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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 

EDITED BY 
fT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

tE. CAPPS, ph.d., ll.d. fW. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST, l.h.d. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.r.htst.soc. 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF STRABO 
VI 






THE GEOGRAPHY 
OF STRABO 



WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
HORACE LEONARD JONES, Ph.D., LL.D. 

CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



IN EIGHT VOLUMES 
VI 




LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

MCMLX 



G 
21 

Mil 

' ' ' First prinled 1929 

V. G> Reprinted 1954, 1960 



°7 



.b 



14 



10 9 52 7 f) 



Printed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS 



BOOK XIII 3 

BOOK XIV 197 

A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 387 



THE 

GEOGRAPHY OF STRABO 
BOOK XIII 



A 2 



2TPABQN02 rEOrPA<I>IKQN 

ir 



C581 1* Meypt fiev hevpo dcpcopicrOoo ra irepl tt}? 
Qpvyias' eiravtovres he wdXiv iirl rrjv Upoirov- 
riha Kal rrjv €(f)€Jjf)<; ra) Ala-rjiray irapcCkiav rrjv 
avT7)V rfjs irepLoheias rdfjiv drrohcao-o/iev. can 
he Tpcoa? nrpcorrj t?}? nrapaXia^ ravrr\<$, ?^? to 
rroiXvO pvXrjrov, KaiTvep ev ip€i7rloi<; Kal ev eprj/ila 
XeiiTO/jLevrjs, 6'yLto)? iroXvXoyiav ov rrjv rvypvo-av 
rrapeye^ rfj ypacpfj. 7r/?o? rovro he crvyyvd)fi7]<; 
Set Kal Trapa/cXrjcrea)?, 07ra>? rrjv alriav rod 
fjLtjtcovs /jlt) rjfitv fiaWov avdirrooaiv * ol ivrvy- 
ydvovres rj tch? afyohpa iroOovat, rrjv row ivho^fov 
fcal rraXaitav yvaxriv irpoaXafx^dvei he rq> 
fxrjKei Kal to ttXtjOos rcov eTTOLKrjadvrcov rrjv 
yoapav 'T&Wrjvcov re Kal fiapftdpwv, Kal ol 
avyypacpels, ovyl to, avrd ypdcpovres irepl rciyv 
avrcov, ovhe aa^>(o<! rrdvra' &v ev to?9 irpcorois 
early "Ofirjpos, elxd^eiv irepl rcov TrXeiaroov 
irapeycov. hel he Kal ra rovrov hiairdv Kal ra 

1 avcLTTTOHriv, Kramer, for avanrwe'iv F, avdirToiev other 
MSS. ; so the later editors. 

1 The translator must here record his obligations to ])r. 
Walter Leaf for his monumental works on the Troad : his 
Troy, Macmillan and Co., 1912, and his Strabo on the Troad, 
Cambridge, 1923, and his numerous monographs in classical 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF STRABO 
BOOK XIII 



l. 1 Let this, then, mark the boundary of Phrygia. 2 
I shall now return again to the Propontis and the 
coast that comes next after the Aesepus River, and 
follow the same order of description as before. The 
first country on this seaboard is the Troad, the 
fame of which, although it is left in ruins and in deso- 
lation, nevertheless prompts in writers no ordinary 
prolixity. With this fact in view, I should ask the 
pardon of my readers and appeal to them not to 
fasten the blame for the length of my discussion 
upon me rather than upon those who strongly yearn 
for knowledge of the things that are famous and 
ancient. And my discussion is further prolonged 
by the number of the peoples who have colonised 
the country, both Greeks and barbarians, and by 
the historians, who do not write the same things 
on the same subjects, nor always clearly either ; 
among the first of these is Homer, who leaves us 
to guess about most things. And it is necessary 
for me to arbitrate between his statements and 

periodicals. The results of his investigations in the Troad 
prove the great importance of similar investigations, on the 
spot, of various other portions of Strabo's "Inhabited 
World." 

- The reader will find a map of Asia Minor in Vol. V. (at 
end). 

3 



STRABO 
tcov aXXoov, v7Toypd\jravTa<; irpoTepov iv Ke<j>aXaioo 

TTjV TCOV TOTTCOV <f)VO~lV. 

2. 'AtTO Br] 1 T?}? K.v£lK7)vf)S KOL TCOV TT€pl 

Aiarjirov tottcov teal TpdvLKOv p>ixP l 'A/3uSou Kal 
%r](TTOV TTJV t% TJpoTTOVTiBos irapaXiav elvai 
av/nftaLvei, dirb Be 'AfivBov fiexpi AeKTOv ra 
Trepl "lXiov Kal TeveBov /ecu ' AXetjdvBpeiav rrjv 
TpcodBa* irdvTCOV Br) tovtcov VTrepKetTat, r) u IBtj 
to opo$, /J>&XP L Ae/crov KaOrjKovaa' dirb Acktov Be 
fieXP L Kat/cou TTora/jiov Kal tcov Kavcov Xeyo/ievoov 
earl rd Trepl "Ao~o~ov Kal ' ABpafivTTiov Kal 
'ATapvea Kal WiTavrjv Kal tov 'RXalTiKov 
C 582 koXttow ol? irdaiv dvTiTraprjtfei r) tcov Aeafticov 
vrjaos' eW eff/9 Ta Trepl Kv/irjv fiexpL f/ Epyu,oi/ 
Kal QcoKaias, yjirep dpxv p>ev Trfc 'IaWa? €<ttl, 
irepas he t?}? AloXiBos. tolovtcov Be tcov tottcov 
ovtcov, 6 fiev TTOir)Tr)<i dub tcov Trepl AXq~y)ttqv 

TOTTWV Kal TCOV TTCpl T1)V VVV Ku^Kr)V7]V X ( * > P CLV 

VTrayopevei /jbaXiaTa tovs Tpcoa<i dp^ai ^XP l T0 ^ 
KacKOV TTOTa/jiov Biyprnxevovs KaTa BwaaTela? 
eh oktco fjiepiBa<; rj Kal ivvea- to Be tcov aXXcov 
eTTiKOvpcov TrXrjOo? iv Tot? 0-171/za^o*? BiapiO- 
fxelTai. 

3. Ol 8' vGTepov tov? opow; ov tovs avTov? 
Xeyovai Kal Toh ovofiaai XP& VTCLL BirjXXayfievcos, 
alpeaeis 2 vefiovTes TrXeiov?. /idXiaTa Be at tcov 
'EXXrjvcov diroiKLai Trapecrx^KacrL Xoyov tjttov jjl€v 
7) 'IcoviKry irXelovi yap BieaTrjKe t>}? TpoodBos' r) 

1 Mi, Corais, for 5e ; so the later editors. 
* Meineke, following conj. of Corais, emends alptaeis to 
Siaipcoeis. 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 1-3 

those of the others, after I shall first have described in 
a summary way the nature of the region in question. 

2. The seaboard of the Propontis, then, extends 
from Cyzicene and the region of the Aesepus and 
Granicus Rivers as far as Abydus and Sestus, 
whereas the parts round Ilium and Tenedos and 
the Trojan Alexandreia extend from Abydus to 
Lectum. Accordingly, Mt. Ida, which extends 
down to Lectum, lies above all these places. From 
Lectum to the Caicus River, and to Canae, 1 as it 
is called, are the parts round Assus and Adramyttium 
and Atarneus and Pitane and the Elaitic Gulf; and 
the island of the Lesbians extends alongside, and 
opposite, all these places. Then come next the 
parts round Cyme, extending to the Hermus and 
Phocaea, which latter constitutes the beginning of 
Ionia and the end of Aeolis. Such being the 
position of the places, the poet indicates in a 
general way that the Trojans held sway from the 
region of the Aesepus River and that of the present 
Cyzicene to the Caicus River, 2 their country being 
divided by dynasties into eight, or nine, portions, 
whereas the masts of their auxiliary forces are 
enumerated among the allies. 

3. But the later authors do not give the same 
boundaries, and they use their terms differently, 
thus allowing us several choices. The main cause 
of this difference has been the colonisations of the 
Greeks ; less so, indeed, the Ionian colonisation, for 
it was farther distant from the Troad ; but most of 

1 On the position of this promontory, see Leaf, Ann. Brit. 
School at Athens, XXII, p. 37, and Strabo on the Troad, 
p. xxxviii. 

2 See Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. xli. 

5 



STRABO 

Be tcov AloXecov Travrdiraai' tcaO' oXrjv yap 
ecrtceBdo-Or) dirb ty)? Kvfy/crjv)'/? p^XP L r °v Kafoov 
teal €7reXa/3ev en irXeov ttjv fiera^v tov Kattcov 

KCU TOV "EppLOV TTOTCLflOV. TETpaat, jdp Br) 

yeveal? trpeafivTepav e^aal rrjv AloXi/er)v airoi- 
Kiav ty\? 'lcavitcrj?, BiaTpiftd? Be Xa/3elv teal 
%povov? fiatepOTepov?. ^OpeaTiiv p,ev yap api~ai 
tov o~toXov, tovtov £' ev 'AptcaBiq, TeXevTtjaavTO? 
tov filov, BiaBe^aadai tov vlbv avTov YlevOiXov 
teal irpoeXOelv fieXP 1 ®pdtcii? e^i'iieovTa ereeri tcov 
Tpcoitecov vaTepov, vn avTrjv ttjv tcov 'HpatcXei- 
Bcbv el? HeXo7r6vvrjaov tedOoBov' elr y Ap%eXaov, 
vlbv eteelvov, irepaicbaai tov AloXitebv gtoXov el? 
tjiv vvv K.v^lkt)V))v t^ ire pi to AaatevXiov' Tpav 
Be, tov vlbv tovtov tov vecoTaTOv, irpoeXObvTa 
fieXP* tov Ypav'ueov iroTapuov teal irapeaKevaa- 
fievov dfieivov irepaicoaai to irXeov tt)? aTpaTia? 
el? Aeaftov teal teaTaa^elv avrrjv' KXevrjv Be, tov 
Acbpov, teal MaXabv, teal avTov? diroybvov? 
ovTa? 'A<ya/-i6p,vovo?, avvayayelv pev Tr)v aTpa- 
tlclv teaTa tov avTov xpovov, tcaO* bv teal UevOl- 
Xo?' dXXa tov puev tov YlevOiXov aToXov (f>0rjvai 
TrepaicodevTa etc t?}? (dpa/d]? el? t^ ' Aaiav, tov- 
tov? Be irepl ttjv AoteplBa teal to Qpiiciov opo? 
BtaTplyjrai ttoXvv ^povov, vaTepov Be BiafidvTa? 
KTLaai ttjv Kvfiijv Ti]v <Ppitccovi,Ba teXrjOeiaav dirb 
tov AotcpiKov opov?. 

4. Tcov AloXecov tolwv tcaB' oXrjv a/eeBaa6ev- 
tcov tt)V yjuopav, rjv ecfrapev virb tov ttoltitov 
XeyeaOai Tpcoiterjv, ol l vaTepov 01 fiev iraaav 
AloXlBa it poaayopevovaiv, ol Be fxepo?, teal Tpolav 

1 8\ after ol, Corais suggests ; so the later editors. 
6 






GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 3-4 

all that of the Aeolians, for their colonies were 
scattered throughout the whole of the country from 
Cyzicene to the Caicus River, and they went on 
still farther to occupy the country between the 
Caicus and Hermus Rivers. In fact, the Aeolian 
colonisation, they say, preceded the Ionian colonisa- 
tion by four generations, but suffered delays and 
took a longer time ; for Orestes, they say, was the 
first leader of the expedition, but he died in 
Arcadia, and his son Penthilus succeeded him and 
advanced as far as Thrace sixty years after the 
Trojan War, about the time of the return of the 
Heracleidae to the Peloponnesus; and then Arche- 
laiis 1 the son of Penthilus led the Aeolian expedition 
across to the present Cyzicene near Dascylium ; and 
Gras, the youngest son of Archelaiis, advanced to 
the Granicus River, and, being better equipped, led 
the greater part of his army across to Lesbos and 
occupied it. And they add that Cleues, son of 
Dorus, and Malaiis, also descendants of Agamemnon, 
had collected their army at about the same time 
as Penthilus, but that, whereas the fleet of Penthilus 
had already crossed over from Thrace to Asia, Cleues 
and Malaiis tarried a long time round Locris and 
Mt. Phricius, and only later crossed over and 
founded the Phryconian Cyme, so named after the 
Locrian mountain. 

4. The Aeolians, then, were scattered throughout 
the whole of that country which, as I have said, 
the poet called Trojan. As lor later authorities, 
some apply the name to all Aeolis, but others to 
only a part of it ; and some to the whole of Troy, 

1 Pausanias (3. 2. 1) spells his name n Echelas." 



STRABO 

ol [lev oXtjv, ol Be fi&pos avrr}<;, ovBev lXq)<; dXXij- 
Xois OfioXoyovvres. evOvs yap eiri twv Kara ttjv 
TVpOTTOVTiha TOTTCOV fl€V "O/jLTjpo? airb Alarjirov 
ttjv apxh v Trutelrai tt}<? TpwdBos' E#5ofo? Be 
airb TIpiaTrov x kcl\ 'Aprdfer)*;, rov ev rfj KvtyKrjvwv 
C 583 v V a( P X a) P L0V avraipovros ra> Ylptdirrp, auareXXayv 
eV eXarrov tou? opovs' Aa/zao-r?;? 8' ere fiaXXov 
crvo-reXXei airb U.apioV teal yap ovros fxev e&>? 
Aevrov irpodyei, aXXou 8' aXXax;' Xa/30)i> S' o 
AafiyjraKrjvb^ TpiaKooLovs aXXovs d(f>aipel ara- 
Glovs, airb UpaKTLOV dp%6/JLevo<;' roaovroi yap 
eicriv airb Ylapiov et? Ylpdrcriov' eew? fievroi 
'A&pa/jLVTTiov irpbeicrC H/cvXaf; Be 6 KapvavBevs 
airb 'AftvBov apyetcLt*' bpLoiax; Be ttjv AloXiBa 
"E0o/jo? /iev Xeyei drrb 'AfivBov f-^X.P l Ku/^77?, 
aXXoL B* aXXo)?. 

5. Toiroypa(f)€i Be fcdXXio-ra ttjv ovtco? Xeyo- 
fievrjv Tpoiav rj tt)? "iBr]<; Been?, opov? v-yjrrjXov 
fiXeTTOVTO? 7r/>o? Bvcriv Kal ttjv raxWrj OdXarrav, 

fllKpCl B' €7riCrTp€<f)0VT0<> 2 KaX 7T/30? dpKTOV /Cat TTJV 

ravrrj irapaXiav. earn Be avrrj p,ev t?}? II poirov- 
tiBos airb roiv irepl "AftvBov arevwv eVi rov 
Aiarjirov KaX ttjv Kv^iKTjvrjv, r> B' eairepia 6d- 
Xarra 6 re 'EXXtfaTroPTOs eaTip 2 6 eg w 4 KaX to 
Alyalov ireXayo*;. ttoXXovs B' e\ova-a irpoiroBas 

1 na\ 'ApTawrrjs . . . Tlpiaircp, Leaf, in Journal of Hellenic 
Studies, XXXVII., p. 22, would delete ; so in his Strabo on 
the Troad, p. 2 (see his note on p. 47). 

2 C1Tl<TTp(<pOVTOS Eit*, iTTHTTpCMpfVTOS Other MSS. 

3 6, before e|w, Kramer inserts : so the later editors. 
* r£« EF, iu 2. other MSS. 

1 Iliad 2. 824. See § 9 following. 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1.4-5 

but others to only a part of it, not wholly agreeing 
with one another about anything. For instance, in 
reference to the places on the Propontis, Homer 
makes the Troad begin at the Aesepus River, 1 
whereas Eudoxus makes it begin at Priapus and 
Artace, the place on the island of the Cyziceni that 
lies opposite Priapus, 2 and thus contracts the limits; 
but Damastes contracts the country still more, 
making it begin at Parium ; and, in fact, Damastes 
prolongs the Troad to Lectum, whereas other 
writers prolong it differently. Charon of Lamp- 
sacus diminishes its extent by three hundred stadia 
more, making it begin at Practius, 3 for that is the 
distance from Parium to Practius ; however, he pro- 
longs it to Adramyttium. Scylax of Caryanda 
makes it begin at Abydus ; and similarly Ephorus 
says that Aeolis extends from Abydus to Cyme, 
while others define its extent differently. 4 

5. But the topography of Troy, in the proper 
sense of the term, is best marked by the position of 
Mt. Ida, a lofty mountain which faces the west and 
the western sea but makes a slight bend also towards 
the north and the northern seaboard. 5 This latter 
is the seaboard of the Propontis, extending from 
the strait in the neighbourhood of Abydus to the 
Aesepus River and Cyzicene, whereas the western 
sea consists of the outer Hellespont 6 and the 
Aegaean Sea. Mt. Ida has many foot-hills, is like 

2 See Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. 47. 

8 Whether city or river (see 13. 1. 21). 

4 See Leaf's definition of the Troad {Troy, p. 171). 

See Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. 48. 
6 On the meaning of the term Hellespont, see Book VII, 
Frag. 57 (58), and Leaf {Strabo on the Troad), p. 50. 



STRABO 

rj "l&rj koI <TKo\oTrev8p(o8r)<; ovaa to a^ij/jLa 
eV^aTot? a(f>opi^6Tai tovtols, tw t€ irepl ttjv 
ZeXeiav cue pwrrj pico Kal tg> KaXovpLevw Acktw, tw 
(lev reXevTWvri els ttjv /necroyaiav puKpov unep 
rrj<i Kv&K7)vr)<;' /ecu Brj kcu eari vvv r) ZeXeia 
twv Kv^ikijvmv to Be Acktov els to ireXayos 
/caOrffcei to Alyalov, ev irapdirXw Keip.evov rot? Ik 
TeveBov irXeovaiv els Aeo~/3ov. 

"IBrjv 8' LKavov iroXviriBaKa pu^Tepa Oijpcov, 
Acktov, 66 l l irpwTov XnreTi]v aXa 

"Tttvos Kal t) r/ Hpa, tois ovcuv oIkclcos tov nroir\Tov 
(j>pd%oVTOS to AeKTov /cal yap otl t?}? "IBtjs eVrl 
to Asktov icai Sioti irpcoTT) dirbftacns Ik 0aXaTT7)s 
avTrj toIs eirl ttjv "lBrjv dviovaiv, etprjKev bpdws, 2 
koX to TToXvirihaKov evvBpoTaTov yap KaTa TavTa 
/idXio-Ta 3 to opos, BrjXol Be to ttXtjOos tcov 

TTOTafJLOJV, 

ocraoi cfn 'IBatcov opecov aXaBe irpopeovai, 

'TrjaOS 6' 'ETTTaTTOpoS T€ 

Kal ol e%r)s, ovs eKelvos etprjtce Kal tj/jllv vvvl 
irdpeo'TLV opav. tovs Br) irpoiroBas tovs e'er^a- 
tou? e</>' €KaT6pa cfrpdfav* ovtcos to Acktov Kal 
tt)V ZeXeiav, olKeiws tovtcov Kal aKpropeiav 
d(f)opi£ei Ydpyapov, aKpov Xeycov 5 Kal yap vvv 

1 '6di, Xylander, for on ; so the later editors. 

2 Kal to . . . boav, ejected by Meineke. 

3 Kara ravra fidXtara, Leaf brackets (see his note, op. cit. t 
p. 49). 

4 <ppd(a!j/, Meineke, from conj. of Kramer, for Spai. 

io 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 5 

the scolopendra 1 in shape, and is defined by its 
two extreme limits : by the promontory in the 
neighbourhood of Zeleia and by the promontory 
called Lectum, the former terminating in the interior 
slightly above Cyzicene (in fact, Zeleia now belongs 
to the Cyziceni), whereas Lectum extends to the 
Aegaean Sea, being situated on the coasting- voyage 
between Tenedos and Lesbos. When the poet says 
that Hypnos and Hera "came to many-fountained 
Ida, mother of wild beasts, to Lectum, where first 
the two left the sea," 2 he describes Lectum in 
accordance with the facts ; for he rightly states that 
Lectum is a part of Mt. Ida, and that Lectum is the 
first place of disembarkation from the sea for those 
who would go up to Mt. Ida, and also that the moun- 
tain is u many-fountained," for there in particular 
the mountain is abundantly watered, as is shown by 
the large number of rivers there, "all the rivers 
that flow forth from the Idaean mountains to the 
sea, Rhesus and Heptaporus " 3 and the following, 4 
all of which are named by the poet and are now to 
be seen by us. Now while Homer thus describes 
Lectum 5 and Zeleia 6 as the outermost foot-hills of 
Mt. Ida in either direction, he also appropriately 
distinguishes Gargarus from them as a summit, 
calling it "topmost." 7 And indeed at the present 

1 A genus of myriapods including some of the largest 
centipedes. 

2 Iliad 14. 283. 8 Iliad 12. 19. 

* The Granicus, Aesepus, Scamander, and Simoeis. 
1 Iliad 14. 284. 6 Iliad 2. 824. 

7 Iliad 14. 29.', 352 ; 15. 152. 

6 fceycMr, Kramer, for rtpwv CFmoz, repov D with e above r 
man. sec, whence erepov hi and Tzschucke. 

II 



STRABO 

Tdpyapov ev to?? dvco fxepeai t?}? "IS?;? BeiicvvTai 
T07ro?, d(f>' ov ra vvv Fdpyapa ttoXis AloXitcr]. 
evrbs pev ovv tt}? ZeXei'a? teal tov Acktov Trpwrd 
iariv diro ttj<; UpOTrovriSos dp^apievoLS rd x pe\pi 
roiv tear " AfivBov arevoiiv' elr* e£a> tt}? Tlpoirov- 
tLBos rd fJLexpL Ae/crou. 
C 584 6. K.d/jL\jravTL Be to Aetcrbv dva^eirat koXttos 
fj,eya<;, ov r) "IBrj iroiel irphs Tr)v rjiretpov dvayw- 

pOVGCL 2 dlTO TOV AeKTOV KCU al Kdvdl, TO €K 

darepov fiepovs dvTocelpbevov d/cpayTrjpiov tw 
Ae/CTO)* tcaXovcri 8' ol p<ev 'I halo v koXttov, ol 8' 

'ABpafAVTTTJVOV. €V TOVTG) Be OIL TWV AloXecOV 

Tr6\ei<; p£%P l T ^ >v €Kj3oXcov tov "Rppov, KaOdnrep 
elpijtcapev. el'prjTai Be ev tois epirpoaBev otl toi? 
e/c Bv^avTiov irXeovcri 7r/)o? votov eV evOeia? 
iaTlv 6 7rX.oO?, irpoiTov eirl XrjaTov koX v AfivBov 
Bid /jLecrr]? t/)? YlpoirovTiBos, eireiTa t?)? irapaXia^ 3 
tt}? 'Acria? P-^XP 1 Ka/9ta?. TavTTjv Br) (f>vXaTTOV- 
Ta? XPl T7 ) v vTTodeaiv d/coveiv tcov ef?}?, fedv 
XiyMpLev koXttovs Tivds iv tj} irapaXia, Ta? tb 
d/cpas Bel voelv Ta? iroiovaa^ clvtovs eirl t?)? 
avTrjs ypapLfii)^ Keifieva*;, wcrirep tlvos p.ear)/jL- 
ftpivfjs. 

7. 'E« Br) T(bv vtto tov 7roir)TOV Xeyopievcov 

eltcd^OVCnV OL (f)pOVTLO-aVT€<; 7T6pl TOVTCOV TrXeOV Tl, 

irdaav Trjv irapaXiav Tavrrjv vtto toi? Tpcool 
yeyovevai, Birjpr]pAvr]v p,ev et? BwaaTeia? evvea, 

1 to, before fi(XP l > Groskurd inserts ; so the later editors. 
* avaxvpovaa E, airox<»pov(ra other MSS. ; so Leaf. 
8 T7jy irapa\las is indefensible ; perhaps irapa tV irapahlav 
(Kramer). 

1 See Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. xliv. 
12 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 5-7 

time people point out in the upper parts of Ida a 
place called Gargarum, after which the present 
Gargara, an Aeolian city, is named. Now between 
Zeleia and Lectum, beginning from the Propontis, 
are situated first the parts extending to the straits at 
Abydus, and then, outside the Propontis, the parts 
extending to Lectum. 

6. On doubling Lectum one encounters a large 
wide-open gulf, which is formed by Mt. Ida as it 
recedes from Lectum to the mainland, and by Canae, 
the promontory opposite Lectum on the other side. 
Some call it the Idaean Gulf, others the Adramyt- 
tene. On this gulf 1 are the cities of the Aeolians, 
extending to the outlets of the Hermus River, as I 
have already said. 2 I have stated in the earlier parts 
of my work 3 that, as one sails from Byzantium 
towards the south, the route lies in a straight line, 
first to Sestus and Abydus through the middle of the 
Propontis, and then along the coast of Asia as far as 
Caria. It behooves one, then, to keep this sup- 
position in mind as one listens to the following ; and, 
if I speak of certain gulfs on the coast, one must 
think of the promontories which form them as lying 
in the same line, a meridian-line, as it were. 

7. Now as for Homer's statements, those who 
have studied the subject more carefully 4 conjecture 
from them that the whole of this coast became 
subject to the Trojans, and, though divided into 
nine dynasties, was under the sway of Priam at the 

1 13. 1. 2 (see Leaf's article cited in foot-note there). 

* Strabo refers to his discussion of the meridian-line drawn 
by Eratosthenes through Byzantium, Rhodes, Alexandria, 
Syene, and Meroe (see 2. 5. 7 and the Frontispiece in Vol. I). 

* Strabo refers to Demetrius of Scepsis and his followers. 

13 



STUABO 

virb Be tw Tlpid/ifp rerayixevr]v Kara rbv 'IXtaKov 
ttoXc/jlop /cat, Xeyo/xevqv Tpolav BF)Xov Be ck rcov 
Kara fiepos. ol yap rrepl rbv 'A y^iXXea rei-^rjpei^ 
opwvres tou? 'IXtea? /car ap^a?, e^co TroielaOai 
rbv irok€fJiov eireyelpijaav Kal rrepuovres a<f)atp€L- 
aOai ra kvkXw' 

BcoBeKa &rj avv vrjval TroXeis aXdirat; uv&pco- 

7T0)V, 

7refo? 8' evBeicd §r\p.i Kara Tpolrjv ipi/3o)\ov. 

Tpoiav yap Xeyei rr)v ireTropdrj^ievrjv yireLpov 
ireirbpOqraL Be avv aXXois roiTOis koX ra dvriKei- 
fieva rfj Aia/Sw ra irepl ®offr]v Kal Avpvt]aabv 
Kal Yly'jBaaov rrjv rcov AeXeycov Kal en rj rov 
YavpvttvXov rov YrfXe^ov TraiBos' 

aXX' olov rbv TrjXe(j>lBr]v Karevr]paro ^aXKU), 

6 Neo7TToXe/xo9, rjpco ^vpvirvXov. ravra Brj Treirop- 
Otjadai Xeyei Kal avrrjv ri/v Aeafiov 

ore Aea/3ov ivKTifxevi]v eXev 1 avrbs' 
Kal 

rrepae Be Avpvrjaabv Kal TlrjBaaov 
Kal 

Avpvijaabv BiaTTOp6)]aa$ Kal rei^ea 0. ( '9>;?. 
€K fiev A vpvrjaaov rj JSpLarjls edXco 

rtjv €k Avpvrjaaov e^eiXero' 

779 ev rfj dXcoaet, rbv Mvvrjra 2 Kal rbv ^ularpo^ov 
ireaelv, (frrjaiv, a>? rj RpiarjU 9pi]V0vaa rbv Hdrpo- 
kXov BrjXol' 

14 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 7 

time of the Trojan War and was called Troy. And 
this is clear from his detailed statements. For 
instance, Achilles and his army, seeing at the outset 
that the inhabitants of Ilium were enclosed by walls, 
tried to carry on the war outside and, by making 
raids all round, to take away from them all the 
surrounding places : " Twelve cities of men I have 
laid waste with my ships, and eleven, I declare, by 
land throughout the fertile land of Troy." 1 For by 
"Troy " he means the part of the mainland that was 
sacked by him ; and, along with other places, Achilles 
also sacked the country opposite Lesbos in the neigh- 
bourhood of Thebe and Lyrnessus and Pedasus, 2 which 
last belonged to the Leleges, and also the country of 
Eurypylus the son of Telephus. " But what a man was 
that son of Telephus who was slain by him with the 
bronze," 3 that is, the hero Eurypylus, slain by Neopto- 
lemus. Now the poet says that these places were 
sacked, including Lesbos itself: "when he himself 
took well-built Lesbos " ; and ' ' he sacked Lyrnessus 4 
and Pedasus " ; 5 and " when he laid waste Lyrnessus 
and the walls of Thebe." 6 It was at Lyrnessus that 
Briseis was taken captive, "whom he carried away 
from Lyrnessus"; 7 and it was at her capture, 
according to the poet, that Mynes and Epistrophus 
fell, as is shown by the lament of Briseis over 

1 Iliad 9. 328. 2 Iliad 20. 92. 

• Odyssey 11. 518. * Iliad 9. 129. 

6 Iliad 20. 92. • Iliad 2. 691. 

7 Iliad 2. 690. 



1 t\tt>, Xylander, for e'Aey ; so the later editors. 
8 teal rhv 'Eirl(rTpo<pov, Meineke ejects. 



15 



STRABO 

ovbe \xev ovbe ji eaa/ces, or avbp ep.ov ay/cv? 

'A^Weu? 
e/cretvev } rrepaev Be iroKiv Oeioio Mwi/to?, 
KXaieiv 

C 585 efMpalvec yap rrjv Avpvrjaabv Xeywv rroXiv Oeioio 
IS/lvvrtros, ft)? av Bvvaarevop,evr/v vir avrov, kcli 
evravda ireaelv avrbv fMa^bfievov e/c Be rf}<; &rj{3rj<; 
r) Xpvarjls e\rj(f)@r)' 

(p\6p,e6^ 6? ®rj/3r]v leprjv ttoXiv 'Hericovo?* 

ex Be rcov d\6evrcov enelOkv qbrjaiv elvai rrjv 
"KpvarjlBa. ivOevBe B* r)v kcli r) ' AvBpop.dyr\ * 

1 ' KvBpopbdyr] Ovydrrip peyaXrjropos 'Hertwi/o?* 
'Hericov, o? evaiev virb U\d/cw vXrjeaarj, 
Si]/3y tf T7roTT\afCiT), KiXL/ceaa' dvBpeaaiv dvda- 
acov. 
Bevrepa ovv avrrj Bvvaareia TpwLKrj fxera rrjv 
virb yivvriTi. otVetw? Be rovrois teal to virb rrj<; 
'AvBpo/JLdxr)<; Xe%oev ovrcos, 

"ErcTop, eyco Bvarrjvos' It} dpa yeivofieO' alar) 
d/JLoborepoi, av puev ev Tpolrj Hpidpov ev\ oi/cq> y 
avrap eyco Srjfiyaiv, 

ov/c olovrai Belv ef evOeia? dtcoveiv, av p.ev ev 
Tpoirj, avrap iyeb (dr/ftrjcriv rj <drj/3r)0ev, 2 dXXa /cad' 
virepfiarov d/ncporepoL ev Tpoij), 3 av fiev Hpidfiov 
evl ottccp, avrap eyco ©rj^rjai. rpirrj B' iarlv 
r) rcov AeXeycov, teal avrrj Tpcoitcrj, 

"AXreco, o? AeXeyeaai cpiXoirroXefiOiaiv dvda- 
aei' 
ov rfi Ovyarpl avveXdcov Upiafios yevva rbv 
16 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 7 

Patroclus: "thou wouldst not even, not even, let 
me weep when swift Achilles slew my husband and 
sacked the city of divine Mynes " ; 1 for in calling 
Lvrnessus "the city of divine Mynes" the poet 
indicates that Mynes was dynast over it and that he 
fell in battle there. But it was at Thebe that 
Chryseis was taken captive : " We went into Thebe, 
the sacred city of Eetion " ; 2 and the poet says that 
Chryseis was part of the spoil brought from that 
place. 3 Thence, too, came Andromache : " Andro- 
mache, daughter of great-hearted Eetion ; Eetion 
who dwelt 'neath wooded Placus in Thebe Hypo- 
placia, 4 and was lord over the men of Cilicia." 5 
This is the second Trojan dynasty after that of 
Mynes. And consistently with these facts writers 
think that the following statement of Andromache, 
" Hector, woe is me ! surely to one doom we were 
born, both of us — thou in Troy in the house of 
Priam, but I at Thebae/' 6 should not be interpreted 
strictly, I mean the words " thou in Troy, but I at 
Thebae" (or Thebe), but as a case of hyperbaton, 
meaning " both of us in Troy — thou in the house of 
Priam, but I at Thebae." The third dynasty was 
that of the Leleges, which was also Trojan : i( Of 
Altes, who is lord over the war-loving Leleges," 7 by 
whose daughter Priam begot Lycaon and Polydorus. 

1 Iliad 19. 295. 2 Iliad 1. 366. 

8 Iliad 1. 369. 4 The epithet means " 'neath Placus." 

5 Iliad 22 477. 6 Iliad 22. 477. 7 Iliad 21. 86. 



x iuQiiht . . . 'AvSpofxdxv, found only in the Epitome. 
8 <rv fity . . . ©^/37j0ef, Meineke ejects. 
3 iv TpoiT) Epitome, Ik Tpol-qs MSS. 



17 



STRABO 

Avtedova real TloXvBcopov. teal firjp oX ye vtto tw 
"Eacto/h €p tw tearaXoyep rarrropevoL XeyoviaL 
Towe?' 

Tpcoal /lev rjyepLoveve fieyas KopvdaioXo?" Ft/era) p. 

eW ol vtto to) Alvela' 

AapBavlcov avr r\p\ep iv$ 7rat<? * Ay )(laao* 

teal ovroi Tpcoes' <f)r)ari yovv' 

Alvela, Tpdioav /3ovXi](f)6pe. 

eW ol vtto IlavBdpw Avteioi, ov<; /cal avrou? teaXel 

ol Be ZeXeiav evaiov viral iroBa velarov "IBrj?, 
*A(f>veiol, irlvovres vBcop peXav Alarjiroio, 
Towe?' rtov avr 1 VPX e Avtcdopos dyXaos u/09, 
UapBapos. 

€/cttj B J avTT) Bvvaarela. teal prjv 01 ye fieTafju 
rou AlarjiTOv teal 'AftvBov Tpwes' vtto pev yap 
tu> 'A a la) earl rd irepl " AftvBov' 

ol B* dpa XlepfecoTTjv zeal IIpd/cTiov dpL(peve- 

p,ovro, 
teal XrfaTov teal "AfivBov e\ov teal Blav y Aplaj3rjv, 
twv av(f 'TpTatelBrj? rjp^ "Aa-to?" 

aXX 1 ev *A(3vB(p p,ev u/o? tov UpLap,ov BieTpiftev, 
Xttttov? vepicov, irarpcpas BtjXovotl' 

a\V vlov Upidp,oio v66ov ftdXe Ar]pLote6coPTa, 
05 ol y Aj3vB66ev rjXOe irap Ilttttcop oateeidcop' 

C 586 ev Be Ueptecorrj vlbs 'Ifeerdovos eftovvopuei, ovte 
dXXorpla<i ouB' ovtos /3oiV 
18 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 7 

And indeed those who are placed under Hector in 
the Catalogue are called Trojans: "The Trojans 
were led by great Hector of the flashing helmet." 1 
And then come those under Aeneias : " The Dar- 
danians in turn were commanded by the valiant son 
of Anchises " ; 2 and these, too, were Trojans; at 
any rate, the poet says, M Aeneias, counsellor of the 
Trojans." 3 And then come the Lycians under 
Pandarus, and these also he calls Trojans : " And 
those who dwelt in Zeleia beneath the nethermost 
foot of Ida, Aphneii, 4 who drink the dark water of 
the Aesepus, Trojans ; these in turn were commanded 
by Pandarus, the glorious son of Lycaon." 5 And 
this was the sixth dynasty. And indeed those who 
lived between the Aesepus River and Abydus were 
Trojans ; for not only were the parts round Abydus 
subject to Asius, "and they who dwelt about Percote 
and Practius 6 and held Sestus and Abydus and 
goodly Arisbe 7 — these in turn were commanded by 
Asius the son of Hyrtacus,'' 8 but a son of Priam 
lived at Abydus, pasturing mares, clearly his father's : 
w But he smote Democoon, the bastard son of Priam, 
for Priam had come from Abydus from his swift 
mares"; 9 while in Percote a son of Hicetaon was 
pasturing kine, he likewise pasturing kine that 

1 Iliad 2. 816. * Iliad 2. 819. 

3 Iliad 20. 83. 

4 Aphneii is now taken merely as an adjective, meaning 
"wealthy" men, but Strabo seems to concur in the belief 
that the people in question were named "Aphneii" after 
Lake "Aphnitis" (see 13. 1. 9). 

• Iliad 2. 824. 

6 Whether city or river (see 13. 1. 21). 

7 Oil Arisbe, see Leaf, Tn»j. 193 ff. 

8 Iliad 2. 835. » Iluid 4. 499. 

19 



STRABO 

rrpoirov 5' '\K€Taovihrjv evevnrev 1 
l$)6ifjL0v MeXdvnnrov' 6 8' ocppa puev elXiiroha^ 

/Sou? 
/36<tk ev UepKCorrj' 

ware kcu aurrj civ eit) Tpwas real r) €(f>e^rj<; eo>9 
'Ahpaareta^' ?lpX 0V yap dvjr)<; 

vie hvco Meyoo7ro? YlepKcoaiov. 

7rdvT€<; /lev hr) Tptoes 01 airo ' Afivhov p>eXP L 'A£/oa- 
crTeta?, BLya fievroi hLrjprjfjLevoi, 01 fxev vtto tw 
' Aaiw, 01 h' vtto rot? Mepoirihais' icaddirep kclL r) 
twv KiXlkwv SiTTt], r) fifp Qrfftaitcrj, r) he Avpvrja- 
criV ev avrfj 2 h' av \e^#et>/ r) vtto JLvpvnvXa) 
ecfye^r)^ ovcra Tjj Avpvrjaaihi. otl he rovrcov 
dirdvTwv r)pX ev Rpiafios, 01 rod 'A^fXXew? 
Xoyoi irpbs rov Uplafiov o~a<pax; eficfyavt^ova-L' 

teal o~e, yepov, to irp\v p,ev d/covofiev oXftiov 

elvai, 
oggov Aeaftos avw Ma/capos ttoXis ivrbs 

eepyei, 
teal t&pvyitj /cadvwepOe, real 'KXXrjcnrovTO's 

cnreLpwv? 

1 iv4*arcr, Kramer, for twtircv x, ivtttvcv other MSS. 

2 For iv owtjj, Madvig conj. ii/dry. 

3 After aireipwv Miiller-Diibner add another line (546) from 
Homer. tu>v ae, y4poi>, wkoiry re Kal vldcri <pacr\ KiKaadai, as 
necessary to the sense ; so Leaf (Strabo on the Troad, pp. 6 
and 57). 

1 i.e. the kine belonged to Priam. This son of Hicetaon, 
a kinsman of Hector {Iliad 15. 545), "dwelt in the house of 
Priam, who honoured him equally with his own children" 
{Iliad 15. 551). 

20 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 7 

belonged to no other : x *' And first he rebuked 
mighty Melanippus the son of Hicetaon, who until 
this time had been wont to feed the kine of 
shambling gait in Percote " ; 2 so that this country 
would be a part of the Troad, as also the next 
country after it as far as Adrasteia, for the leaders of 
the latter were "the two sons of Merops of Per- 
cote." 3 Accordingly, the people from Abydus to 
Adrasteia were all Trojans, although they were 
divided into two groups, one under Asius and the 
other under the sons of Merops, just as Cilicia 4 also 
was divided into two parts, the Theban Cilicia and 
the Lyrnessian ; 5 but one might include in the Lyr- 
nessian Cilicia the territory subject to Eurypylus, 
which lay next to the Lyrnessian Cilicia. 6 But that 
Priam was ruler of these countries, one and all, is 
clearly indicated by Achilles' words to Priam : "And 
of thee, old sire, we hear that formerly thou wast 
blest ; how of all that is enclosed by Lesbos, out at 
sea, city of Macar, and by Phrygia in the upland, 
and by the boundless Hellespont." 7 

2 Iliad 15. 546. * Iliad 2. 831. 

* The Trojan Cilicia (see 13. 1. 70). 
5 See 13. 1. 60-61. 

* The eight dynasties were (1) that of Mynes, (2) that of 
Ketion, (3) that of Altes, (4) that of Hector, (5) that of Aeneias, 
(6) that of Pandarus, (7) that of Asius, and (8) that of the two 
sons of Merops. If, however, there were nine dynasties (see 
13. 1. 2), we may assume that the ninth was that of Eury- 
pylus (see 13. I. 70), unless, as Choiseul-Gouffier (Voyage 
J'ittoresque de la Grece, vol. ii, cited by Gossellin) think, it 
was that of the island of Lesbos. 

7 JlUid 24. 543. The quotation is incomplete without 
the following words of Homer: "o'er all these, old sire, 
thou wast pre-eminent, they say, because of thy wealth and 
thy sons." 



STRABO 

8. Tore fiev ovv rotavra virrjpxev, varepov Be 
r)Ko\ov6r)aav /juerafioXal iravrolai. ta fxev yap 
irepl Kv&kov Qpvyes iirarerjaav ews Upa/erlov, ra 
Be irepl "AftvBov Spates' ert Be irporepov tovtcov 
a/jL(f>olv Be&pvrees real Apvoires' 1 ra S* e^ijs Tpyjpes, 
real ovtol Spates' to Be (B)?;/^?? ireBiov AvBoi, ol 
Tore Mr/oves, koX Mvcreov ol irepiyevbjxevoi rcov 
vtto Tr)\e(f)(p irporepov ical Tevdpavn. ovtw Brj 
rov 7rotr)TOv rrjv AloXiBa real rrjv Tpoiav els ev 
crvvrtdevros, real twv AloXerov rrjv airo rov 
"Epfiov iraaav pe^pi rrjs Kara Kv&reov irapaXias 
fcaTao-%6vTa)v real iroXeis rericrdvTwv, ovB' av 
rj/xels droireos TrepLoBevaaifiev, els ravrh avvri- 
Oevres 2 ti)v re AloXiBa vvv IBioos Xeyofjuevrjv. tt]v 
airo rov "Ep/iov fi€XP c Ae/croO /cal ttjv e'^efr)? 
jjl&XP 1 T °v Alatjiruu' ev yap tols read' ereaara 
Biarepivovfiev irdXiv, irapajiQ ewes dfxa rots vvv 
overt ra vtto rov TTOLrjTov koX rcov dXXwv Xeyofieva. 

9. "Ecttiv ovv fiera rrjv rcov Kv^iktjvojv itoXlv 
teal rov A'lo-ijttov apXV T *fc TptodBos read^'Ofiripov. 
Xeyei 6° ereecvos fiev ovrco irepl avrrjS' 

01 Be ZeXeiav evaiov viral iroBa veiarov "18779 
'Acfiveioi, irivovres vBwp fieXav Alarjiroio, 
Tpcoes' rcov avO* ypx e Av/edovos dyXabs vlos, 
TldvBapos. 

C 587 tovtovs Be iredXei real Avklovs' ' Acfrveiovs Be airo 

1 For Apvoires Leaf conj. Ao\ioves. 

2 EFrax-z have ffvvQhres. 

1 Leaf (Strabo on the Troad, p. 61) makes a strong case for 
emending "Dryopes" to "Doliones," but leaves the Greek 
text (p. 7) unchanged. 
22 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 8-9 

8. Now such were the conditions at the time of 
the Trojan War, but all kinds of changes followed 
later ; for the parts round Cyzicus as far as the 
Practius were colonised by Phrygians, and those 
round Abydus by Thracians ; and still before these 
two by Bebryces and Dryopes. 1 And the country 
that lies next was colonised by the Treres, themselves 
also Thracians ; and the Plain of Thebe by Lydians, 
then called Maeonians, and by the survivors of the 
Mysians who had formerly been subject to Telephus 
and Teuthras. So then, since the poet combines 
Aeolis and Troy, and since the Aeolians held 
possession of all the country from the Hermus 
River 2 to the seaboard at Cyzicus, and founded 
their cities there, I too might not be guilty of de- 
scribing them wrongly if I combined Aeolis, now 
properly so called, extending from the Hermus 
River to Lectum, and the country next after it, 
extending to the Aesepus River ; for in my detailed 
treatment of the two, I shall distinguish them again, 
setting forth, along with the facts as they now are, 
the statements of Homer and others. 

9. According to Homer, then, the Troad begins 
after the city of the Cyziceni and the Aesepus River. 
And he so speaks of it: a And those who dwelt in 
Zeleia beneath the nethermost foot of Ida, Aphneii, 3 
who drink the dark water of the Aesepus, Trojans; 
these in turn were commanded by Pandarus the 
glorious son of Lycaon." 4 These he also calls 
Lycians. 5 And they are thought to have been 

* See 13. 1. 1, and p. 40 of Leaf's first article cited in foot- 
note there. 

* See foot-note on Aphneii in 13. 1. 7 

* Iliad 2. 824. 6 See 13. 1. 7. 

23 



STRABO 

t% *A(j)viTiBo<; vofxi^ovai \ifjivr]<i' teal yap ovrco 
/caXelrai rj Aacr/cvXtTis. 

10. 'H fiev Brj ZeXeta iv ttj irapwpeia rfj 
uardrrj rr}<; "18779 eo"riv, aire^ovaa Kvty/cov /lev 
crTahiovs evevr}KOV7a teal e/carov, r?}? 8' eyyvraTO) 
0a\drrr]<;, tcaO* r)v eKBLBcoaiv A £0-7777-0?, oaov 
oyBorj/covra. eirifiepL^eL Be avpe^a)<; ra Kara rrjv 
nrapaXlav tt)v fiera top Alarjirov 

01 8' 'ABprjcrreidv T elyov teal Byj^lov * Airaiaov, 
teal Ultvclv elypv 1 /cal Tt]peLr]<; opos alirv, 
ra)V VPX 'ABprjo-Tos re real "A^jo? Xivo0copr]!j, 
vie Bvco Meponos llepfecoalov. 

ravra Be ra x ui p' ia T V ZeXeta /nev viroTreirrcoKe, 
eyovai Be Kv^lkijpol t€ fcai Uptamjpol i^e^pL teal 
tt)? irapaXias. irepl fxev ovv rrjv ZeXeiav 6 
Tdpaios icrri iroTafio^, eifcoaiv eywv Siaftdaei? 
rfj avrfj o8a>, teaOdirep 6 'JLirTdTropos, ov (f)i]criv 6 
7roL7)T7]<i' 2 o 8' e/e N*# o/x^eia? eh NUaiav rer- 
rapas zeal eL/cocrc, 7roXXovs Be zeal 6 ex OoAor?? et<? 
t))v 'HXeiav . . . X/edpOcop irevre teal ei/eoai, 

1 IltTveiav ixov is the reading of the Homeric MSS., but see 
Tlirva in § 15 below. 

2 6 8' 4k . . . Tavpov, Meineke ejects. 



1 On the site of Zeleia, see Leaf, Strabo on the Trocul, p. 66. 

2 Iliad 2. 828. 

3 The places in question appear to have belonged to 
Zeleia. Leaf (op. cit., p. 65) translates: "are commanded by 
Zeleia" ; but the present translator is sure that, up to the 
present passage, Strabo has always used viroirinTw in a purely 
geographical sense (e.g., cf. 9. 1. 15, and especially 12. 4. 
6, where Strabo makes substantially the same statement 

24 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 9-10 

called " Aphneii " after Lake "Aphnitis," for Lake 
Dascylitis is also called by that name. 

10. Now Zeleia 1 is situated on the farthermost 
foot-hill of Mt. Ida, being one hundred and ninety 
stadia distant from Cyzicus and about eighty stadia 
from the nearest part of the sea, where the Aesepus 
empties. And the poet mentions severally, in con- 
tinuous order, the places that lie along the coast 
alter the Aesepus River : ' ' And they who held 
Adrasteia and the land of Apaesus, and held Pityeia 
and the steep mountain of Tereia — these were led 
by Adrastus and Amphius of the linen corslet, the 
two sons of Merops of Percote." 2 These places lie 
below Zeleia, 3 but they are occupied by Cyziceni and 
Priapeni even as far as the coast. Now near Zeleia 
is the Tarsius River, 4 which is crossed twenty times 
by the same road, like the Heptaporus River, 5 which 
is mentioned by the poet. 6 And the river that flows 
from Nicomedeia into Nicaea is crossed twenty-four 
times, and the river that flows from Pholoe into the 
Eleian country 7 is crossed many times . . . Scarthon 
twenty-five times, 8 and the river that flows from the 

concerning Zeleia as in the present passage). But see Leaf's 
note [op. cit.), p. 67. 

4 On this river see Leaf, work last cited, p. 67. 

6 Strabo does not mean that the Heptaporus was crossed 
twenty times. The name itself means the river of "seven 
fords" (or ferries). 

• Iliad 12. 20. 

7 i.e. Elis, in the Peloponnesus. 

8 The text is corrupt ; and " Scarthon," whether it applies 
to a river or a people, is otherwise unknown. However, this 
whole passage, "And the river that flows from Nicomedeia 
. . . crossed seventy-five times," appears to be a gloss, and 
is ejected from the text by Kramer and Meineke (see Leaf's 
Strabo and the Troad, p. 65, note 4). 

2 5 

VOL. VI. B 



STRABO 

ttoXXovs Be teal 6 ite Koatcirifov et? ' AXdffavBa, 
irevre Be teal e^Bo/iytcovTa 6 ete Tvdvcov eis ZoXov? 
Blo, tov Tavpov. 

11. 'Tjrep Be rr}? eV/SoX?}? tov Alarjirov o~xeB6v 
ri . . .* Giahiois teoXwvos eariv, ifi c5 Ta(f>o<; 
BeitevvTai Me/nvovos tov TlOcovov' irXrjaiov B' earl 
teal 7) MifJbvovos Kcofirj. tov Be Alaijirov teal tov 
Upidirov fxeTa^v 6 Tpdvtteos pel, to, TroXXa Bl 
y ABpao-TeLa<; ireBiov, e#' oj 'AXegavBpos rov$ 
Aa/ eiov craTpdiras dvd tepaTOS ivLtetjae ovfxfiaXcov, 
teal iraarav tijv evios tov Tavpov teal tov Ev<ppd- 
tov TrapeXafiev. eirl Be Tpavltew ttoXls; tjv XiBijvrj, 
\d)pav e^ovaa ttoXXtjv o/jlwvv/llov, KaTeairaaTat 
Be vvv. ev Be ttj fxeOopia tt)? Kv&terjvrjs teal t?}? 
Upia7r7)vr}s iaTl tcl 'Apirdyia 2 ro7ro?, cf ov tov 
YavvfAi'iBriv fivOevovcriv rjpirdxdar dXXoi Be irepl 
AapBdvtov atepav, irXrjo-iov AapBdvov. 

12. UpLairos 8' eoTl iroXis eirl OaXaTTrj teal 
Xifiijv' KTiapua 8' ol fxev MtXrjalcov cbacrlv, oiirep 
teal " AfSvBov teal Upo/eovvrjcrov avvepKiaav teara 
tov clvtov teaipov, ol Be K.v£i/et]vcov' incoiwfio^ 8' 
earl tov Upidirov TifKOfievov trap avTols, eW e'f 
'Opvewv toov irepl Y^bpivQov p.eTevr)ve<yp,evov tov 
lepov, etre tS> Xeyeadai Aiovvaov teal vv/.«pr]<; tov 
debv bpfxi)(jdvTwv eirl to ti/jlclv avTov to)v dvOpdt- 
ttoqv, eiret,Br) acpoBpa evdfJLireXos eo~Tiv t) yd>P a Kai 

1 After rt there is a lacuna in the MSS. except Fi, i read- 
ing iv sIkogi. 

2 ' Apirdyta, the spelling in Stephanas; 'Apirdyfia F, ' Apira- 
X^ia (unaccented) D, ' A^tthx^o. other MSS. 

1 The number of stadia has fallen out of the MSS. 
26 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 10-12 

country of the Coscinii into Alabanda is crossed 
many times, and the river that flows from Tyana 
into Soli through the Taurus is crossed seventy-five 
times. 

11. About . . - 1 stadia above the outlet of the 
Aesepus River is a hill, where is shown the tomb ot 
Memnon, son of Tithonus ; and near by is the village 
ot Memnon. The Granicus River flows between the 
Aesepus River and Priapus, mostly through the plain 
of Adrasteia, 2 where Alexander utterly defeated 
the satraps of Dareius in battle, and gained the 
whole of the country inside the Taurus and the Eu- 
phrates River. And on the Granicus was situated 
the city Sidene, with a large territory of the same 
name ; but it is now in ruins. On the boundary 
between the territory of Cyzicus and that of Priapus 
is a place called Harpagia, 3 from which, according 
to some writers of myths, Ganymede was snatched, 
though others say that he was snatched in the 
neighbourhood of the Dardanian Promontory, near 
Dardanus. 

12. Priapus 4 is a city on the sea, and also a harbour. 
Some say that it was founded by Milesians, w r ho at 
the same time also colonised Abydus and Proconnesus, 
whereas others say that it was founded by Cyziceni. 
It was named after Priapus, who was worshipped 
there ; then his worship was transferred thither from 
Orneae near Corinth, or else the inhabitants felt an 
impulse to worship the god because he was called 
the son of Dionysus and a nymph ; for their country 
is abundantly supplied with the vine, both theirs 

% See Leaf, work last cited, p 70. 

* The root harpag means "snatch away." 

4 On the site of Priapus, see Leaf, p. 73. 

27 



STRABO 

avrr] teal 7) x e'</>ef rj<; opLopos rj re t&v Uapiavcov 
Kal rj T&v Aa/jLyfraKrjvcov' 6 yovv He^of *?? tw &€/jlht- 
tok\€l et? olvov eBco/ce rrjv Adp,yjraKOv. direBeLX^V 
Be Oeb? outo? virb tS)V vecorepwv' ovBe yap 
C 588 'HaioSos olBe Upiarrov, a\V coikc roU ^Attikols 
'OpOdvy Kal ¥Loviaak(p Kal 'X.vywvi Kal rols 
toiovtois. 

13. 'EKaXelro B* r) yotpa avrrj 'ABpaareia Kal 
y ABpao-T€ia<; ireBLov, Kara eOos tl ovtw Xeyovrwv 
to avrb ^wpiov BiTTO)<i, a>? Kal Srfftrjv Kal ®?)@r)<; 
ireBiov, Kal MvyBoviav Kal MvyBovias ireBiov. 
(f>7)(rl Be 2 K.a\\i(T0evr]<i dirb ' 'ABpdarov /3ao-fc\e&>?, 
6? TTpa>TO<; Neyu.eo-60)? lepbv IBpvaaro, KaXelaOat 
'ABpdareiav. r) fxev ovv ttoXis fxera^v Tlpidirov 
Kal Hapiov, eyovcra vnoKelfievov ireBiov iircovv/JLOv, 
iv o5 Kal /lavrelov r)v 'AttoWcovos "A«:tchou Kal 
1 'Apre/juBos Kara tt)v . . . . 3 eh Be Wdpiov fierrj- 
ve'x^V Trdva rj KaraaKevrj Kal \i0ia 4 Kara- 
(TTTacrOevTO*; rov lepov, Kal (pKoBo/JurjOr) iv tw Tlapiw 
/3a)/j,6<;, 'EpfAOKpeoiTOs epyov, TroWr}? /jlvij/jlt]^ 
a%iov Kara to 5 fieyeOos Kal KaWo?' to Be fiavrelov 
€%7]\el(pd7]* KaOdirep Kal to iv ZeXela. ivravOa 
fxev ovv ovBev lepbv 'Afy>ao*T€ta? BeiKwrai^ ovBe Brj 

1 y, Meineke inserts. 

2 /rat, before KaWtcrdevrjs, Corais and Meineke omit. 

8 Kara tV T\vKarr\v (omitted by Cx), after 'AprefitSos, is 
corrupt ; Kara t)]v tvkcltiv Dhi ; Kara Tr\v iiraKrlav, conj. Voss 
on Scylax, p. 85 ; Kara tV o.kt4)v, conj. Berkel on Stephanus, 
s.v. 'AKT-ff (Kramer approving) ; Kara r)]v trvjxar-nv aKT-qv, 
Groskurd ; Kara tV TlaKrvrjv, conj. Meineke; koto rrjv 
TlirvaTtv, conj. Corais. 

4 \18la, Meineke emends to Ai9e(a. 

6 Instead of r6 moxz read re ; so Corais and Meineke. 

28 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 12-13 

and the countries which border next upon it, I mean 
those of the Pariani and the Lampsaceni. At any 
rate, Xerxes gave Lampsacus to Themistocles to 
supply him with wine. But it was by people of later 
times that Priapus was declared a god, for even 
Hesiod does not know of him; and he resembles 
the Attic deities Orthane, Conisalus, Tychon, and 
others like them. 

13. This country was called "Adrasteia" 1 and 
" Plain of Adrasteia/' in accordance with a custom 
whereby people gave two names to the same place, as 
"Thebe" and "Plain of Thebe," and " Mygdonia" 
and " Plain of Mygdonia." According to Callisthenes, 
among others, Adrasteia was named after King 
Adrastus, who was the first to found a temple of 
Nemesis. Now the city is situated between Priapus 
and Parium ; and it has below it a plain that is 
named after it, in which there was an oracle of 
Apollo Actaeus and Artemis. . . . 2 But when the 
temple was torn down, the whole of its furnishings 
and stone- work were transported to Parium, where 
was built an altar, 3 the work of Hermocreon, very 
remarkable for its size and beauty ; but the oracle 
was abolished like that at Zeleia. Here, however, 
there is no temple of Adrasteia, nor yet of Nemesis, 

1 On the site of Adrasteia, see Leaf, p. 77. 

8 Three words in the Greek text here are corrupt. Strabo 
may have said that this temple was "on the shore," or "in 
the direction of Pityeia" (the same as Pitya ; see § 15 follow- 
ing), or "in the direction of Pactye" (see critical note). 

8 This altar was a stadium (about 600 feet) in length 
(10. 5. 7). 

6 l£r\Xet<p9r) is emended by Muller-Diibner and Meineke to 
i^t\fi(bdr). 

29 



STRABO 

Neyiiea-e&K, irepl Be Kv^iteov Igtw ABpaaTela? lepov. 
'Aim/Lta^o? 8* ovro) (pyjalv 

€(ttl Be t«? NeyU60"t? fieydXrj Oeos, rj rdBe iravra 
7r/jo? fiarcdpcop eXa^ev /3co/jl6v Be oi eltdaro 

7T/)60TO? 

"ABpiiaTos ttotcl/jloio irapa poov Alarjiroio, 
evOa reTLfjLTjTal re teal ^Bptjareca teaXeiTai. 

14. "Eo-Tt Be teal to Udpiov ttoXi? eVl OaXaTTrj, 
Xifxeva eypvaa /jLet^co rf}<; YIpLonrov, teal ^v^rj/xep^ 
ye ite ravrrj^' depairevovTes yap oi llapiavol 
tov<; 'ATTaXireovs, ixf oh ereraKro rj Upia- 
iT7)vrj, TToWrjV auTr}? cnrere/JiovTO, eiriTpeiTovTWv 
eteeivcov. evravOa fivOevovai tov<; 'O^toyei'et? 
Gvyyeveidv Tiva eyeiv 77730? tov? o$ei<$ % (pacrl 8 
avrcov tovs appevas Tot? €%io8i]/eTOi<; a/eo<; elvai 
awe^a? e^airropevov^, wairep tovs ewcpBovs, 
irpoirov p,ev to TreX'wopLa t*t? eavTovs /j,eTa(f)epoi>Tas, 
etTa teal tyjv <f)Xeyp,ovr)v iravovTa^ teal top ttovov. 
fjLvOeuovac Be top dp-^rjyeTijv tov yevovs rjpcod Tiva 
ef 6'<£ea>9 fieTaftaXelv Ta%a Be tcov ^VvXXcov tis 
rjv TOdv Atftvtewv, et? Be to yevos BieTeuvev i) 
Bvva/xis ^XP° 7roa °V' iCTiafxa 8' IctI to Udpiov 
hliXyairov teaVKpvOpaiiov teal Ylapucov. 

15. IliTva x B 1 IgtIv ev YIitvovvti tt}? Uapiavr/s, 

1 Instead of Uirva, the Epitome, following the Homeric 
MSS. (see § 10 above), reads Uirveta. 

1 A not uncommon appellation of the gods. 

8 Note the variant spelling of the name. 

8 "Serpent-born." 

« See Leaf, work last cited, p. 85. 6 See 17. I. 44. 

6 See Fraser, Totemism and Exogamy, 1. 20, 2. 54 and 4. 178. 

7 According to the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (1. 
30 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 13-15 

to be seen, although there is a temple of Adrasteia 
near Cyzicus. Antimachus says as follows : "There 
is a great goddess Nemesis, who has obtained as her 
portion all these things from the Blessed. 1 Adrestus 2 
was the first to build an altar to her beside the 
stream of the Aesepus River, where she is worshipped 
under the name of Adresteia." 

14. The city Parium is situated on the sea ; it has a 
larger harbour than Priapus, and its territory has been 
increased at the expense of Priapus ; for the Parians 
curried favour with the Attalic kings, to whom 
the territory of Priapus was subject, and by their 
permission cut off for themselves a large part of that 
territory. Here is told the mythical story that the 
Ophiogeneis 8 are akin to the serpent tribe ; 4 and 
they say that the males of the Ophiogeneis cure 
snake bitten people by continuous stroking, after the 
manner of enchanters, first transferring the livid 
colour to their own bodies and then stopping both 
the inflammation and the pain. According to the 
myth, the original founder of the tribe, a certain 
hero, changed from a serpent into a man. Perhaps 
he was one of the Libyan Psylli, 5 whose power per- 
sisted in his tribe for a certain time. 6 Parium was 
founded by Milesians and Erythraeans and Parians. 

15. Pitya 7 is in Pityus in the territory of Parium, 

933), cited by Leaf {Troy, p. 187), " Lampsacus was formerly 
called Pityeia, or, as others spell it, Pitya. Some say that 
Phrixus stored his treasure there and that the city was 
named after the treasure, for the Thracian word for treasure 
is 'pitye'" (but cf. the Greek word "pitys," "pine tree"). 
Strabo, however, places Pitya to the east of Parium, whereas 
Lampsacus lies to the west (see Leaf, I.e., pp. 185 ff. ; and his 
Strabo on the Troad, p. 87). In § 18 (following) Strabo says 
that ' ' Lampsacus was formerly called Pity ussa. " 

3' 



STRABO 

v7repK€L/ji€Pov exova-a 7nrva)Se<; opos' /xera^v Bk 
Kelrai Waplov koX YipidiTOV Kara Alvov, ywpiov 
iirl OaXdrrrj, ottov ol Aivovctloi /co^Xlai dpicnoi 
rcov irdvrwv dXicr/covrai. 

16. 'Ey Be T(p irapd-rrXw tw diro Uapiov el? 
Uplairov i] re TraXaid Upo/covvrjcros iari ical rj 
vvv Upo/covvrjcros, itoXlv eyovoa Kal p,eraXAov 

C 589 fAeya \cvkov XlOov a4)6Bpa iiraivov^evov rd yovv 
KaXXicrra rcov ravrrj TroXecov epya, iv Be rols 
Trpcora 1 rd iv Kv£i/c(p t ravTTjs iarl rr}<; XlOov. 
ivrevOev icrriv ' Apiarian, 2 6 iroirjTrjs rcov 'Aoj- 
fiacrTreiwv KaXovfievcov iircov, dvrjp 70?;?, el rt<? 
dXXo$. 

17. To BeTypetrj^ 3 opos ol /xev rd iv Ueipooaaa) 
0/37/ <\>acriv, d eyovaiv ol Kv&ktjvoI rfj ZeXela 
irpoaex^j, iv oh ftacrCXiKri 6r]pa /career fcevaaro 
tols AvBols, teal YIepaais varepov' ol hV diro 
rerrapaKovra arraBlayv Aafiifrdfcov BeiKvvovai 
Xocf)ov, i(f) y (v Mt/t^o? Oecov lepov eo~riv dyiov, 
Trjpelr)? 4 iiTiKaXovfievov. 

18. Kal fj Aa/x^a/cos 6° eVt daXdrrr} iroXis 
iorlv evXijuevos real djjioXoyos, avfi/ievovcra /caXcos, 
uenrep Kal r) "AftvBos' Bci^ei B* avrrj^ oaov 

1 7rpd>Ta, Corais, for jcpCrov ; so the later editors. 

2 'Apto-Teas, Casaubon, for 'Apurrcuos ; so the later editors. 

3 T-qpeir)s, in margin of E, for (>elr]5 C, rijs pen)s other 
MSS. 

4 T7jpei7js, the editors, for tt?s fei-qs. 

1 Leaf {I.e.) translates, "hill shaped like a pine tree," 
adding (p. 187) that "the resemblance to a pine tree, so far 
as my personal observation went, means no more than that 
the hill slopes gently up to a rounded top." However, the 
Greek adjective probably means in the present passage 

32 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 15-18 

lying below a pine-covered mountain ; 1 and it lies 
between Parium and Priapus in the direction of 
Linum, a place on the seashore, where are caught 
the Linusian snails, the best in the world. 

16. On the coasting-voyage from Parium to 
Priapus lie both the old Proconnesus and the present 
Proconnesus, the latter having a city and also a great 
quarry of white marble that is very highly com- 
mended ; at any rate, the most beautiful works of 
art 2 in the cities of that part of the world, and 
especially those in Cyzicus, are made of this marble. 
xA-risteas was a Proconnesian — the author of the 
Arimaspian Epic, as it is called — a charlatan if ever 
there was one. 3 

17. As for "the mountain of Tereia," 4 some say 
that it is the range of mountains in Peirossus which 
are occupied by the Cyziceni and are adjacent to 
Zeleia, where a royal hunting-ground was arranged 
by the Lydians, and later by the Persians ; 5 but 
others point out a hill forty stadia from Lampsacus, 
on which there is a temple sacred to the mother of 
the gods, entitled "Tereia's" temple. 

18. Lampsacus, 6 also, is a city on the sea, a 
notable city with a good harbour, and still flourishing, 
like Abydus. It is about one hundred and seventy 

" pine covered " (cf. the use of the same adjective in 8. 6. 22, 
where it applies to a sacred precinct on the Isthmus of 
Corinth). 

* i.e. buildings, statues, and other marble structures (see 
5. 2. 5 and 5. 3. 8, and the foot-notes on "works of art"). 

a See 1. 2. 10, and Herodotus, 4. 13. 

4 The mountain mentioned in Iliad 2. 829. 

6 Xenophon (Hellenic* 4. 1. 15) speaks of royal hunting- 
grounds, "some in enclosed parks, others in open regions. " 

6 Now Lapsaki. On the site, see Leaf, p. 92. 

B 2 



STRABO 

eftSofitf/covra Kal i/earbv araBiov^' iKaXecro Be 
rrporepov UiTVovaaa, KaOdirep Kal ttjv Xlov 
(Jhutlv' iv Be rfj irepaia 1 t?}<? Xeppovijaov nro- 
Xi^vibv i<TTL KaWiwoXis' Kecrai & eV a/tT^?, 

€KK€lfl6V71 2 7ToXv 7T/30? TTjV ' AalaV KCLTO, TT)V 

Aa/j,\jra/cr)va)V ttoXlv, ware to Blappua fir) irXeov 
eivai rerrapaKovra (ttclSicov. 

19. 'Ei> Be to) fjLera^i) Aapu-^rdKOv /cal Ylapiov 
Uaiab<i r)v ttoXis real irorap.6^' KareanaaraL 3 8* 
7] 7roXt?* ol Be TLatarjvol /j,€T(pKr)crav eh Ad/j,\jra- 
kov, MiXrjo-Lcov 6We? airoLKOL koI avrol, Kadairep 
Kal ol AafjbyfraKrjvol' 6 Be ttoiiitt]^ eiprjfcev dji<^o- 
Tepco<i, /cal Trpoo~del<; ttjv irpcorrjv avXXaftrjv, 

Kal Brjfjiov ' Airaicrov, 

KCU d(f)€\(OP, 

o? p ivl TlaLGw 
vale 7ro\v/cT7]fio)v. 

/cal 6 7rora/zo; vvv ovrco KaXelrai. MlXtjo-Cwv B* 
elal Kal at KoXcoval at virep Aa/i^d/cov iv rfj 
fieaoytiia t?)? Aa/Ayjrafcyvrjs' aXXai B' elalv iirl 
rfj €/ct6$ 'RXXrjaTTovTLa OaXaTTri^lXiov Bieyovaai 
o-tuBlovs TerrapaKovra irpbs rots e/carov' ef wv 
tov Kvkvov <f)ao~iv. Wva%ip,evrj<; Be Kal iv rfj 
'EpvOpaia (f>7)o~l XeyecrOai KoXoovas Kal iv rfj 
<$>(okl8i Kal iv %eT7aXia' iv Be rfj Hapiavfj iarlv 
'lXioKoXcovr). iv Be rfj Aap/^aKijvfj roVo? evdp,- 
7re\o? YepyiOioV r)V Be Kal ttoXl? TepyiOa, e/c 
roiv iv rfj KvpLata Tepyldcov' rjv yap KaKel ttoXis 

1 irepaia, Xylander, for crepta ; so the later editors. 

* muz read 4KK€tuei/r)s. 

3 KaTto-ira<TTai Foz, Karfcriraaro CDhirwx. 

34 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 18-19 

stadia distant from Abydus ; and it was formerly 
called Pityussa, as also, it is said, was Chios. On 
the opposite shore of the Chersonesus is Callipolis, a 
small town. It is on the headland and runs far out 
towards Asia in the direction of the city of the 
Lampsaceni, so that the passage across to Asia from 
it is no more than forty stadia. 

19. In the interval between Lampsacus and 
Parium lay a city and river called Paesus ; but the 
city is in ruins. The Paeseni changed their abode 
to Lampsacus, they too being colonists from the 
Milesians, like the Lampsaceni. But the poet refers 
to the place in two ways, at one time adding the 
first syllable, "and the land of Apaesus," J and at 
another omitting it, "a man of many possessions, 
who dwelt in Paesus." 2 And the river is now 
spelled in the latter way. Colonae, 3 which lies 
above Lampsacus in the interior of Lampsacene, is 
also a colony of the Milesians ; and there is another 
Colonae on the outer Hellespontine sea, which is 
one hundred and forty stadia distant from Ilium and 
is said to be the birthplace of Cycnus. 4 Anaximenes 
says that there are also places in the Erythraean 
territory and in Phocis and in Thessaly that are 
called Colonae. And there is an Iliocolone in the 
territory of Parium. In the territory of Lampsacus 
is a place called Gergithium 5 which is rich in vines ; 
and there was also a city called Gergitha from 
Gergithes in the territory of Cyme, for here too 

1 Iliad 2. 828. * Iliad 5. 612. 

* On the site of Colonae, see Leaf (Strabo and the Troad). 
p. 101. 

* King of Colonae, slain by Achilles in the Trojan War. 

* On Gergithium, see Leaf, p. 102. 

35 



STRABO 

ttXtjOwtlkcos ical OrjXvtc&s Xeyo/j,evr) at YepycOes, 
oOevirep 6 YepylQios rjv Ke$ dXcov' ical vvv en 
BeiKwrat, totto? ev rf} Kvfiala YepyWiov irpbs 
Aaplaarj. i/c TLaplov fiev ovv 6 yXcoao-oypd^os 
icXrjOels rjv NeoirroXe/JLOs p,vrjfj.r/<; agios, eV Aa/jbyjrd- 
kov Be Xdpwv re 6 avyy pafyevs tcaV ABei/navTos ical 
Avai~ifiev7]<; 6 prjrcop ical Mt;t poBcopos, 6 rov 
'Eiiri/covpov eralpo?, ical avrbs £' 'Eiri/covpos 
rpoiTOV Tipa AafiyfraKrjvbs V7rr}pf;e f BtaTplyjras ev 
Aa/jLyjrdfcw ical <J)l\oi<; XP r 1 G dp,evos tols dpiaroLS 
C 590 rcov ev tjj iroXei ravrrj, rols irepl 'IBo/ievea ical 
Aeovrea. evrevOev Be fier-qveyicev y Ay p'nnr as rov 
ireirrwKOTa Xeovra, Avo-Lttttov epyov' dveOrj/ce Be 
iv to) dXaei tw pueragv rrjs XipLvrjs ical rov evp'nrov. 
20. Merd Be Ad/juyfraKOv eo~Tiv*AftuBos koX rd 
p,€Ta%v %copLa, rrepl wv ovrcos eUprj/ce crvXXa^cov 
6 7roir)Tr)S /cal rr)v Aap,^aKr)vr)v ical rrjs Uapiavrjs 
tlvcl (ovttco yap rjaav avrat, at TroXeis Kara -ra 
Tpcocicd) ' 

oi B y dpa Uep/c(OTr)v teal Updicriov d/x^eve/jLOvro, 
Kal Xrjarbv ical "AftvBov eypv ical Blav 

'Apiafirjv' 
rcov avO' "TpraiciBr)? rjpx "Ao-w?, 

cjyrjaCv, 

bv 'ApLo~f3r)0ev (pepov Xttttoi 
aWcoves /xeyaXoL iroTapuov oltto SeXXtfevros. 

1 Fl. in the Alexandrian period ; author of works entitled 
Glosses and On Eviqrams. 

* Early historian ; author of Persian History and Annals 
of the Lampsaceni. 

8 Known only as courtier of Demetrius Poliorcetes. 

4 See Frazer's note on Pausanias, 6. 18. 2. 

36 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 19-20 

there was a city called Gergithes, in the feminine 
plural, the birthplace of Cephalon the Gergithian. 
And still to-day a place called Gergithium is pointed 
out in the territory of Cyme near Larissa. Now 
Neoptolemus, 1 called the Glossographer, a notable 
man, was from Parium ; and Charon the historian 2 
and Adeimantus 3 and Anaximenes the rhetorician 4 
and Metrodorus the comrade of Epicurus were from 
Lampsacus ; and Epicuf us himself was in a sense a 
Lampsacenian, having lived in Lampsacus and having 
been on intimate terms with the ablest men of that 
city, Idomeneus and Leonteus and their followers. 
It was from here that Agrippa transported the Fallen 
Lion, a work of Lysippus ; and he dedicated it in the 
sacred precinct between the Lake and the Euripus. 5 
20. After Lampsacus come Abydus and the 
intervening places of which the poet, who comprises 
with them the territory of Lampsacus and part of 
the territory of Parium (for these two cities were 
not yet in existence in the Trojan times), speaks as 
follows : " And those who dwelt about Percote and 
Practius, and held Sestus and Abydus and goodly 
Arisbe — these in turn were led by Asius, the son of 
Hyrtacus, . . . who was brought by his large sorrel 
horses from Arisbe, from the River Selleeis." 6 In 

5 " The Lake" seems surely to be the Stagnum Agrippae 
mentioned by Tacitus {Annals 15. 37), i.e. the Nemus 
Caesarum on the right bank of the Tiber (see A. Habler, 
Hermes 19 (1884), p. 235). "The Stagnum Agrippae was 
apparently a pond constructed by Agrippa in connection 
with the Aqua Virgo and the canal called Euripus in the 
neighbourhood of the Pantheon " (C. G. Ramsay, Annals of 
Tacitus, 15. 37), or, as Leaf (op. cit., p. 108) puts it, "The 
Euripus is the channel filled with water set up by Caesar 
round the arena of the Circus Maximus at Rome to protect 
the spectators from the wild beasts." 6 Iliad 2. 835. 

37 



STRABO 

ovtq) 8' elirdiv eoitee to ftacriXeiov dirofyaiveiv 

TOV ' AaiOV T7]V *ApLCr^7]V, 60€V r)K€lV dVTOV 

bv * ApLaftrjOev <f>epov Xttttoi 
TTorafiou diro 2eXA*jej>To<?. 

ovt(i) 8' a<f)avr} ra ^wpia ravrd cgtiv, uyorre ovB* 
opoXoyovat, irepl avrwv ol larropovvre<;, irXrjv oti 
irepl "AfBvBov teal Adp,\jrate6v ecrri teal Udpiov, real 
on 7) irdXai Uepfecorr} x peTcovopdaOrj, 6 T07J-09. 

21. Tcov Be Trorapwv rbv pev ^eXXrjevrd (frrjcrtv 
6 TroniTrjs Trpb? rfj ' Apio-fty pelv, elirep 6 "Ao-jo? 
y Apio-/3rj0ev re r)ree real Trorafiov airo HeXXrjevros . 
6 Be Tlpdrerios TTOTapbs fxev eV™, 7ro\t<? 8' ov\ 
eupiareerai, <u? Tti>e<? eiopuaav pel be real outo<? 
pera^v 'AflvBov teal Aapyfrdtcow rb ovv 

tea\ TipuKTiov dp,(f>evepovTo, 

ovrco Betereov, a>? irepl 7rorap,ov } teaOdirep xd- 
reelva' 

ol t dpa irdp iroraphv Krjcfriabv Blov evaiov, 

teal 

dp,<f)L re UapOeviov irorapov reXvrd epy eve- 

pLOVTO. 2 

r)V Be real ev AeV/3a> ttoXis ' 'ApLcr/3a, 7)5 rr)v 
ydipav eyovcri 'MrjOvp.valoi' eari Be /cal irora/j,b<; 
"Ay0fcr/5o? ev pater}, wenrep eiprjrai, teal rovrov 

1 After UepKur-q Leaf inserts fieTcpttvOri ndl nevKcinrr) (see 
his Straho on the Tr<>ad, p. 11, footnote 3 on p. 108, and 
note on Percote, p. 111). Thus, according to him, "the old 
Percote was transplanted and the name of its site changed 
to Percope." 

38 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 20-21 

speaking thus, the poet seems to set forth Arisbe, 
whence he says Asius came, as the royal residence of 
Asius : " who was brought by his horses from Arisbe, 
from the River Selleeis." But these places 1 are so 
obscure that even investigators do not agree about 
them, except that they are in the neighbourhood of 
Abvdus and Lampsacus and Parium, and that the 
old Percote, 2 the site, underwent a change of name. 3 
21. Of the rivers, the Selleeis flows near Arisbe, 
as the poet says, if it be true that Asius came both 
from Arisbe and from the Selleeis River. The 
River Practius is indeed in existence, but no city of 
that name is to be found, as some have wrongly 
thought. This river also 4 flows between Abydus 
and Lampsacus. Accordingly, the words, "and 
dwelt about Practius," should be interpreted as 
applying to a river, as should also those other 
words, "and those who dwelt beside the goodly 
Cephisus River," 5 and "those who had their famed 
estates about the Parthenius River." 6 There was 
also a city Arisba in Lesbos, whose territory is 
occupied by the Methymnaeans. And there is an 
Arisbus River in Thrace, as I have said before, 7 near 

1 i.e. Arisbe, Percote, and the Selleeis. Strabo himself 
locates the Practius (13. 1. 4, 7, 8, 21) On the sites of these 
places, see Leaf's Troy pp 188 ff., his note in Jour. Hellenic 
Studies, XXXVII (1917), p. 26, and his Strabo on the Troad, 
pp. 108 ff. 

2 Homer's Percote, on the sea. 3 See critical note. 
4 i >'. as well as the Selleeis. 5 Iliad 2. 522. 

6 [Had 2. 854 (see critical note). 

7 Obviously in the lost portion of Book VII. 

8 Instead of cpy' Ivinovro the Homeric MSS. have Sco^ot' 
tvaiov, and Strabo himself so cites in 12. 3. 5. Eustathius 
(note on Iliad 2. 835) cites as in the present passage. 

39 



STRABO 

TrXrjalov ol Keftpijvioi Spa/ces. 7ro\\al S' bfjuco- 
vvfiiai, %pq£i /cal Tpcocrlv, olov %/catol %pa/ce<; 
rives /cal ^/caibs irorafibs /cal %/caibv rei^o? /cal 
iv Tpola ^/caial irvXar B.dv6iot Spa/ces, 3dv0o<; 
Trora/JLOS iv Tpola' "Aptaftos 6 ip/3d\\(ov ek top 
' JL/Spov, Apia fir) iv Tpola,' P 770-09 7TOTa/xo9 iv 
Tpola, 'Vrjaos Be /cal 6 fiaaiXevs tcov Spa/cMv. 
eari Be /cal tg> *A<tIu> ojjloovv/jlos erepos irapd tw 

TTOirjTT} "AaiOS, 

09 pLrjTpW? TJV "E/CTOpOS ITTIToBdflOlO, 

avTOtcao-lyvrjTOS f E/ca/3>79, vlbs Be Av/xavTos, 
09 <&pvylr/v valea/ce por}<; irrl ^.ayyaploio. 

22. "A/3l»So9 Be MiXrjo-lcoi' icrrl /CTla/jia, iiri- 
rpetyavTOS Yvyov, rov AvBcov fiaaiXecos' r)v yap 
iir ifcelvrp rd yuspia /cal r) Tpcods airacra, 
ovo/uLa^erat Be /cal d/cpcort]pi6v ti irpbs kapBuvqs 
C 591 rvyas' iirl/cetrai Be rro aro/jLari rr}<; Upo7rovrlBo<; 
/cal rov 'KWrjaTTOvrorj, Bie-^ei Be to Icrov Aafiyjrd- 
kov fcal M\tof, crTa8tOL9 "rrepl efiBofitj/covra /cal 
e/carbv. ivravOa 8' iarl to einaardBiov, oirep 
efeffe 3eptji]<;, to Bibpi^ov rrjv Evpcoirrjv /cal tijv 
'Aalav. /caXeirai B' r) d/cpa rr)<; Eupcoirrj^ Xep- 
povrjao^ Bid to a^ij/ia, r) iroiovaa rd crrevd rd 
/card to ^evypa' dvrl/ceirai Be to ^evy/ia rfj 
y A/3vBa). ^?7crT09 Be dplarrj x tmv iv Xeppov/jcrq) 
iroKewv' Bid Be rrjv yeiToavvr)v vwb rq> avrw 

1 For apiarr] Meineke conj. KparlaTt}. 

1 Iliad 16. 717. 

2 On the site of Abydus, see Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. 
117. 

40 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 21-22 

which are situated the Thracian Cebrenians. There 
are many names common to the Thracians and the 
Trojans; for example, there are Thracians called 
Scaeans, and a river Scaeus, and a Scaean Wall, and 
at Troy the Scaean Gates. And there are Thracian 
Xanthians, and in Troy-land a river Xanthus. And 
in Troy-land there is a river Arisbus which empties 
into the Hebrus, as also a city Arisbe. And there 
was a river Rhesus in Troy-land ; and there was a 
Rhesus who was the king of the Thracians. And 
there is also, of the same name as this Asius, another 
Asius in Homer, " who was maternal uncle to horse- 
taming Hector, and own brother to Hecabe, but son 
of Dvmas, who dwelt in Phrygia by the streams of 
the Sangarius." 1 

22. Abydus was founded by Milesians, being 
founded by permission of Gyges, king of the 
Lvdians; for this district and the whole of the 
Troad were under his sway ; and there is a promon- 
torv named Gygas near Dardanus. Abydus lies at 
the mouth of the Propontis and the Hellespont; 
and it is equidistant from Lampsacus and Ilium, 
about one hundred and seventy stadia. 2 Here, 
separating Europe and Asia, is the Heptastadium, 3 
which was bridged by Xerxes. The European 
promontory that forms the narrows at the place of 
the bridge is called the Chersonesus 4 because of its 
shape. And the place of the bridge lies opposite 
Abydus. Sestus 5 is the best of the cities in the 
Chersonesus ; and, on account of its proximity to 
Abydus, it was assigned to the same governor as 

3 i.e. " Strait of seven stadia." 

4 i.e. " Land-island" or "Peninsula." 

6 Ou its site, see Leaf, work last cited, p. 119. 

41 



STRABO 

rjye/jbovt teal avrrj ereTatcro ovttco ral<; rjireipOLs 

BiOpt^OVTCOV TO)V T0T6 TCI? r)y€/JLOVLCL$. 7] /JL€V OVV 

"A/3v8o<; teal 77 £?7OT0? Bie\ovcriv aWtfXcov rpid- 
Kovrd ttov (ttciBlovs e/c Xijiivo? el? Xi/ieva, to Be 
tevyjxd ecrri /Mtepbv diro rebv irokewv irapaWd- 
£clvti e'£ " AftvBov puev a>? eirl rrjv UpoirovriBa, etc 
Be iLrjaTOV et? tovvclvtiov ovond^erai Be jrpbs rfj 
£770-7-0!) toVo? ' AirofSdOpa, /cad* ov e^evyvvro 1) 
(T^eBia' eari Be rj S^ctto? evBorepco Kara rrjv 
TipoirovriBa virepBetjios rov pov rov e'f avrrjs' 
Bib teal evireTe<nepov e/e ttJ? ^tjcttov Biaipovai 
7rapa\efjdpLevoi 1 puKpbv iirl rbv rrj<; f H/?oO? 
irvpyov tcdiceZdev d<f)i evre<$ rdrrXoia avpurpaTTOVTo^ 
rov pov 7T/oo? rrjv irepaiwcnv' to£? o° ef ' ' AfivBov 
Trepaiov/jLevois irapaXetcreov 2 earlv eU rdvavTia 
orcTa) ttov (TTaBLovs eirl irvpyov riva kclt dvri/cpv 
t% %r)aTov, eireira Bialpeiv ir\dyiov koX /jltj 
reXe&x? evavrlov exovatv rbv povv. wkovv Be rrjv 
"AftvBov fjuera rd V paired (*)oa/e€?, elra MiXijcrtoi. 
tcop Be iroXecov ifATrprjaOeiacbv virb Aapelov, rov 
Eep^ov Trarpos, rwv Kara ttjv TipoirovriBa, 
efcoiv(t)vr)(T€ teal 7] "A/3uSo? T7j<i avrr)$ av/i(f)opd<;. 
iveirprjae Be TrvOojievo^ fierd rrjv drrb rcov XkvOoov 
tirdvoBov, toi>? vofjidBas TrapaGfcevd^ecrdai Bia- 
fiaiveiv 677"' avrbv Kara rificopuav u>v err ad or, 
BeBtoDS fj,7] at 7roX,et? iropQjiela nrapdaypiev 777 
arparia. <7vve/3r) Be 77720? Tat? aX\ai<; fiera- 
{3o\at<; teal rw y^povw teal rovro alriov tt}? 

1 irapaKe^apsvoi, Kramer restores, for iropaAa|a,uevot C, 
■jrapaWa^dfifvoi no, Xylander, and other editors. 

' TrapaAeKTeov, Kramer restores, for irapahKuKreoy, earlier 
editors. 
42 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 22 

Abydus in the times when governorships had not 
yet been delimited by continents. Now although 
Abydus and Sestus are about thirty stadia distant 
from one another from harbour to harbour, yet the 
line of the bridge across the strait is short, being 
drawn at an angle to that between the two cities, that 
is, from a point nearer than Abydus to the Propontis 
on the Abydus side to a point farther away from 
the Propontis on the Sestus side. Near Sestus is a 
place named Apobathra, 1 where the pontoon- bridge 
was attached to the shore. Sestus lies farther in 
towards the Propontis, farther up the stream that 
flows out of the Propontis. It is therefore easier to 
cross over from Sestus, first coasting a short distance 
to the Tower of Hero and then letting the ships 
make the passage across by the help of the current. 
But those who cross over from Abydus must first 
follow the coast in the opposite direction about 
eight stadia to a tower opposite Sestus, and then 
sail across obliquely and thus not have to meet the 
full force of the current. After the Trojan War 
Abydus was the home of Thracians, and then of 
Milesians. But when the cities were burned by 
Dareius, father of Xerxes, I mean the cities on the 
Propontis, Abydus shared in the same misfortune. 
He burned them because he had learned after his 
return from his attack upon the Scythians that the 
nomads were making preparations to cross the strait 
and attack him to avenge their sufferings, and was 
afraid that the cities would provide means for the 
passage of their army. And this too, in addition to 
the other changes and to the lapse of time, is a 
cause of the confusion into which the topography of 

1 i.e. " Place of Disembarkation." 

43 



STRABO 

<Tl»7^UO-60)5 TWV T07TCOV. 7T6/H Be ^T)(TTOV KCH tffi 

0X779 Xeppovijaov irpoelirofiev ev Tot? irepl tt)? 
®patcr)<; tottois, 1 (f>rjal Be rrjv 'Erjarbv (8)eo7ro//,7ro9 
fipaxelav p,ev, evepKr) Be, teal cnceXet BnrXeQp(p 
avvdiTTeiv 7r/?o? rbv Xi/xeva, teal Bid ravr ovv teal 
Bid rbv povv Kvplav elvai ro)v irapoBcov. 

23. 'Tireptceirai Be tt)? rwv 'A/3vBr)v<bv %(t)pa<; 
ev rfi TpcodBi rd "Aarvpa, a vvv p.ev 'A/SvBtjvoov 
earl, tcarea tcaiipLevrj iroXis, irpbrepov Be rjv tcaO' 
avrd, y^pvaela eyovra, a vvv airdvid eariv 
€^ava\(o/ji€va, tcaOdrrep rd ev rw TficoXw rd irepl 
tov TlatcrcoXov. diro ' AffvBov 5' errl AlarjTrbv 
irepl eirraKoaiov^ <f>acrl o~raBlov<;, evOvirXoia Be 
eXdrrov^. 
C 592 24. "Efcr) Be 'AftvBov rd irepl rb "lXiov eo~ri, 
rd re irapaXia ew? Aetcrov teal rd ev ra> Tpcoitca) 
7re8.fi) teal rd irapdipeia t?}? v I&7? rd virb rw 
Alveiq. Birrcos Be ravr bvofxdtjei 6 iTOirjrri^, rore 
fiev ovrco Xeycov' 

AapBavucov dvr rjpx ev ^ v< * 7rai? ' Ay^iaao, 
AapBavlovs tcaXwv, rore Be AapBdvovs, 

Tpwe<? teal Avklov teal AdpBavoi dyxifiaxtjral. 

1 Kramer suspects that tSttois should be ejected. Meineke 
conj. \6yois, hut retains r6irois in his text. Cp. Frag. 55a, 
Vol. Ill, p. 378. 

1 See Vol. Ill, Frags. 51 (p. 373), 55b (p. 379), and 51a, 
52, and 53 (p. 375). 

2 i.e. about 200 feet (in breadth). 

3 According to Leaf (I.e., p. 135), the shortest course of a 
vessel between Abydus and the mouth of the Aesepus 
measures just about 700 stadia. Hence Strabo's authorities 
for his statement are in error if, as usual, the longer voyage 

44 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 22-24 

the country has fallen. As for Sestus and the 
Chersonesus in general, I have already spoken of 
them in my description of the region of Thrace. 1 
Theopompus says that Sestus is small but well forti- 
fied, and that it is connected with its harbour by a 
double wall of two plethra, 2 and that for this reason, 
as also on account of the current, it is mistress of 
the passage. 

23. Above the territory of the Abydeni, in the 
Troad, lies Astyra. This city, which is in ruins, 
now belongs to the Abydeni, but in earlier times it 
was independent and had gold mines. These mines 
are now scant, being used up, like those on Mt. 
Tmolus in the neighbourhood of the Pactolus River. 
From Abydus to the Aesepus the distance is said to 
be about seven hundred stadia, but less by straight 
sailing. 3 

24. Outside Abydus lies the territory of Ilium — the 
parts on the shore extending to Lectum, and the 
places in the Trojan Plain, and the parts on the side 
of Mt. Ida that were subject to Aeneias. The poet 
names these last parts in two ways, at one time 
saying as follows : " The Dardanii in turn were 
led by the valiant son of Anchises," 4 calling the 
inhabitants "Dardanii"; and at another time, 
" Dardani " : " The Trojans and Lycians and Dardani 
that fight in close combat." And it is reason- 
is a coasting voyage, following the sinuosities of the gulfs, as 
against the shorter, or more direct, voyage. Leaf, however, 
forces the phrase " by straight sailing" to mean "a straight 
course wholly over the land," adding that "the meaning 
must be that it would be shorter if one could sail straight," 
and that " the expression is singularly infelicitous as applied 
to a journey by L\nd in contrast to one by sea." 

■ Iliad. 2. 8i9. 

45 



STRABO 

el/cbs B* evravOa iBpvaOai to iraXaiov rr)v Xeyo- 
fjL€vr)v viro rov irotrjrov AapBaviav 

AdpBavov av irpwrov re/cero vecpeXrjyepera 

Zevs, 
fcriaae Be AapBavLriv. 

vvv fiev yap ovB* t^o? 7ro\eft>? aco^erai avroOc. 

25. Et/ca£et Be HXdrcor perd robs /cara- 
kXvct/jLovs rpia iroXireias eiBrj avviaraaOav' 
irpcorov pev rb eirl ras dfcpcopeLas airXovv n 
teal dypcoVy BeBioroov rd vBara eirLiroXd^ovra 
d/c/iijv ev Tot? TreBiois' Bevrepov Be to ev Tat? 
v7ra)peLai<; } Oappovvrcov i']Br) /card putepov, are Br) 
teal roav ireBicov dp^ofjuevcov dvatyvyea-Qai' rpirov 
Be to ev Tot? TreBlois. Xeyoi B' av Tt? real reraprov 
teal irepurrov laws teal rrXeiw, vararov Be to ev 
rfj irapaXla /cal ev Tat? vrjcrois, XeXvpevov iravrbs 
rov roiovrov (poftov. to yap pdXXov /cal r)rrov 
Oappelv TrXrjaid^eiv rfj daXdrrrj 7r\etou? av 
vTToypdcfioi Bia(popd<; iroXireicbv fcal rjOSiV, tea- 
ddirep 1 rosv dyaOoyv 2 re teal rcov dypioov en 
7r&)? 3 eirl to rjpepov rwv Bevrepcov v7ro/3e/37jK6ra)P. 
eo-ri £e 4 Tt? Btafyopd teal irapd rovrois todv 
dypoltecov teal peaaypoLtecov teal ttoXltlkcjv d(p' 
gov y]Brj /cal eVt to aa-T€toi> /cal dpiarov r)0o>; 
ereXevrijcrev r) royv ovopdrcov tear oXiyov pera- 

1 Kaddirep, Xylander, for /cal anep ; so the later editors. 

2 ayadwv MSS., Leaf (op. cit. pp. 13, 140) restores, for 
ctTAw*/, emendation of Groskurd accepted by other later editors. 
Plato (Laws 679 C) says : ayadol /xev Tiia ravra (i.e. the absence 
of riches, poverty, insolence, injustice, and envy) re faav na\ 
Sia tV Xeyoixewqv kv-f}detav. 

3 en vws, the editors in general, for iari tru>s moz, %ti ttus 

4 e 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 24-25 

able to suppose that this was in ancient times the site 
of the Dardania mentioned by the poet when he 
says, " At first Dardanus was begotten by Zeus the 
cloud-gatherer, and he founded Dardania " ; 1 for at 
the present time there is not so much as a trace of 
a city preserved in that territory. 2 

25. Plato 3 conjectures, however, that after the 
time of the floods three kinds of civilisation were 
formed : the first, that on the mountain- tops, which 
was simple and wild, when men were in fear of the 
waters which still deeply covered the plains ; the 
second, that on the foot-hills, when men were now 
gradually taking courage because the plains were 
beginning to be relieved of the waters ; and the 
third, that in the plains. One might speak equally 
of a fourth and fifth, or even more, but last of all that 
on the sea-coast and in the islands, when men had 
been finally released from all such fear ; for the 
greater or less courage they took in approaching the 
sea would indicate several different stages of civilisa- 
tion and manners, first as in the case of the qualities of 
goodness 4 and wildness, which in some way further 
served as a foundation for the milder qualities in the 
second stage. But in the second stage also there is 
a difference to be noted, I mean between the rustic and 
semi-rustic and civilised qualities ; and, beginning 
with these last qualities, the gradual assumption 
of new names ended in the polite and highest 

1 Iliad 20. 215. 

2 On the boundaries of Dardania, see Leaf (I.e., p. 137). 
8 Laios 677-679. 4 See critical note, 

other MSS. ; omitted by Corais ; ^9tj xws, Groskurd ; irepoos 
Leaf. 

4 5e, after cctti, Leaf omits. 

47 



STRABO 

\r]yjn<; t Kara rrjv twv rjOwv eVt to Kpelrrov 
fjuerdaraaiv, irapa ra<; tcop tottcov teal ro)v /3ia>v 
fieTa/3oXd<;. Tavras Br) Ta? Biacfropds biroypdfyeiv 
(prjol rov TTOirjrrjv 6 UXdrcov, rrjs fiev irpcor^ 
TroXiTelas TrapdSeiyfia riOevra rov rcov KvkXcottcov 
/3lov, avTo^vels vepop.evcov teapTTov? teal Ta? 
d/cpa)p6La<i Kare^ovrcov ev oirriXaio^ rvaiv 

dXXa tcx y dairapra teal dvjjpora irdvTa 

(f)VOVTdl, 

(pr)<jLv } avrois' 

rolcriv 8' ovte dyopal fiovXrjcfropoi, ovre 

BefiicrTe^' 
d\\ y 01 y v\jrr]\cov 6p6(ov vaiovai tcdprjva, 
iv airkacn yXa<j)vpolo~i, Oe/Aio-revei Be e/eacrTO? 
iraiBwv rjB* aXo^cDV. 

rov Be Bevrepov top iirl 1 rov AapBdvov 

KTicrare Be AapBavLi]v, iirel oviroa "Duo? Ipij 
C 593 ev nreBiw ireiroXLoro, ttoXis /lepoircov dv6pd>- 

7T(i)V, 

dXX' €0' VTrwpeias wteeov" iroXwrnBdieov "JS???. 

rov Be rpurov eirl rov "[Xov top ev rot? TreBLois. 
tovtov yap TrapaBt,B6ao~L rov \Xiov KTLarrjp, dcf) 
ov real T))v en (dvu /xiav XafSelv riiv ttoXlv eitebs 
Be teal Bid rovro ev fiecrrp ra> ireBlcp reOdtyOat, 
avrov, 07i Trpcoros eOdpprjoev ev toT? ireBiot^ 
deaOai rr)v teaTOitelav 

ol Be Trap' "iXov arj/na iraXaiov AapBaviBao 
jxeaaov teair ireBiov irap epivebv eooevovro. 

48 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 25 

culture, in accordance with the change of manners 
for the better along with the changes in places of 
abode and in modes of life. Now these differences, 
according to Plato, 1 are suggested by the poet, who 
sets forth as an example of the first stage of civilisa- 
tion the life of the Cyclopes, who lived on unculti- 
vated fruits and occupied the mountain-tops, living 
in caves: "but all these things," he says, "grow 
unsown and unploughed " for them. . . . "And 
they have no assemblies for council, nor appointed 
laws, but they dwell on the tops of high mountains 
in hollow caves, and each is lawgiver to his children 
and his wives." 2 And as an example of the second 
stage, the life in the time of Dardanus, who u founded 
Dardania ; for not yet had sacred Ilios been builded 
to be a city of mortal men, but they were living on 
the foot-hills of many-fountained Ida." 3 And of the 
third stage, the life in the plains in the time of 
Ilus ; 4 for he is the traditional founder of Ilium, and 
it was from him that the city took its name. And 
it is reasonable to suppose, also, that he was buried 
in the middle of the plain for this reason — that he 
was the first to dare to settle in the plains : " And 
they sped past the tomb of ancient Ilus, son of 
Dardanus, through the middle of the plain past 
the wild fig tree." 5 Yet even Ilus did not have full 

1 Laws 3. 680. 

* Odussey 9. 109, 112-114 (quoted by Plato in Laws 3. 680). 

« Iliad 20. 216 (quoted by Plato in Laws 3. 681). 

4 Laws 3. 682. 6 Iliad 11. 166. 



1 4*i, Corais, for 4k ; so the later editors. 
' Instead of $iceov t moz read tvaiov. 



49 



STRABO 

ovB' ovto? Be reXetct)? eddpprjaev ov yap evravOa 

Ihpvae T7)V TToXlV, 07TOV VVV €(TTIV, dXXd G^eBbv 

71 rpidtcovra crraBioL^ drcorepco 7roo? eco teal rrpos 
rrjv "IBrjv teal tyjv AapBaviav tcard rr)v vvv 
teaXovpevqv IXiewv K.cbpbt]v. ol Be vvv 'IXtet? 
cfuXoBogovvres teal OeXovres elvai ravnjv rrjv 
naXaidv Trapear^tcaai ^Xoyov Tot? eV t?)? 'Opijpov 
Troirjaeaxi Tetcpaipopkvoi^' ov yap eoitcev avrrj 
elvai r/ tcaO* "Oputipov. teal aXXoi Be laropovcn 
irXelovs pera/3€^Xi]Kevai tottovs n)v irbXiv, 
vcrrara S' evravOa avpfielvac Kara Kpoicrov 1 
fidXujra. ra? Br) roiavra<; p,era(3daei,s eh rd 
Kara peprj rd? Tore avp,(3aivovo-a<; vTroXapftdvco 
teal j3idiv teal 7To\irei(bv viroypdipeiv Bta(f>opds. 
dXXd ravra pev /cal aXXore eir ia tceiri eov '. 

26. Trjv Be ro)v 'IXcecov iroXiv rSv vvv Te'co? 
pev kco/jLtjv elvai (pacri, to lepbv eyovaav tF/? 
'Adrjvas /Mfcpbv teal evreXes, 'AXejjavBpov Be 
dva/3dvra perd rr)v eirl YpaviKw viterjv, dva0r]paaL 
re /coap,rjaat, to lepbv /cal irpoaayopevcac iroXiv 
teal oiKoBopiai^ dvaXaftetv irpoard^aL Tot? ern- 
peXrjral*; eXevOepav re tcplvai teal acpopov, varepov 
Be fierd rrjv tcaraXvaiv TOiv Ylepacov eTUcrToXrjv 
KaraTrep'tyai <f)i,XdvOp(07rov, VTria^vovpevov ttoXlv 
T€ 7T0Li)aai p,eydXrjv teal lepbv eTriarjporarov, teal 
dyebva aTroBeigeLV lepbv. perd Be rr)v e/ceu'ov 

1 For Kpoiaov x reads ixiicp6v, moz xp^^v. 



1 Schliemann's excavations, however, identify Hiesarlik as 
the site of Homer's Troy. Hence " the site of Homer's Troy 
at ' the village of Ilians ' is a mere figment " (Leaf, I.e., p. 141). 

50 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 25-26 

courage, for he did not found the city at the place 
where it now is, but about thirty stadia higher up 
towards the east, and towards Mt. Ida and Dardania, 
at the place now called " Village of the Ilians." 1 
But the people of the present Ilium, being fond of 
glory and wishing to show that their Ilium was the 
ancient city, have offered a troublesome argument to 
those who base their evidence on the poetry of 
Homer, for their Ilium does not appear to have been 
the Homeric city. Other inquirers also find that the 
city changed its site several times, but at last settled 
permanently where it now is at about the time of 
Croesus. 2 I take for granted, then, that such 
removals into the parts lower down, which took place 
in those times, indicate different stages in modes of 
life and civilisation ; but this must be further 
investigated at another time. 

26. It is said that the city of the present Ilians 
was for a time a mere village, having its temple of 
Athena, a small and cheap temple, but that when 
Alexander went up there after his victory at the 
Granicus 3 River he adorned the temple with votive 
offerings, gave the village the title of city, and 
ordered those in charge to improve it with buildings, 
and that he adjudged it free and exempt from tribute ; 
and that later, after the overthrow of the Persians, 
he sent down a kindly letter to the place, promising 
to make a great city of it, and to build a magnificent 
sanctuary, and to proclaim sacred games. 4 But after 

* King of Lydia, 560-546 B.C. 

' The first of the three battles by which he overthrew the 
Persian empire (334 B.C.). 

4 e.a. like the Olympic Games. But his untimely death 
prevented the fulfilment of this promise. 

51 



STRABO 

reXevTtjv Kvaipux * pudXiara rr)<; 7rc\€a>? eVe- 
fieXyOr] Kal veebv /career fcevcure Kal rel^o*; irepie- 
fidXero ocrov rerrapaKopra arraBlwv, avvcpKiae 
re et? avrr)v Ta? kvkXus ttoXcis dpyaias 77877 
tce/ea/cco/JLevas, ore /cat 'AXefjavBpeias 77S77 eVe- 
fieXrjOr), avvcpKicrpLevr)? puev 77877 vir 'Avnyovov 
Kal irpoar]<yop€Vfi€vr](; 'Avriyoi'ias, fieraftaXovarr)*; 
Be rovvopia, eBo£e yap evaefies elvai tou? 'AA,e- 
gavBpov SiaBegapevovs etce'ivov irporepov kti&iv 
cttcovv jaovs 7roXei9, eW eavrcov. teal Br) teal 
avvepeive teal avl;r}aiv eo-^e, vvv Be teal 'PcopLaieov 
dnotKLap BeSeterai teal eo~Ti rwv eXXoyt/Kov 
iroXeeov. 
C 594 27. Kal to "IXiov B\ vvv eeri, tcwfxoTToXls 
rt? r)v, ore irpcorov 'PcapuatoL tt)? 'Acta? eireftrjo-av 
Kal e%e(3aXov ^Avrlo^ov rbv fieyav etc T779 eWo? 
tov Tavpov. (pr]al yovv Ar)p,rjrpio<; ^Kr)y\no<;, 
fieipdteiov €7ri&7]fir)o-a<; eh Tfjv ttoXiv tear itceivovs 
roix; /caipovs, ovtcos (oXiycDprjfjLevrjv IBeiv rr)v 
tcaTOitciav, ware pajBe KepapcoTa? e\eiv ra? areya^' 
'Hyrjaidvatj Be rov<i YaXdras TrepaiayOevras etc 
tt}? TZvpaoirrjs dvaftrjvai puev et? rr)v ttoXlv 
Beo/Aevovs epv/j.aro<i, irapa\pr)p.a 8' iteXLTrelv Bid 



1 Either Strabo, or his authority, Demetrius of Scepsis, or 
the Greek text as it now stands, seems guilty of inconsistency 
in the passage " devoted special attention to the city . . . 
and then cities bearing their own." Grote (Vol. I, chapter 
xv ) rearranges the Greek text in the following order : 
"devoted especial attention to Alexandreia" (not Ilium), 
"which had indeed already been founded by Antigonus and 
called Antigonia, but changed its name (for it was thought to 
be . . . then cities bearing their own name), and he built a 

52 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 26-27 

his death Lysimachus x devoted special attention to 
the city, and built a temple there and surrounded the 
city with a wall about forty stadia in circuit, and also 
incorporated into it the surrounding cities, which 
were now old and in bad plight. At that time he 
had already devoted attention to Alexandreia, which 
had indeed already been founded by Antigonus and 
called Antigonia, but had changed its name, for it 
was thought to be a pious thing for the successors of 
Alexander to found cities bearing his name before 
they founded cities bearing their own. And indeed 
the city endured and grew, and at present it not 
only has received a colony of Romans but is one of 
the notable cities of the world. 

27. Also the Ilium of to-day was a kind of village- 
city when the Romans first set foot on Asia and 
expelled Antiochus the Great from the country this 
side of Taurus. At any rate, Demetrius of Scepsis 
says that, when as a lad he visited the city about 
that time, he found the settlement so neglected 
that the buildings did not so much as have tiled 
roofs. And Hegesianax says that when the Galatae 
crossed over from Europe they needed a stronghold 
and went up into the city for that reason, but 

temple . . . forty stadia in circuit." He omits "at that 
time he had already devoted attention to Alexandreia." and so 
does Leaf (op. cit., p. 142) ; but the latter, instead of rearranging 
the text, simply inserts "Alexandreia" after "city " in the 
first clause of the passage. Leaf (p. 143) adds the following 
important argument to those of Grote: "There is no trace 
whatever of any great wall at Ilium, though remains of one 
40 stades in length could hardly have escaped notice. But 
there is at Alexandreia such a wall which is exactly the 
length mentioned by Strabo, and which is clearly referred 
to." 

53 



STRABO 

to arei^iaTOV varepov B' eiravopOwaLv ea^e 
TroWrjv. sir eKciKwaav clvttjv iraXiv ol /xera 
(bi/uLftpiov 'Pcofialoi, \a/36vT€$ Ik TroXiopKia? iv 
TfS MiOpiBari/cw 7ro\e/JL(p. o-vpeire/x<f)drj Be 6 
fytfjLfSpias vwdra) OvaXepiw <£>XaKK(p Ta/ua?, 
-TTpoyeipiGBevTi eVt rbv ^lidpiBdrrjv Karaara- 
(Tidaas Be Kal dve\(ov rbv virarov /card RiOvvuav 
avrbs KarecrrdO)] KVpios tt}? arpand^, Kal 
TrpoeXdoav et<? 'l\iov, ov Bexofievcov avrbv rcov 
'iXcecov, ct)? Xyarrjv, filav re 1 irpoacpepei Kal 
evBetcarciLOVS 2 alpel' Kav^oifxevov B\ on, fjv 
Wja/jue/jLvcov rroXiv BeKarw era /xoXis elXe top 
%i\i6vavv aroXov e^cov Kal ttjv o-vpuraaav 
'EXXaBa o-uo-TpaTevovcrav, ravrijv auTO? evBeKarrj 
rj/xepa xeipwaaiTO, elire ris rwv 'IXiecov Ov yap 
?)v "Ejfcrcop 6 vTrepiLayjhv rrj<; 7r6Xeoy<;. rovrov 
pev ovv eireXOoov Si/A-Xa? KareXvae, Kal rbv 
Mi# pLBdrrjv Kara <rv/j,/3d(T€L<; et? rrjv OLKelav 
a7re7re/jbyfre, tou? 8' 'IX^ea? irapep,v6r)o~aro ttoXXoU 
eirai opdoj/xaai. KaO* ?7/xa? /xevrot Kataap 6 @eo? 
ttoXv irX&ov avr&v irpovvoycre, ^rjXcaaa^ d/ua 
Kal ' AXe^avBpov eKelvos yap Kara avyyeveias 
dvaveoxTiv coppujo-e irpovoelv avrcov, dfxa Kal 
<f)LX6/j,iipo<; wv. (peperai yovv tis BiopOwcris tt}? 
'OfJLjjpOV TTOir)0'6(t}<S, V €K TOV vdpOrjKO^ Xeyopuevrj, 
rod ' AXetjdvBpov /xera rcov irepl KaXXiaOevr] Kal 
'Avagapxov iireXOovros Kal o-rjfieicoaa/jLevov rivd, 

1 fiiav Te, conj. of Casaubon, for wxavds re i, ndxv v rw > 
avayxw x, omitted in moz, fxduri other MSS. ; so Meineke. 

2 For evdeKaraiovs the Epit. has iv rjfxepcue 5e«a. 

1 i.e. in 86 B.C. by Cinna the consul, the leader of the 
popular party at Rome. 

54 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 27 

left it at once because of its lack of walls. But 
later it was greatly improved. And then it was 
ruined again bv the Romans under Fimbria, who 
took it by siege in the course of the Mithridatic 
war. Fimbria had been sent as quaestor with 
Valerius Flaccus the consul when the latter was 
appointed 1 to the command against Mithridates; 
but Fimbria raised a mutiny and slew the consul 
in the neighbourhood of Bithynia, and was himself 
set up as lord of the army ; and when he advanced 
to Ilium, the I Hans would not admit him, as being 
a brigand, and therefore he applied force and cap- 
tured the place on the eleventh day. And when he 
boasted that he himself had overpowered on the 
eleventh day the city which Agamemnon had only 
with difficulty captured in the tenth year, although 
the latter had with him on his expedition the fleet 
of a thousand vessels and the whole of Greece, one 
of the Ilians said : " Yes, for the city's champion 
was no Hector." Now Sulla came over and over- 
threw Fimbria, and on terms of agreement sent 
Mithridates away to his homeland, but he also 
consoled the Ilians by numerous improvements. In 
my time, however, the deified Caesar 2 was far more 
thoughtful of them, at the same time also emulating 
the example of Alexander; for Alexander set out 
to provide for them on the basis of a renewal of 
ancient kinship, and also because at the same time 
he was fond of Homer ; at any rate, we are told of 
a recension of the poetry of Homer, the Recension 
of the Casket, as it is called, which Alexander, along 
with Callisthenes and Anaxarchus, perused and to a 

8 Julius Caesar. 

55 



STRABO 

eireira KaraOevrcx; eh vdp6r)ica> bv rjvpev ev rr) 
Tlepaitcfi ydtrj, nroXvTeXws /career /cevaa puevov. 
Kara re Brj top tov ttoitjtov %r)Xov /cat Kara rrjv 
avyyeveiav rr)v drrb rwv Ala/ciBcov rwv ev 
MoXottoi? /3a<TL\evcrdvT(ov, Trap ot? /cal rrjv 
y AvBpopd%r)v laropovcri fiaaiXevo-ai, Tr)v r 'E/CTOpo<; 
yevofievrjv yvval/ca, epiXoppoveiTO 1 irpbs tou? 
'lXieas 6 'AXegavBpos' 6 Be Kac<rap /cal cpiXaXe- 
tjavBpos wv teal tt}<; 7rpo? toi/? 'lA,<ea? avyyeveiav 
yvcopificoTepa 2 e^aw re/cpijpia eTreppcoaOi] 7rpo? 
rr)v evepyeaiav veavi/ccbs' yvwpi/MOTepa Be,irpo)rov 
595^1/ oti 'Potato?* ol Be 'Pro/xaloc tov 3 Alveiav 
dp%r)yeTi]v fjyovvTat' eireira on 'lovXios dirb 
\ov\ov Tivbs twv it poyovtov i/ceLvos B* dirb 
'lovXov* ti-jv Trpoo-covvfilav 5 eaye TavTijv, twv 
diroyovcov €6? a)v twv dirb Alvelov. yutpav re 
Br) irpoaeveifxev avTois /cal rr/v eXevOeplav /cal 
tt]i> dXeiTOvpyrjcriav avrols avvepvXa^e, Ka\ 
p-eXpL vvv avpLfievovcrLV ev tovtolv. oti 8' ovk 
evravOa 6 IBpvrai to iraXaibv "\Xiov icaO^ 
"0\A7)pov cr/coirovaiv, €K Tcov ToicovBe Te/c/jLalpovTai. 
rrporepov Be VTroypairreov tovs tottovs drrb rr)<; 
irapaXlas dp^apevovs, dtp 1 r)airep eXiiropev. 

' All MSS. except D/u read yap before irpSs. 

2 yv ipiawTfpa, Corais, fur yvaiptuwrara ; so the later editors. 

3 All MSS except orxz have r' before Alvetav. 

4 i-c read "iKov instead of 'lovAov. 

6 F reads irpcxryyopiav instead of irpoawvu/uiav. 

6 DM add vvv after eVraffla ; h reads ISpvro, and so Corais. 

1 According to Plutarch {Alexander 8), "Alexander took 
with him Aristotle's recension of the poem, called the Iliad 
of the Casket, and always kept it lying beside his dagger 

56 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 27 

certain extent annotated, and then deposited in a 
richly wrought casket which he had found amongst 
the Persian treasures. 1 Accordingly, it was due both 
to his zeal for the poet and to his descent from the 
Aeacidae who reigned as kings of the Molossians — 
where, as we are also told, Andromache, who had 
been the wife of Hector, reigned as queen — that 
Alexander was kindly disposed towards the Ilians. 
Hut Caesar, not only being fond of Alexander, but 
also having better known evidences of kinship with 
the Ilians, felt encouraged to bestow kindness upon 
them with all the zest of youth : better known 
evidences, first, because he was a Roman, and 
because the Romans believe Aeneias to have been 
their original founder ; and secondly, because the 
name Iulius was derived from that of a certain lulus 
who was one of his ancestors, 2 and this lulus got his 
appellation from the lulus 3 who was one of the 
descendants of Aeneas. Caesar therefore allotted 
territory to them and also helped them to preserve 
their freedom and their immunity from taxation ; 
and to this day they remain in possession of these 
favours. But that this is not the site of the ancient 
Ilium, if one considers the matter in accordance 
with Homer's account, is inferred from the follow- 
ing considerations. But first I must give a general 
description of the region in question, beginning at 
that point on the coast where I left off. 

under his pillow, as Onesicritus informs us " ; and " the 
casket was the most precious of the treasures of Dareius " 
{ibid. 26). 



1 i.e. of the Julian gens 



1 gem 
Ilus, 



1 On "lulus," or Ilus, see critical note. 



VOL. VI. C 



57 



STRABO 

28. v EcrTt rolvvv per "AfivBov rf re AapBavls 
atepa, 97? fjLifcpov 1 irpbrepov epvr)a6r)pev, teal rj 
7ro\/? t) AdpBavos, Biexovaa t?)? 'AftvBov 
eftBopijteovra (nahiovs. pera^v re 6 'PoSto? 
etciriirreL irorapo^, teaO^ bv ev rfj Xeppovrfaa) rb 
Ku^o? arjfjid ecrriv, 6 cpaaiv 'Ricdfiris elvai rdepov 
ol Be rbv 'PoBlov eh top Alcnynov epftdWeiv 
(paalv' el? B* earl rcov virb rov Trotrjrov \eyo- 
peveov teal ovros' 

f Pr)(709 6 y 'Eiirrdiropos re Kdprjaos T€ 'PoSto<? 
re. 

rj Be AapBavo? teriapua dpxalov, ovrco B' eviea- 
racppovrjrov, ware iroWdtci? ol ftaaiXeh ol pev 
fiercvKi^ov avrrjv el? "AftvBov, ol Be dvoj/ei&v 
rrakiv eh to dpyalov teriap,a. evravda Be 
avvrjXOov ^u\\a? re KopvrfXios, 6 rwv 'Pcopaucov 
rjyepojVy teal ML0piBdrr)<; 6 tcXrjOeh KvTrdrcop, 
teal avvefirjaav 7Tyoo? d\\i]\ov<; eirl tearaXvaei 
rov 7ro\ep,ov. 

29. Tl\r)olov B y earl rb 'Oqbpvviov, 2 e'(/>* w rb 
rov "E/eropo? aXao<; ev irepupavel roirw' teal 
i(f)e£r)$ Xlpvrj 3 TireXeco<;. 

30. Rlra 'VoLreiov troXis eVl Xo(j)a) teeipevr) 
teal r& 'YoireLw 4 avve^V^ V l & v dXtrevifc, 5 eft 
fj pvr\pa teal lepbv Aiavros teal dvBpids, bv 
apavros ' Avrcoviou teopiaOevra eh Alyvrrrov 
direBcotce rois 'YoLreievat* irdXiv, teaddirep teal 

1 moxz read niKpto instead of fwtp6v. 

8 'O<ppvviov E and Epit., 'Otypovviov other MSS. 

3 \LfJLvr) y Leaf (see his note, Troad, p. 154), following 
Calvert, whom he quotes fully, emends to \iixi\v. 

4 'Pim'y CFmoxz, 'Potricf) D, 'Povrly hi, 'Povreicp other MSS. 

5S 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 28-30 

28. After Abydus, then, comes the Dardanian 
Promontory, which I mentioned a little while ago, 1 
and also the city Dardanus, which is seventy stadia 
distant from Abydus. Between the two places 
empties the Rhodius River, opposite which, in the 
Chersonesus, is Cynos-Sema, 2 which is said to be 
the tomb of Hecabe. But some say that the 
Rhodius empties into the Aesepus. This too is one 
of the rivers mentioned by the poet : " Rhesus, 
Heptaporus, Caresus, and Rhodius." 3 Dardanus 
was an ancient settlement, but it was held in such 
contempt that it was oftentimes transplanted by 
some of the kings to Abydus and then resettled 
again by others on the ancient site. It was here 
that Cornelius Sulla, the Roman commander, and 
Mithridates surnamed Eupator met and arranged 
the terms for the conclusion of the war. 

29. Near by is Ophrynium, near which, in a 
conspicuous place, is the sacred precinct of Hector. 4 
And next comes the Lake 5 of Pteleos. 

30. Then come Rhoeteium, a city situated on a 
hill, and, adjacent to Rhoeteium, a low-lying shore, 
on which are a tomb and temple of Aias, and also a 
statue of him, which was taken up by Antony 
and carried off to Aegypt ; but Augustus Caesar gave 
it back again to the Rhoeteians, just as he gave 

1 13. 1. 11. 

2 See "Cynos-Sema" and foot-note in Vol. Ill, p. 377. 

3 Iliad 12. 20. 

4 On the site of Ophrynium, see Leaf, p. 153. 

6 Leaf, p. 154, following Calvert, emends "Lake" to 
" Harbour." 

6 AlavTaov, after h\iTtvf)s, Jones deletes. 
• 'Pone ieva 1, the editors, for 'Pwrievai. 

59 



STRABO 

a\\oi<; aWovs, 1 6 XeftacrTos Kalcrap. tcL yap 
KaXkiara avaO^/iara £k tcov €7TL(f>aveaTdT(ov 
lepCOV fJL€V 77/36, rfj AlyviTTia xapi^o/JLevos, o 
Be OeoZs direBcoKe. 

31. Mera Be to 'PoLreiov 2 eo~Ti rb Hiyeiov? 
(careaTrcHTfievr) TroXt?, Kal to vavaTaO fiov real 6 
^A^atoiv \ifjbi]v zeal to 'A^ai/cov cTpaToireBov 
teal rj ^TO/j,a\L/j.vrj tcaXovfievrj koX at tov %Kap,dv- 
Bpov €/c/3o\aL. o-vyareaovTe^ yap 6 re ^Zi/Aoei? 
/col 6 *2,/cd/jLavBpo<; ev tg> ireBiq), ttoWtjv Kara- 
<f>epovT€<; l\vv, irpoaypvai ttjv irapaXlav Kal 
TV<f>\bv crTop.a Te Kal \ifj,vo0a\dTTa<; /cal eXrj 
Troiovai. KaTa Be ttjv ^lyeidBa* a/cpav iaTiv 
ev ttj Xeppovrjaw to UpcoTeaikdeiov 5 Kal rj 
'RXeovaaa, 6 irepl wv elpi]Ka\iev ev to?? ®pqicioi<;. 

32. u EiO~tl Be to p,r}fco<; T7]<i TrapaXLas TavTrjs, 
airb tov 'VoiTeLov 7 p,^XP l ^J^lov /cal tov 
'A^XXe'a)? fjLV7]fiaT0<; €v6v7t\oovvt(dv, e%r)K0VTa 

596 (ttclBLwv v7T07r€7TT(OKe Be tu> 'IXt<M iraaa, t& /jlcv 
vvv KaTa tov ' * Kycuwv \ifieva oaov BonBeKa o~Ta- 
Blovs Bte^ovaa, t& Be irpOTepw TpiaKovTa aWoi? 
o~TaBioi<; dvcoTepw KaTa to rrpbs ttjv "IBtjv fiepo?. 
tov jxev ovv 'A^tXXea)? Kal lepbv Igti Kal /Avrj/jLa 
77790? t& %iyei(p, UaTpoKXov Be Kal ' AvTi\b%ov 
fivrj/iaTa, Kal evayl^ovaiv ol 'IXtefc iracri Kal 
tovtois Kal tg> AcavTi. 'HpaKXea B* ov Tificoaiv, 

1 &\\ovs, omitted by the MSS., Kramer inserts (x reads 
&\\a) ; so the later editors. 

2 'Poireioy, the editors, for 'Polriov h, 'Pfriov other MSS., 
except that D has oi over v. 

8 'S.lyeiov E, 'S.iyiov other MSS. 
* 2*7c*a5a E, ZiytcLSa other MSS. 

6o 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. i. 30-32 

back other statues to their owners. For Antony 
took away the finest dedications from the most 
famous temples, to gratify the Egyptian woman, 1 
but Augustus gave them back to the gods. 

31. After Rhoeteium come Sigeium, a destroyed 
city, and the Naval Station and the Harbour of the 
Achaeans and the Achaean Camp and Stomalimne, 2 
as it is called, and the outlets of the Scamander ; 
for after the Simoeis and the Scamander meet in 
the plain, they carry down great quantities of 
alluvium, silt up the coast, and form a blind mouth, 
lagoons, and marshes. Opposite the Sigeian Pro- 
montory on the Chersonesus are Eleussa 3 and the 
temple of Protesilaiis, both of which I have men- 
tioned in my description of Thrace. 4 

32. The length of this coast, I mean on a straight 
voyage from Rhoeteium to Sigeium, and the 
monument of Achilles, is sixty stadia; and the 
whole of it lies below Ilium, not only the present 
Ilium, from which, at the Harbour of the Achaeans, 
it is about twelve stadia distant, but also the earlier 
Ilium, which lies thirty stadia farther inland in the 
direction of Mt. Ida. Now there are a temple and 
a monument of Achilles near Sigeium, as also monu- 
ments of Patroclus and Antilochus ; and the Ilians 
offer sacrifices to all four heroes, both to these and 
to Aias. But they do not honour Heracles, giving 

1 Cleopatra. a " Mouth-of-the-marsh." 

• " Eleussa" appears to be an error for "Eleus." 
4 Book VII, Frags. 51, 54, 55. 

6 Tlp(i>Te(Ti\deiov E, IT pwre a l\aiov Forz, TlpaTe<ri\alo>v C, 
UpwreaiKeaiv X)hi. 

• 'EAfoDcrtra, Oorais emends to 'EXaiovcraa. 

7 'Poirlou Dh, 'Pvtiov C, 'PoiTtiov other MSS. 

6l 



STRABO 

alrico/jLevoL rr)v V7t' avrov irbpQr\criv. aXX e/ceivos 
fiev, (pair) ris av, ovrcos eTropOrjaev, war airo- 
Xnrelv rols vcrrepov e/ciropQr]crov<Ji /ce/ca/ccopievriv 
pL€V, rroXiv Be' Bib /cal outco? etprj/cev 6 Troirirrjs' 
'lXiov e^aXdira^e ttoXiv, ^rjpwae 8' ay via?. 

V 7^P XVP € ^ a XeiiravBpia ris eariv, ov/c 
d<f)avi(T[ib<; reXeios' ovroi S' i)$dvicrav reXeicos, 
oh evayi^eiv dtjiovai /cal ripuav a>? Oeovs' el fir) 
tovt alridaaivro, Bioti ovroi /iev Bi/caiov 
TrbXe/jLOv i£?]vey/cav, e/ceivo? Be aBi/cov, eve^ 
'imrwv AaofieBovros' rrpbs rovro Be irdXiv dv- 
ririOerai [ivOos' ov yap eve/ca Ilttttcov, dXXa 
/iiaOov inrep rrjs 'Raiovrjs /cal rod /crjrovs. dXX' 
idcrwfiev ravra' eh yap fivOcov dvaa/cevas 
e/CTriirrei' rd^a Be Xavddvovai rives rjfids atrial 
Triarorepai, BS as rois 'iXievaiv eirijXOe rovs 
fiev ri/judv, rovs Be fir], eoi/ce Be 6 iroirjrris 
fxiKpdv dirocpaiveiv rr)v iroXiv ev ra> irepl 
'Hpa/cXeovs Xoy<p, elirep 

ef otrjs avv vrjvcrl /cal dvBpdai rravporepoiaiv 
'IXiov e^aXdrratji: ttoXiv. 

/cal <\>aiverai 6 Tlpiafios rep roiovrw Xoyw fieyas 
e/c fii/cpov yeyovoos /cal fiaaiXevs fiaaiXewv, a>? 
e<papL€v. jii/cpbv Be irpoeXOovaiv dirb rrjs rrapa- 
Xias ravrrjs earl rb 'A^ai'iov, r)Br] rrjs TeveBiwv 
rrepalas vrtapypv. 

1 Iliad 5, 642. 2 Iliad 5. 640. 

3 To appease the anger of Poseidon, Laomedon exposed 
his daughter Hesione' on the promontory Agameia (see 
Stephanus s.v.) to be devoured by a sea-monster. Heracles 
promised to kill the monster and save Hesione if Laomedon 

62 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 32 

as their reason his sacking of the city. But one 
might say that, although Heracles did sack it, yet 
he sacked it in such a way as still to leave it a city, 
even though damaged, for those who were later to 
sack it utterly ; and for this reason the poet states 
it thus : " He sacked the city of llios and widowed 
her streets " j 1 for "widowed" means a loss of the 
male population, not a complete annihilation. But 
the others, whom they think fit to worship with sacri- 
fices and to honour as gods, completely annihilated 
the city. Perhaps they might give as their reason 
for this that these waged a just war, whereas 
Heracles waged an unjust one " on account of the 
horses of Laomedon." 2 But writers set over against 
this reason the myth that it was not on account 
of the horses but of the reward offered for Hesione 
and the sea-monster. 3 But let us disregard these 
reasons, for they end merely in controversies about 
myths. And perhaps we fail to notice certain more 
credible reasons why it occurred to the Ilians to 
honour some and not others. And it appears that 
the poet, in what he says about Heracles, represents 
the city as small, if it be true that " with only six 
ships and fewer men he sacked the city of Ilium." 4 
And it is clearly shown by this statement that 
Priam became great and king of kings from a small 
beginning, as I have said before. 5 Advancing a 
little farther along this shore, one comes to the 
Achaeium, where begins the part of the mainland 
that belongs to Tenedos. 

would give him his immortal horses. Laomedon agreed. 
Heracles fulfilled his promise, but Laomedon refused to give 
up 'he horses, and hence the war. 

* Iliad 5. 041. * 12 . 8. 7, Li. 1. 7. 

63 



STRABO 

33. Tolovtcov Be twv eVl rfj OaXdrTjj tottcov 
ovtcdv, virepKeirai tovtwv to Tpcoitcbv ireBiov 
^XP L T *7 <? "IS*?? avrjKOv iir\ ttoXXov? araBiov; 
Kara to 7roo? eco fiepos. rovrov B J r) p,ev 
irapaypeios iari arevi], rfj /xev eVl tt)v fieo-rj/jb^piav 
Tera/JLevij ^XP l r ™ v KaT ^ X/crjyJnv tottwv, rfj 
8' eVl t<z? ap/crow; p>tXP l r ^ p fcar ^ ZeXeiav 
Av/clcov. ravrrjv 8* 6 irocrjTr}^ vir Alveia rdrrei 
teal Tot? 'AvriivopiBais, tcaXet Be kapBaviav. 
V7TO Be ravTrj Keftprjvia, ireBias r) irXela-rrj, 
TrapdXXrjXos 7roj? rfj AapBavla' rjv Be /ecu 7roX.t? 
7tot€ Keftprjvr). virovoel 8' o Arj/jLi]Tpio<; ^XP l 
Bevpo BictTeiveiv Trjv irepl to "IXlov x ( * i P av Tr ) v 
vtto t<o "KfCTOpi, avrj/covcrav dnb rod vavardO /jlov 
f^expf' Ke/3pr)via<;' rd^ov re <ydp ' ' AXe%dv8pov 
BeLtcvvcrOal <f>r)criv avroOi real Olvcovr)?, rjv 
iaropovat yvvai/ca yeyovevcu tov 'AXefjdvBpov, 
irplv 'TLXevrjv dpirdaai' Xeyeiv re tov irocrjrrjv 1 
KeftpLovrjv vbBov vlbv dyaicXrjos UpidfjLOio, 
C 597 bv el/cbs elvcu eTroovv/jLOv t?}? ^copa? rj /cai 7roXea)?, 
oirep TTiOavd&Tepov Trjv Be Kefiprjvlav Btrj/cew 
p>expi T?)? ^fcrjylrias, opiov 6° elvcu tov %Ka/jLavBpov 
fieaov avTcbv peovTCf ex^pav & ^el kcu iroXe^ov 
elvau tocs T€ Ke/3prjvol<; fcal to£? ^Kr]yjrioi<;, eiw? 
' Avtljovos avTovs avvcp/eio-ev eh Trjv totc /xev 
*AvTiyoviav, vvv Be ' AXe^dvBpeiav tovs fiev ovv 
Keftprjvieas 2 o-vfifielvcu to?? aXXois ev ttj 
1 AXe%avBpeiq, tou? Be X/w^tov? eiraveXdelv eU 
rr)v OLKelav, eTriTpeijravTos Avcn/idxov. 

1 Aeyeiv re rbv iroL-qr^v F, \4yei 6 ttoit/jt^s Kai x ; CDhi Omit 
re, moz read re Kai. 

2 Instead of KePprjvieas imoxz read KePpfrovs. 
64 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 33 

33. Such are the places on the sea. Above these 
lies the Trojan Plain, which extends inland for 
many stadia in the direction of the east as far as 
Mt. Ida. The part of this plain alongside the 
mountain is narrow, extending on one side towards 
the south as far as the region of Scepsis, and on 
the other towards the north as far as the Lycians of 
Zeleia. This is the country which the poet makes 
subject to Aeneias and the sons of Antenor, calling 
it Dardania; and below this is Cebrenia, which is 
level for the most part and lies approximately 
parallel to Dardania; and in it there was once a 
city called Cebrene. 1 Demetrius suspects that the 
territory of Ilium subject to Hector extended inland 
from the naval station as far as Cebrenia, for he 
says that the tomb of Alexander 2 is pointed out 
there, as also that of Oenone, who, according to 
historians, had been the wife of Alexander before 
he carried off Helen. And, he continues, the poet 
mentions "Cebriones, bastard son of glorious Priam," 3 
after whom, as one may suppose, the country was 
named — or the city too, which is more plausible ; 
and Cebrenia extends as far as the territory of 
Scepsis ; and the Scamander, which flows between, 
is the boundary ; and the Cebreni and Scepsians 
were always hostile to one another and at war until 
Antigonus settled both peoples together in Anti- 
gonia, as it was then called, or Alexandreia, as it is 
now called ; now the Cebreni, he adds, remained 
with the rest in Alexandreia, but the Scepsians, 
by permission of Lysimachus, went back to their 
homeland. 

1 80 the name is spelled in § 47, but " Cebren " in § 52. 
« Paris. 8 Iliad 16. 738. 

65 

C 2 



STRABO 

34. ' Atto Be t% Kara tovtov? 1 tol»? tottovs 
'IoWa? 6p€ivrj<s Bvo (prjalv dyfcwva? eKT€ivea6at 
7rpo? OdXarrav, tov fiev evOv f Po£Te/o", 2 tov Be 
^tyeiov, iroiovvras e'f dpufyolv ypapLp,yv rjfufcvrc- 
XicoBtj' TeKevjoLv 6° iv tg> ireBtw, roaovrov 
a7T6^o^Ta? T77? 6a\aTTi]s, ocrov to vvv "IXiov. 
tovto fiev Brj fiera^ij t?)? TeXefn}? tcov Xe)(6evTwv 
ayKcovcov elvai, rb Be iraXaibv KTiafia /lera^v 
t>?<? dpXV*' fieTaXafifidveaOai 3 S' ei>TO? to tg 
^Eifioeiaiov ireBlov, oY ov 6 ^ifioeis (freperai, zeal 
to %Kafidv8p<ov, 6Y ov %/cdp,av$po<; pel. tovto 
Be Kal ZBlcds TpfDifcov Xeyerac, Kal rot;? irXeiaTOVS 
dycovas 6 7roirjTrj<; evTavda aTroBiBcoari, nrXaTv- 
Tepov yap earc, Kal tov<; 6vofia%ofievov<; to7tov<; 
evTavOa BetKvvfievovs opw/mev, tov 'Epiveov, tov 
tov AlavrJTOv Ta(j)ov } ttjv BaTieiav,* to tov "lXov 
arjfia. 01 Be TTOTa/jLol Te Xfcd/AavBpos Kal 6 
Xifioet,?, 6 fiev tw ^Lyeico irXrjcrido'as, 6 Be 
T(o 'PoiTeico, fiiKpbv e/nrpoaOev tov vvv 'YXlov 
avfifiaXXovaiv, eIt eVt to 'Eiyeiov eKBiBoaai 
Kal ttoiovgi tt)V 2t o fiaXl fjbvrjv KaXovjjLevrjv. 
Bieipyei 8* eKarepov tcov Xe%devTcov ireBicov arrrb 
Oarepov /zeya? Tt? ctvxh v t & v elprj/ievcov dyKcovcov 
in evOelas, dirb tov vvv 'lXlov ttjv ap\r]v ex wv > 
avpL<f)vr)<; ai>T(p, Teivofievo? 8' ea)? t?}? KeySo^i/ta? 
Kal diroTeXoiv to £ ypdfifia Trpbs to 1)9 eKarepcodev 
ayKwva^. 

1 tovtovs, before rovs, Groskurd inserts ; so Miiller-Diibner, 
Meitieke, and Leaf. 

2 'Poirdou, the editors, for 'Pon-fou CDFK, 'Puriov other MSS. 

3 ixiTaKau^dveaQai, all MSS. except E, which reads ^uero- 
Kda-aaadai, Leaf rightly restores, instead of airoXa^dveaQai 
Meiueke, /caTaAa,u/8a»'e<70cu Corais. 

66 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 34 

34. From the mountain range of Ida in this region, 
according to Demetrius, two spurs extend to the 
sea, one straight to Rhoeteium and the other 
straight to Sigeium, forming together a semicircular 
line, and they end in the plain at the same distance 
from the sea as the present Ilium ; this Ilium, 
accordingly, lies between the ends of the two spurs 
mentioned, whereas the old settlement lies between 
their beginnings ; and, he adds, the spurs include 
both the Simoeisian Plain, through which the Simoeis 
runs, and the Scamandrian Plain, through which the 
Scamander flows. This is called the Trojan Plain in 
the special sense of the term ; and here it is that 
the poet represents most of the fights as taking 
place, for it is wider ; and here it is that we see 
pointed out the places named by the poet — Erineus, 1 
the tomb of Aesyetes, 2 Batieia, 3 and the monument 
of llus.* The Scamander and Simoeis Rivers, after 
running near to Sigeium and Rhoeteium respectively, 
meet a little in front of the present Ilium, and then 
issue towards Sigeium and form Stomalimne, 5 as it is 
called. The two plains above mentioned are separated 
from each other by a great neck of land which runs 
in a straight line between the aforesaid spurs, starting 
from the present Ilium, with which it is connected, 
and stretches as far as Cebrenia and, along with 
the spurs on either side, 6 forms a complete letter £. 7 

1 " Fig tree." Iliad 6. 433. a Iliad 2. 793. 

3 Iliad 2. 813. * Iliad 10. 415. 
8 See 13. 1. 31 and foot-note. 

4 These spurs forming a semi-circular line, as stated above. 
7 i.e. the uncial letter written backwards (9). See Leaf's 

diagram, p. 175. 

4 BarUiav, Xylander, for Baremv ; so the later editors. 

67 



STRABO 

35. T7T6/3 Be rovrov puicpbv 7) toov 'IXieayp 
KobfiT) icrrlif, ev y vomeral to iraXaibv "IXiov 
iBpvadai irporepov, rpid/covra GTaBlovs Bieyov 
airb t?)? vvv 7ro\e<w?. virep Be T779 'Wtewv kcd/jltj? 
Beica o-tclBiols early r) KaXXiKoXcovrj, Xocpos Tt?, 
Trap ov 6 2t/io«? pel, irevTaardBiov Biey^wv 1 
yiverai ovv evXoyov irpwrov fiev to cttI rod 
"Apeo?- 

co pro 6° "A/??/? erepcoOev ipe/jivy XalXairi lao$, 
6%v rear aKpoTCLTT)^ ttoXio*; Tpcoeaai rceXevcov, 
aXXore Trap ^Zi/xoevTi Oecov eirl KaXXitcoXoovrj. 

C 598 t?}? yap p>dyr}s eVl ra> ^KafxavBpiw ireBiw 
o~vvTe\ovp,evr)<;, TTiOavws av 6 "Apr)? aXXore puev rrjv 
ey/ceXevo-iv airb rrjs aKpoiroXews iroiolro, aXXore 
& efc ro)v irXrjarLov tottojv rov re Xi/noevros /cal 
T779 KaXXiKoXcovrj^, p>e%pi ov el/cb? /cal rrjv fidyrjv 
iraparerdo-OaL. rerrapaKovra Be araBiov^ Bie- 
Xpvarjs tt)? K.aXXiKoX(ibvr)<; airb rov vvv 'IXiov, 
Tt Xprjo~ip,ov €7rl roaovrov ^eraXa^dveaOai rov? 
T07rou?, e^' oaov y Bidrafy*; ov Biereuve ; to T€ 

irpbs ®vp,/3pr}$ B' eXayov Avklol 

ol/ceiorepov eari rq> iraXatw KrlafiaTf ttXtjo-lov 
yap io-TL to ireBlov 77 ®v/i/3pa teal 6 6Y avrov 
pieov TroTapibs Svpftpios, ep,(3dXX(DV eh rov 
^/cdpavBpov Kara rb ®v/j,/3patov 'AttoXXcovos 
iepov, rov Be vvv 'I\i'ov /cal Trevrtj/covra aTaBiovs 

1 tiiexw* Corais, from conj. of Palmer, for %x wv > * nas k1>k\»p 
after ix<*v, an d so Eustathius reads (note on Iliad 20. 47, 53). 
The scholiast (quoted by C. Mflller, Ind. Var. LtcU p. 1024) 
quotes Demetrius as saying that this hill is "five stadia in 

68 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 35 

35. A little above this 1 is the Village of the 
Ilians, where the ancient Ilium is thought to have 
been situated in earlier times, at a distance of thirty 
stadia from the present city. And ten stadia above 
the Village of the Ilians is Callicolone, a hill, past 
which, at a distance of five stadia, flows the Simoeis. 2 
It therefore becomes easy to understand, first, the 
reference to Ares : " And over against her leaped 
Ares, like unto a dreadful whirlwind, in shrill tones 
cheering the Trojans from the topmost part of the 
city, and now again as he sped alongside Simoeis 
o'er Callicolone " ; 3 for if the battle was fought on 
the Scamandrian Plain, it is plausible that Ares 
should at one time shout his cheers from the acropolis 
and at another from the region near the Simoeis and 
Callicolone, up to which, in all probability, the battle 
would have extended. But since Callicolone' is forty 
stadia distant from the present Ilium, for what 
useful purpose would the poet have taken in places 
so far away that the line of battle could not have 
reached them ? Again, the words, " And towards 
Thymbra fell the lot of the Lycians," 4 are more 
suitable to the ancient settlement, for the plain of 
Thymbra is near it, as also the Thymbrius River, 
which flows through the plain and empties into the 
Scamander at the temple of the Thymbraean Apollo, 
but Thymbra is actually fifty stadia distant from the 

1 i.e. a little farther inland than the country which has the 
shape of the letter in question. 

" See critical note. * Iliad 20. 51. 

* Iliad 10. 430. 

perimeter . . ., five stadia distant from the Simoeis, and ten 
stadia distant from the village of the Ilians." 

69 



STRABO 

Biex 61 - o re 'Epiveos, rpaxvs Tt? to7TO? /cat 
ipiveooSrjs, tw fiev apytalw KriapiarL vTroTreirrwicei', 
ware rb 

Xabv Be arrjcrov Trap' 'Epiveov, evOa fidXiara 
afi/3ar6<; eari 7t6Xl<; Koi errlBpopuov tirXero 

olfC€i(os av Xeyoi 1 rj 'AvBpop,dxv> T fy ^ v ^ v 
TroXecos irdjXTToXv cKpearrjKe. 2 /ecu 6 t&rjybs Be 
fiLicpbv tcarwrepa) earl rod 'Epcveov, e<fi* ov (prjalv 
6 'A^tAAeu?, 

o(f>pa 8' 67a) per Wxaiolcriv TToXe/M^ov, 
ov/c eOeXea/ce pudxv v a 71 "** Tei^eo? bpvvpev 

aXX* baov e<? Z/caid? re ttvXcls zeal <&riybv 
itcavev.* 

36. Kcu purfv rb ye vavaraOpov rb vvv en 
Xeybfievov 7rX^aiov oi/to>? earl t% vvv irbXew^, 
ware 6avp,d^eu> el/corcos dv riva rcov p,ev rr)<; 
dirovoias, rwv he rovvavriov rrjs dyjrv)(ia$' diro- 
voias pev, el £f9 4 roaovrov XP® V0V drelxtcrrov 
avrb efyov, ttXi)<jiov ovarjs- rrj<i 7ro\eo)<? teal 
roaovrov ttXijOovs, rov t' ev avrfj /cat rov 
iiTucovpLicov' vecoarl yap yeyovevai (frrjai rb 
Tet%o? (?) ovB' iyevero, 6 Be irXdaa*; ttoiijtijs 
rj^dviaev, o>? ' ApiaroreXrjs fyrjaiv)' d-tyvxlas Be, 
el, yevo/xevov rod Tfi^ou?, ereixopidxovv tcai 5 
eiaeireaov et? avrb rb vavaraOpuov /cal Trpoaep,d- 
Xovro tgu? vavaiv, dreix^o-rov Be exovres, ov/c 
eOdppovv irpoauovre^ iroXiop/celv, fiucpov rov 



1 Some of the MSS. read keyoiro instead of Aeyoi. 
70 






GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 35-36 

present Ilium. And again, Erineus, 1 a place that is 
rugged and full of wild fig trees, lies at the foot 
of the ancient site, so that Andromache might 
appropriately say, "Stay thy host beside Erineus, 
where best the city can be approached and the wall 
scaled/' 2 but Erineus stands at a considerable distance 
from the present Ilium. Further, a little below 
Erineus is Phegus, 3 in reference to which Achilles 
says, * But so long as I was carrying on war amid 
the Achaeans, Hector was unwilling to rouse battle 
away from the wall, but would come only as far as 
the Scaean Gates and Phegus." 4 

36. However, the Naval Station, still now so 
called, is so near the present Ilium that one might 
reasonably wonder at the witlessness of the Greeks 
and the faint-heartedness of the Trojans ; witlessness, 
if the Greeks kept the Naval Station unwalled for 
so long a time, when they were near to the city and 
to so great a multitude, both that in the city and 
that of the allies ; for Homer says that the wall had 
only recently been built (or else it was not built at 
all, but fabricated and then abolished by the poet, as 
Aristotle says) ; and faint-heartedness, if the Trojans, 
when the wall was built, could besiege it and break 
into the Naval Station itself and attack the ships, 
yet did not have the courage to march up and be- 
siege the station when it was still unwalled and only 

1 See foot-note on " Erineus," § 34 above. 

1 Iliad 6. 433. 3 Oak tree. * Iliad 9. 352. 

8 d^fo-TTj/cc (the reading of Eustathius, note on Iliad 6. 
433), Casaubon, for a^eWe ; so Kramer and Meineke. 
3 fewer, Xv lander, for 'Uoirro ; so the later editors. 

* (Is, Meineke omits. 

* ical, Meineke and Leaf, from conj. of Kramer, for us. 

71 



STRABO 

Biaarrjixaro^ ovto<?' eo~ri yap rb vavaraOfiov 
7T/30? Xtyelw, rrXrjalov Be koX 6 Xtcd/jLavBpos 
e/cBlBwai, Bii^wv rov 'lXlov araBlovs eiKoaiv. 
el Be (firjcrei Tt? rov vvv Xeyo/ievov ^A^aicov 
Xi/xeva etvcu rb vavaraOfiov, iyyvrepco riva Xetjei 
roirov, oaov BooBe/ca o~raBlov<; Biearcora tt}<? 
7roXect)?, to x eVl OaXdrrrj ireBtov o-vpurpocpridei^^ 
Biotl rovro rrav 7r poo-j^co/ia 3 rcov 7roTafi(bv earl, to 
irpb t^? 7ro\ea>? eirl OaXdrrr) rreBlov' ware, el 
BooBe/cao-rdBiov ecu vvv to /xeragv, rore kcu tcu 
r}/jLL(7€i eXarrov virrfpxe. teal r) Bujyrjcns B* 77 
C 599 7rpo? Toy JLv/jlcuov vtto rov 'OBvaaecos Biacr/cevacr- 
Oelaa fieya efufraivei to Bido-r^fia to pfypi 
T?J? 7ro\6ft)? dirb rov vavo-rdOfiov' 

GO? OU VTTO ipoiT) Xo%ov r]yo/JL€V 
<j>rjo-l yap viroftds' 

Xltjv yap vqcav e«ra? rjXQopiev. 
eirl re rrjv KaraaKOTrrjv rreynrovrai yvcoao/xevoi, 
rrorepov fxevovai rrapd vr)va\v drrorrpoOev ttoXv 
direcnraa^evoi rov ol/celov Tet%ou9, 

rje iroXivBe 

city dvayu>pr)0-ovo~i. 
real o UoXvBd/jLas, 

dfjL<j>l fxdXa <fipd£eo~0€, <plXoi' /ceXop,ai yap 
eycoye 

aarvBe vvv levai, 

(brjaiv, f v s» » \ / / » 

e/cas o arro reiX €0( > etfiev. 

iraparl6rjo-i 8* 6 Arj/jbrfrpios /cal rrjv 'AXeljavBpivrjv 

'Rarialav /j,dprvpa } rrjv o-vyypdyjraaav irepl rrjs 

f O/jLrjpov *lXidBo$, 7rvv0avo/jLevr)v, el irepl rrjv vvv 

72 






GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 36 

a slight distance away ; for it is near Sigeium, and 
the Scamander empties near it, at a distance of only 
twenty stadia from Ilium. But if one shall say that 
the Harbour of Achaeans, as it is now called, is the 
Naval Station, he will be speaking of a place that is 
still closer, only about twelve stadia distant from the 
city, even if one includes the plain by the sea, 
because the whole of this plain is a deposit of the 
rivers — I mean the plain by the sea in front of the 
city ; so that, if the distance between the sea and 
the city is now twelve stadia, it must have been 
no more than half as great at that time. Further, 
the feigned story told by Odysseus to Eumaeus 
clearly indicates that the distance from the Naval 
Station to the city is great, for after saying, "as 
when we led our ambush 1 beneath the walls of 
Troy," he adds a little below, "for we went very 
far from the ships.'' And spies are sent forth to 
find whether the Trojans will stay by the ships " far 
away," far separated from their own walls, "or will 
withdraw again to the city." 2 And Polydamas 
says, "on both sides, friends, bethink ye well, for I, 
on my own part, bid you now to go to the city ; 
afar from the walls are we." 3 Demetrius cites also 
Hestiaea of Alexandreia as a witness, a woman who 
wrote a work on Homer's Iliad and inquired whether 

1 Odyssey 14. 469. a Iliad 10. 209. » Iliad 18. 254. 



1 t6, before hri, Groskurd inserts ; so the later editors. 
* cvfiirpoartdels, Meineke, for vvv irpoarideis ; Leaf omits 
ix\ . . . TrpoarTiOeis ; Kramer conj. ovk cv after irpoanQeis. 
1 wpJo-x«/io Orvxcz, irp6x<>>H- a other MSS. 

73 



STRABO 

TToXlV 7T0\€UL0<; CTVVearrj KOI 1 to Tpcoifcbv 

ireBiov, o pera^v tt)? nroXew? /cal rrj<; OaXdrrt]^ 

O TTOLTfTr]^ (f)pd%€l' TO fX6V ydp 7T/30 T^5 VVV 

iroXecos oputfievov it poaywyia elvai rwv iroraficov 
varepov ytyovo?. 

37. "O T6 UoXlTT)?, 

O? TpCOCOV 0-/C07TO? Z£e, 7TO$COK€Lr](Tl, 7re7TOJ#OJ?, 

Tvp,/3(i) t"7r dxpordrcp Alavrfrao yepovros, 
fidraccx; r)v. real yap el in dtcpordray, o/jlox; 
airo 2 ttoXv av pLei^ovo? vyfrovs tt}? aKpoiroXew^ 
eo-fcorrevev, e'f tVou o-%eSoy Tt Biaarijparos, firj 
Beo/ievo? firjhev tt}? rroBouceias rod acrfyaXovs 
ydpiv irevre yap Bie'^ei araBLovs 6 vvv BetKvv- 
(xevo^i rov AlcrvrjTov rdefios Kara rrjV eh 'AX,e- 
^dvBpeiav 6B6v. ovB* i) rov f 'E/cropo<; Be nvepi- 
Bpojxr) 7) irepl rrjv ttoK.lv e%ei n evXoyov, ov yap 
eari ireplBpofios 7) vvv, Bid ri)v o~vveyr\ pdyiv r\ Be 
iraXaid eyei irepiBpojxiqv. 

38. OvBev 8* t^i/05 crco^erai TrJ9 dpyaias 
TroXew etVoTto?* are yap eKTrerropOrj/jievcov ro)V 
/cvkXq) rroXecov, ov TeXeo)? Be Karearraapbevwv, 
ravrt]^ 5' etc ftdOpcov dvarerpajm/j,€vr}<;, 01 XiOoi 
rrdvres et? rr)v i/ceivcov dvdXrj\jriv uerrive")(6 1 l aav ' 
* Kpyaidvaicra yovv (fiacre rbv MirvXrjvacov i/c 
roiv erceldev Xidcov to ^lyeiov reiylaai. rovro 
Be Karea^ov p,ev ' AOrivatoi, <Ppvvcova rbv 'OXv/jl- 
ttioilktjv 7re/jL^avrei, Aea(Sl(0v eiriBiKa^op^evcov 
a^eBov ri rfj? o~vfnrdo~7}<; TpcodBos' a>v Br) fcal 

1 After koI Groskurd inserts iroG fori, Kramer conj. trod or 
rl, Meineke indicates a lacuna, and Leaf omits altogether 
tJ> Tpwinhv ireSiov . . . varepov yey oi>6s. 

74 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 36-38 

the war took place round the present Ilium and the 
Trojan Plain, which latter the poet places between 
the city and the sea ; for, she says, the plain now to 
be seen in front of the present Ilium is a later deposit 
of the rivers. 

37. Again, Polites, " who was wont to sit as a 
sentinel of the Trojans, trusting in his fleetness of 
foot, on the topmost part of the barrow of aged 
Aesyetes," 1 was doing a foolish thing, for even 
though he sat on the topmost part of it, still he might 
have kept watch from the much greater height of the 
acropolis, at approximately the same distance, with no 
need of fleetness of foot for safety ; for the barrow of 
Aesyetes now pointed out is five stadia distant on the 
road to Alexandreia. Neither is the ft clear running 
space " 2 of Hector round the city easy to understand, 
for the present Ilium has no " clear running space," 
on account of the ridge that joins it. The ancient city, 
however, has a " clear running space " round it. 

38. But no trace of the ancient city survives ; and 
naturally so, for while the cities all round it were 
sacked, but not completely destroyed, yet that city 
was so utterly demolished that all the stones were 
taken from it to rebuild the others. At any rate, 
Archaeanax of Mitylene is said to have built a wall 
round Sigeium with stones taken from there. Sigeium 
was seized by Athenians under Phrynon the Olympian 
victor, although the Lesbians laid claim to almost 
the whole of the Troad. Most of the settlements in 

1 Iliad 2. 792. 2 See Iliad 2. 812. 



2 hir6, before iro\i, Corais inserts ; and so Meineke. 
Kramer and Leaf insert a$»' before vtyovs. 

75 



STRABO 

KTitJiLdTa elaiv at irXjelcTTai tcov kcltoikicdv, at 
/lev crvfjL/j,ivovcrai real vvv, at B* r/cfiavicr/jLevai. 
C 600 IIiTTttACo? £' o M.iTv\r)valo<;, el? tcov eirra tro<f>cov 
Xeyofievcov, irXevaa<; eVt tov <&pvvcova (tt partly ov 
hieiroXefxei reo)?, BiaTiOels teal irdayjov rca/ccos, 
ore Kai 'A\/taZo? cpijtriv 6 7roiy]Ti]<; } eavrbv ev 
rivt aycovi tca/ccos cpepo/uevov ra 6ir\a pi^ravra 
(pvyelv Xeyei Be 7rpo? riva fcrfpv/ca, tceXevcra*; 
dyyeTXat rot? ev olkco, 'AX/cato? troos "Apei 
evrea 8' f ov/evrbv ciXrjrcTOplv e'? TXav/ccoirov lepbv 
avetepefiacrav 'Attikoi, 1 varepov 6° e/c fiovofia- 
%ta?, TTpOfcaXea-a^ievov 2 tov Qpvvcovos, dXiev- 
ri/crjv dvaXa(3cov crfcevrjv avveBpap-e, /cal tco /xev 
afi(f)LJ3X7]aTp(p Trepie/BaXe, rfj Tpiauvrj Be real tco 
jjicpiBico eireipe Kal civelXe. p.evovTo<s B> en tov 
woXi/jbov, Uep[avBpo<i BiaLTrjTr)? alpeOeh virb 
d/jL<f>olv eXvcre tov ttoXc/jlov. 

39. Tlfiaiov Be ^evtrao-Qai cprjaiv 6 Arj/j,^rpio<; 3 
iaropovvra i/c tcov Xi6cov tcov ijj 'lXiov TleplavBpov 
itTiTW)(L<Tai z to 'AxtXXeiov rots y A0r)vaLOi<;, fiorj- 
Oovvra rot? irepl tliTTaKov eTnTeiyjLo-Brjvai jxev 
yap virb tcov MiTvXrjvalcov tov tottov tovtov tco 
^lyelco, ov fjirjv ere XiOcov toiovtcov, ovB* vtto tov 

1 Meineke, following conj. of Kramer, ejects frre . . . 
'AttikoI. The passage 'A\xaios . . . 'AttikoI, from a6os to 
kv^Kpifiaaav, has been so badly mutilated by the copyists 
that it is impossible to do more in a translation than to give 
the general sense of it. For conjectural restorations see 
Kramer, C. Muller (Ind. Var. Lect. p. 1025), and Bergk 
(Vol. III. Frag. 32 of Alcaeus), who reads evQaV ovuvrbv ak-nic- 
Toplv 4s y\avKwirbi/ lepbv bv iKpifxaaav 'AttikoI. Meineke and 
Leaf omit the whole passage. 

2 TpoKaXe(ra/xevov F, other MSS. irpoffKaXecra/xcvov. 

b ivtTfixlvai, Corais, for irepireix'urai ; so the later editors. 

76 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 38-39 

the Troad belong, in fact, to the Lesbians, and some 
endure to this day, while others have disappeared. 
Pittacus of Mitylene, one of the Seven Wise Men, 
as they are called, sailed against Phrynon the 
general 1 and for a time carried on the war, but with 
poor management and ill consequences. It was at 
this time that the poet Alcaeus says that he himself, 
being sorely pressed in a certain battle, threw away 
his arms and fled. He addresses his story to a 
certain herald, whom he had bidden to report to 
the people at home that " Alcaeus is safe, but his 
arms have been hung up as an offering to Ares by the 
Attic army in the temple of Athena Glaucopis." 2 But 
later, on being challenged to single combat by 
Phrynon, he took up his fishing tackle, ran to meet 
him, entangled him in his fishing net, and stabbed 
and slew him with trident and dagger. But since 
the war still went on, Periander was chosen by both 
sides as arbiter and ended it. 

39. Demetrius says that Timaeus falsifies- when he 
informs us that Periander fortified Achilleium against 
the Athenians with stones from Ilium, to help the 
army of Pittacus ; for this place, he says, was indeed 
fortified by the Mitylenaeans against Sigeium, though 
not with such stones as those, nor yet by Periander. 

1 The Athenian general. 

1 Only this fragment (Bergk 32) of Alcaeus' poem, ad- 
dressed to Melanippus (see Herodotus 5. 95), is preserved. 
But the text has been so badly mutilated by the copyists 
that none of the conjectural restorations can with certainty 
be adopted ; and hence the translator can give only the 
general sense of the passage. However, the whole reference 
to Alcaeus appears to be merely a note that has crept into 
the text from the margin (see critical note). 

77 



STRABO 

UepidvBpov. 7toj? yap av aipeufjvai BiaiTrjrrjv 
rbv TrpoairoXefiovvra ; ' A-^iXXeiov B* icrriv o 
tottos, ev <L to 'A^tWew? p,vrjiia, KaroiKia /M/cpd. 
fcaTeaKairrai Be kcu to Xiyeuov virb rSiv '\Xiewv 
direidovv' l vir eiceivois yap r/v varepov r) 
rrapaXla iracra ?; ^XP 1 & a pBdvov, /cal vvv U7r' 
etceLVoLs eari. to Be iraXatbv virb to?? AloXevaw 
y)v ra TrXeiara, coare "E0o/?o? ovtc oKvel irdcrav 
tt)i> diro y \/3vBov fJiixpi Kv/jlt)^ tcaXelv AloXcBa. 
®ovkuBIBt}<; Be $7)aiv d(paipedfjvai rrjv Tpotav 
vrrb 'Aorjvaiwp rovs ^hrvXtjvalov<; iv tw 
YleXoTrovvrjaiaKU) iroXefiw rep Ha^rjrlqy. 

40. Aey oval 8 ol vvv \Xtel<; ical tovto, o>? 
ovBe TeXeo)? rjfyaviaQai. avveftaivev 2 rrjP ttoXlv 
Kara, ttjv aXwaiv viro tcjv y A%ai6)V, ovB? efe- 
Xelcf)0i] 3 ovBeiroTe. at yovv Ao/cplBes irapOevoi, 
fitfcpov vcrrepov dp^d/ievai, eirefnrovTo tear eVo?. 
fcal ravra B' ov% 'Op,r)pucd' ovre yap t?}? 
KaadvBpas <$>6opav olBev "Oprjpos, dX\ y on fiev 
irapdevos rjv inr' eicelvov rbv ^povov Xeyei' 

irecfive yap " 06 pvovr^a, Kaf3r)cr60ev evBov iovra, 
o? pa veov irToXepLOLo pberd kXeos elXrjXovOei. 

1 CDFhirwx read aireiOovuTwy instead of airfidovv. 

2 mz, and Corais, read avvefSi) instead of awcfiaivev. 

3 e£t\fi(per), Corais, for i^K-fiQOv CDF, ^tjXtj^t; hi, 
^rj\fi(pd7] moxz. 

1 See 13. 1. 4. 

a i.e. the campaign of Paches, the Athenian general, who 
in 427 B.C. captured Mitylene (see Thucydides 3. 18-49). 

3 To appease the wrath of Athena, caused after the Trojan 
War by the sacrilege of Aias the Locrian in her temple (he 

7» 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 39-40 

For how could the opponent of the Athenians have 
been chosen as arbiter? Achilleium is the place 
where stands the monument of Achilles and is only 
a small settlement. Sigeium, also, has been rased 
to the ground by the Ilians, because of its dis- 
obedience ; for the whole of the coast as far as 
Dardanus was later subject to the Ilians and is now 
subject to them. In ancient times the most of it 
was subject to the Aeolians, so that Ephorus does 
not hesitate to apply the name Aeolis to the whole 
of the coast from Abydus to Cyme. 1 Thucydides 
says that Troy was taken away from the Mitylenaeans 
by the Athenians in the Pachetian part 2 of the 
Peloponnesian War. 

40. The present Ilians further tell us that the city 
was, in fact, not completely wiped out at its capture 
by the Achaeans and that it was never even deserted. 
At any rate the Locrian maidens, beginning a little 
later, were sent every year. 3 But this too is non- 
Homeric, for Homer knows not of the violation of 
Cassandra, but he says that she was a maiden at 
about that time, " for he 4 slew Othryoneus, a 
sojourner in Troy from Cabesus, who had but recently 
come, following after the rumour of war, 5 and he 

dragged Cassandra away from the altar of the Palladium), 
the Locrians were instructed by an oracle from Delphi to 
send to her temple (as temple slaves) at Ilium two maidens 
every year for a thousand years. It appears that the servi- 
tude of the maidens lasted for only one year, each pair being 
released at the end of the year when the next pair arrived, 
but that upon their return home they were forced to remain 
unmarried (see Leaf, Annual of the British School at Athens, 
XXI, pp. 148-154). 

4 Idomeneus, son of Minos and King of Crete ; one of the 
bravest heroes of the Avar. 

* Or perhaps " in quest of war's renown " (Leaf). 

79 



STRABO 

rjree Be Ylpidpioio 6vyarpS)v elBos dpLO-rrjv, 
KaaadvBprjv, dvdeBvov 

ySta? Be ovBe p,e/jLvr}Tai, ovB* on r) cf)0opd rod 
Aiavros ev rfj vavayia Kara p,r\viv ' ' Adrjvd? 
avvefiri, r) Kara roiavrrjv alriav, dXX* arre^On- 
C 601 vofjuevov p,ev rfj 'AOrjva Kara rb koivov etpr/Kev 
(airdvrwv yap et<? to lepbv daeft^advrtov, diraaiv 
ifirjviev), diroXeadat, Be biro UoaeiBcbvos fieya- 
Xopprj/jiovrjo-avra. rd$ Be AoKpLBas ire/ULcpOfjvai, 
Uepaayv rjBrj Kparovvrcov, cvveftr). 

41. Ovrco fjiev Br) Xeyovcriv 01 'I\tet?, "Ofirjpos 
Be prjrcos rbv d^avidfxov rr}<; TroXea)? etprjKev' 

eaaerai yfiap, orav iror oXcoXy "iXto? Iprj. 

r) yap 1 koX Upidfioio ttoXiv BieirepaapLev alirrjv 

ftovXf} 2 Kal fivOoiai. 

irepOero Be Upid/juoio 7r6Xt? BeKarw eviavrw. 

Kal rd roiavra Be rod avrov ridevrai reKpurfpia, 
olov, on rr)<; 'AOrjvas rb %6avov vvv p,ev earr/Kb? 
oparai, "Ofirjpos Be Ka6r)p,evov e/jL^aivec' ireirXov 
yap KeXevey 

Oelvai ' A6r}vair}<; eirl yovvaaiv* 
to? Kal, 

fjLtj irore yovvaatv olaiv efye^eaQai (frlXov vlbv. 
fSeXriov yap ovrcos, r) w? rives Be'xourai dvrl rod 

1 avrap firet, instead of 7) yap, is the reading in the Odyssey. 
* The MSS. , except moz, which omit fiovhrj Kal fxvQoiai, have 
tXirtp before these words. 

1 Iliad 13. 363. Homer mentions Cassandra in only two 
other places, Iliad 24. 699 and Odyssey 11. 422. 

80 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 40-41 

was asking Cassandra in marriage, the comeliest of 
the daughters of Priam, without gifts of wooing," 1 
and yet he does not so much as mention any viola- 
tion of her or say that the destruction of Aias in 
the shipwreck took place because of the wrath of 
Athena or any such cause ; instead, he speaks of 
Aias as " hated by Athena," 2 in accordance with her 
general hatred (for since they one and all committed 
sacrilege against her temple, she was angry at them 
all), but says that he was destroyed by Poseidon 
because of his boastful speech. 3 But the fact is that 
the Locrian maidens were first sent when the 
Persians were already in power. 

41. So the Ilians tell us, but Homer expressly 
states that the city was wiped out : " The day shall 
come when sacred Ilios shall perish " ; 4 and * surely 
we have utterly destroyed the steep city of Priam,'' 5 
" by means of counsels and persuasiveness " ; 6 " and 
in the tenth year the city of Priam was destroyed." 7 
And other such evidences of the same thing are set 
forth ; for example, that the wooden image of Athena 
now to be seen stands upright, whereas Homer 
clearly indicates that it was sitting, for orders are 
given to " put " the robe " upon Athena's knees " 8 
(compare "that never should there sit upon his 
knees a dear child"). 9 For it is better to interpret 
it 10 in this way than, as some do, to interpret it as 

1 Odyssey 4. 502. » Odyssey 4. 500 ff. 

4 Iliad 6. 448. 5 Odyssey 3. 130. 

6 This phrase is not found in the Iliad or Odyssey, but once 
before (1. 2. 4) Strabo has ascribed it to Homer (see critical 
note). 

7 Iliad 12. 15. 8 Iliad 6. 92, 273. • Iliad 9. 455. 
10 i.e. the Greek preposition M, which more naturally 

means " upon " rather than "beside." 

81 

VOL. Y\ 



STRABO 

irapa rols ybvaai delvai, it a par 16 eyres rb 

r) 5* rjarat, eif eaydpri ev rrvpb? avyy 

dvrl rov Trap' ia^dprj. Tt? yap av vorjOelrj irerrXov 
dvdOecns irapa rots yovaoi ; /cal oi rrjv irpoawBlav 
Be Biaarpe(f>ovre<;, yovvdcnv, &>? Ovidacv, oirorepcos 
av Begwvrai, direpavroXoyovoiv, eW* iKerevovres 
re cfrpevas. 1 iroXXd Be rwv dpyalwv rrjs ^AOijvds 
jjodvcov /ea07]peva BeUvvrai, /caOdrrep ev 
tpcotcaia, MacrcraXta, 'Pcopr/, Xt&), aXXais 
rrXeiOcriv. bpoXoyovai Be fcal oi vedtrepoi tov 
dcfravio pbv rijs iroXecos, &v earl teal Av/covpyos 
o ptjrcop' pbvijcrOeU yap rrjs 'IXtecov iroXecos 
4>r)ai' Tt<? ovk dfcrj/coev, a>? ciiraf; virb rwv 
'EXXyvwv /career fca^Or], dotKrjrov ovaav ; 

42. YjiKa^ovGi Be rovs varepov avaKriaai 
Biavoov pevovs oloaviaaaQai rbv roirov ercelvov, 
tire Bio, ras <Tvp<f)opds, etre teal Karapaaapevov 
rov ' Ayapepvovos Kara rraXaibv eOos (tcaddirep 
real 6 Kpoiaos etjeXcov rrjv HiBrjvrjv, els r)v 6 
rvpavvos Kare(pvy€ YXavtcias, dpas eOero Kara 
rtov rei^iovvrcov irdXcv rbv roirov), eKeivov pev 
ovv drroorijvaL rod ^wpiov, erepov Be reiylaai. 
TTpwroi pev ovv ' AarvTraXaiels oi rb 'Polreiov 
Karaaxovres o-vvu>Kiaav irpbs ra> 1.ip6evri 
HoXiov, b vvv KaXelrai UoXicrp,a, ovk ev evepKel 

1 The words eft?' Ik€T€vovt4s re <ppivas are unintelligible. 
Meineke emends to eid' iKsreias fp/j-rjueuovres efre <pp4vas ; 
Leaf translates (with a question mark) "whether as sup- 
pliants or mind" ! Jones conj. that the words eirl (or eV) rfj 
r4<ppq. ("in the ashes"), referring to in' itrxdpp, are hidden 
in Te <ppevas. 

82 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 41-42 

meaning "to put the robe 'beside' her knees/' 
comparing the words " and she sits upon the hearth 
in the light of the fire," which they take to mean 
"beside" the hearth. For how could one conceive 
of the dedication of a robe "beside" the knees? 
Moreover, others, changing the accent on yoiWcrtv, 1 
accenting it yowacriv,* 2 like Ovidcriv 3 (in whichever of 
two ways they interpret it), talk on endlessly. . . . 4 
There are to be seen many of the ancient wooden 
images of Athena in a sitting posture, as, for example, 
in Phocaea, Massalia, Rome, Chios, and several other 
places. Also the more recent writers agree that 
the city was wiped out, among whom is the orator 
Lycurgus, 5 who, in mentioning the city of the Ilians, 
says : " Who has not heard that once for all it was 
rased to the ground by the Greeks, and is unin- 
habited ? " 

42. It is surmised that those who later thought of 
refounding the city regarded that site as ill-omened, 
either on account of its misfortune or also because, 
in accordance with an ancient custom, a curse had 
been laid upon it by Agamemnon, just as Croesus, 
after he destroyed Sidene, whither the tyrant 
Glaucias had fled for refuge, put a curse on any 
persons who should re-fortify the site ; and that 
they therefore avoided that place and fortified 
another. Now the Astypalaeans who held possession 
of Rhoeteium were the first to settle Polium, now 
called Polisma, on the Simoeis River, but not on a 

1 "Knees." 

a They obviously took yowaaiv, if there ever was such a 
word, to mean "female suppliants." 

Maenads." 4 See critical note. 

' Against Leocrates, 62. 

83 



STRABO 

tottco' 8ib KareaTrdadr] ra^ea)^. eVt 8e rcov 
Av8cov r) vvv itcTiaOrj KaroiKia kcl\ to UpoV ov 
firjv TroXt? 76 rjv, dXka ttoWols xpovoi? vcrrepov, 
C 602 koX /car oXlyov, oj? ecprjrai, rrjv avgrjaiv eo-%e*\ 
'EWdvi/cos 8e x a P L &/ jL€V0 '> T0 ^ 'Wisvaw, olos 
etcetvov Ov/jlos, 1 Gvvrjyopel to rr^v avrrjv elvai 

TToXlV T7)V VVV Tr} TOT€. T7)V 8e yjMpCLV, dcfiaVlO'- 

Oeiarjs rrjs 7roXea)?, oi to ^lyeiov teal rb 'Voltciov 
e^o^T€? SievetfiavTO /cal tcov dXkcov &>? etcacnoi 
rcov ir\r]aio)(Q)pcov, direhoaav 6" avoacia9el<j7)<$. 

43. TLoXvTriSatcov 8e ttjv "IS^i/ 18lco<; oXovrai 
\eyecrdai 8ia to ttXtjOos rcov e£ avrrj^ peovrcov 
iroraficov, icatT a fiakicrra rj Aap8avi/cr) vTroire- 
irrcoicev avrfj teal /J>£xpt ^K^yjreco^ /cal ra irepl 

"I\lOV. €flTT€LpO<; 8' COV TCOV TOTTCQV, GJ? CIV 

eVr^oopJO? dvrjpy o krjpLrjTpLO? rore p,ev ovtcos 
Xeyet rrepl avrcov ecrri yap \6cf)0<; tj? rfjs "I8r)$ 
Koti/Xo?" virep/ceirai 8* ovros e/earov irov ical 
eitcocri o~Ta8toi<; S/cij-^recos, ef ov 6 re %fcd/juav8po$ 
pel real 6 Tpdvucos kcu Alcttjttos, oi jiev 7roo? dptcrov 
teal rrjv Upo7rovTi8a, etc nfkeiovcov wrjycov crvWec- 
f36fJL€vot, 6 8e %Kd/jLav8po<; iirl 8vctlv i/c /ua? 
irrjyrj^' Tracrai 8' dXkrjkai<s 7r\r)crid£ovcriv, iv 
eifcocrL ara8ucov irepieyopevav 8iaartffj,arr ir\eZcr- 
tov 8' depecrrrj/eev dirb rr)s dp-ftf)? to toO Alaijirov 
TeXo?, crxehov n teal Trevraicoaiovs cTaStou?. 
trape^ei 8e \6yov, irco? 2 cfrrjaiv 6 TroirjTr)?' 

1 6vfi6s, Xylander, for /xvdos ; so the later editors. 

2 ttws, Corais, for ws ; so the later editors. 

1 i.e. of Ilium. 2 13. 1. 26. 

8 4 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 42-43 

well-protected site; and therefore it was soon de- 
molished. It was in the time of the Lydians that 
the present settlement 1 was founded, as also the 
temple. It was not a city, however, and it was 
only after many ages, and gradually, as I have said, 2 
that it increased. But Hellanicus, to gratify the 
Ilians, "such is the spirit of that man," 3 agrees with 
them that the present Ilium is the same as the 
ancient. When the city was wiped out, its territory 
was divided up between the inhabitants of Sigeium 
and Rhoeteium and several other neighbouring 
peoples, but the territory was given back when the 
place was refounded. 

43. The epithet " many fountained " 4 is thought 
to be especially applied to Mt. Ida because of the 
great number of rivers that flow from it, particularly 
in those parts below it where lie the territory of 
Dardanus — even as far as Scepsis — and the region of 
Ilium. Demetrius, who as a native was acquainted 
with the topography of the country, says in one 
place as follows : There is a hill of Ida called 
Cotylus ; and this hill lies about one hundred and 
twenty stadia above Scepsis ; and from it flow the 
Scamander, the Granicus, and the Aesepus, the two 
latter flowing towards the north and the Propontis 
and constituting a collection of streams from several 
sources, while the Scamander flows towards the west 
from only one source ; and all the sources lie close 
together, being comprised within a distance of twenty 
stadia ; but the end of the Aesepus stands farthest 
away from its beginning, approximately five hundred 
stadia. But it is a matter of argument what the poet 
means when he says : " And they came to the two 

' A quotation from Iliad 15. 94. * Cf. 13. 1. 5. 

85 



STRABO 

tcpovvco 8' 'ikclvov rcaXippoco, evda Be Tnjyai, 
Botal civ at a a overt %KapidvBpov BiprjevTO?' 
r) pev yap 6' v&ari Xiapw peel, 

6 kail 6epp.(p' ein^epeL Be' 

dp,<fn Be tcuTrvbs 

ylyveTai ef avrrjs, oacrel irvpos. 

r) 8' erept) Oepei irpopeei eltcvla yaXaQri 

rj xtovt irvxpfl- 
ovre yap Oeppa vvv iv rw totto) evpio~iceTai> ov0 y r) 
tov %/capLavBpov irrjyrj evTavda, dXX' iv tw 6 per 
koX fiia, dXX 1 ov Bvo. rd p,ev ovv Oeppd e/cXe- 
XeifyOai elfcos, to Be yjrv)(pbv Kara SidBoaiv 1 
virercpeov i/c tov ^Ka/idvBpov Kara rovr dvareX- 
Xeiv to yuspiov, r) teal Bid to ttXtjctlov elvav tov 
SfcafidvBpov kcu tovto to vBcop XeyeaOai tov 
%Ka/j,dv8pov TTY]yr)v ovtco yap XeyovTai irXeiov; 
Trrjyai tov avTOv 7roTa/iov. 

44. ^vpmiiTTei 6° et? avTov 6 " AvBipos dirb tj?<? 
Kaprjarjvr)^, opeivr)? tivo? 7roXXal<; /edi/iais crvvoi- 
kov/jl€VT)<; koX yecopyov/jLevrjs /caXoo?, irapaKeipuevris 
tt} &ap8avi/cf} tiixpi t&v irepl ZeXeiav koX 
HiTveiav 2 tottcov. (ovopdaOai Be ttjv x < * ) P av 
(fracrlv dirb tov Kaprjaov iroTapbov, bv d>vbp,aKev 6 
TTOirjTr}^' 

'PtJo-O? 6" 'E7TTa7TOyOO? T€ KaprjCTOS T€ 'PoS/o? T6. 

ttjv Be iroXiv icaTecnrdcrOai Tyv o/jlqqw/jlov tw 
TTOTapLO). irdXiv 6" outo? (prjaiv' 6 fiev c P^o-o? 
iroTapbs vvv KaXelTai 'Pocltt;?, el pur/ dpa 6 eh 
tov YpdviKov epufiaXXtov c Pt)o-o9 icrTiv. f E7rra- 

1 For 5ta5o<rtv (all MSS. and Eustathius), Corais, Meineke 
86 






GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 43-44 

fair-flowing streams, where well up the two springs 
of eddying Scamander ; for the one flows with soft 
water" 1 (that is, with "hot water"), and the poet 
adds, "and rou nd about a smoke arises from it as if from 
a blazing fire, whereas the other even in summer flows 
forth cold as hail or chill snow." But, in the first 
place, no hot waters are now to be found at the site, 2 
and, secondly, the source of the Scamander is not to 
be found there, but in the mountain; and it has 
only one source, not two. It is reasonable to sup- 
pose, therefore, that the hot spring has given out, 
and that the cold one is evacuated from the Scamander 
through an underground passage and rises to the 
surface here, or else that because of the nearness of 
the Scamander this water is called a source of the 
Scamander ; for people are wont to ascribe several 
sources to one and the same river in this way. 

44. The Scamander is joined by the Andirus, 
which flows from Caresene, a mountainous country 
settled with many villages and beautifully culti- 
vated ; it extends alongside Dardania as far as the 
regions of Zeleia and Pityeia. It is said that the 
country was named after the Caresus River, which is 
named by the poet, " Rhesus, Heptaporus, Caresus, 
and Rhodius," 3 and that the city of the same name 
as the river was torn down. Again, Demetrius says 
as follows : " The Rhesus River is now called 
Rhoeites, unless it be that the river which empties 
into the Granicus is the Rhesus. The Heptaporus, 

1 Iliad 22. 147. * i.e. of Troy. 8 Iliad 12. 20. 

and Leaf, from conj. of Xylander, read hiaZvaiv ; but the 
emendation is unnecessary. 

* Unvtiav, Xylander, for Unviav ; so the later editors. 

87 



STRABO 

C 603 t™/ 30 ? &&t ov teal UoXviropov Xeyovaiv, cirrd/us 
8ia/3aiv6/jL€VO<; etc rwv irepl rrjv KaXrjv Ueuterjv 
ywpiwv eirl MeXaivd? tecbfjbrjv lovai teal rb 
'Ao-teXTjirleiov, XBpvfia Avaipidypv. irepl Be tt}? 
KaXrjs Tlevfcr)? "ArraXos 6 irp&ros ftaatXevcras 
ovtcds <ypd(f)€i' rrjv fiev irepifier pov elvai (j>l]<7l 
iroBcbv rerrdpwv teal eitcocri, rb Be i>y]ro<; dirb fiev 
pL£,r)<; dvievai 1 eirl egtfteovra teal eirrd 7roSa?, elr 
eh Tpla a^t^ofievrjv Xgov ciXXrjXwv Bte^ovra, elra 
irdXiv avvayo/mevTjv eh fiiav tcopvefrrjv, diroreXov- 
arav rb 2 irav ut/ro<? Bvelv irXeOpcov teal irevreicai- 
Betca irrj^eov' *ABpafivrriov Be Bie^ei irpbs dpterov 
etearbv teal oyBorjteovra araBiovs. Kap^cro? 8' 
dirb Ma\o0i>TO9 pel, roirov rivbs teeifievov fiera^v 
TLa\aLater)tyeGd<; teal ' A^adov rf}<; TeveBicov 
Trepalas* e/m^aXXei Be eh rbv Alo-tjitov. *Po6Yo? 
Be dirb KXeavBpias teal TopBov, a Bie^et ri]^ 
KaXrjq Uevterjs eijrjteovra araBiov?' ifi^aXXei B* 
eh rbv A'iviov* 

45. Tov B' avXwvos rov irepl rbv AXaiiirov iv 
dpiarepd rrjs pvo-ecos avrov irpcjrov eari UoXu^va, 
reixyp e< > x a) P L0V > 6 ^ V naXatcr #771/^9, elr 
'AXa^oviov, rovr rjBrj ireirXaa/jLevov irpbs ryv rcov 
1 AXl^covcdv viroOeaiv, irepl £>v eiptfteafiev elra 
Ka/977<ro? eprj/n] teal 7) Kaprjo-rjvr) teal b fxwvv po? 
7TOTa/^o9, irotcov teal avrbs avXcova dl-ioXoyov, 
iXdrrco Be rov irepl rbv Atarjirov. rd o° ef^9 r)Br) 
rd t?}? Ze\eLa<? iarl ireBia teal bpoireBua teaXcbs 

1 avievai, Meineke and Leaf, following i, for lay ~Dgh, 
lav C, €o>5 moz. 

a Instead of r6, CDFhi read t6tc 
3 For bXviov Kramer conj. Atariitov. 

88 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 44-45 

also called Polyporus, is crossed seven times by one 
travelling from the region of the Beautiful Pine to 
the village called Melaenae and the Asclepieium 
that was founded by Lysimachus. Concerning the 
Beautiful Pine, King Attalus the First writes as 
follows: " Its circumference is twenty-four feet; 
and its trunk rises to a height of sixty-seven feet 
from the root and then splits into three forks equi- 
distant from one another, and then contracts again 
into one head, thus completing a total height of two 
plethra and fifteen cubits." x It is one hundred and 
eighty stadia distant from Adramyttium, to the 
north of it. The Caresus flows from Malus, a place 
situated between Palaescepsis and the Achaei'um, 
the part of the mainland that belongs to the Tene- 
dians; 2 and it empties into the Aesepus. The 
Rhodius flows from Cleandria and Gordus, which 
are sixty stadia distant from the Beautiful Pine ; and 
it empties into the Aenius. 3 

45. In the dale of the Aesepus, on the left of the 
stream, one comes first to Polichna, a place enclosed 
by walls ; and then to Palaescepsis ; and then to 
Alizonium (this last name having been fabricated 4 
to support the hypothesis about the Halizones, 
whom I have already discussed); 5 and then to 
Caresus, which is deserted, and Caresene, and the 
river of the same name, 6 which also forms a notable 
dale, though smaller than that of the Aesepus ; 
and next follow the plains and plateaux of Zeleia, 

1 About 225 feet. * See end of § 32. 

3 "Aenius" appears to be an error for "Aesepus," as 
suggested by Kramer. See Leaf, p. 207. 

« i.e. by Demetrius. 6 12. 3. 20-27. 

' The Caresus, of course. 



vol.. VI. 



89 



STRABO 

yewpyovpeva' ev 8e%ia Be tov AlaijTrov /jLera^v 
UoXi^va<; re teal UaXatcr/er]\jreQ)<; t) Nea 1 K00/A77 
teal 'Apyvpia, 2 teal tovto irdXiv irXdapa 3 7rpo? 
tt)v avrrjv viroOecrtv, oVa)? acoQeir) to 

oOev dpyvpov earl yevidXrj. 

r) ovv 'AXvffr) nov, r) 'AXotttj rj 07ro>9 fiovXovTat, 
irapovofjud^etv ; e\pi)v yap teal tovto irXdaai 
irapar pi^ap^evov^ to pbeTwrrov teal pr) ^coXbv idv 
teal eToifiov rrpo? eXey%ov dira% i)Brj aTroTeToXpLrj- 
KOTa<$. TavTa pev ovv evaraaiv e^ei Toiavrrjv, 
rdXXa Be viroXap^dvopuev, fj Ta ye irXelaTa, Belv 
irpoo-eyeiv 4 go? dvBpl epareipw teal evTOTrlo), (ppovTL- 
aavrl T€ ToaovTOV irepl tovtcov, wcrre rpidtcovTa 
fiifiXovs avyypd\jrat cttl^cov i^yrjaLV puepCo 
TrXecovcov e%r)tcovTa, tov tearaXoyov TOiv Tpcocov. 
(fiTjal B 1 ovv T7)V HaXalo-/cr]yjrLv tt}? pev AiVea? 5 
Bie%eiv TrevTtjtcovTa araBlovs, tov Be troTapov tov 
Alcrrjirov rpidteovra, airo Be tt}? Y[aXaLaKi)y\rew^ 
Tayr?/? Biarelvai tt)v 6pcovvp,[av teal el<; aXXov? 
TrXeiov? tottovs. eirdvifiev Be eirl ttiv irapaXuav, 
oOevnep direXlirofiev. 
C 604 46. v Ecrrt Br) Q pL€Ta ttjv iLuyeidBa dtcpav teal to 
'A%lXXeiov 7) TeveBlcov irepala, to *A\aliov i teal 

1 Nea appears to be an error for AiVa, and Leaf so reads. 
This appears to be the same village mentioned in the same 
paragiaph below (AtVeas) and in 12. 3. 23 ('Ej/eav Kwfj.r)v). 

2 Apyvpia, Corais, for apyvpeia oxz, apyvpia other MSS. 

3 After irAaCjUo, F adds rdy/jLara apyvpia, CDhi ray para rh 
hpyvpia, raicreov to apyvpe'ia, x raKTeov. 

4 Professor Capps rightly suspects that clvt<p, or A-qfi-qrpl^, 
has fallen out of the MSS before Trpoaex^iv. 

5 Instead of AiVeas, CFh read Alvelas, x tieiss ; Meineke 
reads Neas. 

90 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 45-46 

which are beautifully cultivated. On the right of 
the Aesepus, between Polichna and Palaescepsis, 
one comes to Nea 1 Come and Argyria, 2 and this again 
is a name fabricated to support the same hypo- 
thesis, in order to save the words, "where is the 
birthplace of silver." 3 Now where is Alybe, or Alope, 
or however they wish to alter the spelling of the 
name ? 4 For having once made their bold venture, 
they should have rubbed their faces 5 and fabricated 
this name too, instead of leaving it lame and readily 
subject to detection. Now these things are open 
to objections of this kind, but, in the case of the 
others, or at least most of them, I take it for granted 
that we must give heed to him 6 as a man who was 
acquainted with the region and a native of it, who 
gave enough thought to this subject to write thirty 
books of commentary on a little more than sixty lines 
of Homer, that is, on the Catalogue of the Trojans. 7 
He says, at any rate, that Palaescepsis is fifty stadia 
distant from Aenea and thirty from the Aesepus 
River, and that from this Palaescepsis 8 the same 
name was extended to several other sites. But I 
shall return to the coast at the point where I left off. 
46 After the Sigeian Promontory and the Achil- 
leium one comes to the Achaeium, the part of the 

1 Leaf emends " Nea" ("New") to "Aenea" (see critical 
note). 

h-ertown. 8 Iliad 2. 856. 

* See 12. 3. 21. 

5 i.e. to make them red and thus conceal their blushes of 
shame. 

6 i.e. Demetrius of Scepsis. 

7 Iliad 2. 816-877. 8 Old Scepsris. 

6 H, Corais, for 5' 7/ ; so Meineke. 



STRABO 

avrrj r) TeveBos, ov irXeiovs rcov rerrapaKOvra 
(TTaBl(ov Bte^ovaa rrjs rjirelpov e%ei Be rrjv 
irept/jierpov ocrov byBorjKovra araBicov teal ttoXiv 
AloXiBa fcai Xi/ievas Bvo Kal lepov rov %/jliv0€co<; 
'AttoXXcovos, KaOdirep Kal 6 Troirjrrjs puaprvpel' 

TeveBoio re l(f)i dvdoraeis, 
XfjLivdev. 

ixepiKeirai 8* avrfj vqaia irXelco, teal Brj koI Bvo, a 
KaXovai KaXvBvas, Keifievas Kara rbv errl AeKrbv 
ttXovv real avrrjv Be rrjv 'TeveBov KdXvBvdv rives 
elirov, aXXoi Be Aev/cocppvv. 1 fivOevovai 8' iv 
avrfj rd rrepl rbv Tevvrjv, d<f) y ov koX rovvofia rfj 
vrjcrw, Kal rd rrepl rov Kvkvov, ®pa/ca rb yevos, 
irarepa B\ oi? rives, rov Tevvov, ftaaiXea Be 

K.oX(OVCt)V. 

47. *Hv Be t» 'Alalia crvve^s rj re Adpiara 
Kal KoXwval, rrjs 2 TeveBlayv irepaias ovaai upb- 
repov, Kal rj vvv Xpvo~a, efi vyjrovs rivbs irerpcoBovs 
virep rrjs OaXdrrrjs IBpv/jievrj, Kal rj ' Afia^irbs 77 
r& AeKrw viroKei/jievr} avve)(T)<;' vvv 8' r) ' AXefjdv- 
Bpeia avvexv^ £o~ri ra> 'A^aiiw' rd Be TroXia/xara 
eKeiva o-vvwKio-fieva rvy^dvei, KaOdirep Kal aXXa 
TrXeioy rcov (fypovpiwv, eh rrjv ' AXe^dvBpeiav, wv 
Kal K.ej3pr)vr) Kal NeavBpia earl, Kal rrjv ywpav 
eyovcriv eKelvoi' 6 Be r ottos, ev w vvv Kelrai f) 

AXe^dvBpeia, %iyia eKaXeiro. 

48. 'Ev Be rfj Xpvcrr) ravry Kal rb rov 

1 After AevKotppvv, moz add e<V! 5e Kal eVfpa vrjaia irep) 
avTyv. 

2 After rrjs there is a lacuna in DFh of about ten letters 
followed by 5tos olaai kt\. Corais writes Te^eSm*; but 

92 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. i. 46-48 

mainland that belongs to the Tenedians ; x and to 
Tenedos itself, which is not more than forty stadia 
distant from the mainland. It is about eighty stadia 
in circumference, and has an Aeolian city and two 
harbours and a temple of Sminthian Apollo, as the 
poet testifies : " And dost rule mightily over Tenedos, 
O Sminthian." 2 Round it lie several small islands, 
in particular two, which are called the Calydnae and 
are situated on the voyage to Lectum. And some 
give the name Calydna to Tenedos itself, while 
others call it Leucophrys. In it is laid the scene of 
the myth of Tennes, 3 after whom the island was 
named, as also that of Cycnus, a Thracian by birth 
and, according to some, father of Tennes and king 
of Colonae. 4 

47. Both Larisa and Colonae used to be adjacent 
to the Achaeium, formerly being on the part of the 
mainland that belonged to the Tenedians ; and then 
one comes to the present Chrysa, which was founded 
on a rocky height above the sea, and to Hamaxitus, 
which lies below Lectum and adjacent to it. At 
the present time Alexandreia is adjacent to the 
Achaeium ; and those other towns, like several 
others of the strongholds, have been incorporated 
with Alexandreia, among them Cebrene and 
Neandria; and Alexandreia holds their territory. 
But the site on which Alexandreia now lies used 
to be called Sigia. 

48. In this Chrysa is also the temple of Sminthian 

1 See end of § 32. 2 Iliad 1. 38. 

8 For this myth, see Pausanias 10. 14. 1. 
4 On the myth of Cycnus, see Leaf, p. 219. 

Kramer, Meineke, and Leaf write TeveMwv irepcuas, the con- 
vincing conjecture of Groskurd. 

93 



STRABO 

'ZfiivOeco*; *A7r6\\(0v6<; Igtiv lepbv /cat rb avfi- 
3o\ov to ttjv irv/jLorrjTa tov ovojjlcltos ctco^ov, 6 
fids, viroKeirai rro ttoBI tov %odvov. X«"07ra B 
earlv epya 1 tov Ylapiov o-vvoiiteiovai Be ical ttjv 
laTopiav eiTe jxvOov tovtco t& tottw ttjv wepl tcov 
fjLVOiv. toIs yap e/c t?}? Kp^'r?;? acj)iy/jLevoi<; 
TevKpois (ou? TrpMTOs irapeScoKe KaWipos 6 tj}<? 
iXeyela? TroLrjTrjs, rfKoXovOrjaav Be ttoXXol) 
Xprjcr/ibs r)v, avToOt TroirjaaaOai tijv fiovi]v, ottov 
av ol yrjyevels auTOt? eirtOcovTaL' av}xftr)vai Be 
tovt aurot? (fyaal irepl ' Afia^iTov vvKToop yap 
iroXv TrXrjOos apovpaiwv fxvwv e^avOrjaav BmcfiayeLP 
oaa GKVTLva tcov Te ottXcdv /cal twv ^prjaTyplcov 
tov9 Be avToOi \ielvav tovtov<; Be /cal ttjv "IBrjv 
dirb tT;? ev Kpy'/TTj Trpocrovofido-ai. 2 ' H paickeLBr)? 
£' 6 TlovTL/cbs TrXjjOvovTas <f>r)art, tou? /xva? irepl 
to lepbv vofiiaOfjvai T€ lepoi)$ /cat to %6avov ovtco 
KaTaaKevaaOrjvai fieftrj/cbs eVt to> fivt. dXXoi 8' 
€K tt)? ' Attlkt)^ dtyiydai Ttva Tev/cpov (jyaaiv iic 
Brj/jiov TpoDwv, o? vvv ol lEZvireTecoves 2 XeyeTai, 
Tev/cpov? Be /xTjBeva? eXOelv eV tt}? KprJTrjs. tt)? 
Be irpb? tov? 'Attlkovs eTwrXo/crj? twv Tpcocov 
TiOeaai o~r)/j,e2ov ical to Trap dficpoTepoc? *E/?j- 
yBbvibv Ttva yeveadai tcov dpyriyeTwv.^ Xeyovai 
p,ev ovv ovtco? ol vecoTepoi, toI? 8' 'Opbrfpov fxdXXov 
C 605 eireat, avp-cfrcovei tcl ev tw ©tJjS?;? ireBico koX tjj 
avToOi Xpvcrrj IBpv/iievrj ttotc Bei/cvvpueva l^vtj, 

1 Instead of ipya, Eustathius reads ipyov ; so Leaf. 

2 Instead of Trpoaovo/idaai, moz and Eustathius read irapopo- 
uaaai ; the editors before Kramer, KarovofuLo-at. 

3 ol Ei»7T6Tect)i/6s, Meineke, for d^virerewv ; 6 avireTedoit, 
Tzschucke and Corais. 

94 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 48 

Apollo ; and the symbol which preserves the 
etymology of the name, 1 I mean the mouse, lies 
beneath the foot of his image. These are the works 
of Scopas of Paros; and also the history, or myth, 
about the mice is associated with this place : When 
the Teucrians arrived from Crete (Caliinus the 
elegiac poet was the first to hand down an account 
of these people, and many have followed him), they 
had an oracle which bade them to "stay on the 
spot where the earth-born should attack them " ; 
and, he says, the attack took place round Hamaxitus, 
for by night a great multitude of field-mice swarmed 
out of the ground and ate up all the leather in their 
arms and equipment; and the Teucrians remained 
there ; and it was they who gave its name to Mt. Ida, 
naming it after the mountain in Crete. Heracleides 
of Pontus says that the mice which swarmed round 
the temple were regarded as sacred, and that for 
this reason the image was designed with its foot 
upon the mouse. Others say that a certain Teucer 
came from the deme of Troes, now called 
Xypeteones, in Attica, but that no Teucrians came 
from Crete. As a further sign of the close re- 
lationship of the Trojans with the people of Attica 
they record the fact that Erich thonius was one 
of the original founders in both tribes. Now this 
is the account of the more recent writers ; but 
more in agreement with Homer are the traces to be 
seen in the plain of Thebe and in the Chrysa 
which was once founded there, which I shall soon 

1 Sminthian means " Mouse-god." 
4 Instead of rwv apxfiysrwv moz read apxvy^fV- 

95 



STRABO 

irepl cov avTL/ca epovfiev. 7roXXa%ov & earl to 
tov 2,/juv0€Q)<; ovo/jia' /cal yap irepl avrrjv ttjv 
'Afia^irbv x w P^ T0V K( *>7 a to Iepov "SfiivQiov Bvo 
tottoi /caXovvTac 2,/jLLvdta' /cal aXKoi o° ev rfj 
ttXtjctlov Aapiaaia' /cal ev ry Ylapiavfj & earl 
ywp'iov ra ^pLivOia /caXov/ievov kcu ev 'VoBco zeal 
ev AivBcp /cal aXXoOi Be iroXXaxov' 1 /caXovac Be 
vvv to iepov ^/xlvOiov. x ro pi* yovv /cal to 
1 AXyjctlov 2 ireBiov ov fieya eW6? 3 tov Ae/cTov zeal 
to Tpayaaalov dXoTrrjyiov clvtojacitov Tot? eTTycrtat? 
irrjyvvfievov 7T/30? 'AfiagiTa. eirl Be tco Ac/ctco 
fico/jLos tcov BcoBe/ca Oecov Bei/cvvTai, /caXovai S' 
' Aya/j,e/Jivovo<; XBpvfxa' ev eTroyjrei Be tco *1Xlco 
eo~Ti tcl yjopla TavTa, a>? ev Bia/cocrloLs o-TaBloi? r) 
fxi/cpw TrXeiocnv &>? 8' avTcos /cal to, irepl "A/SvBov 
i/c OaTepou jxepovs, /ii/cpov £' o/xw<? eyyvrepco i) 
"A/Su8o9. 

49. Kd/j,y]ravTi Be to Ae/cTov eXXoyi/JLcoTaTai 
7roXe£9 tcov AloXicov /cal 6 ' ABpap,VTTrjv6<; /c6\tto<; 
eVSe^erat, ev co tovs irXeiovs tcov AeXeycov /caToi- 
kl^cov 6 7roLr)T7)$ (f>aiveTai /cal tov$ KtXt/m?, 
Bittovs 6Wa?. evTavOa Be /cal 6 tcov MiTvXrjvaLcov 
eaTlv alyiaXos, /cco/ias Tivas eyjov tcov 4 /caTa tt]v 
ryueipov tcov MiTvXrjvaucov. tov Be avTOV koXttov 
/cal 'IBalov Xeyovaiv rj yap airo tov Ae/CTOv 
pa^LS, dvaTelvovaa 77730? ttjv "IBtjv, virep/ceiTai 

TCOV ITpCOTCOV TOV KoXlTOV /JL€pCOV' €V ofc TTpCOTOV 

tou? AeXeyas iBpviievow; 6 iroi-qTr)? TreTToirjKev. 

1 Leaf omits the words itaXovai . . . yovv, and indicates a 
lacuna. 

2 'A\-f)<riov E and the editors, 'AA'htiov DCFhx, 'AAixriov moz. 
* 4vt6s, Tyrwhitt, for eV to?s ; so the later editors. 

4 rwv, before nard, hi, Corais and Leaf omit. 
Q 6 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. i. 48-49 

discuss. The name of Smintheus is used in many 
places, for in the neighbourhood of Hamaxitus 
itself, apart from the Sminthium at the temple, 
there are two places called Sminthia ; and there 
are others in the neighbouring territory of Larisa. 
And also in the territory of Parium there is a 
place called Sminthia, as also in Rhodes and in 
Lindus and in many other places. And they now 
call the temple Sminthium. Apart, at any rate, 1 lie 
both the Halesian Plain, of no great size, and inland 
from Lectum, and the Tragasaean salt-pan near 
Hamaxitus, where salt is naturally caused to con- 
geal by the Etesian winds On Lectum is to be 
seen an altar of the twelve gods, said to have been 
founded by Agamemnon. These places are all in 
sight of Ilium, at a distance of about two hundred 
stadia or a little more ; and the same is the case 
with the places round Abydus on the other side, 
although Abydus is a little closer. 

49. On doubling Lectum one comes next to the 
most notable cities of the Aeolians, and to the Gulf 
of Adramyttium, on which the poet obviously places 
the majority of the Leleges, as also the Cilicians, 
who were twofold. 2 Here too is the shore-land of 
the Mitvlenaeans, with certain villages 3 belonging 
to the Mitylenaeans who live on the mainland. 
The snrne gulf is also called the Idaean Gulf, for 
the ridge which extends from Lectum to Mt. Ida 
lies above the first part of the gulf, where the poet 
represents the Leleges as first settled. 4 

1 The Greek for these four words seems to be corrupt. 

2 See 13. 1. 7, 60. 

8 Coryphantis and Heracleia are named in § 51. 
* Iliad 10. 429. 

97 
D 2 



STRABO 

50. JLtpTjrai Be ire pi avrcov /cal irporepov teal 
vvv Be TTpocrX-qirreov, on Ui'jBaaov riva Xeyei 
iroXtv avrcov vtto " AXrrj reraypevrjv 1 

"AXreco, 09 AeXeyeacrt, cpiXoTrroXepoicriv civdcr- 

crei, 
UijBacrov alirrjecraav e%o>i> eirl ^.arvioevri. 

tCal VVV 6 T07TO? heiKVVTCU T?}? TToXecO? €pr)fjLO$. 

ypdcpovcri Be nves ov/e ev vito ^Larvioevri, go? vtto 
opei larvioevTi tceipevrj*; tt}? TroXew ovBev 8' 
iarlv opos ivravOa 'Earvioeis irpaaayopevofievov, 
dXXa 7roTa/xo?, ecp* a XBpvrai rj ttoXw vvv £' 
iarlv iprj/jLJ}. ovo/id^ei Be rbv rrorapbv 6 rroii]- 
rr\v 

^Ldrviov yap 2 ovraae Bovpl 

OlvofrlBrjv,^ bv dpa vv/jl<J)7) retce NtjIs dpv/xcov 
Oivotti* ftovfcoXeovri Trap* o%0ai<; Xarvioevro?' 

ical rrdXiv 

C 606 vale Be larvcoevro? ivppelrao nap oydais 
Tlt'jBaaov alireivr]V. 

Sarvioevra 8' varepov elirov, ol Be Sacpvioevra. 
eari Be *xeLpappo<; fieyas' dgiov Be p,vrj /jlt}<; ireiroit]- 
Kev bvofid^cov 6 iroirirr)<i avrbv. ovroi S' ol rbiroi 
avve%ei<; elcrl rfj kapBavia /cal rfj Xtf^i/aa, coairep 
aXXt] Tt? AapBavia, raireivorepa Be. 

51. 'Aaatcov S' earl vvv teal Tapyapecov ra 5 ew? 
rrjs /card Aeaftov 0aXdrrr)<; Trepieyop.eva rfj re 

1 Instead of reray,u4vT}V, CDhix read reTay/xevwy. 

2 yap, after Sdrviov, omitted by other editors. 

3 Instead of OtVo7r/57?j', the editors before Kramer, follow- 
ing the MSS. of Iliad 14. 443, read 'Hvotti'Stjj'. 

9 8 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 50-51 

50. But I have already discussed these matters. 1 
I must now add that Homer speaks of a Pedasus, a 
city of the Leleges, as subject to lord Altes : "Of 
Altes, who is lord over the war-loving Leleges, who 
hold steep Pedasus on the Satnioeis." 2 And the 
site of the place, now deserted, is still to be seen. 
Some write, though wrongly, "at the foot of 
Satnioeis," 3 as though the city lay at the foot of 
a mountain called Satnioeis ; but there is no 
mountain here called Satnioeis, but only a river 
of that name, on which the city is situated ; but 
the city is now deserted. The poet names the 
river, for, according to him, "he wounded Satnius 
with a thrust of his spear, even the son of Oenops, 
whom a peerless Naiad nymph bore unto Oenops, 
as he tended his herds by the banks of the Sat- 
nioeis " ; * and again : " And he dwelt by the banks 
of the fair-flowing Satnioeis in steep Pedasus." 5 
And in later times it was called Satnioeis, though 
some called it Saphnioeis. It is only a large 
winter torrent, but the naming of it by the poet 
has made it worthy of mention. These places 
are continuous with Dardania and Scepsia, and 
are, as it were, a second Dardania, but it is lower- 
lying. 

51. To the Assians and the Gargarians now belong 
all the parts as far as the sea off Lesbos that are sur- 

1 13. 1. 7. 2 Iliad 21. 86. 

a i.e. vr6 for tiri in the Homeric passage quoted, 
* Iliad 14. 443. 6 Iliad 6. 34. 



4 Instead of Ofr/oiri, CDF and the editors before Kramer, 
following Iliad 14. 444, read "Rvovt. 
6 Leaf inserts t& before ?«j. 

99 



STRABO 

' AvravBpla /ecu rrj Ke/3pr)vio)v kcu NeavBpiecov Ka\ 
'A/jLatjirioov. tt)? fiev yap ' Apagirov NeavSpiels 
v7reptc€LVTai, ical avrol oWe? eWo? Ae/CTOv, pbecro- 
yeiorepoi Be 1 teal TrXrjaiairepoi tw 'iAiar Biexovcn 
yap e/earbv ical Tpidteovra o-raBiovs. rovrcov Be 
KaOvirepOe K.e/3pr)vioi, rovreov Be AapBdvioi pey^pi 
Tia\aiaKyjyjrea)<; teal avrrj<; tt)? Xteoj\jreo)<;. rrjv Be 
" AvravBpov 'AX/tato? puev icaXel AeXeyaav ttoXiv 

irpwra 2 /nev "AvravBpo? AeXeycov tt6Xi<;. 

6 Be X/crfyfrios ev tcu? TTapafceifievais riOrjaiv, war 
eKiriirTOi civ eh rrjv reov KiXlkcov ovroi yap 
elai Gvveyeis to£<? AeXe^i, fiaXXov 7ra)? to votiov 
irXevpbv tt}? "IBrj? a<\>opl£ovTe<;' raTreivol B* 0/Z.&J9 
teal ovtol zeal 3 rf} irapaXia avvdirrovre^ puaXXov 
rfj Kara 'ABpapuvrriov. pierd yap to Aetcrbv to 
WoXvfxrjBiov ear i yjupiov ti ev rerrapaKovra 
GTaBlois, elr ev oyBorjKOVTa "Affao?, 4 /jbi/epov virep 
ttj<; daXdrTr)?, elr' ev e/carov teal rerTapd/covra 

1 5<-', Corais, for re. 

2 For irpura, Leaf, as his translation (p. 253) shows, must 
have intended to read irpwra (irpwrr)). 

8 of, before rrj, Corais rejects ; so Kramer, Meineke, and 
Leaf. 

4 r A<rffos, Tzschucke, from conj. of Mannert, for &.x<ros ; so 
the later editors. 

1 Frag. 65 (Bergk). Leaf translates: "Antandros, first 
city of the Leleges" (see critical note). 

2 Leaf translates : "But Demetrios puts it in the district 
adjacent (to the Leleges), so that it would fall within the 
territory of the Kilikes" ; and in his commentary (p. 255) 
he says: "As the words stand, Strabo says that ' Demetrios 
places Antandros (not at Antandros but) in the neighbour- 
hood of Antandros.' That is nonsense however we look at 

IOO 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 51 

rounded by the territory of Antandrus and that of 
the Cebrenians and Neandrians and Hamaxitans ; for 
the Antandrians are situated above Hamaxitus, like 
it being situated inside Lectum, though farther 
inland and nearer to Ilium, for they are one hundred 
and thirty stadia distant from Ilium. Higher up 
than these are the Cebrenians, and still higher up 
than the latter are the Dardanians, who extend as 
far as Palaescepsis and Scepsis itself. Antandrus is 
called by Alcaeus " city of the Leleges " : " First, 
Antandrus, city of the Leleges"; 1 but it is placed 
by the Scepsian among the cities adjacent to their 
territory, 2 so that it would fall within the territory 
of the Cilicians ; for the territory of the Cilicians is 
continuous with that of the Leleges, the former, 
rather than the latter, marking off the southern 
flank of Mt. Ida. But still the territory of the 
Cilicians also lies low and, rather than that of the 
Leleges, joins the part of the coast that is near 
Adramyttium. 3 For after Lectum one comes to a 
place called Polymedium, at a distance of forty stadia; 
then, at a distance of eighty, 4 to Assus, slightly above 
the sea ; and then, at a distance of one hundred and 

it." Yet the Greek cannot mean that Demetrius transfers 
Antandrus, "a fixed point," to "the adjacent district," as 
Leaf interprets, but that he includes it among the cities 
(reus irapaKeifxlvais) which he enumerates as Cilician. 

3 The interpretation of the Greek for this last sentence is 
somewhat doubtful. Cf. translation and commentary of 
Leaf (pp. 254-255), who regards the text as corrupt. 

4 i.e. eighty stadia from Polymedium, not from Lectum, 
as thought by Thatcher Clark {American Journal of 
Archaeology, 4. 291 ff., quoted by Leaf). His interpretation, 
neither accepted nor definitely rejected by Leaf (p. 257), is 
not in accordance with Strabo's manner of enumerating 
distances, a fact apparently overlooked by both scholars. 

IOI 



STRABO 

Tdpyapa' Kelrai Be rd Tdpyapa eV &Kpa$ rroiov- 
<77/? top l8i(o<; 'A&pafiVTTrjvov KaXovfievov koXttop, 
Xeyerai yap teal iracra 7] airo Acktov P&XP 1 
Kavcov irapaXia ra> avrw rovrcp ovo/mari, iv c5 /cat 
6 'EXaiYttfo? 7r6pi\a/ji/3dveTai' IBlcos pbkvroi tovtop 

(fxiCTlP ' ASpa/AVTTTjVOV, TOP kX€l6/jL€P0P V7T0 Tavrt)^ 

re t?}? a/cpas, i<j> fj rd Tdpyapa, ical Tr}? Tlvppds; 
a/cpas irpoaayopevo}A€VT)<s, e^>' rj /cal 'AtypoBiaiop 
iBpvrai. 7rXaT0? Be rov arrofiaro^ earup diro rr)<; 
aK.pa<$ eVt ttjp d/cpai> Biapfia efcarbv /cal eiKocri 
araBlcop. eWo? Be tf re "AprapBpos iariP, virep- 
K€L/j,€POP eyovaa 6po<s, o KaXovaw 'AXe^dpBpeiap, 
ottov ra$ Beds KpiOrjvau fyaaip virb rov UdpiBos, 
/cal o A<J7raP€v<;, rb vXoto/jliop tt)? 'ISata? i/Xt/<?' 
ipravOa yap BiarLOeprai Kardyopres rocs Beo- 
fiepois. etT* "Ao-Tupa, koj/jlt] Kal aXcros t^? 
'Aa-rvprjvrjs 'AprefitBos ay lop. irXrjcyiop 8* evdi)<; 
to 'ABpapvrnop, ' AOrjvaLcop diroLKO^ 7roX*?, 
exovcra Kal Xipepa /cal pavarad/xop' e£co Be rov 
C 607 koXttov /cal rrj<$ Tlvppas ci/cpas r\ re KiaOrjpr) earl 
ttoXis eprj/xos, e^ovaa Xipuepa. vnrep avrr)<; ep rfj 
fieaoyaia, to re rov x a ^ K °v fieraXXop /cal 
UepTreprjpr} 1 /cal Tpdpiop /cal aXXai roiavrai 
KaroiKiai. ip Be rfj irapaXia rrj ecf)€^rj<; al tcop 
MirvXrjpaLCDP /ccbfiai KopvcfraPTis re /cal 'HpdrcXeia, 
Kal fxera ravra "Arrea, elr ' Arappev? /cal 
HcraPTj Kal al tov Kat/cov e/cffoXai' ravra 6" 
rjBrj rov 'RXair&p koXttov Kal earip ep rfj 

1 TlepirepT)vfi, Meineke, from conj. of Kramer, for Tlepwep-ftva. 
1 See preceding foot-note. 

102 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 51 

twenty, 1 to Gargara, which lies on a promontory 2 
that forms the Adramyttene Gulf, in the special sense 
of that term ; for the whole of the coast from Lectum 
to Canae is also called by this same name, in which is 
also included the Elaitic Gulf. In the special sense 
of the term, however, only that part of it is called 
Adramyttene which is enclosed by that promontory 
on which Gargara lies and the promontory called 
Pyrrha, on which the Aphrodisium 3 is situated. 
The breadth of the mouth across from promon- 
tory to promontory is a distance of one hundred 
and twenty stadia. Inside is Antandrus, above 
which lies a mountain called Alexandreia, where 
the Judgment of Paris is said to have taken place, 
as also Aspaneus, the market for the timber from 
Mt. Ida; for here people bring it down and sell it 
to those who want it. And then comes Astyra, a 
village with a precinct sacred to the Astyrene 
Artemis. And quite near Astyra is Adramyttium, 
a city colonised by the Athenians, which has both 
a harbour and a naval station. Outside the gulf 
and the promontory called Pyrrha lies Cisthene, a 
deserted city with a harbour. Above it, in the 
interior, lie the copper mine and Perperene and 
Trarium and other settlements like these two. On 
the next stretch of coast one comes to the villages 
of the Mitylenaeans, I mean Coryphantis and Hera- 
cleia ; and after these places to Attea, and then 
to Atarneus and Pitane and the outlets of the 
Caicus River ; and here we have already reached 
the Elaitic Gulf. On the far side of the river lie 

2 So Clark ; or "on a height," as Leaf translates (see his 
note). 

* Temple of Aphrodite. 

103 



STRABO 

rrepaia rj 'EAata 1 Kai 6 Xoiwos ^XP l Kavcov 
koXttos. Xeyco/xev Be dvaXafiovres rrepl rcov /ca0' 
eKaara rrdXiv, e ri rrapaXeXecirrai /j,V7]/jl7}<; a£iov, 
Kai irpaiTov -nepl rr\<i X/ojyjrecos. 

52. "EcrTt 8' 7) pev UaXaiaKT]yjn<; eirdvco 
K.e/3pfjvo<; Kara to /nerecoporarov tt)? "18?;? iyyvs 
HoXixvrjs' etcaXelro Be rbre Sk?)^?, elr aXXws, 
eir diro rod ire pier Kerr rov elvai rov roirov, el Bel 
rd irapd roh (SapfidpoLS ev rw rore ovofiara rats 
r EXXr]VLKah ervfioXoyeicrOat, cpcovah' vcrrepov Be 
fcarcorepco araBiois 2 eljij/covra eh rrjv vvv ^Ky^iv 
{MercpKiaOrjaav vtco ~/ca/nav8pLov re rov "E/cto/oo? 
koX * Act Kavlov rov Alveiov TraiBov teal Bvo yevrj 
ravra fiaaiXevaai 7roXvv %p6i>ov ev rrj X/ajyjrei 
Xeyerar fxerd ravra S' eh oXLyap\i'av fierecrrr]- 
crav, elra MiXijcnoi^ avveiroXirevO^crav avroh* 
teal hi]fjLotcpaTLK(x)<i cpKow ol £' dirb rov yevow? 
ovBev i)rrov i/caXovvro /SaacXeh, e^ovre^ rivas 
Tt/Lttt?' elr eh rrjv'AXe^dvBpeiav avveiroXicre robs 
S/cTix/aof? ' Avriyovos, elr drreXvae AvalpLa%o<; teal 
eiravf}X6ov eh ri)V oifcei'av- 

53. Olerat 8' 6 XKrjyjnGs /cal fiaalXeiov rov Al- 
veiov yeyovevai ri^v -KPjyjriv, fiecrrjv ovcrav ri)s re 
vtto rw Aiveia /cal Avpvrjcraov, eh r)v cpvyelv 
eiprjrai BuoKOfievos vrrb rov 'A^tWeco?" (prjalyovv 
o 'A'xiXXev's' 

1 'EAoi'a, Tzschucke, from conj. of Casaubon, for Me\ala 
CFrxz, MeAe'a D, MeAr;a />, MeAia i. 

2 After a-raSiois, Leaf inserts hiaxoaiots Kai (i.e. (rTa8ioi<r<r£' 
instead of <n-a5iW£'). 

3 MiAyjioi, Corais, following Aid., for MiArjalois. 

4 For avrois, moz and Corais read avrol. 

104 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 51-53 

EWa and the rest of the gulf as far as Canae. But 
let me go back and again discuss in detail the 
several places, if anything worthy of mention has 
been passed over ; and first of all, Scepsis. 

52. Palaescepsis lies above Cebren near the highest 
part of Mt. Ida, near Polichna ; and it was then 
called Scepsis (whether for another reason or from 
the fact that the place is visible all round, if it is 
right to derive from Greek words names then used 
by barbarians), 1 but later the inhabitants were re- 
moved sixty stadia 2 lower down to the present 
Scepsis by Scamandrius the son of Hector and 
Ascanius the son of Aeneias , and their two families 
are said to have held the kingship over Scepsis 
for a long time. After this they changed to an 
oligarchy, and then Milesians settled with them as 
fellow-citizens; 3 and they began to live under a 
democracy. But the heirs of the royal family none 
the less continued to be called kings and retained 
certain prerogatives. Then the Scepsians were in- 
corporated into Alexandreia by Antigonus ; and then 
they were released by Lysimachus and went back to 
their home-land. 

53. Demetrius thinks that Scepsis was also the royal 
residence of Aeneias, since it lies midway between 
the territory subject to Aeneias and Lyrnessus, to 
which latter he Hed, according to Homer's state- 
ment, when he was being pursued by Achilles. At 

1 The Greek word "scepsis" means "a viewing," "an 
inspection." 

2 Leaf emends to "two hundred and sixty stadia" (see 
critical note). 

* bee 14. 1. 6. 



IO5 



STRABO 

•t] ov /jue/jivrj, ore irep ae fiocov citto povvov 

ebvra 
creva /car '\Baiwv opewv raykeacn iroBeaai, 
KelOev B' cs AvpvTjaabv vireKcfrvyes' avrdp iyco 

T7]V 

rrepaa, fiedoppirjOek. 

ovy^ bfioXoyel Be rq> rrepl rwv dp^ijyercbv rrjs 
Sfcrjylfea)? Xoyw to> Xe^Oevrt vvv rd irepl rov 
Alveiov OpvXovfieva. irepiyeveaOat yap Br] rovrbv 
(f>ao~iv Ik rov rroXefMov Bid rrjv 7T/oo<? UpCa/iov 
Bvapueveiav' 

del yap Upidfiw irre/jLrjvie Bitp, 
ovvck dp* iadXbv eovra /xer dvBpdaiv ov ri 
Tiecnce' 

roils Be avvdpypvras 'AvrrjvopiBas /col avrbv rov 
'Avrrjvopa Bid rr)v Mei>tXaot> rrap avrw %eviav. 
C 608 HccftoKXrjs yovv ev rfj dXwaei rov 'IXiou iraphaXeav 
(frrjal rrpb rrj$ Qvpas rov ' Avr-qvopos rrporeOfjvai 
o~v/jl{3oXov rov drropOrfrov eadrjvai r-qv olniav. 
rov fiev ovv 'Avrrfvopa Kal rovs iralBas fierd rcov 
rreptyevo/jbevcov l 'Everwv els rrjv Spa/crjv rrepi- 
awOrjvaty 2 fcd/cdOev Biarreaelv eh rrjv Xeyo/ievrjv 
Kara rov 'ABpiav 'EiVeriKrjv rov Be Alveiav fxer 
- AyxLaov rov rrarpbs Kal rod rraiBbs 'AaKavlov 
Xabv dOpoiaavra rrXevaai, Kal ol p,ev olKTjcrai 
rrepl rbv MaKeBoviKov "OXv/attov (paaiv, ol Be 
nepl Mavriveiav rrjs 'ApKaBia? Krlaai Karrvas, 
dirb Kdrrvo? Bkjievov rovvo/xa rw rroXvcrp,ari, ol 
6' els Alyecrrav Kardpai •n)? ^iKeXias avv 'EXu- 

1 Trepiyevoutuwv, Eustathius and the editors, for irapayevo- 
106 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 53 

any rate, Achilles says : " Dost thou not remember 
how from the kine, when thou wast all alone, I 
made thee run down the Idaean mountains with 
swift feet? And thence thou didst escape to 
Lyrnessus, but I rushed in pursuit of thee and 
sacked it." * However, the oft-repeated stories of 
Aeneias are not in agreement with the account 
which I have just given of the founders of Scepsis. 
For according to these stories he survived the war 
because of his enmity to Priam : " For always he 
was wroth against goodly Priam, because, although 
he was brave amid warriors, Priam would not honour 
him at all " ; 2 and his fellow-rulers, the sons of 
Antenor and Antenor himself, survived because of 
the hospitality shown Menelaiis at Antenor's house. 
At any rate, Sophocles 3 says that at the capture of 
Troy a leopard's skin was put before the doors of 
Antenor as a sign that his house was to be left 
unpillaged ; and Antenor and his children safely 
escaped to Thrace with the survivors of the Heneti, 
and from there got across to the Adriatic Henetice, 4 
as it is called, whereas Aeneias collected a host of 
followers and set sail with his father Anchises and 
his son Ascanius ; and some say that he took up his 
abode near the Macedonian Olympus, others that he 
founded Capyae near Mantineia in Arcadia, deriving 
the name he gave the settlement from Capys, and 
others say that he landed at Aegesta in Sicily with 

1 Iliad 20. 188. 2 Iliad 13. 460. 

3 Frag. 10 (Nauck). 

4 As distinguished from that in Paphlagonia (see 5. 1. 4). 

ixivwv DAi, Atyouevwv rwx, . . . vofx4vuv C ; word omitted by 
mm. 

2 For ■atpKTuQrivai Corais reads irepaiwdrjvai. 

107 



STRABO 

fiqy 1 Tpwl Kal "Epv/ca Kal AiXvftaiov KaTaayeiv, 
teal irora/jLOvs irepl Acyearav irpoaayopevaat %fcd- 
fiavBpov Kal ^ifioevra' evOev B y et? rr)v Aarlvrjv 
eXOovra /xeivat, Kara tl \6yiov to KeXevor fieveiv, 
oirov av tyjv rpdire^av Kara<j)dyrj' o~vfjL/3r)i>ai Be 
rr)<; Aarivrjs 2 irepl to AaovivLov tovto, dprov 
fjueyaXov redevTos dvrl rpaire^ys Kara diropiav 3 
Kal a/na dvaXcoOevros ro2<s e-n avrw Kpkaaiv. 
"Ofirjpos fxevroi o~vvr)yopeiv ovBerepois eotKev, ovBe 
Tot? irepl rcov dpyriye-rwv rrjs UKrjyfrecos Xex@eio-iv 
ifKpaivet yap pefxevrjKOTa rov Alveiav iv rfj 
TpoCa, Kal BiaBeBeypevov rr)v dpyr)v Kal irapa- 
BeBcoKora iraial iralBwv rr)v BiaBo%r)v avrfjs, 
rf(f>avL(T/jL€VOV rov ro)v UpiapLiBcov yevovs' 

rjBr) yap Upidfiou yeverjv 7]y0r)pe Kpovlcov 
vvv Be Br) Alveiao /3t?/ Tpu)eo~cnv dvd^ei 
Kal iralBcov TralBes, rot Kev fieroTTLaOe ye- 
vcovrai. 

OVTQ) o° ovB' r) rov ItKafiarBplov BiaBo^r] GOU^OIT 
av. ttoXv Be fidXXov tols erepois Biacfcwvel tois 
p>e\pi Kal 'lraXlas avrov rrjv irXdvrjv Xeyovai 
Kal avroOi TToiovai rr)v Karaarpocfyrjv rod /3Lov. 
rives Be ypd(f)oucriv 

Alveiao yevos Travreaaiv dvd^ei, 
Kal iralBes iraiBwv, 

toi>9 ' Pa) /jLaiovs Xeyovre<;. 

54. 'Kk Be rrjs XK7]yfreco<; o% re ^coKpariKol 

1 'EKvfjLw F, 'E\vfj.v^ other MSS. 

2 Instead of t?is AaTtvns, D(pr. man.)trio have to?s Aarlvois, 
moz 4v tj? Aartvy. 

108 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 53-54 

Elymus the Trojan and took possession of Eryx 
and Lilybaeum, and gave the names Scamander and 
Simoeis to rivers near Aegesta, and that thence he 
went into the Latin country and made it his abode, 
in accordance with an oracle which bade him 
abide where he should eat up his table, and that 
this took place in the Latin country in the neigh- 
bourhood of Lavinium, where a large loaf of bread 
was put down for a table, for want of a better table, 
and eaten up along with the meats upon it. Homer, 
however, appears not to be in agreement with either 
of the two stories, nor yet with the above account 
of the founders of Scepsis ; for he clearly indicates 
that Aeneias remained in Troy and succeeded to the 
empire and bequeathed the succession thereto to 
his sons' sons, the family of the Priamidae having 
been wiped out : " For already the race of Priam was 
hated by the son of Cronus ; and now verily the 
mighty Aeneias will rule over the Trojans, and his 
sons' sons that are hereafter to be born." 1 And in 
this case one cannot even save from rejection the 
succession of Scamandrius. 2 And Homer is in far 
greater disagreement with those who speak of 
Aeneias as having wandered even as far as Italy 
and make him die there. Some write, u the family 
of Aeneias will rule over all, 3 and his sons' sons," 
meaning the Romans. 

54. From Scepsis came the Socratic philosophers 

1 Iliad 20. 306. 

- The son of Hector, who, along with Ascanius, was said 
to have been king of Scepsis (§ 52). 

8 i.e. they emend "Trojans" (Tpooeaaiv) to "all" (irdvTecr- 
aiv) in the Homeric passage. 

• aitoplav, Casaubon, for hireipiav ; so the later editors. 

109 



STRABO 

yeybvaaiv "E/xx<7to? Kal KopLcr/cos Kal 6 rov 
KopLor/cov wo? NrjXev?, dvrjp Kal * ApicrroreXovs 
f)iepoa/Ji€vo<; teal Seocfypdarov, BiaBeBeyfievos Be 
rrjv /3i,{3\io@rJKr}V rov Seocjypdcrrov, iv fj r)v teal 
i) rov 'ApKTToreXovs' 6 yovv ApiaroreXfj^ rrjv 
eavrov Seoabpdarw irapeBwKev, <Lirep teal rrjv 
a")^oXrjv d7reXc7re, irpSyro^, o)v icrfiev, crvvayayoov 
ISifiXia teal BtBdj;a<; tou? iv Alyvirrcp fiaaCXeas 
C 809 fiiftXioOijteris avvrafyv. ®e6(f)pao-ro<; Be NrjXel 
rrapeBcoKev 6 6° eh XKF/yjnv teo filar a? roh fier 
avrbv irapeBwKev, IBicoraLS dvdpcoiroLS, ot teard- 
teXeicra ei")(pv rd fiifiXua, ovB' iirifieXco^ teeifieva' 
eireiBr) Be rjaOovro rrjv <rirovBr)v rcov ' ArraXtKwv 
(Sao-tXewv, vcf)' oh rjv ?; ttoXls, ^rjrovvrcov /3i/3XLa 
eh rrjv tearaaK6vr]v r?}? iv Uepydfua ftiftXioOijieT)*;, 
Kara yrj<; etepvyjrav iv Bioupvyi tivi' virb Be vorlas 
teal o-rjTwv teatewdevra 6\jre irore drreBovro ol dirb 
rov yevovs 'AireXXiKcovri t&> Ttjlo) ttoXXwv 
dpyvpiwv rd re ApiaroreXov? Kal rd rov 
(^eocppdarov fSifiXia' rjv Be 6 ' ' AireXXuetov (f>iXo- 
yStySXo? fidXXov t) (ptX6(TO(f)o<;' Bib Kal ^rjrcov 
eirav6p6(x>(JLv rcov Bca^pco/xdrcov eh dvriypaqja 
tcaivd /jLerrjveytee rrjv ypacpyjv, dvairXijpcbv ovk 
ev, Kal igeBcoKev dfxaprdBwv TrXijprj rd ftiftXla. 
vvveft)] Be roh e'/c rcov irepardrcdv roh fiev irdXat 
roh fierd Se6cf)paarov ovk eyovviv oXco? rd 
fSifiXia irXrjv oXiycov, Kal pudXidra roiv i%co- 
repiKwv, firjBev ey^iv (friXoaoqjeiv 7rpaypLariKco<; t 
dXXd 6eo~ei<; Xt]kv0l^€lv' roh 3' varepov, d<\> 
ov rd ftifiXla ram a irpor]X9ev, dfieivov /xev 

1 Strabo refers to Eumenes II, who reigned 197-159 B.C. 
no 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 54 

Erastus and Coriscus and Neleus the son of Coriscus, 
this last a man who not only was a pupil of Aristotle 
and Theophrastus, but also inherited the library of 
Theophrastus, which included that of Aristotle. At 
any rate, Aristotle bequeathed his own library to 
Theophrastus, to whom he also left his school ; and 
he is the first man. so far as I know, to have collected 
books and to have taught the kings in Egypt how to 
arrange a library. Theophrastus bequeathed it to 
Neleus ; and Neleus took it to Scepsis and be- 
queathed it to his heirs, ordinary people, who kept 
the books locked up and not even carefully stored. 
But when they heard how zealously the Attalic 
kings x to whom the city was subject were searching 
for books to build up the library in Pergamum, they 
hid their books underground in a kind of trench. 
But much later, when the books had been damaged 
by moisture and moths, their descendants sold them 
to Apellicon 2 of Teos for a large sum of money, both 
the books of Aristotle and those of Theophrastus. 
But Apellicon was a bibliophile rather than a philo- 
sopher ; and therefore, seeking a restoration of the 
parts that had been eaten through, he made new 
copies of the text, filling up the gaps incorrectly, and 
published the books full of errors. The result was 
that the earlier school of Peripatetics who came after 
Theophrastus had no books at all, with the exception 
of only a few, mostly exoteric works, and were there- 
fore able to philosophise about nothing in a practical 
way, but only to talk bombast about commonplace 
propositions, whereas the later school, from the time 
the books in question appeared, though better able 

* Died about 84 b.o. 

III 



STRABO 

€K€Lvcov (j)iXo(TO(f)€2v Kal dpio-TOTeXi^eip, avayrca- 
^eaOai fiepToi ra iroXXd elfcora Xeyeip Bid to 
irXfjOos twv dfiaprioov. ttoXv Be eh tovto Kal 
rj 'PfOfirj TTpoaeXdftero' evOvs yap /xerd ttjp 
' ATreWiKwvros reXevrrjv SuXXa? r/pe rrjv 'A7re\- 
Xikwvtos /3if3Xio07]K7)v 6 ra? 'AOijva? eXcop, 
Bevpo Be /co/jbiaOelaav Tupavvlrov re 6 ypa/jL/iaTiKOS 
Bt.e^eipl(raro cfriXapio-TOTeXrjs cop, Oepanevaa^ top 
iirl rrj? j3L/3Xto9rjfcr)<;, /cat /3i/3Xio7ru)\aL Tipes 
ypcMpevcn (fravXois ypcbfiepoL Kal ovk ciptl- 
fidXXoPTes, oirep Kal iirl tcop aXXcop avjiftaipei 
t(op eh irpdaip ypa^ofievwp ftiftXiwp Kal epOdBe 
Kal ip 'AXej-apBpeLa. irepl puep ovp tovtwp aTToypr). 
55. 'E/e Be r?}? 'Z/crjyjrea)*; Kal 6 A?//* ryr/oto? 
ear ip, ov /jue/xpyfieOa ttoXKukis, 6 top TpcoiKOP 
BiaKoarfiop e^yrjadpiepo 1 ; ypa/A/jLari/cos, Kara top 
avTOP y^popop yeyopo)<; KpdTijTi Kal * ApiGTapyw' 
Kal fxeTa tovto NijTpoBwpos, dpr)p ck tov 
(f)iXoo~6(f)ov /jL€Ta{3e/3\.>}K(o<? iirl top ttoXltikop 
(Slop Kal p7]TOpevcop to irXeop ep Toh avyypdfi- 
fiaaip' eypi)o-aTo Be <f>pdo~eco<; tlpi yapaKTr)pi 
Kaupu) Kai KaTeirXrj^aTO 1 ttoXXovs' Bid Be ttjp 
Boljap ep KaXKi]B6pi ydfiov Xa/nirpov Treprjs wp 
erv^e Kal iypr]fidTt^e XaXK7)B6pio<;' Mi0piBaT7)P 
Be Oepa-rrevaas top RvTraTopa avpairPjpep eh top 
TLoptop eKeLp<p //.era tt;? yvpaiKos Kal eTi/AtjOrj 
C 610 Bia<pep6pTO)<i, TayOeh eirl ti)<; BiKaLoBoaLas, a0* 2 
?7? ovk i)p T(b KpiQsPTi dpaftoXr) 3 Tr}<? BiKr)<; iirl 
top ftaaiXea. ov fxePTOi BirjvTvxiiaep, dXX' 



1 Instead of /caT67r\^faTo, F reads Karen At) £avTo, moxz kw, 
\7j|e (so Corais, who inserts rovs before noAAovs). 



XT*- 
112 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 54-55 

to philosophise and Aristotelise, were forced to call 
most of their statements probabilities, because of 
the large number of errors. 1 Rome also contributed 
much to this ; for, immediately after the death of 
Apellicon, Sulla, who had captured Athens, carried 
off Apellicon's library to Rome, where Tyrannion the 
grammarian, who was fond of Aristotle, got it in his 
hands by paying court to the librarian, as did also 
certan booksellers who used bad copyists and would 
not collate the texts — a thing that also takes place 
in the case of the other books that are copied for 
selling, both here 2 and at Alexandria. However, 
this is enough about these men. 

55. From Scepsis came also Demetrius, whom I 
often mention, the grammarian who wrote a com- 
mentary on The Marshalling of the Trojan Forces, and 
was born at about the same time as Crates and 
Aristarchus ; and later, Metrodorus, a man who 
changed from his pursuit of philosophy to political 
life, and taught rhetoric, for the most part, in his 
written works ; and he used a brand-new style and 
dazzled many. On account of his reputation he 
succeeded, though a poor man, in marrying brilliantly 
in Chalcedon ; and he passed for a Chalcedonian. 
And having paid court to Mithridates Eupator, he 
with his wife sailed away with him to Pontus ; and 
he was treated with exceptional honour, being 
appointed to the judgeship from which there was no 
appeal to the king. However, his good fortune did 

1 i.e. errors in the available texts of Aristotle. 

2 i.e. at Rome. 



2 a(p\ Casaubon, for €</>' ; so the later editors. 

3 ava$o\4\, Casaubon, for fSov\i) ; so the later editors. 



"3 



STRABO 

epbirecrdiv eU €)(0pav dBitccorepcov av9 pcoirwv 
drreart] rov /3ao~iXecD<; tcard rrjv irpbs Tiypdvrjv 
rov 'Kpn&viov Trpeo-ftelav 6 B' dtcovra dveTre^-^rev 
avrbv rut EvTrdropi, (pevyovri rjBrj rrjv Trpoyovitcjjv, 
Kara Be rrjv 6Bbv tear ear pe^e rov ftiov eW virb 
rov (SaaiXecos, eW* biro voaov Xeyerat yap 
dfjL^orepa. irepl /lev rwv ^E/crjyjrlcov ravra. 

56. M.erd Be ^Krj\jnv "AvBeipa L teal Uioviai 
teal f) Vapyapi?. eari Be \t#09 irepl rd "AvBeipa, 
o? Kai6p,evo<; alBrjpos yiverar elra jierd 7779 tlvo<; 
tca/xiveuOels diroard^ei ^jrevBdpyvpov, r) irpoaXa- 
(3ovoa xaXtcbv to tcaXov/juevov yiverai tepd/xa, 6 
rives opefyaXtcov tcaXovar yiverai Be tyevBdpyvpos 
teal ire pi rov T/acoXov. ravra 8' earl rd yjopla, 
a ol Ae\e<ye9 tcarelyov' &>9 B* avrw<; teal rd irepl 
"Aaaov. 

57. "Eari Be r) "Ao"o~o9 ipv/juvrj teal evrei^rjs, 
drrb OaXdrrrjs teal rov Xi/ievos opdiav teal /xa/epdv 
dvdftaaiv e\ovaa % war eV avrrjs oltceltos elpr)a6ai 
Botcel to toO XrparoviKov rov KiBapiarov' 

"Aaaov W, W9 tcev Oaaaov bXeOpov irelpad' 
ItcTfai. 

6 Be Xip,rjv yjAjxari Kareatcevaarai fieydXw. 
ei>revOev r)v KXedvOrjs, 6 arcoitcbs (f)iXoaocf>o$ 6 
BiaBe^dfievos ri]v Zrjvcovos rov Kinecos a^oXr/v, 
tcaraXiTTcov Be KpvaiTTTrw rw ^oXel- evravOa Be 
teal 'ApiaroreXrjs Bierpiyfre Bid rrjv irpbs 'Ep/xelav 
rb)> rvf avvov tcrjBeiav. rjv Be [Ep/uLeias €vvov%o<; } 
rpaire^irov rivbs oltcerrj^' yev6p,evo$ B' 'AOijvrjaiv 

1 Instead of "AvSaoa, DE/ti and Epit. read "Avdripa. 
114 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 55-57 

not continue, but he incurred the enmity of men less 
just than himself and revolted from the king when 
he was on the embassy to Tigranes the Armenian. 1 
And Tigranes sent him back against his will to 
Eupator, who was already in flight from his ancestral 
realm ; but Metrodorus died on the way, whether by 
order of the king 2 or from disease; for both accounts 
are given of his death. So much for the Scepsians. 

56. After Scepsis come Andeira and Pioniae and 
the territory of Gargara. There is a stone in the 
neighbourhood of Andeira which, when burned, 
becomes iron, and then, when heated in a furnace 
with a certain earth, distils mock-silver j 3 and this, 
with the addition of copper, makes the " mixture," 
as it is called, which by some is called u mountain- 
copper." 4 These are the places which the Leleges 
occupied ; and the same is true of the places in the 
neighbourhood of Assus. 

57. Assus is by nature strong and well-fortified ; 
and the ascent to it from the sea and the harbour is 
very steep and long, so that the statement of 
Stratonicus the citharist in regard to it seems appro- 
priate : " Go to Assus, in order that thou mayest 
more quickly come to the doom of death." 5 The 
harbour is formed by a great mole. From Assus 
came Cleanthes, the Stoic philosopher who succeeded 
Zeno of Citium as head of the school and left it to 
Chrysippus of Soli. Here too Aristotle tarried, 
because of his relationship by marriage with the 
tyrant Hermeias. Hermeias was a eunuch, the slave 
of a certain banker ; 6 and on his arrival at Athens he 

1 For the story see Plutarch, Lucullus 22. * Tigranes. 

* i.e. zinc. * The Latin term is oricJialeum. 

5 A precise quotation of Iliad 6. 143 except that Homer's 
iatrov (("nearer") is changed to" A<r<rov ("to Assus"). 

6 Eubulus. 

"5 



STRABO 

rjtepodcraTO /cal HXdrcovos /cal 'Apio-ToreXow;' 
eiraveXOwv Be rep Beairorr] crvverupdwrjare, irpcorov 
eiuOepevw rots irepl 'Arapvea /cal "Acrcrov 

XCOpLOlS' €7T€LTa BieBetjaTO e/C€lVOV, fCCll fJL€T€- 

irepyjraTO rov re ' ApiaroreXrjv /cal "BevoKpdrrjv 
/cal eirepeXrjOri avrcov' ra> B' 'AptaroreXei /cal 
Ovyarepa dBeX<f)Ov avv(p/ciae. Mepvcov B' o 
'PoSto? vTTTjpeTwv Tore to?? Tlepcrais /cal aTparrj- 
ywv, 7rpoa7roiT)adfiepo<i (f>iXlav /caXel irpbs eavrbv 
few'a? re dpa 1 /cal irpaypdrwv irpo(77roirjTO)v 
ydpiv, av\Xa/3cov 6' dveirepyjrev a><? top ftacriXea, 
/cd/eei /cpepacrOels dncaXero' ol <fiiXocro(f)oi 6° 
icr(o07jaavy (pevyovre? rd yuspia, a ol Uepcrai 
tcarecryov. 

58. (frrjcrl Be MvpcriXos MrjOvpvalcov KTLcrpa 
elvai tt)v "Acrcrov, 'EXXdvi/cos re /cal AloXiBa 
(f)7)aiv, toenrep 2 /cal rd Vdpyapa /cal rj Aapirwvla 
AloXecov. 'AcrcriGov yap earv /crlcrpa rd Vdpyapa, 
QSMov/c ev crvvoi/covpeva' enroi/cov? yap ol /3acriXel<; 
elcrrjyayop e/c MiXrjTovTroXecos, epqpcaaavres e/cei- 
vrfv, ware f)pi/3ap{3upovs yevkcOai (f)7jal ^rjprjrpios 
avTOvs 6 ^E/c^yjno'i dvrl AloXewv. /caO' "Oprjpov 
pevroi ravra irdvra rjv AeXeycov, ov<; rive? pev 
Kapa? a7TO(f)au'Ovcnv, r/ Op,r]po<; Be ^(opi^ei. 

7T/50? pev aXo9 Kape? /cal Tlaioves dy/cvXoro^ot, 
/cal Ae\e7e? /cal Kav/c coves. 

erepoi pev roivvv rodv Kapon> uTrrjp^av oj/covv Be 

1 Instead of a/xa, moz read 6v6/j.a.Tt. 

2 &<rirep, Meineke, for &s re ; others omit tc. 

1 The historian of Methymna, who appears to have 
n6 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 57-58 

became a pupil of both Plato and Aristotle. On his 
return he shared the tyranny with his master, who 
had already laid hold of the districts of Atarneus and 
Assus; and then Hermeias succeeded him and sent 
for both Aristotle and Xenocrates and took care of 
them ; and he also married his brother's daughter to 
Aristotle. Memnon of Rhodes, who was at that 
time serving the Persians as general, made a pre- 
tence of friendship for Hermeias, and then invited 
him to come for a visit, both in the name of hos- 
pitality and at the same time for pretended business 
reasons ; but he arrested him and sent him up to the 
king, where he was put to death by hanging. But 
the philosophers safely escaped by flight from the 
districts above-mentioned, which were seized by the 
Persians. 

58. Myrsilus 1 says that Assus was founded by 
the Methymnaeans ; and Hellanicus too calls it an 
Aeolian city, just as also Gargara and Lamponia 
belonged to the Aeolians. For Gargara was founded 
by the Assians ; but it was not well peopled, for the 
kings brought into it colonists from Miletopolis when 
they devastated that city, so that instead of Aeolians, 
according to Demetrius of Scepsis, the inhabitants 
of Gargara became serai-barbarians. According to 
Homer, however, all these places belonged to the 
Leleges, who by some are represented to be Carians, 
although by Homer they are mentioned apart : "To- 
wards the sea are the Carians and the Paeonians 
of the curved bow and the Leleges and the 
Cauconians." 2 They were therefore a different 
people from the Carians ; and they lived between 

flourished about 300 B.C. ; only fragments of his works 
remain. * Iliad 10. 428. 

117 



STRABO 

fJL€Tai;V rCOV V7T0 rep Alv€lCL KCU T&V KaXoVfieVCOV 
V7T0 TOV TTOirjTOV TLlXlKCOV' i/CTTOpOrjOevreS 8e V7T0 
TOV 'A^AAeO)? fl€T€(TTr)(TaV €69 TTJV KaplClV, KCLI 

Karkayov ra ire pi rrjv vvv ' AXi/capvaabv * ywpia. 

59. 'H fievroi vvv ifcX€t(f)deio~a vtt avrcov ttoXis 
HIrj8ao~o<; ovtcer eariv- iv 8e rfj jieaoyaia rcov 
'AXitcapvaaecov 2 ra Tirj8acra l»7t' avrcov ovo- 
/xaadevra rjv 7roXt?, /cat r) vvv X^P a n^Sacrl? 
Xeyerat. cpacrl 8' iv avrfj /cal 6/crco 7roXet<? 
cpKLcrdai V7TO rcov AeXeycov irporepov evavBprj- 
a avrcov, cocrre /cal rrjs Kapia? /caraax^tv rr)<$ 
fi&XP 1 Mvi/Sov real BapyvXtcov, /cal t?}? Tli(TiSias 
airorefjiiaOai ttoXXjJv. varepov 8' a/jua rot? Kapcrl 
crrparevofievoi /carepepi'adrjaav efc 0X171; rrjv 
'EtXXd8a /cat rjcpaviaOrj rb yevos, rcov 6° oktco 
TroXecov ra<; ef MavacoXcx; et? fitav rrjv 'AXt- 
/capvacrov 2 crvvrjyayev, tw? KaXXicrOevrj? laropel' 
XvdyyeXa 4 8e teal Mvv8ov 8iecf)vXa^€. tow 8e 
UrfiaaevcTL rovrois cfcrjcrlv 'Hp68oro<; ore /jlcXXol 
n civeirtrijheLov 5 ecreaOai /cal rols irepioUoLS, rrjv 
lepeiav tt)? 'Adrjvd^ rrcoycova l<tx 6LV '* rpU 8e 
avp,$rjvai rovro avroh. Urj8ao~ov 7 8e /cal iv rfj 
vvv Xrparovi/cecov iroXlxyiov iariv. iv oXy 8e 

1 ' A\iKapuaa6p, DIixz, ' KXiKapvacraov other MSS. 

2 ' AAiKapvaaraeuiv CF ; ' AXi Kapvaaewv other MSS. 

3 ' hXiKa,)va.<r<r6v, all MSS., but see two preceding notes ; 
also see 8. 6. 14 (where all MSS. have K\iKapva<x6v) and 
14. 2. 16. 

4 ^.vdyyeXa, Kramer, for <rway4\a CDr, avv ayiXai hmowz, 
crvvayeKas F ('ZovdyeXa Tzschucke and Corais, from conj. of 
Casaubon) ; so Miiller-Diibner, Meineke, and Leaf. 

5 aveviTySeiov, Xylander, for £iriT-f)5eiov ; so the later 
editors. 

6 1<rx* iv > Corais, for <rx««V ; so the later editors. 
118 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 58-59. 

the people subject to Aeneias and the people whom 
the poet called Cilicians, but when they were pillaged 
by Achilles they migrated to Caria and took posses- 
sion of the district round the present Halicarnassus. 1 
59. However, the city Pedasus, now abandoned 
by them, is no longer in existence; but in the 
inland territory of the Halicarnassians there used to 
be a city Pedasa, so named by them ; and the present 
territory is called Pedasis. It is said that as many 
as eight cities were settled in this territory by the 
Leleges, who in earlier times were so numerous that 
they not only took possession of that part of Caria 
which extends to Myndus and Bargylia, but also cut 
off for themselves a large portion of Pisidia. But later, 
when they went out on expeditions with the Carians, 
they became distributed throughout the whole of 
Greece, and the tribe disappeared. Of the eight 
cities, Mausolus 2 united six into one city, Halicarnas- 
sus, as Callisthenes tells us, but kept Syangela and 
Myndus as they were. These are the Pedasians of 
whom Herodotus 3 says that when any misfortune was 
about to come upon them and their neighbours, the 
priestess of Athena would grow a beard ; and that 
this happened to them three times. And there is also 
a small town called Pedasum in the present territory 
of Stratoniceia. And throughout the whole of Caria 

1 Cf. 7. 7. 2. On the variant spellings of " Halicarnas(s)us " 
see critical note. 

2 King of Caria 377-353 B.C. The first " Mausoleum " was 
so named after him. 

■ 1. 175, 8. 104. 



7 Instead of Ur,8aaov, moz have M)8a<Tos (see Stephanus, s.v. 
IlTjSao-a). 

119 



STRABO 

Kapia teal ev MiXijtw 1 AeXeycov rd(f>oi teal epv- 
/iara teal lx vr l KaToi/cieov BeLtevvTai. 

60. M.era Be tovs AeXeyas ttjv e^?}? irapaXiav 
(prcovv KiXitees /caO' 'O/jbrjpov, rjv vvv eyovaiv 
'ASpa/jLVTTTjroi T6 teal ' ATapvetTai teal Tliravaloi 
p<eyj}i tt)<? €tc/3oXr}<; tov Kat/cov. BtyprjVTO S' ek 
Bvo BvvaaTeias ol KiXttees, KaOdirep eiirofiev, Ttjv 
tc virb tw Hericovi teal tijv vtto TAvvrjTL. 

61. Tov fjuev ovv 'Hctlwvos Xeyet ttoXiv Qrjftrjv 

oj^o/ne^' e? Srfftrjv leprjv itoXlv 'Her/owo?. 

tovtov Be koX ttjv Xpvaav rrjv e^ovaav 2 to 
iepbv tov X/JUvOeco'i WttoXXwvos e p,(f)aivei , elirep 
f) Xpvarjls etc t?}? Sy]fii]<; eaXw 

(p^ofxeda yap, (prjaiv, e? S>j/3iiv, 
rr)v Be BieirpdOofiev re teal rjyofiev evOdBeiravra, 
C 612 teal rci /xev ev BdaaavTO fieTa a<fiiaiv, 
ite 8' eXov * ArpeiBrj XpvarjiBa. 

tov Be X\vvt)to<; ttjv Avpv^aaov eiTeiBr) 

Avpvrjaaov BiairopOt'jaas teal reiyea ©>;'/3^? 

tov T€ MvvrjTa teal tov ^nlaTpofyov avelXev 
1 A%iXXev<;' waTe, oTav <f)j} rj Bpiarjus, 

ovBe fi eaatces, 6V avBp 1 e/xbv ojku? ' A^iXXev^ 
etcTeivev, irepaev Be ttoXlv Oeioio MvvrfTos, 

ov Tip ©77/8771/ Xeyoi dv (ovtt] yap 'HeriWo?), 
dXXd ttjv Avpvrjaaov dfufroTepai 8' r)aav ev to> 
teXrjOevTt, /xeTa TavTa ©77/8779 ireBiw, Bid ttjv 
dpsTtjv TTepnxdyr\Tov yeveaOai <paal M.vaoIs fxev 

1 eV MfAi/ry, omitted by Dhi. 
120 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 59-61 

and in Miletus are to be seen tombs, fortifications, 
and traces of settlements of the Leleges. 

60. After the Leleges, on the next stretch of coast, 
lived the Cilicians, according to Homer ; I mean the 
stretch of coast now held by the Adramytteni and 
Atarneitae and Pitanaei, as far as the outlet of the 
Cai'cus. The Cilicians, as I have said, 1 were divided 
into two dynasties, 2 one subject to Eetion and one to 
Mvnes. 

61. Now Homer calls Thebe the city of Eetion : 
"We went into Thebe, the sacred city of Eetion"; 3 
and he clearly indicates that also Chrysa, which had 
the temple of Sminthian Apollo, belonged to Eetion, 
if it be true that Chrysei's was taken captive at Thebe, 
for he says, " We went into Thebe, and laid it waste 
and brought hither all the spoil. And this they 
divided aright among themselves, but they chose 
out Chryseis for the son of Atreus " ; 4 and that 
Lyrnessus belonged to Mynes, since Achilles "laid 
waste Lyrnessus and the walls of Thebe" 5 and slew 
both Mynes and Epistrophus ; so that when Briseis 
says, "thou wouldst not even let me, 6 when swift 
Achilles slew my husband and sacked the city of 
divine Mynes," 7 Homer cannot mean Thebe (for 
this belonged to Eetion), but Lyrnessus. Both were 
situated in what was afterwards called the Plain of 
Thebe, which, on account of its fertility, is said to 
have been an object of contention between the 

1 13. 1. 7, 49. 2 But cf. 13. 1. 70. 

8 Iliad 1. 366. * Iliad 1. 366 ff. 

6 Iliad 2. 691. 6 sc. "weep." 

7 Iliad 19. 295. 



8 tV tx° v<T{ * v t added from moz. 

VOL. VI. 



121 



STRABO 

Kal AvBol? to 1 Trporepov, TOt? 6° "EXXrjo-iv varepov 
Tots" iiroiKr)<Tacnv Ik tt)<; AloXlBo? Kal Tr)<; Ae'cr/3oi\ 
e\ovort Be vvv 'ABpapLVTTrjvol to irXeov evravOa 
yap real r) ®?;/9n /cat r) Avpvrjo-aos, epv/xvbv 
yjMplov €pi]fjLoi B* afjL^orepai' hiixovau Be. * ABpa- 
/xvttlov araBlovs r) jiev e%r)K0VTa,r) Be 6<yBoi]KOVTa 
Kal oktco eirl Odrepa. 2 

62. 'E^ Be rfj ' ABpajjLVTTrjvfj earl Kal ?; Xpvaa 
Kal r) KiXXa' ttXtjctlov ovv t>}? Si]/3r)<i en 3 vvv 
KiXXa Tt<? T07ro? Xeyerai* ev a> KiXXaLou 5 'A7ro\- 
\a>z>o? eaTiv lepov irapappel 6" auTw cf "IS^? 
<f)€p6fAevo<; 6 KtXAcuo? 6 7rorafi6<;' ravra B' earl 
Kara rrjv ' AvTavBpiav Kal to ev Aecr/3ft) Se 
KlXXatov 7 a7ro Tavrr;? Trj? KtXXi/? dyvo/jcaaTar 
eo~Ti Be Kal KlXXatov opos fiera^v Vapyapcov Kal 
' AvrdvBpov. (prjcrl Be Aa?;? o KoXawaei^ eV 
KoXawaiv IBpvdfjvai irpcoTov virb tcov ck rfjfi 
'KkXdBos TrXevadvTwv AloXeccv to tov KiXXaiov 
' A7r6XX<ovo<; lepov Kal ev Xpvcrr) Be Xeyovai 
KiXXaiov 'AiroXXcova IBpvaQai, aBrjXov, el're tov 
avTov to) ^./jLLi'Oet, effi erepov. 

63. *H Be Xpvaa lirl OaXaTry iroXlyvLOv rjv 
exov Xipeva, TrXriaLov Be VTrepKenat fj &q/3r)' 
evTavBa B' rjv Kal to lepov tov 2,p,Lv6eco^ 'AttoX- 

1 r6, before irpSrrpov, Meineke, for rols. Corais omits the 
to?s, and so Leaf. 

2 Leaf omits the words teal oKrcb iirl Qarepa (see his critical 
note on text, p. 36). 

3 en, Meineke, for eVn. 

4 Instead of \tyt-Tai, vioz read \sy6uevos. 

6 KtWaiov, Casaubon and later editors, for KiWeovs C, 
KiWcovs Dhrtr, Kt\\e6s F, KiWeov moxz. 

c Ki'Waios, Kramer and later editors, for Ki\*e6s F, KlWeos 
other MSS. 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 61-63 

Mysians and Lydians in earlier times, and later 
between the Greeks who colonised it from Aeolis 
and Lesbos. But the greater part of it is now held 
by the Adramytteni, for here lie both Thebe and 
Lyrnessus, the latter a natural stronghold ; but both 
places are deserted. From Adramyttium the former 
is distant sixty stadia and the latter eighty-eight, 
in opposite directions. 1 

62. In the territory of Adramyttium lie also 
Chrysa and Cilia. At any rate there is still to-day 
a place near Thebe called Cilia, where is a temple 
of the Cillaean Apollo ; and the Cillaeus River, 
which runs from Mt. Ida, flows past it. These 
places lie near the territory of Antandrus. The 
Cillaeum in Lesbos is named after this Cilia; and 
there is also a Mt. Cillaeum between Gargara and 
Antandrus. Daes of Colonae says that the temple 
of the Cillaean Apollo was first founded in Colonae 
by the Aeolians who sailed from Greece ; it is also 
said that a temple of Cillaean Apollo was established 
at Chrysa, though it is not clear whether he is the 
same as the Sminthian Apollo or distinct from him. 

63. Chrysa was a small town on the sea, with a 
harbour ; and near by, above it, lies Thebe. Here 
too was the temple of the Sminthian Apollo ; and 

1 The site of Thebe 1 has been definitely identified with 
that of the modern Edremid (see Leaf, p. 322). But that of 
Lyrnessus is uncertain. Leaf (p. 308), regarding the text as 
corrupt, reads merely "eighty" instead of "eighty-eight," 
and omits "in opposite directions" (see critical note). 

7 KiWaiov, Tzschucke and later editors, for KtWtov ; and 
so in the three subsequent instances the MSS. have € instead 
of at. 

123 



STRABO 

Xcovos teal t) ~Xpvo~r)i$' r)prjfi(orai B- vvv to ywpiov 
TeXew tfci Be. ttjv vvv ^Lpvaav ttjv Kara ' A/ia^LTov 
fjbeOlBpvTai to lepov to>v KlXlkcov tcjv fiev eh ttjv 
UapcpvXlav eKirecrovTcov, twv Be els 'Afjua^iTov. 
ol S' direipoTepoi tcov iraXaicov laTopiwv ivTavOa 
tov XpvaTjv fcal ttjv XpvarjiBci yeyovevai <j>aal 
zeal tov r/ Op,rjpov tovtov tov tottov fiefivrjaOai. 
d\\' ovt€ Xi/irjv iaTiv evTavOa, eicelvo<; Be (f>r]aiv 

ol B* ot€ Br) \LjjLevo? iroXvftevdeo? eWo? ikovto, 

ovt iirl OaXaTTT] to lepov iaTiv, i/celvo<; B* eVt 
daXd-TTT) Troiel to lepov 

i/c Be XpvarjU vrjbs fir) TTOVTOiropoio* 
C 613 ttjv p>ev eireiT iirl fiwfibv aycov ttoXv/itjtis 
'OBvaaev? 

TTdTpl (f)lXq) iv X e P <TL T10€4* 

ovBe &r]/3->)<? irXrjo-iov, i/eeivo<? Be irXrjaiov i/ceWev 
yovv aXovcrav Xeyec ttjv Xpvo-rjlBa. a\V ovBe 
KiXXa tottos ovBeh iv t{) 'AXeifavBpecov X^P a 
BetKWTai, ovBe KiXXaiov 'AttoXXcovo? lepov 6 
ttoitjtt)*; Be avt.evyvvcnv 

09 Xpvarjv afjL<ju/3€/3r)fca<; 
KlXXav T€ %a6erjv 

iv Be tg> %r)(Sr)<z ireBia> BetKWTat irXrjo-iov 6 Te 
TrXovs oltto fiev tt}? KlXiklov Xpvarj<i iirl to 
vavaTadfiov eirTaKoalcov ttov o~tciBlcdv icrTlv 
/ r)fjLeprio'io<z 7toj?, oo~ov (fiaiveTai TrXevo~a<; 6 'OBvg- 
aevs. iicftas yap eWvs 1 TrapiaTTiaL ttjv Ovctlclv 
tS> Oea> KCfX tt;? eanrepas iirtXafiovo-rr^ fievei 
avTodi, ir pan Be airoirXeZ' airb Be 'AfMagcTOv to 
124 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 63 

here lived Chryseis. But the place is now utterly 
deserted ; and the temple was transferred to the 
present Chrysa near Hamaxitus when the Cilicians 
were driven out, partly to Pamphylia 1 and partly to 
Hamaxitus. Those who are less acquainted with 
ancient history say that it was at this Chrysa that 
Chryses and Chryseis lived, and that Homer mentions 
this place ; but, in the first place, there is no harbour 
here, and yet Homer says, " And when they had 
now arrived inside the deep harbour " ; 2 and, secondly, 
the temple is not on the sea, though Homer makes 
it on the sea, "and out from the seafaring ship 
stepped Chryseis. Her then did Odysseus of many 
wiles lead to the altar, and place in the arms of her 
dear father"; 3 neither is it near Thebe, though 
Homer makes it near; at any rate, he speaks of 
Chryseis as having been taken captive there. Again, 
neither is there any place called Cilia to be seen in 
the territory of the Alexandreians, nor any temple 
of Cillaean Apollo; but the poet couples the two, 
" who dost stand over Chrysa and sacred Cilia." 4 
But it is to be seen near by in the Plain of Thebe. 
And the voyage from the Cilician Chrysa to the Naval 
Station is about seven hundred stadia, approximately 
a day's voyage, such a distance, obviously, as that 
sailed by Odysseus ; 5 for immediately upon disem- 
barking he offered the sacrifice to the god, and since 
evening overtook him he remained on the spot and 
sailed away the next morning. But the distance 
from Hamaxitus is scarcely a third of that above 

1 Cf. 14. 4. 1. > Iliad 1. 432. » Iliad 1. 438. 

* Iliad 1. 37. • See Iliad 1. 430 ff. 

1 evdvs xz, ei,dv other MSS. 

125 



STRABO 

rpLTov /xoXt? rod Xe%#eWo? Smo-T^/zaTo? ecrriv, 
&<tt€ iraprjv tw ^OBvacrel avdrjfiepbv dvaifkelv 
eirl to vavaradfJLOv reXeaavTi rrjv Ovaiav. ecrri 
Be /cal KlXXov fivrifia irepl rb lepbv rou KiWalov 
'AttoWcovos, %WyLta /jLeya' tyioyov Be rovrov IleXo- 
7to? <f>ao~iv rjyrjadjjLevov t&v tottcov, d(f)' ov io~co<; r) 
KtXi/cia rj epuraXiv. 

64. Ta ovv irepl Toy? Tev/cpov? /cal tou? fivcis, 
a(f) y wv 6 X/MvOevs, e7reiBr) afiivdoi 1 ol fxves, Bevpo 
fiereve/CTeov. irapap^vQ ovvrai Be rifv dirb fXLKpwv 
eTriKk^Giv Toiovrois TLcri' /cal yap airb rcov 
jrapvoTTcov, 0D9 ol Olraloi 2 tcopvoiras Xeyovcri, 
KopvoTTLoyva 3 rifidaOai, Trap e/celvois 'Hpa/cXea 
diraXK.ayrj<s d/cpuBcov yapiv *\ttoktqvov Be nap 
'EpvOpauoLS rot? rbv Ml/jbavra 4, ol/eovaiv, on 
fyOapTticbs rcov d/jL7re\o(f)dy(ov lttwv real Brj irap 
e/ceuvois /jLOVOis rcov 'QpvOpalcov TO Orjpiov TOVTO 
/Mr] yiveadai. b 'PoBiot Be 'EpvOtfiiov 'AttoXXcdvos 
e^ovaiv ev rfj %ft)/?a lepov, rrjv epvaLJ3riv /caXovvres 
epvOlftrjv irap AloXevci Be Tot? ev *Aalq /xet? 
-n? 6 /caXelrai Wopvoirlwv, ovrco toi/? irdpvoixa^ 
/caXovvr'ov Bolcdtwv, real dvala avvreXelrai 

TlopVOTTlddVL ' AiroXXwVL. 

65. Mf cria fiev ovv earlv 77 irepl rb 'ABpa/nvr- 
riov, r)V Be ttot€ vtto AvBols, /cal vvv UvXai 
AvBiai /caXovvrai ev * ABpapLvrrlw, AvBcov, &>? 

1 a-fiivdoi, Meineke, for cr/iivOioi. 

2 Olraiot E, 'Oreoi other MSS. 

3 E inserts nva before nixaaQai. 

4 Mi/j.avra, Corais, for Me\tovvra (see 14. 1. 33) ; so the 
later editors. 

5 ylveadai, moz and Corais and Meineke, for yevecrdai. 

6 fxvds tis EF, fivs tis Dmorz, fivcrcov tu hi, fna-ris C. 
126 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 63-65 

mentioned, so that Odysseus could have completed 
the sacrifice and sailed back to the Naval Station 
on the same day. There is also a tomb of Cillus in 
the neighbourhood of the temple of the Cillaean 
Apollo, a great barrow. He is said to have been 
the charioteer of Pelops and to have ruled over 
this region ; and perhaps it was after him that 
Cilicia was named, or vice versa. 

64. Now the story of the Teucrians and the mice — 
whence the epithet " Sminthian," x since "sminthi" 
means "mice" — must be transferred to this place. 
And writers excuse this giving of epithets from small 
creatures by such examples as the following : It is 
from locusts, 2 they say, which the Oetaeans call 
"cornopes," that Heracles is worshipped among 
the Oetaeans as " Cornopion," for ridding them of 
locusts ; and he is worshipped among the Erythraeans 
who live in Mimas as a Ipoctonus," 3 because he is the 
destroyer of the vine-eating ips ; 4 and in fact, they 
add, these are the only Erythraeans in whose 
country this creature is not to be found. And the 
Rhodians, who call erysibe 5 "erythibe," have a 
temple of Apollo " Erythibius " in their country ; and 
among the Aeolians in Asia a certain month is called 
Pornopion, since the Boeotians so call the locusts, 
and a sacrifice is offered to Apollo Pornopion. 

65. Now the territory round Adramyttium is 
Mysian, though it was once subject to the Lydians ; 
and to-day there is a gate in Adramyttium which 
is called the Lydian Gate because, as they say, the 

1 i.e. the "Sminthian" Apollo (I/iad 1. 39). 

8 " Parnopes." 3 •' Ips-slayer. M 

* A kind of cynips. 6 "Mildew." 

127 



STRABO 

<paai, rrjv ttoXiv ifCTi/corayv. Mv<tlcl<; Be "Aarvpa 
ttjv TrXrjalov tccofirjv <fyaaiv. r)v Be iroXi-^yr] irore, 
iv f) to tt)? ^Acrrvprjvr)^ * ApTe/uBo? lepov iv aktrei, 
irpoaTajovfievov perd dyiareias vir ' AvravBpiwv, 
ol? p,aXXov yeirvid' Sie^ei Be tt)? nraXaid^ Xpvarjs 
eitcoai araBlov^, /cal avrr}? iv aXaet to lepov 
i%ovo-r}<;. avrov Be /cal 6 'A^iWeto? %a/?af* * v 
Be rfj pueaoyaia diro Trevrij/covra o-raBlcov €0~tIv 
C 614 tj ®i)i3rj eprj/jLo?, 1 r)v (fyrjaev 6 7T0Lr/Tr)<; vtto TlXd/e(p 
v\yi€(JcrT)' ovre Be UXd/co? rj IlX-af i/cel Tt Xeyerai, 
ov6' vXrj vTrepKenaiy /calroi Trpos ry "IS*?. 'Acttu- 
pcov B* r) ®rj/3i] Biexet, et? ef3Bop,r)KOVTa o-raBlovs, 
AvBeipwv 2 Be e^rjieovra. irdvra Be ravrd iari 
to ovopxna tottcov ipijpicov rj (fravXcos ol/eovpevcov 
rj irorapLCov ^eipappcov reOpvXrjrai, Be Bid ras 
iraXaia^ laropla^. 

66. IloXet? 8' elalv dgioXoyoi "Aaao<; re zeal 
'ABpapvTTLOV. r}Tvyr}Ge Be to 'ABpapvTTiov iv 
t& ^liOptBariKW iroXepw' rrjv yap ftovXrjv dire- 
o-cfrcttje rwy ttoXltwv AfcoSa>/)o? o~Tparrjy6<;, yapi^o- 
lievos tg) (BacnXel, TrpoaTroiovpLevos B' ap,a rcov re 
ef 'AfeaBrjpias <j)t,Xocr6(f)cov elvai zeal Bi/ca? Xeyeiv 
kcl\ o-ocfuareveiv ra prjropi/cd' /ecu Brj /ecu crvva- 
TTTfpeV €t? TOV TIovtov TW ftcKTikeZ' /caraXvOevTos 
Be tov /3acriXea)<;, eriae Bi/cas TOt9 dBc/crjOeiaw 
iy/cXrj/jLdrrov yap iireveyOkvTwv ap,a ttoXXcov, 
direKaprepT^aev atV^w?, ov (frepcov Trjv Bva^rj- 
piav, iv rfj rjpLerepa iroXei. dvrjp Be *ABpap,VT- 

1 fprj/Aos, moz omit. 

3 For 'AvSe/pwv, DEi read 'AvHpwv, in D corrected to 
'AvS'tpwv. 

128 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. i. 65-66 

city was founded by Lydians. And they say that 
the neighbouring village Astyra belongs to Mysia. 
It was once a small town, where, in a sacred pre- 
cinct, was the temple of the Astyrene Artemis, 
which was superintended, along with holy rites, by 
the Antandrians, who were its nearer neighbours. 
It is twenty stadia distant from the ancient Chrysa, 
which also had its temple in a sacred precinct. 
Here too was the Palisade of Achilles. And in the 
interior, fifty stadia away, is Thebe, now deserted, 
which the poet speaks of as " beneath wooded 
Placus " ; x but, in the first place, the name " Placus " 
or " Plax " is not found there at all, and, secondly, 
no wooded place lies above it, though it is near 
lit Ida. Thebe is as much as seventy stadia distant 
from Astyra and sixty from Andeira. But all these 
are names of deserted or scantily peopled places, or 
of winter torrents ; and they are often mentioned 
only because of their ancient history. 

66. Both Assus and Adramyttium are notable 
cities. But misfortune befell Adramyttium in the 
Mithridatic War, for the members of the city council 
were slaughtered, to please the king, by Diodorus 2 
the general, who pretended at the same time to be 
a philosopher of the Academy, a dispenser of justice, 
and a teacher of rhetoric. And indeed he also 
joined the king on his journey to Pontus ; but when 
the king was overthrown he paid the penalty for his 
misdeeds ; for many charges were brought against 
him, all at the same time, and, being unable to bear 
the ignominy, he shamefully starved himself to death, 
in my own city. Another inhabitant of Adramyttium 



1 Iliad 6. 396. 

* This Diodorus is otherwise unknown. 



129 
E 2 



STRABO 

rrjvb? prjrcop irrKpavr)^ yeyevrjrai 'EevoKXr)?, rov 
fiev 'Aaiavov x a P aKT VP°s> dycovLcrrr)? Be, eX Tt? 
aXXos, kcli elprjfcw virep rr}<; 'Acrla? eirl tt)? 
(TwyKkrjTov, kclO^ op tcaipov all lav elye MiOpi- 
Baricrpov. 

67. Upbs Be to?9 ''Acrrvpois Xtfivrj KaXelrai 
Hair pa ftapaOpojBrjs, eh pax^Bij tt}? OaXdrrrjs 
alytaXbv rb efcprjyfia eypvaa. vrrrb Be Tot? 
'AvBeipoi? lepbv iari Mtjtoo? 6eu>v ' AvBeipqvr)*; 
dyiov Ka\ avrpov virovofxov f-iexpi YlaXaias. eari 
B* r) YlaXaia /caroL/cia tj? ovrco KaXou/juevrj, Bie- 
Xovaa rcov ' AvBelpcov e/carbv ical rpiaKovra 
o-tclBiovs' eBei^e Be rrjv vrrovop.r)v ^ifiapo^ e/jLTre- 
acbv eh rb aro/ia real dvevpeOels rfj vcrrepaia 
Kara, "AvBeipa 1 vrrb rov iroifAevo? Kara Tvyr}v 
eirl duo-lav rjfcovTos. 'Arapvevs B? ecrri rb toO 
'EpfjLeiov 2 rvpavvelov, elra JJcrdvrj, 7roXt? AloXitcrj, 
Bvo exovaa Xipievas, xal 6 rrapappewv avrrjv 
7roTa/xo? 'Eivrjvos, e'f ov rb vBpaycoyelov irerrolr]rai 
rol? ' ABpafxvrrr\vol%. e/c Be rr}<; Uirdv7)$ earlv 
'Apiceo-lXao*;, 6 e/c rrjs 'AieaBrifiias, Ztfv<ovo<; rov 
KtTtea)? avaxoXaarr}^ rrapa UoXeficovL, KaXelrai 
Be koX ev rfj Tlcrdvy ris T07ro9 €77"! OaXdrrrj 
'Arapvevs virb rfj Wirdvrj, Kara rrjv KaXovp.evr\v 
vrjaov 'EXeovo-aav. 3 cpaal 5' ev rfj Yitrdvr) rd<; 
TrXivOovs eiriiroXd^eiv ev rots vBaai, Kaddirep Kal 
ev rfj Tvpprjvla yfj res* ireirovOe' Kov(f>orepa yap 
7) yij rov emaoyKov vBaros ecrriv, ewoV errox^lo-Qai. 

1 Instead of "Avcapa, CDh read "Avhipa. 

2 'Ep/xdov F, 'Ep/xluov other MSS. 

3 'EAeoiWwv, Palmer, for exouaav ; so later editors, except 
Meineke and Leaf, who read 'E\aiovar<rav. 

130 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 66-67 

was the famous orator Xenocles, 1 who belonged to 
the Asiatic school and was as able a debater as ever 
lived, having even made a speech on behalf of Asia 
before the Senate, 2 at the time when Asia was accused 
of Mithridatism. 

67. Near Astyra is an abysmal lake called Sapra, 
which has an outbreak into a reefy seashore. Below 
Andeira is a temple sacred to the Andeirene Mother 
of the gods, and also a cave that runs underground 
as far as Palaea. Palaea is a settlement so named, 3 
at a distance of one hundred and thirty stadia from 
Andeira. The underground passage became known 
through the fact that a goat fell into the mouth of it 
and was found on the following day near Andeira by 
a shepherd who happened to have come to make sacri- 
fice. Atarneus is the abode of the tyrant Hermeias ; 
and then one comes to Pitane, an Aeolic city, which 
has two harbours, and the Evenus River, which flows 
past it, whence the aqueduct has been built by the 
Adramytteni. From Pitane came Arcesilaiis, of the 
Academy, a fellow-student with Zeno of Citium 
under Polemon. In Pitane there is also a place on 
the sea called " Atarneus below Pitane," opposite 
the island called Eleussa. It is said that in Pitane 
bricks float on water, as is also the case with a 
certain earth 4 in Tyrrhenia, for the earth is lighter 
than an equal bulk of water, so that it floats. And 

1 This Xenocles is otherwise unknown except for a reference 
to him by Cicero {Bmdus 91). 

2 The Roman Senate. i.e. " Old Settlement." 
* " Rotten-stone." 



' yy t is, Corais, for v^ais ; so Leaf. 

131 



STRABO 

iv 'Iftrjpia Be (fyrjacv IBeiv TLoaeiBdoviof; €K tivos 
yfjs dpycXcoBovs, rj rd dpyvpcopiara ifCfidrreTCK,, 
C 615 irXlvOovs 7T7jyvv/JL6va<; Kal iiwrXeovcrcK;. /juerd Be 
ttjv Hirdvrjv 6 Kat/eo? et? rbv y RXaf ttjv KaXovfievov 
koXttov iv Tpidtcovra (ttclBLois efcBuBcoaiv. iv Be 
t& irepav rod Kattcov, BcoBe/ca Ste^oucra rod 
irorafjiov araBiov<; 'EX,ata ttoXl<; AloXlktj Kal 
avTT) Hepyafxrjvcov iiriveiov, efcarov Kal eiKocru 
<TTaBLov<; Bie^ovaa rov Hepyd/uov. 

68. KW iv etcarov araBioiq r) Kdvrj,ro dvraipov 
aKpcoTTjpLov tw Ae/CT(p zeal ixolovv rbv ' ' ABpa/jivr- 
rrjvbv koXttov, ov fiepos /cal 6 'EXam/co? iari. 
Kdvai Be iroXi'xyLOv Ao/cpcov rcov eV Kvvov Kara 
rd atcpa t?}? Aeo~/3ov ra voTMorara Keipuevov iv 
Trj Kavaict' avrrj Be fie)(pi rcov 'Apyivovao-cov 
BurjKei Kal tt)? birepKeipbev^ d/cpas, r\v Alyd * rives 
ovofxa^ovaiv o/jlwvv/jlcos t£> £a>&r Bel Be /ma/cpco*; 
rrjv Bevrepav avXXaftrjv i/c<f)epeiv Alydv, 2 &>9 
*Afcrdv Kal ' * Apydv ovrco yap teal to opos oXov 
cDVOfid^ero, o vvv Kdvrjv Kal K.dva<; Xeyovai. 
kvkXw Be irepl rb opos irpbs vorov fiev Kal Bvaiv 
r) OdXarra, 7T/30? ew Be rb KaiKov ireBiov vtto- 
Keirai, TTpb? dpKrov Be rj 'EXam?* avrb Be Kad' 
avTo iKavoos o-vvearaXraL, irpoavevec Be eVl to 
Alyalov ireXayos, odev avra> Kal rovvofia' 3 vare- 

1 Instead of A'iya, D reads Alya, hoz Alyav, Epit. Alya, 
Meineke Alydv. 

2 Alydv Ez ; so Meineke and Leaf. 

3 Leaf brackets the words varepov . . . Kdvai. 



1 i.e. Atf, "goat." 
132 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 67-68 

Poseidonius says that in Iberia he saw bricks moulded 
from a clay-like earth, with which silver is cleaned, 
and that they floated on water. After Pitane one 
comes to the Caicus River, which empties at a 
distance of thirty stadia into the Elaitic Gulf, as 
it is called. On the far side of the Caicus, twelve 
stadia distant from the river, is Elaea, an Aeolic 
city, which also is a seaport of the Pergamenians, 
being one hundred and twenty stadia distant from 
Pergamum. 

68. Then, at a distance of a hundred stadia, one 
comes to Cane, the promontory which rises opposite 
Lectum and forms the Adramyttene Gulf, of which 
the Elaitic Gulf is a part. Canae is a small town 
of Locrians from Cynus, and lies in the Canaean 
territory opposite the southernmost ends of Lesbos. 
This territory extends as far as the Arginussae 
Islands and the promontory above them, which 
some call Aega, making it the same as the word 
for the animal ; * but the second syllable should be 
pronounced long, that is, "Aega," like Acta and 
Archa, for Aega used to be the name of the whole 
of the mountain which is now called Cane or Canae. 
The mountain is surrounded on the south and west 
by the sea, and on the east by the plain of the 
Caicus, which lies below it, and on the north by 
the territory of Elaea. This mountain forms a fairly 
compact mass off to itself, though it slopes towards 
the Aegaean Sea, whence it got its name. 2 Later 

1 It is not clear in the Greek whether Strabo says that the 
Aegean Sea got its name from Aega or vice versa. Elsewhere 
(8. 7. 4) he speaks of "Aegae in Boeotia, from which it is 
probable that the Aegean Sea got its name." 

133 



STRABO 

pov Be clvto to d/cpwTijptov Alya 1 /ce/eXfjaOai, 2 
a>9 "Zcnrefxo cjir/aiv, 3 to Be Xolttov Kdvr) zeal 
Kdvcu. 

69. Merafu Be 'EA,ata? re teal Ucrdvr]<; /ecu 
'Arapveays zeal Hepyd/iov TevOpavia iari, Bie- 
"Xpvaa ovBefiias avTwv virep e^Bofiy/covTa araBiov; 
evrb<s tov Kat/cov, teal 6 TevOpas YLiXl/cwv koX 
Mvacov laropTjrai ftaaiXevs. EvpnrLBrjs B' viro 
'AXeov 4 (f>7)al, tov rrj<i Avyr]<; irarpo^, eU Xdpva/ca 
ttjv Avyrjv KarareOeLaav dfia ra> ttcliBI Tr)Xe<f)G) 
Kara7rovTa)0i]vai, (frwpdaavTOS ttjv e'f 'Hpa/cXeovs 
(pOopdv 'A07]i>a<; Be irpovoia tt)V Xdpva/ca irepatw- 
Oeicrav e/areaelv et? to aro/ia tov Kat/cov, tov Be 
TevOpavTa, dvaXaftovTa tcl ado/iaTa, ttj fiev a>9 
yafieTf} XprfaacrOcu, tw 6° &>? kavTOv TraiBL tovto 
jxev ovv /jlv6o<?, aXXrjv Be tivcl Bel yey ovevai ctvvtv- 
%tai>, Bt rjv 7) tov 'ApxdBos OvyaTrjp tg> Mvaa>v 
/SaaiXel avvijXOe real 6 ef avTrjs BieBe^aTO ttjv 
e/ceivov fiacnXeiav. ireTTiGTevTai 6" ovv, oti ical 
o Tevflpa? /cal 6 TrfXecfros eftaaiXevaav t?}? ydtpas 
t??? irepl tt)v Tevdpaviav /ecu tov Kditcov, 6 Be 
7roir)TT)<; iirl toctovtov jne/xvrjTaL fiovov Tr;<? iaTopias 

TaVTT)?' 

aXX* olov tov TijXecpiBrjv /caTevrjpaTO ^aX/ca> 
r/pay EvpvirvXov, TroXXol h7 dp,<§> clvtov eTalpoi 
K.t]Tecoi KT61VOVTO yvvaiwv ecve/ca Bcopwv 

C 616 atviyfia TtOel? tj/jllv /.idXXov rj Xeycov tl aafyh. 

x Alya, Meineke, for Alya DE, Alya other MSS. 
8 For K€K\r)(rdai Miiller-Diibner write e/oVrjtfy. 
3 <p7)<rty, after 2air<pw, moz insert ; but Meineke, following 
conj. of Kramer, omits ws 2ott0c6. 

134 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 68-69 

the promontory itself was called Aega, as in Sappho, 1 
but the rest was called Cane or Canae. 

69. Between Elaea, Pitane, Atarneus, and Per- 
gamum lies Teuthrania, which is at no greater 
distance than seventy stadia from any of them and 
is this side the Ca'icus River ; and the story told 
is that Teuthras was king of the Cilicians and 
Mysians. Euripides 2 says that Auge, with her 
child Telephus, was put by Aleus, her father, into 
a chest and submerged in the sea when he had 
detected her ruin by Heracles, but that by the 
providence of Athena the chest was carried across 
the sea and cast ashore at the mouth of the Ca'icus, 
and that Teuthras rescued the prisoners, and treated 
the mother as his wife and the child as his own son. 3 
Now this is the myth, but there must have been 
some other issue of fortune through which the 
daughter of the Arcadian consorted with the king of 
the Mysians and her son succeeded to his kingdom. 
It is believed, at any rate, that both Teuthras and 
Telephus reigned as kings over the country round 
Teuthrania and the Ca'icus, though Homer goes 
only so far as to mention the story thus : " But 
what a man was the son of Telephus, the hero 
Eurypylus, whom he slew with the bronze; and 
round him were slain many comrades, Ceteians, on 
account of a woman's gifts." 4 The poet thus sets 
before us a puzzle instead of making a clear state- 
ment ; for we neither know whom we should under- 

1 A fragment otherwise unknown (Bergk Frag. 131). 

* Fray. 696 (Nauck). 3 Cf. 12. 8. 2, 4. * Odyssey 11. 521. 

4 'h\4ov, Xylander, for 'A\dvov F, 'AKalov other MSS. ; so 
the Liter editors. 

135 



STRABO 

ovre yap rovs KrjTeiovs la/uuev, ovarivas Be^aoOai 
Bel, ovre to yvvaicov eive/ca Bcopwv dXXa teal ol 
ypa/jL/jLaTiKoi pvddpia TrapaftdXXovTes evpeaiXo- 
y oven pdXXov f) Xvovcri rd £v T01J f JL€va " 

70. y Ejdcr0(M) Br] ravra, itcelvo B\ oirep ecrri 
paXXov iv (pavepca, Xaftovres Xeycopev, oti iv 
Tot? irepl tov Kdi/eov tottol*; (fralvercu /3e/3acri,- 

\eVK(C<$ /COLO* "Op,7]pOV 6 KvpUTTVXoS, COCTT* l(TG)<Z 

real roiv KlXlkcdv tv pepo? rjv xjtt avrw, kcu ov 
Bvo Bvvaarelai povov, dXXd /cal Tpels virijp^ap 
iv aurot?. to) Be Xoyq) tovtw avvijyopei to iv 
tji 'EXaiVfSt xeipappcoSes iroTapnov BeLtcvvcrQai 
KrjTeiov ipLTTLirret B } outo? e/? dXXov 6p,owv, 
elr dXXov, tcaTaaTpecj) overt Be et? rov Kdiicov 6 
Be Kdi/cos ovk dirb T779 "IBrjs pel, tcaOdirep eiprj/ce 
BaK^vXiBrj<i ) ovB y 6p9a)<$ 1 FtVpLTTiBr)? rov Mapervav 
(prjal 

Ta? Bi(ovopiao-pLeva<; 
vaieiv KeXaiva? io-%dTOi<; "I87;? tottois' 

ttoXv yap t>}? V IS?7? duusQev at KeXaivai, ttoXv 
Be teal at rov YLaticov ir^yai' Beifcvvvrai yap iv 
ireBicp. Tf/pvov 2 8' iariv opo<$, b Biopi^ei tovto 
T€ Kai to KaXovpevov 'A7rta? ireBLov, virepiceiTai 
iv ttj peaoyaia rov ©^77? ttcBlov pel 8* ck tov 
Tijpvov 2 Trorapbs Muctjo?, ipftdXXcov el$ tov 
Kdircov virb tcu? Trrjyal? avTOV, a^>' ov BexovTai 

1 oi/5' bp6u>t, Jones, iovobx^s F, ot>& other MSS. ; otir' opOws 
conj. Meineke ; Groskurd conj. otfr' a\r)8u>s. Kramer would 
omit the negative before wj. 

2 Ttiupov, Xylander, for T?ikvov. 

3 rov Tt)/avov, Xylander, for rov T-f)Kvov Dhimoz, twv T-ffKVwv 
CFrwx. 

136 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 69-70 

stand the poet to mean by the "Ceteians" nor 
what he means by "on account of the gifts of a 
woman" j 1 but the grammarians too throw in petty 
myths, more to show their inventiveness than to 
solve questions. 

70. However, let us dismiss these; and let us, 
taking that which is more obvious, say that, according 
to Homer, Eurypylus clearly reigned in the region of 
the Caicus, so that perhaps a part of the Cilicians 
were subject to him, in which case there were three 
dynasties among them and not merely two. 2 This 
statement is supported by the fact that there is to 
be seen in the territory of Elaea a torrential stream 
called the Ceteius ; this empties into another like it, 
and this again into another, and they all end in the 
Caicus. But the Caicus does not flow from Ida, as 
Bacchylides 3 states ; neither is Euripides 4 correct 
in saying that Marsyas "dwells in widely-famed 
Celaenae, in the farthermost region of Ida " ; for 
Celaenae is very far from Ida, and the sources of the 
Caicus are also very far, for they are to be seen in 
a plain. Temnus is a mountain which forms the 
boundary between this plain and the Plain of Apia, 
as it is called, which lies in the interior above the 
Plain of Thebe. From Temnus flows a river called 
Mvsius, which empties into the Caicus below its 
sources ; and it was from this fact, as some interpret 

1 On the variant myths of Auge and Telephus see Eusta- 
thius (note on Od., I.e.) ; also Leaf's note and references (p. 
340). 

» Cf. 13. 1. 7, 67. 

* A fragment otherwise unknown (Bergk 66). 

* Fray. 1085 (Nauck). 



137 



STRABO 

rive? elirelv AlaxvXov Kara r-qv elaftoXrjv rod 
iv M.vp/j,iB6(TL irpoXoyov 

leu K.ditc€ MvaiaL r eirippoai. 

iyryvs Be TCOV TTr)yO)V KWflT} YkpyiOd l €<TTIV, €1? 
■)v fJ,€TQ)KMT€P "ATTaXo? TOl>? Iv T7J TpO)dBl, TO 

%a)piov egeXcov. 



II 

1. 'E-Trei 2 Be rfj rrapaXia ry diro AeKTOv p^e\pi 
Kavwv dvTLTrapareTarai vr/ao? fj Aeo-/3o?, Xoyov 
d%La irXeicTTOv (irepi/ceLTai Be avrfj Kai vr)<jia, ra 
fiev ef;(o0€v, ra Be koX ev tg) 3 /jLerajjv avrrj^ re 
Kai tt}? rjireipov), Kaipbs r)Br) Trepl tovtcov elirelv' 
kcu yap ravrd eariv AIoXlku, cr^eBbv Be rt Kai 
fjLT)Tp6iroki<; 7] AeV/3o? virdp^ei tcjv AloXikwv 
iroXewv. dpKreov 5' d(f> oyvirep Kai rrjv irapaXiav 
iirrjXOofiev rrjv Kar avrr/v. 

2. 'A7TO AcKTOV TOLVVV €7rl "AcTCTOV TrXeOUCTlV 

ap-%r) tt)$ Ae<x/3ta? ecrl Kara Liypiov to nrpbs 
dpKTOv avrrjv ciKpov. evrauOa Be ttov Kai 
^Ar)9vpiva ttoXl? Aeafi'uov ecrrlv diro e^Kovra 
(TraBlcov tt}<? ck UoXv/ir/Biov 7rpb<; ttjv "Aaaov 
irapaXLas. ovcni? Be rrj? Treptfierpov crTaBlwv 
^iXLwv eKarov, r/v fj crv/xTraaa eKTrXTjpol vr/aos, 
ra KaOeKaara ovtoi? ey^er dnro Miitfv/j,vr)<; et? 
MaXiav to voiiunaTOv aKpov ev Be%ia €%ovai 

1 r 'pyiBa, Corais, for YfpyriOa. 

2 lirel oz ; iiri other MSS. 
8 t$, Corais, for ttj. 

138 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 70-2. 2 

the passage, that Aeschylus x said at the opening of 
the prologue to the Myrmidons, " Oil ! thou Ca'icus 
and ye Mysian in-flows." Near the sources is a 
village called Gergitha, to which Attalus transferred 
the Gergithians of the Troad when he had destroyed 
their place. 



II 

1. Since Lesbos, an island worthy of a full account, 
lies alongside and opposite the coast which extends 
from Lectum to Canae, and also has small islands 
lying round it, some outside it and some between it 
and the mainland, it is now time to describe these ; 
for these are Aeolian, and I might almost say that 
Lesbos is the metropolis of the Aeolian cities. But 
I must begin at the point whence I began to traverse 
the coast that lies opposite the island. 

2. Now as one sails from Lectum to Assus, the 
Lesbian country begins at Sigrium, its promontory 
on the north. 2 In this general neighbourhood is 
also Methymna, a city of the Lesbians, sixty stadia 
distant from the coast that stretches from Poly- 
medium to Assus. But while the perimeter which 
is filled out by the island as a whole is eleven 
hundred stadia, the several distances are as follows : 
From Methymna to Malia, the southernmost 3 pro- 
montory to one keeping the island on the right, I 

1 Frag. 143 (Nauck). 

8 But Sigrium was the westernmost promontory of the 
island. 

8 More accurately, " southwesternmost." 

139 



STRABO 

617 rr)V vrjaov, /cad' o at Kdvai fxdXicrTa avriKecvrat 
tt) vi]GW Ka\ avvcnrapTi£ovcri, o-rdBioi elcri 
Tpicucbaioi rerrapaKOvra' evTevOev 8' errl ^Liypiov, 
oirep iarl tt)? vrjaov ro //.t)/co?, irevTaicoaioi 
e^7]KOvra' elr eVi ttjv M.rj0v/j,vav 1 Blclkoctioi 
Beica. MiTvXrfvT] Be (ceirai /nera^u M.rj0v/jLvr)<; teal 
tt)? MaXia? r) fjL€jL(XTr) ttoXis, Bte^ovaa tt}? 
MaAxa? efthofJLrjKovTa gtclBiovs, twv Be Kavwv 
i/carbv ei/coo-tv, ocrov? teal tmv 'Apyivovo~o-(ov, at 
Tpei? fiev elaiv ov fieydXaL vrjo-oi, irX^aid^ovci Be 
tt) rjireiprp, 7rapctK€L/jL€vai 2 Tat? KaVat?. iv Be 
T(p [xera^v M.ltvXi]V7)<; koi tt)? M.r)0v/jivr)<; Kara 
Kcofirjv tt)? M.7) 6 vjiv alas, kclXov p,evr\v Alyeipov, 
aTevcoTarf] earlv 77 vf)<ro<>, virepftacriv e^pvaa 
eh tov HvppaCcov JLvpnrov araBiayv elicoaiv. 
iBpvrai 6° 7) Uvppa iv ra> eairepia) irXevpat tt)? 
AeajSov, Biexovo~a tt)? MaXta? e/carov. e%et B' 77 
MiTvXrjvr) Xipueva^ Bvo, &v 6 votlo? ic\euTTO<; 
rpirjpifcos 3 vaval TrevTrjrcovTa, 6 Be fiopeios /xeya? 
kcl\ /3a9v$, yoopLdTi aKe7ra%6/±evo<;' irpoKetrai B 1 
a/i(f)oiv vqaiov, fiipo? tt)? TroAea)? eyov clvtoOi 
crvvoiKOVfjuevov' /carecrKevaarai Be to£? ttolgi 
tcaXa><;. 

3. "AvBpa? 8' eayev evBo^ov?, to iraXaibv fiev 
UtrraKov, eva t<ov eirra o-o^>(ov, kcl\ tov iroirjrrjv 
'AX/calov teal tov aBeX<f)bv ' AvTi/jLevLBav, ov (jyrjcnv 
'AX/cato? T$a/3vX(i)vloi<i avpLfiaxovvTa TeXeaai 

1 M^Bv/nvav, Kramer, for My6vfiva(av. 

2 86, after irapaiceifxevai, omitted by moz and ejected by 
Corais and later editors. 

3 Tpi7]pii<6s, Meineke, for rpi-fipeiical. Wesseling conj. 

140 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 2. 2-3 

mean at the point where Canae lies most directly 
opposite the island and precisely corresponds with 
it, the distance is three hundred and forty stadia ; 
thence to Sigrium, which is the length of the island, 
five hundred and sixty ; and then to Methymna, two 
hundred and ten. 1 Mitylene, the largest city, lies 
between Methymna and Malia, being seventy stadia 
distant from Malia, one hundred and twenty from 
Canae, and the same distance from the Arginussae, 
which are three small islands lying near the mainland 
alongside Canae. In the interval between Mitylene 
and Methymna, in the neighbourhood of a village 
called Aegeirus in the Methymnaean territory, the 
island is narrowest, with a passage of only twenty 
stadia over to the Euripus of the Pyrrhaeans. 
Pyrrha is situated on the western side of Lesbos at 
a distance of one hundred stadia from Malia. Mity- 
lene has two harbours, of which the southern can 
be closed and holds only fifty triremes, but the 
northern is large and deep, and is sheltered by a 
mole. Off' both lies a small island, which contains 
a part of the city that is settled there. And the 
city is well equipped with everything. 

3. Mitylene has produced famous men : in early 
times, Pittacus, one of the Seven Wise Men ; and 
the poet Alcaeus, and his brother Antimenidas, who, 
according to Alcaeus, won a great struggle when 
fighting on the side of the Babylonians, and rescued 

1 The total, 1110, being ten more than the round number 
given above. 



Tpiripucbs kolI vavaraQfxov, the complete phrase found in 14. 
2. 15. 

141 



STRABO 

fieyav dOXov teal etc irovatv clvtov<; pvaaadat, 
KreivavTCL 

dvBpa /uaxaLTav, ftaaiXijiov 1 
waXaardv 2 (w? (f>rjai) airoXeiirovTa 3 fiovov 

fjbiav 4 
iraxiwv airv irepnratv. 5 

orvvriKfiacre Be tovtois teal r) ^aTrefxo, Oavfiaarov 
tl xprifxa' ov yap iap,ev ev rw to<tovtg> %p6v(p rep 
/jLvr]/jLOJ>evofjLevq) (paveladv riva yuvaltea evdfiLXXov, 
ovBe teard pLitcpov, eteeivrj iroirjaeax; yjipiv. erv- 
pavvrjOrj Be r} 7roA/? teard toi)? xpovov? tovtovs 
vttq irXeiovcov Bid Ta? Bi^oenaaia^, teal rd 

(TTCUTUOTlKd teaXnvp,Gva TOV ' AX/CCLLOV ITOL^/XaTa 

irepl tovtcov ecniv ev Be Tot? rvpdvvois teal 6 
IIiTTa/cbs eyeveTO. 'AXteaios fxev ovv o/W<w? 
eXoiBopelro teal tovtw teal Tot? aXXois, ^IvpcriXto 
teal MeXdyxpw 6 teal roh KXeavaKriBai* teal 
aXXois Ttaiv, ouS' auTO? tcaOapeixov rcov roiovrcov 
vea)repia/jLO)u. HiTrateo? 8' et? fiev Ti]v twv Bvva- 
areicov teardXvaiv e^p^aaro rfj ^ovap^la teal 
airro?, tearaXvaas Be direBcoKe T)jv avrovo/iiav rf) 
iroXei. varepov 8' eyevero j(p6voi,$ iroXXoh 
AiO(f)dvr]s 6 pijrcop' teaO* f/yu-a? Be llord/Kov teal 
Aea/3oteX?)<; teal Kpivayopas teal 6 a vyy pacpevs 
®eo(f>dvr)<;. ovro? Be teal ttoXltlko^ dvrjp vTTijpge 
teal Ylofiirrjirp rw ^Idyvcp tearearrj <f)iXo<;, fxdXiara 
Bid rrjv dperrjv avr/jv, teal Trdcras avyteaToopdcoaev 

1 8aa-i\r]iov, 0. Miiller (quoted by Bergk, who prefers 
f}aai\r){'jov), for /3a<nA7}a>»/. 

2 iraXaGTav \)¥hi and Kramer {naAaarav Meineke) ; ira\a( 
arav other MSS. 

I 4 2 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 2. 3 

them from their toils by killing "a warrior, the royal 
wrestler" (as he says), "who was but one short of 
five cubits in height." 1 And along with these 
flourished also Sappho, a marvellous woman ; for in 
all the time of which we have record I do not know 
of the appearance of any woman who could rival 
Sappho, even in a slight degree, in the matter of 
poetry. The city was in those times ruled over by 
several tyrants because of the dissensions among 
the inhabitants ; and these dissensions are the sub- 
ject of the Stasiotic 2 poems, as they are called, of 
Alcaeus. And also Pittacus 3 was one of the 
tyrants. Now Alcaeus would rail alike at both 
Pittacus and the rest, Myrsilus and Melanchrus 
and the Cleanactidae and certain others, though 
even he himself was not innocent of revolu- 
tionary attempts ; but even Pittacus himself used 
monarchy for the overthrow of the oligarchs, and 
then, after overthrowing them, restored to the city its 
independence. Diophanes the rhetorician was born 
much later ; but Potamon, Lesbocles, Crinagoras, and 
Theophanes the historian in my time. Theophanes 
was also a statesman ; and he became a friend to 
Pompey the Great, mostly through his very ability, 
and helped him to succeed in all his achievements ; 

1 Frag. 33 (Bergk). a Seditious. 

3 Reigned 589-579 b.o. 

8 air o\e lit out a, Miiller, for airoAnrSvTa ; so Kramer and 
Meineke. 

4 filav, Miiller, for aviav ; so Kramer and Meineke. 

5 airv -neixirvv (airuire/xTrwv F), Miiller, for airoTre/nrwy ; SO 
Kramer and Meineke. 

6 Me\dyxpy, Groskurd and other editors, for MekdvSpy F, 
Meya\oyvpy other MSS. 

143 



STRABO 

avT(p ra<; irpd^ei^' a<f> wp rr)V re irarpiBa 
eKoa/Ji^ae ra /jlcv 6Y itcelvov, ra Be oY eavrov, teal 
C 618 eavrbv irdvrwv royv 'EtXXtfvcov einfyavecrrarov 
dveBei^ev vlov re aTreXnre Mdp/cov Ylop,Trr}iov, 
ov t?)? 'Acta? eirirpoirov Karecrrrjae irore Kalaap 
o 2e/3acrTO?, teal vvv ev roU irpcorois e^erd^erat 
rcov Tiftepiov (f>i\o)v. 'AOyvaloi 8' etcivBvvevcav 
fiev dv7]K6<TT(p yjroyw Trepiireaelv, yjn](f>t,adpevoi 
MnvXrji'aLows f)/3*]8bv (i7TO(T(payfjvac, fiereyvwaav 
Be, teal e<f)9rj pud Odrrov r)p,epa rb yjrrjcfaHTfia 
dcfuy/juevov oj? Tou? o-Tparrjyovs irpiv rj irpd^ai rb 
irpoarayQev. 

4. 'H he Ylvppa k ar ear pair rai, rb Be irpodo-- 
reiov oltcelrai teal e%ei Xipueva, oOev eh MirvXt]- 
vr)v vTrepftams (rraBicov dyhoij/eovra. elr 'Epecr- 
aos ecrn puerd rrjv Uuppav iBpvrai 8' eirl X6(f>ov 
(caOrjteet, re eirl OdXarrav elr* em rb %(y piov 
evrevOev ardBioi elteoaioterd)' ef 'Epeo-aov 8' 
rjdav ®e6<j)paarr6<; re koX Qavias, ol etc rcov 
TrepcTrdrcov (piXoaocpoi, ' ApicrroreXov^ yvwpipoi. 
Tvprapos 8' eteaXelro epnrpoaOev 6 (Beocppaaros, 
puercovopaae 8' avrbv ' AptaroreXrjs %eb$pa<jrov, 
dfxa /xev cpevycov rrjv rov irporepov ovo/jlcltos 
kcucojhoviclv, dpua Be rbv t% (fypdaeco? avrov 
t,rfXov iTTMTii/xaivo/jievos- diravra^ pkv yap Xoytovs 
€ttol7)(T€ toi>9 fiaOrjras ' ApiaroreXr]^, Xoyidorarov 
Be Se6<j)pa(TTov. " ' Avriaaa 8' €</)ef^9 earl rat 
Xiypico 7roXt?, exovaa Xipeva' erretra MrjOvpva, 
evrevOev 8' r)v 'Apicov 6 eirl rco BeXcfrlvi pvOevo- 
fievos virb rcov irepl 'HpoBorov eh Taivapov 
crayOrjvai, tear airovrcoO els virb rcov Xrjcrrcov' ovto? 
fxevovv taOapwBos* teal Tep7rav8pov Be rfj? avrf/s 
144 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 2. 3-4 

whence he not only adorned his native land, parity 
through Pompey and partly through himself, but 
also rendered himself the most illustrious of all the 
Greeks. He left a son, Marcus Pompey, whom 
Augustus Caesar once set up as Procurator of Asia, 
and who is now counted among the first of the 
friends of Tiberius. The Athenians were in danger 
of suffering an irreparable disgrace when they voted 
that all Mitylenaeans from youth upwards should be 
slain, but they changed their minds and their counter- 
decree reached the generals only one day before the 
order was to be executed. 

4. Pyrrha has been rased to the ground, but its 
suburb is inhabited and has a harbour, whence there 
is a passage of eighty stadia over hills to Mitylene. 
Then, after Pyrrha, one comes to Eressus ; it is 
situated on a hill and extends down to the sea. 
Then to Sigrium, twenty-eight stadia from Eressus. 
Both Theophrastus and Phanias, the peripatetic 
philosophers, disciples of Aristotle, were from 
Eressus. Theophrastus was at first called Tyrtamus, 
but Aristotle changed his name to Theophrastus, at 
the same time avoiding the cacophony of his former 
name and signifying the fervour of his speech ; for 
Aristotle made all his pupils eloquent, but Theo- 
phrastus most eloquent of all. Antissa, a city with a 
harbour, comes next in order after Sigrium. And 
then Methymna, whence came Arion, who, accord- 
ing to a myth told by Herodotus and his followers, 
safely escaped on a dolphin to Taenarum after being 
thrown into the sea by the pirates. Now Arion 
played, and sang to, the cithara ; and Terpander, 



U5 



STRABO 

/Aovaifcrjs re^viTrjv yeyovevai <f>acrl real t?}? ciut?}? 
vtjaov, top 7rp(OT0V dvrl rf}? rerpa^opBov Xvpa? 
eirraxopBas xprjo-dpevov KaQdirep /cal ev tois 
dvacpepopevois eireaiv eh avrbv Xeyerat' 

aol o° fjfJLels T€Tpdyr)pvv diro(T7pey\ravTe<$ ctoiBqv, 
kiTTaTOVto <f>6ppiyyi veov<; KeXaBrjaop^v vpvovs. 

/cal 'EiWdviKO? Be Aeo-/3*o? avyypacpevs kcl\ 
KaXXta? 6 rrjv Scnrtycb kcu top 'AXrcalov iljyyi]- 
adpevo*;. 

5. Kara Be rbv iropOpbv rbv fiera^v rfjs 
*Acrta? teal t?)? Aeafiov vrjala icrrl irepl eitcoviv, 
to? Be Tc/xoaOev))^ (pijcri, TerrapaKovra' rcaXovvrai 
B' 'EfcarovPTjcroi avvOeToos, a>? HeXoTrovvrjaos, 
Kara Wos ri rod N ypdp/jLaros irXeovd^ovTO<i ev 

T069 TOfOUTOi?, &>9 MvOVVT](TO<; KOL UpOfCOVV7](TO<; 

Xeyerai /cal ' AXovvycro^, ware 'Rfcarovvrjo-oi 
ela iv, olov ' A.TroWwv6vvrj(7oi, "E/eaTo? yap 6 
'AttoXXoov irapa iraaav yap Brj rrjv irapaXiav 
Tavrifv o 'AttoXXcov eKreTLprjTai, p-ey^pi TeveBov, 
"S/Mi'Oevs rj KiXXalos tcaXovpevos r) Fpvvevs rj 
riva dXXrjv eirwvvfiLav e^cov. TrXrjaiov Be tovtcov 
earl Kalr) liopBoaeXrjvi), 1 iroXiv o/juovv/aov eyovaa 
C 619 ev avrfj' ko\ nrpb tt)? 7ro\ea>? ravrrj<; aXXr) vrjcro^ 2 
fiei^cov avrPjs 6pcovvp.o$, eprjpos, lepbv dyiov eyovaa 
AtioXXgovos. 

6. T«? Be Bva^rpxia^ rwv ovopdrcov (frevyovres 3 
rives evravOa ixev HopoaeX^vrjv Belv Xeyecv (paai, 
rb 8' ' AairopByvov opos rb irepl Uepya/Jiop, rpa^y 

1 Instead of Uop^o<reXijuT], Dhirwxz read Uap^oaX-iivri. 

2 tr6\is (tt6\t)s F) after vr/a-os, Jones ejects, following conj. 
of Kramer and C. Miiller. 

146 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 2. 4-6 

also, is said to have been an artist in the same 
music and to have been born in the same island, 
having been the first person to use the seven- 
stringed instead of the four-stringed lyre, as we are 
told in the verses attributed to him : " For thee I, 
having dismissed four-toned song, shall sing new 
hymns to the tune of a seven-stringed cithara." 1 
Also Hellanicus the historian, and Callias, who 
interpreted Sappho and Alcaeus, were Lesbians. 

5. In the strait between Asia and Lesbos there 
are about twenty small islands, but according to 
Timosthenes, forty. They are called Hecatonnesi, 
a compound name like Peloponnesus, the second 
letter n being customarily redundant in such com- 
pounds, as in the names Myonnesus, Proconnesus, 
and Halonnesus ; and consequently we have Heca- 
tonnesi, which means Apollonnesi, for Apollo is 
called Hecatus ; for along the whole of this coast, 
as far as Tenedos, Apollo is highly honoured, being 
called Sminthian or Cillaean or Grynian or by some 
other appellation. Near these islands is Pordose- 
lene, which contains a city of the same name, and 
also, in front of this city, another island, larger and 
of the same name, which is uninhabited and has a 
temple sacred to Apollo. 

6. Some writers, to avoid the indecency of the 
names, say that in this place we should read u Poro- 
selene," and that we should call Aspordenum, the 
rocky and barren mountain round Pergamum, 
u Asporenum," and the temple of the Mother of the 

1 Frag. 5 (Bergk). 

3 (peiyovTcs, Corais, for <pvy6vres ; so the later editors. 

147 



STRABO 

real Xvirpbv 6v, 'Acnroprjvov, 1 real rb lepbv rb 
ivravda tt}? M^Tpo? rcov Oecov ' Ao~Tropr)vri<$. 2 ri ovv 
cprjcrofiev rrjv UopBaXiv real rbv ^airepBrjv real rbv 
UepBirereav real rb Ii/jlcoviBov 

ctvv iropBareoltriv ereirecrovre^ e'tfjunriv 9 

dvrl rod Bta^po^oi';, real iv rfj apyaiq ttov 
recoficoBla 

iropBarebv rb ^coplov, 

rb Xi/xva^ov ; Bie%€(, 8* 77 AeoySo? to icrov dirb 
W79 TeviSov real Atj/jlvov real Xlov a^eBov ri rcov 
irevrareoalcov ivBorepco arraBicov. 



Ill 

1. TofauT?79 Be rr}<; 7rpo? tou? Tpcoas olreeio- 
Tr;TO? virapypvo"r)<i rol<$ re AeXefy real rois KiXi^t,, 
^rjrovcnv air lav, 81 r)v ov crvyrearaXeyovrat real 
ovroi iv rco rearaXoyco. el/eb? Be Bid rrjv rcov 
rjyefiovcov SiacpOopdv real rrjv rcov woXecov 
ircTropOjjcriv oXiyov? v7roXei<j>0evra<; tou? KtXt/ca? 
wo rco "E/eropL rdrrecrdar 6 re yap 'Herlcov 
real ol iral$e$ avrov Xeyovrai irpb rod rearaXoyov 
BiafyOaprjvai' 

ijrot, /xev rrarep d/jibv 4 dnererave Bios 'A^\- 

Xevs, 
ere Be ttoXiv irepaev K.iXirecov, 
®r\ISr)v v-tylTTvXov. 



Instead of 'AavSprjvov, F reads 'Aa-irp^Kvov, oz 'Aairopivoy. 

' h.OVQt>itrnS oz. 



148 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 2. 6-3. 1 

gods there the temple of the " Asporene " mother. 1 
What, then, shall we say of Pordalis and Saperdes 
and Perdiccas, and of the phrase of Simonides, 
" banished, ' pordacian ' clothes and all," instead of 
"wet" clothes, and, somewhere in the early comedy, 
"the place is 'pordacian,*" that is, the place that 
is " marshy " ? Lesbos is equidistant from Tenedos 
and Lemnos and Chios, one might say rather less 
than five hundred stadia. 



Ill 

1. Since the Leleges and the Cilicians were so 
closely related to the Trojans, people inquire for the 
reason why they are not included with the Trojans 
in the Catalogue. But it is reasonable to suppose 
that because of the loss of their leaders and the 
sacking of their cities the few Cilicians that were 
left were placed under the command of Hector, 
for both Eetion and his sons are said to have 
been slain before the Catalogue : 2 " Verily my father 
was slain by the goodly Achilles, who utterly sacked 
the city of Cilicians, Thebe of the lofty gates. 

1 i.e. they avoid "pord," which, as also "perd," is the 
stem of an indecent Greek word. 

■ i. e. before the marshalling of the troops as described in 
the Catalogue. 

• tlfxaaiv, Tyrwhitt, for '1/j.aaiv ; so the later editors. 

* hfx6y, Xylander, for 4fi6v ; so the later editors. 

149 



STRABO 

ot Be pot €7rra /cacriyvrjTOi eaav iv peyapoicnv, 
ol /lev Trdvres lot klov rjpari "AiSo? etcrw 
7rdvra<; yap Karerrecpve TroBdp/crjs 8io? *A^\- 
Xevs. 

a>5 $ avrcos /cal ol vtto ^Avvqri tou? re rjyepovas 
d7ro/3e/3Xr)Kao~i /cal rr)v ttoXlv 

xaB* 8e Mvvrjr e/3aXe /cal 'ETrtarpo^ov, 
rrepaev Be ttoXlv Oeioio Mui^to?. 

tovs Be AeXeyas tols pev dyaxri irapovra^ ttolcl, 
otclv ovrco Xeyrj' 

irpos p,ev akos Kdpes /cal Uaioves dy/cvXorogoi 

teal AeX-e^e? /cal Kav/ccove?' 

ical TrdXiv 

'Zdrviov ovraae Bovpl 
OlvoiriBrjv, bv dpa vvpfyr) re/ce N^i? dpvpLwv 
OXvottl ftov/coXeovri trap oyQas 'ZaTPioevros. 

ov yap ovtcos e^eXeXoiireaav reXeco^, ware pur) 
/cal Ka6 avrovs eyeiv re avarr]p / a t are rov 
j3aaiXea)<; avrcov eri TrepLovjos, 

"AXreco, o? AeXeyecrcn (f)iXo7rroXepLOiat,v dvaaaei, 

teal rr}<z TroXecos ov TeXeo)? r)(pavLcrp,evT)<;' eirufiepei 
yap 

TIijBao~ov alir^eacrav eywv eirl l Xarvioevri. 

C 620 iv pevroi rw /caraXoya) irapaXeXonrev avrovs, 
ovx licavov r)yovpevo<; to crvo-rrjpa, covr iv 
tcaraXoya) rdrreaOai, r) ical 2 virb to? "E/cropi /cal 
tovtov? avy/caraXeycov, ovtcos oWa? oltcelovs. 
6 yap Av/cdcov <f>7)crlv } dBeXcpos cbv f 'E/CTopo^' 

150 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 3. 1 

And the seven brothers of mine in our halls, all 
these on the same day * went inside the home of 
Hades, for all were slain by swift-footed, goodly 
Achilles." 2 And so, in the same way, those subject 
to Myites lost both their leaders and their city : 
" And he laid low Mynes and Epistrophus, and 
sacked the city of godlike Mynes." 3 But he makes 
the Leleges present at the battles when he says as 
follows : " Towards the sea are situated the Carians 
and the Paeonians, with curved bows, and the 
Leleges and Caucones." * And again, "he pierced 
with his spear Satnius, son of Oenops, whom a 
noble Naiad nymph bore to Oenops, as he tended 
his herds beside the banks of the Satnioeis " ; 5 for 
they had not so completely disappeared that they 
did not have a separate organisation of their own, 
since their king still survived, "of Altes, who is lord 
over the war-loving Leleges," 6 and since their city 
had not been utterly wiped out, for the poet adds, 
"who holds steep Pedasus on the Satnioeis." 7 
However, the poet has omitted them in the Catalogue, 
not considering their organisation sufficient to have 
a place in it, or else including them under the com- 
mand of Hector because they were so closely related ; 

1 i.e. with Eetion. 2 Iliad 6. 414. 

3 Iliad 2. 692, 19. 296. 4 Iliad 10. 428. 

6 Iliad 14. 443. 6 Iliad 21. 86. 7 Iliad 21. 87. 

1 iirl, Corais, for \m6. 

2 Kal, before uxo, omitted by 0. 

151 



STRABO 



fjiivvvOdhiov Be fie /jitjrrjp 
yeivaro AaoOoy], duydrijp" AXrao yepovros, 
" AXrew, 05 AeXeyeacn <f)LXo7rToXe/j,OLo~iv dvda- 



ravra fiev ovv Toiavrrjv riva e\ei T V V ^Ikoto- 
Xoyiav. 

2. El/coToXoyelv B' earl, kolv el ris rov (iicpifty 
tyrel fcara rov 7T017]tt)v opuv, p-^x.9 1 T ^ 0< > oi 
KlXikcs Biereivov Kal oi UeXao-yol Kal en oi 
fiera^v tovtcov KijTeioi Xeyo/xevot, oi vtto ra> 
KvpvTTvXw. irepl fiev ovv rcbv KiXikoov Kal tmv 
vtt "EivpvTTvXw ra evovra eiprirai, Kal Store eVl x ra 
irepl rov Kcilkov fidXtaTa ireparovvrai. to 1/5 Be 
TleXaayovs evkoyov tovtois e<£ef?)? nOkvai ck re 
rcbv v(f) 'O/irjpov Xeyo/juevcov Kal €K rrj^ aAA,?/? 
iaiopia^. fiev yap ovtq) (frrjaiv 

f l7T7ro#oo? 5' aye cpvXa UeXaaywv ey^eo-i- 

fMopoov, 
T(ov, o'i Adptaav €pi,/3d)XaKa vaierdacTKOv' 
rcov rjpx 'IttttoOoos re UvXaios T o£os' , Apr)0<;, 
vie Bvco ArjOoto HeXacryov Tevra/xiBao. 

ei; wv 7rXr/06<; re ejx^aivei df*i6Xoyov to twv 
TLeXao-ycbv (ov yap <f>vXov, dXXa cpvXa ecf)Tj) Kal 
tt)V oIktjo-lv ev Aapiarj (ppd^ec. TroXXal pev ovv 
ai Adptaai, Bel Be rcov e'77^5 riva Be^aaOai, 
fxaXiara 8 av rr)v irepl Kv/j,r)v viroXajBoL ri<; 
opOeos' rpicov yap ovacov, 1) fiev Ka9' 'Afiatirbv ev 
oyfrei TeXeax? earl rw 'IXtw, Kal €77^? a<j)6Bpa ev 
Biatcoaioi? irov aTaSiois, cocr* ovk av Xeyoiro 

1 4*1, Meineke inserts. 
152 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 3. 1-2 

for Lycaon, who was a brother of Hector, says, * to a 
short span of life my mother, daughter of the old 
man Altes, bore me — Altes who is lord over the 
war-loving Leleges." l Such, then, are the proba- 
bilities in this matter. 

2. And it is also a matter of reasoning from prob- 
abilities if one inquires as to the exact bounds to 
which the poet means that the Cilicians extended, 
and the Pelasgians, and also the Ceteians, as they 
are called, under the command of Eurypylus, who 
lived between those two peoples. Now as for the 
Cilicians and the peoples under the command of 
Eurypylus, all has been said about them that can 
be said, and that their country is in a general way 
bounded by the region of the Cai'cus River. As for 
the Pelasgians, it is reasonable, both from the words 
of Homer and from history in general, to place them 
next in order after these peoples ; for Homer says 
as follows: "And Hippothous led the tribes of the 
Pelasgians that rage with the spear, them that dwelt 
in fertile Larisa ; these were ruled by Hippothous 
and Pylaeus, scion of Ares, the two sons of Pelasgian 
Lethus, son of Teutamus." 2 By these words he 
clearly indicates that the number of Pelasgians was 
considerable, for he says " tribes," not " tribe ; " and 
he also specifies their abode as " in Larisa." Now 
there are many Larisas, but we must interpret him 
as meaning one of those that were near ; and best of 
all one might rightly assume the one in the neigh- 
bourhood of Cyme ; for of the three Larisas the one 
near Hamaxitus was in plain sight of Ilium and very 
near it, within a distance of two hundred stadia, and 
therefore it could not be said with plausibility that 

* Iliad 21. 84. " Iliad 2. 840. 

VOL. VI. _ 153 



STRABO 

TTiOaVG)? 6 'ItTTToOoO^ 7T€(T€LV €V T& VTTCp Tla- 

TpotcXov dycovi 

tt}V curb Aapiar)?, 

ravT7]<; ye, dXXa /xaXXov t/}? irepl Kv/jltjv yiXioi 
yap 7rov aTciBioi peragv" rptrrf 8' earl Adpicra, 
KU)[xrj t?}? 'E</)6crta5 ev rq> KavaTpicp ireBlcp, r/v 
cf>aat iroXiv VTrdpfjac irporepov, eyovaav KaX lepbv 
'AttoXXcdvo? Aapiarjvov, TrXrjaid^ovaav rw Tp,d)X(o 
fiaXXov rj rf} 'E0e'o-&r ravrrj^ yap e/carbv ical 
oyhorjKovra Bte^ei araBlovs, ware vrrb rofc 
Myoaiv civ Tt? tcittol ravTrjv, 'JLcfreaioi B' 
av%i]6evTe<s varepov iroXXrjv t?}<? tcov ^Irjovcov, 
ou? vvv AvBovs (pa/jiev, direiepovTO, (bar ovB' 
avri] av 7) tcov UeXaaycov Adpiaa etrj, dXX 
etceivri puaXXov. teal yap t% p>ev ev rfj Kavarpiavfj 
Aapiarj? ovBev e^o/iev TeKfiripiov layypbv, ax? rjv 
tjBtj rore' ovBe yap t?}? 'EcfieaoV r>/? Be irepl rrjv 
C 621 Kvpui]v /naprvpiov eaTi Traaa rj AloXi/cr) laropia, 
piKpbv varepov tcov TpcoL/ccov yevopuevt). 

3. <£>aal yap tovs i/c tov <$>pifciov 1 tov vrrep 
^epfioirvXcov Aofcpi/cov opovs opfirjOevra^ Kara pat 

fieV 6i? TOV TOTTOV, OITOV VVV Tj Kv/JLTJ iaTL, 

KaTaXafiovTas Be tov$ UeXaayovs /ceKafca>/j.evov<; 
virb tov Tpciutcou iroXepov, KaTeypvras B' o/x&)? 
ctl tt)v Adpiaav Bte^ovaav tt}? Ku/x??? oaov 
e/3Bopjt]KOVTa aTaBlovs, eiriTeiyiaai avTOis to vvv 
en Xeyo/ievov Neoi> ret^o? dirb Tpidicovra araBlcov 
rrj<; Aaplarjs, eXovTas 2 Be KTiaai ttjv Kv/jltjv koX 
toi>? ireptyevofievov^ dvQ p'snrovs i/celae avoi/claar 

1 4k tov Qpiidov, Tyrwhitt, for eV r<? bpiidy ; so the later 
editors. 

^54 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 3. 2-3 

Hippothoiis fell in the fight over Patroclus "far 
away from " this " Larisa," but rather from the 
Larisa near Cyme, for the distance between the two 
is about a thousand stadia. The third Larisa is a 
village in the territory of Ephesus in the Cayster 
Plain ; it is said to have been a city in earlier 
times, containing a temple of Larisaean Apollo and 
being situated closer to Mt. Tmolus than to Ephesus. 
It is one hundred and eighty stadia distant from 
Ephesus, and might therefore be placed under the 
Maeonians. But the Ephesians, having grown in 
power, later cut off for themselves much of the 
territory of the Maeonians, whom we now call 
Lydians, so that this could not be the Larisa of the 
Pelasgians either, but rather the one near Cyme. 
In fact we have no strong evidence that the Larisa 
in the Cayster Plain was already in existence at that 
time, for w r e have no such evidence as to Ephesus 
either; but all Aeolian history, which arose but 
shortly after the Trojan times, bears testimony to 
the existence of the Larisa near Cyme. 

3. For it is said that the people who set out from 
Phricium, the Locrian mountain above Thermopylae, 
put in at the place where Cyme now is, and finding 
the Pelasgians in bad plight because of the Trojan 
War, though still in possession of Larisa, which was 
about seventy stadia distant from Cyme, built on 
their frontier what is still to-day called Neon 
Teichos, 1 thirty stadia from Larisa, and that, having 
captured Larisa, they founded Cyme and settled 
there the survivors. And Cyme is called Cyme 
\^"New wall." 

1 eAoVraj, Corais, Kramer/^aud^ Meineke, for i\66yras ; 
OLViKdovras Groskurd. 

155 



STRABO 

OLTTO Be TOV AoKplKOV 6pOV<$ T7)V T6 Kv/JL7]V 

QpLKcoPiSa KoXovaiv, ofjLoiws' Be /ecu ty)v Adpiaav 
eprjfxr] 6° earl vvv. on 8' oi YleXaayol fieya r)v 
eOvos, real e/c tt)? aXXr)<; iaropia^ ovtcos eKfiaprv- 
pelaOai 1 (f>aat' ^leve/tpdrr)? yovv 6 'EXatrrj^ ev 
roh irepl KTiaecov (frrjal ttjv irapaXiav rrjv vvv 
'lcovLKJjv iraaav, dnb Mv/cdXr}<; dpga/jLevrjv, virb 
HeXaaywv ol/ceiadai rrpbrepov ical Ta? ttXtjctlov 
vrjerov*;. AeafttOL B' virb UvXalay reTayQai Xe- 
yovai o~cf)d<;, ra> virb rov ttoltjtov Xeyofievw rebv 
YleXaayoiv ap^ovrc, a</>' ov teal rb irap avroh 
opos en HvXaiov tcaXeladai. icai Xlot Be olicujTd*; 
eavrcov YleXcuryovs (pavi toi/? eic Tijs ©eTTaXta?. 
ttoXvttXcivov Be real ra^v to eOvo? 7rpo? dira- 
vaaTd<T€i<;, 2 rjv^rjOrj re eirl iroXv teal ddpoav 
eXafte rrjv eteXei-tyiv, teal fidXiara Kara ttjv 
tcov AloXewv teal rwv 'Iwvcov irepalwaiv eh rr)v 
'Aaiav. 

4. *\Biov Be rt roh Aapi<raioi<; avve^t] roh 
re Kavarpiavoh 3 real roh Qpirecovevcn teal rplroLS 
roh eV ®eTTaXia % airavre^ yap iroTafib^warov 
rr)v xoopav eayov, oi /nev virb rov Kavarpov, oi 
S' virb rov "Ep/iov, oi 8' virb rov H^veiov. iv 
Be rfj QpitcwviBi Aapiarj TeTi/j,rja0ai Xeyerau 
IHacros, ov (paaiv dp^ovra HeXaaycov epaadrjvai 
Trjs Ovyarpbs Aapicrrj<;, ^laaafxevov B' avrr)v 
rZaai t/)? vftpeox; Bixrjv eytev^avra yap eh 
7ri0ov olvov tcara/iiaOovcrav tojv ateeXwv Xa/3o- 
/nevrjv e^apac koX teaOelvai avrbv eh rov ttlOov. 
ra fiev ovv dpyala TOiavra. 

1 T)hi read tovto iKjxcipTvprirrai. 

2 airavaardaets, Corais, for iTrai/aaTdcreis. 

'56 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 3. 3-4 

Phriconis after the Locrian mountain ; and likewise 
Larisa is called Larisa Phriconis ; but Larisa is now 
deserted. That the Pelasgians were a great tribe is 
said also to be the testimony of history in general : 
Menecrates of Elaea, at any rate, in his work On the 
Founding of Cities, says that the whole of what is now 
the Ionian coast, beginning at Mycale, as also the 
neighbouring islands, were in earlier times inhabited 
by Pelasgians. But the Lesbians say that their 
people were placed under the command of Pylaeus, 
the man whom the poet calls the ruler of the 
Pelasgians, 1 and that it is from him that the mountain 
in their country is still called Pylaeus. The Chians, 
also, say that the Pelasgians from Thessaly were 
their founders. But the Pelasgian race, ever 
wandering and quick to migrate, greatly increased 
and then rapidly disappeared, particularly at the time 
of the migration of the Aeolians and Ionians to Asia. 
4. A peculiar thing happened in the case of the 
Larisaeans, 1 mean the Caystrian and the Phryconian 
Larisaeans and, third, those in Thessaly : they all 
held land that was deposited by rivers, by the 
Cayster and by the Hermus and by the Peneius. It 
is at the Phryconian Larisa that Piasus is said to 
have been honoured, who, they say, was ruler of the 
Pelasgians and fell in love with his daughter Larisa, 
and, having violated her, paid the penalty for the 
outrage ; for, observing him leaning over a cask of 
wine, they say, she seized him by the legs, raised 
him, and plunged him into the cask. Such are the 
ancient accounts. 

1 Iliad 2. 842. 

* Instead of Kavarpiavois, GDYJiimoz read Kavo-rp-qvois, Fx 
Kauffr pivots. 

157 



STRABO 

5. Tat9 Be vvv AloXiKah iroXeaiv en real ras 
Alyas 1 TTpocrXri'TTTeov Kal rr)v Tt) jjlvov, oOev rjv 
'Ep/jLayopas 6 Ta? prjTOpLfca? ri)(ya<; crvyy pdyfra?' 
iBpvvrai 5' at iroXei^ avrai Kara rrjv opeivrjv 
rr)v VTrepfceifievrjv rr)<; re Ku//.ata? teal rr)<; 
QcoKaecov /ecu iLjAvpvaicov yrjs, Trap rjv 6 f/ E/3/ao? 
pec. ovk drrcoOev Be rovrcov rcov iroXecov ovB* 
r) Mayvrjcria early r) vtto ^lttvXco, eXevOepa 
7roX,£? vtto 'Pay/jLaiwv K€Kpi/j,evr). Kal ravrrjv B" 
eKaKcoaav ol vecocrrl yevo/xevot creio~/j.oL eh Be 
C 622 ravavrla rd eVt rbv K.d'i/cov vevovra dirb Aaplcrqs 
fiev Biafidvri rbv'Epfiov eh Kv/jltjv eftBo/ArjKOvra 
crrdBioi, evrevQev S' eh Mvpivav rerrapaKovra 
crrdBioi, to B* lctov evrevOev eh Vpvviov, tca/celOev 
eh 'EXaiav a>9 B' 'AprefiiBcopos, dirb tt)? 
K.v/jlt)<; elalv "ABai, elr a/epa fierd rerrapaKovra 
araBiovs, rjv KaXovcrcv f/ TBpav, r) iroiovaa rbv 
koXttov rbv 'RXairi/cbv Trpbs rrjv drrevavriov 
aicpav ' Apfiarovvra. rov /juev ovv arbfiaro^ rb 
irXdros irepl byBoijKOvra crraBLovs ecrriv, eyKoXnri- 
^ovn Be Mvpiva ev e^rjKovra araBLois, AloXh 
7roX.f? eypvaa Xi/ieva, elr ' Ayaicov Xi/jltJv, ottov 
ol ficofxol rcov BcoBeKa Oecov, elra ttoXi^vlov 
Tpvviov Kal lepbv 'AttoXXcovos kcl\ fiavrelov 
dpyalov Kal vecos TroXvreXr/S XiOou Xev/cov, 
araBcoi o° eV avrrjv rerrapaKovra- el0 y eftBofii}- 
Kovra eh 'EXaiav, Xifieva exovcrav /cal vavaraO- 
/xov rcov 'ArraXiKCJV fiaatXewv, MeveaOeco? 
/crio-fia Kal rcov crvv avrco ' AOrjvaicov rcov 
avarparevadvrcov eVl "YXiov. rd B' ef?)? elprjrai 
rd irepl Uirdvrjv Kal ' At apvea Kal raXXa rd 
ravrrj. 

. 5 8 ' 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 3. 5 

5. To the present Aeolian cities we must add 
Aegae, and also Temnus, the birthplace of Herma- 
goras, who wrote The Art of Rhetoric. These cities 
are situated in the mountainous country that lies 
above the territory of Cyme and that of the Phocians 
and that of the Smyrnaeans, along which flows the 
Hermus. Neither is Magnesia, which is situated 
below Mt. Sipvlus and has been adjudged a free 
city by the Romans, far from these cities. This city 
too has been damaged by the recent earthquakes. 
To the opposite parts, which incline towards the 
Cai'cus, from Larisa across the Hermus to Cyme*, the 
distance is seventy stadia ; thence to Myrina, forty 
stadia ; thence to Grynium, the same ; and from 
there to Elaea. But, according to Artemidorus, one 
goes from Cyme to Adae, and then, forty stadia 
distant, to a promontory called Hydra, which with 
the opposite promontory Harmatus forms the Elaitic 
Gulf. Now the width of the mouth of this gulf is 
about eighty stadia, but, including the sinuosities of 
the gulf, Myrina, an Aeolian city with a harbour, is at 
a distance of sixty stadia ; and then one comes to the 
Harbour of the Achaeans, where are the altars of 
the twelve gods ; and then to a town Grynium and 
an altar of Apollo and an ancient oracle and a costly 
shrine of white marble, to which the distance is forty 
stadia ; and then seventy stadia to Elaea, witli 
harbour and naval station belonging to the Attalic 
kings, which was founded by Menestheus and the 
Athenians who took the expedition with him to 
Ilium. I have already spoken of the places that 
come next, those about Pitane and Atarneus and 
the others in that region. 

1 Aiyas Dh. 

159 



STRABO 

6. Meyiarr) Se ean twv AIoXikwv teal apiary 
Kvfirj real ax^Bbv fiyrpo-rroXis avrrj re Kal r) 
Aecr/3o? rwv aXXcov iroXerov, irepl rpiaKovrd rrov 
rbv apiO/jiov, wv eKXeXoiiraa-Lv ovk oXuyai. 
crKcorrrerai £' eh avaiaOrjalav r) Kvp,rj Kara 
rotaurrjv nvd, co? <fiaaiv evioi, ho^av, on rpia- 
kogiois ereaiv varepov rrj<; KTiaews airehovro 
rov Xtfievos ra ri\r), nrporepov cV ovk ifcap7rovro 
rrjv rrpoaohov ravrrjv 6 Brjpos' Kareayev ovv 
&6tja, co? 6\jre r}o-07]/jLevo)v, on eiri BaXdrry nroXiv 
oIkol€p. ean Se icai aXXos Xoyos, on haveiad- 
p.evoi XPV/ jLara 8rjfioala ras crToa? vrreOevro, elr 
ovk dirohiBovres Kara rr)v ODpLa/nevrjv r)fiepav 
eipyovro rcop irepirrdrwy ore fievroL o/Jifipos elr), 
Kar alSco nva Ktjpvrroiev 01 haveiarai, KeXevovres 
inrb Ta? aroas vrrepyeaOai' rov 8rj KrjpvKos ovrro 
(pdeyyofievov " virb ras o~roa<; vireXOere," eKireaelv 
Xoyov, a)? Kvpaicov ovk aloOavofxevwv, &)? ev roh 
o/jb/3poL<; V7T0 rd<; <TToa? vireXOereov, av fii] arj/xavr) 
t*9 avroh hid Krjpvyfiaros. dvrjp h' a%ios /ivr/fir)? 
€K rrjahe tt)? rroXecos dvavnXeKra)? p.£v eanv 
' E<£o/00<?, rdv laoKpdrov? yvcopLficov rov prjropos, 
6 rrjv laroplav avyypdyfra*; Kal ra irepl ra>v 
evprj/xdrcjv Kal en irpbrepos rovrov 'Haio&os 
o Troirjrr}?' avrbs yap eXprjKev, on 6 rrarrjp avrov 
A£o? fierwKijaev eh Bchcotou?, Kv/irjv AloXlSa 
TrpoXiirdiV' 

vdaaaro S' dyy 'EXikwvo? oi^vpr} evl Kcopbrj 
"AaKpy, yel/ia KaKrj, Oepet, dpyaXerj } ovSi nor 
eaOXfj. 

C G23 'OpiT)po<s 8' ov% 6/jLoXoyovfievW iroXXol yap 
160 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 3. 6 

6. The largest and best of the Aeolian cities is 
Cyme; and this with Lesbos might be called the 
metropolis of the rest of the cities, about thirty in 
number, of which not a few have disappeared. Cyme 
is ridiculed for its stupidity, owing to the repute, as 
some say, that not until three hundred years after 
the founding of the city did they sell the tolls of the 
harbour, and that before this time the people did not 
reap this revenue. They got the reputation, there- 
fore, of being a people who learned late that they were 
living in a city by the sea. There is also another 
report of them, that, having borrowed money in the 
name of the state, they pledged their porticoes as 
security, and then, failing to pay the money on the 
appointed day, were prohibited from walking in 
them ; when it rained, however, their creditors, 
through a kind of shame, would bid them through a 
herald to go under the porticoes ; so the herald 
would cry out the words, " Go under the porticoes," 
but the report went abroad that the Cymaeans did 
not understand that they were to go under the 
porticoes when it rained unless they were given 
notice by the herald. Ephorus, a man indisputably 
noteworthy, a disciple of Isocrates the orator, and 
the author of the History and of the work on In- 
ventions, was from this city ; and so was Hesiod the 
poet, still earlier than Ephorus, for Hesiod himself 
states that his father Dius left Aeolian Cyme and 
migrated to Boeotia : " And he settled near Helicon 
in a wretched village, Ascre, which is bad in winter, 
oppressive in summer, and pleasant at no time." 1 
But it is not agreed that Homer was from Cyme, for 

1 Works and Days, 639-40 (quoted also in 9. 2. 25). 

161 
F2 



STRABO 

afjL(f>i(r/3T]T0v<nv avTov. to B' ovo/jlcl airb 'A/xa- 
£6vo<; rfj iroXet, reOeiaOai, tcaOdirep fcal rfj 
Mvplvrj dirb tt)? iv tw Tpwi/cq) rreBlw Keijievr)^ 
vtto rfj Barieia' 

rrjv tjtol avhpes BarLeiav kik\i](tkou<tlv, 
dOdvaroi Be re crij/ia iroXva/cdpO p,oio MvplvT)?. 

(TKci)7rT€Tai Be KCU 6 V E(/)0/009, Bl-OTL Tt)? TTarpLBo? 

epya ov/c eywv (j)pd£eiv iv rfj BiapidfArjo-et, rcov 
aXXcov irpd^ecov, ov firjv ovB 1 *• dpuvrijxovevrov avrrjv 
elvai deXcov, ovrcos iirtcpcover " Kara Be rov 
avrov icaipov YLvfialoi ra? rjcrvxias rjyov." iwel 
Be BieXijXvOafjLev rrjv Tpcoi/crjv dfxa koX ttjv 
Aio\tKT)V irapdXiaVy icfrefjr)? av eh] rr)V fxeaoyauav 
e-TTiBpafielv p-e\pi rov Tavpov, cpuXdaaovras rrjv 
avrrjv tt)? icpoBov rd^iv. 

IV 

1. "E^et Be riva i)yepboviav 7rpo? tou? tottov? 
tovtovs to HepyapLov, eirL$>avr)<$ 7ro?u? /cal iroXvv 
avvevrv^jcracra ^povov rols ArraXi/col? fiaai- 
Xevai' teal Br/ /cal ivrevdev dp/creov rrj<; e^?)? 
rrepioBeias, /cal rrpcarov irepl rcov ftaaiXecov, 
orroOev (joppLTjOrjaav /cal et? a /carearpe\jrav, iv 
/3pa%ecri BrjXcoreov. rjv fiev Brj to TLepya/aov 
Avcripidyov ya^ofyvXdiciov rov ' Ay aOotcXeovs, evbs 
rcov y AXe^dvBpov BiaB6%cov, avrrjv rrjv a/cpav rov 
6pov<i crvi oi/covp,evrjv eyov ecrri Be arpo/3iXo€iBe<; 
to opos eh o^elav /copv(f>r)v drroXrjyov. iiterricr- 
revro Be rrjv (f>vXaKT)v rov epv/juaros rovrov teal 
rcov ^prj/idrcov (j)v Be rdXavra ivva/ciayLXia) 

162 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 3. 6-4. 1 

many peoples lay claim to him. It is agreed, how- 
ever, that the name of the city was derived from an 
Amazon, as was Myrina from the Amazon who lies 
in the Trojan plain below Batieia, "which verily 
men call Batieia, but the immortals the tomb of 
much-bounding Myrina." * Ephorus, too, is ridiculed 
because, though unable to tell of deeds of his native 
land in his enumeration of the other achievements in 
history, and yet unwilling that it should be unmen- 
tioned, he exclaims as follows : " At about the same 
time the Cymaeans were at peace." 

Since I have traversed at the same time the Trojan 
and Aeolian coasts, it would be next in order to treat 
cursorily the interior as far as the Taurus, observing 
the same order of approach. 



IV 

1. A kind of hegemony is held over these places 
by Pergamum, which is a famous city and for a long 
time prospered along with the Attalic kings ; indeed 
I must begin my next description here, and first I 
must show briefly the origin of the kings and the 
end to which they came. Now Pergamum was a 
treasure-hold of Lysimachus, the son of Agathocles, 
who was one of the successors of Alexander, and its 
people are settled on the very summit of the 
mountain ; the mountain is cone-like and ends in a 
sharp peak. The custody of this stronghold and the 
treasure, which amounted to nine thousand talents, 

1 Also quoted in 12. 8. 6. 

1 All MiSS. except Ft insert &v after ou5\ 

163 



STRABO 

<biXeraipo$, dvrjp Tiavo?, 1 OXiftias i/e iraiBos. 
avvej3i] yap ev rivi racfrf) 6eas ovarjs teal ttoXXcov 
irapovrwv, aTroXrj^Oelaav ev tw o^X<p rrjv ko/jlL- 
Xpvaav rpo<pbv rbv <t>tXeratpov en vrjiriov avv- 
OXc/Srjvai p>exp L ToaovBe, ware TrrjpojOijvac rbv 
tratBa. r}v pev By evvov^o^, r panels Be /ca\(t)<; 
i(j>dv7j rf)$ iriarews ravrri^ a^io<;. Tero? fiev ovv 
evvovs Bie/jueive 2 rw Avaipdyw, Bueve)(9el<i Be 
777)0? 'Apaivorjv rrjv yvvat/ea avrov BiaftdXXov- 
aav avrov drrearrfae rb ywp'iov teal 777)09 tou9 

/CaipOV? €7TO\lT6V€TO, OpCiV €TriT7)&€LOV<; 7T/30? V€CO- 

repia/jLov 6 re yap AvaLpaxos /catcols olteeiois 
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uoteXea,%eXevteo<; re eneXOoiv 3 6 Ncfedrcop eieelvbv 
re teareXvae teal avrbs teareXvOrj, BoXotyovrjOels 
v7ro UroXefiaiov rod Kepavvov, roiovrwv Be 
6opv/3(ov ovrcov, Bieyevero puevwv eirl rov epvparos 
o evvovy^o? teal rroXirevopevos oY 4 vnoa^eaecov 
teal rr}<; aXXw Oepaireias del 777)09 rbv laxvovra 
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fiev Ev/jLevr]?, veoorepos B' ** ArraXos" etc puev ovv 
rov EiVfievov? eyevero o/movv/jlos ru> irarpl Ftvpevr)?, 
oairep teal BieBe^aro rb Uepyajxov, teal rjv r}Brj 
Bvvdarrj? rcov tevteXco yuipLaiV, ware teal irepl 
%dpBei<; eviKi]ae P-d\r) av/A&aXcbv ' Avrbo^ov 
rbv ^LeXev/eov' Bvo Be teal ecteoaiv apj;a<; errj 
reXevra rbv ftiov. e/c Be 'ArrdXov teal 'Av- 

1 Tiavv6s C, TvavSs X, Tvavevs nwz. 

2 Instead of Slc/xcipc, CT)xz and Corais read Sif/xevt. 

3 iiraveAdwv muz, instead of iir^\Qwv. 
164 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 1-2 

was entrusted to Philetaerus of Tieium, who was a 
eunuch from boyhood ; for it came to pass at a 
certain burial, when a spectacle was being given 
at which many people were present, that the nurse 
who was carrying Philetaerus, still an infant, was 
caught in the crowd and pressed so hard thnt the 
child was incapacitated. He was a eunuch, there- 
fore, but he was well trained and proved worthy of 
this trust. Now tor a time he continued loyal to 
Lysimachus, but he had differences with Arsinoe, 
the wife of Lysimachus, who slandered him, and so 
he caused Pergamum to revolt, and governed it to 
suit the occasion, since he saw that it was ripe for a 
change; for Lysimachus, beset with domestic troubles, 
was forced to slay his son Agathocles, and Seleucus 
Nicator invaded his country and overthrew him, 
and then he himself was overthrown and treacher- 
ously murdered by Ptolemy Ceraunus. During these 
disorders the eunuch continued to be in charge of 
the fortress and to manage things through promises 
and courtesies in general, always catering to any 
man who was powerful or near at hand. At any 
rate, he continued lord of the stronghold and the 
treasure for twenty years. 

2. He had two brothers, the elder of whom was 
EuiDenes, the younger Attalus. Eumenes had a son 
of the same name, who succeeded to the rule of 
Pergamum, and was by this time sovereign of the 
places round about, so that he even joined battle 
with Antiochus the son of Seleucus near Sardeis and 
conquered him. He died after a reign of twenty- 
two years. 1 Attalus, the son of Attalus and Antiochis, 
1 263-241 b.c. 

* /ietf moz, instead of fit'. 

165 



STRABO 

tiox&os, T7}<? 'A^atoD, yeyovro? "ArTaXo? BteBe- 
garo ttjv dpxrfv, teal avjjyopevOr) ftaaiXevs 7rpa>TO?, 
viK,r)<ja<$ TaXdras H>u>X0 A 6e 7 £ *^'27• ovros Be Kal 
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ri]V vn 'Avrioxq) r V v ^vto? tov Tavpov. irpo- 
repov 8' r)i> ra irepl Hepyapov ov 7roXXa ywpia 
p-^Xpi tt)? 6aXaTT7]<; tt}? Kara tov 'EXairrjv 
koXttov teal tov ' ABpajLLVTTrjvov. KaTeafcevaae B* 

OL/TO? TTJV TToXlV Kal TO NlK7)(f)6plOV a\a€l 

tcaT€(j)VT6va€, Kal dvaOr)fiaTa Kal /3i/3Xi,o9i]/ca<; 
teal ti)v eirl ToaovBe KaTouciav tov Hepydfiov 
tt)v rvv ovaav itceivos TTpoae^LXoKdXrjae' fiacri- 
Xeucra? Be 2 eTi] TCTTapaKOVTa Kal evvea direXiirev 
vl(p Tifv dpx)]v * AttoXw, yeyovoTi etc %TpaTOvl/cr)<; 
TTJ? 'ApiapdOov OuyaTpos tov KaTnraBofccov 
/SacrtXea)?. eiriTpouov Be KaTe<JTt]ae Kal tov 
TraiBbs veov reXeaj? 6Vto? Kal t?}s «/?%% top 
dBeX(f)bv "ATTaXov. ev Be Kal clkoo-iv eTi) (Saai- 
Xevaas yepcov outo? TeXevTa, KaTopOooaas iroXXd' 

1 ireXevrrio-e moz, instead of ireXevra. 

2 be, before cry, inserted by x ; moz have re. 

1 241-197 b.o. 
166 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 2 

daughter of Achaeus, succeeded to the throne and 
was the first to be proclaimed king, after conquering 
the Galatians in a great battle. Attalus not only 
became a friend of the Romans but also fought on 
their side against Philip along with the fleet of the 
Rhodians. He died in old age, having reigned as 
king forty-three years ; l and he left four sons by 
Apollonis, a woman from Cyzicus, Eumenes, Attalus, 
Philetaerus, and Athenaeus. Now the two younger 
sons remained private citizens, but Eumenes, the elder 
of the other two, reigned as king. Eumenes fought 
on the side of the Romans against Antiochus the 
Great and against Perseus, and he received from the 
Romans all the country this side the Taurus that 
had been subject to Antiochus. But before that 
time the territory of Pergamum did not include 
many places that extended as far as the sea at the 
Elaitic and Adramyttene Gulfs. He built up the 
city and planted Nicephorium with a grove, and 
the other elder brother, 2 from love of splendour, 
added sacred buildings and libraries and raised the 
settlement of Pergamum to what it now is. After a 
reign of forty-nine years 3 Eumenes left his empire 
to Attalus, his son by Stratonice, the daughter of 
Ariathres, king of the Cappadocians. He appointed 
his brother Attalus 4 as guardian both of his son, who 
was extremely young, and of the empire. After a 
reign of twenty-one years, 5 his brother died an old 
man, having won success in many undertakings ; for 

8 Others make 4k*Zvos refer to Eumenes, but the present 
translator must make it refer to Attalus, unless the text is 
corrupt. 

8 But he died in 159 B.C. (see Pauly-Wissowa, s.v. 
"Eumenes," p. 1103), thus having reigned 197-159 B.C. 
* Attalus Philadelphus. 6 159-138 B.C. 

167 



STRABO 

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Bpov 7 rov /cal Oap/ d/crjv dveXovros rbv fiaaiXea 
/cal Karaa^ovro^ rbv Bocmopov. ovrb<$ re Brj 

1 Kaivoov, Tzschncke, for iKeivwv CT)himorivxz, iKilvov F, 
Kaivov Epit. ; so the later editors. 

2 The MSS., except Fz, have /cat after 5e. 

3 'ASo&oyiwvos, os, the editors, for 'A.8oPoylwv, 8s. 

168 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 2-3 

example, he helped Alexander, the son of Antiochus, 
to defeat in war Demetrius, the son of Seleucus, 
and he fought on the side of the Romans against 
the Pseudo- Philip, and in an expedition against 
Thrace he defeated Diegylis the king of the Caeni, 
and he slew Prusias, having incited his son Nicomedes 
against him, and he left his empire, under a guardian, 
to Attalus. Attalus, surnamed PJiilometor, reigned 
five years, 1 died of disease, and left the Romans his 
heirs. The Romans proclaimed the country a 
province, calling it Asia, by the same name as the 
continent. The Caicus flows past Pergamum, through 
the Caicus Plain, as it is called, traversing land that 
is very fertile and about the best in Mysia. 

3. Pergamenians have become famous in my time : 
Mithridates the son of Menodotus and of Adobogion. 
Menodotus was of the family of the tetrarchs of the 
Galatians, and Adobogion, it is said, was also the 
concubine of King Mithridates, 2 and for this reason 
her relatives gave to the child the name of 
Mithridates, pretending that he was the son of the 
king. At any rate, he became a friend to the deified 
Caesar and reached so great preferment with him 
that he was appointed tetrarch from his mother's 
family and king both of the Bosporus and other 
territories. He was overthrown by Asander, who 
not only slew King Pharnaces but also took posses- 
sion of the Bosporus. Mithridates, then, has been 

1 138-133 B.C. a Mithridates the Great. 

* fji/> inserted by the editors. 

6 ov, before iraWaKevaai, ejected by the editors. 

6 air6, Casaubon inserts ; so the later editors. 

7 'AadySpov, Casaubon, for Avadvdpou ; so the later editors. 

169 



STRABO 

bvoficLTo*; rjfJLCtirai /xeydXov, ical ' AiroXkoBtopos o 
prjrcop 6 Ta? re%ya? cri'Yypa'v/ra? /cal ttjv 'AttoX- 
XoBcopetov aipeaiv irapayaycov, rjris it or eari' 
iroXXd yap eTre/cpdrei, [lel^ova Be r) /cad" rjfxas 
eyovTa tt)V /cpuaiv, cov iarl /cal r) ' A7roXXoBtopeio<; 
aipeat? teal r) ®€oBtopeLO<;. p-dXccrra Be e^fjpe 
rov ' AiroXXoBcopop r) rov Katca/oo? cf>i\ia rov 
^Lej3a<JTOV, BiBdcr/caXov rcov Xoycov yevoptevov 
fiaffrjrrjv 8* ea^ev dtjioXoyov Aiovvctiov rov 
€7TircXr}@£vTa 'Arri/cov, iroXirrjv avrov, /cal yap 
(TO^iaTrj^ r)v i/cavb$ teal o-uyypacpev? teal 
\oyoypd<f)Os. 

4. Upoiovri 5' dirb rov ireBiov /cal rrjs 7roA,ea>? 
eirl fiev rd 717)0? eco puepr] 7t6Xl<; earlv ' ' Air oXXcov la, 

/i,6T66e>pOt? €7Tl/C€L/U€Vr} TOITOI^' €7tI Be TOP VOTOV 

opetvi] pd%i<; eariv, fjv virepftaai /cal ftaBL^ovcriv 
eirl ^.dpBewv ttoXis iarlv ev aptcrrepa Svdreipa, 
/caroi/cia Na/ceBovcov, r)v Mi/cwc eo~ydrr\v rives 
(fyacriv. ev Be^ta 8' 'AttoXXcovis, Bie%ovaa Uepyd- 
fiov rpia/cocriovs crraBiovs, rov? Be taovs /cal rcov 
SdpBecov, eircovvpios 8' earl rrjs Kvfy/cr)vr}<; ' AttoX- 
XcovLBos* sir i/cBe^erai to "Eppiov ireBiov ical 
HdpBeis' rd he rrpoadp/cria rco Ylepydfico rd 
irXelara vtto Mvacov e^erai rd ev Begia rcov 
' Aftaeircov 1 Xeynpievcov, ot? avvdirrei r) 'Ettl- 
kttitos pexp' Bi&vvias. 

5. At Be ~.dp?ei<> ttoXis earl pieydXrj, vecorepa 
fiev rcov Tpcoi/ccov, dpyaia 8' opicos, d/cpav eyovaa 
rsuep/cf)' (3aa'iXeiov 8' vrrfjp^e tcov AvBcov, oi)? 6 

1 'A&aeirwv, Kramer, from conj.of Kiepert, for 'A^Kitwv E, 
'AjSaitwv other MSS. 

170 



GEOGRAPHY, 13.4. 3-5 

thought worthy of a great name, as has also 
Apollodorus the rhetorician, who wrote the work 
on Rhetoric and was the leader of the Apollodoreian 
sect, whatever in the world it is ; for numerous 
philosophies were prevalent, but to pass judgment 
upon them is beyond my power, and among these 
are the sects of Apollodorus and Theodorus. But 
the friendship of Caesar Augustus has most of all 
exalted Apollodorus, who was his teacher in the art 
of speech. And Apollodorus had a notable pupil in 
Dionysius, surnamed Atticus, his fellow-citizen, for he 
was an able sophist and historian and speech-writer. 

4. As one proceeds from the plain and the city 
towards the east, one comes to a city called 
Apollonia, which lies on an elevated site, and also, 
towards the south, to a mountain range, on crossing 
which, on the road to Sardeis, one comes to 
Thyateira, on the left-hand side, a settlement of 
the Macedonians, which by some is catted the 
farthermost city of the Mysians. On the right is 
Apollonis, which is three hundred stadia distant 
from Pergamum, and the same distance from Sar- 
deis, and it is named after the Cyzicene Apollonis. 
Next one comes to the plain of Hermus and to 
Sardeis. The country to the north of Pergamum is 
held for the most part by the Mysians, I mean the 
country on the right of the Abaeitae, as they are 
called, on the borders of which is the Epictetus x as 
far as Bithynia. 

5. Sardeis is a great city, and, though of later 
date than the Trojan times, is nevertheless old, and 
has a strong citadel. It was the royal city of the 
Lydians, whom the poet calls Meionians ; and later 

1 Phrygia Epictetus (see 12. 3. 7, 12. 4. 1, and 12. 4. 5). 

171 



STRABO 

7roir)TT)<; KaXel M^ora?, ol 8' varepov Malovas, 

01 /JL€P TOVS dVTOVS TOl$ Af8ot?, ol 8* €T€pOV<i 

a,7ro(f)aLvovT€<;, tou? 8' avrou<i a/jueivov io~ri Xeyetp. 
vTrep/ceLTdL Be rcop HdpBewp 6 T/zaiX.09, evBaifiop 
opos, iv rfj ciKpwpela aKOirrjp ex ov > ^iSpap 
XevKov XiOov, Hepacop epyop, defy* ov KaroTrreverai 
rd kvkXw ireBia, Kai pudXio-ra to K.avo~T piapop- 
irepioiKOvai Be AvBol kcu M.vaol Kai Ma*:e86Ve?. 
pel 8' 6 YlaKT(o\6<; dirb rov T/jlcoXov, fcarcupepcop 
to iraXaibp y\ri)yfxa y^pverov ttoXv, a<£' ov top 
C 626 KpoLGov Xeyo/xepop ttXovtop teal tcop irpoyopwp 
avTOV hiOPO/jLaadrjpaL <f>acn' pvp 8' itcXeXoLire 
to y]ri]y/jLa. Kara^eperai 8' 6 ITa^TcoXo? €6? 
top "JLpfiop, et? op Kai 6 "TXXos ififfdWei, 
<$>pvyio<; pvpI tcaXov/mepos' avfiireaop-re^ 8' ol 
Tpels Kai dXXoi do-qfiorepot o-up avrols eh 
ttjp Kara Q>mKaLav i/cBiSoaai OdXarrap, a>? 
'H/3o8oTo? (prjo-LP. apteral 8' i/c Mi/crta? 
"Ep/10?, ef opovs lepov t>}? AipBu/jLrjpr]?, /cal Bid 
t^9 KaTaK€/cav/j,€P7)<; ei? tt)P LapBiaprjp <pepe- 
rai xal rd 1 avpexfl ireBia, w? etprjTai, iiexpi> 
rf)<; OaXdrrr]?. vrroKeirai Be rfj iroXei to re 
*£ap8iapbp ireBiop Kai to toO Kvpov 2 Kai to toO 
"Ep/xov Kai to Kaio-rpiapop, avpexq re opja 
Kai 7rdpTQ)P aptara TreBLwp. ip Be araBtois 
rerrapaKOPra dirb tt}<; 7roXea>? i<niv r) Vvyaia 
/jl€p vtto rov iroirjrov Xeyo/xePTj, KoXor] 8' varepop 
/neropofinaSuaa, ottov to lepbp Tr)<; KoXorjprjs 
'AprefiiBos, ixeydXrjp dyiareuap e%op. cpacrl 8* 

1 Ka\ rd Ytix, kclto. CF»/', Kara, rd Dhtnoz. 

2 Kvpou (see Kvpov vedioy, 13. 4. 13), Tzschucke, for i<6pov ; 
Koikov, Corais. 

172 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 5 

writers call them Maeonians, some identifying them 
with the Lydians and others representing them as 
different, but it is better to call them the same 
people. Above Sardeis is situated Mt. Tmolus, a 
blest mountain, with a look-out on its summit, an 
arcade of white marble, a work of the Persians, 
whence there is a view of the plains below all round, 
particularly the Cayster Plain. And round it dwell 
Lydians and Mysians and Macedonians. The Pac- 
tolus River flows from Mt. Tmolus ; in early times a 
large quantity of gold-dust was brought down in 
it, whence, it is said, arose the fame of the riches of 
Croesus and his forefathers. But the gold-dust 
has given out. The Pactolus runs down into the 
Hermus, into which also the Hyllus, now called 
the Phrygius, empties. These three, and other less 
significant rivers with them, meet and empty into 
the sea near Phocaea, as Herodotus says. 1 The 
Hermus rises in Mysia, in the sacred mountain 
Dindymene, and flows through the Catacecaumene 
country into the territory of Sardeis and the con- 
tiguous plains, as I have already said, 2 to the sea. 
Below the city lie the plain of Sardeis and that 
of the Cyrus and that of the Hermus and that 
of the Cayster, which are contiguous to one another 
and are the best of all plains. Within forty stadia 
from the city one comes to Gygaea, 3 which is 
mentioned by the poet, the name of which was 
later changed to Coloe, where is the temple of 
Coloenian Artemis, which is characterised by great 
holiness. They say that at the festivals here the 

1 1.80. 2 Cf. 13. 1.2. 

» Lake Gygaea, Iliad 2. 865. 

173 



STRABO 

ivravOa ^opeveiv rovs KaXdOovs 1 Kara ras 
eoprds, ovk ol& 07TCO? irore rrapaBo^oXoyovvres 
fiaWov t) dXtjdevovres. 

6. K.eipevcov £' ovrco 7ra)? roov irrow Trap 

Myoaiv av MecrdXrjs re /cal "Avtk^o? r)yy]ad- 

adrjv, 
vie TaXaipieveos, 2 rco Tvyalr) ri/ce Xlp,vr), 
ol koX M.rjovas r/yov vrro TficoXw yeyawras, 
Trpoj-ypacfroval rives roi/ro rkraprov erros' 
T/igoXg) vrrb vicj)6evri, "T&7? 3 iv rriovi Byprp. 

ovBepia 8' evpla/cerai "TBt) iv roi$ Av&ois. ol Be 
real rov Tv^iov ivOevBe ttoiovctiv, ov (f>r)aiv 6 
iroirjrijs' 

fJKvroro/Jbcov o% apiaros Toy * evi, 

TTpoariOeaai Be real, Biori Bpvpd)Bi]s 6 roiros koI 
KepavvoftoXos, /cal on ivravda ol "Api/xor xal 
yap ra> 5 

elv 'ApL/jLois, o6l <f>aal Tu</>&)eo? e/ipevai evvd? 

iireiafyepovcn 

X^PV &* Bpvoevri, "TBrjs iv irlovi Brjprp. 

dXXoi 8 iv KiXiKia, rives B' iv Hvpla rrXdrrovori 
rov p,v9ov rovrov, ol S' iv Yli6r}Kovauais» 01 /cal 
rovs mQr)K0VS <$>aal irapa rols 'Vvppr)vo2<; apl/mov? 
tcaXeladai* ol Be ras ^dpBeis r/ 'X Btjv ovopd^ovaiv, 
ol Be rrjv d/cpoiroXiv avrrjs. tridavcordrovs B' 6 

1 Instead of Ka\d9ovs, rw read Ka96\ov ; mz, Aid. , and 
Casaubon m6i)Kovs ; Lobeck conj. TtiQiKvas and certain others 
Kahafxovs. 

174 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 5-6 

baskets dance, 1 though I do not know why in the 
world they talk marvels rather than tell the truth. 

6. The verses of Homer are about as follows : 
" Mnesthles and Antiphus, the two sons of Talae- 
menes, whose mother was Lake Gygaea, who led 
also the Meionians, who were born at the foot 
of Tmolus"; 2 but some add the following fourth 
verse : " At the foot of snowy Tmolus, in the fertile 
land of Hyde. ' But there is no Hyde to be found 
in the country of the Lydians. Some also put 
Tychius there, of whom the poet says, " far the 
best of workers in hide, who lived in Hyde." 3 
And they add that the place is woody and subject 
to strokes of lightning, and that the Arimi live 
there, for after Homer's verse, "in the land of 
the Arimi where men say is the couch of 
Typhon," 4 they insert the words, "in a wooded 
place, in the fertile land of Hyde." But others lay 
the scene of this myth in Cilicia, and some lay 
it in Syria, and still others in the Pithecussae 
Islands, who say that among the Tyrrhenians 
" pitheci " 5 are called " arimi." Some call Sardeis 
Hyde, while others call its acropolis Hyde. But 

1 Thought to be the baskets carried on the heads of maidens 
at festivals. 

2 Iliad 2. 864. » Iliad 7. 221. 

* Iliad 2. 783. 6 i.e. monkeys. 



* TaXatfJLevcos, Corais, for TlaKai/xeveos Dhriw, Uv\ai/x4veos 
OEFxs. 

3 "rs-qs Emoz, "TAtjj CBFhirwx. Thus the MSS. vary in the 
following "T817. 

4 Instead oFTSt?, h(by corr.)orx read'TAp. 
6 t<£ E (so Meineke) ; ovtws other MSS. 

175 



STRABO 

'Zfcrjyjrios rjyelrai tou? iv rfj KarafceicavpLevr) rrjs 
Mvalas tovs 'Apl/JLOV? TiOevras. HivBapos Be 
(tvpolkciol Tot? iv rfj KlXcklo, ra iv UiOrjKovaaai?, 
direp iarl nrpb rrjs Kv/aaLas, kcu ra iv XifceXia' 
zeal yap rfj AX-nm (prjarlv virofceZaOai rbv Tvcfycova' 

TOP 7TOT6 

KiXi/ciov Opeyjrev TroXvcovvpav dvrpov vvv ye 
fiav 
C 627 ral 6* 1 virep Ku/ta? dXiep/cees o^dou 

Xi/eeXia t avrov iriet,ei crrepva Xa^vdevra. 2 

Kal irdXiv 

Keiv(p fiev AXrva Bea/ibs virepcjiiaXos 
d/jLCpLfceLTai. 

Kal irdXiv 

aXA' 0Z09 airXarov Kepdl^e Oecov 

Tv(j)(bva TrevTi]/coi>Tafce<f)aXov z avdy/ca Zeus 

irarrjp 
iv ^ApijMOL^ irore. 

oi Be tovs 2u/3ou? *Api[iov<; 4 Bexovrai, ou? vvv 
Wpa/JLaiovs Xeyovan, rovs Be KiXcKas rovs iv 
'Ypoia (MeravaaTavras eh ^vplav dv(pKL,ap.evov<;, 
diroTefxeaOau Trapd rcov ^vpcov ri]V vvv Xeyo/xevyv 
KiXifccav. K.aXXiaOevrj<i &' iyyvs rov KaXvKaB- 
vov Kal T7]<i %ap7T7jB6vo<; cifcpas Trap 1 avrb to 
K.wpvKLov avrpov elvai toi>? 'Apifiovs, dcfi a>v ra 
iyyvs opt] XeyearOai "Api/ia. 

7. YlepiKeirai Be rfj Xifivrj ry KoXorj ra /ivrj- 
/iara ra>v ftaaiXewv. Trpbs Be rat? ^dpBeaiv 
icrri to toO 'AXvdrrov inl fCprjTTL&os vyjrr]Xrj<i 
176 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 6-7 

the Scepsian 1 thinks that those writers are most 
plausible who place the Arimi in the Catacecaumene 
country in Mysia. But Pindar associates the 
Pithecussae which lie off the Cymaean territory, as 
also the territory in Sicily, with the territory in 
Cilicia, for he says that Typhon lies beneath Aetna : 
•• Once he dwelt in a far-famed Cilician cavern ; 
now, however, his shaggy breast is o'er-pressed by 
the sea-girt shores above Cymae and by Sicily." 2 
And again, " round about him lies Aetna with her 
haughty fetters," and again, " but it was father Zeus 
that once amongst the Arimi, by necessity, alone of 
the gods, smote monstrous Typhon of the fifty 
heads." 3 But some understand that the Syrians are 
Arimi, who are now called the Arimaeans, and that 
the Cilicians in Troy, forced to migrate, settled 
again in Syria and cut off for themselves from Syria 
what is now called Cilicia. Callisthenes says that the 
Arimi, after whom the neighbouring mountains are 
called Arima, are situated near Mt. Calycadnus and 
the promontory of Sarpedon near the Corycian cave 
itself. 

7. Near Lake Coloe are the monuments of the 
kings. At Sardeis is the great mound, on a lofty 
base, of Alyattes, built, as Herodotus 4 says, by the 

1 Demetrius of Scepsis. % Pythian Odes, 1. 31. 

8 Frag. 93 (Bergk). * 1. 93. 

1 Instead of fiay rot 0', CDFA have ^iavrev6\ 

8 Kaxv^vra, the editors, for Xaxvnevra. 

8 For ir€VTr)KovTa.Ke<pa\ov, Bergk, following Hermann and 
Boeckh, reads kKarovraKapavov (see Pindar, Pyth. 8. 16 and 01. 
4. 7). Meineke emends to ■K^vr^KovTaKapavov. 

4 'Apifiovs, Casaubon, for 'Apci^ouy. 

177 



STRABO 

X&tiCL yueya, epyaaOev, w? (p^aiv 'HooSoto?, vwb 
tov TrXrjdovs ti)<; 7roXeo)?, ov to irXelaTOV epyov 
al iraihlaicai avvereXeaav Xeyei 8' eicelvos teal 
iropveveaOai irdaas, rivh Be ical iropvrj^ p,vr}p,a 
Xeyovai tov rdcpov. yeipoiroir)TQV Be rrjv Xlp,vr\v 

CVLOl IGTOpOVGl TT]V KoXorjV 7T/30? Ta? i/cBo^d? TWf 

irXr^fifivpiBcov, at av/jL/3alvovai tcov iroTafitov 
7rXt]pou/jL€va)v. "TTTanra Be ttoXi*; earl tcara- 
ftalvovaiv airo tov TficoXov 7rpo? to tov K.avo~Tpov 
ireBlov. 

8. <$>T]o-l Be KaXXicr6evt]<s dXcovai tcl^ HdpBeis 

V1TO Kl/AfjL€piO)V TTpCOTOV, €10' V7TO TptjpWV KCll 

AvtcUov, OTzep teal KaXXlvov BrjXovv, tov tt)<? 
eXeyei'as ttoitjttJv, vaTaTa Be ttjv eVl Kvpov teal 
Kpolcrov yeveadai aXcocriv. XeyovTos Be tov 
KaXXtvov Trjv ecpoBov tcov Ki/jL/j,epicov eirl tov? 
'Haiovrja? yeyovevcu, tca0' r)v al XdpBeis edXcoaav, 
eiKa^ovaiv oi ire pi tov ^Ktjyjriov iao~Ti XeyeaOat 
'Haioveis toi>? Waioveis' Taya yap rj Myovia, 
cprjcriv, 'Acta eXeyeTO, tcaO' o teal "O/jLTjpos 
ecprj/cev 

'A(7t(M ev Xei/icovt KavcrTpiov d/ucj)l peeOpa. 

dvaKyjcfyOelaa B* d£ioX6yco<; vo~Tepov Bid ttjv 
dpeTijv ttjs %copa<; r) ttoXis ical ovBepuds XeLTro/juevT] 
tcov dcTvyeiTovcov, vccoq-tI virb creia/jicov dire^aXe 
iroXXrjv rift KaTOLKia's. rj Be tov Ttftepiov irpovota, 
tov Ka6* /;/*«<» rjyejAOVO?, ical TavTrjv koX tcov dXXcov 
av^va? dveXafSe Tat? evepyeaiais, oaai irepl tov 
ai/Tov Kaipov e/coivcovrjaav tov avTov ndQovs. 

9. "AvBpe? 8' d^LoXoyoi yey ovaai tov avTov 
C 628 yevov? AioBcopoi Bvo oi pr)TOpe<; } cov 6 Trpea(3vT6po<$ 

178 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 7-9 

common people of the city, most of the work on 
which was done by prostitutes ; and he says that 
all women of that country prostituted themselves ; 
and some call the tomb of Alyattes a monument of 
prostitution. Some report that Lake Coloe is an 
artificial lake, made to receive the overflows which 
take place when the rivers are full. Hypaepa is a 
city which one comes to on the descent from Mt. 
Tmolus to the Cayster Plain. 

8. Callisthenes says that Sardeis was captured 
first by the Cimmerians, and then by the Treres 
and the Lycians, as is set forth by Callinus the 
elegiac poet, and lastly in the time of Cyrus and 
Croesus. But when Callinus says that the incursion 
of the Cimmerians was against the Esioneis, at the 
time of which Sardeis was captured, the Scepsian l 
and his followers surmise that the Asioneis were 
by Callinus called the Esioneis, in the Ionic dialect ; 
for perhaps Meionia, he says, was called Asia, and 
accordingly Homer likewise says, "on the Asian 
mead about the streams of the Cayster." The 
city was later restored in a notable way because 
of the fertility of its territory, and was inferior to 
none of its neighbours, though recently it has lost 
many of its buildings through earthquakes. How- 
ever, the forethought of Tiberius, our present ruler, 
has, by his beneficence, restored not only this city 
but many others — I mean all the cities that shared 
in the same misfortune at about the same time. 

9. Notable men of the same family were born at 
Sardeis : the two Diodoruses, the orators, of whom 

1 Again Demetrius of Scepsis. 

179 



STRABO 

e/caXetTo Zoovas, dvijp ttoXXov? dycovas r/ywuia- 
fxevof virep t»)? *A(7ia?, Kara Be t*)v MiOpiBdrov 
tov /3acTLXeto<$ ecf)oBov air lav ecrxv K( * )< >> co? a<£ terra? 
Trap avTov x tcls 7roXeo$, d-neXvo-uTO Ta? BLafioXd? 
diTo\oy7)(jdfxero<i' tov Be vecorepov <f)iXov rjpXv 
yevo/xevov koX laroptfcd avyy pd^ard eari teal 
fieXrj Ka\ aXXa 7ronjfjLara f rrjv upftalav ypacfryv 
eiufyalvovTa licavois- 13.dvQo<i Be o iraXaios 
avyy panels? AvB6<> fxev Xeyerai, el Be itc XdpBecov, 
ov/c tafiev. 

10. Mera Be A.vBov<; elariv ol Mvaol /cal ttoXii 
<t>i\a8eX6eia aeia/mcov irXr)pr}<;. ov yap BiaXel- 
irovaiv ol Toiyo 1 Suardfievoi, ical dXXor dXXo 
nepos T77? TroXecos KaKoiradovv olfcovaiv ovv 
oXiyoi Bid tovto rrjv ttoXlv, ol Be rroXXol Kara- 
ftiovcnv ev ttj X°°P a yecopyovvTes, e^ovre^ evBal- 
fiova yrjv dXXa teal tcov oXlycov Oavpd^eiv earlv, 
otl ovtco (fyiXoxcopoviTiv, eir 1 o~(f)aXeis Ta? olicr)aei<; 
e\ovje^' eri, B' dv t*? fiaXXov Oav/judaeie tcov 

KTLOaVTCOV aVTTjV. 

11. Mera Be ravr earlv rj KaraKe^avfievrj Xeyo- 
fievrj X°°P a At^fo? ^ v Ka ^ TrevTatcoalcov araBlcov, 
7rXaro? Be TerpaKocrlcov, etre Mvelav XPV xaXelv, 
eire Mrjovlav (Xeyerai, yap d/Mfrorepco*;), diraaa 
dBevBpo<$ irXr)V d/JLTreXov tov KaraKeKav/xevLryv 
qbepovar)*; olvov, ovBevo<; tcov eXXoylficov apery 
Xeiirofievov. eari Be rj eirifydveia refypcoBr)*; tcov 
TreBicov, rj B* SpeiVT) ical irerpcoB^ fieXaiva, a>? dv 

1 irop' avrov, Xylander changes from a position between r&s 
and n6\€is ; so the later editors. 

1 i.e. " burnt " country, situated about the upper course 
180 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 9-1 1 

the elder was called Zonas, a man who many times 
pleaded the cause of Asia ; and at the time of the 
attack of King Mithridates, he was accused of 
trying to cause the cities to revolt from him, but in 
his defence he acquitted himself of the slander. 
The younger Diodorus, who was a friend of mine, 
is the author, not only of historical treatises, but 
also of melic and other poems, which display full 
well the ancient style of writing. Xanthus, the 
ancient historian, is indeed called a Lydian, but 
whether or not he was from Sardeis 1 do not know. 

10. After the Lydians come the Mysians; and 
the city Philadelphia, ever subject to earthquakes. 
Incessantly the walls of the houses are cracked, 
different parts of the city being thus affected at 
different times. For this reason but few people live 
in the city, and most of them spend their lives 
as farmers in the country, since they have a fertile 
soil. Yet one may be surprised at the few, that 
they are so fond of the place when their dwellings 
are so insecure ; and one might marvel still more at 
those who founded the city. 

11. After this region one comes to the Catace- 
caumene country, 1 as it is called, which has a length 
of five hundred stadia and a breadth of four hundred, 
whether it should be called Mysia or Meionia (for 
both names are used) ; the whole of it is without trees 
except the vine that produces the Catacecaumenite 
wine, which in quality is inferior to none of the 
notable wines. The surface of the plains are covered 
with ashes, and the mountainous and rocky country 

of the Hermu8 and its tributaries. Hamilton {Researches, II, 
p. 136), quoted by Tozer {Selections, p. 289), confirms Strabo's 
account. 

181 



STRABO 

€% eiriKavcrecos. eiKa^ovcri piev ovv rive? Ik 
KepavvofioXiwv Kal irp^aTTjpwv av/jL/3rjvai tovto, 
teal ovk okvovgi ra ire pi tov Tvcficova evravOa 
puvOoXoyelv. SdvOos Be /cal 'Api/aovv tivcl Xeyei 
rtov tottwv rovrcov ftacnXea. ovk evXoyov Be 

V7TO TOIOVTCOV 7Ta6o)V TTjV TOaaVTTjV yd > P av 

epLTrpriadrjvaL ddpow<;, dXXa fiaWov virb yrjyevovs 
irvpos, eKknrelv he vvv Ta? Trrjyds' BeiKvvvraL Be 
kclI (366 poi rpels, ou? cfivaas KaXovaiv, ocrov rerra- 
puKorra dXXijXayv Bieo-Tcores araBiov^' virepKeiv- 
tcll Be \6(pOL Tyoa%et?, ol<? etVo? eK rwv dva^vai)- 
Oevrwv o-ecrwpevaOai pLvBpcov. to 8' evd/nreXov 
tt)v Toiavnjv virdpyeiv y>)v, Xdfiot, ™? av kclI eK 
t?)? KaTa^aia? 1 tt}? ^waOeiarj^ rfj o~7roBco Kal vvv 
aTroBiBovo'7]^ olvov BayfriXf) koX kclXov. dare'i^o- 
fxevoi Be rives, €ik6t(o<; irvpiyevij tov Alovvgov 
XeyeaOai (paacv, eK TOiv toiovtcov ^coplcov reKfiaL- 
popevoi. 

12. Ta 8' ef?}? iirl ra voria fieprj rots totto*? 
tovtoi? efiirXoKa*; e%ef ^XP l ^P ^ rov Tavpov, 
ware Kal ra <t>pvyia Kal rd KapiKa Kal ra AvBia 
kclI en Ta tcov Xivacov Bvo-BiaKpira elvat, irapa- 
TTLTTTOVTa ei? aXXijXa' et? Be rrjv crvyyycnv Tavnjv 
ov /jLiKpd o~vXXap/3dvei to tou? 'PcoyLtatou? /jltj 
Kara (f)vXa BieXecv avrov^, dXXd erepov rpoirov 
Biard^aL Ta? BtoiKijcreis, iv al? Ta? dyopalovs 
TrotovvTai Kal Ta? BiKaioBocrlas. 6 fiev ye TyueoXo? 
iKaiw'i avvr)KTai 2 Kal irepiy pa^rjv exei fierplav, iv 
avrols d(popi£6pevos to?? AvBlol? fxepeaiv, rj Be 

1 Karaiaias, Xylander, for Karavias. 

2 cruvrJKTai E, (ruvTivrai other MSS. 

1 "Fire-born." 
182 



GEOGRAPHY, 13.4. n-12 

is black, as though from conflagration. Now some 
conjecture that this resulted from thunderbolts and 
from fiery subterranean outbursts, and they do not 
hesitate to lay there the scene of the mythical story 
of Typhon ; and Xanthus adds that a certain Arimus 
was king of this region ; but it is not reasonable 
to suppose that all that country was burnt all at 
once by reason of such disturbances, but rather by 
reason of an earth-born fire, the sources of which 
have now been exhausted. Three pits are to be 
seen there, which are called "bellows," and they are 
about forty stadia distant from each other. Above 
them lie rugged hills, which are reasonably supposed 
to have been heaped up by the hot masses blown 
forth from the earth. That such soil should be well 
adapted to the vine one might assume from the 
land of Catana, which was heaped with ashes and 
now produces excellent wine in great plenty. 
Some writers, judging from places like this, wittily 
remark that there is good reason for calling Dionysus 
" Pyrigenes." 1 

12. The parts situated next to this region towards 
the south as far as the Taurus are so inwoven with 
one another that the Phrygian and the Carian and 
the Lydian parts, as also those of the Mysians, since 
they merge into one another, are hard to distinguish. 
To this confusion no little has been contributed by the 
fact that the Romans did not divide them according 
to tribes, but in another way organised their juris- 
dictions, within which they hold their popular 
assemblies and their courts. Mt. Tmolus is a quite 
contracted mass of mountain and has only a moderate 
circumference, its limits lying within the territory of 
the Lydians themselves ; but the Mesogis extends 

183 



STRABO 

Meaeoyh 1 els to avrLKei/xevov fiepos BiaTeivei /xexpt, 
M.Vfcd\r)<;, airo KeXaivwv dp^dfievov, <w? (prjcrt, 

©€07TOyU,7r05* c5<7T€ T<Z fJb€V CIVTOV Oouye? fCCLT€- 

ypvai, ra 7r/oo? rat? KeXaivais /cal rfj ' Aira/ieia, 
C 629 T a £e Mvo~ol /cal AvBoi, ra Be Ka^e? /cal "iawe?. 
outo) 8e teal ol Trorafiol, /cal /Jbcikiara 6 Maia^Soo?, 
ra /iev Biopi&vTes ra)v e6v<av, Bi a>v Be fxecroi 
^epofxevot, BvaXyjirrov ttolovgi Ta/cpi/3es' ical irepl 
ra>v ttcBlcdv Be tcov e'</>' e/caTepa tj)? re bpeivijs /cal 
tj)? iroTa/jLia? 6 avro<; Xoyo?. ovB' 2 rj/j/v iaco<$ eirl 
Toaovrov <f>povTiaTeov, &)? dvay/calov 3 ^wpofjuer- 
povaiv, dWa roaovrov fxovov viroypaiTTeov^ ocrov 
/cal ol irpb ?)/xo)v irapaBeBdiicacri. 

13. Tro Brj Kavarpiavw irehicp /mera^v ttltttovti 
Tr}<? re Mear 0)7180? 6 /cal tovT/jlwXov, awe^es eo~Ti 
7T/30? eco to K.t.\/3iavbv ireBlov, iro\v re /cal crvvot- 
Kovfjuevov ev /cal ^copav e^ov airovBaiav elra to 
'Tp/cdviov TreBLov, Uepacov eTrovofiaadvrwv /cal 
itrolicovs dyayovTcov exeWev (o/xolo)^ Be /cal to 
Kvpov TTeBlov 6 Yiepaat /carwvofiaaav)' elra to 
UeXrivbv ireBLov, tfBrj Qpvyiov, /cat to KiWdviop 
/cal rb Taffqvov, eyovTa 7 irokiyyas fii^ofypvyLov*;, 
eyovvas tl /cal UiaiBi/cov, a<£' oiv avid /caTwvo- 
fido-07). 

14. 'TirepSdWovai Be ttjv MeacoytBa rt]v 
fxeTa^v Kapwv Te kcl\ t»}? Nucra^o?, r) eo~Ti x^P a 

1 Mcarayis, Palmer, /uLeaoyaios F, /uecroyeios other MSS. 

2 ovS\ Meineke, for ovd'. 

3 avayKaiov, Kramer, for &pa Ktvfj, all M SS. except F, which 
has avayicaiov /cei/f). 

4 Instead of viroypcnrTeou, Dhi have irepiypjirTtov. 

5 MeawylSos, Casaubon, for /xeaoyeici udos ; so the later 
editors. 

184 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 12-14 

in the opposite direction as far as Mycale, beginning 
at Celaenae, according to Theopompus. And there- 
fore some parts of it are occupied by the Phrygians, 
I mean the parts near Celaenae and Apameia, and 
other parts by Mysians and Lydians, and other parts 
by Carians and lonians. So, also, the rivers, par- 
ticularly the Maeander, form the boundary between 
some of the tribes, but in cases where they flow 
through the middle of countries they make accurate 
distinction difficult. And the same is to be said of 
the plains that are situated on either side of the 
mountainous territory and of the river land. Neither 
should I, perhaps, attend to such matters as closely 
as a surveyor must, but sketch them only so far as 
they have been transmitted by my predecessors. 

13. Contiguous on the east to the Cayster Plain, 
which lies between the Mesogis and the Tmolus, is 
the Cilbian Plain. It is extensive and well settled 
and has a fertile soil. Then comes the Hyrcanian 
Plain, a name given it by the Persians, who brought 
Hyrcanian colonists there (the Plain of Cyrus, like- 
wise, was given its name by the Persians). Then 
come the Peltine Plain (we are now in Phrygian 
territory) and the Cillanian and the Tabene Plains, 
which have towns with a mixed population of 
Phrygians, these towns also containing a Pisidian 
element ; and it is after these that the plains 
themselves were named. 

14. When one crosses over the Mesogis, between 
the Carians and the territory of Nysa, which latter is 

6 3, after ireSioi', the editors eject. 

7 %x oVTa i Corais and Meineke, for $x oyTas ^K *X. 0V T£ " 
other MSS. 

VOL. VI. G 



STRABO 

Kara to tov MaidvBpov irepav pe^pc rrjs Kiftv- 
p&Tihos teal tt}? Ka^aXiSo?, iroXei^ 1 elai, 77730? 
/lev rrj M-ecrcoylBi, fcaravriKpu AaoS/zeeia? 'lepd- 
ttoXis, o7rov ra Oep/ia vSara teal to II \ovtcovlov, 
dp,(f)co ir apaBo^oXoyiav Tiva eyovTa. to fiev yap 
vBcop ourco paBloo? eh ircopov fieTaftaXXei tttjtto- 
fxevov, coctt 6x€tovs en dy ovi e? cj)payp,ov<; direpyd- 
^ovrai /jlovoXiOovs, to Be UXovtcdviov vtt o$pvi 
fjiiKpa tt}? vTreptcei/uevr}? opeivrj? cto/xlov eaTi 
av/A/jL€Tpov, ocfov avdpwnov Be^aaOat, Bvvdfievov^ 
f3eftddvTCLl 8' €7U ttoXv- TTpotceiTai Be TOVTOV 
Bpv(j>dfCTcofia TCTpdywvov, b'crov 77 pmrXeO pov ttjv 
TTeplfieTpov tovto Be TrXfjpes eo~Tiv op.iyXd>Bov<$ 
irayeLas a/^Xuo?, coaTe fioyis To#Sa<£o? tcaQopdv. 

TOt? /JL€P OVV KVfcXcp TtXtjO id^OV a i 7T/0O? TOV BpV- 

(fraKTov aXvTros eaTiv drjp, tcaOapevcov etceivr}^ 
C 630 f ?)? a%Xuo<? ev Tat? vr)ve\xiai<$' o-v/jL/juevet yap eWo? 
toO TrepifioXov tw 8' elaw irapibvTi £a>&> OdvaTO? 
irapaxpVP'Ci diravTa' Tavpoi yovv elo-ayOevTes 
ttitttovgi teal e^eXtcovTai veKpoi, r)/LLel<} Be o~Tpov6la 
eirepi^ra/jLev teal eireaev evdvs etcirvevaavTa' ol B' 
diroKoiroi TdXXoi irapiacnv diraOeU, cbo~T€ teal 
[J-e^pc tov aTopLiov TrXrjcrid^eiv teal eytcuTTTeiv koX 
KaTaBvveiv y^e\pi tto&ov avve^ovTa^ &><? eirl to 
7roXu to irvevfia (ecopwjjiev yap etc tt)? o-^rea)? 
a>9 av irviyd>Bov<s tivos irdOov? ep.(f)acriv) t e?T€ 

1 8', after ir6\eis, omitted by x and the later editors. 



1 On the "Plutonia," see Vol. II, p. 442, footnote 1. 

2 "The road overlooks many green spots, once vineyards 
and gardens, separated by partitions of the same material " 

186 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 14 

a country on the far side of the Maeander extending 
to Cibyratis and Cabalis, one comes to certain cities. 
First, near the Mesogis, opposite Laodieeia, to 
Hierapolis, where are the hot springs and the 
Plutonium, 1 both of which have something mar- 
vellous about them ; for the water of the springs 
so easily congeals and changes into stone that people 
conduct streams of it through ditches and thus 
make stone fences 2 consisting of single stones, while 
the Plutonium, below a small brow of the moun- 
tainous country that lies above it, is an opening 
of only moderate size, large enough to admit a 
man, but it reaches a considerable depth, and it is 
enclosed by a quadrilateral handrail, about half a 
plethrum in circumference, and this space is full of 
a vapour so misty and dense that one can scarcely 
see the ground. Now to those who approach the 
handrail anywhere round the enclosure the air is 
harmless, since the outside is free from that vapour 
in calm weather, for the vapour then stays inside 
the enclosure, but any animal that passes inside 
meets instant death. At any rate, bulls that are 
led into it fall and are dragged out dead ; and I 
threw in sparrows and they immediately breathed 
their last and fell. But the Galli, 3 who are eunuchs, 
pass inside with such impunity that they even 
approach the opening, bend over it, and descend 
into it to a certain depth, though they hold their 
breath as much as they can (for I could see in their 
countenances an indication of a kind of suffocating 
attack, as it were), — whether this immunity belongs 

(Chandler, Travels in Asia Minor, I. p. 288), quoted by Tozer 
(op. tit., p. 290). 
8 Priests of Cybel6. 

187 



STRABO 

iravTcov ovto) Treirrfpco/JLevtov rovro, eire /jlovov 
tcov irepl to lepov, Kal etre Oela nrpovoia, 
Kaddirep eirl tcov iv6ovaiaaficov el/cos, elre avriBo- 
TOJ? rial Bvvdfieai tovtov 1 avpuf3aivovTO<;. to Be 
rf}<; diroXiOcoaecos Kal eVl tojz; iv AaohiKeia ttotcl- 
fjicjv (facial avfiftaiveiv, Kaiirep ovtcov ttotl/xcov. 

€(TTl 06 Kal 7T0O9 {3a(f)T}V ipiCOV 0CLV yU-OKTT&J? av/ji- 

fierpov to Kara rrjv 'lepdiroXiv vBcop, ware rd i/c 
tcov pi^cov $aTTTop,eva evdfiiXXa elvai ruis 2 i/c 
tt)? kokkov Kal roU dXovpyeaiv ovtco £' earlv 
dcfadovov to ttXtjOos tov vharos, coare y ttoXi? 
pearr) tcov avTo/jbdroov fiaXaveicov ear*. 

15. Merd Be ttjv 'lepdiroXiv rd irepav tov 
MaidvBpov, rd p,ev 3 Trepl AaoBUeiav Kal 'Acppo- 
BiatdBa Kal Ta p^e^pi Kapovpcov eipr)Tai. Ta B* 
e£r)? earl Ta /nev tt/jo? Bvaiv, r) tcov ' Avrio^ecov 
ttoXis tcov eirl MaidvSpcp, Ttjs Kaplas r]Brj' Ta Be 
7rpo? votov 7) Klfivpd eariv 7] /leydXrj Kal 7) HivBa 
Kal r) Ka/3aXi? 4 p-k^pi tov Tavpov Kal Tr)<? AvKias. 
i) fiev ovv ' AvTio'xeia fxerpia iroXis earlv eV avrco 
Keipevrj tco MaidvBpco Kara to tt/)o? ttj <£>pv<yia 
liepos, iire^evKTai Be yecpupa' yjMpav B* e%et 
7roXXr)v icp 1 eKarepa tov Trora/iou, irdaav ev&ai- 
fiova, irXeiarrjit Be cpepei ttjv koXov fxkvtjv ' Avtlo- 
XiK7]v laydBa, ttjv Be avrr)v Kal Tpt(j)vXXov 
ovo/xd^ovaiv evaeiaTO<; Be Kal o^to? eariv 6 
tottos. qocpiarr)? Be irapd tovtois evSogo? yeyevr)- 

1 Instead of tovtov, Did and Corais read ovtu. 

2 toIs Fxz, reus other MSS. 

3 After fi4v t E and Meineke read olv. 

* Ka&a\ls, the editors, for Ka/8aAafs, all MSS. except DA, 
which read KafiaWats. 

188 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 14-15 

to all who are maimed in this way or only to those 
round the temple, or whether it is because of divine 
providence, as would be likely in the case of divine 
obsessions, or whether it is the result of certain 
physical powers that are antidotes against the 
vapour. The changing of water into stone is said 
also to be the case with the rivers in Laodiceia, 
although their water is potable. The water at 
Hierapolis is remarkably adapted also to the dyeing 
of wool, so that wool dyed with the roots 1 rivals 
that dyed with the coccus 2 or with the marine 
purple. 3 And the supply of water is so abundant 
that the city is full of natural baths. 

15. After Hierapolis one comes to the parts on 
the far side of the Maeander ; I have already de- 
scribed 4 those round Laodiceia and Aphrodisias and 
those extending as far as Carura. The next there- 
after are the parts towards the west, I mean the 
city of the Antiocheians on the Maeander, where 
one finds himself already in Caria, and also the parts 
towards the south, I mean Greater Cibyra and Sinda 
and Cabalis, extending as far as the Taurus and 
Lycia. Now Antiocheia is a city of moderate size, 
and is situated on the Maeander itself in the region 
that lies near Phrygia, and there is a bridge over 
the river. Antiocheia has considerable territory on 
each side of the river, which is everywhere fertile, 
and it produces in greatest quantities the "Anti- 
ocheian" dried fig, as it is called, though they also 
name the same fig " three-leaved. '' This region, too, 
is much subject to earthquakes. Among these people 

1 Madder-root. 2 Kermes-berries. 

8 Using this particular water, of course. 
* 12. 8. 13, 16, 17. 

189 




STRABO 

rat AtOTpe</>r;9, ov Biij/covcrev 'T/fyea?, 6 tcad* 
f)iia<; yevo/uevos /xey terror pijrwp. 

16. Xo\vfiov<$ S' elvai cfjaai tov<; Ka/3a\etV * 
•n}? yovv Tepfirjaa-iwv 2 atcpas 6 vTrep/celfievos 
\6(f)o<? reaXeiTai XoXvfxos, teal avrol Be ol Tepfirja- 
(76t? 3 ZoKvfjiot, Kakovvrai. irX^aiov 8' earl teal 
o TSeWepcxfiovTov X (! P a £ Kai o HeiadvBpov rdefros 
tov vlov, ireaovTos ev rfj 7rpb<; XoXvfiov? p>d)£r}. 
ravra Be koX tois * vtto tov ttoitjtov Xeyofievoc? 
o/JLoXoyelrar irepl fiev yap tov BeXXepocpovTOV 
<j>7](riv ovtcds' 

Bevrepov av HoXvfioiai fia^eaaaTO /cvBaXlfioiar 

rrepl Be tov 7ratSo? avTov' 

C 631 TieiaavBpov 5 Be ol vlov "Ap77? cito<; iroXefioio 
fiapvafievov XoXvfioiai KdTeKTavev. 

7] Be TepfjLT)cro-6<; eoTi UiaiBifcr) ttoXis f) fxdXio-Ta 
teal eyyiGTa virepKeipbevr) tt}? KiQvnas, 

17. AeyovTai Be diroynvai rwboiv ol KcfivpaTai, 
Tcop KaTaayovTwv tt)v KaftaXiBa? vaiepov Be 

YltO'lBcOV TCOV OflOpCOV OLtClO~dvT(t)V 7 /Cal fA€TaKTl- 

advTcov 6t? eTepov tottov eveprceaTaTov ev kvkX<o 
o-TaBlcov irepl eicaTov. rjv^rjOr} Be Bia ttjv evvo/jblav, 
teal al Kcjp,ai irape^eTewav airo TliaiBias ical tt)<? 
6/jLopov MiXvdBos 8 ea>? Av/aa? koX ttj<; 'VoBLwv 

1 KufiaXus X, Kaj8aAAe?s other MSS. 

2 Tep/x-no-aewv, Corais, for Tep/unjaews CDYmoxz, TeA pA\a are wr 
no, TcKpio-ffeoov E. 

3 Instead of Tep^o-a-ets, CDFhx read TeA/irjo-ets, rw TeX/xrjff- 
(rets, Ei Te\fjLi<rf7s. 

4 8e koI to7s, Corais, for 8' I/ccio-tojs CDFhirw, 5' eKaarots 
rols x, 5' (Kaara tchs, 8e roils moz. 

190 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 15-17 

arose a famous sophist, Diotrephes, whose complete 
course was taken by Hybreas, who became the greatest 
orator of my time. 

16. The Cabaleis are said to be the Solymi ; at 
any rate, the hill that lies above the fortress of the 
Termessians is called Solymus, and the Termessians 
themselves are called Solymi. Near by is the 
Palisade of Bellerophon, and also the tomb of his 
son Peisander, who fell in the battle against the 
Solymi. This account agrees also with the words of 
the poet, for he says of Bellerophon, "next he 
fought with the glorious Solymi," x and of his son, 
"and Peisander 2 his son was slain by Ares, insatiate 
of war, when he was fighting with the Solymi." 3 
Termessus is a Pisidian city, which lies directly 
above Cibyra and very near it. 

17. It is said that the Cibyratae are descendants 
of the Lydians who took possession of Cabalis, and 
later of the neighbouring Pisidians, who settled 
there and transferred the city to another site, a 
site very strongly fortified and about one hundred 
stadia in circuit. It grew strong through its good 
laws ; and its villages extended alongside it from 
Pisidia and the neighbouring Milyas as far as Lycia 
and the Peraea 4 of the Rhodians. Three bordering 

1 Iliad 6. 184. 

2 The Homeric text reads "Isander" (see 12. 8. 5). 

3 Iliad 6. 203. 4 Mainland territory. 

6 Instead of TlelaavSpov, E reads YliaavUpov. The Homeric 
text has "laavhpov. 

6 KaBa\l8a, the editors, for KafiaWlia. 

' VFhorz read oiK^aavTwv. 

8 MiAwi5o5, Tzschueke, for MiAiaSoj, 

191 



STRABO 

Trepaias' irpoayevojxevwv Be rpirav TroXewv ofiopcov, 
Boufiwvo?, 1 BdXftovpwv, OlvodvBwv, 2 TeTpdiroXi? 
to avarrjpa itcXijd-r), piav etcdarrj^ -^rrj^ov e%oi/- 
0-779, Bvo Be rf}<; Kifivpas' eaTeWe yap avrr) 
ire^tav pev rpets pvpidBas, unreal Be 8to-%t\iou?' 
ervpavvelro 8' del, craxfrpovw? 8' o/xo)?* eirl Moa- 
yerov 8' r) rvpavvls Te\o? ecr^e, KaraXvaavTo^ 
avrrjv Movprjvd koi Av/ciois irpoooplaavTos ra 
3d\/3ovpa /cal rr)v Bof/SaW* ovBev 8' rjrrov ev 
Tat? peylara^ e^erd^erac BioiKyjaeat, rr)<; 'Aota? 
7) K.i/3upa,TiKi]. rerrapai Be y\(t)TTCLi$ e\po>vro 
ol Ki/Svparai, rfj UtcriBiKT), rfj ^.oXvprav, rrj 
'EiWrjviBi, rfj AvBwv tt)? AvBwv 3 Be ol»8' i^vo? 
ecrrlv ev AvBla. XBiov 8' earlv ev K.t/3vpa to tov 
alBrjpov Topeveadca paBicos. MtXua 4 8' iarlv 
7) dirb twv /card Tepprjao-bv arevcov koX tt}? eh 
to evrbs tov Tavpov virepOecrews Bi avrtov eVt 
"laivBa Trapareuvovaa opeivr) pex.pi %aya\ao-o~ov 
ical t% ' Airapeo)v %<woa9. 

1 Bov&avos, Tzschucke, for Bov&ovvwv C, BovfSwvuv other 
MSS. 

2 Olvod"Sa>v, Tzschucke, for Olvodvhpov. 

3 tt5$ Au5«j', Miiller-Diibner insert; rvv i, tovttjs certain 
editors. 



192 



GEOGRAPHY, 13. 4. 17 

cities were added to it, Bubon, Balbura, and 
Oenoanda, and the union was called Tetrapolis, 
each of the three having one vote, but Cibyra two ; 
for Cibyra could send forth thirty thousand foot- 
soldiers and two thousand horse. It was always 
ruled by tyrants; but still they ruled it with 
moderation. However, the tyranny ended in the 
time of Moagetes, when Murena overthrew it and 
included Balbura and Bubon within the territory of 
the Lycians. But none the less the jurisdiction of 
Cibyra is rated among the greatest in Asia. The 
Cibyratae used four languages, the Pisidian, that of 
the Solymi, Greek, and that of the Lydians ; x but 
there is not even a trace of the language of the 
Lydians in Lydia. The easy embossing of iron is 
a peculiar thing at Cibyra. Milya is the mountain- 
range extending from the narrows at Termessus and 
from the pass that leads over through them to the 
region inside the Taurus towards Isinda, as far as 
Sagalassus and the country of the Apameians. 

1 See A. H. Sayce, Anatolian Studies presented to Sir 
William Mitchell Ramsay, p. 396. 

* Instead of Mi\va, DE read Mv\ia, oz Mt\la. 



193 
G 2 



BOOK XIV 



IA' 

I 

C 632 1. Aoiirbv B* earlv elirelv irepl 'Icovaw Kal 
Kapcov kcl\ t?5? efo) rov Tavpov irapaXLas, fjv 
eypvai Avkiol re teal Xld^vXoi 1 Kal K.lXiK€<i' 
ovto) yap av e^ot TeXo? rj ixdaa tt)? ^eppovrjaov 
TrepiTjyrjais, 979 IctO/jlov e^a/xev ttjv virepj3acnv ttjv 

€K T% TloVTIKfjS 0a\aTT7)<; 67rl TT)V 'laCTlKljv. 

2. v E<rT£ Be t>}? *Ia>vCas 6 fiev TreplirXovs 6 
irapa yrjv araBiwv irov r pio-yCXiwv rerpafcoaicov 
TpLCLKOvra Bid rov? koXttov? teal Bed to x e P~ 
povrjaL^eiv iirl irXelov rrjv ^copav, to B* eir 
evOeias p,r}KO<; ov iroXv. avrb ovv to ef 'Ecpeaov 
pky^pi H/jLvpvrjs oBbs fiev eanv eV ev9ela<$ rpia- 
kogiol eLKocTi ardBioi' et? yap MrjrpoiroXiv ktcarbv 
teal eiKoai ardBioi, 01 Xonrol Be et? ^{ivpvav, 
TreplirXovs Be fiiKpbv dTroXeiiTwv rcov Bta-^iXlcov 
teal Biatcoaiwv. eari 8' ovv dirb rov UoaetBiov 
rov yiiXrjalwv ical rwv Kapitccov opwv 2 fi€^pt 
$>(OKaia<; Kal rov "T&p/juov to 7reoa? rr}$ 'Icovi/cfjs 
7rapa\ta?. 

3. TavTrjs Be <j)7]ai Qepe/cvBti? MiXrjrov p,ev Kal 
WLvovvra Kal rd irepl MvKaXrjv Kal "Efao-ov 

1 Tldfi<pv\oi DF ; Ylafx<pv\ioL other MSS. 

2 fipav, Groskurd, for 6pwv ; so the later editors. 



196 



For map of Asia Minor, see Vol. V (at end). 



BOOK XIV 

I 

l. 1 It remains for me to speak of the Ionians and 
the Carians and the seaboard outside the Taurus, 
which last is occupied by Lycians, Pamphylians, and 
Cilicians ; for in this way I can finish my entire 
description of the peninsula, the isthmus of which, 
as 1 was saying, 2 is the road which leads over from 
the Pontic Sea to the Issic Sea. 

2. The coasting voyage round Ionia is about three 
thousand four hundred and thirty stadia, this dis- 
tance being so great because of the gulfs and the 
fact that the country forms a peninsula of unusual 
extent ; but the distance in a straight line across the 
isthmus is not great. For instance, merely the 
distance from Ephesus to Smyrna is a journey, in a 
straight line, of three hundred and twenty stadia, 
for the distance to Metropolis is one hundred and 
twenty stadia and the remainder to Smyrna, whereas 
the coasting voyage is but slightly short of two 
thousand two hundred. Be that as it may, the 
bounds of the Ionian coast extend from the 
Poseidium of the Milesians, and from the Carian 
frontiers, as far as Phocaea and the Hermus River, 
which latter is the limit of the Ionian seaboard. 

3. Pherecydes says concerning this seaboard that 
Miletus and Myus and the parts round Mycale and 

• 12. 1. 3. 

197 



STRABO 

Kapas eyziv irpoTepov, ttjv S' ef% irapaXiav 
pexpi <&(0tcaLa<; teal Xiov /cat Xd/Liov, 1 17? 'Ay/calos 
rjpX e > AeXeya<i' €K/3Xr)0r)vai B' d/j,(f)OTepov<; virb 
twv ^\aivQ)v, Kal eh rd Xotird fieprj t/}9 Kaplan 
eKireaelv. dp^ai Be rf>r)o~iv "AvBpOKXov rrj<i rtov 
'Icovcov airoiKias, varepov t/)? AioXikt)^, viov 
yvrjaiov K.6Bpov tov ' AOrjvcov fiacnXecos, yeveaOat 
C 633 Be tovtov 'Ecfreaov ktigt^v Bioirep to ftaaikeiov 
TOiv 'Icovcov e/cel avarrjvai $aar Kal ere vvv oi 
etc tov yevovs ovofid^ovTai ftaaiXels, e%ovTe<; riva? 
Tipd<;, irpoeBpiav re ev dywai Kal iropfyvpav enri- 
arj/iov tov fiaaiXiKOi) yevovs, o~Ki7rtova dvrl o~kt)TT- 
rpou, Kal rd lepd tt)? 'EXevo-cvlas Ar]fxrjrpo<i. Kal 
MlXtjtov B' eKTiaev N^Xeu? ck UvXov to yevos 
a>v oi re MeacnjviOL Kal oi TlvXioi avyyeveidv 
riva irpoairoiovvTai, KaO' r)v Kal Meaarjviov rov 
Nearopa oi vecoTepoi (paai TroLrjrai, Kal rot? irepl 
MeXavdov rov KoBpov irarepa iroXXoix; Kal rcov 
TLvXlcov o~vve£dpai fyaaiv el$ rd? ' A6r]va<i' tovtov 
Br) irdvTa tov Xaov fxeTa tcov 'loovcov koivtj aTelXai 
tt)v aTToiKiav. tov Be NrjXeMS eirl t& YioaeiBiw 
(3(o/j.b<; r iBpvp.a BeUvvTai. KvBpi)Xo<; Be voOos 
vibs KoSoou MvovvTa KTi^er ' ' AvBpoTrojnro^ Be 
AefteBov, KaTaXafBofievo? tottov Tivd " Aprw 
KoXocpcova £' 'AvBpalficov 2 TlvXios, oj? (f)r)o~i Kal 
Mlfivepfio? ev Navvol' Ilpirjvrjv B' Alttvtos 6 
NrjXews, eW vcrTepov <£>iXooTa$ eV (dr}/3a>v Xabv 
dyay'ov Tea) Be ' ' AOdfxa^ fiev irpoTepov y Bioirep 
'AOa/iavTiBa KaXel avTrjv 'AvaKpecov, KaTa Be 

1 For Xiov and 2d/xov Kramer conj. Xiov and 2d/xov. 

2 'Av8pe/j.u>v CFsxz. 

1 A fragment (Bergk 10) otherwise unknown. 
198 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 3. 

Ephesus were in earlier times occupied by Carians, 
and that the coast next thereafter, as far as Phocaea 
and Chios and Samos, which were ruled by Ancaeus, 
was occupied by Leleges, but that both were driven 
out by the lonians and took refuge in the remaining 
parts of Caria. He says that Androclus, legitimate 
son of Codrus the king of Athens, was the leader 
of the Ionian colonisation, which was later than 
the Aeolian, and that he became the founder of 
Ephesus ; and for this reason, it is said, the royal 
seat of the lonians was established there. And still 
now the descendants of his family are called kings ; 
and they have certain honours, I mean the privilege 
of front seats at the games and of wearing purple 
robes as insignia of royal descent, and staff instead 
of sceptre, and of the superintendence of the 
sacrifices in honour of the Eleusinian Demeter. 
Miletus was founded by Neleus, a Pylian by birth. 
The Messenians and the Pylians pretend a kind of 
kinship with one another, according to which the 
more recent poets call Nestor a Messenian ; and 
they say that many of the Pylians accompanied 
Melanthus, father of Codrus, and his followers to 
Athens, and that, accordingly, all this people sent 
forth the colonising expedition in common with the 
lonians. There is an altar, erected by Neleus, to 
be seen on the Poseidium. Myus was founded by 
Cydrel us, bastard son of Codrus; Lebedus by Andro- 
pompus, who seized a place called Artis ; Colophon 
by Andraemon a Pylian, according to Mimnermus in 
his Xanno ; x Priene by Aepytus the son of Neleus, 
and then later by Philotas, who brought a Colony 
from Thebes ; Teos, at first by Athamas, for which 
reason it is by Anacreon called Athamantis, and at 

199 



STRABO 

rriv 'Icoviterjv drroitciav NavteXo? vlbs KoBpov 
voOos, teal pera rovrov " Airoiteos 1 teal Adpaaos 
'Adrjvaloi teal Teprjs 2 ite V>oiwt&v 'EpvOpd? Be 
K^W7T09, teal ovro? f/o? KoBpov voOov Qwicaiav 
S' 01 pera <&iXoyevov<; 'A@7]valor K\a£opeva$ 
Be TldpaXov Xioi> Be ^EyepnoSj avppiterov erra- 
yopevos ir\r}6o^' Xdp,ov Be Tep/3pi,cov, 3 eW varepov 

4. Avrat pev BcoBe/ea 'Icovitcal iroXeis, rrpoae- 
\i']<p07] Be xpovois varepov /cal HLp,vpva, els rb 
'lwvitcbv ivayayovrcov 'E<f>eaLwv rjaav yap avrols 
avvoi/eou rb rraXaiov, rjvitca teal Spvpva eteaXelro 
7) u E(f)eao<i' teal KaWti'o? ttov ovtcos wvopatcev 
avrijv, ^p,vpvaLov<i rov<? 'Efaaiovs tcaXwv ev ra> 
77730? rbv Aia Xoyfp' 

^pvpvaiowz o° eXerjaov 
teal irdXiv 

pvijaai B y eiteore roi p,rjpta teaXa f3owp 
^pLVpvaloL tcaretcriav. 5 
^pvpva B' rjv 'Apa^cbv 77 tcaraayovaa rr)v "Ecpeaov, 
a<p' r)$ rovvopa teal Tot? dvd pair oi<$ teal rfj iroXei, 
&)<? teal drrb "Eiavpfii]*; "%iavp$lrai rives r&v 
'Efeaicov ekeyovro' teal totto? Be tl$ rrjs 'Ecpeaov 
Ipvpva eteaXelro, a>? BrjXol ^Yrnrwva^' 

(pteei 5' o-niaOe tt}? ttoXtjos ev Xpvpvrj 

p,era%v Tprj^eiTj^ re teal Ae7rpf}s d/crr}?. 

eteaXelro yap Aeirprj pev atcr?) 6 YIpicov 6 virepfcei- 

pevos t/)? vvv iroXews, e^wv pepo<; rod Tet^ou? 

avrr}<;' ra yovv oiriaOev rov Hpiwvo? ter?]pLara 

1 "kirotKos, Tzschucke, for Uoikt/js F, Uvkvtjs x, Yioitthtis other 

MSS. 
200 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 3-4 

the time of the Ionian colonisation by Nauclus, 
bastard son of Codrus, and after him by Apoecus 
and Damasus, who were Athenians, and Geres, a 
Boeotian ; Erythrae by Cnopus, he too a bastard son 
of Codrus ; Phocaea by the Athenians under Plrilo- 
genes ; Clazomenae by Paralus; Chios by Egertius, 
who brought with him a mixed crowd; Samos by 
Tembrion, and then later by Procles. 

4. These are the twelve Ionian cities, 1 but at a 
later time Smyrna was added, being induced by 
the Ephesians to join the Ionian League ; for the 
Ephesians were fellow-inhabitants of the Smyrnaeans 
in ancient times, when Ephesus was also called 
Smyrna. And Callinus somewhere so names it, when 
he calls the Ephesians Smyrnaeans in the prayer 
to Zeus, "and pity the Smyrnaeans"; and again, 
" remember, if ever the Smyrnaeans burnt up beau- 
tiful thighs of oxen in sacrifice to thee." 2 Smyrna 
was an Amazon who took possession of Ephesus ; and 
hence the name both of the inhabitants and of the 
city, just as certain of the Ephesians were called 
Sisyrbitae after Sisyrbe. Also a certain place be- 
longing to Ephesus was called Smyrna, as Hipponax 
plainly indicates : a He lived behind the city in 
Smyrna between Tracheia and Lepra Acte " ; 3 for 
the name Lepra Acte was given to Mt. Prion, which 
lies above the present city and has on it a part of the 
city's wall. At any rate, the possessions behind Prion 

1 8. 7. 1. 2 Frag. 2 (Bergk). 8 Frag. 44 (Bergk). 

2 rtpys, the editors, for yap ^v. 

3 Ten&pio»v, the editors, for TrfuBplwv. 

* Instead of npoK\?]s, moxz read narpoK\ris (cp.Etym. Mag. 
s. v.). 

3 'S.fivpvaioi KaT€K7)a.j>, Jones inserts, from oonj. of Corais. 

201 



STRABO 

C 631 en vvvl Xeyerac iv rrj 'Oirio-OoXeTrpLa' Tpayeta 
6 €/ca\€iTO tj irepi rov i\.opy]aaov irapoipeio^. rj 
Be ttoXkj rjv to iraXaiov irepl to ' AOrjvaiov to 
vvv e!j<o ttj<; 7roX6Ct)«? 6> Kara rr)v /caXovpevrjv 
'TireXaiov, coare rj %p,vpva rjv Kara to vvv yvp,- 
vddiov oiriadev p,ev t?;? vvv x 7toXg&)?, pbera^v 
Be Tp7]^6i7]<; re zeal AeTrpfjs 2 d/CTr)?. a7re\#oz;Te? 
Be irapa twv 'EcpeaLcov ol *5*p.vpvaloi arparevovaiv 
iirl rbv tottov, iv o5 vvv iarlv 7) 'Zpvpva, AeXeycov 
KaT€Xovra)v i/c/3a\6vres 6° avTovs k/criaav rrjv 
iraXaidv Xfivpvav, Ste^ovaav t?}? vvv irepl et/coai 
aTaoiovs. varepov Be biro AloXecov i/cireaovre^ 
tcarefyvyov ei9 KoXocfroova, fcal pier a rwv ivOevBe 
€7ti6vt€<; rrjv crfyerepav direXa/3ov icaOdirep /cal 
Mipveppo? iv rff Navvol (frpd^ei, puvrjaOeU tj)? 
%p,vpvi}<;, on TrepipLaxrjTos der 

fjp,el<; alirv 3 TivXov 4 NrjXrfiov darv Xiirovre? 

ip,€prr)v 'Aaurjv vr]vcr\v dcpi/copieOa. 
6? 6" iparrjv 5 K.oXo<pcova (BLrjv virepoirXov 
exovres 

e^opeO' dpyaXirj? vftpios rjyepoves. 
iceldev 8' 'AcrT^e^TO? 6 diropvvpevoi irorapolo 

0ecov (BovXf) lipivpvav eiXopev 7 AloXlBa. 

ravra p.ev irepl rovrcov icfcoBevreov Be irdXiv ra 
fcaO' e/caara, rrjv dpyrjv dirb rcov rjyepLoviKWTepwv 

1 Instead of vvv, F reads irore ; whence Kramer conj. 
irore and Meineke reads t6tc. 

2 A«7rp^s, the editors, for Aeirplys. 

3 Instead of alirv, F reads iird ; re, after al-nv, the editors 
since Hopper omit, except Meineke, who writes rj/xeh S-qi/re 
for alirv t«. 

4 Uv\ov Bergk, for UC\ov, which latter Meineke retains. 

202 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 4 

are still now referred to as in the " opistholeprian " 
territory, 1 and the country alongside the mountain 
round Coressus was called "Tracheia." 2 The city 
was in ancient times round the Athenaeum, which 
is now outside the city near the Hypelaeus, 3 as it 
is called ; so that Smyrna was near the present 
gymnasium, behind the present city, but between 
Tracheia and Lepra Acte. On departing from the 
Ephesians, the Smyrnaeans marched to the place 
where Smyrna now is, which was in the possession 
of the Leleges, and, having driven them out, they 
founded the ancient Smyrna, which is about twenty 
stadia distant from the present Smyrna. But later, 
being driven out by the Aeolians, they fled for 
refuge to Colophon, and then with the Colophonians 
returned to their own land and took it back, as 
Mimnermus tells us in his Nanno, after recalling that 
Smyrna was always an object of contention : " After 
we left Pylus, the steep city of Neleus, we came by 
ship to lovely Asia, and with our overweening might 
settled in beloved Colophon, taking the initiative in 
grievous insolence. And from there, setting out from 
the Asteeis River, by the will of the gods we took 
Aeolian Smyrna." 4 So much, then, on this subject. 
But I must again go over the several parts in detail, 

1 i.e. in the territory "behind Lepra." 

2 i.e. " Rugged " country. 

3 A fountain. * Frag. 9 (Bergk). 

6 iparrtv, Wyttenbach, for &pa t4)v ; so the editors. 
6 5* 'Ao-rfovTos is doubtful (see C. Miiller, Ind. Var. Lect. 
p. 1028) ; CF02 read Siao-TfavTus ; the editors before Kramer, 

5* 'AtTTVfPTOS. 

1 *Uo/x(i>, Clavier, for (ttona> ; so the editors. 

203 



STRABO 

roTTcov 7rotr)(ra/x€vov<;, eft 1 oivrrep real Trpwrov ai 
tericreis eyevovro, Xeyca Be roiv ire pi MiXrjrov 
zeal *Ei(f)€<rop' avrav yap apcarai 7ro\et? teal 
evBo^orarai. 

5. Mera Be to WoaelBiov to MtXrjo-icov efr)? 
cctI to fiavrelov rov Ai$v/jl€C0$ ' AttoXXwvo? to iv 
Bpa/y^/ Bats, dv a ft dim oaov 6/cTcofcaiBetca cnahiovs' 
iveirprjaOr] $ vtto E,ep%ov, KaBdirep kol rd aXXa 
lepd ttXtjv rov iv 'E$eo-&v ol Be BpayxtBai toi)? 
Orjaavpov? rov Oeov TrapaBovres ra> Tlepcrr) (pev- 
yovri avvaTrrjpav, rov p,rj ilaai BLtcas t% lepocru- 
Xias KaX rrj<; irpoBoaia?. varepov £' ol MiXtfo-ioi 
pAyiGTOv vecov rcov iravrtov tcarea/eevao-av, Biep,eive 
Be %ft)/oi? 6po<f>r]<; Bid to /jueyeOo^' kgo/jlt]? yovv 
kcltoikiclv 6 rov ar]Kov irepiftoXo^ BeBetcrai teal 
dXaos evTos re teal eVTO? iroXvreXes' aXXoi Be 
o-rjKol to fxavrelov teal rd lepd Gweyovaiv eviavda 
Be /jLvOeverai rd irepl rov Bpdy%ov real rov epcora 
tov 'AttoXXcovos' K€Koo-/j,rjrai B* dva6r\iiao~i rwv 
dp^alcov reyy&v TroXvreXeo-TaTa' evrevdev 8' eirl 
ttjv ttoXlv oi) ttoXXt) oBos iariv, ovBe ttXovs. 

6. <f>r)o-l 8' v E$ooo? to irpoiTov Kriap,a elvat 
KprjTi/cov, virep tt}? OaXdrrr)^ Teredo- pukvov, orrov 
vvv t) TraXai MtA-^To? eo~ri, %apirr)B6vo^ etc 
MiXtfrov t?}? Kpr)TiKr)<; dyayovro? olicrjTopas KaX 

C 635 Oe/ievov rovvofia rfj iroXet t?}? i>cel 7ro\eo)? eircovv- 
fiop, KaTeyovrwv irporepov KeXeywv tov tqttov 
toi>? Be irep\ NrjXea vo-repov rrjv vvv reL^cai 
ttoXiv. €%ei Be rerrapa? Xifievas r) vvv, a>v eva 
tcai aroX(p l/cavov. 7roXXa Be t?}? TroXeco^ epya 

1 i<p\ Corais, for a<p\ 
204 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 4-6 

beginning with the principal places, those where 
the foundings first took place, I mean those round 
Miletus and Ephesus ; for these are the best and 
most famous cities. 

5. Next after the Poseidium of the Milesians, 
eighteen stadia inland, is the oracle of Apollo 
Didymeus among the Branchidae. 1 It was set on 
fire by Xerxes, as were also the other temples, 
except that at Ephesus. The Branchidae gave over 
the treasures of the god to the Persian king, and 
accompanied him in his flight in order to escape 
punishment for the robbing and the betrayal of the 
temple. But later the Milesians erected the largest 
temple in the world, though on account of its size it 
remained without a roof. At any rate, the circuit 
of the sacred enclosure holds a village settlement ; 
and there is a magnificent sacred grove both inside 
and outside the enclosure ; and other sacred en- 
closures contain the oracle and the shrines. Here 
is laid the scene of the myth of Branchus and the 
love of Apollo. The temple is adorned with costliest 
offerings consisting of early works of art Thence to 
the city is no long journey, by land or by sea. 

6. Ephorus says : Miletus was first founded and 
fortified above the sea by the Cretans, where the 
Miletus of olden times is now situated, being settled 
by Sarpedon, who brought colonists from the Cretan 
Miletus and named the city after that Miletus, the 
place formerly being in the possession of the 
Leleges; but later Neleus and his followers fortified 
the present city. The present city has four harbours, 
one of which is large enough for a fleet. Many are 

1 i.e. at Didyma. On this temple see Herod. 1. 46, 5. 36, 
6. 19. 

205 



STRABO 

Taurrjs, fieyiaTov he to ttXtjOos twv diroiteiwv 1 
6 T€ yap Ev£eivo<; ttovtos xjtto tovtwv awco/ciarai 
7ra? teal rj \\ porcovTls koX dXXoi irXeiov*; tottoi. 
'Avafji/ievTis yovv 6 Aafiy\raierivos ovrco efyrjaiv, on 
teal 'lteapov rr/v vrjerov teal Aepov NLiXtfcrtoi crvveo- 
Kioav kqX irepl '\LX\rja7rovTOV ev fiev rrj Xe/>- 
povtjaa) Aipvas, ev he rfj ' Aaia "Aftu&ov, "Apio-ftav, 
Haiaov* ev he rfj KvtyterjVMV vrjaw 'ApTa/erjv, 
K.v%iteov ev he rfj pe&oyala tt)<; Tpwdhos *£tef)-^nv 
rjfAeis 8' ev to*? tead' e/cao-ra Xeyopev teal ra<$ 
aXXa? Ta? vtto tovtov TrapaXeXei/jLfievas. OvXiov 
h ' AiroXXwva teaXovaL nva teal MiXrjo'ioL zeal 
ArjXioi, olov vytaaiiKov teal iracwvLteov to yap 
ovXecv vyiaiveiv, a<j6' ov zeal to ovXrj teal to 

ovXe re teal fxeya 2 %atpe* 

laTitchs yap 6 ' AiroXXoiv teal r) "ApTe/u? airo tov 
apTefieas iroielv teal 6 f 'H\*o? he teal r) XeXrjvrj 
avvoitceiovvrai, tovtois, oti tt)? irepl tov<s depa<; 
evKpao~ia<; aircor teal rd Xoi/jLtted he irdOr) teal 
tou? avTOfidrovs davdrov? tovtols avdirrovai tols 
6eoh. 

7. "Avhpes 6° d^LOi fivrjfJLT}^ eyevovro iv Trj 
MiXrJTO) OaX?5? re, el? rcov eirrd croifreov, 6 7t/?g)to? 
cf)vo~io\oyia$ apgas ev rols "EXXrjcri, teal p,adr\- 
parifer}?, teal 6 tovtov fiaOrjTr)*; ' Ava£ip,avhpo<; 
teal 6 tovtov irdXiv 'Avatji/jLevr]?, en S' 'E/caTato? 
6 rrjv laroplav avvTa^as, tea@* ^/xa? he Ala^Lvrj<i 

1 airoiKiwv, x and the editors, instead of a-KoiKwv. 

2 The Homeric text has /j.<L\a instead of ,1*670. 



1 i.e. a "healed wound " ; also a *'scar." 

2 i.e. "safe and sound." * The Sun-god. 
206 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 6-7 

the achievements of this city, but the greatest is the 
number of its colonisations ; for the Euxine Pontus 
has been colonised everywhere by these people, as 
also the Propontis and several other regions. At 
any rate, Anaximenes of Lampsacus says that the 
Milesians colonised the islands Icaros and Leros ; 
and, near the Hellespont, Limnae in the Cherso- 
nesus, as also Abydus and Arisba and Paesus in 
Asia ; and Artace and Cyzicus in the island of 
the Cyziceni ; and Scepsis in the interior of the 
Troad. I, however, in my detailed description speak 
of the other cities, which have been omitted by 
him. Both Milesians and Delians invoke an Apollo 
" Ulius," that is, as god of "health and healing," 
for the verb "ulein" means "to be healthy"; 
whence the noun " ule " *• and the salutation, " Both 
health and great joy to thee"; for Apollo is the 
god of healing. And Artemis has her name from 
the fact that she makes people " Artemeas." 2 And 
both Helius 3 and Selene 4 are closely associated with 
these, since they are the causes of the temperature 
of the air. And both pestilential diseases and 
sudden deaths are imputed to these gods. 

7. Notable men were born at Miletus: Thales, 
one of the Seven Wise Men, the first to begin the 
science of natural philosophy 5 and mathematics 
among the Greeks, and his pupil Anaximander, and 
again the pupil of the latter, Anaximenes, and also 
Hecataeus, the author of the History, and, in my 
time, Aeschines the orator, wfto remained in exile 

4 The Moon -goddess. 

6 Literally "physiology," which again shows the perversion 
of Greek scientific names in English (cf. Vol. I, p. 27, foot- 
note 2). 

207 



STRABO 

6 prjrcop, o? ev <f>vyfj Bi€TeXe(T€> irappr](jiaad/jL€vo<; 
irepa rov fierplov irpb? Uo/jltttJiov Mdyvov. r)rv- 
XV a€ & V ttoXis, diroKKeiaacra 'AXeljavBpov fcal 
pia \7](f)6€L(Ta, Kadairep koX * AXiKapv euro?* en Be 
irporepov virb Uepacov kcli (f)t]crL ye KaXXiaOevt)*;, 
viT ' Adrjvaicov x*Xmu? Bpa^ah ^rjfxtcoOrjvai <Ppv- 
viyov rov rpayifcov, Bioti Spdfia eiroirjae hliXrfrov 
dXcocnv virb Aapeiov. TTpoKenai 8' r) AdB*] vrjaos 
i:\r\aiov fcal rd 1 irepl rd? Tpayala<i vrjala, 
vcj)6p/jLov<; eyovra Xyarah. 

8. 'Ef?}? 8' earlv 6 AaTputcbs 2 koXttos, ev oj 
'Hoa/tAeta rj virb Adrfiw XeyopLevq, iroXixyiov 
vcf)op/jLOV exov etcaXetTO Be irpbiepov AdrpLOS 
6/jlcovv/jL(o<; t<£ vnepfcei/ieva) opei, oirep 'E/taxato? 
fiev ep,$aivei to avrb eivai vop,i£cov tw virb rov 
itoi7]tov <&deipS)V opei \eyo/jL€P(p (virep yap Try? 
AdrpLOV (prjal to ^deipwv opos /ceio~0ai), rives 

C 636 Be to Ypiov <j>aaiv, a>? av ira pdXXrjXov to) 
Adrfifp dvrjKOV dirb rrj<; M.iXr)o~ias irpbs ew Bid 
Tr)? Kaplan p<€xpi Rvpd>/jLov koX XaX/crjTopwv 
virepKeirai Be ravrrjs ev v^jrei. 3 fxircpov £' dirusdev 
BiafidvTi TTOTa/jLLatcov 7roo? toS Adr/Aw Bei/cvvrai 
Ta</)09 "YLvBvfilwvos ev nvi (mrjXala)' elra d<fi 
'HpaKXeias eVl Hvppav TroXiyyr)v ttXovs eKaibv 
ttov araBlcov. 

9. Mifcpbv Be irXeov to dirb MiXtfrov eh 
'Hpd/cXeiav eyfcoXiri^ovTi, evOvirXoia 8' eh livp- 

1 rd, omitted by MSS. except E. 

2 Aar/xiKos, Xylander, for A-qrofnjKSs F, Aaro/xfiiKSs s, 
Aarofwciis other MSS. 

3 For ttyei Groskurd conj. ctyet, and Meineke so reads. 

208 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 7-9 

to the end, since he spoke freely, beyond modera- 
tion, before Pompey the Great. But the city was 
unfortunate, since it shut its gates against Alexander 
and was taken by force, as was also the case with 
Halicarnassus ; and also, before that time, it was 
taken by the Persians. And Callisthenes says that 
Phrynichus the tragic poet was fined a thousand 
drachmas by the Athenians because he wrote a play 
entitled The Capture of Miletus by Dareius. The 
island Lade lies close in front of Miletus, as do also 
the isles in the neighbourhood of the Tragaeae, 
which afford anchorage for pirates. 

8. Next comes the Latmian Gulf, on which is 
situated w Heracleia below Latmus," as it is called, 
a small town that has an anchoring-place. It was at 
first called Latmus, the same name as the mountain 
that lies above it, which Hecataeus indicates, in his 
opinion, to be the same as that which by the poet 
is called "the mountain of the Phtheires " x (for he 
says that the mountain of the Phtheires lies above 
Latmus), though some say that it is Mt. Grium, which 
is approximately parallel to Latmus and extends 
inland from Milesia towards the east through Caria 
to Euromus and Chalcetores. 2 This mountain lies 
above Heracleia, and at a high elevation. 3 At 
a slight distance away from it, after one has crossed 
a little river near Latmus, there is to be seen the 
sepulchre of Endymion, in a cave. Then from 
Heracleia to Pyrrha, a small town, there is a voyage 
of about one hundred stadia. 

9. But the voyage from Miletus to Heracleia, 
including the sinuosities of the gulfs, is a little more 

1 Iliad 2. 868. a See 14. 2. 22. 

3 Or rather, perhaps, "and in sight of it" (see critical note). 

209 



STRABO 

pav €K Mi\t]tov rpid/covra' roaavrrjv e%ei 
fMLKpoTTopiav 6 irapd yrjv ttXovs. dpdy/crj 8' 
eirl tcov evBo^cov tottgov viro^eveiv to TrepiGiceKes 
tt}<; TOiavTJis yecoypacpias. 

10. 'Ek Be Yivppas eirl rrjv ifcf3o\r]v rov 
hlaidvBpov ireinrjKOvra' revaycoBr]^ 6° 6 to7to? 
kol eXcoBr]^' dvaifkevaavTL 8* {j7r7jperi/coL<; a/cd- 
(fieat, TpiaKovra (ttclBIov? ttoXis Mvovs, pla 
twv 'IdBcov TO)v BcoBerca, f) vvv Bi oXiyavBplav 
Mi\t)(tloi<; av/ji7r67r6XtcrTai. tclvttjv o\jrov Xe- 
yercu QepuaToicXel Bovvcu Bepf?79, dprov Be 
Mayvrjalav, oivov Be Ad/j,y]ra/cov. 

11. "Evflev ev araB'tous Terrapai, kco/jlt) KapLKrj 
©v/jiffpla, irap' f)v"A.opvov icrrt, (Jirr]\aiov lepov, 
Xapwviov Xeyofievov okedpiovs e^ov d7ro(f)opd<;. 
virepiceiTCU Be ^layvrjala rj irpb<; MaidvBpw, 
Mayvr/TGov diroiKia rcov ev SerraXia kol KprjTWV, 
rrepl 77? clvtLkcl epov/xev. 

12. Merd Be rd<; eV/SoXa? rov MaidvBpov 6 
Kara Upirjvrjv earlv alyiaXos, virep avrov £' 1) 
UpirjvT} real Mv/cdXr) to 0009, evOrjpov kol ev- 
BevBpov. €7TL/ceiTaL Be rfj Xafila, ical Troiel irpo<$ 
clvttjv eireKeiva rrjs TproytXlov tcaXov pevrj^ a/cpas 
oaov eTTTaardBiov iropQpLov. Xeyerat, S' vrro 
tivcov r\ Upirjvrj KuB/jLT], eTreiBi) OtXo>Ta? 6 
eiriKTiaa^ avrrjv Bo*amo9 vTrijp^ev €K Tlpirjvr)? 
B y r\v Bta?, els Toov eirrd aocficJbv, irepl ov (prjatv 
outo)? 'iTrTrw^af* 

Kai Bacdaaacrdcu Blclvto*; too Ylpnivea)? 
KpecrcrcDV. 



210 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 9-12 

than one hundred stadia, though that from Miletus 
to Pyrrha, in a straight course, is only thirty — so 
much longer is the journey along the coast. But in 
the case of famous places my reader must needs 
endure the dry part of such geography as this. 

10. The voyage from Pyrrha to the outlet of the 
Maeander River is fifty stadia, a place which consists of 
shallows and marshes ; and, going inland in row- 
boats thirty stadia, one comes to the city Myus, one 
of the twelve Ionian cities, which, on account of its 
sparse population, has now been incorporated into 
Miletus. Xerxes is said to have given this city to 
Themistocles to supply him with fish, Magnesia to 
supply him with bread, and Lampsacus with wine. 

11. Thence, within four stadia, one comes to a 
village, the Carian Thymbria, near which is Aornum, 
a sacred cave, which is called Charonium, since it 
emits deadly vapours. Above it lies Magnesia on 
the Maeander, a colony of the Magnesians of Thessaly 
and the Cretans, of which I shall soon speak. 1 

12. After the outlets of the Maeander comes the 
shore of Priene, above which lies Priene, and also the 
mountain Mycale, which is well supplied with wild 
animals and with trees. This mountain lies above 
the Samian territory 2 and forms with it, on the far 
side of the promontory called Trogilian, a strait 
about seven stadia in width. Priene is by some 
writers called Cadme, since Philotas, who founded 
it, was a Boeotian. Bias, one of the Seven Wise 
Men, was a native of Priene, of whom Hipponax says 
u stronger in the pleading of his cases than Bias of 
Priene." 3 

1 §§ 39-40 following. 2 The isle of Samos. 

• Frag. "J9 1 Bergk). 

211 



STRABO 

13. T779 Be TpwyiXlov irpoKenai vqcrlov o/nco- 
vv/jlov evrevOev Be to eyyvrdrcj Biapfxd iariv 

CTTL "XoVVLOV CTTahitDV ^tXiCOV €J;aKO<TL(t)V, KCLT 

apX^? H^v %ap<ov ev Begta eypvTi real 'Ifcaplav 
Kal Ko/Jtrta?, 1 tou9 Be MeXavTiovs 2 GKOTreXovs 

€% €V(OVVp,Q)V, TO XoiTTOV Be BlO. fl€(TCOV TCOV 

K.v/c\d$(ov vrjarcov. Kal avrrj S* rj TpwyuXios 
aicpa 7T/0O7TOU5 Tt? tt?9 MvKaXrj<; earl. ttj 
MukuXtj B* opo<s dXXo irpocKeiTai T779 'E^ecrta? 
YlafCTvr)*;' Kal rj Meacoyh Be eh avrrjv fcara- 
(rrpecpei. 

14. 'A7to Be T779 Tpwyikiov ardBioL rerra- 
paKovra eh rrjv ^dfiov' (SXeireL Be 777909 vorov 
Kal avTT) Kal 6 Xl/j,i]v, eywv vavaraO/xov. eari 

C 637 o° avrrjv ev eTnireBw to irXeov, vtto t?)<? OaXdrrrj^ 
KXv^ofievov, fiepos Be n Kal eh to 6'po9 dvex^i 
to virepKelfievov. ev Betjia p,ev ovv irpoo-irXeovo-i 
7T00? rrjv ttoXlv earl to UoaeiBiov, aKpa rj 
7roiovo~a 7rpo? rrjv MvKdXrjv rbv eirTaardBiov 
iropd/Jiov, e^ec Be veoav UoaeiBcovo 1 ;' TrpoKeirat 
8' avrov vtjctLBlov rj NapOrjKh' eV dpiarepd Be 
to rrpodcrreiov to 7rpo9 tw f Hyoatco Kal 6 ' J l{JLJ3pacro<; 
TTorafJLOS Kal to 'Hpalov, dpyalov iepov Kal veco<; 
fxeyas, 69 vvv 7nvaKo6?]Krj eari' X w ph Be rod 
TrXrjdov? tG)v evravOa Keifievwv irivaKwv aXXai 
7rivaKoOf]Kai Kal vato~KOi rivh elai TrXrjpeis rcov 
dpyaitov Teyy&V to re viracOpov 6/jloloo^ ixearbv 
avBpidvrcov ecrrl rcov dpiarcoV wv rpla M.vpcovo<; 
epya KoXoacrLKa lBpv/j,eva eirl /j,ia<; /3do~ecos, a 

1 Kapaias F ; Tzschucke emends to Kopaaaias. 

8 Me\avrlovs, Tzschucke, from conj. of Voss, for MeAoi" 
Blovs ; so the later editors. 
212 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 13-14 

13. Off the Trogilian promontory lies an isle ot 
the same name. Thence the nearest passage across 
to Sunium is one thousand six hundred stadia; on 
the voyage one has at first Samos and Icaria and 
Corsia on the right, and the Melantian rocks on the 
left; and the remainder of the voyage is through 
the midst of the Cyclades islands. The Trogilian 
promontory itself is a kind of spur of Mt. Mycale. 
Close to Mycale lies another mountain, in the 
Ephesian territory, I mean Mt. Pactyes, in which the 
Mesogis terminates. 

14. The distance from the Trogilian promontory 
to Samos 1 is forty stadia. Samos faces the south, 
both it and its harbour, which latter has a naval 
station. The greater part of it is on level ground, 
being washed by the sea, but a part of it reaches up 
into the mountain that lies above it. Now on the 
right, as one sails towards the city, is the Poseidium, 
a promontory which with Mt. Mycale forms the 
seven-stadia strait ; and it has a temple of Poseidon ; 
and in front of it lies an isle called Narthecis ; and 
on the left is the suburb near the Heraeum, and also 
the Imbrasus River, and the Heraeum, which con- 
sists of an ancient temple and a great shrine, which 
latter is now a repository of tablets. 2 Apart from 
the number of the tablets placed there, there are 
other repositories of votive tablets and some small 
chapels full of ancient works of art. And the temple, 
which is open to the sky, is likewise full of most 
excellent statues. Of these, three of colossal size, 
the work of Myron, stood upon one base ; Antony 

1 i.e. the city Samos. 

1 Whether maps or paintings, or both, the translator doea 
not know. 

213 



STRABO 

rjpe fiev 'Avrdivios, dveOrjtee Be iraXiv 6 leftaarbs 
Kaio-ap 6«9 rrjv avrrjp ffdaiv ra Bvo, rrjv 'AOrjvav 
teal rbv 'Hpa/eXea, rbv Be Ala els rb KaTrercoXtov 
fi6T>]veyK€, tearaateevdaas avrq> vatateov. 

15. YiepiirXovs B' iorl rrjs Icl/jLIcov vrjcrov 
arahiwv e^aieo&iwv. eteaXeiro Be YiapOevia 
irporepov olkovvtcov Kapwv, elra ' AvQefiovs, 1 
elra MeXdp,cj>vXXos, 2 elra Xd/juos, err' diro rivos 
emywplov fjpwos, err' ef 'IOuktjs teal KefyaXXrivlas 
dTrottetjaavTos. 3 teaXelrai, puev ovv teal dfcpa tls 
"A^7reA,o? /3Xerrovad ttcos irpbs rb rr/s 'Iteaptas 
kpetravov, dXXa teal rb opos dirav, b troiel rrjv 
oXr)i> vrjaov 6petvi]v, 6/.icopv/j.cos Xeyerar eari 6' 
ovk evoivos, Kaiirep evoivovaoov r&v tevteXa) vi]au>v, 
teal rr)s rjireipov cr^eBov ti rrjs irpoae^ovs Trdarjs 
rovs dpiarovs eteefrepovarjs otvovs, olov XiW teal 
Aecrfiov tealKcb.* teal p,r)V teal 6 'E^ecrto? teal M?7- 
TpoTroXiTrjs dyaOoi, r) re MeacoyU teal 6 TfiwXos 
teal rj KaTateeteav/bLevr) teal KvlBos teal Xpuvpva 
teal aXXoc do-rj/jLorepot tottoi Biafyopws \pr)aroi- 
vovcnv i) irpbs diroXavcriv rj irpbs Biairas larpu- 
teds. irepl [xev ovv 5 otvovs ov irdvv evrv^el 
%ap,os, ra S' ciXXa evBal/icov, a>? BrjXov ete re rov 
ireptfxdxy/Tov yeveaOat teal etc rod tovs iiratvovvras 
/j,T) oievelv icfrap/jLOTTeiv avrfj rrjv Xeyovaav ira- 
poipiiav, on (pepei teal opvlBwv ydXa, teaddnep 

1 For 'Av9ep.evs, Corais, following Eustathius (note on 
Dionys. 533), reads 'Avdejits. By some writers the name is 
spelled 'AvBefiovaa. 

2 Me\d/j.<pu\\os, Meineke, for Me\d/u.<pv\os. 

3 airoiK7}oavTos F, airoiKicravros other MSS. 

4 olov . . . Kw, Meineke ejects. 

214 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 14-15 

took these statues away, 1 but Augustus Caesar 
restored two of them, those of Athena and Heracles, 
to the same base, although he transferred the Zeus 
to the Capitolium, having erected there a small chapel 
for that statue. 

15. The voyage round the island of the Samians 
is six hundred stadia. In earlier times, when it was 
inhabited by Carians, it was called Parthenia, then 
Anthemus, then Melamphyllus, and then Samos, 
whether after some native hero or after someone 
who colonised it from Ithaca and Cephallenia. 2 Now 
in Samos there is a promontory approximately facing 
Drepanum in Icaria which is called Ampelus, but 
the entire mountain which makes the whole of the 
island mountainous is called by the same name. 
The island does not produce good wine, although 
good wine is produced by the islands all round, and 
although most of the whole of the adjacent main- 
land produces the best of wines, for example, Chios 
and Lesbos and Cos. And indeed the Ephesian and 
Metropolitan wines are good; and Mt. Mesogis 
and Mt. Tmolus and the Catacecaumene country 
and Cnidos and Smyrna and other less significant 
places produce exceptionally good wine, whether for 
enjovment or medicinal purposes. Now Samos is 
not altogether fortunate in regard to wines, but in 
all other respects it is a blest country, as is clear 
from the fact that it became an object of contention 
in war, and also from the fact that those who praise 
it do not hesitate to apply to it the proverb, that " it 

1 See 13. 1. 30. * See 10. 2. 17. 



* olv, before olvous, Meineke inserts. 

215 



STRABO 

7rov KaX MevavBpo? ecprj. 1 rovro Be /ecu rebv 
rvpavviBwv airiov avrf] Karearrj, KaX t?)? rrpb? 
1 A0r)vcdov<; e-)(6pa<;. 

16. Ai fiev ovv rvpavviBe? rj/e/Aaaav Kara 
UoXvKpdrrj fidXiara real rbv dBeX<f)bv avrov 
1.vXoacbvra' tjv £' 6 fiev KaX rv^V KaL Bvvd/nei 
Xa/nrpos, ware KaX OaXarroKparijaar rrj<i B' 
C 638 etiri^ia? avrov arj/ielov rtdeaaiv, on pLyjravro^ 
eh Ti)V OdXarrav eViT^Se? top BaKrvXiov XiOov 
KaX yXvfjLfiaros 7roXvreXovs, dvi]veyKe puKpbv 
varepov ra>v dXiecov tj? rov Karambvra lx^ vv 
avrov' dvar/j,^Oevro<; 8' evpeOy 6 BaKrvXios' 
rrvOo/nerov he rovro rov Alyvjrriwv fiacriXea 
(paaX fiavriKO)? ttco<; dirocpOey^aaOai, &>? ev 
ftpayel Karaarpe^ei rov ftiov eh ovk evrvxes 
reXos 6 roaovrov e£t]p/jLei>os rah evrrpayiai^' KaX 
Br) KaX o~v/jij3f)vai rovro' Xr)(f)0evra yap e£ 
a7raT7/9 virb rov aarpdirov rdv Hepcrcov Kpe- 
/j,aa0r}iai. rovrcp o~vvefti(oo~ev 'AvaKpewv 6 
/jLeXoTTOio?' KaX Br) KaX irdaa rj 7T0L7jai<; rrXr]pr)^ 
earX tt)? rrepX avrov fiv >] /x??? . 67rl rovrov Be 
KaX UvOayopav laropovaiv IBovra (pvojievifv rr)v 
rvpavvlBa eKXnrelv ri]V rroXtv KaX arreXOelv eh 
Atyvrrrov kol RafivXcova (f)iXo/ia6ela<; yapiv' 
erravibvra B> eKeWev, opcovra en av/i/ievovaav 
tt)p rvpavvita, rrXevaavra eh 'IraXiav eKel 
BtareXeaai rov fiiov. rrepX UoXvKpdrovs fiev 
ravra. 

17. XvXoawv B y drreXeL(j)6r) /iev lBtcorrj<; virb rov 
dBeXcpov, &apeL<p Be rq> ^Tardairefj) yapiadyievos 

1 KaOdirep . . . t<pr), Meineke ejects. 
2l6 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 15-17 

produces even birds' milk," as Menander somewhere 
says. This was also the cause of the establishment 
of the tyrannies there, and of their enmity against 
the Athenians. 

16. Now the tyrannies reached their greatest 
height in the time of Polycrates and his brother 
Syloson. Polycrates was such a brilliant man, both 
in his good fortune and in his natural ability, that 
he gained supremacy over the sea; and it is set 
down, 1 as a sign of his good fortune, that he purposely 
flung into the sea his ring, a ring of very costly stone 
and engraving, and that a little later one of the 
fishermen brought him the very fish that swallowed 
it ; and that when the fish was cut open the ring 
was found ; and that on learning this the king of 
the Egyptians, it is said, declared in a kind of 
prophetic way that any man who had been exalted 
so highly in welfare would shortly come to no happy 
end of life ; and indeed this is what happened, for 
he was captured by treachery by the satrap of the 
Persians and hanged. Anacreon the melic poet 
lived in companionship with Polycrates ; and indeed 
the whole of his poetry is full of his praises. It was 
in his time, as we are told, that Pythagoras, seeing 
that the tyranny was growing in power, left the city 
and went off to Egypt and Babylon, to satisfy his 
fondness for learning ; but when he came back and 
saw that the tyranny still endured, he set sail for 
Italy and lived there to the end of his life. So much 
for Polycrates. 

17. Syloson was left a private citizen by his 
brother, but to gratify Dareius, the son of Hystas- 

1 See Herodotus, 3. 40-43, and 120, 125. 
vol. vi. „ 217 



STRABO 

iaOrjra, 179 eTreOvfirjcrev eKelvos (pnpovvra IBcov, 
ov-irco 8' e/3ao~iXev€ Tore, @acriXevo~avTO<; dvreXafie 
Bwpov rrjv TvpavviBa. Tritepoos B' r/p^ev, wore 
teal eXeiirdvBprjaev rj ttoXis' tcdteeldev eieirecreZv 
avveftr) ttjv irapOL/iiav' 

6KTJTL SvXodOOVTOS CvpV %G)pL7]. 

18. ' AOrjvalot Be irporepov /xev irepi^avTe^ 
(7TpaT)jybv UepiteXea teal crvv avr<p 'ZocfroteXea 
tov ironjrrjv iroXiopteia, teate(x)<; BieOrjteav dtret- 
Bovvras tol>? ^a/jiiovs, varepov Be teal tcXypov- 
Xov<z eire/Ayfrav Bio-^iXiov^ ef eavrwv, a)v tjv teal 
Neo«\?}?, 6 'EiTTiteovpov tov cf)tXoa6(f)OV Traryjp, 
ypapi/xaToBiBdo-feaXos, w? (j)ao~r teal Btj teal 
rpacprjvai (fracrtv ivOdBe teal ev Tew, teal ecpr)- 
fitvaau 'A0)']PT)(tl' yevecrOai 6' avT(p avve(f)r]/3ov 
MevavBpov tov kw/jllkov Sa/uo? 8* r)v teal 
K/?eft>(/)fXo?, ov <j>aai Betjd/nevov %eviq irore 
r/ 0/j,r)pov, Xafietv Bcopov tt)V €7nypa(j)?]V tov ttoliJ- 
fiaTOS, b teaXovaiv Ot^aX/a? dXcoaiv. KaXXi- 
fiaxos Be TovvavTiov i/jixpaivei Bi eiriypdp,\xaTbs 
tlvos, a>9 eteeuvov /j,ev TronjaavTOS, Xeyo/jtevov 8' 
'Ofiijpov Bid ttjv Xeyo/jiivrjv t-evlav' 

tov ^.a/jiiov ttovo<s elfii, Bo/jifp 7TOT6 6 elov 
"O/jbrjpov 

Be^afxevov teXeico 1 8' TLvpvTov, baa eiradev, 
teal %av6r)v y \oXeiaV 'O/jurjpeiov Be teaXev/juat 

ypdfifia' Kpe(o(f)vX<p, Zed <f)lXe, tovto fieya. 

C 639 Ttvh Be BiBdateaXov 'QpLrjpov tovtov (f>ao-cv, ol 
8' ov tovtov, aXX' 'ApiaTeav tov YipoKovvrjatov* 

1 K\eta>, Meineke, for naiw ; n\aiw Tzschucke. 
2l8 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 17-18 

pes, he gave him a robe which Dareius desired 
when he saw him wearing it; and Dareius at that 
time was not yet king, but when Dareius became 
king, Syloson received as a return-gift the tyranny of 
Samos. But he ruled so harshly that the city became 
depopulated ; and thence arose the proverb, " by the 
will of Syloson there is plenty of room." 

18. The Athenians at first sent Pericles as general 
and with him Sophocles the poet, who by a siege 
put the disobedient Samians in bad plight ; but 
later they sent two thousand allottees from their 
own people, among whom was Neocles, the father 
of Epicurus the philosopher, a schoolmaster as they 
call him. And indeed it is said that Epicurus grew 
up here and in Teos, and that he became an 
ephebus *■ at Athens, and that Menander the comic 
poet became an ephebus at the same time. Creo- 
j>Uylus, also, was a Samian, who, it is said, once 
entertained Homer and received as a gift from him 
the inscription of the poem called The Capture of 
Oechalia. But Callimachus clearly indicates the con- 
trary in an epigram of his, meaning that Creophylus 
composed the poem, but that it was ascribed to 
Homer because of the story of the hospitality shown 
him : rt 1 am the toil of the Samian, who once 
entertained in his house the divine Homer. I 
bemoan Eurytus, for all that he suffered, and golden- 
haired Ioleia. I am called Homer's writing. For 
Creophylus, dear Zeus, this is a great achievement." 
Some call Creophylus Homer's teacher, while others 
say that it was not Creophylus, but Aristeas the 
Proconnesian, who was his teacher. 

1 i.e. at eighteen years of age underwent a "scrutiny" and 
was registered as an Athenian citizen. 

219 



STRABO 

19. TiapcLKetraL Be rfj Xdfiw vrjcro<i 'I/capla, 
aft 77? to 'lfcdpiov ireXayos. avrrj & errobvu/jLos 
i(TTiv 'I/cdpov, 7rai8o? rov AaiBdXov, ov (f>ao~t 
rco irarpl Koivwv^aavra rrjs (f>vyf]<{, rjvlfca 
dficporepoi irrepoiOevres dir?)pav etc Kprjr^^ecrelv 
evddBe, /irj xparijaavra rov Bpo/juov /j,erecopia- 
vevrv yap irpos rov fjXiov eirl irXeov irepippvrjvai 
ra -nrepd, ra/cevTO? rov /crjpov. rpiaKoa iwv 8 
earl rr)v irepipLerpov araBlcov rj vrjcros diraaa 
Kai aXifievos, ttXtjv vcf)6pp,cov, aw 6 /cdXXicrros 

laroi Xeyovrar cite pa & icrrlv dvareivovcra 777309 
£ecpvpov. eari he ical 'ApTefjuhos lepov, icaXov- 
fxevov TavpoTroXlov, iv rfj vrfcra) ical TroXiapudriov 
Olvotj, /cal aX\o Apdtcavov, opLCOvv/xov rfj dicpa, 
eft fj XBpvrai, Trpoaop/xov e^ov' ?} Be dfcpa Bie%ei 
tt)? Sa/xicov cue pas, rijs KavOaplov KaXov/nevrj^, 
oyBoij/covra araBLOvs, oirep icrrlv iXd^crrov 
Biapp-a ro fiera^v. vvvl fievroi XenravBpovcrav 
Hd/jLioi vefMOvrau rd iroXXd /3oaKr)p,drcov ydpiv. 

20. Merd Be rov %d/Mov rropd/Jiov rov 7rpo? 
MvfcaXr) TrXeovaiv et? "Ecfrecrov ev Be^ia iarlv 
■f) ''Ecpealcov irapaXia- fiepos Be ri eyovaiv aurrjs 
/cal ol Edpioi. TTpcorov 6° icrrlv ev rfj irapaXia 
to Uavictiviov, rpial crraBloi^ vTrepKelfievov rfjs 
OaXdrrrj?, birov rd Havicovta, koivt) Travtjyvpts 
r(ov 'Iqjvcov, crvvreXelraL rw ' EXikcovlw lioaeiBwvi 
/cal Ouaia' iep&vrai Be UpLrjvel^' etprjrai Be irepl 
avrcov ev Tot? UeXoTrovvrjaia/coU. elra Ne<x- 
ttoXls, tj Trporepov /xev rjv *Ej>ecri(ov, vvv Be 



1 i.e. the wax which joined the wings to his body. 
220 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 19-20 

19. Alongside Samos lies the island Icaria, whence 
was derived the name of the Icarian Sea. This 
island is named after Icarus the son of Daedalus, 
who, it is said, having joined his father in flight, 
both being furnished with wings, flew away from 
Crete and fell here, having lost control of their 
course ; for, they add, on rising too close to the sun, 
his wings slipped off, since the wax 1 melted. The 
whole island is three hundred stadia in perimeter; 
it has no harbours, but only places of anchorage, the 
best of which is called Histi. 2 It has a promontory 
which extends towards the west. There is also on 
the island a temple of Artemis, called Tauropolium ; 
and a small town Oenoe ; and another small town 
Dracanum, bearing the same name as the pro- 
montory on which it is situated and having near by 
a place of anchorage. The promontory is eighty 
stadia distant from the promontory of the Samians 
called Cantharius, which is the shortest distance 
between the two. At the present time, however, 
it has but few inhabitants left, and is used by Samians 
mostly for the grazing of cattle. 

20. After the Samian strait, near Mt. Mycale, as 
one sails to Ephesus, one comes, on the right, to the 
seaboard of the Ephesians ; and a part of this sea- 
board is held by the Samians. First on the seaboard 
is the Panionium, lying three stadia above the sea 
where the Pan-Ionia, a common festival of the 
Ionians, are held, and where sacrifices are performed 
in honour of the Heliconian Poseidon ; and Prienians 
serve as priests at this sacrifice, but I have spoken 
of them in my ace ount of the Peloponnesus. 3 Then 
comes Neapolis, which in earlier times belonged to 

2 i.e. Masts. * 8. 7. 2. 

221 



STRABO 

%a/jio)v, BiaXXafjafievoov irpos to Mapadrjaiov, 
to eyy vrepco 7ro6? to dircorepw elra UvyeXa 
TToXlxyiov, lepov e\ov WpTe/iiBos Mowir^ta?, 
iSpv/ia 'Ayafie/jLVOvos, olfcovfievov vtto fiepovs t<ov 
exeivov Xawv' irvyaXyeas 1 yap Tivd<$ <f)aac 2 teal 
yeveaOai real tc\r)0)]vat,, fcdfivovra*; 8' virb rov 
iraQovs fcara/jLelvai, teal rv^elv ol/ceiov rovBe 
rov ovoficLTOS rov rbirov. elra Xi/jltjv Tidvopfios 
/ca\ov/jL€vos, eyw>v lepov t/}? 'E$eo-ta? \AoT€/xt8o?' 
eld" y 7roXt?. ev Be rfj avrf) irapaXia /jLLKpbv 
virep rrjs OaXdrr^ earl /cal r) 'OprvyLa, Bca- 
7rpe7re? aXao^ iravroBairri<i vXrjs, Kvirapirrov 
Be rrj<; -nXe'iarr]? . Biappel Be 6 Keyxpws 
TTora/JLO^, ov (f>aal vl^raaQai rrjv Krjrw p,erd 
Ta? daBlvas. evravOa yap fivOevovai ri]v Xox^Iclv 
kcl\ rrjv rpocpbv rrjv 'Oprvylav /cal to clBvtov, 
iv c5 rj Xoxeia, teal rrjv ttXtjctlov iXauav, 
rj irpoiTOv euavarravaao'dai (fracri rrjv 6ebv 
C 640 diroXvOelaav rcov wBlvmv. virepKeirai Be rov 
aXaovs 0/909 b ~oXp.io~cr6<;, oirov ardvra^ <f>aal 
toi>? Kovprjras rai yjr6(f)(p roiv ottXcov eKTrXrj^ai 
rrjv "Wpav tyXoTVTrws efyeBpevovaav, /cal XaOelv 
avfjLTTpd^avra^ rrjv Xoxelav rfj Arjrol. ovrcov 8' 
ev Tffl T07T0) nrXeibvcov vawv, rcov fiev dpxalcov, 
Twv 8' varepov yevo/ievcov, ev fiev TOt<? apxalois 
apxaid eari %6ava, ev Be rols varepov H/coira 
epya' 3 rj fiev Arjra) a tcrjur pov exovaa, rj 8' 
'Oprvyia irapeo-Trj/cev e/carepa rfj x el P L 1TaL Biov 

1 -KvyaKyias, Corais, for iruyaWias Coxz, irvya\(as other 
MSS. ; irvyaXyias Meineke. 

2 <pa<ri, Jones inserts. 

3 Instead of 2ic6ira fpya, F has aKoXia. ct/c^tt' epya ; other 
MSS. anoxia, ipya, except v which has 2/c<frra in the margin. 
222 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 20 

the Ephesians, but now belongs to the Samians, who 
gave in exchange for it Marathesium, the more dis- 
tant for the nearer place. Then comes Pygela, a 
small town, with a temple of Artemis Munychia, 
founded by Agamemnon and inhabited by a part 
of his troops ; for it is said that some of his soldiers 
became afflicted with a disease of the buttocks x and 
were called "diseased-buttocks," and that, being 
afflicted with this disease, they stayed there, and 
that the place thus received this appropriate name. 
Then comes the harbour called Panormus, with a 
temple of the Ephesian Artemis ; and then the city 
Ephesus. On the same coast, slightly above the 
sea, is also Ortygia, which is a magnificent grove 
of all kinds of trees, of the cypress most of all. It 
is traversed by the Cenchrius River, where Leto is 
said to have bathed herself after her travail. 2 For 
here is the mythical scene of the birth, and of the 
nurse Ortygia, and of the holy place where the birth 
took place, and of the olive tree near by, where the 
goddess is said first to have taken a rest after she was 
relieved from her travail. Above the grove lies Mt. 
Solmissus, where, it is said, the Curetes stationed 
themselves, and with the din of their arms frightened 
Hera out of her wits when she was jealously spying 
on Leto, and when they helped Leto to conceal from 
Hera the birth of her children. There are several 
temples in the place, some ancient and others built 
in later times ; and in the ancient temples are many 
ancient wooden images, but in those of later times 
there are works of Scopas ; for example, Leto holding 
a sceptre and Ortygia standing beside her with a 

1 In Greek, with " pygalgia." 

2 Referring, of course, to the birth of Apollo and Artemis. 

223 



STRABO 

eyovGa. iravrfyvpis 8' ivravOa (TuvreXetraL /car 
eros, eOei Be tlvl oi veoi <j>L\otcaXovo~i, fiaXiara 
irepl ra? ivravOa eiKoyLas Xa/j,irpvv6p,evor Tore 
Be teal tcov KovprjToov dpyelov avvdyei crvpiiroaia, 
teal tivcls [av ante as OvaLas eiriTeXel. 

21. Trjv Be iroXiv ootcovv puev Kape? re teal 
AeXeye?, itcftaXoov 8' 6 "AvBpotcXos rov<i irXeia- 
tol'9 (pKiaev etc rwv avveXOovTwv avra> irepl to 
^AOrjvcuov teal rrjv r TireXaiov, irpoairepiXa/3a)V 
teal t?)? irepl top Koprjaabv irapcopelas. ^XP L 
fxev Br) tcov kcltcl Kpotaov outco? cptceiTO, vaTepov 
8* ciirb r?}? irapcopeiov KaTaf3dvT€<;, irepl to vvv 
iepbv coKrjaav fiixP 1 'AXefjdvBpov. Auo-tyLta^o? 
Be ttjv vvv ttoXiv Tet^tcra?, drjBco? tcov dvOpcoircov 
peOio-Tdfievoov, Trjp?]aas KaTappaKTtjv op,{3pov 
o-vvrjpyrjae teal clvtos teal tovs pivov%ov<; eve- 
(ppatjev, cocttc tcciTarcXvaai ttjv iroXiv oi Be 
/jL€Teo~T7}o~av aafievot. itcdXeae 5' 'Apcnvorjv dirb 

TTj$ ryvvaifcb? T7]V TToXlV, eir€KpdT7)0~€ pLeVTOL TO 

dpyalov ovopa. rjv Be yepovaia tcaTaypacpopbivr], 
tovtois Be avvrjecrav oi eTTi/cXrjTOL tcaXovp,evoi teal 
Bitotcovv irdvTa. 

22. Tbv Be vecov tt?? 'AprepiBo? irpcoTO? 1 p,ev 
Xepaicppcov rjpxiTetcTovriaev, eW aXXos 2 eiroiqcre 
puel^co' a>? Be tovtov 'HpocrTpaTos Tt? eveirp-qaev, 
aXXov dpeivco fcaTeo-K€vao~av avveveyicavTes tov 
tcov yvvaitccov tcoapiov /cal Ta? IBLas ovcrias, 
BiaOepuevoL Be teal tou? irpOTepov? tciovas' tovtcov 
Be puapTvpid eo~TL tcl yevrjOevTd TOTe yjnj^LcrpLaTa, 

1 irpwrov F. * &\\os, Xylander, for &\\op. 

1 Men specially summoned, privy-councillors. 
224 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 20-22 

child in each arm. A general festival is held there 
annually ; and by a certain custom the youths vie 
for honour, particularly in the splendour of their 
banquets there. At that time, also, a special college 
of the Curetes holds symposiums and performs certain 
mystic sacrifices. 

21. The city of Ephesus was inhabited both by 
Carians and by Leleges, but Androclus drove them 
out and settled the most of those who had come 
with him round the Athenaeum and the Hypelaeus, 
though he also included a part of the country situ- 
ated on the slopes of Mt. Coressus. Now Ephesus 
was thus inhabited until the time of Croesus, but 
later the people came down from the mountain- 
side and abode round the present temple until the 
time of Alexander. Lysimachus built a wall round 
the present city, but the people were not agreeably 
disposed to change their abodes to it ; and therefore 
he waited for a downpour of rain and himself took 
advantage of it and blocked the sewers so as to 
inundate the city ; and the inhabitants were then 
glad to make the change. He named the city after 
his wife Arsinoe ; the old name, however, prevailed. 
There was a senate, which was conscripted ; and with 
these were associated the Epicleti, 1 as they were 
called, who administered all the affairs of the city. 

22. As for the temple of Artemis, its first architect 
was Chersiphron ; and then another man made it 
larger. But when it was set on fire by a certain 
Herostratus, the citizens erected another and better 
one, having collected the ornaments of the women 
and their own individual belongings, and having sold 
also the pillars of the former temple. Testimony is 
borne to these facts by the decrees that were made 

225 
H 2 



STRABO 

airep dyvoovvrd 4>r)aiv 6 Wpre/jblBcopo^ rbv 
Tavpo/jLeviTrjv Ti/iatov, kcu aXXcos /3do-/cavov 
ovra real (TVKO(f)dvTr)v (£to icai 'EiiriTL/iaiov 1 
Kkr)6r)vai), Xeyeiv, a><? etc rcov TLepo-itccov irapa- 
KaraOrjKwv ejroiijaavro rov lepov ttjv eiriaKevrjv 
ovre Be virdp^at TrapatcaraOrjicas rbre, el re 
virr)p%av, avi epurenrprjaQai av 2 rw vaw' perd Be 
rrjv epirp-qaiv tt}? opocfci)? r)<$>avia pevr)<; , ev 
viraiOpw rw arjtcq) rlva av eOeXrjaac Trapa/cara- 
QrjKrjv Keipevtiv e^eiv ; ' AXe^avBpov Br) to?? 
C 641 y R(f>e(TLOi<i v-noGyeadai rd yeyovora /cat rd peX- 
Xovra dvaXcopara, e'(/>' d> re rrjv eirtypa^v 
avrbv e^eiv, toi>? Be prj e6eXr)aai, rroXv fxaXXov 
ovtc av eOeXijaavra^ ef lepoavXias /ecu airoare- 
pyjaccix; (f)iXoBo^ehr erraivel re rbv elirovra rcov 
*E,(f)€cri(ov 7T/90? rbv ftaaiXea, &>? ov irperroi Oea> 
6eol<; dvaOrjpara KaraaKevd^etv. 

23. Merd Be rr)v rov ved> avvreXeiav, ov ^>t](TLv 
elvcu Xeipo/cpdrow? 3 epyov (rov 6" avrov /cal rr)v 
1 AXe^avBpelas kt'igiv tov £' avrbv viroa^eaOat 
'AXetjdvBpq) rbv "Ado) BiaaKevdaeiv et? avrov, 
coaavei etc rrpb'Xpv rivbs et? §idXr\v icaraykovra 
o-rrovBtjv, rroirjaovra TroXeis Bvo, riiv pkv etc 
Be%i(ov rov opovs, rr)v B* ev dpiarepa, dirb Be 
ttjs erepas et? rr)v erepav peovra irorapov). 

1 'Eirtriixaiov, F ; iwirifMioy other MSS. 

2 &u. Jones inserts. 

3 Instead of Xetpoxparovs, w has AeivoKpdrovs, which is 
apparently correct ; and so read Corais and Meineke. 



1 Calumniator. 
226 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 22-23 

at that time. Artemidorus says: Timaeus of Tauro- 
menium, being ignorant of these decrees and being 
anyway an envious and slanderous fellow (for which 
reason he was also called Epitimaeus), 1 says that 
they exacted means for the restoration of the temple 
from the treasures deposited in their care by the 
Persians ; but there were no treasures on deposit in 
their care at that time, and, even if there had been, 
they would have been burned along with the temple ; 
and after the fire, when the roof was destroyed, who 
could have wished to keep deposits of treasure lying 
in a sacred enclosure that was open to the sky? 
Now Alexander, Artemidorus adds, promised the 
Ephesians to pay all expenses, both past and future, 
on condition that he should have the credit therefor 
on the inscription, but they were unwilling, just as 
they would have been far more unwilling to acquire 
glory by sacrilege and a spoliation of the temple. 2 
And Artemidorus praises the Ephesian who said to 
the king 3 that it was inappropriate for a god to 
dedicate offerings to gods. 

23. After the completion of the temple, which, 
he says, was the work of Cheirocrates 4 (the same 
man who built Alexandreia and the same man who 
proposed to Alexander to fashion Mt. Athos into 
his likeness, representing him as pouring a libation 
from a kind of ewer into a broad bowl, and to make 
two cities, one on the right of the mountain and the 
other on the left, and a river flowing from one to 

* Referring, of course, to the charge that they took the 
Persian treasures. 

8 Alexander. 

* Apparently an error for "Deinocrates," a Macedonian 
architect (cf. Vitruvius 1. 1. 4). 

227 



STRABO 

/i€ra 8* ovv rov verov to tmv dXXcov dvaOrj/ndrcoj 
ttXijOos evpeaGai rfj ifCTifi-qaei, rcov Brj/Miovpywv 
rbv Be Brj (Swp-bv elvai rcov Upa^tTeXovf; epycoi 
diravra a^eSov tl irX^prj. r)jxiv 8' eBeitevvro teal 
tcop Spdaoovo? TLva, ovirep teal to ' K/eartjaiov 
eV™ teal t) tcrjpivr} 1 TIrjreXoTrrj teal r) irpeafivris 
7) ILvputeXeia. iepeas 8* evvov^ov^ el)(Ov, ou? 
itedXovv Meyafiutovs, teal dXXa^odev /jLenovres 
del rivas a^toi'9 tt)? roiavri)^ it p i kit acri'as, teal 
r^yov ev Tiiiy fieydXr}' ovvu-paaOai Be tovtol<; 
exprjv TrapOevov*;. vvvl Be ra jiev fyvXaTTerai 
t<oi> vofilfirov, rd 8' tjttov, davXov Be fievei to 
iepov teal vvv teal irporepov tj}? 8' davXlas toi"? 
opovs dXXayrjvai avve/Sr) 7ro\Aa/a?, WXegdvBpov 
fiev eirl cndBiov e/eieLvavTo*;, MidpiBdrov Be 
ro^evfia dfyevros dirb tj)<? ywvias rod teepdpov 
teal 8ofai^T09 uTrepftaXeaPaL fMitepd to ardBiov, 
'AvtcovLov Be BiirXcKTidaavros tovtg 2 teal <jvjx- 
irepiXai36vro<; rfj dcrvXia. p.ep<.<i tl rffi 7ro\e'"9* 
efydvtj Be tovto /3Xa/3epov zeal eVl rols teaxovp- 
yois ttolovv tt)v ttoXlv, uhjt rjfevpcvaep o ^,e^aarb<; 
Kalaap. 

24. V &X 6L °* V ttoXis teal vecopia teal Xipeva' 
fipa \ vGToyiOv 8' eiroirjaav ol dp^LTeteToves, crvv- 
e^a7rarrj0evre<; rw teeXevcravTi fiacrtXet ovtos 8' 
Y)v "AttglXo? 6 <£>iXdBeX(l)o<i' olyOeU yap ovtos 

1 Kt)oivi\ F (and M^ineke) ; Kp-f)vrj other MSS. 

2 $nr\ aridcruVTOi tovto CF, it Ayo td<r avt as TOVTtp other MSS. 



1 Artemidorus means, of course, that the local artists were 
actuated by piety and patriotism. 

228 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 23-24 

the other) — after the completion of the temple, he 
says, the great number of dedications in general 
were secured by means of the high honour they 
paid their artists, 1 but the whole of the altar 
was filled, one might say, with the works of 
Praxiteles. They showed me also some of the works 
of Thrason, who made the chapel of Hecate, the 
waxen image of Penelope, and the old woman 
Eurycleia. They had eunuchs as priests, whom 
they called Megabyzi. And they were always 
in quest of persons from other places who were 
worthy of this preferment, and they held them in 
great honour. And it was obligatory for maidens 
to serve as colleagues with them in their priestly 
office. But though at the present some of their 
usages are being preserved, yet others are not ; but 
the temple remains a place of refuge, the same as 
in earlier times, although the limits of the refuge 
have often been changed ; for example, when Alex- 
ander extended them for a stadium, and when Mith- 
ridates shot an arrow from the corner of the roof 
and thought it went a little farther than a stadium, 
and when Antony doubled this distance and included 
within the refuge a part of the city. But this 
extension of the refuge proved harmful, and put the 
city in the power of criminals ; and it was therefore 
nullified by Augustus Caesar. 

24. The city has both an arsenal and a harbour. 
The mouth of the harbour was made narrower by 
the engineers, 2 but they, along with the king who 
ordered it, were deceived as to the result, I mean 
Attalus Philadelphus; for he thought that the 






* Literally, "architects." 

229 



STRABO 

(3a9vv tov etairXovv okiedai fjieydXai? eaeaOai 
teal avTov tov Xip,eva, revaycoSTj ovra irporepov 
81a, Ta? €K tov K.avarpov Trpoo'^coaei^, 1 idv 
irapa^Xrjdfj %w/m tw <tt6/jlclti, irXarel reXeax; 
ovti, iteeXevae yeveadai to ^co/aa. avve^rj 8e 
TovvavTiov eWo? yap y %oi)? elpyofiivrj Tevayi^eiv 
paXXov eiroiycre tov Xi/ieva atifiTravTa fi^XP 1 T0 ^ 
o-Topmos' irpoTepov 8* ifcavcbs ai irXrjpipLvpi8e^ 
teal i) TraXippoia tov nreXdyov^ dcfrjjpei tt)v ypvv 
teal avkaira irpbs to £kt6s. 6 fiev ovv Xipbriv 
toiovtos' 7) 8e iroXi? T?) 7T/?o? tcl akXa evteaipia 
twv tottcdv ai/ferat teaO* efcdo-TTjv rjpiepav, €/JL- 
TTopiov ovaa /xeyiaTOv twv teaTa ttjv ' Aaiav ttjv 
C 642 €vtos tov Tavpov. 

25. "Av8pes 8' d^ioXoyoi yeyovaaiv iv avrrj twv 
fjuev iraXa'Cov Hpd/eXeiTo? ts 6 GtcoTecvcx; teaXovpL€- 
vos teal 'Ep/xo5&)yoo?, irepl ov 6 avTOS ovtos (frrjcriv 
*Agiov y E<fieo-toi<; rj(37)8bv dirdy^aaOai, oiTives 
< Epp,68(opov dv8pa €(dvtG)v ovyiGTOv if;ef3aXov, 
(/>ai>T6?, 'Hpewv pb)]8eU 6vi]io~TO<; eaTay, el 8e p,rj, 
dXXr) T€ teal /act' aXXcov' 8o/cel 8' outo? 6 dvyp 
vopiovs Tivds Pwyuatot? avyypdyjrai. teal f l7T- 
Trwval; 8' iarlv 6 TroirjTr)? ig 'Ecfyeaov teal 
Tlappdcrios 6 %cQypd<f)OS teal 'A7re\\?}?, twv 8e 
vecoTepcov AXe^av8po<; p)']Tcop 6 Au^i/o? irpoaa- 
yopevOels, b<i teal iTroXiTevcraTO teal avveypaijrev 
iaTopLav teal e-rrrj teaTeXiirev, iv oh ra Te 
ovpdvia 8iaTiQeTai teal Ta? yireipov^ yeeoypacfrel, 
tcaO* €/edo~T7}v eVSou? 7rouip,a. 2 

26. Mctcl 8e Tr\v i/eftoXrjv tov KavaTpov 

1 7rpo(rxwo'e's Ewo, TTpoxftxTfts other MSS. and Meineke. 
230 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 24-26 

entrance would be deep enough for large merchant 
vessels — as also the harbour itself, which formerly 
had shallow places because of the silt deposited by 
the Cayster River — if a mole were thrown up at the 
mouth, which was very wide, and therefore ordered 
that the mole should be built. But the result was 
the opposite, for the silt, thus hemmed in, made the 
whole of the harbour, as far as the mouth, more 
shallow. Before this time the ebb and flow of the 
tides would carry away the silt and draw it to the 
sea outside. Such, then, is the harbour; and the 
city, because of its advantageous situation in other 
respects, grows daily, and is the largest emporium 
in Asia this side the Taurus. 

25. Notable men have been born in this city: in 
ancient times, Heracleitus the Obscure, as he is 
called ; and Hermodorus, concerning whom Heraclei- 
tus himself says : " It were right for the Ephesians 
from youth upwards to be hanged, who banished 
their most useful man, saying : * Let no man of us 
be most useful ; otherwise, let him be elsewhere and 
with other people."' Hermodorus is reputed to have 
written certain laws for the Romans. And Hipponax 
the poet was from Ephesus ; and so were Parrhasius 
the painter and Apelles, and more recently Alexander 
the orator, surnamed Lychnus, 1 who was a statesman, 
and wrote history, and left behind him poems in 
which he describes the position of the heavenly 
bodies and gives a geographic description of the 
continents, each forming the subject of a poem. 

26. After the outlet of the Cayster River comes 

1 i.e. Lamp. 

3 voir./xa F, Troi-ff/xaTa other MSS. 

23' 



STRABO 

Xi/jLvr) iarlv e'/c tov ireXdyov? dva^eopLevifj, 
Kakelrat Be ^eXivouaua, tcai e<£e£?}? aXXif crvp- 
pov<; avTrj, iieydXa? e^ovcrcu irpoaoBov^' a? ol 
(SaaiXels fiev, lepd<; ovaa<;, dcfreiXovTO ttjv Otov, 
'Pcofxaloi, 8* direBoaav irdXiv B 1 ol BijpuoaicovaL 
/3iaad/iL€VOi TrepieaTrjaav et? eavrov? ra reXij, 
it peer ftev eras Be o 'A/OTe/uScopo?, co? <})i}ai, ra? 
re Xifxva^ airekafte tt) dew, kcu ttjv 'JlpafcXecoTiv 
acpKTTa/jievrjv etjevltcrjae, icpidels ev 'Pca/ir)' avrl 
Be tovtwv elrcova ^pvcrrjv dvecrTtjaev t) ttoXis 
ev rep iepw. rr)<; Be Xi/jLvrj<; ev tco koiXotcitw 
fiaaiXecos iarlv lepov (f)aal 8' y Ay ape /jlvovos 
IBpvpa. 

27. Klra to TaXXrjaiov opo<? kcu rj KoXo(j)cov, 

7T0\t? 'IcOVtKI], KCU TO TTpO aVTTjS aXaOS TOV 

KXapiov 'AttoXXcdvos, ev d> kcu jxavrelov r)v irore 
ttclXcuov. Xeyercu Be KaA/^a? 6 /jluvtis /act 
'Ap^iXo^ov tov ' A pfyiapdov Kara ttjv ck Tpolas 
eirdvoBov ire^fi Bevpo dcf)iKea6ai, TreptTv^oDV 8' 
eavTOV KpeiTTOVi fidvTei kcltcl ttjv KXdpov, 
Moi/^-ft) tu> Mavrovs ttjs Teipealov OvyaTpos, 
Bia Xvtttjv dirodavelv. 'HctloBo*; fiev ovv ovtco 
7T&)? BiaaKevd^ei tov fivOov' TTpOTelvcu yap ti 
tolovto too Mo|&) tov KdX^avra' 

dadfid pb e\€t kcltcX Ov/jlov, ocrovs epiveibs 
oXvvOovs x 

ovtos e%et, pLiKpos irep ecov elirois av dpidfiov ; 
tov 6° diroKpLvaaOcu' 

/JLVpiOL elcTLV dplO/JLOV, CLTCLp pLCTpOV y€ fJLeBijJiVO^' 

1 %<rovs ipiveths oX'vQovs, Tzschucke and later editors, for 
ipivtbs '6<rovs bhvvdovs. 
232 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 26-27 

a lake that runs inland from the sea, called Seli- 
nusia ; and next comes another lake that is confluent 
with it, both affording great revenues. Of these 
revenues, though sacred, the kings deprived the 
goddess, but the Romans gave them back ; and 
again the tax-gatherers forcibly converted the tolls 
to their own use ; but when Artemidorus was sent 
on an embassy, as he says, he got the lakes back 
for the goddess, and he also won the decision over 
Heracleotis, which was in revolt, 1 his case being 
decided at Rome ; and in return for this the city 
erected in the temple a golden image of him. In 
the innermost recess of the lake there is a temple 
of a king, which is said to have been built by 
Agamemnon. 

27. Then one comes to the mountain Gallesius, 
and to Colophon, an Ionian city, and to the sacred 
precinct of Apollo Clarius, where there was once an 
ancient oracle. The story is told that Calchas the 
prophet, with Amphilochus the son of Amphiaraus, 
went there on foot on his return from Troy, and 
that having met near Clarus a prophet superior to 
himself, Mopsus, the son of Manto, the daughter of 
Teiresias, he died of grief. Now Hesiod 2 revises 
the myth as follows, making Calchas propound to 
Mopsus this question : " I am amazed in my heart at 
all these figs on this wild fig tree, small though it 
is; can you tell me the number?" And he makes 
Mopsus reply : " They are ten thousand in number, 
and their measure is a medimnus ; 3 but there is one 



1 i.e. from Ephesus. 

2 Frag. 160 (Rzach). 

3 About a bushel and a half. 

233 



STRABO 

eh Be irepicro-evei, tov eirevOeuev 1 ou K€ Bvvaio. 

0>? <f)UTO' KCLl (T$>IV aptO/AO? €T^Tf/i09 €iBeTO 

fierpov. 
Kal Tore Brj KdX%av0 y virvos Oavdroio KaXvyfre. 

C G13 (pepefcvSTjs Be (prjcriv vv irpofiaXelv eytcvov tov 
KdXxavra, ttoo-ovs e\et xolpov<; t tov B' elirelv, 
oti rpeU, wv eva OrfKvv' dXrjSevaavTOs B\ airo- 
Qavelv {/no Xu7r/?9. ol Be tov p.ev KdX^avTa 
irpoftaXelv ttjv vv (f>ao-i, tov Be tov eptveov, Kal 
tov fiev elirelv TaX.?/#€<?, tov Be fir), airoOavelv 
Be viro \vttt}<; Kai Kara tl Xoyiov. Xeyei B* 
clvto %0(f)OK\r)<; ev 'EXe'i^? cnraiT^aeL, &>? el/map- 
fxevov eirj airoOaveiv, otciv KpeiTTOvi eavTOV 
f.uivT€i irepiTvyri' ovto<; Be Kal ei? KiXiKLav 
peTa(pepei ttjv epiv Kal tov OdvaTov tov KdX- 
■){avT()<;. to. pev TraXaid TOiavTa. 

28. ^E.KTi'jcravTo Be ttotc Kal vavTiKr\v dfjio- 
Xoyov Bvvapnv KoXocpcovtoL Kal iTnriKrjv, ev fj 
Toaovrov Biecfrepov twv aXXcov, coo~B\ oirov ttotc 
ev Tot? BvaKaTaXvTois TroXepots to Ittttikov twv 
KoXocfxovlayv eirtKOVprjcreie, XveaOai tov TroXepuov 
a<£' ov Kal tv,v rrapoipilav eKBoOijvai tt\v Xe- 
yovaav, tov KoXo(f)wva eireO^Kev, oTav TeXo? 
eiTLTeOf) fiefiaiov tw TrpdypiaTi. di>Bpe<; 8' eye 
vovto KoXocf)cx)vioi tcjv pLvrjpuovevopievwv ^lipivep- 
//o?, avXrjTrjs dpa Kal 7roL7jT7]<; eXeyelas, Kal 
B,evo<f)dv7)<; 6 (frvaiKos, 6 tou? olXXov? 7roi7]aa<; 
Bia. TToirjpLdTQyv Xeyet, Be TIlvBapos Kal IIoX.u- 
pivaaTOv Ttva Twv irepl ti)v pLovaiKrjv eXXoylpLCov 

1 iir€v6iusv, Spohn, for irce\6e/j.ev ; so the later editors. 
2 34 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 27-28 

over, which you cannot put in the measure." l 
"Thus he spake," Hesiod adds, "and the number 
the measure could hold proved true. And then the 
eyes of Calchas were closed by the sleep of death." 
But Pherecydes says that the question propounded 
by Calchas was in regard to a pregnant sow, how 
manv pigs she carried, and that Mopsus said, " three, 
one of which is a female," and that when Mopsus 
proved to have spoken the truth, Calchas died of 
grief. Some say that Calchas propounded the question 
in regard to the sow, but that Mopsus propounded 
the question in regard to the wild fig tree, and that 
the latter spoke the truth but that the former did not, 
and died of grief, and in accordance with a certain 
oracle. Sophocles tells the oracle in his Reclaiming 
of Helen, that Calchas was destined to die when he 
met a prophet superior to himself, but he transfers 
the scene of the rivalry and of the death of Calchas 
to Cilicia. Such are the ancient stories. 

28. The Colophonians once possessed notable naval 
and cavalry forces, in which latter they were so far 
superior to the others that wherever in wars that 
were hard to bring to an end, the cavalry of the 
Colophonians served as ally, the war came to an 
end ; whence arose the proverb, u he put Colophon 
to it," which is quoted when a sure end is put to 
any affair. Native Colophonians, among those of 
whom we have record, were : Mimnermus, who was 
both a flute- player and elegiac poet; Xenophanes, 
the natural philosopher, who composed the " Silli " 2 
in verse ; and Pindar 3 speaks also of a certain 

1 i.e. the measure would hold only 999 of these figs. 

2 Satires, or lampoons, attacking Homer and Hesiod. 
8 Frag. 188 (Bergk). 

235 



STRABO 

<f>0ey/JLa fiev irdyKoivov eyvco/ca? UoXv/juvdaTov 
KoXocfrcoviov dvBpo?' 

/cal "Ofirjpov Be rive? evrevOev elvai (pacriv. 
evOvirXola fiev ovv efiBofxriKOVTa ard^LOt elaiv 
e£ 'E^eaou, eyKoXiri^ovri Be e/carbv tcai et/cocri. 
29 Merd Be KoXocfrcbva opo<; Kopd/ciov /cal 
vrjaiov lepov ' Apre/iiBo?, eU o Biavrfyofievas 
TiKTeiv Ta? eXac^ou? ireTTiaTevKacnv. elra Ae- 
/3e£o?, Biexovaa Ko\o0cuj>o9 e/caTov ical el/coat,' 
evravda rcov irepl rov kiovvaov tcxvit&v r\ 
avvoSos /cal kcltoucicl twv ev 'lama p-exp^ 
' E\\r)(T7r6vTOV, ev fj iravi)yvpi<$ re /cal dycoves 
/car €T0? o-vvreXovvrai tg> Aiovvaa). ev Tew 
Be aj/covv irpoiepov rfj e'<£e£7?? iroXei rcov 'lcovwv' 
e/jL7re<rovari<; Be eTTacea)?, et? "\L<f)ecrov /carecfruyov. 
'Att dXov 8* et? MvovvTjaov avrovs /caraaTifeavTO*; 
fiera^v Tea) val AefieBov, ir pea f3evovT ai Yrjioi 
BeofMevoi ' Pa) fAaloov, firj irepuBelv e7riT€LXi£o/jLevr)v 
(T(f)lat rrjv Mvovvjjaov, oi Be ixerearrjaav et? 
AefteBov, Be^a/jLevwv rcov AefteBicov da/nevco? Bid 
ttjv KarreyovGav aurovs oXiyavBpiav. /cal Teeo? 
Be AefteBov Bie-^ei eicarov el/coai, fAeragv Be 
vrjaos 'Acr7r/?, ol 8' 'Ap/covvrjo-ov /caXovcn' /cal 
7) Mvovvrjao^ Be e\£' vyfrovs xeppovrjai^ovTos 
/caroi/ceiTac. 
C 644 30. Kcu rj Tew? Be eirl xeppovi]o~(p iBpvrai, 
Xifieva eypvaa' evdevB' earlv 'Ava/cpewv 6 
fieXoTToios, e'</>' ov Tijioi, ttjv ttoXcv e/cXiTTOVTeS, 
et? "AftBrjpa dirwKrj<rav t Spa/clav ttoXiv, ov 
(pepovTes rrjv rcov Uepacov vftpiv, d<p' ov /cal 
rovr eiprjTai' 

236 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 28-30 

Polymnastus as one of the famous musicians : " Thou 
knowest the voice, common to all, of Polymnastus 
the Colophonian." And some say that Homer was 
from there. On a straight voyage it is seventy stadia 
from Ephesus, but if one includes the sinuosities of 
the gulfs it is one hundred and twenty. 

29. After Colophon one comes to the mountain 
Coracius and to an isle sacred to Artemis, whither 
deer, it has been believed, swim across and give 
birth to their yonng. Then comes Lebedus, which 
is one hundred and twenty stadia distant from Colo- 
phon. This is the meeting- piace and settlement of 
all the Dionysiac artists in Ionia as far as the Helles- 
pont: and this is the place where both games and a 
general festal assembly are held every year in honour 
of Dionysus. They formerly lived in Teos, the city 
of the Ionians that comes next after Colophon, but 
when the sedition broke out they fled for refuge 
to Ephesus And when Attalus settled them in 
Myonnesus between Teos and Lebedus the Teians 
sent an embassy to beg of the Romans not to permit 
Myonnesus to be fortified against them ; and they 
migrated to Lebedus, whose inhabitants gladly 
received them because of the dearth of population 
by which they were then afflicted. Teos, also, is one 
hundred and twenty stadia distant from Lebedus; 
and in the intervening distance there is an island 
Aspis, by some called Arconnesus. And Myonnesus 
is settled on a height that forms a peninsula. 

30. Teos also is situated on a peninsula; and it 
has a harbour. Anacreon the melic poet was from 
Teos; in whose time the Teians abandoned their 
city and migrated to Abdera, a Thracian city, being 
unable to bear the insolence of the Persians; and 

237 



STRABO 

"Afihlpa, KaXr) Ttjlcov diroiKia. 

irdXiv 8' eiravrjXOov rives avrcov %povw vcrrepov 
eiprjTcu Be teal irepl ' ATreXXiKcovTos, on Trjios 
t)v KaKelvo^- yeyove Be Kal crvyypacpevs 'Etfarouo? 
e/c tt}<? clvt)]<; 7roA.e&>9. eari Kal aAAo<? Xifirjv 6 

TTp6<r(3oppO<i UTTO TpLUKOVTa CTTaBbCOV Tr)? 7T0\6&)9, 

VeppailBat. 

31. Etra Xa\Ki8el$ teal 1 6 tT;? Xeppovrjcrov 
laO/jibs t% Ti]L(dv Kal ^YLpvOpalwv evrbs fiev 
ovv tov laO/xov oi/covaiv ovtol, eir avrw Be to> 
l(T0/A<p Ti)lol Kal K.Xa£op,evior to fiev yap votiov 
tov ladfiov irXevpbv eyovai Tyioi, toi)? Xa\/a- 
Bea$, to Be TTpoaftoppov K.\a£ofievioi, tcaO' b 
avvdiTTOVGi T7j 'EpvOpaia. icelTai 8' ^TrroKpi)^- 
vo<; 6 T07ro? eVl ttj ap^fi tov laOfiov, eWo? 
fiev aTTo\afA$av(ov ttjv *Qpvd paiav, 6/cto? 2 Be 
T7)V twv K.X.a^op,evL(i)v. birepKeiTai Be twv 
X.a\/ctBeG)v a\o-o<; Ka0iep(OfjLevov * AXe^diBpw tw 

QiXlTTTTOV, Kal dyODV V7TO 3 TOV KOLVOV TU)V 

y la>v(ov 'AXegdvBpeia KaTayyeXXerai, avvTeXov- 
fxevo? evTavOa. rj B' v7rep/3ao-i<; tov laOfiov tov 
a7ro tov 'AXe^avBpeiov Kal twv XaXKtBecov fie^pc 
tov 'TiroKprjpivov irevT^KOVTa elai ardBioi, 6 Be 
ireplirXovs TrXelovs r; ^lXiol. Kara fiecrov Be ttov 
tov ireplirXovv ai 'EpvOpai, ttoXls "[(dvikiJ, Xifie- 
va eyovaa, Kal vi]criBa<; irpoKeifxeva^ TeTTapas 
"I7T7TOU9 KaXovfAevas. 

32. Uplv B' eXOelv eirl ra? 'EpvOpds, irpcoTov 
fxev "Epai ttoXl^vlov £o~tl Tijlcdv' eVra KoopvKos, 

1 Kal, the editors insert. 2 4:<r6s E, £vt6s other MSS. 

3 vtt6, Corais, for cltto. 

238 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 30-32 

hence the verse in reference to Abdera. "Abdera, 
beautiful colony of the Teians." But some of them 
returned again in later times. As I have already 
said, 1 Apellicon also was a Teian ; and Hecataeus the 
historian was from the same city. And there is also 
another harbour to the north, thirty stadia distant 
from the city, called Gerrhaeidae. 

31. Then one comes to Chalcideis, and to the 
isthmus ot the Chersonesus, belonging to the Teians 
and Erythraeans. Now the latter people live this 
side the isthmus, but the Teians and Clazomenians 
live on the isthmus itself; for the southern side of 
the isthmus, I mean the Chalcideis, is occupied by 
Teians, but the northern by Clazomenians, where 
their territory joins the Erythraean. At the be- 
ginning of the isthmus lies the plare called Hypo- 
cremnus, which lies between the Erythraean territory 
this side the isthmus and that of the Clazomenians 
on the other side Above the Chalcideis is situated 
a sacred precinct consecrated to Alexander the son 
of Philip; and games, called the Alexandria, are 
proclaimed by the general assembly of the Ionians 
and are celebrated there. The passage across the 
isthmus from the sacred precinct of Alexander and 
from the Chalcideis to Hypocremnus is fifty stadia, 
but the voyage round by sea is more than one 
thousand. Somewhere about the middle of the 
circuit is Erythrae, an Ionian city, which has a 
harbour, and also four isles lying off' it, called 
Hippi. 2 

32. Before coming to Erythrae, one comes first to 
a small town Erae belonging to the Teians ; and then 

1 13. 1. 54. 2 i.e. Horses. 

239 



STRABO 

opo$ vyjrrjXov, icai Xifir)v bit avrw KacruerT?;? 
teal a\Xo<; EipvOpas Xijurjv tcaXovfievo? teal e<pe^rj^ 
TrXe(,ov<; erepoi. (f)ao~l 8e tov rrapdrrXovv rod 
Keopvteov Travra, XrjaTrjpiov virdp^ai ro)V Kcopv- 
kcliwv teaXov/ievcov, evpofievcov rpoirov teaivov rrj<; 
67ri/3ovXr)<; tcov TrXoi^ofievcov' teareo-Trapfievovs 
yap ev Tot? Xifieai rots teaO opinio fievot,s ifAiropois 
7rpoa(f>oirav teal a)Ta/covo~Teiv, tl (pepoiev teal irov 
TrXeoiev, eira avveXOovra^ avayOelai, rot? av- 
6pa>7roi<; eiriTiOeaQai teal KaOapird^eiv d</>' ov 
8r) iravra tov TroXvTrpdy/jLova teal fcara/covet-v 
eiri^eipovvTa tcoi> XdOpa fcal ev drropprJTO) 8ia- 
Xeyofievwv Kwpvteaiov teaXovfiev, teal ev irapoifiia 
(f)a/iev 

tov 8' dp * 6 Kcopv/calos r)tepod%€To t 

oTav Sorer) Tt? Trpdrreiv 8c' diropp^rcov r) XaXecv, 
fir) XavOdvy 8e 8cd toi>? KaracncoTrovvTas tca\ 
(pt,Xo7revo-TOvvTa<; tcl fir) tt poai)Kovra. 

33. Merd 8e K.copvKOv ' AXovvrjcros vrjcriov 
C 645 eira to " Apyevvov, dicpa rr}<; 'RpvOpacas rrXrjaid- 

%ovaa fidXiGTa tw Xccov Yloo-ei8t(p, ttocovvtc 
TropOfiov oaov egrjtcovTa o-ra8ioiv. fiera^v 8e 
TOiv 'KpvOpcov /cal tov 'TTroteprjfivov Mt/xa? iarlv 
opos vyjrrjXov, evOrjpov, iroXv8ev8pov' elra Kafir) 
KvfieXca koX atcpa MeXacva teaXovfievr), fivXwv 
eyovaa Xarbfiiov. 

34. 'Ete 8' 'Epvdpcov ^i^vXXd eaTcv, evOovs 
/cat fiaiTiKr) yvvr) tS)V dp^aiwv tcs' /car AXe- 
i;av8pov 8e dXXr) r)v tov avrov Tpoirov fiavTi/crj, 

1 £/, Jones, from conj. of Professor Capps, for ap\ 
240 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 32-34 

to Corycus, a high mountain, and to a harbour at the 
foot of it, Casystes, and to another harbour called 
Erythras, and to several others in order thereafter. 
The waters along the coast of Mt. Corycus, they say, 
were everywhere the haunt of pirates, the Cory- 
caeans, as they are called, who had found a new way 
of attacking vessels ; for, they say, the Corycaeans 
would scatter themselves among the harbours, follow 
up the merchants whose vessels lay at anchor in 
them, and overhear what cargoes they had aboard 
and whither they were bound, and then come together 
and attack the merchants after they had put to sea 
and plunder their vessels ; and hence it is that we 
call every person who is a busybody and tries to over- 
hear private and secret conversations a Corycaean ; 
and that we say in a proverb : " Well then, the 
Corycaean was listening to this," when one thinks 
that he is doing or saying something in secret, but 
fails to keep it hidden because of persons who spy 
on him and are eager to learn what does not concern 
them. 

33. After Mt. Corycus one comes to Halonnesos, a 
small island. Then to Argennum, a promontory of 
the Erythraean territory; it is very close to the 
Poseidium of the Chians, which latter forms a strait 
about sixty stadia in width. Between Erythrae and 
Hypocremnus lies Mimas, a lofty mountain, which is 
well supplied with game and well wooded. Then one 
comes to a village Cybelia, and to a promontory 
Melaena, as it is called, which has a millstone quarry. 

34. Erythrae was the native city of Sibylla, a 
woman who was divinely inspired and had the gift of 
prophecy, one of the ancients. And in the time of 
Alexander there was another woman who likewise 

241 



STRABO 

KaKovfxevq 'AOijva'fc, i/c ttjs avTrjs 7ro\e&>9' Kal 
kclO* rj/xa? 'Hpa/cXei&T]? 'Hpo^iXew^ 1 laTpos, 
cruo-^o\acrT7/9 WttoXXcovlcv tov Mfo?. 

35. 'H. Be Xto? tov fxev irepiirXovv earl crrahiwi' 
ivvaKocnwv irapa yrjv (bepop.evw, iroXiv 8' ey^ei 
ev\ip.evov ko.1 vcLvaraO fjiov vavalv 6yBo/)KOVTa. 
ev Be tw Trep'nrXcp Befydv tyjv vfjaov eyovTi dirb 

TTfi TToXecO? TTpCOTOV JJL6V icTTL TO TloaeiBlOV, cItO, 

Qdvai, XifjLTjv fiaOus, Kal veco$ 'AttoWowo? Kal 
uXcros (f>oivLKO)V eiTa Notiov, vfyopjAO*; alyiaXos' 
eiTa Aatovs, Kal ovto<$ vcbopfxos aiytaXos, oOev 
eU rr^v ttoXiV etjiJKovTa cTTaBUov lo~0fius' irepi- 
irXovs Be TpiaKoaicov e^))K0VTa, ov einjXdopLev. 
etTa MeXatva aKpa, Ka@' i)v to, ^vpa y vrjcro<; dirb 
7rei>T)]K0VTa GTahlwv rrfi aKpas, vyjnjXt], ttoXiv 
op.covvp.ov eyovaa' kvkXos Be t?}? vjj&ov TCTTapd- 
KovTa GTabioi. eld' rj ' Apiovaia yd>pa> Tpayela 
Kal dXifievos, GTaBUov oaov Tpu'iKovTa, 2, olvov 
dpiaiov (pepovaa tmv 'EXXtjvikcov. eiTa to 
UeXivalov opos vyjrtjXoTaTov tcov ev tt} vjjaco. 
€%ei S' rj vrjaos Kal XaTopnov fiappidpov XiOov. 
dvBpe? Be Xlot yey ovacriv eXXoyipLOi "\cov re o 
TpayiKOS Kal SeoTropLiros 6 avyypa$>ev$ Kal 
fdeoKpiTos 6 ao(f)ia-Ttj<;' ovtol Be Kal avTeiroXi- 
TevaavTO dX\i]\oi<;. dp,<f)icTf3r)Tovo~i Be Kal 
'OpLijpov Xloi, p,apTvpiov f.teya z tov<; 'OpLriplBas 
KaXovpevovs dirb tov eKelvov yevov<i irpoyeipi^o- 
p-evoi, cov Kal WivBapos p,ep,vr)Tar 

1 'Hpol>L\eios, Tzschucke, for 'Hp6t>iAos. 

2 rpiaKovTa, Kramer, following Stephanus, for rpiaKocriwv ; 
so Meineke. 

3 u4ya, Meineke, forjuei-a ; fiev morz, Kardw; word omitted 
in E. 

242 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 34-35 

had the gift of prophecy ; she was called Athenai's, 
and was a native of the same city. And, in my time, 
Heracleides the Herophileian physician, fellow-pupil 
of Apollonius Mys, 1 was born there. 

3D. As lor Chios, the voyage round it along the 
coast is nine hundred stadia ; and it has a city with 
a good port and with a naval station for eighty ships. 
On making the voyage round it from the city, with the 
island on the right, one comes first to the Poseidium. 
Then to Phanae, a deep harbour, and to a temple of 
Apollo and a grove of palm trees. Then to Notium, 
a shore suited to the anchoring of vessels. Then to 
Laius, this too a shore suited to the anchoring of 
vessels ; whence to the city there is an isthmus of 
sixty stadia, but the voyage round, which I have 
just now described, is three hundred and sixty 
stadia. Then to Melaena, a promontory, opposite 
to which lies Psyra, an island fifty stadia distant 
from the promontory, lofty, and having a city of the 
same name. The circuit of the island is forty stadia. 
Then one comes to Ariusia, a rugged and harbourless 
country, about thirty stadia in extent, which produces 
the best of the Grecian wines. Then to Pelinaeus, 
the highest mountain in the island. And the island 
also has a marble quarry. Famous natives of Chios 
are : Ion the tragic poet, and Theopompus the 
historian, and Theocritus the sophist. The two latter 
were political opponents of one another. The Chians 
also claim Homer, setting forth as strong testimony 
that the men called Homeridae were descendants 
of Homer's family ; these are mentioned by Pindar : 2 

1 Mus, i.e. Mouse. * Nemean Odes 2. 1. 

243 



STRABO 

60ev rrep teal 'O/jLrjpiSai 
pairrwv eirewv ra 7r6\X doiBoL 

ifceterrjVTO Be teal vavriKov rrore Xioi, Kal 
dvOr]rrrovro rr}<; Kara OdXarrav dpyrjs koX 
eXevOepla?. Ik Xlov 6" e? Aeaftov vorw rerpa- 
KocrioL ttov ardBtoi. 

36. 'E« Be rov 'TiroKprj/jivov x Xvrpiov eari 

T07TO?, OTTOV 7Tp6r€pOV iBpVVTO KXa^O/JL€Vai' eW 

rj vvv 7ro\i9, vr)aia e^ovaa irpoKeipueva oktco 
yewpyovfieva. K\a£byuewo? £' rjv dvr)p €7u$>avr)<s 
'Aratayopas 6 (bvaiKos, 'Avatji/jLevow; o/AiXrjrr]? 
rov MiXrjaiov BcJKovaav Be rovrov 'ApxeXaos 
o (frvaiKOS Kal Evpnri8r)<; 6 TroirjTijs. elO' iepbv 
AttoWwvo*; Kal 6epp.a vBara Kal 6 ^/jLvpvatcov 
koXtto^ Kal T) 7T0\t?. 
C 646 37. f Ef?}? Be aXXo<; koXttos, ev e5 r) iraXaia 
^.fivpva diro et/coai araBiwv rrjq vvv. AvB&v Be 
Karaairaadvrcov rt)v Hfivpvav, irepl rerpaKoaia 
errj BiereXeaev otKOVpLevrj K<opLr)S6v elra dvrjyecpev 
avrrjv Avruyovos, Kal fierd ravra Aucrt/xa^o?, 
Kal vvv earl KaXXiarrj ra>v iraacov, pepo? pev 
ri e\ovaa eV opei rereiyivpevov, rb Be irXeov 
ev ireBi(p 717)6? tw Xipevt Kal 7rp6? tcu M rjrpcpw 
Kal 7T/?o? yvpvao~i(p. eon 5' ?; pvpuoropla 
Bid(f>opo<; eV evdeiwv eh Bvvapuv Kal al bhol 
XiOoarpcoroi aroai re p,eydXat rerpdyrovoL, erri- 
rreBoi re Kal virepcaoi' earc Be Kal /3if3Xio0r)K7) 
Kal rb 'OfjLijpeiov, crroa rerpdycovos, eyovaa vecov 
'Ofitfpov Kal £6avov perairoiovvrai yap Kal ovroi 

1 'firoKp-hfxvov F, 'AiroKpyifxvov other MSS. ; but c-p.'TiroKp^fxyov 
in 14. 1. 33. 

244 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 35-37 

u Whence also the Homeridae, singers of deftly woven 
lays, most often . . . ." The Chians at one time 
possessed also a fleet, and attained to liberty and to 
maritime empire. The distance from Chios to Lesbos, 
sailing southwards, is about four hundred stadia. 

36. After Hypocremnus one comes to Chytrium, 
the site on which Clazomenae was situated in earlier 
times. Then to the present Clazomenae, with eight 
small islands lying off it that are under cultivation. 
Anaxagoras, the natural philosopher, an illustrious 
man and associate of Anaximenes the Milesian, was 
a Clazomenian. And Archelaus the natural philo- 
sopher and Euripides the poet took his entire course. 
Then to a temple of Apollo and to hot springs, and 
to the gulf and the city of the Smyrnaeans. 

37. Next one comes to another gulf, on which is 
the old Smyrna, twenty stadia distant from the 
present Smyrna. After Smyrna had been rased by 
the Lydians, its inhabitants continued for about four 
hundred years to live in villages. Then they were 
reassembled into a city by Antigonus, and after- 
wards by Lysimachus, and their city is now the most 
beautiful of all ; a part of it is on a mountain and 
walled, but the greater part of it is in the plain near 
the harbour and near the Metroum and near the 
gymnasium. The division into streets is except- 
ionally good, in straight lines as far as possible ; 
and the streets are paved with stone; and there 
are large quadrangular porticoes, with both lower 
and upper stories. There is also a library; and the 
Homereium, a quadrangular portico containing a 
shrine and wooden statue 1 of Homer; for the 

1 The primary meaning of the Greek word here used for 
"statue," xoatwn, is "a prehistoric statue carved of wood." 

245 



STRABO 

Oia(f>€pOVTG)<; TOV TTOirjrOV, KdX Bf) KCU VOfJLKT/Jia 

ri xa\/covv Trap* clvtoI? e O/j,i']peiov Xeyerat. pel 

Be TtXtJCTIOV TOV T€t^Of? O MeA,?7? TTOTa/JLOS. €<TTL 

Be 7T/?o? T7j dXXrj /caraaxevT] 777? 7ro\eft>? koX 
\i/At]V K\eiaro<;. ev £' eXaTTco/ia t6)v dp^LTefcro- 
vcov ov fiL/cpov, ore Ta? oBovs (TTopvvvres, 1 
viroppvaeis ovk eBco/cav avraZs, aXV eruiroXd^ei 
ra o~/cv/3aXa, /cal /judXtara ev rocs o /a/3 pots 
€7ra<f)i€/jLevcop twv diroafcevcov. 2 ivravOa A0A.0- 
j3iWa<; Tpeftooviov etciroXiopicrjo-as dvelXev, eva 
toov hoXotyovrjcydvTwv Y^alaapa rov ®eov, kcli 
rr)<; TroXews irapeXvae 7ro\Xd fiepr/. 

38. Mera Be ^Lpvpvav at Aev/cai iroXi^yiov, o 
aTrearrjaev 'ApLaTovifcos fierd tijv 'ArrdXov tov 
QiXofArjTopos reXevrrjv, Bo/cwv tov yevov? elvai 
rov twv /3aai\ewv teal diavoovfievos et? eavTov 
iroieladai Tr\v ap^ijv evTevOev fiev ovv e^eireaev, 
fjTTrjdels vavp,ayia irep\ Tr\v Kv/jualav vtto 
'Ecfreo-icov, et? Be ttjv /jLeaoycuav dvccov r/Qpoiae 
Bid Tayjkwv TrXijOos diropwv re dvdpcoTrcov teal 
BovXcov eV eXevOepia /caTaKe/cXrj/ievcov, ovs 
HXiottoXltcis ercaXeae. irpo)Tov p,ev ovv irapeiae- 
ireaev et? (dvaTeipa, eiT ' AiroXXcoviBa eayev, 
ecT aXXcov icfileTo <f>povptwv' ov ttoXvv Be Bie- 
yeveTO %povov, dXX* evOvs at re 7ro\ef? eTre/LLyjrav 
ttXtjOos, tcai H\ifco/jL)'/Br)<; 6 Ridvvos eireKOvprjae 
/cal 01 tcov KainraBoxwv (3aaiXel<$. kireiTa 
7rpeo-/3€i<; 'PcofAalcov irh'Te r)/cov, ical peTa TavTa 

1 (TTopvvvTfs Meineke, for (rrpuvvvvTcs E, crropvqvr^s F, 
OTooevvwTts other MSS. 

2 airoaKevwVy Corais, for Trapxantvwv. 

246 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 37-38 

Smvrnaeans also lay especial claim to the poet; and 
indeed a bronze coin of theirs is called Homereium. 
The River Meles flows near the walls ; and, in addi- 
tion to the rest of the city's equipment, there is also 
a harbour that can be closed. But there is one 
error, not a small one, in the work of the engineers, 
that when they paved the streets they did not give 
them underground drainage ; instead, filth covers 
the surface, and particularly during rains, when the 
cast-off tilth is discharged upon the streets. It was 
here that Dolabella captured by siege, and slew, 
Trebonius, one of the men who treacherously 
murdered the deified Caesar ; and he set free x many 
parts of the city. 

38. After Smyrna one comes to Leucae, a small 
town, which after the death of Attalus Philometor 2 
was caused to revolt by Aristonicus, who was reputed 
to belong to the royal family and intended to usurp 
the kingdom. Now he was banished from Smyrna, 
after being defeated in a naval battle near the 
Cymaean territory by the Ephesians, but he went 
Dp into the interior and quickly assembled a large 
number of resourceless people, and also of slaves, 
invited with a promise of freedom, whom he called 
Heliopolitae. 3 Now he first fell upon Thyateira 
unexpectedly, and then got possession of Apollonis, 
and then set his efforts against other fortresses. But 
he did not last long ; the cities immediately sent a 
large number of troops against him, and they were 
assisted by Nicomedes the Bithynian and by the 
kingb of the Cappadocians. Then came five Roman 

1 Others translate the verb "destroyed," or the like, but 
ef its use in 8. 6. 14 and Herodotus 1. 149. 

* See 13. 4. 2. * Citizens of the city of Helius (Sun-g(xi). 

247 



STRABO 

crrparca 1 /cal viraro<; Uo7r\io<; Kpda <ro?, /cal 
fierd ravra Map/to? Uepirepvas, 09 /cal icaieXvoe 
rbv iroXefiov, ^coypla Xa/Scov rbv 'Apiarovi/cov /cal 
dvairep^a^ eh 'Vcojjltjv. i/ceivos fiev ovv iv rw 
Bea/jLwrrjpia) /carearpetye rbv (Slov, Uepirepvav Be 
vocros Biefydeipe, Kpdaaos Be irepl Aev/cas, iiriQe- 
fievcov rivcov, eireaev iv fxd^rj, Mawo9 8* 'A/cvX- 
\*09, iire\0(ov viraros fierd Be/ca irpeo-ftevrwv, 
Biera^e rrjv inapxlav eh rb vvv en avfi/xevov 
C 647 T/I9 iroXirelas axfjpa. fierd Be Aev/cas Qca/caia 
iv koXttol)' irepl Be ravrrjs elprjKa/iev iv ra> irepl 
MaaaaXla^ Xbycp. eW 01 opoi rcov 'Icdvcov /cat 
rwv AloXecov ecprjrat, Be /cal irepl rovrcov. iv 
Be rfj /leaoyaia 7-779 'Icovi/cr)? irapaXias Xotird 
iari to, irepl rrjv 6Bbv rrjv e'f 'E<£ecrou p&XP 1 
' AvTio\eia<i /cal rov MaidvBpov. earc Be ical 
rd x w P ia Tavra AvBoh teal Kapalv iiripuKra teal 
roh"^XXrjai. 

39. Upcorrj £' iarlv ef 'E^eVou Mayvrjcria, 
ttoXis AloXi<;,Xeyo/jLevr) Be iirl MaidvBp(p' irXrjaiov 
yap avrov iBpvrai' iroXv Be irXrjcrialrepov 6 
Arjdaios, ififiaXXcov eh rbv MaiavBpov, rrjv 8' 
dpxh v £X WV ^ L7ro Ha/crvov 2 rov rcov 'E<f)eo~L(ov 
opovs' ere/Jo? 8' iarl ArjOalos iv Toprvvrj teal 
6 irepl Tpi/crcrjv, ifi w 6 ' Aa /cXrjir ib<$ yevvrjOrjvai 
Xeyerai, /cal en, iv roh 'EcrirepLrais Al(3vai. 
/celrai B* iv ireBLcp irpbs Spec KaXovfxevw ®d)pa/ci 
7) ttoXk;, ifi c5 aravpwOrjvai ^aart Aa^urav tov 
ypa/jL/juariKov, XoiBoprjaavra tou9 fiaaiXeas Bid 
Biarixov 3 

1 CTparid, Corais, for arpareia. 

2 IlaKTvoi/, Xylander, for UaKriov. 
248 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 38-39 

ambassadors, and after that an army under Publius 
Crassus the consul, 1 and after that Marcus Perpernas, 
who brought the war to an end, having captured 
Aristonicus alive and sent him to Rome. Now 
Aristonicus ended his life in prison; Perpernas died 
of disease ; and Crassus, attacked by certain people 
in the neighbourhood of Leucae, fell in battle. And 
Manias Aquillius came over as consul 2 with ten 
lieutenants and organised the province into the form 
of government that still now endures. After Leucae 
one comes to Phocaea, on a gulf, concerning which 
1 have already spoken in my account of Massalia. 
Then to the boundaries of the Ionians and the 
Aeolians ; but I have already spoken of these. In 
the interior above the Ionian seaboard there remain 
to be described the places in the neighbourhood of 
the road that leads from Ephesus to Antiocheia and 
the Maeander River. These places are occupied by 
Lydians and Carians mixed with Greeks. 

39. The first city one comes to after Ephesus is 
Magnesia, which is an Aeolian city and is called 
" Magnesia on the Maeander," for it is situated near 
that river. But it is much nearer the Lethaeus 
River, which empties into the Maeander and has its 
beginning in Mt. Pactyes, the mountain in the 
territory of the Ephesians. There is another Lethaeus 
in Gortyna, and another near Tricce, where Asclepius 
is said to have been born, and still another in the 
country of the Western Libyans. And the city lies 
in the plain near the mountain called Thorax, on 
which Daphitas the grammarian is said to have been 
crucified, because he reviled the kings in a distich : 

1 131 b.c. 2 129 b.c. 

* hiarlxov F, (tt/xou other MSS. 
vol. vi. 1 2 49 



STRABO 

Trop(f)vp€Oi /jLwXcoTres, diroppiv^pLaTa yd&s 
Avaifjid)(OV, AvBwv dp-^ere Kal fypvyLTjs. 

Kal Xoyiov 8' iKireaetv auTu> XeyeTai, (frvXarreaOai 
tov W(opa/ca. 

40. Aofcovcri B' elvai Mdyvrjre? AeXcpwv airo- 
yovoi, rcop iiroi/crjaavTcov rd AiBvjia oprj iv 
SerrdXia, irepl a>v (f)Jjo~lv 'HcrtoSo?' 

17 oir) AiBv/jlovs lepovs vaiovaa koXcovovs, 
AwTtw iv Trehut) TroXvfioTpvo*; dvr 'Afivpoio, 
viijraTO Boj/3m8o<> Xi/jlvtjs iroha irapOevo's dhjir^. 

ivravOa 8' rjv Kal to tt}<; AivBv/jLijvr)? lepov, 
M?;t/)o? decav' tepdaaadai 1 8' avTOv ttjv ®€/u- 
aTotcXeovs yvvat/ca, ol Be Ovyarepa irapaBcBoaar 

VVV 8' OVK €<JTl TO lepOV hid TO T7)V TToXiV 6t? 

dXXov fierwKLaOaL tottov iv Be ry vvv iroXei to 
tt}<? AevKO^pvrjvrjs lepov icTiv y ApT€/juBo$, o tw 
fiev fieyeOei tov vaov Kal tw irXrjOet twv dvaOrj- 
fiaTcov Xe'nreTai tov iv 'E^eo-ft), ttj 8' eupvOfiia 
Kal jfj Texvp T77 irepl ttjv KaTao-Kevrjv tov aqfcov 
ttoXv Biafyepei* Kal tw iieyeOei inrepalpec irdvTas 
tous iv 'Aaia TrXrjv Bvelv, tov iv 'K(pea(p Kal 
tov iv AlBv/aois. Kal to iraXaibv Be o~vve/3r) 
toIs ^Idyvrjcnv biro TpijpcJov apBijv di'aipeO-fjvai, 
KififieptKOv eOvovs, evTv^aavTa^ 2 iroXvv ^povov 
Tcp 8' e^5 eTei MlXtjctlovs KaTaayeiv tov tottov. 

Ka\\tl/09 fl€V OVV ft)? €VTV)(OVVT(t)V eTl TCOV 

WayvrjTwv p,ep.vrjTai Kal KaTopdovvTcov iv t&> 
ttoo? toi)? 'E(/)6crtOL'? TroXe/xw, ' A/r^tA-o^o? Be 17877 
(paiveTai yvcopi^wv ttjv yevo/uev7]v avToU av^o- 
pdv' 
25c 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 39-40 

u Purpled with stripes, mere filings of the treasure of 
Lysimachus, ye rule the Lydians and Phrvgia." It 
is said that an oracle was given out that Daphitas 
should be on his guard against Thorax. 

40. The Magnetans are thought to be descendants 
of Delphians who settled in the Didyman hills, in 
Thessaly, concerning whom Hesiod says : " Or as the 
un wedded virgin who, dwelling on the holy Didyman 
hills, in the Dotian Plain, in front of Amyrus, bathed 
her foot in Lake Boebe'is." 1 Here was also the 
temple of Dindymene, Mother of the gods. Accord- 
ing to tradition, the wife of Themistocles, some say 
his daughter, served as a priestess there. But the 
temple is not now in existence, because the city has 
been transferred to another site. In the present city 
is the temple of Artemis Leucophryene, which in 
the size of its shrine and in the number of its votive 
offerings is inferior to the temple at Ephesus, but in 
the harmony and skill shown in the structure of the 
sacred enclosure is far superior to it. And in size it 
surpasses all the sacred enclosures in Asia except 
two, that at Ephesus and that at Didymi. In ancient 
times, also, it came to pass that the Magnetans were 
utterly destroyed by the Treres, a Cimmerian tribe, 
although they had for a long time been a prosperous 
people, but the Milesians took possession of the place 
in the following year. Now Callinus mentions the 
Magnetans as still being a prosperous people and as 
being successful in their war against the Ephesians, 
but Archilochus is obviously already aware of the 

1 Also quoted in 9. 5. 22. 

1 iepdaaodat J)h, UpacrQai other MSS. 

2 ei»Tux7]<rai/Ta$ F, siirvxijaavros other MSS. 

251 



STRABO 

icXaieiv ra Qaaiayv} ov 2 ra Mayvr/rayv /ca/cd' 

C 648 ef ov teal avrbv vedorepov elvai rov KaXXivov 
TeKfiatpeaOat rrdpeanv. dXXrjs Be twos i(f)6Bov 
ra)p Kt/jL/j.epLQ)p fj,e/jLV7]Tcu irpeafivrepas 6 KaXXlvos, 
eirdv cfyfj' 

vvv B' eirl Kifi/xepLcov arparbs ep^erat 6/3pi- 
fioepyoiV 

ev fj tt)v XdpBecov aXtoaiv BrfXol. 

41. *AvBpes B' eyevovro yvcbpi/ioi Mdyvyres 
Hyrjaias re 6 pijrcop, o<? r)p%e j^dXiara rov 
Aaiavov Xeyop.evov £rj\ov, irapafyOelpas to 
Ka0€aT7]fcbs €0os to ' Attikov, real St/AO? 3 6 p,eXo- 
ttoios, 7rapa(j)9eLpa<; Kal avrbs rr)v rebv irporepwv 
fiekoTTOicbv dycoyrjv teal ri)v ^i/nwBiav elaayayebv, 
KaOdirep en /idXXov AvairpBol Kal MaytoBoi, 
teal KAeo/za^o? 6 ttvktiis, o? eh epwra e/nreacov 
KivalBov tivos /cal m a iB La Kris vtto rw 4 KivaLBw 
rpe(f)op,evr)<; aTrefiLprjaaro rr)v dyayyrjv rebv irapd 
rots KivalBois BiaXefcrcov teal rrjs r)do7roiias' rjpge 
Be "^(ordBrjs /xev nrpebros rod KtvaiBoXoyeZv, eireira 
AXe^avBpos 6 AlrcoXos' dXX* ovtol puev ev ^lXw 
Xoyw, fierd piiXovs Be Avals, Kal en irporepos 
tovtov 6 Sl/xos. 'Ava^rjvopa Be rov KiOapwBbv 
etjr/pe fiev /cal rd Oearpa, aXX' on 5 pdXiara 
'Avroovios, o? 6 76 /cal rerrdpeov iroXewv dweBeL^e 
(f>opoXoyop, arpaTtojras avrCa avarrjaas* Kal r) 

1 to Qaalasv, Tyrwhitt, for dd(r(<T)<av ; so Tzschucke and 
Corais. 

2 ov, Tzschucke and Corais, for o5. 

3 Xijxos, Tzschucke, for Zi/jum ; so Meineke. 

4 r<f, Corais inserts ; so Meineke. 

252 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 40-41 

misfortune that befell them: "to bewail the woes 
of the Thasians, not those of the Magnetans"; 1 
whence one may judge that he was more recent 
than Callinus. And Callinus recalls another, and 
earlier, invasion of the Cimmerians when he says : 
* And now the army of the Cimmerians, mighty in 
deeds, advanceth," 2 in which he plainly indicates 
the capture of Sardeis. 

41. Well-known natives of Magnesia are : He- 
gesias the orator, who, more than any other, initiated 
the Asiatic style, as it is called, whereby he corrupted 
the established Attic custom ; and Simus the melic 
poet, he too a man who corrupted the style handed 
down by the earlier melic poets and introduced the 
Simoedia, 3 just as that style was corrupted still more 
by the Lysioedi and the Magoedi, and by Cleomachus 
the pugilist, who, having fallen in love with a certain 
cinaedus 4 and with a young female slave who was 
kept as a prostitute by the cinaedus, imitated the 
style of dialects and mannerisms that was in vogue 
among the cinaedi. Sotades was the first man to 
write the talk of the cinaedi ; and then Alexander 
the Aetolian. But though these two men imitated 
that talk in mere speech, Lysis accompanied it with 
song; and so did Simus, who was still earlier than 
he. As for Anaxenor, the citharoede, 5 the theatres 
exalted him, but Antony exalted him all he possibly 
could, since he even appointed him exactor of tribute 
from four cities, giving him a body-guard of soldiers. 

1 Frag. 20 (Bergk). 2 Frag. 3 (Bergk). 

3 A loose song. * An obscene talker. 

5 One who played the cithara and sang to its accompaniment 
(cf. 9. 3. 10 and note on "the citharoedes"). 

5 oTi, Meineke, for €Tt. 6 '6s, Kramer, for ov. 

253 



STRABO 

irarp\<; 8' l/cav<o<; avrbv rjv^rjo-e, jropcfrvpav evBv- 
aaaa, lepcofievov 1 rov ^coo-ittoXiBos Ato?, fcaOd- 
irep teal r) ypaiTTT) elxtov e/x^avt^et r) ev rrj dyopa. 
eari Be real %aX«?/ eUcov ev rco Oedrpw, eTriypacfrrjv 
e%ovo-a' 

i]TOi fiev roBe KaXbv aKove/xev earlv doiBov 
roiovB\ olos SB' eari, Oeoh evaklyicios avBjj. 

ov aroxaadpievos Be 6 eTriypdyjras rb reXevralov 
ypdfXfxa rov Bevrepov eVou? rrapeXiire, rov irXd- 
Tou? rf}<; /3daeco<; pLrj avve^apKovvro^ ware tt}? 
TroXew; dp,a9iav Karayivwa Keiv irapkcrye. Bid ri]v 
d{i<pi/3o\i.av rijv Trepl 2 rrjv ypacfrfjv, eXre rrjv 
dvofiajTifcrjv Be^otro irrcoaiv tt)? ecT^drrj^ Trpoar)- 
7001a?, elre rrjv BoriKrjv' ttoXXoI yap %<w/ot? rov i 
ypdfyovai Ta? BoTLfcds /cal iicfidWovcn Be 3 to 
e#o? (pvaLfci)i' air lav ovk e%ov. 

42. MeT<z Be Mayvrjalav r) enl TpdXXeis earlv 
0805 ev dpiarepa fiev rrjv MeawylBa e^ovaiv, 
ev avrfi Be ry 68<£> teal ev Be%ia rb M.aidvBpov 
ttcBlov, AvBcov dfia ical Kapcov ve/jbOfiivcov ical 
'lcovcov, MiXrjalcov re teal ^SLvr/aloyv, en Be AloXecov 
rcov ev Mayvrjala" 6 8' auTo? rpoiros 4 rrjs ro- 
iro6eala<$ ical fi^XP 1 Nuo-779 teal 'Ai/Tto^eia?. 
YBpvrai 8' r) fxev rcov TpaXXiavaov 7r6\t? eirl 
rpaire^lov rivos, dicpav e%ovro<; epv/jivrjv' /cal rd 
C 649 kvkXw 8' itcav<h<; evepKr)' avvoiKelrai Be KaXoos, 
el T£? dXXrj rdv Kara rrjv 'Aaiav, vrrb evrropwv 
dvSpdoirwv, ical del rive? ej~ avrr)? elalv ol 
irpwrevovre^ Kara rrjv eTrap^Lav, ot>? 'Aova/^a? 

1 Instead of Upw/j.4vov, CDmoz have Up^n.ivt\v. 

2 irepi, Kramer, for irapa. 

254 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. t. 41-42 

Further, his native land greatly increased his honours, 
having clad him in purple as consecrated to Zeus 
Sosipolis, 1 as is plainly indicated in his painted image 
in the market-place. And there is also a bronze 
statue of him in the theatre, with the inscription, 
u Surely this is a beautiful thing, to listen to a singer 
such as this man is, like unto the gods in voice." 2 
But the engraver, missing his guess, left out the 
last letter of the second verse, the base of the statue 
not being wide enough for its inclusion ; so that he 
laid the city open to the charge of ignorance, because 
of the ambiguity of the writing, as to whether the last 
word should be taken as in the nominative case or 
in the dative ; 3 for many write the dative case without 
the iota, and even reject the ordinary usage as being 
without natural cause. 

42. After Magnesia comes the road to Tralleis, with 
Mt. Mesogis on the left, and, at the road itself and 
on the right, the plain of the Maeander River, which 
is occupied by Lydians and Carians, and by lonians, 
both Milesians and Myesians, and also by the Aeo- 
lians of Magnesia. And the same kind of topogra- 
phical account applies as far as Nysa and Antiocheia. 
The city of the Tralleians is situated upon a trape- 
zium-shaped site, with a height fortified by nature ; 
and the places all round are well defended. And it 
is as well peopled as any other city in Asia by people 
of means ; and always some of its men hold the chief 
places in the province, being called Asiarchs. 

1 City -Saviour. 2 Odyssey 9. 3. 

3 i.e. as ATAH or ATA HI. 

3 5f, Meineke, for yt ; Corais tc. 

4 teal, after rpSiros, omitted by moxz. 

255 



STRABO 

KaXovaiv &v UvOoScopos re rjv, dvrjp Nuo'aei'? 
to ef ap-yflSy i/cecae Be p,era/3e/3rjK(o<} Bid rrjv 
eirKpaveiav, Kal ev rfj Trpb? JJopbirrjiov cfyiXua 
Biarrpeircov pier oXiycov TrepiefiefiXrjro Be Kal 
ovaiav fiaaiXiKrjv rrXeiovcov r) Bicr^iXicov ra- 
Xavrcov, rjv virb Kalaapos rov Seov rrpaOeiaav 
Bid rrjv irpos UofjL7T7]iov <f>iXiav e%(ovrjadpievo<; ov% 
rjrrw roU rraial KareXnre' rovrov 8' eo~rl Ovydrrjp 
UvOoBcopis, r) vvv (SaaiXevovaa ev t&> Tiovrw, 
rrepl rjs elpijKapiev. ovtos Brj /ca6' rjpd<; rjKpiaae 
teal M.7]v6B(opo<;, dvrjp Xoyios Kal aXXcos aepvbs 
Kal (Sapvs, eywv rrjv lepwavvrjv rov A*o? rov 
Aapicraiov KarearaaidaOrj K virb rcov Aopieriov 
rov ' Arjvoj3dpf3ov (piXwv, Kal dveiXev avrbv 
itc€Lvo<;, &j? dcpiardvra rb vavriKov, irio~revaa<; 
rol<; evBei^apLevois. eyevovro Be /cal prjropes 
eiri^avel^ Alovvo-okXtjs re Kal pierd ravra Adpia- 
<ro9 6 ^KOpiBpos. Kriapa Be <j)ao~iv elvai Ta? 
TpdXXeis *Apyelcov Kal rivwv SpaKcov TpaXXicov, 
a<£' gov rovvopba. rvpavvrjOrjvai 8' bXiyov awe- 
ireae y^pbvov rrjv iroXiv virb rcov Kpariinrov 
rraiBcov Kara rd MiOpiBariKa. 

43. NOcra 6" iBpvrai irpbs rfj Ttteo-ojyiBi rb 
irXeov ra> opei 7rpoaavaK€KXipiivrj } eari S' toenrep 
BiiroXi^, Biaipel yap avrrjv yapdBpa Tt?, iroiovaa 
<j)dpayya, rjs to puev yefyvpav eiriKeipievrjv ef^e*, 
avvdirrovaav Ta? Bvo iroXeis, rb 8* dpu<f)idedrp(p 
KeKoapLrjrai, Kpvrrrrjv tyovri rrjv viroppvaiv r&v 
yapaBpcoBcbv vBdrcov ra> Be Oedrpco Bvo aKpai, 
wv rfj pb€v viTQKeirai rb yvpuvdaiov rcov vecov, 

1 12. 3. 29, 31, 37. 
256 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 42-43 

Among these was Pythodorus, originally a native of 
1, but he changed his abode to Tralleis because 
of its celebrity ; and with only a few others he stood 
out conspicuously as a friend of Pompey. And he 
came into possession of the wealth of a king, worth 
more than two thousand talents, which, though 
sold by the deified Caesar, was redeemed by him 
through his friendship with Pompey and was left by 
him unimpaired to his children. He was the father 
of Pythodoris, the present queen in Pontus, of whom 
I have already spoken. 1 Pythodorus, then, flourished 
in my time, as also Menodorus, a man of learning, 
and otherwise august and grave, who held the 
priesthood of Zeus Larisaeus. But he was over- 
thrown by a counter-party friendly to Dometius 
Ahenobarbus ; and Dometius, relying on his in- 
formers, slew him, as guilty of causing the fleet to 
revolt. Here were born famous orators : Dionysocles 
and afterwards Damasus Scombrus. Tralleis is said 
to have been founded by Argives and by certain 
Tralleian Thracians, and hence the name. And the 
city was ruled for a short time by tyrants, the 
sons of Cratippus, at the time of the Mithridatic 
war. 

43. Nysa is situated near Mt. Mesogis, for the 
most part lying upon its slopes ; and it is a double 
city, so to speak, for it is divided by a torrential 
stream that forms a gorge, which at one place 
has a bridge over it, joining the two cities, and at 
another is adorned with an amphitheatre, with a 
hidden underground passage for the torrential waters. 
Near the theatre are two heights, below one of 
which is the gymnasium of youths ; and below the 
other is the market-place and the gymnasium for 

257 
I 2 



STRABO 

rf} 8' dyopd Kal to yepovriKov 7T/909 Be vorov 
vTroireTTTcoKe rfj iroXet rb ireBiov, /caOdirep Kal 
rals TpdXXeaiv. 

44. 'EjV Be rfj 68a> rfj p.era^v roov TpdXXecov 
real rrjs Nuo^t;?, kco/it) rcov ^\vaaecov iarlv ov/c 
dirwdev t?}? TroXeco? *A)(dpaKa, iv rj to II\ou- 
rwvLOv, e\ov /cat aXaos TroXvreXes /ecu veuyv 
TlXovrcovos re fcai K00779, 1 Kal to Xapcoviov, 
dvrpov virepKeifievov rod dXaov? davfiacrrbv rfj 
yfivcrer Xeyovai yap Brj Kal tovs voacoBeis ical 
rrpoaeyovra^ rats rcov Oecov rovrcov Oepaireiai^ 
<f>oirav €K6L(T€ Kal BiairaaOac iv rfj ted)/j,r) rrXtjaiov 
rov dvrpov irapd toZs ifnrelpois rwv iepewv, oc 
iyfcoifiwvTal re virep avrcov Kal Biardrrovctv 
€K twv oveipwv to? Oepairelas. ovrot o° elal Kal 
ol eyKaXovvres rrjv twv Oeoiv larpeiav' dyovai Be 
7roXXaKi<; €i? to dvrpov Kal IBpvovcri fievovras 
Ka6* rjav)(iav ckcl, KaOdirep iv cfxoXed) airiwv 
C 650 X W P^ e ' 7r '' TrXelovs rjfiepas. eari 8' ore Kal 
IBloi? ivvTTvlois ol voo-rjXevofievoL Trpoae^ovai, 
fivaraycoyoU 8' o/x<w? Kal o-v/jl/3ovXoi<; eKeivoi? 
Xpayvrac, a>? dv iepevo~i' toZ? 8' aXXois aBvros 
iariv 6 T07TO? Kal oXeOpLOS. ijavrjyvpi^ 8' iv 
T0Z9 'A^aoa/cof? o-uvreXtlrai Kar eVo?, Kal rore 
fidXio-ra bpdv eari Kal aKoveiv irepl rcov ro- 
aovrcov 2 toi)<? 7rav7]yv pi^ovras' rore Be Kal -wepi 
rrjv fieo-rj/jL{3pLav vTroXa&ovres ravpov ol ck rov 
yvfivaatov veoi Kal e(f)7){3oi, yvfivol XtV dXi]Xi/jL- 
/jbevot,, 3 pberd airovBrj^ dvaKopLi^ovaiv 6i? to dvrpov' 
dcfreOels Be, fiiKpbv irpoeXOcov Trlirrei Kal eKirvovs 
yiverai. 

1 K6prjs, second hand in C, for tf Hpas elsewhere. 
258 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 43-44 

older persons. The plain lies to the south of the 
city, as it does to the south of Tralleis. 

44. On the road between the Tralleis and Nysa 
is a village of the Nysaeans, not far from the city, 
Acharaca, where is the Plutonium, with a costly 
sacred precinct and a shrine of Pluto and Core, and 
also the Charonium, a cave that lies above the sacred 
precinct, by nature wonderful ; for they say that 
those who are diseased and give heed to the cures 
prescribed by these gods resort thither and live in 
the village near the cave among experienced priests, 
who on their behalf sleep in the cave and through 
dreams prescribe the cures. These are also the men 
who invoke the healing power of the gods. And 
they often bring the sick into the cave and leave 
them there, to remain in quiet, like animals in their 
lurking-holes, without food for many days. And some- 
times the sick give heed also to their own dreams, but 
still they use those other men, as priests, to initiate 
them into the mysteries and to counsel them. To 
all others the place is forbidden and deadly. A 
festival is celebrated every year at Acharaca ; and at 
that time in particular those who celebrate the 
festival can see and hear concerning all these 
things ; and at the festival, too, about noon, the 
boys and young men of the gymnasium, nude and 
anointed with oil, take up a bull and with haste 
carry him up into the cave ; and, when let loose, 
the bull goes forward a short distance, falls, and 
breathes out his life. 



2 ToffovToov is emended by Corais and Meineke to vo- 
ffovvroiv. 

3 AtV o.Kt)\iu.jx4voi, Meineke, for aira\ri\inn4voi. 

259 



STRABO 

45. 'Airb Be TpiaKovra araBlcov tt)<? Nucr?;? 
virepftdai TficoXov Kal x to opos rrjv MeacoylBa 

€7TL TCL 7T/90? TOV VOTOV fl€pT) KCLkelrai T07TO? 

Aeificov, et? ov e^oBevovai 7ravJ]yvpiovvre<; 
Nucaet? Te Kal ol kvkXo) Trdvres' ov iroppw Be 

TOVTOV (TTOfJLlOV IdTlV UpOV TCOV CtVTCOV deWV, 6 

$a<Ji /caOrf/ceiv ^e\pi rcov ''A^apd/ccov. tovtov 
Be tov Xei/xcova ovofid^eiv tov ttou]T7]v (fraatv, 

OTCLV (pfj, 

'Acrtro ev Xei/jbcovi, 
BeiKvvvre*; Kavo-rplov Kal ' Aaiov Tivbs r/pyov /cal 
rbv K.dvo~rpov irkr)alov diroppeovra. 

46. 'laTOpovai Be Tyoet? dBeXcfrovs, "AOv/iftpov 
re Kal y Adv/jLj3paSov Kal "TBprjXov, ekOovras etc 
Aa/ceBaLfjbovos, ra? eTrcovv/xovs avrwv KTiaai 
7roXef9, XenravBprjaai B* vcnepov, e'f e/ceivcov Be 
GvvoiKLGOr\vai ri]V Nvaav Kal vvv "Advpfipov 
dp^yeTrjv vopi^ovaiv ol Nucraei?. 

47. Uepifcetvrai Be dl~i6Xoyoi KaroiKiai irepav 
rov MaidvBpov, Koa/clvia Kal ^OpOwaia' evrbs Be 
RpiovXa, Mdaravpa, ' A\dpaKa, Kal virep ttjs 
7roXeft>? ev T<p Spec rd "Apo/xa 2 (o-vo~TeXXovTes to 
po) ypdfjLjia)' z o9ev dpiaros Mecra)yLTr]<; olvos 6 
'ApofjLeu<;. 

1 Kai, before rb opos, Jones inserts. E reads rb opos xai t}jv 
Mi<rwyi5a. 

2 "Apofia, Corais. for 'Apw/xara CDF (the o being above w in 
D), 'Ap6/xaTa Ehimoz. 

3 The words in parenthesis are probably a gloss, and are 
ejected by Meineke. 

1 The text, which seems to be corrupt, is recast and 
emended by Groskurd to read, "having crossed the Mesogis 

260 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 45-47 

45 Thirty stadia from Nysa, after one crosses oveT 
Mt. Tniolus and the mountain called Mesogis, 
towards the region to the south of the Mesogis, 1 there 
is a place called Leimon, 2 whither the Nysaeans and 
all the people about go to celebrate their festivals. 
And not far from Leimon is an entrance into the 
earth sacred to the same gods, which is said to 
extend down as far as Acharaca. The poet is said 
to name this meadow when he says, ' ' On the Asian 
meadow " ; and they point out a hero-temple of 
Cavster and a certain Asius, and the Cayster River 
that streams forth near by. 

46. The story is told that three brothers, Athym- 
brus and Athymbradus and Hydrelus, who came 
from Lacedaemon, founded the three cities which 
were named after them, but that the cities later 
became scantily populated, and that the city Nysa 
was founded by their inhabitants ; but that Athym- 
brus is now regarded by Nysaeans as their original 
founder. 

47. Near Nysa, on the far side of the Maeander 
River, are situated noteworthy settlements ; I mean 
Coscinia and Orthosia ; and this side the river, 
Briula, Mastaura and Acharaca, and above the city, 
on the mountain, Aroma (in which the letter rho 3 is 
short), whence comes the best Mesogitan wine, I 
mean the Aromian. 

towards the region to the south of Tmolus." But the simple 
rectification of the text made by the present translator solves 
the difficulty quite as well (see critical note). 

* i.p. meadow. 

3 Apparently an error for " in which name the letter omega 
is shortened to omicron (cp. the well-known Greek word 
Aroma, which may mean either "spice" or "arable land.") 

261 



STRABO 

48. *AvBpe$ Be yeyovaaiv evBotoi Nt>o*aet? 

A7T0W(i)Vl0<; T£ O -TW(«0? <f)lX6(70(f)0<s, TO)V 

TlavaiTiov yvcopifioov apLtTTos, ical Meve/cpdrrj*;, 
'Apiardp^ov fiaOiirifc, /cal 'ApiaroBri/jLOS, e/celvov 
vios, ov Bcrj/covaafiev r;/xet? eG\aTbyr]p(ii veoi 
TravreXws ev rrj Nitcry /cal 'Zdocrrparo? Be, 6 
aBe\<f)b<; rov ' ApiaroBijfiov, /cal aWo? 'Apiaro- 
Br}fio<;, aveyjnbs avrov, 6 TraiBevaas Mdyvov rio/x- 
tttjlov, d^coXoyoi yeyovaai ypapLfxariKot' 6 6" 
ij/j-erepos /cal ipprjropeve, /cal ev rfj 'PoSw /cal ev 
rfj TrarpLBi Bvo a%o\a<; awel^e, rrrpcol fiev rrjv 
pr)TopiKY]v y BeiXrjS Be ri]v ypa/j,{iari/cr}V a-^oXtjv 
ev Be rfj 'Pcofirj rwv Mdyvov iraiBayv eTriffTarcov 
r)pKelio rfj ypa/JL/JLari/cr} a^oXfj, 

II 

1. Ta Be irepav rjBr) rov MaidvBpov, ra Xenro- 
C651 fieva tt}<? TrepioBeias, irdvr earl Kapi/cd, ov/ceri 
-rot? AvBols eTTi/jie/Juy/jLevtov evravOa twv Kapcov, 
a\\' r)Br/ /caO' at/Tou? ovrcov, ttXtjv el ti MiXrjaioi 
/cal MvrjaiOL t?}? irapaXia? adorer pLrjvrai. dpyh 
fxev ovv tt}? TrapaXias earlv r) rwv 'PoBicov irepaia 
irpb<; OaXdrrr)^, TeA.05 Be to YloaeiBtov tmv 
MiXi^alayv ev Be rfj fieaoyaia rd d/cpa rov 
Tavpov p^ey^pi MaidvBpov. Xeyovcn yap dp^rjv 
elvai rov Tavpov rd virepKeifxeva oprj tmv XeXt- 
Boviwv KaXovfievcdv vrjaaiv, aXirep ev fxeOopiw rrj<; 
TLa/j,(f)v\ias /cal rr)<; Avicla? irpo/ceivraL' evrevOev 
yap e^aiperai 7r/)o? in/ro? TaO/w to B' dXrjOe? /cal 

1 For map of Asia Minor, see Vol. V. (at end). 
262 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 1. 48-2. 1 

48. Famous men born at Nysa are : Apollonius 
the Stoic philosopher, best of the disciples of Panae- 
tius ; and Menecrates, pupil of Aristarchus ; and 
Aristodemus, his son, whose entire course, in his 
extreme old age, I in my youth took at Nysa ; and 
Sostratus, the brother of Aristodemus, and another 
Aristodemus, his cousin, who trained Pompey the 
Great, proved themselves notable grammarians. 
But my teacher also taught rhetoric and had two 
schools, both in Rhodes and in his native land, teach- 
ing rhetoric in the morning and grammar in the 
evening ; at Rome, however, when he was in charge 
of the children of Pompey the Great, he was content 
with the teaching of grammar. 



II 

1 Coming now to the tar side of the Maeander, 1 
the parts that remain to be described are all Carian, 
since here the Lydians are no longer intermingled 
with the Carians, and the latter occupy all the country 
by themselves, except that a segment of the sea- 
board is occupied by Milesians and Myesians. Now 
the beginning of the seaboard is the Peraea 2 of the 
Rhodians on the sea, and the end of it is the 
Poseidium of the Milesians ; but in the interior are 
the extremities of the Taurus, extending as far as 
the Maeander River. For it is said that the moun- 
tains situated above the Chelidonian islands, as they 
are called, which islands lie off the confines of 
Pamphylia and Lycia, form the beginning of the 
Taurus, for thence the Taurus rises to a height ; 

* Mainland territory. 

263 



STRABO 

rrjv AvKiav cnracav hpeivr) pdx^ rov Tavpov Zuelp- 
<yet 7T/309 ra cVto? Kal to votlov fiepos utto to)v 
ILifivpaTLKwv ^%pi tt)? irepaia<; twv 'Vohlwv. 
KavravGa 8' earl avvexh^ opeivr], iroXv fievroL 
raireivorepa, Kal ovtceri rov Tavpov vo/jLL^erai, 
ovhe ra fxev e'/CTo? avrov, ra 8' ivros, hia to 
aTTOpdhas elvai Ta<? e^ox^ Kal Ta? elaoxa? 
iirLarj^ et<? 1 re rrXdros /cal /jlt)ko<; tt}? ^eopa? 
airdo-rjs Kal fnjhev exe.iv o/jlolop hiareixio'p-CL'Ti. 
eari 8' arras fxev 6 irepiirXovs KaraKoXirl^ovn 
arahiwv rerpaKiax^Xtoyv evvaKoaiuiv, avrbs 8e 
6 rr/s irepaias rcov 'PoSicov iyyvs x L ^' iwv K & 1 
irevraKocriayv. 

2. 'Apxv 8e ra, AalBaXa, rrjs f Po8ia? x w P l0v > 
irepas Be rb KaXovpevov opo$ <&olvi%, Kal rovro 
rrjs 'Po8/a?. rcpoKeirai 8' 'QXaiovcraa 2 vyjctos 
Biexovaa rijs 'Po8ou o-raBlovs eKarbv eitcoai. 
fxtra^v Be irpwrov fiev dirb AaiBdXcov TrXeovaiv 
€7rl tt]v Bvaiv eV evOeias rfj £k KiXiKLas /cal 
Hap.cj)v\La<; Kal AvKias rrapaXia, koXttos earlv euXu- 
//ero?, FXavKOS KaXovfievos, elra to 'Apreplaiov 
aKpa Kal iepov, elra to Atjtwop aXcros' virep 
avrov Be Kal rfjs OaXdrrrjs iv e^rjKovra araBioLs 
KdXvvBa 3 ttoXis' elra Kauvo? Kal Trorafibs 
ttXtjo-Lov Ka\/3t? (Sad us, ex oiv elaaywyrjv, Kal 
fieragv TH,aiXi<;. 

3. "E^et 8' rf ttoXis vecopia Kal Xi/ieva KXecarov 
virepKeirai Be rrjs iroXeoys ev vyjret (ppovpiov 

1 fls, Kramer inserts ; so the later editors. 

2 'EAcuoiWa, Tzschucke, for 'EAeovaaa ; so Corais and 
Meineke. 

8 KdKvpSa, Casaubon, for K.£\v/u>a ; so the later editors. 

264 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 1-3 

but the truth is that the whole of Lycia, towards 
the parts outside and on its southern side, is separ- 
ated by a mountainous lidge of the Taurus from the 
country of the Cibyrans as far as the Peraea of the 
Rhodians. From here the ridge continues, but is 
much lower and is no longer regarded as a part of the 
Taurus ; neither are the parts outside the Taurus and 
this side of it so regarded, because of the fact that 
the eminences and depressions are scattered equally 
throughout the breadth and the length of the whole 
country, and present nothing like a wall of partition. 
The whole of the voyage round the coast, following 
the sinuosities of the gulfs, is four thousand nine 
hundred stadia, and merely that round the Peraea 
of the Rhodians is close to fifteen hundred. 

2. The Peraea of the Rhodians begins with 
Daedala, a place in the Rhodian territory, but ends 
with Mt. Phoenix, as it is called, which is also in the 
Rhodian territory. Off the Peraea lies the island 
Elaeussa, distant one hundred and twenty stadia from 
Rhodes. Between the two, as one sails towards the 
west from Daedala in a straight line with the coast 
of Cilicia and Pamphylia and Lycia, one comes to a 
gulf called Glaucus, which has good harbours ; then 
to the Artemisium, a promontory and temple ; then 
to the sacred precinct of Leto, above which, and 
above the sea, at a distance of sixty stadia, lies 
Calynda, a city ; then to Caunus and to the Calbis, a 
river near Caunus, which is deep and affords passage 
for merchant vessels ; and between the two lies 
Pisilis. 

3. The city 1 has dockyards, and a harbour that 
can be closed. Above the city, on a height, lies 

1 Caunua 

265 



STRABO 

T^tySyOO?. rr/s 8k yu>pa<$ evBaipbOvos ovo-rf?, rj 
ttoXis rov Oepovs o/jLoXoyeirai nrapd ttuvtcov elvai 
Bvadepos tcai rov /xeroirajpov Bid rd Kavptara reai 
tyjv d<f>0oviav rcov aopaicov kcu Brj kcu rd roiavra 
Bi7]yr}p,dria 6 pvXelrcu, on *£rparoviKO<; 6 KiQapiG- 
T77? IBoav €7ri/jL€Xo)<; 1 xXwpovs rov<? KaiWoi/?, rovr 
elvai e(prj ro rov ttoitjtov' 

oi'rj irep (fyvXXwv yeveyj, roiyjBe kcu dvBp&v. 

fl€/JL<f)Ofl€V(OV Be, CO? <TK(ii)1TTOlTO CLVTto 2 T) 7To\£? &><? 

voaepd, 'Eyco, ecprj, ravrrjv Oapp-qaaifx av Xeyeiv 
C 652 voaepdv, orrov teal 01 veicpoi irepiirarovaiv ; dire- 
crrrfaav Be irore Kavvioi rcov 'PoBicov /cpiOevres 
8* iirl roiv 'Pco/jlcilcov dneXr)^>dj)o-av irdXiv kcu 
eon Xoyos MoA.6)i>o? Kara Kavvlcov. <f)ao-l o° 
avrovs 6/JLoy\doTTOv<; /xev elvai tols Kapaiv, 
cufnyQcu 8* i/c Kpr/rrj? 3 /cal xpfjadat, v6/jloi<; 
IBiois. 

4. 'Ef?}? Be <£>vo~ko<; ttoXl^vt}, Xi/meva eyovaa 
/ecu aXaos Arjrwov elra Acopvpa. irapaXia 
rpa\ela, kcu opos v^rrfKorarov rcov ravrrj' eir 
aKpcp Be cfcpovpiov opuovvpiov ray 6 pei Solvit;' 
irpoKeirai 8' y 'EXaiovaaa* vrjeros ev rerpaai 
araBioL<i kvkXov e^pvaa oaov OKrwardBiov. 

1 4in/j.€\u>s seems to be corrupt. For various conjectures, 
see Mtiller, hid. Var. Led., p. 1030. 

2 auT<J5, the editors (except Corais), for avrwv. 

3 8* lie Kor,T7)s (from Herod. 1. 172), Corais, for 8e Kp-qT-qs. 

4 'E\aiovar<ra, Tzschucke, for 'E\eova<ra ; so Corais and 
Meineke. 

1 An attempt to translate ivi/jieKws, which seems to be 
266 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 3-4 

Imbrus, a stronghold. Although the country is 
fertile, the city is agreed by all to have foul air in 
summer, as also in autumn, because of the heat and 
the abundance of fruits. And indeed little tales of 
the following kind are repeated over and over, that 
Stratonicus the citharist, seeing that the Caunians 
were pitiably x pale, 2 said that this was the thought 
of the poet in the verse, " Even as is the generation 
of leaves, such is that also of men " ; and when 
people complained that he was jeering at the city as 
though it were sickly, he replied, " Would 1 be so 
bold as to call this city sickly, where even the corpses 
walk about? " The Caunians once revolted from the 
Rhodians, but by a judicial decision of the Romans 
they were restored to them. And there is extant a 
speech of Molon 3 entitled Against the Caunians. It 
is said that they speak the same language as the 
Carians, but that they came from Crete and follow 
usages of their own. 4 

4. Next one comes to Physcus, a small town, which 
has a harbour and a sacred precinct of Leto ; and 
then to Loryma, a rugged coast, and to the highest 
mountain in that part of the country ; and on top of 
the mountain is Phoenix, a stronghold bearing the 
same name as the mountain ; and off the mountain, 
at a distance of four stadia, lies Elaeussa, an island, 
which is about eight stadia in circuit. 

corrupt. Others translate the word either "somewhat" or 
"very." 

2 Or, more strictly, "pale green." 

3 Apollonius Molon of Alabanda, the rhetorician and 
orator ; ambassador of the Rhodians at Rome (81 B.C.), and 
teacher of Cicero and Julius Caesar. 

* On their origin, language, and usages, cf. Herodotus 1. 
172. 

267 



STRABO 

5. 'H Be 7wv 'PoBlcov ttoXi? Kelrai /xev eVt rov 
ewOwov d/cpcoTTjpiov, Xi/xeo'i Be Kal oBols Kal reinsert 
Kal rf) dXXrj KaraaKevfj roaovrov SicKpepet r&v 

aW'OV, COCTT OUK eyOfXeV ellT6LV €T6paV, dXX 0V&6 

irdpicrov, fir} ri ye Kpetrra) ravrri^ t/}? iroXeca^. 
Oav/xacTTT) Be kcu f) evvop.ua kcu rj eiripieXeia irpos 
re rt)v aXXrjv iroktreiav kcu ttjv irepl rd vavriKa, 
d(j)' f)$ edaXaTTOKpuTijcre iroXvv ypovov kcu, rd 
Xjj(7T7]pia KaOelXe kcu 'Poo patois eyevero $1X17 kcu 
tuw fiaaiXecov rols (piXopto/jLaiois re kcu (piXeX- 
Xrjaiv dej)' lav avTovofAOS re BiereXeae kcu ttoXXoi? 
dvaOrffiaaiv €koo-/jL1]0tj, a Kelrai rd fxev irXelara 
ev to) &iovvai<p kcu tw yvpLva&iw, aXXa S' ev 
dXXois tottols. dpicrra Be o re rov 'HXlov koXoct- 
aos, ov (prjaiv 6 iroirjaas to la/j,f3eiov, on 

eirraKL^ BeKa 
XapTy? eiroiei irr)ye(ov 6 AivBios. 

Kelrai Be vvv virb creidfiov nreacov, irepiKXaadels 
dirb rebv yovdrcov ovk dvearrjaav B* avrbv Kara 
ri Xoyiov. rovro re Bt) rwv dvaO^p-drcov Kpdria- 
rov (rcov yovv eirra 6eap.drwv b/JLoXoyelrai), Kal 
ai rov Upcoroyevovs ypa(pai, 6 re 'IdXvcros Kal 6 
^drvpos Trapeo-TGo? arvX(p, eirl Be rw gtvXw 
irepBil~ €<f>eiaTi')Ker 777)09 bv ovrax; eKex^veaav, a>? 
eoiKev, 01 avOpcorroi, vecoarl dvaKeipievov rov 
iTivaKOS, coar e\elvov i6av/xa£ov, 6 Be Xdrvpos 
irapecopdro, Kauroi a<f>6Bpa KaTfopdco/jLevo^ efe- 
TrXrjTTOv S' en fiaXXov ol 7repBifcorp6(f)Oi, ko/jll- 

1 The god of the Sun. 2 Unknown. 

8 Tutelary hero of Rhodes and reputed grandson of 
Helius. 

268 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 5 

5. The city of the Rhodians lies on the eastern 
promontory of Rhodes ; and it is so far superior to all 
others in harbours and roads and walls and improve- 
ments in general that I am unable to speak of any 
other city as equal to it, or even as almost equal to 
it, much less superior to it. It is remarkable also 
for its good order, and for its careful attention to 
the administration of affairs of state in general ; and 
in particular to that of naval affairs, whereby it 
held the mastery of the sea for a long time and 
overthrew the business of piracy, and became a 
friend to the Romans and to all kings who favoured 
both the Romans and the Greeks. Consequently it 
not only has remained autonomous but also has 
been adorned with many votive offerings, which for 
the most part are to be found in the Dionysium 
and the gymnasium, but partly in other places. 
The best of these are, first, the Colossus of Helius, 1 
of which the author 2 of the iambic verse says, 
"seven times ten cubits in height, the work of 
Chares the Lindian"; but it now lies on the 
ground, having been thrown down by an earth- 
quake and broken at the knees. In accordance 
with a certain oracle, the people did not raise it 
again. This, then, is the most excellent of the 
votive offerings (at any rate, it is by common agree- 
ment one of the Seven Wonders) ; and there are 
also the paintings of Protogenes, his Ialysus 3 and 
also his Satyr, the latter standing by a pillar, on top 
of which stood a male partridge. And at this part- 
ridge, as would be natural, the people were so agape 
when the picture had only recently been set up, 
that they would behold him with wonder but over- 
look the Satyr, although the latter was a very great 

269 



STRABO 

£bi>T€<? tou? nOaaovs Kal ridevres KaravriKpv' 
e$6 eyy ovro yap irpos rrjv ypa^>r)v oi irepBiKes Kal 
MXXayooyovv. opcov Be 6 FLpcoroyevrj? rb epyov 
irdpepyov yeyovb? iBerjOrj twi; rov repevovs irpoe- 
aTaiTwv iTTLTpeyjrac nrapeXObvra e%aXely\rai rbv 
opvu>, Kal eiroirjoe. Bt}p,oKr)BeL<; £' elalv oi 'VoBlol, 
tcaiTrep ov Brjpoxparovpevoi, avveyeiv & opicos 
C 653 /3ov\6/jL6vol rb ra>v irevrJToyv irXr)6os. cnrap^elrai 
Br) 6 Brj/Aos Kal oi eviropot, rovs evBeel? viroXap- 
ftdvovaiv edei rtvl irarpi(p t Xeirovpyiai re rives 
elaiv oyjrcovi^ofievai, 1 cbab 1 ' a/ia rbv re irevrjra 
eyeiv rr)v Bcarpo(f)i]v Kal rr)v ttoXiv rS)v ftpeiwv 
fii] Kadvarepelv, Kal fidXtara Trpbs ras vav- 
aroXias. rdv Be vavGrd.6p.wv rivd Kal Kpvirrd 
rjv Kal dTroppfjra rots 7roXXols, tco Be Karoirrev- 
<ravri tj irapeXObvri etaco Odvaros <opio~ro rj 
^rjpLia. KavravOa Be, cbo-nep ev MaaaaXia Kal 
Kv£iK(p, rd irepl rovs dpyjireKrovas Kal rds 
bpyavorroitas Kal Orjaavpovs ottXcov re Kal rwv 
dXXwv eoTTovBaarai Bta^epovrws, Kal en ye rwv 
Trap aXXois p,dXXov. 

6. Acopieis S' elalv, wairep Kal ' AXiKapvacrels 
Kal KvlBiol Kal Kwoi, oi yap Acopiels oi rd 
Meyapa 2 Krlaavres p,erd rr)v K.6Bpov reXevrrjv, 
oi pev ep,eivav avroOt, oi Be avv y AX0aip,evet ra> 
'Apyelqy rrjs els Kprjrrjv diroiKias iKOivcovrjaav, oi 

1 6\pa}vi(6jbL€vai F and Corais ; 6ipwvia£6fiepot other MSS. 
* Meyapa, Xylander, for fxeydXa ; so the later editors. 



1 Public offices to which the richer citizens were appointed. 
These citizens were usually appointed by rotation, according 

270 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 5-6 

success. But the partridge-breeders were still more 
amazed, bringing their tame partridges and placing 
them opposite the painted partridge ; for their 
partridges would make their call to the painting 
and attract a mob of people. But when Pro- 
togenes saw that the main part of the work had 
become subordinate, he begged those who were 
in charge of the sacred precinct to permit him to 
go there and efface the partridge, and so he did. 
The Rhodians are concerned for the people in 
general, although their rule is not democratic ; still, 
they wish to take care of their multitude of poor 
people. Accordingly, the people are supplied with 
provisions and the needy are supported by the well- 
to-do, by a certain ancestral custom ; and there are 
certain liturgies 1 that supply provisions, so that at 
the same time the poor man receives his sustenance 
and the city does not run short of useful men, and 
in particular for the manning of the fleets. As for 
the roadsteads, some of them were kept hidden and 
forbidden to the people in general ; and death wa 
the penalty for any person who spied on them or 
passed inside them. And here too, as in Massalia 
and Cyzicus, everything relating to the architects, 
the manufacture of instruments of war, and the 
stores of arms and everything else are objects of ex- 
ceptional care, and even more so than anywhere else. 
6. The Rhodians, like the people of Halicarnassus 
and Cnidus and Cos, are Dorians ; for of the Dorians 
who founded Megara after the death of Codrus, 
some remained there, others took part with Althae- 
menes the Argive in the colonisation of Crete, and 

to their wealth, and they personally paid all the expenses 
connected with their offices. 

271 



STRABO 

o° et? tt)v 'IPoBov /cal t<z? Xe%#eio~a9 a/max? 7roXei? 
€/JL€pL(T0r)(Tav. ravra Be vecorepa rcov v<fi 'Ofir/pov 
Xeyo/xevwv iarr KvlBos fiev yap /cal ' AXacapvaabs 

OV& T)V TTCOy 'P080? S' TjV KCLl Kto?, aXX' Oi/C€LTO 

vfi 'Hpa/cXeiBwv. TX?77roXe/xo? fiev ovv dvBpco- 
0eU 

avrl/ca Trarpos eolo cj>lXov /nr)Tpwa /care/era 
rjBij yrjpda/covra, At/cv/xviov. 
alyfra Be vr)a<; eirrjtje, iroXvv S' o ye Xabv dyeipas 
fir) <f)evycov. 

elrd (f)7)(riv 

eh 'PoBov l%ev aXc6/x6i/o?, 
TpiyQa Be w/crjOev /caracpvXaBov. 

/cal tcis rroXeis ovofid^et rds Tore, 

AivBov, 'IrjXvaov re /cal apyivbevra Kafieipov , 

Tr}? 'YoBlwv 7roXea)? ovwco avvq)/cicrfievr)<;. ovBafiov 
Br) evravOa Acopieas ovofid^ec, aXX* el 1 apa 
AtoXea? e/i^aivet ical Bojojtou*?, elirep etcel r) 
Karoi/cLa rod ' H pa/cXeovs /cal rov Aikv/jlvlov el 
S\ cbairep ical aXXot, (fraalv, ef "Apyovs ical 
TlpvvOos dirrjpev 6 TXrjTroXe/ios, ovB' ovtco Acopi/cr) 
ylverai r) e/ceWev aiToi/cua' irpo yap tt)? 'Hpa/cXei- 
Boiv tcaOoBov yeyevrjrai. /cal r&v Kqcov Be 

<$>ei8nnr6<; tc /cal "AvTi(f)0<; rjyTjadaOrjVj 
SeaaaXov vie Bvco 'Hpa/cXeuBao apa/cros* 

/cal ovtol to AIoXlkov fJuaXXov r) to Acopi/cbv yevo? 

6fjL(f)aiP0VT€<;. 

7. 'Fi/caXeLTO B y i) 'PoSo? irpoTepov 'Ocpiovaaa 
real XraBia, e\ia TeX%ivl<;, dirb tojp ol/CTjaavroov 
272 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 6-7 

others were distributed to Rhodes and to the cities 
just now mentioned. But these events are later 
than those mentioned by Homer, for Cnidus and 
Halicarnassus were not yet in existence, although 
Rhodes and Cos were ; but they were inhabited 
by Heracleidae. Now when Tlepolemus had grown 
to manhood, "he forthwith slew his own father's 
dear uncle, Licymnius, who was then growing old ; 
and straightway he built him ships, and when he 
had gathered together a great host he went in 
flight." * The poet then adds, "he came to Rhodes 
in his wanderings, where his people settled in three 
divisions by tribes" ; and he names the cities of that 
time, "Lindus, Ialysus, and Cameirus white with 
chalk," 2 the city of the Rhodians having not yet 
been founded. The poet, then, nowhere mentions 
Dorians by name here, but perhaps indicates Aeolians 
and Boeotians, if it be true that Heracles and 
Licymnius settled there. But if, as others say, 
Tlepolemus set forth from Argos and Tiryns, even 
so the colonisation thence could not have been 
Dorian, for it must have taken place before the 
return of the Heracleidae. And of the Coans, also, 
Homer says, "these were led by Pheidippus and 
Antiphus, the two sons of lord Thessalus, son of 
Heracles"; 3 and these names indicate the Aeolian 
stock of people rather than the Dorian. 

7. In earlier times Rhodes was called Ophiussa 
and Stadia, and then Telchinis, after the Telchines, 

1 Iliad 2. 662. 2 Iliad 2. 656. 3 Iliad 2. 678. 



el, Corais, for fj. 

273 



STRABO 

C 654 TeXxlvcov rrjv vrjoov 0O9 ol fiev f$acncavov<$ <j>aal 
teal yorjras, Oeiw 1 Kar appalvovra^ 2 rb tt}? 
Sruyo? vBcop tocov re Kal (pvrcov bXeOpov y^dpiv 
ol Be re^vai^ Biacpepovras rovvavrlov vrrb rcov 
dvrire^vcov /3aatcavd?ivai teal tt;? Bvcr^fiia^ 
rvyelv Tavrys' eXOelv 8' ix K/)t?t?79 et? Kvirpov 
TTpcorov, elr els 'T*68ov irpcorovs 8' ipydaaaOac 
o~L8r)p6v re real ^aXKOV, Kal Br] Kal rr)v apirrjv 
rep Kpovn Brj/jLiovpyrjaai. elptirai fiev ovv Kal 
irporepov rrepl avrcov, dXXa irouel rb irdXvfivdov 
dvaXapftdveiv rrdXiv dvairXijpovvras, et ri irape- 
Xlirofiev. 

8. Merd Be tovs TeXxLva? ol 'HXtdBai /jlvOcvov- 
rai KaTaayelv rijv vrjerov, cov eV6? Kep/cacfiov Kal 
Kv8i7nrr)<; yeveadai rral8a<; rovs Ta? 7roXei<; 
Kriaavras eirtovvfiovs avrwv, 

AlvBov ^hfXvaov re Kal apywoevra Kd/xeipov 

evioi Be top 'FXrjTToXep.ov Krlaai (fiacrl, QeaBai 
Be ra ovbfxara 6 jjlcovv /xa>9 rcov Aavaov Ovyarepcov 

TIGLV. 

9. f H Be vvv rroXis eKrladrj Kara, ra FleXo- 
Trovi'tjaiaKa virb rov avrov dp-^LreKTOvos, cos 
(faaaiv, vcf> ov Kal 6 Tie/ paievs' ov trvp,p.evei 8' 
o Heipaievs, KaKcoOels xjtto re AaKeBaifxovicov 
irporepov rcov rd aKeXij KadeXovrcov Kal virb 
^vXXa rov 'Pco/xalcov rjyefiovos. 

10. laropovac Be Kal ravra irepl rcov r PoBLcov, 
on ov jiovov defy ov %p6vov crvvcoKicrav rrjv vvv 

1 edep (sulphur) is strongly suspected. Meineke conj. ^0uVy, 
and Forbiger so translates. 

274 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 7-10 

who took up their abode in the island. Some say 
that the Telchines are " maligners " and "sorcerers," 
who pour the water of the Styx mixed with sulphur 1 
upon animals and plants in order to destroy them. 
But others, on the contrary, say that since they 
excelled in workmanship they were "maligned" by 
rival workmen and thus received their bad reputa- 
tion ; and that they first came from Crete to 
Cvpios, and then to Rhodes ; and that they were 
the first to work iron and brass, and in fact fabri- 
cated the scythe for Cronus. Now I have already 
described them before, 2 but the number of the 
myths about them causes me to resume their de- 
scription, filling up the gaps, if I have omitted 
anything. 

8. After the Telchines, the Heliadae, according 
to the mythical story, took possession of the island ; 
and to one of these, Cercaphus, and to his wife 
Cydippe, were born children who founded the cities 
that are named after them, " Lindus, Ialysus, and 
Cameirus white with chalk." But some say that 
Tlepolemus founded them and gave them the same 
names as those of certain daughters of Danaus. 

9. The present city was founded at the time of 
the Peloponnesian War by the same architect, as they 
say, who founded the Peiraeus. But the Peiraeus 
no longer endures, since it was badly damaged, first 
by the Lacedaemonians, who tore down the two 
walls, and later by Sulla, the Roman commander. 

10. It is also related of the Rhodians that they 
have been prosperous by sea, not merely since the 

1 See critical note. * 10. 3, 7, 19. 

' KaTopraivovras inoxz ; Karappiovras other MSS. 

275 



STRABO 

ttoXiv evrvxovv Kara ddXarrav, dXXa Kal irpb 
T7J9 'QXv/jLTri/cr)*; Oeaecos o~v%vol<; ereaiv errXeov 

TTOppO) T?)? OLK€ia? €7rl GWTlJpla TO)V dvdpCOTTCOV 

acf) ov Kal P'kxpi Iftrjptas eirXevaav, /cdtcei pev 
tt)v 'Pohov 1 e/criaav, f)v varepov Maao-aXicorai 
Kareayov, ev he rols 'OttikoIs rrjv TlapOevoTrrjv, 
ev he AavvLOis perd YLwwv 'EA,7ri'a9. rives he 
p.erd rrjv i/c Tpoias acfrohov ra<? VvpLv^aias vrjcrovs 
V7r avrcjv KTiadr)vai Xeyovcriv, wv rrjv yuetfo) (f>r)al 
Tifiatos pLeyiarrjv elvai p,erd ras errrd, ^apha), 
XtfceXlav, Kvirpov, Kpijrrjv, JLvftoiav, Kvpvov, 
Aeaj3ov, ov rdXi]0i] Xeywv* ttoXv yap aXXau 
fjLei^ovs. cf)aal he T01/9 yvpuvrjras vnb Ooivlkcjv 
fiaXeapihas XeyecrOai, htorv rds Tvp,vrjalas 
BaXeapthas Xe^Orjvai. 2, rives he rwv 'PohLwv 
Kal irepl %v/3apLv (o/crjo-av Kara rrjv X&Way. 
eoiKe he Kal 6 77-0^77-779 fiaprvpelv rr)v £k iraXaiov 
irapovaav rocs 'Pohtois evhaipoviav evOvs dirb rr)s 
7r pcorrjs Kriaews ra>v rpicov iroXewv 

rpi^Qd he <ptcr}0ev KaracfcvXahov, 77S' e(f>{,Xr)0ev 
etc A*09, Bare Qeolari fcal avdpcoTroiaiv dvdaaet, 
Kal ar<j)iv Oeaireaiov rrXovrov Kareyeve Kpovlcov. 

C 655 01 S' eh p,v6ov dvijyayov rb eiros Kal ypvabv 
vaOrjvai (paaiv ev rrj vr)<TG> Kara rrjv 'Adrjvas 
yeveatv eK rrjs Ke^aXrjs rov Ato9, 009 eXpijKe 
tlivhapos. 7) he vrjaos kvkXov !%et arahiwv 
evvaKoaiwv eiKOcriv. 

1 On 'PdSoj/ (which Meineke emends to 'pJStjv), see Vol. II, 
p. 92, footnote 2. 

2 <pa<rl Se . . . \ex9yvai, Meineke ejects. 

1 Cf. 3. 4. 8. * "Light-armed foot-soldiers." 

276 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 10 

time when they founded the present city, but that 
even many years before the establishment of the 
Olympian Games they used to sail far away from 
their homeland to insure the safety of their people. 
Since that time, also, they have sailed as far as 
Iberia; and there they founded Rhodes, 1 of which the 
Massaliotes later took possession ; among the Opici 
they founded Parthenope ; and among the Daunians 
they, along with the Coans, founded Elpiae. Some 
say that the islands called the Gymnesiae were 
founded by them after their departure from Troy ; 
and the larger of these, according to Timaeus, is the 
largest of all islands after the seven — Sardinia, Sicily, 
Cypros, Crete, Euboea, Cyrnos, and Lesbos, but this 
is untrue, for there are others much larger. It is 
said that " gymnetes " 2 are called " balearides " 3 
by the Phoenicians, and that on this account the 
Gymnesiae were called Balearides. Some of the 
Rhodians took up their abode round Sybaris in 
Chonia. The poet, too, seems to bear witness to 
the prosperity enjoyed by the Rhodians from ancient 
times, forthwith from the first founding of the three 
cities : " and there his 4 people settled in three 
divisions by tribes, and were loved of Zeus, who is 
lord over gods and men ; and upon them wondrous 
wealth was shed by the son of Cronus." 5 Other 
writers refer these verses to a myth, and say that 
gold rained on the island at the time when Athena 
was born from the head of Zeus, as Pindar 6 states. 
The island has a circuit of nine hundred and twenty 
stadia. 

8 Also spelled "baliarides " (see 3. 5. 1). 

* Referring to Heracles. 6 Iliad 2. 6G8. 

9 Olympian Odes 7. 61. 

277 



STRABO 

11. v E<jTt Be irpcorr) fiev AivBo? airb ttj<; 
iroXecos nrXeovatv ev Bef^ta eyovai rrjv vrjaov, 
ttqXis eVl opov<; IBpu/ievrj, ttoXv 7roo? /jL€a7)fi/3piai> 
avareivovaa zeal 777)09 WXe^dvBpeiav /idXiara' 
lepbv Be ecTTtv A6r)va<$ AivBuas avroOi eirityaves, 
tcov AavatBcov iBpu/jua. irporepov /nev ovv /eaO' 
avrovs eiroXtTevovTO ol AlvBiol, zcaOdirep zeal 
K.a/jL€ip€i<; zeal '\aXvaiot, fiera ravra Be avvrjXOov 
airavTes efc ttjv 'PoBov. evrevOev B' iarlv eh tcov 
enTa aofycov, KXeoftouXos. 

12. MeTa Be AivBov '\}~La ywpiov zeal Mvaav- 
piov. eW 6 ' ATafivpis, opos tcov evravOa vyjrt]- 
Xorarov, lepbv Ato? ' Ara^vplov elra Kapeipos' 
elr 'IaXucro? kco/jltj, zeal virep avrrjv dzcpoiroXis 
ecTTiv '0%vpco/jLa tcaXovpievT}' eW rj tcov 'PoBlcov 
ttoXi<; ev oyBoij/covTu rrov araBLois. fieTa^v o° 
earl to ®odvTLOv, d/CTtj tis, >7? fxdXicTTa irpo- 
/ceivTcu al ^iropdBes al ire pi ttjv XaXzciav, cov 
e/jLV7Ja07]/jLev irpoTepov. 

13. v AvBpe<; & eyevovTo fivrj/xi)? a£ioi iroXXol 
aTpaTrjXaTai Te zeal aOXrjTai, wv rial teal ol 
TlavaiTLOv tov cf)iXoa6cf)OV irpoyovor tcov Be 
ttoXlti/ccov zeal tcov irepl \070u? leal cbiXoaocplav 1 
6 T€ UavaLTio? auro? zeal ^TpaTozcXr}*; /ecu 
' AvBpovi/cos 6 eze tcov TrepiirdTcov zeal AecovlBi]^ 
6 aTCOi/cos' €Ti Be irpoTepov TIpa£icf)dvr)<; zeal 

lepcovv/jLO? teal EvBrffios. TloaeiBcovio*; 8' eVo- 
XiTevaaTo fiev ev 'PoBco /ecu eaocpiaT€vaev, r)v 
0' ^Aira^iev^ ize tt;? Xvplas, zcaOdirep teal 'AiroX- 

1 <pi\o<ro<plav, Corais, for <pi\oaocpias ; so Meineke. 

278 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 11-13 

11. As one sails from the city, with the island on 
the right, one comes first to Lindus, a city situated on 
a mountain and extending far towards the south and 
approximately towards Alexandria. 1 In Lindus there 
is a famous temple of Athena Lindia, founded by 
the daughters of Daniius. Now in earlier times the 
Lindians were under a separate government of their 
own, as were also the Cameirians and the lalysians, 
but after this they all came together at Rhodes. 
Cleobulus, one of the Seven Wise Men, was a native 
of Lindus. 

12. After Lindus one comes to Ixia, a stronghold, 
and to Mnasyrium; then to Atabyris, the highest of 
the mountains there, which is sacred to Zeus 
Atabyrius; then to Cameirus ; then to Ialysus, a 
village, above which there is an acropolis called 
Ochyroma ; then to the city of the Rhodians, at a 
distance of about eighty stadia. Between these lies 
Thoantium, a kind of promontory ; and it is off 
Thoantium, generally speaking, that Chalcia and the 
Sporades in the neighbourhood of Chalcia lie, which 
I have mentioned before. 2 

13. Many men worthy of mention were native 
Rhodians, both commanders and athletes, among 
whom were the ancestors of Panaetius the philo- 
sopher ; and, among statesmen and rhetoricians and 
philosophers, Panaetius himself and Stratocles and 
Andronicus, one of the Peripatetics, and Leonides 
the Stoic ; and also, before their time, Praxiphanes 
and Hieronymus and Eudemus. Poseidonius engaged 
in affairs of state in Rhodes and taught there, 
although he was a native of Apameia in Syria, as 

1 According to Strabo (1. 4. Iff.), Rhodes and Alexandria 
lie on the same meridian. J 10. 5. 14. 

279 



STRABO 

\(ovio<; 6 MaXa/cb? nal MoXwv rjaav yap 
*A\a/3avht:is, Xleve/eXeovs /laOr/rat rov pijropos. 
€7reB^p,rjae Be irporepov ^AttoXXcovios, oyjre 8' 
r)Kev o XloXcov, ical €<j)r) 7rpo9 clvtov eKeivos' 
oyjre /jloXgqv, civtX tov eXOcov ical WeiaavBpo<; 
K 6 rr)V 'Hpd/eXeiav ypdyjras Troirjrys 'Po&o?, 
/cal 'Eifiplas 6 ypafipLdTitco? ical 'Apiaro/cXi}? 6 
/cad' i)fid<;' Aiovvatos Be 6 ®pag teal 'AttoXXgovios 
6 tovs 'Apyovavras Troirfaas, 'AXeifav Specs fiev, 
e/caXovvTo Be 'PoBioi. irepl fiev 'PoBov airo- 
Xpcovrax; €LpT]Tai. 

14. TidXiv Be rrjs Kaptie?]? irapaXias tt?? 
fxera ttjp 'PoBov, cltto 'EXeovvros ical twv 

A(OpVfl(DV, fCa/JL7TT7]p T£<? €7rl Ta? CLpKTOVS io~TL, 

ical Xolttov en evOeia? 6 irXovf fii^pi tt}? 
UpOTTOvTiSos, a)? av /jLea-rj/jLffpcvijv tivol ttolwv 
ypa/jL/jL7)v 6(7 ov irevTaKKjyChiwtv araBiwv t) fiacpbv 
diroXeiTTOvaav. evravOa 8' early ?; Xoltti] tt}? 
Kapias /cal "leaves /cal AloXels /cal Tpola /cal 
ra irepl Kvfy/cov teal Ptv^dvriov. fiera 8* ovv 
C €56 ra AoopvfjLa rb Kwos o~f}/j,d earl /cal %vfirj 
vrjcros. 

15. Etra K.vi8o<; t Bvo Xi/ievas e\ov<ja y oiv rbv 
erepov /cXeiarbv Tpirjpi/cbv /cal vavaraOpLOv vavalv 
eLKocri. TTpQ/ceiTat Be 1 vyao? eirracrrdBLo^ 7rw? 
tt]v irepifierpov, vyfrrjXT], OearpoeiBi]?, avvairropievr] 
Xco/jLaai 7r/?6? rrjv rjireipov ical iroiovaa BiiroXiv 

1 56, Corais, for 5" y. 

1 He taught rhetoric at Rhodes about 120 B.C. 

2 Apollonius Molon (see 14. 2 3), 

3 Natives of Alabanda in Caria. 
280 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 13-15 

was also the case with Apollonius Malacus 1 and 
Molon, 2 for they were Alabandians, 3 pupils ot 
Menecles the orator. Apollonius Malacus began his 
sojourn there earlier than Molon, and when, much 
later, Molon came, the former said to him, " you are 
a late i molon,' " 4 instead of saying, "late ' elthon.' " 5 
And Peisander the poet, who wrote the Heracleia, 
was also a Rhodian ; and so was Simmias the gram- 
marian, as also Aristocles of my own time. And 
Dionysius the Thracian and the Apollonius who 
wiote the Argonauts, though Alexandrians, were 
called Rhodians. As for Rhodes, I have said enough 
about it. 

14. As for the Carian coast that comes after 
Rhodes, beginning at Eleus and Lory ma, it bends 
sharply lack towards the north, and the voyage 
thereafter runs in a straight line as far as the 
Propontis, forming, as it were, a meridian line about 
five thousand stadia long, or slightly short of that 
distance. Along this line is situated the remainder 
of Caria, as are also the Ionians and the Aeolians and 
Troy and the parts round Cyzicus and Byzantium. 
After Loryma, then, one comes to Cynos-Sema 6 
and to Syme, an island. 

15. Then to Cnidus, with two harbours, one of 
which can be closed, can receive triremes, and is a 
naval station for twenty ships. Off it lies an island 
which is approximately seven stadia in circuit, rises 
high, is theatre-like, is connected by moles with the 

4 "Molon" means " comer" (note the word-play). 

6 "Elthon" is the common word for "comer," whereas 
the other is poetic and comparatively rare. 

• Cape Volpo. Cf. the reference to the Cynos-Sema at the 
entrance of the Hellespont, Vol. Ill, p. 377, Frag. 55. 

vol. vi. K 2 ^ 1 



STRABO 

rpbirov nvd tt)v KvlBov ttoXv yap avrfjS fJL€pO<? 
olfcel rrjv vrjaov, aKeird^ovarav dfi^orepov^ tov$ 
Xifxevas. /car avrrjv B' evrlv f) Nlcrvpo<; ireXayia. 
avBpes S' djjioXoyoL KviBioi irpcbrov p.ev Ei/Sofo? 
o iiaOriiLaTiKos, roov TlXdrcovos eralpwv, elr 
^ Ay a0ap%lBri<; 6 i/c rwv irepnrdrwv, dvrjp avy- 
ypa<p€v<z, tcaO' 7]fJLa<; Be Seoirofnro*;, 6 Kauaapos 
rov ®eov <J)lXo<; tcov fieydXa Bwa/ievcov, teal 
u/09 'AprefiiBcopos. evrevOev Be teal KryaLas 6 
larpevaas fiev ^Apra^ep^rjv, crvyypdyjra? Be rd 
1 Acr&vpiicd Kal rd Wepaiicd. elra /xerd KvlBov 
Kepa/JLOS Kal Bdpyaaa iroXi^via vrrep 0aXdrrr]<;. 
16. Et#' ' AXiKapvao~6<$, rb (BacrLXeiov rcov ttJ? 
Kaplan BvvcKJTOiv, Zetyvpa 1 /caXou/nevrj irpbrepov. 
evravda B* iarlv 6 re rov MavaooXov rd<pos, 2 
tojv eirrd Oeafidrcov, epyov, 3 oirep ' 'Apre/jLiaia 
to) dvBpl /carea /eevaae, Kal f) XaXfiaKls Kptjvrj, 
Bia{3e/3Xi]fiei'T], ovk oZS' birbOev, &>? /jbaXaKi^ovaa 

TOl)? TTlOlTa? dlT aVTTJS. eOLKe S* 7) TpV(f)TJ TWV 

dv0pd)7T(ov alridaOai rovs depa<s rj rd vBara' 
rpv<j)fj<; B' atria ov ravra, dXXa irXovros Kal 
i) rrepl Ta? Biairas aKoXacria. eyei £' aKpoiroXiv 
r) ' AXiKapvacros' rrpoKeirai S' avrfjs rj ' ' ApKov- 
vyjaos. oiKicrral 8' avrrjs eyevovro aXXot, re Kal 
"Avdrjs puerd Tpoi&vitDv. avBpes Be yeyovaaiv 
ef avri)<i 'H/joSoto? re 6 avyypacfrevs, bv varepov 
Sovpiov eKaXecrav Bid rb Koivcovf/craL r?)? et? 

1 Stephanus (s.v. 'AKiKapvaaaos) spells the name Ze<pupla; 
so Meineke reads. 

2 Before to^ Corais and Meineke, following the Epitome, 
insert Jr. 

3 Cocais conjectures that SfJn-a has fallen out after epyov ; 

2S2 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 15-16 

mainland, and in a way makes Cnidus a double city, 
for a large part of its people live on the island, which 
shelters both harbours. Opposite it, in the high 
sea, is Nisyrus. Notable Cnidians were : first, 
Eudoxus the mathematician, one of the comrades 
of Plato; then Agatharchides, one of the Peripa- 
tetics, a historian j and, in my own time, Theo- 
pompus, the friend of the deified Caesar, being a 
man of great influence with him, and his son 
Artemidorus. Thence, also, came Ctc-ias, who 
served Artaxerxcs as physician and wrote the works 
entitled Assyyica and Persica. Then, after Cnidus, 
one comes to Ceramus and Bargasa, small towns 
situated above the sea. 

16. Then to Halicarnassus, the royal residence of 
the dynasts of Caria, which was formerly called 
Zephyra. Here is the tomb of Mausolus, 1 one of 
the Seven Wonders, a monument erected by Arte- 
misia in honour of her husband; and here is the 
fountain called Salmaei*, which has the slanderous 
repute, for what reason I do not know, of making 
effeminate all who drink from it. It seems that 
the effeminacy of man is laid to the charge of the 
air or of the water; yet it is not these, but rather 
riches and wanton living, that are the cause of 
effeminacy. Halicarnassus has an acropolis ; and 
off the city lies Arconnesus. Its colonisers were, 
among others, Anthes and a number of Troezenians. 
Natives of Halicarnassus have been : Herodotus the 
historian, whom they later called a Thurian, because 

1 Hence "mausoleum." 

Groekurd, 2,x6*a ko\ t^xv^uv. Meineke indicates a lacuna 
before iyyov, conjecturing davixacrr6v. 

283 



STRABO 

SoVplOVS CLTTOUclaSt Kal Hpa/cXciTO? 6 TTOirjTT]*;, 

6 KaWifid-^ov eraipos, teal tcaP rjfias kiovvavos 
6 o~vyypa<f)ev<s. 

17. "JLirraicre Be Kal avrrj r\ iroXis ftia XrjcpOeicra 
vtto 'AXe^dvBpov. 'YL/caTOiivG) yap rov K.apcov j3a- 
(TiXeax; T)<jav viol rpels, MavawXos Kal \8piev<$ Kal 
UigooBapos, Kal Ovyarepes Bvo, cjv rfj Trpeafivrepa 
'Apre/Maia Mav<ra)\o<; GvvwKi]aev,o irpea^vTaros 
tcdv dBeXcpwv, 6 Be Bevrepos 'lBpievs ' ABa, rfj 
erepa dBeX(pfj' eftaalXevae Be MavcrcoXos' reXtv- 
tcov 8* cLt€kvo<; rr)v dpxyv KareXtire rfj yvvaiKi, 
vfi 779 avrw KaT€(TK€VciaOr] 6 Xe%0el<; Ta$o9* 
<f)0t(T€i 8* diro6avovar]<; Bid irevdos rov dvBpos, 
'lBpievs rjplje' Kal tovtov 1) yvvrj "A8a BieBeijaro 
voaro TeXevrrjcravTa' elji&aXe Be ravrrjv IIigcoBa- 
C 357 P°^> Xonrbs tup 'EKaro/Jiva) iraLBcov. neper La as 
Be /j.€TaTrefA7T€Tai aaTpdirrjv eirl Koivwvla rfj? 
<*PXW' direXdovTOS 8' eV rov %V V Kai ' tovtov, 
Kajelyev aarpdirris rr)v AXiKapvaoov eire\- 
66vTO<i Be ' AXe^dvBpov, iroXiopKiav virefieivev, 
e^cov " ABav yvvulKa, r)ris Ovydrrjp rjv Ui£(o8dpov 
ef ' A4>vr)i8o$, KaTrTraBoKiaatjs yvvaiKO?. rj Be 
rov '^KaTOfAvw dvydrrjp "ABa, rjv 6 LItfcoSapo? 
e^eftaXev, iKerevei rov * AXe^avBpov Kal ireidei 
Kardyeiv avrrjv et? rrjv dcpaipeOeladv ftaaiXeiav, 
VTToayoiLevr) eirl rd depearcora avp,rrpd^eiv avrw' 
rovs yap e%ovTa<; oUeiovs virdpyeiv avrfj' 
irapeBLBov Be Kal rd " AXivBa, ev a> 8ierpi/3ev 
avrrj' eiraiveaa<; Be Kal (BaaiXiaaav dvaBei^as, 
dXovo-r]<; rrjs iroXectx; itXrjv tt)<? aKpa<; (Bittt) 8' 
rjv), eKeivrj iroXiopKelv eBcoKev' edXco Be oXiya* 

284 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 16-17 

he took part in the colonisation of Thurii ; and 
Heracleitus the poet, the comrade of Callimachus ; 
and, in my time, Dionysius the historian. 

17. This city, too, met a reverse when it was forcibly 
seized by Alexander. For Hecatomnus, the king of 
the Carians, had three sons, Mausolus and Hidrieus 
and Pixodarus, and two daughters. Mausolus, the 
eldest of the brothers, married Artemisia, the elder of 
the daughters, and Hidrieus, the second son, married 
Ada, the other sister. Mausolus became king and 
at last, childless, he left the empire to his wife, by 
whom the above-mentioned tomb was erected. But 
she pined away and died through grief for her 
husband, and Hidrieus then became ruler. He died 
from a disease and was succeeded by his wife Ada ; 
but she was banished by Pixodarus, the remaining 
son of Hecatomnos. Having espoused the side of 
the Persians, he sent for a satrap to share the 
empire with him ; and when he too departed from 
life, the satrap took possession of Halicarnassus. And 
when Alexander came over, the satrap sustained a 
siege. His wife was Ada, who was the daughter of 
Pixodarus by Aphenis, a Cappadocian woman. But 
Ada, the daughter of Hecatomnos, whom Pixodarus 
had banished, entreated Alexander and persuaded 
him to restore her to the kingdom of which she had 
been deprived, having promised to co-operate with 
him against the parts of the country which were in 
revolt, for those who held these parts, she said, were 
her own relations ; and she also gave over to him 
Alinda, where she herself was residing. He assented 
and appointed her queen ; and when the city, except 
the acropolis (it was a double city), had been 
captured, he assigned to her the siege of the acro- 

285 



STRABO 

vdTepov 1 teal rj atepa, 7rpo? opyrjv 77877 teal dire^- 
Qeiav t^? TroXioptctas yevop.evq^. 

18. 'Ef?)? 6° iarrlv atcpa Tep/juepLov ItivvBicov, 
tcaO' rjv avTiiceLTaL tt)? Kooa? atepa *2,tcavBapia, 
Bie^ovaa rr}s" rjireipov ara&lovs Terrapdfcovra' 
€(tti Be teal ywpiov Tep/xepov virep t/}? Ka'a?. 

19. H 8e to>^ Kwwv 7roXt? itcaXelro to 
iraXaibv ' ' Aarvirakaia, teal (vtceiro ev aXXro 
T07TO) o/khco? eVl OaXdrrr]- enetra Bid ardaiv 
p,€TO)jC7)crav eh ttjv vvv ttoXlv rrepl to ^teavBdpiov, 2 
teal /jLercovo/jLaaap Kair 6 pLtovv fJL(o<z rjj vtjaa). i) 
fiev ovv 7roX.4? ou /xeydXt], xaXXiara Be nraaoiv 
GvvwKi<jp.kvr) teal IBeaOai Tot? teaTairXeovcnv 
ijBicrrr]. t?)<; Be vrjaov to p.eye9o<; oo~ov irev- 
Tatcoaicov aTaBicov teal irevTijrcovTa' evtcapTTo? Be 
Trdcra, otvw Be teal dpLaTT), tcaddirep Xto? teal 
Aecr/So?* e^e* Be 7rpo? votov /iev atcpav tov 
AatcrjTrjpa, d(f> ov e^tjteovTa el$ ^Slavpov (irpbs 
Be tw AatcrjTrjpi "%oopiov z ' AXlaapva), drro 
Bvaecos Be to Apeteavov teal kco/jLijv teaXovp,evr)v 
^TOfjLaXifivrjV' tovto fiev ovv oo~ov BiaKooLovs 
Ti}« 7roXea)5 Bie^ei crTaBiovs' 6 Be AaterjTrjp 
TrpoaXafM^dvei irevTe teal TpidtcovTa tw fii]teei 
tov 7rXov. ev Be tw irpoaaTeiw to ' AcrtcXrjTrielov 
ecrTi, o-(j)6Bpa evBogov teal ttoXXcov avaOrj/jLaTcov 
IxecrTOv lepov* ev oh £o~tI teal 6 'ATreWoi) 
'AvTiyovos. f/v Be teal >) dvaBvofievrj 'AcppoBiTTj, 

1 The MSS. read bKiycp 5' vvTspov. 

2 ~2,Ko.v$apiov, Tzschucke, for ~2.K6.vhaKov E, ~2,ko.v$vXiov other 
MSS ; so the later editors. 

8 Aa/c7jT7jpi -^ospiov, Corais, for Ao/ct^ttj/jiw x w p^V » so the 
later editors. 

286 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 17-19 

polis. This too was captured a little later, the siege 
having now become a matter of anger and personal 
enmity. 

18. Next one comes to a promontory, Termerium, 
belonging to the Myndians, opposite which lies 
Scandaria, a promontory of Cos, forty stadia distant 
from the mainland. And there is a place called 
Termerum above the promontory of Cos. 

19. The city of the Coans was in ancient times 
called Astypalaea ; and its people lived on another 
site, which was likewise on the sea. And then, on 
account of a sedition, they changed their abode to 
the present city, near Scandarium, and changed the 
name to Cos, the same as that of the island. Now 
the city is not large, but it is the most beautifully 
settled of all, and is most pleasing to behold as one 
sails from the high sea to its shore. The size 1 of 
the island is about five hundred and fifty stadia. It 
is everywhere well supplied with fruits, but like 
Chios and Lesbos it is best in respect to its wine. 
Towards the south it has a promontory, Laceter, 
whence the distance to Nisyros is sixty stadia (but 
near Laceter there is a place called Halisarna), and 
on the west it has Drecanum and a village called 
Stomalimne. Now Drecanum is about two hundred 
stadia distant from the city, but Laceter adds thirty- 
five stadia to the length of the voyage. In the 
suburb is the Asclepi'eium, a temple exceedingly 
famous and full of numerous votive offerings, among 
which is the Antigonus of Apelles. And Aphrodite 

1 i.e. the circuit. 



4 U?6v is perhaps rightly omitted by F and Meineke. 

287 



STRABO 

r) vvv avoLKwrai tw deep Kaicrapt, ev 'Pco/jlj], 
tov ^efSacnov dvadevTos tco Trarpl tt)V ap^rjyiriv 
tov yevovs avrov' (petal Be to?? Kcooi? dirl t^<? 
ypacf>r)<i e/carbp raXdvrcov aefrecriv yeveaOai tov 
TTpoo~Tay6evTO<$ <f)6pov. cf>acrl cT 'lTnrofcpaTrjv 
/idXicrra ifc rcov evravOa dvaK€ip,evcov Oepaireitov 
yvpuvdaaadai to. Trepl la? StatTa?* ovtos re Br] 
dan tcov evBo^cov Kftjo? clvrjp Kal Siyu-09 6 larpos, 
<t>i\T)Ta<; re 7ron]Tr)<i afia Kal kpltikos, Kal icad" 1 
C 653 r)p,ci^ Nt/aa? 6 Kal Tvpavvrjaas KaJaw, /cat, 
*ApL<jTG)v 6 d/cpoaad/ievo? tov irepnraTrjTiKov 
Kal K\r)povop,r)o-a<$ eKelvov' rjv Be Kal SeofAvrjcrTos 
6 yfrdXrij'i ev ovofiari, 09 Kal dvTeiroXiTevcraTo 
tco Ni/a'a. 

20. 'Ez/ Be rfj irapaXia t% rjirelpov Kara tt)v 
^IvvBiav ' KarvrrdXaid 1 iariv ciKpa Kal Ze<f)vpiov' 
elr evdv? t) MvvBos, Xi/xeva exovcra, Kal fierd 
ravrrjv HapyvXia, Kal avrrj iroXi^' ev Be tco 
/i€Ta£v KapvavBa Xi/j,r)v Kal vr)cro<; bp,covvpo<;, 2 
r)v cokovv KapvavBels. ivrevOev 5' rjv Kal %KvXa£ 
6 TraXaibs avyypacfyevs. ttXtjctlov 8' icrrl tcov 
BapyvXicov rb rr}<; ' Apre/juBo<; lepbv tt)<? KivBvdBos, 
b ireiricTTevKacTi TrepiveaOai' r)v Be Trore Kal 
Xcoplov K.ivBvrj. ck Be tcov JSapyvXicov dvr)p 
eXXoyipuos rjv 6 'ETriKOvpeios Upcorapxo? 6 
Arj/jL7]rpLOV Ka$r)yr}crdfJLevo<; tov AaKcovo? irpoaa- 
yopev6evTO$. 

1 'A(TTvird\aia, the editors, for 'AffTUTraAe/a E, ' harviraXla 
other MSS. 

2 TOUT77, after dfi'Jjw/xos, is omitted by F and by Stephanus 
(s.v. KapvavSa). 

1 Emerging from the sea. 
288 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 19-20 

Anadyomene" 1 used to be there, 2 but it is now 
dedicated to the deified Caesar in Rome, Augustus 
thus having dedicated to his father the female 
founder of his family. It is said that the Coans got 
a remission of one hundred talents of the appointed 
tribute in return for the painting. And it is said 
that the dietetics practised by Hippocrates were 
derived mostly from the cures recorded on the 
votive tablets there. He, then, is one of the famous 
men from Cos ; and so is Simus the physician ; as also 
Philetas, at the same time poet and critic ; and, in 
my time, Nicias, who also reigned as tyrant over the 
COans ; and Ariston, the pupil and heir of the Peri- 
patetic; 3 and Theomnestus, a renowned harper, 
who was a political opponent of Nicias, was a native 
of the island. 

20. On the coast of the mainland near the 
Myndian territory lies Astypalaea, a promontory ; 
and also Zephyrium. Then forthwith one comes to 
Myndus, which has a harbour; and after Myndus to 
Bargylia, which is also a city ; between the two is 
Caryanda, a harbour, and also an island bearing the 
same name, where the Caryandians lived. Here 
was born Scylax, the ancient historian. Near 
Bargylia is the temple of Artemis Cindy as, round 
which the rain is believed to fall without striking it. 
And there was once a place called Cindye. From 
Bargylia there was a man of note, the Epicurean 
Protarchus, who was the teacher of Demetrius 
called Lacon. 4 

1 This, too, was a painting by Apelles. 

3 Ariston the Peripatetic (fl. third century B.C.), of Iulis in 
Ceos (see 10. 5. 6). See Pauly-Wissowa. 

4 i.e. the Laconian. 

289 
K2 



STRABO 

21. E2t' 'Iacro? iirl vr)o~<p Kelrai it poo tcei/iivr) 
Ty r/Treipa), exec 8e Xipeva, Kal to irXeloTOV rod 
(3iov Tot? ev6d8e Ik OaXaTrr)^- evoyjrec yap 
Xoopav r e^e* irapdXvirpov. kcu 8rj Kal 8ir)yr)- 
p,ara roiavra TrXdrrovoiv eh avrijv Ki6ap(p8ov 
yap €7ri8€LfcvvpL€vov, reft)? pev aicpoaoBai iravTas, 
&><? 8' o Koohwv 6 Kara rtjv o^jrorrcoXcav e^o^oe, 
KaraXnrovTas cnreXdelv iirl rb oyjrov, irXrjv evbs 
8voKUi<f>oV rbv ovv Ki0apa)8bv irpooiovra elirelv, 
on, *I2 dvOpcoire, iroXXrfv ooi x^P lv °^ a T V^ 
7T/309 pe rt/x>)? Kal cj)iXopLOVo~ia<;' ol p,ev yap 
dXXoL dpia tw fcooScovos dtcovcrai diriovTes oXyo v ~ 
rat,. 6 8e, Ti Xiyec? ; e^ij, rjor) yap 6 kcd&oov 
eyfr6(j>7jK€v ; ecTrovro*; 8e, Ev ooc ei'r), e^>rj Kal 
dvao-rds dirrjXOs Kal ai/ro?. ivrevdev 8' r)V 6 
BiaXeKTiKos AioBcopos 6 JLpovo? irpooayopevOeh, 
KaT a/o%a? pev \jrev8ax;' 'AttoXXcovio? yap €Ka- 
Xelro 6 Kpovos, 6 eirLorarrjoa^ eKeivov pcerr)- 
veyKav £' eV avrbv Sid rt)v d8o%lav rov Kar 
dXr)9eiav Kpovov. 

22. Mera 8' y \aobv to tcov MiXijolwv TlooeL- 
8lov ioriv. iv 8e rfj peooyaia Tpec? elcrl 7roA,e*? 
dgioXoyoi, MuXacra, XrparoviKeia, 'AXdflavSa' 
al 8e dXXac irepciroXioi rovrodv rj rcbv irapaXiwv, 
o)V eloiv *Ap,v£d)v, 'HpaKXeia, JLvpcopos, XaXKq- 

TCOp' 1 TOVTOJV pi€V OVV iXaTTCOP XoyOS. 

1 Xa\K-l}Tccp is emended by Meineke to XaKK-nropcs (cp. 
14. 1. 8). 

1 One who played the cithara and sang to its accompani- 
ment. 

2 "Cronus" was a nickname for "Old Timer," "Old 

290 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 21-22 

21. Then one comes to lasus, which lies on an 
island close to the mainland. It has a harbour; and 
the people gain most of their livelihood from the 
sea, for the sea here is well supplied with fish, but 
the soil of the country is rather poor. Indeed, 
people fabricate stories of this kind in regard to 
lasus : When a citharoede x was giving a recital, the 
people all listened for a time, but when the bell that 
announced the sale of fish rang, they all left him and 
went away to the fish market, except one man who 
was hard of hearing. The citharoede, therefore, 
went up to him and said : u Sir, I am grateful to you 
for the honour you have done me and for your love 
of music, for all the others except you went away 
the moment they heard the sound of the bell." 
And the man said, " What's that you say ? Has the 
bell already rung ? " And when the citharoede said 
" Yes," the man said, " Fare thee well," and himself 
arose and went away. Here was born the dialec- 
tician Diodorus, nicknamed Cronus, falsely so at 
the outset, for it was Apollonius his master who was 
called Cronus, but the nickname was transferred 
to him because of the true Cronus' lack of repute. 2 

22. After lasus one comes to the Poseidium of the 
Milesians. In the interior are three noteworthy 
cities : Mylasa, Stratoniceia, and Alabanda. The 
others are dependencies of these or else of the 
cities on the coast, among which are Amyzon, 
Heracleia, Euromus, and Chalcetor. As for these, 
there is less to be said. 

Dotard." Diodorus is said to have been given the nickname 
by Ptolemy Soter because he was unable immediately to 
solve some dialectic problem put forth by Stilpo. He 
became the head of the Megarian school of philosophy. 

291 



STRABO 

23. Ta Be MuXatra iBpvTat, ev ireBlcp acf>68pa 
evSai/jLovL' virepKeiTai Be Kara Kopvcprjv 6po<; 
avrou, 1 XaropLiov Xcvkov XiOov KaXXiaTov e^ov' 
tovto fiev ovv ocf>eX6$ ccttlv ov pitKpov, rrjv XiQlav 
777369 Ta? ol/co8o/jLia<; acpBovov kcu eyyvOev eypv, 
real fiaXiara irpbs Ta? tcov lepcov real tcov aXXcov 
Brjfjboa-Lcov epycov Karacneevds' roiydproi (TToat? 
C 659 tc icai vaois, et tk aXXrj, tceKO(Tp,r)Tcu TraytcdXws. 
Oavfxd^eiv 8' Zctti tcov v7ro/3aX6vTcov oi/tg)? 
dXoyco<; to KTiafxa bpOico teal virepBe^ico Kp7)p,vco' 
Kal Bij tcov rjyefjiovcov Tt? elirelv XeyeTai, Oavfidaas 
to Trpdy/jua' TavTrjv ydp, ecpr], ttjv ttoXiv 6 
ktLo-cls, el fit) icf)o/3eLTO, dp' oi>8' tJct^iWto ; 
eypvci 8' ol MvXatrels lepd Bvo tov Ato?, tov 
tc 'Oaoyco fcaXovfievov, teal ka(3pav8r)vov' to 
p.ev ev T77 iroXei, ra Be Ad@pav8a kco/jl^ IcttIv 
ev tw opei Kara ttjv virepQeaiv tyjv e'£ AXaftdv- 
Bcov et? Ta MvXacra, djrcoOev t//? TroXecos' evTavda 
ve6l)<; ecTTiv apxaios kcu £6avov Ato? ^rpariov 

TiflCLTai Be V7T0 TCOV KVKXcp Kal V7T0 TCOV 

MvXaaecov, 686s tc eaTpcoTcu a^eBov tl Kal 
eg/jKovTa LTTaBlcov pexpi tt)? TroXecos, lepd Ka- 
Xov/ievr], Be* 97? TrofirrocrToXelTai Ta lepd' lepcov- 
Tai 8' ol eiricpavecrTaTOi tcov ttoXitcov del Bid 
filov. TavTa p,ev ovv iBia 2 t?}? iroXecos, TpiTOv 
8' €cttIv lepov tov Kaptou Ato? koivov airdvTcov 
Kapcov, ov fiereari Kal AvBols Kal Muo-ot? a>? 
dBeXcpol?' IcTTOpeiTai Be kco/ht] virdp^ai to 

1 For avrov C. Muller {Ind. Far. Led. p. 1030) cleverly 
COlij. alnv. 

2 ISia, Casaubon, for Sia ; so the later editors. 

292 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 23 

23. But as for Mylasa : it is situated in an exceed- 
ingly fertile plain ; and above the plain, towering 
into a peak, rises a mountain, which has a most 
excellent quarry of white marble. Now this quarry 
is of no small advantage, since it has stone in 
abundance and close at hand, for building purposes 
and in particular for the building of temples and other 
public works ; x accordingly this city, as much as any 
other, is in every way beautifully adorned with 
porticoes and temples. But one may well be amazed 
at those who so absurdly founded the city at the foot 
of a steep and commanding crag. Accordingly, one 
of the commanders, amazed at the fact, is said to 
have said, "If the man who founded this city, 
was not afraid, was he not even ashamed ? " The 
Mvlasians have two temples of Zeus, Zeus Osogo, as 
he is called, and Zeus Labrandenus. The former is 
in the city, whereas Labranda is a village far from 
the city, being situated on the mountain near the 
pass that leads over from Alabanda to Mylasa. At 
Labranda there is an ancient shrine and statue of 
Zeus Stratius. It is honoured by the people all 
about and by the Mylasians ; and there is a paved 
road of almost sixty stadia from the shrine to 
Mylasa, called the Sacred Way, on which their 
sacred processions are conducted. The priestly 
offices are held by the most distinguished of the 
citizens, always for life. Now these temples belong 
peculiarly to the city ; but there is a third temple, 
that of the Carian Zeus, which is a common 
possession of all Carians, and in which, as brothers, 
both Lydians and Mysians have a share. It is 

1 i. e. ' ' works " of art (see Vol. II, p. 349 and footnote 5, 
and p. 407 and footnote 4). 

293 



STRABO 

rraXaiov, Trarpls he /cal ftaalXeiov rcbv Kapwv 
rcav ire pi rov 'Ej/cclto/jlvco' rrXr^aid^et he fidXiara 
rfj Kara <t>va/cov OaXdrrrj rj ttoXis, /cal tovt 
earlv auTot? errlveiov. 

24. 'AffoAoyou? & ^o~yev avhpas /caO* r)fid<; ra 
MuXaaa, pijropds re dfia teal hrj/jiaywyovs t?}? 
7roX6a)9, Kv6vSt]/jl6v re real "Tftpeav. 6 fj,ev ovv 
RvOvhyj/jLOS e/c irpoyovcov 7rapaXa/3a)v ovalav re 
fieyd\r)v /cal hojjav, irpocrdeU teal rrjv heivorijra, 
ov/c ev rfi rrarplhi fibvov fjueyas rjv, dXXa fcal ev 
rfj 'Acta rf)<; irpcor^ rj^iovro ti/jli}^. 'Tfipea, h' 
6 7rari]p, a>? avrbs hirjyelro ev rfj axoXfj /cal 
ivapd rwv ttoXitmv oDfioXoyrjro, rj/alovov /careXiire 
^vXo(j)opovvra /cal ff/jLiovrjyov' hioi/cov/jievos 8' vrrb 
rovrcov bXiyov y^povov Aiorpe<f)Ov<; rov 'Ai'Tto^eax? 
aKpoaadpLevos erravrjXOe /cal ra> dyopavo/nlcp 
irapehco/cev avrbv evravOa he /cvXivhrjdels /cal 
Xprj/jLaricrduevos puKpa MpfiTjaev errl ro woXi- 
reveadai /cal rot? dyopalois avva/coXovOelv. ra-^v 
he av^rjaiv ea^e /cal iOav/iidaOr] J eri p<ev /cal 
JLv@vhijp.ov Zwvtos, aXXd reXevrijaavros fidXiara, 
icvpios yevop.evo<s tt)? 7ro\ea)?. £coj> h* erre/cpdrei 
ttoXv e/celvos, hvvarbs &v dfia /cal XprjaipLo? rfj 
rroXet, war , el /cal ri rvpavvi/cbv TTpoarjv, tovt 
drreXvero rw jrapa/coXovdelv to j^py]o'ifxov. eirai- 
vovai yovv rovro rov ( T/3peov, brrep hrj/jLrjyopwv 
eirl reXevrr}*; eirrev FtvOvhrj/jLe, /ca/cbv el rrjs 
7r6Xeo)<; dvay/catov' ovre yap /xerd crov hvvd\xe6a 
C 660 tfjv ovr dvev gov. av^rj6el<; ovv errl rroXv /cal ho- 

1 fxaAiara, after 46av/j.d<r67], is ejected by Meineke. 

294 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 23-24 

related that Mylasa was a mere village in ancient 
times, but that it was the native land and royal 
residence of the Carians of the house of Hecatomnos. 
The city is nearest to the sea at Physcus ; and this 
is their seaport. 

24. Mylasa has had two notable men in my time, 
who were at once orators and leaders of the city, 
Euthydemus and Hybreas. Now Euthydemus, 
having inherited from his ancestors great wealth and 
high repute, and having added to these his own 
cleverness, was not only a great man in his native 
land, but was also thought worthy of the foremost 
honour in Asia. As for Hybreas, as he himself used 
to tell the story in his school and as confirmed by 
his fellow-citizens, his father left him a mule-driver 
and a wood-carrying mule. And, being supported 
by these, he became a pupil of Diotrephes of Antio- 
cheia for a short time, and then came back and 
"surrendered himself to the office of market-clerk." 
But when he had been "tossed about " in this office 
and had made but little money, he began to apply 
himself to the affairs of state and to follow closely 
the speakers of the forum. He quickly grew in 
power, and was already an object of amazement in 
the lifetime of Euthydemus, but in particular after 
his death, having become master of the city. So 
long as Euthydemus lived he strongly prevailed, 
being at once powerful and useful to the city, so that 
even if there was something tyrannical about him, it 
was atoned for by the fact that it was attended by 
what was good for the city. At any rate, people 
applaud the following statement of Hybreas, made 
by him towards the end of a public speech : " Euthy- 
demus : you are an evil necessary to the city, for we 

295 



STRABO 

fa? /cal 7to\itt7? dyaObs elvat, /cal prjrcop eirraiaev 
ev rfj rrpos Aaftirjvov avmroXirela. ol /iev yap 
aXXoi fieO' oirXcov emovrl /cal JJapOi/cfj? avpu- 
ILayLas, r\Bf) rwv YiapOvaiwv rrjv ' Aaiav e^ovrcov, 
elgav, are aoirXoi /cal elprjvi/coi Zrjvwv £' o 
AaoBi/eevs koX T j3 peas ov/c el^av, dpxfrorepoi 
prjTopes, dXXa direarrjaav ra? eavrcov iroXeis' 
6 8' *T/3pea? /ca\ Trpoairapcu^vve (pcovjj rivl 
fieipdtciov evepeOtarov /cal dvolas TrXrjpes. e/cec- 
vov yap aveiirbvros eavrbv Hap6i/cbv avro/cpd- 
ropa, Ovkovv, €(f>r], /cdyoo Xeyco i/iavrbv Kapitcbv 
avro/epdropa. e/c rovrov Be eVt rrjv ttoXlv 
tbpfirjcre, rdy/xara €\;&>i> rfBr) avvreray/neva 
'Ponfiaitov rcov ev rfj 'A am* avrbv p,ev ovv ov 
/eareXafie, irapaywpijaavra et? 'PoBov, rrjv B* 
ol/ciav avrov BieXv/jiijvaro, TroXvreXei? eyovaav 
/caraa/cevds, /cal Birjpiraaev' a>? S' ain*a>? ical 
rrjv ttoXiv bXrjv e/cd/ewaev. etcXnrovros B? e/ceivov 
rijv ' Aaiav, eiravrfxOe ical dveXa/3ev eavrbv re 
/cal rrjv irbXiv. rrepl piev ovv WlvXdawv ravra. 
25. Xrparovi/ceta 8' earl /caroi/cia Ma/ceBovcov 
i/coafirjOrj Be /cal avrrj /earaa/cevals TroXvreXeaiv 
vrrb rcov ftaaiXeayv. eari B 1 ev rfj %a>/?a ra>v 
Xrparovi/cecov Bvo lepd, ev p.ev AayLvois rb rfjs 
t K/cdrr]<; eirKpaveararov, irav-qyvpeis fieydXas avv- 
dyov /car eviavrbv eVyu? Be rrjs iroXecos rb rov 
~Kpvaaopea)<; Ato? kolvov dirdvrcov Kapwv, els b 
avviaai Qvaovres re /cal fiovXevaopLevoi 7repl rcov 



1 The Greek word might mean "legions" rather than 
"cohorts." 

2 Of the golden sword. 

296 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 24-25 

can live neither with you nor without you." How- 
ever, although he had grown very strong and had 
the repute of being both a good citizen and orator, 
he stumbled in his political opposition to Labienus ; 
for while the others, since they were without arms 
and inclined to peace, yielded to Labienus when he 
was coming against them with an army and an 
allied Parthian force, the Parthians by that time 
being in possession of Asia, yet Zeno of Laodiceia 
and Hybreas, both orators, refused to yield and 
caused their own cities to revolt. Hybreas also 
provoked Labienus, a lad who was irritable and full 
of folly, by a certain pronouncement; for when 
Labienus proclaimed himself Parthian Emperor, 
Hybreas said, "Then I too call myself Carian 
Emperor." Consequently Labienus set out against 
the city with cohorts x of Roman soldiers in Asia 
that were already organised. Labienus did not seize 
Hybreas, however, since he had withdrawn to 
Rhodes, but he shamefully maltreated his home, 
with its costly furnishings, and plundered it. And 
he likewise damaged the whole of the city. But 
though Hybreas abandoned Asia, he came back 
and rehabilitated both himself and the city. So 
much, then, for Mylasa. 

25. Stratoniceia is a settlement of Macedonians. 
And this too was adorned with costly improvements 
by the kings. There are two temples in the country 
of the Stratoniceians, of which the most famous, that 
of Hecate, is at Lagina; and it draws great festal 
assemblies every year. And near the city is the 
temple of Zeus Chrysaoreus, 2 the common possession 
of all Carians, whither they gather both to offer 
sacrifice and to deliberate on their common interests. 

297 



STRABO 

KOiimv /caXelrai Be to avo~T7)p,a avrcpv Xpv- 
craopewv, aweary/cos i/c kw/jlojv oi Be irXelo-Tas 
irapeyopievoi Kcopas irpoeypvaiTri -ijnfya), /caOaTrep 
KepafMir/rar Kal ^TpaTOViKeh Be tov avaTrjpaTOS 

fjL€T£XOV(TU>, OVK OVT€? TOV KaplKOV y€VOV<i, dXX* 

oti /ccopas eyovai tov XpvaaopiKOv avo-Ti)paTO<;. 
tcavTavda o' dvrjp dfjioXoyos yeyevrjTac prjTcop 
MeVi7T7ro? kclto, tou? 7raTepa? r)p,wv, KaTo/ca? 
eiriKaXovpevos, op \xd\iGTa eiraivel TOiv kclto, ttjv 
'Aalav pyTopcov, <x)v r/KpodaaTO, Ki/cepcov, a>? 
(f)7]atv kv Ttvt ypa^fj avTo<?, avy/cpivcov tEievo/cXei 
/eal to?? kcit eKelvov aK/id^ovaiv. ecTi Be Kal 
aXXrj ^TpaToviKeia, rj irpos t<£ Tavpw Ka^ovpevrj, 
ttoXi^vlov Trpoa/cei'fjLevov tw opei. 

26. 'AXdfBavBa Be Kal avTrj fiev vironeiTai 
\6(poi<; Bvo~l o-vyfceLjAevoLs ovtcos, gjctt' oyfriv irape- 
yeaOai KavBrfkiov KaTeo-Tpcofxevov. Kal Brj tea 
6 MaXafcbs 'AttoXXgovios o-kcotttcdv tt\v ttoKiv el? 

T€ TCLVTCL KCU 66? TO TOiV CTKOpTTLWV TtXtjOo^, e<£?7 

avTi]v eivai o-Kopiriuw tcavOrjXiov KCLTeaT pay jxevov 1 
peaTT] 6° eaTL Kal avTrj Kal tj to)V MvXacrecov 
7To\t9 tcov Orjptcop tovtcov koi r) peTa^if iraoa 
C 661 opeivr). TpvcfrrjTCov B' eaTiv dvdpODircov Kal Kairv- 
pioTwv, e^ovaa -yjraXTpias TroXXds. avBpes B* 
eyevovTO Xoyov a^ioi Bvo pr/Tope<; dBeX(f>ol \\Xa- 
fiavBeh, MeveKXr/s Te, ov ip,vi]cr0}]pev puKpbv 
iirdvco, Kal 'lepoKXrj*; Kal oi pueToiKjjaavTes eh 
tt)i> 'VoBov 6 Te 'AttoXXcoi/io^ Kal 6 MoXcov. 

1 KaTeffTpu-fievov, Casaubon, for KareaTpa/x/jLepov ; so the 
editors in general. 

1 Cf. the votes of the Lycian cities, 14. 3. 3. 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 25-26 

Their League, which consists of villages, is called 
"Chrysaorian." And those who present the most 
villages have a preference in the vote, 1 like, for 
example, the people of Ceramus. The Stratoniceians 
also have a share in the League, although they are 
not of the Carian stock, but because they have 
villages belonging to the Chrysaorian League. 
Here, too, in the time of our fathers, was born a 
noteworthy man, Menippus, surnamed Catocas, whom 
Cicero, as he says in one of his writings, 2 applauded 
above all the Asiatic orators he had heard, comparing 
him with Xenocles and with the other orators who 
flourished in the latter's time. But there is also 
another Stratoniceia, " Stratoniceia near the Taurus," 
as it is called ; it is a small town situated near the 
mountain. 

26. Alabanda is also situated at the foot of hills, 
two hills that are joined together in such a way that 
they present the appearance of an ass laden with 
panniers. And indeed Apollonius Malacus, in ridi- 
culing the city both in regard to this and in regard 
to the large number of scorpions there, said that 
it was an " ass laden with panniers of scorpions." 
Both this city and Mylasa are full of these creatures, 
and so is the whole of the mountainous country 
between them. Alabanda is a city of people who 
live in luxury and debauchery, containing many girls 
who play the harp. Alabandians worthy of mention 
are two orators, brothers, I mean Menecles, whom 
I mentioned a little above, 3 and Hierocles, and also 
Apollonius and Molon, 4 who changed their abode to 
Rhodes. 

1 Brutus 91 (315). 3 § 13. * See § 13. 

299 



STRABO 

27. UoXXwv Be Xoywv elprf/neveop irepl Kapcov, 
6 fidXicrd' ofioXoyov/jLevos eartv ovtos, oti ol 
K<5y069 vtto Mtvo) erdrTovro, Tore AiXeyes tcaXov- 
/AevoL, teal ra<; vr)<rov<s (ptcovv eW ^Treipwrat yevo- 
fievot, TToWrjv rrj<; irapaXias teal t% /ne<royaia<; 
Karecryov, tou? TTpOKaTeyovias dcpeXofievor teal 
ovtoi £' r)<rav ol irXeiov^ AeXeye? teal HeXaayor 
irdXiv Be tovtovs axfreiXovro fMepo<; ol "EXXrjve 1 ?, 
"Jco/^e? re teal Ao)/?£6t?. rod Be irepl ra arpancti- 

TLKCL fy'fXoV TCI T€ O^CLVa TTOtOVVTai TGtf/ZT^CUa KaX 

ra, eiriarifia /eal rovs Xocpovs' airavTa yap Xeyerai 
Kapited^ 'Avatepecov p,ev ye cf>r]alv' 

Bia Btjiitc Kapi/eevpyeo? 
bydvoio %etoa TtOefxevai. 

6 B* 'AA/rato?, 

Xocfrov re aeiwv Kaptteov. 

28. Tou TTOirjTov B y elprjKoros ovrcoal* 

MdaOXr)*; 1 av Kaprov rjyijaaro /3ap/3apo<f)(bvcov, 

oute e^et Xoyov, 7nw? roaavra elBcix; eOvtj fidpftapa 
p,6vov<; eiprjtee f3ap(3apo<f>(jt>vovs toi/? Kapa?, ftap- 
ftdpovs 5' ovBevas. ovt ovv ®ovtevBiBr)$ opOcos' 
ouBe yap Xeyeadal <f>rjo~i ftapftdpovs Bia to p,rjhe 
r/ EXXi]vd<; irco dvTLTraXov els eu ovopua drroKe/epla- 
Oar to re yap p,tjBe "EXX^a? ttco yjrevBus avrbs 
6 iroir]Tr)<; aTreXey^eL' 

dvBpos, rod teXeos evpv teaQ* *EXXdBa teal pbiaov 
"A 070?. 

1 Ma<r0A7js, Corais emends to Ndar^j. 
300 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 27-28 

27. Of the numerous accounts of the Carians, the 
one that is generally agreed upon is this, that the 
Carians were subject to the rule of Minos, being 
called Leleges at that time, and lived in the islands; 
then, having migrated to the mainland, they took 
possession of much of the coast and of the interior, 
taking it away from its previous possessors, who 
for the most part were Leleges and Pelasgians. In 
turn these were deprived of a part of their country 
by the Greeks, I mean Ionians and Dorians. As 
evidences of their zeal for military affairs, writers 
adduce shield-holders, shield-emblems, and crests, 
for all these are called "Carian." At least Anacreon 
says, " Come, put thine arm through the shield- 
holder, work of the Carians." And Alcaeus 1 says, 
"shaking the Carian crest." 

28. When the poet says, "Masthles 2 in turn led 
the Carians, of barbarian speech," 3 we have no 
reason to inquire how it is that, although he knew 
so many barbarian tribes, he speaks of the Carians 
alone as " of barbarian speech," but nowhere speaks 
of " barbarians." Thucydides, 4 therefore, is not 
correct, for he says that Homer " did not use the 
term ' barbarians ' either, because the Hellenes on 
their part had not yet been distinguished under 
one name as opposed to them " ; for the poet him- 
self refutes the statement that the Hellenes had 
not yet been so distinguished when he says, " My 
husband, whose fame is wide through Hellas and 



1 Frag. 22 ;Bergk). 

* An error, apparently, for "Nastes." 

3 Iliad 2. 867 (note " Mesthles" in line 864). 

« 1.3. 

301 



STRABO 

KCLL TTOKlV 

etr efleXeis rpa<j)6rjvai x av 'EXXdBa zeal puecrov 

"Apyos. 

/.it) Xeyop,ev(ov re fiapftdpcov, 7rc5? epueXXev ev 

Xe^OijaeaOai to ftapftapocpoovcov ; ovre Br) ovtos 

ev, out Air oXXoBwpos o ypafifiari/coSy on tw 

KOlVUi OVQjlCLTl toYct)? KaX XoiBSpCDS €XpO)VTO 01 

' RWrjves Kara tcov Kapwv, tcai pdXiaTa ol 
v Ian'e?, fitaovvres avrov<; Bid ttjv eyOpav teal ra? 
Gvvex^ o-TpareLas' e\pr}v yap oi/to)? ftapftdpovs 
ovopd^etv. rjfiels Be ty)TOvp.ev, Bid Tt fiapfiapo- 
(fxovovs tcaXei, fiapfidpow; 8' ovB' aira%. otl, 
<pr)<jL, to ttXtjOvvtikov eh to puerpov ov/c epLiriTrTei, 
Bid tout' ovk el'prjfce (SapjSdpovs. a\V avrrj p.ev 

7) TTTWCTi? OVK e/jLTTLTTTei, 7) S' 6p6r) OV Bia(f>ip€l T?)? 

C 662 AdpBavor 

Tp(oe<; real Av/cioi icai AdpBavoi. 
toiovtov Be ical to 

oloi TpCOLOL ITT7TOI. 

ovBe ye oil TpayinaTT) r) yXcorra tcov Kapcov ov 
yap iaTiv, dXXa ical TrXetara 'EXX)]vi/cd 6v6p,ara 
ex eL Kara pie p-iyp^eva, w? (frrjai <£>lXi7T7tos 6 rd 
Kapixa ypdyjras. olp,ai Be, to ftdpftapov /car 
dp%d<; ifcirecpcovrjo'Oai ovtcds KaT ovop.aTOTTOiiav 
ewi tcov Bvae/ccpopcos /cal cr/cXrjpcos /cal Tpa^eco^; 
XoXovvtcov, a>? to fiaTTapl^eiv ical TpavXL^eiv /cal 
yfreXXi^eiv evcpvecrTaTOi yap ea/xev Ta? epeovd? 

1 rpcupdrivai, Corais, for rapcpOrivai CDFAzs, rep<pdrivai other 
MSS. 

1 i.e. throughout the whole of Greece. 
302 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 28 

mid-Argos." 1 And again, " And if thou dost wish 
to journey through Hellas and mid-Argos." 
Further, if they were not called "barbarians," how 
could they properly be called a people " of bar- 
barian speech " ? So neither Thucydides is correct, 
nor Apollodorus the grammarian, who says that 
the general term was used by the Hellenes in a 
peculiar and abusive sense against the Carians, and 
in particular by the Ionians, who hated them be- 
cause of their enmity and the continuous military 
campaigns; for it was right to name them barbarians 
in this sense. But I raise the question, Why does he 
call them people "of barbarian speech," but not even 
once calls them barbarians ? " Because," Apollodorus 
replies, "the plural does not fall in with the metre ; 
this is why he does not call them barbarians." But 
though this case 2 does not fall in with metre, the 
nominative case 3 does not differ metrically from that 
of " Dardanians " : 4 "Trojans and Lycians and 
Dardanians." 5 So, also, the word "Trojan," in 
"of what kind the Trojan horses are." 6 Neither 
is he correct when he says that the language of 
the Carians is very harsh, for it is not, but even has 
very many Greek words mixed up with it, according 
to the Philip who wrote The Carica? I suppose that 
the word " barbarian " was at first uttered onomato- 
poetically in reference to people who enunciated 
words only with difficulty and talked harshly and 
raucously, like our words " battarizein," "trau- 
lizein," and "psellizein " ; 8 for we are by nature 

* The genitive {&ap(idpvv). 3 fidp&apoi. 4 AdpSavoi. 

5 Iliad 11 286. 6 Iliad 5. 222. 7 The History of Carta. 
v Meaning respectively, "stutter," "lisp," and "speak 
falteringly." 

3°3 



STRABO 

rats 6fJLoiai<; cpcovals Karovop-d^eiv Bt,a to o/JLoyeves* 
fi Br) 1 Kal irXeovd^ovai 2 evravda at ovofiaro- 
irodai, olov ro KeXapv^eiv Kal KXayyrj Be Kal 
y}r6(f)OS Kal j3or) Kal Kporos, cov ra irXelcrra i]Bi] 
Kal Kvpicos eKcpeperai- nrdvrcov Br) rcov rrayyaro- 
fiovvrcov ovrcos ftapfidpcov Xeyopevcov, ecpdvrj ra 
rcov dXXoeOvcov arofiara roiavra, Xeyco Be rd 
rcov /xr) 'EXXrjvcov. £k€LPOV$ ovv IBlcos CKaXeaav^ 
(Sapftdpovs, ev appals /xev Kara to XolBopov, &><? 
av irayycnop,ovs i) rpa^var6p,ov<;, elra Kare^pv- 
adfieOa w? eOviKco koivco ovo/iari, dvnBLaipovvre<; 
7T0O? tol>9 "EU^a?. Kal yap Btj rfj TroXXfj 
<rvvr)6ela Kal eirirrXoKr) 4 rcov fiapftdpeov ovKeri 
ec^aivero Kara irayycrropLiav Kal d(f>vtav rivd rcov 
cpcovrjrrjplcov opydvcov rovro avjxfialvov, dXXa Kara 
rd? rcov BiaXeKrcov IBiorrjTas. aXXrj Be tj? ev rfj 
ij/ierepa BiaXeKrco dvefydvi) KaKOcrrofita Kal olov 
{3ap/3apocrTO{iia, el ti? eXXrjvi^cov firj KaropOoirj, 
dXX! ovrco Xeyoi ra bvopuara, &>? ol ftdp(3apoi ol 
elcrayofievoi ei? rbv eWrjvicr/jLov, ovk la^vovres 
dpTiaro/jLelv, o>? ovB' ijpLels ev Tat? eKelvcov BiaXeK- 
roi$. rovro Be pdXicrra avve/3r) Tot? Kapar 
rcov yap dWcov ovr eirLirXeKOfievcov irco 5 acfroBpa 
Tot? "EXXrjcriv, ovB' emyeipovvrcov 'EXXijvikcos £ijv 
rj pLavddieLV ri)v t)pLerepav BidXeKrov, rrXrjv et rives 

1 r) h-f], Corais, for tjSrj ; so the later editors. 

2 (Uv, after irXtovaCovai, Corais and Meineke omit. 

3 eKi£\e(ra.u, Xylander, for e/cciAfo-e ; so the later editors. 

4 tt? ttoAAtj avvridelq, kol\ iTrnrXoitrj F, t) tcoWt) avvrjOeia Ka\ 
(Tmrx'oK^ other MSS. ; so the editors. 

5 iro> (omitted by F), Corais and Meineke, for irws. 



3°4 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 28 

very much inclined to denote sounds by words that 
sound like them, on account of their homogeneity. 
Wherefore onomatopoetic words abound in our 
language, as, for example, " celaryzein," and also 
"clange," " psophos," " boe," and "crotos," 1 most 
of which are by now used in their proper sense. 
Accordingly, when all who pronounced words thickly 
were being called barbarians onomatopoetically, it 
appeared that the pronunciations of all alien races 
were likewise thick, I mean of those that were 
not Greek. Those, therefore, they called barbarians 
in the special sense of the term, at first derisively, 
meaning that they pronounced words thickly or 
harshly ; and then we misused the word as a 
general ethnic term, thus making a logical dis- 
tinction between the Greeks and all other races. 
The fact is, however, that through our long acquain- 
tance and intercourse with the barbarians this effect 
was at last seen to be the result, not of a thick pro- 
nunciation or any natural defect in the vocal organs, 
but of the peculiarities of their several languages. 
And there appeared another faulty and barbarian-like 
pronunciation in our language, whenever any person 
speaking Greek did not pronounce it correctly, but 
pronounced the words like barbarians who are only 
beginning to learn Greek and are unable to speak it 
accurately, as is also the case with us in speaking 
their languages. This was particularly the case with 
the Carians, for, although the other peoples were not 
yet having very much intercourse with the Greeks 
nor even trying to live in Greek fashion or to learn 
our language — with the exception, perhaps, of rare 

1 Meaning respectively, "gurgle," "clang," "empty 
sound," "outcry," and "rattling noise." 

305 



STRABO 

crrdvioi /cal Kara TVX r ) v €7re/J.LX0r)<rav /cal /car 
dvBpa oXiyoL? 1 rwv ' ' EiXXtfvcov rialv, ovroi Be 
kclB" oXr/v iirXavrjdrjaav ttjv 'KXXdBa, /ju<t0ov 
arparevovref;. r)8rj ovv to /3ap{3ap6(f>a)vov eV 

€K€LVa)V TTVKVOV TjV, CLTTO T?)? €t? TT)V ' EXXdBa 

avrwv arpareia^' /cal /xerd ravra eireir oXaae 
ttoXv /ndXXov, d<p' ov t<z? re vrjaovs fierd rcov 
'EXXijrcov (p/ajaav, ted/celOev et? ttjp Waiav e/crre- 
(Tovres, ovB* evravOa %&)/h? 'EXXrfvcov olicelv rjBv- 
C 663 vavro, €7riBia/3dvT(ov rwv 'Icavcov /cal ra)v Acopiecov. 
d-rro Be rrjs avrrjs atrlas /cal to {3ap/3api£eiv 
Xeyerac /cal yap tovto eVl rwv /ca/cax; eXXrjvi&v- 
rwv eldiOafiev Xeyeiv, ov/c eirl rcov /capcarl Xa- 
Xovvrwv. ovto)<; ovv /cal to [Zap ftapofywvelv /cal 
Tou? /3apf3apod>(M)vov<; Be/creov rov? /ca/ews eXXrj- 
vu£ovTa$ m dirb Be rov /capi^eiv /cal to /3ap/3apL%€iv 
/xeryjvey/cav eh Ta? irepl eXX7]vea/iov Teyyas /cal 
to aoXoiKL^eiv, eir dirb %oXa)v, etr aXXcos rov 
ovofiaros tovtov TreirXaafievov. 

29. <£>7]o-l Be 'AprefiiBwpos dirb <£>vo~/cov t?}? 
'VoBlcdv irepalas lovaiv et? "E<f)eaov ^XP L ^ v 
Aayivcov 6/eTa/coaiovs eivai ical rrevrrjKovra crra- 
BLovs, evrevOev o' et? ' AXdffavBa irevTrj/covra 
dXXovs Kal Bia/coo~Lov<;, et? Be TpdXXeis e/carbv 
e^ij/covra' dXX' f) els TpdXXet? earl BiaftdvTi rov 
\[aiavBpov Kara fiear/v ttov rrjv 6B6v, ottou t?}? 
Kaplan oi opOL' yivovrai S' oi iravres dirb <f>vafcov 

1 6\iyois, Kramer, for 6\iyoi ; so Meineke. 

1 The city in Cilicia, if not that in Cypros. 

2 Strabo means that grammarians used the word in its 
original, or unrestricted sense, i.e. as applying to speech 
306 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 28-29 

persons who by chance, and singly, mingled with 
a few of the Greeks — yet the Carians roamed 
throughout the whole of Greece, serving on 
expeditions for pay. Already, therefore, the bar- 
barous element in their Greek was strong, as a 
result of their expeditions in Greece ; and after this 
it spread much more, from the time they took up 
their abode with the Greeks in the islands ; and 
when they were driven thence into Asia, even here 
they were unable to live apart from the Greeks, I 
mean when the Ionians and Dorians later crossed 
over to Asia. The term " barbarise," also, has the 
same origin ; for we are wont to use this too in 
reference to those who speak Greek badly, not to 
those who talk Carian. So, therefore, we must 
interpret the terms " speak barbarously " and 
" barbarously-speaking " as applying to those who 
speak Greek badly. And it was from the term 
" Carise " that the term u barbarise " was used in a 
different sense in works on the art of speaking 
Greek; and so was the term " soloecise," whether 
derived from Soli, 1 or made up in some other way. 2 

29. Artemidorus says that, as one goes from 
Physcus, in the Peraea of the Uhodians, to Ephesus, 
the distance to Lagina is eight hundred and fifty 
stadia ; and thence to Alabanda, two hundred and 
fifty more ; and to Tralleis, one hundred and sixty. 
But one comes to the road that leads into Tralleis 
after crossing the Maeander River, at about the 
middle of the journey, 3 where are the boundaries 
of Caria. The distance all told from Physcus to 

only. In the meantime it had been used in a broad sense, 
"to l>ehave like, or imitate, barbarians." 
3 Between Alabanda and Tralleis. 

307 



STRABO 

€7rl TOV MdLCLlBpOV KCLTO, T7)V els "FiCfreaOV 6&OP 

yiXiou e/carbv oyBorjtcovra. nrdXiv dirb rov Maid if" 
Bpov rrjs 'Icovias i(f>€^r}s pbrjKos emovri Kara t?)i> 
avrrjv bBbv dirb fiev rov rrorapiov els TpaXXeis, 
6ySo7]Kovra, elr els Mayvrjaiav e/carbv rerrapd- 
kovtcl, els "lL(f>eaov 8' e/carbv ei/coo~iv, eh Be ^LpLvpvav 
rpia/coGioi ei/cocriv, els Be Qco/caiav ical rovs opovs 
tT/9 'lama? eXdrrovs rcbv Bia/coo~icov ware rb eV 
evOeias fifj/cos rrjs '\wvias el)] dv /car avrbv 1 
fjLi/cpo) irXeov rcov o/cra/coa'uov. errel Be koivt) 
tls 6Bbs rerpnrrai dnaai rols eVt rds dvaroXds 
6Bo in op ova iv e£ ^\\$eaov, koX ravrrjv eTreiaiv. 2 
eirl /iev rd Kdpovpa rrjs Kapias opiov rrpbs rrjv 
<$>pvyiav Bid Mayvrjalas ical TpaXXewv, Nvarjs, 
* Avr loyelas 6Bbs eTrra/coaucov teal rerrapd/covra 
araBiwv evrevOev Be rj fypvyia Bid AaoBi/ceias 
teal 'Aira/jLeias teal MrjrpOTroXecos ical XeXiBovlcov' 
eirl pev ovv rrjv dpyyv rrjs Uapcopeiov, rovs 
"OX/j,ovs> ardBioi rrepl evva/coaiovs /cal ei/coaiv 
e/c rwv Kapovpwv eirl Be rb irpbs rjj Av/caovta 
irepas rrjs Uapcopeiov to Tvpialov Bid ^iXo/xrj- 
Xlov fjLucpS) irXeiovs rcov m evra/co a lcov. eW i) 
Av/caovia fieypi Kopoiraaaov Bid AaoBi/ceias ri)s 
/cara/ce/cav/jievrjs 6/cratcbaioi rerrapd/covra' e/c Be 
K.opo7raaaov rfjs Av/caovias els Tapadovpa, ito- 
Xiyviov rr)s KaiTTTaBo>cias, eirl rcov opcov avrrjs 
IBpvpievoVy e/carbv ei/coaiv evrevOev £' els Md^a/ca 
rrjv pLrjjpoTToXiv rcov KarnraBo/ccov Bid XodvBov 

1 /car' <xvt6v, Corais, for nona ravrb f} mxz, tear' aiirb f\ other 
MSS. ; so the later editors. 

2 Ta.vrr\v eireicriv, Corais, for Tai5rp /ulIp eireariv ; so the later 
editors. 

308 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2. 29 

the Maeander along the road to Ephesus amounts 
to one thousand one hundred and eighty stadia. 
Again, from the Maeander, traversing next in order 
the length of Ionia along the same road, the distance 
from the river to Tralleis is eighty stadia ; then to 
Magnesia, one hundred and forty; to Ephesus, one 
hundred and twenty ; to Smyrna, three hundred 
and twenty ; and to Phocaea and the boundaries of 
Ionia, less than two hundred ; so that the length 
of Ionia in a straight line would be, according to 
Artemidorus, slightly more than eight hundred 
stadia. Since there is a kind of common road 
constantly used by all who travel from Ephesus 
towards the east, Artemidorus traverses this too : 
from Ephesus to Carura, a boundary of Caria to- 
wards Phrygia, through Magnesia, Tralleis, Nysa, 
and Antiocheia, is a journey of seven hundred 
and forty stadia ; and, from Carura, the journey in 
Phrygia, through Laodiceia, Apameia, Metropolis 
and Chelidonia. 1 Now near the beginning of 
Paroreius, 2 one comes to Holmi, about nine hundrod 
and twenty stadia from Carura, and, near the end 
of Paroreius near Lycaonia, through Philomelium, 
to Tyriaeum, slightly more than five hundred. 
Then Lycaonia, through Laodiceia Catacecaumene, 3 
as far as Coropassus, eight hundred and forty stadia ; 
from Coropassus in Lycaonia to Garsaura, a small 
town in Cappadocia, situated on its borders, one 
hundred and twenty ; thence to Mazaca, the 
metropolis of the Cappadocians, through Soandum 

1 "Chelidonia" is thought to be corrupt (see C. MQller, 
Jnd. Var. Led., p. 1030). 

2 i.e. Phrygia " alongside the mountain." 
* " Burnt." 

309 



STRABO 

ical 'EaBaKopcov eljatcoo'iQi oy^orJKOvra' evrevOev 
8' eirl rbv Rv^pdrvv fie^pi To/ucrcov 1 ^coptov rfjs 
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reTTapciKovra. ra 8' hr evOelas tovtols ^XP l 
tt}<; 'li'Si/ey? ra avra Kelrai real irapa tw ^ Apre- 
/AiScopa), direp kcu irapa rw 'RparocrOevei. Xeyei 
Be Kal UoXvftios, irepl twv etcel pdXtara Belv 
664 ru arevetv i/eeivm. apyeTai he dirb ^apoadrcov 
ttj<; Kop.p,ayr)vPj$, r) irpbs rrj Siafidcrei Kal rep 
Zevy/jLdTi Kelrat,' els Be y £ap,6craTa dirb rebv opcov 
tt}<? K air it aB ok las twv irepl Tofiiaa virepdevri 
rbv Tavpov araBiovs efprj/ce TerpatcoaLovs tca\ 
irevTrjKovra. 

Ill 

1. MeTa Be rrjv 'Po^lwv irepaiav, fc opiov ra 
AaiBaXa, e^e^rjs irXeovat irpbs aviaypvra rfXiov 
i) AvKia Kelrai p-e~%pi TlafufyvXias, eZ#' r) Yla/JL- 
(pvXia fie^pt KiXifcwv rebv rpa^ewv, effi r) rovrcov 
p<e\pi ra)v aXXcov KiXlkcov tcov irepl rbv ^laaiKov 
koXttov ravra 8' earl fieprj fiev rrjs yeppoviqaov, 
r)<$ rbv laOpbv efyapev ttjv curb ']o~aov 6Bbv p^ey^pi 
' ApLHTOV, rj Sivuyirrjs, cos rives, cktos Be tov Tavpov 
ev arevfj irapaXia rfj dirb AvKias p>eXP L T ™ v 7re pl 
loXovs roircov, rrjv vvv nop,irrji6iroXiv 2 eirecra 
y')Brj els ireBia dvairiirraraL r) Kara rbv TcraiKov 
koXttov irapaXia curb HoXtov Kal Tapaov dpfja- 
fievr). ravrr)if ovv eireXQovtriv 6 irds irepl rr)s 

1 To/a((tu>v, the editors, for rb fxiaov CD, T< \fjLi<rov x, Tofitaov 
other MSS. 

2 t^v vvv Uouirr]i6iro\iv, Corals, for rfi ivv Uofxm]iovTr6\ei ; so 
the later editors. 

3IO 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 2 29-3. 1 

and Sadacora, six hundred and eighty ; and thence 
to the Euphrates River, as far as Tomisa, a place 
in Sophene, through Herphae, a small town, one 
thousand four hundred and forty. The places on 
a straight line with these as far as India are the 
same in Artemidorus as they are in Eratosthenes. 
But Polvbius says that we should rely most on 
'\rtemidgrus in regard to the places here. He 
begins with Samosata in Commagene, which lies 
at the river-crossing and at Zeugma, and states that 
the distance to Samosata, across the Taurus, from 
the boundaries of Cappadocia round Tomisa is four 
hundred and fifty stadia. 



Ill 

l. 1 After the Peraea of the Rhodians, of which 
Daedala is a boundary, sailing next in order towards 
the rising sun, one comes to Lycia, which extends 
as far as Pamphylia ; then to Pamphylia, extending 
as far as the Tracheian Cilicians ; 2 and then to 
the country of these, extending as far as the other 
Cilicians living round the Gulf of Issus. These 
are parts of the peninsula, the isthmus of which, 
as I was saying, is the road from Issus to Amisus, 
or, according to some, Si nope, but they lie outside 
the Taurus on the narrow coast which extends 
from Lycia as far as the region of Soli, the present 
Pompeiopolis. Then forthwith the coast that lies 
on tlve Issic Gulf, beginning at Soli and Tarsus, 
spreads out into plains. So then, when I have 
traversed this coast, my account of the whole 

1 See map of Asia Minor at end of Vol. V. 

1 Referring to " Cilicia Tracheia " (" Rugged Cilicia "). 

311 



STRABO 

Xeppovijaov X0709 earac TrepuoBevpLevo?' elra pbera- 
ftrjo-o/AeOa eiri rd dXXa fieprj rrj? 'A<7ta? ra i/crbs 
tov Tavpov. reXevraia 8' eK0r)ao/j,ev ra Trepl 

T7)V Kl(3l)Y)V. 

2. Merd to'ivvv AatSaXa ra rcov 'VoBlwv opos 
earl rrj<; Aima? 6 fioovv jjlov clvtoZs kalBaXa, a<£' 
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eixoait Tpcfxys Be teal ^aA,€7ro?, aAA' evTufievos 
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toi? T07rot? 77730? rd XrjaTrjpia, avrol Treiparevov- 
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ovo-rrjucnos. 

3. Rial Be rpets ical el'/coai TroXei? at Tr)? 
tyijcpov puerkyjovcrai' (jwep^ovrai Be ef e/cdo-Trjs 
7roXect)9 6*5 Koivbv avveSpiov, rjv dv BoKL/ndacoac 
ttoXlv eKofievoi' rcov Be 7roXecov al p,eyiarai fxev 
Tpi&v yjrifywv ecrrlv eKaarrj icvpla, al Be pukaai 

C 665 Bvelv, al 8' dXXai, /ua?* dvd Xoyov Be ical rd? 
elo-<f>opd<; elacpepovcn teal Ta? aXXa? Xeirovpylas. 

312 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 3. 1-3 

peninsula will have been completed. Then I shall 
pass to the other parts of Asia that are outside the 
Taurus. And lastly I shall set forth my account 
of Libya. 

2. After Daedala of the Rhodians, then, one 
comes to a mountain in Lycia which bears the 
same name as the city, Daedala, whence the whole 
voyage along the Lycian coast takes its beginning ; 
this coast extends one thousand seven hundred and 
twenty stadia, and is rugged and hard to travel, 
but is exceedingly well supplied with harbours and 
inhabited by decent people. Indeed, the nature of 
the country, at least, is similar to both that of 
the Pamphylians and the Tracheian Cilicians, but 
the former used their places as bases of operation 
for the business of piracy, when they engaged in 
piracy themselves or offered them to pirates as 
markets for the sale of booty and as naval stations. 
In Side, at any rate, a city in Pamphylia, the 
dockyards stood open to the Cilicians, who would 
sell their captives at auction there, though admitting 
that these were freemen. But the Lycians continued 
living in such a civilised and decent way that, 
although the Pamphylians through their successes 
gained the mastery of the sea as far as Italy, still 
they themselves were stirred by no desire for 
shameful gain, but remained within the ancestral 
domain of the Lycian League. 

3. There are twenty- three cities that share in 
the vote. They come together from each city to 
a general congress, after choosing whatever city 
they approve of. The largest of the cities control 
three votes each, the medium-sized two, and the 
rest one. In the same proportion, also, they make 

vol. vi. 1 3 T 3 



STRABO 

ef Be Ta? fjieyiara*; €(f>r] 6 'Apre/jLL&aypos, "EldvOov, 
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dXXai dpyaX al tov avcmjfiaro^' BiKCMTTijpid re 
uTToBeiKwrai kolvyj' kcu irepl iroXefiov Be teal 
elprjvi)? kcu avpniay^la^ eftovXevovTO nrpojepov, 
vvv 3' ovk etVo?, dXx enl Tot? 'Pco/xaiot? ravr 
dvdjKt] iceiaOai, ttXtjv el i/celvwv eiriTpe^dvToav, 
rj virep avTow eh) xprfaifiov 6/W&>? Be kcu, 
BiKaaral teal dpxoi'Te? dva Xoyov Tat? ^rjc^oi? ef 
efcdarrf^ irpoyeipl^ovrai 7r6A,ea>?. ourco 8' evvo- 
p,ov/jLevoi$ avTols o~vvef3r) irapd f Pa>/iatot? eXev- 
depois BcareXeaai, rd irdipia vefiovai, tou? Be 
Xrjards eiriBelv dpBrjv rjcfravia/jLevovs, irpojepov 
fiev vtto ^.epoviXiov tov 'laavpi/cov, kcl@' ov 
Xpovov kcu rd "laavpa i/celvos KaOelXev, varepov 
Be Uo/jl7tt]lov tov Mdyvov, TrXeico twv ^lXlcov kclL 
Tpia/eoaicov ateaepcov epurprjcravTO^, Ta? Be kcltoi- 
kicis eicKo^avTO^, tcov Be irepiyevopjevwv dv6pd>Trcov 
ev Tat? {id^cus tov<$ fiev KaTCtyayovTos et? ZoXovs, 
i)v ifceLVOS nofA7rr)i67roXi,v 2 aypo/iacre, tovs B' et? 
Av/jltjv* XenravBpijaaaav, fjp vvvl 'Pcofiaiwv 
diroiKia vep.€Tai. ol ttol7)toX Be, fidXio~Ta ol 
Tpayifcoi, o-vy%eovTe<; Ta edvrj, KaOdirep tou? 
Tpa>a? teal tou? Mvaov? kcll tov<; AvBovs <i>pvya$ 
irpocrayopevovaiv, ovtq) kcu toi>? Au/aou? Kapa?. 
4. MeTa 5' ovv Ta ActiBaXa, to t<ov Avklcov 

1 vnepdtatp, Corais, for 6e<riy ; so the later editors. 

2 n.>)j.in].oviTo\iv tnozz. 

:! Au/oji/, Casaubon, for Av/u^'l" ODFAw, Avarfi4^i}v i, Ai5v- 
fi4\vt)v mosxz ; so the later editors. 

314 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 3. 3-4 

contributions and discharge other liturgies. 1 Arte- 
midorus said that the six largest were Xanthus, 
Patara, Pinara, Olympus, Myra, and Tlos, the last- 
named being situated near the pass that leads over 
into Cibvra. At the congress they first choose a 
u Lyciareh," and then other officials of the League; 
and general courts of justice are designated. In 
earlier times they would deliberate about war and 
peace and alliances, but now they naturally do not 
do so, since these matters necessarily lie in the 
power of the Romans, except, perhaps, when the 
Romans should give them permission or it should 
be for their benefit. Likewise, judges and magis- 
trates are elected from the several cities in the 
same proportion. And since they lived under such 
a good government, they remained ever free under 
the Romans, thus retaining their ancestral usages ; 
and they saw the pirates utterly wiped out, first by 
Servilius Isauricus, at the time that he demolished 
Isaura, and later by Pompey the Great, when he 
set fire to more than thirteen hundred boats and 
laid waste their settlements. Of the pirates who 
survived the fights, 2 he brought some down to Soli, 
which he named Pompeiopolis, and the others to 
Dyme, where there was a dearth of population ; it is 
now occupied by a colony of Romans. The poets, 
however, and especially the tragic poets, confuse 
the tribes, as, for example, the Trojans and the 
Mvsians and the Lydians, whom they call Phrygians ; 
and likewise the Lycians, whom they call Carians. 
4. After Daedala, then, I mean the mountain in 



1 i.e. public services performed at private expense. 
* See 8. 7. 5. 



315 



STRABO 

0009, irXrjcriov earl TeXfjurjcro-os, iroKiyyr) Avkicqv, 
kcu TeX/irjaal^ d.-cpa, Xijieva eyovcra. eXafte Be 
to %a)pLov tovto irapa Vw/JLaiaiv Eu//,e*>?79 ev tw 
' Avtio^lkm jroXe/jLfp, KaraXvOeiar)^ Be rr)<; ftaai- 
Xeta? cnreXaftov ttoXlv oi Avkloi. 

5. Eld' ef/}? o 'Avrircpayoq, opQiov opos, e<f> % oj 
Kapfjiv\r)(T<T6<; f xcopiov ev (pdpayyi ay/ojfievov, 1 teal 
fj,era rovrov 6 Kpayos, e^wv a/cpas 2 6/ctod 3 kcu 
iroXiv 6 (MAW /lop '. irepl ravra /juvOevercu ra oprj 
ra irepl tt}? Xifiaipas' eari B* ovk airwdev kcli 
r) Xi/ncupa, (pdpayi; Tt9 airo rov alyiaXov ava- 
reivovaa. vTro/ceirai Be tw Kpdyrp Hivapa ev 
[xeaoyala, rebv /jLeyiarcov ova a iroXecov ev rrj 
Avkicl. evravOa Be UdvBapo? Ttfjuarat,, Tf%oi> 

t<7&)9 6fA(i)VV/ilO$ TW Tp(0lK(p' OJ9 KCLI 

JJavBapeov tcovprj ^XcoprjU drjBcov' 4 

kcu yap tovtov etc Av/cias qbaaiv. 

6. Et#' 6 "Eidvdos 7rora/xo9, ov ^Lpftiv e/cdXovv 
oi irporepov 5 dvairXevaavTL B' inrr)peTLKol<s Be/ca 
araBiov? to Atjt&ov eo-TLV virep Be rod lepov 

C 666 irpoeXdovTi etjrJKOvra r) 7ro\*9 f) tcov SavOlwv 
earl, fieyicnr) i&v ev Avkicl. fxera Be rov 'SdvOov 
Udrapa, kclI avrrj /leydXr/ 7roXt9, Xifieva eyovaa 
kcu lepov 'AttoXXwvos? Krla/ia- Tlardpov. Uto- 
\eyu-at09 6" o <t>iXdBeX<f)o<; e-rriaKevdaas Apaworjv 
CKaXeae rijv ev Avkicl, iireKpuTrjae Be to e'f dp^r}? 
ovofia. 

1 iv (pdpayyi ipK-n/ievov E, iv <papayye7ov Kelfxevov F, ev 
<papayyicp Keiutvov other MSS. 

2 &Kpas, the editors (following Eustathius on Iliad 6. 181), 
for Kpdyas. 

8 For oktw Eustathius (I.e.) reads 5uo. 

316 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 3. 4-6 

Lvcia, one comes to a Lycian town near it, Telmessus, 
and to Telmessis, a promontory with a harbour. 
Eumenes 1 received this place from the Romans in 
the Antiochian War, but when his kingdom was 
dissolved the Lycians got it back again. 

5. Then, next, one comes to Anticragus, a steep 
mountain, where is Carmylessus, an inhabited place 
situated in a ravine ; and, after this, to Cragus, 
which has eight promontories and a city of the 
same name. The scene of the myth of Chimaera 
is laid in the neighbourhood of these mountains. 
Chimaera, a ravine extending up from the shore, 
is not far from them. At the foot of Cragus, in 
the interior, lies Pinara, one of the largest cities 
in Lycia. Here Pandarus is held in honour, who 
may, perhaps, be identical with the Trojan hero, as 
when the poet says, " the daughter of Pandareus, 
the nightingale of the greenwood," for Pandareus 
is said to have been from Lycia. 

6. Then one comes to the Xanthus River, which 
the people of earlier times called the Sirbis. Sailing 
up this river by rowboat for ten stadia one comes to 
the Letoiim; and proceeding sixty stadia beyond the 
temple one comes to the city of the Xanthians, 
the largest city in Lycia. After Xanthus, to Patara, 
which is also a large city, has a harbour, has a 
temple of Apollo, and was founded by Patarus. 
When Ptolemy Philadelphus repaired it, he called 
it Lycian Arsinoe, but the original name prevailed. 

1 King of Pergamum 197-159 B.C. 

4 wy k<x\ . . . ari^oiv, Meineke ejects. 

6 Instead of ol irp6Tepov, F and Meineke read rb -npSrcpov. 

• Up))v 'Air6\\uivos, the editors, for Upa iro\\d. 

317 



STRABO 

7. Klra Muyoa ev eiKoai araSloL^ virep tt)? 
OaXcLTTT)^ eirl pueTecopov Xo(f)Ov. eld' i) €K/3oXr) 
tov Ai/ivpov 1 irorafiov Kal dvibvTi ire^fj araBiovs 
el'tcoo-c ra Aipvpa iroXl-^vr). pueTatju B' ev tw 
\e")(6evTi irapdirXro vrjaia iroXXa Kal Xipueves, cjv 
teal "SleylaTT) vrjao? Kal ttoXis 6p,covvp,o<;, koi 2 rj 
"Kiadrfvi]. ev he rfj pueaoyala ywpia ^eWo? kcu 
'Aim'0eWo9 kcu fj Xi/xcu/m, 179 epLvrfo-drjpev eirdvu*. 

8. EZ#' 'lepa aKpa Kal at X-eXtBoviaL, Tpefc 
vrjaoi rpayelai, irdpiaoi to peyedos, oaov irevre 
otclSiois dXXrfXwv Bie\ovaai' T/79 &eyf}<; dcfyeaTacriv 
e^aardSiov fiia b" avrwv Kal irpoaoppiov e^ec. 
evrevdev vopbl^ovaiv 01 iroXXol ttjv dpyr)v Xapu- 
ftdveiv tov Tavpov, Bid re rtjv aKpav {jyjrrjXrjv 
ovaav Kal Ka0i]Kovaai> dirb tow WigiBlkoov opcov 
twv virepKeipevoav 7-779 UafKpvXla^ Kal Bta ra? 
irpoKeipevas vijaovs, c^ovcra*; eiufyaves tl o-rj/xelov 
ev TTJ OaXaTTTj KpaaireBov Blktjv. to 8' dXrjOes 
dirb t/;9 'VoBiwv irepaias eirl to, 7r/)o? YliauBiav 
piepr) avve'xrjs Igtiv r) opeivr), KaXetTat Be Kal avTTf 
Tavpos. BoKovai Be Kal al XeXiBoviai KaTa Kavco- 
(36v 7T&)9 irliTTeiv to Be BLapfia XeyeTai TeTpaKta- 
XiXlojv aTaBiojv. dirb Be t/;9 ' lepas d,Kpa<; eirl ttjv 

0\(3Lav XeiirovTai crTaBiot TpiaKoaioi ei;r)K0VTa 
eiTTu' ev TOUTOt9 8* eaTLV rj re KpapL^ovo-a Kal 
"OXv/jlttos, itoXis fjueydXif] Kal opos opaovvpuov, b 
Kal (PoivcKovs KaXetTat' euTa K.oopvKOS alytaXo^. 

1 At/xvpov EF, Aipvfiov other MSS. 

2 /cat, before 77, Groskurd inserts. 

1 i.e. approximately on the same meridian as Canobus in 
Egypt. 

318 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 3. 7-8 

7. Then one comes to Myra, at a distance of 
twenty stadia above the sea, on a lofty hill. Then 
to the outlet of the Limyrus River, and then, going 
twenty stadia inland on foot, to Limyra, a small 
town. In the intervening distance on the coasting 
voyage there are numerous isles and harbours, 
among which are the island Megiste, with a city 
of the same name, and Cisthene. And in the 
interior are places called Phellus and Antiphellus 
and Chimaera, which last I have mentioned above. 

8. Then one comes to the promontory Hiera ; and 
to the Chelidoniae, three rugged islands, which are 
about equal in size and are about five stadia distant 
from one another. They lie about six stadia off the 
shore, and one of them has a landing-place for vessels. 
Here it is, according to the majority of writers, that 
the Taurus takes its beginning, not only because 
of the loftiness of the promontory and because it 
extends down from the Pisidian mountains that lie 
above Pamphylia, but also because of the islands 
that lie off it, presenting, as they do, a sort of con- 
spicuous sign in the sea, like outskirts of a mountain. 
But in truth the mountainous tract is continuous 
from the Peraea of the Rhodians to the parts near 
Pisidia ; and this tract too is called the Taurus. The 
Chelidoniae are likewise thought to lie approximately 
opposite to Canobus; 1 and the passage thence to 
Canobus is said to be four thousand stadia. From 
the promontory Hiera to Olbia there remain three 
hundred and sixty-seven stadia ; and on this stretch 
lie, not only Crambusa, but also Olympus, a large 
city and a mountain of the same name, which latter 
is also called Phoenicus. Then one comes to Corycus, 
a tract of sea-coast. 

319 



STRABO 

9. Klra < t>ao-rjXl<;, 1 rpeis eypvaa Xi/uLevas, ttoXi? 
d£i6Xoyo<; Kal Xl/jlvt}. 2 v7repKeirai B* avri)^ ra 
loXvfia opo<; teal Tepfirjao-os, UktiBikt] ttoXw iiu- 
fceifievr] Tot? crrevoh, St cbv virepBaais eariv eh 
T7)v MtXvdBa. Kal 6 ' ' AXetjavBpos Bid rovro 
egetXev avnjv, dvotgat f3ov\6/j,€vo<; ra crrevd. 
irepl tpao-r/XiSa 3 8' earl Kara, ddXarrav crrevd, Bt 
cbv 'AXeJjavBpos irap-qyaye rr\v arpandv. ecrrt o° 
opos KXl/xai; teaXov/jLevov, eiriKetrat Be tw Ua/j,- 
cfrvXico ireXdyet, crrevrjv aTToXelirov rrdpoBov iirl 
rco alyiaXw, ral<; /xev vr\vefxLais yvfjLvov/jLevrjv, 
(bare elvai /3datfiov to?? oBevovai, 7rXr)p,fj,vpovro<; 
Be rov rreXdyovs vtto rebv KVfidrcov KaXvirropuev^v 
eirl ttoXv' r) fiev ovv Bid rov opovs virepfiacris 
irepioBov e^ei Kal irpoadvri]^ ecrri, rco 8' alyiaXcb 
Xpcovrai Kara Ta? evBias. 6 Be ' AXei;av8po<; el? 
^ei/iepiov ifiTreacov /caipbv Kal to irXeov eTTirpeircov 

C 667 Tfl T VXV> ^P^ dvelvai ro KVfia cop/jurjae, /cat oXrjv 
rrjv rjfiepav ev vBari yeveaOac rijv iropeiav crvveftr), 
/JLexpi bfJL$>aXoi> /3airri^o/JLevcov. eart jjuev ovv Kal 
avrrj t) 7roXi? AvKiaKi], eirl rebv opcov 4 IBpv/jievrj 
rebv 7T/oo? Uafi(j>vXiav , tou Be koivov rebv Avklcov 
ov iLereyei, Kad' avrrjv Be avveo-rr]Kev. 

10. 'O fiev ovv 7roir}Tr}<; erepov<; rebv Avklcov 
iroiei rovs *EoXv/aov<;' vtto yap rov rebv Avklcov 
/3aaiXeco<; TrefityOels 6 T$eXXepocf)ovrr)<; eirl Bevrepov 
rovrov aOXov 

XoXv/jloicti fiayeereraro KvBaXijjLOicriv, 

oi Be rovs Avklov? rrporepov KaXeladat 2o\v/xou? 

1 Qaa-nXls, the editors (following Eustathius on Dionys. 
855). 

320 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 3. 9-10 

9. Then one comes to Phaselis, with three harbours, 
a city of note, and to a lake. Above it lies Solyma, a 
mountain, and also Termessus, a Pisidian city situated 
near the defiles, through which there is a pass over 
the mountain to Milyas. Alexander destroyed 
Milyas for the reason that he wished to open 
the defiles. Near Phaselis, by the sea, there are 
defiles, through which Alexander led his army. 
And here there is a mountain called Climax, which 
lies near the Pamphylian Sea and leaves a narrow 
pass on the shore ; and in calm weather this pass 
is free from water, so that it is passable for travellers, 
but when the sea is at flood-tide it is to a consider- 
able extent hidden by the waves. Now the pass 
that leads over through the mountain is circuitous 
and steep, but in fair weather people use the pass 
along the shore. Alexander, meeting with a stormy 
season, and being a man who in general trusted to 
luck, set out before the waves had receded ; and 
the result was that all day long his soldiers marched 
in water submerged to their navels. Now this city 
too is Lycian, being situated on the borders towards 
Pamphylia, but it has no part in the common 
League and is a separate organisation to itself. 

10. Now the poet makes the Solymi different 
from the Lycians, for when Bellerophon was sent 
by the king of the Lycians to the second struggle, 
" he fought with the glorious Solymi." x But others, 
who assert that the Lycians were in earlier times 

1 Iliad 6. 184. 

2 Instead of \ifivt), F and Eustathius (I.e.) have \lfivrjv. 
8 CDhos spell the word #ao-tAt8a, F 4>tAtSa. 
* Spwv, Kramer, for 6pu>v. 

321 
L2 



STRABO 

(f)d<rrcovT€<;, varepov Se Tep/JLtXas, cltto tow itc 
K.pr]T7]<; avy/eareXdoprcov tw XapiTTjSovi, fiera Be 
ravra Avkiovs cltto Av/cov tov TlavBiovos, bv 
eKireaovra tt}? ol/ceta$ iBegaro ^apTrrjSoov iirl 
fiepei tt}? apxfjs, ov% ofioXoyov/xeva Xeyovaiv 
'Ofnjpay (3eXTiov<; 8' ol (f>do-/covT€<; XeyecrOai 

XoXvfAOl'S VTTO TOV TTOITJTOV TOl*? VVV M.tXva$ 

TTpoaayopevofjLevow;, ire pi a>v elp/jKa/xev. 



IV 

1. Mera <&ao~r)Xiha x 8' earlv rj '0\/3i'a, tt}? 
ITafAcfrvXlas ('ipxv> peya epvfia, /ecu fiera ravrrjv 6 
KaTa/3a/fT?/9 Xeyo/xevos, d(j> v-^rrfKrj^ irerpa^ 
Karapdrrcov 7TOTa/xo? ttoXv? ical ^eipappooZii^^ 
ware TroppcoOev d/coveaOai tov tyofyov. elra 
ttoXi? 'ArTaXeia, iTrcovvfios tov ktio~clito<; <£>iXa- 
BeXcpov, teal oiKiaavTO^ et? Kwpv/eov, ttoXi^vlov 
ofiopov, 2 dXXijv Karovciav zeal /net^co 3 TrepifioXov 
7T€pi&€VT0<>. <f)ao-l S' iv T(p /jLeratjv <&aa7)Xi8o<;' i 
zeal 'ArTaXeta? heuevvaQai ®tfl3r]v re zeal Avpvrjo-- 
crov, e/cTTeaovrcov itc tov ©i^Si?? irehiov twv 
TpcoiKcov KlXlkcov et? ttjv YIa/xcf>vXiav i/e fiepovs, 
o)9 eiprj/ee K.aXXicr06V7)<; 

2. EZ#' o Keo-Tpo? 7Tora/j,6<;, bv dvairXevcavTi 
arahLOv<; egtjfeovTa Hepyrj ttoXls, /ecu irXr)criov iirl 
fierecopov tottov to T779 Hepyaia? *ApT€/jU&0<; 

1 *oo-T7\i8a E, <!>a(nAi&a other MSS. 

2 ouopov, Kramer and later editors transfer as above from 
a position after Karouc'iav. 

322 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 3. 10-4. 2 

called Solymi, but in later times were called 
Termilae 1 from the Termilae who came there from 
Crete with Sarpedon, and after this were called 
Lycians, from Lycius the son of Pandion, who, after 
liaving been banished from his homeland, was 
admitted by Sarpedon as a partner in his empire, 
are not in agreement with Homer. Better is the 
opinion of those who assert that by "Solymi" the 
poet means the people who are now called the 
Milvae, of whom I have already spoken," 2 

IV 

1. After Phaselis one comes to Olbia, the begin- 
ning of Pamphylia, a large fortress; and after this to 
the Cataractes River, so called, which dashes down 3 
from a lofty rock in such volume and so impetuously 
that the noise can be heard from afar. Then to 
a city, Attaleia, so named after its founder Attalus 
Philadelphus, who also sent a colony to Corycus, a 
small neighbouring town, and surrounded it with 
a greater circuit-wall. It is said that both Thebe 
and Lyrnessus are to be seen between Phaselis and 
Attaleia, a part of the Trojan Cilicians having been 
driven out of the plain of Thebe into Pamphylia, as 
Callisthenes states. 

2. Then one comes to the Cestrus River ; and, sail- 
ing sixty stadia up this river, one comes to Perge, a 
city ; and near Perge, on a lofty site, to the temple of 

1 See 12. 8. 5. * 12. 8. 5 and 12. 3. 27. 

3 The Greek verb is "cataracts." 

3 Mei'C'" pLiKp6v Cto y merely nutp6v other MSS., except F, 
which has merely A tet 'C a, • 

* *a<TTjAt'6os E, QaaXiSos other MSS. 

323 



STRABO 

lepov, iv o5 Travrjyvpis tear eTO? crvvreXelrai. 
el6* VTrep t?)? OaXdrrr]*; oaov rerrapaKOvra 
<na8loi<; XvXXiov 1 7roXt? iarlv vyjrrjXrj to?? Ik 
Uepyr)<; eiroirro^' elra Xup^vy ev/xeyiOr)? Kairpla, 
Kal p,era ravra 6 RvpvfieBcov irorafio^, ov dva- 
TrXevcravTi igrJKOVTa <na8Lov<; " Aairev8os 7roXi<;, 
evav&povcra Licavcos, 'Apyetwv KTio-fia' virepfceirai 
8e ravTTjs YlervrfXiaaos' elr aXXos ttotcl/jlos, Kal 
vrjala TrpoKet/ieva iroXXd' elra 3ll8t}, J^v/jualcov 
airoLKOS" exec 8' y Adrjva? lepov. TrXrjaiov 8* iarl 
Kal 7) Kiftvparwv irapaXia rcov fUKpcov' eld* 6 
MeXa? TTOTapLOS Kal vfyopfios' elra UroXe/xaU 
iroXis' Kal fi€ra ravO ol opoi rr)? Uafi<f)vXia<; Kal 
to Y^opaKTqaiov, apyr) tt}? T/oa^eta? Y^iXiKia^. 6 
8e irapdirXov? airas 6 Uap,<j)vXio<; ard8ioi elaiv 
egaKoaioi reaaapaKOVTa. 
C 668 3. <i>r)crl 8' r Hp68oTos rovs UapcfrvXovs rcov 
fiera 'ApbcpiXo^ov Kal Ka\^ai>T09 elvai Xacov, 
fjuyd8a)V rivcov €K Toota? avvaKoXovdrjaavrcov 
tou? p,ev 8t) 7roXXov<; iv6d8e KarapLetvai, rivd? 8e 
<jK€.8aaQi)vai iroKkaypv rr}<; 7779. KaXXlvo<; 8e 
rbv /xev KaX^avra iv K.Xdpa> reXevrrjaai rov 
jSlov (f)7](7L, tovs 8e Xaovs fierd Moyfrov rbv Tavpov 
virepOivras, tou? puev iv Ua/MpvXia peivai, toi>? 
8' iv KiXiKia fxepiaOrjvai Kal Xvpla, fiexpi Kal 

<£>OLVlK7]<;. 

1 Si'AAiov, Jones inserts, following Tzschueke, who first 
noted that this was the city meant. Meineke emends 
aradiois to ^vWtoy. 



3 2 4 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 4. 2-3 

Artemis Pergaea, where a general festival is cele- 
brated every year. Then, about forty stadia above 
the sea, one comes to Syllium, a lofty city that is 
visible from Perge. Then one comes to a very 
large lake, Capria ; and after this, to the Eurymedon 
River; and, sailing sixty stadia up this river, to 
Aspendus, a city with a flourishing population and 
founded by the Argives. Above Aspendus lies 
Petnelissus. Then comes another river; and also 
numerous isles that lie off it. Then Side, a colony 
of the Cymaeans, which has a temple of Athena; 
and near by is the coast of the Lesser Cibyratae. 
Then the Melas River and a mooring-place. Then 
Ptolemais, a city. And after this come the boundaries 
of Pamphylia, and also Coracesium, the beginning of 
Cilicia Tracheia. The whole of the voyage along 
the coast of Pamphylia is six hundred and forty 
stadia 

3. Herodotus 1 says that the Pamphylians are the 
descendants of the peoples led by Amphilochus and 
Calchas, a miscellaneous throng who accompanied 
them from Troy ; and that most of them remained 
here, but that some of them were scattered to 
numerous places on earth. Callinus says that Calchas 
died in Clarus, but that the peoples led by Mopsus 
passed over the Taurus, and that, though some re- 
mained in Pamphylia, the others were dispersed in 
Cilicia, and also in Syria as far even as Phoenicia. 

1 7. 91. 



325 



STRABO 

V 

1. Tt?? KiXiKia? Be t/}? e£o) rov Taupov f) /lev 
Xeyerai rpa^ela, rj Be ireBids- Tpa\ela ptev, 979 t) 
irapaXia arevrj eari, Kal ovBev r) airavCo)^ ex €L n 

X&PLOV eTTLITeBoV, Kal 6TI f)<i V7T6pK€CTai 6 TaO/JO?, 

ol/cov/jL€vo<; fcafcw<;, P*eXP L KCLL rwv 7rp°o~- 
iSopwv irXevpwv rcov irepl "\aavpa Kal rovs 
'OpuovaBeas p&XP L T % H'0"*8ia9' KaXelrac 6° ») 
avrh Kal Tpa^etom? Kal ol evoiKovvre? Tpa- 
^eiwTat' 7re5ta? B* rj dirb ^oXcov Kal Tapaov 
fjiixpi y \&<TOu, Kal ere wv virepKetvrai Kara TO 
irpoajSopov rov Tavpov irXevpbv KairirdBoKev 
avrrj yap f/ %a>/)a to irXeov ireBiwv eviropel Kal 
X<*>pas dyaOij<i. eirel Be tovtcov t<z puev eauv 
euros rov Tavpov, rd 8' e'/CTo?, irepl fiev rcov evrb<; 
eipyjrac, irepl Be rcov e/tTO? Xeycopuev, dirb royv 
Tpax€icoTCt)i> dp^djievoi- 

2. Hpa>Tov Toivvv earl toiv K.lXlkcov <f>povpioi> 
to KopaKrjcnov, ISpvfjievop eirl irerpas a-noppayyos, 
W expr)o~aTO A*o£oto? 6 Tpvcfriov irpoaayopevOeU 
op/iTjTrjpla), Ka0' bv Kaipbv direa-rrjae rrjv ^vpiav 
twv fiaaiXecov Kal BieiroXep,ei irpbs eKeivovs, rore 
pet> KaropOoiv rore Be irraicov. rovrov fiev ovv 
'Avrioxos 6 At]/jir]TpLov KaraKXelaas eh ri x w P l0V 
rjvdyKaae BiepydaaaOai to aay/ia. Tot? Be KlXi- 
%lv dpx))v 1 rov rd ireipariKa a-vvLaraaOat Tpv<j)(ov 
atTios Karea-rrj, Kal f) twv fiacriXecov ovBeveia tmv 
rore Ik BiaBoxV^ eiricrraTovvTcov tt}? Hvpuas apa 
Kal rrjs KiXiKLa?' tw yap eKeivov vecorepiapLw 

1 apxhv, Groskurd, for apxti ; so the later editors. 
326 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 1-2 



1. As for Cilicia outside the Taurus, one part of 
it is called Tracheia 1 and the other Pedias. 2 As for 
Tracheia, its coast is narrow and has no level ground, 
or scarcely any ; and, besides that, it lies at the foot 
of the Taurus, which affords a poor livelihood as far 
as its northern side in the region of Isaura and of 
the Homonadeis as far as Pisidia ; and the same 
country is also called Tracheiotis, and its inhabitants 
Tracheiotae. But Cilicia Pedias extends from Soli 
and Tarsus as far as Issus, and also to those parts 
beyond which, on the northern side of the Taurus, 
Cappadocians are situated ; for this country consists 
for the most part of plains and fertile land. Since 
some parts of this country are inside the Taurus and 
others outside it, and since I have already spoken of 
those inside it, let me now speak of those outside it, 
beginning with the Tracheiotae. 

2. The first place in Cilicia, then, to which one 
comes, is a stronghold, Coracesium, situated on an 
abrupt rock, which was used by Diodotus, called 
Tryphon, as a base of operations at the time when 
he caused Syria to revolt from the kings and was 
fighting it out with them, being successful at one 
time and failing at another. Now Tryphon was 
hemmed up in a certain place by Antiochus, son of 
Demetrius, and forced to kill himself; and it was 
Tryphon, together with the worthlessness of the 
kings who by succession were then reigning over 
Syria and at the same time over Cilicia, who caused 
the Cilicians to organise their gangs of pirates ; for 
on account of his revolutionary attempts others made 

* Rugged Cilicia. * Level Cilicia. 

327 



STRABO 

(TVV€V€CDT€pl(TaV KCLI aXkoi, Bl^OaTaTOVVTe^ T€ 

dBeX<f>ol 77730? dXXtfXov? vTroveipiov eizoiovv tt)v 
yoDpav Toh eir it i6e nevoid, r) Be. tmv dvBptnroBcov 
efjayayy}] TrpovKaXeiTO /idXiara els ra<; KCLKovpyias, 
iTTLKepSecrTaTT] yevofievr]' kclI yap rjXiaKovTO 
pqBLws, kcl\ to epnrbpiov oxj TravT€\(x)<s anoyOev tjv 
fieya kclI TroXvyprfpciTOV, rj ArjXos, Bvvapevr) 
fivpidSas dvBpairoBcop avOrj/iepov fcal BetjaaOai 
kcli dTTOTre/j.-^rai, ware kclI irapoifxiav yeveaOai Bid 
tovto' ejuLirope, Kardifkevcrov, e^eXov, irdwa 
Treirparai. clitlov B\ otl irXovcrioi yevop,evoi 
'Ytopaioi /J.erd rrju KapX7]B6vo<; kcll KoptvOov 
Karacr KCMprjv oitfereiaj? e^pciiVTO TroXXah* opcomes 
Be rrjv evireTeiav ol Xrjcrral tclvtijv i^yvOrjaav 
C 669 ddpows, avrol kcli Xrji^o/ievoc kcli awpaTepuro- 
povvres. avvrjpyovv B' eh tclvtcl kcli ol tt)<? 

KviTpOU KCLI Ol T7J? AlyVTTTOV ftcLGlXeh, C^OpOL 

roh Xvpois ovres' ovB* ol 'VoBioi Be <f)iXoi rjaav 
avroh, war ovBev ejBoi)8ovv apa Be kcli ol Xyara) 
irpoGTroiovfJLevoi acopaTepiTropeiv, dXvrov ttjv 
KCLKOvpyiav el^ov. dXX y ovBe'Vcop-aioL irco roaov- 
tov i(fipovTi£ov tcjv e!j(o rov Tavpov, aW eTre/nyjrav 
/lev kcli Xklttlcovci top KlfAiXiavov, €7riaKeyJr6p,6vov 
tci eOvrj kclI rds TToXeis, kcli irdXiv aXXovs Tivd^' 
eyvcoaav Be kclkIcl twv dp-^ovTwv avfi^alvov tovto, 
el kclI tt)v * KciTa yevos BiaBo^V^ ttjv diro *£eXev- 

KOV TOV Ni/CaTO/909, CLVTOl K€KVp(DKOT€<;, jjBovVTO 

dfyaipuaQai. tovto Be avpuftdp rrfc fiev %(opa<; 
eTTOir]ae Kvpiovs TLapOvaiovs, ol Ta irepav tov 

1 c? Kal t^v z (by correction), ci ri\v x, els ri\v other MSS. 

328 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 2 

like attempts at the same time, and thus the dissen 
sions of brethren with one another put the country 
at the mercy of any who might attack it. The 
exportation of slaves induced them most of all to 
engage in their evil business, since it proved most 
profitable ; for not only were they easily captured, 
but the market, which was large and rich in property, 
was not extremely far away, I mean Delos, which 
could both admit and send away ten thousand slaves 
on the same day ; whence arose the proverb, 
' m Merchant, sail in, unload your ship, everything 
has been sold." The cause of this was the fact 
that the Romans, having become rich after the 
destruction of Carthage and Corinth, used many 
slaves ; and the pirates, seeing the easy profit 
therein, bloomed forth in great numbers, themselves 
not only going in quest of booty but also trafficking 
in slaves. The kings both of Cyprus and of Egypt 
co-operated with them in this, being enemies to 
the Syrians. Neither were the Rhodians friendly 
to the Syrians, and they therefore afforded them 
no assistance. And at the same time the pirates, 
pretending to be slave-dealers, carried on their 
evil business unchecked. Neither were the Romans 
concerning themselves as yet so much about the 
peoples outside the Taurus ; but they sent Scipio 
Aemilianus, and again certain others, to inspect the 
tribes and the cities ; and they decided that the 
above-mentioned piracy was due to the incompetence 
of the rulers, although they were ashamed, since 
they themselves had ratified the hereditary succession 
from Seleucus Nicator, to deprive them of it. And 
this is what made the Parthians masters of the 
country, who got possession of the region on the far 

3 2 9 



STRABO 

JLv<j>pdrov Kareayov rb reXevraiov Be /cal 'Ap- 
fjLeviovs, 01 /cal r^v e/crbs rov Tavpov irpoaeXafSov 
p-e^pi /cal tpoivL/crjs, kcu tou? ftaaiXeas /careXvaav 
el<s Bvvapiv /cal rb yevos avrwv avfiirav, rrjv Be 
OdXarrav Tot? K.lXi^i irapeBw/cav. elr av^rj- 
Oevras Tjvay/cdaOijcrav KaraXveiv 'Poj/zguoj iroXepiw 
/cal perd arpariaq, 01)9 av^opevow; ov/c e/cooXvaav. 
oXtyeopiav fiev ovv avrojv yaXeirbv /carayvwvar 
7rpb<; erepoLS Be ovres rols eyyvrepco ical Kara 
\elpa piaXXov ovy oIol re rjaav rd dircorepo) 
(jKOizelv. ravra p.ev ovv eBotjev yjjxiv ev irapeic- 
fidaei Bid $payk(jdv elirelv. 

3. Merd Be to Kopa/cyjo-iov ' Apaivorj x 7ro\t?, 
eW 'Afia^la, eVt fiovvov /caroi/cla t*? v(f>opp,ov 
eyovaa, oirov Kardyerai rj vav7rr]yr]at.fji0<; vXr). 
/ceBpos B' ecrrlv 77 irXeiarr], teal Bo/cei ravra rd 
fjLepr} rrXeove/crelv rfj roiavrrj ^vXela- Kal Bid 
toOt' y AvT(t)vio<; KXeorrdrpa rd ywpia ravra 
Trpoaevei/xev, einr^Beia ovra irpb<$ rd<? rwv aroXcov 
fcaraa/cevds. elra Aaepri]<;, cppovpiov errl Xocf)ov 
paaroeiBoix; ixfrop/iov eyov' elra leXivovs ttoXi? 
/cal 2 irorafMo^- elra K-pdyos, rrerpa irepiKpr)piVO^ 
rrpb? daXdrrr)' elra XapaBpovs, epvpa Kal avrb 
v(f>op/jLOP e%ov (inrep/ceirai £' opos "Av&pi/cXos) /cal 
TrapdirXovs rpaxvs, HXaravio~T?}<; 3 KaXovpLevo^ t 
elr 'AvefMovpiov dtcpa, Kad' rjv r) r)ireipo<; iyyv 

1 'A.paiv6r) appears to be corrupt. Hopper conj. 2v5pr?, 
Tz^chucke 2u«5pa, C. Miiller AUvqats. 

2 ir6\is kcu, Jones inserts, from conj. of C Miiller {hid. 
Var. Led. p. 1031). Meineke, following Groskurd, emends 
irorauds to tt6\is. 

3 n\araviaT^s, Meineke, for TlXaravKTriis E, U\aravi<XT6s 
other MSS. 

330 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 2-3 

side of the Euphrates ; and at last made also the 
Armenians masters, who not only seized the country 
outside the Taurus even as far as Phoenicia, but also, 
so far as they could, overthrew the kings and the 
whole royal stock ; the sea, however, they gave over 
to the Cilicians. Then, after these people had grown 
in power, the Romans were forced to destroy them 
by war and with an army, although they had not 
hindered their growing power. Now it is hard to 
condemn the Romans of negligence, since, being 
engaged with matters that were nearer and more 
urgent, they were unable to watch those that were 
farther away. So much I have decided to say by 
way of a brief digression from my geographical 
description. 

3. After Coracesium, one comes to Arsinoe, 1 a 
city ; then to Hamaxia, a settlement on a hill, with 
a harbour, where ship-building timber is brought 
down. Most of this timber is cedar ; and it appears 
that this region beyond others abounds in cedar- wood 
for ships ; and it was on this account that Antony 
assigned this region to Cleopatra, since it was suited 
to the building of her fleets. Then one comes to 
Laertes, a stronghold on a breast-shaped hill, with a 
mooring-place. Then to Selinus, a city and river. 
Then to Cragus, a rock which is precipitous all 
round and near the sea. Then to Charadrus, a 
fortress, which also has a mooring-place (above it 
lies Mt. Andriclus) ; and the coast alongside it, called 
Platanistes, is rugged. Then to Anemurium, a 
promontory, where the mainland approaches closest 
to Cyprus, in the direction of the promontory of 

1 "Arsinoe" is thought to be an error for "Sydney* or 
. udra " or " Aunesis" (see critical note). 

331 



STRABO 

rdrca tt}? KvirpCas earlv eirl Kpofifivov atepav, 
ev Bidpfiari araBiwv Tpiaicoalwv rrevrrjKOvra. eh 
fiev ovv rb y Av€fjbovpiov curb rcov opwvrrj? Ha/jL(f)V- 
Xta? o K.i\lkio<s rrapdrrXov^ araBicov earlv oktcl- 
tcoaiwv ei/coai, Xoiirb? B' earl p^ey^pi Xo\a)i> 6a ov 
C 670 rrevraicoaUov rrapdrrXovs araBiwv. rovrov 1 B* 
earl NdyiBos 2 irpcorr] 3 jierd rb ' Avefiovpiov 
7ro\t?* elr* ' 'Apaivorj irpoaopfiov eyovaa' elra 
T07ro? MeXavia teal KeXevBepis, 7ro\tv Xip,eva 
eyovaa. rives Be ravrr/v dpy))v riOevrai tt)<? 
KiXifCias, ov rb YLopatcrjaiov, a>v earl Kal 6 ' Apre- 
pilBwpos' Kal tyrjaiv arro fiev rov TlrjXovaiatcov 
arofiaros elvai r piayiXiov^ evvaicoalov<$ 4 o-Ta- 
BLovs et? ^Opdwaiav, eirl Be rov 'Opovrrjv Trora/iov 
'\iXia enarov rptdfcovra, errl Be Ta? 7ruX.a? efr}? 
rrevrafcoata el/coanrevre, eirl Be rovs opov? rebv 
KiXl/ccov ^tXia Buaicoaia 5 e^Kovra. 

4. EZ#' "OXfMOL, oitov irpbrepov ojkovv ol vvv 
^eXevKel^' KrcaOelarj^ B' eirl ra> K.aXvfcdBv(p t?}9 
SeXetweta?, eVet fierptCLaOrjaav evOvs yap eanv 
i/ rov KaXvtcdBvov e/c/3o\r) Kay^ravri r)i6va, 

1 rovrov, Meineke, for tovto ; others, following Casaubon, 
read ip TovT(p. 

2 4<tt\ Na.yib'os, Tzschucke, for io-rU &ti$os Di, io-rlv &yidos 
other MSS. 

8 vpdTT), Groskurd, for trpwToi; so the later editors. 

4 ivvaKoo-iovs, Meineke (following Casaubon and Groskurd) 
emends to i^aKoalovs. 

8 $ia.K6o~ia, Meineke (following Casaubon and Groskurd) 
emends to ha.K6o~ia. 

1 Cp. 14. 6. 3. 

2 Elsewhere (16. 2. 33) referred to as "Melaenae or 
Melaniae." 

33 2 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 3-4 

Crommyus, 1 the passage across being three hundred 
and fifty stadia. Now the coasting-voyage along 
Cilicia from the borders of Pamphylia to Anemurium 
is eight hundred and twenty stadia, whereas the 
rest, as far as Soli, is about five hundred stadia. 
On this latter one comes to Nagidus, the first city 
after Anemurium ; then to Arsinoe, which has a 
landing-place ; then to a place called Melania, 2 and 
to Celenderis, a city with a harbour. Some writers, 
among whom is Artemidorus, make Celenderis, not 
Coracesium, the beginning of Cilicia. And he says 
that the distance from the Pelusian mouth 3 to 
Orthosia is three thousand nine hundred stadia ; 
to the Orontes River, one thousand one hundred 
and thirty ; to the Gates 4 next thereafter, five 
hundred and twenty-five ; and to the borders 5 of 
the Cilicians, one thousand two hundred and sixty. 6 
4. Then one comes to Holmi, where the present 
Seleuceians formerly lived ; but when Seleuceia on 
the Calycadnus was founded, they migrated there ; 
for immediately on doubling the shore, which forms 
a promontory called Sarpedon, one comes to the 

3 The mouth of the Nile at Pelusium. 

* Elsewhere (14. 5. 19), " Pylae " ("Gates") is called "a 
boundary between the Cilicians and the Syrians." 

5 i.e. the western borders (Celenderis, according to Artemi- 
dorus). 

• Elsewhere (16. 2. 33) the MSS. give the figures of 
Artemidorus as follows: "From Orthosia to Pelusium, 
3650 stadia, including the sinuosities of the gulfs; from 
Melaenae, or Melaniae, in Cilicia near Celenderis, to the 
common boundaries of Cilicia and Syria, 1900; thence to 
the Orontes, 520 ; and then to Orthosia, 1130." Groskurd, 
Forbiger, and Meineke (see critical note) accept these figures 
and emend the present passage correspondingly. 

333 



STRABO 

iroiovaav aicpav, fj KaXelrat *Zap7ry]Bd)v. TrXrjaiov 
o° iarl tov KaXvKaBvov kcu to Ze(f>vpiov, kcu 
avTr\ a/cpa,' e\ei Be 6 irorafio^ dvdirXovv et? rr)v 

*$€\€VK€iaV, TToXlV €V <TVVOIKOV/jL€V1]V KCU TToXv 

d^earwaav tov KlKikLov teal YlapifyvXiov rpoirov. 
evravOa eyevovTO kclO* /;/xa? civBpes d^ioXoyoi twv 
6K tov TrepLTrdTov (f)iXoo-6(f)(t)v ' A0 rjvaios re kcu 
Ee/ap^o?, oiv 6 /lev 'A^Wto? kcu iiroXirevaaro 
kcu e Br) pLay coy rj a e \povov tlvcl ev rfj iraTpLBc elr 
epuireawv eis tt)v X\ovpt]va <f)iXiav eKeivw avvedXco 
fyevywv, <j)copa@€Lo-r}<; tt}<? Kara Kaucrapos rod 
^ieftao-TOv o-vara$€iar]<; iTrifiovXr}*;' dvalrios Be 
Ravels a(f>€i@T) vtto Kaio-apos. &)? 6° erraviovTa 
eh 'Vcopyiv 1 j)Gird^ovTO kcu eirvvOdvovTO ol 
irpwroi evTvy%dvovT€<; , rb tov ^LvpnrLBov ecf)rj' 

7)K(o, veKpcbv Kev6p.o)va kcu otkotov irvkas 

XlTTCOV. 

bXiyov S' eiriftiovs y^pbvov ev avprnToavei rr}? 
ol/cias, ev y rpKei, BiecpOdpjj, vvKTcop yevofxevrj. 
"Sevapxos Be, ov r/Kpoaad/jieOa fj/xets, ev oiko) /xev 
ov iroXv BierpiyjreVy ev ' A.Xe%avBpeiq he Ka\ 
WOijvrjcn kclI to TeXevTcuov ev r Pd>fi7], tov iraiBev- 
tlk6i> j3iov eXbfievos' yj>r\o- diievos Be kcu rfj 
'Apeiov 2 (biXiq kclI fierd ravra rfj Kaicrapo? tov 
Xefiaarov BiereXeae pe\pi yr\pw$ ev Tipfj dyb- 
ptevos' pLLKpbv Be irpb t% reXevrr}^ TrrjpoyOeU tt)v 
oyfnv Karearpeyjre v6o~(p tov [Siov. 

5. MeTa Be tov JZaXvKaBvov t) UoiklXt] Xeyo- 

1 els 'Pwuyf appears to be an error for «/c 'P6ur]s, as Casaubon 
and Kramer suggest. 

334 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 4-5 

outlet of the Calycadnus. Near the Calycadnus is 
also Zephyrium, likewise a promontory. The river 
affords a voyage inland to Seleuceia, a city which 
is well-peopled and stands far aloof from the 
Cilician and Pamphylian usages. Here were born 
in my time noteworthy men of the Peripatetic sect 
of philosophers, Athenaeus and Xenarchus. Of 
these, Athenaeus engaged also in affairs of state 
and was for a time leader of the people in his 
native land ; and then, having fallen into a friendship 
with Murena, he was captured along with Murena 
when in flight with him, after the plot against 
Augustus Caesar had been detected, but, being 
clearly proven guiltless, he was released by Caesar. 
And when, on his return to * Rome, the first men 
who met him were greeting him and questioning 
him, he repeated the following from Euripides : 2 
''I am come, having left the vaults of the dead 3 
and the gates of darkness." But he survived his 
return only a short time, having been killed in the 
collapse, which took place in the night, of the house 
in which he lived. Xenarchus, however, of whom 
I was a pupil, did not tarry long at home, but 
resided at Alexandria and at Athens and finally at 
Rome, having chosen the life of a teacher ; and 
having enjoyed the friendship both of Areius and 
later of Caesar Augustus, he continued to be held 
in honour down to old age ; but shortly before the 
end he lost his sight, and then died of a disease. 
5. After the Calycadnus one comes to the rock 

1 " To " is apparently an error for "from." 
J Hecuba 1. 3 i.e. Hades. 

* 'Apdov, Tzschucke, for 'Apiov ; so the later editors. 

335 



STRABO 

fievr] Trerpa, tcXi/juatca e\ovaa XaTO/JLrjrr)V eV) 
^eXevtceiav ayovaav. elr 'Avefiovpiov dtcpa, 
6fJL(t)vv{io<; rrj Trporepq, teal Kpd/jLJ3ov<ra vfjaos teal 
Kwpu/co? ate pa, virep 97? iv el /coat, era 81019 eVrt 
to K.(opv/ciov avrpov, iv w r) dpiarr) tcpotcos 
(frverai. eari Be tcoiXds fxeydXif tcv tcXoreprjs, 
C 671 exovaa rrepiKeijikv^v 6(ppvv 7r€rpd)Bt] y iravrayoQev 
i/cavcos v-yjrrjXijp' Karaj3dvn 6° els avrrjv avob- 
fiaXov ecriv e&a<f)o<; teal rb woXv rrerpwBes, fiearbv 
Be tt}? 0afivu)Bov<; vXrjs deiOaXovs re teal rj/juepov 
irapearzaprai Be teal ra eBdcfrr) rd (pepovra rrji> 
tcpotcov. eari Be teal avrpov avroOi,, eyov rrrjyrjv 
/jLeydXrjv, rrorapubv itjieiaav tcaOapov re teal Bia- 
cfravovs vBaros, evdix; tcararriTrrovra u7ro •y?)?* 
eVe^el? 8' d(f)avri<; e^eiaiv 649 rrjv OdXarrav 
tcaXovai Be Uitcpbv vBwp. 

6. Efc#' rj ""EXaiovaaa x vrjeros fierd ttjv 
K.<0pvicov, rrpoo-tceijievr) rfj rjirelpw, rjv avvw/ciaev 
'ApxeXaos teal tcareatcevdaaro fiaaiXeiov, Xafioav 
rrjv Tpa%ei(t)Tiv KiXi/ciav oXrjv ttXtjv XeXevtcetas, 
tcaO* bv rporrov teal WpLvvras rrpbrepov el^e tca\ 
en irpbrepov KXeorrdrpa. ev(f>vov<; yap 6Vto? 
toO T07rou 7rpo? ret, Xrjarrfpia teal Kara yrjv teal 
Kara OdXarrav (tcara yrjv fiev Btd to fieyedo? rtav 
opcov teal rwv vireptcei/jLevcov edv&v, ireBia teal 
yeoopyca iyovrwv fieydXa teal evtcararpoxaara, 
Kara OdXarrav Be Bid ttjv eviropiav rrjs T€ 

1 'EAaioDco-a, the editors, for 'EXeovo-aa (and 'EXeovcra). 



1 i.e. the Pictured Rock. 2 § 3 above. 

s Crocus sativus, which yields saffron. 

4 Bitter Water. 6 See 12. 2. 7. 



336 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 5-6 

Poecile, 1 as it is called, which has steps hewn in it 
that lead to Seleuceia ; then to Anemurium, a 
promontory, bearing the same name as the former, 2 
and to Crambusa, an island, and to Corycus, a 
promontory, above which, at a distance of twenty 
stadia, is the Corycian cave, in which the best 
crocus 3 grows. It is a great circular hollow, with 
a rocky brow situated all round it that is everywhere 
quite high. Going down into it, one comes to a 
floor that is uneven and mostly rocky, but full of 
trees of the shrub kind, both the evergreen and 
those that are cultivated. And among these trees 
are dispersed also the plots of ground which produce 
the crocus. There is also a cave here, with a great 
spring, which sends forth a river of pure and trans- 
parent water ; the river forthwith empties beneath 
the earth, and then, after running invisible under- 
ground, issues forth into the sea. It is called 
Picrum Hydor. 4 

6. Then, after Corycus, one comes to Elaeussa, an 
island lying close to the mainland, which Archelails 
settled, making it a royal residence, 5 after he had 
received 6 the whole of Cilicia Tracheia except 
Seleuceia — the same way in which it was obtained 
formerly by Amyntas 7 and still earlier by Cleo- 
patra ; 8 for since the region was naturally well 
adapted to the business of piracy both by land and 
by sea — by land, because of the height of the moun- 
tains and the large tribes that live beyond them, 
tribes which have plains and farm-lands that are large 
and very easily overrun, and by sea, because of the good 



s i.e. from the Romans (see 12. 1. 4). 

7 See 12. 5. 1. 8 See § 3 above. 



337 



STRABO 

vav7niyr]alfjL0v vXr)<; teal twv XifjLevwv teal epv- 

fJLCLTCOV tCdl VTTohvTTlplwv), i86fC€L 7T/30? aTTCLV TO 

toiovto fiaaiXeveaOai /.taXXov tou? tottov?, t) 
V7r6 TOi? 'Ywfialois rjyefioaiv rival, Tot? eVl t<*9 
tcpiaeis ire/jUTTO/net'OK;, ot /a?/V del rrapelvai ejieXXov, 
firjTe fj,e0' ottXcov. ovtco fiev 'A/r^eXao? e\a/3e 
7T/30? rfj K.aiT7ra8ofCLa ttjv rpayelav KiXiteiav. 
rial 8' opoi ratrrj^ fieraljv SoXcov re teal 
'EXa£o^crcr?;? 6 Ad/io? * 7rorap,b<; ical Kcofir] 

OfubvVfXO?. 

7. Kara Be Ta? dtepwpelas rov Tavpov to 
ZrjviKerov Treiparijpiov eanv 6 "OXv/xttos, opos 
re teal (f>povptov opiwvvfioVy deft ov /caT07rreveraL 
iraaa Avteia ical UapcpvXia teal UiaiBla zeal 
MiXvd?' dXovros Be rov opov$ vtto 2 rov 'laav- 
piteov, eveirprjaev eavrbv iravoi/eiov. tovtov 6" 
r)V fcal 6 Ka>pv/co<; teal rj <t>aar)\ls 3 teal 7roXXd 
rcov UapcpvXcov ywpia* irdvra o' elXev 6 'laav- 
pitcos. 

8. Mera Be Kdfiov %oXoi ttoXi? dtjioXoyos, 
t?}? aXXrjs KiXttcias dpyr) tt}? irepl rov 'laaov, 
' k.yai&v teal 'VoBLwv tcTia/ia rcov etc AlvBov eh 
ravTijv XenravBprjaaaav YIo/j,7rr)io<; Mdyvos tearaj- 
Kiae tou? Treptyevo/jbevovs twv ireiparcov, ou? 
fiaXiara eyvco awTTjpias teal irpovoias rivbs dljiovs, 
teal pLercovopaae Uo/mtttjiottoXiv.^ yeybvaai 6' 
av8pe<$ evdevBe twv ovofxaaroyv Xpvannros Te o 
arcoiicbs <piX6ao(f)o<i, irarpb^ cov Tapaea)? i/eeWev 

1 Adfios, Tzschucke, for Ady/xos C, Adrfios other MSS. ; so 
the later editors. 

2 1)1x6, Casaubon inserts ; so the later editors. 

3 $aarr]\ls, the editors, for $<xai\is. 

338 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 6-8 

supply, not only of shipbuilding timber, but also of 
harbours and fortresses and secret recesses — with 
all this in view, I say, the Romans thought that it 
was better for the region to be ruled by kings than 
to be under the Roman prefects sent to administei 
justice, who were not likely always to be present 
or to have armed forces with them. Thus Archelaiis 
received, in addition to Cappadocia, Cilicia Tracheia ; 
and the boundary 1 of the latter, the river Lamus 
and the village of the same name, lies between Soli 
and Elaeussa. 

7. Near the mountain ridges of the Taurus 2 
lies the piratical stronghold of Zenicetus — I mean 
Olympus, both mountain and fortress, whence are 
visible all Lycia and Pamphylia and Pisidia and 
Milyas ; but when the mountain was captured by 
Isauricus, 3 Zenicetus burnt himself up with his 
whole house. To him belonged also Corycus and 
Phaselis and many places in Pamphylia ; but all 
were taken by Isauricus. 

8. After Lamus one comes to Soli, a noteworthy 
city, the beginning of the other Cilicia, that which 
is round Issus ; it was founded by Achaeans and 
Rhodians from Lindus. Since this city was of scant 
population, Pompey the Great settled in it those 
survivors of the pirates whom he judged most 
worthy of being saved and provided for ; 4 and he 
changed its name to Pompeiopolis. Among the 
famous natives of Soli were : Chrysippus the Stoic 
philosopher, whose father had moved there from 

1 i.e. on the east. * i.e. in Lycia. 

3 Servilius Isauricus. * Cf. 8. 7. 5. 



4 E has Uofitr-ntoiirj\iv. 



339 



STRABO 

lieroiKrjaavTOS, real t&iXij/JLwv, 6 kwiaikos TroiTjTifc, 
/cat Aparo?, 6 rd §aivbp,eva avyypd\jra<; iv 
eireaiv. 

9. Elra Zecfavpiov 6/jlgovv[jlov tw 7rpb$ KaXv- 
Kahvw 1 elr 'AyxidXi] fiiKpbv virep t?}? OaXdrrrj^, 
KTta/jLCL "S.apSavairdXXov, (frrjcrlv ' ApKTToftovXos- 

C 672 evravOa 8* eli/cu /ivfjfia tov 'lapBavandXXov /cal 
tvttov XiOivov, o-u/jbfidWovTa rov<; t?)? Bejjias 
%€tpo? SarcTvXovs, a>9 ai> diro/cpoTovvra, 2 Kal 
€7rt,ypa(j>r)V elvai ' AaGvpLois ypd/jLfiaai toluvSc 
XapSavdiraXXos 6 ' Ava/cvv8apd%€to 7rat?, 'Ay^id- 
X?7J/ /tat Tapabv eBeifxev Vfiepy /jufj' eadie, irlve, 
iral^e, 00? TaXXa 3 toutou ou/c af*a, tov dirotcpo- 
rr]fiaro<;.^ /ne/ivrjrac he /cal XoipiXos tovtwv /cat 
hr) Kal 7rept(j>6p€Tai ra ein) ravri' 

tclvt fya), ova e$ayov Kal d(j)v/3pi(Ta /cal fier 

epooTOS 
ikpivv eiraOov, rd Be TroXXd /ecu oXftca /celva 

XeXenrrai. 

10. 'TTrep/cetTcu Be rd KvivBa t% y Ay%idXr)<; 
epvfxa, u> ixpijaavro irore oi McuceSoves ya£o<j)v- 

1 KaXvKatiMf) Emowz, Ka\vSvcp other MSS. 

2 Before Kal, all MSS except E read evioi 5e. 

3 After tSaAo, Aid. adds avdp&iciva, apparently from 
Arrian 2. 5. 

4 After anoKpoT-hiu-oros, the following verses (obviously an 
interpolation), inserted by all editors from Casaubon to 
Corais, are in DFhi found only in the margin and in Cgsr 
preceded by the words rb o\ov liriypafifia: 

e5 eld&s, OTt 6vr)rbs e<pvs, abv dvfibv #e£«, 

repw6/xevos 6a\ir)<rr 6av6vri toi ov ris ovrjcris. 

Kal yap iyw avo56s fi/xi, Nivov fieyaX-qs fiatriKevtras- 

340 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 8-10 

Tarsus ; Philemon, the comic poet ; and Aratus, 
who wrote the work entitled The Phaenomena, in 
verse. 

9. Then to Zephyrium, which bears the same 
name as the place near Calycadnus. 1 Then, a little 
above the sea, to Anchiale, which, according to 
Aristobulus, was founded by Sardanapallus. Here, 
he says, is the tomb of Sardanapallus, and a stone 
figure which represents the fingers of the right 
hand as snapping together, and the following in- 
scription in Assyrian letters : " Sardanapallus, the 
son of Anacyndaraxes, built Anchiale and Tarsus 
in one day. Eat, drink, be merry, because all 
things else are not worth this," meaning the 
snapping of the fingers. Choerilus also mentions 
this inscription ; and indeed the following verses 
are everywhere known : " Mine are all that I have 
eaten, and my loose indulgences and the delights of 
love that I have enjoyed ; but those numerous 
blessings have been left behind." 2 

10. Above Anchiale lies Cyinda, a fortress, which 
at one time was used as a treasury by the Mace- 

1 14. 5. 4. 

* The whole of the epigram, as found in some of the MSS. 
(see critical note), is as follows : " Well aware that thou art 
by nature mortal, magnify the desires of thy heart, delighting 
thyself in merriments ; there is no enjoyment for thee after 
death. For I too am dust, though I have reigned over great 
Ninus. Mine are all the food that I have eaien, and my 
loose indulgences, and the delights of love that I have 
enjoyed ; but those numerous blessings have been left 
behind. This to mortal men is wise advice on how to live." 

tout' €^w, uaa' ttyayov kolI icpvfipiara ical uer' epcoros 
ripitv' ftradou, to 8f iroWa kou u\fiia Kelva AeAeiTTTai. 
7,5* <ro(pr) &i6toio xapaiveais av6p<t>iroi<Tiy. 

341 



STRABO 

\aKL(p' rjpe he ra ^prjpara Rvpevrjs, aTroaras 
Avnyovov. en o° virepOev tovtou re ical rwv 
loXcov 6 pa vi] ear a>, ev fj "OX/3rj ttoXis, Ato<? lepbv 
eyovcra, Aiavros Hhpvpa rov Tevicpov ical 6 
Upevs hwdarrj^ eyivero t% Tpa^eicorLho 1 ;' elr 
eireOevro rfj yjjopa, rvpavvoi rroXXol, teal aweary 
ra Xrjarrjpia. p.erd Be rrjv rovrcov KardXvaiv 
ecft' i)fi(ov y)Sr) rr/v rov Tevicpov hvvaaretav ravrr\v 
eicdXovv, rrjv 6" avrrjv ical te payer vvijv ical o'l 
irXelaroi ye royv iepaaa/j.eva)v wvopd^ovro Teu/cpoL 
rj Atavres. elaiovaa h' v A/3a tear eiriyapiav et? 
rbv oIkov rovrov, rj Zrjvocfrdvov*; Ovydrrjp, evbs 
rcov rvpdvvcov, avrrj Kareaye rr)v dpyr)v, rrpo- 

XafioVTOS TOV TTCLTpQS €V eTTLTpOTTOV <J ftl] p.ClT L' 

varepov he ical 'Avrajvtm; ical YLXeoirdrpa icare- 
yaplaavro eiceivr), Oepairelai^ eicXnrapr)6evre<$' 
eireiB^ i) p,ev icareXvOrj, to?9 & dirb rov yevovs 
hiepeivev rj dpyr\. puerd he rrjv Wy yidXrjv al rov 
Kvhvov eicftoXal Kara rb *P-f}y/j.a icaXovpuevov. 
eari he XipLvdfav T07ro?, eywv ical iraXaid vecopia, 
els ov eKirlrrrei 6 Kvhvo? 6 hiappewv peaijv rrjv 
Tapabv, rd<; dpyds eywv dirb rod vitepKeipevov 
tt}? 7ro\eco? Tavpow ical eanv erriveiov r) Xipvq 
tt}? Tapaov. 
r\ ano 11. Me^/K pi€V hr) hevpo rj irapaXia rrdaa, dirb 
rfjs 'Vohiwi' irepaias dpgapevrj, irpbs larjpepivds 
dvaroXas dirb rcov opcovvpeov eicreiverai hvaeoov 
elr' cttI rr/v yeip.epivr)v dvaroXrjv emarpefyei 
pLGXP 1 'IwoVf icdvrevdev rjhr) Kafjarr)V Xapuftdvei 
7T/oo? vbrov p-£%pi> Qoivlicr)*!, to he Xolttov rrpbs 

1 i.e. straight east and west. 
342 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. IO -n 

donians. But the treasures were taken away by 
Eumenes, when he revolted from Antigonus. And 
still above this and Soli is a mountainous country, 
in which is a city Olbe, with a temple of Zeus, 
founded by Ajax the son of Teucer. The priest 
of this temple became dynast of Cilicia Tracheia ; 
and then the country was beset by numerous 
tyrants, and the gangs of pirates were organised. 
And after the overthrow of these they called this 
country the domain of Teucer, and called the same 
also the priesthood of Teucer; and most of the 
priests were named Teucer or Ajax. But Aba, 
the daughter of Xenophanes, one of the tyrants, 
came into this family by marriage and herself took 
possession of the empire, her father having pre- 
viously received it in the guise of guardian. But 
later both Antony and Cleopatra conferred it upon 
her as a favour, being moved by her courteous 
entreaties. And then she was overthrown, but the 
empire remained with her descendants. After 
Anchiale one comes to the outlets of the Cydnus, 
near the Rhegma, as it is called. It is a place that 
forms into a lake, having also ancient arsenals ; and 
into it empties the Cydnus River, which flows through 
the middle of Tarsus and has its sources in the city 
Taurus, which lies above Tarsus. The lake is also 
the naval station of Tarsus. 

11. Now thus far the seaboard as a whole, begin- 
ning at the Peraea of the Rhodians, extends towards 
the equinoctial east from the equinoctial west, 1 and 
then bends in the direction of winter sunrise 2 as 
far as Issus, and then forthwith takes a bend 
towards the south as far as Phoenicia; and the 

8 South-east (see Vol. I, p. 105, note 2). 

343 



STRABO 

hvaiv l*eXP L vTV^-tov reXevTa. to fiev ovv dXr)ue<; 
6 laOfibs tt)? TrepicoBev/jLevrjs yepP ovr ) (JOV ovtos 
eaTiv 6 airo Tapaov teal t/}? eVySoXr)? rov KvBvov 
lieXP L 'A/Maov' to yap ekdyjL<*TOV ef 'A/jlhtov 
BidaTi^ia eirl tou? KtXitecov opovs tovt eaTiv 
evrevdev Be e/carbv elieoaiv elaiv eh Tapaov 
ardhioi, tedteeiOev ov TrXeiov? 1 eirl tt)v e/efioXyv 
tov KvBvov. teal p,y)V eirl ye 'laabv teal ttjv tear 
avT)]V OdXarrav ovr aXXrj 6Bb<; avvro/jbcorepa 
earlv ef Wpnaov tt)<; Bid Tapaov, ovr etc Tapaov 
eirl 'laabv eyyvTepco eaTiv r) eirl KvBvov, coaTe 
BrjXov, otl Tat? fiev dXrjOeiais ovtos dv elrj 6 
ladfios, Xeyerat 8' o/aws o pe^pi rov 'laaiteov 
tcoXirov, TTapateXeTTTovrozv Bid to arjfieicoBes. Bid 
Be tovt avTO teal ttjv etc tt}? 'PoSta? ypa/jL/xijv, r)v 
p*eypi tov KvBvov teaTrjydyopev, ttjv avTrjv diro- 
(fxuvo/j.ev 2 T7j /JL€%pi 'laaov, ovBev irapd tovto 
iroiovfievoi, teal tov Tavpov (papuev Birjteeiv eV 
ev0eia<; TtjBe ttj y pap, jit} p>e%pi t?}? 'Iv8i/ef)<;. 

12. C H Be Tapabs teeiTai fiev ev ireBLw, teTiap,a 
o° eaTi T&v fieTa TpiirToXepiov nXavr)6evTwv 
'Apyeucov teaTa ^rJTrjaiv 'Iou?* Biappel B' avTrjv 
/xearjv 6 KvBvos Trap* avTO to yvpjvdaiov twv 
vecov aTe Br) tt)<; 77-77777? ov ttoXv diro&dev ovar]<$, 
teal tov peiOpov Bid <f>dpayyo<; ftaOelas lovtos, eW 
ev6v<; eh ttjv ttoXiv eteTTiTTTovTO*;, yjrvxpbv T€ teal 

1 trhre, after vXeiovs, all MSS. except F. The translator 
believes, with C. Miiller, that Strabo wrote e&8o/x{)KovTa (i.e. 
and not e'). 

2 a.iro<pa'ivoniv, Groskurd and the later editors, instead of 
arro<paiy6/j.(voi. 

1 i.e. the Pillars of Heracles at Gibraltar. 
344 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. u-12 

remainder extends towards the west as far as 
the Pillars 1 and there ends. Now the truth is 
that the actual isthmus of the peninsula which I 
have described is that which extends from Tarsus 
and the outlet of the Cydnus to Amisus, for this 
is the shortest distance from Amisus to the 
boundaries of Cilicia ; and the distance thence to 
Tarsus is one hundred and twenty stadia, and the 
distance from there to the outlet of the Cydnus is 
no more than that. And in fact to Issus, and the 
sea near it, there is no other road from Amisus 
which is snorter than that through Tarsus, and 
Tarsus is not nearer to Issus than to the Cydnus ; 2 
and therefore it is clear that in reality this would 
be the isthmus ; but still people call that which 
extends as far as the Gulf of Issus the true isthmus, 
thus betraying the facts because of the significance 
of the gulf. And it is because of this very thing that 
I, without making any accurate distinctions, repre- 
sent the line from Rhodes, which I have prolonged 
to the Cydnus, to be the same as the line extending 
as far as Issus, and also assert that the Taurus 
extends in a straight line with that line as far as 
India. 

12. As for Tarsus, it lies in a plain ; and it was 
founded by the Argives who wandered with Tripto- 
lemus in quest of Io ; and it is intersected in the 
middle by the Cydnus River, which flows past the 
very gymnasium of the young men. Now inasmuch 
as the source of the river is not very far away and 
its stream passes through a deep ravine and then 
empties immediately into the city, its discharge is 
both cold and swift; and hence it is helpful both 

2 i.e. the outlet of the Cydnus, at Rhegma. 

vol. vi. M 345 



STRABO 

ra%u to pev/id eanv, oOev Kal toT? jraxwevpovoi 
pol^ofxevoi^ icai fcrijveai Kal avd poo-no /? eiriKovpel. 

13. Toaavry 8e TOt<? evOdhe dvO paiTrois cnrov&r] 
irpo's re (f)i\o(ro<f)Lav icai ttjv aXXrjv rratBelav 
€jkvk\lov cnraaav yeyovev, coaO' vTrepfteftXrjvTai 
teal ' KOrjvas Kal ' ' A.Xe%dvhpeiav real el riva aXXov 
toitov Svvarbv eiirelv, ev u> cr\oXa\ Kal hiarpifial 
(f>i\o(TG(f)G)v yeyovaai. Siacpepei he roaovrov, on 
evravda fiev ol (biXofiaOovvres liriydipioi irdvres 
elai, ^evoi 8' ovk eirihrjpiovai pqhLw ovh' avrol 
ovroi fievovaiv avroOi, dXXa teal reXeiovvrai 
i/c8i1/jL7i(TavT€<;, Kal reXeicodevre^ ^evnevovaiv 
77060)9, KarepxovTai 8' oXiyoi. tcu<? 8' aXXai<; 
iroXeaiv, a? dprlws elirov, ttXtjv 'AXeljavhpeias, 
avpufSalvei ravavria' (poirwai yap eh avrds 

C 674 ttoXXol Kal hiarpifiovaiv avroOi dapuevoi, rcov 8' 
eTTiywpiwv ov ttoXXovs ovt dv ef&> (poircovras 
"hois Kara (f)iXop,dOeiav, ovt avroOi irepl tovto 
airovBd^ovra^' ' AXe^avhpevai 8' dpKporepa avp- 
(Baivei* Kal yap he^ovjai ttoXXovs tcov %evcov 
Kal e kit €/jL7T oval rcov ihicov ovk oXiyov?. Kal elai 
a\o\al Trap avrois iravTohairal rcov ire pi Xoyovs 
Te)(y6}V, Kal raXXd r evavhpei Kal irXeiarov 
hvvarai, rbv ttj<s fjbr)TpoTr6Xew<$ eireyovaa Xoyov. 

14. "Avhpes 8' ef avrr)<; yeyovaai rwv fiev 
arcoiKCov 'AvTiTrarpos re Kal 'ApxehrjpLOS Kal 
Nearcop' ere 8' AO^vohwpoi hvo, a>v 6 fxev, 
'KophvXicov KaXovfievos, avvefiicoae M.dpKQ) 



1 i.e. to their schools. 
346 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 12-14 

to men and to cattle that are suffering from swollen 
sinews, if they immerse themselves in its waters. 

13. The people at Tarsus have devoted themselves 
so eagerly, not only to philosophy, but also to the 
whole round of education in general, that they have 
surpassed Athens, Alexandria, or any other place 
that can be named where there have been schools 
and lectures of philosophers. But it is so different 
from other cities that there the men who are fond 
of learning are all natives, and foreigners are not 
inclined to sojourn there ; neither do these natives 
stay there, but they complete their education 
abroad ; and when they have completed it they 
are pleased to live abroad, and but few go back 
home. But the opposite is the case with the 
other cities which I have just mentioned except 
Alexandria ; for many resort to them and pass time 
there with pleasure, but you would not see many of 
the natives either resorting to places outside their 
country through love of learning or eager about pur- 
suing learning at home. With the Alexandrians, 
however, both things take place, for they admit 1 
many foreigners and also send not a few of their 
own citizens abroad. Further, the city of Tarsus 
has all kinds of schools of rhetoric ; and in general 
it not only has a flourishing population but also is 
most powerful, thus keeping up the reputation of 
the mother-city. 2 

14. The following men were natives of Tarsus: 
among the Stoics, Antipater and Archedemus and 
Nestor ; and also the two Athenodoruses, one of 
whom, called Cordylion, lived with Marcus Cato 

2 i.e. in spite of the fact that so many able men leave the 
city and never return. 

34 7 



STRABO 

Kdrcovi, fcui ereXevra 1 Trap 1 ifcelvw, 6 Be rov 
XdvBcovos, ov Kal Kavavirrjv <f>acrlv airo KWfxr]^ 
tivos, YLaiaapos KaO^yrjaaro Kal Tififjs erv^e 
fjLeyakrjs' Karubv re el<; ttjv irarpiBa 77877 yrjpaio? 
KareXvcre rrjv rcaOearcoaav iroXneiav, KaK&s 

<f>€pO/jL€V7]V VTTO T€ aXX(OV Kal Bor}0OV, KClfCOV 
fJL€V TTOirjTOV, KCLKOV Be TToXlTOV, BrjfJLOKOTTLai? 

layyaavTO^ rb irXeov. eirijpe 8' avrbv real 
1 Avtgovios, kclt ao%a9 diroBe^d^evo^ to ypacpev 
eh rrjv ev QiXlttttois vlk^v eVo?, Kal ere fxdXXov 
r) ev^epeta r) etniroXd^ovaa irapa rot? Tapaevcriv, 
war airav<TT(id<; cry^Bid^eiv irapd ^pfj/ia 7rpo? 
tt)v BeBofievrjv vitoOeoiv Kal Br) teal yvfjuvaaiap- 

X^aV V7T0(TX6/JL€V0<? TapO~€VO~l TOVTOV dwl yV/JLVa- 

ainpyov 2 fcaTearrjcre, /cal ra dvaXw/jiara eiria- 
revaev avrw. ecfxopdOr) Be vocr<f)io~dfAevo<; rd re 
dX\a kcu rovXaiov eXeyx^^vo^ 8' V7ro T <*>v 
Karrjyopcov eVl rod 'Avtcovlov, Trapyrelro rr)v 
opyijv, crvv aXXois kcu ravra Xeywv, on, "flcnrep 
r, 0/jLr)po<; egv/xvrjaev 'A^dXe'a kcu y Ay a/ie/jivova 
Kal 'OBvacrea, outcd? iyco ere' ov BUato^ ovv 
el/nl els roiavTcvs ayecrdai 8ia/3oXd<; eirl aov. 
7rapaXa/3o)v ovv 6 KctTtjyopos rov Xoyov, 'AAA,' 
"0/jLT)po<; fxev, ecf)!], eXaiov 3 y Ay a fie {avovos ovk 
eKXeyfrev, dXX* ovBe 'A^tXXea)?, crv 84' ware 
8(t)o~€i<; Blktjv. BiaKpovcrdfievos 8' ovv 6epaireiai% 
rial ttjv opyrjv, ovBev t)ttov BiereXecrev aycov 
Kal (fcepoov rrjv iroXiv pe^pi, rf}<; KaTacrTpo<f)f)<; 
rov WvTcoviov. TOiavrrjv Be rrjv ttoXcv Kara- 

1 6T€\€VTa, Corais, for reAevra. 

' olutI yv/uLvacriapxov sw, avTiyvuvacriapxov other MSS. 
3 fxev, after tAatov, omitted by mowxz. 
348 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 14 

and died at his house ; and the other, the son of 
Sandon, called Cananites after some village, was 
Caesar's teacher and was greatly honoured by him ; 
and when he returned to his native land, now an 
old man, he broke up the government there estab- 
lished, which was being badly conducted by Boethus, 
among others, who was a bad poet and a bad citizen, 
having prevailed there by currying the favour of 
the people. He had been raised to prominence by 
Antony, who at the outset received favourably the 
poem which he had written upon the victory at 
Philippi, but still more by that facility prevalent 
among the Tarsians whereby he could instantly 
speak offhand and unceasingly on any given subject. 
Furthermore, Antony promised the Tarsians an office 
of gymnasiarch, but appointed Boethus instead of a 
gymnasiarch, and entrusted to him the expenditures. 
But Boethus was caught secreting, among other 
things, the olive-oil ; and when he was being proven 
guilty by his accusers in the presence of Antony he 
deprecated Antony's wrath, saying, among other 
things, that "Just as Homer had hymned the 
praises of Achilles and Agamemnon and Odysseus, 
so I have hymned thine. It is not right, therefore, 
that I should be brought before you on such 
slanderous charges." When, however, the accuser 
caught the statement, he said, "Yes, but Homer 
did not steal Agamemnon's oil, nor yet that of 
Achilles, but you did ; and therefore you shall be 
punished." However, he broke the wrath of 
Antony by courteous attentions, and no less than 
before kept on plundering the city until the over- 
throw of Antony. Finding the city in this plight, 



349 



STRABO 

Xafioov 6 *A0r)v68(Dpo<;, recos pev iTre^eipei Xoyq> 
p,erdyeiv tca/cetvov /ecu tovs o-varaaruora^' go? S' 
ovk direlyovro v/3peoo$ ovBeptas, ey^piqaaro rfj 
BoOeiar) biro rov Kaiaapos e^ovala Kal e^eBaXev 
auroix;, tcarayvovs cpvytjv. ol Be irpodrov piev 
Kareroi^oypd^rjaav avrov roiavra' 
C 675 epya vewv, /3ov\al Be peacov, iropBal Be yepov- 

T(OV. 

eirel 8* eKelvo? ev iraiBias pepei 8ei~dpevo<; 
iiceXevae rrapeiriypd^ai " — /3povral Be yepov- 
twv" Kara(f>povr)aa<; Be ri$ rov eirceiKov^, 
evXvrov ro kolXlBlov e^wv, irpoaeppave iroXii 
rfj Ovpa kcu tw roiy^w, vv/crcop irapicov rrjv 
olkIciv. 6 Be tt}? ardaecos Karrjyopcov ev i/c- 
/cXrjo-ia, tt]V voaov tt)? 7ro\ea)?, e<f>7), icai rrjv 
Kaye^iav iroXXayoQev crKoireiv e^earL, Kal Brj 
recti etc rwv Biased prj par wv. ovroi pev arcoiKol 
avBpes' utcaBrj/jLaiKos Be Nearcop o KaO' r)pas, 6 
Map/ceXkov KaOiiyrjadpevos, rov 'Otcraovias 
ircuBo';, t?}? Isalaapo? dheXcpr)*;. kcu ovros Be 
irpoearrj rfc rroXtrela^, 8ia8e£dp,evo5 rov 'AOij- 
voBcopov, Kal BiereXeae ripd>pevo^ irapd re Tot? 
r]yepoo~i Kal ev rfj iroXei. 

15. Tcoi> B 1 aXXcov cj>iXoo-6(f)cov, 

ou? Kev ev yvoirjv Kal rovvop,a p,v6r)craipr}v, 

H\ovrid8r)<; re eyevero Kal Aioyevrjs rwv rrepi- 
iroXi^ovrwv Kal o~xoXd<; BiariOepevcov ev<pva)<;' 
6 Be Aioyevr]? Kal rrotrjpara Cscnrep direfyoifia'Qe, 
reOeiar]^ viroOeaeco^, rpayiKa co? eirl ttoXv' ypap- 
pLariKol Be, wv Kal avyypdppard iariv, 'AyOTe- 
/juBcopos re Kal AioBcopos' Troirjrr)*; Be rpaywBla? 
35° 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 14-15 

Athenodorus for a time tried to induce both Boethus 
and his partisans to change their course ; but since 
they would abstain from no act of insolence, he 
used the authority given him by Caesar, condemned 
them to exile, and expelled them. These at first 
indicted him with the following inscription on the 
walls : " Work for young men, counsels for the 
middle-aged, and flatulence for old men " ; and 
when he, taking the inscription as a joke, ordered the 
following words to be inscribed beside it, "thunder 
for old men," someone, contemptuous of all decency 
and afflicted with looseness of the bowels, pro- 
fusely bespattered the door and wall of Athenodorus' 
house as he was passing by it at night. Atheno- 
dorus, while bringing accusations in the assembly 
against the faction, said : " One may see the sickly 
plight and the disaffection of the city in many ways, 
and in particular from its excrements." These men 
were Stoics ; but the Nestor of my time, the teacher 
of Marcellus, son of Octavia the sister of Caesar, 
was an Academician. He too was at the head of 
the government of Tarsus, having succeeded Atheno- 
dorus ; and he continued to be held in honour both 
by the prefects and in the city. 

15. Among the other philosophers from Tarsus, 
u whom I could well note and tell their names," x 
are Plutiades and Diogenes, who were among those 
philosophers that went round from city to city and 
conducted schools in an able manner. Diogenes 
also composed poems, as if by inspiration, when a 
subject was given him — for the most part tragic 
poems ; and as for grammarians whose writings are 
extant, there are Artemidorus and Diodorus ; and 

1 Iliad 3. 235. 

351 



STRABO 

apKTTOS T(OV T^5 TlXeLaBo? KCLTCLplO flOVflivCOV 

AiopvctlBiis. fidXiara 8' f) 'Pco/at; x Bvvarai Bi- 
Baa/ceiv to irXrjOo^ tcop etc rrjaBe tt)? 7ro\ea>9 
<j>iXoX6yo)V Tapaecov yap /cal ' AXe^avBpecov iarl 
peart). TOiavTTj pev rj Tapaos. 

16. Mera Be rov K.vBvov 6 Uvpap,o<; e/c tt}? 
K.araovlas peoav, oinrep /cal rrporepov ep.vijo'dqp.ev 
(ftrjal B* 'AprepiBcopos, ivrevOev eh %6Xov<; ev- 
OvirXoLa araBlov<; elvai irevr aKoalovs. irX^alov 
Be /cal Ma\X.o?, e<f)* vyfrovs /ceipbevrj, /crLo~pa 
' Ap.^>CXoyov ical Moifrov, rov ' AttoXXcovos /cal 
Maz/ToO?, 2 nrepl o)v iroXXa pvOoXoyelrac' /cal 
Br) /cal rjpels ep.vr)o~6r)p.ev avrcov ev roU irepl 
KaXxavro? Xoyois /cal rf}<; epiBos, rjv rjpicrav 
irepl tt)? p,avri/cr\<i 6 re KaX^a? /cal 6 Mo^09* 
ravrrjv re yap rrjv epiv peracpepovaiv evioi> 
/caddirep /cal Xocpo/cXi]^, ei? rrjv KiXi/ciav, /caXeaas 
e/ceivos avrrjv Uapxf)v\iav Tpayt./cc!)<;, /caOdirep 
/cal rrjv Av/ciav Kaplav ical rrjv Tpoiav /cal 
AvBlav 3 Qpvyiav' /cal rov Odvarov Be rov 
KaX^a^TO? ivravOa irapaBiBoaaiv dXXot, re /cal 
XoQbo/cXrjs. ov p,ovov Be rrjv irepl ttj? p,avri/crj<; 
epiv p,ep,v0ev/ca<riv, dXXa /cal rr)<; dp^t]?. rov 
yap M6\jrov <f)aal xal rov ' ' ApobiXo^pv e/c Tpoias 
C 676 eXOovras /crlaai MaXXov elr ' Ap,(f)iXo)(ov eh 
"Apyos direXOeiv, Bvaapeo~rr}o~avra Be roh i/cel 
rrdXiv dvaarpeyfrai Bevpo, diro/cXeiopevov Be tt)? 
/coivcovias avp,/3aXeiv eh povopiax^av rrpbs rov 

1 t) '¥u>p.ti, Sihler {American Journal of Philology, 1923, 
p. 141) would emend to rrjv 'Pufi-nv. 

2 Mwtovs, Xylander, for Arjrovs ; so the later editors. 

3 Kat, before Qpvylav, Groskurd omits, so Meineke. 

352 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 15-16 

the best tragic poet among those enumerated in the 
" Pleias " 1 was Dionysides. But it is Rome that is 
best able to tell us the number of learned men from 
this city ; 2 for it is full of Tarsians and Alexandrians. 
Such is Tarsus. 

16. After the Cydnus River one comes to the 
Pyramus River, which flows from Cataonia, a river 
which I have mentioned before. 3 According to 
Artemidorus, the distance thence to Soli in a straight 
voyage is five hundred stadia. Near by, also, is 
Mall us, situated on a height, founded by Amphilochus 
and Mopsus, the latter the son of Apollo and Manto, 
concerning whom many myths are told. And indeed 
I, too, have mentioned them in my account of 
Calchas 4 and of the quarrel between Calchas and 
Mopsus about their powers of divination. For some 
writers transfer this quarrel, Sophocles, for example, 
to Cilicia, which he, following the custom of tragic 
poets, calls Pamphylia, just as he calls Lycia " Caria" 5 
and Troy and Lydia " Phrygia." And Sophocles, 
among others, tells us that Calchas died there. But, 
according to the myth, the contest concerned, 
not only the power of divination, but also the 
sovereignty ; for they say that Mopsus and 
Amphilochus went from Troy and founded Mallus, 
and that Amphilochus then went away to Argos, 
and, being dissatisfied with affairs there, returned to 
Mallus, but that, being excluded from a share in the 
government there, he fought a duel with Mopsus, 

1 i.e. the "Seven (Alexandrian) Stars," referring to the 
Pleiades, the seven daughters of Atlas, who were placed by 
Zeus among the stars and became one of the oldest Greek 
constellations. 

2 See critical note. 8 12. 2. 4. 

* 14. 1. 27. 6 See 14. 3. 3. 

353 
M 2 



STRABO 

Mo^jrov, ireaovTa? 6° dfifyorepovs racpfjvai /x?) iv 
iTToyjrei aXXyXoi*;' Kal vvv ol rd(f)OL SeiKvvvrai 
irepl Mdyapo~a rov Ylvpdfiov irXr)aiov. ivrevdev 
8' r)V KpaT?7? 6 ypafjLfjLCiTifco*;, ov cf>rjcrl yeveo~6ai 
/laOrjrr)^ YlavaiTLos. 

17. 'TirepKeirai Se tt}? irapaXia*; tclvtt)? 
' AXijiov ireSiov, Si ov <\>i\(otcl<$ Snjyayev 'A\e- 
£dvSpq) rrjv 17T7TOV, ifcelvov T7]v cf)dXayya dya- 
yovTos €K t(op HoXcov Sid t?}<? irapaXias Kal rr/s 
Ma\XwT(3o? iiri re y \aabv teal ra? Aapelov 
Svvdp.et<;. <f)ao-l Se teal ivayiaai tw ' A fx^iXo^fp 
rov * AXetjavSpov Sid rrjv ijj Apyovs avyyeveiav. 
*l\aioSo<; S' iv HoXois virb ' AttoXXwvos dvaipe- 
6?)vai rov 'Apt^iXo^bv (f>y]aiv, oi Se irepl rb 
'AXijiov ireSiov, ol S' iv ^vpia, dirb rov ' AXijiov 
drnovra Sid ttjv epiv. 

18. Merd Se MaXXbv Aiyaiai ttoXl^viov, 
v(f)opp.ov ex 01 '' e ^ T ' 'A/jiariSes irvXai, vcpopfiov 
eyovaai, et'v a? reXevra rb 'A/navbv opo* dirb 
rov Tavpov KaOrjtcov, b Tr)<? KiXiKias virepKenai 
Kara to 7r/3o? ew p.epos, del fiev vtto rrXeiovwv 
Suvaarevo/xevov rvpdvvcoi', i%6vT(ov ipv/xara' tcad* 
77/ZU9 Se Karearrj /cvpios irdvrwv dvrjp d£i6Xoyo<; 
/cal ftao-iXevs virb 'Piop-aicov 0iV0p,da9rj Sid ra? 
dvSpayaOlas TapfcovSifioTos, 1 Kal rrjv SiaSo^V^ 
rot? per aurbv TrapeScoxe. 

19. MeTa Se Aiyaiai 'Icrcro? iroXiyyiov vefcop- 
fxov eyov Kal iroTapCo^ llivapos. 2 ivravOa 6 
dyoov avveireaev ' AXe^dvSpw Kal Aapeiw- Kal 6 

1 TapKoyBl/xoros, Casaubon, for TapKoStuevros CF, Tapudr)- 
IxtvTos other MSS. 

2 Tllvapos, Tzschucke, for TliSvos D, nivSos other MSS. 

354 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 16-19 

and that both fell in the duel and were buried in 
places that were not in sight of one another. And 
to day their tombs are to be seen in the neighbour- 
hood of Magarsa near the Pyramus River. This 1 
was the birthplace of Crates the grammarian, of 
whom Panaetius is said to have been a pupil. 

17. Above this coast lies the Aleian Plain, through 
which Philotas led the cavalry for Alexander, when 
Alexander led his phalanx from Soli along the coast 
and the territory of Mallus against Issus and the 
forces of Dareius. It is said that Alexander per- 
formed sacrifices to Amphilochus because of his 
kinship with the Argives. Hesiod says that 
Amphilochus was slain by Apollo at Soli ; but others 
say that he was slain in the neighbourhood of the 
Aleian Plain, and others in Syria, when he was 
quitting the Aleian Plain because of the quarrel. 

18. After Mallus one comes to Aegaeae, a small 
town, with a mooring-place ; and then to the 
Amanides Gates, with a mooring-place, where ends 
the mountain Amanus, which extends down from 
the Taurus and lies above Cilicia towards the east. 
It was always ruled by several powerful tyrants, who 
possessed strongholds ; but in my time a notable 
man established himself as lord of all, and was named 
king by the Romans because of his manly virtues — 
I refer to Tarcondimotus, who bequeathed the 
succession to his posterity. 

19. After Aegaeae, one comes to Issus, a small 
town with a mooring-place, and to the Pinarus 
River. It was here that the struggle between 
Alexander and Dareius occurred ; and the gulf is 

1 Mallua. 

355 



STRABO 

/coXttos eXpr)Tai 'ladi/cos' ev avrw Be 7ro\t? 
f P<w(TO? /cal MvplavSpos 7roXt? teal ' AXegdvBpeta 
teal NlkottoXis teal Moyfrov earua teal HvXcu 
Xeyofievai, opiov KlXlkcov t€ teal Xvpcov. ev Be 
rfj KtXt/aa earl teal to t?)? ^apTrrjBovias 
'AprefiiSos lepbv teal fiavreiov, tou? Be %/)7;o-/xoi/<j 
evOeoc 77 poOecnri^ovaiv. 

20. Me-ra Be rrjv KiXitCLav irpcoTt] ttoXis earl 
T(ov Xvpeov SeXev/ceia r) ev Yliepua, teal ttXtjo-Iov 
'Op6vT7)<; e/cBlBcoai 7TOTayLto<?. eo~Ti B' dirb 
1,eXevKeLa<i ew 2oA.ou<? eir* evOeLas 7rA.ot)<? oXiyov 
aTroXeiTrcov tojv ^iXlcov araBtcov. 

21. Taw 8* ev Tpoia KiXi/ceov, wv f/ OyLtr;/)o? 

fji€/JLV7]TaL, TToXlt BieCTTCOTCOV djTO TO)V e£(D TOV 

Tavpov KiXi/ceov, ol fiev dirofyalvovaiv dp^yera^ 
Tou? ev rfj Tpoia tovtcov teal Bei/cvvovai Tivas 
tottovs tcdvravOa, cbairep ev rfj HafJifyvXla 
Srj^rjv ical Avpvrjo-aov, ol 8' e/jLiraXiV /cal 'AXrjiov 
Tt ireBtov /cd/cel Bei/cvvovai. 

HepicoBevfievwv Be /cal rcov ejjco tov Tavpov 
fiepcov t^? Trpoeiprjfievrjs yeppovr\aov, irpoaOereov 
earl /cal ravra. 
C 677 22. 'O yap y A7roXX68o)po<; ev tols irepl vecov 
en /cal roiavra Xeyer toi>? yap etc tt}? 'Acrta? 
eTri/covpovs rcov Tpooeov airavTas icaTapid p,elaQ ai 

(j)7]0-LV V7T0 TOV TTOirjTOV T?}? yeppOVY)GOV KaTOL/COV$ 

oWa?, r)<; 6 o-Tevd)TaTO<; iatf/JLO? evTi to fieragv 
tov Kara ^.lvcotttjv /jlv^ov /cal 'lo-aov' al 8' i/cros 
irXevpai, (prjeri, rpiycovoeiBovs ovaiy;, elal fiev 
avicroL, TraprjKOven Be rj fiev airb KiXi/cias eirl 
Xe\t8oj/ta?, rj 8' evOevBe eirl to arofxa tov 
JLvI;€Lvov, 7) £' eirl Scvcoirrjv irdXiv evOevBe. to 
356 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 19-22 

called the Issic Gulf. On this gulf are situated the 
city Rhosus, the city Myriandrus, Alexandreia, 
Nicopolis, Mopsuestia, and Pylae, as it is called, 
which is the boundary between the Cilicians and the 
Syrians. In Cilicia is also the temple and oracle 
of the Sarpedonian Artemis ; and the oracles are 
delivered by persons who are divinely inspired. 

20. After Cilicia the first Syrian city is Seleuceia- 
in-Pieria, near which the Orontes River empties. 
The voyage from Seleuceia to Soli, on a straight 
course, is but little short of one thousand stadia. 

21. Since the Cilicians in the Troad whom Homer 
mentions are far distant from the Cilicians outside 
the Taurus, some represent those in Troy as original 
colonisers of the latter, and point out certain places 
of the same name there, as, for example, Thebe and 
Lyrnessus in Pamphylia, whereas others of contrary 
opinion point out also an Aleian Plain in the former. 

Now that the parts of the aforesaid peninsula 
outside the Taurus have been described, I must add 
what follows. 

22. Apollodorus, in his work On the Catalogue 
of Skips, goes on to say to this effect, that all the 
allies of the Trojans from Asia were enumerated by 
the poet as being inhabitants of the peninsula, 
of which the narrowest isthmus is that between the 
innermost recess at Sinope and Issus. And the 
exterior sides of this peninsula, he says, which is 
triangular in shape, are unequal in length, one of 
them extending from Cilicia to the Chelidonian 
Islands, another from the Chelidonian Islands to the 
mouth of the Euxine, and the third thence back to 
Sinope. Now the assertion that the allies were 



357 



STRABO 

fxev ovv /xorof? tovs iv rfj yeppovr)a<p Bia twv 
avrojv iXeyxoiT av yfrevBos ov, Si wv f}Xey%apLev 
irporepov, firj fji6vov<; tovs eWo? "AXvo?. ol yap 
irepl Qapvatclav tottoi, iv oh tovs 'AXtfcoi'ou? 
€<f)a/JL€v, axnrep efo) tov "AXuo? elaiv, ovrco teal 
ef&) tov laO/jbov, eiTrep teal to>v arevcov tcov 
pera^v ^.ivcoirrj^ teal 'laaov, teal ov tovtwv ye 
povwv, dXXa teal rcov /car' dXijOeiav arevwv twv 
pera^v 'A/u<roO re teal 'laaov' ovSe yap i/celvo*; 
opOws d<f)(DpiaTai tov lo~0p,bv teal ra tear avrbv 
arevd, iteeiva dvrl tovtwv TiOeh. ttclvtidv S* 
evrjOio-TaTOV to ttjv l \eppovr}aov TpiywvoeiBrj 
<f>y]o~avTa TpeU diro^vaaOai ra? ef&> nrXevpd^' 
6 yap Ta<? e£w Xeywv TrXevpds eoitcev vire^ai- 
povp,evw ttjv tcara tcl orevd, a)? teal TaVTTJV 
ovaav TrXevpdv, ovte e%w Be ovS* iirl OaXaTTrj. 
el p,ev Toivvv to, crreva Tavra ovtw<; v)v avvqy- 
p,eva, ware piKpbv dnroXelireiv tov crvvdrrTeiv eV 
aXkrfkai? Trjv T€ irrl '\o~o~bv teal ttjv ewl ^ivwivnv 
TTLTTrovaav irXevpdv, avveywp*- 1 ^ v TptycovoecBrj 
XeyeaOai ttjv yeppbvr]o-QV' vvv Be ye Tpia^CKlov^ 
crTaStou? diro\enr6vT(ov p,€Ta£v tcov vtt' avTOv 
Xeyop,evwv gtcvwv, dp,ad'ia to Xeyeiv TpiywvoeiSes 
to toiovtov TCTpdrrXevpov, ovSe yjupoypafyiKov. 
o he teal xcopoypacplav i^eBwteev iv tewp,itew 
pieTpw, 77}? ireploSov einypdyjra^. p,evei S' r} 
avTrj dp,aOia, teav eh TovXdxio-rov tcaTaydyy 
Bido-Trjpd ti<> tov iaOpoVy ocrov elptj/eacnv ol 
irXelo-TOV yjfevo~dp,evoi to r)p,iav tov iravTos, oaov 
etprj/ce teal ^ApTepLSwpos, xiXiov? /cal irevTateo- 

1 12. 3. 24. 2 Iambic verse. 

358 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 22 

alone those who lived in the peninsula can be 
proved wrong by the same arguments by which I 
have previously shown that the allies were not alone 
those who lived this side the Halys River. 1 For 
just as the places round Pharnacia, in which, as i 
said, the Halizoni lived, are outside the Halys River, 
so also they are outside the isthmus, if indeed they 
are outside the narrows between Sinope and Issus ; 
and not outside these alone, but also outside the 
true narrows between Amisus and Issus, for he too 
incorrectly defines the isthmus and its narrows, 
since he substitutes the former for the latter. But 
the greatest absurdity is this, that, after calling the 
peninsula triangular in shape, he represents the 
''exterior sides" as three in number; for when he 
speaks of the " exterior sides " he seems privily to 
exclude the side along the narrows, as though this 
too were a side, but not "exterior" or on the sea. 
If, then, these narrows were so shortened that the 
exterior side ending at Issus and that ending at 
Sinope lacked but little of joining one another, one 
might concede that the peninsula should be called 
triangular ; but, as it is, since the narrows mentioned 
by him leave a distance of three thousand stadia 
between Issus and Sinope, it is ignorance and not 
knowledge of chorography to call such a four-sided 
figure triangular. Yet he published in the metre 
of comedy 2 a work on chorography entitled A 
Description of the Earth. The same ignorance still 
remains even though one should reduce the isthmus 
to the minimum distance, I mean, to one-half of the 
whole distance, as given by those who have most 
belied the facts, among whom is also Artemidorus, 



359 



STRABO 

crlovs araBiov?' ovBe yap rovro avvaywyrjv rrco 
rptywvoeiBovs iroiel o-^/naro^. dXX* ovBe ra$ 
7rXevpd<; opOax; Biyprirai ras e%w, rrjv airo '\o~aov 
p.eyjpi> XeXiBovucov cIttcov Xolttt) yap eariv oXt] 
eir evOeias rj Av/ciaKTj rrapaXia ravry y Kal rj 
rwv r Vohl(ov irepaia pe"xP L ^uoveoir evrevOev Be 
Kapirrjv Xaftovaa fj rjireipos apteral rrjv Bevrepav 
Kal Bvo~/mkt)v rroielv irXevpav a%pi TlpoirovrlBo? 
Kal hv^avTLov. 
C 678 23. ^>7]aavro<; Be rov *R<f)6pov, Biori rrjv 
yeppbvr\aov KaroiKel ravrrjv eKKalBeKa yevrj, 
rpla p,ev 'EiWrjvifcd, to, Be Xonra, fidpfiapa 
%&>/m? rwv pbiydBcov, eirl OaXdrrrj fiev JLlXikcs 
koI Ud/jL<f>vXoi koI Avkioi Kal BtOvvol Kal 
Tla<f>Xay6ve<; Kal MapiavBvvol Kal Tpcoes Kal 
Ka/36?, UtaiBai Be Kal Mvaol Kal Xa\t>/3e? Kal 
<f>pvye<; Kal MiXvai ev rjj peaoyaia, Biacrwv 1 
ravra 6 'AiroXXoBcopos kirraKaiBeKarov cfirjaiv 
elvai rb rcov TaXarcov, b vedtrepov eari rov 
'E<^opof, Tail/ B' eiprjfievcov ra fiev 'EtXXrjvLKci 
p,rjiT(o Kara 2 ra TpcoLKa KarwKiaOai,, ra Be 
fidpftapa ttoXXtjv e\eiv 3 avyxyaiv Bid rov 
Xpovov KaraXeyeaOai S' viro rov rrocrjrov to 
re rwv Tpoorov* Kal rcov vvv ovopa^o/ievcov 
Uacf)Xay6vcov Kal Mucraii/ Kal <£>pvycov Kal 
Kapwv Kal Avklcov, 5 Myoi'ds re dvrl AvBcov 
Kal aXXovs dyvcoras, olov 'AXi^covas Kal Kav- 
Kcova?' CKrbs Be rov KaraXoyov Krjreiov? re Kal 

1 SiaiTwv, Corais, for Siatpvv. 

2 Kara, Casaubon, for Kal rd. 

3 €X6iv F, exet other MSS. 

4 Tpwwy moz, TpwiKwv other MSS. 
360 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 22-23 

that is, fifteen hundred stadia ; for even this does 
not contract the side along the narrows enough to 
make the peninsula a triangular figure. Neither 
does Artemidorus correctly distinguish the exterior 
sides when he speaks of tl the side that extends from 
Issus as far as the Chelidonian Islands," for there 
still remains to this side the whole of the Lycian 
coast, which lies in a straight line with the side he 
mentions, as does also the Peraea of the Rhodians 
as far as Physcus. And thence the mainland bends 
and begins to form the second, or westerly, side 
extending as far as the Propontis and Byzantium. 

23. But though Ephorus said that this peninsula 
was inhabited by sixteen tribes, of which three were 
Hellenic and the rest barbarian, except those that 
were mixed, adding that the Cilicians, Pamphylians, 
Lveians, Bithynians, Paphlagonians, Mariandynians, 
Trojans, and Carians lived on the sea, but the 
Pisidians, Mysians, Chalybians, Phrygians, and 
Milyans in the interior, Apollodorus, who passes 
judgment upon this matter, says that the tribe of 
the Galatians, which is more recent than the time 
of Ephorus, is a seventeenth, and that, of the afore- 
said tribes, the Hellenic had not yet, in the time 
of the Trojan War, settled there, and that the 
barbarian tribes are much confused because of the 
lapse of time ; and that the poet names in his 
Catalogue the tribes of the Trojans and of the 
Paphlagonians, as they are now named, and of the 
Mysians and Phrygians and Carians and Lycians, 
as also the Meionians, instead of the Lydians, and 
other unknown peoples, as, for example, the Hali- 
zones and Caucones ; and, outside the Catalogue, 

6 AvkiW, Corais, for Aik'iwv P, Ki\[kwv other MSS. 

361 



STRABO 

'ZoXv/jLOV? real KiXiKa? tou<? £k (dr)/3r)<; ireBiov 
Kal AeXeyav Ua/j,<f>vXov<; Be Kal BiOvvovs zeal 
MapiavBvvov? real UiaiBas Kal XdXvftas Kal 
Mf\ua<? Kal K.a7nra8oKa<; /x^S' CDVo/idaOai, tou? 
fiev Sid to /jajBeira) rovs tottovs Kara)Kr]Kevai 
tovtovs, rov<; Be Bid rb erepois yeveai rrepie- 
yeadai, a>? 'ISp*e?? fiev Kal Tep/ilXai 1 Kapai, 
AoXloves Be Kal Be/3piM'e? Opuft. 

24. <t>aiverai B* ovre rov 'Ecpopov rr)v airb- 
(f>aaiv Btaircjv iKavcos, rd re rov ttoitjtov rapdr- 
rwv Kal KarayjrevBo/ievos. 'E<f)6pov re yap rovro 
irp'Zrov dirairelv e^prjv, ri Br) rov? XdXvfta? 
ridi^aiv ivrb? rr)$ %eppovi]aov, roaovrov a<f>e- 
<7TtoTa? Kal Hiv(i)7rr}<$ Kal ' Afiiaov 7rpo? eco ; ol 
yap Xeyovres rbv laOfibv t/}? yeppovrjaov ravrrjs 
ti~)v dirb 'Io~croi) ypafi/nrjv eirl rbv Kv^eivov, a>? 
dv fjL€o-i]/j,f3pivrjv Tiva riBeaai ravrijv, r)v 2 ol 
fiev elvai vopLi^ovai rijv iirl ^ivdnrris, ol Be rrjv 
hf 'Apiaov, etrl Be rcov XaXvfiwv ovBek' Xogrj 
ydp ear i reXecos. 6 yap Br) Bid XaXvfiav fiearj/ji- 
ftptvhs Bid tt)<? /MKpas ' A pfierias ypd(j)Oir dv 
Kal rov Kvcppdrov, rrjv KaTriraSoKiav oXrjv euros 
d-rroXapi(3dvwv Kal rrjv Ko/ji/jLayrjvrjv Kal rov 
Wfiavhv Kal rov 'laaixbv koXttov. el £' ovv 
Kal rrjv Xo^rjv ypa/JLfirjv bpi^eiv rov laOpibv 
avyy^wprjaaipev, rd rrXelard ye rovrcov, Kal 
fxdXiara r) K.a7T7raBoKia, evrbs air o\ap, ft avoir' 
dv Kal 6 vvv IBioos Xeyop,€vo<; IToi/to?, rr)<$ 
KainraBoKias /uiepos cjv rb irpos rw Kv^elva)' 
war el rov? XaA,u/3a? T/79 ^eppov/jaov Oereov 

1 Tepfil\at, Xj'lander, for Tepfildat. 
362 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 23-24 

the Ceteians and the Solymi and the Cilicians from 
the plain of Thebe and the Leleges, but nowhere 
names the Pamphylians, Bithynians, Mariandynians, 
Pisidians, Chalybians, Milyans, or Cappadocians — 
some because they had not yet settled in this region, 
and others because they were included among other 
tribes, as, for example, the Hidrieis and the Termilae 
among the Carians, and the Doliones and Bebryces 
among the Phrygians. 

24. But obviously Apollodorus does not pass a 
fair judgment upon the statement of Ephorus, and 
also confuses and falsifies the words of the poet ; for 
he ought first to have asked Ephorus this question : 
Why he placed the Chalybians inside the peninsula 
when they were so far distant towards the east from 
both Sinope and Amisus ? For those who say that 
the isthmus of this peninsula is the line from 
Issus to the Euxine make this line a kind of 
meridian, which some think should be the line to 
Sinope, and others, that to Amisus, but no one that 
to the land of the Chalybians, which is absolutely 
oblique ; in fact, the meridian through the land 
of the Chalybians would be drawn through Lesser 
Armenia and the Euphrates, cutting off on this side 
of it the whole of Cappadocia, Commagene, Mt. 
Amanus, and the Issic Gulf. If, however, we 
should concede that the oblique line bounds the 
isthmus, at least most of these places, and Cappadocia 
in particular, would be cut off on this side, as also 
the country now called Pontus in the special sense 
of the term, which is a part of Cappadocia towards 
the Euxine ; so that, if the land of the Chalybians 

a |y, Corais inserts. 

363 



STRABO 

fiepos, iroXv fiaXXov rov<; Kardova? kcu Ka7r- 
irdBoKas dficporepovs koI Av/cdovas Be, oi)<; koi 
auTou? iraprjfce. Bca ri 5' ev rols fieaoyaioLs 
C679eVafe tow? XaA,u/3a<?, 01)? 6 iroLrjTr]? 'AXiJaii/a? 1 
eicdXeaev, wairep koX r\\iel^ direBei^apLev ; dfieivov 
yap r)V Bte\elv kcl\ rov<; /jlev 67ri rfj OaXdrrrj 
<pdvat, tou? Be eV rfj fjueaoyaia' oirep kcu eVi 
tt}? Ka7T7raSo«:ta9 TTOirjreov /cal rr)? KjAt/a'a?. 
Se r^y /aev ovB* (jDvopa/ce, rovs KtXt/ea? Se tovs 
eV! rfj OaXdrrrj jxovov elprjKev. ol ovv eV 
'Avriirdrpq) ra> Aepfirjrrj /cal ol r O/j,ovaBei<; koX 
akXoi ttXelovs ol avvdirrovres Tot? WicriBais, 

ol ovk io~aai OdXarrav 
dvepes, ovBe ff 2 aXeacn jiefJULypuevov elBap 
eBovat, 

riva Xdfiwo-i ra^iv ; dXX* ovBe AvBov? ovBe 
Mrjovas elprjKev, elre Bvo elO J ol avroi elai, teal 
eire tcaO' eavrovs elr ev ere pro yevei rrepieyp- 
fjievovs. ovrco yap eiriaijixov eOvo<; ovk diro- 
tcpvyfrai Bvvaror, 6 re /irj Xeywv irepl avrov /jLrjBev 
ovk av Soljeie rrapaXiireiv ri rcov Kvpiwrdrwv ; 

25. TtVe? 6" elalv ol fiLydBes ; ov yap av 
eyoijxev elirelv irapa rov<; Xe^Oevras roirov? rj 
wvofidaOaL vii avrov rj TrapaXeXelcpOai aXXovs, 
ou5 dirohuKTO/Jiev roU jxiydaiv, ovBe ye avrcov Ttpa? 
rovrcov, mv i) elirev 7/ irapeXirre. koX yap el 
Kare/ni^Orjaav, dXX' rj erriKpdreia ireiroirjKev r) 
"EXXrjvas rj /3ap/3dpov<;' rpirov Be yevos ovBev 
lajiev to fxiKrov. 

1 'A\iCwvovs CEFsw. 

2 oi>54 0' F, ov5' W other MSS. 

3 6 4 



GEOGRAPHY, 14 5. 24-25 

must be set down as a part of the peninsula, much 
more should Cataonia and both Cappadocias, as also 
Lycaonia, which is itself omitted by him. Again, 
why did Ephorus place in the interior the Chalybians, 
whom the poet called Halizones, as I have already 
demonstrated ? 1 For it would have been better to 
divide them and set one part of them on the sea 
and the other in the interior, as should also be done 
in the case of Cappadocia and Cilicia ; but Ephorus 
does not even name Cappadocia, and speaks only 
of the Cilicians on the sea. Now as for the people 
who were subject to Antipater Derbetes, and the 
Homonadeis and several other peoples who border 
on the Pisidians, "men who do not know the sea 
and even do not eat food mingled with salt," 2 
where are they to be placed ? Neither does he say 
in regard to the Lydians or Me'iones whether they 
are two peoples or the same, or whether they live 
separately by themselves or are included within 
another tribe. For it would be impossible to lose 
from sight so significant a tribe ; and if Ephorus 
says nothing about it, would he not seem to have 
omitted something most important ? 

25. And who are the * mixed " tribes ? For we 
would be unable to say that, as compared with the 
aforesaid places, others were either named or omitted 
by him which we shall assign to the "mixed" 
tribes; neither can we call " mixed" any of these 
peoples themselves whom he has mentioned or 
omitted ; for, even if they had become mixed, still 
the predominant element has made them either 
Hellenes or barbarians ; and I know nothing of a 
third tribe of people that is " mixed." 

1 12. 3. 20. 8 Odyssey 11. 122. 

365 



STRABO 

26. ITco? Be rpla yevrj rwv 'EWtfvcav earl ra 
rr)v yeppov^uov oltcovvra ; el yap, ore rb iraXaibv 
oi avrol rjaav "leaves teal 'AOijvaloi, XeyeaOmaav 
koX oi A(opiei<i zeal oi AloXels oi avrol, ware Bvo 
eOvrj ylvoir av el Be Biaipereov Kara ra varepa 
eOrj, KaOdirep /cat ra<; BtaXeKrovs, rerrapa av eh] 
/cai ra eOvi], KaOdirep kcu at BidXeKrou. oIkovotl 
Be rr)v yepp6vt)(T0v ravnjv, Kal fiuXiara Kara rbv 
rov 'E<f)6pov Biopta/ioi', ovk "Icovef; fibvov, dX\d 
teal 'AOrjvaloi, KaOdirep ev to?? KaO' eKaara 
BeBtjXcorai. roiavra pev Br) 7rpb<? rov "E(f)opov 
Biarropelv dgiov, 'AiroXXoBoopoi; Be rovrcov fiev 
e<f)p6vTicrev ovBev rols Be eKKalBeKa eOveat, irpoa- 
riOrjaiv eirraKaiBeKarov, rb rcov TaXarwv, 
a\\a>? fiev xp7Jaip,ov XexOrjvat, irpb? Be rr)v 
Blair av rwv virb iov 'Ecpopov Xeyopevcov rj irapa- 
Xenro/xevcov ov Beov eipyjKe Be r?)v air lav avros, 
on ravra irdvra vecorepa rr)<$ eKelvov ffXiKias. 

27. Mera/3a<; B' iirl rov rroir)rr)v rovro fiev 
opOcos Xeyec, Biort, ttoXXt) cruy^ua-f? yey evr]rai 
rcov fiapftdpeov eOvcov dirb rcov TpcoiKcov els ra 
vvv Bia ret? fierairroiGei^' koX yap irpoayeyove 
riva Kal eXXeXonre Kal Biecntao-rai Kal crvvrJKrat 
el? ev. ovk ev Be rr)v air lav Birrr)v cnrofyaivei, 
oY fjv ov fiifivrjral rivcov 6 TTOir)rr)<i' i) tw firjirco 

C 680 tot OLKelaOai virb rov e0vov<s rovrov, rj rco ev 
erepco yevei rrepie'xea'Oai. rrjv yap KainraBoKiav 
ovk elpr)Kev, ovBe r^v Karaovlav, ft)? 6° avrcos rr)v 



1 Cf. 8. 1. 2. 2 14. 1.3ff. 

366 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 26-27 

26. And how can there be three Hellenic tribes 
that live on the peninsula? For if it is because 
the Athenians and the Ionians were the same people 
in ancient times, let also the Dorians and the 
Aeolians be called the same people ; and thus there 
would be only two tribes. But if one should make 
distinctions in accordance with the customs of later 
times, as, for example, in accordance with dialects, 
then the tribes, like the dialects, would be four 
in number. 1 But this peninsula, particularly in 
accordance with the division of Ephorus, is inhabited, 
not only by Ionians, but also by Athenians, as I 
have shown in my account of the several places. 2 
Now although it is worth while to raise such ques- 
tions as these with reference to Ephorus, yet 
Apollodorus took no thought for them and also goes 
on to add to the sixteen tribes a seventeenth, that 
of the Galatians — in general a useful thing to do, 
but unnecessary for the passing of judgment upon 
what is said or omitted by Ephorus. But Apollodorus 
states the reason himself, that all this is later than 
the time of Ephorus. 

27. Passing to the poet, Apollodorus rightly says 
that much confusion of the barbarian tribes has 
taken place from the Trojan times to the present 
because of the changes, for some of them have been 
added to, others have vanished, others have been 
dispersed, and others have been combined into one 
tribe. But he incorrectly sets forth as twofold the 
reason why the poet does not mention some of 
them ; either because a country was not yet in- 
habited by this or that tribe or because this or that 
tribe was included within another ; for instance, the 
poet fails to mention Cappadocia, Cataonia, and 

367 



STRABO 

Avtcaoviav, oY ovherepov tovtcov ov yap eyopev 
Toiavrrjv iaropiav eV avrcov ovhepiav. yeXolov 
re to toi>? KaTTirdhoKas Kal Avtcdovas hid tl pev 
'Ofxripos irapeXnre, fypovTiaai Kal diroXoyijaaaOai, 
hid Tt h' "E<£o/3o? nraprjXOe, TrapeXOetv Kal avrov, 
Kal ravra irapaOepevov 7roo? avrb tovto rr)V 
dTrocpaatv rdvhpos, 7T/90? to e^erdaai Kal hiai- 
ri)aai' Kal, hion p.ev Mrjova? avrl Avhwv "Opr)- 
po? elrre, hihdgai, on h' ovre Avhovs ovre Wyovas 
etprjKev "E(j)opo<;, pur) eTTLo-qp^vao-OaL. 

28. O/jo-a? he dyvcorcov nvwv p-epvfjaOai rbv 
7ron]Ti]v, KavKwvas pev opOcosXeyei Kal ^LoXvpovs 
Kal K/^Tetou? 1 Kal AeXeya? Kal KiXt^a? tou? ex 
®rj/3//<? Trehlov, tou<? 8' c AXi£,a)i/a<; avTO? irXdrrei, 
pdXXov h* 01 it parol tou? f AXi^wvas dyvorjaavres, 
TiVe? elal, Kal peraypd(f)OPT€<; irXeovaxws Kal 
TrXaTTovres ttjv tov dpyvpov yeveflXrjv Kal aXXa 
ttoXXci peraXXa, 2, eKXeXeipp,eva diravra. irpbs 
ravrrjp he rrjv fyiXoTipiav KUKeLvas avv^yayov 
Ta? IcTTOplas, a? 6 2«?;^o? riOrjai irapa KaXXi- 
o~6evov<; Xa{3a>v Kal aXXwv tivwv, ov KaOapevovrcov 
tT;9 irepl tojv ' AXi%d)VGov ylr€vhohot;ia<;• co? 6 pev 
TavrdXov ttXovtos Kal rcov TieXomhCyv dirb twj/ 
irepl fypvylav Kal ^iirvXov perdXXcov eyevero' 6 
he Kdh/uov ck rcov 3 irepl fypaKijv Kal to Wayyalov 
6po$' 6 he Upidpov €K rcov iv ' ' Aarvpois* irepl 
"Aftvhov xpvaelwv, onv Kal vvv en p,iKpd Xeiirerar 

1 KriTciovs, Xylander, for K-qriovs ; so later editors. 

2 neraWa, Corais, for n*ya.*a; so later editors. 

3 4k tcSv, Corais inserts; so later editors. 

4 'Aorupots, Xylander, for 'Affvpiois GDFiw, irepl "Afiu^ov 
moz. 

368 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 27-28 

likewise Lycaonia, but for neither of these reasons, 
for we have no history of this kind in their case. 
Further, it is ridiculous that Apollodorus should 
concern himself about the reason why Homer 
omitted the Cappadocians and Lycaonians and speak 
in his defence, and yet should himself omit to tell 
the reason why Ephorus omitted them, and that too 
when he had cited the statement of the man for the 
very purpose of examining it and passing judgment 
upon it ; and also to teach us why Homer men- 
tioned Me'ionians instead of Lydians, but not to 
remark that Ephorus mentions neither Lydians 
nor Meionians. 

28. After saying that the poet mentions certain 
unknown tribes, Apollodorus rightly names the 
Cauconians, the Solymi, the Ceteians, the Leleges, 
and the Cilicians of the plain of Thebe ; but the 
Halizones are a fabrication of his own, or rather 
of the first men who, not knowing who the Halizones 
were, wrote the name in several different ways * and 
fabricated the "birthplace of silver" 2 and many 
other mines, all of which have given out. And 
in furtherance of their emulous desire they also 
collected the stories cited by Demetrius of Scepsis 
from Callisthenes and certain other writers, who 
were not free from the false notions about the 
Halizones. Likewise the wealth of Tantalus and 
the Pelopidae arose from the mines round Phrygia 
and Sipylus ; that of Cadmus from those round 
Thrace and Mt. Pangaeus ; that of Priam from the 
gold mines at Astyra near Abydus (of which still 
to-day there are small remains ; here the amount 
of earth thrown out is considerable, and the excava- 

1 See 12. 3.21. « See 12. 3. 24. 

369 



STRABO 

rroXXrj &' 7) i/cf3oXr) /cal rd opvypara arjfjLeta rf)<; 
irakcu p,eraXXeia<;- 6 Be MlBov e/c rcov irepl to 
JSep/Atov opos' 6 Be Yvyov /cal ' AXvcirrov /cal 
Kpolaov diro rcov ev AvBla teal * r?}? pera^u 
Arapveaa^ re /cal Tlepydpov, ottov 2, ttoXl^vt] 
epijfirj, e/cp,epL€TaXXevpeva exovaa rd ywpia. 

29. "Et* kcu ravra pepb^atro dv t*<? tov 
AiroXXoBcopov, otl tcov vecorepcov /caivoTOpuovvTcov 
iroXXa irapd Ta? Oprjpucas airo^daei's, elcoOds 
ravr eXey^eiv ^ 7ri TrXeov, ivravOa oik doXiycopij/ce 
p,6vov, dXXd teal ravavTia els ev avvdyet rd pr) 
ft)0"auTO)? Xeyop-eva. 6 p,ev yap "EidvOos 6 AvBos 
perd rd Tpcot/cd (f))]o~iv eXOelv tol/<? <&pvya<; e/c tP;9 
Kvpd)7rrj<; /cal t&v dpio-repcov tov Wovrov, dyayetv 
B' avrovs H/capidvBpiov etc Bepe/cvvTcov /cal 'Acr/ca- 
vias, eirtXeyei Be tovtois 6 'ATroXXoBcopos, otl rrfi 
' AaKavLas ravrr]<; pvrjpovevet /cal "OpLrjpos, 77? 
SdvOos' 

<I>6ptcv<; Be <t>pvyas f/ye real 'Aor/cdvio? OeoeiBrjs 
C 681 t^X-' e'£ 'AaKavir)?. 

dXX' el outco? exet, r) puev p,eTavdaraai<; varepov 
dv ecrj tcov Tpcot/cayv yeyovvia, ev Be Tot? Tpcoi/cols 
to Xeyopevov vtto tov ironjrou eirL/covpi/cbv ytcev 
etc Ttfc Trepalas e/c tmv Bepe/cvvTwv /cal rffi 'Acr/ca- 
viaq. TLve<$ ovv <£>pvye<; r/aav, 

ol pa tot earparoayvTo irap oyQas ^ayyapioio, 
ore 6 Hplapos, 

eiriKOvpo? eoov perd toIgiv eXeypLrjv? 

1 Kai, before ttjs, Corais inserts. 

2 ottov, before iro\'wn> Jones inserts. Tzschucke and Corais 
emend ttoXixvt] i^fxt] . . . tx ovffa ^° ^o\ixvr\s £pr)fj.rjs . . . 
ix ovo "n s ' 

37° 



GEOGRAPHY, r 4 . 5. 28-29 

tions are signs of the mining in olden times) ; and 
that of Midas from those round Mt. Bermius ; and 
that of Gyges and Alyattes and Croesus from those 
in Lydia and from the region between Atarneus and 
Pergamum, where is a small deserted town, whose 
lands have been exhausted of ore. 

29. Still further one might find fault with 
Apollodorus, because, when the more recent writers 
make numerous innovations contrary to the state- 
ments of Homer, he is wont frequently to put 
these innovations to the test, but in the present 
case he not only has made small account of them, 
but also, on the contrary, identifies things that 
are not meant alike ; for instance, Xanthus the 
Lydian says that it was after the Trojan War that 
the Phrygians came from Europe and the left-hand 
side of the Pontus, and that Scamandrius led them 
from the Berecyntes and Ascania, but Apollodorus 
adds to this the statement that Homer refers to 
this Ascania that is mentioned by Xanthus : " And 
Phorcys and godlike Ascanius led the Phrygians 
from afar, from Ascania." * However, if this is 
so, the migration must have taken place later 
than the Trojan War, whereas the allied force 
mentioned by the poet came from the opposite 
mainland, from the Berecyntes and Ascania. Who, 
then, were the Phrygians, " who were then en- 
camped along the banks of the Sangarius," 2 when 
Priam says, " for I too, being an ally, was numbered 
among these " ? 3 And how could Priam have sent 

1 Iliad 2. 862. 2 Iliad 3. 187. 8 Iliad 3. 188. 

3 4\eyfn)v is emended by Tzschucke and Corais to 4\4x^ 
(as in the Homeric text). 

371 



STRABO 

<f>rj(ri ; 7TW9 Be €K fiev Jiepe/cvvrcov fiereTrifi-nero 
<£>pvya<; 6 Tlpta/ios, 77790? 0&9 ovBev tjv avrw 

(TV/JLf36\aiOV y TOl>? 8' 6fl6pOV<; KCU oh CLVTOS 

irporepov eTreKovprjae TrapeXiirev ; outio Be Trepl 
Twv <£>pvycov cIttcqv ein(f)epei Kal ra Trepl t&v 
Mvacov ov% ofioXoyov/jieva tovtow XeyeaOai yap 
tfrrjcri Kiu r% M.vaia<; Kiofjirjv ^ AuKaviav Trepl 
Xifivrjv ofiiiivvfiov, ef »5? Kal tov ' Agkclviov iroTa- 
fibv pelv, ov p,vr)p,ovev€i Kal TLvifropicov 

Muaolo irap* vBaaiv 'AtTKavioio' 

Kal 6 AtTwXo? 'AXetjavBpos' 

01 J Kal eV *k<TKaviq> Bio/iar eyova poio, 
Xi/jlvjjs y A<TKavi7)<; eVt ^eiXeaiv ev6a AoXitov 
vibs *2,iX)]vov vdaaaTO Kal M.eXir)$. 

KaXovtri Be, tprjal, AoXioviBa Kal Mvaiav rrjv 
Trepl Kv^ikov Iqvti eh M.iXr)TOVTroXiv. el ovv 
ovtcos e%et ravra, Kal eKpiaprvpelrai vtto twv 
BeiKw/ievtov vvv Kal vtto twv Troirjriav, tl eKiaXve 
tov "0/j,7]pov TavT7)s /jLepvP/adai T?;? 'AtTKavias, 
dXXa p,rj Tr}<i vtto SdvOov Xeyop,evt]<; ; eXpt]Tai Be 
Kal TTpoTepov irepl tovtwv ev rw irepl Mvaibv Kal 
<&pvyiov Xoyw, coaTe e\eTio ire pas. 

VI 

1. Aoittov Be tt)v 7T/30? votov TrapaKeifjievrjv tjj 
Xeppovrjirip TavTjj irepioBevaai vrjaov ttjv Kvirpov. 
elpr)Tai B\ otl f) Trepieyoiievr) OdXaTTa virb tt?9 
AlyvTTTOV Kal <£>oivLKr)<s Kal %vpia<; Kal tt)<; Xoitttjs 
TTupaXias ^XP l T % ^oBias avvOeTos ttoos eaTiv 

1 el CDEF&; but see same passage in 12. 4. 8 
372 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 5. 29-6. 1 

for Phrygians from the Berecyntes, with whom he 
had no compact, and yet leave uninvited those 
who lived on his borders and to whom he had 
formerly been ally ? And after speaking in this 
way about the Phrygians he adds also an account 
of the Mysians that is not in agreement with this ; 
for he says that there is also a village in Mysia 
which is called Ascania, near a lake of the same 
name, whence flows the Ascanius River, which is 
mentioned by Euphorion, " beside the waters of the 
Mysian Ascanius," and by Alexander the Aetolian, 
"who have their homes on the Ascanian streams, 
on the lips of the Ascanian Lake, where dwelt 
Dolion, the son of Silenus and Melia." And he 
says that the country round Cyzicus, as one goes 
to Miletupolis, is called Dolionis and Mysia. If 
this is so, then, and if witness thereto is borne both 
by the places now pointed out and by the poets, 
what could have prevented Homer from mentioning 
this Ascania, and not the Ascania spoken of by 
Xanthus ? I have discussed this before, in my 
account of the Mysians and Phrygians; 1 and there- 
fore let this be the end of that subject. 



VI 

1. It remains for me to describe the island which 
lies alongside this peninsula on the south, I mean 
Cyprus. I have already said that the sea surrounded 
by Egypt, Phoenicia, Syria, and the rest of the 
coast as far as Rhodia 2 consists approximately of 

1 7. 3. 2-3 ; 12. 3. 3 ; 12. 4. 5. 
8 The Peraea of the Rhodians. 

373 



STRARO 

€K re rov Alyvirriov ireXayov^ real rov Uaficpv- 
Xiov teal rov Kara rbv 'laaiKov koXttov. ev Be 
ravrrj earlv rj Kvirpos, rd fiev irpoadpKria fieprj 
avvdirrovra eyovaa rfj "Ypayela Kiki/clq, ica& a 
Btj teal it poaeyear art) rij rpneipco iari, rd Be ecoa 
rep '\aaiKco koXttco, rd B' eairepta rco UaficpvXicp 
KXv%6fieva rreXdyei, rd Be voria rco Alyvrrricp. 
rovro fiev ovv avppovv earlv dirb ri}<; eairepa<; rco 
AiftvKCp /cal rco KaprraOicp 7reXdyei, dirb Be rcov 
voricov /cal rcov eclcov fiepcov t) re A'tyvirrbs eari 
teal f) e0ef?)? rrapaXia fik\pi "EeXev/ceLa? re teal 
'laaov, rrpbs dpterov B* ?; re Kvrrpos teal rb Ua/i- 
<f>vXiov rreXayos. rovro Be dirb fiev rcov dptercov 
irepiexeTat, roU re a«poi,<s rr)? T/oa^eta? KiXtKLas 
teal T77? T[afjicf)vXia<; teal Avteias fi^XP 1 T; ^ 9 'PoSta?, 
drrb Be tt}? Bvaetos rj} 'PoBicov prjaco, dirb Be rr}<; 
C 682 dvaroXrfS rfj Kvirpco rfj teard Udcpov teal rbv 
Wtcdfiavra, dirb Be rfj<; fiearjfi/3pia<; avppovv earl 
rco Aiyvirrico ireXdyei. 

2. v [Lari B' 6 fiev kvkXo^ rr)<$ Kvirpov araBicov 
rpiaxiXicov Kal rerpaKoaicov eiteoai tearateoX- 
TTi^ovrr firj/eos Be drrb KXeiBcov errl rbv ' Atedfiavra 
iretf) araBicov %t\l(ov rerpaKoaicov oBevovri dir 
dvaroXrjs errl Bvaiv. elal Be al fiev KXelBes 
vrjala Bvo rrpoKeifieva 1 rfj Kvrrpco Kara rd ecoQivd 
fiept] tt}? vijaov, rd Bieyovra rov Ylvpdfiov ara- 
Biovs eirraKoaiov^' 6 8' 'A/ea/za? ear\v aKpa Bvo 
fiaarobs e\ovaa Kal vXijv ttoXXtjv, Ke(,fievo<; fiev 
errl rcov earrepicov ttj? vt)aov fiepcov, dvareivcov Be 
7rpo? dpKrovs, eyyvrdrco fiev irpbs %eXivovvra rrps 
T/oa^eia? KiXiKias iv Bidpfiari xtXicov araBicov, 
7rpb<; ^iBrfv Be rrjs TlaficpvXlas ^Xt'ow Kal egaKO- 

374 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 6. 1-2 

the Aegyptian and Pamphylian Seas and of the sea 
at the gulf of Issus. In this last sea lies Cypros ; its 
northern parts closely approach Cilicia Tracheia, 
where they are closest to the mainland, and its 
eastern parts border on the Issic Gulf, and its 
western on the Pamphylian Sea, being washed by 
that sea, and its southern by the Aegyptian Sea. 
Now the Aegyptian Sea is confluent on the west 
with the Libyan and Carpathian Seas, but in its 
southern and eastern parts borders on Aegypt and 
the coast next thereafter as far as Seleuceia and 
Issus, and towards the north on Cypros and the 
Pamphylian Sea; but the Pamphylian Sea is sur- 
rounded on the north by the extremities of Cilicia 
Tracheia, of Pamphylia, and of Lycia, as far as 
Rhodia, and on the west by the island of the 
Rhodians, and on the east by the part of Cypros 
near Paphos and the Acamas, and on the south is 
confluent with the Aegyptian Sea. 

2. The circuit of Cypros is three thousand four 
hundred and twenty stadia, including the sinuosities 
of the gulfs. The length from Cleides to the Acamas 
by land, travelling from east to west, is one thousand 
four hundred stadia. The Cleides are two isles 
lying off Cypros opposite the eastern parts of the 
island, which are seven hundred stadia distant from 
the Pyramus. The Acamas is a promontory with two 
breasts and much timber. It is situated at the 
western part of the island, and extends towards the 
north ; it lies closest to Selinus in Cilicia Tracheia, 
the passage across being one thousand stadia, 
whereas the passage across to Side in Pamphylia is 

1 Instead of ir/jo-ccj/tera, Corais and Meineke, following F, 
read npoa-Kfi/xiva. 

375 



STRABO 

aicov, 777309 Be XeXiBovias ^iXiaivivvaKoalcov. eari 
Be erepoprjtces rb oXov t/}? vijaov ax^/ML, teai ttov 
teal IcrO fjiovs TroLel Kara ra<z to irXaros Biopi£ov<ra<; 
rrXevpds' eyei Be teal ra tca0' eteaara, &>? ev 
ftpayeaiv eiirelv, outcos, dpjjapevois airoTOVTrpocr- 
eyeardrov o-ijpLeiov rfj ijTrelpep. 

3. "E(pap,€v he 1 irov Kara rb 'AvepLOvpiov, 
atepav rrjs Tpayeias KtXt/aa?, dvritceladai to 
rcov KvTTplwv are poor rfpiov ii)v Kpo/ipvov drepav ev 
rpiarcoaiois real rrevr^Kovra araBLois' evrevOev 8' 
tjBij Be^iav rrjv vrjerov eyovaiv, ev dpi are pa Be rrjv 
rjTreipov, 7T/0O? apterov 6 tt\ov<; eari teal 777)0? ew 
teal 7rpo? Ta? KXetSa? evOvrrXoia o-raBiwv kirra- 
teoaiwv. ev Be rep fiera^v AdrraOo^ re iart, ttoXis, 
v(f>op/iov e)(ovaa teal vecopia, Aarecovcov Krlapa 
real UpajjdvBpov, tca& rjv 1) NdyiBos- 2 elr ' Acppo- 
Biaiov, read' arevrj rj z/^o-o?* et? yap HaXaph>a 
vTrepftaais araBiaiv eftBofirj/corra' elr ' Ayaiwv 
dtcrrj, 3 ottov Tevrepos irpoawppiaOi^ irpdrov 6 4 
K-riaas ^.aXaplva rr\v ev KvTrprp, etej3Xr]9ei<$, w<? 
cf)aaiv, vtto rov irarpo^ TeXapwvos' elra Kap- 
iraaLa 7ro\*?, Xtfieva eypvaa. teelrat Be Kara ttjv 
atepav Tt)v ^apTTTjBova' etc Be tt}? Kap7raala<; 
virepftaaLs eariv ladpLOv rptdreovra araBidw irpos 
t<x? vi]crou<; rd<z Js.ap7raaia? teal to votlov 7re\a/yo?' 
elr dttpa teal 6po<i' rj B' aKpcapeta teaXelrai "OXvp- 
7TO?, eyovo-a 'AeppoBirr]? 'A/c/Wa? vaov, aBvrov 
yvvaifjl teal doparov. rrporeeivrai Be TrXijalov at 

1 5e, Corais emends to 8^. 

2 t) Niyttios. Corais, for fy &y3js ; so the later editors. 

3 cfr' 'Axa-wj/ aKTii moxz, elra x°-P< av a-wh other MSS. ; so 
the editors. 

376 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 6. 2-3 

sixteen hundred and to the Chelidonian islands one 
thousand nine hundred. The shape of the island 
as a whole is oblong ; and in some places it forms 
isthmuses on the sides which define its breadth. 
But the island also has its several parts, which 1 
shall describe briefly, beginning with the point that 
is nearest to the mainland. 

3. I have said somewhere * that opposite to 
Anemurium, a cape of Cilicia Tracheia, is the 
promontory of the Cyprians, I mean the promontory 
of Crommyus, at a distance of three hundred and 
fifty stadia. Thence forthwith, keeping the island 
on the right and the mainland on the left, the 
voyage to the Cleides lies in a straight line towards 
the north-east, a distance of seven hundred stadia. 
In the interval is the city Lapathus, with a mooring- 
place and dockyards ; it was founded by Laconians 
and Praxander, and opposite it lies Nagidus. Then 
one comes to Aphrodisium, where the island is 
narrow, for the passage across to Salamis is only 
seventy stadia. Then to the beach of the Achaeans, 
where Teucer, the founder of Salamis in Cypros, 
first landed, having been banished, as they say, by 
his father Telamon. Then to a city Carpasia, with 
a harbour. It is situated opposite the promontory 
Sarpedon ; and the passage from Carpasia across 
the isthmus to the Carpasian Islands and the 
southern sea is thirty stadia. Then to a promon- 
tory and mountain. The mountain peak is called 
Olympus ; and it has a temple of Aphrodite Acraea, 
which cannot be entered or seen by women. Off 

1 14. 5. 3. 



4 6, before /rrtVas, Kramer inserts ; so the later editors. 

N 



vol. vi. xt 377 



STRABO 

KAetSe? kcu dXXai Be irXetovs, eW at Kapirdcnai 
vf/voi, kcu /jL€Ta Tavras rj HaXap,L<;, 66ev r)v 
"Apiaro? 6 avyypafyevs' elr 'Apacvor] 7ro\t? teal 
\ifjLt]v' elr aXXos Xip,r)v Aev/coXXa' 1 elr a/cpa 
UijBdXiov, 779 2 VTreptceiTai X6<fro<; Tpa^u?, vyfrr)\6<i, 
TpaTre&eiBrjs, [epos 'AQpoSirrjs, els ov airo K\ei- 
8mv ardBiOL k^dKoaioi oyBorj/covra' elra koXttco- 
£?/<? teal Tpa%v<; irapdirXovs 6 irXeiwv els Kltiov 
e\ei Be Xipueva KXeiarov evrevOev eari Zrfvcov re, 
6 t/}<? gtwlki]^ aipeaews dp^yerrj^, /cal 'AttoX- 
C 683 Xa>i>io<; larpov evrevOev et? Brjpvrbv ardBioc ^lXlol 
irevTCLKoaioi. elr 'A/xadovs ttoXis fcai /leragv 
TroXixvrj, UaXaid KaXovpuevt), kcu opo<; p,aaroei8e<; 
"OXv/jLttos' elr a KovpLas ^eppopTjo-ctiBrj^, eh rjv 
diro ®pov<ov ardBioi eirraKoaioi. elra rroXi? 
Kovptov, oppLOv eyovaa, 'Apyelwv Krlo~p,a. i]8r) 
ovv rrdpean aKOirelv rr)v pqOvpiiav rod Troirjo-avro*} 
to eXeyelov rovro, ov fj apyjy 

[pal rw <$>oij3cp, ttoXXov Bid /cvpua Oeovaai, 
rjXdopiev at ra^tval ro£a (pvyelv eXa<j>oi' 
effi c HSuA.o<? 3 i(TTLv t effl' oariaovv <j>r)al* pkv yap 
opurjdrjvai rd$ eXdcfiov? Koopv/cirjs dirb BeipdBo?, 
etc Be KiXiao-rj? rjiovos eh a/era? 8iavr]%ao~6ai 
KovpidBas, real iirL(f>0eyyerai, Biort 

fivplov dvBpdcn Oavfia voelv rrrdpa, 7ra)? dvoBev- 
rov 
yevpa oV elapivcp 5 eBpapLOpuev £e<j)vp(p. & 

1 AevvoWa, Casaubon, for AcvxoKa ; so the later editors. 
J ^F, tis <• other MSS. 

3 'HSuAos F, eiff v SriKos other MSS. * <paal CDhiosz. 

5 Si' (Uptvcf, Meineke, for 5' aepiyiwv moz, 5t' ipivuv other 
MSS. 

378 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 6. 3 

it, and near it, lie the Cleides, as also several other 
islands ; and then one comes to the Carpasian 
Islands ; and, after these, to Salamis, where Aristus 
the historian was born. Then to Arsinoe, a city 
and harbour. Then to another harbour, Leucolla. 
Then to a promontory, Pedalium, above which lies 
a hill that is rugged, high, trapezium-shaped, and 
sacred to Aphrodite, whereto the distance from the 
Cleides is- six hundred and eighty stadia. Then 
comes the coasting-voyage to Citium, which for the 
most part is sinuous and rough. Citium has a harbour 
that can be closed ; and here were born both Zeno, 
the original founder of the Stoic sect, and Apollonius, 
a physician. The distance thence to Berytus is one 
thousand five hundred stadia. Then to the city 
Amathus, and, in tke interval, to a small town 
called Palaea, and to a breast-shaped mountain called 
Olympus. Then to Curias, which is peninsula-like, 
whereto the distance from Throni is seven hundred 
stadia. Then to a city Curium, which has a moor- 
ing-place and was founded by the Argives. One 
may therefore see at once the carelessness of the 
poet who wrote the elegy that begins, " we hinds, 
sacred to Phoebus, racing across many billows, came 
hither in our swift course to escape the arrows of 
our pursuers," whether the author was Hedylus or 
someone else ; for he says that the hinds set out 
from the Corycian heights and swam across from 
the Cilician shore to the beach of Curias, and further 
says that "it is a matter of untold amazement to 
men to think how we ran across the impassable 
stream by the aid of a vernal west wind " ; for while 



• (e^iptf, Meineke, for (e<pvpwv. 



379 



STRABO 

cnro yap KcopvKOv TrepirrXov^ puev iariv el? Kou- 
pidBa aKT-qv, ovre ^ecfrvprp Be, ovre ev Be^ia 
e\ovTi rrjv vrjcrov, ovr ev dpiarepa, Biappa 8' 
ovBev. upXV ^' °vv T °v BvapiKOV irapaTrXov rb 

KoVptOV TOV (S\eTTOVTO<S 7T/30? 'PoBoV, Kal SvOvS 

iariv a/cpa, d<fi fj$ piirrovcn rou? dtyapevovs rod 
/3copov tov ' ATroWayvov elra Tprfra Kal Boocrou- 
pa Kal ria\at7ra(/>o?, ocrov ev BeKa arahioi<; virep 
tt}? 9a\dTTT)<; IBpvpevrj, ixpoppov eyovaa, Kal 
iepbv dpyaiov T779 Ila^ta? 'AcfypoBiTrj^' elr a/cpa 
Ze<pvpLa, 7rp6o~opfiov eyovaa, teal aXXr/ ' Apaivor), 
ofjLoio)? 7rp6o~op/jLOV eyovaa koX lepbv teal aXaos* 

pLLKpOV 8' (IITO rrj<i OaXaTTTJ^ Kal f) 'lepoKTjirfc. 

el6" 77 Ilac^o?, KTio~p,a Wyajnjvopo?, Kal Xipeva 
eyovcra Kal lepd ev KarecrKevacr p,eva. 8ie%ei Be 
ire^fj oraBlovs efjrJKovra rf}? TiaXanrdfyov, Kal 
iravriyvpi^ovGL Bta T779 6Bov ravr7)<; Kar ero9 eVl 
tt)V UaXaL7ra(f)ov avBpe<; bpov yvvai^lv crvviovres 
Kal 1 €K rebv aXXcov iroXewv. (paal 8' eh 'AXegdv- 
Bpeidv rive? ck Ud(pov araBiovs elvai TpiayiXiovs 
egaKoariovs. effi 6 'A«a//a? earl peid Tldcpov 
elr a 7rpo? eco fiera tov WKapavra ttXov? eh 
1 'Apaivorjv rroXiv Kal to tov Ajo? aXo-ov elra 
X0X01 2 ttoXls, Xipeva e\ovaa Kal rrorapbv Kal 
lepbv 'A(j)po8iTr)$ Kal "lo-iBos' Kria/ia 6' earl 
<$>aXr)pov Kal ' ' AKapavTO? 'A@>}vaLQ)V 01 8' evoi- 
Kovvres XoXioi KaXovvrai. evrevOev tjv ^ra- 
advwp twv ' AXe^dvBpov eraipcov, dvrjp r)yepovla% 
f/guopevos' virepKeirai 8' ev peaoyaia Atpuevla 
ttoXis' eW' f) Kpo/j,p,vov a.K pa. 

1 Ka/ is omitted by all MSS. except DF. 
- 2o\oi, Tzschucke, for ~2,6\ovs. 
380 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 6. 3 

there is a voyage round the island from Corycus to 
the beach Curias, which is made neither by the aid 
of a west wind nor by keeping the island on the 
right nor on the left, there is no passage across the 
sea between the two places. At any rate, Curium is 
the beginning of the westerly voyage in the direction 
of Rhodes ; and immediately one comes to a pro- 
montory, whence are flung those who touch the 
altar of Apollo. Then to Treta, and to Boosura, 
and to Palaepaphus, which last is situated at about 
ten stadia above the sea, has a mooring-place, and 
an ancient temple of the Paphian Aphrodite. Then 
to the promontory Zephyria, with a landing-place, 
and to another Arsinoe, which likewise has a landing- 
place and a temple and a sacred precinct. And at 
a little distance from the sea is Hierocepis. Then 
to Paphus, which was founded by Agapenor, and has 
both a harbour and well-built temples. It is sixty 
stadia distant from Palaepaphus by land; and on 
this road men together with women, who also 
assemble here from the other cities, hold an annual 
procession to Palaepaphus. Some say that the dis- 
tance from Paphus to Alexandria is three thousand 
six hundred stadia. Then, after Paphus, one comes 
to the Acamas. Then, after the Acamas, towards 
the east, one sails to a city Arsinoe and the sacred 
precinct of Zeus. Then to a city Soli, with a 
harbour and a river and a temple of Aphrodite and 
Isis. It was founded by Phalerus and Acamas, 
Athenians ; and the inhabitants are called Solians ; 
and here was born Stasanor, one of the comrades of 
Alexander, who was thought worthy of a chief 
command ; and above it, in the interior, lies a city 
Limenia. And then to the promontory of Crommyus. 

381 



STRABO 

4. TL Be Bel tcov iroir\Tcov davpid^eiv, /cal 
jxakiara tcov toiovtcov, 0Z9 rj iracra irepX rrji> 

C 684 <bpdaiv earl ctttovBt], tol tov Aafidarov avy- 
/cplvovras, oari? tt}<; v?jaov to fArj/cos diro tcov 
ap/crcov 777309 fiecrr)/jL/3pLav diroBLBMo~Lv, diro 
^epo/crjirlas, &>9 <j>r)aip t et? K\elBa<z ; ovBe 6 
'FtpciToo-Oevris ev' alrMo/xevos yap tovtov, ovtc air 
ap/CTCOv (prjalv elvai rrjv 'lepo/crjiTLav, dXX* diro 
votov ovBe yap diro votov, dXX diro Bvaecos, 
eiirep ev ri] Bva/Ai/cf) irXevpa /cetTai, ev fj ical t) 
Udcpos /cal 6 "'A/cd/ias. Bidicenai fiev ovtcos y 
Kinrpos rfj Oecrei. 

5. Kar dperrjv 8' ovBe/jLids tcov vr/acov Xeiireiai' 
teal yap evoivos icm /cal eve'Xacos, cjItco re avrdp- 
K6L xprjrar /leraXXd re %a\/cov eorrlv AcpOova rd 
ev Ta/jLaacrco, 1 iv ol? to xaX/cavdes ytverai, ical 6 
to9 tov %aX/cov, irpbs Ta? iaTpucd<; Bwd/xei^ 
Xpijcrifia. (f)r}al 8' *JLparocr6evr)<; to iraXauov 
vXofiavovvTcov tcov ireBicov, ware Kaie^crOai 
Bpvfiols real fir) yecopyeladai, pui/cpa fiev eircocpeXelv 

7T/)0? TOVTO Ta fl€TaXXa, BevBpOTO/lOVVTCOV 7T/0O? 

ty)v tcavaiv tov ^aXKov /cal tov dpyupov, irpoa- 
yevecrOai Be ical tt)v vavirrjyiav tcov cttoXcov, rjBrj 
irXeo fievrjs dBeco<; ttj<; 6aXaTT7]% ical fierd Bvvd- 
fiecov a>9 B* ov/c etjevi/ccov, eiriTpeyfrai to?9 /3ou- 
Xo/ievois /cal Bvvafievoi? e/c/coiTTeiv /cal €%€iv 
IBio/cTTjTov /cat aTe\rj ttjv Bia/caOapdelcrav yr\v. 

6. UpoTepov fiev ovv /card iroXea ervpavvovvTo 
ol Kvirpioi, def)' ov B* oi TlToXefial/col /3aaiXeh 

1 Tafxacratp, Xylander, for Ta/xa<r$ E, Tavaaaip other MSS. 
382 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 6. 4-6 

4. But why should one wonder at the poets, and 
particularly at writers of the kind that are wholly 
concerned about style, when we compare the state- 
ments of Damastes, who gives the length of the 
island as from north to south, " from Hierocepias," 
as he says, "to Cleides"? Neither is Eratosthenes 
correct, for, although he censures Damastes, he 
says that Hierocepias is not on the north but on the 
south ; for it is not on the south either, but on the 
west, since it lies on the western side, where are also 
Paphus and the Acamas. Such is the geographical 
position of Cypros. 

5. In fertility Cyprus is not inferior to any one of 
the islands, for it produces both good wine and good 
oil, and also a sufficient supply of grain for its own 
use. And at Tamassus there are abundant mines of 
copper, in which is found chalcanthite 1 and also 
the rust of copper, which latter is useful for its 
medicinal properties. Eratosthenes says that in 
ancient times the plains were thickly overgrown 
with forests, and therefore were covered with woods 
and not cultivated ; that the mines helped a little 
against this, since the people would cut down the 
trees to burn the copper and the silver, and that 
the building of the fleets further helped, since the 
sea was now being navigated safely, that is, with naval 
forces, but that, because they could not thus prevail 
over the growth of the timber, they permitted any- 
one who wished, or was able, to cut out the timber 
and to keep the land thus cleared as his own 
property and exempt from taxes. 

6. Now in the earlier times the several cities 
of the Cyprians were under the rule of tyrants, 

1 Sulphate of copper. 

383 



STRABO 

KvpLOL ttJ? AlyvTTTOv /caTeo-Trjcrav, et? eiceLvovs teal 

T) Ku7T/?0? 7T€pl€(TTr}, GVpiTpaTTOVTWV 7ToXXdfCL<i 

ical t&v 'Vwpalwv. eirel B' 6 reXevTcuos dptja? 
UioXepalos, dBeXcpbs tov KXeoir dr pas iraTpos, 
tt)? KaQT r)pa<$ ftaaiXLcraTjs, eBo%e TrXTj/xpeX^ T€ 
elvai teal d^dpiaro<; eh tou? evepyeras, i/celvos 
p,ev KareXvdr], 'Pcopacoi, Be Karea^ov ttjv vrjaov, 
teal yeyove gt parity i/cr) eirapyia /ca9* avTijv. 
p,dXi(TTa 8' ciltlos tov oXeOpov /carearrj t&> 
ftacriXeZ TloirXios KXau&o? HovX^ep' epireacov 
yap €69 rd Xrjarrjpia, toiv KiXifccov d/cp,a£6vTO)V 
Tore, XvTpov airovpevos eirecTTeiXe tw (SaatXel, 
Beopevos ireptyai ical pvaacrOai avrow 6 8* 
eVe/Ai/re p,ev, piKpbv Be reXeco^, ware ical tou? 
Xrjard<; alBeaOrjvai Xafteiv, dXXa dvairep,^rai 
irdXiVy tov 8' dvev Xvrpoov diroXvaai. acodeU B* 
etcelvo*; direpvripovevaev dpxfrorepois rrjv %dpiv, 
teal yevopevo? Bijpapxos, ?o~xvo~e toctovtov, axrre 
€7rep<f)0r) Ma/wo? Kdrayv, d(f)ai,pr]cr6p,€VO<; rrjv 
Kvirpov tov KaTexovra. eicelvos p,ev ovv ecf>0rj 
Siaxeipio-dpL€vo<; avTov, KaTcov Be eireXOoov irape- 
C 685 Xaf3e tt)v K.v7rpov, ical ttjv fiacjiXiicrjv ovcrlav 
BiedeTo, teal Ta XPV/ jLCiTa a ' ? T0 Brjp,6cnov Tapielov 
Ttav 'Vcop.alcov e/copicrev e£ eiceivov 8' eyeveTO 
CTrapxLa V vr/ao?, KaOdirep /cal vvv €o~tl, o~Tpa- 
TY]yiK7)' oXiyov Be XP® V0V T0V peTagv 'Avtcovios 
K.Xeo7raTpa ical ttj dBeX(f>fj avTrjs 'Apaivorj irape- 
Bo)K€' KaTaXvdevTOS Be eicetvov, crvyfcaTeXvOrjaav 
/cal at BiaTa^eis avTov nao-ai. 



384 



GEOGRAPHY, 14. 6. 6 

but from the time the Ptolemaic kings became 
established as lords of Egypt Cyprus too came 
into their power, the Romans often co-operating 
with them. But when the last Ptolemy that 
reigned, the brother of the father of Cleopatra, the 
queen in my time, was decreed to be both dis- 
agreeable and ungrateful to his benefactors, he was 
deposed, and the Romans took possession of the 
island ; and it has become a praetorian province by 
itself. The chief cause of the ruin of the king was 
Publius Claudius Pulcher; for the latter, having 
fallen into the hands of the bands of pirates, the 
Cilicians then being at the height of their power, 
and, being asked for a ransom, sent a message to 
the king, begging him to send and rescue him. 
The king indeed sent a ransom, but so utterly small 
that the pirates disdained to take it and sent it 
back again, but released him without ransom. 
Having safely escaped, he remembered the favour 
of both ; and, when he became tribune of the 
people, he was so powerful that he had Marcus 
Cato sent to take Cypros away from its possessor. 
Now the king killed himself beforehand, but Cato 
went over and took Cypros and disposed of the 
king's property and carried the money to the Roman 
treasury. From that time the island became a 
province, just as it is now — a praetorian province. 
During a short intervening time Antony gave it 
over to Cleopatra and her sister Arsinoe, but when 
he was overthrown his whole organisation was over- 
thrown with him. 



3»s 

n a 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER 

NAMES * 



ABA, queen of Olbe, 343 
Abydus, 5, 19, 23, 37, 41, 43 
Acamas, the promontory, 375, 381 
Achillea, 15, 61, 105, 107, 119, 121, 

129, 149, 151 
Adeimiuitus of Lampsacus (see foot- 
note 3 on p. 36 j, 37 
Aega, the promontory, 133, 135 
Aenei:vs, 19, to, 105, 107, 119 
Adramyttium, 9, 103, 123, 127, 129 
Adramrttium, GuJf of , 13, 97, 103 
Adrasteia, 27, 29 
Adrestus, builder of altar to Nemesis, 

31 
Aeolians, the, 7, 23 
Aeolis, 7, 23 
Aepytus, son of Neleus, founder of 

Priene, 199 
Aescuines the orator, contemporary 

of Cicero, native of Miletus, 2U7 
Aeschylus, on the Calcus River, 139 
Aesepus River, the, 3, 7, 85 
Agamemnon, 55, 97, 223, 233 
Agapenor, on return from Troy 

founded Paphus, 381 
Agatharcbides the Peripatetic an 1 

historian (fl. apparently about 

130 B.C.), native of Cnidus, 283 
Agathocles, son of Lysimachus, slain 

by his father, 165 
Agrippa, transported a work of 

Lysippus from Lampsacus to 

Rome, 37 
Alabanda, 27, 299 
Alcaeus the poet, threw away his 

arms in battle, 77; on Antandrus, 

101 ; native of Mitylene, 141 ; 

author of Stasiotic poems. 143 ; 

interpreted by Callias, 147 
Alexander the Great, defeated satraps 



of Dareius, 27 ; visRed Hium. 51 ; 
friendly to Ilium, 55, 57 ; offered to 
restore temple of Artemis at 
Ephesus, 227; extended limits of 
refuge, 229; sacred precinct of, 
239; seized Halicarnassus, 285; 
destroyed Milyas, 321 ; led phalanx 
against Dareius from Soli, 355 

Alexander Lychnus the orator, native 
of Ephesus, 231 

AJthaemencs the Argive, coloniser of 
Crete, Rhodes, and other cities, 271 

Alyattes, mound of, built by prosti- 
tutes, 177, 179 

Amphilochus, founder of Mallus, 353; 
tomb of. near Magarsa. 355 

Amyntas (see Dictionary in vol. v), 
received a part of Cilicia Tracheia 
from the Romans, 337 

Anacreon the melic poet (see Dictionary 
in vol. ii), calls Teos " Atha- 
mantis," 199; lived with tyrant 
Polycrates, 217; native of Teos, 
237 ; on warlike zeal of the Carians, 
301 

Anaxagoras the natural philosopher, 
a Clazomenian, 245 

Anaxarchus, companion of Alexander 
on Asiatic expedition, 55 

Anaxenor the citharoede, exalted by 
Antony and consecrated to Zeus 
by his native land, 255 

Anaximander (see Dictionary in 
vol. i), native of Miletus, 207 

Anaximenes of Lampsacus, accom- 
panied Alexander on Asiatic ex- 
pedition, wrote histories of Philip 
and Alexander, a history of Greece 
in twelve books; on places called 
Colonae, 35 ; a rhetorician, 37 ; on 
the colonies of Miletus, 207 

Anaximenes the philosopher, native 



A complete Index will appear in the last volume. 



3»7 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



of Miletus. 207; associate of 
Anaxagoras , 245 

Anchiale, founded by Sardanapalhis 
and the site of his tomb, according 
to Aristobulus, 341, 343 

Androelus, son of Codrus the king of 
Athens, leader of the Ionian 
colonisation and founder of Ephesus 
(according to Pherecydes), 199; 
drove Carians and Lelegcs out of 
Ephesus, 935 

Andromache, native of Thebe, 17 

AndronicuB the Peripatetic, native of 
Rhodes, 279 

Antandrus, 101, 103, 123 

Antigouus the son of Philip (see 
Dictionary in vol. v), founder of 
Alexandreia in Troad, 53 ; founder 
of Antigonia (Alexandreia), 65; 
incorporated Scepsians into Alex- 
andreia, 105; builder of new 
Smvrna, 245; revolted from, by 
Eumenes, 343 

Antimachus (see Dictionary in vol. iv), 
on the goddess Nemesis, 31 

Antimenidas, brother of Alcaeus, 
native of Mitylene, 141 

Antiocheia on the Maeander, 189 

Antiochus the Great (see Dictionary in 
vol. v); expelled by the Romans, 
53 ; fought by Eumenes, 167 

Antiochus Soter (see Dictionary in 
vol. v); conquered by Eumenes, 165 

Antipater Derbetes, the tyrant, 365 

Antipater the Stoic, native of Tarsus, 
347 

Antony (see Dictionary in vol. v), 
carried off statue of Aias to Acgypt, 
59; carried off statues from the 
Heraeum, 213; increased limits of 
refuge at Ephesus, 229; assigned 
part of Cilicia to Cleopatra, 331; 
conferred queenship on Aba, 343; 
friendly to Boethus, ruler of 
Tarsus, 349; gave Oypros to 
Cleopatra amd her sister Arsinoe, 385 

Apelles the painter Csee Dictionary in 
vol. i), native of Ephesus, 231; 
painted portrait of Antigonus and 
the Aphrodite Anadyomene, 287, 
289 

Apellicon of Teos, bought libraries of 
Aristotle and Theophrastus, 111; 
" a Teian," 239 

Aphrodite Acraea, 377 



Aphrodite the Paphian, 381 

ApoecuB, the Athenian, founder of 
Teos, 201 

Apollo, 159, 243, 245, 317, 381 
Actaeus, 29; Cillaean, 123, 127 
Clarius, 233; Didymeus, 205 
Hecatus, 147; Larisaean, 155 
Sminthian, 21, 123; Thymbraean, 
69 ; " UliuB," 207 

Apollodorus, of Athens (see Dictionary 
in vol. i), author of works On the 
Catalogue of^hips and A Description 
of the Earth; on the term 'bar- 
barians," 303 ; on the Trojan allies, 
357, 359; on the number of tribes 
in Asia Minor, 361, 363, 367; on 
the Trojan allies according to 
Homer, 369 ; wrongly interprets 
Homer's " Ascania," 371 

Apollodorus the rhetorician and philo- 
sopher, native of Pergamum, 171 

Apollonius the physician, native of 
Citium, 379 

Apollonius the Stoic, best of the 
disciples of Panaetius, native of 
Nysa, 263 

Apollonius Malacus (teacher of 
rhetoric at Rhodes about 120 B.C.), 
native of Alabanda, 281 ; ridiculed 
Alabanda, 299 

Apollonius Molon of Alabanda, 
author of speech entitled Against 
the Caunians, 267; pupil of 
Menecles the orator, 281 ; changed 
his abode to Rhodes, 299 

Apollonius Mus, fellow-pupil with 
Heracleides the physician in time 
of Strabo, 243 

Apollonius Rhodius, author of the 
Argonauts, an Alexandrian but 
called a Rhodian, 281 

Aratus the poet, author of The 
Phaenomena, native of Soli, 341 

ArcesilaUs, of the Academy, and 
fellow-student of Zeno, 131 

Archedemus the Stoic, native of 
Tarsus, 347 

Archelaus, king of Cappadocia, 
received the whole of Cilicia 
Traeheia except Seleuceia (from 
Augustus), 337, 339 

Archelaus the natural philosopher 
(fl. about 450 B.C.), pupil of 
Anaxagoras, 245 

Archilochua, on the Magnetans, 253 



338 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Areius, contemporary of Augustus, 
friend of Xenarchus the philosopher, 
335 

ArcLaeanax of Mitylene, reputed 
builder of wall round Sigeium, 75 

Arion,thecitharist, native of Methym- 
na, 145 

Aristarchus (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
teacher of Menecrates, 263 

Aristeas of Proconnesus (see Dictionary 
in vol. i), 33 ; reputed teacher of 
Homer, 219 

Aristobulus (see Dictionary in vol. v), 
says that Anchiale was founded by, 
and was the site of tomb of, 
Sardanapallus, 341 

Aristocles the grammarian, con- 
temporary of Strabo, native of 
Rhodes, 281 

Aristodemus, son of Menecrates, 
teacher of Strabo at Nysa, 263 

Ariston the Peripatetic (see footnote 
3 on p. 289), 289 

Ariston, pupil and heir of Ariston the 
Peripatetic, native of Cos, 289 

Aristonicus. caused Leucae to revolt 
after death of his brother Attalus 
Philometor, 247; ended life in 
prison at Rome, 249 

Aristotle, on the Trojan walls, 1 ; 
teacher of Neleus, 111; tarried at 
Assub, 115; teacher and friend of 
Hermeias the tyrant, 117; teacher 
of Theophrastus and Phanias, 145 

Artemidorus (see Dictionary in vol. ii), 
on distances between certain 
Aeolian cities, 1 59 ; on the restora- 
tion of temple of Ephesian Artemis, 
227 ; ambassador to Rome, honoured 
at Ephesus, 233; on certain 
distances in Asia Minor, 307, 309, 
311 ; on cities in the Lycian League, 
315; makes Celenderis, not Corace- 
sium, the beginning of Cilicia, 333 ; 
on the distance from the Pyramus 
River to Soli, 353; falsifier of 
distances, 359; on the number of 
the tribes in Asia Minor, 361 

Artemidorus, son of Theopompus the 
contemporary of Strabo, native of 
Cnidus. 283 

Artemidorus the grammarian, native 
of Tarsus, 351 

Artemis, 29, 207, 221 ; the Astyrene, 
129; Ciudyas, 289; Ephesian, 223, 



225; Leucophryene, 251; Mnny- 
chia, 223; Pergaea, 325; Sarpe- 
donian, 357 

Artemisia, wife of Mausolus the king 
of Caria, 283 

Asander the king, slayer of Pharnacea 
and king: of the Bosporus, 169 

AsclepiuB, born near Tricce, 249 

Assus, 101, 115. 129 

Astyra, 45, 129, 131 

Athena, 81, 83, 135, 215, 277, 325 

Athena Lindia, 279 

Athenaeus the Peripatetic, con- 
temporary of Strabo, native of 
Seleuceia, 335 

Athenals the prophetess (contem- 
porary of Alexander), native of 
Erythrae, 243 

Athenians, the, voted, but rescinded, 
disgraceful decree against the 
Mitylenaeans, 145; founders of 
Elaea, 159 

Athenodorus Cananites (see Dic- 
tionary in vol. i), teacher of 
Aneustus, native of Tarsus, 349; 
restored good government at 
Tarsus, 351 

Athenodorus Oordylion, lived with 
Marcus Cato, native of Tarsus, 347 

Attalic kings, the, 31, 159, 163 

Attalus I, king of Pergamum (reigned 
241-197 B.C.), on the Beautiful 
Pine, 89; transferred Gergithians 
of the Troad to Gergitha, 139 ; son 
of Attalus and Antiochis, 165; 
friend of the Romans, 167 

Attalus II, Philadelphus, king of 
Pergamum (reigned 159-138 B.C.), 
deceived in regard to mole at mouth 
of Ephesian harbour, 229; settled 
the " Dionysiac artists " in Myon- 
nesus, 237; Attaleia named after 
him, 323 

Attalus III, Philometor, king of 
Pergamum (reigned 138-133 B.C.), 
left the Romans his heirs, 169; 
after his death Leucae revolted, 217 



Bacchylides, on the source of the 

Calcus River, 137 
Bellerophon, Palisade of, 191 
Bias, one of the Seven Wise Men, 

native of Priene, 211 



389 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Boethus, bad poet, bad citizen, and 
ruler of Tarsus, 349 



Caesar Augustus, gave back statue of 
Aias to Rhoeteians, 59; appointed 
Marcus Pompey procurator of Asia, 
115; pupil of Apollodorus, 171; 
restored statues to the lleraeum, 
215; nullified extension of limits 
of refuge at Ephesus, 229; dedi- 
cated a painting of Apelles to his 
father, 289; friend of Xenarchus 
the philosopher, 335 

Caesar, Julius, friendly to Ilium, 55, 
57; friend to Mithridates of 
Pergamura, 169; Trebonius one of 
his murderers, 247; sold wealth of 
Pythodorus, 257; painting by 
Apelles dedicated to him by his son 
Augustus, 289 

Calcus River, the, 5, 103, 133, 137, 
153, 1C9 

Calchas the prophet, died of grief as 
result of contest with Mopsus the 
prophet, 233, 325, 353 

Callias, interpreter of Sappho and 
Alcaeus, 147 

Callimachus (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
on Creophilus of Samos, 219; com- 
rade of the poet Heracleitus, 285 

Callinus the elegiac poet, on the 
Teucrians, 95; on the capture of 
Sardeis, 179; calls Ephesians 
•' Smyrnaeans," 201; on the 
Magnetans, 251 ; on the early 
invasion of the Cimmerians, 253 ; 
on the death of Calchas at Clarus. 
325 

Callisthenes (see Dictionary in vol. v), 
on the name " Adrasteia," 29; 
companion of Alexander, 55; on 
the cities united by Mausolus, 119 ; 
on the Arimi, 177 ; on Sardeis, 179 ; 
on Phrynichus the tragic poet, 209 ; 
had false notions about the Hali- 
zones, 369 

Cameirus, 275, 279 

Canae, 5, 13, 105, 133, 141 

Caresene, 87, 89 

Carians, the, 117, 119, 197, 199, 215, 
225, 263, 293, 301 

Cato, Marcus, sent from Rome to seize 
Cypros, 385 



Cauconians, the 151 

Oayster Plain, the, 155, 185 

Celaenae, 137 

Chares the Lindian, built the Colossus 
of Rhodes, 269 

Charon the historian, on the boun- 
daries of the Troad, 9; native 
of Lampsacus, 37 

Clieirocrates the architect, completed 
the temple of Artemis at Ephesus 
and proposed to Alexander to 
fashion Mt. Athos in his likeness, 227 

Chelidonian Islands, the, 263, 319 

Chemiphron, first architect r>f temple 
of Artemis at Ephesus, 225 

Chios, founded bv Egertius, 201, 243 

Chrysa, 93, 121, 123 

Chrysippus, successor of Cleanthes as 
head of the Stoic school of philoso- 
phy, 115; native of Soli, 339 

Cibyra, 189, 193 

Cicero, applauded Menippus Catocas 
above all Asiatic orators, 299 

Cilicia Pedias, 327 

Cilicia Tracheia, 311, 313. 325, 327, 
337 375 

Cilicians, the, 121, 149, 153, 331 

Citium, home of Zeno, 379 

Clazomenae, founded by Paralus, 201, 
239, 245 

Cleanthes of Assus, the Stoic philo- 
sopher, successor of Zeno, 115 

Cleides, the, two isles off Cypros, 375, 
379 

Cleobulus, one of the Seven Wise Men, 
native of Lindus, 279 

Cleopatra, assigned by Antony a part 
of Cilicia Tracheia for the building 
of her fleets, 331 ; joined Antony in 
conferring queenship upon Aba, 
343; presented Cypros by Antony, 
385 

Codrus, king of Athens. 199 

Colophon, 199, 203, 233, 235 

Colossus of Rhodes, the. 269 

Coriscus, Socratic philosopher, 111 

Cos, 287 

Crates the grammarian, native of 
Mallus, 355 

Cratippus. sons of, tyrants at Tralleis, 
257 

Creophilus of Samos, reputed teacher 
of Homer, and by Callimachus 
called author of the poem entitled 
The Capture of Oechalia, 219 



390 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Crinagoras (fl. in Strabo's time), 
author of fifty epigrams in the 
Greek Anthologv, n »tive of Mity- 
lene, 143 

Croesus, 173; origin of wealth of, 371 

Crommyus, the promontory, 333, 377, 
381 

Ctesias, physician of Artaxerxes and 
author of works entitled Assyrica 
and Persica, native of Cnidus, 283 

Curetes, the, frightened Hera, 223; 
special college of, 225 

Curium, 379, 381 

Cycnus, king of Colonae, 35 

Cydnus River, the, 343, 345, 353 

Cyme, 5, 153, 155 161 

Cyprus, 373, 383, 385 

Cyzicene, 5, 7. 11 

Cyzicus, 23. 33 



D. 

Daes of Colonae, on the temple of 
Cillaean Apollo, 123 

Daraastes (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
on the boundaries of the Troad, 9 ; 
wrong on the geographical position 
of Cypros, 383 

Damasus, the Athenian, founder of 
Teos, 201 

Damasus Scombrus the orator, native 
of Tralleis, 257 

Daphitas the grammarian, reputed to 
have been crucified because he 
reviled the kings in a distich, 249 

Dardariia, 47, 65, 99 

Dardanians, the ; 19, 101 

Dareius, father of Xerxes, burned the 
cities on the Propontis, 43; gave 
Svloson the tyrannv over Samoa 
219 

Delos, great slave market, 329 

Demetrius Lacon, pupil of the 
Epicurean Protarchus, 289 

Demetrius, son of Seleucus, helped by 
Attalus to defeat Alexander the son 
of Antiochus, 169 

Demetrius of Scepsis (see Dictionary 
in vol. i), visited Ilium, 53; on 
territory subject to Hector, 65; 
on spurs of Mt. Ida, 67; cites 
Hestiaea of Alexandreia, 73; calls 
Timaeus a falsifier 77 ; on Mt. Ida, 
86; on the Rhesus River, 87; his 
commentary on the Catalogue of the 



Trojans, 91 ; on Antandrus, 101 ; 
on Scepsis, 105; author of The 
Marshalling of the Trojan Forces, 
113; calls the Gargarians semi- 
barbarians, 117; on the Arimi, 1 77 ; 
on the Asioneis, 179; borrowed 
stories from Callisthenes, 369 

Diodorus the dialectician, nicknamed 
Cronus, contemporary of Ptolemy 
Soter, 291 

Diodorus the general (see footnote 2 
on p. 129), 129 

Diodorus the grammarian, native of 
Taisus, 351 

Diodorus the younger, of Sardeis, 
friend of Strabo, and author of 
poems and historical treatises, 181 

Diodoruses, the; two orators, both 
natives of Sardeis, 179, 181 

Diodotus Tryphon, caused Syria to 
revolt, but was forced by Antiochus 
the son of Demetrius to kill himself, 
327 

Diogenes the poet and itinerant 
philosopher, native of Tarsus, 351 

Dionysides the tragic poet, native of 
Tarsus, 353 

Dionysius the historian and rhetori- 
cian, contemporary of Strabo, 
native of Halicarnassus. 285 

Dionysius Thrax, Alexandrian but 
called Rhodian, 281 

Dionysocles the orator, native of 
Tralleis, 257 

Dionysus, Games in honour of, 237 

Dionysus Pyrigenes, 183 

Diophanes the rhetorician, native of 
Mitylene, 143 

Diotrephes of Antiocheia, teacher of 
Hybreas of Mylasa, 295 

Diotrephes the sophist, native of 
Antiocheia on the Maeander, 191 

Dolabella, captured at Smyrna, and 
slew, Trebonius, one of the mur- 
derers of Caesar, 247 

Dometius Ahenobarbus (see Dictionary 
in vol. ii), opponent and slayer of 
Menodarus, 257 

E 

Egertius, founder of Chios, 201 
Elaea, 105, 133, 159 
Elaeussa, the island, royal residence of 
Archelaus, 267, 337 

39i 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Elaltic Golf, the, 5, 103, 133 

Ephesus, 155, 199, 201, 205, 221, 225, 
237 

Ephorus (see Dictionary in vol. i), on 
the extent of Aeolis, 9 ; on the name 
" Aeolis," 79 ; native of Cyme, 161 ; 
object of ridicule, 163; on the 
founding of Miletus, 205 ; on the 
number of tribes in Asia Minor, 361, 
363; does not name Cappadocia, 
365 ; on Homer's Trojan allies, 369 

Epicurus the philosopher, in a sense a 
Lampsacenian, 37; became an 
ephebus at Athens, 219 

Erastus, Socratic philosopher, 111 

Eratosthenes (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
wrong on the geographical position 
of Cypros, 38 ; on certain distances 
in Asia Minor, 311 

Erythrae, founded by Cnopus the son 
of Codrus, 201, 239, 241 

Eudemus the philosopher, native of 
Rhodes, 279 

Eudoxus of Cnidus (see Dictionary in 
vol. i), on places on the Propontis, 
9; mathematician and comrade of 
Plato, 283 

Eumenes I, brother of Lysimachus and 
king of Pergamum, 165 

Eumenes II, king of Pergamum, 165; 
received Telmessus from the Romans 
but later was forced to give it back 
to the Lycians, 317 

Eumenes of Cardia (see Dictionary in 
vol. v), removed Macedonian trea- 
sures from Cyinda, 343 

Euripides, on Auge the mother of 
Telephus, 135; on Marsyas, 137; 
pupil of Anaxagoras, 245; quoted 
by Athenaeus, 335 

Euthydemus, orator and statesman, 
contemporary of Strabo, native of 
Mylasa, 295 



Fimbria, Roman quaestor, destroyer 
of Ilium, 55 



Gargara, 103, 117 

Glaucias, the tyrant, refugee to 

SidenS, 83 
Granicus River, the, 5, 7, 27, 85 



Ilalicarnassus, 119, 209, 283, 285 

Ilalizones, the. 365, 369 

Hamaxitus, 93, 95, 97, 101 

Hecataeus (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
native of Miletus, 207; on the 
mountain of the Phtheires, 209; 
native of Teos, 239 

Hecatomnos, king of the Carians, 
father of three sons and two 
daughters, 285, 295 

Hector, 19, 149, 151, 153 

Hedylus the elegiac poet, con- 
temporary of Callimachus, 379 

Hegesianax, on the visit of the 
Galatae to Ilium, 53 

Hegesias the orator, corrupter of the 
Attic style, native of Magnesia, 253 

Hellanicus (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
speaks to gratify the Ilians, 85; 
calls Ajmus an Aeolian city, 117; 
native of Lesbos, 147 

Heracleides the Herophileian physi- 
cian, contemporary of Strabo, 
native of Erythrae, 243 

Heracleides of Pontus (see Dictionary 
in vol. i), on the temple of Apollo, 95 

Heracleitus the poet, comrade of 
Callimachus, native of Halicar- 
nassus, 285 

Heracleitus the Obscure, native of 
Ephesus, 231 

Hcrmeias, tyrant of Assus and 
Atarneus, 115, 131 

Hermocreon, builder of altar at 
Parium, 29 

Hermodorus, called by Heracleitus 
M the most useful man of Ephesus," 
and reputed to have written certain 
laws for the Romans, 231 

Hermus River, the, 5, 13, 159, 173, 197 

Herodotus, on the priestess of Athena 
at Pedasus, 119; on Arion of 
Methymna, 145; on certain rivers 
near Sardeis, 173 ; on the tomb of 
Alyattes, 177, 179; native of 
Halicarnassus, 283; on the Pam- 
phylians, 325 

Herostratus, an Ephesian who in 356 
B.C. set on fire the temple of 
Artemis at Ephesus to immortalise 
himself, 225 

Hesiod, knew not of the god Priapus, 
29; native of Cyme, 161; on the 



39 2 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



contest between Calchas and 

Mopsus, 233; says that Amphilo- 

chus was slain by Apollo at Soli, 

355; on the origin of the Asiatic 

Magnetans, 251 
Bestiaea of Alexandreia, author of a 

work on Homer's Iliad, 73 
Hidrieus, second son of king Heca- 

tomnos, married his younger sister 

Ada, 285 
Hierapolis, 185, 189 
Hierocles the orator, native of 

Alabanda, 299 
Hieronvmus the philosopher, native 

of Rhodes, 279 
Hippocrates the great physician, 

native of Cos, 289 
Hipponax (see Dictionary in vol. iv), 

on a place called Smyrna that 

belonged to Ephesus, 201; on 

Bias of Priene, 211; native of 

Ephesus, 231 
Homer, 9, 11, 15, 23, 49, 71, 81, 99, 

105, 109, 117, 121, 135, 137, 153, 

161, 175, 179, 219, 237, 243, 247, 

273, 301, 321, 349 
Hybreas, orator, statesman, con- 

temporarv of Strabo, native of 

Mylasa, 295, 297 



I 

Ialysus, 275, 279 

Ida, Mt., 9, 65, 85, 97 

Hians, the Village of, reputed site of 

ancient Hium, 69, 81 
Hium, territory of, 45; founded by 

Bus, 49, 53, 55, 67, 81, 153 
Ion the tragic poet, native of Chios, 

243 
Ionia, 197 

Ionian colonisation, the, 5 
Ionian League, the, 201 
Ionians, the, 197 
Isocrates the orator, teacher of 

Ephorus, 161 



Labienus, Quintus, seized Mylasa, 297 

Larisa, 153, 155 

Lectum, 5, 11, 13, 97, 101 

Leleges, the, 17, 97, 117, 119, 121, 149, 

151, 153, 199, 225, 301 
Lesbians, the, 157 



Lesbocles, native of MitylenS, 143 

Lesbos, 7, 139, 149 

Leto.the mother of Apollo and Artemis 
223, 265, 267 

Lindus, 275, 279 

Lycia, 265, 311 

Lycians, the, 19, 179 

Lycian League, the, 313, 315 

Lycurgus the orator, on the rasing of 
Ilium, 83 

Lydians, the, 181 

Lyrnessus, 17, 105, 107, 121, 323 

Lysimachus (see Dictionary in vol. v, 
and footnote 3 on p. 203 of vol. iii), 
devoted especial attention to Ilium 
and Alexandreia, 53; permitted 
Scepsians to return home from 
Alexandreia, 65; founder of the 
Asclepieium, 89 ; king of Pergamum, 
163, 165 ; built wall round Ephesus, 
225; builder of the new Smyrna, 
245; ridicule 1 in distich composed 
by Daphitas, 251 



Maeander River, the, 185, 211, 249 

Magnesia, 159 

Magnesia on the Maeander, 249 

Mallus, 353, 355 

Manius Aquillius the consul (129 B.C.), 

personally organised a province in 

Asia Minor, 249 
Marcus Perpernas, made campaign 

against Aristonicus and captured 

him alive, 249 
Mausolua, king of Caria, 119; tomb 

of, 283; married his elder sister 

Artemisia, 285 
Malenchrus, tyrant of Mitylen§, 143 
Memnon of Rhodes, served Persians 

as general, 117 
Menander (see Dictionary in vol. v), 

says "it (Samoa) produces even 

bird's milk," 217; became an 

ephebus at Athens, 219 
Menecles the orator, teacher of 

Apollonius Malacus and Apollonius 

Molon, 281 ; native of Alabanda, 299 
Menecrates, pupil of Aristarchus, 

native of Nysa, 263 
Menecrates of Elaea (see Dictionary in 

vol. v), author of On the Founding of 

Cities, on the Pelasgians, 157 
Menippus Catocas, the Asiatic orator, 



393 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



applauded by Cicero and native of 

Stratoniceia, 299 
Menodorus, contemporary of Strabo 

scholar and priest, 257 
Mesogis, Mt., 213, 255, 257 
Methymna, 139, 141, 145 
Metrodorus of LampBacus, comrade of 

Epicurus, 37 
Metrodorus of Scepsis, philosopher, 

statesman, and rhetorician, 113 
Midas, origin of wealth of, 371 
Miletus, founded by Neleus of Pylus, 

199, 209, 211 
Milyas, destroyed by Alexander, 321 
Mimnermus, says that Colophon was 

founded by Anriraemon of Pylus, 

199; on Colophon, 203; native of 

Colophon, 235 
Minos the king, 301 
Mithridates Eupator (the Great), 

friend to Metrodorus, 113; the 

king, 181 ; extended limits of 

refuge at Ephesus, 229 
Mithridates of Pergamum, friend of 

Julius Caesar, 169 
Mitylene, 141 
Mopsus the prophet, victor over 

Calchas in content, 233; led 

peoples over the Taurus, 325. 353 ; 

tomb of, near Magarsa, 355 
Murena, ended tyranny at Cibyra, 193 ; 

friend of Athenaeus the Peripatetic 

(contemporary of Strabo), and 

captured because of plot against 

Augustus, 335 
Mylasa, 291, 293, 295, 299 
Myrina, 159, 163 
Myron (fl. about 430 B.C.), one of the 

greatest Greek sculptors, 213 
Myrsilus, the historian, of Methymna, 

on the founders of Assus, 117 
Mvrsilus, tyrant of Mitylene, 143 
Mvsia, 181 
Myus, founded by Cydrelus, 199, 211 



N 

Neleus, Socratic philosopher, pupil of 
Aristotle and Theophrastus, and 
hen- to libraries of Aristotle and 
Theophrastus, 111 

Neocles the schoolmaster, father of 
Epicurus, sent by Athenians to 
Samos, 219 

Neoptolemus the glossographer of 



Parium (see footnote 1 on p. 36), 

37 
Nestor the Academician, teacher of 

Marcellus the nephew of Augustus, 

native of Tarsus and successor of 

Athenodorus as ruler there, 351 
Nestor, the Stoic, native of Tarsus, 347 
Nicias, contemporary of Strabo, 

tyrant over the Coans, 289 
Nieomedes the Bithynian, helped to 

overcome Aristonicus (131 B.C.), 247 



Pamphylia, 311 

Panaetius the philosopher, native of 

Rhodes, 279 ; reputed to have been 

a pupil of Crates of Mallus, 355 
Paris, tomb of, 65 
Parrhasius the painter, native of 

Ephesus, 231 
Peiraeus, the, torn down by Sulla, 275 
Peisander the poet, author of the 

Heracleia and native of Rhodes. 281 
Pelasgians, the, 153, 155. 157, 30i 
Peraea of the Rhodians, the, 263, 265, 

311 
Pergamum, library of, 111, 163 
Pericles, statesman and general, 

subdued Samos (440 B.C.), 219 
Phanias the Peripatetic, native of 

Eressus, 145 
Pherecydes of Leros (see Dictionary in 

vol. v), on the Ionian seaboard, 197 ; 

on the contest between Calchas and 

Mopsus, 235 
Philataerus of Tieium, treasurer of 

Pergamum, 165 
Philemon the comic poet, native of 

Soli, 341 
Philetas, the poet and critic, native of 

Cos, 289 
Philip, author of The Carica, on the 

Carian language, 303 
Philotas of Thebes, coloniser of Priene, 

199, 211; leader of Alexander's 

cavalry, 355 
Phocaea, 5, 201 
Phoenix, Mt., 265 
Phrygia, 23 
Phrynon, Olympian victor, 75; 

Athenian general, 77 
Pinarus River, the; scene of the 

struggle between Alexander and 

Dareius, 355 



394 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Pindar, on the Pithecussae, 177; on 

Polymnastus the musician, 235; 

on the Homeridac of Chios, 215; 

says that gold rained on Rhodes, 277 
Pittaoofl of Mitylene, one of the Seven 

Wise Men, 7*7; born at Mitvlene, 

141 ; one of the tyrants. 149 
Pixodarus, third son of king Heca- 

tomnos of Caria, 285 
Plato, on the stages of civilisation, 47 ; 

teacher of Henneias the tyrant, 117 
Plutiades the itinerant philosopher, 

native of Tarsus, 351 
Plutonium, the, near Acharaca, 259 ; 

at Hierapolis, 187 
Polemon, teacher of Zeno and 

Arcesilaiis, 131 
Polycrates (hanged 522 B.C.), tyrant 

of Samoa, 217 
Polymedium, 101, 139 
Polymnastus, mentioned by Pindar as 

a famous musician and as a native 

of Colophon, 237 
Pompey the Great, insulted by 

Aescliines the orator, 209 ; friend of 

Pythodorus, 257 ; wiped out | lracy, 

315; colonised Soli. 315; friend 

of Theophanes the historian, 143 
Pompey, Marcus, the son of Theo- 
phanes of MitylenS, appointed 

Procurator of Asia by Augustus, 145 
Poseidon, 81, 213 ; the Heliconian, 221 
Poseidonius (see Dictionary in vol. i), 

on brick-making in Iberia, 133; 

statesman at Rhodes, 279 
Potamon the rhetorician, native of 

Mitylene, 143 
Praxander the Laconian, founder of 

Lapathus, 377 
Praxiphanes, native of Rhodes, 279 
Praxiteles the great sculptor, works of 

in the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, 

229 
Priam, the sway of, 13, 17, 63, 81, 107, 

369 
Priene, 199, 211 
Procles, founder of Samos, 201 
Proconnesus, Old and New, 33 
Propontis, the, 3 5 
Protarchus the Epicurean, native of 

Bargylia and teacher of Demetrius 

Lacon, 289 
Protesilaus, temple of, 61 
Protogenes the painter; his Ialysus 

and his Satyr at Rhodes, 269 



Ptolemy, the last that reigned and 
uncle of Cleoi 1 by 

Publius Claudius Pulclnr. 

Ptolemy Philadelphus, repaired Pat- 
ara and called it Lycian Arsinoe, 
317 

Publius Crassus, made campaign 
against Aristonieus, 349 

Pulcher, Publius Chudins, mined 
Ptolemy the uncle of Cleopatra, 385 

Pylaeus, commander of the Lesbians, 
157 

Pyrrha, 141, 145, 211 

Pythodoris, queen of the Pantos, 
daughter of Pythodorus the 
" Asiarch," 257 

Pythodorus, native of Nysa, " Asi- 
arch " at Tralleis, friend of Pompey, 
extremely wealthy, and father of 
Queen Pythodoris, 257 



Rhodes, 269, 273, 275 
Rhoeteium, 59, 67, 83, 85 



Samos, founded by Tembrion and 
Procles, 201, 213, 215 

Sappho, on the promontory called 
Aega, 135 ; native of Mitylene, 143 ; 
interpreted by Callias, 147 

Sardeis, 171, 173, 177 

Scamander River, the, 65, 67, 73, 85, 
87 

Scepsis, 85, 101, 105, 109 

Scipio Aemilianus, sent by Romans to 
inspect Cilicia, 329 

Scopas the great sculptor, maker of 
image of Apollo, 95 ; maker of work 
containing statues of Leto and 
Ortygia (the nurse) with a child in 
each arm of the latter 223 

Scylax of Caryanda (see Dictionary in 
vol. v), on the boundaries of the 
Troad, 8 ; born at Caryanda, 289 

Seleuceia, 333, 335, 337 

Seleuceia-in-Pieria, first Syrian city 
after Cilicia, 357 

Seleucus Nicator, overthrew Lysi- 
machus and was slain by Ptolemy 
Ceraunus 165; incompetent heredi- 
tary succession of, 329 

Servilius Isauricus, demolished Isaura 



395 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



(75 B.C.), 315 ; captured Olympus/he 

fortress of Zenicetus the pirate, 339 
Sestus, 5, 41, 43 
Sibylla the prophetess, native of 

Erythrae, 241 
Sigeium, 61, 67, 73, 75, 79, 85 
Sigrium, promontory of Lesbos, 139, 

141, 145 
Simonide8, the poet, on " pordacian " 

clothes, 147 
Simus the physician.native of Cos, 289 
Simus the melic poet, corrupter of the 

traditional style, 253 
Simmias the grammarian (fl. about 

300 B.C.), native of Rhodes, 281 
Sipylus, ruler of Magnesia, 169 
Smvrna, 201, 203, 245 
Soli (Pompelopolis), 315, 339, 355 
Solmissus, Mt., 223 
Sophocles the tragic poet, on the 

immunity of Antenor's home, 107; 

helped Pericles to subdue Samos, 

219; on the contest between 

Calchas and Mopsus, 235, 353 
Sostratus, grammarian and teacher of 

Pompey the Great, 263 
Stratocles the philosopher, native of 

Rhodes, 279 
Stratoniceia, 297, 299 
Stratonicus the citharist, on Assus, 

115 ; on the paleness of the Caunians, 

267 
Sulla, overthrew Fimbria and came to 

agreement with Mithridates, 55, 59 ; 

carried off Apellicon's library to 

Rome, 113 ; tore down the Peiraeus, 

275 
Syloson, brother and assistant of his 

brother Polycrates the tyrant of 

Samoa, 217 ; later became tyrant of 

of Samos by gift of Dareius, 219 
Syrians, the, 177 



Tamassus in Cypros, site of copper 

mines, 383 
Tantalus, origin of wealth of, 369 
Tarcondimotus.named by the Romans 

king of Mt. Amanus, 355 
Tarsus, 343, 345, 347 
Taurus, Mt., the extremities of, 263 
Telephus the king, 135 
Temnus, birthplace of Hermagoras, 

author of an Art of Rhetoric, 159 



Teos, founded at first by Athamas. 

199, 237 
Teuthras, king of the Cilicians and 

Mysians, 135 
Terpander the musical artist, 147 
Thales, one of the Seven Wise Men, 

native of Miletus, 207 
Thebe, 121, 129, 149, 323 
Themistocles; his wife, or daughter, a 

priestess in temple of Dindymenfe, 

251 
Theocritus the sophist, native of 

Chios, 243 
Theophanes the historian, of Mitylene\ 

contemporary of Strabo, 143 
Theophrastus, teacher of Neleus, 111 ; 

native of Eressus, 145 
Theopompus (see Dictionary in vol. i), 

on Sestus, 45 ; on Mt. Mesogis, 185 ; 

native of Chios, 243 
Theopompus, contemporary of 

Strabo, friend of Julius Caesar, 

native of Cnidus, 283 
Thrason, sculptor of chapel of Hecale 

and other works at the temple of 

Artemis at Ephesus, 229 
Thucydides, on the seizure of Troy by 

the Athenians, 79; on the term 

" barbarians," 301, 303 
Thyateira, 171, 247 
Tiberius, friend to Marcus Pompey, 

145 ; restorer of Sardeis, 179 
Tigranes the Armenian, 115 
Timaeus the historian (see Dictionary 

in vol. ii), called falsifier by 

Demetrius, 77; on the size of the 

largest of the Gymnesian Isles, 277 
Timosthenes (see Dictionary in vol. i), 

on islands between Asia and Lesbos, 

147 
Tmolus, Mt., 173, 183 
Tralleis, 255 
Trebonius, one of the murderers of 

Caesar, slain bv Dolabella at Smyrna, 

247 
Treres, the, 179, 251 
Troad, the, 3, 7, 21, 77 
Trojan Plain, the, 65, 67 
Trojans, the, sway and dynasties of, 

5, 19, 149 
Troy, 7, 9, 15 
Typhon the giant, 177, 183 
Tyrranion the grammarian, got 

possession of Apellicon's library at 

Rome, 113 



396 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Valerius Flaccus the consul, in com- 
mand against Mithridates, 55 



Xanthus, largest city in Lycia, 317 

XanthustheLydian, ancient historian, 
181, 183; on the Phrygians, 371, 
373 

Xenarchus the Peripatetic, con- 
temporary of Strabo and friend of 
Augustus, native of Seleuceia, 335 

Xenocles the orator, compared by 
Cicero with Menippus Catocas, 131, 
299 

Xenocrates the philosopher (396-314 
B.C.), at the court of Hermeias the 
tyrant, 117 

Xenop hanes, tyrant of Olbfi and 
father of Aba, 343 



Xenophanes the natural philosopher, 
native of Colophon, 235 

Xerxes, gave Lampsacus to Themi- 
stocles, 29 ; bridged the c ' Hepta- 
stadium," 41 ; set flre to oracle of 
Apollo, 205 ; gave Myus, Magnesia, 
and Lampsacus to Themistocles, 211 

Z 

Zeleia, 11, 19, 25 

Zenicetus the pirate, burnt himself up 

with his whole house, 339 
Zeno the Stoic (see Dictionary in vol. i), 

native of Citium, 115, 379 
Zeus, 215, 277, 343 ; Atabyrius. 279 ; 

Carian, 293; Chrysaoreus, 297; 

Lambrandenus, 293; Osogo, 293; 

Stratius, 293 
Zonas, one of the two Diodoruses, 

native of Sardeis and pleader of the 

cause of Asia, 181 



397 



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Kilburn. 
Lycophron. Cf. Callimachus. 
Lyra Graeca. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. 
Lysias. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Manetho. W. G. Waddell: Ptolemy: Tetrabiblos. F. E. 

Robbins. 
Marcus Aurelius. C. R. Haines. 
Menander. F. G. Allinson. 
Minor Attic Orators (Antiphon, Andocides, Lycurgus, 

Demades, Dinarchus, Hypereides). K. J. Maidment and 

J. O. Burrt. 2 Vols. 
Nonnos: Dionysiaca. W. H. D. Rouse. 3 Vols. 
Oppian, Colluthus, Tryphiodorus. A. W. Mair. 
Papyri. Non-Literary Selections. A. S. Hunt and C. C 

Edgar. 2 Vols. Literary Selections (Poetry). D. L. 

Page. 
Parthenius. Cf. Daphnis and Chloe. 
Pausanias: Description of Greece. W. H. S. Jones. 4 

Vols, and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 
Phtlo. 10 Vols. Vols. I.-V.; F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 

Whitaker. Vols. VI.-IX. ; F. H. Colson. 
Philo: two supplementary Vols. {Translation only.) Ralph 

Marcus. 
Philostratus : The Life of Apollonius of Tyana. F. C. 

Conybeare. U Vols. 
Philostratus: Imagines; Callistratus : Descriptions. A. 

Fairbanks. 



Philostratus and Eunapius : Live9 of the Sophists. Wilmer 

Cave Wright. 
Pindar. Sir J. E. Sandys. 
Plato: Charmides, Alcibiades, Hippauchus, The Lovers, 

Theages, Minos and Epinomis. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato: Cratylus, Parmenides, Greater Hippias, Lesser 

Hippias. H. N. Fowler. 
Plato: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Phaedrus. 

H. N. Fowler. 
Plato: Laches, Protagoras, Meno, Euthydemus. W. R. M. 

Lamb. 
Plato : Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. 
Plato: Lysis, Symposium, Gorgias. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato : Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. 
Plato: Statesman, Phile bus. H.N. Fowler; Ion. \V. R. M. 

Lamb. 
Plato: Theaetetus and Sophist. H. N. Fowler. 
Plato: Timaeus, Critias, Clitopho, Menexenus, Epistulae. 

Rev. R. G. Bury. 
Plutarch: Moralia. 15 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. C. Babbitt. 

Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold. Vol. VII. P. H. De Lacy and 

B. Einarson. Vol. IX. E. L. Minar, Jr., F. H. Sandbach, 
W. C. Helmbold. Vol. X. H. N. Fowler. Vol. XII. H. 
Cherniss and VV. C. Helmbold. 

Plutarch: The Parallel Lives. B. Perrin. 11 Vols. 

Polybius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. 

Procopius: History op the Wars. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 

Ptolemy: Tetrabtblos. Cf. Manetho. 

Qutntus Smyrnaeus. A. S. Way. Verse trans. 

Sextus Empiricus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. 

Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. Verse trans. 

Strabo : Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. 

Theophrastus : Characters. J. M. Edmonds. Herodes, 

etc. A. D. Knox. 
Theophrastus: Enquiry into Plants. Sir Arthur Hort, 

Bart. 2 Vols. 
Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. 
Tryphiodorus. Cf. Oppian. 

Xenophon: Cyropaedia. W T alter Miller. 2 Vols. 
Xenophon: Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Symposium. 

C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. 

Xenophon : Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Marchant. 
Xenophon: Scbipta Minora. E. C. Marchant. 



IN PREPARATION 



Greek Authors 

Aristotle: History of Animals. A. L. Peck. 
Plotinus : A. H. Armstrong. 



Latin Authors 

Babrius and Phaedrus. Ben E. Perry. 
DESCRIPTIVE PROSPECTUS ON APPLICATb 



London 
Cambridge, Mass. 



WILLIAM HEINEMANN L' 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRE 



Strabo 

The geography of Strabo 

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