 
of Stonington, Conn., and New York City, who in 
addition to actual Antarctic exploration in con- 
nection with his sealing and whaling business also 
vigorously promoted such exploration by others 
under both private and public auspices. His book, 
Voyages Round the World, published in 1833, has 
long been the most authoritative work on early 
American Antarctic exploration. 

FANNING RIDGE: prominent rock ridge, about 
5 mi. long, paralleling the S. coast of South Georgia 
between Aspasia Pt. and the W. side of the entrance 
to Newark Bay; in 54°20'S., 37°02'W. The ridge 
was named by the Br-APC, following its mapping 
by the SGS in 1951-52, for Capt. Edmund Fanning 
(1770-1841) of Stonington, Conn., who with the 
Aspasia took 57,000 fur seal skins at South Georgia 
in 1800-1, and published the earliest account of 
sealing there. 

Fannings Harbor: see Yankee Harbor. 

FARADAY, CAPE: cape which forms the N. tip 
of Powell I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°38'S., 
45°04'W. Disc, by Capt. George Powell and Capt. 
Nathaniel Palmer on the occasion of their joint 
cruise in December 1821. The name first appears 
on Powell's chart published in 1822. 

FAREWELL POINT: point which forms the NE. 
end of Bird I., off the W. end of South Georgia; in 
53°59'S., 38°02'W. The name appears to have been 
applied by DI personnel who charted South Georgia 
in the period 1926-30. 

FAREWELL ROCK: islet about 1.5 mi. long, 
lying about 1 mi. W. of the SW. end of Trinity I., 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 63°48'S., 
60°58'W. Although the origin of the name is un- 
known, it has appeared on maps for over one hun- 
dred years and its usage has become established 
internationally. 

FARLEY, MOUNT: the largest of a group of 
peaks, about 7,000 ft. in el., standing between the 
heads of Robert Scott and Bartlett Glaciers, in the 
Queen Maud Range; in about 86°36'S., 151°45'W. 
Disc, in December 1934 by the ByrdAE geological 
party under Quin Blackburn, and named at that 
time by R. Adm. Byrd for the Hon. James M. Far- 
ley, then Postmaster General of the United States. 

FARR BAY: ice-filled bay about 6 mi. wide, lying 
E. of Helen Gl. along Queeij Mary Coast; in about 
66°32'S., 94°35'E. Disc, in November 1912 by the 



Western Base Party of the AAE under Mawson. 
In some early reports the feature was referred to 
as Depot Bay. It was later named for Dr. C. C. 
Farr of New Zealand, a member of the Expedition 
Advisory Committee. Not adopted: Depot Bay. 

FARRINGTON ISLAND: islet lying about 5 mi. 
NNE. of Couling I., the northernmost island in the 
William Scoresby Arch., and about 2 mi. W. of Klak- 
kane Is., off Mac-Robertson Coast; in about 67°15'S., 
59°44'E. Disc, and named by DI personnel on the 
William Scoresby in February 1936. 

FAULKNER ESCARPMENT : an escarpment with 
a crest line lying about 10,000 ft. in el., forming the 
E. edge of the Thorvald Nilsen Mountains massif, 
and trending in a general N.-S. direction, in the 
Queen Maud Range; extending from about 86°00'S., 
155°30'E. to about 86°30'S., 157°15'W. Disc, in 
December 1934 by the ByrdAE geological party 
under Quin Blackburn, and named by Byrd for 
Charles J. Faulkner, Jr., chief counsel of Armour 
and Company of Chicago, contributors to the ex- 
pedition. 

FAURE ISLANDS: group of rocky islands and 
reefs, about 3 mi. in extent, lying about 21 mi. 
SW. of Cape Alexandra, the SE. end of Adelaide I., 
in 68°06'S., 68°52'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 1908-10, 
under Charcot, who named them for Maurice Faure, 
French scholar and statesman. Not adopted: 
Faure Islets, Maurice Faure Islands. 

FELICIE POINT: point which forms the S. end 
of Lion I., lying immediately E. of Anvers I., in the 
Palmer Arch.; in 64°40'S., 63°09'W. Charted and 
named by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Gerlache. 
Not adopted: Cape Felicie. 

FERGUSLIE PENINSULA: peninsula, about 1.5 
mi. long, lying between Browns Bay and Macdougal 
Bay on the N. coast of Laurie I., in the South Ork- 
ney Is.; in 60°43'S., 44°34'W. Probably first seen 
in 1823 by a Br. sealing exp. under Weddell. 
Charted by the ScotNAE, 1902-4, under Bruce, who 
named it for the residence of James Coats, chief 
patron of the expedition. 

FERGUSON BAY: small bay which forms an 
excellent anchorage, lying between Hewison and 
Herd Points at the SE. end of Thule I., in the South 
Sandwich Is.; in 59°28'S., 27°16'W. Charted in 
1930 by DI personnel on the Discovery II, who 
named it for Messrs. Ferguson Brothers of Port 
Glasgow, Scotland, builders of the Discovery II. 

Ferin, He; Ferin Island: see Ferin Head. 

FERIN HEAD: headland forming the N. side of 
the entrance to Holtedahl Bay, on the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 65°59'S., 65°24'W. Disc, by 



125 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



the FrAE under Charcot, 1908-10, who from a 
distant position in Pendleton Str. charted this 
feature as an island. Charcot named it for A. 
Ferin, French Vice-consul at Ponta Delgada, Azores. 
The BGLE under Rymill, 1934-37, charted this 
coast and correlated their work with that by Char- 
cot. Ferin Head, as here applied, is in accord with 
the BGLE interpretation. Not adopted: F^rin 
Island, He Ferin [French]. 

FERRANTO, MOUNT: mountain which forms 
the extreme SW. projection of the main massif of 
the Fosdick Mtns. in the Edsel Ford Ranges of 
Marie Byrd Land, rising to about 3,000 ft. in el., 
in about 76'31'S., 145°25'W. Disc, by the Marie 
Byrd Land Sledging Party of the ByrdAE in No- 
vember-December 1934. Named for Felix Ferranto, 
radio and tractor operator of the USAS, 1939-41. 

FERRAR GLACIER: glacier at least 35 mi. long 
and varying from 3 to 6 mi. wide, flowing from 
the plateau of Victoria Land west of the Royal 
Society Range to New Hbr. in McMurdo Sound; 
in about 77^'41'S., 163^^38'E. Tliis glacier flows 
NE. to a point opposite the E. side of Knobhead, 
where it is apposed, i.e., joined in Siamese-twin 
fashion, to Taylor Glacier. From this point, Fer- 
rar Glacier turns right and flows ENE. between 
the Kukri Hills and the N. end of the Royal So- 
ciety Range to New Hbr. Disc, by the BrNAE, 
1901-4. under Scott, who named it for Hartley 
T. Ferrar, geologist of the exp. The name Ferrai- 
Glacier was originally applied both to the part 
of this glacier below its right turn and to the 
Taylor Glacier as now defined (q.v.). while the 
upper part of Ferrar Glacier above Knobhead was 
called South Arm. Griffith Taylor, geologist of the 
BrAE, 1910-13, under Scott, found evidence that 
these are not two parts of a single glacier but are 
two glaciers apposed. With this discovery Scott 
gave the names Ferrar Glacier and Taylor Glacier 
essentially as now applied. Later, on the map of 
the Ferrar-Koettlitz District included in the sci- 
entific reports of the exp., the names Lower Fer- 
rar Glacier and Upper Ferrar Glacier were applied 
to these two ice streams, but this naming does not 
seem consistent with the evidence as the position 
of the medcal moraines on this map shows that 
Taylor Glacier does not flow into Ferrar Glacier. 
Since it is apparent from the fairly detailed maps 
that the main flow of the Ferrar Glacier heads in 
the plateau somewhere to the SW. of Knobhead, 
the US-ACAN has applied the name Ferrar above 
as well as below the turn at Knobhead. Not 
adopted: East Fork, Lower Ferrar Glacier, New 
Harbor Glacier, South Arm (in part). 



FERRIER PENINSULA: narrow peninsula, 
about 1.5 mi. long, forming the E. end of Laurie I., 
in the South Orkney Is.; in 60M4'S., 44"26'W. The 
peninsula was roughly charted in 1823 by a Br. 
sealing exp. under Weddell. It was accurately 
delineated by the ScotNAE, 1902-4, under Bruce, 
who named it for his secretary J. G. Ferrier, also 
manager in Scotland of the expedition. 

FIELD, MOUNT: mountain about 9,390 ft. in el., 
which stands about 25 mi. W. of Cape Douglas, 
between Mt. Egerton and Mt. Wharton, on the W. 
side of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 80^58'S., 158°00'E. 
Disc, and named by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under 
Scott. 

Field's Strait: see Fildes Strait. 

FILCHNER, CAPE: ice-covered cape, fronting on 
Davis Sea about 14 mi. WNW. of Adams It., 
which separates Wilhelm II Coast from Queen 
Mary Coast; in about 66^28'S., 92n8'E. Disc, by 
the AAE, 1911-14. under Mawson, who named it 
for Wilhelm Filchner. leader of the German Ant- 
arctic Expedition of 1911-12. 

Filchner Group: see Filchner Mountains. 

FILCHNER ICE SHELF: an extensive ice shelf 
which borders Edith Ronne Land at the head of 
Weddell Sea and extends from Bowman Pen. east- 
ward to Luitpold Coast; centering in about 78''S., 
50'^'W. The E. extremity of this feature was disc, 
in January-February 1912 by the GerAE under 
Wilhelm Filchner. Filchner named the feature 
for Kaiser Wilhelm, but the Emperor requested it 
be named for its discoverer. The vast central and 
W. areas of this ice shelf were flrst seen and photo- 
graphed by the RARE, 1947-48, under Ronne, in 
two aerial flights undertaken in November and 
December 1947. Not adopted: Filchner Shelf Ice, 
James Lassiter Barrier, James Lassiter Ice Bar- 
rier, Lassiter Ice Barrier. Lassiter Shelf Ice. Wed- 
dell Shelf Ice, Wilhelm Barrier. Wilhelm Shelf 
Ice. 

FILCHNER MOUNTAINS: small group of moun- 
tains lying at the SW. side of the Drygalski Mtns. 
at the N. edge of the polar plateau, in New 
Schwabenland; in about 72nO'S., 7-^^30'E. Disc, by 
the GerAE, 1938-39. under Ritscher, and named 
for Wilhelm Filchner. Not adopted: Filchner 
Group. 

FILCHNER ROCKS: group of rocks, some of 
which are submerged, about 4 mi. NE. of Cape 
Vahsel, off the E. end of South Georgia; in 54''42'S., 
35'^'42'W. The existence of these rocks was re- 
ported in 1775 by a Br. exp. under Cook. They 



126 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



were charted by the GerAE, 1911-12, and named 
for Dr. Wilhelm Filchner, leader of the expedi- 
tion. 

Filchner Shelf Ice: see Filchner Ice Shelf. 

FILDES POINT: point which forms the N. side of 
Neptunes Bellows, the entrance to Port Foster, 
Deception I., in the'South Shetland Is.; in 63'00'S., 
60°34'W. Deception I. was known to sealers in the 
area as early as 1821; the point was later named 
for Robert Fildes, a British sealer in these waters 
at that early time. 

FILDES STRAIT: strait which extends in a 
general WNW.-ESE. direction between King 
George I. and Nelson I., in the South Shetland 
Is.; in 62°14'S., 58'59'W. This strait has been 
known to sealers in the area since about 1822, 
but at that early time it appeared on the charts 
as Field's Strait. Probably named for Robert 
Fildes, a British sealer of that period. Not 
adopted: Field's Strait. 

FILLA ISLAND: small, rocky island, about 2 mi. 
long, which rises to about 300 ft. in el., marking 
the largest of the Rauer Is. and lying in the east- 
central portion of the group, off Ingrid Christen- 
sen Coast; in about 68^^50'S., .77°43'E. Charted 
by Norwegian cartographers from aerial photo- 
graphs taken in January 1937 by the Nor. exp. 
under Lars Christensen, and named Filla, a Nor- 
wegian word meaning "the tatters." The name 
Filla Island was proposed by John H. Roscoe, fol- 
lowing his 1952 compilation from USN Op. Hjp. 
aerial photographs taken in March 1947, because 
the original Filla feature has been determined 
to comprise a group of small islands, islets and 
rocks. Not adopted : Filla [Norwegian] . 

FINGER POINT: point marking the N. tip of 
Visokoi I., in the South Sandwich Is.; in 56"41'S., 
27°13'W. Charted in 1930 and given this de- 
scriptive name by DI personnel on the Discovery 
II. 

FINGER POINT: point which forms the SW. 
end of Skua I., in the Argentine Is.; off the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65n5'S., 64n7'W. Finger 
Point was charted and named by the BGLE, 1934- 
37, under Rymill. 

FINLEY, MOUNT: prominent peak on the W. 
side of the lower reaches of Shackleton GL, stand- 
ing at the E. end of the Bush Mtns., in the Queen 
Maud Range; in about 84'^53'S., 176n5'W. Disc, 
by R. Adm, Byrd on ByrdAE flights to the Queen 
Maud Range in November 1929, and named by 
him for John H. Finley, Pres. of the American 
Geographical Soc. at that time. 



Finley Islands; Finley Peninsula: see Finley 
Ridge. 

FINLEY RIDGE: mountainous ridge terminat- 
ing in Cape Hicks and lying between the mouths 
of Bingham and Lurabee Glaciers, on the E. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 69' 14'S., 63'^20'W. Disc, by Sir 
Hubert Wilkins in an aerial flight on Dec. 20, 1928. 
He considered the ridge to be Lslands lying in a 
great transverse channel across Palmer Pen. and 
named them Finley Islands for John H. Finley 
of the New York Times, then pres. of the American 
Geographical Soc. Correlation of aerial photo- 
graphs taken by Lincoln Ellsworth in 1935 and 
preliminary reports of the findings of the BGLE, 
1934-37, led W. L. G. Joerg to interpret this to 
be a peninsula. In published reports, members 
of the BGLE have concurred in this interpreta- 
tion which is also borne out by the results of sub- 
sequent flights and a sledge trip from East Base, 
in 1940, by members of the USAS. Not adopted: 
Finley Islands, Finley Peninsula. 

FINSTERWALDER GLACIER: glacier, about 2 
mi. wide and 11 mi. long, flowing SW. from the 
central plateau of Palmer Pen. toward the head 
of Lallemand Fjord. The exact position of its 
mouth is not determined but lies between the 
mouths of Haefeli and Klebelsberg Glaciers; in 
about 67n9'S., 66''20'W. First surveyed from the 
plateau in 1946-47 by the FIDS, and named by 
them for Sebastian Finsterwalder and his son, 
Richard Finsterwalder, German glaciologists. 

Fiord Martel: see Martel Inlet. 

FIRST MILESTONE: rock marked by breakers 
about 1.75 mi. WNW. of Cape Saunders, off the N. 
coast of South Georgia; in 54°07'S., 36M0'W. 
Charted and named by DI personnel on the Dis- 
covery during the period 1926-30. 

FIRST POINT: the W. tip of Annenkov I., off 
the south-central coast of South Georgia; in 
54'^29'S., 37^08'W. Charted and named by DI per- 
sonnel on the Discovery during the period 1926-30. 

FIRST ROCK: rock which lies 0.5 mi. S. of Br0de 
I., and 2 mi. S. of Cape Disappointment, the S. 
extremity of South Georgia; in 54'55'S., 36'^07'W. 
Disc, by a Br. exp. under Cook in 1775. The rock 
was so named because of its position by DI per- 
sonnel who charted South Georgia in the period 
1926-30. 

FISH ISLANDS: group of small islands lying 
in the NE. half of the entrance to Holtedahl Bay, 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66''02'S., 
65^27'W. Disc, and named by the BGLE, 1934-37, 
under Rymill. Not adopted : Fish Islets. 



127 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Fisher, Mount: see Fisher Mountains. 

FISHER BAY: bay lying NE. of Cape Hurley 
between Penguin Pt. and Mertz Glacier Tongue, 
along George V Coast; in about 67°30'S., 145°40'E. 
Disc, in 1912 by the AAE under Mawson, who 
named it for Andrew Fisher, Prime Minister of 
Australia in 1911. 

FISHER MOUNTAINS: mountains of the Queen 
Maud Range, lying S. of the E. end of the Prince 
Olav Mtns. and forming the W. flank of the Liv 
Gl., at the head of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 85°20'S., 
172''00'W. Disc, by the ByrdAE in November 1929, 
and named for the Fisher brothers, Detroit indus- 
trialists. Not adopted: Fisher Mountain, Mount 
Fisher. 

FISHTRAP COVE: small cove 250 yards NW. of 
Boulder Pt. on the SW. side of Stonington I., close 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°11'S., 
67°00'W. First surveyed by the USAS, 1939-41. 
Resurveyed in 1946-47 by the FIDS, who so named 
it because FIDS parties used this cove for setting 
fish traps. 

FISKE, CAPE: cape which forms the E. tip of 
Smith Pen., on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
74°21'S., 60°27'W. This cape was photographed 
from the air by members of the USAS in December 
1940, and in 1947 by members of the RARE, under 
Ronne, who in conjunction with the FIDS charted 
it from the ground. Named by Ronne for C. O. 
Fiske, climatologist with the Ronne expedition. 

FIST, THE: peak about 1,000 ft. in el., sur- 
mounting Cape Crepin at the W. side of the en- 
trance to Mackellar Inlet, Admiralty Bay, on King 
George I. in the South Shetland Is.; in about 
62°05'S., 58°31'W. This descriptive name was 
given by the FrAE under Charcot, who charted 
Admiralty Bay in December 1909. Not adopted: 
Le Poing [French]. 

FITCHIE BAY: bay lying W. of Cape Dundas on 
the S. side of Laurie I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 
60°45'S., 44°29'W. Charted by the ScotNAE, 
1902-4, under Bruce, who named it for John 
Fitchie, second mate of the exp. ship Scotia. 

FITZROY ISLET: islet 0.5 mi. E. of the S. tip of 
Stonington I., lying in Neny Bay at the foot of 
Northeast Gl., by which it is partially covered, off 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°11'S., 66°58'W. 
The islet was presumably first sighted in 1936 by 
the BGLE, and was roughly charted by them and 
by the USAS, 1939-41. It was surveyed in 1947 
by the FIDS who named it for the R.M.S. Fitzroy, 
FIDS ship which visited this area in 1947. 



FITZSIMMONS, MOUNT: highest peak of the 
Rockefeller Mtns., standing between Mounts 
Shideler and Jackling in the N. part of the group, 
and rising to about 3,500 ft. in el., on Edward VII 
Pen.; in about 77°54'S., 155°20'W. Disc, on Jan. 
27, 1929 by members of the ByrdAE on an explora- 
tory flight to this area. Named for Roy G. Fitz- 
simmons, physicist, in charge of the Rockefeller 
Mountains seismic station for the USAS during 
November-December 1940. Not adopted: Mount 
Margaret Wade. 

FLAG POINT: point which lies 0.5 mi. ESE. of 
Damoy Pt. and forms the N. side of the entrance to 
Port Lockroy, Wiencke I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 
64°49'S., 63°32'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 1903-5, 
under Charcot. Named by the FIDS in 1944. 
When the FIDS base at Port Lockroy was estab- 
lished in 1944, a metal Union Jack was erected on 
this point. 

FLAGON POINT: point, surmounted by two 
peaks about 1,000 and 1,300 ft. in el., marking the 
S. side of the entrance to Schott Inlet, on the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 71°14'S., 60°41'W. Disc, 
and photographed from the air in December 1940 
by members of the USAS. It was charted in 1947 
by a joint party consisting of members of the 
RARE and FIDS. So named by the FIDS because 
the two peaks are suggestive of a flagon tilted on its 
side when viewed from north or south. 

FLAGPOLE POINT: point, about 0.2 mi. NW. of 
Fishtrap Cove, which forms the S. part of the W. 
extremity of Stonington I., close off the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 68°11'S., 67°01'W. First surveyed 
by the USAS, 1939-41, whose East Base was located 
on this island. Resurveyed in 1946-47 by the 
FIDS, and so named by them because of the flag 
pole which was erected by the USAS on a rocky 
knoll close NE. of this point. 

FLAGSTAFF POINT: point which forms the S. 
end of the Cape Royds headland and the NW. side 
of the entrance to Backdoor Bay, on the W. side 
of Ross I.; in about 77°33'S., 166°08'E. Charted 
and named by the BrAE under Shackleton, 1907-9, 
which established its winter headquarters and 
erected a flag near the point. 

FLANDRES BAY: large bay lying between Capes 
Renard and Willems, along the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 65°02'S., 63°20'W. Explored in 1898 by 
the BelgAE under De Gerlache, who named it, 
probably after the historical area of that name, 
now constituting part of France, Belgium, and 
the Netherlands. Not adopted: Dallmann Bay, 
Flanders Bay. 



128 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Flanders Bay: see Flandres Bay. 

FLANNERY, CAPE: cape which forms the W. 
end of Thule I., in the South Sandwich Is.; in 
59°27'S., 27°21'W. Charted in 1930 by DI per- 
sonnel on the Discovery II, who named it for Sir 
Fortescue Flannery, a member of the Discovery 
Committee. 

FLAT ISLAND: small island lying at the W. 
side of the entrance to Robertson Bay and at the 
N. side of Pressure Bay, off the N. coast of Victoria 
Land; in about 71°20'S., 169°10'E. First charted 
and named by the BrAE under Scott, 1910-13. 

Flat Isle: see Watchkeeper, The. 

FLATIRON, THE: rocky, triangular-shaped 
headland about 1,100 ft. in el., which overlooks the 
SW. part of Granite Hbr. about 1.5 mi. S. of the 
mouth of Mackay Gl., in Victoria Land; in about 
77°00'S., 162°26'E. Charted by the BrAE under 
Scott, 1910-13, who so named it because of its dis- 
tinctive shape. 

FLATNES ICE TONGUE: small ice tongue, 
about 2 mi. wide and 3 mi. long, projecting NW. 
from the continental ice overlying Ingrid Christen- 
sen Coast, about 3 mi. SW. of Hovde Ice Tongue; 
in about 69°16'S., 76°25'E. Charted by Norwegian 
cartographers from aerial photographs taken in 
January 1937 by the Nor. exp. under Lars Christen- 
sen, and named Flatnes, a Norwegian word mean- 
ing flat headland. The generic ice tongue is 
approved as a more appropriate term on the basis 
of John H. Roscoe's 1952 compilation from USN 
Op. Hjp. aerial photographs taken in March 1947. 
Not adopted: Flatness [Norwegian]. 

FLEMING GLACIER: glacier on the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen., terminating in Wordie Ice Shelf; in 
69°12'S., 67°10'W. Together with Bingham Gl. it 
fills a major depression across Palmer Pen. Disc, 
and charted by the BGLE under Rymill, 1934-37. 
Photographed from the air by the USAS on Sept. 
29, 1940. This hitherto unnamed feature was 
named by the US-ACAN in 1947 for Rev. W. L. S. 
Fleming, Dean of Trinity Hall, Cambridge Univ.; 
also chaplain, chief scientist, and geologist of the 
BGLE. 

Flenserne: see Flensing Islets. 

FLENSING ISLETS: group of islets lying about 
0.5 mi. N. of Jebsen Rocks and about 1 mi. off the 
W. side of Signy I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 
60°42'S., 45°41'W. These islets appear to be first 
charted and named by a Nor. whaling exp. under 
S0rlle, 1912-13. It is possible that in former 
years these islets were used for flensing, the proc- 



ess of stripping the skin and blubber from whales. 
Not adopted: Flenserne [Norwegian]. 

FLETCHER, CAPE: minor projection of the 
coastline related to a slight eminence which breaks 
the relief of an otherwise low coast, about 26 mi. 
W. of Scullin Monolith, on Mac-Robertson Coast; 
in about 67°42'S., 65°38'E. Disc, by the BANZARE, 
1929-31, under Mawson, and named by him for 
H. O. Fletcher, asst. biologist with the BANZARE. 

FLETCHER ISLANDS: two prominent islands, 
McNamara I. and Dustin I., lying near the W. end 
of Bellingshausen Sea, about 40 mi. E. of Cape 
Palmer, off Eights Coast; in about 71°55'S., 
94°55'W. Disc, by the USAS in a flight from the 
Bear on Feb. 27, 1940, and named by R. Adm. Byrd 
for Fred C. Fletcher of Boston, Mass., a contributor 
to the expedition. 

FLETCHER ISLET: the largest and southern- 
most of the Fletcher Islets, lying immediately N. 
of the small coastal nunatak which lies about 1 mi. 
NE. of Whetter Nunatak, in the E. portion of Com- 
monwealth Bay off George V Coast; in about 
66°55'S., 143°00'E. Disc, in 1912 by the AAE under 
Mawson, and named by him for Frank D. Fletcher, 
first officer on the exp. ship Aurora. 

FLETCHER ISLETS: small group of iselts in the 
E. part of Commonwealth Bay, lying close seaward 
of a small coastal nunatak which stands about 
1 mi. NE. of Whetter Nunatak, off George V Coast; 
in about 66°54'S., 143°00'E. Disc, in 1912 by the 
AAE under Mawson, who applied the name Fletcher 
to the large islet at the S. end of this group. The 
name Fletcher is also adopted for this islet group 
in keeping with the interpretation shown on the 
US-ACAN reconnaissance map of 1955 compiled 
from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 
1946-47. 

FLINT GLACIER: glacier which flows S. into 
Whirlwind Inlet between Demorest Gl. and Cape 
Northrop, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
67°20'S., 65°25'W. Disc, by Sir Hubert Wilkins 
on his flight of Dec. 20, 1928, and photographed 
from the air by the USAS in 1940. Charted by the 
FIDS in 1947, who named it for Richard F. Flint, 
glaciologist and prof, of geology at Yale University. 

Flint Peninsula: see Churchill Peninsula. 

FLORA, MOUNT: mountain, about 1,700 ft. in 
el., containing a well-defined cirque which faces NE. 
lying about 0.5 mi. ESE. of the head of Hope Bay, 
at the NE. end of Palmer Pen.; in 63°25'S., 57°01'W. 
Disc, by the SwedAE under Nordenskjold, 1901-4, 
and named by J. Gunnar Andersson, second-in- 



129 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



command of the exp., who disc, flora fossils of the 
Jurassic period in certain strata of this mountain. 
Not adopted: Florasberg [Swedish]. 

Florasberg: see Flora, Mount. 

FLORENCE ROCK: rock about 0.1 mi. long with 
a smaller rock off its NE. end, lying about 0.8 mi. 
SE. of Point Rae, off the S. coast of Laurie I., in 
the South Orkney Is.; in 60°47'S., 44°36'W. 
Charted by the ScotNAE, 1902-4, under Bruce. 
Named in 1933 by DI personnel on the Discovery II. 

FLOWER, MOUNT: mountain with two summits, 
the highest about 4,800 ft. in el., standing 6.5 mi. 
inland from Carse Pt. and George VI Sound on the 
W. side of Palmer Pen.; in 70°12'S., 67°53'W. This 
mountain lies partially within the margin of area 
first photographed from the air on Nov. 23, 1935 by 
Lincoln Ellsworth, and its N. extremity was mapped 
from these photographs by W. L. G. Joerg. It was 
first surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill, 
and later named for Geoffrey C. Flower, instructor 
in survey at the Royal Geographical Soc, 1933-40, 
who helped with the organization and working out 
of the surveys made by the BGLE, 1934-37. 

F. L. SMITH, MOUNT: mountain in the Queen 
Alexandra Range, about 8,300 ft. in el., standing 
N. of Mt. Fox and about 15 mi. SW. of Mt. Hope 
on the W. side of Beardmore Gl.; in about 83°40'S., 
169°40'E. Disc, and named by the BrAE under 
Shackleton, 1907-9. Not adopted: Mount P. L. 
Smith. 

FLYING FISH, CAPE : cape which forms the NW. 
extremity of Thurston Pen. and marks the physical 
division between Walgreen Coast and Eights Coast; 
in about 71°50'S., 100°50'W. Disc, by the USAS 
on a flight from the Bear in February 1940. Named 
by the US-SCAN for the USEE ship Flying Fish, 
commanded by Lt. William M. Walker, USN, which 
reached a point within 110 mi. of this cape; the 
ship's position on the morning of March 23, 1839 
was reported to lie in 70°00'S., 100°16'W. Not 
adopted: Cape Dart (q.v.). 

Flying Fish, Cape: see Dart, Cape; Palmer, Cape. 

FLYSPOT ROCKS: group of rocks, about 100 ft. 
in el., lying about 14 mi. NW. of Terra Firma Is. 
in Marguerite Bay; in 68°35'S., 68°06'W. The 
rocks are ice covered on the S. sides but mainly 
ice free on their N. sides. Probably first sighted 
in 1909 by the FrAE under Charcot who, from a 
position slightly northwestward, charted a "doubt- 
ful" islet in essentially this position. The group 
was roughly sketched from the air by the BGLE 
on a fiight, Feb. 1, 1937. They were visited and 



surveyed in 1949 by the FIDS. The name arose 
at an earlier date because of their indistinct ap- 
pearance as represented on the BGLE map. 

Foca, Pointe: see Penguin Point. 

FOCA POINT: rocky point forming the S. side 
of the entrance to Express Cove on the W. side of 
Signy I., South Orkney Is.; in 60°42'S., 45°40'W. 
Surveyed in 1947 by the FIDS. Named by the 
Br-APC after the whale catcher Foca, belonging to 
the Compaiaia Argentina de Pesca, which visited 
the South Orkney Is. in December 1926. 

FOLD ISLAND: large island lying NW. of the en- 
trance to William Scoresby Bay, off Kemp Coast; 
in about 67°18'S., 59°25'E. This feature was seen 
by DI personnel on the William Scoresby in Feb- 
ruary 1936, who believed it to be part of the main- 
land. It was determined to be an island and named 
Foldoya by Norwegian cartographers who charted 
this area from aerial photographs taken by a Nor. 
exp. under Christensen in January-February 1937. 
Not adopted : Folda Island. 

Folda Island: see Fold Island. 

FOLGER, CAPE : ice-covered cape forming the E. 
side of the entrance to Vincennes Bay, on Budd 
Coast; in about 66°05'S., 110°40'E. The position 
of Cape Folger correlates closely with the W. end 
of Wilkes' "Budd's High Land," as charted as a 
coastal landfall by the USEE in 1840. Delineated 
from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 
1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for Cdr. 
Edward C. Folger, Jr., USN, commander of the ice- 
breaker Edisto which assisted USN Op. Wml. 
parties in establishing astronomical control sta- 
tions in the Windmill Is., close SW. in Vincennes 
Bay. 

FORBES GLACIER: glacier which flows SW. and 
then W. into the NE. corner of Square Bay, on the 
W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°48'S., 66°44'W. It 
is about 15 mi. long and 5 mi. wide in its central 
part, but narrows to 2 mi. at its mouth. The lower 
reaches of the glacier were flrst surveyed in 1936 
by the BGLE under Rymill. The survey was com- 
pleted in 1946-48 by the FIDS who named the 
glacier for James D. Forbes (1809-1868), Scottish 
physcist who was noted for his pioneer works on 
glaciology. 

Ford Range: see Edsel Ford Ranges. 

FORDE, MOUNT: dome-shaped mountain about 
3,500 ft. in el., situated at the E. side of Cleveland 
Gl. about 1.5 mi. NW. of Mt. Marston, in Victoria 
Land; in about 76°53'S., 162°11'E. Charted by the 



130 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



BrAE under Scott, 1910-13, and named for Petty 
Officer Robert Forde, RN, member of the expedi- 
tion's western geological party. 

FOREL GLACIER: glacier about 2 mi. wide and 
5 mi. long, flowing SW. into Blind Bay, on the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°29'S., 66°30'W. First 
roughly surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under 
Rymill. Its lower reaches were surveyed in 1949 
by the FIDS, and the glacier named by them for 
Frangois A. Forel, noted Swiss glacier physicist and 
author, and first Pres. of the International Com- 
mission of Glaciers in 1894. 

FORELAND ISLET: islet which lies about 3 mi. 
SSE. of North Foreland, and NE. cape of King 
George I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 61°55'S., 
57°36'W. This islet was known to sealers as early 
as 1821. It takes its name from nearby North 
Foreland. Not adopted: Foreland Island. 

FORSTERS PASSAGE: body of water lying 
between Bristol I. and Southern Thule, in the South 
Sandwich Is.; in 59°14'S., 26°48'W. In 1775, a 
Br. exp. under Cook applied the name Forster, after 
John R. Forster, naturalist with the exp., to what 
appeared to be a bay in essentially this position. 
The bay was determined to be a strait by a Russ. 
exp. under Bellingshausen in 1820. Not adopted: 
Forster's Passage. 

FORT ROCK: rock, about 285 ft. in el., lying close 
off the SE. end of Green which I., South Shetland 
Is.; in 62°34'S., 59°34'W. The feature was named 
Castle Rock, probably by DI personnel following 
their survey in 1935. The name Fort Rock, which 
is equally descriptive of the feature, has been ap- 
proved to avoid confusion with Castle Rock lying 
close westward of Snow I., only 60 mi. away. Not 
adopted: Castle Rock. 

FORT WILLIAM: cape forming the NW. side of 
the entrance to Discovery Bay, on Greenwhich I., in 
the South Shetland Is.; in 62°26'S., 59°45'W. The 
name has been in use since at least 1930 and is 
now established in international usage. 

FORTRESS HILL: hill about 400 ft. in el., which 
stands about 2 mi. N. of Terrapin Hill on The Naze, 
a peninsula of northern James Ross I., which lies 
S. of the NE. tip of Palmer Pen.; in 63°56'S., 
57°31'W. Charted in 1946 by the FIDS, who gave 
this descriptive name. 

FORTUNA BAY: bay about 3 mi. long and 1 mi. 
wide, which lies about midway between Stromness 
and Antarctic Bays along the N. coast of South 
Georgia; in 54»07'S., 36°48'W. Named after the 
Fortuna, one of the vessels of the Nor.-Arg. whaling 



exp. under C. A. Larsen which participated in estab- 
lishing the first permanent whaling base at Gryt- 
viken. South Georgia in 1904-5. 

FORTUNA GLACIER: glacier flowing in a NE. 
direction to its terminus about 1 mi. W. of Cape 
Best, with an eastern distributary almost reaching 
the W. side of Fortuna Bay, on the N. coast of South 
Georgia; in 54°05'S., 36°51'W. Named in about 
1912, presumably for the vessel Fortuna. 

FORTUNA ROCKS: small group of rocks extend- 
ing across the E. side of the entrance to Fortuna 
Bay, along the N. coast of South Georgia; in 
54°06'S., 36°47'W. These rocks were indicated on 
a chart by the GerAE under Filchner, who 
examined Fortuna Bay in 1911-12. The name 
Fortuna Rocks was in use prior to 1920 and derives 
from nearby Fortuna Bay. 

FOSDICK MOUNTAINS: an E.-W. trending 
range of mountains with marked serrated outlines, 
lying between Balchen Gl. on the N. and Crevasse 
Valley Gl. on the S., in the Edsel Ford Ranges in 
Marie Byrd Land; in about 76°30'S., between 
144°00'W. and 145°25'W. Disc, by the ByrdAE 
in 1929, and named by Byrd for Raymond B. Fds- 
dick, Pres. of the Rockefeller Foundation. Not 
adopted: Raymond Fosdick Mountains, Raymond 
Fosdick Range. 

FOSSIL BLUFF: prominent rock bluff on the 
E. coast of Alexander I Island, marking the N. side 
of the mouth of Uranus Gl. where it enters George 
VI Sound; in 71°20'S., 68°17'W. This feature was 
probably flrst sighted by Lincoln Ellsworth, who 
photographed segments of the coast in this vicin- 
ity on Nov. 23, 1935. The bluff was first roughly 
surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill, and so 
named by them because fossils were found in the 
rock strata there. It was resurveyed in 1948 by 
the FIDS. 

FOSTER, CAPE: cape lying about 3 mi. SE. of 
Carlsson Bay on the S. side of James Ross I., lying 
S. of the NE.tip of Palmer Pen.; in 64°27'S., 
57°59'W. Disc, by a Br. exp., 1839-43, under Ross, 
who named it for Capt. Henry Foster, RN, leader 
of a Br. exp. in the Chanticleer, 1828-31. The cape 
was charted by the SwedAE under Nordenskjold, 
1901^. 

FOSTER, MOUNT: peak, about 6,900 ft. in el., 
standing 4 mi. SW. of Mt. Pisgah in the central 
part of Smith I., South Shetland Is.; in 63°00'S., 
62°34'W. Capt. Henry Foster, RN, who visited the 
island in the Chanticleer in 1829, named this fea- 
ture Mount Beaufort, but this name has gradually 



131 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



been superseded by the present name, which honors 
Captain Foster. Not adopted: Mount Beaufort, 
Mount Beaufurt, Mount Pisgah (q.v.). 

Foster, Mount: see Pisgah, Mount. 

FOSTER, PORT: basin about 5 mi. long and 
3.5 mi. wide, landlocked within Deception I., in 
the South Shetland Is.; in 62°58'S., 60°39'W. This 
harbor was known to sealers as early as 1820, and 
the name Port Foster has been well established 
in international usage for over 100 years. Named 
for Capt. Henry Foster, RN, who made pendulum 
and magnetic observations in this harbor in 1829. 
Not adopted: Port Williams, Yankee Harbor. 

FOUL POINT: the N. point of the islet, with 
oflf-lying rocks, which forms the E. side of the 
entrance to Ommanney Bay, ^ on the N. coast of 
Coronation I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°33'S., 
45°31'W. Disc, in December 1821 in the course of 
the joint cruise by Capt. George Powell and Capt. 
Nathaniel Palmer. The name first appears on 
Powell's chart, published in 1822. 

FOUR LADIES BANK: submarine bank lying 
ofT Prydz Bay, centering in about 67°30'S., 77°30'E. 
Disc, by a Nor. exp. under Christensen, 1936-37, 
and named after the four ladies of the exp. party. 

FOURNIER BAY: bay about 5 mi. long and 3 
mi. wide, indenting the NE. coast of Anvers I. about 
7 mi. NW. of Van Ryswyck Pt., in the Palmer Arch.; 
in about 64°31'S., 63°06'W. Probably first seen by 
a Ger. exp., 1873-74, under Dallmann. Charted by 
the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, and named by 
him for V. Adm. Ernest Fournier, French Navy. 
Not adopted: Bale E. Fournier [French]. 

FOX GLACIER: channel glacier about 3 mi. 
wide and 5 mi. long, flowing NE. from the conti- 
nental ice to Budd Coast, where it terminates in 
a small tongue at the W. side of the entrance to 
Colvocoresses Bay; in about 65°50'S., 114°35'E. 
Delineated from aerial photographs taken by USN 
Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for 
Dr. J. L. Fox, asst. surgeon on the sloop of war 
Vincennes of the USEE under Wilkes, 1838-42. 

FOX MOUNT : mountain in the Queen Alexandra 
Range, about 8,800 ft. in el., rising directly S. of 
Mt. F. L. Smith and about 17 mi. SW. of Mt. Hope, 
on the W. side of Beardmore GL; in about 83°40'S., 
169°35'E. Disc, and named by the BrAE, 1907-9, 
under Shackleton. 

Foyn, Cape: see Alexander, Cape. 

FOYN COAST: that portion of the E. coast of 
Palmer Pen. lying between Cape Alexander, in 
66°44'S., 62°37'W. and Cape Northrop, in 67°24'S., 



65°16'W. Disc, in 1893 by a Nor. exp. under C. A. 
Larsen, who named it for Svend Foyn, Norwegian 
whaler of T0nsberg whose invention of the grenade 
harpoon has greatly facilitated modern whaling. 
Not adopted: Foyn Land, Foynland, Svend Foyn 
Coast. 

Foyn Island: see Foyn Point. 

FOYN POINT: point, surmounted by a peak 
about 1,600 ft. in el. marking the N. side of the 
entrance to Exasperation Inlet, on the E. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 65°15'S., 61°39'W. Sir Hubert 
Wilkins on a flight of Dec. 20, 1928 photographed 
an island off the E. coast of Palmer Pen., later 
charting it in 66°30'S., 62°30'W. Subsequent com- 
parison of Wilkins' photographs of this feature with 
those taken by the FIDS, who charted the coast 
in 1947, indicate that this point, although con- 
siderably N. of the position reported by Wilkins and 
possibly on an island, is the feature named by him 
Foyn Island. The name Foyn Point is given to 
the SE. extremity of this feature. Named for Svend 
Foyn. Not adopted: Foyn Island. 

Foynland: see Foyn Coast. 

FRAM BANK: submarine bank lying off Mac- 
Kenzie Bay, between about 67°00'S., and 67°30'S., 
and extending from about 68°30'E. to 71°30'E. 
Disc, on Feb. 4, 1931 by Christensen, who named 
it after Fridtjof Nansen's famous ship, the Fram, 
which was also used by Roald Amundsen in his 
exp. to the South Pole. 

FRAM ISLETS: small group of rocky islets and 
rocks lying in the W. portion of Geologie Arch., 
about 2 mi. NNW. of Cape G^odesie, off Adelie 
Coast; in 66°38'S., 139°50'E. Photographed from 
the air by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47. Charted by the 
FrAE under Liotard, 1949-51, and named for the 
Norwegian polar ship Fram, used by Fridtjof Nan- 
sen in the Arctic and Roald Amundsen in the 
Antarctic. 

Framnaes, Cape; Framnds: see Framnes, Cape. 

FRAMNAES POINT: point about 1.2 mi. SW. of 
Cape Saunders, on the N. side of Stromness Bay, 
South Georgia; in 54°08'S., 36°39'W. The name 
was given prior to 1920, probably by Norwegian 
whalers operating in the area. Not adopted: 
Framnaes. 

Framnaesodden: see Framnes Head. 

FRAMNES, CAPE: cape which forms the NE. 
end of Jason I., in the NW. part of Weddell Sea; in 
65°57'S., 60°33'W. Disc, and named in 1893 by a 
Nor. exp. under C. A. Larsen. At that time Larsen 



132 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



thought the cape to be a part of the mainland. 
Named for Framnesodden, a cape in the Langef jord 
Fjord in Norway. The cape was surveyed by the 
FIDS in 1953. Not adopted: Cape Framnaes, 
Framnas [German]. 

FRAMNES HEAD: small, rocky point lying close 
N. of Tofte Gl. at the SE. side of Sandef jord Bay, on 
the W. side of Peter I Island; in about 68°51'S., 
90°44'W. Charted and named by a Nor. exp. under 
Nils Larsen, who made the first landing on Peter I 
Island at this point in February 1929. Not 
adopted: Framnaesodden [Norwegian]. 

FRAMNES MOUNTAINS: group of mountains 
on Mac-Robertson Coast, between 67°41'S. and 
68°10'S. and between 62°12'E. and 63°07'E., con- 
sisting of Casey Range, Masson Range, David 
Range, and adjacent peaks and mountains. The 
three major ranges and other lesser features were 
sighted and named in February 1931 by the 
BANZARE under Mawson. This coast was also 
sighted by Norwegian whalers in the same season. 
The whole area was mapped in detail by the Nor- 
wegians as a result of aerial photography taken 
under the direction of Lars Christensen in January 
1937. This overall name for the several ranges was 
given by Christensen after Framnesfjellet, a hill 
near Sandef jord, Norway. 

Fran Inlet: see Nantucket Inlet. 

FRANQAIS, MOUNT: snow-covered mountain 
about 9,100 ft. in el., standing SE. of the center of 
Anvers I. about 5 mi. NNE. of Borgen Bay, in the 
Palmer Arch.; in 64°38'S., 63°27'W. The Oster- 
rieth Mtns., of which this mountain is the domi- 
nant feature, have been known at least since the 
BelgAE, under De Gerlache, explored the SE. coast 
of Anvers I. in 1898. This mountain was later 
sighted by the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, who 
named it for the exp. ship Franqais. Not adopted: 
Mount Francais. 

Franqais Bight: see Frangais Cove. 

FRANgAIS COVE: small cove at the SW. side of 
Port Charcot, which indents the N. end of Booth I., 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in about 65°03'S., 
64°01'W. Disc, and charted by the FrAE, 1903-5, 
under Charcot. Named by Charcot after the exp. 
ship Franqais, which was moored there during the 
expedition's winter operations at Port Charcot in 
1904. Not adopted: Frangais Bight. 

FRANgAIS GLACIER: glacier about 4 mi. wide 
and 14 mi. long, flowing NNE. from the continental 
ice to Adelie Coast, about 8 mi. W. of Barre Gl.; in 
about 66°33'S., 138°15'E. Though no glaciers 



were noted on D'Urville's chart of this coast, the 
close correlation of his "Bale des Ravins" feature 
and narrative description with the indentation of 
the coast near the foot of this glacier suggests 
first sighting of this feature by the Fr. exp. under 
D'Urville, 1837-40. During December 1912 F. H. 
Bickerton and other members of the Main Base 
Party of the AAE under Mawson camped on the 
upland slopes close E. of the glacier, but no refer- 
ence was made to the glacier in the AAE narratives 
and scientific reports, though a clear view and 
unpublished sketch were obtained of the distant 
coast to the NW. Delineated from aerial photo- 
graphs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47. The 
FrAE under Marret, 1952-53, sledged W. on the sea 
ice off Adelie Coast to the ice cliffs close E. of the 
glacier. Named for the Franqais, exp. ship of the 
FrAE under Charcot, 1903-5. 

FRANCES, CAPE: cape on the E. side of Sturge 
I., in the Balleny Is.; in about 67°30'S., 164°30'E. 
In 1841, Capt. James Clark Ross, viewing Sturge I. 
from a considerable distance, thought it a group of 
three islands and named the center island, Frances. 
This error was disc, in 1904 by Capt. Robert F. 
Scott, who applied the name to this cape. 

FRANCIS ISLAND: island which is irregular in 
shape, about 7 mi. long and 5 mi. wide, lying about 
12 mi. ENE. of Cape Choyce, off the E. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 67°37'S., 64°45'W. Disc, and 
photographed from the air by the USAS in 1940. 
Charted in 1947 by the FIDS, who named it for 
S. J. Francis, FIDS surveyor. Not adopted: 
Robinson Island. 

Frank Houlder, Mount: see Houlder, Mount. 

FRANK NEWNES GLACIER: glacier descending 
steeply from the high plateau of northern Victoria 
Land into the S. part of Pressure Bay; in about 
71°27'S., 169°17'E. First charted in 1899 by the 
BrAE under C. E. Borchgrevink, who named this 
feature for Frank Newnes, the only son of the exp. 
sponsor, Sir George Newnes. 

FRANKLIN, MOUNT: peak standing about 2.5 
mi. NNW. of Mt. Helen Washington, near the S. 
end of the N. group of the Rockefeller Mtns., on 
Edward VII Pen.; in about 78°03'S., 155°21'W. 
Disc, and named by the ByrdAE, Jan. 27, 1929. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt Sea: see Amundsen Sea. 

FRANKLIN ISLAND: island about 12 mi. long in 
a N.-S. direction and about 6 mi. wide, which lies 
in the Ross Sea about 80 mi. E. of Victoria Land 
and about 60 mi. N. of Cape Bird, Ross I.; in about 
76°07'S., 168°20'E. Disc, in 1841 by a Br. exp. 



133 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



under Ross, who named it for Sir John Franklin, 
English Arctic explorer. 

FRASER POINT: the N. tip of the peninsula 
between Marr Bay and Mackintosh Cove, on the 
N. coast of Laurie I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 
60°41'S., 44°31'W. Charted in 1933 by DI per- 
sonnel on the Discovery II, who named it for F. C. 
Fraser, member of the zoological staff of the Dis- 
covery Committee. Not adopted: Frazier Point. 

FRAZIER, MOUNT: northernmost peak of the 
Rockefeller Mtns., standing about 2.5 mi. N. of 
Mt. Jackling of Edward VII Pen. and almost sub- 
merged in the icecap; in about 77°51'S., 155°23'W. 
Disc, on Jan. 27, 1929 by members of the ByrdAE 
on an exploratory flight to this area. Named for 
Russell G. Frazier, medical officer at West Base of 
the USAS, 1939-41, and observer of the Rockefeller 
Mountains Geological Party, which visited this 
area in December 1940. Not adopted: Mount Irene 
Frazier. 

Frazier Point: see Fraser Point. 

Frederick H. Rawson Mountains: see Rawson 
Mountains. 

FREDRIKSEN ISLAND: island about 2.5 mi. 
long and 0.5 mi. wide which lies 0.5 mi. SE. of 
Powell I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°45'S., 
45°00'W. First charted in detail in 1912-13 by a 
Nor. whaling exp. under S0rlle. Not adopted: 
Fredriksen's Island, Fredriksens Island. 

FREEMAN, CAPE: cape marking the E. end of 
the peninsula separating Seligman and Trail In- 
lets, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°59'S., 
65°20'W. The cape was photographed from the 
air in 1940 by the USAS. Charted in 1947 by the 
FIDS, who named it for R. L. Freeman, FIDS sur- 
veyor at the Stonington I. base. 

FREEMAN, CAPE: cape forming the N. end of 
Sturge I., in the Balleny Is.; in about 67°12'S., 
164°10'E. Named for H. Freeman, commander of 
the cutter Sabrina, which sailed with the schooner 
Eliza Scott, in 1938, on the voyage resulting in the 
discovery of the Balleny Is. in 1839. 

FREEMAN GLACIER: channel glacier about 2 
mi. wide and 6 mi. long, flowing N. from the conti- 
nental ice to the W. side of Perry Bay, immediately 
E. of Freeman Pt., on Clarie Coast; in about 
66°00'S. 132°35'E. Delineated from aerial photo- 
graphs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and 
named by the US-ACAN for J. D. Freeman, sail- 
maker on the sloop of war Peacock of the USEE 
under Wilkes, 1838-42. 



FREEMAN POINT: small ice-covered point, 
lying immediately W. of Freeman Gl. and marking 
the W. side of the entrance to Perry Bay, on Clarie 
Coast; in about 65°55'S., 132°35'E. Delineated 
from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 
1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for J. D. 
Freeman of the USEE under Wilkes, 1838-42. 

FREEZELAND ROCK: rock, about 900 ft. in el., 
lying about 2.6 mi. W. of Bristol I., in the South 
Sandwich Is.; in 59°03'S., 26°41'W. Disc, by a Br. 
exp. under Cook in 1775, and named Freezeland 
Peak after the crew member who first sighted it. 
When the feature was charted as an insular rock 
in 1930 by DI personnel on the Discovery II, the 
name was altered accordingly. Not adopted: 
Freezeland Peak. 

FRENCH PASSAGE: passage extending in a 
NW.-SE. direction between the Dannebrog Is., to 
the NE., and the Roca Islets and Argentine Is., 
to the SW., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
65°10'S., 64°20'W. Named by the BGLE, 1934-37, 
under Rymill. The Pourquoi-Pas? , exp. ship of 
the FrAE under Charcot, navigated this passage 
in January 1909. 

FRESHFIELD, CAPE: long, snow-domed point 
of land on George V Coast; in about 68°20'S., 
151°10'E. This is probably the cape viewed from 
a great distance, as a result of "looming" or 
a superior mirage, by Lt. Charles Wilkes of the 
USEE, from the Vincennes on Jan. 19, 1840, and 
named by him for Lt. William Hudson of the Pea- 
cock, second officer of the USEE, who also saw 
land in the same direction on that day. The loca- 
tion of the cape was determined in 1912 by the 
Far Eastern Party of the AAE under Mawson, who 
named it for Douglas Freshfield, one time Pres. 
of the Royal Geographical Society. Not adopted: 
Cape Hudson. 

FRICKER GLACIER: glacier about 10 mi. long, 
which lies close N. of Monnier Pt. and flows in a 
NE. direction into the W. side of Mill Inlet, on the 
E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°02'S., 64°56'W. 
Charted by the FIDS and photographed from the 
air by the RARE in 1947. Named by the FIDS for 
Karl Fricker, German Antarctic historian. 

FRIDA HOLE: small bay lying 0.5 mi. SE. of 
Coal Hbr., along the S. coast and near the W. 
end of South Georgia; in 54°02'S., 37°57'W. Prob- 
ably named by early whalers or sealers who used 
the bay as an anchorage. 

FRIDTJOF NANSEN, MOUNT: massive moun- 
tain, about 13,100 ft. in el., forming the E. flank 
of Liv GL, at the head of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 
85°28'S., 167°00'W. Disc, by a Nor. exp. under 



134 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Amundsen in 1911, and named for Dr. Fridtjof 
Nansen, polar explorer, who helped support 
Amundsen's expedition. Not adopted: Mount 
Nansen. 

Fridjof -Nansen Bank: see Fridtjof Nansen Banks. 

Fridjof Sound: see Fridtjof Sound. 

FRIDTJOF NANSEN BANKS: submerged, rocl^y 
ridge, about 3.5 mi. long and about 0.5 mi. wide, 
with a depth of about 18 ft. over its E. end, situ- 
ated about 3.5 mi. ENE. of Cape George, off the 
N. coast of South Georgia; in about 54°16'S., 
36°09'W. Named after the S.S. Fridtjof Nansen 
which was wreclced on this ridge in 1907. Not 
adopted: Fridjof -Nansen Banlc, Fridjof -Nansen 
Banks, Fridtjof-Nansen Banks, Fritjof Nansen 
Bank, Nansen Bank, Nansen Rocks. 

Fridtjof Nansen Hafen: see Stromness Harbor. 

FRIDTJOF SOUND: sound about 6 mi. long, 
in a N.-S. direction, and 2 mi. wide, which sep- 
arates Andersson and Jonassen Islands from 
Tabarin Pen., at the NE. end of Palmer Pen.; in 
63°35'S., 56°43'W. Disc, by the SwedAE, 1901-4, 
under Nordenskjbld, and named after the Fridtjof, 
a vessel dispatched from Sweden to search for 
the SwedAE when it was feared lost in 1903. Not 
adopted: Detroit du Frithjof [French], Fridjof 
Sound, Frithjof Sound, Frithiofs Sund [Swedish]. 

FRIEDERICHSEN GLACIER: glacier about 7 
mi. long, which flows in an easterly direction into 
Cabinet Inlet, close N. to Mt. Hulth, on the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°38'S., 64°09'W. 
Charted by the FIDS and photographed from the 
air by the RARE in 1947. Named by the FIDS for 
Ludwig Friederichsen, German cartographer who 
in 1895 published a chart based upon all existing 
explorations of northern Palmer Peninsula and 
the South Shetland Islands. Not adopted: Bailey 
Glacier. 

Friesland Island: see Livingston Island. 

Friesland Peak: see Barnard, Mount. 

Friesland Point: see Pin Point. 

FRIGGA PEAK: peak about 5,100 ft. in el., 
which stands at the S. side of Anderson Gl. on 
the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°25'S., 64°00'W. 
Charted by the FIDS and photographed from the 
air by the RARE in 1947. The FIDS named it after 
the mythological Norse goddess Frigga, the "cloud 
spinner," because cloud was observed to form on 
the summit of this peak earlier than on any other 
feature in this vicinity. 



Frithiof Sound; Frithiofs Sund: see Fridtjof 
Sound. 

Frithjof, Detroit du: see Fridtjof Sound. 

Fritjof Nansen Bank: see Fridtjof Nansen Banks. 

Froa: see Couling Island. 

FROST GLACIER: chaimel glacier about 8 mi. 
wide and 7 mi. long, flowing N. from the conti- 
nental ice to the head of Porpoise Bay, on Banzare 
Coast; in about 66°55'S., 128°50'E. Delineated 
from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 
1946-47, and named by the US-AC AN for John 
Frost, boaswain on the brig Porpoise of the USEE 
under Wilkes, 1838-42. 

FRY GLACIER: long, deep outlet glacier, about 
2 mi. wide, with vertical, smooth rock walls, which 
merges with Albrecht Penck Gl., about 25 mi. S. 
of Nordenskjold Ice Tongue, on the coast of Vic- 
toria Land; in about 76°38'S., 162°32'E. First 
charted by the BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton, 
who named it for A. M. Fry, of Bristol, England, 
a contributor to the expedition. 

Fry Strait; Fyr Strait: see Fyr Channel. 

FRYER POINT: northern point of Bristol I., in 
the South Sandwich Is.; in 58°59'S., 26°30'W. 
Charted in 1930 by DI personnel on the Discovery 
II, and named for Lt. Cdr. D. H. Fryer, RN, captain 
of H. M. Surveying Ship Fitzroy. 

FUCHS ICE PIEDMONT: large ice piedmont, 
about 6 to 10 mi. wide and about 80 mi. long, ex- 
tending in a NE.-SW. direction along the entire 
W. coast of Adelaide I.; centering in 67°10'S., 
68°55'W. First roughly surveyed in 1909 by the 
FrAE under Charcot. It was named by the FIDS 
for Vivian E. Fuchs, FIDS base leader and geolo- 
gist at Stonington I. in 1948-48. 

FULMAR BAY: semi-circular bay, about 1 mi. 
wide at the entrance, lying between Moreton Pt. 
and Return Pt. at the W. end of Coronation I., 
South Orkney Is.; in 60°38'S., 46°02'W. First 
sighted and roughly charted by Capt. George 
Powell and Capt. Nathaniel Palmer on their joint 
cruise in December 1821. It was surveyed in 1933 
by DI personnel. So named in 1954 by the Br-APC 
because large numbers of Antarctic fulmars {Ful- 
marus glacialoides) nest in this area. 

FURNESS GLACIER: small glacier flowing 
northward to the coast between Cape Belsham and 
Mt. Houlder, on the N. coast of Elephant I., in 
the South Shetland Is.; in about 61°02'S., 55°00'W. 
Charted and named by a Br. exp. under Shackleton, 
1914-16. 



135 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



FYR CHANNEL: channel about 0.2 mi. wide 
between the SW. end of Signy I. and Moe I., in the 
South Orkney Is.; in 60°44'S., 45°41'W. The name 
Fyr Strait appears on a manuscript chart drawn 
by Capt. Fetter S0rlle in 1912, and corrected by 
Hans Borge in 1913, but the generic term channel 
is approved because of the small size of this feature. 
Not adopted: Fry Strait, Fyr Strait. 

GABLENZ RANGE: prominent N.-S. trending 
range, about 25 mi. long and about 8,800 ft. in el., 
in the Miihlig-Hofmann Mtns. projecting from the 
intermediate icecap level about 15 mi. N. of the 
edge of the polar plateau, in New Schwabenland; in 
about 72°00'S., 4°30'E. Disc, by the GerAE, 1938- 
39, under Ritscher, and named for the dir. of the 
German Lufthansa Corporation. 

GADARENE LAKE: a meltwater lake, about 1 mi. 
long, in the ice shelf of George VI Sound, lying 
below Swine Hill with its E. shore bounding the 
exposed rocks of the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
71°24'S., 67°35'W. In summer a considerable 
volume of water enters the lake from the ravine 
immediately N. of Swine Hill. First seen and sur- 
veyed in 1948 by the FIDS. The name arose at 
that time and results from the mad rush by the 
FIDS sledge dogs which attempted to throw them- 
selves and their sledge down the steep ice slopes 
into the water, like the Gadarene swine. 

GAGE, CAPE : rocky promontory forming the E. 
end of James Ross I. and the N. side of the E. 
entrance to Admiralty Sound, S. of the NE. tip of 
Palmer Pen.; in 64°10'S., 57°04'W. Disc, by a Br. 
exp., 1839-43, under Ross, who named it for V. Adm. 
William Hall Gage, a Lord Commissioner of the 
Admiralty. 

GALINDEZ ISLAND: islet immediately E. of 
Winter I. in the Argentine Is., off the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 65°15'S., 64°15'W. Disc, by the 
FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, who named it for 
Cdr. Ismael F. Galindez, Argentine Navy, who was 
dispatched in the Uruguay to search for Charcot, 
when the exp. was feared lost early in 1905. The 
islet was accurately charted by the BGLE under 
Rymill, 1934-37. 

GALLOWS POINT: the northernmost of two low, 
parallel points which mark the NE. extremity of 
Gamma I. in the Melchior Is., Palmer Arch.; in 
64°20'S., 62°59'W. The name was probably given 
by DI personnel who roughly surveyed the point 
in 1927. The point was resurveyed by Argentine 
expeditions in 1942, 1943 and 1948. 

GAMMA ISLAND: island, about 1 mi. long, which 
marks the SW. extremity of the Melchior Is. in the 
Palmer Arch.; in 64°20'S., 63°00'W. This island 



was first roughly charted and named "He Gouts" 
by the FrAE under Charcot, 1903-5, but that name 
has not survived in usage. The name Gamma, 
derived from the third letter of the Greek alphabet, 
was probably given by DI personnel who roughly 
surveyed the island in 1927. The island was sur- 
veyed by Argentine expeditions in 1942, 1943 and 
1948. Not adopted: He Gouts [French], Isla Ob- 
servatorio [Spanish]. 

GAND ISLAND: flat, ice-covered island, about 3 
mi. long and 1.5 mi. wide, lying at the N. end of 
Schollaert Chan, between Anvers and Brabant 
Islands, in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°24'S., 62°51'W. 
Disc, by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Gerlache, 
and named by him after Gand, the French form of 
Ghent, a city in Belgium where subscription drives 
were held to help finance the expedition. 

GAP, THE : a col between Crater and Observation 
Hills, at the S. end of Hut Point Pen., on Ross I.; in 
about 77°51'S., 166°40'E. Charted and named by 
the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott. BrNAE sledge 
parties traversed the S. end of the peninsula via 
this low level passage. 

GARAN, MOUNT: mountain about 4,500 ft. in el., 
marked by a cluster of small peaks protruding' 
above the continental ice, standing about 10 mi. 
SSW. of Mt. Strathcona and forming part of the W. 
side of the upper reaches of Scott Gl., on Queen 
Mary Coast; in about 67°32'S., 98°42'E. Deline- 
ated from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. 
Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for 
E. M. Garan, aerial photographer on USN Op. Hjp. 
flights which obtained photographic coverage in 
this area and other coastal areas between 14° and 
164°, east longitude. 

Garcia, Cap: see Loqui Point. 

GARCIA, CAPE : cape with vertical cliffs forming 
the N. side of the entrance of Barilari Bay and the 
S. side of the entrance to Bigo Bay, on the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 65°45'S., 64°40'W. This cape 
was first seen, roughly surveyed, and named "Cap 
Loqui" by the FrAE under Charcot, 1903-5. At 
the same time Charcot gave the name "Cap Garcia" 
to the S. point of Barilari Bay after Rear Admiral 
Garcia, Argentine Navy. The maps of the FrAE, 
1908-10, under Charcot showed "Cap Garcia" as 
the N. cape of Barilari Bay and the name Cape 
Garcia has since become established for this fea- 
ture. Charcot did not use the name "Cap Loqui" 
on the maps of his second expedition but, for the 
sake of historical continuity, the name Loqui Point 
(q.v.) has been accepted for the point at the S. side 
of Barilari Bay. Not adopted : Cap Loqui [French] . 



136 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



GARDINER, MOUNT: ridge-like, granitic moun- 
tain, about 8 mi. long and about 8,000 ft. in el., 
standing just S. of the junction of Bartlett and 
Robert Scott Glaciers, in the Queen Maud Range; 
its northern extremity lies in about 86°13'S., 
151°15'W. Disc, in December 1934 by the ByrdAE 
geological party under Quin Blackburn, and named 
by Byrd for T. Joseph Gardiner of Wellington, New 
Zealand, agent for Byrd Antarctic Expeditions of 
1928-30 and 1933-35. 

Gardner Bay: see Gardner Inlet. 

Gardner Glacier: see Ketchum Glacier. 

GARDNER INLET: large, ice-filled inlet lying at 
the SW. side of Bowman Pen., on the E. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 74°58'S., 62°52'W. Disc, by the 
RARE, 1947-48, under Ronne, who named it for 
Irvine C. Gardner, physicist at the National Bureau 
of Standards, and member of the American Antarc- 
tic Assn., Inc., the organization set up to make 
plans and preparations for the expedition. His 
work in the field of optics as applied to aerial 
photography has been an important contribution 
to this technique in polar exploration. Not 
adopted: American Geographical Society Bay, 
Gardner Bay. 

Garland Hersey Ridge; Garland Hershey Ridge: 
see Hershey Ridge. 

Garnet, Cape: see Garnet Point. 

GARNET HILL: rocky hill, about 750 ft. in el., 
standing on the E. side of McLeod Gl. in the S. part 
of Signy I., South Orkney Is.; in 60°44'S., 45°38'W. 
It forms the S. end of a line of rock and ice cliffs 
which separate McLeod Gl. from Orwell Gl. So 
named by the FIDS, following their survey of 1947, 
because of the abundance of garnets found there. 

GARNET POINT: rocky point, consisting of 
coarse garnet gneiss, connected by a steep ice slope 
to the continental ice, about 11 mi. SE. of Cape 
Gray, on George V Coast; in about 66°56'S., 
143°46'E. Disc, in 1912 by the AAE under Maw- 
son, and named by the geological party under 
Frank L. Stillwell. Not accepted : Cape Garnet. 

GARNET ROCKS: group of three rocks lying 
2 mi. W. of the Refuge Its. in the N. part of Rymill 
Bay, off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°21'S., 
67°04'W. First surveyed in 1948-49 by the FIDS 
and so named by them because of the occurrence 
of garnet in the rocks. 

GASTON ISLET: islet about 1 mi. N. of Cape 
Reclus, lying in De Gerlache Str., off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 64°23'S., 61°48'W. Disc, by the 



BelgAE, 1897-99, under Lt. Adrien de Gerlache, and 
named by him for his brother. Not accepted: Gas- 
ton Island. 

GAUDRY, MOUNT: mountain about 7,600 ft. in 
el., which stands about 8 mi. SSW. of Mt. Mangin 
in the S. part of Adelaide Is., in 67°32'S., 68°37'W. 
Disc, by the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, who 
named it for Albert Gaudry, prominent French 
paleontologist. Not adopted: Mount Goudry, 
Sommet A. Gaudry [French]. 

Gauss, Mount: see Gaussberg. 

GAUSS, MOUNT: a massif with a cap of black 
rock, lying about 3 mi. NE. of Mt. Chetwynd on the 
S. side of Mawson Gl., in the Prince Albert Mtns. 
of Victoria Land; in about 76°19'S., 162°20'E. Disc. 
by the BrNAE, 1901-04, under Scott, who named 
it for Prof. Karl Friedrich Gauss, German mathe- 
matician and astronomer. 

GAUSSBERG: extinct volcanic cone about 1,150 
ft. in el., fronting on Davis Sea immediately W. 
of Posadowsky GL, and dominating a major portion 
of Wilhelm II Coast; in 66°48'S., 89°19'E. Disc, 
in February 1902 by the GerAE under Drygalski, 
who named it for the exp. ship Gauss which was 
frozen in the pack ice about 50 mi. N. until Febu- 
ary 1903. Not adopted: Mount Gauss (q.v.), 
Mount Gaussberg. 

GAUTHIER POINT: point which forms the NW. 
extremity of Doumer I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 
64°50'S., 63°36'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 1903-5, under 
Charcot, who named it for Monsieur Gauthier, 
builder of the exp. ships Frangais and Fourquoi- 
Pas?. 

GBUREK PEAKS: an E.-W. series of peaks in 
New Schwabenland, extending about 60 mi., in 
about 72°15'S. on the Greenwich Meridian. They 
project through the icecap about 30 mi. N. of the 
edge of the polar plateau. Disc, by the GerAE 
under Ritscher, 1938-39, and named for Leo Gbu- 
rek, geophysicist on the expedition. 

GEDDES, CAPE: cape which forms the N. end 
of Ferguslie Pen. on the N. coast of Laurie I., in 
the South Orkney Is.; in 60°42'S., 44°35'W. First 
charted by the ScotNAE, 1902-4, under Bruce, who 
named it for Prof. P. (later Sir Patrick) Geddes, 
noted Scottish biologist and sociologist. 

GEDGES REEF: reef about 3.5 mi. NNW. of Grim 
Rock and some 12 mi. WSW. of Cape Tuxen, off 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°21'S., 64°33'W. 
Disc, by the BGLE under Rymill, 1934-37, and 
named after The Gedges, a dangerous reef off the 
mouth of the Helford River in Cornwall, England. 



424589 O -57 - 10 



137 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



GEIKIE GLACIER: glacier which flows in a NE. 
direction to Mercer Bay, at the SW. end of Cum- 
berland West Bay, South Georgia; in 54°17'S., 
36°41'W. First charted by the SwedAE, 1901-4, 
under Nordenskjold, who named it for Sir Archi- 
bald Geikie, noted Scottish geologist and Director- 
General of the Geological Survey of the United 
Kingdom. 

GEIKIE INLET: inlet about 7 mi. wide at its 
entrance, lying between the cliffs of the Drygal- 
ski Ice Tongue on the N. and Clarke Gl. and Lamp- 
lugh I. on the S., in Victoria Land; in about 
75°33'S., 163°00'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, 
under Scott, who named it for Sir Archibald Geikie. 

Geikie Land; Geikie Point: see Geikie Ridge. 

GEIKIE RIDGE: massive ridge terminating as 
a divide between Murray and Dugdale Glaciers, 
in the Robertson Bay area of northern Victoria 
Land; in about 71°36'S., 169°58'E. The landward 
extent of the feature remains to be determined. 
First charted in 1899 by the BrAE under C. E. 
Borchgrevink, who named the highland between 
these glaciers Geikie Land, after Sir Archibald 
Geikie. The generic "land" has been changed to 
"ridge," since it was not appropriate for so small 
a feature, but Borchgrevink's intent in naming 
the whole mass has been respected. Not adopted: 
Geikie Land, Geikie Point. 

GEMINI NUNATAK: nunatak consisting of two 
almost ice-free peaks, about 1.25 mi. apart and 
about 1,600 ft. in el., which are connected by a 
narrow, rock ridge extending in a NNW.-SSE. di- 
rection. The nunatak protrudes through the ice 
along the E. coast of Palmer Pen. about 5 mi. S. 
of Borchgrevink Nunatak; in 66°08'S., 62°30'W. 
Charted by the FIDS and photographed from the 
air by the RARE in 1947. Named by the FIDS after 
the constellation Gemini, which contains the twin 
stars Castor and Pollux. 

GEODeSIE, CAPE: low, ice-covered cape, marked 
by prominent rock outcrops at its NE. end, lying 
about 3 mi. NW. of Astrolabe Glacier Tongue, on 
Adelie Coast; in 66°40'S., 139°51'E. Photographed 
from the air by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47. Charted 
by the FrAE under Barre, 1951-52, and so named 
because of the extensive geodetic program under- 
taken in this region, particularly in the Geologie 
Arch, close off shore. 

GfiOLOGIE, POINT: (in about 66°37'S., 
140°12'E.) the decision of May 1947 has been 
VACATED, since it is not now possible to identify 
the feature. See descriptions for Debarquement 
Rock, Geologie Archipelago and Petrel Island. 



GfiOLOGIE ARCHIPELAGO: small archipelago 
of rocky islets and rocks, lying close N. of Cape 
Geodesic and Astrolabe Glacier Tongue, and ex- 
tending from Helene It. on the W. to the Dumou- 
lin Its. on the E., off Adelie Coast; centering in 
66°39'S., 139°55'E. The Fr. exp. under D'Urville 
landed on Debarquement Rock in the Dumoulin 
Its. in January 1840, and applied the name "Pointe 
Geologie" to a coastal feature charted as lying close 
behind Debarquement Rock. The archipelago was 
delineated, in part, from aerial photographs taken 
by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47. Following surveys and 
geological studies by FrAE parties during the 1950- 
52 period, the French antarctic sub-committee re- 
assigned the name "Pointe Geologie" to the entire 
archipelago, as D'Urville's coastal feature is be- 
lieved to correlate with portions of the cluster of 
islets lying close N. of Astrolabe Glacier Tongue. 
Not adopted : Archipel de Pointe Geologie [French] , 
Geology Archipelago. 

Geologie, Archipel de Pointe: Geology Archipel- 
ago: see Geologie Archipelago. 

GEOLOGY, CAPE: low, gravel-covered cape 
marking the W. end of Botany Bay, on the S. side 
of Granite Hbr. in Victoria Land; in about 77°00'S., 
162°35'E. Charted and named by the western geo- 
logical party of the BrAE 1910-13, who established 
their base on this cape. 

GEORGE, CAPE: cape about 6 mi. ESE. of Barff 
Pt., on the N. coast of South Georgia; in 54°16'S., 
36°16'W. Disc, in 1775 by a Br. exp. under Cook, 
who named it for George III, King of Great Britain. 

George Bay: see Hound Bay. 

GEORGE BRYAN COAST: that portion of the 
coast of Antarctica along the S. shore of Bellings- 
hausen Sea, extending from the cape at the W. 
side of the entrance to Carroll Inlet, in about 79°W., 
to the westernmost point visible on the USAS 
flight of Dec. 22, 1940, in about 85°W. Named by 
the US-SCAN for R. Adm. George S. Bryan, Hydrog- 
rapher of the U. S. Navy, 1938-46, under whose 
direction noteworthy contributions to polar geog- 
raphy were made. 

George Getz Shelf Ice: see Getz Ice Shelf. 

George Harbour, Cape: see Godthul. 

GEORGE V COAST: that portion of the coast 
of Antarctica lying between Point Alden, in 
142°02'E., and 153°00'E. Explored in 1912-13 by 
members of the Main Base party of the AAE under 
Mawson, and named for King George V of England. 
The area immediately eastward of this coast has 
not been explored by land or ship parties, but has 



138 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



been photographed from the air, in part, by USN 
Op. Hjp., 1946-47. Not adopted: King George V 
Coast, King George V Land, Kong George V-Land 
[Norwegian], Konig George V-Land [German]. 

George IV Sea: see Weddell Sea. 

GEORGE MURRAY, MOUNT: flat-topped moun- 
tain about 3,600 ft. in el., lying on the S. side of 
Davis Gl., in Victoria Land; in about 75°52'S., 
161°55'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott 
who named it for George R. M. Murray of the Brit- 
ish Museum staff, dir. of the scientific staff for 
Scott's expedition. 

GEORGE VI SOUND: major fault depression, 
about 300 mi. long in the shape of the letter J, 
which skirts the E. and S. shores of Alexander I 
Island, separating it from Palmer Pen. and Robert 
English Coast; centering in about 71 °S., 68° W. 
The sound is ice covered and varies from about 
15 mi. to more than 40 mi. wide. Disc, by Lincoln 
Ellsworth who flew over it in 1935. It was ex- 
plored by the BGLE, in 1936-37, and by the USAS 
in 1940. Named by Rymill, leader of the BGLE, for 
George VI, King of England. Not adopted: King 
George VI Sound. 

GEORGES, CAPE: the N. tip of De Ronge I., 
lying about 8 mi. SW. of Cape Anna, off the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 64°41'S., 62°41'W. Disc, 
and named by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De 
Gerlache. 

Georges Bay: see King George Bay. 

Georgia, Isle of; Georgia Del Sur, Isla: see South 
Georgia. 

GERD ISLET: islet about 2.5 mi. W. of Cape 
Vik, lying at the E. side of the entrance to Nor- 
way Bight, off the S. coast of Coronation I., in 
the South Orkney Is.; in 60°40'S., 45°46'W. 
Charted and probably named by a Nor. whaling 
exp. under S0rlle, who made a running survey of 
the South Orkney Is. in 1912-13. Not adopted: 
Gerd Island. 

Gerlache, Cape: see De Gerlache, Cape. 

Gerlache Point: see De Gerlache Point. 

Gerlache Strait: see De Gerlache Strait. 

GESSNER PEAK: peak about 10,800 ft. in el., 
which stands immediately N. of Mt. Habermehl in 
the Mlihlig-Hofmann Mtns. of New Schwabenland; 
in about 71°47'S., 6°30'E. Disc, by the GerAE, 
1938-39, under Ritscher, and named for the man- 
ager of the German Hansa-Luftbild Corporation. 



Gestlingen: see Goslings Islets. 

Getz Shelf Ice: see Getz Ice Shelf. 

GETZ ICE SHELF: ice shelf in Wrigley Gulf, 
along the shore of northeastern Marie Byrd Land; 
in about 75°S., 129°W. The topographical and 
locational deflnition of this feature must remain 
indefinite until clarified by further exploration. 
Disc, in December 1940 by the USAS and named 
for George F. Getz, of Chicago, 111., who helped 
furnish the seaplane for the expedition. Not 
adopted: George Getz Shelf Ice, Getz Shelf Ice. 

Gibh Island: see Gibbs Island. 

GIBBON BAY: bay about 1.5 mi. long and wide, 
which lies between Rayner Pt. and The Turret 
along the E. coast of Coronation I., in the South 
Orkney Is.; in 60°40'S., 45°12'W. Probably first 
sighted by Capt. George Powell and Capt. Na- 
thaniel Palmer, in the course of their joint cruise 
in December 1821. Charted in 1933 by DI per- 
sonnel on the Discovery II, and named for the 
ship's surgeon. Dr. G. M. Gibbon. 

GIBBS ISLAND: island which lies about 18 mi. 
SSW. of Elephant I., in the South Shetland Is.; 
in about 61°30'S., 55°36'W. James Weddell, 
Master, RN, whose chart of the islands appeared in 
1825, seems first to have used the present name 
which is now established international usage. Not 
adopted: Gibb Island, Gibbs Islands, Narrow Isle, 
Rainoff's Island. 

Gilbert Grosvenor Range: see Grosvenor Range. 

GILCHRIST GLACIER: channel glacier about 
4 mi. wide and 4 mi. long, fiowing NE. from the 
continental ice to Budd Coast, about 10 mi. NW. 
of Fox Gl.; in about 65°45'S., 114°15'E. Delineated 
from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 
1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for Dr. Ed- 
ward Gilchrist, acting surgeon on the sloop of 
war Vincennes of the USEE under Wilkes, 1838-42. 

GILES, MOUNT: highest of a group of glaciated 
mountains, snow-free only on the heights, marking 
the W. side of the entrance to Cordell Hull Bay, 
in Marie Byrd Land; in about 75°10'S., 137°00'W. 
Disc, on aerial fiights made from West Base of the 
USAS in 1940 and named for T. Sgt. Walter R. 
Giles, USMC, co-pilot and radio operator on sev- 
eral of these fiights. Not adopted: Mount Carrol 
Kettering. 

GILLIES ISLETS : three small, rocky islets pro- 
truding above Shackleton Ice Shelf, about 6 mi. 
N. of Cape Moyes, off Queen Mary Coast; in 
66°32'S. 96°24'E. Disc, by the Western Base Party 



139 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



of the AAE under Mawson, 1911-14, who named 
the group for F. J. Gillies, chief engineer of the 
exp. ship Aurora. Astronomical control was estab- 
lished on the central islet by USN Op. Wml. per- 
sonnel in January 1948. Not adopted: Gillies Is- 
lands, Gillies Nunatak, Gillies Nunataks. 

Gillies Nunataks: see Gillies Islets. 

GILLOCK ISLAND: ice-covered island about 17 
mi. long and 2 to 3 mi. wide, with numerous out- 
crops exposed along its flanks, aligned in a NNW.- 
SSE. direction across the main flow of Baker Three 
Gl. and lying about 14 mi. W. of Jennings Promon- 
tory, the W. end of Ingrid Christensen Coast; in 
about 70°12'S., 71°00'E. Delineated in 1952 by 
John H. Roscoe from aerial photographs taken by 
USN Op. Hjp. in March 1947, and named by him 
for Lt. Robert A. Gillock, USN, navigator on USN 
Op. Hjp. photographic flights in this area and 
other coastal areas between 14° and 164°, east 
longitude. 

GILMOUR, MOUNT: mountain, above 2,000 ft. 
in el., on the central part of the irregular ridge 
separating Crevasse Valley Gl. and Arthur Davis 
Gl., in the Edsel Ford Ranges in Marie Byrd Land; 
in about 76°55'S., 144°38'W. Disc, in 1940 by mem- 
bers of West Base of the USAS. Named for Harold 
P. Gilmore, recorder, and subsequently historian 
and administrative asst. to the exp. commander. 

GIRARD BAY: bay about 1.5 mi. long and wide, 
indenting the W. coast of Palmer Pen. between 
Cape Cloos and Mt. Scott; in 65°09'S., 64°00'W. 
Disc, by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Gerlache. 
Named by the FrAE 1903-5, under Charcot, for 
Jules Girard of the Paris Societe de Geographie. 

GIRDLER ISLET: narrow islet at the S. side of 
Mutton Cove, lying about 0.2 mi. SW. of Cliff It. 
and some 8 mi. W. of Ferin Head, off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 66°00'S., 65°42'W. Charted 
and named by the BGLE, 1934-37, under Rymill. 

GIST, MOUNT: mountain about 4,000 ft. in el., 
marked by a cluster of small peaks protruding 
above the continental ice, standing about 6 mi. 
WNW. of Mt. Strathcona on Queen Mary Coast; 
in about 67°19'S., 98°42'E. Delineated from 
aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp. 1946-47, 
and named by the US-ACAN for Lt. Francis J. 
Gist, USN, co-pilot and navigator on USN Op. 
Hjp. photographic flights in this area and other 
coastal areas between 14° and 164°, east longitude. 

GJERTSEN, MOUNT: mountain about 3 mi. E. 
of Mt. Grier, which together form the NW. end 
of the La Gorce Mtns. standing at the E. side and 
near the head of Robert Scott Gl. in the Queen 



Maud Range; in about 86°40'S., 147°50'W. Disc, 
in December 1934 by the ByrdAE geological party 
under Quin Blackburn, and so named in an attempt 
to reconcile Byrd's discoveries with the names 
applied in 1911-12 by the Nor. exp. under Roald 
Amundsen. Amundsen had named a peak in this 
vicinity for Lt. Hg. F. Gjertsen of the Norwegian 
Navy, second mate of the Frara, Amundsen's exp. 
ship, and later ice pilot for the ByrdAE, 1933-35. 
Not adopted: Mount F. Gjertsen. 

Gjeslingene: see Goslings Islets. 

GLACIER BAY: small bay formed by the 
grounded, concave seaward front of McDonald Gl. 
along Caird Coast; in about 75°20'S., 26°15'W. 
Disc, and named in January 1915 by a Br. exp. 
under Shackleton. 

GLACIER BLUFF: abrupt glacier face marking 
the E. end of Bristol I., in the South Sandwich Is.; 
in 59°01'S., 26°26'W. Charted and named in 1930 
by DI personnel on the Discovery II. 

GLACIER BLUFF: ice cliff about 170 ft. in el. 
forming the inner N. side of the entrance to Yankee 
Hbr., Greenwich I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 
62°31'S., 59°48'W. Charted and named in 1935 by 
DI personnel on the Discovery II. 

Glacier Dome: see McLeod Hill. 

Glacier Terra Nova: see Astrolabe Glacier. 

Glacier Tongue: see Helen Glacier Tongue. 

Glandaz, Cape: see Glandaz Point. 

GLANDAZ POINT: point forming the S. side of 
the entrance to Deloncle Bay, on the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 65°06'S., 63°55'W. Disc, by the 
BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Gerlache. Charted by 
the FrAE under Charcot, 1903-5, and named by 
him for A. Glandaz. Not adopted: Cape Glandaz. 

GLENZER GLACIER: channel glacier about 5 
mi. wide and 7 mi. long, flowing NNW. from the 
continental ice to Knox Coast, about 5 mi. W. of 
Conger GL; in about 66°05'S., 103°28'E. Deline- 
ated from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. 
Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for 
Lt. (j.g.) Hubert Glenzer, Jr., USN, pilot with USN 
Op. Wml., 1947-48, who assisted in operations re- 
sulting in the establishment of astronomical con- 
trol stations along the coast from Wilhelm II Coast 
to Budd Coast. 

Gletcher-Joch: see Ross Pass. 

GNEISS HILLS: two prominent hills, about 900 
ft. in el., lying on the W. side of McLeod Gl. in the 
SW. part of Signy I., South Orkney Is.; in 60°44'S., 



140 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



45°39'W. So named by the FIDS, following their 
survey of 1947, because a band of pink gneiss out- 
crops near the summits. 

GNEISS POINT: point about 6 mi. N. of Cape 
Bernacchi, in front of the Wilson Piedmont Gl. 
along the coast of Victoria Land; in about 77°24'S., 
163°40'E. First charted by the BrAE, 1910-13, 
under Scott, and so named because of the gneissic 
granite found there. 

GNOME ISLET : rocky islet lying between the W. 
side of Blaiklock I. and Thomson Head near the 
head of Bourgeois Fjord, off the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 67°33'S., 66°50'W. First surveyed in 1949 
by the FIDS, and so named by them because of the 
resemblance of the islet to a small gnomelike 
creature rising from the sea. 

GNOMON ISLET: rocky islet about 280 ft. in el., 
lying close N. of Point Wild, off the N. side of Ele- 
phant I., in the South Shetland Is.; in about 
61°01'S., 54°59'W. Charted and named by a Br. 
exp. under Shackleton, 1914-16. So named be- 
cause when viewed from Point Wild the shape of 
the islet is suggestive of the elevated arm of a 
sundial. 

Goat Hull Harbour; Godthull Harbour: see 
Godthul. 

GOCKEL CREST: mountain crest of New 
Schwabenland, in about 72°42'S., 0°10'W., lying 
immediately N. of the nameless plateau projection 
with which it forms the upper portion of the E. 
wall of Penck Trough. Disc, by the GerAE, 1938- 
39, under Ritscher, and named for Wilhelm Gockel, 
meteorological assistant on the expedition. 

GODTHUL: bay about 1 mi. wide between Cape 
George and Long Pt., along the N. coast of South 
Georgia; in 54°17'S., 36°18'W. The name Godthul 
(Good Hollow) dates back to the period 1905-12, 
and was probably applied by Norwegian sealers and 
whalers working in the area. Not adopted: Cape 
George Harbour, Goat Hull Harbour, Godthul Bay, 
Godthull Harbour, Goothul. 

GOLD HARBOR: small bay about 5 mi. SSW. of 
Cape Charlotte, with Bertrab Gl. at its head, along 
the E. end of South Georgia; in 54°37'S., 35°56'W. 
The name appears to have taken root through com- 
mon usage by sealers and whalers and is now well 
established. 

GOLDIE, CAPE: snow-covered cape about 13 mi. 
SE. of Cape Lyttelton, on the W. side of Ross Ice 
Shelf; in about 82°46'S., 165:40'E. Disc, by the 
BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, who named it for 



Sir George Goldie, a member of the committee 
which made the final draft of the instructions for 
the expedition. 

GONDOLA RIDGE: rocky ridge about 1,800 ft. 
in el., extending NNE. from Mt. Suess for about 
2 mi., in Victoria Land; in about 77°01'S., 161°48'E. 
Charted by the western geological party of the 
BrAE, 1910-13, who so named it because Mt. Suess, 
to which the ridge is joined, resembles a gondola 
in shape. Not adopted: Gondola Nunakol. 

Gondola Nunakol: see Gondola Ridge. 

GONVILLE AND CAIUS RANGE: series of snow- 
covered peaks, about 3,000 to 4,000 ft. in el., form- 
ing the S. wall of the Mackay Gl. basin for a dis- 
tance of about 10 mi., in Victoria Land; in about 
77°05'S., 162°10'E. First charted by the BrAE un- 
der Scott, 1910-13. Named for Gonville and Caius 
College of Cambridge Univ., the alma mater of 
several members of the expedition. 

GOOD ALE, MOUNT: high granitic peak of the 
Will Hays Mountains, rising to about 7,000 ft. in 
el., standing between Amundsen and Robert Scott 
Glaciers, in the Queen Maud Range; in about 
85°58'S., 155°25'W. Disc, in December 1929 by the 
ByrdAE geological party under Laurence Gould, 
and named by Byrd for Edward E. Goodale, a mem- 
ber of that party. 

GOODENOUGH, CAPE: ice-covered cape, with 
a small glacier tongue along its E. side, marking 
the W. side of the entrance to Porpoise Bay and 
forming the northernmost projection of Norths 
Highland, on Banzare Coast; in about 66°10'S., 
126°20'E. Disc, by BANZARE under Mawson on 
a distant aerial flight in January 1931, and named 
by him for Adm. Sir William Goodenough, Pres. of 
the Council, Royal Geographical Soc, 1930-33. 

GOODENOUGH GLACIER: broad sweeping 
glacier flowing from the W. shore of Palmer Pen. 
into George VI Sound; in 72°00'S., 66°40'W. Disc, 
in 1936 by Stephenson, Fleming, and Bertram of 
the BGLE, under Rymill, while exploring George 
VI Sound. Named by Rymill for Margaret Good- 
enough, wife of Adm. Sir William Goodenough, who 
was one of the principal supporters in raising funds 
for the expedition. Not accepted: Margaret Good- 
enough Glacier. 

GOORKHA CRATERS: group of mountains and 
hills about 4,000 ft. in el., lying in the Britannia 
Range about 12 mi. SE. of Mt. Reeves, on the W. 
side of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 79°50'S., 159°10'E. 
Disc, and named by the BrNAE under Scott, 1901-4. 



141 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Qoothtil: see Qodthul. 

GORDON. CAPE: jagged headland about 1.100 ft. 
in el., forming the E. end of Vega I., lying S. of the 
NE. tip of Palniov Poti.: in (i.^^'il'S.. .'">7^'0;VW. Disc. 
by a Br. oxp., 18o5)-43. undor Ross and named by 
him for Capt. William Gordon, RN, a Lord Com- 
missioner of the Admiralty. 

Gordon Bcnnet, lie: see Edgell, Mount. 

GOSLINGS ISLETS: scattered group of numer- 
ous islots and rocks lying close S. and W. of Cape 
Meier, off the S. coast of Coronation I.. South Ork- 
ney Is.: in 60'39'S.. 45"55'W. First charted and 
named "Gcsllingcn" by Tetter Sorllo in liU2-13. 
This was corrected to "Gjeslingene" (The Goslings) 
on a later chart by Sorlle. An English form of the 
name was reconiniended by the Br-APC in 1954. 
Not adopted: Gestlingen [Norwegian]. Gjeslingene 
[Norwegian] . 

GOSSLER ISLETS: string of N.-S. trending islets 
about 1.5 mi. W. of Cape Albert de Monaco. Anvers 
I., and extending about 5 mi. southward in the 
Palmer Arch.; in (34"44'S.. 04'17W. Disc, and 
named by a Qer. exp. under Dallmann, 1873-74. 
Not adopted: Gossler Islands. 

GOUDIER ISLET: islet composed of bare 
polished rock, lying about 100 yards N. of Jougla 
Pt. in the harbor of Port Lockroy. in the Palmer 
Arcli.; in 64 50'S.. 63^'31'W. Disc, by the FrAE. 
1903-5. under Charcot, and named by him for E. 
Goudier. chief engineer of the exp. ship FraiK^ais. 

Goudry. Mount: see Gaudry. Mount. 

Gould. Mount: Gould Peak: see Chai'les Gould 
Peak. 

GOULD. MOUNT: a massif rising in the south- 
central portion of the Tapley Mtns. and forming 
part of the N. wall of Albanus Gl.. in the Queen 
Maud Range; in about S5-^'45'S.. 149'~00'W. Disc, 
in December 1929 by the ByrdAE geological party 
under Laurence Gould. Named by Byrd for Pres. 
Laurence M. Gould of Carleton College, polar ex- 
plorer, who served as geologist and second-in-com- 
mand with this expedition. 

CrOULD BAY: bay which indents the Filchner 
Ice Shelf in the S. part of Weddell Sea; in about 
78-25S.. 44-\XVW. Disc, by the RARE vmder 
Ronne. 1947-48. and named by him for Laurence M. 
Gould. Not adopted : Larry Gould Bay. 

GOULDEN COVE: southern of two coves at the 
head of Ezcurra Inlet. Admiralty Bay. on King 
George I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 62''10'S.. 



SS^SaW. Probably named by the FrAE under 
Charcot, who surveyed Admiralty Bay in December 
1909. 

GOULD NUNATAK: peak rising above the icecap 
of Enderby Land about 10 mi. SE. of Mt. Hurley; 
in about Cli"30'S.. 5r'20'E. Disc, and named in 
January 1930 by the BANZARE under Mawson. 

Goupil, Cape: see Legoupil, Cape. 

GOURDIN ISLET: largest islet in a group of 
islets and rocks about 1 mi. N. of Cape Siffrey, the 
N. tip of Louis Philippe Pen.; in 63^^12'S.. 57''18'W. 
Disc, by a Fr. exp., 1837-40. under D'Urville, and 
named by him for Ens. Jean Gourdin of the exp. 
ship Astrolabe. The islet was re-identified and 
charted by the FIDS in 1945-47. Not adopted: 
Gourdin Rock. 

Gourdin Rock: see Gourdin Islet. 

GOURDON. MOUNT: the summit of a N.-S. 
trending mountain about 3,100 ft. in el., centrally 
located in the S. half of Booth I., off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 65 05S.. 64 XXVW. First charted 
by the FrAE. 1903-5. under Charcot, and named by 
him for Ernest Gourdon. geologist of the expe- 
dition. 

GOURDON GLACIER: glacier, about 4 mi. long 
and 1.5 mi. wide, lying 4 mi. SW. of Ekeliif Pt.. and 
llowing in a SE. direction into the central part of 
Markham Bay on the E. coast of James Ross I.; in 
64' 15S.. 57 ~22'W. It has a conspicuous rock wall 
at its head. First seen and surveyed by the 
SwedAE under Nordenskjold, 1901-4. who named it 
for Ernest Goiu'don. geologist and glaciologist of 
the French Antarctic Expedition. 1903-5. 

GOURLAY PENINSULA: ice-free peninsula, 
which is 200 yards wide at its base and widens to 
800 yards, forming the SW. extremity of Signy I., 
South Orkney Is.: in 60"44S., 45'36'W. The E. 
end of the peninsula divides into three arms. Panto- 
mime. Pageant and Gourlay Points. Surveyed in 
1933 by DI personnel, and resurveyed in 1947 by 
the FIDS. The name, applied by the Br-APC, de- 
rives from the nearby Gourlay Point. 

GOURLAY POINT: southernmost of three fin- 
ger-like points which form the SE. end of Signy I., 
in the South Orkney Is.; in 60'~44S., 45-'35'W. 
Charted in 1933 by DI personnel on the Discovery 
II, and named for R. Gourlay. a third engineer of 
the ship. 

Gouts. He: see Gamma Island. 

GOU\'ERNEUR ISLET: low rocky islet about 1.4 
mi. WSW. of Petrel I., lying close N. of Astrolabe 
Glacier Tongue at tlie S. end of Gteologie Ai-ch., off 



142 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Ad^lie Coast; in about GGMO'S., 139°57'E. Photo- 
graphed from the air by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47. 
Charted and named by the FrAE under Liotard, 
1949-51. Liotard was the first man to encamp on 
the islet, and, as leader of the FrAE, also held the 
honorary post of governor. 

GOVERNOR ISLANDS: group of islands and 
rocks extending for about 1.25 mi. from Penguin 
Pt., Coronation I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 
60°31'S., 45°57'W. Disc, by Capt. George Powell 
and Capt. Nathaniel Palmer during their joint 
cruise in December 1821. The name appears on a 
chart based upon a running survey of the South 
Orkney Is., in 1912-13 by Fetter S0rlle, Norwegian 
whaling captain. Not adopted: Guvern0rens 
Islands. 

GRACE, CAPE: ice-covered cape, marked by 
prominent rock outcrops at its NW. end and scat- 
tered moraine deposits on its W. side, lying at the S. 
side of Edisto Ice Tongue and forming the E. portal 
of the valley occupied by Scott GI., on Queen Mary 
Coast; in about 66°26'S., 100°35'E. Delineated 
from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 
1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for Lt. Philip 
J. Gist, USN, pilot with USN Op. Wml., 1947-48, 
who assisted in operations which resulted in the 
establishment of astronomical control stations from 
Wilhelm II Coast to Budd Coast. 

GRACE GLACIER: glacier which flows N. into 
Ample Bay, at the Bay of Isles, South Georgia; in 
54°04'S., 37°24'W. Charted in 1912-13 by Robert 
Cushman Murphy, American naturalist aboard the 
brig Daisy, who named it for his wife, Mrs. Grace 
Barstow Murphy. 

GRACE Mckinley, mount: peak, about 2,500 
ft. in el., standing near the head of Sulzberger Bay 
and marking the S. end of the Edsel Ford Ranges, 
in Marie Byrd Land; in about 77°54'S., 148°15'W. 
Disc, on the ByrdAE flight of Dec. 5, 1929, and 
named by R. Adm. Byrd for the wife of Capt Ashley 
C. McKinley, aerial photographer and third-in- 
command of the expeditiori. 

Graf Lerchenfeld Gletscher: see Lerchenfeld 
Glacier. 

GRAHAM COAST: that portion of the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen. extending from Cape Renard at 
the SW. side of the entrance to Flandres Bay, in 
65°01'S., 63°43'W., to Cape Bellue, the N. side of 
the entrance to Marin Darbel Bay, in 66°20'S., 
65"59'W. Named for Sir James R. G. Graham, First 
Lord of the Admiralty at the time John Biscoe 
explored along the W. coast of Palmer Pen. in 1831. 
Not adopted: Graham Land. 



Graham Land: see Graham Coast; Palmer Pen- 
insula. 

Graicie Point: see Craigie Point. 

GRAN, MOUNT: flat-topped mountain about 
6,300 ft. in el., overlooking the upper portion of 
Mackay Gl., in Victoria Land; in about 76°59'S., 
160°58'E. Disc, by the BrAE, 1910-13, under 
Scott, and named for Tryggve Gran, ski expert 
with the expedition. Not adopted: Mount Tryggve 
Gran. 

GRANDIDIER CHANNEL: the body of water 
lying between the northern Biscoe Is. and the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; centering in about 65°45'S., 
65°00'W. Charted and named by the FrAE under 
Charcot, 1903-5. Alfred Grandidier was Pres. of 
the Paris Geographical Soc. at about that time. 

GRANITE HARBOR: embayment about 11 mi. 
wide and of similar length, marking the seaward 
end of a deep valley between Cape Archer and 
Cape Roberts, along the coast of Victoria Land; in 
about 76°57'S., 162°40'E. Disc, by the BrNAE 
under Scott in January 1902, while searching for 
safe winter quarters for the exp. ship Discovery, 
and so named because of the great granite boul- 
ders found on its shores. 

GRAPTOLITE ISLAND : islet about 0.5 mi. long, 
which lies in Fitchie Bay about 1.2 mi. W. of Cape 
Dundas, the E. end of Laurie I., in the South 
Orkney Is.; in 60°44'S., 44°28'W. Disc, by the 
ScotNAE, 1902-4, under Bruce, who so named it 
because graptolitic fossils were found on the island. 

GRASSHOLM: islet about 1 mi. S. of Frida Hole, 
along the S. coast and near the W. end of South 
Georgia; in 54°03'S., 37°58'W. The name Em 
Island was given for this feature, probably by DI 
personnel who surveyed this coast in 1926. The 
SGS, 1951-52, reported that this feature is known 
locally as "Grassholmen," and that Em Island is 
unknown locally. The indefinite form of the name, 
Grassholm, has been approved. Not adopted: Em 
Island, Grassholmen [Norwegian]. 

Grassholmen: see Grassholm. 

GRASS ISLAND: conspicuous island lying across 
the entrance to Stromness Hbr., in Stromness Bay, 
South Georgia; in 54°09'S., 36°40'W. This island 
was known as Mutton Island as early as 1912, but 
since 1920 the name Grass Island has been con- 
sistently used. Not adopted : Mutton Island. 

GRAVENOIRE ROCK : small rock outcrop about 
1 mi. SE. of Rock X, protruding above the conti- 
nental ice at the E. side of Victor Bay, on Adelie 



143 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Coast; in 66°21'S., 136°43'E. Photographed from 
the air by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47. Charted by the 
FrAE under Marret, 1952-53, and so named be- 
cause of its resemblance to Gravenoire, the name 
of a puy or dome-shaped hill overlooking the city 
of Clermont-Ferrand, which lies in the chain of 
extinct volcanoes forming the Monts D'Auvergne 
of central France. 

Gravier, Massif; Gravier, Mount; Gravier, Som- 
met: see Gravier Peaks. 

GRAVIER PEAKS: series of three prominent, 
ice-covered peaks, the central and highest being 
7,600 ft. in el., situated about 9 mi. ESE. of The 
Gullet and extending for 8 mi. in a WSW.-ENE. 
direction between the head of Laubeuf Fjord and 
Lallemand Fjord, on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 67°12'S., 67°15'W. First sighted and roughly 
positioned in 1903 by the FrAE under Charcot, who 
named the feature for Charles Gravier, French 
zoologist. Surveyed in 1909 by the FrAE under 
Charcot, at which time the individual peaks mak- 
ing up this group were first identified. The data 
for the present description is largely based upon a 
resurvey of the peaks in 1948 by the FIDS. Not 
adopted: Massif Gravier [French], Mount Gravier, 
Sommet Gravier, Sommets Gravier [French] . 

GRAY, CAPE: cape, marking the E. side of the 
entrance to Commonwealth Bay, which lies at the 
N. end of a small rocky island joined by an ice 
ramp to the continental ice overlying George V 
Coast; in about 66°51'S., 143°22'E. Disc, by the 
AAE, 1911-14, under Mawson, who named it for 
Percy Gray, second officer on the exp. ship Aurora. 

GRAY, MOUNT: rounded, ice-worn mountain 
several thousand ft. in el., surmounting the E. side 
of the entrance to Cordell Hull Bay, on Hobbs 
Coast; in about 75°05'S., 135°30'W. Disc, on 
aerial flights in 1940 by the USAS, and named for 
Orville Gray, aviation machinist's mate, plane 
captain on these flights. Not adopted: Mount 
Jane Wade. 

GRAY NUNATAK: nunatak which lies about 
1.5 mi. W. of Arctowski Nunatak in the Seal Nuna- 
taks group, off the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
65°07'S., 60°08'W. First charted by the SwedAE 
under Nordenskjold during a sledge journey in 
1902, and named by him, probably for Capt. David 
Gray, whaling skipper of Peterhead, Scotland. 
Gray had planned an exp. to the Weddell Sea in 
1891 but the plan was abandoned due to a lack of 
funds. 



Great Hdnakken: see Stor Hanakken Mountain. 

Great Mackellar Islet: see Greater Mackellar 
Islet. 

GREATER MACKELLAR ISLET: largest of the 
Mackellar Islets, lying about 1.5 mi. NNW. of Cape 
Denison in the center of Cormnonwealth Bay, along 
George V Coast; in about 66°58'S., 142°39'E. Disc, 
and named by the AAE under Mawson, 1911-14. 
Not adopted: Great Mackellar Islet. 

Great Piedmont Glacier: see Wilson Piedmont 
Glacier. 

GREEN, CAPE: low ice cliff forming the S. 
extremity of the SE. lobe of Tabarin Pen.; on the 
NE. end of Palmer Pen.; in 63°38'S., 56°54'W. 
Charted by the FIDS in 1946 and named for 
Michael C. Green, FIDS geologist who lost his life 
when the base hut at Hope Bay burned in Novem- 
ber 1948. 

Green Bay: see Doubtful Bay. 

GREEN ICE RISES: two swellings of the ice 
where the Shackleton Ice Shelf overrides an under- 
lying island or islands, about 5 mi. NE. of the E. 
end of Henderson I., off Queen Mary Coast; in about 
66°22'S., 97°25'E. Delineated from aerial photo- 
graphs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named 
for Duane L. Green, radio operator and recorder 
with the USN Op. Wml. parties which established 
astronomical control stations Wilhelm II, Knox 
and Budd Coasts during January-February 1948. 

GREEN ISLAND: small, rounded tussock-cov- 
ered island which lies close off the S. tip of South 
Georgia, about 1 mi. SE. of Cape Disappointment; 
in 54°53'S., 36°06'W. The name "Green Islands," 
derived from their covering of tussock grass, was 
given in 1775 by a Br. exp. under Cook to a group 
of three islands lying close off Cape Disappoint- 
ment. The name "Griine Insel" or "Griin-Insel," 
meaning Green Island, was used for this island by 
Kohl-Larsen in 1930, presumably because of local 
usage. The SGS, 1951-52, reported that whalers 
and sealers, in practice, use three separate names 
for the individual islands, and that the name 
Green Island has been limited to this northern- 
most island. Br0de Island is the central island 
and First Rock is southernmost of the three. The 
name "Green Islands" given by Cook for the three 
islands is apparently not needed and had dropped 
from use. Not adopted: Griine Insel [German], 
Griin-Insel [German]. 

Greenland, Cape: see Gronland, Cape. 

GREEN PEAK: conspicuous peak about 2 mi. 
W. of Van Ryswyck Pt., the E. tip of Anvers I., 
in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°35'S., 62°53'W. Disc. 



144 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



by the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 1897-99. The 
name appears on a chart based upon a 1927 survey 
by DI personnel on the Discovery, but may reflect 
an earlier naming. 

GREEN POINT: rocky point which forms the 
SE. end of Fold I., lying about 3 mi. N. of the W. 
side of the entrance to William Scoresby Bay, on 
Kemp Coast; in about 67°22'S., 59°38'E. Disc, and 
named by DI personnel on William Scoresby in 
February 1936. Not adopted: Rundneset [Nor- 
wegian] . 

GREEN REEF: group of low rocks lying in 
Neumayer Chan, about 0.25 mi. off the E. side of 
Anvers I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°44'S., 63°17'W. 
Charted by members of H.M.S. Snipe in January 
1948 and so named because of its proximity to 
Green Spur, about 1 mi. northwestward. 

GREEN SPUR: green colored peak, probably 
above 3,000 ft. in el., standing at the N. side of the 
mouth of Copper Gl. about 1 mi. E. of Copper 
Peak, on the SE. side of Anvers I., in the Palmer 
Arch.; in 64°43'S., 63°18'W. Probably first seen 
by the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 1897-99. The 
name appears on a map based upon a 1927 survey 
by DI personnel on the Discovery, but may reflect 
an earlier naming. 

GREENWICH ISLAND: island about 16 mi. long 
and from 0.5 to 7 mi. wide, which lies between 
Robert and Livingston Islands, in the South Shet- 
land Is.; in 62°30'S., 59°47'W. The name dates 
back to at least 1821 and is now established inter- 
national usage. Not adopted: Beresino Island, 
Greenwich Islands, Sartorius Island. 

GREGORY, CAPE: cape whic^ii lies on the W. 
side of Smith I. about 3 mi. SW. of the NW. ex- 
tremity of the island, in the South Shetland Is.; 
in 62°55'S., 62°34'W. The name appears on a 
chart based on work by a Br. exp. under Foster, 
1828-31, and is now established international usage. 

GREGORY ISLAND: islet lying about 2 mi. NW. 
of Cape Archer off Victoria Land; in about 76°50'S., 
162°58'E. Disc, by the BrNAE under Scott, 1901-4. 
At that time it was thought to be a cape and was 
named Point Gregory for Prof. John Walter Greg- 
ory, Dir. of the Civilian Scientific Staff for the 
BrNAE in 1901. The feature was determined to 
be an island by the BrAE, under Scott, 1910-13. 
Not adopted: Gregory Point. 

Gregory Point: see Gregory Island. 

GREMLIN ISLET: small rocky islet which lies 
close off the NW. tip of Red Rock Ridge, off the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°16'S., 67°12'W. First 



surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill. The 
islet was used as a site for a depot by FIDS in 
1948-49, and was so named by them because of the 
mysterious disappearance of a ration box left there 
by a FIDS sledging party. 

GREY ISLET: islet about 0.6 mi. S. of Michelsen 
I. and about 1 mi. W. of the S. part of Fredriksen 
I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°46'S., 45°02'W. 
This islet appears to be first charted and named 
Holmen Graa on a map by the Norwegian whaler 
Capt. Petter S0rlle, who made a running survey 
of the South Orkney Is. in 1912-13. Grey Islet is 
the English translation of the Norwegian name. 
Not adopted: Holmen Graa [Norwegian]. 

GRIBB BANK: submarine bank lying N. of Wil- 
helm II Coast; extending from 61°S. to 63 °S., and 
from 87° E. to 89°E. Disc, by gunner Krog Ander- 
sen of a Nor. exp. under Christensen, 1936-37, and 
named for his whale catcher, the Gribb. 

GRIER, MOUNT: a gable-shaped mountain 
about 10,000 ft. in el., standing at the E. side of 
the head of Robert Scott GL, and forming the most 
northwesterly extension of the La Gorce Mtns., in 
the Queen Maud Range; in about 86°14'S., 
148°20'W. Disc, in December 1934 by the ByrdAE 
geological party under Quin Blackburn, and named 
by Byrd for Dr. G. Layton Grier, head of the L. D. 
Caulk Co. of Milford, Del., who contributed dental 
supplies to the Byrd Antarctic Expeditions of 1928- 
30 and 1933-35. 

GRIFFITH, MOUNT: peak about 5,500 ft. in el., 
lying close N. of the Will Hays Mtns., between 
Amundsen and Robert Scott Glaciers, in the Queen 
Maud Range; in about 85°50'S., 155°30'W. Disc, 
in December 1934 by the ByrdAE geological party 
and named by Byrd for Raymond Griffith, of Twen- 
tieth Century-Fox Pictures, who assisted in assem- 
bling motion-picture records of the expedition. 

GRIFFITH NUNATAKS: group of rock expo- 
sures rising above the ice on the S. side of the 
upper rim of Balchen Gl., in the N. part of the 
Edsel Ford Ranges in Marie Byrd Land in about 
76°27'S., 143°37'W. Disc, by the USAS in aerial 
flights over this area in 1940, and named for Clyde 
W. Griffith, machinist and tractor operator of this 
expedition. 

GRIMMINGER, MOUNT: cone-shaped, mostly 
ice-covered mountain about 5,500 ft. in el., standing 
on the N. side of Meinardus GL, close E. of its 
juncture with Haines GL, on the E. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 73°18'S., 62°18'W. Disc, and photo- 
graphed from the air in December 1940 by the 
USAS. During 1947 it was photographed from the 



145 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



air by the RARE under Ronne, who in conjunction 
with the FIDS charted it from the ground. Named 
by the FIDS for George Grimminger, American 
meteorologist and joint author of the meteorologi- 
cal reports of the ByrdAE, 1928-30, and the Byrd- 
AE, 1933-35, and a member of the latter expedition. 

GRIM ROCK: rock about 3.5 mi. SSE. of Gedges 
Reef and some 11 mi. WNW. of Cape Trois Perez, 
lying in Grandidier Chan, off the W. coast of 
Pahner Pen.; in 65°24'S., 64°32'W. Disc, and 
named by the BGLE under Rymill, 1934-37. The 
name is not a personal name. 

GRINDLE ROCK: rock about 700 ft. in el., lying 
about 0.7 mi. W. of Bristol I., in the South Sandwich 
Is.; in 59°03'S., 26°37'W. Charted by DI personnel 
on the Discovery II, and named by them for Sir 
Gilbert E. A. Grindle, Permanent Under-Secretary 
of State for the British Colonies. 

GRONLAND, CAPE: cape which forms the west- 
ernmost of the northern extremities of Anvers I., 
in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°18'S., 63°32'W. Disc, 
by a Ger. exp., 1873-74, under Dallmann, who 
named it for his exp. ship, the Gronland. It was 
later charted by the FrAE under Charcot, 1903-5. 
Not adopted: Cape Greenland. 

Grosse Eisebene: see Ross Shelf Ice. 

GROSVENOR RANGE: a group of ridges rising 
to about 10,500 ft. in el., which stand close NW. of 
the northwest-facing escarpment of the Queen 
Maud Range that also marks the head of Shackle- 
ton Gl. some 20 mi. to the NE., bordering the south 
polar plateau and pierced by several glaciers; ex- 
tending from about 85°40'S., 175°00'E. to about 
86°25'S., 179°E. Disc, by R. Adm. Byrd on the 
ByrdAE flight to the South Pole in November 1929, 
and named by him for Gilbert Grosvenor, then 
Pres. of the National Geographic Soc, which helped 
finance the expedition. Not adopted: Gilbert 
Grosvenor Range. 

GROTTO GLACIER: glacier on the E. coast of 
Alexander I Island, which flows E. to George VI 
Sound between Belemnite Pt. and Ablation Pt.; in 
70°45'S., 68°40'W. It is about 3 mi. wide where 
it emerges from the coastal mountains, and then 
widens to about 7 mi. at its mouth. It is about 15 
mi. long. This glacier was first photographed from 
the air on Nov. 23, 1935 by Lincoln Ellsworth, and 
was mapped from these photographs by W. L. G. 
Joerg. It was roughly surveyed in 1936 by the 
BGLE under Rymill, and resurveyed in 1949 by the 
FIDS. So named by FIDS because a sledge dog was 
rescued from a crystal-lined crevasse in this glacier. 



GROTTO ISLAND: narrow islet with a serrated 
coastline, lying about 0.2 mi. NNW. of Galindez I., 
in the Ai'gentine Is., off the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 65°15'S., 64°15'W. Charted and named in 
1935 by the BGLE under Rymill. 

GROWLER ROCK: rock about 0.75 mi. NNW. of 
Cape Lions Rump, the W. side of the entrance to 
King George Bay, King George I., in 62°07'S., 
58°07'W. Charted and named during 1937 by DI 
personnel on the Discovery II. The term growler 
generally is used to denote small pieces of ice barely 
showing above water. 

GRUBER MOUNTAINS: small mountain group 
about 8,500 ft. in el., lying in the MiihUg-Hofmann 
Mtns. between the Mayr and Bundermann Ranges 
on the W. and the Loesener Platform on the E., 
in New Schwabenland; in about 71°45'S., 3°45'E. 
Disc, by the GerAE under Ritscher, 1938-39, and 
named for Erich Gruber, radio operator on the 
Boreas, one of the flying boats used by the expedi- 
tion. 

Gruening, Mount: see Andrew Jackson, Mount. 

GRUENING GLACIER: broad glacier descending 
SE. between steep rock walls to the NW. part of 
Hilton Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
71°52'S., 61°55'W. Disc, by the USAS in a flight 
down this glacier from East Base on Dec. 30, 1940. 
Named for Ernest H. Gruening, Dir. of the Div. of 
Territories and Island Possessions, U. S. Dept. of 
the Interior, during the inception of the USAS and 
member of the Executive Committee by which the 
USAS was directed. 

GRUNDEN ROCK: rock about 40 ft. in el., sur- 
rounded by a group of smaller rocks, lying close E. 
of Hut Cove along the SE. side of the entrance to 
Hope Bay, at the NE. end of Palmer Pen.; in 
63°24'S., 56°58'W. Disc, by the SwedAE under 
Nordenskjold, 1901-4. The FIDS, 1945, named the 
entire group of rocks for Toralf Grunden, member 
of the SwedAE who wintered at Hope Bay in 1903, 
but in 1952 the name Grunden was restricted to 
the largest rock in this group for easier reference 
to the light beacon established by the Argentine 
Govt, on the main rock during the previous season. 
Not adopted: Grunden Rocks. 

Griine Insel; Griin-Insel: see Green Island. 

GRYTVIKEN: settlement and port of entry for 
shipping, lying at the head of King Edward Cove on 
the W. side of Cumberland East Bay, South 
Georgia; in 54°17'S., 36°31'W. The area adjacent 
to this cove was visited by J. Gunnar Andersson of 
the SwedAE under Nordenskjold, 1901-4. Anders- 
son named the place Grytviken, meaning Pot Cove, 



146 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



because he found numerous boiling pots left there 
by early sealers. 

Guardian Islands: see 0ygarden Islands. 

GUARDIAN ROCK : low ice-free rock lying near 
the head of Bigourdan Fjord, 1 mi. N. of Parvenu 
Pt., Pourquoi Pas I., close off the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 67°33'S., 67°15'W. First surveyed in 1948- 
49 by the FIDS, and so named by them because of 
the position of this rock which guards the NW. en- 
trance to The Narrows. 

GUEBRIANT ISLETS: two Islets lying 4 mi. S. 
of Jenny I. and 5 mi. SE. of Cape Alexandra, Ade- 
laide I., in the N. part of Marguerite Bay; in 
67°48'S., 68°24'W. Disc, and first charted by the 
FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot, and named by him 
for Father Guebriant, French missionary to China. 
The islets were surveyed by the FIDS in 1948. Not 
adopted: De Guebriant Islets. 

GUfiGUEN, MOUNT: sharp rocky peak, about 
1,200 ft. in el., standing about 0.25 mi. NW. of Mt. 
Louise in the N. part of Booth I., off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 65°04'S., 64°00'W. Disc, by 
the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, who named it for 
F. Gueguen, stoker of the exp. ship Frangais, and 
later on the Pourquoi Pas?. Not adopted : Gueguen 
Peak, Sommet F. Gueguen [French]. 

GUEPRATTE ISLAND: ice-covered island about 
1.5 mi. long, lying between Anvers and Brabant 
Islands at the E. side of the entrance to Fournier 
Bay, in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°30'S., 63°00'W. 
This island was first shown on the Friederichsen 
map of 1895, embodying the 1873-74 explorations 
of a Ger. exp. under Dallmann. It was later 
charted by the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, who 
named it for Captain Guepratte, French Navy. In 
1927 DI personnel on the Discovery, unaware of the 
original naming, applied the name Discovery 
Island. Not adopted: Discovery Island. 

GUERNSEY, MOUNT: isolated, mainly ice-cov- 
ered mountain, about 4,100 ft. in el., lying 6 mi. N. 
of the summit of Mt. Edgell, on the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 69°20'S., 68°14'W. The name "He 
Guernesey" was given in 1909 by the FrAE under 
Charcot, after the island of Guernsey off the coast 
of France. The position of "He Guernesey" on 
the FrAE maps does not agree with that of the 
mountain described above, but from the FrAE 
narrative and sketches by Bongrain, FrAE sur- 
veyor, it has been determined that this mountain 
was the feature seen in 1909 by Charcot from a 
position near the center of the entrance to Mar- 
guerite Bay. .The mountain' was surveyed in 1936 
by the BGLE, but no name was assigned. It was 



further surveyed by FIDS in 1948. Not adopted: 
He Guernesey [French] , White Cross Mountain. 

Guernesey, He: see Guernsey, Mount. 

GUEST ISLAND : snow-covered island, about 40 
mi. long in a NE.-SW. direction, lying W. of Balchen 
Gl. along the coast of Marie Byrd Land; in about 
76°25'S., 148°00'W. Mitchell Peak, located on this 
island, was sighted by the ByrdAE in 1929. The 
insularity of Guest Island was determined by the 
USAS in 1940. Named for Mrs. Amy Guest, con- 
tributor to the ByrdAE, 1933-35. Not adopted: 
Amy Guest Island. 

GUIDES, THE: group of islets and rocks lying 
off the E. side of the entrance to Antarctic Bay, 
along the N. coast of South Georgia; in 54°04'S. 
36°52'W. Charted by the GerAE under Filchner, 
1911-12. The name appears on a chart based upon 
surveys of South Georgia by DI personnel in the 
period 1926-30. 

GULL CHANNEL: channel, about 0.1 mi. wide, 
between Dynamite It. and Stonington I. along the 
W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°11'S., 67°00'W. 
First surveyed by the USAS, 1939-41, and so named 
by them because numerous sea gulls frequented 
the channel area. 

GULLET, THE : narrow channel between the E. 
extremity of Adelaide I. and the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen., separating Hansen I. and Day I. and con- 
necting the heads of Hanusse Bay and Laubeuf 
Fjord; in 67°10'S., 67°38'W. This area was first 
explored in 1909 by the FrAE under Charcot who, 
though uncertain of the existence of the channel, 
sketched its probable position on the charts of the 
expedition. The channel was first visited and 
roughly surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under 
Rymill. It was resurveyed and given this descrip- 
tive name in 1948 by members of the FIDS. Not 
adopted: Charcot Strait, Loubet Strait. 

GULLIVER NUNATAK: nunatak with a flat, ice- 
free summit, about 1,900 ft. in el., standing at the 
N. side of Adie Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 66°12'S., 62°40'W. Charted by the FIDS and 
photographed from the air by the RARE in 1947. 
Named by the FIDS for the fictional character in 
Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, because when 
viewed from the SE. its appearance is suggestive of 
a man lying on his back with his head toward the 
south. 

GULL LAKE: lake, about 300 yards in diameter, 
lying close to the SW. shore of King Edward Cove, 
about 0.5 mi. S. of the whaling station at Grytviken, 
South Georgia; in 64n7'S., 36°31'W. The feature 
was first roughly surveyed and named "Mowensee" 



147 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



or "Moven See" (meaning Gull Lake) by A. Szie- 
lasko, who visited South Georgia in 1906. The 
English form Gull Lake was used by Robert Cush- 
man Murphy in 1947, in describing his visit to the 
lake in November 1912. This latter form, recom- 
mended by the Br-APC in 1954, is approved. 

Gunnar, Cape: see Kater, Cape. 

GUNNEL CHANNEL: channel, about 0.5 mi. wide 
and 5 mi. long, situated in the S. part of Hanusse 
Bay and separating Hansen I. from the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 67°07'S., 67°33'W. First ob- 
served from the air and roughly charted in 1936 
by the BGLE under Rymill. Surveyed from the 
ground in 1948 by the FIDS who gave this descrip- 
tive name. The channel gives a false impression 
of such narrowness that a boat could not navigate 
it without scraping her gunnels (gunwales) on 
either side. 

GUNNERUS BANK: submarine bank of consider- 
able extent, with a minimum depth of 230 fathoms, 
extending about 50 mi. N. from Riiser-Larsen Pen. 
at the E. end of Princess Ragnhild Coast; in about 
68°00'S., 33°00'E. Disc, on Feb. 1, 1930 by a Nor. 
exp. under Riiser-Larsen, and named by him for 
Rev. Johan Ernst Gunnerus, 1718-73, Bishop of 
Trondhjem, pioneer naturalist and founder of the 
Norwegian Academy of Science. 

GURNEY POINT: small rocky mass, about 2,000 
ft. in el., marking the W. extremity of the rock ridge 
separating Bertram and Ryder Glaciers on Palmer 
Pen., overlooking George VI Sound; in 71°00'S., 
67°28'W. This point was first seen and photo- 
graphed from the air on Nov. 23, 1935 by Lincoln 
Ellsworth, and was mapped from these photographs 
by W. L. G. Joerg. It was surveyed in 1936 by the 
BGLE under Rymill, and later named for Norman 
A. Gurney, a member of the BGLE, 1934-37. 

Gustav Bull, Mount: see Gustav Bull Mountains. 

GUSTAV BULL MOUNTAINS: group of bare, 
rugged mountain peaks about 1,800 to 2,200 ft. in 
el., lying SW. of ScuUin Monolith and inland from 
Mac-Robertson Coast; centering in about 67°50'S., 
66°13'E. In January and February 1931 personnel 
on several Norwegian whale catchers made sketches 
along this coast, and named these mountains for 
Capt. Gustav B. Bull, at that time whaling manager 
of the Thor shammer. The BANZARE under Maw- 
son explored this area from the air in January 1930 
and February 1931, and applied names to the in- 
dividual mountains of this group. Not adopted: 
Mount Gustav Bull. 

GUTENKO MOUNTAINS: group of mountains 
lying WSW. of Hilton Inlet and inland from the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in about 72°15'S., 64°15'W. 



Disc, by the RARE, 1947-48, under Ronne, and 
named by him for Sigmund Gutenko, USN, chief 
commissary steward with the expedition. Not 
adopted: Vincent Gutenko Mountains. 

GUTENKO NUNATAKS: several small elongated 
nunataks at the head of a small tributary descend- 
ing SW. into the head of Arthur Davis Gl., in the 
Edsel Ford Ranges of Marie Byrd Land; in about 
76°52'S., 143°36'W. Disc, on aerial flights made 
from the West Base of the USAS in 1940, and named 
for Sigmund Gutenko, cook and steward at the 
West Base. 

Guvern0rens Islands: see Governor Islands. 

GUYOU BAY: bay about 4 mi. long, which in- 
dents the W. coast of Brabant I. between Claude Pt. 
and Pasteur Pen., in the Palmer Arch.; in about 
64°05'S., 62°38'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 1903-5, 
under Charcot, who named it for Capt. Emile 
Guyou, French Navy, distinguished in the field of 
naval sciences and member of the commission 
which published the scientific results of the expedi- 
tion. Not adopted : Cuyou Bucht [German] . 

HAAG, MOUNT: mountain estimated to be over 
10,000 ft. in el., lying about 85 mi. E. of Mt. Ulmer 
in Ellsworth Highland, and about 70 mi. WSW. of 
Mt. Hassage; in about 77°40'S., 79°00'W. Disc, by 
the RARE, 1947-48, under Ronne, who named it for 
Joseph Haag, head of the Todd Shipyards, New 
York, which worked on the Ronne exp. ship. Not 
adopted : Mount Joseph Haag. 

Haasen, Cape: see Hansen, Cape. 

HABERMEHL PEAK: about 10,800 ft. in el.; 
stands immediately S. of Gessner Pk. in the 
Miihlig-Hofman Mtns. in New Schwabenland; in 
about 71°55'S., 6°35'E. Disc, by the GerAE, 1938- 
39, under Ritscher, and named for the then dir. of 
the German Weather Service. 

HACKAPIKE BAY: anchorage about 4 ml. NW. 
of Van Ryswyck Pt., entered W. of False Islet along 
the NE. coast of Anvers I., in the Palmer Arch.; 
in 64°32'S., 62°53'W. Charted and named by the 
BGLE, 1934-37, under Rymill. 

HADDINGTON, MOUNT: mountain about 5,300 
ft. in el., surmounting the central part of James 
Ross I., lying S. of the NE. end of Palmer Pen.; in 
64°14'S., 57°38'W. Disc, by a Br. exp. under Ross, 
Dec. 31, 1842, and named by him for the Earl of 
Haddington, then First Lord of the Admiralty. 
Not adopted: Mount Haddington, Mount Ross. 

HADERICH, MOUNT: mountain about 10,000 
ft. in el., lying about 10 mi. S. of Luz Range at the 
N. edge of the polar plateau, in New Schwabenland; 



148 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



in about 72°18'S., 5°05'E. Disc, by the GerAE, 
1938-39, under Ritscher, and named for the proc- 
urator of the German Lufthansa Corporation. 
Not adopted: Haderich Mountains, Hadrich Berg 
[German] . 

Haderich Mountains: see Haderich, Mount. 

Hadington, Mount: see Haddington, Mount. 

Hadrich Berg: see Haderich, Mount. 

HAEFELI GLACIER: glacier, about 2 mi. wide 
and 6 mi. long, situated at the W. side of Finster- 
walder Gl. and flowing SSW. toward the head of 
Lallemand Fjord on the W. side of Palmer Pen.; in 
about 67°17'S., 66°22'W. First surveyed in 1946- 
47 by the FIDS, and named by them for Robert 
Haefeli, Swiss glaciologist. 

HAFFNER GLACIER: steep valley glacier flow- 
ing into Berg Bay, in the Robertson Bay area of 
northern Victoria Land; in about 71°28'S., 
169°21'E. First charted in 1899 by the BrAE under 
C. E. Borchgrevink, who named it for Colonel 
Haffner, Dir. of the Govt. Survey of Norway. 

Haggitts Pillar: see Haggits Pillar. 

HAGGITS PILLAR: column of rock about 200 ft. 
in el., lying about 0.1 mi. W. of Scott I., some 315 
mi. NNE. of Cape Adare, the NE. extremity of 
Victoria Land; in about 67°24'S., 179°55'W. Disc, 
in December 1902 by Capt. William R. Colbeck, 
RNR, Commander of the Morning, relief ship to 
the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott. Not adopted: 
Haggit's Pillar, Haggitt's Pillar, Haggitts Pillar. 

HAINES GLACIER: glacier about 4 mi. wide, 
flowing in an ESE. direction and joining Meinardus 
Gl. immediately E. of Mt. Barkow, on the E. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 73°21'S., 62°33'W. Disc, and 
photographed from the air in December 1940 by 
the USAS. During 1947 the glacier was photo- 
graphed from the air by the RARE, who in con- 
junction with the FIDS charted it from the ground. 
Named by the FIDS for William C. Haines, Ameri- 
can meteorologist and member of the Byrd Antarc- 
tic Expeditions of 1928-30 and 1933-35, and joint 
author of the meteorological reports of these two 
expeditions. 

HAINES MOUNTAINS: extensive range of bro- 
ken, ice-capped peaks about 2,500 ft. in el., forming 
the SW. wall of Hammond Gl., in the Edsel Ford 
Ranges in Marie Byrd Land; in about 77°30'S., 
146°45'W. Disc, by the ByrdAE in 1934 and 
named for William C. Haines.' 



Hal Flood, Mount: see Berlin, Mount. 

Hal Flood Bay: see Okuma Bay. 

Hal Flood Range, Mount: see Hal Flood Range. 

HAL FLOOD RANGE : snow-covered peaks about 
7,000 ft. in el., with an abrupt, partly buried, north- 
facing escarpment, lying along the 76th parallel 
for a considerable distance, in about 134°W. in 
Marie Byrd Land. Disc, by the ByrdAE in 1934 
from a great distance. Reconnaissance flights of 
the USAS, 1939-41, explored the range. The name 
has subsequently been transferred from the princi- 
pal peak disc, by the ByrdAE in 1934 to the entire 
range. Not adopted: Mount Hal Flood Range. 

HALF MOON ISLAND: crescent-shaped island 
about 1.25 mi. long, lying in the entrance to Moon 
Bay on the E. side of Livingston I., in the South 
Shetland Is.; in 62°36'S., 59°57'W. This island was 
known to sealers in the area as early as 1822. The 
name appears on a chart based upon a 1935 survey 
by DI personnel on the Discovery II. Not adopted: 
Johnsons Island. 

Hallet, Cape: see Hallett, Cape. 

HALLETT, CAPE : rugged headland about 10 mi. 
S. of Cape Christie, midway between Cape Adare 
and Coulman I., on the coast of Victoria Land; 
in about 72°25'S., 170°55'E. Disc, in 1841 by a 
Br. exp. under Ross, who named it for Thomas R. 
Hallett, purser on one of the exp. ships, the Erebus. 
Not adopted: Cape Hallet. 

Hamar0galten: see Sheehan Islands. 

Hamberg Fluss: see Penguin River. 

HAMBERG GLACIER: glacier which flows in an 
ENE. direction from the NE. side of Mt. Sugartop 
to the W. side of the head of Moraine Fjord, South 
Georgia; in 54°21'S., 36°31'W. Charted by the 
SwedAE, 1901-4, under Nordenskjold, who named 
it for Axel Hamberg, Swedish geographer, miner- 
alogist and Arctic explorer. 

HAMBERG LAKE : lake, about 0.5 mi. in diame- 
ter, lying near the northern outlet of Hamberg 
Glacier, about 1 mi. W. of Moraine Fjord, Cumber- 
land East Bay, South Georgia; in 54°19'S., 36°32'W. 
First surveyed by the SwedAE, 1901-4, under 
Nordenskjold. The name derives from the nearby 
Hamberg Glacier, and was given by A. Szielasko 
who explored this vicinity in 1906. 

Hambourg Bay: see Hamburg Bay. 

HAMBURG BAY: bay indenting the NW. coast 
of Anvers I. about 5 mi. SW. of Perrier Bay and 12 
mi. NE. of Cape Albert de Monaco, in the Palmer 



149 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Arch.; in 64°32'S., 63°55'W. Disc, but incom- 
pletely defined by a Ger. exp. under Dallmann, 
1873-74, who named it for Hamburg, Germany, 
home port of the expedition. The bay was more 
accurately charted by the FrAE, 1903-5, under 
Charcot. Not adopted: Hambourg Bay. 

HAMILTON, MOUNT: twin-peak mountain 
about 7,400 ft. in el., standing on the S. side of 
Barne Inlet, about 40 mi. SW. of Cape Selborne, on 
the W. side of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 80°40'S., 
158°25'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under 
Scott, who named it for Adm. Sir Richard Vesey 
Hamilton, who served on Arctic voyages during 
1850-54, and who was a member of the BrNAE 
Ship Committee. 

HAMILTON, MOUNT: mountain rising to about 
5,000 ft. in el., which marks the W. end of the 
Tapley Mtns., standing at the E. side of the lower 
reaches of Robert Scott Gl., in the Queen Maud 
Range; in about 85°39'S., 151°48'W. Disc, in De- 
cember 1934 by the ByrdAE Geological party under 
Quin Blackburn, and named by Byrd for G. C. 
Hamilton, general manager of the McClatchy 
Newspapers, of Sacramento, California, who was a 
contributor to the expedition. 

HAMILTON POINT: flat-topped point marking 
the S. side of the entrance to Markham Bay on the 
SE. side of James Ross I., lying S. of the NE. end 
of Palmer Pen.; in 64°22'S., 57°18'W. Disc, by a 
Br. exp. under Ross, 1839-43, who named it Cape 
Hamilton after Capt. W. A. B. Hamilton, RN, at 
that time private secretary to the Earl of Hadding- 
ton, and later Second Secretary to the Admiralty. 
The feature was first surveyed by the SwedAE 
under Nordenskjold, 1901-4, and resurveyed by 
the FIDS in 1953. Point is considered a more 
suitable descriptive term for the feature than 
cape. Not adopted: Cape Hamilton. 

HAMMERSLY, CAPE: ice-covered cape marking 
the E. side of the entrance to Colvocoresses Bay, on 
Budd Coast; in about 66°00'S., 115°35'E. Deline- 
ated from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. 
Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for 
George W. Hammersly, midshipman on the sloop of 
war Vincennes of the USEE under Wilkes, 1838-42. 

HAMMOND GLACIER: valley glacier about 11 
mi. wide and of undetermined length, fiowing 
from the Rockefeller Plateau in a NW. direction 
between the Haines Mtns. and Mt. Woodward to 
Sulzberger Bay, in Marie Byrd Land; in about 
77°20'S., 146°45'W. Disc, in 1934 by the ByrdAE, 
and named by Byrd for John Hays Hammond, 
American mining engineer and philanthropist. 
Not adopted: Hammond Inlet, John Hayes Ham- 
mond Inlet, John Hays Hammond Glacier. 



Hammond Inlet: see Hammond Glacier. 

HAMPTON, MOUNT: the northernmost peak of 
the Executive Committee Range, in Marie Byrd 
Land; in about 76°30'S., 127°00'W. Disc, by the 
USAS on a flight on Dec. 15, 1940, and named for 
Mrs. Ruth Hampton, Dept. of the Interior member 
of the USAS Executive Committee. 

HAMPTON GLACIER: glacier in the NE. part of 
Alexander I Island, about 25 mi. long and 5 mi. 
wide, which flows in a NNE. direction along the W. 
wall of the Douglas Range and enters Schokalsky 
Bay; in 69°20'S., 70°05'W. First seen from the air 
and photographed during a flight up this glacier 
in 1937 by the BGLE. The mouth of the glacier 
was surveyed in 1948 by the FIDS. Named for 
Wilfred E. Hampton of the BGLE, 1934-37, who 
piloted the airplane that made the above men- 
tioned flight in 1937. 

Hamrehovden: see Trethewry Point. 

Hamreneset: see Bertha Island. 

HANNAM ISLETS: small group of rocky islets 
lying about 1 mi. N. of Whetter Nunatak in the E. 
portion of Commonwealth Bay, off George V Coast; 
in about 66°56'S., 143°56'E. Disc, in 1912 by the 
AAE under Mawson, and named by him for Walter 
N. Hannam, wireless telegrapher with the AAE 
Main Base Party. 

HANSEN, CAPE : cape which separates Marshall 
and Iceberg Bays on the S. coast of Coronation I., 
in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°40'S., 45°36'W. The 
name appears on a chart based upon a running 
survey in 1912-13 by Petter S0rlle, Norwegian 
whaling captain. Not adopted: Cape Haasen. 

HANSEN ISLAND: island, about 4 mi. long and 
1.5 mi. wide, lying immediately N. of The Gullet at 
the head of Hanusse Bay, off the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 67°07'S., 67°36'W. First surveyed in 1936 
by the BGLE under Rymill, who used the provi- 
sional name North Island for this feature. The 
island was resurveyed in 1948 by the FIDS, and 
renamed for Leganger H. Hansen, Mgr. at Messrs. 
Chr. Salvesen's whaling station at Leith Hbr., 
South Georgia, 1916-37, who gave great assistance 
to the BGLE, 1934-37. Not adopted : North Island. 

HANSEN MOUNTAINS : large group of nunataks 
which rise to an estimated 7,000 ft. in el., and 
protrude about 1,000 ft. above the ice level, lying 
about 55 mi. S. of Stefansson Bay and extending 
25 mi. in a NW.-SW. direction, inland from the 
E. end of Kemp Coast; in about 68°16'S., 58°47'E. 
Disc, by a Nor. exp. under Christensen in January- 
February 1937 and mapped from aerial photo- 



150 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



graphs taken at that time. Named for H. E. 
Hansen, Norwegian cartographer who has com- 
piled maps for this and other Norwegian Antarctic 
expeditions. 

HANSEN NUNATAK: beehive-shaped nunatak 
about 2,600 ft. in el., lying near the middle of 
Reeves Gl., a short distance above its terminus, in 
Victoria Land; in about 74°46'S., 162°18'E. Disc, 
by the BrNAE under Scott, 1901-4. Named by 
BrAE under Shackleton, 1907-9. 

HANUSSE BAY: V-shaped bay, about 20 mi. 
long in a general N.-S. direction and some 15 mi. 
wide at its broad N. end, lying between Cape 
Mascart, Adelaide I., and Cape Shmidt, Palmer 
Pen.; in about 66°57'S., 67°30'W. Disc, and first 
charted by the FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot, and 
named by him for the Dir. of the Hydrographic 
Service of the French Navy. Not adopted : Hanusse 
Fiord. 

Hanusse Fiord: see Hanusse Bay. 

HARBORD GLACIER: glacier about 3 mi. wide 
descending between Mt. George Murray and Mt. 
Smith to the coast of Victoria Land, where it forms 
the Harbord Glacier Tongue; in about 75°58'S., 
162°30'E. The glacier takes its name from the 
Harbord Glacier Tongue, which was named by the 
BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton. 

HARBORD GLACIER TONGUE: glacier tongue 
about 1 mi. wide, forming the seaward extension of 
Harbord Gl. along the coast of Victoria Land; in 
about 75°57'S., 163°00'E. First charted by the 
BrAE under Shackleton, at which time it extended 
about 5 mi. into Ross Sea. Named by Shackleton 
for A. E. Harbord, second officer of the exp. ship 
Nimrod during the last year of the expedition. 
Not adopted: Harbord Ice Tongue, Harbord Ice 
Barrier Tongue. 

Harbord Ice Barrier Tongue; Harbord Ice 
Tongue: see Harbord Glacier Tongue. 

HARBOUR GLACIER: a through glacier about 
3 mi. long and 1.5 mi. wide, lying on the NW. 
side of Wiencke I. and extending in a NE.-SW. di- 
rection between the cove about 1 mi. E. of Noble 
Peak and Peltier Chan., close S. of Port Lockroy, 
in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°49'S., 63°26'W. Prob- 
ably first seen by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De 
Gerlache. Charted in 1944 by the FIDS, who so 
named it because of its nearness to the harbor of 
Port Lockroy. 

Harbour Heights: see Arrival Heights. 

HARBOUR POINT: point separating Leith and 
Stromness Harbors in Stromness Bay, South 
Georgia; in 54°09'S., 36°41'W. This descriptive 



name was in use as early as 1920 and was prob- 
ably applied by whalers operating from Stromness 
Bay. 

HARCOURT, CAPE: cape which forms the N. 
side of the entrance to Royal Bay, on the N. coast 
of South Georgia; in 54°29'S., 35°58'W. The name 
dates back to at least 1920 and is now well estab- 
lished in international usage. Not adopted: Cape 
Royal. 

HARCOURT, MOUNT: mountain in the Com- 
monwealth Range, overlooking the E. side of 
Beardmore Gl. at its junction with Ross Ice Shelf; 
in about 83°46'S., 173°00'E. Disc, and named by 
the BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton. 

HARDY POINT : western point of Bellingshausen 
I., in the South Sandwich Is.; in 59°25'S., 27°04'W. 
Charted in 1930 by DI personnel on the Discovery 
II, who named it for Alister C. Hardy, member of 
the zoological staff of the Discovery Committee, 
1924-28, and prof, of zoology at University College 
of Hull. 

HARGREAVES GLACIER: distributary glacier 
above 2 mi. wide and 8 mi. long, fiowing NNW. 
from the lower reaches of Polar Times Gl., and 
terminating at the S. side of Sandefjord Ice Bay 
about 2 mi. W. of Mt. Caroline Mikkelsen, on In- 
grid Christensen Coast; in about 69°42'S., 73°46'E. 
Delineated in 1952 by John H. Roscoe from USN 
Op. Hjp. aerial photographs taken in March 1947, 
and named by him for R. B. Hargreaves, aerial 
photographer on USN Op. Hjp. flights which ob- 
tained photographic coverage in this area and 
other coastal areas between 14° and 164°, east 
longitude. Not adopted: Margreaves Glacier. 

Hariholm: see Marinholm. 

HARKER, MOUNT: mountain of the Gonville 
and Caius Range, about 3,000 ft. in el., forming 
the N. wall of Debenham Gl. near its head, in 
Victoria Land; in about 77°16'S., 161°53'E. 
Charted by the BrAE under Scott, 1910-13, and 
named for Dr. Alfred Harker, noted British 
petrologist. 

HARKER GLACIER: glacier which flows in a 
NE. direction to the SW. end of Moraine Fjord, 
in Cumberland East Bay, South Georgia; in 
54°22'S., 36°31'W. This glacier appears to be 
flrst indicated on a 1912 geological map of South 
Georgia by David Ferguson. Probably named for 
Alfred Harker. 

HARKER POINT: point which forms the S. end 
of Bristol I., in the South Sandwich Is.; in 59°04'S., 
26°31'W. Charted in 1930 by DI personnel on 



151 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



the Discovery II who named it for A. Harker, naval 
architect on the staff of the Discovery Committee. 

HARKNESS, MOUNT: mountain about 5,500 ft. 
in el., standing close S. of Mt. Zanuck and forming 
part of the E. wall of Robert Scott Gl., in the 
Queen Maud Range; in about 86°03'S., 150°30'W. 
Disc, in December 1934 by ByrdAE geological party 
under Quin Blackburn, and named at that time 
by R. Adm. Byrd for Bruce Harkness, friend of 
Richard S. Russell, Jr., a member of that party. 
Not adopted: Mount Bruce Harkness. 

HARMER, MOUNT: peak about 3,700 ft. in el., 
standing in the north-central portion of Cook I., in 
the South Sandwich Is.; in 59°26'S., 27°09'W. 
Charted in 1930 by DI personnel on the Discovery 
II, who named it for Sir Sidney F. Harmer, 
Vice-Chairman of the Discovery Committee. 

HARMONY COVE: cove entered between Har- 
mony Ft. and The Toe on the W. side of Nelson 
I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°19'S., 59°12'W. 
Named by American sealers in about 1820 after the 
sealing vessel Harmony. The Harmony, under 
Capt. Thomas Ray, was one of several American 
sealing vessels headquartered at Harmony Cove 
during the 1820-21 season. 

HARMONY POINT: point which forms the N. 
side of the entrance to Harmony Cove, on the W. 
side of Nelson I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 
62°19'S., 59°14'W. Charted in 1935 by DI per- 
sonnel on the Discovery II. Named after Harmony 
Cove. 

Harmony Strait: see Nelson Strait. 

HARMSWORTH, MOUNT: peak about 9,600 ft. 
in el., standing at N. end of the Worcester Range 
NW. of Moore Embayment, on the W. side of Ross 
Ice Shelf; in about 78°37'S., 160°40'E. Disc, by 
the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, who named it for 
Sir Alfred Harmsworth, later Viscount Northcliffe, 
a generous contributor to the expedition. 

HAROLD BYRD MOUNTAINS: a group of ex- 
posed rocky peaks and nunataks reaching altitudes 
of 1,500 to 1,800 ft., extending in a NE.-SW. arc 
along the N. side of the terminus of Leverett Gl., 
which separates the group from the Queen Maud 
Range, and fronting on the Ross Ice Shelf; center- 
ing in about 85°26'S., 146°30'W. Disc, in Decem- 
ber 1929 by members of the ByrdAE geological 
party under Laurence Gould, who climbed Sup- 
porting Party Mtn. near the W. end of this group 
and took panoramic photographs from that point. 
Named for D. Harold Byrd, a cousin of R. Adm. 
Byrd and a contributor (helped to buy furs) to 
the expedition. 



HAROLD JUNE, MOUNT: mountain in the Phil- 
lips Mtns., about 3,700 ft. in el., standing on the 
N. side of Balchen Gl. in the Edsel Ford Ranges, 
in Marie Byrd Land; in about 76°10'S., 145°00'W. 
Disc, by the ByrdAE in December 1929, and named 
for Harold I. June, airplane pilot of the expedition. 

HARPER POINT: low glaciated point forming 
the N. end of Saunders I., in the South Sandwich 
Is.; in 57°45'S., 26°29'W. Charted in 1930 by DI 
personnel on the Discovery II, and named for F. 
H. Harper, Sec. to the Discovery Committee. 

HARP ISLET: islet at the N. side of Mutton 
Cove, about 8 mi. W. of Ferin Head, off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 66°00'S., 65°43'W. Charted 
by the BGLE under Rymill, 1934-37, and so named 
because of its distinctive shape. Not adopted: 
Harp Island. 

HARPUN ROCKS : submerged rocks lying about 
0.1 mi. SE. of Bills Pt., Delta I., in the Melchior 
Is., Palmer Arch.; in 64°19'S., 62°59'W. The name 
appears on a chart based upon a 1927 survey by 
DI personnel, but may reflect an earlier naming 
by whalers. Harpun is a Norwegian word mean- 
ing harpoon. Not adopted: Harpun Rock. 

Harrison, Cape: see Harrisson, Cape. 

HARRISON GLACIER; channel glacier about 4 
mi. wide and 5 mi. long, flowing N. from the con- 
tinental ice to the Clarie Coast, about 13 mi. SE. 
of Cape Carr; in about 66°00'S., 131°25'E. De- 
lineated from aerial photographs taken by USN 
Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for 
George W. Harrison, passed midshipman on the 
tender Flying Fish of the USEE under Wilkes, 
1838-42. 

HARRISON POINT: point marked by a string 
of off -lying rocks, lying 1.8 mi. W. of Busen Pt. on 
the S. side of Stromness Bay, South Georgia; in 
54°10'S., 36°36'W. The point was charted in 1927 
by DI personnel and named Matthews Point for 
L. Harrison Matthews, British zoologist, member of 
the staff of the Discovery Investigations, 1924-35, 
who worked at South Georgia in 1924-27. In 1954, 
the Br-APC recommended this name be altered to 
Harrison Point to avoid duplication with Matthews 
Point (also named for L. Harrison Matthews), a 
better known feature in Uridine Harbor, South 
Georgia. This change allows Harrison Matthews' 
name to be retained for this feature, while the con- 
fusing duplication of names is avoided. Not 
adopted: Matthews Point (q.v.). 

HARRISSON, CAPE: ice-covered cape at the 
junction of the channel of Denman Gl. and Robin- 
son Bay, on the Queen Mary Coast; i^ about 



152 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



66°44'S., 99°00'E. Disc, in December 1912 by the 
Eastern Party, led by Frank Wild, operating from 
the Western Base of the AAE under Mawson. 
Named for Charles T. Harrisson, biologist and artist 
at the Western Base and a member of the Eastern 
Party. Not adopted: Cape Harrison. 

HARRISSON ICE RISES : three swellings of the 
ice where the Shackleton Ice Shelf overrides an 
underlying rocky ridge, about 9 mi. NNE. of Cape 
Moyes, along Queen Mary Coast, in about 66°27'S., 
96°28'E. Disc, by the Eastern Sledge Party of the 
AAE, 1911-14, under Mawson, who named it for 
Charles T. Harrisson. 

Harry Dodson Island: see Dodson Peninsula. 

HARRY ISLET : ice-capped islet dominated by a 
truncated pyramidal peak, lying at the S. side of 
the SE. entrance to the channel between Brabant I. 
and Liege I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°08'S., 
61°56'W. Disc, by the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 
1897-99, and named for a supporter of the expedi- 
tion. Not adopted: Harry Island. 

HARTIGAN, MOUNT: prominent massif lying 
immediately N. of Mt. Sidley in the Executive Com- 
mittee Range, in Marie Byrd Land; in about 
77°15'S., 128°00'W. Disc, by the USAS on a flight 
on Dec. 15, 1940, and named for R. Adm. Charles 
C. Hartigan, USN, Navy Dept. member of the USAS 
Executive Committee. 



HART ROCK: rock about 30 ft. in 
2 mi. NW. of Herdman Rocks and 3 
Dundas, Laurie I., in the South 
60°41'S., 44°22'W. First charted 
under D'Urville in 1838. Named 
personnel on the Discovery II, for 
member of the zoological staff of 
Committee. 



el., lying about 

mi. N. of Cape 

Orkney Is.; in 

by a Fr. exp. 

in 1933 by DI 

T. John Hart, 

the Discovery 



Harvey Johnston, Mount; Harvey Johnston Peak: 
see Johnston Peak. 

HASH ISLET: islet lying in the entrance to 
Larsen Hbr., on the SE. coast of South Georgia; in 
54°49'S., 35°59'W. Roughly surveyed by the 
GerAE, 1911-12, under Filchner. It was named 
Hash Island, probably by DI personnel who resur- 
veyed the feature in 1927. The name Hash Islet 
is approved because of the small size of the feature. 
Not adopted : Hash Island. 

HASKELL, MOUNT: buttress-type mountain 
about 4,900 ft. in el., standing at the SW. side of 
Cabinet Islet between Mounts Denuce and Holmes, 
on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°45'S., 64°16'W. 
Charted in 1947 by the FIDS, who named it for 
Daniel C. Haskell, American bibliographer of the 
New York Public Library and author of the bibliog- 



raphy. The United States Exploring Expedition, 
1838-42, and its Publications, 1844-1874. 

HASSAGE, MOUNT: mountain about 5,500 ft. in 
el., lying near the SW. end of Orville Escarpment, 
in the NW. portion of Edith Ronne Land; in about 
77°28'S., 71°30'W. Disc, by the RARE, 1947-48, 
under Ronne, who named this mountain for Charles 
Hassage, ship's engineer on the expedition. 

HASSEL, MOUNT: one of a group of low-lying 
peaks barely protruding through the ice of the 
south polar plateau, rising to about 10,700 ft. in el. 
at the NE. end of the group containing Mounts 
Bjaaland and Prestrud, which stand about 20 mi. 
SW. of the Thorvald Nilsen Mtns. in the Queen 
Maud Range; in about 86°30'S., 162°15'W. Disc, 
by the Nor. exp. under Amundsen in November 1911 
on the journey to the South Pole, and named by 
him for Sverre Hassel, a member of the South Pole 
Party. Not adopted: Mount S. Hassel, Mount 
Sverre Hassel. 

HASWELL ISLET: diamond-shaped islet about 
0.8 mi. long and about 300 ft. in el., marking the 
largest and seaward of the Haswell Its., lying at 
the E. side of McDonald Bay about 2 mi. N. of 
Mabus Pt., off Queen Mary Coast; in about 66°29'S., 
93°16'E. Disc, and charted by the Western Base 
Party of the AAE, 1911-14, under Mawson, and 
named by him for Prof. William A. Haswell, zo- 
ologist at Sydney Univ. and member of the AAE 
Advisory Committee. Not adopted: Haswell 
Island. 

HASWELL ISLETS: group of rocky islets and 
rocks lying off Mabus Pt. and extending about 2 mi. 
seaward, at the E. side of McDonald Bay, off Queen 
Mary Coast; in about 66°30'S., 93°15'E. Charted 
by the AAE under Mawson, 1911-14, who applied 
the name Rookery Islands because of a large em- 
peror penguin rookery on Haswell It., the largest 
and seaward islet in the group. The Australian 
Committee on Antarctic Names proposed in 1955 
that the name Haswell be extended to the entire 
group of islets because of the greater recognition 
gained by the Haswell Islet name. Not adopted: 
Rookery Islands. 

HATCH ISLETS: small group of rocky islets, 
which marks the physical division between Knox 
and Budd Coasts, lying at the E. side of the head 
of Vincennes Bay between the massive tongues of 
John Quincy Adams and Bond Glaciers; in about 
67°00'S., 109°42'E. Delineated from aerial photo- 
graphs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named 
by the US-ACAN for Ernest B. Hatch, tractor driver 
with USN Op. Wml., 1947-48, who assisted in trans- 
porting shore parties which established astronomi- 
cal control stations from Wilhelm II Coast to Budd 
Coast. 



424589 O -57 -II 



153 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



HATREE, CAPE: cape which forms the SW. tip 
of Mossman Pen., on the S. coast of Laurie I., in 
the South Orkney Is.; in 60"48'S., 44°44'W. Disc, 
on the joint cruise in December 1821 by Capt. 
George Powell and Capt. Nathaniel Palmer. The 
name appears on Powell's map published in 1822. 
Not adopted: Cape McVitie. 

HAUBERG MOUNTAINS: mountains about 6,000 
ft. in el. on Joerg Plateau, lying immediately baclc 
of Orville Escarpment; in about 76°48'S., 68°00'W. 
Disc, by the RARE, 1947-48, under Ronne, and 
named by him for John Hauberg, of Rock Island, 
111., a contributor to the expedition. 

HAUGE REEF : chain of islets and rocks extend- 
ing in an ENE. direction from the E. extremity of 
Annenkov I. to a point about 3 mi. WSW. of Cape 
Darnley, South Georgia; in 54°28'S., 37°59'W. 
First charted in 1819 by a Russ. exp. under Bellings- 
hausen. Surveyed by the SGS, 1951-52, and 
named for Capt. Ole Hauge, of the sealer AWatros, 
whose knowledge of the coasts of South Georgia 
was of great assistance to the SGS, 1951-52. 

HAULAWAY POINT: small rocky point midway 
along the NE. side of Stonington I., close off the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°11'S., 67°00'W. First 
surveyed by the US AS, 1939-41. Resurveyed in 
1946-47 by the FIDS, who so named the point 
because it is one of the best places for hauling 
stores ashore. 

HAUPT NUNATAK: small nunatak projecting 
above the continental ice at the N. side of the lower 
reaches of Vanderford Gl., which is believed to mark 
the approximate coastline in this portion of Budd 
Coast where the continental ice extends for some 
5 to 10 mi. into the SE. part of Vincennes Bay; in 
about 66°32'S., 110''48'E. Delineated from aerial 
photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and 
named by the US-ACAN for Ens. Richard W. Haupt, 
USN, assistant hydrographic officer with USN Op. 
Wml., 1947-48, who assisted the shore parties which 
established astronomical control stations from 
Wilhelm II Coast to Budd Coast. 

Hauptinsel: see Br0de Island. 

Havre Fetter: see Potter Cove. 

HAVSBOTN: the narrow innermost portion of 
Lutzow-Holm Bay, at its SE. head, between Prince 
Olav and Prince Harald Coasts; in about 69°45'S., 
38°45'E. Disc, by members of a Nor. exp. under 
Christensen during aerial mapping flights in this 
area in January and February, 1937. Literally 
this name means "ocean gulf," and was applied by 



the old Norse to the polar sea north of Norway. 
This feature was first shown and first named on 
H. E. Hansen's Atlas of Parts of the Antarctic 
Coastal Lands, 1946. 

HAVSTEIN ISLAND: rocky island about 3 mi. 
long and 2 mi. wide, rising to about 410 ft. in el., 
lying about 14 mi. NW. of the entrance to Stef- 
ansson Bay about 2 mi. off Kemp Coast; in about 
67'06'S., 58°51'E. Possibly first seen by DI per- 
sonnel on the William Scoresby in February 1936, 
but, if so, it was considered by them as part of the 
mainland. Mapped as an island by Norwegian 
cartographers from aerial photographs taken on a 
Nor. exp. under Christensen in January-February 
1937, and probably so named by them because of 
its rocky nature and its seaward position. 

HAWKINS GLACIER: channel glacier about 2 
mi. wide and 5 mi. long, flowing N. from the conti- 
nental ice to the Knox Coast, about 10 mi. WNW. 
of Underwood Gl.; in about 66°35'S., 107°35'E. 
Delineated from aerial photographs taken by USN 
Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for 
Samuel N. Hawkins, sailmaker on the sloop of war 
Vincennes of the USEE under Wilkes, 1838-42. 

HAWTHORNE, MOUNT: mountain about 3,400 
ft. in el. in the Walker Mtns. on Thurston Pen.; in 
about 72°25'S., 97°00'W. Disc, on Feb. 27, 1940, 
by the USAS in a flight from the Bear, and named 
for Roger Hawthorne, USAS field representative. 
Not adopted: Mount Mark. 

HAYES, MOUNT: plateau-type mountain about 
3,700 ft. in el., situated at the base of Cole Pen. 
on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°50'S., 64°10'W. 
Charted in 1947 by the FIDS, who named it for 
Rev. James Gordon Hayes, Antarctic historian and 
author of Antarctica: A Treatise on the Southern 
Continent and The Conquest of the South Fole. 

HAYES PEAK: peak about 800 ft. in el., lying 
about 2 mi. S. of Cape Bruce on Mac-Robertson 
Coast; in about 67°27'S., 60°50'E. Disc, on Feb. 
18, 1931 by BANZARE under Mawson, and proba- 
bly named by him for Rev. James Gordon Hayes. 
Not adopted : Veslekulten [Norwegian] . 

HAYRICK ISLET: small prominent rock mass, 
more than 500 ft. in el., between Lodge Rock and 
Twig Rock in the Terra Firma Is., off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 68°42'S., 67°32'W. The Terra 
Firma Is. were first visited and surveyed in 1936 
by the BGLE under Rymill. This islet was sur- 
veyed in 1948 by the FIDS and so named by them 
because, when seen from the E., its high mass has 
an appearance suggesting a hayrick. 



154 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Hays Mountains: see Will Hays Mountains. 

Haystack, The: see Haystack Mountain. 

HAYSTACK MOUNTAIN: mountain about 3,300 
ft. in el., with a rounded summit which is sug- 
gestive of mound or a haystack, standing about 1.5 
mi. E. of Mt. England in the NE. part of the Gon- 
ville and Caius Range, in Victoria Land; in about 
77°03'S., 162°37'E. Charted and named by the 
BrAE under Scott, 1910-13. Not adopted: The 
Haystack. 

HAZARD ROCK: small isolated rock, 3 ft. high, 
which lies in Bismarck Strait, 2.5 mi. NE. of Cape 
Renard, Palmer Pen.; in 64°59'S., 63°44'W. Named 
by Lt. Cdr. F. W. Hunt, RN, following his survey 
in 1952. This feature is a hazard to navigation 
in the low visibility which is frequent in this vi- 
cinity. 

Healey, Cape: see Healy, Cape. 

HEALY, CAPE: prominent, square-shaped rock 
cape forming the N. side of the entrance to Lam- 
plugh Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
71°22'S., 60°57'W. Disc, by members of the USAS 
who explored this coast by land and from the 
air in 1940. Named for Joseph D. Healy, member 
of the ByrdAE, 1933-35, and dog driver at the 
USAS East Base, 1939-41. Not adopted: Cape 
Healey. 

HEANEY GLACIER: glacier, about 4 mi. long, 
which lies close NW. of Cook Gl. and flows NE. 
and then E. toward Saint Andrews Bay on the N. 
coast of South Georgia; in 54°25'S., 36°12'W. Sur- 
veyed by the SGS, 1951-52. Named by the Br-APC 
for John B. Heaney, surveyor with the SGS, 
1951-52. 

HEARD ISLAND: island about 23 mi. long, in 
a NW.-SE. direction, and about 10 mi. wide, sur- 
mounted by an ice-covered volcanic peak, about 
9,000 ft. in el., situated SE. of the Kerguelen Is- 
lands; in about 53°06'S., 73°30'E. Disc, on Nov. 
25, 1853 by Capt. John J. Heard, of the merchant 
ship Oriental of New London, Conn. Named for 
Captain Heard by American sealers who began 
sealing operations at the island soon after word 
of its discovery. 

Hearst, Cape: see Wilkins, Cape. 

HEARST ISLAND: ice-covered, dome-shaped is- 
land lying about 4 mi. E. of Cape Rymill, off the 
E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 69°26'S., 62°10'W. The 
island is about 36 mi. long, in a N.-S. direction, 
and about 10 mi. wide, and rises to about 1,200 ft. 



in elevation. First sighted on a flight on Dec. 20, 
1928 by Sir Hubert Wilkins. Thinking it was part 
of the mainland of Antarctica, he named it Hearst 
Land for William Randolph Hearst, who helped 
finance the expedition. It was resighted and its 
insularity ascertained in 1940 by members of the 
USAS who explored this coast by land and from 
the air. They named it Wilkins Island. Examina- 
tion of aerial photographs have shown, however, 
that this large island is what Wilkins considered 
Hearst Land. Not adopted: Hearst Land, Wilkins 
Island. 

Hearst Land: see Hearst Island. 

HEDDEN, MOUNT: mountain projecting 
through the icecap near the N. margin of the New 
Schwabenland piedmont; in about 72-09'S., 
1°10'E. Disc, by the GerAE under Ritscher, and 
named for Karl Hedden, one of the sailors on the 
expedition. 

Heil Peak: see Neill Peak. 

HEIM GLACIER: glacier, about 2 mi. wide and 
at least 5 mi. long, which flows S. to merge with 
the ice in Jones Channel, on the W. coast of Palmef 
Pen.; in 67°28'S., 66"55'W. It probably forms the 
S. part of a transverse depression extending to 
the SW. corner of Lallemand Fjord. First sighted 
from the air in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill. 
Its lower reaches were surveyed in 1949 by the 
FIDS, and the glacier named by them for Albert 
Heim, Swiss glaciologist and author in 1885 of 
Handbuch der Gletscherkunde. 

Heksegryta: see Kleinschmidt Peak. 

Helena Island: see Bridgeman Island. 

Helene Gletscher: see Helen Glacier. 

HELENE ISLET: small rocky islet marking the 
W. end of Geologic Arch., lying about 0.2 mi. NW. 
of Ifo It. close off Adelie Coast, midway between 
Liotard Gl. and Cape Geodesic; in 66°37'S., 
139°44'E. Photographed from the air by USN Op. 
Hjp., 1946-47. Charted by the FrAE under Liotard, 
1949-51, and named for the French polar ship 
Helene. Not adopted: lies Helene [French]. 

HELEN GLACIER : glacier marked by a series of 
heavy, broken, and crevassed icefalls, lying W. of 
Farr Bay on Queen Mary Coast; in about 66°40'S., 
94°10'E. Disc, in November 1912 by the Western 
Base Party of the AAE under Mawson. Named 
for Lady Helen, the wife of a patron of the expedi- 
tion. Sir Lucas Tooth of Sydney, Australia. Not 
adopted: Helene Gletscher [German]. 



155 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



HELEN GLACIER TONGUE: glacier tongue, 
which in February 1947 extended about 7 mi. sea- 
ward from Helen Gl., along Queen Mary Coast; 
in about 66°33'S., 93°14'E. Disc, in November 1912 
by members of the Western Base Party of the AAE 
under Mawson. The glacier tongue takes its name 
from Helen Glacier. 

HELEN WASHINGTON, MOUNT: high, ridge- 
like mountain surmounted by three prominent 
peaks, standing about 5 mi. SSW. of Mt. Paterson 
near the S. end of the N. group of Rockefeller Mtns. 
on Edward VII Pen.; in about 78°05'S., 155°15'W. 
Disc, on the ByrdAE flight of Feb. 18, 1929, and 
named by Byrd for Miss Helen A. Washington, niece 
of R. Adm. Richard E. Byrd, leader of the expe- 
dition. 

Helen Washington Bay: see Kainan Bay. 

HELLAND-HANSEN SHOULDER: a portion of 
the steep slopes of the snow-covered western bound- 
ary of the Mohn Basin, resembling snow-covered 
ridges, when viewed from the E., which extend for 
an indefinite extent in a N.-S. direction, on the 
south polar plateau; centering in about 86°12'S., 
168°20'W. Disc, in December 1911 on the journey 
to the South Pole by the Nor. exp. under Amundsen, 
and named by him for Prof. B. Helland-Hansen, of 
the University of Oslo. 

Hell Gates: see Morton Strait. 

HELL GATES : chain of islets and rocks extend- 
ing from Livingston I. to Snow I. across the E. 
portal of Morton Str., in the South Shetland 
Islands; in 62°41'S., 61°10'W. Named by early 
sealers in the area because many lives and ships 
were lost in navigating the strait. Not adopted: 
Morton Strait. 

HELLS GATE : a small area on the confluent ice 
of the Nansen Sheet, marked by glacial moraines, 
lying between Inexpressible I. and the Northern 
Foothills and discharging into Evans Cove, along 
the coast of Victoria Land; in about 74°57'S., 
163°48'E. Disc, and explored by the Northern 
Party of the BrAE, 1910-13, who gave the feature 
its expressive name. 

Helmer Hanssen, Mount: see Breyer, Mount. 

HELMER HANSSEN, MOUNT: ice-covered moun- 
tain, distinguished by a sharp peak at its S. end, 
rising from a high land mass W. of Amundsen Gl. 
in the Queen Maud Range; in about 86°05'S., 
163°50'W. Disc, in November 1911 by a Nor. exp. 
under Amundsen on the journey to the South Pole, 
and named by him for Helmer Hanssen, ice pilot 
of the exp. and deputy leader of the South Pole 



Party. It was resighted by the ByrdAE on the 
South Polar Flight of November 1929. On subse- 
quent charts, however, it was shown as Mount 
Breyer, and the name Mount Helmer Hanssen mis- 
applied to an unnamed mountain to the E. disc, by 
Byrd. The US-ACAN accordingly retains the name 
Mount Helmer Hanssen for the mountain so named 
by Amundsen, and applies the name Mount Breyer 
to the unnamed mountain disc, by Byrd. Not 
adopted: Mount Breyer (q.v.). 

HENDERSON, MOUNT: massive mountain about 
3,400 ft. in el., rising through the icecap near the 
continental margin about 8 mi. NE. of the N. end 
of the Masson Range, on Mac-Robertson Coast; in 
about 67°42'S., 63°05'E. Disc, in February 1931 
by the BANZARE under Mawson. Probably named 
for Prof. G. C. Henderson of Adelaide, a member of 
the advisory committee for this exp. and for the 
AAE, 1911-14. 

HENDERSON, MOUNT: mountain in the S. part 
of the Britannia Range, about 8,100 ft. in el., lying 
at the N. side of Barne Inlet, on the W. side of Ross 
Ice Shelf; in about 80°21'S., 156°15'E. Disc, and 
named by the BrNAE under Scott, 1901-4. 

HENDERSON ISLAND: ice-covered island about 
8 mi. long and about 600 ft. in el., lying SE. of 
Masson I., within the Shackleton Ice Shelf, and 
about 5 mi. N. of Cape Dovers on Queen Mary 
Coast; in about 66°23'S., 97°07'E. Disc, in August 
1912 by the Western Base Party of the AAE under 
Mawson, and named for Prof. G. C. Henderson of 
Adelaide. 

HENGIST NUNATAK: isolated flat-topped nuna- 
tak, more than 2,000 ft. in el., which rises above 
the Roberts Ice Piedmont, about 10 mi. N. of 
Mount Calais, in the NE. part of Alexander I Is- 
land; in 69°00'S., 70°14'W. First seen and pho- 
tographed from the air in 1936 and 1937 by the 
BGLE under Rymill. Surveyed from the ground 
in 1948 by the FIDS. The names for this feature 
and for the group of nunataks to the north are 
after the brother chieftains, Hengist and Horsa, 
who led the first Saxon bands which settled Eng- 
land in the fifth century. 

HENKES ISLETS: group of snow-covered Islets 
surrounded by reefs, which fringe the SW. coast of 
Adelaide I. and extend from Cape Adriasola 15 
mi. southeastward to their terminus in Avian Islet; 
centering in 67°44'S., 69°10'W. Disc, and first 
charted by the FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot, and 
named by him for one of the Norwegian directors 
of the Magellan Whaling Co. at Punta Arenas. 
Not adopted: Henkes Islands. 



156 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



HENNEQUIN, POINT: point which forms the 
E. side of the entrance to Martel and Mackellar 
Inlets, on the E. side of Admiralty Bay, King George 
I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°07'S., 58°24'W. 
Probably named by the FrAE under Charcot, who 
surveyed Admiralty Bay in 1909. 

HENRY BAY: small bay about 4 mi. wide and 3 
rrii. long, lying between Baldwin Pt. on the E. and 
Henry Its. and the small tongue of Howison Gl. 
on the W., and indenting the E. end of Sabrina 
Coast; in about 66°40'S., 121°00'E. Delineated 
from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 
1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for Wilkes 
Henry, midshipman on the sloop of war Vincennes 
of the USEE under Wilkes, 1838-42. 

HENRY ISLETS : group of about four small islets, 
lying at the W. side of the entrance to Henry Bay 
and about 2 mi. E. of Howison GL, off Sabrina 
Coast; in about 66°40'S., 120°55'E. Delineated 
from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 
1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for Wilkes 
Henry, midshipman with the USEE under Wilkes, 
1838-42. 

HENRY LUCY, MOUNT: peak, probably about 
11,000 ft. in el., standing about 5 mi. SSW. of Mt. 
White, between the Keltic and Mill Glaciers on the 
E. side of Beardmore GL; in about 85°15'S., 
171°40'E. Disc, by the BrAE, 1907-9, under 
Shackleton, who named it for Sir Henry Lucy, 
M.P. who publicized the exp. and assisted in ob- 
taining a financial grant from Parliament. 

Henry May, Cape: see William Henry May, Cape. 

Herbert Sound: see Sidney Herbert Sound. 

HERCULES BAY: bay about 0.5 mi. wide, which 
lies about 1 mi. W. of Cape Saunders along the N. 
coast of South Georgia; in 54°07'S., 36°40'W. 
Named by Norwegian whalers after the Hercules 
(or Herkules), a whale catcher which had visited 
the bay. Not adopted: Herkules Bucht [German]. 

HERCULES POINT: point, marked by a small 
off-lying islet, forming the W. side of the entrance 
to Hercules Bay on the N. coast of South Georgia; 
in 54°07'S., 36°40'W. The feature was probably 
first surveyed by DI personnel in 1927. The name, 
which derives from the nearby Hercules Bay, was 
used by a Ger. exp. under Kohl-Larsen, 1928-29, 
but is known to have been used earlier by whalers. 
Not adopted: Herkules-Odden [Norwegian]. 

HERDMAN, CAPE: broad, low, ice-covered cape, 
situated about 12 mi. ENE. of Mt. Reynolds and 
forming the S. side of the entrance to Violante 



Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 72°39'S., 
60°37'W. First seen and photographed from the 
air in 1940 by USAS, but in subsequent reports the 
feature now named Mt. Reynolds was described as 
the S. entrance point to Violante Inlet. During 
1947 the cape was photographed from the air by the 
RARE under Ronne, who in conjunction with the 
FIDS charted it from the ground. Named by the 
FIDS for Henry F. P. Herdman, English oceanog- 
rapher and member of the Discovery Investigations 
hydrological staff since 1924. 

HERDMAN ROCKS: two rocks about 50 ft. in el., 
lying about 2 mi. SE. of Hard Rock and 3 mi. NE. of 
Cape Dundas, Laurie I., in the South Orkney Is. in 
60°42'S., 44°20'W. First charted by a Fr. exp. 
under D'Urville in 1838. Named by DI personnel 
on the Discovery II, who charted the South Orkney 
Is. in 1933, for H. F. P. Herdman. 

HERD POINT : point which forms the W. side of 
Ferguson Bay at the SE. end of Thule I., in the 
South Sandwich Is.; in 59°28'S., 27°17'W. Charted 
in 1930 by DI personnel on the Discovery II, and 
named for R. D. Hard of Messrs. Ferguson Brothers, 
Port Glasgow, Scotland, builders of the Discovery II. 

Herkules Bucht:, see Hercules Bay. 

Herkules-Odden: see Hercules Point. 

HERLACHER, CAPE : bold, ice-covered headland 
forming the N. end of Martin Pen. and the W. side 
of the ice-filled inlet at the head of the peninsula, 
on the Walgreen Coast of Marie Byrd Land; in 
about 73°40'S., 112°00'W. Delineated from aerial 
photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp. in December 
1946. Named by the US-ACAN for Carl J. Her- 
lacher, principal Antarctic cartographer with the 
U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office since 1937. 

Hermelo, Island: see Delta Island. 

HERRMANN MOUNTAINS : group of mountains 
in New Schwabenland, projecting through the ice- 
cap and extending about 25 mi. in a NE.-SW. di- 
rection; in about 72°25'S., 0°30'E. It lies between 
Gockel Crest and Barkley Mtns. with which it forms 
a rectilinear group constituting the northwest- 
facing foot of the polar plateau. Disc, by the 
GerAE under Ritscher, 1938-39, and named for 
Ernst Herrmann, geographer of the expedition. 

HERSCHEL, MOUNT: conspicuous peak of the 
Admiralty Range, standing above Cape Roget in 
Victoria Land; in about 72°10'S., 169°25'E. Disc, 
in 1840 by a Br. exp. under Ross, who named it for 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, noted English astronomer. 
Not adopted: Mount Herschell. 



157 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Herschell, Mount: see Herschel, Mount. 

HERSHEY RIDGE: mountain ridge lying be- 
tween Mt. Grace McKinley and the Haines Mtns., 
in the Edsel Ford Ranges of Marie Byrd Land; in 
about 77^35'S., 147°15'W. Charted in 1934 by the 
ByrdAE, and named for Garland Hershey, Asst. 
State Geologist of the Iowa Geological Survey, 
since 1939. Not adopted: Garland Hersey Ridge, 
Garland Hershey Ridge. 

Hertha Insel: see Hertha Nunatak. 

HERTHA NUNATAK: nunatak which lies about 
1.75 mi. NW. of Castor Nunatak in the Seal Nuna- 
taks group, off the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
65°10'S., 60"02'W. Disc, in December 1893 by 
Capt. C. A. Larsen, who named it after the Hertha, 
a ship which combined sealing and exploring ac- 
tivities along the W. coast of Palmer Pen. under 
Capt. C. J. Evensen in 1893-94. It was determined 
to be a nunatak by the SwedAE under Nord- 
enskjold during a sledge journey in 1902. Not 
adopted: Hertha Insel [German]. 

Hertug Ernst Bay; Hersog Ernst Bay: see Duke 
Ernst Bay. 

HERVE COVE: small cove about 2 mi. SW. of 
Point Thomas, along the S. side of Ezcurra Inlet, 
Admiralty Bay, on King George I., in the South 
Shetland Is.; in 62nO'S., 58°32'W. Charted by the 
FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot, and named by him 
for a member of the expedition. Not adopted: 
Herve Cove. 

HERVEOU POINT: point which forms the W. 
tip of the rocky peninsula between Port Charcot 
and Salpetriere Bay, on the W. side of Booth I., 
ofT the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°04'S., 
64"03'W. First charted by the FrAE, 1903-5, under 
Charcot, and named by him for F. Herveou, a sea- 
man on the exp. ship Francais. Not adopted: Point 
Herveou. 

HESS GLACIER: glacier about 5 mi. long, flow- 
ing in an ENE. direction between steep rock walls 
to its mouth about 10 mi. SW. of Monnier Pt., on 
the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67n3'S., 65°01'W. 
Charted in 1947 by the FIDS, who named it for 
Hans Hess, German glaciologist. 

Hestes Hode: see Horse Head. 

HEWISON POINT: point which forms the E. side 
of Ferguson Bay and the SE. end of Thule I., in the 
South Sandwich Is.; in 59"28'S., 27°15'W. Charted 
in 1930 by DI personnel on the Discovery II, who 
named it for Lt. Col. Hewison of Messrs. Ferguson 
Brothers, Port Glasgow, Scotland, builders of the 
Discovery II. 



HEYWOOD ISLANDS: group of small islands 
about 2.5 mi. off the N. side of Robert I., in the 
South Shetland Is.; in 62°18'S., 59°36'W. The 
name appears on Powell's map of 1822 and com- 
memorates Capt. Peter Heywood, RN, in command 
of H.M.S. Nereus stationed ofT the E. coast of South 
America in that period. Not adopted: Heywood's 
Isles. 

Heywood's Isles: see Heywood Islands. 

HIDDEN LAKE: lake about 1.5 mi. long on the 
W. side of James Ross I., which drains by a small 
stream into the deep bay 4 mi. S. of Lagrelius Pt., 
lying midway between Lagrelius Pt. and Cape 
Obelisk; in 64°02'S., 58°18'W. Disc, in 1945 by the 
FIDS, who so named it because it is obscured by 
surrounding highlands. 

HIGHJUMP ARCHIPELAGO: a group of rocky 
islands, rocks and ice rises about 50 mi. long and 
from 5 to 15 mi. wide, lying generally N. of the 
Hunger Hills and extending from the Taylor Its., 
close NW. of Cape Hordern, to a prominent group 
of ice rises which terminate close W. of Cape Elliott, 
off the W. end of Knox Coast; centering in about 
66°05'S., 101°10'E. Delineated from aerial photo- 
graphs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and so 
named by the US-ACAN. The codeword "High- 
jump" was used for identifying the U.S. Navy Task 
Force 68, 1946-47. This task force was divided into 
three groups which completed photographic flights 
covering approximately 70 per cent of the coastal 
areas of Antarctica, excluding Palmer Peninsula, as 
well as significant portions of the interior. 

HIGH PEAK: peak with red colored cliffs, prob- 
ably over 3,000 ft. in el., about 4 mi. NE. of Copper 
Peak and 2.5 mi. W. of the S. end of Lion I., on the 
SE. coast of Anvers I., in the Palmer Arch., in 
64°40'S., 63°14'W. Probably first seen by the 
BelgAE under De Gerlache, 1897-99. The name 
appears on a chart based upon a 1927 survey by DI 
personnel on the Discovery, but may reflect an 
earlier naming. 

HIGH POINT: conspicuous point, about 400 ft. 
in el., forming the N. side of the entrance to Moon 
Bay, eastern Livingston I., in the South Shetland 
Is.; in 62°33'S., 60°03'W. Charted in 1935 by DI 
personnel on the Discovery II, who probably gave 
this descriptive name. 

HIGH ROCK: rock about 40 ft, in el., situated 
at the N. end of the Welcome Its., about 4 mi. 
WNW. of Cape Buller, off the N. coast of South 
Georgia; in 53°58'S., 37°29'W. Named by DI per- 
sonnel who made surveys at South Georgia during 
1926-30. 



158 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



HIGH STILE: pass at the head of Sunshine Gl., 
about 1,200 ft. in el., situated at the junction of the 
SW. ridge of Mt. Nivea and the E. end of Brisbane 
Plateau in the central part of Coronation I., South 
Orkney Is.; in 60°36'S., 45°32'W. The name arises 
from the general appearance and situation of the 
feature and was applied by the FIDS following their 
survey of 1948-49. 

Hill, Cape: see Hill, Mount. 

HILL, MOUNT: mountain about 3,100 ft. in el., 
standing about 8 mi. SW. of Cape Sharbonneau at 
the E. side of the head of Lehrke Inlet, on the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 70°56'S., 61°42'W. Disc, 
by members of the East Base of the USAS who ex- 
plored this coast by land and from the air in 1940. 
They named it Cape Hill for Archie C. Hill, cook at 
East Base. In 1947 it was determined to be a 
mountain distinct from Cape Sharbonneau to the 
NE. by a joint sledge party consisting of members 
of the RARE and the FIDS. Not adopted: Cape 
Hill. 

Hill Island: see Snow Hill Island. 

Hilton Bay: see Hilton Inlet. 

HILTON INLET: ice-filled inlet, about 12 mi. 
wide, which recedes about 20 mi. W. from its en- 
trance between Capes Darlington and Knowles, 
along the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 71°57'S., 
61°20'W. Disc, by the USAS in 1940, and named 
for Donald C. Hilton, member of the East Base 
sledge party that charted this coast as far S. as 
this inlet. Not adopted: Hilton Bay. 

HINKS, CAPE: bold headland surmounted by an 
ice-covered dome about 1,600 ft. in el., forming the 
NE. extremity of Finley Ridge, on the E. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 69°10'S., 63°10'W. Disc, and 
photographed by Sir Hubert Wilkins on his flight 
of Dec. 20, 1928. Later photographed from the air 
by Lincoln Ellsworth in 1935, and by the USAS in 
1940. Named by the US-SCAN for Arthur R. 
Hinks, Sec. of the Royal Geographical Soc, 1915-45, 
who undertook in his published studies to reconcile 
the explorations of Wilkins, Ellsworth, Rymill and 
the USAS in this general area. Not adopted: Cape 
Cross. 

HINKS, MOUNT: peak about 2,100 ft. in el., lying 
about 2 mi. S. of Mt. Marsden in the Gustav Bull 
Mtns., on Mac-Robertson Coast; in about 67°53'S., 
66°04'E. The BANZARE under Mawson sighted 
land and made an aerial observation flight in this 
area in early January 1930. The exp. landed on 
nearby Scullin Monolith on Feb. 13, 1931, and 
named this peak for Arthur R. Hinks. 



HINKS CHANNEL: irregular-shaped channel in 
the N. part of Laubeuf Fjord, about 2 mi. wide and 
11 mi. long, which extends from The Gullet and 
separates Day I. from the W. coast of Palmer Pen. 
and from Wyatt I.; in 67°16'S., 67'37'W. First 
roughly surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Ry- 
mill. Resurveyed in 1948 by the FIDS who named 
it for Arthur R. Hinks. 

HIPPO ISLET: steep, rocky islet, about 0.5 mi. 
long and 22 yards wide, which rises about 400 ft. 
above the Shackleton Ice Shelf, about 1.5 mi. N. of 
Delay Pt., off Queen Mary Coast; in about 66°26'S., 
98°06'E. Disc, by the Western Base Party of the 
AAE under Mawson, 1911-14, who so named it be- 
cause of its shape. Not adopted: Hippo Island, 
Hippo Nunatak, Hippo Nunataks. 

HIPPOLYTE POINT: point which marks the N. 
end of Lion I., which lies immediately E. of Anvers 
I. in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°39'S., 63°07'W. 
Charted and named by the BelgAE under De 
Gerlache, 1897-99. Not adopted: Cape Hippolyte. 

Hippo Nunatak: see Hippo Islet. 

HITCHCOCK, MOUNT: a mostly ice-covered 
mountain, about 5,200 ft. in el., standing at the S. 
side of Mobiloil Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in about 68°53'S., 64°51'W. Disc, and photo- 
graphed by Sir Hubert Wilkins on his flight of Dec. 
20, 1928, and rephotographed by Lincoln Ellsworth 
in 1935. Named by the US-ACAN in 1952 for 
Charles B. Hitchcock of the American Geograph- 
ical Soc, who by utilizing these photographs as- 
sisted in constructing the first reconnaissance map 
of this area. 

HJALMAR JOHANSEN, MOUNT: mountain 
which stands at the S. side of Mt. Gjertsen in the 
N. part of the La Gorce Mtns., in the Queen Maud 
Range; in about 86°43'S., 147°30'W. Disc, on the 
Polar Flight by the ByrdAE on Nov. 28-29, 1929. 
Charted by the Southern Sledge Party of the 
ByrdAE in 1934. So named in an attempt to rec- 
oncile the 1934 discoveries with the names applied 
by Roald Amundsen, who named a peak in this vi- 
cinity for Hjalmar Johansen, member of the East- 
ern Sledge Party of a Nor. exp. under Amundsen, 
1910-12. Not adopted: Mount Thurston. 

HJORTH HILL: rounded mountain about 2,900 
ft. in el., standing on the N. side of New Hbr. about 
7 m. SW. of Cape Bernacchi, in Victoria Land; in 
about 77°32'S., 163°33'E. Charted by the BrAE 
under Scott, 1910-13, and named for the maker of 
the primus lamps used by the exp. This name is 
spelled Hjort's Hill in the popular narrative of 
Scott's exp., but the spelling Hjorth's Hill is used 
on the map accompanying the narrative. The 



159 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



recommended spelling is based upon the form con- 
sistently used on the maps accompanying the BrAE 
scientific reports. Not adopted: Hjorth's Hill, 
Hjort's Hill. 

Hjort's Hill: see Hjorth Hill. 

H. J. Sjogren Fiord: see Sjogren Glacier. 

Hoadky, Cape: see Hoadley, Cape. 

HOADLEY, CAPE: prominent rock outcrop 
forming the W. portal of the valley occupied by 
Scott Gl., on Queen Mary Coast; in about 66°33'S., 
100°04'E. Disc, by the Western Base Party of the 
AAE under Mawson in November 1912, and named 
for C. A. Hoadley, geologist with the Western Base 
Party. Not adopted: Cape Hoadky. 

HOBART ROCK: low rock lying in the S. side 
of the entrance to King Edward Cove, Cumberland 
East Bay, South Georgia; in 54° IT'S., 36°30'W. 
The name appears on a chart based upon a survey 
of -King Edward Cove by personnel on H.M.S. 
Sappho in 1906. 

HOBBS COAST: that portion of the coast of 
Marie Byrd Land extending from Emory Land Bay, 
in about 75°45'S., 140°30'W., northeastward to the 
W. edge of Getz Ice Shelf. Named by the USAS 
in 1940 for Prof. William H. Hobbs of the Univ. of 
Michigan, glaciologist specializing in polar geog- 
raphy and history. 

HOBBS GLACIER: glacier about 15 mi. long and 
1:5 mi. wide, which flows into McMurdo Sound 
about 7 mi. S. of Blue GL, in Victoria Land; in 
about 77°57'S., 164°37'E. Disc, by the BrNAE 
under Scott, 1901-4. Members of the BrAE under 
Scott, 1910-13, explored the area more thoroughly 
and named this glacier for Prof. William H. Hobbs. 

HODGEMAN ISLETS : small group of ice-covered 
islets, situated about 7 mi. WSW. of Cape De la 
Motte, off George V Coast, in about 67°01'S., 
144°15'E. Disc, in 1912 by the AAE, under Maw- 
son, and named for Alfred J. Hodgeman, cartog- 
rapher and asst. meteorologist with the Main Base 
party. 

HODGES, MOUNT: mountain, about 2,000 ft. in 
el., standing 1 mi. W. of Mt. Duse, close NW. of the 
head of King Edward Cove, Cumberland West Bay, 
iriSouth Georgia; in 54°16'S., 36°32'W. The peak 
was first roughly surveyed by the SwedAE, 1901-4, 
under Nordenskjold. The name "Moldaenke Berg" 
was used for this peak on a 1907 map by A. Szie- 
lasko, but the name has not survived on later 
general charts of this area. The name Mount 
Hodges appears to have been applied some years 



later and is now well established in use for this 
peak. The name may be for Capt. M. H. Hodges, 
RN, of the Sappho, who visited and mapped por- 
tions of Cumberland Bay in 1906. Not adopted: 
Moldaenke Berg [German] . 

HODSON, MOUNT: volcanic peak about 3,000 ft. 
in el., marking the summit of Visokoi I., in the 
South Sandwich Is.; in 56°42'S., 27°13'W. Disc, 
by a Russ. exp. under Bellingshausen, 1819-21. 
Charted in 1930 by DI personnel on the Discov- 
ery II, who named it for Arnold Hodson, then Gov. 
of the Falkland Islands. 

Hogback, The: see Hogback Hill. 

HOGBACK HILL: rounded mountain about 
2,300 ft. in el., situated immediately N. of Hjorth 
Hill and about 3 mi. W. of Cape Bernacchi, in 
Victoria Land; in about 77°30'S., 163°34'E. 
Charted and given this descriptive name by the 
BrAE under Scott, 1910-13. Not adopted: The 
Hogback. 

HOGS MOUTH ROCKS: chain of about three 
rocks which extend from Invisible It. to Albatross 
I. and form the E. limit of Committee Bay in the 
Bay of Isles, South Georgia; in 54°01'S., 37°19'W. 
First roughly charted in 1912-13 by Robert Cush- 
man Murphy, American naturalist aboard the brig 
Daisy. Probably named by DI personnel who sur- 
veyed the Bay of Isles in 1929-30. Not adopted: 
The Hogs Mouth Rocks. 

Holder, Mount: see Houlder, Mount. 

HOLE ROCK: southernmost of three aligned 
rocks lying close NW. of North Foreland, the NE. 
cape of King George I., in the south Shetland Is.; 
in 61°52'S., 57°41'W. Charted in 1937 by DI per- 
sonnel on the Discovery II, who so named it be- 
cause a conspicuous hole extends through it. 

HOLLICK-KENYON PENINSULA: narrow, ice- 
covered spur from the main mountain mass of 
Palmer Pen., which projects about 30 mi. in a NE. 
arc from its base at the E. side of Mobiloil Inlet; 
centering in 68°30'S., 63°30'W. Disc, and par- 
tially photographed from the air by Lincoln Ells- 
worth on his trans-Antarctic flight in November- 
December 1935 from Dundee I. to the Ross Sea. 
Photographed from the air and charted from the 
ground in 1940 by the USAS. Nanjed for Herbert 
Hollick-Kenyon, pilot on Ellsworth's flight in 1935, 
whose demonstration of the practicability of land- 
ing and taking off an airplane in isolated areas 
constitutes a distinct contribution to the technique 
of Antarctic exploration. 



160 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



HOLLICK-KENYON PLATEAU: plateau area of 
Ellsworth Highland, over 6,000 ft. in el., centering 
in about 79°S., 108°W. Disc, by Lincoln Ellsworth 
on his trans-Antarctic flight of 1935, and named 
by Ellsworth for his pilot, Herbert Hollick-Kenyon. 
Not adopted : Hollick Kenyon Plateau. 

HOLL ISLAND: rocky, triangular-shaped island, 
about 1.7 mi. long and rising to about 310 ft. in 
el., marking the SW. end of the Windmill Is., off 
Budd Coast; in 66°25'S., 110'=27'E. Delineated 
from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 
1946-47, and USN Op. Wml., 1947-48. Named by 
the US-ACAN for Lt. Richard C. HoU, USNR, 
photogrammetrist with the Navy Hydrographic 
Office, who served as surveyor with the USN Op. 
Wml. parties which established astronomical con- 
trol stations on Holl I. and along Queen Mary and 
Knox Coasts. 

HOLMAN DOME: dome-shaped nunatak about 
2 mi. SW. of Watson Bluff, on the E. side of David I., 
off Queen Mary Coast; in about 66°28'S., 98°48'E. 
Charted by the AAE under Mawson, 1911-14, who 
named it for the Hon. William Arthur Holman, 
Premier of New South Wales in 1911, and later 
member of the Commonwealth House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

HOLME BAY: bay about 20 mi. wide, contain- 
ing many islands and islets, lying just N. of the 
Framnes Mtns. along Mac-Robertson Coast; in 
about 67°35'S., 62°42'E. Mapped by Norwegian 
cartographers from aerial photographs taken by 
a Nor. exp. under Christensen in January-Febru- 
ary 1937, and so named because of its island- 
studded character. 

Holmen Graa: see Grey Islet. 

HOLMES, MOUNT: buttress-type mountain 
about 4,800 ft. in el., lying about 4 mi. NW. of Mt. 
Hayes on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°47'S., 
64°16'W. Charted in 1947 by the FIDS, and photo- 
graphed from the air by the RARE under Ronne. 
Named by the FIDS for Maurice Holmes, author 
of An Introduction to the Bibliography of Captain 
James Cook, R.N. (London, 1936) . 

HOLMES GLACIER: piedmont glacier about 10 
mi. wide, formed by the confluence of small chan- 
nel glaciers which flow from the continental ice 
on the NE. flank of Norths Highland to the W. 
side of Porpoise Bay, about 10 mi. SSE. of Cape 
Spieden, on Banzare Coast; in about 66°30'S., 
127°15'E. Delineated from aerial photographs 
taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named by 



the US-ACAN for Dr. Silas Holmes, assistant sur- 
geon on the brig Porpoise of the USEE under 
Wilkes, 1838-42. 

HOLTEDAHL BAY: bay, about 7 mi. long in a 
NW.-SE. direction and averaging about 6 mi. wide, 
lying between Ferin Head and Black Head, along 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°05'S., 65°25'W. 
Disc, by the BGLE under Rymill, 1934-37. Named 
by Rymill for Prof. Olaf Holtedahl, Norwegian 
geologist who conducted geologic research during 
1927-28, in the South Shetland Is. and the Palmer 
Arch., to which he was transported by various 
whaling vessels. 

HOMBRON ROCKS: two rocks about 1.5 mi. 
apart, lying about 8 mi. NE. of Cape Roquemaurel 
and 4 mi. off the NW. coast of Louis Philippe Pen.; 
in 63°28'S., 58°42'W. Disc, by a Fr. exp., 1837-40, 
under D'Urville, and named by him for Jacques 
Hombron, a member of the expedition. The rocks 
were charted by the FIDS in 1946. Not adopted: 
Honabron Rock. 

Homresund: see Macfie Sound. 

Honabron Rock: see Hombron Rocks. 

HOOD GLACIER: tributary glacier entering the 
E. side of Beardmore Gl. immediately N. of Mt. 
Cyril, at the head of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 
83°50'S., 172°30'E. Disc, and named by the BrAE 
under Shackleton in December 1908. 

HOOKER, CAPE: cape which forms the NE. end 
of Low I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 63°16'S., 
62°00'W. Though the origin of the name Cape 
Hooker is unknown, it has appeared on charts for 
over a hundred years and its usage has been estab- 
lished internationally. The name may be asso- 
ciated with the voyage of a Br. exp. under Foster 
in the Chanticleer, 1828-31. 

HOOKER, CAPE : cape which forms the W. side 
of the entrance to Yule Bay, on the N. coast of 
Victoria Land; in about 70°35'S., 166°25'E. Disc, 
in 1841 by a Br. exp. under Ross, who named it 
for Joseph Dal ton Hooker (later Sir Joseph), 
naturalist and asst. surgeon on the exp. ship 
Erebus who became internationally famous as a 
botanist. 

HOOKER, MOUNT: rounded summit about 
12,400 ft. in el., standing in the Royal Society 
Range, SW. of McMurdo Sound, on the W. side of 
Ross Sea; in about 78°07'S., 162°50'E. Disc, by the 
BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, who named it for Sir 
Joseph Dalton Hooker. 



161 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



HOPE, MOUNT: mountain about 2,700 ft. in 
el., marked by a well-defined terrace strewn with 
erratics, projecting through Ross Ice Shelf at the 
W. side of the mouth of Beardmore Gl.; in about 
83"35'S., 17r 30'E. Disc, in December 1908 by the 
BrAE under Shackleton, and so named because 
the Polar Party, after ascending it in the hope of 
finding a route to the Pole, saw the great Beard- 
more Gl. stretching to the SW. as far as they could 
see. 

Hope, Mount: see Bransfield, Mount. 

HOPE BAY: bay about 3 mi. long and 2 mi. 
wide, indenting the tip of Palmer Pen. and open- 
ing on Antarctic Sound; in 63°24'S., 57°00'W. 
Disc, on Jan. 15, 1902 by the SwedAE under 
Nordenskjold, who named it in commemoration of 
the winter spent there by J. Gunnar Andersson, 
Samuel A. Duse, and Toralf Grunden of his expe- 
dition. 

HOPE ISLAND: island about 1 mi. long with 
an islet off its S. end, lying about 7 mi. WNW. of 
D'Urville I., off the NE. tip of Palmer Pen.; in 
63°02'S., 56°52'W. The name appears on Powell's 
map published by Laurie in 1822. A Fr. exp. under 
D'Urville, 1837-40, charted an island in essentially 
the same position which he named Daussy Island. 
Not adopted: Dausay Island, Daussy Island. 

HOPE POINT: rocky bluff about 70 ft. in el., 
forming the N. side of the entrance to King Ed- 
ward Cove, on the W. side of Cumberland East 
Bay, South Georgia; in 54°17'S., 36°29'W. Charted 
and photographed by the SwedAE under Norden- 
skjold, 1901-4. The point is named for H. W. W. 
Hope, who directed a 1920 survey of King Edward 
Cove by personnel on H.M.S. Dartmouth. It is the 
site of a monument in commemoration of Sir 
Ernest Shackleton. 

HOPE POINT: bluff forming the W. end of 
Bertha I. and the E. side of the entrance to Wil- 
liam Scoresby Bay, off Mac-Robertson Coast; in 
about 67°23'S., 59 38'E. The name appears to 
have been applied by DI personnel on the William 
Scoresby who landed on Bertha I. in February 1936. 

HOP ISLAND: small, rocky islet, about 1.7 mi. 
long, which rises to about 170 ft. in el., marking 
the third largest of the Rauer Is. and lying about 
3 mi. WSW. of Filla I. in the west-central por- 
tion of the group, off Ingrid Christensen Coast; 
in about 68 51'S., 77°35'E. Charted by Norwegian 
cartographers from aerial photographs taken in 
January 1937 by the Nor. exp. under Lars Christen- 
sen, and named Hopoy, a Norwegian word mean- 
ing "cove island," as this feature was believed to 



form part of a horseshoe-shaped island which en- 
closed a prominent cove. The name Hop Island 
was proposed by John H. Roscoe, following his 
1952 compilation from aerial photographs taken by 
USN Op. Hjp. in March 1947, as he determined 
that the original Hopoy feature now comprises a 
chain of small islands, islets and rocks. Not 
adopted: Hopoy [Norwegian]. 

Hopoy: see Hop Island. 

HORDERN, CAPE: ice-free cape, overlain by 
morainic drift, separating Queen Mary and Knox 
Coasts, and marking the NW. end of the small 
peninsula identified as the Bunger Hills; in about 
66°16'S., 100°27'E. The cape lies at the S. side of 
the entrance to a narrow, sinuous inlet, which 
roughly bisects the Bunger Hills in an E.-W. direc- 
tion, and is enclosed on the W. by the Edisto Ice 
Tongue. Probably sighted from Watson Bluff, in 
98°52'E., by A. L. Kennedy and other members of 
the Western Base Party of the AAE under Mawson, 
1911-14, who charted the W. wall of what ap- 
peared to be two small islands lying N. of Cape 
Hoadley in about 100°35'E. Named by Mawson 
for Sir Samuel Hordern of Sydney, Australia, a 
patron of the AAE. Renamed Cape Hordern by 
the US-ACAN following correlation of Kennedy's 
map with the US-ACAN map of 1955 compiled from 
aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946- 
47. Not adopted: Hordern Island, Hordern 
Islands, Mount Hordern. 

Hordern, Mount; Hordern Islands: see Hordern, 
Cape. 

HORDERN, MOUNT: peak about 4,900 ft. in el., 
rising through the icecap about 5 mi. S. of Mt. 
Coates, in the David Range on Mac-Robertson 
Coast; in about 67°56'S., 62°32'E. Disc, in Febru- 
ary 1931 by the BANZARE under Mawson, and 
probably named for Sir Samuel Hordern, a patron 
of this exp. and the AAE under Mawson, 1911-14. 

HORLICK MOUNTAINS: mountain range lying 
SE. of the head of Ross Ice Shelf, tentatively inter- 
preted as a continuation of the Watson Escarp- 
ment. Tentatively located in about 86°00'S., 
115°00'W. on the basis of two observations, one by 
Kennett L. Rawson from a position in about 
83°00'S., 105°19'W., at the end of his SE. flight of 
Nov. 22, 1934, and another by Quin A. Blackburn 
in December 1934, from position looking up two 
eastern tributaries of Robert Scott Gl. on either 
side of a point in about 85°40'S., 152°00'W. Disc, 
in 1934 by the ByrdAE and named for William 
Horlick, of Horlick's Milk Corp., who helped sup- 
port the expedition. 



162 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



HORN, THE: peak about 800 ft. in el. with a 
sheer cliff of reddish rock on its W. side, sur- 
mounting the NW. cape of Eagle I., which lies in 
Prince Gustav Chan, between Louis Philippe Pen. 
and Vega I., in 63°39'S., 57°34'W. Disc, and 
named by the FIDS in 1945. The name is descrip- 
tive of the shape of the peak. 

HORN BLUFF: rocky promontory about 1,100 
ft. in el., marked by a prominent columnar struc- 
ture in its upper rock strata, projecting through 
the continental ice as a coastal cliff at the W. side 
of the entrance to Deakin Bay, on George V Coast; 
in about 68°24'S., 149°48'E. Disc, in December 
1912 by the AAE under Mawson, who named it for 
W. A. Horn of Adelaide, patron of the expedition. 

HORNE, MOUNT: mountain which hes W. of 
the Hauberg Mtns. and back of Orville Escarpment, 
on Joerg Plateau; in about 76°47'S., 70°00'W. 
Disc, by the RARE, 1947-48, under Ronne, who 
named it for Bernard Home, manager of the Home 
Department Store, Pittsburgh, Pa., who furnished 
windproofs and other clothing for the expedition. 
Not adopted : Mount Bernard Home. 

Hornet: see Horn Peak. 

HORN PEAK: an outstanding rocky peak about 
1,100 ft. in el., lying about 3 mi. W. of the head of 
William Scoresby Bay, on Kemp Coast; in about 
67°26'S., 59°25'E. Charted by Norwegian cartog- 
raphers from photographs taken by a Nor. exp. 
under Christensen in January-February 1937 and 
probably so named by them because of its promi- 
nence. Not adopted : Hornet [Norwegian] . 

HORSA NUNATAKS: isolated group of about 
five partly snow-covered nunataks, more than 2,000 
ft. in el., which rise above the Roberts Ice Pied- 
mont, about 14 mi. N. of Mt. Calais, in the NE. 
part of Alexander I Island; in 68°56'S., 70°18'W. 
First seen and photographed from the air in 1936 
and 1937 by the BGLE under Rymill. Surveyed 
from the ground in 1948 by the FIDS. The names 
for these nunataks and for the isolated nunatak 
to the south are after the brother chieftains, 
Hengist and Horsa, who led the first Saxon bands 
which settled England in the fifth century. 

HORSBURG POINT: point about 3.4 mi. NW. of 
Scarlett Pt., on the SW. side of Montagu I., in the 
South Sandwich Is. ; in 58° 26'S. , 26° 26'W. Charted 
in 1930 by DI personnel on the Discovery II, who 
named it for H. Horsburgh, technical officer on 
the DI staff. 

HORSE HEAD: jagged, rocky point with con- 
spicuous cliffs about 40 ft. in el., situated 600 yards 
N. of the mouth of Penguin River, in Cumberland 



East Bay, South Georgia; in 54°17'S., 36°30'W. 
The profile of the cliff is said to resemble a horse's 
head. First surveyed by the SwedAE, 1901-4, 
under Nordenskjold. The name Horse Head, 
recommended by the Br-APC in 1954, is an EngUsh 
form of "Hestes Hode," applied by sealers and 
whalers. Not adopted: Hestes Hode [Norwegian]. 

Horseshoe Bay; Horseshoe Island Cove: see 
Lystad Bay. 

HORSESHOE BAY: bay about 1 mi. wide at the 
S. side of Cape George, along the N. coast of South 
Georgia; in 54°17'S., 36°16'W. The name appears 
on a chart based upon a 1929 sketch survey by 
DI personnel. 

HORSESHOE BAY: cover situated at the N. side 
of the Cape Royds headland, along the W. side 
of Ross I.; in about 77°32'S., 166°09'E. Disc, and 
named by the BrNAE under Scott, 1901-4. The 
name is suggestive of the shape of the cove. 

HORSESHOE ISLAND: island about 7 mi. long 
and 3 mi. wide occupying most of the entrance to 
Square Bay, along the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 67°51'S., 67°12'W. Disc, and named by the 
BGLE under Rymill who mapped this area by land 
and from the air in 1936-37. Its name is indic- 
ative of the crescentic alignment of the 2,000 to 
3,000 foot mountains on the island. 

HORSESHOE ISLANDS: group of islets whose 
arrangement is suggestive of a horseshoe, about 
0.5 mi. WNW. of Grotto I., in the Argentine Is., off 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°14'S., 64°18'W. 
Charted and named by the BGLE under Rymill, 
1934-37. 

HORSESHOE MOUNTAIN: horseshoe-shaped 
mountain about 8,200 ft. in el., lying near the edge 
of the plateau and N. of the head of the Taylor Gl., 
in Victoria Land; in about 77°35'S., 160°25'E. 
Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, who so 
named this feature because of its shape. 

Hoseason Harbor: see Mikkelsen Harbor. 

HOSEASON ISLAND: island about 7 mi. long 
and 3 mi. wide, which rises to about 1,900 ft. in 
el., lying about 20 mi. W. of Trinity I. at the NE. 
end of the Palmer Arch.; in 63°45'S., 61°45'W. 
This name has appeared on charts for over 100 
years, and commemorates James Hoseason, first 
mate on the Sprightly, an Enderby Brothers seal- 
ing ship which operated in these waters in 1824-25. 

HOSKINS, MOUNT: mountain about 25 mi. W. 
of Cape William Henry May and about 8 mi. SSE. 
of Mt. Lindley, on the W. side of Ross Ice Shelf; 



163 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



in about 81°52'S., 159°28'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 
1901-4, under Scott, who named it for Sir Anthony 
Hoskins, former Lord of the Admiralty and a 
member of the BrNAE Ship Committee. 

Hospital Cove: see Yankee Harbor. 

HOULDER, MOUNT: dark, precipitous peak, 
about 1,100 ft. in el., bordering the E. side of 
Furness Gl. on the N. side of Elephant I., in the 
South Shetland Is.; in about 61°02'S., 55°00'W. 
Charted by a Br. exp. under Shackleton, 1914-16, 
and named for Frank Houlder of the Houlder 
steamship line, who was of assistance to the expe- 
dition. Not adopted: Mount Frank Houlder, 
Mount Holder. 

HOULE ISLET: low rocky islet, lying about 0.9 
mi. W. of Ressac It. and about 3.5 mi. NNE. of 
Zelee Glacier Tongue, ofT Adelie Coast; in about 
66°42'S., 141°12'E. Photographed from the air by 
USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47. Charted by the FrAE 
under Liotard, 1949-51, and so named because the 
surf breaks over this low-lying islet. Houle is the 
French word for surge or swell. 

HOUND BAY: bay, which is 2.5 mi. wide at its 
mouth and recedes 3 mi., entered between Tijuca 
Pt. and Cape Vakop along the N. coast of South 
Georgia; in 54°22'S., 36°13'W. The names George 
Bay and Hundebugten have appeared on charts 
for this feature. The SGS, 1951-52, reported that 
this bay is better known to whalers and sealers as 
"Bikjebugten" (the word Bikje implying any low 
type canine) . The name Hound Bay, proposed by 
the Br-APC, is an English form of this name. Not 
adopted: Bikjebugten [Norwegian], George Bay, 
Hundebugten [Norwegian] , St. Georges Bay. 

Houzeau de Lehaie, Cap; Houzeau de Lehaye, 
Cape: see Lehaie, Cape. 

HOVDE ICE TONGUE: small ice tongue, about 
2 mi. wide and 2 mi. long, projecting NW. from the 
continental ice overlying Ingrid Christensen Coast, 
about 3 mi. NE. of Flatnes Ice Tongue; in about 
69°14'S., 76°35'E. Charted by Norwegian cartog- 
raphers from aerial photographs taken in January 
1937 by the Nor. exp. under Lars Christensen. So 
named by John H. Roscoe, following his 1952 study 
of USN Op. Hjp. aerial photographs taken in March 
1947, because of its close association with Hovde 
Islet. 

HOVDE ISLET: round, rocky islet, about 0.6 mi. 
across, which rises to about 250 ft. in el., lying near 
the NW. end of Hovde Ice Tongue, close off Ingrid 
Christensen Coast; in about 69°14'S., 76°33'E. 
Charted by Norwegian cartographers from aerial 



photographs taken in January 1937 by the Nor. exp. 
under Lars Christensen, and named Hovde, a Nor- 
wegian word meaning rounded hill. The generic 
islet is approved as a more appropriate term be- 
cause of the offshore nature of this feature. Not 
adopted: Hovden [Norwegian]. 

Hovden: see Hovde Islet. 

HOVGAARD ISLAND: island about 3 mi. long, 
lying about 0.5 mi. SW. of Booth I., off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 65°08'S., 64°08'W. Disc, and 
named Krogmann Island by a Ger. exp. under Dall- 
mann, 1873-74, but the name Hovgaard Island, 
applied by the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 1897-99, 
has overtaken the original name in usage. Not 
adopted: He Howgaard [French], Krogmann Is- 
land. 

HOWARD, CAPE: high, fiat-topped, snow-cov- 
ered promontory separating Lamplugh and Odom 
Inlets, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 71°25'S., 
61°08'W. Disc, by the USAS who explored along 
this coast by land and from the air in 1940. Named 
by the US-ACAN for August Howard, founder of 
the American Polar Soc. and editor of the Polar 
Times. Not adopted: Cape Rusty. 

HOWARD, MOUNT: dark-appearing, rounded 
mountain lying NNE. of Mt. Bowen on the N. side 
of Davis Gl., in Victoria Land; in about 75°40'S., 
161°10'E. Disc, and named by the BrNAE under 
Scott, 1901-4. 

HOWARD BAY: bay about 4 mi. wide, lying be- 
tween Cape Simpson and Byrd Head along Mac- 
Robertson Coast; in about 67°27'S., 61°06'E. Disc, 
on about Feb. 18, 1931 by the BANZARE under 
Mawson, and named by him for A. Howard, a mem- 
ber of the expedition. Not adopted: Ufsoyv&gen 
[Norwegian] . 

Howard Island: (in about 72°40'S., 59°00'W.) the 
decision of May 1947 has been VACATED, since 
subsequent survey has shown that no island exists 
in the position indicated. Instead, the name How- 
ard has been applied to a cape in 71°25'S., 61°10'W. 

HOWE, MOUNT: a group of low connecting 
ridges and gable-shaped nunataks standing about 
15 mi. SE. of Mt. Weaver and S. of the head of 
Robert Scott Gl., rising above the ice of the south 
polar plateau to about 10,000 ft. in el., at the S. 
fringe of the Queen Maud Range; in about 87°10'S., 
149°20'W. Disc, in December 1934 by the ByrdAE 
geological party under Quin Blackburn, and named 
by Byrd for Louis McHenry Howe, secretary to the 
President of the United States at that time. Not 
adopted: Mount Louis McHenry Howe. 



164 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Howgaard, He: see Hovgaard Island. 

HOWISON GLACIER: channel glacier about 3 
ml. wide and 9 mi. long, flowing N. from the low, 
ice-covered ridge at the N. side of Reynolds Trough, 
and terminating in a small tongue close W. of 
Henry Bay, on Sabrina Coast; in about 66°40'S., 
120°45'E. Delineated from aerial photographs 
taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the 
US-ACAN for James R. Howison, captains clerk on 
the sloop of war Vincennes of the USEE under 
Wilkes, 1838-42. 

HOWKINS INLET: ice-filled inlet which recedes 
SW. about 6 mi. between Cape Brooks and Lamb 
Ft., along the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 73°40'S., 
60°54'W. Disc, and photographed from the air in 
December 1940 by the USAS. During 1947 it was 
photographed from the air by the RARE under 
Ronne, who in conjunction with the FIDS charted 
it from the ground. Named by the FIDS for 
G. Howkins, meteorologist with the FIDS base at 
Deception I. in 1944-45. 

HUB NUNATAK: beehive-shaped nunatak rising 
above the main flow of Lammers Gl. and protrud- 
ing near the center of The Traffic Circle, an ice- 
filled upland depression on Palmer Pen. which is 
marked by a series of prominent glaciers flowing in 
a radial pattern; in about 68°37'S., 66°25'W. Disc, 
in 1940 by members of the USAS, and so named 
because of its unique location near the center of 
The Traffic Circle. Not adopted: The Hub. 

HUCKLE, MOUNT: mainly ice-covered moun- 
tain, about 8,200 ft. in el., standing near the N. 
end of the Douglas Range in eastern Alexander I 
Island. It rises 7 mi. SSE. of Mt. Spivey on the 
W. side of Toynbee Gl. and is 9 mi. inland from 
George VI Sound; in 69°38'S., 69°48'W. Possibly 
first seen in 1909 by the FrAE under Charcot, but 
not recognized as part of Alexander I Island. It 
was photographed from the air in 1936-37 by the 
BGLE under Rymill. Surveyed from the ground 
in 1948 by FIDS, and named for Sydney R. Huckle, 
general assistant at Stonington I., who aided in 
the FIDS survey of the W. side of George VI Sound 
in 1949. 

Hudson, Cape: see Freshfield, Cape. 

HUDSON GLACIER: channel glacier about 3 mi. 
wide and 5 mi. long, fiowing N. from the continental 
ice at the W. fiank of Norths Highland to the E. 
side of Maury Bay, midway between Power Gl. and 
Stuart Pt., on Banzare Coast; in about 66°35'S., 
125°35'E. Delineated from aerial photographs 
taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the 
US-ACAN for William H. Hudson, midshipman on 



the sloop of war Peacock of the USEE under Wilkes, 
1838-42. 

HUDSON MOUNTAINS: group of low moun- 
tains, rising over 2,000 ft. in el., bordering the 
S. margin of Peacock Bay, at the E. end of Wal- 
green Coast; in about 74°00'S., 99°00'W. Disc, in 
flights from the Bear by the USAS in February 
1940. Named by the US-SCAN for Capt. WilUam 
L. Hudson, commander of the sloop of war Peacock 
of the USEE under Wilkes, 1838-42. The Peacock, 
accompanied by the Flying Fish under Lt. Walker, 
cruised along the edge of the pack N. of this coast 
for several days during the latter part of March 
1839. Not adopted: Noville Mountains. 

HUGGINS, MOUNT: peak about 12,800 ft. in 
el., rising SSW. of Mt. Riicker in the Royal So- 
ciety Range, on the W. side of the Ross Sea; in 
about 78°18'S., 162°30'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 
1901-4, under Scott, who named it for Sir William 
Huggins, Pres. of the Royal Soc, 1900-5. 

HUGHES, MOUNT: mountain about 7,700 ft. in 
el., lying S. of Mt. Longhurst in the Britannia 
Range, along the W. side of Ross Ice Shelf; in 
about 79°26'S., 157°12'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 
1901-4, under Scott, who named it for J. F. Hughes, 
Honorary Sec. of the Royal Geographical Soc, who 
helped in the preparation for the expedition. 

HUGHES BAY: bay lying between Capes 
Sterneck and Murray, along the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 64°13'S., 61°20'W. This name has ap- 
peared on maps for over 100 years, and com- 
memorates Edward Hughes, master of the 
Sprightly, an Enderby Brothers sealing vessel 
which explored in this area in 1824-25. Not 
adopted: Brialmont Bay, Hughes Gulf. 

Hughes Gulf: see Hughes Bay. 

Hugh Mitchell Peak: see Mitchell Peak. 

Huidobro, Isla: see Alpha Island. 

Huisvik Hafen: see Husvik Harbor. 

Hull Bay: see Cordell Hull Bay. 

Hull Glacier: see Cordell Hull Glacier. 

HULTH, MOUNT: peak about 4,800 ft. in el., 
with precipitous black cliffs on its SE. side, lying 
at the W. side of Cabinet Inlet, S. of the mouth 
of Friederichsen GL, on the E. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 66°41'S., 64°11'W. During 1947 it was 
charted by the FIDS and photographed from the 
air by the RARE under Ronne. Named by the 
FIDS for J. M. Hulth, Swedish polar bibliographer. 



165 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



HUMBOLDT GRABEN: a fault depression in 
the Wohlthat Mtns., separating Petermann Range 
from the Alexander Humboldt Mtns., in New 
Schwabenland; centering in about 71°40'S., 
12"00'E. The trough, about 30 mi. long and 
averaging about 4 mi. wide, descends northward 
from a maximum elevation of 6,800 ft. at the edge 
of the polar platform to 4,900 ft. in about 71°25'S. 
Disc, by the GerAE under Ritscher, 1938-39, and 
named after the nearby Alexander Humboldt 
Mountains. 

Humboldt Mountains: see Alexander Humboldt 
Mountains. 

HUM ISLET: islet lying NE. of the entrance to 
William Scoresby Bay, between the W. extremities 
of Bertha I. and Islay, off Mac-Robertson Coast; 
in about 67°22'S., 59°41'E. Disc, and named by 
DI personnel on the William Scoresby in February 
1936. Not adopted: Sundholmen [Norwegian]. 

HUMMOCK ISLAND: rocky crescent-shaped is- 
land about 1 mi. long, lying about 2.5 mi. NNE. of 
the W. tip of Robert I. and 3 mi. ENE. of Table I., 
in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°19'S., 59°45'W. 
Charted and given this descriptive name by DI per- 
sonnel on the Discovery II in 1935. 

HUMMOCK ISLAND: island about 1 mi. in 
diameter, lying about 4 mi. W. of Larrouy I. and 6 
mi. NNW. of Ferin Head, off the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 65°53'S., 65°31'W. Disc, and named by 
the BGLE under Rymill, 1934-37. 

Hummocks, He des deux: see Two Hummock 
Island. 

HUMP, THE: conspicuous dome-shaped summit 
on the N. shore of Lapeyrere Bay, northern Anvers 
I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°20'S., 63°16'W. The 
name appears on a chart based on a 1927 survey 
by DI personnel on the Discovery, but may reflect 
an earlier naming. 

HUMPBACK ROCKS: group of about three rocks 
lying 0.25 mi. N. of Cape Saunders, off the N. coast 
of South Georgia; in 54°07'S., 36°38'W. The SGS, 
1951-52, reported that the descriptive name 
"Kn0lrokset" (meaning Humpback Whale Rocks) 
has been used for this feature by the whalers and 
sealers at South Georgia. The English form of the 
name. Humpback Rocks, was recommended by the 
Br-APC in 1954. Not adopted: Kn0lrokset [Nor- 
wegian]. 

HUMPHREY LLOYD, MOUNT: conspicuous peak 
lying between Mt. Vernon Harcourt and Mt. Pea- 
cock in the Admiralty Range, in the NE. part of 



Victoria Land; in about 72°18'S., 169°10'E. Disc, 
in January 1841 by a Br. exp. under Ross, who 
named it for Dr. Humphrey Lloyd of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, an active member of the British Assn. 
which promoted interest in magnetic and meteor- 
ological research in the Antarctic. 

HUMPS ISLET: islet about 0.5 mi. long with 
two summits near the W. end, situated 4.5 mi. SSE. 
of the tip of The Naze, a peninsula of northern 
James Ross I., which lies S. of the NE. end of Pal- 
mer Pen.; in 63°59'S., 57°25'W. Disc, by the 
SwedAE under Nordenskjold, 1901-4. This de- 
scriptive name was recommended by the Br-APC 
in 1948 following a survey of the area by the FIDS 
in 1945. 

Hundebugten: see Hound Bay. 

HUNT, MOUNT: dome-shaped mountain about 
1,700 ft. in el., surmounting the promontory which 
terminates in Cape De la Motte, on George V 
Coast; in about 67°07'S., 144°19'E. Disc, in 1912 
by the AAE under Mawson, who named it for H. A. 
Hunt, Dir. of the Commonwealth Meteorological 
Bureau. 

HUNTER, CAPE: rocky promontory about 6 mi. 
W. of Cape Denison in Commonwealth Bay, on 
George V Coast; in about 67°00'S., 142°23'E. Disc, 
in 1912 and explored the following year by the AAE 
under Mawson, who named it for Dr. John G. Hun- 
ter of Sydney Univ., chief biologist at the AAE 
Main Base. 

HUNT GLACIER: small glacier descending E. 
from the highlands W. of Granite Hbr., and enter- 
ing the harbor immediately N. of Dreikanter Head, 
in Victoria Land; in about 76°53'S., 162°33'E. 
Charted by the BrAE under Scott, 1910-13. Prob- 
ably named for H. A. Hunt, Australian meteorolo- 
gist who assisted in writing the scientific reports of 
the BrAE under Shackleton, 1907-9. 

HUNT POINT: point, surmounted by a rocky 
peak about 2,000 ft. in el., marking the N. side of 
the entrance to Stonehouse Bay on the E. side of 
Adelaide I.; in 67°18'S., 68°00'W. Disc, and first 
roughly surveyed in 1909 by the FrAE under Char- 
cot. Resurveyed in 1948 by the FIDS, who named 
the point for Sgt. Kenneth D. Hunt, mechanic for 
the expedition's Norseman airplane in 1950. 

HUON BAY: shallow bay, about 8 mi. wide be- 
tween Cape Ducorps and Cape Legoupil, along the 
NW. coast of Louis Philippe Pen.; in 63°23'S., 
58°00'W. A Fr. exp. under D'Urville, 1837-40, 
originally gave the name Huon to a cape in this 
area after Felix Huon de Kermadec, a member of 
the expedition. Following a survey by the FIDS 



166 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



in 1946, it was found that no cape exists. The 
name Huon, however, is retained for the shallow 
bay which lies in the same area. 

HURLEY, CAPE: cape marking the E. side of the 
mouth of the depression occupied by Mertz Gl., on 
George V Coast; in about 67°37'S., 145°20'E. Disc, 
in 1912 by the AAE under Mawson, who named it 
for James Francis Hurley, official photographer at 
the AAE Main Base. 

HURLEY, MOUNT: snow-covered massif with 
steep bare slopes on the W. side, lying SW. of Cape 
Ann immediately behind the coast, in Enderby 
Land; in about 66°18'S., 51°10'E. Disc, in Janu- 
ary 1930 by the BANZARE, 1929-31, under Mawson, 
who probably named it for Capt. Frank (James 
Francis) Hurley, photographer with the exp. Hur- 
ley also served with the AAE under Mawson, 1911- 
14, and a Br. exp. under Shackleton, 1914-17. 

HUSVIK: whaling station at the head of Husvik 
Hbr., which is entered on the S. side of Stromness 
Bay, on the N. coast of South Georgia; in 54°10'S., 
36°43'W. Named in about 1912, probably by mem- 
bers of the T0nsberg Hvalfangeri, a Norwegian 
whaling company based there. 

HUSVIK HARBOR: southernmost of three har- 
bors at the head of Stromness Bay, along the N. 
coast of South Georgia; in 54°10'S., 36°40'W. The 
name dates back to about 1912, and was probably 
given by Norwegian whalers who frequented the 
harbor and established a whahng station at its 
head. Not adopted: Busen Fjord, Huisvik Hafen 
[German] . 

HUT COVE: small cove in the E. side of Hope 
Bay, entered from the N. between Seal Pt. and 
Grunden Rocks, at the NE. end of Palmer Pen.; 
in 63°24'S., 56°59'W. Disc, by a party under Dr. 
J. Gunnar Andersson of the SwedAE, 1901-4, who 
wintered at Hope Bay in 1903. So named in 1945 
by the FIDS, because they, like the SwedAE, 
established a base hut on the S. shore of this 
cove. 

HUT POINT: small point lying about 1.2 mi. 
NW. of Cape Armitage, at the S. end of Hut Point 
Pen., Ross I.; in about 77°51'S., 166°37'E. Disc, 
and named by the BrNAE under Scott, 1901-4, 
which established headquarters on this point. 

HUT POINT PENINSULA: long narrow penin- 
sula from 2 to 3 mi. wide and about 12 mi. long, 
projecting SSW. from the slopes of Mt. Erebus on 
Ross I., and forming the SE. shore of Erebus Bay, 
in about 77°47'S., 166°48'E. The BrNAE under 
Scott, 1901-4, built its hut on Hut Pt. at the S. 



end of the peninsula. Members of the BrAE under 
Scott, 1910-13, wintering on Cape Evans and often 
using the hut during their journeys, came to refer 
to this feature as Hut Point Peninsula. Not 
adopted: Cape Armitage Promontory, Winter 
Quarters Peninsula. 

Hvalbugten: see Whale Bay. 

Hval Bukta: see Whales, Bay of. 

Hvalskjaer; Hvalskjaerene: see Whale Skerries. 

Hvit oen: see White Island. 

HYPERION NUNATAKS: group of about eight 
nunataks lying S. of Saturn Glacier and about 9 
mi. W. of Corner Cliffs, in the SE. part of Alexander 
I Island; in 72°04'S., 68°54'W. These nunataks 
were first seen and photographed from the air by 
Lincoln Ellsworth on Nov. 23, 1935, and were 
mapped from these photographs by W. L. G. Joerg. 
They were surveyed in 1949 by the FIDS, and so 
named by them because of their association with 
Saturn Glacier; Hyperion being one of the satel- 
lites of Saturn. 

ICE BAY: long embayment about 30 mi. wide 
in the coast of Enderby Land; in about 67°45'S., 
50°00'E. Disc, and named by a Nor. exp. under 
Riiser-Larsen, on Jan. 15, 1930. Not adopted: 
Amundsen Bay, Isfjorden [Norwegian]. 

Ice Bay: see Ice Fjord. 

ICEBERG BAY: bay about 3 mi. wide, which 
indents the S. coast of Coronation I. between Cape 
Hansen and Olivine Pt., in the South Orkney Is.; 
in 60°40°S., 45°33'W. Named by Matthew Bris- 
bane, who roughly charted the S. coast of Coro- 
nation I. under the direction of James Weddell 
in 1823. 

ICEBERG POINT: prominent cliff about 8 mi. 
WSW. of Van Ryswyck Pt., on the SE. coast of 
Anvers I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°38'S., 63°04'W. 
This portion of Anvers I. was first explored by the 
BelgAE 1897-99, under De Gerlache. The name 
appears on a chart based upon a 1927 survey by 
DI personnel on the Discovery, but may reflect an 
earlier naming. 

ICE FJORD: inlet about 1 mi. wide which 
recedes NE. about 2.5 mi., lying 2 mi. N. of Wilson 
Hbr., along the S. coast and near the W. end of 
South Georgia; in 54°04'S., 37°46'W. The name 
dates back to at least 1920 and is now well estab- 
lished in international usage. Not adopted: Ice 
Bay. 



167 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



IDA, MOUNT: mountain in the Queen Alexandra 
Range, about 5,300 ft. in el. standing ENE. of Mt. 
Fox and about 13 mi. SW. of Mt. Hope, on the 
W. side of Beardmore Gl.; in about 83°39'S., 
169M0'E. Disc, and named by the BrAE, 1907-9, 
under Shackleton. 

IFO ISLET: low rocky islet lying about 0.2 mi. 
SE. of Helene It., at the W. end of Geologie Arch., 
close off Adelie Coast; in about 66°38'S., 139°44'E. 
Photographed from the air by USN Op. Hjp., 1946- 
47. Charted and named by the FrAE under Lio- 
tard, 1949-51. Ifo is the phonetic spelling of "11 
faut," a much-used expression by the FrAE mean- 
ing "one (you) must." 

ILE (plural, ILES) : for names begirming with 
lie or lies see iinder the specific part of the name. 
For example for lie Argentines see Argentines, He. 
{He is a French word for "Island.") 

IL POLO GLACIER: channel glacier about 2 mi. 
wide and over 8 mi. long, flowing NNE. from the 
continental ice and terminating at the SE. side 
of Sandefjord Ice Bay, midway between Polar 
Times and Polarforschung Glaciers on Ingrid 
Christensen Coast; in about 69°50'S., 74°15'E. 
Delineated in 1952 by John H. Roscoe from aerial 
photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp. in March 
1947. Named by Roscoe after II Polo, a polar 
journal published since 1946, by the Institute 
Geografico at Forh, Italy. 

INACCESSIBLE ISLAND: island about 0.75 mi. 
long, which is the northernmost of the Dellbridge 
Is.; lying 1.5 mi. SSW. of Cape Evans, Ross I.; in 
about 77°40'S., 166°22'E. Disc, and named by the 
BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott. 

INACCESSIBLE ISLANDS: group of small 
islands ranging from 400 to 700 ft. in el., the 
westernmost of the South Orkney Is., lying about 
23 mi. W. of Coronation I.; in 60°34'S., 46°44'W. 
Disc, in December 1821 by Capt. George PoweU 
and Capt. Nathaniel Palmer, though it is possible 
they are the Seal Islands seen by Palmer a year 
earlier. So named by Powell because of their 
inaccessibility. 

INDICATOR ISLAND: islet about 200 yards 
lojig, lying about 250 yards W. of NW. end of 
Galindez I., in the Argentine Is., off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 65°15'S., 64°17'W. Indicator 
Island was charted and named in 1935 by the 
BGLE imder Rymill. A wind sock was erected on 
this island by the BGLE to indicate wind direction 
for the expedition's airplane. 



Inexpressible Island: see Oscar Island. 

INEXPRESSIBLE ISLAND: island about 2.5 mi. 
long and 0.5 mi. wide, forming the W. shore of 
Evans Cove and lying in the outer edge of the 
Nansen Sheet along the coast of Victoria Land; 
in about 74°59'S., 163°42'E. First explored by the 
Northern Party of the BrAE under Scott, 1910-13. 
Originally called Southern Foothills, in contra- 
distinction to the Northern Foothills to the NE., 
the name "Inexpressible" was applied by the 
Northern Party after spending a very unpleasant 
winter on half rations on the island. Not adopted: 
Oscar Island (q.v.). Southern Foothills. 

INGRAM BAY: shallow indentation in the north- 
ernmost portion of the Amery Ice Shelf where it 
separates MacKenzie Bay from Prydz Bay, along 
Lars Christensen Coast; in about 68°30'S., 72°45'E. 
The BANZARE under Mawson made an air sur- 
vey on Feb. 10, 1931, sketching the boundaries of 
MacKenzie Bay. Probably named for Dr. W. W. 
Ingram, medical officer and biologist on the expe- 
dition. 

INGRID, CAPE: conspicuous, dark, rocky prom- 
ontory separating Sandefjord and Norvegia Bays 
on the W. coast of Peter I Island; in about 68°49'S., 
90°44'W. Disc, and named in 1927 by a Nor. exp. 
under Tofte in the Odd I, a vessel of Lars Christen- 
sen's whaling fleet. Named for the wife of Lars 
Christensen, Mrs. Ingrid Christensen. 

INGRID CHRISTENSEN COAST: that portion 
of the coast of Antarctica extending from Jennings 
Promontory in about 70°12'S., 71°46'E., to about 
81°00'E. Disc, by the Nor. exp. under Mikkelsen, 
who landed in the Vestvold Hills sector of this 
coast in February 1935. Named for Ingrid 
Christensen, wife of Lars Christensen, who sailed 
in Antarctic waters with her husband. A south- 
west extension of this coast, between Sandefjord 
Ice Bay and Jennings Promontory, was disc, and 
photographed from the air by USN Op. Hjp. in 
March 1947. Not adopted: Ingrid Christensen 
Land. 

Ingrid Christensen Land: see Ingrid Christensen 
Coast. 

INNER HARBOR: small harbor in the Melchior 
Is., Palmer Arch., formed by the semi-circular 
arrangement of Lambda, Epsilon, Alpha and Delta 
Islands; in 64°19'S., 63°00'W. The descriptive 
name was probably given by DI personnel who 
roughly surveyed the harbor in 1927. It was sur- 
veyed by Argentine expeditions in 1942, 1943 and 
1948. Not adopted: Puerto Interior [Spanish]. 



168 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



INNER LEE ISLET: islet about 0.8 mi. NNE. of 
Luck Pt., lying in the Bay of Isles, South Georgia; 
in 54°02'S., 37°16'W. Charted in 1912-13 by Rob- 
ert Cushman Murphy, American naturalist aboard 
the brig Daisy, who included it as one of two 
islets which he called the Lee Islands. These 
islets were recharted in 1929-30 by DI personnel, 
who renamed the southwestern of these two islets 
Inner Lee Islet. The northeastern islet is now 
known as Outer Lee Islet. Not adopted: Inner Lee 
Island, Lee Islands. 

INNES-TAYLOR, MOUNT: tabular mountain, 
about 8,500 ft. in el., standing at the S. side of 
Poulter Gl., where it joins the W. side of Robert 
Scott GL, near the S. edge of the Queen Maud 
Range; in about 86°51'S., 153°35'W. Disc, in De- 
cember 1934 by the ByrdAE geological party under 
Quin Blackburn, and named by Byrd for Capt. 
Alan Innes-Taylor, who served with the exp. as 
chief of trail operations. 

Innes-Taylor Inlet: see Nantucket Inlet. 

Innfjorden: see William Scoresby Bay. 

Inseln, Bucht der: see Isles, Bay of. 

INTERCURRENCE ISLAND: island about 4.5 
mi. long, being the largest of the Christiania Is., 
lying about 9 mi. ENE. of Liege I. at the NE. end 
of the Palmer Arch.; in 63°55'S., 61°24'W. Though 
the origin of this name is unknown, it has appeared 
on maps for over a hundred years and its usage 
has been established internationally. 

Interior, Puerto: see Inner Harbor. 

INVERLEITH HARBOR: small bay between An- 
drews Pt. and Briggs Pt. along the NE. coast of 
Anvers I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°32'S., 63°00'W. 
Presumably disc, by whalers working in this area 
and named Inverleith or Leith Harbor. The name 
Inverleith Harbor, "inver" meaning the place of 
meeting of rivers or where a river falls into the 
sea or lake, is recommended because the name 
Leith Harbor is used elsewhere in the Antarctic. 
Leith, Scotland is the home of Salvesen and Co., 
a whaling firm which has operated extensively in 
Antarctic waters. Not adopted: Leith Harbor 
(q.v.). 

INVISIBLE ISLET: small, tussock grass covered 
islet, lying close SE. of Crescent It. and MoUyhawk 
It. in the Bay of Isles, South Georgia; in 54°01'S., 
37°19'W. Charted in 1912-13, by Robert Cushman 
Murphy, American naturalist aboard the brig 
Daisy. Named Invisible Island, probably by DI 
personnel who surveyed the Bay of Isles in 1929-30. 
The name Invisible Islet is approved because of the 



small size of the feature. Not adopted: Invisible 
Island. 

Iota, Isla: see Peace Islet. 

IPHIGENE, MOUNT: mountain lying W. of Ochs 
Gl. between Mt. Marujupu and the Birchall Peaks, 
at the S. side of Paul Block Bay, in the Edsel Ford 
Ranges of Marie Byrd Land; in about 76°28'S., 
145°51'W. Disc, in 1929 by the ByrdAE and 
named by him for Mrs. Iphigene Ochs Sulzberger, 
daughter of Adolph Ochs and wife of Arthur Sulz- 
berger, patrons of the expedition. 

Irene Frazier, Mount: see Frazier, Mount. 

IRIS BAY: small bay along the E. side of South 
Georgia, lying 6 mi. NW. of Cape Vahsel, along 
the embayment between Cape Vahsel and Cape 
Charlotte; in 54°42'S., 35°56'W. The name Sand- 
wich Bay, after John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sand- 
wich, was given to the whole embayment between 
Cape Vahsel and Cape Charlotte in 1775 by a Br. 
exp. under Cook. The name was later restricted 
on maps to the small bay described, since a name 
for the large embayment was not considered use- 
ful. The SGS, 1951-52, reported that the name 
Iris Bay for the same feature is well established 
in use among the whalers and sealers in South 
Georgia, and that the name Sandwich Bay is un- 
known locally. The name Iris Bay is approved in 
order to conform with local usage. Not adopted: 
Sandwich Bay. 

IRIZAR, CAPE: bold rocky headland forming 
the N. end of Lamplugh I., along the coast of Vic- 
toria Land; in about 75°36'S., 163°02'E. Disc, by 
the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, who named it 
for Capt. Julian Irizar, of the Argentine naval 
vessel Uruguay, who rescued the shipwrecked 
SwedAE, 1901-3, under Nordenskjold. 

Irizar Island: see Jonassen Island. 

IRIZAR ISLAND: islet about 0.5 mi. long, lying 
0.5 mi. NE. of Uruguay I. at the NE. end of the 
Argentine Is., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
65°13'S., 64°13'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 1903-5, 
under Charcot, and named by him for Capt. Julian 
Irizar, Argentine Navy. The islet was roughly 
charted in 1935 by the BGLE under Rymill. 

Irvine Gardner Glacier: see Ketchum Glacier. 

IRVINE GLACIER: large glacier flowing in a 
southerly direction to a point just N. of Gardner 
Inlet, where it skirts a low ridge along the NE. 
side of Wetmore Glacier. From this point Irvine 
Glacier flows in a parallel but slightly lower course 
to Wetmore Glacier, the two merging at the head 



424589 O -57 - 12 



169 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



of Gardner Inlet N. of Mt. Austin, on the E. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in about 74°42'S., 63°15'W. Disc, 
by the RARE, 1947-48, under Ronne, who named 
it for George J. Irvine, of the Engineer Depot at 
Fort Belvoir, Va., who outlined the RARE photo- 
graphic program. 

IRVING POINT: easternmost point of Visoloi I., 
in the South Sandwich Is.; in 56°43'S., 27°07'W. 
Disc, by a Russ. exp. under Bellingshausen in 1819. 
Charted in 1930 by DI personnel on the Discovery 
II, and named for Lt. Cdr. J. C. C. Irving, RN 
(Ret.), who made sketches of the South Sandwich 
Is. from the ship. Not adopted: Penguin Point. 

ISAACSON POINT: the SE. point of Bellings- 
hausen I., in the South Sandwich Is.; in 59°26'S., 
27°03'W. Charted by DI personnel on the Dis- 
covery II in 1930 and named for Miss S. M. Isaac- 
son, an assistant to the staff of the Discovery Com- 
mittee. 

ISAIAH BOWMAN GLACIER: glacier about 5 
mi. wide and 40 mi. long, which lies SE. of Mt. 
Ruth Gade, in the Queen Maud Range, and flows 
NE. to the Ross Ice Shelf; in about 85°30'S., 
160°00'W. Disc, by the Geological Party of the 
ByrdAE in 1929, and named for Isaiah Bowman, 
eminent geographer and Pres. of The Johns Hop- 
kins Univ. who was dir. of the American Geo- 
graphical Soc, 1915-35. 

ISELIN BANK: submarine bank lying N. of 
Pennell Bank and Ross Sea; centering in about 
71°45'S., 177°30'W. Disc, by personnel on the 
Bear of Oakland during her cruises for the ByrdAE, 
1933-35, and named for C. O'D. Iselin, II, of the 
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 

Isfjorden: see Ice Bay. 

ISLA (plural, ISLAS) : for names beginning with 
Isla or Islas see under the specific part of the name. 
For example, for Isla Alfa see Alfa, Isla. (Isla is 
a Spanish word for "island.") 

ISLANDS POINT: point separating Berg Bay 
and Relay Bay, lying along the W. shore of Robert- 
son Bay in northern Victoria Land; in about 
71°28'S., 169°27'E. Charted in 1911 by the North- 
ern Party of the BrAE under Scott. Probably so 
named because several small islands lie off the 
coast in front of this feature. 

ISLA Y : island in the William Scoresby Arch, off 
Mac-Robertson Coast, lying about 4 mi. ENE. of 
the entrance to William Scoresby Bay and forming 
the NW. shore of Macfie Sound; in about 67°22'S., 



59°45'E. Disc, in February 1936 by DI personnel 
on the William Scoresby, who probably named it 
for an island of that name in the Hebrides. 

ISLES, BAY OF: bay, about 9 mi. wide and 
receding about 3 mi., lying between Capes BuUer 
and Wilson along the N. coast of South Georgia; 
in 54°02'S., 37°20'W. Disc, by a Br. exp. imder 
Cook in 1775, and so named by him because several 
islands lie in the bay. Not adopted: Bucht der 
Inseln [German]. 

ISLOTE (plural, ISLOTES) : for names begin- 
ning with Islote or Islotes see under the specific 
part of the name. For example, for Islotes Avion 
see Avion, Islotes. (Islote is a Spanish word for 
"Islet.") 

IVEAGH, MOUNT: mountain about 11,000 ft. in 
el., which stands between Keltic and Mill Glaciers 
on the E. side of Beardmore Gl. in about 85°10'S., 
171°20'E. Disc, and named by the BrAE, 1907-9, 
under Shackleton. 

IVORY PINNACLES: two ice-covered peaks, 
about 3,400 ft. in el., projecting from the S. part 
of a spur which extends N. from the W. side of 
Detroit Plateau in the direction of Poynter Hill, 
on the NW. side of Louis Philippe Pen.; in 63°50'S., 
59°06'W. Charted in 1948 by members of the 
FIDS who applied this descriptive name. 

JABET PEAK: peak about 1,800 ft. in el., which 
marks the SW. end of a serrated ridge about 1 mi. 
NE. of Port Lockroy, on the NW. side of Wiencke I., 
in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°49'S., 63°28'W. Prob- 
ably first sighted in 1898 by the BelgAE imder De 
Gerlache. The peak was first charted by the 
FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, who named it for 
Jacques Jabet, boatswain of the exp. ship Franqais. 

JACKLING, MOUNT: peak standing about 0.7 
mi. W. of Mt. Fitzsimmons, in the N. group of the 
Rockefeller Mtns. on Edward VII Pen.; in about 
77°54'S., 155°24'W. Disc, on Jan. 27, 1929 by mem- 
bers of the ByrdAE on an exploratory flight over 
this area. 

Jackson, Mount: see Andrew Jackson, Mount. 

Jacob Ruppert Coast: see Ruppert Coast. 

JACQUINOT, MOUNT: pyramidal peak about 
1,600 ft. in el. with exposed rock on its N. side, 
lying 2 mi. S. of Cape Legoupil and 0.5 mi. E. of 
Huon Bay, on the NW. coast of Louis Philippe Pen.; 
in 63°21'S., 57°53'W. Disc, by a Fr. exp., 1837-40, 
under D'Urville, who named it for Charles Jac- 
quinot, captain of the exp. ship Zelee. 



170 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



JACQUINOT ROCKS : group of rocks about mid- 
way between Hombron Rocks and Cape Ducorps, 
lying about 3 mi. off the NW. coast of Louis 
Philippe Pen.; in 63°25'S., 58°24'W. Charted in 
1946 by the FIDS who named the rocks for 
Honore Jacquinot, surgeon with the Fr. exp. under 
D'Urville, which explored this coast in 1838. 

JAGGED ISLAND: rocky island less than 1 mi. 
long, about 2.5 mi. NNE. of Round Pt., King George 
I., in the South Shetland Is.; in about 61°53'S., 
58°14'W. This island, presumably known to early 
sealers in the area, was charted by DI personnel 
on the Discovery II in 1935 and given this descrip- 
tive name. 

JAGGED ISLAND: island in Grandidier Chan., 
about 2 mi. long and 1 mi. wide, lying about 1.5 
mi. E. of Dodman i. and 8 mi. W. of Ferin Head, 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°58'S., 
65°44'W. Probably first sighted in January 1909 
by the FrAE under Charcot. It was charted and 
named by the BGLE, 1934-37, under Rymill. 

JAGGED ROCKS: group of jagged rocks lying 
near the center of Hut Cove in the E. part of Hope 
Bay, at the NE. end of Palmer Pen.; in 63°24'S., 
56°59'W. First charted in 1903 by a party under 
J. Gunnar Andersson of the SwedAE. Named by 
the FIDS in 1945. 

Jallour Islands; Jalour Islets: see Yalour Islets. 

JAMES, CAPE: cape which forms the S. tip of 
Smith I., in the South Shetland Is.; in about 
63°06'S., 62°44'W. The name appears on a chart 
based upon a Br. exp. 1828-31, under Foster, and 
is now well established in international usage. 

James Island: see Smith Island. 

James Lassiter Barrier; James Lassiter Ice Bar- 
rier: see Filchner Ice Shelf. 

JAMES NUNATAK: conical nunatak about 1,400 
ft. in el., standing about 6 mi. S. of Lewis Pt. on 
the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 69°59'S., 62°26'W. 
This feature was photographed from the air by 
members of the USAS in September 1940 and was 
probably seen by the USAS grounjj party that ex- 
plored this coast. During 1947 it was charted by 
a joint party consisting of 'memlJ'ers of the RARE 
and FIDS. Named by the FIDS for David P. James, 
FIDS surveyor at the Hope Bay base in 1945-46. 

Jameson Island; Jamesons Island: see Low Is- 
land. 

James Robertson, Mount: see Robertson, Mount. 



JAMES ROSS ISLAND: large island on the SE. 
side and near the NE. extremity of Palmer Pen., 
from which it is separated by Prince Gustav Chan.; 
in 64°10'S., 57°40'W. It is irregularly shaped and 
extends about 40 mi. in a N.-S. direction. Charted 
in October 1903 by the SwedAE under Nordenskjold, 
who named it for Sir James Clark Ross, leader of a 
Br. exp. to this area in 1842. Not adopted: Ross 
Island (q.v.). 

James W. Ellsworth Land: see Ellsworth High- 
land. 

JANE PEAK: conspicuous nunatak, about 700 
ft. in el., standing 0.5 mi. W. of the N. part of Borge 
Bay on Signy I., South Orkney Is.; in 60°43'S., 
45°38'W. Roughly surveyed in 1933 by DI person- 
nel, and resurveyed in 1947 by the FIDS. Named 
in 1954 by the Br-APC after the brig Jane, James 
Weddell commanding, which visited the South 
Orkney Is. in 1822-23. 

JANET ROCK: small rock about 7.5 mi. WNW. 
of Marret GL, lying immediately seaward of the ice 
cliffs overlying Adelie Coast; in about 66°33'S., 
139°10'E. Photographed from the air by USN Op. 
Hjp., 1946-47. Charted by the FrAE under Marret, 
1952-53, and named for Paul Janet, French spir- 
itualist-philosopher of the 19th century. 

Jane Wade, Mount: see Gray, Mount. 

Jane Wyatt, Mount: see Wyatt, Mount. 

JANSSEN PEAK: conspicuous peak about 3,600 
ft. in el., forming the SW. end of Sierra Du Fief 
in the SW. part of Wiencke I., in the Palmer Arch.; 
in 64°53'S., 63°31'W. Disc, by the BelgAE, 1897-99, 
under De Gerlache. It was charted by the FrAE, 
1903-5, under Charcot, who named it for Jules 
Janssen, noted French astronomer. 

Jason, Mount; Jason Land: see Jason Island. 

JASON HARBOR: bay about 1 mi. wide, lying W. 
of Allen Bay in the N. side of Cumberland West Bay, 
South Georgia; in 54°11'S., 36°35'W. Charted and 
named by the SwedAE, 1901-4, under Nordenskjold. 
The bay was previously visited by the Jason, Capt. 
C. A. Larsen, in 1894. 

JASON ISLAND: irregular-shaped, mountainous 
island, about 40 mi. long in an E.-W. direction and 
varying from 2 to 10 mi. wide, lying off the E. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 66°10'S., 61°20'W. The island 
rises steeply above the Larsen Ice Shelf to about 
1,500 ft. in el. and is deeply inderited by conspicuous 
bays, and on the W. side is separated from Philippi 
Rise on Palmer Pen. by an ice-filled strait only 2 mi. 
wide. Disc, on Dec. 1, 1893 by a Nor. exp. under 



171 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



C. A. Larsen, who named it Mount Jason after his 
ship. Larsen was too far away to determine the 
true nature of his newly discovered "mountain" 
which Dr. Otto Nordenskjold, when viewing it in 
1902, considered to be a nunatak in the ice shelf. 
The island was surveyed by the FIDS in 1947 and 
1953. The southernmost promontory on this is- 
land is probably what Larsen considered to be a 
separate island and which he named Veier Island. 
Not adopted: Jason Land, Mount Jason. 

JASON ISLET: islet about 1.5 mi. N. of Larsen 
Pt., at the W. side of the entrance to Cumberland 
Bay, off the N. coast of South Georgia; in 54°10'S., 
36°30'W. Named after the Jason, the vessel used 
by Capt. C. A. Larsen in 1893-94 in exploring Cum- 
berland Bay and the E. coast of Palmer Peninsula. 

J. Carlson Bay: see Carlsson Bay. 

JEANNE, MOUNT: snowy peak, about 600 ft. in 
el., standing 0.25 mi. NW. of Mt. Gueguen and over- 
looking Port Charcot on Booth I., off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 65°04'S., 64°01'W. Disc, by the 
FrAE, 1903-5, under Dr. Jean B. Charcot, and 
named by him for his sister. Not adopted: Jeanne 
HUl. 

Jeanne Hill: see Jeanne, Mount. 

JEBSEN, PORT: small harbor immediately N. 
of Jebsen Point, along the W. side of Signy I., in the 
South Orkney Is.; in 60°43'S., 45°40'W. Port Jeb- 
sen was roughly charted in 1912-13 by Petter S0rlle, 
a Norwegian whaling captain. The harbor is 
named after nearby Jebsen Point. 

JEBSEN POINT: point at the S. side of Port Jeb- 
sen, along the W. side of Signy I., in the South 
Orkney Is.; in 60°43'S., 45°40'W. Jebsen Point was 
charted and named on a map based upon a running 
survey of these islands by Capt. Petter S0rlle in 
1912-13. Not adopted: Point Jebsen. 

JEBSEN ROCKS: chain of rocks extending in an 
E.-W. direction about 0.5 mi. N. of Jebsen Point, 
off the W. side of Signy I., in the South Orkney Is.; 
in 60°43'S., 45°41'W. These rocks were first 
charted by Capt. Petter S0rlle, a Norwegian whaler 
who made a running survey of the South Orkney 
Is. in 1912-13. They are named after nearby Jeb- 
sen Point. 

JEFFRIES POINT: point along the south-central 
side of Cook I., in the South Sandwich Is.; in 
59°28'S., 27°09'W. Charted in 1930 by DI person- 
nel on the Discovery II and named for Miss M. E. 
Jeffries, an assistant to the staff of the Discovery 
Committee. 



JENNINGS LAKE : narrow meltwater lake about 
10 mi. long, lying on the E. flank of Baker Three Gl. 
at the foot of Jennings Promontory, and retained 
by moraine deposits which have formed along the 
S. and W. sides of Thil It., off the W. end of Ingrid 
Christensen Coast; in about 70°12'S., 71°45'E. 
Delineated in 1952 by John H. Roscoe from aerial 
photographs taken by USN Op Hjp. in March 1947, 
and so named because of its close association with 
Jennings Promontory. 

JENNINGS PROMONTORY: prominent rock 
promontory, which marks the W. end of Ingrid 
Christensen Coast, standing at the N. side of the 
confluence of Kreitzer and Baker Three Glaciers, at 
the head of Amery Ice Shelf; in about 70°12'S., 
71°46'E. Delineated in 1952 by John H. Roscoe 
from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp. in 
March 1947, and named by him for Lt. James C. 
Jennings, USN, co-pilot and navigator on USN Op. 
Hjp. photographic flights made in January-March 
1947 in this area and other coastal areas between 
14° and 164°, east longitude. 

JENNY ISLAND: rocky island about 2 mi. in 
diameter and about 1,600 ft. in el., lying about 3 
mi. ENE. of Cape Alexandra, the SE. extremity of 
Adelaide I., in northern Marguerite Bay; in 
67°44'S., 68°25'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 1908-10, 
under Charcot, and named by him for the wife of 
Sub-Lieutenant Maurice Bongrain, French Navy, 
second officer of the expedition. 

JEREMY, CAPE: cape at the W. side of Mt. 
Edgell, forming the E. side of the N. entrance to 
George VI Sound, on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 69°24'S., 68°51'W. Disc, by the BGLE, 1934-37, 
under Rymill, who named it for Jeremy Scott, son 
of J. M. Scott, who served as home agent for the 
expedition. 

JESSIE BAY: bay about 4 mi. wide, lying between 
Mackenzie and Pirie Peninsulas along the N. side 
of Laurie I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°44'S., 
44°43'W. Charted by the ScotNAE, 1902-4, under 
Dr. William S. Bruce, who named this bay for his 
wife, Mrs. Jessie Mackenzie Bruce. 

Jessie O'Keefe, Mount: see Blackburn, Mount. 

JESTER ROCK: isolated rock midway between 
Emperor It. and Noble Rocks in the De Dion Its., 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°52'S., 
68°42'W. The De Dion Its. were first sighted and 
roughly charted in 1909 by the FrAE under Char- 
cot. Jester Rock was surveyed in 1948 by the FIDS, 
who so named it because of its association with 
Emperor Islet. Not adopted: Page Rock. 

Joerg, Cape: see Agassiz, Cape. 



172 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



JOERG PENINSULA: rugged, mountainous pen- 
insula, about 20 mi. long in an E.-W. direction 
and averaging about 8 mi. wide, lying between 
Trail and Solberg Inlets on the E. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 68°12'S., 65°12'W. The peninsula lies 
in the area explored from the air by Sir Hubert 
Wilkins in 1928 and Lincoln Ellsworth in 1935, but 
was first charted by members of the USAS in 1940. 
It was named in 1952 by the British Antarctic 
Place-names Committee, following a 1947 survey of 
this coast by the FIDS, for W. L. G. Joerg, who, 
until his death on Jan. 7, 1952, was a member of 
the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names of the 
United States Board on Geographic Names, and 
over a long period made notable contributions to 
the solution of problems of Antarctic cartography, 
nomenclature and history. 

JOERG PLATEAU: an upland area which is 
mainly ice covered, but through which protrude 
the tops of numerous peaks and mountains, sit- 
uated to the SW. of Gardner Inlet and W. of Orville 
Escarpment at the base of Palmer Pen.; centering 
in about 76°00'S., 67°30'W. Disc, and photo- 
graphed from the air by the RARE 1946-48, under 
Ronne, who named the plateau for W. L. G. Joerg. 

JOHANNESEN POINT: the SW. point of Main I. 
in the Willis Is., off the W. end of South Georgia; 
in 54°02'S., 38°17'W. This feature was named All 
Johannesens Point, presumably by DI personnel 
who charted South Georgia in the period 1926-30. 
Following a survey of the island in 1951-52, the 
SGS reported that this cumbersome name is seldom 
used locally. On this basis, the Br-APC recom- 
mended the present shortened form of the name. 
Not adopted: All Johannesens Point. 

JOHANNES MULLER CRESTS: group of peaks 
about 9,800 ft. in el., lying immediately S. of the 
Filchner Mtns. at the N. edge of the polar plateau, 
in New Schwabenland; in about 72°40'S., 8°10'E. 
Disc, by the GerAE, 1938-39, under Ritscher and 
named for Johannes Miiller, navigation officer of 
the Deutschland, exp. ship of the GerAE, 1911-12, 
under Filchner. Not adopted: Johann Miiller 
Crest. 

JOHANNSEN LOCH: cove about 0.5 mi. long, 
lying 1 mi. N. of Ocean Hbr. along the N. coast of 
South Georgia; in 54°19'S., 36°15'W. The name 
appears on a chart based upon surveys by DI per- 
sonnel during the period 1926-30, but may reflect 
an earlier naming. 

Johann Miiller Crest: see Johannes Miiller Crests. 

JOHANSEN ISLANDS: group of small, low, 
partly snow-free islands lying off the NW. coast of 
Alexander I Island; in about 69°05'S., 72°07'W. 



Disc, from the U.S.S. Bear, on its initial approach 
to establish the East Base of the USAS in 1940. 
Named for Bendik Johansen, ice pilot for the USAS, 
who served in a similar capacity on the Byrd Ant- 
arctic Expeditions of 1928-30 and 1933-35. 

JOHN BOWMAN PEAK: peak about 1,900 ft. in 
el., lying approximately in the center of the Alex- 
andra Mtns. on Edward VII Pen.; in about 77°30'S., 
153°28'W. Disc, by the ByrdAE in 1929, and 
named for John McEntee Bowman, then Pres. of 
the Bowman Biltmore Hotels Corporation, who 
donated headquarters for the preparation of the 
expedition. Not adopted: John Bowman Moun- 
tain. 

John Carlsson Bucht: see Carlsson Bay. 

John Hayes Hammond Inlet; John Hays Ham- 
mond Glacier: see Hammond Glacier. 

John Murray Gletscher: see Purvis Glacier. 

John Oliver LaGorce Mountains: see La Gorce 
Mountains. 

JOHN PEAKS: prominent snow-covered peaks, 
about 1,400 ft. in el., at the S. end of Powell I., in 
the South Orkney Is.; in 60°43'S., 45°03'W. Prob- 
ably first sighted by Capt. George Powell and Capt. 
Nathaniel Palmer, who disc, these islands in De- 
cember 1821. The peaks were charted in 1933 by 
DI personnel on the Discovery II who named them 
for D. D. John, member of the zoological staff of 
the Discovery Committee. 

JOHN QUINCY ADAMS GLACIER: channel gla- 
cier about 9 mi. wide and over 20 mi. long, flowing 
WNW. from the continental ice overlying Budd 
Coast to the E. side of the head of Vincennes Bay; 
in about 66°50'S., 109°50'E. This area was en- 
shrouded by heavy clouds in the USN Op. Hjp. 
aerial photographs of February 1947, but it is be- 
lieved that this glacier extends for a considerable 
distance to the SE. and that it lies close N. of a 
prominent, ice-covered E.-W. mountain range 
which overlooks the head of Vincennes Bay. De- 
lineated from aerial photographs taken by USN 
Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for 
John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the 
United States, who initiated interest in a govern- 
mental scientific exp. and the establishment of a 
national observatory. Adams was later instru- 
mental, while serving as Representative from Mas- 
sachusetts, in gaining congressional authorization 
of the USEE under Wilkes, 1838-42, and perpetuat- 
ing the compilation and publication of the large 
number of scientific reports based on the work of 
the expedition. 



173 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



John Shepard Island: see Shepard Island. 

JOHNSON, CAPE: cape along the E. coast of 
Victoria Land forming the N. side of the entrance 
to Wood Bay; in about 74°15'S., 166°00'E. Disc, 
in 1941 by a Br. exp. under Ross, who named it for 
Capt. Edward John Johnson, RN. Not adopted: 
Cape Sibbald (q.v.). 

JOHNSONS DOCK: anchorage at the NE. side 
of South Bay, along the S. coast of Livingston I., in 
the South Shetland Is.; in about 62°37'S., 60°26'W. 
The name dates baclc to about 1822 and was applied 
by sealers who frequented the anchorage. Not 
adopted: Johnson's Dock. 

Johnsons Island: see Half Moon Island. 

JOHNSTON GLACIER: glacier flowing in a SSE. 
direction along the N. side of Mt. Owen to the head 
of Nantucket Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 74°28'S., 62°13'W. Disc, by the RARE, 1947-48, 
under Ronne, who named it for Freeborn Johnston, 
of the Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism at Carnegie 
Inst., Washington, D.C. in recognition of his con- 
tributions to the planning of the geophysical pro- 
gram and the working up of the results for the 
expedition. 

JOHNSTON PEAK: sharp dark peak about 3,500 
ft. in el., about 12 mi. SW. of Simmers Peaks, in 
Enderby Land; in about 66°11'S., 52°28'E. Disc, 
in January 1930 by the BANZARE under Mawson, 
who named it for Prof. T. Harvey Johnston, chief 
biologist to the expedition. Not adopted: Harvey 
Johnston Peak, Mount Harvey Johnston. 

John Wheeler, Cape: see Wheeler, Cape. 

JOINVILLE ISLAND: largest island of the Join- 
ville Island group, about 40 mi. long in an E.-W. di- 
rection and 12 mi. wide, lying off the NE. tip of 
Palmer Pen., from which it is separated by Ant- 
arctic Sound; in 63°15'S., 55°45'W. Disc, in 1838 
by a Fr. exp. under D'Urville, who named it for 
Prince de Joinville. 

JOMFRUENE ISLAND: island with several small 
but well-defined peaks, lying 1 mi. NW. of Cape 
Paryadin, off the W. end of South Georgia; in 
54°03'S., 38°04'W. The name Three Point Island 
has appeared on maps for this island for many 
years. Following a survey of the island in 1951-52, 
the SGS reported that this island is known to 
whalers and sealers as Jomfruene, and that the 
name Three Point Island is unknown locally. The 
name Jomfruene Island is approved in order to 
conform with local usage. This name should not 
be confused with a probably corruption of the ap- 
proved spelling, Jungfrauen (The Maidens) , which 



has erroneously appeared on some maps for three 
low rocks lying close off the NE. tip of Jomfruene 
Island. Not adopted: Three Point Island. 

JONASSEN ISLAND: island about 2.5 mi. long, 
lying 1 mi. N. of Andersson I. in the S. entrance 
to Antarctic Sound, off the NE. tip of Palmer Pen.; 
in 63°33'S., 56°40'W. This island was named Irizar 
Island by the SwedAE, 1901-4, under Nordenskjold, 
for Capt. Julian Irizar of the Argentine ship 
Uruguay, who rescued the shipwrecked SwedAE in 
1903. In 1904 Dr. Jean B. Charcot, apparently un- 
aware of the Swedish naming, gave the name Irizar 
to an island off the W. coast of Palmer Peninsula. 
Since it is confusing to have two islands in close 
proximity identically named, and because Charcot's 
Irizar Island has appeared more widely on maps 
and in reports, the US-ACAN accepts the decision 
of the Br-APC that the name given this island by 
Nordenskjold be altered. The new name commem- 
orates Ole Jonassen, who accompanied Norden- 
skjold on his two principal sledge journeys in 
1902-3. Not adopted: Irizar Island. 

Jones, Cape: see Jones Ridge. 

JONES, CAPE: bluff on the E. coast of Victoria 
Land, lying NNW. of Coulman I.; in about 73°08'S., 
169°40'E. Disc, in 1841 by a Br. exp. under Ross, 
who named it for Capt. William Jones, RN. Not 
adopted : Cape Constance. 

JONES, MOUNT: northernmost mountain of the 
Clark Mtns., in the E. part of the Edsel Ford 
Ranges of Marie Byrd Land; in about 77°14'S., 
142°06'W. Disc, on aerial flights from West Base 
of the USAS in 1940 and named for Clarence F. 
Jones, then Prof, of Geography at Clark University. 

JONES CHANNEL: narrow ice-filled channel, 
about 10 mi. long and from 1 to 3 mi. wide, which 
separates Blaiklock I. from the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen. and joins Bourgeois Fjord with the head of 
Bigourdan Fjord; in 67°30'S., 66°57'W. Named 
for Harold D. Jones, FIDS airplane mechanic at 
Stonington I., 1947-49, who was a member of the 
FIDS party which disc, surveyed, and sledged 
through this channel in 1949. 

JONES GLACIER: channel glacier about 5 mi. 
wide and 6 mi. long, flowing N. from the conti- 
nental ice to Wilhelm II Coast, close E. of Krause 
Pt.; in about 66°35'S., 91°30'E. Delineated from 
aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946- 
47, and named by the US-ACAN for Ens. Teddy E. 
Jones, USNR, photo interpreter with the Naval 
Photographic Interpretation Center, who served as 
recorder and assistant with the USN Op. Wml. 
parties which established astronomical control 
stations along Wilhelm II, Knox and Budd Coasts. 



174 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



JONES RIDGE: small rock ridge, marked by a 
sharp peak at its seaward end, protruding above 
the lower reaches of Denman Gl. near the point 
where the glacier enters Robinson Bay, on Queen 
Mary Coast; in about 66°42'S., 99°19'E. Disc, by 
the Western Base Party of the AAE under Mawson, 
1911-14, who applied the name Cape Jones, be- 
lieving the feature marked the W. end of the promi- 
nent rock cliffs at the E. side of Denman Gl. Dr. 
S. E. Jones served as medical officer at the Western 
Base and as leader of the party which extended 
exploration W. to Gaussberg. The name Jones 
Ridge was reassigned on the US-ACAN map of 
1955, compiled from aerial photographs taken by 
USN Op. Hjp. in February 1947, because a substan- 
tial portion of the Denman Gl. flowage separates 
this feature from the rock cliffs to the east. Not 
adopted: Cape Jones. 

JONES ROCKS : group of rock outcrops protrud- 
ing above the ice-covered cape at the E. side of the 
entrance to the Bay of Winds, on Queen Mary 
Coast; in about 66°34'S., 97°45'E. Charted by the 
AAE, 1911-14, under Mawson, and named by him 
for Dr. S. Evan Jones, medical officer with the 
Western Base party. 

Jon Islet: see Lavebrua Islet. 

Joseph Ames Range: see Ames Range. 

JOSEPH COOK BAY: bay lying SE. of Cape 
Freshfield along George V Coast; in about 68°30'S., 
15r45'E. Disc, by the AAE, 1911-14, under Maw- 
son, who named it for Joseph Cook, Prime Minister 
of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1914. Not 
adopted: Cook Bay. 

Joseph Haag, Mount: see Haag, Mount. 

JOSEPHINE, MOUNT: low-lying peak, about 
1,600 ft. in el., marked by prominent rock out- 
crops, standing about 6 mi. ESE. of John Bowman 
Peak in the Alexandra Mtns., on Edward VII Pen.; 
in about 77°32'S., 153°12'W. Disc, by R. Adm. 
Byrd on the ByrdAE Eastern Flight of Dec. 5, 1929, 
and named by him during the ByrdAE operations 
of 1933-35 for Miss Josephine Clay Ford, daughter 
of Edsel Ford, contributor to both expeditions. 

Josephine Petras, Mount: see Petras, Mount. 

JOUBIN ISLETS : group of N.-S. trending islets 
lying about 5 mi. SW. of Cape Albert de Monaco, 
Anvers I., and 3 mi. W. of Gossler Islets, in the 
Palmer Arch.; in 64°46'S., 64°25'W. Disc, by the 
FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, and named by him 
for Louis Joubin, French naturalist. 



JOUGLA POINT: point forming the W. side of 
the entrance to Alice Creek in Port Lockroy, lying 
on the W. side of Wiencke I. in the Palmer Arch.; 
in 64°50'S., 63"31'W. Disc, and named by the 
FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, who considered it 
to be a peninsula. Because of its small size the 
term point is considered more appropriate. Not 
adopted: Presqu'ile Jougla [French]. 

JOYCE, MOUNT: dome-shaped mountain lying 
NW. of Mounts Howard and Bowen on the divide 
between David Gl. and Davis Gl. in Victoria Land; 
in about 75°36'S., 160°38'E. First charted by the 
BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton, who named it for 
Ernest Joyce, in charge of general stores, dogs, 
sledges, and zoological collections with this exp. 
and a member with Shackleton of the BrNAE, 
1901-4, under Scott. 

JULES, CAPE: rocky cape with a small cove 
along its N. end, lying about 9 mi. ESE. of Cape 
Bienvenue on Adelie Coast; in 66°44'S., 140°55'E. 
Disc, in 1840 by the Fr. exp. under D'Urville, who 
applied his own given name to this feature. The 
area was charted by the AAE in 1912-13, and again 
by the BANZARE in 1931, both under Mawson. 
The FrAE under Barre obtained astronomical con- 
trol at this locality in 1951. 

JUMBO COVE: cove about 0.75 mi. SSE. of 
Busen Pt., along the N. coast of South Georgia; in 
54°10'S., 36°33'W. Charted and named by DI per- 
sonnel during the period 1926-30. 

JUNCTION CORNER: the junction point of the 
mainland with the W. side of Shackleton Ice Shelf 
on Queen Mary Coast; in about 66°29'S., 94°50'E. 
Disc, and named by the AAE, 1911-14, under 
Mawson. 

June, Mount: see Harold June, Mount. 

JUNE ISLAND: islet in the Debenham Is. lying 
SW. of Audrey I., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 68°08'S., 67°07'W. Disc, and charted by the 
BGLE, 1934-37, under Rymill, who named it for a 
daughter of Frank Debenham, member of the 
BGLE Advisory Committee. 

JUPITER GLACIER: glacier on the E. coast of 
Alexander I Island, about 10 mi. long and 5 mi. 
wide at its mouth, which flows SE. into George VI 
Sound to the south of Ablation Valley; in 70°57'S., 
68°30'W. This glacier was first photographed 
from the air on Nov. 23, 1935 by Lincoln Ellsworth, 
and was mapped from these photographs by 
W. L. G. Joerg. It was roughly surveyed in 1936 
by the BGLE under Rymill. The name, after the 
planet Jupiter, was given by FIDS following their 
surveys in 1948 and 1949. 



175 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



KADE POINT: point which forms the N. side 
of the entrance to Wilson Hbr., on the S. coast of 
South Georgia; in 54°06'S., 37°47'W. Kade Point 
is an old established name dating back to about 
1912. Not adopted : Rade Point. 

KAINAN BAY: bay about 1 mi. wide and 8 mi. 
long, indenting the Ross Ice Shelf about 30 mi. NE. 
of the Bay of Whales; in about 78°14'S., 161°55'W. 
Disc, in January 1902 by the BrNAE under Scott, 
but it was not named until the Japanese exp. under 
Shirase, in the exp. ship Hainan Maru, landed 
there in January 1912. Little America V, the 
main base of USN Operation Deepfreeze, 1955-56, 
was established at this site in late December 1955. 
Not adopted: Helen Washington Bay. 

KAISER, CAPE: northern extremity of a group 
of small islands lying close off the E. side of Bra- 
bant I., about 6 mi. WSW. of the S. end of Two 
Hummock I., in Palmer Arch.; in 64°12'S., 61°52'W. 
Disc, by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Gerlache, 
and named by him for a supporter of the expe- 
dition. 

Kaiser Wilhelm II Coast; Kaiser Wilhelm II 
Land: see Wilhelm II Coast. 

Kaiser Wilhelm II Islands; Kaiser Wilhelm 
Inseln: see Dannebrog Islands. 

KaWer-Berg: see Calf Head. 

KANIN POINT: rocky point, lying 2 ml. WSW. 
of Kelp Pt. on the S. side of Husvik Hbr., in Strom- 
ness Bay, South Georgia; in 54°11'S., 36°42'W. 
The descriptive name Rocky Point was given for 
this feature, probably by DI personnel who surveyed 
Husvik Hbr. in 1928. This name is used elsewhere 
in the Antarctic. The SGS, 1951-52, reported that 
this feature is known at the Husvik whaling station 
as Kanin Point (the word Kanin meaning rabbit) . 
This name presumably arose from one of several 
attempts made since 1872 to introduce rabbits into 
the island. The name Kanin Point is approved on 
the basis of local usage. Not adopted: Rocky 
Point. 

KAPPA ISLAND: islet, nearly 0.5 mi. long, lying 
immediately S. of Beta I. and close E. of Theta Its. 
in 'the Melchior Is., Palmer Arch.; in 64°19'S., 
63°00'W. The name Kappa, derived from the 
tenth letter of the Greek alphabet, probably was 
given by DI personnel who roughly surveyed the 
islet in 1927. The islet was surveyed by Argentine 
expeditions in 1942, 1943 and 1948. Not adopted: 
Isla Donati [Spanish]. 



Kap Parjadine: see Paryadin, Cape. 

KARLSEN ROCK: submerged rock about 10.5 
mi. NNW. of Penguin Pt., the NW. point of Coro- 
nation I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°21'S., 
46°00'W. The rock appears charted and named 
on a map by Petter S0rlle, a Norwegian whaler 
who made a running survey of the South Orkney 
Is. in 1912-13. Not adopted: Karlsens Rocks, Kar- 
sten Rock. 

Karlsens Rocks; Karsten Rock: see Karlsen Rock. 

KARPF POINT: turret-shaped headland sur- 
mounting the plateau escarpment along the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen., standing at the head of Mill 
Inlet; in 66°54'S., 64°30'W. Charted by the FIDS 
and photographed from the air by the RARE in 
1947. Named by the FIDS for Alois Karpf, librar- 
ian of the Kaiserliche and Kdnigliche Geo- 
graphische Gesellschaft in Vienna and joint author 
of a polar bibliography. 

KAR PLATEAU: small plateau which is snow 
covered except for an almost vertical rock scarp 
marking its S. side. The plateau rises gently 
toward the NW. to the heights of Mt. Marston, sit- 
uated at the W. side of Granite Hbr. in Victoria 
Land; in about 76°56'S., 162°25'E. Charted and 
named by the BrAE, 1910-13, under Scott. "Kar" 
is a Turkish word meaning snow. 

Kasco Glacier: see Waverly Glacier. 

Kastor Nunatak: see Castor Nunatak. 

KATER, CAPE: cape fringed by rocks, marking 
the W. side of the entrance to Charcot Bay, on the 
W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 63°45'S., 59°40'W. 
This coast was sketched by a Br. exp., 1828-31, 
under Foster, who named a cape in this region 
after Capt. Henry Kater, a member of the com- 
mittee which planned the exp. This region was 
more fully mapped by the SwedAE, 1901-4, under 
Nordenskjold, who gave the name Cape Gunnar 
to this cape. The name Kater perpetuates the 
earlier naming. Not adopted: Cape Gunnar. 

Katherine Paine, Mount: see Paine, Mount. 

KATHLEEN, MOUNT: mountain in the Com- 
monwealth Range, standing NE. of Mt. Robert 
Scott and overlooking the E. side of Beardmore Gl. 
at its junction with Ross Ice Shelf; in about 
83°40'S., 174°40'E. Disc, by the BrAE, 1907-9, 
under Shackleton, who probably named it for his 
sister. Not adopted: Mount Catherine. 

Kats Pillar: see Petes Pillar. 



176 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



KAYE CREST: mountain crest about 10,000 ft. 
in el., lying between Mt. Preuschoff and Mt. Hade- 
rich at the N. edge of the polar plateau, in New 
Schwabenland, in about 72°18'S., 4°40'E. Disc, 
and named by the GerAE under Ritscher, 1938-39. 

KAY ISLETS: group of islets in Ross Sea, lying 
off Victoria Land, about 19 mi. E. of Cape Sibbald, 
in about 74°00'S., 167°45'E. Disc, in 1841 by a 
Br. exp. under Ross, and named for Lt. Joseph W. 
Kay, Dir. of the Rossbank Observatory. 

KAY NUNATAK: dark rocky nunatak about 
2,000 ft. in el., situated at the S. side of Mobiloil 
Inlet and forming the northernmost outlier of the 
ice-covered mountain mass surmounted by Mt. 
Hitchcock, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in about 
68°43'S., 64°40'W. The nunatak was photo- 
graphed from the air by Sir Hubert Wilkins on 
Dec. 20, 1928, and by Lincoln Ellsworth in 1935. 
Named in 1952 by the US-AC AN for John D. Kay 
of the American Geographical Soc, who by utiliz- 
ing these photographs assisted in constructing the 
first reconnaissance map of this area. 

KEELER, CAPE: ice-covered cape which rises 
gently northwestward to about 1,700 ft. in el., 
forming the S. side of the entrance to Revelle 
Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°51'S., 
63°13'W. Disc, on Dec. 20, 1928 by Sir Hubert 
Wilkins, who named it for Fred E. Keeler of the 
Lockheed Co. An advance base and meteorologi- 
cal station was established at Cape Keeler by the 
RARE under Ronne in 1947-48. 

KEEP ROCK: small rock lying close W. of Castle 
Rock, off the W. extremity of Snow I., South Shet- 
land Is.; in 62°47'S., 61°37'W. The name, which 
derives from association with Castle Rock, was 
given by the Br-APC following survey by Lt. Cdr. 
F. W. Hunt, RN, in 1951-52. 

Kegel-Berg: see Skittle, Mount. 

KELLER INLET: ice-filled inlet about 10 mi. 
long, in a NE.-SW. direction, and 6 mi. wide, be- 
tween Cape Little and Cape Light, along the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 74°15'S., 61°05'W. This 
inlet was photographed from the air by members 
of the USAS in December 1940, and in 1947 by 
members of the RARE under Ronne, who in con- 
junction with the FIDS charted it from the ground. 
Named by Ronne for Louis Keller of Beaumont, 
Texas, who contributed supplies to Ronne's expe- 
dition. 

KELLER RANGE: mountain mass about 1,900 
ft. in el., forming the promontory between Mac- 
kellar and Martel Inlets in Admiralty Bay, on King 



George I. in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°03'S., 
58°26'W. Probably named by the FrAE under 
Charcot, who charted Admiralty Bay in Decem- 
ber 1909. 

KELP BAY: small open bay, close ESE. of Doris 
Bay, on the N. coast of South Georgia; 54°27'S., 
36°07'W. It is filled with kelp and there is no 
anchorage. The SGS, 1951-52, reported that the 
name is well established in use among the South 
Georgia sealers. 

KELP POINT: point fringed by kelp, marking 
the SE. side of the entrance to Husvik Hbr., the 
southern arm of Stromness Bay, on the N. coast 
of South Georgia; in 54°10'S., 36°38'W. Charted 
and named by DI personnel in the period 1926-30. 

KELSEY GLACIER: glacier flowing E. along the 
S. side of Mt. Owen to the head of Nantucket Inlet, 
on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 74°27'S., 62°25'W. 
Disc, by the RARE, 1947-48, under Ronne, who 
named it for Lawrence D. Kelsey, radio operator 
with the expedition. Not adopted: Delbert Little 
Glacier, D. M. Little Glacier, Little Glacier. 

KELTIE, CAPE: ice-covered cape marking the 
N. point of land on Clarie Coast, lying about 9 mi. 
WNW. of Cape Cesney; in about 65°55'S., 133°30'E. 
Disc, in January 1912 from the Aurora by AAE per- 
sonnel under Mawson, and roughly charted at a 
distance of about 10 mi. as lying in 66°05'S., 
133°00'E. Named by Mawson for Sir John Scott 
Keltie, Sec. of the Royal Geographical Soc, 1892- 
1915. Identification of Cape Keltie is based upon 
the correlation of the northernmost coastal ex- 
tremity on the AAE map with the US-ACAN 
reconnaissance map of 1955 compiled from aerial 
photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47. As 
no landings or coastal surveys have been made 
along this coast, the 1955 interpretation of Cape 
Keltie is adopted because of photographic conti- 
nuity with established features at the W. end of 
Adelie Coast. 

KELTIE, MOUNT: mountain in the Conway 
Range, about 8,900 ft. in el., lying SW of Mulock 
Inlet, on the W. side of Ross Ice Shelf; In about 
79°16'S., 159°20'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, 
under Scott, who named it for Sir John Scott 
Keltie. 

Keltie Glacier: see Scott Keltie Glacier. 

KELTIE GLACIER: tributary glacier entering 
the E. side of Beardmore Gl. about 10 mi. N. of Mill 
Gl.; in about 84°50'S., 171°00'E. Disc, by the 
BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton, who named it for 
Sir John Scott Keltie. 



177 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



KEMP, CAPE: cape forming the SW. tip of 
Doumer I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°52'S., 
63"39'W. Disc, and first charted by the FrAE, 
1903-5, under Charcot. Various islands of the 
Palmer Arch, were charted in 1927 by DI personnel 
on the Discovery, and this cape was subsequently 
named for Stanley W. Kemp, British marine biol- 
ogist and oceanographer, and scientific leader on 
the Discovery. 

Kemp, Mount: see Kempe, Mount. 

KEMP COAST : that portion of the coast of Ant- 
arctica that lies between the head of Edward VIII 
Bay, location not precisely determined but in about 
67°10'S., 56°00'E., and William Scoresby Bay, in 
about 67°25'S., 59°40'E. Named for a British seal- 
ing captain, Peter Kemp, who disc, land in this 
vicinity in 1833. Not adopted: Kemp Land. 

KEMPE, MOUNT: peak about 9,800 ft. in el., 
lying SE. of Mt. Huggins, in the Royal Society 
Range, on the W. side of the Ross Sea; in about 
78°21'S., 162°47'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, 
under Scott, who named it for Sir Alfred Bray 
Kempe, at that time Treasurer of the Royal Society. 
Not adopted: Mount Kemp. 

Kemp Land: see Kemp Coast. 

Kemp Peak: see Stanley Kemp Peak. 

KEMP PENINSULA: irregular ice-covered pen- 
insula about 25 mi. long in a N.-S. direction and 
12 mi. wide. The peninsula rises gently to about 
1,000 ft. in el. and projects E. between the heads 
of Mason and Mossman Inlets, on the E. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 73°08'S., 60°15'W. First seen 
from the air in December 1940 by members of the 
US AS, who at that time photographed all but its 
N. extremity. During 1947 it was photographed 
from the air by the RARE, who in conjunction with 
the FIDS charted it from the ground. Named by 
the FIDS for Stanley W. Kemp, British marine 
biologist and oceanographer, first Dir. of Research 
of the Discovery Investigations, 1924-36, and Dir. 
of the Plymouth Marine Laboratory, 1936-45. 

KENDALL ROCKS : group of pillar-shaped rocks 
about 3 mi. NNE. of Tower I., lying in Bransfield 
Str.; in 63°28'S., 59°49'W. The name Kendall 
Group appears NW. of this position on a chart 
based upon work by a Br. exp., 1828-31, under 
Foster, but it was later found that no islets exist 
there. The name Kendall Rocks has subsequently 
been applied to these pillar-shaped rocks disc, in 
1838 by a Fr. exp. under D'Urville. Named for Lt. 
E. N. Kendall of Foster's exp. ship, the Chanticleer. 



KENNEDY, CAPE : point forming the E. extrem- 
ity of Melba Pen.; on Queen Mary Coast; in about 
66°32'S., 98°25'E. Disc, by the Eastern Party, 
under Frank Wild, operating from the Western 
Base of the AAE, 1911-14, under Mawson. Named 
for A. L. Kennedy, magnetician at the Western 
Base and cartographer for the Eastern Party. 

Kennedy, Mount: see Kennedy Peak. 

KENNEDY, MOUNT: small bare peak about 
1,800 ft. in el., standing about 2 mi. S. of Mt. 
Rivett in the Gustav Bull Mtns., on Mac-Robertson 
Coast; in about 67°51'S., 66°13'E. The BANZARE, 
under Mawson, sighted land in this area in early 
January 1930 and an airplane flight was made 
from the ship for observation. The exp. returned 
to the area on Feb. 13, 1931, making a landing at 
Scullin Monolith. They named this peak pre- 
sumably for A. L. Kennedy who did special physi- 
cal research with the exp. during 1930-31. 

KENNEDY PEAK : small peak protruding above 
the continental ice about 3 mi. SSW. of Mt. Barr 
Smith, standing at the W. side of Scott Gl. on 
Queen Mary Coast; in about 67°14'S., 99°00'E. 
Delineated from aerial photographs taken by USN 
Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN 
for A. L. Kennedy, cartographer with the AAE 
Western Base party, in recognition of the close 
correlation of his 1912-13 running survey of the 
E. half of the Queen Mary Coast with the US-ACAN 
map of 1955 compiled from aerial photographs. 
Not adopted: Mount Kennedy (q.v.). 

KENNETT RAWSON, MOUNT: prominent pro- 
jecting corner point on the massif surmounted by 
Mt. Alice Gade, standing between Isaiah Bowman 
Gl. and Moffett Gl. in the Queen Maud Range; in 
about 85°55'S., 162°10'W. Disc, by the ByrdAE, 
1928-30, on the South Polar Flight of November 
1929. Named by Byrd for Kennett L. Rawson, 
contributor to this exp. and a member of the 
ByrdAE, 1933-35. 

KERR, CAPE: snow-covered bluff with steep 
sides, marking the N. side of the entrance to Barne 
Inlet, along the W. side of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 
80°10'S., 160°20'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, 
under Scott. Admiral of the Fleet Lord Walter 
Kerr was one of the Sea Lords who lent his assist- 
ance to the expedition. 

Ketchum, Cape: see Light, Cape. 

KETCHUM GLACIER: large glacier descending 
in a NE. direction from the Joerg Plateau and 
entering the SW. side of Gardner Inlet southward 
of Mt. Austin, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
about 75°00'S., 63°45'W. Disc, by the RARE, 1947- 



178 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



48, under Ronne, who named it for Cdr. Gerald 
Ketchum, USN, commander of the icebreaker Bur- 
ton Island which broke the ice to free the RARE 
from Marguerite Bay for the return home. Not 
adopted : Gardner Glacier, Irvine Gardner Glacier. 

KEYHOLE ISLET: small rocky islet lying 5 mi. 
SE. of the Terra Firma Is. and 0.75 mi. N. of the ice 
cliffs of Cape Berteaux, off the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 68°47'S., 67°20'W. First surveyed in 1948 
by the FIDS, who applied this name because of the 
presence of an ice arch formed by the ice cap on 
this islet. 

KEYSTONE CLIFFS: cliffs, about 2,000 ft. in el., 
marking the E. face of the sedimentary ridge be- 
tween Mercury and Venus Glaciers, on the E. 
coast of Alexander I. Island; in 71°35'S., 68°13'W. 
The coast in this vicinity was first seen from the 
air and partially photographed by Lincoln Ells- 
worth on Nov. 23, 1935. The cliffs were roughly 
surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill, and 
resurveyed in 1948 by the FIDS. So named by 
FIDS because the geologic structures revealed in 
these cliffs provided the key to the general tectonic 
structure of the area. 

KIDSON, CAPE: abrupt rock scarp about 1,000 
ft. in el., forming the N. side of the entrance to 
New Bedford Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 73°24'S., 60°45'W. First sighted and photo- 
graphed from the air by members of the USAS in 
1940. During 1947 the cape was photographed 
from the air by the RARE, who in conjunction 
with the FIDS charted it from the ground. Named 
by the FIDS for Edward Kidson, New Zealand 
meteorologist and author of the meteorological 
reports of the BrAE under Shackleton, 1907-9, and 
the AAE under Mawson, 1911-14. 

KIDSON ISLAND: island about 300 ft. in el., 
lying NNE. of the Colbeck Arch., off Mac-Robertson 
Coast; in about 67°10'S., 61°09'E. Disc, in Febru- 
ary 1931 by the BANZARE under Mawson, and 
named by him for Edward Kidson. Not adopted: 
Kidston Island. 

Kidston Island: see Kidson Island. 

Kiffin, Mount: see Kyffin, Mount. 

KILLER RIDGE: dark ridge about 4,000 ft. in 
el., standing at the N. side of Miller Gl. in the W. 
part of the Gonville and Caius Range, in Victoria 
Land; in about 77°08'S., 161°57'E. Charted by the 
BrAE, 1910-13, under Scott, and named after the 
killer whale whose outline the ridge is said to 
resemble. 

Kilpatrick, Mount: see Earkpatrick, Mount. 



KING, MOUNT: flat-topped, mainly ice-covered 
mountain, about 6,200 ft. in el., standing between 
Sedgwick and Tumble Glaciers and connected by 
an ice-covered spur to the Douglas Range to the 
W., on the E. coast of Alexander I Island; in 
69°53'S., 69°26'W. First roughly surveyed in 1936 
by the BGLE under Rymill. Resurveyed in 1948 
by the FIDS, and named by them for William 
B. R. King, prof, of geology at Cambridge Uni- 
versity. 

KING EDWARD COVE: sheltered cove imme- 
diately S. of Mt. Duse, in the W. side of Cumber- 
land East Bay, South Georgia; in 54°17'S., 36°30'W. 
This cove, frequented by early sealers at South 
Georgia, was charted by the SwedAE, 1901-4, 
under Nordenskjold. It was named in about 1906 
for King Edward VII of England. Not adopted: 
King Edward's Cove. 

KING EDWARD POINT: low point projecting 
from the N. side of King Edward Cove toward the 
central part of the cove, on the W. side of Cumber- 
land East Bay, South Georgia; in 54°17'S., 36°30'W. 
Charted by the SwedAE, 1901-4, under Norden- 
skjold. It was named in about 1906 for King Ed- 
ward VII of England. Not adopted: Edwards 
Point, King Edwards Point, King Edward's Point. 

King Edward VIII Gulf: see Edward VIII Bay. 

King Edward VII Land; King Edward VII Pen- 
insula: see Edward VII Peninsula. 

KING GEORGE BAY: bay indenting the S. 
coast of King George I. for about 4 mi., in the 
South Shetland Is.; in about 62°05'S., 58°05'W. 
Named on Jan. 24, 1820 for the then reigning 
sovereign of England by a Br. exp. under Brans- 
field. Not adopted: Bale St. Georges [French], 
Georges Bay, St. George's Bay. 

KING GEORGE ISLAND: island about 43 mi. 
long and about 16 mi. wide at its broadest part, 
lying in the South Shetland Is.; in about 62°00'S., 
58°15'W. Named about 1820 for the then reigning 
sovereign of England. Not adopted: He du Roi 
Georges [French], King George's Island, Konig 
Georg Insel [German], Waterloo Island. 

King George V Coast: see George V Coast. 

King George V Land: see George V Coast. 

King George's Strait: see Nelson Strait. 

King George VI Sound: see George VI Sound. 

KING HAAKON BAY: bay, about 3 mi. wide 
and receding NE. about 5 mi., lying 1 mi. N. of 
Queen Maud Bay, along the S. coast of South 



179 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Georgia; in 54°11'S., 37°18'W. Named in about 
1912 by Norwegian whalers for King Haakon VII 
of Norway. Not adopted: King Haakons Bay, 
King Haakons Harbor. 

King Haakons Harbor: see King Haakon Bay. 

King Leopold and Queen Astrid Coast; King 
Leopold and Queen Astrid Lan^i: see Leopold and 
Astrid Coast. 

King Oscar II Coast; King Oscar II Land: see 
Oscar II Coast. 

KINNEAR MOUNTAINS: group of mountains, 
more than 4,000 ft. in el., standing at the S. margin 
of Wordie Ice Shelf about 11 mi. E. of Mt. Edgell, 
on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 69°29'S., 
67°42'W. Disc, and roughly surveyed in 1936 by 
the BGLE under Rymill. The name was proposed 
by members of BGLE for Sir Norman B. Kinnear, 
British ornithologist who, as member of the staff 
of the British Museum (Natural History), was of 
great assistance to BGLE. 

KINNES, CAPE: cape which forms the W. ex- 
tremity of Joinville I., off the NE. end of Palmer 
Pen.; in 63°21'S., 56°33'W. It was sighted, prob- 
ably for the first time, by members of the Dundee 
whaling exp., 1892-93, and named by them for 
R. Kinnes, sponsor of the expedition. Not 
adopted : Cape Kirmess. 

Kinness, Cape: see Kirmes, Cape. 

KINSEY, CAPE: prominent cape at the E. side 
of the entrance to Davies Bay, on Gates Coast, in 
about 69°12'S., 158°50'E. Disc, in February 1911 
by personnel on the Terra Nova of the BrAE under 
Scott. J. J. Kinsey was oflacial representative of 
the BrAE at Christchurch, New Zealand. 

KINSEY, MOUNT: peak about 11,000 ft. in el., 
lying between Keltie Gl. and Mill Gl. near their 
confluence with Beardmore Gl.; in about 85°00'S., 
170°45'E. Disc, by the BrAE, 1907-9, under 
Shackleton, and named for J. J. Kinsey of Christ- 
church, who conducted the affairs of the exp. in 
New Zealand. 

KIRKPATRICK, MOUNT: loftiest peak of the 
Queen Alexandra Range, about 14,600 ft. in el., 
lying midway on the W. flank of Beardmore Gl., 
near the head of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 84°20'S., 
167°00'E. Disc, and named by the BrAE under 
Shackleton in December 1908. Not adopted: 
Mount Kilpatrick. 



KIRKWOOD, MOUNT: mountain about 1,500 ft. 
in el., about 3 mi. W. of Entrance Pt. in the S. part 
of Deception I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 
63°00'S., 60°39'W. First charted by a Br. exp., 
1828-31, under Foster. Named in 1950 by the 
Br-APC for Cdr. H. R. Kirkwood, RN, master of 
the John Biscoe in Antarctic waters, 1948-50. Not 
adopted: Mount David. 

KIRKWOOD ISLETS: scattered group of reefs 
and rocks, with one larger islet, lying in the central 
part of Marguerite Bay, about 23 mi. NE. of Fly- 
spot Rocks and 16 mi. SSW. of the Faure Is.; in 
68°22'S., 69°00'W. The islets were sighted in 1949 
from the FIDS vessel John Biscoe, and a running 
survey of the islets was made from the ship in 1950. 
Named for Cdr. Henry Kirkwood, RN, in command 
of the John Biscoe at that time. 

KIRWAN INLET: inlet in the SE. corner of Alex- 
ander I Island, about 12 mi. wide at its mouth and 
indenting 7 mi., opening on George VI Sound; in 
72°21'S., 68°50'W. The inlet is flUed with ice shelf 
which merges almost imperceptibly with the rising 
ice slopes of Alexander I Island to the west. First 
surveyed in 1949 by the FIDS, and named by them 
for Laurence P. Kirwan, Dir. and Sec. of the Royal 
Geographical Society. 

KJELLMAN, CAPE: cape marking the E. side of 
the entrance to Charcot Bay, on the W. coast of 
Louis Philippe Pen.; in 63°44'S., 59°21'W. First 
charted by the SwedAE, 1901-4, under Norden- 
skjold, and named by him probably for Prof. Frans 
Reinhold Kjellman, Swedish botanist. 

KJERKA, MOUNT: peak about 3,300 ft. in el., in 
the S. part of the Gustav Bull Mtns. about 10 mi. S. 
of Mt. Hinks, inland from Mac-Robertson Coast; 
in about 68°03'S., 66°08'E. Charted and named 
Kjerka, meaning "the church," by Norwegian 
cartographers from aerial photographs taken by a 
Nor. exp. under Christensen on Jan. 28, 1937. Not 
adopted: Kjerka [Norwegian]. 

Kjuringen: see Rayner Peak. 

KLAKKANE ISLANDS: group of small islands 
lying about 2 mi. E. of Farrington I. and about 5 mi. 
N. of the William Scoresby Arch., off Mac-Robert- 
son Coast; in about 67°15'S., 59°47'E. They were 
mapped and named by Norwegian cartographers 
from aerial photographs taken by a Nor. exp. under 
the direction of Christensen in January 1937. Not 
adopted: Klakkan [Norwegian]. 

Klarius Mikkelsen, Mount: see Mikkelsen Peak; 
Scullin Monolith. 

Klarius Mikkelsen Fjell: see Mikkelsen Peak. 



180 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



KLEBELSBERG GLACIER: glacier, about 3 mi. 
wide and 10 mi. long, situated at the S. side of 
Finsterwalder Gl. and flowing NW. from the central 
plateau of Palmer Pen. towards Lallemand Fjord; 
in about 67°23'S., 66°19'W. First surveyed from 
the plateau in 1946-47 by the FIDS, and named by 
them for Raimund von Klebelsberg, Austrian 
glaciologist. 

Kleine Pic: see Nachtigal Peak. 

KLEINSCHMIDT PEAK: peak about 10,500 ft. 
in el., on the SW. flank of Penck Trough, imme- 
diately N. of the edge of the polar plateau, in New 
Schwabenland; in about 73°55'S., 3°45'W. Disc, 
by the GerAE, 1938-39, under Ritscher, and named 
for Dr. Ernst Kleinschmidt, dir. of the division of 
meteorology of the Deutsche Seewarte (German 
Hydrographic Office) in Hamburg. Not adopted: 
Heksegryta [Norwegian] . 

KLOVSTAD, CAPE : bold cape lying between the 
Murray and Newnes Glaciers at the S. extremity 
of Robertson Bay, in northern Victoria Land; in 
about 71°39'S., 170°08'E. First charted in 1899 
by the BrAE under C. E. Borchgrevink, who named 
it for Dr. Herlof Klovstad, medical officer on the 
exp. staff. 

KLUTSCHAK POINT: rocky headland about 3 
mi. SE. of Cape Demidov on the S. coast of South 
Georgia; in 54°10'S., 37°43'W. The coast in this 
vicinity was roughly charted in 1775 by a Br. exp. 
under Cook, and in 1819 by a Russ. exp. under 
Bellingshausen. The point itself appears on charts 
dating back to about 1900. The point was named 
by the Br-APC, following a survey by the SGS, 
1951-52, for Heinrich W. Klutschak, Austrian 
artist who accompanied the American sealing 
schooner Flying Fish to South Georgia in 1877-78 
and published a narrative of his activities with a 
sketch map in 1881. 

KNIFE POINT: point on the S. side of Borge Bay, 
about 0.1 mi. SE. of Mooring Pt., on the E. side of 
Signy I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°43'S., 
45°36'W. The name appears, on a chart based on 
a 1927 survey of Borge Bay by DI personnel on the 
Discovery, but may reflect an earlier naming. 

KNIGHT ROCKS: two small rocks, about 1 mi. 
apart, which lie nearly 3 mi. off the SW. coast of 
Snow I., South Shetland Is.; in 62°49'S., 61°35'W. 
So named by the Br-APC, following survey by Lt. 
Cdr. F. W. Hunt, RN, in 1951-52, because of their 
proximity to nearby Castle Rock. 

KNOB, THE: conspicuous dome-shaped rock 
about 130 ft. in el., at the W. side of Elsehul, on the 
N. coast of South Georgia; in 54°6l'S., 37°59'W. 



The feature was charted and given this descriptive 
name by DI personnel in 1930. 

KNOBHEAD: mountain about 8,300 ft. in el., 
lying S. of the W. end of Kukri Hills and overlook- 
ing Ferrar Gl. and Taylor Gl. at their point of 
apposition, in Victoria Land; in about 77°55'S., 
161°40'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, 
who so named it because of its appearance. Not 
adopted: Knob Head Mountain, Knobhead Moun- 
tain. 

Knobhead Mountain: see Knobhead. 

KNOB POINT: the SW. tip of Vindication I., in 
the South Sandwich Is.; in 57°04'S., 26°47'W. 
Charted in 1930 by DI personnel on the Discovery 
II, and probably so named because a conspicuous 
height of land overlooks the point. 

KNOLL, THE: snow-free knoll about 1,200 ft. in 
el., surmounting Cape Crozier at the E. extremity of 
Ross I.; in about 77°29'S., 169°33'E. Disc, and 
named by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott. 

Kn0lrokset: see Humpback Rocks. 

KNOWLES, CAPE: cape about 1,000 ft. in el., 
marking the N. side of the entrance to Hilton Inlet, 
on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 71°47'S., 60°50'W. 
Disc, by members of East Base of the USAS in 
1940. Named for Paul H. Knowles, geologist and 
leader of the East Base sledging party that surveyed 
this coast as far S. as Hilton Inlet. 

KNOX COAST: that portion of the coast of Ant- 
arctica lying between Cape Hordern, in about 
100°26'E., and the Hatch Islets, in about 109°42'E. 
Disc, in February 1840 by the USEE under Wilkes, 
and named by him for Lt. Samuel R. Knox, USN, 
captain of the USEE tender Flying Fish. 

KOETTLITZ GLACIER: glacier about 12 mi. 
wide at its mouth, lying N. of Mounts Discovery 
and Morning and flowing between Brown I. and the 
mainland to the Ross Ice Shelf at the head of 
McMurdo Sound; in about 78°20'S., 164°00'E. Disc, 
by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, who named it 
for Dr. Reginald Koettlitz, physician and botanist 
of the expedition. 

KOHLER RANGE: extensive mountain range 
rising to about 15,000 ft. in el., standing S. of the 
base of Martin Pen. and estimated as extending for 
some 80 mi. in E.-W. direction on Walgreen Coast; 
in about 75°45'S., 111°30'E. Disc, from a distance 
on Feb. 24, 1940 by R. Adm. Byrd and other mem- 
bers of the USAS in a flight from the Bear. Named 
by Byrd for Walter J. Kohler, manufacturer and 
former governor of Wisconsin, who was one of the 



181 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



supporters of the ByrdAE, 1933-35, and who helped 
furnish the seaplane from which the discovery was 
made. Not adopted: Mount X-ray, Walter Kohler 
Range, X-ray Range. 

KOHL-LARSEN PLATEAU: ice-covered plateau, 
over 2,500 ft. in el., lying W. of the head of Neu- 
mayer Gl. and N. of the W. end of Allardyce Range, 
in the central part of South Georgia; in 54°14'S., 
36°59'W. The plateau was disc, and first roughly 
indicated on a map by Ludwig Kohl-Larsen during 
his 1929-30 expedition. It was surveyed and 
named for its discoverer by the SGS, 1951-52. 

Kong Edward VII Land; Konig Edward VII Land: 
see Edward VII Peninsula. 

Kong George V-Land: see George V. Coast. 

Kong Leopold og Dronning Astrid Land: see Leo- 
pold and Astrid Coast. 

Kong Oskar II Kuste: see Oscar II Coast. 

Konig George V-Land: see George V Coast. 

Konig Georg Insel: see King George Island. 

KONIG GLACIER: glacier, about 5 mi. long and 
2 mi. wide, flowing in a northerly direction from 
the N. side of Neumayer Gl. to the head of Fortuna 
Bay, South Georgia; in 54°10'S., 36°48'W. First 
surveyed in 1928-29 by a Ger. exp. under Kohl- 
Larsen, who named it for Felix Konig, Austrian 
mountaineer with the German Antarctic Expedi- 
tion, 1911-12, under Filchner. Not adopted: Dead 
Glacier. 

Konigin Alexandra Gebirge: see Queen Alexan- 
dra Range. 

Konigin Maud Bucht: see Queen Maud Bay. 

Konigin Maud Gebirge: see Queen Maud Range. 

Konigin Mary Land: see Queen Mary Coast. 

Konig Oskar II Land: see Oscar II Coast. 

KOPPEN POINT: point marking the NE. side of 
the entrance to Moltke Hbr. in Royal Bay, South 
Georgia; in 54°30'S., 36°02'W. The name "Kop- 
penberg" was originally given by a Ger. exp. under 
Schrader, 1882-83, to a small hill lying close inland 
from the point now described, and about 0.5 mi. E. 
of the German base. It was named for Prof. W. 
Koppen (1846-1940), noted meteorologist and cli- 
matologist, who had recommended the establish- 
ment of a high level observatory near the base. 
The SGS, 1951-52, reported that the hill is too 
small and unimportant to require a name, but that 



one is needed for the nearby point. For the sake 
of historical continuity, the name of Koppen is 
transferred to this previously unnamed point; the 
name "Koppenberg" is rejected. 

Koppenberg: see Koppen Point. 

Koppervick: see Koppervik. 

KOPPERVIK: bay about 0.8 mi. wide, lying 1 
mi. SW. of Cape BuUer, in the NW. side of the 
Bay of Isles, South Georgia; in 54°00'S., 37°25'W. 
The name was applied prior to 1930, probably by 
Norwegian whalers operating at South Georgia. 
Not adopted: Koppervick. 

KOTTAS MOUNTAINS: mountains about 11,000 
ft. in el., rising through the icecap at the N. edge 
of the polar plateau and about at the head of 
Penck Trough, in the W. part of New Schwaben- 
land; in about 74°05'S., 8°30'W. Disc, by the 
GerAE, 1938-39, under Ritscher, and named for 
Alfred Kottas, captain of the exp. vessel Schwaben- 
land. 

K. Prestrud, Mount: see Prestrud, Mount. 

Kraterbucht: see Crater Bay. 

KRAUL MOUNTAINS: major mountain range, 
about 8,000 ft. in el., projecting northward from 
the polar plateau some 60 mi. toward Cape Nor- 
vegia, in the W. part of New Schwabenland; center- 
ing in about 73°00'S., 13°00'W. It bounds on the 
W. a large broad depression in the icecap that ex- 
tends E. to the range forming the W. wall of Penck 
Trough. Disc, by the GerAE, 1938-39, under 
Ritscher, and named for Otto Kraul, ice pilot of 
the expedition. 

KRAUSE POINT: low, ice-covered point fronting 
on Davis Sea close W. of Jones Gl., lying about 
26 mi. W. of Cape Filchner, on Wilhelm II Coast; 
in about 66°32'S., 91°15'E. Delineated from aerial 
photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and 
named by the US-ACAN for Glenn R. Krause, pho- 
togrammetrist with the Navy Hydrographic Office, 
who served as surveyor with the USN Op. Wml. 
parties which established astronomical control sta- 
tions along Wilhelm II, Knox and Budd Coasts. 

Kreitzer Bay: see Vincennes Bay. 

KREITZER GLACIER: channel glacier about 7 
mi. wide and of undetermined length, flowing NW. 
from the continental ice and entering the E. side 
of Baker Three Gl. between Jennings Promontory 
and Reinbolt Hills, near the W. end of Ingrid 
Christensen Coast; in about 70°17'S., 72°45'E. De- 
lineated in 1952 by John H. Roscoe from aerial 



182 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp. in March 1947, 
and named by him for Lt. Wilham R. Kreitzer, USN, 
plane commander of one of the three USN Op. Hjp. 
aerial crews which obtained photographic coverage 
of this area and other coastal areas between 14° 
and 164°, east longitude. 

Kringholmane: see Kringholm Islands. 

KRINGHOLM ISLANDS: a roughly circular 
group of islands about 5 mi. in diameter, lying 
off Mac-Robertson Coast about 15 mi. NE. of Wil- 
liam Scoresby Bay; in about 67°19'S., 60°03'E. 
Disc, and mapped by Norwegian cartographers 
from aerial photographs taken by a Nor. exp. under 
Christensen in January-February 1937. They 
named them Kringholmane, presumably for their 
ring-like distribution. Not adopted: Kringholm- 
ane [Norwegian]. 

Krogmann Island: see Hovgaard Island. 

Krokfjorden: see Krok Inlet. 

KROK INLET: narrow inlet about 12 mi. long, 
lying between S0rsdal Glacier Tongue and the 
small peninsula at the S. end of the Vestfold Hills, 
with a small arm about 2 mi. long which swings 
N. and nearly bisects the peninsula, along Ingrid 
Christensen Coast; in about 68°41'S., 77°55'E. 
Charted by Norwegian cartographers from aerial 
photographs taken in January 1937 by the Nor. 
exp. under Lars Christensen, and named Krok- 
fjorden because of the hook (krok) formed by 
this small N. arm. The generic inlet is approved 
as a more appropriate term on the basis of John 
H. Roscoe's 1952 compilation from aerial photo- 
graphs taken by USN Op. Hjp. in March 1947 
which shows this feature as extending about 7 mi. 
E. of the original Krokfjorden interpretation. 
Not adopted: Krokfjorden [Norwegian]. 

KROKISIUS, MOUNT: conspicuous rocky moun- 
tain, about 2,400 ft. in el., standing 1.5 mi. NW. of 
the head of Moltke Hbr., Royal Bay, South 
Georgia; in 54°29'S., 36°06'W. Named by a Ger. 
exp. under Schrader, 1882-83, for Corvette Captain 
Krokisius, commander of the Marie, one of the 
two ships of the expedition. 

KRONER LAKE: circular lake about 0.2 mi. in 
diameter lying immediately W. of Whalers Bay, on 
Deception I. in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°59'S., 
60°35'W. The name Tokroningen, meaning the 
two kroner piece, was given this lake by whalers 
during the period 1905-31. The original name was 
altered to Kroner Lake in 1950 by the Br-APC fol- 
lowing a survey of Deception I. by Lt. Cdr. D. N. 
Penfold, RN, in 1948-49. Not adopted: Lake Pen- 
nilea, Tokroningen [Norwegian]. 



Kronprins Gustav Channel; Kronprinz Gustaf 
Kanal: see Prince Gustav Channel. 

Kronprins Olav Land: see Prince Olav Coast. 

Kronprinsesse Martha Land: see Princess Martha 
Coast. 

Kronprinz Olaf Berge: see Prince Olav Moun- 
tains. 

KRtJGER, MOUNT: summit peak projecting 
through the icecap at the edge of the polar pla- 
teau in New Schwabenland; in about 72°40'S., 
0°15'E. Disc, by the GerAE, 1938-39, under 
Ritscher, and named for Walter Kriiger, meteoro- 
logical assistant on the expedition. 

KUBUS MOUNTAIN: distinctive and somewhat 
isolated mountain, lying just W. of the Filchner 
Mtns. at the N. edge of the polar plateau, in New 
Schwabenland; in about 72°25'S., 6°30'E. Disc, 
by the GerAE, 1938-39, under Ritscher, and given 
the descriptive name Kubus (the cube). Not 
adopted: Kubus [German], The Cube. 

Kurki Hills: see Kukri Hills. 

KUKRI HILLS: range surmounted by peaks 
about 3,000 to 6,000 ft. in el., extending about 26 
mi. in a WSW.-ENE. direction and forming the 
divide between Ferrar Gl. on the S. and Taylor Gl. 
and Taylor Glacier Dry Valley on the N., in Vic- 
toria Land; centered in about 77°44'S., 162°50'E. 
Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, and prob- 
ably so named because its shape resembles that of 
a kukri, a Gurikha sword. Not adopted: Kurki 
Hills. 

KURZE MOUNTAINS : mountain range about 20 
mi. long, in a N.-S. direction, and about 9,000 ft. 
in el., lying immediately W. of the Conrad Mtns., 
which it parallels, in New Schwabenland; in about 
72°05'S., 8°50'E. Disc, by the GerAE, 1938-39, 
under Ritscher, and named for the director of the 
naval division of the former Marineleitung (Ger- 
man Admiralty) . 

KVARSNES FORELAND : prominent, rocky fore- 
land on the S. shore of Edward VIII Bay, on Kemp 
Coast; in about 67°02'S., 57°00'E. Mapped by 
Norwegian cartographers from aerial photographs 
taken by a Nor. exp. under Christensen in Janu- 
ary-February 1937, who named it Kvarsnes. Not 
adopted: Kvarsnes [Norwegian]. 

KYFFIN, MOUNT: mountain about 5,800 ft. in 
el. in the Commonwealth Range, projecting into 
the E. side of Beardmore Gl. and rising precipi- 
tously above it, about 22 mi. up the glacier from 



183 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Mt. Kathleen; in about 83°47'S., 172nO'E. Disc, 
and named by the BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton. 
Not adopted: Mount KifRn, Mount Kyftin. 

Kyftin, Mount: see Kyflfin, Mount. 

Laavebrua: see Ramp Rock. 

LACAZE-DUTHIERS, CAPE : cape lying between 
Andvord Bay and Paradise Hbr., on the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 64°48'S., 62°49'W. Disc, by the 
BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Gerlache, who named 
it for Felix Henri de Lacaze-Duthiers, French 
naturalist and authority on the anatomy of mol- 
lusks. 

LACHMAN, CAPE: cape marking the N. tip of 
James Ross I., which lies S. of the NE. end of Palm- 
er Pen.; in 63°47'S., 57°47'W. Disc, by the 
SwedAE, 1901-4, under Nordenskjold, who named 
it for J. Lachman, a patron of the expedition. 
Not adopted : Kap Lachmann [German] . 

LACHMAN CRAGS: escarpment which extends 
in a N.-S. direction for about 5 mi. at about 1,000 
ft. in el., standing 3 mi. SSW. of Cape Lachman 
on James Ross I., close S. of the NE. end of Palmer 
Pen.; in 63°51'S., 57°50'W. First charted by the 
FIDS in 1945, who named it after nearby Cape 
Lachman. 

Lacroix, Mount: see Lacroix Nimatak. 

LACROIX, MOUNT: prominent mountain with 
red vertical cliffs and a rounded summit, about 
2,100 ft. in el., surmounting the NE. end of Booth 
I., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°03'S., 
63°59'W. First charted by the FrAE, 1903-5, 
under Charcot, and named by him for Alfred 
Lacroix, prominent French mineralogist and geol- 
ogist. Not adopted: Mount Lecroix. 

LACROIX NUNATAK: ridge of terminal mo- 
raine, about 1.5 mi. long and 270 ft. in el., stand- 
ing immediately behind a small zone of low rocky 
ridges which protrude above the ice covered point 
situated about 2 mi. SW. of Cape Margerie, on 
Adelie Coast; in 66°51'S., 141°18'E. Disc, in 1931 
by BANZARE personnel on the Discovery, who 
sighted this feature from a distance, believing it to 
be a 1,000-ft. rock peak. Named by Mawson for 
Prof. Alfred Lacroix, prominent French mineralo- 
gist with the Museum National D'Histoire Natu- 
relle, Paris. Photographed from the air by USN 
Op.' Hjp., 1946-47. Charted by the FrAE under 
Liotard, 1949-51, who established an astronomical 
station near its center. Not adopted: Mount 
Lacroix (q.v.). 

Lady Newnes Bay; Lady Newnes Shelf Ice: 
see Lady Newnes Ice Shelf. 



LADY NEWNES ICE SHELF: an extensive ice 
shelf about 50 mi. long and 45 mi. wide, lying to 
the W. of Coulman I. in the western Ross Sea, 
along the coast of Victoria Land; in about 73°30'S., 
168°00'E. Disc, by the BrAE, 1898-1900, under 
C. E. Borchgrevink, and named by him for Lady 
Newnes, whose husband. Sir George Newnes, 
financed the expedition. Not adopted: Lady 
Newnes Bay, Lady Newnes Shelf Ice. 

LAFARGE ROCKS: two rocks which are 0.5 mi. 
apart, lying about 2 mi. NW. of Casy Islet and 
about 6 mi. W. of Cape Siffrey, the N. tip of Palmer 
Pen.; in 63°13'S., 57°32'W. Disc, by a Fr. exp., 
1837-40, under D'Urville, and named by him for 
Ens. Antoine Pavin de la Farge of the exp. ship 
Zelee. They were charted by the FIDS in 1946. 
Not adopted: Lafarge Rock. 

LAGOON ISLET: islet about 2 mi. E. of Leonie 
Islet in the Leonie Islands, lying off the SE. coast 
of Adelaide I.; in 67°36'S., 68°16'W. Disc, by the 
FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot. Named by the 
BGLE under Rymill during its visit to the Leonie 
Islands in February 1936. 

LA GORCE MOUNTAINS: a group of mountains 
standing at the E. side of the upper reaches of 
Robert Scott Gl., in the Queen Maud Range; in 
about 86°45'S., 146°00'W. This group extends 
about 20 mi. in a general E.-W. direction and 
includes, from E. to W., such features as Mounts 
Paine, Hjalmar Johansen, Gjertsen and Grier. 
Disc, in December 1934 by the ByrdAE geological 
party under Quin Blackburn, and named by Byrd 
for John Oliver La Gorce, V. Pres. of the National 
Geographic Society. Not adopted: John Oliver 
LaGorce Mountains, LaGorce Mountains. 

LA GORCE PEAK: beehive-shaped summit 
about 2,700 ft. in el., standing at the S. end and 
marking the highest peak in the Alexandra Mtns., 
on Edward VII Pen.; in about 77°37'S., 153°35'W. 
Disc, in February 1929 by the ByrdAE, and named 
by Byrd for John Oliver La Gorce. Not adopted: 
LaGorce Mountain, LaGorce Peak, Mount LaGorce. 

LAGOTELLERIE ISLAND: island about 1 mi. 
long, lying at the entrance to Bourgeois Fjord 
midway between Pourquoi Pas I. and Camp Pt., 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pe^.; in 67°53'S., 
67°24'W. Disc, and named by the FrAE under 
Charcot, 1908-10. 

LAGRANGE CAPE: fiat-topped rocky headland 
extending E. from the Solvay Mtns., about 6 mi. 
SSW. of Buls Bay, on the SE. coast of Brabant I., 
in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°25'S., 62°15'W. Disc, 
by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Gerlache, vsiho 



184 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



named it for Charles and Eugene Lagrange, 
staunch supporters of the expedition. 

LAGRELIUS POINT: low, ice-free point on the 
NW. coast of James Ross I., 2 mi. S. of Carlson I.; 
in 63°55'S., 58°17'W. Disc, and first surveyed in 
1903 by the SwedAE under Nordenskjold, who 
named it Cape Lagrelius after Axel Lagrelius of 
Stockholm, who contributed toward the cost of 
the expedition. It was resurveyed by the FIDS 
in 1952. Point is considered a more suitable de- 
scriptive term for this feature than cape. Not 
adopted: Cape Lagrelius. 

Lahille, Pointe: see Lahille Island. 

LAHILLE ISLAND: island about 3 mi. long and 
1 mi. wide, lying about 2 mi. W. of Nuiiez Pt., off 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°33'S., 64°23'W. 
Disc, by the FrAE under Charcot, 1903-5, and 
charted as a point on the coast in honor of Fer- 
nando Lahille, noted Argentine naturalist. The 
FrAE under Charcot, 1908-10, determined the 
feature's insularity. Not adopted: Pointe Lahille 
[French] . 

LAINEZ, CAPE: steep, rocky promontory about 
3,000 ft. in el., forming the W. end of Pourquoi 
Pas I., oflf the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°42'S., 
67°48'W. Disc, by the FrAE under Charcot, 
1908-10, and named for Manuel Lainez, Senator 
of the Argentine Republic and founder of the 
newspaper. El Diario. 

LAJARTE ISLANDS: group of islands fringing 
the N. coast of Anvers I., close E. of Cape Gron- 
land, in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°16'S., 63°24'W. 
Disc, by a German exp. under Dallmann, 1873-74. 
Charted by the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, and 
named by him for Capt. Dufaure de Lajarte, French 
Navy. Not adopted: Dufaure de Lajarte Islands, 
Lajarte Islets. 

LALLEMAND FJORD: bay about 30 mi. long, 
in a N.-S. direction, and about 12 mi. wide at its 
entrance between Cape Rey and Charles-Roux I., 
lying close SW. of Marin Darbel Bay along the 
W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°05'S., 66°45'W. 
Disc, by the FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot, who 
named it for Charles Lallemand, French scientist 
and member of the Bureau des Longitudes. Not 
adopted: Lallemand Bay, Lattemand Bay. 

LAMB, CAPE: cape forming the SW. end of 
Vega I., lying S. of the NE. end of Palmer Pen.; 
in 63°54'S., 57°37'W. Disc, by the SwedAE, 1901-4, 
undejf Nordenskjold. Recharted in 1945 by the 
FIDS, who named it for I. M. Lamb, botanist on 
the FIDS staff at Hope Bay in 1945. 



LAMBDA ISLAND: island, about 1 mi. long, 
which lies immediately NW. of Delta I. in the 
Melchior Is., Palmer Arch.; in 64°18'S., 63°00'W. 
This island, the largest feature in the NW. part 
of the island group, was first roughly charted and 
named "He Sourrieu" by the FrAE under Charcot, 
1903-5, but that name has not survived in usage. 
The name Lambda, derived from the 11th letter 
of the Greek alphabet, was probably given by DI 
personnel who roughly surveyed the island in 

1927. The island was surveyed by Argentine ex- 
peditions in 1942, 1943 and 1948. Not adopted: 
He Sourrieu [French], Isla Primero de Mayo 
[Spanish] . 

LAMB POINT: low, ice-covered point forming 
the S. side of the entrance to Howkins Inlet, on 
the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 73°41'S., 60°48'W. 
Disc, and photographed from the air in Decem- 
ber 1940 by the USAS. During 1947 it was pho- 
tographed from the air by the RARE Ronne, who 
in conjunction with the FIDS charted it from 
the ground. Named by the FIDS for H. H. Lamb, 
meteorologist on the British whale factory ship 
Balaena in Antarctic waters in 1946-47, who pre- 
pared daily forecasts for the whaling fleet on the 
basis of FIDS and other meteorological reports. 

LAMINA PEAK: prominent pyramid-shaped 
peak, about 4,200 ft. in el., surmounting a strati- 
fied ridge which curves down from Mt. Edred north- 
eastward toward George VI Sound. The peak 
stands 4.5 mi. inland from the E. coast of Alex- 
ander I Island at the S. limit of the Douglas 
Range; in 70°32'S., 68°45'W. This peak was first 
photographed from the air on Nov. 23, 1935 by 
Lincoln Ellsworth, and was mapped from these 
photographs by W. L. G. Joerg. It was roughly 
surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE under Rymill, and 
resurveyed in 1949 by the FIDS. So named by 
FIDS because of the marked horizontal stratifica- 
tion of the rocks of this peak. 

LAMMERS GLACIER: large glacier flowing in 
an E. direction and merging with several other 
large glaciers close W. of Mobiloil Inlet, on the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in about 68°38'S., 66°25'W. 
This glacier appears indistinctly in an aerial pho- 
tograph taken by Sir Hubert Wilkins on Dec. 20, 

1928, but shows more clearly in aerial photo- 
graphs taken by a U.S. exp. under Ellsworth in 
1935 and the USAS in 1940. It was resighted in 
1947 by the RARE under Ronne, who named it 
for Lester Lammers, contributor of nine grown 
husky dogs and four puppies to the expedition. 

Lamplugh Bay: see Lamplugh Inlet. 



424589 O -57 - 13 



185 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



LAMPLUGH INLET: inlet about 7 mi. long, lying 
between Capes Healy and Howard, along the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 71°23'S., 61°10'W. Disc. 
by members of the USAS who explored this coast 
from East Base by land and from the air in 1940. 
Named for Elmer L. Lamplugh, chief radio opera- 
tor at East Base. Not adopted: Lamplugh Bay. 

LAMPLUGH ISLAND: ice-capped island about 
10 mi. long and 2 mi. wide, separated from the 
mainland by Davis and Clarke Glaciers, along the 
coast of Victoria Land; in about 75°39'S., 162°52'E. 
This feature was first sighted by the BrNAE, 
1901-4, under Scott, but it was first charted as 
an island by the BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton. 
Named by Shackleton for G. W. Lamplugh, who 
gave assistance to the expedition. 

LANCASTER, CAPE: cape forming the S. tip 
of Anvers I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°51'S., 
63°44'W. Disc, by a Ger. exp. under Dallmann, 
1873-74. Later sighted by the BelgAE, 1897-99, 
under De Gerlache, who named it for Albert Lan- 
caster, Scientific Dir. of the Meteorological Serv- 
ice of the Royal Observatory of Belgium and a 
supporter of the expedition. Not adopted: Cap 
Albert Lancaster [French] . 

Land Bay: see Emory Land Bay. 

LANDEN RIDGE: narrow rocky ridge 4 mi. E. 
of Mt. Hayes, standing at the E. end of Cole Pen. 
on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°51'S., 63°51'W. 
During December 1947 it was charted by FIDS and 
photographed from the air by the RARE under 
Ronne. Named by Ronne for David Landen of the 
Trimetrogon Section, U.S. Geological Survey, who 
assisted in planning the RARE photographic pro- 
gram and correlating photographs after the exp. 
returned. Not adopted: Mount Landen. 

Land Glacier: see Emory Land Glacier. 

LANGE PLATFORM: flat-topped upland about 
30 mi. long and about 8,500 ft. in el., lying N. of 
the edge of the polar plateau in New Schwaben- 
land; in about 72°00'S., 1°00'W. Disc, by the 
GerAE under Ritscher, 1938-39, and named for 
Heinz Lange, second meteorologist on the expedi- 
tion. 

Langevatnet: see Ellis Fjord. 

Langnes Channel: see Langnes Inlet. 

Langnes Fjord: see Langnes Inlet. 

LANGNES INLET: narrow, sinuous inlet about 
14 mi. long, indenting the Vestfold Hills area be- 
tween Langnes Pen. and Breidnes Pen., and marked 



by a group of elongated islands and rocks lying 
inside its wide entrance, along Ingrid Christensen 
Coast; in about 68°31'S., 78°08'E. Charted by 
Norwegian cartographers from aerial photographs 
taken in January 1937 by the Nor. exp. under Lars 
Christensen, and named Langnes Fjord because 
of close association with Langnes Pen. The generic 
inlet is approved as a more appropriate term on 
the basis of John H. Roscoe's 1952 compilation 
from USN Op. Hjp. aerial photographs taken in 
March 1947 which shows this feature as extend- 
ing some 2 mi. further E. to include the isolated 
lake previously named "Breidvatnet" and then 
swinging SSW. for nearly 5 miles. Not adopted: 
Langnes Channel, Langnes Fjord [Norwegian]. 

LANGNES PENINSULA: narrow, sinuous, rocky 
peninsula about 10 mi. long, marking the north- 
ern of three small peninsulas comprising the Vest- 
fold Hills, and projecting W. from Ingrid Christen- 
sen Coast; in about 68°29'S., 78°19'E. The Nor. 
exp. under Mikkelsen landed in February 1935 
in about 68°29'S., 78°11'E.; this reported position 
appears to correlate with the N. tip of Langnes 
Pen., close W. of Tryne I. The name derives from 
Langneset (the long headland) as applied on the 
H. E. Hansen charts compiled from aerial pho- 
tographs taken in January 1937 by the Nor. exp. 
under Lars Christensen. Not adopted: Langneset 
[Norwegian] . 

Langneset: see Langnes Peninsula. 

Langnestrynet: see Tryne Island. 

LANG SOUND: sound about 1.5 mi. wide at its 
narrowest point and about 10 mi. long, in an E.-W. 
direction, lying between the group of islands that 
include Broka and Havstein Islands and the main- 
land of Kemp Coast; in about 67°08'S., 58°40'E. 
Mapped by Norwegian cartographers from aerial 
photographs taken by a Nor. exp. under Christen- 
sen in January-February 1937 and named "Lang- 
sundet" [Norwegian], Long Sound. Not adopted: 
Langsundet [Norwegian], Long Sound. 

Ldngstans TJdde: see Longing, Cape. 

Langsundet: see Lang Sound. 

LANKESTER, CAPE: low, snow-covered head- 
land at the S. side of the entrance to Mulock Inlet, 
along the W. edge of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 
79°15'S., 160°25'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, 
under Scott, who probably named it for Sir Edwin 
Ray Lankester, Dir. of the Natural History Depart- 
ments of the British Museum, 1898-1907, and 
founder of the Marine Biological Assn. in 1884. 



186 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



LAPEYRfiRE BAY: bay about 4 mi. long and 

2 mi. wide, indenting the NE. coast of Anvers I. 
westward of the Melchior Is., in the Palmer Arch.; 
64°22'S., 63°13'W. The bay was probably first 
sighted by a Ger. exp. under Dallmann, 1873-74, as 
an incompletely-defined bay is shown on the chart 
resulting from the expedition. It was recharted 
by the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, and named 
by him for R. Adm. Boue de Lapeyrere, French 
Navy. Not adopted: Bale de Lepeyrere [French]. 

LA PLAZA POINT: point which forms the S. tip 
of the rocky peninsula which separates Mackellar 
and Martel Inlets in the N. part of Admiralty Bay, 
on King George I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 
62°04'S., 58°25'W. Charted and named by the 
FrAE under Charcot, 1908-10. 

Large Rasorback Island: see Big Razorback 
Island. 

La Roche Strait: see Bird Sound. 

LARROUY ISLAND: island about 5 mi. long and 

3 mi. wide, which rises to about 2,500 ft. in el. and 
lies about 5 mi. NNE. of Ferin Head, off the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 65°52'S., 65°17'W. Disc, by 
the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, who named it 
for Monsieur Larrouy, at that time a French 
Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Larry Gould Bay: see Gould Bay. 

LARS ANDERSEN ISLAND: islet lying about 7 
mi. NW. of Cape Daly, in the central part of the 
Thorgaut Is., off Mac-Robertson Coast; in about 
67°26'S., 63°42'E. Charted in January-February 
1931 from the Thorgaut, Norwegian whale catcher 
sent out by Lars Christensen. Presumably named 
for Lars Andersen, manager-harpooner of the 
whale catchers Falk and Ole Wegger which operated 
further to the N. during this season. Not adopted: 
Lars Andersen Islands, Lars Anderson Islands. 

Lars Anderson Islands: see Lars Andersen Island. 

LARS CHRISTENSEN COAST: that portion of 
the coast of Antarctica extending from Cape Darn- 
ley on Bjerk0 Pen. in about 67°42'S., 69°30'E., to 
Jennings Promontory in about 70''12'S., 71°46'E. 
Disc, in January 1931 by Norwegian whalers em- 
ployed by Lars Christensen of Sandefjord, Norway, 
for whom it is named. Mr. Christensen personally 
participated in some of the exploration conducted 
in Antarctica by his firm, 1926-37. Not adopted: 
Lars Christensen Land. 

Lars Christensen Land: see Lars Christensen 
Coast. 



LARS CHRISTENSEN PEAK: lofty, rounded 
dome of an extinct crater about 3,900 ft. in el., sur- 
mounting Peter I Island, which lies NE. of Thurston 
Pen.; in about 68°49'S., 90°31'W. Peter I Island 
was disc, by a Russ. exp. under Bellingshausen in 
January 1821 and viewed from a distance of 15 
miles. The island was circumnavigated in January 
1927 by a Nor. exp. under Tofte in the Odd I, who 
named the peak for Lars Christensen, Norwegian 
whaling magnate who financed the expedi;ion. 

Larsemann Fjellene: see Larsemann Hills. 

LARSEMANN HILLS: barren, rounded hills, 
from 250 to 600 ft. in el., which mark the coast line 
for a distance of about 9 mi., along Ingrid Christen- 
sen Coast; in about 69°25'S., 75°40'E. Disc, in 
February 1935 by the Nor. exp. under Mikkelsen, 
and reportedly named "Larsen Mountains" at 
that time. The first map name appears to have 
taken the form Larsemann Fjellene. The generic 
hills was adopted as a more appropriate term 
following examination of the Norwegian compila- 
tion based on the aerial photographs taken in 
January 1937 by the Nor. exp. under Lars Christen- 
sen. Not adopted: Larsemann Fjellene [Nor- 
wegian] , Larsen Mountains. 

LARSEN, MOUNT: mountain about 2,200 ft. in 
el., situated in the east-central portion of Thule I., 
in the South Sandwich Is.; in 59°27'S., 27°18'W. 
Charted in 1930 by DI personnel on the Discovery 
II, who named it for Capt. C. A. Larsen. 

LARSEN, MOUNT: mountain about 5,000 ft. in 
el., presenting sheer granite cliffs on the N. side, 
standing at the S. side of the mouth of Reeves Gl., 
in Victoria Land; in about 74°50'S., 162°10'E. 
Disc, by the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, who 
named it for Capt. C. A. Larsen, noted Norwegian 
Antarctic explorer whose explorations along the 
E. coast of Palmer Pen. in the Jason, 1892-93, 
marked the beginning of commercial whaling op- 
erations in the Antarctic. Larsen led numerous 
whaling expeditions until his death in December 
1925 while directing operations in the Ross Sea. 

Larsen Barrier: see Larsen Ice Shelf. 

LARSEN CHANNEL: strait about 3 mi. wide 
separating D'Urville and Joinville Islands, which 
lie NE. of the tip of Palmer Pen.; in 63°10'S., 
56°12'W. Disc, in 1902 by the SwedAE under Nor- 
denskjold, and named for Capt. C. A. Larsen of the 
exp. ship Antarctic. 

Larsen Glacier: see Nils Larsen Glacier. 

LARSEN GLACIER: glacier about 3 mi. wide and 
about 25 mi. long, flowing in a SE. direction along 
the S. slopes of Mounts Larsen, De Gerlache, and 



187 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Crummer, to the Hansen Sheet on the E. coast of 
Victoria Land; in about 75°10'S., 162°35'E. Disc, 
by the South Magnetic Polar Party of the BrAE 
under Shackleton, 1907-9. They named it Larsen 
Glacier because it flowed SE. from Mt. Larsen, 
which was constantly in view as they ascended the 
glacier. 

LARSEN HARBOR: narrow inlet in the S. side of 
Drygalski Fjord, about 3 mi. W. of Nattriss Head, 
at the SE. end of South Georgia; in 54°50'S., 
36°01'W. Charted by the GerAE, 1911-12, under 
Filchner, who named it for Capt. C. A. Larsen, who 
was at that time in charge of the Grytviken whaling 
station. 

Larsen Ice Barrier: see Larsen Ice Shelf. 

LARSEN ICE SHELF: an extensive ice shelf in 
the NW. part of Weddell Sea, extending along the 
E. coast of Palmer Pen. from about 64°30'S. to 
at least 69°30'S. Named for Capt. C. A. Larsen, 
who sailed along the ice front in the Jason as far 
as 68°10'S. during December 1893. Not adopted: 
Larsen Barrier, Larsen Ice Barrier, Larsen Shelf 
Ice. 

LARSEN INLET: ice-fiilled inlet, about 14 mi. long 
in a N.-S. direction and about 8 mi. wide, lying 
between Capes Longing and Sobral, along the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 64°30'S., 59°30'W. C. A. 
Larsen, Norwegian whaling captain, reported a 
large bay in this area in 1893. Larsen's name was 
suggested for the feature by Edwin Swift Balch 
in 1902. The inlet was re-identified and charted 
by the FIDS in 1947. Not adopted: Larsen Bay. 

Larsen Island: see Monroe Island. 

LARSEN ISLANDS: group of islands lying about 
2 mi. NW. of Return Pt., off the W. end of Corona- 
tion I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°36'S., 
46°05'W. Disc, by Capt. George Powell and Capt. 
Nathaniel Palmer in December 1821. They were 
named on Capt. Petter S0rlle's chart, based upon 
his survey of the South Orkney Is. in 1912-13, in 
honor of Capt. C. A. Larsen. 

Larsen Mountains: see Larsemann Hills. 

LARSEN NUNATAK: nunatak about 2 mi. N. of 
Burn Murdoch Nunatak in the Seal Nunataks 
group, off the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 64°58'S., 
60°06'W. The Seal Nunataks were disc, by a Nor. 
whaling exp. under C. A. Larsen in December 1893. 
Commemoration of Larsen was proposed by Ludwig 
Friederichsen in 1895. The application of this 
name is based upon a 1947 survey by the FIDS. 



LARSEN POINT: point which forms the W. side 
of the entrance to Cumberland Bay, on the N. coast 
of South Georgia; in 54°12'S., 36°30'W. Named for 
Capt. C. A. Larsen, who examined Cumberland Bay 
in the Jason in 1893-94. 

Larsen Shelf Ice: see Larsen Ice Shelf. 

LASERON ISLETS: small group of rocky islets 
lying about 2.5 mi. ENE. of Cape Denison in the 
SE. side of Commonwealth Bay, off George V Coast; 
in about 66°59'S., 142°46'E. Disc, in January 1912 
by the AAE Main Base party under Mawson, and 
named by him for Charles F. Laseron, taxidermist 
with the expedition. 

Lashley Mountains: see Lashly Mountains. 

LASHLY MOUNTAINS: mountains about 8,600 
ft. in el., standing near the edge of the plateau and 
S. of the head of Taylor GL, in Victoria Land; in 
about 77°53'S., 160°10'E. Disc, by the BrNAE, 
1901-4, under Scott, who named these mountains 
for William Lashly, a member of the party which 
explored this area. Not adopted: Lashley Moun- 
tains. 

LASSITER COAST: that portion of the E. coast 
of Palmer Pen. extending from Cape Mackintosh, 
in 72°53'S., 60°03'W., to Cape Adams, in 75°04'S., 
62°20'W. The N. portion of this coast was disc, 
and photographed from the air by the USAS in 
1940. During 1947 the entire extent of the coast 
was photographed from the air by the RARE under 
Ronne, who in conjunction with the FIDS charted 
it from the ground. The name Lassiter Shelf Ice 
was applied by Ronne to the ice shelf in the western 
part of the head of Weddell Sea, which has now 
been shown to be a feature continuous with what 
was previously named Filchner Ice Shelf. The 
name Lassiter has therefore been applied by the 
US-ACAN to this coast, after Capt. James W. 
Lassiter of the then USAAF, who as chief pilot 
was instrumental in the overall success of the 
RARE aerial exploratory program. Lassiter was 
pilot on the flight SW. from Cape Adams on which 
geographic discovery was extended to 77°30'S., 
71°30'W., including exploration of the Joerg 
Plateau and Orville Escarpment, and the flight SE. 
to about 79°00'S., 43°45'W. on which the western 
and central parts of the Filchner Ice Shelf fringing 
Edith Ronne Land were sighted and photographed 
for the first time. 

Lassiter Ice Barrier; Lassiter Shelf Ice: see 
Filchner Ice Shelf. 

LAST HILL: small hill, about 1,100 ft. in el., with 
a rock ridge at its crest and a cliff at its N. side, 
lying about 4 mi. SSW. of Hope Bay and 2 mi. E.of 



188 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



the NE. shore of Duse Bay, at the NE. end of Palmer 
Pen.; in 63°28'S., 57°05'W. Probably seen by the 
SwedAE, 1901-4, under Nordenskjold. First 
charted in 1946 by the FIDS, who so named it 
because it marks the last climb on the sledge route 
between Hope Bay and Duse Bay. 

LATADY MOUNTAINS: mountains lying SW. of 
Gardner Inlet and NE. of Sweeney Mtns., rising 
above Joerg Plateau; in about 75°30'S., 65°50'W. 
Disc, by the RARE, 1947-48, under Ronne, who 
named them for William Latady, aerial photog- 
rapher with the expedition. 

LATHAM PEAK: peak projecting through the 
icecap about 20 mi. ENE. of Mt. Biscoe, in Enderby 
Land; in about 66°13'S., 52°12'E. Disc, in January 
1930 by the BANZARE under Mawson, and probably 
named for Rt. Hon. Sir John Creig Latham, who 
became Chief Justice of Australia in 1935. 

La Tour: see Tower, The. 

LAUBEUF FJORD: a sound about 25 mi. long, in 
a general N.-S. direction, and averaging 10 mi. 
wide, lying between the east-central portion of 
Adelaide I. and the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
about 67°20'S., 67°50'W. Disc, by the FrAE, 1908- 
10, under Charcot, and named by him for Maxime 
Laubeuf, French marine engineer who supervised 
building the engine of the exp. ship Pourquoi-Pas? . 

LAURENS, CAPE: cape which marks the NW. 
extremity of Laurens Pen. and Heard I.; in 52°59'S., 
73°15'E. The name was probably applied by Capt. 
Franklin F. Smith of the American bark Laurens 
who visited Heard I. in 1855-56 and, who with Capt. 
Erasmus Darwin Rogers, initiated sealing opera- 
tions and long-time American sealer occupation of 
Heard Island. The name appears on a chart by the 
Br. exp. under Nares, which visited the island in 
the Challenger in 1874 and utilized the names then 
in use by the sealers. 

LAURENS PENINSULA: rugged peninsula sur- 
mounted by several ice-covered peaks which forms 
the NW. part of Heard I. The peninsula is about 
5 mi. long and, at its SE. extremity, is joined to 
the central mass of Heard I. by the low and narrow 
isthmus between Atlas Cove and West Bay; in 
53°00'S., 73°18'E. The name was applied by the 
ANARE following their survey in 1948. It derives 
from the existing name Cape Laurens, applied for 
the NW. extremity of this peninsula after the 
American bark Laurens which, under Capt. Frank- 
lin F. Smith, visited Heard I. in 1855-56 and 
assisted in initiating sealing operations there. 



LAURIE ISLAND: an irregularly-shaped island, 
about 12.5 mi. long in an E.-W. direction, forming 
the easternmost of the South Orkney Is.; in 
60°45'S., 44°35'W. Disc, in December 1821 during 
the joint cruise by Capt. George Powell and Capt. 
Nathaniel Palmer. R. H. Laurie, Chartseller to 
the Admiralty, published a chart of the South 
Shetland Is., South Orkney Is., and the NE. end 
of Palmer Pen. on Nov. 1, 1822, based on the ex- 
plorations of Powell, Palmer, and other sealers then 
in this area. The island was surveyed by the 
ScotNAE, 1902-4, under Bruce. Not adopted: 
Laurie's Island, Melville's Island. 

LAVEBRUA ISLET: flat-topped islet about 300 ft. 
in el., lying close off South Pt., Deception I., in the 
South Shetland Is.; in 63°02'S., 60°35'W. Charted 
by a Br. exp. under Foster, 1828-31. The name 
was given by Norwegian whalers operating from 
Deception I., and has been in use since 1927. The 
name is descriptive, meaning literally "threshing 
floor bridge" or "barn bridge". Not adopted : Islote 
Chaco [Spanish] , Jon Islet. 

LAWS GLACIER: a confluent glacier system 
which flows into Marshall Bay on the S. coast of 
Coronation I., South Orkney Is.; in 60°38'S., 
45°39'W. Surveyed in 1948-49 by the FIDS, 
named by the Br-APC for Richard M. Laws of the 
FIDS, leader and biologist at Signy I. base in 1948 
and 1949, and at South Georgia in 1951. 

LAY-BROTHER ROCK: rock about 1.5 mi. SW. 
of Despair Rocks and some 7 mi. NW. of Return 
Pt., off the W. end of Coronation I., in the South 
Orkney Is., in 60°34'S., 46°14'W. Charted and 
named by DI personnel on the Discovery II in 1933. 

LEAL AND BLUFF: high rounded headland at 
the SW. corner of William Scoresby Bay, on Mac- 
Robertson Coast; in about 67°27'S., 59°35'E. 
Named by DI personnel on the William Scoresby 
who charted this area in February 1936. 

Le Bland, Cape: see Leblond, Cape. 

LEBLOND, CAPE: cape forming the N. end of 
Nansen I., in the Biscoe Is.; in about 66°03'S., 
66°40'W. Charted by the FrAE under Charcot, 
1908-10, and named by him for the Pres. of 
the Norman Geographical Soc. at Rouen. Not 
adopted: Cape Le Bland, Cape Le Blond. 

LECOINTE, MOUNT : central of three mountains 
lying about 27 mi. SSE. of Mt. Markham, in the 
Queen Alexandra Range, and about 45 mi. inland 
from the W. side of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 83°20'S., 
161°45'E. Disc, by the BrAE, 1907-9, under 
Shackleton, and named by him for Lt. Georges 



189 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Lecointe, who was second-in-command of the 
BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Gerlache. 

Lecroix, Mount: see Lacroix, Mount. 

LfiCUYER POINT: point which forms the S. side 
of the entrance to the harbor of Port Lockroy, 
Wiencke I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°50'S., 
63°31'W. Disc, and named by the FrAE under 
Charcot, 1903-5. Not adopted: Lecuyer Point. 

LEE, MOUNT: mountain situated at the NW. 
end of the W. extremity of Alexander I Island; 
in about 71°15'S., 75°40'W. Disc, by the RARE, 
1947-48, under Ronne, who named it for R. Adm. 
Paul F. Lee, USN, Chief of the Office of Naval 
Research, who, appreciating the significance of 
the scientific program, authorized Naval support 
for the expedition. 

Lee Islands: see Inner Lee Islet; Outer Lee Islet. 

LEFfiVRE-UTILE POINT: point about 1 mi. W. 
of Curie Pt., on the N. side of Doumer I., in the 
Palmer Arch.; in 64°50'S., 63°32'W. Disc, and 
named by the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot. 

LEGOUPIL, CAPE: cape at the NE. side of the 
entrance to Huon Bay, on the NW. coast of Louis 
Philippe Pen.; in 63°20'S., 57°53'W. Disc, by a 
Fr. exp. under D'Urville, 1837-40. D'Urville named 
it for Ernest Goupil, a member of the exp., but the 
incorrect form Legoupil has been used so exten- 
sively that in this special case it is accepted. Not 
adopted: Cape Goupil. 

LEGRU, CAPE: point about 1 mi. E. of Cape 
Syrezol, the E. side of the entrance to Admiralty 
Bay, King George I., in the South Shetland Is.; 
in 62°10'S., 58°16'W. Probably named by the FrAE 
under Charcot, who charted Admiralty Bay in 
December 1909. 

LEGUILLOU, CAPE: point which forms the N. 
tip of Tower I., lying in Bransfield Str.; in 63°31'S., 
59°50'W. Charted by a Fr. exp. under D'Urville, 
1837-40, and named by him for Elie Le Guillou, 
a surgeon on the exp. ship Zelee. The name form 
approved is in agreement with the charts of the 
D'Urville exp. and has been consistently used 
since that time. 

LEHAIE, CAPE : cape forming the SW. extremity 
of Brabant I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°30'S., 
62°47'W. Disc, by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De 
Gerlache, who named it for Monsieur Houzeau de 
Lehaie, a supporter of the expedition. The FrAE 
under Charcot, 1903-5, charted the cape, substan- 
tially modifying its earlier cartographic represen- 



tation. Not adopted: Cap Houzeau de Lehaie 
[French], Cape Houzeau de Lehaye. 

Lehrke Bay: see Lehrke Inlet. 

LEHRKE INLET: ice-fUled inlet about 10 mi. 
wide which recedes SW. 20 mi. between Cape Boggs 
and Cape Sharbonneau, along the E. coast of Pal- 
mer Pen.; in 70°45'S., 61°45'W. Disc, by members 
of the USAS who explored this coast on land and 
from the air in 1940. Named for Lester Lehrke, 
boatswain's mate of the Bear, one of the exp. ships, 
and sailmaker of the East Base, Not adopted: 
Lehrke Bay. 

LEININGER PEAK: peak about 3,700 ft. in el., 
standing at the N. side of the base of Eielson Pen., 
on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 70°34'S., 62°15'W. 
This peak was photographed from the air by the 
RARE under Ronne, 1947-48, and charted in 1947 
by a joint sledge party consisting of members of 
the RARE and the FIDS. Named by Ronne for 
Cdr. Joseph A. Leininger, USNR, who devised the 
plans for the loading of cargo and the alterations 
on the exp. ship. 

Leipzig Island: see Nelson Island. 

Leith Harbor: see Inverleith Harbor. 

LEITH HARBOR: northern of three harbors in 
the W. side of Stromness Bay, South Georgia; in 
54°08'S., 36°41'W. Named in about 1912 by Sal- 
vesen and Co., whalers of Leith, Scotland, opera- 
tors of the whaling station at the head of the 
harbor. 

LEITH HARBOR: small bay in the NE. part of 
Paradise Hbr., along the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 64°52'S., 62°50'W. Probably named by whalers 
operating in this vicinity. Leith, Scotland, is the 
home of Salvesen and Co., whalers. 

LEMAIRE CHANNEL: channel about 8 mi. long 
and averaging about 1 mi. wide, extending in a 
NE.-SW. direction from the N. end of Booth I. 
to Cape Duseberg, and separating the Dannebrog 
Is. from the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°08'S., 
64°00'W. Disc, by a Ger. exp. under Dallmann, 
1873-74. Traversed in December 1898 by the 
BelgAE under De Gerlache, and named by him for 
C. Lemaire, Belgian explorer of the Congo. Not 
adopted: Lemaire Strait. 

LEMAIRE ISLAND: island about 4 mi. long and 
1.5 mi. wide, lying about 1 mi. W. of Cape Lacaze- 
Duthiers, off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
64°49'S., 62°57'W. Disc, by the BelgAE, 1897-99, 
under De Gerlache, who named it for C. Lemaire. 



190 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Lemaire Strait: see Lemaire Channel. 

LE MAY RANGE: mountain range in the SE. 
part of Alexander I Island; in about 71°50'S., 
70°00'W. Disc, by the RARE, 1947-48, under 
Ronne, and named by him for Gen. Curtis Le 
May, head of the Office of Research and Develop- 
ment of the then USAAF,»which furnished equip- 
ment for the expedition. Not adopted: Army 
Range, U.S. Army Range. 

LENTON POINT: the SW. extremity of a small, 
rocky peninsula in Clowes Bay on the S. side of 
Signy I., South Orkney Is.; in 60°44'S., 45°37'W. 
Roughly surveyed in 1933 by DI personnel, and 
resurveyed in 1947 by the FIDS. Named in 1954 
by the Br-APC for Ralph A. Lenton of the FIDS, 
radio operator at Signy I. base in 1948, who helped 
with the survey and biological work; subsequently 
at Admiralty Bay in 1949, and then leader at 
Deception I. in 1951, at Port Lockroy in 1952 and 
at the Argentine Is. in 1954. 

LEON HEAD: prominent rocky headland, about 
2,900 ft. in el., forming the S. side of the mouth 
of Brogger Gl. and the SE. side of the entrance 
to Undine South Hbr., on the S. coast of South 
Georgia; in 54°33'S., 36°28'W. The headland was 
roughly charted in 1819 by a Russ. exp. under 
Bellingshausen. Named by the Br-APC, following 
a survey by the SGS, 1951-52, after the Spanish 
vessel Leon, which resighted South Georgia in 
1756. 

LeONIE ISLANDS: group of small islands about 
6 mi. N. of Jenny I., lying in the entrance to Ryder 
Bay along the SE. side of Adelaide I.; in 67°36'S., 
68°17'W. The FrAE under Charcot, 1908-10, disc, 
these islands and gave the name Leonie to the 
largest island in the group. The BGLE under 
Rymill, 1934-37, extended the coverage of the name 
to the entire group. Not adopted: Leonie Islands, 
Leonie Islets. 

LfiONIE ISLET: largest and westernmost of the 
Leonie Islands, about 1 mi. in diameter and about 
1,500 ft. in el., lying in the entrance to Ryder Bay 
off the SE. side of Adelaide I.; in 67°36'S., 68°22'W. 
Disc, and named by the FrAE, 1908-10, under 
Charcot. 

LEOPARD ISLAND: islet about 0.25 mi. W. of 
the SW. end of Skua I., in the Argentine Is., off 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°15'S., 64°18'W. 
Charted and named in 1935 by the BGLE under 
Rymill. 

LEOPOLD AND ASTRID COAST: that portion 
of the coast of Antarctica lying between about 
81°00'E. and Cape Penck, in about 87°35'E. Disc. 



in January 1934 by a Nor. Exp. under Christensen, 
and named for King Leopold and Queen Astrid 
of Belgium. Not adopted : King Leopold and Queen 
Astrid Coast, King Leopold and Queen Astrid Land, 
Kong Leopold og Dronning Astrid Land [Nor- 
wegian]. 

Leopold Coast: see Luitpold Coast. 

Le Poing: see Fist, The. 

LERCHENFELD GLACIER: the southerly of two 
glaciers descending W. from the interior heights 
of Luitpold Coast to Duke Ernst Bay; in about 
77°50'S., 34°50'W. Disc, in January-February 1912 
by the GerAE under Filchner, who named it for 
Count Hugo von und zu Lerchenfeld-Kofering, sup- 
porter of the expedition. Not adopted: Graf Lerch- 
enfeld Gletscher [German]. 

LEROUX BAY: boot-shaped bay, about 7 mi. 
long in a NW.-SE. direction, and averaging about 
5 mi. wide, between Nufiez Pt. and the narrow pen- 
insula surmounted by Magnier Peaks, along the W. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°36'S., 64°21'W. Disc, 
by the FrAE under Charcot, 1903-5, and named by 
him for Commander Leroux, Argentine Navy. This 
bay was more accurately delineated by the BGLE 
under Rymill in 1935. 

LESKOV ISLAND: island less than 1 mi. in ex- 
tent, lying about 30 mi. W. of Visokoi I., in the 
South Sandwich Is.; in 56°40'S., 28°10'W. Disc, 
in 1819 by a Russ. exp. under Bellingshausen, who 
named it for the third lieutenant on the exp. ship 
Vostok. 

LESSER MACKELLAR ISLET: islet immediately 
NE. of Greater Mackellar Islet in the Mackellar 
Islets group, lying in the center of Commonwealth 
Bay, along George V Coast; in about 66°58'S., 
142°39'E. Disc, and named by the AAE under 
Mawson, 1911-14. The name is indicative of the 
size of the feature in relation to Greater Mackellar 
Islet. 

LEVERETT GLACIER: slow-moving glacier 
about 10 mi. wide and over 20 mi. long, flowing in 
a WNW. direction between the Harold Byrd and 
Tapley Mountains and terminating at the head 
of Ross Ice Shelf close E. of Robert Scott Gl.; 
in about 85°30'S., 150°00'W. Disc, in December 
1929 by the ByrdAE geological party under Laur- 
ence Gould, and named by him for Frank Leverett, 
eminent geologist at the Univ. of Michigan and 
authority on glacial geology of the central United 
States. 



191 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



LEVER GLACIER: glacier, about 2 mi. wide at 
its mouth and at least 5 mi. long, flowing SW. into 
the head of the northern arm of Beascochea Bay, 
on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°31'S., 
63°33'W. This glacier was first sighted and 
roughly surveyed in 1909 by the FrAE under Char- 
cot. It was resurveyed in 1935 by the BGLE under 
Rymill, and later named for William H. Lever, 2d 
Viscount Leverhulme of the Western Isles, who 
contributed toward the cost of the BGLE, 1934-37. 

LEVICK, MOUNT: peak about 9,100 ft. in el., 
standing W. of Mt. Melbourne and E. of Mt. Baxter, 
in Victoria Land; in about 74°16'S., 163°33'E. 
First charted by the BrAE under Scott, 1910-13, 
and named for G. Murray Levick, surgeon with the 
expedition. 

LEWIS, CAPE: ice-covered cape at the W. side 
of Maury Bay, on Banzare Coast; in about 66°30'S., 
124°25'E. Delineated from aerial photographs 
taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named by 
the US-ACAN for Thomas Lewis, gunner on the 
sloop of war Peacock of the USEE under Wilkes, 
1838-42. 

LEWIS GLACIER: the northerly of two glaciers 
flowing E. into Seligman Inlet, on the E. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 67°45'S., 65°38'W. The glacier 
was photographed from the air by the USAS in 
1940. It was charted in 1947 by the FIDS, who 
named it for William Vaughan Lewis, British 
glaciologist and lecturer at the Dept. of Geography, 
Cambridge University. 

Lewis Island: see Tonkin Island. 

LEWIS ISLET: small rocky islet, lying close in- 
side the E. side of the entrance to Davis Bay, and 
marking one of the few rock outcrops along Clarie 
Coast; in about 66°00'S., 134°30'E. Delineated 
from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 
1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for Thomas 
Lewis, gunner on the sloop of war Peacock of the 
USEE under Wilkes, 1838-42. 

LEWIS PEAKS: two prominent peaks, about 
3,500 ft. in el., standing on the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen. close E. of Day I.; in 67°15'S., 67°30'W. First 
roughly surveyed in 1909 by the FrAE under Char- 
cot. Resurveyed in 1948 by the FIDS who named 
it for Flight Lt. John Lewis, pilot of the Auster 
airplane which was used from the John Biscoe 
for reconnaissance of ice conditions in Marguerite 
Bay in February 1950. 

LEWIS POINT: point marked by rocky exposures 
on its N. side and surmounted by an ice-covered 
dome about 1,700 ft. in el., at the S. side of the 
mouth of Anthony Gl., on the E. coast of Palmer 



Pen., in 69°54'S., 62°25'W. Photographed from 
the air by the USAS in 1940. During 1947 it was 
photographed from the air by the RARE under 
Ronne, who in conjunction with the FIDS charted 
it from the ground. Named by Ronne for Col. 
Richard L. Lewis of the Army Quartermaster Corps, 
which furnished field equipment and clothing to 
the exp. for testing purposes. 

LEWTHWAITE STRAIT: strait about 2.5 mi. 
wide, lying between Coronation I. and Powell I. 
in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°42'S., 45°08'W. 
Disc, in December 1821 during the joint cruise of 
Capt. George Powell and Capt. Nathaniel Palmer. 
Mr. Lewthwaite was a teacher of navigation in 
Prince's Street, Rotherhithe (London) . Powell left 
the chart and journal of his Antarctic exploration 
with Lewthwaite before sailing on his last exp., 
on which he met his death. Not adopted: Lewth- 
waite's Strait, Spencers Straits. 

LIARD ISLAND: triangular island about 6 mi. 
long, rising to about 2,000 ft. in el., situated in 
the north-central portion of Hanusse Bay, off the 
W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°51'S., 67°25'W. 
Disc, and named by the FrAE under Charcot, 
1908-10. 

LIBOIS BAY: small bay on the W. side of 
Cholet Islet which is entered between Rozo Pt., 
the NW. end of Cholet Islet, and Paumelle Pt., 
the NW. end of Booth I., off the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 65°03'S., 64°02'W. First charted by the 
FrAE under Charcot, 1903-5, and named by him 
for F. Libois, second mechanic and carpenter of 
the exp. ship Frangais. 

Lichen Island: see Vegetation Island. 

LICHEN PEAK: peak, about 1,000 ft. in el., 
standing about 20 mi. E. of Mt. Saunders, in the 
Edsel Ford Ranges of Marie Byrd Land; in about 
76°53'S., 145°12'W. Disc, in December 1934 by 
the ByrdAE sledge party under Paul Siple, and 
so named because of the lichens and other botani- 
cal specimens obtained there. 

LIfiGE ISLAND: roughly triangular-shaped 
island, about 8 mi. long in a NE.-SW. direction and 
about 6 mi. wide, lying immediately NE. of Bra- 
bant I. in the Palmer Arch.; in 64°03'S., 61°53'W. 
Charted by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Ger- 
lache, who named it for the province of Liege, 
Belgium. Not adopted: Liege Island, Liege Island, 
Liittich Island. 

LIGHT, CAPE: cape forming the S. side of the 
entrance to Keller Inlet and the N. end of Smith 
Pen., on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 74°15'S., 
60°48'W. Disc, and photographed from the air 



192 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



by the USAS in 1940. During 1947 it was photo- 
graphed from the air by the RARE under Ronne, 
who in conjunction with the FIDS charted it 
from the ground. Named by Ronne for Richard 
Upjohn Light, Pres. of the American Geographical 
Society. Not adopted: Cape Ketchum. 

LIGHTHOUSE BAY; small bay between Cape 
Crewe and Point Abrahamsen, forming the N. 
arm of Cook Bay, along the N. coast of South 
Georgia; in 54°03'S., 37°08'W. Charted by DI 
personnel in 1929. Probably so named at that time 
because a lighthouse (now disused) was located 
on nearby Sheep Point. 

Lille Jason: see Little Jason Lagoon. 

LILLIE GLACIER TONGUE: glacier tongue, 
about 125 ft. in el., extending N. from Oates Coast 
for about 20 mi. between Cape Cheetham and Cape 
Williams; in about 69°50'S., 163°00'E. Disc, in 
February 1911 by the BrAE under Scott, when the 
Terra Nova explored W. of Cape North. Dennis 
G. Lillie was biologist on the Terra Nova. Not 
adopted: Lillie Ice Tongue. 

Lillie Ice Tongue: see Lillie Glacier Tongue. 

LIMIT ROCK: rock about 2 mi. E. of North 
Foreland, the NE. cape of King George I., in the 
South Shetland Is.; in 61°53'S., 57°36'W. Charted 
in 1937 by DI personnel on the Discovery II, and 
probably so named because it marks the E. limit 
of foul ground surrounding North Foreland. 

LIMPET ISLET: southernmost islet of the 
Leonie Is., which lie in the entrance to Ryder Bay, 
close off the SE. coast of Adelaide I.; in 67°38'S., 
68°19'W. The Leonie Is. were disc, and first 
roughly surveyed in 1909 by the FrAE under Char- 
cot. Limpet Islet was surveyed in 1948 by the FIDS 
and so named by them because of the large num- 
ber of limpet shells found there. 

Lincoln Ellsworth, Mount: see Ellsworth, Mount. 

LINDBERGH INLET: small inlet about 3 mi. 
wide and 4 mi. long, which marks a more-or-less 
permanent indentation in the front, the N. sea- 
ward edge, of the Ross Ice Shelf, lying approxi- 
mately midway between Discovery Inlet and the 
Bay of Whales; in about 78°25'S., 167°00'W. Disc, 
in January 1902 by the BrNAE under Scott, but 
it was not named at that time. Recharted and 
photographed from the air in 1929 by the ByrdAE, 
and named by R. Adm. Byrd for Col. Charles A. 
Lindbergh, renowned aviator. This feature was 
last confirmed by USN Op. Hjp. in January 1947, 
though the configuration of such indentations is 
continually changing. 



LINDENBERG ISLAND: circular island about 
0.75 mi. in diameter, about 11 mi. N. of Robertson 
I. and some 35 mi. ENE. of Cape Fairweather, off 
the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 64°55'S., 59°42'W. 
Disc, by a Nor. whaling exp. under C. A. Larsen 
in December 1893. Named by Larsen for a mem- 
ber of the firm of Woltereck and Robertson of 
Hamburg which sent him to the Antarctic. 

LINDLEY, MOUNT: mountain about 7,300 ft. 
in el., standing about 22 mi. SSW. of Beaumont 
Bay and about 25 mi. SE. of Mt. Albert Markham, 
on the W. side of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 81°45'S., 
159°15'E. Disc, by the BrNAE under Scott, 1901-4, 
who named it for Lord Nathaniel Lindley, a member 
of the committee which made the final draft of the 
instructions for the expedition. 

Lindsay, Cape: see Lindsey, Cape. 

LINDSEY, CAPE: cape which forms the W. end 
of Elephant I., in the South Shetland Is.; in about 
61°08'S., 55°42'W. The name appears on Powell's 
map published by Laurie in 1882. Not adopted: 
Cape Lindsay. 

LION GLACIER: glacier descending in a SE. di- 
rection to Lion Sound, about 11 mi. SW. of Van 
Ryswyck Pt., on the SE. coast of Anvers I., in the 
Palmer Arch.; in 64°38'S., 63°11'W. Disc, by the 
BelgAE, 1897-99, under De Gerlache. The name 
appears on a map based on a 1927 survey by DI 
personnel on the Discovery. Named after nearby 
Lion Island and Lion Sound. 

LION ISLAND: island about 2 mi. long and 1 mi. 
wide, lying off the E. side of Anvers I. and about 
2 mi. N. of Cape Astrup, Wiencke I., in the Palmer 
Arch.; in 64°40'S., 63°08'W. Disc, by the BelgAE, 
1897-99, under De Gerlache. The name appears 
on a map based on a 1927 survey by DI personnel 
on the Discovery. The profile of the island sug- 
gests a reclining lion when viewed from the south- 
west. 

LION ISLET: small rocky islet, lying about 0.2 
mi. NNE. of Petrel I., in the main cluster of islets 
near the SE. end of Geologic Arch., close N. of 
Astrolabe Glacier Tongue, off Adelie Coast; in 
66°39'S., 140°01'E. Photographed from the air by 
USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47. Charted by the FrAE 
under Liotard, 1949-51, who established an astro- 
nomical control station on the islet, and so named 
because the rocky summit at the SE. end resembles 
a lion's head. 

LION SOUND: small passage on the W. side of 
Lion Island, in the shape of an embayment in the 
SE. coast of Anvers I., in the Palmer Arch.; in 
64°39'S., 63°09'W. Disc, by the BelgAE, 1897-99, 



193 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



under De Gerlache. The name appears on a map 
based on a 1927 survey by DI personnel on the 
Discovery. Named after adjacent Lion Island. 

LIONS RUMP, CAPE: conspicuous headland 
forming the W. side of the entrance to King George 
Bay, on King George I., in the South Shetland Is.; 
in 62°08'S., 58°06'W. Charted and named during 
1937 by DI personnel on the Discovery II. Not 
adopted: Cape Lion's Rump. 

LIOTARD, MOUNT: conspicuous ice-covered 
peak, about 7,300 ft. in el., standing 5 mi. SSE. of 
Mt. Gaudry and 6 mi. NNE. of Mt. Ditte in the SE. 
part of Adelaide I.; in 67°37'S., 68°34'W. Disc, and 
first surveyed in 1909 by the FrAE under Charcot. 
Resurveyed in 1948 by the FIDS and named by 
them for Andre F. Liotard, French observer with 
FIDS in 1947-48 and leader of the French Antarctic 
Expedition to Adelie Coast, 1949-51. 

LIOTARD GLACIER : channel glacier about 3 mi. 
wide and 6 mi. long, flowing NNE. from the con- 
tinental ice and terminating in a small tongue 
about 4 mi. W. of Helena It., the W. extremity of 
Geologic Arch., on Adelie Coast; in about 66°37'S., 
139°32'E. Delineated from aerial photographs 
taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named by the 
US-AC AN for Andre-Frank Liotard, leader of the 
FrAE, 1949-51, whose group completed the initial 
survey of the coastal features as far westward as 
this glacier. Liotard previously served as observer 
on the John Biscoe during the 1947-48 relief and 
establishment of FIDS meteorological bases, and 
as leader of the FrAE, 1948-49, which was unable 
to penetrate the pack ice off Adelie Coast. Not 
adopted: Ebba Glacier. 

LIPPMANN ISLET: conical snow-capped islet, 
about 2 mi. N. of the W. end of Lahille I. and 5 mi. 
NW. of Nuiiez Pt., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 65°30'S., 64°26'W. Disc, by the FrAE under 
Charcot, 1903-5, who named it for Gabriel Lipp- 
mann, French physicist and Nobel Prize winner 
in 1908. 

LISTER, MOUNT: massive mountain terminat- 
ing in a sharp peak about 13,350 ft. in el., in the 
Royal Society Range, W. of McMurdo Sound, along 
the W. shore of Ross Sea; in about 78°05'S., 
163°00'E. Disc, by the BrNAE under Scott in 
January 1902, and named for Lord Joseph Lister, 
Pres. of the Royal Soc, 1895-1900. 

LITTLE, CAPE: cape forming the S. side of the 
entrance to Wright Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 74°05'S., 61°03'W. Probably seen from 
the air by members of the USAS who photographed 
Wright Inlet in December 1940. Photographed 
from the air during 1947 by the RARE under Ronne, 



who in conjunction with the FIDS charted it from 
the ground. Named by Ronne for Delbert M. Little, 
Asst. Chief for Operations, U. S. Weather Bureau, 
who arranged the program for sending weather re- 
ports from the RARE. Not adopted: Cape Easson. 

LITTLE AMERICA: the base used by the five 
U. S. expeditions led by R. Adm. Richard E. Byrd, 
USN (Ret.) . Little America I. the base used by the 
ByrdAE, 1929-30, and Little America II, the new 
base built by the Byrd AE, 1933-35, were established 
about 1 mi. inside Ver-sur-Mer Inlet, Bay of Whales, 
about 80 ft. above sea level on the Ross Ice Shelf; 
in about 78°40'S., 164°03'W. Little America III, 
also known as West Base of the USAS, 1939-41, 
was established about 5 mi. NE. on the E. side of 
the Bay of Whales; in about 78°35'S., 163°52'W. 
Little America IV, the base used by the central 
task force of USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, was estab- 
lished about 2 mi. NNW. of the USAS base; in about 
78°33'S., 163°56'W. The latter base was destroyed 
by calving of the front of Ross Ice Shelf during the 
1948-55 period and was reported non-existent in 
January 1955. Little America V, the main base of 
USN Operation Deepfreeze, 1955-56, was estab- 
lished about 30 mi. NE. at Kainan Bay; in about 
78°14'S., 161°50'W. 

Little Bucht: see Doris Bay; Saint Andrews Bay. 

Little Glacier: see Kelsey Glacier. 

LITTLE JASON LAGOON: an almost circular 
lagoon, about 0.4 mi. in diameter, lying at the head 
of Jason Hbr. to which it is connected by a narrow 
cut, in Cumberland West Bay, South Georgia; in 
54°11'S., 36°36'W. The name Little Jason was in 
use at South Georgia prior to 1920. The feature 
was surveyed in 1929 by DI personnel, who named 
it Nogood Lagoon because a motor boat could not 
get through the entrance. The SGS, 1951-52, re- 
ported that the feature is still known locally as 
Little Jason or (in Norwegian) "Lille Jason." In 
order to indicate the nature of the feature, and 
at the same time to conform with local usage, the 
name Little Jason Lagoon is approved. Not 
adopted: Lille Jason [Norwegian)], Little Jason, 
Nogood Lagoon. 

LITTLE MOLTKE HARBOR: small bay, entered 
between Pirner Pt. and the ice cliffs of Ross Gl., 
lying 1 mi. S. of Moltke Harbor in the W. side of 
Royal Bay, South Georgia; in 54°32'S., 36°05'W. 
First surveyed by a Ger. exp., 1882-83, under Schra- 
der. The name Little Moltke, derived from the 
nearby Moltke Harbor, is used for this feature by 
the sealers in South Georgia. The full name. 
Little Moltke Harbor, is approved in order to indi- 
cate the nature of the feature. Not adopted: Little 
Moltke. 



194 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



LITTLE RAZORBACK ISLAND: smallest and 
easternmost of the Dellbridge Is., lying in Erebus 
Bay off the W. side of Ross I.; in about 77°40'S., 
166°31'E. Disc, by the BrNAE under Scott, 1901-4, 
and so named because of its size and similarity to 
Big Razorback I., which lies about 0.5 mi. south- 
southwest. Not adopted: Small Razorback Island. 

LITTLE THUMB: small isolated rock tower, 
about 2,700 ft. in el., standing close S. of The Spire 
at the NW. end of the Blackwall Mtns., on the S. 
side of Neny Fjord, Palmer Pen.; in 68°19'S., 
66°53'W. First surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE 
under Rymill. It was climbed on Jan. 22, 1948 by 
members of RARE and FIDS, who used variations 
of this name in referring to the feature. It was 
resurveyed in 1948-49 by the FIDS. Not adopted: 
Neny Fjord Thumb, The Thumb, Thumb. 

LIVELY, CAPE : cape forming the SW. extremity 
of Renaud I. in the Biscoe Is.; in 65°49'S., 66°11'W. 
The Biscoe Is. were disc, in February 1832 by a Br. 
exp. under John Biscoe, and were first roughly sur- 
veyed by the FrAE, 1903-5, and FrAE, 1908-10, 
both under Charcot. Renaud I. was again roughly 
surveyed in 1935-36 by the BGLE under Rymill. 
The cape was named in 1954 by the Br-APC after 
the cutter Lively, one of the two vessels of Biscoe's 
1830-32 expedition. 

LIV GLACIER: steep glacier about 45 mi. long, 
flowing N. from the polar plateau along the W. side 
of the Duncan Mtns. to the Ross Ice Shelf; in 
about 84°55'S., 167°30'W. Disc, in November 1911 
by a Nor. exp. under Amundsen, who named it for 
the daughter of Dr. Fridtjof Nahsen. Not adopted : 
Liv's Glacier. 

LIVINGSTON ISLAND: island about 37 mi. long 
and from 5 to 19 mi. wide, lying between Green- 
wich and Snow Islands in the South Shetland 
Is.; in 62°35'S., 60°30'W. This island was known 
to sealers as early as 1820, and the name Livingston 
has been well established in international usage for 
over 100 years. Not adopted: Friesland Island, 
Livingston's Island, Smiths Island, Smolensk 
Island. 

LIZARD HILL : narrow, curving rock ridge, about 
1,300 ft. in eL, about 6 mi. SSE. of thf head of Hope 
Bay and 1 mi. E. of Ridge Peak, at jthe NE. end of 
Palmer Pen.; in 63°31'S., 57°01'W. » Probably first 
seen by the SwedAE, 1901-4, under Nordenskjold. 
First charted in 1946 by the FIDS, who applied 
the name. 

LIZARD ISLAND: island about 4 mi. long, in a 
NW.-SE. direction, and 0.5 mi. wide, paralleling 
the NE. shore of Bigo Bay, from which it is sepa- 
rated by a channel about 0.5 mi. wide, along the 



W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°41'S., 64°26'W. 
Disc, by the BGLE under Rymill, 1934-37, who so 
named it because of its shape. 

LIZARDS FOOT: rocky spur about 2,400 ft. in el., 
forming the E. end of the snow-covered ridge de- 
scending from Mt. Evans along the S. side of Deben- 
ham Gl., in Victoria Land; in about 77°11'S., 
163°00'E. Charted and named by the BrAE under 
Scott, 1910-13. Not adopted: Lizard's Foot. 

LLOYD, CAPE: cape which forms the N. tip of 
Clarence I., in the South Shetland Is.; in about 
60°59'S., 54°01'W. The name Lloyd's Promontory 
appears on early charts of the 1821-25 period, but 
in more recent years the feature has become inter- 
nationally known as Cape Lloyd. Not adopted: 
Cape Lloyds, Lloyd's Land, Lloyds Promontory, 
Lloyd's Promontory. 

LLOYD, MOUNT: mountain about 9,900 ft. in el., 
in the Queen Alexandra Range, rising about 12 mi. 
W. of Mt. Tripp approximately midway between 
Shackleton Inlet and Beardmore Gl., on the W. 
side of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 83°09'S., 165°12'E. 
Disc, and named by the BrAE under Shackleton, 
1907-9. 

Lloyds Island: see Rugged Island. 

Lloyd's Land; Lloyds Promontory: see Lloyd, 
Cape. 

LOCKHART, MOUNT: prominent northerly pro- 
jection from the main massif of the Fosdick Mtns., 
in the Edsel Ford Ranges of Marie Byrd Land; in 
about 76°28'S., 145°06'W. Disc, by the ByrdAE on 
a flight on Dec. 5, 1929. Named for Ernest E. 
Lockhart, physiologist at the West Base of the 
USAS and member of the Edsel Ford Mountains 
Biological Party which visited this area in 1940. 



LOCKLEY POINT: 

NW. side of Wiencke 
Peak, in the Palmer 
Disc, by the BelgAE 
It was resighted and 
and named for Lt. 
leader, biologist, and 
roy in 1945. 



low, ice-covered point on the 
I., about 1 mi. NE. of Noble 
Arch.; in 64°47'S., 63°23'W. 
under De Gerlache in 1898. 
charted by the FIDS in 1944, 
J. G. Lockley, RNVR, base 
meteorologist at Port Lock- 



LOCKROY, PORT: harbor about 0.5 mi. long 
and wide, entered between Flag Pt. and Lecuyer 
Pt. on the W. side of Wiencke I., in the Palmer 
Arch.; in 64°49'S., 63°30'W. Disc, by the FrAE 
under Charcot, 1903-5, and named by him for 
Edouard Lockroy, French politician and V. Pres. 
of the Chamber of Deputies, who assisted Charcot 
in obtaining government support for the expe- 
dition. 



195 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



LOCKYER ISLAND : island about 5 mi. long and 
3 mi. wide, lying off the S. shore of James Ross I. 
in the SW. entrance to Admiralty Sound; in 
64°27'S., 57°36'W. It was named Cape Lockyer 
by Capt. James Clark Ross on Jan. 7, 1843 at the 
request of Capt. Francis R. M. Crozier, in honor 
of the latter's friend Capt. Nicholas Lockyer, RN. 
The cape was proven to be an island by the 
SwedAE under Nordenskjold in 1902. 

LODGE ROCK: low, snow-capped rock, less than 
100 ft. in el., between Barn Rock and Hayrick It. 
in the Terra Firma Is., off the W. coast of Palmer 
Penn.; in 68°42'S., 67°32'W. The Terra Firma Is. 
were first visited and surveyed in 1936 by the 
BGLE under Rymill. This rock was surveyed in 
1948 by the FIDS, and so named by them because 
a low ledge onto which sledges could be driven 
provided lodgment clear of the sea ice pressure 
area. 

LOESENER PLATFORM: fiat-topped mountain 
platform lying N. of the Preuschoff Range and W. 
of the Gablenz Range, in New Schwabenland; in 
about 71°50'S., 4°00'E. Disc, by the GerAE under 
Filchner, 1938-39, and named for Kurt Loesener, 
airplane mechanic on the Boreas, one of the flying 
boats used by the expedition. 

LOLA, MOUNT: peak about 560 ft. in el., which 
surmounts Point Lola at the E. side of the entrance 
to Uruguay Cove, on the N. coast of Laurie I., 
in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°44'S., 44°43'W. The 
name appears on an Argentine Govt, chart of 1930, 
based upon surveys by two Argentine naval officers, 
I. Espindola in the Uruguay in 1915 and A. Rod- 
riguez in the Primero de Mayo in 1930. 

LOLA, POINT: point forming the E. side of 
the entrance to Uruguay Cove, on the N. coast of 
Laurie I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°44'S., 
44°43'W. The name appears on an Argentine 
Govt, chart of 1930, based upon surveys by two 
Argentine naval officers, I. Espindola in the Uru- 
guay in 1915 and A. Rodriguez in the Primero 
de Mayo in 1930. 

LONELY ISLAND: islet lying 1 mi. ENE. of 
Cape Paryadin, along the S. coast and near the 
W. end of South Georgia; in 54°03'S., 38°01'W. 
Charted and named by DI personnel during sur- 
veys of South Georgia in 1926-30. 

LONE ROCK: isolated rock about 1.25 mi. S. 
of the E. end of Nelson I., in the South Shetland 
Is.; in 62°20'S., 58°51'W. Charted by DI personnel 
on the Discovery II in 1935, and given this descrip- 
tive name. 



LONE ROCK: low, isolated rock about 50 yards 
long, lying about 4 mi. N. of Cape Gage, James 
Ross I., on the W. margin of Erebus and Terror 
Gulf; in 64°06'S., 57°03'W. Charted by the FIDS 
in 1945, and so named by the Br-APC because of 
its small size and complete isolation. 

LONG, MOUNT: rocky peak protruding above 
what appears to be an ice-covered mountain sys- 
tem extending in an E.-W. direction close SE. 
of the head of Vincennes Bay, on Budd Coast; in 
about 67°12'S., 110°30'E. Delineated from aerial 
photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47. This 
peak is estimated to rise to about 6,500 ft. in el., 
though compilation of this immediate area was 
greatly handicapped by dense cloud conditions dur- 
ing the February 1947 flights in this area. Named 
by the US-ACAN for Lt. Richard J. Long, USN, 
pilot with USN Op. Wml., 1947-48, who assisted 
in operations resulting in the establishment of 
astronomical control stations along the coast from 
Wilhelm II Coast to Budd Coast. 

LONGHURST, MOUNT: mountain about 7,700 
ft. in el. in the Britannia Range, highest summit 
of a long ridge of mountains on the SW. side of 
the Cape Murray depression, on the W. side of 
Ross Ice Shelf, in about 79°20'S., 157°15'E. Disc. 
by the BrNAE under Scott, 1901-4, who named 
it for Cyril Longhurst, secretary of the expedition. 

LONGING, CAPE: rocky cape forming the S. 
end of a large ice-covered promontory which marks 
the W. side of the S. entrance to Prince Gustav 
Chan., on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 64°33'S., 
58°50'W. Disc, by the SwedAE under Norden- 
skjold in 1902, and so named by him because from 
the position of his winter hut on Snow Hill I. the 
cape lay in the direction of his "land of longing" 
which he was anxious to explore. Not adopted: 
Langstans Udde [Swedish] . 

LONG ISLAND: island about 3 ml. long, in a 
NE.-SW. direction, and 0.5 mi. wide, lying in 
Prince Gustav Chan, about 2 mi. off the SE. coast 
of Louis Philippe Pen. and opposite the mouth of 
East Russell Gl.; in 63°46'S., 58°12'W. Disc, and 
named by the FIDS in 1945. The name is descrip- 
tive. 

LONGLOW ROCK: rock about 1.5 mi. SSW. of 
Borley Pt., about 0.5 mi. off the W. shore of Mon- 
tagu I., in the South Sandwich Is.; in 58°24'S., 
26°29'W. Charted and named in 1930 by DI per- 
sonnel on the Discovery II. 

LONG POINT: point forming the W. side of 
the entrance to Godthul, a bay along the N. coast 
of South Georgia; in 54°16'S., 36°18'W. Charted 
in 1928 by a Nor. exp. under Horntvedt. The name 



196 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



appears to have been applied by DI personnel who 
recharted this area in 1929. 

LONGRIDGE HEAD: headland, about 1,500 ft. 
in el., marking the S. end of a small coastal ridge 
which extends 3 mi. northward, standing 5 mi. N. 
of Cape Saens Pefia on the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 67°28'S., 67°38'W. First sighted by mem- 
bers of the FrAE under Charcot who roughly 
charted this area in 1909. The name is descrip- 
tive and was applied by the FIDS who surveyed 
the headland in 1948. 

LONG ROCK: rock lying in Morton Str., about 
3 mi. N. of the E. end of Snow I., in the South 
Shetland Is.; in 62°39'S., 61°15'W. Named by DI 
personnel on the Discovery II, who charted the 
intricate passage between Snow and Livingston 
Islands in 1930-31. 

Long Sound: see Lang Sound. 

LONGSTAFF, MOUNT: mountain with twin 
peaks, about 10,300 ft. in el., in the Queen Alex- 
andra Range, standing about 30 mi. SSE. of the 
mouth of Shackleton Inlet, and about 12 mi. N. 
of Mt. Lloyd, on the W. side of Ross Ice Shelf; 
in about 82°58'S., 165°00'E. Disc, by the BrNAE 
under Scott, 1901-4, who named it for Llewellyn 
Wood Longstafif, principal contributor to the exp. 
This was the most southerly high peak seen by 
Scott on his trip toward the South Pole and for 
this reason was chosen to commemorate the man 
whose generous donations made the exp. possible. 

LOOKOUT, CAPE: steep bluff about 800 ft. in 
el., marking the SE. extremity of Elephant I., in 
the South Shetland Is.; in about 61°18'S., 55°16'W. 
The name appears on a map of 1822 by Capt. 
George Powell, a British sealer, and is nov/ estab- 
lished international usage. 

Loqui, Cap: see Garcia, Cape. 

LOQUI POINT: point which marks the S. side 
of the entrance to Barilari Bay, on the W. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 65°55'S., 64°55'W. This fea- 
ture was first seen, roughly surveyed and named 
"Cap Garcia" by the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot. 
At the same time Charcot gave the name "Cap 
Loqui" to the N. cape of Barilari Bay, after Cap- 
tain Loqui of the Argentine Navy. The maps of 
Charcot's second expedition to this area, the FrAE 
of 1908-10, showed "Cap Garcia" as the N. cape 
of Barilari Bay, and the name Cape Garcia (q.v.) 
has since become established in that position and 
accepted by the US-ACAN. Charcot did not use 
the name "Cap Loqui" on the maps of the FrAE, 
1908-10, and with his shifting of the name Cape 
Garcia, this south entrance point to Barilari Bay 



has remained unnamed. For the sake of historical 
continuity, Charcot's "Cap Loqui" has been altered 
and accepted for this feature. Not adopted: Cap 
Garcia [French]. 

LOUBAT POINT: point forming the N. side of 
the entrance to Deloncle Bay, fronting on Lemaire 
Chan, opposite Booth I., on the W. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 65°06'S., 63°53'W. Probably first seen by 
the BelgAE under De Gerlache, 1897-99. It was 
resighted and charted by the FrAE under Charcot, 
1903-5, and named by him for a Monsieur De 
Loubat. Not adopted: Cape De Loubat, Cape 
Loubat. 

LOUBET COAST: that portion of the W. coast of 
Palmer Pen. extending from Cape Bellue, in 
66°20'S., 65°59'W., to the head of Bourgeois Fjord, 
in 67°31'S., 66°32'W. This coast was explored, in 
January 1905 by the FrAE under Charcot, who 
named it for fimile Loubet, then Pres. of France. 
Not adopted : Loubet Land. 

Loubet Land: see Loubet Coast. 

Loubet Strait: see Gullet, The. 

LOUISE, MOUNT: peak about 2,100 ft. in el., 
standing about 1 mi. N. of Mt. Gourdon on Booth I., 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°04'S., 64°00'W. 
First charted by the FrAE under Charcot, 1903-5, 
and named by him for the sister of Ernest Gourdon, 
geologist of the expedition. Not adopted: Louise 
Peak. 

LOUISE ISLET: ice-capped islet about 0.25 mi. in 
diameter, lying about 1 mi. E. of Cape Anna in the 
SW. side of the entrance to Wilhelmina Bay, along 
the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 64°36'S., 62°23'W. 
Disc, by the BelgAE, 1897-99, under Lt. Adrien de 
Gerlache, and named by him for his sister. Not 
adopted: Louise Island. 

Louis McHenry Howe, Mount: see Howe, Mount. 

Louis Philippe Coast; Louis Philippe Land: see 
Louis Philippe Peninsula. 

LOUIS PHILIPPE PENINSULA: the extreme 
NE. portion of Palmer Pen., extending NE. for 
about 80 mi. from a line connecting Cape Kater 
and Cape Longing; centering in about 63°40'S., 
58°30'W. The name Louis Philippe was given by 
Capt. Dumont D'Urville in 1838 for King Louis 
Philippe of France. Not adopted: Louis Philippe 
Coast, Louis Philippe Land, Trinity Peninsula. 

LOWELL THOMAS MOUNTAINS: mountains 
estimated to be about 9,500 ft. in el., standing SW. 
of Sweeney Mtns. and rising above Joerg Plateau, 



197 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



in about 76°30'S., 70°45'W. Disc, by the RARE 
under Ronne, 1947-48, who named these moun- 
tains for Lowell Thomas, a supporter of the ex- 
pedition. 

Lower Ferrar Glacier: see Ferrar Glacier. 

LOW HEAD, CAPE: cape about 1.75 mi. SSW. 
of Cape Lions Rump, the W. side of the entrance 
to King George Bay, on King George I., in the 
South Shetland Is.; in 62°10'S., 58°08'W. Charted 
and named during 1937 by DI personnel on the 
Discovery II. 

LOW ISLAND: low island about 9 mi. long and 
about 5 mi. wide, lying about 17 mi. SSE. of Smith 
I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 63°17'S., 62°09'W. 
So named because of its low elevation. This island 
was known to sealers as early as 1820, and the 
name Low has been well established in interna- 
tional usage for over 100 years. Not adopted: 
Jameson Island, Jamesons Island. 

LOW POINT: low point marking the NW. ex- 
tremity of Vindication I., South Sandwich Is.; in 
57°04'S., 26°45'W. The point was named by DI 
personnel following their survey in 1930. 

Low Point: see Daisy Point; Kikhaylov Point; 
Pacific Point. 

LOW ROCK: low rock surrounded by foul 
ground, lying at the E. side of the S. entrance 
to Fildes Str., about 1 mi. off the S. end of King 
George I., in the South Shetland Is.; in 62°16'S., 
58°37'W. An unnamed rock in essentially this 
position appears on a chart by David Ferguson, 
Scottish geologist aboard the whaler Hanka in 
these waters in 1913-14. Low Rock was accurately 
charted by DI personnel on the Discovery II in 
1935 and 1937. 

Low Rock: see Bucentaur Rock. 

LOW ROCK POINT: point about 4 mi. SW. of 
Cape North, near the W. end of the N. coast of 
South Georgia; in 53°59'S., 37°50'W. Charted by 
DI personnel in 1926-30, and so named because a 
low rock lies off the point. 

LUBBOCK, MOUNT: high peak standing E. of 
Mt. Phillips in northern Victoria Land; in about 
73°08'S., 167°30'E. Disc, in January 1841 by a 
Br. exp. under Ross, who named it for Sir John 
Lubbock, treasurer of the Royal Society. 

LUCAS GLACIER: glacier flowing in a N. direc- 
tion to the S. side of the Bay of Isles, South Georgia, 
close W. of Luck Pt.; in 54°04'S., 37°19'W. Charted 
in 1912-13 by Robert Cushman Murphy, Amer- 



ican naturalist aboard the brig Daisy, who named 
it for Frederic A. Lucas, Dir. of the American 
Museum of Natural History at that time. 

LUCK POINT: point at the W. side of the en- 
trance to Sea Leopard Fjord, in the Bay of Isles, 
South Georgia; in 54°03'S., 37°17'W. The name 
appears to have been first used by DI personnel 
who charted this point during 1929-30. 

Lucy, Mount: see Henry Lucy, Mount. 

Luigi de Savoie, Pic: see Luigi di Savoia Peak. 

LUIGI DI SAVOIA PEAK: peak about 4,600 ft. 
in el., at the NE. end of Sierra Du Fief, a mountain 
range in the SW. part of Wiencke I., in the Palmer 
Arch.; in 64°51'S., 63°26'W. Disc, by the BelgAE 
under De Gerlache in 1898, and scaled by mem- 
bers of the FrAE under Charcot, 1903-5. Named 
by Charcot for Luigi di Savoia, Duke of the 
Abruzzi. Not adopted: Pic Luigi de Savoie 
[French] . 

LUISA BAY: small bay lying between Cape 
Vakop and Mt. Skittle on the N. coast of South 
Georgia; in 54°23'S., 36°11'W. Surveyed by the 
SGS, 1951-52, and named by the Br-APC after 
the Luisa, one of the vessels of the Compafiia Ar- 
gentina de Pesca which participated in establish- 
ing the first permanent whaling station at 
Grytviken, South Georgia, in 1904; now a hulk in 
King Edward Cove. 

LUITPOLD COAST : that portion of the coast of 
Coats Land extending from about 29°W. to 37°W., 
marked by an unbroken ice cliff from 30 to 100 
ft. in el. Disc, by the GerAE under Filchner, 
1911-12, and named for Prince Regent Luitpold 
of Bavaria. Not adopted: Leopold Coast, Luitpold 
Land, Prince-Regent Luitpold Land, Prinzregent 
Luitpold Land [German] . 

Luitpold Land: see Luitpold Coast. 

LUKE GLACIER: glacier, more than 7 mi. long, 
flowing NW. into the SE. corner of Leroux Bay, 
on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°41'S., 
64°08'W. This glacier was first sighted and 
roughly surveyed in 1909 by the FrAE under Char- 
cot. It was resurveyed in 1935-36 by the BGLE 
under Rymill, and later named for George Lawson 
Johnston, 1st Baron Luke of Pavenham, Chairman 
of Messrs. Bovril Ltd., who contributed toward 
the cost of the BGLE, 1934-37. 

LUMIfeRE PEAK: peak about 3,400 ft. in el., at 
the SE. end of the peninsula terminating in Cape 
Tuxen, on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°19'S., 
64°02'W. Disc, by the FrAE under Charcot, 1903-5, 



198 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



and named by him, probably for Louis Lumiere, 
leader in photographic research and development 
in France at that time. Not adopted: Lumiere 
Peak. 

LUMUS REEF: reef about 7 mi. WNW. of 
Betbeder Islets and some 29 mi. W. of Cape Tuxen, 
lying off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 65°14'S., 
65°18'W. Disc, and named by the BGLE under 
Rymill, 1934-37. 

LUPA, MOUNT: fiat- topped, ice-covered moun- 
tain, more than 5,500 ft. in el., standing between 
Romulus Gl. and Martin Gl. close ESE. of Black 
Thumb Mtn. and 5 mi. E. of the Head of Rymill 
Bay, on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°27'S., 
66°43'W. First roughly surveyed in 1936 by the 
BGLE under Rymill. Resurveyed in 1948-49 by 
the FIDS who applied the name. This mountain 
lies near the heads of Romulus and Remus Gla- 
ciers, and the name derives from the mythological 
story of the she-wolf which fed these twins after 
they had been thrown into the Tiber. 

Lurdbee Channel: see Lurabee Glacier. 

LURABEE GLACIER: glacier flowing NE. be- 
tween Scripps Ridge and Finley Ridge with Cape 
Walcott at its N. portal, on the E. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 69°12'S., 63°35'W. This glacier, which is 
a distributary of Bingham Gl., was disc, by Sir 
Hubert Wilkins on Dec. 20, 1928 on his pioneer 
Antarctic flight. He named it Lurabee Channel 
for Lurabee Shreck of San Francisco, in recog- 
nition of her aid in procuring equipment for this 
and his earlier Arctic flight, and for her editorial 
assistance on his book Flying the Arctic. Not 
adopted: Lurabee Channel. 

LUSSICH COVE: cove at the SE. side of Martel 
Inlet, in Admiralty Bay, King George I., in the 
South Shetland Is.; in 62°05'S., 58°21'W. Charted 
by the FrAE under Charcot, 1908-10, and named 
by him for Antonio Lussich of Montevideo, who 
was of assistance to the expedition. 

Luttich Island: see Liege Island. 

LtJTZOW-HOLM BAY: large bay, about 130 mi. 
wide, lying between Riiser-Larsen Pen. and the 
W. end of Prince Olav Coast; centering near 
68°50'S., 37°30'E. Disc, by a Nor. exp. under 
Isachsen and Riiser-Larsen, 1930-31, in two aerial 
flights on Feb. 21 and 23, 1931. Named by Bjarne 
Aagaard in 1934 for Cdr. Finn Liitzow-Holm, pilot 
with the Nor. exp. under Riiser-Larsen in 1929-30. 

LUZ RANGE: prominent N.-S. trending range 
about 25 mi. long and 9,200 ft. in el., in the Miihlig- 
Hofmann Mtns., projecting from the intermediate 



icecap level about 15 mi. N. of the edge of the 
polar plateau in New Schwabenland; in about 
72°00'S., 5°50'E. Disc, by the GerAE under 
Filchner, 1938-39, and named for the commercial 
director of the German Lufthansa Corporation. 

LYALL ISLANDS: group of small islands lying 
NW. of Cape Moore, off the N. coast of Victoria 
Land; in about 70°45'S., 167°20'E. Disc, in 
1841 by a Br. exp. under Ross, and named for David 
Lyall, asst. surgeon on the exp. ship Terror. 

LYELL GLACIER: glacier flowing in a N. di- 
rection to a small bay close E. of Mercer Bay, at 
the SW. end of Cumberland West Bay, South 
Georgia; in 54°17'S., 36°38'W. Disc, by the 
SwedAE, 1901-4, under Nordenskjold, who named 
it for Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875), eminent 
British geologist. 

LYNCH ISLET: islet lying 1.5 mi. E. of Cape 
Vik in the E. part of Marshall Bay, off the S. coast 
of Coronation I. in the South Orkney Is.; in 
60°40'S., 45°38'W. It was roughly charted in 
1912-13 by Better S0rlle, a Norwegian whaling 
captain, and was surveyed in 1933 by DI per- 
sonnel. Resurveyed in 1948-49 by the FIDS and 
named by them for Thomas B. Lynch, an American 
sealer who visited the South Orkney Is. in the 
schooner Express in 1880. 

LYSTAD BAY: bay about 3 mi. wide which in- 
dents the W. side of Horseshoe I., in the NE. part 
of Marguerite Bay; in 67°51'S., 67°17'W. First 
surveyed in 1936-37 by the BGLE under RymiU. 
The bay was visited by the U.S. M.S. North Star 
and U.S.S. Bear of the USAS in 1940. The name 
was proposed by the US-ACAN for Capt. Isak 
Lystad of the North Star. Not adopted : Horseshoe 
Bay, Horseshoe Island Cove. 

LYTTELTON, CAPE: bold cape which forms the 
S. side of the entrance to Shackleton Inlet, along 
the W. edge of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 82°35'S., 
164°30'E. Disc, in December 1902 by the BrNAE 
under Scott. The exp. ship Discovery started on 
the last lap of its journey S. from Lyttelton, New 
Zealand, where very generous assistance was given 
the expedition. Not adopted: Cape Lyttleton. 

LYTTELTON RIDGE: dark, jagged ridge about 
1,400 ft. in el., extending for about 5 mi. in a SSE. 
direction along the W. side of Churchill Pen., on 
the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°22'S., 63°08'W. 
Charted in 1947 by the FIDS, who named it for 
Rt. Hon. Oliver Lyttelton, M. P., British Minister 
of Production and member of the War Cabinet. 
Photographed from the air during 1947 by the 
RARE under Ronne. Not adopted: Antarctic 
Tetons. 



199 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Lyttleton, Cape: see Lyttelton, Cape. 

MABEL, CAPE: cape forming the N. tip of Pirie 
Pen. on the N. coast of Laurie I., in the South 
Orkney Is.; in 60°41'S., 44°40'W. Probably first 
sighted by a Br. sealing exp. under Weddell, who 
examined the N. coast of Laurie I. in 1823. It was 
charted by the ScotNAE, 1902-4, under Bruce, who 
named it for Mrs. J. H. Harvey Pirie, wife of the 
surgeon-geologist to the expedition. 

MABEL ISLET: islet about 1.5 mi. NW. of Cape 
Mabel, off the N. coast of Laurie I., in the South 
Orkney Is.; in 60°40'S., 44°42'W. Charted in 1933 
by DI personnel on the Discovery II, who named it 
after nearby Cape Mabel. 

Mdbelle Sidley, Mount: see Sidley, Mount. 

MABUS POINT: ice-covered point marked by 
four prominent rock outcrops along its W. side, 
forming the E. side of the entrance to McDonald 
Bay, on Queen Mary Coast; in about 66°29'S., 
93°18'E. Charted by the AAE under Mawson, 
1911-14. Named by the US-ACAN for Lt. Cdr. 
Howard W. Mabus, USN, executive officer of the 
icebreaker U.S.S. Edisto, who was instrumental in 
the close support, in view of heavy pack ice condi- 
tions, that the Edisto was able to render the USN 
Op. Wml. parties in establishing astronomical con- 
trol stations along Queen Mary Coast during the 
1947-48 summer seasoh. 

MacDONALD, CAPE: headland about 1,400 ft. 
in el., forming the S. side of the entrance to Odom 
Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 71°32'S., 
61°11'W. Disc, by members of the USAS who ex- 
plored this area by land and from the air in 1940. 
Named for J. E. MacDonald, field representative 
and secretary of the USAS. 

MACDOXTGAL BAY: small bay lying between 
Capes Geddes and Valavielle along the N. coast of 
Laurie I., in the South Orkney Is., in 60°42'S., 
44°33'W. Probably first sighted by a Br. sealing 
exp. under Weddell, who explored the N. coast of 
Laurie I. in 1823. Charted by the ScotNAE, 
1902-4, under Bruce, who named it for J. Mac- 
dougal, third mate of the exp. ship Scotia. 

MacFerlane, Detroit de: see McFarlane Strait. 

MACFIE SOUND: passage about 1 mi. wide at 
its narrowest point, extending in a NW.-SE. direc- 
tion between Islay and the Sheehan Is. on the N. 
and Bertha I. on the S., off Mac-Robertson Coast 
just E. of William Scoresby Bay; in about 67°22'S., 
59''47'E. Disc, in February 1936 by DI personnel 
on the William Scoresby, and named by them for 
Lt. A. F. Macfie, RNR, who prepared the maps of 



the expedition. Not adopted: Homresund [Nor- 
wegian] . 

MACKAY, CAPE: cape forming the SE. tip of 
Ross I.; in about 77°43'S., 168°30'E. Disc, by the 
BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, who named it for 
Capt. Harry MacKay, commander of the Terra 
Nova, one of the relief ships for the expedition. 
Not adopted : Cape Mackay. 

MACKAY GLACIER: large glacier along the E. 
coast of Victoria Land, descending from the inland 
plateau to Granite Hbr.; in about 76°57'S., 162°30'E. 
Disc, by the Northern Party of the BrAE, 1907-9, 
under Shackleton, who named it for Dr. Alistair 
Forbes Mackay, a member of the party. 

MACKAY GLACIER TONGUE: glacier tongue 
about 6 mi. long and 2 mi. wide extending into 
Granite Hbr. from the Mackay Glacier, along the 
coast of Victoria Land; in about 76°58'S., 162°33'E. 
First charted by the BrAE, 1910-13, under Scott. 
The feature takes its name from Mackay Glacier 
which was named by BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackle- 
ton. Not adopted: Mackay Tongue. 

MACKAY MOUNTAINS: prominent group of 
peaks lying SE. of Boyd Gl., in the Edsel Ford- 
Ranges of Marie Byrd Land; in about 77°30'S., 
143°05'W. Disc, by the ByrdAE in 1934, and named 
for Clarence Mackay of the Postal Telegraph and 
Mackay Radio Companies, who was a benefactor 
of the expedition. Not adopted: Mount Clarence 
Mackay, Mount Clarence MacKay. 

Mackay Tongue: see Mackay Glacier Tongue. 

Mac Kellar, Fiord: see Mackellar Inlet. 

MACKELLAR, MOUNT: peak about 9,900 ft. in 
el., standing about 18 mi. N. of The Cloudmaker 
at the W. side of Beardmore GL, in the Queen Alex- 
andra Range; in about 84°06'S., 168°15'E. Disc, 
by the BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton, who named 
it for Campbell Mackellar of London, a supporter 
of the expedition. Not adopted: Mount Mac- 
kethar. 

MACKELLAR INLET: inlet forming the NW. 
head of Admiralty Bay, at King George I., in the 
South Shetland Is.; in 62°04'S., 58°28'W. Prob- 
ably named by the FrAE .under Charcot, who 
charted Admiralty Bay in December 1909. Not 
adopted: Fiord Mac Kellar [French]. 

MACKELLAR ISLETS: group of about 30 rocks 
and islets about 2 mi. in extent, lying N. and NW. 
of Cape Denison in the center of Commonwealth 
Bay, along George V Coast; in about 66°58'S., 
142°39'E. Disc, in 1912 by the AAE uncjer Maw- 



200 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



son, who named the islets for C. D. Mackellar of 
London, a patron of the expedition. 

MACKENZIE BAY: large embayment between 
Cape Darnley and the W. side of Amery Ice Shelf, 
along Lars Christensen Coast; in about 68°35'S., 
71°15'E. On Dec. 26, 1929 the BANZARE, under 
Mawson, reached 66°57'S., 71°51'E. and saw land 
ice miraged on the SW. horizon. In this same area 
on Feb. 10, 1931, the BANZARE disc, a large ice- 
free bay and made an airplane flight to sketch it. 
They named it for K. N. MacKenzie, captain of the 
exp. ship Discovery. On Feb. 5, 1931 the Norwegian 
whaling ships Thorshavn and Thorshammer, un- 
der Lars Christensen, were on the outskirts of this 
area. The whale catcher Seksern reached this 
area on Jan. 13, 1931 i.nd on Feb. 13, 1931 the 
Torlyn entered Thorshavn Bay in the S. part of 
MacKenzie Bay. Not adopted: Mackenzie Bay, 
Mackenzie Sea, Olav Prydz Bukt [Norwegian] . 

MACKENZIE PENINSULA: rocky peninsula 
forming the W. end of Laurie I., in the South Ork- 
ney Is.; in 60°45'S., 44°48'W. First sighted and 
roughly charted by Capt. George Powell and Capt. 
Nathaniel Palmer in 1821. It was accurately 
charted by the ScotNAE under Dr. William S. 
Bruce, 1902-4, who gave this peninsula the maiden 
name of his wife. 

Mackenzie Sea: see MacKenzie Bay; Prydz Bay. 

Mackethar, Mount: see Mackellar, Mount. 

MACKINTOSH, CAPE: low, ice-covered cape 
forming the N. tip of Kemp Pen. and the E. side 
of the entrance to Mason Inlet, on the E. coast of 
Palmer Pen.; in 72°53'S., 60°03'W. Probably first 
seen by members of the USAS who photographed 
a portion of Kemp Pen. while exploring this coast 
from the air in December 1940. During 1947 the 
cape was photographed by the RARE, who in con- 
junction with the FIDS charted it from the ground. 
Named by the FIDS for Neil A. Mackintosh, British 
marine biologist and oceanographer, who since 
1924 has been a member of the stafT, and since 
1936 Dir. of Research of the Discovery Investiga- 
tions (now part of the National Inst, of Oceanog- 
raphy) . 

MACKINTOSH, MOUNT: dark-appearing moun- 
tain peak lying W. of Mt. Baxter and on the E. side 
of Reeves Gl., in Victoria Land;. in about 74°20'S., 
162°15'E. Charted by the BrAE, 1907-9, under 
Shackleton, who named it for a A. L. A. Mackin- 
tosh, Second Officer on the exp. ship Nimrod. 

MACKINTOSH COVE: small cove immediately 
E. of Eraser Pt., along the N. coast of Laurie I., in 
the South Orkney Is.; in 60°42'S., 44°30'W. 



Charted by the ScotNAE, 1902-4, under Bruce. 
Named for Neil A. Mackintosh, then a member of 
the Discovery Committee zoological staff, by DI 
personnel on the Discovery II following their sur- 
vey of the South Orkney Is. in 1933. Not adopted: 
Mcintosh Cove. 

Macndb, Cape: see McNab, Cape. 

MAC-ROBERTSON COAST: that portion of the 
coast of Antarctica extending from William Scores- 
by Bay, in about 59°35'S., to Cape Darnley on 
Bjerk0 Pen., in about 69°30'E. Named by the 
BANZARE, 1929-31, under Mawson, for MacPher- 
son Robertson of Melbourne, patron of the expedi- 
tion. Not adopted: MacRobertson Land, Mac- 
Robertson Land. 

MacRobertson Land: see Mac-Robertson Coast. 

MADIGAN, NUNATAK: nunatak about 2,400 ft. 
in el., about 10 mi. WSW. of the head of Watt Bay, 
on George V Coast; in about 67°08'S., 143°22'E. 
Disc, by the AAE, 1911-14, under Mawson, who 
named it for Cecil T. Madigan, meteorologist with 
the AAE Main Base. 

MAGNET BAY: bay about 8 mi. wide which in- 
dents the coast for about 3 mi., situated about 9 
mi. WNW. of Cape Davis, along the coast of Enderby 
Land; in about 66°25'S., 56°20'E. The"BANZARE, 
1929-31, under Mawson, originally gave the name 
Magnet Bay to what appeared to be a larger bay 
extending from Cape Davis to Cape Borley, after 
the vessel Magnet, in which Peter Kemp first 
sighted land in this vicinity in 1833. The recom- 
mended application of this name is based on 
subsequent exploration of this area by a Nor. exp., 
1936-37, under Christensen. 

MAGNIER PEAKS: peaks about 3,600 ft. in el. 
surmounting the narrow peninsula between Leroux 
Bay and Bigo Bay, on the W. coast of Palmer Pen., 
in 65°40'S., 64°18'W. Disc, and named by the 
FrAE, 1909-10, under Charcot. Not adopted: 
Magnier Peak. 

MAHONY, MOUNT: massive mountain, about 
5,300 ft. in el., forming a buttress between the Cot- 
ton and Miller Glaciers, in Victoria Land; in about 
77°11'S., 161°43'E. Charted and named by the 
BrAE, 1910-13, under Scott. 

MAIGNAN POINT: point marking the NE. end 
of Cholet Islet and the W. side of the entrance to 
Port Charcot, lying immediately N. of the NW. part 
of Booth I., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
about 65°03'S., 64°02'W. First charted by the 
FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot. Named by Charcot 
for F. Maignan, a seaman of the exp. ship Frangais 



424589 O -57 -14 



201 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



who lost his life in a ship accident shortly after 
the expedition's departure from Le Havre. Not 
adopted: Cape Maignan. 

MAIN ISLAND: island about 2 mi. long and 1.5 
mi. wide, which is the largest of the Willis Is., off 
the W. end of South Georgia; in 54°01'S., 38°16'W. 
Disc, in 1775 by a Br. exp. under Cook. It was 
charted by DI personnel in the period 1926-30, and 
so named because it is the principal island in the 
group. 

Mainland: see Coronation Island. 

MAINSAIL ROCK: rock lying about 0.6 mi. SW. 
of Spine It. in Sandefjord Bay, South Orkney Is.; 
in 60=37'S., 46°03'W. It is easternmost of a chain 
of three rocks trending in a NW.-SE. direction off 
the SE. side of Monroe I. The rock was named by 
DI personnel following their survey in 1933. 

MAI POINT: point marking the E. side of the 
entrance to Maiviken, a small bay in Cumberland 
West Bay, South Georgia; in 54°14'S., 36°30'W. 
The point was charted by the SwedAE, 1901-4, un- 
der Nordenskjold. The name derives from associ- 
ation with Maiviken, named by the SwedAE for 
May Day, May 1, 1902, the day they entered the 
bay. 

MAITLAND GLACIER : glacier flowing along the 
NW. flank of Mt. Hitchcock into the S. side of 
Mobiloil Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
about 68°48'S., 65°15'W. This glacier may appear 
indistinctly in an aerial photograph taken by Sir 
Hubert Wilkins on his flight of Dec. 20, 1928, but 
it was more clearly shown in aerial photographs 
taken by Lincoln Ellsworth in 1935 and the USAS 
in 1940. Named by the Committee in 1952 for O. 
Maitland Miller of the American Geographical Soc, 
who by utilizing Wilkins' and Ellsworth's photo- 
graphs assisted in constructing the first recon- 
naissance map of this area. 

MAIVIKEN: cove indenting the N. end of the 
promontory separating the E. and W. arms of 
Cumberland Bay, South Georgia; in 54°14'S., 
36°30'W. Charted by the SwedAE, 1901-4, under 
Nordenskjold, and named after May Day, May 1, 
1902, the day on which they entered the cove. Not 
adopted: May Cove. 

Mai Viken Glen: see Bore Valley. 

MALING PEAK: peak, about 1,400 ft. in el., 
which is southernmost of two conspicuous peaks 
situated about 0.5 mi. NW. of Cape Vik on the S. 
coast of Coronation I., South Orkney Is.; in 
60°40'S.,.45°42'W. Roughly surveyed in 1933 by 
DI personnel. Resurveyed in 1948-49 by the FIDS. 



Named by the Br-APC for Derek H. Maling, FIDS 
meteorologist at Signy I. in 1948 and 1949, who 
made a survey triangulation of Signy I. and the S. 
coast of Coronation Island. 

MALLORY POINT: steep rocky point projecting 
seaward from the coastal ice cliffs, midway along 
the W. side of Vincennes Bay, on Knox Coast; in 
about 66°55'S., 108°48'E. Delineated from aerial 
photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and 
named by the US-ACAN for Ens. Charles W. Mal- 
lory, USN, construction officer with USN Op. Wml., 
1947-48, who gave close support to the shore parties 
which established astronomical control from Wil- 
helm II Coast to Budd Coast. 

MAMELON ISLET: islet about 1.5 mi. long, ly- 
ing about 11 mi. ENE. of Cape Northrop, off the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 67°19'S., 64°49'W. 
Charted in 1947 by the FIDS and so named be- 
cause of its resemblance to a small, rounded hill or 
fort. 

MANCHOT ISLET: low rocky islet lying in the 
entrance to Port Martin, about 0.3 mi. N. of Cape 
Margerie, off Adelie Coast; in 66°49'S., 141°24'E. 
Photographed from the air by USN Op.' Hjp., 
1946-47. Charted by the FrAE under Liotard, 
1949-51, and so named because a large Adelie pen- 
guin rookery was located on the islet. Manchot is 
the French word for penguin. Not adopted: He 
des Manchots [French] . 

Manchots, He des: see Manchot Islet. 

MANGIN, MOUNT: mountain about 6,700 ft. in 
el., standing about 14 mi. SSW. of Mt. Bouvier, on 
the E. side of Adelaide I.; in 67°25'S., 68°29'W. 
Disc, by the FrAE, 1908-10, under Charcot, and 
named by him for Louis A. Mangin, noted French 
botanist. 

MANOURY ISLET: islet lying about 1.5 mi. S. 
of Gand I. at the N. end of Schollaert Chan., in the 
Palmer Arch., in 64°26'S., 62°50'W. Disc, by the 
FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, and named for G. 
Manoury, secretary of the expedition. 

MANSFIELD POINT: point marking the E. side 
of the entrance to Norway Bight, on the S. coast of 
Coronation I., South Orkney Is.; in 60°39'S., 
45°46'W. First surveyed by DI personnel in 1933. 
Resurveyed by the FIDS in 1948-49. Named by 
the Br-APC for Arthur W. Mansfield of the FIDS, 
meteorologist at Grytviken, South Georgia, in 1951; 
leader, meteorologist and biologist at Signy I. in 
1952. 

MARBLE POINT: rocky promontory of marble 
lying about 4 mi. N. of Cape Bernacchi, in front of 
the S. end of Wilson Piedmont Gl., in Victoria Land; 



202 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



in about 77°26'S., 163°48'E. First charted by the 
BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton, and so named be- 
cause of the marble found there. Not adopted: 
Marble Cape. 

Marescot, Cape: see Marescot Ridge. 

MARESCOT RIDGE : ridge comprised of numer- 
ous ice-covered hills, the highest about 3,700 ft. in 
el., extending in a NNE.-SSW. direction for about 
4.5 mi., standing 11 mi. E. of Cape Roquemarel, on 
the NW. coast of Louis Philippe Pen.; in 63°32'S., 
58°32'W. Disc, by a Fr. exp., 1837-40, under 
D'Urville. D'Urville charted this feature as a cape, 
which he named for Jacques Marescot Duthilleul, 
an ensign on the exp. ship Astrolabe. The ridge 
was charted by the FIDS in 1946. Not adopted: 
Cape Marescot. 

Margaret Bay: see Marguerite Bay. 

Margaret Goodenough Glacier: see Goodenough 
Glacier. 

Margaret Wade, Mount: see Fitzsimmons, Mount. 

MARGERIE, CAPE: low, ice-covered cape, 
marked by prominent rock outcrops at its NW. and* 
NE. ends, lying midway between Cape Mousse and 
Lacroix Nunatak and bounded on the N. by nu- 
merous rocky islets, on Adelie Coast; in 66°49'S., 
141°24'E. Charted by the AAE under Mawson, 
1911-14, who named this feature for Emanuel de 
Margerle, French geographer and geologist. Cape 
Margerie served as the main base site for FrAE 
parties under Liotard, in 1950-51, and Barre, in 
1951-52, until fire destroyed the main buildings of 
their base, known as Port Martin, in January 1952. 
Not adopted: Cape de Margerie. 

Margreaves Glacier: see Hargreaves Glacier. 

MARGUERITE BAY: an extensive bay on the W. 
side of Palmer Pen., which is bounded on the N. 
by Adelaide I., and on the S. by Wordie Ice Shelf, 
George VI Sound, and Alexander I Island; centered 
in about 68°30'S., 68°30'W. Disc, in 1909 by the 
FrAE under Dr. Jean B. Charcot, who named the 
bay for his wife. Not adopted : Margaret Bay. 

MARIAN COVE: cove indenting the W. side of 
King George I. about mid'Way between Collins 
Hbr. and Potter Cove, in the South Shetland Is.; in 
62°12'S., 58°46'W. The name seems to have been 
first used by the Scottish geologist David Ferguson 
in a 1921 report based upon his investigations of 
King George I. in 1913-14,. but may reflect an 
earlier naming by whalers. Not adopted: Marion 
Cove. 



Marie, Points: see Marie Island. 

MARIE BYRD LAND: that portion of Antarctica 
lying E. of Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea and S. of 
the Pacific Ocean, extending eastward approxi- 
mately to a line between the head of Ross Ice Shelf 
and Eights Coast. The inclusion of the area be- 
tween the Rockefeller Plateau and Eights Coast is 
based upon the leading role of R. Adm. Richard E. 
Byrd, USN, in all explorations of this area. Pend- 
ing more definite mapping which may make it pos- 
sible to draw boundaries along lines of natural de- 
marcation, the E. limit of this land has been arbi- 
trarily adopted. The name was originally applied 
by Byrd in 1929, in honor of his wife, to the NW. 
part of the area, the part that was explored in that 
year. 

MARIE ISLAND: irregular-shaped island, about 
2 mi. long, lying immediately N. of Cape Evensen, 
off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°07'S., 
65°46'W. The name "Pointe Marie," after the 
elder sister of Dr. Jean B. Charcot, was given by 
Charcot's FrAE, 1903-5. It was used for a point 
on the coast close N. of Cape Evensen, in about 
66°07'S. After the FrAE, 1908-10, Charcot appUed 
the name "Pointe Marie" for the most southerly 
tip of an island, "He Waldeck-Rousseou," lying off 
the coast in approximately the same latitude. In 
correlating their surveys with those of Charcot, 
the BGLE, 1934-37, identified "He Waldeck- 
Rousseau" as Waldeck-Rousseau Peak on the main- 
land of Palmer Pen. The most prominent feature 
near this peak requiring a name is the island now 
described. The name Marie Island for this feature 
preserves Charcot's naming in this locality. Not 
adopted: Pointe Marie [French]. 

MARIHOLM: the highest and easternmost islet 
in a small group which lies about 0.3 mi. S. of 
Moe I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 60°45'S., 
45°42'W. The islet was named on a chart based 
upon a running survey of the South Orkney Is. by 
Capt. Petter S0rlle in 1912-13. Not adopted: 
Hariholm [Norwegian]. 

MARINA POINT: low rocky promontory which 
forms the extreme NW. point of Galindez I. in the 
Argentine Is., off the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
65°15'S., 64°16'W. First surveyed in 1935-36 by 
the BGLE under Rymill. Named by members of 
the BGLE for Princess Marina, now Duchess of 
Kent, who was married in November 1934, while 
the expedition ship Penola was enroute to the 
Argentine Is. The name did not appear on pub- 
lished BGLE maps but since has become estab- 
lished in usage. 



203 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



MARIN DARBEL BAY: large bay indenting the 
W. coast of Palmer Pen. between Capes Bellue and 
Key; in 66°35'S., 65°55'W. It was disc, and roughly 
charted by the FrAE under Charcot, 1908-10, who 
gave it this name. The bay was further charted 
in 1931 by DI personnel on the Discovery II, and 
by the BGLE, 1934-37, under Rymill. Not 
adopted: Darbel Bay, Marin-Darbel Fiord. 

Marin-Darbel Fiord: see Marin Darbel Bay. 

MARION, MOUNT: mountain probably over 
1,500 ft. in el., standing about 15 mi. WNW. of Mt. 
Martine, on the N. coast of Charcot I., in about 
69°49'S., 74°37'W. Disc, on Jan. 11, 1910 by the 
FrAE under Dr. Jean B. Charcot, and named by 
him for his daughter, Marion. Not adopted: 
Marion Mountain, Marion Peak. 

Marion Cove: see Marian Cove. 

MARIS NUNATAK: small coastal nunatak pro- 
truding above the terminus of Rogers Gl., about 
2.5 mi. ENE. of Whisnant Nunatak on Ingrid 
Christensen Coast; in about 69°58'S., 72°33'E. De- 
lineated in 1952 by John H. Roscoe from aerial 
photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp. in March 
1947, and named by him for R. L. Maris, air crew- 
man on USN Op. Hjp. photographic flights in this 
area and other coastal areas between 14° and 164°, 
east longitude. 

Mark, Mount: see Hawthorne, Mount. 

MARKHAM, MOUNT: triple-peaked massif 
about 15,100 ft. in el., standing prominently above 
the surrounding lesser peaks and lying S. of 
Shackleton Inlet, along the W. edge of Ross Ice 
Shelf; in about 82°59'S., 160°30'E. Disc, in De- 
cember 1902 by the BrNAE under Scott. Named 
for Sir Clements Markham who, as Pres. of the 
Royal Geographical Soc, 1893-1905, planned the 
exp. and chose Scott as its leader. Not adopted: 
Markham Mountains. 

MARKHAM BAY: bay about 16 mi. wide and 
indenting 5 mi., lying between Ekelof Pt. and 
Hamilton Pt. on the E. side of James Ross I.; 
in 64°17'S., 57°18'W. Possibly first seen by a Br. 
exp. under Ross, who explored this area in 1842-43. 
First charted by the SwedAE, 1901-4, under 
Nordenskjold, who named it for Sir Clements 
Markham. Not adopted: Clements Markham Bay. 

Markham Island: see Clements Markham Island. 

MARKHAM ISLAND: high island with vertical 
sides, about 1 mi. in diameter, lying S. of Oscar 
I. and about 20 mi. W. of Cape Washington, along 
the coast of Victoria Land; in about 74°46'S., 



164°21'E. Disc, in February 1900 by the BrAE 
under C. E. Borchgrevink, who named it for Sir 
Clements Markham. 

MARR, MOUNT: sharp dark peak about 5 mi. 
SW. of Johnston Pk. in Enderby Land; in about 
66°15'S., 52°21'E. Disc, in January 1930 by the 
BANZARE under Mawson, and named for James 
W. S. Marr, zoologist to the exp. who had also been 
a member of a Br. exp. under Shackleton, 1921-22. 

MARR BAY: bay lying between Cape Valavielle 
and Eraser Pt. along the N. coast of Laurie I., in 
the South Orkney Is., in 60°42'S., 44°31'W. First 
charted by the ScotNAE, 1902-4, under Bruce. 
Named for James W. S. Marr, member of the Dis- 
covery Committee zoological staff, by personnel on 
the Discovery II following their survey of the South 
Orkney Is. in 1933. 

MARR BLUFF: rock bluff, about 3,500 ft. in el., 
standing immediately N. of Wager Gl. on the E. 
coast of Alexander I Island; in 69°47'S., 69°20'W. 
Surveyed by the FIDS in 1948 and named by them 
for John E. Marr, English geologist and prof, of 
geology at Cambridge Univ., 1917-30. 

MARRET GLACIER: channel glacier about 4 
mi. wide and 4 mi. long, flowing NE. from the con- 
tinental ice to Adelie Coast, close E. of Cape 
Robert; in about 66°26'S., 137°44'E. Delineated 
from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 
1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for Mario 
Marret, leader of the FrAE, 1952-53, whose party 
extended reconnaissance of the coastal features to 
the W. side of Victor Bay. Marret previously 
served with the 1948 French exp. to Greenland, 
the unsuccessful FrAE venture to Antarctica in 
1948-49, and as radio-operator and cine-photog- 
rapher with the FrAE under Liotard, 1949-51. 

MARR ICE PIEDMONT: large ice piedmont 
which covers western half of Anvers I., in the 
Palmer Arch.; in 64°33'S., 63°40'W. This feature 
was presumably first seen by a Ger. exp. under 
Dallmann, 1873-74, and was first roughly sur- 
veyed by the FrAE, 1903-5, and FrAE 1908-10, 
both under Charcot. It was named by the Br-APC 
for James W. S. Marr, British marine biologist, 
who was first commander of the FIDS, 1943-45, 
and leader of the base at nearby Port Lockroy. 
Marr was also a member of the BANZARE under 
Mawson, 1929-31, and Shackleton's expedition of 
1921-22. 

MARSDEN, MOUNT: peak about 2,100 ft. in el., 
standing about 4 mi. SSW. of Mt. Rivett, in the 
Gustav Bull Mtns. on the Mac-Robertson Coast; 
in about 67°52'S., 66°06'E. Early in January 1930, 



204 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



the BANZARE under Mawson sighted land in this 
area and made an aerial observation fight. The 
exp. landed on nearby Scullin Monolith on Feb. 
13, 1931 and named this peak, probably for Ernest 
Marsden, Sec. of the Dept. of Scientific and Indus- 
trial Research of New Zealand. 

MARS GLACIER: glacier on the E. coast of 
Alexander I Island, about 4 mi. long and 2 mi. 
wide, flowing S. into the ice shelf of George VI 
Sound between Two-Step Cliffs and Phobos Ridge; 
in 71°53'S., 68°24'W. The coast in this vicinity 
was first explored from the air and partially pho- 
tographed by Lincoln Ellsworth on Nov. 23, 1935, 
and was roughly surveyed from the ground in 
1936 by the BGLE under Rymill. This glacier 
was first surveyed in 1949 by the FIDS, and was 
named by them after the planet Mars. 

MARSHALL BAY: semi-circular bay about 2 mi. 
wide, lying between Capes Vik and Hansen along 
the S. coast of Coronation I., in the South Orkney 
Is.; in 60°39'S., 45°39'W. The bay was roughly 
charted in 1912-13 by Fetter S0rlle, Norwegian 
whaling captain. Recharted in 1933 by DI per- 
sonnel on the Discovery II, and named for Dr. E. 
H. Marshall, surgeon and member of the Marine 
Executive Staff of the Discovery Committee. 

MARSHALL MOUNTAINS: group of mountains 
about 10,000 ft. in el., standing on the W. side 
of Beardmore Gl. between Berwick and Swinford 
Glaciers, in the Queen Alexandra Range; in about 
84°40'S., 165°20'E. Disc, by the BrAE, 1907-9, 
under Shackleton, and named for Dr. Eric Mar- 
shall, surgeon and cartographer to the expedition. 

MARSHALL PEAK: peak about 4,000 ft. in el. 
which is ice covered except for its rocky NE. side, 
standing about 6 mi. NW. of the head of Palmer 
Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 71°09'S., 
61°32'W. This coast was first explored in 1940 
by members of the USAS but the peak was first 
charted by a joint party consisting of members of 
the RARE and FIDS in 1947. Named by the FIDS 
for Norman B. Marshall, zoologist at the FIDS 
Hope Bay base in 1945-46. 

MARSTON, MOUNT: whaleback-shaped moun- 
tain about 3,900 ft. in el., standing along the N. 
side of Mackay Gl. and overlooking Granite Hbr. 
on the E., and Cleveland Gl. on the W., in Victoria 
Land; in about 76°55'S., 162°16'E. First charted 
by the BrAE, 1907-9, under Shackleton, who 
named it for George E. Marston, artist with the 
expedition. Not adopted: Whaleback. 

Martel, Fiord: see Martel Inlet. 



M ARTEL INLET: inlet forming the NE. head 
of Admiralty Bay, King George I., in the South 
Shetland Is.; in 62°04'S., 58°22'W. Probably 
named by the FrAE under Charcot, who charted 
Admiralty Bay in December 1909. Not adopted: 
Fiord Martel [French] . 

Martello Rock: see Martello Tower. 

MARTELLO TOWER: rock about 30 ft. in el. 
lying in King George Bay about 2 mi. NNW. of 
Cape Lions Rump, in the South Shetland Is.; in 
about 62°05'S., 58°08'W. Charted during 1937 
by DI personnel on the Discovery II, who named 
it after the fortified towers by that name. Not 
adopted: Martello Rock. 

MARTIN, MOUNT: mountain about 4,500 ft. 
in el. with conspicuous rock exposures on its SE. 
side, standing immediately N. of the head of 
Anthony Gl. on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
69°40'S., 62°59'W. The mountain lies on the fringe 
of the area explored by the BGLE in 1936, and 
was photographed from the air by the USAS in 
1940. During 1947 the mountain was photo- 
graphed from the air by members of the RARE, 
under Ronne, who in conjunction with the FIDS 
charted it from the ground. Named by Ronne for 
Orville Martin, electronics engineer who was of 
assistance in planning and obtaining radio equip- 
ment necessary for Ronne's expedition. 

MARTIN, POINT: point about 0.8 mi. NNW. of 
Cape Burn Murdoch, on the SW. side of Scotia Bay, 
southern Laurie I., in the South Orkney Is.; in 
60°47'S., 44°41'W. Charted by the ScotNAE, 
1902-4, under Bruce, and named for J. Martin, 
able-bodied seaman on the exp. ship Scotia. 

MARTIN, PORT: anchorage lying immediately 
off Cape Margerie, at the end of Adelie Coast; in 
66°49'S., 141°24'E. Disc, in 1950 by the FrAE 
under Liotard, and named in conduction with the 
exp. base established on Cape Margerie. Named 
for Andre-Paul (J. A.) Martin, second-in-command 
of the exp., who died enroute to the Antarctic. 

MARTINE, MOUNT: rugged massif with black 
jagged peaks and steep slopes, about 2,000 ft. in 
el., standing at the NE. corner of Charcot I.; in 
about 69°55'S., 73°57'W. Disc, on Jan. 11, 1910 
by the FrAE under Dr. Jean B. Carcot, and named 
by him for his daughter, Martine. Not adopted: 
Martin Mountain, Martine Mountain. 

Martin Glacier: see East Balch Glacier. 

MARTIN GLACIER: glacier, about 3 mi. wide 
and 9 mi. long, which flows W. and then NW. from 
the S. side of Mt. Lupa to the SE. corner of Ry- 



205 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



mill Bay where it joins the Bertrand Ice Piedmont, 
on the W. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 68°28'S. 
66 55'W. First surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE 
under Rymill. Resurveyed in 1948-49 by the FIDS 
and named for James H. Martin, member of the 
BANZARE under Mawson, 1929-31, and first mate 
of the Penola during the BGLE, 1934-37. 

MARTIN ISLANDS : group of small islands lying 
close NE. of the Pitt Is., marking the NE. extrem- 
ity of the Biscoe Is.; in 65°28'S., 65°18'W. Disc. 
by the FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, and named 
by him for Captain Martin, Argentine Navy. 

Martin Mountain: see Martine, Mount. 

MARTIN PENINSULA: ice-covered peninsula 
about 20 mi. wide, projecting about 70 mi. N. into 
Amundsen Sea from its mountainous base on the 
Walgreen Coast of Marie Byrd Land; in about 
74°20'S., 112°00'W. Photographed from the air 
in February 1940 by the USAS, and later deline- 
ated from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. 
Hjp. in December 1946. Named by the US-ACAN 
for Col. Lawrence Martin, USA (Ret.) American 
geographer and authority on the history of Ant- 
arctic exploration. 

MARTIN REEF: isolated rock, lying awash, 
about 9 mi. N. and slightly to the W. of Cape 
Fletcher, off Mac-Robertson Coast; in about 
67°34'S., 65°33'E. This reef was apparently en- 
countered by Capt. Carl Sjovold in the Norwegian 
whale catcher Bouvet III in January 1931, and by 
the BANZARE under Mawson in February 1931. 

MARTINS HEAD: prominent headland about 
900 ft. in el. between King George Bay and Ad- 
miralty Bay, on the S. coast of King George I., in 
the South Shetland Is.; in 62°10'S., 52°13'W. The 
name dates back to at least 1820, when it was de- 
scribed by Edward Bransfield, Master, RN, dur- 
ing his exploration of these islands. Not adopted: 
Martin's Head. 

MARUJUPU PEAK: conspicuous nunatak stand- 
ing above the main flow of Ochs Gl., about 2 mi. W. 
of Mt. Ferranto which marks the SW. end of the 
Fosdick Mtns., in Marie Byrd Land; in about 
76'29'S., 145°35'W. Disc, and so named by R. 
Adm. Byrd on the ByrdAE flight of Dec. 5, 1929. 
Marujupu combines the letters from the names 
of three daughters and a son of Mr. and Mrs. 
Arthur Sulzberger. The daughters are Marian, 
Ruth, and Judy; Punch is the nickname of son 
Arthur. The Sulzbergers were patrons of the ex- 
pedition. 

Mary Louise Ulmer, Mount; Mary Ulmer, Mount: 
see Ulmer, Mount. 



MASCART, CAPE: cape forming the NE. tip of 
Adelaide I., in 66°43'S., 67°42'W. Disc, by the 
FrAE, 1903-5, under Charcot, and named by him 
for Eleuthere Mascart, French physicist and Dir. 
of the Bureau Central Meteorologique. 

MASON INLET: ice-filled inlet which recedes 
about 15 mi. SW. between Cape Mackintosh and 
the coastline south of Cape Herdman, along the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 72°57'S., 60°25'W. First 
seen and photographed from the air in December 
1940 by members of the USAS. During 1947 the 
inlet was photographed from the air by the RARE, 
who in conjunction with the FIDS charted it from 
the ground. Named by the FIDS for D. P. Mason, 
their surveyor on the joint British- American seldge 
journey during the charting of this coast in 1947. 

Massif: for names beginning thus see under the 
specific part of the name. For example, for Massif 
Calais see Calais, Massif. (Massif is a French 
word for "mountain mass.") 

MASSON ISLAND: ice-covered island about 15 
mi. long and about 1,500 ft. in el., lying NW. of 
Henderson I. within the area covered by Shackle- 
ton Ice Shelf, off Queen Mary Coast; in about 
66°11'S., 96°21'E. Disc, in February 1912 by the 
AAE under Mawson, who named it for Prof. Sir 
David Orme Masson of Melbourne, Australia, a 
member of the AAE Advisory Committee. Not 
adopted: Mission Island. 

MASSON RANGE: high broken chain of moun- 
tains, consisting of Nordkammen Crest, Mekam- 
men Crest, and S0rkammen Crest, forming a part 
of the Framnes Mtns. on Mac-Robertson Coast. 
Having several peaks over 3,000 ft. in el., the range 
extends in a N.-S. direction about 12 mi.; centering 
in about 67°50'S., 62°52'E. Disc, and charted by 
the BANZARE, 1929-31, under Mawson, and named 
for Prof. Sir David Orme Masson, a member of the 
advisory committee for this exp. as well as the AAE, 
1911-14, under Mawson. 

Matha Bay: see Matha Strait. 

MATHA STRAIT: strait lying between Adelaide 
I. and the S. end of the Biscoe Is.; in 66°34'S., 
67°35'W. The strait takes its name from Matha 
Bay, the name originally applied by Charcot, leader 
of the FrAE, 1908-10, to the water feature as he 
conceived it. The BGLE under Rymill, 1934-37, 
recognizing that it is really a strait rather than a 
bay, changed the name to Matha Strait. Named 
for Lt. A. Matha, second-in-command of the FrAE, 
1903-5, under Charcot. Not adopted: Matha Bay. 



206 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



MATHESON GLACIER: glacier about 11 mi. 
long, situated about 3 mi. S. of Ashton Gl. and 
flowing in an E. direction to the W. side of Lehrke 
Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 70°47'S., 
62°00'W. First sighted by members of the USAS 
who explored this coast by land and from the air 
in December 1940. First charted by a joint party 
consisting of membei's of the RARE and FIDS in 
1947. Named by the FIDS for J. Matheson, a mem- 
ber of the FIDS at the Port Lockroy and Hope Bay 
bases, 1944-46. 

MATHIEU ROCK: ice-free rock, lying midway 
between Cape Bickerton and Rock X, at the E. side 
of the entrance to Victor Bay, close off Adelie 
Coast; in 66°20'S., 136°49'E. Photographed from 
the air by USN Operation Highjump, 1946-47. 
Charted by the FrAE under Marret, 1952-53, and 
named for Claude Mathieu, French astronomer of 
the 19th century. 

Matin, Mount: see Peary, Mount. 

MATTHES GLACIER: glacier about 9 mi. long, 
flowing E. into Whirlwind Inlet between Demorest 
and Chamberlin Glaciers, on the E. coast of Palmer 
Pen.; in 67°30'S., 65°38'W. Disc, by Sir Hubert 
Wilkins on a flight of Dec. 20, 1928, and photo- 
graphed from the air by the USAS in 1940. Charted 
by the FIDS in 1947 and named for Francois E. 
Matthes, glaciologist and then chief geologist with 
the U. S. Geological Survey. 

Matthews Point: see Harrison Point. 

MATTHEWS POINT: point forming the W. side 
of the entrance to Undine Harbor, along the S. 
coast and near the W. end of South Georgia; in 
54°02'S., 37°59'W. This point was charted in the 
period 1926-30 by DI personnel and named for L. 
Harrison Matthews, British zoologist, member of 
the staff of the Discovery Investigations, 1924-35, 
who worked at South Georgia in 1924-27. 

MAUD BANK: submarine bank, 650 fathoms be- 
low the surface, in the Atlantic Ocean about 300 mi. 
N. of Princess Martha Coast; in about 65°00'S., 
2°35'E. Disc, by a Nor. exp. under Isachsen in the 
Norvegia, Jan. 20, 1931, and named by him for 
Roald Amundsen's ship, the Maud. 

MAUDE, CAPE: conspicuous dark bluff stand- 
ing NW. of the mouth of Beardmore Gl., at the 
head of Ross Ice Shelf; in about 83°18'S., 168°15'E. 
Disc, and named by the BrAE under Shackleton 
in December 1908. 

MAURICE CHANNEL: strait about 1.5 mi. wide 
between Bellingshausen and Cook Islands, in the 
South Sandwich Is.; in 59°26'S., 27°05'W. The 



existence of this strait was first noted by a Russ. 
exp. under Bellingshausen in 1820. Charted in 
1930 by DI personnel on the Discovery II and 
named for H. G. Maurice, a member of the Dis- 
covery Committee. 

Maurice Faure Islands: see Faure Islands. 

MAURY BAY: open bay, about 25 mi. wide and 
12 mi. long, indenting Banzare Coast between Cape 
Lewis and Stuart Pt.; in about 66°30'S., 125°00'E. 
The bay is beUeved to be generally ice filled and is 
marked by prominent tongues extending seaward 
from Blair, Bell and Power Glaciers. Delineated 
from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 
1946-47, and named by the US-ACAN for William 
L. Maury, lieutenant on the brig Porpoise of the 
USEE under Wilkes, 1838-42. 

MAURY GLACIER: glacier about 3 mi. wide, 
flowing in an ENE. direction to the SW. corner of 
Violante Inlet, on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; in 
72°40'S., 61°32'W. Disc, and photographed from 
the air in December 1940 by members of the USAS. 
During 1947 the glacier was photographed from the 
air by the RARE, who in conjunction with the 
FIDS charted it from the ground. Named by the 
FIDS after Matthew F. Maury, 1806-73, American 
naval officer and hydrographer, and distinguished 
promoter of maritime research and Antarctic ex- 
ploration. 

MAWSON, CAPE: low, ice-covered cape forming 
the E. extremity of Charcot I.; in about 70°03'S., 
73°30'W. Disc, by Sir Hubert Wilkins, Dec. 29, 
1929, in a flight made around the island from the 
William Scoresby, and named by him for Sir Doug- 
las Mawson, Australian Antarctic explorer and 
leader of the AAE, 1911-14, and the BANZARE, 
1929-31. 

MAWSON GLACIER: glacier about 5 mi. wide, 
descending to the Ross Sea, in about 76°12'S., 
162°30'E., where it forms the Nordenskjold Ice 
Tongue. First charted by the BrAE, 1907-9, under 
Shackleton, who named it for Douglas Mawson, 
physicist with the exp., who was later to become 
the leader of two other Antarctic expeditions, 1911- 
14 and 1929-31. 

May, Cape: see William Henry May, Cape. 

Maybelle Horlick Sibley, Mount; Maybelle Hor- 
lick Sidley, Mount; Maybelle Sidley, Mount: see 
Sidley, Mount. 

May Cove: see Maiviken. 

MAY GLACIER: channel glacier about 5 mi. 
wide and 6 mi. long, flowing NNW. from the conti- 
nental ice, and terminating in a prominent tongue 



207 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



about 7 mi. WSW. of Cape Carr, on Clarie Coast; 
in about 66°00'S., 130°40'E. Delineated from aerial 
photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and 
named by the US-ACAN for William May, passed 
midshipman on the tender Flying Fish of the USEE 
under Wilkes, 1838-42. 

MAY GLACIER TONGUE : glacier tongue about 
5 mi. wide and 3 mi. long, extending NW. from May 
Gl., near the W. end of Clarie Coast; in about 
65°55'S., 130°40'E. Delineated from aerial photo- 
graphs taken by USN Op. Hjp., 1946-47, and named 
by the US-ACAN for William May of the USEE 
under Wilkes, 1838-42. 

MAYO, CAPE: bare rock clifT forming the E. end 
of a fiat, ice-covered platform about 1,400 ft. in el., 
situated about 3 mi. N. of Miller Pt. on the E. coast 
of Palmer Pen.; in 68°53'S., 63°25'W. Disc, by Sir 
Hubert Wilkins on a flight, Dec. 20, 1928, and 
named by him for William B. Mayo of the Ford 
Motor Co. It has been more fully defined on the 
basis of information resulting from flights by Lin- 
coln Ellsworth in 1935, and from flights and sledge 
journey along this coast by members of the East 
Base of the USAS in 1940. 

MAYR RANGE: range of mountains projecting 
through the icecap immediately N. of the Sauter 
Range on the piedmont of New Schwabenland. 
From a maximum summit level of about 9,800 ft. 
in about 72°10'S., 3°30'E.', one limb of the range 
projects roughly W. for about 12 mi. while a sec- 
ond extends roughly N. for about 25 mi. Disc, by 
the GerAE under Ritscher, 1938-39, and named for 
Rudolf Mayr, pilot of the Passat, one of the flying 
boats used by the expedition. 

McCARROLL, CAPE: cape forming the S. side 
of the entrance to Richthofen Valley, on the II. 
coast of Palmer Pen.; in 66°00'S., 62°33'W. This 
feature was probably first seen by the SwedAE, 
1901-4, under Nordenskjold. It was sighted by 
Sir Hubert Wilkins on his flight of Dec. 20, 1928, 
and named by him for H. G. McCarroU of Detroit, 
Michigan. 

McCLARY RIDGE: small, crescent-shaped ridge, 
standing about 5 mi. SSE. of Mt. Hayes at the S. 
side of Cole Pen., on the E. coast of Palmer Pen.; 
in 66°55'S., 64°03'W. In December 1947 it was 
charted by FIDS and was photographed from the 
air by RARE under Ronne. Named by Ronne for 
George B. McClary of Winnetka, 111., contributor to 
the expedition. 

McCLINTOCK, MOUNT: mountain in the Bri- 
tannia Range, about 10,500 ft. in el., forming part of 
the N. wall of Barne Inlet, along the W. side of Ross 
Ice Shelf; in about 80°12'S., 157°35'E. Disc, by 



the BrNAE, 1901-4, under Scott, and named by him 
for Adm. Sir Leopold McClintock, RN, a member of 
the Ship Committee for the expedition. 

McCORMICK, CAPE: conspicuous cliff near the 
NE. extremity of Victoria Land, overlooking Ross 
Sea about 12 mi. S. of Cape Downshire; in about 
71°55'S., 171°05'E. Disc, in 1841 by a Br. exp. 
under Ross, who named it for Robert McCormick, 
the surgeon on one of the exp. ships, the Erebus. 

McCOY, MOUNT: high table-topped massif with 
dark, snow-free, vertical walls, at the head of 
Emory Land Gl., on Ruppert Coast; in about 
75°50'S., 140°45'W. Disc, by members of West 
Base of the USAS, 1939-40, and named for James 
C. McCoy, chief pilot at the West Base. Not 
adopted : Mount Alma McCoy. 

McDonald bay: open bay about 7 mi. wide 
at its entrance between Adams It. and the Haswell 
Its., lying immediately W. of Mabus Pt., along 
Queen Mary Coast; in about 66°35'S., 93°05'E. 
Charted by the AAE under Mawson, 1911-14. 
Named by the US-ACAN for Cdr. Edwin A. Mc- 
Donald, tfSN, commander of the U.S.S. Burton 
Island, flagship of the two icebreakers which sup- 
ported the USN Op. Wml. parties which established 
astronomical stations along Wilhelm II, Queen 
Mary, Knox and Budd Coasts during the 1947-48 
summer season. 

McDonald glacier: glacier about 17 mi. 
wide, descending from ice-covered hills 1,000 to 
2,000 ft. in el. and terminating at the sea in per- 
pendicular ice walls, 100 to 150 ft. in el., on Caird 
Coast; in about 75°20'S., 26°00'W. Disc, by a Br. 
exp., 1914-16, under Shackleton, and named by 
him for Allan McDonald, who was instrumental in 
raising a fund and chartering the schooner Emma 
in an attempted rescue of the party marooned on 
Elephant I. by the loss of Shackleton's ship, the 
Endurance. Not adopted: Allan McDonald Glacier. 

McDonald islands: small island group con- 
sisting of an island and several islets and rocks, 
situated about 23 mi. W. of Heard I.; in about 
53°02'S., 72°36'E. Named for Captain McDonald 
of the British ship Samarang who disc, the islands 
in January 1854. 

McDonald point: point marking the W. end 
of Islay, an island in the William Scoresby Arch, off 
Mac-Robertson Coast; in about 67°22'S., 59°43'E. 
The name appears to have been applied by mem- 
bers of the William Scoresby who charted this area 
in February 1936. 



208 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Mcelroy, mount; mountain about 6,000 ft. 
in el. standing NW. of Nantucket Inlet, on the E. 
coast of Palmer Pen., in about 74°12'S., 63°04'W. 
Disc, by the RARE, 1947-48, under Ronne who 
named it for T. P. McElroy, of Boston, who con- 
tributed the radio and communication instruments 
for the expedition. 

McFARLANE STRAIT: strait lying between 
Greenwich and Livingston Islands, in the South 
Shetland Is.; in 62°31'S., 59°58'W. The name ap- 
pears on an 1822 chart by Capt. George Powell, a 
British sealer, and is now well established in inter- 
national usage. Not adopted: Detroit de Mac- 
Ferlane [French], Duffs Straits, McFarlane's 
Strait, Yankee Sound. 

Mcintosh Cove: see Mackintosh Cove. 

McINTYRE, MOUNT: a group of low connecting 
ridges extending in an E.-W. direction, with rock 
walls facing generally N., protruding above the 
ice of the south polar plateau to about 9,700 ft. in 
el., standing about 9 mi. S. of Mt. Weaver and S. 
of the head of Robert Scott Gl.; in about 87°08'S., 
152°05'W. Disc, in December 1934 by the ByrdAE 
geological party under Quin Blackburn, and named 
by Byrd for Marvin H. Mclntyre, secretary to the 
President of the United States at that time. 

McKASKLE HILLS: group of moderately low, 
rocky hills, about 1.5 mi. long and 1 mi. wide, 
standing between Mistichelli Hills and Rogers Gl. 
on Ingrid Christensen Coast; in about 70°01'S., 
72°15'E. Delineated in 1952 by John H. Roscoe 
from aerial photographs taken by USN Op. Hjp. in 
March 1947, and named by him for H. A. McKaskle, 
air crewman on USN Op. Hjp. photographic flights 
in this area and other coastal areas between 14° 
and 164°, east longitude. 

McKERCHER, MOUNT: mountain rising to 
about 7,000 ft. in el., which is marked by promi- 
nent outliers on its NW. and NE. sides, standing 
at the E. side of Robert Scott Gl. opposite the 
junction of Bartlett Gl., in the Queen Maud Range; 
in about 86°07'S., 149°45'W. Disc, in December 
1934 by the ByrdAE geological party under Quin 
Blackburn, and named for Miss Hazel McKercher, 
secretary to R. Adm. Byrd during the period of this 
expedition. 

McKinley, Mount: see Grace McKinley, Mount. 

McLEAN NUNATAKS: group of three nunataks 
at the W. side of the head of Mertz Gl., on the 
George V Coast; in about 67°49'S., 143°56'E. Disc, 
in 1912 by the AAE under Mawson, and named for 
Archie L. McLean, medical officer and bacteriologist 
with the expedition. 



McLENNAN MOUNT: mountain about 5,800 ft. 
in el., standing at the N. side of Taylor Glacier Dry 
Valley and forming the NE. wall of Canada GL, in 
Victoria Land; in about 77°35'S., 162°49'E. 
Charted and named by the BrAE, 1910-13, under 
Scott. 

McLEOD GLACIER: glacier, about 1 mi. long, 
flowing in a SSE. direction into Clowes Bay on the 
S. side of Signy I., South Orkney Is.; in 60°44'S., 
45°38'W. Named by the Br-APC in 1954 for Mi- 
chael McLeod, following a survey by the FIDS in 
1947. On Dec. 12, 1821, the cutter Beaufoy under 
Michael McLeod sailed to a position at least 60 mi. 
W. of the South Orkney Is., where a chart annota- 
tion indicates that land was sighted, probably 
Coronation Island. 

McLEOD HILL: rounded, ice-covered hill, about 
5,900 ft. in el., which forms a prominent landmark 
1 mi. E. of the head of Northeast Gl., on the W. 
side of Palmer Pen.; in 68°05'S., 66°30'W. First 
roughly surveyed in 1936 by the BGLE, and re- 
surveyed by the USAS, 1939-41. It was resurveyed 
in 1946 by the FIDS and named for Kenneth A. 
McLeod, FIDS meteorological observer who, during 
July-December 1947, occupied with a member of 
the RARE the plateau meteorological station 1 mi. 
E. of this hill. Not adopted: Glacier Dome, The 
Dome. 

McMURDO SOUND: a sound at the junction of 
the Ross Sea and Ross Ice Shelf, lying between 
Ross I. and Victoria Land; in about 77°30'S., 
165°00'E. Disc, in February 1841 by a Br. exp. 
under Ross, who named it for Lt. Archibald Mc- 
Murdo of the Terror, one of the exp. ships. Not 
adopted: McMurdo Strait. 

McMurdo Strait: see McMurdo Sound. 

McNAB, CAPE: cape, about 1,160 ft. in el., form- 
ing the S. end of Buckle I., in the Balleny Is.; in 
about 66°49'S., 163°10'E. Named for John McNab, 
2d mate of the schooner Eliza Scott, who made a 
sketch of the Balleny Is. when they were disc, in 
1839. Not adopted : Cape Macnab. 

McNAMARA ISLAND: the more northern of the 
two Fletcher Is., lying near the W. end of Bellings- 
hausen Sea, about 40 mi. E. of Cape Palmer, off 
Eights Coast; in about 71°45'S., 94°45'W. Disc, 
by the USAS in a flight from the Bear on Feb. 27, 
1940. Named by R. Adm. Byrd for John McNa- 
mara, boatswain on the Jacob Ruppert of the 
ByrdAE, 1933-35. 

McNEILE GLACIER: narrow glacier flowing 
northward to the SE. side of Almond Pt. where it 
enters Charcot Bay, on the NW. coast of Palmer 



209 



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OF ANTARCTICA 



Pen.; in 63°52'S., 59°22'W. Charted in 1948 by 
the FIDS and named for S. St. C. McNeile, surveyor 
at the FIDS Hope Bay base in 1948-49. 

M'Cormik, Cape: see McCormick, Cape. 

McVitie, Cape: see Hatree, Cape. 

MEADE ISLANDS: small group of islets lying 
in the N. entrance to McFarlane Str., in the South 
Shetland Is.; in 62°26'S., 60°07'W. Charted and 
named in 1935 by DI personnel on the Discovery II. 

MEARES CLIFF: steep cliflf, about 880 ft. in el., 
lying about 2 mi. E. of Ponting Cliff, on the N. 
coast of Victoria Land; in about 71°13'S., 168°33'E. 
First charted in 1911 by the Northern Party of the 
BrAE under Scott, 1910-13, and named for Cecil 
H. Meares who had charge of the dogs on this ex- 
pedition. 

MECHANICS BAY: bay, which is about 1 mi. 
wide and recedes 0.5 mi., lying immediately E. of 
Saddle Pt. on the N. coast of Heard I.; in 53°01'S., 
73°31'E. Named by American sealers after the 
schooner Mechanic, a tender to the Corinthian in 
Capt. Erasmus Darwin Rogers' sealing fleet which 
landed at Heard I. in 1855. The name appears on 
a chart by the Br. exp. under Nares,