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5lo\ 4 80 



THE STUDENT'S MANUAL 

OF THE 

GEOGRAPHY OF BRITISH INDIA 



India. 



ProT. of B«npd 

„ Assam . , 

„ British Bumui . 

„ Andaman Islands 
N.W. Province with Oudh 
ProT. of Fanjab 

M Bombay « 



•Baroda 



AJmer 
tate 



SI 



•Rajpootana States 
*Central India Sutes 
Central Province . 
Berar Province 
*Haidarabad State 
Prov. of Madras 

„ Coorg 
•Mysore State 



Square 
miles. 


Popula- 


90M37, 
§5.184' 


69.»33.6»9 


4.908,276 


*736.77i 


3.a85 


30.000 


tli,u86 


44,853.7.16 


MT.749 


33.703.947 


X9«.847 


"3.2 7^786 


a,7io 


460.732 


4.399 


a.154.469 


130.934 
89.098 


11.005.512 
9.300881 


113.043 


11.50s.149 


17.728 


3.673.673 


80.000 


»aoo.88i 


150.348 


33.840.617 


».5«3 


178.303 


IP'SPO 


4,«86,399 



Popula- 


Square 


tion. 


oules. 


37.673.000 


304,177 


35.968.286 


58.320 
89.005 


39.703.656 


x50.0ijo 


4,aoo 


a8,417.09> 


114.296 


37.839.437 


340,943 


ao.974,4" 


319,260 


936.340 


2,866 


1.506. 53» 


5-?5i 


37,378.911 


137.066 
89,005 


39.703.656 
38.417.091 


114.296 


3.846,102 


15.992 


39.703,656 


89,tx)5 


16,625.860 


183.750 


349.367 


»'5?6 


3.734,370 


30.685 



E^ROPB. 



France. 

Eni^Iand and Wales. 

Great Britaiii. 

SIT" 

Austria-Huni^ry. 

Spain and Portiai;aL 

Hesse. 

Baden. 

Prussia. 

Great Britain. 

Italy. 

Switserland. 

Great Britain. 

Spain. 

Brunswick. 

Scotland. 




CKVLO 



INDIAN OCEAN 



India on the same Scale as Europe. 





DENMAMC 












AUST II I A 
-HUNGARY 





t.^J£, 



MLCt 



Europe on the same Scale ar India. 



The Students Geography of India 



THE 



GEOGRAPHY 



OF 



BRITISH INDIA 



POLITICAL & PHYSICAL 



By GEOEGE smith, LL.D., F.R.G.S. 

OOMPAMIOlf or THK ORDER OF THE I2(PIAK UIPIRR 

FKLLOW OT THE OTATMnCAL SOCIVTY, VK, 

AUTHOR or THE ' UrE Or DR. WIlEOir,' ' DR. DDTT,' ETa 



WITH MAPS 



LONDON 
JOHN MUEEAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 

1882 

aoi t -"So . 



PREFACE. 

This volume is the result of twenty years of preparation. 
It would have been more easy and pleasant to have given 
adequate literary expression to the extensive and compara- 
tively new materials in two or three volumes. But Mr. 
Murray's request that the facts and descriptions should 
be included in a work of five hundred pages, to form 
one of the admirable series of his Student's Manuals, in- 
volved an almost excessive degree of condensation in the 
writing, while it promised wider usefulness for the result. 
Though the book is thus primarily intended for the 
Student, from the upper <;lasses of schools all through the 
stages of College, University, Military, and Civil Service 
studies and examinations in England, Scotland, Ireland, 
and India alike, it is much more. Its generalisations as 
well as details will enable the ordinary reader, probably 
for the first time, to form a just idea of the magnitude of 
the British Indian Empire ; of the variety of its races, and 
all that concerns peoples more numerous than those of 
Europe; of the course of the history of every Province 
and even District when under native rulers; of the 
splendid and widespread archsdological and architectural 
remains of these rulers ; and of the success of the British 
Government, thus far, in making the Empire a unity for 
the first time in history ; so that, by detailed administra- 
tion, education, and free religious suasion, its two hundred 
and fifty-three millions may be trained to govern them- 
selves. The volume may, practically, be found by the 



vi PREFACE. 

traveller to be a Guide-book in the best form. The Index, 
and Maps of Provinces, in districts, should make it the 
most handy Gazetteer, as well as a full and an accurate 
work of reference for all classes. 

In the year 1862 I submitted to the late Earl of Elgin, 
soon after he had taken his seat as Viceroy and Governor- 
General, a detailed statistical system for the uniform pre- 
paration of the annual Administraiion Reports ordered by 
Parliament in 1 853, with a view to the taking of a Census 
of all India in 1871, and the compilation of an Imperial 
Gazetteer. Mr. Samuel Laing, who was at that time Indian 
Finance Minister, warmly supported the scheme. The 
Calcutta Statistical Committee was accordingly appointed ; 
and my system, adapted from that of the International 
Statistical Congress, was carried into effect after three 
years of ofiBcial discussion in India, and in the India Office 
when Sir Stafford Northcote was Secretary of State. Each 
of the Twelve Provinces of India, and many of the larger 
of the Hundred and Fifty-three Ruling Native States, now 
render an account of their stewardship to the Governor- 
General in Council, and to the Secretary of State, for 
Parliament, according to this uniform scheme. 

The population of the Provinces of India were for the 
first time numbered about the end of 1871 and beginning 
of 1872, but not simultaneously. It was not till February 
1881 that India was ready for a S3mchronous Census of 
all its peoples alike in the 239 Districts and in the 153 
Ruling States. The preliminary total results are embodied 
in this volume, and are published in England for the first 
time. The detailed figures, in districts and towns, are 
given in the case of nearly all the Provinces and States. 
It was not thought desirable to delay the appearance of 
the book for another year, when the details of the North- 
western and Madras Provinces, and of Mysore and some 
of the Native States, may be expected. 

The first to undertake the preparation of a Scientific 



PREPACK VU 

Gazetteer, under the new Statistical Scheme, was Sir Bichard 
Temple in the Central Province. In 1867 Mr. Charles 
Grant, Secretary to the Chief Commissioner, produced a 
model volume. I had meanwhile, privately and in the 
Friend of India, urged the Government of India to appoint 
an able member of the Civil Service to compile one 
Gazetteer of all India on similar lines. Mr. W. W. Hunter 
was recommended to the late Lord Lawrence as specially 
fitted for the task. The Viceroy and the Secretary of State 
united in ordering the preparation of the work by him ; 
and the last of the nine volumes of The Imperial Gazetteer 
of India appeared in July 1881, based, however, on the 
Census statistics of 1872. 

Since that time, the Census of 1881 ; the completion of 
the century's Trigonometrical Survey of India ; the publica- 
tion of General Walker's finished Maps of India and of 
Toorkestan and the countries between the British and the 
Bussian dominions in Asia, on the scale of 32 miles to the 
inch ; and the publication of many more volumes of the 
able Provincial Gazetteers, and of the noble quarto of 
Messrs. Fergusson and Burgess on The Cave Temples of 
IncUoy have rendered it possible and desirable for me to 
write the Political Geography, which forms the bulk of 
this volume. The closing section on Physiography, too, 
could not have been compiled till Messrs. H. R Medlicott, 
W. T. Blanford and Ball, had issued their official Map and 
Manual of the Qeohgy of India, in four volumes, and Mr. 
Henry F. Blanford, F.B.S., had followed up his authorita- 
tive Indian MekorologisVs Fade Mecum, by further Memoirs 
and Beports. I desire specially to acknowledge the assist- 
ance of all these experts ; of Colonel Yule, C.B., without 
whose aid, always generously rendered, no work on the 
geography of Asia can be satisfactorily produced ; of the 
Honourable C. Bernard, Chief Commissioner of British 
Burma ; and of the Honourable A. Mackenzie, his suc- 
cessor as Home Secretary to the Government of India. 



viu preface: 

The Governments of Lord Lytton and Lord Ripon have 
most promptly supplied me with recent Becorda. I have 
used some printed documents which are '* confidential '' 
only in such a way as to enrich the information now pub- 
lished for the first time, without touching the views of the 
writers. This will be found chiefly in Ejiahmeer, Balooch- 
istan, the Panjab frontier, and Haidarabad State. 

The plan of the Manual is this — Book L, or four-fifths 
of the whole volume, deals with the Political Geography 
of British India in detail, and with that of the colonies 
and countries within its political system more briefly: 
Book IL summarises the latest results of the Geological 
and Meteorological Surveys ; the diamond, gold, and coal 
treasures are carefully described. Till the publication of 
the Census Reports, some time hence, the latest data for 
the Ethnology will be wanting. An Appendix gives the 
Bibliography of the subject^ or a list of the best authorities, 
ancient, medisBval, and modem, which have been consulted 
or should be referred to by the reader who seeks fuller 
information. A detailed Index gives the names of all the 
places, some 5200 in number. 

The first chapter states briefly what every intelligent 
reader ought to know of the British Indian Empire, its 
name, extent, and magnitude compared with Europe ; its 
growth since 1600 and especially 1765, and present 
administrative system; statistics of its 12 Provinces and 
of the 153 Ruling States grouped together; its imperial 
surveys and land tenures, taxation, debt, and new muni- 
cipal organisation. The second chapter pictures India 
as a Whole, its great mountains, rivers, waterfalls, lakes, 
canals, forests, and railways, and the coast of Asia from 
Suez to Singapore, with the harbours and lighthouses. 
Each of the Twelve Provinces is then described, its 
position, natural features, resources, tenures, and people 
generally ; and then every District with the principal 



PREFACE. IX 

• 

towns, places of historical and archaeological interest, 
shrines, and mission-stations. The smaller Native States, 
which are under provincial control, are treated like the 
Districts. The larger, which are under the direct political 
influence of the Viceroy and Grovemor-General in Council, 
are described separately under *£aroda, *Eajpootana and 
^Central India, *Haidarabad and ^Mysore. In every case, 
the Elding Native State, which enjoys the Viceroy's Sannad 
or Patent of Adoption, first granted by Lord Canning on 
the 17th March 1862, is marked by an asterisk, as well 
as the small Portuguese and French settlements, and the 
protected frontier kingdoms. The political and geographi- 
cal unity of the Empire is thus seen, while the difference 
of the two administrative systems is noted, according as 
that is directly British among 198^ millions who pay taxes 
to the Govemor-Greneral, or Native under British influence 
among 54| millions of the people whose taxation goes en- 
tirely to their own Tributary Sovereigns. 

The unit of the Indian Empire is the District or State 
corresponding to the much smaller County of English 
ge<^raphy. For the first time it has been possible thus to 
treat, District by District and State by State, the vast extent 
and details of Indian geography, beginning with Bengal and 
the metropolis of Calcutta ; exhausting the East in Assam, 
Burma, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands ; then gomg 
over the North-West with Oudh ; the Panjab with Kash- 
meer and Baloochistan ; passing West to Bombay, with Sind 
and Aden, Ajmer and the Baroda, the Eajpootana, and the 
Central India States ; treating the Central Province, 
Berar, and the Haidarabad State; and closing with the 
oldest, most peaceful, and, in respect of Christianity, most 
progressive part of the Empire, in the South, or Madras, 
Cooi^, and Mysore, the last recently transformed into a 
Native State. 

As to the still vexed question of transliterating proper 
names from languages, so many and so opposite in some 



X PREFACE. 

respects as those of India and Burma, Aryan, Dravidian, 
and even Semitic, I would have followed slavishly the 
frequently inconsistent system imposed on officials by a 
late Government of India, contenting myself with a pro- 
test But that system has sacrificed the English pronun- 
ciation of the names to such an extent that even scholars 
begin to repent its adoption in books for purely English 
readers. If that spelling is continued, without modification 
at least, the time will be indefinitely postponed when we 
may expect an educated Englishman to be as ashamed of 
mispronouncing the most ordinary names and terms of the 
Empire entrusted to our rule, as he is in the case of European 
and American places and persons. I have ventured therefore 
to adopt such slight phonetic changes in the official spell- 
ing as will enable the English reader to pronounce the words 
correctly, and that without accents or other marks save 
to denote the quantity. The official i = ee and the 
u = oo — that is all. But it will go far to remove the 
reproach of a well-known Anglo-Indian writer, that ''by 
the official system of spelling, we are degrading the pro- 
nunciation." 

In all the Provinces specimens are given of the deriva- 
tion of the names of principal place& Students in India 
will find it useful to add others for themselves. In every 
case, where possible, the information of other kinds has 
been brought down to the present data 

Serampoob House, Mercuiston, 
Edinburgh, November 1882. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



BOOK L— POLITICO T, GEOGEAPHY. 




CBAF. PAGE 


I. The British Indian Empire. 


1. Name ....... 1 


2. Rxtent 










2 


8. Comparative Size 










8 


4. Position 










5 


5. Growth 










6 


6. AdminiBtration 










7 


7. Proyinces and States . 










9 


8. Imperial Surveys 










12 


9. Laud Tenures, Taxation, and Debt 






16 


II. India as a Whole. 


1. The Himalaya . . . .18 


2. The Safed Eoh, Sulaiman, and Ehirthar Ranges 


20 


S. The Three Roma and Patkai Ranges . 


21 


4. The Western and Eastern Ghats 


1 


■ 


22 


5. The Aravali, Vindhya, and Satpoora 


Ranges 




23 


6. The East Himalayan Rivers . 






24 


7. The Brahmapootra 








25 


8. Thelrawadi . 








26 


9. The Tsit-toong and Salween , 








27 


10. The Indus 








28 


11. The West Peninsular Rivers 








29 


12. The East Peninsular Rivers 








30 


13. Waterfalls 








32 


14. Lakes . 


. 








33 


15. Canals 


f 








34 


16. Forests 










35 


17. Trees of India 










86 


18. Railways 


> . • 






39 


19. Harbours 


• ■ 






41 


20. Tides . 


> • » 






42 


21. Lighthouses 




• 


• 






42 



zu 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP. 

III. The Province or Bengal — General. 

1. Name, Size, and Position . • 

2. Mountains, Rivers, Canals, and Railways 

3. Products .... 

4. Land Tenures .... 
6. The Government Rent Roll . 

6. The People in Districts and States 



PAOK 

61 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 



IV. Ttf B Pboyince of Bengal — Districts and States, 

Central, 

1. Calcutta City . 

2. Twenty-four Parganahs 

3. Ehoolna, including the Soondarban 

4. Jessor . 

5. Nadiya 

6. Moorshidabad 

7. Pabna . 

8. Rajshahi 

9. Bogra . 

10. Dinajpoor 

11. Rangpoor 

12. Daijeeling 

13. ^Sikkim State 

14. Jalpaigori 

15. Eooch Behar 



60 

63 

65 

65 

66 

67. 

68 

68 

69 

69 

69 

70 

71 

71 

72 



Western, 



16. Midnapoor 

17. Hoogli and Howrah 

18. Bardwan 

19. Bankura 

20. Beerbhoom 



72 
78 
75 
75 
76 



Eastern, 



21. Dacca . 

22. Bakirganj 

23. Fareedpoor 

24. Maamansingh 

25. Tipura 

26. Hill Tipura 

27. Chittagong 

28. Chittagong Hill Tracts 

29. Koakhali 



76 
77 
77 
78 
78 
79 
79 
80 
80 



CONTENTS. 



Xlll 



CRAP. 

IV. The Province op Bengal — ConHnned, 



PAOR 



SO. Patna . 
31. Gaya . 
82. Shahabad 

33. Saran . 

34. Champaran 

35. Muzaffarpoor 

36. Darbhanga 

37. Monghyr 

38. Bhagalpoor 

39. Parniah 

40. Maldah 

41. Santal Paiganahs 

Chutia Nagpoor. 

42. Hazaribagh 

43. Manbhoom 

44. SiBgbhoom 

45. Lobardaga 

46. *The Seveu Cbntia Nagpoor States 

Orisaa, 

47. Cuttak 

48. Balasor 

49. Pooiee 

50. *Tbe Nineteen Orissa States . 

Protected States. 

51. *Bbootan and Towang 

52. •Nepal 

V The Proyince of Assam. 

1. Assam Province 

2. Prodncts and Trade 
8. Land Tenures . 

4. The People and Districts 

Soorma Valley. 

5. Sylhet .... 

6. Cachar 



Assam Valley, 



7. Goalpara 

8. Kamroop 

9. Darrang 



81 
83 
84 
85 
85 
86 
87 
87 
88 
88 
88 
89 



90 
91 
92 
92 
93 

95 
96 
96 
98 

99 
100 



102 
103 
104 
106 

107 
107 

109 
109 
110 



XIV 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP. 

V. The Province of Assam — Continued. 

10. Nowgong .... 

11. Seebsagar .... 

12. Lakhimpoor .... 

ffUU. 

18. Garo Hills .... 

14. Ehasi and Jaintia Hills 

15. Naga Hills .... 

16. *Manipoor State 

VI. The Province of British BvRUX—Oeneral 

1. Name, Size, and Position 

2. Mountain Ranges 

3. Rivers .... 

4. Products, Railways, and Trade 
6. Land Tenures . 
6. The People and Districts 

VII. The Province of British BvnuA—^Districts, 



Pegu. 



1. Rangoon City . 

2. Hanthawadi . 
8. Thone-kwa 

4. Bassein 

5. Henzada 

6. Tharawadi 

7. Prome . 

8. Thayet-myo . 

9. Akyab 

10. Northern Arakan 

11. Kyouk-pyoo . 

12. Sandoway 



Arakan. 



Tenasserim, 



18. Maulmein Town 
14. Amherst 
16. Tavoy . 

16. Mergui 

17. Shwe-gyeen 

18. Toung-ngoo . 

19. Salween 

20. *Kareng-neo States 



FAOE 

. 110 

. Ill 

. 112 

. 112 

. 118 

. 114 

. 116 



117 
117 
118 
120 
122 
124 



127 
128 
129 
129 
180 
130 
131 
131 

182 
138 
133 
134 

134 
134 
135 
136 
136 
137 
138 
138 



CONTENTS. 



XV 



CRAP. 
VIII. 



PAGE 



PROVINCB OF THE ANDAMAN AND NlCOBAR ISLANDS. 



1. The Fifteen Islands 


» • • • 


. 139 


2. Outlying Islands .... 


. 139 


8. The Andaman Islands 


. 140 


4. The Nicobar Archipelago 


. 141 


5. The Tiarger Nicobar Islands . 


. 142 


6. The Convicts ...... 


. 143 


IX. The North- Western Province with Ovmi— General 




1. Name ....... 


. 145 


2. Size and Position 




. 145 


3. Physical Divisions 




. 146 


4. Canals . 


• • • 4 


147 


5. Railways 




. 147 


6. Products and Trade 


• • « • ■ 


143 


7. Land Tenures . 


» • • • I 


. 149 


8. The People and Districts . . . . 


. 151 


X. The North- Western Province — Districts, 




SoiUh-SasUm, 




I. Allahabad City . . . . . 


. 153 


2. Allahabad 




154 


8. Jaunpoor 






. 155 


4. Fatehpoor 






. 156 


5. CawniMwr 






. 156 


6. Banda 






. 157 


7. HameeriKwr 






. 158 


8. Jalaun 






. 158 


9. Jhansi 






159 


10. Lalitpoor 






. 160 


11. Benares 






. 160 


12. Mirzapoor 




■ 


. 161 


13. Ghazipoor 






. 162 


14. BaHa . 






. 163 


15. Azamgarh 






163 


16. Basil . 






, 164 


17. Gorakhpoor 






164 


18. *Nepal Frontier 




165 


North' Western. 




19. Agra ....... 


165 


20. Muttra 


1 . « » < 


. 167 


21. Mainpoori 


. . • . • . 


. 167 


22. Farukhabad . 


I • . ■ • 


168 


28. Etawah 


■ 


■ • • • • 


169 



XVI 



CONTENTS. 



ORAP. 

X. The North- Westbkn FBiOMUCE—CoiUinucd. 

24. Etah . 

25. Aligarh 

26. Boolundshahr 

27. Meernt 

28. Muzaffarnagar 

29. Saharanpoor 
80. Dchra Doon 

31. Garhwal 

32. *Tehri-Garhwal State 

33. Kumaiin 

34. Tarai . 

35. *I{ampoor State 

36. Bijnaur 

37. Moradabad 

88. Budaun 

89. Bareli . 

40. PiUbheet 

41. Shahjahanpoor 



PAQE 

169 
170 
171 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 
176 
176 
177 
177 
178 
179 
179 
180 
181 
181 



XL OuDH Section of North-Western Province. 

1. Lucknow City . 

2. Lucknow District 

3. Barabanki 

4. Unao 

5. Rai Bareli 

6. Sultanpoor 

7. Partabgarh 

8. Faizabad 

9. Gonda . 

10. Bahraich 

11. Kheri . 

12. Seetapoor 

13. Hardoi . 

XII. The Province of the Panjab— (7«n«raZ. 

1. Name, Size, and Position 

2. Rivers . 

3. Canals and Railways » 

4. lYoducts and Trade 

5. Land Tenures and Taxation 

6. People and Districts 



183 
184 
185 
185 
186 
187 
187 
187 
188 
189 
190 
190 
191 



193 
194 
197 
197 
198 
199 



CONTENTS. 



xvn 



CHAP. 



XIIL Thb Pbovikcx of the VxsJAB—IHslricla and SUUes. 



PAOI 



Sauth-EasUm. 




1. Lahore City . 


. 201 


2. Lahore District 


. 203 


3. Goojranwala . 


. 204 


4. Firozpoor 


. 204 


5. *Fareedkot Stato 


. ?05 


6. Amritsar 


. 205 


7. Sialkot 


. 206 


8. Goordaspoor . 


.^^207 


9. Jalandhar 


. 207 


10. ^Eapoorthala, Mandi, and Sooket Sts 


ites . . 208 


11. Hoshiarpoor . 


. 209 


12. Kangra 


. 209 


13. •Chamba State 


. 211 


14. Simla .... 


. 211 


15. '*The Twenty Simla States, Maler Ko 


tla and Ealaia . 212 


16. Lodiana 


. 213 


17. Ambala 


. 214 


18. Eamal 


. 215 


19. Delhi, City and District 


. 216 


20. *PaUndi State 


. 218 


21. Gooiyi;aon 


. 218 


22. Rohtak 


. 219 


23. Hisaar. 


. 219 


24. Sirsa . . . . . 


. 220 


25. *Loharoo and Doojana States . 


. 220 


26. *Patia1a, Jheend, and Nabha States 


. 221 


27. Bahawalpoor State 


. 221 


North- WesUm, 




28. Mooltan 


. 222 


29. Muzaflargarh . 


. 222 


30. Montgomery . 


. 223 


31. Jhang .... 


. 223 


82. Shahpoor 


. 223 


83. Goojrat 


. 224 


34. Jhelam 


. 226 


35. Rawal Pindi . . . . 


. 225 


36. *Kashmeer State 


. 227 


37. Hazara . . . . 


. 231 


38. Peshawar and the Ehaibar Pass 


. 284 


39. Kohat and Kooram . 


. 231 


40. Bannoo 


. 235 



XVUl 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP. 

XIII. The Peovince op the Panjab— Oon<tnti«i. 

41. Dera Ismail Khan .... 

42. Dera Ghazi Khan .... 

Protected State, 

43. *Baloochi8tan ..... 

XIV. Province op BoiiBAY— General, 

Lm 0120 ...... 

2. Position and Physical and Historical Divisions 

3. Mountains and Rivers 

4. Canals and Railways . 

5. Products and Trade 

6. Land Tenures and Taxation . 

7. The People in Districts and States 



PAOE 

. 236 
. 236 

. 237 



241 
241 
243 
244 
245 
246 
247 



XV. Province of Bombay, Sind, and Aden— Disiricto and States. 

Sind, 



2. Haidarabad .... 




252 


3. •Khairpoor State 




. 252 


4. Shikarpoor .... 




. 253 


5. Upper Sind Frontier . 




. 254 


6. Thar and Parkar 




. 254 


Northern. 


7. Bombay City ..... 255 


8. Thana ..... 


1 1 




258 


9. •Jowhar State 


■ 




. 259 


10. Kolaba, 


■ I 




. 259 


11. *Janjeora State 


• 




. 260 


12. Surat . . • . 


» 




. 261 


13. ♦Surat States .... 


1 




, 262 


14. Broach 


■ i 




. 262 


15. Khaira 


» 




. 263 


16. •Kambay State 


i 




. 264 


17. Panch Mahals . 


* 




. 264 


18. *NarukotStete 


■ 




. 265 


19. Ahmedabad . 


ft 




. 265 


20. *Kathiawar States 


» 




. 266 


21. ♦Each State . 


1 




. 269 


22. *Pahlanpoor and Radhanpoor States 


• 




. 270 


23. •Mahi-Kantha at«t^-s . 


• 




. 270 


24. *Rewa-Kantha States . 


I 




. ;J70 



CONTENTS. 



XIX 



CRAP. 



PAQR 



XV. Pbotinoe of Bombay, Sind, and Adbk— 


Coniinued, 






CeTiiraL 




25. 


Khandesh ..... 


. 271 


26. 


•TheDangs .... 






. 272 


27. 


Nasik .... 






. 273 


28. 


Ahmednagar .... 






. 274 


29. 


Poona .... 






. 274 


30. 


Sholapoor .... 






. 276 


31. 


Satara .... 






. 277 


82. 


*The Five Satara States 




i 


277 




Southern, 




33. 


Ealadgi ...... 


278 


34. 


Belganm ...... 


. 279 


35. 


Dharwar 


. 279 


86. 


^Southern Maratha States, Savanoor, and Akalkot . 


280 


37. 


*Eo1hapoor State . . . . . 


281 


38. 


*Sawantwari State . . . . . 


282 


39. 


Ratnagiri ..... 


282 


40. 


North Eauara 


* 


1 


284 



*Portugue9e. 

41. *Ooa Province, Settlement, and City . . 285 

Aden, Perim, and AUied Ports. 

42. Aden Settlement ..... 286 

43. Perim Island and Adjoining Ports 288 

44. *Sokotra . . . .289 

XTI. Provikce of Ajmer. 

1. Ajmer-Merwara — Oeneral .... 290 

2. Ajmer ....... 291 

3. Merwara ...... 292 

XTI I. *Baboda, Rajpootana, and Centbal India States. 

^Baroda, 



1. Position, People, and Taxation 


. 293 


2. ^Central Baroda 


. 296 


3. * Northern Baroda 


. 296 


4. ^Southern Baroda 


. 297 


5. *Eathiawar Vassals . . . . 


. 297 


^Rajpootana. 




6. Rajpootana — Oeneral . . . . 


. 297 


7. Land Tenures .... 


. 299 



CONTENTS. 



CRAP. PAGE 

XVII. *Baboda, Rajpootana, and Central India States— 
ConHntied. 

8. •Sirohi . . . . .801 

9. *Mewar or Oodaipoor .... 301 

10. *Dooiigarpoor ..... 802 

11. *Ban8wara .803 

12. ♦Partabgarh .303 

13. *Marwar or Jodhpoor .... 308 

14. *Jaisalmeer ..... 304 

15. *Bilcaner ... . . 305 

16. *Jaipoor ...... 305 

17. *Kishangarh .806 

18. •Alwar . . .806 

19. *Bhartpoor . . .307 

20. *Dliolpoor . . .808 

21. ♦Karauli . . . .808 

22. *Boondee . . . .808 

23. *Kotah . . .309 

24. *Jhalawar . . .810 

25. •Tonk . . . .810 

^Central India, 

26. Central India Agency .... 310 

27. Malwa . . . . .311 

28. Boondelkhand ..... 812 

29. •Indore . . . . . .813 

80. *Dewa88 and Bagli . .318 

81. ♦Gwalior . . . . .313 
32. 'Bhopal . . . . .816 
88. *Rcggarli, Narsingarh, Koorwai, Maksoodangarh, 

Kilchipoor, Basoda, Mahomedgarh, and 
Pathari ..... 315 

84. *Jaora, Ratlam, Sailana, and Seetamau 816 

85. *Bheel Agency States . .816 

86. *Raghoogarh and Paron . .817 

87. *Boondelkhand States . . . .817 

88. *Baghelk}iand States . - . .819 



XYIII. The Central Pbovinos. 

1. Size 

2. Position and Physical Features 
8. Products, Trade, and Railways 
4. Land Tenures and Taxation 

6. The People and Districts . 



821 
822 
328 
824 
827 



CONTENTS. 



XXI 



COAP. 

XVIII. The Central TROYivcE—CofUinticd. 

The Eighteen Districts. 

6. Nagpoor 

7. Bhandara . 

8. Chanda 

9. Wardha 

10. Balaghat . 

11. Baipoor 

12. Bilaspoor . 

13. Sambalpoor 

14. Mandla 

15. Seoni 

16. Jabalpoor . 

17. Damoli 

18. Sagar 

19. Narsingpoor 

20. Chindwara 

21. Hosbangabad 

22. Betool 

23. Nimar 

* The FifUen States. 

24. •Bastar 

25. *£aroDd and Makrai 

26. •Twelve Chatteesgarh States 

XIX. Bebar Province. 

1. Size and Position . 

2. Mountains, Rivers, and Resources 

3. Land Tenores and Taxation 

4. The People and Districts . 

East, 

5. Amraoti ... 

6. Elliclipoor . . . , 

7. Woon . . . . 

JFest. 

8. Akola . . . , 

9. Booldana . . . , 
10. Basim . . . . 

XX. *Haidababad State. 

1. Size, Position, and Resources 

2. Rivers and Communications 
8. Administration 



PAQB 



329 
330 
330 
331 
332 
332 
333 
334 
334 
335 
335 
336 
336 
337 
338 
838 
339 
339 

340 
341 
341 

343 
344 
345 
346 

347 
347 
348 

348 
349 
349 



850 
351 
352 



xxu 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP. 

XX. Haidarabad State — Continued. 

4. Land Tenures and People . 

6. * Districts .... 

6. *Haidarabad, Golkonda, and Warangal 

7. *Beedar, Goolbarga, and Raichoor . 

8. *Aarangabad, Eliira, and Ajanta . 

XXI. Madras Province — OeneraL 

1. Size and Position . 

2. Mountains and Rivers 

3. Canals and Railways 

4. Products and Trade 

5. Land Revenue and Taxation 

6. The People and Districts . 

XXIL Madras Province — Districts and Slates. 

East Central. 

1. Madras City 

2. Chengalpat 
8. Nellore 
4. South Arcot 



*Frenc?L 



5. •Pondicheri 



North Central or Ceded. 

6. North Arcot 

7. Cuddapah . 

8. Bellary and Anantapoor 

9. *Sandoor State 

10. Kamool 

11. *Banaganapali State 

Northern. 

12. Eistna 
18. Godavari . 

14. Yizagapatam 

15. Gaiyam 

West Central. 

16. Salem 

17. Coimbatore 

18. Neclgiri Hills 

West Coast. 

19. South Kanara 

20. Malabar 

21. Laccadive Islands . 



353 
354^ 
355 
• 357 
358 



361 
362 
363 
364 
365 
367 



368 
371 
373 
374 

876 

377 
378 
379 
381 
381 
382 

382 
383 
384 
886 

387 
388 
889 

890 
891 
393 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP. 



XXII. Kadrab Provinck — Ctmiinued, 



XXlll 



PAOS 



SoiUhem, 






* 




22. Taigore ..... 


. 394 ^ 


23. Tiicliiiiopoli 


■ 


» 




. 395 


24. ♦Poodookotta 




• 




. 396 


25. Madura 


■ 1 






. 397 


26. Tinnerelli . 


. 


» 




. 398 


27. •Cochin State 


■ « 


» 




. 401 


28. ♦Travanlcor State . 


1 






. 402 


XXIII. CooRO Province. 




1. The Country .... 


. 404 


2. The People and their History 


. 405 


3. Land Tenures .... 


. 406 


4. Towns and Roads .... 


. 407 


XXIV. 'Mysore State. 




1. The Country .... 


. 408 


2. Land Tenures 








. 410 


3. The People and Districts 








. 411 


4. Bangalore . 








. 413 


6. •Kolar 








. 414 


6. "Toomkoor 








. 415 


7. *Mysore . 








. 416 


8. *Hassan 








. 417 


9. *Shimoga . 








418 


10. 'Kadoor . 








. 419 


11. •Chitaldroog 








. 420 


XXV. Colonies and Countries within the Politicai 


4 


System ov India. 




1. Ceylon ...... 


. 421 


2. Mauritius and Reunion 




. 423 


3. Hong-Kong and Macao 




. 424 


4. Straits Settlements and Malay States 




, 424 


5. The Three Borneo Settlements — Labaan, S 


larawakj 




and Sabah .... 




426 


6. Slam ..... 




426 


7. Upper Burma .... 




427 


8. Tibet and East Toorkestan 




428 


9. Afghanistan .... 




429 


10. Persian North Frontier 




431 


11. Turkish Arabia and the Persian Gulf 




431 


12. Abyssinia ..... 




432 


13. Muscat and Zanzibar 

C 


i 


< 




483 



XXIV 



CONTENTS. 



BOOK IL— PHYSIOGRAPHY. 

CHAP. 

I. GfiOLOOY OF Peninsular India. 

1. Tho Geological Survey 

2. Peculiarities of Indian Geology 

3. Divisions of Indian Geology . 

4. Classified List of Peninsular Formations 

Azoie Bocks. 

5. Metamorphic or Gneissic 

6. Mineralogical Character of the Gneiss 

7. Auriferous Gneissoid Bocks . 

8. Transition or Sub-Metamorphic 

9. Vindhyan .... 

10. Diamond-bearing Conglomerates 

PdlcBOzoic Bocks. 

11. Gondwana System 

■ Mesozoic Rocks, 

12. Coal Measures 

13. Jurassic Marine 

14. Cretaceous Marino 

15. Dekhan Trap .... 

Ccmoztric Rocks, 

16. Tertiary and Laterite 

II. Geology of the Indo-Gangetio Plain. 

1. Post-Tertiary and Recent Formations 

2. Area of Indo-Gangctic Alluvium 
8. Particular Kinds of Surface 

4. The Rann of Each 

5. Coast Alluvium 

6. Soils and Agriculture . 

7. Desert Tracts . 

8. Depression and Elevation 

III. Geology of the Himalaya Region. 

1. Classified List of Formations . 

2. Sind and Baloochistan 
8. Pa^jab Hills West of the Jhelam 



PAOB 

435 
437 
438 
438 



440 
441 
442 
445 
447 
449 



449 



454 
456 
456 
458 



461 



464 
465 
466 
467 
467 
468 
470 
470 



472 
474 
475 



CONTENTS. 



XXV 



CBAP. PAOI 

III. GzoLOOT OF THE HIMALAYA 'Rj^iov— Continued. 

4. Sub-Himalaya Tertiary Bocks . . 478 

5. Outer Himalaya Metamorphics 481 

6. Central Himalaya Gneiss .... 482 

7. The Assam Bange and Coal-Meamies 483 

8. Burma ...... 485 

9. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands . . 486 

IV. Meteobologt or India. 

1. Meteorological ObserTations in India . . 488 

2. Advantages of Indian Meteorology . . 489 

3. Meteorological Influence of the Surface . 490 

4. Ceylon ...... 493 

6. The Monsoons ..... 494 

6. Temperature . ... 495 

7. Sun-Spots . .497 

8. Atmospheric Pressure and Winds 498 

9. Cloud and Bainfall . .502 

10. Land-Storms and Sea-Storms . . . * . 506 

11. Annual Mean Elevation, Pressure, Temperature, 

Vapour Tension, Cloud Proportion, and Rainfall 
of56Stotions . . .509 



APPENDIX. 



BiBLIOGBAPHY 

Indkx 



611 
523 



MAPS AND DIAGRAMS. 

I. India and Europe on the same Scale 
11. Bengal Pbovinos 

HI. AasAX Pbqvinoe .... 
IV. British Bttrma and Andaman Provinces 
V. North- West Province, with Gudh 
VI. Panjab Province, with Frontier States 
VII. Province op Bombay 

YIIl. SiND AND BALOOOHISTAN 

IX. Province of Ajmbr ; Baroda, Rajpootana and 

Central India States .291 



Frontispiece 
Page 57 
107 
127 
153 
201 
249 
251 



XXVI 



CONTENTS. 



Maps and Diagrams — Contimted, 

X. Central Province and Berar . 

XI. Haidarabad and Mysore States 

XII. Madras and Cooro Provinces . 

XIII. Isothermal Chart of India in Mat . 

XIY. Isothermal Chart of India in January 

XV. IsoBARio Chart OF India in January . 

XVI. IsoBARio Chart of India in August 

XVII. Rainfall Map of India . 



PAQB 

829 
355 
867 
496 
496 
601 
501 
505 



BOOK I. 
POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

CHAPTER L 

THB BBinSH INDIAN EMPIRS. 

I 1. Kame. % 2. Extent. § 3. Comparative Size. § 4. Position. 
§ 6. Growth. § 6. AdministratioiL § 7. Provinces and States. 
§ 8. Imperial Sorveya. § 9. Land Tenures, Taxation and Debt. 

§ 1. Name. — The whole Sanskritic race call their country (1) 
Bharata^ or Bharata-yarsha, " the country of King Bharata " 
("a supporter"), the chief of the lunar dynasty, who from 
Hastinapoor, north of Meerut, extended his sway over the land 
between the Himalaya and the Vindhya, and the great war 
between whose descendants is sung in the Epic, Mahorbharatam. 
To the same central region Manu applied the name (2) Arya- 
varta» '' the abode of the Aryans." Poets and Boodhist writers 
use the name (3) Jaznbu-dvipa, properly the Earth as one 
of the seven continents circling around Meru, the mountain 
of the gods, and containing nine varshas (countries), of which 
Bharata, south of the Himavat range, is one , but restricted by 
such writers to India, as the most important part of the earth. 
From the river of Bharata's kingdom, the modem Indus, flowing 
through the Paigab and Sind, comes the term India, through 
the Persian, Hebrew, and Greek. The main stream in Sind, 
the five rivers and the Saraswati in the Panjab, formed the 
seven rivers or (4) Sapta Sindhavah, which in Zand or old 
Persian of the Vendidadf appear as the Hapta Hindu. In 
the Hebrew of the book of Esther (i. 1, viii 9), the country 
is mentioned as one of the 127 provinces of the son of Darius 
Hystaspes, under the name of Hoddu, an abbreviation of 

B 



2 THE BRITISH INDIAN EMPIRE. [CHAP. I. 

Hondu, to which correspoDd the Sjriac Hendu and Arabic 
Hind. The invasion and conquest of the Panjab by Darius, 
B.G. 508, were preceded by the expedition of his admiral, 
Scylax, a Greek of Caryanda in Caria, whose report, whether 
he wrote the Periplus or supplied materials of which that 
was an abridgment, is the beginning of the Western know- 
ledge of India under that name, as the conquest of Darius first 
places us on firm historical ground regarding India. The name 
of the river, in its modern form of Indos, first occurs in a 
fragment of Hecatseus of Miletus, the accurate Greek annalist 
and geographer (bom b.c. 550) who preceded Herodotus. The 
Sanskrit Sindhu (^* flowing water''), which had become the 
Persian "Hindu" and the Hebrew Hondu, appeared as the 
Greek Ihdos, and reappears in the later Latin as Sindus. In 
the Chinese of the second century b.c. India is Shin-tu or 
Sindhu. The word Hindustan, or " abode of the Hindus," is 
the late Persian and present Musalman name for the great 
plain between the Satlej and Benares or Patna, inhabited by 
the Hindee-speaking people of the modern West Bengal or 
Behar, the North-Western Province, and the East Panjab. But 
it is sometimes applied to the whole peninsula bounded by the 
ocean, as by the Emperor Baber. 

§ 2. Extent. — The British Indian Umpire consists of 
the southern slopes of (1) the Himalaya and allied moun- 
tain systems of Southern Asia on the immediate east and west ; 
(2) of the great alluvial Indo-Qangretio Plain stretching 
from the Bay of Bengal west to the Arabian Sea and north to 
the Persian Gulf ; and (3) of the Peninsula formed by the 
Vindhya and Western and Eastern Ghats, which terminate in 
the Agastya peak above the triangular apex of Cape Comorin. 
All other immigrants into or invaders of India, early Turanians, 
elder Aryans, Persians, Greeks, Arabs, MughuU, and Afghans, 
have entered it from the north, except the English. FoUow- 
ing the Portuguese, who now hold only 1086 square miles on the 
west coast administered from Goa ; and side by side for a time 
with the French, who still possess but 178 on the east coast 
governed fiom Pondicheri ; the British have, in less than three 
centuries from Queen Elizabeth to the Queen-Empress Victoria, 
become sole responsible rulers of the continent, by advancing or 
being providentially driven on from both seas to the crest of the 
main range of the Himalaya, to the base of the Sulaiman on the 
west, and the ridge of the Tenasserim mountains on the east 
After working throughout this century from Cape Comorin 
to Toung-ngoo, Sadiya, Sikkim, Peshawar, and Karachi, the 



CHAP. I.] 



ns VASTNESS. 



Survey (trigonometrical, topographica], revenue, and in some 
cases cadastral) shows an area of 1,500,000 square miles. 
The population, as numbered by the second general census, 
taken simultaneously on the 17th February 1881, the largest 
eVer attempted, was above 253,000,000. This reveals an 
increase at the rate of 6*2 per cent in ten years, notwith- 
standing drought and famine, under what has been called the Pax 
Britannica, the universal peace which since 1858 the British 
Government has given to the peoples of India for the first time 
in aU the a^es. At an analogous epoch, the death of Augustus, 
when the silent revolution was begun by Christianity, and the 
Roman Peace prevailed, the Breviarinm drawn up for that 
emperor by the chief surveyor, Balbus, leads the lustoiian 
to estimate the population of the Roman Empire at 85 millions 
in the A^^iatic and European Provinces, from the fortified posts 
on the Euphrates to the Red Sea, the Atlas and the Ocean. 
Gibbon's estimate does not raise the number to more than 
120 millions wlien Imperial Rome was at its height. In modem 
times the Russian Empire, European and Asiatic, has a popula- 
tion of 88 millions. 

§ 3. Ck)MPA£ATIYE SiZE OF EmPIBE AKD PROVINCES. — The 

following figures, condensed and brought down to date from 
Behm and De Stein's statistics, show the BritLih Indian and 
British Empires relatively to others : — 



BarrisH EifPTRV 


Bqnare 
liUea. 


Sqtiare 
KilometTM. 


P6pfilation. 


8,036,007 


20,090,019 


303,512,568 


of which, 








Bbftish Indian Empirs . 


1,494,310 


3,845,186 


253,140,886 


Chinese Empire 


1,609,876 


4,024,690 


280,000,000 


besides 






(estimate) 


Tibet and E. Toorkestak 


4,725,500 


11,813,750 


29,800,000 


RumtiAN Empire 


8,281,200 


21,703,002 


88,018,530 


Turkish Empire 


2,494.520 


6,236,300 


23,119,800 


Unitkp States, N. A 


8,708,976 


9,272,448 


60,438,960 


Netherlands with N. India 


679,^^78 


1,985,183 


27,320,469 


Persia .... 


658,82a 


1,647.070 


4,400,400 



The British Indian Ehipire covers an area as great as that 
of the Continent of Europe proper without Russia, and has 
more than the population of the European States. It is twelve 
and a third times the size of Great Britain and Ireland, and has 
neady the same ratio of population to the square nule. From 



THE BRITISH INDIAN EMPIBB. 



[chap. L 



the Himalaya to Cape Comorin is the same distance as from 
Iceland to Spain. From Calcutta to Bombay the railway 
distance is the same as from London to Naples. There are 
in India almost as many varieties of race, speech, beliefs, and 
customs, as in Europe. 

The great Provinces and States of India are thus contrasted 
with the Empires, Kingdoms, and Republics of Europe : — 



Ihdia. 


Square 
MUes. 


Popula- 
tion. 


Popula- 
tion. 


Square 
Miles. 


BuBon. 


Bengal 


208.487 


60,183,019 


87,672,000 


204,in 


France. 


Ajwam 


55,884 


4,908,276 


25.968,286 


58,820 


England and Wales. 


British BurmA . 


87,220 


8,786,771 


29,702,656 


89,005 


Great Britain. 


Andaman Islanda 


8,285 


80,000 


150,000 


4,200 


Cyprus. 


N.W. Provlnoe 












with Oudli . 


111,086 


44,851,542 


28,437,091 


114,206 


Italy. 


FaiOab 


221,749 


22,712,120 


87.839,427 


240,942 


Austria-Hungary. 


Bombay . 


191,847 


28,396.045 


20,974,411 


219,260 


Spain and Portugsl. 


AJmer. 


2,710 


460,722 


036,340. 


2,866 


Hesse. 


«Baroda 


4,899 


2,154,469 


1,506,531 


5,851 


Baden. 




180,994 


11,005.512 


27,278,911 


137.066 




^Central India . 


89,098 


9,200,881 


29,702,656 


89,005 


Great Britain. 


Central Province 


113,042 


11,505,149 


28,437,091 


114.296 


Italy. 


Beiar . 


17,728 


2,672,678 


2,846,102 


15,992 


Switzerland. 


*Haidarabad 


80,000 


9,167,789 


29,702 656 


89,005 


Great Britain. 


Madras 


150.248 


83,840,617 


16,625.860 


182,750 


Spain. 


Coorg . 


1,583 


178,302 


849.867 


1,526 


Brunswick. 


«Hyaoi« . . 


80,500 


4,186,899 


8,784,870 


80,685 


Scotland. 



Of the British Indian Empire (excluding protected Baloo- 
chistan, Nepal, and Bhootan) the area is, in round numbers, 
1,500,000 square miles, and the population is 253,000,000, or 
170 to the mile all over. Of Europe (excluding Russia and 
Turkey proper) the area is 1,545,000, and the population is 
235,000,000, or 152 to the mil& The population of the British 
Indian Empire is nearly one-fifth of the human race. As to 
creed, roughly, 200 millions are Hindoos, Boodhists, Jains, 
Parsees, and aboriginal demonolaters ; 50 millions are Muham- 
madans, or more than in Turkey or under any Muhammadan 
power, and nearly 2 millions are Christians (Protestant, Syrian, 
and B>oman Catholic) and Jews. The British army in India 
18 63,000 strong, and the number of Europeans and Americans 
besides is about 77,000, or 140,000 in all In Asia, Great 
Britain rules a population five times greater than that under 
the other five Powers of Europe together, and independently of 
the number whom she indirectly influences. Russia rules 15 



CHAP. I.] INLAND AND COAST LINES. 5 

nuIIionB in Asia; the Netherlands, 23^ millionBj Spain, 4^ 
millions ; Portugal, 1 million ; and France, 2 millions. 

§ 4. Position. — From Point Victoria at the south ex- 
tremity of the Tenasserim Division of British Burma in north 
lat 9" 59' and east long. 98' 32' to Oape Monze at the 
mouth of the Hab estuary of Sind in north lat. 24° 60' and 
east long. 66* 38', the northern frontier of British India runs 
along the crest of successive lofty ranges and watersheds, 
forming an inland line of 4680 miles. (1 ) From Point Victoria, 
north, the Tenasserim Roma range parts the thin strip of the 
lowest division of British Burma from Siam. (2) Thence, a 
jungle-line, marked by no natural features, stretches west to 
the P^u Boma range, and north along the Arakan Roma, 
separating the P^;u and Arakan divisions of British Burma 
from Upper Burma, which is farther north divided from 
Assam by the Barail-Patkai range. (3) Then, in lat 28° and 
long. 97% the Himalayan system begins, curving west along 
the north of Assam, which it separates from Tibet, to Bhootan 
and Nepal with Sikkim State between, when turning north, 
the loftiest range in the world shuts off from Tibet the North- 
western Province, PaDJab, and Eashmeer, till its west terminal 
jwrtion, under several names, of which the Earakoram has lately 
become best known, sweeps round into the Hindu Eoosh. 
(4) The Safed Eoh to Bannoo and the Sulaiman Mountains 
take up the ring-fence and run nearly due south, dividing the 
Panjab from Afghanistan. Several ranges, of which the Ehir- 
thar is the chief, form the frontier between Sind and Baloochis- 
tan, from the cessation of the Sulaiman at Eashmor to Oape 
Monze. For a short time, under the Gandaniak Treaty of 
1879, the British boundary crossed the Safed Eoh and the 
Sulaiman to the Afghan side. The external or cocut4ine runs 
for 6580 miles : (1) along the whole of the Bay of Bengal from 
the Crown colony of the Straits Settlements (under India till 
recently) to the Crown colony of Ceylon ; (2) turning north 
fit>m Ci^ Comorin it is' washed by the Indian Ocean and the 
Arabian Sea. In length and breadth British India without 
Burma lies on a square of 1900 miles from east to west in the 
parallel of 28®, and from north to south in the meridian of 77°. 
Besides India proper and British Burma (with the Nioobar, 
AndamaTi, and Mergui Arohipelagro of Islands on the 
east, and the Lcu^oadive Islands off the southwest coast), the 
military outpost of Aden in South-West Arabia, with Perim 
Island, commands the Red Sea highway. Sokotra and the 
rest of the coast of South-West Asia and East Africa, from the 



6 THE BRITISH INDIAN EMPIRE. [CHAP. L 

Persian Gulf to Zanzibar and the colonies of Natal and the 
Cape of Grood Hope, are under the political influence, by treaties 
and commerce, of the British Indian Empire, whose native sub- 
jects are there as capitalists, traders, and labourers. Along the 
whole coast of Africa, Asia, and Australia, from Delagoa Bay 
north to Zanzibar and Aden, Basrah and Bagdad, Karachi and 
Calcutta, Burma and Singapore, Batavia and Brisbane, the 
British, the Queensland, and the Netherlands India Steam 
Navigation Companies maintain regular coasting lines of steamera 
linked on to London through the Suez Canal. 

§ 5. Growth. — The East India Company was incorporated 
on the last day of 1 600, under the name of " The Governor and 
Company of Merchants of London, trading into the East 
Indies," by charter granted by Queen Elizabeth. The charter 
of William III. in 1698 was the foundation of the privi- 
leges of the United East India Company, until its extinction 
as a trading and governing body in August 1858. Under an 
imperial firman granted by Jahangeer cm 11th January 1613, 
Surat became the first English settlement in India, trading 
but not territorial Two of the Company's factors visited Patna 
in 1620, and Shah Jahan granted the Company a ^rman for 
the establishment of a factory in Bengal in 1634. But it was 
in 1636 that the effective privilege of planting settlements 
there was obtained by Mr. Boughton, a ship's surgeon, who 
saved the life of that emperor's daughter. Mr. Boughton first 
visited the port of Pipli, but the first factories were opened 
at Balasor, Kasimbazar, and Hoogli. (1) The Presidency of 
Madraa was constituted in 1653, but there had been factories 
on the east coast at Masulipatam and Armegaon. The Island of 
Bombay was acquired by the English Crown in 1662, and (2) 
the Bombay Presidency was formed in 1 668. In that year the 
Company sent out to China its first order for the purchase of 100 
lbs. of tea; the yearly consumption of which, in Great Britain, has 
now risen to 1 60 millions of lbs., of which more than 40 millions 
is supplied by India, chiefly by the one province of Assam. 
(3) In 1715,on & firman from the Emperor Farokseer, — obtained 
under the influence of another surgeon, Mr. Hamilton, — Cal- 
cutta, granted in 1699, became the centre of the Bengal Presi- 
dency, which was constituted in 1682. These small territorial 
acquisitions were little more than trading factories till Clive's 
yictoiy at Plassey in 1757, followed by three grants from Shah 
Alum of the Dewani, or virtual sovereignty of Bengal proper, 
the Eamatic and the Dekhan — the last never used — on the 
12th August 1765. The Company of merchants, for some time 



OHAP. l] the ADHimSTBATiyE SYSTEM. 7 

forced by circumstances to be a fighting power, now legally 
became a Qoveniment, ami was gradually compelled to distance 
all rivals, European and Native, in the chaos which had suc- 
ceeded the death of Aurangzeb, and thus to give peace and pros- 
perity to the whole Empuu In 1773, the regulating Act of 
Parliament made the Governor of the Bengal Presidency — then 
Warren Hastings — GJovemor-Greneral of India, with certain 
powers, chiefly political and financial, over the other two. In 
1784, the Board of Control was constituted by Parliament, 
under the title of " The Board of Comnussioners for the Affairs 
of India." In spite of all declarations and frequent attempts 
in a contrary direction, the Empire of British India advanced 
from the two seas to its natural boundary of the Himalaya and 
Sulaiman mountains. Under the Marquis of Dalhousie, who 
conquered Pegu in 1852, the frontier reached that boimdary; 
it has rested there, save during the second Afghan War and 
the treaty of Qandamak, on every side except Burma. 

§ 6. Administration. — In 1858, after the Mutiny and 
Sepoy War, the East India Company gave place to the direct 
government of the Crown and Parliament, through the Viceroy 
and Governor -General with executive Council or Cabinet of 
six, controlled by a Secretary of State with a consultative 
Council of fifteen, who have only financial powers rarely exer- 
cised. In 1861 the Indian Councils Act was passed, under 
which Parliament directly governs India. From this time the 
term " Presidency '' ceased to have any but a historical meaning, 
and *' Province" took ito place. In 1835 the upper valley of 
the Ganges and the Jumna had been created the Lieutenant- 
Governorship of the North -Western Province. The lower 
valley of the Ganges and the Brahmapootra had, in 1855, be- 
come the Lieutenant -Governorship of Bengal The Mutiny 
bad resulted in erecting the country from Delhi north-west of 
the Jumna into the Lieutenant -Governorship of the Panjab. 
In order to bring more backward districts up to the same ad- 
ministrative level, the Chief-Commissionerships of the Central 
Province, British Burma, and Assam were successively formed. 
Ajroer, Coorg, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, are smaller 
Provinces of the same kind, and Berar is similarly administered 
snbject to the payment of its smplus revenues to the State 
of Haidarabad. All are, however, more directly under the 
snperviuon of the Governor-General in CouncU than the old 
Presidencies of Madras and Bombay. The governors of these, 
for historical or conservative reasons, are directly appointed by 
the Crown, are better paid, and have the aid of an executive 



8 THE BRITISH INDIAN EMPIRE. [OHAP. L 

Coancil of three, one of whom is the proyincial Commander-m- 
Chief or Lieutenant-General of the Army. The Bengal Army 
is under the Commander-in-Chief of all India, who is one of the 
six members of the Grovemor-Ceneral's ComiciL Madras, Bom- 
bay, and Bengal have each a Legislative Council and a High 
Court of Justice. These Councils, as well as the LegislatiTe 
Council of the Governor - General, consist of the executive 
members, of two representatives of the English mercantile com- 
munity, and of two or three representatives of the Natives as 
extraordinary members. The North-Westem Province has a 
High Court, and the Panjab a Chief Court. The €k)vemor- 
General's Council for making laws legislates for all India in 
general and for the Provinces which have no legislatures of 
their own in detail, some of the Provinces being represented by 
officials. The Governor -General must sanction every Act of 
the three subordinate Councils before it can become law, and 
the Secretary of State for India may advise Her Majesty to 
veto any Act of the Governor-General's Legislative Council 

The administration of all the Provinces is now nearly uni- 
form. Into some of the more backward portions of each all the 
laws have not been introduced, and even in the older Provinces 
there are still districts where a speedier judicial procedure is 
observed. Such districts are still sometimes termed "Non- 
regulation," though that term has lost its original meaning. 
Each Province is divided into Zillahs, or Bisects, or large 
Counties, under Collector-Magistrates, or Deputy-Comndssioners 
with Joint and Deputy Magistrates, or Assistant and Extra- 
Assistant Commissioners. These Districts are in most Provinces 
grouped into Divisions, each under a Commissioner supervised 
by a Revenue Board or Financial Commissioner. English 
counties average 1000 square miles in extent. In India they 
are much larger. In Bombay, for instance, Collectorates aver- 
age about 6000 square miles, and Khandesh is about 15,000 
square miles. Each District has a treasury and a jaiL In 
Bengal, and recently elsewhere. Districts are broken up into 
Subdivisions under Joint, Assistant, or Deputy -Magistrates. 
Under the constabulary system, introduced by Act V. of 1861, 
each District has a Superintendent of Police, and the Districts 
are grouped for police purposes into circles under Deputy In- 
spectors-General, while the whole police force of each Province 
is under an Inspector-Ckneral. The constabulary, except on 
the North-Eastem and Trans-Indus frontiers, is a purely dvil 
force organised on the Irish system, and subject in all respects, 
except internal discipline, to the civil authorities, that is, to 



L 



CHAP. L] CIVIL AND MnjTABY SERVICES — ^THE STATES. 9 

Commissioners of Divisions and Deputy -Commissioners or 
Collector-Magistrates of Districts. 

The Provinces are administered by a covenanted civil service 
of 848 members, to which a few natives receive local appoint- 
ments, while all British-bom subjects may compete in England; 
by an micovenanted civil service and by military officers of the 
three Staff Corps. Each Province has a Director of Public 
Instruction and Inspectors of Schools through whom grants-in- 
aid are administered, and provincial schools and coUeges are 
taught Under the Despatch of 1854, the three Universities of 
Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay were created on the model of the 
London University. The Panjab University has recently re- 
ceived a charter by which it may grant certain degrees after 
examinations conducted in the classical and vernacular lan- 
guages of India. Since the extinction of the local European 
army in 1860, India has been garrisoned by the Queen's army, 
generally 63,000 strong, of whom 4400 are officers. The three 
sepoy armies of Bengal, Madras, and Bombay are 125,000 strong 
(only 900 ArtUlery), with 1600 officers on the irregular system. 
The native army, all military staff, and many political and 
civil appointments, are filled from the three Staff Corps, formed 
of the officers of the Company's regiments after the Mutiny, 
and continually supplied since by young Queen's officers who 
have undergone examination and a year's probation with a native 
corps. 

§ 7. Provinces and Native States. — ^While two-thirds 
of India is thus administered chiefly by English officials, civil 
and. military, in twelve Provinces, the other third is immediately 
rrded, subject to the Viceroy, by its own Hindoo and Musalman 
sovereigns and chiefs. Of such States there are 153 whose feud- 
atory princes have Lord Canning's sannad or patent of 1860, 
which guarantees to each loyal tributary the right of adoption 
on the failure of natural heirs, that is, practically, non-annexsr 
tion. From that third of India the revenues derive no benefit; 
tmt, on the contrary, the rest of India is chained with the excess 
expenditure on political establishments not met by tribute, and 
with the military defence. So carefully do the British officers, 
who reside in the principal States as the Governor -General's 
political agents, aid the chiefs by their counsel, and so fre- 
quently does it happen that the chiefs receive a good English 
eidncation during their minority, while the principality is under 
temporary British management, that the Native States are 
coming more and more to be regarded, administratively, like 

[CoTUiniud on page 12. 



10 



THE BRITISH INDIAN EMPIRE. 



[OHAP. L 



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12 THE BRITISH INDIAN EMPIRE. [CHAP. I. 

non-regulation portions of the adjoining Provinces, while their 
tributary independence is jealously respected by the Suzerain. 
Hence, geographically, these States are hereafter described in 
detail either along with the Provinces of which they form a 
territorial part, or in such great groups as Baroda^ Rigpootana, 
Central India, Haidarahad, and Mysore. All Native States are 
marked with an asterisk (*) to distinguish them at once. 

Tlius, by British legislation aud government on the one 
side, and Native administration aided by British advice on the 
other, the vast and varied mosaic of the British Indian Empire, 
in itself the greatest miracle of history, is becoming a living 
nnity, in which the respect shown to all rights and the steady 
increase of the natives in responsibilities and honours, seem to 
reduce as far as possible the inevitable drawbacks of the rule 
of 250,000,000 of non-Christians and 2,000,000 of Christiana 
by any power but themselves. 

§ 8. The Ibcpssial Subvet consisted of three independent 
departments known as the Great Trigonometrical, Topographical, 
and Revenue, until 1878, when these were amalgamated under 
General Walker, R.E. (1) The Qreat Tri^ronoznetrioal 
Survey was begun in 1802 by Colonel Lambton. The prin- 
cipal triangulation has been completed after eighty years' work. 
Colonel Lambton carried out the triangulation along the east 
coast from Madras to Cape Comorin, and measured the great 
Meridional Arc from Punnas, 8 miles north-east of that Cape, 
in lat. 8' 9' 38"-28 to Daumergidda in lat 18" 3' 23"-63. 
Thence his successor. Colonel Everest, extended the Arc to 
Kalianpoor in lat. 24'' 7' 6"*05, whereby the whole measured 
Arc amounted to 15" 57' 4r'*027, as described in the Account 
of the Afeasurement of the Arc of the Meridian, published by that 
great surveyor in 1830. In the midst of all the wars and dis- 
turbances of the century the principal triangulati(m has been 
carried on successfully till it is connected with Russian territory 
in Central Asia, and includes the Crown colony of Ceylon. In 
1878-80, during the British occupation of Afghanistan, an area 
of 39,500 square miles there was surveyed by British officers 
and 7000 square miles explored by native agency, linking on 
Kabul to India. The Sikaram peak of the Safed Koh range, 
one of the most strongly fixed of all the Great Trigonometrical 
trans-frontier peaks, is the point of connection between the two 
series. In March 1881, when two expeditionary columns were 
sent into Wazeeristan on the eastern confines of Afghanistan and 
dose to the British districts of Bannoo and Dera Ismail Khan, 
an area of 1200 square miles was surveyed in detail Several 



OHAP. l] the great trigonometrical ST7RVET. 1 3 

mountams on the western frontier were ascended, including the 
celebrated peaks of Peerghal and Shindar (11,000 feet), which 
oommand a view of the region to the east almost up to the road 
from Quetta to Ghazni. Besides the principal triangulation, the 
eastern frontier series deals with the region outside of India 
proper, in Burma. That triangulation also has recently been 
brought to a close on a base line of verification in the Mergui 
township; it has been extended over Siam to the capital of 
Bangkok, from the Amya pass on the Tavoy frontier, known to 
the Siamese as Kow Den ('* boundary hill "). (2) The Topo- 
graphioal Survey is carried out, chiefly in Native States and 
sparsely-peopled territory, on the standard scale of one inch to 
the mile, and on the enlarged scale of two inches to the mile. 
ThiB survey, begun in 1836, was for purposes of administration, 
dvil and military ; and to obtain geographical information on 
a reliable basis, for the sheets of the Great Indian Atlas, of vast 
tracts of country to complete which, imder any more expensive 
and elaborate system, would take upwards of a century. The 
system of survey is most effective and rapid. It is based on a 
network of secondary triangulation conducted with the larger 
class of Vernier Theodolites, closely connected with, and verified 
by, the Great Triangulation of India. The detail work, or 
topography, is filled in by means of the plane table, checked by 
routes, or traversing between the stations fixed by triangulation 
wherever the nature of the ground will admit of su(;h test, or 
is examined by a competent officer in the field, by intersections 
to surrounding objects from the points of triangulation. (3) 
The Revenue Survey, in greater detail, is practically the 
most important of all, as the basis of the whole landed system 
and taxation of India. It is Mouzawar, or village, on a 4-inch 
scale, and Cadastral, or field by field, on the scale of 32 inches 
and 16 inches to the mile. The Revenue Survey began in 1822 
and slowly progressed till 1830, at a rate which would have 
xeqnired 500 years for its completion over all Indiiw It was 
revived after the first Pai^ab War in 1846. In fifteen yean 
from that time it surveyed 237,028 square miles, at a cost of 
R& 22*9 per mile. The whole of the vast area of India has 
now been surveyed in one form or another. But owing to the 
progress of science and the destruction of records and landmarks 
in the Mutiny, many portions are being re-surveyed. 

The Indian Survey is far more extensive than that of any 
European State, but it has been executed on a system which 
frualitates the final reduction of the observations. Chains of 
triangles aro carried along the principal meridians and the 



14 THE BRITISH INDIAN EMPIRE. [CHAP. X. 

course of the eastern and western frontier, and these are con- 
nected together by other chains, the northernmost of which 
follows the Himalayan frontier line, while the others are carried 
along certain parallels of latitude, at cbnvenient intenrals. 
Colonel Everest's Meridional Arc is, from its central position 
and its intrinsic value, the axis of the system. Base-lines are 
measured at the extremities of the longitudinal chains, and at 
the points where the chains cross Colonel Everest's Ara Thus 
the triangulation is divisible into large quadrilateral figures, 
with a base-line at each corner, and somewhat resembling 
gridirons, with their outer framework and intermediate bars. 
This arrangement offers certain advantages in the reduction of 
the observations which are not met with in a network of 
triangulation, as the points of junction between the several 
sections of the operations are reduced to a minimum. At each 
junction there are necessarily two or more values of the lengths, 
azimuths, and co-ordinates of the sides common to two or more 
chains of triangles, in consequence of the errors generated in 
the course of the operations. The problem to be solved is to 
harmonise these values by the application of certain corrections 
to every measured angle and base-line, having due regard to 
the respective weights of the observations and to certain essen- 
tial theoretical considerations, as well as to the imperative 
necessity of restricting the calculations within manageable 
limits. With every assistance that could be derived from the 
published accounts of the best geodetic operations in Europe, 
and from the Astronomer-Royal, it has been a matter of no 
small difficulty to elaborate a system of reduction which will 
satisfy modem theoretical requirements, and yet be susceptible 
of practical manipulation, when applied to the very extensive 
operations of the Indian triangulation. This has at last been 
accomplished. The great quadrilateral figure which connects 
Dehra Doon, the headquarters of the Survey, with Karachi, 
and comprises 4 base-lines and about 2500 angles appertaining 
to 8 chains of triangles, covers an area of nearly 300,000 
square miles. On the completion of the last of the arcs of 
longitude between trigonometrical stations in India, the differ- 
ences of longitude between Bombay, Aden, and Suez were 
determined. Suez had alreafly been connected with the Royal 
Observatory at Greenwich ; thus the electro-telegraphic connec- 
tion between Greenwich and India was completed. 

The Madras Observatory was erected in 1792, but 
the Madras series of astronomical observations had begun in 
1787. Its longitude, as that of the secondary meridian or 



CHAP. L] ASTRONOMICAL AND OTHER SURYETS. 1 5 

Bubstitute for the prime meridian of Greenwich Obser^atoiy, 
is the fixed poiut of departure of the TrigoDometrical Survey. 
The Observatory gives Madras or uniform time to all India 
for railway and other non-local purposes. The astronomer, 
Mr. Pogson, unites with those of the other southern Observa- 
tories at the Cape of Grood Hope and Melbourne id the great 
survey of the southern heavens. Of the five zones into which 
these are divided, from the Equator south to the Pole, the 
Madras astronomer takes the two from the Equator to ^O"" S. 
Since 1856 the Oeolofirical Survey has been at work on the 
basis of the Revenue and Topographical Surveys, under Dr. 
Oldham and M. H. £. Medlicott, with valuable results detailed 
imder PhysiogTaphy, Book II. In 1867, after frequent cyclones 
and famines, M. H. F. Blanford of that Survey became Meteor- 
ological Beporter to Grovemment ; there are upwards of 125 
stations of observation. Tidal registers are kept and surveys 
made by the Marine Survey. Since 1861 the Archsdo- 
loffical Survey of India has been conducted by General Cun- 
ningham, and in Bombay and Madras more recently by Dr. 
Burgess. Following Mr. James Fergusson, LL.I)., these 
reporters have made many rich discoveries and verifications 
dcdy noted in each District and State. 

§ 9. Land Tenures and Taxation. — The Survey is the 
necessary preliminary of the settlement of rights in the land and 
assessment of the land-tax, whether it be considered rent or 
revenue, between the people and the State. Where a hereditary 
system similar to the feudalism of the Indo-Germanic peoples 
existed among the Hindoos, as it still does in Rajpootana, it 
was almost entirely obliterated by the centralised government of 
the Muhammadaus. In India, as over nearly all Asia, the 
State is the proprietor of the soil, and raises the greater portion 
of its revenue from the landed classes, whether directly from 
the cultivating ryot ("protected one," as distinguished from 
raees = ** noble "), or from brotherhoods and village communities 
of ryots, or from the zameeudar ("land-holder'') or talookdar, 
who holds large estates as middleman, or direct owner subject 
to the land-tax. Private property in land, in the English 
sense, has no existence in India, save in the few instances in 
sparsely-peopled districts where tea, coffiee, and cinchona 
estates have been sold in fee-simple under waste land rules 
chiefly to Europeans. The right is that of holding land subject 
to the payment of customary rents, a right developed by the 
settlements made under the British rule, and made valuable by 
the British peace and improvements, so that it is saleable and 



1 6 THE BRITISH INDUN EMPIRE. [OHAP. L 

has an increaeing value according to the lightness or severity 
of the periodical assessmeDt. 

The British Indian land-settlements have oscillated firom the 
principle of Permanenoe (zameendaree), as in Lower Bengal, 
under Lord Comwallis in 1793, to that of Annual Leases 
(lyotwaree) under Sir Thomas Munro in Madras in 1820, and 
that of Thirty Tears' Leases in the North-Westem Province 
in 1833 under Eobert Mertins Bird, followed by Thomason 
there, by John Lawrence in the Pasjab, and in 1836 in Bombay 
by Sir (xeorge Wingate. The north-west famine of 1860-1, 
following the revelations made by the Mutiny of 1857, led Lord 
Canning, on Colonel Baird Smith's report, to revert to the 
principle of permanence of assessment for a time, which he had 
carried out in a modified form in the new districts of Oudh. 
But the apparent and immediate financial advantage of giving 
the State a large share in the increment of the land-reut, especially 
when the depreciation of silver came to be marked, again over- 
shadowed the political and more abiding benefits of guaranteeing 
the people an absolute right of private property in the soil which 
they cidtivate subject to a fixed quit-reni Even the proposal 
to remove the financial objection by corn-rents, under which 
the State should share the increase proportionally without the 
expense and harassing investigations of periodicid settlements, 
did not secure the adoption of the principle of a permanent 
peasant- proprietor settlement, free from the mistakes and 
wrongs of the permanent zameendaree or middleman settle- 
ment of Bengal, North Madras, and Benares, and firom the 
talookdaree settlement of Gudh. Except in these districts all 
India Ib held ryotwar, on leases varying from thirty to ten 
years, and even annual, at the expiry of which the State landlord 
institutes a new, detailed, and often expensive investigation 
into soils, holdings, and rents, and altera generally by increasing 
the land-tax accordingly. The principal tenures will be found 
described under each Province and great State. 

The net land-revenue has risen in the ten years beginning 
1870-71, from £20,335,678 or neariy half the total net revenue 
of £42,780,417, by about two millions sterling, to £22,125,807, 
with a total net revenue of £49,801,664. The gross revenue 
of the latter year, 1879-80, was £68,484,666, the diffeienoe 
being derived from sources other than taxation, such as the 
opium monopoly. The revenue of 1880-81 was £72,920,000, 
and 'the gross expenditure £71,259,000. Including the land- 
levenue as land-tax, the 200 millions in the 12 Provinces 
of British India pay about 4s. a head of imperial taxation, 



CHAP. I.] TAXATION AND DEBT — LOCAL GOVERNMENT. 17 

besides municipal or local and provincial cesses, which purchase 
such local advantages as roads, schools, police, and sanitary 
appliances. This incidence of taxation varies from 5s. 6d. per 
head of the land -owning classes to 3s. 3d. for traders, 28. 
for artisans, and Is. 6d. for agricultural labourers. The fiscal 
policy of the Government has of late been to reduce the 
burden of the salt monopoly which is a poll-tax, and to 
abolish import duties. The 54^ millions in the Native States 
pay only to their own chiefs who enjoy a net annual revenue 
of 14 millions sterling, and pay £700,000 as tribute, or less 
than the cost of the military and political establishments 
maintained on their account. The public debt and liabilities 
of India, besides the capital invested in railways, amount to 
£157,000,000, involving interest £6,000,000, at an average 
rate which has gradually fallen to 3*8 per cent. Of the debt, 
94 millions is ordinary, 45 is for productive public works, lOJ- 
is for the East Indian Railway, and 8^ is for local loans and 
advances. To this has been added 2| millions sterling, raised 
at 4 per cent for the Indian expenses in the campaign of 1882 
in Egypt. 

There are 880 municipalities in India which have an income 
of 1^ millions sterling chiefly from taxation. A great advance in 
district self-government is being made by the creation of partially 
elected Municipal and Local or Rural Boards. The provincial 
rates amount to 3 millions sterling, also from taxation. Since 
1871-72 the Provinces have had assigned to them by the Central 
Crovemment, for the non-imperial services involving expenditure, 
annual sums now amounting to 14^ millions, and making, with 
the above, 17^ millions out of the gross revenue. This de- 
eentralisation of finance works well in promoting public thrift, 
bat may be abused as an excuse for increasing taxation. 



// 



CHAPTER IL 

INDIA AS A WHOLE. 

Qreat Mountains,—^ 1. The Himalaya. § 2. The Safed Eoh, Snlai- 
man, and Ehirthar Ranges. § 8. The three Boma and Patkai 
Ranges. § 4. The Western and Eastern Ghats. § 5. The Arayali, 
Yindhyai and Satpoora Ranges. 

Cheat Rivers.— % 6. The East Himalaya Rivers— the Ganges. § 7. The 
Brahmapootra. § 8. The Irawadi. § 9. The Tsit-toung and 
Salween. § 10. The Indus. § 11. The West Peninsular Rivero— 
the Narhada and the Tapti. § 12. The East Peninsular Rivers — 
the Mahanadi, Godavari, Eistna, and Eavari with Coleroon. 

fFaUifalls, Jxikes, Canals, Forests, and Railways. — § 13. Waterfalls. 
§ 14. Lakes. § 16. Canals. § 16. Forests. § 17. Trees of India. 
§18. Railways. 

The Coast from Suez Canal to Singapore. — § 19. Harbours and Road- 
steads. § 20. Tides. § 21. Lighthouses and Light Vessels. 

§ 1. Thb Himalaya ('* snow-abode") or Him&ch&l (''snow- 
mountain"), a word converted by the Greeks into Imaos and 
Emodos, and generally but incorrectly pronounced as if y in the 
last syllable were a consonant, is applied (1) to the snow- 
covered zone of North India, between the Brahmapootra River 
on the east and the Indus on the west ; and (2) to the series 
of mountain chains forming the southern scarp of the plateau 
of Tibet (15,000 feet), the Kuenlun which overlooks the 
lower plains of East Toorkestan and the Gobi Desert being 
the northern scarp. 

(1) The Himalaya Proper extend for 1500 miles from 
the goi^e of the Brahmapootra in east longitude 95* 30' to the 
gorge of the Indus in east longitude 72^ This unbroken water- 
shed of above 18,000 feet bounds on the north the great plain 
of North India, which has an area of 500,000 square miles, 
gradually rising to an elevation of 1000 feet. At a point 20 
or 25 miles from the outer hills the jungly morass of the 
Tarai begins and stretches from 10 or 15 miles north into the 
sand and boulder beds of the Bhabar, beneath which the 



CHAP. U.] THE THBEE HIMALAYA RANGES. 19 

drainage of the hills passes into the Tand. (a) The Sub- 
Himalaya or Siwalik Banges of the Tertiary period 
then rise abruptly to 3000 or 4000 feet, and slope inwards to 
the main system, forming 0oons (called Mari in Nepal), or 
valleys of 2000 to 2500 feet, such as the Dwars of Bhootan, 
and the fertile tea-tracts of Dehra below Mnssooree-Landhaur, 
and Eangra below Dharmsala. West of the Jhelam, the Sub- 
Himalaya end in the Salt Basse, a small plateau to the 
north of the line of elevation extending to the Indus. (6) The 
Outer Himalaya Banfire rises rapidly from these Boons to 
a height of 7000 to 9000 feet and has a breadth of 60 to 70 
miles, on which the European sanitary stations firom Daijeeling 
west by Naini Tal, Mussooree, Simla, Dharmsala^ Dalhousie, 
and Marree, have been planted, (c) The Main Himalaya 
or Snowy Bangre is reached by passes which lead to the 
regions of the loftiest peaks in the world yet surveyed — 
Mount Everest in Nefud (29,002 feet) ; Einohinjinfira in 
Sikkim (28,156 feet); Ohumalhari (23,929 feet); Dhawa- 
Isfilii in Nepal (26,826 feet) ; and Nanda-devi in Eumaun 
(25,700 feet). These and others not named, such as two 
in the extreme west (28,278 feet), or not reached by the sur- 
veyor's eye and instruments, are grouped in masses on the 
first ranges within the line of perpetual snow £rom 20 to 
30 miles south of the Indian watershed. On a line of 150 
miles long between the 78th and 81st meridians in Kumaun 
and Garhwal, General R. Strachey notes six great snowy 
groups with five great rivers passing between them. He 
expects the number of peaks between 25,000 and 30,000 to be 
found greatly increased as knowledge advances, and even that 
points may be discovered exceeding 30,000 feet in altitude. 
The average elevation of the crest of the Indian watershed 
between the Brahmapootra and the Indus exceeds 18,000 feet ; 
the passes leading to it from the south, used by men and 
animals for the scanty trade which the Government of India 
has done much to foster, are frequently highef than that, with 
Uie exception of that which leads from Eashmeer to Dras in 
Tibet (11,300 feet). The larger rivers roll down* from the 
snowy watershed at from 800 to 1250 feet per mile through 
profound ravines. The large and level valleys of Eathmandoo 
in Nepal and Eashmeer are exceptional Looked at in their 
length from south to west the Indian Himalaya are occupied 
from the 92d meridian to the 89th by the State of Bhootan, 
locadly termed Lhopato ; then by British and Native Sikkim, 
or Demojong, up to the 88th ; then by the protected State of 



20 INDIA AS A WHOLE. [OHAF. H. 

Nepal nearly to the 80tli. From that point west and north* 
west to the Indus, the whole southern slope from the snowy crest 
of the watershed to the plains consists of British Districts like 
Kumaun, Garhwal, and Simla^ or States like Kashmeer. 

(2) The Tibeto-Himalaya extend north from the great 
plain of India to the heights of the loftiest mountains, the 
Indian 'Watershed (Himalaya proper), the Tibetan table- 
land, the Toorkish Watershed (Kuenlun), and finally the 
northern slope which ends in the plains of Central Asia. On a 
Une drawn through Simla the breadth of this mighty mountain- 
system 1b at least 400 miles. The Alps have a breadth of 75 
miles from the Lake of Thun to the Lombardy plains. It is 
no exaggeration to say, that "along the entire range of the 
Himalaya there are vaUeys into which the whole Alps might be 
cast without producing any result that would be discernible at a 
distance of 10 or 15 ndlea" From this great Tibetan plateau 
are thrown off to south and north the rivers of India and Afghan- 
istan ; to the west the Oxus ( Aksu) or Amu, and Jaxartes or 
Sir ; to the east the rivers of China, Siam, and Burma. The 
plateau is not so much a tableland lying between the two 
chains of the Himalaya and Kuenlun, as "the sunmiit (15,000 
feet) of a great protuberance above the general level of the 
earth's surface, of which these alleged chains are nothing more 
than the south and north borders, while the other ranges which 
traverse it are but corrugations of the mass more or less strongly 
marked and locally developed." The whole mountain area ex- 
tends from east to west about 2000 miles, and its average 
breadth, including the sloping faces, exceeds 500 miles. The 
Tibetan valleys differ from those of the Himalaya, like Kash- 
meer, being long, flat, and open, but narrow. Qufir^ plateau 
(15,500 feet), to the north of Kumaun, on the upper Satlcj, 
is the largest, being 120 miles long and from 15 to 60 miles 
broad, with the Lakes of Rakas-tal and Manasaraur. 

On the west are two watershed lines at right angles to the 
whole mountain-sjrstem — the Hindu Koosh of Afghanistan, 
which is the southern, and the Terek-ta^rh of North Toorkestan, 
which is the northern. 

§ 2. The Safed Koh (" white mountains "), continuing the 
north-western boundary from the Himalaya, stretch east and 
north. Beginning between Kabul and Ghazni, east of the AUah- 
Koh, the range runs into two main ridges : one north-east to the 
Khaibar and the Kabul rivers ; the other due east to the junc- 
tion of the Kabul with the Indus. It begins a few miles west 
of the Shutargardan Pass, between Kooram and Logar. Of 



CHAP. IT.] THE ST7IAIMAN AND KHIRTHAR RANGES. 21 

the northern spurs, those most familiar from the Afghan wars 
are that which ends at Bhutkhak, the Haft Kotal, and the 
Gandamak, which gave its name to the suspended treaty. 
Of the southern spurs the Peiwar ridge is best known. 
Seetaram Mountain (15,662 feet) is the highest point of 
the range. The Sulaiman Hills continue the boundary 
north and south, from Bannoo in the Panjab to Sind, along 
the whole Derajat Thrown off from the same Allah-Koh 
ridge at which the Safed Eoh begins, the range forms the 
mountain system of East Afghanistan and Baloochistan. The 
eastern slopes drain into the Indus, the western into the Helm and, 
or the desert between Persia and Baloochistan ; the southern 
into the Arabian Sea. t)n the Indian or eastern side an offshoot 
divides the drainage of the Eooram from the Khost valley. A 
spur divides Khost from Dawar, ending in Bannoo district. The. 
Wazeeri lulls and the Sarkh-Koh are also offshoots. The Takht- 
i-Sulaiman (" Solomon's Throne") is the highest point (1 1 ,295 
feet), nearly due west of the town of Dera Ismail Khan. It is 
a niche in a rock about 10 feet below the summit, looking 
as if it had been cut out by hand ; in front is a small ledge, 
below which the mountain falls precipitously. The legend is 
that King Solomon used to cause himself to be transported 
by genii to this place, and sit there to eDJoy the cool air. 
Many pilgrims ascend the difficult path to visit the shrine 
on the siunmit. From the parallel lines of the outer Sulai- 
man the main range slopes down to the valley of Kandahar. 
The Khirthar Rangre (7000 feet), erroneously called Hala, 
completes the north-western border of Upper Sind to the 
sea. From the 26 th parallel of latitude it merges in the Pabb 
Hills, which run for 90 miles to Cape Monze or Has Muari 
The range is in thre& parallel ridges ; two sanitaria have been 
tried at Dhar Yaro (6000 feet), and the Dauna Towers in 
Mehar (4500 feet), but the access is very difficult From the 
eastern ridge the arid Lakki Hills (2000 feet) strike for 50 
miles into Karachi district 

§3. The Roma Mountains (or Yoma) ("spinal ridge"), 
in three lines, and the Patkai, are the four principal ranges 
which, running north and south, flank the Himalaya sys- 
tem on the east, as the Safed Koh, Sulaiman, and Khirthar 
hills do on the west. (1) The Arakan Roma start south 
from the great multiple mass of mountains in Assam which, 
after enclosing the plain of Manipoor State and Tipura, con- 
tract into a defined chain at Chittagong, and disappear in 
the Bay of Bengal at Cape Negrais, 700 miles south. The 



22 INDIA AS A WHOLE. [OBAP. n. 

line is continued in the Andaman, Sumatra, and Javanese 
islands. Its most prominent point is the Blue Mountain (above 
8000 feet), in 2r north and 93" east, whence it throws off the 
watershed between the Naf and Myoo rivers west to the coast 
at Angoo Maw. The highest peaks are the Kyee-doung (*' ever 
visible") on the Pegu frontier, and the double Shwe-doung 
Moung Hnitma ("golden brother and sister hill"). (2) The 
Peffu Boxna rise from the Re-me-theng plains north of British 
Burma, forming the watershed between the Irawadi and the 
Tsit-toung ; the main ridge gradually rises to 2000 feet, when 
it passes south by west into British territory ; at Rangoon it 
has been levelled into the platform of the Shwe Dagon pagoda ; 
after falling into the low wooded hills on which stands the 
Syriam pagoda, the range sinks into the Bay of Bengal at the 
rocks which impede the navigation of the Hmaw-won below 
Kyouk-tan. (3) The Assam and Patkai Bancres rise 
suddenly from the Bengal plain 220 miles north of Calcutta; 
stretch east under the names of the Garo, Easi, and Naga tribes 
which inhabit the jungles ; sweep north-east in an increasing 
mass, often traversed by the Burmese in their frequent invasions 
of Assam; and, when 14,000 feet high, meet the lofty prolonga- 
tion of the southern chain of the Himalaya known as the Lang- 
tang, which sends down the Irawadi from the snows of its southern 
fisu^. Thence from north-west the course turns south-east 
between the Irawadi and Salween ; a spur approaches the Bay 
of Bengal near Martaban, dividing the Salween from the Tsit- 
toung (Sittang) ; 15 miles south of the latter river it throws off 
the Poung-loung range ; 50 miles east the main range rises to an 
altitude of 9000 feet in Eareng-nee, after which it gradually 
slopes south and east towards the junction of the Bheng-laing 
and Salween. The principal British peak is Nat-toung ('* spirit 
hill"), 8000 feet, south-east of Toung-ngoo. (4) The Tenas- 
serim Roma^ the water-parting between the Bay of Bengal 
and Gulf of Siam, from a point east of the Salween extends 
south, skirte British territory, and forms the boundary between 
the Tenasserim division and Siam from the gorge through 
which the Thoung-yeng passes, where is the immense mass of 
the Moo-lai-yit (5500 feet), to the Pak-chan River in the south. 
§ 4. The SahyAdri or Western Ghats form the most 
important range in the peninsula of India proper. Running for 
1000 miles along the west coast from the Tapti River to Cape 
Comorin, at a high elevation, this wall of *' stairs ** or passes 
from the sea tilts the whole plateau towards the Eastern Ghats 
and sends the great rivers into the Bay of Bengal From north 



CHAP. II.] WESTERN AND EASTERN GHATS — ^VINDHYA. 23 

of the Tapti valley the range runs south for 800 miles to the 
Palghat gap of Coimbatore, through the districts of E^handesh, 
Nasik, Thana, Satara, Ratnagiri, and Eanara, and from that gap 
for 200 miles farther to the Agastya Peak above Cape Comorin, 
through Malabar and the Cochin and Travankor States. Their 
average altitude is 3000 feet, rising to 4717 in Mahableshwar, 
and to 7000 in Coorg, where, in the Neelcriris, they are joined 
by the Eastern Ghats. The range sends out spurs with separate 
local names ; in the south its more isolated groups are known 
as the Ananiftlfti, Palnai, Shivsirai, and Travankor HilLs, 
fiist being opened up by eoffee and cinchona plantations, by 
gold companies and as sanitaria. The Eaatem Q-hats, start- 
ing from south of the Mahanadi River, in Orissa, pass into 
Ganjam and Vizagapatam districts, where the higher peaks rise 
to 5000 feet ; run south-west at a distance from the Bay of 
Bengal of from 50 to 150 miles ; are continued in the low 
hills which mark the coast-line of Chengalpat and Tinnevelli ; 
buty in their main elevation, pass from the Nellore district 
south-west into the plateaux and ridges of Mysore and the 
Neelgiris, where they are lost in the Western Ghats. This 
eastern chain is not continuous like the western, hence some 
geologists deny it a separate existence. It is composed — to the 
south, of the eastern scarp of the Mysore plateau; to the north, 
of the south-eastern scarp of the Bastar-Jaipoor plateau ; and, 
between these, of short isolated ridges of metamorphic rocks. 

§ 5. The Arayali ("line of peaks'') run for 300 miles 
from north-east to south-west through Rigpootana; in Ajmer 
Province the separate hills and plateaux unite into a chain to 
Mount Aboo (5650 feet), which forms the main watershed, and, 
like a coast of high cliffs, protects the country to the south-east 
from the sand of the R^jpootana Thar or Desert From this 
watershed the rivers flow south-east and south-west to the two 
aeaa. The range throws off spurs north-east to Delhi, where 
the Mutiny siege of 1857 has made the ridge from which the 
British took the city for ever famous. 

The Vlndhya ("hunter''), of old applied to the hills, in- 
eluding the Satpooras, which separate the great plain of Hin- 
dustan — ^the " middle land " of the Aryan Hindoos — from the 
plateau of the Dekhan, is now confined to the hills north of the 
Narbada. The range forms a great rock basin running east 
from Neemach for 600 miles to Sasseram, and north to south 
for 300 miles frt>m Agra to Hoshangabad. It connects the 
plains of Goojarat with those of the Ganges at Rajmahal, and 
IB still the central home of the Non-Aryan aborigines of all 



24 INDIA AS A WHOLE. [OHAF. il. 

varieties. The eaatem continuation of the Yindhja ig the 
Kaixnoor Ranffe, north of the Routhem valley. Both ranges 
form the southern scarps of the Vindhya plateau occupied by the 
great Native States of Indore, Bhopal, Boondelkhand, and Bag- 
helkhand. 

The Satpoora Bangre (" seven towns ") runs south of the 
Narbada valley — which it divides from the Tapti — parallel with 
the Vindhya from Amarkantak through the Central Province 
west to the Arabian Sea. The Plateaux of Hazariba^ 
and Ohutia Na.erpoor, which appear to continue this rauge to 
the east, are separate elevations formed of different rocks. The 
Satpoora run for 600 miles with a depth of 100 miles from 
north to south. Beginning at Amarkantak they form a trian- 
gular system, of which the base runs south-west to the Saletekri 
Hills in Bhandara, and the two sides proceeding west, shrink 
firom a broad tableland into the two ridges which bound the 
Tapti valley, and end in the famous fortress of Aseergarh. 
The Maikal Hills, running south-west from the Amarkantak 
plateau, wall in the granary of Chateesgarh ; the Central Sat- 
poora comprise the Pachmarhi or Mahadeva Hills from 
Narsingpoor to Aseergarh. The range ends on the west in 
the Bajpeepla Hills. 

The Indhyadri is a minor range between the Tapti and 
the GodavarL 

§ 6. The East Himalatait Riyebs. — Between the 77th 
and 88th meridians the waters of the Himalaya system fall 
into the Ganges ; those east of the 88th into the Brahmapootra ; 
those east of the 97th into the Irawadi and Salween. The 
waters to the w^t of the 77th meridian form the Indus. The 
OexLgea is personified in Ganga (" the river "), eldest daughter 
of Himavat, the lord of snow. The stream was induced by the 
austerities of Bhagiratha (whence its most sacred name), great- 
grandson of Sagara (the ocean), to descend firom heaven, and it 
fell first on Shiva. The Ganges, and its main tributary the 
Jiunna, rise in a region of snowy peaks of the first magnitude 
from mighty glaciers, the former above the temple at Gans^otri 
(13,800 feet), the latter to the west above the temple of Jum- 
notii The Ganges is formed of the more sacred Bhagirathi 
firom Gangotri, on the south of which is the Shiva temple of 
Kedamath, and the larger Alaknanda, fed from a glacier at 
the Vishnu temple of Badarinath, in Garhwal, where the valleys 
lead into Tibet Forty-seven miles south of the Deo Prayag, 
or junction, the somewhat broad stream leaves the Sub-Hima- 
laya at Hardwar, whence it gives off the head waters of the 



OHAP. n.] THE GANGES AND BRAHMAPOOTRA. 25 

great Ganges CanaL ^thence it flows, with a tortuous and 
shallow but broadening course, south-east through the North- 
Western Province to the next sacred Prajag at Allahabad, 668 
miles from its source. There it receives the sister Jumn% 
which, having left the hills in the 95th mile of its course, has 
been joined by the Chambal from the Vindhya at Malwa, has 
sent ofif several canals, and has drained 118,000 square miles. 
The great Ganges then rolls east by south-east through the North- 
Western Province for 140 miles to Benares, with its temples 
and cremation gbats ; receives the Goomti and Gogra from the 
north, and the Son from the south ; enters the Bengal Province, 
where it is joined by the Gandak and Kosi from the north, and 
at 240 miles from the Bay of Bengal begins to form the vast 
delta along with the Brahmapootra frt)m the north-east at Goa- 
luida Under the local name of the Megrna estuary the main 
Tolume enters the Bay of Bengal near NoakhalL That is the 
most easterly, as the Hoofirli is the most westerly, and com- 
mercially most important of the many channels through which, 
in the network of the Soondarban, the Ganges reaches the ocean 
(Sagar). The Hoogli is formed by the spilling over of the 
Ganges during the rainy season into the three principal channels 
of the Bhagirathi, Jalangi, and Matabhanga, and by several 
livers from the south, all described hereafter. The Ganges 
flows in main stream to the Megna mouth for 1557 miles, and 
to the Hoogli mouth 1507 miles ; with its longest affluent its 
oonrse is 1680 miles. It is 20 otdles broad at the entrance, and 
fit)m 1 to 2} miles in the dry season in the average channel, 
while its depth is 30 feet. The flood discharge of the river at 
Bi^mahal, before the delta begins, is 1,800,000 cubic feet per 
second, and the ordinary discharge 207,000. The catchment 
basin encloses 319,100 square miles. From its glacier source, 
13,800 feet above the sea, the Ganges falls to 10,319 feet in 
10 miles at Gangotri; at Hardwar it is 1024, and at Cawn- 
poor 379 feet 

§ 7. The Brahmapootra ("son of Brahma"), or Tsangpo, 
from the southern portion of the Tibetan tableland, on the same 
central line of 82"* east longitude from which the Indus flows 
north-west, rises near Manasaraur Lake, proceeds south-east 
to 95^ where it turns south through a gorge of the Himalaya, 
like that of the Satlej, and as the Dihong after the confluence 
of the Dibong it reaches Assam, where, receiving the Lohit 
(" blood-red "), called by some the true Brahmapootra, from 
Brahmakoond, it flows south-west, forming the great valley 
of Assam, and, near Dhoobri, tarns south to the Padma or main 



26 INDIA AS A WHOLE. [OHAP. U. 

Ganges at Gk)alunda) in union with which it reaches the head 
of the Bay of Bengal as the Megna. Its course is estimated 
at 1800 miles; it drains a basin of 361,200 sqaare miles. 
All explorations, from those of Wilcox in 1828 to the native 
surveyors — Groorkha, Bhootea, and Burman — sent out by the 
Indian Survey, entitle us to believe that the Assam Lohit or 
Brahmapootra of the Hindoos receives the waters of the 
Tibetan Tachok-tsangpo (" horse-river "), or Tsangpo (" great 
river," like Ganga). Since 1865 the trained natives have 
traced and mapped the river from Shigatz^ as far east as Che- 
tang, and thence downwards for 120 miles, where it was found 
to be 250 paces wide, with slight current and vexy deep, on 
to Gyala Sindong, 287 miles from Chetang, and only 100 
miles from the Dihong, as we know that to enter the Assam 
valley. Just below Chetang the ordinary discharge of the 
Brahmapootra is 15,000 cubic feet per second, and its maxi- 
mum flood discharge is 250,000 cubic feet On the right 
bank, in Assam, the Brahmapootra receives these main tribu- 
taries, the Subansiri,* Bhoroli, Manas, Gadadhar or Sankos^ 
Dharla, and Teesta ; and on the left, the Noa Dihing, Buri 
Dihing, Disang, Dhansiri, and Eapili, all navigable by lai^ 
boat, and some by steamer in the rainy season. The Brahma- 
pootra itself is navigable by steamer 800 mOes from the sea 
up to Dibroogarh. In volume, utility to agriculture, and com- 
mercial facilities, this is the third river of India, being next to 
the (Ganges and Indus. Details regarding its course, local 
names, and marts, will be found under each district which it 
traverses in Assam and Bengal Provinces. 

§ 8. The Ibawadi rises in a snowy range among the KachinB 
in Ehamti, about latitude 28°, as seen in 1826 by Wilcox, who 
crossed over from Assam to north of Burma via the Noa Dihing, 
and as recently confirmed by a Burman explorer of the Indian 
Survey. The Irawadi, like the Gkinges, has two sources, sepa- 
rated by one day's journey, the Eastern or smaller (Myit-ngay), 
and the Western or larger (Myit-gyee), which unite at 26*" north. 
The main river, flowing southwards, .receives the Mogoung 
from the west in 24° 50', where at Hnote-choyone, or 800 miles 
from the sea^ it is over a mile broad. It enters the first gorge 
14 miles south, is contracted to a great depth at a spot 50 
yards wide, and emerges expanding into its old breadth, while 
it casts up sandy shoals and encircles peopled islands. It 
receives the Taping from the east ; enters Burma at the frt)ntier 
to north of Maingna ; straggles among sands in front of Bam5, 
where the British Political Agent resided and the trade route to 



CHAP. II.] THE IKAWADI AND TSIT-TOUNG. 27 

China starts; passes Eoung-toung-myo, where in 1769 the last 
Chinese invaders were defeated; rushes through the second 
defile, and below Tsampanago through the third defile, after 
which the valley of Ava begins. The river enters British 
Burma three>quarters of a mile broad, is contracted between 
the Pegu and Arakan Roma, traverses the fourth and last defile 
before passing Prome, and opens out into the delta below the 
Akouk-toung spur of the Arakan Roma. Before reaching 
Henz&da it sends off the Bassein River westwards, which falls into 
the Bay of Bengal by two mouths, east of Hmaw-deng. At 
Gnyoung-doon, farther south, where the main Irawadi is 1^ mile 
broad, the Pan-hlaing creek starts eastwards, and unites with 
the Hlaing to form the Rangoon river just north of the capital. 
The main river throws off another branch westwards past Pan-ta- 
naro, which turns southwards, and falls into the Bay of Bengal 
through the Pya-ma-law and Pyeng-tha-loo mouths; another 
eastwards, which reaches the coast as the To or China Ba-keer, and 
still another eastwards which debouches as the Pyarpoon. The 
great Irawadi itself, continuing southwards, pours its waters into 
the sea by two mouths, the east of which is Eyoon-toon, and 
the west retains the name Irawadi. In British Burma the chief 
tributaries are the Ma-htoon or Meng-doon, Ma-d^, and Thai- 
lai-dan on the right, and the Kye-ni, Bhuotlay, and Na-weng on 
the left bank. The catchment basin is estimated at 158,000 
square miles. The great flood discharge, which has led a few 
geographers to hold that the Tsangpo thus reaches the sea, is 
due to the melting snows and tremendous rainfall of Khamti. 
Colonel Yule calculates the basin of the Irawadi above the 
Mogoung to be the same as that of the Rhine at Cologne. 

§ 9. The TaiT-TOUNO (Sittang), the second of the great rivers 
of Burma, flows like a wounded snake from its source in the 
hills of Upper Burma, 130 miles above the British frontier- 
town of Toung-ngoo, for 350 miles south to the Gulf of Marta- 
ban, draining 22,000 square miles between the Pegu Roma 
and Poung-loung ranges. After passing the town of the same 
name in the Shwe-gyeen district the river broadens to 7 or 8 
miles, and then contracts rapidly into the shape of a funnel 
before it reaches the sea. Hence the extraordinary **bore." 
The great tidal wave of the Indian Ocean, joined by the tide 
from the south-east along the Tenasserim coast, sweeps up the 
narrow opening, with a foaming crest 20 feet high, and carries 
all before it. A heavy chop sea of sand and water following is 
as dangerous to boats as the curling wave. The bore is broken 
by a laige curve below Weng-ba-daw creek, through which there 



28 INDIA AS A WHOLE. [CHAP. U. 

is boat communication with Maulmein during the rainy seaaon. 
The chief feeders are — on the west the Tshwa, EhyouDg-tsouk, 
Kha-boung, Hpyoo, and Ewon; on the east the Kwe-thai, 
Thit-nan-tha, Kan-nee, Thouk-regat, Rouk-thwa-wa, Eyouk- 
gyee, Shwe-fi^eng, and Moot-ta-ma. 

The SaJ'ween (Nu or Lu Chiang) rises in a higher latitude 
than the Irawadi to its west It traverses the Shan and 
Knreng-nee States south of the Yunan Province of China, as 
a rocky and rapid stream in a narrow valley. It is 300 yards 
broad at a point 200 miles from the sea, where it crosses the 
British frontier. Thence south to the Thoung-yeng tributary- 
it is a navigable swift stream, between high and densely-wooded 
mountains, where it contracts to 30 yards, and 10 miles lower 
down is precipitated in great rapids over a ridge of rocks which 
forbids navigation. Ten miles lower are less dangerous rapids, 
and at the Kyo-dan it flows a clear and swift stream, in which 
teak timber rafts are formed. Farther south it receives the 
Ruon-za-leng from the west, then the Bheng-laing, Gyaing, and 
Attaran, after which it sends off the Dara-bouk or Martaban 
River, navigable to the sea, and flows past Maulmein for 30 
miles to the Bay of Bengal at Amherst. 

§ 10. The Indus, the Sindhu, or Abba Sin ("father of 
rivers "), or Atak of the Hindoos, and Sintaw of the Chinese, 
issues from the Sin-ka-bab, or lion's mouth, on the northern slope 
of the peak of Eailas, the snowy mountain north of Manasaraur 
Lake, which, to the Hindoos, is at once the centre of the world 
and the abode of the gods (22,000 feet) ; and from the south of 
which the Satlej tributary also rises. The Indus has a course to 
the Aral»an Sea of 1802 miles, and drains a basin estimated at 
372,700 square miles. From Eailas to Atak in the Panjab is 
860 miles, and thence to the sea through Sind is 942 miles. 
After flowing 160 miles from its source it receives the Ghar 
River on the right; enters Eashmeer, where it is crossed by the 
Earakoram trade-route ; passes Leh north-west at a level of 
11,728 feet, its source being 16,000 feet, and Skardoh in 
Little Tibet, where at 14,000 feet in depth it sweeps through a 
famous gorge ; suddenly turns southwards, receiving the Gilgeet ; 
rolls for 120 miles through the wilds of Eohistan to the Panjab 
border near Derbend, at the base of the Mahaban Mountain ; 
and after receiving the Eabul River from the north, reaches 
Atak, which gives it a name. Here, at 13 miles an hour in 
the hot season, it flies past the gloomy slate rocks, Jelalia and 
Eemalia^ in a narrow bed crossed by every invader, then opens 
out into a blue lake like that at Bagh Nilab, and skirts the Sulai- 



CHAP. U.] THE INDUS AND NARBADA. 29 

man, falling 20 feet per mile above Atak, 20 inches in the 110 
miles from Atak to Kalabagh, and 8 inches in the 350 miles 
thence to Mithankot Just above that place it receives the 
Pax^nad ("five rivers"), containing the accumulated waters 
of the Jhelam, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and SatleJ, which 
give the Punjab its name. These are described under that 
Province. The completed Indus, below the Paignad junction, 
has a breadth of from 2000 yards to several miles, accord- 
ing to the season. Hence from Eashmor to the sea it has 
formed Sind, as the Nile has produced Lower Egypt For 
580 miles it pursues a south-westerly course through Sind, and 
onpties itself into the Arabian Sea by many changing mouths 
over a line of coast 120 miles in extent The Eori or most 
southerly mouth separates Sind from Each; the H^jamrao 
mouth is now the largest and most navigable, having gradually 
superseded the EhedewarL 

§ 11. The West Peninsulas Rivebs. — The Narbada 
(Narmada), separating Hindustan proper from the Dekhan, 
flows between the Vindhya on the north and the Satpoora on 
the south for 801 miles, from Amarkantak Hill (3400 feet) in 
Rewah, the sacred name of the river, to the Gulf of Eambay, 
30 miles below the city of Broach. It drains a basin of 36,400 
square miles, and its maximum flood discharge is 2^ millions 
of cubic feet per second. Three miles from its source the river 
tumbles 70 feet over a basaltic cliff in the Eapilardhara Falls, 
and again in the Dood-dhara (" milk stream ") Fall. Winding 
-westwards through the Mandla district of the Central Province it 
forms reaches or pools, termed " dohs," the finest of which is be- 
tween the ruined palace of Ramnagar and Mandla town. Below 
this, nine miles south of Jabalpoor, the river has a fall of 30 
feet, known as the Dhooan-dhara (" misty shoot ") into the deep- 
cat channel, where it roUs between walls of marble rising finom 
50 to 80 feet, famous as the Marble Rocks. After passing 
through cotton plains, and the forest jungles of Nimar, sur- 
rounding the sacred island of Omkar Mandhata and leaving the 
shrines of Maheshwar and the ruins of Mandu behind, the river 
glides off the tableland where the Vindhya and Satpoora ranges 
almost meet and drops towards the rich plains of Goojarat, 
round Turan Mai Hill with its fine lake and through the gorge 
of the Haran Pal (" deer^s leap"). After this the main barrier 
occurs, with the Makrai whirlpool, before the river enters on the 
plain of Broach, where it becomes a broad muddy stream like the 
Hoogli The Narbada, more sacred in some Hindoo eyes than the 
Gkmges, the merit of which is to be transferred to it in 1895, is 



30 INDIA AS A WHOLE. [OHAP. n. 

frequented by pilgrims, who spend frY)m one to two years in walk- 
ing from the sea up one bank to the source and returning by the 
other bank. The drainage of the Vindhya plateau being to the 
north, to the Ganges valley, the Narbada is fed chiefly from 
the south. Its chief affluents on the left bank are the Makrar, 
Chakrar, Kharmer, Burhner, Baigar opposite Mandla, Teemar, 
Sondr between JabaJpoor and Narsingpoor, Sher Shakar, Doodhi^ 
Eorami, Machna, Tawa, Ga^jal, Ajnal, Deeb, and GohL On 
the right bank the principal affluents are the Balai, Hingna, 
Gaur east of Jabalpoor, Hiran, Jaomer, Karan, Hatni, and 
Aurim in Rewa Eantha. The Narbada drains but neither irri- 
gates nor is navigable above the plains of Broach, where it 
widens out to two miles in breadth, and is spanned by the 
Bombay and Baroda Railway. The Tapti flows west from 
Multai in the Bdtool district of the Central Province for 460 
miles to the Arabian Sea beyond Surat, at the once famous 
port of SuwalL It drains 30,000 square nules, and its hourly- 
discharge varies from 120,000,000 cubic yards in flood to 
25,000 in the driest season. On its banks are 108 shrines 
(tirths), of which Bodhan, 15 miles east of Surat, is most 
frequented. On leaving the open tract of B^tool the river 
plunges into a gorge of the Satpoora, formed by the Chikulda 
and the Ealibheet spurs. Just above Boorhanpoor the valley 
opens out into the plateau of Khandesh, whence it begins to 
descend to the plain of Goojarat, and passes through the Dang 
forests into the rich level of Surat, where it becomes a tidal 
river for 32 miles. In Khandesh it receives, on the left bank, 
the Pooma, Waghar, Goma, Bori, Panjhra, and Siva; on the 
right bank, the smaller Suki, Aver, Arunawati, Gomai, and 
Walha. In Surat it receives the Wareli from the western spurs 
of the Rajpeepla hills. Forty miles from its mouth are the 
Waghecha rapids, where the trap rock forms several islanda 
The river is not used for irrigation, nor for navigation above 
tidal limits. 

§ 12. The East Peninsulas Riyebs. — The MahancuU 
(" great river ") rises 25 miles south of Baipoor, where the hills 
divide the southern plateau of Chateesgarh from Bastar State, 
and flows for 520 miles northwards through the Central Province, 
and eastwards through the Eastern Ghats and Orissa to the 
Bay of Bengal at False Point. With a drainage basin of 43,800 
square miles, this river has the enormous discharge of 1,800,000 
cubic feet per second in flood, when its depth is increased by 
32 feet; in the hot season its discharge falls to 1125 feet 
The canal system by which the water is utilised is described 



CHAP. II.] THE MAHANADI AND GODAVARI. 31 

under Orissa. On reaching Seorinarain, the Btream — being fed 
by the Seonath, Jouk, and Hasdu — becomes a river, and from 
Malhar, where it turns eastwards, is navigable by boats. It is 
joined by the Hand and Eelu during the next 60 miles, when, at 
Padmapoor, it turns southwards, receives the lb from the north- 
east, struggles past Sambalpoor through masses of rocks, is joined 
by the Tel at Sonpoor, thence proceeds eastwards through rocks 
to Dholpoor, and rolls along unrestrained to the Eastern Ghats, 
which it pierces by a gorge 40 miles long, equal in beauty to 
that of the GodavarL It finally pours down on the Orissa 
delta, which it forms, through the narrow gorge of Nan^, 7 
miles west of Cuttak town. From the southern bank it throws 
off the Eatjoori, which divides into branches, and the Paika ; 
from its northern bank it sends off the Borapat and the Chitar- 
tala, while' the main river reaches the Bengal coast at False Point. 
The Ghodavari (Goda = the deity) crosses nearly the whole 
peninsula in a length of 898 miles south-east from Trimbak in 
Nasik, which is only 50 miles from the Indian Ocean. It has a 
catchment basin of 112,200 square miles. On leaving Nasik 
district this noble river forms the boundary between Ahmednagar 
district and Haidarabad State, receives the Pranheeta near 
Sironcha, where it enters the Central Province, which it divides 
from Haidarabad ; while it is fed on the left by the Indravati, 
Tal, and Savari. At the confluence with the last, the passage 
through the Eastern Ghats gives it the scenery which has caused 
it to be compared to the Rhine. Imprisoned for 20 miles be- 
tween hills, the water flows in a deep and narrow channel, with 
a current occasionally of boiling whirlpools. On emerging from 
the hills it passes R^jamahendri a placid but mighty stream ; 
reaches the head of the delta at Dowlaisharam, where a great 
current throws off numerous irrigation channels, and falls into the 
Bay of Bengal by the three principal mouths of Gautami Goda- 
vari at Point Eoringa near Coconada port, Vainateyan Godavari, 
and Yashishta Godavari, the most southern, which debouches 
at Point Narsapoor. Three-quarters of a million sterling has 
been vainly spent to open the upper navigation by removing 
or making canals round the three great barriers of rock at 
Doomagoodiem, 115 miles above Rigaraahendri; 68 miles 
higher up, below the confluence of the Pranheeta ; and on the 
Wardha, 75 miles above that. The Kistna or Erishna, from 
Mahableshwar, 40 miles east of the Arabian Sea, crosses the 
peninsula eastwards for 800 miles to the Bay of Bengal In- 
clnding its great tributaries, the Bheema and Toongarbhadra, 
it drains an area of 94,500 square miles. From its source (4500 



32 INDIA AS A WHOLEL [CHAP. n. 

• 

feet) it rapidly flows southwards and then eastwards, receiving 
the Yerla, Warna, Idgarga, Ghatprabha, and Malprabha^ when it 
enters Haidarabad State, is joined by the Bheema from Ahmed- 
nagar and Poona, and the Toonga-bhadra from Mysore, Bellary, 
and Kamool; forms the bomidary between Haidarabad and 
Madras, and from the Eastern Ghats at Bezwara turns south- 
wards for 80 miles through the Kistna district, which it has 
formed and irrigates, and reaches the Bay of Bengal by two 
mouths, Masulipatam being the chief port. The Ksvari 
(Cauvery), rising farther south in Coorg, crosses the peninsula 
eastwards for 475 miles, draining an area of 28,000 square 
miles, and reaches the Bay of Bengal by two mouths in Taigore 
district. From Coorg it enters Mysore State by a narrow 
gorge, where it is tapped by twelve canals, forms the islands 
of Seringapatam and Shivasamoodram with famous falls, passes 
into Madras between Coimbatore and Salem, sweeps past Trichi- 
nopoly rock and at the island of Srirangam breaks into streams 
which enclose the fertile delta of Tanjore — the Coleroon on the 
north and the main river on the south. Negapatam and the 
French Karikal are roadsteads off the delta. From Srirangam, 
where the flood discharge is 472,000 cubic feet a second, a 
Hindoo dam made in the 4th century a.d. irrigated the countiy. 
Sir A. Cotton made a similar weir across the Coleroon, so that 
the two rivers irrigate 835,000 acres. 

*§ 13. Waterfalls. — The great rivers of India are remark- 
able for falls of grandeur and beauty, either as they issue from 
the mountain ranges in which they rise, or are precipitated 
from the edge of the plateaux on the plains below. The most 
gigantic are the gorges of the Indus and the Satl^ in the 
Himalaya ; the most beautiful, those of the Mahanadi and 
Godavari as they pierce the Eastern Ghats. Of water&llsy 
popularly so called, the most remarkable is the Jog or Four 
Falls of Ghersoppa^ formed by the Sharavatl River (*' arrow 
bom "), as it hurls itself down the western face of the Mysore 
plateau, a sheer descent of 960 feet, on its way to the Arabian 
Sea at Honavar in North Kanara district, 30 miles distant. 
Next in interest are the Shivasamoodraxu Falls of the 
Kavari (**8eaof Shiva"), by which the river descends 300 
feet, passing from Mysore State to Coimbatore district The 
Gokak Falls of the Ghhatprabha River, as it hurries through 
a picturesque gorge from its source in the Gokak flank of the 
Western Ghats inBelgaum district on to the plateau of theDekhan 
to join the Kistna, present the spectacle of 100,000 cubic feet 
of water (in July) precipitated 178 feet into the fissure below, 



CHAP. II.] LAKES OF TIBETO-HIMALAYA. 33 

with a thundering sound heard several miles off. The Paikara 
riTcr falls over the edge of the Neelgiri hills. The Falls of 
the Tensk, fiumliar to visitors of the Mahableshwar sanitarium 
in the Western Ghats, descend 500 feet over a steep cliff, form- 
ing a scene of great beauty. The Mawsmai, at Cherrapoonjee, 
has a sheer ML of 1800 feet The S. Tons falls 200 feet near 
Ghacbai in Booudelkhand. As the mountainous districts and 
upper waters of the rivers of India come to be opened up, 
almost every elevated district will be found to reveal scenery 
worthy of permanent description. 

§ 14. Lakes (Tal) are few in India proper, even in the 
In<£an Himalaya, in comparison with the area. But tliey are 
numerous and large in the Tibeto- Himalaya, and in Tibet, 
north of the 30th parallel of latitude and between the 82d and 
92d meridians east, where the tableland between the Indian and 
Toorkish Watersheds has no escape, yet known, for its waters. 
MaTiaBaraiir(l 5,000 feet), the source of the Satlej, and Rakhas 
Tal (Ravana-hrada) lie near the Kailas peak, from which the 
Indus and the Brahmapootra drain the waters of the Northern 
Himalaya into the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal re- 
spectively. On the Pamir Steppe, or " roof of the world," is 
the great Pamir Lake, named Victoria (13,900 feet) by 
Captain Wood, who in 1838 found it 14 miles long and 1 
broad, and more accurately described by Captain Trotter in 
1874. The Oxus issues from its western end, there draining 
the whole Pamir ; the Aksu, from the Little Pamir Lake, 
receives the eastern drainage. Panirkonsr (13,936 feet), south- 
east of the Earakoram division of the Himalaya, is a series of 
saline lakes extending for 100 miles ; the lowest is 40 miles 
long: Sixty miles east of Manasaraur, from the Mariam-la or 
pass, where the comparatively low saddle which separates the 
valley of the Satlej from that of the Brahmapootra connects the 
Northern and Central Himalaya, native explorers sent by the 
Imperial Survey have recently visited and partially described 
the following : — PeJti, in the east of the central range first visited 
by Maiming in 181 1, the remarkable ring-lake nearly encircling a 
great central Uland, separated from the upper Brahmapootra 
valley by the Khamba-la spur ; Ohoziito-donfir» farther west 
and north of the Arun river basin, a lake about 20 miles long 
and 16 broad (14,700 feet altitude) ; Dalfiru-chu (15,000 feet), 
seen but not visited by the native surveyors, the source of 
the Dingri River; Tengri-nor, near Lhasa, reached by the 
native surve3ror in 1872 by crossing the Khamba-la Pass, 60 
miles long by from 16 to 25 broad, with large islands, and at 

D 



34 INDIA AS A WHOLE. [OSAP. II. 

15,200 feet level; farther north is Bul-oho, 6 miles long by 5 
broad, where borax is found ; also Koko-nor (" blue sea "). 

In the Southern Himalaya, the lakes best known are those 
of Eashmeer, especially Sreena^rar, Manaflhal, the most beau- 
tiful, and Woolar, the largest ; the Konsa Na« on the top of 
the Peer Panjal range ; Naini Tal, the chief sanitarium of the 
North-Westem Province ; and the Six Lakee of EUkkim on the 
top of a range (from 12,000 to 15,000 feet), with Ghumalhari's 
snowy cone behind. Almost every district in well -watered 
Provinces like Bengal has its lake-swamps or jheels, and those in 
more hilly tracts, their artificial lakes (talao) and vast tanks or 
reservoirs made by embanking a ravine. Many of these are of 
exquisite beauty, and all are the sources of irrigation and pre- 
servation against drought. Of salt lakes the most remarkable 
are Sambhar in Rigpootana and Lonar in Berar. On Mount 
Aboo sanitarium is the Nakhi Talao, or gem lake ; at the 
deserted capital of the same name is the little Amber Ijaka 
In Ahmedabad the Nal covers 49 square miles with brackish 
water. In Bombay the Bann of Kaoh is an inland lake of 
8000 square miles in the dry season, and an arm of the sea dur- 
ing the rainy season, when it unites the Gulfs of Each and 
Eambay. Near Sehwan, on the right bank of the Indus, is the 
Manohax Lake, which covers 160 square miles in the season 
of inundation. In British Burma are four lakes or lagoons — 
Kandangyee {** royal lake ") near Rangoon, Moo in Henzada 
district, Lahfiryin, and BcusseixL Besides these, Back- 
waters, or salt lakes formed by sand-spits, run along large 
portions of the two coasts. On the east are the Chilka^ 
Kolar, and Pulikat Lakes ; on the west, running up from 
Cape Comorin, are the Travankor, Cochin, and Malabar back- 
waters. Many of these are connected by canals, and form 
valuable lines of communication, while their hafbours are the 
centres of a prosperous fishing population. 

§ 15. Canals. — Since 1823, and especially since the great 
north-west famine of 1833, the Crovernment of India has spent 
upwards of twenty millions sterling on canals, chiefly for irri- 
gation, and partly for navigation, which are officially estimated 
to yield now about 5J per cent a year on the outlay, in the 
proportion of £900,000 from "productive" works for which 
the capital was borrowed, and £200,000 on former works con- 
structed from ordinary revenue. In Bengal and Bombay Pro- 
vinces the irrigation works, especially the Orissa and Son 
Canals, cause a heavy loss. In the North-Westem, Pa^jab, and 
Madras Provinces, the canals are estimated to yield an annual 



CHAP. U.] OANAI£ AND FOBESTS. 35 

sarplus of £150,000 above 4^ per cent The most profit- 
able works are those in Madras and the North -West, first 
constmcted by the old native rulers, and opened out and im- 
proved by British engineers. The Government's first enterprise 
was in 1823, when it restored the Firoz and Delhi canals, and 
afterwards developed the "Western and Eastern Jumna 
Oanals. In 1836, the greatest of all irrigation works, the 
Qre&t Ghanses Oanal, was surveyed, in 1848 was begun, 
and in 1854 was opened by Lord Dalhousie, from Hard war at 
the foot of the Siwaliks to Cawnpoor. Since that time it has 
been largely improved and extended, so that it has protected an 
extensive area from successive dearths like that of 1861, and 
has sent food to other tracts stricken with drought. All the prin- 
cipal irrigation channels and reservoirs will be found described 
under their respective Provinces, from the Son and MaJianadi 
in the Behar and Orissa divisions of Bengal ; from the SatleJ 
at Roopar, the Ravi or Bari Doab at Madhoopoor, and the 
Sirhind Cemal just opened, with a navigable length of 178 
miles, and 533 with branches, in the Panjab ; from the Indus 
in Sind ; from the Naxbada and Tapti in Bombay ; from the 
Ijower Qoda^aoi, Kistna» Pennar, Kavari, and Coleroon 
in Madras ; from the Toonffha-bhadra and Upper Tapti 
and Kistna in the Dekhan plateau. The Irrigation Depart- 
ment maintains many thousand miles of embankments, especially 
along the lower course of the Bengal and Burma rivers, to pro- 
tect the densely-peopled and cultivated tracts from inundation. 
The total canal mileage of India is not under 13,000, besides a 
vast network of distributing channels. Of 200 millions of acres 
usually under cultivation in India, 30 .millions are protected by 
irrigation — 8 millions from canals and reservoirs, 12 millions 
from weUs, and the residue from less permanent sources. 

§ 16. Forests. — In 1846 the firot attempt at forest con- 
servancy was made in Bombay, to secure supplies of Malabar 
teak for the dockyard. In 1856 Dr. Cleghom organised forest 
administration in Madras, and Dr. Brandis in the recently- 
conquered Pegu. In 1864 the success of their efforts led to the 
formation by the Government of India of a Forest Department 
under an Inspector-General. A series of Forest Acts, Regula- 
tions and Rules, from 1865 to 1878, has given India as perfect 
a system of forestry as any in Europe, by which 16,000 (to rise 
to 20,000) square miles — area of Switzerland — excluding the 
Native States, and Madras and Bombay, are strictly reserved 
and demarcated, at an annual cost to the State of nearly half a 
million sterling, but yielding a net surplus revenue of above a 



36 INDIA AS A WHOLE. [CHAP. U. 

quarter of a million. Bombay has 7771 miles of resenred 
forests, and Madras has 806. In the Provinces, as well as 
in the States, there is, besides, a very laige extent of pri- 
vate forest. Of Assam only 6750 square miles are under 
cultivation; there are 8000 square miles of State forests, of 
which 2015 have been reserved and another 1000 will yet be 
demarcated. But in the one district of Gk>alpara the laige 
native landholders own 520 square miles of forests, whOe in the 
chief tea-producing districts of Oaohar, Seebsafirar, and Lak- 
hlmpoor, the European tea-planters hold 550 square miles of 
forest land. In British Burma only 5500 are cultivated out 
of 87,220 square miles. The rest is largely forest and grass land, 
of which 1600 has been demarcated, and 2000 more will be 
reserved. In the other Provinces the forest area is less, but 
there is great variety in their conditions. The area of reserved 
forests in Bensral Province is above 3000 square miles ; in 
the North- Western Province with Oudh, 3300 ; in the 
Panjab, above 800 ; in the Central Province, 2600 ; in 
Ooorer, 230; in AJmer, 101; in Berar, 1400; and in 
Mysore State, 454. In India the aim and the results of 
forest conservancy are not only climatic and conmiercial, but to 
mitigate the disastrous effects of seasons of drought and famine. 
Roads and railways facilitate the removal of grain, but cat^e- 
fodder cannot be so distributed to the same extent ; it must 
either be produced on the spot, or the cattle must be driven 
where it is available To meet the want of grass, and the con- 
sequent mortality among cattle which attends all famines, is a 
chief object of the Forest Department in planting 100 square 
miles of the bare hills of Ajmer-Merwara, «.(/., with the result of 
improving the water-supply in tanks and wells. Village grass- 
preserves are an old Hindoo institution, especially in Bedpoo- 
tana States, like Bhartpoor, Eishengarh, and Mewar, where 
the cattle were saved in the famine of 1867-8, while those of 
Ajmer died The department consists of 93 (to rise to 100) 
conservators, and 97 native rangers (to rise to 600), trained in 
the Forest School at Dehra Doon. 

§ 17. Tbees of India. — There are about 2000 species of 
indigenous trees in India ; there are 40 in Great Britain. Those 
are most important which are found in large quantities, and the 
timber of which is most durable in a tropical climate. Of these 
Dr. Brandis, the first Inspector-General, names the following : — 

(a) The Deodar {Cedraa deodara\ found on the North- West Hima- 
laya, between 6000 and 9500 feet, mixed with other pines and several 
species of oaka 






CHAl'. II.] PRINCIPAL TREES. 37 

(b) The Sissoo {Dalbergia sissoo), a gregarious tree, found along the 
riTCTS which issue from the Himalaya, firinging their banks and extend- 
ing far up into the hills to 3000 feet, and forming large forests along 
the rivers outside the hills. It is one of the best woo£ in India, of a 
rich brown colour, strong, durable, useful for furniture, carriage- 
building, and other purposes. 

(c) The Khair {Actieia eatechu)^ a gregarious and most useful tree, 
of very wide distribution, common in Northern India, often associated 
with sissoo in the valleys of the rivers which issue from the Himalaya, 
and also foimd in the drier districts of British Burma, both on low 
ground and on the hlQs. The red heart-wood is extremely durable, 
and is used for house-posts and building generally. The heart-wood 
is also used on a very large scale for tne manufacture of Cutch or 
Catechu, a most valuable tanning material, which is an extract made 
by simmering chips of the wood in water, and by boiling down the 
dark-coloured fluid into a hard shining black mass, the Catechu of 
commerce. 

(d) The Sal (Shorea robusta)y a remarkably gregarious tree, in leaf 
nearly throughout the year, with great powers of reproduction. The 
heart- wood is hard, heavy, and durable ; it is used extensively for 
building and for railway-sleepers tliroughout Northern and a great 
part of Central India. The sal forms extensive forests, almost pure, 
both at the foot of the Himalaya and on the hills of Central India, 
stretching from the Ganges in Bengal to the sandstone hills of Pach- 
marhi in the Central Province. 

(«) The Teak (TedoTia grandis)^ a deciduous tree, with large rough 
leaves, attaining a great size. This, the most important of the Indian 
timber trees, is found in mixed forests, associated with bamboos and a 

great variety of other trees, over the whole of Southern India and in 
orma, extending in Central India and in the interior of the Trans- 
Gangetic Peninsula to north latitude 26^ The timber of teak is 
priz^ more in India than that of any other trees, and forms an im- 
portant article of export to Europe and America from the Burma 
ports. 

(/) The Blackwood {Dalbergia UUifolia), an evergreen tree, with 
handsome dark-coloured heart-wood, much prized for furniture, is 
found in mixed forests all along the Western Ghats, where it attains a 
large size. The tree is also found in other parts of India, but does not 
there attain any large size. The blackwood or rosewood belongs to 
the same genus as the sissoo of Northern India, but its wood is darker 
coloured and more heavy. 

ig) The Babool or Kikar {Acaeia AraMca), a gregarious tree, mth 
a hard and heavy heart-wood, which forms extensive forests along the 
Indus in Sind, where the life of the tree is maintained in an arid 
climate by the annual overflow of the river. It also forms extensive 
forests alone the rivers and on stretches of low laud in the dry region 
of the Dekhan, and is extensively cultivated in many districts of 
India, extending north to the foot of the Himalaya in the Panjab. 

{h) The Toon (Cedrela Toona)^ a fast-growing tree, with bushy 
foliage and light red-coloured woo<l, somewhat resembling mahogany, 
nowhere sregarious, but found scattered on rich moist soil in the outer 
valleys of the Korth-West Himalaya and in Burma. 

(t) The India- Rubber {Fieus elastica), a huge evergreen tree of the 
fig tribe, with thick leathery shining leaves, which sends numerous 
aerial roots down to the ground from its branches. The rubber or 



38 INDIA AS A WHOLE. [OHAP. II. 

caoutchouc is a white milk which exudes from cuts made in the stem 
and roots. The tree is indigenous in the moist forests of Assam and 
Eastern Bengal, but does not extend south further than 24'* north 
latitude. 

(k) The Sandal {Santalum album) ^ a small evergreen tree, with 
elegant hanging branches and small black berries, valuable on account 
of the exceedingly fragrant heart-wood, which is used for carving and 
incense, and is largely exported to China. The tree grows in the drier 
regions of Southern India, generally in open forests or on waste lands, 
and commonly in hedge-rows and on fields. Its chief habitat is 
Mysore State and the adjoining Madras districts, where it is held to be 
a royal tree, which may be cut only by nermission of Government. 

Teak is planted on a large scale in nurma, where a plan has been 
followed with j^eat success, known under the name of toungya teak 
plantations. The Earengs and other tribes practise a shifting kind of 
cultivation, by cutting and burning the forest, and raising one or two 
crops in the ashes. On the clearances thus made, and together with 
the rice which is the chief crop raised, the teak seed is sown, and the 
result is a complete crop of that valuable tree, provided the bamboos, 
the coppice-shoots of other trees, grass, and herbs are cleared sufficiently. 
For this is the ereat difficulty in all sowing and planting operations in 
the moister ana tropical parts of India, that the growtn of bamboos 
and other trees is so luxuriant that the teak or other kinds planted 
get choked. On the system of these towiurya plantations, a toUil area 
of 2515 acres had been planted up to the 1st April 1880, at a cost, on 
an average, of Rs. 9*14, or about 18 shillings an acre ; and the planta- 
tions on this system are now being extended annually on a large scale 
in the forests of British Burma. Extensive plantations of india-rubber 
have been made in Assam. Broad lines are cleared through the forest, 
and the seedlings are planted out on raised mounds of earth. This 
plan has succeeded admirably. 

Foreign tre^s. — Some trees of Southern Europe, such as the sweet 
chestnut, the Spanish olive and the Carob (CercUonia siliqua\ have been 
introduced in Northern India ; and of these, the sweet chestnut has 
succeeded remarkably well in certain situations in the North -West 
Himalaya. From South America the Pithecolobium Saman has lately 
been introduced, with great success, in the tropical provinces of India, 
and particularly in the moister districts, its extreme rapidity of growth 
being its chief recommendation. The mahogany has been brought 
from the West Indies, and is cultivated in tne Bengal and Burma 
forests, where it thrives well. The mahogany grown near Calcutta 
yields timber equal to that of the American tree. Several of the South 
American caoutchouc trees are also cultivated by way of experiment in 
Malabar and the southern districts of Burma, where the climate is 
favourable. Of the different species of cinchoua extensive plantations 
have been made on the Neelgiris and in Sikkim. Of fruit trees a large 
number have come from America, such as the guava and custard apple. 
From Africa the Baobab {Adainaonia digitala) is an old introduction, 
and large specimens of this remarkable tree are found here and there 
near villages and Muhammadan shrines. The Tamarind tree (TVifnar- 
indus Indian^ which is commonly cultivated on account of its fruit, is 
also probably from Africa. Of forest trees, the most important intro- 
ductions have been made from Australia. Forests raised by planting, 
within the last thirtv years, of the Eucalyptus globulus or Blue Gum, 
cover large areas on the Neelgiris, and several species oi Acacia also have 



CHAP. II.] THE RAILWAYS. 39 

been extensively planted. Other species of Eucalyptus have been 
found to thrive in the plains of Northern India and in the North- West 
Himalaya. Some of the more important articles produced are these : — 
CamUdumc, from the /Vcu9 elastica; Sh^ll-lac andLac-dyef made by the lac 
insect, which lives on a ereat variety of trees, and which is propagated 
artificially on a large scdie in certain districts of the Central Province ; 
Sandalwood ; Culch, the extract made from the heart-wood of Jicacia 
cateehu; and Myrobalanay the dried fruit of several species of Termin- 
alia, particularly of Terminalia ehebulaf a most valuable article for 
tanning, luge quantities of which are exported to Europe and America. 

§ 18. Railways. — In thirty years, since the first sod of an 
Indian railway was cut, the total mileage has risen to about 
10,000, and other 2000 miles are under survey or construction. 
Lord Dalhousie planned the trunk system of strategic and com- 
mercial lines to connect Calcutta with Bombay and Lahore, 
Bombay with Madras, and Madras with the Malabar coast by 
means of companies to whom 5 per cent interest was guaranteed. 
On the approaching completion of these main lines, which are 
on the 5 1 feet gauge, the Crovemment itself entered on the con- 
struction of feeders and extensions on the narrow (metre) gauge, 
and exercised its right of purchasing the guaranteed East Indian 
line, which has been most profitably worked as a State Railway 
since 1880. Of the projected lines the most important is one 
of 366 miles to connect the East Indian line at Seetarampoor 
coal-fields, and pass through Chutia Nagpoor by Sambalpoor 
and the Mahanaidi valley to the Chateesgarh line, so as to give 
Calcutta the shortest and most direct communication possible 
with Bombay by Nagpoor. This line may also be continued 
east to the Madras port of Bimlipatam, down the Eastern 
Ghats. The capital outlay to the beginning of 1882-83 was 
£134,200,581. In 1881 the net revenue amounted to 
£6,952,714, or £5 : 3s. per cent, although many of the lines 
were immature. The efiect is seen on the foreign trade, 
which has risen from an average of £11,000,000 imports before 
1854 to £52,000,000, and from £19,000,000 exports to 
£70,000,000. Since 1868 the weight of goods has increased 
from 3,000,000 tons to 13,211,082, and the number of pass- 
engers, chiefly third class, from 16,000,000 to 52,271,133 in 
1881. Estimating the cost of transport by rail at one-fourth of 
that by cart, it is calculated that India saves £45,000,000 a 
year. The military value of the lines may be imagined, now 
that Peshawar is connected with Calcutta, and Sibi (for Quetta 
and Kandahar) with Karachi and the whole Sind and Panjab 
base. The progress of railway construction is thus seen : — 



40 



INDIA AS A WHOLE. 



[chap. II. 



1871. 


Ist Jan. 
1882. 


Railways. 


Total 

MUei«e 

sanctimied 


Milea. 


Miles. 


Guaranteed. 


Miles. 


1,503^ 


.^_ 


East Indian .... 


^_ 


157 


158} 
546} 


Eastern Bengal 


158} 


42 


Oudb and Rohilkand . 


6864 


553} 
113 


553} ( 
109} 1 


Sind, Panjab and Delhi 


668 


804| 


8604 


Madras. . . . . 


8604 


167 ( 
18} t 


653i 


South Indian .... 


653i 


l,273i 


1,288 


Great Indian Peninsula 


1.288 


934| 


421 i 


Bombay, Baroda and Central India 
Total Guaranteed Railways 
State and Arsisted. 


4214 


5,008} 


4,5924 


4,8334 






1 

1 


___ 


1,5044 


East Indian .... 


1,5104 


28 


28 


Calcutta and South-Eastem . 


564 


27J 


274 


Nalhati .... 


274 




266i 


Northern Bensal . • . 
Darjeeling — ^Hiinalaya 


800 


— 


48} 


48} 


— _ 


85 


Tirhoot .... 


249 




57 


Patna— Gaya .... 


147 


— 


854} 


Panjab Northern 


4254 




653 


Indus Valley and Kandahar . 


6544 




53 


Muttra — Hathras — Achnera . 


53 




86 


Cawupoor and Farukhabad 


196 




12 


Dildamargar — Ghazipoor 


12 


^^ 


1,115} 
74} 


RaJDootana — Malwa 
Sindia . 




1.2214 
74} 


— 


1921 


Bhaunagar— Gondal , 




1924 




22i 


Patri . 




224 


— 


604 


Gaekwar of Baroda's 




604 


8 


8 


Ehamgaon 




8 


6 


6 


Amraoti 




6 


— 


46i 


WardhaCoal . 




464 




121 


Nizam's 




121 


—- . 


145} 


Dhond — Mammad 




145} 
263} 


— 


98 


Nagpoor and Chateesghar 


— 


161 


Rangoon and Irawadi Valley • 


208 


— 


— 


Rangoon and Tsit-toung Valley 


1684 


— 


58 


Mysore .... 


85} 


— 


— 


Bhopal .... 


62 






Amritsar — Pathankot . 
Assam, Bengal Central, Baidyanath 
— Deogarh, Bareilly — Ranibagh, and 


65 


694 


— 


Neelgiri .... 
Total State Railways 


294 


5,283 


7,067} 


5,077A 


9,875i 


Total Guaranteed and 


State Railways 


11,9014 



CH^P. IL] 



HABBOURS OF SOUTH ASIA. 



41 



§ 19. Habbours. — The coast of India proper extends from 
Baa Moari or Cape Monze, between Baloochistan and Sind, 
to Point Victoria south of Tenasserim, 9185 miles, includ- 
ing the coast-line of islands. But for all commercial and 
political purposes the coast of Western and Southern Asia, 
influenced by India, extends from Port Said on the Mediter- 
ranean to Singapore. Historically, Egypt was within the limits 
of the East India Company on the north-west, as Cape Town 
was on the south-west, places to which its troops were sent, and 
at which its officials enjoyed Indian pay and allowances. The 
construction and the political history of the Suez Canal follow- 
ing the Mutiny of 1857, and succeeded by the War of September 
1882, haye strengthened the connection. We proceed to give 
in order all the harbours and roadsteads from Port Said to 
Singapore touched at by regular steamers along the west and 
south coasts of Asia. 



No. Harbonn. MQes. 

Port Said to— 

1. Suez .... 88 

2. Jeddah ... 470 

3. Hodeida . .230 

4. Aden . . .280 

5. MakolLi . . 1200 

6. Karachi . .636 

7. Muscat . . . 450 

8. Bunder Abbas . 250 

9. Linga . .105 

10. Boshiie ... 815 

11. Basrah ... 205 

12. Baghdad ... 600 

Cfocut cf India and Ceylon. 

Karachi to — 

13. Bombay ... 500 

14. Ratnagiri ... 123 

15. Vingorla ... 76 

16. Goa ... 28 

17. Karwar ... 48 

18. Maogalore . . . 132 

19. Cannanore ... 77 

20. TeUchcri ... 13 

21. Waddagiri ... 13 

22. CaUcnt ... 26 

23. Beypoor ... 11 

24. Narakal ... 80 

25. Cochin ... 10 

26. AUeppi ... 34 

27. Qolkc\it\(CapeComorin) 98 

28. Tuticorin . . .106 

29. Colombo . . .149 



Ko. Harboan. Mfles. 

30. Galle .... 69 

31. Negapatam 440 

32. Cuddalore ... 58 

33. Pondicheri . . . 17 

34. Madras ... 79 
36. Ypcrpollium . . 194 

36. MasQiipatam . . 80 

37. CoconiMa . . . 100 

38. Vizagapatam . . 74 

39. Bimlipat4un 17 

40. Gopalpoor (also Bai-wa) 112 

41. Ganjam ... 16 

42. Pooree ... 51 

43. False Point (also Chandbali) 80 

44. Calcutto . . .216 

Total, Bombay to Calcutta 2626 
Calcutta to — 

45. Chittagong. 876 

46. Akyab ... 190 

47. KyoukPhyoo . 76 

48. Sandoway . .119 

49. Bassein ... 247 

50. Baneoon . . 252 

51. Maiumein . . .147 

52. Tavoy ... 207 

53. Mergui ... 90 

54. Pakchan . . . 27i 

55. Kopah ... 85 

56. Junkseylon . . .161 

57. Penang ... 200 

58. Malacca ... 265 

59. Singapore . . .180 



42 INDIA AS A WHOLE. [chap. II. 

From London to Calcutta, by Gibraltar, Malta, and the 
Canal, is 8059 miles ; from London to Karachi is 6283 miles, 
to Bombay, 6274 ; from London to Brisbane, the capital of 
Queensland, by Batavia, is 12,811 miles. From Port Said, 
which is 3215 miles from London, the distance to Calcutta, 
touching at Suez {Arab. Siwaz = Sebaste), Aden, and Colombo 
only, is 4879 miles ; to Singapore, 6123. 

§ 20. Tides. — Since 1876 the Imperial Surrey of India 
has made a systematic record of tidal phenomena en the Indian 
coasts by means of self-registering tide-gauges, aneroid baro- 
meters, and anemometers, at Aden, Karachi, Bombay, Elarwar, 
Beypoor, Paumban, Madbras, Yizagapatam, False Point, Ran- 
goon, Elephant Point, Amherst, Maulmein, and Port Blair ; at 
Bhaunagar and Kegapatam; and at Kidderpoor, Diamond Har- 
bour, and Dublat on Sagar Island in the Hoogli River. The 
India Office tide-predicting machine, from the designs of Sir 
William Thomson, is employed in determining predictions of 
future tides from the constants calculated from the registration 
of past tides extending over twenty-five years. By spirit- 
levelling operations over a line of 730 miles in length, connect- 
ing the tidal stations at Madras and Bombay, the mean sea- 
level has been determined. The officially published tide tables 
of 1882 embrace fifteen ports. The tidal wave strikes Western 
India from the west at right angles to the mean direction of 
the shore line, so that there is very little difference in the 
times of high water along the whole length of coast except at 
such indentations as the Gulfs of Kambay and Kach. 

§ 21. Lighthouses. — The Marine Survey, since the abolition 
of the Indian Navy, has charge of the lighthouses and light- 
vessels of British India. Including those on the Red Sea and 
coast of Arabia^ there are more than a hundred from Suez to 
Singapore. 



[Tables. 



CHAP. II.] LIQHTHOnSES, SUEZ TO BOMBAY. 



43 



Red Sea. 



No. 



Name of light 



Saez . 



la Suez . 
2 Zafarana 



S 
4 

5 
6 



Ras Gharib 
Aahiafi 

The Brothers 
Daedalus Shoal 



7 I Ferim Island 



Location. 



North shore of Suez 
Bay, N.N.W. i W., 
1} mile from soutli 
dock head, Port 
Ibrahim. 

Light-Ycssel ofif New- 
port Rock. 

On the Point . 

On the Cape 

N.E. part of Ashrafi 
Recr, Jubal Strait 

On North Island 

On Shoal, 200 yards 
within S.E. extreme. 

Half a mile S.W. of 
Obstruction Point. 



lAt.N. 



29** 67' 85" 



29 53 

29 6 29 
28 20 52 
27 47 21 

26 18 50 
24 55 30 

12 38 59 



Long. E. 



32" 32^ 10'' 



32 32 45 

32 39 40 

33 6 30 

33 42 27 

34 50 30 

35 51 30 

43 25 6 



South Coast op Ababia, and Gulf of Aden. 



8 ^ 
9 



9aj 



• Aden . 



Berbereh 



f Ras Marshigh, S.E. 

I part of Cape. 

J Light - vessel, south 
side of channel, 
inner harbour, 
moored in 18 feet. 
South shore of port 
near high - water 
mark. 



12 44 50 
12 46 50 

10 25 



45 2 35 
44 57 45 

44 59 30 



India, West Coast — Bombay Pbovince. 



10 



11 
11a 



lib 



12 



Karachi (Indus 
River) 

Gulf of Each— 
Mandvee 
Toona . 



Roji 



Beyt . 



Adjoining S.W. bas- 
tion of Manora Fort ; 
W. side of entrance. 

S. W. bastion of Fort 

At the edge of the 
mangrove swamp, 
south of Tekra 
Island. 

On Roji temple, N.E. 
part of Roji Island, 
at mouth of Nowa- 
naga Creek. 

The highest, and 
nearly the central, 
part of Sainia 
Isluid. 



24 47 21 



22 49 41 
22 55 30 



22 82 50 



22 29 



66 58 15 



69 20 19 

70 7 5 



70 1 30 



69 4 30 



44 



INDIA AS A WHOLE. 



[OHAP. II. 



Indi^, West Coast —Bombay Province {cotUinued), 



No. 
13 


Name of light. 


Location. 


lAt. N. 


1 
Long. E. 


Dwarka 


On the cliffs of the 


22"* 14' 0" 


68'5r 0" 






mainland, west of 










the town, and 350 










feet within the high- 










water line. 






14 


Porebandar 


On a tower at the water 
gate of the town 
wall. 


21 87 10 


69 85 

• 


15 


Mangarol . 


On the highest square 
house, 400 yards 
from landing place. 

On pier head, west 
side of harbour. 


21 6 


70 6 SO 


16 


Verawal . 


20 58 30 


70 22 












GiilfofKambay— 








17 


Jafrabad 


Mouth of creek, south 
side. 


20 51 30 


71 23 30 


18 


Mowa 


On the terrace roofing 
of the light-keeper's 
residence, situated 
on a prominent cliff 
near the entrance 
of Mowa Creek. 


21 2 21 


71 49 30 


18a 


Goapnath 


On a hillock 240 yards 
inshore of Goapnath 

Poinf 


21 11 35 


72 6 


19 


Perim 


On the ruins of an 
old bastion on the 
island. 


21 85 54 


72 20 37 


20 


Gogo or Gogah 


On the beach near the 
Custom House. 


21 40 30 


72 16 


21 


Bhawanagar . 


On the south shore of 
the creek. 


21 46 40 


72 12 15 


22 


Ehunbandar . 


4i miles S. by K of 
the entrance to 
Dholera Creek, and 
westward of the 
Bore Bocks. 


22 10 7 


72 19 10 


23 


Deojucan or 
Tankari 


North shore, mouth 


21 55 


72 80 80 




of Dhadhar Biver. 






24 


Bhagwadandi . 


On the low point of 
Dandi Creek en- 
trance. 


21 19 42 


72 85 


25 


Tapti 


Near Yanx's tomb, on 
north shore, indi- 
cating entrance to 
the Burat River. 


21 5 20 


72 87 80 


26 


Bulsar . 


Mouth of the Bulsar 
or Oranga River. 


20 87 80 


72 53 



CHAP. IL] LIOHTHOUSES, BOMBAY TO CEYLON. 



45 



Ikdia, West Coast — Bombay Province {continued). 



No. 



Name of light 



Location. 



Lat N. 



27 



28 



29 



80 
31 
32 

33 



34 

34a 

84b 
36 
86 
87 

88 
89 
40 



Bombay — 
Outer light- 
yessel 

Ixmer light- 
vessel 

Prongs . 



Dolphin 
Tourbah 
Eennery or 
Kinliari 
Batnsgiri . 



BajapoT or Jaita- 
por 



'Malwan 



Yingorla Rocks or 
Bornt Islands 

Yingorla . 



Goa(Portagaese) 



Oyster Bock or 
Carwar (Seda- 
shigar Bay) 

Konay, near Beit- 
knl Cove (Ear- 
war Bay) 

Coompta . 



In 6 fathoms H miles 
8.S.W. from Ko- 
laba Point. 

A qnarter of a mile 
».£. i E. from 
Sunk Itock. 

On 8. W. portion of reef 
extenoing south- 
ward from Eolaba. 

On the rock 

Custom House Pier . 

On the highest part 
of the island. 

On the south bastion 
and highest of the 
Fort. 

On the edge of the cliff 
at the south point 
of lUjapur Bay. 

Melundi Harbour. On 
the beach, 230 yards 
north of a white 
stone cross. 

Light-boat, to south- 
east of rock at ent- 
rance to the harbour. 

On the summit of the 
outer or western- 
most rock. 

On Yingorla Point, 1 
mile west of the 
town. 

Aguada Fort, on hill 
above landing place, 
about a mile from 
outer port 

On the summit of the 
Oyster Bock. 

' Exhibited from the 
Port Office. 

Conical Hill at mouth 

of creek, about IJ 

' mile from the town. 



18' 49' 20" 
18 53 12 
18 52 40 

18 54 46 

19 1 45 
18 42 8 

16 59 10 
16 36 10 
16 2 55 



15 53 16 
15 51 14 
15 29 26 

14 49 25 
14 48 20 
14 25 10 



Long. E. 

72" 46' 50" 

72 49 40 

72 47 30 

72 49 40 
72 56 20 

72 48 17 

73 15 50 
73 18 30 
78 27 25 



73 26 45 
73 86 22 

73 45 55 

74 2 50 
74 6 40 
74 22 55 



46 



INDIA AS A WHOLE. 



[chap. II. 



India, West Coast— Madras Peovincb. 



No. 



41 



42 

43 

44 
45 



46 



47 



48 



Name of light 



Mangalore . 



Cannanore 

Telicheri 

Calicut 
Cochin 



Alleppi 



Muttum (Cadia- 
patam) 



Cape Comorin . 



Location. 



On a hill above the 
town, and near 
some high trees. 

In the old fort, on 
red ground. 

On the fort wall, near 
the beach. 

On the sandy beach. 

On a small mound 
which formed a bas- 
tion of the old fort, 
to the south of the 
harbour. 

On the sandy beach, 
about one cable in- 
land, close to the 
flagstaff. 

Upon nigh red-coloured 
land, 300 yards from 
sea, here fringed 
with steep gray 
cliffs. 

On the Cape 



LatN. 



12' 62* 17" 



11 61 10 

11 44 50 

11 15 5 
9 57 47 



9 80 



8 7 30 



8 4 



Long. R 



74*60' 8" 



76 21 45 
75 28 30 

75 45 85 

76 13 45 



76 19 



77 18 10 






77 82 39 



Island of Cetlon. 



49 
50 



51 
52 
52a 



53 
54 



Colombo . 
Point de Galle . 



Great Bassas 
Little Bassas 
Batticaloa . 



(xri 



Trinkomalee . 



Clock-tower, centre of 
fort. 

On S.W. bastion of 
fort. West side of 
harbour. 

On the N.E. rock 

On reef . 

On the flagstaff, near 
the mouth of Bat- 
ticaloa Lake. 

On Foul Point ex- 
treme. 

On the summit of 
Round Island. 



6 55 40 
6 1 25 



6 10 10 

6 22 55 

7 48 50 



8 32 10 
8 31 40 



79 50 40 

80 12 32 



81 28 
81 43 12 
81 41 20 



81 18 30 
81 18 15 



CHAP, n.] UGHTHOUSBS, TUTICORIN TO RANGOON. 



47 



India, East Coast— Madras Province. 



Na 


Name of light. 


Location. 


Lat.N. 


Long. B. 


55 


Taticorin . 


North extreme of Hare 
Island orPaundian- 
tivo, 2^ miles east 
of Tuticorin. 


8'4riO" 


78m' 20" 


56 


Pamnban Pass . 


On a sand-hill ; about 
one mile east of 
Northern Channel. 


9 17 14 


79 12 38 


57 


Calimere . 


On the point . 


10 17 65 


79 51 80 


58 


Xegapatam 


On bastion 


10 45 80 


79 50 20 


59 


Rarikal (French) 


At the mouth of the 
River Arselaar. 


10 55 


79 50 35 


60 


Coleroon (Porto 
Novo) 




• • • 


# 

• • • 


61 


Pondicheri 


In square, near the 


11 55 25 


79 49 35 




(French) 


beach. 




« 


62 


Madras 


On esplanade, north 
of the fort. 


18 5 11 


80 16 51 


63 


Pulilrat . 


Near the beach . 


18 25 15 


80 19 6 


64 


Annegaon . 


Mainland, village of 
Moona or Moona- 
polium. 


13 53 8 


80 11 47 


65 


Diri . 


2 miles N.W. of 
Point. 


15 58 55 


81 9 25 


66 


Masulipatam 


In the fort 


16 9 15 


81 9 25 


67 


Coringa or Hope 
island 


On southern part of 
Hope Island dis- 
tant about 2i miles 
from sea. 


16 49 5 


82 16 58 


68 


Cocanada (Yaka- 
lapndi) 


4} miles north of 
0>canada river, 500 


17 40 


82 16 80 




yards from the 






I 


shore. 






69 Yizagapatam 

1 


On the headland 
named Dolphin's 
Nose. 


17 41 


88 17 15 


70 Santipilli . 


On Santipilli HiU, 


18 4 56 


83 37 35 


three-auarters of a 
mile inland. 














71 


Galinffapatam 
Gopafpoor 


On the Point . 


18 19 


84 7 80 


72 


On mainland, 60 yards 


19 13 


84 52 






from low - water 










mark. 







48 



INDIA AS A WHOLE. 



[chap, il 



India, East Coast— Bengal Province. 



No. 
72a 


Name of light 


Location. 


lAtN. 


Long. K 


Pooree 


270 yards N.E. i K 


19' 48' 10* 


85U^ 10' 






of Pooree Flagstaff. 






78 


False Point 


At entrance to the 
Mahanadi, about 
1^ mile west from 
Mahanadi Point, 
and 1^ mile from 
the sea. 


20 20 20 


86 44 


74 


Pilot's Ridge 
(light-vessel) 


On Pilot's Ridge, dur- 
ing the S.W. Mon- 


20 50 20 


87 40 












soon only, in 22 










fathoms water. 






75 


River Hoogli — 
Eastern Chan- 










Entrance to Eastern 


21 1 19 


88 13 




nel (light-ves- 


Channel, in 10^ 




1 

1 




sel) 


fathoms water. 




1 


75a 


Intermediate 
(light-vessel) 


Entrance to Channel, 
in 6^ fathoms, be- 
tween the Fjastem 
Channel and Lower 
Caspar light-vessels. 
Lower Caspar light- 
vessel bearing N. 
by W. i W. 12 


21 14 SO 


88 11 














miles. 






76 


Lower Caspar 
(light-vessel) 


Lower Caspar Chan- 
nel, in 25 feet 
water. 


21 26 15 


88 6 88 


77 


Upper Caspar 
(light-vessel) 


Caspar Channel, in 


21 31 


88 2 58 




21 feet water. 






78 


Sagar 


Middleton Pt. S.W. 
end of Saugar Is- 
land, about 200 


21 38 48 


88 2 


• 




yards from low 
water mark. 






79 


Cowcolly . 


Two miles S.W. of 
Kedgeree Point. 


21 50 13 


87 56 9 


80 


Mutlah (light- 
vessel) 


Entrance to River, in 
11 fathomjt. 


' 21 4 


88 46 30 


81 


ChittagoDg 


li mile south of Nor- 
man Pt., southern 


22 10 50 


91 48 29 






shore, entrance to 


1 






Kumafoolee River. 






82 


Kutubdea . 


West part of the is- 
land. 


21 52 30 


91 49 58 



OHAP. II.] LIGHTHOXmiS, BURMA TO SINGAPORE. 



4d 



British Bubua, etc. 



Ko. 



Name of light 



88 



84 

85 
86 



87 
88 
89 



90 



91 



92 



Oyster Beef 



SaTsge Island 

Tenibles . 
Alguada 



Location. 



Krislma (light - 
yeasel) 

Great Coco Group, 

Andaman 

Islands 
China Ba-Keer . 



Eastern Grore 
(Rangoon Bi- 
Ter) 

Double Island . 



Acheen (Snma- 
tra) 



South edse of Beef, 
in 4 fathoms at low- 
water spring tides. 

On Island, entrance 
to Akyab harbour. 

On South Terrible . 

On Alguada Beef ; 
the lighthouse lies 
S.S.'WT 10} miles 
from Diamond 
Island Flagstaff. 

In 4| fathoms, eastern 
side of Krishna 
ShoaL 

OnS.W. end of Table 
Island, 2 miles from 
Great Coco Island. 

In 2 fathoms at low 
water sprint tides. 
On edge of flats off 
entranee to the 
China Ba-Eeer or 
Ton-Kwa River. 

Close to high water 
mark on Grove 
Point, east side of 
entrance to river. 

On the Island . 

N.E. point of Pulo 
Brasse, near Acheen 
Head. 

Auxiliary light to the 
above. 



LatN. 



20' 6' 0" 



20 5 7 

19 23 10 
16 42 14 



16 30 1 



15 62 30 
6 44 66 



6 44 66 



Long. B. 



Stkaitb of Malacca to Singapoee. 



92" 89' 0" 



92 63 37 

93 16 16 

94 11 86 



16 36 16 


96 84 30 


14 12 30 


93 22 16 


16 16 88 


96 11 9 



96 22 47 



97 84 36 
96 4 16 



96 4 16 



93 



93a 



Malacca Strait . 



Elang Strait 



On the '* One fathom 
bank," in 18 feet 
low water spring- 
tides. 

&W. end of Pulo 
Lumaut 



2 62 10 



2 62 26 



100 68 40 



101 14 28 



E 



.50 



INDIA AS A WHOLE. 



[cfHAP. U« 





Straits of Malaoca to Singapore (continued) 


• 


No. 
94 


Name of light 


Location. 


LatN. 


Long. B. 


Cape Rachada 


On the liigh bluff, 


2 24 8 


101 51 2 






called by the Ma- 










laya "Tanjong 










Tiian." 






95 


Malacca . 


On the old Portaguese 
Monastery, situated 
on St Paul's Hill. 


2 11 87 


102 15 SO 


96 


i ^ 


Outer end of the jetty 


— 


_^ 


96a 


Pulo Pisang 


S.K by E., 74 miles 
from the town of 
Malacca. 


1 27 80 


103 15 


97 


Baffles 


On Coney Islet, at west 
entrance of Singa- 
pore Strait 


1 9 50 


103 44 50 


98 


Singapore . 


Fort Canning. Gov- 
ernment HilL 


1 17 33 


103 51 


99 


HorsbuTffh or 


On the summit of the 


1 19 67 


104 24 SO 


' Pedra Branca 


rock. 







i 



CHAPTER III. 

. THE P&OYINCE OF BBNGAI/— GENEEAL. 

§ 1. Name, Size, and Position. § 2. Moantains, RiverSi and Rail- 
ways. § 8. Mineral and Agricultural Products. § 4. Land 
Tenures. § 5. Public Rent Roll. § 6. The People in Districts 
and States. 

f 1. Bengal Pbovinoe (Banga, one of the five Aryan divi- 
sions of India named from sons of Ann, son of King Yayati; 
Bang^lah, first in A.D. 1323) is the largest in population, 
lesoorces, and net revenue, of the twelve Provinces of British 
India. The total area, 203,437 fiq. m., of which 187,126 
has been surveyed in detail, is almost that of France and just 
below that of Germany. The population, 69,133,619, is nearly 
twice that of France, and comes near to thai of all Russia. The 
sea-borne, or foreign and coasting trade, stood at £69,222,805 
in value in 1880-81, while the network of water communica- 
tions, the roads, and railways, are the agencies of an inland 
traffic of vast dimensions for so dense a population. In the 
same year the Province yielded a gross imperial revenue of 
£15,088,911, of which at least £12,000,000 is surplus. When 
in 1765 the East India Company obtained the dewani or 
virtual sovereignty of Bengal proper, it became receiver of a 
dear yearly revenue of £1,700,000. From that time till the 
present the increasing surplus derived from a loyal and pros- 
perous population has enabled the €k>vemment of India to 
oondact the successive campaigns, and raise to the same ad- 
ministrative level the other Provinces and States since conquered 
or annexed. Bengal, forming one-third of the whole Empire of 
British India, is bounded K by Burma, with the Arakan Roma 
nnge between, and by the Assam districts of Sylhet, Craro Hills, 
and Gtoalpara, with tiie Brahmapootra between ; N. by Bhootan 
and Nepid, with the Himalaya and the submontane tracts known 
as Tarai and Morang between ; W. by the North-Western Pro- 
vince districts of Gorakhpoor, Ghazipoor, Benares, and Mirza- 



62 PROVINCE OP BENGAL — GENERAL. [CHAP. III. 

poor, by Bewah State and the Central Province States and 
district of Sambalpoor; and S. by the Grazgam district of 
Madras, the Bay of Bengal, and the Arakan district of British 
Burma, with the Naf River between. This territory lies be- 
tween 19" 28' and 27' 30' N. latitude, and 92** 46' and 81' 35' 
E. longitude. Since 1854 the whole has been subject to the 
administration of a Lieutenant -Gk)vernor, except 3} sq. m. 
belonging to the French, at Chandemagar on the Hoogli and a 
field near Balasor. From 1766 — when, after the battle of 
Buxar and the Emperor of Delhi's grant of the civil authority 
to the East India Company, Lord Olive opened the pooneah or 
ceremonial of commencing the annual collection of revenue, at 
Motee Jheel, Moorshidabad — to 1854 the Lower Province of 
Bengal, Behar, and Orissa was directly administered by the 
Governor-General 

§ 2. Mountains, Rivers, Canals, and Railways. — ^At 
Darjeeling and Sikkim, due N. of Calcutta, the jiuisdiction 
of the Lieutenant-(jovemor embraces a sm^ portion of the 
Himalaya chain rising from 7000 fb. in the chief sanitarium 
of the Province, to 28,156 ft. in mighty Einchi^jinga. On 
the S.W. the ranges which cross Central India descend into 
the deltas of the Ganges and Mahanadi after forming the 
uplands of Behar and Santalia, the Rajmalial hiUs round 
which the Ganges sweeps, and the hilly plateaux of Chutia 
Nagpoor to the Orissa States. On the S.K the slope and out- 
lying spurs of the Roma range drain through the Tipura and 
Chittagong rivers into the Bay of Bengal. In the area 
within these three mountain systems, or N. and S.W. and 
S.E., the Ganges, the Brahmapootra, the Mahanadi, and their 
almost innumerable tributaries, form and fertilize the deltas of 
Bengal and Orissa The Ganges, entering Bengal firom the 
North -Western Province at Chausa, between Buxar and 
Ghazipoor, receives the Gogra N., the Son S., the Gandak N., 
and the Eosi below Bhagalpoor, where from an easterly it 
follows a southerly course till it sends off the Bhagirathi, to 
form the Hoogli, its most westerly mouth ; the main stream 
continues S.E. to €k)alunda, where the principal confluent 
of the Brahmapootra under the name of the Jamoona or 
Eonai amalgamates with it. The united volume, following 
countless channels through the Soondarban forest -swamps, 
reaches the Bay of Bengal. The Mahanadi enters Orissa 
from the Central Province below Sonpoor, struggles through 
gorges in the Orissa States to Dholpoor, whence it rolls through 
the Nang gorge into the plains 7 m. W. of Cuttak, but partly 



CHAP, in.] RAILWAYS AND COAL-FIELDS. 53 

escapes to the sea by the Chilka Lake on the N. border of 
Madraa. Canals utilise, for irrigation and navigation, the water 
of the Mahanadi in the isolated tracts of Orissa, and that of 
the Son in the parched uplands of Behar. The Grand Trunk 
Boad, leaving Calcutta on the N. or left bank, crosses the 
Hoogli at Palta ferry above Barrackpoor, and runs direct to 
Benares and Peshawar, leaving Bengal at the Karamnasa river. 
The East Indiaji Railway follows a more northerly route, 
sending off a loop-line to the Ganges at Rajmahal and opening 
up Behar. The Eastern Ben^ral Railway connects Calcutta 
with the junction of the Ganges and Brahmapootra at Gk>alunda, 
172 m.; and from that line the Northern State Railway, 
266^ m., continued by the Daxjeelingr and Himalayan Rail- 
way, reaches Daijeeling and DhoobrL Other extensions are in 
progress to open up the Assam and Cachar valleys ; from Dacca 
to Maimansingh ; in Central Bengal from Ranaghat to Jessor 
and Ehoolna, and from Bongong to Calcutta ; from Baidyanath 
on the £a8t Indian Railway to Deogarh, with branch to 
Rohini ; from the Tirhoot State Railway to Pipra Ghat, 
Bettiab, and Hajipoor; from the Calcutta and South- 
Bastem Railway to Mugra Ghat and Diamond Harbour. 
The length of the Patna and Gaya Railway is 57 m. ; the 
KaUiati, 27. From the Groalunda terminus of the Eastern 
Bengal Railway it is intended to run ferry steamers to Daud- 
khandi, where the Groomti joins the Megna, and thence to lay 
a line of railway by Comillah to Chittagong so as to bring that 
rising port within a few hours of Calcutta. 

§ 3. Pboducts. — Coal, iron, and copper are the chief 
Mineral products of Bengal ; gold-washing is pursued by the 
poorer natives in some of the hill streams ; diamonds were 
found, in the days of Ptolemy and the Mughul Empire, in 
Chatia Nagpoor, near the Eoel and Sunk rivers, in Palamau. 
Now coal only is worked with commercial results. Of 37 
separate coal-fields reported on by the Geological Survey, 25 
are in Bengal; of these, 15 are in the N. and W.^of the 
Damodar valley, 9 are in the Son and Mahanadi valleys, and 
1 is in Sikkim. Of 5 fields in all India worked with regularity, 
3 are in Bengal, at Raneeganj, Karharbafi, and Daltongaig. 
Steamers, railways, and factories in India consume more than 
1^ million of tons, of which 1 million at least is supplied chiefly 
from Bengal. The manufacture of salt by evaporation has been 
almost extinguished in Bengal by the import from Liverpool. 
Of Food Grains, rice or padi {dJian) is first, being exported 
and consumed all over the Gangetic and Orissa deltas, while 



54 PROVINCE OF BENGAL — GENERAL. [CHAP. ill. 

maize, millet, and some wheat are also used in the Behar 
uplands. The two great crops of each year are the Aoot 
(« early "), sown on high level lands with the first showers of 
spring, and gathered in July and September; and the more 
common Amun (" winter ''), sown broadcast in April, or trana- 
planted in August and reaped in November- January. Murwa 
and Kodt) are millets cheaper than rice ; barley (Jao) is cheapest 
of all Dal is the most conunon of the pulses, and the briigal, or 
egg-plant, of the vegetables ; the use of the potato is increasing. 
The almost vegetarian Hindoos use fish and many nitrogenous 
condiments, of which turmeric, ginger, coriander, cinnamon, 
aniseed, and chillies are the chief ; also the pan-soopari, or leaf 
and nut of the betel creeper, cultivated exclusively by the 
Barool caste in covered gardens and gathered in November. 
Of the fruits, the plantain (banana), mango, and jack are most 
largely produced, and chiefly in the hot season. Jute, indicrob 
tea, and cinohona are the great commercial staples introduced 
by foreigners ; the first in the E. and N.K districts, the second 
in Nadiya and Tirhoot chiefly, and the tea (China) plant in 
Daijeeling, Hazaribagh, and Ghittagong. Opium is culti- 
vated as a State monopoly in Behar, and is manufactured at 
Patna. Silk, a somewhat declining industry, is still largely 
produced for export under European superintendence. The 
date-tree is extensively grown for sugar in Jessor district, and 
IB driving out the cane culture. Tobacco ia grown on the 
homestead, and is used by almost every Bengalee, young and 
old; at Poosa a tobacco factory flourishes. Shellac and lao- 
dye are exported through Calcutta from Beerbhoom, Hazari- 
bagh, and Cossipoor, and safflower from the Dacca region. 

§ 4. Land Tenures. — The Decennial Settlement of Bengal, 
Behar, and Orissa — by which last term was meant at that 
period only the tract of country lying between the Boopnarain 
and Subamarekha rivers, and now included in the district 
of Midnapoor — ^was commenced in the year 1789 and com- 
pleted in 1790-91. In the latter year the total assessment 
amounted to sicca Rs. 2,68,00,989 (Co.'s Ks. 2,85,87,722), or 
£2,858,772. This was, with slight variation, declared to be 
permanent in 1793. The settlement embraced the tracts now 
comprised in the divisions of Bardwan, the Presidency, Rigshahi, 
Dacca^ Chittagong, Patna, and Bhagalpoor. It also comprised 
parts of the Hazaribagh and Manbhoom districts in the Chutia 
Nagpoor division, as well as Jalpaigori, Gbalpara, and Kooch 
Behar, which then formed part of Rangpoor. The total assess- 
ment of the same divisions amounts now to Rs. 3,55,00,000. 



OHAP. III.] THE PERMANENT SETTLEMENT. 55 

The zameendara, with whom the settlement was originally 
made, were for the most part powerful men, whose authority 
extended oyer wide tracts of country, police and other powers 
being entrusted to them. Of these tracts they were, by the 
settlement, constituted the proprietors ; but, under the influence 
of debt and mismanagement, these large zameendaries were 
speedily broken up. The Grovemment demand was then one 
which left a small margin of profit compared with that of 
zameendars now. The rights of the ryots to hold at customary 
rates were also secured by law, and the power of the landlords 
OTer them was limited. Within the 10 years that immediately 
followed the Permanent Settlement, a complete revolution took 
place in the constitution and ownership of the estates. In 1799 
the new zameendars were vested with greatly increased influence 
over the ryots, and again in 1812 further authority was given 
them, so that for 50 years of the present century they exercised 
a power over the ryots greater than that contemplated by the 
original settlement of 1793. Some additions were made to the 
revenue demand when the landlords were relieved of police 
charges, and in 1824-25 it had risen to Co.'s Rs. 2,98,62,021. 
After that period the revenue expanded as resumptions of in- 
valid revenue-free tenures proceeded. Omitting Assam, Cuttak, 
and part of Chutia Nagpoor, the number of estates on the 
Goremment revenue roll has been enormously augmented since 
the Permanent Settlement — (1) by the admission to the roll of 
talookdars who succeeded in the claims preferred by them to 
hold their talooks independently of the zameendars through whom 
they had previously paid their revenue ; and (2) by partitions 
of estates. Of the increase of the land revenue of Bengal since 
the decennial settlement, two thirds is from Behar. In Bengal 
proper a quarter of a million sterling has thus been added in the 
century. Orissa is under a Thirty Tears' Settlement, which 
was renewed in 1867 ; there are fifty large estates on which 
the Marathas had imposed a quit-rent before their recovery by 
the East India Company in 1803. 

§ 5. The Government Bent Roll. — In the whole Lieu- 
tenant-Governorship of Bengal the number of estates on the 
revenue roll in 1880-81 was 150,420, of which 140,007 were 
permanently settled, 7670 were temporarily settled, 2720 were 
under Government, and 23 were ryotwari tracts. The land-tax 
on all these was Ra 3,75,41,188, or, including arrears, almost 
4 millions sterling. By Act X. of 1859 the first detailed 
attempt was made to apply the provisions of the Permanent 
Settlement for the protection of the tenants from illegal cesses. 



56 PROVINCE OF BENGAL — GENERAL. [CHAP. III. 

and in their tenant right of beneficial occupancy. Fee Simple 
grants in the tea districts were made for a time after 1861. 
Waste Land Rules grant leases in the mipeopled tracts of 
the Soondarban, and the districts along the base of the eastern 
and northern hills from ChittagoDg to DaijeeliDg. In a few 
petty holdings the redemption of land revenue is encouraged ; 
there are 16,500 such cases. Of the 150,420 estates on the 
public books there are some 500 each with an area of 20,000 
acres and upwards, and 15,000 with from 500 to 20,000. 
The rest, or about 89 per cent of the whole number, though 
comparatively large ia total area, are under 500 acres eaclL 

§ 6. The People m Districts and States. — In the 50 
Districts and groups of States which constitute Bengal Province, 
as described in detail in the next Chapter, there is a population, 
in round numbers, of 70 millions, including the trib^ of the 
hill frontier and Hill Tipura; These Districts and States are 
grouped in nine divisions, each under a Commissioner for admin- 
istrative purposes. The census taken on 17th February 1881 
shows that the population has increased 10 per cent in nine 
years, or from 62,727,471 to 69,133,619. The percentage of 
increase for Bengal proper is 6, for Behar 15, and for Orissa 20. 
In the Bardwan division alone, along the south bank of the 
Hoogli, there has been a decrease, due to mortality from a 
long-continued epidemic of fever in the low lands above which 
that river is annually raising its channel Notwithstanding 
this, the districts of that division opposite and to the south- 
west of Calcutta^ still show the densest rural population in the 
world, or at the rate of 1335 in Howrah and 823 in Hoogli 
district to the square mila Of the whole population 34,361,705 
are males and 34,771,914 females, the latter exceeding the 
former by 1 '2 per cent. 

As to language, about 42 millions speak Bengalee^ 22 
millions speak Hindee, and 5 millions speak Ooriya. 



[T 



CHAP. III.] 



AREA AND POPULATION. 



57 



Census of Bengal Pbovincb, 1881. 
Area and Population, showing the results of the preliminary addition. 



DisTucn. 



Pruidiney Divition. 
CklcotU . 
Saborbs . 
<4-Pftrgan«hB . 
Nadiya . 
Jtmar and Kboolna 
Moonhidabad . 

Total . 

BtOAaki and Kooeh 

Bekar Divition, 
DioaJpoor 
RajBbahi . 
Bangpoor. 
Bogra 
iPabna 
Daijeeling 
Jalpaigon 
KoochBehar 

Total . 

Bardwan Division, 
Bardwan . 
Bankuia . 
Beerbboom 
Midnapoor 
H oogli . 
Howxab 

Total . 

Daoea Division, 



FkraedpooT 
BakJrgai^. 
jiabnaDsio^ 

Total . 

Ckitlagong Division. 
Chittagong 
NoakhaU . 
Tlpaia 
Hill Tipora 
Chlttagong bill tracU 

ToUa . 



n 



8 
23 
2,765 
3,421 
3,658 
2,141 



12,016 



4,117 
2,359 
3,488 
1,497 
1,847 
1,234 
2.911 
1,307 



18,760 



2,693 
2,621 
1,756 
6,082 
1,225 
476 



13,853 



2,796 
2,267 
8,648 
6,887 



14,998 



2,567 
1,641 
2,491 
8,867 
5,419 



15,985 




1 
2 
6,443 
4,021 
5,838 
8,619 



19,924 



7,333 
5,177 
9,117 
4,195 
3,962 
1,200 
4,000 
1,172 



36,156 



8,658 
5,256 
3,295 
14,913 
2,685 
1,535 



31,342 



6,550 

4,501 

4,436 

12,883 



28,370 



2.000 
1,938 
6,576 

2,600 



13,514 






433,219 
251,439 
1,994,199 
2,022,545 
2,210,898 
1,200,825 



8,113,125 



1,529,906 

1,333,287 

2,169,699 

733,546 

1,312,977 

157,038 

570,210 

600,946 



8,407,559 



1,891,736 
1,044,195 

792,411 
2,514,672 
1,007,445 

635,381 



7,385,840 



2,196,641 
1,614,083 
1,885,183 
2,950,105 



8,646,012 



1,220,978 
822,328 

1,491,762 

95,637 

101,467 



8,732,167 



3 
I 



288,817 

147,205 
1,015,571 

983,719 
1,126,065 

582,038 



4,143,410 



790,270 
658,313 
1,100,327 
371,855 
650.315 
89,510 
299,068 
810,790 



4,270,448 



668,258 
508,048 
880,066 
1,242,606 
485.723 
816,479 



3,602,080 



1,073,598 
798,282 
963,154 

l,494,lu6 

4,329,139 



570,489 

415,358 

756,206 

51,458 

56,491 



1,850,002 






144,402 
104,234 
978,628 
1,038,826 
1,084,833 
618,792 



3,969,715 



739,636 
674,924 
1,069,372 
361,691 
662,662 
67,528 
271,142 
290,156 



4,137,111 



723,478 
536,147 
411,445 
1,272,066 
521,722 
818,902 



8,788,760 



1,123,043 
815,801 
922,029 

1,456,000 



4,316,873 



650,484 

406.970 

735,556 

44,179 

44,976 



1,883,165 



11 



I 



I 



s. 



^ CB ^ 
ill 

5Z5 



54,152*3 
10,932 
721-2 
591-2 
604*4 
560 8 



675 



871-6 

565-1 

622 

490 

710-9 

127-2 

195-8 

459-7 



453-5 



616-7 
893-3 
451-2 
494-8 
823 
1,334-8 



583 1 



785-6 
711-9 
517 
469-2 



676-5 



475-6 
501 1 
598-8 

18-7 



»300-l 



c-o 3 
§52* 

?5 



•1 

•08 
8-3 
11 
1-5 
1-6 



1-6 



1-7 
2-2 
2-6 
2-8 
2-1 

•9 
1-3 

■9 



1-9 



1-8 

2 

1-8 

2 9 

2-1 

3-2 



2-2 



2-3 
1-9 
1-2 
2 



1-8 



•8 
1-1 
3-6 



* Ezclniive of Hill Tlpoia. 



58 



PROVINCE OF BENGAL — GENERAL. [OHAP. IIL 



Censits of Bengal Province, 1881. 
Area aiu2 Papulation, showing the rewUa of the preliminary addUton. 



DI8TBIOT8. 


Area in aquare 
miles. 


Number of towns 
and villages. 


Total population 
of both aezea. 


1 

3 


Total Femalea. 


Number of per- 
aona per aquare 
mile. 


Number of towns 
and villages per 
square mile. 


Paina DivUion, 
















Fatna 


2,078 


5,496 


1,796,649 


876,941 


920,708 


864-6 


2-6 


Gaya 




4,712 


8,731 


2,057,980 


1,007,315 


1,060,666 


4367 


1-8 


Shahabad 




4,360 


4,816 


1,964,909 


050.250 


1,014,659 


460 


1*1 


Musaflkrpoor 




8,004 


4,000 


2,589,624 


1,266.852 


1,322,672 


862 


1-8 


Darbhanga 




8,336 


3,500 


2,678,090 


1,266,377 


1,311,718 


778 


1 


Saran 




2,626 


4,000 


2,280,382 


1,083,665 


1,196,817 


8687 


1-5 


Champaian 




8,631 


7,899 


1,708,417 
14,976,961 


862,719 


845,698 


483-8 


2-2 
1-6 


Total . 
Bhagalpoor Division. 


23,661 


88,442 


7,313,019 


7,66 2,932 


633 














Monghyr . 


8,922 


6,480 


1,966,920 


962,784 


998,186 


498*8 


1« 


Bha^lpoor 
Pnmiah . 


4,268 


6,600 


1,923,276 


967,364 


965,922 


450*6 


1-5 


4,957 


6,664 


1,823,717 


920,676 


903,142 


867-9 


1-8 


Maldah . 


1,869 


8,326 


710,310 


347,056 


863,265 


882 


1*8 


Santal Farganaha . 
Total . . 

« 

Chwtia Nagpoor 


6,483 


10,000 


1,561,385 


760,000 


801,885 


281-1 


1-8 
1-6 


20.489 


82,970 


7,974.608 


8,947,768 


4,026,840 


889 














Division. 
















Hasaribagh 


7,021 


7,885 


1,072,486 


524,260 


548,226 


1517 


1-1 


Lobardaga 


12,044 


13,275 


1,607,088 


796,486 


811,552 


183*4 


11 


Singbfaoom 


8,897 


8,937 


661,848 


257,999 


275,349 


141-4 


1 


Manbhoora 


4,147 


7,000 


1,042,117 


616,028 


626,089 


861-2 


l-O 


Tributary Uahala . 
Total . . 
Ortssa Division. 


16,026 


8,001 


441,802 


228,681 


217,721 


27-6 


•1 


48,184 


85,048 


4,714.291 


2,335,854 


2,378,987 


10-8 


•8 














Cnttak 


8,616 


18,087 


1,731,648 


844,892 


886.666 


692-4 


8-r 


Fooree 


■ 


2,472 


5,208 


886.794 


444,080 


441.764 


868-1 


8-1 


Balasor . 


■ 


2,068 


6,893 


942,414 


461,110 


481,804 


4561 


8 


Angool 


• 


188I 


460 


102,090 


61,910 


60,180 


116-8 


-6 


Bank! 


■ 


116 


177 


66,613 


28,104 


28,509 


480 


1-6 


Tributary Mahals . 
Total . . 


15,187 


11,180 


1,465,607 


740,489 


726,168 


96-5 


7 


24,240 


86,606 


6,184,066 


8,670,486 


8,618,681 


818-8 


1-S 


ObahdTotj 


1 

1 


187»126 


271,271 


69,138,619 


84,861,705 


84,771|914 


•8767 



■ Exclusive of Hill Tipunu 



CHAP. III.] 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



59 



Births are registered in first class municipalities, and in such 
towns as in 1879 gave returns of 25 per thousand and upwards. 
The general rate was 23*44 per mille in 1880, and the propor- 
tion of male births to female births was as high as 1 16 per cent. 
The number of deaths registered was 26*86 per thousand of the 
population in urban circles, and 14*93 per thousand in rural 
circles. In Calcutta the recorded birth-rate was 17*5 per thou- 
sand, a rate far below European standards, but not altogether 
incredible having regard to the great excess of the male over 
the female population, and the large proportion of unmarried 
women and widows. The death-rate was 27*1 per thousand as 
compared with 30*3 per thousand in the previous year, and 28*6 
per thousand the mean mortality of the previous ten years. 

The following shows the mortality of 1880 in Calcutta, 
compared with that of 1879, the figures for the different races 
and sexes being separately entered : — 



Rack. 


Ratio op Dkaths pkr Thousand of Fopulatiok. 










Males. 


Females. 


TotaL 




1879. 


1880. 


1879. 


1880. 


1879. 


1880. 


Non-Asiatics . . 


25*5 


23*7 


14-2 


11-4 


221 


20 


Mixed Races . . 


49*6 


40-7 


49 


42*6 


49*3 


41*6 


Hindoos . . . 


27*4 


24*6 


35*5 


32*9 


30*3 


27*6 


Mnhammadans . 


25*8 


21*3 


43*3 


39*8 


30*4 


26*6 



The mortality under each head of race and for each sex was 
lower than in 1879. Among Europeans there were altogether 
187 deaths in 1880, 155 of those who died being males and 32 
females. Fifty-nine of the deaths were among officers, sailors, 
and others who fell sick on board ship; 19 were among residents 
of Fort William, and the remaining 109 among the European 
residents of Calcutta. There were only 65 deaths among 1 4,774 
sailors, against 73 among 14,951 in tiie previous year. Deaths 
from (Solera numbered 14 against 25. 

The mortality in cantonments from all causes was 17*32 per 
mOle, against 22*95 in 1879. The death-rate from fevers 
decreased from 12*48 to 9*74, but that from cholera was higher 
than in 1879, the ratios being '94 against '56. Of aU the 
militaiy stations. Fort William exhibited the lowest mortality, 
or 3*89 per mille, and Segauli the highest, or 27*79. 



• CHAPTER IV. 

THE PBOVINCE OF BENGAL — DISTRICTS Ain) STATES. 

I. — BENQAL PROPEB. 

Central Districts. — § 1. Calcutta. § 2. Twenty-foar Pai^ganahs. § 8. 

Ehoolna, including the Soondarban. § 4. Jessor. § 5. Nadiya. 

§ 6. Moorshidabad., § 7. Pabna. § 8. RajshahL §9. Bogra. 

§ 10. Dinajpoor. § 11. Rangpoor. § 12. Daijeeling. § 13. 

*Sikkim. § 14. Jdlpaigori. § 15. Eooch Behar. 
Western Districts. — § 16. Midnapoor. §17. Hoogli and Howrah. 

§ 18. Bardwan. § 19. Bankura. § 20. Beerbhoom. 
Eastern Districts,—^ 21. Dacca. § 22. Bakirganj. § 28. Fareedpoor. 

§ 24. Maimansingh. § 25. Tipura. § 26. Hill Tipura. § 27. 

Chittagong. §28. Chittagong Hill Tracts. §29. Noakhali 

II. — BRHAR. 

§ 30. Patna. § 31. Gaya. § 32. Shahabad. § 88. Saran. § 84. 
Cbamparan. § 85. Muzaffarpoor. § 86. Darbhanga. § 87. 
MoDgbyr. § 88. Bbagalpoor. § 89. Purzuah. § 40. Haldah. 
§41. Santalia. 

III. — CHUTIA NAQPOOR. 

§ 42. Hazaribagb. § 43. Manbboom. § 44. SingbboonL § 45. Lo- 
bardaga. § 46. *Cbutia Nagpoor States 

IV. — 0RIS8A 

§ 47. Cuttak. § 48. Balasor. § 49. Pooree. § 50. *0ri88a States. 

V. — PROTECTED STATES. 

§ 51. *Bbootan and Towang. § 52. ^NepaL 

I. — Bengal Propeb. 

Central Districts, 

§ 1. Oaloutta (KalkattOy as in '^ Ain i Akbari ;" possibly from 
Kalighat, old temple of Kali in S.), the capital of India since 



CHAP. IV.] CALCUTTA. 61 

1773, of the old Presidency of Bengal from 1707 to that year, 
and Bubordinate to Madras before that from its foundation in 
1682. The city stands on the left or east bank of the Hoogli, 
the most westerly branch of the Ganges, 86 miles from the sea 
at Sagar anchoring buoy, in lat. N. 22' 33', and long. E. 88' 
23', and 20 feet above sea-leveL The city and four suburban 
municipalities cover an area of 31 square miles, with a fixed 
population of 684,658, or including Howrah, of 790,233. In 
Calcutta city there are 107 souls to the acre, and in the 
suburbs 17, or 33 in both, as against 50^ in London. The 
128,671 funflies live in 23,751 brick and 55,648 mat or mud 
housea In the city there are 5*2 souls to a family; in the 
suburbs, 4*8. In the dty there are 11*6 souls to an inhabited 
house ; in the suburbs, 6*6. Of the whole population, omitting 
Howrah suburb, 4*4 per cent are Christians (30,470), 32 '2 per 
cent are Muhammadans (221,013), and 61*6 per cent are 
Hindoos (428,692) ; there are 487 Brahmos, 1848 Boodhists 
and Jains, 986 Jews, 142 Parsees, 284 Sikhs, and 728 '' others,'' 
chiefly of aboriginal cults. Females form only 36*3 per cent of 
the whole population. Of the 30,478 Christians 6945 were bom 
in Europe (United Kingdom, 5924), 22,535 in India, 382 in 
Asia outside India, 106 in Africa, 304 in America, 64 in Aus- 
tralia, and 60 at sea. In 1810 we know that the whole num- 
ber of Europeans in Bengal, including Calcutta, was about 2000. 
Of 327,243 males with stated occupations, more than half are 
engaged in commerce, and the rest minister to their wants. The 
trade is that of exchanging products, and not largely of manufac- 
tures. Howrah, on the opposite bank, with which Calcutta is 
connected by a pontoon bridge, is as much a part of the capital 
as " the Surrey side " is of London. Calcutta is, in area and 
inhabitants, as large as London at the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century, and rather less than one-fourth of London now. 
Approaching the metropolis from the sea, we may divide it into 
these quarters in order : — (1) Garden Beach, a favourite suburb 
of European officials and merchants till it became the residence 
of the ex-king of Oudh, and depot of the mail-steamers ; (2) 
Kidderpoor and Hastings, where are the Covernment and other 
dockyards, factories and pensioners' barracks ; (3) Fort William, 
b^^ by Clive and buUt on the Yauban system, at a cost of 
£2,000,000 sterling, after the sack of the settlement in 1757, 
from which time the modem city dates ; (4) Chowringhee, the 
principal quarter of the Europeans, around the Maid&n, or Plain 
of the Fort, which led Lord Comwallis first to call Calcutta 
the " City of Palaces ; " begihning with St. Paul's Cathedral, 



62 PROVINCE OF BENGAL — DISTRICTS. [CBAP. IT. 

built by Bishop Daniel WilBon, and containing the Imperial 
Miiseum, the Ihie of massive houses in gardens runs parallel 
with the river for some distance, and then sweeps down to it 
at Dharmtola Market; Government H^se, erected by Lord 
Wellesley; the Town Hall and High Court of Justice; the 
Bank of Bengal, Metcalfe Hall, Dalhousie Institute, and new 
Post Office — the last on the site of the old fort and Black 
Hole ; (5) the City quarter running along the embanked river 
from the Customs-house to the Mint, and back to " the ditch " 
at Circular Road, made as a defence against the Marathas ; 
here the Eurasian, or mixed population, chiefly reside ; (6) the 
Native Town, threaded by Chitpoor and Comwallis Streets 
parallel with the river, and opened up by several fine cross- 
roads at right angles to these; here, especially around the 
grassy squares frequented by the natives after the heat of the 
day, are the principal colleges of the Government and the Mis- 
sionaries, and the University. A circular canal bounds the city 
to the E. and N., but a continuous succession of suburbs, such 
as Cossipoor with gun factory, and Dum-Dum, seems to con- 
tinue it for 16 miles up the Hoogli to Barrackpoor, the 
Viceroy's country seat, and Palta, whence the city draws a daily 
supply of 8 millions of gallons of pure water filtered from the 
fine river silt. Calcutta is drained on a perfect system from the 
higher level of the river bank eastward into the salt-water lake. 
A body of municipal commissioners, partly elected and partly 
nominated by Gk>vemment which appoints an able civil servant 
as their head, and working through a smaller Town Coundl, 
have gradually made Calcutta the healthiest city in the tropics, 
giving it gas, water, drainage, and many amenities, at a cost of 
annual taxation amounting to £300,000, one-third of which is 
paid as interest on loan for such improvements. Till 1854 the 
city was under the direct jurisdiction of the Governor-General 
as Governor of Bengal and the Supreme Court Since that 
time its administration only, but not law, has been imme- 
diately imder the Lieutenant-€k)vemor of Bengal, whose official 
residence is at Alipoor, in the suburbs. 

The port, including ten miles of bank and channel, has 
since 1870 been controlled and improved by a body of nine 
European commissioners. As the focus of all the sea-borne 
and most of the inland trade of the Ganges and Brahma- 
pootra, and the centre of the northern and eastern railway 
systems, half the commerce of India flows through Calcutta^ 
From £10,000,000 steriing in value, at the first break of the 
East India Company's monopoly by the charter of 1813, the 



CHAP. IT.] CALCUTTA — TWENTY-FOUR PARQANAHS. 63 

sea-borne trade has risen to £70,000,000, of which two-thirds 
are in exports, and one-third in imports. Outside of the 
United States of America no city presents such a history of 
rapid growth, especially in the century and a quarter since 
Cliye b^an to raise it. Calcutta, as the most pushing 
Eoglish dty of the East, has few buildings architecturally 
worthy of mention. It is remarkable for such colleges and 
hospitals as the Madrissa^ founded by Warren Hastings' for the 
education of the Muhammadans ; the Presidency College, founded 
by the Hindoos themselves, but managed by Government ; two 
missionary colleges established by Alexander Duff for the 
Established and Free Churches of Scotland ; the Medical Col- 
lege and hospitals attached, the most extensive in the world ; 
the colleges of the London and Church Missionary Societies; and 
the Doveton College, Martini^re, Jesuits* College, and Free 
School for Eurasians chiefly. Since Clive invited Eaemander, 
its first Protestant missionary, to settle in the city in 1758, and 
Doff opened his first college in 1830, the progress of English 
education and Chnstian profession among the natives has been 
remarkable. There are 2 1 Protestant Mission centres in the city, 
and 17 in the suburbs. The Calcutta University, an examining 
body with a constitution like that of London, consists of more 
than 80 affiliated colleges, from which thousands of students 
aonoally go up for its examinations and degrees. The Viceroy 
spends the cool or winter months in Calcutta and Barrackpoor, 
and makes Simla^ in the Outer Himalaya, his summer seat. 

§ 2. TwsKTT-FOUB Paboanahs DISTRICT, bounded E. by 
Kahadak river, separating it from Jessor; S. by Bay of Bengal; 
W. by Hoogli river ; N. by Nadiya and Jessor. Total area, 
2765 sq. m. Excluding the forest swamp known as the Soon- 
darban, the area of about 882 sq. m., forming the metropolitan 
district of British Lidia, was ceded to the East India Company 
by Meer Ja&r, Nawab Nazim of Bengal, in 1757, six months 
after the battle of Plassey. The Parganahs are twenty-four 
fiscal divisions then within the revenue circle of HooglL The 
grant was soon after conferred in* full proprietary right by the 
Mughul emperor, subject to a first assignment of the revenue to 
Lord Clive, or Bs. 2,22,958 a year. This seaboard district is 
part of the great deltaic expanse of alluvial plain, rivers, 
creeks, and watercourses, through which and forming which the 
Gfaoges and Brahmapootra find their way to the Bay of Bengal. 
Of thirteen rivers in the district the seven principal are the 
Hoogli, Bidyadhari or Mutla, Piali, Ealindi, Eechamati or 
Jamoona, Kholpetua, and Eabadak. Five of these form arms 



64 PROVINCE OF BENGAL — DISTRICTS. [OHAP. IT. 

of the sea, or the Malancha, Raimangal, Mutla, Jameera^ and 
Hoogli, ia order from the east. Originally containing 444 
estates, the district has now above 1900. The popiilation is 
dense in proportion to the cultivable area, or 1,994,199 exclu- 
sive of Calcutta, chiefly peasants and boatmen. The district 
has eight administrative subdivisions. Of the towns containing 
more than 5000 inhabitants these are the chief On the 
Hoogli, above Calcutta, Agrarpara^ where early experiments in 
the education of Hindoo girls were made by Mrs. Wilson. 
Baxrackpoor cantonment, 15 miles from Calcutta, called by 
the natives Chanak because Job Charnock settled there in 
1689, where a sepoy mutiny took place in 1824, where the 
47th Bengal Infantry refused to march for service in the first 
Burmese war, and the great Mutiny began on 27th February 
1857 ; here is the country seat of the Viceroy in a noble 
English-like park, containing the tomb of Lady Canning. 
Near is Nawabgunj, with the Palta waterworks for Calcutta 
In the southern suburbs of Calcutta is Alipoor, civil head- 
quarters of the district, with Belvedere House, the residence of 
the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, near which Warren Hast- 
ings and Francis fought a duel ; a native cantonment, and with 
a great jail ; the temple of Ealigbat, three centuries old, is near. 
Duxn-Dum, 4 m. N.E. of Calcutta, long the headquarters of 
the Bengal .Artillery. Barasat, Basoorhat, Satkhira, and 
Barooipoor, like the previous towns, ar^ headquarters of fiscal 
subdivisions. Diamond Harbour, on the Hoogli below Cal- 
cutta, long the anchorage ground above which the East India- 
men did not ascend, a customs and telegraph and soon to be a 
railway station. Port Oannin£r> on the Mutla river, where, in 
1864, an attempt was made to create a great port to relieve 
the trade of Calcutta, with which it is connectisd by railway. 
Naihati is an important station ol* the Eastern Bengal Railway, 
on the Hoogli, opposite the old town of that name. At 
Narikelbaria, a hamlet in Basoorhat subdivision, Teetoo Miyan, 
a Wahabee fanatic, was defeated in 1831. At Takee, in the 
same subdivision, Dr. Duff opened the first Christian school in 
the district. 

Safirar Island, or Gunga Sagar, as the last visible deposit of 
the Ganges, is the scene of a great but lessening gathering of 
pilgrims in the winter solstice, at which mothers used to sacrifice 
their firstborn in payment of a vow. Frequent attempts at culti- 
vation and salt manufacture have ceased, and the island is now 
the abode of the tiger, and of a scanty population exposed to 
inundation. At Dublat the tide is registered. The lighthouse. 



CHAP. IT.] KHOOLNA AND THE SOONDARBAN SWAMPS. 65 

built in 1808, and a temple, subject of the legend of Bhagirath 
and the sage Kapilmoonee, are the only permanent structures. 

§ 3. Khoolna, including the Soondarban which forms 
the sea &ce of the three districts of the 24-ParganahSy Jessor, 
and Bakirganj. The tract covers an area of 6570 sq. m., half 
the size of Belgium, of swamps and forests of Soondari (" red "), 
trees of red wood used as fuel. It stretches for 165 miles along 
the head of the Bay of Bengal, from the Hoogli to the Megna, 
with an extreme breadth inland of 81 miles. The western 
division, from the Hoogli to the Jamoona, is marked by 
embankments, securing a raised and dry cultivation on which 
the peasants live. The centre portion, from the Jamoona 
to the Baleswar, is lower, and the cultivators of the *' sweet " 
fields, protected from the salt water, reside at a distance. 
The eastern' or Bakirgaig division, from the Baleswar to the 
M^na, is the most advanced in soil and water and the 
condition of the resident agriculturists, owing to the greater 
volume of river water, and ^e formation of a line of sand hills 
along the shore. The official surveyors, however, report a slow 
subsidence of the whole delta, the fine silt of which, 120 feet 
thick, rests on a semi-fluid mud 40 feet farther down. Period- 
ically the vast tract is swept by the cyclone and the tidal wave, 
bat a growing population and many immigrants continue the 
fight with nature notwithstanding. Between the Raimangal 
and Malancha outlets to the Bay of Bengal is the fathom- 
less depression known as the Swatch of No-Ground, ascribed to 
the action of two circular tides in the funnel-shaped estuary 
Al(Hig the two great boat routes to Calcutta, the outer passage 
nsed in the cold season and the inner at other times, are many 
marts. Of these the principal are Basantpoor, at the confluence 
of the Ealindi and Jamoona, where the inner and outer pass- 
ages converge ; and Basra, on the Bidyadhari, a timber depot, 
— ^both on the border of the 24-Parganahs ; Chandkali, on the 
Kabadak, founded in 1782 by Heuckell, who first sought to 
reclaim the Soondarban ; Morrellgunj, a port on the Pangoochi, 
created by Mr. Morrell, a rice-planter. Khoolna is the chief 
mart of the Soondarban, and was long the headquarters of the 
Sast India Company's salt manufacture. 

§ 4. Jessor District, bounded E. by Fareedpoor district, S. 
by the Soondarban, and W. and N. by Nadiya district. Area, 
exclusive of Soondarban portion, 3658 sq. m. ; population, 
including Khoolna^ 2,210,898. The district is threaded by 
lines of tidal river drainage from north to south, with a network 
of interlacing streams, forming the three systems of the Kabadak, 

P 



66 PROVINCE OP BENGAL — ^DISTRICTS. [cHAP. IT. 

Bhairab, and Madhumati, and reaching the Bay of Bengal 
through three great arms, the Kahadak, Pase&r, and Haringhata. 
The Kabadak (" dove's eye ") flows from north to south along 
the western boundary. The Bhairab ("terrible"), the central 
stream, becomes tidal near Jessor station. The Madhumati 
(" honey-flowing ") leaves the Ganges higher up, under the name 
of the Giuui, and carries a vast volume of the waters of the 
great Ganges to the sea, along the eastern boundary of Jessr^r. 

Jessor, or Easba, station (" fame-depriving " or " very 
glorious ") is the only town with more than 5000 iiihabitantSi 
on the Bhairab. Chaugracha, 16 m. N.W. from Jessor, on the 
Kabadak, ceutre of the trade in su?ar and indigo seed. Kesal- 
poor, 18 ni. S. of Jessor, on the Harihar, with 8Ug]ir refineries 
and brass works. Kotchandpoor, 25 m. N.W. of Je.ssor, an- 
other sugar mart on the Kabadak ; Muhammadpoor, on the right 
bank of the Madhumati, once capital of a Muhammadan district, 
now a market village with ruins of fort, tanks, and temples. 
Bacrerhat, in the extreme S.E., with tomb of Khan Jahan, the 
Muhammadan who, about 1450, reclaimed much of the forest 
swamps. The subdivisions of this district, made after the 
indigo disturbances of 1860, are Jessor, Jhanidah, Magura, 
Naral, and Bau'erhat. W. M. Thackeray's father was Collector 
of Jessor in 1805. Here is a Baptist Mission. 

$ 5. Nadiya District, bounded E. by Jessor and Pabna; 
S. by 24-Parganahfl ; W. by Hoogli, Bardwan, and Beerbhoom ; 
N. by Moorshidabad and RajshaliL Area, 3421 sq. m. ; popu- 
lation, 2,022,545. The Padnia, or main stream of the Ganges, 
forms the northern boundary, and s^pills over into what are 
known as the Nadiya Rivers. These are (1) the Jalangi, 
which joins (2) the Bhasdrathi, thrown off higher up the 
Ganges and forming the junction known as the Hoogli, and (3) 
the Matabhanga, which falU into the Hoogli lower down by 
two branches. The three Nadiya rivers are kept open by 
Grovernment for the enormous local traffic, which pays tolls 
yielding an average net revenue of £15,000 a year. Krish- 
nagrar (27,000), on the Jalangi, chief town, centre of Church 
Missionary Society's agency, and of a Roman Catholic Mission, 
seat of a Government college, known for its coloured clay 
figures made by the potter caste. Santipoor (28,000), on the 
Hoogli, with cloth manufactures since it was a centre of East 
India Company's factories. Kooshtia (10,000), railway sta- 
tion on the Padma, chief seat of river trade ; here Bishop Cotton 
was drowned. RansLfirhat, ndlway station on the ChoomL 
Kadlya, or Nabadwipa (9000), at junction of the Jalangi and 



CHAP. IV.] NADIYA — ^MOORSHIDABAD. 67 

Bhagirathi, capital of last Hindoo king of Bengal, who moved 
here from Gaur ; still, with Benares and Pooiia, one of the 
centres of Brahmanical Pandits, whose Tols or leafy colleges are 
aided by the State; birthplace of Chaitanya, the Vaishnaiva 
reformer. Mihrpoor (6000), on the Bhairab, headquarters of 
subdivision of same name; Eumarkhali (5500), or Commer- 
ooUy, on the Garai, a railway station. 

Nadiya district consists of six subdivisions — Krishnagar, 
Mihrpoor, Kooshtia, Chooadanga, Bangaon, and Ranaghat. It 
has 4021 villages, with an average population of 591 souls; 
and 2768 estates paying £101,755 land revenue, or £36 : 15s. 
on an average. Dr. Leyden was Collector at one time, and Sir 
William Jones, Prof. BL H. Wilson, Prof. Cowell, and other 
Oriental scholaiB have frequently visited the district. Plassey 
(Palas = a red flower) field, where Clive defeated Saraj-ood-daula 
in 1757, lies on the Bhagirathi, which has since swept away all 
Clive's grove of 3000 mango trees, save one venerated by the 
Muhammadans as marking the spot where one of their leaders fell. 

§ 6. MooRSHiDABAD DISTRICT (from Moorshid Kooli Khan, 
the Brahman apostate to Islam, who transferred the Muham- 
madaii capital from Dacca, and became second founder of Moor- 
Bhidabad city), is bounded £. and N. by Rstjshahi and Maldah, 
S. by Nadiya and Bard wan, W. by Beerbhoom and Santalia. 
Area, 2141 sq. m. ; population, 1,200,825. The district, which 
is the head of the great delta of Bengal, is divided by the 
Bhagirathi, to E. of which is the silt delta, and to W. a no<lular 
limestone formation. The Ganges, forming the N. and £. 
boundary, throws off the Bhagirathi at Chapghati, the Bhairab 
and Sialman lower down, and the Jalangi, which separates 
Mnorshidabad from Nadiya district. From the west uplands 
the Baa-^Ld, the Dwarka, the Brahmani, and the Mor fall into 
the Bhagirathi Barhampoor (27,000) has been the chief 
civil and military station, on the left bank of the Bhagirathi, 
since the battle of Plassey. Before 1757, Easimbazar, the ruins 
of which are near that station, was the commercial capital of 
Bengal, where Warren Hastings at first resided. At Barhampoor 
the first laige outbreak of the Mutiny of 1857 took place by the 
19th Native Infantry. Seat of a Government college, and 
mission of London Missionary Society. Moorshidaba^ City 
(Mak80odavad=old name) (46,000), 5 m. above Barhampoor, was 
defscnbed by Clive as wealthier than London, and quite as popu- 
lous in his time. Seat of the Muhammadan administration of 
Bengal, and of the British, till 1793 ; the Nawab Nazim's title 
becfune extinct in 1880. The Nawab of Moorshidabad's palace is 



68 PROVINCE OF BENGAL — ^DISTRICTS. [CHAP. IV. 

in the city ; the Motee Jheel, or " pearl lake," 2 m. south, the 
old palace, and Kuttara with tomb of Moorshid Kooli Khan, 
are remarkable. Kandi (12,000), 16 m. S.W. of Barham- 
poor, seat of the Biyas of Paikpara. Janffipoor (7000), on 
the Bhagirathi near the Ganges, long the centre of the silk 
trade. Azeemgai\j is the terminus of the branch railway from 
Nalhati on the East Indian Railway to a point three m. above 
Moorshidabad, and opposite Jeeaganj, a trade-centre. Dhoobran, 
Bogwangola, and Murari railway stations, are also large marts. 
Gheria, near where the Bhagirathi leaves the Ganges, was the 
scene of the battle in 1740 in which Moorshid's house was 
extinguished by Ali Yardi Khan, and of the victory of Major 
Adams over Meer Kasim's troops under the renegade Sumroo 
in 1763. Moorshidabad has 4 subdivisions — Barhampoor, 
Moorshidabad, Jangipoor, and Kandi. 

§ 7. Pabna Disteict is bounded E. by Maimansingh and 
Dacca, S. by Nadiya and Fareedpoor, W. by Nadiya and 
lUg'shahi, and N. by Rajshahi, Bogra, and Maimansingh. 
Area, 1847 sq. m. Population, 1,312,977. The district 
consists of the angle formed by the confluence of the Ganges 
and Brahmapootra, here called Jamoona. The former sends off 
the Eechamati, which joins the Harasagar, the principal branch 
of the Jamoona in the district Pabna (16,000), chief town, 
on the Eechamati. Serajsraoj (19,000), on the Jamoona, centre 
of the jute trade of Eastern Bengal, with a landing-place 
changed according to the varying course of the river. Bel- 
koochi (5500) mart, 10 m. lower down. Agrarian disturbances, 
due to rackrenting by new landlords, have frequently affected 
this district, especially in 1873. 

§ 8. Rajshahi District is bounded E. by Bogra and Pabna, 
N. by Bogra and Dinajpoor, S. by Nadiya, and W. by Moorshid- 
abad and MaldaL Area, 2359 sq. m. Population, 1,333,237. 
The Ganges washes the district on the S.W. and S., and throws 
off the Baral. The Mahananda, which rises in the Himalaya, 
touches the western boundary for a few miles before it falls 
into the Ganges. The Atrai, a channel of the Teesta, flows 
through the district for 70 m. from N.W. to S.E., receiving the 
Jamoona from Dinajpoor. The Baranai flows through the heart 
of the district E. into the AtraL Chalan Bbeel or lake covers 
150 sq. m. during the rainy season, near Singa on the Nattor 
and Bogra road. Bampoor Bauleah (23,000), chief town, on 
N. bank of Ganges, formerly seat of Dutch and East India 
Company's factories, and still a centre of silk and indigo trade. 
Seat of English Presbyterian Mission. Nattor (10,000), 30 



CHAF. iv.J BOGRA — DINAJPOOR — RANGPOOR. 69 

m. K of above, and Hindoo capital of district. Each town 
is head of a subdivision of the same name. 

§ 9. BooRA District is bounded E. by Maimansingh, N. by 
Bangpoor and Dinajpoor, S. by Pabna and Rigshahi, W. by 
Bi^shahi and Dinajpoor. Area, 150 sq. m. Population, 
733,546. The Brahmapootra bounds the district to the E., and 
it is threaded by the Phuljhur, Karatoya, Nai^ar, and Jamoona, 
which pass into the Atrai tributary of the Brahmapootra. 
Bogra (8000), the chief town, on W. bank of Karatoya. 
Sherpoor (4500), once a Muhammadan frontier-post, and still 
centre of the principal native landholders. Mahastban Grarh, 
a mound of ruins, first capital of a Hindoo dynasty, and now a 
centre of Muhammadan pilgrimage, is 7 m. N. of Bogra. 

§ 10. DiXAJPOOR District is bounded E. by Jalpaigori 
and Rangpoor, W. by Pumiah, and S. by Maldah, Rigshahi, 
and Bogra. Area, 4117 sq. m. Population, 1,529,906. The 
principal rivers, navigable only during the rainy season, are the 
Mahananda and Nagar on its W. boundary ; the Eulik or 
chief tributary of the Nagar, and the Tangan of the Mahananda; 
the Ghiramati, Pumababha, and Dhapa, which rise in marshes ; 
the Atrai and Jamoona, channels of the Teesta, and the Karatoya 
on the E. boundary. Dinajpoor (13,000), only town, on E. 
bank of Pumababha, below the junction of the Dhapa. Grain 
marts abound along the rivers of this purely agricultural dis- 
trict, such as Chooraman on the K bank of Mahananda, and 
Raiganj on the Kulik. Several annual fairs and gatherings are 
held at the tombs of Muhammadan saints and at Hindoo 
shrines, of which the greatest is the Nekmard fair, held in 
Bhawanpoor on the first day of the Bengalee year in April, 1 m. 
W. of the Kulik. Seat of Baptist Mission. 

§ 11. Rangpoor District (*' place of pleasure ") is bounded 
K by Groalpara and Maimansingh, N. by Jalpaigori and 
Kooch Behar, W. by Dinajpoor and Jalpaigori, and S. by 
Bogra. Area, 3488 sq. m. Population, 2,169,699. The 
Brahmapootra river forms the E. boundary, flowing south for 80 
m.; it steadily encroaches on the right or W. bank. The 
Teesta, which falls into the above at Chilmari, crosses the dis- 
trict from N.W. to S.K for 110 m. In the historic floods of 
1787 this river changed its course from S. to the Granges to 
S.E to the Brahmapootra, sweeping all before it as it reverted 
to its old channel. The Ghaghat, Manas, and Gagaria are its 
branches. The Dharla, Sankos, and Doodhkumar are tributaries 
of the Brahmapootra. The Karatoya, or Old Teesta, is the 
principal river in the W. of the district In the times described 



70 PROVINCE OF BENGAL — ^DISTRICTS. [CHAP. IV. 

in the Makabharat epic, it formed the boundaiy between the 
Hindoo kingdom of Kamroop and Matsya or Bengal. Eam- 
roop, incliiditig all modern Bengal and Assam to the K, was 
ruled over by three successive dynasties, of which le^rends and 
ruins still give traces, before its conquest under Raja Nilambhar 
by Husain Shah, Afghan King of Bengal, at the end of the 
15 th century. BanfiTPOor (15,000), only town, on N. bank of 
Ghaghat; on branch railway to Dhoobri, Assam; Wesleyan 
Mission. 

§ 12. Dabjeelino Disthict (" the holy ** or " bright spot ") 
(British Sikkim), in the lower Himalaya, between 26* 30' and 
27" 31' N. lat., and between 88" 2' and 88' 56' E. long., is 
bounded K by Jalpaigori and Bhootan, N. by Sikkim State, 
W. by Nepal, and S. by Jalpaigori. Area, 1234 sq. m. 
Population, 157,038. The district consists of (1) the tarai or 
submontane forest and marsh between plain and hill, and (2) 
the valleys and ridges of the hills rising to 10,000 ft. covered 
with forest, from which the spur, 60 m. long, of the Singaleela 
range separating Sikkim from E. Nepal, runs up into Kin- 
chiujinga. The principal hills in the district itself are on this 
range: Phalalum or Phalut (12,042 ft.), Subargum (10,430 
ft.), and Tanglu (10,084 ft) ; Situng, conical peak, S.E. of Dar- 
jeeling town. Sinchal Pahar (hill), a long range, on the top of 
a spur of which, stretching down to the Teesta, is the militaiy 
sanitarium of Jallapahar (8067 ft.) ; the peaks of the latter 
hill are locally known as Durbin, Bara (big), and Chota (little). 
Daijeeling station is at a height of 7167 ft. The Teesta 
river reaches the district from Sikkim State, flows between 
the two till it receives the Great Rangeet, and then runs 
south to the plains through the Sivak Gola Pass, with a 
width of 800 yards. On its right bank it receives the Great 
Rangeet, the Rangjo, the Rayeng, and the Sivak ; on the left, 
the Rang-chu and the Roll The Mahananda rises near Mahal- 
diram hill, and flows between the tarai and Jalpaigori ; it re- 
ceives the New Balasun, Mechi, and Ghenga lower down. The 
Great Rangeet receives on its right bank the Rang-chn, Little 
Rangeet, and Ramman before it falls into the Teesta. The 
Jaldhaka flows between Darjeeling and Bhootan and Jalpaigori, 
receiving on its right bank the Paralang-chu, the Rang-chu, and 
the Ma-chu. There are two small lakes, one 6 m. S.W. of Hope 
Town, and the Ramtal E. of the Teesta, ascribed to a landslip. 
Daxjeelingr town (4000 re^iident pop.), centre of municipality 
covering 138 sq. nL (23,000), originally ceded by Sikkim Riga, 
on a narrow ridge, dividing into two spurs descending 6000 ft. 



CHAP. IV.] DARJEELING SIKKIM — JALPAIGORI. 71 

to the Great Rangeet. Connected by steam tramway with plains 
at Siligori, 48f m., and by railway with Calcutta, 367 m. S. 
Slimmer quarters of Bengal Government ; acquired in 1835, and 
enlarged after outrage on Sir J. Hooker and Dr. Campbell in 
1850. Seat of Established Church of Scotland's Mission, chiefly 
among the aboriginal Lepchas. A centre of China tea cultivation 
since 1856, also at neighbouring settlement of Hope Town. 
Mun^i^o and Sittong are the chief cinchona plantations since 
1862 in the valley, and Rangarun, botanical garden, is near 
Darjeeling. Karseanfif, 20 m. S. of Darjeeling. There are 2 
subdivisions — Daijeeling and Tarai. Coal, lime, and copper 
abound ; the district is an entrepot of trade with Sikkim and 
Bengal. 

§ 13. *SiKKiM State (Tibetan = Demo-jong), Boodhist Lep- 
cha principality under a Raja protected by the British Govern- 
ment since the first Goorkba war in 1817, and subject to it in 
foreign and military afiFaiis under treaty of 1861, while paying 
tribute to China through Lhasa. The State has now an area 
estimated at 2600 sq. m., with a population of 3000 Lepchas, 
2000 Bhooteas, and 2000 Limboos. It is bounded N. and N.E. 
by Tibet, S.E. by Bhootan, S. by Darjeeling, and W. by Nepal. 
The northern passes into Tibet are of great height. Jelep-la 
(pass), the most southerly, rises to 13,000 ft. ; Guiatu-la and 
Yah-la, next to it, are 14,000 ft, leading into the Chumbi 
valley of Tibet. The Cho-la (15,000 ft.), farther north, is on 
the direct road to Chumbi. The Tankrarla (16,083) is the most 
snowy in Sikkim. The State is drained by the Teesta and its 
affluents, and by the Am-machu, rising at the foot of Chumalhari 
peak (23,929 ft.), flowing through the Chumbi valley, and pass- 
ing into Jalpaigori under the name of Torsha. Tumloonsr is 
the capital, at which the "Raisk is bound to reside nine months 
in the year ; the other three be spends in the cooler Chumbi 
Valley. Ghsuitaik is the other principal village. The chief 
Lama monasteries are Labron^Ti near Tumloong, Pemiongchi, 
and Tassiding. The rapid rivers are crossed by cane bridges, 
as at Rangpo-tang on the Teesta, and by raft-ferries. Bansreet 
is a station where trade is registered. 

§ 14. Jalpaigori District, the W. Bhootan Dwars con- 
quered from Bhootan in the war of 1865, is bounded E. by 
Groalpara, N. by Bhootan and Darjeeling, S. by Kooch Behar 
and Rangpoor, and W. by Pumiah, Dinajpoor, and Darjeeling. 
Area, 2911 sq. m. Population, 570,210. The Sinchoola range, 
Benigango peak 6222 ft., is the western boundaiy between 
Bhootan and British territoiy, below which is Biiza canton- 



72 PROVINCE OF BENGAL — DISTRICTa [OHAP. IV. 

ment, 6 m. from frontier and 32 m. from Kooch Behar town, 
on a ridge from 1659 to 2457 feet, at the pass leading to 
Marichan in Bhootan. The principal rivers from W. to K 
are the Mahananda, Earatoya, Teesta, Jaldhaka^ Doodooya, 
Miynai, Torsha, Ka|jani, Raidhak, and Sankos, aU of which 
are navigable by large boats in the plains, except the Earatoya 
which rises in the district At the foot of the hills many of 
the streams disappear for a time in the porous soil Jalpai- 
fifori town (6000), on right bank of Teesta, a railway station, 
with cantonment to the south across the Eharla streauL Titalya 
is a camping ground on the Mahananda. The ruins of the city 
of Prithu Rsya, of the earliest Eamroop dynasty, were seen at 
the end of last century, by Dr. Buchanan -Hamilton, on the 
Talma, a small stream E. of the Earatoya river, in the San- 
yasikata subdivision. 

§ 15. EoocH Behar State ("Eoch Monastery") is 
bounded E. by Goalpara, N. and W. by Jalpaigori, S. by Bang- 
poor, Area, 1307 sq. UL Population, 600,946. These six rivers 
flow through it from north to south to join the Brahmapootra — 
the Teesta, Singimari, Torsha, Ealjani, Raidhak, and Gadadhar. 
On the destruction of the Hindoo Eingdom of Eamroop by the 
Afghan kingn of Bengal at the end of the 15th century, the Eochs 
and other aboriginal tribes from the east founded the present 
State, which became powerful for a time, but had to be helped 
by Warren Hastings against the Bhooteas in 1773, when the 
State became externally subject to the British by treaty. The 
Raja is well educated, and has visited England. Koooh Behar 
town (10,000), on the Torsha, on northern road to Buxa and 
Bhootan, contains the Raja's palace. Eamatapoor, on W. bank 
of Dharla, has ruins of the capital of one of the Eamroop 
dynasties. The native administration is carried on through 3 
subdivisions, somewhat after British fashion. 

Western JDistricU, 

§ 16. MiDNAPooR DiSTRiOT, the most southerly, on the 
right bank of the Iloogli, is bounded E. by Hoogli with Howrah 
and River Hoogli, S. by Bay of Bengal and Balasor, W. by 
Morbhaig State and Puroolia, and N. by Bankura and Bardwan. 
Area, 5082 sq. m. Population, 2,514,672. The Roopnarayan, 
Haldi, and Rasoolpoor rivers, with their tributaries, flow 
through the district eastward to the Hoogli. The Subama^ 
rekha passes through its western jungle tract into the Bay of 
BengaL The Midnapoor High-Level Canal runs for 53 m. east 



CHAP. IV.] MIDNAFOOR — ^HOOGU AND HOWRAH. 73 

and west from the district town to Ooloobareea on the Hoogli, 
16 ixL below Calcatta. The sea and river face of the district 
are protected by 37 lines of embankments for a length of 601^ 
m.y maintained at a cost of nearly a million sterling in the past 
40 years. Midnapoor (28,000), chief town and centre of 
American Baptist Mission, of brass, indigo, and silk manu&c- 
tnres, on the high road from Calcutta to Orissa. Ohandra- 
kona (22,000), to the north, long a weaving factory of the 
East India Company. G-hatal (16,000), on the Silai affluent 
of the Roopnarayan, a trading centre. Tamlook (6000), near 
mouth of the Roopnarayan, ancient port and capital of a Bood- 
hist kingdom, visited by the Chinese travellers Fa Hian and 
Hwen Tlisang, in the 5th and 7th centuries A.D., but now 60 
m. distant from the sea. Dread of Kali, the destroying goddess 
to whom Tamlook (Tamas + lipta^ stained with darkness) is 
sacred, caused the Marathas to respect the place. Birkool and 
Cbandpoor are cool spots on the southern sea-coast sometimes 
frequented as watering-places. Ck>ntai, also, was thus visited 
hy Warren Hastings. Ke4jeree is the outmost telegraph 
station for ships, in the same neighbourhood. Midnapoor has 4 
subdivisions — Midnapoor, Tamlook, Contai, and Garbheta. 

§ 17. HoooLi AND HowRAH (Habra) DISTRICT, the most 
denisely populated portion of the British Empire, is bounded £. 
by the Hoogli river, S. and W. by the Roopnarayan and 
Bardwan, and N. by Bardwan. Area, 1701 sq. m. Population, 
of Hoogli, 1,007,445; of Howrah, 635,381. Besides the Hoogli, 
which separates the district by a breadth of about half a mile 
from the 24-Parganah8 and Nadiya, and the Roopnarayan, 
which divides it from Midnapoor on the south, the principal river 
is the Damodar. All three are connected by drainage and tidal 
channels. The Damodar, flowing from nortii to south, &Us into 
the Hoogli just above the mouth of the Roopnarayan, so that the 
two form the James and Mary sand ( jahnari = deadly waters), 
dreaded by ships which draw 26 ft. in the Calcutta trade. 
The Saraswati, now a creek, was once the main channel of the 
Ganges, on which was the royal port of Satgaon, a great city in 
the 16th century, now a village. Hoogrli and Ohinsurali 
(Chichirah) (35,000), on right bank 25 m. N. of Calcutta- 
Howrah, form one municipal town. The former was founded 
by the Portuguese in 1537 on the decay of the old capital 
Satgaon, the latter by the Dutch, who ceded it to Great 
Britain in 1825. The -English settled at HoogU in 1641, 
under a grant made by Shah Jahan to Dr. Boughton, who 
had cured his daughter. A quarrel with the Nawab of Bengal 



74 pnoyiNCE of bengal — districts. [chap. nr. 

in 1685 forced Job Charnock to flee to the village which grew 
into Calcutta. Hoogli-Chinsurah is the seat of an Arabic and 
English college and Sheeah Imambara endowed by Muhammad 
Moshin, and of a Free Church Missionary Institution and 
church. Here too was the first press set up, in 1778. In 
the northern suburb is Bandel, with a Portuguese Priory and 
Church, the first (1599) built in Bengal Serampoor 
(25,000) (" city of the worshipful Rama"), on the Hoogli oppo- 
site Barrackpoor, a Danish settlement till 1845 under the name 
of Frederiksnagar, which gave shelter to Carey, Marshman, and 
Ward, who here founded their famous Baptist Mission in 1799, 
and whose tombs are here. Their college with noble library ; 
press at which thirty translations of the Scriptures, and the first 
Bengalee newspaper, the Friend of India, and much pure litera- 
ture were published ; paper-mill, type-foundry, botanic garden, 
church and Christian village, have made this clean and pretty 
town much visited by travellers. A Scottish jute factory now 
occupies the garden and press. Howrah (105,575), o{ipo8ite 
Calcutta, of which it practically forms a part, and connected with 
it by a bridge, is the great terminus of the £ast Indian system 
of railways, till the central station be built in Calcutta. 
Howrah forms a magisterial district, but is part of Hoogli in 
other respects. Dockyards, mills, factories, a civil engineering 
coUege in what was Bishop's College, and the Botanical Grarden, 
make this ever-growing town the most important out of Cal- 
cutta proper, or what Jersey City is to New York. 

Two high strips of land, formed by the river silt, from 
Howrah along the Hoogli N. to Tribeni, and along the Saras- 
wati or old Ganges parallel to this, are covered by a succession 
of populous towns and villages inhabited by the well-to-do 
Hindoo families, some of whom hold office or trade in the 
capital, while others attend to the land. Between the two 
ridges the country has been more than once devastated by fever. 
Still the population increases on the higher ground till it stands 
at between 1080 and 3000 the sq. m. Here, too, is much 
educational and social activity. 

Ohaudama^ar (''city of sandal-wood"), on the Hoogli 
between Chinsurah and Serampoor, is stiU a French settlement 
subject administratively to Pondicheri in Madras, covers 3 sq. 
m., and has a population of 23,000. Founded in 1673, the 
settlement was made a considerable port by Dupleiz, was cap- 
tured by Admiral Watson in 1757 and held for six years, was 
a second time held by the British from 1794 to 1816. 

Hoogli District has 5 subdinsions — Hoogli, Seram|x>or, 
Howrah, Mahishrakha, and Jahanabad. 



CHAP. IV.] BARDWAN — BANKURA — THE COAL-FIELDS. 75 

§ 18. Bardwan Dlstrict, bounded E. by Nadiya, S. by 
Hoogli and Midnapoor, W. by Bankura and Manbhoom, and N. 
by the Santal country, Beerbhoom, and Moorehidabad. When, 
in 1760, Meer Easim Khan made oyer Bardwan to the British, 
it included the present district, Bankura, Hoogli, and a third 
of Beerbhoom. Area, 2693 sq. m. Population, 1,391,730. 
This is the coal region of Bengal. Besides the Bhagirathi or 
Hoogli on the east, the Roopnarayan on the south, and the Damo- 
dar on the north-west, the principal rivers are the Ajai and 
Khflri. After forming the northern boundary the Ajai enters 
the district at Bhedia, and flows east through Eatwa subdivision 
to the Bhagirathi The Khan rises in a rice field near the 
western town of Boodbood and winds eastward to the 
Bhagirathi. Bardwan (33,000), chief station, a municipal 
town on the Banka tributary of the Khari, consisting of 73 
Tillages around the palace and gardens of the Maharaja of 
Bardwan. Here the Church Missionary Society works. Kalna 
(28,000), port of the district, and Free Church Mission station, 
on the Bha^athi ; Syaxnbazar (20,000), an old town 
south of the Ajai ; Baneegrazij (20,000), centre of the coal 
mining on the north bank of the Dainodar; Jahanabad 
(14,000), on E. bank of Roopnarayan ; Katwa (8000), old 
town at the confluence of the Ajai and Bhagirathi, where Ali 
Yardi Khan defeated the Marathas; Dainhat (8000), mart 
on the Bhagirathi 

The Raneegai^j coal-field covers an area of 500 sq. m., 
between 120 and 160 m. N.W. of Calcutta, and is traversed 
by two lines of the East Indian Railway from Kanoo junction. 
Some 50 coal mines put out about half a million tons of non- 
coking bituminous coal every year, used for ordinary steam pur- 
poses, the very best only touching the average of English coal 
There is much iron ore, but flux is scarce. From Seetaram- 
poor station the direct main railway to Bombay, by Sambalpoor 
and Nagpoor, is likely to run. Bardwan District has 5 subdivi- 
sions — Bardwan, Katwa, Kalna, Boodbood, and Raneega^j. 

§ 19. Bankitba District, bounded E. and N. by Bardwan, 
S. by Midnapoor, W. by Manbhoom. Area, 2621 sq. m. 
Population, 1,044,195. Its uplands rise into hills, the principal 
of which is Susoonia (1442 ft.) The Damodar and Roop- 
narayan are its rivers, but neither is here navigable. Bankura 
(17,000), chief station on N. bank of Roopnarayan. Bishnu- 
poor (18,000), ancient capital of Hindoo dynasty of same 
name, a few miles S. of Roopnarayan. There are 2 sub- 
divisions — Bankura and Bishnupoor. 



76 PROVINCE OF BENGAL — DISTRICTS. [OHAP. iv. 

§ 20. Beerbhoom District ("hero" or "jungle-land") is 
bounded E. by Moorshidabad and Bardwan, N. by Moor- 
shidabad and Santal country, W. by Santal country, and S. by 
Bardwan. Area, 1344 sq. m. Population, 792,411. Besides 
the Ajai, which forms the southern boundary, the only river is 
the Mor, which, rising in the Santal country, flows through 
the district from west to east, and is rarely navigable save by 
descending boats. The iron ore was long worked by the native& 
Sooree (2100), chief town, 3 m. south of the Mor. Na«ar 
or Rajnagar, ancient capital of the Hindoo princes of Beer- 
bhoom ; the hot springs of Tantipara are a few m. to the south. 
G-anootia) on N. bank of Mor, centre of silk industry for 
a century. Soorool, 5 m. N. of the Ajai, long the great com- 
mercial residence of the East India Company under Mr. 
Oheap, now an obscure place. Kendooli village on N. 
bank of Ajai, birthplace of the Vaishnaivite poet, Jaidev& 
There are 2 subdivisions — Sooree and Rampore Hat 

Eastern Districts, 

§ 21. Dacca District ("Dhak" tree) is bounded K by 
Tipura, N. by Maimansingh, S. and W. by Bakirgai^j and 
Fareedpoor. Area, 2796 sq. m. Population, 2,196,641. The 
district is the centre of the three river systems of Lower 
Bengal, the Magna which receives the north-eastern streams 
from Cachar, the Brahmapootra from the north, and the Ganges 
from the north-west These are interlaced by a network of 
streams, of which ten are navigable by large native boat& The 
Megna, the eastern boundary, is never fordable, is affected by 
the tide only in the cold and hot seasons, forms many alluvial 
banks or chars, and has a considerable bore at its mouth. Its 
principal tributaries are the Dhaleswari, from the N.W. and 
the old Brahmapootra. The Gkinges, or Padma, which bounds 
the district W. and S.W., joins the Megna (1) by the four-mile 
channel of the Eirtinasa N. of Eartikpoor, and (2) by Naya 
Bagna, in Bakirganj, leaving its original channel almost dry. 
It throws off the Hilsamari to the Dhaleswari and the Airal- 
khan. The Lakhmia, a beautiful river with high wooded banks, 
leaves the Bralmiapootra at Tok and falls into the Dhaleswari 
4 m. above the confluence of that river with the Megna. The 
Buriganga is a loop of the Dhaleswari, from which it separates 
itself for 26 m. Artificial watercourses facilitate navigation 
and trade. In 1517 the Portuguese first visited this and the 
estuaries at the head of the Bay of Bengal, where they lived 



CHAP. IT.] DACX3A BAKIRGANJ — FAREEDPOOR. 77 

by piracy and trade. The English settled in Dacca about 1660. 
Ab FiriDghis or Franks the Portuguese descendants have be- 
come mixed with the Bengalees, but retain their faith. 

Dacca city (70,000), chief town on the Buriganga 8 m. 
above its reunion with the Dhaleswari. The eastern capital 
of the Mughuls after 1608, the site of an East India Company's 
factory after 1660, from which time till 1817 its fine muslins 
were imported into England. After decaying for a time, the 
JQte trade which began about 1860 restored some of its pros- 
perity. It is the seat of a Government College and Baptist 
Mission. Greeks and Armenians long traded here ; the number 
of Europeans and Eurasians in the district is still about 6000. 
Naraizigaxij (11,000), great mart extending 3 m. along W. 
bank of Lakhmia, where it joins the Dhaleswari. Manikfiraj:^ 
(11,500), mart covering 2 sq. m. on W. bank of Dhaleswari.. Bik- 
nunpoor, the Hindoo capital before the Muhammadan invasion, 
is now Rampal, where a mound marks Ballal Sen's palace. 
Sonargaon, the first Muhammadan capital, ia now Painam. 

Dacca District has 3 subdivisions — Dacca, Moonsheeganj, 
and Manikganj. It contains 8739 estates, held by 16,688 
owners paying £52,700 land-tax. 

§ 22. Bakiboanj District is bounded E. by the Megna 
and Bay of Bengal, N. by Dacca and Fareedpoor, W. by 
Fareedpoor and Jessor, and S. by Bay of Bengal. Area, 3648 
sq. m. Population, 1,885,183. The Megna, the Arial Khan 
ofibhoot of the Ganges and the Baleswar, known as the Madhu- 
mati and Garai higher up, are the principal rivers. The 
Barisal river flows from the Arial Khan to the sea Other large 
navigable rivers, ever changing their local names, form a network 
tim)ngh which the delta is drained into the Bay or inundated 
by the sea, and create islands like Dakshin Shahbazpoor. 
The spring tides cause a strong bore in the Megna estuary. 
Canals and watercourses take the place of roads, and fishing 
alternates with agriculture. Barisal (8000), a chief town on 
W. bank of river of same name, seat of prosperous Baptist and 
other Christian Missions. Nalchiti municipality on river of 
same name. Jhalakati, great timber mart at junction of 
Nalchiti and Jhalakati streams. Daulat Khan, in island of 
Dakshin Shahbazpoor. The district has 5 subdivisions — 
Barisal, Dakshin Shahbazpoor, Madaripoor, Firozpoor, and 
Patwakhali. 

§ 23. Fareedpoor District is bounded R by Dacca, N. 
by Pabna, W. by Jessor, S. by Bakirgaig. Area, 2267 sq. m. 
PopdiUian, 1,614,083. Besides the Ganges on the E. and N., 



78 PROVINCB OF BENGAL — DISTRICTS. [chap. IV. 

the Anal Khan, aod Madhumati, the principal rivers are the 
Chandna, with its tiibutary the Kumar, which leaves the Ganges 
and flows to the Garai and Madhumati. The Kumar flows 
from the Chandna near Fareedpoor station S.E. to Bakirganj 
swamps, swollen into lakes in the rainy season, encircling 
mounds artificially raised by the Chandal caste of Hindoos, 
many of whom are becoming Christians. Fareedpoor ( 7000), 
chief town on W. bank of small Mara Pad ma, with the 
Dhol Samoodra lake to the south. Sajryidpoor (6500), muni- 
cipality and mart on the Barasia. Qoalunda (1000), great 
entrepot at the junction of the main streams of the Ganges and 
Bitihmapootra, terminus of the Eastern Bengal Railway and 
river port for Dacca and Assam steamers. Daulatpoor, obscure 
village, where the Faraizi sect of the Musalman Soonnees took 
their rise, and under Dudoo Miyan caused political trouble in 
1857. The 2 subdivisions are Fareedpoor and Goalunda. 

§ 24. Maimansinoh Distbict is bounded E. by Sylhet and 
Tipura, N. by Garo hills, S. by Dacca, and W. by Pabna, 
Bogra, and Rangp>oor. Area, 6287 sq. m. Population, 
2,950,105. The Susang hills form the N.W. border. The 
Jamoona, or main channel of the Brahmapootra, flows for 94 
m. along the western boundary, with a breadth in some places 
of 6 m. The (old) Brahmapootra flows through the centre of 
the district to Tok, where it enters Dacca, a fordable stream 
rarely more than \ m. broad. It throws off" the Jhinai to the 
Jamoona. The Kangsa is a deep stream between Maimnn>ingh 
and Sylhet. Naseerabad or Maimansingh (10,000), chief 
town, on the W. bank of the Brahmapootra. Jaxnalpoor 
(15,000), also on W. bank of the BrahmAp4»otra, once a military 
station. KisorisranJ, 13 m. E. of the Brahmapootra. Sher- 
poor (8000), 9 m. N. of Jamalpoor. Dhanikola (7000), on 
the Satua. These are the principal places in the 4 subdivisions 
of the same name, omitting the last. 

§ 25. Tipura District (Tripura«=sun-god or ruler of 
three worlds) is bounded E. by Hill Tipura ; S. by Noakhaii ; 
W. by Megna, separating it from I^^aimansingh, Dacca, and 
Bakirganj ; and N. by Maimansingh and Sylhet. Area, 2491 
sq. m. Population, 1,491,762. The Lalmui range, 5 m. W. of 
Comillah, low wooded hills, rise into the Maynamati hill (100 
ft.), a retreat for the European residents. The Megna receives 
the Ganges and Brahmapootra opposite Chandpoor, 60 m. 
farther south than in Migor Renneirs time or a century ago. 
The Goomti, rising in the Tipura hills, divides the district 
and falls into the Megna at DaudkhandL The Dakatia 



CHAP. IV.] TIPURA — CHTTTAGONG. 79 

traverses the south part of the district for 150 m., and falls into 
the Me^a. The Titas similarly waters the northern portion of 
the district. Oomillali (Kumilla) (13,000), chief town on S. 
bank of Goomti, on Dacca aud Chittagnng road. Brahman- 
baria (12,500), on N. bank of Titas. There are 2 subdivibions, 
of whi<th these towns are the headquarters. 

§ 26. Hill Tipdea, Native State bounded E. by Chitta- 
gong Hill Tracts and Looshai country, N. by Sylhet, W. by 
Tipura District and Noakhali, S. by Noakhali and Chittagong. 
Area, 3867 sq. m. Population, 95,637. Five or six terraced 
and parallel ranges of hiUs, at an average distance of 12 m. from 
each other, raise the country from W. to K to Betling Seeb 
(3200 ft.), the highest peak in the Janipooi range. The 
Goomti and Pheni, the Haora, Khozai, Dulac, and Manu rivers 
are navigable during the rainy season. A^rartala (1500), the 
capital, is a village on the N. bank of the river Haora 30 m. 
from Comillah. Eailashar and Oodaipoor are subdi visional 
stations. The Raja, according to the Bengalee verse chronicle 
'' Rajmala/' is of the lunar race; he early adopted the Shiva form 
of Hindooism with its practice of human saciifice. As holder 
of an estate covering 589 sq. m. in Tipura District, the 
Raja's title is decided by the Civil Courts. The magistrate of 
Tipura is Political Agent of Hill Tipura, with a native 
assldtant at Agartala. The Raja is a British subject as to 
his estate, and a feudatory paying a succession duty for Hill 
Tipura. 

§ 27. Chittaoono Disteict (Saptagram = seven villages 
of the seven sages) is bounded E. by HiU Tracts of Chittagong 
and Arakan ; S. by the Naf, separating it from Arakan ; W. by 
Bay of Bengal; N. by Tipura and Noakhali. Area, 2567 
sq. m. Population, 1,220,973. There are 5 ranges of low hills 
covered with jungle, and rising to Seetakoond iu the N., as the 
highest point (1155 ft.). Of the three navigable rivers the 
largest is the Earnaphooli, which rises in the N.E. of the 
Hill Tracts and winds W. and S. W. to the Bay of Bengal, after 
receiving the Halda from. the N. The Sangoo, rising in the N. 
Arakan Hill Tracts, winds W. and S.W. through Chittagong 
into the Bay 10 m. S. of the Earnaphooli mouth. The Pheni 
forms the boundary between Chittagong and Noakhali on the 
north. The coast consists of a network of creeks, swamps, 
and forests of the Soondarban type on the other side of the 
Bay. Canal cuttings connect the creeks along the coast for 
navigation. Small embankments keep out the salt water. 

Chittagong (21,000), a port and chief town 12 m. up the 



80 PROVINCE OF BENGAL — DISTRICTa [cHAP. IV. 

Karoaphooli, with 20 feet anchorage. The Portuguese, who 
settled here before Satgaon and Hoogli, named it Porto Grando. 
In 1665 it was taken by the Mughuls,who called it Islamabad. 
In 1857 the 34th Native Infantry mutinied here. Long un- 
healthy and decaying, the port is again rising and is next to 
Calcutta of the Bengal ports. There \b a Roman Catholic 
establishment for 800 Firinghi descendants of the Portuguese, 
who, in all but that faith, have become identified with 
the natives. Oox's Bazaar (5000) in the south, or the 
Baghkali creek, inhabited chiefly by Mughs, or Boodhists 
of Arakan, whose fathers helped the Portuguese in their piratical 
attacks on the Muhammadans, and in 1638 made Cbittagong 
over to their Government of Bengal The Mugh immigration 
from Arakan to Cbittagong led to the first Burmese war. Tea 
cultivation began in the district in 1840, and export in 1868. 

§ 28. Chittagono Hill Tracts District is bounded E. by 
a line which follows the Tooilenpooi or Si^ook and Tooi Chang 
and Ttiega branches of the Kamaphooli to the Arakan frontier 
beyond the S. hill-station of Keokradrong, S. by Akyab, W. 
by Cbittagong, and K. by Hill Tipura. Area, 5419 sq. m. 
Population, 101,467. Ten ranges of hills {tang or Umng\ acces- 
sible only to the wild elephant, reach a maximum height of 
2789 ft in the Rang-rang-dang peak of the Tyambang range 
(lat. 2r 41', long. 92° 29'). The rivers Pheni, Kamaphooli, 
Sangoo, and Matamoori divide the tracts into four valleys. 
Ramakri lake, on E. side of hill of same name, 6 m. S.E. of 
Politai, is of great beauty. Ranfiraxnati, on the Kamaphooli 
below Kasalarg, the limit of its navigation, administrative 
centre and mai-t for hill produce ; here Goorkha veterans are 
settled. Bandarban, chief town in Sangoo or south portion, 
of which Biuna, 16 m. S.E., is seat of Assistant Commissioner. 
The tribes are divided into the fifteen clans of Boodhist Khy- 
oungtha, or children of the river, and the more savage aboriginal 
or mixed Toungtha, or children of the hills. The former are 
managed through the Chakma, Bohmong, and Mong chie&. 
The Toungtha tribes are the Tipuras, Mrungs, Koomis, Miros, 
and Elhyengs, British subjects; Bangos and Pankhos, under 
British influence; and Looshais or Kookees, and Shendoos, 
virtually independent. 

§ 29. NoAKHALi District is bounded E. by Hill Tipura 
and Cbittagong, S. by Bay of Bengal, W. by Megna, and N. 
by Tipura. Area, 1641 sq. m. Population, 822,328. The 
Megna river here reaches the sea through the Shahbazpoor, 
Hatia, Bamni and Sandweep mouths, and Dakatia and Bara 



CHAP. IV.] NOAKHALI — PATNA. 81 

Pheni (big Fenny) tributaries. The creeks and navigable 
watercourses are numerous. The Megna forms the islands of 
Sand weep and Natia on the sea face of Noakhali, besides many 
large chars, which rapidly advance the mainland seawards. 
Here the ti<ial wave is highest (40 ft.), especially at the Pheni 
month : during cyclones it submerges the islands and rolls far 
inland. The canals open up 41 miles of navigation. 

Soodharam or Noakhali (5000), chief town on the right 
bank of Noakhali watercourse ; once on the sea, but now 10 
miles inland. Sandweep island was the centre of the Portu- 
guese, Mugh, and Muhammadan conflicts in the seventeenth 
century. Bhuba in the W. was an outpost of the Mughul 
Empire, and scene of a battle with the Portuguese in 1610. 
At Jugdia, mouth of the Pheni, and other places, the ruins of 
the East India Company's factories, established in 1756, are 
seen. Three-fourths of the population are Muhammadan. 

II. — Behas. 

§ 30. Patna Distbict, administrative centre of Behar or the 
Patna Division of the Bengal Lieutenant-Governorship, and an- 
cient metropolitan district of the Boodhist kingdom of Maghada^ 
lies for 93 miles along the south bank of the Ganges, between 
24" 28' and 25» 42' N. lat. and 84° 44' and 86* 05' E. long. 
It is bounded E. by Monghyr, S. by Gaya, W. by Shahabad, 
and N. by Tirhoot and Saran. Area, 2078 sq. m. Population, 
1,796,619. The two ridges of the Rajagriha hills divide the 
district in the S.E. for 50 m. from Gaya, rising to 1000 ft 
with hot springs in the quartz and other igneous rocks, and 
clothed with jungle. The Ganges receives the Son, after it 
has flowed along the W. boundary of the district for 41 m., at 
a point which has varied several miles since 1772, when it was 
at Maner. If the Son is the Erranoboas (Hiranyabaha) of 
Megasthenes, then the confluence has gradually moved west- 
ward, for Palibothra (Patali-putra) has now been identified with 
the modem Patna city. The main Ganges, flowing E. from 
the junction, is joined by the Patna canal from the higher 
waters of the Son, at Deegha, receives the Gaudak from the N. 
at Bankipoor, and the Poonpoon from the S. at Fatwa. The 
Ganges, raising its channel, frequently floods the district by 
driving back the streams from the south upon the lower lands. 

Patna City ("the town ;" Azimabad » Muhammadan name), 
on right bank of Ganges; sixth city of India in population 
(160,000), and, in Bengal, next to Calcutta commercially. The 

G 



82 PROVINCB OF BENGAL — DISTRICTS. [cHAP. IV. 

capital of Sandracottus (Cliandragoopta), visited by MegastheneSy 
envoy from Seleukos Nikator 300 B.C., said by Diodorus to have 
been founded by Herakles, but, by the VayaFurand, by the grand- 
son of Ajata Satru, contemporary of Gautama, 500-543 B.G., who 
predicted that the village of Patali would become a great city. 
Megasthenes describes the circumference of the city as 25^ m. 
Visited by Hwen T'hsang in 637 a.d., when the old city, then 
deserted, had a drcumferenoe of 11§ m. Capital of insurgent 
Sher Shah, reduced by Akbar, and ruled by Aurangzeb's grand- 
son, Azim, whence its Muhammadan name. Scene of Meer 
Easim's massacre of sixty Englishmen in 1763. The Govern- 
ment opium factory, Gola or granary built in 1786 *^for the 
perpetual prevention of famine," college, market on ground 
where the Wahabee rebels plotted, and Har-Mandu temple of 
the Sikhs, where Govind Singh, their last teacher, was bom, 
are the principal places of interest. Near the junction of the 
Son, Gandak, and Ganges, Patna is the entrepot of the river 
trade from the N.W. Province, Nepal, and Bengal, sending 
away rice, oil-seeds, and vegetables, and importing English 
piece-goods and salt. The Granges is 2 m. broad at Patna. 

Bankipoor, civil station of district and western suburb of 
Patna city, occupied chiefly by European officials. Dinapoor 
(28,000), military station, still further west, and forming, with 
Bankipoor and Patna, a city straggling for 14 miles along the 
Ganges. Local centre of the Mutiny of 1857 ; the non-disarm- 
ing of three sepoy corps here delayed the advance of the British 
troops towards Cawnpoor and Lucknow, and spread revolt over 
South Behar. Maiier (5500), a few miles £. of junction of 
Son and Ganges, which now unite near Sherpoor. Barh 
(11,500), East Indian railway town opposite Tirhoot Railway 
terminus of Bazetpoor on left bank of Ganges. Muhammad- 
poor (6000) is a suburb of Barh. Fatwa (10,000) at juno- 
tion of Poonpoon with Ganges, and Baikathpoor (6000) 5 m. 
E., both frequented by Hindoo pilgrims. Mukama Q2,000), 
on the Ganges, a growing railway town. Behar town (45,000), 
on the Panchana, 54 m. from Patna, ancient capital of Magadha 
and then of the Muhammadan viceroys, sacked by the Marathas, 
and further depopulated by the great famine of 1770. Here 
is a large sarai or inn for pilgrims^ with a museum of Boodhist 
antiquities. Bajagriha (" royal residence "), farther south, or 
Rcggir, a former capital of Magadha, and residence of Boodha, 
described by Hwen Thsang and Fa Hian, in the Pali annala : 
Rjygir, the present town, is a mile N. There are hot springs 
near, on the Sarsooti stream, and at Tapo'ban, much frequented 



CHAP. IV.] GAYA — BOODHIST RUINS. 83 

by both Hindoos and Mnbammadans. Giriyak, on the bor- 
der of Gaya, ia a village on a hill of antiquarian interest. 
Patna District is in 4 subdivisions — ^Bankipoor, Barb, Dina- 
poor, and Behar. 

§ 31. Gaya District is bonnded K by Mongbyr, N. by 
Patna, W. by Sbahabad, and S. and S.K by Lohardaga and 
Hazaribagh. Area, 4712 sq. m. Population, 2,057,980. 
Isolated hills, a rainfall diminishing to 40 inches, and the dry 
hot winds, mark the transition from Lower Bengal to the 
tableland of Central India. Maher, 12 m. S.K of Gaya Town, 
and the Barabar hills in south of Jahanabad subdivision, are 
the principal elevations, besides the Eajagriha ridges on the 
Patna bonier. The Son river, the W. boundary, cuts the 
Grand Trunk Road at Baroon village, below the head of tho 
Son CanaL The river's golden sands (Hiranyabaha) originated 
its Greek name Erranoboas, described by Arrian as inferior 
only to the Indus and Ganges. Its channel is still almost 
equal to the Gange& The Poonpoon rises in S. of district, and 
flows parallel to the Son till it joins the Oranges. The Phalgoo, 
formed of two hill-torrents as it enters Gaya, intersects the dis- 
trict N. and S., and falls by two branches into the Poonpoon ; it 
ia dry in the hot season. The £. Main Canal and Patna Canal 
leave the Son in this district. Gaya dty (67,000), including 
Sahibganj and railway station, on the Phalgoo, on an eminence; 
great place of Hindoo pilgrimage during the past six centuries. 
The Vaya Purana tells how Brahma induced the monster Gaya 
to remain still by the promise that the gods would dwell on the 
spot, and pilgrimage to which would deliver the departed from 
the Hindoo purgatory. The fourteen sets of dissolute Gayawals 
or Brahmans are very wealthy , the inferior priests or Pretiyas, 
said to have been brought up to fight Gaya, are at Pretseela 
(gfaoet-eity), 4 m. from Gaya, one of the forty-five sacred spots. 
Tikari (8000), on the Murhar, 15 m. N.W. of Gaya, with fort 
of Rajas of Tikari (rental £47,000). Shergrhati (7000), 
where Grand Trunk Road crosses the Murhar, decaying since 
railway was opened Boodh Gaya^ 6 m. S. of Gaya, ruins of 
the Vihar or monastery where the founder of Boodbism dwelt, 
with piped tree (Ficus religiosa) under which he is said to have 
meditated. Jahanabad (21,500), 31 m. N. of Gaya, once 
centre of East India and Dutch Companies' cloth trade. Daud- 
oagar (11,000), on Son, 40 m. N.K of Gaya, once with cloth 
and opium factories, and still the second trading centre of the 
district There are 4 subdivisions — Gaya, Nawada, Auran- 
gabad, and Jahanabad. 



84 PROVINCE OF BENGAL — ^DISTRICTS. [CHAP. IV. 

§ 32. Shahabad District is bounded E. by Patna and 
Gaya, N. by Saran and Ghazipoor (North-Western Province), 
W. by Ghazipoor, Mirzapaor, and Benares, and S. by Lohardaga^ 
Area, 4366 sq. m. Population, 1,964,900. Some 800 m. of the 
area is occupied by the Eaimoor hills of the Vindhya range, 
rising to 1500 ft, with bold escarpments surmounted by forts, 
and fine gorges and waterfalls. The Son and Ganges form the 
district on E. and N. Streams from the Eaimoor hills pass 
through it to the Ganges. The principal of these is the Karam- 
nassa, of evil repute among Hindoos, which flows N.W. from the 
Eastern Eaimoor ridge, separating Bengal from the North- 
Western Province before it falls into the Ganges. The Dhoba 
or Eao, entering the plains from the plateau at the Tarrachandi 
pass 2 m. S.E. of Sasseram, sends off the Eoocha to the Earam- 
nassa, and flows north to the Ganges. The Darganti flows from 
the plateau into the same river. The Sura, from the same hills, 
falls into the Darganti after a course of 25 m. The Son 
Canals, designed by Colonel Dickens, begin at Dehri on the 
Trunk Road, whence from the main western canal they are led 
to Arrah, Buxar, and Chausa, with branches, protecting the 
district from famine and increasing navigation and trade. 

Arrah (40,000), chief town and railway station, 14 m. 
S. of Ganges, 8 m. W. of Son, and 191 m. from Calcutta. 
Scene of Draupadi's marriage in Mahahharat epic ; famous for 
heroic defence during Mutiny of 1857, when twelve Englishmen 
and fifty Sikhs held Boyle's two houses against the Behar 
rebels under Eooar Singh till relieved by Vincent Eyre. Buzar, 
changing station of East India Railway, and formerly stud 
depdt. Here, in 1714, Sir Hector Munro defeated Meer Eafiim 
in the battle which completed the British conquest of BengaL 
Sasseram ("one thousand toys") (21,000), on trunk road, 
60 m. S. of Arrah, with mausoleum of Sher Shah, the Afghan 
Emperor of Delhi, who defeated Hoomayoon. Doomraon 
18,000), a 'railway station and municipality. Ja^dispoor 
10,000), centre of the rebel Eooar Singh's estates, granted to 
Mr. Burrows of Bihiya, who cleared them of jungle for military 
operations. Naari^anj (6000), centre of another escheated 
estate, near the Son, and place of trade and paper manufactura 
Rhotas, fort on Eaimoor hills (1490 ft.), the ruins having a 
circumference of 28 m. — named after the Hindoo king whose 
image was destroyed by Aurangzeb, and' the stronghold of 
Akbar*B viceroy, Man Singh. Shergarh, 20 m. S. W. of Sasseram, 
stronghold of Sher Shah, resembling Durham Castle ; 7 m. off 
is the sacred cave of Gooptasar, half a mile long. Chausa, 



CHAP. IV.] SARAN — CHAMPARAN. 85 

village 4 m. W. of Buxar, where Sher Shah defeated the 
Emperor Hoomayoon in 1539, \('ho escaped across- the Ganges 
on a water-skin, the owner of which was rewarded with a seat 
on the throne, and absolute power for half a day. Shahabad is 
in 4 subdivisions — Arrah, Buxar, Sasseram, and Bhabwa. 

§ 33. Saban Distbict, the alluvial tract enclosed by the 
Gandak, Gogra, and Ganges, bounded on the N.W. by the 
North -SVestern Province district of Gorakhpoor, E. by Tir- 
hoot and Champaran, and S. by Shahabad and Patna. Many 
drainage channels, nadis and nalcu, intersect the district 
between the three rivers. Area, 2625 sq. m. Population, 
2,280,382. Caiapra (47,000), chief town, on left bank of 
Ganges, which is deserting it ; long a centre of the saltpetre 
trade, and seat of English, Portuguese, Dutch, and French 
factories. Bevel^raAj (14,000), the largest mart, a mile above 
the junction of the Gogra and Ganges, where boats tranship 
their cargoes between Bengal and Nepal and the North-Western 
Province. The tomb of the founder, Mr. Revell, in 1788, is 
regarded as a shrine. Here resided Gautama, founder of the 
Nyaya or Hindoo logic. Sewan (11,000), on the E. bank of 
Daha, 40 m. N.W. of Chapra, famous for pottery and brass- 
work. Sonpoor, at junction of Gandak and Ganges, an 
ancient and very sacred place of Hindoo pilgrimage, and centre 
of the largest social gathering of Europeans in rural Bengal 
for horse races. Indigo and opium are largely grown and manu- 
factured on the rich alluvium of Saran. It has 2 subdivisions 
— Chapra and Sewan. The Hatwa Raja has a rent-roll of 
£65,000 fioin villages in the N.W. of Saran district. There 
is a German Protestant Mission (Gossner's) in Chapra. 

§ 34. Champakan District is bounded E. by Muzaffarpoor, 
N. by Nepal, W. by Nepal and Gorakhpoor, and S. by Saran 
and Muzaffarpoor. Ditches and masonry pillars mark off the 
N. frontier from Nepal, where there are no streams, to Aheera 
Siswa at the Ramnagar forest, whence the boundary runs 
straight to Thori, top of the Sumeswar range, and on to the 
source of the Pachnad, which joins the Gandak at TribenL 
Area, 3531 sq. m. Population, 1,708,417. The Doon range 
for 20 m., and the Sumeswar range to the N. of it for 46 m., 
occupy 364 m, of the area chiefly with forest. Through the 
pass of the Sumeswar made by the Koodi stream the British 
marched in the Goorkha War of 1814-15 to Deoghat in Nepal; 
the other passes are the Sumeswar, up the bed of the Joori 
stream to a beautiful spot fitted for a sanitarium, overlooking 
the Mauri valley of Nepal, with a view of the lofty Dhawalagiri 



86 PROVINCE OF BENGAL — ^DISTRICTS. [CHAP. IV. 

and Everest mountains ; the Kapan and Harlan Harha passea. 
Three of the rivers in the district are navigable by large boats. 
The Gandak, from the S. boundary of Central Tibet, reaches the 
plains at Tribeni Ghat, and thence, in tortuous course, forms 
the W. boundary of the district, which it often inundates. The 
Little Gandak flows through the centre of the district from the 
Sumeswar range at the Harha pass ; it bears many local names. 
The Baghmati is a rapid stream, often flooded, which forms the 
E. boundary for 35 m. A chain of 43 lakes covers 139 sq. m. 
in the centre of the district, marking a deserted river bed. 
Amua, Lalsarya, Sheogaon, Motihari, Seraha, and Tataria^ are 
the largest. The aboriginal Tharoos collect gold dust in the 
rivers, washed down from the Doon hills. The Riga of Ramna- 
gar's forest covers 427 sq. m., much denuded for railway con- 
struction and by fire. Moteehari (8500), chief civil station on 
lake of same name. Sagrauli, 15 m. from Moteehari on Bettia 
Road, native cavalry station, where most of the troopers 
mutinied and cut down the Europeans; one faithful detach- 
ment did good service in Oudh. Bettia (14,000), on the 
Harha, the largest town, a trading centre, with palace of 
Maharaja whose rent-roll is £115,000 from 1,167,617 acres, 
of which a third is let in farms. Here is a Roman Catholic 
Mission. Simraun, through the ruins of which the present frontier 
runs, was seat of a Hindoo dynasty up to the Muhammadan 
invasion in 1322. At Eesariya in the south, and Araraj and 
Lauria (pillar) Marandgarh, N. of Bettia, are Boodhist ruios, 
and pillars with Asoka's edicts. There are 2 subdivisions — 
Moteehari and Bettia. 

§ 35. MuzAFFARPOOB DISTRICT wos formed with Dar- 
bhanga out of the large and rich alluvial district of Tirhoot after 
the famine of 1874. Area> 3004 sq. m. Population, 2,589,524. 
Muzafifarpoor district is bounded £. by Darbhanga, N. by Nepal, 
W. by Champaran and Saran, and S. by Patna. The principal 
rivers are the Ganges, Gandak which joins it at Hajipoor, Baya 
which from the Gandak crosses Tirhoot to the Ganges, the 
Little Gandak, and the Baghmati 

Muzaffarpoor (" victorious city ") (39,000), chief town on 
S. bank of Little Gandak, with good official and educational 
buildings, a seat of Gk)ssner'8 mission, and the centre of the 
indigo culture ; at Sarai factory, 18 m. S.W., is an Asoka pillar. 
Seetamarhi ("field of Seeta") (7500), on W. bank of Lak- 
handai in the N., mart for Nepal produce, with large export of 
rice and sacred thread (jatKw) of Brahmans; birthplace of 
Seeta^ Rama's wife. Hajipoor (22,500), on N. bank of 



CHAP. IV.] BABBHANGA — MONGPYR. 87 

Gandak, at its junction with Ganges, with mrai or inn, temple, 
and mosque, and ruins of fort in Akbar*s time, worth notice ; 
once a great city, and still an important mart. LalfiraJd 
(12,500), 12 m. up Gandak ; near it is Singhiya, now an indigo 
but long a saltpetre factory of the Dutch East India Company. 
This district is in 3 subdiyisions — Muzaffarpoor, Hajipoor, and 
Seetamarhi; in the last is the new mart, for Nepal, of Bair- 
gania on the frontier. 

§ 36. Darbhanga District is bounded £. by Bhagalpoor, 
N. by Nepal, S. by Monghyr, and W. by Muzaffarpoor. Besides 
the Tirhoot rivers which pass through it from Muzaffarpoor, 
there is the Tiljooga, which rises in Nepal, skirts the E. 
boondaiy of Darbhanga, receives the Bhagmati's waters through 
the Garai and the Khamla, and falls into the Gkmges at Colgong 
after leaving the district. The Baraila liake covers 20 sq. m. 
in the S.W. comer of the district Area, 3335 sq. m. Popula- 
tiox^ 2,578,090. Darbhanga (48,000), on left bank of Little 
Baghmati, chief town, with palaces, old and new, of Maharaja 
who has a rent-roll of £202,419, and pays land-tax of £42,821. 
The town is connected by railway (44 m.) with Bazetpoor on 
the Ganges, and by steam ferry with Barh on the East Indian 
line, since the famines of 1866 and 1874. Boosera (9500), 
mart on Little Gandak. Poo8€k, higher up, long State stud 
depot, and now model farm with successful tobacco culture and 
manufacture. Madhubanl, in the north, on the road to Nepal 
There are 3 subdivisions — Darbhanga, Madhubani, and Tsgpoor. 

§37. MoNOHTB District is bounded E. by Bhagalpoor, 
N. by Bhagalpoor and Darbhanga, W. by Patna and Gaya, 
uid S. by Hazaribagh and Santalia. Area, 3922 sq. m. 
Population, 1,955,920. In the south the low Eharakpoor 
HiUa run N. and S. The Ganges cuts the districts in two, 
receiving the little Gandak and Tiljooga from N., and the 
Keol from S. North of the Ganges are many marshes, chief 
of which is the Eabar Laka Monarliyr (60,000), large town 
pietuiesquely situated on S. bank of Ganges, with fort, jail once 
palace of iJkbar's son, and tomb of " Ashraf," Musalman poet 
and teacher of Aurangzeb's famous daughter, Zebunnisa Begam. 
In the neighbourhood are many hot springs. Here many 
Europeans and EurfliBians reside, and there is a Baptist mission. 
Jainalx>oor, township (11,000), railway junction for Monghyr 
town, with largest iron workshops (of East Indian Railway) 
in India. Jamooi (6000), railway station and mart on the 
Ken], near GKdhaur, seat of the old Rajpoot Maharajas. 
There are 3 subdivieions — ^Monghyr, Begoo Sarai, and Jamooi. 



88 PROVINCE OF BENGAL — ^DISTRICTS. [CHAP. TV. 

§ 38. Bhaoalpoob Distbict is bounded K by Santalia 
and Pumiah, N. by Nepal, W. by Tirhoot and Monghyr, S. by 
Santalia. Area, 4268 Bq. m. Population, 1,923,276. The 
Ganges cuts the district in two for 60 m., receiying from the 
south a few hill streams, of which the Chandan, the largest, 
rises near Deogarh, in Santalia. The Ti^'ooga and other rivers 
from the south fall into the Qoogri, which flows parallel to the 
Ganges into Pumiah, where it joins the KoosL Bha^falpoor 
(70,000), on S. bank of Ganges, chief town, with monument 
erected by landholders and Grovemment to Augustus Cleveland, 
who died at 29, after civilising the Dravidian Paharias (hill- 
men) of Riy'mahal. Hero the Church Missionary Society has 
a mission. Oolffonfir (5239), now deserted by the Ganges, but 
long a great mart. Here died Mahmood Shah in 1539, last 
independent King of Bengal Sultan^aid (4500), on the 
Ganges, with two granite rocks topped by a popular Hindoo 
shrine and a mosque. At Singheswartan, near Nepal frontier, a 
large elephant fair is held every January. Mandargiri, 30 m. 
S. of Bhagalpoor town, a granite hUl (700 ft.), famous in 
mythology as that piled by Vishnoo as Madhoosoodan on the 
giant, and used in churning the ocean ; also a centre of many 
curiosities. There are 4 subdivisions — Bhagalpoor, Banka^ 
Madahpoora, and Soopool. 

§ 39. PuRNiAH Distbict (Puraniya « extreme £. of the 
Aryans); is bounded £. by Maldah, Dinajpoor, and Jalpaigori; 
N. by Darjeeling and Nepal ; W. by Bhagalpoor ; and S. by 
Bhagalpoor and Santalia. Area, 4957 sq. m. Population, 
1,823,717. The Koosi river, rising from 3 hill torrents in 
Nepal, is a mile wide where it crosses the British frontier, and 
flows south to the Ganges through the W. of the district The 
Panar, formed by hill streams from Nepal, near the frontier, 
flows south to the Ganges. The Mahananda, rising in Sikkim 
Hiik S.E. of Darjeeling, enters Purniah near Titalya, and skirts 
its £. border, receiving several streams. Piimiah (16,000), 
on S. bank of Saura tributary of the Eala Koosi, chief town 
and centre of indigo and jute culture. Karaerola, pn the 
Gkmges, terminus of East Indian Railway fbrry from Sahibgaig, 
and site of largest fair in Lower Bengal. Pumiah is in 3 sub- 
divisions — Pumiah, Arariya, and Krishnagai^. It is still one 
of the best tiger-hunting fields in Bengal 

§ 40. Maldah Distbict is bounded E. by Dinajpoor and 
Rigshahi; N. by Dinajpoor and Purniah; W. by Pumiah, 
Santalia, and MoorshidabEul ; S. by Moorshidabad and RajshahL 
Area, 1859 sq. m. Population, 7 10,310. The Ganges and Maha- 



CHAP. IV.] HALDAH — SANTALIA. 89 

nanda form the river Bystem, the former at the head of its delta 
just before it sends off the Bhagirathi to form the Hoogli. 
The Mahananda receives on its right at Maldah town the 
Ealindri, an offshoot of the Eoosi, and on its left the Tangan 
and Pumababha from Bimgpoor. Maldah is a great tiger- 
hunting district, owing to its jungles and rivers. EncrllBh 
Bazar or Angrazabad (13,000), on right bank of Mahananda, 
the civil headquarters, was the site of an English silk factory 
bef)re 1686. MaldaJi, or Old Maldah (5500), at the junction 
of the Ealindri and Mahananda, was the port of the Muhamma- 
dan capital of Pandooah, and centre of French and Dutch 
fiictoriea Haiatpoor and Garganha form principal river 
mart at junction of Ganges and Kalindri. Ghaur, once on the 
Ganges, now between the Mahananda and the Ganges, the first 
capital of Bengal under Hindoo kings, also named Laksmanati 
or LaknautL The ruins, spreading over 20 sq. m., are covered 
with jungle. From its conquest, 1204 A.D., Gaur was the 
capital of the Muhammadans till, in 1575, malaria forced them 
to desert it for Pandooah, 20 m. N.E. Pandooah contains the 
Adenah mosque, the most peifect specimen of Afghan archi- 
tecture, and is the most popular place of Muhammadan pil- 
grimage. In Maldah Mr. Charles Grant was long the East 
India Company's Resident. Under his protection, and that 
of Mr. G. Udny, his successor, Carey began his missionary 
career in 1794 at the out-factoiy of Madnabati, 32 m. N.E. 
within the border of Din^jpoor. 

§ 41. Santal Paroanahs Distsict is boundedE. by Maldah, 
Moorshidabad, and £<fCrbhoom; N. by Bhagalpoor and Pumiah; 
W. by Bhagalpoor and Hazaribagh ; and S. by Manbhoom and 
Bardwan. This upland tract, popularly called also Santalia^ 
with an area of 5483 sq. m., and population of 1,561,385, was 
the subject of the earliest and most successful experiments in 
governing the aboriginal or non-Aryan races, the Dravidian 
Paharias or Malairs, and the Eolarian Santals. In 1780-84, 
nnder Warren Hastings and following Captain Brown, the 
young civilian Augustus Cleveland, above mentioned, intro- 
duced a non-regulation system of administration among the 47 
Paharia chiefs, previously untamed, in the Rsgmahal hills. 
An inner hOly tract of 1366 sq. m. was in 1832 marked off by 
masonry pillars as the Daman i-koh ('* skirts of the hills "), and 
kept under the direct management of Government for the hill 
people against the encroachments of the Bhagalpoor landholders. 
On this tract the Santals from Hazaribagh and Beerbhoom 
gradually settled, and here they revolted against the extortion 



90 PROVINCE OF BENGAL — DISTRICTS. [CHAP. IT. 

of the Hindoo usurers in 1854-5, with the result that Sir 
George Yule did for them what Cleveland had done for the 
Paharias 70 years before. The Santal race, about a million in 
all districts, here number more than a third of the population, 
and are being gradually christianised by the Church of England, 
Free Church of Scotland, and Baptist Missionaries, some of the 
last being Americans and Swedes. 

The Rajmahal Hills, an isolated group of recent basaltie 
trap, quite detached from the Yindhyas, and forming the turning- 
point of the Ganges, cover an area of 1366 sq. m., rising no 
higher than 2000 feet. In the N. they contain a central vaUey 
for 24 m., overlooked by such hills as the Mori and Sendgarea 
peaks. Other low ranges are the Mahuasarhi, to the S.; the 
Ramgarh, S. of Brahmani River ; and the Belpata, Kumrabad, 
Lakshanpoor, and Salchala, to the W. of the Ramgarh hills. The 
Sankara range on the S.K, with its Singanmat peak, is a 
prominent landmark. The Ganges bed is 3 m. wide where the 
river skirts the district N. and S. The Gumani, joined by the 
Moral, the Bansloi, the Brahmani, the Mor, and the Ajai, 
rise in or pass through the district to join the Bhagirathi or the 
main Ganges lower down. None are navigable. The TeUa- 
garhi pass, between the Ganges and the Rajmahal Hills, long 
formed the great military approach to Lower Bengal The main 
and loop lines of the East Indian Railway enclose the district, 
the former sending off a branch to the coalfields in Hazaribagh. 
Naya Doomka (2500), chief civil station, on Sooree and 
Bhagalpoor road near the Mor. Deograrh (5000), only munici- 
pality in district, 4 m. E. of main railway, with popular shrine 
of Shiva known as Baijnath. Rajmahal, 3 m. fix>m W. bank of 
Ganges, decayed but famous as Akbar's capital of Bengal finom 
1592 after Gaur and Tonda. The ruins extend 4 m. to W. of 
station. In 1860 Lord Canning here opened the upper section 
of the East Indian Railway, before the death of the Marquis of 
Dalhousie, its designer. Six m. S., in 1763, Migor Adams 
defeated Meer Easim at Oodanhala : the entrenched camps may 
still be traced at Rajmahal. SahibgranJ, chief mart, on Ganges. 
The subdivisions are Naya Doomka^ Rajmahal, Deogarh, and 
Godda. 

III. — Chutia Nagpoor, 

§ 42. Hazakibaoh District, the N.K district of the non- 
regulation Division of Chutia (" mouse '0 Nagpoor, is bounded £. 
by Manbhooro and Santalia, N. by Monghyr and Gaya^ W. by 



CHAP. IT.] HA2ARIBA6H — ^MANBHOOM. 91 

Gaya and Lobardaga, and S. by Lohardaga. Area, 7021 sq. m. 
Population, 1,072,486. On elevated central ridge rising W. 
to the plateau which forms Central India, forming the watershed 
between 'the Koel system of rivers on the W., and the Damo- 
dar on the £. From this ridge isolated hills rise to a maximum 
height of 2816 ft. in Chardwar, near Hazaribagh station, and 
3057 in Jilinga. Paxasnath hill (4479 fc), between the trunk 
nwd and Manbhoom boundary, the eastern centre of the Jains, 
as Mount Aboo in Rajpootana is the western, is named after 
the second last of the 24 Tirthankaras or deified saints ; the 
temples on its summit are a place of Jain pilgrimage in De- 
cember, as the Samet Sikhara, or ''peak of bliss." For some 
years it was a British military sanitarium. The Damodar 
river flows through the district for 90 m., receiving the Garhi, 
Haharo, Kaikari, and Kunar, after that stream has been 
swollen by the Bokfiro. The BarSkar rises on N. face of 
elevated ridge, and flows through N. of district, uniting with 
the Damodar, 32 m. beyond the district. The Mohani Lileyan 
and Morhar pass into the Gaya district. Hazariba^rh (1 1,500), 
chief town, lying in hills on central plateau ; a cantonment 
also, with European Penitentiary ; there are tea gardens in the 
neighbourhood Chatra (9000), chief mart 36 m. N.W. of 
above, where the mutineers of the Eamgarh Battalion from 
Ranchi were defeated in 1857. Pachaznbat 3 m. from Giridi 
railway station, centre of Free Church Mission ; at Karharbari, 
Karanpura^ Bokan, Ramgarh,Itkhuri, and Chope are the principal 
coal-fields. Mica, antimony, copper, tin, and iron have all been 
worked. There are 2 subdivisions — Hazaribagh and Pachamba. 
§ 43. Manbhoom District is bounded on the E. by Bard- 
wan and Bankura, N. by Hazaribagh, W. by Lohardaga, and S. 
by Singbhoom and Midnapoor. Area, 4147 sq. m. Popu- 
lation, 1,042,117. The Dalma hills yi S. culminate in peak 
of same name (3047 ft.) Panchet or Panchkot (1600), in N.E., 
has ruined palace of old Riyas of Panchet. Gangabari or Gsjloru, 
20 m. S.W. from Puroolia,is highest peak on Baghmoondi plateau. 
The Barakar river skirts the N. boundary, and after receiving 
the Khudia falls into the Damodar, which receives Ijri and 
Goyai from the S. The Easai (Cossye) flows through the dis- 
trict N.W. to S.E. for 171 m., receiving firom the W. the 
Kumari, after that has been joined by the Tetka. The 
Snbamarekha ("streak of gold") skirts the Dalma hills S.E. 
before it passes into Singbhoom. Puroolia (6000), chief 
town close to the Kasai, near which are ruins of former Jain 
settlement The district is in 2 subdivisions — Puroolia and 



92 PROVINCE OF BENGAL — DISTRICTS. [CHAP. IT. 

Govindpoor. In the latter are Missions of the Established and 
Free Churches ot Scotland, and the Jharia coal-field. 

§ 44. SiNOBHOOM District (Sangbonga = Kolarian name for 
God), is bounded E. by Mldnapoor, N. by Manbhoom and Lo- 
hardaga, W. by Lohardaga, and S. by Orissa. Area, 3897 sq. 
m. Population, 551,348. The western hills form the Eolhan 
or original home of the Kols. In S.W. Saranda of the seven 
hundred hills rises to 3500 ft., and extends towards Cuttak in 
Orissa, and N. near Parahat falls to 850 ft., forming a gap 
through which a direct railway from Calcutta to Nagpoor in 
the Central Province is possible. Angarhari (2137 ft), and 
Marmari (1861 ft.), near Chaibasa, are spurs of Saranda. On 
E. and S. of Subamarekha the Eapargadi range runs S.E. to 
Tuiligar hill (2492 ft.), and Meghasani range in Orissa^ The 
Subamarekha flows through E. portion of district for 80 m., 
receiving several feeders. The Koel rises W. of Ranch i, drains 
the Saranda region, and after 36 m. passes into Midnapoor. 
The Baitaram touches the S. border for 8 m. Chaibasa 
(4500), civil station on right bank of Roro, with weekly market 
Sepulchral and monumental stones of Monda and Ho or Larka 
Eok are found all over the district The Parahat (54,374) 
chief, once called Raja of Singbhoom, never lost his independ- 
ence, even to the Marathas, till, in 1818, he sought the protec- 
tion of the British Government; he rebelled in 1857. A 
younger and loyal branch holds Kharsawan estate (26,280). 
Saraikala estate (66,347), is held by loyal descendant of chief 
who helped Lord Wellesley against Raghoji Bhonsla. Dhal- 
bhoom estate (1 17,118), and the Eolhan or Ho^esam (150,904), 
form the administrative divisions of the district There are 
Propagation Society's, Lutheran, and Roman Catholic Missions 
in Singbhoom. 

§ 45. LoHAitDAGA District is bounded K by Singbhoom 
and Manbhoom, N. by Hazaribagh and Gaya, W. by Mirzapoor 
and Chutia Nagpoor States, S. by these States and Singbhoom. 
Area, 12,044 sq. m. Population, 1,607,038. The central and 
S.E. portion consists of the elevated tableland of Chutia Nag- 
poor Proper which rises towards Central India and the Satpoora 
range. On the W. the high land runs towards the Vindhya 
range, and is marked by pats or hills of a nearly uniform height 
(3000 ft), forming a horizontal stratum of trap rock. The 
subdivision of Palamau, the N.W. portion of the district, has 
an elevation of 1200 ft., with spurs of the Hazaribagh and 
Chutia Nagpoor plateaux running E and W. The Subama- 
rekha river runs 10 ni. S.W. of Ranchi, flows N.R, leaving 



CHAP. IV.] LOHARDAGA — CHUTIA NAGPOOR STATES. 93 

the plateau in the waterfall, Hundrughagh (328 ft.), receives 
the Eauchi and Earkari from the W., and has a course of 
100 m. before it passes into Sirigbhoom. The N. Eoel, 
which rises in the Barwai hills, passes through Palamau to 
the Son. The S. Eoel, which drains Chutia Nagpoor Proper, 
rises W. of Ranchi, when, joined by the Sankh beyond the 
district, 185 m. from its source, it becomes the Brahmani, and 
reaches the sea N.K of Cuttak. The Amanat is the chief 
feeder ol the N. Eoel, from Hazaribagh, with which it forms 
the rich plain of Palamau. Nearly half the population are 
pure aboriginal tril)e3, and another fourth semi-Hindooised 
aboriginals. The Eolarian tribes t^re most numerous, Chutia 
Nagpoor Proper being the home of (1) the Moondas, Sing- 
bhoom of (2) the Larkas or Hos, and Manbhoom of (3) the 
Bhoomij Eols. The Eol and Chero empire seems to have 
covered Eikata, afterwards Maghada or Behar. The Ooraons 
are aDravidian tribe mixed with the Eols ; they are also known 
as Dhan'^rs (hillmeu). Gossner's, afterwards the German 
Luthei*au Evangelical, Mission began in Lohardaga in 1845 
among the Ooraons, and was divided with the English Propa- 
gation Society in 1869. Many thousand Eols and Ooraons have 
become Christians in several hundred villages, or more than 
one per cent of the whole district. Raaichi (12,500), chief 
town on central plateau (2100 ft.), and administrative centre of 
Chutia Nagpoor Division. Doranda, the cantonment for a 
sepoy corps, lies to the S. Ohutia ("mouse" in H in dee), 
village 2 m. E of Ranchi, ancestral seat of the Nagbansi Rajas 
of Chutia Nagpoor. DaltonsranJ, centre of Palamau subdivi- 
sion on K land of North Eoel, named after Colonel Dalton, long 
the Commissioner of Division. Garwa, to the N.W., is chief 
mart Lohardafirct, 45 m. W. of Ranchi. administrative centre 
up to 1840. Ranchi and Palamau are the 2 subdivisions of 
Lohardaga. 

§ 46. *Seven Chutia Nagpoor States, between the Son 
and Upper Mahanadi, are bounded E. by Singbhoom and Lohar- 
daga, N. by Mirzapoor and Rewa State, W. by Rewa and 
Bilaspoor in Central Provinces, and S. by Sambalpoor and 
Oriwia States. Area, 16,025 sq. m. Population, 441,302. 
The States consist of hilly plateaux, marked by the flat-topped 
hills called pais. From the N. slope of watershed running E, 
to W., the Eanhar and Rehr streams join the Behar system ; 
on the S. the Brahmani, lb, and Mand flow to the Bay of 
Bengal. This feudatory territory, with similar States in the 
Central Province, was finally ceded by the Maratha Bhonslas 



94 PROVINCE OP BENGAL — ^DISTRICTS. [OHAP. IV. 

of Nagpoor in 1817. The seven chiefs pay £467 as tribute, 
and are bound to supply military contingenta The people are 
pure or semi-Hindooised aborigines, Gronds, Cheros, KoU, 
Bhigias, and Earwars chiefly. Bona! (1297 sq. m., and 
25,000 pop.), the most southerly State, vatered by the Brah- 
mani, on which, in lat. 28° 49' and long. 85°, is Bonai Garh, the 
chiefs fort (505 ft). The people are Dravidians, Bbujias, speak- 
ing Ooriya, and said to have descended from Rama's Ceylon, 
army of apes in the Ramayana epic. Gkmfirpoor (2484 sq. 
m., and 75,000 pop.), N. and W. of Bonai, a tableland (700 ft) 
with the abrupt Mahavina range on the S., watered by the lb, 
which joins Uie Mahanadi farther S., the Sankh, and South 
Koel Coal is found at Hingir in the S., and there is gold- 
washing in the lb. The Raja resides at Suadi on the lb. 
The picturesque confluence of the Koel and Sankh is a legendary 
birthplace of Vyasa, compiler of the Mahabharat epic and 
Vedaa. Jashpoor (1947 sq. m,, and pop. 67,000), N. of 
Gangpoor, consists of elevated tableland called Uparghat on E., 
of lowlands called Hetghat on W. Above both, in N.W., is 
Khuria plateau, the watershed between the lb and the Kanhar, 
which flows N. to the Son. The Raja's fort as at Jagdiapoor, 
in centre of Uparghat Oodaipoor (1051 sq. m., and pop. 
28,000), W. of Gangpoor, shut in by Mainpat plateau in Sar- 
gooja to N., and watered by the Mand, on which are Rabkob, 
the Raja's fort, with gold mines and coal, and Shahpoor, the 
old castle. At Dorki, 24 m. S., is a mart Sarsrooja, largest 
State (area, 6103 sq. m., and pop. 183,000), between Oodai- 
poor and Lohardaga, is surrounded by the Mainpat and Jamna- 
pat (3781 ft) plateaux and Korea forest tract, is watered by 
the Eanhar, Rehr, and Mahar, and forms one vast grazing (and 
coal) field for Behar and Mirzapoor. Bisrampoor in the centre, 
and Pratappoor farther N., are the two chief places. In the S., 
8 m. W. of village of Lakhanpoor, are the temples of Ramgarh 
hill and other ruins, marking an early civilisation. Korea 
(1631 sq. ro., and pop. 22,000), tableland E. of Sargooja, 
rising to 370 ft at Deogarh, and watered by the Heshto, which 
rises near Sonhat, the Raja's fort (2477 ft). Ohan^r Bhakar 
(906 sq. m., pop. 9000), most westerly State, with Reva on 
three sides, consists of wooded hills and ravines, watered by the 
Banas and Neoor streams, which flow into Rewa. Janakpoor, a 
mile above the Banas, is the residence of the Bhaya, a chief 
who administers justice under a tree. Rock-cuttings at Har- 
choka, on N frontier, show an early civilisation, swept away by 
the Marathas. 



CHAP. IT.] CfUTTAK— ORISSA CANAI5. 96 



IV. — OSISSA. 

§ 47. CuTTAK District (Katak = the fort), administratiye 
oentre of the Orissa Division of Bengal, is bounded K by Bay 
of Bengal, N. by Balasor, W. by Orissa States, and S. by Poori. 
Area, 3516 sq. m. Population, 1,731,548. On the W. border 
hiUs rise to 2500 ft, generally crowned with Hindoo shrines or 
hollowed into Boodhist caves. Such are Naltigiri in the Assia 
range, Oodayagiri (sunrise peak) and Assiagiri, topped by a 
mosque. The Mahanadi waters the south, the Brahmani the 
centre, and the Baitarani the north of the district. The Maha- 
nadi ('^ great river "), which has a course of 529 m. from its 
source in Raipoor and a catchment basin of 4500 m., enters 
Guttak through the Naraj gorge 7 m. W. of Cuttak town, 
where it receives the Ealjoori; after throwing off S. the 
Paika and N. the Biroopa to the Brahmani, and the Chi- 
tartala or Noon, which it again receives, it falls into the Bay 
of Bengal under its own name, and with the Jotdar channel 
as the Devi (goddess = Shiva's wife) estuary farther south at 
Fake Point. The Brahmani enters the district near Garh 
Balrampoor, receives the Kimiria. from S. and Elharsua from 
N., and forms the Dhamra estuary, by which, and by the Mai- 
para river, it reaches the Bay. The Baitarani enters Cuttak 
iKar Balipoor village, receives from N. the Salandi and Matai, 
and nuzes with the Brahmani to form the Dhamra. To utilise 
the water of the Orissa rivers which, draining 63,350 sq. m., 
amoontB to 2,760,000 cubic feet maximum discharge in flood 
and an average of 5360 in the cold weather, 4 Government 
canals have been cut: (1) the High Level, leaving the left 
bank of the Biroopa weir a mile from the Mahanadi, and de- 
signed to debouch opposite Calcutta 230 m. (the Midnapoor 
section of 53 m. is given under that district, above) ; (2) the 
Kendrapara Canal, 42^ m. from right flank of Biroopa weir to 
false Point Harbour, now open to Marsaghai within tidal 
range ; (3) the Taldanda Cansd for 52 m., to connect Cuttak 
with the main tidal branch of the Mahanadi ; (4) the Mach- 
gaon Canal to connect Cuttak with the mouth of the Devi, 
starting from Birbati on the Taldanda Canal. When completed 
the canals will protect 1,600,000 acres from such famines as 
that of 1866. In Cuttak district axe 680 m. of embankments 
t« regulate 35 rivers or distributories. 

Cuttak (51,000), chief town on peninsula formed by 
Mahanadi and Katjoori, one of the five ancient '* forts" of 



96 PROVINCB OF BENGAL — ^DISTRICTS. [OHAP. IV. 

Odra-desa, with Fort Barabati opposite, seat of Goyemment 
College and General Baptist Mission, and famous for filigree 
gold and silver work. Tajpoor (" city of sacrifice ") (9500), 
on right bank of Baitarani, capital of province under the Eesari 
dynasty, now one of the 4 pilgrim regions of Orissa as the high 
place of Shivaism sacred to Parvati, with sun-worship monoliths 
and temples laid low by Islam. Eendrapara (11,000), N. of 
the Chitartala. The district has 4 subdivisions — Cuttak, 
Eendrapara, Jajpoor, and Jagatsinghpoor. 

§ 48. Balasor District (Baleswar » young lord, i.e, 
Erishna, or Banesvar = forest lord) is bounded K by Bay of 
Bengal, N. by Midnapoor, W. by Tributary States, and S. by 
Cuttak. Area, 2068 sq. m. Population, 942,414. This 
alluvial strip between the hills and the sea is watered by 6 
streams. Subamarekha (" streak of gold ") winds through its 
N.E. comer to the Bay of Bengal at PiplL The Panchpara, 
the Burabalang ("old twister"), the Janika, the Eainsbans 
(** Kaina grass and bamboos") and Baitarani are the main 
channels of the many hill streams in order from N. to S. 
The 85 miles of coast have 7 ports — Subamarekha, Saratha, 
Chanuya, Balasor, Larchanpoor, Chur&man, and Dhamra. 
BaJaaor (18,500), on right bank of Burabalang, chief town; 
Engliih port since 1642, when Surgeon Bough ton obtained 
land here and at Hoogli from Emperor, whose daughter he had 
healed ; here also French, Dutch, and Danes had factories. 
The trade and shipbuilding have decayed since the East India 
Company's monopoly ceased in 1832, and the salt manufacture 
ceased; but there is a coasting trade with Ceylon and the 
Laccadives. Seat of American Baptist Mission. Pipli, seat 
of earliest English settlement in 1 634 and earlier Portuguese, 
on the Subamarekha, now silted up ; all traces of European 
settlements are washed into the river. Jaleswar (Jelbiaor), 
on left bank of Subamarekha on Calcutta road, an East India 
Company's factory. Ohandbali, on the Baitarani, a lising 
rice and pilgrim port, having steamer communication with 
Calcutta. There are 2 subdivisions — Balasor and Bhadraklu 

§ 49. PooREE District is bounded E. by Cuttak, N. by 
Cuttak and Tributary States, W. by States and Gaiijam 
(Madras), and S. by Bay of Bengal. Area, 2472 sq. m. 
Population, 885,794. A low range of hills in west, running to 
Chilka Lake, forms the watershed between the district and the 
Mahanadi valley. The Eoyakhai, S. branch of Malianadi, finds 
its way to the Bay of Bengal, on the N., through the Eusbhadra^ 
with ita branch, the Prachi, and to the Chilka lake, on the S., 



CHAP. IV.] POORI — JAGANNATH-WORSHIP. 97 

through the Bhargavi, Noon, and Dhaya. The district is pro- 
tected from the floods of these rivers by 317 miles of embank- 
ments. The Sar Lake, N.K of Poori town, is a backwater of 
the Bhargavi, 4 m. long by 2 broad. The Chilka Lake, a 
gulf or inland sea in S.E. comer of Orissa, salt or fresh and with 
area of from 344 to 450 sq. m. according to the season, and 
average depth of 3 to 5 ft. On £. side are the Parikood islands, 
partially silted up. Poori (Jagannath = " lord of the world ") 
(22,500 resident population), chief town on the coast in N. 
lat. 19' 48' 17" and E. long. 85'' 51' 39". Including the 
Jahetra or idol precincts the whole town covers 1871 acres. 
Into the lodging-houses which form the main streets from 
100,000 to 200,000 pilgrims are crowded, while sandhills 
arrest the natural drainage to the ocean. In spite of the 
sanitary precautions of the Grovemment and the benevolence of 
the missionaries, it is officially calculated that at least 10,000 
pilgrims perish every year in the town or when returning home 
across flooded streams and roads at the end of «Tune. Poori, 
being an isolated and distant spot, was (1) the refuge of Bood- 
kism and shrine of Gautama's golden tooth. The principal 
antiquities are at Khandgiri, half-way between Poori and 
Guttak, with the snake, elephant, and tiger caves in sandstone ; 
at Dhauli, a rock above the Dhaya, with Asoka's 11 edicts 
and 2 others ; (2) a centre of Shiva-worship at Bhuvaneswar 
(** lord of earth "), S.E. of Khandgiri, under the Kesari or Sun 
dynasty till 1132 A.D., with temple dating from 500 A.D.; (3) 
an abode of sun-worship, chiefly at Kanarak, on the coast 19 
m. above Poori shrine, where the "black pagoda" is a land- 
mark, dating from 1237 A.D., on which, says Abul Fazl, 
Akba^s minister, the whole revenues of Orissa for 12 years 
were spent ; its exquisite polygonal monolith now stands out- 
side the lion gate of Jagannath's shrine ; (4) headquarters of 
Vujhnoo-worship under the form of Jagannath ; temple, finished 
by King Anang Bhim Deo in 1198 a.d. at a cost of half a million 
sterling, is almost a square (652 x 630 ft.), consisting of four 
chambers — the hall of offerings (bloodless), pillared hall for 
dancing girls, hall of audience, and towered sanctuary. Since 
1840 the British Government has ceased to collect a pilgrim 
tax ; when custody of the temple was left to R^ja of Khoorda, 
banished in 1878 for murder, and now to the Ranee, under 
whom the place is neglected, and 'Hhe utter collapse of the 
whole system " is feared by the local Hindoo press. The car 
festival takes place about the beginning of the rainy season in 
June or July ; the great car is 45 ft high, 35 square, and on 

H 



98 PROVINCE OF BENGAL — ^STATES. [CHAP. IV. 

16 wheels of 7 ft. diameter. The principal bathing spot, where 
as many as 40,000 pilgrims sometiuies rush into the surf of the 
Bay of Bengal, the swarga-dwara ("gate of heaven ") runs for 
\ m. along the coast. Pipll, on high road 25 m. N. of Poori, 
a mart and settlement of Baptist Mission. Tlie di:$trict is in 
2 subdivisions — Poori and Khoorda ; the latter the scene of two 
insurrections, by the Baja in 1804, and the paUcs or peasant 
militia in 1817-18, provoked by native revenue underlings. 

§ 50. *The Nineteen Obissa States, the feudatory up- 
lands between the Mahanadi delta and the Central Province, 
are bounded E. by three Oiissa dii».tricts, N. by Midnapoor and 
Chutia Nagpoor, W. by Central Province States, and S. by 
Madras States of Goomsar and Kimidi. Area, 16,184 sq. m. 
Popiilation, 1,624,310. From the first of three watersheds 
(1500 to 2500 feet), the valley of the Mahanadi, which bursts 
through the beautiful Barmool Pass, the hills lise to the second, 
ruuuiiig N.W. and S.E. (2000 to 2500) between Narsinghpoor 
and Baramba States, and feed the Brahmani on the other slope; 
from the N. bank of the Brahmani the third or Eeunjhar 
watershed rises into peaks like Malayargiri (3895 ft) in Pal 
Lahara State, and slopes into the Baitaraui on the S. and Bura- 
baliing and Subarnarekha on the N. Anflrool (881 sq. nou, pop. 
102,090), intersected by 85** E. long., was confiscated for 
rebellion in 1847 ; ex-Raja's family live at Angool village, and 
Chindipada is the chief mart. Athfirarh (168 sq. m.) is on W. 
border of Cuttak, with Raja's village of same name, on road 
to Sambal{>oor. Gobra, near E. border, is principal village, and 
Cha^ar, Baptist Mission settlement. AthmalUk (730 ^q. m.), 
E. of Angool, with chiefs residence at Handapa in the centre. 
Eainta, on N. bank of Mahanadi, is principal village. Banki 
(116 sq. m., pop. 56,613), on W. border of Cuttak S. of 
Athgarh, confiscated since 1840 when Haja was convicted of 
murder, with principal village of same name on ri<;ht bank of 
MahanadL Baramba (134 sq. m.), on opposite bank of 
Mahanadi, with Raja's residence of same name, and Gobnat- 
poor, on Mahanadi, principal village. Bod (2064 sq. m.), most 
W. of the States, including the Eond-mals under direct British 
administration, ceded in 1845 to suppress human sacrifices 
(jneriah), M^jor S. C. Macphersop established the agency whicJi 
has done much to civilise the Eonds (Gonds or mountidneers). 
Bod viUage, on the Mahanadi, is the residence of the Riya; 
Jagatij?arh is the only other large villaga Daspalla (568 sq. 
m.), W. of Bod, with Barmool goi^ of Mahanadi on N. border. 
The R%ja lives at Euigabana in the centre. Daspalla, on the £. 



CHAP. IV.] OEISSA STATES — BHOOTAN. 99 

border, is the largest village. Dhenkanal (1463 sq. m.), W. of 
Outtak border and Athgarh, home of the semi-Hindooised Savars 
or Sauras (the Suari of Pliny and Sabarae of Ptolemy), and the 
best of the Orissa States, watered by the Brahman i. The 
enlightened Raja lives at village of same name. Hindol (312 
sq. m.), between Dbenkanal and Angool, traversed by Sambal- 
poor road ; the Kanaka Mountains (above 2000 feet) occupy the 
S. hal£ Raja's village is of same name in S.W. Keuzijliar 
(3096 sq. ul), second largest of the States, to W. of Balasor. 
Baitarani rises in N. ranges. Road from Sambalpoor to Midna- 
poor crosses the State. Maharaja resided at village of same name 
on that road. Khandpara (244 sq. ul), W. of N. Poori, with 
principal mart at Eantilo on right bank of MahanadL Mor- 
bhaz^, including Bamanghati (4243 sq. m.), largest and most 
K. State. Bamanghati is under direct British administration 
from Singbhoom. Meghasani HiU (" seat of clouds ") is 3824 
feet high in S. Wild elephants abound. Baupada in Buraba- 
lang and Daspoor on high road are the principal villages. Nar- 
sincrbpoor (199 sq. m.), on N. bauk of Mahanadi, between 
Baramba and Angool, with village of same name where Riga 
resides. Kanpoor, on the Mahanadi, is the principal mart. 
Nasrafirarh (5889 sq. m.), between Poori and Madras, well 
cnltiirated, with fine scenery. Nilgiri (278 sq. m.), between 
Balasor and Morbhanj, with village of same name where Rcga 
le^des. Pal Lahara (452 sq. m.), S.W. of Keunjhar, from 
which it was separated, with Malaya-giri (3895 feet) and other 
hills covered with finest oak timber. Lahara village is near 
the Sambalpoor road. Ranpoor (203 sq. m.\ between Poori 
and Nayagarh, with Raja's residence of same name. Talcher 
(399 sq. m.), with coal, iron, and lime fields. Village of same 
name on right bank of Brahmani is Raja's residence. This 
State gives a name to a geological formation of the Grondwana 
system. Tifiraria (" three forts'') (46 sq. m.), smallest of the 
States, is S. of Dhenkanal, between Athgarh and Baramba, 
well cultivated and most densely peopled. Founded by Poori 
pilgrims, who took the land from the aborigines four centuries 
ago. The R«ya resides at town of same name. 

V. — ^*Peotectkd States. 

§ 51. *Bhootax and Towakg. — Bhootan State (Boodh- 
ist) has had subordinate relations to the British Govern- 
ment ainoe 1774, when it agreed to pay an annual tribute of 
five of its famous Tangun horses, and to restore the Rcga of 



1 00 PROVINCE OF BENGAL — STATES. [OHAP. IT. 

Eooch Behax, in whose favour the Goveroor - General had 
interfered ; but the State has also been a vassal of China for 
two centuries, since a body of Tibetan sepoys from Eampa ousted 
the Tephoo tribe, originally from Kooch Behar. Bhootia 
raids forced the British Groyemment in 1841 and again in 1864 
to annex the 18 Dwara ("doors") or passes which lead from 
the plains to the lofty terraces of which Bhootan consists, or 
Dalimkot, Zamarkot, Cheemarchee, Lukhee, Buxa, Bulka, Bara, 
Gooma, Reepoo Cheerung or Sidlee, and Bagh or B^nee, along 
the Jalpaigori district of Bengal ; Ghurkola, Banska, Chappa- 
goree, Chappakamar and Bijnee, along the Eamroop district 
of Assam ; and Boree, Gooma, and Kulling, along the Dar- 
rang district. Bhootan, as it now is, has an estimated area 
of 15,000 sq. m. and popidation of 20,000. It is divided 
into E. and W. Bhootan, running along Assam and Bengal for 
a distance of 220 m. The country, which has peaks S. of 
Chumalhari rising to 24,737 ft. at head waters of the Matichu, 
and to 20,965 and 20,576 at head of two others of the Manaa 
affluents, is drained by three river systems into the Brahma- 
pootra ; the Manas, the Machu, and the Chinchu and Pachu, 
in the W. half which form the Mina^raon. Poonakha is 
the winter capital on the Machu ; Tassisudon, 24 m. W., is 
the summer capital Wandipoor is an important castle in the 
Poonakha valley. The envoys Bogle and Turner, and the 
traveller Manning, entered Bei^;al by the Pachu valley. Eden 
proceeded from the Teesta by Dalimkot, the Tula-lap pass 
(10,000 ft.), the Am-machu, which flows through the Chumbi 
valley, and Paro to Poonakha, in 1863. 

Towan^, a small State E. of Bhootan, between the 
Deosham and Rowta rivers, leading directly from Assam to 
Tibet. Farther E. the frontier is occupied by the independent 
class of the Rooprai, Shergaia, and Thebengia Bhootias. 

§ 52. *Nepal State, virtually protected by British Govern- 
ment, to which it paid a tribute like Bhootan, and the seat of 
a British Political Agent, though for a time also a vassal of 
China, occupies the loftiest Himalayan heights, from Sikkim W. 
to the Kumaun district, with an estimated area of 54,000 eq. 
m., population of 2 millions, and revenue of 1 mUlion sterling. 
The E. two-thirds of the 500 m. of its S. border marches with 
the Behar districts of Bengal, and the W. third with those of 
Oudh. The chief route for traffic is from Patna N. through 
the Ghamparan district to Kathmandoo, the capital. Europeans 
not in the staff of the British Residency are not allowed to 
enter the State save with special permission. From the con- 



CHAP. IV.] NEPAL. 101 

quest of its Newar people and rolers by the Goorkhas in 
1768, and the commercial treaty of 1792, the comitiy was a 
scene of anarchy and bloodshed, varied by two wars with the 
British, tiU Mahanga Jang Bahadoor, its minister and virtual 
sovereign, visited England in 1850. After years of a firm 
and loyal administration, he died and was succeeded by 
his brother in 1877. The nominally ruling Mahanga is a 
Sesodia Rigpoot of the Oodaipoor family, married to Jang 
Bahadoor's daughter. The aboriginal tribes are Boodhist, 
but the Hindoos look on Nepal as the asylum of their faith, 
next to Benares. The Michi river separates Nepal from 
Sikkim on E., and the Kali from Eumaun on W. Four lofty 
ridges, running up into the peaks of Kinchiiyinga, Gosainthan, 
Dhawalagiri, and Nanda-devi, divide Nepal into three natural 
provinces watered by the Kosi, Gandak, and Gogra. A fourth 
is the triangular vaJley of Nepal proper, wedged in between 
the Kod on E. and Gandak on W., but watered by the 
Bhagmati, in which is the capital and seat of the British Resi- 
dent. Kattamandoo ("wood building'*) (35,000 to 60,000), 
a mile frt)m the base of Mount Nagarjoon, on E. or left bank 
of the Bishnmati, near its confluence with the Baghmati. The 
British Residency and barracks for a company of sepoys cover 
40 acres of high ground on the N. of the paj^e, overlooking 
the BishnmatL Patau (60,000), the largest city in Nepal, 
and old Newar capital, 1 ^ m. S.E. of Eathmandoo. Kirtipoor, 
capital of an old principEdity which overlooks Eathmandoo on 
N. and Patau on E., each 3 m. distant, where the Goorkha 
eonqnerors committed terrible atrocities and changed the name 
into Naskatapoor = " city of cut noses ; " all the principal 
citizens being deprived of noses and lips, save those required 
as players on wind instruments for the conqueror's army. 
Bhatsaon (50,000), on E. side of same valley, 8 m. S.E. of 
Eathmandoo, on right bank of Hanooman under Mount 
Mahadeo Pokhra, long centre of a powerful principality. The 
lofty passes into Tibet from Nepal are these, from W. to E. — (1) 
Takla or Yari, midway between Nanda^levi and Dhawalagiri ; 
(2) Mastang, 40 m. E. of Dhawalagiri ; (3) Eerang, W. of 
Gosainthan Mountains; (4) Euti E., — ^the two last are the 
most frequented ; the roads join at Tingri, where the Chinese 
defeated the Nepalese in 1792 ;— (5) Hatra ; (6) Wallang. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE PBOVINCE OF ASSAM. 

§ 1. Assam Province. § 2. Products and Trade. § 8. Land Tenures. 
§ 4. The People and Districts. 

BOORMA VALLEY. 

§5. Sylhet District §6. Cachar. 

ASSAM YALLEY. 

§ 7. Goalpara. § 8. Kamroop. § 9. Darrang. § 10. Nowgong. 1 11. 
Seebsagar. § 12. Lakhimpoor. 

HILLS. 

§ 13. Garo Hills. § 14. Ehasiand Jaintia Hills, g 15. Naga Hills. 
§ 16. *Manipoor State. 

§ 1. Assam Phoyince (Aham, pronounced Asam = dominant 
tribe) has been the most north-easterly Gk)Yemment in British 
India since 1874, when it was cut off from Bengal It is 
slightly less than England and Wales, having an area of 55,384 
sq. m. (including Native States), with a population of 4,908,276 
in the ordinary districts, an increase of nearly 19 per cent in the 
decade ending 1880. The Province consisting of the N. valley 
of the Brahmapootra and the S. valley of the Barak-Soorma 
with the Garo, Khasi, and Naga hiUs between, is situated 
between 28' 17' and 24" N. latitude, and between 89* 46' and 
97'* 5' E. longitude, including Manipoor State. It is bounded 
E. by Upper Burma, with the Patkai Range between ; on the N. 
by the S. section of the Himalaya, inhabited by Mishmees, 
Abars, Meeris, Daphlas, Akas, and Bhootias ; W. by the Bengal 
district of Jalpaigori and State of Eooch Behar, by Maiman- 
singh and Rangpoor ; and S. by the Tipura and Chittagong, or 
Jjooshai Hill Tracts, While the outer frontier of the N.E. is 
still unsurveyed and undefined, the "inner line" of boundary 
has been laid down for the Nowgong, Seebsagar, Lakhimpoor, 
Naga Hill, and Cachar districts, across which no British sul^ject 



CHAP, v.] COAL — ^TEA CULTIVATION. 103 

is allowed to go to the wild tribes beyond without a pass. Of 
the three physical divisions of the Province, Assam proper on 
the N. is an alluvial plain 450 m. long and 50 in average 
breadth, watered by the Brahmapootra throughout its length. 
Croing W. the first great river which breaks through the Hima- 
laya from Tibet into the valley is the Subansiri, in E. longitude 
94' 9'. The Dihong enters Assam in longitude 95" 17', 20 m. 
below Sadiya, and is the true Brahmapootra, now considered 
to be identical with the Tsangpo of Central Tibet; it joins 
the Lohit, . which enters Assam at the Brahmakoond. The 
Dihong joins the Dihong before its confluence with the Lohit. 
The second of the physical divisions consists of central hill tracts 
running transversely to the two river-valleys on either side, 
carrying the Roma and Patkai mountain systems from the 
Irawadi W. to the Brahmapootra, which tmns S. when it 
rounds the Garo hills at Dhoobri. The third or Bara^- 
Soorma forms the State of Manipoor and the districts of 
Cachar and Sylhet before joining the Brahmapootra and Ganges 
in the Megna estuary. 

§ 2. Pkoducts and Trade. — Coal of fine quality is found 
in five separate places in the Brahmapootra valley, and lime 
in the Sylhet district ; but in places as yet difficult of access. 
Petroleum springs abound. Gold-washing is common in the 
Brahmapootra at Parghat, above Sadiya, in the NoarDehing 
and Hookong, and in the Dihong, " considered by the natives 
to be the richest in Assam." I4ot a fourth of the fertile area is 
yet cultivated, from want of population ; coolies from Chutia 
Nagpoor and Santalia are imported. The food-growers are 
those of Bengal proper. Except where the permanent settle- 
ment of land-tax prevails in Sylhet and most of Goalpara, the 
State landlord makes an annual assessment. Part of the hill 
slopes used to be sold in fee simple, and half a million of acres is 
now held chiefly by Europeans. The great and growing culture 
of the Province is that of the indigenous and hybrid tea-plant. 
It is believed that the Thea Assamiends is the original tea- 
plant introduced into China, where it has degenerated into the 
two varieties of T. Bohea and T» viridis. In 1780 Colonel 
Kyd formed a tea-garden in Calcutta with plants from Canton, 
but it was discouraged by the East India Company as likely to 
compete with their China monopoly. Since the rediscovery of 
the T. Assamiensis in Assam in a wild state in 1826, and its 
commercial cultivation from 1840, some 600,000 acres have been 
taken up for tea, of which 135,000 are imder mature plants, 
30,000 are under immature plants, and the rest is gnCiss, 



104 PROVINCE OF ASSAM. [CHAP. ▼. 

forest, or waste, to be brought in. The out-turn, annually 
increafiing, is about 40,000,000 lbs., of which 25 millions 
are from the Brahmapootra and 15 from the Soorma valley. 
The average yield is 282 lbs. per mature acre. There are 85 
tea companies, of which 53 are registered in India. There are 
1058 gardens. The import trade of the Province, chiefly from 
Bengal, is between If and 2 millions sterling in value, princi- 
pally piece goods, salt, and rice. The export trade is valued at 
3| millions, of which £30,000 only goes to the tribes across the 
border. Tea constitutes 80 per cent of the whole export ; mus- 
tard-seed, lime, and limestone are the other principal artidea 
WUd elephants are caught in the Sylhet, Goalpara, Nowgong, and 
Naga forests ; the revenue and royalty on captures is £6500 a 
year. In Sylhet town there is stUl one native carver of ivoiy, 
whose work is marked by ingenuity and taste. The silk and silver 
work and ivory mats of Manipoor State possess artistic merit 
Marwari and Musalman merchants from Dacca are almost the 
sole traders in the Assam and Soorma valleys; of the natives, 
the Khasi and Jaintia hill-people alone are keen traders. Since 
Mr. D. Scott, in 1830, introduced the potato culture, that and 
the orange culture have long enriched that people. 

The Province is partially opened up (1) by the Assam line 
of the River Steam Navigation Company from Calcutta, 
Kooshtea, or Goalunda to Dibroogarh, 661 m. The steamers 
touch at Senvig^ig, Ealiganj, Chilmaree, Dhoobri, Goalpara, 
Gauhati, Mangaldai, Tezpoor, Bishnath, Dunsiri Mookh, Eoo- 
keela Mookh, Dekoo Mookh, and Dehing Mookh, on their 
passage up the Brahmapootra; (2) by the Northern Bengal 
State Railway, which leaves the £astem Bengal Railway at 
Damookdea Station (116 m. from Calcutta), and crosses the 
Gkmges by steamer to Sara Ghat ; at 113 m. from the Ganges 
at Parbatipoor, it sends off the Rangpoor branch line to Eaunia, 
whence a steamer crosses the Teesta, and communication is kept 
up by train and steamer with Dhoobri, 322 m. from Calcutta. 
From the Teesta a branch runs 14 m. to Mogulhat. A line of 
75 m. will soon run from Dibroogarh to Sadiya, with 24 m. 
branch to coalfield. 

§ 3. Land TENintES. — Except in waste lands and in 6116 
square miles of permanently settled lands, long part of Bengal 
Province, the settlement of Assam is strictly " ryotwar," each 
cultivator being annually assessed by the officers of €k)vemment 
for the land actually occupied by him. The revenue is collected 
by officers called *' mouzahdars," each of whom resides in his own 
circle, which is much larger than what is called a mou£ah in 



CHAP, v.] 



LAND TENURES. 



105 



othtf parts of India. The mouzahdar receives a oommissioii on 
his collections, and this is the only expense incurred in realisiDg 
the GoYemment demand. Under this system the revenue is 
most punctually and satisfactorily gathered in. 



YaSIBTIES of TENtTBK 


HELD DUUSCT FROM GOVERNMENT, 1880-81. 




1 ^ 


1 *< 


1 ^ •• 


1 


jB 


KatucofTtanore. 


Number o 
estatea. 


Number o 
villages. 


Number o 
holdera o 
share- 
holders. 


Gross arei 
inacrea. 


Hi 
III 


' Small zameendars pay- 












iDg lesB than Ra. 5000 


i 










rerenue . 


603 


• a. 


8,101 


217,900 


361 


Proprietary cultivating 












oommnnities paying 












in common 


9,741 


866 


89,625 


387,536 


40 


Proprietary cnltiTators 












paying separately, in- 












cluding all small 












estates paying leas 












than &B. 100 . 


539,171 


5,406 


986,121 


6,640,249 


12 


Holders of revenno-lree 












tenures — 












In perpetuity 


914 


65 


2,672 


85,835 


93 


For life 


72 


11 


72 


1,399 


19 


Giants held under the 












roles of 1838 and 












1854 


45 


8 


16 


19,750 


438 


Landholders who have 












redeemed the revenue 


2,424 


96 


8,765 


279,724 


115 


Purchasers of waste 












lands 


330 


193 


251 


205,792 


629 


Waste land leased 












under the Thirty- 












Tears' Lease Bules . 
Total 


448 


56 


295 


163,804 


865 


553,748 


6,201 


1,085,918 


8,001,989 


4,183 



Of intermediate holders, or middlemen between the zameendar 
and ryot) there were in the same year 254 on permanent tenure, 
with an average rent of R& 9 for each holding, and 4192 on 
fiuming leases, with an average rent of K& 25 per holding. 
Since 1854, waste lands, for tea cultivation chiefly, have been 
granted on very favourable terms, under successive sets of rules 
— ^fee simple, thirty, ten and annual years' lease, and ordinary 
settlement The Lease Rules of 1876, for the cultivation of 
tea, coffee, and timber trees only, are now in force. 



106 



PROVINCE OF ASSAM. 



[chap. v. 



§ 3. The People and Districts. — The first synchronous 
census of Assam was taken on 17 th February 1881, like the 
rest of the Indian Empire. The following shows the districts, 
areas, and population : — 







^ 






^i 






4S5 


9 




^ 


£ a 


Rktekux, 




o"? 


^ 




M 


^S 


18S0-81. 


District. 


>f JudI 
Subdi 


sr 


Population. 


^ 


OB s 










Number c 
Revenue 


1 


• 


1 


Total CO 
and polic 


• 

r-l 


o 


I^/Sylhet . . 
|3\Cachar . . 


4 


6,440 


1,973,000 


9,517 


00 


2 


8,750 


356,705 


555 






CO 


w^ 


r Goalpara . . 


2 


8,897 


444,689 


1.324 


•k 

A 




oo 


_ ^» 


Eamroop 


2 


8,631 


644,843 


1,649 


00 


CO 


r-l 

OO 


S >* 


Darrang . . 


2 


3,418 


271.504 


2,419 


^ 


<«J 


«*t 


1?' 


Nowgong . 


1 


3,417 


308,889 


1,725 


o 


o 


o 


^1^ 


Scebsagar . 


8 


2,855 


365,300 


1,950 


00 




pi 




L Lakhimpoor 
rGaroHms . 


3 


3,723 


172,079 


834 




CO 


C9 




1 


8,653 


109,054 


929 




**- 


CO 

CO 


d 


Khasi and 










fM 


•k 

r* 


r-l 


a ^ 


1 Jaintia Hills 


2 


6,157 


169,113 


1,541 


& 

J 


CO 


00 


(Naga Hills . 


1 


6,400 


93,100 


• • • 




Total . 


23 


46,341 


4,908,276 


22,443 



Omitting the Manipoor State and Naga hill tribes, the 
proportion of males to females was 2,4G5,433 to 2,349,704. 
In Manipoor there were 72,688 males to 74,657 females. Of 
districts formerly censused the most remarkable increase in 
nine years occurred in Cachar, 52 per cent ; Lakhimpoor, 42 per 
cent ; Seebsagar, 23 per cent ; and Nowgong, 20^ per cent ; all 
of which are the chief tea-districts. Into these from 15,000 
to 43,000 (in 1878) coolies, from Chutia N^poor chiefly, have 
been imported every year, by Dhoobri, and also by boat from 
Goalunda. The tea-garden population numbers about 200,000. 
Time-expired labourers often take up tea land for themselves. 
In 1880 the mortality among inmiigrant labourers was so low 
as 35*2 per mille; and is now at the normal figure for an 
Indian population. The immigration and labour are regulated 
by Act I. of 1882. 

The chief executive authority in the Province of Assam is 
the Chief Commissioner since 6th February and 12th Septem- 
ber 1874. He is assisted by a Secretary ynth an Ai^sistant; 
two Judges; Commissioner, Assam Valley Districts; Conser- 
vator of Forests ; Deputy Surgeon-General, who is also Sanitary 



CHAP, v.] SYLHET — CACHAR. * 107 

Commissioner; Inspector of Schools; Inspector-General of 
Police and Jails, who is also in Charge of Registration and 
Commissioner of Excise and Stamps; and Deputy -Commis- 
sioneiBb 

SoosMA Valley. 

§ 5. Sylhbt District (Srihatta), at the west end of the 
alloTial plain, 70 m. wide, of the Soonna or Barak, which 
constitutes the southern portion of Assam, is bounded E. 
hy Cachar and Jaintia hills, N. by Jaintia and Ehasi hills, 
W. by Maimansingh, and S. by Tipura. Area, 5440 sq. 
m. Population, 1,973,000. In the S. eight ranges of hills 
(600 to 1500 ft.) run into Hill Tipura, thus named, be- 
ginning W. — ^Dinarpoor or Satgaon, Baliseera, Banugach Rig- 
kandi, Saragaj or Langla, Patharia, Duhalia or Pratapgarh, 
Sarishpoor or Siddheswar. The Ita hills, in centre of the 
district, rise to 600 ft The level is otherwise broken by 
dusters of sand hillocks called teelasy rising from 20 to 80 ft., 
partiaJly covered by the tea plant The Barak, rising in 
Manipoor State and flowing through Cachar, where it becomes 
navigable in Sylhet at Banga, divides into the Soorma and 
Eoosiara, which reunite at Ajmeriganj on the Maimansingh 
border. All the waters of the Bai-ak system pass into the 
Dhaleswari and so into the Megna estuary, the tide of which 
extends to Lakai in S.W. of district. In S.E. is the wild 
elephant country, with six tracts reserved for hunting. Sylhet 
(18,000), chief town on N. bank of Soorma, where are the 
Europeaiis' houses and offices ; a centre of the tea and lime in- 
dustries. Cliatak, on S. bank 35 m. below, the port for Ehasi 
and Jaintia hills. Sonamganj, port lower down. jAJmeri- 
SBJoi^ in S.W., below confluence of Soorma and EalnL The 
district is in 4 subdivisions — Sylhet, Sonamganj, Habigai^j, and 
Kareoiganj. In 1776, when Sylhet was administered by the 
Dacca council, the district was under the Hon. Robert Lindsay 
as President, as described in detail in the Lives of the Lindsay b, 

§ 6. Cachar District is bounded K by Manipoor State, 
N. by Naga hiUs, W. by Sylhet, and S. by Looshai hills. 
Area, 1285 sq. m. Population, 356,705. The district has 
high hills on three sides, and is intersected by the Barak, which 
drains these. To the south are the Hailakandi valley on W. 
and Cbatla fen on E., divided by hills. The Barail range (2500 
to 6000 ft), in N., connects N. Manipoor with Khasi hills, 
and sends dowa the Jbiri, Chiri, Madura, Jatinga, Arang, Lar- 
(mg, Chx)mra) and Dhaleswari rivers, S.W. to the Barak. The 



108 PROVINCE OF ASSAM. [OHAF. V. 

Bhoobans (700 to 3000 ft.) are on E. boundary S. of Barak. 
Rengti-pahar hills, N. and S. range between Sonai and Dhales- 
wari' rivers. The Tilain range (100 to 500 ft), ronning N. 
and S., is crossed by the Sylhet and Cachar road. The Sarish- 
poor or Siddheswar hills (600 to 2000 ft.) form W. boundaiy. 
The HiiraDg or Jiu'ang hills, to the N. of Barak, are crossed by 
the road to Manipoor. The Barak, after a course of 180 m., 
becomes navigable for boats at Banskandi, and flows for 130 m. 
through Cachar. The Dhaleswari from the hills on the S. 
waters Hailakandi valley, forms the new channel called Kata- 
khal, which 25 m. thereafter falls into the Barak, and under 
its old name reaches the Barail at Sialtekh Bazar. The other 
S. tributaries of the Barak are the Ghagra, which drains the 
Chatla fen, and the Sonai ('* golden ''), which reaches it at Sonar- 
mookh. The whole district is one of forests, in which the 
caoutchouc was first discovered in 1862. Wild elephants, of 
the more valuable kuemriah (cost £110 for trained animal 7 
ft high), and of the mirgia and cross doamla varieties, are 
caught in N. and S. hills, in which four tracts are reserved. 
This district supplies one-third of all the tea exported from 
Assam (10^ million lbs. in 1881) ; the plant in its varieties of 
indigenous, hybrid (the best), and China, is best cultivated on the 
plateau spurs of the Barail range in the N., and in those of the 
Sarishpoor and Tilain hills S. of the Barak. BUohar (4000), 
chief town and cantonment, on S. bank of Barak, with trade 
Bubiu'b of Janigai^. LakMpoor (or Lakshmipoorscity of 
goddess of fortune), 14 m. E. of Silchar, at confluence of the 
Chiri with the Barak, a centre of tea culture and chief mart of 
trade with Manipoor. SoDai, chief timber mart, on river of 
same name. Hailakandi, headquarters of second subdivision. 

North Cachar subdivision (22,379), re-established at the 
close of 1880, is the tract between the Cachar plains on S., 
Nowgong on N^ Naga hills £., and Jaintia hUls W , inhabited 
by Eookras, Cacharees, and Eutcha Nagas ; the two last were 
frequently attacked by the Angami Nagas, on their road to the 
plains. Ghuz^onfiT, headquarters of subdivision, 20 m. N.W. 
of Asaloo in Naga hills. Four police posts at Aaaloo, Hangmmy 
Ninglo, and Guilong, and an inner line nearer Silchar, of -three 
stockades at Baladhan, Aisacherra, and Jaipoor, defend the 
frontier against the Angami Nagas. A Kooki militia act 
as. scouts. 

At Maibon^r, a forest valley in the Barail hills, on the 
brick ruins of the capital of the Cachari kings, who became 
Hindooiaed when driven S. by the Koch and Aham migrationB. 



C?HAP. v.] GOALPARA — KAMROOP. 109 

Dimapoor rnins, a former capital of the same kings, in the 
Naga hilk, are overgrown with jungle, but are distinctly trace- 
able, along the Dhansiri river, with many monolithic pillars 
and splendid tanks of clear water. 

Assam Valley. 

§ 7. Goal? ABA District, western entrance to Assam valley, 
is bounded E. by Kamroop; N. by Bhootan hills; W. by Jalpai- 
gori, Eooch Behar, and Rangpoor ; and S. by the Garo hills. 
Area, including Eastern Dwars ("doors"), conquered in 1864 
from Bhootan, 4433 sq. m., of which a tenth is forest. Popu- 
lation, 444,689. The Brahmapootra intersects the district and 
then finds its way south to Bengal proper, between the Bhootan 
range and the Garo hills. Low hills skirt the banks of the 
river, for which they occasionally form gorges. There are iso- 
lated ridges covered with forest ; the highest is Bhairab Chura^ 
1600 ft. The Sri-Soorjya Pahar (" hiU of the sun") is a sup- 
posed site of Hindoo observatory. The Brahmapootra, from the 
N., receives the Manas opposite Goalpara town, the Gadadhar or 
Gangadhar, from Jalpaigori, and the Sankos from Kooch Behar. 
Nine smaller streams, navigable only during the rains, fall into 
the Brahmapootra from the Bhootan and Garo hills. Three 
lakes, or inland sheets of water, covering from 7 to 12 sq. m. 
each, are the Tamranga, Upad, and Saras. Goalpara (5000), 
on hill on S. bank of Brahmapootra, with noble view of Hima- 
laya and Qbio hills; here is the American Baptist Mission. 
Gauripoor is a village on N. bank, residence of chief landholder. 
Dhoobri, now capital of district, steamer and labour port and 
military station on the N. bank, where the great river begins to 
turn south. Bijni and Sidli, two of the Eastern Dwars, rising 
centres of trade with Bhootan. The district is in 3 subdivi- 
sions — Gk)alpara, Dhoobri, and Eastern Dwars. 

§ 8. Kamboof District is boimded E. by Nowgong and 
Darrang districts, N. by Bootan hills, W. by Goalpara district, 
S. by Ehasi hills. Area, 3631 sq. m. Population, 644,843. 
The plain, rising N. and S. towards the hills, is divided from E. 
to W. by the Brahmapootra river, which receives from N. the 
Manas, falling into it opposite Goalpara, and is navigable by 
native craft ; the Ohaul-Koya, which drains the Pagla Manas, 
Sam Manas, Pahumara, Ealdiya, Noa-nadi, and Baraliya, and 
after sending off the Rorsa to the Brahmapootra, falls into the 
Manas just before that river reaches the Brahmapootra^ The 
Lakhai-tara and the Bar-nadi also flow from the Bhootan hills to 



110 PROVINCE OF ASSA3L [CHAP. v. 

the Brahmapootra. From the south the Brahmapootra ia fed hj 
the Bata, Kulsi, and Singara. Most of these fifteen tributaries 
are navigable by native boats of two tons, but are fordable in 
the dry season. Marshes, termed bkeels or jheels and swelling 
into small lakes, are numerous and may be reclaimed. There 
are large forest reserves, chiefly of sal (Shorea rolnista), and 
plantations of caoutchouc and tea. There are 50 European land- 
holders. Gauhati (12,000), chief town and cantonment, on S. 
bank of Brahmapootra. Old capital of King Narak, called Prag- 
jotishpoor in MakabharcU epic Capital of Aham dynasty from 
1615, with ruins of fortifications. Three shrines in the neigh- 
bourhood, Hindoo and Boodhist, attract thousands of pilgrims. 
Centre of American Baptist Mission. Barpeta^ centre of 
second suMivision in N.W. 

§ 9. Dabrang DiSTRitn: is bounded E. by Lakhimpoor ; N. 
by Daphla, Aka, and Bhootia hills; W. by Eamroop; and S. by 
Nowgong and Seebsagar. Area, 3418 sq. m. Population, 271,504. 
T]^\B level district lies along N. bank of Brahmap(K)tra for 126 
m. with a breadth of 25 m. The Aham dynasty lent it to the 
hill Bbootias, for rice cultivation, during eight months every 
year. The Brahmapootra receives the Bhairavi, near Tezpoor, 
from the Aka hills ; the Ghiladhari, Jeea Dhaneswari, Nonai, and 
Bar-nadi, all navigable stl'eams, from N. The Bhola and Laksh- 
mi, on leaving the hills, disappear for some miles in the porous 
soil There are six large forest reserves, with rubber planta- 
tions ; there are fifty-four non- Asiatics on tea estates. Tezpoor 
(2500), civil station, on right bank of Brahmapootra, on a plain 
between low hills, with ruins of palace of Ban Rsga, described 
in Frem Sagar ; a mile W. is a swamp, the legendary scene of 
contest between Krishna and the Raja, whence the ancient name, 
Sonitpoor = field of blood. Gigantic ruins of Shiva temples are 
near Tezpoor. Mangaldai, 50 m. W. of Tezpoor, head of second 
subdivision, and Bishnath, 26 m. E., are next in importance. 
Ndalgoori, N.W., is the principal annual fair, held at base of 
the hills, for trade with Bhootias. 

§ 10. NowQONO District is bounded E. by the Naga hills, 
N. by Darrang, W. by Eamroop, and S. by Jaintia and Cacbar 
hills. Area, 3417 sq. m. Population, 308,889. The district 
is a low plain along S. bank of Brahmapootra, sloping towards 
W. from Meekeer hills, which rise rapidly to 3500 ft, the 
highest peak, and extend 60 m. long by 40 broad. The 
Kamakhya hills in S.W., a small range, rise to 1500 ft. A 
shrine of Doorga is on the Eamakhya Parbat, cultivated with 
tea. The Brahmapootra sends off the Ealang in N.E., which 



CHAP. V. ] NO WGONG — SEEBSAGAR. Ill 

rejoins it 15 m. above Gauhati« The Ealang receives from the 
S. the Mecha, Diju, Nanai, Kapili, and Kiling, and its old bed 
fonns the two large lakes, Mari and Pota Kalang, S. of Now- 
gong station. The Sonai leaves the S. bank of Brahmapootra 
above Lookhoya, and flows S.W. to the Kalang, its old bed 
forming the lake Mar SonaL The Kapili, which, from the 
Jaiutia hills, joins the Ealang by one branch, flows W. to the 
Barpani, which falls into the Dimal, and that in its turn into 
the Kiling before its junction, as above, with the Ealang. The 
Deopanj, from. the Naga hills, falls into the Diphlu. The 
Leteri, in the N., leaves the Brahmapootra opposite Tezpoor and 
reonites with it 24 m. lower down, after receiving several trihu- 
tariea. The Dhaneswari, after bounding the district E., falls 
into the Brahmapootra. Besides these, navigable for nine 
months in the year, there are 110 streams navigable only in 
the rainy season. Besides the lakes mentioned there are the 
Garaoga, Eachdhara, Mer, Udari Ehangaria, and Pakaria. 
NoiWfironfir (3000), chief place on K bank of Ealang. Raha 
and Cbapari-mookh are river-side marts near confluence of tlie 
Ealang, Dimal, and EapilL Tea is largely cultivated by 
British capital. 

§ 11. Seebsagar Disteict is bounded £. and N. by Lak- 
himpoor, W. by Nowgong, and S. by Naga hilla Area, 2855 
.6q. m. Population, 365,300. The district lies along S. bink 
of Brahmapootra, to which numerous streams flow from the 
Naga hills. Besides the Dhaneswari above, forming part of its 
W. boundary, the Buri Dihing on N. border, the Disang, and 
Dikhu are navigable ; in the rainy season the rivers navigable 
by btiats of two tons are the Eakodanga, Disai, Eokila, Jangi, 
Dwarika, and Dimu. The island, or alluvial deposit, M{yuli, 
js formed in the Brahmapootra at the junction of the Lohit. 
The lands inundated by the great river are, in the cold season, 
covered by vast herds of buffaloes. Seebsaerar (5500), chief 
town, 12 m. S. from the Brahmapootra, picturesquely placed 
aronnd a noble artificial lake covering 114 acres. Razifirpoor, S., 
once a capital of Aham dynasty. GkLrsrhaon, fort and palace, 
on Dikhu river, once a capital of the Ahams, and seat of earher 
civilisation. Jorhat, on the Desai, a centre of tea culture. 
Oola^hat, on Dhaneswari, and head of steam navigation. 
Seeb^agar district, second only to Cachar among the tea-growing 
districts of India, produces upwards of a million lbs. annually, 
and has 110,000 acres of waste land gradually coming under 
cultivation, largely by the Assam Company since 1859. The 
diBtiict is in 3 subdivisions — Seebsagar, Jorhat, and Grolaghat. 



1 12 PROVINCE OP ASSAM. [CHAP. V. 

§ 12. Lakhihpoob District, head of Assam valley, the 
eztremo N.E. district of India, runniDg into China between 
Tibet and Burma, is bomided E. by Singpho and Mishmi hills ; 
N. by Mishmi, Abar, Meeree, and Daphla hills ; W. by Barrang 
and Seebsagar ; and S. by the Lohit and the Patkai watershed. 
Area, 3723 sq. m. Population, 172,079. Between 28' 17' 10* 
and 26« 51' 30" K latitude, and 93** 15' 30* and 97" 4' 58* E. 
longitude. The Brahmapootra, bisecting the district through 
its whole length, is fed principally by three rivers, which unite 
at latitude 27' 45' and longitude 95' 30'. The southernmost, 
to which the Hindoos give the name of the main stream, comes 
out of the hills from 150 to 200 yards wide E. of the Brah- 
makoond (Brahma's well) valley, beneath the snowy range, 
receives the Eundel and Digaru from the N. Mishmi hills, and 
the Tenga-pani and Noa Dihing from the N.E. Singpho hills. 
The Dihong contributes the chief volume in continuation of the 
Tsangpo of Tibet The Brahmapootra is navigable by steamer 
to Dibroogarh, and in the rains only to Sadiya, 100 m. farther, 
near the N.K frontier. It receives the Dibroo from Lakhim- 
poor, the Buri-Dihing from the Patkai hills, navigable to 
Jaipoor, into which the Tingrai-nadi and the Sasoo fall To 
the N. of the Brahmapootra the chief branches are the Lohit 
and Subansiri from Tibet. Dibrobfirarh (4000), chief station 
and cantonment, on the Dibroo, above its junction with the 
Brahmapootra, N. A railway is being laid 75 m. to Sadiya. 
Lakhimpoor, headquarters of subdivision. Sa*diya, frontier 
military post, with annual fair for hill tribes. From this, in 
1870, the late Mr. T. T. Cooper explored np the Brahmapootra, 
through the Mejoo Mishmee country, towards Bathang in E. 
Tibet; he reached within 10 m. of the first Tibetan outpost 
from Rooemah, near which Boman Catholic missionaries, Crid^ 
and Bouri, were murdered. Jaipoor, with extensive ooal 
beds and petroleum springs. Here the indigenous tea plant 
discovered in 1826 by Mr. C. A. Bruce, who commanded a 
gunboat in first Burmese war, was cultivated by (Government 
in 1835 in a garden sold to the Assam Company in 1840. 
There are now upwards of 120 plantations, exporting more 
than 2 million lbs. Silk culture once flourished in this 
district. 

HiLUS. 

§ 13. Gabo Hiuus Distbict (Gaoranaor Gawana « native 
name), most westerly of the ranges which divide the Brahma- 
pootra from the Barak valley, is bounded E. by the Khasi hiUs, 



CHAP, v.] GARO, KHASI, AND JAINTIA HILIS. 113 

N. and W. by Goalpara, and S. by Maimansingh. Area, 3653 
sq. m. Population, 109,054. The hills rise from N. into the 
Tura range (4500 ft.), which runs W. and E. to join the Khasi 
bills, with two peaks, Tura and Kailas (Hindoo name), Bhim 
Tura (Garo), Manrai (Khasi), from which the snowy Himalaya 
are sometimes visible. The Arbela range runs N. of, and parallel 
with, the Tura. The five occasionally navigable rivers are the 
Krishnai, from the N. of Arbela range, passing into Goalpara ; 
the Kalu (Garni = Garo name), from near Tura station, flowing 
W. into Goalpara, with Baranasi tributary ; the Bhogai, from 
S.E. of station, flowing S. to Maimansingh, to old channel of 
Brahmapootra, with Noaranga tributary ; the Netai, also from 
S. watershed of Tura, S. to the Eanks in Maimansingh ; the 
Sameewari (Samsang = Garo name), the largest, flowing from 
N. face of Tura range, turns E. and S., receives the Kangkai, 
Rangai, and Chibok, and enters E. Maimansingh near Susang. 
Coal and limestone are found in its valley and elsewhere ; there 
are picturesque gorges and caves in the limestone, especially 
above Rayak village. Wild elephants are caught for Govern- 
ment in khedas or stockades. The aboriginal Garos are similar 
to the Cacharis. The American Baptist Mission conducts the 
schoolsw Tura, chief village, on central spur of hill facing W., 
2000 ft. from summit, and 40 m. from Singiniari mart in 
Goalpara. Harigaon, 20 m. W. from Tura, on road throuiih 
Goalpara to Maniker, on E. bank of Brahmapootra. The rainfall 
in 1878-9 was 177 inches, chiefly from June to September. 

§ 14. Khasi and Jaintia Hills District (Ka Ri Khasi 
and Ka Ri Synteng » native names), headquarters of Chief 
Ck>mmi8sioner of the Province, is bounded K by N. Cachar and 
Naga hills, N. by Nowgong and Kamroop, W. by Garo hills, 
and S. by Sylhet. Area, 6157 sq. m. Population, 169,113. 
The district ia non-regulation, consisting largely of democratic 
States under nineteen native Seims (" soul" or " lite") or chiefs. 
The Welsh Calvinistic Mission conducts the schools. The 
Sfaillong range rises to 6449 ft., the height of its principal peak ; 
Dingili range, to 6400 ft. ; Mao-thad-rai-shan, to 6297 ft. ; 
Lao-syn-nia, to 5775 ft. ; Lao-bah, to 4464 ft. ; Lyng-ker-dem, 
to 5000 ft. ; Loom-baiong, to 4646 ft. ; and Mao-syn-ram, to 
5810 ft The Soh-pet-byneng (" navel of the sky") is believed 
by the Khasias to be the centre of the world ; it is 4000 ft. 
The streams are mountain torrents, seven of which flow S. to 
the Soorma in Sylhet, and five to the Brahmapootra. Fine 
coal, iron, and lime abound ; the ** Sylhet lime" is supplied 
from the base of the S. mountaina The orange, cinnamon, 



114 PROVINCE OF ASSAM. [OH AP. V. 

cinchona, and potato flourish. Shillozisr (2500), capital of 
Assam since 1874, and cantonment ; a sanitarium (4951 ft.), 
with its suburbs, Laban and Maokhar, belonging to Seim of Mil- 
lyum. In 1878-9 the rainfall was 399*86 inches. Eight roads 
radiate from Shillong to Oauhatti (two days* distance), Sylhet, 
and Garo hiU& Jowai, centre of 25 fiscal divisions of Jaintia 
hills, 26 m. from the plains. Oherra-pooijee ("village"), 
30 m. S. of Shillong, near face of hills, with rainfall rising 
occasionally to 500 inches (805 in 1861), centre of coal-mining, 
with limestone caves ; also at Roopnath, where one cavern is 
popularly believed to reach to China. Non^rklao (3500 ft.), 
scene of rebellion in 1829 ; with a cinchona plantation since 
1867. Sheila, principal Khasi State, on lower hills, and a 
central station of Welsh Mission, with Normal School 

§ 15. Naqa Hills District is bounded £. by the Singpho 
country and Seebsagar, N. by Nowgong, W. by Nowgong and 
Khasi and Jaintia hills, and S. by Manipoor and the Patkai and 
Saramete (12,822 ft.) ranges. Area, 6400 sq. m. Population, 
93,100. All are forest tribes — Meekeer, Cachari, Eooki, Ar- 
tanya, Angami, Sema, Rengma, Lhota, Hatigoria, and Eutcha 
Naga, who range from the comparative civilisation of the two 
first to the utter savagery of the last. The Nagas are the naked 
(Bengalee, nangta) or snake (Sanskrit, naga) tribes, who use the 
spear and dao or hatchet. The Rengma hills (2000 to 3000 ft.), 
drained by the Eabani, Sargati, and Dhaneswari rivers, are at 
present inaccessible. The Barail range (2000 to 6000 ft.), 
with trade routes from Manipoor, extends E. from Cachar to 
the Patkai mountains. The rivers, navigable by large boats 
in the rains only, are the Da-yang on E., flowing N. to S. to the 
Dhaneswari, which, rising in Barail hills, runs N. to the Brahma- 
pootra. The Jamoona, rising in N., flows S. and K along the 
Rengma base to the Eapili. Numerous swamps breed malaria. 
Coal, chalk, and limestone are found in the Rengma hills. 
Kohixna (5000), latest headquarters and military station in 
S.E., with road to Golaghat in Seebsagar district. Woklia» 
subdi visional station in Singpho country, 62 m. S.K of Oola- 
ghat. SamafirootinfiTi first headquarters station, 67 m. S.W. 
of Golaghat, with a school. The raids of the Angami Nagas 
for human heads, and the assassination of Survey officers, have 
caused eleven expeditions into the hills, with the result of a 
gradual occupation and pacification of the wild forest land 
up to the Patkai frontier, which marks off the Empire fix>m 
the Hookoong valley of Upper Burma. To this valley there was 
an old trade route over a depression in the Patkai past the 



CHAP, v.] NAGA HILLS — MANIPOOR STATE. 115 

Non-yang, or lake of Yang, which drains into the Eyendween, 
and that into the Irawadi. From Makoom, last outpost of 
Lakhimpoor, to the Eyendween is 90 m. of jungle track, fol- 
lowed by Mr. H. L. Jenkms in 1870. In March 1881 the 
Chief Commissioner traversed these hills. Entering them at 
Nichu Guard, he marched through the Diphu gorge to Zumha, 
and thence by the ordinary road, via Pherrima and Piphima, to 
Eeruphima, whence he diverged to Sachema^ Mezuma, and 
Ehonoma. From Ehonoma he travelled, via Jotsoma, to 
Eohima ; thence he marched to Wokha by the country of the 
Rengma, Sema, and Lhota Nagas, and descended on the plains 
at MerapanL 

§ 16. ^Manifoob State {Meitkei laipak, or Meithei country 
= local name ; Katke = Burman), Hindoo State with British 
Resident, is bounded E. by Eubo valley of Upper Burma, N. by 
Naga hills, W. by Cachar, and S. by the Looshai country. 
Area (unsurveyed), under 8000 sq. m. Population, 147,345. 
Manipoor valley, with an area of 650 sq. m., is an irregular oval 
36 by 20 m., occupied by some 70,000 Meitheis, who trace the 
Dame Manipoor to the jewel " Mani" of the Mahabharat. The 
Raja ascribes his descent to the snake called Pakung-ba, which 
is the object of State worship, through male and female diviners 
called Maibees. All males between 17 and 60 work for the 
State ten days in every forty — a system called kdloop, practised 
among the Ahams of the Assam frontier. In Manipoor, with 
its fine ponies, originated the game of hockey on horseback 
(polo) three centuries ago ; it is there played with great skill by 
all classes (seven on either side), from the Raja downwards. Of 
the mountain ranges, running N. and S., the principal are the 
Limatol (6500 ft.), and the Heerok (6000 fb.) or Roma to K, 
separating Manipoor from the Eubo valley, which was ruled by 
the Raja as fi^r as the Eyendween river in the ten years ending 
1834, when the British induced him to surrender it to Burma. On 
the W., the road of 103 m. from Silchar crosses the Hoorung 
hills at 800 ft., the Mookroo at 1500 ft, the Eala Naga or 
Owhynanglong at 400 ft., and the Limatol at 4900 ft., from the 
R slope of which are seen the Logtak lakes, yearly lessening from 
the large lake which must have at one time filled the saucer- 
like valley. The Numbool and Numbol rivers from N. and 
N.W. fall into the lake, which sends out the Eortak to join the 
united Eempal, Eril, and Thobal from the N., and forms the 
Soogoono, which flows to the Eyendween below Gendat in Upper 
Burma. The Barak (Manipoori ^ Quaiy) risrs in the Barail 
range, flows S.E., receiving the Mookroo, Erung, Tipar, and 



116 PROVINCE OP ASSAM. [OH AP. V. 

Jiri, then N. and W. into Cachar, between which and Manipoor 
the Jiri is the boundary. Manipoor (Eempall «= local name) 
(35,000), capital of the State, with portion of Raja's residence 
not destroyed by earthquake of 1869, and moat in which annual 
boat-races are held. The breed of ponies under 12 hands high 
is degenerating. Iron and limestone are found. Salt wells at 
Ningail and Chundrakong give an abundant supply, especially 
since the earthquake. Raw silk of good quality is produced. 
From Manipoor to Eubo the N. route (five to seven days' march) 
runs for 18 m. through the valley, and for 24 m. across the Roma 
range (5500 ft), with indigenous tea-plants, to Suigok, tributary 
village of Burma, now on right bank of Eyendween, frnm which 
is nine days' journey to Bam5, the Burma entrepot for China on 
the Upper IrawadL Kangjhupkool is the British Resident's 
summer residence. The capital is now connected with all parts 
of Manipoor valley by roads. A cart road runs by Sengmai, 80 
m., to Mao, on the border of the Naga hills district, and thence 
to Yiswema in the hillB ; also from Manipoor to EongaL The 
passes to Burma are closed to traders. The Manipoorees are 
fietmed in K Bengal as carpenters, metal-workers, saddlers, and 
producers of blue doth with a red border. The boundary 
between Manipoor and Burma, described in 1834 as an imagi- 
nary line drawn due N. from the Eubo valley, has just been 
laid down with pillars, so as to prevent or punish Eooki aggres- 
sion, and fix the responsibility of the Shan population of Sum- 
jok and the Burmese authorities, to whom they are subordinate. 



CHAPTER VL 

THE PBOYINOB OF BRITISH BX7SMA — GENERAL. 

S 1. Name, Size, and PositioiL § 2. Mountain Ranges. § 3. Riyera. 
§ 4. Products, Railways, and Trade. § 5. Land Tenures and 
Taxation. § 6. The People and Districts. 

$ 1. Name, Size and Position. — British Burma Provinoe 
(Mram-ma, pronounced Biyam-ma — celestial beings, from Pali 
word Brahma), with an area of 87,220 sq. m., or slightly less 
than that of the Island of Great Britain, forms the eastern 
shore of the Bay of Bengal, from the Bengal district of Cbitta- 
gong to Siam. Its population, which in 1 88 1 was 3, 736, 7 7 1 , in- 
creased 36 per cent in the previous decade, and has more than 
doabled since 1862, when Pegu, Arakan, and Tenasserim were 
first consolidated under a Chief Commissioner. Burma is the 
great Boodhist province along the Gk)Iden Chersonese or Mal- 
ayan peninsula for 1800 miles. Lying between 92** and 90' E. 
long, and 20" 50' and 9" 55' N. lat, it is bounded on the K 
by a line of masonry pillars, uniting mountain and river from 
the crest of the Arakan to the Tenasserim Roma at Pakchan, 
separatiug it from Independent Burma and Siam; N. by the 
main crest of the Arakan Roma and the Naf estuaiy ; W. and 
S. by the Bay of Bengal. This fertile strip of coast and river 
valleys, indented by estuaries and creeks, has been compared on 
the map to a bird flying S.K with outstretched wings ; Pegu, 
or the valleys of the Irawadi and Tsit-toung, forming the body, 
Arakan and Tenasserim the pinions. Fertile archipelagoes of 
Islands fringe the coast, of which the largest are Chedooba or 
Manoung, Ramree or Tan-myo, and Mergui 

§ 2. Mountain Ranges. — Four principal mountain ranges 
ran N. and S. The Arakan Boina (<< back-bone ") or Yoma, 
Mons Maeandrus of Ptolemy, a meridian range starting from 
the Patkai between long. 93* and 94^ enclosing Manipoor, and 
stretching out W. to Tipiura, contracts to a defined chain as it 
approaches Arakan and " 700 m. from its origin in the Naga 
wilds, it sinks into the sea hard by Negrais, its last bluff crowned 



118 PROVINCE OP BRITISH BURMA — GENERAL. [OHAP. VI. 

by the Golden Pagoda of MoodaiD, gleaming far to seaward, a 
Burmese Suniimi. Fancy might trace the submarine prolonga- 
tion of the range in the dotted line of the Preparis, the Cocos, 
the Andamans, the Nicobars, till it emerges again to traverse 
Sumatra, and the vast chain of the Javanese Isles (Yule's "Ava"). 
Its principal peaks are the Blue Mountain (4851 ft), N. Arakan, 
throwing off W. to the coast at A-ngoo Maw, the watershed be- 
tween the Naf and Mayoo; the Kyee (**ever visible"), the Nat-oo 
and the double Shwe-doung Mourg Hnitma (*' golden brother and 
sister "). The passes are the precipitous Dha-let in N., the An 
in Kyouk-hpyoo to Meng-boo on the Upper Irawadi, 100 m. ; 
and the Toung-goop in Sandoway, with a road to Padoung in 
Prome. The Pegu Roma or Yoma watershed between the 
Irawadi and Tsit-toung rises from the Be-me-theng plains N. of 
British territory, rises to 1200 ft. at frontier, increases to 2000 
when it throws out spurs forming the valleys of the Pegu, Poo- 
zwon-doung and other rivers, forms at Rangoon the platform of 
the Shwe Dagon pagoda, and farther S. that of the Syriam 
Pagoda, and disappears in the dangerous rocks of the Hmaw- 
uon. The most northerly pass is the Za-diep-hpo (^'nutmeg 
tree "). The Tenaaserim Roma, Pa-T77an or Siam water- 
parting, starting from the waning Himalaya, trends S.K between 
the Irawadi and Sal ween, 15 m. £. of the Tsit-toung it sends off 
the subsidiary Poung-loung range (2000 to 3000 ft.), 50 ro. E. 
the main range rises to 8000 ft., and in Elareng-nee to 9000 ft, 
till one of its spurs almost reaches the sea near Martaban, where 
it parts the Salween from the big-mouthed Tsit-toung. Its prin- 
cipal peak in British territory is the Nat-toung (''spirit hill''). 
Six days' journey S.E. from the frontier station of Toung-ngoo, 
the Toung-goung-toon (" bald-headed mountain ") rises to 8000 
ft The Tenasserim Roma, E. of Salween, forms the boundary 
between Tenasserim and Siam from the gorge through which 
the Thoung-yeng (le** 27' 47" N. lat, and 98** 50' 50* E. long.) 
flows towards the Three Pagodas, to the source of the Pakchan 
river which — down to Victoria Point — forms the S.E. boundary 
of the British Indian Empire. S. of the gorge the granitoid 
mass of Moo-lai-yit rises to 5500 ft. 

§. 3. RiVEES. — The Naf in the N. is an estuaiy 30 m. 
wide at its mouth, and running 31m. inland. Forty m. S. is the 
Ma-yoo, 4 m. wide, and broken in two, 10 m. up, by an island. 
The Kooladan, separated from the Ma-yoo by the island of 
Akyab, rises in the Arakan Roma, whence it flows S. over a 
rocky bed to a point 120 m. above Akyab, to which it is navi- 
gable by boats. Its mouth, protected by the Barongo and 



CHAP. VI.] RIVERS. 119 

Savage Islands, forms a spacious harbour which a bar renders 
difficult of entry. The Tsala, Rala, Kola, Palak, Kan, Mee, 
and Pee, are its tributaries. The other rivers on the Arakan 
coast are the Le-mro, Dha-let, An, Sandoway, and Khua. The 
Ira^vadi, from the snows of the S. face of the Laugtang chain 
in 28" N. lat., and 97' 30' E. long, in the gap of 80 m. of 
Singpho-Kampti country between India and China, has a course 
of 900 m. S.S.W. to the Bay of Bengal, of which 240 are in 
British Burma. Formed of what the Burmese call Myit-gee 
and Myit-ngay (^Marge and small river"), and receiving the Mo- 
goung from the W., the Irawadi, after the first hundred miles of 
its course, is 900 yards broad when it enters the first defile 
(Tsbeng-boo) of 150 yards. On emerging it becomes half a mile 
wide, passes Koung-toung-myo, where in 1769 the last army 
of Chinese mandarins was defeated, and below the old capital 
of Amarapoora enters the second Kyouk-deng (*' defile") and 
below Tsampanago a third defile, below which, on the E. side, 
begins the valley of Ava, where it receives the Myit-ngay from 
the N. Shan coimtry. After entering British territory it con- 
tracts between the spurs of the two Romas, passes through a 
fourth defile at Prome, where the delta begins, and below that has 
a discharge of 75,000 ft. The Irawadi sends off its first branch 
W. above Henzada at 90 m. from the sea, which, flowing past 
Bassein, receives the waters of the Panmawaddee and of the 
Penglaygalay, and bifurcating, enters the Bay of Bengal by two 
main mouths, the Basaeln and the Thekkay-thouner rivers. 
This branch is navigable for large ships for 30 m., as far as 
Bassein ; after passing Henzada it sends off a small branch to 
the eastward, which joins the Hlaing just above Eangoon. The 
main river then subdivides till it empties itself into the sea by 
ten mouths — the Yuay, Dayaybhyoo, Pyamaloo, Pyengazaloo, 
Dalla, Phyapon, Donyan, Thanhteat, and China Barkeer rivers, 
and the Irawadi, which is between the Pyengazaloo and Dalla 
mouths. Its waters commence to rise in March and continue 
to rise till September from 37 to 40 ft. It is navigable for 
river steamers as far as Bamo, 600 m. beyond the British 
frontier. The velocity of its waters, when the river is full, is 
5 m. an hour. The Hlaing rises close to Prome, where it is 
called the Myit-makat stream, and flowing in a southerly direc- 
tion nearly parallel to the Irawadi, it gradually assumes the 
name of the Hlaing, and finally of the Rangoon river, and flows 
past the town of that name. Below Rangoon it is joined by 
the Pegu and Poo-zwon-doung rivers flowing from the E. and 
N.E. It is navigable for vessels of the largest size for some 



120 PROVINCE OP BRITISH BURMA — GENERAL. [cHAP. VI, 

distance above Rangoon, but owing to the Hastings shoal, 
formed at the junction of the Pegu, the Poo-zwon-doung, and 
Rangoon rivers, vessels of more than 6 ft. draught cannot go 
up at low tide. The "Pegu, and the Poo-zwon-doun^r rise close 
together in the Roma range, about 58 m. above the town of 
Pegu. Here the Pegu river, which is almost dry during the 
hot season at low tides, is 105 yards broad; in its further 
course of 60 m. to the Rangoon river it rapidly increases in 
breadth, but, narrowing at its mouth, a bore goes up it, the 
effects of which are felt at Pegu. The Poo-zwon-doung river, 
which empties itself into the Rangoon river at the same spot as 
the Pegu river, is 50 yards wide at a distance of 35 m. from its 
mouth. The Tsit-tounsr rises far north of British territory, 
which it enters just above Ti)ung-ngoo, where it is navigable with 
difficulty for large boats during the dry season ; below Shwe- 
gyeen, where it receives the waters of the Shwe-gryeen river 
from the E., it slowly widens, till at Tsit-toung it is half a mile 
broad. Thence it curves backward into the Gulf of Martahan, 
from which the tidal wave sweeps up it as a bore with a curling 
crest 9 ft. higlu The Tsit-toung has a course of 350 m., of 
which half is in British territory. A canal from the Pegu river 
to Myit-kyo, above Tsit-toung, facilitates communication between 
Rangoon and Toung-ngoo. The BheelenK flows from the hills 
between the Tsit-toung and the Sal ween, 128 m., to the sea. 
The SaJween, probably from the most E. spurs of the Himalaya, 
N. of Yunan, in 32° N. lat. (Lepper), after traversing the Shan 
and Kareng-nee States, crosses the British frontier, 300 yards 
broad, at 200 m. from its mouth. Thence it is navigable till it 
receives the Thoung-yeng, when it contracts to a torrent On 
receiving the Gyaing and Attaran, it divides into two channels, 
of which the northern, known as the Martaban river, flows 
south past Maulmein to the sea at Amherst. The Thounff- 
yeng is the S. boundary of the Province for 198 m. from its 
source in the great E. chain. The Tenasserim, farther S., 
is navigable by boat>«, and the Pakohan by steamers, up to the 
junction of the Malee-won. 

The chief lakes or lagoons are — the Engma ('* principal 
lake''), S. of Prome district, 10 m. long and 4 broad; the 
Htoo and Doora^ in Henzada ; and the Sha-khal-gyee and 
EnfiT-rai-firyee in Bassein. 

§ 4. Products, Railways, and Tradb. — Tertiary coal 
occurs in Mergui and Thayit-myo, but not in sufficient quantity 
to constitute workable fields. Tinstone is the most important 
mineral found in the granite, which runs through the whole 



CHAP. Ti.] PRODTJCTS. 121 

length of Tenasserim. In 1586 Mr. Ealph Fitch wrote of 
this division as supplying all India with tin ; but neither to 
Chinese nor English has the mining been profitible of late. 
Oxide of iron, specular and brown, occurs chiefly in Tenasserim ; 
copper and galena, manganese and antimony, also are there and 
near Toung-ngoo. Grold-washing, with results of slight economic 
importance, is carried on, mainly in bad seasons, in most parts 
of Burma, chiefly near Shwe-gyeen in Martaban, and in the bed 
of the IrawadL Petroleum springs aboimd in the form of the 
clear limpid oil of Kyouk-hpyoo, like sherry, and the dark com- 
mercial oil from Re-nan-khyoang in Upper Burma. There also, 
and not in British territory, are found the finest Oriental rubies, 
sapphires, and emeralds. The true wealth of British Burma 
ooD^ists in its forests and rice. . In this Province, first of all 
India, Lord Dalhousie began a system of forest conservancy 
under Mr. Brandis, Ph.D., in 1854, chiefly for the protection 
and extension of the teak tree. The Forest Act of 1865 applies 
to the forest reserves between the Irawadi and the hilld E. of 
Tsit-toung, chiefly on the Pegu Roma range and the two Tenas- 
serim circles, and regulates the import of timber from beyond 
the frontier. Cinchona and caoutchouc have been introduced ; 
the first succeeds in the Succirubra variety alone, at the Than- 
toung-gyee plantation, 18 m. E. of Toung-ngoo (3700 ft.) The 
forests produce valuable oils (wood-oil chiefly), ref^ins, gums, 
dyes, and fibres. The se^samum is largely cultivated for oil, on 
the flanks of the hills where cleared by fire, and on sandbanks 
occasionaUy submerged. Rice is the main crop, makin^; Burma 
the granary of India during recent famines. It \b raised chiefly in 
the delta of the Irawadi by five methods — on swamps, on levels 
occasionally irrigated, on occasionally submerged banks, on hill 
clearings, and on hot-weather lands from irrigation only. The 
culture of the first three commences with the rain monsoon in 
Jane; the harvest continues from November to January. 
Tobacco is raised everywhere, carelessly manufactured into 
cheroots, and largely exported. About 3 millions of acres are 
under rice every year ; 180,000 under such fruit trees as the 
orange, lemon, doorian, mango, mangosteen, jack, cocoa-nut, 
custard-apple, and grape ; 1 5,000 under oil-seeds ; 5000 under 
sugar cane ; 10,000 under cotton ; 17,000 under tobacco ; and 
700 under indigo. Tea and coflee are grown to a slight extent 
in the Akyab district. The cultivators hold their land in plots 
of from 5 to 1 6 acres as peasant-proprietors, paying an annual 
tax to the State for cleared land, and farther paying a capita- 
tion tax in conmion with all adults. The foreign and coasting 



122 PROVINCE OF BRITISH BURMA — GENERAL. [OHAP. TI. 

trade exceeds £18,000,000 in annual valae, of which one-sixth 
is treaflure. The inland trade with Upper Burma varies around 
£250,000 imports and £150,000 exports. Silk and cotton 
weaving and silk breeding, dyeing, preparation of cutch from 
the Acacia catechu for tanning, etc., of salt, of ngapee or salted 
fish and paste (the halachong of the Straits Settlements), pottery, 
lacquered ware, gilt teak boxes for tools, mats, gold and silver 
work, and steam-mills for rice and wood, are the chief manufac- 
tures. The Rangoon and Irawadi (State) Railway has, since 
1877, run from Rangoon as far as Prome, 163 m. A line ia 
being constructed 163 m. from Rangoon to Toung-ngoo, up the 
Tsit-toung valley, and has reached Pegu town, 48 m. It is about 
to be opened to Pycentaza, opposite the headquarters of Shwe- 
gyeen, and will be completed in 1884. The sea-borne trade alone 
in 1880-81 was £18,277,000 in value; and the land trade with 
Upper Burma £3,044,000, or £22,222,000 nearly equally 
divided between exports and imports. This is a growth of 117 
per cent in ten years. The export of rice rose from 440,000 
tons in 1870-71 to 892,262 tons in 1880-81, and was still 
higher in 1881-82. From Rangoon the Irawadi flotilla steamers 
reach Bamo in from 15 to 20 days; thence two £nglisb mis- 
sionaries recently travelled unarmed, under the Convention of 
Chefoo, in 21 days to Talifoo, in 46 to the capital of Yunan, 
and in 68 days to the Yangtse river in S. Sechuen, 1765 m. 
from Shanghai, to which the Yellow River is open save for 100 
m. of rapids and rocks between Quei-chow and Ichang. 

§ 5. Land Tenures and Taxation. — Till 1879 the land 
revenue was assessed at a single rate per acre for whole villages 
or groups of villages, while the areas of holdings were roughly 
measured by rural rerenue officers. In 1879 a cadastral survey 
of all the occupied lands was begun ; and on results of that 
survey a new assessment of the land revenue for a term of 15 
years is being framed. Fields are surveyed and their area 
ascertained with scientific accuracy; difierent rates of land 
revenue, varying with the fertility of the soil and the nearness 
of markets, have been fixed for each village or tract ; and a 
careful record has been prepared of all rights in the land. 
Of three districts, Hanthawadi, Bassein, and Tharawadi, the 
total area surveyed is 1,924,146 acres, of which 505,727 acres 
are cultivated. The average area of each holding is 36 acres. 
The fiscal result is that lands which used to pay a land revenue 
of Rs. 4,04,587 will now pay a land revenue of Rs. 4,95,932 a 
year. The highest revenue rate is Rs. 3 (6s.) an acre, and the 
lowest is 12 annas (Is. 6d.) per acre. The average rate is Rs, 



CHAP. VI.] LAND TENURES AND TAXATION. 123 

2-4 (4s. 6d.) per acre of cultivated land. The average gross 
value of the rice produced is about Rs. 21 per acre ; and the 
cost of production, including the support of the cultivator and 
his family, is Rs. 16. The land-tax is thus one-ninth of the 
gross and less than one-half of the net produca The average 
produce of ordinary lands is a little beyond 32 bushels per acre. 
Besides the land-tax there is (1) a local cess of 10 per cent on 
it for police, roads, schools, and rural post ; (2) the capitation 
tax of Bs. 5 to Rs. 3 on each adult male ; and (3) an export 
duty on rice of 6d. per cwt, which comes mainly out of the 
producer's profits. All this raises the land-tax to Rs. 3-14 
(7s. 9d.) per cultivated acre ; but Burman peasant-proprietors 
have no landlords, middlemen, or usurers, pay little salt-tax, 
and have excellent markets. That British Burma is progress- 
ively the most prosperous Province in Asia, is seen from the 
foUowing comparative statement for ten years : — 

1871. 1881. 

Cnltivated area in acres . . . 2,090,386 8,518,685 

Value of sea-borne trade — 

1871. 1881. 

Ezporto . £3,894,894 £9,478,143 
Imports . 3,903,144 8,802,273 



Total . £7,798,038 £18,280,416 

Value of trade with Upper Burma, Siam, etc. £2,341,009 £4,045,198 
Total rice exports in tons . . . 487,162 892,262 

„ tonnage of sea-going vessels entered 

and cleared . . . 1,286,624 1,949,247 

Approximate number of boats plying on 

the rivers .... 60,329 65,000 

Approximate number of steamers plying on 
inland rivers for hire ... 9 38 

Miles of railway open for traffic . . 163 

„ ,, under construction . 163 

„ of canal open for traffic . . 39 

Number of civil suits decided in the year . 31,804 31,026 

, , of murders, dacoities, and robberies 

reported in the year . . 407 278 

,, of cnildren in Government and 

inspected schools . . 2,456 85,930 

„ of patients treated in hospitals . 49,016 108,782 

Land revenue 
Fishery ,, 



Forest ,, 

Excise ,, 

Capitation tax 

Customs duties 

Stamp „ 

Foetal and telegraph receipts 



£331,944 £656,891 
£66,084 £138,902 



£81,812 £151,661 

£98,781 £241,429 

£221,105 £288,804 

£284,803 £595,656 

£47,367 £78,499 

£20,602 £36,238 



124 PROVINCE OF BRITISH BURMA — OENERAK [OHAP. YT. 



Total ^neral revenne, exdiuive of railway 
receipts ..... 

Municipal revenues 

Local Fund 

Port ,, 

Net earnings of railways during year end 
ing in June 1881 

Percentage of net earnings on capital cost 
of railway .... 






1871. 1881. 

£1,232,066 £2,164,067 

( £141,960 

£106,0944 £134,751 

I £80.308 



£60,696 
4*597 percent 



§ 6. Tub People and Districts. — The second census was 
taken in 1881 after an interval of 8^ years, during which the 
population of British Burma increased 36 per cent, or 4 per 
cent annually, largely from immigrants attracted by its fertile 
waste and high wages. The rate of increase varies greatly in 
the different tracts, ranging from 81 per cent in the fertile 
district of Hauthawadi to 3 per cent in the island district of 
the Arakan coast The increase in population is divided among 
the chief races of the province thus : — 





TotalH of 


Totals of 


Percentage of 




1872. 


1881. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


Burmans and Talaings 


. 2,111,921 


2,766,827 


310 


• ■ • 


Earengs 


831,706 


518,294 


56-2 


• • • 


Chins . 


61,117 


65,015 


7-6 


• a* 


Toungthoos . 


24,923 


35,554 


42 6 


• •• 


Shans . 


36,029 


69,728 


65*8 


• •• 


Other races of hill-men , 


31,242 


27,598 


■ • • 


11-6 


Races from India . 


137,014 


246,289 


79-7 


• • • 


Chinese 


12,109 


12,962 


7 


• • • 


Europeans and Eurasiai 


18 9,177 


11,860 


29-2 


• • « 



Total of all races 2,747,148 3,736,771 3602 11 '6 

The census figures show that 541,743 of the inhabitants of 
British Burma were born outside the limits of the Province, and 
that of these 316,018 were bom in Upper Burma. But the 
main causes of increase are probably the fecundity and healthi- 
ness of the population. The proportion of the population who 
are returned as under 12 yeard of age is 33*6 per cent, which 
is considerable for a country where there are many adult immi- 
grants. The males are 5 3 '28 per cent of the whole popula- 
tion, and 46*72 per cent are females. The surplus of men is 
partly due to th") large number of immigrant labourers. Im- 
migrants from India, in the first instance, come alone without 
their wives; while immigrants from Upper Burma are not 
allowed to bring their families. Among the Earengs and 
Talaings, whose numbers are rarely recruited by immi/ajation, 
the distribution of sexes is less unequal. Among the Earengs 



CHAP. VI.] THE PEOPLE — CIVIL DIVISIONS. 126 

there are 49*99 females to 50*01 males. Fifty-two per cent 
of all the males over 12 years of age, and 2*8 per cent of the 
women and girls over that age, are returned as able to read 
and write. According to the census returns, 66 per mille of 
the total population are under instruction, mostly at the mon- 
astic schools, which form an important feature in the social 
polity of Burma. The Educational Department has cognisance 
only of schools at which 24 per cent of the population are being 
taught. About 1 1 per cent of the population dwell in towns, 
and 68'56 per cent of the people live by agriculture. During 
five years the average surplus of imported over exported trea- 
sure has been £1,340,000 a year. The greater part of this 
silver and gold is converted into ornaments by the Burmans 
and Karengs. Every household of six persons in British Burma 
must have spent on the average about £12 during 1880-81 on 
imported articles and jewellery. The wages of unskilled labour 
range from 58. a week at the slack season in Kyouk-pyoo to 25s. 
a week in the busy season at the rice-ports. The average wage 
over the whole of Burma is probably about 7s. 6d. a week as 
compared with an average of about 2b. 3d. a week in the rest 
of India. The earnings of ordinary cultivators are proportion- 
ately higher. Wealth, such as it is, is very widely distributed. 
Men are wanted. Of 87,220 sq. m. only 5600 are cultivated. 
If the imperial and provincial revenues of all India were as 
heavy as they are in Burma, the general revenues of the Empire 
would be about 135 millions sterling. The total expenditure 
of British Burma in 1880-81 was — Civil, including railways 
and public works, £1,213,000; military, about £380,000. 
Thus British Burma, after paying interest on local railway 
capital, and a garrison maintained at war strength on account 
of political circumstances, yielded for the general purposes of 
the Empire a surplus of £767,000 in 1880-81. In this respect 
British Burma promises to be like Bengal, and proportionally 
to distance that Province. 

CrvTL Divisions of British Burma, 1881. 

The chief authority in the Province of British Burma is the Chief 
Commissioner and A sent to the Governor-General , established on 
Ist January 1862. The Cliief Commissioner is assisted by a Secre- 
tary, a Settlement Secretary, a Junior Secretary, and an Assistant 
to the Secretary, 3 Commissioners of Revenue and Circuit, 18 Deputy 
O)mmissioner8, including 1 Superintendent of the Hill Tracts, 
Northern Arakan, and 32 Assistant Commissioners, 4 Ck>llectors of 
Sea Customs, 4 Port Officers, a Director of Public Instruction, 2 
Inspectors of Schools, an Inspector-General of Police, an Inspector- 
General of Jails, and 2 Conservators of Forests. The usual staff 'of 



126 PROVINCE OF BRITISH BURMA — GENERAL. [CHAr. YI. 



officers in the Public Works Department is also attached to the Pro- 
vince. The Chief Commissioner exercises the powers of a local 
Government under the law, when such powers have been specially 
delegated to him by the Governor-General in Council ; in all other 
resi)ects, political and fiscal, he is the chief executive of the local 
Government, and under the Government of India. The judicial 
officers are the Judicial Commissioner, the Recorder of Rangoon, the 
Judge of the Town of Moulmein, and the Judge of the Sniall Cause 
Court, Rangoon. 
The following is a statement of the area, population, revenue, etc., of 
the different Commissionerships, Deputy Commissionershipe, and 
revenue subdivisions of the Province, omitting the Eareng-nee 
States : — 



!• 




dicial 
Btib- 


i 

a 


ft 


1 


Total cost of offlcials 
and police of all 
kinds. 


Revekuc, 


1 


DiSTRICIB. 


Number of Ju 
and revenue 
divisions. 


8* 

a 

1 


1 

1" 


• 

S3 

1 


1880^1. 


Land. 


Gross. 










1 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


f 


Rangoon Town 
Hanthawadi . 


1 


22 


184,176 .. 


74,806 


10.853 


43,79,480 




8 


4,286 


427,720, 1,898 


3,15,614 


21,50,685 


34,49,358 


• 


Thone-kwa 


4 


5,413 


284,068 


976 


1,89,447 


6,76,309 


19,80,728 




Bassein . 


8 


7,047 


889.419 


1,697 


3,92,080 


7,78,613 


44,68,381 


Henzada . 


2 


1,048 


818,077 


1,228 


1,22,474 


4,62,225 


10,72,021 


Tharawadi 


2 


2,014 


278,155 


1,385 


1,06,562 


3,14,389 


4,75,887 




Prome 


8 


2,887 


822,342 


1,647 


1,47,130 


2,83,423 


8,12,032 


V 

< 
< 

f 

• 


Thayet-myo . 
Total Pegu 

Akyab 


2 


2,897 


169,560 


870 


99,887 


1,09,831 


8,82,792 


20 
9 


26,964 


2,823,512 


9,196 


14,47,442 


46,86,278 


1,60.60,638 


6,586 


859,706 


1,928 


83,848 


7,01,716 


28,17,269 


Northern Arakan 


1 


1,016 


14,499 


195 


66,104 


8,192 


6,706 


Kyouk-pyoo . 


1 6 


4,809 


149,803 


987 


1,00,085 


1,49,020 


5,08,220 


Buidovay 
Total Arakan 

MoulnielnTown 


! 8 


3,667 


64,010 


469 


97,665 


63,672 


1.49,810 


1 18 

1 


14,526 
14 


687,618 


8,629 


2,86,187 


9,17,600 


29,81,614 


63,107 


• ■ 


81,825 


4,460 


7,65,882 


9) 


Amherst . 


2 


16,189 


301,086 


1,021 


1,58,241 


6,16,500 


12,28,418 


M 


Tavoy 


4 


7,150 


84,988 


290 


1,12.654 


1,08,150 


2,42,456 


S . 


Mcrgui . 


6 


7,810 


66,559 


199 


72,824 


82,848 


2,14,810 


l\ 


Touiig ngoo . 


8 


6,854 


128,848 


835 


1,10,556 


62,097 


5,04,496 


Shwe-gyeen 


7 


5,567 


171,144 


558 


1,04,109 


1,52,223 


4,19,156 


Salween . 
Total Tenasserim 

Qbasi) Total 


1 


4,646 


30,009 


209 


76,093 


9,601 


28,684 


28 

• • 


46,730 
87,220 


826,741 


1 3,112 


6,65,202 


10,25,869 


88,98,796 


1 
8,786,771 15,887 


28,08,881 


06,28,747 


2,83,40,948 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE PHOVINCB OF BRITISH BURMA — DISTRICTS. 

PEGU. 

§ 1. Bangoon. § 2. Hanthawadi. § 3. Thone-kwa. § 4. Bassein. 
§ 5. Henzada. § 6. Tharawadi. § 7. Prome. § 8. Thayet-myo. 

ABAKAN. 

§ 9. Akyab. § 10. Northern Arakan. § 11. Kyouk-pyoo. § 12. 
Sandoway. 

TENA8SERIM. 

S 13. Maulmein. § 14. Amherst. § 15. Tavoy. § 16. Mergui. § 17. 
Sbwe-gyeen. § 18. Toung-ngoo. § 19. Salween. § 20. *Kareng- 
nee States. 

Pegu. 

§ 1. Rangoon (Ran-koon, "end of the war"). (134,176), the 
capital of British Burma Bince the second war in 1852. The 
city, 21 m. from the sea, occupies 22 sq. m. on the left bank 
of the HIaing at its junction with the Pegu and Poo-zwon-doung 
riTers, with a suburb on the right bank. Founded, according 
to tradition of the Talaing or Telugoo settlers from N. Madras, 
about B.C. 585, by two brothers who deposited the hairs given 
by Gautama himself in the Shwe Dagon pagoda. The village 
of Dagon was conquered by the King of Pegu in 746-761 a.d., 
and called Aramana ; was occupied by the Burmans in 1413 ; 
was distanced by Dala or Syriam on the opposite bank of the 
Pegu river ; was conquered by Alompra or Aloung-bhoora, 
founder of the reigning Burman dynasty, in 1763, who gave it 
the present name ; received an English factory and afterwards, 
in 1798, a British Resident, the result of the embassy to Ava 
of Colonel Symes; was held by the British 1825-7, during the 
fint war, and was taken again by them in April 1852 on the out- 
break of the second. Since it became the English capital Ran- 
goon has been rebuilt. Between the strand, along the S. reach 
of the HIaing and the old ditch, the city consists of square blocks 



128 PROVINCE OF BRITISH BURMA — DISTRICTS. [cHAP. VII. 

with broad streets; the whole is divided into 11 quarters, of 
which the principal are Lam-ma-daw, Chinese town or Taroop- 
dan, N.E. town, N.W. town, S.E. town, and S.W. town contain- 
ing the public offices and principal merchants' offices and shops. 
To the N. is the military cantonment enclosing the fortified 
Shwe Da^on ("golden log"), most venerated of Boodhist 
fanes by Indo-Chinese races, with the " Great Royal Lake " to 
the E., also a public drive, from which the city is supplied with 
good water. The other principal buildings are the law courts^ 
town hall, Roman Catholic cathedral, and Tsoo-lai pagoda 
around Fytche Square, and the English church, Secretariat, 
Telegraph Offices, Bank of Bengal, and Custom House on the 
Strand road, where the Poo-zwon-doung joins the Hlaing. 
Monkey Point, crowned by a battery, sweeps the river and town. 
Here the last of the Great Mughul dynasty of Delhi, the titular 
Emperor Bahadoor Shah, died in captivity after the Mutiny of 
1857, and some of his family are still State prisoners. Rangoon 
is the centre of American Baptist, S. P. G., and Roman Catholic 
missions; a Government High School, in which the learned 
missionary Dr. Mason was the first Professor of .Pali, also 
prepares youths of all creeds for the examinations of the Calcutta 
University. Here Sir Arthur Phayre, the first Chief Commis- 
sioner, long resided. An Anglican bishopric was endowed 
privately in 1875. The Strand bank and the port are imder 
a committee, who act as a Trust. The city is one of seven 
municipalities in the Province, and raises an annual revenue of 
about £50,000. 

§ 2. Haxthawadi District, the fertile seaboard tract 
• between the Tsit-toung and the China Ba-keer or To mouth of 
the Irawadi, is bounded E. by Shwe-gyeen district, N. by Hen- 
zada and Tharawadi, W. by Thone-kwa, and S. by Gulf of 
Martaban. Area, 4236 sq. m. Population, 427,720. The 
Pegu Roma rise to 2000 ft. in N. and run S. in two branches 
to the sea, dividing the valleys of the Hlaing and Poo-zwon- 
doung, and covered with forest, especially at the Bassein creek, 
where the Ttfan-te Taw-gyee ("great forest") may be seen from 
Rangoon. The Hlaing enters the district as the Zay from 
Prome, and leaves it as the Rangoon river ; from K it receives 
the Ook-kan, Ma-ga-ree, Hmaw-bhee, which drain the W. slopes 
of the Pegu Roma, and at Rangoon the Pegu and Poo-zwon- 
doung, which drain the E. and S. flanks of that range. On 
the W. tidal creeks connect the Hlaing and Irawadi mouths ; 
most of these are navigable, and in the rains are used by 
steamers. Besides Rangoon, the administrative headquartera, 



CHAP. Yii.] HANTHAWADI — ^THONB-KWA — BASSEIN. 129 

the principal places are Pegu (6000), on Pegu river, old capital 
of Talaing dynasty, which ruled from Bengal to Cochin China ; 
captured by Burman Aloung-bhoora in 1756, now a Tillage. On 
opposite bank are remains of pagodas, especially the Shwe 
Hxnaw-da^ a solid pjrramid of brick of 324 ft., rising from 
an octagonal base of 162 ft. long each side, on two terraces one 
abore the other, which were the scene of sharp fighting in the 
war of 1852-3, and surrounded by 11 pagodas. Twan-te, a 
village, once an important town W. of Rangoon, 7 m. from 
mouth of Twan-te stream in the To river, with venerated Talaing 
pagoda, the Shwe Tahan-daw, and the ruins of Khabeng city 
in the neighbourhood. Syriam (corruption of Than-lyeng), on 
K bank of Pegu river opposite Rangoon, the site of Portuguese, 
Dutch, and English factories, and scene of the impalement of 
the Portuguese Philip de Brito of Nicote by King of Burma in 
1612, with ruins of Barnabite church and tombs. The district 
has 3 subdiyisions — Hmaw-bhee, Syriam, and Pegu. 

§ 3. Thone-ewa District is bounded £. by Hanthawadi, 
N. by Hensada, \V. by Bassein, and S. by Gulf of Martabau. 
Area, 5413 sq. m. Population, 284,063. The district is an 
alluvial tract intersected by muddy rivers and creeks communi- 
cating with the Irawadi, which traverses it from N. to S. To 
the K it sends off the China Ba-keer or To, the Pya-poon, and 
the Kyoon-toon or Darla, and reaches the sea W. of the Eyoon- 
toon. Ma-oo-bengTi tlie civil headquarters, is a village infested 
by mosquitoes. Tan-doon (12,700), on left bank of Irawadi 
at W. mouth of Pan-hlaing creek, there called Gynoung-doung, a 
hiTge mart 60 m. N.W. of Rangoon. Pan-ta-naw (6200), E. 
by S. of above, another mart chiefly for ngapee. Donabyoo 
(5000), on right bank of Irawadi above Gynoung-doung, from 
which Sir A. Campbell drove the Burmans in 1825 in the first 
war ; Sir John Cheape, in 1853, in the second war, defeated a 
local rebel in a neighbouring stronghold after heavy loss. The 
district is in 3 subdivisions — Ma-oo-beng, Pan-ta-naw, and 
Gynoung-doung. 

§ 4. Basseik Distbici is bounded K by Thone-kwa, N. 
by Henxada and Sandoway, W. and S. by Bay of Bengal. 
Area, 7047 sq. m. Population, 389,419. The Arakan Roma 
pierce the whole length to the sea, at Cape Negrais and Pagoda 
Point, with Bhaw-me in N. (270 ft.), Kyoung-tha (381 ft.), 
Tsheng-ma (284 ft.), Nga-root, and Rwotpa passes, covered 
with mangrove and evergreen forest, with outcrops of limestone, 
and soapstone used for writing on the Burman parabaik or 
blackened fibre-paper. The rivers, chiefly dependent on the 

K 



130 PROVINCE OF BRITISH BURMA — DISTRICTS, [OHAP. VII. 

Irawadl and the tide for their supply, are the Pyamalaw, with 
two mouths, fonning E. boundary ; the Rwe, with Daye-bhyoo 
mouth, and the Bassein, which, leaving the Ira wad i above Hen- 
zada, is fed also from the £. slopes of the Arakan Roma, and is 
navigated by steamers up to the port of the same name (the 
Besygna of Ptolemy). Bassein (28,200), chief town and port 
75 m. from sea, with fort enclosing conspicuous Shwe Moo-htaw 
pagoda and public offices ; taken by assault in second war, since 
which it has become a great rice port, and has much trade with 
Madras. Seat of American Baptist Mission with Eareng 
normal and industrial schools, and of a Roman Catholic Mission. 
Lemyet-hna (5500), on Bassein river. Regryee Pandaw^ 
(5000), on creek of same name, a rice mart, where the Taiaings 
were formally overthrown by Aloung-bhoora. Nfirathainfir- 
khyouxiir (4000), at N. entrance of Regyee creek, under 
Assistant Commissioner. Negrais or Hainsr-gryee, island at 
mouth of Bassein river, 3^ m. from Pagoda Point, of which 
Government of Madras took possession in 1687, with out- 
factory at Bassein town. In 1759 ten Englishmen were here 
treacherously mimlered by the Burmans. On the opp^^site 
bank the new port of I)alhonsie was formed; and was engulphed 
during a cyclone in 1856. Eight m. off is Algruada^ Portuguese 
name for reef 10| m. S.S.W. from Diamond Island, on which 
is a fine lighthouse 144 ft. 

§ 5. Henzada District is bounded R by Tharawadi, N. 
by Prome, W. by the Arakan Roma, and S. by Thone-kwa and 
Bas>ein. Area, 1948 sq. hl Population, 318,077. With 
Tharawadi district, fonnerly a part of it, Henzada forms the 
head of the Irawadi delta. The Arakan Roma range rises to 
4003 ft. in the latitude of Myanoung *, N. it sends down to the 
Irawadi, at Akou-toung, a cliff (300 ft.) artificially cavemed with 
statues of Boodha. Valuable forests clothe the hill slopes; 
embankments protect the town, and extend the rice cultivation 
along the Irawadi. Henzada (16,800), now chief town and 
municipality, on right bank of Irawadi to the S., with American 
Baptist, S. P. G., and Roman Catholic Minions. Za-luon 
(5000), rising town farther S. Myanoimsr (5500), headquarters 
of district till 1870, to the N. along Irawadi bank. Kyan- 
khenfiT (7600), farther N. on same river, a growing rice mart. 
Kan-oiinfiT (4000), 7 m. below Myanoung, founded by Aloung- 
bhoora. Mo-gnyo, Ta-pwon, and Tsan-rwe are rising towns. 

§ 6. Tharawadi District is bcMmded E. by Pegu Roma 
range, N. by Prome, W. by Henzada, and S. by ThantawadL 
Area, 2014 sq. m. Population, 278,155. The Pegu Roma 



CHAF. VII.] HENZADA — PROME — ^THAYET-MYO. 131 

here rises to 2000 ft., and then branches out into the spurs which 
f«)rm the Pegu and Poo-zwon-doung valleys. The Hlaing from 
Prome enters the district as the Myit-ma-kha, and flows S. 
parallel with the Irawadi, receiving from the £. the Toung-myo, 
the Meng-bhoo, the Toung, the Meng-hla, the Tsheng-aing, the 
Toung-bh(vhla, the Bheeleng, and the Thone-tsheng, all tapping 
a country rich in teak. The distnct was the appanage of the 
iofamous Prince Tharawadi, who dethroned his brother in 1837. 
Thone-tshay, chief town, on stream of same name. Men^r- 
87ee and Re-khenfir (16,000), on left bank of IrawadL Ta- 
pwon, headquarters of N. township, with valuable timber. 

§ 7. Pbomb District is bounded E by Pegu Roma, N. by 
Thayet, W. by Arakan Roma, S. by Henzada and Tharawadi 
Area, 2887 sq. m. Population, 322,342. These two Roma 
ranges send down forest-covered spurs; the western range is 
crossed by a road from Padoung to Toung-goop in Sandoway, by 
which the Burmese army in 1783 advanced to the conquest of 
Arakan, and dragged back to Ava an enormous statue of Boodha 
and a large cannon. The Irawadi divides the district, flowing N. 
to S. The S. Na-weng, falling into the Irawadi at Prome, 
drains the Pegu Roma, with its tributaries the N. Na-weng, 
Khyoung-tsouk, and Teng-gyee. The Hlaing, in its upper course 
known as Zay and Myit-ma-kha, carries ofif the surplus waters 
between the Pegu Roma and the Prome hills. Tiie £ug-ma 
lake, 10 by 4 m., lies E. of the Prome hills in the course of the 
HIaiog; the Shwe-<ioung Myo-ma is a smaller lake on left Itank 
of Irawafli, opposite Padoung. Prome (29,000), on left bank 
of Irawadi, once capital of kings of Prome, as Tha-re-kettra, 
6 in. £., abandoned in second century a.d., now head of district, 
a flonri^shing municipality, terminus of the Rangoon railway, 
and on great north road. To S., on low hills, is the great pagoda 
Shwe Tbhan-daw (80 ft.), covering area of 11,025 sq. ft., 
and surrounded by 83 shrines of Gautama. Centre of 3 Christian 
missions. The Shwe Nat-daw Pagroda rises to a great 
height on hills 14 m. S. of Prome. Shwe-doimgr (12,400), 
growing mart on river 8 m. below Prome. PadoungTi 15 m. 
below Prome, on right bank, now of historic Interest chiefly. 
Potm^-deh (6800), 32 m. S.E. of Prome, on north road. 

§ 8. Thayet-myo District, the most N. of Pegu, is bounded 
E. by Tonng-ngoo, N. by UpT>er Burma, W. by Arakan Roma, 
and S. by Prome. Area, 2397 sq. m. Population, 169,560. 
The Marquift of Dalhousie personally ''examined and oonflnned" 
the border line of masf»nry jullars running from 19" 29' 3" from 
the point on the left bank of the Irawadi, 6 m. N. of Mye-dai, 



132 PROVINCE OF BRITISH BURMA — ^DISTRICTS. [cHAP. vii. 

the mofit adyanced British post, due £. for 94 m. to the P^u 
Roma at Tattay, down to Mai-haw on the Tsit-toung, and again 
due E. to the Poung-loung range. The district is broken by 
low hills where it does not swell into mountains, rising from 
the Irawadi which traverses its centre. The Tsaga-doung and 
Htoon-doung ("lime hill") are the most conspicuous ; at the fron- 
tier the Myeng-ba range rises still higher. On the W. side the 
Irawadi receives the Pwon, Mah-toon, and Madekhyoung, on 
the E. the Kye-nee and Bwot-lay. Thayet-myo (" mango " or 
"slaughter city'') (16,200), chief town and cantonment on high 
ground on right bank of Irawadi near frontier, with Asoka 
pagoda. AUcua-myo (after M^jor Allan, who demarcated 
frontier) (6000), higher up on opposite bank, superseding Mye- 
dai, the old Burman town and customs station for frontier 
trade. Bwar-tounfir (4000), on Irawadi, opposite Thayet-myo 
cantonments. Kama and Gywon-doung, on either side of Ma-de 
river, where it enters the Irawadi, a pretty mart with Asoka 
pagoda. MenfiT-doon (4500), near the base of the Arakan 
hills, on stream of same name. The district grows much 
tobacco on the Irawadi sandbanks, and, like Prome, exports 
cutch largely. Iron and limestone, petroleum and brine springs, 
are found. The best cotton in Indo-China is produced here. 

Abakan. 

(Rakhaing= native name of Arakanese.) 

§ 9. Akyab District is bounded E. by the Arakan Roma 
range, N. by Ohittagong, W. by Bay of Bengal, and S. by Kyouk- 
pyoo. Area, 5335 sq. m. Population, 339,706. From the 
Mayoo hills, forming the N. boundary, flows the Mayoo river to 
the sea ; the Roma hUls send down the Kooladan from the Blue 
Mountains to Akyab town, and the Le-mro to Hunter's Bay. 
The main river, the Kooladan, is navigable by boats of 400 tons 
70 m. above Akyab, and by boats of 40 tons 50 m. higher to 
Dalekmai, in the Hill Tracts. Akyab (33,200), from Ah/atdaw 
pagoda, a neighbouring landmark, once a Hugh fishing village, 
made chief station after first war of 1824-5, now a great rice 
port, with fine public buildings and high school. Savage Island 
lighthouse is at the harbour moutL Mro-houng' or Arakan 
(" old town") (3000), at the head of a branch of the Kooladan, 
50 m. from its mouth, capital of the Arakan kingdom before its 
conquest by the Burmans, who carried across the Roma moun- 
tains the great metal statue of Gautama from the Ma-ha^moo- 
nee pagoda, 20 m. N : this was the Triglyphon of Ptolemy, 



CHAP. VII.] AKYAB— ARAKAN — KYOUK-PYOO. 133 

named from the Boodhist trident or triglyph. Stormed by 
(General Morison in first Anglo-Burmese war, and abandoned for 
its unhealthiness. Meng-ha, 20 m. S., centre of township of 
same name. Moung-daw, on the Naf estuary, on the road 
and with a ferry to Chittagong. 

§ 10. Northern Arakan District is bounded E. and N. 
by Upper Burma, W. by Chittagong, and S. by Akyab. The 
unsurveyed territorial limits (area, 4483 sq. m.) include the 
Looshais, Shandoos, Chins, and Konesows, with whom we have 
political dealings without internal control. The administrative 
or inner line (area, 1015 sq. m. ; population, 14,499) includes 
these six tribes — the Kamees or Kumees, Mros, some Chins, 
Choungthas, Chaws, and Eoons. The Roma hills here consist 
of parallel ridges of sandstone covered by forest. Kyouk- 
pandoungr (4000 ft.) and Pofirounfir-toimfir are hills fitted for 
sanitaria. The range is drained by the Kooladan (" foreigners' 
place,'* where the Arakan kings stationed Bengali slaves) and 
its tributaries, the Tsala, Eala, Kola, Palak, Kan, and Mee, 
which last receives the Thamie and Pay or Pee. The Le-mro, 
rising N. of Dalekraai, after 60 m. S. receives the Pee from E., 
the On from N., and the Peng or Wakrien, then the Wet, Tseng, 
and Roo. Dalekxnai, on upper Kooladan, chief stockade, from 
which the frontier police (256 strong) patrol the whole length 
of the inner line weekly to Prengwa on Le-mro. At Tscunee 
on the Mee, and also on the Kan and Pee, are guard-houses. 
Kooladan, station below junction of Mee and river of same 
name. Myouktoiing', mart near the plains, where the fine 
tobacco, sesamum and cotton of the tribes Is sold to Akyab traders. 
In N. Arakan, on the Mee river, and in Akyab district, the 
American Baptist missionaries made a noble attempt to civilise 
the tribes, but were carried off by sickness. 

§ 1 1. Kyouk-pyoo District is bounded K by Arakan Roma 
hills, N. by Akyab, W. by Bay of Bengal, and S. by Sandoway. 
Area, 4309 sq. m. Population, 149,303. This district com- 
prises the strip of mainland from the An pass across the Arakan 
Roma range to the Ma-ee river, drained by the navigable An 
and Dha-let ; and many islands, of which the largest are Raxn- 
ree (with hills rising to 3000 ft.) and Oheduba (" four capes"), 
with mud volcanoes emitting marsh gas which lights up the 
sea for miles. Kyouk-pyoo ("white stone") (2300), on N. 
point of Bamree (3546), chief station, with offices on the beach. 
ManouniT ("overcoming of the evil disposition"), on N.W. 
part of Cheduba, with oil wells. The largest volcano is Toung- 
nee ("red earth hill"), in centre of island. An (aeng), village 



134 PROVINCE OF BRITISH BURMA — DISTRICTS. [CHAP. VII. 

and pass at W. foot of Arakan Roma range, and mart for Upper 
Burma. A detai;hment of Sir A, Campbell's fon-e, returning 
from Yandaboo after the first war, traversed this pa^ss (4664 ft). 
§ 12. Sandoway District (Than-dwai = iron-bound) is 
bounded K by Arakan Roma, N. by Kyouk-pyoo, W. by Bay of 
Bengal, and S. by Bassein. Area, 3667 sq. m. Population, 
64,010. The Roma, rising in places to 5000 ft, fall to 3200 
at Shouk-beng, where the Toung-goop pass crosses to Padoung in 
Prome. The rivers, which are mountain torrents not navigable 
till they enter tidal creeks, are the Ma-ee, Tan-lwai, Toung-goop, 
Sandoway, Kyien-ta-lee, and Khwa. Sandoway, 15 m. up 
river of same name, chief town and old native capitd as Dwar 
ar-wad-dL Tonng^goap, 6 m. up stream, and at uxaith of pass 
of e^ame name. The district produces cretaceous limestone and 
steatite. 

Tekasserim. 

§ 13. Maulmein (53,107), with an area of 14 sq. m., chief 
town of Tenasserim division since the fir^t war in 1825 when 
it was waste land, stands on left bank of the Sal ween, at its 
junction with the Gaying and Attaran, and sheltered from the 
sea by the Bhee-loo-gwyon island, 107 »q, m. in extent. The 
town is made picturesque by low hills, the N. extremity of the 
Toung-ngoo range, which run through it N. to S., crowned by 
pagodas. Oi the five quarters, four are on the W. between the 
Salweeu and the hills, from the mills and d'cks of Mopoon to 
the cantonment on the |)oint formed by the Salween and Gaying, 
opposite Martaban, 6 m. off. Here are the offices and foreign 
re^idents. The Burmans and Talaings are chiefly in the fifth 
division, known as Daing-won-kweng, in the valley of the 
Attaran. ^iiaulznein has long been the chief f)ort for the 
shipping of teak and building of teak vessels. It has heeu the 
seat, since Judson's time, of American Baptit, Anglican, and 
Roman Catholic Mist^ions. Salween House is the centre of the 
municipality. The site of the town was selected by Sir A. 
Campbell to command Martal^an opposite. 

§ 14. Amhebst District U bounded K by the Dawna chain, 
which shoots out from the Moolai-yit mass in the main range, 
N. by Shwe-gyeen, W. by Gulf of Martaban, and S. by Tavoy. 
Area, 15,189 sq. m. Population, 301,086. The Dawna 
chain (3472 ft.), extending N.N.W. for 200 m., divides the 
waters of the Houng-tharaw and the Hlainsif-bhwai, which after* 
wards unite to form the Gyaing, from the Thoung-yeng. Across 
the 'Tenasserim Roma range in this district there is the pass 



CHAP. VII.] AMHERST — TAVOY. 135 

firom Burma to Siara, from Myawadee, on the left bank of the 
Thoung-yeng, to Rahaing in Siam, 45 m. due K, two days' 
joamey, and thence down the Meinam to Bangkok in eight days. 
There are passes from the Houng-thraw and Menanda, its tribu- 
tary, to Siani. The Three Pagodas pass leads from Kan-nee on 
the Attaran, by which the boat and elephant journey from 
Maulmein to Bangkok occupies twenty-five days. The Tourff- 
gnyoohaw rises N.N.W. from the Tsadaik hill of the Maw 
range to Maulmein. The Zwai-ka-beng is a small Tange of liuie- 
stone hills N..of Maulmein and K of the Sal ween. W. of the 
Sal ween, and crossed -by two parses, one through the Gaw gap, a 
range runs N. from Martaban rising into the Koolama-toung 
peak (above 3000 ft.) The Sal ween, Gyaing, Attaran, Thoung- 
yeng, and Bhee-Ieng are the principal rivers. The Sal ween is 
not navigable by tea-going v&<sel{i save at its mouth ; it receives 
the Rwon-zaleng and Bhenglaing from the Hill Tracts. This is 
the great district fi>r teak and other timber, and was long the 
border land in which Peguans aud Siamese contended till the 
Burmann dnive out both. Amherst (Kyaik Ehamee = native 
name) (3200), sanitarium on the coast 30 m S. of Maulmeiu, 
on the Wakharoo, a navigable stream. Martaban, on right 
bank of Salween, opposite Maulmein, capital of a kingdom 
desi^ribed by the Portuguese Faria y Soiisa and Ralph Fitch as 
large and wealthy. In 1544 it was packed by the Burmese, and 
in 1824 was taken by the British. Bheeloo island, shutting iu 
Maulmein, has 60 pago<las, of which the Kalan is a^crii)ed to 
Asoka. Tha-tone (3300), once a great Talaing capital am 1 po rt, 
at which the Boodhidt missiouaries landed after their council of 
241 B.a, now far inland. Other townshi|« are Yay (2900), 
Mondoue (2700), Yathahyin (2700), Poung (2400), Kaw-kareit 
(2300), and Ka«lo (2200). 

§ 15. Tavoy District is bounded E. by the Tenasserim 
range, N. by Amherst, W. by Bay of B»*ngal, and S. by Merjnii. 
Area, 7150 sq. m. Population, 84,988. The main range rises 
to 5000 ft between British territory and Siam, and is crossed 
by three passes — in the N. the Htiindoung, by which the journey 
firom Tavoy to Bangkok occupies 16^ days; S. the Aznya, 12 
days, but dangerous ; and 38 m. farther S. the Mai-bhona, used 
only by the Earengs. The Natyadounsr Pcusa is 50 la 
higher up the frontier than the Amya Pass ; by it the telegraph 
line runs to Bangkok. A spur rising into Na-wsrloo hill, 21m. 
N.N.R of Tavoy, forms the watershed between the Tavoy and 
Tenaa-^erim rivers. The slopes are suitable for a sanitarium and 
coffee and cinchona culture. The Ma-hlwai spur, the N. bound- 



136 PROVINCE OF BRITISH BURMA — ^DISTRICTS. [OHAP. Vil. 

ary, sends off a low range forming the W. watershed of the 
Tavoy, which falls into the sea 40 m. below Tavoy town. The 
Tenasserim has two sources, separated by 80 m., and uniting at 
Met-ta ; it flows into MerguL The Moboos islands lie from 9 
to 13 m. off the coast with a safe channel within and between 
the southern and middle groups. Tavoy (1 3,500), chief town ; 
to the S. is island of same name, with a good harbour, Port 
Owen. To the N. are ruins of old Tavoy or Myo-houng, the 
ruler of which, in 1752, made overtures to the East India 
Company. In this and the next district there .are the same 
equable climate and bountiful rainfall as* in the Wainad and 
Ceylon, and land is offered on favourable terms. 

§ 16. Meboui District is bounded E. by Tenasserim 
range, Pak-chan river, and Siam, N. by Tavoy, W. by Bay of 
Bengal, and S. by Lower Siam. Area, 7810 sq. nu Popula- 
tion, 56,559. From N. to S. the district is crossed by two 
parallel ridges with the Tenasserim river between them till it 
breaks through S.W. to the sea and a fine plain. The Palouk 
is a small stream in the N. with thermal springs. The Le-gnya 
rises in the E. or main range, flows N. past town of same name, 
and then W. to sea. The Pak-chan, rising in the main water- 
parting near the source of the Le-gnya, flows S.E. for 78 miles to 
Victoria Point, forming the boundary. At Kra» on the side of 
Siam, the isthmus is narrowest, and a project of cutting a canal 
has been broached. The chief pass between Mergui and Siam 
is the Mawdoung (" tired hill "), at the source of the Thien- 
kwon stream. Hence, S. to the source of the Kra, the people 
are Siamese, and there are 5 passes for pedestrians only. The 
Mergui Archipelago is a large and beautiful hilly cluster, 
extending S. from Tavoy island, and inhabited by the Selungs, 
a timid and neglected race who barter tripang with the Malays 
and Burmese for rice and spirits ; the American Baptist Mis- 
sionaries have reduced their language to writing. Maingy, in 
12" 32' N. lat., and St. Matthew's in 10° 52', can be seen from 
11 to 13 miles off Mergiil (8700), chief town and port on 
island at mouth of Tenasserim river, on site of the old city, in 
which 76 English merchants were massacred by the Siamese in 
1695. Here the trigonometrical base line was laid down in 
1880. 

§ 17. Shwe-oteek Distbict is bounded E. by Salween 
district, N. by Toung-ngoo, W. by Tharawadi and Prome, and 
S. by Amherst. Area, 5567 sq. m. Population, 171,144. 
The district is shut in, in the Tsit-toung valley, between the 
"Pegu Roma and Poung-loung ranges. Across the latter the N. 



CHAP. VII.] SHWE-GTEEN — ^TOUNG-NGOO. 137 

route TUDB np the valley of the Baw-garta, and across the 
Thajet-peng-keng-dathill to Kan-loo-doo, the N. post in Salween; 
the central route is up the valleys of the Moot-ta-ma and the 
Mar-dar to Pa-pwon ; the S. passes from near the source of the 
Moot-ta-ma, across the high Thwot-ta-bat to Hpa-wa-ta^ on the 
fihee-leng river. The Poung-loung range rises to 4000 fL in the 
Tsek-le hiU opposite Shwe-gyeen town, and terminates in the 
Ke-la-tha hill above Eeng-rwa, with a conspicuous pagoda. The 
passes over the Roma range are mere tracks. The Tsit-toiinfir, 
called also the Toung-ngoo and Poung-loimg, above Shwe-gyeen, 
enters the district from Upper Burma, at its N. border, and 
continues a tortuous course to the Gulf of Martaban, navigable 
throughout by steam launches, and famous for its tidal wave. 
Its affluents are small rocky streams, of which the chief are 
the Kwon, forming the N. border, and from the E. the Re-nwe, 
the Rouk-thwa^ the Moon, and the Shwe-gyeen. The Bhee- 
lezi£r frt>m the Salween hills, the highway between Maulmein 
and the Tsit-toung in the rains, flows S. to the Gulf of Martaban, 
also with a tidal bore. There are 5 lakes, the picturesque 
Htoon-daw and Mwai-dweng, and the Tsaweng and Mee-kyoung- 
goung, in the Moon region ; and the Nga-thwar-zoot, S. of the 
Bhee-leng. StLvre-gyeen (8000), chief town, at the junction of 
river of same name with the Tsit-toung, which sometimes floods 
it Kyaik-hto (" rojral boundary "), at the foot of the Poung- 
loung range on the Ka^t, where it is crossed by the high road 
from Maulmein to Toung-ngoo. Bhee-lexifir» a river of same 
name, with ancient pagoda to N. Tsit-tounfiTf on left bank of 
river of same name, taken by the British in first war. Kyouk- 
gyee, 34 m. above Shwe-gyeen, a betel-nut mart. Moon, to 
the N., with a traveller's bungalow. Wengr-lm-daw, 7 m. 
below Tsit-toung, chief halting-place for boats, with manufacture 
of pots for salt-boilers. 

§ 18. TouNO-NOOO District ("hill spur") (Nat-toung), is 
bounded E. by the " great watershed " of the Pa-Wan or Tenas- 
serim Roma, N. by lJp[>er Burma, from which it is marked off 
by Lord Dalhousie's line of masonry pillars, W. by the Pegu 
Roma, and S. by Shwe-gyeen. Area, 6354 sq. m. Popula- 
tion, 128,848. Besides two ranges, the Poung-loung trends E. 
through the district to meet the Nat-tounfir mountains ; these 
tower into the crystalline granite peak (8000 ft.) between the 
Tsit-toung and the Salween, which bounds the empire farther £. 
Of the Tsit-toung the chief tributaries in the district, partly 
navigable^ are the Ishwa, Eha-boung, Hpyoo, and the Kwon on 
the W., and on the K the Bheng-byai, Kan-nee, Thoiik-re-gat, 



138 PROVINCE OF BRITISH BURMA— DISTRICTS. [CHAP. vii. 

and Rouk-tha-wa. This hilly countiy was a province of the 
P&gan kingdom, with a capital on the Ishwa, 20 m. N. of the 
present chief town, and afterwards an independent kingdom, at 
war with both Pegu and Ava, the latter of which finally con- 
quered it in 1512. The Earengs are numerous, among whom 
the American Baptist Missionaries have made many converts. 
Toungr-neroo (17,800), chief town and cantonment on right 
bank of Tsit-toung, 7 m. from frontier, 295 m. by water and 
170 m. by land from Rangoon, with ruins of golden palace of 
Toung-ngoo dynasty. A railway of 163^ m. from Rangoon to 
Toung-ngoo is under construction. Thandouncr-gryee (4500 
ft.), experimental sanitarium on plateau 23 m. from Toung-ngoo, 
with cinchona plantation. 

§ 19. Salween District is boimded E. by Zeng-mai in 
Siam, N. by Kareng-nee, W. by Toung-ngoo and Shwe-gyeen, 
and S. by Shwe-gyeen and Amherst Area, 4646 sq. m. 
Population, 30,009. " The whole country is a wilderness of 
mountains;" the Poung-loung run N.W. and S.E. in three 
principal ranges drained by the Salween, Rwon-za-leng, and 
Bhee-leng, and traversed by Shan caravans to Rangoon and 
Maulmein. The Rwon-za-leng, rising in extreme N., is navi- 
gable to Pa-pwon, save in the rains, when the violence of the 
current forbids ascent, and almost descent. Pa-pwon ^800), 
administrative headquarters, on the Rwon-za-leng, under an 
Assistant-Commissioner. This district is the base of the Maul- 
mein foresters, who extract timber from the vast teak tracts 
across the Salween. It is inhabited chiefly by the Eareng 
(Earoon = native name) race, " among whom the results of the 
labours of the American Baptist Mission have the appearance of 
being almost miraculous." — (Government Gazetteer of British 
Burma,) The Earengs claim to have come from China, but 
Colonel Yule does not admit that they are from Yunan, the 
Cangan of Marco Polo. They are in three tribes — the Sgau, 
the Pwo (South Earengs), and the Bghai (Eareng -nee) ; they 
number nearly half a million. 

§ 20. *Earkng-nee States. — Protected by the British 
(Government, and with independence guaranteed by its treaty of 
1876 with Eing of Burma. Eareng-nee, the N.E. comer of 
British Burma on right bank of Salween. Western and 
Eastern or Red Karenfir-nee are under chiefs, who call them- 
selves Eara, of the Bghai tribe of Earengs ; the Q-ar-kho are 
of the Pwo tribe, N. and E. of the Toung-ngoo district. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

PBOVINCE OF THB ANDAMAN AND NICOBAB ISLANDS. 

§ 1. The Fifteen Islands. § 2. Outlying Islands. § 3. Andaman 
Islands. § 4. Nicobar Archipelago. § 5. Larger Nicobar Islands. 
§6. The Convicts. 

§ 1. The Fifteen Islands. — This, the great penal settlement 
for life convicts from all India, was first occupied by the 
Government of India in 1789, was soon abandoned on account 
of unhealthiness, and was again occupied on 10th March 1858, 
chiefly for mutineers or determined rebels in the Sepoy War. 
Since October 1871 the local administration has been under a 
Chief Comnussioner and Superintendent in direct correspond- 
ence with the Grovemment of India. From the Negrais Point 
of the Arakan Roma range in British Burma to Acheen Head in 
Sumatra, 15 large and many small islands extend down the Bay 
of Bengal, at a distance of 700 miles from Calcutta, parallel with 
the Burman coast, off which they he about 200 miles. The 
islands are in three separate groups : the 2 Oocos, 4 Anda- 
mans, and 9 Nioobara They may be considered mountain- 
tops of the continuation of the Arakan Roma range, lying along 
the line of volcanic action which extends down to the N. of 
Australia. They all seem to indi(*ate '*a submarine range, 
stretching in a curve to which the meridian forms a tangent 
between Cai^e Negnus and Sumatra ; and though this curved 
line measures 700 miles, the widest sea sjiace is less than 90." 
{Ytde.) The area is estimated at 3285 sq. m., and the popula- 
tion at about 30,000. 

§ 2. Outlying Islands. — The Preparis Isles, a small 
group, of which the Cow and Calf are the principal, lie S. of 
Point Negrais, from which they are separated by Preparis N. 
channel, in 14' 50' N. lat. and 93* 25' E. long. Preparis 
Island, the most northern, is a dangerous-looking place, from 
which coral reefs run out for 8 miles, with sandstones and 
uufossiliferous shales, roamed over by pigs and monkeys — the 
latter unknown in the Andamans — and without palms. Coco 



140 ANDAMAN AND NIC50BAR ISLANDS. [OHAP. VIII. 

or KeelinfiT Isles, two islands further S., are separated from the 
above by Preparis S. channel ; discovered by Keeling in 1609, 
and named from the abmidance of cocoa-palms which fringe the 
forests that cover their central elevation. Great Ooco, the 
more northern, is 6 m. long and 2 m. broad, with low sand- 
stone hills ; visited in N.E. monsoon by Burmese to collect and 
dry cocoa-nuts. In 1849 (April), 4 Europeans and 8 Burmese 
settled here, but several died. Government offered a lease of 
the island for £2000 a year. Two miles off is Table Island, 
with light visible for 22 miles in clear weather, on S.W. end. 
Little Oooo, 2^ m. long and 1 m. broad, to the S., consists 
chiefly of sandstones rising to an elevated plateau. Nar- 
kondazn, 45 m. E. of Port Comwallis, in 13"* 24' N. lat., and 
94° 12' E. long., is an extinct volcano with cone (1300 ft.) like 
StromboH. Barren Island, in 12° 17' N. lat., and 93° 54' E. 
long., a volcanic island with circuit of 6 m., lies 36 m. S. of 
the Andaman Archipelago ; the crater of the little cone (975 ft.) 
was very active in 1795, and still sends forth a thin colunm of 
white vapour and sulphurous fumes. There are sulphur 
deposits of little economic value. All these islands are unin- 
habited by permanent dwellers. 

§ 3. The Andaman Islands are so named probably from 
the Agathon Daimonos N^s of Ptolemy, corrupted into An- 
daman by the Arabs, who converted the N^i Baroussai or 
Nicobars into Baloos. Marco Polo calls the Andamans, which 
he passed, by the dual form Angamanin, or Two Andamans. 
The group Ues for 156 m. between 10° 30' and 13" 45' N. lat 
and 92° and 94" E. long. Area, 2700 sq. m. The people are 
woolly- haired naked Negritos, or Oriental negroes of small 
stature, in seven tribes, whom the British officers and chaplains 
are doing something to raise from the lowest stage of barbarism 
by " homes," and an orphanage. The language of the South An- 
damanese has been reduced, partially, to writing under the name 
of Bojinggida or Elakabeada, into which the Lord's Prayer has 
been translated. The geological structure consists of sandstones 
of tertiary age like those in Arakan, with nests of coal, and 
serpentinous rocks in the high lands, all covered by forests of 
valuable woods and rare orchids ; the whole surrounded by coral 
reefs. The scenery of the islets and channels is most beautifuL 
North Andaman, 57 m. long, with Saddle Mountain 
(2400 ft.), and Port Comwallis, a landlocked bay on N.E. 
side, where Lieutenant Blair, in 1792, established a settlement 
which was abandoned in 1796 for Penaiig. Separated from 
this island by the Andaman Strait, a fetid creek, is Middle 



CBAJf. Till.] THE MUTINY ARCHIPELAGO. 141 

Andamftn, 59 m. long, with Kyd's harbour and Anda- 
man " home " on E. side. 

The principal island, separated from that by the narrow 
and navigable Middle Straits, is South Andftman, 49 m. 
long. Here, on the S.E., is the capital of the settlement, 
Port Blair, named afler the Lieutenant of the Indian Navy, 
who in 1789 first surveyed and attempted to colonise it; 
a landlocked bay 7^ m. long, shut in by Boss Island 
(80 acres), the residence of the Chief Commissioner. Here 
tea has been successfully cultivated. Farther up, 2^ m., 
is Chatham Island, which Blair abandoned for Port Com- 
wldlis ; now depot of the artificer corps. Farther up, 2^ m., 
is Viper Island, reached through Navy Bay, where is the 
chain gang for violent convicts. On N. side of the bay is 
Hoi^e Town, the landing-place where the Viceroy Lord Mayo 
was assassinated in 1871 by a Muhammadan fanatic, leading 
to Mount Harriet (1185 ft.), a sanitarium with magnificent 
views. At S. entrance of bay, fronting Boss Island, is the 
peninsula of Aberdeen, a farm clearing of male convicts, and 
Haddo, the female settlement Two m. across from the head 
of the bay is Port Mouat, with Andamanese " home " and 
shore frequented by turtle, caught for the Calcutta clubs. 
Separated from the South Island by Macpherson Straits is 
Rutland Island, 11 m. long. These four islands are some- 
times termed the Great Andaman, which is divided by Duncan 
Passage from the Little Andaman, 30 m. by 17 m. 

Off the Middle and South Andamans, to the E., and 
divided from them by Diligent Straits, which is used by 
steamers during daylight, is the Mutiny Arohipela«ro, 
with edible birds' nests farmed out to a Chinaman ; the 
beautiful islands are named after Henry Lawrence, Havelock, 
Neil, Outram, and Sir Hugh Bose. Here the "Briton'' 
and "Runnymede," with troops, were wrecked in 1844, in 
one of the cyclones which, originating in this region, sweep 
up to BengsJ. Other islets are the N. and S. Sentinel, 
CMnque, and Xjabyrinth, off S.W. coast, and Interview 
Island, off N.W. coast ; frt)m the last the only untrained native 
who has yet been taken from the islands was removed to Cal- 
cutta, where, after some attempts to civilise him, he died. 

$ 4. The NicoBAB Islands are the Nakavaram of the 
Arab geographers, the Necuveran of Marco Polo, and probably 
the Nalo-kilo-chen (Narikela4vipa) or cocoa-nut islands of the 
Chinese pilgrim, Hwen T'hsang. The name appears more dis- 
tinctly in Nankouri, the principal island. The Nioobar 



142 ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS. [CHAP. VIII. 

Arohipela^ro, called by the Malays, who visit it for trade, the 
Samhillangs or Nine Islands, and consisting of nine large and 
eleven smaller islands, lies S. of the Andamans, between 6"* 40' 
and 9" 20' N. lat., and 92" and 94' E. long. Area, about 736 
sq. m. Population, 6000 ; said to be " fiast dying out." Be- 
sides the Nicobarese of Malay origin, who fringe the coasts, 
there are aborigines in the interior of the Great Nicobar called 
Shobaengs, and reported as of Mongolian origin. All attempts, 
spreading over more tlian a century, to form prosperous trading 
and missionary settlements on the island by the Danes and 
Americans, and by Moravians, Lutherans, and Jesuits, were 
frustrated by the unhealthiuess of the sites selected, tUl 1869, 
when the repeated wrecking of vessels and destruction of crews 
forced the Government of India to take possession. Since that 
year Nankouri has been a penal settlement subordinate to Port 
Blair. The coast tribes live in raised beehive-like huts, as in 
lake dwellings, have abundant food from sea and land, with 
the same refuse heaps as in the Andamans, known as kitchen- 
middens. Professor Ball notices words and customs which they 
have in common with the Paharias or Dravidian hillmen of I^j- 
mahal, the Savaras of Onssa, and the Garos who extend 
nearly to Negrais, and whose word for a freeman is Nakoba. 
The larger islands are surrounded by coral rocks forming raised 
beaches, and consist of magnesian claystones of tertiary age, with 
serpentinous rocks on the high lands, as in the Andamans. 

§ 5. Car-Nigobab, the northmost of the chain, 80 m. £. 
of Little Andaman, from which it is separated by Ten Degrees 
Channel, is 6 m. long and 5 m. broad, and well peopled with 
six villages. There is a considerable trade in cocoa-nuts, fruit and 
hogs abound. Batti Malve, a wedge-like rock, hence sometimes 
called Quoin, to S., is uninhabited. Chowry is an orchard-like 
friendly island which supplies the group with pottery. Terressa, 
6 m. S., where French Jesuit missionaries settled for a time, 
with Bompoka, 2 m. off, is also inhabited by fair Nicobarese. 
Tillangchong, to E. of above, is well wooded but uninhabited. 
Katchell, S.E. of Terressa, frx)m which it is divided by a safe 
channel, is covered with wood, and has caves with guano deposits. 
Nankouri (4 sq. m.) island, and also harbour, formed like a 
cross, between this and the two neighbouring islands, Carmorta 
and Trinkat, is the chief station of the archipelago, under an 
Extra- Assistant Commissioner, with many villages, of which 
Malacca is the principal ; here are graves of the Moravian mis- 
sionaries. It is distant 225 m. irom Port Blair, and 390 from 
Rangoon. At Cross Harbour was the Moravian settlement 



CHAP, vni.] CAR-NICOBAR — CONYICfTS. 143 

called Hennan Carmorta., on N. side of harbour, 16 m. long 
and 2 to 5 broad. Here the stones of the Austrian factory of 
Maria Theresa, built by Bolts who defied Olive and was deported 
from India, were used to build the British magazine ; from this 
Denmark long tried to govern the archipelago, and here is the 
British convict settlement. Trinkat, small island fronting E. 
end of Carmorta^ is covered with betel and cocoa-nut palms. 
Sombrero Channel shuts off the southernmost portion of the 
chain of islands. Little Nicobar, with good soil, rises to 1000 
ft. Ghreat Nioobar, separated from the above by St. Oeorge's 
Channel, is 30 m. long and 15 m. broad, with hill rising to 
2000 ft. on N.E. to the Galatea river falling into Galatea Bay. 
This is the most southerly part of the Empire of British India, 
in 6" W N. lat., and 80 m. N. of Acheen, in Dutch Sumatra, 
to which the life convicts on the Nicobars have sometimes 
escaped in an open boat. Eondul, Montschall, Treis, Track, 
and Merol, the other islands of this southern portion of the 
archipelago, are small and generally uninhabited. 

§ 6. The Convicts. — Since the occupation of Port Blair in 
1858, and of Carmorta in 1871, above 20,000 convicts have 
been sent from India to these penal stations. The number 
there resident is now rarely above 8000. Every year some 
500 life-term convicts are banished to these islands, which 
clearing and cultivation promise to make as healthy as they are 
beautiful. M. de Rdepetorff, one of the officials, thus describes 
the penal system : — 

" The murderers and other criminals who have escaped being 
hanged in their own Provinces are sent to Port Blair. On 
arrival a convict has heavy irons on ; these are at once taken 
off and lighter ones substituted. He is then put in a m^s- 
gang, which, to a Hindoo, is a great pumshmeni After six 
months one leg-iron is removed, and the other at the end of 
another six months. If the man has behaved well during the 
first year, he may be allowed to cook his own food. Thus he 
remains imtil he has completed four years, when he is pro- 
moted to receive, besides his rations. Is. 6d. per mensem. At 
the end of seven years, the convict, having completed his term 
of penal servitude, has his pay raised to 2s. per mensem, and 
he may then be promoted to a petty officership or servant, or 
put into a place of trust and better himself. After ten years 
he becomes a first-class convict, and he may then get a license, 
whereby he is allowed to build a house and take up some trade, 
and he may be allowed to marry. Finally, after twenty 
years, he may be pardoned and released. The convicts control 



144 ANDAMAN AND NICJOBAR ISLANDS. [OHAP. Vlll. 

themselyes : to every 100 men 7 petty officers are allotted, 
who are responsible for them by day and night. Transporta- 
tion improves them. Idleness is very often at the root of the 
evil that brought them into trouble. They have regular hours, 
are disciplined, and find out very soon that a plodding steady 
man can get on well. No serious plot could well be executed, 
for a Brahman would tell on a low-caste man, and a Musalman 
would not trust a Hindoo. There are fair-&ced Persians and 
Eaahmeeris, true Arabs, little sturdy hiLLmen, dirty Panjabis, 
dark-faced Tamils, slender Bengalis, Malays, Chinese, Burmese, 
Telingis, Cingalese, and many other nationalities mixed to- 
gether. The prince and the beggar, the high-bom Brahman 
considering himself the incarnation of the deity, and the outcast, 
all march together in the same file — the one is number 19,007, 
the other 19,008." 



CHAPTER IX. 

THB NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCE, WITH OUDH — GENERAL. 

§ 1. Name. § 2. Size and Position. § 3. Physical Divisions. § 4. 
Canals. § 5. Kailways. § 6. Products and Trade. § 7. Land 
Tenurea. § 8. The People and Districts. 

§ 1. Name. — The North-"Westem Province including 
Oudh, or Hindustan proper, is known in the history of British 
India as the Provinced to the N.W. of Calcutta and Lower 
Bengal They became British in the period from the cession of 
the Dewani or civil jurisdiction by the Emperor Shah Alum to 
Olive on 12th August 1765, to the conquests of Lake in 1801. 
They were organised under the Parliamentary charter of 1833 
as a fourth Presidency governed from Agra, and then as a 
Lieutenant-Governorship, administered from Allahabad after the 
Mutiny of 1857-8. Ou<lh, which had been annexed in 1856 
for the hopele-?8 misrule of the Nawab Wazeers, whom we had 
made kings, was governed by a separate Chief Commissioner till 
1877, when it was placed under the Lieutenant-Governor at 
Allahabad. For all geographical as well as most administrative 
purposes the two territf>ries form one homogeneous Province. 
Since the formation of the "North -Western" Government the 
Indian Empire has extended over the Panjab much farther to 
the N.W. ; but the only change which it is desirable now to 
make is to consider Oudh and that Government one, under the 
name, in the singular, of the North -Western Province. 

§ 2. Position. — The N.W. Province is nearly the size of 
Itsly, and not far short of that of the United Kingdom, with a 
much denser population than either. It has an area of 1 1 1,086 
sq. m., and a population of 44,852,736. Oudh alone has an 
area of 24,213, and population of 11,407,625 ; the rest of the 
Province, or old North-Westem Provinces, has an area of 86,873, 
inclading the two Native States of Garhwal and Rampoor, and a 
population of 33,445,111. The former has 12 the latter 37 
districts^ or 49 in all. The united Province, thus formed in 

L 



140 NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCE — GENERAL. [CHAP IX. 

1877, Ues between 23' 51' 31" and 31' 5' N. lat. and 77" 4' 
and 84' 45' E. long. It is bounded E. by the Behar districts 
of Bengal Proyince, with the Earamnassa and portions of the 
Ganges, Grogra, and Gandak between ; N. by Nepal, Chinese 
Tibet, and the Pa^jab State of Bashahr, with the Himalaya 
between ; W. by the Paigab States of Jubal and Sirmoor, from 
which the Tons divides it, by the eastern districts of the Pai^jab, 
and the ^States of Bhurtpoor, Dholpoor, and Bhartpoor, from 
which the Jumna separates it ; and S. by the Central Province 
division of Saugar, the States of Boondelkhand, Rewah, and 
the Chutia Nagpoor division of Bengal 

§ 3. Physical Divisions. — The whole forms an alluvial 
plain sloping from the Himalaya mountains and from the 
Jumna with its N. affluent the Tons about the 77th parallel 
of K longitude S.E. to the point (1) where the Granges receives 
the Grogra near Grodna or Revelganj in the Saran district of 
Bengal, and (2) where it begins to rise into the great plateau 
of Central India. The North -Western Province is thus the 
upper as Bengal is the lower basin of the Granges and its tribu- 
taries, except the Brahmapootra. It consists of (1) the great 
plain of the Doab (^* two waters") between the Ganges and the 
Jumna, once periodically swept by famines, but now protected 
by a network of canals and railways constructed since the 
great drought of 1833-5 ; (2) the Himalaya tract supplying 
the perennial waters from Garhwal State on the N.W. to the 
Gandak on the K, which divides Nepal into two ; (3) the trian- 
gular plain of Rohilkhand, passing from the submontane tracts 
of hhabar or waterless jungle of boulder detritus, and tarai, 
or moist and malarious forest, into the aUuvium of the river 
plains; (4) the semicircular tract of the Goomti and Gogra 
valleys forming Oudh, and the trans-Gogra districts ; (5) the 
Jumna - Ohambal Plain so far as not in the Pai\jab, 
or Muttra, Agra, and part of Etawah ; (6) Boondelkhand, 
S.W. of the Junma, which passes from the alluvium of the 
river plain S.W. into the stony and hilly outliers of the Vind- 
hya and Kaimoor ranges; (7) the Ghancretio Valley, from 
Allahabad eastward to the Gandak and Son, the densely-peopled 
and cultivated centre of Hindooism, of which Benares is the 
capital. Inferior to Bengal in resources and trade, and not so 
much of a rabbit-warren as the Hoogli district of Bengal, the 
North-Westem Province stands at the head of all as the great 
Aryan land of the early Hindoo kingdoms and capitals, and 
the Hindustan of the Muhammadans, with their red stone 
cities and unsurpassed architecture. While Bengal and Burma 



CHAP, nc.] CANALS AND RAILWAYS. 147 

are the rioe, this Province is the wheat granary of Southern 
AfiLa^ exporting chiefly to Calcutta, but more and more largely 
by two trunk systems of railway W. to Bombay. 

§ 4. Canals. — The mountains and principal rivers have 
been already described in Chapter II. There are ten systems 
of canal-works in this Province, all constructed or opened 
out since the great famine of 1837-8, and all protective so 
far that subsequent famines like that of 1860-1 were much 
modified in their disastrous influence. The ten systems have 
been constructed at a capital cost of 6| millions sterling, and 
yield an annual gross revenue of not less than £300,000, or 
more than the interest charge. The great G-anffes Oanal, 
designed by Proby Cautley, and begun in 1842, was opened in 
1854, and now consists of 654 m. of main stream, with up- 
wards of 3000 m. of distributing channels. From the head 
supply at Hardwar it passes through Saharanpoor and Muzafiar- 
nagar, whence it sends off a branch to Fatehgarh, sweeps W. 
through Meerut, then S.K through Boolundshahr and Aligarh, 
and gives off the Etawah terminal at Akrabad. Continuing 
across the W. comer of Etah and through Mainpoori and Faruk- 
habad, it reaches the Ganges at Cawnpoor ; the other or Etawah 
terminal flEdls into the Jumna above Hameerpoor. The Lo'wer 
Oaofires Oanal is a southward extension of the above to 
Allahabad, planned in 1866 and since 1873 imder construc- 
tion ; starting from the headworks at Narora, on the border of 
Aligarh, 4 m. below the Rajghat station of the Oudh and Rohil- 
khand Railway, the canal follows the watershed between the 
Kali Nadi and Isan, and the Pandoo and Rind, and runs S. of the 
£ast Indian Railway to Allahabad. Both are navigable. When 
completed, the outlay on both will be 5 millions sterling. The 
Eastern Jmnna Canal, opened in 1830, has 130 m. of main 
and 625 of distributing channels. The Agrra OanaJ, opened 
in 1874, is 75 m. long. The Dehra Doon OanaJs extend 
for 67 UL The Bohilkhand, Bijnaur, Boondelkhand, 
Boondelkhand Survey, and Eaatem Goxxgea Canals 
are protective and productive works of irrigation in local dis- 
tricts. For the generally well-watered districts of Oudh the 
Sardah and Betwa Canals only have been projected. 

§ 5. Railways. — Besides the Grand Trunk Road, which 
passes through the whole extent of the Province to the S. of the 
Granges, it is opened up by an annually extending system of 
railways. The East Indian sends off from Allahabad its 
Jubalpoor section of the main communication between Calcutta 
and Bombay, and at Ghaziabad, near Delhi, it joins the Sind, 



148 NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCE — GENERAL. [CHAP. IX. 

Panjab, and Delhi system, which continues the iron line to 
Peshawar on the N., Sibi for Kandahar on the N.W., and 
Karachi on the W. From opposite Benares, and again from 
Cawnpoor, the Oudh and Bohilkhand Bail-v^ay {lenetrates 
these districts, with main and branch lines. From Agra the 
Rajpootana State Railway proceeds by Bhartpoor to the 
Bombay and Baroda line on the W. ; the Sindia State Bail- 
way runs through Dhol])Oor to GwaUor for 69 m. ; Oawnpoor 
to Farukhabad, 87 m. Many light railways — like that, 29 
m., from Hathras to Muttra, Gheusipoor to Dildamagar, 
12 m., Muttra to Aohneyra^ *J2J m., and Bahraich to Patna, 
Bhanpoor to Kalpi, to connect Rohilkand directly with Bombay, 
and Bareli to PiUbheet — are under construction or survey. 

§ 6. Pei>duct8 and Trade. — Of all the great Provinces of 
India the North -Western is the least rich in minerals. In the 
beds of the Himalaya rivers, and even the streams of the sub- 
Himalaya rocks, the people wash for gold with poor results. 
The Son, a river of the Garhwal district, and the Ramganga, 
which it joins in the Palti Doon, are aurilerous. There is ter- 
tiary coal in the Province of no economic value. There are iron 
mines in Kumaun leased to a company. Since the abolition of 
the export duty this Province has become one of the great wheat- 
producing regions. After supplying those of its own dense 
population who are able to afford wheat in addition to or in 
place of barley or the two millets joar and Ixnjray the Province 
ex|iorts an annually increasing quantity of wheat, which is 
limited only by the expense of railway transit, chiefly to Cal- 
cutta but adso to Bombay. The two chief harvests of each year 
are the autumnal {kkareef), sown in June and reaped in October- 
November, and the spring {rabee), sown in October-November 
and reaped in March- April. Tobacco is everywhere a home- 
stead culture. The commercial crops exported, to the value of 
above 5 millions sterling a year, are — besides wheat — oilseeds, 
sugar, indigo, tea, opium, rice, cotton, and saltf^etre. Tea, the 
China plant, is cultivated and manufactured, chiefly green, for 
export into Central A^ia, on the 8loi)es and valleys of Dehra 
Doon, Kumaim, and Garhwal. The imf)orts, valued at 3 millions 
sterling, and chiefly from Calcutta by rail, are English piece 
goods, twist and yam, rice for the Bengalee residents, and salt. 
Cawn[KX)r is the principal city of both export and im|)ort. 
Besides sugar, indigo, and coarse cotton cloth, and English rum 
and beer, the principal manufactures are ornamental metal-work, 
brocades, silk, wood and stone carved vases, cari^ets, leather, 
and tents. The trade with Tibet and Nepal is steadily increas- 



CHAP. IX.] LAND TENURES. 149 

ing ; it is of the annual value of a million sterling, of which one- 
tenth is with Tibet in borax, salt, and wool imports chiefly. 

§ 7. Land Tenures. — (1) In the N.W. Province the 
Benares Division was put under the same Permanent Settle- 
ment as Bengal proper, and the other districts received the 
promise of a permanent settlement on certain conditions, which 
have been disciissed up almost to the present day. Except the 
districts of Benares, the Province is under Thirty Tears* 
Leasea Since the completion, in 1842, of Mr. R. M. Bird's 
first thirty years' settlements, the land-tax assessments have 
been again revised, after survey, and fixed for a farther period 
of thirty years in all the temporarily settled districts. A cadas- 
tral survey has been made of the four permanently settled dis- 
tricts. With few exceptions the land tenures may be divided into 
three great classes — zameendaree, jmtteedaree, and bhyachara, 
Zameendaree teniu'es are those in which the whole land is held 
and managed in common, and the rents and whole profits of the 
estate are thrown into one common stock, and divided amongst 
the several proprietors, whose rights are estimated according to 
fractional shares, whether of a rupee or of the local unit of land 
measure known as a beegah. Putteedaree tenures may be 
divided into perfect and imperfect putteedaree or bhyachara. 
Perfect putteedaree is that tenure wherein the whole lands are 
held in severalty by the different proprietors, all of whom are 
jointly resf)onsible for the Government revenue, though each is 
theoretically responsible only for the quota represented by the 
proportion of the land he holds to the whole estate. Imperfect 
putteedaree is where portions of the land are held in severalty, 
and portions in common, with a joiat responsibility for the 
Government demand. In this case the revenue is primarily 
made up from the rents of the common lands, and the remainder 
by a bach or cess proportioned to the holdings in severalty, and 
calculated either by custom or on a fixed scale. Talookdaree 
estates are those in which the profits remaining after the 
Government revenue has been paid are divided amongst differ- 
ent proprietors or classes of proprietors, the one superior and the 
other iziferior. In such cases a subsettlement is usually made 
between the inferior proprietors and the superior, who is known 
as the talookdar. An estate may pass by the agreement of the 
sharers from one class to another, the joint responsibility re- 
maining inviolate. The tendency is to increase the nmnber of 
perfect putteedaree holdings by a partition of the common lands. 

(2) In Oudh, before the Mutiny of 1857, the land system of 
the N.W. Province was attempted. As the tenants who had 



150 NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCE — GENERAL. [CHAP. IX. 

been made proprietors invited the Talookdar landlords to resume 
their estates, Lord Canning made a settlement with 256 of the 
latter, preserving the rights of the subproprietors and tenants, 
to which subsequent legislation has been directed. The land 
tenures of Oudh, in their general features, resemble very closely 
those prevailing throughout Upper India ; they may be broadly 
classified aa held directly or indirectly from the State. The 
first may be subdivided into — (A) Talookdaree estates; (B) 
Zameendaree or Mufi^ed estates ; (C) estates held in fee simple. 
Estates of the first class are held by the Talookdars, who were 
settled with immediately after the suppression of the Mutiny, 
and those of the second are the property of the ordinary 
zameendars, or small landowners of the country. It is with 
regard to the Talookdaree estates that the land tenures of 
Oudh differ chiefly from those of the N.W. Province. Whereas 
in the older Provinces the tendency was to set aside the large 
landlord and engage direct with the under-proprietors and ten- 
ants, in Oudh the position and rights of the Talookdar, as pro- 
prietor of the land, have been frilly recognised. The Talookdars 
and zameendars alike possess the frOl right of property in their 
estates, which they can alienate or dispose of as they please ; 
but they differ from each other in the degree of security on 
which their titles rest. Protected by Act I. of 1859, the title 
of a Talookdar is unassailable, except upon a cause of action 
which must have arisen subsequent to the settlement which was 
made with him after the reoccupation of the Province ; whereas 
the zameendar is liable at any moment to be called on by the 
courts to defend a suit in which the cause of action may have 
arisen before annexation. By the same Act, too, the Talookdar 
has been freed from the provisions of the ordinary Hindoo 
Shasters and Muhammadan Shar'a which, except when overridden 
by a strongly defined family custom, usually regulate succession 
and inheritance among the Mufreed zameendars ; and out of the 
256 Talookdars of Oudh a large number have adopted the law 
of primogeniture. Subject to certain provisions, every Talook- 
dar can bequeath by will the whole or any portion of his estate. 
Omitting the two Native States, the whole revenue of which 
goes to the chiefs, the land of the N.W. Province with Oudh 
yields above 5f millions sterling, of which upwards of half a 
million is frx)m estates paying a fixed tax. The State demand 
is nonunally fixed at 50 per cent of the assumed rental ; but 
cesses are levied at generally increasing rates for schools, roads, 
police, and other local objects. The 44 millions of the unit-ed 
Province paid a gross revenue of £7,202,663 in 1880-81, of 



CHAP. IX.] LAND SETTLEMENTS — ^POPULATION. 



151 



which £5,631,200 was from land. The fiscal condition of the 
Province is thus seen :— 

Land Settlements, Nokth- Western Province with Oudh, 

1880-81. 



Natare of Settlement. 



Settled in perpetuity — 

N.W. iTovince 

Oudh .... 
Settled for 30 years or upwards — 

N.W. Province 

Oudh .... 
Settled for 10 veare or under 30- 

N.W. Province 

Oudh .... 
Settled under 10 years — 

N.W. Province 

Oudh .... 
Settlement in progress — 

N.W. Province 

Oudh .... 

rp X 1 f N.W. Province . 
To^ joudh. . . 



Grand Total— N.W. Province with Oudh 



Area in sq. 
miles. 



10,496 
1,908 

54,381 
21,181 

11,229 
40 

1,051 
21 

4,081 
95 



81,238 
23,245 



104^483 



Annual revenue 
assessed. 

Rs. 

47,74,666 
8,74,876 

3,44,81,825 
1,36,07,512 

16,32,477 
5,133 

4,56,566 
3,950 

17,35,803 



4,30,81,337 
1,44,91,471 



5,76,72,808 



§ 8. The People and Distbicts. — The census of 1881 
showed the population of Oudh to be 11,407,625, and of the 
old N.W. Province 32,699,493, an increase in Oudh of 1-67 
per cent since the census of 1867, and in the N.W. Province 
of 6*27 per cent since the census of 1872, or of 5*4 per cent 
on the whole. There was a remarkable increase of population 
in some of the permanently -settled districts of the Benares 
Division, while in the upper districts, in which the effects of 
£unine and fever had been most severely felt, there was little 
if any increase, and in more than one a falling off. 

Adding the two Native States, the population in 1881 stood 
thus as to sex : — 



N.W. Province 

Oudh .... 
•Rampoor 
*Garhwal 


Males. 


Females. 


Total 


17,041,048 

6,860,960 

282,985 

102,044 


15,658,450 

5,546,665 

260,916 

98,479 


32,699,493 

11,407,626 

543,901 

200,523 


23,287,032 


21,464,510 


44,851,542 



NOBTH-WESTERN PROVINCE — GENERAL. IcE 



CiTiL Divisions of British Tebritoxt, lSSO-81. 





1 


« 


RllTODl. 




i 

1 


e° 


1 


"■^ 


Is 


UDd. 


OlDH. 




z 








I>.h«Do™ . S 


~«i" 


1WM4 




--- IM 




i,ei7 


sio^;;?]* 














M 


Meunc .'^ . * 




8,00:2a* 








i|j»i 








Allpirh . . 3 


Lm 






KM 


Kodninn. . 4 


6..''1« 








Ou^oml. . a 








m 










w 


Btinmur , . 3 


S,I*S 
















:3t 










M 




3,^10 






m 


Bhiili]ahuip»r 9 


SISM 








MDttn . . 








iw 


Agra . . 3 


l!3»l 






90 




iItw 






01 










11 










178 


fiSim '. '. 7 


il7»a 


■ w 




yj 


Jhual '. '. S 


«T 






i» 


■.■lllpoor . 1 










Cwnpooc . 4 








m 


H^^™ ■ \ 




! «) 

SO 






AUlbabad : 1 


!|fl5U 




JK 






w 




11,»1,480 


SJS- ; 5 


3.*! 5 
8,301 






11.08.170 


HUM . . s 




09 






ABiiicirh 4 








w;ea,a«s 


Hlmpoor . « 








ll,7i,3ilT 










19,0^061 


Qhulpuor * 








14.00 000 










T.SS.S30 




llaM 






0.M.4M 


LnckDow B 




« 




10,81.100 










1S.W.02S 


B.nB4nkL ! 


lloM 






1B,»,»8 


I'lXf': : ; 


S.MS 






ll.B^,OI»« 
Ht.37,W3 


KheH . . » 


1,77T 


M 


7,41 ,3M 


8.ae,7n 


Fyataa . i 


S,SW 




ll.l!.7I1 


IS, 77.488 






711 


0.77.177 


ii,eo,oM 


QnDdit . ' 3 


j[eM 


■» 




i8.n,oss 


bl B.n>U . 3 


i;7«l 




1t.7i.8it 


ii,ei,<H4 






W 


10.17.6BB 


ll.m,ui 


p««.bg«li . fl 

ToUl . |sai|ios|ioj,Mi «.0I)3,S»» 


s!*i« 


M 


e,T4,Ms 


HI,4>i.08S 


,„,„.,..,«,.. 


fi,63,ll.eM> 


7.M,M,Mt 



M)BTH-WEST IflOT 




. . . ? 



60 
I 



IpO CNOLISN BILCS 



INCE. WITH OUDH. 




SuKnToTtU Oeoff^£st 



CHAPTER X. 

THE NOETH-WESTEKN PROVINCB — ^DISTBICTS. 

South-Eastern Districts. 

§ 1. Allahabad City. § 2. Allahabad. § 3. Jaunpoor. § 4. Fateh- 
poor. § 5. Cawnpoor. § 6. Banda. § 7. Hameerpoor. § 8. 
Jalaun. § 9. Jhansi. § 10. Lalitpoor. § 11. Benares. § 12. 
Mirzapoor. § 13. Ghazipoor. § J 4. Balia. § 15. Azamgarh. 
§ 16. Basti. § 10. Gorakhpoor. § 18. Nepal Froutier. 

North- Western Districts and Slates. 

§ 19. Agra. § 20. Muttra. § 21. Mainpoori. § 22. Farukhabad. 
§ 23. Etawah. § 24. Etah. § 25. AligHrh. § 26. Boolundshahr. 
§ 27. Meeroi;. § 28. Muzaffarnagar. § 29. Saharanpoor. § 80. 
Dehra Doon. § 81. Garhwal. § 82. *Tehri-Garhwal State. 
§ 33. Eumaun. § 34. Tarai. § 35. * Rampoor State. § 36. 
Bijnanr. § 37. Moradabad. § 38. Budaun. § 39. Bareli § 40. 
Pilibheet. § 41. Shahjahanpoor. 

South-Eastern Districts, 

§ 1. Allahabad City ("city of Allah," the Prayag or "junc- 
tion" of the Hindoos), capital of the N.W. Province since 
1858, when the seat of government was removed from Agra, 
on the left bank of the Jumna at its confluence with the Qanges 
in N. lat. 25* 26', and E. long. 81° 55' 15". Here Akbar 
built the noble red sandstone fort in 1575, calling the city by his 
own name ; Jahangeer was governor, and his son Khusru died, 
and was buried in the mausoleum in the Khusru Bagh (garden). 
Ceded, with the district and Doab, to the British in 1801, 
Allahabad slowly prospered; when the Mutiny of 1857, in which 
the 6 th Native Infantiy murdered its officers and massacred 
the other Europeans till the arrival of General Neill, led Lord 
Canning to make it his own residence for a time and the centre of 
the provincial administration, from whit^h Upper India was again 
brought under law. From that time the city has grown in size 
and beauty, covering the triangular area between the two great 



154 NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCE — DISTRICTS. [CUAP. X. 

rivers. It is the headquarters of the most important military 
division S. of the Satlej from Dinapoor in Bengal to Cawnpoor. 
It is the centre of the railway system of N. India, being 564 m. 
from Calcutta and 89 m. from Benares to the S.E., 223^ m. 
from Jabalpoor and the Bombay line to the S.W., and 390 m. 
from Delhi to the N.W. The plain between the two rivers 
under the walls of the fort is the scene, every January, of the 
great fair, Magh M^a, where, at full moon, a quarter of a 
million of Hindoo pilgrims assemble to bathe at the Prayag, 
Tribeni, or confluence of the waters of the three rivers, the 
muddy Ganges, the clear Junma, and the (invisible) Saraswati, 
which last disappears at Thaneswar, 400 m. N.W. In the fort 
is an underground temple of Shiva, the moisture oh the walls of 
which marks, to the superstitious, the holy river ; also a forked 
post or log, worshipped as the " undecaying Banian tree,'* seen 
by the Chinese Hwen T'hsang in the 7th century a.d., and 
before that the scene of human sacrifices. Within the gateway 
is an Asoka pillar with edict of 240 b.o., and inscription of 
Samoodra Goopta's victories in 2nd century a.d., to which 
Jahangeer added a Persian inscription on his ascension in 1605; 
in 1838 a British officer replaced the pillar as at present. 
Besides the Ehusru Bagh, near the railway station, the most 
notable places are Government House, the public offices, and 
barracks, the Central College bearing the name of the scholar 
and former Lieutenant-Governor, Sir W. Muir ; the Memorials 
of Lord Mayo, and the civil servants Thomhill and Mayne. The 
American Presbyterians and Episcopal Methodists, the Church 
and Baptist Missionary Societies, and Roman Catholics, have 
missions here. Allahabad is the third largest dty of the Province 
(next to Lucknow and Benares), covers 22,202 acres, with 32,000 
houses, has a growing population of 150,378, who yield a muni- 
cipal revenue of £21,000 a year, or 2s. a head* Eydgai\j is 
the quarter inhabited by the wealthy natives. 

§ 2. Allahabad District is bounded S. by Mirzapoor 
and Jaunpoor, N. by the Oudh district of Partabgarh, W. by 
Fatehpoor and Banda, and S. by Rewah State. Area, 2840 
sq. m. Population, 1,396,241.^ The district is in 3 portions 
— the central, between the Ganffes and Jumna^ alluvial, 
with its S. slope furrowed by ravines, draining into the latter ; 
the northern, a rich plain N. of the Ganges ; and the southern, 
a comparatively barren series of sandstone terraces rising 
towards the Kcdxnoor range, and drained by the S. Tons river, 

1 The population of all the North- Western Province districts is given 
according to the Census of 1872. 



CHAP. X.] ALLAHABAD — ^JAUNPOOR- 155 

which flows from the Bandair hills of Boondelkhand to the 
Ganges at SirBa, where it is spanned by a large railway bridge. 
Below Allahabad the Ganges is 3 m. broad, and up to this 
point it was navigated by inland steamers before the opening of 
the East Indian Railway. In extreme W. is the Alwara Jhedj 
a shallow lake 2^ m. by 2 m. The district is the Varana- 
vata of the Mahahharat to which the Pandava brothers were 
exiled. It is traversed from E. to W. by the grand trunk road, 
and for 80 m. by the railway, which has 8 stations within the 
district. The Jabalpoor section to Bombay leaves the main 
line at Naini, and runs for 22 miles into Banda. At Naini, 
also, is the central jail. Besides the capital city the only town • 
with more than 5000 inhabitants is Mau Alma, 17 m. to N. 
of it. Katra, 63 m. S.E. in a pass (1219 ft.) on the lower 
Eaimoor range, on the road to Mirzapoor. Karra, ruined 
town 40 m. N.W. of Allahabad on right bank of Ganges, from 
which Akbar removed the capital to Allahabad. Here in 1286 
Muiz-ood-deen and his father met and united their forces against 
Delhi. 

§ 3. Jaunpoob Distriot is bounded E. and N.E. by Ghazi- 
poor and Azamgarh; N. and N.W. by Oudh districts of 
Faizabad, Partabgarh, and Sultanpoor ; W. by Allahabad ; and 
S. by Benares and Mirzapoor. Area, 1544 sq. m. Popula- 
tion, 1,025,100. A rich and well-cultivated portion of the 
Gangetic plain, dotted with mounds and groves which cover 
the sites of old cities, traversed for 90 m. by the winding 
Gk>oxnti, an unfordable stream which through nodular lime- 
stone cuts its way to the Ganges, and by the Oudh and Rohil- 
khand Kailway for 45 m. with 6 stations. The Bed (navigable), 
Bama» Pilli, and Basohi are the other rivers. There are 
numerous sheets of water in N. and S. On the Goomti and 
Bama stood great cities and temples, destroyed in the contest 
of Brahmanism with Boodhism, and in the Musalman invasion 
when, in 1194, Jai Chand, the Hindoo leader, was defeated by 
Shahab-ood-deen. In 1765 the battle of Buxar made it British, 
and ten years after it was permanently ceded by the treaty of 
Lucknow. In the Mutiny of 1857 the sepoys shot their officers 
and the magistrate and marched to Lucknow. Jaunpoor 
(24,000), chief town, on left bank of Goomti, 15 m. above its 
junction with the Sai, founded by Firoz Tughlak in 1360, 
whose now ruined fort was built of the stones of idol temples. 
Mosques, baths, and gateways in and around the town have left 
some fine ruins. The Jama Masjeed of Hassan is the chief 
ornament. Here was the capital of the Sharki dynasty of 



156 NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCE — ^DISTRICTS. [CHAP. X. 

"Eastern" sultans, who during the 15th century were the 
rivals of the Delhi emperors. Here the Church Missionary 
Society have a station. Maohlishahr (9000), on a plain 
between the Stii and Pilli rivers, S. of Goomti. 

§ 4. Fatehpoos District is bounded E. by Allahabad, 
N. by Oudh district of Rai Bareli, W. by Cawnpoor, and S. 
by Banda. Area, 1637 sq. m. Population, 663,877. The 
district is part of the alluvial plain between the Ganges and 
Jumna^ with an elevated ridge passing through it from E. 
to W., and forming a watershed. There are three water- 
courses or rivers — the Pandoo, flowing N. to the Ganges, 
the Rind and Noon to the Jumna. The East Indian Rail- 
way runs through the district for 55 miles, and has 5 
stations within it. After Saber's conquest in 1529 it was 
still loyal to the Pathan cause of Sher Shah against Hoo- 
mayoon. It became British in 1801, and speedily pros- 
perous after the desolation of Musalman conflicts and Maratha 
raids.' In the Mutiny of 1857 the Musalman mob murdered 
Robert Tucker, the Judge, who died a martyr's death; the 
other Christians had^escaped. Three weeks later ten iugitives 
from Cawnpoor were here massacred. Havelock defeated the 
rebels at Belinda and Aunff, and captured Fatehpoor, and Lord 
Clyde restored the district to peace. Fatehpoor (20,000), 
chief town on trunk road, 70 m. N.W. of Allahabad, and 50 m. 
S.E. of Cawnpoor, with two mosques of interest. Here the Ben- 
galee confessor, Gopeenath Nundi, founded the American Pres- 
byterian Mission. Kora, decayed town on old Mughul road 
from Agra to Allahabad, old provincial capital with some traces 
of former greatness. Khajuha, on old road from Kora to 
Fatehpoor, with fine ruins ; here brass and copper vessels are 
made. Naraini is an agricultural mart, and Bindki, the chief 
market of the district, 5 m. S. of Mauhar railway station, 
where the Boondelkhand and Dpab dealers meet. 

§ 5. Cawnpoor District (Kanhpoor, or village of Eanh 
= a zameendar so named ; also Kanh = Krishna) is bounded E. 
and N. by Fatehpoor district of Oudh, from which it is divided 
by the Ganges ; W. by Farukhabad and Etawah ; and S.W. by 
Hameerpoor, from which it is separated by the Jumna. Area, 
2337 sq. m. Population, 1,156,055. Cawnpoor is a portion 
of the alluvial Doab between the Ganges and Jumna, exposed 
on its clay uplands to drought, which de8(»lated it during the 
great famine of 1837, and from which it has since been pro- 
tected by four branches of the Ganges Canal, with their dis- 
tributing channels. The Eesaii river parses through the N. of 



CHAP. X.] CAWNPOOR — BAKDA. 157 

district to the Ganges. The Pandoo and Rind traverse its 
whole midlflDil, and in the S. the St>ngoor falls into the Jumna. 
After the conquest of Baber in 1529, and the struggle of his 
son Hoomayoon with Sher Shah, it was overrun by the Mara- 
thas and held by the Wazeer of Oudh, Safdar Jang, when the 
victories of Buxar and Eora led to the establishment of a 
cantonment at the new city of Cawnpoor, and at Fatehgarh. In 
1801 it became British, with the whole lower Doab; in 1857-8 
it was for a year the most notorious scene of the Mutiny 
outrages. Cawnpoor (125,000) stands on the right bank 
of the Ganges, to which the British cantonment was removed 
from Bilgram in the opposite district of Oudh in 1778 ; Ganges 
terminal of the great canal, as Etawah is the Jumna terminal ; 
628 m. N.W. of Calcutta, 130 m. above Allahabad, and 266 m. 
S.£. of Delhi. It is the seat of cotton mills and leather 
factories, aud a considerable market for agricultural produce. 
Cawnpoor is notorious as the scene of Nana Dhoondoo Panth's 
five massacres of British officers, ladies, and children, most of 
whom, after their surrender in the entremtliments under General 
Wheeler, had survived the treacherous attack at the Sati Chaura 
Ghat on the boats in whicth they were promised safety. 
Memorial Gardens (50 acies) surround tlie well into which 
Some two hundred, " the tlying and the dead," were thrust, on 
the approach of Havelock's force, and the well itself is sur- 
rounded by a marble screen enclosing Maro<thetti's figure of the 
Angel of the Resurrection, with the palm of victory. A 
memorial church stands on the t^ite of Wheeler's entrenchments. 
Bithoor (8000), 12 m. N.W. of Cawnpoor, on the Ganges, 
residence of B^i Rao, last of the Peshwas, and of his adopted 
son, the infamous Nana Dhoondoo Panth, whose palaces were 
destroyed by HaveL-»ck in 1857. The place has still a reputar 
lion for its Pandits skilled in Nagari caligraphy. ShiuraJ- 
poor (8000), 21m. N.W. of Cawnpoor. Bllhaur (6000), also 
a centre <5f the Mutiny, on the trunk road, 35 m. N.W. of 
Cawnpoor. 

§ 6. Banda District (from the sage Bamdeo) is bounded 
E. by Rewah State and Allahabad, N. by Fatehpoor, W. by 
Haroeerp^or, and S. by the States of Panna, Chirkari, and 
Rewah. Area, 2961 »q, m. Population, 697,684. This is a 
poor district of Boondclkhand, sloping up from the Jumna 
S.W. to the Vindhya range, where arc well-wooded liills rising 
to 2000 ft., from which the Ken and the Bahrain flow S.£. to 
the Jumna. An aboriginal Naga dynasty ruled from Narwar, 
as a capital, or as viceroys of the Gooptas of Kanoig. The 



158 NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCE — DISTRICTS. [cHAP. X. 

Chandel dynasty, from 9th to 14th century, built fortresses like 
Kalix^ar and Ajaigarh, temples and lakes, till overcome by 
the Muhammadans. The Marathas devastated the country, 
which in 1803 was ceded under the treaty of Bassein to the 
British, who recently gave it the light land-tax it needed. In 
1857 the Nawab of Banda, after the mutiny of the 1st Native 
Infantry and murder of the Joint-Magistrate, was defeated by 
Whitlock. Banda (28,000), chief town, 1 m. E. of right bank 
of the Ken, a decaying place, with numerous Hindoo and Jain 
temples and mosques, and ruins of old and modem palaces ; can- 
tonments a mile from the town. Rajapoor (7000), cotton and 
produce mart on Jumna. Bargarh, Manikpoor, and Markundi 
are the three stations of the Jabalpoor railway in the district. 
ChiUa, 48 m. from Banda, mart on the Jumna, with road to 
Fatehpoor. Kalix^jar, old town and fort on Bindachal range 
(1230 ft.), 33 m. S. of Banda, mentioned in Mahahharat Held 
by the British and the R%ja of Panna throughout the Mutiny. 
Now of much archaeological interest. 

§ 7. Hameebpoob District (Hameer Deo's place) is 
bounded K by Banda, N. by Cawnpoor, W. by Baoni State, 
and S. by Alipoora, Chattarpoor, and Ghirkhari States. Area, 
2296 sq. m. Population, 529, 137. Another poor and once over- 
assessed portion of the Boondelkhand plain stretching frx)m the 
Jumna and Betwa to the Yindhya, among the outlying spurs 
of which are the noble artificial lakes of Malioba» constructed 
by the Chandel R^jas. The Betwa river and the Dhasfin, 
its tributary, are not navigable. Hameerpoor (7000), chief 
town, isolated on the triangle formed by jimction of the above 
rivers with the Jumna, on the route from Banda to Cawnpoor. 
Here the 56th Native Infantry mutinied in 1857 and killed 
Europeans. Mahoba, in the S., old capital of Chandels, where, 
in 1183, Parmel, the last of these R^jas, was defeated by 
Prithvi R^'a of Delhi ; afterwards centre of power of the 
Boondela hero, Chatar Sal ; with fine ruins. Rath (14,000), 
old town and mart in N.W. of district, with many ruins. 

§ 8. Jalaun District is bounded E. by Baoni State, N. 
by Cawnpoor and Etawah from which it is separated by the 
Jumna, W. by GwaJior and Datia States, and S. by Samthar 
State and Jhansi from which it is divided by the Betwa. 
Area, 1555 sq. m. Population, 404,447. The district is part 
of the plain of Boondelkhand, almost surrounded by the Jumna 
and its tributaries the Betwa and PaliooJ ; the last is the 
W. boundaiy. The Non flows through the centre, draining 
the district by numerous ravines. It forms part of the region 



CHAP. X.] JALAUN — JHANSI. 159 

of the same historical events as Banda, save that the Rajpoot 
clan of jS^achwahas here took the place held by the Chandels 
in the E. From 1196, when Kutab-ood-deen took Ealpi, this 
tract became subject to the Muhammadans and then the Mara- 
thas. It finally lapsed to the British Government in 1840. In 
the Mutiny the 53d Native Infantry deserted their officers, 
the Jhansi mutineers overran the district, Sir Hugh Rose routed 
the rebels at Koonch and again at KaJpi in 1858, and since 
that time the land has been slowly recovering under a lighter 
assessment. Ural (7000), headquarters of district on Kalpi 
and Jhansi road. Kalpi (1 4,000), principal mart, on right bank 
of Junma, 22 m. from UraL Situated among rugged ravines, its 
fort was successively the central stronghold of the Musalmans 
and Marathas from the Dekhan and Bengal. Among several 
mausoleums the tomb known as the Eighty-four Domes is 
remarkable. Koonoh (15,000), a declining mart, on open plain 
19 m. W. of Urai ; the staple industry of this and other towns 
is dyeing cotton with the red al of the root of Morinda cUri- 
folia. From Urai and Jalaun a road crosses the Jumna at Sher- 
garh to the nearest railway station at Phaphoond in Etawah. 

§ 9. Jhansi District is bounded E. by Hameeipoor, from 
which the Dhasan separates it ; N. by Jalaun with the Betwa 
between; W. by the Datia, Gwalior, and Khaniya Dana States; 
and S. by Lalitpoor and the Orcha State. Area, 1567 sq. m. 
Population, 317,826. The district, much broken up by feu- 
datory States, is part of the Boondelkhand hill plateau, with 
fine artificial lakes in the smaller hiUs, made by both the 
Chandel and Boondela princes, and enclosed or intersected by 
the Pahooj, Betwa, and Dhasan rivers, with their feeders, so as 
to be isolated during the floods of the rainy season. Here 
the Chandels gave way to the Khangars, who built Karar fort on 
the Orcha border, and were overcome by the Boondelas from the 
S. mountains under Roodra Pratap, founder of the Orcha family. 
Jhansi lapsed to the British in 1853 on the death of Gangadhar 
Rao, childless; but the Ranee, his widow, revolted in 1857 
when the 12th Native Infantiy seized the fort and massacred 
many Europeans, was defeated by Sir Hugh Rose, fled with 
Tatiya Topi, and finally fell in battle at Gwalior. Jhansi 
Naoabad, headquarters of district and cantonment, in extreme 
W. under the walls of Jhansi town, which belongs to Gwalior 
State. Mau (17,000) in S.E. Bampoor (7000), a Jain 
town on Jhansi and Naugaon road 5 m. W. of Mau, of which 
municipality it forms a part. Qursaral (6500), 40 m. N.E. 
of Jhansi on Jalaun and Sagar road, capital of lUga of same 



160 NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCE — DISTRICTS. [CHAP. X. 

name. Barwa Safirar (6000), 12 m. from Jhansi on Nau- 
gaon road, on shore of picturesque lake ; in the neighl^ourhood 
are an old castle last inhabited by the Ranee of Jhansi, and 
remains of Chandel temple defaced by Musalmans. Bhan- 
der (6000), on left bank of Pahboj, 24 m. from Jhansi, fine 
old town with lake and Boodhist antiquities. 

§ 10. Lalitpooe District, nearly surroimded on all sides, 
save the south, by feudatory States, is bounded E. by Orcha 
State, and N. and W. by Betwa and Narayan rivers separating 
it from Gwalior, S. by Sagar district of the Central Province. 
Area, 1 947 sq. m. Population, 2 1 2, 66 1 . This is the poorest dis- 
trict of the N.W. Pix)vince ; sloping down from the Vindhya on 
the S. to the Jiunna, its soil is drained off by numerous streams 
thr(»ugh rocky ravines. Of the old artificial lakes the largest 
is Talbahat in the N. hills. Held successively by the Gonds 
whose temples crown the Vindhya peaks, the Chandels and the 
Boondelas, the district was part of Chanderi State under Rajas 
descended from Roodra Pratap. Chanderi was taken by the 
Gwalior army imder Baptiste in 1811, and was ceded to the 
B.'tish two years after the battle of Maharaj'poor. In 1857 
the Banpoor R^ja revolted, the 6th Gwalior regiment murdered 
its officers, Sir Hugh Rose forced the passes to the S., and 
the district waa subsequently reduced to order \a ith dilficulty. 
Lalitpoor (9000), chief town, near W. bank of Sahjad Nadi, 
on Jhansi and Sagar road ; with Boodhist remains. Talbahat 
(5000), old town on lake of same name, 26 m. N. of Lalitp>or. 
Sir Hugh Rose demolished the foit in 1857. 

§ 11. Benares District, the smallest and most densely 
peopled in the N.W. Province, sloping up from either bank of 
the Ganges, is bounded E. by Shahabad in Bengal, N. by Ghazi- 
poor and Jaunpoor, W. and S. by Mirzapoor. Area, 998 sq. 
m. Population, 794,900. The Ganges is joined 16 m. below 
Benares city by the Goomti, and is 4 m. broad in the rainy sea- 
son, where it leaves the district. The Karamnasa separates 
the district from Bengal on the S.E. The Bama, which gives 
its name to the city and district in the W. and Nand in the 
N. are small streams. Benares was under the Oudh viceroys 
during the Mughul period, who ceded it to the British in 1775. 
In 1737, Mansa Ram laid the foundation of the greatness of the 
family of the Maharaja of Benares ; in 1778, Warren Hastings 
fined Chait Singh, whom the British had made Maharaja, half 
a million sterling for refusing to supply a contingent, and had 
to flee from the riot which followed ; in 1799 the deposed Nawab 
of Oudh, Wazeer All, when residing at Benares, murdered 



OH AP. X. ] BENABES — ^laRZAPOOR. 161 

Mr. Cheny, the Govemment agent, and two officers ; in 1857, 
the 37th Native Infantiy mutinied and fled. Benares city 
(YaransBi or Bandras, "on the Bama") (207,570), the holy 
Kasi or metropolis of Hindooism, on the crescent-shaped left 
bank of the Ganges, 475 m. N.W. of Calcutta^ 89 m. E, of 
Allahabad, 479 m. S.E. of Delhi. The first station of Gau- 
tama Boodha in the 6th century b.c., the headquarters of 
Brahmanism before and since, the residence of Sankar Achaijya 
the Shivaite teacher in the 7th century a.d., a scene of the 
ioonocksm of Aurangzeb whose mosque towers above its 
temples, the seat of Crovemment and Christian Colleges, and 
of the missions of the Church, London, and Baptist Mis- 
sionary Societies, this has always been the chief Hindoo city of 
N. India. Lying along the N. sweep of the Ganges is the 
native town ; W. is Sifirlira suburb, the Christian missionaiy 
quarter; N. is Sikraul cantonment; S. of the Bama are 
the courts and the church, and N. of same stream is the civil 
station. Bajfirhat fort commands the city. Ramnacrar 
(12,000), 2 m. S., on the right bank of the Ganges, has the 
Maharaja's palace, old fort, and garden, begun by Chait Singh. 
The principal Hindoo buildings in the city, all of freestone, are 
the Bisheswar, or golden temple of Shiva, covered with gold leaf 
by Raiyeet Singh ; the observatory of Jai Singh, Jeypoor Rtga, 
close by ; the temple of Bhaironath, with his 4 ft. club ; Tara- 
keswar shrine, fronting the well of Manibamika, whose filthy 
waters represent the sweat of Yishnoo ; the monkey temple at 
Doorga Eoond ; and Dasasameedh Ghat, one of the five places of 
pilgrimage. The incessant pilgrim traffic makes Benares a place 
of great trade, wealth, and luxuiy. Most of the greater Hindoo 
nobles of India have residences in the city. The kinkob or gold 
brocades, shawls, gold and brass work of its bazars are famous. 
Scunath (Saranganath = " lord of deer"), first centre of Boodh- 
ism, is 3^ m. N. of modem site of Benares, where Gautama 
first preached. On a mound of ruins half a mile long and a 
quarter broad there are two stupas, and a third is near. Of 
these the Dhamek (Dharma = ^' the law") is a solid dome rising 
110 ft. with a diameter of 93 ft., on the same site as Asoka's. 
The third stupa, called Chaukandi, is crowned by an octagon 
which commemorates Hoomayoon's visit in 1531. Sakaldiha 
and Mu^rliul Sarai are the two stations of East Indian Railway, 
and Seopoor, Babatpoor, and Phoolpoor of the Oudh and Rohil- 
khand Railway. A Ganges bridge connects the two. 

§ 12. MiRZAPOOB DiSTBTCT,^he largest and most southern 
of the N.W. Province, is boimded E. by Shahabad and Lohar- 

M 



162 NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCE — DISTRICTS. [OHAP. X. 

daga in Bengal, N. by Jaunpoor and Benares, W. by Allahabad 
and Rewah State, and S. by Sargooja State. Area, 5224 sq. 
m. Population, 1,015,826. The district stretches for 102 m. 
N. and S. from the Ganges plain to the Kaimoor and Vindhya 
ranges, which cross it from E. to W. with an average breadth 
of 52 m. The Vindhya hills send down sandstone spurs at 
Ohanar and Kantit to the Ganges, which they overlook. 
Between these and the Kaimoor range, overhanging the Son 
valley, is the central plateau (600 to 800 ft.) The affluents of 
the Son are the Behand and the Panfiran, forming the Sing- 
rauli basin, with coal. Their history is associated with that of 
Benares and its Raja, and centres roimd Chanar. Ehair-ood-deen 
Sabuktageen conquered the country from Prithvi Riga. Muham- 
mad Shah put it under one of the Bahelia family, who retained 
the fortress till its surrender to the British in 1764. In 1857 
the joint-magistrate and two planters were murdered, and Mr. 
Tucker twice defeated the insurgents. The East Indian Railway 
runs through the N. part of the district for 32 m., close to the 
Ganges and trunk road, with stations at Pahari, Mirzapoor city, 
and Gkiepoora. The great Dekhan road, now nearly deserted, 
passes from Mirzapoor S. across the Vindhya at Tara Ghat. 
Mirzapoor city (67,000), on right bank of Ganges, 45 m. 
above Benares and 56 below Allahabad ; long the greatest mart 
in Upper India for grain, cotton, shellac, and export produce. 
Mirzapoor has been aJOfected by the through railway to Bombay 
and the rise of Cawnpoor. It is a fine stone city; a seat of the 
London Missionary Society. Ohanar (10,000), an English- 
looking town on right bank of Ganges, 26 m. above Benares, 
with fine old fort still used as State prison and garrisoned from 
Allahabad. The stronghold, named frt)m a deity of the heroic 
age, has been held by successive rulers — Hindoo, Muhammadan, 
and British. Once a settlement of European veterans and their 
families ; still famous for its freestone. Alxraiira (9000), grain 
mart, 10 m. S. of Ahraura Road Station on East Indian Railway. 
§ 13. Ghazipoob Disteict is bounded N.E. by Balia, N.W. 
by Azamgarh, W. by Jaunpoor and Benares, and S.E. by Shaha- 
bad. Area, 1451 sq. m. Population, 873,130. The district 
consists of fertile uplands and low-lying tracts, and old river beds 
now forming lakes, of which Suralia, once a northern bend of 
the Ganges, is the largest. The Ganges, Gogra, Saijoo, Goomti, 
and Mandar frequently inundate the coimtry; the villages 
stand on raised ground. A portion of the Boodhist Asoka's 
empire, from the 4th century a.d. to the 7th, Ghazipoor was 
under theGoopta dynasty of Maghada. TheMusalmans conquered 



CHAP, z.] OHAZIPOOR — BATJA — ^AZAMOARH. * 163 

it for the Ghoii emperors, for the eastern sultans at Jaunpoor, 
for Baber again, for his son's rival Sher Shah, and for Akbar. 
From the deposition of Chait Singh in 1775 by Warren 
Hastings, to the present, the district has prospered. Ghazi- 
poor (39,000), on left bank of Ganges, 64 m. N.E. of Benares, 
named from Masaood, the Ghazi or " champion of the faith," 
who founded it in 1330, under Tughlak. Here are tombs of the 
founder and of the Gudh Abdoolla, and Fazl Ali, and ruins of 
the Gudh palace of forty pillars. Here the Governor-General, 
the Marquis ComwalliB, died in 1805 ; a domed building cover- 
ing his marble statue, by Flaxman, marks his grave. Has 
Government factory for opium monopoly. Here was Gossner's 
German Mission. 

§ 14. Batja District is the land between the Ganges and 
Gogra, a new district formed from the above and the following 
districts. Often swept by the waters of the two streams. 
Bounded N.E. by Saran, W. by Azamgarh and Ghazipoor, and 
S. by Shahabad. Area, 1137 sq. m. Population, 686,368. 
Balia (9000), chief town, on left bank of Ganges, where it 
receives the Saijoo, 42 m. E. of Ghazipoor ; scene of a great 
bathing festival in October. 

§ 15. Azamgarh District is bounded E. by Balia, N. by 
Gorakhpoor and Faizabad, W. by Jaunpoor, and S. by Ghazi- 
poor. Area, 2147 sq. m. Population, 1,317,554. An alluvial 
portion of the Ganges plain, divided E. and W. by the Koonwar 
and the Tons. The Gofirra, or Great Sarjoo, known also as the 
Debha or Dewa, forming the N. boundary, rolls along a great 
volume of water. The Tons pursues a tortuous course for 30 m. 
S.E. to Azamgarh town, from Mahool to Mau ; its affluents are 
the Kunwar, Ungri, M^jhui, Silhani, Kayar, and Saksui. 
The other rivers are the Little Saijoo, Pharei, Basner, Mangai, 
Gangi, and Basoo. Some 20 lakes or swamps yield much fish. 
The Bhars, early possessors of the land, built the 35 vast forts 
in the Budaun and Sikandrapoor circles. Then came the Haj- 
poots, and Buinhars, and Muhammadans. When the Jaunpoor 
dynasty fell, Sikandar Lodi of Delhi built the Sikandrapoor 
fort on S. bank of Gogra. In 1801 the Oudh viceroy ceded it to 
the East India Company. In 1857 the 17th Native Infantry 
killed some of their officers, but Venables and the Goorkhas 
under Sir Jang Bahadoor restored order. Azamgfarh (fort of 
A2am, a landholder) (16,000), on the Tons, 81 m. N. of 
Benares. Mau (12,000), on S.E., agricidtural centre. Kopa- 
ganj (7000), sugar and indigo mart, on N. road. Mubarakpoor 
(6000), agricultural town. 



164 NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCE — DISTRICTS. [OHAP. X. 

§ 16. Basti District, Sub-Himalaya tract between Nepal 
and the Gogra, is bounded E. for 95 m. by Gorakhpoor ; N. 
for 38 m. by Nepal hills, and N.W. for 98 m. by Gonda ; W. 
and S. by Faizabad in Oudh. Area, 2788 sq. m. Population, 
1,473,029. A tarai or marsh and forest land only 326 ft. 
above the sea, draining to S.E. Europeans have cultivated 
much of the waste jungle. The chief rivers are the Rapti 
(Iravati = " the watery "), with its tributaries, the Arrah, Ban- 
ganga, and Masidh, the Ami, the Kouna^ and the Gogrra. 
The largest lakes are the Bakhira, or Motee Jheel, on K frontier, 
the Pathia, the Chaur, and the Chandoo. The history of the 
district belongs to Oudh and Gorakhpoor. The Oudh and 
Rohilkhand Railway skirts the S. border, and fix)m the stations 
of Faizabad and Akbaipoor roads nm into it ; also from Basti, 
by Bansi, into Nepal ; by Bhanpoor to Singaijot, and to Mend- 
hawaL Basti (5500), on the Eouna, 43 m. from Gorakhpoor, 
40 from Faizabad, and 112 from Benares. Mendhawal (8500), 
principal mart for iron and drugs from Nepal, 3 m. frx)m the 
Rapti and 2 from the Motee Jheel = pearl lake. Bansi (3500), 
32 m. N.E. of Basti, gives its name to the local Riga, whose 
seat is Narkatha, its N. suburb. The site of Kapilavastii, 
or Eapilanagora, capital of the Sakya clan, and birthplace of 
Sakya Mooni, the last Boodha ("intelligence"), has recently 
been identified with ruins at Bhuinla Tal (lake), near Rawai or 
Rohini river, N. of the Gogra, in Paiganah Mansoorabad. 

§ 17. Gorakhpoor District, with Basti the cradle of Boodh- 
ism, is bounded E. by Saran and Champaran, N. by Nepal, W. 
by Basti and Faizabad, and S. by Azamgarh, from which it 
is separated by the Gogra. A level plain of alluvium formed the 
hills, with much scU forest and tarai swamp, inhabited by the 
aboriginal Tharoos. Area, 4585 sq. m. Population, 2,019,361. 
The piincipal rivers are the tortuous Rapti, the wide Gogra 
navigable by steamers in the rains, the Great Gandak dear and 
rapid, the Little Gandak, the Rohini, Ami, and GunghL There 
are six large lakes — the Rungarh, Nandaur, Nawar, Bheuri, 
Chillna, and Amiyar. Once part of the Eosala kingdom, of 
which Ayodha was capital, this district is identified with the 
rise of Boodhism ; its founder, bom at Kapila, in Basti, near 
the border, died at Kasia (Eusinagara = city of the holy grass), 
37 m. K of Gorakhpoor, at N.W. comer of Ramabhar lake, 
where are a prostrate colossal statue, lofty brick mound called 
Devisthan, oblong mound with brick stupa, and other ruins. 
The country seems to have been held successively by the 
aborii^al Bhars; the Rhators, and other Aryan rivals; the 



s 



CHAP. X. ] GORAKHFOOR — NEPAL — AGRA. 165 

Musalmans, first under Akbar and then Oudh viceroys, who 
ceded it to the East India Company in 1801. In 1857 the 
€kx)rkhas tinder Sir Jang Bahadoor drove out the rebels. The 
Church Missionary Society has stations here. Gorakhpoor 
52,000), on the Bapti, with mission settlement at Bisharatpoor 
'* evangel-town "), 8 m. off. Hence a good road runs to Benares 
by the Tucker embankment, 3 m. over the Amiyar and Bigra 
lakes. Barhaj, chief mart, on Rapti between Gorakhpoor and 
Ghatni Ghat; with Gk>la (5500) 1 m. E. Padrauna (5100), 
49 m. N.E. of Gorakhpoor, the " Pava" of Chinese chroniclers, 
last halting-place of Boodha before Easia; here is a large 
mound with ruins. Boodrapoor (9000) on Majhua, 23 m. 
S.E. of Gorakhpoor, with remains of large Rc^'poot fort. Pena 
("goad") (5600), near the Gogra, 44 m. S.E. of Gorakhpoor. 

§ 18. *Nepal Fbontier. — The ordinary route to Kath- 
mandoo, capital of Nepal, in a valley at the junction of the 
Bhagmati and Bishnmati rivers, is from Sagauli, on east side 
of Rapti in Champaran district of Bengal, 89 m. Of the N. W. 
Province part of the frontier, N. of Gorakhpoor and Basti, Mr. 
A. Swinton, commissioner, reported in 1861 : The Goorkhatown 
of Bootwal, situated at the base of the lower range of the Nepal 
mountains, is about 30 m. from Lotim, and there is a good road 
to it passable during the rains ; there is a most eligible site for 
a sanitarium on the Tansein mountain (16,000 fb.); on its 
Bununit is a plateau well wooded and with plenty of water, 3 m. 
long and 1 m. broad ; it is about 10 m. distant from Bootwal 
and accessible at all seasons. Between Sidonia Ghat and 
Bootwal is the Jurwa Pass, not far from the Urrah nadi, 
which is the boundary. It leads between Nawalgarh and 
Ghunirbeer, and is 12 m. long. The Budgkayee Pass, the 
most open of the three, leads up the bed of a torrent and 
enters the Sonar valley. Its extreme length is 11 m., and the 
height of the crest is about 1000 feet above the plateau. The 
Eoronia Sota Pass is 13 m. long, and winding (see pp. 100-1). 

North-Western Districts and States, 

§ 19. Agra District is bounded E. by Mainpoori and 
Etawah, N. by Muttra, W. by Bhartpoor State, and S. by 
Dholpoor and Gwalior States. Area, 1845 sq. m. Population, 
1,068,653. Unequally divided by the Jumna ; the smaller 
portion to N. is part of the Doab. The larger portion to S. is 
traversed by the IJtangrlian, and bounded by the Chaxubal ; 
from both ravines rise into the plateau which ends in the 



166 NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCE — DISTRICTS. [CHAP. X. 



S.W. in the low sandstone outliers of the Vindhya. The 
Canal fertilises the N.W. lands. From the time when the 
Lodi house settled on E. bank of Jumna, the district was con- 
nected with the history of the Delhi emperors, till it was held by 
the Jats of Bhartpoor and the Marathas alternately, from 1764 
to 1803, or Lord Lake's victories. In 1857, on the mutiny 
of the Gwalior contingent, it was overrun by the rebels, with 
the exception of Agra fort, till after the fall of Delhi. Its 
Doab section is opened up by the East Indian Railway with 
stations at Firozabad, Toondla (junction for Agra), and Harhan. 
The capital is a terminus of the Rigpootana-Malwa Railway to 
Bhartpoor, Jeypoor, and Bombay, and of that to Gwalior. 
Afirra (137,908), capital of Akbar's empire, and of the British 
N.W. Province from 1835 to 1858, on right bank of Jumna, 
279 m. above Allahabad, 111 below Delhi, and 843 from 
Calcutta. The Lodi city was on the opposite bank; there 
Baber died in 1556. Akbar, his grandson, removed the capital 
from Delhi, to which Shah Jahan again transferred it; the 
great Emperor's mausoleum was erected at Sikandra, 5 m. 
distant, by his son Jahangeer ; on the tomb the Viceroy, Lord 
STorthbrook, placed a rich coverlet. To Akbar are due the 
fort and its palaces ; to Shah Jahan, the pearl and great 
mosques, and Khas Mahal in the fort; but above all, the 
mausoleum of his wife, Mumtaz-i- Mahal ("exalted of the 
palace "), known as the Taj Mahal, where he too lies. For 
four months the British officials held the fort during the Mutiny 
till relieved by Colonel Greathed's column from Delhi. The 
Rig'pootana and other railway oonmiunications, especially with 
Bombay, have given Agra new commercial importance. It is 
the seat of missions conducted by the Church Missionary 
Society and Baptists, and of a Roman Catholic establishment 
as old as Akbar's time. Fatehpoor Sikrl (7000), Akbar's 
Windsor, 22 m. from Agra, where from 1470 he and Jahangeer 
held court. A wall 5 m. round encircles the ruins, among which 
are the great mosque and its gateway, the tomb of Shekh Salim 
Chisti, the house of Abul Fazl and his brother, of Akbar's 
Portuguese wife, Mariam, with Christian frescoes, and his state 
apartments. Firozabad (14,500), 25 m. E. of Agra, on road 
firom Muttra to Etawah, with fine ruins ; a station of East 
Indian Railway. Panahat (6500), near left bank of Chambal, 
30 m. S.E. of Agra. Batesar, on right bank of Jumna, 35 m. 
S.K of Agra, a great horse and bathing fair. Awah (5700), on 
road from Agra to EtaL Jalesar (15,700), 38 m. E. of Muttra 
or Doab pla^ with railway station at Jalesar road. . 



CHAP. X.] MUTTRA — ^MAINPOORL 167 

§ 20. MuTTRA DiSTBiCT (Mathuia) is bounded E. by Main- 
poori and Etah, N. by Aligarh and Goorgaon, W. by Bhartpoor 
State, and S. by Agra. Area, 1453 sq. m. Poptdation, 
783,530. The district lies irregularly on either side of the 
Jumna ; the level rises in S. W. to limestone hiUs of Bhartpoor. 
The portion W. of Jumna is the centre of the most numerous 
or Yaishnava division of Hindoos, as the grazing ground of 
Krishna and his brother Balaram ; yet it is now a dry and tree- 
less tract, and the whole district has suffered in almost every 
drought and famine. Muttra was afterwards a centre of 
Boo(Uiism. Swept by Mahmood of Ghazni, its buildings suf- 
fered from the iconodasm of Islam. It followed the fortunes of 
Agra historically even during the Mutiny, and was cleared of 
rebellion by Colonel Cotton's column. Muttra (60,000), on* 
right bank of Jumna, 30 m. above Agra, great Brahmanical 
and Boodhist dty till sacked by Mahmood in 1017, Sikandar 
Lodi in 1500, Aurangzeb in 1669, and Ahmed Shah Abdali 
in 1756. The buildings are chiefly of Jat and recent British 
times. Muttra is the centre of the Brajmandal of Yaishnava 
Hindooism, 42 m. long and 30 m. broad, where the pilgrims 
perform the Pari-krama or perambulation of Br^, visiting the 
12 bans or woods, and 24 upabans or groves, besides the many 
ponds, wells, hills, and temples of Krishna. Most important 
of these still is Brinda-ban (21,000), 6 m. N. of Muttra, with 
temples, bathing ghats, and picturesque houses, all of stone. 
Maha-ban (7000), 6 m. S.E. of Muttra, with hill and old 
fort ; in the neighbourhood is Gokul village, where Yishnoo 
first appeared as E^rishna, and Yallabhi Swanu, founder of the 
Mahar^j sect, first preached. Baladeva^ 6 m. beyond, with 
popular temple. Gk>bardhan ('* nurse of cattle"), 13 m. W. 
of Muttra, pilgrim centre in limestone range, fabled to have 
been held aloft by Krishna on his finger for seven days to cover 
the people of Br^ from the storms of Indra. Kosi (13,000), 
29 m. N.W. of Muttra. 

§ 21. Maikpoori Distbict is bounded E. by Farukhabad, 
N. by Etah, W. by Muttra and Agra, and S. by Etawah. 
Area, 1697 sq. m. Population^ 765,845. Mainpoori is a 
wooded plain with shallow lakes, and traversed by the main 
branches of the Qanges Canal. Between the Kali Nadi on the 
N.E. and the Junma on the S.W. the lesser streams of the 
Isan, the Arind, the Sencrar, and the Sarsa run S.E. in 
parallel courses. The Etawah branch of the canal is between 
the Sengar and the Arind, the Cawnpoor branch between the 
Aiind and the Sarsa. The Aganga is a small drainage line, a 



168 NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCE — ^DISTRICTS. [OHAP. X. 

tributary of the Sengar. Mainpoori was part of the kingdom 
of Kanaig, broken up into such petty principalities as Rapri 
and BhongaoU) formed a border land between the rival Musal- 
man powers at Delhi and Jaunpoor, was occupied by Baber in 
1526, and was ceded to the British in 1801. In 1857 the 
9th Native Infantry mutinied, but the few Europeans held the 
capital for a time, and its citizens drove off the Jhansi rebels. 
The Chauhan K^jpoots, Phatak Aheers, and other castes, were 
long guilty of female infanticide till the Act of 1870 quartered 
special police on the " proclaimed " villages, of which there were 
276 in 1875. The East Indian Railway runs through the S.W. 
comer with stations at Shikohabad and Bhadan. Mainpoori 
(from Main Deo) (22,000), on Agra branch of grand trunk road, 
36 m. S.W. of Shikohabad railway station, a prosperous town in 
two portions. — ^Mainpoori proper and Makhangaig, with fine 
market called Raikesgai\j, and main street called Lanegazg, both 
after recent officials. Seat of American Presbyterian Mission. 

§ 22. Faruehabad District Ib bounded E. by Oudh dis- 
trict of Hardoi, N. by Budaun and Shalgahanpoor, W. by 
Mainpoori and Etah, and S. by Etawah and Cawnpobr. Area, 
1719 sq. m. Population, 918,850. The Ganges cuts off a 
small tract to N., watered also by the Ramflranga ; the main 
portion forms an upland plain to S., divided by the Kali Nadi, 
with the Arind and Isan streams. Here was Kanaig, the 
capital of the great Aryan kingdom of the Grooptas, which fell 
before Mahmood of Ghazni in 1018 a.d. The Rohillas here 
struggled long with the Musalman viceroys of Oudh, whom 
Warren Hastings assisted with a British force. Ceded in 1801, 
Farukhabad prospered till 1857, when the Nawab of Faruk- 
habad was placed in power by the rebels, and the Europeans fled 
in boats from Fatehgarh to Cawnpoor, where they were mur- 
dered. The rebels were defeated at Eanaiy, and again by 
Brigadiers Hope and Seton. Fatehsrarh (14,000), civil and 
militaty headquarters, with gun-carriage factory in old fort, on 
right bank of Ganges, 83 m. N.W. of Cawnpoor, long an out- 
post against the Marathas under Perron and the Oudh viceroys. 
Farukhabad (80,000), principal native town, 3 m. W., with 
mud fort in which Nawab of Farukhabad resided. Seat of 
American Presbyterian Mission. Kanai\| (17,000), 32 m. S., 
on W. bank of Kali Nadi, now 5 m. from its junction with 
Ganges, one of the most ancient capitals in the world, dating 
from prehistoric times, with brick ruins covering a semicircle 
4 m. in diameter. Most notable are the shrines of Biga Ajaipal, 
whom Mahmood conquered, and the great mosque known as 



CHAP. X.] ETAWAH — ^ETAH. 169 

" Seeta's kitchen," with early Hindoo carving. From Eanai\j 
came the five chief Brahmanical Eoolin clans of Bengal proper. 
KatofifanJ (10,500), 22 m. N.W. of Fatehgarh, noted for its 
mangoes and potatoes. Shamshabad (9000), on S. bank of 
Boodhi Ganga river, 18 m. N.W. of Fatehgarh. 

§ 23. Etawah Distbict is bomided E. by Cawnpoor, N. 
by Farukhabad and Mainpoori, W. by Agra and Gwalior State, 
and S. by Jalaun. Area, 1698 sq. m. Population, 668,641. 
In this district the level Doab stretches across the Jumna 
valley to the Chambal gorges, which run up into the Vindhya. 
The portion N.E. of the Sengar is a fertile tract known as the 
Fachar^ watered by the Etawah branch of the Conges Canal. 
The opposite Trans-Chambal tract in the S., bounded by the 
Kwari, abounds in wild ravines, with scenery unsurpassed in 
the plains of India, and crowned by Bareh fort, near which, 
hence known as Panchnada or country of the five rivers, the 
Junma, Chambal, Ewari, Sind, and Pahooj unite. The Cham- 
bal is here called Shivnad (Shiva's river). Etawah was almost 
always a purely Hindoo district, though conquered by Baber 
and open^ up by his successful rival Sher Shah. After its 
cession to the British in 1801, Thuggee and the lawlessness of 
the landholders were gradually put down, and in the Mutiny of 
1857 its people were the most loyal in Hindustan ; the native 
officials kept up communication with the magistrate in Agra 
fort till Brigadier Walpole restored order. Etawah (31,000), 
pleasantly situated in ravines on left bank of Jumna, 70 m. 
S.£. of Agra, with fine square, high school, and American Pres- 
byterian Mission. This town is the Itay described, 1631 a.d., 
by the Dutch author of '^ Vera India,'' De Laet. Phaphoond 
(6500), town with Musalman fair on old mound 36 m. E. of 
Etawah. Auraiya (7000), 42 m. fi^om Etawah on Kalpi 
road; mart for Jhansi and Gwalior. Jaswantnagrar (5500), 
trading town on East Indian Railway, N.W. of Etawah. 

§ 24. Etah District is bounded E. by Farukhabad, N. by 
Budaun fix)m which it is divided by the Ganges, W. by Agra 
and Aligarh, and S. by Mainpoori. Area, 1739 sq. m. Popu- 
lation, 833,892. Ettdi has 3 natural divisions — the lowlands 
between the Biirh Ganfira and the Ganges, the Middle Doab, 
and the countiy S. of the Kali Nadi. The Lower Ganges Canal 
will complete the water supply. The valley of the Kali was 
populous in Boodhist times, and as ruled by the Musalmans 
from Kanauj or Koil, was a lawless tract when it became 
British, prospered till it was temporarily in rebel hands in 1857, 
and was restored to order by Seton's column. Utah (" place of 



170 NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCE — DISTRICTS. [CHAP. x. 

bricks ") (8500), civil headquarters on trunk road, 9 m. W. of 
the KaU ; the market-place is named Mayneganj, after a recent 
ma^trate. Kasgrcud (16,000), chief commercial town near 
the Kali, 19 m. N. of Etah, once belonging to Colonel James 
Grardner. Allganj, 34 m. from Etah on Farukhabad road ; 
agricultural town. Marahra (9500), 12 m. N. of Etah, with 
Mayabasti suburb, chiefly Muhammadan. So^ron (11,000), on 
Burh Cranga, 27 m. from Etah, an old Hindoo pilgrim centre. 
Atranji, famous mound, 15 m. S. of Soron, and 10 m. N. of Etah, 
with Brahmanical sculptures and coins, believed to have been 
visited by Hwen T'hsang. Patiali, old town mentioned in 
Mahahharaty on a mound on the old bank of the Ganges. 

§ 25. Alioarh District is bounded E. by Etah, N. by Bool- 
undsbahr, W. by Muttra from which the Jumna separates it, S. 
by Muttra and Agra. Area, 1954 sq. m. Population, 1,073,353. 
A fertile district, through which the Ganges Canal runs from N. 
to S., dividing near Akrabad into the two branches which end at 
Cawnpoor and Etawah. The Lower Ganges canal is to start from 
the Ganges at Narora on the border, cross the Kali, run down 
the Doab between the Kali and Isan, tiim the head of the Pandoo 
and keep between that river and the Arind to a point below 
Cawnpoor. The Bengar rises in Aligarh district near -the 
Adhawan lake, flows S. for 190 m. into Etawah, Mainpoori, and 
Cawnpoor districts, and faUs into the Jumna between Ealpi 
and Hameerpoor. There are several indigo factories ; grain and 
cotton also are exported. Eutab-ood-deen in 1194 first im- 
posed Islam on the Dor Rajpoots of Aligarh. On Aurang- 
zeVs death, anarchy spread first under the Marathas; then 
under the Jats, whose leader took Eoil in 1757, the year 
of Plassey ; and also under the Afghans. From Lord Lake's 
victories in 1803 prosperity prevailed till 1857, when the Euro- 
peans fled, and Musalman excesses made the Hindoos welcome 
the restoration of British order. Aligarh (60,000 with KoQ), 
civil headquarters and fort adjoining the old native city of 
Koil (where Balaram slew the demon Kol), in centre of dis- 
trict, with high site of Rigpoot stronghold, now crowned by 
Sabit Khan's mosque. Aligarh fort (740 ft.) was held by 
Perron for Sindhia, and stormed by Lake in 1803. East Indian 
Railway station, from which also the Oudh and Rohilkhand Rail- 
way diverges to Chandausi ; the other stations are (East Indian 
Railway) Somna, Pali, and Hathras ; (Oudh and Rohilkhand 
Railway) Rampoor and Raipoor. Here are the Aligarh Insti- 
tute, founded by an enlightened Musalman, and the Post Office 
workshops. HardwaffaoJ (7000), 6 m. E., a trading mart. 



OHAP. X. ] BOOLUNBSHAHR — MEERUT. 171 

Slkandra Rao (13,000), 23 m. E. of Koil on Cawnpoor road, 
near lake from which the Isan issues. Atrauli (16,000), 16 
m. from Eoil on Ramghat road to Ganges. Hathras (24,000), 
chief trading town, centrally placed 21 m. from Aligarh, 29 
from Agra, and 24 from Easganj, with railway to Muttra. 

§ 26. BooLXTNDSHAHB district is bounded E. by Budaim and 
Moradabad, from which the Granges divides it; N. by Meerut; 
W. by Delhi and Gooigaon, from which the Jumna divides it ; 
and S. by Aligarh. Area, 1918 sq. m. Population, 936,667. 
This part of the Doab, 650 ft. above the sea, is traversed by 
three main branches of the Ganges Canal, one of which divides 
into two near Sikandarabad ; from these run 626 miles of dis- 
tributing channels. Waste land has thus disappeared, except 
the barren oosar, on which is the saline efflorescence known as 
reh. The principal local streams are the Hindan and East Kali 
NadL The district has formed a part successively of the territory 
of the Pandavas from Hastinapoor (mythical), the Goopta dyn- 
asty, Mahmood of Ghazni and his successors to Bahadoor Shah 
in 1707, and the Marathas and others who ruled from Koil. 
In 1803 it became British; when in 1857 the 9th Native 
Infantry mutinied, it was for a time restored to order by volun- 
teers from Meerut, and finally rescued from Goojar and Musal- 
man chaos by Greathed's column. The East Indian Railway 
passes through the district, with stations at Dadri, Sikandara- 
bad, Chola, and Khoorja. In S.E. the Oudh and Rohilkhand 
line crosses the Ganges at R^'ghat. Boolundshahr or Baran 
(15,000), on W. side of the Eali, with the ancient Baran on the 
raised bank, where coins of Alexander and the Indo-Bactrians 
are still found ; there are Musalman tombs, and, in the new 
town, the Lowe memorial of a British- magistrate. Khooija 
(27,000), chief mart between Delhi and Hathras, 10 m. S. of 
Boolundshahr junction of Delhi and Meerut branches of trunk 
road, with new Jain temple. Anoopshahr (10,000), on W. 
bank of Ganges, a Hindoo bathing-place, where Ahmed Shah 
in 1757 operated against the Jats and Marathas. Rajghat, 9 
m. S.E., is the railway station. Sikandarabad (19,000), on 
Delhi branch of trunk road, 10 m. E. of Boolundshahr, head- 
quarters of Perron's Marathas, and Colonel James Skinner, 
after the battle of Aligarh. Here and at Boolundshahr are 
agencies of the Church Missionary Society. Indor Ehera, 8 
HL S.W. of Anoopshahr, is a very lofty mound which marks 
the site of Indrapoora, a city of the Goopta kings. 

§ 27. Meerut Distbict is bounded E. by Moradabad and 
Bynaur, from which it is separated by the Ganges ; N. by 



172 NOBTH-WBSTERN PROVINCB — ^DISTRICTS. [CHAP. Z. 

MuzaffjEunagar; W. by the Paigab districta of Panipat and Delhi, 
from which the Jumna divides it; and S. by Boolmidflhahr. 
Area, 2361 sq. m. Population, 1,276,104. This fertQe upper 
portion of the Doab is watered by the Eastern Junma Canal 
between the Jumna and Hindan, and by the Ganges Canal in 
two branches. On the Burh Ghaxi^ra^ or old bed of the Granges, 
was Haatinapoor, the legendaiy capital of the Lunar race, the 
Pandavas, described in the Mahahharat ; after that, under the 
descendants of Parikshit, as in the Vislmu Furana, Part of 
the Boodhist Asoka's empire, it was swept by Timoor, was the 
favourite resort of the Mughul Court, was held in the anarchy 
after Aurangzeb by the Luxemburg butcher and soldier of 
fortune, Walter Beinhardt, and his widow the Begam Samroo 
who died a British feudatoiy in 1836. In 1857 it was the first 
scene of the great Mutiny, which broke out on Sunday 10th May, 
when some of the 3d Bengal Cavalry refused to use the cartridges, 
and the massacre of the Europeans began. The district is 
traversed by the East Indian and Delhi and Paigab railways. 
Meerut (82,000), half-way between the Ganges and Junma on 
the trunk road, ancient dty restored to prosperity as a great 
military centre of British since 1806, with Musalman tombs and 
mosques, the Sung Eoond or monkey tomb, laige church, and 
Church, Baptist, and Roman Catholic Missions. The canton- 
ments were held all through the Mutiny by a few Europeans, 
and the surrounding country was kept in order. G-haziabad 
(8000), junction of East Indian and Delhi and Paigab railways, 
with branch to Delhi; named after its founder in 1740, the 
brother of Salabat Jung of the Dekhan. Bacrpat (8000), on 
left bank of Jumna, a sugar mart. Barot (7000), on E. bank 
of East Jumna Canal ; Shahdwara (7000), or " king's gate," 
founded by Shah Jahan, near same canal ; Hapoor, 18 m. S. of 
Meerut, and Pilkhuwa (6000), 19 m. S.W. of Meerut, purchased 
by Mr. Michel after the Mutiny, are the other municipalitieB. 
Sardhana (12,600), near Ganges Canal, 12 m. N.W. of 
Meerut, long capital of the notorious Beinhardt and Begam 
Samroo, whose private estates passed to their grandson's widow, 
only daughter of the second Viscount St. Vincent, and after- 
wards the wife of the third Baron Forester. The Begam's 
house, Roman Catholic cathedral and college, and old fort (N.) 
may be seen. G-arhxnookhteaar (8000), on right bank of 
Ganges, 4 m. below junction with Burh Ganga, ward of the 
legendaiy Hastinapoor, named from temple of goddess Ganga, 
and Brahmanical bathing centre. 

{ 28. MuzAFFAENAQAB DiSTBiOT is bounded K by Bgnaur« 



CHAP. X.] MUZAFFARNAGAR — SAHAKANPOOR. 173 

with the Ganges between ; N. by Saharanpoor ; W. by the Pan- 
jab district Kamal from which the Jumna divides it ; and S. 
by Meerut. Area, 1654 sq. m. Population, 690,107. The 
Hindan and Kali Nadi unite near the S. boundary. The 
Ganges Canal waters the uplands and sends off the Anoopshahr 
branch at Jauli village. The E. Jumna Canal waters the W. 
plateau between the Hindan and Jumna. Part of the Pan- 
dava kingdom, and then under Prithvi Rcya, the Chauhan ruler 
of Delhi, the district was held by the Barha Sayyids during 
Mughul times. The Sikhs and then the Marathas were kept 
back by the Sardhana adventiu^r, George Thomas, who restored 
the Begam Samroo. In 1854 the 4th Irregulars mutinied. 
Mozaffamafirar (11,000), on road from Meerut to Landhaur, 
and station of Delhi Railway. Shamli (9500), 24 m. W. on 
East Junma Canal, mart where Lord Lake relieved Colonel Bum 
when surrounded by a Maratha force in 1804, and a native 
official feU in 1857 fighting for British. Kandhla (11,000), 
on East Jumna Cansd, 35 m. S.W. of Muzaffamagar, an agri- 
cultural centre. Kalrana (18,000), on Jumna, 31 m. S.W. of 
Muzaffamagar, a municipality like the three previous towns. 
Jalalabad (7000), grain mart near little river Erishni, 21 m. 
N.W. of Muzaffamagar, with ruins of famous Rohilla fort, 
Ghansgarh. Thana Bhawan (7000), 18 m. N.W. of Muzaffar- 
nagar, old and decaying town whose Khazi in 1857 murdered 
113 defenders of Shamli in cold blood. Khatauli (7000), 
prosperous mart and railway station, with Jain temples, 13 
m. S. of Muzaffamagar. 

§ 29. Saharanpoor District is bounded E. and N. by By- 
naur with the Ganges between, and Dehra Doon with the Siwaliks 
between ; W. by Ambala and Eamal ; and S. by Muzaffamagar. 
Area, 2221 sq. m. Population, 884,017. The most N. district 
of the Doab in which the East Jumna and G-ancres Canals 
begin at the base of Siwalik Hills. The former, planned 
originally by Shah Jahan's mimster, Ali Murdan Khan, flowed 
for only one season, and was reconstracted by Sir P. Cautley, 
RE., who designed the great Ganges Canal opened under the 
Marquis of Dalhousie in 1854. The history of the district is 
that of Muzaffamagar, save that a Goojar revolt threatened in 
1824, and there was a slight outbreak in 1857. Saharan- 
poor (45,000), on Damaula Nadi, headquarters of Jumna Canal, 
railway terminus for hill station of Mussooree, and junction of 
Delhi and Gudh railways. Here is a fine Botanic Garden, where 
early experiments were made in tea and cinchona culture. Seat 
of American Presbyterian Mission. Deoband (20,000), near E. 



174 NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCE — DISTRICTS. [CHAP. X. 

Kali Nadi, with Devikoond lake, a centre of Hindoo pilgrimage 
and many mosques ; here the Pandavas passed their first exile. 
Hardwcu: (Hari-dwara = " Vishnoo's gate," or Hara-dwara = 
"Shiva's gate"), 39 m. N.E. of Saharanpoor, on right bank of 
Ganges, where it debouches through the gorge of the Siwalika, 
most frequented of aU Hindoo places of pilgrimage, and frequently 
a point whence cholera is carried over N. India. Every twelfth 
year, when Jupiter is in Aquarius, the Kumhh-mela attracts the 
third of a million, but of old as many as 3 millions. Here is 
the head of the Ganges CanaL Here the sage KapQa lived, and, 
in the 7th century A.D., Hwen T'hsang visited a Boodhist city 
3| m. in circumference. Boorkee (11,000), on ridge above 
the Solani, 22 m. E. of Saharanpoor, headquarters of Ganges 
Canal establishments, with Thomason Civil Engineering College, 
observatory, cantonment. Propagation Society's and American 
Missions. Gangoh (11,000), 23 m. S.W. of Saharanpoor; 
Manglaur (9000), 16 m. S.E. of Saharanpoor; Jawalapoor, 14 
m. N.E. of Roorkee, with which it forms a municipal union ; 
Rampoor (8500), 14 m. S. of Saharanpoor. 

§ 30. Dehra Doon ( = Valley) District is bounded K 
and N. by G^hwal, from which the Ganges divides it, and 
Gkurhwal State ; W. by Sirmoor and Ambala ; and S. by Saha- 
ranpoor. Area, 1193 sq. m. Population, 116,945. This 
lovely and cool series of vsdleys, between the SiwaUk (Shiva's) 
Hills and the Himalaya, consist of (1) the Doon proper, divided 
by ridge from I^jpoor to Mohun pass, into the Eastern Doon, 
which slopes to the Ganges and the Western Doon to the 
Jumna ; and (2) Jounsar Ba^wBr, a mass of rocks between 
the Tons on the W. and the Jumna on the E. and S. Nuwada 
or Nagsidh, the only isolated hill, is 5 m S.E. of Dehra, where 
the Garhwal viceroys resided. The passes from the plains are 
the Mohund or Eheree, equidistant between the Ganges and 
Jumna, and the Timlee 7 m. E. of the Jumna. The Ghangres 
enters the Doon at Tupoban, 165 m. from its source, and falls 
23 ft. a mile to Hardwar, 15 m. below, at an elevation of 1024 
ft., with a discharge of 7000-8000 ft. in the dry seaaon. The 
Jumna, sweeping roimd Budrsyj mountain, enters the valley 110 
m. from its source, falls 19 ft. a mile to the plains 21 m. a:nray, 
and debouches 3 m. above Badshahmahal in Saharanpoor, old 
hunting seat of Delhi emperors, with a discharge of 4000 ft. 
The Sooswa and Asun torrents, rising near Bheem Tal, catch 
the moimtain drainage, flow E. and W. respectively ; the former 
receiving the Son from behind the spur of Kalanga, famous 
in the Goorkha War, falls into the Ganges ; the latter, receiving 



CHAP. X.] DEHRA BOON — GARHWAL. 175 

the Tons, falls into the Jumna. The district is the legendary 
Kedarkoond or residence of Shiva, the retreat of Rama, and 
the route of the Pandayas to their immolation on the peak of 
Maha Panth. At Haripqor, on right bank of Junma, is the 
Ealai stone with Asoka's edict, believed to mark off Ind^a from 
China. Ba^jara traders first settled in 1 1 th century in the valley, 
which was held successively by (xarhwal, the RohiUaa imder the 
good Nigeeb Khan, and the Goorkhas, from whom the British 
conquered it in 1 8 1 5. In 1 85 7 some Jalandhar insurgents passed 
through the district, but peace was not disturbed. The American 
Presbjrterian Mission has successfully conducted missionary and 
educational work. European landholders pay one-fourth of the 
whole land-tax, and the population haa increased fourfold under 
British rule. Dehra (7500) (2323 ft.), chief town, with fine 
Mission Schools ; Ram Rae's temple, designed after Jahangeer's 
tomb, and a petrifying spring known as the Suhusra Dh&ra 
("place of the thousand drippings"), worshipped by Hindoos. 
Azmfleld, agricultural colony, established in 1857 by Church 
Missionary Society. Mussooree (Mansooree) (7433 ft.), sani- 
tarium on lower range of same name, where the Himalaya bends 
ba^k to enclose the Boon in an immense amphitheatre ; in the 
season the population rises to 8000. Landhaur (7459 ft.), 
forming municipality with Mussooree ; convalescent miUtaiy 
depot since 1827, with many Christian institutions. There are 
300 permanent European residents in the joint sanitaria. Kalsi, 
old mart of Jounsar Bawar. Ohakrata, in same hill tract, a 
cantonment since 1859, reached from EaJsi. 

§ 31. Gabhwal District, so named from the " forts " of 52 
petty chiefs, is bounded E. by Kumaun, N. by Chinese Tibet, 
W. by Garhwal State and Dehra Doon, and S. by B^jnaur. 
Area (estimated), 55^00 sq. m. Population, 310,288. The 
district consists of the confused outliers of the main range of 
the Himalaya, rising into mighty peaks, and separated by 
ravines, of which Srinagar is the broadest. The waterless forest 
known as bkabar separates the base of the hills from the plains 
of Rohilkhand. The Mana (18,000 ft.) tod Niti (16,570 ft.) 
passes lead through the valleys of the Saraswati and Dhauli into 
the Nari E^horsoom Province of China. Here the Gaufiree 
rises from two main sources, the Alaknanda and Bha^rirathi, 
which unite at Deo Prayag, the most sacred spot of pilgrimage 
for Hindoos. The Ramganga rises near Lobha, flows through 
the district, and reaches the Ganges in Farukhabad district. In 
the 14th century Ajai Pal, first of the Chand dynasty, founded 
the Garhwal kingdom at Srinagar, on the Alaknanda^ where 



176 KORTH-WESTERN PROVIXCB — DISTBICIS. [CHAP. X. 

the niinB of Ms palace are yisible. In 1803 the Goorkhaa 
introduced the merciless role of Nepal, and in 1815 the British 
brought in peace and prosperity. Panii, the administratire 
headquarters, aboTe the valley of Srinagar. Badiinatli and 
Kedamath, the great Hindoo temples, are in the snowy range 
in the extreme N.W. At Chapra, near Pauri, there is a Chris- 
tian mission. Sheep and goats from the Paigab State of 
Chamba carry the trade over the Niti (125 m. from Srinagar) 
and Mana passes. The nearest railway station is Saharanpoor, 
100 m. S.W. 

$ 32. *Teh&i-6abhwal State is bounded K and S. by the 
AlsJmanda, separating it from Garhwal district ; N. by Tibet ; 
and W. by Dehra Doon. Area, 4180 sq. m. Population, 
200,523. The State is formed of lofty ranges, and Taluable 
deodar tracts, draining into the Ganges. The British restored 
the Raja aft«r the Croorkha War in 1815, and he did good ser- 
vice in the Mutiny; his revenue is £11,300 a year. Tehri 
(4500 ft.), which sometimes gives its name to the State, is the 
capital towards the south. There are dvil courts at Dehprag 
and Rowai also. The B^ja pays no tribute, but is bound to 
give a passage to troops and assist the Paramount Power. 
Saharanpoor is the nearest railway station. 

§ 33. KuMAUN District is bounded £. by Nepal, N. by 
Nari Khorsoom Province of Tibet, W. by Garhwal, and S. by 
Moradabad and Pilibbeet. Area, 6000 sq. m. Population, 
433,314. The hUl ranges run £. and W. and rise in elevation 
towards the N., till they culminate in 30 lofty peaks above 
18,000 ft., within a tract of 140 m. long and 40 broad. The 
principal are — the Trisool, or trident mountain (23,382 ft.), 
on the border of Garhwal ; Nanda-devl (25,700 ft.), to the 
N.E.; Nandakot ("Nanda's couch"), 22,538 ft.; Panichoola 
Peaks (22,673 ft.), farther E. From the Tibetan watershed 
beyond the rivers work their way down deep valleys ; the 
principal are the Kali, Sarda or Gogra, which joins the 
Ganges in Bengal; its affluents, the K Dhauli Goonka, 
Goriganga, E. Bamganga, and Saijoo ; and the Pindar and Eali- 
ganga, which join the Alaknanda. The principal lakes are 
Naini Tal (4703 by 1518 ft), Bheem Tal (4580 by 1490 ft.), 
Mankuchiya (3120 by 2270 ft.), Malwa Tal (5480 by 1833 ft.). 
The chief river plateaux are Sameswar and Hawalba^h on 
the Eosi, Katyoor on the Gaomati, and Pali watered by the 
Gagas and W. Bamganga. The south of the district consists 
of bhabar forest, tmder which the drainage finds its way to the 
tarai. This forest has been extensively cleared by the natives. 



CHAP. X.] KUMAUN — TARAI — RAMPOOR. 177 

There are many European tea gardens, which export into 
Central Asia. Oranges and potatoes, limestone, iron, and copper 
add to the wealth of the district, the prosperity of which has 
been identified with the long administration of the Commissioner, 
Sir Henry Ramsay. The history is the same as that of Garh- 
waL Alxnora (5494 ft., 6600 pop.), chief town on crest of 
a ridge, and stronghold captured in 1815 by Colonel Nicholls. 
Naini Tal (6409 ft., 6000 pop.), European sanitarium, 
beautifully situated on lake of same name, and hot weather 
headquarters of North-Western Province Government. Here a 
disastrous landslip occurred in 1880. Raoiikliet (5958 ft.), 
military sanitarium, with much level land, and easily accessible. 
Pithoragarh, Lohaghat, and Charal are level uplands. Cham- 
phanat village is the ruined capital of the Chand ngas. 
Ranmagar is a mart on the EosL The London Missionaiy 
Society has a station at Almora and Ranikhet, and the Ameri- 
can Methodist Episcopal Church at Naini Tal 

§ 34. Tabai Distbict ("moist" land) is bounded E. by 
Pilibheet and Nepal, N. by Eumaim, W. by B\jnaur, and S. by 
Bareli, Moradabad, and Rampoor States. Area, 920 sq. m. 
Population, 185,658. From the line where the springs burst 
from under the bhabar forest at the foot of the hiUs, the dis- 
trict slopes down S.S.E., with an average breadth of 12 m. and 
length of 90 m. The streams drain into the Ramganga ; the 
principal are the Deoha^ which is navigable at Pilibheet; the 
Saniha, which joins the Sarda; the Sookhi ("dry"), which 
imites with the Bahgul to form^ part of the canal system ; the 
flooded Eichaha or Ganla of the hills, and the Paha, Bhakra, 
Bhaur, and Dabka, between it and the KosL The Phika is 
the W. boundary. The district prospered only when Maratha 
and Rohilla conflicts drove the people of the south to its prairie 
lands. The resident tribes, the Tharoos and Bhooksas, ascribe 
their freedom from malarious diseases to their consumption of wild 
pigs and deer. The European officials reside at Naini Tal from 
May to November. The only towns are Kasipoor (13,500), 
31 m. from Moradabad, station of transit trade from Tibet 
and Eumaun to plains, and of Hindoo pilgrims on way to 
Badrinath : the old Aryan city of Drona, hero of MahahharcU, 
and capital of the Gtovisana kingdom, and Jaspoor (7000), a 
small town. 

§ 35. * Rampoor State (Musalman) is bounded E. and S. by 
Bareli, N. by Tarai, and W. by Moradabad. Area, 945 sq. m. 
Population, 543,901. The State is famous for the damask known 
as kkes. The plain Rampoor chadars or shawls are from Ram* 

N 



178 NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCE — ^DISTRICTS. [CHAP. X. 

poor, N.E. of Simla. It is trayersed by the imperial road from 
the capital to Bareli and Moradabad. It is watered in the N. 
by the Kosila and Nahool, and in the S. by the Ramganga, 
after receiving the Kosila. The Nawab, with £158,657 a year, 
represents two Rohilla Afghan brothers who, in the Nth century, 
settled here in the service of the Delhi emperors. Maratha raids 
drove the family to seek the aid of the Oudh viceroys. The State 
having fallen under British guarantee, Warren Hastings assisted 
the Oudh viceroy to seat the rightful heir, defeating the usurper 
at Futtehgaivj, near Bareli, " but not before a Highland regiment 
had been almost cut to pieces by the Rohilla horse. A monu- 
ment on the field commemorates the British loss, and the 
puppetHshows of Bareli still exhibit the slaughter of the flying 
redcoats by the cavahy of the Nawab."^ In 1857 the present 
chiefs father was most actively loyal. Bampoor (75,000), 
capital on left bank of Kosila, with lofty mosque, densely 
crowded streets, and tomb of Faiz-ooUa Khan to N. Badli 
Tanda (12,000), a trading centre. Shahabad (8200) and 
Dhukia are famed for their sugar. Bilaspoor, Kaimri, and 
Nagulia Akal are rice marts trading with Delhi, which 
supplies goats for food. The State is politically under the 
Commissioner of Rohilkhand. 

§ 36. BuNAUR District, nmning up between the Ganges 
and Sub- Himalaya, is bounded on N.E. by Garhwal; on 
N.W. by Dehra, Saharanpoor, Muzaffamagar, and Meerut ; and 
S., by Moradabad and Tarai Area, 1869 sq. m. Population, 
737,153. On N. the Siwalik range of Dehra throws out the 
low Ohandi hills, with good sport. The fertile open upland 
is intersected in N. by many torrents between the hills and the 
Ganges. Famous in Boodhist times, B\jnaur was devastated 
by Timoor, and became involved in the histozy of the Rohillas, 
who concluded the treaty with the viceroys of Oudh at Lai 
Dhang in 1774 in this district. At A&algarh in 1803, Colonel 
Skinner defeated Ameer Khan of Tonk. In 1857-8 the 
mutinous Roorkee Sappers passed through, the Nawab of Nigee- 
babad held sway for a time, though attacked by the Hindoos, and 
the rebels were defeated at Nageena. Bynaur produces the 
best sugar in India. BUnaur (13,000), 3 m. £. of Ganges, 
headquarters of the Jats ; seat of American Methodist Mission. 
Six m. S. is Daranagar, great bathing fair on the Ganges. 
Oh€Uidpoor (12,500), Musabnan town, 19 m. S. of B^jnaur, 
with fine old mosque. Dhaxnpoor (7000), 22 m. S. of 

1 Memoranda prepared for the Information of H.R.H. the Prinoe of 
Wales during hia viait to India. 



CHAP. X.] MORADABAD — BUDAUN. 179 

Bijnaur, on road from Moradabad to Hardwar. Nagreena 
(20,000), on same road, 38 m. N. W. of Moradabad, with Pathan 
fort, now a public office. Parasnath ruins are near, 6 m. in 
extent. Najeebabad (18,000), on the Malin, 31 m. S.E. of 
Hardwar, named after the Nawab who, in 1755, built Pathar- 
garh fort, 1 m. £., and the tomb and palace in the town; 
a centre of the timber trade. Mandawar (7700), 8 m. N. 
of B\jnaur, a great Boodhist city in 7th century, now seat of 
papier-machd manufacture. 

§ 37. Moradabad District is bounded E. by Rampoor 
State, N. by B\jnaur and Tarai, W. by Meerut and Boolund- 
shahr, and S. by Budaun. Area, 2282 sq. m. Population, 
1,122,437. Part of the great Gangetic plain, Moradabad is 
watered by the Ramganga and Sot ; its many shallow lakes 
are utilised for irrigation. After Aheer and Boodhist times 
it was under the Jaunpoor stdtans, tUl made a fief of Delhi by 
the Emperor Sikandar Lodi, who resided at Sambhal, then 
its capital Like Bareli, it became the scene of the Oudh and 
British conflicts with the Rohillas. In 1857 the 29th Native 
Infantry mutinied and the Europeans found refuge at Meerut. 
The brigade of General Jones restored order. Moradabad 
(63,000, half Hindoos and half Musalmans), railway station 
on right bank of Ramganga, 10 m. from Rampoor border, 
named after son of Emperor Shah Jahan, with fort overhanging 
river, mosque, and tomb. Saxnbhal (47,000), 22 m. S.W. 
of Moradabad on Aligarh road, and 4 m. W. of Sot river ; 
long a Musalman capital, on moimds of which the modem 
town stands. Axnroha (35,000), old Musalman town 20 
m. N. of Moradabad, on road between Bijnaur and Muzafifar- 
nagar. Ohandaiisi (24,000) railway station 28 m. S. of 
Moradabad, junction for Aligarh, sugar mart with lime deposits. 
Dhcuiaura (5500), agricultural town and sugar mart 33 m. 
W. of Moradabad The Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway crosses 
the district with stations at Moradabad, Kharakpoor, Kundharki, 
Bilari, and Chandausi, from which the Aligarh branch diverges 
with stations at Bajhoi and Dhanari. 

§ 38. Budaun District is bounded E. by Shaly ahanpoor ; 
N.E. by Bareli and Rampoor States; N.W. by Moradabad; 
S.W. by Boolundshahr, Aligarh, Etah, and Farukhabad. Area, 
1986 sq. m. Population, 935,856. Budaun is enclosed be- 
tween the Gkinges and Ramganga, and divided into two by the 
Sot. The other principal rivers from E. to W. are the Undhari, 
Areel, Mahawa, Choiya, and Nakta. In N.E., between the Sot 
and Ramganga, was the great forest which defied the Mughul 



180 NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCE — DISTRICTS. [CHAP. X. 

armies ; the jungles are still dense. Budaun, named after an 
Aheer prince Budh, gave two early emperors to Delhi, shared 
the fortunes of the Bareli district, was the scene of Hindoo and 
Musalman conflicts in the Mutiny, and was swept by Sir Hope 
Grant and the columns of Coke and Wilkinson. Budaun 
(34,000), picturesquely placed on banks of the Sot, with old 
fort, and fine mosque originally a Hindoo temple. Bilsl (5500), 
13 m. N.W. of Budaun, principal mart; Eakora fair is near. 
Ujhani (8000), 8 m. S.W. of Budaun on Etah road, fine market 
town. Sahaswan (17,000), near Ganges, large town with 
site of old fort. 

§ 39. Babeli District (Bans or "bamboo" Bareli, to 
distinguish it firom Rai Bareli in Oudh) is bounded £. by 
Shahjahanpoor and Pilibheet, N. by Tarai, W. by Rampoor 
State and Budaun, and S. by Budaun and ShsJijahanpoor. 
Area, 1621 sq. m. Population, 1,023,186. The district is 
a level plain just below the slopes of the Himalaya, covered 
with groves, and watered by the Ramganga and Deoha rivers ; 
the latter, rising in the Eumaun hills, is surcharged with Hme, 
deposited in stalactites, which are an article of trade. The 
other streams are the Baigul, Nakatia, Dioramian, Sanka, Sidha, 
Dojoro, Eicha, and Areel, used for irrigatjpn, and the inunda- 
tions of which fertilise the soil. Bareli city is the great Ro- 
hilla capital of the whole country E. of the Ganges, now called 
Rohilkhand, but formerly Kather, a name restricted to the 
country E. of the Ramganga, where the Muhammadans made 
Budaun and Sambhal separate governments. The tract was 
occupied by civilised Aryans till the 11th century, when the hill 
and forest races — Aheers, Bheels, and Bhars — drove them out. 
When the Mughul empire broke up on AurangzeVs death in 
1707, AH Muhammad Ehan, a Rohilla Afghan, seized all 
Eather, the Rohillas fought with the Oudh viceroys aided by 
Warren Hastings, and ended by keeping only Rampoor State, 
under British influence. Mr. Henry Wellesley, the Governor- 
General's brother, was first President of Board of Commissioners 
at Bareli, when, in 1801, Rohilkhand was ceded with Allahabad 
and Eorah in place of tribute. In 1857 the district and city 
were the last stronghold of the rebel leaders, who were driven 
into Oudh and Nepal on 7th May 1858. Bareli (105,000), on 
Ramganga, 96 m. above confluence with Ganges, 152 m. E. of 
Delhi, and 788 m. N.W. of Calcutta. Of the population there 
are almost as many Muhammadans as Hindoos. Founded by 
Barel (whence its name) Deo and Bas Deo in 1557, long a 
frontier stronghold of Mughul power ; ruins of Barel Deo's fort 



OHAP. X.] BABELI — BILIBHEET — SHAHJAHANPOOR 181 

in old town ; modem fort overlooks cantonments. Head- 
quartera of Rohilkhand Division and station of the American 
MetHodist Mission. Aonla.^ 1,000), old town and railway 
station, 16 m. S.W. of Bareli, on a branch of the Areel, with 
fine tomb of Ali Muhammad, the Rohilla leader who died in 
1751. Fateb^raiaJ Ea43t, railway station 23 m. S.E. of Bareli, 
founded by Oudh viceroy, Shooja-ood-Doula, to conmiemorate 
British victory of 1774, by which he gained Rohilkhand. 
'F&tehsBiii "West ("mart of victory"), village 12 m. N.W. 
of Bareli, scene of British victory in 1796, with monuments 
marking the graves of East India Company's troops, and of two 
Rohilla chiefs. Bisalpoor (9500), municipal town, 3 m. E. 
of Deoha^ and 24 E. of Bareli. Ramnagar or Ahichatra (2700), 
old capital, with great fort, Boodhist topes, and Jain temple, 8 
m. from Aonla, mentioned in the Mahabharat as capital of 
north Panchala. 

§ 40. PiLiBHEET DiSTBiCT is bouudcd E. by Oudh district 
of Kheri and Nepal from which the Sarda divides it, N. by 
Tarai, W. by Bareli, and S. by Sha^jahanpoor. Area, 1350 
sq. HL Population, 483,953. The district, like Bareli, is 
watered by the Deoha and its afiSuents, of which the Kakra 
from Tarai is the largest. The Mala to the £. is a morass 
rather than a river, and is called Katna in its lower course. 
PiUbheet (30,000), on the Deoha, where the Kakra joms it, 
the two making the town an island when it was fortified. 
Famous for the fine white rice from Eumaun, which bears its 
name, and as a mart for the forest produce of Tarai and the 
hills. Jahanabad, village 27 m. N.E. of Bareli, and forming 
the ancient mound of Balarkhera, which covers an area of 
1200 sq. ft. 

§ 41. Shahjahanpoob District is bounded E. by Oudh dis- 
tricts of Hardoi and Kheri, N. by Bareli, W. by Bareli and 
Badaun, and S. by Farukhabad. Area, 1744 sq. m. Popula- 
tion, 949,579. The district, running up from the Granges to- 
wards the Himalaya, is watered by the Goomti, the Ehanaut 
which fidls into the Deoha below Shahjahanpoor town, the 
Garai and the Ramganga, which last is the main waterway 
navigable to Kola Ghat, whence grain is shipped to the Ganges 
marts. The district was long the debatable ground between 
Oudh and Rohilkhand, inclining to the former. In 1857 the 
Europeans were attacked when in church, three were shot down, 
and the rest, aided by 100 faithful sepoys, escaped. Lord Clyde's 
force stopped the anarchy in April 1858. Shal^atianpoor 
(73,000), on left bank of the Deoha, founded during the 



182 NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCE — DISTRICTS. [CHAP. X. 

reign of the emperor whose name it bears. Adjoining is 
Rosa sugar and rum factory. Tilhar (5500), 14 m. W. of 
Shal^jahanpoor railway station, and local entrepot. Pawayan 
(6500), 17 m. N. of Shahjahanpoor. Jalalabad (7500), 
mart opposite Kola Ghat, head of navigation of Ramganga. 
Miranpoor Katra (6700), railway station 20 m. £. of 
Shahjahanpoor, where, in 1774, the British defeated the 
Rohillas. 



CHAPTER XL 

OTTDH SECTION OP N0KTH-WE8TERN PROVINOB — DISTRICTS. 

§ 1. Lucknow City. § 2. Lucknow District. § 3. Barabanki. § 4. 
Unao. § 5. Rai BarelL § 6. Sultanpoor. § 7. Partabgarh. 
§ 8. Faizabad. § 9. Gonda. § 10. Bahraich. § 11. Kheri. 
§ 12. Seetapoor. § IS. Hardoi. 

§ 1. Lucknow City (261,485), capital after 1732 of the Per- 
sian soldier Saadat Khan, and the viceroys and kings of Oudh 
tai 1856, then of a British Province till 1877, and now chief 
city of the Oudh section of the North-Western Province, called 
after Lakshman, half-brother and constant companion of Rama^ 
whose capital of Ayodhya was fabled to have reached so far. 
The modem city covers the sites of 64 villages, an area now of 
13 sq. UL, the centre of which was Lakshmanpoor on the high 
ground topped by a mosque, and still known as Lakshman Tela 
(hill). Under the dissolute court of the Persian Sheeas during 
the disintegration of the Mughul empire, and even from the 
British victory of Buxar in 1764 down to annexation in 1856, 
the city grew in population, wealth, and luxury, till it contained 
nearly half a million of inhabitants. The Mutiny and the pure 
administration of British officials have resulted in giving its 
quarter of a million of citizens the advantages of education, 
science, and honest work. Luckncw is still the fifth city in 
the Indian Empire as to population, coming next after Calcutta, 
Bombay, Madras, and Haidarabad. The city lies on the 
west bank of the Goomti, with suburbs on the E., spanned by 
four bridges. It is, by railway, 42 m. from Cawnpoor, 80 from 
Faizabad, 104 frx)m Shahjahanpoor, 199 from Benares, and 610 
fit>m Calcutta. It is 403 ft. above the sea. From the Machi 
Bhawan fort, inclosing Lakshman's hiU, three military roads 
radiate through the city, and three branch out, one across the 
Goomti, and two along its banks. The abundance of ckunam 
plaster, made from shells found in old lake-beds, gives a beauty 
to the buildings which in design are architectur^y base even 



184 OUDH SECTION, N.W. PROVINCE — DISTRICTS. [CHAP. XI. 

to vulgarity, but the totU ensemble is attractive at a distance. 
The whole is now redeemed by the greatest ornament of the 
city, the picturesque eminence which is crowned by the Resi- 
dency with its memorial cross, and was held by the immortal 
garrison during the weary hot months of 1857, where Henry 
Lawrence and 2000 heroic men and women lie. "A magnifi- 
cent banyan tree, the lofty tower and stately walls of the Resi- 
dency covered with moon creepers and dense cloaks of dark 
foliage, rise grandly above the numerous ruins, interspersed 
with shrubbery, and bright with roses and oleanders. Near at 
hand is an artificial mound, whose sides are gay with parterres 
of flowers; and behind, half-hidden by groups of gigantic 
bamboos, their lofty heads feathering down almost to the 
ground, lies the graveyard,'' with its precious dust over which 
cypresses wave. Henry Lawrence died in the house built for 
Colonel Bailey's guard, close to the gate of the Residency en- 
closure, which the siege made famous as the Bailey-guard gate. 
Other sacred spots, marked by monuments, are that in front of 
the old Observatory called Tarawalli Kothi, where two parties of 
English women and other victims of the revolt were massacred, 
and their Hindoo and Muhanmiadan murderers were afterwards 
executed ; the place where General Keill fell, advancing to the 
relief of the Garrison ; the tomb of Havelock in the Alambagh 
garden on the Cawnpoor road. The principal Musalman build- 
ings are the two mosques, the imambara, the four tombs — 
especially that of Haidar, and the Chatar Manzil and Kaisar 
Bagh palaces, the latter of which cost £800,000, and is partly 
in ruins though made over to the Oudh nobles. The Canning 
College, the Martini^re (for Eurasians), the Church and Ameri- 
can Methodist Mission Schools, a convent for girls, and other 
schools supply education. Brocade in all its varieties, shawls, 
shoes, jewellery, glass, and clay moulding are the principal 
native manufactures, but they have declined since the court 
was driven out. The traffic of Oudh flows south through Luck- 
now £rom Bahramghat and Faizabad to Cawnpoor. The can- 
tonments, covering nearly 12 sq. m., lie to the east of the old 
canal ; the British troops generally consist of 3 battalions, 1 
cavaliy and 2 infantry regiments. 

§ 2. LucKNOw District is bounded E. by Barabanki, N. 
by Seetapoor and Hardoi, W. by Unao, and S. by Rai Bareli 
Area, 979 sq. m. Population, 778,195. The Goomti, entering 
from N., passes the capital E. into Barabanki, and receives the 
Barta and Loni streams on its right bank. The Sed, forming 
the S.W. boundary, runs parallel with the Goomti and receives 



CHAP. XL] LUCKNOW — BARABANKI — UNAO. 185 

the Nagwa and Bauk Btreams. Lucknow is a fertile level dis- 
trict of small proprietors. The Bhars, Passees, and other abori- 
gines were oyemin by Rajpoots and the Muhammadan settlers. 
It is well opened up by three lines of the Oudh and Rohil- 
khand railway system, extending for 52 miles. Besides Luck- 
now city only 3 towns contain more than 5000 inhabitants. 
Kakori (8600), old town 9 m. W. of Lucknow, the birthplace 
of several distinguished Musalman officials ; with many tombs. 
Malihabad (8000), railway station, on Lucknow and Sandeela 
road, the families of which used to supply landholders with 
Afghan retainers. Amethl Dun^rar (7000), old weaving 
town 17 m. on road from Lucknow to Seetapoor. 

§ 3. Bababakki District is bounded E. by Faizabad, N. 
by Seetapoor, W. by Lucknow, and S. by Rai Bareli and 
Sultanpoor. Area, 1768 sq. m. Population, 1,113,430. The 
district slopes gently seaward to S.E. with lateral inclinations to 
its main rivers the Gogra and (joomti. The Crogra is known 
as the Chauka till it meets the Sarjoo at Bahrtunghat. The 
Kalyani is the main affluent of the €k)omti, draining several 
shallow lakes; between the two lies the most fertile tract. 
Traces of Naga or serpent and Boodhist worship are found, then 
of Rajpoot supremacy. At Satrikh, 5 m. S.E. of Barabanki 
town, the Mui^dmans first permanently settled in Oudh. The 
land was always turbulent, especially in the ravines with their 
strongholds along the Gbomti and Kalyani. All the land- 
holders joined the mutineers in 1857, and they sheltered the 
ex-Queen of Oudh. Nawabgrai^-Baxabanki ( 1 4,000), 17 m. 
E. of Lucknow on road to Faizabad, with the stream Jamuriha 
between the native town Nawabgaig and civil and railway 
station Barabanki. At Nawabgaiy Sir* Hope Grant signally 
defeated the insurgents in 1857 ; the victor wrote, " I never 
witnessed anything more magnificent than the conduct of these 
zameendars," the Raikwar Ris^poots of Seetapoor and Bahraich. 
RudauU (12,000), thriving mart 37 m. S.E, of Nawabganj. 
Zaidpoor (11,000), with cloth manufactures. Fatehpoor 
(7500), 14 m. N.E. of Nawabganj, an important place in 
Musalman days, and still a mart at the junction of four prin- 
cipal roads. Daryabad (5000), 24 m. east of Nawabgaiy 
on road from Lucknow to Faizabad, the former headquarters of 
the district. 

§ 4. Unao District is bounded E. by Lucknow, N. by 
Hardoi, S.W. by Cawnpoor and Fatehpoor from which it is 
divided by the Ganges, and S.E. by Rai Bareli. Area, 1768 
sq. m. Population, 945,955. This densely peopled tract is 



186 OUDH SECTION, N.W. PROVINCaB — DISTRICTS. [CHAP. xi. 

watered by the Sai and Ealyani streaniB firom Hardoi, and by 
the Tinai and Loni, all drsdning into the navigable Cranges. 
The Riypoots who supplanted the Bhars and Aheers are of two 
classes, those who accepted Musabnan service and those who 
had fled from Upper India after defeat. The first Musabnan 
invader was the nephew of Mahmood of Ghazni, Salar Masaood, 
the graves of whose followers in his disastrous march are still 
pointed out in the district. In July-August 1857 Havelock's 
small force of 1500 men, of whom 300 were Sikhs, with 10 
guns imperfectly equipped and manned, fought several severe 
battles on his march from Cawnpoor to the relief of the Luck- 
now garrison, especially at IJnao and TJaBhlratgacj ; his for- 
tified camp was at Mangalwar, 6 miles from the Ganges at 
Cawnpoor. Unao (5500), chief town and railway station 9 m. 
N.K of Cawnpoor, where Havelock gained his first victory on 
29th July 1857. Saflpoor (6750), 17 m. N.W. of Unao, 
on road to Hardoi. In 1425 the place was taken by the Zaidi 
Sayyids of Wasia, from whom the most important £Eimilies in 
Upper India^ the Barhah and Bilgram Sayyids, are descended. 
Baojarmau (8000), on same road, 31 m. from Unao, with 
16 mosques; the ruins of old Hindoo village Newar are near. 
Purwa (10,000), 20 m. S.E. of Unao, formerly chief town, 
noted for shoe and leather work. Mauranwan (8000), 6 m. 
from Purwa, noted for jewellery and carpentry work. 

§ 5. Rai Bareli District is bounded E. by Partabgarh 
and Sultanpoor, N. by Barabanki and Lucknow, W. by Unao, 
and S.W. by Fatehpoor from which the Ganges separates it. 
Area, 1740 sq. m. Population, 989,008. Named after the 
Bhars (Bharauli), this is one of the most beautifrdly wooded 
and fertile parts of the plain of Hindustan. It is divided into 
zones between the Ganges and Goomti by the Sai and the Loni. 
Brahmans form the bulk of the population. Bai Bareli 
(12,000), chief town on Sai, 48 m. S.E. of Lucknow, with 
suburb of Jahanabad. Here are the five forts of Ibrahim 
Shark! of Jaunpoor, who conquered the Bhars ; the palace and 
tomb of Jahan Khan, Aurangzeb's governor, and four mosques, 
of which one is said to be a reproduction of that of the Kaaba 
at Mecca ; the American Methodists have a mission here, as at 
other large towns in Oudh. Jais (12,000), old Musabnan 
town, 36 m. from Sultanpoor, picturesquely built in mango 
groves. Dalxuan (6000), on right bank of Ganges, 16 m. S. 
of Rai Bareli, where Musalmans destroyed the Bhars. Salon 
(5000), decaying town on road to Partabgarh, in groves of 
mangoes and palms. 



CHAP. XI.] SULTANPOOR — ^PARTABGARH — FAIZABAD. 187 

§ 6. SuLTANPOOR District is bounded E. by Jaunpoor, N. 
by Faizabad, W. by Rai Bareli, and S. by Partabgarh. Area, 
1707 sq. m. Population, 1,040,227. A level land cut by 
ravines and watered by the Qoomti and Sai. The main streams 
are the Khandu, Pili, Tengha, and Nandhia. The Bhars gave 
place to the Musalmans successively of the Ghori, Jaunpoor, and 
Mughtd houses, and the Nawab Wazeers of Oudh. In 1857 
three sepoy corps murdered some of their officers. Sultanpoor 
(6000), on right bank of Goomti, opposite site of Eusapoora, 
founded by Eoosa, son of Rama, razed to the ground in Mutiny, 
then a cantonment, and now civil headquarters only. Per- 
kinssranj (5000), named after first deputy commissioner, a 
rising mart near right bank of Goomti. Aznethl, S.W. from 
Sultanpoor, residence and fort of the Rsga Madho Singh, who 
saved Europeans in 1857. The Ri^'a Ib head of the Bandal- 
ghoti solar clan, which occupies 299 sq. m. Of the population 
of 538 to the mile so many as 17 per cent are Brahmans. 

§ 7. Partabgarh District is bounded E. and S. by Jaun- 
poor, N. by Rai Bareli and Sultanpoor, and W. by Allaha- 
bad. Area, 1434 sq. m. Population, 784,156. The Sai flows 
through the district, receiving small tributaries, and is navigable 
in the rains. The Ganges marks its W. and the Goomti touches 
its E. border. Bela (3000) and M'AndrewfiraiiJ, civil head- 
quarters, on road from Allahabad to Faizabad, with bridge 
over the Sai. Partabgarh (12,000 in municipality), 4 m. S. 
of Bela, with fort of its founder in 1617, Rc^a Partab Singh. 
Manikpoor, old ruined town, with historic associations, in 
groves on N. bank of Ganges ; famous for residence of nobility 
from Akbar and Aurangzeb. 

§ 8. Faizabad District is bounded E. by Gbrakhpoor, N. 
by Basti and .Gonda from which it is divided by the Gogra, W. 
by Barabanki, and S. by Sultanpoor and Azamgarh. Area, 1688 
sq. m. Popidation, 1,024,652. The Gogra, which forms the 
N. border for 95 m., is navigable even by steamers. The other 
rivers are the Bisoi and Madha, forming the Tons, and the 
M%jhoi, which divides Faizabad from Sultanpoor. The Tons is 
navigable in the rains to Akbarpoor by 5-ton boats. The dis- 
trict is well watered, most fertile, and densely peopled. It 
contests with Tirhoot the honour of having given birth to Gau- 
tama Boodha ; is, next to Pooree and Hardwar, the most fre- 
quented pilgrim place, as the birthplace of Ram ; was devastated 
by Mahmood's general, Salar Masaood, in 1030 a.d., so tliat 
the peasants still believe a part of the high road to be crowded 
by the spirits of his headless troopers ; and was the headquarters 



188 OUDH SECTION, N.W. PROVINCB — DISTRICTS. [CHAP. XI. 

for a time of the Oudh yicerojs. In 1857 the sepoys mutmied, 
but allowed the Europeans to flee to Gorakhpoor, and one 
Musalman landholder sheltered some of the fugitives in his 
fort. Faizabad (39,000), chief town on left bank of Gogra, 
78 m. E. of Lucknow, forming, with the modem Ajodhya, one 
municipality, and buUt with that on the site of the ancient 
Ajodhya. The town was the provincial capital till, in 1780, 
the viceroy removed to Lucknow. Now frontier military station 
towards Nepal The famous Bahu Begam's Dilkoosha palace, 
part of which was known as '' the residence with the thousand 
doors," is now the Government opium factory. Ajodhya = 
" the unconquerable city of the creator," or " the dty of the 
fighting Chattris," according to Dr. Wilson of Bombay, now part 
of Faizabad on the right bank of the (xogra, is frequented by at 
least half a million of pilgrims annually for the great fair of 
Kanmami, since the remarkable revival of Rama-worship 150 
years ago, ascribed to the intolerance of Aurangzeb, the success 
of the Marathas, and the translation of the Ramayana epic 
into the vernaculars. The old city, now marked by ruins covered 
with jungle, which occupied 96 sq. m., was the capital of Uttar- 
Eausala or Kosala (" the northern treasure"), of the Soor^jbans 
or solar race of kings, of whom Ram Ohandar, the 8th avatar 
of Vishnoo, was the 57th. Since R%ja Sumintra, the 113th 
and last, members of the oldest royal house on earth (out of 
Judaism) founded the comparatively modem Ri^'poot sovereign- 
ties of Oodaipoor and Jaipoor. After the fall of the house of 
Dasaratha, Rama's father, Ajodhya's first revival took place 
under King Vikramaditya (57 a.d.). Baber and Aurangzeb 
erected three mosques, now in ruins, from the Janmasthan, a 
spot where the hero-king of the Hindoos was bom ; the Swaiga- 
dwara, where his body was buried, and the Tareta-ka-Thakoor, 
where he offered his great sacrifice. In modem Ajodhya the 
resident population is under 8000 ; there are 63 Vishnoo and 
33 Shiva temples, and 36 mosques. Tanda (14,000), near the 
€k)gra, on the Faizabad and Azamgarh road, famous for cottons 
like those of Dacca. Jalalpoor-nahvi (6500), on the Tons, 52 
m. from Faizabad, a weaving town. Singhauli (5500), on the 
Tons, opposite Akbarpoor, 36 m. from Faizabad. 

§ 9. GoNDA DiSTBiCT (the Gond or, perhaps, Gaur country) 
is bounded E. by Basti, N. by the crest of the lower Himalaya^ 
dividing it from Nepal, W. by Bahraich, and S. by Barabanki 
and Faizabad from which it is separated by the €k)gra. Area, 
2881 sq. m. Population, 1,168,462. The district is like a 
vast English park studded with groves in pasture grounds, from 



CHAP. XI.] GONDA — BAHRAIGH. 189 

which Dhawalagiri peak is clearly seen. It is watered by these 
chief rivers flowing from N.W. to S.E., the Bun Rapti, Rapti, 
Suwawan, Kuwana, Bisoohi, Chamnai, Manwar, Tirhi, Sarjoo, 
and Gogra. A belt of state forest i^kirts the base of the hills. 
Here was the kingdom of Sravasti, founded by Lava, son of the 
hero-king Rama; of Prasmaditya (6th century b.c.), who invited 
Boodha to Sravasti, and of the intolerant Brahmanist, Vikrama- 
ditya. The Musalman invasion of Mahmood's nephew was 
repelled by a Jain sovereign, Sohildeo, which gave place to a 
casteless Dom dynasty, of whom Ugrasen had a fort at Dom- 
riadhL This was supplanted by the Rajpoot clans, Kalhau- 
sees, Janwaris, and Bisens, till the Oudh Nawabs enforced a 
semi-sovereignty, and their revenue officers exacted from the 
people till the British annexation in 1856 relieved the country. 
In 1857 the Raja of Gk)nda refused to submit, and the R^ja of 
Balrampoor was actively loyal Qonda (14,000), chief town, 
28 m. N. W. of Faizabad, famous under native rule for the manu- 
facture of shields; the Raja's palace is decaying. Balrampoor 
(14,500), largest town, on N. bank of Suwawan, 28 m. from 
Qonda. Residence of the Maharaja of Balrampoor, wealthiest 
of the Talookdars, with imposing palace. Colone]£rai]J 
(10,000), rice and oil-seed mart between Gonda, Bahraich, and 
Barampoor, 2 m. N. of Sarjoo ; headquarters of district in 1857. 
NawabfiranJ (6500), mart N. of Gogra, exporting to Patna and 
Cawnpoor, Utraula (6000), 3 m. S. of Rapti, with ruins of 
R^poot fort, tombs, and fine groves of Afghan conqueror's 
family. Sahet MaJiet, fort and vast ruins, on S. bank of 
Rapti 10 m. from Balrampoor, marking Sravasti foimded by 
Sravastu, 9th of the solar race from Manu, capital of Uttar 
Eusala, N. province of Rama's empire, and; in 6th century B.O., 
one of the six kingdoms of Madhyadesa or Central Hindustan. 
Debi Patan, village with temples in the aboriginal tract 
under the hills, one of the oldest seats of Shiva-worship and 
scene of a great fair. 

§ 10. Bahbaigh Distbigt (so named from the aboriginal 
Bhars, or frt)m Brahm-aich = the " assembly of Brahma," who is 
said to have settled priests there) is bounded E. by Gk)nda, N. 
by Nepal for 80 m. parallel with the trend of the Himalaya, 
W. by Kheri and Seetapoor, and S. by Barabanki and Gonda. 
Area, 2740 sq. m. Population, 774,640. The watershed con- 
sists of a strip of elevated land running S.K between the Gfogra 
and the RaptL The Gogra, which is called Kauriala till it 
receives the Sarjoo, enters the district from the Nepal tarai at 
the N.E., where it is joined by the Mohan, and soon after by the 



190 OUDH SECTION, N.W. PROVINCE — DISTRICTS. [OHAP. XI. 

Girwa. The Sarjoo enters 22 m. E. and falls into the Kauriala 
at Eatai ghat, having been turned into its present channel by 
a European timber-merchant. The Rapti enters the district 
from Nepal, at Sidania ghat, midway on the frontier line, and, 
after a course of 81 miles, passes into Gonda; it receives the 
Bhakla or Singhia above Sahet Mahet. The history of the dis- 
trict is identified with that of Gonda; but it was more ter- 
ribly oppressed by the native tax-farmers before annexation than 
even Gonda. Bahraich (22,000), chief town on old Gogra 
bed, on road from Bahramghat to Nepalgaig ; the iron mart of 
Nepal. Here Mahmood's general, Masaood, waa defeated by 
the Rigpoot confederacy, 1033 A.D., and slain ; his shrine is 
the centre of an annual fair and pilgrimage of both Musalmans 
and Hindoos. Here the American E. Methodists have a mission. 
Nanpara (7000), 22 m. N. of Bahraich, a municipal town on 
Nepalgaig road. Jarwal (5000), principal market of Hisampoor 
parganah, in S. Bhinga (4500), chief village of parganah of 
same name in N., on left bank of the Rapti. 

§ 11. Kheri District is bounded E. by Bahraich from 
which the Kauriala (Gogra) separates it ; N. by Nepal, with the 
Mohan between ; W. by Shahjahanpoor, with the river Sukheta ; 
and S. by Seetapoor. Area, 2993 sq. m. Population, 738,089. 
The district consists of plateaux separated from each other by 
the following rivers, beginning E. — the Kauriala, Suheli, Daha- 
war, Chauka^ Ul, Jamwari, Kathnu, Goomti, and Sukheta. 
The land N. of the Ul consists of unhealthy tarai and magni- 
ficent forests. In the old beds of the rivers are several large 
lakes surrounded by groves. After annexation in 1856, Kheri 
was in two districts, Muhamdi and Mallapoor; in 1837 the 
European officers in the former were massacred ; those of the 
latter fled to the Nepal jungles, where fever cut them off. 
Lakhimpoor (7700), headquarters of district, picturesquely 
situated 1 m. S. of the Ul ; the bazaar is Thurbumgapjy built 
by deputy commissioner of that name. Elhexi (5500), the 
only town in district, in lat. 27° 54' N. and long. 80° 57' E. 
Muhamdi (5000), 3 m. W. of the Goomti on road from Lak- 
himpoor to Shalgahanpoor ; there are no brick -built houses, 
owing to a superstition of the people. The Hindoo village of 
Balimar Barkhar, 4 m. from W. baiik of the Goomti, with ex- 
tensive ruins, is popularly believed to have been the city of R«ga 
Bairat, with whom the five Pandavas lived in the thirteenth 
year of their exile. Gel (3000), 8 m. S. of Lakhimpoor. 

§ 12. Seetapoor District is bounded E. by Bahraich, 
with the Gogra between ; N. by Kheri ; W. and S. by Hardoi, 



CHAP. XI.] SEETAPOOR — HARDOL 191 

Lucknow, and Barabanki, from which it is separated by the 
Goomti. Area, 2215 sq. m. Population, 932,959. A low ridge 
running parallel to the Gogra and Ohauka rivers from N. divides 
this well- cultivated district. The Chauka, 8 m. to W. of the 
Grogra, joins it at Bahramghat in Barabanki. The principal 
cross streams connecting the two are, going W., the Gon, Oel, 
Kewani, Sarayan, and Groomtt; the Gogra alone is navigable. 
In 1857 the sepoys in Seetapoor cantonments mutinied and 
murdered several officers and their families; on 13th April 
1858 Sir Hope Grant routed the rebels near Bis^wun. Seeta- 
poor (6000), chief town and cantonment on the Sarayan, 
half-way between Lucknow and Shalgahanpoor, among pictur- 
esque mango groves. Khairabad (16,000), largest town, 
5 m. S.E. of Seetapoor, with 40 mosques and 30 Hindoo 
temples. Laharpoor (11,000), 17 ul N. of Seetapoor, on 
road to Mallapoor on Gogra. Biswan (7500), including 
Jalalpoor, 21 m. - K of Seetapoor, on road to Gonda and 
Faizabad. Mahmoodabad (6500), on road from Seetapoor 
to Bahramghat. Paintepoor (6000), rising town 3 m. W. 
of same road. 

§ 13. Hardoj Distbigt (named from Hamakas, a Thathera 
chief, or Hardeo, a devotee) is bounded E. by Seetapoor from 
which the €k)omti separates it ; N. by Elheri and Shahjahanpoor ; 
W. by Farukhabad, with the Ganges between; and S. by 
Unao and Lucknow. Area, 2300 sq. m. Population, 932,322. 
This district, of the size of Perthshire, was, till annexation in 
1856, the border land (1) between the rival Mughul and 
Afghan empires, as commanding the Ganges fords near Eanaig ; 
(2) between the RohiUa Afghans and Oudh viceroys. From 
the Goomti (490 ft.) the country falls W. into the central 
plain of the Sai, with the Barta between. The rivers going 
W. are then the Sukheta, Garia, Ramganga, and Ganges, the 
three last of which are navigable. Of several lakes Sandi is 
the largest. Hardoi (7500), civil headquarters and railway 
station on Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway, 63 m. frt)m Luck- 
now and 39 frx)m Shahjahanpoor. Shahabad (18,000), on 
same road, 15 m. from Shahjahanpoor, formerly a great city. 
Sandeela (16,000), railway station, 32 m. N.W. of Lucknow, 
old capital of a Passee kingdom ; the scene of two battles in 
Sepoy War, October 1858. Bilgram (12,000), near left bank 
of old Ganges, 15 m. S. of Hardoi, on the moimd where 
Krishna's brother, Balaram, is believed to have slain the demon 
BiL Mallanwarl (12,000), former headquarters of the dis- 
tnct» 21 m. S. of Hardoi. Sandi (11,000), on left bank of the 



192 OUDH SECTION, N.W. PROVINCE — DISTRICTS. [CHAP. XI. 

Garra, with cotton and carpet manufacturefl ; an opium station. 
Pihani (7500), decaying town on Seetapoor and Shahjahan- 
poor road, with tomb of Sadi Jahan, Akbar's chancellor. 
Gk>painau (6000), 2 m. W. of Goomti and 14 m. K of 
Hardoi, the earliest of Masaood's conquests in Oudh, where 
arsees or thumb-mirrors of silver are made. 



_^ CHAPTER XII. 

THE PROVINCE OP THE PANJAB — GEKEBAU 

§ 1. Name, Size, and Position. § 2. Rivers. § 3. Canals and Rail- 
ways. § 4. Products and Trade. § 5. Land Tenures and Taxa- 
tion. § 6. People and Districts. 

§ 1. Name, Size, and Position. — The Paqjab Province 
(''five waters ")» the largest in extent, and in a militaiy and 
political sense the most important of the Twelve Provinces, has 
been the highway of all the invaders of India, from the Aryan 
tribes of Iran, more than 1750 B.O., to the last Afghan raid of 
Ahmed Shah, about the same date after Clmst, until the 
advance of the traders and troops of the British East India 
Company from the sea gave peace and prosperity to the whole 
land for the first time. This lieutenant-Governorship alone 
is larger than the German Empire, is considerably larger 
than France, and falls little short of Austria-Himgary in area, 
with an extreme length of 800 miles from N. to S., and 
breadth of 650 miles. The Pai\jab, its Districts and States, 
leaving out Baloochistan, includes all India north of Ri^'pootana 
to Sind, between the Jumna on the E. and the Siilaiman 
mountains on the W., or between 27° 39' and 36° 39' N. lat., 
and between 69° 35' and 80° E. long. The Province con- 
sists of 32 Districts, with an area of 107,010 sq. m. and 
a population of 18,842,264 ; and of 36 States, largely hilly 
and desert, with an area of 114,739 sq. m. and a population 
of 3,861,683. The area of the whole 68 Districts and States 
is thus 221,749 sq. m., and the population 22,703,947. 
Including 8153 troops in the Khaibar when the census of 1881 
was taken, but excluding the population of the Hazara district 
and of the Lahaul and Spiti glens of the Eangra district, the 
whole population may be stated at 23 millions. The area of 
Kashmeer State, if accurately surveyed, would certainly raise 
the total extent of the Native States much higher. 

This vast Province is bounded on the E. by the N.W. 
Province from which the Jumna divides it, and the Chinese 





194 PROVINCE OF THE PANJAB — GENERAL. [cHAP. XII. 

tracts of Gkrtok and Rudok; on the N. by the Chinese 
Province of E. Toorkestan or Ehotan, Yarkand, and Eashgaria, 
with the Euenlun and the Earakoram ranges of the W. Hima- 
laya between; on the N.W. by Chilas, Swat, and Pathan 
tribes dependent on Eabul; on the W. by the Pathan and 
Balooch tribes of the Sulaiman mountains, Afghanistan, and 
Baloochistan ; and on the S. by Sind and Rsgpootana. Sir 
0. U. Aitchison (Treaties) describes the North-Westem Frontier 
line in 1876 as commencing from the head of the Ehagan 
valley in Hazara district, whence it passes romid the N.W. 
boundary of Hazara and along the left bank of the Indus to 
Torbaila, where it crosses the river and winds round the N. 
and N.W. boundary of the Peshawar valley to the Ehaibar 
Pass. Leaving the Ehaibar Pass it skirts the Afreedee hills 
as far as Eohat, and passes round the W. boundary of that 
district and along the Meeranzai valley. The Frontier then 
passes round the Wazeeree hills to Bannoo and the head of the 
Sulaiman range, thence down the base of this range to its 
termination on the upper confines of Sind and Ehelat On its 
outer side dwell a number of independent tribes, with about 
170,000 fighting men. 

§ 2. Mountains and Rivebs. — The mountains and ele- 
vated tracts consist of (1) on E. and N. the Western or 
Tibeto- Himalaya^ including the secondary formations of 
Spiti and the Euenlun and Earakoram ranges; (2) The 
Siwalik and other subordinate groups running parallel to the 
Himalaya ; (3) the Salt Ranffe and the geologically related 
hills of Ealabagh, Shekh Budeen, and Balut ; (4) on W. the 
Sulaiman Ran^re ; and (5) on S. the low sandstone outliers 
of the Aravali hills of Rigpootana in the Delhi and Goorgaon 
districts. From the Tibeto - Himalaya plateaux and snowy 
ranges, the Pai\jab plain slopes gently S.W. to the desert 
tableland of R^pootana and Sind. As constituted since the 
Mutiny of 1857, the Province consists of seven great alluvial 
tracts, of which five are doabs ("two waters"), between the rivers 
which bring down the melted snows of the hills or catch the 
somewhat scanty rainfalL Beginning from the N.W. the (1) 
Derajat is a long and narrow strip between the Sulaiman and 
the Indus ; (2) the Sind Saffar Doab lies between the Indus 
and the Jhekon ; (3) the Jetoh or Ohaj Doab is between 
the Jhelam and Ohenab ; (4) the Reohna Doab is between 
the Ohenab and the Ravi ; (5) the Bari Doab, the most popu- 
lous, lies between the Ravi and Beas; (6) the Jalandhar 
Doab is between the Beas and the Satlc^j; (7) the Oia- 



OHAP. XII.] MOUNTAINS AND RTVERS. 195 

SatleJ and Delhi Distriots stretch between the Satlcj and 
the Jumna^ and, as geographically outside the Paiy'ab tract 
though like it in other respects, were part of the N.W. Pro- 
vince till the close of the Mutiny of 1857. Of these the 
Jalandhar is the smallest and most fertile doab. In all the 
seven, vegetation is most luxuriant in the submontane regions. 
Lower down, the rivers regulate the character of the soil, 
from the immediately adjoining lands fertilised by silt and 
inundations, though sometimes wasted by sand, to the high 
central tract that, as in the Bari, Rechna, and Jetch Doabs, is 
marked by bar or imcultivated soil covered with brushwood and 
stunted trees, used as fuel preserves and pasture ; or, as in the 
Sind Sagar Doab, by thai, an undulating desert of sand. 

The principal river is the Indus, the Sindh or Abba Sinh 
("father of rivers") of the people, also the Atak of the Hindoos 
to go beyond which is to sin ; also the Sintaw of the Chinese, of 
which Moore writes — " From the fair Sind or Attock's sac^red 
banks.'' Issuing frt)m the lion's mouth, whence its name Sinh-ka- 
bab, on the N. slope of Eailas, the Parnassus of the Hindoos, it 
crosses the E. border of Eashmeer after a N.W. course of 160 
mUes, during; which it receives the Gar and Shaiok from Ladak. 
At Skardoh in Baltestan it bursts through the W. Himalaya by 
a gorge said to be 14,088 ft. deep, and enters the district of 
Hazara near Ghazee, between rocky banks, whence it emerges 
into the open plains dividing Yoosufzai and Chuch, where it 
becomes a mile broad with islands. At Atak it has run 860 
miles, and thence to the sea its navigable portion is 942 m., 
a total length of 1802 m., in which it falls 20 ft. above 
Atak, 20 inches in 110 m. from Atak to Ealabagh, 8 inches 
thence 350 m. to Mithankot, and 6 inches onwards for 490 m. 
to the Arabian Sea. The basin drains 372,700 sq. m. It is 
the third of the rivers of N. India^ next to the Ganges and 
Brahmapootra. Between the Indus and Jumna run the five 
rivers which give the Province its name. Next to the Indus, 
going S.E., is the Jhelam, the Sanskrit Vitasta or Bitasta^ 
the Bidaspes of Ptolemy and Hydaspes of Alexander's annalists. 
Rising in the N.E. border of the Eashmeer valley, and receiving 
the Peer Panjal drainage, it forms the lakes of Srinagar, emerges 
by the Baramoola pass after a course of 170 m. of which 70 
are navigable with a breadth of 420 ft., then receives the 
Eishn Gkinga from Baltestan, marks ofif Eashmeer from Hazara 
to Rawal Pindi where it ceases to be navigable, becomes again 
navigable below Dangalli, 40 m. E. of Pindi, skirts the Salt 
Range in the district to which it gives its name, and, after 250 



196 PROVINCE OF THE PANJAB — GENERAL. [CHAP. XII. 

m. from the source, it enters the plains above Jhelam town. 
Dividing Jhelam district from Goojrat and Shahpoor, it turns S. 
into Jhang, and forms the Chenab at Timmoo Ghat, 10 m. S. 
of Maghiana, after a course of 450 m. The Ohenab, from 
Eashmeer, enters Sialkot near Ehalri Rihal village, receives the 
Tavi, forms the boundary between Sialkot and Goojrat and the 
W. border of Goojranwala, enters Jhang, unites with the Jhelam 
at Timmoo, receives the Ravi half-way down to Mooltan, and 
flows under the name Trinah to the Satlej, 50 m. above Mi- 
thankot. The Chenab is formed of the Chandra from Lahaul 
on the S.E. slopes of the Bandacha pass, and the Baghi, which 
joins it at Tandi, whence the name Chandrabagh, which the 
Greeks, fearing to Hellenise it into Sandrophagos = Alexandro- 
phagos, of evil omen, called Akesines. The Ravi, the Hydraotes 
of Quintus Curtius, and both names from the Sanskrit Iravati, 
from Eoolloo, passes through Chamba State S.W., forms the 
border of Goordaspoor, at Madhoopoor sends off the Bari Doab 
Canal, passes between Sialkot and Amritsar, leaves Lahore city 
a mile to the left, receives the Degh in Montgomery, passes 
into Mooltan, and then joins the Chenab after a course of 450 
miles, 50 m. above Mooltan town. The Beas (the Sanskrit 
Vipasa, and Greek Hyphasis according to some), the sixth and 
smallest of the Pai\jab rivers, having a course of 290 m., rises 
in Eoolloo, passes through Mandi State into Eangra at Sanghol, 
marks that district off from Hoshiarpoor, bends round the 
Siwalik, divides Hoshiarpoor from Goordaspoor, touches Jalan- 
dhar, and joins the Satlej at S. boundary of Eapoorthala 
State, at Hareeki above Firozpoor. The Satlej (generally 
considered the Vipasa or Hyphasis, also named Satadru, and 
Greek Sydrus or Hesidrus) rises on the slopes of the Eailas, 
the centre of the Indus and Brahmapootra head -waters, issues 
from the Rakas-tal or lake (15,200 ft.), crosses Guge plain, 
turns S. at Shipki, the frontier Chinese post, pierces the Hima- 
laya to Rampoor N. of Simla^ where it has fallen 3000 ft., 
receives the Spiti near Dablang, flows S.W. through the Simla 
States into Hoshiarpoor, turns S. round the Siwalik to the 
plains at Roopar, divides Hoshiarpoor from Ambala, and Ja- 
landhar on the N. frt)m Ambala, Lodiana, and Firozpoor, 
receives the Beas when the two united waters flow on to 
the three known as the Trinab, and the five form the Panjnad 
("five streams''), which, after a course of 60 m. separating 
Muzaffargarh from Bahawalpoor, joins the Indus opposite Mi- 
thankot. The minor rivers are described in their respective 
districts hereafter, the Elabiil and Swat in Peshawar, the 



CHAP. XII.] CANALS AND RAILWAYS — ^PRODUCTS. 197 

Kooraxn and Looni in Dera Ghazi Khan, the Sohan in 
Rawal Pindi, the Saraswati in Ambala and Earnal, and the 
Markanda and Q-ha^rar, which, from Ambala, lose themselves 
in the Rajpootana desert. 

§ 3. Canals and Railways. — The irrigating canals on 
the Paigab are the Bar! Doab Oanal ; the Western Jumna 
Canal ; the Upper Satlej Inundation Canals ; the Lower 
Satled and Chenab Inundation Canals in Mooltan district ; 
the Muzaffargrarh Inundation Canals from the Chenab, 
and the Dera G-hazi Khan Inundation Canals from 
the Indus. The Sirhind Canal from the Satlej at Roopar 
has just been opened ; the Swat River Canal is under con- 
struction. The Bari Doab Canal leaves the Ravi at Madhoo- 
poor, the main line runs for 247 m. ; after sending off branches 
to Lahore, Easoor, and Sobraon, it passes through Amritsar, 
and, crossing the Sind, Paivjab, and Delhi Railway at Changa- 
munga station, it again empties itself into the Ravi. The 
Bind, Panjab, and Dellii Railway (guaranteed) ; the Pan- 
Jab Northern and Indus Valley (State) and the Rajpoo- 
tana (58 m. only) open up the Province in all directions from 
Rewari and Delhi to Lahore and Peshawar in N., and from 
Lahore to Mooltan, Bahawalpoor, and Karachi S.W., and to Sibi 
towards Kandahar. There are above 700 m. of railway, 22,000 
of road, and 2700 of water communications in the Province. 

§ 4. Products and Trade. — Rock salt, constituting the 
bulk of the Salt Range, on its S. slopes, is annually quarried 
to the value of half a million sterling. Slate, plumb£^, and 
sulphur are worked to a profit in the Kangra and Chamba hills, 
(roorgaon and the Salt Range. Of metallic products, iron, anti- 
mony, and lead are found in Simla and Kashmeer States. Gold 
is washed for in the Indus at Kalabagh, and in the Bunhar 
river at the other end of the Salt Range, the present source 
being the tertiary sandstone formation. With a rainfaU of 30 
inches the Province has 12 millions of acres under spring crops, 
and 9 millions under autimm. The spring crops are chiefly wheat, 
barley, and gram (pea) ; the autunm crops are millets, maize, 
pulses, and sugar-cane. Of 6858 sq. m. of forest 3791 are 
reserved, of which 336 have been declared so under the Act. 
Less than one-third of the district area of 107,010 sq. m. is 
cultivated, while one-fourth is culturable and the remainder is 
barren waste. Of 11,622,036 acres cultivated in the spring of 
1880-81 the number of millions under wheat was 6 J, barley 2, 
gram and peas 2. There were 10,000 acres under tea ; 11,000, 
poppy ; and 79,000, tobacco. Of 10,376,342 acres of autumn 



198 PROVINCE OF THE PANJAB — GENERAL. [CHAP. XIL 

cultivation, 4 millions were of millets, 1^ of maize, 1^ of pulses, 
nearly 1 of rice, nearly 1 of cotton and oil-seeds, one-third of 
sugar-cane, and 73,000 acres of indigo. The manufactures of 
the Province are estimated in annual value at 8^ millions 
sterling, of which 2§ are in cotton, 1^ in gold and silver and 
jewel-work, and 1 million in leather. The inland trade is 
valued at upwards of 9 millions sterling in imports and 6 in 
exports. The exports to Kashmeer and Central Asia are valued 
at a million and a quarter sterling, and the imports at one-third 
less. The annual out-turn of manufactures of cotton, jewelleiy, 
leather, wood, silk, wool, etc., is estimated at £12,495,546 in 
value. There are 485 large factories, chiefly in Amritsar 
district, for wood, shawls, iron, oil, and sUk. 

§5. Land Tenttbes and Taxation. — Under the Law- 
rences and officials of the school of R. M. Bird, the land system 
of the N.W. Province was introduced into the Pai^'ab from its 
conquest in March 1849. But in the Pai^jab the old village 
communities are more perfect and numerous than in the older 
Province. Thus the great mass of the landed property in the 
Pa^jab is held by small proprietors, who cultivate their own 
land in whole or in part. The village communities have to a 
greater or less extent joint interests, and, under the British 
system of cash payments limited to secure a certain profit to 
the proprietors, are jointly responsible for the payment of the 
revenue. In some cases all the village land is in common, but 
it is much more usual for the proprietors to have their own 
separate holdings in the estate, and this separation may extend 
so far that there is no land susceptible of separate appropriation 
which is not the separate property of an individual or family. 
In an extreme case like this the right of pre-emption and the 
joint responsibility for the revenue, in case any of the individual 
proprietors should fail to meet the demand upon him, are almost 
the only ties which bind the conmiunity together. The separa- 
tion, however, generally does not go so far. Often all the 
cultivated land is held in separate ownership, while the pasture, 
ponds or tanks, etc., remain in conmion. Trans-Indus, how- 
ever, in the tracts of country inhabited chiefly by a Pathan 
population, periodical redistribution of holdings is by no means 
uncommon. Since the country came under British rule, every 
opportunity has been taken to get rid of periodical exchanges 
on a large scale by substituting final partitions or by adjusting 
the revenue demand according to the value of the lands actually 
held by each village ; but the custom is in many cases still 
acted upon amongst the proprietors of the same village, though 



OHAP. ZII.] 



TAXATION — THE PEOPLE. 



199 



probably no caaes remain in which it would be enforced between 
the proprietors of distinct villages. The relations of landlord 
and tenant are regulated by the Pai\jab Tenancy Act of 1868. 
One -fifth of the Province belongs directly to the State, but 
that is chiefly barren or in grass and wood. One-eighth of 
the whole land revenue ia still assigned to the descendants of 
the old native families. In 1880-81, of the gross revenue of 
£2,726,455, exclusive of a quarter of a million from canals 
the land-tax yielded £1,901,615. 



• 

NaTUBX or BMTTLEMEm, 1880-81. 


Area In Miles. 


Annaal Revenne 
EBsesBed. 


Settled in perpetuity 
Settled for 30 years and upwards . 
Settled for 10 years and under 30 . 
Settled for under 10 years 
Settlements in progress . 

Total . . 


1,636 

26,802 

63,256 

60 

25,103 


Ba. 

25,718 
74,83,114 
93,01,816 

29,264 
53,02,918 


106,857 


2,21,35,825 



§ 6. The People and Disteicts. — The second census of 
the Pai\jab, taken in February 1881, with the exception of Eash- 
meer recently desolated by famine, showed an increase at the 
rate of 7 per cent in 12 years. 



Populations of 1368 and 1881 compared. 










Percentage 


DiTisiovB AXD States. 


1868. 


1881. 


of Increase 
or Decrease 
since 1868. 








Inc. 


Dec. 


Delhi Division 


1,928,596 


1,907,984 


• ■ • 


11 


Hissar „ 




1,226,594 


1,811,067 


6*9 


• • • 


Ambala ,, 




1,647,960 


1,729,043 


4-9 


• • fl 


Jalandhar ,, 




2,476,999 


2,421,781 


■ » « 


2-2 


Amritsar „ 


/ 


2,743,659 


2,729,109 


■ ■ • 


0-5 


Lahore „ 




1,888,945 


2,191,517 


160 




Rawalpindi,, 




2,197,041 


2,620,508 


14-7 




Mooltan „ 




1,477,936 


1,712,894 


15-9 




Derajat „ 




988,897 


1,137,572 


15-0 




Peshawar „ 




1,033,891 


1,181,289 


14-8 




Khaibar Pass 


• • . 


• ■ • 


8,173 


• ■ • 




Total British Tbrritory 


17,609,618 


18,850,437 


7-06 




Total Native States 


• • • 


3,861,683 






Total of Pj 


ElOVINOE . 


• • • 


22,712,120 



No trustworthy figures exist for the former population of 
the 36 Native Stotes. 



200 



PftOVU^CE OF THE PAXJAfi — (SNKRAI. [CBAT. 1 



The neaiiy 19 miUioDS in the districta occupied 2,716,9U 
houw« CO- hate. Of the whole 10,202,083 were males, and 
8,640,181 femalm. The average density ma 175 to the sqiura 
mile, yarjaig from 497 in Jalandhar, 567 in Amrite&r, and 504 
in Delhi, to 48 in Den Ismail Khan and 64 in Kohat As 
to creed, 32,500 are letmned as Christian i 112,260, Sikh; 
7,127,489, Hindooa; 10.522,802, Muhammadan ; and 71,713 
of "other religionB." Of Ae ChristianB, 26,876 appear as 
EoTopeana, 1821 as Eimsians, and 3823 as Nativea. Oordoo 
and Hindee are the prerailing languages in the districts adjoining 
the North<West«m Province, and Paqjabee and Oordoo in the 
central districts ; Pashtoo (Afghan) and Baloochee, Paharcc 
(hill) and Lahaulee are spokoi on the frontier. 

Civil Divisions of thx Pixisx Pbovincb, ISSO-SI. 



JTit LieiUeaiaU-Oofxnwrthip ofOu Paiijab 


1859. 


Dniuen. 




1 1 

hi 
1 1 


i 


|i 


it 


R™o. 


Qiw. 


lud. 


Hluu. . 
AmbaU . 

Ubon . 

RlmlPlndl 
U»1lu . 


Delhi . . . 

Ooorgun . 

Hni . . . 
AmUU . . 

^■■. 

aiiikot 

Uhora . . 

BiinlPbirll' 
JhelMD . . 

aK»- ; 

D. L Khu . 
FMlunr . 

Kotat ; 

•Unti. . . 




1,»S 

^540 
1,811 
3,119 
3,610 

i:»75 

M 

u 

w 


S4S,S1S 

3£9,Z7fi 

91 
1 IS 

— » 

sss.eos 


SM 

•■^ 

601 

a,sio 
sso 

i.ns 

«« 

1,074 

a.K6 
i.iia 

1,«7 

i,M» 

Wt 
i.aiJ 

%m 


i 

M 
H 

as 

66 
K 


37 
SO 

n 
n 

M 
10 

n 

■7 
11 

n 
u 

H 


la 


ior,oio 


lS.Si-2.JH 


8<l,l»t 


!tIS,M.M« 


l.»,l(!,UT 



PAH JAB PROVINCE. 



WITH rRONTIER STATES. 




StemfardJs Geog'' Sma 



CHAPTER XIII. 

PKOVINCE OF THE PANJAB — DISTRICTS AND STATES. 

SotUh'Eastem Districts and States, 

§ 1. Lahore City. § 2. Lahore District. § 3. Gk>ojranwala. § 4. 
Firozpoor. § 5. *Fareedkot State. § 6. Amritsar. § 7. Sialkot. 
§ 8. Goordaspoor. § 9. Jalandhar. § 10. *Kapoorthala, Mandi, 
and Sooket States. § 11. Hoshiaipoor. § 12. Eangra. § 13. 
*Chamba State. § 14. Simla. § 15. *Twenty Simla States, Malei 
Kotla and Ealsia. § 16. Lodiana. § 17. Ambala. § 18. 
Kamal. § 19. Delhi. § 20. *Pataadi State. § 21. Goorgaon. 
§ 22. Rohtak. § 28. Hissar. § 24. Sirsa. § 25. *Loharoo and 
Dojana States. § 26. Patiala, Jeend, and Nabha States. § 27. 
*Bahawalpoor State. 

North- Western Districts and States. 

§ 28. Mooltan. § 29. Muzaffargarh. § 30. Montgomery. § 31. 
Jhang. § 32. Shahpoor. § 33. Goojrat. § 34. Jhelam. § 35. 
Rawal Pindi. § 86. *Ea8hmcer State. § 37. Hazara. § 38. 
Peshawar and the Ehaibar Pass. § 39. Kohat. § 40. Bannoo. 
§ 41. Dera Ismail Khan. § 42. Dera Ghazi Khan. 

* Protected State, 
§ 43. *Baloochistan. 

§ 1. Lahobe City (131,000) = Lohawar or Fort of Loh, son 
of Rama and of Sceta, who is still specially worshipped here, 
the capital of the Paqjab Province, as it was of Raigeet 
Singh's dominions till his death in 1839, and of the Mughul 
empire for a time till the reign of Shah Jahan, stands one mile 
S. of the Ravi which formerly washed its waUs, amid the 
ruins of the ancient city which had a circuit of 16 miles, while 
the modem city walls have only 3. On the high road of 
invasion and war, few cities have suffered so much in the last 
1^ centuries as what Milton called *' Lahore of Great Mogul." 
The troops of Ahmed Shah Dooranee passed through it eight 
times. The Marathas and Sikhs have stripped the buildings of 



202 PROVINCE OF THE PANJAfi — ^DISTRICTS. [CHAP. Xlir. 

the Mughul period, and, being of brick, these crumble away. Still 
" Lahore can even now show an architectural coup cPceil worthy 
of an imperial city," in the tomb of Jahangeer, his palace and 
that of his successor Shah Jahan, the mosque of Wazeer Khan, 
the pearl mosque, the garden of Shalamar, and the Badshahi 
or imperial mosque of Aurangzeb ; the mausoleum of Raqjeet 
Singh, with its curvilinear roof^ projecting balconies, and details 
half- Muhammadan half- Hindoo; and in the once brilliantly 
enamelled front of the palace of the Mughuls, all overlooking 
a broad grassy plain. The best account of Lahore, compiled 
by Sir R. Montgomery's order in 1861, goes on to recall ''the 
same palace front undisfigured by Sikh and English additions 
with its coloured frescoes fresh and vivid, the river flowing at 
its base, and eastward, as far as the eye could reach, a massive 
quay of masonry with flights of steps at intervals, and gardens 
extending to the water's edge; the now deserted suburbs 
filled with a thriving population and interspersed with tombs 
and terraces rising amid luxuriant gardens whose gates glittered 
with many-coloured porcelain," as when Lahore was the resi- 
dence of Jahangeer. In his time Aijoon Mull, the Sikh leader 
who compiled the old or Adi Grantka, died in prison, and his 
shrine stands between the palace and Rai\]eet Singh's tomb. 
Here, in 1849, Maharsga Dhuleep Singh transferred the kingdom 
and the Koh-i-noor diamond to the Queen and East Lidia 
Company represented by Lord Dalhousie. When Oommissioner 
Sir Charles Aitchison (Lieutenant-Governor in 1882) lowered 
the 30 ft. walls to 16 ft., and converted the trench into a 
garden. Outside to S. lies the civil station of Anarkallee, 
named from the lady whose tomb is used as the station church. 
From the Lohari gate the street of this name passes through 
the station with the public offices and Chief Court, and thence 
3 m. S. by the Mail to the Lawrence Gardens and Government 
House in Donald Town, named after the good Lieutenant- 
Governor, Sir Donald M *Leod. The railway station and quarters 
lie N. and the suburb of Muzang S. of the Mall. Meean 
Meer, the military cantonment, is 3 m. E. of the civil station and 
6 m. from the city. The other principal public btiildings are 
the Paiyab University, the Oriental and Government Colleges, 
the Mayo Hospital, the Medical School Museum, the Roberts 
Institute, and the Lawrence and Montgomery Halls. The city is 
the seat of an endowed bishopric, held first by the Church 
Missionary, Dr. French ; of a native theological collie founded 
by him ; of a Union church ; and of a vigorous mission of the 
Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. Lahore 



CHAP. XIII.] ■ LAHORE. 203 

IB inseparably connected with the career of Henry Lawrence 
and his brother John, Lord Lawrence, the first Chief Com- 
missioner and Lieutenant-Crovemor of the Paigab, as the centre 
from which the most successful experiment in the government 
of an Eastern people was begun and directed, and the mutiny 
of the Poorbeah sepoys of the North-Westem Province was first 
checked by disarming them, and then stamped out by the con- 
quest of Delhi and the campaigns which followed. Lahore is 
1225 m. N.W. of Calcutta, and 348 of Delhi, the centre of 
the lines of the Sind, Panjab, Delhi, and State railways, which 
connect it with Karachi on the Arabian Sea, the Indus and 
Central Asia on the N., and Delhi and the many lines to the 
S., S.E., and S.W. 

§ 2. Lahore District is bounded N.E. by Amritsar, N.W. 
by Goojranwala, S.W. by Montgomery, and S.E. by Firoz- 
poor, from which it is divided by the Satlej. Area, 3648 
sq. HL Population, 924,106. A portion of the mainly level 
Paigab plain, Lahore District is divided into parallel belts 
which follow the S.W. direction of the three rivers, the Batl^d,- 
Ravi, and Degrb. Between the two first lie the uplands 
known as the Manjha ('^upland"), the upper part of which is 
the home of the Sikhs, " the Jut Sikhs of the martial sect of 
Gooroo Gk)vind Singh, with long beards and tall stature," 
who furnished the flower of Raigeet Singh's armies, and in 
1857 sent forth hundreds to do battle for the British Qovem- 
ment. The most important of those villages is Sobraon on the 
Satlej, opposite the battlefield on its left bank. Between the river 
and the high bank which bounds the Maigha to the S. is the 
fertile tract, Heetar. Between the Satlej and Ravi there 
run the Bari Doab Ocuial ; the Hasli channel made by Shah 
Jahan's engineer, All Murdan E^han, which supplies Shalamar 
gardens; and the Katora, Khanwah, and Sohag inundation 
cuts from the Satlej. The history of the district centres in the 
capital, Lahore city, already described Next to that in im- 
portance is Kasoor (17,500), on old bed of the Beaa, 34 m. 
S.E. of Lahore, founded by Kush, brother of Loh the founder 
of Lahore, for some time an Afghan colony and aggregation of 
kaUs or small fortified towns, subdued by Rai\]eet Singh ; now a 
place of trade. Cliooneean (7500), on old bed of the Beas, 
S.W., a prosperous mart. Path (7000), agricultural town, 38 
m. S.E. of Lahore. Khem Kharan (6000), on old bank of 
the Beas, 34 m. S. of Lahore, a municipality. Sharakpoor 
(4600), on the Degh, centre of a rice tract. Khudran (3000) 
is the only other municipality. 



204 PROVINCE OF THE PANJAB — ^DISTRICTS. [OHAP. XIII. 

§ 3. GoojBANWALA DisTBiGT is bouoded K by Sialkotj 
N.W. by Shahpoor, from which the Chenab divides it ; E. and 
S.E. by Jhang and Lahore. Area, 2587 sq. m. Population, 
616,892. Goojranwala District, the centnl portion of the 
Rechna Doab, between the fertile plains of Sialkot and the 
desert tract of Jhang, is divided into the inhabited portion 
called des, and the now waterless but once well-irrigated jungle- 
land, bar. The Degh creates a small fertile belt in the S.E. 
comer ; into that wend the Chenab watercourses, carrying off 
the surface drainage. Here was the Boodhist capital of the 
Pai^jab, Taki, the present village Asaroor, visited by Hwen 
T'hsang about 630 a.d. The chief town now is Goojranwala 
(23,000), on trunk road and railway 40 m. N. of Lahore, the 
birthplace and first capital of Rar^^^ Singh, with tomb of his 
father, and cupola over a portion of the Maharaja's ashes. 
Wazeerabad (16,500), 22 m. N. of Goojranwala railway 
station, headquarters of Avitabile, Rai^'eet Singh's general; 
near the projected bridge over the Chenab, with boat-bmlding 
works ; at the Dhonkal fair held in the neighbourhood 200,000 
assemble. Bamna^rar (8000), below the Chenab bank, 28 m. 
N.W. of (roojranwala, where in the second Sikh War in 1848 
€k)ugh first met the Sikhs imder Sher Singh. Exninabad 
(7000), on trunk road 9 m. S. of Gfoojranwala, ancient town, 
with fine remains of Muhammadan architecture. Akalcrarh 
(5000), near Ramnagar. Hafizabad, old town, 33 m. W. of 
Goojranwala. 

§ 4. FiBOZPOOB District is bounded E. and S.K by Lo- 
diana and the States of Fareedkot, Patiala^ and Nabha; N.E. 
by Jalandhar, from which the Satlej divides it; N.W. by Lahore, 
from which the imited Satlej and Beas separate it. Area, 
2744 sq. m. Population, 650,519. The Satlej flows N.W. 
from the point where it touches the district till it is joined by 
the Beas, when it turns S.W. with an abrupt cliff above its 
right bank, which once marked the frontier of the British Indian 
Empire, firom the lapse of the Firozpoor State of Dhauna 
Singh in 1835. In 1839 Henry Lawrence administered this 
" ultima thule," rescuing it firom barrenness, till now it is most 
prosperous, and trees abound. On 16th December 1845 the 
Sikhs crossed the Satlej opposite Firozpoor town, and the 
British victories of Moodkee, Aliwal, and Sobraon in this 
district followed each other. In 1857 one of the two sepoy 
corps at Firozpoor mutinied Firozpoor (39,600 with 
garrison), named finom the Emperor Firoz Shah in 1351-87, 
chief town, cantonment, and great arsenal on the old bank of 



CHAP. XIII.] FIROZPOOR — ^FAREEDKOT — ^AMRITSAR. 206 

the Satlej, 3^ m. from its present bed; the church to commem- 
orate those who fell in the Satlej campaign was destroyed in 
the Mutiny and restored thereafter. Firozshalir, battlefield 
12 m. E. of Satlej, where Hardinge and Gough attacked the 
entrenched Sikh camp, 21st December 1845. Mooktsar 
(5000), mart in W. of district ; scene of a great festival, where 
the Sikh leader, Har Govind, fought the pursuing Muhanuna- 
dans. Dharmkot (5500), 56 m. E. of Firozpoor, on road 
to Lodiana, a large grain mart. Zira (3000). 

§ 5. «Fakbbdkot State (96,000), Sikh State under the 
immediate control of the Commissioner of Lahore Division, S.E. 
of Firozpoor District, and N.W. of Patiala State. The British 
protected the chief, head of the Barar Jat tribe, from Rai^jeet 
Singh in 1809 ; he was loyal in the Sikh and Sepoy wars, and 
was made Raja with a patent of adoption. The area is 600 
sq. m., and chiefs revenue, £30,000. The chief town is Fareed- 
kot, on the road from Lahore S. to Sirsa and Delhi The 
chiefs ancestors emigrated from B^'pootana at the same time 
with the Phoolkian branch of the tribe which now holds 
Patiala^ Nabha, and Jeend. 

§ 6. Ambitsab District is bounded N.E. by Goordaspoor, 
N.W. by Sialkot and Goojranwala, S.W. by Lahore, and 
S.E. by Jalandhar fix>m which it is divided by the Beas. 
Area, 1573 sq. m. Population, 893,266. The district 
between the Beas and Bavi is a lower part of the Ban Doab 
or alluvial plain sloping E. to W. Its history is identified 
with the recent rise of the Sikhs; it is the centre of their 
original dissent from Hindooism, with which they are again 
almost identified. Here they fought the Delhi Mughuls and 
Ahmed Shah Dooranee, till Ra^jeet Singh, after he seized 
Lahore in 1799, consolidated their power for fifty years to his 
death, after which, on the second Sikh War in 1849, the country 
became British. Amritsar (Amrita Saras = " pool of immor- 
tality") (152,000), centre of the Sikh dissidence from Hindoo- 
ism, and chief commercial city N. of Delhi, was founded in 
1574 by Ram Das, fourth Sikh leader, on a site granted by 
Akbar, 32 m. E. of Lahore, and midway between the Beas and 
Bavi Destroyed by Ahmed Shah in 1761, it was soon re- 
stored The sacred tank was the scene of the Gooroomata or 
yearly assemblage of the Sikhs, and the Golden Temple (copper 
gilt by Bai\jeet Singh), where night and day the OratUha is 
recited, rose in greater splendour than when the Afghan 
marauders blew up' its predecessor. It is called the Darbar 
Sahib. It consists of a square block with gilded dome on a 



206 FBOVINCS OF THE PANJAB — ^DISTRICTS. [CHAF. ZIIL 

rectangaliir platform^ which a marble caoseway joins to the 
lancL Great £ur8 are held here in November and April The 
Baba Atal is a lofty column which marks the grave of the son 
of Har Grovind. The Church Missionaiy Society has here a 
yigorous mission. The dty is the centre of the Kashmeer 
shawl manufacture and purchase, where many French and 
English firms have agents. It is an entrepot for the trade 
between Central Asia and India^ having imports valued at 
2 and exports at 1^ millions sterling annually. North of 
the city, are the civil and railway stations, and beyond these 
the cantonment. North-west is the fort of Gk>vindgarh, 
which Ba^jeet Singh built. In 1857 the dty was quiet and 
the people loyaL Jandiala (7000), railway station and mart 
on trunk road, 11 m. S. of Amritsar, named after Jand, son of 
the leader of the Jat colony which settled here. Majeetha 
(7000), 10 m. N.E. of Amritsar, named from its Jat founder. 
Bamdaw (6000), near the Eirran, with fine Sikh temple. 
Tarn Tarn (3000), 12 m. S. of Amritsar, named from a 
great tank supposed to cure leprosy, and with a leper a^luuL 
Vairowal (5500), local mart and munidpality. 

§ 7. SiALKOT DiSTKiGT is bounded £. by Goordaspoor, 
N.E. by Kashmeer State, N.W. by Goojrat from which it is 
divided by the Chenab,. W. by Goojranwala, and S. by Lahore 
and Amritsar. Area, 1958 sq. m. Population, 1,012,148. 
Forming the upper part of the Bedma Doab, between the 
Ravi and Chenab, Sialkot District has the character of a 
submontane and somewhat level tracts 20 m. from the lowest 
range of the Himalaya. The Ohenab, a name formed by 
alliteration from the Chundra Bagh ("sun" and "moon") 
streams which join at Kisthwar to form it, has two tributaries 
here, both call^ Tavi ; the one empties itself near Sydpoor on 
the left bank, the other joins the Chenab 12 m. lower down, 
forming the rich delta called Big want. In the interior, the Aik 
and Degh flow only during the rains. Sialkot (39,700), chief 
town and cantonment on N. bank of Aik, 72 m. N.E. of Lahore, 
founded by Riga Sal, uncle of the Pandavas in the Mahabharat, 
and restored by Salwahanna or Yikramaditya's son, Riga Rasalu, 
whose stronghold in the centre of the town is point^ out in a 
low circular eminence. In 1857 the Europeans bravely defended 
themselves in the fort, and Mr. Hunter, the founder of the 
Established Church of Scotland's Mission here, fell with his wife. 
Here are Tcj Singh's Sikh temple, and many native paper mills. 
Pasroor (9000), 18 m. S. of Sialkot on Amritsar road, an old 
town with traces of Aurangzeb. ZaOarwBl (6000), on E. bmk 



CHAP. XIII.l GOORDASPOOR — ^JALANDHAR. 207 

of Deghf 27 m. S.E. of Sialkot on road to Dalhousie sanitarium ; 
seat of American XJ.P. Mission. Kila Sobha Sinfirh (5500), 
23 m. S.E. of Sialkot, a colony of Kashmeeree shawl-weavers. 
Ghawinda (5000), 14 m. S.E. of Sialkot, a niral centre. 

§ 8. GooBDASPOOR District is bomided E. by Hoshiaipoor 
firom which the Beas separates it, and by Kangra ; N. by Kash- 
meer and Chamba States ; W. by Sialkot ; and S. by Amritsar. 
Area, 1822 sq. m. Popidation, 616,892. This district is the 
submontane portion of the Bari Doab, between the Beas and 
Kavi, running up into the hill station of Dalhousie with 
military station of Bakloh, which crowns 3 peaks of the W. 
shoulder of the snowy Dhaola Dhar, in the main Himalaya 
range, separated by two minor ranges from the plains. The 
sanitarium was projected by Lord Napier of Magdala in 1851, 
the ground was purchased from the Riga of Chamba, and 
troops were stationed in the barracks in 1868. Dalhousie is 
7687 ft. above the sea. The granite peak of Dain Khoond to 
the E. is 9000 ft. The station is 75 m. from Goordaspoor, and 
52 m. W. of Pathankot. The Chakki torrent separates Goor- 
daspoor from Kangra hiUs. The Bari Doab Oanal is fed 
by the Ravi at Madhoopoor just S. of the hills, and opens 
out into three main branches. Gk>ordaspoor (4500), chief 
town, 44 m. N.E. of Amritsar, on road to Pathankot ; seat 
of American U.P. Mission. Batala (24,300), in centre of 
Doab, the principal place since the time of Shamsher Eban, 
the .Delhi emperor's foster-brother, and now residence of 
descendants of Tej Singh, who led the Sikhs at Firozshahr 
and Sobraon. Seat of a Church of England Mission. Dera 
Nanak (8000), on the Ravi 13 m. N.W. of Batala, named 
from the founder of the Sikh sect who died in 1539 at Pakohi, 
a village opposite, and whose descendants, the Bedees, built the 
new town, with a temple dedicated to Baba Nanak. Pathan- 
kot (5000), old Rigpoot capital, on the road from Amritsar to 
DaJhousie, at which the carriage-way ceases 42 m. from Dal- 
housie ; being connected with Amritsar 65 m, by rail Kala- 
nam (6000), on the Kirran, 17 m. W. of Goordaspoor, old town 
where Akbar first assumed t^ title of Emperor. Deenanagar 
(7700), at the source of the Eirrftn, named from Adeena B^, 
the rival of the Sikhs in 1752, 6 m. N.E. of Gkwrdaspoor. 
Soojanpoor (6000), at foot of hills 4 m. N.W. of Pathankot. 
Srigovindpoor (5500), on Ravi, 18 m. S.E. of Batala, a sacred 
Sikh place founded by Arjoon, who named it after his son. 

§ 9. JaIiANdhar District is bounded N.E. by Hoehiar- 
poor, N.W. by Eapoorthala State, and S. by Firozpoor and 



208 PROVINCE OF THE PANJAB — ^DISTRXCTS. [OHAP. XIII. 

Lodiana from which it is separated by the Satl^. Area» 
1322 sq. m. Population, 789,555. The Jalandhar Doab is the 
richest soil in the Province, and pays the highest land-tax ; its 
fertility extends from the Satlej to the Beas. The torrents 
from the Siwalik hills, which pour through the submontane 
district of Hoshiarpoor, unite to form the Wliite and Black 
Ben streams, the former in Jalandhar, the latter in Kapoorthala 
State. This Doab was once the Rigpoot kingdom of Katoch or 
Traigartha, dating from Mahahharat times ; the descendants of 
its Rajas are now princes in the hiUs of Ksaign, which was its 
stronghold. After the first Sikh War, the British formed the 
country between the Satl^ and Beas into the Commissionership 
of the Trans-Satlej States, and adopted the fiscal system of the 
able Sikh, Misr Boop Lai. Jalandhar (52,200), chief town, 
cantonment, and railway station on trunk road, the old capital 
of Elatoch previous to Alexander's invasion, with large suburbs ; 
a centre of the American Presbyterian Mission. The canton- 
ment, 4 m. distant, covers 7^ sq. m., with a population of 
1 2,000. Kartajrpoor (1 1,000), 9 m. N. of Jalandhar, heredi- 
taiy residence of Sikh leader since Aijoon obtained the site from 
Jahangeer in 1588. Balion (11,800), on high bank of 
Satlej, 3 m. from its present channel, with cloth and sugar 
factories. Phillaur (8000), on right bank of Satlej, 27 m. 
S.E. of Jalandhar fort, commanding the passage of the river 
and depot of Sind, Paigab, and Delhi Railway. Noorxnahal 
(8000), 16 m. S. of Jalandhar, named after the Empress of 
Jahangeer, who restored it. Nakodar (9000), municipal 
town S.W. of Jalandhar. 

§ 10. ^Eapoobthala, Mandi, and Sooket States are 
directly under the control of the Commissioner of Jalandhar. 
Kapoorthala State covers an area of 800 sq. m., with a 
population of 251,917, along the left bank of the .Beas before 
its junction with the Satl^*. The chief is sixth of the Pai\jab 
feudatories in order of precedence, and holds estates in Oudh of 
still larger extent, as the reward of active loyalty in 1857. 
Randheer Singh, who was thus loyal, married a Christian wife, 
and for a time made his government Christian ; his second son 
became a Christian. The State produces sugar, cotton, wheat, 
and maize, and yields a revenue of £100,000, of which £13,100 
is paid to the suzerain Qovemment. Kapoorthala town 
is 8 m. from the left bank of the Beas, and has a college 
founded in memory of Randheer Singh. The Jat family takes 
the name of Ahloowalia from Ahloo, the village of its founder. 
Phagwara and Sultanpoor are the other towns. Mandi State, 



CHAP. XIII.] MANDI — HOSHIARPOOR — KANGRA. 209 

bounded on S.E. by KooUoo, S. by Sooket, and W. by Kangra, 
has a mountainous area of 1200 sq. m., with 146,631 inhabit- 
ants, who pay £50,000 a year to the chief. Mandi is inter- 
sected by the two parallel ranges, the Goghar ka Dhar (7000 
ft.) and Sikandar ka Dhar (6350 ft.), with salt mines at 
(}oomah and Birang. Mandi town (7500) is picturesquely 
placed on the Beas torrent (2557 ft.). The territory had 
360 forts according to tradition, of which only 10 now exist, 
and Kdhiabgarh is the most famous. Sooket State lies 
on N. side of Satlej, which separates it from the Cis-Satlqj 
States. Area, 420 sq. m. Population, 52,291. Revenue, 
£10,000, of which £1 100 is tribute to the suzerain €k)yem- 
ment. Till 1200 a.d. Sooket was part of Mandi, after which 
incessant conflicts took place in the Bal valley, between the 
chief toi^ Sooket and a point within 5 m. of Mandi. 

§ 11. HosHiABPOOB District is boimded N.E. by Nalagarh 
State and Kangra, N. W. by Goordaspoor, S. W. by Jalandhar, and 
S. by Ambala. Area, 2180 sq. m. Popiulation, 901,381. It 
lies between the W. slope of the Kangra hills running N. and 
S., and a parallel line of lower hills in the Jaswan Doon corre- 
sponding to Dehra Doon in the more easterly Siwaliks. Of the 
mountain torrents which intersect the plains, and fall into the 
Satlej and Beas, the principal is the Soan. This N. pai-t of the 
Jalandhar Doab is most fertile and populous ; it produces flax 
and linseed, and has the finest mango groves in the Province. 
HoBhiarpoor (21,500), chief town on broad torrent, 5 m. 
from foot of the hiUs ; seat of American Presbyterian Mission. 
Urmar (14,000), local entrepot. Meeanee (8000), a mile 
from the Beas, and Harlana (8000), centres of trade. An- 
andpoor (7000), on left bank of Satlej, at base of Nina Devi 
peak, headquarters of Akali sect of Sikhs and residence of the 
Sodhis, or descendants of Ram Das, their leader. Gharshankar 
(6000), on road from Hoshiaipoor to Roopar. 

§ 12. Eakqba Distsiot is bounded N.E. by Himalaya, 
separating it from Tibet ; N.W. by €kx)rdaspoor and Chamba 
State ; S.W. by Hoshiarpoor ; and S.£. by Bashahr, Mandi, and 
Bilaspoor States. Area, 8389 sq. m. Population, 730,845. 
Kangra lies on either side of the Sub-Himalaya chain, and 
consists of Elancrra Proper, the submontane country; the 
central valleys of Koolloo and Bcmcrahal, and Lahaul 
and Spitl on the Tibetan slope. It consists of three parallel 
lines of vast mountain ranges, with a transverse ridge. In each 
of these four basins a great river rises — the BeaB, in the 
Botanff mountains N. of Koolloo ; the Spitl, in the Tibetan 

P 



210 PROVINCE OF THE PANJAB — ^DISTRICTS. [CHAP. Xlll. 

valley of that name, and joining the Satlej in Bashahr State ; 
the Ohenab, from the slopes of Lahaul into Ohamba State ; and 
the Bavi, from the Bangahal valley into Chamba. The Katoch 
princes, each in his highland glen, held their own till 1009, 
when Mahmood of Ghazni, after defeating the Hindoos at 
Peshawar, seized Kangra fort and plmidered Nagarkot temple. 
In 1360 Firoz Tughlak again overran the comitry, and sent the 
image to Mecca to be trampled on. Akbar himself was the first 
permanently to subdue the hill conntiy. The Groorkhas swept 
the country from the Gogra to the Satlej, having defeated the 
Katoch princes at Mahal Mori in 1806, but were expelled by 
Ba^jeet Singh. Kangra became British at close of first Sikh 
War, and was pacified after the victory of Goojrat. Dharm- 
Bcda (" sanctuary'') (3000), chief station and sanitarium and 
cantonment on spur of the Dhaola Dhar (6500 ft.), 16 'm, N.K 
of Kangra town, in beautiful scenery. Here the Viceroy, Lord 
Elgin, died in 1863 ; a monument covers his grave beside the 
church. The annual rainfall is heavy, 148 inches. Bhagsu is 
the military station. Kanfirra (6500), on both slopes of a hill 
above the Banganga torrent, ancient fort and capital, known as 
Nagarkot ; " the Benares of the Paigab ;" seat of the Church 
Mission. Noorpoor (10,000), on tributary of Chakld torrent 
(2000 ft.) 37 UL W. of Dharmsala, the principal commercial 
town, with Kashmeeree weavers of shawb inferior to those of 
Kashmeer and Amritsar only. Jawalamookbi (3500), 
('' fire-mouth ") on Kangra-Nadaun road at head of Beas valley, 
with temple of Devi above jets of combustible gas issuing fix>m 
the earth, and hot mineral springs ; the centre of an annual fair. 
Opium from KooUoo is exported through this town. Soojan- 
poor with Tira, a palace of Katoch dynasty on the Beas, 15 m. 
above Nadaun. Palampoor, on outer slope of Dhaola Dhar, 
centre of tea culture of Palam valley ; here, in 1868, Govern- 
ment established a fair for trade with Central Asia. 

Lahaul is a subdivision of the Kangra district, with an area 
of 2119 sq. m., and a population of 6000, between the Chamba 
mountains on N.W. and Kanzam range on S.E., with Boopshoo 
subdivision of Ladakh on N.E. This lofty valley is traversed 
by the Chandra and Bagha torrents fix>m the Baralacha pass 
16,221 ft.), which unite at Tandi to form the Chenab. Kangser 
11,345 ft.) is the highest inhabited village. At Kailang the 
Moravians have a nussion to the Tibetan Boodhists, of whose 
language Dr. Jaeschke has published a grammar and dictionaiy. 
The other villages are Kardong and Kolang. The headman is 
termed negu Koolloo, another subdivision with area of 1926 



! 



CHAP. XIII.] SPITI — CUAHBA — SIMLA. 211 

sq. m. and population of 91,000, is bounded N.E. and E. by 
the Central Himalaya, which separate it from Lahaul and Spiti. 
It is divided by the Sainj, which joins the Beas at Largi, into 
Koolloo proper and Sioraj, the latter of which is cut into inner 
and outer Sioraj by the Jalori or Sooket range. The head- 
quarters are Sultanpoor (1100), on right bank of Beas, in 
Koolloo proper, and Plach in Siong. Nagar is the old capital, 
a height 1000 fb. above the Beas. The road to Leh and 
Yarkund lies above the right bank of the Beas to Rotang pass, 
then up the Bagha to Baralacha pass, and then down to 
Ladakh. Spiti, subdivision with area of 2100 sq. m. and 
population of 3500 Tibetans under a headman called the Nono, 
Spiti is an outlying Himalaya valley in shape of a triangle, the 
apex of which is the point where the Kanzam ridge and Tibetan 
Himalaya converge, and the base is the transverse ridge of 
Manirang, dividing Kangra from Bashahr. It is drained by 
the Li or river of Spiti. The chief village is Dankar. The 
British Government, in 1846, kept Spiti as the road to the 
wool districts of Changthang, when it sold Eashmeer to 
Golab Singh. 

§ 13. *Chamba State, N. of Kangra, is bounded on N. and 
N.W. by Kashmeer, and N.E, and E. by Lahaul and Ladakh. 
Area, 3216 sq. m. Population, 116,765. The State is locked 
in on almost every side by lofty mountain ranges ; to E. is a 
region of snowy peaks and glaciers ; on W. and S. are fertile 
valleys. The Ravi and Chandra-Bagha (Chenab) flow through 
it. The forests at Pangi on the latter, and Barmaur on the 
former, supply timber for public works. Iron, copper, and lead 
exist ; fine slate quarries are worked ; the climate is well 
suited for tea. Since the chief made over the sanitarium of 
Dalhousie, he pays £500 tribute out of a revenue of £24,400. 
Under a special officer as superintendent, Chamba has become 
a prosperous model State. Ohamba, chief town, is in lat. 
32^ 29' N., and long. 76' 10' E. The Established Church of 
Scotland has a mission here. 

§ 14. Simla District has an area of 18 sq. m. and popu- 
lation of 43,000, on detached lands in the*S. outliers of the 
Central Himalaya as they descend from Bashahr State to the 
plains at Ambala, between the Satlej and Jumna^ The hills 
between the Satlej and Tons, S. and E., culminate in the Ohor 
peak (11,982 ft.) The transverse spur between the Indus and 
Ganges river systems breaks into two ridges just N.E. of 
Simla sanitarium ; one curves N.W. round the Satlej valley, the 
other, on which Simla stands, runs S.E. to the Subathoo and 



212 PROVINCE OF THE PANJAB — ^DISTRICTS. [CHAP. xin. 

Kasauli hills, where it meets th^ Sub-Himalaya range. The 
principal torrents are the Pahar, Gin Ganga, Gambhar, and 
Sarsa. The plots of territory, beginning with Simla site in 1816, 
have been acquired from the Hill States since the Gk)orkhas 
were driven back. Simla (16,000 in August, of whom 1600 
are Europeans; 12,305 on 17th February 1881) is the Viceroy's 
sunmier resort since 1864, at a mean elevation of 7084 ft., 78 
m. frx)m Ambala and 57 m. from Kalka, at foot of the hills. 
In 1822 Lieutenant Kennedy built the first permanent house, 
and in 1827 Lord Amherst spent the hot season here. More 
than 300 houses dot the crescent-shaped ridge for a distance of 6 
m., rising to Jako peak (8000 ft.) in E. and Prospect HiU in W., 
near which is Peterhoff, the Viceroy's house. The station has 
several European schools for boys and girls, churches, banks, 
sarai, markets, waterworks, and breweries. The deodar and 
rhododendron cover the ridges with beauty, set in the background 
of the snowy range. Jutogh cantonment is 4 m. to S. W. ; Maha- 
soo, a retreat on the N. side of Jako, is on the N. road towards 
Kotgarh. Kasauli hill (6322 ft.) of Subathoo group, is a can- 
tonment and convalescent depot overlooking Kalka valley, 32 
m. S.W. of Simla, with Henry Lawrence Asylum for soldiers' 
boys at Sun&war. Dagshai, cantonment on height 16 m. S. 
of Simla on Kalka road. Subathoo (4500 ft.), cantonment 
on extreme point of Simla range above Gambhar river, 9 ul from 
Elasauli, and 23 from Simla ; a centre of American Presbyterian 
Mission. Solan, cantonment on S. slope of Krol moimtain, 
30 m. from Simla, on Kalka road. Kalka (2000 ft), at foot 
of Kasauli hill, where mountain road to Simla sanitarium begins ; 
a bazar and camping ground ; about to be connected with Am- 
bala by railway. 

§ 15. *TwENTY Simla States, Maleb Kotla and Kal- 
siA are under the political supervision of the Commissioner of 
Ambala. The twenty Hill States around Simla lie between 
the Satlcj and Jumna, and stretch from the plains of Ambala 
to the borders of China ; or from lat. 30"* 20' to 32** 5' and from 
long. 76° 30' to 79' 1'. Area about 5441 sq. m. Population, 
450,353, of whom the Kanets, a true Aryan tribe, form 60 per 
cent. The Goorkhas of Nepal subdued the country and its 
R^'poot chiefs in 1803, and the British reconquered and restored 
it imder Sir t). Ochterlony in 1815. (1) Slrxnoor ^"crowned 
head''), or Nahan (12,371 pop., 1096 sq. m.), on right bank of 
the Tons, traversed by the Giri from N.W. to S.K Kahan is 
the Rsga's residence. (2) Bilaspoor, or Kabloor (80,070 
pop., 448 sq. m.), S. of Sooket State, traversed by the Satl^. 



CHAP. XIII.] SIMLA HILL STATES — LODIANA. 213 

Eahloor is the Rsga's residence. (3) Bashahr (64,422 pop., 
3320 sq. m.), most easterly of the States bordered by 
Tibet, and traversed by the Satlej. Chini, one mile from right 
bank (9085 ft.), village with perfect climate, where Marquis of 
Dalhousie projected a sanitarium for convalescent troops. 
Koonawar, subdivision of Bashahr immediately S. of Spiti, 
in which these streams drain into the Satlej, Li or Spiti, 
Darbang, Peejar, Eozhang, Malgiri, and Yala on right; and 
Hocho, Tughlaghkur, Tidang, and Baspa on left. Sangnam 
and Eanum are the chief villages. The Eoonawarees beat back 
the Qoorkhas. Baznpoor, on the Satlej, N.E. of Simla, with 
palace of Rtga, who makes Saharan his summer quarters ; the 
town is famed for the chaddars or plaids which bear its name. 
Kotfirarh, 40 m. N.E. of Simla, on slope above the left bank 
of Satlej (6634 ft.). A Churdi Mission station, formerly a 
native capital and cantonment The R^ja lives at Bashahr, and 
is suzerain of Syree, (4) Nala^har, or Hindoor (53,383 pop., 
256 sq. m.), S.E. of Hoshiarpoor district. Raja's residence is 
of the same name ; the fort is Maloun. (5) Keonthal (31,123 
pop., 116 sq. m.), around Simla. The I^ja lives in village of 
same name. His vassals are the Rana of Koti, and Thakoors 
of Thepgr Ma,dhaTi, G-hoond, and Batesh. (6) Baerbial 
|20,643 pop., 124 sq. m.), with Rig'a's residence of same name. 
[7) Baerliat (8339 pop., 124 sq. m.), with Rsya's residence of 
same name. (8) Jubbal (19,916 pop., 288 sq. m.), S.E. of 
Simla, with Rana's residence of same name. (9) Kooxnhar- 
sain (9574 pop., 90 sq. m.). The Rana's village of same name 
is 40 m. E. of Simla, above left bank of Satlej. (10) Bhajji 
(12,106 pop., 96 sq. m.), with Rana's residence of same name. 
(11) Mailosr (9147 pop., 48 sq. m.), with Thakoor's residence 
of same name. (12) Balsan (5190 pop., 57 sq. m.). (13) 
Dhami (3322 pop., 27 sq. m.). (14) ^othar (3648 pop., 20 
sq. m.). (15) Koonhlar (1932 pop., 8 sq. m.). (16) Manfiral 
(1060 pop., 13 sq. m.). (17) BeeJa (1158 pop., 4 sq. m.). 
(18) Darkooti (590 pop., 5 sq. m.). (19) Taroj (3216 pop., 
67 sq. m.), and (20) Saiifirri (2593 pop., 16 sq. m.), are the 
other States, each with a village of the same name, in which 
the chief resides. Maler Kotla (71,035 pop., 165 sq. m.), is 
a Cis-Satlej State under an Afghan Nawab. Kalsia (67,649 
pop., 155 sq. m.), Cis-Satlej Sikh State. 

§ 16. LoDiANA DisTBiCT is boundcd K by Ambala; N. 
by Jalandhar from which the Satlej separates it ; W. by Firoz- 
poor ; and S. by Patiala, Nabha, and Maler Eotla States. Area, 
1375 sq. m. Population, 618,835. A branch of the Sirhind 



214 PROVINCE OF THE PANJAB — DISTRICTS. [CHAP. XIII. 

Canal from Ambala irrigates the W. portion. In Mdhabharat 
times the district possessed great cities. The Rais of Raikot, 
Rfgpoots who became Musahnans, held it from 1445 ; and 
George Thomas, the Irish adventurer, helped them against the 
Sikhs. In 1480 two of the Lodi princes at Delhi founded 
liOdiana (44,200), chief town, railway station, and fort, 8 
m. S. of high bank of Satlej, held by British since, in 1809, 
Ochterlony occupied it aa a cantonment, and residence of exiled 
family of Shah Soojah of Kabul, pensioned by the British since 
1840. Chief centre of American Presbyterian Mission since 
1834. A^'oining are the bnck ruins of Soonet, old Hindoo 
town. Raikot (10,000), 30 m. S.W. of Lodiana, waUed 
town and old capital of Musalman Rigpoot Rais. Machiwara 
(6500), old Hindoo town mentioned in Mahabharat, on Satlej 
bank 23 m. S. of Lodiana, with sacred Sikh shrine. Jag** 
raon (16,900), grain mart, 29 m. S.W. of Lodiana, on 
Firozpoor road. Bhilolpoor (3500), old town of Hindoo dynasty 
called Muhbpoora. 

§ 17. Abcbaxa District is bounded on E. by Simla States ; 
N. by Hoshiarpoor from which it is divided by the Satlej ; W. 
by Lodiana and Patiala; and S. by Eamal and Saharanpoor, 
with. the Jumna between. Area, 2570 sq. m. Population, 
1,067,263. The Kotaha tract in the centre of the district, con- 
sisting of two parallel ranges, is covered by the forest of Momi, 
in which are two lakes divided by a hill but communicating with 
each other below. The G-hagsrar, which rises in Sirmoor, 
crosses the district into Patiala State. The land between this 
and the Sarsootee (Saraswati) was the first settled abode 
of the Aryan Hindoos, and is a centre of pilgrimage from all 
N. and E. India. Debouching from the hills at the pilgrim 
spot Yad Budree on the Sirmoor border, the Sarsootee flows to 
Chotee Pabnee where it unites with the Choutoung, but is fabled 
to disappear till it reaches Thaneswar and Pihoia towns. Here 
was the scene of the conflict between the Pandavas and Kaur- 
avas ; and Hwen T'hsang, in the 7th century, found a civilised 
kingdom with Srugna, the modem village Sugh, as its capital. 
The other streams of the district are the Chutang, Tangri, 
Baliali, Markanda, Begana, Sukhia, and Sombh. At Hathni 
Koond, where the Jiunna leaves the hiUs, the Western 
Jumna Oanal begins, and the Sirhind Oanal passes through 
a portion of the district. Under the treaty of 1809 with 
Riu\]eet Singh, the British €k>vemment protected the Cis- 
Satlej chiefs, who, after the second Sikh War in 1869, lost 
sovereign rights. The nucleus of the district lapsed in 1823, 



CHAP. XIII.] AMBALA — KARNAL — MAHABHARAT LAND. 216 

and Ambala (67,500), city and cantonment Qn 1843), became 
an important centre of British administration ; 3 m. E. of the 
Ghaggar on plain (1040 ft.), founded by Amba Rigpoot, whence 
its name. Cantonments lie 4 m. S.E. of city and cover 7220 
acres. A commercial centre at point where Sind, Pai\jab, and 
Delhi Railway crosses tnmk road, with fine church, club, hotels, 
and shops, and American Presbyterian Mission. Here in 1869 
the Viceroy, Lord Mayo, recdved in Darbar the Afghan Ameer, 
Sher All. The city is 1020 miles N. W. of Calcutta. Roopar 
(10,500), old town (Roopnagar), commanded the Satlej, on 
S. bank of which it stands 43 m. N. of Ambala and head of 
Sirhind Canal ; here Lord W. Bentinck received Rapjeet Singh 
in 1831, amid great splendour. Jaffadhri (12,300), W. of 
Jumna, 37 m. S.E. of Ambala, destroyed by Nadir Shah, now 
a flourishing town with metal manufactures. Burlya (8500), 
near W. bank of Jumna Canal, with Sikh fort. Man! Majra 
(6000), Sikh Raja's residence at hill-foot, 23 m. N. of Ambala. 
Sadhaura (10,800), old town at hill -foot, 26 m. E. of 
Ambala. Thaneswar (8000), on the Sarsootee, 25 m. S. of 
Ambala, old Hindoo capital in Mahahharat times, sacked 
by Mahmood of Ghazni in 1011. The sacred pool of the 
Sarsootee, fabled to be visited by aU other holy waters during 
eclipses of the moon, is the centre of 360 pilgrim cities, and 
of the most attractive Hindoo bathing festival, which is, how- 
ever, fast declining. Shaliabad (10,300), old brick town, 
midway between Thaneswar and Ambala, an agricultural 
centre. 

§ 18. Kabnal Distbict is bounded E. by Meerut and 
Muza£fargarh from which it is divided by the Jumna, N. by 
Ambala, W. by Patiala and Jeend States and Rohtak, and S. 
by Delhi Area, 2396 sq. m. Population, 622,621. The 
district is watered by the W. Jumna Canal in three channels 
towards Delhi, Hissar, and Rohtak. It is traversed S. to N. 
by trunk road from Delhi to Ambala, and has been the scene 
of the Aryan War sung in the Mahahharat^ and of three great 
conflicts with successive Musalman powers. Kamal (23,200), 
in N., on old bank of Jumna, now 7 m. E., founded by Kama, 
the Riga who was champion of the Eauravas, held successively 
by Jeend Rigas and George Thomas, and bestowed on an 
Afghan Nawab by Lord Lake in 1803. Civil station lies W. 
where old cantonment was ; here is a Government stud farm. 
Kaithal (15,000), old town, 40 m. W. of Kamal, on artificial 
lake, said to have been founded by Yudistheera ; the Eapisthal 
of Sanskrit writings. Memorable as the scene of Henry 



216 PBOYINGE OF THE PANJAB — ^DISTRICI& [CHAP. XIIL 

Lawrence's earliest saooess in civilising. Panlpat (25^022), 
on trunk road 53 ul N. of Delhi, near old bank of Jumna The 
modem town stands on mound of ruins of the historic capital 
Old Panlpat was the pledge claimed by Yudistheera finom Dur- 
yodhan as the price of peace in the Kaurava and Pandaya war ; 
the scene of Ibrahim Lodi's defeat by Baber, who thus estab- 
lished the Mughul dynasty in May 1526 ; the field on which, in 
1556, Akbar, his grandson, restored that power by defeating 
Hemoo, Hindoo general of the Afghan Sher Shah; the city 
beneath whose waUs Ahmed Shah Dooranee, the Afghan, on 7th 
January 1761, destroyed the confederation of Marathas, four 
years after the British victoiy of Plassey. Sewan (6500), 14 
m. N. of Kaithal Kuzgpoora (5500), 10 m. N.E. of EarnaL 

§ 19. Delhi Distbiot is bounded £. by Meerut and 
Boolundshahr from which the Jumna divides it, N. by Elamal, 
W. by Rohtak, and S. by Goorgaon. Area, 1258 sq. m. 
Population, 643^515. The Jumna has slowly gone E. from its 
old bed beneath a cliff now hi to the W., but at Delhi dty 
it washes the base of the stony tableland (500 ft. above the 
lowlands), which is an ofi&hoot of the Mewat hOls, the N. 
outlier of the Aravali range of R^jpootana. Torrents in the 
rainy season flow through the ravines to the plains below; 
in the S.E. of the district the NajaHgarh lake covers about 
27,000 acres in October. The Junma is fordable except during 
the rains, its waters having been drained off by the canals 
before reaching Delhi district ; at Okhla, below Delhi city, it 
supplies the A^rra Oanal. 

Delhi Oity (DMi),— On the 35 sq. m. of this plateau, 
where it is washed by the Jumna, the successive Asiatic 
capitals of India have been built from 1500 b.c. to 1857 a.d., 
^en the Mutiny resulted in the banishment of Bahadoor Shah, 
the last titular Great Mughul, to Rangoon, where he died 7tli 
November 1862. The imperiid ruins have a circumference of 
20 m. at the present day. (1) Indraprastha ("field of 
Indra "), now called Indrapat and Poorana Kila or Old 
Fort, 2 m. S. of modem Delhi, between the Delhi gate and 
Hoomayoon's tomb ; founded by Yudistheera and the Pandavas 
from Hastinapoor, whose line after 30 generations was suc- 
ceeded by Visarwa, minister of the last Pandava ; and his, after 
500 years, by fifteen Gautama rulers. (2) Five m. below the 
modem capital, about 50 b.c., the first Delhi was built and 
named either from R^'a Dilu, successor to (he Gkiutama line, 
or from the fact that the iron shaft of Raja Dhava, set up in 
3d and 4th centuries a.d., remained loose (dhUa), when 



CHAP. XIII.] DELHI AS IT WAS AND IS. 217 

Anang Pal, founder of the Tuar Rajpoot dynasty, dug it up 
and replaced it. The only historical fact is that, in 1052 A.D., 
Anang Pal 11. "peopled Dilli," or restored it as the Tuar 
capital ; and a century after it became subject to the Chauhan 
ruler of Ajmer. From an alliance between the two sprang 
Prithyi Riga, who in 1193 fell as the last champion of 
Hindoo independence against Shahab - ood - deen, whose 
viceroy and successor, Kootab- ood -deen, made this Hindoo 
city the first Musalman capital. Anang PaFs fortifications 
and Prithyi Raja's outer wall (Lalkot and Rai Pithora's 
Fort) may still be traced around the Kootab Minar or 
Muazzam's pillar of 238 ft., in five stories rising from a 
^ameter of 47 to almost 9 ft., which the conqueror built 
beside the mosque described a centuiy and a half afterwards 
by the traveller from Tangiers, Tbn Batuta, as unequalled for 
beauty and size. (3) Tu^hlakalDad, 4 m. £. on a rocky emi- 
nence, a half hexagon with circuit of 4 m., buUt in 1321 by 
Qhiyas-ood-deen, whose son Muhammad Tughlak ordered it to 
be deserted, as we still see it, for Deoghar 80O m. south, in the 
Dekhan, to which he caused a road to be planted with full- 
grown trees. (4) Pirozabad was founded (1351) by his 
nephew and successor, the wise builder of cities, canals, and 
colleges, on the ground between the Ridge and Hoomayoon's tomb, 
outside the modem Delhi GtAte ; here stands Asoka's pillar, a 
sandstone monolith, 42 ft. high, with inscription transferred 
by Firoz Shah, whose lathi or club it is called, from Ehizrabad 
on the Upper Jumna. (5) Modem Delhi or Shal^ahanabad. 
Timoor's invasion, the succession of the Sayyid dynasty till 
1444, and of the Afghan Lodi, overthrown at Panipat by 
Baber, led to the Mughul dynasty. Baber lived chiefly at 
Agra; his son Hoomayoon restored Indraprastha as Poorana 
Eila, his capital ; his rival Sher Shah followed him there and 
has left his mark in Salimgarh,,the fort adjoining modem Delhi, 
called after his son. Agra, Lahore, and Ajmer were from time 
to time the capitals of Akbar and Jahangeer till Shah Jahan 
built Delhi as it is, with the Jama Musjeed and W. Jumna 
CanaL Under Aurangzeb it reached its height of splendour, 
gradually since dimmed by the Marathas, by the Persian 
Kadir Shah, its conquest from the Marathas by Lord Lake 
in 1803, the massacre of more than 50 Christian women and 
children in its palace -fort, and the extinction of the line of 
titular emperors in the captivity and death of Bahadoor Shah. 
In 1857, after the battle of Badli-ka-sarai on 8th June, the 
British held the historic Ridge N.£. of the city whence some 



218 PROVINCE OF THE PANJAB — ^DISTRICTS. [OHAP. xiil. 

5000 men, after a siege which lasted till 20th September, took 
the city and checked growing anarchy over Hindustan proper. 
On 1st January 1877, on a turf-covered plain 4 m. N. of 
Delhi and E. of the Kamal road, the Queen, whose direct 
administration had been established on the cessation of the East 
India Company on 1st November 1858, was proclaimed, under 
Act of Parliament, Empress of India. Delhi city (173,393), 
stands on right bank of Jumna, by a fine bridge across which it 
is entered through a comer of the Salimgarh fort by the railway 
(East Indian and Sind, Paigab, and Delhi), which passes out 
on S.W. to Bombay as the R^jpootana-Malwa Railway. Shah 
Jahan's waUs on three sides, in addition to the river face, 
have a circuit of 5^ m., with 10 gates, of which the Sepoy 
War has made the Eashmeer gate and Mori bastion re- 
nowned ; outside these, in the cemetery, lies the dust of the 
hero, John Nicholson. Of the ten main streets, the finest, per- 
haps in Asia, is the Chandni Chouk, or Silver Street, running for 
I m., 74 ft. broad, E. from the fort to the Lahore gate. Shah 
Jahan's palace — now the fort — and great mosque of marble 
and red sandstone are still among the greatest architectural 
glories of the Mughuls, although military necessities have some- 
what impaired the former. The Queen's Gardens, Institute and 
Museum, Collie, Residency, church built by Colonel Skinner, 
Propagation and Baptist Societies' Missions, are the principal 
public institutions. But in all save historical interest, Delhi, 
like Cawnpoor, stained by the blood of the Mutiny massacres, 
is subordinated to the capital, Lahore, from which it is 
distant 348 nules; from Agra, 113; from Allahabad, 390; finom 
Calcutta, 954 ; and by Ahmedabad from Bombay, 689. 

Sonpat (13,100), 25 m. N.W. of Delhi, ancient town on 
hill of rums. Fareedabad (7500), 16 m. S. of Delhi, con- 
fiscated for rebellion from Riga of Ballabsarh (6500), former 
capital of State of same name, on Muttra road, 21 m. S. of 
Delhi ; a grain mart. 

§ 20. •Pataudi State (50 sq. m., pop. 17,850), Musal- 
man State under the Commissioner of Delhi, is surrounded by 
the district of Goorgaon, 40 m. S.W. of Delhi, pierced by the 
Rtgpootana-Malwa Railway to Bandikhui junction. Lord Lake 
granted the State to Faiztalab Khan for military service agdnst 
Holkar. The revenue is about £10,700. 

§ 21. GooROAoy District is boimded E. by Aligarh and 
Boolundshahr ; N.E. by Delhi ; N. by Rohtak ; W. by Jeend, 
Nabha, and Alwar States ; and S. by Muttra. Area, 938 sq. 
m. Population, 641,848. Goorgaon, the most S. portion of 



CHAP. XTII.] GOOROAON — ROHTAK — HISSAR. 219 

the Pa^jab plain, stretches S. to the Rcgpootana tableland, from 
which two ridges (600 ft.) strike through it, the W. separating 
it from Alwar, and the E. running up to the walls of Delhi. 
Salt is made firom wells and the Rohtak banks of the N^afgarh 
lake. Iron is found in the extreme S. at Firozpoor, with cop- 
per, plumbago, and ochre. At Sonah, the base of the W. range, 
there is an efficacious sulphur spring. Goorgaon, the Mewat of 
the Musalmans, the land of the marauding Meos, has been grad- 
ually civilised since Lord Lake's conquest in 1803. In 1857 
anarchy raised its head, but a loyal native preserved the public 
property at Bharawas cantonment, near Rewari, then the civil 
station, and, after the fall of Delhi, order was at once restored. 
Gkx>rfiraon (4000), civil station since 1821, formerly part of 
the Begam Samroo's estates, and an old cantonment ; railway 
station, 21 m. S. of Delhi Rewari (24,000), 34 m, S.E. of 
Goorgaon, a railway station and chief entrepot between Pan- 
jab and I^jpootana ; an old Hindoo town with ruins of Gokal- 
garh fort of the semi-independent Rcgas. Nuh (5000), 30 m. 
S. of Groorgaon, centre of coarse salt manufacture. Palwal 
(10,650), 30 m. S.K of Goorgaon, the " Apelava" of the 
Pandava kingdom of Indraprastha. Firozpoor (9500), pros- 
perous mart in extreme S., a cantonment of Emperor Firoz Shah. 
Hodal (7000), local mart S. of Palwal on Delhi and Agra 
road. Fanikhnagar (11,000), centre of salt manufacture on 
banks of Nigafgarh lake ; branch railway station. 

§ 22. Rohtak District is bounded K by Delhi and Don- 
jana State, N. by Eamal, W. by Hissar and Jeend State, and 
S. by €k)orgaon. Area, 1811 sq. m. Population, 553,609. 
Rohtak formed part of the region known as Hariana, extend- 
ing from the swamps on the Delhi border to the Ri^pootana 
desert. The Sahibi stream, frt)m the Ajmer hills, flows through 
a comer of the level district ; the N. portions are watered by 
the Rohtak and Batana branches of the W. Jumna Canal. 
Unlike the rest of India, in Hissar the people are gathered into 
many towns, originally for security. Rohtak (15,700), chief 
town on Hissar road, 42 m. N.W. of Delhi ; to N. lies old site 
of Khokrakot. Jhajar (11,650), 35 m. W. of Delhi, old 
capital of State confiscated for rebellion. Berl (10,000), N.W. 
of above, trade and pilgrim centre. Mtgra (8000), Baha- 
doorgarh (7500), 18 m. W. of Delhi. Gohana (7000), Malicem 
(6700), are other towns. Georgegarh, near Jhsgar, fort built by 
George Thomas, who fought his way through the Maratha 
besiegers to Hansi, where he was overthrown. 

§ 23. Hissar District is bounded E. and S. by Jeend 



220 PROVINCE OF THE PAN JAB — ^DII^TRICTS. [OHAP. xm. 

State and Rohtak, N. and N.W. by Patiala State and Sirsa. 
Area, 3540 sq. m. Population, 504,183. Hissar, a sandy plain 
on E. border of Bikaner desert, with hills on S. (800 ft.). The 
Ghaggar passes through it in two branches into Sirsa, and it is 
further watered by the W. Jumna Canal, E. to W. A tract of 
43,287 acres, forming the Government cattle stud, is near 
Hissar (14,170), chief town on the canal, 102 m. W. of 
Delhi; favourite residence of its founder, the emperor Firoz 
Shah ; restored by George Thomas after the famine of 1783. 
Bhiwani (33,800), chief commercial centre for N. R^'pootana 
States and Panjab, 37 m. S.E. of Hissar. Hansi (12,660), 
on W. Jumna Canal, 16 m. E. of Hissar, chief town of Hariana 
till famine of 1783, thereafter headquarters of George Thomas, 
and British cantonment till 1857, when there and at Hissar 
the sepoys murdered the Europeans who did not at once flee. 
Fatehabad (4000), 30 m. N.W. of Hissar, with pillar of its 
founder, Firoz Shah. Agroha (1100), 15 m. N.W. of Hissar, 
old centre of Agarwala Banias, the wealthiest guild in India. 
Tosham, police station 23 m. S.E. of Hona, rocky elevation 
(800 ft.), with rock inscriptions not yet deciphered. 

§ 24. SiBSA DiSTBiGT is bounded E. by Hissar ; N.E. by 
Patiala State and Firozpoor ; W. by Googaira, from which it 
is separated by the Satlej and Bahawalpoor State ; and S.W. 
and S. by Bikaner State. Area, 3116 sq. m. Population, 
253,275. Sirsa is a sandy but increasingly- cultivated plain 
between the Ghaggar and Satlej, a transition ftom the 
desert of Bikaner to the pasture lands of the Satlej tract. 
Sirsa (12,300), chief town, founded in 1837 on N. side of 
a diy bed of the Ghaggar; great wheat market; ruins of 
old Sirsa (from Baja Saras, or Sarsootee) are near. Bania 
(5000), on right bank of the Ghaggar, 13 m. W. of Sirsa. Ellen- 
abad (3500), on the Ghaggar, 23 m. W. of Sirsa, frontier trade 
town for Marwar, with ruins of old town of Khaiial on opposite 
bank. Fazilka (3500), entrepot on Satlej, through which 
trade passes to Karachi. 

§ 25. *LoHABOo AND DoojANA STATES are petty Musal- 
man principalities under the superintendence of the Conmiifl- 
sioner of Hissar. Loharoo, on the E. edge of the Bikaner 
desert S. of Hissar, has an area of 285 sq. m., population of 
13,846, and revenue of £6200. It was granted by Lord Lake 
to the Musalman agent of the Rsga of Alwar for diplomatic 
services, and was transferred to his nephew when his son was 
executed for the murder of Mr. Eraser at Delhi in 1834. The 
chief town of the same name is in the south. Doojana, in the 



CHAP. XIII.] PHOOLKEAN STATES — BAHAWALPOOR. 221 

heart of Rohtak district, has an area of 100 sq. m., population 
of 16,621, and revenue of £7720. Lord Lake granted it to 
the Afghan Nawab for service. The chief town of the same 
name is 37 m. W. of Delhi. 

§ 26. *Pattala, Jeend, and Nabha States, Sikh princi- 
palities Cis-Satlej held by nobles of the Phoolkean clan, founded 
in Nabha by Phool, an agricultural notable, in the 17th century, 
are under the direct control of the Lieutenant-Governor of the 
Paigab. Patiala lies chiefly in the plain S. of the Satlej, but 
also in the hills stretching to Simla, which was exchanged by 
the Mahanga for other territory, where there are slate, lead 
(Subathoo), marble, and copper mines (Namaul). Area, 5412 
sq. m. Population, 1 ,467, 41 2. The gross revenue is about half a 
million sterling. A branch of the Sirhind Canal traverses the 
principality. Patiala, the capital, was built in 1752, and to it 
most of the population of Sirhind was removed ; it is E. of Am- 
bala, with a college. The State has been increased from time to 
time by the Paramount Power for the active loyalty of its chief. 
The request of Maharsga Narindar Singh, and his brother chiefs, 
occasioned the adoption policy of Lord Canning after the Mutiny. 
Jeend, consisting of scattered tracts E. of Satlej and S. of 
Patiala, had an area of 1236 sq. m., population of 251,231, 
and gross revenue of £60,000. The capital of the same name is 
between Eamal and Hansi road and Chautung stream in lat. 
29° 19' N., and long. 76° 23' E. The R^a has been frequently 
rewarded for his loyalty. Nabha.^ with chief town of same 
name E. of Patiala town, stretching S. of Lodiana into the 
Patiala State, has an area of 863 sq. m., population of 261,563, 
and gross revenue of £65,000. Since the first Sikh war the 
family has been distinguished by its active fidelity. 

§ 27. ^Bahawalpoor State, a Musalman principality, 
next to Kashmeer and Patiala in precedence, stretches for 300 
m. along the Satlej, Pai]gnad, and Indus rivers from near 
Fazilka in Sirsa S.W. to Khairpoor in Sind. On the E. and 
S. it is bounded by the Bikaner and Jaisalmeer States. Area 
about 22,000 sq. m. Population, 573,134. The strip of 
alluvium extends from the rivers for 8 or 14 m. to an elevated 
belt in the centre 20 m. wide, to the E. of which is the desert 
stretching into R^pootana. After long anarchy the British 
Government administered the State from 1866 till 1879, creat- 
ing £200,000 of revenue, chiefly from 810 m. of inundation 
canals. The Indus Valley State Railway passes into the State 
from Mooltan and Adamwahan by the fine Empress bridge 
across the Satlej to the capital. Bahawalpoor (20,000), 2 m. 



222 PROVINCE OF THE PANJAB — DISTRICTS. [CHAP. xiil. 

S. of the Satlej, with silk manufactures ; the Nawab's palace is 
near. Khonpoor (10,000), on the Ikhtiarwah navigable canal, 
a railway station and prosperous mart, with ruined fort. 

North' Western Districts and States, 

§ 28. MooLTAN District is bounded E. by Montgomery, 
N. by Jhang, W. by Muzaffaigarh, from which the Trinab 
divides it, and S. by Bahawalpoor, with the Satlej between. 
Area, 5880 sq. m. Population, 551,964. Near the confluence 
of the river system which centres in the Indus, and surrounded 
by the Ravi, Chenab, and Satlej, Mooltan was a populous 
garden in the days of Alexander and the Boodhist supremacy, 
when it was the centre of the Malli, from whom it has its name. 
Changes in the courses of the rivers, but especially successive 
waves of invasion and conflict, have left it a barren, hot, and 
almost rainless tract save along the banks of the three streams. 
Mooltan (68,674), formerly on the Ravi river 30 m. N., now 
4 m. from the Chenab, the junction of the Sind, Pai^ab, and 
Delhi Railway with the Indus Valley State Railway. Believed 
to be the KajspeirsBa of Ptolemy, or Easyapapoor, named from 
the father of the Hindoo sim-gods, from whose temple some 
derive the name (Molosthana), Dismantled after its capture 
in 1849 from Mooing, son of Siwan Mull, the murderer of Vans 
Agnew and Lieutenant Anderson, whose monument, an obelisk, 
is in the fort. The tomb of Rukn-ood-deen, a Musalman saint, 
is visible for 14 m. from the city. This is a station of the Church 
Missionary Society. It is the entrepot of the trade of the Pai\jab 
for Karachi ; Sher Shah, on the Chenab, is its port. Shooja- 
bad (6100), 3 ra. from Chenab, and Khror (5100), 4 m. from 
the Satlej, are local trade centres. Atari, village with ruins, 
20 m. S.W. of Talamba, old city, near the Ravi, identified with 
the " city of Brahmans " taken by Alexander. 

§ 29. MuzAFFASGARH DISTRICT is bounded E. by Mooltan, 
with the Trinab between ; N. by Dera Ismail Khan ; W. by 
Dera Ghazi Khan, with the Indus between ; and S. by Bahawal- 
poor from which it is divided by the Pai\jnad, or collected Five 
Rivers, before their junction with the Indtis. Area, 3136 sq. 
m. Population, 338,605. The district forms the thin end of 
the Sind Sagar Doab. It is most fertile where irrigated, as in 
the middle tract, or inundated by the Indus and Trinab, which 
in Timoor's time united at Uch, 60 m. above Mithankot, their 
present confluence. The camels of the Povindah carriers from 
Afghanistan graze on the sandy wastes. Muzafllaxvarh 



CHAP. XIII.] MONTGOMERY — ^JHANG — SHAHPOOR. 223 

(3200), 6 m. from the Chenab on the Mooltan and Dera Ghazi 
Khan road, the administrative centre. Khanfirarh (4500), 
11 m. S. of Muzaffargarh. The district exports indigo to 
Afghanistan and cotton to Sind. 

§ 30. Montgomery District is bounded N.E. by Lahore, 
N.W. by Jhang, S.W. by Mooltan, and S.E. by Bahawalpoor 
and Sirsa from vhich the Satlej divides it. Area, 5574 sq. m. 
Population, 426,529. The district is a portion of the Ban and 
Rechna Doabs, fertile along the Satlej and Ravi, but barren and 
saline in the centre, or covered with impenetrable jungle. Here 
the Malli flourished, as in Mooltan, and the land was populous 
before war desolated it. Here alone, N. of the Satl^, was 
there a nsing in 1857, when the turbulent Eharrals were put 
down by Colonel Paton with a force from Lahore. Mont- 
gromery (3000), headquarters and railway station midway 
between Lahore and Mooltan on central ridge of the Bari Doab. 
Pak Pattan (" ferry of the pure ") (6500), 30 m. S. of Mont- 
gomery, junction of W. roads from Dera Ismail and Ghazi 
Khan, now 10 m. from Satlej, of which it was the chief ferry 
crossed by Mahmood and Timoor, and old travellers ; a popular 
shrine of Fareed-ood-deen, who spread Islam over S. Pargab — 
whence its name. Kot Kamalia (6000), 40 m. W. of Mont- 
gomery, with ruins of the town taken by Alexander from the 
Malli; sacked by insurgents in 1857. Harappa, 16 m. S. of 
Kot Kamalia, with extensive ruins of another town taken by 
Alexander. Ohichawatni, railway station, on the Ravi, where 
Migor Chamberlain was besieged in 1857. 

§ 31. Jhang District is botmded S.E. by Montgomery, 
N.E. by Goojranwala, N. by Shahpoor, and W. by Dera Ismail 
Khan. Area, 5702 sq. m. Population, 395,296. The dis- 
trict lies in the Rechna, Chach, and Sind Sagar Doabs; the 
Jhelam and Chenab unite below the chief town. The Ravi 
touches its S. border. On its Gkx)jranwala border stood the 
hill and lake of Sakala, the Aryan capital of Madrades in 
Makabharat times, the Sangala of Alexander and the Sagal of 
the Boodhist legend of King Kusa. Sherkot, in the Chenab 
lowlands, was another town of the Malli taken by the Greeks. 
Maghlana cum Jhan^ (21,630), chief town, 3| m. from the 
Chenab, and 10 to 13 m. N.W. of its junction with the Jhelam. 
The public oflSces are in Maghiana. Chiniot (10,731), 3 m. 
W. of Chenab on road from Jhang to Wazeerabad, " famous for 
native painters and artificers." 

§ 32. Shahpoor District is bounded by Goojranwala from 
which the Chenab separates it, and Goojrat ; N. by Jhelam, 



224 PROVINCE OF THE PANJAB — DISTRICTa [CHAP. XIII. . 

with river of same name between ; W. by Bannoo and Deia Ismail 
Khan; and S. by Jhang. Area, 4691 sq. m. Population, 
421,508. This still somewhat barren district stretches from 
the Chenab across the Jhelam, which divides it, over the Sind 
Sagar Doab up to the Salt Ranfire rising to its greatest 
height (5000 ft.) in Mount Sakeswar, and enclosing small 
alluvial basins and lakes. Here also water changes and wars 
have desolated a tract populous from Alexander to Akbar. 
Shahpoor (5000), civil station on left bank of the Jhelam, 
opposite Khushal (8500), on road from Lahore to Dera 
Ismail Khan, a flourishing mart for the trade of the Salt 
Range. Meeanee (7000), centre of salt trade on left bank of 
Jhelam, opposite Find Dadan Khan, through which the pro- 
duce of the Mayo Mines passes. Bhera (15,165), the laigest 
mart on left bank of the Jhelam ; old capital of Sopheites, Alex- 
ander's contemporary, the ruins of which are called Jobnath- 
nagar. Sahiwal (9000), 20 m. S. of Shahpoor, an agricultural 
centre. 

§ 33. GoojRAT District is bounded N.E. by Kashmeer, 
N.W. by Jhelam, W. by Shahpoor, S.E. by Goojranwala and 
Sialkot, fix)m which it is divided by the Chenab and Tavi. 
Area, 1973 sq. m. Population, 689,115. This is a Sub- 
Himalayan district between the Chenab and Jhelam, well 
wooded, but partially cultivated. The low Pabbi HlllB 
(1400 ft.) pa£s into the N. angle from Kashmeer State, which 
begin 5 m. below Bhimbar and run S.W. to the Jhelam, whence 
they trend N. to the Salt Range. The Tavi is an affluent of 
the Chenab in the N.E. comer. From Alexander to the 
Marquis of Dalhousie the district is historically prominent. 
The valley of Mong or Moga, in lat. 32° 39' K and long. 
73" 33' E., named ^er Raja Moga, the Moa or Manas of the 
coins, was the site of Niksda^ and Alexander's field of battle 
with Poms after the passage of the Jhelam. In the old mound 
of ruins, 6 m. W. of Pabbi range, many Greek and Indo- 
Scythian coins are found with the monogram Nik. At Bahlol- 
poor, on the Chenab, 24 m. N.E. of Goojrat, the Delhi 
emperor, Bahlol Lodi, fixed the seat of government (1450-88), 
but Akbar reverted to Goojrat as the chief town. In the second 
Sikh war Sher Singh's army on N. bank of Chenab was out- 
flanked by Sir Joseph Thackwell frx)m the Wazeerabad ferry, 
and was defeated by Lord Gough at Sadullapoor. Retreating 
N. between the Jhelam and Pabbi hills the Sikh general was 
driven ofi" the doubtfrd field of Chilianwala (13th January 
1849). The ten years' wars, which had begun with the 



CHAP. XIII.] GOOJRAT — ^JHELAM — RAWAL PINDI. 225 

first Afghan campaign, were closed by the British victory 
(22d February) of Gkx)Jrat (18,750), on an old site of two 
successive cities, a little to N. of Chenab, so named from its 
Groojar founders. Akbar's fort is in the centre of the town, and 
the public offices to the N. The place has given its name to 
the inlaid work in gold and iron known as Goojrat ware. 
Jalalpoor (12,840), 8 m. N.E. of Goojrat, chief mart, with 
shawl manufactures. Kuiijah (6000), local mart, 7 m. N.W. 
of Groojrat. 

§ 34. Jheiam Distbict is bounded E. by Eashmeer State 
from which the Jheiam divides it, N. by Rawal Pindi, W. by 
Bannoo, and S. by Shahpoor. Area, 3910 sq. m. Population, 
589,373. The Himalaya send out a rugged spur into the 
Sind Sagar Doab, consisting of the Salt Ranffe, a treble line 
of parallel hills of red sandstone and carboniferous rocks running 
E. and W., with a strip of fertile plain along the Jheiam river. 
This is Jheiam district, of great beauty, with the Kallar 
Kahar lake on a plateau among the lower ridges. From the 
Salt hillH the country runs in an elevated plateau into the 
Bawal Pindi mountains. The watershed, running N. and S., 
sends the western streams into the Sohan, and finally the 
Indus, and the eastern into the Jheiam, which is navigated 
by flat-bottomed boats above the town of that name. The 
Salt Range was the home of the exiled Pandavas, and is 
described in the Mahahharat. The much-disputed question as 
to the point at which Alexander crossed the Jheiam (" Hydaspes," 
from Sanskrit VitaHa) has been settled in favour of JalaJi)oor, 
as the site of Bukephala, opposite Mong and close to Chilian- 
wala, where Porus or Purusha was defeated. The main route 
of invaders frt)m the north has lain through this district, 
whence its many fastnesses and its warlike tribes. Jheiam 
(21,107), on N. bank of river, 103 m. from Lahore, chief civil, 
military, and railwaj^^ station, with bridge ; seat of American 
United Presbyterian Mission. Find Dadan Khan (16,724), 
chief town, 1 m. from N. bank of Jheiam river and 5 m. from 
foot of Salt Range, of which it is the emporium, named frt)m 
Dadan Khan, the founder, in 1623. Chakwal (6000), grain 
mart and shoe factory, midway between the above town and 
Rawal Pindi. Talagaiy (6000), 80 m. N.W. of Jheiam, with 
shoe manufactures. Lawa (5500), agricultural centre, N. of 
Salt Range and Mount Sukeswar. 

§ 35. Rawal Pindi District is bounded E. by Kashmeer 
with the Jheiam between, N. by Hazara and Peshawar, W. by 
Peshawar and Kohat with the Indus between, and S. by Jheiam 

Q 



226 PBOVINGB OF THE PANJAB — ^DISTRICTS. [CHAP. ZIIL 

district. Area, 6218 sq. m. Population, 820,512. Like the 
aboTe, this district forms part of the Himalaya spur which 
runs down into the Sind Sagar Doab. Its £. or Jhelam side 
consists of the sandstone Marree Hills, with fine forests, 
cultivated dales, and much beauty. Its W. mountains belong 
to the limestone system Trans-Indus, the chief range of which is 
named the white hiU or Ghitta Pahar (also Eala Chitta 
Pahar). The barrenness of this tract is relieved by the 
Ghach oasis to the N. The Indus from Hazara opens out 
to a breadth of more than a mile containing wooded isles, 
contracts at Atak under the black rocks of Jalalia and 
Kamalia, again opens out into the Ba^rli Nilab (" blue lake"), 
and is once more narrowed at the gorge of the Mokliad Hills, 
its highest navigable point. The Ek>lian rushes down from 
the base of the Marree moimtain, receives the Ehird, Aling, 
Eoorung, Leh, two Seels, and Vurala, and falls into the Indus. 
The Haroh, from one source at N. base of Marree mountain 
and another from Mochpooree mountain in Hazara, reaches the 
Indus near the Bagh Nilab. The Besh carries off the surface 
drainage from the Chitta Pahar to the Indus. ^ On the Greek 
invasion the Turanian Takkas held the country under their own 
name of Takshasila, the Taxila of Alexander, now the ruins of 
Shall Deri or Dera Shahan, N. of the Maigala pass, where 
also the Boodlust Asoka, when a prince, put down rebellion. 
In the Chach valley Mahmood of Ghazni defeated the Bcgpoot 
federation under Prithvi R^ja and the turbulent Ghakkars, 
non-Aryan, whose capital of Pharwala on the Sohan, now a 
fort, Baber took as described in lus Memoirs. The Sikhs did 
not reduce the Ghakkars of the Marree hills till 1830, and in 
1857 the old feud threatened rebellion, which the authorities, 
warned by a faithful native, nipped in the bud. John Lawrence 
took up his position here to organise measures for the peace of 
the Province and the fisJl of Delhi The district was under 
General John Nicholson, to whose native aide-de-camp Lord 
Dalhousie made over the garden of Wah, m the valley of 
Hassan Abdal, watered by the Chiblat feeder of the Haroh, 
and extolled by Akbar for its beauty ; Wah was a resting-place 
of the emperors on their way to Eashmeer. Ra'wal Plndi 
(53,000), chief town and cantonment (7000) on the Leh, 174 m. 
from Lahore, on the Jhelam vaUey road to Eashmeer, railway 
junction for Eohat, and seat of an American Presbyterian 
Mission. Marree (7057 ft.), sanitarium for Paiyab officials 
and troops since 1853, on a ridge of the Marree hills, five 
hours' journey from Rawal Pindi, with magnificent views. For 



CHAP. XIII.] KAWAL PINDI — KASHMEER STATB. 227 

a population of above 11,000 in the season there are sereral 
churches, hotels, and shops, a successM brewery, and a Lawrence 
Asylum. Atak (3500), town and fort, built by Akbar, 
overhanging the Indus, opposite the infall of the Kabul river. 
This is the Atak Benares of the Muhammadan writers, as dis- 
tinguished from Eatak Benares in Orissa. Here were a bridge 
of boats and ferry till the railway to Peshawar was completed ; 
also a tunnel, half constructed imder the river and abandoned. 
Hazro (7500), in Chach plain, commercial centre, with snufif 
manufactures. Campbellpoor is a cavalry cantonment, S.E. 
of Atak. 

§ 36. *Eashme£B State, including Jamoo, TrfMlakh, 
Baltesteui, and Dardestan. Kaahnieer (Kashuf-deo = the 
legendary gin of Easyapa, the Hindoo sage said to have drained 
the valley) is the name of the famous Vale popularly applied 
to the whole tributary State now held by the son of the 
Ri^poot trooper, Golab Singh, to whom Baiyeet Singh gave 
the principality of Jamoo, and to whom Lord Hardinge, the 
Oovemor-General, sold Eashmeer and the hill country between 
the Indus and Ravi, for £750,000. The gross revenue is 
£450,000 a year. The area is 68,000 sq. m., and the popula- 
tion was estimated at 1,534,972 before the desolating famine 
of 1880. The State now includes Jamoo, Eashmeer proper, 
Baltestan, and the Gilgeet portion of Dardestan, up to N. lat. 
36* 30^ at a peak 19,325 ft. high in Yaseen, and Ladakh to the 
Euenlun plains and Changchenmo valley. The whole is bounded 
£. by Chinese Tibet (Gartok and Rudok), N. by the Euenlun 
Range, Eashgaria again under the Chinese, and Yaghistan, 
reaching to the Pamir Steppe ; W. by Yaseen, Chitral, and the 
independent republics stretching to Afghanistan, by Hazara, 
Rawal Pindi, Jhelam, and Goojrat; and S. by Sialkot, 
Goordaspoor, Chamba State, Lahaul, and Spiti. The State 
extends 240 m. from N, to S., or lat. 32° 30' to 36' 30' ; and 
400 m. from E. to W., or long. 73" 30' to 80* E. Rising from 
the great plain of the Paigab (1000 ft.), the two outer ridges 
of l»re sandstone reach 4000 fl. above the sea. Farther in 
are the Middle Mountains, with forest and pasture rising to 
8000-10,000 ft. Then the great chain of snowy mountains, 
running S.E. and N.W. from 15,000 to 27^000 ft., divides the 
drainage of the Chenab and Jhelam from that of the higher 
feeders of the Indus. Branches of this chain (the Pansal, Peer 
Paojal, Darwar, Haramook, and Sonamargr) enclose the 
valley or plain of Elashmeer, with hills sloping down from 15,000 to 
5000 ft. To the N. and E. the Tibetan moimtain system stretches 



228 PROVINCE OF THE PANJAB — STATES. [OHAP. XIII. 

oyer the high level of Baltestan (little Tibet), Gilgeet, and La- 
dakh, the summits varying from 17,000 to 22,000 ft., and one 
unnamed peak, K 2 of the Trigonometrical Survey, being 28,265 
ft., the second highest yet known. The valleys here vary from 
5000 to 15,000 ft. ; the plateaux of Deosai, Lingzhithang, and 
Kuenlun in the N.E., stand at from 13,000 to 17,000 ft. above 
the sea. In Baltestan and Ladakh the people are Turanian 
Tibetans; in the lower and more Indian regions they are Aryans, 
viz. Hindoo Dogras and Muhammadan Chibhalis in the outer 
hills, Hindoo (chiefly) Paharees or highlanders in the middle 
mountains, Muhammadan (chiefly) Eashmeerees in the valley, 
and Muhammadan Dards between the Tibetans and Afghans. 
The Jhelaxn intersects the valley which it has created ; in the 
S.E. end, in which it rises, the stream is navigable for 60 m. from 
Islamabad to Baramoola. The Kishen Gan^ra from the Deo- 
sai plains flows N.N.W. to Shardi, then S.W. till it joins the 
Jhelam below Muzaflarabad. The Maru'Wardwa]i,fh)m valley 
of the same name, flows S. to the Chenab above Kistawar. 
The Ohenab passes through Kistawar and Badrawar to the 
plains W. of Jamoo. Of the many and beautiful lakes in the 
valley, the chief are the Dal or city lake, the Anchar, the 
Manasbal (finest), and the Woolar, through the largest part 
of which the Jhelam flows, all near Srinagar city. Of the 
mountain lakes, the Konsa Nag is on the top of the Peer 
Pai\jal range ; the Shisha Nag above the head of the ladar 
valley ; and the Ganfirabal and Sarbal Nag on Haramook, 
which looks down on the N.E. shore of the Wcolar. 

To reach the summer capital from the Pai\jab, there are four 
public routes with accommodation for travellers. Two from 
Goojrat railway station go (1) by Peer Pai\jal pass, and (2) by 
Poonch ; two from Rawal Pindi go (1) by Marree, and (2) by 
Abbottabad (from Peshawar). The most frequented and histori- 
cal, though not the easiest, is the imperial Goqjrat and Peer 
Panjal Route used by the Mughul emperoDS, once cared for by 
Ali Murdan Khan, and still the commercial highway. There 
are 15 stages. From Goojrat it is 28^ m. to Bhlmbar, town 
with old fort near river of same name ; the last I^ja's eyes 
were put out with a red-hot needle by Oolab Singh. Thence 
over the Aditak and Kaman Goshi ranges, 55 m. to Naoshera, 
above the Tavi, taken by Rapjeet Singh. Rajaori, 28 m. 
farther up the Tavi, is the largest town on the route, and old 
capital of a State. Baram g al l a, in Poonch, 25 m. farther, is 
reached after crossing the Rutten Peer pass (8200 ft.), above 
the Sooran river ; here Jahangeer died, and Noormahal removed 



CHAP. XIII.] EASHMEER STATE — SRINAGAR. 229 

the remains to Shahdera, near Lahore. Fourteen miles farther 
on, amid grand scenery, the Peer Pai\jal range is crossed at 1 1,500 
ft. Shupiyan, 20 m. farther, is the mart for the Paiyab and 
the laigest town on the Eashmeer side. When the Peer Pai^jal 
pass is closed by snow, the second or Goojrat and Poonch Route 
is followed from the 98th m. at Thana Mmidi. Poonch is a 
town of 500 houses on the Sooran ; 57 m. farther on beyond 
Haidarabad is the finest waterfall in Eashmeer. Baraznoola, 
40 m. farther, on right bank of Jhelam, has 250 houses ; from 
this QoolznarfiT, a mountain " down," may be visited. 

Two marches off, or 31 m. by land or water, is Srinaerar 
(150,000) (Suryanagar = " city of the sun"), on either side 
of the Jhelam, spanned by seven of the peculiar Eashmeer 
bridges, midway in the valley (5200 ft.). This is the summer 
residence of the British Political Agent, Church medical mis- 
sionaiy, chaplain, and doctor; and of hundreds of military officers, 
sportsmen, and travellers, for whom the Mahar^a courteously 
provides bungalows in orchards above the city, and camping- 
grounds in the groves on the apple-tree canal {8unt-i-kool\ open- 
ing into the Jhelam opposite the palace. The Sher Garhi, 
a dty fort and palace of stone, is the chief building. The 
Badshah, a noble ruin, is the tomb of the eighth Musalman 
king who introduced the first shawl-weavers from Toorke- 
stan. The great mosque was built by Shah Jahan. Around 
the city the chief objects of interest are the floating gardens, 
covering much of the Dal lake ; the Char Chenar of Jahan- 
geer's wife, described by Bemier and Moore, a mass of 
masonry in the same lake, formerly with a plane tree at either 
comer to give shade during the siesta, and a garden in which 
was a tablet, now gone, erected in 1835 by "three travellers. 
Baron Carl von Hugel, from Jummoo ; John Henderson, from 
Ladakh ; and Godfrey Thomas Vigne, from Iskardo," who caused 
these names of their predecessors to be engraved — " Bemier, 
1633 ; Forster, 1786 ; Moorcroft, Trebeck, and Guthrie, 1823 ; 
Jaquemont, 1831 ; Wolff, 1832 : of these, three only lived to 
return to their native country ;" the Shalimar Bagh, Jahangeer's 
pleasure garden, in which Moore's Lalla Rookh pictures Shah 
Jahan and Noormahal's reconciliation ; the Takht^i-Sulaiman 
hUl, 1038 ft. above the city ; and the Ham Parbat, 250 ft., 
which Akbar crowned by a vast fort. Jamoo, the Maha- 
nga's winter capital, is not far from Sialkot on the Tavi. 

In E. Eashmeer the chief places of interest are the ruins of 
Awantipoor, an old capital, 17 m. above Sialkot, partly 
excavated at Bishop Cotton's suggestion; Islamabad, the 



230 PROVINCE OF THE PANJAB — STATES. [CHAP. XIII. 

ancient Anant Nag, a mile from right bank of Jhelam ; Mar- 
tand or Mattan, 5 m. to N., a massive ruin of a temple of the 
Bim, with a magnificent view ; the Bhoomjoo caves ; Vemagr 
spring, the Jhelam source; Ambemath cave (above 16,000 
ft). On the road to Leh is Sonamargr (*' golden meadow"), 
5 marches E. from Sialkot, a popular sanitarium. Thence the 
track proceeds through the pass from the Sind to the Draa 
valley, 3 marches to Eargil, then 4 marches to Khalsi in the 
valley of the Indus, spanned by a wooden bridge, 4;hen 4 marches 
to lieh, capital of Ladakh, residence of the British Commis* 
sioner, and of the Maharaja's English Governor. The district 
of Zanskar lies S.W. To Nubra, along the Shay ok river, 
the Khaidong pass (17,229 ft.) leads through the Leh range. 
Koopshu, with its salt lake, is a high district at S.E. end of 
Ladakh, ending in the valley of Heunle, near the Tibetan border. 
To E. of Leh, the Panfirkongr is the lowest (13,900 ft.) of a 
series of lakes passing into China towards Rudok for 90 m., 
and navigated by Captains Trotter and Biddulph. The com- 
mercial treaty of 1870 abolished transit duties on goods to and 
from E. Toorkestan, and a British Mission in 1873-4 to the 
Ataligh Ghazi of Kashgar opened up the trade route over the 
Saaser (17,800 ft.) and Karakoram Passes (18,550 
ft.), to Yarkund and the country since reoccupied by the 
Chinese Government. Ohaufiflunfir, in the Nubra valley, is 
the last habitation on the Ladakh side of the British frontier 
S. of Karakoram. 

In Baltestan the chief places are Skardo (7440 ft.), with 
a fort taken by the Dogras in 1840 ; Shigrar (8000 ft.), 
pleasantly situated; Basha, Braldu, Rondu, Deosai. To Gil- 
geet, in Dardestan, 230 m. from Sriiiagar, and centre of a 
British Political Agent till recently, is 22 days* march by 
Astor (14 marches), with the Nangra Parbat peak in view. 
Lieut. G. W. Hayward, sent by the Royal Geographical Society 
to explore Pamir from this side, was, with his five servants, 
murdered at Darkoot, beyond Yaseen, on the Upper Chitral 
road to Badakshan, and 20 m. from Sarhadd in Wakhan, by 
Meer Wullee, who had hoped to use him for the restoration to 
himself of Gilgeet by the British Government. In 1874 part 
of the British Mission to Kashgar explored the Pamir 
("waste") route S.W. from that city to Afghanistan by the 
Sirikol Valley (10,250 ft.) ("head of the mountain"), and 
over the Baxn-i-dunya ("roof of the world"), to Kila Pax^a, 
or the five forts on the Oxus left bank, there 60 yards broad 
in ST" N. lat. and 72'' 30' £. long, in Wakhan, crossed by Marco 



CHAP, zill.] HAZARA — ^PESHAWAR. 231 

Polo in 1272, and by Benedict Goes in 1602. The Mission 
returned by the Great Pamir or WoodVs Victoria Lake 
(13,900 fl.), which was frozen over on 1st May. The water- 
shed is 14,300 ft. above the sea. 

The annual tribute of the Mahanga of Eashmeer is 1 horse, 
12 shawl-goats, and 3 pairs of shawls ; the last is submitted 
by the Viceroy to the Queen-Empress. 

§ 37. Hazara District, most N. of the Indian Empire, 
reaching to ^d"* N. lat., is bounded E. by Eashmeer, N. by 
ChiUbs, and S. by Rawal Pindi. From the Kaerban Qlen 
(6610 ft.), separating Hazara from Eashmeer, the N.W. fron- 
tier-line passes down between Hazara and the Hussunzai 
Afghans in the Cis-Indus strip of rugged hills containing the 
Blaok Mountain, Torbaila, and Mount Mahaban, the 
Aomos of Alexander, held by the Judoons, near whom was the 
fanatic colony of Sitcuia. From Torbaila, the Indus forms 
the W. boundary, separating Hazara frt>m the Yusufzai Afghans. 
Area, 2835 sq. m., of which hardly 300 are level. Population, 
407,075. The district, piercing the outer Himalaya, whose 
peaks rise to 17,000 ft., is a valley 56 m. wide at its opening 
from Rawal Pindi, and narrowing to a point in the dark gorge 
and still lakes of Eaghan, through whidi the Kunhar rushes 
to the Jhelam. Other valleys are Agroz, drained by the Unar, 
Mansahra by the Sirhan, Abbottabad by the Dor, and Ehanpoor 
by the Haroh, all into the Indus. Pakli and Haripoor are well 
irrigated plains, the latter (4500) the seat of the Sikh Govern- 
ment and British outpost now. Lieutenant Abbott tamed the 
district for the first time in history ; in 1868 local disturbances 
in AgTOZ (British outpost) led to the Black Mountain expedi- 
tion. Abbottabad (1200) (4166 ft.), on the Dor, chief station 
and headquarters of frontier force, established by James Abbott, 
124 m. K of Peshawar. Baffa (4500), on the Sirhan or 
Pakli plain, chief mart of N. Hazara and the Swat border. The 
road from Hasan Abdal in Rawal Pindi to Srinagar in Eashmeer 
passes Haripoor, Abbottabad, and the local mart of Mansahra, 
and crosses the Eunhar by an iron suspension bridge, and the 
Jhelam by a ford. 

§ 38. Peshawar Disteict is bounded N.E. by the Bonair 
and Swat hills, N. and W. and S.W. by hills linkiDg the Safed 
Eoh to the Hindu Eoosh, and inhabited by Ranizais, Osman- 
Eheylis, Upper Momands, and some Afreedees ; and on the 
S.K by Hazara and Rawal Pindi, with the Indus between. 
Area, 2504 sq. m. Population, 592,674. Peshawar district is 
a valley, the old bed of a post-tertiary lake, opened te the 



232 PROVINCE OF THE PAN JAB — DISTRICTS. [OHAP. XIII. 

Indus by the Kabul River, and surrounded by the hills (3000 
to 5000 ft.) of independent Afghan tribes. Across the valley 
of the Kabul the range rises to 7060 ft., the height of 
Moolla Qhar, the principal peak, and is opened by 28 miles 
of the Khaibar Pass. North of this stretdiing by the Swat 
Mountains into the Hindu Koosh, and to the S. of these 
mountains — forming part of the great Peshawar basin, down to 
Atak on the £. — is the Tusufisai Plain or samahf extending 
64 m. S.E. to N.W., and 46 m. N. to S., with an area of 3200 
sq. m. and a population of 150,000, partly within and partly 
beyond the British frontier. The Kabul River, believed to 
rise from a spring, Sar-i-Chasmah, in Afghanistan (8400 ft.), 
lat. 34"" 21' N., long. 68'' 20' E., is fordable for 60 m. to 
Kabul city, below which it receives the Logar; 40 m. S. of Kabul, 
the Paigsher ; 15 hl farther, the Tagao; 20 m. below, the united 
Alingar and Alishang ; 20 m. farther, at Balabagh, the Soorkh- 
ab ; and 2 m. below Jalalabad, the Koonar; thence, by the N. 
base of the Khaibjir range, it enters the Peshawar valley at 
Michnee, where it divides into the Adoozai and Nagooman, 
which reunite at Doobandi, whence the river flows 40 miles to 
the Indus at Atak, after a course of 300 miles, navigable on 
inflated skins below Jalalabad. The Swat Biver, wlHch falls 
into the Adoozai branch at Nisatha, rises in the hills divid- 
ing Pai\jakora from Swat and enters Peshawar N. of Michnee. 
The W. and central lands along these rivers are well cultivated 
and beautiful ; the K or Yusufzai plain and Khattak hills are 
bleak. Tl^e Bara, from the S., joins the Kabul river. The Kal- 
pani, from the N.E., falls into that stream near Naushahra. 
Peshawar, or Parashawara^ is the Gandhara of the Sanskrit, of 
which the Pukelas of Arrian, or Pushkalavati, was the capital 
taken by Alexander's general, Hephaistion, and now represented 
by the vast ruins of Hashtnagrar {'* eight cities''), on the left 
bank of the Swat. It became Boodhist till the appearance of the 
Pathan or Afghan ''infidels," before the 8th century. In 978, 
Jaipal, R^ja of Lahore, who held it, was defeated by Sabuktageen, 
the Samani governor of Khorasan, and his famous son Mahmood, 
as Sultan, began his series of conquests at Peshawar in 999, con- 
verting the Pathans to Islam. From that time to Nadir Shah 
in 1738, the valley was under Delhi ; thereafter it was part of 
the Dooranee Afghan empire, or Sikh kingdom of Rai\jeet Singh, 
and in 1849 it was made by Lord Dalhousie the British frontier, 
rather than the Indus. In 1857 the 55th Native Infantiy 
mutinied at Naushahra and Hoti-Mardan, but were chased by 
Nicholson into the Swat hills ; Edwardes held this Qate of the 



CHAP. XIII.] PESHAWAR — EHAIBAR PASS. 233 

Empire all through the crisis. Peshawar Oity (57,000), and 
Oantonment (23,000), near left bank of the Bara, stands 13 J 
m. S.E. of junction of Swat and Kabul rivers, and 10^ m. from 
Jamrood fort at the piouth of the Khaibar pass ; 15 m. S. of 
Michnee, its other frontier-poet on left bank of Kabul river ; 
190 m. S.E. of Kabul city ; and 282 N.W. of Lahore. A mud 
wall, 10 ft. high, surrounds the city ; the Goz Khatri, succes- 
sively a Boodhist monastery and Hindoo temple, is now a saral, 
and contains the public offices. Much trade passes through the 
city from Bokhasa and Kabul to Amritsar and the S. ; but the 
attempt to establish an annual fair has failed. Outside to N. 
the Bala Hissar quadrilateral fort commands the place. 
Peshawar Cantonment lies W. of the city, from whidi the 
Sadr Bazar divides it, on one of the highest slopes of the 
valley overlooking the Khaibar, and covering an area of 3^ by 
If miles. The Church Missionary Society has a large mission 
to the Afghans in the city. Naushahra Kalan (13,000), 
cantonment and railway station on right bank of Kabul river, 
opposite Naushahra cantonment, with bridge of boats, 19 m. W. 
of Atak, and 26 m. E. of Peshawar. Charsada (7500), 
agricultural and administrative centre of Hashtnagar, on the 
Swat, 15 m. N.E. of Peshawar, with adjoining village of Prang. 
Charsada ^aa the Peukelas of Alexander's time, and the scene 
where Boodha pulled out his own eyes. Hoti-Mardan, two 
villages forming cantonment of corps of Guides on right bank 
of Chalpani, 16 m. N. of Naushahra, and 33 N.E. of Peshawar ; 
from this place Yusufzai is administered. Tangi (7500), N.E. 
of Peshawar, near the Swat river and Mohmund frontier. 
Cherat (4500), hill cantonment on Khattak range, between 
Peshawar and Kohat districts ; 34 m. S.E. of Peshawar city ; 
used as a sanitarium by the troops since 1861. Fort Macke- 
son, near the mouth of the Khaibar pass, at foot of Khattak 
range. Shabkadar, fort and town, 17 m. N.E. of Peshawar. 

Khaibar Pass (pop. 8173, of whom 7970 are males, and 203 females). 
— "In September 1880 the army which had been in occnpation of N. 
Afghanistan returned to India throi^h the Khaibar pass. Garrisons 
were for a time maintained at Landi Kotal and AH Masjid, but it was 
decided to withdraw the troops entirely from foreign territory. The 
British Government recognise the independence of the Afreedee tribe, 
who in return pledge themselves to accept no other interference in their 

Solitical relations ; and also, in consideration of certain subsidies, nn- 
ertake the entire re8]x>n8ibility for the security of the Khaibar pass, 
and maintain a body of Jezailchis with this object. The arrangements 
were completed in December 1880. 

" The right to levy tolls on caravans making use of the Khaibar was 
reserved by the British Government, in consideration of the large sub- 



234 PROVINCE OF THE PANJAB — ^DISTRICTTS. [OHAP. XIII. 

sidles paid to the tribe ; and a scale of tolls has now been formulated, 
and dues in accordance with this scale are levied from the caravans. " — 
LietUerMTit-Oovemor^s Heport, 1880-81. 

§ 39. EoHAT DisTBTCT Ifi bounded E. by Rawal Pindi, with 
the Indus between ; N. by Peshawar and the Afreedee hillB ; 
N.W. by the Orukzai country ; W. by the Zaimookht hills, Koo- 
ram river, and Wazeeree hills ; and S. by Bannoo. Area, 2838 
sq. m. Population, 181,540. This Trans-Indus district consists 
of barren hills rich with rock-salt, and with unfrequent patches 
of cultivation. The hills in the E. or Khattak country are 
divided N. and S. by the Teri Tol river, whi(!h rises in Upper 
Meeranzai and flows E. to the Indus, 12 m. N. of Makhad ; N. 
the Kohat Toi flows parallel with it. In the W. the Meeranzai 
valley is more fertile. The frontier hills, which run into the 
Safed Koh, rise into two peaks, Dupa Seer (8260 ft.) and 
Mazeo G-arh (7940 ft.). The Wazeeree Hills, to S., run in 
between the Kohat and Bannoo districts, and do not rise above 
4000 ft. The Afreedee Hills, between the Kohat and Pesha- 
war districts, are crossed by two principal passes connecting the 
two districts, the Jawa,ki and Kohat Passes. The Kohat 
pass or ^i has been kept open by British influence since 
1849, a mounted guard being maintained on the crest or 
hothcd ; here Sir C. Napier led a punitive expedition. On 
the Peshawar side Fort Mackeson commands the mouth of the 
Kohat Pass, and is connected with a post near the mouth of 
the Jawaki pass. The salt mines lie along either side of the 
Teri Toi in blmsh-gray rock, quarried at intervals of 40 m. The 
vein, one of the largest in the world, is a quarter of a mile wide, 
1000 ft. thick, and sometimes rises in hills of 200 ft. The five 
mines now worked are at Jatta, the headquarters, and Malgin, 
9 m. E., both on N. bank of Teri Toi \ and on the S. side 
Narri, 31 m. S.W. of Malgin, Bahadoor Khel, and Kharrak. 
There are petroleum springs at Panoba, 23 m. E. of Kohat, and 
sulphur in N. range. Kohat (18,200), chief town, canton- 
ment, and fort, near N. bank of Kohat Toi, 2 m. from S. base 
of Afreedee hills, 37 m. S. of Peshawar. Hangu is the capital 
of the Upper Bangash tribe of Pathans, and Teri of the 
Khattaks. 

Kooram. — " The evacuation of the Kooram Valley took place in 
October 1880. Daring its occupation by the British forces, a portion 
of the valley which adjoins the district had been made over temporarily 
to the political control of the Deputy Commissioner of Kohat, and a 
question arose regarding the boundary which should be maintained 
after the retirement of our troops. It was settled that the Kooram 



OHAP. XIII.] BANNOO — BEBA ISHAIL KHAN. 235 

river should remain, as before, the boundary. The administration of 
the valley is in the hands of two delegates appointed by the tribal 
council of the Turi tribe, which constitutes its principal population ; 
and, notwithstanding that some interference was at one time attempted 
on the part of the Ameer of Kabul, the new arrangement has, on the 
whole, worked well and smoothly." — LietUenant-Oovemor's Jiqtort, 
1880-81. 

§ 40. Bannoo Distbict is bounded E. by Shahpoor, Jhelam, 
and Rawal Pindi ; N. by Eohat ; W. by the Mahsood Wazeeree 
hills; and S. by Dera Ismail Khan. Area,* 3831 sq. m. 
Population, 332,577. The Indus, from Ealabagh on N., opens 
out and divides the district. On E. the Salt Range from Shah- 
poor meets the Indus at Mari, opposite Ealabagh, and the land 
is like the rest of the arid Pai\jab plain. On the W. the plain 
rises into the Khattak-Niazar or Maidani hills, with the 
peak Sukha Ziarat (4745 ft.) Hence the oval valley of Bannoo 
stretches for 40 m, W. and 60 N. to the border on which the 
Peer-ghul and Sfaiwadar peaks of the Wazeerces look down, 
with the Safed Eoh as a background. The Koorazn and 
Toohi or Gambeela, which unite beyond Laki town, drain the 
valley to the Indus. The Eooram, rising in the Safed Eoh, 
passes through the beautiful Kooram Valley, which is 60 m. 
long and 3 to 10 wide, with a population of 78,000 in 36 
villages, which supply 20,000 fighting men; enters Bannoo 
district at N.W. comer, 5 m. from the headquarters, and faUs 
into the Indus 4 m. S. of Isakhel. The Kooram Pass to 
Eabul lies along the course of the river ; here General Roberts 
won the victory at Peiwar Kotal in December 1878. Ed- 
wardesabad (4000) is the chief town and cantonment in N.W. 
comer, close at the entrance to the Eooram Valley, and on the 
Eooram river just below its junction with the Shaml, and about 
50 UL above its junction with the Indus. Founded by Herbert 
Edwardes, who reduced the wild tribes to order. The canton- 
ment lies around the fort of Dhuleepnagar, so named from Maha- 
nga Dhuleep Singh. Edwardesabad is a station of the Church 
Missionary Society. Laki (4500), on right bank of Tochi, 32 
m. from Edwardesabad. Ten m. from Edwardesabad is the 
Eooram post at the entrance to the valley, at the end of the 
spur of hills which divides the Eooram and E^host valleys, 
through which the Eooram and Shaml rivers respectively flow. 
EUdabafiTh (6500), on right bank of the Indus, at foot of Salt 
Range, 105 m. below Atak, picturesquely built in the salt cliffs, 
and with manufactures of iron. Mianwali (4700), on left bank 
of the Indus. Isakhel (7500), on right bank of the Indus, 42 
m. S.E. of Edwardesabad. 



236 PROVINCE OF THE PANJAB — ^DISTRICTS. [OHAP. Xlll. 

§ 41. Deba Ismail Khan District is bounded E. by 
Jhang and Shahpoor, N. by Bannoo, W. by Sulaiman range, 
and S. by Dera Ghazi Khan and Muzaffargarh. Area, 9296 
sq. m. Population, 441,649. The district extends W from 
the centre of the Sind Sagar Doab to the Sulaiman moun- 
tains, which culminate near the chief town in the two peaks 
of Takht-i-Sulaiman (11,295 and 11,070 ft.), and are held 
by the Wazeeree, Sheorani, Ushtarani, Kasrani, and Bozdar 
tribes of Pathans. The range forms a staircase from the plains 
of India to the plateau of Afghanistan, intersected by about a 
dozen passes between Dera Ismail Khan and Jacobabad, and all 
of growing military importance. They are connected with the 
Zhob valley route from Pisheen, and the Bori valley and Ason 
Ali roads farther S. The Ghomal Pass, between Eulachi and 
Tank, through the range, is the caravan highway of the Povindah 
carriers from Kabul and Kandahar; it follows the Ghoxnal 
River or Looni The Shaik Budeen range in N., with sani- 
tarium (4516 ft.), separates Dera Ismail Khan from Bannoo. 
The Khisor Hills lie between that and the Indus, which divides 
the district. The ruins of Kafir Kot, two forts on the N. border, 
point to the civilisation of the Der^at in Grseco-Bactrian times. 
From the end of the 15th century, when Malek Sohrab settled 
with his Baloochees here, and his sons Ismail Khan and Fateh 
Khan founded the towns of these' names, this Kot family ruled 
till the Afghan Ahmed Shah took it about 1750, and the Afghan 
governor afterwards built a capital at Mankera, between the 
Indus and Jhelam, which Rai^'eet Singh took. Edwardes so 
civilised the people as to take levies from it to Mooltan. Dera 
Ismail E:han (19,000), 4^ m. from the right bank of the 
Indus, chief town and cantonment, built since 1823, when the 
Indus flood swept the old town away, with fort of AJcalgarh ; a 
Church Missionary Society's station. Here is the tomb of Sir 
Henry Durand. Kulaohi (10,000), centre of transit trade by 
Ghwalari pass, on right bank of Looni, 37 m. N.W. of Dera 
Ismail Khan. Leiah (6000), old capital E. of present bed of 
Indus, in S. Bhakkar (5000), farther N. Tank (3400), 42 
UL N.W. of Dera Ismail Khan, on ravine issuing from Tankzaru 
pass ; here Sir Henry Durand, when Lieutenant-Governor, was 
accidentally killed. 

§ 42. Dera Ghazi Khan District is bounded £. by 
Bahawalpoor and Muzaffargarh, with the Indus between ; N. by 
Dera Ismail Khan ; W. by the Sulaiman mountains ; and S. by 
Jacobabad in Sind. Area, 4377 sq. m. Population, 363,346. 
The Balooch tribes begin on the N. and W. borders of this 



CHAP. XIII.] BALOOCHISTAN STATE. 237 

narrow strip of sandy soil between the Indus and Sulaiman 
(7462 ft. here) under the names of Ehosahs, Logharees, Goor- 
chanees, Marrees, and Boogtees, who hold the Sanghar, Sakhi- 
Sarwar, Kalia, Chachar, and Son passes under the British 
Goyemment. Of the Idll torrents the KaJia and Sanfirhar 
alone are perennial, so that in the hot season the people desert 
the " Pachad" or W. portion of district for the hills or the 
Indus lowlands termed the "Sind." In 711 A.D. the Arab 
Muhammad Easim, the first Musalman invader, took the coimtry, 
which became part of the Mooltan administration from Delhi. 
Following Malik Sohrab came the second Balooch invader, the 
Makrani chief, H{gi Khan, whose son founded and gave his 
name to Dera Qhazi Khan (19,000), in pleasant groves 2 m. 
W. of present bed of the Indus, and skirted by Kastoori Canal 
The old town was swept away in 1857 by Indus floods, from 
which a massive dam protects the new station ; centre of Church 
Medical Mission to Baloochees. Mithankot (3500), below junc- 
tion of the Indus with the Paiynad or united Five Rivers, once 
the commercial capital. D^jal (6500), decaying town in centre of 
district. Jampoor (8000), 32 m. S. of Dera Ghazi Khan, noted 
for wood-turning industry. Rajanpoor (4000), cantonment 
and town, 73 m. S. of Dera Ghazi Khan, just N. of Mithankot. 
Mangrota (4500), on the Sangarh, 45 m. N. of Dera Ghazi 
Khan, fort and mOitary station. Harrand Fort, military out- 
post^ formerly the most W. possession of Ra^jeet Singh. 

*Baloochistan. 

§ 43. *Baloochistan State (by the treaties of 1844 and 
1876 bound to receive a British garrison, controlled by the 
Governor-General's Agent, and opened up by a British railway 
and telegraph) was peacefully reduced to order in 1876 by Sir 
Robert Sandeman, from his experience as Commissioner of the 
adjoining Dengat, and is free from allegiance to Afghanistan 
or Persia. The State is bounded E. by Sind, N. by Afghan- 
istan, W. by Persia, and S. by the Arabian Sea. Since Sir F. 
Goldsmid's joint commission fixed the boundary in 1871 in 
order to arrest continued encroachment by Persia, from Gwadur 
Bay, about 61° 36' E. long. N. to lat. 26" 15' N., when it turns 
£. to Nihing river, follows that to its source and to 63° 12' E. 
long., whence it goes N. to Jalk, Baloochistan may be stated to 
have an area of 106,500 sq. m., and the population is estimated 
at nearly 500,000, while the Khan's revenue is only £30,000. 

More loosely, the tract of Baloochistan covers 148,000 



238 PROVINCE OF THE PANJAB — STATES. [OHAP. xill. 

sq. m., divided thus — Pa^jabi Baloochistan, 8000 ; Kalati 
Baloochistaii, 80,000 ; Persian Baloochistan, 60,000 or less. 
Kalati Baloochistan m the region between the longitudinal lines 
57 and 67, bounded S. by the sea and N. by a line sufficiently 
above lat. 28*" to take in the Kuh-i-Basman and Euh-i-Nushadir, 
according to Sir F. Goldsmid. The line of demarcation between 
W. or Persian, and E. or Kalati Baloochistan, is N. at the Mash- 
kid river, and S. at the fishing village of Gwettar. 

From Gwadur Bay, which is the most W. point of India^ 
the coast runs E. for 600 miles to Cape Monze or Ras Muaii 
where Sind begins. From W. to E. the headlands are — 
Gape Zegin, the W. extremity of Gwadur Bay ; Ras Juni, its 
£. point ; Ras Nu, W. point of Gwadur Bay; Ras Pashi ; Ra« 
Arubah ; Gurab Sinh and Ras Muari, E. headland of Sonmeani 
Bay, N. of Karachi. Alexander's admiral, Nearchus, coasted 
this land of the Ichthyophagi and date-eaters from the Indus 
to the head of the Euphrates, while he himself led his army 
back through the Oritae and Gadrosii. The Brahooees (" on 
the waste " = shepherds) and Baloochees, both Muhammadan 
Soonnees, now form the population, the former having become 
dominant under Kumber, the shepherd head of the chief tribe, 
the Kumbarani. The Kohistan or mountain land is the K por- 
tion between Kalat the capital and Kach-Gandava, enters Bidoo- 
chistan from Afghanistan from the N. of the Bolan pass, as the 
Herbui Mountains, throws off a spur to the Indus at Sewan, 
and strikes the sea at Cape Monze as the Elhirthar Mountains. 
The Bolan and the Moola are the two principal watercourses 
which drain the Kohistan. The Bolan River rises 60 m. 
N.E. of Kalat, and discharges itself into the Kach plain at 
Dadar. The Moola Kiver rises 45 m. S. of Kalat, and ends 
in Kach at Kotra, near Gandava. Each gives its name to a 
pass. The Bolan Pass begins 5 m. N. of Dadar, and rises for 
60 m. N.W., 90 ft. in the mile, to the broad plain Dasht-i- 
Bidaulat (8500 ft.), 10 miles from the Seer or head of the pass. 
A British detachment was lost here in a flood in 1861 ; in 1839 a 
column, with artillery, went up in six days. Quetta is 25 m. from 
the head of the pass ; in 1878 a railway was planned here. The 
Moola or Gandava Pass, entered at Peer Chatta, 9 m. from 
Kotri, at Taphoi 9 m. S. of Kotri and at Gatti (very diflBcult), 
leads from Kach-Gandava to the tableland of Jhalawan (5250 
ft.), 102 m. from Peer Chatta. The Qsij and Nana streams, S. 
of the Moola, are absorbed when they reach the plains. To 
the W. of Kalat the mountains are lower up to the desert west 
of EJiaran ; the Dasti or Moolani is the chief watercourse. 



OHAP. XIII.] BALOOOHISTAN — PISHEEN AND SIBI. 239 

Baloochistai^ is divided into seven districts. ELalat, in N. 
of which Ealat is the chief town and capital of the whole 
country. Sarawan, surrounding Kalat, on N.; Mustoong is 
chief town, and Quetta the fort. Jalawan, S. of Kalat ; 
Eozdar, chief town. Lus, to S. on the coast ; Beyla, chief 
town. Kaoh Qandava, E. ; Bagh, Dadar, and Gandava, 
chief towns ; and Sibi, terminus of Kandahar State Railway, 
133 m. from Ruk, in the valley of the Nari, 12 m. N. of Mitri, 
rapidly laid down during the second Afghan war. Mekran ; 
E^, chief town. Kohistan ; Jalk, chief town. Kalat City, 
the capital (7000 ft.), stands on the W. side of a well-cultivated 
valley, 8 m. long, and 2 to 3 broad, surrounded by a mud wall and 
hill on which is the Khan's citadel, stormed in a few minutes 
by Willshire in 1839, and occupied by Nott in 1840. Quetta 
(Kwatta = A^han name) or Shal (Brahooee, meaning " the 
fort") is the British capital (5800 ft.), the residence of the 
Governor-General's Agent, and, in the second Afghan war, the 
base of the southern column which advanced to Kandahar. 
Quetta, at the N. end of valley of same name, on the Bolan 
route from Jacobabad to Kandahar, and 103 m. N. of Kalat, is 
surrounded by mud walls and dominated by a fort on an artificial 
mound in the centre. The railway may be continued from Sibi 
through the Nari pass to Hamai (3500 ft.), thence through the 
Chapar hill to the valley above and on to Quetta and Pisheen. 
There is "an alternative route to the Upper Chapar valley 
on the sides of the Adeena hills, by which the line would pass 
12 m. from Quetta, and over the river Lora to Kandahar." 

Pisheen and Sibi, included in the Pai\jab frontier by the 
Gandamak treaty, were made over by the Tripartite treaty of 
* 1838 to Ra^jeet Singh, and were overrun by the Marrees. The 
boundaries of Sibi are E. the Panjab and Sulaimans, N. Pisheen 
and the country of the Dumar Pathans, W. the Bolan pass, S. 
Kalat. The great caravan routes between Kandahar, Dera 
Ghazi Khan, Mooltan, and Rsypootana via Bahawalpoor, traverse 
these two districts, and have been open to peaceful trade since 
the second Afghan war. Pisheen is a continuation of Sibi to 
the Amran mountains, including Shorawak, and is separated 
from Kandahar province by a desert 70 m. wide. The Kalat 
district of Nushki joins Pisheen at Shorawak and boimds it 
W. ; Quetta and Sibi bound it S. ; the Khakar hills and the 
Zhob and Bot\ country £. ; and Kandahar desert N. British 
officers administered Pisheen for a year before it became British 
under the Treaty of Gandamak and it was administered from 
Quetta. The aborigines are the TarenSi who have been most 



240 PROVINCE OF THE PANJAB — STATES. [OHAP. XIII. 

loyal. Through this country lies the great highway of Thal- 
OhotiaU (3000 ft.) from Fort Munro (6240 ft.) on the Sulai- 
man range past Vitakri, along the Looni and Bori valleys to 
Balozai N. of Quetta. The old Balooch frontier, held by troops 
and police, runs for 700 m. by Ri^'anpoor and Jaoobabad to 
Karachi. 

The Gandamak treaty frontier, commencing also at Dera 
Ghazi Khan, runs in a straight line to Thal-Chotiali, Pisheen, 
Sibi, the Amran range at Chaman, Shorawak, and Nushki, 
whence the Baloochistan frontier runs to the Persian Gulf at 
Gwadur. Se'weBtan is now defined as including all the dis- 
trict drained by the Nari and its affluents. Its rugged ranges 
of sandstone and limestone running S. and W. culminate in the 
Zaighoon Mountain (11,730 ft.), the highest in S. Afghanistan, 
to be pictured only by some of Gustave Dora's illustrations to 
the InfemOy according to the Survey Report. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

PEOVIKCB OP BOMBAY — GENERAL. 

§ 1. Size. § 2. Position and Physical and Historical Divisions. § 8. 
Mountains and Rivers. § 4. Canals and Railways. § 5. Pro- 
ducts and Trade. § 6. Land Tenures and Taxation. § 7. The 
People in Districts and States. 

§ 1. Size. — Bombay Province (still a "Presidency" in 
the military sense, so long as the European and native garrison 
of 40,000 men are under a local Commander-in-Chief) corre- 
sponds in size, population, and position very nearly with the 
Peninsula of Spain and Portugal in Europe. Without Baroda 
State it has an area of 191,847 sq. m., one-third of which 
consists of Feudatory States or 66,408 m., and a population of 
23,273,786, nearly a third of whom, or 6,784,482, are in 
these States. As nearly coextensive with Western India, 
with a great length of coast line and with such harbours as 
Bombay city and Karachi, though not opened up by great 
navigable rivers such as those of which the metropolis, Calcutta, 
is the mouth, the Province of Bombay has a seaborne or foreign 
and coasting trade of £71,695,017 (1880-81). The com- 
pletion of the railway through Rajpootana, which connects 
Bombay harbour directly with the great cities and fertile plains 
of Hindustan, is increasing the trade. The Province yielded a 
gross imperial and local revenue of £11,894,830 in 1880-81. 
Its northern section of Sind belongs geographically and 
historically to the Pai\jab, with which it has long been pro- 
posed to connect it ; but when that is done the Central Pro- 
vince will doubtless be added to Bombay, to which it more 
properly belongs than to any other local administration. 

§ 2. Position and Physical and Historical Diyisionb. — 
The Western Province of India is boimded E. chiefly by a 
series of States reaching from Mysore N. to Haidarabad, Berar, 
the Central Province, Indore, Baroda, Rfgpootana, and the 
Der^jat of the Paiyab ; N. and N. W. by Baloochistan ; W. by 

R 



242 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY — GENERAL. [OHAP. XIV. 

the Arabian Sea ; S. by the S. Kanara District of Madras and 
by Mysore State. The Province extends from the most N. point 
of Sind, 28** 47' N. lat. to 13° 53', and from the most W. point 
of Sind, 66° 40' E. long, to 76° 30', the E. extremity of 
Ehandesh. Within this is the small territory of the Portuguese 
in Goa, Daman, and Diu, with an area of 1062 sq. m. ; its 
population of 444,987 is not included in the above. 

The great natural, and to some extent historical, divisions 
of Western India from N. to S., are these : Sind, or the lower 
Indus valley, fertile only where irrigated ; Goojaxat, or the 
peninsulas of Each and Kathiawar, consisting chiefly of rich 
alluvial plains, industriously cultivated by the Goojars, who give 
the country its name ; the Konkan, N. and S., or the three 
moist and densely peopled coast districts of Thana, Eolaba, 
and Ratnagiri, between the Sahyadri range and the Sea ; the 
Dekhan tableland, sloping away E. from the watershed of 
that range, scored by the great rivers which find their way to 
the Bay of Bengal ; and the W. Oamatio, or fertile black 
land S. of the Kistna river. Historically viewed, Sind is the 
Indus land through which the Musalman invaders poured to the 
rich plains of Goojarat, where the Boodhist Asoka carved his 
edicts on the rock, and Rajpoot dynasties had ruled for fifteen 
centuries, till Mahmood of Ghazm sacked the shrine of Sonmath 
(1024 A.D.), the Toorks of Delhi under Alaf Khan destroyed 
the R^poot capital, Patau (1297 A.D.), and, in 1403, their 
governors became independent sovereigns of Ahmedabad. The 
Kathiawar portion of Goojarat was the Saiirashtra of the 
earlier Hindoos. In the Dekhan, the most powerful R^poot 
dynasties ruled frx)m Walabhi and Goolbarga till the Bahmani 
house fell in 1490. Itfaharashtra gave birth to the soldier 
peasants whom Shiv^ji (bom in 1627) imited into a con- 
federacy from Poona as a capital in 1749, which swept all 
India till overthrown by the Afghans at Panipat, and then 
yielded to the British, who, in 1818, finally reduced to order 
the Peshwa or hereditary " mayor of the palace," the Gaekwar 
of Baroda, Holkar of Indore, Sindia of Gwalior, and Bhonsla 
of Nagpoor. Bombay, the first part of India to become 
British, was the latest to grow into dimensions worthy of 
one of the three old Presidencies, which it became in 1668. 
It was subordinated to the Governor- General in 1773, but, 
like Madras alone, with a Council and Commander-in-Chief, 
and with the power of corresponding direct with the home 
authorities, who have always directly appointed its Governor. 
Maharashtra is the country of the aboriginal Mahars, or the 



OHAP. XIY.] NATURAL AND HISTORICAL DIVISIONS. 243 

*^ great oonntry/' and its people are still the ablest in India. 
The Parsees, who do not exceed 73,000 in number, are the 
descendants of the ancient Persians of the empire of Cyrus, 
who, after the defeat at Eadseah (658 a.d.) of Yezdijird III., 
the last of the Sassanians, landed in W. Thana district in 717, 
and have since prospered in Goojarat, Surat, and Bombay dty. 
The many Jews in the Konkan who call themselves Benl- 
Israel are believed to be descendants of the remnant of the 
captivity who fled into Egypt, and, according to the warning of 
Jeremiah, were sent captive to Yemen, were reinforced after the 
fall of Jerusalem, and thence reached the S. Konkan of Bombay 
at Rsgapoora. 

§ 3. Mountains and Rivers. — The chief moimtain ranges 
run N. to S. In N. on the right bank of the Indus, are ^e 
Khirtliar Mountains, a continuation of the Sulaiman be- 
tween Baloochistan and Sind. Passing S. by ridges of low 
sandhills in the Indus deserts and the isolated hills of Each 
and Kathiawar, we reach the Western Aravali Chain 
(" line of peaks ") which, stretching from Mount Aboo to the 
valley of the Narbada, separates Goojarat from the Central 
India States. From the rugged country S. of the Tapti spring 
the Sahyaxlri Mountains or Western Ghats, which run 
parallel to the sea at a distance of 40 to 50 m., with an average 
elevation of 1800 ft., but send up single peaks to double that 
height. This range of basalt and trap extends S. for 500 m., 
covering a belt of country 20 m. broad, abrupt at their W. 
declivity on which the clouds of the S.W. monsoon break with 
friry, in May-Jime every year, and sloping eastwards towards 
the Coromandel coast. The Satpoora and Satxnala or 
Ajanta Hills run E. at right angles to the Ghats. The 
Satpoora (5434 ft. at Toran Mall), stretching frx)m the E. of 
Goojarat to the Aseergarh fort, separate the valley of the Tapti 
from that of the Narbada, and Khandesh from Indore. The 
Satmala, which form the N. slope of the Dekhan plateau, 
separate Khandesh from Haidarabad State. 

(For Indus river see pages 28 and 194.) The Sabarmati 
and Mahi rivers of Goojarat rise in the N. and S. respectively 
of the Mahi-kantha spurs of the Aravali and reach the Arabian 
Sea near the head of the Gulf of Eambay. The largest river 
which finds the sea at Goojarat is the Narbada or Narmada 
or Rewah (Namadus of Greek geographers), the traditional 
boundary between Hindustan proper and the Dekhan. It 
flows for 80 m., from Amarkantak Hill in Rewah State to the 
Gulf of Eambay below Broach. Running W. through the 



244 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY — GENERAL. [OHAP. XIV. 

Central Province, in which it forms lovely reaches or pools 
(dohs), and falls over the Marble Rocks 9 m. S.W. of Jabalpoor, 
it flows between the Satpoora and Vindhya mountains, then 
past coal and iron mines, cotton and millet fields, through the 
jungles of Nimar and round the idol island of Mandhata, 
receiving many tributaries, chiefly from the S., till it enters 
Goojarat at Makrai. There it separates Baroda from Il^peepla 
State, winds through Broach from half a mile to a mile bnmd, 
and widens into an estuary which opens out into the Gulf of 
E^mbay. It drains but does not irrigate 36,400 sq. ul, and 
discharges a maximum volume of 2,500,000 cubic feet a second. 
In superstitious sanctity the Narbada comes second only to 
the Ganges ; thrice its railway bridge near Broach city has been 
ii^ured or carried away by floods. The Tapti, from the 
Betool district of the Central Province, cuts through the 
Satpoora, which hem it in for 150 m. ; crosses the upland 
plain of Khandesh for 180 m., where it receives several tribu- 
taries, descends to the lower level of Goojarat by the narrow 
Haranphal or '* deer's leap,'' towards the Dang forests for 50 
m., and for the final 70, of which 32 are tidal, winds through 
Surat, passes the city and falls into the Gulf of Kambay, after a 
course of 450 m., in which it drains 30,000 sq. m. and covers 
a volume varying from 120,000,000 cubic yards in flood to 
25,000 at the close of the dry season, in hourly discharge. 
The Tapti is commercially the most valuable of tiie Goojarat 
rivers, but surveys have proved that its broken channel and 
rapid current forbid it to be the highway for the produce of 
Khandesh and the Central Province, which depend on railways. 
The other streams flowing W. to the ocean are mountain tor- 
rents or creeks, from the Sahyadri of which the Shiravati in N. 
Eanara is the most notable for the Gl^rsoppa succession of faUs 
through the W. crest of the Ghats, the chief of which is 890 fb. 
in height. The Sahyadri give birth to the great eastward rivers 
of the Dekhan, the Godavari from above Nasik and the Kistna 
from Mahableshwar, which more fully belong to Madras. 

§ 4. Canals and Railways. — Canals are not numerous 
or extensive in this Province, except in Sind, where by a 
network of channels the Indus supplies nearly the whole cul> 
tivation. In Goojarat and the Dekhan there are 24 small but 
locally important works of irrigation, fed from the Sahyadri 
range by permanent storage, as in the Mutha canal system ; by 
rivers with a supply lasting to December only, in 9 cases ; by 3 
rivers rising elsewhere with large catchment areas, and by 9 
rivers with smaller areas. The most important are the Kiatna 



CHAP. ZIY.] BITERS AND CANAIiS. 245 

Oanal, in Satara ; the Ekrook Tank, in Sholapoor ; and the 
Kirkee waterworks, near Poena. Others are the Palkher 
Oajialf in Nasik; the Ojhar and Lakh, in Ahmednagar; the 
Neera, in Satara ; and the Gk>kak, in Belgaum. The capri- 
cious rainfall of the E. Dekhan, where the famine of 1876-8 was 
most severe, can best be improved by reclothing the Sahyadri 
hills with forests. The area under forest conservancy is about 
13,230 sq. m., of which 7771 are reserves. The Indus Con- 
servancy Department keep the river clear, from which the 
Inundation Canals supply Sind, or the Desert, Begari, Sukkur, 
and Thar Canals. The most important work is the mainten- 
ance of the irrigation channels during the yearly inundation. 
There are no navigable canals in Bombay. 

Bombay is the western focus of the Indian railway system. 
Within its limits are upwards of 3500 miles of railway, of 
which the Qreat Indian Peninsula line has 1288, stretch- 
ing from Kalyan junction towards Calcutta and Madras ; the 
Bombay, Baroda, and OentraJ India has 422, running N. 
through Goojarat to Wadhwan for Kathiawar, and Ahmedabad 
for R^^pootaua and Delhi; the Rajpootana - MaJwa has 
1116. The principal branches and connecting links are the 
Bhaimagar - G-ondal line, 104 m. from Wadhwan, with 
branch from Dhola junction, 31 miles, to Dhorigi in W. 
Kathiawar, 119 m. ; the Holkar and Sindia-Neemach, with 
Oojain branch, 289 m. ; the Neemach-Naseerabad continuation, 
101 m. ; and four small Baroda lines, of which Dabhoi is the 
centre. Under survey or construction are the Eastern 
Dekhan, 173 m. from Hotgi to Beejapoor and Bagalkot, and 
the Barsi Road to Pandharpoor (33 m.) and Bansi (20 m.) 
branches. The S. Majratha or Marmagao-Hoobli line will 
connect Goa with N. Madras, running 49 miles to the British 
frontier, thence to Dharwar, Hoobli, Guddak, and Bellaiy, in 
tracts lately afflicted by famine. 

§ 6. Products and Trade. — ^Bombay Province, as it is, 
has no coal ; but may be supplied from the Central Province, 
where the fuel abounds in the Satpoora region and Godavaii 
valley. Iron is mined and smelted at Teagar, in Dharwar. 
Gold exists in the quartz of the Dambal hills of the same dis- 
trict, and is washed by the natives out of the streams which feed 
the Upper Malprabha, especially the Soortoor. The Province 
produces fine building stone, limestone, and slate, from which 
modem Bombay city has been built Of the occupied area of 
Bombay 85 per cent is under crops, chiefly the great and spiked 
millets in the Dekhan, known ssjotvari and bc^; rice in the 



246 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY — GENERAL. [OHAP. XIV. 

Konkan, and wheat in Goojarat and Sind, and cotton. Since 
1825 cotton has been exported from Bombay ; but in 30 years 
the value of the export had not increased to more than 2^ 
millions sterling (1853-54). In 1864-65, during the civil war 
in the United States, the value rose to 30^ millions, and it now 
stands at about 10 millions a year. The area planted an- 
nually is about 4^ millions of acres, of which half a million is 
under the exotic plant in Dharwar, Ehandesh, and the S. Mara- 
tha States. The out-turn is about 1,900,000 cwts. Gradually 
steam manufacture is restoring a local manufacturing trade. 
There are 42 mills, of which 32 are in Bombay dty, with 
1,158,570 spindles and 12,310 looms, consuming upwards of 
1 million cwts. There are experimental farms in Sind, and at 
Bhadgaon in Khandesh. Silk-weaving flourishes at Ahmedabad, 
Surat, Nasik, Yeola, and Poona ; carpet-making at Ahmednagar. 
Sind produces woollens, leather-work, and the best pottery in 
India. Bombay city, Nasik, and Poona are famous for brass-ware. 
Ahmedabad is imrivalled in ironwork and perforated brasswork ; 
Each in cutlery, armour, and embossed gold and silver work ; 
Eoompta in sandal-wood carving ; and Kathiawar, as weU as 
Each, in stone-cutting. Omitting re-exports, the value of the 
export trade of Bombay in 1880-81 was £34,924,270, of which 
£27,473,096 went to foreign external ports, £1,762,228 to 
foreign Indian ports, £4,345,766 to British ports in other Pro- 
vinces, and £1,343,179 to oth^r Bombay ports. The imports 
amoimted to £34,738,476. The value of the cotton crop ex- 
ported was £9,777,185, and of the grain (chiefly wheat) and 
pulse was £2,278,393, an extraordinary increase over previous 
years. The Malwa opium export to China fell to £5,903,113. 
§ 6. Land Tenures and Taxation. — Settlement is always 
for thirty years, except in Sind, where, owing to the still im- 
perfect condition of irrigation, it has been thought desirable to 
adopt the shorter period of ten years. The advantages eigoyed 
by the occupant of land under the survey settlement are — (1) 
Fixity of tenure conditional on the due payment of the Govern- 
ment demand. (2) His occupancy is heritable, and transferable 
by gift, sale, or mortgage, without other restriction than the 
requirement to give notice to the authorities. (3) His assess- 
ment is fixed, but subject to revision after periods of thirty years. 
The right of occupancy is not affected by the expiration of a 
term of settlement, being conditional solely on the payment of. 
the assessment imposed. (4) He is at liberty to resign his entire 
occupancy, or any part of it, defined by the survey in any year, 
provided notice be given by a fixed date. If waste knd be 



CHAP. XIV.] LAND TENURES. 247 

available, he may enlarge his holding at pleasure on application 
to the district oflScials. (5) He may sublet his lands, and 
Government aids him, under certain limitations, in recovering 
rents from his tenants. (6) His holding cannot be encroached 
on by his neighbour, every field in it being clearly defined by 
boundary marks, and susceptible of immediate identification by 
means of the village maps. Further, the fact of lus possession 
of any field can be traced without difficulty in the village 
records year by year up to the date of the introduction of the 
first survey settlement. 

The tenures on which land is held in Sind are of the sim- 
plest character. Doubtless in the andent times of Hindoo 
nationality, and under Brahman dynasties, the same complexity 
of land tenure prevailed in Sind as in other Provinces of 
India ; but as successive waves of Muhammadan invasion and 
conquest passed over the Province, and when finally the 
bulk of the population forsook the old faith to profess 
that of Islam, the ancient institutions must have gradually 
decayed and given way to those brought in by the conquering 
race. The limd in Sind is held by a large number of peasant 
occupants and by a comparatively small body of large pro- 
prietors. Probably half the entire number of holdings do not 
exceed 5 acres in area, and not more than a quarter exceed 30 
acres. Yet there are not wanting indications that in times not 
distant from the present nearly all the land was held by large 
proprietors. In course of time the zameendaree rights in the land 
were purchased by the tenant, or lapsed on demise without 
heirs, or otherwise fell into disuse, and thus has sprung up the 
present large peasant proprietary. 

The gross land revenue of Bombay Province was £3,812,385 
in 1880-81. Of this 18 per cent ib alienated, or £680,895 
in the same year. The revision of the thirty years' settlement 
up to the same time cost £206,744, and added £879,621 
in all to the revenue; the annual increase was £147,120. 
In 1879 and 1882 the Dekhan Agricultunsts' Belief Acts were 
passed, to protect the peasantry from usurers by means of village 
registrars, and keep them from litigation by *' conciliators.'' 
There are, besides the land-tax, the same cesses as in other 
Provinces for schools, roads, and poHce. 

§ 7. The People in Districts and States. — Besides Aden 
and Perim (34,890) and the Native States (6,941,631), the 
census of 1881 showed that the total population of ordhiaiy 
British territory ^districts) was 16,454,414, of whom 8,497,718 
were males and 7,956,696 females. The number of males to 



248 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY — GENERAL. [OHAP. XIV. 

100 females is 106*7, if Sind be included ; but, excluding that 
diyision, the circumstances of which, as regards the relatire 
proportions of the sexes, are very different from those of the rest 
of the Province, and excluding, also for similar reasons, the 
city of Bombay, the ratio is reduced to 102*5, vaiying between 
90*2 in Ratnagiri — where the male population is generally given 
to spending the fair season in Bombay in search of work — and 
112*8 in Kaira. Distributed according to the main religions, 
the population comprises 12,308,111 Hindoos, 3,021,112 
Muhammadans, 216,224 Jains, 138,329 Christians, 127,100 
Sikhs, 72,065 Parsees, 562,678 persons belonging to forest or 
aboriginal tribes, and 8395 of other religions, chiefly Jews. 
The ratio of each religion to the total population is, per 10,000 
— Hindoos, 7480; Muhammadans, 1836; Aboriginals, 342; 
Jains, 132 ; Christians, 84 ; Sikhs, 77 ; Parsees, 44 ; Jews, 
4*8 ; and others, 0*2. In ten years the population has increased 
by only 168,778, or 1*03 per cent. This result includes a 
decrease in males of 0*28 per cent, with a balancing increase 
in females of 2*48. In Goojarat, Broach is the only district 
that shows a diminished poptdation, or 6*67 per cent, due to 
a severe epidemic of fever and other disease in 1878-9. In 
the Eonkan the di3tricts of Thana and Kolaba show an increase 
respectively of 7*21 and 8*91. The population of Ratnagiri 
fell off by 2*16 per cent In the Dekhan the large district 
of Khandesh has increased from a population of 1,030,036 
to 1,237,231, or a difference of 20*11 per cent This change 
is due to the advance of the district in well-being, as the 
amount of fertile and available land attracts cultivators from 
the older colonies of Goojarat and the Central Dekhan. The 
rest of the districts, except Nasik which has increased by 5*88 
per cent, show a decrease, most of which must be attributed to 
the famine and accompanying sickness and emigration that took 
place in 1876-78. The variation is from 2*25 in Poona, where 
the city has some counterbalancing effect on the rate of change, 
to 19*02 in Sholapoor. In Satara, however, where the famine 
affected but a portion of the district, the population may be 
called stationary, as the decrease is of *02 only, and it is not 
improbable that even this may be due to the absence of large 
bodies of the lower classes on the railway works and in Bombay. 
The Kanarese division shows an increase of 5*88 per cent in 
N. Kauara ; but in the Dekhan, or tableland of this tract, the 
decrease ranges from 21*77 in Kaladgi to 8*56 in Belgaum. 
In Sind the increase has been universal, and ranges from 4*24 
in Haidarabod to 29*91 in the Jacobabad district 



OHAP. ZIT.] 



THE POPULATION. 



249 



Civil Divisions of Bbitish Tebritoiit, 1881. 



i 
I 

s 






1 



s 



QQ 



ExecntiTO 
DiBtrict. 



Bombay City 

Ahmedabsd 
Kain . 

Fanch MahalB 
Broach 
Sunt . 
Thana 
Kolaba 

Khandexh . 
Naaik, including 

Feint 
Ahmednagar 
Poona 
Sbolapoor . 
Batara 

Belganm 
Dharwar 
Kaladgi 
Kanara 
Ratnagiri . 

Karachi 
Thar and Parkar 
Haidarabad 
Shikarpoor 
Upper SlndFxon 
tier . 



Aden 



Total 



Area 
in 

g > Square 
g'5 Miles. 

OQ 



8 
7 
6 
6 
8 
11 
6 

22 
12 

11 

11 

7 

11 

7 
14 

8 
11 

9 

8 
7 

4 
4 
8 



194 



22 

8,821 
1,608 
1,613 
1,458 
1,662 
4,242 
1,496 

10,337 
6,940 

6,666 
6,847 
4,521 
4,987 

4,666 
4,634 
6,757 
3,910 
8,922 

16,109 

12,729 

9,062 

8,809 

2,226 



85 



Popnla- 
tion, 1881. 



778,196 

866,824 
804,800 
256,479 
826,930 
614,198 
908,648 
881,649 

1,237,281 
781,206 

751,228 

900.621 

682,487 

1,062,360 

864,014 
882,907 
638,493 
421,840 
997,090 

478,688 
208,844 
754,624 
862,986 
124,161 



84,890 






Total cost 
of OflScials 

and 
Police of 
all kinds. 



884 
689 
719 
423 
863 
2,263 
1,064 

8,808 
1,696 

1.862 

1,201 

716 

1,866 

1,133 
1,436 
1,204 
1,201 
1,337 

3,968 
1,760 
1,104 
4,060 
138 



2 



Bs. 



8,99,688 
6,31,747 
8,08,918 
8,89,626 
7,73,732 
8,91,739 
2,88,192 

12,43,044 
6,74,860 

8,09,402 

18,86,875 

6,45,156 

8,09,844 

6,95,927 
7,24,808 
6,18.929 
7,17,798 
7,63,326 

6,47,679 
2,12,616 
7,86,220 
6,74,680 
86,309 



2,70,428 



Impebial Rcynrux. 



Land. 



Rs. 
2,69,894 

14,11,814 
20.08,738 

2,89,212 
22,42,786 
26,33,202 
14,98,689 

7,26,417 

32,46,642 
12,82,071 

12,40,330 
14,67,408 
10,60,577 
16,28,362 

12,48,603 

23,61,667 

16,10,014 

7,69,436 

9,73,049 

6,88,849 

2,29,867 

13,18,105 

19,46,601 

2,62,728 



185,453116,489,274 83,752,1,62,87,623 3,23,88,960 

' ! 



Gross. 



Rs. 
7,98,083 

19,17,611 
28,11,461 

3,68,930 
25,35,810 
29,46,146 
19,86^466 

9,48,676 

41,79,118 
17,30,119 

17,44,168 
18,88,786 
12,39,662 
20,46,288 

17,98;700 
126,20,651 
17,69,847 
12,19,696 
11,76,691 

17,07,062 

2,95,766 

14,81,308 

24,18,271 

2,68,666 



1,886 



4,12,80,454 



CHAPTER XV. 

PBOYIKCE OF BOMBAY, WITH Bnn> AKD ADEN. 

Sind Districts and SkUe. 

§ 1 . Kanchi. § 2. Haidarabad. § 3. ^Khairpoor State. § 4. Shikar- 
poor. § 6. Upper Sind Frontier. § 6. Thar and Parkar. 

Northern Districts cmd StaUs, 

§ 7. Bombay City. § 8. Thana. § 9. *Jowhar State. § 10. Kolaba. 
§ 11. *Janjeera State. § 12. Surat. § 13. *Surat States. § 14. 
Broach. § 15. Kaira. § 16. *£ambay State. § 17. Panch 
Mahals. § 18. *Nanikot State. § 19. Ahmedabad. § 20. 
^Kathiawar States. § 21. *Kach State. § 22. *Pah]anpoor and 
Badhanpoor States. § 23. *Mahi-Eantha States. § 24. Bewa- 
Eantha States. 

CentrcU Districts and States. 

§ 25. Ehandesh. § 26. *The Dangs. § 27. Nasik. § 28. Ahmed- 
nagar. § 29. Poona. § 30. Sholapoor. § 81. Satara. § 82. 
*Satara Stotes. 

Southern Districts and States, 

§ 83. Eakdgi. § 84. Belgaum. § 85. Dharwar. § 86. *Sontheni 
Maratha States, Sayanoor, and Akalkot § 87. ^Kolhapoor State. 
§ 88. *Sawantwari State. § 39. Batnagiri. § 40. North Kanara. 

Portuguese Territory, 
S 41. Goa Province, Settlement, and City. 

Aden, Perim, and Allied Ports, 

§ 42. Aden Settlement § 48. Perim Island ; adjoining African and 
Arab Ports. § 44. Sokotra. 

Sind. 

§ 1. Karachi Distbict is bounded E. by Haidarabad with 
the Indus between, N. by Shikarpoor, W. by Baloochistan, with 
the Sulaiman range and Habb river between, and S. by the 
Arabian Sea and Kori creek separating it from Each. Area, 
16,109 sq.in. Population, 478,688. Stretching for 200 m. from 



SIND AND BALOOCmSXAN. 



16 en 




70" £.Gr. 



so 

I i 



SO 



IJO 



■ILftS 



Jkttn/tfrA 6mts^M0takf 



CHAP. XV.] KARACHI CITY AND DISTRICT. 261 

the mouth of the Indus to the Balooch border, Karachi is a 
varied district of hill and delta and swamp. The Khirthar 
Mountains send out the Iiakki "Raxxge into the Sehwan sub- 
division, containing the Manohar Lake, the only large sheet 
of water in Sind and ending in Cape Monze (Ras Muari). 
The Habb river, said to rise in Las — by others, near Kalat — 
forms the W. boundary for above 100 miles after it issues 
from the Pabb mountains, and is the only permanent river in 
Sind besides the Indus. The Balan and Maler, in W., are 
mountain torrents. Of springs, the most notable is the Peer 
Mangho, generally known as "Muggur Peer,'' 7 m. N. of 
Elarachi town, visited on account of its many alligators, which 
are different from the long-snouted ^avi&l of the neighbour- 
ing Indus. Karachi (58,000), chief town of Sind and 
port of the Panjab, on a bay formed by Manora Point near 
Cape Monze, into which the Layan river discharges, at the 
extreme N. end of the Indus delta. The opening of the bay 
between Manora Head and the sanitarium of Clifton is 3^ m. 
wide, and is blocked by the Oyster Rock and Island of Eiamfiri 
£Euther up. From Kiam&ri, the landing place and railway sta- 
tion of the Sind, Pai\jab, and Delhi Railway, the Napier Mole 
runs for 3 m. to the custom-house, whence the Bandar and 
M'Leod roads lead through the town to the cantonments. The 
harbour and dense native quarter lie along the former; the 
latter passes the courts, banks, ironworks, cotton presses, and 
caravanserai for the Kandahar trade to the military quarter, half 
a mile from which is the Government garden of 40 acres^ The 
Church Missionary Society has long had a centre here, where 
Dr. John Wilson was the first, in 1850, to preach Christianity 
in the vernacular. The churches, schools, Frere Hall, and 
Government House are the principal public buildings ; in Gk)vem- 
ment House grounds b a monument erected by Sir Charles 
Napier in 1849 to those of H.M. Cheshire (22d) Regiment who 
fell in the Sind campdgn. A mere fort, dating from 1725 to 
1842, when the Talpoor Meers ceded it to the British, Karachi 
has grown to be a great seaport, with an annual searbome trade 
valued at <£4,000,000, chiefly since the expenditure of £450,000 
on its harbour. Kotii (8000), on the right bank of the Indus, 
106 m. N. of Karachi town, terminus of Sind Railway, and of 
its Indus Steam Flotilla to Sukkur, 270 m., Mithankot, 430 m., 
and Mooltan, 570 m., being superseded by through railways. 
Here, in 1839, the Bombay division of the army advancing on 
Afghanistan encamped. Sehwan (5000), ancient town near 
right bank of Asal, where it flows from the Manchar lake into 



252 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY — SIND. [OHAP. XV. 

the Indus on the road to Ealat and Kandahar ; probably the 
Sindomana of Arrian, with old fort of Alexander on a mound 
surrounded by ruins. Tatta (8000), old town, now 4 m. W. of 
right bank of Indus, and 50 m. E. of Karachi. At the foot of 
the Makli hills, with fine mosque begun by Shah Jahan, and 
ruins of Akbar's fort. Boobak (6000), on Manchar lake, 9 m. 
W. of Sehwan, with carpet manufactures. An English factory 
existed here for a time after 1758. Jerruk or Jhirak (2000), 
24 m. S. of Kotri, above the Indus, preferred by Bumes and 
Napier as an English station to Haidarabad. Shahbandar 
(*' king's port "), now decayed, formerly station of Sind rulers' 
fleet in the Indus delta, and seat of an English factoiy. 

§ 2. Haidarabad District is bounded E. by Thar and 
Parkar, N. by Khairpoor State, W. by Karachi with the Indus 
between, and S. by the Arabian Sea, the Kori creek separat- 
ing it fit)m Kach. Area, 9052 sq. m. Population, 754,624. 
The district is an alluvial plain, lying along the Indus, from 
which it passes E. into sandy wastes. The GkmJa Hills (100 
ft.), a limestone range, run parallel to the Indus for 13 m. 
S. of Haidarabad town. In the N. are the Rohri canals, 
in the S. the Tuleli, and in the £. the Nara. There are 
317 canals, of which 300 are State and 50 tap the Indus 
directly. Haidarabad (36,000), chief town, cantonment, and 
former provincial capital on the Gaiga hiUs, 3} m. E. of the 
Indus at Gidu-Bandar, whence is a steam ferry to Kotri railway 
station. The fort with arsenal, palaces and tombs of the 
former Meers of Sind, and Residency which Outram held against 
the Baloochees in 1843, are notable. Here is a Church Mission. 
The fort was the site of the old town of Nerankot. Meeanee, 
small place 6 m. N. of Haidarabad, where Sir 0. Napier 
defeated a Balooch army on the banks of the TulelL He 
again defeated the Meers at the village of Dabo, near Haidara- 
bad, and took the fortress of Umarkot in the desert, after which 
he wrote in answer to the charge of injustice, " Peccavi" « I have 
sinned (Sind). Hala (4500), on the Aligaig canal, 2 m. from 
old Haidarabad, famed for its glazed pottery and tiles. Nau- 
sharo (3000), on main road from Haidarabad to Rohri 
Adam-Jo-Tando (4000), 14 m. K of Hala on the Sangrowah 
canal. Meerpoor (1500), decayed town on Letwah canal, 41m. 
N.E. of Haidarabad. 

§ 3. ^Khairpoor State is bounded E. by the Jaisalmeer 
State of Rigpootana, N. and W. by Shikarpoor with the Indus 
between, and S. by Haidarabad and Thar and Parkar. Area, 
6109 sq. m. Population, 129,174. The Rajpoot dynasty in 



CHAP. XV.] KHAIRPOOR STATE — SHIKARPOOR. 253 

• 

Sind was supplanted by the Muhammadan Arabs in 711, and 
these by Mahmood of Ghazni in 1025 ; Akbar incorporated 
Sind into the Delhi Empire in 1591. After Nadir Shah's in- 
yasion in 1 740, theDooranee rulers of Kandahar became suzerains 
of Sind, then ruled by the Ealoras, a religious sect under whose 
chief the English established the Tatta and Shahbandar factories. 
The tyranny of the Kaloras led to their overthrow in 1783 by 
three chiefs or Meers of the TalpoOT Baloochees. In Napier's 
war with these the Haidarabad and Meerpoor Talpoors were 
deprived of power, and their descendants are pensioned. The 
Khairpoor family, loyal to the engagement made with Sir A. 
Bumes in 1838, retained its territory as a Feudatory State. 
The alluvial plain is fertile where watered by the Indus and 
Eastern Nara canal in the old Indus bed, but arid elsewhere. 
To the N. are the Ghar limestone hills, which run for 40 m. 
from Rohri. On a W. spur of these is the fort of Diji, 12 m. 
S. of the chief town of ELhairpoor (7500), on the Meerwah 
canal, 15 m. E. of the Indus, a mart for the indigo and grain 
raised in the State, with manufactures of cloth and arms. 
The Meer has an annual revenue of £45,350. The State is 
divided into the six districts of Meerwah, Wadi Goghri, Nandi 
Goghri, Ladho Gagan, Nara, and Jabo. The largest town is 
Raneepoor (6500), on the road from Haidarabad to Rohri, from 
which it is 45 m. S.W. There is much good land, but it is kept 
as a game preserve. 

§ 4. Shikabpoob District is bounded E. by Jaisalmeer 
and Bahawalpoor States, N. by the Frontier District, W. by the 
Ehirthar mountains, and S. by Karachi and Khairpoor State. 
Area, 8809 sq. m. Population, 852,986. The plain of the 
Indus, which intersects the district, is broken at Sukkur and 
Rohri by limestone hills, which enclose the river. The Khirthar 
Bansre, on the W. border, rises to 7000 ft. The sandhills of 
Rohri, termed the ^* Registhan," are bold in outline and largely 
covered with forests which extend over 207 sq. m. The dis- 
trict is often flooded. Shikarpoor (39,000), chief town, and 
entrepot for transit trade between the Bolan Pass and Karachi, 
18 m. W. of the Indus, between the Ghota Begari and Raiswah 
branches of the Sind Ganal, in the midst of a fertile tract. 
Shikarpoor is 10 m. from Ruk on the Sibi railway. It is 22 m. 
N.W. of Sukkur (13,000), railway station on right bank of 
Indus, opposite Rohri, 330 m. from Karachi; with Bukkur, an 
island fortress between, and the principal British arsenal during 
Sind and Afghan campaigns, now a jail. A little below Sukkur 
the Indus will be crossed by a railway bridge costing £270,000. 



254 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY — BIND. [OHAP. XV. 

Ruk junction, 315 m. from Karachi, is the station for Sibi, 
133 m. N.W., and Kandahar. Rohri (9000), railway station 
on left bank of Indus, on a limestone eminence ; the mouth of 
the E. Nara channel is on N. side of town, a picturesque place 
with many Muhammadan mosques; the ancient Loharkot. 
Beti, railway station on E. border, 4 m. S. of which are the 
yast ruiDS of Vgnot, a chief city before the Moslem conquest. 
Seorai Fort ruins lie 3 m. N.W. of Wulhar station in Baha- 
walpoor. Lctrkana (11,000), the " Eden of Sind," on S. 
bank of Lar canal, in the centre of the finest part of Sind, 
40 m. S.W. of Shikarpoor, a grain mart, with manufactures of 
cotton, leather, and metal Mehar (1300), a pretty town 36 m. 
S.W. of Larkana, on the Kakol canal. The old Rcgpoot capital 
was at Aror, captured in 711 by Muhammadans, 5 m. £. of 
Bohri. 

§ 5. Uppkb Sind Fbontier District is bounded S, by 
Bohri subdivision of Shikarpoor and Bahawalpoor from which 
it is divided by the Indus, N. by Bera Ghazi Khan and 
Baloochistan, W. by Baloochistan, and S. by Shikarpoor. 
Area, 2225 sq. m. Population, 124,181. The extreme N. 
point is G-yandarl Hill, a stream from which to Mithri is the 
boundary between Sind and the Paigab. From the same hiU 
its Balooch border runs W. to the Lehni tower. Hilly in the 
N.E., the district is otherwise a strip of plain with high sand- 
hills, and half of it subject to inundation. Six canals draw off 
the Indus to fertilise the soil The Begari, from the Indus, 
forms the S.E. boundary with Shikarpoor for 85 m., and sends 
off the Noorwa (which again has the short Bud'WB branch), 
the Sonwa, and the Mirzawa. The Desert Canal runs 35 m. 
into the desert W. of Kashmor. Jaoobabad (11,000), chief 
town and military frontier station, founded by General John 
Jacob, who tamed the frontier tribes, and is buried here. It is 
26 m. from Shikarpoor on the trade route to Kandahar by the 
Bolan Pass, and 36 m. from Buk on the railway to Sibi. Thizl 
(1200), 23 m. E. of Jacobabad. Kashmor (1000), 86 m. N.E. 
of Jacobabad, on a canal near the Indus, often destroyed by floods. 

§ 6. THiLB and Parkar District, under a Political Super- 
intendent, is bounded E. by Malani State in BigpootaoA) 
N. by Khairpoor State, W. by Haidarabad, and S. by Kach. 
Area, 12,729 sq. m. Population, 203,344. The plain of the 
Eastern Nara is fertile, including Umarkot subdivision, but 
the rest is Thar or desert ; Farkar is the peninsula S.E., which 
runs into the salt marsh known as the Bann of Kach, and is 
intersected by low ranges (380 ft.) rising into the Kaluz^har 



CHAP. XT.] BOMBAY CITY. 256 

Hills. The Mithrau Oanal for 123 m. irrigates the W. 
tracts which the Nara does not reach, and there are twelve 
smaller canals. The Mokhai Salt Lake is in the Thar. 
Umarkot (4000), chief town, on a canal on the edge of the 
£. desert, where the great Akbar was bom in October 1542, 
when his father Hoomayoon was an exile on his way to 
Afghanistan ; a stone slab with an inscription marks the spot. 
In 1591 Akbar marched through the town to conquer Sind. 
Nasrar Parkar (2500), 120 m. S.E. from Umarkot, on N.E. 
comer of the Rann of Each, an old town. Nabisar, Ehipra, 
Sanghar, Chachra, Gadra, Mitti, Islamkot, Yirawah, and Dipla, 
are village municipalities with fewer than 2500 inhabitants. 
From Umarkot to Haidarabad there is a road, but elsewhere 
the sandhills make travelling difficult 

Northern DUtricU and States, 

§ 7. BoiCBAY CiTT (773,196) (named from Mumba, the 
chief goddess, whence the Maratha name Mumbai or Mahima 
= " great mother," Tanna-ifaj^amda = name of Konkan king- 
dom in 16th centuiy, and Maimbi = Portuguese name), capital 
of Bombay Province, chief city of Westem India and finest 
harbour in S. Asia. Formerly one of a group of islands off the 
Konkan coast on the Indian Ocean, Bombay has long been 
connected by causeway with Salsette, and that with the main- 
land. Bombay is a great city scattered over 22 sq. m., in 
18** 58' N. lat. and 72'* 52' E. long. Charles II. received 
Bombay island from Portugal in 1661 as part of the Infanta 
Catherina's dowry, and in 1668 transferred it to the East India 
Ck)mpany, whose agents in Surat had long coveted it for naval 
and commercial purposes. From the first an asylum for all 
the races around the Indian Ocean, Bombay grew chiefly within 
the walls of the Fort till 1863-66, when the American Civil 
War gave it the cotton supply of the world, the Fort walls were 
removed, and much of the wealth was used to extend and 
adorn the dty with public buildings, in spite of a time of 
financial panic. From N. to S. the connected islands, of which 
Bombay is the most exposed to the Indian Ocean, and which 
are probably the Heptanesia of Arrian, are these — (1) Bassein ; 
(2) Dravi ; (3) Versova ; (4) Salsette ; (5) Bombay ; (6) Old 
Woman's Island; (7) Eolaba; then within the harbour between 
these and the mainland, (8) Trombay; (9) Elephanta; (10) 
Butcher's Island; (11) Gibbet Island; (12) Kar^xgA. Bombay 
stretches N. for 11^ m. fipom Kolaba point to Sion causeway 



256 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY. [CHAP. XV. 

which connects it with Salsette, and is from 3 to 4 m. broad, 
in trapezoid form. It consists of a low plain or " Flats " 
between two parallel ridges which run out into the sea. The 
outer and shorter is Malabar hill, the favourite residence of the 
wealthy Europeans and Parsees, on the summit of which are 
the Parsee " towers of silence ;" at the point is the Governor's 
sunmier house. The longer is Kolaba, with barracks, docks, 
and factories, and lighthouse on the Prongs, a reef to S., rounding 
which the noble harbour is gained, with the Prince's Dock. 
Between Malabar and Kolaba points lies the shallow tidal Back 
Bay, much of which was reclaimed during the cotton speculative 
mania. On the N.£. side are the esplanade and principal public 
offices erected at that time, the Secretariat, the University, the 
Courts, and the Sailors' Home adjoining the Apollo Bandaj', or 
Palawa landing-place on the E. or harbour side, whence the mail- 
steamers, after landing the mails, pass N. to the head of the 
harbour at Mazagaon. N. of the Apollo Bandar and E. of the 
Esplanade is the city proper or fort, where are the Town Hall 
with the Elphinstone circle of mercantile offices on either side ; 
St. Thomas's Cathedral, the oldest Protestant church in India 
(1718), where lies Jonathan Duncan, the Governor who put 
down infanticide in Benares and Kathiawar; the mint, custom- 
house, dockyard, and cotton green. Farther N., between 
Girgaum quarter, at the head of Bade Bay and the new 
wharves on the harbour, is the densely peopled native city, with 
picturesque streets, new markets, railway stations, hospitals, 
and colleges. At Ambrolie are the Free Church Institution, 
Maratha church and girls' schools, built by John Wilson, D.D., 
who was buried in the Scottish Cemetery, now closed, after 
a missionary career of forty years. N. of the Native City, 
across the breadth of the island from W. to £., are Breach 
Candy, a favourite European quarter, on the Indian Ocean ; the 
raceeourse, Byculla with the club, many English and Native 
houses, Elphinstone College, Victoria Gardens, and the marine 
quarter of Mazagaon, the point of departure of the mail- 
steamers. At Parell, still to the N., is Government House 
since 1771, formerly a Jesuit establishment, with paintings 
and busts of several public men ; the statues of sudi are to 
be found chiefly in the Town Hall There are 30 cotton 
mills at ^ork with about a million spindles. Since their 
flight from Persia and its foundation, Bombay has been the 
headquarters of the enterprising and loyal Parsees. Hardly 
less active as traders are the Hindoo Banias of Goojarat and 
Marwarees of Central India; and the Musalman Bohoras, 



CHAP. XV.] BOMBAY crry — elephanta. 267 

Khojas, and Memons, all of whom trade along the £. coast of 
Africa and S. and E. coasts of Asia, from Zanzibar to Shanghai. 
The municipality has a revenue from somewhat heavy taxa- 
tion of about the third of a million sterling. In a military 
sense Bombay is under Poona, where are the headquarters, but 
is the place of landing and departure for all the British troops. 
The principal Missionary Societies have colleges, schools, and 
establishments here since the charter of 1813 granted tolera- 
tion. Mountstuart Elphinstone was Governor in 1819, Sir 
John Malcolm succeeded him in 1827, Sir Robert Grant in 
1835, Sir George R Clerk in 1847 and again in 1860, and 
Lord Elphinstone in 1855. Of most of these there are 
public memorials in Bombay, also of the Queen-Empress. The 
naturalist Victor Jacquemont died in Bombay, from which 
his remains were lately removed to France. The dty draws 
its water from Vihar Lake (1400 acres), 15 m. N., near 
Bhandoop railway station, and Tools! Lake, N. of Vihar. 

In 1880 the number of births registered, excluding still- 
bom, was 17,247, being 22*84 per miUe on the population at 
the census of 1881. Of these, 9388 were males and 7851 
were females. The number still-bom was 1253, against 1113 
in 1879. The number registered is considerably in advance of 
the previous year, but these returns are manifestly imperfect. 
Exclusive of still-bom, 21,146 deaths were registered, being 
1381 fewer than in 1879. The death-rate, calculated on the 
rough total at the census of 1881, was 28*01 per 1000. The 
death-rate varied from 12*27 in the southem division of the 
Fort to 48*86 per 1000 in Ehara Talao and 54*15 per 1000 
in Kamathipoora. Of the total number of deaths, 11,180 
were of males and 9966 were of females. Seven thousand 
five hundred deaths from fever of all kinds were r^stered; 
30 cases of cholera proved fatal out of 50 ; 207 deaths were 
registered due to smallpox ; 2710 due to phthisis, against 2949 
in 1879 ; 2304 deaths occurred from diseases of the digestive 
system; 1973 from diseases of the respiratory system; 56 as 
against 36 from syphilis, including its after effects ; and 345 
deaths from accidents and violence. Measles assumed an 
epidemic form, causing 3365 death& Of the numerous races 
in the city of Bombay, the lowest rate of mortality was 
among the Parsees. This was the case in the two previous 
years also. 

Mephanta Island, so named by the Portuguese from the 
stone elephant formerly there, but called by natives Gharapoori 
(" place of the rock " or of " purification "), 6 m. K of Bombay, 

S 



258 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY. [OHAP. XV. 

and 4 W. of mainland, with a circumference of 4^ m., is much 
visited for its great cave in W. hill (250 ft.), where from the 
compact trap several remarkable Brahmanical shrines were cut 
about the 8th century a.d. The laigest measures 130 ft. back 
from the entrance, and forms, in its central area, a square of 
91 ft. supported by six rows of columns six in each row, save 
at the sacellmn. The most famous sculpture is the colossal 
Trimoorti, or three-faced bust of the Hindoo triad. 

Salsette Island (Shatshashthi), stretching N. from head 
of Bombay harbour 16 m. to Bassein inlet, with an area of 
150 sq. m., long a favourite settlement of the Portuguese, and 
peculiarly rich in rock-temples, the most famous of which are 
the 109 Boodhist caves of Kanheri, 6 m. W. of Thana, exca- 
vated in volcanic breccia which rises to 1550 ft. The other 
groups of caves are at Marol to S. and at Magathana, Mandar 
peswar (Montpezor), ani Jogeswari, in N.W. Their age ranges 
from before the Christian era to the end of the 9 th century a.d. 

§ 8. Thana District, or the N. Konkan, is bounded E. by 
Poona, Nasik, and Ahmednagar; N. by Portuguese Daman 
and Surat ; W. by the Arabian Sea ; and S. by Kolaba district. 
Area, 4242 sq. m. Population, 908,548. Thana district con- 
sists of Salsette, a Eonkan strip of coast> and the slopes of the 
Bahyadrl or Vl. G-hats to the tableland of the Dekhan (2500 
ft.), reached by the Thai pass (1912 ft.), and railway ii\cline 
to N.E. for Allahabad, and Calcutta, and Bor pass (1798 ft.), 
and incline to S. for Poona and Madras, both great engineering 
works. This district forms the transition from the Marathee to 
the Goojaratee tracts, which are marked off by the Vaitarani 
river, navigable for 20 m. from its mouth. The navigable 
Bassein Oreek separates Salsette from the mainland. The 
Thana Hills run through Salsette N. to S. ; the Matheran 
(" wooded head "), outlier of the Sahyadri range, has a sani- 
tarium, within 4 hours of Bombay, reached from Neral rail- 
way station, 54 m. from Bombay. The Daman range, with 
Toongar, and a range running N. to S. between the Vaitarani 
and Bassein creek, Mahooli, and Malangarh, are the other con- 
siderable hills. Thana (15,000), chief town, port, and railway 
station in Salsette, on Thana creek, 20 m. S. of Bombay, many 
of whose merchants reside here ; scat of a Free Church Medical 
Mission, and once of a Nestorian bishop. In 1320 four com- 
panions of the Italian friar, Odoricus, became martyrs here. 
Kalyan (13,000), port and railway station, 33 m. N.E. of 
Bombay, junction of the N.E. and S.E. lines of Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway, seat of a Nestorian bishop mentioned by 



OHAP. XV.] THANA — KOLABA. 269 

Cosmas Indicopleustes. In 1673 Fryer "gazed with astonish- 
ment on ruins of stately fabrics." Four m. distant is the old 
Shaivite temple, Ambamath ("immortal lord"). Wasind, 
60 m. N.E. of Bombay, at which the ascent by the Thai 
Ghat begins by gradient of 1 in 37 to Igatpoori (1992 ft.), 85 
m. from Bombay at top of ghat, a sanitarium with locomotive 
works in Nasik district. Hetuming to S., the Bombay, Baroda, 
and Central India Railway, which starts from Eolaba, passes 
by a causeway into Thana district, or Salsette, at Bandora 
(7500), 10 m. N. of Bassein. This port is a centre of the descend- 
ants of Xavier's caste converts in the 16th century, who bear 
Portuguese names, but differ from the Gk)anese Christians in re- 
fusing domestic service. Bassein (4500) (Wasai), Portuguese 
port for two centuries from 1634, during which it was their 
"Court of the North," where the Dons and Hidalgos repro- 
duced Lisbon, and none but Christians were allowed to sleep. 
Captured from the Marathas by General Croddard in 1780, but 
not incorporated with British territory till the defeat of the 
last of the Peshwas in 1818. The walls and some ecclesias- 
tical ruins of old Bassein remain. Under the Bassein treaty of 
1802 the Peshwa agreed to maintain a British subsidiary force, 
which led to the dissolution of the Maratha confederacy ii) 1818. 
Mahim (7500), 66 m. N. of Bassein and 5 W. of Palghar, 
railway station. Saiyan, old town, now village, 70 m. S. of 
Surat, where the Parsees first landed in India. Five m. N. of 
Bassein are the ruins of Supara, old capital of the Konkan, 
B.C. 250 to A.D. 1266, recently identified ; a great port from 
the times of the Greek navigators to the 10 th century. Pan- 
wel (11,000), most S. town, 16 m. S.E. of Thana town, port 
for the mainland frt)m Bombay before railway. 

"^Daznan ("border") (41,000), Portuguese port and settle- 
ment of 82 sq. m., 100 m. N. of Bassein, intersected and sur- 
rounded by British territory, contiguous to Thana district, with 
an annual revenue of £8000, under a Governor, subordinate 
to Goa. 

§ 9. ♦JowHAR Statb, in N. of, and under Thana, which 
surrounds it, has an area of 538 sq. m., population of 38,000, 
and revenue of £9600, with village of same name 44 m. N. 
of Thana town. The chief is of the Kolee tribe ; the people 
are principally Waralees, Eulkurees, and casteless tribes. The 
nearest railway station is Dah^nu. 

§ 10. Eolaba District, or S. Konkan, is bounded E. by 
Satara and Poona; N. by Amba river, Thana, and Bombay 
harbour ; W. by the Arabian Sea ; S. by Jax^jeera State and 



260 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY. [CHAP. XV. 

Ratnagiii Area, 1496 sq. m. Population, 381,649. This 
strip of the S. Eonkan immediately S. of Bombay oily consists 
of a series of ranges running N. and S. between the Sahyadri 
Ghats and the sea, with rice plains at their base, and a sea 
frontage of 20 m. Of the Sahyadri the most remarkable peaks 
are Raigrarh, once capital of Shivfyi, where he died at 53, now 
in Mahad subdivision ; and the Trigonometrical Survey Station 
of Meeradonfirar. From the hills small streams pass to the 
sea ; and there are many tidal inlets, of which the principal are 
from N. to S. — Na^otna, Boha or Ohaul, and Bankot. The 
forests are rich in the blackwood from which the famous Bombay 
furniture is made, and in teak second only to that of Calicut. 
The fertile coast lands are owned chiefly by Brahman middle- 
men or hhots. There are many Beni- Israel, or descendants 
either of the Jews who fled to Egypt and Arabia at the Cap- 
tivity, or of the Ten Tribes. Alibagr (6000), chief town and 
harbour, 19 m. S. of Bombay, with a fort on a rocky island ; 
old stronghold of Shivaji, and afterwards of the Maratha pirate 
Angria, whom Clive attacked. The town is the centre of a 
Free Church Mission. Nagrotna, town 20 m. up the Amba 
river, 40 m. S.W. of Bombay and 70 from Mahableshwar, on 
an old and frequented route to Poona ; long the northern limit 
of the 'kings of Beejapoor. Pen (6500), 16 m. N.E. of Alibag. 
Bewadanda (6000), port 6 m. S.£. of Alibag. Mahad 
(6700), 53 m. S.£. of Alibag, with niany Bo^hist caves. 
Khuda, N.W. of Mahad, has 22 caves. 

§ 11. Vanjeera State, supervised by the Collector of Eolaba 
since 1867, up to which time it had been practically independent 
of all control, lies between the Bewadanda creek in Eolaba on 
N., and the Bankot creek of Ratnagiri on S., a narrow strip of 
mainland with the small island Jaigeera, on which is chief town 
of same name. Area, 325 sq. m. Population, 75,194. Revenue, 
£32,879. It is named from the Arabic Jazwah^^aa island, 
and also Habsan from the African or Abyssinian origin of the 
Nawab or Seedee. In 1489 a party of Abyssinians seized 
Ja^jeera island by stratagem, and held it and the mainland, 
now as admirals of the Beejapoor and now of the Mughul fleets, 
but always as pirates, independent of the Marathas, though 
respecting English ships. The Nawab, under an arrangement 
with the Marathas, holds Jaflfnabad in Eathiawar, also Jan- 
Jeera, chief town, on island 44 m. S. of Bombay ; 3 m. off is 
Murud, where the Assistant Political Agent resides. The three 
Jaigeera ports are connected by coasting steamers with Bombay, 
which receives from them large supplies of firewood. 



CHAP. XV.] SURAT. 261 

§ 12. SuBAT DiSTBiCT is bounded E. by Dharampoor, Bansda, 
Baroda, and Bigpeepla States ; N. by Baroda State and Broach ; 
W. by Arabian Sea ; and S. by Thana and Portuguese Daman. 
Area, 1662 sq. m. Population, 614,198. Surathaa a coast- 
line of 80 m. from the Damaganga river N. to the Kim. Nar- 
rowing into the Gulf of Eambay, and with the Sahyadri hills 
approaching the sea, the alluvial strip of coast is only 15 m. 
broad on S., but is spread out to 60 m. by delta which the Tapti 
forms. On the N.E. the plain passes into the wild hills and 
jungle of the Danfirs, the outcome of the trap plateau of Central 
India. The Rc^peepla range shoots out flat-topped hills (200 
to 300 ft.) between Surat and Broach, and the Sahyadri hills 
slope between Surat and Khandesh. To the S. are isolated 
hills, one near Mota, seven others near Doongri, 6 m. from the 
coast, and Pamera (500 ft.), 12 m. farther S. The Tapti and 
Elm in N. are the only large rivers, but the S. streams ending 
in navigable estuaries are valuable commercial channels. The 
Tapti (Tapi, correctly), rising in W. of Satpoora plateau of Cen- 
tral India, flows W. for 150 m. till it enters the plain of Khan- 
desh below Boorhanpoor, then for 180 m. it flows along that 
plain ; then for 50 m. it forces a way through the hills to the 
plain of Goojarat, and then for 70 m. more it traverses Surat 
plain to the sea 14 m. below Surat town : it receives the 
Wareli from the W. spurs of Rajpeepla hills, and is navigable 
for only the last 20 m. of its course. The Kim, from the 
R^'peepla hills, with a course of 70 m., during which it drains 
700 sq. m., forms the N. boimdaiy of Surat, and falls into the 
Gulf of Kambay 20 m. N. of the Tapti estuary. Surat 
(110,000), (the "good country"), on the S. bank of the Tapti, 
"prime mart" of India under Akbar, Jahangeer, and Shah 
Jahan, where first the English Captain Hawkins and then Sir 
T. Boe landed in 1608-15; opened to trade in 1612 by treaty, 
along with Eambay, Ahmedabad, and €rogo ; seat of an East 
India Company's Presidency before Bombay, which superseded 
it after 1687; the "gate of Mecca" for Musalman pilgrims, 
till plundered for three days by the Maratha Shiv^'i ; stiU the 
local commercial centre of Goojarat, and seat of Irish Presby- 
terian Mission. The castle, now used for public offices, is 
still the chief feature of the city ; the English cemeteiy is the 
most interesting, with its tombs and inscriptions, especially 
those of the brothers Oxindon (1669), Angier (1677), the 
Dutch Van Reede (1691), " the Msecenas of Makbar." Vaux's 
tomb on right bank of Tapti, near mouth of river, is a land- 
mark. Suwali, seaport of Surat, and the " Swally " of the 



262 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY. [CHAP. XV. 

old travellers, is 12 m. W. of the city, outside the mouth of 
the Tapti ; Tom Coryate, the eccentric traveller, died here in 
1617. Bander (11,000), on right bank of Tapti, 2 m. above 
Surat, with which it is connected by a bridge, an old com- 
mercial capital Balsar (Walsad) (12,000), timber port, 40 
m, S. of Surat and 115 N. of Bombay, on the estuary of the 
navigable Auranga. Pardi (5000), £eirther S., near which is 
Umarasari, with the oldest Pansee temple in India. 01i>ad 
(4300), N. W. of Surat. Mandvi (4500) and Bardoli (4500), 
in N.E. comer of district, where there is much waste limd. 

§ 13. «SuBAT States, Sagheen, Bansda, andDharampoob. 
Saoheen (43 sq. m., pop. 18,154) consists of 20 villages, chiefly 
within Surat district, yielding the Nawab £18,350 a year. The 
chief village, Sacheen, is 9 ul S. of Surat. The Nawab is the 
descendant of the elder branch of the Habshi or African Seedees 
of Jai\jeera, or admirals of the Beejapoor and Mughul rulers. 
The elder branch accepted Sacheen from the Marathas in ex- 
change for Janjeera, which, however, the younger branch never 
surrendered, and still hold. The other villages of any note are 
Dumaa (5000), near the mouth of the Tapti, a sanitarium of the 
Europeans in Surat, and Bhimpoor, a mile distant, with a temple 
of the monkey-god. Dharampoor (794 sq. m., pop. 74,592), 
E. of Balsar subdivision of Surat, yielding £250,000 a year to 
the I^jpoot Rcga, who has second class powers. The chief 
town (3500) is of the same name, just S. of the Auranga. Naga, 
the old capital, is 24 m. S.W. Bansda (384 sq. m., pop. 
32,154), to N. of Dharampoor, yielding £15,740 a year to the 
Rajpoot Riga, who resides at the chief village of the same name, 
in the centre of the State. Unai, on N. border, has a hot 
spring, the centre of a fair. These three States are immediately 
controlled by the Surat Political Agent. 

§ 14. Bboagh Distbict (Bharuch) is bounded E. by Baroda, 
N. and W. by Kambay Gulf, and S. by Surat. Area, 1453 sq. 
m. Population, 326,930. This alluvial plain, 54 m. along the 
Gulf of Eambay, with a breadth of 20 to 40 m., lies between 
the Kim on S. and the Mahi on N. Between these are the 
Dhadhar, 20 m. S. of the Mahi, and the Narbada. The Dhadhar 
rises behind Champ^er in a western spur of the Yindhyas, and 
flows for 70 m. into the Gulf of Kambay, 20 m. S. of the estuary 
of the Mahi ; it receives the Vishwamitri, on which the city of 
Baroda standk The Narbada (also named Bewa) rises at the 
hill of Amarkantak in Bilaspoor district of Central Province, 
and for 500 m. flows W. between the Yindhyas and Satpooras. 
It is half a mile broad where it enters this district, and a mile 



OHAP. XV.] BROACH — KAJRA. 263 

near the town of Broach. On the left it receives the Kaveri, 
opposite Sukaltirth (place of pilgrimage), and the Amravati ; 
on the left it is joined by the Bhooki. When in flood it forms 
islands ; the flat near Sukaltirth, 10 m. from Broach, has still 
the stump of the venerable banian tree of the reformer Kabeer. 
Broaoh (37,000), the ancient Barygaza, on right bank of Nar> 
bada, 20 m. from its mouth ; a walled town picturesquely situ- 
ated on a mound, and named from its patron sage Bhngu Rishi. 
Long under the Musalman dynasty of Ahmedabad, and famed 
for its fine calicoes, it was twice plundered by the Portuguese, 
and again by the Marathas. The British established a factory 
here in 1616, besieged and took the town in 1772, when Brigadier 
Wedderbum fell, and again took it in 1803. Many Parsees 
and wealthy Jains still maintain its commercial reputation as a 
coasting port like Surat, and as the seat of cotton mills and 
handlooms. Ankleswar (9000), 6 m. S. of Broach, a chief 
mart, and once celebrated for its paper manufactures. Jaxn- 
busar (15,000), 5 m. N. of the Dhadhar, a decaying cotton 
port; like Tankari, 10 m. S.W., once chief port for Malwa 
opium and indigo. Axnod (5500), 21 m. N. of Broach, with 
ironworks. Kavi (4500), on left bank of the Mahi, on the 
Jain pilgrim route to Palitana, Gimar, and Gogo. Of the cul- 
turable land in this district 95 per cent is occupied. 

§ 15. Kaira Distbict (Khed% correctly) is bounded E. by 
Baroda State and Panch Mahals district, from which the Mahi 
separates it; N. by Balasinor and Mahi-Eantha States; N.W. and 
W. by Ahmedabad ; S. W. by Eambay State ; and S. by Broach. 
Area, 1609 sq. m. Population, 804,800. The Mahi, the third 
river of Goojarat, rises in the Malwa State of An^jhera, in the 
Mahad lake, in Western Vindhyas ; flows N. for 140 m. till the 
Bagar hills turn it W., and the Meynar mountains S.W. to the 
€kx)jarat plain, wher& it forms the S.E. and S. boundary of Kaira, 
and falls into the Gulf of Eambay. Between it and the Sabar- 
mati, the W. boundary, the smaller Shedhi forms the line of 
drainage. The Ehari, fix>m £dar State, falls into the Sabar- 
mati after irrigating rice land by dams. The whole plain sloping 
S.W. is fertile, and yields the best tobacco in Western India. 
Kaira (13,000), chief town, 5 m. S.W. of Mehmudabad railway 
station, an old city with brick wall, and the frontier military 
station till 1 820, when Deesa superseded it. Nadiad (25,000), 
largest mart and railway station, 29 m. S.E. of Ahmedabad. 
MehzQudabad (8500), old pleasure capital of Muhammadan 
rulers of Goojarat, 18 m. S.E. of Ahmedabad. Anand (9000), 
railway station, 40 m. S. of Ahmedabad ; to W. is the Wartal 



264 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY. [CHAP. XV. 

monastery of the reformer, Narayan Swami. Borsad (13,000), 
12 m. W. of Waaad railway station and 24 N.K of port of 
Kambay ; seat of Irish Presbyterian Mission. Dakor (8000), 
centre of Krishnarworship on Pali branch of Bombay, Baroda, 
and Central India Railway. Kapadwanj (14,000), fortified 
town on E. bank of Mohar, 36 m. N.E. of Ehaira, and old mart 
on one of the main routes between Central India and coast, 
with many prosperous Musalman merchants of the Bohora 
division of Sheeas; agate and moss pebbles are found in 
Miyam river, 15 m. distant. 

§ 16. *Kambay State (Khambhat = Stambhatirth = pool of 
the pillar -god, Mahadeva), Musalman principality controlled 
by the Collector of Kaira, at the head of Kambay Gulf, is 
bounded E. and N. by Kaira, W. by Ahmedabad from which 
the Sabarmati separates it, and S. by the Gulf. Area, 350 
sq. m. Population, 85,000. The Nawab, descendant of the 
last but one of the Muhammadan Governors of Goojarat, has 
a revenue of £35,000, and first class administrative powers. 
Kambay is a gently waving alluvial brackish plain between the 
two tidal rivers, Mahi and Sabarmati. Kambay (34,000), 
the capital, is now a decaying town, straggling over 4 sq. m., 
with Nawab's palace and the old English factory. From 13th 
to 16 th century it was one of the two chief ports of India, till 
the Portuguese seized control of the trade from the Goojarat 
kings. It was famed for the polishing and export of the Kam- 
bay stones, or camelians, the agates found within a radius of 
120 m., and the foreign stones sent to its lapidaries, as 
in Europe to Amsterdam. Queen Elizabeth's letters, carried 
by Fitch Leedes and Newberry in 1583, were addressed to 
Akbar as " King of Kambay." The English suffered there, as 
at Surat, till Bombay was foimded. The Parsees who, when 
driven from Persia, settled at Saigan, 70 m. S. of Surat, spread 
thence to Kambay, seized it, and were driven out by the Hindoos, 
who held it till the Musalman conquest in 1297. Kambay is 
52 m. S. of Ahmedabad, and now exports only cotton, printed 
sarees, and agates. 

§ 17. Pakoh Mahals District, or five subdivisions under 
non-regulation administration, on extreme K of Goojarat, form 
two groups separated by the forest-clad hUls of Baria State in 
Rewa-Kantha. Area, 1613 sq. m. Population, 255,479. In 
S.W. group the Pawgarh Hill (2600 ft.), of historic interest, 
is the centre of a fertile tract ; in N.E. the country is more like 
the neighbouring Malwa. The Mahi touches a few villages in 
N.W. The inhabitants are of the aboriginal class — Naikras, 



CHAP. XV.] AHMEDABAD. 265 

Bheels, and Kolees ; the Goojarat Bheel corps keep the peace. 
The chief town is Oodhra (11,000) ("cows' lake"), 17 m. E. 
of Pali, terminus of branch railway, with lake and fort to N.E. 
covered by Mater's force when in 1867 Tatia Topi was pre- 
. vented by Park and 72d Highlanders (on camels) from rousing 
the Marathas after his defeat at Gwalior, through the Panch 
Mahals. Oliampaiier, a mile N.E. of Pawgarh hiU, now 
deserted and unhealthy, formerly capital of the Goojarat kings, 
taken by Hoomayoon himself in 1535, surrendered to British 
in 1802 by Sindia; ruins of tombs, mosques, palaces, and walls 
abound. Dohad (11,500) (" border"), 43 m. K of Godhra, at 
mouth of chief pass between Goojarat and Malwa. 

§ 18. *Naeukot State (143 sq. m., pop. 5517), in S.E. 
of Panch Mahals, whose administrator controls it. The chief 
is a Hindoo of the Eolee tribe, and the people are the once 
turbulent and now contented Naikras. Jambughoda (500), 20 
m. E. of Baroda, is headquarters of the State ; the chief lives 
at Jhotvar, half a mile -N.W. 

§ 19. Ahmedabad District is bounded E. by Kaira and 
Balasinor State, N. by Mahi-EIantha and Baroda States, W. by 
Kathiawar State, S. by Gulf of Kambay. Area, 3821 sq. m. 
Population, 856,324. Lying between the Gulf of Eambay and 
Rann of Kach, this tract has been recovered from the sea and is 
still flooded in high tides. In extreme N.E. the plain rises into 
ridges of metamorphic rock (500 ft.), and in S.W. at Gogo, the 
Khokra range (96 ft.) runs parallel with the shore. The Sabar- 
xnati, the fourth river of Goojarat, rises as the Sabar in S.W. 
spurs of Aravali hills, flows S. through Mahi-Eantha to N.W. 
comer of Ahmedabad district, where it is joined by the Hath- 
mati, takes the name Sabarmati, and after a course of 200 m., 
draining 9500 sq. m., falls into the Gulf of Kambay. It receives 
smaller tributaries both above and below Ahmedabad city. As 
the chief manufacturing district of the whole Province, Ahmed- 
abad contains many large towns; 13 have more than 5000 
inhabitants. In all, trades-union or caste guilds regulate manu- 
factures and trades ; half the agricultural land is held by talook- 
dars or large holders. Ahmedabad Oity (118,000), second 
only to Bombay, from which it is 310 m. N., covers 2 sq. m. 
on raised left bank of the Sabarmati. Founded on site of 
Ashanal, in 1413, by Ahmed Shah, it was taken by Akbar, was 
one of the most splendid centres of India in the 16th and 17th 
centuries, when it had nearly a million of souls, and its mer- 
chants made fortunes of a million sterling. Maratha anarchy 
reduced it, but its prosperity still "hangs on three threads" — 



266 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY. [CHAF. XV 

silk, gold, and cotton manufactures; also paper and pottery. 
Headquarters of N. division of Bombay army, the cantonments 
being 3^ m. N. of city. Seat of Irish Presbyterian Mission. 
Mosques, tombs, palaces, and gateways abound, illustrating the 
finish of Jain or Chalookyan architecture with the laigeness of 
conception of the Saracenic. Terminus of Bombay, Baroda,and 
Central India Railway from Bombay, and starting point of R^j- 
pootana-Malwa Railway to Delhi, which is 890 m., and Agra, 
which is 848 m. from Eolaba station in Bombay, by this route. 
Five m. S.W. is the Presbyterian Mission settlement of Shah- 
avadi Dholera (13,000), mart on Eambay Gulf, which gave 
its name to a variety of cotton in Lancashire, now 12 m. {com 
sea. Cotton season lasts from November to end of December, 
when balance of old crop is sent off, and firom January to Jtme, 
when the new crop from N.K E[athiawar is despatched Gk>gro 
(101,000), port in S., 40 m. from head of Gulf, the "Caga" 
of Friar Jordanus in 1321, still a nursery of lascar seamen, but 
rivalled by Bhaunagar, 8 m. nearer the cotton districts ; 11 m. 
S.W. is Wallacepoor Presbyterian Mission settlement. Dhan- 
dooka (10,000) and Dholka (21,000), two towns between 
Ahmedabad and Dholera ; the latter is on the Sabarmati and 
the ancient Viratpoor, which the Pandavas in thcdr wanderings 

il400 B.C.) found to be ruled by a Bheel queen. Viramgam 
20,000), on the DholarWadhwan Railway, 38 m. W. of Ahmed- 
abad, a growing mart ParanteJ (8500), on the Bokh in N., 
with soap factories. 

§ 20. ^Eathiawab States are bounded E. by Gulf of Eam- 
bay and Ahmedabad, N. by Rann and Gulf of Each, W. and S. 
by the Arabian Sea. Area, 20,338 sq.m. Population, 2,348,325. 
Chiefs' revenue about £1,125,000. Eathiawar (country of the 
Eathi immigrants from Each), Saurastr^n^ of the Greeks, Sur- 
ashtra or *' good land " of the Hindoos, and Sorath of Hindoos 
and Muhammadans, forms nearly the whole of the peninsula of 
Goojarat, 220 m. long and 165 broad. The undulating surface 
is broken by such low ranges as the Tangrha and Mandhav 
Hills in Jhalawar ; hills in Hallar ; the Qir range in S., parallel 
with coast to Gimax, with Asoka edicts 260-223 b.g. ; opposite 
Gimar is Osam Hill, and farther W. is the Barada group. 
Of the rivers the chief is the Bhadar, frt)m the Mandhav hills, 
115 m. S.W., to the sea at Navi Bandar. From the same hills 
another Bhadar flows £. to Gulf of Eambay; the Aji, Machu, and 
Satruiyi are the other rivers. The States export much of the best 
Indian cotton. The finest Indian lions are found in Eatliiawar. 
The peninsula contains 186 States, ranging from 3800 sq. m. 



CHAP. XV.] KATHIAWAR STATES. 267 

to a village, grouped in seven classes according to the juris- 
diction of their chiefs. Since 1817, when the Peshwa ceded 
his lights, and 1820, when the Gaekwar of Baroda engaged to 
act in Eathiawar only through the British Grovemment, that 
Qovemment has administered Kathiawar, under a Political 
Agent and five assiBtants, firom Bajkot. In 1863 the country 
was divided into the four old " prants'' or comities, each under 
a British officer. Jhalavadj in the north-east, comprises 1 first 
class State (Dhrangadra), 3 second, 3 third, 2 fourth, 2 fifth, 
and 6 thana circles, with 229 villages. Hallar, to the north- 
west and centre of the peninsula, comprises 1 first class State 
Nawanagar, 4 second, 3 fourth, several minor ones, and 2 
thana circles, with 94 villages. Sorath, south-west and south, 
contains Joonagarh, a first class State, 1 second, 2 third, a 
number of petty estates, and 3 thana circles, with 50 villages. 
Gohdwad, to the east and north-east of Sorath, contains a first 
class State Bhaunagar, 1 second, 2 third, 1 fourth, and 5 thana 
circles, with an aggregate of 147 villages. The States, under 
management of their chiefs, occupy an area of 18,400 sq. m., 
with a pop. of 2,056,820. Those administered by Govern- 
ment comprise an area of 1900 sq. m., and a pop. of 263,809. 
The railway has extended as far as Bhaunagar and Dhoraji ; 
and this peninsula, a generation ago the scene of anarchy and 
oppression, has become prosperous. Infanticide among the 
Rtgpoot tribes has been put down. Kathiawar was a Province 
of Asoka and the Maurya kings, then of the Sah dynasty, who 
ruled over Malwa and N. Dekhan, of the Grooptas of Eanaig, 
of the Goojarat Chalookya kings, then of the Valabhi kings. 
Mahmood of Ghazni sacked Sonmath in 1024 ; then the Ahmed- 
abad dynasty ruled ; the Portuguese took Diu (1536) ; Akbar 
conquered Goojarat ; and by 1760 the Marathas firmly held it 
till in 1807 the East India Company's and the Gaekwc^s forces 
enforced peace. There are 4 chiefs in the first class; 20 in the 
second, third, and fourth ; and 78 in the other three. 

1. Joonagarh (3800 sq. m., 400,000 pop.), with capital 
(20,000) of same name (" old fort "), 60 m. S.W. of R^jkot, 
under a Nawab, descendant of the soldier of fortune who 
seized the State in 1735. Ten m. firom the capital is the 
GKmar group of hills (3500 ft.), with Jain temples, and at the 
base the conical granite boulder, 12 ft. high and 75 in circum- 
ference, on which are the 14 edicts of Asoka first deciphered by 
Dr. John Wilson and James Prinsep. The port of the State is 
Verawal (11,000), 2 m. from which is the Phallic shrine of 
old Sonmath, the supposed sandal-wood gates of which Lord 



268 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY. [CHAP. XV. 

EUenborough caused to be brought back firom Ghazni, but they 
lie in Agra arsenal 

2. Nawanagar (3395 sq. m., 315^00 pop.), with capital 
and port (35,000) of same name, 310 m. N.W. of Bombay, 
where is an inferior pearl fishery, under the Jam, a Janja Ri^- 
poot, connected (194 m.) with Wadhwan by railway. Stone and 
iron abound. Jonra (6600), a fortified port on S.E. shore of 
Gulf of Each, 145 ul W. of Ahmedabad. On the extreme W. 
18 the district of Okhaxnandal, directly under the Graekwar 
of Baroda, with fiimous shrines of Krishna at the once pirate 
stronghold of Beyt ('* island ") island, whence oonch shells are 
exported for temple use, and Dwarka ("door"), fortress- 
shrine, centre of more than one Wagher war ; the place is to 
W. what the Jagannath shrine of Poori is to £. India. 

3. Bhaunagar (2784 sq. m., 400,500 pop.), with capital 
and port and railway station (36,000) of same name on N. 
shore of Gulf of Eambay, under Thakoor Saheb, a Gohel Baj- 
poot. The other port is Mahuwa (14,000), at the mouth of 
the Gulf of Eambay. An Irish Presbyterian Mission station. 

4. Dhranfiradra (pop. 9 1,000), with fortified capital (1 1,000) 
of same name, 75 m. W. of Ahmedabad, an inland State, the 
nearest port to which is Dholera, 70 m. S.E. The State is 
under the Ri^a Saheb. 

The next 20 States in order of political importance are 
Monree (1062 sq. m., pop. 91,000), under Thakoor Saheb, 
with capital (13,000), on Machu river, which falls into Gulf of 
Each ; Wawanya is the port. 'Wankaner (376 sq. m., pop. 
29,000), inland State under R^a Saheb, with capital (5500) of 
same name. Palitana (99 sq. m., pop. 52,000), under Thakoor 
Saheb, with capital at K base of famous Jain Satrm^aya 
Hill, 120 m. S.W. from Ahmedabad and 190 N.W. fix>m 
Bombay, sacred to Adinath, deified priest of Jains, covered with 
splendid temples of modem origin, grouped as neither Boodhists 
nor Hindoos have done — " one almost feels the place a satanic 
mockery of that fair celestial city into which naught may enter 
that defHeth." Dr. John Wilson pronounces the temples the 
most costly in India, and inferior only to Elura ; they are built 
of sandstone or basalt with marble and colossal images, and are 
guarded by Muhammadans. Dhrol (400 sq. m., pop. 19,000)^ 
inland State under Thakoor Saheb, with chief town of same 
name, and exporting from Jorya fort. Liniree (280 sq. m., pop. 
46,000), under Thakoor Saheb, with capital (13,500), not far 
from Wadhwan railway station. Rajkot (479 sq. m., 37,000 
pop.), inland State under Thakoor Saheb, an oflEshoot of Nawa- 



CHAP. XV.] -KATHIAWAR — EACH. 269 

Dagar, with capital and cantonment (12,000), in which the 
Political Agent has headquarters, and there are the R^jkoomar 
college for W. India chiefs and Irish Presbyterian Mission. 
Gondal (699 sq. m., pop. 138,000), an ofibhoot of Re^kot, 
under Thakoor Saheb, with fortified capital (13,000). Wadh- 
wan (238 sq. m., pop. 46,000), under Thakoor Saheb, with 
chief town a railway station. Porbandar (535 sq. m., pop. 
71,000), on W. coast, under Rana with third class powers ; the 
capital of same name exports famous limestone from Barda 
hills ; the other ports are Madhoopoor and Miani. Lakthar 
(20,500 pop.), under Thakoor, with chief town and railway 
station, famous for pottery, 13 m. N. of Wadhwan. Sayla 
(16,500 pop.), under Thakoor, with chief town ; exports through 
Dholera. Ohoora (14,000 pop.), under Thakoor, with chief 
town; exports through Dholera. Wala (88 sq. m., pop. 
17,500), an offshoot from Bhaunagar, under Thakoor, with 
chief town on site of Valabhi, ancient capital of the Valabhi 
kings, where copper plates and coins are dug up. Jasdan 
(32,000 pop.), whose chief is a Eathi, with town of same name. 
Bantwa (208 sq. m., pop. 41,000), an offshoot of Joona- 
garh, under Muhammadan chief, who resides at Manawadar ; 
with chief town of same name. The Thakoors of Lathee^ 
Virpoor, and MaUia, and the chiefs of Mooll and Bi:dana) 
have fourth class powers. Jafarabad (53 sq. m., 10,500 
pop.), second class State held by the Nawab of Jai^jeera, 192 
m. S.E., with port of same name on the estuaiy of the Ranai, 
the most accessible on the coast. West of this port is the 
Portuguese island, port, and fort of Diu (11,000), near entrance 
of Gulf of Kambay, 6^ m. long and 1 broad, a decaying place 
with ruins ; on the mainland the Portuguese possess the village 
of Gogola and the fort of Simbor on an islet 12 m. from Diu. 

§ 21. *Kach State, almost an island, being surrounded by 
the salt marshes known as Great and Little Rann (Sanskrit 
Aranya= forest or desert), is bounded E. by Palanpoor, N. and 
W. by Sind, S. by the Gulf and Kathiawar. Area (without 
Rann) 6500 sq. m. Population, 500,000. From the S. coast 
a plain 20 to 30 m. stretches to the Dora range, running E. 
and W., with the Nana peak (800 ft.) That is connected 
by another fertile plain with the Oharwar hills, parallel to it, 
having the Indria peak (900 fl.), from which a low belt of 
rich pasturage ends in the Great Rann desert, whence rise 4 
hiUy islands, Patoham Peer (1450 ft.) the highest. Only 
in the rains do these two ranges send streams N. to the Rann 
and S. to the Gulf. The Rann, covering 9000 sq. m., and 



270 PROVINCE OV BOMBAY. [CHAP. xv. 

varying in breadth from 25 to 35 m. on N. to 2 m. on £., 
is the raised bed of the sea covered in the dry season with 
a hard surface of stone, shingle, and salt. The State was 
crossed by earthquake waves four times between 1819 and 
1864 ; in the first year every fort was shaken and many 
levelled. Iron is found, but not worked; the coal in the 
Charwar hills is worthless. The Rao of Kach emigrated from 
Sind in 15th century, and is head of the Jareja Regpoots. Rao 
Desal, the most enlightened, was trained by Rev. James Gray, 
friend of the poet Bums, whose monument, stands in the 
capital BhooJ (24,000), at foot of a fortified hUl, with canton- 
ment ; Mandvi (36,000), chief port, 36 m. S. of Bhooj on N. 
coast of Gulf of Each, to which tiU 1836 a brisk trade in slaves 
from Zanzibar went on. The people are still the best sailors 
and capitalists on the shores of the Indian Ocean, and are 
famed for their embroidery and silverwork, and manu&ctures 
of silk and cotton. Mundra, Anjar (13,000), Naliya, and 
Jakhan are the other 4 municipalities in Kach. 

§ 22. *Palanfoob and Radhanpoob States, forming the 
Palanpoor Political Agency (8000 sq. m., popi 578,732), are 
bounded E. by Danta and Sirohi Stajies with the Aravali range 
between, N. by Sirohi and Marwar, W. by Each, and S. by 
Baroda. Palanpoor (2384 sq. m.), under Dewan, of Afghan 
descent, with capital of same name, a station on State Railway, 
393 m. N. of Bombay and 498 S.W. of Delhi Deesa (§000), 
cantonment on left bank of Banas, to W. of Palanpoor. Danta^ 
36 m. E. of Deesa, is a vassal State of Palanpoor. Badhan- 
poor, under Nawab of the Persian Babees, who accompanied 
Hoomayoon on his restoration, with capital (14,000) of same 
name. Mui\]poor and Samee are the other chief towns. 

§ 23. *Mahi-Eantha States (" bank of the Mahi ") form a 
Political Agency, which is bounded N.E. by Oodaipoor and Doon- 
garpoor States, W. by Baroda and Palanpoor, S. by Eaira, and 
S.E. by Rewa-Eantha. Area, 4000 sq. m. Population, 517,485. 
This tract, named from the Mahi river which traverses it, con- 
tains 58 chiefships, of which the only important one is that of 
Edar and Ahmednagar. On the border between Mahi-Eantha 
and Rtypootana Sir J. Outram did much to civilise the wild 
Bheels and Eolees. Edar (218,000 pop.), under Mahanga of 
the Rathore Rcgpoots, with chief town of same name, tradi- 
tionally known as Eeldoorg, 64 m. N.E. of Ahmedabad. Large 
fairs are held at Samlsgi and Brahma Ehair. 

§ 24. *Six Rewa-Eantha States (" bank " of the Narbada 
or *< Rewa ")f forming a Political Agency, scattered among the 



CHAP. XV.] REWA-KANTH/L — KHANDESH. 271 

Panch Mahals, Baroda^ and Surat States, have an area of 4792 
sq. m. and population of 510,000. The only chief with first 
class powers is the Maharana of Rajpeepla (1514 sq. m., 
pop. 121,000), lying along S. bank of Narbada; the hills 
(2000 ft.) are a continuation of the Satpooras, and form a 
watershed between the Narbada and Tapti. Nandod is the 
capital COiota Oodaipoor (873 sq. m., pop. 63,000), lying 
between Baroda W. and Ali Raipoor £., is under the Maharawal. 
The capital of same name (3000) is on high road from Baroda 
to Mhow, before which Tatia Topi was defeated in 1858. 
Mohan town, which sometimes gives its name to the State, 
conmiands the passes. Barria (813 sq. m., pop. 53,000), N. 
of above, a Bheel State under Maharawal, of which Deogud 
Barria is capital Loonawara (388 sq. m., pop. 75,000), 
immediately S. of Rtgpoot State of Doongarpoor and Mahi river, 
under Maharana, with fortified capital of same name 4 m. £. 
of confluence of Mahi and Panim. Balaednor (150 sq. m., 
pop. 42,000), S. of above and N. of Kaira, under Nawab, with 
chief town (9000) of same name on Sheri river, between Baroda 
and Neemadi. Sunth (394 sq. m., pop. 50,000), W. of Loona- 
wara, a wild Bheel country under Maharana, with chief town 
of same name. 

Central Districts and States. 

§ 25. Ehaitdesh Distbiot is bounded E. by Berar and 
Nimar, N. by Holkar's and the Barwani States, N.W. by Rewa^- 
Eantha, W. by Baroda and the Dang States, and S. by Nasik 
and Haidarabad State. Area, 10,338 sq. m. Population, 
1,237,231. Ehandesh is an upland basin, the most northerly 
section of the Dekhan tableland, stretching about 160 m. along the 
Tapti. The N. frontier consists of the Satpoora Mountcdns, 
a range from 30 to 40 m. wide, through which the Sindwa pass 
on the Agra road leads to Holkar's State. On S. the AJanta, 
Satmala., or Chandor range, with the famous caves, marks 
off Ehandesh from Haidarabad State. On S.W. the Arva or 
LalinfiT and Galna hills separate Ehandesh from Nasik, whence 
the frontier crosses the Sahyadris to Songad town. The Hattl 
hills are in S.E. The Tapti, which flows through Ehandesh 
for a third of its whole course of 450 m., receives many tribu- 
taries from both sides ; of those the chief are the Gima from 
Nasik, which falls into the left bank near Nander ; the Borl, 
20 m. N., and parallel to the Gima ; the Panjhra, from the 
crest of the Sahyadris at Pimpalner to the Tapti near Thahier ; 
and the Borai, N. and parallel to the Panjhra. The Narbada 



272 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY. [OHAP. XV. 

skirts the N.W. comer for 45 m., and carries the timber of 
Khandesh to the coast. The 20 forest reserves cover 2326 sq. 
m. in three groups. This compact district is named Khandesh, 
as " the Khan's land," or " Krishna's (Kanha) land," or " the 
land of the pass or gap," and is the Khandav forest of the 
Mahahharat, The chief town is Dhoolia ( 1 3,000), on S. bank 
of Paiyhra, 30 m. N. of Ohalisfiraon (4000), railway station 
on Bombay-Agra road, with lines for the Bheel corps ; 6 m. 
distant are the lull and fort of Laling, commanding the Agra 
road and Avir pass to Malegaon. Bhazner Fort and Oavee 
are 35 m. N.W. of Dhoolia, near Pimpalner (3000), on the 
Pai^jhra, an old town and mart for the Dangs. Balsdne, 14 
m. £. of Pimpalner, has a well-preserved series of old temples 
and caves like those of Elura. Amalner (7600), 21 m. N. of 
Dhoolia, with old fort, now a grain mart. Bhad^raon (6500), 
on an island formed by the Gima, 34 m. S.E. of Dhoolia; 
2 m. N. and 10 m. N.E. of Kajgaon raUway station is the 
Khandesh €k)vemment Farm, started in 1869. Peu>hora 
(3000), 231 m. from Bombay, is nearest raUway station to the 
Ajanta Caves, 28 m. off. Jalgaon (8000), railway station ; 
30 m. farther on is the English capital of the district and 
centre of its cotton trade since the American civil war (1862-5). 
Bhusawal (8000), a mile from the Tapti, crossed by laige 
viaduct, and 2 m. W. of junction of Nagpoor and Jabalpoor 
lines of Great Indian Peninsula Railway, with large railway 
works. Dbaranfiraon (12,000), 35 m. N.E. of Dhoolia, an 
old cloth mart, where the English planted a factory in 1674, 
which Shiv%ji plundered. Here (1825-30) Outram nused his 
Bheel (billas"a bow") corps, and lus Bungalow is still the 
public headquarters. In 1844 Government began cotton-gin 
experiments here under two American planters ; Jalgaon is the 
railway station. Erandol (11,000) walled town above the 
Aiyni river, 8 m. from Dharangaon, with paper manufactures. 
Nandoorbar (7500), 32 m. N.W. of Dhoolia ; oldest town 
in district, where in 1666 an English factory was established. 
Parola (12,500), 24 m. E. of Dhoolia, an old cotton cloth mart. 
Yaval (9000), 9 m. N.W. of Bhusawal railway station, with 
fine view from old fort. 

§ 26. *Thb Danqs are 16 Khandesh States in the three 
groups of the Dangs, Mehvas, and Surgana, in the wild Bheel 
country below the Ghats, between Khandesh and Nasik on N.E., 
Rewa-Kantha and Bansda State on W. Area, 3840 sq. m. 
Population, 60,270. The country is a mass of steep wooded * 
flat-topped trap hills running W. from the foot of the Sahyadris, 



CHAP, xv.] NASIK. 273 

and forms the first step into the Dekhan plateau. The Puma and 
Amlika are the chief rivers. The countiy is rich in teak timber, 
second only to that of Eanara, but is most unhealthy. Outram 
tamed it in 1830, and he alone of the force escaped sickness by 
sleeping with his head and face covered with fine gauze. The 
Collector of Ehandesh visits the States once a year. Ghharvi 
is the central post ; its chief and those of Der-Chaoti, Am^a, 
Fimpri, and Yasuma, claim the title of Raja ; the other chief- 
tains are Naiks ; all follow the Gharvi standard. Of the Mehva 
group the only school is in Kathi. In the S. W. comer is Sur- 
srana, which has one school, often closed for want of pupils. 

§ 27. Nasik District (including Peint) is boimded E. by 
Haidarabad State, N. by Ehandesh, W. by the Dangs and Thana, 
and S. by Ahmednagar. Area, 5940 sq. m. Population, 781,206. 
This tableland (1300 to 2000 ft.) is hilly on W. or cUzng por- 
tion, and well cultivated on K or desk side. The Oheuador 
Hills form the watershed. To S. the streams are tributaries of 
the Gk>davari ; the chief are Daraa, Eadwa, Deo, and Maral- 
gin. To N. the Gima and its tributary, the Mosam, flow into 
the Tapti. The Sahyadri mountains run N. to S., the other 
hills E. to W. The hills are crowned with forts famous in the 
Maratha wars. Nasik (23,000), on the Godavari, 30 m. from 
its source at Trimbak village, 4 m. N.W. of the Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway station, the Benares of W. India, dotted over 
with temples and shrines, a capital of the Maratha Peshwas and 
British since 1818. It is the Nasika of Ptolemy. Occupied 
by Church Missionary Society; their settlement of Sharanpoor, 
with industrial school for ^eed Africans, is near. Five m. 
S.S.W. of town are the 17 Nasik caves (Pandu Lena) of Boodh- 
ist origin, and of the same date as those of Eanheri, or the time 
of the Andhrabhritya kings of the Dekhan, about 1st century 
A.D. Two of the viharas are " veiy far in advance of any yet 
met with" in richness of decoration. Deolali (2000), railway 
station and depot for British troops on the way to and from 
England, 113 m. from Bombay. Lasalfiraon, chief mart and 
railway station, 146 m. fitjm Bombay. Vinohoor (5500) fort 
is 3 m. off. Teola (18,000)', 161m. from Bombay, with large 
silk and cotton manufactures. Manmad (4000), junction 
with Dhond and Manmad State Railway, which forms a chord 
line between N.E. and S.E. sections of Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway; caves are near. Sirmar (10,500), 17 m. S.E. of 
Nasik, on Poona road, a mral centre. Malegaon (10,000), 
cantonment on Bombay and Agra tmnk road, 24 m. N.E. of 
Manmad railway station, captured by the British in 1818 from 

T 



274 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY. [OHAP. XV. 

Pindari Arabs. Ohandor (6000), at foot of old fort, com- 
manding passage from Elhandesh to Bombay, with a palace of 
Holkar's. Peint, 32 m. N.W. of Nasik, and Haisul, 10 m. S. 
of Peint, residence of Begam of Peint, a lapsed State. 

§ 28. Ahmednaoas Distbict is bounded E. byHaidarabad 
State from which the Godavari separates it on N.E., on N. by 
Nasik, W. by Thana and Poona from which it is divided by 
the Bheema and Eera, and S. by Sholapoor. Area^ 6666 sq. m. 
Population, 751,228; a decrease on the census number of 
1871, due to the famine of 1877 in this and six southern dis- 
tricts. The Scthyculri hills, which form the W. border, throw 
spurs E., the valleys forming the beds of the Prawara and 
Moola rivers, whence the district stretches in hill and table- 
land to the Gk>r in S. In N.W. the Kalsubai hill rises above 
5000 ft. ; 18 m. W. of Ahmednagar city, Pamer hill stands 
at 3240 ft., or 500 above the tableland. The Godavari forms 
the N. boundary for 40 m., receiving the united Prawara and 
Moola, and thereafter the Dhor. In S. the Sina and Kera 
flow into the Bheema. Ahmednagar Oity (33,000), third 
city of the Dekhan, covering 3 sq. m. on left bank of Sina, 
12 m. from its source, on the Dhond and Manmad State 
Railway, 51 m. from Dhond. Founded in 1494 by Ahmed 
Nizam Shah, who made himself independent, Ahmednagar was 
taken by the Beejapoor kings, and was heroically defended in 
1595 by Chand Bibi, the "noble queen" of Meadows Taylor's 
story, against Akbar's son, who captured it. It surrendered 
to (General Wellesley in 1803, and became British finally 
in 1818. Ahmednagar is a station of the American Mission 
Board, the Vernacular Education, and the Propagation Societies. 
Sangramner (10,009), 49 m. N.W. of Ahmednagar. Path- 
ardi (7200), 25 m. E. of Ahmednagar. Kharda (7000), 56 
m. S.E. of Ahmednagar, scene of a Maratha defeat by the Nizam 
in 1795. Srigonda (6000), 28 m. S. by W. of Ahmednagar. 
Bhin^rar (5800), a municipality. 

§ 29. Poona District is boimded E. by Sholapoor and 
Ahmednagar, N. by Ahmednagar and Nasik, W. by Bhor 
State, S. by Satara and Phaltan State from which it is divided 
by the Neera. Area, 5348 sq. m. Population, 900,621 ; a 
decrease since 1871, due to famine of 1877. Poona and the 
adjoining districts of Satara and Sholapoor, emphatically Maha- 
rashtra = the Maratha country, are bounded on W. for 150 m. 
by the Sahyadri range, imder which the great Maratha capitals 
of Poona, Satara, and Eolhapoor nestled, while the Musalman 
capitals of Ahmednagar, Beejapoor, Bedar, and Goolborga lay to 



CHAP. XV.] POONA. 276 

W. ; walled cities in the plains. From Paitan on the Gk)davari 
the great Salevahana ruled Maharashtra early in the Christian 
era ; then from Ealliani, near Sholapoor, the Chalookya Reg- 
poots ruled till close of 12th century, when the Deogiri or Dou- 
latabad Rigas succeeded, to be extinguished by the Musalmans 
in 1312. In 1345 the Bahmani dynasty, founded by Musal- 
man nobles who revolted from M. Tughlak, ruled from Gool- 
barga and then Bedar till 1491, when the Dekhan was divided 
by the kings of Beejapoor, Ahmednagar, and the Nizam Shahi, 
who in 1565 destroyed the Hindoo dynasty of Beejanagar at 
Talikot. Under the Beejapoor kings the Marathas became 
powerful, led by Shivigi, son of Shal^ji Bhonsla, whose empire 
feU only in 1818 with Bcgi Rao, last of the Peshwas. Even in 
1857 peace prevailed, save at Eolhapoor, where that Peshwa's 
adopted son, Nana Doondoo Pant, produced incipient mutiny. 
The Bheexna river passes through Poena district from N.W. to 
S.E., receiving the streams from the Sahyadris. The Ktiada- 
kuasla Lake (5} sq. m.) is 10 m. S.W. of Poona city, which 
it supplies. Poona Oity (120,000 on 4 sq. m.), with Kirkee 
("window"?), headquarters of Bombay Artillery, 4 m. N.W., 
119 m. S.E. of Bombay, on right bank of Moota, near its san- 
gam or confluence with the Moola, 1850 ft. above the sea, and 
seat of the provincial Government in the rainy season. To S. is 
the peak of Parvati with temple, and public garden Heerabagh 
below. The Bund, along the Moola-Moota river, with gardens, 
and the road from the city W. to Kirkee, form the European 
quarter. The principal buildings are the Government House 
at Gkinesh £[hind ("ravine of Ganesh"), N.W. of Parvati, the 
Council Hall, Dekhan and Engineering Colleges. The Judges' 
Chambers, near the last, are on the site of the Residency of the 
British Agent, from which Mountstuart Elphinstone retired to 
Kirkee before the battle, and still identified by the natives with 
the Peshwa's rule, though his residence was in the Fort. The 
Free Church of Scotland has had a mission in Poona since the city 
was open to Christians. The native town is divided into seven 
quarters, each named after a day of the week ; the Shanwar or 
Saturday division contains the walls of the Junawada, or " old 
palace'' of the Peshwa, near the street in which he witnessed 
offenders trampled to death by elephants. In the Boodhwar or 
Wednesday division are the public offices and former residence 
of Nana Famavees. Poona was granted by Sultan of Ahmed- 
nagar to Shivigi's grandfather. By treaty of Bassein in 1802 a 
British force was stationed there. The victory of Kirkee over 
B%ji Rao, the last Peshwa, on 5th November 1817, and Elphin- 



276 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY. [cHAP. XV. 

stone's settlement of the ceded territories for the first time gave 
peace and prosperity to the Dekhan. 

Singar (4162 ft.) (" the Uon's den "), scene of Shivgji's ex- 
ploits, Maratha fort and popular sanitarium, 12 m. S. W. of Poona, 
on E. side of the Sahyadris, where there branch off into the 
Dekhan the hills of Poorandhar (4472 ft.), forts and town 
16 m. S. of Poona, commanding pass of same name, one of the 
first places taken by Shivaji ; surrendered to Britif^ in 1818. 
Saswad (6500), on left bank of Earha, 16 m. S.E. of Poona, 
with old palaces of the Peshwa and Poorandhar Brahmans; seat 
of Scottish Free Church Mission. Indapoor (8000), 84 m. S.E. 
of Poona, another station of same mission. Karla^ or Karlen, 
village on Bombay and Poona road, near which are the famous 
Karl6 Oaves. The great central group of Western Caves, 
which are architectural, as the Eathiawar group are unoma- 
mented and the Orissa group are sculptural, are near the head 
of the Bor Ghhat (1798 ft.), the pass 40 m. from Bombay and 
Poona, once the key to the Dekhan, now ascended by the rail- 
way. Earl^, which has the laigest and finest chmtya in India, 
is near Lanoli (Lenavali = " grove of the caves'') railway station. 
The Bhiga Caves are on the opposite or S. side of the railway. 
The Bedsa Caves are on the S. side of the hills, in which Bluga 
is. The caves at Eondan^, Jambroog, and Ambivald, are in the 
lower scarps of the Sahyadris, near E^arjat railway station (in 
Ahmednagar). Earl^ is reached also from Ehandala railway 
station (2000 ft.), sanitarium near head of Bor Ghat. From 
Talegaon (5000), railway station 20 m. N.W. of Poona, the town 
of Junnar ("old town") (10,500) is distant 26 m., with 57 
Boodhist excavations around it, comprising almost every variety 
of rock-cut temples, and forms not found elsewhere, intermediate 
between the simplicity of the Eathiawar group and the richness 
of those of a subsequent age. Shivaneri, or Sewnar, hill-fort 
1^ m. S.W. of Junnar, was the birthplace of the great Maratha, 
Shiv^ji Bhonsla, in 1627. 

§ 30. Sholapoob District is bounded E. by Akalkot and 
Haidarabad States ; N. by Ahmednagar ; W. by Poona and Satara, 
and Pratinidhi and Phaltan States ; and S. by Ealadgi. Area, 
4521 sq. m. Population, 582,487; a decrease of 19 per cent, 
due to famine of 1876-77. The Bheema and its tributaries, 
the Man, Nera^ and Bina, flowing S.E., are the chief rivers. 
There are great reservoirs at Ekrook and Siddheswar, near 
Sholapoor town, at Eor^gan and Pandharpoor. Sholapoor 
(50,000), on plain of Sina, 150 m. S.E. of Poona. Since it 
was stormed by General Munro in 1818, Sholapoor has become 



CHAP. XV.] SATARA. 277 

a prosperoiDS seat of Bilk and cotton manufactures, and entrepot 
for Poona and Haidarabad. American Board's Mission station. 
Beejapoor, 58 m. off, is best reached from Sholapoor. Barsi 
(18,700), mart, 20 m. from Barsi Road Railway Station, 43 
m. N. of Sholapoor. Pcmdharpoor (16,500), on right hand 
of Bheema, 38 m. W. of Sholapoor, and 31 m. from Barsi Road 
RaQway Station, with popular shrine of Yithoba. Elannala 
(7000), 69 m. N.W. of Sholapoor, and 71 fit)m Jeur Railway 
Station. Vairagr (7000), 28 m. N. of Barsi. 

§ 31. Sataba District is bounded E. by Sholapoor, N. 
by Bor and Phaltan States and Poona from which the Neera 
divides it, W. by Kolaba and Ratnagiri with Sahyadris be- 
tween, and S. by Eolhapoor and Sangli States from which it 
is separated by the Varna. Area, 4968 sq. m. Population, 
1,062,350. The Sahyadri main range running S., and the 
Mahadeo range K and then S.E., start from Mahableshwar 
(4717 ft) in N.W. comer of district, with spurs and streams 
that form the head-waters of the Kistna river. There are 
irrigation works on the Kistna near Earad, on the Neera near 
Malshuas, and on the Man. The Sahyadris are crossed by 15 
roads or bullock tracks, of which the chief are the Eamatgi, 
Pasami, Eumbharli, Yarandha, and Fitzgerald. Satara 
(25,000), in the highlands, near confluence of Eistna and Yena, 
chief town and famous fort named from its 17 waUs, towers, 
and gates, given up by British to last representative of Shiv^ji 
during 1818-1848; pronounced "the most lovely station "in 
W. India. Mahableshwar (Arthur's Seat), chief sanitariiun 
(except in rains, when 240 inches fall) in Bombay, reached 
generally by horse or post carriage from Poona (74 m. S.) by 
the Eatr^ and Eamatgi or Pasami ghat, or by sea from Bom- 
bay to Dasgaon near mouth of the Savitri, and thence by old 
road (35 m.), established in 1829 by the Governor whose name 
survives in Malcolm-pet (Nehar), 3^ m. E. of Mahableshwar. 
Wai (11,000), at foot of Mahableshwar, 15 m. E., a Brahman- 
ical town. Karad (11,500), 31 m. S.E. of Satara; Tasgaon 
10,500), 60 m. S.E. ; Urun (8500), 48 m. S.E. ; and Aahta 
10,000), on right bank of Eistna, 64 m. S.E. ; all munici- 
palities. 

§ 32. *FiVE Satara States of Bor, Phaltan, Aundh, Jath, 
and Daflapoor, under the supervision of the Collector of Satara, 
which a(^oins or surrounds them. Bor, under the Pant 
Sachiv, a Brahman, has an area of 1491 sq. m., a population of 
137,000, and a gross revenue of £71,507. The chief town is 
Bor (4000), 25 m. S. of Poona. The State lies between 



i 



278 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY. [cHAP. XV. 

Satara and the Sahyadris, with Eolaba on W. Phaltan, under 
tlie Nimbalkar, a Rsgpoot, has an area of 397 sq. m., population 
of 47,800, and revenue of £26,600. The chief town ia Phal- 
tan (10,000), 37 m. N.E. of Satara. The State lies between 
Poona and Satara. Aundh, under the Pant Pratinidhi ('' repre- 
sentative of the R^ja," or Shivi^i), Brahman, has an area of 
2 1 3 sq. m., population of 68,335, and revenue of £21,555. The 
chief town is Aundh, 26 m. S.K of Satara. Jath, under a. 
Deshmookh, a Rigpoot, has an area of 885 sq. m., population 
of 64,000, and revenue of £12,900. The chief town is Jath, 
88 m. S.E. of Satara. Daflapoor, under a Deshmookh, has 
an area of 40 sq. m., population of 5000, and revenue of 
£920. The chief town of Daflapoor is 80 m. S.E. of Satara. 
The total population of these States in 1881 was 313,813. 

Southern Districts and States. 

§ 33. KiLADOi DiSTBiGT is bounded E. by Nizam's States ; 
N. by Sholapoor and Akalkot State from which the Bheema 
divides it ; W. by the Jath, Jamkhandi, and Mudhol States ; 
and S. by Dharwar and Ramdroog State with the Malprabha 
between. Area, 5757 sq. m. Population, 638,493; a loss of 22 
per cent since 1871, due to the famine of 1866-68, from which 
this district suffered most. N. of the Eistna, the section from 
the Bheema is a treeless plain of black soil, interrupted only by 
the Sina and Don. S. of the Eistna to W. lines of hills break 
the level ; the Badami cliffs of sandstone are chief. . The other 
chief rivers are the Ghatprabha and Malprabha. Kalad^^ 
(6500), chief town, 104 m. S. by W. of Sholapoor Railway 
Station. Baeralkot (14,000), on Ghatprabha, 15 m. E. of 
Ealadgi, a mart with silk and cotton manufactures. Beeja- 
poor (13,000), 52 m. N.E. of Ealadgi and 160 S.E. of Poona, 
old capital of famous Musalman kingdom founded by Yusuf 
(died 1510), son of the Osmanli Sultan, Murad II., under one 
of whose descendants Shiv^^i rose to power, and extinguished by 
Aurangzeb in 1686. The splendid architectural remains have 
been preserved by the British Government since 1818 — the 
walls 6^ miles in circumference, domed mosques, tombs, and 
seven-storied palaces. Hunfirund (6500), good market, 40 
m. S.E. of Ealadgi. Gk>olucl£rad (10,700), manufacturing 
town, 22 m. S.E. of Ealadgi ; German Mission station. Ilkal 
(10,000), mart, 8 m. S.E. of Hungund; the Nizam's canton- 
ment, Lingasagar, 24 m. E., is supplied from Ilkal. Gajan- 
dra«ad (7700), 41 m. S.E. of Ealadgi. Talikot (7500), 60 



C9AP. XV.] BELQAUM — ^DHARWAR. 279 

m. N.E. of Kaladgi, where the Musalman kings of the Dekhan 
destroyed the Hindoo empire of Bjjaynagar in 1565. Eeroor 
(7000), Urn. S.E. of Kaladgi, and Amingarh (7500), 32 m. 
S.£., are municipal marts. 

§ 34. Belgaum District is boimded £. by Mudhol and 
Jamkhandi States and Kaladgi, N. by Mirtg State, W. by 
Kolhapoor and Sawantwari States and Goa, and S. by Dharwar 
and N. Kanara. Area, 4737 sq. m. Population, 864,014 ; a 
loss of about 11 per cent since 1871, due to the famine of 
1876-78. The plain sloping from the Sahyadris to Kaladgi is 
dotted with peaks and low ranges covered with forest. The 
Kistna flows through centre and MaJprabha through S. of 
district from the spurs of the Sahyadri. Belgaum (27,000), 
chief town and cantonment (2500 ft.), on the Bellary affluent 
of the Markandi, which flows into the Ghatprabha tributary of 
the Kistna ; the old Kanarese name was Yennugrama, from the 
numerous bamboo groves ; seat of London Missionary Society. 
GK>kak (13,000), 30 m. N.E. of Belgaum, known for its toy 
and paper manufactures. E. 3^ m. are the Falls of Gk>kak, 
by which the Ghatprabha river precipitates itself 176 ft. into 
a fissure as it issues from the W. Ghats on to the Dekhan 
plateau. In July 100,000 cubic ft. per second is thus hurried 
over with a deafening noise. Athni (11,700), chief mart, 
sending grain and cotton W. 24 m. to Mir^ State. Nipani 
(9500), 45 m. N.W. of Belgaum. Hongral (9000), manufac- 
turing place. Sankeshwar (9000), 27 m. N.W. of Belgaum, 
residence of great Swami of W. India, with fair of the reformer, 
Sankar Achaiya. Saundatti (8000), 41m. S.E. of Belgaum, 
with ruins of hill-fort of Parasgad. Badami, early capital of 
the Chalookyas, with caves. Murgrod (7000), mart, 27 m. 
E. of Belgaum. The S. Maratha Railway will open up this 
district to Poona. 

§ 35. Dharwar District is bounded E. by the Madras 
district of Bellary from which the Toongabhadra divides it, N. 
by Kaladgi and Belgaiun, W. by Goa and N. Kanara, S. by 
Mysore. Area, 4535 sq. m. Population, 882,907 ; a reduction 
of nearly 11 per cent since 1871, owing to the famine of 1876-78. 
The Poona and Harihar (Mysore) road divides this famous 
cotton tract into two parts ; to N. and N.E. is the black soil 
plain with rich crops of cotton, in S.E. are the Kapad Hills, 
(gold-washing), more cotton sod, and then an undulating country 
of red soil down to Mysore. To W. the land rises into the hills 
of N. Kanara, with fine forest reserves. Of 7 chief streams which 
flow from this watershed, one descends the Sahyadri Ghats to 



280 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY. [CHAP. XV 

the Indian Ocean, the Birti. These six flow S. to the Bay of 
Bengal : the Malprabha on N., dividing Dharwar from Ealadgi ; 
the Bennihalla, its tributary; the Toongrabhadra on S.£. 
border, dividing Dharwar from Mysore, Bellary, and Haidarabad 
State; the Wardha and Koomadwati, its tributaries. After 
the battle of Talikot, Dharwar became a portion of the Beejar 
poor kingdom; was seized by Shiv^ji, then by Haidar Ali, 
when the British helped the Marathas to recover it in 1791; in 
1818 it became British with the rest of the Maratha empire. 
The Basel Evangelical Society and the Romish and Goanese 
Catholics have missions in the towns and villages. Kanarese is 
the vemacidar. The S. Maratha Eailway is opening up the 
district from Bellary, on a branch of the Madras and Bombay 
trunk line, to the W. coast, where are the ports of Eoompta, 
Karwar, and Vingorla. Dharwar (27,500), chief town and 
ruined fort on Poona road, to W. of the last spurs of the 
Sahyadris; with hill of Mailargood 1^ m. to S. Hoobli 
(38,000), centre of cotton trade, 13 m. S.E. of Dharwar, 90 m. 
from Karwar port, and 132 from Bellary; Shiv^ji plundered 
the English factory here in 1673. Raneebexmoor (12,000), 
80 m. S.E. of Dharwar, prosperous manufacturing mart. Gada^ 
(10,500), mart, 45 m. E. of Dharwar, forming a municipality 
with Betifireri (8700). Narfiroond (10,000), entrepot, 32 m. 
N.E. of Dharwar, where, when a Feudatory State, the Maratha 
chief in 1857 murdered Mr. Manson, the commissioner. Nawal- 
firund (9500), 24 m. N.E. of Dharwar, with cotton, carpet, and 
toy manufactures ; once taken by Tipoo from the chief called 
Desai. AnTilgeri (7000), mart, 29 m. E. of Dharwar on 
Bellaiy road. Mulfirund (7000), 38 m. S.E. of Dharwar. 

§ 36. *EiOHT Southern Maratha States, Savanoor 
AND Akalkot States, form with Kaladgi, Belgaum, Dharwar, 
and Kolhapoor States, the Maratha division of the "W. 
Kamatic" or "Doab" between the Eistna and its tributary 
the Toongabhadra. Mudhol, under the Ghorpade, a Maratha 
Riga, is traversed by the Ghatprabha river between Ealadgi 
and Belgaum, has an area of 362 sq. m., pop. 60,000, and rev. 
£14,647. The chief town (6500) is of same name. Sancrli, 
under a Rao Saheb, has an area of 896 sq. m., pop. 224,000 
(rev. £76,400), scattered over six divisions, from chief town 
(13,000) of same name on the Eistna near its junction with 
the Wama, to the Toongabhadra in Dharwar. MiraJ (senior 
branch), under a Rao Saheb, has an area of 340 sq. m., pop. 
82,500 (rev. £27,946), scattered over three divisions from 
the Eastna, near which is the chief town (23,000), S.E. of 



CHAP. XV.] SOUTH MARATHA STATES — KOLHAPOOR. 281 

Sangli town to Dharwar. MiraJ (junior branch) has an area 
of 208 sq. m., pop. 35,700 (rev. £15,944), scattered over 
four divisions in Dharwar, Satara, Sholapoor, and Poona ; the 
chief resides near Ming town. Jamkhandi, under a Rao 
Saheb, has an area of 492 sq. m., pop. 103,000 (rev. 
£38,680), scattered over three divisions, on the Kistna N. of 
Mudhol, and in Dharwar S. of HoobK; chief town (12,600) of 
same name is 162 m. S. of Poona city. Kurundwad 
(1 senior), under a Rao Saheb, has an area of 182 sq. m., 
pop. 40,000 (rev. £10,000), scattered over the country, 
traversed by the Eistna S.W. of Mir^j; at the town of 
same name (8000) the chief resides, also the two younger 
branches whose estate (2) of 114 sq. m., pop. 30,000 (rev. 
£10,283) is divided between the Nizam's border and S. of 
Belgaum. Bamdroogr, under a Rao Saheb, with area of 140 
sq. m., pop. 38,000 (rev. £10,404), lies between Ealadgi E., 
Dharwar S., and Kolhapoor N. and W., and is bisected by the 
Malprabha. The chief town and fort of same name (6500) 
was with Nargoond one of the two strongest in the Kamatic, 
and was besieged for 7 months by Tipoo. Mhaisal has an 
area of 21 sq. m., pop. 2700 (rev. £1600). Savanoor has 
an area of 70 sq. m., pop. 14,751 (rev. £7327), in Dharwar, 
under a Nawab related to Tipoo, but plundered by him and 
protected by the Marathas and General Wellesley. Chief town 
of same name (8700) on Poona road S.E. of Dharwar town. 
Akalkot,. between Sholapoor W. and the Haidarabad State E., 
hafi an area of 498 sq. m., pop. 81,000 (rev. £28,283). The 
chief town of same name (8580) is 250 m. S.E. of Bombay. 

§ 37. *KoLHAPOOR State, under Shivsgi IV., representative 
of the younger branch of the great Shivaji, as the now extinct 
Rig of Satara t^as of the elder, is bounded S. and E. by 
Belgaum, N.E. by Kurundwad, Ming, and Sangli States tom 
which the Eistna divides it, N. by Satara with the Wama 
between, W. by Ratnagiri and Sawantwari with the Sahyadri 
mountains separating them. Area, 2778 sq. m. Population, 
800,267. Revenue, £164,408. This principality consists of 
a succession of hill and dale (1790 ft.), running in parallel lines 
E. firom the Sahyadri range, dotted with numerous hill forts 
(3000 ft), with high westward scarps. Of these now pleasant 
and once impregnable retreats the chief are Panhala, Vishal^ 
garh, Baura, Bandaigarh, and Rungoona. Kolhapoor (40,000), 
the capital, picturesquely situated opposite a gap in the Sah- 
yadri range, through which the sea-breeze blows. A new palace 
is being built for the Rtga. Shivtgi III. died in Europe in 1870, 



282 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY. [CHAP. XV. 

and hiB body was burned with Hindoo rites at Florence, where 
there is a memorial of him. Eolhapoor has a collie, schools, 
and Christian Missions of the Gospel Propagation and American 
Presbyterian Societies. There are 11 vassal chiefs of Eolhapoor 
whose estates are included in its area. Of these Vialialgarh, 
with Mulkapoor as the residence, has 280 sq. m., from which 
Shivaji marched 100 m. to Mudhol in one night, plundered it^ 
and returned to hold it against the Muhammadans; here are 
noble cascades in the rainy season. Baura, 26 m. S.E. of Eol- 
hapoor, has 83 sq. m., and Inchal-Karanji 201. The others 
are Eapshi, Eagal, Juchal Earai\ji, Toigal Datwad, Himmat 
Bahadoor, Eagal (senior), Sar Lashkar Bahadoor and Patan 
(in Satara). 

§ 38. ^Sawantwari State, 50 m. long and 10-30 broad, 
lies between the Sahyadri range which separates it from Eolha- 
poor State and Belgaum on E., and a narrow strip of the coast 
of Ratnagiri on W. which shuts it off from the Arabian Sea, on 
N. it is bounded by Ratnagiri, on S. by Portuguese Goa. Area, 
900 sq.m. Population, 174,412. Revenue, £32,634, In this 
land of hills and streams, rising rapidly from the coast, the river 
mouths and backwaters are navigable for a short distance only. 
The chief streams are the KarU or Sarambal on N., which 
flows from the village of Shivapoor on the Sahyadri range 35 
m. S.W. to the sea at Malvan ; and the Terakhol or Bandl^ 
which, rising in the same range S. of the Earli, marks off the 
State from Goa, and is tidal and navigable to Banda 15 m. from 
the sea. The country rising to the Sahyadris is strikingly 
beautiful, dotted with groups and peaks from 300 to 3000 ft. 
high, covered with forts of historic fame, such as Manohar and 
Mausantosh. The range is crossed by 7 chief passes, of which 
the AmboU and Ram are fit for carts. Sawantwari ("the 
Sawant's " or " the beautiful garden ") (8500), chief town in 
palm groves (367 ft.), 19 m. W. of base of the hills and 17 E. 
of Vingorla fort, with beautiful Motee Talao (" pearl lake ") and 
fort. Banda (2500), 6 m. S. of Sawantwari, on right bank of 
Terakhol, a great port in 16th century, with ruins of mosques 
and tombs. Eudal (2700), on Earli, 13 m. N. of Sawantwari, 
a Chalookya capital in 6th century. Here in 1748 Jayiam 
Sawant defeated the pirate Angria. 

§ 39. Ratnagibi District is bounded E. by Sawantwari 
and Eolhapoor States and Satara with the Sahyadris between, 
N. by Eolaba and Jaigeera State, W. by Arabian Sea, and S. 
by Portuguese Goa. Area, 3922 sq. m. Population, 997,090. 
This narrow strip of low land between the Sahyadris and the 



OHAF. XT.] RATNAGIRL 283 

sea has a dangerous coast-line of 160 m. from Bankot on N. 
to Fort Bedi on S., opposite Fort Terakhol, the Portuguese 
limit. The promontories and rocky islands are crowned with 
old Maratha forts, as at Suvamdroog and Malyan. The hills 
are crossed by many passes up to the Dekhan tableland, amid 
grand sceneiy. The principal hills are the hog-backed Man- 
danfirar, a fort 14 m. from the sea at Dapoli, a conspicuous 
landmark, which commands a view of Mahableshwar ; S.£. are 
Palfirar, Mahipatgar, facing the Hatlot pass; and Makar- 
andgar (in Satara), the famous "saddle-back" of visitors to 
Mahableshwar, Sumarfirar, and Rasalgrar. The Savltri or 
Bankot river forms the N. border for 24 m., one of the 5 streams 
{jMneh sranfira) which rise in the village of old Mahableshwar, 
and flow for 50 m. to the sea. The Vashishti, the largest 
stream, flows 30 m. S. and parallel to the Savitri from the 
Tivra pass to the port of Ai^'anvel, a mile below the famous 
old port of Dabhol. The Shashtri flows from Prachitgar in the 
hills 40 m. to the seat at Jaygar promontoiy, past Sangameshvar. 
The Ratnagiri, 25 m. S. of the above, flows from the Amla pass 
40 m. to the Ratnagiri promontory. The Muchkoondi, the 
Jayatapoor, on which was the old town of R^apoor, where the 
English and French had factories ; the Vijyadroog, the Devgad, 
the Achra, and the Ealavli, succeed in order from N. to S. till 
the S. border is reached in the Karli, which flows for 30 m. 
from Manohargar in Sawantwari to the sea, 8 m. S. of Malvan. 
This Southern Eonkan has always been the chief recruiting 
ground of the Bombay army, and has many pensioners and 
Portuguese Catholic " Christis " or caste Christians, who avoid 
menial service, like those of Ooa, but are clerks and shop- 
men. The peasants on the uplands have suffered much from 
famines, and the land tenures, especially those of the khoU^ or 
large middlemen, have led to much litigation. Ratnagiri 
(11,000), chief town, facing the sea, 136 m. S. of Bombay, 
centre of the sardine fishery, with fort and lighthouse ; here is 
an American Presbyterian Mission. The other 8 ports in order 
from N. to S. are these : Bankot, or Fort Victoria (4000), 
earliest British possession in Western India next to Bombay, 
from which it is 73 m. S.E., surrendered in 1755 to Commodore 
James, and used chiefly as the beef-market of Europeans and 
Musalmans in Bombay. Here in 1822, and at the next port 
of Hamai (6000), with the island fortress of Suvamdroog 
(''golden fortress "), long the stronghold of Angria's pirates, the 
Scottish Missionary Society, under Rev. D. Mitchell, formerly 
a British officer, opened their first Mission, which, in 1829, 



284 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY. [OHAP. TV. 

Dr. John Wilson joined. Chiplun (6000), on S. bank of 
VajBhishti, near entrance to Eumbharli pasB, on an easy road to 
the Dekhan ; the first home of the Eonkanast or Chitpdvan 
Brahmans ; here and at Mhar, on the Savitri, at Dabhoi, and 
at Sangamesvar, are Bhoodhist cells or caves ; in the S. Kon- 
kan there are in all 150 separate excavations. After Ratnagiri 
and Rajapoor, already noticed, come Kharepatan (3000), 
leading to the Phonda pass, and being silted up, once a famous 
fort ; and Malvan (14,000), with Shivaji's fortress and coast 
capital, Sindhudrooff (" ocean fort "), on a low island a mile 
from the shore, long a pirate nest, and considered by the 
Marathas the cenotaph of Shivaji, in which his stone image, 
covered with a gold or silver mask, is worshipped. Vinsorla 
(15,000), a mile E. of mouth of a swampy creek, a rising port, 
because nearest to the cantonments of Belgaum and Dharwar, 
to which a splendid cart road leads over the Parpoli pass, 75 
m. to Belgaum. Here were early Dutch and British factories. 
Nine m. N.W. are the Viofirorla Books or Burnt iBlanda, 
a group of ten, 3 m. from the shore, believed by some to be 
Ptolemy's Heptanesia and the Sesikreienai of the Periplus. 
Vljayadrooer (" Fort Victory ") or Ghheria (" the enclosure "), 
170 m. S. of Bombay, on entrance to Yaghotan river, one of the 
best harbours (2300) on the W. coast, the steamers calling at 
Jaytapoor, 6 m. off; in 1698 the pirate chief Angria made 
y^ayadroog his capital, and it was not taken till 1756 by Olive 
and Admiral Watson. The Marathas again made it a centre of 
piracy till 1818, when it became permanently British. 

§ 40. North Eanaba Distbict, transferred from Madras 
because of its commercial relations with Bombay, of which it is 
the most S. district, is bounded E. by Mysore and Dharwar, 
N.W. by Goa, W. by Arabian Sea, and S. by South Eanara. 
Area, 3911 sq. m. Population, 421,840. The Sahyadri range, 
running N. and S., divides the district into the Balaghat or 
uplands (3000 sq. m.), and Payanghat or lowlands. The 
coast is broken by the Earwar headland and 4 estuaries of 
the Kali in N., the Gha.TigaTial1 and Tadri in centre, and the 
Shiravati in S. The last, falling over a diff 825 ft, just 
above the old capital of Gersoppa, captured successively by the 
Portuguese, Haidar Ali and Tipoo, and General Matthews, 
divides into several channels, and forms the famous Falls of 
(Gersoppa, 35 m. above Honawar (see Mysore). Two streams 
flow E. from the Sahyadri watershed, of which the "V^arda 
tributary of the Toongabhadra is alone important. The teak 
forests of this district, above and below the Ghats, are valu- 



CHAP. XV.] NORTH KANAKA — GOA. 285 

able. Of 12 ports these 5 are the chief. Karwar (13,500), 
chief town, 295 m. S.E. of Bombay, the only safe harbour all 
the year between Bombay and Cochin ; a factory of the East 
India Company in 1663. Ankola, a small port to S. Kooznpta 
(11,000), on a creek 328 m. S.E. of Bombay, the chief mercantile 
town ; it is 410 m. N.W. of Madras. Bhatkal (5300), 64 
m. S.E. of Karwar, centre of the Nawayat (" newly arrived ") 
Musalman seamen and traders driven from Bagdad by Sheea 
persecution, and a famous port for two centuries, from 1321 till 
Goa supplanted it. Honawar (5300), 40 m. S.E. of Karwar, 
on N. of the large estuary which receives the Shiravati, a great 
city in 13th century, taken from Haidar All by Matthews in 
1783. Sadashivgarh port is a village between two ruined forts 
at the entrance of Kali river. 

Portuguese Territory. 

§ 41. Goa Pbovince consists of Qoa Settlement, Daman 
(already described^ on N. of Thana district, and Diu island 
(already described) off S. Kathiawar, and comprises 1096 sq. 
m., with a population of 407,700. The Province, under a 
Qovemor-Gteneral on Rs. 18,000 a year, constitutes, with Mozam- 
bique, Macao, and Timor, one judicial district, divided into 
Comarcas, these into Julgados, and these into Tregulsias or 
parishes. 

Goa Settlement, lying between 14° 53' and 15' 48' N. lat., 
and between 73° 43' and 74° 24' E. long., is bounded E. by 
Sahyadri Ghats, which separate it from Dharwar, N. by Sawant- 
wari State and Batnagiri with the Terakhol or Aurandem river 
between, W. by the Arabian Sea, and S. by N. Kanara. With 
an extreme length of 62 m. N. to S., and breadth of 40 m. E. 
to W., the area is 1062 sq. m., and the population 392,234. 
By recent treaty the Madras Railway N.W. to Bellary (305^ m.) 
is being continued by Hoobli through Goa Settlement to Mor- 
mugao. Isolated peaks of the Sahyadris are Sonsagar (3827 ft.), 
Catlanchimanli (3633 ft.), Vagnerim (3500 ft.), Morlemchogor 
(3400). After Terakhol on N., the 7 principal rivers which 
flow W. to the sea are the Ohapora or Colvalle, for 18 -m. ; 
the Baga, 1 m. ; the Singuerim, 3^ m. ; the Mandavi, 38^ m. 
from Parvar Ghat to Nova Goa and Bay of Aguado ; the Juari, 
39 m. from Digny Ghat to Mormugao Bay; the Sal, 15 m. ; 
and the Talpona, 7 m. The Settlement is divided into the old 
(velhas) and new (novas) conquistas, forming the 3 judicial 
Comarcas of the Ilhas, Bardez, and Salsette. The Ilhas are in 



286 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY. [chap. XV. 

2 Julgados, Panjim, and Fonda. Bardez comprises 4 — Mapu9a» 
Calangute, Pemem, and Bicholim; Salsette has 3 — Maiigao, 
Chinchinim, and Quepem. Mapuga (12,200) and Margao 
(20,000) are the principal towns next to the capital. 

Nova Ghoa., comprehending Pai\]lzn (14,200), Raibandar, 
connected with it by a causeway, and Velha Oidade de Ghoa., 
covers 6 sq. m. on left bank of Mandavi river, 3 m. from its 
mouth. The port of Groa, 250 m S. of Bombay, from which it 
is reached by a voyage of 32 hours, is formed by Aguado point 
N., and Mormugao point S., the friture railway terminus. Pan- 
jim is 5 m. from the harbour's mouth, and Baibandar 2 m. 
farther. The viceroy's palace was the fort of the Be^apoor 
King Adil Shah, when Yasco da Grama landed at Calicut in 
1498. Albuquerque captured Groa first in 1510, and G^ 
Dourada ("golden Groa"), founded by Musalmans in 1479, 
became the metropolis of an empire said to caver 4000 leagues, 
till the Dutch, and then the English, came. Now Old Groa is 
only the ecclesiastical capital, the seat of the Portuguese Primate 
of the East. The Cathedral of St. Catherine is still mijestic 
amid the ruins ; and the Church of Bom «TesuB, with the body 
of Francis Xavier (died 1552), shrunken to 4| ft., and minus 
two toes bitten off by a relic-hunting lady, attracts many 
pilgrims. Three-fourths of the whole population are caste 
Christians. The Convent of St. Cigetan resembles St. Peter's, 
Rome. The site of the Inquisition, foimded in 1560 and 
suppressed in 1812, is between this and the cathedral The 
Convent of St. Monica was built by the infamous Archbishop 
Menezes. The island of Gfoa, 9 m. long and 3 broad, projects 
between the promontories of Bardez and Salsette, divi^ng the 
harbour into the two anchorages of Aguado and Mormugao. 
Groa Proper, or the Velhas Conquistas, is divided into Ilhas 
(48 sq. m.), Salsette (102), Bardez (72). The Novas Conquis- 
tas comprise Pamem ^73 sq. m.), Batagrama (67), Satari (Hi), 
Ponda or Antray (79), Eanakona (113), Embarbarcem (186), 
Kakoran (6), Chandravadi (37), Babb (57), Astrogar (77), 
Aigadive (1), and Terakhol (1). The annual revenue is £77,000, 
and expenditure £26,500. 

Aden, Perimy and Allied Forts, 

§ 42. Aden Settlement, the Adand, Athana, and Arabia 
Felix of classical geography, and believed by some to be the 
Eden of Ezekiel xxvii. 23, is a fortified peninsula on S. coast of 
Yemen in 12* 47' N. lat., and 45' 10' E. long. The British 



CHAP. XV.] ADEN. 287 

territory which has an area of 37 sq. m. and population of 
35,000, of whom 4000 are the garrison, consists of the two 
peninsulas of Aden (Jebel Shumshum) and Little Aden 
( Jebel Ihsan), to the W. between which is the harbour or West 
Bay or Back Bay (Bandar Tawayih), 8 m. from B. to W. and 
4 from N. to S., divided into two by a spit of land, and dotted 
with islets. Aden is a vast cinder or volcanic crater (1775 ft.), 
forced up through limestone, and consisting of vesicular lava 
and rocks, from which pumice-stone is exported. The crater 
throws out many spurs to the sea, with valleys radiating from 
it. The inhabited portion, or Aden proper, is an irregular oval, 
15 m. in circumference, connected with the mainland of Yemen 
by a narrow neck 1350 yards broad, along which are a cause- 
way and the Sheikh Othman aqueduct, but for which it would 
be an island. The N. boundary is the Khor Maksar creek, 2 
m. N. of the defensive works across this isthmus. As the 
entrepot between the Mediterranean empires and the East, 
Aden was a great city, was destroyed by Aelius Gallus under 
Augustus, received the Christian embassy of Constantius (324), 
flourished under Himyarite, Abyssinian, and Islam influences 
till eclipsed by Mokha, became independent under its own 
Imams and local chiefs (932), who beat off Albuquerque (1513), 
fell before Solyman the Magoificent (1538), declined under the 
Imams of Senaa, who expelled the Turks (1630), and were in 
turn driven out (1735) by the native Arab tribes, of whom the 
chief are the Abdalees under Sultan of Lahej, Fadhlees, Akra- 
bees, Owlakees, Subaihees, Yaffaees, Howshabees, Alawees, and 
Ameers. In 1839 the plundering of British vessels forced the 
Bombay €k)vemment to conquer and annex the place, which had 
degenerated into a pirate village. Since that time Aden has 
been administered by a Political Resident, who is also Militaiy 
Commandant, and it is legally part of India. The opening of the 
Suez Canal has gradually increased the total trade of this free 
port to nearly 4 millions sterling annually. The land trade 
carried by 250,000 camels is about £350,000 in value. It is 
the port of transhipment for Zamdbar and the £. coast of Africa ; 
2515 steamers and craft touch at it annually. Here is a Roman 
Catholic Mission. Aden Town and cantonment lie within 
the crater, which opens on the £. face. To N. is the Main 
PaAS, from which the road x)asses Maala village with the custom- 
house, and reaches the harbour at " Steamer point," where are 
the principal hotels, shops, and consuls' houses. On the Ras 
Tarshyne headland beyond are the Residency and artillery 
quarters. At Ras Baradlee to S. is the Eastern Telegraph 



288 PROVINCE OF BOMBAY. [CHAP. XV. 

Company's Office, 1818 m. from Bombay, and 1465 m. from 
Suez. Of the 50 old tanks and reservoirs to store rain-water, 
13 have been restored. Of the population, one-half are Arabs, 
one -fourth Africans, and one -fourth MuhammadanS) Jews, 
Hindoos, and Parsees from India. Aden is best defended by 
iron-plated monitors. In 1882 the village of Sheikh Oth- 
man, 6 m. beyond the isthmus, and commanding the roads 
leading to Aden, was purchased from the Sultan of Lahej. 
From its wells the garrison and shipping at Aden obtain large 
supplies of excellent water. The place was twice captured by 
the British : in 1841, when an attempt was made by the com- 
bined Abdalee and Fadhlee tribes to recapture Aden ; and in 
1858, in consequence of several outrages on British subjects 
committed by the Abdalee, under the Sultan of Lahej, when 
the fort was blown up with the ammunition found there. 

§ 43. Pebim Island (245 ft.), outpost of Aden in Straits 
of Bal-el-Mandeb, the Mayoon of the Arabs, waterless, of 
volcanic origin, with lighthouse since 1861, and quarters for 
detachment of 50 sepoys and officer. The island, 3^ m. long 
and 1^ wide, is nearly 1^ m. distant from the Arabian coast, 
where is the "small strait" usually taken by steamers,' and 
9^ from the African coast, where is the " broad strait." The 
harbour facing S.W. has natural advantages which could be 
increased by the formation of " the spit " into a pier. Perim is 
the Perantonomasiam (" extending across to Asia ") of Ptolemy 
and the Diodorus of the Periplus, and was seized by the 
Abyssinians during their conquest of Yemen, a.d. 575. The 
Portuguese under Albuquerque landed on Perim in 1573, and 
named it Vera Crux. In 1799 a Bombay garrison under 
Colonel Murray took possession of Perim, to prevent the French 
troops in Egypt from seizing it and joining Tipoo. The British 
reoccupied it in 1857. On the African coast opposite Aden the 
British possess the Maasah Islands in the Bay of T^joora, 
and the island of Eibat near Zaila, which they purchased in 
1840, but have not occupied. In 1854 the Imam of Muskat 
ceded the Kooria Mooria Islands on the Mahra coast of 
Arabia, valuable for their guano. 

To prevent the slave trade and piracy, and anticipate the 
interference of other Powers, the Government of India have 
engagements with not only the Sultans of Lahq}, Fadhlee, and 
the other chiefs around Aden, but with these ports on the 
African, Dankali, or Somali coasts, opposite Aden, going W. to 
E.— ^Tiyoora, Zaila, Bulbar, and Berbera, also with Shoa and 
Zanzibar. On the Arabian coast the Indian Government has 



CHAP. ZY.] ASSAB — SOKOTRA. 289 

similar engagements with the Imam of Muskat, and with the 
Nukeebs of Makalla and Shehr, the two principal ports on the 
Hadramaut or S. coast, the former 250 m. N.E. of Aden, and 
the latter 20 m. 

Assab (177, of whom 7 are Italians) is a bay and settle- 
ment on the S.W. coast of the Red Sea, in Straits of £ab-el- 
Mandeb, recently purchased by the Rubattino Company. 

§ 44. SoKOTBA (1520 sq. m., and 5000 pop.), a British 
feudatory island 148 m. off Cape Gardafui, and 500 m. from 
Aden, 82 m. long and 20 wide, held by the Sultan of Kisheen 
on the Mahra coast of Arabia. In 1834 the British obtained 
the right to land and store coal there ; in 1876 the Sultan 
bound himself and successors never to cede, sell, mortgage, or 
give for occupation, save to the British Government, Sokotra or 
any of the neighbouring islands. Sokotra is the Dioscorida 
(Dwipa Sakhadara = " island of the abode of bliss ") of the 
ancients, was inhabited by Nestorian Christians in the 13th and 
15th centuries, who were oppressed by the Mahra Arabs, was 
held by the Portuguese when Xavier visited it, was explored by 
Lieutenant Wellsted in 1834, and having no safe harbour was 
superseded by Aden. The capital is Tainarida (100), on N. coast, 
with ruins of old capital Hadibu to K, Kathub, and (jk)lonsir 
are the other villages on bays of same name. Between Ras 
Shaal, the W. point, and Cape Gardafui on the African mainland, 
are islands, of which the chief are The Brothers (10 sq. m.), 
Abdal Euri (65 sq. m.), and Bander Saleh (10 sq. m.). 
Sokotra has been famed from of old for the Aloe (Aloe ^Soho- 
trituC) and dragonVblood gum. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

PBOTINCE OF AJMEB. 

§ 1. ijmer-Merwara generally. § 2. Ajmer. § 3. Merwara. 

§ 1. Ajheb-Merwaba (Sansk. Meru=hj]l) is a small isolated 
Province in the heart of the States of Rigpootana, and the 
highest plateau of Hindustan. Formerly a district of the North- 
western Province, it is now under the Governor -(Jenerars 
Agent for Regpootana as Chief Commissioner, and is directly 
administered by a resident Commissioner, with one assistant 
for Ajmer and one for Merwara. It lies between 25" 36' and 
26*' 46' N. lat., and between TS" 45' and 75" E. long., and is 
bounded E. by the States of Eishangarh, Marwar, and Jaipoor ; 
N. by Eishangarh and Marwar; W. by Marwar; and S. by 
Mewar. The area is 2710 sq. m., and the population 460,722. 
The Province forms the crest of the great R^jpootana watershed, 
from which the scanty rainfall of 20 inches, diminishing to 5^ 
in the famine of 1868, finds its way by the Loni into the Gulf 
of Each, and by the Chambal into the Bay of Bengal The 
Aravaii chain crops out here in several parallel ranges, on 
the highest of which (2853 ft.) is Taragraxh Fort, with Ajmer 
city at its base ; 3 m. W. is the Nagrpahar (" serpent-hill "), 
The hills form a double ridge at Bed war in Merwara, where they 
enclose its valley. The principal stream is the Banas, which, 
rising in the Aravaii 40 m. N.W. of Oodaipoor, skirts the S.E. 
border. The Ehari, Dar, Sabarmati, and Saraswati, are swollen 
into torrents only by heavy rain. The land is irrigated from 
419 tanks embanked by damming up hill streamlets, which, 
drying by March, yield spring crops. Of four natural reser- 
voirs, Pushkar lake deserves notice as a place of pilgrimage. 
Reboisement is carefully carried on over the arid hill-sides; 
101 sq. m. are forest reserves. The Rajpootana>Malwa Railway 
passes through the N.W. section from Bombay to Agra and 
Delhi, and from Ajmer 192 m. S. by Naseerabad to Indore and 



PROVINCE OP ajmer; baroda, raj 




P0OI4NA ASD CEHTHAL DTDIA STATES. 



OHAP. ZVL] AJMER. 291 

Khandwa on the Great Indian Peninsula line. Barley, millets, 
teel, and cotton form the chief crops ; the poppy, for opium, is 
grown in Be^war and Todgarh. When both the S.W. and N.E. 
monsoons £ul, Ajmer, like the rest of H^'pootana, is exposed 
to the '* treble famine " of grain, grass, and water, as in 1868-9 
when cows were offered at a rupee each. The United Pres- 
byterian Church of Scotland occupies the Province, and has 
six stations. Since Sindia ceded it in 1818, as for six cen- 
turies before, ''Ajmer has been the symbol of political pre- 
dominance in Rypootona, and has contained the garrison by 
which the masters of N. India have enforced their jurisdiction" 
over the clans. 

§ 2. Ajmee (" Aja's hiU *') (27,000), the land of the epony- 
mous chief Aja, who built Taragarh Fort, and in the valley below, 
Indurkot, founded Ajmer City, 145 a.d. It is 615 m. N.E. 
of Bombay, 276 S.W. of Delhi, and 228 W. of Agra. In 
685 the Chauhan Rsgpoot chief was defeated by the Arab 
conqueror of Sind, and his successor founded Sambhar. In 
1024 Mahmood of Ghazni swept through to Goojarat and 
Somnath, sacking the city, whose Rsgpoots led him astray into 
the desert on his return and had their revenge. Prithvi Raja, 
the last of the Chauhan dynasty, was adopted by Arang Pal, 
and became ruler of Delhi also. With Kanatg and Oojain, 
Ajmer feU before the Musalman house of Ghori in 1193. In 
the Taragarh is the " treasury of martyrs," the tomb of Salad 
Husain and the garrison who were massacred by the Rcgpoots 
in 1210. To this Akbar walked on foot to offer thanks for the 
birth of his son Salim (1570 a.d.) For two centuries Ajmer was 
a favourite residence of the Mughul emperors ; here Sir Thomas 
Roe, the envoy of James I., was received, and the eccentric Cor- 
yate wrote (1616 a.d.) Sindia ceded the district to the British 
in 1818, and it has remained Hindoo in spite of long Musalman 
supremacy. Ajmer is a waUed town with five gateways. OnN. 
is Akbar's palace, now the treasury; on S. the dargah or shrine 
of a popular Musalman saint. There are a Government College, 
the Mayo College for the R^poot nobles, and the United 
Presbyterian Scottish Mission. Here are the headquarters of 
the Merwara Battalion. Pushkar or Pokhir (4000), pilgrim 
centre and lake, a few miles W. of Ajmer, where the Rigpoot 
nobles have houses, and 100,000 Hindoos crowd in October to 
wash away sin on the spot where they are taught that Brahma 
performed the yajnui sacrifice. Na43eerabad (18,000), railway 
station, and cantonment of Bombay army, 14 m. S. of Ajmer, 
where two Bengal regiments and a battery mutinied in 1857 



292 PROVINCE OF AJMER. [CHAP. XVI. 

without hurt. The sanitarium is Taraffarh (2855 ft.) smce 
1860, beside Ajmer city. Kekri (5000), 50 m. S.£. of Ajmer, 
is a decaying mart. 

§ 3. Merwara (" hill-land ") forms the S.W. narrow strip 
of the Province, 70 m. long and 1 to 15 broad (602 sq. m.), 
the aboriginal people of which Colonels Hall and Dixon redeemed 
from wild savagery and made loyal and prosperous. The Mers 
are the descendants of the mixed aborigines and refugees who 
found an asylum in the fastness of what they term the Mugra 
or highlands, and to whom the villagers of Marwar and Mewar 
plains paid black-mail. In 1836 Colonel Dixon founded the 
" new town,'' which he called Nya Nagar, beside the canton- 
ment of Beawar (12,000), 36 m. S.W. from Ajmer and 32 
m. from Naseerabad, which is a growing cotton centre, with a 
stone wall and four gateways ; has iron and dyeing industries ; 
and is the first seat of the United Presbyterian Scotch mission. 
Todgarh (named from Colonel J. Tod) is a mission station in S., 
where the highest peaks of the Aravali rise to 2853 ft., and the 
average level of the valleys is 1800 ft. Three passes here cross 
the upper part of the range. 



CHAPTER XVn. 

BABODA, BAJFOOTAKA, AND CEKTBAL INDIA STATES. 

*£aroda State, 

§ 1. Position, People, and Taxation. § 2. Central Baroda. § 8. 
Northern. § 4. Southern. § 5. Kathiawar Vassals. 

' *Bajpootana Stales, 

§ 6. Rajpootana generally. § 7. Land Tenures. § 8. Sir6hi. § 9. 
Mewar. § 10. Doongarpoor. § 11. Banswara. § 12. Partabgarh. 
§ 13. Marwar. §14. Jaisalmeer. §15. Bikaner. § 16. Jai|x>or. 
§17. Kishangarh. §18. Alwar. §19. Bhartpoor. §20. Dbol- 
poor. § 21. Karauli. § 22. Boondee. § 23. Kotah. § 24. 
Jhalawar. §25. Tonk. 

*CerUnd India States. 

§ 26. Central India Agency. § 27. Malwa. § 28. Boondelkhand. 
§ 29. Indore. § 80. Dewass and BaglL § 81. Gwalior. § 82. 
Bhopal. § 88. Bajgarh, Narsingarh, Eoorwai, Maksoodangarh, 
Kilchi^xior, Basoda, Mahomedgarh, and PatharL § 84. Jaora, 
Batlam, Sailaua, and Seetamau. § 85. Bheel Agency States. 
§ 86. Raghoogarh and Paron. § 87. Boondelkhand States. 
§88. Baghelkhand Stotes. 

§ 1. Position, People, and Taxation. — Baroda State 
(Wadodra) is the most W. of the four great principalities or 
groups of States, directly controlled by an Agent of the Qovemor- 
GenenJ, and surrounded by the Bombay, Pa^jab, North-West, 
and Central Provinces, with the small Province of Ajmer* 
Merwara in the centre of the whole. Baroda, or the Qaekwar's 
State, is scattered over N. Goojarat between 2V 51' and 
22* 49' N. kt. and 72" 63' and 73' 55' K long., with an area 
of 8570 sq. m. and population of 2,185,005, yielding the 
Gaekwar a gross annual revenue of 14,382,129 Baroda rupees, 



294 BARODA STATE. [CHAP. XYII. 

of which 114 J = 100 British rupees or £10. The whole 
State is divided into four districts, rich and populous, drained 
by the Narbada, Tapti, Mahi, and their tributaries, and with 
the black soil which produces luxuriant crops of cotton, tobacco, 
sugar-cane, oil-seeds, and grain. Everywhere signs of former 
prosperity are seen, checked by Maiatha rule, and reviving 
since British interference to prevent oppression. Baroda is one 
of the still existing principalities, Indore and Gwalior being the 
other two, which Maiatha soldiers carved out of the debris of 
the- Mughul • empire first under Shiv^ji and then under the 
Peshwas. Peel^jee, the first Gaekwar (" cowherd "), was the 
Peshwa's second in command till 1731, after which his suc- 
cessors acquired the whole of Ckiojaiat. British influence, as 
suzerain, began in 1780, a subsidiary force was formed, and 
a Resident was appointed. After a succession of crimes and 
the misrule of a century, the State was in 1881 placed imder 
the young Gaekwar adopted by the widow of Khandi Rao, who 
had died in 1870. During his minority much progress was 
made under the British Resident and Sir T. Madhava Rao, the 
late prime minister. The population increased to 180,563 in 
the decade ending 1880. The Gaekwar's new title is Farzand 
i £[has i Daulat i Inglesia = " own favoured son of the British 
Empire." The troops and armed police number 17,000. The 
regular force of 3126 is organised on the British system. Of 
the five batteries of artillery, two consist of two gold and two 
silver 3-pounder guns.' On regulars and irregulars, or police, 
nearly one -third of the revenue is spent. During 1879-81, 
the last two years of the present Gaekwar's minority, the 
finances stood as on the next page ; the details form a curious 
contrast to those of the British Government's balance-sheet, 
especially in the items of palace expenditure and religious 
allowances to Brahmans. 

Baroda has 1^ millions sterling invested in the Government of 
India's Securities, or one year's revenue; has a State railway and 
no debt. Sir Madhava Rao writes of this investment : — "The 
investment by Native States in British securities affords proof 
of confidence in the justice and durability of the British Grovem- 
ment. It is a substantial security for the incessant loyalty of 
the Native States. It materially raises the value of the British 
Government securities in the market. And it benefits the 
general public by putting in circulation wealth which would 
otherwise lie inert in the shape of buried treasure or useless 
jewellery." 

Besides this the State had a working balance of £801,870. 



CHAP. XVII.] FINANCES OP A NATIVE STATE. 



290 



BSCEIPTS. 








Baroda Knpees. Baroda Rupees 




1879-80. 


1880-81. 


Land Reyenne 


. 1,01,01,418 


97,42,082 


Tributes (called Ghasdana) and fixed Jama 


• 




bandi .... 


6,53,952 


7,48,690 


Abkari (sale of spirituous liquors and drogs) 2, 19, 183 


2,46,729 


Miscellaneous Taxes 


8,07,594 


3,61.266 


Customs and town duties . 


9,89,331 


10,76,823 


Opium .... 


4,92,034 


4,06,147 


Stamps .... 


1,95,624 


2,26,388 


Mint .... 


10,500 


9,300 


Judicial Fees, Fines, etc. . 


1,13,822 


1,28.892 


Education .... 


10,611 


15,171 


Interest .... 


6,15.517 


8,10,233 


Bail way (State lines) net receipts . 


36,12i 


74.900 


Miscellaneous Receipts 


3,45,777 


5,41,608 


Total Receipts . 


. 1,39,91,446 


1,43,82,129 


DlSBURSEMSNTd. 






Palace .... 


11,59,669 


12,21,422 


Huzoor Eatcherri Establishments . 


4,52,637 


4.96,740 


Land Revenue Department . 


9,78,610 


11,15,073 


Opium Department (purchase of opium) anc 


I 




cost of establishments, etc. 


4,47,610 


12,69.346 


Other Civil F^stablishments . 


2,32.976 


2,74.871 


Judicial Establishments 


2,91,366 


2,91,010 


Police ..... 


8,11,782 


8,21,606 


Jails ...... 


1.03,798 


72,678 


Military Department 

Assamaars, Nemnookdars, Pensions, anc 


80,94,138 


81,90,260 


I 




Miscellaneous Allowances 


7,34,432 


8,24,083 


Public Works .... 


11,95,284 


16,81,498 


Education ..... 


1,71,423 


1,94,519 


Medical Department 


1,25,844 


1,33,804 


Municipalities .... 


2,72,415 


2,68,046 


Religious and Charitable Allowances 


7,96,408 


8,75.852 


Miscellaneous .... 


1,94,243 


3,81,786 


Extraordinary Charges 


7,80,292 


44,790 



Total Disbursements 



1,18,42,921 1,30,57,872 



The second census of Baroda State, taken in 1881, showed 
an increase, save in the capital, which, like Lucknow after the 
fall of the ex-king of Oudh, lost the large class who feed on 
the vices of a corrupt court. As in the rest of Goojarat, the 
people are chiefly peasantry of the Bbathela clan of Brahmans, 
Eoonbees, Rajpoots, and Kolees. The Maratha bankers and 
merchants are wealthy. The Parsees are numerous. 



296 



BARODA STATE. 



[OHAP. xyn. 



Abea and Population of Baboda State, 1881. 



Districts. 


Approxi- 
mate 
Area in 
Square 
Miles. 


Population, 1881. 


No. of 
Persons 

per 
Sq.Mile. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Amreili, Eathia- 

war 
Eari, North 
Navasaree, South 
Baroda, Central 
Baroda City 

TotAl . 
Baroda Canton- 
ment . 

Grand Total 


1,560 
3,158 
1,940 
1,906 
5 


77,048 
509,954 
146,477 
349,283 

53,871 


70,420 
478,533 
141,072 
805.706 

47,947 


147,468 
988,487 
287,549 
654,989 
101,818 


95 

813 

148 

344 

20,364 


8,569 
1 


1,136,633 
2,879 


1,043,678 
1,815 


2,180,811 
4,694 


254 
4,694 


8,570 


1,130,512 


1,045,403 


2,185,005 


255 



§ 2. Centbal Baroda consists of the country around the 
capital Area, 1906 sq. m. Population, 654,989. Baroda 
Oity (101,818), E. of the Vishwamitri, over which 4 bridges 
lead from the cantonment to the city. The Residency is in S. 
part of cantonment, where is the church consecrated by Heber, 
and, opposite it, the magistrate's office in which the deposed 
Ckuskwar, Mulhar Rao, was tried. E. of the Residency is the 
new palace, of great size, and erected at a cost of a quarter of a 
million sterling. Near the city is the Kaulakhi Baori or 
Nine Lakhs Well (£90,000), now the chief sight of the place, 
" with grand flights of steps descending to the water through 
rows of stone pillars and pilasters," as described by James 
Forbes a century ago. Baroda is 248 m. N. of Bombay and 
62 S. of Ahmedabad. Miyagraon, railway station, 19 m. S. 
of Baroda, with branch railway to Dabhoi (15,000), 15 m. 
S.E. of Baroda, the Darbhavati fortress of 11th century, a 
walled city 2 m. square, with fine Diamond Gate, surrendered 
to Genersd Goddani in 1780. Ohandod, pilgrim centre, 30 
m. S.E. of Baroda, on Narbada ; terminus of railway from 
'Baroda and DabhoL Bahadoorpoor, branch railway station, 
9J m. from Dabhoi. Padra (8000), 8 m. S.W. from Baroda, 
with Gaekwar's state prison. Vishwamitri, railway terminus 
of branch line from Goa Gate, Baroda. 

§ 3. South Baroda, chiefly in Surat, fringed on S. by 
Rigpeepla hills. Area, 1940 sq. m. Population, 287,549. 
The principal place is Navasaree (15,000), port and railway 



OHAP. XVII.] RAJPOOTANA. 297 

station, on left bank of Poorna, 12 m. from sea^ 18 m. from 
Surat; a colony of the Parsees, with large fire-temple and 
many priests. Songrarh, old Maratha fort and Peshwa's 
capital S. of Tapti, in hills of same name, commanding ascent 
to Khandesh uplands; with fine stone for building. Boop- 
gaxh, fort, 10 m. S. Wajpoor, on Tapti. S^er, hill fort in 
S.£. comer. Bilimora (5500), railway station, N. of Navasaree. 

§ 4. Northern Baroda, or Kari (area, 3158 sq. m., 
pop. 988,487), consists of the subdivisions of Pattan, Kari, 
Beejapoor, Beesnagar, Dehgaon, etc. Pattan (32,000), the 
famous Anhilwara Pattan or Rajpoot capital of Goojarat 
(746-1194 A.D.), on the Saraswati branch of the Banas, now a 
town of Jain temples and libraries, known for its cutlery and 
pottery. 

§ 5. Eathiawar Baroda. Area, 1560 sq. m. Popula- 
tion, 147,468. AmreU (16,000), 139 m. S.W of Baroda. 
Okhaxnandal, military station in N.W. comer of peninsula 
of Eathiawar, separated from the mainland by the Rann of 
Each, centre of a territory of 334 sq. m., and long a pirate 
stronghold. 

The British Government has the right of opening new 
ports, and it controls salt-works in Baroda State ; it has enforced 
the prohibition of suttee, the sale of children, and slavery since 
1840. 

*Bqjpootana States. 

§ 6. Rajpootaka (Raet'hana, Rigasthan or Riywara » 
<( dwelling of princes"), consisting of 19 principalities, besides 
Ajmer-Merwara, is larger than Italy, and has less than half 
its population. The approximate area is 130,934 sq. m., and 
population 11,005,512. This half-desert territory, to which 
the Hindoo chivalry were gradually driven from the rich plains 
of Qoojarat and Central India, lies between 23° and 30"" N. lat., 
and 69* 30' and 78* 15' E. long. It is enclosed between the 
Indore and Gwalior States on S.E., the North-Westem and 
Panjab Provinces on N.£., Bahawalpoor State on N.W., Sind 
on W., and Baroda and Bombay on S.W. It is traversed 
from S.W. to N.E. by the State railway, which links on Bom- 
bay to Delhi and Agra, and from the S. to that railway at 
Ajmer, by the Malwa railway from Ehandwa on the Great 
Indian Peninsula line through Indore. The Aravali range 
("row of peaks") (3450 ft.) intersects the country from the 
ridge of Delhi on N.E. to Mount Aboo on S.W., marking 
off three-fifths, chiefly desert, to N.W., and two-fifths on S.B. 



298 RAJPOOTANA STATES. [CHAP. XFII. 

(1) The North-Western division, comprising the vast tract from 
Sind on W. along the S. Paiyab border to Delhi, is uniformly 
sandy, with an annual rainfall of 5 inches ; it consists of the 
Great Desert (of Bikaner), stretching from the Rann of Each 
N.E. beyond the Loni river, and the Little Desert (of Mallani) 
farther E., with limestone ridges between. The Loni (" salt") 
river flows for 200 m. from the Pushkar valley near Ajmer to 
the Rann in a course nearly parallel with the Aravali range. 

(2) The south-eastern division is protected from the desert by 
the Aravali watershed, save where in the N.E. the sand has 
drifted through its gaps, as against the hills that surround Jai- 
poor city. This division consists of wide vales, fertile plateaux, 
and great breadths of good soil, with forests and artificial lakes. 
The whole is watered by the drainage of the Vindhyas carried 
N.E. by the Chambal and Banas rivers. The Ohambal is the 
largest river in R^pootana, through which it flows for one- 
third of its course of 560 m., and forms the boundaiy for 
another third. Rising near the siunmit of the Vindhyas in 
Malwa it enters R^jpootana at Chaurasgarh in Mewar, breaks 
through the Patar plateau, meets the Bamni at Bhainsrogarh 
after a succession of small cataracts known as chfUis, receives 
several large streams in Kota, then farther N. the Parbati from 
right and Banas from left, and passes through Karauli and 
Dholpoor States into the Jumna. The Banaa, from Ean- 
kraoli in Mewar, which State it drains, receiving the Berach 
and Eote Sari from the Aravalis and the Dhoond from Jaipoor, 
flows for 300 m., chiefly N., and after rounding the Patar 
plateau it joins the Chambal beyond N.E. end of Boondee State. 
The W. Banas and Sabarmati, which rise among the S.W. hills 
of Mewar and flow S.W. ; and the Mahi, which passes through 
Partabgarh and Banswara, receiving the Som, drain the S.W. 
comer of R^jpootana through Goojarat into the Gulfs of Kach 
and Eambay. The Sambhar Salt LaJse is the only natural 
sheet of water in Rajpootana; it is shared by Jaipoor and 
Marwar ; artificial lakes abound chiefly in Mewar. 

In Rajpootana, as it now is, British influence alone has pre- 
served the ancient dynasties and clans, to which every successfrd 
Hindoo chief seeks to trace his ancestry. The Rahtor Raj- 
poots of Eanaig, who ruled as far S.W. as the Tapti and are 
still in Marwar, the Chauhans of Ajmer, the Solankhyas of 
AnhUwara in Goojarat, the Gehlots with the Sesodia sept still 
in Mewar, and the Eachw^as still in Jaipoor, were the tribal 
dynasties of Rsgpoots, gradually supplanted by the Musalman 
invaders of the 11th century, and weakened by internal feuds. 



CHAP, xvn.] THE CLANS AND TBNUEES. 299 

At the beginning of the 16th century the Sesodia chief, Rana 
Sanga, aided by Medni Rao of Chanddri, caused the R^poot 
power to revive, but only to be overthrown by Baber at Fateh- 
poor Sikri in 1527. The Sesodias were the last to submit, to 
Jahangeer in 1616, after which Akbar incorporated the R^poot 
nobles in his imperial system. Aurangzeb's death and Nadir 
Shah's invasion led the Sesodias, Rahtors, and Kachwdha clans 
to form a federation, which internal jealousy so weakened that 
the Marathas took Ajmer in 1756. The Rajpoots were saved 
by Lord Wellesley, and by Wellington and Lake, till the policy 
of non-interference introduced by the second administration of 
Lord Comwallis reopened the floodgates of anarchy for ten 
years. By 1818, under Lord Hastings, Rsgpootana was politi- 
cally formed as it now is, 16 States remaining R^poot, and two 
Jat (Bhartpoor and Dholpoor), while the scattered districts of 
Tonk were left in the hands of the Musalman freebooter Ameer 
Khan, as Nawab. Most of these chiefs pay tribute, and three 
support local corps. So effective has been the British peace that 
although there was not a British soldier in R^jpootana when 
the Mutiny of 1857 began, and of the sepoys the Mers and 
Bheels alone were faithful, the chiefs rendered active assistance. 
Of the 16 Rigpoot States, 3 are ruled by the Rahtor clan — 
Marwar, Bikaner, and Eishangarh ; 4 by the Sesodia — Mewar 
(with Shahpoora), Banswara, Doongarpoor, and Partabgarh; 
3 by the Chouhan — Boondee and Eota by the Hara sept, and 
Sirdhi by the Deoria ; 2 by the Bhatti sept of the Jadoor clan 
— Karauli and Jaisalmeer ; 2 by the Kachw^has — Jaipoor and 
Alwar by its Narooka sept ; and 1 by the Jhala — Jhalawar. 
Creographically all the States are thus grouped, beginning from 
the Bombay side S.W. : (1) Southebn — Sirohi, Mewar (with 
Shahpoora), Doongarpoory JBanswara, and Partabgarh; (2) 
Western and Nobthebn — Marwar ^ Jaisalmeery Bikaner; 
(3) Eastern — Jaipoor ^ Kishangarhy Alwar ^ Bhartpoor ^ Dhol- 
pooTy Karatdiy Boondee^ Kota, Jhalawar, and scattered Tonk, 
In the centre is Ajmer Province, and the whole is administered 
from Mount Aboo in the south. 

§ 7. Land Tenures. — (1) The hereditaiy feudal or clan 
system of the early Hindoos, broken down by Musalman cen- 
tralisation elsewhere, still prevails in R^gpootana, especially in 
the W. and S.W. A veiy great proportion of the land is held 
on freehold tenure by the kinsmen and clansmen of the chief 
and by other clans of Rajpoots. The word '< freehold'' is here 
used to denote the holding of a free man by service not imbe- 
coming his birthi and under payment of the customary share of 



300 RAJFOOTANA STATES. [CHAP. zm. 

• 

the produce of the soil in which chief and clan are coparcenera, 
the ^* fruits of worship," as it is devoutly expressed. There are 
also, here and there, some assignments or grants of land of the 
nature of jdgeers proper, — that is, the revenue was allotted to 
certain persons merely as a convenient way of paying the esti- 
mated actual cost of civil or military establishment or services. 
All large estates are held under the implied condition of keeping 
up the police within their borders, protecting trafiSc, preventing 
heinous crimes, and pursuing ofifenders hot-foot when the hue 
and cry is raised, or when the tracks of flying brigands are run 
into the boundaries. In some parts of the country the estate 
passes in block to one heir, and others are entitled to mainten- 
ance ; in others the tendency to divide the land as the family 
increases and branches out is more marked; while in other 
parts division among brothers is imperative, and of course the 
morcellement of the freeholds is in proportion as the custom of 
subdividing the land among the clansmen may prevail. The 
smaller plots are usually held on the bhoom tenure, which is 
thought a better title than any, because the Bkoomia and his 
heirs hold for ever on condition of some peculiar service, such 
as watch and ward, guard of the roads, or attendance at speci- 
fied occasions, and are not, like the petty kinsmen and clansmen 
of a family chief, portioned off upon lots of the family domain 
which might be resumed if the chief and his folk quarrelled 
Some of the groups of cultivating Rigpoots who hold on the 
bhoom tenure have occupied from time immemorial, frying, not 
rent, but customary rates and services, and are very proud of 
having held the land before its conquest by the ruling family. 
All these freeholding classes are distinct from the mass of culti- 
vating peasantry. (2) The cultivator is understood to have a 
permanent hereditary right to his holding so long as he pays 
the rent demanded, and to evict a man is a hard measure ; but 
in a country where the irresponsible exactions of the native 
tax-collectors are checked only by the scarcity of tenants, the 
precise strength of the tenure depends really on the balance 
between these two opposing considerations, the desire to squeese 
the tenant and the fear of losing him. On the whole, it may 
be said that the demand for tenants prevails, and a good culti- 
vator has a firm root in his soil, which can be mortgaged or sold, 
and which passes by inheritance; a distinction is recognised, 
naturally, between lands which have come to a cultivator by 
inheritance, or which he has himself cleared or improved, and 
lands which have changed hands recently, or which have been 
assigned in an ordinary fanning way. The real point of im- 



CHAP. XVII.] SIROHI — MOUNT ABOO — ^MEWAR. 301 

portance, however, is, of couiBe, not the nature of tenure, but 
the limitation of rent demand, and this is practically unfixed, 
except where the English officers have prevailed upon a chief 
to accept and uphold a regular land revenue settlement. In 
rack-renting States all particular tenures are loose and un- 
defined ; and though the village community, as a body, generally 
sticks to the township, yet, between the rent-collector and the 
money-lender, the peasant is apt to sink into the condition of a 
predial serf rather held to, than holding by, the land. There 
are, speaking broadly, no middlemen in Rajpootana between 
the tax-collector and the rent-payer, though the headman of a 
village often contracts for a fixed payment for a short term of 
years. 

§ 8. SiROHi State (Simoe) is bounded E. by Mewar, N. 
and W. by Marwar, S. by Palanpoor, and by Edar and Danta 
States of the Mahi-Kantha. Area, about 3200 sq. m. Popu- 
lation, 60,000. Revenue, £11,000 to the Rao, of which £688 
is tribute to the British Government. Divided by Aravalis from 
N.E. to S.W., the drainage parts into the Loni and W. Banas^ 
Sirohi, the capital, N. on Ajmer and Ahmedabad road. Aboo 
(railway station, Aboo Road, 425 m. N.E. of Bombay and 465 
S.W. of Delhi), sanitarium sioce 1845, and headquarters of 
Governor-CteneraFs Agent for the Resident and Chief Commis- 
sioner of Ajmer ; with Lawrence Military Asylum, barracks on 
undulating plateau of Mount Aboo (ancient Arbooda), a cluster 
of hiUs 7 m. from W. face of Aravali range with peak rising to 
5653 ft., and Gem Lake (Nakhi Talao), compared by Tod to that 
above Andemach on the Rhine. One of the chief western — 
Parasnath in Bengal is the E. — spots of, Jain pilgrimage, with 
exquisite marble temples of which Yimahi Sah's erected in 1032 
A.D. is the most complete, also to E. and 1 m. N. of sanitarium 
at Delwara {" place of temples "). The usual ascent is from 
Anadra on S.W. At the base are the marble ruins of Chan- 
dravati, now nearly removed for temples in Goojarat. The 
marble is from the village of Jariwao on S.E. border. Eine 
may not be killed on the mountain which, till 1836, no chief 
was permitted by the Rao to visit. Erinpoora^ cantonment, 
with railway station at Erinpoora Road, 52 m. K.E. of Aboo 
Road and 477 from Bombay. Nana is an important railway 
station between Aboo and Erinpoora. 

§ 9. *M£WAB State, or Oodaipoor (from the capital). The 
Maharana stands first of all Rajpoots as heir to the throne 
of the legendary Rama, representing the elder branch of the 
Sooiyabansee or '* children of the sun/' and never having given 



302 RAJPOOTANA STATES. [OHAF. XYII. 

a wife to the Musalman emperors. By adoption of heirs, the 
House of Mewar is the oldest sovereign line outside of Juda- 
ism. Mewar is bounded E. by Jhalawar, Eota, and Boondee ; 
N. by Jaipoor and Ajmer ; W. by Marwar and Sirohi ; and S. by 
Doongarpoor, Banswara, Partabgarh, and Holkar's States. Area, 
13,674 sq. m. Population, 1,200,000. Revenue, £640,000, of 
which £20,000 is paid as tribute to the British Government. 
A section of the AravaUs extends from S.W. and Sirohi N. 
between Mewar and Marwar to Merwara, and contains iron, 
lead, zinc, and copper. Oodaipoor (" city of sunrise "), the 
present capital in the valley of the Girwa, picturesquely built 
on a ridge (2064 ft.) overlooking an embanked lake, with an 
imposing palace; here' Oodai Singh founded the city after 
Akbar's capture in 1568 of Ohittor to E., the sacred for- 
tress first sacked by Bahadoor, Sultan of (roojarat, when 1300 
Regpoot females were immolated ; now a station on Malwa rail- 
way, 277 m. N. of Ehandwa. Saloombar, Nathdwara, Deogarh,' 
and Jahzapoor are places of local importance, also Amlee, 
Banera, Bednor, Bhinda, Dabla, Goosa, Gungapoora, Eoorabur, 
Raipoor, Riy'garh, R^nagar, Rashmoo, Rohera, Sanganeer, and 
Sawa. A road runs from Oodaipoor to the Dasoorl Pass, 
the only pass for wheeled carriages for 250 m. from Barh near 
Ajmer to S. of Sirohi. Debar Lake, 20 m. S.E. of the 
capital, the largest artificial lake in India, 30 m. in circum- 
ference, constructed by Jey Singh in 1 68 1 . Kankraoli Lake, 
formed by marble dike in famine of 1661 at a cost of nearly a 
million; 12 m. in circimiference. Kherwara (1200 ft.), in 
S., is the cantonment for local troops. 

Shahpoora^ in NJS., chief town of the fief of same name, 
held from the Maharana of Oodaipoor by the Riga, who pays 
tribute to the British Government also. 

§ 10. *DooNOABPOOE State is bounded E. by Mewar and 
the Mahi separating it from Banswara, N. by Mewar, W. by 
Rewa- and Mahi-Kantha, and S. by the Mahi. Area, 952 sq. m. 
Population, 100,000. Revenue to the Maharawal, a Sesodia 
offshoot of Mewar, £15,000, from a coimtry which softens down 
from the forest-clad hills of Mewar to the rich plains of Goojarat. 
Toys, drinking -vessels, and images made of a greenish -gray 
stone, form specialties of the State. The Mahi and Som are the 
only rivers, meeting near the Baneshar temple, where there is a 
fair. Doongarpoor (6000), 139 m. S.W. of Neemach, on 
route to Deesa, at the base of a hill (700 ft.), crowned by the 
palace, and with a lake at its foot. Galliakot aad Sagwara 
have each 3000 inhabitants. 



OHAP. XYII.] MARWAR OR JODHPOOR. 303 

§ 11. ^Bakswara Statb, the most S. of R^jpootana, is 
bounded E. and N.E. by Partabgarh, N. and N.W. by Doon- 
garpoor, W. by the Rewa-Kantha, and S. by Central India 
States. Area, 1500 sq. m. Population, 150,000. Revenue to 
the Maharawal, formerly of Mewar, £30,000. The aborigines 
are Bheels. The Mahi river enters from Ratlam. Madna 
and Jagmer are hills, and the Bai an artificial lake near the 
capital Banswara (6200), a walled town. Due W. is the 
Talwara pass, 6 m. through the hills. Kusalgarh, chief 
village of petty chiefship of a Rao, to S.W. Ealiigra is the 
only other town. 

§ 12. ^Partabgarh State is boimded E. by Ratlam, 
Jaora, and Gwalior States ; N. and N.W. by Mewar from which 
it is an offshoot ; and S.W. by Banswara. Area, 1460 sq. m. 
Population, 150,000, chiefly Bheels. Revenue to the Maha- 
rawal, £60,000. Partabgarh (1700 ft.), the capital, is in 
the centre of the State. 

§ 13. *Mabwar State or Jodhpoor is bounded E. by 
Kishangarh and Jaipoor ; N. by Jaipoor, Bikaner, and Jaisal- 
meer ; W. by Sind and the Rann of Each ; and S. by Sirohi, 
Mewar, and Ajmer-Merwara. The largest of the States of 
Rigpootana, Marwar has an area of 37,000 sq. m., chiefly of 
sandy plain with isolated red sandstone hiUs of the Aravali type. 
Population, 2,000,000, yielding £250,000 gross revenue to the 
Maharsga, chief of the Rahtor Rajpoots, and like Mewar claim- 
ing descent from Rama. The Loni river, called the Sagar 
Matti at its source in Ajmer lake, is joined at €k)vindgarh by 
the Sarsooti from the Pushkar lake, and thence flows S.W. 
through Marwar to the Rann of Kach. Receiving the drainage 
of the Aravalis it often inundates Mallani district with the Eel 
or- overflow, which fertilises the soil. Its tributaries are the 
Tojri from the Merta district, the Sookri from the Sojat dis- 
trict, the Gooea Bala from the Eapura hills in Sojat, the Reria 
or Pali from near Sojat, the Bandi from the Aravalis near 
Siriari, and the Juwai which passes Erinpoora cantonment. 
The Sambhar lake, described under Jaipoor, partly belongs to 
Marwar. A marsh (Jheel) in the Sachor district covers 50 m. 
in the rainy season. Salt is obtained at Sambhar and smaller 
deposits, and at Pachpadra is crystallised for wells. Zinc used to 
be worked at Sojat. Marble abounds at Makrana, 120 m. N.E. 
of Jodhpoor, and near Ghanerao on S.E. border, also limestone 
and red sandstone. The Rsgpootana-Malwa Railway skirts E. 
border at Sojat Road station, 541 m. N.E. of Bombay, with branch 
to Sambhar; a metalled road nms for 100 m. from ^mer to 



304 RAJPOOTANA STATES. [OHAP. ZVII. 

Ahmedabad. Jodhpoor, the capital, named from Rao Jodha, 
the founder in 1549, on S. slope of sandstone hills, with fort 
(800 ft.) containing the large palace. The city is surrounded 
by 6 m. of walls with 70 gates, and contains many fine resi- 
dences of the wealthy nobles. Three lo. N. is Mandor, ruined 
capital of the Purihar predecessors of the Rahtors, with tombs 
rudely carved. Nagror (30,000), walled city, and old capital 
of N. portion of Marwar, with fort and palace of former rulers ; 
scene of conflicts with Rao Chanda (1400 a.d.) ; captured by 
Akbar in 1561, and restored by him on marriage with chief's 
sister ; now a place of trade. Pali, commercial capital, 45 m. 
S.£. of Jodhpoor on road between ^mer and Ahmedabad ; the 
principal trade is that of dyeing woollen cloths; the source of the 
Indian plague (maka mart) of 1836, like the Levantine plague. 
Deedwana (20,000), walled town with salt manufactures. 
Nadolai, old capital of God war province, ancient seat of Jains, 
with fine temple of Mahavira. Phalodi ( 1 2,000), with fort 
in N.W., near Jaisalmeer border. To S.W. is Pokaran fort, 
appanage of premier baron of Jodhpoor. Jalor, on S. border 
of the sandy plain of Marwar, with famous old fort built by 
Pramira dynasty early in the Christian era, and still in good 
preservation. Peepar, 39 m. N. of Jalor, old Pram^ra city, 
beside Sampu lake. Merta, near which De Boigue disastrously 
defeated the Rahtors in 1754, thus laying Rsgpootana at the 
feet of the Marathas. The battle was on the embankment of 
the Dangolai tank, at Dangarwas, 2 m. from Merta. 

Mallani, vassal state between Marwar proper and Sind, 
18,000 sq. m. in area, with the high hill Nagar of Jasol near 
the right bank of the Loni. The chief towns are Banner, 
Jasol, Sindari, Gura, and Nagar. 

§ 14. *Jaisalmeeb State is bounded £. by Marwar and 
Bikaner, N. by Bahawalpoor, W. by Sind, and S. by Marwar. 
Area, 16,447 sq. m. of sandy desert, save at the capital and for 
40 m. round, which is stony ; the wells go down to a depth 
of 490 ft. in some cases, as at Choria, 32 m. S.E. of capital 
Population, 72,000 yielding j£l 0,000 annual revenue to the 
Maharawal, Yadu Bhatti, R^poot of the Somavansa or Lunar 
race. The Eakni and Lathika are the only small rivers, created 
by each rainy season. Jaisalmeer (8000), the capital, founded 
by Rao Jaisal in 1156 on rocky ridge capped by fort (250 ft.) 
and palace, remarkable for beautiful stone carving. Lodnrva^ 
in the neighbourhood, is the old Bhatti capital, now in ruins. 
The other towns and forts are Tanot, Kishaugarh, Ghotaroo, 
Nachna, Bikawpoor, and Birsilpoor. 



OHAP. zvn.] BIKANER — JAIPOOR. 305 

§ 15. ^BiKANSR State is bounded R by Jaipoor a&d Hissar 
district of Pai\jab, N. by Sirsa district and Bahawalpoor, W. 
by Jaisalmeer, and S. by Marwar. Area, 22,340 sq. m. of 
waste sandhills, save at Giyner lakelet 20 m. from the capital. 
After rain the brushwood tract S. of the capital becomes green 
pasture-land. Ohapar lake in S.E. comer is the principal source' 
of salt. The population, 300,000, yield £105,000 annual 
revenue to the Maharsya, who is of the Rahtor clan of Bigpoots. 
Bikaner (36,000), founded by Bika 1488 on a stony elevation, 
where its walls, 3^ m. round, and temples present an imposing 
appearance, with the fort and palace above, and Bika's old fort 
still higher. Three m. E. ia Devi Koond, the cremation place 
of the chief and, till 1825, of their Suttee widows, with the 
sepulchres of 12 Maharajas. Soojangarh (10,000), with 
British Residency, on S.E. border beside Marwar and Jaipoor. 
Batancrarh (10,000), near Soojangarh, a prosperous place. 
Chooroo (10,000), trade centre in E., near Paiyab border. 
Bhatner Fort, on left bank of dried-up Goghar, on direct 
route of invaders from Central Asia to India, captured at 
various times by Mahmood Ghaznavi, Taimoor, and Eamran, 
Hoomayoon's son ; also by George Thomas in 1800. 

§ 16. ^Jaipoor State is bounded E. by Earauli, Bhart- 
poor, and Alwar ; N. by the Delhi State and Bikaner ; W. by 
Marwar and Eishangarh ; and S. by Mewar, Tonk, Boondee, and 
Gwalior. Area, 15,250 sq. m. Population, 1,250,000, yielding 
£750,000 annually to the Maharaja, who is of the Eachwdha 
clan of I^jpoots, one of the 36 royal races of India, and claims 
descent from Rama. The State, at its centre, is an elevated 
plateau (1400 to 1600 ft.), with slope to S.E., down which the 
Banas and the Banganga, fed by tributaries, carry the 
drainage to the Junma. The Sabi, rising 24 m. due N. of the 
capital, flows N. past Alwar into the Nabha State, Paiyab. 
The Kaotli flows N. W. through the Shaikawati division to the 
Bikaner desert, where it is lost. The Sambhar Salt Lake, 
leased to the British Government by Jaipoor and Marwar, lies 
E. of Aravalis and 40 m. N.W. of Ajmer in 26° 50' N. lat. 
and 75° 5' E. long. ; its E. shore is 36 m. from Jaipoor, its W. 
shore 130 m. from Jodhpoor; it is the terminus of a branch 
railway 5^ m. from the R^pootana-Malwa Railway at Phalera. 
In the rains the water extends 20 m. E. and W., with a breadth 
of 3 to 10 m., and 1 to 4 ft. deep; in the dry season "the 
treasuiy " or wet saline portion is 1 by ^ m. opposite the rocky 
promontory, Mata-kardevi, when the lake looks like a great 
sheet of snow, dotted by pools and narrow paths. The salt 

X 



306 RAJFOOTANA STATES. [OHAP. XTIL 

pervades the black muddy bed in minnte crystala, and is held 
in solution in the water. The lake yields 40,000 tons a year 
at a cost of 3 farthings for 82 lbs. Jaipoor (140,000), 
greatest modern Hindoo city in R^jpootana (or in India), 
founded in 1728 by Jai Singh II., the famous astronomer 
whose tables of stars (Tij Muhammad Shahi) corrected those 
of De la Hire, and one of whose 5 Observatories is still here. 
Railway station 699 m. from Bombay, 149 from Agra, and 191 
from Delhi, seat of a Hindoo college, of United Presbyterian 
Mission, and of many educational and philanthropic institutions 
established by the late Maharaja. A beautiful walled city built 
largely of marble in an amphitheatre of hills, commanded on 
N.W. by the Nahargarh (tiger fort). To this the capital was 
transferred from Amber, now deserted, 4 m. N.E., exquisitely 
placed on a lake at mouth of a mountain gorge, with palace 
second only to Gwalior as specimen of Rcgpoot architecture, 
and still the State treasury. Bandikooi, 56 m. E. of Jaipoor, 
is the railway junction for Delhi, Alwar, and Agra by Bbart- 
poor. Sancraneer, 7 m. S.W. of Jaipoor, a flourishing mart, 
3 m. from railway station, with ancient temples. Dosa^ rail- 
way station between Jaipoor and Bandikooi, where a battle was 
fought in 1857 and Tatia Topi was captured. Other towns of 
local importance are — Cbatsu, 24 m. S.E. of Jaipoor ; Chomu, 
residence of first noble of the State ; Dooni, populous place, 70 
m. S. of Jaipoor; Hindaun, large mart on Agra and Mhow 
road ; Eotpootli, 74 m. N.E. of Jaipoor, captured by Lake 
from Marathas ; Lakshmangarh, large fortified town ; Narayana, 
old town, headquarters of Dadoo Panthee sect of theists. 

Shaiichawati, vassal federation under Jaipoor, in N., 5400 
sq. m. in area, with valuable copper mines at KhetrL Other 
towns are Hassan, 120 m. N.W. of Jaipoor ; Fatehpoor, a forti- 
fied place ; Seekar, Naolgarh, Uniara, and Ramgarh. 

§ 17. '^EiSHANOARH State, an o£fshoot of Marwar, is 
hedged in between Jaipoor on E., Marwar on N., and Ajmer 
on W. With area of 724 sq. m. and population of 105,000, it 
yields £30,000 to the Mahanga. Kishansrarh, the capital, is 
a station on R%jpootana-Malwa Railway, 18 m. E. of Ajmer and 
21 N.E. of Naseerabad. Other towns are Roopnagar in N., and 
Borara. 

§ 18. * Alwar State is bounded E. by Bhartpoor and Qoor- 
gaon district, N. by Goorgaon and Nabha State, W. by Patiala 
and Jaipoor, and S. by Jaipoor. Area 3024 sq. m. Population, 
800,000. Revenue, £230,000. The Maharao is a R%jpoot of 
the Narooka branch of the Jaipoor house, whose fathers gradually 



CHAP. XVII.] ALWAR — ^BHARTPOOR. 307 

built up the State firom Mach^ry, the district by which it was 
known in early East India Company's days. The State covers 
a large portion of Mewat, the famous hills and forts of the Meo 
brigands. It lies £. of the extended axis of the Aravali range ; 
its hills rise to 2400 ft., or 1600 above the plain. The Sabi 
river forms the W. boundary for 16 m. The Rooparel or 
Barah and Ohoohar Sidh drain the hills W. and S. of Alwar 
city. There are 2 lakelets — Siliserh, 9 m. S.W. of Alwar, 
which it supplies with water ; and Deoti, on S. border. Alwax 
(53,000) (ilZ/wr = " strong city" or i4r^= Aravali hills), 
central capital of Mewat, walled with 5 gates, with fort (1000 
ft.) on hill above the town and palace at its base, from which 
is fine view of cenotaph and tanks ; the Banni BUas palace is 
a mile distant. Rajfirarh (12,500), in S., former capital of 
chiefs ; Machdry is 3 m. distant. Bam^rarh (5500), with pass 
through the hills to Delhi, 13 m. E. of Alwar. Eight m. S.E. 
is Laswaree (Naswari) vilLige, the scene of Lake's sanguinary 
victory of l^t November 1803 over Sindia, which finally l)roke 
the Maratha power. Tyara (7500), 30 m. N.E. of Alwar, old 
capital of Mewat, visited by Baber, commanding the hill 
(1350 ft.) passes to Firozpoor in Croorgaon. Jhirri, in S.W., 
yields the finest white statuary marble, from quarries nowhere 
deep like those of Makrana in Marwar ; Dosa is its railway 
station. 

§ 19. ^Bhabtpoor State is bounded E. by Muttra and 
Agra; N. by Goorgaon; W. by Alwar; and S. by Jaipoor, 
Earauli, and Dholpoor. Area, 1974 sq. m. Population, 
800,000 yielding £330,000 to the Jat Maharaja, descendant 
of one of the Jat hordes which molested successive Musalman in- 
vaders of India, from Mahmood to Baber. Popularly the land 
is known as Brij, or Eri«}hna's, and the patois is Brybhasha. 
It is part of the alluvial basin of the Jumna and Ganges, 
with ranges of low hills geologically known as Vindhyans and 
quartzites. The Upper Bhanrer sandstone to S. of the capital 
has supplied the finest dark-red and yellowish-white sandstones 
for the Mughul architecture of Agra, Fatehpoor Sikri, and 
Delhi, from the quarries of Bansi, Paliarpoor, and Booi>- 
bas. The rivers are small — the Banganga or Utangan from 
Jaipoor, W. to E., the Roop&rel from Alwar, the Gambheer 
from Jaipoor, and the Eakand from Earauli. Bharti>oor 

i 62,000), named from the legisndary Bharat, capital and famous 
brtress besieged by Lake in 1805 when Holkar held it and it 
surrendered; and by Combermere in 1827, who took it by 
assault. Bhartpoor Ib a railway station 35 m. W. of Agra and 



308 RAJPOOTANA STATES. [CHAP. XVII. 

1 12 E. of Jaipoor. Dee£r, to N., on a marsh fed by the Manas 
Nai stream, captured from Holkar and the Jats by Creneral 
Fraser in 1804, and dismantled after Combermere's siege of 
Bhartpoor. Still famous for the Bhanwans or marble palaces 
built by Soorsg Mai. Kaman, on N.E. frx)ntier, sacred as a 
residence of Krishna, with curious temple of 84 pillars. Kuxn- 
bher, 9 ml from Bhartpoor on road to Deeg, with large palace. 
Wair, with fort and palace, S. of Bhartpoor. Bayana, old 
capital of the Jadoos, where so many Musalmans fell at its 
capture by Mahmood's nephew (1004) that it is a second Mecca ; 
here is a high monolith with inscription not yet deciphered. 
At Roopbas, on E. border, are colossal Pandava images and 
monoliths. 

§ 20. *Dholpoob State is bounded E. and N. by Agra 
from which the Banganga divides it, W. by Bhartpoor and 
Karauli, and S. by GwaUor from which it is separated by the 
Chambal. Area 1174 sq. m. Population, 500,000 yielding 
£110,000 to the Jat Maharaj Rana. A ridge of fine red 
sandstone (560 to 1074 ft.) crosses the country for 60 m. from 
E. to W., rising into an isolated hill at Pahari, 12 m. S.E. of 
the capital. This is a grain-producing State. Besides the 
ChambEd and Banganga, the streams are the Parbati frx)m Kar- 
auli, an affluent of the latter, and the Merka and Merki which 
fall into the Parbati. Dholpoor (15,000), capital and railway 
station 3 m. N. of the Chambal, 34 m. S. of Agra, founded by 
Raja Dholan Deo of the Delhi Tuars in 11th century. Raja- 
khera ("R^a's village") (7500), 24 m. N.E. of Dholpoor. 
Bari ('' staked enclosure ") (9500), 22 m. S.W. of Dholpoor. 

§ 21. ♦Karauli State is bounded E. by Dholpoor, N. by 
Bhartpoor and Jaipoor,' W. by Jaipoor and Boondee, and S. by 
Gwalior from which the Chambal divides it Area 1870 sq. m. 
Population, 125,000 yielding £50,000 to the Mahanya, who 
is head of the Jadoos claiming descent from Krishna, or Yadu- 
vansi, the Lunar race. The State is hilly, especially on N., the 
old centre of Jadoo rule, and above the Chambal. The Panchna, 
or five rivulets, unite 2 m. from the capital and flows N. to Ban- 
ganga. Karauli (28,000), the capital, named from Kalianji 
temple, founded in 1348 among sandstone ravines 70 m. equi- 
distant* from Agra and Jaipoor, Muttra and Gwalior; with fine 
palace. Twelve m. S. is the Kaila Devi temple, where the State 
maintains a daily dole to the pilgrima Machilpoor town lies 
N.E. of Karauli. Mandrayal, a prehistoric Jadoo fort, Taun- 
garh, Narauli, and Utgeer forts are places of interest 

§ 22. *BooND£E Statb is bounded S. and E. by Kotah 



CHAP. ZVII.] BOONDEB — KOTAH. 309 

with the Chambal* between, N. by Jaipoor and Tonk, W. by 
Mewar. Area, 2218 sq. m. Poptilation, 225,000 yielding 
£80,000 to the Maharao I^ja, of the Hara sept of the Chauhan 
clan ot Rajpoots, which gives its name to the tract called Har- 
aoti, embracing Kotah also. In 1804 the chief gave friendly 
aid to Colonel Monson against Holkar. From S.W. to N.K the 
State is traversed by the central Boondee Hills (1793 ft.), a 
double range. In the centre is Boondee pass, commanded by the 
capital, through which runs the high road from the S. to Ajmer 
and Jaipoor ; the other passes are on the Tonk road between 
the capital and Jainwas, and where the Mej river has cut a 
passage between Ramgarh and Eatgarh. On a plain between 
the Awan and the R^mahal and Todah ranges stands Deolee 
cantonment (1122 ft.). There is much fine limestone, of 
which the capital is built. The Chambal river washes the 
S.E. border of the State for 80 m. The MeJ, the only drainage 
channel, falls into the Chambal just below Pali; it rises at 
1700 ft. in Mewar, .flows N. into Boondee and through the State 
for 92 m. E. ; its chief tributaries are the Bigawas and E!ural. 
Boondee, the capital, the most picturesque city in Rajpootana 
next to Oodaipoor, covers 2 sq. m. of the steep side of the pass 
of the same name (1500 ft.) on which the city rises in pinnacled 
terraces crowned by the palace. To S. is the Ser-bagh or 
Mahasatti, or cremation -place of the chiefs, with 13 mausolea, 
marking also the sacrifice of 237 widows in all. The arsenal is 
overhung by Taragarh fort Ajitgarh fort stands on an isolated 
hill in a wild country, visited for the first time by a British 
officer in 1871. Keshorai Patan (4000), old town on N. 
bank of Chambal, 12 m. below Kotah, with large Hindoo 
temples. Mainwah, 30 m. N.E. of Boondee, between two 
artificial lakes, and strongly fortified. Indargarh, in N.E., and 
Dublana are the only other places of importance. 

§ 23. *EoTAH State is boimded E. by Gwalior, N. and 
N.W. by Boondee with the Chambal between, W. by Mewar, 
and S. by Jhalawar and the Mokandara hills. Area, 3797 
sq. m. Population, 450,000 yielding £200,000 to the Maha- 
rao, head of a younger branch of the Boondee house. Sloping 
gently from the Malwa plateau to S., Kotah is drained by the 
Chambal and its tributaries. The Mokandara Ban^re (1200 
to 1671 ft.) runs from S.E. to N.W. between Kotah and Jhala- 
war. The Mokandara Pass, below the highest peak (1671 
ft.), is a picturesque defile from N. India to the Dekhan, famous 
for the disastrous retreat of Colonel Monson in 1804. The 
Kali Bind firom S., with its feeder the Parwan, is the chief 



310 RAJPOOTANA STATES. [OHAP. XVII. 

tributary of the Chambal, which it jniiu near Pipurda. The 
State is known for its parrots and "golden" lions. Kotali, 
the capital, is strongly placed on the right bank of the Chambal, 
on the route from Naseerabad to Sagar, a lai^ place with the 
Eishor Sagar artificial lake to E. Other towns are Barod, 
Nahargarh, Il^garh, Sangod, and Sultanpoor. This State 
supplies the contingent known as the Deolee Irregular Force. 

§ 24. ^Jbalawab State, cut off from Eotah in 1838 to 
provide for the family of its Minister, Zalim Singh, consists of 
two detached tracts, one to S. of Eotah between the Parwan 
and Aoo rivers, and the other, with the capital, on the E. bank 
of the Parwan. Area, 2500 sq. m. Population, 226,000 
yielding £160,000 to the Mahar^j Rana. Opium and wheat 
are the chief crops. Jhalra Patan (" city of belk " or " city 
of springs") is the capital at the foot of hills on lake of same 
name, near the Chandrabagh affluent of the Eali Sind. Four 
m. distant is Chaoni, the permanent cantonment, with palace 
2^ XXL from Gagron fort. Other towns are Shahabad and 
Eailwara. 

§ 25. *ToNK State, in the six districts of Tonk, Rampoora, 
Nimbhera, Pirawa, Chapra, and Siroi\ji, scattered tracts in S. 
and E. Rajpootana, seized by Ameer Ehan, or granted to him 
by Holkar in 1798-1806, and confirmed to him by Lord 
Hastings in the Pindaree campaign of 1817. This is the 
only Musalman State in Rajpootana, held by a Nawab, a 
Pathan of the Bon^ tribe. Area, 1800 sq. m. Population, 
320,000 yielding £110,000 revenue. Tonk, capital, E. of 
Ajmer, a few miles N.E. of Deolee cantonment, on right bank 
of Banas. Lawa, Nimbhera, and Rampoora are the other 
towns. 

Central India States. 

§ 26. CEirrBAL India Agency. — From the Chutia Nagpoor 
hills of Bengal on E. to Baroda State and Ooojarat on W., and 
between the N.W. Province and Riy poo tana on N. and the 
Central Province on S., there stretch nine groups of Feudatory 
States, forming the Oentral India Agency, and controlled 
by the Govemor-Qenerars Agent from Indore, the capital of 
the largest, of which Mhow is the great British cantonment. 
These groups are, politically, from W. to E. : Indore, Qwalior, 
Bhopal, Boondelkhand, and Bagfhelkhand, the Western 
Malwa^ Bheel, Deputy Bheel, and Ghoona. Geographically 
and historically they form the two great divisions of Malwa 
on the W., the alternate jungle and poppy-field out of which 



CHAP. XYII.] MALWA. 311 

Sindia and Holkar, the military chiefs of the Marathas, carved 
their present kingdoms, and Boondelkhand on K, a rugged 
land of hills, passes, and lakes, separated from Malwa by the 
narrow strip of the Jhansi and Lalitpoor districts of the N.W. 
Province, where these run into the Sagar district of the Central 
Province. The whole territory has an area of at least 89,098 
sq. m., or one-third less than that of Italy, with a population of 
9,200,881, or nearly that of the Empire of Brazil. Long the 
most backward portions of India, ravaged on the W. by the 
Marathas and on the R isolated, if not inaccessible, from want 
of communication, the Central India States have during the 
last ten years been opened up by railways, roads, schools, and 
the enlightened administration of their chiefs under British 
influence. The Malwa division of the R^jpootana - Malwa 
Railway opens up the country from Khandwa on the 
Great Indian Peninsula line to Ajmer for Delhi and Agra. 
Farther £. the Bhopal Railway from Itarsi on the same 
line is to be continued to Sindia's line at Gwalior, passing 
through Lalitpoor and Jhansi, and branching N.E. from 
Jhansi to Cawnpoor. 

§ 27. Malwa, or the W. and larger division of the Central 
India Agency, has an area of 61,700 sq. m. It is a tableland 
elevated above 2000 ft., sloping from the Vindhyas on S. to 
the Qanges on N., fertile and well cultivated, enclosed within 
the great rivers Ganges, Son, Chambal, and Narbada, and sur- 
rounded E. by Boondelkhand, N. by Hindustan proper, W. by 
Rigpootana, and S. by the Dekban. Sir John Malcolm, who 
knew it best, states that there is a rise towards Malwa from all 
quarters except the N.W. To S. it is elevated 1700 ft. above 
the Narbada valley or Nimar. There is an equally well-marked 
ascent over the branches of the Vindhyas, which on the E. pass 
Bhopal and on the W. divide Malwa from Goojarat. To N.W. 
there is an ascent to Mewar at the Chittor range. From the 
Vindhyas the Ohambal, with its tributaries the Kali Sind, 
lesser and greater, and the Parbati and Betwa, flow north 
to the Jumna and Ganges ; the Mahi, from a small place 5 m. 
W. of Anghera, flows N. and W. through Goojarat to the Gulf 
of Eambay. The rich black soil of Malwa produces especially 
fine wheat and opium. The latter gives the chief value to the 
land. Wheat and other cereals pay from 18d. to 6s. per beegah; 
opium yields £1 to £4 and even £G for the same measure. 
Sindia and Holkar are the chief gainers locally ; the latter has 
increased his rent-roll 40 per cent in ten years. Malwa opium 
yielded for e3cport from Bombay 405,094 chests, representing 



312 CENTRAL INDIA STATES. [OHAF. ZYII. 

£24,578,272 duty to the British GoTemment in the decade 
ending March 1879, or an increase of 63,682 chests and 
£4,467,822 over the previous ten years. Before the Musal- 
man invasion, which, in 1387, placed Dildwar Khan Ghori on 
the throne at Mandu, Malwa was governed from Oojain, the 
capital of Yikramaditya, whose accession has made, 57 B.O., the 
Samvat era of the Hindoos. Akbar made it a Soobah or vice- 
roy's province after his conquest of Goojarat in 1570 ; it was 
overrun by the Marathas on the decay of the Mughul empire, 
and practically divided between Sindia on N. and Holkar on 
S., while the Bheels held the hills. The Pindarees found 
an asylum there, which ended in their extirpation in the 4th 
Maratha war under Lord Hastings, and the civilisation that 
followed the rule of Malcolm after the Treaty of Mundisor in 
1818. The principal States are six : Gwalior, Indore, Dhar, 
and Dewass are Maratha, and Bhopal and Jaora are Musabnan. 
There are many mediatised chiefs of petty States, held under 
the immediate guarantee of the British Government, but having 
feudal relations with one or other of these larger States. 

§ 28. BooNDELKHAND AND Baghelkhand, the K comer 
of the triangular plateau of Central India, have an area of 
24,400 sq. m. To W. the Betwa, and its tributary the 
Dhasan, and in the centre the Ken, flow N. to the Jumna ; 
to E. the Son flows to the Ganges at the foot of the Kaimor 
the continuation of the Vindhya moimtains. Between these and 
Panna range is the S. Tons, flowing N. to the Ganges. The 
country is more remarkable for its mineral than for its agricul- 
tural wealth ; diamonds and iron have been worked fitfully. 
The early Gond possessors were supplanted by the Chandel 
Rajpoots, with their noble irrigation and fortification works, 
till in 1183 Parmal Deo, twentieth in succession from Chandra 
Varma, the founder, was defeated by Prithvi Riga of Delhi 
After Musalman invasion had added to the anarchy, the Boon- 
delas, of the Garuha tribe of Rsgpoots, seized the country at Uie 
close of the 14th century, and ruled it from Mahonl Under 
the treaty of BasseiD, the British Government obtained Boon- 
dela territory (N.W. Province) and supremacy in 1818. Of 31 
States in Boondelkhand, Oorcha or Tehree, Duttia, and Sump- 
thur alone have formal treaties with the British Government ; 
the others are bound by deeds of fealty and obedience. Baghel- 
khand comprises Rewdii, Nagode, Maihar, Sohawal, and Eotee, 
of which the first only is held under treaty. Surveys for a 
system of railway lines, chiefly as preventives of famine, are 
being made in Boondelkhand. 



CHAP. TVU. ] INDORB — GWALIOR. 313 

The British districts of Hameerpoor, Jalaun, Jhansi, Lalitpoor, 
and Banda, which, with these States, comprise Boondelkhand, 
have been described in detail under j^orth- Western Province, 
The whole formed Ptolemy's kingdom of Prasiak^, lying to S. 
of the Jumna, with Eanagora or Kalinjar as chief town. 

§ 29. ^Indore State, or Holkar's, is bounded E. by Nimar 
district, Dhar and Dewass States ; N. by Gwalior ; W. by Dhar 
and Burwani ; S. by Ehandesh district. Two other detached por- 
tions lie to N. around Rampoora and Mehidpoor, and one to W. 
around Dhie. Area of whole, 8075 sqi m. Population, 700,000 
yielding £500,000 to the Maharaja Holkar ("inhabitant of 
Hoi," ancestral village on Neera in Dekhan), a Maratha of the 
goat-herd tribe. The S. portion lies between the Satpoora and 
Vindhya ranges, forming a section of the Narbada valley. The 
N. is watered by the Chambal. The centre is the valley of 
Mandl^ar. The Holkar (Malwa) railway runs from Khandwa 
on Great Indian Peninsula line N. for 86 m. to the capital, whence 
it proceeds N. through Neemach to Naseerabad and Ajmer. 
Indore (15,000), capital and residence of Governor-General's 
Agent for all Central India States, founded in 1770 by Ahalya 
Bai, the able queen, in place of Eampail, former capital, 18 m. 
S.E. of Indore, on left bank of the Eatki or Ean river (1 998 
ft.), with spacious palace, British Residency and barracks, opium 
establishment, cotton mills, Rsgkoomar college for Malwa chiefs 
and Mission of Presbyterian Church of Canada. Mho'w, lai^ 
cantonment and railway station on Gambri river (2019 ft.), 
13 miles S. of Indore. Meuidlesar, on right bank of Narbada, 
on route 30 m. S. of Mhow to Aseergarh. Mehidpoor, on 
right bank of Seepra ; on the opposite bank Sir Thomas Hislop 
defeated Holkar in 1 8 1 7. Bampoora (1360 ft.), below Chittor 
mountains, residence of Holkar till 1820, on N. bank of Taloyee. 
Barwai, railway station on the Narbada, with English school 
Other towns are Ehargaon, Mah^sar, and Eanod. 

§ 30. * Dewass and Bagli States, N.E. of Indore. 
De^wass is divided between the senior branch with area of 
1378 sq. m., pop. 63,000, and rev. £28,000, and the junior, 
with area of 1198 sq. m., pop. 59,000, and rev. £32,500. 
Both the Baba Sahib and Dada Sahib are Tuar Rajpoots of 
the same stock as the Dhar chief; j^hey live in the capital of 
same name (6000), on high road from Indore to Gwalior and 
Agra. Bagrll, with capital of same name, E. of Mhow, near 
Eali Sind river. Area, 300 sq. m. Population, 18,000 yield- 
ing £6500 to the Thakoor, a Champawat Rajpoot. 

§ 31. *GwALioB State, or Sindla's, is in detached districts, 



314 CENTRAL INDIA STATES. [OHAF. ZVII. 

of which Gwalior, the principal, iB bounded £. by Sagar diBtrict 
and Boondelkhand ; N.E. by Agra and Etawah with the Oham- 
bal between ; N.W. by the Chambal separating it from Earauli 
and Dholpoor ; W. by R^jgarh, Eotah, and Jhalawar States ; 
and S. by Bhopal and Dhar. Area, 33,1 19 sq. m. Population, 
2,300,000 yielding £1,200,000 to Mahar^a Sindia, fourth 
descendant of Ranojee, slipper-bearer of Baligee Peshwa, and 
a most loyal feudatory of the Empress, as seen in his whole 
career since 1843. His titles are "Master of the country, 
great in power, high in prestige, exalted in migesty, the great 
man of the age, pillar of the nobles, the great Raja, R^ja of 
R^jas, the high of place, Maharaja Jay^ji Rao Sindia Bahadoor, 
the victorious of the period, vassal of Her Migesty the honoured 
and exalted Queen of England," 1863. Comprising the greater 
part of Malwa the State is a plateau sloping gently from the 
Mandu Rancre of the Vindhyas N. or N.E. to the Chambal. 
Shaizgrarh in that range rises to 2628 ft. ; the high place of 
Gkwalior Book is one of the isolated hills on N.E. Between 
the Narbada on S. and Chambal on N. the Sind, Euwari, Asar, 
and Sankh, are smaller streams In the S.W. opium, cotton, 
and grain are largely produced. New Gkwalior or Lashkar 
(" the camp ") (100,000), opulent city, sprung up recently round 
S.E. skirt of Gwalior Rock on site of Daulat Rao's fixst encamp- 
ment, 67 m. S. of Agra, now railway terminus of Sindia's broad 
gauge line to Agra; close by are the new palaces, Jai Indar 
Bhawan, and a smciller pleasure house in the Phoolbagh, or 
flower park, watered by the Sourdkha, of which the Italian Sir 
Michael Pilose is architect. Old GHwalior (25,000), town at 
N. angle of the base of the rock, famous for its singers in 
Akbar's time, with ruins. Q'walior Fortress is the fortified 
summit of a sandstone hill (1010 fb.), 2 m. in length, with area 
of 2000 acres, over which Sindia's orange serpent-flag flies, but 
garrisoned by British troops since 1857, when the sepoy con- 
tingent and local troops mutinied, and Sindia and his great 
Minister, Dinkar Rao, fled to Agra on the approach of Tatia 
TopL The fort contains Jain temples, caves with colossal 
figures, and the Hindoo palace of Man Singh; these are all that 
is left of buildings which excited Baber's admiration. Morar 
(Umra), large British cantonment and village on river of same 
name, 4 m. E. of the Rock, with residences of Brigadier-General 
and civil and political stafi*, and fine barracks. Pauxdar, 12 
m. to S.W., and Mahangpoor, 15 m. to N.W. of Gwalior, where, 
on the same day, 29th December 1843, battles were fought by 
the British, the former under General Grey, the latter under 



CHAP. XVII. ] OWALIOR — BHOPAL. 315 

Sir Hugh Grough; Lord Ellenborough made of the captured 
guns a monument at Calcutta to commemorate the victories, 
which delivered the present Mahanya when a child from his 
noblea Oojaln, ancient capital of Malwa, one of the 7 sacred 
Hindoo cities and first meridian of their geographers, on right 
bank of Seepra, to which there is now a branch railway from 
Fatehabad on the Indore and Neemach section of the Malwa 
railway; Sindia's capital till he removed N. to Gwalior. 
Ohand^ri, 105 m. 8. of Gwalior, with hill fort, a great city 
under the Delhi emperors. Neexnaoh, British cantonment 
near Mewar boundary (1476 ft.), station on railway from Indore 
to Ajmer. Mandesor, 80 m. N. of Oojain, where treaty of 
same name was made in 1818, closing the Pindaree war. 

§ 32. ^Bhopal State is bound^ K by Sagar district, N. 
by Sindia's and Dhar States, W. by Sindia's and Holkar's 
States, and S. by the Narbada separating it from the Central 
Province district of Hoshangabad. Area, 8200 sq. m. Popu- 
lation, 775,000 yielding £270,000 to Shah Jahan Begam, 
descendant of an Afghan who was in AurangzeVs service, and 
whose house has always been actively loyal The Begam, like 
her mother, encourages female education, and has a State 
railway from Hoshangabad, and Itorsi on Great Indian Penin- 
sula IJiie, to her capital, Bhopal, with waterworks, hospital, 
and schools; outside the walls is the palace in Fatehgarh fort, 
near a large artificial lake. Shalyahanabad is a new suburb, 
with street Kaisargai^j, named after the Empress, or Kaisar-i- 
Hind. Sehore, on the Saven, 22 m. S.W. of Bhopal. Bhilsc^ 
town 26 m. N.E. of Bhopal, on a rock with fort, remarkable as 
the centre of 6 groups of Boodhist topes or monuments marking 
sacred spots, of which Sanohi itupa is the greatest. At Sonari, 
8 m. distant from Sanchi, are 8 topes, and at Bhojpoor 37, of 
which the largest is 66 ft. in diameter — all of the age between 
250 ao. and the firdt Christian century. Raiseen, hill fort 
in £., 50 m. N. of Hoshangabad on Sagar road, capitulated 
to Sher Shah in 1543. 

§ 33. *EioHT Bhopal Agency States. — The Bhopal 
Political Agent controls also Raj^arh, to N.W. ; area, 642 
sq. m.; pop. 76,000 yielding £35,000 to the Nawab, a 
Rigpoot who became Muhammadan, though claiming descent 
from Vikramaditya ; capital of same name Narsinffarh, on 
W. border of Bhopal, with capital of same name ; area, 720 
sq. m. ; pop. 88,000 yielding £40,000 to the R^ja, an 
Omat Kiypoot. Koorwai, with capital of same name, N. 
of Bhopal; area, 126 sq. m.; pop. 17,000 yielding £10,000 



316 CENTRAL INDIA STATES. [CHAP. ZYIL 

to the Nawab. Maksoodanfirarh, on right bank of Parbati, 
with capital of same name, held from Sindia, who granted it to 
Colonel Jean Baptiste ; area, 81 sq. m. ; pop. 10,000 paying 
£3100 to the Rajpoot chief. Kilohipoor, W. of Rsugarh; 
area, 204 sq. m. ; pop. 31,000 paying £17,500 to the Rao, 
a Khichi Rsgpoot. Baaoda, N.E; of Bhopal ; area, 68 sq. m. ; 
pop. 5500 paying £1000 to Nawab. MahomediBrarh, from 
which the former is an offshoot, N. of Bhilsa ; area, 80 sq. m. ; 
pop. 3000 paying £700 to the Nawab. Patharl, adjoining 
Sagar district ;. area, 22 sq. m. ; pop. 4500 paying £1200 to 
the Nawab. 

§ 34. *Jaora, Ratlam, Sailana, and Seetamau States 
form the Western Malwa Agency, with six small chie&hips. 
Jaora, on W. border of Malwa, marching with the Partabgarh 
State of Rsgpootana, has an area of 872 sq. m. and pop. of 
86,000 yielding £80,000 to the Nawab, of an Afghan family 
secured in possession of the State after the Pindaree war. Jaora 
contains the best poppy-growing lands in Malwa, opened up 
by railway from Indore N. to Neemach and Ajmer. The capitd 
is a railway station, 180 m. from Khandwa, on Great Indian 
Peninsula line. Batlaxn, the capital of which is a chief opium 
mart and contains a central college (1577 ft.), 1*59 m. from 
Khandwa, has an area of 1200 sq. m. and ^p. of 100,000 
yielding £130,000 to the Rsga, who is of the Jodhpoor Rigpoot 
family. Rattan Singh, the founder, obtained the State from the 
Emperor Shah Jahan, and gave it his own name; Sailana^ once 
part of Ratlam, has an area of 500 sq. m.-and pop. of 27,000 
yielding £12,140 to the Rcga, a Rahtor Rsgpoot. Seetamau, 
also an offshoot of Ratlam, has an area of 350 sq. m. and pop. 
30,000 yielding £15,000 to the R^a, a Rahtor R^'poot. 

§ 35. *Bhe£L Aoenct States, in S.W. comer of Malwa, 
adjoining Goojarat on W. and Khandesh on S., and traversed by 
the Narbada. Dhar, with capital a few m. W. of Mhpw, has 
an area of 2500 sq. m. and pop. of 150,000 paying £80,000 to 
the Riga, a Tuar Rtgpoot. Jhabooa has an area of 15,000 
sq. m. and pop. 56,000, chiefly Bheels (Billa = a bow), paying 
£22,500 to the Riga of the Jodhpoor house. There are schools 
in the capital, and at Thandla, Ramchapoor, and Ranapoor. 
Barwajiee, wild and malarious tract on left bank of Narbada^ 
with area of 2000 sq. m. and pop. 35,000 paying £8770 to 
the Rana, a Sesodia Rigpoot. All Bajpoor, whose Rana is of 
the same stock, has an area of 800 sq. m., pop. 30,000, and 
revenue of £1000 ; capital, R^poor. Jobat, a wild hiUy tract, 
held by a Rana of the Jodhpoor stock, with area of 200 sq. 



CHAP. XYII. ] BOONDELA STATES. 3 1 7 

m., pop. 8000, and revenue of £1700. Ghora village is larger 
than Jobat, the capital Other petty States are Mathwar, 
Chikalda, PitUwad, Ratanmal, Kathiwara, and Axnjhera. 
The last is 584 sq. m. in extent, and contains the town of 
Ba^h, 25 m. S.W. of Dhar, near which are Boodhist caves 
(viharas) of the 6th century, *'the homes of Hindoo mendicants, 
whose occupancy of them is shared by panthers, which appear 
to come and go without attempting to molest their fellow- 
lodgers." 

The Deputy Bheel Agency, from the British district of Man- 
poor, controls Barwanee (above) Jumnia, of which Eingrod is 
headquarters, Bharoodpoora, Eothide, Chiktiabar, Riggarh, and 
Qarhi. 

§ 36. ^Raqhoooabh and Pabon States, with smaller 
chiefships, are controlled firom Goona, station of the Central 
India Horse, on high road from Indore to Gwalior, and mid- 
way between the two. These States are small in area; the 
first is under a Ghouhan Rcgpoot Raja, who has £2400 a year. 
The R^a of Paron has £1200 ; he rebelled in 1857, but after- 
wards gave up Tatia Topi. 

§ 37. *BooND£LKHAND STATES (Boondelas = Gaharwar 
Rs^'poots, from bo<md, a drop of blood shed by their ancestor 
Pancham ;. or Bandelas, from bandi, a slave-girl) are con- 
trolled by a British Political Agent from the cantonment of 
"Nowgongy on N. between Hameerpoor district and Chatar- 
poor State, where also is the Rajkoomar college, established 
by the chiefs in memory of Lord Mayo. Tehree or Orcha, a 
jungly and thinly-peopled State, the asylum of brigands (dacoits), 
lies to S. of Jhansi district, with which it is intermixed ; area, 
2000 sq. m., and pop. 200,000 paying £90,000 to the Maha- 
raja, the oldest of the Boondela houses, which never acknow- 
ledged a superior till 1817, when fealty was pledged to the 
Governor-General, Lord Hastings. Tehii, in S.W. corner, with 
Tikamgarh fort, is the present capital ; 40 m. N. and 142 m. 
S.E. of Agra is the old capital. Orcha, on the Betwa, with fort 
and palace built for Jahangeer. Datla, ceded by the Peshwa 
with other States under Bassein treaty in 1802, is bounded £. 
by Jhansi, and on other sides by Gwalior State. Area, 820 
sq. m. ; pop. 185,000 paying £10,000 to the Maharaja. The 
capital, of same name (40,000), stands on rocky site, on Agra 
and Sagar road, 125 m. S. of former ; 4 m. off is a curious 
cluster of Jain temples. Saxnthar, surrounded by Jalaun 
and Jhansi districts on E. and S., and by Gwalior on N. and 
W., has an area of 174 sq. m. and pop. 110,000 paying 



318 CENTRAL INDIA STATES. [OHAP. ZVII. 

£45,000 to the Rs^'a ; capital of same name. Panna, the 
famous diamond State, on the tableland above the Vindhyan 
Ohats, lies S. of Banda, and N. of Dmnoh and Jabalpoor dis- 
tricts. Area, 2555 sq. m. ; pop. 185,000 paying £50,000 to 
the Maharsga, the senior representative of the great Chatar SaL 
The capital (1300 ft.) is on the route from Jabalpoor to Banda, 
169 m. N. of former, and 173 S.W. of Allahabad ; it is now 
in ruins, but has a spacious palace and many temples, one of 
which contains idols of Krishna and Lakshman, whose eyes are 
said to be diamonds of great value. On N.E. of town are the 
" Panna miues,'' but the most important adamantiferous tract 
extends from 12 to 20 m. N.E., and is worked at Eamariya^ 
Brijpoor, Bargari, Maira, and £twa. The diamond bed proper 
IB a conglomerate belonging geologically to a group at the base 
of the Lower Bewahs, di^itinguished as the Panna shales. The 
rock diggings, twenty minutes' walk from the town, cover a 
surface of only 20 acres on a low flat rising ground at the base 
of the slope from the Kaimor scarp ; there are five or six pits 
worked. Colourless diamonds, of the first water, are rare. 
The revenue, raised by a tax of above 25 per cent on the 
produce, is estimated at £12,000 a year. It is shared by 
Ohaxkhari, a grain- producing State within the *Hameerpoor 
district, and on the Dhas&n which separates it from Orcha. 
Area, 275 sq. m. ; pop. 125,000 paying £50,000 to the Maha- 
rsja. The capital is picturesquely situated at base of a lofty 
hill, with fort above and lake below, on the route from Gwalior 
to Banda, 41 m. W. of the latter. Bijawar, at foot of an ad- 
vanced ridge of the Vindhyas, a land poor and hilly, lies N. of 
the Dumoh district. Area, 920 sq. m.; pop. 105,000 paying 
£25,000 to R^a. The capital is 70 m. N.E. of Sagar, and 23 
S. of Ohatarpoor, which State lies S. of Hameerpoor and N. 
of Dumoh district, between the Dhasan and the Ken, in a hilly 
country with several lakes. Area, 1240 sq. m. ; pop. 175,000 
yielding £25,000 to Riga, a Tuar Rc^poot. The capital, of same 
name, is on the Banda-Sagar route, 10 m. N.E. of the latter, 
with ruins of the palace and tomb of Chatar Sal, after whom the 
town is named. Rc^jnagar was the former capital. The State 
used to be famed for its swords. Ajai^rarh, S. of Banda dis- 
trict and Charkhari State, and E. of Ohatarpoor, has an area 
of 340 sq. m. and pop. of 55,000 yielding £22,500 to the Raja, 
who lives at Naushahr at N. base of the granite and sandstone 
rock on which is the famous Ajaisrarh Fort (1344 ft.) (*' un- 
conquerable fort " or " Aja's fort "), fronted by Bihouta hill, 
which commands it Ajaigarh Fort is 16 m. from Kalinjar, 



CHAP. XVII.] BOONDKLA AND BAOHEL STATES. 319 

and, like that, is as old as the 9th century. The plateau is 
covered with exquisitely carved remaiiis of Jain temples, some 
of them obscene and now inhabited by snakes and baboons. 
In 1809 a British force took Ra^hauli heights, 8 m. N.W., 
Bihouta and Ajaigarh from the marauder Lakshman Dawa, and 
restored it to the Boondela I^ja, whose house remained faithful 
in 1857. Bchonee (Bawain » " 52 villages"), a poor land over- 
run by bindweed, and the only Muhammadan State in Boondel- 
khand, lies near Ealpee in the doab between the Jmnna and 
Betwa, surrounded by British districts except on S. Area, 127 
sq. m. ; pop. 25,000 paying XI 0,000 to the Nawab, who re- 
sides at Kadaura. Baronda (or Beergarh, or Pdthar Kachar, 
from former capitals), S. and E. of Banda district, with capital 
in a difficult pass on the Banda-Rewah route, 35 m. S.£. of 
former. The State is partly below, but chiefly above the Ghats. 
Area, 230 sq. m. ; pop. 15,000 yielding £2800 to the R^ja, 
a Rajbansi Rajpoot. Baxeela, in Hameerpoor district, with 
capital 42 m. from Hameerpoor town, and 25 m. S. of Kalpee, 
has an area of 35 sq. m. and pop. 7000 paying £3000 to the 
R^ja. Alipoora, between Hameerpoor N. and E., and Jhansi 
W., has an area of 85 sq. m. and yields £5000 to Rao. Kan- 
ycuihana, a wild tract W. of the Betwa and S.W. of Orcha; 
area, 84 sq. m. ; pop. 16,000 paying £2000 to the Raja. 
Haehtbya Jaereers, originally, as the name signifies, eight 
appanages, to S. of Jhansi, into which the Orcha chief divided 
Baiagaon, for his sons ; four of these remain. Dhoorwai, 
18 sq. m. ; pop. 8000 paying £1200 to the Dewan. Bijner, 
40 ni. E. of Jhansi, 27 sq. m. ; pop. and rev. as above. Tori 
Pathipoor, 36 sq. m. ; pop. 10,000 ; rev. £3000. Pahari 
Banka, 4 sq. m. ; pop. 5000 paying £500. The Kalinjar 
OhauMs are the petty States assigned in 1812 to the members 
of the family of Chaub^ Kam Kishn, Chatar Sal's governor 
of Kalinjar Fort, who seized it for himself after resisting the 
Maratha ten years' siege by Ali Bahadoor. The estates lie 
to E. of the fort, and are Paldeo, Tiraon, Bhaisaunda, 
Kamta Rajola ; Eamta is a famous centre of Hindoo pil- 
grims as an abode of Rama, in the Chitrakot tract, where the 
sacred streams Paisani and Mandagni meet ; Nal^roa, Bebai, 
Ji^rnee, Jassoo, Lucrhaasi, Pahra. Other petty States are 
Behut, Behrl, Qaurihar, and Glraull. 

§ 38. ^Baohelkhaio) States, five in number, are divided 
from those of Boondelkhand on the E. roughly by the line of 
East India Railway from Allahabad to Jabalpoor. They lie 
between Chutia Nagpoor on E., Mirzapoor and Allahabad dis- 



320 CENTRAL INDIA STATES. [OHAP. XVII. 

tricts on N., Boondelkhand and Jabalpoor on W., and Bilas- 
poor and Mandla districts of Central Province on S. The 
Baghel Kajpoots are so named from Bheelagar or Beeag Deo, 
who left Goojarat in 580 and conquered the country from Kal- 
pee to Chandalgarh, to which his son added Kewah, calling the 
whole Baghel khand. 

Be'waJi (with Sohagpoor), the most E. and important State, 
rises from the Ganges valley in three plateaux resting on the 
Bundachal, Panna, and Kaimor hills, drained by the S. Tons, 
Beher, and Biland. The Son, receiving the Mahanadi, flows 
from the S. through the State N.E. into Mirzapoor district ; 
its basin is as yet unexplored. The State la rich in minerals 
and forests ; coal of the Palamau field is found at Umaria, 34 
m. from Kutnee railway station Area, 13,000 sq. m. ; pop. 
2,100,000 yielding £250,000 to the Mahaiaja. The capital, 
of same name, and fort founded in 1618, is 131 m. S.W. of 
Allahabad ; residence of Political Agent. The chief resides at 
Govindgarh palace to S. Sutna is the principal railway station, 
nearly midway between Allahabad and Jabalpoor, 118 m. N.£. 
of latter. From Sutna a road 22^ m. to Bela joins the great 
Dekhan road leading to Rewah. E. near Son river is ChandreM 
village with mounds, ruins of palace and fine Saivic temple. 
In the Kaimor range the most important passes, beginning 
from that pierced by the Jabalpoor Railway, are Sunai Ghat 
and Badanpoor Pass, from which old roads branch S. and S.E. 
towards the Central Province and Orissa, lined in some places, 
aa at Gurgi, by ancient remains. 

Nagrodh, on E. border of Bewah and W. of Panna. 
Area, 450 sq. m. ; pop. 80,000 paying £15,000 to the Raja. 
The capital, W. of Sutna railway station, is also a British 
cantonment on the route by Rewah from Sagar to Allahabad, 
110 m. N.W. of Jabalpoor. The Riga's fort (1099 ft.) is on 
the Amran tributary of the S. Tons. The State is traversed 
by the East India Railway. Maihar, N. of Jabalpoor district 
Area, 600 sq. m. ; pop. 75,000 paying £7420 to the R^ja. 
The capital is a railway station (Maihar), 97 m. N.E. of Jabal' 
poor on the route by Rewah to Allahabad. Suhawal, N. 
of Nagodh. Area, 300 sq. m. ; pop. 55,000 paying £7000 to 
the Rais. The capital, with ruined fort, is on the Satni river 
(1059 ft.), 168 m. S.W. of AUahabad. Kothi, the capital of 
which is 66 m. S.E. of Banda on the route to Rewah, haa an 
area of 100 sq. m. ; pop. 35,000 paying £5000 to the Raia. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE CENTBAL PROVINCE. 

§ 1. Size. § 2. Position, Physical Diyisions, MoimtaiDS, Rivers, and 
Lakes. § 3. Products, Trade, and Railways. § 4. Land Tenures 
and Taxation. § 5. The People and Districts. 

EighUen Districts, 

§ 6. Nagpoor. § 7. Bhandara. § 8. Chanda. § 9. Wardha. § 10. 
Balaghat § 11. Raipoor. § 12. Bilaspoor. § 13. Sambalpoor. 
§ 14. Mandla. § 15. Seoni. § 16. Jabalpoor. § 17. Damob. 
§ 18. Sagar. § 19. Narsingpoor. § 20. Chindwara. §21. Hosh- 
angabad. § 22. Betool. § 23. Nimar. 

* Fifteen States. 

§ 24. *Bastar. § 25. *Earond and Makrai. § 26. "Twelve Chatteesgarh 
States. 

§ 1. Size. — The Central Provinces were formed into one Pro- 
vince under a Chief Commissioner by Lord Canning in 1861, 
out of the Sagar and Narbada districts of the N.W. Province, 
of the Nagpoor country on the disappearance of the Bhonsla 
Maratha kingdom, and of territories on the fringe of Orissa^ 
Madras, Telingana, and Bombay. The new Province is larger 
than Italy, with somewhat less than half its population, having 
a total area of 113,042 sq. m. and population of 11,505,149. 
Its capital, Nagpoor dty, is almost equidistant from Calcutta^ 
Bombay, and Madras, and is on the direct line of railway, 
gradually being completed, between the two first. Along with 
Berar to the W. the Central Province wiU one day be administra- 
tively united with Bombay, to which, geographically, it is most 
allied. The home to which the non-Aryan tribes, Kolarian and 
Dravidian, were driven by Aryan invaders, is Gondwana, tha 
Satpoora plateau. It is the varied meeting-place of languages 
and civilisations; Maratha prevails in S.W., Hiudee in N., 
Ooriya in £., and Tamil in S. Long devastated by the Mara- 

Y 



322 THE CENTBAL PROVINCE. [cHAP. XVIII. 

thas, and exposed to famine and over-assessment of the land-tax 
even under British rule, the 18 districts of the Central Pro- 
vince aud the 15 Feudatory States have had a scanty population. 
But since the establishment of a detailed and vigorous local 
administration in 1861 the population has grown nearly one- 
half, and cultivation, mining, trade, and education, have rapidly 
extended. 

§ 2. Position and Physical Divisions. — ^The Central 
Province, the old Gfondwdna, is bounded S.E. by N. Madras 
and Orissa ; N.E. by Chutia Nagpoor, Baghelkhand, and Boon- 
delkhand States and districts ; N.W. by Malwa States; andS.W. 
by Khandesh, Berar, and Haidarabad State. Of a total bound- 
ary of 2700 m., only 160 march with ordinary British districts 
at Khandesh. The Province lies between 17' 50' and 24* 27' 
N. lat., and 76° and 85** 15' E. long., with an extreme breadth 
N. to S. of 500 m., and length E. to W. of 600 m. Of the 
total area, 84,208 sq. m. is occupied by British districts, having 
a population of 9,805,149; and 29,112 sq. m., or one-fourth, 
by Feudatory States, with a population of about 1,700,000. 
Roughly, the Province may be said to form a series of 3 ter- 
raced plateaux between the Ganges and Godavari valleys. Pro- 
ceeding from the N. there is fbrst the Vindhyan Plateau, on 
which the Sagar and Dumoh districts lie paralleL Then comes 
the Narba4a Valley, in which are the districts of Jabalpoor, 
Narsingpoor, Hoshangabad, and part of Nimar; the other 
part lies in the Tapti valley. Then follows the main tableland, 
the Satpoora Plateau rising to 2000 ft, on which are 
Mandla, Balaghat, Seoni, Chindwara, and Betool districts. To 
the S. of all is the great Nagrpoor Plain, formed by the 
Wardha and Waenganga valleys, in which are the districts of 
Nagpoor, Wardha, Bhandara, and Chanda, ending in a mass of 
hill and forest probably the wildest and the least known part 
of the Peninsula, in which chiefly are the Feudatory States. 
Eastward, and below the Ghats, is the OhatteeBgrarh Plain 
(*^ thirty-six forts"), a low plateau of red soil, containing 
Raipoor and Bilaspoor districts, the " land of threshing floors " 
(khalarUi) to the Banjara traders, whose pack cattle carry 
oiT its surplus grain till superseded by the advancing railway. 
Farther E., Sambalpoor district, on the Mahanadi, pierces into 
Bengal, from which it was formerly administered. Running 
tt. to W. 600 m., the Satpoora plateau forms the true barrier 
between Northern or Aryan, and Southern or Dravidian India ; 
between Hindustan on N. and Maharashtra and the Dekhan 
on the S.W. and S. The range extends W. to the W. coast^ 



OHAP. xviii.] RIVERS — COAL 323 

from Amarkantak. That lofty plateau gives birth to the 
Naxbada, which for 200 m. winds among the Mandla hills, 
passes through the rocky gorge known as the marble rocks of 
Jabalpoor, and thence flows W. in its own valley between the 
Yindhyan and Satpoora ranges to the Gulf of Kambay. The 
Mahanadi flows from the Bastar hillET, which close in Chat- 
teesgarh plain to S. ; receives its first great affluent, the Seonath, 
a little above Seorinarain, and flows past Sambalpoor town to 
Sonpoor, Cuttak, and the Bay of Bengal The WaengaJogB,, 
from the Beoni plateau, drains the S. slopes of the Satpooras into 
the Wardha, which it joins 50 m. below Chanda town ; in its 
course of 350 m. it receives the Thanwar E. of Keolari ; turn- 
ing S. it passes through a gorge into the Nagpoor plain, and 
flows through Balaghat, Bhandara, and Chanda districts. The 
Wardha^ rising in the Satpooras TO m. N.W. of Nagpoor city, 
separates the Province from Berar and Haidarabad ; near Chanda 
town, 190 m. from its source, it receives the Paenganga, which 
drains E. and S. Berar ; 64 m, lower it is joined by the Waen- 
ganga, and the united stream, named Pranheeta, flows on for 
60 m. to the Godavari at Sironcha. Of the 900 m. course 
of the Gk)davari from Bombay Nasik to the Madras seaport of 
Coconada, it borders the Central Province to S.W. for 150 m. ; 
from the Wardha falls, near Hinghanghat cotton mart, its 
course is compared by Sir R. Temple to that of the Rhine, 
especially where it breaks through the Eastern Ghats (2500 
ft.) from its junction with the Sabari, its breadth of from 1 to 
2^ m. being contracted into a narrow and very deep channel for 
a course of 20 m. In the E. and S., in Bhandara and Chanda, 
are fine lakes; the largest, Nawagraon, is 17 m. in circum- 
ference, with a depth of 90 ft. in some places. 

§ 3. Products, Tradb, and Railways. — The Central 
Province possesses eight separate coal-fields — at Bandar, 
Wardha, Warora or Ohanda, Eainaram, and Singareni in 
the Godavari valley ; at Shahpoor in the Betool district ; and at 
Mohpani, Tawa, and Pench in the Satpoora region. The 
Wardha field is the N. extremity of a vast tract of Gondwana 
rocks extending for 285 m. from N.W. to S.E. in the valleys 
of the Wardha, Pranheeta, and Godavari basins, containing 
2525 million tons, of which 1714 million are available, as 
estimated by the Geological Survey. The Warora coal is 
deficient in fixed carbon and combustible volatile gases. 
Government has spent a very large sum in exploring and test- 
ing the Warora field, from which a branch railway conveys the 
coal 45 ni. to Wardha on the Great Indian Peninsula line. 



324 THE CENTRAL PROVINCE. [CHAP. xvm. 

The out-turn in 1879-80 was 32,100 tons, but it is expected 
to be 10,000 tons a month. The Great Indian Peninsula 
Company have contracted for 50,000 tons a year at Us. 5 (10s.) 
a ton at the pit's mouth. At Mohpani, 95 m. S.W. of Jabal- 
poor, the " Nerbudda Coal and Iron Company" raised 13,500 
tons, and is worked with success ; the fuel is sold to the Great 
Indian Peninsula Railway at Us. 10 per ton, or considerably 
above the price of Raneeganj and Karharbari coals, and of 
English coal landed at Bombay, because of the cost of carriage. 
The State Forests cover 12^ millions of acres, or 19,666 sq. m., 
of which 2535 are first, and 16,850 second class reserves. In 
the N. the Province has been almost denuded of forests ; in the 
S., especially in the hill States, which look down on the Nagpoor 
and Chatteesgarh plains, the population is scanty, and the 
destruction of trees has been stopped. The Nagpoor plain is a 
great rice field, with 4 millions of acres imder that crop ; the 
Narbada country, a wheat field covering 3| millions of acres. 
Other food grains are raised on 6 millions of acres, oilnseeds on 
1^ millions, and cotton on less than 1 million. Thirteen millions 
of acres, or 85 per cent of the whole cultivated area, are under 
food grains. The annual rainfall is 45 inches. There are no 
canals. At Nagpoor city there is a model farm. There are 
manufactures of cotton in mills at Nagpoor, and of silk, cotton, 
and wool privately throughout the Province, also of iron, brass, 
pottery, and leather. The value of the exports from the Pro- 
vince, of cotton, grain, and cloth, is registered at about 
3^ million pounds annually, and of the imports at 4^, in salt, 
sugar, and English piece goods, chiefly from and to Bombay 
and the N.W. Province. The great granajy of the Chattees- 
garh plain is being opened up by a State railway from Nagpoor, 
95 m. K, to Amgaon, with branch to Toomsar from Dowhali 
junction, Nandgaon, and Dongarghar (126 m.), Bilaspoor (256 
m.), and ultimately on the 5-6 gauge to the East Indian 
line at Barakar or Seetarampoor for Calcutta The imports 
into the Province in 1880-81 were valued at £3,887,520 and 
the exports at a little less. 

§ 4. Land Tenures and Taxation. — Almost every form 
of tenure which exists in India is to be foimd in this central meet- 
ing-place of its races and languages. (1) The feudal system 
prevails in the case of the chiefs who hold their estates on the 
two conditions of loyalty and good administration. The author- 
ity which they exercise is of a somewhat absolute character, 
sentences of death alone requiring the sanction of the Chief 
Commissioner. The succession to these chiefships foUows ordi- 



CBAP. xvill.] LAND TENURES. 325 

narily the law of primogeniture, but in each case the succession 
requires the approval of Oovemment. (2) Among ordinary 
landed proprietors, non - feudatory chiefs, known locally as 
Zameendars, occupy the most prominent position. The estates 
are held by single proprietors who have usually been in posses- 
sion for many generations, and succession is governed by the 
law of primogeniture. The junior branches of the family are 
entitled to maintenance, the nature and extent of which is 
ruled by custom, but they are not entitled to any share in the 
estate, as the Hindoo law of inheritance does not apply. The 
absolute proprietary right of the chief proprietor called " Za- 
meendar " is only so far limited, that in individual villages an 
inferior proprietary right may have been acquired by a heredi- 
tary farmer and an absolute occupancy title by a hereditary 
tenant. Such cases are exceptional The Talookdaree estates, 
called also in this Province Tahutdaree, are held by single 
proprietors, and succession usually follows the law of primo- 
geniture. In comparison with Zameendaree tenures they are 
generally of recent origin, and therefore the villages included in 
the estates are often held by inferior proprietors on permanent 
tenure, who are perfectly protected from interference, so long 
as they make the prescribed annual payment to the superior 
proprietor. This payment is a certain percentage over the fixed 
Government assessment. Cultivators hold on the same condi- 
tions absolutely as in ordinary Malgoozaree villages. (3) Most 
of the estates in the Province are held on what is known as the 
" Malgoozaree " tenure. The estate, whether the property of 
one or many owners, is always managed by a single proprietor, 
and the land is held chiefly by cultivators whose rents arc 
thrown into a common stock. The profits are divided or the 
losses made up with reference to the respective shares of the 
different proprietors. The ancient proprietary land in cultiva- 
tion by the owners themselves, and known as "Seer," is either 
held and cultivated by the proprietors according to their 
shares or is cultivated in common. If any proprietor takes up 
extra land he pays regular rent thereon, which is thrown into 
the same stock with his cultivator's rents. When disputes 
occur a regular division takes place, and the whole lands of the 
village come to be divided and held in severalty according to 
shares, the tenure becoming Putteedaree. When, however, a 
body of proprietors has gone so far, the tendency in the Pro- 
vince is to separate altogether, and by complete partition to 
constitute the several portions separate estates. The estates 
which are held from Qovemment revenue -free and at a quit- 



326 



THE CENTRAL PROVINCE. 



[chap, xtiii. 



rent are usually on the Malgoozaree tenure and require no 
separate description. (4) The case of purchasers of waste lands 
is exceptional. Their proprietaiy title is absolute, and they are 
subject to no. future reyenue assessment. In the districts 
53,068 sq. m. are settled for 30 years or upwards, and the 
leases will expire in June 1897 ; while 6843 sq. m. are settled 
for 10 years and under 30, the leases expiring in June 1888. 
The land revenue amounted to £623,491 in 1880-81, and the 
gross revenue to £1,503,034. 



Varieties of Tenure held direct from Government. 



Natubb of Tkkurb. 


Number of 
Estates. 


Number of 
Villages. 


Number of 
Holders and 
Shareholders. 


Gross Area 
in Acres. 


Average Area of 
each Estate. 


< 


Large Zameendarees pay- 
ing more than Rs.5000 
revenue — 
Under law of primo- 
geniture 
Under ordinary law . 
SmallZameendarees other 
than those of cultivat- 
ing communities 
Proprietary cultivating 
communities paying in 
common 
Proprietary cultivators 
paying separately, in- 
cluding all estates pay- 
ins less than Rs. 100 . 
Holders of revenue -free 
tenures — 
In perpetuity . 
For life . 
Holders of quit-rent ten- 
ures — 
In perpetuity . 
For life . 
Under Kham manage- 
ment .... 
liandholders who have 
redeemed the revenue 
Purchasers of waste lands 

Total. 


5 
81 

14,828 

2,492 

28,013 

3,381 
4,374 

899 
784 

16 

1 
175 


1,999 
1,670 

22,012 

629 

8,195 

1,210 
655 

940 
664 

15 

1 
150 


6 
46 

39,013 

2,842 

34,603 

3,699 
5,682 

1,124 
906 

• • • 

1 
187 


2,012,160 
1,617,579 

29,407,396 

844,974 

6,278,477 

620,542 
295,741 

882,162 
546,787 

14,264 

1.090 
202,117 


402,432 
52,180 

1,988 

143 

224 

186 
67 

981 
697 

951 

1,090 
1,155 


Rs. 

22,800 
22,303 

832 

82 

19 

• • • 
■ * * 

• • • 

• • • 

134 

« ■ tt 

• • • 


54,858 


38,040 


88,108 


42,218,239 


• • • 


• • « 



CHAP. XVIII.] 



TENURES — RACES. 



327 



Varieties of Tenure not held direct prom Government. 





NiiTTil^er of 


Avenge 


Average 


Average 


Natubb of Tbnubi. 


HoLdiDga. 


Area of each 
Holding. 


Rent of each 
Holding. 


Rent-rate 
per Acre. 






▲. B. P. 


R. A. P. 


R. A. P. 


Intermediate holders be- 










tween Zameendars and 










Ryots— 










On permanent tenure . 
On farming leases 


9,961 


134 2 32 


82 8 11 


8 10 


8,203 


488 8 83 


117 8 7 


3 10 


Ryots holding at fixed rates 


180,067 


17 1 1 


13 4 10 


12 8 


Ryots with ri^ht of occu- 










pancy at variable rates . 
Cultivating tenants with 


181,537 


14 19 


11 6 1 


12 9 










no permanent rights 


502,033 


13 2 


8 14 8 


10 8 


Holders of serrice grants . 


54,313 


5 8 1 


1 11 10 


4 9 



§ 5. The People and Districts. — Gondwana was left 
quietly to the E. by successive invaders of the Dekhan, who 
followed the Narbada valley through the Nimar pass, com- 
manded by Aseergarh fort. The Central Province had no 
history till the Bhonslas, one of the four great Maxatha dynas- 
ties, of which Sindia, Holkar, and the Gaekwar of Baroda 
represent the other three, made Nagpoor their capital in 1743. 
Before that time the legendary Rama traversed the forest of 
Dandaka, from the Jumna to the Godavari, to a hermit at 
Ramtek, near Nagpoor. The lunar race of Rajpoots, called 
Haihayas, held Jabalpoor, while the Pram^ras of Malwa ruled 
Nagpoor. After the Gauli shepherd kings had reigned from Deo-' 
garh, the Gond dynasty became powerful and great from the 16th 
century till the Maratha wave swept away the feudal civilisation, 
which had flourished subject only to the distant supremacy of 
the Delhi emperors, and ruined the peacefid peasantry. In 
1818, on the deposition of Apa Sahib, the British annexed the 
Sagar and Narbada territories, and managed the Bhonsla Nag- 
poor till 1 830, during the minority of Raghoji III. On his death 
in 1853 after refusing to adopt a successor, the State became 
British, and remained quiet, though restless, during 1857. 

The census of 1881 shows an increase since 1872 from 
8,173,824 to about 9,800,000 in the Districts, and from 
1,049,710 to about 1,700,000 in the States. The total in- 
crease is about 2,300,000, or 25 per cent, consisting of nearly 
20 per cent increase in the Districts, and nearly 60 per cent in 



THE CENTRAL PROVINCE. 



the States. Abnormal increase indicates incomplete enumera- 
tion at the census of 1872 : — 



Raipoor 


1,093.40S 


aboQt !,«0,000 




71S,398 


1,000.000 




623,03* 


630,000 




628,859 


680,000 


Gai,S13 


680,000 


Baatar State 


78,858 


190,000 


Satnbalpoor 


SUtea . 629,500 


950,000 



The chief executive authority in the Central Provjace is the 
Chief Commissioner and Agent to the Qovernor-General since 
1861. The Chief Commissioner is assisted by a Secretarj with 
an Assistant, a Judicial Commissioner, a Sanitaiy Commissioner 
and Deputy Surgeon- General, a Commissioner of Customs, 
and four CommissionerB of Revenue and Circuit, an Inspector- 
General of Police and Prisons, an Inspector-General of Educa- 
tion, a Conservator of Forests, and an Inspector -General of 
Be^tration, who is also Commissioner of Excise and Stamps. 





Ar 


EA, POPULATIOH, A 


KD Revenue of 


TKB Districts. 




1 
1 




li- 


i 




IS 


11 


Bit 


racL 


DimtK.-^. 


III 


Is 

1' 


11 






Und. 


o™. 


















Bl. 




Nigpoop 




S.TSfl 






u 




H.30.M1 


^ 


Bl.>i..tarm 




I 


lojsl 


"^;^ 


1.773 


M 




6:ts;o«i 


! 


















8.1!I,M« 


1 


sax 






S.UI 


303,182 


















•liBO.OOO 








8,'3ti;337 




S*e>r . 
















S.1«,0MI 




Dikob 
















S.it.ttT 




SCODl . 








29ei35a 








8,04,105 


i 


Muiil* 






*,71B 




1,SU 


so 




«,».*J7 


















tImIsts 








i;»is 




llOM 




t,ii',i'^ 




3 








8.90S 


374.au 


i.aoo 






sltltllM 










3.853 




],81S 




i'.ii'.m 


S,!i3:«M 


















i.si.U3 


4,18,804 


s 


IUI|H>or 








■1,«0.(H)0 






e,*9,sss 


0,01.83.1 


1 


Bllaspoor 






T.TSS 


'1,000.000 






!.S0,S01 


8W,eT« 


1 


MmtallKiar 


* 




■800,000 


i.ii2 


flS 


1.1^*S4 


s,«:o7. 


S 
























M,208 




aa.ii6 


lB,Wi,8«4 


«);S8,sa(» 


1,01,S1,»M 














ierJS"'F™'ta } 


l,r0.8T6 






Onnd 


Total . 


i.o»,Bi,sw 1 



CENTRAL PROVIF 




CE AND BERAB. 




aUnffopaianv 



nan' 
itntbfMMtttnt 



as 



Stan/arOt Gmtg^JSttaif: 



CHAP. XVIII.] NAQPOOR. 329 

§ 6. Naopoob District (the name of this country, as well 
as of Chutia Nagpoor to E., testifying to the serpent- worship of 
the Gonds with their Nagbansi or serpent-descended chiefs) 
is bounded E. by Bhandara, N. by Chindwara and Seoni, W. by 
Berar, and S.W. by Wardha. It is an irregular triangle, with 
the base resting on Bhandara and apex on Berar Area, 3786 
sq. m. Population (1872), 631,109. Three hill ranges occur, 
spurs of the Satpooras; one chain forms the N. border; a second, 
the S.W., rises to Kharki hill (2000 ft.), and the third runs 
between the two from N. to S., culminating in Pilkapar (1899 
ft), and dividing the district into two unequal plains. The 
W. plain slopes to the Wardha river, which separates it from 
K Berar, and is watered by its affluents the Jam and Maddr. 
The larger K plain slopes to the Waenganga, which receives the 
KanhAn, swoUen by its tributaries the Pench, Eolar, Wana, 
Soor, and Bor; to S.E. are the isolated Haldolee bills (1300 
ft.), and N.E. Seetapahar (1433 ft.), in Ramtek, with fort 
and temples curving round a lake and groves. The district 
belonged to the Gond kingdom of Deogarh, whose greatest 
sovereign, Bakht Buland, founded its capital (a.d. 1700), and 
the widow of whose son called in Raghoji Bhonsla from Berar, 
who gradually reduced all Deogarh. After Assye and Argaon 
Raghoji II. received a British Resident ; the orientalist, H. T. 
Colebrooke, had previously resided two years at Nagpoor on a 
political mission. Under Apa Sahib, his usurping nephew, the 
Resident was besieged on Seetabaldi hill in 1817 ; Apa Sahib 
fled, and the country was administered till 1830 when Raghoji 
III. came of age. It lapsed to the paramount power in 1853. 
In June 1857 the mutiny of the irregular cavalry was prevented 
by timely intellig'ence given through Rev. S. Hislop, Free Church 
Missionary. Naerpoor (90,000), on the Nag stream, capital of 
the Central Province, 520 dl N.E. of Bombay. On N. and W. is 
the suburb and civil station of SeetabaJdl, with Takli, prettily 
wooded and surrounded by gardens and tanks ; in the centre is 
the hill with fort. The old Residency, where the Chief Commis- 
sioner lives, is in extensive grounds. Headquarters of Scottish 
Free Church Mission in civil station, and native city; also at 
Kamthi and Bhandara. The Nakarkhana gate marks the site 
of the Bhonsla palace, burned down in 1864, with its fine black 
basalt, profusely ornamented with wood-carving. The cruciform 
tomb of the great Raghoji, and those of the other Bhonslas, 
and abo the Gonds, are in the Sukrawari quarter to S. of city. 
Kamthi (52,000), cantonment and town, 9 m. N.E. of Nagpoor, 
on right bank of Kanhan river, below its junction with the Pench 



330 THE CENTRAL PROVINCE. [CHAP. XVIU. 

and Eolar, covering 7 sq. m. ; a first-class brigade command 
under Madras, and a prosperous mart since its establishment 
by General Adams in 1821. XJmrer (12,000), 28 m. S.E. of 
Nagpoor, sloping to the Amb stream, noted for its manufactures 
of very fine cotton cloth with silk embroidery. Khapa (8500), 
on right bank of Kanhan, 20 m. N. of Nagpoor, a wealthy mark 
Narkher (7200), agricultural town among groves, 25 m. from 
Nagpoor on Betool rcwid. Bamtek (7500), 24 m. N. of Nagpoor, 
with famous shrine of Rama on hill and town at base. Mohpa 
(5700), garden town, 20 m. from Nagpoor, on left bank of Chan- 
drabagh. Saoner (5500), 24 m. N.W. of Nagpoor, on the 
Kolar, old and still prosperous town belonging to the present 
Gond Raja. Bela (5200), on the Wana^ 3 m. firom Waidha 
border, with cloth manufactures. Kalmeswar (5000), 14 m. 
W. of Nagpoor, a flourishing town. 

§ 7. Brand ABA District is bounded K by Raipoor, N. by 
Balaghat and Seoni, W. by Nagpoor, and S. by Chanda. Area, 
3922 sq. m. Population, 680,000. This district is an open 
plain, stretching from the Waenganga on W. to the hills wldch 
shut it in on N. and E. Small forest-clad ranges run S. from 
the Satpoora chain. The Axnbagarh or Sendurjhari hOls 
(400 ft.) skirt S. of Chandpoor. Isolated granite rocks are 
the Balahi, Eanheri, and Nawegaon hills. The Bawanthari, 
Bagh, Kanhan, and Chulban streams fall into the Waenganga. 
This is the lake region of the Province ; Nawegaon, Seoni, and 
Soregaon are the chief of 3648 tanks and sheets of water 
dammed off in hollows across the slopes, and used for irrigation. 
The inhabitants are noted for discourtesy and loose morality. 
Phallic worship is universal ; near Murmari village the tomb 
of an English lady is venerated. Bhandara (12,500), chief 
town and railway station, on the Waenganga, close to the great 
eastern road, 39 m. E. of Nagpoor, with brass manufactures; seat 
of Scottish Free Church Mission. Toomsar (7500), railway 
station, 53 m. E. of Nagpoor, on an affluent of the Waenganga^ 
grain entrepot in fine mango groves. Pauni (9000), enclosed 
town, 32 m S. of Bhandara, old and decaying place, known for 
its cloth. Mohari (6000), on the Sur, 10 m. N. of Bhandiva, 
with cloth manufactures. 

§ 8. Chakda Distbict is bounded E. by Godavari district and 
Jaipoor State of Madras Province ; N. by Bhandara, Nagpoor, 
and Wardha ; W. by Wardha and the Pranheeta dividing it from 
Berar and Haidarabad State j and S. by the Godavari dividing 
it firom Haidarabad. Area, 10,785 sq. m. Population (1872), 
558,856. The district rises fh>m low lands on the Wardha in 



CHAP. XVIII.] CHANDA — ^WARDHA. 331 

W. into hills isolated over ranges running S., and into abroad table- 
land (2000 ft.) E. of the Waenganga. Farther to S.E., in what 
was at one time the Upper Godavari district, the hills rise into 
Gktdulfiratta raufire (3285 ft.) of the Eastern Ghats, locally 
known as the Marmedee hills (4048), which form the Madras 
boundary. The Sironcha hills (1822 ft), 18 m, from town of 
same name, were at one time tried as a sanitarium. The most 
noticeable ranges in the broad tableland of Ghanda proper are 
those of Yirgaon, Ambagarh, Panabiras, Eotgal, Koracha, 
Muramgaon, Dhanora, Aundhi, Ehutgaon, Jarondi, Bhamragarh, 
Chimoor, and Mool; and the hills Tepagarh, Suijagarh,Perzagarh, 
and Dewalmaree. From N. to S. the district is rich in iron ores ; 
gold is found in the sand of hill streams, and diamonds and 
rubies were once obtained in mines near Wairagarh. The coal 
deposits have been described (p. 323). Fine teak forests cover 
the hills, and nse to a great height on £. frontier. Lakes 
abound, made by closing the outlets of small valleys ; 37 can be 
seen from Perzagarh heights. Cave temples are found at Bhan- 
dak, Winjbasani, Dewala, and Ghrigoos ; in the Wardha bed is 
a rock-temple, below Ballapoor. The principal rivers flowing 
S.E. to the Godavari are the Waenganga and Wardha, forming 
at Seoni the Pranbeeta, the Indravati and Talper, the Sabari 
and Seleru. The Mahanadi carries off the drainage of the 
eastern regions to Orissa. The Gond dynasty did much to 
civilise the people till Nilkaut Shah, the last, outraged them, 
and the Maratha Raghoji Bhonsla, in 1749, seized the country. 
In 1818 a British army took Ghanda from the treacherous Apa 
Sahib, and prosperity was restored for a time. In 1858 two 
petty chiefs revolted and slew two telegraph official. The chief 
town Ohanda (18,000), with walk 5| m. in circumference, is 
beautifully situated between the Jharpat and Virai, amid charm- 
ing scenery, and is remarkable for the walls, waterworks, citadel, 
monoliths, and tombs of the Grond kings. The civil station 
is N. of the city, with the cantonment to W. Here is a Pro- 
pagation Society's Mission. Armori (5500), on left bank of 
Waenganga, 80 m. N.E. of Ghanda, a weaving and forest mart. 
Warora, 32 m. N.W. of Ghanda and 12 N. of Woon in Berar, 
the chief colliery centre and terminus of the Wardha Goal State 
Railway, 45 m. from Wardha. Sironcha (1300), pleasantly 
placed on the left bank of the Pranheeta, 2 m. above its con- 
fluence with the Godavari, created since 1860; with flne oranges 
and fruits. 

§ 9. Wakdha District is bounded E. by Nagpoor, N. and 
W. by the Wardha river separating it from Berar, and S. by 



332 THE CENTRAL PROVINCK. [CHAP. xvm. 

Chanda. Area, 2401 sq. m. Population (1872), 354,720. The 
N. is hilly from a spur of the Satpooras; the S. is an un- 
dulating plain, broken by isolated hiUs. The central cluster 
of hills includes the survey stations of Malegaon (1726 ft), 
Nandcraon (1874 ft.), and Oaramsoor (2086 ft), foiming 
the watershed. The passes from Berar to Nagpoor are TalegaoD, 
Chicholi, Dhamkoond, and Thanegaon. The district is named 
from its only great river, the Wardha^ of which the Wana 
and Bakll are tributaries. The countiy is femons for trotting 
bullocks, and for a fine breed of bufifaloes. It produces the best 
cotton next to the acclimatised New Orleans of the S. Maratha 
country. The Great Indian Peninsula Railway crosses the 
district, and sends off a coal branch to Warora in Chanda from 
the chief town TVardha (3800), built since 1866, 49 m. W. 
of Nagpoor. HlnfiranGrliat (10,000), chief cotton mart in 
Central India, centre of the Wardha valley cotton, and that of 
Edalabad in Paenganga valley, a railway station 21 m. S.R of 
Wardha. Arvl (8000), mart, 34 m. N. W, of Wardha. DeoU 
(6000), large cotton mart, 11m. S.W. of Wardha, held by the 
representative of the Bhonslas. Sindi (4500), railway station, 
20 m. E. of Wardha. Ashti (4500), 52 m. N.W. of Wardha, 
with two fine mausolea of Afghan nobles. 

§ 10. Balaohat District is bounded K by the Eawarda 
and Khairagarh States, N. by Mandla, W. by Seoni and 
Bhamlara, S. by Raipoor. Area, 3141 sq. m., chiefly waste. 
Population (1872), 302,482. A highland plateau, shut against 
progress till 1866, when the peasantry of the Waenganga vaDey 
were encouraged to bring its wastes under the plough. Above 
Lapji the peaks rise to 2500 and 3000 ft ; the Tepagarh 
hill and Bainsckgrhat Ran^re are the chief. The Waenganga's 
tributaries are the Bagh, Nahara, and Uskal; the Narbada's 
are the Banjar, Halon, and Jamoonia. The forests of teak, sal, 
and bamboo are extensive ; especially the great sal reserve of 
Topla in N.K comer. Iron and mica are worked by the 
Gronds. There are five principal passes. The administrative 
headquarters is Burha, a mile from the Waenganga and 10 m. 
N. of Hatta (3000), centre of cultivated plain of same name, 
with Gond fort 80 m. N.E. of Bhandara. Laiji (2500), 40 
m, E. of Burha, named from a shrine of the goddess Kali. 

§ 11. Raipoor Distbict, principal portion of the S.K or 
Chattecsgarh division and largest district of the Central Pro- 
vince, is bounded E. by Sambalpoor, N. by Bilaspoor, W. by 
Balaghat and Chanda, S. by Bastar State. Area, 11,885 sq. 
m. Population, 1,400,000. This is the basin of the Upper 



CHAP. XVIII.] RAIPOOR — BILASPOOR. 333 

Mahanadi, surrounded by ranges branching from the Vindhyan 
chain. Th^ Mahanadl, or stream so called in Raipoor, rises 
from ^'an insignificant puddle in a rice field" in S.E. near Sehdwa 
town, flows W. for 30 m., then N.E. and N. till its junction in 
N.K comer with the much larger Seonath from the hills of 
Panabaras in Chanda, which receives on the right bank in Rai- 
poor the Gumaria, Am, Soori, Garaghat, Ghogwa, and Hamp, 
and on the left, the Earkara, Tendoola, Earoon, and Ehorsi. 
Before its junction the Mahanadi receives the Pairi and its 
Sundar affluent, the Eesho, Eorar, and Naini. The chief town 
is Baipoor (19,500), on a plateau (950 ft.) 180 m. E. of 
Nagpoor on the advancing line of railway by Sambalpoor to 
Calcutta, with old fort and many tanks, centre of grain trade, 
military station, and seat of a Christian Mission among the 
casteless Satnami reformers of Hindooism. Dhaintari (6500), 
36 m. S. of Raipoor, centre of rich grain and cotton tracts and 
of the lac trade. Rajeein (3000), 24 m. S.E. of Raipoor on 
right bank of Mahanadi at its junction with the Pairi, a pretty 
little town named from a temple which attracts thousands of 
pilgrims in April. 

§ 12. BiLASPOOB District is bounded K by Sambalpoor 
and Oodaipoor estate of Chutia Nagpoor, N. by Eoria and 
Sii^gooja chiefships of Chutia Nagpoor and by Sohagpoor por- 
tion of Rewah State, W. by Mandla and Balaghat highlands, 
and S. by the plain of Raipoor. Area, 7798 sq. m. Popula- 
tion, 1,000,000. This district is surrounded on all sides save 
to S. by branches of the sandstone range of the Vindhyas. The 
W. branch, or Ma.ika1 Banffe, runs S.W. from Amarkantak, 
just outside the district in Rewah State, to the Saletekri range 
in Bhandara. On E. the Korba Hills run S. into Sambal- 
poor, and after the break of the Mahanadi are continued by the 
Sonakhan Hills. From the isolated Dahla Hill (2600 ft.), 
15 m. K of Bilaspoor town, the expanse of plain in an amphi- 
theatre of hills is best seen. The Mahanadi flows through the 
S.E. extremity for 25 m. The Son rises in a marshy hollow 
in Pendra. The Narbada rushes picturesquely over rocky 
heights from Amarkantak. Minor streams are the Sakri, 
Hamp, Tesw^ Agar, Manidri, Arpa, Eharod, Leelagar, Jonk, 
and BareL Waste lands abound. Hathibari is the State 
teak-reserve. In the N., especially in Mateen and Uprora 
estates and on the wooded slopes of the Hasdoo stream, wild 
elephants roam over the Vindhyan forests. Tanks are scattered 
near every vUlage, more than 7000 in number. BUaspoor was 
the centre of the 36 forts which give Chatteesgarh its name, 



334 THE CENTRAL PROVINCE. [chap. XVIII. 

till 750 A.D., when the country was divided into two kingdoms 
under the Haihai Bans! kings, of which the capitals were 
Ratanpoor and Raipoor. Bilaspoor (5000), chief town, 
pleasantly placed on S. bank of the Arpa, named from Bilasa^ 
its fisher founder. Katanpoor (5500), 12 m. N. of Bilaspoor, 
old Haihai capital, whence the Hindoos spread, covering 15 sq. 
m. of tanks and groves, temples and tombs, in a hollow at the 
base of the Kenda offshoots of the Yindhyas. Munfifeli (4500), 
on the Agar, 36 m. W. of Bilaspoor on the Jabalpoor roiad. 

§ 13. Sambalpoob District is bounded on S. and E. by 
Cuttak, N. by Chutia Nagpoor, and W. by Bilaspoor and 
Raipoor. Area, 4407 sq. m. Population, 690,000. Sambal- 
poor district lies along the Mahanadi, and is surrounded by 
Feudatory States; it is an undulating plain surrounded by 
nigged hill ranges, of which the Bara Pahar (2267 ft at 
Debreegarh) in N. is the largest, as its name signifies, covering 
350 sq. m. ; here the rebel Soorendra Sa escaped for some years 
after the Mutiny. At Singrliora Qhat, through which the 
Raipoor and Sambalpoor road winds, Gonds, Marathas, and 
British have often fought. Jaxgrhati Range (1693) crosses 
the Chutia Nagpoor road 20 m. N. of Sambalpoor. Of the S. 
ranges parallel with the Mahanadi, the heights are Mandhar 
(1563 ft.) and Bodapali (2331 ft.). The principal isolated 
hills are Sunari, Chela, and Rosora. The Mahanadi flows 
E. and S.E. through the district for 90 m.; its tributaries are 
the lb, Keloo, and Jheera. Gold dust and diamonds have 
been found near Heerakhuda, or diamond island, at the junction 
of the lb and Mahanadi. In 1849 Sambalpoor lapsed to the 
British ; excessive land-tax led to Soorendra Sa's rebellion from 
1857 to 1864. Sambalpoor (11,000) is the only town with 
above 5000, on N. bank of Mahanadi, with ruined fort to N.W.; 
on the Jagannath pilgrim route, by which trade is chiefly with 
Orissa. 

§ 14. Mandla District is bounded N.E. by Rewah, S.E. 
by Bilaspoor, S.W. by Balaghat, and W. by Seoni and Jabal- 
poor. Area, 4719 sq. m. Population (1872), 213,018, largely 
of aboriginal Baigas and Qonds, in the two classes of R2g'€k)nd8 
and Rawan Bansis, subdivided into 42 castes. From W. to K 
the district is a series of steppes rising to the Maikal Hills 
on S.E. border. These culminate in Ohauradadar (34^0 
fl.), hill and plateau of 6 sq. m., 12 m. W. of the similar but 
prettier Amarkantak bluff in Rewah. The Shahpoor section 
of the Maikal range, N. of the Narbada and overlooking the 
Johila affluent of the Son, forms part of the watershed of 



CHAP. XVIII.] SEONI — ^JABALPOOR. 335 

E. and W. India; the Johila flows E., receiving the Ganjar 
and Gaz^'ari, after falls of 60 ft, near vast caves of unknown 
extent, and other streams flow W. to the Narbada, of which 
the Bai^jar and Halon are chief. Mandla (5000) (1770 ft.), 
59 m. S.E. of Jabalpoor, surrounded on three sides by the 
Narbada, old capital of Garha-Mandla line of Gond B^jas, 
taken from the Marathas in 1818 by General Marshall. Has 
manufactures of bell-metal from zinc and copper. Bahmani 
(2000), a village on the Seoni road. Shahpoora village, 50 m. 
E. of Jabalpoor, in Ramgarh subdivision. 

§ 15. Seoni Distbict is bounded K by Mandla and 
Balaghat, N. by Mandla and Jabalpoor, W. by Narsingpoor and 
Chindwara, and S. by Nagpoor and Bhandara. Area, 3252 
sq. m. Population (1872), 299,850. One of the most beautiful, 
temperate, and fertile districts in the Satpcora range, consisting 
of (1) plateau of Lakhnadon in N., between the Sher and 
Baneranga; (2) plateau of Seoni in W., between the Pench 
and Qssiga, ; (3) K watershed of the Banganga and its afflu- 
ents, the Nahra and Uskal ; (4) Donfirartal, rocky pasture- 
ground on S.W., running E. into Eatangi valley, which supports 
a dense population. The fertile soil is fed by a rainfall of 
61 inches a year. It was a portion of the Garha-Mandla king- 
dom of the Gronds, whose forts and ruined towns are foimd, 
especially at Ghansor, 20 ul N.E. of Seoni (10,000), chief 
town, half-way on the road between Nagpoor and Jabalpoor, 
with public gardens, market-place, and tank ; seat of Mission 
of Scottish Original Secession Church. Chapdra, 22 m, N.E. 
of Seoni, formerly chief town, now decaying. 

§ 16. Jabalpoob Distbict is bounded £. by Bewah; N. 
by Maiheer and Panna ; W. by Damoh ; and S. by Narsingpoor, 
Seoni, and Mandla. Area, 3918 sq. m. Population, 680,000. 
A long plain of rich soil surrounded by Satpoora spurs on S., 
by Bhanrer and Kaiznor hills on N. and W., and by the 
Bhitreesrarh hills on E., and watered by the Narbada, Paret, 
and Heeran. Travellers from Jabalpoor N.W. to Mirzapoor 
cross the greatest watershed between the Gulf of Kambay and 
Bay of Bengal. The Mandla-Mahanadi (not the greater 
river of Chatteesgarh-Orissa) flows hence to the Son. The Nar- 
bada flows through the district E. to W. for 70 m. Coal and 
iron are found, and are workable at Lameta. The district was 
part of the Garha-Mandla kingdom of the Gonds. Jabalpoor 
(56,000), chief town and cantonment (1458 ft), named Javali- 
pattana in old inscriptions, junction of Great Indian Peninsida 
and East Indian Railway systems, 221 m. S.W. of Allahabad, 



336 THE CENTRAL PROVINCE. [CHAP. XTIIL 

616 from Bombay, and 165 N.E. of Nagpoor ; prettily kid out, 
surrounded by lakes and gardens, with high school, Thug and 
Dacoit school of industry &mous for tents and carpets, and 
mission of Church Missionary Society. Nine m. S.W. doim the 
Narbada at Bheragrhat is the Dhuan-dhar (*' misty shoot") or 
Marble Rooks, where the Narbada^ confined to 100 yards, Hdls 
30 ft. and flows for nearly 2 m. through beautiful saccharine 
white limestone, on each side of which marble bluffs rise for 
120 ft. Garha (3000), old Gond capital, with ancient keep, the 
Madan Malial, crowning the low grapite range above, 200 m. 
S.W. of Allahabad. Pancigrar (3000), centre of iron manufac- 
ture, 9 m. from Jabalpoor on N. road. Murwara (3000), 57 
m. N.E. of Jabalpoor on road to Mirzapoor. Katangi (3000), 
old village at foot of Bhanrer hills, 22 m. N.W. of Jabalpoor. 
Sihora (4500), grain mart, 27 ul from Jabalpoor on road to 
Mirzapoor. Sleemanabad, railway station, 40 m. N.E. of 
Jabalpoor, founded by Sir W. Sleeman. Baliliri, 15 m. N. of 
Sleemanabad, old town, now in ruins but still &mous for the 
pan-leaf cultivation, which gives it its name. 

§ 17. Damoh District, forming with Sagar the Vindhyan 
plateau in N.W. comer of the Central Province, is bounded R 
by Panna and Jabalpoor, N. by Panna and Chatrapoor, W. by 
Panna and Sagar, and S. by Narsingpoor and Jabalpoor. 
Area, 2799 sq. m. Population (1872), 269,642. On E. the low 
Bhondla hiUs pass into the Bhanrer. On W. the VindhjTBr 
ohal hills form a picturesque country. The riveis flow N. to 
the Jumna: the Sonar and Bairma traverse the whole length 
of the district, receiving the Bias, Kopra, Guvaya, and other 
streams ; the united rivers, after receiving the Ken from Boon- 
delkhand, reach the Jumna. The country was successively 
under the Chandel Rf\jpoot8 of Mahoba in Boondelkhand, who 
administered it from Balihri in Jabalpoor, the Gk>nds, Mughuh^ 
Chattersal and Marathas till 1818. Damoh (8500), chief 
town nearly midway on Jabalpoor and Sagar road, 45 m. £. of 
the latter. Hatta (6700), former headquarters, on right bank 
of Sunar, 24 m. N. of Damoh, with fort and manufactures of 
red cloth. Hindoria (3500), 9 m. N.E. of Damoh ; in 1857 
the villagers burned the public offices and records of Damoh. 
Ranch (2700), 21m. N.E. of Damoh, with cotton manufactures. 

§ 18. Sauar District is boimded E. by Damoh and Panna, 
N. by Lalitpoor and Boondela States, W. by Gwalior and 
Bhopal, and S. by Bhopal and Narsingpoor. Area, 4005 sq.m. 
PopiUution (1872), 527,725. From the Bham-er scarp, above 
the Narbada, the district slopes N.E. to the Vindhyas. The 



CHAP. XVIII.] SAGAR — NARSINGPOOR. 337 

Sonar, Bias, Dhupan, and Bina are the chief streams, all of 
which flow N. to the Jumna. The Raxxina teak forest pre- 
serve in N. ia the largest/ Iron is found near Heer^poor 
village in N.E. The district has been held by the Mandla 
Gonds, the shepherd Baladeos with Rehli as their centre, the 
Boondela Chatar Sal, and the Marathas till 1818. In 1857 the 
Europeans were shut up by mutinous sepoys and rebel Rsgas 
in Sagar fort for 8 months till relieved by Sir Hugh Rose's 
Central India Field Force. Sagar (46,000), chief town, fort, 
and cantonment, named from fine oval lake, 4 m. in circmu- 
ference, on N.W. border of which it stands (1940 ft.), a large 
mart, well built, with high school and Swedish mission, said 
to be the Sageda of Ptolemy; 109 m. N.W. of Jabalpoor; 
Eareli is the railway station. Garhakota (9000), 27 m. 
£. of Sagar on angle formed by the Sonar and Gadhairi, with 
fort held by Baptiste for Sindia ; breached by Sir Hugh Rose 
in 1858 ; the trade is in Hirdenagar suburb on £. bank of the 
Sonar; 2 m. N. are the ruins of summer palace and also a 
residence built by Sir Herbert Maddock, beside the Ranma 
forest. Behn (4500), 28 m. S.£. of Sagar, for which it is a 
sanitarium (1350 ft.), with fort; a sugar mart and old cei^e 
of Gond, Baladeo, and Boondela rule. Kurai (5000), 32 m. 
N.W. of Sagar, well built ; great cattle and meat market for 
British cantonments. Deori (2700), 37 m. S. of Sagar on 
Narsingpoor road, an agricultural centre. 

§ 19. Naesingpooe Distkict is bounded E. by Seoni; N. 
by Jabalpoor, Damoh, Sagar, and Bhopal; W. by Hoshangabad; 
and S. by Chindwara and Seoni. Area, 1916 sq. m. Popula- 
tion (1872), 339,395. This district forms the upper half of the 
Narbada valley ; an aUuvial baain, originally a lake, opening out 
just below the Marble Rocks, and extending 225 m. to Handia 
in Hoshangabad, overlooked by the low Satpoora range on S. 
and the abrupt scarp of the Yindhyas on N. The Sher and 
Shakar are the affluents of the Narbada from the Satpooras 
on S. The Doodhi separates Narsingpoor from Hoshangabad ; 
the Baroo-Rewa and Soner are other minor streams The 
Garha-Mandla Gond Rajas ruled the land from the vast Ohau- 
ragarh fort, on the outer range of the Satpooras. After the 
Maratha rule from Sagar, the fort was evacuated in 1817 by 
Apa Sahib's troops on the approach of General Wilson's left 
division. Here Sir W. Sleeman did good work. The iron and 
coal deposits are extensive and valuabla Naxsingpoor 
(12,500), with Kandeli, chief town on W. bank of Singri, 
named from the Narsingha descent of Vishnoo, railway station 

z 



338 THE CENTRAL PROVINCE. [OHAP. XVIII. 

564 m. from Bombay, grain and cotton mart, seat of Swedish 
mission. Ghadarwara (6000), on left bank of the Shakar, 
mart and railway station, 28 m. S.W. of Narsingpoor at 
junction of roads to Jabalpoor and Sagar. Singpoor (3000), 
6 m. S. of Narsingpoor ; Kauria (3000), 2 m. from Gadarwara ; 
Tendukhera (3000), 22 m. N.W. of Narsingpoor, local marts. 
Mohpani, 11m. from Gadarwara station, to which there is a 
railway, and 95 S.W. of Jabalpoor ; coal successfully worked 
by Nerbudda Coal and Iron Company ; output in 1879 = 
13,491 tons. 

§ 20. Chindwara District is bounded E. by Seoni, N. and 
N.W. by Narsingpoor and Hoshangabad, W. by Betool, S.W. 
by Berar, and S. by Nagpoor. Area, 3853 sq. m. Population 
(1872), 316,095. The highland or N. region on the Satpoora 
range \b named Balaghat, and descends by terraces through the 
Silawani pass to the Zeraghat or lowlands of the Nagpoor plain. 
The S. slopes of the Satpooras are covered with fine forests. 
The Kanlian Ib the largest of the streams, along which are 
strips of verdure and villages in mango groves. At Barkoi in 
1852 the Rev. S. Hislop first discovered coal; there are many 
seams in the bed of the Pench. At Mahaljheer, on K of Maha- 
deo hills, is a hot spring. This is largely a Gond district ; 
its elevation above 2000 ft causes it to be frequented by the 
European residents in the lowlands in the hot season. Ohind- 
wara (9200), chief town (2200 ft.), on the Bodri affluent of 
the Eolbeera, which falls into the Pench 76 m. N. of Nagpoor, 
with public garden and Scottish Free Church mission. Lod* 
hikhera (5500), on the Jam, 38 m. S. of Chindwara, a rich 
mart Pandhuma (5500), agricultural centre, 58 m. S.W. of 
Chindwanu . Mohfiraon (5500), municipal town on tributary 
of the Jam, 38 m. S. of Chindwara. Deogarh, now a village in 
the hills 24 m. S.W. of Chindwara, the picturesque old capital 
of the midland Gond kingdom, with fine limestone ruins. 

§ 21. Hoshangabad District is divided on E. from Nar- 
singpoor by the Doodhi; on N. from the Bhopal, Sindia's, and 
Holkar's States by the Narbada ; on W. from Nimar by its 
Tawa affluent and the Gulee tributary of the Tapti ; and S. by 
Berar, Betool, and Chindwara. The district is a long valley on 
the left bank of the Narbada for 150 m., and running up S. 
into the Satpooras at four places, the Mahadeo hiUs and the 
Malini, Rajaborari, and Kalibheet talooks. West of Handia 
the Yindhyas throw out the Bairi hills, which the Satpooras 
almost touch. Area, 4376 sq. m. Population (1872), 449,977. 
The Denwa and Bori are the finest forest reserves, and teak is 



CHAP. XVIII.] HOSHANGABAD— BETOOL — NIMAR. 339 

common. Besides the great boundary streams, the Narbada 
and Tapti, the chief rivers are the Aiyan, TawA, Hathir, Denwa, 
Ganjal, Moran, and DoodhL The Pachmarhi plateau (3538 
ft.), guarded by the Chauradeo, Jata, and Dhoopgarh hills, of 
the Mahadeo group, with a rainfall of 82 inches, is " one of 
the greenest, softest, and most lovely of sanitaria that exist 
in India;" Piparia is the railway station. Hoshangrabad 
(12,000), chief town, on S. side of Narbada, founded by 
Hoshang Shah, second of the Ghori kings of Malwa (1405 a.d.), 
conquered by Bhopal in 1720. Military station (1009 ft), 
with railway to Itarsi and Bhopal. Harda (9000), which 
has supplanted old Handia 12 m. off. Sir John Malcolm's 
headquarters in 1817; railway station. Sioni (8000), chief 
cotton and grain mart and railway station in Narbada valley. 
Sohagpoor (7500), old Muhammadan town and railway 
station, 30 m. E. of Hoshangabad. 

§ 22. Betool District, W. section of great Satpoora plateau, 
is boimded E. by Chindwara, N. by Hoshangabad, W. by Berar, 
and S. by Berar and Nagpoor. Area, 3905 sq. m. Population 
(1872), 274,264. Save on the W., where is the deep valley of 
the Tapti, abrupt lines of stony hills shut in a level basin of 
rich soil, watered by the Maohna and Sampna^ and with the 
chief town in its centre. To S. is a rolling plateau of basalt, 
with the sacred town of Multai (3500) and the springs of the 
Tapti at its highest point. In S.W. comer is the high-level 
plateau on Khamba hill (3700 ft.), forming part of a range 
which adjoins the Chikalda and Gawilgarh hills in Berar, 
almost above the hot winds. Betool (4700), on the Sampna, 
with manufactures of pottery ; from this the headquarters were 
removed to Badnoor (3000), on the Machna ; not far off is 
Kherk, old capital of the Gond R^'as, with fort in ruins. 

§ 23. NiMAE District, most W. of the Central Province, is 
bounded E. by Hoshangabad, N. and W. by Holkar's and Dhar 
States, S. by Ehandesh and Berar. Area, 3340 sq. m. Population 
(1872), 211,176. On N. it was the W. portion of the old Hindoo 
subdivision, Prant Nimar; on S. it belonged to the Hindoo Talner 
or Muhammadan Ehandesh. It consists of two river valleys 
divided by a central range, on the crest of which (2300) stands 
the border fort of Aseersfarh, 29^ m. S.W. of Khandwa, 
the chief highway between Upper India and the Dekhan. The 
Hattees (3000 ft.) watershed, a continuation of the Gawilgarh 
hills of Berar, marks the S. boundary. In N. the Sukta, Abna, 
Wana, Bham, Baldi, and Phiprar unite in the Ohota Tawa^ 
which falls into the Narbada ; the other affluents are the Ajnal, 



340 THE CENTRAL PROVINCE. [CHAP. XTIIL 

Kavari, and Bakoor. Iron and limestone abound. The history 
centres round Aseergarh, held by Chauhan Riypoots after the 
Haihai kings of Maheswar and Brahmans of Mandhata. The 
Malwa Muhammadans succeeded (1387), then the Farakhi 
dynasty of Khandesh, till Akbar's conquest (1600). Maratha 
devastation was stopped by the British peace in 1818, and here 
the last of the Peshwas surrendered to Malcolm ; here previously 
the Pindaree leader Cheetoo had been killed by a tiger. In 
1858 Tatia Topi plundered the district, but the people remained 
quiet. Khandwa (14,500), district capital and railway junc- 
tion for Indore and ^mer, named from its 4 kimds or water 
reservoirs, with fine Jain ruins. Boorhanpoor (29,000), on N. 
bank of Tapti, 40 m. S.W. of Khandwa, named from a famous 
sheikh of Daulatabad by its founder in 1400, the first- Farukhi 
king. Capital of Dekhan princes of the Mughul empire, de- 
scribed by Sir T. Roe (in 1614), who visited Jahangeer's son, 
the Governor, and by Tavemier (in 1641) ; taken by Wellington 
in 1803, now a decaying place, surrounded by brick walls 5| 
m., with only one tomb worth a visit, that of Shah Nawaz Khan, 
whose daughter Shah Jahan married. Next to Surat, a chief 
place of the Bohora Musalman traders of Ooojarat Mand- 
hata Island^ on the Narbada, a central shrine of Shiva under 
the form of Omkar (Om), to which the local Brahmans expect 
the sanctity of the Ganges will be transferred at the beginning 
of the 20th century. 

Fifteen States. 

§ 24. ^Bastar State ia the largest and (with Makrai) most 
isolated of the 15 Feudatory States of the Central Province, aU 
of which are " protected " and controlled by the Chief Commis- 
sioner, to whose confirmation the orders of the chiefe are subject 
in matters of life and death. The other 13 States are in the 
division of Chatteesgarh. Bastar, controlled from Chanda, is 
bounded E. by the Jaipoor State of Madras, N. by Raipoor, W. 
by the S. parts of Chanda from which it is separated by the 
Indrawati. Area, 13,062 sq. m. Population, 190,000, chiefly 
Gonds. The Riga's house claims to be purely Ri^poot, driven 
from Warangal, capital of Telingana kingdom, in the Dekhan. 
His gross revenue is £9213, and he pays £305 tribute. The 
E. is an elevated plateau (2000 ft.), yielding rich crops. In 
N.W. a lofty range divides Bastar from Sironcha. In the centre 
is the Bela Deela range, named from a peak resembling a 
bullock's hump ; a third range runs N. and S. near Narainpoor ; 
the TanKrl Dongri runs E. and W., and the Tools! Donffrl 



CHAP. XVIII.] BASTAR — CHATTEESGARH STATES. 341 

parallel to that and S. A small range runs N. and S. from 
Kutru on the Indravati to Doomagoodiem on the Grodavari, 
where it forms the first river barrier. The Indravati, Sabari, 
and Tal flow into the GodavarL The State yields rice, oil-seeds, 
silk cocoons, and forest products ; it has some iron ; it sends 
teak timber to the E. coast. JaffdaJpoor, only town with more 
than 1000, and Raja's residence on left bank of Indravati, 180 
m. E. of Sironcha, and 40 from Jaipoor in Madras, subject to 
Vizagapatam. Dantiwara, shrine of Kali, under the name of 
Danteswari or Mauli, at confluence of the Sankani and Dankani, 
where Meriah or human sacrifices used to be oflered. 

§ 25. *Ealahandi, or Karond, and Makrai States. — 
Ealahandi is attached to Sambalpoor, between which and Patna 
State on N., Jaipoor on E. and S., and Bastar on W., it lies. 
Area, 3745 sq. m. Population, 100,000. Lying near the foot 
of the main line of the Eastern Q-hate, and sharing the water- 
sheds of both the Mabanadi and Indravati, it is well watered. 
NyanfiTiri, near Lanjigarh, is the highest point. The Hatti 
river feeds the Tel, which falls into the Narbada. The Kaja is 
a Rajpoot, with £8000 gross revenue. His capital is Bhowani 
Patna, a flourishing place, with extensive gardens. The former 
capital and chief town is Joona.garh, on the Hatti, 210 m. 
S.E. of Raipoor. Bhundesar is 20 m. N.E. of that, and Dad- 
poor 30 m. N.K Other towns are Asurgarh, on a tributary of 
the Tel ; Lanjigarh, at base of the Nyangiri hills in S.E. ; and 
Easipoor, in extreme S. 

Ma.krai, in the Harda subdivision of Hoshangabad, has an 
area of 215 sq. m., with 92 villages, under a Gond R^'a, who 
lives in an insignificant fort and village of the same nama 

§26. *TWELVE CHATTEESGARH STATES. — Patna^ Under 
Sambalpoor (area, 2399 sq. m.), N. of Karond, watered by the 
Tel, Ong, Suktel, and Sundar, formerly head of the 18 Gaijhat 
States. The Raja is a Rajpoot ; the capital of same name is near 
the centre of the State. Saransrarh, on S. bank of Mahanadi, 
cut off from Sambalpoor on E. and S. by hills, under a Raj-Gond 
family of long pedigree. Area, 540 sq. m. Baifirarh Bargarh, 
under Sambalpoor, between which and Chutia Nagpoor it lies. 
Area^ 1486 sq. m.; under a Gond Raja. At Raigarh there is a 
school. Sonpoor, through which an important trade route passes 
from Raipoor and Sambalpoor at Sohela to the K coast, on right 
bank of Mahanadi. Area, 906 sq. m. ; under a Rajpoot family. 
Berakhol, through which S. road passes from Sambalpoor to 
Cuttak vid Angool. Area, 833 sq. m. ; under a Rsgpoot family. 
Bamrak N. of the above, with old road to Calcutta from W. to 



342 THE CENTRAL PROVINCE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

E. Area, 1988 sq. m. ; under a Rigpoot fiunily. The Brahmani 
drains the State to False Point. Iron abounds. Sakti, under 
Bilaspoor district, skirting the base of the Gui^ji hills. Area, 
115 sq. m. ; under a Gond Raja. Kawarda^ also under Bilas- 
poor, consists of Chilpi hills on W. Area^ 912 sq. m. ; under a 
Gond Raja. Ohinkhadan or Eondka, under Raipoor district, 
N. of Eairagarh, at foot of Sal^tekri hilL Area^ 174 sq. m. ; 
under a chief of the Bairagi sect allowed to many. Kanker, 
S. of Raipoor, in Upper Mahanadi valley. Area^ 639 sq. m. ; 
under an old Rajpoot family. Nandgaon, chief village of 
which is on great eastern road, 42 m. W. of Raipoor, stretching 
S. from the Saldtckri hilL Axea^ 905 sq. m. ; under a Bairagi 
or religious devotee, who adopts his successor. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

BESAR PROVINCE. 

§ 1. Size and Position. § 2. Mountains, Rivera, and Resonrcee. 
§ 3. Land Tenures and Taxation. § 4. The People and Districts. 

East Berar, 
§ 5. Amraoti. § 6. EUichpoor. § 7. Woon. 

We^ Berar. 
§8. Akola. §9. Booldana. §10. Basim. 

§ 1. Size. — Berar, or Warar, is so named as the country separated 
by the Wardha from Nagpoor or the Central Province to the W. 
It consists of East and West Berar in six districts assigned by 
the previously insolvent Nizam of Haidarabad in 1853 and 
again in 1860 to the British Government, to yield £320,000 
for the maintenance of a contingent or auxiliary force kept up 
for the use of His Highness, and to relieve him from the un- 
limited obligation of service in time of war. British adminis- 
tration has so increased the revenue of these Assigned Districts, 
that a surplus has since been paid to the Nizam of upwards of 
a million sterling. The Province is administered by the €K)vem- 
ment of India in a way similar to its management of Ajmer- 
Merwara, by a Commissioner who reports to the Resident at 
Haidarabad, as Chief Commissioner, or "Local €k>verument, 
without any reference to His Highness the Nizam at all" The 
virtually British Province of Berar lies between 19" 26' and 
21' 46' N. lat, and between 76'' 58' 46' and 79' 11' 13* E. 
long. It is bounded by the Central Province on E. and N., by 
Bombay on W., and by Haidarabad State on S. It has an 
area of 17,728 sq. m. and a population of 2,672,673, an in- 
creaae of 20 per cent in the fourteen years ending 1880. Berar 
is thus larger than Switzerland, and is the size of Greece before 



344 BERAR PROVINCE. [cHAF. XII. 

1864, with nearly twice the population. In the thirty years 
since Brigadier Colin Mackenzie, C.B., took over the distrieta 
" without losing a rupee of rerenue, or spilling a drop of blood," 
as Lord Dalhousie wrote, orderly administration has doublol 
their population, revenue and prosperity. A department of 
public instruction has opened many schools, connected with 
the University of Bombay, and the Scottish Free Chorch has 
a native mission at the principal capitals. 

§ 2. Mountains, Riyebs, and Resources. — Beiar, offi- 
cially described as " the very home of the cotton planl^ and 
heart of the cotton trade in India," is a wide undulating valley 
of black soil running up eastward between the GkkiNnlfirarii 
hiUs (4200 ft.) of the sevenfold Satpoora chain on N., with a 
deep indent made by the Mel-Ghat tract, and the AJanta 
ridfire on S. It varies in breadth from 40 to 50 m., and 
is broader toward the E. end than at the mouth. The 
valley is locally known as Paenghat or lowlands ; the Ajanta 
country above the passes, the extreme N. limit of the Dekhan 
plateau, as the Balaghat or uplands, which gradually fall S. to 
Haidarabad. On its most S. plateau, in Booldana district^ is tiie 
salt lake of Londr, like an enormous crater, with a circumfer- 
ence of 5 m. and depth of 510 ft., worked by Akbar for salt- 
petre j it is 4 m. N. of the boundary, and is the only crater in 
the great basaltic district of Central India. The only forest re- 
serves cover 500 sq. m. in the Mel-Ghat tract, and are inhabited 
by Gond and Koorkoo aborigines. . Berar valley is drained by 
the Pooma, into which the outer Gawilgarh hiUs send down 
their copious rainfall, and the Ajanta hills send the Kata Pooma; 
but the inner Gawilgarh highlands drain into the Tapti, of 
which the Pooma is an affluent. The Tapti forms the N. for 
a short section, and the Wardha the E. boundary, * where also 
the Aran and Poos are considerable streams. The Paenganga 
or Pranheeta is the largest river of S. Berar. The staple 
cereal is Jowar, which occupies 37 per cent of the cultivated 
area, whil^ cotton covers 29 ; there ia a model farm at Akok. 
The Province imports 2 millions, and exports 2^ millions sterling 
worth of produce annually. The Wardha coal-field extends over 
Woon district, five-sixths of the whole, to the estimated bulk 
of 2400 millions of tons, of which 1655 millions are available^ 
lying on the west or Berar side of the river at comparatively 
easy working depth. South of Yeotmahal, in the same district, 
there is iron ore of great value. The Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway to Nagpoor opens up the valley from beyond Nargaon 
station, 295 m. from Bombay, to beyond Poolgaon, 453 m,, 



CHAP. XIZ.] LAND TENURES. 345 

and has twenty stations in the Province. The Khamgaon State 
Railway runs S. for 8 m. through the cotton country from 
Jalamb station, 333 m. from Bombay, to Khamgaon. The 
Amraoti State Railway runs N. for 6 m. from Badnera, 413 
m. from Bombay, to Amraoti 

§ 3. Land Tenures and Taxation. — The Bombay system 
of survey and settlement according to fields has been adopted 
in Berar. The whole country is being surveyed, marked off 
into plots and assessed at rates which hold good for 30 years. 
The assessment of an entire district or village may be raised or 
lowered as may seem expedient, but the impost may not be 
altered to the detriment of any occupant on account of his own 
improvements. Of the restrictions on this principle some are 
intended to guard the rights of Government, and to check the 
tendency to excessive subdivision of land — the chief defect 
of a peasant proprietary system — and the rest to protect the 
rights of persons other than the occupant who may have an 
interest in the holding. First, if an occupant wishes to do 
anything which will destroy the value of his land, as to quarry 
in it, he must apply for permission to do so, and pay a fine to 
compensate €k)vemment for the prospective loss of assessment. 
Secondly, not less than the entire assessment of each field is to 
be levi^ If, consequently, one share of a field is resigned, 
and the other sharers will not take it up themselves, nor get some 
one else to do so, the whole field must be resigned. Thirdly, 
a shared field once resigned must be taken up again ad a whole, 
and no further subdivision of shares, after the settlement is 
once made, is permitted. An occupant may always resign his 
holding (or any portion of it, being an entire field or distinct 
share in one) by simply giving a written notice of his intention 
before a certain date, which frees him of all liabilities from the 
current year. When the registered holder alienates his estate, 
he does it by surrender and admittance, like an English copy- 
holder. Indeed, the Berar occupancy tenure has many features 
resembling the copyhold estate in the reservations of manorial 
rights. The occupancy tenures of Berar are thus classified. 
Land is held — (1) By proprietors who manage each his own 
plot in his own family. (2) By proprietors working together 
on the joint-stock or co-operative system. (3) By the Metairie 
— halving the gross produce. (4) By the Metairie — ^halving 
the net produce. (5) By money rents. (6) By proprietors 
employing hired labour. Land is now very commonly held 
on the joint-stock principle. Certain persons agree to contri- 
bute shares of cultivating expenses, and to divide the profits 



346 



BERAR PROVINCE. 



[chap. XIX. 



in proportion to those shares, that proportion being UBiudly 
determined by the number of plough-cattle employed by each 
partner. The gross revenue of Berar was £987,828 in 1880-81, 
and the surplus payable to the Nizam was £157,093, subject 
to adjustments. The proportion derived from the land was 64 
per cent. 

§ 4. The People and Districts. — At first, doubtless, 
under the Chalookya R^poots who ruled from Ealyan near 
Goolbarga (to 1200 a.d.), and then under the Yadavas of Deo- 
garh or Daulatabad, or the Rfgpoots at Warangal, Berar had 
its own sovereigns, who governed from Ellichpoor, named after 
a Jain Raja Eel, in the brief interval before the Delhi Musal- 
man invasion completed in 1319 by Mubarak Ghilzal Akbar 
placed it under his son Danyal, as viceroy, and the Marathas 
ravaged it after Aurangzeb's deatL The three victories of the 
Mughul viceroy of the Dekhan who became Nizam -ool-Moolk, at 
Boorhanpoor and Balapoor, and then at Fateh-Ehelda in Bool- 
dana in 1724, made Berar subject nominally to Haidarabad, 
till the Nizam pledged it to the British for his debts and 
feudatory service. Since 1853 it has been virtually a British 
Province. 

The chief executive authority in Berar is the Resident at 
Haidarabad. He is assisted by a Secretary, a Commissioner, a 
Judicial Commissioner, a Sanitary Commissioner and Inspector- 
General of Dispensaries, an Inspector-Greneral of Police, Jails, 
and Registration, a Director of Public Instruction, and a 
Deputy-Conservator of Forests. 



Area, Population, and Reyenuib op the Districts — 1881. 



DiSTBICTS. 


Judicial and 
Revenue Sub- 
divisions. 


Area 

in 
Square 
MUes. 


Popula- 
tion, 

1881. 


Number 

of 
Villages 


Total 

Cost of 

Officials 

and Police 

OfaU 

kinds. 


RSVENUV. 


Land. 


Orosa. 


Amraoti . 
Akola . . 
Ellichpoor . 
Booldana . 
Woon . . 
Bfwim . . 

Total . 


4 
5 
S 
3 
4 
8 


2,769 
2,660 
2,623 
2,804 
3,907 
2,958 


575,828 
592,792 
313,805 
439,763 
392,102 
358,883 


1,374 
1,194 
1,461 
1,010 
1,665 
950 


Rs. 
1,04,853 
94,836 
51,135 
74,616 
74,151 
65,956 


Rs. 
15,75,979 
17,88,105 
9,18,301 
9,47,979 
6,13,095 
6,93,563 


Ra. 
20,20,993 
23,87,849 
12,25,149 
11,51.940 
7,87,712 
7,12,832 


22 


17.711 


2,672,673 


7,554 


4,65,047 


63,37,022 


82,86,475 



CHAP. XIX.] THE PEOPLE — EAST BERAR, 347 

The census of 1881 shows an increase since 1867 of from 
30 per cent in Basim to 12| in Ellichpoor district Of the 
whole 2,672)673, the men numbered 899,125; the women, 
822,790; male children under twelve, 481,367; female children, 
469,391 ; — in all, 151 to the sq. m. As to creed, 1335 were 
Christians, of whom 214 were Europeans, 542 Eurasians, and 
579 Natives; 2,426,179 were Hindoos; 187,555 were Muham- 
madans ; 242 Parsees ; 20,021 Boodhists and Jains ; 3 Jews ; 
and 37,338 Aborigines. As to occupation, 1,598,396 were 
returned as agriculturists, and 1,674,317 as non-agriculturists. 
Marathi is the prevailing language. 

East Berar. 

§ 5. Ambaoti District is bounded E. by Wardha, N. by 
Ellichpoor, W. by Ellichpoor and Akola, and S. by Basim and 
Woon. Area, 2759 sq. m. Population, 575,328. The plain 
(800 ft.) is broken by hills (500 ft.) between Amraoti and 
Chandoor to S.E. The Poorna flows W. ; the smaller streams 
drain S. into the Wardha. Amraoti (23,000), named doubt- 
fully from the Amba temple of Bhawani or Kali, is head- 
quarters of the Commissioner of the whole Province as well as 
of E. Berar, second to Ehamgaon as a cotton mart, and ter- 
minus of State branch railway. So recently as 1842 cotton 
was sent on bullocks by Mirzapoor to Calcutta ; now there are 
many cotton mills and presses under Europeans. Badnera 
(7000), railway junction and cotton mart ; old residence of the 
Mughul officials. Murtlzapoor (4000), 30 m. S.W. of 
Amraoti, cotton mart. Karlnja (11,000), in S.W. corner^ 
with fine carved woodwork in very ancient temples. 

§ 6. Ellichpoor District is bounded E. by Wardha, N. 
by Betool and Chindwara, W. by Nimar and Akola, and S. by 
Amraoti. Area, 2623 sq. m. Population, 313,805. The 
N. half consists of the Mel-Qhat tract of the Gawilgarh 
hills, culminating in Bairat (3987 ft). The S. is drained by 
many small streams into the Wardha and Poorna. Ellioh- 
poor (27,000), chief town, with Paratwara, civil station and 
cantonment (9500), 2 m. N. Old capital, still remarkable for 
Dalla Rahman's shrine, built by one of the Bahmani kings, and 
for the extensive palace and tombs of the Haidarabad gover- 
nors. Ohikalda, since 1839 sanitarium (3777 ft), 20 ro. 
N.W. of Ellichpoor in Mel-Ghat, a plateau 1 m. long and three- 
quarters broad, with beautiful scenery ; the potato and tea-plant 
flourish. Gawilgarh Fort (3595 ft) (from Gauli race), 



348 BERAR PROVINCE. [cHAP. XIZ. 

giving its name to the bills, 1^ m. from Chikalda, stormed and 
taken from the Marathas in 1803 by General Stevenson, whose 
march through the Damangon pass E. to Lab^ida Welling- 
ton described as a most difficult and successful operation ; dis- 
mantled in 1853. NarnaJa (3161 ft.), hill fort near Chikalda^ 
with ramparts running for several miles and enclosing fine 
ruins, Jain and Musalman, an advanced outwork 2 m. S. of 
main wall of Gawilgarh range. Morsi (5500), 40 m. E. of 
Ellichpoor, on the Narka. Az^anfiraon (8530), on the 
Shdnur, 16 m. W. of Ellichpoor, where in 1803 the Duke of 
Wellington concluded treaty of Amraoti with Sindia's minister. 
§ 7. WooN District is bounded E. by Chanda and Wardha, 
N. by Amraoti, W. by Basim, and S. by Haidarabad State. 
Area, 3907 sq. m. Population, 392,102. A wild country 
formed by three shoots of the Ajanta ridge, and watered by the 
Wardha and Paenganga ; the latter carries off nearly all the 
drainage of the district, and is fed chiefly by the Aran, Waghari, 
and Eooni. The coal and iron deposits of the Wardha valley 
have been already described. Woon (5000), chief town in 
S.K comer, on road from Nagpoor to Haidarabad, amid mango 
and tamarind groves and tanks. Darwa (4000), old town of 
the Bhonslas, in N.W. Bham, old town of yast stone ruins, 
on the Aran, once a centre of Raghoji Bhonsla^ 16 m. S. of 
Yeotmahal (4500), in N. of district. Dicrras, 18 m. S. of 
Darwa, a cotton mart. 

West Berar. 

§ 8. Akola District is bounded E. by Amraoti and Ellich- 
poor, N. by Ellichpoor and Khandesh, W. by Ehandesh and 
Booldana, and S. by Basim. Area, 2660 sq. m. Population, 
592,792. The rich plain, drained by the Pooma and seven 
tributaries, is broken only by two conical hills. Salt wells ex- 
tend on both sides of the Pooma for 50 m. Akola (17,614), 
chief town of district and of W. Berar, on the Moraa, which 
divides the native city on W. firom Tivjnapet, the European 
quarter on E., a cotton mart Khamgaon (12,400), chief 
cotton centre since 1820, and terminus of railway worked in 
the cotton season from December to July. Shegraon (1 1,079), 
24 m. W. of Akola, Great Indian Peninsula line, rival of 
Ehamgaon. Akot (16,200), 30 m. N. of Akola, cotton depot 
for despatch to Shegaon, with carpet manufactures. Bala- 
poor (9363), 16 m. W. of Akola on the Mun, named from 
the goddess Bala ; scene of one of the victories of the fint 
Nizam over the Mughul army in 1721; its railway station is 



CPAP. XIX.] AKOLA — BOOLDANA — BASIM. 349 

Paras on the Great Indian Peninsula line. At Patur (7220), 
20 m. S. of Akola, are two Brahmanical caves ci\}; into the 
basalt ; Nagaijoona, founder of the Mahayana or later BoodMst 
Vehicle 500 years after Boodha, was a native of Berar. Jal- 
gaon-Jambod (10,400), near Satpoora pass leading to Aseer- 
garh, with good springs, whence the name. Other towns are 
Barsi Takli (5377), Wadegaon (6100), and Hiwarkhad (7000). 

§ 9. BooLDANA DiSTBiCT is bounded E. by Basim and 
Akola, ]Sr. by Khandesh from which the Pooraa divides it, W. 
by Khandesh, and W. and S. by Haidarabad State. Area^ 2804 
sq. m. Population, 439,763. The district rises from the Pooma 
valley in W. to the highlands in N. From its N.W. corner, 4 
m. above Dewalghat, the Paenffanga flows S.E. past Mekhar 
into Basim. The Nalganga, ViswagaDga, and Ghan and lower 
into the Poorna. The Kata Pooma flows through the district 
into Haidarabad. The lake of Lonar is described above ; its 
salts are now used for washing and dyeing chintzes. There, at 
Dewalghat on the Paenganga, at Mehkar S.E., and Pimpalgaon 
S., are Hemar Pantee temples of monoliths, believed by the 
natives to have been built in one night by demons, for whom 
Hemar Pant, the Cornelius Agrippa of the Dekhan, was forced 
to And work. The principal towns are Deulgekon Raja (7 1 00), 
on the Anmi, with cotton and silk weaving. Deulghat (4000), 
on the Paenganga, old town. Pimpalgraon Raja (15,000), on 
the Dainganga, in N.E. Malkapoor (8200), on the Nal- 
ganga, railway station, to which a Farukhi prince transferred 
the people of the neighbouring Patur ; formerly a laige canton- 
ment of the Nizam. Mehkar (5000), in S.E., once a large 
place. 

§ 10. Basim District (from Wach, a Rishi or sage) is 
bounded E. by Woon, N. by Amraoti and Akola, W. by Bool- 
dana, and S. by Haidarabad State. Area, 2958 sq. m. Popu- 
lation, 358,883. The W. part is a rich tableland (1000 ft.) ; 
the S.E., running into Haidarabad, is a succession of low waste 
hills (1150 ft.). The Poos and Kata Pooma, mountain 
streams, rise near each other at Kata N. of Basim town. Basixu 
(11,500), chief town (1758 ft), 50 m. S.E. of Akola^ and 27 
m. from Hingoli cantonment, with temple and tank. Oomar- 
kher (6000), chief town of a subdivision. Mangrool Peer 
(6000), in N.E. comer, chiefly Musalman. Risod (5000), 

!" place of the Rishis "), local conmiercial centre. Seerpoor 
4800), or Parasnath shrine, the Benares of Jains and Bhatias. 
Poosdd (4000), on the Poos, 25 m. S.E. of Basim, a decaying 
place with two Hemar Pantee temples. 



CHAPTER XX. 

*HAIDABABAD STATE. 

§ 1. Size, Position, and Resources. § 2. Birers and Commnnications. 
§ 3. Administration. § 4. Land Tenures and People. § 5. Dis- 
tricts. § 6. Haidarabad, Golkonda, and Warangal. § 7. Beedar, 
Goolbarga, and Baichoor. § 8. Aurangabad, Elura, and Ajanta. 

§ 1. Size, Position, and Resoubces. — The Nizam's or Hai- 
darabad State is the chief of the Musalman and, indeed, of 
all the tributary sovereignties of the Queen-Empress of India, 
although it is one of the most recently formed. It may be 
roughly described as nearly of the same size as the Island of 
Great Britain, with a third of the population, lying between the 
great Grodavari river with its Paenganga affluent on the N., and 
the great Kistna river with its affluent the Toongabhadra on 
the S. It is a plateau (1250 ft. average), forming the greater 
part of the Dekhan, shut off from the Bay of Bengal on the E. 
by the Madras districts of Godavari and Masulipatam, and on 
the W. by the Bombay districts of Khandesh, Ahmednagar, 
Sholapoor, Belgaum, and Dharwar. On the N.E. the State is 
separated by the Gk>davari from the Chanda district of the 
Central Province, and by the Paenganga from Berar ; on the S. 
by the Kistna from the Guntoor and Eamool, and by the Toon- 
gabhadra from the Bellary districts of Madras. The estimated 
area is 80,000 sq. m. with a population of 9,200,881, lying 
between N. latitudes 15' 10' and 20' 10', and R longitudes 
74" 40' and 81' 32'. The western third consists of basalt, with 
the rich black soil which produces wheat and cotton. The 
eastern two-thirds is formed of granite, which has crops of rice 
chiefly. Ethnically the S.E. section surrounded by Madras is 
chiefly Telugoo, the S.W. chiefly Kanarese, and the N.W. and 
N. chiefly Maratha. In the sandstone near the junction of the 
I Paenganga with the Gkxiavari, in the geological groups known 

as Eamthi, Barakar, and Talcher rocks, there is coal. At 
Eamaram village, 40 m. NJQ. of Warangal, are two seams of 



CHAP. XX.] RIVERS, RAILWAYS, AND ROADS. 351 

fair coal 9 and 6 ft. thick respectively. At Singareni, 30 m. 
S.E. of this, is a field which may prove to be of economic im- 
portance when brought within reach by the projected railway. 

§ 2. RrvERS AND Communications. — ^The State is drained 
from W. to E. by the rivers which flow from Ajanta and the 
Sahyadri ranges into the Bay of Bengal. The Godavarl, 
from near Nasik, after a course of 90 m. touches the State at 
Phooltamba, and forms its border to Mungi, whence it flows E. 
for 160 m. to Lasona, where it receives on the left the Dudna 
after that stream has been enlarged by the Pooma. On the 
right side, 85 m. lower down, it receives the Manjeera; 190 
m. farther E. at Kulaisar it is joined on the left by the Pran- 
heeta; turning S.E. it skirts the Bastar State for 155 m. to 
Eottoor, where it passes into the Godavari district of Madras. 
Of the 600 miles of its course in Haidarabad, the Godavari is 
navigable for 200 m. from June to February. The Wardha, 
from the Betool hills of the Central Province, enters Haidarabad 
at Gudra, flows S.E. 170 m. to Chanda, on the right receives the 
Paenganga from Berar, flows 60 m. till it is joined on the 
left by the Waenganga when it becomes the Pranheeta, which 
has a course of 80 m. to the Godavari at Kulaisar ; it is navi- 
gable for 170 m. The Kistna from Mahableshwar, after a 
S.E. course of 320 m. borders Haidarabad for 10 m., enters it 
and flows N.K for 75 m. to Eadlur, where, on the left, it re- 
ceives the Bheema, and is spanned by the Great Indian Penin- 
sula Railway. Thence, after a S.E. course of 80 m. it unites 
with the Toongabhadra from Mysore, which at Moodlapoor 
begins to form the S.E. border of Haidarabad for 200 m. to its 
confluence with the Kistna. There are many artificial lakes or 
tanks, of which the largest, at Pakhal, is 30 m. in circum- 
ference. The Nizam's State Bailway starting from Wadi 
Junction on the Great Indian Peninstda line from Bombay to 
Raichoor and Madras, runs E. for 121 m. to Sikandarabad, 
5 m. N. of Haidarabad, the thirteenth station ; the currency 
is Hali sicca rupees, of which 116f = 100 Queen's rupees. 
It is proposed to continue this line to Warangal, and thence 
north to Chanda, and east to the Singareni coal-fields. The 
S.W. portion of the State is traversed by the main line from 
Gudar station on the Bombay to Toongabhadra station on 
the Madras line. There are three military roads through the 
State — N. to S. from Nagpoor through the capital to Ban- 
galore ; N.W. to S.E. from Bombay and Poena through the 
capital to Masulipatam and Madras; local from the capital 
N.W. to the old Dekhan capital, Aurangabad. 



352 HATDARARAP STATE. [CHAP. XX. 

§ 3. Adhikistratiok. — ^The €k>lkoiida dyniistj fonnded by 
Sultan Eooli Kutab established Haidarabad city as its new 
capital in 1589, and gave way to the Mnghals under Anrang- 
zeb when he was his father's Ticeroy of the Dekhan. In 
1713 the viceroy was the able soldier Asaf Jah, who was 
made Nizam-ool-Moolk, "regulator of the State." In the general 
scramble for power after that emperor's death Asaf Jah pro- 
claimed his independence, and became the founder of the Asafia 
line, the ninth of which now rules as tributary sovereign, the 
family having been aided and aggrandised by its connection 
with the rising British power up to the close of the Mutiny 
of 1857. On Asaf Jab's death in 1748, disputes as to his 
successor were used by the French to threaten English ascend- 
ency, which ended in the third son of Asaf Jah, Salabat Jung, 
as Nizam, forming a treaty with the British in 1759. The 
Nizam's troops co-operated with the British under Wellington 
in the wars which ended in the fall of Tipoo, and gave Haidar- 
abad a slice of Mysore. On the succession of the fourth Nisam 
in 1803, anarchy spread so that Metcalfe, when Resident^ 
supervised the admimstration under British officers. On the 
discontinuance of that control under the sixth Nizam in 1829, 
the insolvency of the State seemed imminent, and Berar 
was assigned for the support of the Haidarabad Contingent 
The Nizam's debt to the British of half a million sterling was 
cancelled, and new territory was granted to the State after the 
Mutiny of 1857. 

The Nizam is locally known as the Bara Nawab, the 
term Nawab, which applies strictly to a ruler, being given in 
courtesy to all Musalmans of high position. He is, however, 
the only Chief, the Ameers or Umara being mere nobles. 
The State owes its very existence and its recent growth in 
good administration to an Arab, Meer Turab All, who is 
known as the Nawab Mookhtar-ool-Moolk (''governor of 
the State") Sir Salar Jung ("leader in battle") Bahadoor, 
G.C.S.I., with a salute of 17 guns, while the Nizam has 21. 
The Nizam is a Saiad, or of the same family as Muhammad. 
He has a gross revenue of about 3 millions sterling, including 
the Berar surplus. The State revenue amounts to £2,130,000 
of this annually, derived from the land, excise, customs, octroi, 
and miscellaneous imposts. The value of the trade is stated 
at 4 millions sterling a year. The principal exports are cotton, 
oil-seeds, clarified butter, country cloth, and metal ware ; the 
imports are salt and European piece goods and hardware. The 
Nizam maintains an irregular '' army " of his own computed at 



CHAP. XX.] TENURES — THE PEOPLK 353 

43,704 men, costing £940,000 annually, doing police duty, 
acting as feudal retainers, and garrisoning such forts as Gol- 
konda, Daulatabad, Beedar, and Goolbarga. The Nizam's 
5000 "Reformed Troops" consist of 2 batteries, 2 cavalry 
and 3 infantry corps under a European officer, disciplined after 
the model of the Haidarabad Contingent. Many Arabs and 
Rohillas are engaged as mercenaries, but the public peace has 
been maintained since 1857. 

The State is controlled by the British Resident from outside 
Haidarabad city. The Haidarabad Subsidiary Force, for which 
districts now under Madras were ceded, has its headquarters at 
Sikandarabad. The Haidarabad Contingent, for which Berar 
is held, has its headquarters at Bolaram. The Resident has an 
escort at Haidarabad and Jalna; the British Government 
maintains two special bodies of police under British officers to 
suppress Thuggee and Dakoitee. There are 72 State schools in 
55 of the larger towns ; Persian is the official language ; £9040 
is annually spent on education. 

§ 4. Land Tenures and People. — (1) In the Telugoo 
districts the ryotwar system prevails, with the addition of 
zameendar collectors entitled to dues, or farmers of the land- 
tax (surbustah). (2) In the Maratha districts the tenure is 
also lyotwar, but instead of zameendar middlemen the districts 
were often assigned to military chiefs and bankers, with the 
worst results to the people. Recently annual settlements have 
been made and cash payments fixed ; in the districts of Dhar- 
aseo and Raichoor, which were settled and governed by British 
officers from 1854 to 1861, these summary settlements have 
been annually continued. A three years' settlement is now in 
progress. The land revenue has gradually risen from a million 
sterling in 1861. The strength of the agricultural population 
consists of the widespread Eoonbee tribe. The educated class 
among the Hindoo people here, as in most parts of Central and 
Southern India, consists of Brahmans, who thereby secure a 
great preponderance in all situations depending on mental 
rather than physical labour ; in this respect there is no class 
among the Dekhan Hindoos to compete with them. There 
are some Rigpoots, many of them representing ancient families 
or still possessing a feudal or other superior position. There 
are some Sikhs; their presence originally was attributed to 
events in the life of the founder, Gooroo Govind; their numbers 
have been since augmented owing to the fact of the man who 
was the Nizam's minister for nearly forty years belonging to 
their cult The casteless orders, such as Ramoosees and 

2 A 



354 



HAIDARABAD STATE. 



[chap. 



DhSrs, often have exhibited nerve and courage stronger than 
that of their superiors. Among the banking and trading 
cl&sses, the principal belong to that enterprising tribe whose 
members came, and still come, from Marwar in Rigpootana 
to spread over half the marts of India. The Muhammadans 
comprise representatives of most of the tribes of that section 
of the human family. There are the real Dekhanees, the Mug- 
huls, the Pathans, and the Saiads, who have been connected 
with this part of India for centuries. The Mughul must be 
considered the governing race of modem days; and the Nizam's 
Dekhan is popularly known as the "Mughulai" There are 
also the Muhammadans whose advent to the Dekhan dates 
within the last century, such as the Arabs, the Rohillas, the 
Hubshees, and the Sindhees. The Parsees have several in- 
fluential families. To the N.E. of the country, in the wilder 
parts, there are aboriginal tribes like those of the Central 
Province. 

§ 5. Districts. — Large tracts of country are directly under 
the Nizam as his own lands (Surf-i-Khas) or for his bodyguard 
(Paegah), or under the chief ministers as fiefs (jageers around 
the capital) and private estates. But the rest of the State, 
excepting these isolated jurisdictions which are fatal to good 
government, has since 1865 had applied to it by Sir Salar 
Jung the Madras system of district administration. Each 
Sirhar is under a 1st, 2d, and 3d taloohdar, corresponding to 
the district collector, sub-collector, and assistant collector of 
Madras ; and two or three Sirkars are united to form a circle or 
division under a saddar taloohdar or commissioner. 



Division. 
I. . 

II. . 

III. . 

IV. . 



V. 



District. 

{Nulgonda . 
Kummum (Warangal) 

( Indore 
. < Eelgundel . 

( Maidak 

( Aurangabad . 
.} Beer , 

( Parbhanee . 

[ Nandair 
. < Beedar 

( Naldroog 

I East Raichoor 
. < West Raichoor 

( Shorapoor . 



Region. 
> Telingana. 

>Godavari 

North-West 
Dekhan. 

I Central 
j Dekhan. 

>Eistna. 



OHAP. XX.] PHYSICAL DIVISIONS. 355 

In these districts, chiefly towards the border, there are the 
following vassal Rajas : — ^Wunpurty, half-way between Haidar- 
abad city and Eamool ; Ummar Chunta, near Muktool ; Goor- 
goonta, in Shorapoor ; Gudwal, Jawalgiri, and Anagoondee, in 
Raichoor ; Jutp<51 and Gopalpet, on S.K border towards Masuli- 
patam. These still represent the old Hindoo families prior 
to the Musalman invasion ; the Raja of Anagoondee ib of the 
Hindoo dynasty of Y^ayanagar. 

When he was the Resident, in 1868, Sir Richard Temple thus 
described the State. — Between the Paenganga and the Godavari 
there is the extreme upper valley of the Grodavari. Its high cul- 
tivation, waving harvests, and general richness may be said to 
be the very flower of the Dekhan ; it has many important 
places, such as Aurangabad, Tokuh, Paitun, Patree, Gnngakhair, 
Nandair (the Sikh colony), and Neermal. South of the Goda- 
vari is its affluent the Mai^'eera, which in a tortuous course 
embraces a tract often rugged and not very rich, but having 
several places fraught with martial tradition or strategic import- 
ance, such as Beer, Mominabad, Daroor, Oocyheer. But some 
parts of the Manjeera valley are fruitful, and Maidak in that 
Z:h iB the old capital of a fine district The great tract 
included between the Maigeera and the Bheema and Kistna on 
the other hand, is the most important in the Dekhan. Within 
it are situate at the western end Tooljapoor, Naldroog, Gool- 
barga (the capital of the first Muhammadan dynasty of the 
Dekhan), Hominabad, KuUeeanee; in the centre Beedar, the 
capital Haidarabad itself ; to the E. Nulgonda, and Warangal 
the ancient capital of Telingana. The eastern portion is dotted 
all over with artificial lakes. Of these, the first by far is the 
Pakhal Lake, probably the largest sheet of water in India. 
No tract can be better calculated than this to raise our notions 
of the early Hindoo dynasties. It must have been in its 
original prime the finest scene of tank irrigation in all India. 
Between the Bheema and the Eistna there is a large tongue of 
land, which once formed the Hindoo State of Shorapoor, under 
the feudal suzerainty of the Nizam, but which, owing to the 
rebellion of its chief in 1857, has been brought under His 
Highness's direct administration. Laatly, on the extreme S., 
between the Kistna and Toongabhadra, is the Raichoor Doab, 
which is in parts fertile, and in which the principal places are 
Raichoor and Lingasagar, one of the stations of the Haidarabad 
Contingent 

§ 6. Haibababad City (263,005 with suburbs), next in 
population to Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras, but only slightly 



356 JIAIDARABAB STATE. [CHAP. ZX. 

above Lucknow, coven 2^ sq. m. (10^ with suburbB) on the 
right bank of the Mooai, a generally fordable stream 500 ft. 
wide, 8 m. K of the old fort and capital of Golkonda, 449 S.K 
of Bombay and 389 KW. of Madras. Its name is from Haidar, 
a son of the founder, Muhammad Kooli of the Kutub Shahi 
dynasty, who adorned the new capital with many buildings still 
perfect. The dty stands on a stony plain, the barrenness of 
which was its safeguard against the Marathas, 2 m. N. of the 
Meeralam lake, 7 m. round, which supplies it with water. It is 
walled, with many gateways. From the W. Afeal or Delhi 
gate a broad street runs through the city, past the Barah-dari 
(" 12 doors") or palace of Sir Salar J^ngf who has governed 
the State for nearly 30 years; the rectangidar Char Minar (four 
minarets, each 186 ft.), and Mecca mosque in which the Nizams 
are buried, to the Nizam's palace, finer than the Shah's at 
Tehran which it resembles, and that of Shams-ool-Umara from 
which a fine view is obtained, and so to the laigest of the 
Nizam's palaces. One m. N.W. of the city, in the Chaddarghat 
suburb, approached by the Oliphant bridge over the Moosi, is 
the Residency, a fine building completed in 1808 in a park 
with noble trees, enclosed by a wall since an attack by a Bohilla 
mob in July 1857; in the little cemetery are the tombs of 
former Residents, and officials, Sydenham, Bushby, and Roberts, 
Sir William Rumbold, and other officers. The Residency school, 
hospital, medical school, and engineering college, are between 
this and the Afzal gate. The suburbs, consisting of gardens, 
palaces, mosques, and populous bazars, cover a larger area than 
the city. The melons and pine-apples of Haidarabad are fiimoua 
To N.W., over an area of 19 sq. m., are the largest cantonments 
in India, containing 8000 disciplined soldiers. (1) Sikandar- 
abad (35,000) ("Alexander's city"), 5^ m.N.Kof theReddency, 
on the road to which are St. George's Church and the tomb and 
house of " King Palmer." Sikandarabad is headquarters of the 
Haidarabad Subsidiaiy Force; 2 m. S. are the lines of the 
Nizam's reformed troops. (2) Three m. N.E. of Sikandarabad 
are the entrenched camp of Trimalfirlieri with stores, and a 
military prison popularly called Windsor Castle from its appear- 
ance, the whole fortified as a centre for the Europeans in Sikan- 
darabad ; (3) Bolaram, 2 m. farther N., headquarters of the 
Haidarabad Contingent, and a sanitarium (1890 ft). Here in 
1855 General Colin Mackenzie, C.B., a hero of the 1st A%han 
War, was cut down by the mutinous troops of the 3d Native 
Iry, twenty monUis before the great Mutiny. In N.K are 
"sat hills Mool Ali and Kadam Rusool, the latter named 



CHAP. XX.] GOLKONDA — BEEDAR — GOOLBARGA. 357 

from a supposed impress of Muhammad's foot. On S.E. side 
of the city is the Saroor Nagar suburb, a famous huntiug- 
ground, with tomb, on an eminence, of Raymond the gallant 
French soldier, who died in 1775. Golkonda city, ruined by 
pestilence, and fort on a granite ridge 7 m. W. of Haidarabad, 
capital of the Kutub Shahi kingdom which superseded the 
Bahmani and was destroyed by Aurangzeb ; with a vast group 
of mausolea of the kings. The diamonds for which Grolkonda 
was famous were merely cut there, being found at the village of 
Purtial near Kondapilli 150 m. S.E. on the Masulipatam road, 
bordering the Eistna. The fort has long been the Nizam's 
prison and treasury. Waraiifiral, capital of the Hiudoo king- 
. dom of Telingana founded by the Narapati Andhras and finally 
in 1543 absorbed by the Golkonda kings, 112 m. N.E. of 
Haidarabad. Anamkonda and Mullungoor are fortresses to N. 
Ralkonda, Nirmal, and Edlabad are on the road N. from 
Hiddarabad to Nagpoor ; Edlabad is a centre of the culture 
of cotton which finds its way to Hinganghat. 

§ 7. Beedar, old capital of the Bahmani kings, 75 m. N.W. 
of Haidarabad on the right bank of the Mai^jeera. A striking 
city, walled with 8 gates, and containing a citadel 2} m. round, 
palaces inhabited by serpents and baboons, a once magnificent 
Madrasah with a minaret 190 ft. high, covered with encaustic 
tiles — blue, green, and yellow. N.E. are 12 tombs of the 
Bahmani kings, the largest being that of Ahmed Shah who 
moved the capital here from (xoolbarga in 1432 and built the 
dty wall The town gives its name to the Bidri metal-ware, 
copper, lead, tin, and zinc worked into articles damascened in 
silver or gold. On the road from Haidarabad to Beedar are 
Pattancheru, a beautiful station and shooting centre, with 
gardens of Sir Salar Jung; Kaulampet, with ruined fort; 
Sangam, famous shooting spot near the Pakhol hills ; Sada- 
shivapet, straggling town with ruins of fortifications. Male- 
gaon, 160 m. from Haidarabad and 200 from Poona, chief 
mart for Dekhan-bred horses. Goolbarga (35,000) a Great 
Indian Peninsula Railway station and fort, 353 m. from 
Bombay, the Bahmani capital of the Dekhan 1347-1435, with 
a unique Pathan mosque entirely roofed over and lighted from 
the side, covering 38,016 sq. ft.; also a unique arcaded bazar, a 
gigantic archway and grand old tombs with sloping walls, ^ m. 
to the S. The fort is 1^ m. S.W., and is stronger than that 
of Beedar. On a hill 3 m. N.E. is the shrine of Rukn-ood- 
deen, and 1 m. farther the ruins of old Goolbarga. Malker, 
near Goolbarga, seat of Rahtor dynasty which superseded the 



358 HAIDABABAD STATE. [CHAP. 

Chalookyas for two centuries. Baiohoor, milway junction of 
Bombay and Madras lines, 350| m. N.W. of Madras and 443 
S.E. of Bombay, the S. capital of Beejapoor, with old fort, from 
which there is a fine view. Linsasa^rar, W. of Raichoor 60 
m., cantonment (1652 ft.) of Haidarabad Contingent. Mood- 
STul, to S., old fort and Portuguese Catholic Mission. Shora- 
poor, chief town of former State of the same name in S.W. 
comer of Haidarabad, confiscated for rebellion in 1857-^8, and 
presented to the Nusam ; Captain Meadows Taylor administered 
the State for ten years with great success up to 1853; the 
town lies between two granite ranges, "a grim place to look 
at" GKidwal, chief town of feudatory Riya of the Nizam 
in the Raichoor Doab, between the Eistna and Toongabhadra^ 
Tooljapoor, picturesque town K of Seena affluent of the 
Bheema, near west border of Haidarabad, scene of Meadows 
Taylor's romance of Tara, At Chittapoor, a few miles distant, 
is a mission of Portuguese Catholics. Hoxninabad, cen- 
tral mart near Beedar on the Haidarabad and Sholapoor road. 
Dundooty, Awsa, and Paraindah are forts in this division. 
NaldroofiT, fortified town on the Bori or old frontier between 
Beejapoor and Ahmednagar, a few m. E. of Sholapoor. Between 
Awsa and Ealyana are the small Brahmanical and Jain caves 
of Earus^ (600-700 a.d.) on a solitary hill near Hasagaon 
village. 

§ 8. AuRANOABAD (50,000) city, cantonment and old capital 
of the Dekhan, on the Doodhna tributary of the Godavari 270 
m. N.W. of Haidarabad, 56 m. from Nandgaon station on 
Great Indian Peninsula Railway, and 175 N.W. of Bombay. 
Founded in 1610 by Malik Ambar of the Abyssinian faction in 
Ahmednagar State, now attractive for mausoleum biult by 
Aurangzeb over the dust of his favourite daughter, Rabeea 
Dooranee ; restored by the Nizam. Two m. to S.E. of canton- 
ment is the ark or citadel built by Aurangzeb (now centre of 
the public offices), who held court in this Delhi of the south. 
One m. N. of city, in the precipitous S. scarp of hills (700 ft), 
are 3 groups of Boodhist caves of the latest ornamented style 
(650 A.D.) of the Mahayana mythology, influenced by Christiaii 
teaching. Daulatabad, 10 m. N.W. of Aurangabad, the ancient 
Tagara^ and the famous Deogarh or Deogiri stronghold of the 
Hindoo rulers of the Dekhan, to which Tughlak Shah's son, the 
mad emperor Muhammad, strove to transfer the capital from 
Delhi, giving the place its new name; this is an isolated conical 
rock of granite (500 ft.) scarped to from 80 to 120 ft. all round, 
and ascended only through a narrow pass hewn in the rock and 



CHAP. XX.] ELURA — ^AJANTA — ^ASSYE. 359 

leading to a vault from which a dark alley winds upwards. 
To S.E. is another hill Pippal Q-hat with mosque, to N. of 
which is the emperor AurangzeVs tomb, a simple marble. and 
teak-wood screen. The country round is still famous for 
oranges and white and purple grapes introduced by the Portu- 
guese Catholic Mission, when protected by the Beejapoor kings. 
Here also is Bozah tableland, a vast cemetery encircled by a 
stone wall, and containing many domed buildings, one of 
which is used as a rest-house. 

From Bozah a road descends to the base of the scarp in 
which are the Boodhist, Jain, and Brahmanical caves of Elura 
(or Yerula), 7 m. from Daulatabad and 13 from Aurangabad. 
At S. end are the Boodhist caves, at N. the Jain, 16 in all ; and 
between are the Brahmanical, also 15 or 16. Chief of all is the 
Eailas or Ranga Mahal (725-^00 A.D.), a great monolithic Dra- 
vidian temple of Shiva, nearly 100 ft. high, hewn out of the 
rock, highly sculptured outside and in; but '^a temple in 
a pit," and therefore the last as well as greatest efifort of the 
Brahmans to imitate and excel their Boodhist rivals. Visited 
by the missionaiy Dr. J. Wilson in 1832, to whom, when he 
preached in the Kailas, the natives declared that God Himself 
had made it. The temple stands in a court 154 by 276 ft., with 
a scarp of 107 ft. behind, all cut out of a detached boulder of 
trap. Ajemta^ walled town, where Wellington's sick were re- 
ceived after Assye, and ravine with 29 £amous cave temples, 
chiefly of the Mahayana or later sect of Boodhists, excavated 
between 500 and 650 a.d., at the head of one of the passes 
leading down from the Indhyadri or Ajanta range, which divides 
the Dekhan tableland from Ehandesh in the Tapti valley. The 
caves are 4 m. N. W. of the village, in a wild glen best approached 
through Faidapoor village at foot of the Ghats, from Pachora 
station of Great Indian Peninsula Railway 34 m. distant^ but 
also by horse tonga 56 m. from Aurangabad, a fatiguing route. 
The caves, infested by bees, form one of the most interesting spots 
in India; they are purely Boodhist, and cover the 8 centuries of 
Boodhist supremacy, 6 being of the earlier or Hinayana and 
2 of the later or Mahayana forms ; their fresco paintings are 
still tolerably complete. Assye (Asai) battlefield and village 
reached from Sirrod, 40 m. from Aurangabad, where, on 23d 
September 1803, Wellington with 4500 men of all arms de- 
feated 50,800 of Sindia's and Bhonsla's Marathas, disciplined 
by Frenchmen, in a strong position between the Juah and Khelna 
rivers, and so broke the Maratha confederacy. Jalna (1652 ft.), 
British cantonment 38 m. E. of Aurangabad, and old town 2 m. 



360 HAIDARABAD STATE. [CHAP. XX. 

S.W., seat of Scottish Free Church Mission. Bethel, 3 m. &, 
on rising ground, a Christian town, the centre of a circle of out- 
stations the diameter of which is 30 m., founded by Bey. Narain 
Sheshadri. Hincroli (1495 ft.), E. of Jalna, on N. road from 
Haidarabad to Akola, 72 m. S. of latter and 190 N.W. of 
Sikandarabad. Moxninabad, large cavalry station between 
Sikandarabad and Aurangabad. Nandair, originally a Sikh 
colony on the left bank of the Godavari, 145 m. N. of Haidarabad. 



CHAPTER XXL 

MAT^TtAW PBOTINCE — OENEBAL. 

§ 1. Size and Position. § 2. Mountains and Rirers. § 3. Canals 
and Railways. § 4. Products and Trade. § 5. Land Tenures 
and Taxation. § 6. The People and Districts. 

§ I. Size aitd Position. — Madras, as the Presidency of 
Fort St. George, is historically the oldest of the Twelve Pro- 
vinces of British India, and that in which Christianity has made 
greatest progress under Apostolic missionaries of the 1st century, 
Jesuits of the 16th and 17th, Lutherans of the ISth, and Angli- 
cans, Nonconformists, and Presbyterians of the 19th century. 
The total area of 150,248 sq. m. is not far short of that of 
Spain, and the population of 33,840,617 is more than double 
that of Spain; although the great hsxdne of 1876-8 swept off 
at least 3 millions of the population of South India, besides 
Mysore, and has reduced its numbers 2 per cent in the ten 
years ending 1871, when the other eleven Provinces showed a 
large increase. Of the whole area, 9818 sq. m., and of the 
population 3,336,632 are in the five Native Statoi of Travan- 
kor. Cochin, Poodookotta, Banaganapali, and Sandoor. The 
coast line extends for more than 1600 miles ; but, from the 
absence of good natural harbours and great navigable rivers, the 
normal external trade does not exceed £17,000,000 a year. 
The country is well opened up by nearly a thousand mUes of 
railway. The Province yielded a gross revenue of £9,840,000 
in 1880-81. The central tableland of the S. Peninsula is occu- 
pied by the Central Province, Berar, Haidarabad, Mysore, and 
Coorg, but all S. and E. of these Provinces and States belongs 
to Madras, which has a bugy coasting and labour traffic with 
the neighbouring crown colony of Ceylon. The army is 40,000 
strong, under a local commander-in-ehief. In its history, lan- 
guages, and land tenures, Madras consists of three well-defined 
portions^a) the Telugoo country of the north, from Orissa to 
and including Nellore ; (6) the Tamil country of the south, or 



362 MADRAS PROVINCE— GENERAL. [CHAP. XZI. 

the Eamatic from Nellore to Tinneyelli ; and (c) the Kanarese, 
Malayalam, and Tulu districts of the western Malabar coast to 
Cape Comorin. These five fonn the races and languages of 
Dravida, the non- Aryan or so-called Turanian land of the south, 
divided into the almost prehistoric, kingdoms of Kalinga^ be- 
tween the Qanges and the Kistna, and Pandya, Chola, and 
Chera south of the Eistna. Here the Muhammadans, who 
first obtained a footing at the opening of the 14:th centuiy, 
made less impression than on the north; the Y^jayanagar king- 
dom supplanted them till orerbome by a federation of the four 
Dekhan principalities. The genius and eneigy of Olive foiled 
the plans of Dupleiz, and by clinging to the British alliance the 
Delhi emperor's lieutenant, the Nizam of Haidarabad, consoli- 
dated his possessions against the Maratha anarchy and the 
Haidar-Tipoo ferocity. The close of the 18th century saw 
Madras settled very much as it now is, and Sir Thomas Munro 
lent all his influence to the peasant -proprietor tenure with 
increasing land-tax as against the large landlord tenure with a 
fixed rate. 

§ 2. Mountains and Riyebs. — ^Madras is bounded K by 
the Bay of Bengal, extending for about 1000 m, of coast firom 
Cape Comorin in lat. 8° 4', to the S. of Orissa in lat 20** 18' ; 
on the W. it is bounded by the Arabian Sea for 540 m. to the 
W. extremity of Mysore State, in lat. 13° 50', where the width 
across the peninsula is about 390 m. The irregular N. bound- 
ary almost tells the history of the Province. From Orissa it 
rises S.W. up the slopes of the Eastern Ghats, where it marches 
with the Central Province, and with the Dekhan, where it is 
overlooked by Haidarabad State, to the Western Ghats, where, 
arrested by Mysore, it runs round that State and drops down 
to the Arabian Sea, touching the Bombay border on either side 
of N. Mysore. The Eaatem Qh&ta, springing finom Balasor 
and the chaos of the Chutia Nagpoor hills of Bengal, run firom 
S.W. nearly parallel with the E. coast of the Bay of Bengal, 
touch the coast at Vizagapatam, at a point 50 m. N. of MadraB 
city sweep more to the W., and in the Neelgiris join the 
western hill system. Gallikonda (5346 ft.) and Galli Parvatam 
(4988 fl.) are the highest peaks. These hills have an avenge 
height of 1500 fb., are pierced by the great rivers from the west^ 
and form a watershed only in the extreme north, whei« th^ 
have been but partially surveyed. The Western Qhat^ 
already described under Bombay as the Sahyadris, reach their 
highest point in the Dodabetta peak (8640 ft) of the Neel- 
giris. They form the other noble plateaux and subsidiaiy ranges 



CHAP. XXI.] RIVERS— CANALS. 363 

which are known as the Sbivarai in Salem, the AnaTnn.1ai 
in Coimbatore, the Palni in Madura, and the Travankor 
or Oardamoxn Hills in Travankor, and end in the sacred peak 
of Afifaetya (6150 ft.) near Cape Comorin, having vast agri- 
cultural and mineral wealth, and an almost European climate. 
This great western range farther gives the Province its physical 
character by arresting the S.W. monsoon, which deluges the 
three west coast districts and two States, but is so kept from 
the twenty districts and States on the east as to expose them to 
frequent famine, when the normal rainfall of 40 inches a year 
fails. These are watered more bountifully by the N.E. monsoon, 
which begins in September, and by the great rivers with their 
canals and tributaries, the Qodavari, Kistna, and Kavari, 
the two Pennars, PaJar^ Vaiga, Vellar, and TambrapamL 
The only large lakes are those of Kola and Pulikat on E. 
coast The latter is 33 m. long ; it is really one of a series 
of backwaters or lagoons fed by rivers, but with outlets to 
the sea. The largest is Cochin Backwater, the centre of 
water communication practically from Cape Comorin up to S. 
Kanara. The east coast, for 166 m. N. of Cape Comorin, is 
rocky, and sends ofif to Ceylon the reefs, sandbeds, and islands 
which form Adam's Bridgre, with two channels navigable by 
small steamers. The Ooromandel Coast begins at Pont 
Ealymere to the N., passes the estuaries of the Kavari, and holds 
on for 297 m. farther N.E. to €k)ndegaon, where it is bounded 
by the Moosi river. There the Golkonda Coast commences, 
and crosses the estuaries of the Kistna and Grodavari 270 m. 
to the S. of y izagapatam district, whence the Orissa coast is 
reckoned to begin. 

§ 3. Canals and Railways. — Besides the ordinary works 
of irrigation, which are 33,318 rain-fed reservoirs and 1212 
channels supplied by them by means of dams watering 3^ 
millions of acres, there are 8 extraordinary works constructed 
from borrowed capital, and the projects of the Madras Irrigation 
and Canal Company. The sum of 1^ millions sterling has been 
expended on these eight works, whicn yield a net revenue of the 
third of a million — Godavari Delta, Kistna Delta, Pennar Ani- 
ent, Chembrambakam Tank, Palar Anicut, Pelandond Anient, 
Eiivari Delta, Srivaikuntam Anient. The Company's work 
completed by Grovemment is the Toongabhadra Canal from 
Sunkesala, 15 m. above Eamool town, to the Kistnapatam 
estuary on the Nellore coast. There are 61 other irrigation and 
navigation works. The Madras Railway's South- West Line runs 
for 518 m. across the peninsula firom the capital city to Beypoor 



364 MADRAS PROYINGB — GEMERAI* [cHAP. XXL 

port, with Neelgiri branch to Metapolliem ; and North-West 
line for 340 m. from Arkonam junction to Baidioor, where it 
connects with the Great Indian Peninsnla line for Bombay, with 
branches to Mysore and BeUaiy. The narrow-gange South 
Indian Railway runs S. from the capital dty to Tuticorin port 
and Tinnevelli, with branches to Pondicheri, N^;apatam port, 
and the Arkonam and Erode junctions of the S.W. line for 661 
m. The projected line to Mormugao on W. coast wiU start from 
Hoobli and Bellary. Other lines under construction or surrey 
are from KuUar to Goonoor on the Neelgiris, from Shoranoor to 
Cochin, frt)m Madura to Eilakarai for Paumban, and from 
Tinnevelli to Triyandrum. Bimlipatam may be the port for 
the Madras terminus of the direct Bombay, Ni^ipoor, and 
Raipoor Railway, by the Raighar or Rayaghada route. 

§ 4. PsoDucrs AND Tbade. — ^The gold of Madras is found 
in the quartz reefs which trayerse the granites, gneisses, and 
other metamorphic rocks principally in the Wainad terrace, 
leading up from Malabar to the plateau of the Neelgiri hiUs. 
Mr. Brough Smyth, an Australian expert, has reported to 
€k)yemment on 200 outcrops in a tract of 500 sq. m., that 
the auriferous reefs are more numerous and proportionately 
wider and richer than in almost any part of Australia. Sevend 
companies are working the quartz with results the economic 
value of which has yet to be proved. The diamond-bearing 
strata appear to have of old been worked in Cuddapah, 
Eamool, Eistna, and Qodavari districts, and in Banaganapali 
State. Coal of inferior quality is found in the carboniferous 
sandstones at Doomagoodiem on the Gkxlavari ; a shaft has 
been sunk at Bhadrachalam. Excellent iron ore has been 
smelted by natives, and tried by the Porto Novo Company near 
Cuddalore, and at Beypoor; fine magnetic iron abounds in Salem. 
The forests within the Province cover an area of 5000 sq. m« 
In Gaqjam are the Goomsoor and Soorada Reserves, of 583 sq. 
m.; in Cuddapah, Rullakunda; in N. Arcot, Mamandoor; in 
S. Arcot, Thenmalai ; in Malabar, Nelamboor. In Coimbatora, 
Eamool, and the Wainad, are extensive and rich timber tracts, 
yielding teak, ebony or blackwood, rose and red wood, and 
sandalwood. In ordinary years the ryotwar cultivation covers 
16f millions of acres, exclusive of Malabar and S. Kanara. 
In the worst famine season that fell to 13 millions. Of the 
cereal cultivation 5| millions are generally under rice, 3| under 
cholam (Sorghum mdgare\ 3 under cumbu {Panicum tpiccUum\ 
If under varagu (Panicum miliaceum), and 1^ under ragi {Eleu- 
nne corocana). Cotton occupies 1^ millions of acres, and indigo 



CHAP. XXI.] CULTIVATION — ^TENURES. 365 

one-fifth. Gingelly, or Besamum, is the most common oil-seed. 
Of the whole cultivation 80 per cent is " dry," or dependent on 
local rainfall The coffee plant is covering the Shivand, Palni, 
and Travankor hills, and partially the Neelgiris. There were 
18,315 plantations in 1880, yielding 18^ million lbs. Tea is 
on a smaller scale ; 84 gardens yielded 650,000 lbs. in 1880. 
The most remarkable success is that of the cinchona, introduced 
from Pern in 1860, fostered by the State on seven plantations, 
of which Nedivattam, Dodabetta, and Pykara are the chief, 
and now a commercial staple. Madras has few manu£Eu;tures 
apart from the work of the village weavers, and the gold, silver, 
ivory, horn, and sandalwood products of Trichinopoli, Yizaga- 
patam, and Eanara; the pearl fisheries of Tuticorin, under 
Government, and the tobacco industry. 

§ 5. Land Tsnttbes and Taxation. — As to land tenures 
no less than languages and histoiy the Madras Province consists 
of three parts, the Telugoo country of the N., extending to and 
including Nellore; the Tamil coimtry of the S., and the Kanarese 
and Malayalam districts of the W. or Malabar coast The first 
division came most under the influence of the Muhanmiadans, 
and we find in it, as in Bengal, the zameendaree tenure of great 
landlords, acting as middlemen between the State and the actual 
cultivators. In 1802 the Regulations extended to this northern 
division the permanent settlement of Bengal, making it with 
the zameendars and not with the hereditary cultivators. In the 
southern division, where the Musalman influence had been very 
weak, the land was held by cultivating village communities who 
paid rent directly to the old Hindoo sovereigns. These original 
village shareholders, or Meerasidars, had tenants under them, 
and when the Musalmans obtained power and exercised their 
usual rapacity through farmers of the land revenue, the Meera- 
sidars ceased to have any surplus income, and were practically 
reduced to the level of their own tenants who, though they 
cultivated, did not own the land. In the third or western 
division, the village or commtmal gives place to the individual 
right to land free of all rent to the State, known as Jenm or 
birthright. Not tiU Haidar Ali conquered Southern India from 
Mysore were Malabar and Eanara subjected to a land-tax. The 
landlords were bound to pay only one kind of service (military), 
and even then they received subsistence money. They had 
leasehold tenants without any right of occupancy from lapse of 
time. But the result of this was extravagance on the part of 
the landlords, and the growth of a class of mortgagees, chiefly 
MopLihs, who, under Haidar Ali, became the real owners. Thus, 



366 



MADRAS PROVINCE — GBNERAL. [CHAP. XXI. 



though the British succeeded to a heayy land-tax, they found 
Malabar owned chiefly by wealthy capitalists. South Kanara 
had been over-assessed. The cultivation of the Province, as to 
tenures, may be thus stated : — 



Ryotwaree lands 
Inam (quit-rent) lands 
Zameendaree lands . 
Malabar and S. Kanara 



. 16} million acres (actual). 

. 4| million acres (actual). 

. 5^ million acres (estimated), 

. 2{ million acres {estimated). 

In the Ryotwaree, or Government lands of other districts, the 
land-tax is fixed on each field in regard to its extent and quality, 
but in Malabar and Kanara the tax is upon the holding. 



Vabieties op Tenttee held direct from Govbbnment, 1880-81. 


Natore of Tenures. 


Number 
of estates. 


Number 

of 
villages. 


Number 
of holders 
or share- 
holders. 


Gross area 
in acres. 


Avenge 

area of 

each 

estate. 


Average 

mentof 

each 

estatft. 


Great Zameendarees pay- 














ing more than Rs. 60,000 














Revenue- 














Held by indiyidnals 














under the law of 












Bs. 


primogeniture 


15 


9,636 


16* 


6,118,293 


407,886 


1,84,809 


Held by individuals 














and families under 














ordinary law . 


1 


269 


1 


116,102 


116,102 


59,929 


Large Zameendarees pay- 














ing more than Rs. 6000 














Revenue- 














Held under the law of 














primogeniture 


54 


6,520 


58* 


9,543,405 


176,730 


14,848 


Held under ordinary 














law .... 


69 


1,460 


110 


1,032,828 


14,068 


10,527 


8maU Zameendarees, Moo- 














tahs, etc.. other than 
those of cultivating com- 


























munities 


602 


8,028 


881 


3,878,282 


8,950 


1,289 


Proprietary cultivating 














communities paying in 














common. * « . 


1,060 


672 


12,112 


22,655 


21 


65 


Rented estates . 


422 


833 


1,510 


88,564 


909 


481 


Proprietary cultivators 














paying more than Rs. 














44,740 


9,690 


88,843 


8,052,704 


68 


184 


Proprietary cultivators 














paying separately in- 














cluding all small estates 














paying less than Rs. 














2,480,051 


26,186 


8,449,098 


16,434,954 


7 


11 


Holders of revenue • free 














tenures— 














In perpetuity . 


401,687 


29,882 


667,135 


7,889,724 


19 


9 


For life 


1,841 


982 


2,845 


80,905 


16 


10 


Landholders who have re- 














deemed the revenue 


430 


162 


556 


8,003 


7 


• •• 


Purchase of waste lands . 


502 


117 


164 


28,002 


46 


50 



* The number of holders is more than the number of estates, as some of the Zameeu- 
darees are registered in the names of the widows of the deceased Zameendars. 



CHAP. XXI.] 



POPULATION — ^DISTRICTS. 



367 



Of the gross revenue of £9,851,075 in 1880-81, the land- 
tax yielded £4,579,192, of which £613,862 was from per- 
manently and favourably assessed lands, £3,547,826 from ryot- 
waree holdings, and £397,504 from miscellaneous sources. 

§ 6. The PSoplb and Districts. — Of the district popula- 
tion as revealed by the census of 1881 or 30,839,181, the 
number of males was 15,242,122, and of females 15,597,059. 
There was a diminution of 2*4 per cent on the 10 years since 
1872, due to two or three years of famine. The figures in the 
districts relate to that earlier census when the district popula- 
tion was 31,597,872. 

Crvn. Divisions op British Tbreitory, 1872. 



1 


Area in 
square 
miles. 


Population 
in 1878. 


Nam- 

berof 

Tillages. 


Total cost of 

officials and 

Police of aU 

kinds. 




T>ni'i'mi^«a 


RCVSNUS. 


.A/iBinivAo. 


Land. 


Gross. 


Ganjam . 
Vizagapatam . 
Godavari 
Kistna . 
Kellore . 
Caddapah 
Bellary . ) 
Anantapoor ) 
Karnool . 
Madras . 
Chengalpat . 
North ^ot . 
South Arcot . 
Taigore . 
Trichinopoli . 
Madura . 
Tinnevelli . . 
Coimbatore . 
Neelgiria 
Salem . 
South Eanara 
Malabar. 

Total . 


8,811 
17,380 
7,846 
8,471 
8,739 
8,745 

10,871 

7,583 
27 
2,842 
7,256 
4,873 
8,654 
8,388 
9,502 
5,381 
7,842 
957 
7,663 
3,902 
5,763 


1,520,088 
2,296,351 
1,620,634 
1,452,374 
1,376,811 
1,351,194 

1,658,010 

914,432 

897,552 

938,184 

2,015,278 

1,755,817 

1,973.731 

1,200,408 

2,266,615 

1,693,959 

1,768,274 

74,719 

1,966,995 

918,862 

2,236,082 


4,975 
12,304 
2,462 
1,940 
2,132 
1,313 

2,565 

789 
70 
2,154 
5,305 
3,207 
3,935 
1,634 
5,468 
1,688 
1,562 
18 
4,688 
1,289 

428 


Ba. 
5,49,984 
6,87,981 
10,61,819 
7,86,759 
4,59,866 
8,65,586 

8,65,782 

4,12,399 

15,20,238 

18,25,105 

7,83,303 

7,59.655 

18,41,108 

9,42,801 

8,36,598 

8,83,424 

9,44,859 

2,07,020 

5,86,409 

4,48,866 

11,98,475 


Rs. 

12,64,991 
13,82,681 
41,19,268 
41,71,686 
24,60,607 
19,06,982 

23,26,162 

18,39,127 
78,062 
19,28,282 
28,18,024 
30,27,049 
44,22,198 
13,89,678 
25,07,812 
27,89,699 
26,41,815 
52,413 
21,21,643 
12,24,369 
18,29,777 


Bb. 
37,47,529 
24,70,675 
59,32,563 
59,36,388 
41,02,198 
22,74,307 

29,28,106 

16,16,291 
83,79,107 
64,41,196 
83,73,437 
47,29,775 
76,26,087 
16,67,550 
85,13,560 
51,21,098 
30,64,016 
2,67,341 
25,82,624 
19,89,473 
88,55,942 


140,430 


81,385,820 


59,866 


1,68,60,477 


4,57,41,574 


7,61,19,258 



CHAPTER XXIL 

MADRAS PBOYINCS — DISTBICTS AND STATES. 

East Central Districts, 
§ 1. Madras City. § 2. Ghengalpat. § S. Nellore. § 4. South Aroot 

IVeneh Territory. 
§ 5. PondicherL 

North Central or Ceded Districts and States. 

§ 6. North Arcot. § 7. Cuddapah. § 8. Bellary and Anantapoor. 
§ 9. *Sandoor. § 10. Earuool. §11. *Banagaiiapali. 

Northern Districts, 
% 12. Eifltna. S 13. Godavari. § 14. Yizagapatam. § 15. Gaojam. 

West Central Districts. 
§ 16. Salem. § 17. Goimbatoro. § 18. Keelgiri Hills. 

JFest Coast Districts. 
§ 19. South Kanara. § 20. Malabar. § 21. Laccadire laUnda. 

Southern Districts and State, 

§ 22. Tanjore. § 23. TrichinopoU. § 24. *Poodookotta. § 25. 
Madura. §26. TixmerellL 

*Cochin and Travankor States, 
§ 27. ^Cochin. § 28. ^Travankor. 

§ 1. Madras Oity (406,112 in 1881), named probably ficom 
Madrasah = a Musalman college, capital of Madras ProTince, on 
the Coromandel or S.E. coast, 885 m. S.W. of Calcutta^ and 
794 S.E. of Bombay by railway. The Observatory, established 
in 1792, stands in N. lat. 13" 4' 6" and E. long. 80° 17' 22*; 
firom its meridian Indian railway time is taken. The mimici- 
pality coyers 27 sq. m., extending along the coast of the Bay of 
Bengal 7 m., and ranning inland 3^ m. The first piece of land 
secured in fall possession by the English in India was 6 m. l»y 
1 m., and was piirchased for £600 a year from Sri Ranga Bi^a 



CHAP. XXII.] MADRAS CITY. 369 

of Chandragiri, a fort 70 m. S.W., who represented the decaying 
K^j of yyajanagar and governed the country around through . 
Naiks or deputies. The title-deeds consisted of a plate of gold, 
in which the Rcga stipulated that the new settlement should 
be called by his name; the plate was lost in 1746 at the 
French capture of the city. The local Naik of Chengalpat, 
or his father or brother, was named Chennappa, whence the 
natiye name of Madras is to this day Chenna-patnam. To this 
strip of coast Mr. Francis Day removed the East India Com- 
pany's settlement at Armegaon, farther N. in the Nellore district, 
in March 1639, and here he constructed a factory, the nucleus 
of Fort St. George. The spot was close to the Portuguese city 
of St. Thom^, the scene of the martyrdom of the Apostle 
Thomas, as was believed ; but its chief attraction was ** the 
Island,'' as it is still called, formed on the land side by the 
river Eooum. This was soon walled round and named the 
White Town, none but Europeans being allowed to sleep there. 
The settlement of native weavers and others outside, to the N., 
became Black Town. The whole was under the East India 
Company's chief of the settlement at Bantam, in Java, till 1653, 
when Madfas-patnam became the first and the chief Presidency 
in India. Soon the Golkonda dynasty became receivers of 
the annual rent, and its siege of St. Thomd first gave Madras 
city Portuguese inhabitants. In 1702, Aurangzeb*s general, 
Daood Khan, followed by the Marathas in 1741, attempted 
to take the town, which was entirely surrounded by a wall, 
first of mud then of masonry ; some of the bastions are still 
police stations. Labourdonnais first took Fort St. George in 
1746, and the Company's officials returned to it in 1752. 
In 1758 Lally attacked the Fort from the Black Town, as 
described by Orme, but it was relieved by the British fleet 
In 1749 the English had made St. Thom^, founded by the 
Portuguese in 1504, and held by the French for two years to 
1674, a part of Madras city. The modem capital of S. India 
may now be divided thus, beginning at N. — (1) Rayapooram, 
centre of the railway workshops and goods warehouses, and 
emigration depot, with a Scottish Free Church medical mission, 
and many Eurasian mechanics ; (2) Black Town, the mercantile 
and densely -inhabited square mile within the old walls, with 
High Court, offices of European bankers and merchants, and 
the Christian CoUege and schools of the Free Church of Scot- 
land, founded by Eev. John Anderson and now under Principal 
Miller, near the beach and stretching inland for 3 m. N. of the 
Kooum river; (3) the Fort, esplanade, island — now used as 

2 B 



370 MADRAS PROVINCB — ^DISTRICTS. [CHAP. XXII 

parade-gronnd — Qovemment House, and other public buildings 
on a comparatively open space running S. for 2 m., the "^ lungs" 
of the city ; (4) continuation of coast S. and W. through the 
crowded native quarters to St Thom^; (5) the Eurasian 
quarter of Yepcri and Pudupet, shading into the fine European 
suburbs of Egmore, Nungambakam, and Perambore, W. of Black 
Town ; (6) the best European quarter to S.W. and S. of Adyar 
and Tanampet. 

In this municipal area of 27 square miles -are -23 yOlageSy 
with 256 m. of roads. The drainage and purification of the 
Kooum have still to be cared for. The water supply is fi!om 
two reservoirs drawn off the Cortelliar river and conveyed to 
the city in an open high-level channel 7 m. long. Fort Si. 
George, begun by Francis Day in 1839, was improved during 
the three years' occupation by the French, and completed in 
1787. It \a not defensible against modem artillery. It 
contains the council chamber, civil and nulitaiy secretariatSy 
arsenal, barracks, and St. Maiy's Church — the first Protestant 
Church in India — in which is the marble monument erected by 
the East India Company to the missionaiy Schwartz, whose 
tomb is at Tanjore where he died. The statue of Loid Com- 
walliB is in the Fort Square, and that of Sir Thomas Munro is 
on the Island, both by Chantrey ; Colonel NeiU's is near the 
Club, on the Mount Road, the principal thorough&re since 1795 
between the Fort and St Thomas's Mount, crossed by the 
Cathedral Boad. The buildings most worth notice outside of 
the Fort are the Chepak Palace, the Presidency and Christian 
Colleges and Senate House, St. George's Cathedral, St. Andrew's 
Kirk, Patcheappah's Hall, the Central Railway Station, and 
Grovemment House with the banqueting halL Between the 
Observatory, 1 m. W. of the Central Museum, and Anderson's 
Bridge is the College containing the library of the Literary 
Society, the Mackenzie MSS., and a portrait of the Abb^ 
Dubois in Hindoo dress. The Buckingham Canal connects the 
N. and S. systems. The People's Park, W. of the Central 
Railway Station, has a zoologictd collection. Triplicane quarter 
runs S. of the Fort from which the Kooum divides \% and 
parallel with the coast. In 1880 the municipality received 
Rs. 7,56,800, of which Rs. 6,71,988 was from taxation on houses 
and lands, trades, lighting, water and carriage rates, and tolls ; 
it spent slightly more. On the basis of the census of 1872, 
when the population was 397,552 in 51,741 houses, the birth- 
"^te in 1880 was 40*4, and the death-rate 37*4 per milla 
he southern suburb of Saint ThomS, 2 m. S. of the Fort 



CHAP. XXII.] ST. THOMAS'S MOUNT — CHENGALPAT. 371 

with an old Roman Catholic Ohurch, is identified by Heber and 
by H. H. Wilson with the Mailapoor or Mihilapoor, where 
the Apostle Thomas is said to have been martyred on 2l8t 
December 58 a.d. The rocky knoll of the Little Mount, 5 
m. S.W. of Fort, with church dedicated to St. Thomas, attracts 
crowds tmder the belief that the Apostle perished there. A cave 
in which he concealed himself, and a cell in which he worshipped 
are shown, but it has been proved that it is Thomas Aquinas 
whose name was given to this place. The model farm and race- 
course are in the neighbourhood. Saint Thomas's Mount 
(16,000) (220 ft.), railway station 8 m. S. of Madras, a 
knoll of greenstone and syenite, topped by an old Armenian 
Catholic church; at the base is the cantonment, the head- 
quarters of the Madras Artillery. The battle of the Mount, 
in 1759, in which Captain Calliaud forced Lally's troops to 
retreat, was one of the fiercest struggles in the Franco-British 
war. Pallavaram (4500), 11} m. S. of Madras, the old 
presidency cantonment (450 ft.), now garrisoned by one regi- 
ment and European pensioners. Poonamalfiii (5000), 13 m. 
W. of Madras and 4 N. of St. Thomas's Mount, cantonment 
for European recruits and invalids, with T)ld fort of some note 
in the Eamatic wars. Ghiindy, 6^ m. from Fort St. Ckorge, 
Governor's country house and extensive park. 

§ 2. Chenoalpat District ("brick village") is bounded 
E. by Bay of Bengal, N. by Nellore, W. by N. Arcot, S. by S. 
Aicot Area, 2842 sq. m. Population, 968,184.^ This flat 
and dreary coast district rises from below searlevel near some 
of the backwaters to 300 ft. on the W. The Nagalapooram 
hills (2500 ft.), and a ridge of which Kambakam Droog is the 
highest peak (2548 ft.), are in the N. ; through these run three 
principal passes to the plateau above. The Palar ("milk 
stream ") firom Mysore and N. Arcot is the chief river ; having 
received the Poini it enters the district W. of Cox^jeveram, 8 m. 
E. of which it is joined by the Cheyar at Toruppakoodal, and flows 
for 30 m. fJEuiher to the sea 3 m. S. of Sadras. The Ck>rtelliar 
from N. Arcot, fed by small streams and tapped by weirs for 
the Cholavaram and Bed Hill reservoirs which supply Madras 
dty, falls into the Ennore backwater N. of Madras. The 
Oheyar, flowing from the foot of the hills which divide N. 
Arcot from Salem, enters the district W. of Uttiranmeroor. 
The Aramyanadi, another alluvial stream, passes across the 

1 The popnlation of diatricta and towns is according to the censns of 
1872. Details of the Madras censiis of 1881 have not yet been published 
(Not. 1882). 



372 MADRAS PROVINCB — ^DISTRICTS. [OHAP. XXII. 

N. to the sea near Polikat under the name of the NaranaTaraio. 
The Eooum (Kuvam) is formed of the surplus of the tank of 
the same name in the CoDJeveram portion of the district, and 
flows through Madras city to the sea at the Marine Villa. The 
Adyar becomes a respectable stream as it approaches the capital; 
it can be traced to Guduvanch^ri village. Of the lagoons 
formed by ridges of blown sand into a network along the ooast^ 
the chief is the Pulikat Lake, 37 m. long, in the N. The 
high ground between some of them is cut by the Ooohrane 
and East Coast Oanal ; the former runs N. from Black Town 
through the Pulikat Lake into Nellore ; the latter runs S. from 
the Adyar to the mouths of the Palar : during the famine of 
1876-8 the N. and S. Canals were united in Madras. Along 
the coast-line of 155 -m. the surf wave breaks, fix>m 3 ft. in fine 
weather to 12 or 14 ft. high in gales ; it breaks at 300 ft from 
shore in calm, and at 450 to 1000 feet in stormy weather. 
Pulikat shoal, 14 m. K of Madras dty, and Covdong reef, 25 
m. S., are the only points of danger. Some 14,000 fishermen^ 
chiefly Boman Catholic Christians, cany on the sea fisheriea 
The Nawab of Arcot granted the district to the East India 
Company in 1760, soon after which Haidar Ali swept it by 
the sword, and famine extended the desolation. Saidapet 
(4700), village on Mount Road, 5 m. S.W. of Fort St George, 
headquarters of the Collector ; the .offices are in Homes' 
Gardens. Oheneralpat (8000), 36 m. S.W. of Madras 
railway station, including Goontoor and Nattam, with Scottish 
Free Church and Roman Catholic missions : the old fort was 
the key of the British possessions during the Mysore wars ; the 
hills and tank make Chengalpat a pretty place in the raina. 
Sadras (2000), with ruins of old Dutch fort and cemetery, 
on coast 35 m. S. of Madras. Coveloufir (Kovilam), a village 
20 m. S. of Madras, formerly seat of Dutch and of Ostend East 
India Company traders ; taken by the French by stratagem in 
1750, and capitulated to Clive in 1752. Between Sadras and 
Covelong, near East Coast Canal, is The Seven Pa^rodas of 
Mahabalipooram ("city of the Mahamalla race," subdued by 
the Chalookyas), a marvellous series of five Dravidian mono- 
lithic temples, foiuteen caves, and bas-reliefs cut on and in a 
ridge of granite boulders 1500 ft. long, on the open sea-beach, 
about 700 A.D. Two m« N. is the tiger cave of Saluvan- 
kuppum ; *' here not one but a dozen of tiger heads welcome the 
horite to his abode." MadarantSikain (4000), 50 ul S. 
^adras, with tank remarkable for its fine calingula or 
). Two m. N. is Karanguli (3000), the fort of which 



CHAP. XXIL] CONJEVERAM — ^PULIKAT — ^NELLORB. 373 

Eyre Coote took from Lally's troops in 1759, after Wandewaah, 
and again from Haidar All's force in 1781. Oosjeveram 
(37,000) (Eanchi or Kanchipooram = the " shining " or " golden 
city"), the Benares of South Indian Hindooism, one of the 
seven sacred cities, 45 m. S.W. of Madras, on the junction rail- 
way between Arkonam and Chengalpat. Second in antiquity 
only to Surat, part of the Arcati Begia Sorae of Pliny, and long 
the Boodhist capital of Dravida. Three great pagodas and seven 
sacred tanks still remain ; the oldest is of Shiva, and head- 
quarters of the Adwaitam or non-dualistic doctrine ; the richest 
is of Yishnoo, and centre of the Yasishtadwaita school of ethics, 
with a hundred-pUlared mantapam or hall, and jewels of which 
Clive presented a gold necklace worth £368. Here the Scottish 
Free Church has a mission. Clive marched through Coi\jeveram 
on his way to Arcot in 1751, took it soon after, and it became 
the principal British cantonment in the Kamatic for a tima 
A few m. N.W. Baillie's detachment was cut to pieces by 
Haidar Ali, and Sir Hector Munro threw his guns and baggage 
into the temple tank during his retreat to Chengalpat Walla- 
jahabad (5000), on the Palar, 8 m. S. of Conjeveram, a 
British cantonment till 1860. Tiruvalloor (5000), railway 
station 26 m. W. of Madras, has temple with tower (Gopuram) 
of 156 ft. and hall of 688 pillars. Two m. W. is Tipassore, old 
station of East India Company's cadets, and now for European 
pensioners, in fort Ennore (4500), 8 m. N. of Madras, on 
backwater into which the Cortelliar falls, with several European 
residences. Pulikat (Paliyaverk^u = " juDgle of old mimosa 
trees '') (5000), port at S. end of island dividing sea from 
the lake, site of first settlement of the Dutch in India, with 
interesting cemetery. N. is Coromandel (3000) or Eareimanal 
=:"sand coast,'' once supposed to have given its name to 
the whole coast, which is really a corruption of Cholamandalam 
= land of the Cholas. 

§ 3. Nellore District is bounded E. by Bay of Bengal, 
N. by Eistna district, W. by Eamool and Cuddapah with the 
Eastern Ghats between, and S. by N. Arcot and Chengalpat 
Area, 8739 sq. m. Population, 1,376,811. This portion of 
the Telugoo-speaking north country of Madras is a sandy strip 
of coast 170 m. long and 70 broad between the sea and the 
Eastern Qhats, which run N.W. from the S. of Venkatagiri 
to the N. of Kanigiri, and rise to their highest point (3000 ft.) 
at Penchalakonda. Dense jungle and bamboos cover the slopes ; 
there is sometimes large timber of little value. The Udaya- 
girl DroofiT (3079 ft.) is an isolated stronghold held of old by 



374 MADRAS PROVINCB — ^DISTRICTTS. [CHAP. xxil. 

a petty Musalman lord The Pexinar river, from the Nandi- 
droog hills in Mysore, enters the district through the Somesila 
gorge of the Eastern Ghats, 285 m. from its sooroe, and flows 
£. for 70 m. to the Bay of Bengal, which it reaches 18 m. 
below Nellore town, having received the small Bogeru and 
Biraperu in its course. It is tapped by anicnts or weirs for 
irrigation. The Suvamazaookhi flows from the Chittoor hills 
parallel to the Pennar, and after a course of 15 ul in the 
district falls into the Bay of Bengal 34 m. S. of that river. 
The G-undlakamma rises in the Cumbum tank in Kamool, 
and is fed by the drainage of the Nallamallai hills. The East 
Coast OanaJ, from Kistnapatam, is carried S. along the W. 
border of the island of Sriharikota for 20 m., a ridge of 
sand dividing Pulikat Cape from the sea. Next to Cuddapah 
Nellore produces most indigo on the Bengal system. NeUore, 
as part of old Telingana, between Orissa and the Tamil country, 
was successively under the Yadava, Chalookya, Ealyana, and 
Ganpatti dynasties. In 1628 the East India Company, after 
the Amboyna massacre by the Dutch, settled at Azmegaon, 
S. of the village of Durgarayapatam, which Mr. Francis Day 
named after its headman, Armugam Modelliar, until in 1639 
the same " factor ** founded Madras. Armegaon is now only a 
lighthouse to warn ships off the shoaL Nellore (30,000), 
(" town of the Nelli tree"), the chief town, is on the right bank 
of the Pennar, 8 m. from its mouth, and 107 m. N. of Madraa. 
Here, in the ruins of a Hindoo temple, a pot of Roman gold 
coins and medak of the 2d century was found. Tradition places 
this old site, under the name of Simbapooram = ''lion town/' 
in the forest wilderness known as Dandaka Aranyam^ at the 
present European suburb of Doorgametta. The offices are in 
the old fort. There are Protestant Missions of the American 
Baptists, Scottish Free Church, and Hermansburg Lutherans, 
and a Roman Catholic mission. Ongrole (6000), 11 m. N. 
of the Moosi and 189 N. of Madras, with iron ores, ruined 
fort, and American Baptist Mission. Venkatiglrl (7500), 
seat of the oldest Hindoo family which assisted the EnglLdi 
against Haidar Ali, and is head of the Vimala casta 

§ 4. South Abcot Distbict {Arvrkadu^^^fosi deserts") 
is bounded K by the Bay of Bengal, N. by Chengalpat and N. 
Arcot, W. by Salem, and S. by Trichinopoli Area, 4873 sq. 
m. Population, 1,755,817. On W. are the Kalrayan HiUs 
(3500 ft), connected with the Shivarai, and in the N.W. the 
Jawadi group ; between the two the COiengain Pass leads 
into SaleuL The isolated Trinomalai Peak (2668 ft.) is 



CHAP. XXII.] S. ARCOT — CUDDALORE— FORT ST. DAVID. 375 

covered with jungle and accessible only on foot Thei^ are 3 
rivers navigable throughout the year for a short distance from 
their mouths. The Ooleroon (Kolidam) flows for 36 m. 
along S.E. border and debouches into the sea 3 hl S. of Porto 
Novo. The Vellar'has a course of 82 m. in the district, 
receives the Manimookta near Yidrachalam, and reaches the 
sea at Porto Novo. The Q-culdilcun (Garuda-nadi), issuing 
from the Y^gal tank, is connected with the Ponniar by the 
Mallatar, and after a course of 59 m. passes by Fort St. David 
and falls into the sea a mile N. of Cuddalore. The Ponniar 
reaches the sea 2 m. farther N., having risen near Nandidroog 
on the Mysore plateau, and flowed 75 m. through the district 
from near Manikal. The Ghinfiree, from the Naranamangalam 
tank, receives the Toudayar and Pombayar, and runs into the 
sea by two mouths. Historically S. Arcot is full of interest, 
from 1674 when the Khan of Gingee's invitation led the pre- 
sident of Fort St George to open a trading settlement at 
Cuddalore, Conimeer, and Porto Novo ; and in 1687 the East 
India Company purchased from the Marathas the site of Fort 
St David. During the Franco-British wars of the latter half of 
the 18th century the most prominent place was the chief town 
Cuddalore new and old (40,500) (Goodaloor), railway stations 
124-7 m. S. of Madras, on the backwater connecting the Gad- 
dilam and Paravanar rivers ; the old factory is now the jail ; 
the Propagation Society holds the church taken from the Jesuits 
on their expulsion as French spies in 1749 ; Clive-street is a 
memorial of the great Clive who in 1747 received his first com- 
mission from the Court of Directors as Ensign, in these terms — 
" Mr. Robert Clive, writer in the service, being of martial dispo- 
sition, and having acted as a volunteer in our late engagements, 
we have granted him an ensign's commission upon his application 
for the same." He was the last Governor of Fort St David, 
a barrack-yard the wretched casemates and subterranean ways 
of which still exist 1^ m. from Cuddalore. The fort was 
destroyed in 1758, when Clive was in Bengal, by the French, 
who at the same time took and held Cuddalore for 2 years 
till Eyre Coote's advance. Porto Novo (71,000), railway 
station and fort at mouth of the Yellai, where the English 
succeeded the Portuguese in 1683, and in 1781 Eyre Coote 
fought Haidar AIL For many years an iron company attempted 
here to work ore brought from Salem ; the buildings have now 
reverted to Government Ohedamburaxn {Chttfambalam = 
"atmosphere of wisdom'') (16,000), one of the five old seats 
of Shiva-worship, 26 m. S. of Cuddalore. Its pagoda^ con- 



376 MADRAS PROVINCE — DISTRICTS. [cHAP. xxil. 

taining Ihe Akdsa = " air " lingam, or " secret of Chedambiiram " 
(represented by a curtain behind which the phallic emblem is 
invisible), covers 39 acres, and is constructed of granite brought 
from a great distance to form its 1100 carved pillars each a 
solid block, its 70 circular monoliths, its great gateways and 
long flights of steps to the very deep *' golden " tank of green 
water used only for washing. In 1781 Haidar Ali's garrison 
beat off Sir Eyre Coote from the pagoda. Srixnushnam 
(2000), 19 m. W. of Cuddalore, with great pagoda, one of the 
eight Vaishnava shrines. Trinoxnalai (9000), another of the 
five Shiva centres, with large pagoda at foot of the hill, 24 m. 
W. of Qinfiree, consisting of 3 strongly fortified hills, which, 
Orme says, 10 men could defend against 10,000; chief strong- 
hold of the Gingee country under successive dynasties, till 
captured by the English in 1761. Tindivanaxu (Tinthrani 
Fanam»'Hhe tamarind jungle") (6500), railway station, 75 
m. S. of Madras. Six m. E. is the rock of Permacoil or Peru- 
mookal ( = "great travail" of Seeta), often captured by the 
English and French. Panruth (7000), railway station 110 
m. S. of Madras, is a large commercial centre. Valavanoor 
(7000) yields the largest revenue in the district. Yillupooram 
(6000), junction of South Indian Railway for Pondicheri, 98 
m. S. of Madras. 

This District contains 32,000 Christians, chiefly Roman 
Catholica Ziegenbalg, of the Danish Evangelical Lutheran 
Mission, opened a Tamil school at Cuddalore in 1716; there 
Sartorius died; there Eliemander taught before he went to 
Calcutta; and there Schwartz landed in 1750. The Leipzig 
Lutheran Mission is at Chedamburam, and also near Cudda- 
lore. The Propagation Society is at Cuddalore. The Ameri- 
can Reformed Church works in the N. about Trinomalai and 
Tindivanam. The 1 1 Roman Catholic Missions are under the 
Bishop of Flaviopolis at Pondicheri, an offshoot of Robert de 
Nobili's Madura Mission in 1606, chiefly in the Gingee country. 
Jean de Britto resided at Tattuvancheri, N. of the Coleroon. 

French Territory. 

§ 6. Pondicheri (Puthuch^ri), chief of the small French 
territories in India, also railway station and free port, surrounded 
by the Cuddalore subdivision of S. Arcot district, through whose 
Collector business with the British Government is negotiated 
by the French Governor. The port ia 86 m. S. of Madras in 
lat. ll** 53' K, and long. 79*^ 56' K The French setUe- 



CHAP. XXII.] PONDICHERI — THE BARAMAHAL. 377 

ment covers 113 sq. in., with a population of 156,094 in the 
three districts of Pondicheri, ViUianoor, and Bahoor. The 
whole French possessions cover 178 sq. m., with a population 
of 280,381. Chandamagar, in the Hoogli district of Bengal, 
with 3 sq. m., has been already described. Karikal (32 sq. m.), 
Mahd (5 sq. m.), and Yanaon (5 sq. m.), will be found in the 
Madras districts which enclose them. The five places yield an 
annual revenue of about If million francs, one-eighth of which 
is paid to France towards the cost of the civil and military 
establishments. The salt allowance of £44,066, paid by the 
British Government under the treaty of 1815, is the principal 
source of revenue, to prevent the interference of France with 
the salt monopoly. Pondicheri Town was founded by 
Fran9oiB Martin in 1674, captured by the Dutch in 1693, and 
held by them for 6 years, besieged four times by the English, 
and held by them for 34 years on three different occasions. A 
canal divides it into the white and black town. The white 
town, on the sea, is well built, containing Government House, 
two churches, bazar, clock tower, lighthouse, barracks, hospital, 
and town halL It has a fine iron pier and water supply. It 
is the seat of a Roman Catholic Apostolic Prefecture, the head- 
quarters of the French Mission in the Karnatic. There are 
spinning, weaving, dyeing, and tanning industries. There are 
betel and tobacco monopolies. Villupooram is the junction on 
the South India Railway 24 m. W. from Pondicheri. 



56. 

N. by] 



NoTth Central or Ceded Districts and States, 

North Abcot Distbict is bounded £. by Chengalpat, 
)y Nellore and Cuddapah, W. by Mysore, and S. by Salem. 
Area^ 7256 sq. m. Population, 2,015,278. The Eaatem 
Ohats run from N.E. to S.W., throwing out spurs to S. 
The Nagari Hills run across the N. comer. The Jawadi 
Range (3000 ft.) touch the S.E. The Palar, entering the 
district in S.W., flows £. to the sea ; it receives the Oheyair 
and Poini. The portion above the Ghats formed, with part 
of Salem district, the Baramahal ('* twelve estates "), domi- 
nated by 12 forts. The Nizam ceded to the East India Com- 
pany all the territories which its armies had secured to him by 
the Mysore treaties of 1792 and 1799, to pay his debt for the 
subsidiary force, to maintain it for the first time, and to protect 
him in the sovereignty of Haidarabad. These were the Ceded 
Districts, further remarkable for Sir Thomas Munro's settle- 
ment of them 1800-1807, and the people's gratitude to him 



378 MADRAS PROVINCE — DISTRICTS. [CHAP. xxii. 

whom they caUed ** father." Ohittoor (" little town ") (6000), 
administrative headquarters, in the valley of the Poini, 18 m. 
N. of Vellore railway station and 100 fix>m Madras ; occiqiied 
by Eyre Coote in 1781 : here the Moghili pass leads up to the 
Mysore plateau ; 3j^ m. N.E. are the cromlech-like sepulchres of 
Panduvaram Dewal. Aroot ("six forests") (12,000), on 
right bank of the Palar, 5 m. from railway station, old capital 
of Nawabs of Eamatic, and famous for the capture and defence 
by Olive, immortalised by Orme and Macaulay. Olive's room 
is shown in the dismantled walls at the Delhi gate. The 
European station is Ranipet, on left bank of Palar, 3 m. from 
railway, formerly a cantonment. Vellore (38,000), canton- 
ment and raU way station, 80 m. W. of Madras and 15 of Arcot, 
famous for fortress of Vyayanagar line, held by the English for 
two years against Haidar Ali ; and for mutiny of the sepoys in 
1806, put down by Oolonel Gillespie, after which Tipoo's family 
were transferred as parole prisoners to the suburbs of Oalcutta. 
In the fort is one of the finest and oldest mantapam or pagoda 
porches in S. India. Walajapet (12,000), named from 
princes of Arcot, from which it is 3 m. distant, a pleasant town 
and railway station on left bank of Palar, known for its carpets. 
Goodiattazn (11,000), railway station, 15 m. W. of Vellore ; 
with weaving industry and rice exports; the Symgunta pass 
leads hence to Mysore. Tripalty (Tirupati, the Tripetty 
of Orme) (10,500), railway station, 83 m. N.W. of Madras, 
near one of the most frequented hill (2500 ft.) pagodas of 
Vishnoo in S. India; here in 1772 occurred the first recorded 
outburst of cholera. On the seven-peaked hill are 16 waterfalls. 
Lower Tripalty, nearest to hill, is 6 m. from railway station. 
Wandiwaah (4500), now chief town of a subdivision, its fort 
belonging to Arcot family, was the scene of sieges and a treaty 
in the Karnatic wars; here Ooote took Busby prisoner, and 
won the most important victory over the iS^nch in 1760. 
Lieutenant Flint held the fort for 3 years against Haidar Ali. 
Ealahasti (Oalastri) (6700), on right bank of Sivamamookbi, 
16 m. N.E. of Tripalty; now known for its glass beads. Pun> 
ganoor, in N. (2000 ft), now produces hardware. The Scot- 
tish Established Ohurch, the American Baptists, and Roman 
Oatholics have missions in N. Arcot district. 

§ 7. OuDDAPAH District, between the W. slopes of the 
Eastern Ghats and the opposing face of the Mysore plateau, is 
bounded K by Nellore, N. by Eamool, W. by Bellaiy and 
Mysore, S. by Mysore and North Arcot. Area, 8745 sq. m. 
Population, 1,351,194. From Tripalty hill in North Arcot 



CHAP. XXII.] CUDDAPAH — BELLARY. 379 

the Eastern Ghats (3000 ft) strike N. between Cuddapah and 
the Nellore littoral; and the Palkonda Range (''milk" 
or pasture), N.W. to Cuddapah town, which lies in the valley 
between it and its ofiGshoots the Sheshaohalam Hills (1500 ft.), 
diyiding the district into two distinct climes. From opposite the 
end of the Palkoudas the KaUamalai (" black hills ") range 
runs N. parallel with the Eastern Ghats into KarnooL The 
riyers which drain the Mysore slopes are the Ohitravati (one 
of Shiva's wives), Papagni (sin-destroyer), and Oheyair, falling 
into the N. Pexmar, which has worn the deep and picturesque 
gorge of Gandikota ('' fort of the gorge "), and finds a final exit 
through the Sunkesala pass of the Eastern Ghats. The country 
has many extravagant traditions of Sir Thomas Munro, who tamed 
its poligars or feudal barons, and gave its peasants the ryotwaree 
settiement, so that they are prosperous farmers and famous pro- 
ducers of indigo, sugar, and cotton. Yet the district suffered 
greatly in 1877, as in its predecessors, from alternate famine and 
flood. A canal runs from Proddatoor (6709) (" sun-town ") to 
Cuddapah, and the N.W. line of the Madras Railway traverses 
the E. and N. portions, with 10 stations. Cuddapah (" thresh- 
old" of the pass to Tripalty) (16,000), railway station, in a 
hot hollow, 161 m. from Madras, capital of a Nawab, from 
whom the Marathas and Haidar Ali wrested his lands, on N. 
bank of the Boogair river. Patha ("old") Cuddapah is a 
neighbouring hamlet. Chennoor, village near Cuddapah, where 
diamonds are found. Sidhaut (" hermit's banian tree "), on 
the Pennar, 10 m. E. of Cuddapah town, famed for its 
melons, and called the Southern Benares from its sanctity and 
resemblance to Benares. Outimetta (" solitary hill "), railway 
station, 8 m. firom Sidhaut, with frequented pagoda ; produces 
indigo and turmeric. Badvail (8500), in N.E., aif indigo 
and mineral centre. Rayachoti ("Riga's abode") (5000), in 
central subdivision. Kadiri (" tree " under which the idol was 
found), in W., a bad pilgrim resort, where a tiger used to 
be let loose. Madanapali (" hamlet of Madami " = Cupid) 
(7000), in S.W. The London Missionary Society, Americans, 
and Roman Catholics have missions hera 

§ 8. Bellaby and Anantapoor Districts * (Valahari) are 
hounded E. by Cuddapah and Eamool, N. and N.W. by Haidar- 
abad State from which it is separated by the Toongabhadra, S.W. 
by Dharwar, and S. by Mysore. Area, 10,871 sq. m. Population, 

^ As this passes through the press, the Madras Government has 
divided the old District of Bellary, nearly the size of Belgium, into two, 
or Bellary to the W. and Anantapoor to the £. 



380 BiADRAS PROVINCE — DISTRICTa [CKAP. xxii. 

1,653,010. The district is a treeless plateau (1200 a) of black 
cotton and red soil, sloping from the Eastern Ghats towards the 
Sahyadri or Western Ghats. The principal hills are the Sandoor 
and Kaxnpli Bauges to W., with dome-shaped granite clusters 
crowned with forts near V^ayanagar ; and the TrfiTikaniftlai 
Baxifire on K border. To S. are the isolated dusters of Pal- 
samoodram and Pennakonda^ and in the neighbourhood of Adoni 
The Copper Mountain (3U8 ft.), S.W. of Bellaiy, is so called 
because Haidar Ali worked the ore there. The Tooncrabhadra^ 
Pennar, Hassran, and Ohitravati from Mysore, are the 
chief rivers. The Hindri, from the hills near Pattikonda, flovs 
for 30 m. to Eamool, where it falls into the Toongabhadra. 
The district is the dividing line between the Kanarese and 
Telugoo-speaking peoples. The former or Kemata house fixed 
their capital at Yyayanagar in Bellary, as the Telingana Riyas 
did at Warangal in Haidarabad, in their combination agaiiLst 
their Musalman conquerors. After the Gk)lkonda, Maratha, 
Aurangzeb, Haidar Ali, and Nizam conquests, the territory 
came under Munro's civilising hands in 1800, and there the great 
Governor died. Bellary (52,000), chief town, cantonment, 
and terminus of branch railway, 30o m. N.W. of Madras from 
(}oontakool junction extending W. to Goa and Earwar, built 
round a granite rock (450 ft.), defended by an upper and lower 
fort ; S. is the native town, with fine military bazar, Cowle bazar 
(18,500), Bruce-pettah, and Mellor-pettah (19,009), named 
rrom officials. Seat of London Missionaiy Society and Roman 
Catholic missions. Hospett (" new town ") (9500), near, and 
Kampli (9000), on the Toongabhadra. HaxpanhaUi (6000), 
66 m. S.W. of Bellary, seat of powerful chief, who surrendered 
to General Harris in 1800. Adoni (23,000), railway station, 
307 m. N. W. of Madras, a weaving town ; its now ruined fort on 
five granite peaks (800 ft.), N.W., commanded the doab of the 
Kistna and Toongabhadra. Gooti (6700), railway station 275 
m. N.W. of Madras, with fort, the stronghold of the Maratha 
Morari Rao, who assisted Olive after Arcot ; here is the tomb 
of Sir T. Munro, who died of cholera on 6th Jime 1827 at 
Pattikonda, where is another memorial, a well ; his remains now 
rest in St. Mary's Church, Fort St. George. 

Anantapoor (the *.* eternal city ") (5000), 50 m. S.K of 
Bellary, former headquarters of Ceded Districts, and residence 
of Munro, between whose house (in ruins) and the town is a 
noble avenue of banian trees. Hampi, site of VUayanafirar 
capital on S. bank of Toongabhadra, 36 m. N.W. of Bellary; 
the ruins of the city described by CsBsar Frederick as 24 m. in 



CHAP. XXII.] VIJAYANAGAR — SANDOOR — KARNOOL. 381 

circuit, now cover 9 sq. m., including Eamlapoor and the later 
capital of AnagoondL The finest is the temple-group of Yittala^ 
a form of Yishnoo ; the main street parallel with the river is 
lined with temples and palaces ; from the hill above a magnifi- 
cent panorama is seen. Tadpatri (7800), railway station on 
right bank of Pennar, 227 m. N. W. of Madras. Pennaikonda 
(5000), in hilly S. country, old fortress of Vyayanagar kings, 
still of architectural interest, with palace and mosque. 

§ 9. *Sandoor State, in Bellary District, a valley covering 
140 sq. m., with a population of 10,530, isolated by hills of 
the same name, of which the chief is lUunandroosr (3150 ft.) 
or Baxnanaznalai, 38 m. W. of Bellary, a convalescent depot 
for troops since 1846, like Bangalore in climate. Bheemagoondi 
is the N.E. pass ; Ramanagoondi is the N. pass ; and the W. 
pass is Oblagoondi, through which the stream flows that feeds 
the lake of DarojL The jageerdar, a descendant of Moram 
Rao, the Maratha chief of Gooti, has a revenue of £4700. 
In the S. is the old pagoda of the Hindoo Mars, Komara or 
Eartika, frequented by pilgrims. 

§ 10. Karnool District is bounded K by Nellore and the 
Kistna, N. by Haidarabad State from which it is divided by 
the Kistna and Toongabhadra rivers, W. by Bellary, S. by 
Bellary and Cuddapah. Area, 7533 sq. m. Population, 914,432. 
The Mallamalai and Tellamalai Beuifires, running N. and 
S. parallel to the Velikonda or main edge of the Eastern 
Ghats, divide the district into three tracts. The E. is the 
Cumbum valley (600 ft.), in which is the magnificent Oun- 
bum Tank, formed by a dam across the Gundlakamma river, 
and covering 15 sq. m. From this valley the Nandikamma 
ghat (2000 ft.) and Mantial pass lead across the Nallamalais 
to the central division, a flat cotton-soil valley, crossed by the 
watershed between the Pennar and Kistna, drained by the 
Bhavanasi and Kundair, and traversed by the Madraa Irrigation 
Company's Canal. The W. division is a bare rocky track form- 
ing the N. edge of the Mysore plateau, 900 ft at Karnool town, 
and drained by the Hindri, which faUs into the Toongabhadra^ 
An anient or weir at Sunkesalay 18 m. above Karnool, sends 
oflf from the Toongabhadra that Company's irrigation and navi- 
gation canal for 189 m. to Cuddapah, of which 142 are in this 
district. Forests cover the three ranges of hills; the Nalla- 
malai forests, 2000 sq. m. in extent, yield the finest teak in the 
Eastern Ghats. There are 14 diamond localities in Karnool, of 
which Ramulkota, 18 m. S.W. of Karnool, seems to be the 
Raolconda of Tavernier. Keumool (25,000), chief town at 



382 MADRAS PROVINGE — DISTRICTS. [OHAP. zxn. 

junction of Hlndri and Toongabhadra, 80 m. N.K of Gooti, 
nearest railway station, a hot place, with mausoleum of first 
Nawab. Nandial (" place of Shiva's buU ") (9000), chief town 
of a subdivision and of Shiva -worship. Ouznbmn (7000), 
beside the great tank, with embankment 57 ft high. Gk>odoor 
(6000), 19 m. N. W. of Kamool ; former headquarters, with cotton 
and sUk weaving. Meddikera (8500), Eodumoor (6000), and 
Paikali (5000) are other places of local trade and industry. 
The American Baptists and Roman Catholics have missionB in 
this district 

§ 11. *Banaoanapali State, in S.W. comer of Kamool, 
comprises the W. half of the basin of the Kunder, and is 
watered by the Junver also. Area, 275 sq. m. Population, 
30,667, in 63 towns and villages. The capital (8000) of the 
same name, 90 m. E. of Bellary and 250 N. of Madras, lies in 
a gorge watered by a stream, half a mile from the diamond 
workings, which are in a damp clayey conglomerate and breccia, 
and run westward for some miles. The Nawab was a jageer- 
dar of the Nizam, is a Saiad of the Sheea sect, and has a groea 
revenue of £25,00a 

Northern Districts. 

§ 12. EisTNA District (Krishna) is bounded R by Bay of 
Benga], N. by Godavari^ W. by Haidarabad and Kamool, S. 
by Nellore. Area, 8471 sq. m. Population, 1,452,734. Thia 
flat district, broken in the interior by low hills (1857 ft), of 
which the chief are Bellamkonda, Kondavir, Kondapali, and 
Jamalavoidroog, is cut by the Kistna river into the Masuli- 
patam and Gantoor divisions. The Kistna turns S. from the 
K Ghats and falls into the sea by two mouths ; its delta for the 
80 intervening miles forms the district Between the Kistna 
and the Godavari deltas, to N., is the Kolar Lake, where the 
land is formed more slowly, covering 100 sq. m. in the monsoon ; 
the Metapolliem river is its outlet Masulipatam ("fish 
town," or rather the Maisolia of the Greeks) (36,500), chief 
town and port, first factory established by East India Company 
on E. coast in 1611, under a ''golden finnan" from Golkonda 
king ; succeeded by Armegaon and then Madras ; had a rich 
trade with the Spice Islands. Colonel Forde, sent by Clive from 
Calcutta, retook the town firom the French in 1759, and hold 
it under the Delhi emperor's patent of 1765 granting the five 
N. Circars. On the public drive is "Eliza's tree," so caUed 
from Mrs. Draper, Sterne's correspondent. Churoh Missionary 
Society's centre of influence on the Telugoo country; here Fox 



CHAP. XXTI.] KISTNA — GODAVARI. 383 

and Noble lived and died for the people. Qctntoor (18,000), 
on trunk road 46 m. from Masulipatam, headquarters of the 
Judge ; has trade in cotton and grain. An American Lutheran 
Mission works here. Bezwara (8000), on the Eistna, at 
the gorge of the £. Ohats, 20 m. N.E. fh)m Gantoor, at the 
junction of the Calcutta, Madras, and Haidarabad roads ; this 
is the Dhanakaketa of Hwen T'hsang, with rock-cut temples, 
the most S. Boodhist remains. The weir, 1280 yards long, 
305 ft broad, and 21 ft. above low level, sends off one' 
canal on left bank 39 m. to Ellore, and the other 49 m. to 
Masulipatam, branching also to Nizapatam and Comamoor, 
in all 254 m., irrigating a quarter of a million of acres, and 
producing £89,000 annual revenue. Jaggrayapet (9000), on 
Masulipatam road, near Haidarabad border, a prosperous mart 
and weaving town. Ohirala (9000), formerly in Nellore dis- 
trict) with cotton manufactures. Bapatla (10,500), head of a 
subdivision, 30 m. S. of Gantoor. Vinukonda (5000), town 
and hm fort (" hill of hearing") (600 ft.), at which Rama is said 
to have first heard of Seeta's abduction. In this district, on 
Sir Walter Elliott's report, the five large zameendarees, being 
in arrears of rent, were bought up by the State, so that, under 
the ryotwari assessment fixed in 1873 for 30 years, there are 
137,880 holdings owned by 169,036 proprietors, each pa3ring 
£2 : 4s. as land-tax. Aznravati, on S. bank of Kistna, 20 m. 
N.W. of Gantoor, near site of ancient Dharamkota, famous for 
its Boodhist stupa or tope and ornamental rails. 

§ 13. GoDAVABi DisTBicT is bounded K by the Bay of 
Bengal and Vizagapatam, N. by Vizagapatam and the Central 
Province, W. by Haidarabad, and S. by Kistna and the Bay of 
Bengal Area, 7345 sq. m. Population, 1,620,634. One of the 
5 N. Circars, Godavari is divided by the river from which it 
takes its name. At Dowlaishvaram, 30 m. inland, the Goda- 
vari separates into two main streams, which enclose the central 
subdivision; the French settlement of Tanaon (5 sq. m.) is 
at the mouth of the northern, the Koringa and Nursapoor 
(7000) at the mouth of the southern. The Godavari has seven 
mouths — the Tiilyabhaga, the Atreya^ the Gantami, the Yrudd- 
hagantami, the Bharadw^jam, the Eausika, and the Vasishta ; 
each is considered sacred, the river being one of the 12 at which 
the Pushkaram feast is observed. From Dowlaishvaram 
("white Shiva") (7600) the river sends off, by a weir, 19 navi- 
gable canals to the coast. Four m« higher is Rajaznahendri 
(20,000), old seat of the Orissa kings in S., and of the Yengi 
kings ; from which the French were driven by Forde after the 



384 MADRAS PROVINCE — ^DISTRICTTS. [CHAP. zzn. 

battle of Condore in 1758 ; former headquarten of a district. 
Innespet is the European suburb. Farther N. is the picturesque 
Patapatteshizn Island and Polaveram timber marl At 
Papikonda (4200 ft) is the magnificent gorge of the £. Ghats, 
through which the river breaks. The chief town of the district 
since 1861 is Oooanada ('^crow-countiy") (18,000), port with 
European trade on coast 315 m. N. of Madras and 545 S. of 
Calcutta, connected by nayigable canal with Samalkotta and 
Dowlftishvaram. Bllore (** ruling town") (20,000), on the 
Tammaler river, 255 m. N. of Madras, with Church and 
Lutheran missions ; old capital of the N. Circars, with ruins of 
fort built from Boodhist remains of Vengi Pithapooraxn 
(9500), centre of subdivision and zameenduree near coast N. of 
Cocanada. Peddapooram (9000), the same, to west Amala- 
pooram ("sinless city") (7000), in Gk>davari central delta. 
Saznulkotta (5500), 7 m. N. of Cocanada, formerly a canton- 
ment Bhadrachalaxn (2000), chief village of estate on 
upper Godavari, with old temple, 100 m. above Bigamahendri 
and 15 below Duxnagroodiem, once headquarters of engineer- 
ing operations to open up the navigation of upper Godavari, 
abandoned after an expenditure of £700,000. Oorlnfira (ancient 
Kalinga, the "stag" of the Ramayany the Ealingon of Pliny) 
(5700), port 8 m. S. of Cocanada, once the chief port on the 
coast, but now silted up; at Tallarevu, adjoining, are ship- 
building yards. 

§ 14. YiZAOAPATAM DISTRICT h bounded £. by the Bay of 
Bengal and Gazgam, N. by Ganjam, W. by Chatteesgarh and 
Bastar State, S. by Godavari and the Bay. Are^ 17,380 sq. 
m. Population, 2,296,351. In form an octagon, tlus pictur- 
esque hilly district, fertile on the coast, is largely occupied by 
the Eastern Ghats, running N.E. to S.W. (5000 ft.), and 
clothed with tall tree jungle, while the bamboo flourishes in the 
valleys. From this watershed the drainage on the £. is carried 
to the sea by numerous streams, and on the W. to the Goda- 
vari by the Indravati or the Sabail and 8iler. Another 
watershed runs along the N. of the Jaipoor tract, separating the 
drainage between the Godavari and Mahanadi ; in this are the 
sources of several tributaries of the Mahanadi, of which the chief 
is the TeL The Nimfiriri Hills (4972 ft), in the extreme N., 
are separated from the £. Ghats by valleys of some 1200 ft 
From these the principal rivers in the plain are the Nagavali, 
with its two feeders the Makkura and Saloor, which reaches 
the sea at Chikakol ; the Gostani, at Eonfida ; the Bimlipatam ; 
the Sharada and Varfiha, which reach the sea at Watt&da 35 m. 



CHAP. XXTI.] VIZAOAPATAM — BIMLIPATAM. 385 

S. of Vizagapatam town. First a portion of the old Ealinga, 
then of the eastern Chalookja kingdom, of which Vengi, near 
Ellore, was the capital, Vizagapatam afterwards came mider the 
Gigapati Rs^as of Orissa, then under the Eutub Shahi rulers 
of Delhi, and finaUy under Aurangzeb, whose viceroy ruled it 
from ChikakoL From the Nizam the tract was held in 
1753 by the French, when Bussy took Bobbili. In 1759 
Colonel Forde landed at Vizagapatam town and drove the 
French out of the N. Circars. In 1794 Colonel Prendergast 
defeated the Vizianagram Raja at Padmanabham, a village 
between his capital and Bimlipatam. In 1802 the land was 
permanently settled with that family and other 41 zameendais. 
The N. tracts are inhabited by the Saura and Khond tribes, the 
latter long guilty of the mertah or human sacrifice to the Earth 
goddess. Viza^rapatam (" town of Vishaka'' = Eartika or 
Mars) (32,500), chief town and port in a small bay between 
the Dolphin's Nose (1500 ft.) S. and Waltair N., the European 
station and cantonment. The East India Company early estab- 
lished a factory here. On the Europeans being murdered in 
1689, the fort was built on a small river which separates the 
town from the Dolphin's Nose. Waltair is high and healthy, 
but relaidng ; seat of London Missionary Society and Roman 
Catholic missions. Famous for art-work in silver, ivory, horn, 
and wood, and for honest cloth. Vizianagram (" city of V\jaya" 
= it8 founder) (23,000), British cantonment and palace-fort of 
an enlightened Mahanga, with public market and institutions 
commemorating visit o^cthe Prince of Wales, 17 m. N.W. of 
Bimlipatam (" place of "fehima " = Pandu prince) (9000), port 
on river of same name, 18 m. N.E. of Vizagapatam, and 454 S.W. 
of Calcutta, v/ith roadstead sheltered by Oopada and sugar-loaf 
headlands ; here the Dutch early had a fi^ctory, made over to 
East India Company under treaty of 1824. Since 1846 there 
has been a considerable trade by English and French houses. 
Palkonda (8700), near Ganjatt^ "Border, on Languliya river, 
seat of old and now prosperous zameendaree leased to Arbuthnot 
and Company of Madras. Parvatipoor (9000), centre of the 
Belgam zameendaree, and entrepot between hills and plains. 
Bobbili ("royal tiger") (14,500), centre of famous estate of 
same name, 70 m. N.W. of Vizagapatam ; Biissy's siege of the 
fort (1753) is memorable in history and ballad for the Raja's 
desperate defence, so that neither man nor woman and only 
one child was found alive by the victor, and four fugitives 
assassinated the Raja's rival of Vizianagram. Jaipoor (<< city 
of victory") (9500), centre of Jaipoor estate (11,526 sq. m.), 

2 



386 BIADRAS PROVINCE — ^DISTRICIS. [chap. XXIL 

on W. Blope of E. Ghats, residence of the Riya and a sab- 
magistrate. The Assistant Agent's headquarters is Korapat ; 
three vassal chiefs, Ehonds, occupy the upper portion at Goda- 
vari, Bissemkatak, and Singapoor ; Goonapoor and Bajagudda 
are also large villages, beyond which lies the Saura country. 
Saloor (10,700), centre of zameendaree long subject to Jaipoor. 
Ankapilli (13,500), centre of rich estate of same name, with 
fine garden. 

§ 15. Ganjam Distbigt (*' a granary"), most N. of Madras, 
is bounded E. by Bay* of Bengal, N. by Pooree district of Orissa, 
W. by Ealahandi, and Patna and Jaipoor estates, S. by Viza- 
gapatam. Area, 8311 sq. m. Population, 1,520,088. The 
Eastern Ghats, locally named Maliyas (2000 ft.), nearly meet 
the coast, giving this district an hour-gkss form, with swelling 
plains N. and S. covered with groves. The chief peaks are 
Mahendragiri (4923 ft.), Singharaj (4976 ft), and Deodonga 
(4534 ft.). The Ealinga Ghat is the only pass for wheeled 
traffic. The Bushikulya, in N., falls into the sea near G«n- 
jam town after a course of 100 m. The Vamsadhara 
{** bamboo river"), from the Jaipoor hiUs, flows for 145 m. 
and falls into the sea near ElaUngapatam. The Languliya 
from Ealahandi State flows for 115 m. to the sea at Alphas 
Bazar. Lakes, fresh or brackish, run along the coast, separated 
from the sea by sand-hills ; pearl oysters are found in the Sona- 
poor backwater, and in the canal from the Chilka lake (see 
** Pooree" in " Bengal ") to the Rushikulya. Like Vizagapatam, 
Ga^jam, known as the Ichhapoor Province, was under successive 
masters till in 1768 the East India Company's Resident, Mr. 
E Gotsford, founded a factory there. Disturbances in Parla 
Eimedi and Goomsoor led to campaigns in 1834-37, during 
which the English first came into contact with the Ehonda, 
and put down their meriah rite. Berhaznpoor ('' Brahma's 
town") (22,000), chief town and cantonment (Banpoor) on 
great N. road, 52 m. N.K of Madras ; GKopalpoor (3000) 
is its port, seat of sugar and silk trade ; with C^erman Baptist 
mission. Gazijaxn (4500), port, and former headquarteiB, 
at mouth of the Rushikulya. Ohikakol ("Shiva's town") 
(16,000), on the Languliya, 4 m. from the sea, fiuned for 
fine muslins. Kalinfirapatazn (5000), port 16 m. N. on 
the Vamsadhdra, with ruins of capital of old Ealinga; the 
safest roadstead on the coast Ichapoor (''city of desii«") 
(13,000), 16 m. S.W. of Berhampoor, and former capital <^ 
Circar of same name ; 6 m. to S. W. are the Boadagiri hilk. 
Aaka (4500), centre of zameendaree, and large sugar manufao- 



CHAP, xxil] GANJAM — SALEM. 387 

ture, on road from Berhampoor to Bussellkonda (3000), 
named from Commissioner Russell in 1835, headquarters of the 
Assistant Agent for the Hill Tracts, 50 m. N.W. of Gai\jam 
town. Six m. S.E. is Gooznsoor (2500), centre of subdivision, 
and former seat of the Khond chief who rebelled in 1835, 
after which meriah was put down. Parla Kixnedi (16,000), 
centre of largest zameendaree in Gaiyam (993 sq. m.), whose 
family claim descent frt)m the G^japati sovereigns of Orissa. 
From 1768 frequent outbreaks disturbed the peace to 1835, 
siuce which the estate has been improved during minorities 

West Central Districts, 

§ 16. Saleh Distbict (Chelam = <* rocks") is bounded 
K by Trichinopoli, N. and S. Arcot; N. by N. Arcot and 
Mysore; W. by Mysore and Coimbatore; S. by Coimbatore 
and TrichinopoE Area, 7653 sq. m. Population, 1,966,995. 
The district, hilly except in S., consists of three tracts, fiY)m 
B. to W. the Talaghat ("below the E. Ghats") on the level of 
the Kamatic ; the Baramahal, partly below and partly on the 
face of the Ghats; and the Balaghat ("above the Ghats **) on 
the plateau occupied chiefly by Mysore. The chief range is the 
Shivarai Hills (Seervarayar malai), covering 100 sq. m., with 
a plateau (4500 ft) of 20 sq. m., reached by two passes — on S. 
from Salem town 6 m. long, on N. from the Baramahal ; Malla- 
pooram is the railway station 8 m. from the base : the highest 
portion is the Green HillB (5410 ft), with coffee gardens, all 
forming a sanitarium which has the flora of the Neelgins ; the 
chief European settlement is Yerkaud, on the plateau nearest 
to Salem. Other hills are the Kalrayans (4000 ft.), in 
Atoor subdivision, the home of the Malay^Uis ; the Mela^iris 
(4580 ft.), in Osoor subdivision, also Malay^i, with Ponasi- 
heta peak (4969 ft.) ; the Kollamalais (4663 ft., highest), in 
Ahtoor subdivision chiefly; Pachaznalais (^' green mountains") 
^2500 ft.), running S. into Trichinopoli district; Tellafiriris 
(4437 ft. highest) ; also the Jevadi, Yatthalamalai, Erlvani, 
Yalasaimalai, Bodamalai, Thalamalai, and Thopoor hiUs, all 
chiefly gneissia The principal river is the Kavari from Coorg 
in the W. Ghats S.E. through Mysore; it irrigates the Tiru- 
chengod and Namakal subdivision. The PaJar touches the N. 
comer of the Tirupatoor subdivision. The 8. Pennar from 
Mysore flows through Osoor and Krishnagiri subdivision to 
Uttankarai near S. Arcot, where it is joined by the Pambar 
and Yaniar. The Sanath-kumara^ Yasishta, and Swetha fertilise 



388 BIADRAS PROVINCE — ^DISTRICTS. [CHAP. XXII. 

much land before passiDg into S. Arcot. Forests of some Talae 
still clothe the Jevadi and Yellagiri hills. The district became 
British under the Mysore treaties of 1792 and 1799. After 
the failure of the permanent settlement with large landholders, 
the ryotwaree settlement was perfected in 1869-1874. fi^alem 
(50,000), chief town and railway station, 206 m. S.W. of 
Madras, on the Tirumanimuttar, in a pretty valley (900 ft.) 6 m 
from the foot of the Shivarai hills; the European suburb is 
Hastanpet, 3^ m. from the railway suburb of Suramangalam, cap- 
tured by Wood in 1768, now a busy weaving town and seat of 
London Society's Mission. Tirupatoor (13,000), 137 m. S.W. 
of Madras, centre of trade, with two Christian missions. Shen- 
damanffalaxn (12,000), with ironworks. Jollarpet (1500), 
132 m. S.W. of Madras, railway junction for Bangalore and 
Mysore. Atoor (" village by the river ") (8500), on Yashista 
river, and road from Salem to Cuddalore, with fort commanding 
the pass to Sankaridroog, of note in the wars with Haidar and 
Tipoo. 

§ 17. CoiMBATOBB DISTRICT is bouuded E. by Trichinopoli 
and Salem ; N. by Mysore ; W. by the Neelgiris, Malabar, and 
Cochin States ; S. by Travankor State and Madura Area, 
7842 sq. m. Population, 1,763,274. The district slopes N.W. 
to E. from the Mysore plateau, from which it is divided by the 
Balirangam Hills, a double range (15,000 ft.) enclosing a 
valley (4000 ft.), the resort of wild elephants captured by the 
State. The Hassanoor and Burghoor passes lead thence to the 
plain, which undulates S. from Coimbatore town (1350 ft.) to 
Karoor (500 ft.). On S. the Anamalai Hills («' elephant "), 
spurs of the W. Ghats, run into Travankor State, in a higher 
(8000 ft.) and lower range, with teak forests of 80 sq. m., 
which long supplied the Bombay dockyards ; on extreme W. 
AnaxQoodi peak (8850 ft.) is the highest in S. India. The 
timber centre is Anamalai (23,000), a cluster of villages on 
the Aliyar river, 23 m. S.E. of Pal^rliat Ghap, through which 
the S.W. monsoon cools and fertilises Coimbatora The forest 
superintendent's centre is TunakAchi, 15 m. distant. The 
Kaveui flows rapidly along the N. border, and receives the 
Bhavani, Noyil, and Axnravati ; soon after leaving Mysore 
it forms the Shivasamoodraxn (<' sea of Shiva ") Island and 
noble Waterfalls (200 ft.). Coimbatore and the Salem plain 
formed part of the Dravidian Chera kingdom, with capital near 
Karoor, conquered in 9th century by the Chola dynasty, and 
afterwards merged in the Pandya dominions. Then it was part 
of the Madura kingdom in the 16th century, was long ravaged 



CHAP. XXIL] COIMBATORE — NEELGIRI HILIA 389 

by Haidar and Tipoo, and its weak Britifili garrisons were carried 
captive to Seringapatam. In 1799 it became British. There 
are missions of the London, Leipzig, and Lutheran Societies, 
and of the Jesuits. Ooixnbatore (35,500), chief town and 
nulway station on Neelgiri branch, 305 m. S.AV. of Madras 
and 50 from Ootakamand, on left bank of NoyiL Its fort used 
to command the Palghat approach to W. and the Gazalhatti 
pass to N. Peroor, with temple shrines, is 3 m. distant. 
Metapolliem (5000), terminus of Neelgiri branch railway, on 
the BhaTanl Erode (10,500), on the Eavari, 243 m. S.W. 
of Madras, junction for South Indian Railway to Trichinopoli, 
90 m. Arava-kuriohl (11,000), seat of Labhay traders, 19 
m. S.W. of Karoor (« black town ") (9500), on the Amravati 
near its junction with the Eavari, old capital of Ghera kingdom, 
mentioned by Ptolemy, also called Vengi and Garbhapoori; long 
a frontier post of Mysore. 

§ 18. Neelgibi Hills Distbict (^^blue mountains") \b 
bounded E. by Coimbatore, N. by Mysore, W. by Malabar, and 
S. by Malabar and Goimbatore. Area, 957 sq. m. Population, 
74,719. The area consists of the Neel^rlri plateau, of 704 
sq. m., raised like a wall out of the plains to an average of 
6000 ft., of 35 sq. m. in the Oohterlony valley, and of 236 
in the Wainad on N., from which the hills are separated by 
the Moyar river descending by a fall at Neddiwattam in N.E. 
angle. Only a precipitous ridge of granite peaks, projecting 
from the base of the Yellamalai cone to the W. Ghats, prevents 
the complete isolation of the plateau. The peaks range from 
Dodabetta (8760 ft.) to Eoonoor (5886 ft.), by which ghat is 
the principal approach, from the railway at Metapolliem, which 
is to be continued to Eailar and Eoonoor, 12 m. on the Rigi 
system up the heavy gradients. The Segoor and Goodaloor 
ghats lead from Mysore and Wainad. The beautiful Eoondah 
pass leads to the Eanara coast. The plateau consists of grassy 
undulating hills divided by valleys, each with a stream or 
swamp; shdas or small picturesque woods nestle in the hill- 
sides. There is one lake nearly 2 m. long at Ootakamand. The 
Moyar flows from the foot of Neelgiri peak into the Bhavani 
in Goimbatore, receiving the Paikara. The Oalicut flows 
W. to the Indian Ocean at Beypoor, near Galicut town. The 
aboriginal Todas (*^ herdsmen ''), Badagas (<* northmen "), and 
Eotas (** cow-killers"), are peculiar to the range; the Eurumbas 
(" shepherds ") and Iralas (" dark ones ") also live in its forests; 
the whole number 24,000. Scytho-druidical stone monuments 
aie everywhere found, attributed to the Pandyan kings. Three 



390 MADRAS PROVINCE — DISTMCTS. [CHAP. XXIl. 

chiefs ruled the land a century before Haidar and Tipoo seized 
the three forts. In 1814 the Surrey Department explored the 
hills, and in 1821 Mr. Sullivan built the first EnglLsh house. 
Isolated as this plateau is at 6000 ft., between two seas, two 
monsoons, and two hill ranges, with a mean temperature of 58'' F., 
it soon became. the great sanitarium of S. India Now plantations 
of coffee, tea, and cinchona are covering its expanse, on which 
thousands of Mysore coolies, directed by more than 150 European 
planters, turn out annually 4000 tons of coffee, 30,000 lbs. of 
tea, and cinchona bark from seven gardens with 600,000 trees. 
The chief town is Ootakaxnand (10,000) (7228 ft), 32 m. 
from the railway by the new ghat, and 22 hours from Madras, 
seat of the Commissioner of the district, crowded by European 
visitors from March to June; with churches, banks, schools, etc. 
The Lawrence Military Asylum is at Lovedale, 6 m. from the 
post-office. The cinchona plantation is at Dodabetta^ 1 m. The 
barracks are at "Wellinfirton or Jakatalla, 10^ m. The Basel 
Mission is at Keti, 5 m. S.E. Koonoor (3500) (6100 ft.), 
on the ascent from the railway, is 6*^ warmer than Ooty, from 
which it is 12 m. distant The Katharu waterfall to N.E. 
is nearly half-way to Kotagiii, 14 m. from Ooty, centre of tea 
gardens, and preferred by many as the best climate on the hills. 
S.E^ Wainad has become remarkable for the numerous 
auriferous quartz reefis traversing the metamorphic granites and 
gneisses, of which the Grovemment Commissioner, Mr. Brougfa 
Smyth, reports that the quartz is richer than that of Austndia 
(see Book II.). 

West Coast Districts, 

§ 19. South Kanara District is bounded E. by Mysore 
and Coorg, N. by the Bombay district of North Elanara, W. by 
the Indian Ocean, S. by Malabar. Area, 3902 sq. m. Popu- 
lation, 918,362. The Sahyadri Range (3000 to 6000 ft.) 
throws out spurs close to the coast, along which there runs a 
broken taUeland of laterite, lying on granite, with a breadth of 
from 5 to 20 m. The Jemalabad rock and the hill, Asses' Ears, 
are landmarks. The passes connecting the plateau of Coorg and 
Mysore with the district and Mangalore are Samp^ji, Agumbi, 
Charmddi, Hendar Ghur or Hasangadi, Mai\jarabad, and Koloor. 
The rivers dash down from the mountains to the Indian Ocean 
in the rainy season, and many are navigable for several miles 
from the coast. The chief are the Netravati, GKirpoor, 
Gtonffoli, and Ohendrafiriri. At Karakal there is a small lake, 
and at Kundapoor a freshwater lagoon. The clay and kaolin 



CHAP. XXII.] SOUTH KANAKA — MALABAR. 391 

deposits are worked by many manufacturers. The forests and 
lands are chiefly private property, divided into vjargs or estates, 
on each of which as a whole land-tax is paid. The people of 
this district are rather of Malabar, and speak Tulu and Malay- 
41am than Kanarese, which is the tongue of Mysore, Coorg, and 
the Ceded Districts, and has given a name to the Eamatic below 
the E. Ghats. After the Yijayanagar power was overthrown at 
Talikot (1564), the kingdom of Bednoor included Eanara, and 
was overthrown by Haidar. Tipoo cruelly forced some of the 
Christians to apostatise. After many struggles, the East India 
Company became masters in 1791. There was a slight 
insurrection in 1837 after the fall of Coorg. The Christian 
population has steadily increased, and there are many Moplas 
or Muhanmiadans of Arab descent. Maneralore ("glad town'') 
(30,000), chief town, port, and cantonment, separated from the 
Indian Ocean by a backwater formed by the Netrdvati and the 
Gurpoor ; hence the coffee of Coorg is shipped, and there is 
trade with Arabia and the Persian Gul£ Headquarters of the 
Basel Lutheran Mission, with noble industrial mission house 
and press. The Carmelites have large missions here. Elarakal 
(''black stone") (3500), on road from Mangalore to Mysore 
by the Agoombi Pass, a Jain village with interesting remains. 
Udipl (4000), in N., with vast pagoda, most frequented of 
Kanarese shrines of Krishna; its suburb, Kalyanapoor, is 
believed to be the Kalliena of Cosmas Indicopleustes (545 
A.D.). Moolki, seat of Basel Mission, 15 m. N. of Mangalore, 
on the Shambavati, where the New Testament was translated 
into Tulu. Bantwei (5000), entrepot on the Netrdvati, 15 
m. K of Mangalore. 

§ 20. Malabab District is bounded E. by Coimbatore, 
Neelgiris, and Coorg; N. by S. Kanara; W. by the Arabian Sea; 
S. by Cochin and Travankor States. Area, 5763 sq. m. Popu- 
lation, 2,336,032. This district, extending along the coast of 
the same name for 145 m., stretches back to the Sahsradrl 
MountaixiB for from 25 m. on N. to 70.on S., broken by long 
spurs and valleys, with rivers discharging into backwaters. 
The Sahyadris are thrown back on either side for 24 m. to form 
the Palirliat Gkip, with the Neelgiris on N. and the Anamalais 
on S. Abreast of Calicut the Sahyadris recede E. and form with 
the Wayut Hills (" camel's hump '') the Emad vaDeys. Th