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Full text of "Geography rectified; or, A description of the world, in all its kingdoms, provinces, countries ... As also their commodities, coins, weights, and measures, compared with those at London. Illustrated with seventy eight maps. The 3d ed., enl. To which is added a compleat geographical index to the whole, alphabetically digested. The whole work performed according to the more accurate observations and discoveries of modern authors"

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JDarlington JVLemoriai J-diarary 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Pittsburgh Library System 

A Catalogue of the Maps in this Book. 

iT-T'7'Orld Fol. 12 

2 W E V R ? E i6 

3 England^Scotlandydc Irdand, 2 i 

4 England 23 

5 IVales 3^ 

6 Scotland S^ 

7 Ireland 4 2 

8 Denmark^ 53 
p Sweden and Norway ^S 

10 Mufcovia^dcc. 72 

11 Po/W So 

1 2 Tariary in Europe 8 8 

13 Moldavia.Valachia^Tranfilv. 9$ 

14 Hnngaria 


I 5 Germany 


I ^ The Vnited Provinces 


1 7 The -5^rf«//Z; Provinces 


18 France 


19 Spain 


20 Portugal 


21 J/^/y 


2 2 Helvetia^ ox Schppitx,erland2 2'6 

23 4?4ro)/ and Piedmont 236 

24 5/a/y 2 5 (5 

2 5 Sclavon.Cro.nia.Valmat.&c.'^^o 
16 Servia^ Bulgaria^ &c. 2 5<5 
2d Greece 2<5p 
2% A S I A 341 
ap The 7«rjl^ Empire in /^J/?^ 345 
5 o Canaan^ or the Ho/)' L^«(^ 3 5 8 

3 I Armenia 3 "^^ 
32 Cypriis.ihc Ifles o^AfiaMinSl3 
3 3 Turklfh Empire in general 3^2 
34 Arabia 3^*^ 
3 5 Per/;^ . 39^ 
$6 Tart aria in Jfia 4 "^7 
3 7 Empire of the Great Mogul 415 
3 8 Z/7^ij on t his fid e Ganges 42-3 
3P J^icZ/j beyond Ganges 43 ' 
40 C/?/«^ 43^ 

41 Japan 444 

42 Maldives I Hands 448 

43 Ceylon 45 O 

44 The Ifles of 5(?We 454 

45 The P^///^/;i«e Iflands 45<^ 
4^ The Mo/afcj Iflands 458 
^7 ^ F R I C A 4^1 

48 Barbary 4<58 

49 Fez and Morocco 470 

50 ^/^/er 480 
5ri Egypt 48p 

52 Biledulger,Zaara^Guiny^&c, 503 

53 Ethiopia^ ox Hihejjinia 50 c? 

54 Congo^Scc. 522 

55 Cafferia & Monomotapa 524 
5'^ Zang^aebar $27 

57 The Ifles of Azores 52p 

58 The C^«ar)/-Iflands 531 
5P Crt/^e Fer-dZe Iflands 534 
60 Madagafcar^ d)Cr., 5-37 
i^l Maltha 540 
62 AMERICA 542 
^3 Magellanica 545 
^4 Chili znd Paraguay 550 
<55 Brazile 553 
<^^^ Verity Guyana^Caflel- 

ladelOr^dcc. 55^ 

^7 The Weftern Iflands 5^4 
<^8 Jamaica ^6j 

69 Bermudas^ between 574, 575 

70 Barbadoes 577 

71 ]Ve»» 5'/'^/« 576 

72 Nerv Mexico 5-85 

73 Florida:, and the Lakes of C<»- 
«<2^<7 5^7 

74 Carolina 589 

75 Virginiaznd Maryland 591 
7<^ Penjtl'vania.zndN^wJerfey 5^7 

77 New E«g/. and New TorJ^ <5o6 

78 Northw. part of /4w?w^ 619 

eogtapftp ^aeftifteu: 

O R, A 




In all its Kingdoms ;, Provinces ;, Countries;, 

Iflands, Cities, Towns, Seas, Rivers, Bayes, Capes, 
Ports ; Their Ancient and Prefent Names, Inhabitants, 
Situations, Hiftories, Cuftoms, Governments, drc. 

As al(b their Commodities, Coins, Weights, and 

Meafures, Comparedwith thofe at LON DON, 

llhfirated with Seventy eight MAPS, 

the Jhird Edition.Enlarged.'To which is added a Cowpksit Geographical Index 
to the Whoky j4lphabetical)y digefied. 

The whole Work performed according to the more Accurate Obfervatioiis 
and Difcoveries of Modern Authors. 

By ^0 S E HIT M ^7) E 

L N D N ■ 

Printed ^oxRohert Morden 2ind Thomas CockeriH^ at t\\Q Atlas 
in CornhiU^ and at the Thnt Legs in the Poullrej, over-againft 
the Stocks-Market. M DC XCIII. 



To his moft Worthy and moft Honoured Friend, 


, of London, MERCHANT. 

HAVING made many Confiderable Im- 
provements and Additions to my Geogra- 
phy in this Third Edition, I have all the 
reafon in the world to flhelcer it once more under 
the Patronage of your Name , whole Affairs 
Abroad have not only given you a betterKnowIe Jg 
and Experience of Foreign Parts ; but whofe En- 
couragement and Bounty, next to Divine Good- 
nefs , have only contributed to its Production , 
which otherwife with its poor Author, muft have 
for ever lain latent under the Horizon of unknown 
Obfcurity, and irrefiftible Poverty. The declining 
therefore the Imputation of Ingratitude, is my on- 
ly Plea ; and though it may not be pleafing to you, 
yet not to have done it in my Circumftances , 
would have been my juft Crime. I humbly 
therefore beg your Goodnefs will be pleafed 
to add to your former Kindnefles, that of paf^ 
fing by the Imperfections of what is offered. In ex- 
cufeof which, I can only fay, That as 'tis not the 


Indiiflry of one Age that can redlify and compleat 
the 4taxie of Geography ; nor the work of any one 
man that of Coins^ Weights, and Meafures j fo a well- 
meaning Eflay towards both, I hope will find a 
Courteous Entertainment from the more judicious 
and unprejudiced Reader; For I have this, I will 
not fay to juftify , but to excufeat leaft, my bold=» 
ne(s and forwardnefs, that if I had known thefe 
things to have been but tolerably performed by 
others, I had neither troubled my Reader , nor 
mif-fpentmy own time about the Re(5Vification of 
them^ wherein, although I have again made ma- 
ny Corre6tions and Amendments, yet that I have 
made good feme mens Expectations, and freed 
them from all defers and overfighcs, neither my 
Fears nor my Modefty will permit me to be confi- 
dent of; fo that knowing this Work which I have 
undertaken, is liable to common Cenfure, I am 
bold to fhrowd it under your Protection, humbly 
imploring your kind Reception and Pardon for this 
my Prefumption ; for which, and for the excefs of 
many Favours,! fhall ever pray for theProfperity of 
You and Yours ^ and for ever acknowledge my felf^ 

Your moft Humble y 7mH Faithful^ 

and moH Obliged Servant ^ 

Robert Morden. 

To the READER. 

great was the attempt of my firfi Effay^ in the pihlifhing 
of z^/y Geography Re6lifi'd , that for my hetdkfs frt- 
fumptiofj I can alledg no excufe^ unkfs^ That the zeal of 
my love for its Truth^ fo tranfported my fenfts, as I con- 
jidered not the weight I undertook. And therefore I again crave 
pardon for the audacity of that Attempt* Humbly acknowledging^ 
a M^ork of that concernment and difficulty in itfelf^ did well dt~ 
ferve the conjun^ion of many heads and hands \ andftrely more 
advantagiom had it been unto Geography, to have fallen into 
the Endeavours of fome able Advancers ^ that mighty have per" 
formed it unto the life, and added Authority thereto. For J am 
not ignorant of the difcouragement ofContradiB'wn^ of the diffi- 
culty of Diffuafion,fromradicated beliefs of what cold requitals 
fome have found in their Redemptions of Truth \and how ingeni- 
ous Difcoveries have been difmi^ed with obliquity^ and cenfured 
with fmgularity : But the kind Reception it found from fever al 
Worthy and Learned Gentlemen^ more efpecially that Influence 
that it received from the two mofl Learned Vniverjities of the 
World^ Oxford and Ca_mbridg, hath once more drawn me upon 
the Horizon of PublickFiew, not as a Mafter^ but as a poor La- 
bourer^carryingthe Carved Stone s^and the Polifhed Pillars of the 
more skilful Architects tofet them in my mean Fabrick. I have 
indeed laid my building upon other mens foundations ; for who in 
this Subjeci can dootherwife ? Nor do I hold it a Phgiary to fay y 
1 have ufsd their Richefl Jewels to adorn this Work. In excufe 
whereof give me leave to plead^ That in all Arguments and Sub- 
jeBs which have been written npon^from the infancy of Learning., 
to this Age., there hath been a continnal firife 2nd emulation among 
Writers^ to mend^fupply^ or methodize whxtfoever hath been done 
before. It would be too tedious to reckon up the fever al Authors 
on fome one Suh\eUy being a Truth fo obvious as not to need much 


To the READER. 

proofs nor is it Itfs apparent, that ft ill the latter mufl needs have 
a great adv.wtage beyond the former, by adding the experience of 
his own times to the perufal of what was formerly attained unto ; 
more efpecially //^Hiftory and Geography ;/<3r tho m the Axioms^ 
Theorems and Propofitions of Logick, Philofbphy, Mathema- 
cicks, drc. that which was once Truth remains (o for ever \ yet in 
Hiftory there is a nectffity of Continuation^ and in Geography of 
Alteration from time to time ; fo that as^tis no prefmiption to 
write upon this Subject^ tho treated of by others famous for Learn' 
ing and Parts \ fo it is a boldmfs jufiifiable by truth ^ to affirm that 
all former Gtogvdi^hxts diligently compared with the more acu- 
rate Obfervttions and D if coveries of late years ^ are greatly defc- 
iijve^ and flrangely erroneous. And that I may not be thought to 
he fingular in my affertion^feewhat the Indufirious Mr. Wright 
fiid in his Cor region of Errors in Navigation ; whtre he tells us. 
That the Longitude of Places would well deferve both Labour 
andCofi. A:'tdthothe Reclifcationof them were 'more abufie and 
fxpinftve work^ than profitable ', yet mo ft worthy and neceffary to 
be Uboured in^ as without which all Chart s.. Maps, Globes, and all 
other Hydrographical and Geographical Dejcripiions cannot be 
fned from many intricate abfurdtties wherewith they are now 
every where pejltred and perplexed : And who that loveth Truth, 
faith he, can patiently endure the Mariners common and con ft ant 
complaint of I 50 or 200 Leagues error in the diftance between 
the Bay of Mexico and the Azores ( or that which is more int oi- 
ler able and monftrous ) of 6zo Leagues difference in the diftance 
between Cape Mendofino, and Cape Californio ? A'^d in another 
place he tells m^that the heft Hydrographers of that Age found 
fuch difficulties in labouring to bring their Marine Defer ipt ions to 
Jome correfpondence of truth, that tired herewith, in tht end they 
have holden it impoffihle ; wherein not with (landing, faith he, they 
err in holding that to be fimply impoffible, which cannot be done by 
fnch ways and means as they '^now and ufe. 

And the Ingenious A/r.Hally tells us in one of his Philofophical 
Tranf aliens y That the Dutch Maps were out more than i o De- 

To the R E A D E R. 

wrees. B(4t Sanfon'^ i8 Degrees mdifta^ce betweetiLoTidiOn and 
%d\h{oKQ.Andin truth as to all the Dutch 4;;:^ French Mips that 
1 have feen, they mrefofalfe and imperft^j that as I was obli- 
ged in my fir ft Edition to alter many places in Europe 3 Degr.o/ 
Latitude, and more than 5 in Longitude; to makeMva and Ame- 
rica rvhollj new, md to rt^ify Africa more than 10 Degr. J^sd^ 
in the fecond Impreffion to infer t more than 10 New Maps of 
Countries, fome never extant in any Geography before : So aL 
fo in this Third Edition I have added a Geographical Index to 
the whole Work, Alphabetically digefted. As alfo many Cities, 
Towns, IJlmds, Rivers, with the Ancient and Modern Names, 
with many other Improvements, which were omitted in. the for- 
mer\fo that'*tis intrutha NewGeography.^W^^/ Iknow this 
wants thtHdps and Advantages of a moreLearnedPen;and indeed 
it ought to have been freed from thofe frequent avocations anddi- 
ftitrbances that attend a publickShop andTrade,Thefe were intruth 
too great difadvantages for the rendring a Book of this nature 
fo compleat and perftii, and of fo conftant and regular a fMe, as 
might be expe^ed from others, who fe quiet doors, andunmokft- 
edhours afford no fuch Diftraaions. However, in the compofmg 
of this, I have taken a due regard and greater care in the choice 
of Authors ', nor have Ibeen lefs ftudiom in avoiding weak and 
frivolous Relations, but to prefent plainly the Truth of Geogra- 
phy and Hiftory jfrom its fir ft beginning, fo far as "^tis made 
known to us by the moft approved Writers, And all this after ma- 
ny years experience, not only in making and proyeBing of Globes, 
Maps, &C. but alfo in examining and comparing of the Relati- 
ons, Difcoveries, Obfervations, Draughts, Journals, and Wri- 
tings, as well of the Ancient as Modern Geographers, Travel- 
lers, Mariners, d^r. wherein I have taken much pains, andfpent 
much time ; tho to my own profit I have done nothing : Only may 
this be but ufeful and acceptable to the young Gentry and Scholars 
of England, anil am fure of this one advantage. That I [hall many an idle hour the lefs to account for . 



To the READER. 

Somem,yyetthMth,U^^^,,„ji„^ll and the Difco^rfe toe 

Defignm.t! Bn'yny,,vherem I rather co^fitted yoL Advmt2 

fothat ,va. oft,»t,mesmorefolic,tommd conceLd toLZr 
n'hat, ,h.n .hat not to ,vrite : Tet have i»du/r,o,f/ly eJeaZZ 
edhj^mf.rtio^ofthe moft ,mportant Obfervables,thil nothZZa 

. tend mkrtr, the Maps or hefcr,ptiL may k- n^J^^'joZ. 

rejpemve parts, a> may makegmdour Title : For without var,H, 
, may he affirmed, that as compe»dtom as it is, yet ym hive he l 
tnno«,fnmrned „p the Reverend Oifervattlis of thTJ^Z't 

tht mod CurinulZV f ""'VZ^' ^^io ugh for the Readings of 
i^emoitumous md much at Leiure.yet may ferve as ththful 
Introdtidtton to their moreVoiHmiJJ^Ty.d j V 

cjnently of ever dot J of them A J LI Y^'P^M^, nnd confix 

Your moft Humble and Obedient Servant, 


* . ■ An 

A N 


T O 


GEOGKAVHX is a Science which Teacheththe 
Defcription and Dimenfion of all the Earthy as it doth 
together with theTfater^ compofe that round Body, 
which from its form is called the Orb or Globe of the 
Earth ; Defcribing the Scituations, and Meafuring the 
Diftances of all its parts. 
The Earth is placed in refped of the other Flanets or Stars of the 
Univerfe, according to Ptolomy and Tycho^ in the Centre, fixed and im- 
moveable 5 but according to Copernicus^ between the Orbs of Mars and 
Venus, moveable. 

For according to Celeftial Appearances, one of thefe two Hypothefes 
muft be granted : i. That the Earth is placed in the Center, immove- 
ble, and that all the Celeftial Bodies do move round it in their Diur- 
nal and Annual Revolutions, as in Fig. i. 

2. Or that the Sun is the Center of the Planets and Fixed Stars, 
which have no daily Motion, but that this Earth, Sea, and Air about 
it, hath a twofold Motion, one Diurnal, about its own Center in 24 
hours, whereby all its parts are alternately enlightned, and Day and 
Night fuccefllively enjoyed ; the other, its Annual Motion, by which 
it is carried about the Sun in the fpace of a Year, whereby all places 
in courfe enjoy Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winttr. Fig. 2 . 

B Thefc 

2 An Introh^ton to Geogrdphy. 

Thefe Hypothefes, with the Circles of the Sphere, and Motion of 
the Planets, you will Hnd explicated anddemon(hated more at large, 
in my Introdudion toOrtronomy and Geography. 

The Globe of the Earth is varioufly Defcribed by Geographers into 
Lines and Parts^ which are either Real or Imaginary, 

The Real parts of the "terreftrial Globe are Earth and Water. Tlie 
Imaginary parts are certain Ltnes^ which are not materially, but for the 
better underftanding of this Science, are fuppofed to be on or above 
the Earth. 

Thefe Lines are either Strait^ or Circular. The y^wV is a ftrait line 
palling through the midftor Center of the Earth, which is the Diame- 
ter of the Univerfe; the extreme points or ends whereof, are called 
the Tohs\ the one Point is called the y^r^^ci^, or Nortb-Poley the other 
the AntarClick^y or South- Pole. 

Thefe Poles are twofold ^ i . The Poles of the World, or Equator^ 
upon which is made the daily Motion from Eafi to IVcfl. 2 . The Poles 
of the Ecliptic]^^ upon which the Earth, or all the Celeftial Bodies do 
make their Yearly Revolution from JVefi to Eafi. 

The Circular Lines are divided into the greater and the lefTer : The 
Gre^j/erOVc/e/ are fuch as divide the Globe into two equal parts, and 
are four in number, Meridian^ Horizon ^Equator ^ Ediptick^: And thefe 
are either fixed, as the Equator and Ecliptickji or moveable with the 
mutation of places, as the Meridian^ and Horizon. 

The Horizon^ the Boundary or Termination of our fight, is the on- 
ly Great Circle obfervable by the eye 5 for being upon a Plain in any 
fair Day or Night, and looking where the Heavens and Earth part, 
we fee an apparent Circle^ which divides the vifible part of Heaven 
from the invifible; extending it felf into a ftrait line, from the Su- 
perficies of the Earth every way round about that place you ftand 
upon -, dividing the Heavens into two unequal parts, which is defign- 
ed out by the fight ^ and is fometimes greater or leffer, according to 
the condition of the place. But this H(jr/2SOT is not the true Horizon^ 
but parallel to it, and therefore called the Senfible or vifible Horizon^ 
comprehending all that fpace of the earth which is vifible, and di- 
ftinguilhing it from the reft which lieth under, and is invifible. 

The other Horizon^ which is called the True or Rational Horizon^ is 
a Great Circle, dividing that part of the Heavens which is above us, 
from that part which is under us, exadly into two two equal parts, 
paffing through the Center of the Earth, always certain and the 
fame 5 fuppofe a Line of DirediOn perpendicular to it, paffing through 
to the Point, diredly oyer our head, called thQ Zeniib^ and another 


An Intro^uEiion to Geography, ■» 

ditedly under our feet, called the 'i^adir^ which are the two Poles of 
the Horizon^ and po degrees diftant from if. 

By this Circle our Days and Nighfs are meafured ; for that time 
wherein the Sun continueth above the Horizm, we call an Artifical 
Day, and the time that he is under it, the Night; it alfo (hews the 
Riling and Setting of the Stars and Planets \ for when they come 
up from the dark Hemifphere^ they are faid to R ife, and per contra^ when 
they go down, are (aid to Set. 

The Meridian is a Circle paifing through the Voles of the Earthy and 
the Vertical or Zenith point of the Horizon^ croiling it at right Angles, 
dividing the Earth into two equal parts or Hemifpheres, in the Points 
of North and South', the one Ejjiern, the other IFeJiern: And 
is fo called, becaufe when the Snn com€ih to the Meridian of zny 
place, it is Noon, or Mid-day: Many in number, becaufe all places from 
Ea(i to Weji^ have feveral Meridians : 

Amongfl: thefe, one is of fpecial Note and Ufe, which Geographers 
Cd\\ the firji or chief Meridian: This fir(i Meridian is that from which 
the Longitudes of places are reckoned : In this Meridian the Poles of 
the World arefuppofed to be fixed ; and in this. Circle, the Latitude 
of Places, or Height of the Poles are numbred. 

The Ei^^^for, or Line under the Equinodial^ is a great Circle encom- 
paffingthe very middle of the Earth between the two Voles, dividing 
it into two equal parts from North to South ; and it is divided, as all 
great Circles are, into 3 60 equal parts or degrees. It is called Equator, 
either becaufe it is equally diftant from the Voles of the World, or ra- 
ther becaufe when the Sun comes to this Line, which is twice in the 
Year, viz. in its entrance into Aries, which is about the lothox 1 ith 
of March j and again in Libra about the \2th0x \^th of September, he 
makes equality of Vayi and Nights throughout the World-, from it are 
the Latitudes of places numbred upon the Meridian, either North or 
South -, upon it the Longitude of places are reckoned : It meafurgs the 
Quantity of Artificial and Natural Days, Hours, &c. Therefore its 
Degrees are called Tempora, Times, and is divided into 24. hours, 15 
degrees thereof to an hour*, for 15 times 24, makes ^60 degrees 5 
every degree is 4 minutes of Time, for 4 times 15, is 60 minutes, or 
an hour. 

The Ecliptic}^ (o called becaufe the Eclipfes of the Sun and Moon 
are here made, is an Oblique Circle croiTing the Equator in two op- 
pofite Points, called the Equinodial Poiiits ; and is divided into 12 
parts, called the 12 Signs. It is called Via Solis, becaufe the Sun al- 
ways goes under it in its annual Courfei but the icH of the Planets 

B 2 have 

4 An IntrodMon to Geography, 

have their deviations either North or South from this Line. This Cir- 
cle hath 2 Poles •, for as the Meridians meet in the Poles of the World, 
fotht Circles of Longitude drawn through the 12 Signs, meet in the 
Poles of the Edipticj^^ each Pole of the Ec/ip/ici^ being diftant from 
its correfpondent Pole of the world, 23 deg. 30 min. and are called 
North or South, according to their pofition next the North or South 
Poles of the World. 

The Meridian that paffeth through the Eqnino&ial Point of the 
Ec/z/i/ici^ in the beginning of ^rwand Libra, is called the EquinoBial 
Colure j and that which paffeth through the beginning of Cancer and 
Capricorn, is called the Soljiitial Colure. ^ 

Thefe Q/^/re/ divide the Ecliptick^into iom equal parts, which are 
called Cardinal Points •, for according to the Suns approach unto any 
of them, the Seafonof the Year is altered into Spring, Summer, Au- 
tumn, and Winter. 

The Leffer Circles or Lines are Named with particular Names, as 
'Trupick.s and Polar Circles. 

The Troj^icj^/ are parallel Circles to the Equator, diftant from it 23 
Degrees and a half: That on the North-C\de of the Equator, is called 
the Tropick^of Cancer, where the Sun hath the greateft North declination, 
and maketh our longeft Day and (hortelt Night, which is about the 
1 ith or I2t^ of June: The other on the South-fide is called the Tro- 
pickff Capricorn, in which point the Sun hath its greateft South Veclina- 
iian, making our (horteft Day, and longeft Night, which is about the 
iithot I2th oi December. 

The Polar Circles are parallels, compaffing the Poles of the World at 
23 Degrees and an halt diftance; that about the North-Pole is called 
the ArClic\Circle, the other the ^ntarClick^ Circle, becaufe oppofite to 
it: As in Fig. 3. 

Thefe. Tro/'ici^ and Polar Circles divide the Earth into five parts, 
called by the Greeks-, ^ones^ from Ztivn, Cingidum, as enclofing the 
whole Earth within their refpedive Diftrids ^ of thefe five Zones, 
three were accounted by the Ancients to be fo intemperate, as to be 
uninhabitable ; one of them by reafon of the Suns beams continually 
darting upon the fame, and this they called the Torrid Zone, termi- 
nated h-^ the Tropicks on each fide; The other two, the one compre- 
hended within the Ardick Circle, and the other compaffed by the 
Antardtick j by reafon of the extreme Cold, they thought uninha- 
bitable, as being fo remote from the Suns Beams : But only the re- 
maining two were accounted Temperate, and therefore Habitable 5 


An Intro^H^ion to Geogra^hy^ 5 

the one lying between the Ardick CitcU^ and the trofic\ of Camm 
and the other between the Antardick and the 7ropick^ of Capricorn^ 

Thus much of the General Geography : The Special is that which fet- 
teth forth the Defcription of the terreftrial Glohe^ fo far forth as 'tis 
divided into diftiiid parts or places : And is either, j. The Defcrip- 
tion of fome great integrating part of the Earth. 2. Or of fome 
one Region, and fo is properly called Chorography, 3. Or of fome 
particular place in a Region or Countrey, which is Topography. 

According to the greater integrating parts thereof, the Ancients di- 
vided the whole Earth into three great parts, viz. Europe^ y^fia, and 
j/ffrica^ towhichis now added a fourth, viz. America: thefe are again 
divided into Provinces.^ Countries^ Kingdoms^ &c. And each of thefe 
are again fubdivided into Earldoms, Baronies, Lor d {hips, e^c. Thefe 
three kinds or parts make up the perfed Subjed of Geography. 

Again, every part and place of the Earth is confidered in its/e//, or 
according to its AdjmCts^ and fo it is either Continent or IJland. 

A Continent is a great quantity of Land, in which many great King- 
doms and Countries are conjoined together, and not feparated one from 
another by any Sea, 3iS Europe^ Afia, &c. 

An T/Iand is a part of the Earth compaffed and environed round about* 
with Water ^ as Great Britain and Ireland. 

Thefe are again obfervable parts, both oi Continents and Iflands^ viz. 
Feninfttla^ Ifthmus., Vromontorium. 

Feninfula quafi pent Infttla^ is a part of Land, which being almoft en- 
vironed and encompaffed round with Water, is yet joined to the firm 
Land by fome little Ijihrnus^ as Jfrica is joined to Jjia, 01; Morea to 
Greece.) by the Greeks called Cherfonefus. 

An Ifthmus is a narrow neck of Land betwixt two Seas, joining the 
Feninfula to the Continent., as that of Varim in America^ or Corinth in 

A Promontory is a high Hill or Mountain, lying out as an elbow of 
Land into the Sea , the utmoft end of which is called a Cape, as the 
Cape of Good H)pe., and Cape Verde. 

The Adjun^s of a place are either fuch as refped the Earth it felf, 
or the Heavens : Thofe that agree to a place in refped of the Earthy 
are three in number, viz. the Magnitude or Extent of a Country^ the 
Bounds or Limits , the Quality. 

The Magnitude comprehends the length and breadth of a place. 

The Bounds of a Country is a Line terminating it round about, di- 
flinguiihingit from the bordering Lands- Qt Waters. 


6 An Introduction to Geography, 

The ^ality of a place Is the Natural Temper and DiTpofition 

A Fhce in regard of the Heavens is either Eafi , ^p/?, North, or 

Thofe places are properly Eaji which lie in the Eajiern HemifpherCy 
(terminated by the lirft Meridian) or where the Sm rifeth. 

Thofe are U^eji which lie VVefternof the faid Meridian, or towards 
the fetting of the San. 

Thofe places are properly "North which lie betwixt the Equator and 
Artick^ Vole. 

Thofe South which are betwixt thtEquator and the AntarticJ^Pole. 

The Ancients did alfo diftinguifh the Inhabitants of the E^^r^^ from 
the diverfitiesof fhadows of Bodies into three forts, viz. Perifcii, He- 
ierofciif znd j4mphifcii : the Inhabitants of the Fr?g/«/ Zowe (ifanyfuch 
are) were termed Ferifcii , becaufe the (hadow of Bodies have there a 
Circular motion in 24 hours, the Sun neither rifing nor fetting but in 
a greater portion of time. 

The Inhabitants oi theT^emperate Zones they called Heterofcii, becaufe 
the Meridian fhadows bend towards either Pole, towards the North a- 
mong thofe that dwell within the Tropick^of Cancer znd the Artick^ Cir- 
cle ; towards the South amongft thofe that dwell within the Iroprick^o^ 
Capricorn and the Antartic\QAxQ\e. 

The Inhabitants of the lorrid Xone they called Amphifcii, becaufe 
the Noon or Mid-day fhadow , according to the time of Year , doth 
fometimes fall toward the North, fometimes towards the South: when 
the Sun is in the Northern Signs, it falleth towards the South : and to- 
wards the North, when in the Southern Signs. And becaufe of the dif- 
ferent fight of oppofite Habitations, the Ancients have divided the In- 
habitants of the Earth into Period, Ant£ci, and Antipodes. 

The ?eri£ci are fuch as live under the fame parallel, being equally 
diftant from the Equator, but in oppofite points of the fame parallel. 

The Ant£ci are fuch as have the fame Meridian, and parallel equally 
dilknt from the Equator, but the one North, and the other South. 

The Antipodes are fuch as inhabit two places of the Earth which are 
Diametrially oppofite one to the other. See Fig. 4. 

The Ancients did alfo divide the Earth in Climates and Parallels. 

A Climate is a fpace of E^r/^ comprehended betwixt any two places,. 
whofe longed day differ in quantity half an hour. 

A Parallel is a (pace of Earth, wherein the days increafe in length a 
quarter of an hour ; fo that every Climate contains two Parallels, 

* Thefe 

An IntroduBion to Geography, 7 

Thefe Climates and Parallels are not of equal quantity, for the firft is 
longer than the fecond, and the fecond likewife greater than the third, 
&c. At the Latitude, where the longeft days are increafed half an hour 
longer than at the Equator^ viz. longer than 12 hours, The firft Cli- 
mate begins, which is at the- Latitude of 8 degrees, 34 minutes ; and 
in the Latitude oi 16 degrees, 43 minutes, where the days are increaf- 
ed an hour longer than at the E'juator. The fecond Climate begins, and 
fo outwards. But becaufe the Ancients , and alfo Vtolomy , fuppofed 
that part of the Earth which lies under the Equator to be inhabitable, 
therefore they placed the firft Climate at the Latitude of 12 degrees, 
43 minutes, where the longeft day is 1 2 hours \ long 5 and the fecond 
Climate to begin at the Latitude of 2 o degrees, 3 4 minutes, where the 
longeft day is 12 hours and flong; &c. 'Tis needlefs indeed to take 
any more notice of them, than thus much only ; that they that de- 
fcribe the Scituation of places by Climes and Parallels , had as good fay 

The Terraqueous Globe is but an Imaginary point compared to the vaft 
cxpanfion of the Univerfe, though of it felf of great Magnitude 5 for 
Geographers divide it into ^60 parts of degrees,and each degreee into 
60 minutes, which are fo many Italian M'lks j fo that the Circumference 
thereof is 21600 miles, and the Diameter, or Axis, is <5875 tniles, 
and its Superficies in fquare miles, is reckoned to amount to 1485 10584 
of the {kmemeafUre. ^^;^^- ^^;,; ..;,v^„ ;/,■;. ..l--, 

'Tis a common Opinion, that 5 of our Eiiglifh feet rriake ^Geometrical 
pace, 1000 of thefe -paces make an Italian mile, and 60 of thefe miles 
in any great Circle upon the Spherical furface of the Earth, or Sea, make 
a degree •, fo that a degree of the Heavens contains upon the furface of 
t\it Earth, according to this account, 60 Italian miles, 20 French ox 
P«/c^ Leagues, 15 German miles, 17 | S'f^wT^ Leagues, and 5^1 Englijh 

But according to feveral Experiments made, the quantity of a de- 
gree is thus varioufly found to be : By Alhazard an Arabian^ 533333 
Arabian feet in one degree, which reduced to our Engli(h meafure is 
3(57285 feet, or 70 miles, and g| parts of a foot. Ey Ptolomy 
3<5oooo Rhynland feet, which reduced to our Englifh feet is 371^00, 
or 70 miles |g By Wilbrodus Snellius, An. id 13. 342000 Rhynland 
feet, in Englijh 353306 feet, or 67 miles fere. By Norwood m his 
Experiment between Tvrk^ and London , finds one degree upon the 
Earth to contain 367200 feet, which makes 6p|. By Vicard a French- 
man, about 73 Italian miles, and is the neareft meafure yet found 
by thefe Experiments to anfwer to a degree of the Heavens 5 fo that 

^ An IntYo^uUion to Geography] 

the circumference of the Earth then is 25020 miles, the VUmttzt 
7P$8 in Englijh miles. 

I ftiall here note. That no Country doth in all parts of its Ter- 
ritories make ufe of the fame extent in meafuring : The Germans 
have their great, little , and ordinary miles 5 the Leagues of France 
and Spain are of different lengths, and fo are the miles in our own 

The Earth (as was faid before) is encompaffed about with the J^O' 
ter-i which walhingand furrounding the dry Land, cuts out and (hapes 
fo many winding Bays^ Creeks ■> and meandring Inlets^ and feems no- 
where fo much confined and penned as in the Straits of Magellan^ from 
whence again expatiating, it fpreads its felf into two immenfe, and 
almoft boundlefs Oceans^ which give Terminaries to the four Regions 
of the Earthy and extending it felf round them all, is but one conti- 
nued Ocean. 

The Water is either Ocean^ Seas^ Straits^ Creeks, Lak^s, or Rivers. 

The Ocean is a general Colledion or Rendezvouz of all Waters. 

The Sea is a part of the Ocean, and is either exterior, lying open to 
the (hore, as the Britifh or Arabian Seas ; or iiitetior , lying witin the 
Land, to which you mull pafs through fome Strait, as the Mediterra- 
man, or Baltick Seas. 

A Strait is a narrow part or Arm of the Ocean, lying betwixt two 
Shores, and opening a way into the Sea, as the Straits of Gtbraltery the 
HeVepnt, &c. . 

A Cree\is a fmall narrow part of the Sea that goeth up but a little 
way into the Land , otherwife called a Bay , a Station , or Road for 

A Lak^ is that which continually retains and keeps Water in it, as 
the Lakes Nicurgua in America , and Zaire in Africa. 

A "B^-iver is a fmall Branch of the Sea flowing into the Land , court- 
ing the Banks whilft they their Arms difplay, to embrace her filver 

Of the Names of the Ocean* 

According to the four garters it had four Names : From the Eafi 
it was called the Eaftern, or Oriental Ocean 5 from the Wefi the We- 
(iern, or Occidental Ocean •, from the North the Northern, or Subten- 
trional ; and from the South the Southern, or Meridional Ocean: But 
befides thefc more general i\r^we/, it hath other particular appellations, 
according to the' Countries it boundeth upon, and the nature of the 


An Introdu^ion to Geography, 9 

Sea. : As it lies extended towards the Eaji, it is called the Chinean Seay 
from the adjacent Country of China: Towards the South ^th called 
Oceanus Indkus ^ or the Indian Sea., becaufe upon it lies the Indians : 
Where it touches the Coaft of Terfia., it is called Mare Perfimm : So alfo 
Mare Arabicum^ from Arabia : So toward the IVefl is the Ethiopian Sea. 
Then the Atlantick^Ocean ., from Atlas^ a Mountain or Promontory in 
Africa ; but more Weftward near to America^ it is called by the Spa- 
niards, Mar del Nort j and on the other fide of America, it is called Mar 
del Zur^ or Mare Pacificum. Where it toucheth upon Spain, it is called 
Oceanus Hifpanicus, by iheEngliJh the Bay of Bifcay: The Sea betwixt 
England and France is called the Channel 5 between England and Ireland 
the Irijh Sea'. Between England and Holland it is called by fome the Ger- 
man, or rather the Britijh Ocean: Beyond Scotland it is called Mare Cale- 
doniuntj higher towards the North it is called the Hyperborean, or Frozen 
Sea 5 more Eafirvard, upon the Coaft of Tartary, the "Tartarian Sea ; or 
Scythian Ocean, &c. 

The Names of the Inland Seas are, i. The Baltic^ Sea, by the VMtch 
called the Ooji Zee, by the Inhabitants Vie Belt, lying between Ben- 
w^rj^and Sweden, the chief Entrance whereof is called the Sound. 

2. Pontus Euxinus , or the Blacl^ Sea-, to which joins Mcotis Palus., 
now Mar de Zaback^, on the North ^ smd Mar Marmora on the South. 

The third is the Cafpian or Hyrcanian Sea. By the Perfians, Kurfum. 

The fourth is the Arabian Gulf, Mare Eryth£umy Mare Rubrum, or 
the Red Sea. Mer Rogue Gallis, Mare Rojfo, Italis. 

The fifth is the Perfian Gulf, or the Gulf de Elcatif & de Baffora, 

The fixth is Mare Mediterranettm, by the EngUfh the Straits , by the 
Spaniards, Mar de Levant ; the beginning or entrance of it is called the 
Straits of Gibralter, rather Gibal-farif. 

Now that all Places, Cities, 'towns. Seas, Rivers, Lak^s, 8cc. may 
be readily found out upon the Globe , or Map , all Geographers do, or 
Ihould place them according to their Longitude and Latitude ; the* uib 
of which in theabfolute fenfe is to make out thepofition of any P/^ce in 
reped of the whole Globe, or to fhew the Scitujtion and dijiance of one 
place from, and in refped of any other. 

Longitudeis the diftance of a place from the firft Meridian reckoned 
in the degrees of the Equator , beginning by fome at the Camries, by 
others at the Azores -, by reafon of which Ccnfufion, I have made the 
Longitudes in this Englifh Geography to begin from London , and are rec- 
koned Eaftward and Weftward, according as they are fituated from 

G Londi'H 

lo Jn IntrodnBion to Geography, 

London on the top of the Map. And have alfo added the Longitude 
from the Tewfr/f round about the Globe of the Earth at the bottom of 
the Map, as ufually in the Vmch Maps, that fo you may by infpedtion 
only, fee the Truth or Error, if you compare them with the lahks or 
Maps formerly Extant. 

The Latitude of a place is its diftance from the Equator^ reckoned 
in the degrees of the great Meridian, and is either North or Souths 
according as it lies between the North 2S[A South-Poles of the Equator^. 





^ DirectSp/zere 

w/ Oblique Sjjkere 

■A JParalleLj^phere 



An Mvertljement concerning the ^rojeSilon anclUShs of 
General mid Particular Maps. 

ALthough the Defcription of the Earth upon the Globe be mofi; 
proper to the Underftanding, and commenfurabJe to Nature ; 
yet there are feveral ways to projedt it in a Plane or Flat. Twoefpe- 
cially are now in ufe, one by Parallelogram^ the other hy Planifphere. 
Of the Defcription by Parallelogram. 

This ufed to be divided into the midft by a Line drawn from North 
1 50»^j^,reprefenting the great Meridian ^ Crofs to this at right Angles 
another Line was drawn from Eaft to Weft for the Equator. The Mot- 
dians equally diftant, and the Parallels alfo equally extended, and ftrait 
Lines i and this way of Projedion, tho utterly againft the Original 
Nature and Conftitution of the Globe^ yet the plain Charts are bound to 
follow i indeed *tis ftrangeto me that this Sea-Chart^ being one of the 
moft principal Inftruments that the Mariners have for their diredion In 
Sailing, and known to be fo greatly and dangeroufly erroneous, yet is 
ftill made ufe of, by thofe that would be accounted Excellent. 
Of the Defcription by the Planifphere. 

This other way of Projedion, reprefents the face of the Earth upoa 
a Plane in its own proper figure Spherically, as upon the Globe-^ the 
Gibbofity only allowed for, and this is twofold. 
Of the SeClion by the Equator. 

Suppofe the T'errefirial Globe flatted upon the Plane of the Equator, 
and you have this way of Projedion, dividing the Earth into two He- 
mifpheres. North and Souths where the Pole is the Center, the Equa- 
tor is the Circumference, the Oblique Semi-circle from A'ries to Libra^ 
is the North-half of the Ecliptick, th^ Parallels are whole Circles, and 
the Meridians are ftreight Lines. 

Of the SeVuon by the Meridian. 

Suppofe the Terrcftrial Globeflatted upon the Plane of the Meridian, 
and you have this way of Projedion ; the Equator is here a ftreight 
Line, the great Merfdian is a whole Circle, and the leiTer Meridians 
are more Circular, as they come near to the great, only that which 
paffeth through the midft of the Hemifphere, dividing it into two 
equal parts,is a ftreight Line ; fo that the Meridians do not equally in 
diftance concur, the Parallels are not Parallels indeed, and the Degrees 
are unequal. However this way is that which is now moft in fafhicn : 
it is defcribed by thofe two great Circles that take up the following 
Map. The Projedion and Delineation of thefe and other particular 
Maps will be more at large ftiewed in my hitrodudion to Aftrononr.y 
and Geography, as aforefaid. C 2 A 

12 A General Map of the Earth. 

of the Vfe of Maps. 1 1' 

Of Particular Maps. 

Particular Maps are but Limbs of the Globe ^ and therefore, tho 
they are drawn afunder, yet they are to be made with that proportion, 
as aRemembring Eye may fuddenly acknowkdge, and joyn them to ' 
the whole Body. 

They are moft commonly defcribed upon a Parallelogram 5 but it 
ought to be with fuch Confideration, that being but Parts and Mem- 
bers fevered from the whole, they yet might make as great an Appear- 
ance of Integrity and Truth as can be allowed ; and ought to confill 
of fuch proportions of Meridians and Parallels, as they truly confilied 
of in the Globe it felf. And becaufe no Countrey is exadlyfquare, fo 
cnuch of the bordering Territories areufually put in, as may fhew the 
Bounds, and fill up the fquare alfo. 

The true Projedion of Maps chiefly confifts or depends upon the 
fore-knowledge of the true Longitude and Latitude of places ; which 
having been fo Notorious Falfe, 'tis ftrange to me how the Maps can 
,be true. The Longitude is to be expreffed by Meridians from Eajl to 
We(i:. The Latitudeby Parallels from North to South : both which may 
be Circles or ftrait Lines. I have fo projeded all thefe MapSj that the 
Top and Bottom of the fquare arealv^ays North and South, the right 
and left fides Eafi and Weft ; fo that you fee each Country and place 
in its true Scituation, as in the Globe or general Map j And have made 
the Parallels and Meridians both ftrait Lines, fo that the Longitude and 
Latitude are given by Infpedion, only the Meridians are inclining and 
concurring towards the Poles, to agree to the Nature of the whole, 
whereof they are fuch parts. And here give me leave toadvcrtifejThat 
altho in thefe CmzMMaps the Error is not very difcernable i yet cer- 
tainly fome Foreign Geographers, whofe Maps are now the Fondlings 
of this Age, did not underftand the Projedion of the Sphere-, for to 
me it would have been a great fhame to have expofed the parts of the 
World fo large, upon fo falfe a Bafis ; which muft needs render them 
intolerably falfe in the Difiances of Places, had the Longitudes and La- 
titudes been never fo well adjufted j which indeed are as falfe as the 
Diftances are. 

As to the Graduation cf thefe iV%j-, the Degrees oi Latitude are 
divided upon the Eafi and Weft fide ; The Degrees of Longitude upon 
the North and South. The South Figures upon the Maps are the Longi- 
'tudes from the firft Meridian^ beginning at the Pike of Jenerijf^ and^ 
reckoned round upontheGlobe to 3 doDegrees.The Northern Figures^ 
are the Difference of Longitudes from Londony and are reckoned Eafi or 
Weil, according as the Scituation of the place-is Eafi or Weft from ^ 
LondoHo. Foff 

14 Of the Vfe of Maps. 

For from whence to reckon the Longitude in all Maps, is a fault of 
moft Geographers 'j and I anri not the firft that have complained of it ; for 
though there be a Graduation, yet you are uncertain where their iirli 
Meridian begins. 

It will not therefore be amifs, if I tell you the feveral Meridians ob- 
ferved, and the Ui^znct oi Longitttde between thefe A/er/^m/, and their 
difference from London^ viz. Vtolomys Meridian was Junonia Major ^ 
Plin. Herat. & Helii. Pto\. Madera^ U^cKigro &Ortelio\ rather F^r/e- 
ventura^ tci\e Baud. Herbaniay Sanfone. This Junonia Vfd^s ixom London 
20 degr. 

The Meridian of the Jrabian Geographer is fomething dubious > for 
HerculU Columnte is a Town in Frifi£^ between Groeningen and Coverdm., 
called VuvelfcutZi tefte Ortelio. The Spaniards tell us they are in the 
Ifles Gaditana, ilow Cales or Cadez^^ where are two Towers fo called, 
Columnas de Hercoles. Others make the two Mountains Ahila and Calpe^ 
on both fides of the Herculeum Fretum, now Ejhecbio de Gibralter^ to be 
the Pillars of Hercules. That of Abila is in Mauritania, now Mons Al- 
mina^ tefte Clufto, Mont des Singes, GaUis. Scheminck^lbergb^ Belgis. Calpe 
Mons, now Gibralter. Clufio, is a Mountain and City in Spain, over- 
againft Ahila, and about 18 miles diftant i now near to, if not the 
fame with Ceuta, or Zeuta', Latinis, Septa -, Greets, Septon\ Mauris Bent 
Maras tefte Marmolio : But forafmuch as it was but 10 Degrees from 
London, zud that it palTedby the utmoft point of the Weftern Shore, it 
muft rather be from Hrcukum Vromontorium, ( not Hirtland Point in 
Devonjhire) but Cabo Cantin in Morocco^ which is from London about 
10 Degrees. 

The Dutch Meridian is the Vike of Teneriff, the Nivaria Plin. telle 
Sanfon. But by the Bifhops of Girone and Andrea Bacio^ Gomera is the 
ancient Nivaria. However the Pz\e is the moft noted place, and indeed 
the beft, if all were well agreed, for the firft Meridian, and according 
to the beft Obfervations that have been been made, it is from London 
18 Degrees. 

Ifola del Ferro, ( the Tluitalia Ttol. the Tluvialia , Plin. tefte Andrea 
Bacchio. But Niger tells us Gomera is the Fluvitalia of old) now Vl/Ie 
de Fer. Gallis ; IJIa de Hierro, Hifpanis ; the French Meridian, is diftant 
from London 20 Degrees. 

Corvo and Flores, the Meridian of many Writers and Map-makers, 
is from London 33 Degrees. St. Michael, the Meridian of our Englifh 
Globes, is about 27. 

Pico, the Meridian of VudUus Sea-Charts, is 3 1 Degrees. 

That oiGraciofa, the Engliji/ Hydrographer, is about 30 Degrees. 


Of the Vfe of Maps. 15 

By this Table you may eafily know from whence moft Geographers 
begin ihdt Longitudes '•, and alfo know hov/ near to truth, by adding 
or fubftracSing the proper Numbers in the Table, to or from the 
Number found in their Maps. 

As to the Scale in particular Maps, it dependeth upon the Degrees 
of a great Circle, and the proportion of Miles in each Countrey to 
foch a Degree, which I have difcour fed of in Page 2^ to which I refer 
you ; only take Notice, That therefore I have made no Scales to the 
Maps; forthe Diftanceof any two places taken with your CompaiTes, 
and applied either to theEaft or Weft-lide of your Map, which is the 
Scale of Latitude, gives you the Number of Degrees that thofe two 
places are dilbnt one from the other, which multiplied by 73, gives 
you the Number of Geometrical or Italian Miles, by 6p \ for Englijh 
Statute Miles, by 25 for French common Leives, by 17 | for the Spanijh 
Miles, by 1 5 for the common German^ Dutch, Venmark^ , and Great 
Poland Miles, by 10 for Hungarian Miles, by 12 for Suedijh Miles, by 
80 for the Mufcovian Verftesor Voreft, by 480 for the Greci^;; Stadia, 
or 450 according to Mr. Greaves, by 20 for the Perfian, Arabian, and 
'Egyptian Parafanga, now called Farfach, by 24 for the Mogul or Indian 
Cos, according to Sanfon, by 250 for the Chiaean Stades, by 400 for^ 
the Ikins of Japan -, as for the Turl^t, they have no diilindiion of their ; 
Ways by Miles, nor Days by Hours. 


Of Eurooe. 

EVROPE, one of the four great Parts of the PPWld , is alfo 
the moft confiderable in reipedt of the Beauty of her King- 
doms and Commonrpealths , the Politenefs of her Inhabitants^ 
the Excellent Government of her Cities ; as alfo in regard 
of its Excellency in hcj: 'Traffick^ and Commerce ^ the goodnefs of her 
^ir, and general Fertility. It is the lealt Part of all, yet has produced 
the great Alexanders and C£fars of the Univerfe ; contains within its 
Bounds the principal part of the Roman and Grecian Monarchies ; and, 


Of Europe, 1 7 

which to this day furnilheth the other parts of the World with Colomer. 
Its Scituation is all in the Northern Temperate Xone^ which free the Inha- 
bitants from the infupportable Heats of j^frick^, and from thofe which 
alfo parch the more Southern Climes of ^fia : The Jir is generally 
._fweet and temperate, unkfs in the rcmoteft Countries of the North : 
The Soil affords all forts of Grain and Fruit, of which the other parts 
of the tVorldsLic often in want ; But her higheil Glory and Prerogative 
is, that (he is not only Europe^ but Chrifiendom, and hath imbraced the 
rrue Religion. But alas ! theftrange Schifms, thelhimeful vices, the la- 
mentable cilTentions, the unchriftian divifions about Ceremonies and 
Opinions, are fatal Eclipfes of her brightncfs and fplendor, who other- 
wife might juftly have been fliled , The Temple of Pveligion : The 
Court of Policy and Government : The Academy oi Learning : The 
Miftris of Arcs and Sciences : The Maga7ine of Trade: The Nurfc 
of VitStorious and famous people : And the Paradice of humane felicity. 
' The, length of Europe is varioufly fet down by Geographers. Cluverm 
faith from the Cape of St. Vincent unto the mouth of the River Oby^ h 
^QQ German^ or ^600 Italian miles: I find that the true diftance can- 
notbe more than 50 degrees, which multiplied by 73, for fo many 
miles are found to be in a degree, makes 3 55-0 Geometrical or Italian 
miles. Sanfon's Map of Europe makes the diftance to be 55 degrees,which 
multiplied by 73, makes 40 15, which is 3 65 miles more than thfegrea- 
teft diftance can be. But the Great Nen> Jtlas tells us, 'tis 7 1 degrees of 
the Equator, which multiplied by 73, makes 5183, which is but 1533 
mile§ too large in the length of Europe, 

Maginm tells us, that the diftance from Lisbon to ConftantinoPle is ^00 
German^ 0X2 A^oo Italian miles. The true diftance I find cannot be more 
than 321, which multiplied by 73, makes 23 52 miles. But iS't?«/o«'s Map 
makes the Diftance to be 3<5, which makes 276 miles too much 

Hf)'/z>2 tells us, that Europe is in length 2800 miles, in breadth 1 2 00 
miles j but from whence he begins, or what miles he means, the Rea- 
der cannot tell ^ fo that I think he had as good have faid nothing. 

The Breadth by Cluverius from Cape Matrapan of the Morea^ to the 
North C^e^ is reckoned to be 5 5 o German., or 2 200 Italian miles. Ma- 
ginus makes it to be almoft 600 German., or 2400 Italian miles. The 
true diftance or difference of Latitude is 35 degr. of the Equator, which 
multiplied by 73 makes 2555 miles. Sanfons Map makes it 38 degrees, 
which makes 2 774 miles, which is 2 op miles too much. But the great 
y4tl.;s tells us, it contains about 44 degrees, which makes 3212 mileSj 
^57 miles too large. 

Towards the North^Europe is bounded by the Northern (^ce^j^jOther- 

b wife 

1 8 0/ Europe, 

wife called the Frozm Sea^ by reafon of the continual Ice which incom- 
modes thofe Parts: Towards the Weft it is limited by the Weftern, 
or Athntichpcean ; by the Mediterranean Sea toward the South ; and 
beyond that Sea, by part of Africa. As for the Eaftern Bounds, from 
the Mediterranean Sea to the North, -they are thefe : The Archipelago^ or 
White Se^, anciently called the^^e^«Sea. 2. The Streight of Galli- 
p li, or the Vardaneh^ otherwife called the Arm of St. George, and 
toniKth' the H:lIefpont. 3. Ey Mrr^di, Marmora^ formerly Mare Pro- 
pontis. 4. By the Streight of Coniiantinople, or the Canal of Mar Mag- 
giore, formerly the Thracian Bojphorns. 5.Ey the Black^^ or Mar^ Maggiore^ 
formerly Pontns Euxinns, 6, By the Streight of Cajfa, or VefperOy 
otherwife the Mouth of St. John, formerly the Cimmerian BofphorMs,y .By 
Mare Limen^ otherwife the Sea of Zabaique and Tanaii, formerly Palus 
Mxotis. 8. By theRiverDj««, or T^ana, formerly Tanais. p. By a Line 
drawn from the moft Eafiern Winding of Vonn to the Northern Ocean 
near Obi : Some there are that draw this Line more to the Pf^eji, from 
the Sources of Donn to the JVhite Sea, which is in Mofcovy, making 
Europe much lefs than it is. Others inclofe within the Limits of Eu- 
rope all the Conqueft of the Great Duke of Mufcovy, which are in the 
Afiatic\ T'artary. 

E«ra/?e is divided into Continent and Iflands, which contain thefe 
Kingdoms ox E(i ate f, wz. Towards the North, the IJles of Great Britain, 
containing the Kingdoms of England., Scotland, and Ireland, the Prin- 
cipality of JVales, with mzny Iflandf dependant upon them. 

2dly^ Scandinavia, containing the Kingdoms of i .Denmarl^^^ with Nor^ 
way, and Sweden, ^dly. The (everal Kingdoms, Dutchies, &c, of the 
Grand Czar oi Rujfta znd Mufcovia. 4. The Kingdom, Eftates, &e, of 
Poland and Lithuania. 

Towards the Middle, 1. The Northern Eftates of I'urky in Europe, 
viz. I. 'Tartaria Europa, Walachia, Moldavia, Tranflvania, and Hungaria: 
2. The Empire of Germany, with its eight Electorates. 3. The 
Eftates of the Republick of Switzerland. The Seven Vnited Provinces. 
The Ten Spanijh Provinces. 4. The Kingdoms of France , with its 
Twelve Governments, and late Acquiiitions. 

Towards the South : i. The Kingdoms and Principalities of Spain : 
2. The Kingdom of PortugaLThe Kingdoms and Eftates in /^^/j'. The 
Eftates and Dukedom of Savoy, Piedmont, dec. The Kingdoms and Ifles 
of Sicily, Sardinia, and Majorca, See. The Southern Eftates of Turky in 
Europe, viz, Sclavonia, Croatia, Valmatia, Ragufa, Bofnia, Servia, Bul- 
garia. The Countrey of Greece, containing the Kingdoms and parts of 
Romania, or Thracia, Macedonia, 'Thejfalia , Albania^ Epirus and Cr£cia, 


Of Europe, 1 9 

or Jchaia, and Feloponnefus^ox thcMorea^ with thelfie o{ Negropont., &c* 
Theljhfids of Europe zxe feated, either in the Ocean-^ the Mediterra, 
nean^ or iB^/fic^Seas. The JJIands lying in the Oc.vw, are, the BritiJJj Ifles 
aforefaid j A^iw/)/, Sardiuia^ Corftcj^ ?.nd Candy ^ are the biggeft //Zc^w^// in 
the Mediterranean. The Illands of the Baltic^ Sea we (hall fpeak of in the 
Defcription of Denmark. 

We may confider the Eftates of Enrope according to their Titks,with- 
out regard to their Dignity, and fay that there is, i. The Eftate of the 
Church or Fope in Italy. 2. Two Empires -^ Germ my ^ and Turkj' The 
firft,haifMonarchy,haIf Commonwealth : The latter only Monarchical. 
3. Seven Kingdoms, every one Govern d by their own Kings, that ac- 
knowledge no Superior, viz. England^ France^ Spain^ Portugal^ Svpcde- 
land^ Denmark^, and Poland. That of France is mod perfed:, and de- 
fcends only to the Heirs male ever fince the Salique-Law. The iive other 
admit the Female. All are Hereditary, only Poland^ which is Eledive. 
There are moreover in E/;rc/?c other lefTer Kingdoms comprehended un- 
der thefe, as thofe of Bohema^nd Hungary^ under the Emperor c^ Ger- 
many. That of Ai?t^^)T under the King of France. That of Naples mltalyy 
Sicily^ Sardinia^ and Majorca^ under the Crown of Spain. And thofe oJF 
Scotland and /re/<««^^ under the King of England. 4. Eight Electorates, 
Mayence^ Treves^ Cologn^ Bohemia^ Bavaria , Sax--^ny , Brandenhurgb , and 
the Palatinate of the PJnne. 5. One Arch- Duke, the Duke of Aujiria. 
6. Two Great Dukes, of Mofcovy and "tofcany. The Prince of the firll 
affumesthe Title of Emperor, and indeed it is a Dukedom on which 
depends thirty other Dutchies, and three Kingdoms. This Duke is ab- 
folute over his Subje<3:s, and is called by the general Name of Gran 
Czar. 7. Six Sovereign Dukedoms, befides thofe, that are under the 
Empire, Savoy^ Lorrain, Mantua.^ Modena^ Parma. SlvA Cmland. 8. Four 
Principalities that depend upon the TurJ^s^ Tranfilvania^ Walachia^ Mol- 
davia^ and the lefler Tartary. p. Seven Commonwealths, the Seven 
Vnited ProvinceS't Switzerland^ Venice, Genoa, Geneva, Ltica, and Ragufa. 
To which fome add the Commonwealth of Marine in Italy. Lafxly, A 
great number of Principalities and Imperial FreeTowns.en joying aSove- 
raignty in their Territories,buc yet they acknowledg a Superior Power. 
The Ecclefiaftical Government of Europein general, is either Papal, 
owning the Pope as Supreme j or Epifcopal, owning the King as Su- 
preme in all caies, and Archbifnops and Bifhops under him. Or Su- 
perintendant, which is a kind of Epifcopal among the Lutherans., but 
yet OA'ning no Head of the Church on Earth, neither Pope nor Kin^r, 
nor Civil Magiftrate. There is alfo the P/vj'^)'fcrw«, or Syncdical, own- 
ing a Presbytery, a Synod, or Lay-Elders, e^^c. as Supreme, but no Ei- 
(hops or Superintendants. ^ D 2 There 

^- Of Europe: 

rTil'^'4^''^ 1°"'^''"^'^^^ I^«^«^^./ reckon'd to be fpoken in thispart 
ot theViorld; tutonicK, Latm, Greek, ^nd Sclavonian. Thcruiomck 
IS of three forts, High Vutch in Germany, Saxon in England and Scotland: 
Dam(h in Vmmark,, Sweden, -Rorxvay^vA Ireland, The Latin is corrupted 
into Ijahan, French, znd Spanijh. Th? Gm^had formerly four VialeSs 
the Atticf^ lomck,, Vorick, and ^olick. The Sclavonian Language runs 
through all Sclavonia, Bohemia, Poland and Mofcovy, and all the Turbp 
tmpircm Europe. There are alfo feven other Languages of lefs Note 
which are ufed in Europe : The Albanian, or Epirotic\\n Epirus and Ma- 
cedonia. The CofacJ^ot Tartarian m part of P^/^«^and Tartary. The 
Hungarian or Bulgarian in Servia, Bofnia, Bulgaria^ and Hungary, &c. the 
Finickjn Finmar}{znd Lapland, Irijh in Ireland znd Scotland. The Britijh 
Is fpoken in ^^<a/e/, Cornvoal, and in Britany in France. B?/m^« is fpoken 
only in B//c<?«j/ near to the Cantabrim Ocean, or Bay of Bifcay^ 


f the Britifh Ifles 

NDEPv this Title are comprehended feveral diftindl and 
famous Illands, the whole Dominion whereof (now Uni- 
ted ) is under the Command of the King of Great Bri-^ 
tain, &c. Bounded on the North and Weft with the Hy- 
perborean and Vucalidcnean Ocean, on the South divided from France 
with the Engltjh Channel, on the Eaft feparated from Denmark, and 
Belgia with the Britifh (by fome called the German) Ocean : But on all 
fides environed with Turbulent Seas, guarded with Dangerous Rocks 
and Sands, defended with ftrong Forts,, and walled with a Potent and 
Royal Navy. Of thefe Iflands one is very large, formerly called Al' 

ila^n, now Great Britain^ comprehending two Kingdoms, England and 
Smland: The other.of lefler extent makes one Kingdom,caned Ireland: 

^The other fmaller adjacent Ifles are comprehended under one or other 

^of thefe three Kingdoms, according to the Situation and Congruity 
with them. Many are the Changes and Alterations that thefe I/lands 
have received in their Governments (ince their Origijial difcovery ^ 
they were firil poffelTed by divers People, independent one upon the 

-^other, fuppofed to be the Britains defcended fron:> the Gauls ; for at 
the Entrance of the Romans, the Ifland of Great Britain was divided in- 
to feveral' Nations, each governed by his own King znd particular 
Princes, different in their Ends and Couiifels, and fo the more eafily 
fubdued by the Roman Force. 

jfT 'After the Romans-^ the Englijh Saxons were called in by the Britains, 
to aid them againft the Pids. The Inhabitants of Scotland (who, 
gfter the common manuer of Foreign Auxiliaries, foon feized the bet- 
ter part for themfelves , and eftablifhed Seven Kingdoms, commonly 
called the Saxon Heptarchy) Fotc'm^ the Britains, the Ancient Vroprie^ 
tors, to retire, fome mto Britain in France (from whence fotue think 
they tirit came ) but moft of them into the t^^eftern and Mountainous 
Part, called by the Saxons, WaJiJh Land~/no\y Waks ', where their Po- 
ftesify ftill temains. 

A yi-- 


Of the I/les of Britain, 

'niie State of England m the time of Pcol.Dmy . living tn the Reign of the Emperor Antoninus Pius, aZ-o;!/- the yar 

of Rome 892, and. about 9 s years fince the Cor.quefi thereof by the Emperor Cla'.'.tiius Csefar- ^Ifo a. Taile 

I cfthe Saxon He-f',archy. 

\^ncient Inhabitants 

Ciunttes tiames. 

iThe Cantli of 

The Rhegn 


Thelceni, orSime- 

11 of --^^ '- 


The Trinobantes, 
' or Trinoantes. 

^iicient Names of f>;. 
1 Towns. 


'Rut'jpias, or, 


NaeoaiagLis, < 


CamBridgmire; aild^!" 
Middlcfot '.' ■ 
Harcfordihire Van 

Venta Icencrum 
iVilla Fauftini 


The Ocalini, ©p, 3 
Otadenii. ' ^ 





Cacvellani, ' "' 

or, . 

Coricani, or, 

Weftmeiland. -" 

. Dobuni, t 

Dodunri . 


Part of the Silures 





Cam', ] 
Carrialodu, ) 
iunum,or, ^ 
lunim ' ■■ y 








Vanov'ium . 




Brcmcnium - 





Part of HartfordihirelVerolamium 

Lincolnfeire Lindura 

Ldcefterfhire Ragas, or Rads 


Norrhatriptonfhire Bennaventa 






Stafford fliire 








Tneprejent Aamey. 

VLilgo Rochefter 

Saxsii titptarciiy. 

Kingdom of Ker.t 

WoCLicot-Hill, near 


t. Edmundsbury 

Maldon in Effex 







Ribiechefter-,' ■ ;, 



Wheallep Caftle 



Deva, or Devana 


Uxela, or Uzela 

^ Aqus Calid« 

Venta Belgarum 

Dunium, or Durno- 
varia ; ' 

Nalcaa, or Caleva 


The Kingdom of the 
Northuinbers whidi 
was divided ■ into 
two Kingddms.jX/zk,. 
Deira and Bernica 

Sanday ' 







Wroxcefter ' 








Dorchefter . 


Kii'gaoin 01 tiic 
Sojth Saxons 

Kingdom of rhe 
• '^Eafl^Angles 

Kingdom of the 
Ealt Saxon* • 

! The Kingdom of 
^ • Mircia. 

The Kingdom of the 
Weft Saxons. 

it jC >n.yi>-^^-^%-"' 


Of EngUnL 23 

After this the Vams broke in, like a violent flood upon the Northttm- 
hers ; and though often vanquiftied, yet being as often vidorious, they 
at la ft feized on the Monarchy of England^ which was fometimes held 
by theVanes, fometimes by the Saxons ; till William Duke oi Normandy 
took it from Harold^ and eftabliOied the Monarchy-, which hath ever 
fince continued in a Succeilion of Eight and twenty Princes, down to 
our Prefent Gracious Soveraigns King William and Queen Mary, 


^ Talk cmtaitmig the Cottntia or Shires, their Titles, Cities and Tiwns, their Lititude, computed dijiance, and Menfured 
diftancsfyom London. Tae number of Mirkct -Towns, rf Parliament-men, of p^rijhes tn each Cr.mty, and timr ancient 




I E, 


C ottnties or Shires. 


Cheniire C. P. 















W iltlhire 







V. C. 




V. c. 
















V. C. 






M. E. 

Cities and Tovuns. 




Cambi idg 

Ely, B. C. 

Ch.^r, B.C. 



Carline, B. C. 


Exeter, B. C, 



Durham, B.C. 



Gloceftcr, E. C 


St. Albons 

Winchcfter , C B. 


Hereford, B. C- 


Canterbury, C. 

Rochcftcr, B. 





London, B. C. 



Norwich, B. C. 






Oxford, B. C 




Briftol, C. B. 

Bath, B.C. 

Litchhtld, B. C- 






Chicefter, B. C. 


Coventry, B. C. 


Salisbury B. C. 



York, A. B.C. 



2 00 
■^ 15 

2 26 

3 17 
o 49 
o 27 

4 59 
2 58 
o 43 
o 25 


4 49 

1 58 
I 47 

I 54 

I 49 
I 45 
I 3 


1 8 

2 10 
I 19 

1 24 
4 27 

3 35 

2 40 

3 15 
I 3T 
I 70 

1 52 

2 42 

2 44 

2 35 



I 40 

















7 + 




























































































































4 I 116 
9 140 


























■Old Names. 









Derbia (rum 

Ifca Damhonio- 









\'cnta Belgarum 
















Antona Borealis 








Aquae Calidae 




Villa Fauftini 












OfEnglarJ. 2$ 

THE better part of the beft Ifland in the whole Earth (anciently, 
together with Scotland^ as was faid before, called Great Britain, 
and fometimes Albion) was by Egbert the ilth King of the W(j} Saxons 
advanced to the Honour of an intire Monarchy, who having with profpe- 
rous Arms fubdued the principal Kingdoms oi the Saxon Heptarchy, Ai- 
led himfelf the lirft Monarch j and commanded this South Part of. Bri- 
tain fhould be called Angky or Engh-londy from the Angles a People of 
the lower Saxons, of whom he was defcended ; by the French, Angle- 
terre 5 by the Germans, Englandt ; and by the Inhabitants, England, 

It is in length (from Benaoick^'m the North, to the IJIe of JVight in the 
South) 375 Miles i and from P<7t'er in the Eafi, to the LW/-E«^ in 
CornrvaU'm the Wefi, about 328 of the fame Miles j whereof 73 make 
a Degree : In Compafs about 1300 Miles ; in Shape, Triangular 5 
and by computation contains about 30 Millions of ^cre/, being about 
the Thoufandth part of the Globe j and the Three hundred thirty third 
Part of the habitable Earth. 

England was, in the time of the Romans, divided into Britania Prima, 
Britania Secmda, and Maxima C£farienfis ; the firft of thefe contained 
the South part of England^ the fecond all the Wejiern part, now called 
TVales j and the third, the Northern parts beyond Trent. After the Bri- 
tains had received the ChrijHan Faith, they divided the fame into three 
Provinces, or Archhijhoprickf, viz. of London , which contained that of 
Britania Prima ; ofTorJ^, which contained thzt pi Maxima C£farienfjs i 
of Caerlion, under which was Britania Secunda : Divided afterwards 
by the Saxons info Seven Kingdoms, as aforefaid. 

At prefent, England^ according to its Refpe<St of Church and State, 
is fubjec^ to a fourfold divifion: Firft into two Provinces, or Archbijhop- 
rickj, Canterbury and Tork^^ and under thefe are 2 2 Bifhop, or Epifcopal 
Viocejfes, of which Canterbury hath 21, therefore called the Primate and 
Metropolitan of all England s and that of Tor^, three: Then there are 
Deanries 6q , Arch-Veanries ^ Prebendaries, and other Dignities 544, 
with P725 Parochial Benefices, and Vicaridges befides, of good Com- 
petency for the Encouragement of the Clergy, who, for ability of Learn- 
ing are not to be parallel'd in the World. 

A Catalogm 

Of EngUnd, 

A Catalogne of the Archbithopricks and bilhopricks of England and Wales, 
mth tvhat Counties are under their Jurifdidions , and the Number of 
Parifhes and Impropriations that are in each Diocefs 

and Biff-jofrkki. 






Bath and Well 







St. Afaph 
St. Davias 


Countries under each of their Jurifdi^ions* 











Hath Canterbury, and part of Kent, befides 

peculiar in the Diocefs of Canterbury. 
Hath Yorkihire and Nottinghamlhire. 
Eflex, Middlefex and part of Hartfordfhlre. 
Durham,Northumberland,and thelfle of Man. 
Hampftiire, Surry, Ifle of Wight, Gernfey, 

andjerfey, and Alderny. 
Oxford (hire. 
Cirnarvanfhire, Anglefey, Merionethfhire, 

and part of Denbilhire. 
Part of Kent. 
Cambridgfliire, and part of Ely. 
^uffex, and part of Hartford Ihire. 
Wiklhire and Barkfhire. 
Worceilerfliire, part of Warwickfhire. 
Lincoln, Leiceiier, Bedford, Huntington, 2 

Buckingham, and part of Hartfortfliire. \ 
Part of Flintfhire, and part of Denbighfhire. 
Perabrokeftiire, and Carmarthenlhire. 
Northampton, and Rutlandlhire 
, part of Radnorfhire. 
Cumberland, and part of Weftmorland. 
Devonftiire and Cornwall. 
Chelhire, part of Yorkfhire, Lancafhire, 7 

' nd.J 











12 1 





part of Flint, and part of Cumberla 


Morfolk and Suffolk. 


Hereford (hire, Shropfhire, part of Worce . ,. 
fl:er(hire, and part of Radnor{hire. r 3 3 

Sta(ford(hirc, DarbyQiire, part of Warwick- 
fhire, part of Shropihire. 

1 121 

26 J 























Of England. 27 

The fecond Divifion wasby KingH.^«ry the Second into fix Circuits* 
appointed to the Itinerary Judges ^ who are twice in a year in the chie^ 
Town of each County in their refpeCiive Circuit, to determine Caufesi 
and adminifter Juftice for the Eafe of the People. 

The third is the Military Divifion^ for the railing of Horfe and Foot 
for the King's Service : It is alfo divided by the King's Juftices in Eyrs 
of the Foreft 5 and by the King of Arras into North and South of Trent. 

The laft Divifion i^ that of Shires or Counties, hrfi ordained by King 
j4fred, which are fubdivided into Hundreds or Wapentakes, and thoie 
again into Tythings. He alfo appointed a Vice-compt or Sheriffs whofe 
Office was to look after the Peace and Welfare of the Shire : To Exe- 
cute the Kings Writs and Precepts, and perform feveral other duties ne- 
ceflary for the Execution of Juftice, and Welfare of the People : And 
thefe Sheriffs are generally chofen out of the chicfell of the Gentry. 
King Edtvard the Third ordained in every Shire, certain Civil Magi- 
jirates, intitled Jujiices of the Peace , whofe Duties are, to look after 
the Difordersthat arife in the Shire, or Hundred in which they reiide, 
and to punifli Offenders. 

There are in all England 2 ^ Citks, <58o Great Towns, called Mar- 
h^t'Tomis ; p'j2'^Pari(hes, and in many of which are contained feveral 
Hamlets or ViHages as big as ordinary Parijhes. 

England is bled with a fweet and temperate Air, the Cold in Winter 
being lefs Sharp than in fome parts of France and Italy, which yet are 
feated far more Southerly *, And the Heat in Summer is lefs fcorching 
than in fome parts of the Continent that lie much more Northward. 

For as in Summer, the gentle Winds , and frequent Showres, qua- 
lifie all violent Heats and Droughts ; fo in Winter the Frofts do only 
meliorate the Cultivated Soil, and the Snow keeps warm the tender 

The whole Countty is exceeding Fertile, abounding with all forts 
of Grain, Rich in Paflure, containing innumerable quantities of Cattel, 
yielding great plenty of all forts of Forvl, Wild and Tamej Its Seas 
and Kivers infinitely ftored with all variety of excellent Fifh: In its 
Bowels are found Pvich Mines of LW, Tinn, Iron, Copper and Coal, as 
ufeful as advantageous to the Nation : Nor doth it want Mines of Sil- 
ver, tho rare, and but in fmall quantities : It hath excellent Hot Baths, 
and divers Medicinal Springs: It is bravely furniftied with Variety of 
pleafaiit Orchards and Gardens , luxuriant with all forts of excellent 
Fruits, Plants and Flowers, 

The Englijh are Governed by feveral Laws, viz. Common Lsrv, Statute 
Larr, Civil Lxw, Canon Lavo, and Martial Law, befides particular Cu- 
ftoms and By-Laws. E 2 The 

&S Of E^glanL 

The Common Law oi England is a CoUedion of the General Com- 
mon Cujiom and Ufages of the Kingdom, which have by length of 
time and immemorial Prefcription, obtained the force of Laws •, for 
Guftoms bind not the People till they have been tried and approved 
time out of mind. Thefe Laws were firft reduced all into one body, 
by King Edtpard the Elder, about the year poo ; revived by KingEd- 
vpard the ConfefTor i William the Conqueror added fome of the Cufloms 
of Normandy^ fince which Edwardxhc Firft did fettle divers fundamen- 
tal Laws, ever fince pradifed in this Nation. 

Where the Common Law is fiient, there we have excellent Statute' 
Laws made by the feveral Kings of England.^ by and with the advice 
and Confent of the Lords Spirit ural and 'Temporal^ and Commons of Eng' 
land , by their Reprefentatives the Knights, Citizens and Burgejfes duly 
Eledled in Parliament. 

Where Common and Statute- Lat^ take no Cognizance, As in matters 
tranfac^ed beyond the Seas, and relating to the Admiralty, &C. Ufe 
is made of the Civil Latv^ which ought to be the Product of the Com- 
mon Reafon and Wifdom of all Mankind, and fitted for the Intereft and 
Welfare, not only of one Nation, but takingCarefor the general Af- 
fairs of all People. 

The Canon- Law is the many ancient General Councils of National and 
Provincial Synods, the divers Decrees and Judgments of the yincient 
Fathers^ &c. received by the Church oi England', by which flie pro- 
ceeds in her Jurifdidtions j as chiefly for the Reforming of the inward 
man, and matters accounted of a fpiritual Nature, as Cafes Matrimo- 
nial, Teftamentary, Scandals, Offences againft good Manners, &c. 

Forejl-Laws are, for regulating Offences committed in, or relating 
unto fome Foreft or Chafe, for prefervation of the Game, &c. 

Martial Law extends only to Soldiers and Mariners, and is not to be 
pradtifed in times of Peace, but only in War, and then and therejwhere 
the King's Army is afoot. 

The T>o&rine of the Church of England is ApoftolicaU contained either 
in exprefs words of the Holy Scripture, or in the 3p Articles, and the 
Book of Homilies in all things agreeable thereunto 5 the Worfhip and 
Difcipline is in the Liturgy and Book of Canons : By all which it will 
appear to impartial eyes , that the Church of England is the moft exad 
and perfed Pattern of all the Reformed Churches in the World. Let Italy 
glory in this, that (he is the Garden of the Earth ; it may truly be 
faid o^England, that it is the Court and Trefence-Chamber of the Great Je- 
hovah ; which ftiould engage us the more by Holy Lives to walk fuitable 
to fuch Mercies, and not to forfeit thofe ineftimable Priviledges, by our 


Of England,* 29 

aying fins \ for how can we expedl that Gk)d Ihould always continue 
fo gracious to us, if we continually turn his Grace into Wantonnefs ? 
Englandis a Free, Hereditary, Paternal Monarchy, Governed by one 
Supreme, Independent and Undepofable Headjaccordingtothe known 
Laws and Cuftoms of the Kingdom: A Monarchy ^thzt without Inter- 
ruption hath been continued 1000 years; in a word, a Government 
of a perfed and happy compofition, wherein the King hath his full Pre- 
rogative, the Nobility and Gentry Civil and due Refpedi 5 and the Peo- 
ple in general, Malkrs of the Eftates they can get by their Labours and 
Endeavours 5 a Bleiling that few Countries can boali of: O happy and 
bkfled England ! Thy Valleys are like Eden, Thy Hills like Lebanon.Thy 
Springs as Shiloe^ and thy Rivers as Jordan 5 a Paradife of Pleafure, 
and the Garden of God, enriched with all the Bleflings of Heaven and 

Her chief Cities are London, Londiniumoi Ptolomy, Ant. &'tac.Lunden 
Ger. Londra^Ita. Londres Gal, the Epitome of England, the Seat of our 
Briti(h Empire, the Chamber of the King,and the chiefeft Emporium (or 
feat of Traffick ) in the world : To defcribe all things in this City 
worthy to be known, would take up a whole Volume. I (hall only 
fay, feated (he is in an Excellent Air, in a Fertile Soil, and on the fa- 
mous Navigable River Thames^ about <5o miles from the Sea, in 5 1 deg. 
30 min. North Latitude. 

In Length from Eaji to Weji fevcn Englifli miles and a half i and from 
North to Sottth two miles and a half: But of late years fo increafed and 
ftill multiplying in Building in all her parts, that there can no Bounds 
or Limits be fet to her Circumference. The Buildings fair and liately ; 
for large Pia2za's,for fpacious ftraight Streets and ftately Uniform Buil- 
ding, fce has not any Rival in Europe. 

It hdid 1^0 Parijh- Churches, hcUdcs Chappels ', the Mother-Church is 
that of St. Paul, the only Cathedral of thatName inEurope : It was a 
Strudure for length 6po foot ; in breadth 130, in height 102 foof, 
and contained about three Acres and a half of Ground ; Built in the 
form of a perfedCrofs, in the midft whereof was raifed a Tower of 
Stone 260 foot high ; and on that a Spire of Timber, covered with 
Lead, 2 60 foot more. This (lately Monument of England, and Glory 
of the City of London, was Ruined by the late Dreadful Conflagration 
in 1 666. Yet fince, our hte Gracious Sovereign, Charles the Second, like 
another Solomon, laid a New Foundation of fuch a Fahrick^, as for M^g- 
tiificence. Splendor, Figure, and Excellent Architeclure,t.\\QJVorld never faw 
the like : The Model whereof was Defigned by that Incomparable 
Archite^, Sir Chriliopher PFren, 


^o ^f Efigland. 

And hete I cannot but give a ftiort Acconnt of the vaft Damage and 
Spoil done by the forementioned Fire : It hath been computed that 
there were burnt within the Walls of the City 12000 Houfes, and 
without 1000; Valued at three MiUions and nine hundred thoufand 
pounds Sterling. 

BefidesSy Parifh-Churches, the aforementioned Cathedral^ the T^oyal 
Exchange^ the Magmfi cent Guild- Hall, the Cujiom-Htmfe^ the many Ha/// 
of Companies, thcGates^ with other Publick Buildings, valued at two 
Millions. ThsTf^are- houfes. Stuffs, Money, and Goods loft and fpoiled, 
were eftimated to two Millions of pounds. The Money fpent in Remo- 
ving of Goods and Wans, in the Hire of Carts, Boats, Porters, dec. mo- 
delHy computed at the leart tvvO hundred thoufand pounds: The 
whole Damage amounting at the leaft to Nine Millions, nine hundred 
thoufand pounds. And what is moll: Remarkable, that notwithftanding 
thefe excellive Loflesby Fire, the Devouring Peftilence but the Year 
before, and the Chargeable War againft three Potent Nations at the 
fame time" depending, yet within four or five Years the City was Re- 
built, divers Itately Halls and Churches ereded j all infinitely more 
Beautiful, more Commodious, and more Solid than before 5 for which 
all praife and glory be given to God by us and Potkriry. 

The vaft Traihck and Commerce of this City may be guelTed at, by 
ksCuftomsj which, tho moderate, compsired with the Impofitions of 
other Countries, did formerly amount to about 300000/. per An- 
num, and now are increafed by report to a much greater Value. 

Time would fail me here, to fpeak of its Antiquity, Stately Palaces, 
Streets, Exchanges, Number of Inhabitants, Trade, and Government i of 
its well-fortitied torver( the Grand Arfenal of the Kingdom: ) Its in- 
comparable Bridge, Publick^CoIIedges, Schools, Hofpitals, Wcrk^hcufes, &C. 
I (hall therefore only add, London is a huge Magazine of Mtn, Money, 
Ships, and all forts of Commodities j the Mighty Rendezvous of Nobility, 
Gentry, Courtiers, Divines, Lappyers, Phyfcians, Ladies, Mir chants. Sea- 
men, and all kind of ^xceWeni Artificers, of the moft Res'ined Wits, 
and the moft Excellent Beauties in the rvorld. 


Of EngUnL Jx 

Of the Univerfities, Oxford: Oxomum Ca/kva Ant, 
OxenfordS.ix, RhUkhm or Rhydychm Brit, And Camhridgy 
Q&mboricum Ant, Cajitahrigia Beda. Gramh^fler Sax, 

IN the be.iutilul Body of the Kingdom of England^ the two Eye/ are 
the two Vniverfities j thofe Pvcnowned Nurferies of Learning and 
Religion, which for number of Magnihcenc and Pvichly-Endovvcd Col- 
ledges, for liberal Stipends to all forts of Pablick ProfdTors, for number 
of well-furniihed Libraries, for Number and (X^allty oi Students, exadt 
Difcipline and Order, are not to be parallel'd in the whole World. 

So famous beyond the Seas, and fo much furpitling all other in Fo- 
reign parts, that they deferve a far worthier Pen than mine to Blazon 
their Excellency. I (hall therefore only fay, that nothing was everde- 
vifed more fingularly ad vantagious to God's Chitrch and mans Hippineff^ 
than thefe ZJmverfities i from whence men of Excellent parts, after lea- 
fonable time in Study, are called forth to ferve both in Church znd State, 

Tor\, Ebcracum Ant, Eburacum Ptol. Caerfroch^ vel Caer-Efroc Brit, is a 
City of great Antiquity, efieemed the fecond of England ■-> Famous for 
its Cathedral, for the Birth-place of Conjiantine the Great, and the Bu- 
rial-place of Severus the Emperor ; it is the Title of the King's fecond 
Son, and an ArchbiSioprick. 

Canterbury. Vurovernum.Varvenum Ant.& VtoLVurovernia Beda, is remar- 
kable for being the Seat of an Archbifhop who is Primate of all England, 

Brifhl, Brijhlium, Famous for its Trade and Commerce, and for its 
Scituation in two Counties. 

Norrvich, Norvicum, for its Indufiry in W^oollen Manufactures. 

Salisbury, Sarum, for its rare Cathedral, wherein there are as many. 
Doors as Months, as many Windows as Days, and as many Pillars as 
Hours in the Year« 

Wind/or, Windlefora, pleafantly feated on the fide of the Thames, and 
is famous for itsftately Callle, and Royal Palace of Their Majefties. 

Glaucefier is the Title of the Third Son of Great Britain, feated upon 
the Severn^ near the Ifle Aldney, where was fought the Combat between 
EdiTMnd Iron- fide. King of the Englijh Saxons, ^nd^Canutus the Vane. 

I had purpofed to have given a more particular defcription of all the 
reft of the principal Cities in England, but mult defer it for a Treatife 
of England., wherein each County is drawn for a Pocket-Volume after- 
a more new and compendious way than ever yet extant , 1 (hall there- 
fore here fay no more of England, 



Of Wales. 

Of Wa/es. 53 

WALES IS z Principality adjoining to, and annext in Govern- 
nnent with England', Inhabited by the Pofterity of the Ancient 
Britans, who being driven out o^ the reft of the Land by the intruding 
Saxons, whom they fent for over to affift them againft the Incurfions 
of the Scots and Pitts^ (heltered themfelves in thole Mountainous parts, 
and to this day retain their Primitive Language, which hath the leaft 
mixture of Exotkkwoxds of any now ufed in Europe, but by reafon of 
its many Confonants is lefs pleating to the Ear : The People are Faith- 
ful, and very loving to one another in a ftrange Country, and to firan- 
gers in their own. Their Gentry brave and Hofpital, but generally fub- 
jedl to Choler,,fuddenly moved to Anger, and as quickly pacified j and 
value themfelves very much upon their Pedigrees and Families. The 
Eldeft Son and Heir Apparent of our Kings of England is always qua- 
lified, during the Life of his Father, with the Title of Prince of Wales, 

'Tis bounded on all fides by the Sea, except towards England, from 
which it was once feparated by a great Ditch called Offas Dike, in 
many places yet to be feen, which Dike began from the Influx of the 
River Wye, in the Severn, and reached unto Chejhr, about 85 Miles. 
Moft Writers tellus, *tis now divided by the River Ptc, and a Line 
drawn to the Fviv a Wye. But Mcnmouth being taken from it, and ad- 
ded w England, its prcfent Limits are the River Vee, and a Line drawn 
to the fmall River Kumpney near Cardiff. 

The Couiitry is generally Mountainous, yet not without its fertile 
Vallies, which bears good Corn, and breedeth abundance of Cattel 5 
which produce fl ore of Butter and Chcefe. Other Commodities are, 

Weljh Fieeics, Cottons, Bayes, Herrings, White and Red, Hides, 
Calves-skins, Honey, Wax. It hath Mines of Lead, Lead-ore, Coals, 
It is well fiored with Quarries of Free- ftones, and Milftones. 

It once contained three Kingdomes, viz. Grvineth, Venedotia, or 
I<!orth'Wales. Vdnubanh , Demetia^ ot South- Wales. And Pon^ifland^ 
or Maihraval, 

'Tis now according to an Ad of Parliament in the Reign of King 
Henry the Eighth, fevered into two parts, viz. ISlorth-Wales, and South- 
Wales, each of thefe contain fix Counties, viz. in the North Angkfey, 
Mona 'Xac. Ca(rnarvon, Denbigh, Flint, Merioneth^ and Montgomery. In 
the South, Brecknock^, Cardigan, Carmarthen, Glamorgan, Fembroke, and 
Radnor. Whofe chief Towns are, 

Beaumari(h at Beaumorilfj. BeUcmorifcus, cf old the chief of j4nglefey, 
feated upon the Menai River, founded by King Edward the Firfl. 

Aberfraop was the Royal Seat of the Kings of Crvimth , or North- 
Wales. And, F Holy- 

^4 Of Wale f. 

Holy-head^ or Caerguhi of the IFelJh^ a noted Promontory and paf- 
fage into Ireland. In this Ifland was the ancient Seat of the Vmidsf 
brought under the Roman Scepter by Julius Agrkola. 

Caernarvon^ Arvoniaoi old, the belt Town of that Shire, ftrong by 
Nature and Art, founded by King Edxvard the Firft. In the CaiVIe 
whereof, Edvpard the Second, the Firlt Prince of Wales was born. 

Bangor^ or Banchor Bangoria Lat. Dignified with a Birtiops See. 

u^berconway^r^ikd out of the ruins of the Banonium oiA)it.Canovi'-jo\lmm^ 

Denbijh^ Venhighia Lat, feated on the River Clityd^ once fortiHed with 
a ftrong Caftleand Wall. By the Britains^ Elad Frynin. 

Ruthin^ Cc^tcd in the Strat. Cluyd. Jfrexbam, plenty in Lead. 

Llanfjinm^ a fmall Village, is famous for its Cave in the. fide of a 
Rock 5 known by the Name of Arthur's round Table. 

St. y^faph, Llan-ElxvyWelflo.F annum St, Jfapbi, an ancient Epifcopal 
See, founded by Kentigern 2i Scotch Bi(hop oiCflafcorv^ mAnno '^60. 

Flinty which giveth Name to the County. Not far from Cayruis is 
the famous Well of St. Mnnifrid, in Englijh Holy- well, a place of great 
note, and muchreforted unto for the Cure of feveral Difeafes. 

In this County of Flint are yet feen fome Ruins of the Bmium of 
Ant. lying upon both (ides of the Dee, turned afterwards into a Mona- 
liery, and named Bancornahury by 'Bede, and Banchor by Mdmesbury j 
the hrft oi th2 Britans.) containing iioo perfons. 

Harlech had a ftrong Caftle mounted upon a fteep Rock, but redu- 
ced to ruins i 'tis the place of Allizes for Merioneth/hire., and the chief 
Market of the Mountaineers. 

Bala^ feated neii Llin-tegid, or Pimblemeer, through which the Pee is 
faid to run, and not to mingle with its waters. 

Montgomery the Shire-Town, is fo called from Roger of Montgomery^ 
Earl of Shrewsbury in the reign of the Conqueror. 

Lanvethlin., or LlanviUing^ is thought to be the Mcdiolanium of Fto- 
lomy and Ant. 

Trellin^ or Ifelfh-pool, feated on the Severn^ and in a rich Vale, is the 
greateft and beft built Town in the County 5 and its Caftle, called 
Pm-zj-Caftle, is a large and ftately building. 

Machleneth the Maglona of the Notitia, . 

M^/k-JZ'^/theSeat fometimesof the Princes of Poms. 

BrecJ^nock^^ Brichinia Lat . feated at the meeting of the Rivers Hodney 
and Vsk^.> over which it hath a Stone- Bridge. It contains three Parifti- 
Churches, and was once ftrengthened with a ftrong Caftle. 

Built Buelth, the BuVumoi Ant, pleafantly feated among the Woods 
on the Banks of the^/V, 

Of W^es. B^ 

Ng«? R<«irt5r,thus diftinguifhed from the old, the Migmeoi Ant,zx\A 
Mag£ of the N^m/«j5reatedncar the Springhead of xht'Somergil^ and in 
a pleafant Valley. 

At Trefiaine^ feated on the Iftg, are t4ie Affizes kept. 

Knighton is a well built Borough-Town. The Wett-part of this Coun- 
ty of Radnor is very Rocky and Mountainous, the Itrong refuse of 
Vortigern King of the Britains^ when purfued by the Saxons, and the 
f^ar and hate of his own Subjeds. 

Snowden-Hill was the fafe retreat of Owen Gkndor. 

Cardigan^ Aber iyii JFelJh .Cevdica Lat. feated on a Rock on the Bank 
cf tyivy River near the Influx into the Sea, is the Shire-Town , and 
governed by a Mayor. 

Llan-beder hath a Market on Tuefdays. Jkr-y-fitvith feated at the 
mouth of the KivcrsTjirrhh and K/Vo/,defcendingfrotH the foot of the 
?/7?7zwo« Mountain, asdoth alfo the Tfws, and i^je- River. 

LlanhadernvauT is a well-built Town, graced with a fair Church, 
formerly an Epifcr pal See, now the Parifli-Church of Aber-y-fitritk 

Caermarden-i the Maridunum of Ptolomy^ upon the River levy, over 
which it hath a fair Stone-Bridg,and it is a Toyi'n Corporate, govern- 
ed by a Mayor, two Sheriffs, and fixfeen Burgefles, all clad in Scarlet, 
and is alfo famous for the Birth place of Merlin the Britijh Prophet. 
Higher, upon the top of a Hill under which runneth the tovy, flood 
VinevourCzMc, the feat of the Prince of South-Wales. 

NetiFCjflle on the edg of Cardiganfhire, on the River Tjvi^ thought to 
be the Coventinumoi Ftolomy, hut Lyn Savatan ncdiT Breck^ock^^ is the Lo- 
veniinam^ or Luentium, Camb. 

In Glamorganfhire^ the chief Towns are Landdffy Fanum ad Tattam^ 
feated on the KivctTavy or Tiffy having a large Cathedral, a Bilhops 
See, otherwife fcarce comparable to an indifferent Town occafioned 
by its vicinity to Cardiff, the fairef^ Town in all South-Wales. Containing 
two Pariihes, and one Church. A ftrong (lately Caflile. 'Tis governed 
by a Conftable and twelve Aldermen, e^c. 'Tis the place of the Ailizes, 
and the bell: Market in the Countrey. 

Neatb^ the Nidum oi Ptolomy^ is much frequented for Coals. 

Swanfey^ or Abertavo^ is an ancient Port- Kez^e Town, of a good Trade, 
by reafon of its Coal-pits, and induftry of its Inhabitants. Boverton, 
not far from Corvbridge^ is the Bovium of Ant. 

LagW upon the River fo called, is the Leucarum of Ant. 

Pembrol^^thc chief Shire-Town, feated on Af?7/or<5?Haven,fo large and 
capacious, that it may fafeiy contain a i coo fail of Ships, over which 
it hath two fair Bridges, a place of good ftrength, fortified with a 
Wall and a ftrongCaftle feated on a Rock. F 2 St. "Davids 

3 6 Of Scotland. 

St. "Davids^ Menevia,& Fanum Davidis^ oiKe a City of good account, 
^now only notable in that it is a Biftiop's See, and a fair Cathedral. 
Haverfordtveji is the Town where the Allizes are kept, 
Tenby is feated upon a Rock, having a commodious Road for Ships. 
Fifhgard is the Abergtvaine of the Ifeljh. 

The Defcription ^/SCOTLAND. 

Of Scotland. fy 

Scot LAND is feparated from England by the Rivers Trveed and 
Soltvay^ and the Chevht Hills : The Ancient Inhabitants were the 
Britain!^ divided by Ftolomy into many lefTer Names, by Vion and Xf- 
fhilinus into two only general . r/z. the Calidonii and Mcat£ : After wards 
called the Fids towards the wain of the Roman Empire, fiom their 
Paintings, and for their better diltindion from the civil and clo- 
thed Britains, diftinguitlied by Am. Mjtrciliinus into the PiCisVucalidonia^ 
and the VeBuriones : The Scots.,^ Colony of the bordering Zr?/'^ intruding 
amongft, and conquering the Pzc7/, or Bntaius^ all other Names worn 
ouf, the whole are now accounted Scots. 

The Length of Scotland I find fet down by Heylin^ to be 480 fvliles, 
but the breadth in no place more than 60 Miles-, the truth of which 
will appear, if you conlider the Latitude of Sol-tvay-Fritb^ near CarliJIe.^ 
the moft Southern part of Scetland-^ and Straitshy-head., the mort Nor- 
thern i you will find the greateft length can be but 260 Englijh Milesi 
and the breadth in the broadeft place more than 1 60 Miles, as you will 
ealily fee by the Map. 

Scotland.) according to its Situation, may be divided by the River 
I'ay into two parts, vjz. North and Souch, commonly diftinguiined by 
the Names of Highland, and Lowland. The firft was the Ancient 
Kingdom of the Scots : The other the Old Habitation of the Pidr. 
The People of the former are by Nature and Difpoiition rude and un- 
civil: The Inhabitants of the latter, in Difpofition , Civility, Lan- 
guage, and Habit, are much refembling the Englijh.^ and are thought 
to be Defcendedof the Saxons. 

On the Weft part of Scotland are many Woods , Mountains, and 
Lakes : Towards the Eaft it is more Fruitful in Corn, efpecially Bar- 
ley and Oats : Their Fruits are not very Excellent, nor plentiful : but 
they have abundance of Fi(h and Fowl ; not much Cartel, nor big. 
Their chief Commodities are, Coarfe Clothes, Freezes, Fijhy Lead, Oar, 
Feathers, Allows, Iron, Salt-Petre, Linnen-cloth, 'Train-Oyl, feme Hides, 
and Tallow. 

The Kingdom of Scotland confifts of the Nobility, Gentry, and Com- 
mons: Thefe with the Lords Spiritual Affemble together in Parliament, 
when called by Writ from the King of Great Britain : who, by reafon 
of his Reiidence in England, conftitutes and appoints a Vice-Koy to Adt 
under him at the faid Seffion of Parliament, called Lord Commijjiomr. 

As to their Courts of Judicature, they have feveral : the Chief is the 
Sejfion, or Colkdge ofjufiice, confining of a Prefident, fourteen Senators^ 

( feven 

3 8 Of Scotland, 

( feven of the Clergy, and as many of the Laity) whereunto is now ad- 
ded the Chancellor^ who is chief: and four Lords of the Nobility : be- 
lides as many Advocates and Ckrh^ as the Senators fee convenient. Thefe 
fit and adminifter Juftice every day, from nine to twelve, QY.c^'pt. Sun- 
days and Mmdiys^ from the fir(T of November to C/.'r//t^w^/^Eve : and 
from the firft day of January to the lal\ of Febrmiry: and from 'trinity- 
Sunday to the Hrlt day oi Aaguji : But now by A6t of Parliament the 
Summer- SelFions are taken away, and inftead thereof they are to be 
kept in Mirch. 

This Court is of great (late andorderi the Clerks write all the Ma- 
terial Heads that are pleaded at the Bar. And after the Parties are 
removed, the Senators confider the Arguments, and give Sentence, 
and the major part carries it. Their final Sentence or !:)ecree5 deter- 
mines all bulinefs, there being no appeal, only to the Parliament, who 
may receive and repeal their decifive Sentence. 

The next fupream Court is the Juftice-Court, where all Criminals 
are tried : it coniilis of a Lord Juttice General, and of a Lord Juftice 
Clark, who is his Ailiibnt. This Order wa5 changed, Anno i(55p, 
and by Ait of Parliament four Judges were appointed to fit in this 
Court with the Lord Jutxice General, &c. The Jury is made up of 
fifteen, the major part determines the matter. Befides this Court, 
there are in every Shire or County Inferior Civil Judicatories^ or Courts 
kept, wheiein the Sheriff of the Shire, or his Deputy, deciderh Contro- 
veriiesand Law-Suits: but from fhefe there are Appeals to the Seffions, 
or Higher Court of Equity. There are like wife Judicatories., called Com- 
mifTarials, for Ecclefiajiical Affairs. 

The Shires of Scotland are, viz. Edinburgh Barrvick^., Peeblis^ ^^^k^rl^^ 
Roxburgh , 'Dumfreis , Wightotvn , Air , Renfretv , Lanrick^., or Lanock^^ 
Dumbritton, or Dmbarton^ Boot., Inner., Ara, Perth., Striveling., or Ster^ 
lir.g^ Linlithgorv., Clackrnanan., Kinros^ Coiiper., & Fife., Forfar., Kiiih^ardin., 
& Marifchals., Aberdeen., Bamf & Errols., Elgin, Nairn, hinermfs &Rofs., 
Cromarty, 'tayn, Dornock^, Weik^, Orl\ney. The Conflabulary of Had- 
dington. The Stexvartries oi Strath-yern, Menteith., Annannaile, Kir^ubright, 
TheBaileries oi Kyle, Cjrr/ci^ and Cunningham, 

Scotland is alfo divided into feveral Counties or> Parts vLothien, Merch., 
T'eifdal, or Tiviotdale, EsJ^dale, Eifsk^ale, Liddefdale, Amiandale, Nithif- 
dale., Galloppoyy Carrith^, -Kyle , Cunningham , Clidefdale, Lennox^ Strive- 
ling or Sterling, Mentieth, Fife, Strathern, Argile, Lorn., Cantire., Arran, 
Albany or Bratd, Albin, Perth, Athol^ Unguis, Mernis, Buquihan or BuchaNi 
Marr, Marray, Lochabyr^ Roff^y Souther land, Strathnavern & Cathnes. 

The Government whereof is divided into two Arch-Bifho^rick^s, Saint 


Of ScotUnL 1^ 

Aninvps and Glafco , under whom are feveral Suffragan- Bifhops. 

Its chief places are, Edinburgh, the Metropolitan City of this King- 
donfi, fcituateinahighand wholfbme Air, and a fertile Soil, conlilt- 
ing chiefly of one Street about a Mile in length, out of which runs 
many fmaller Lanes and Streets. 'Tis Hrongly begirt with a Wall, and 
Fortified by a fair and ftrong Caftle, feated on the top of a Rock : a 
place Adorned with many fair Edifices, Dignified with the Courts of 
Judicature, High Court of Parliament, and a Univerfity. 

St. Andreivs, of old Fanum KeguU^ hath a fair Profpedi towards 
the Sea, near the fall of the Ef)[7^«; Fortified with a fair and ftrong 
Caftle •■, Dignified with an Archbifhop's See. 

Glafco, pleafantly feated on the Kwer Cluyd, over which it hath a 
fair Bridge: A place of good Account, Dignified with an ArchbiQi-ap's 
See, and a Univerfity. Clafquum. Script. Scot. 

Stcrlins^y a place of good firength, and Fortified with a ftrong 
Caltle. Strivilingum vel Strevelinum feu Sterlinga, 

Dunbritton ^ a place of great firength, having the ftrongeft Caflle 
in all Scotland^ both by Nature and Art. Ca[irnmBriionum. 

Falkland^ pleafantly feated for Hunting. 

Linlithqm-, or Lithquo, upon a Lake near unto the Head of the Frithy 
fuppofed to be the Lindum of Ptol. a City of the jyamnii. 

Mnjfdborough^ upon the River Fsk,?-, is memorable for a great over-: 
throw of the Scots^ by the Englijh under Edward Duke of Somerfet, 
Piotedor of England in the Minority of King Edrvard the Sixth. 

Leiih is a noted Port upon the Frith of Edinburgh ; the Bodotria of " 
T'ac. and Bjderia of PtoL 

Perth., 01 St. Jjhnj "Torpn., a place of good Account, pleafantly feat- 
ed at the Mouth of the River 7ay^ between two Greens. 

Aberdeen., fcituate on the Mouth of the Pviver Von^ and dignified 
with an Episcopal See, and a Univeifity. Aberdonia olm Devana, 

Coldingham., Coldana Beda., Colania Ptol. famous {ot hs choice Nuns, ■ 
Peblis and Selkirk, are Sheriffdoms for the Valleys. 

Jedburgh and Roxburgh are Sheriffdoms, the lafi: fatal to the .?cof/ by 
the death of King James the fecond, ilain in that fiege by the EngUfh, ^ 

yinnan and Cajile-Mahan^ are the two chief Towns, near Soltvay 
Frith, the Itwia M^ivariam of the Ancients. Abercori gives Title of 
Earldom to the Vuk^e Hamilton. Dunbar Bara Ptol. or Vara. & Vumba- 
rum, is memorable for the Battel of 11550, Sept. 25. 

Dunfreis is a rich and well traded Emporie upon the River Nith.No- 
hius of Ptol. and at the mouth is Caerlaverock^ Caftle, Corhantorigum of 
old, was the Houfe of the Lord Maxml's, Higher up the River is 

Morton-, -. 

Ao Of Scotland. 

Morton^ naming the Earls Morton of the name oiVotigUa. Higher is San- 
ghniT-Cz^\c^ whereof are intitled the Lord Sangbuer, of the Houfe or 
Name of the Crdtchtons. A little remote from the River is feated 
Gkncarne., the Fails whereof are of the Houfe or the Cunhghamj . Kir- 
couhright is a commodious Haven. Wiqlnon a Snejrifdom. IVhhbcrn is 
the Lmcopbia of Fiol, and Candida Cafa ot Beda. 

Bargeny is the Bmgonmn of Ant. Caffil Caji. the Sear of the Earls of 
the Houfe of the Ka.mdycs. Air is a Sherifdom. and a noted Port and 
Empory.Jira^w a fmall ?oi^.Eglir.gion-Czi\\t gives theTitle to the Mmt- 
gomeries. Douglas upon the River Vruglas in VcugLis'Dale ^ names the 
ancient and Noble Families of the V.uglajfes. Lihric- La/nrcum, a She- 
rifdom at the Confluence of the Douglas and Chiya. Hamilton Caftle up- 
on the Cluyd., the Clcta or Glota of Ptol. naming the Houfe and Mar- 
quelTiS of H.imiUon. Bothipel, an Earldom upon the Clnyd, as is alfo 
Crarvford oi i\\& Earls of LW/e)'. Renfrew ^Vanduara^ is a Slierifdom and 
Barony Hereditary to the Lord Sempits. Vmblane^ a Bifhop's See upon 
the Taicb. Lower down at the mouth of the Fr/th ot Fonb, lie the She- 
rifdoms o{ Clachtnannan and Kinros. Aberneth, Vt&aria. at the fall of the 
River Ern into the 7ay^ was the chief Scat of the Kings ofPi6fs. Arrol 
upon the Tay ^ the Seat of the Earls of .noL /ithnl was fometimes 
part of the Calidonian Wood, Itrong Faflnefles of ViCls and Northern 
Britons, Forfar^ Orrhea of old is the Seat of the Sheriffs. Dundee^ Ahdum 
& Dei Donwn-t a rich and noted Port at the mouth of the 7ay. Brechin 
upon the Es}\c^ is a Bifhop's See. Montrofs gives name to the Earls of 
Montrofs. Vunnoter-Qd^^Xt in Mirn^ feated upon a lleep and inaccellible 
Rock, is the Seat of the Sheriff. Between Loquahtir and Marr rifeth 
the high Country of Badgenotb. In Buquhan lie the fmall Countries and 
Prefedtures oiBamfjrathbogye, and Boyn-^ places of Note j in Murray axQ 
Rothes Calfle, giving Names to the Earls of Rothes. Elgin, Foms, Nirn., 
are Sherifdoms about the Lake M/}, and part of the M. Grampius of 
Tac. extending to the Lake Lotnond. In R.fs is the Couiitry of jirdmea- 
nuch , which giveth Title to the feccnd Sons of f he Kings of Scotland. 
Chanoury is the Seat of the.Biiliops. Cromerty is a Sherifdom. Vtm Ro- 
bin Caiile, the Seat fometimes of the Erls of Sunderland. ( Rofmarch£um 
of old, ) Girmgo Caftle the Seat of the Earls of Cathenes. Vumock^Sind 
IVick^-, the Seats of the Biihcps. Fara., or Varar JEjiiiariwn^ is Murry- 

In this Realm of Scotland there are two fam.ous and Wonderful 
Lotighs^ Nijfj and Lomond : the iirft never freezeth in the extrearaelt 
Cold, and the Waters of the fecond rage in the calmeff W<;ather. 


Of Scotland, 41 

The l^xnds adjacent and belonging to Scotland^ are, i. The Hehridei-, 
lying on the Weft-fide thereof, and are 44 in Number : the chief 
whereof are, lUa, Jona^ Mtda., Ltwis^, &c. pJentiful of Wood^ Comi Sal- 
mons^ Herrings J Conks^ Deer., Sheepj in feme vvith , in others without 
Owners. . 

2. The Orcades of 'tae, or the I/Iafids ci Orkney, in Number 5 1, ly- 
ing from the North and North- Eaft point <ji Scjilzr.d : The greateft and 
chiefeft Ifland is now ca\kd Mainland^ formerly Pcmoma , well lloied 
with Lead and Ti/i, whofe chief Town is Kirkr^JJ^^ Fcrtilied v/ithtwo 
CaftleSj and dignified with the See of x EiChop ; the Inhabitants com- 
monly called K?i/-/^<;i/?i^/. 

3. Shjtland Iflands, or Schetland, ,the 'Tbukf or Thyle of the Ancients, 
lying about 20 Leagues Northwards from the Ork^.ey, being manyin 
Number: the chief of which is called Sbodand, being about 60 miles 
in lengfli : the Inhabitants are partly Scots^ and partly a niixt People 
of Vanes znd Scots, Their Commodities are Ling and Cod. ' 

Toward: North B^/-B?ic^, near the Shore, Ikth Baslfund, which ap- 
pears to be a high craggy Rock, and is remarkable for thegreat imm- 
hex o( SolandGe(J}, by fome called B^m^c/ex, and vulgarly thought to 
be ingendred by the Fruit of certain Trees dropt into the Water, But 
the Hollanders report, that the Barnacles which they call Rot-Gaufen^ 
are bred in the Northern parts, and that they couple together, lay, 
and hatch their Eggs. And Gerard de Veeo in his third Navigation to 
Greenland., affirms, that with his Companions they have driven them 
from their Neils, and taken and eaten of their. Eggs. 

Beiidcs, Anatomy difcovers in their Bodies, v^^here the diiFerences of 
Sexes do vifibly appear, the, Ma^^es having all the fame parts as the 
common Drakes, and the Femalss having their Ovaria as other Birds. 

Between the Illands of OrkrJey^nA Shetland lie two Iflands : one cal- 
led Fair-Hill, the oiher Fulo : about ten Leagues one from the other. 

Thus much, in brief, as to the Situation, Length, Breadth, Divifion, 
Fertility, People, Government, Chief Towns, and Iflands oi Scotland, 

G Of 



'^l/Ujd CMtir 3\ '^- *] \ 

Of Ireland* 4? 

TH E firft Inhabitants Cto omit the Fables of the Irijh Chronicles) 
upon probable Circumftances,were theBm^wjjtogether with the 
mixt Nations of the Goths^ Gaalf, Africans^ &c. though moHiOeographers 
are of Opinion, that its firft People came wholly out of Britain^ being 
the iiigheiV-to-itifl^ — -~1T.?^^~- ~~' '^~. TI 

Ire/ Wiieth- betwixt the f I and ^dJ degrees of NTorthern Latitude, 
or betwixt the middle parallel of the eighth Clime, where thelongelt 
day hath \6 hours and a half, and the 24th parallel, or end of the lofh 
Clime, where the fame hath 17 hours and a half. 

The firftlnhabitantSi the Jr//^ (for more ancient we find not) were 
by Ttolomy diftinguifhed into ftiiidTy lefTer People and Names : Th^- 
Khobognii^ Darnii^ VoluntH^f^enmcmi^ znd Erdinii^ now containing t//- 
Jier. The Auuri^ Gangani and Nagnat£, inhabiting Conaught. The Veil- 
bori^ Vterni^ Vodii^ and Coriondi^ now Munfler. The Mempii , Cauci , 
Blanii, Sind Brigantes^ now Leinjier : whofe Cities were K%m, Rbeba, 
MacoUeum^ Dunum^ Laberuf^ Juernis^ Nagnatu^ Kegia altera^ Manapia^ 
now Wexford^ and Eblana, Dublin, whofe Interpretations, unlefs the 
two laft, we let pafs as very uncertain. Towards the wain of the Ro- 
man Empire they are named Scots ( the occafion or reafon hereof we 
find not) fubduing the neighbouring P/Yifj' and C^/e^iiJwi^w/, and giving 
the Name of Scotland to the Northern part of the Briti(h Continent. 
Leaving there this new affeded Name, they laftly refume, and return 
here unto their firft and more wonted name oilrijh. 

The firft Onfet it received, by way of Invafion, was by the. Saxon 
Monarchs, who made themfelves Maftersof fome places, but could not 
long continue in polTeffion of them. 

The next that in Hoftile manner vifited it, were the Northern Na- 
tions, Vanes, Swedes, and Normans ; who fcouring along the Sea-coafts, 
by way of Piracy, and afterwards finding the weaknefs of the Jfland, 
made an Abfolute Conqueft of it, under the Condud of one turgefns r 
but were foon routed out by the Policy of the King of Meath. After 
this the petty Princes enjoyed their former Dominions, till the Year 
1 172. at what time, the King of Leinfter, having forced the Wife 
of the King o£ Meath, was driven by him out of this Kingdom : who 
applying himfelf to Henry the Second of England, for Succour, re- 
ceived Aid, under the Leading of Richard de Clare, Sirnamed Strong- 
bow, Earl oi Pembroke: by whofe good Succefs, arid the King's ne- 
fence, the petty Kings, or great Lords, fubmitted themfelves, ptomi- 
ling to pay him Tribute, and acknowledge him their Chief and So- 
vereign Lord. 

G 2 Bat 

^4 Of Irelafid. 

But as the Conqueft was but flight and fuperfidal, Co the Trijh fub- 
millions were but weak and fickle AlTurances to hold in Obedience fo 
confiderable a Kingdom, though the Charter was confirmed by Pope 

So that it was not till the latter end of Queen Elizabeth's Reign that 
the fame was wholly fubjugated, and the Foundation laid of a lading 
Peace with Ireland.^ which focn after was very far proceeded in by King 
Jamef, and now fully perfcdtcd, according to all Human appearance, 
by our Gracious Sovereigns King IViHiam and Qiieen Mary : So that 
now Ireland is a Flourilhing Ifland, Civil in its felf, and a good ad- 
ditional ftrength to the Britifh Empire, 

Ireland (called by the Latini^ Hibernia : by the Greeks ^ Irnia j by Tom- 
poniuf and Solimts^ called Jitverna : by Ptolemy^ Juerna : by OrpJmts , 
u^rifiotle, Straho^ Stephanus and Claudianus., Jerna : by Eujiathius^ Ver- 
nia : by Diodorm , Iris : by the IVelJh, Tverdhon : by the Inhabitants, 
Erya, Irlandt Gertnanis^ Irlanda Italis, IrlandeGaJlif. Is in length 300, 
and in breadth 130 miles : containing by computation i j millions of 
Acres, and is about | oiEngland and IVaks. It was anciently divided 
into five Provinces, each one a Kingdom in its felf, viz. i,Leinfler, 
2. Meath. 3. Vljhr. 4. Connaught. And 5, Mmjhr. But now the 
Province of Meath is reckoned for a Member or part of Lcinjhr. 

Thefefour Prwiwcej- compofe that Kingdom : as beautiful and fweet 
a Country as any under Heaven : being ftored with many goodly Ri- 
vers, Replenifhed with abundance of all forts of Fifti, fprinkled with 
brave Iflands and goodly Lakes; adorned with goodly Woods, full 
of very good Forts and Havens : The Soil moft Fertile, and the Hea- 
vens moll: mild and temperate, but not fo clear and fubtil as the Air in 
England I and therefore not fo favourable for the Ripening of Corn 
and Fruits, as to the Grafs, for all kind of Cattel. And in the Win- 
ter more Tub jedl to Wind, Clouds, and Rain, than Snow or FroH. 

It is an Ifland of great firength, as well by Nature as Art, by rea- 
fon of its Situation in fuch dangerous Seas , and the feveral Fortifica- 
tions and Caftks that the Englip have built fince they were Mafters 
of it. 

Its chief Rivers are the fpacious Shannon^ the rolling L?^e, the fan- 
dy Slany^ the pleafant Boyne, the FiQiy Banne^ fwift ^hridrtffe or BlacJ^ 
rpater^ fad Troms^ wide Mayre, now Baniry Bay, the Woody Barrotv^ 
the fpreading Lee, the Baleful Oure, or Shoure. Befides thefe Rivers, 
there are feveral L,7j^i-,of which Lough Erne is the grctcft, being about 
30 miles in length , and 15 in breadth; and this, as all other of its 
X.jj^x, are well fioied with Fijh». 


Of Irehnd, 45 

The Ifiih have had the Charac^-er of being Religious, ( by which > 
perhaps, feme uiiderftand Superftitious ) Amorous, Patient of La" 
hour, Excellent Horfemen, and the meaner fort extremely Barba- 
rous, till Civilized by the Neighbourhood and intermixture of the 
E«g/i/^ i yet ftill the wild Irl^ retain feveral of their abfurd and ridi- 
culous Guftoms, accounting eafe and idlenefs their greateft liberty and 

The EccleGafticai Government of Ireland is committed to the care 
of four Archbijhop , under whom are ip Suffragan- Biihops: The 
Temporal Government is now by one Supreme Officer, fent over by 
the King of England, who is called the Lord Lieutenant^ or Lord Deputy 
oi Ireland-^ who for Majefty, State, and Power, is not inferior to any 
Viceroy in Europe. 

Their Laivs are correfpondent with thofe of England, and they 
have their feveral CouEts of Juliice j as Chancery^ Common-Pleas^ Kings- 
Bsnchy Exchequer J Courts of Farliament^ and Justices of the Peace in eve- 
ry County. 

The Commodities of this 7/7^;;^, are, Caml^ Hides, Tallow, Butter, 
Cheefe, Honey, Wax^ Furs^ Salt, Hemp^ Linnen Cloth, Fipe-jiaves, Wooll, of 
which they make Cloth, and feveral Manufactures, as Freezes , Kugs , 
Mantles, ^c. Its Seas yield great plenty of Cod-fifh, Herrings, Pilchers, 
and other Fi(h ; The.Bowelsof the Earth afford Mines of Lead, Tin, 
and. Iron* 

Of L E 1 N S T E R. 

This Province the Natives call Le?g^/«^/^, thcBritains, Lein, thel^- 
tins, Lagenia j and in the ancient Lives of the Saints, Lagan ; and by 
the Englijh, Leinfier, This part of Ireland {ox the generality is of a fer- 
tile foil, affording great plenty of Corn, Gattel, Fowl, and Fidi ; en- 
joyeth a wholefome and temperate Air i it is well watered with Ri- 
vers, well furniflied with Towns, and well Inhabited by the Gentry 
and Commonalty i and divided into thefe Counties, Longford, Weji- 
Meath, Eaji-Meath, Lough, Dublin, Kildare^ Kings-County, ^eens-Countyy 
WicJ^lonPf Cater lough^ Kilkenny, and Wexford, 

Its chief Places are, Dublin, 'the Metropolitan City of Ireland, by 
Ptolomy cdWcd Ehlana, by the Latins, Duhlinium, by the Irijh, Balacleigh, 
It is no lefs plealantly than commodioufly feated on the River Liffis, 
which after a fmall courfe, emptieth it felf into a capacious Bay, where 
it hath a good Haven, and a fair Proipect ; and on the South, delight- 
ful Hills, which with the feveral Parks adjacent, afford great Recrea- 

45 Of Ireland, 

tionto the Gentry. It is a City of great Antiquity, dignified and en- 
riched with the Refidence of the Lord-Lieutenant, as alfo with the 
See of an Arch-Bi(hop, with an Univerfity, and the Courts of Judi- 
cature. It is beautified with many fair Buildings, vTz,. the Lord Lieu- 
tenant's Palace, a flately Strudure ; the Cathedral Church, nigh unto 
which is the Archbifliops Palace, both without the City. The Colle- 
giat-Church, called C^ri/?-CWcJ^, featedin themidft of the City, and 
dignified with the Priviledges of a Univerfity. The Town-Hall, or 
7olej'Tale^ a fair Stone-Building, of a Quadrangle form, where the 
Lord-Mayor and Sheriffs, Aldermen and other Magiftrates of the Ci- 
ty, affemble together, for the management and confulting of the 
Publick Concerns of the City. The Stately Nen> Hofpital^ Defigned 
and built by the Ingenious ^rc^i^c^ , William Kobinjcn^ Efquire: As 
alfo the Nejv Fort or Cafllezt Kingfale. A fair Colledge^with feveral other 
brave Edifices. 'Tis a place of great Trade, well inhabited and fre- 
quented by Nobility and Gentry, with wealthy Merchants and Shop- 
keepers. A City of large extent, and yet daily encreafes its Buildings, 
efpecially its Suburbs, which is fevered from the City by a Wall, which 
gives Entrance by fix Gates. A City, though not feated in the middle 
of Ireland^ yet placed diredly oppofite to the Englijh (hore, being 
twelve hours fail, with a profperous gale of Wind, or twenty Leagues 
^[Rznt horn Holy-head^ SLXite advantage for the maintenance of Traf- 
fick and Commerce with England^ and other parts of the World ; fo 
that in a word, there is nothing wanting that may ferve to make the 
State of a City mod magnificent and flouriftiing. Carlingford and 
Vundall^Oi^nds on a commodious Bay of the fame Names. 

Vroghedahj otTndagh^ fituate on the River Boyne^ on the edge of 
Uljhr^ a fair and populous City, as well by Art as Nature, very ftrong- 
ly fortified and furnilhed with a large and commodious Haven. 

Philipjiomi-, or Kingflomi, is the chief of Kings-Comty j burnt by 
the Rapperees. 

Mary-burrow or ^eenflotvn is the chief of ^zens-County. 

Kilkenny^ on the River Netvry^ the chief Seat of the Bilhop, and is 
alfo honoured with two Noble Seats of the Duke of Ormond, viz. the 
Call:le of Kilkenny and Vonmore Houfe ; fcituate in a brave and well- 
inhabited Countrey, a fair and wealthy Borough-Town. 

Mol'mgar^ the chief Town of IFeft-Meath. Balimore^ well Fortified 
by the Ir//7^, but furrendred J^/y lo. i<5pi. Trim is 3. Borough and 
Market Town, the chief of Eafi-Meath. 

Caterlough^ commonly Carlough^ a fine Market Town, having a 
ftrong Caltle, and the chief of that County, Scituate near the plea- 


Of Ireland, 4j 

fjnt Navigable River by Boats, from Kq/fe, placed above ^olri/h miles 
from Dublin, and in a convenient Stage from the greateft part of Mm- 
fler 2nd Leinfler. Wkkloa? 3it the mouth of the River Letrim^ is the 
chief of the County Co called. 

Roffe, once populous, and well-traded, built by J/'a^e/ the daugh- 
ter of Richard Strong-Bow f Earl of Pembroke, feated upon a brave Na- 
vigable River, where Ships of four or five hundred Tun may fafely 
ride before its Key. 

Longford, which gives Name to the County, and Title to the now 
Earl of Longford, 

Lanesborough is a confiderable Pafs over the Shannon. 
Kildare, a fair Inland Town, well frequented, defended by aCaftle ; 
a Place much celebrated in the Infancy of the Irijh Church, for its 
St. Bridget^ a holy Virgin, and Difciple to St. Patrick^ 

Wexford, feated in the mouth of the River Slany, and drives a great 
Trade with Brijhl, It hath a fair Pool within a Sandy Bar, lying be- 
tween it and the Sea, wherein are yearly taken great ftore of Her- 
rings, to the great advantage of the Place. The River is Navigable 
by fmall Boats, up to Inijh Cor/fy, about eight miles beyond this Town, 
where there is a good quantity of Iron made, which is carried down 
the River, and fo difperfed into feveral parts of Ireland. 

Ferns is a Bifhops See. Vuncannon is a confiderable Caftle, command- 
ing Waterford Haven, where KlngFTiJliam and the Prince of Denmark^ 
embarqu'd for England, 

The chief Rivers in this Province are, i. The Boyne: The Battel at 
the Boyne in i6po. will as well Eternize the Memory, the Valour, the 
Condud, theHaiard of HisMajefty King Fr/Z/ww the IIU. as Lament 
the Death of the Renowned Duke Schonberg, and of the Reverend 
Dr. Walker. 2. The Barrow, 3. The Liffe or Liffy, 4. The Nuero -. 
$. ThQSlanyoxVrrin. 

In this Province are comprehended pa^Parifhes? whereof 47 are 
Boroughs 5 that return Parliament-men i 16 Market-Towns; 102- 

Of the Province of V L S T E R. 

By the Latins, Vltonia, or Vlidia ; by the Irijh, Cm Gudy^ by the ~ 
Welch, Vitro; by the Engli/h, Vlfter, 

Iris now -divided into Nine Counties , i,VHmiiigaly or Tyrmmdo . 

1 . 1 .nndnti'^ ■■ 

^8 ^f Ireland, 

Londonderry^ Anlrim^ Vorvn^ Ardmagh^ Tyrene^ or 'tyr-Om^ Farmanagh^ 

Monoghand , and Cavan, 

Its chief places are, Vumjgal, a Borough Town, with a good Ha- 
ven, and commodious Harbour: Kaphoe^ near the Lough Sffilie^ once 
a City and Biflioprick : BAliihannon hath a good Haven. 

Londonderry is the beft built Town of any in ihcNorth of Ireland^ 
feated in a Teninfulao^ 40 Acres ; on one fide invironed with a River, 
and on the other fide impaflible, with a deep and Mor'ijh Soil, ftrong- 
ly fcituated by Nature, and ftronger by Artj very remarkable for its 
Defence in the Siege, i^Sp, Mr. George Vf^alk^r^ Redor of Donaghmore 
in Tyrone, Governour, againft'2oocc hi[h^ for 105 days; whom nei- 
ther the Number nor Rage of the Enemies without, nor thofe more 
Cruel ones within, Famine and Sicknefs, and the Fatigue of War, 
could ever make them think of Surrendring. 

Czdmore Fcrt, at the Entrance of Laigh Foyle^ is witnefs of the 
brave Undertaking , and great Succefs of the Mmtjoy of Verry , 
and the Phoenix of Colraine^ loaden with Provifion for the Relief of 
Londonderry^ and conveyed by the Dartmouth Frigat, in breaking and 
palling the Boom^ to the inexprellible Joy and Tranfport of that di- 
(IrelTed Garifon, when they only reckoned upon tv^o days life. 

Colraine, a confiderable place, and once gave name to this County. 

St.Patric}(s Purgatory is a Vault or narrow Lane in the ground, of 
which ftrangeftories are reported by the /ri/^. 

/^/7friw gives name to the County, but Carrickjergm ot Knockfergus, 
is the chief of the County, feated upon a large and capacious Bay, 
with a fafe and commodious Port, ■. 

Belfaji and Lishorn^ or Lifnaganie^ are two thriving Towns. Connor | 
is a fmall Bifhoprick united to Vomi. Vmluce is a Caftle on the North,- 
feated on a Rock hanging over the Sea. 

Vorvn-Patrick is a Borough Town, and head of the County , a Bi- I 
(hoprick, famous for the Bones of St. Patrkk^^ St. Bridget^ and St. Co- 
lumhus. and one of the molt Ancient Towns in Ireland, 

Strangford gives name to a large Lough and Bay. Bangor^ Hdsho' 
roughs Nen?ion^ and KilliUagh^ are Borough-Towns. Dromore is a fmall 
Bitlioprick. Newry is a Borough and Market-Town. Vwidrum and Ar- 
^/j/ are two Sea-Port Towns. 

Armagh^ or Ardmagh, is yet an Archbi(hop's See, and the Metropo- 
litanof Ireland: Here was KingPViUiam firli Proclaimed, in the year 
i<5po, by the Lord Blany. C bar lemont is 3. Borough, and ftrong For- 
trefs, very remarkable for many Adtions in the late War. . _ 


of Ireland, .49 

VHngannQhh^^titmt^. the chief Town in the County of ^Z^ff Me. Stra- 
^^«e is a Borough-Town. ,;. , 

CajUe Omagh^ 01 Vrumnsaragh^ is a Borough- Town on the R. P^ 
water. Cloghn is a fmaU Bifhoprick. : |;;,,^n ^i... 

Eniskj^uing^ ox Inilhkllling^ is the chief Town in Fermanagh County, 
and is famous for the Valour of its Inhabitants in the late War; feat- 
edin anlllind in the middle of the Lake Earn, (which is there divided 
into tvvo parts J), and guarded with two Forts. Tarmon and Ttthy are 
two Cadles, BjUsck^at the mouth of the Lake. 

Af'W^^/j.zf/ is a Borough-Town, and chief of the County. Glafhlogh 
and Clonijh are two fmall Towns. Cavan isalfo the head of its County, 
Belturbet is a Borough-Town. Kilmore a Bidiops See. 

The chief Rivers of this Coanty are, i. The Bjtnne^ which paffes 
through the great Like Ne-tgh' 2. Lmgh Foyle^ which mikes a great 
Bay or Lake of the Gme Name. As alfo does, 3. Smlly, ^. Lagan 
Water. 5. Nemy. 6. Po River. 

In this Province is one Archbiflioprick, 6 Bifhopricks, 60 Baro- 
nies, Id. Towns of Trade, 3 4. Towns that return Parliament-men, 
30 Caivles, and 2 14 Pariflies. 

Of the Province of CO NNAVG HT, ov C on aught y and 
Conna^h. Lat. Qonucia. ^Conachtia, 

This Province, as it is divided into feveral Counties, fo every Coun- 
ty is feverally commended for its Soil. Clare Ls faid to be a County fo 
conveniently feated, that either from the Sea or Land, there can be 
nothing wilhed for more. 

Gallotvay is no lefs thankful to the Husbandman, than profitable 
to the Shepherd. 

Mzyo is replenifhed with pleafureand fertility, abundantly rich in 
Catfcl, and plenty of Honey. 

Slego, Cosfting upon the Sea, is noted for feeding and railing of 

Utrim is fo f ull, of grafs and forage, that it fometimes endangers 
their Cattel. 

2lT/cflfKW?« is plain arid fruitful, feeding many herds of Cattel, and 
yielding plenty of Corn. 

Clare, or Thomond^ gives Title to an Earldom, fometlraes called 
Iwdmmd, otltvotvowi, gives name to the County. KiUalorv^ or Labiiy 
IS a Market Town, and Bifnops See. EnisTomi is a Borough three 
utiles North oiClare. Bmrotty is fortihed with a Cafile,. ,.,' 

H \---- Gal- 

eo Of Ire/and* 

Galktpay, a Bifliops See, and the third City of this Kingdom, for 
beauty and bigiiefs, feated near the fall of the great Lake or River 
Corbej in the Weftern Ocean } furrendred to the Englijh, July 22. pi, 
A noted Empory, and famous for Trade i nigh to this City is the 
Lough Garble^ about 20 miles in length, and 3 or 4 in breadth; in 
which are many fmall Ifles. 

T«:i/« is an Archbiftiop's See, once a famous City, now decayed. 
Athenree^ or Ateneth, is a Borough Town. Clonfart liill keepeth the 
Title of a Bifhops See. 

But the Battel of Aghrim will eternize the Valour of the Englifh. 

Mayo is reckonM the chief Town of the County, now decayed, 
once a BiQioprick, now joined to 7uam^ and the Jurifdidion to Kil- 
Ula, which is a fmall Town and Bifhoprick, near a large Bay. Cafile 
Bar is a fmall Borough-Town ; in this County is the Lough Malk^of 
a large extent, and well ftored withFifb. 

Slego, in the year 1 552, was but a very poor Town, but 'tis feated 
on a great Pafs, and moll: convenient thorough-fare of all Comaught, 
into the Province of Vlfier-, Flanked on the Weft by a Biy of the 
Sea, which fafely brings to it Ships of good Burthen -, and on the 
Eaft with a Lake of about 5 miles in length, ftored with brave Sal- 
mon, Pikes and Trouts; Protcded by aftrong Fort, and the whole 
Countrey enriched with as good Land as any in Ireland > and Neigh- 
boured within few miles of the great Lake Earn^ 30 miles in length, 
and half as broad. Being thus happily fcituate, and accompanied 
with fo many advantages, willdoubtlefs be of great conrequence.^c(7/2- 
ry, once a Bilhoprick, now ruined and united to Elphin in Rofcommon, 

Letrim is feated in a fertile Soil, near the Lough Alyn on the River 
Sljannon^ reckoned the chief of the County. Carrkk^ TirumrufrJ is alfo a 
fmall Borough Town on the River Shannon, 

JamesTorvn, a place commodioufly feated for Trade, upon the Ri- 
ver Shannon, being paiTable by Boats from thence as far as Killaloo^ near- 
Limerick^-, which is 80 miles or thereabouts, except the neceflity of 
once unloading by reafon of Atblone- Bridge. 

Kofcommon^ which gives name to the County, otherwife poor and 
mean. /4/Wwe, a Bifhoprick, is a place of great ftrength, and the Key . 
of Connaught^ on both fides of the River Shannon^ joyned by a ftately 
Stone Bridges guarded on C(/««j«^k fide with a Caftle, and ftrongly . 
fortihed with an Earthen Wall, but could not refift the Power and 
brave Attacks of the Eugli(h. Elphin is a Bilhops See. Tuhh^ is a Bo- 
rough, and Market-Town. Boyh w\\\ be famous for the Name of the . 
HonourabJ'^ Kobm Boyle, Efquire, the EngHJh Philofopher. 


Of Ireland, 

This Province contains 5-2 Baronies i it hath one Archbifbopriek, 
6 Bi(hopricks, belides Angchony and Mayo^ united to tuam, 7 Market- 
Towns i 8 Places of Commerce and Trade •, 1 2 places that return 
Parliament- men, 24CalUesof old eredion, and ^66 Pari(hes. 

It is well watered with Loughs and Rivers, plenty of Fiffi and 
Fowl 5 and on the Weftern Sea it hath many commodious Bays, Creeks, 
and Navigable Rivers j but its Air not To pure and clear, as in the 
other Provinces. 

Of the Frovmc€ of M U N S T E R, by the Latins^ Mo- 
momia, hythelvi^hy Mown, orWown. 

It is divided into 5 Counties, ( by feme into 6 ) viz., tipperary, or 
Holy-Crofs ; Waterford^ Ccnrk^, to which is joined the Ccunty of Vef- 
mond^ Liwer/c.^, and Ktrry. Thefe Counties are divided into j2 Baronies. 

It is large, Mountainous, Woody, and of a different Soil ; the Val- 
leys garnilhed with Corn Fields, and generally fertile ^ well watered 
with Rivers and Bays, abounding in Corn, Cattel, Wood, Wool!, and 
Fi(h,the laft whereof it affords in every place p]enty,but efpecially Her- 
ring and Cod, near the Promontory of £mj!f^^,that lies between Bantry 
and Baltimore Bay. The Air mild and temperate, neither too fcorching 
hot, nor too pinching coldi comprehending, befides many fafe ftati- 
ons for Ships, 24 Towns of Note and Trade, 66 Caftles of old cre- 
dion, and 802 Pari(hes. 

Tipperary^ once a famons place for Pilgrims, now gives name to the 
County. Chnwel, in the County of Tipperary, a place of great ftrength 
and confequence, both for its convenient Icituation upon the River 
Shour, paffable to it by Boats, 20 miles above Waterford; as alfo for 
that it is the Place of Judicature for the faid County, lately made Pa- 
lawie. It is a Market-Town and Borough. 

Cajhel ot Cajfely is an Archbiftioprick. T'hurlef is ^ Borough- Town 
on the River Shure, Camk^ot Carkh^Mac-Griffin^ is a Market Town on 
the fame River. 

The North part of tippcrary beareth the name of Ormond, and is 
honoured by giving Title to our prefentDuke of Ormond. 

Waterford, on the River Sbour^ a well traded Port, a Bifliops See, 
and the fecond City of Ireland -^ tho feated in one of the moff barren 
parts, and moff foggy Air, yet is of fafe and commodious Site for 
Trade; for Ships of thegreateft burthen may fafely fail to, and ride 
at Anchor before the Key thereof, which is one of the beft in the 
King's Dominions , and chief of the County. 

H 2 . DungaT' 

5 2, Of Ireland, 

Vmgarvan is a Borough Town,feated on the Sea,well fortified with a 
Caftle,with a commodiousRoad tor Ships-LZ/woj-e is a BoroughTown on 
the River "Blachvpater^ once a Bifhops See, but now united to Waterford. 
Cor\y upon the R. Lee, the principal of that County, and a Bifnops 
See, well walled, andhtted with a very commodious Hdv^en, confining 
chiefly of one ftreet in length, inhabited by a civi), wealthy, and indu. 
ftrious people, generally all EngUfh* It is the Shi re- Town of the largeft,. 
richeft, and beli inhabited Countrey of any in Ireland, and the only 
Thoroughfare of all Goods and Commodities fent moft commonly 
this way out of England. Sept. 2p. i6po. after 3 or 4 brave Affaults 
by the Englifh^ it furrendred to King WiHiam^ tho the Garifon confifted 
of 5CC0, who were all made Prifoners of War. 

Kjngfah upon the mouth of the River Bany, a commodious Port op- 
pofite to the Coaftof Spa'uu the only fafe and ready Port in all Ireland 
for the Er,gU(h Ships and others to vidrual at, or refrcfli themftlvcs, ha- 
ving a ihong Caftie for its defence j which alfo furrendred to the 
Englifh, Odob. 17. 16 po. 

Toughal upon the Sea, with a fafe Road, and convenient Haven, and 
is the moll convenient place in all the South Parts of Ireland^ from 
whence to tranfport Cattd,Sheep,€^ any part of the J^eji oiEnglartd, 
Other places in this County, are KoJ^e^ once of good account, and a 
Bilhoprick, now united to Corl{,Charkville^ MallOy Brandon-BHdge, Bal- 
limore, &c. are Borough Towns. 

Ltmrkk^, or LoHgh-Meagb^ the Principal of that County, and the 
fourthinelhmationof all the Kingdom, fcituate inanlflandjCompafTed 
about with the River Shannon^ by which means well tortiried ; A well 
frequented Empory, and a Bi(hops See. Diftant from the main Ocean. 
about 60 miles, yet Ships of good burthen come up clofe to the very 
Walls ; of a happy fcituation in refped of Traffick and Commerce It 
is counted two Towns, the Upper, where ftands the Cathedral Church. 
and Caiile :. The lower fenced with a Wall and Caftie. The.laft Town 
that furrendred to the Englijh , and compleated the Conqueft of Ire-^ 
land. Kilmallockis a Borough Town, Pvich and Populous. . Askeaton and; 
Athdora^XQ. fmall Towns of note. 

Dinghy a Borough and Market-Town, is the chief of the County of 
Kerry \ itis well feated for Navigation, upon a very large Bay of the 
fame name, the moft Weftern of note in all Ireland. Jrdfeart is a Bo- 
rough-Town, nigh the Sea, and a l^iftioprick. Irally about 4 miles, 
from the Sea. 

Tp conclude J Thefe four Provinces make up a Kingdom, as beau- 
tiful and fweet a Countrey as any under Heaycd, ftpred with many* 

c K eoodiv 

Of Denmark. 5g 

goodly Rivers, repleniflied with abundance of all forts of Fi(h, fprink- 
led with many Brave Iflands and Lakes , adorned with goodly Woods 
for building of Houfes or Ships \ full of good Forts and Havens ; of a 
Soil moll: fertile, and the Air mild and temperate i fo that there is no- 
thing wanting that may ferve to make it a moft magnificent and flou- 
rifhing Kingdom. 

f Denemarck, 

^^4 Of Denmark. i 

Engl, is a Monarchy which in former times was very formi- 
dable both to France and England i and though the Englijh for 
many years have minded no other Intereft in this Country but that 
of the Baltick^znd North Trade ; yet lince thefe tvvo Crowns are now 
come to a clofer Union , ir may be worth our while to look back and 
confider the State of that Monarchy , wherein the Englijh hath io 
great an Inrerell by the late Marriage of George Piinct oi Venmark^ v/ith 
the Princefs y^nn. 

Concerning the Original of the Dane^ we read not in any of the 
more ancient Greek^znd Latin Authors, excepting Jornandes and Venan- 
Uhs Fortunatusy who yet but (lightly mention them. In the French and 
Englijh Hirtories they are often remembred, firfi in the Reign of 7heo- 
dorick. King of Jujirafia^ about the year f i <5, under their King Cochlia- 
riusy foraging upon the Sea-coaftof GW-Ee/^?ci^> flain in their return 
hy Theodebert, Son toTl^odoricI^ After this in the Reign of C/;^r/ej- the 
Great, under their Prince Go/ ricwj-, or Godfrey, then warring upon the 
Obertriti^ the Inhabitants zhoui Rofiock^tejle Kranizio -, and invading 
Freifland whh a Fleet of 200 Sail', threatning the Neighbouring ^^xcwx 
with Subjedrion, and much endangering the Empire of the French, if 
the death oi Godfrey, and the Quarrels about Succellion had not pre- 

Afterwards their mention is very frequent and famous during the 
Race of the French Kings of the Caroline Line, and of the Monarchy of 
the Englijh Saxons-, with fundry Fleets and Armies unrefiftible, invading 
France and England,conquenng and fubduingthe Englifh Saxon Nation, 
and giving the name of Normandy to part oi France ; for by that com- 
mon Name of Normans, the Danes, as well as the Nortveeis and Swethes 
were then called. V, 

The word Dane^ Saxo Grammaticus Krantzim, and others fabuloufly 
derived from one Van , a King hereof, about the year of the World 
2Sp8. Becanuf from Henen or Venen, lignifying a Cock in the Danifh 
Language , the Arms of the Alani their Prcngenitors. But how they 
got thither is very uncertain. Andreus Velleiuj in Camhden , from the 
Vahi, a people oi Afta , and Mar/^ fignify in § a Border. Ethelwardus 
from Vonia^ a Town fometimes lince feated herein. Montanus, from 
Aha ; lignifying water, in regard of the Situation of the Country. The 
more Judicious fetch their Name from the Bay or Strait of the Sea cal- 
led by Mela, Sinus Codanus, about which Strait, and in the Iflands ad- 
jacent, thefe people, fince their iirft being known, have to this day 


Of DenmAvk* 55- 

mhabited. From this Name hath the Country been called "Denmark^ 
A Nation famous a long time for Arms, and their many and great Vi- 
dlories atchieved abroad. Themfclves (never conquered by Foreign 
Power) Lords fometimes of England and Srvethdand, Yet fuch is the 
VicilTitude of Kingdoms, that Denmark^ was in the compafs of four 
years, viz. 1^57^ 5^^ 5P» and i<5<5o, almoft conquered by the Sjvedes, 
the Hiftory of which Wars are well written by Sir Roger Manky > there 
you will Hnd the King of Sweden fighting with a wonderful refolution, 
and continued SuccelTes; the King o{ Vinmarh^'w'iih zn undaunted and 
indefatigable courage endeavours to check his Career, till by the Me- 
diation of the Vutch and Unglifh the Treaty of Rofchilt in February 
155-8. was concluded, and the two Kings had a friendly Interview; 
Yet foon after this the War broke out again ^ for the King of Sweden^ 
upon pretence of nonperformance of Articles, with much fecrefie got 
before Cofznhagen in Auguft 1 5 j 8. fo that the Fate of Denmark depend- 
ed upon the Invincible Courage and Condud of King Frederic^ , 
who defended Copenhagen with a Royal Magnanimity till the death 
of the King of Sppeden , when was concluded a fecond Peace upon 
the Bafis of the former Treaty. Not to mention the late Wars 
wherein thefe two Northern Crowns were again imbrued in blood, 
where (he^i9n?fc/ej- were overcome frequently in Field-fights, and in 
SiegeSjNas well as at Sea. They loft iVifmar in Mecklewburg^ and fe- 
veral places in Schomn. And the Vanes had made, as well as Bran- 
denburg , brave Acquifitions and Revenges^ had not the French King 
forced them to a Reftitution. 

The Monarchy of Denmark^., as it is now united and incorporated, 
contains two Kingdoms, Vtnmark, and Norway j to which we may 
zddGroenland, ZK\di the XdinAs oi If d and ^ Shetland d^ni Ferro. Veti- 
niar\ is fituate between the Ocean and the Bakkk^ Sea, compofed of a 
Feninfula^ contiguous to Germany^ a Coaft adjoining to Siveden^ and : 
of divers llles which are between the Ptninfnla and the Coaft, with 
fome others further diftant. Containing five more general parts or 
names of i. Jutlandi 2. The Iftaiids of the Sounds or Sundt. 3. Ha.* 
land. 4, Schontn. 5. Bleking. 

Of Jatia^ or Jmhnd. 

TH E Teninfula called Jutland, was once the Cimhria Cherfonefm of 
?tol. from thQ Cimbrianr its ancient Inhabitants; who were fol- 
lowed by the Juitesy Stxons^ and Angles : after thefe came the Vanes^ 
by whom it. is now poffeflcd , being -divided into two parts, North 

56 Of Difitniitrk, 

and South r, the South part is divided alfo into two Dukedoms, viz. 
Viicatus Hdfatia or Hoifleinj and Slefuicenfis Vucatus, or Slefrvick- 

Of the Dukedom of Holftein, or Holfatiss Ducatus. 

THIS is a Wooddy, low and Marihy Couiitry, and contains the 
Provinces of P/;/7?«er//ii , Stormaria^ Holfatia., and JFjgria^ pro- 
perly and ftridtly fo called. Stormaria^ Stgrtnaren^ hath for its chief 
places Himhmgh^ Mzrionis^ Ptol. tijie Cluver, a free Imperial City, and 
a Hans'Toivn of great ftrength, as well by Nature as Art, adorned 
with fair and beautiful Structures, viz. the Council-Houfe, Exchange, 
and nine Churches ^ a place of great Trade, and well reforted to by 
Merchants and Factors of feveral Nations. y4nno 1374. this Town 
was adjudged to belong to the Earls o^ Holfiein, ai-id that determina- 
tion ratify'd by Charles the Fourth. And 'tis faid that the Hsmhurgtrs 
took the Oath of Allegiance to Chniikm Earl o( Oldenburg^the firlt King 
of P. .77U.''/; cf that Houfe, as Earl 0^ H)!jiein\ but fince they live as a 
free State, and being jealous of their Liberty, or their Guik, they are 
always in a pofture of Defence, and can upon all occaiions raife 
1 500 Citizens well armed, belides their confiant Garifon, and the 
promifed allidance of the reft of the Hi/z/-Tf;n?;;x. 2. Crempa^ Kretn- 
pen^ a ftrong and well Fortiried Town, reckoned one of the Keys of 
the Kingdom. Gluckjtadt^ Ghtcfiadiufn^ which commands the palTage 
up the Elbe. 6. Pinnenberg^ Pinneberga^ a ftrong place, and of great 
confequence. 7. Bredenherg^ one of the beft Towns in the Country, 
remarkable for the ftout refiftance it made againft Walleftein 1628. 

Wagria^ IVageren, hath for its chief places Lubeca, Lubeck^^ the Treva 
of Ptol. tefte Marc. Sunf. & Brktio^ an Imperial Free City, and a Hans- 
Toopfij and Billiops See, built upon a rifing Hill, on the furamit where- 
of is placed the Cathedral Church, called St. Maries : befides which, 
it bath nine others. The Streets are ftraight and fair ; Ms Fortified with 
a Ditch and double Wall, in circuit about fix miles, and enjoys a good 
Trade. Hylin tells us there is not a City of Germany which can equa- 
lize it, either for the Beauty, and uniformity (f the Houfes,- rhe plea- 
fant Gardens, fair Streets, and delightful Walks without the Walls : 
leafed upon the River Tr^t^e, which runs through the midftof it about 
eight Enghjh miles from the Baltick- Guarded at the River's mouth by 
the Fort 'Travemwid, and is in a ftrid Alliance with the States-General 
of the United- Provinces, ever fince Anno 1648. The other Towns 
are Nervjiadt^ Ploen.^ Plona^ upon a Like fortiiied with a Caftle, and 
belonging to a Prince qf the Houfe oi Holjhin^ called Holfiein Ploen. 


Of 'Denmark, 57 

Oldenhor^. Scgehert ^ the Lirim'ms of Vtol. and OldeJIoe. T)itmarjia, 
Vithmarjen, hath for its chief places Meldrop^ the prime Town of the 
Province. Lnnden^ & Brttnshunel^ Heide. Holfatia, Holface^ Gallis. Hol- 
(iein, is the laft member of this Eftate, though giving name to the 
whole; the chief places in it are Kid^ alias Chilonmmy Seated upon 
the Bahick^Sea^ a well traded Town, with a large Haven, and flore 
oi Shipping. 2. Kensborg^ the beft fortified, and Itzehoa on the Ri- 
ver Stocr. 

Adolf h ciSchaumherg in the Year 11 14. (by Lotharius Emperor and 
Duke oi Saxony ) was made the firft Earl of Holjiein. j4dolph the hft 
Earl ; of which Hcufe dying without IlTue, the whole Eftate fell to 
Chri(iiern^ Son of Theodorkk^EzxX o( Oldenberir ^ who being made King 
oi Denmark^^ prevailed with Fre^mc/;^ the third, Emperor, to have the 
whole Ertate ereded into a Dukedom, 1474. and by this means uni- 
ted to the Crown of 'Denn7ark^. the Kings thereof, as Dukes of Hoi' 
jhin, being counted Princes of the Empire ^ though they neither fend 
to the Imperial Diets, nor contribute to the publick Taxes, nor ac- 
knowledge any Subjedion more than Titular : Yet lince this uniting 
of thefe two Eliates, the Title of Duke oi Holfldn^ and a good pare 
of the Countrey, was in a manner difmembred from the Crown, and 
given to Adolph^ Brother of Clmftiern the Third. Afterwards ano- 
ther part of this Countrey was bellowed upon John^ Younger Bro- 
ther to FTederickji\\Q Second. So that now the Houfe of Holfhin is di- 
vided into three principal Branches, whereof the King of VenmarJ^'is 
the Head, and ftanding Protcdtor of the firft Branch: The other two 
Branches are that of Holjhin Gottorp, and that of Hol\hm Sunderhurg^ 
which is divided into four Branches ; fo that the Dukes of Holfiein 
are now increafed to a great number : of wliich the Duke of Holfidn 
Gottorp is the moft coniiderable; yet was greater before he loft the 
King of Dt'wm^rj^ his Brother-in-Law's favour, by engaging too far 
with the Swedes , whereby he loft to the King his Rights of Sove- 
reignty over the Dukedom of Slefrvick^^ and has little or nothing 
there lett belides his Caftle at Gottorp, And in HJfiein his Subjedt are 
under Contribution , whilft himfelf refides at Hamburg, his .place of 

Slefvsce^Jis Ducatm^ Slefwick or Hertzogthumb^ IncolU. 

TH I S is that part of Jutland which lies next to Holjiein^ and was 
firft ereded a Dukedom by King Eric of Vemnarh^^ who gave it 
to PFaldemar •, but Male-ilTue failing, it returned to the Crown, and 

I was 

5B Of Denmark. 

W3is by Margaret J Queen of De«w«rj^, Nora>ay, Sind Sweden, conferred 
upon GetrardEdivl ot Holjiein. Afterwards it fell, together with Hoi- 
Ihin , to Chriftiern of Oldenbttrg , King of Damark^^ by whom it was 
with Holjiein Incorporated in that Crown. A Country which once in 
three or four years the Inhabitants let the Pools overflow the Land, 
where they catch plenty of Fifh, and the Mud iiiriches the Soil. Its 
chief Towns are Schlefwyck^^ Skfukum^ & Hddeha., tejie Cranizio ^ an 
Epifcopal See, and Head of the Dukedom, Seated on the River Sha^ 
which falls into the Baltkk^Sea ; where it hath a commodious Haven^ 
2. Hufum^ Seated on the River EyJfr, Fortified with a Caftle. 3. H;<- 
ders-kben^ Fortified with the Strong Caftle Hanjberg. 4. Flensber^^ 
with its commodious and deep Port. Between Flensberg and Slefwich^ 
is a Country that goes by the name q{ Angelen^ from whence 'England 
had its firft denomination ever fince King Egbert. 5. The Port of 
Chriftiera-pries , now Fortified by the Fort Frederick. 6. Gortopy a 
Strong Fort or Caftle, the Relldence of the Duke of Holjiein, 7. Fre- 
derick^jiadt upon the Eyder^ built by one of the late Dukes, intending 
to have fet up a Trade of Silk there: to which purpofc, in the Year 
163 $. he fent a fplendid EmbalTy into Mufcovy and Ferfia^ whofe Tra- 
vels are defcribed by Olearim, 

Of North-Juitland. 

NOrth'Juitland^ is divided into four Dioceffes , Kipen^ Arihnfen^ 
Albourg^ and Wibourg, 

The Diocefs of Kipen^ contains feven Walled Towns, and ten Ca- 
bles 5 its chief places are Kipen , an Epifcopal See, Fortified with a 
Caftle. 2. K'ldingy the place where Toll is paid for the Cattel that 
paffes that way. 5. Frederick^ Ode^ or Frederica ^ lies in a Scitua- 
tion of that importance, that Charles Guliavus having taken it in the 
late Wars i<557. opened himfelf a way to pafs his Army over the Ice 
into all the Neighbouring Iflands, and to alarm Copenhagen ; an Adtion 
both bold and unheard of j for he marched his Cavalry and his Car- 
riages over a great Arm of the Sea, where before a fingle footman 
was afraid to expofe his life. 

The Diocefs of Arthufia, or Arthufen^ contains feven Cities, and 
fiveCaftles \ its chief places are Arthnfen, a well-frequented Port ; 
Kalla a Strong place, Hrfens and Kenderen. 

The Diocefs of ^e/^<?«rg , jielburgum^ hath for its chief places v^/-* 
bourgh^ at the mouth of JJmford- Bay. Nicoping , Hirring , IFanJyJfel , 
^hyftedj and Scagen^ or the Scarp^ the northermoft part of Jmtland. 


Of Denmark ^^ 

The Diocefs of VAbomg hath three Caftles, and three Walled Towns \ 
the chief is IFthottrg^ where are the Courts of Judicature for all Jutt' 

The chid Jflands belonging to Denmar\^ that lie difperfed in the 
Baltkk^^Ci are^ Zeland^ Fionia ot Funen^ A^fen^ ^rroe or Aria^ Lang- 
iandf Laland^ Faljhr, Moiie^ Hmr.^ or Wetn-Jflund^ and Bornholm. 

Of the Baltick Sea. 

TH I S is the Sinus Codanm of the Ancients, otherwife called Sue- 
vicum Mare^ feu Baltkunu Vie Belth^ or Oofizee , Belgis , La Mar 
Baltique Gallis, Warczk^vie More, Kujjjs* It hath three feveral paflTages 
into it from the Ocean, all of them under the command of the King 
of Denmark^', the fafeft and moft ufual is that famous Strait called the 
Fretum Sundicum. Le Sund, Gallis. Straet Van Sund^ Batavis. Onfund^ 
Danis^ The Sound, Anglis^ So great a paffage, that there often fails 
200, fometimes 300 Ships through in one day, and is not above four 
miles over in the narrowed: place. The fecond Paffage or Inlet lies 
between the Illindsof XelandznA Fumn, and is about 16 miles over, 
and is called Beltfomid, or the great Belt. The third Paffage is between 
Fmen and Jutland, not above eight miles over, and is called the leffer 
Belt, This Sea is faid by Captain Codings to be Frefli Water. 

Of Zeland. 

Z Eland, of old C&damnia, the greateft Ifland of the Baltick^ Seas, is 
fcituate near the main Land oiSchonen, from which 'tis feparated 
by a narrow Strait, about four miles over ; which is called the Sound'. 
through which all Ships muft pafs that have any Trade or Commerce 
in thefe Seas, and pay a Toll, or Impolition to the King, according 
to their bignefs, or Bills of Ladings by which arifeth hss greateft Re- 
venue i And for the fecurity of this Paffage, there are built two very 
ftrongCaftles, the one in this Ifle, called Cronenhitrg^ the moft delight- 
ful Seat in the World, affording a profitable and pleafant Profpefi of 
all Ships that Sail through the S~-)itnd \ the other in Schonen, or Scan- 
dia, called Elfenbttrg. In the Reign of Queen Elizabeth out Eafilandr 
Fleet was by the King of Denmark^ threatned to be funk, in cafe they 
p^fftd this Saund, or Straits of E//e«o«r; yet they made the Adventure, 
having only one Man of War, viz. the Minim, and kept their courfe, 
( mtugre all oppofition, without any wound received j forwards and 
back again. 

I 2 The 

^o Of Denmark, 

The chief City of this Iflind , is Haphnia Kiobenhaven , Vinis. 
Koppenhagen Ger. Kopenhaven Belg. Copenhage Gal. Copenhagen Angl. the 
Metropolis of the whole Kingdom, fometime the Refidence of the 
King a Univerfity,Seated near the Sea,with a good Port, and fafe Road 
for Ships; Fortified with a Strong Cartle, containing one of the 
Faireft Arfenals in Europe j wherein is a Cektiul Globe llx foot Dia- 

Chrifiiern the Fourth having laid the Foundation of a New City in 
the little liland of Armager^ joined it to the old by a Bridge, and cal- 
led it by the Name of ChrilHems H^ven-, fo that now it is divided into 
two parts ; in the New Town is the Royal Caftle, the Mint, the Ex- 
change, and the Arfenal before- mentioned. This City was taken by 
Frederick^^ Anno 1522. and in the Year 153^. after a years Siege it 
was furrcndred to Chriflkm the 3^. The Citizens now enjoy the 
greateH: priviledge of any City in Europe, 

Kofchildia^ Kofcbildt^ is the Burying-place of thGVaiiiJh Kings. E//e- 
nour.y Elfinoria , is near to the ftrong Caftle and Palace of Cromnhurg^^ 
the Fortifications whereof was, and is the Key of the Baltkl^Sea., en- 
larged into the Sea with incredible charge and pains by Fredmckihe 2d, 
The Surrender of this Caftle to the Swedes by a Stratagem, Si:pt, the 
6th, 1(558. was like to have loft Copenhagen ^ and confequently the 
whole Kingdom. 

Frederich^berg is a Fortrefs built in a pleafant Plain, oftentimes the 
place of the King'^ retirement; but moft famous for that folemn Inter- 
view and Entertainment that happened between the late Kings of Stve' 
den and De/;w:?ri^ upon the Conclufion and Ratification of the Kofchil'dt 
Treaty. Other places are Kallenburg. Rinjiead. Koge. Korfoer is the 
place where King Charles of Smden landed his Army in his Second 
Expedition againft Denmark^, Aug. 8. 1658. five Months after the a- 
forefaid Interview of the two Kings at Fredericksburg, 'Ncjlwood. Wa- 
ringhurg^ was the firft place where the King of Sweden fet his Foot in 
Zeland in his firft Expedition. In this Ifland are reckoned 340 Vil- 

The Ifland oi Fion'ia or Fmen^ is the affigninent of the Prince of 
Denmarkj, 'tis feated between Zeland and Jnitland^ feparated from the 
firft by a narrow paffage called the Bdt ; from the laft by a narrower, 
called Middle-far-fomd. 'Tis a fertile Soil, and pleafant Scituation. 

Its chief place is the well-traded Odenfee^ an Epil<:opal See, for- 
merly the Seat of the General Affembliesof the Kingdom, now kept 
at Copenhagen: adorned with two fair Churches, and neat Buildings; 
near this place Count Guldinlew, the Vice- roy of Norvpay^ was.overtar 

Of Defjmarki 6 r 

ken in his Coach by Charles King of Sweden in his firft Expedition. 
Other Towns are MidUfare^ Sivinber^, with feveral other good 
Towns, four Royal Gaftles, and 254. Villages , belides Gentkmer-s 

/ilfen is a Tmall Illand belonging io the Dukedom of Slefn:k\. whofe 
chief place is the CalHe of Sunderherg^^ gi^'i'^'g Name to a Branch of 
rhe Royal P'amily, the Duke of R>Uidn Sunderberg. 

Arroe^ or Aru^ is a Cmall Ill;;nd belonging alfo to the Duke oi Slef- 

Liingland^ and Laland^ the firft is the largcft, the other the moft plen- 
tiful ill Corn and Chefnuts ; whofe chief place is Nask^rv^ a Town well 

Faljier is a fmall Tiland fertile in Corn^ its chief place \is Nicopin^ of 
a pleafant fcituation, cal'ed the Naples of Denmark. 

Mom Hie is about twelve miles long, arid fix broad, the chief place 
is Stek^^ where the Svcedijh Forces found a greater refinance than inany- 
of the other Iflandsr. 

H^enotWeenii remarkable for the obfervations of that famous 
Adronomer Ty'cho Brabe. 

The Illand of Br/jhclmwis granted to theCrovvn of Saredenhyihe 
late Treaty of Peace i but fince, the Vanes have exchanged it for an 
equivalent propriety of certain Lands in Schmen. 

Crofs we now over the Setmd^ and take notice of the other part of 
this Kingdom, which lies on rhe Eaft Continent, called Scandia^ under 
which general Nam.e it contains the whole Kingdom of Norvpay^ the 
greater part of the Kingdom, of Srveden^ and fome. partof Venmarkz 
That whrch did belong to Venmarl^y is divided into' three Provinces, 
Hil'and^ Schonen^ and BUh^re^^ now under the King of Svficden, by the 
^i/c.^//f Treaty 5 yet here mentioned, becaufe the places in the Map 
are more plainly ^ctn^ than in the Map of Sveedcr. 

HaVandis a Province for fertility of Soil, fweetnefs of Air, fiore of 
Fifh, plenty of Leadan 1 Brafs Mines, fcarce inferior io any ; its chief 
places are Wansbozii^g, Lihclm, H4mjlat^ Fall^nhurg^ and 7'(?rj^)nr. 

Schjnenis the pleafantell Countrey in z\\ Denmark:, abundant 
in fruits, and thoals of Herrings •, its chief places are Lunden, the Mer 
tropolitan Archbifhoprick of Denmark^^ with its famous Dial^ where 
the Year, Month, Week, Day and Hour throughout tne Year, as alfo 
the Motions of the Sun and Moon through each Degree of the ZodiacJ^^- 
the moveable and fixed Fealis, &c. arediiiindly fcen, being finely a- 
dorned, and fet forth in variety of delightful Cokurs. Other places are 
Helfiagoburgum^ or Elfjnborcb. fortified withaninopregnabkCafilej and. 


■ 6i Of Nortvaj/, 

one of the Forts defending the -Sow/^j/over-igalnrt Crmmhur^, Lanfcrooity 
Corona- ScanU^ Mdmogia^ or Elbogen, 7illhnrg^ VcIJied^ WaUebifrg^ Sitrt' 
tnerj'haven, aiX)dChri!iiern(iadt, ox Chnlikm-dorp. 

Blek^ing is mountainous and barren j its chiefeft places are Cbrijiiano' 
fie, JhuySy Selborg, Eliholm, Katenbyj and Cards- hazcn^ often mentioned 
in the late Wars. 

Denmark^ hiih been an Hereditary Kingdom ever fince the ytax 
r5(5o, for before it was Eledive j fo the Nobility do not enjoy thofe 
Privileges which they did before. 

The King ftiles himfelf, Earl of Oldenburg and Velmenherji, as being 
the Eighth King of that Houfe, to which the Crown of Dermarl^ fell 
.in the year 1448, by the Eledion of Chrijikrn the hrft j and is to this 
day in their poflelTion. 

The opinion of Luther hath been entertained in VeKmar\cvcT fince 
the Reign of Frederick^ the rirft, who was Eleded ^ww 1523, fo that 
there are two Archbilhops, and thirteen Bifiiops for Denmark: 

The Forces of this Kingdom may be known by their former, and 
now late Undertakings againrt the Svpedes j by which it appears, that 
they can raife a ftrong power at Sea, and maiie good Levies at Land, 
for defence of their own Pf?^^^/. 

The Revenue of this King contifts chiefly in the great Tmpoft laid 
upon all Ships which pafs through the Sounds which is the Key of the 
Baltick^i alfo in fome Crown-Lands, a great yearly Toll made of the 
Cattel ; as alfo of the Fifh tranfported into other Countries. 

The T>jnes are generally of good Stature, clear of Comple(^ioii, 
and healthful ; crafty and provident in their affairs, peremptory in 
their affertions, and opinionated of their Actions ; Religious, Juft in 
their Words and Contract's, good Soldiers both at Sea and Land. 
The Women are fair, difcreet, and courteous, fruitful of Children. 
The Danijh Ladies love hunting, and more freely entertain at their 
Tables, than in their Beds, thofe that come to vifitthem. 

For great Captains and men of War, it is famous; for Godfrey or 
Gotricus, who endangered the Empire of France ; for Stveno andCanu- 
tus, the Conquerors of England. For men of Learning, 7ycho Brahe the 
Prince of Afironomers, Hemingiusdi Learned Divine, Bertholinus a Phy/i- 
eian and Philofopher, John Cleverius the Hiftorian and Geographer. 



Of Norway. 6^ 

Of the Kingdom of NORWAY. 

NOrvegia.Lat.Neri^of Vlin, Nortvay./^rgl contains the Weftern partof 
the Peninfula of Scandinavia, t}..: Eaftern part being part o'i Swede 
land^ A long ridge of mountains making the feparation, leaving Nor- 
way toward the Ocean^ and Swedeland toward the BaltichJ^&z. From 
hence are tranfported Train-Oyl^ Fitch, Stockrfijh, Maftj for Ships, 
Veal boards. The Coaft of Norway, tho of a large extent, has few 
good Por/x, by reafonof the fmall Ifands and Kock^ that inviron it, and 
the Gulf of Maeljiroom which fwallows and endangers ail the Ships 
that come nigh it. Herhinim tells us, that this Northern Charyhdis or 
Vorago, by the Inhabitants Moskeflroom, is forty miles in extent. Kir- 
c^fr faith 'tis thirteen miles in Circumference \ that it hath a motion 
afcending and defcending, fix hours, by fucking in waters, and as 
many throwing them forth again. That part which lyes toward the 
Pole, is full of Forefts and Mountains, wherein there are fome few 
Mines of Copper and Iron. In the year 1^4^, was difcovered near 
Opjlcw or Anp, a Mine of very good Gold, which gave the Inhabi- 
tants occafion to fay, that they had got the Northern Indies. But that 
Boaiiendured no longer than the Mine, which prefently vanilhed for 
fear of being rifled. 

Opflo., JnJIoye Gallis, the Afijloga of old, it was burnt down in the 
time of Chrijfiern the Fourth King oiVenmarh,^ and fince called Clyriftia- 
na ; Ms a Bifiiop s See. Aggerhad is a Caftle near to it, full North from. 
Scagen^ the moft Northern point of Jutland. St a f anger \s d.St^-T own ^ 
with a good Port, near which is the Fort Voeswich. There is the Herb 
OJfifraga of Norway, which fnaps the bones of Cattel that tread upon 
it. Eaft of Drowikiw lies the Countrey of Jemperland, formerly partof- 
Norway, but was by the Treaty of Bromshroo, Anno i^45> yielded to 
the Swedes, to whom it is ftill fubjed^. 

This Kingdom has five Governments, with as many Gaftles, B^«/, 
Aggerhm, Bergen-hus, Vrontheni'hus , and IVard-hus. Thar of Bahus^ 
with a Cadle of the fame name upon a Rock, was delivered to the 
Swedes by the Treaty oiKofchilt 5 Berghen is the better City, the Scat of 
the Viceroy, with a new Fort called Fredericksburg ; and a Port into 
which Velkls have an eafier entrance, and where they are fafefrom the 
Winds, by reafon of the high Mountains which inviron it : The Mer- 
chants of the Hans-Towns have there a Houfe and a Magazine. Vron- 
thm, in Latin Nidrofta, the Court of the ancient Kings of Norn^ay, is 


-^4 ^f Norway, 

very much fallen to c^ecay, yet it ftill retains the Title of an Archbi- 
(hoprick, and the Pvemahis of one of the taireiVand inoft magnificent 
Churches of the North: Ships ride fafe in the Harbour, but they muft 
have very good Pilots to carry them in. Here the People make a kind 
of Bread of Barly-meal, and Oats, which they bake between twa 
hoUuw Flint-lionc?, which Pread keeps thirty or forty ycars.The AV- 
wfguwj are little fubjedtroficknefs, and ot (uch a Gc;nliitution, that 
vi?hen they are in a Fever, one llice of Bacon does them more good 
than a poached Egg ; Their great inclination to Sorcery, makes them 
have the reputation of Selling the Win-is to the Seimen. 

Finmark^, v»hich makes part of Lapland, advances into t'ne Frigid 
:.2'«e, fo that day or night continues alternately forfeveral Months to- 
gether. The liihabitantscluim nothing of Property, but take the firti 
place that pleafss them, hereto day, in another place to morrow. They 
live upon Fijfj, iiid hhtntmg^ and only pay an acknowledgment of cer- 
tain SKins totheKingof I-tvzwizr/^, and carry their Fifli to Berghen.ThQ 
CalUeof IVardbiis, with a Borough of 300 Houfes, the moll Nor- 
thernly of the whole Continent, is in the middle of a little Ifiand, 
where it fervesonly to force the payment of certain duties fromthofe 
that Traflkk to Arc})- Angd in Mcfcozy. The Haven is in the Weilern 
part of the Ifiand, which is feparated from the Land by an arm of the 
Sea, about a Quarter of a League broad, through which the Ships make 
Sail, and the places adjoiniPig are not fo fubjed to the Ice, as other 
parts of the (ame Sea. 

.As for the Korwcgians-^ we have not read of them in any ancient Au- 
thor ; bbth Nimeand Countiey fecm more lately to have been given 
from their Northern Scltuation, uniting with the Vanes and Sn-edej -, 
they were better known in the time of the French Empire, by the name 
of Nornnns i under which appellation in the time of Charles the Stm- 
'pie, they got the Province of Normandy conferred on RoHo^ the Hril 
puke. thereof, p 12 ■, afterwards fetling in their own Countrey, 
they were called AVn-fgiaffj, from their Northern Scituation ■■, Govern- 
ed by theli own Kings til! their hnal Subjugation by the Dj//ej-,which 
was by means of the Marriage of Fliqiiin the laft Pnnce of Norway^ 
unto Margaret Queen of Denrnzrh^^ Norway ^ 3ii\d Sweden^ a fecond Se- 
miramis in the Hilfory of thofe times -, who having once got footing 
in Nrway^ fo alfured themfelves of it, that they have ever (ince poi- 
fe,lTed it as a Tributary Kingdom, fo that now Norxvay and Denmark^ 
are both fellow Subje6i:s under the fame King. 

The Comm.odities that thefe Kingdoms afford, are F//7^, Hides^Tal- 
lorPf Pitch, Tar.^ Cordage^ Ma(tSi Firr Boards^ Wainfc>. t.^ &c. 


m-rr- mn-T^-nsr-lm- m iiiiw iiwi imi liiw ton wi WM m 

Sweden 1 . ^"^^5:^-^^. 

TH E Monarchy of Smvonia, or iS'r^w^^ JL^/. Sweden Incolity Suede 
Gal, Suetia Ital, by the Poles, Szn^ecya, and Szn^edzh^- Zimia^ is 
the tnoft ancient in Europe if it be true, that it has had above a hun- 
dred and fifty iC/wg/j and that thefirft among them was the Son of 
Japhet, one of the Sons of Noah. Perhaps for this reafon it was, that 
at the Council of Bitjtl a Swedifh Bifliop had the confidence to demand 

K of 

66 Of SrvedehnL 

of the Prefidlents the precedency before all the Bifhops of Chrijiendom. 
Some Hiftorians begin to reckon the Kings of Sweden from Jermankus ; 
and demonftrate to us, that the Kingdom was Eledive till the Reign 
of Guliavus de Vafa^ or Ericus^ who made it Hereditary to his Family 
in the year 154.4 j and at the fame time put down the Roman- Catholic}^ 
Religion, to embrace the Lutheran Doiktme \ under this pretence of 
Religion, Charles the Ninth of Sudcrmania^ deprived his Nephew Si- 
gifmimd of his Crown, who had been the i^tb Ele(9tive King of Fo- 
land^oi tnatName. In the Reign of the Emperor C/:?<2r/e/ the Great, 
we rind them to have been a Free State, different from that of the 
Danesy entertaining then Harioldus and Ragenfridm^ Kings of that Na- 
tion, driven out by the Sons of Goter'mis. In the Reign of Srveno the 
Firrt, and Camniis the Great, they werefubjedtotheP^w/.ByQueen 
Murg<3/£'* about the year 1387, they w;re again fubdued to iheVam/h 
yoke ; after long Wars, fundry defcdions and recoveries, not fully 
delivered until the year 1525, freed by G«f?^7;«j- aforefaid , and ever 
fince commanded by Princes of their own Nation. The ancient Inha- 
bitants of this Nation are fuppofed to be the Suiones^ or Sitones ot 'ta- 
citur. Inhabiting the greater Scandia of ?tol» by Aimon'ms called the 
Sueones^ in his 48^^. and loijf. Chap, h) Jornandes de Rebus Getkisjihe 
Suethki^ at this day by long corruption the Sueci^ giving name to the 
Countrey now called Suetia^ or Suedeland, extended for a great fpace 
of Land betwixt the Balttck^dnid the Frozen Seas. 

The King of SwedelandMcs hirafelf King of the Svpedes^ Goths ^ Van- 
dals-i Great Prince of Finland^ Duke of Ejionia and Carelia^ Lord of. 
Ingna \ and bears in his Arms three Crowns. The prefent King is 
Charles the Eleventh, of the Family of the Palatine oiDeux Fonts.Thc 
Goths and Vandals ztt famous in Hiftory for their Conquefts i So have 
the Swedes been in the lart Age, through the Valour of their late 
Kings, and the Conquefts they have made upon their Neighbours, 
which had made them almoft Matters of thtBaltkh^ 

The Peace at Biomsbroontzt Chri(lianoplej Anno 1^45, obliged the 
King of Denmark to reftore Jempterland and HcrendaJl to the Swedes^znd 
to furrender him the Iflands of Gotland and Oefel to perpetuity, with 
the Province of Halland for thirty years. 

The Peace of Rosk^l near Copenhagen, i<^58, furrendred Halland 
wholly to the Swedes, together with Schonen, Blekjng, aad the Ifland 
of Bornholm, ( which afterwards returned to the Vanes by exchange of 
other Lands ) the Fortrefs of Bahus, and the Bailywick of Dronthem, 

The Peace at Copenhagen i<56o, confirmsthe Treaty of Rwj^/,except 
for the Bailywick of Dronthem j and acquires the Ifland of JFeen> 


of SrvedeUnd, 6y 

The AcquifitioRS of the Sveededom the Empire by the Peace ofMun- 
jier^ were the Dutchy of Loader Pomerania, and in the Vpper-Stetin^ GartZy 
Dam and Golnau^ the liland and Principality of Kugen^ the Ifles and 
^ Mouths oWder ; the Dukedoms of Bremm and Ferden ; The City Sig- 
fiiore, and part of Wifmar^ Wildhufen in Weftphalta^ the priviledge to at- 
tempt the relt of Pomeranian and the new Marquifate of Brandenburgh. 

The Treaty of Oliva near Dantzich^^ i5do, wasfo advantageous to 
this Kingdom, that the King of Poland there utterly renounced the Ti- 
tle of King of Sivedeland for the future j and confented that Livonia 
from thenceforth (hould be Hereditary to the Crown of Sweden. This 
was intended of Livonia upon the North of the River Duna, where 
only Vunemburgh was refcrv'd to the Crown of Poland^ according to 
the Truce made at Stumfdorf for 26 years, Anno 1^3 5. 

The Peace with Mufcovy reftord to Sweden all that the Grand Duke 
had taken in Livonia, 

The King of Sweden pretends to the Succeilionof Cleves and Juliers^t 
by Title from his Great Grand-father, John Duke of VeuxPonts:^ who 
Married Magdalene the thirteenth Sifter to Duke John-Wi^iam, 

In the Eftates of this Kingdom, theCountrey-men make a Corpo- 
ration, or Body, as well as the other Orders. 

Sweddand contains that part of Scandinavia.^ which is the beft,as ly- 
ing toward the Eali. The cold Weather is there very long, and fome- 
times very bitter \ however the Inhabitants do not fo much make ufe 
of Furs, as they do in Germany j they only wear Night-Caps, Wollen- 
Gloves, Juft-a-corps, and make great Fires of Wood, with which 
they are well ftored. 

There are fo few Sick People among them,that Phyficiani and Apothe- 
caries have little or no Pra<5tice. The Inhabitants are equally Rich, and 
their greateft Revenue confifts in Copper .^ whence the moft part of the 
Europeans fetch it, to make their fmall Money, their Cannon, and their 
Bells. The City of <y*oc)^&o/^« alone has in the Caftle above 800 Pieces 
of Great Artillery \ and it is believed, that in all the Kingdom, there 
are above 80000. Upon review of the Militia made i<56i, fourfcore 
thoufand men were Muftered in Arms. 

This Countrey being fo full of Mountains and Woods, afford very 
little Corn ; fothat in times of Scarcity, the Poor are forced to eat 
very bad Bread. The Commodities of the Countrey, befides Copper.^ 
are Butter., TaIIon> ^ Hides ^ Skjns, Pitchy Kofin, "timber ^ and Boards. 
The Cities are very fubjed: to Fire, in regard the Houfcs are all built of 
Wood. The Lakes and Gulfs are more confidcrable than the Rivers : 
Nor is there anyTrade,but upon the Coafts,where there is no venturing 

K 2 without 

58 Of SmdeidnL 

without a Pilot , becaufe of the great number of Rocks. The let 
there is fo thick, that Waggons go fafely upon it. In other places, . 
the Snow aflfords them the Conveniency of Travelling in Sledges. 
The Horfes are fit for War ^ for, befides that they are eafily kept, and 
rarely fick , they are well ufed to the Road ; they carry their Rider 
fwimming, they readily take wide Ditches, they are Couragious and 
Nimble -, and will aflail the Enemy of their Rider with their Heels 
and Teeth h-'ih together. 

Under tne Name of Sweden are comprehended the Countries of Go- 
thhy Sueci'j^ propria, Bothnia^ Lapponia^ Suecica Finlandia^ Ingria^ and 
Livonia : wherein is contained 35 Provinces ( befides the Acquifitions 
aforefaid) wherein Sertius reckoneth 1400 Parifties : The two firft 
toward the Weft, and the three laft toward the Eafl:; theGulf of F?«- 
land between them both. 

Gothia, or Gothland^ whether fo called from the Goths., or falfly af- 
fedring that more glorious Name, cannot well be known > is divided 
into Ojlro-Gothland^ and Weftro- Gothland \ And thofe that conquered 
Spain were called Vifigoths. 

Chief places in Ojirogoth or Eaft-Gothland^ are Catmaria. Calmar in 
Smalandia is a flrong City, and commodious Port 5 the place where 
the Stvedes ufually fet Sail for Germany and Denmark^: The Cittadel 
there is as highly efteemed in thefe Northern parts, as that of Miliain 
in the South. Norcopia^ Norcoping^ is full of Copper-Forges, which af- 
fords Cannon to moft of the Europeans. Linkoping a Biftiops See, 
where Olaus Magnus was born, is remarkable for the Vidory of Charles 
of Sudermania^y afterwards King of Sweden, Wadfiein feated on the 
Lake Veter-Wejiermck^ as commodioufly on the Baltic}^ Sea : To thefe 
we may add Borkjjolm upon the Ifland Oeland -, and fFisby upon the 
liland Gothland. 

Wefl-Gothland is divided into three parts-, ift, Weftrogoth^ whofe 
chief places are Gatheburgum^ Gothehorg^fix Gotemhorg, where King Charles 
the IXth died ; it is a New Town and Port upon the mouth of the 
Wenar Lake 5 Scara is a Bilhoprick. 2dly, Valia^ whofe chief Town 
is Valehorg^ a fair Town well fortified with a ftrong Caftle. 3dly, Ver- 
melandia, whofe chief place is Carolfiade upon the North part of the We- 
nar Lake, is noted for its abundance of Brafs. Halland, Sconen^ and 
Bleking we have already treated of in Venmarkc 

Sueonia^ Suecia propria, or Svpedeland^ communicates its Name to the 
other Provinces of this Kingdom j which is divided into 10 parts or 
Provinces, viz. Upland, in which Stochjpolm, or Holmia, is the Capital 
City, accommodated with a Royal Caftle, and a Sea-Port at the 

Mouthi 1 

Of SwedeUnd, 6g 

Mouth of the Lake Meier, which they formerly had a Defign to have 
cut into the Wener-Lzke, to have joined the Baltick^^nd the Ocean toge- 
ther, fo to fpoil the Paffage of the Sound. This JVener-L'Sikc is faid to 
receive 24 Rivers, and disburthen it felf at one mouth with fuch noife 
and fury, that it is called the VeviV s-mouth. This City is far better 
furnifti'd, than it was before the War with Germany. In the Year 1 54 1. 
they began to ilreighten the Streets, and build their Houfes Uniform. 
The Harbour is very Secure, fo that a Ship may ride there without an 
Anchor 5 but the Tower IVaxholme on the one fide, and Vigna on the 
other tide, do fo command the Entrance, that no Ships can come in, 
or K,o out againft the Governour's will, who keeps Guard there. It 
has three Channels, v;hich carry the VcfTels between certain Iflands 
and Rock«. The King's Ships lie at Elfenape : Vpfala Vpfal, Defend- 
ed by a great Cattle 5 there is the Metropolitan Church , where the 
Kings are ufually Crowned , and where formerly they kept their - 
Courts. The City is adorned with an Univerfity, and the moft Re- 
markable M; rts in all thofe Quarters. The Cathedral has been a 
Stately Building, as they fay, hn'd, or, as it were, Wainfcoted with- 
in with Gold, and cove) ed with Copper. The 2d Province is Snder' 
mania , whofe chief Town is Nicoping , a Maritine Town of good 
Strength, and Strengms a Bifliop's See. 3d is Nericia, whofe Chief 
Town is Orebro. 4th is Wejhnania , Chief Town is Arofia, now IVe- 
(ieruf h rich in Silver Mines. 5th, Gefirida, Chief Town is Gevalia. 
6th, Dalecarlia, Chief Town is I^m towards Nbra?^?);. 7th, Helfmgia, 
Chid Town Hi{dnpk\srvald^ Seated on the Sinus Bothnicm. 8th, Me- 
delpadia, Q\)id Town Selangar. pth, Jempiia, whofe Chief Town is 
Aas, lOth, Angermania, Chief Town is Hemo/rfn^ on the Gulf. 

Bothnia is twofold, viz. l. Occidentalism 2dly, Cajania^ or Bothnia Orien- 
talisyis divided into five parts or Countries, viz. Kimiy^ornia^Lwla^Fitha 
and Vma, on the North and Weft. Then Cajenberg, Oulo and Maffa 
or Mujiafar on the Eaft of the Bothnian Gulf 5 in the midft of whofe 
Entrance lieth a great number of lilands, the chief of which is Alandia^ 

Laponia Suecica^ or Lapland^ which belongs to the King of Srveden^ 
has only certain Habitations that bear the Names of their Rivers. The 
Laponers are very fmall, the talleft not being above four foot high; ne- 
verthelefs, formerly Six hundred of them put to the Rout above an 
Hundred thoufand Mofcovites that came to Invade them. They wear 
no other Habit but Skins i and when they are Young, they fo inure 
themfelves to the Cold, that afterwards they cafily endure it, without 
any Clothes. They have neither Woollen nor Linnen ; only they 
have pieces of Copper, which they call ChipponSy which they exchange 

JO Of Swede la^d, 

for Neceflaries. They have neither Bread, nor Corn, nor Fruit, nor 
Herbs, nor Wine, nor Cattel, nor Butter, nor Eggs, nor Milk, nor 
other Supports of life. But they have no want of Water : And they 
have a kind of Wild Deer, which are very fwift, the Flefn whereof" 
they live upon. There is a fecond part of Laponia in Denmarh^^ and a 
third in Mtifcovy. The Mount Enarahi has three Apartments of Lodg- 
ing for the Deputies of the three Nations. 

Finnonhfeu Finnia, Finland is a Dutchy, which fome Kings of Stvedc 
land were wont to Affign for their Brother's Portion. It is divided in- 
to fix parts or Divifions, ift, Savolax, whofe chief places are Ny/Ijt and 
Kexholm^ taken by Pontus de laGarde^ upon the Lake Ladoga. 2dly, Ta- 
vafha, whofe chief places zxc'tavailius ^ or Cronebnrg. ^dly, Northr 
Findland^ whofe chief place is Biornborgh. 4th, South-Findlantd, Chief 
Town is /bo^ a Biftiop's See, at the mouth of the River Aimjo}^. 
5th, Ntland^ whofe chief place is Borgo ., a place of good Strength. 
6i\\^Carelia,vi\\Qk chief place is iryborgh^ox Viburgh^z chargeable For trefs. 

Ingria^ vulgo Ingerland^ by the Rufians^ Ifera, was^faken from the 
Mufcovitei by a Treaty in the Year i6ij. It is but Imall, but confi- 
derable for the Chace of Elkes, and for the Scituation of the ftrong 
Fort oi Noteburg^ in the midrt of a great River at the Mouth of the 
Lake Ladoga. Caraldorod by the Ru^es, This Garifon was taken by 
the Sppedesj all the Soldiers within being dellroyed by a Diftemper 
that took them in the mouth, and hindred them from eating. Other 
places are Irvanogorod and Coporia. 

The Mountains that part Norway and Sweden^ are by Ortelius called the 
VoffriniMontes ^SevoMontes oi?lin.zcco\xr\tQ,^ 3 00 miles in length,andnovv 
in various places have diversNameSjnot much material here to mention. 

The Commodities of this Country are Copper^ Lead, Brafs and Iron, 
Ox-Hides, Goats and Bitck^sk/ns, "Tallow, Furs, Honey, Allom and Corn. 

The Inhabitants naturally ftrong, adive and ftout Soldiers ; indu- 
ftrious, laborious, ingenious and courteous to Strangers. The Wo- 
men difcreet and mod eft. 

The Chriftian Faith was Hrft planted here by Auflgarius Archbifhop 
of Bremen^ the general Apoftle of the North. 

The Forces o( S^i den are very powerful, behig able to put to Sea 
more than 100 Sail of Ships, and hito the Field forty or hfty thou- 
fand of Horfe and Foot. 

And for deciding of Controverfies, &c. every Territory hath its 
Vifcount, every Province its Lamen, every Parifh its LanM-man , or 
Conful ; and there lieth an Appeal from the Conful to the Lay-men, 
and from the Lay-men to the Vifcount, and from the Vifcount to the 
King, who alone decideth the fame. Tc/fe Sanfon. Livonia^ 

Of Swede land* 7 1 

Livonia^ Germ, or Lijlandt, is divided into two parts, viz, Eftboniat 
©r Eften on the North, and Litlandia^ Leithland, or Letten on the 
South, was entirely Surrendred hy the Pol under ^ except Vmemberg : 
Formerly the Order of Carry-Stvord Knights refided there ■-, but in the 
time oi Gregory the Ninth, that Order was united to the teutonic}^ Af- 
terwards the Polanders and Mufcovites enjoyed it. Kiga is the Capital 
City of Livonia : The Germans^ Englifh and Hjllanders there drive a 
great Trade in the Summer, while the Sea is open : In the Win- 
ter the Natives Trade into Uufcovy upon their Sledges. It (lands upon 
a Plain, u^on the River Vuna, which in that place is about a quarter 
of a League over. The Fortifications thereof confift of Six Regular 
Bartions, feveral Half- moons, and Pallifadu'd Counter fcarps. 

In the Year 1655. an Army of an hundred thoufand Mufcovites 
came to catch cold before this City, which valiantly repulfed them. 
Pernavia^Pernarv is a well fortified place : And Verpt, in Latin Tupatum, 
feituate on the Beck,'^ taken by J. BaftUus the Great Duke of Mufcovy, 
as was al(b Felin^ a ftrong Town. Vmaboug, an Impregnable For- 
trefs, eight miles from Kiga ^ well Garifoned by the Voles. Kevelia 
Revels direds the Trade from Livonia into Mufcovy : 'Tis a Bilhop's 
See, and a well Traded.Port. Nerva is a ftrong place, from whence 
the Neighbouring River derives its Name, where the Brave Pontm de 
la Gardu was Drown'd. By the laft Treaties between the Crowns of 
Sweden and Poland, the Exercife of the P/oteftant as well as the Ca-. 
tholick Religion is permitted in Livonia^ as alfo in Curland and PruJJia. 

The Ifland of Gothland is the biggeft in the Baltick^Sea, for therein 
there are five or fix Ports belonging to the Stvede: In feveral of the 
Rocks there ftill remain the Ancient Go?^/ci^Charaders. And the City 
of IFisby ftill preferves certain pieces of Marble, and Houfes that have 
Gates of Iron or Brafs, Gilded or Silver'd over, which teftify the great 
Antiquity of the place. This City tirft Ellablifhed the Law for Navi- 
gation in the Baltick, and began the Sea-cards. Other Iflands are 
Dagho and Oefel upon the Coaft of Livonia, belonging to the Swedes, 

The chief Rivers in all this Trad are i. Mekr^ 2. Velacarle, 3. Anger- 
mania, 4. Vma, 5. Lula, & 6. torna. The principal Lakes arc Lado-- 
ga, or Ladeskp Ozero. 

Meier takes its Coaft from Weft to Eaft j the Wener frona Eaft to 
Weft 5 the Veter from North to South, through the River Motala, 

Archbiftiopricks 3. Bifliopricks 15. Univerfities 2. 

a Gulphs, I. Sinus Bothnim, Bothnzee, IncolisGolfe deBoddesGal' 
lis. 2. Sujus Finnicus Finnichzee Incolls Golfe, de Finnes Gallis. 



Gal. RVSLANVr Ger. MO S KARA by the Poles ; by the 
Turl^s RVSS. 




MVSCOVT is properly but the name of a Province fo called, 
of which MofcoTP is the chief City, which hath comrriunicated 
its Name to all the Provinces under the Dominion of the Grand Czar, 


Of Mufcovy, &c, 71 

or 'tzaf. This Country is a part of the European Sarmatia^ or Scythia » 
called alfo Kufia Alha^ or the Great Ruffia^ whofe ancient Inhabitants 
were the Rhuteni^ or the Koxolani of Ptol, the Rr]/?, of Cedren. The 
Baflern£ Tacit. te(ie Willich. From thence fome think it called Kujfiky 
others tell us Miscalled ^«j7?j from the colour of the Snow which co- 
lours the Fields for almoft three Quarters of a year. 'Tis the vafleft 
Country in Europe : A Territory fo large, that were it Peopled anfwe- 
rable to fome other parts of the World, would either make it too great 
for one Prince, or that Prince too powerful for his Neighbours ; But 
the Eaftern parts thereof are vexed with the Afiatk^lartars., who, like 
Mfop*s Do^^ will neither dwell there, nor fuffer the Mifcoiitcs. The 
I Weftern parts almoft as much harafled by the Swedes and Foles : The 
Sduthern by the TttrJ^ and Eurcpe:m Tartars; and the Northern pinch- 
ed by the coldncfs of the Air : This excefs of cold in the Air was fo 
vehement, that in the Year 1598. of 70000 Turks that made an In- 
rodeinto Mufcovy^ 400CO were frozen to death ; and water thrown 
; up into the Air, will turn to Ice before it falls to the Ground : Nor is 
it an extraordinary thing for the Inhabitants to have their Nofes, Ears 
and Feet frozen offs fuch is their Winter. Nor is their Summer lefs 
miraculous ; for the heaps of frozen Snow, which covered the Surface 
of the Country, at the firft approach of the Sun, are fuddenly diflbl- 
ved,the Waters dried up,the Earth drelTed in her gaudy Apparel j fuch 
a mature growth of Fruits, fuch flourifhing of Herbs, fuch chirping 
of Birds, as if there were a perpetual Spring: And though they Sow 
but in Jme^ yet the Heats of July and Auguji ftrangely quicken their 
; The whole Country generally is overfpread with Woods and Lah^s : 
1 and is in a manner a continual Foreft, irrigated by fever al Lakes and 
[ Rivers. Here grow the goodlieft and talleft iVfc/ in the World, afford- 
ing flielter to multitudes of Cattel and IFild Beajis^ whofe Skins are 
better than their Bodies-, and here is the inexhauftible Fountain of /ir(2:)c 
and Honey^ as likewife all kinds of Fon>ly and fmall Birds in great plen- 
ty ; moft forts of F#, excellent Fruits and Roots : cfpecially Onions 
and Garlick : Here is the Corn of Rhezm and Volodomira^ the Hides 
and Leather of Jerouflau^ the Wax and Honey of FUfov:;^ the Tallow 
oflVblogda^ the Oyl and Cavayer about Folga^ the Linnen and Hemp 
L-of great Novogrodt^ the Pitch and Rofin o^V^ivinez, the Salt oi Ajira- 
can and Roftof^ the Ermins and Sables, and black Foxes Furs of Sibe- 
ria^ where the Hunters have the Art to hit only the Nofe^of the Beajts, 
preferving their Skins whole and clean. 

L The 

74 ^/ Mufcovy, Sec. 

The Mufcovites are naturally ingenious enough, yet not addided to 
Arts ox Sciences', ibey do not trouble themfelves with the height of 
the Heavens, or the magnitude of the Earth ■-, they amufe not them- 
Telves with Syllogirms, nor wrangle whether Logick be an Art or 
Science. And the plainnefs and paucity of their Laws makes Attornies 
and Sollicitors as ufelefs there as Philofophers. Nor are they much 
addided to Traffick and Husbandry, being naturally lazy, it mull: be 
force or neceliity that compels them to labour, Drunkennefs is very 
familiar with ihem , and Aqua-vita or Tobacco, like the Liquor of 
Circe, turns them into Swine. They are great Lyars, treacherous, craf- 
ty, malicious and revengeful, quarrelfome, though the heighth of their 
fury is fucking i their Houfes mean and ill-furni(hed, their Lodging is 
hard, and their Diet homely; born to flavery, and brought up in 

They are for the moft part fat and corpulent, ftrong of Body, and 
of good proportion, only great Bellies, and great Beards are in fa(hion ; 
and the Women, though indifferent handfome, yet make ufe of Paint. 
They are much retired , and feldom in publick ; very refpedful to 
their Husbands , who look upon them as a necefTary evil, beat them 
often, and treat them as Slaves. 

They only teach their Children to write and read ; which fufEces 
them, though they prefume to be Dodlors. They take for their Sir- 
name, the proper name of their Father. They write upon Rolls of 
Paper, cut into long fcrowles, and glu'd (for 25 or 30 Ells) toge- 
ther ; They wear long R.obes, under which they have clofe Coats 
down to their knees, but they tye their Girdles under their Bellies ; 
they make their Collations with fpic'd Bread, Aqua-vit£, and Hydra- 
mel, that is. Water and Honey mixt. 

There are two things remarkable amongft the Mnfcovites j one is, 
That they begin the day at the riling of the Sun, and end k at the 
Sun-fetting, fo that their Night begins at the Sun's-fetting, and ends 
at its riling. The other is. They begin their year the firft day of 
September, allowing no other Epocha than from the Creation of the 
World, which they think to be in Autumn , and they reckon 5508 
years from the Creation of the World to the Nativity of our Saviour, 
whereas moft of our Chronologers account but 3p<5p. 

As for their Armies, they generally confift of a i coooo or 2 ocooo, 
but then you murt count the Beails. Botis Frederowitz, Grand Duke of 
Mofcovy-, toward the beginning of this Age, appeared with an Army 
of 300C00 Men. Ahxis Michaelorpitz after the defeat of Stephen Rad^ 
zin^ had an Army no lefs numerous, when the difpute was about Hop- 

Of Mufcovy^ S{C. 7^ 

ping the Tur}^ progrefs into Poland. Infanfry is better efteemcc] by 
them than Cavalry^ being more able to (wQizm a Siege, and patiently 
to endure all in:iaginable hardships, rather than yield ; as they did in 
our times at the Caiile of Vtlna^ and \n the Fortrefs of Notchottrg. As 
to the forming a Siege, the Mufanites underftand little, as they made 
appear before Smolaukj 1^33. before Riga 1655. and before Jzac 
1673, Their Forts are generally of Wood or Earth, upon the wind- 
ings of Pavers^ or elfe in Lakes. The chiefeft ftrength of the King- 
dom conliils in Foreign Forces, to whom they give good allowances 
in time of War. The Prince bears the Title of Grand Vuke^ he boaits 
himlelf defcended from Jugujius ^ and friles himfelf GrjWdj^ Cz^r, or 
7'zaar, that is to fay, C£zar. The habits v^hich he is faid to wear, 
make him look like a Pricjl : they that treat with his AmbafTadors 
have the greateft trouble in the World to give him his Tides, becaufe 
of their fo extraordinary preienfions. In the Year r<^54. to the end 
he might make War in Poland^ and uphold the Cojfach^ ; the Great Vu}^. 
pretended, thatfomeof the Polijh Lords had not given him his due Ti- 
tles 5 and that they had printed Books in Poland in derogation of his Ho- 
nour. One of his Predeceffors was fo cruel, that he caus'd the Hat 
of a French AmbalTadour to be nailed to his head, becaufe he relus'd 
to be uncovered in his prefence. He commands abfolutely, and the 
Mtifcovites call themielves his Slaves ; and he calls them in contempt 
by a diminutive name, Jammot Pierrot, His Will is a Law to his Sub- 
jeds, who hold it for an undeniable truth, That the Will of God, and 
the Great Vitks-, are immutable. His Treafure is very large, for he 
heaps up all the Gold and Silver he can lay his hands on, in his Ca- 
files ofViolikzenSind Vologda^ and never makes his Prcfents or his Pay- 
ments but in Skins, or in Fijh^ or elfe in fome few Hides, or Pieces of 
Cloth of Gold. Thus liveth and reigneth this Kttfian Monarch, in 
the reputation of his own Subjeds, one of the greatefi Sharers in the 
adventure of the World's Happinefs, 

The Fveligion of the Mnfcovites differs little from that of the Greeks : 
For they follow their Faith, their Rites, and their Ceremonies. The 
principal part of their Devotions, after rbey are baptized, conlifts in 
the Invocation of their Saints, for every Houfe hith its Saint Pidured, 
and hung up againft the wall with a fmall Wax- candle before it, 
which they light when they fay their Prayers. The Pidfures of the 
Virgin M.try^ and of St. NichoLis their Patron, are in great veneration 
amongft them. And the fign of the Crofs is the ordinary Preface to 
all their Civil Adlions. On Sundays and their Ftl^ival Days, they go 
three times to Church, Morning, Noon, and Evemng, andareftand- 

L 2 ing, 

76 Of Mufcovy^ &c. 

ing, and uncovered at the time of Divine Service. Befides their Or- 
dinary Fafts on Wednefdays, Fridays, and the Eves before Holidays, 
they have four Lents every year, during which they eat neither Butter, 
Eggs, nor Milk, only the hrft week of their chief Lent ferves them as 
a Carnaval \ but after this the moft ftridt of them eat no Fi(h but on 
Sundays, and drink nothing but Qjiaz or fair water. 

They commonly take the Communion on a Fafting-day, at Noon- 
fervicc ; and if any one receives it on a Sunday, he muR not eat Flefti 
that day. "Tis adminiflr^d in both kinds with Leavened Bread, and 
Wine mingled with warm water. They believe noTranfubthntiati- 
on, nor rei^ki-n no Adultery but marrying another man's Wife. They 
have many Wives, allow of Divorcement, and yet ufe the deceitful by 
ways of F'ilihinefs and Tncontinency. It is a dangerous matter ta 
tranfgrefs the Law of Wedlock, and the Woman is terribly over- 
watched, is fufpicioufly reftraincd frcm walking abroad. They be- 
lieve no Purgatory, but hold two didindf places where the Sou^s re- 
main that are feparated from the Bodies. Yet allow Prayers for the 
Dead. They hold Baptifm of great Importance. And admit Chil- 
dren of feven years old to come to the ^ acrament. All their Images 
are in flat Painting. They never fealt but upon the Annunciation of 
the Virgn. They have a Patriarch at M/co, the chief of their Religion. 
Three Archhijhops or Metropolitans at Rofthou^ at Sufdal^ and at Grand 
Novogrode •. Biftiops at Wologda^ at Refan , at Sufdal^ at 1n>er, at 7o- 
bolesha^ at Ajhacan^zt Cafan^ at Plefcou, at Colomna'^ and almoft in all 
the Provinces of the Great Duke, being all chofen out of the body of 
their Monks. They have this good quality, that they force no man's 
Confciencci they hate the Roman-Catholics for the Exorbitances com- 
mitted by them, when ihtVolanders became Maiiers oi Mofco, in the 
Year i6ii. But there are like wife fome Idolaters oi them toward 
the North. 

The Rivers of Mufcovy are i/?, Volga, the Rhe oiPtol. Edd. Tartaris, 
Thamar Armenis, the greateft River in Europe, throws it felf into the 
Cafpian Sea, after it has roull'd above feven hundred Leagues. The 
Vuvine, after it has run by the Cities of moft Trade in Mufcovy, by 
lix months, empties it felf into the Gulf of St.NichoLts, which is called 
the IVhite Sea, becaufe of the Snow that environs it. 

The Donn, Tanais Strab. Plin^ Mela, & alis, which feparates Europe 
from Jfta, begins not above a hundred Leagues from the place v/here 
it ends, and yet it winds above fix hundred miles , hrft towards the 
Ea/?, and then towards theVFeft-, formerly a conjundtion of thefe three 
Rivers was defigned, to the end the principal Seas of our Continent 


Of Mtifcovy^ &C. 77 

might have participated one with another, to facilitate the Trade o^ 
the Octan , Mediterraneafi, and Cafpian , but the contrivance fail'd. 
There are few good Cities in thefe parts j none, or very few, being 
pav'd, and thofe that be, are pav'd with Wood^ very JFew Fortified 
or Waird, but have tillM Land between the Streets. The Houfes are 
low, and made of Vv'ood and Lome 5 a man may go to Market and 
buy one of thefe Houfes ready built, and fo to be carried away 5 great 
fires happen oft'times, by reafonboth of their Timber buildings, and 
for that the combuftible matter iseafily feton fire by the great quanti- 
fy of Tapers which they light before their Images, and which the 
Mafcovites^ who are very apt to be drunk, take no care to put out. 

The Ertates of Af^/cc/t'^ comprehend 3 Kingdoms, about 30 Dutchies 
or Provinces, and about 20 People or Nations, who live by Herds or 
Communities y a Countrey not fo Populous as Spacious, nor much 
frequented by Grangers 5 and therefore I cannot give a certain ac- 
count of its Provinces and Nations, much lefs of their Bounds^ Lengthy 
and Breadth, as fome Pretenders to Geography have done. 

Mfcha^ f.H MjfcHj, or Mfcorv^ which is the Capital City, and 
the Reiiderce of the Grand I)Hkc, fcems rather to be a huge heap of 
Himkts^ th'?.n a good City. It had above 40000 Houfes, butnov/ 
there are far lefs, fince it has been fo often plundered by the LiJferTar- 
tars^znd the Poles ; in Jnno 1571. the 'Tartars fired it : And efpecially 
iince the laft fire that happened there, i(558. It hath three Walls, one 
of Brick, another of Stone, a third of Wood, feparating the four 
Quarters of the Town. The greatdl Ornament of the City are the 
Churches, of which St. Michad\ is the chief, in which the Tombs 
of the 'Tzdrs are placed-, the Steeples of the Churches are covered 
wirh Copper, whofe glittering feems to redouble the brightnefs of 
the Sun. 

The Tzjrs Cjaix\t^ called Kremdmagrod^ is about two miles in Cir- 
cumference, and contains two fair Palaces, one of Stone, and the 
other of Wood, built after the Itrf/o« falhion ; befides the Imperial 
C''urt, there are feveral other fpacious Palaces for the Bojors or No- 
bility ; as alfo for Priefts, amongft which that of the Patriarch is 
the moft Magnificent ; and over-againft the Czars Palace is a fair 
Church, built after the Model of the Temple of Jerufalem , from 
whence it is fo called j near to which is the great Market for all 
Wares and Merchandizes. Volodimere^ the Refidenceof the Prince be- 
fore Mdfco was, lies in the moft fertile part of all Mufcovy^ defended 
by a Caftle. The Rivers of Mufco and Occa are thole whereby the 
Merchants convey, their Goods by Water, to the Volga, Little Novo^ 


yS Of Mufcovy^ Sec, 

grade is the laft Village in Europe, towards the Eail: ; Pleskott is well 
Forfihed, as being the Bulwark againft the Poles and Srvedes. Novo- 
grode the Great^ his been one of the four Magazines of the Hans Toxpns^ 
and a Town fo Rich and Potent, that the Inhabitants were wont to 
fay^ Who can wiibjiand Gody and great Novogorod ? But in the year 1577, 
the Great Duke Ivan Vafilorpitz took it , and carried away , ( as 'tis 
reported ) a hundred Wagons laden with Gold and Silver ^ yet it is 
Itill a Town of great Trader in the year i5ii, it was taken by the 
Swedijh General Pomus dela Gardie-^ and in the year 1^13, redelivered 
to the ^zxr of Mufcovy upon the Articles of Peace. Pksh^u is the only 
VVall:d City. Smolensho is a place of great ftrength. Petzwa is fenced 
with Mountains. Woroihi is defended with a Cattle. Archangel is the 
Staple of all Mufcovy^ by reafon of its Hiven : The Duties paid at 
coming in, and going out, an[iount to above iiK hundred thoufand 
Crowns a year. The Englifh were the hrft that began to fend their 
Ships thither 5 fince, they have been followed by other Nations of 
Europe. Formerly the Trade of Mufcovy was driven by palling through 
the Sound, and putting in at Nerva ; but the great Impolitions put 
upon the Merchandizes, by the Princes through whofe Countries 
they were to pafs, made them forfake that place. Rezm was the 
place that held out wh:n thztartars had taken Mfcorv ; the Gover- 
nour whereof, when he had got the Original of the Articles of the 
Treaty Signed by the Grand Czir, from the Tartarian General, refu- 
fed to furrender the Town, or deliver back the fchedule ; which was 
the occalion of the tartars overthrow, and the recovery of Mofcovy^ 
and the taking of Cafan, Ajlracan, &c. St. Nicholas alfo drives a great 
Trade at the entry of the Vuvine. Thefe are the only places that be- 
long to the Gr^zw^ r>^'^% upon the Ocean, "troitzt r\Qd,t Mjfcorv^ is the 
maft beautiful Convent in z\\ Mafcovia, whither the Grand Tzars do 
ufually go in Pilgrimage twice every year. CoUmgorodis renowned for 
the Fairs that are kept there in Winter time : The Duvine bears great 
VefTels to that place fo called. Ou'houg is in the middle of the Coun- 
irey ;. where it drives a good Trade, as being Seared in a place where 
two Rivers meet. Bsiides, the White Sea is full of Shoals and Rocks 
at the entry into it, and then the Snows m-ltin^, and the Torrents 
fwelling in the Spring time, carry the Water with fucb an impetuoli- 
ty, that Ships can hardly get in ; however there is great l^ore of Sal- 
mon caught therj. Kda and Petz'mJ^t in Lapland receive Trading Vef- 
iels. Taper, Pmnie, Kefchowa, Bkl'i^t, Jiroflj-w, Rolihjsv, Sujdal, Bie- 
tejezero^ Vjihga^ &c. bear the fam: name with their Provinces. 


of Mufeovy, &c- 79 

As for the Ccnqucfls of the Great Duke In APinu\7aYtary^ the 
principal places are Jftracan and Cafifj, which be^r the Title ot King- 
doms, belides Z.iw/i?^, 2nd Nagaia. C^yiw is a great City, with Walls 
and Towers of Wood, feated upon a Hill. 'Tis lahabircd by F.ujp.afis 
■and Tartars^ but the Citad:l is Wailed with Stone, and kept only by 
Kujfrans ; Ajhacan was formerly the Seat of the Nag^ydn Tartars, it lies 
at the mouth of the River Volga, in the Ifland t).lgny-> 50 Dutch 
Leagues from ihcCafpian Sea 5 'tis environed with afirongStot:e-wall, 
upon which are feated 500 Brafs Cannon, befides a ttrong Garifon. 
Its many Tpwers and lofty Piles of Buildings, makes a noble ProfpecS". 
^Tisa place of great Traffick, efpecially for Silk. In this Countrey 
grows the Plant Zoophyte^ that refembles a Lamb, it devours all the 
Herbs round about the Root ; and if it be cut, it yields a liquor as red 
as blood : the Wolves devour it as greedily, as if it were Mutton. Lo- 
comoria towards the Obi^ is inhabited by People, who, they fay, are Fro- 
zen up fix months in the year, becaufe they live in Tents environ'd 
with Snow, and never itir forth till it be melted. They are broad fa- 
ced, with little eyes, their Heads on one fide, and bigger than the 
proportion of their Bodies requires 3 (hortLegs, and Feet extremely 
big. Thus they appear clad in Skins, with a piece of wood in/lead of 
Shoes, thefe Skins they wear in the Winter , with the hairy fide in- 
ward ; in Summer, with the hair outward ; to few them, theyinake 
ufe of the fmall bones of Fi(h, and the Nerves of Beaib inftead of 
Needles and Thread ; they are the heft u4rchirs in the world. The 
Fingoefes exprefs their thoughts better by their throats than by their 
tongue?. Thefe Countries go all under the Name oi Si heriay a Province 
which affords the fairefi: and the richeft Fi^rrs, and whither the Lords 
in difgrace are banifti'd. The River Fefida bounds it^ for no man 
dares go beyond it, thoHorfes and feveral other things have been feen, 
which make us believe that it is as confideiable as Cathay^ which can= 
not be far from it. 

Here is one Patriarch, four Archbifhopricks, eighteen Bifhops, and ^ 
no Univerfity. 

This Countrey hath many Lakes, viz^ Ladoga^ Onega ^ Biela Ofera, 
Kefanskoy-Ofera^ Sec. Imanovc-Ofera^ the Source of the River Po//. . 

The moft Renowned Foreft is that of Fpiphanovt?. Its Mountains 
arethofeof Camempoii^ or Stolp, that is, the Pillars of the World be° 
tvveenihe Ifuvine and the Oby^ (aid to be the Ancient B^iphean Moun-. 



Volonia^ Hifpanis^ & Italis. La Pologne^ CaHis. Poland, Anglis. Tolojk^y 
Polis. Die Volen. Germanis. 


POLO NIA, or Poland, which was formerly but a part of Sar- 
matia, is now a Kingdom of as large extent as any in iLurope.^ It 
is an aggregate Body, confifting of many diftind: Provinces, United 
into one Eftate, of whieh Poland being the Chief, hath given Name to 



Of Poland. 81 

the reft. It is 800 miles in length, and the breadth comprehending Li' 
vonia^ is almoft as much. 

According to the Toltjh and 'Bohemian Hiftorians, they were, with the 
B^kwww/, originally Cro<j»i^n/,defcended from the S'c/^T/€/,and brought 
into thefe parts by Zechus and Lechm^ two Brethren baniftied out of 
their own Councrey. But this is refuted by Cromems. The more 
general opinion is, that they were Sarmatians^ who upon the depar- 
ture of the German Nation towards the Koman Frontiers, flock'd hi- 
ther, and byreafon of their common Languige^ or mixture with the 
Sclaves of IHyricum^ thus accounted j and being united in the common 
Name of Sclaves^ fetlcd in that part which we now call Voland-^ the 
Eftate hereof being much improved by the Conqueft of many Sarma- 
tian Counties. But whether Zechm and Lechus^ the Founders of the 
two Nations, by all Hiftorians, were Strangers or Native Inhabitants, 
is uncertain, fince all ancient Hiftory is filent herein. The time when 
thefe (hould arrive here, according to Hiftorian reports, was Anno 
64P, under Lec|«j, a time indeed near unto the general flittingsof 
the Barbarous and Northern Nations, and therefore the more proba- 
ble. Poland has for many ages been a diftindt Sovereignty. The firft 
that was Eledive, was Piajius, ( after the failure of the former LineJ 
a plain Countrey-man, eledled Duke oi Poland^ An. 800. In Anno 96^^ 
they received the Gofpel j An. 1001, they had the Title of King con- 
ferred upon them by Otho the Emperor. Anno 1320, Sikfia fell from 

i Poland to Bohemia^ and could never be recovered, ^nno 1385, they 
made the Great Duke of Lithmnia^ by Marriage into their King's 
Family, King ; and fo joined that Great Dukedom to Poland. Anno 
1455, Capjnir adds Prufta^ and I5<^i, Livonia. Anno 1575, the 
Royal Family being extind , they chofe the Duke of Anjou^ Brother 

'to Cbaries the ptb. King of France, but he quickly left it for the 
Crown of France, Anno I'yjp. they chofe Bathor, Prince of Tranfilva- 
nia \ he dying without Iffue, they chofe Sigifmmd^ the King oiSwedeh 
Son, about the year i5po, who turning Papift , and by the Jefuits 
Perfuafions endeavouring, to alter Religion in Srvedeland^ was ejeded, 
and lollng his Patrimonial Kingdom, only keeps Poland: Hence thofe 
lafting Wars between the two Nations. To him fucceeded Vladi/Iaui, 
famous for the memorable V dory againft the Mafcovites^ befieging 
Smoknsh^)^ Anno i6^i\.. King Cafimir fucceeded id>48. in whofetime 
the Kingdoms became extremely imbroiled by Fadions, efpecially by 
the mutinous and fed itiousCoffacks, and Confederate Nobles, under 
Lubomirsky^ and Foieign Enemies; fo that weary of his Crown, he 
laid it down, not obtaining leave to nominate his Sacceflbr. After 

M long 

82 Of Poland, 

long Contentions they chofe Michael Wkfnowhhi i66p. The prefent 
King is John Sobiehki , renowned for the Relief of Vienna, His 
Revenue is computed to be doocoo Crowns /^er Annum^ ariling from 
Salt-^ and T/w, and Silver Mines : His Houlhold Expences, and Daugh- 
ters Portions, being at the Publick Charge. Nor do the Wars at any 
time exhaufi: his Treafure. Poland is very Fertile in Rye^ Wax and 
Honey. Other Commodities are, Flax^ Ma(is, Cordage^ Boards^ Wain- 
fcots, Itimber-, Rofm^ Tar^ Titcb^ Maich^ Iron, Vot-Afhes, and Brimjione. 
It is well furnilhed with Flejhf Forpl and Fijh ; Rich in Furrs , the 
fairei^ of which are brought thither out of Mufcovy. Near Cracovia, 
or Crakou, they dig Salt out of the Famous Salt-Pits that make a kind 
of City under ground , and yield a great Revenue. They boyl it in 
'R.uffra, but in Podolia the Sun makes it. They have the Conveniency 
both of the B/^cJlj and Baltich^Seass but are not addidled to Traffick, 
neither are they well provided with Ships. The Rivers, called the 
Vifiula , & Viliilliis Plin. Iftula PioL Vifula Mela. Bifula jimtn. Vulgo 
IFixel vel Weixel. WeiJJ'el Incolis. Vifiule Gal. Vifiula Ital. The Niemen, 
the Cbronu: of Ptol. Memel Ger. Niemen Sclavis , teji. Cromero & Decio, 
But by Rithaymer and Erafmus Pergel. And the Dmna, or Vzrvina.^ the 
Rubo of Ptoh Vma, empty themfelves into the Baltic}^ The Bory- 
fihenes, Ari^, &c. Naparis Herod. Dnieper Decio. Brifna Leunel. Berefina 
Pacer &^berlienio Dnefier & Nefter Cromero. Nicpcr Mcr. Cluvcr Brief. 
The Bogg, Hypanis Arijh Herod. Plin. &c. And the Niefier. the Tyrof 
of Herod. Ptol. Tyra of Strab. & Plin. now the M/?er, or Niefter, Tejie 
Cromer & Eberjiin. Thefe empty themfelves into the Blacky Sea. The 
Vijiida runs by very fair Cities, but the mo'dihs o{ Boryjlhenes are under 
the Jurifdidion of the turkj, who in the Year i6j2. took the Vk^aine 
into his Protedion, having fubdued all Podolia, after the Surrender of 
the Fortrcfs Kamienie\. This Kingdom is Elecftive, being the only 
place in Europe where the People at this day freely retain and pradiife 
the Privilege to Elcd their King 5 yet the next of the Blood-royal 
commonly iuccecds. 

The Goveriiment is an Ariftocratical Monarchy, where the Sena- 
tors have fo much Authority, that when we name dit Qaiiity ■f the 
State, we may call it the Kingdom and Commonwealth of FAand. 
The Smate is compofed of ArchblfJjjpj , Bijhops , Palatines , Principal 
Cafhllains, and Great OJp.cers of the Kingdom. The Prince, line the 
King of Bees, or a Royal Shadow , cannot Ad: agaiilft his Nobles, 
without the Confent of the Senators : Yet his Dignity is fo far con- 
fidered, that never any one attempted againft the Life of any of his 
PredecefTois. Their Kings were more anciently Free and Soveraign :, 


Of P eland, Zi 

but by the common calamity of Elcdive States, now bereft of Ptoyal 
Right and Prerogatives, having hmited power, governing according 
to the ftrid Laws and Dircdions of the Co/wd/ and P/ef, who lolely 
have full liberty to confult of, and determine the main Affairs of the 
Kingdom; Thefe are of two iorts, i. The Senate afore faid : 2. The 
General Diets, which are compofed of the Orders aforefaid,of the Se- 
nate or Council, and of the Delegates of each Province, and chiefer 
City, fent in the name of the reft of the Nobility. Thefe are for the 
more high and important bufinefs of Republick Kingdoms, not de- 
terminable by the Senate. 

fVarfaw^ or Varfovia^ is ufually the place of Eledion 5 and Crah^w^ 
or Cracovia^ that of the Coronation. The Archbifhop oiGmfna^ Pri- 
mate of the Kingdom, Crowns the King, and has almoft all the Au- 
thority during the Interregnum ; for then he prefides in the Senate, and 
gives Audience to Emhaffadors. He alfo contefts with the Cardials 
for precedency j and therefore there are few in Poland. His Fuevenue 
is above 1 50000 Livres a year. The Kingdom has thrc e Orders ; the 
Churchy the Nobility ^ and the 'third Eftatt ^ which comprehends all 
thofe which are not of the Nobily. 

Though all forts of Religions are here to be found, yet the Roman 
Catholickjs mod predominant j therefore the Clergy arc next in Supe- 
riority to the Kingi and then the Palatines and Cajielianis. Wi'ittcn fixed 
Laws they have but a few, if any ; Cuftom and Temporary Edidfs be- 
ing the Rule both of their Government and Obedience. 

The Polanders wear long Garments, (have their Hair upon the Chin, 
and leave only one tuft oi Hair upon their Heads , in remembrance of 
Caftmer the Firft, whom they fetched out of a Monaliery to be their 
King. They are generally handfome, tall, well proportioned j 
good Soldiers, and fpeak the Latin Tongue very fluently. The Gen- 
try are more Prodigal than Liberal; Coftly in their Apparel, Delici- 
ous in their Diet 5 very free and liberal; but the Peafants no better 
than Slaves. The Abfolute Power they pretend to, and ill Ufages of 
the Nobles towards the Commonalty, and Feuds one with another, 
was certainly the caufe of the Revolt of the Cojfacks^ and produced all 
the Diforders in the Kingdom, Their C^^t'i^/r)' is very conliderjble; in- 
fomuch, that if they were but united^ they might be able to bring in- 
to the Field above an 1 00000 Horfe. The Contidence they have 
therein, and their Fear to render a Knight or a Burgher too Potent, has 
made them negled fortifying their Towns. Their Horfes are of a 
middle fize, but quick and lively -, pompoufly harneffed in Silk, Gold, 
Silver, and Precious Stones. Their Weapons are generally a Scywi- 

M 2 tar^ 

8^4 Of Poland. 

tar, Svmrd^ Battel-j^x^ Carhim-, Bows and Arrows, The Cojfac]^ had 
always a peculiar Difcipline m War , though they were the fame Na- 
tion. At firft, they were Voluntiers that madelncurfions upon the 
T^rj^and Tartars. King Bathors reduced them into a Body, and joined 
to them two thoufand Horfe, to whom he afligned the fourth part of 
his Revenue. Their Habitations are in the lower parts of Volhinia 
and Fodolia, which they call the Ukraine j which Country is the beft 
peopled, and the molt Fertile in all Poland. There are o ther Co/pc/^/ 
that live in the Iflands of the Boryjihenes^ which is not Navigable, by 
reafon of the Falls, which they call Porotvis. Their Cuftom was for- 
merly to put to Sea with feveral flight Veffels, and to plunder the 
Territories of the Great Turl{ th^t lie upon the Black^Sea. Some years 
fince, thefe People Revolted, notwithltanding the Lot which was of- 
fered them of /C»^jc/;^upon the Boryjibenes^ and began the Misfortunes 
of the Kingdom ; for they leagued themfelves wiih the LeiTer TartarSy 
and put themfelves into the Great Turk^s Protection : Infomuch that 
we may fafely fay, That the Invalion ot the Stvedes, the Hoftilities of 
the Mufcovites^ the Irruption of the Tranjylvanians , the Treachery of 
the Cojfacktf , the Rebellion of whole Armies in Poland and Lithuania^ 
the d liferent FaCfions of the Kingdom^ the Contefts of the Neighbouring 
Nations, gave a cruel Blow to this Crown, and were the caufes that 
moved the Great Turk to make war upon them. 

Po/W contains Ten great Divifions 5 four to the Weft , and upon 
theViliula: Poland^ Mazovia-, Cujavia, and Pr«//?j the Royal. Six tOr 
ward the Eaft 5 and to the Weft of Boryjihenes , Lithuania, Samogitia^ 
Tolaqma^ Nigra KuJJia, Volhinia^ and Podolia. Thefe Provinces have 
been gained, for the moft part, either by Arms, or Alliances. They 
are divided into Palatinates^ the Palatinates into CaJiellainSf and the Car 
jietlains into Captainjhips. They call the Government of places Staro- 
flies. Befides thefe Provinces , there is one part of Mnfcovia , which 
was yielded to the Mufcovite in the Year 16^^. after that Ladi' 
Jlaus the Fourth, before he was King, had the year before valiantly 
relieved Smolensho, and reduced to utmoft Extremity an Army of an 
hundred thoufand Mufcovite s^'who were conftrained to ask him pardon 
to fave their Lives. That Treaty which they call the Treaty of Viaf- 
ma, gained to Poland, Smolenskp , Novogr^deck^^ Sevierkj: CzernihoUf 
and other places. The Truce for thirteen years, beginning February 
ib6j, leaves the Grand Dike oiMufcovy.'wi the pofieiTion of Smolen-r 
sko •-, a alfo of that p^rt of the Vl^raine, to the Ezi\ of oorylihenes, and 
le- gained to the Ctov^n of Poland, Vunenhourg, Poloczk^^nd H^itepsk^. 
Dttcal.Prtflfiay ox Borufta {vfhese.Hzuds Konigsberg^ 01 Mons Regius, a 

Of Poland. ^ 

fdr City, Univerfity, and Mart) generally by our Seamen called ^lueen' 
bororp, belongs to the Eledlor of Brandenburgh , who is abfolute Sove" 
reign of it, independent fronn Foland, The City is fo much the bigget, 
becaufe it inclofeth two others within the fanne circuit of Walls. Pi' 
tavia^ Pitau^ and Munelium^ Memel ^ are two Forts upon the Sea^ of 
the greateft concernment of any in that Dominion. Cttrland is a Duke- 
dom, for which tiie Duke, of the Houfe of Ketler, does homage to the 
Crown : His Refidence is at Mitan>^ the chief of <he Province of Semi^ 
gaVii In Livonia j near this City Zernesky^ the Polifh General, and L«- 
bermisky the great Chancellor, vanquifhed the Stvedifh Army, and kil- 
led 14000 upon the place. And Vindavo was the Seat of the great 
Mafter of the Tr«to«ic^ Order. 

Poland^ the be ft Peopled, is divided into Vpper ^.n^ Lon>er. The 
Higher or Little Poland^ contains three Palatines, viz Crakow^ Sando- 
mira and Lublin. Cracovia^ or Crack^n>^ the chief City in all Poland^ 
where the Kings and ^eens are Crowned, is inhabited by a great 
r\\imhcto( Germans y Jews, diwd Italians, encompaffed with two ftrong 
Walls of St( ne \ on the Eaft-fide is the King's Caftle, on the Weft a 
Chappel, where the Kings are Interred. Upon the Confines of Sile- 
fia ftands the City of Czentochorv , with the Cloyfkr of Najire-damc of 
Clermont j an extraordinary ftrong place, and which the Swedes be- 
iTeged iii vain twice, in the Year 16^^, and 1655. Sandomiria, or 
Sendomierz, a Walled Town and Caftle upon a Hill. Lublin^ ox hub' 
linum, is a Walled Town, with a ftrong Caftle environed with Waters 
and Marifties Here are held three great Fairs at the Feafts of Peute- 
cofl^ St. Simon and St. Jnde, and at Candlemof, and much reforted un- 
to by Merchants. The Lower Poland, though leffer than the Higher^ 
is neverthelefs called Great Poland ; becaufe it is more a part of the 
Kingdom than the other, and contains eight Palatinates, viz Pofna^ 
Kalifh, Ploc2^0j V.brzin, Citjavia. Rava, Lancicia 2i.nd Siradia. The Ci- 
ty of Guefna there Seated, in the Palatinate of Kalijh, is very Ancient, 
^nd the Seat of the hrft Kings, fo called from an Eagle's Nett, which 
was found there while it was building, and which gave occafion to 
the King of Poland to bear Gules^ an Eagle Argent Crown'd , Beak'd - 
and Armed Or, bound under the Wings with a Ribband of the fame, 
Kalifch, Califtj, is a Walled Town upon the Profna, naming the Coun- 
try. The Province of Mjzcvia only has above thirty or forty thou- 
fand Gentlemen, the moft ^2iXt Cnthdickf ; Warfovia, Warfavp, is the 
Capital thereof, and of the whole Kingdom, in regard the General 
Diets are kept there, and becaufe its Caftle is the King's Court. Czerf- 
%is the Palatinate. In Ciqavia ftands the City VladiflaH^ wJiere the 


8^ Of Poland. 

Hcufes are built of Brick ; and the Like Gopla, out of which came the 
Rats that devoured King ?<?;>/>/. Pofania, oi Pofen, is a BKhop's See, 
feated amongft Hills upon the River IFarfatv, fairly built of Stone, fub- 
jed to Inundations, chief of the Palatinate. In which is alfo Miedzyr- 
zecze^ a ftrongTovvn upon the Borders of Schlcfia, impregnably feated 
an:iongft Waters and Marfties. Kofden , a double Walled Town a- 
monglt dirty Madhes. Siradia^ Sirad ^ a Walled Town and Callle 
feated upon the River Warfavp , naming the Country j fometimes a 
Dukedom belonging to the fecond Sons of the Kings of Poland. Lan- 
ck'ia^ Lanchz, a Walled Town with a Caftle mounted on a Rock, up- 
on the River Bfura. Rava^ built all of Wood, with a Caftle naming 
the Palatinate. Ploczkoind Vobrzin^ are two Palatinates on theother 
fide of the N^eper. In Pm{j7a Koyal^ which belongs to the King of Po- 
land, are feveral Cities, which the Knights of the TemonkkS^tdcr built : 
The Lakes and the Sea-Coaft afford great ftore of Amber. Marienburgh, 
MaridebHrgtim, is a ftrong Town, where Copernicus was born j a Town 
of good Trade, with a fair Wooden Bridge over the Vijiula. Vantzick^^ 
Gtdanum, one of the Capital Hans- Town, drives all the Trade of Po- 
land, and has not its equal over all the Baltkk^Sea : It is a Free Town, 
and is priviledged to fend Deputies to the States of the Kingdom. The 
King of Poland has fome Rights there upon Entry of Goods, and up- 
on the Cuftom. Thorn is efteemed next to VanizicJ^, and Culm is con- 
(iderable. The City of Elbing contends for Priority in the States of 
PrttJJia ; it is a fair City, and well frequented by Englijh Merchants. 
The Generous Refolution of the Towns-men to maintain the Autho- 
rity of their King againfi: the Swedes, without accepting the Neutrality, 
was the prefervation of the whole Kingdom. 

Lithuania is the greatcft Province of all thofe which compofe the 
Eftates of the Crown of Poland. It received the Ghrirtian Religion 
138^. now united to Poland 1^66. It has the Title of a Grand 
Dukedom, wherein there are alfo to this day as many great Officers as 
in the Kingdom of Poland. The Country is fo full of Marfhes and 
Sloughs, tliat there is no travelling in Winter for the Ice. Vilna, the 
Capital City, incloks fo many forts of Religions, that there is no Ci- 
ty in the World v,?!KreGod is worlhipped after fo many different ways, 
uniefs in Amjiirdam j a Liberty too much allowed in moft parts of 
Chriifendom, h\xtraratt7nponimfdicitas. There are alfb in Lithuania 
eight parts or Palatinates, viz. Breflaiv, Minfco, Mfcizian', Novegrodec}{y 
Polocz\, Troki, Vdnaand JVitepsk^, as alfb the Dutchy ci Smolcnsk^T, No- 
u-i(Trodc(k,y CzerniboH, with the Territories of Kohaczorv and Rzeczych 
asid Sluszh^, "whofe chief places bears the fame name i other chief 


Of Poland. 8^ 

places of Note in Lithuania you may find in the Map. Samogitia is a 
Country where the Inhabitants live very poorly ; it hath no Palati- 
nate , but its chief places are Rofienne , whofe Houfes are built of 
Mud, and Straw-walls, tcjh Sanf. and Mednih^. ?olaqmacomm\Jiv\K2^{Q% 
her Name to the Polanden, who call ihemfelves Polacks, as defcendcd 
from Lechus^ their hrll: Prince. Its chief places are, Bietsko^ the ftrong 
Jugufioiv , and the well fortified Jycaffin , or Tyrvck^in , where the 
King's Treafure is kept. Polefu^ or the Palatine of Brefpci -. v^hofe chief 
places are Pinski ^nd Oletvsh' Rttjjia Nigra has feveral Names ; fome 
call it Black Rujjiay by reafon of the Woods ; others Red, becaufe of 
the colour of the Earth ; and fome Meridional, becaufe of its Scicuarioii 
towards the South. Leopol, or Lemberg^ an Archbidioprick , is the 
Principal City, but Zjmoski the ftronger y it contains alfo the Cartel- 
wicks oiChdm and Be/z, and Province c( Pof{itij, whofe chief Town 
is Halicz. Volhinta claims for her Capital, Kiim^ Polmis. Kioff, Germa- 
nis '-, an Ancient City, having once 300 fair Churches, but defiroyed 
by the tartars ; ftill a Bifhop's See, acknowledging the Patriarch of 
Mofchon>, and of the Communion of the Gree^ Church , fcated upon 
the Borykbenef^ where the Cojfackf have often had their Retreats : It 
was once the Seat of the Kufian Emperors. Taken and dertroyed by 
the Tartars i<5i5. and faid to be taken by the turh^ in the War 
idyS. In Podolia ftands the well fortified and Impregnable Kamie- 
niek^olim Clepidava tejie Cleaver, which has formerly withftood the Ar- 
mies of the 7«ri^r, the L^ffi^i Tartars, the tranfylvanians, and the Wa- 
lachians , but at length was forced to yield to the Power of the Grand 
Sigfiior, in the Year 1^72. fince re- taken by the Poles ^ but by thelaft 
Treaty delivered to the Tnrks •, as is alfo Oc2SJi^«?, the Axiace o^ Strab, 
Plin, & Ptol, i<584. the Fortrefs c^ Japr»ic in Podolia v/asfurrendred, 
which confiitcd of 500 men. And Vajfan^ ic the mouth of the Bory- 

In the year 1626. the Cojfacks entred the Bofphonis with 15:0 Sail of 
Saicks or Boats, each Boat carrying 50 armed men, and had 20 Oars 
on a fide, and two men to an Oari and on the Grecian-diore burnt 
Boyno-devi and Tenichioij on the Ajian-ddc Stmii, and put Conjiantinopk 
into a general Confternation. 

On the Banks of the River iV/s/rer Count Ejlerhaft Ml upon the Reer 
oftheTurk^, killed 500 on the place, took their Piggage with divers 
Prifoners, and gav*; l.ber*y to many Chriftian Saves. The next day 
he charged another pariy, kili'd a great number, and got a conlidera- 
b!e Booty. And afterwards having got more Re jruit, he joined Bat- 
tel with them, and flew 120a on the place, gave liberty to 1400 


88 Of Poland. 

Chriftians, took divers of their Commanders, with their Bag and 
Baggage, with much Gold and Silver in flate and Money. 

1^24. Forty thoufand Horfe of Tartan enters into Vodolia^ and 
made Incurfions as far as Socal\ but at Buriiinow were overthrown, 
thirty thoufand flain, and two thoufand Prifoncrs taken, the grcateft 
defeat that was ever given to the lartars. 

Upon a Hill between Tyr River and Chofm , Anno 1 6%\. the Turks 
and Tartars being 60000 under a B^jffj, received a great lofs by Konis- 
potzki the Polijh General, with 2500 Horfe. 

Here are reckoned 4 Archbifhopricks, 24 Bifhopricks, and 5 Uni- 
verfities. Its chief Lakes are Gr^W^, By^*?/, and Briale. Its chief Moun- 
tains are the Carthapian Hills , dividing this Country from Hungary, 
Tranfilvania and Moldavia. 

The Lejftr Tartary* 89 

TH E Lfjfer 'tartary which lies in 'Europe^ is fo called to diftinguifh 
it from the Grand^ which makes part of Jfia ; it is alfo called 
Precopenfis, and Crim, from the Names of the principal Cities, fcitua- 
ted in the Feninfula ; formerly called Tanrica Cherfanefus by Ptol. from 
the 7jun a certain People of Scytbia in Europe. Strabo calls it the Scy 
thian Clnrfomfus. Pliny calls it the Penirifula of the T^aurians. Appianus 
calleth it the Pjntk^Cherfonefjif. And P. Viaconus calleth it Cherfenefa. 
The Nogays 'Tartars mull not be omitted, that lye between Tanais and 
Volga j nor the 'tartars of Ocziacou^ between the mouth of Boryjihenes 
and the Niejhr ; nor the Tartars of Budziack^mentioncd page p6, to the 
Eart of Moldavia , between the mouths of the Neijier and Vonavp, Be- 
fides all thefe, there are fome that are fetled alfo in Lithuania and the 
Vkraine^ adjoining to the Black^Sea. 

The Black^Sea is very Tempertuous •, fo named, and fo famed from 
the terrible and frequent Shipwracks that happen in it, for want of 
skilful Pilots, and good Havens. And the people that inhabit about 
it, are naturally barbarous and wicked , without any Fveligion, and 
under no Government. 

The Circumference of rlils Sea was reckoned by Eratofienes^ Heca- 
t£Hs, Viol, and Marallinus ^ to be 2 ^coo Stadia, or 2875 
miles. This Sea is called by ClaHdianur, Pontus Jmazonius ; by Flac- 
cuj^ Pont' Scythicus \ by Fell. Amttms, Pont Tauricus ; by Herodotus &• 
Ovofim, Mare Cimmerium ; by Strabo^ Mare Colchicum ^ by Tacitus, Mare 
Pomicum *, by Ovid, Mare Sarmaticum 5 by the Italians, Mar Majore ; by 
the Greekj, Maurathalajfa ^ by the Turkt^ Caradenguis. 

The Thracian Bofpborus is certainly one of the comelieft parts of the 
World, the Channel is about 15" miles in length, and about two in 
breadth in moft parts. The Shores confitt of rifing grounds covered 
over with Houfes of Pleafure , Woods, Gardens, Parks, delightful 
Profpeds, lovely Wilderneffes , watered with thoufands of Springs, 
and Fountains •, upon it are feated four Caftles well fortified with 
great Guns, two, eight miles from the Black^Sea, and the other two 
rear the mouth of the Channel, built not above forty years ago to 
prevent the Coffach^, &c. from making Inroads with their Barks. 

The Limmaian Bofpborus is a narrow Sea two miles broad , which 
divides Europe from Afia , and by which the Meotick^ Lake doth flow 
into the Euxine Sea. This Strait is called by Mzrtianus, OsMeotidis ; 
by Mircellinus, Putares Angufii£ h by the Italians, Boccadis. Jovanni j by 
Cajialdusy Stnto di Caffas and by the Tartars, Vofpero, 

N Pains 

^o T^he Lefjer Tartary. 

Talus Maotis is by the Turks called Baluck^Venguis^ that is, Mare Fif- 
cinm, for 'tis incredible what a number of Fi(h is caught in that Lake. 
And 'tis reported that they ufually take Fifti there, which weigh eight 
or nine hundred pounds, and of which they make three or 400 weight 
of Caveer. Their Fiftiing lafts from October to April. The waters do 
not rife or fall, though it partakes of the River lanats , and the in- 
tercourfe of the Euxine Sea. This Lake is commonly called Aier de 
Zabacche^ ot de UTana. Limen accolis-, by the yirablans^ Marel Azachy 
the Sea. 

From the Channel of Palus Mzous to Mingrelia 'tis reckoned 600 
miles along the Coalt, which confift of pleafant Mountains, covered 
with Woods, Inhabited by the Circa ffians j by the Titrk^i called Cherks ; 
by the Ancients, Zageans ; by P. Mda^ Sargacians, a Country reckon- 
ed by the Turks not worth the Conquering, nor the charge of keep- 

The Commodities that the Turk^ exchange for with the Inhabitants, 
are Slaves^ Honey^ Wax, Leather, Chacal-skins, a Beaft like a Fox, but 
bigger ; and Zzrdavas, which is a Fur that refembles a Martin, with 
the Furs of other Beads that breed in the Circaffan Mountains. The 
Cherks are a people altogether Savage, of no Religion, unfaithful and 
perfidious. They live in Wooden Huts, and go almoft naked. And 
the Women till and manure the Ground. They are fworn Enemies to 
thofe that live next to them, and make Slaves one of another. They 
live upon a kind of Parte made of a very fmall Grain like to a Millet. 
But of this Country little is known to us ; and what is difcovered, is 
by means of the Slaves that are brought from thence into Turkic, who 
are in a manner Savages, from whom nothing of certainty is to be 

Crim Tartary is a Petiinfula about 200 miles in length , and 50 in 
breadth, wonderfully populous, and exceeding fruitful , abounding 
in Corn and Grafs, but Wood and Fuel is fcarce. 

The Towns on the Sea-fide are Precop, Lus Iowa, Mancup , Crim, 
Cafa, Kers^ and Arboth^, which lies between the Blacky, and Mceotan 
or Ratten Seas, near to which is a great Field 50 mile long, enclofcd 
with water , where the Tartars in Winter do keep their Hergees or 

Within the Land are Carafu, and Bakeffy Seray. The Town of 
Ajlamgorod ftands upon the Neiper, in former times there dwelt in it 
two Brothers Ingul and Vngul ; who falling at variance, and that end- 
ing in cruel Wars, the whole Country adjacent (though pleafant and 
fruitful ) became a Wildernefs, and now lieth wafte, being a vaft 


The Leffer Tartarjo ^i 

DefarC, 500 miles over, and athoufand miles long, from Vrecop unto 
the County of Mnfcozy. 

Caffay known to the Ancients by the name of Thsodofia^ is a great 
Town, and place of good Trade, wherein are reckoned 4000 Houfes, 
3000 inhabited hy Mahometans , 'turkj and 'Tartars, about 1000 Fa- 
milies of Armeniaiu, and Greeks, who have their feveral Biftiops and 
Churches, that of St. Peter's is the biggeft, but fallen to decay j every 
Chriftian above 15 years of Age pays a Piafter and half Tribute to 
the Grand Signior , who is Lord of the City ; which is guarded 
with two Caftles , the Caftle upon the South-fide commands all 
the parts ; and is the Refidence of the Baffa. Proviiions of all 
forts are very good and cheap. Their chief Trade is Salt-jijh, Caveer, 
Corn, Butter and Salt. Formerly pofTeffed by the Geaoefe, but taken 
by Mahomet the Great 1574. hath lince been fubjedt to the Turks. In 
1627. it was befieged and taken by the Cojfacks, 750 miles reckoned 
from Conjiantinople. 

Precop, in Latin Precopia, feated near the place where flood the Ek- 
peterea of the Ancients. By the ancient Greekj called Eupatoria , Pom- 
feiopolts , Saar Lucus, Dromon Achillis, Gr£cida Heraclta. B;ikeffy Serai, 
or Bajho Serrail, is the Refidence or Court of the prefent Kans of 7ar' 
tary. Mancup is a ftrong Town where the Kan is faid to keep his 

German or Crim was the ancient Scat of the Kans, fuppcCed to be the 
Taphr£ of Pliny, or Taphras of Ptolomy. Once a famous Cblony of the 

Kers, (lands upon the Bofphorus Ctmerins , or the ftrait of Capha, 
not far from the Panticap£un of the Ancients. Oczak^u is fcituated 
near the influx of the great River Boryfthenes, built in or near the place 
of Olbia. 

Tanof, or Tanais of Ptolomy, fcituate 20 miles from the mouth of 
that River, is the laft City in Europe now fubjed to the Turkj, who 
have there a Garifon, and by them called j4zac, or Jzoiv. 450 miles 
from Caffa, and 15 CO from Conjiantinople. In 1*^:57. it was befieged 
and taken by the Mofcovites and QJfacks. In the Year 1^41. it was 
not recovered, though with much blood and flaughter of the Army of 
Sultan Ibrahim; for it coft ^000 Spahees, 7000 Janifaries, and 8000 
other Soldiers, befides Moldavians, Walachians^ and Tartars, and yet 
the Turks were forced to raife the Siege, and return home. However 
the next year it was abandoned by the Coffacki, and left a Ad fpedaclc 
of defpair and ruine. 

N 2 The 

g2 "The Lefjer Tartary, 

The ancient Inhabitants of KhcEuropean'Tartary, or SarmjtiaEurop£a^ 
were of the Scythian Race ; but in Cherfonefe it (elf dwelt the ancient 
Tauri, againft whom Darius King of rerfia made his fruitlefs War 
with an Army of 700000. In the adions of the Gree)^/ and Ko- 
mans we hear nothing of them, unlefs that the Emperor 7rajan took 
x\it City "taphree. Afterwards growing great, by Conquering the ^^^- 
tkhjTartars^ Mahomet the Great made himfelf Mailer of Cafa and 
and ^zonf, thereby commanding both Mceotis^ and the Euxine Seas. 
And in the time of Selimus the hrli, who had Married a Daughter of 
this Crimtartar^ the Turh^ and 'Tartars grew into a League: And tho 
the Kan or Prince be Elective, yet he is Chofen out of the true Line, 
and conhrmed by the Grand Sigmjr^ who have always taken upon them 
a power to Depofe the Father, and Conftitute the Son, or next of 
that Lineage, when found remifs in affording their Auxiliary helps 
to the War, or guilty of any difrefpedt, or want of Duty to theO^e- 
man Port. 

The Tartars are Efteemed as Brothers, or near Allies with the7«r^r, 
to whom, for want of Heirs Male in tht Ottoman Line, the TurkJJh Em- 
pire is by an Ancient Compad to defcend ; the Expedition of which 
doth keep the Tartars in much Obfervance, in hopes one day to be 
Lords of the World. 

In the Year 1 66^^ the Tartars^ called to the AlTiftance of the Turks^ 
made fuch Incur lions into Hungary^ Moravia, and Silefta^ Sacking and 
Burning Cities and Towns, that they carried away i(5ooco Captives, 
which they Sell to the Turk/, who go thither to Trade for this Mer- 
chandize, which is the moil profitable Commodity that T^^r^^rj/ affords ■-, 
Young Boys and Girls are rated at thehigheft price; the latter, if 
beautiful, are, like Jewels, held at unknown Value, though few of 
themefcape the Lufl of the Tartars. They live very hardly, and feed 
efpecially on Horfe-flefh, which dying in their march, they never exa- 
mine his Difeafe, but putting the Flefli under their Saddles, baking k 
between the heat of the Horfe and the Man, it is judged fufficiently 
prepared, a Difh fit for their Prince. 

And as the poorer fort arc nourifhed with a diet of raw Flefh, 
Herbs, and Roots, fuch as the Earth naturally produces, without the 
Concodion of Fire to prepare it for their Stomacks •, fo alfo their Hor- 
fes are of a hardy Breed, patient of Hunger and Cold, living ufual- 
ly upon Roots and Leaves of Trees. 

Their Towns or Villages confift of Huts rather than Houfes, or 
Hurdles made of flicks, and covered with a courfe Hair-cloath, of 
which Villages there are accounted 200000 5 fo that taking one man 


The Lefftr Tariary, 9^ 

out of every Village, they quickly form an Artny of fo many Fight- 
ing men. Thefe Portative Houfes, which they c^WCantares. they put 
upon Wheels, and dwell in them more in the Summer, ih:ninthe 

They never mind Sciences, but underftand what they know by com- 
mon fenfe ; and therefore *tis fa id of them. That they have eaten . 
their Books, and carry them in their Stomacks. 

They are faid to be fo much of the nature of Dogs and Cats, that 
they are born blind, and do not fee dear till after five days. Their 
Eyes are not very large, but very black; far afunder, but quick and 
piercing. They are rather little than big , but very large limb'd : 
Their Breafts high and broad, their Necks thort, their Heads big, 
their Nofes flat, their Teeth vvhite, their Faces round, their Com- 
plexion tanned, and their Hair black and courfcj whilft they are 
young, their Mothers bathe them in Salt-water to harden their Skin. 

Some of them now grown Wealthy by the Market of their Slaves, 
throw off their homely plads, to wear Sables; and fome more fru- 
gal, build Houfes, eat bread and flefli, and drink burnt Wine, and 
Metheglin. Sir JohnChirdin tells us, at VonJIow^ox Salin£, 50 miles 
from Caffa^ there are 200 VefTels yearly laden with Salt ; and that 
about a mile from that place was a 'Tartarian Habitation, but not above 
ten or twelve Houfes with a little Mofque, only round about them were 
a great number of Tents round and fquare, very well clofed, as alio 
feveral Wagons, well clofed and covered, which ferve inftead of Hou- 
fes. He alfo tells us, that fome of their Tents werehung with Tapi- 
ftry, as alio the Floors covered with the fame, and the outlide co- 
vered with Furs ; and every Family hath one of thefe Tents, and 
two others, one for their Slaves and Provi(ions, another for their 
Cattel. That they ftore up their Corn and Forage in deep Pits or 
Magazines under the Ground, as do moft of the Eajiern people. The 
Riotous and DilTolute add id themfelves to Strong- waters, and a 
Dnnk called Biza^ giving themfelves up to a Gluttony as Brutifh as 
that which is natural unto Swine, and rert delighted with the meer 
contentment of Idlenefsand a fuUSromack. 

Jufticeisadminiftred among the 7artarians^ by the Law of Mahomet^ 
in the Cities and Towns of the Chan^ and the other Sultans i They 
have their Priefts, their Judges, and their Begi or PrsefecfJ-s, who do 
hear and decide private Injuries ^ but the Chan^ with his CounfeI°- 
lors, do judge of Capital Matters, as Murther and Theft: In decla- 
ring whereof they need no Lawyer nor Solicitor ; they ufe no fubtil* 
ties or tricks, no excufes, or prolonging matters by delays 5 for the 


94 l^fj^ Leffer Tartary, 

meaneft of them, nay, ftrangers, do freely declare their own wrongs 
and grievances before the Judges, and the Chan himfelf, by whom 
they are quic kly heard and difpatched. They inftru(^ their Sons when 
young, in the jirabic\ Language j when they come to ripenefs of 
years, they ferve ihtCban or the Sultans ; and when their Daughters 
are Marriageable, they many them to fome of the chief Tartars or 
1i4rk,s, The Richefi: of the Tartars in the Princes Court, go civilly 
and decent in their Apparel, not for Oftentation and Pride, but as 
Neceflity and Decency requires. Their Judges, according to Mahomet's 
Law, are accounted Spiritual men, and of undoubted Equity, Inte- 
grity, and Faithfulnefs. And when the Chan goeth abroad in pubJick, 
the poorefi: men may have accefs unto him ; who when he fees them, 
will examine what their wants and neceiTities are, and whence they do 

I (hall only add this account of Tartary^ by MaffeUini an Italian, Phy- 
sician to the Grand Vrzier ^ I for my part found Tartary a very pleafant 
Countrey, plentiful of all Provifions, and the people much more 
courteous and obliging to Grangers and Chriftians, than the Twr/^/ are. 
That as to their Morals few Nations are lefs vicious, being extremely 
fevere and faithful,having no Thieves,or falfe WitnelTes amongft them, 
little in juftice or violence, and live together in union and peace. And 
that the captive Tartars in Poland are very faithful and juft in whatfo- 
ever they promife, or are intrufted with. 




I J zJ 2-/1 J^l 

h rr rtrr'Hiinimi'il fclliiillirilinmiJ — tn 


OLD AVI A has fometimes been called Great WaUchia, and 
Walachia on this fide the Mountains. It is very Rich in 
Honey and Wax, for which the Tenths of the Prince amout Year- 
ly to above 200000 Crowns. You (hall meet with feveral Heaps o£<; 
ftones, which they report to have been caft up by Tyaritis King of Ver- 
fra, when he made War againft the Scythians, The Capital Cities 
thereof are, Jaft, or 7#»w, the chief Town for Wealth and Trade. 

2. Soc'f 

g6 Of WduhU, 

2. Socz^:va^ Soczow, & Suchzorp, was the Sucidavo of VtoL & Am. the 
Vaivodh Seat. ^.Chotez,in^ Arcobadar. Baud, a place of great ilrength 
near the Ntefhr, and the ordinary Magaihie of the Countrey •, the 
place where the Folej were defeated under King Sig^ifmmd Augujius ; 
and where King John Sobiet.'ki, a little before his Eledion, won the 
vnoCi memorable Victoiy incur Age. This Countrey was firft made 
a Turk^ifh Province by ALbomct the great, Jn. 1574. The Ealtern 
part, called Beffarab/a^ lies upon the Black^Sea, and btlongs to tie 
Grand Signior, who is MaOer of the Mouth of the Vanoiv and Nicjhr ; 
and who ufes all ways it^.aginable to Subr'ue the Rich Provinces of 
the Ukraine. Its chief places are Bw%rr)i^, Moldavij,Beligrad Turcis, a 
iirong Town near the mouth of the River. Kilta'is tiie Cahtia&Cal- 
lacis Ant. Cahw Strak'^ VUn, tejk Laz. But Laonicm tells us, that CjI- 
htia is now called CMacra. And Niger Cmh 'tis called Pandalla^ on 
the Eiixine Sea. Ack^rman Turcis, Moncafiro Incol. is the Hermonaffa flin, 
& Mel. the Hermonadus Ptcl. tijh Nigra. Ndhr Alba, Turcis tcjh Lemcl. 
Moncajiro is the 7yras of Ptol. tcjh HerbcrlH. Zithezavia, Nigra, a ftrong 
place on the fameCoalh The Seat of ^7url^(h Sangiac. The Plain of 
Budziack^i 12 Leagues long , and half as broad, is poffefTed by the 
Dobrttce Tartars, who are the greatefl Robbers in thofe parts. They 
are about 150CO, and lye about Eu//grW. This Countrey became Tri- 
butary to the T/zr^/, Anno \\%'^. 


W ALA CHI Ay which lies to the South-Eaft of Tranfilvania, 
and extends along the Vanaw, was called Walachia Tranfal- 
pina, todiftinguilhitfrom Moldavia. It is watered by a great many 
Rivers. Some of the Mountains are enriched with Mines of Gold : 
And for the Horfes, they sre the bert in Europe. The Prince, who is 
fometimes called Hj(podar, and fometlmes Waywode, that is^to fay , 
Chief of the Troops, relides at Jermfch, Incol. tcrvii Gal. Targovifco 
Ital. Tergorvifch Germ. Ttrgoiifhs, or Tergovifcum, Lat. Auth. Olim Ti- 
vifcum Ttol. taros & Turo icfte Lazio. And pays to the Grand Signior 
25ooo Livres Annual Tribute. Its other places are, Brailano, the Piro- 
boridavaoi Ptol.tcjieNigro, the Town of moll: Trade, fcituate on the 
DanatP, memorable for the Deftrudion and Slaughter made by John 

the Faivod of Moldavia. „ 


Of Trtinfylvinh, ^ 97 

ZofZ^i with its ftrong Caftle, taken by Sigifinmd^ j4nm i'yp6. 
Bucarefia is remarkable for two Bridges j the one of Boats, laid By 
Sinan Bajfa , the other of Stone, the Work of the Emperor frajan. 


TK AN ST LV ANI A, (o called from the Hercynian Woods, 
and Carpathian Mountains, wherewith it is encomtafled. The 
"Dacia M:diterranea oi the Ancients, by the Romans called Vacia Kipn- 
fu,& Fannadacta 5 by the Hungarians, Erdely '■, called aKoSeptim Callra^i 
from the German name Siebmhurgmj by reafon of the feven Cities or 
Seats whi>:h the Saxons built there, iv'z. Hermenflat^ Cronjiat^ Nofenjiatj 
Midrvifch^ Schiahurg^ Claufenburg^ & Weiffenhurg. Divers Nations for- 
merly inhabited this Countrey ; as the Jazyges^ by Vliny called Meta- 
fia(i£ j the Getes^ Bafternians^ Sarmatians, Gr£cians^ Romans^ Scythians^ 
Saxons^ and Hungarians. The Romans did conquer it, when the Em- 
peror Trajan overcame Vcctbalns^ King of Vacta^ and reduced it into 
the form of a Province, calling their City Zarmizegetbufa^ after his 
own name, Ulpia T'rajana. hut Galienus loft it 2 00 years after. After 
tht Romans^ the Scythians under the Condudlof ^r/?l!/rfj', feated them- 
felves in this Countrey, and built fevcn Cities, the names whereof 
2.xtOrbay^ Kyfdi^ Czyc\-, Girgio, Marour^ Arania^ and Sep fu 

The Saxms fucceeded the Scythians in the time of Charles the Great, 
who followed the example of the Scythians , and built the feven 
Cities aforefaid. Laftly, the Hnngarians, who mingled themfelves 
with the Vacians ; and afterwards, being provoked by Injuries, they 
conquered the whole Countrey, in the Reign of Stephen King of Pana- 
ma, The Mountainous part of Tranfylvania^ wasfubdued by Matthiof 
Hmiades, who took Vracula their Vaivode or Prince, a man of un- 
heard of Cruelty, and after 10 years Imprifonment, reftored him to 
his former place. Tranfilvania is now divided into three Nations, 
differing both in Manners and Laws ; viz. the Ciculi , or Zekiers^ de- 
fcended from the Scythians, who are a fiery and Warlike kind of peo- 
ple , amongft whom there are no Noble, or Rufiickj, but all of them 
of one rank. 2. The Saxons, 3. The Hungarians, who call them- 
felves the Nobles of the Countrey, and have great Power and Autho- 
rity over the reft. 

O As 

^8 Of Trdnfylvnnia, 

As to the Payment of Taxes and Tributes, it is divided into eight 
principal Circles or Diviiions, called Chapters j in wh ch are contain- 
ed 3(5 Royal Towns, and more than 175 Towns or Villages, befides 
their prin.ip.l Cities, which are^ i. HrmsKfladt Ger. Czeben or Zeben 
Hung, the (ihimum & Hcnnannopolis of the Ancients, yielded by the 
7urkr, i<55<?, after much Sl-^ughter, and a ftout Refiftance j is the 
Relidence of the Prince, aihongCity, well fortified both by Art and 
Nature. JVaradin^ or Gros JVardeyn^ Ger. has been extraordinarily 
fortified by the 7ttrk^s, who have there made a Magazine of Arms 
ever Cmcc the Year 1660 •, but upon June the ^th. 16^2. after many 
vigorous Sieges and Attacks made by the Germans^ being no longer 
able to holdout againft their Efforts, and defpairing of any Relief, 
theGarifon capitulated j and upon the '^th. 400 Germans took polfef- 
fion of the principal Pofis of the Fortrefs ^ and upon June the pth, 
the lUrl^f marched out of the City, and gave entire PolTelTion to the 
Germans. This properly belongs to Hungary. Cronjiat.^ Kronjiat Germ. 
Brajfotv vel Brajfotva Hnng. Br^^arv Incolis^ the Patrovijfaoi Ptol. Stepha- 
nopolis, Corona, & Pr£toria Augufla^ Vd. is remarkable for a fair Libra- 
ry, and a kind of Academy, and the moll: Noted Empory of the 
Countrey/eated amongft pleafant Mountains.and fortified withWalls, 
Ditches, and Rampires. Nofe^lladt^ Germ. Bijiritia & Beflereze Hung. 
the Nentidiva Vet. hiimJy^va,, in Old Manufcripts •, is a pleafant and 
fweet Town. Claufenburg Germ KoUfvpar Hung. Clandhpolis^ Vet. Ziug- 
ma?tcl.& aliis. Befieged by the Twr^x, Defended by D. Retani., and 
Relieved by Scheniden with dooo men, 1661. But Laz^ms tells us, that 
Zcugmjiis the Zazfebes^ Hung, or the Mahnhach Ger. three Leagues di- 
flant from C/jiKjew^^r^ towards the South, feated in a pleafant Plain, 
beautified with handfome Buildings, and is the Court of their Judi- 
cature. The firll Seat of the Saxons. 

Weiffcmhurg^Germ.Gyula-Feiertpar^ Hung. Alha]ul'u, ox Alba-GhtUay 
the Apulum of Ttol. was the ordinary Refldence of the Prince, or 
. Va\vod,Qi Tranfylvania. Anciently c^WcdTarmif •, and in Ta2J^« 's time 
it was the Palace of Kin^Decebalus . Varbel Incolis. Gradifch Sclaro. Vec 
» n/ & Venccz,, te{h Lazio, is the Zarmigethufa, or Z^rmtfogethufa of ?toL 
& VIpia trajana^ Vet. Megies., or Medgis Hung. & Mea;(fivar, Medtvifch 
Germ. Medicfus Lat. the Firum of Ttol. Segefwar Incol. Schieshurg Ger. 
Scihurghm Latinis, is the Sandava of ?tcl tefie Lazjo. Janova befieged 
\i\] x\\<: Grind Vizicr., 1658. and taken. 

' The Countrey naturally abounds with Wine, Corn, Fruit» and 
Cattel \ v,'hichthe Coin of 'tra'-jan doth witncfs, in which CmsHiood^ 
holding in her right hand the Horn of the Goat Anialth£:i, which fig- 


Of Tranfylvmu, <)^ 

nifieth Plenty ; siid in her left hand a Table with this Infcripjlon or 
Motto, Ahundmcia'D-KU. The People are much of the fame Nature 
with the Hiing&nMs^ to vvhom they have been for a long time fubjed, 
bur arefomewhat more iiubborn and untradable •, and fpeak the fame 
Language, with feme dilTerence in the Dialed only. 

One of the principal Ptevenues of franfilvania confifts in Salt, which 
is chiefly made at Tarda •, from whence they fend it into H-ingary by 
the River Marlfh. There are alfo Mines of Gold and Silver, and 
fometimes great pieces of pure Gold are found in the Rivers, that 
need no rehning; So that the Hungarians, when they poilcfTed 
Tranfylvaniay called it their-Treafury. Copper is digged out of the 
fame Mountains that the Gold and Silver comes out of. Steel is dig- 
ged and found atC)'J^-, Iron at Thorofco i Sulphur and Antimony are 
found in the Copper- Mines. There are feveral forts of Religions in 
1ra)ifylvanta\ for Catholkkj^Lmberafis^ and Calvinilis^ had the free Ex- 
ercife of their Religion there, ever lince the beginning of this Age. 
The two Families of Bathori and Kagotz.i, have afforded this Coun- 
try feveral Princes : It being made a Sovereignty in the year 1 5 12. by 
John Zapoliat by favour of Solimanthe Great. The hi\ Ragoizi, who 
was flain in Battel againfl: the Turk,Sy in the year i^$p. was the four- 
teenth Prince ; He ftyTd himfelf, By the Grace of God, Prince of the King- 
dom of Tranfylvania, Lord of one part of Hungary, and Earl of the Cicu- 
lians. He paid Annually to tbeGrand Signior a Tribute of ; ^000 Vol- 
lars j the Minifters of the Port have advanced it to five hundred thou- 
fand Rix-dollars. The Emperor as King of Hungary, pretends to have 
the Right of Inftallationof the Prince of Tranfylvania : For the Em- 
peror Rodolphus Eftablifhed Botfcai, upon Condition that the Princi- 
pality (hould return, for defed of Iffue Male. 

It hath three Navigable Rivers. The Aluta or Avata, by the Hung. 
called Vlt, by theGer. Alth* Mavifus Strah. Marus Tacit. Mxros Hung, 
Merifcb or Marifch Ger. Marons Incolis, both rifing out of the Cicukan 
Mountains, the tirft falleth into the D<««»&e, the other into the Tibifcus. 
The third is Ssmus, or Samfch, by the Ger. Tbimes. It hath many Lakes 
and ftanding Waters, which are full of excellent Fi(h. 

It hath great Forejb, and fpacious IVeods, in which zre Bears-, Wild 
Oxen, Elke.r, Harts, Leopards, Martins, Voes^ and ffbite Harts. 

What (hould I mention the divers kind of Birds, as Eagles, Fanlcons, 
Tbeafants, Partridges, Peacock^, &c. ? And why lliould I reckon the Wa- 
ier-Fowl, as Svpans, Bnfiards^ Bitterns ^ &c. ? This (hall fuffice concerning 

O 2 Of 


Ir ■ ■■■ . :.■■ -«BK- 
^4 « \Sdmsmfiy 


^,, Schtnqltnt,.-., ^ , J. . 
SutrutiruH _ \ -p,£fb"ie 

Of Hungaria. 

„ O , IT 


\CiJkrl terrttJfZ C 

^^^ XrefentX 

^ Cratx 'J'trovitiza 





eaale/ ■ . 
■t I ,. fxanhur 

ieitixt'~i\ Simgi.- 


atzen ; 
'jttarckt .- 

enfiV. /"-Zolaock 
. 2oinocta/is 

^ - •' 2CatJt XetneT 




H^^GA ^JALat. hdtgims MzgUr. SUvis Wugierska, Gema- 
n^ Hmgcrland, Gallis Hmgrie, Italk & Hifpanis Ongaria, now 
vulgarly, but improperly called the Pannonia of the Ancients. 

The ancient Inhabitants were the Jaziges, Metanafi^ of Ptol. inclu- 

Part of the Vam lying Eaft of the Ri yer Tijfa, or fibifcus. The P^.«e/ 


Of H^ngdria, 1 c i 

or Pannonii inhabiting beyond the Dmovp^ betwixt ft and the Sr.ui'-, 
afterwards it was the Scat of the Huns, Lonfahardi zvA Avares^ and 
laftly of the Hungarians. So called from the Huns and Avarcs^ a Peo- 
ple known by the Rapines they committed in feveral parts of Europe 
under y^ttila one of their Kings, whofe mighty Ads, and numerous 
Forces are very remarkable. He it was that over-ran moft i art of 
Germany, and great part of Italy^ that forced his way through all the 
Nations between him and France, beating down all the Towns and 
Fortreffes before him. That compelled the Emperor Thiodi^fius, to buy 
his Peace at 6000 Pound- weight of Gold, and a yearly Tribute. Sack- 
ed and burnt JEquika and Milan, fought the great Battel with JE.wn 
the Roman General, where were ten Kings preftnt, and 200000 

Once a great and flourifliing Kingdom, whofe Dominions extended 
as far as the Adriatich, and Euxine Sea. Now divided by the Vanorv in- 
to the Upper Hungary, lying North of the River ; and the Lower 
Hungary lying towards the South, containing before the Ttirh^fh Sub- 
jection, 54. JuridicialReforts or Counties, viz. Ahanvivarienfts, d'Aban- 
vivar I. ///&e«/z/, d'Ekekes-Feyeruar 2. ^in^e;?/// d'Arva 3 . B^rficn- 
y2> de Bars 4. Barzodicnfis ^t'Btzrzo^ <,. B^f/?;?///?/, de Bath ^. Biho- 
rienfis, de Debreczin 7. Bijiricienfis, de Biftricz 8. Bogrogenfisy de Bo- 
drogh p. Cajiriferrenfis , de Sarwar 10. Cepufunfts , de Czepufs ir. 
Chonadienfis, de Chonad 12. Comarienjts, de Koraara 13. Gevinarien- 
fif, de Gewinar 14. Hewje/ew/i/, de Hewecz 15. Hontenfis, de Sag i5. 
Javarienfis, de Gewer 17. Liptovienfis, de Lypcze 18. Moramarufia:- 
fts, deMoramarufs ip. Mzf/ow/e/?/?/, deMuzon lo. Niuienfis, deNey- 
tracht 2 I. Novigradienfis, de Novigrad 22. Orodicnfu Czongrad 23. 
Pelyfienfif, Pelicz 24. Peregicnjis, de Perctzaz 25. Fejlcnfis, de Felt 2 5. 
Ptofegienfis de Pofega 27. Pofonienfis, dePofon 28. Rifwifis, de Kieifs 
or Creutz 2p, Sagorienfis, de Sellia 30. SaVadienfts de Salavvar 31. 
Sarienfis, deSaraZ32. Semlynienfts, deSemlyn33. Sigetenfis^ dcSiy- 
geth 34. Simigienfis, de Zegzard 35. Sirmienjts, de Szerem 5 5. So- 
proniefifis, de Sopron 37. Strigonienfis, de Gran 38. Itm^fu^njis, de 
Temefuar 3p. IV/wew/?/, de Tolna 40. T'orantalienfis, dcThunMr ^i. 
tornenfis, de Torna 42. T'ranfchinienfis, de Tranfchyn 43. "furGcenfir^ 
de Owar 44. Valconienfis, de Valpon 45. Varadiep.fis de Varadin 4«5. 
Varanienfis, de Baranyuar 47. Vejprimiehfts ^ de Vefprim 48. Vgog- 
henfis , de Ugoza 49. Vnghenfu , de Unghwar 50. Zaholcettfis, de 
Chege 51. Zjgrahienfis, de Zagrabia 52. Zatmarienfis, de Znnixr 55. 
Zolnocenfisy de Zolnock 54. 


10 2 Of Hungaru, 

Firft Invaded by Ammah the fecond Ottoman Emperor of the T«r)^/, 
with almoft incredible numbers of men, who yet found that the vali- 
ant Oif-fpringof the once Victorious i^»«j were not ib eatlly (ubducd, 
but flood as the Bulwark of the Chriftian World for 300 years, put- 
ting a flop to the 7urhiJh Conqueft, and further Invafion into the other 
parts of Europe -t no other Nation being able to check their unruly 
Rage , nor fet bounds to their Empire. Yet fuch was the unhappy 
fate of That People, that after long Wars, fundry Vidories, and 
brave Refinances, it was for the greatefi part inthralled to the Turl^^ 
the reft containing about a third part, obeyed the German Emperor of 
the Houfe oi Au\iria^ defcended from Ame^ Sifter to Lctvii the Second, 
the laft Native Prince, flain by Solyman at the Battel of Mohacz. 

But thofe that write the Hiftory of jF7?/wg^r)/, tell us, that though 
Scruples of Confcience, and Gontefts about Religion, have been the 
Pretenfions of the Discontents and Rebellions there •-, yet Ambition 
and Soveraignty have been the caufe of the Wars and Mifcries of that 
bleeding Country. That their own Divifions indeed contributed to 
their Subjed"ion j for neither the Roman Eagle, nor the Ottoman CreC- 
cent had waved proudly over their lofty Towers, had not the Civil 
Diftentions of the Inhabitants, by wounding deep each other's Bofoms, 
made way for the Enemy. 

The Soil of Hungary is very fertile; the Plains, which are exceed- 
ing lovely, bear Corn in abundance; and the little Hills produce ex- 
cellent Wines j thofe of Tokay are highly efteemed ; the Sirmian Wines 
are very rich and pleafant. And its deep Pafturages are ftored with 
infinite Herds of large and fat Cattel. 

It a'fo exceeds moft Countries of Europe, in Mines of Gold, Silver^ 
Tin, Lead and Copper ; as alfo Baths and Mineral Waters , fome of a 
ftrong nature, which falling upon the ground, is turned to a Stone 5 
others again flow in Winter, and freeze in Summer i others, which 
falling i:ito Ditches make a kind of mud, out of which tried and melt- 
ed th>:y make very good Copper ; and others there are that turn Iron 
into Copper. 

The Veins of the Copper Mine ( near Nervfol) are very large, and 
the Ore is very rich ; in a hundred pound of Ore they ordinarily find 
20 /. of Copper, fometimes 30, 40 to <5o in the hundred ; there are 
alfo two Springs of a Vitriolate Water, v,7hich turns Iron into Copper 
in 14 days time, and the Copper thus changed, is more du^ile, 
jn.ileable, and moreeafily meked than the other. 

Thrt-e Hnngarhn miles from Ncvpfol^ and two homChremnitz-y there 
are divers But Baths of great efteem, and much frequented > ziBwiitz 


Of HungarU, ID^ 

there are alfo five natural Baths , of a gentle heat , snd delightful 
to bathe in, being beautiried by Count ?al^^ then Palatine ot H;*;;:- 

It produces abundance of Salt, and other Prcviucins for Humane 
fuftenance, plenty of Deer, Hares, ail (brts of Poultry^ Partridges 
and Pheafants, great (lore of Sheep, great nunibitvs cf Oxen, of 
which looooo are yearly fent into Italy and Germany. 

The Hmgarianr are generally Warriers and good Soldiers, ftrong 
of Body, well proportioned, and valiant-, rtjore addidied to Mjts 
than to Minerva ; cruel, and great Eaters. Their Habits, as well as 
their Manners, are not far different ftora thofe of the Tm'ks J ^^eir 
Language is a kind of Sclavoman. but differing in moft places. But yet 
the Latin J the Turk^ ^ and the High Vutch are in ufe among them. 
There are two Jrchbifhopricks , Strigoniitm^ and Colocza-, with ten Bi- 
(hopricks,the half whereof were in the hands of the Tur}^ ; Four Or- 
ders of Perfons have liberty to fit in their General Affemblies, the Trc- 
lates^ 'Barons , Nobility and Bmgejfes. The Dignity of Palatine is the 
moft confiderable, next to that of the King, for which reafon the 
Hmgarians would admit of no King but one of their own Nation. The 
Archbifhop of Strigonium is Frimate and Perpetual Chancellor of the 
Kingdom, and Crowns the King after his Eledion. 

The chiefeft ftrength of the Country confilis in Light Horfe : The 
Horfemen are there called jFJ«j(fiar/, and the Infantry H«W?^(77^e/. Be- 
fides Extraordinaries, the Emperor draws out of what he pt ffeffes in 
Hungary about a Million of Livres every Year ; that is, from the Sil- 
ver Mines, his Impoiition uponHoufes, and his Tax upon Cattel Ex- 
ported. The Grand Signior requires a Caraz from thofe that are under 
his Jurifdidtion ; who pretends to all Hungary^ and the Dominions be- 
longing to it, by vertue of the Submillion made to Solymon by Sigif- 
mmd., Son to King John,^ Count of Cepufa , and by the Queen his . 

The chief Rivers of Hungary are, firft the great Vanuhiw of Tolyb. 
Strab. Plin, & alivs^ Dannbio Ital. & Hifpan. Danube Gallps. Vanatp & 
Thonaw Germanis, which runneth quite through Hungary^ making a 
Courfe for above 300 miles from Vresburg toBelgrade, and from thence 
pailing by the Shores of Servia^ Bulgaria^ Watlachia and M4davia^ with 
many Mouths it intereth into the Etixine or Blacky Sea. Having from 
its firft fource performed a Courfe of above i 500 miles. 

No Pkiver whatfoever, fo far from its difcharge into the Sea, afford- 
eth more Naval Veffeis of ftrength and fufficiency for Fight, The 
Emperor hath his Veffeis of War built like Gallies at Vienna^ Vreshurg ■ 

and : 

104 ^f Hu»7Aria. 

and Comorra, and an Arfenal for Provifions of more , upon occafion. 
The Ttt)-}^ once had his V^elTcls at Cran, BuJa and Belgrade. 

Nor hath any Rh'er afforded the hke Signal Engagenricnts and En- 
counters at this dilUnce from the Sea. At the Siege of Belgrade^ Ma- 
homet the Great brought 2co Ships and Gallies well (iored, up the 
Stream. And the Hungarians fent as many down from Buda, that af- 
ter a (harp Encounter, they took twenty of the Turklfh VclTcls, and 
forced the red on Shore , near the Gamp •, fo that Mahomet caufed 
them to be fet on lire to prevent the falHngof them into the Enemies 
hand. At the Siege of Bnda the ChrifHans had 24 Galliots, 80 fmall 
Pinnaces, and about 100 Ships of Burden, and other great Boats, 
when all n:iifcarried under Count Regenfdorf. 

At the Siege of Vienna, by Solyman , Wolfgangiis Hjdder did a good 
piece of Service with his armed Veflels from Fresburg, who fank the 
Turhjjh Veifels that came from Buda with the great Ordnance to bat- 
ter the Walls of Vienna. 

Nor doth any River afford fo large and well peopled Iflands ; the 
moft confiderable is the Illand of Scbut^ or InfHla Cituomm, with its 
feveral Iflands in it, containing many good Towns, belides many Vil- 
lages well peopled, and well fortified againft the Incurfions of the 
Turkj and Tartars. And the Ifland Kaab made by the great and leffer 
Fvivers Raab. There is alfo another Ifland againfi: Mohatcb ; another 
at the entrance of the Dmi/«f j and a new Ifland hard by Belgrade; 
fifty years llnce there was no face of an Ifland -, but by the fctling of 
the Oufe or hlth brought down by the Savus and the Danube, it is now 
full of Trees, and what advantage or difadvantage this may be to 
Belgrade, doubtlcfs a little time may fliew, tho the Turks once were 
very fccure and fearlefs of any Forces in thefe parts. Between Vice- 
grade and Vacia there is St. Andren>s, or Vizze, a fair and large Ifland. 
A little below Bitda there is Ratzenmarckt Ifland, extending in length 
40 miles, containing many Villages in it. Here the Turkifh Forces 
Encamped when they came to raife the Siege at Buda. 

2. The Tibifcuf^ Ptol, Tibefjs, Herod. Vathijfus, Plin, Tifianus, Jornand. 
Tijfia, Laz. vulgoTeiJf. Arifing in the County of M)ramarufius, out of 
the Carpatian Mountains. At Tokay it takes in the Bodroch or Bodrogus i 
at Kafcavp the Tarcza, the Hervatz,-, Hervath or Hernach meets, and 
rolling down the Mountains, receives the Scheya and Gi^o Rivers at 
Onoih^ and a little further they all four fall into the Teiffe. . At Zalnock^ 
the Zagyrpa, the Turna, Sarn>iz>za and Genges, fall into it. At Cz,on- 
grod the Kalo, the Sebeskeres, the Fek'erk^nz olim Chryfus R. Keureuzin- 
coL Kraijf, Germ, At Seged, the Marifus Strah, Marus Tac. Maros Hung, 


Of HmgHYy, \o^ 

Mirifch, or Maivfch Germ. Marorif hmJU. Lafily, xhtTimu Fliver falls 
iitto it, near its own coi-sflucnce Into the Danube, between Feiro Fara- 
din and Belgrade. By this lliver Teijfe Cometh down tliC gr£;it quan- 
titv oi'NaturalSalt-ftone taken out ot the many Salt- Mines in Hungary 
and TrMifylvania , and carried into the adjacent and neighbouring 

5. On the WcK-CM^eci Hiifigary is the P.iver Ar^iyo Ant. Ntrah 
Ttol. Now the Kaah^ rifing in Styria^ and falling info the VjKitbe by 
JiZii-rin or Kab^ receiving the Lairffn/tz. , Binca and Gunz. A confi- 
dcrable River, and famous, for in the Year i66i\.. Gcrmniy v;a- tr.uch 
alarmed at the railing of the Siege at Cauifa, and taking the Fort Se- 
rir.i, much more at the Turks pafiage over this River Kaab j but the 
extraordinary Valour of the ChriiHans, efpecially the French^ put them 
to a fnamcful Flight, fo that after 8000 loft upon the place near Saint 
Gothard^ crowding in heaps to pafs the Piiver, the Horfe trampled 
upon the Foot, and the Foot throwing themfelves headlong into the 
water, together with the Horfe , funk down and periflicd, {o that 
the water was died with blood , and the whole River covered with 
Men, Horfe and Garments, all fwimming promifcuoufly together ; 
ro difference here between the Valiant and the Coward , the Foolifti 
and the Wife, all being involved in the fame violence and Calamity i 
fo that the waters devoured a far greater number than the Sword, 
whil.'i; the Grand Vifier Achmet flanding on the other fide of the Ri- 
ver able to afford no kind of help, and as void of all Counfel and Rea- 
fon, knew not where to apply a remedy ; fuch a Defeat and Dilho- 
nour iince the time that the Ottoman Empire arrived to its greatnefs, 
fuch a Slaughter and Difgrace that it fuff:red, no Stories to that time 
make rre ition of ^ which occafioned a Truce for 257 years between the 
two Empires , by which Truce the Province oiZamar and Zaholch, 
gr^nred to Ragoiz>i, returned ao;ain to the Emperor •, That the Caftle 
of Zjchelhyd be demolilhed. That Varadin and Netvhaufel remam to 
the Turkj. 

4. The VravHf MeU^ Draus Plin. Vrahm Strah.Davui ?ioL Li Vrava 
Ital. Le Drave Gal. Dravi Incol. Trab Hung, which arifing among the 
Mountains of Saltzburg and Carinthia^ runneth a long Courfe of about 
4C0 miles, through Carinthia and Hungary^ falleth into the Vambe at 
Vrjz^tt over-againli Erdoed^ or Erdetvdy, the old Teutohw^mm of Ant. 
and Ftol. Dr. Brotpn tells us, that it is a good fiream as high as Villach^ 
where there is a Bridge over it , and at Clagenfart he palfed over ic 
upon two long Wooden Bridges, and an Ifland in the middle betweerj 

P 5. The 

io6' 0/" Hungary* 

5r. The Savus Ptol. Sam Strab. in MS. Sheldent S*fetf>'©-, Sahus So- 
lin. La Sava Ital, Sane Germ. Le Save Gal. is a noble River, arifing in 
the Mountains between Carinthia and Camiola, and fwelling by the 
acceffion of many Rivers, after a courfe of above 3 50 miles, entereth 
the Danube at Belgrade, At Crainbur^^ not far diftant from the Head, 
it was a confiderable ftream, which afterwards fo enlarged as to make 
remarkable Tflands, one at Sijfex by Zagrabia^ the other Metuharris at 
the Weft of old Sarmium, 

6. Upon the North of Hungary are the Rivers arifing from theC<«- 
pathian Mountains, which divide Poland from Hungary, I'iz,. the Gran 
and Ipola, which uniting together runneth into the "Danube ^ over- 
againil Strigontum ox Gran, 

7. The Neytra^ which paffing by Newhaufel^ entereth the Danube, 
over-againft Komara, 

8. The f^agg, or Vagus, which Stuckijts faith, equals the Fo in Italy^ 
at Fnftat, 50 miles from its entrance into the Danube ■•> it is a very 
large River, and hath a long Bridge over it. And at 7 renfchin it 
hath a confiderable Bridge over ic. 

p. Befides thefe there are others efteemed Fluvii non ignobiks, viz. 
the Lcytha, which entereth the Danube at Altemhurgh or Owar , the 
Bounds of Austria. 

10. The Sarvitza, or Orpanus, arifing near Vefprinium, and paffing 
Alba Regalis, runneth into the Danube at Jeni, or Nova Falanka, over- 
againft Bathmonjier. 

11. Curajfm^ or Crajfo, fatal to Len>is the fecond King of Hungary^ 

12. Walpo, or Vulpanus, over which there is a Bridge at Walcovar, 

13. The R-iver B9/«<«//:7, Bofwetha, otBacunihus, which falleth into 
the Savus, not far from the old Surmium. 

As this Country excelleth in Rivers, fo it hath many confiderable 
and long Bridges, not to mention the Bridg of Boats over the Danube, 
between Gran and Barchan, nor of that Bridg of Boats between "Suda 
and Pe^, where the Danube is half a mile over, which is fo contrived 
as to open a paffage for Boats and Veffels of Burthen to pafs i nor fhall 
i name thofe already mentioned. There is a handfome and well-con- 
trived Bridg at Calotza. But that over the Danube at Ejfcc\is fcarce to 
be parallel'd by any other ■-, Built partly over the Dravus, and partly 
over the Fens, which are often overflowed, and is five miles in length.. 
Having Towers built upon it at the diftance of every quarter of a mile, 
fupported by great Trees eredled under it, nine or ten in a rank unto 
each Arch, and handfomely railed on each fide. It coft the Turl^r 
300000. Dollars^ and fix years time to buUd it. That part of the 


Of Hungary. toy 

Bridge which was over the Vravus was burnt down by Count Serini 
in the late Turkjfl) Wars between Leopold the Emperor , and Sultan 
Mahomet the 4t/;, and is now fupplied by a Bridge of Boats, fome- 
what below the former. 

As Hungary aboundeth in Rivers, fo 'tis not without its notable 
Lakes, w'ss. the Lake Balaton^ or Platz,ee^ the Volc£a of old, extend- 
ing a great length between Vefprinmm and theDr^w/jjWith fome Itrong 
Forts upon it; which put a Hop unto the cruelty oi Solymans Soldiers, 
when they deftroyed all from Buda unto this Lake. 

There is alfo the Nervfidler Sea, by the Hungarians 'Tcrteu , by P//>;, 
Peifo. A pleafant Lake , feven German miles long, and three broad , 
in the Commotions of Botfcay 14 Villages about this Lake were burnt- 
by the Turks^ 'tartars^ and Rebellious Hyduks. 

The Rivers and Lakes of Hungary are abundant in Filhes. The 
'Xibifcm or Iteiffe is eftcemed the moli Fifliy River in Europe^ if not in 
the World. 'Tis commonly faid, that it confiOeth cf two parts of 
Water, and one of Fi{h ; and the River Bodrack^ which runs into the 
Tibifcus as aforefaid , not far from 7ckay ^ is fo full of Fiih , that in 
Summer-time when the River is low, the People fay the Water fmells 
ofFi(h, thoui?,h the River is thirty fathom broad, and eight and a 
half deep. This exceeding fertility fome afcribe unto the Saline Tin- 
dJures, both of its own ftream, and others acceilionary unto it, which 
lick the many Salt Mines under ground, and fo may carry fome prin- 
ciples of fcECundity with them. The Danube aboundeth with many 
good Fiflies, as 'Xrnuts^ Perches , large and delicious Carps j a Fifh 
called Schcyden^ much exceeding a Pik^\ At fome Seafons great fiore 
of Haufans^ fome 20 foot long, efteemed a good Di(h, and fomewhat 
like Sturgeon, with many other forts. And as the Rivers are full of 
Fiih, fo in the Winter they are covered with many forts of Fowls. 

The moft confiderable Cities of Hungary^ are Buda, Hung. Aqum- 
cum^ or jicincum Ptol. & Ant. te(h Clev. Sicambria & Curta aliis. By 
the Germans called Ofe«, by the French Bude, by the Spaniards^ Italians 
and E/.'g/{/7?, Buda \ fo called, as fome tell us, from Buda^ the Brother 
of Attila^ Anno Vom. 401. Others fuppofe it fo called from Budini^ a 
famous Scythian People who engaged with Attila in his famous Expe- 
dition. Yet others tell us it was called Bada^ from the fo many Pve- 
nowned Baths in it. 'Tis diftant from Belgrade 4p German miles, and 
from Vienna 54. tefieBaud. 

Firft taken from the Heathen SuccelTors of AttiU by Charles the 
Great 75?!. taken from the Hungarians by Saltan Soly man, Anno Vom. 
152(5. Recovered the year following by King Ferdinand^ Brother to 

P 2 the 

io8 Of UungAYj. 

the Emperor Charles the Fifth , who was Eledcd King by the four 
Orders of the States of the Kingdom. But in the year 152^. it was 
retaken by Solyman^ and committed to John Zapolia Prince oi Tranfyl- 
vania. x\n. 1541. Km^Fctdinand fent his General Koggendorf with an 
Army of 40000 men, and 40 Cannon. But the 77(rks coming in to 
their AfliRance with a numerous Army, the Germans were forced to 
raife the Siege : Whereupon the Sultan politickly feiztd upon the City, 
fent the young Prince Sigifmund with the Princcls his Mother into 
Iranfylvania^ and kept the Town in his own hands, and made it the 
Seat of a Beglerbeg or Vice-Roy, whofe Authority extended over all 
the Bafliaws of Hmgary. In the Year 1542. it was bcGcgcd by Ju- 
chim Eledor of Brandmhurgh ^ who was forced to draw off, and quit 
the Siege. 15^8, or p. Count Sn^artzenburgh bcfiegcd it, but the At- 
tempt mifcarried. Jnno 1602. General Rc/jrorw alio with the Impe- 
rial Army attacked it in vain. 

Whofoever (hall read of the Sieges of 1684, and 16^6. will iind 
the Story of the mod; famous Sieges in the World, where Blood was 
Ipilt like water, and many brave men found their Graves j where the 
AiTailants equalling, if not furpafling T'itus forming Jerufalem ; and 
y^bdi Baftia no lefs bravely obftinate in defending his Truli , than Fil- 
lerius upon the Walls of Rhodes. But upon the fecond of September 
i<58<5. the fame day of the year when it v;as taken by Solyman '■> after 
it had groaned under the Tyrannous Yoke of the Ottoman 145 years, 
was this great and ftrongCity, the Capital of Hungary, reduced un- 
der the Obedience of the Emperor Leopold the Firft, by the Prudence, 
Conftancy and Conduct of the Couragious Duke of Lorrain ; the Ter- 
ror of the Muffelmen^ and the greateft General of this Age. The twh^ 
have formerly experienced the Valour of Hnniades and Scanderbergh : 
They have feared the Courage of the Duke of Mercettr : They have 
trembled at the Condud and flaughter of the Valiant Count Serini j 
but much more reafon have they to dread the Martial Duke of Lorrain : 
He it was that near Presburg routed the Rebellious Army ofTecJ^ley : 
He it was that defeated the fnrks near Caknburgh : He it was, with the 
King of Poland^thzt raifed the Siege of Vienna: He it was that van- 
quifhed the Enemy near Barkan^ and refcued the King o^ Poland when 
the Poliih Army was in Confufion : He it was that relieved the City of 
Gran^ and routed the Army oiZntan Ibraim Bafija : Ai.d laftly, He it 
was,that whilft the Grand Vizier SoUman looked on witii a potent Ar- 
my, won this Glorious Conqucil:, Buda. 

Not far from Buda^ in the Year 1578. was fought a Battel of fo 
ftrange a fortune between the Chriftians and the tit^h^s^ that the Con- 

Of Hungary, to 9 

querors were conquered, and thevanquifhed got the Vidlory. Other 
Cifies are Vofon^ Hungaris Fresbwg^ Germanis Vofcnwm & Vcffonmm^ the 
FJcxamoi rtol.& Ant. The City is pkafant, the Callle (lately, where 
the highly- erteemed Crown of Hungary is kf^^t > the Labyrinth, Fifh- 
Poiids, and Fountains are Noble, it is the Capital of what theHoufe 
of Au^ria. poffeffes, iQw German miles homVimna.: Since the Lofs of 
Alha Regalis, it is the place of Election and Coronation of the Kind's 
of Hungary. Cajfovia^ Ch^ifchaw incolis & Cafcborv., lies towards the 
Mountains, having the fairelt Arfenal in the Countrey. Eperiej.,Et?i.ri.ej 
is much frequented, by reafon of the Fairs which are there kept > 
where alfo there is a Salt-Mine about 180 Fathom deep, the veins of 
Salt are large, and there are pieces of i 0000 /. weight •, the colour 
of the Silt-ftone is fomewhat gray, but grinded to powder, it be- 
comes white •, nor is the Salt always of one colour, but of divers ; 
there are fome pieces fo clear and hard, that they carve them into di- 
vers figures. 

Saharia of ?lin. Ttol. & Amm. Stain. Am. Angcrn. Germ. Szomhatcl. 
Hung, tefte Lazio^ but by Cluver. it is Sarrvar^ Hung, lioibenturn Ger. of 
old the Metropolis of fannonia Snperior^ the Birth-place of St. Martin. 
Some report , and others believe, tiiat Ovid was buried there, in his 
Return towards Italy, 

Nittria^ Hung. Neytracht Ger. a Bilhop's See. Frei(lat^ or CaJgf^tz., H'4ng, 
a fair large To wn, but burned by the 7urh^. Schemnitz^ the greatelt 
of the Mine Towns in Hungary., and where great quantify of Silver 
Ore is every day digged. It hath three fair Churches, and three Ca- 
itles, and fevcral Mines j thofe of IVindfchacht and Trinity are the 
chief, thelaft 70 Fathom deep ; the one is much elkemed, and of a 
black colour, covered with a white Earth. 

There is alfo often found a Red Subllance which grows to the Ore, 
called Cinnahsr of Silver, which being grinded with Oyl, maketh a 
Vermilion as good as the Cinnaber made by Sublimation. There are 
alfo found in thefe Mines, Crylhls, Amethyfts, and Amechylline mix- 
tures •, as alfo Vitriol naturally Cryilaliz.d in the Earth. And as there 
is great variety in the Silver Ore, as to its mixtures with Earth, Stones, 
Marchallte, Cinnaber, Vitriol, &c. fo alfo in its Pvichnefsj fome hold- 
ing a great proportion of Silver , in refped of others : A hundred 
pound-weight of Ore fometimes yields but half an Ounce, or an 
Ounce of Silver? fometimes two Ounces, 3,4, y, and foto2o Oun- 
ces i what is Pvicher, is very rare. 

MoH: of the Schemnitz Ore holds fome Gold, which they feparate 
by melting the Silver, then granulating it, and affer by difTolving it 


no Of Hungary* 

in Aqnafonis made out of a peculiar Vitriol, prepared at Chremnhzy 
whereby the Gold is left at the bottom, and is afterwards melted, 
and the Aquafortis is diiUlled from the Silver , and ferveth again 
for ufe. 

Chemnitz^ Carpates of old, is the oldefl: Mine- Town, and the Rich- 
eft in Gold of all the reft ^ p6'^ years they have worked there ^ the 
Mine is about to Englijh miles in length, a))d there is one Cmiculns, ir 
H<;r/2(?«^ij/ PafTage, 800 Fathoms long, and the depth is about 170 
Fathoms j and the Leopold Pit is 150 Fathoms deep. 

Of the Gold Ore, feme is white, fome bbck, fome red, fome 
yellow ; that with black fpots, within white, is efieemed the beft. 

There is alfo a Vitriol Mine at Chremmtz about 80 Fathom deep, 
the Ore whereof is reddifli, and fometimesgreenifh. This Oreisin- 
fufed in water, and after three daysthe water is poured off, and boiled 
feven daysin a Leaden VelTel, till it conies toa thick granualated whi- 
(ifli Subftance, which is afterwards reduced to a Calx in an Oven, 
and ferveth in the making oi Aquafortis ^ or the feparating water ufed 
at Schremnitz. 

Netvfol^ or Bijlriciay has the greateft Copper- works in Hungary^ the 
Copper being very ftrongly united to its ftone-bed or Ore j the Sepa- 
ration is elTeded with great labour and difficulty, it being burned and 
melted 14 times before it becomes fit for Ufe- 

At a little Village called Smalnik^^ there is a Pvivulet which changes 
particles of Iron into Copper. The leaves of Oaks that are by the 
bank-fide, falling into the water, are infenfibly eaten through, and the 
moft grofs particles of this water getting therein, it is turned into a 
leaf of Copper, which being expoied to the Sun, or only to the Air, 
hardens, and always retains its former figure of an Oaken leaf 

At GlaS'Hhtcn, feven Engli[h miks {xom Schcmnitz.^ there was once 
a rich Gold Mine j but fince the over-running of the Countrey by 
Bethlem Gahor^ it is loft. 'Tis much frequented by reafon of its natu- 
ral hot Baths. 

Eifenbachy four miles Etigli(h from GlasHitten^ and five or fix from 
Schemmtz.^ is alfo noted for its Hot Baths, the fediment of which is 
red, and turneth into Stone, and it turneth Wood into Stone. 

At HernGrundt^ an Hungariam mile from Netvfol, in that Mine were 
two Springs of a Vitriolate water, which turn Iron into Copper. 

The feven chief Mine- Towns are Schemnitz.^ Chremnitz.^ Nett^fol, Ko- 
ningsberg^ Bochantz^ Libeten^ &C Tdn. 

The ftrongeft places belonging to the Houfe of AuHria^ were, Java- 
rin^ Comara, and Ltopolftat^ the Bulwarks of Chriftendom. Javarin^ 

Gallis ■. 

Of Hiinga.Yy, III 

CaUu Raaby ftands in the Plain, out of fight, environed by the Va- 
nojv '-i and KaahGcrmanh^ Geveer Hungaris^ Giavmn Italif, Rab. Incolis^ 
Tanic\Tufcis. It was the Arahooi Ant. t/atNarahoo^ Vtol. Isfortiiied 
with teven large Baftions covered with Brick, and four Cavilliers, or 
Ravelins between. It was Belieged by Sinan Bajfa^ in the time of Sul- 
tan Murat the Third, who, at one Affiult loft 1200 men ^ but by the 
Treachery of Count H:rdeck^^ 'twas Surrendred ; after recovered by a 
Notable Surprize of Count Sivanzenhtirghy and Count Palfj, with a 
great Slaughter of the Tw/*^/, 1606. Here alio are fevcral forts of 
Warlike Engines and Inftruments. 

Komore^ Comara^ is the Crumcrum Afa74m^ of Ant, Comaroniunt & 
Bragiifum', is Moated by the Vanon?^ and ftrongly fortiiied. The Ifland 
of the fame Name, formerly called Schutt^ contains above 300 Villa- 
ges, and above 15000 Inhabitants, with the conveniences of Hunt- 
ing and Filhing. Filkck, F/lecwn, Tokay^ 'Tokdium al Injfum, Tjitma)\ 
Zatmaria. and Kalo. have been likewife fortified by Order of the Em- 
peror, who keeps hard- by feveral Armed Gallies. 

Agria., Egar Ger. Erlaiv Hung. Erla Incolis. Temeftyar^ and Canijia^ 
have alfo their feveral Bajfas^ as being upon the Frontiers. The T«r/^ 
call Temefwar^ T'he Invindbk j by fome thought to be the Zuroedra^ or 
Zurebara of Ptol. 

The City of Gran^ Strigomum Laz. or OJirogon, Breg£tiumCluv, was 
(he Birth-place of King Stephen^ the firft Ghriftian King of Hungary. 
Befieged in vain by John King of Hungary ^ taken by Solyman^ Auguft 
the 10?/^. I 542. recovered by Count Mansfdt ; but re-taken, or bafely 
delivered in the time of Sultan Achnut to Aly-beg the Turk^ General, 
Vicegrade^ Hung^ Flindenberg Germ, the Caftle of this place is Seated 
upon a high Rock, Vv'here the Crown of Hungary was formerly kept 5, 
and where the Kings oi Hungary did often reiide, was taken by the Im- 
perial Army, June 16. 1684. Overagainlt it lieth Maroz.^ or Frifiat, 

Nenfilium, hervhaitfil Gam. Oivar Hunrr. which feveral times hath 
bravely wichftood the furious AiTauk of the Tmk^r 5 but in j4nno 166^^ 
the lurklfh Power was fo great, and the Magazine took tire, that it 
was forced to yield ; and had not feme other Chrittian Princes joined 
their Ailirtanceto the Emptror^ and fo ftopt the "twl^ Carrier, his Am- 
bition and Succefs had farther enlarged his Dominions. In ^uguji^ 
1(584, it V7as taken by Storm, and the Turkf Army defeated near Gr^«. 

Aibj' Julia Lat. Siuliveijfenbuyg G.Ekik^sFekrTpar Hung, Stolni Bioerad 
Slavh^ Albe Royjle Gallis-, Alba Re^ialis Scrip. Pann. once famous for 
the Coronation and Sepulchres of the Hungarian Kings, taken by the 
turk^ 1 543 J ioft again 15^5, when' Sir Tfc?o. Arundd iorcingthe Wa- 

112 Of Himg'XYj, 

ter- Tower, took tlie 'turhfh E> lign, and for his Valour wa"^ made 
Count of the Empire, and Lord A-:-iinddiyilVardoitT. A ilrongTown, 
bctray'd by AT. Kcresl{:n the Governour thereof, upon promife of a 
great FvevvarJ ; but Selimnr^ the Son of Solym.ifi, for hisTreafon, cau- 
ied him to be pur into a Barrel (kick full of Nails, and to be tun:iblcd 
up and down, till he miferably died. 

The Emperor Fcrdimnd the Second, belicg'd C mi f^a^ or Camfcha 
when he was Arch-Duke, but could not take it. Nor was Leopnldlg- 
natius more fortunate in the year i66j^. The Retreat of the Duke of 
Mri-fwrfrom Caurfu, was oneof ths nobleft Acffions of our Age. ^in- 
(jm EccUfiji , FHrfkjrchen Germ. Otegiazac Hung. Peifchen Turcis tcjie Lenn- 
c/jwo, taken by the T?/r^T, 1543, by fome thought to be the Teutshtrgi- 
uin of Ant. and Ftol. Others tell us 'tis the Amjutia of the Ancients, 
tho fome thinky4«j«'?j to be^/'«J2;,itis the place v^hcxo. S alyman died, 
during the Siege of Zygeth., in the year 1 566. ALhacz is remarkable for 
the Defeat of theChriliians in theyear 152 5. and for that of the Turks 
1 (587. Pont, d' EJfcck^ famous for the A&ionof Count Serine who burnt 
it in view of all the Turkifh Army : and for the Campagne of 1687. 

Anno 1 582. ViUech^was belleged by the BafTa of Buda^ with 25000 
Ti{)\( and Tartars , but after a brave reliftance in Siptembcr^ it was fur- 
rendred without the Governor's confent, and afterwards demoliflied, 
and the Walls levelled with the ground. 

At the fame time Lewentz wasalfo abandoned and pofTefied by the 
Enemy; and the Winter following, the T«r/>T and Hungarian Rebels fei- 
zed upon the FortrefTcs of Atfol., JSJervfol^ Schimnitz , and Chremnitz. 
Anno I 5-9 7. divers Hungarians betiegcd ?apa, and after a long Battery 
it was delivered to them, who fold the Inhabitants to the T«r-j^/. But 
the Imperial Army advancing, many of the Rebels ued. Andfomeof 
the chief promoters of that dlfturbance were impaled alive. 

Near Ahembcrg the Irripevial Horfe and Foot being divided inpif- 
fing a River, after a tharp difpute, the Turks feized upon the Imperial 
Baggage, valued at 40000 Guilders., when alfo the Princes of Savoy 
and Aremberg foon after died of their Wounds, 

1 684, The Caltle of Vnguar was beGeged by Teckjey, and taken by 
Storm, and moO of the Garifon put to the Sword. 

Upon the Hills near Vaccia, the Duke of Lorrain attacked a Body of 
20000 T//^)^f, commanded by the Vizier of Btdj, of whom were llain 
3000, 1 500 taken Prifoners, with feven Pieces of Cannon, eighteen 
Standards, the Vizier and two Balla's flain, a BaiTa and ten Aga's pri- 
foJiers, and of the Duke's Army not a hundred menlolt. 

1684, Virovitza^ the iiey and Entrance into Sclavonia^ capitulated, 


Of HtingArU\ li^ 

and <5co J^izarks marched cur, and kft it to the Impcrialijls.zitet i 13 
years pofT^IIion. 

1684, Zeben was invefted by General Schults^ and furrendred upon 
dilcrenon ; all the H«;?gmtfA7/, being about 120, were by the Count 
ct Bjrgarzzi cut in pieces, in revenge of Count Teckjey's ImpaHng alive 
divers of the Girifon o( CziczitaVj which was furiendrcdto him upon 

Barthjield. a place fortified with good Walls, feveral Towers and 
Redoubts, the Garifon co )fi(H?'g of about 400 meUj capitulated, and 
was put into the Comirand of the Imperialijis. 

M:mgatz and T'l^y are two flrong places ; and jn i 583 were in the 
hands of Count Teckhy 5 fince fallen into the Germans PofT.iTion. 

M^/^^»?7/>2s was furrendred to General A^ck/Z/as, Odobcr 1684. 

In the year 1 6.6 ^ ^Leventz, a ftrong place, was delivered up to theTwr^/. 
. Sch'mta^ the Magazine of the Emperor's Arms and Artillery, wasaf- 
faulted by the Vizier, but being ftoutly repulfed, he raifed his Camp, 
and came before Novigrade^z Caftle on a high Rock, encompaflfed with 
a Ditch of 3 4 foot deep, Garifoned with<5oo Soldiers, and well fto- 
red with Viduals and Ammunition, yet refigned unto the Hurh^. 

i5(53, Atthe ("hallow paffages of the River Mif^fr, Count .*^m«i with 
500 men, overthrew a party of 30000 T^urh^ and Tartars^ under the 
Command of the BalTa of femifaoarj and fo delivered Croatia from a 
total dcilrudiion. 

In Jjfi. 166 \ Berz.enche was furrendred to Count Serint and Bakl^ckza. 
And ^ywque Ecclefi£ for its perfidious ad, was by the Count after a fu- 
rious airmlt,took by Storm, and in recompence of its treacherous (Ira- 
tagem, put all the Inhabitants to the Sword , pillaged and tired the 
Tovvn, which rendrtd it a horrible fped:acle of Fire and Sword. 

At Zizeih-, conlifting of an old and new Town,conjoined by a Bridg 
which crolTeth a Marlh or Fen, N. Serirti^ the Great Grandfa- 
ther of the aforesaid Count, Immortalized his F. me and Memory with 
thelofsot' his Life, againli Solymjn the Great, in the year 1555, with 
an Army of <5ooooo. 

Serinftvar^ built by Cojnt Strini^ yielded to the7«'i^, and \^as demo- 
liQied. Leiva^ before whofe Walls C. Snfa^ and the Chriftians obtain- 
ed a great Vidory againif the Jurkf and Tartars-, and aiTauUed Bar- 
chan^z. Palanka oppotite io Gran. 

Since the Battel between S^c/(?j and M^hatz,-, i<^87, all Hungary^ 
except 7emejhar in the Upper Hungary^ is in the hands of the Germans. 

a Of 



1 I I \ 1 r 


THE Name o{ Germans is much controverted amongft Authors j feme 
thmk them fo called by the Romans, who feeing the People fo 
like unto the Gauls, called them Germans to the Gauls, Others derive 
it from Ger, fignifying all , and man, whence alfo came the Name of 
^Imaine, which fome fabuloufly derive from Alman, whom they would 
nave to be the i uh King of the I>mh, or Germans, Others from the 


Of Germ Any, ii^ 

River ^/»2«/, by later Writers called ^/w<?«««j,whercunto theyfhould 
border. Others more probably from thcDHtch Jllenfen Mam ■•> %nify- 
ingall forts of men, or all hardy and valiant. The many opinions alfo, 
and great differences we have found amongft Authors in the Interpre- 
tations of the many ancient German Nations, makes me at prefent not to 
mention them. Tis generally agreed, that the Gomerianr^ or Cimbri, 
were the firft Inhabitants of Gaul^ Germany^ smd all rhe Nations of the 
North and Wefioi Europe-^ and that the Gauls^ their Off- fpring, under 
their Captain Segove fits yidionou([y ranged over allGerwtf;zjy,from whom 
have fprung the ancient Inhabitants of this Countrey. Divide'^ they 
were into feveral Nations, and thefe alfo fubdivided into leffet Tribes. 
The firft Nation of the Germans^ who made the Romans as well feel 
their Swords, as know their Names, were the Cimhri, leutoms^ and 
Amhroms^ upon their Invaiion of GaiddiXidi Italy^ who were overcome 
and deftroyed by Marius. 

I After this, C£far^ upon his Conqueft of France^ having paffed the 

ikhine^ and provoked the Germans, ftirred up a tedious War ; all other 

Adventures were eaiie to the daring Romans ; Nothing could give 

check to oyer's Fortuue, only the Germans i> who at laft, were rather 

; Triumphed over, than fubdued by their greateft Armies. How little 

i was their Progrefs ? How inconfiderable were their Acquefts, after fo 
long a War ? which continued for more Generations,than others lafted 
Years : And indeed fome part of Germany^ viz. that beyond the Elht 
"^nd Danube^ was never fo much as Attacqued. Endangered once by 
JprufjHs in the Reign of C£far AugujiHSt but freed by the Vi(3:ory of 
jffrminim-t and the death of Varrus and his Legions ; neglected after- 
-^:^ards as a people unconquerable, or not worth the conquering. To- 
wards the wain of the Roman Empire, the Names of the ancient Inha- 
bitants by little and little worn out and quite extinguiftied through 

^j5:iheir Fights and Butcheries amongft themfelves ^ their Tranfmigrati- 

pns into foreign Countries, their affedlonand union into new Names, 

^sind the Fleetings and Invafions of the Sarmatians^ and more Eafteni 

f , people, Germany became confounded, and peopled with thirteeen, for 

! the moft part differing Names, of the Saxons y Almans^ French, Thmin- 
giens, Boioariansy Hunsy Lombards^ Avares^ Hungarians ^Danes^ Norvpe- 
giansy Sitethide or Sclaves^ whofe Original Fortunes, Kingdoms, and 
States iffuing from them, I muft refer for a larger Treatife of Geography, 
if God permit. But the fatal period of theKoman Empire drawing on 
apace, the Franks^ Burgundians, Almains, and other German Nations, 
break through their Guards, difpoffefs the Romans of all GauU Rhetia, 
and Noricum^ till in the end, the Frewci?? prevailing over the reft, extend 

CL2 their 

1 16 Of Germmy* 

their Empire over all the Modern Germany^ chiefly by the Valour of 
Charles the Great, created Emperor of the Well: part of France and 
Germany, Afterwards in the time of Lodovkus Vtus^ the Son of Charles^ 
the Great, the Empire of his Father was parcelledout into many parts, 
viz. haly^ France^ Burgundy^ Lorrain and Germany^ amongft his Sons .■ 
and Nephews, with the Title of Kings *, by which means, the King- 
doms of Lorrain and Germany^ United in the Perfon of Lewii the An- 
cient, were aliened from the French^ and poffefTed by the great Princes 
oi Lorrain, Saxony, Su.ibia and Bavaria: As alfo by them difmembred 
into many Principalities and Inferior States, all palling under the 
Name of Alman^ or Germans. 

Germany IS now bounded on the Eaft with Tolandznd Hungary ; on 
the Welt with France^ Switzerland^ and the Seventeen Provinces -, on 
the North with the Ba/fzcj^Sea, and Venmarkji and on the South with 
the Alpf^ which part it from Italy. 

The length whereof, from Eaft to Weft, viz. from the Borders of 
Lorrain to Poland^ is y66 miles , the breadth from North to South, 
viz. from the Baltick^ Sea, to the Southermoft part of Tyro/, is 657 
miles of the fame Meafure, viz. 73 to a degree. 'Tis fcituate in the 
Northern Temperate Zone ; the longeft day in the Southern parts being 
1 5 hours and an half; in the moft Northern, 17 hours and a quarter. 

'Tis a fpacious Country, and very Populous i the People of f\rong 
Conftitution, of a good Proportion and Complexion ; very ingenious 
and ftout, much given to Drink, but of an Honeft, Noble Nature : 
The poorer fort great Pains-takers, and the Nobles either flout Soul- 
diers, or good Scholars. 

The Women are of good Complexion, but corpulent; good Bear- 
ers, and fruitful Breeders. 

The Title of the Father defcends to their Children ; fo that every 
' Son of a Vifki is a Z>«%, and every Daughter of a Dutckfs is a Dmcbefs', 
v.hence it follows, that the Nobility being too much multiplied, is 
no lefs impoverifhed. 

The Language here generally fpoken, is the High-T>ntch ; a Lan- 
guage very Ancient, and hath lefs commixture with the Latin than any 
which is ufed in thefe Weftern parts. 

No Country in the World is either better Planted with goodly Ci- 
ties, or more Pleafant and Healthful. A Country abounding with 
Mines of Silver and other Metals ; plentiful in Corn, Wines, Salt^ Fkjh^ 
Linnen, ^ick^filver, AUom, Saffron, Armour, and Iron-worh^. 

The Germans are excellent Mechanickj , eminent for Water- works, 
Chymiltry, and Printing : Memorable is the Story of Regiomontanm*s 


Of Gtrmmy, 117 

Wooden Eagle, that flew a quarter of a mile to meet the Emperor 
Mjximilhn •, but efpecially famous is this Region, for the two Grand 
Inventions of the latter Ages, viz. That fatal Infirument the (9««, hrft 
found out by 'Benholdus Swart a Frier. The Myihry of Printing, tirft 
difcovered by a Soldier. 

The Religionof this Country is divided into Tapifis and Protefiants^ 
the latter again divided into Lutherans and Cahmjh. 

About the Year 1250, the Empire being greatly diftra6i:ed into 
many Fadions, each Fadion chofe a King of the Romans or Emperor. 
The Empire thus fluduating for about twenty years , the Princes 
met at ^tidlingburg^ and made a League cf defence together ^ and 
meeting at Francfort they chofe Kadolphus Earl of Hapshurg in the Year 
1270. who gaining ^«/?ri^, and other Territories adjacent, was the 
firll Arch-Duke of Anflria, about 1280. 

About the Year 1 500, the State of Burgundy^ which comprehended 
alfo the Lorv'Comtries^ was by Marriage with the Heirefs thereof, add- 
ed to the Houfe of Jnjhia. 

About the fame time (under MaximiUan the Firft ) the publick 
Courts of Judicature, called the Imperial Chamber, the Supream Tri- 
bunal and Appeal of Juftice, was fixed at Spre^ and the Empire divi- 
ded into Ten Circles, 

About 151P. Charles the Fifth, Son of P/;i/i/> King of 5/?^i/7, Son of 
Maximilian the Emperor, fucceeded his Father in his Efiates of Spain^ 
Burgundy^ the Lorv-Countries^ Auftria, &c. and by Eledlion, his Grandfa- 
ther Maximilian in the Empire alfo. Under whom the German Empire 
rofe to its greateft height and enlargement. 

Under thisXJh irles all Germdny was rent into two grand Fadions or 
parts, Roman Catholicks^ and Frotefants j occalion'd by Martin Luther^ 
born at TJlesby in Saxony, who firft only taxed the Abufes, and obferved 
the Corruptions of the Churchj after makes a general defedion, Anno 
1524. This was no fooner done, but the Reformers make a new 
Schifm, and divide between Luther and Zmnglius^ 1524- which rofe 
to two grand Fadions afterwards, by the name of Lutherans and Calvi- 
nilis. Hence rofe other Seds alfo, pretending higher Reformation in 
Religion i fo that in the Year 1525". tho. Muntzer occafions the Ruftick 
War. And in the Year 1534. fucceeded the Anabaptijis at Mu)i(ier. And 
in Anno 1547. began the Smalcaldick^Vil^t in Haffia, where C£far pre- 
vails, and ruins their League ; foon after the Proteftants prevail, and 
procure the Fajfavian Peace, Anno 1552. But in the Year 16 18. the 
Bohemians rejed the Emperor , and Eled the Count Palatine King of. 
Bohemia^ and Crown him at Fragtte. Hence the Bohemian War asofe, and 

fpread . 

1 1 8 Of Germany. 

fpread over all Germany^ changed firft into the Saxon , then into the 
Smdifh War, Anno 1630. The Duke of Bavaria overcoming the Bo- 
hemians^ the Palatinate was ejeded out of the Upper Palatinate, out of 
the Eledorfliip, as well as out of the Kingdom of Bohemia. Anno 1625. 
the Duke oi Saxony is flain. Anno i<5^o. the King of Sweden enters 
Germany in the behalf of the Proteftants, and Princes Liberty. 1 53 2. 
The Kmg o^ Sweden^ and TzT/y the General of the Imperialifts, after fe- 
veral Vidories and Conquefts, both dye. 1635. The Duke of ^^;>c^/2y 
and Brandenburg make Peace with the Emperor : And the King of 
Frtf«« denounceth War againft the Empire. Anno 16^6, the Duke 
oi Saxony is flain, and the Imperialifts are driven out o{ Pomerania by 
the Sxvedes. 1 6^p. Saxony and Bohemia invaded. The War continues 
hot by feveral Sieges and Battels till 1648. when Mmjier Tre^iy en- 
fues, and fo the thirty years, wherein had perifhed about 325000. was 
ended. This Peace of Munfier changed the Empire to that State that 
it is now at. For the King of Srveden carried away the Dukedoms of 
Bremen and Verdin, Lower Vom.rania and Stetin., with other plates in 
the Upper Pomerania, The Ifland or Principality of Rugen. The Ifle 
of WoUin^ the River and Port of Odor, The Bailiwick of Poel and TSIevo 
Closer. The Signioiy oiJFifmar ind iVildhafen mWejiphalia, &CC. The 
King of France was to have the Cities and Bifhoprick of Mits , Toul 
and Verdun, with Moyenvic, Pignerol, Brifac , the Landtgravedom of 
Alfatia the Higher, the Bailiwick oi Hagenarp, and the Fortrefs of Phi- 
liprburg. The Palatine of the Rhine is rtftored to his Eftate in part, 
and made the Eighth Ele(fi:or,and High Treafurer of the Empire. And 
the Proteftants were affcrted into full Liberty of their Religion > which 
Name arofe in the Year 152^. at the General Affembly at fVormei, 
when the Eledtor of Saxony, the Landtgrave of Hejfent the City of No- 
rimberg , and others, protefted againft the Decrees of C£far , and ap- 
pealed to an Univerfal Council. 

Germany is now an Eledive Empire, wherein there are feveral Sove- 
reign Eftates, of which the Emperor is chief, who governs by Diets, 
which are almoft like the General Eftates of France. The Principal 
Articles of the Government are contained in a Fundamental Law, or 
Original Conftitution and Agreement, czWed Aurea Bulla ^ or, The Gol- 
den Bull', which treats of the Eledion of the King of the Komans, the 
Duty of the Eledors, of their Priviledges, of the Authority of the Em- 
peror; and laftly, of the means to maintain the Peace and Repofe of 
the Empire. This Bull is a little Book, the Original whereof, being 
written in Parchment, contains 2 4 Leaves, and 30 Chapters ; and was 
conftituted as the perpetual and fundamental Law of the Empire, not 


Of Germ Any, 119 

to be altered by the Emperor, no not with the Eledor's confent , by 
Charles the Fourth 135^. The Eledion of the Emperor ought, 'tis 
faid, to be made at Francfort upon the Mehi, though this Order, in the 
laft Elections , has not been obferved. Befides the AfTcmblies that 
concern the Affairs of the Empire in general, there are three other 
forts ; that of the Eledors, for the Eledion of the Emperor : That 
of the Deputies, whither the Emperor fends a Commiilioner : And 
thofe of the Circles; like the Affemblies of the States in the great Pro- 
vinces oi France. Of thefe Circles there are ten in the Empire ; that 
is to fay, of Jujiria^ Bavaria., Suabia^ of the Upper Rhine 5 of the 
Lower Rhine., Wejiphalia., Upper Saxony^ Lower Saxony., Franconia^ Bur^ 
gundy ; but this laft is now no more fummon'd. Every Circle has a 
Diredor Ecclefiaftick, and a Secular Diredor, who prefide together at 
their AfTemblies. Two or three Circles may meet when one of them 
is attacqued from without, or in confufion within. 

The Empire, as it retains the Title, fo it is almoft like that of the 
Komans., though it contains not fo large an extent of ground. The 
Princes that corapofe it are of five forts : The Emperor, who is now 
of the Houfe of Aujhia., the Eledors, the Ecclefiafticks , the Princes 
Secular, and the Free Cities : In the General Diets are three bodies 5 
that of the Eledors, that of the Princes, and that of the Imperial Ci- 
ties. There are reckoned above 300 Sovereignties in Germany^ who do 
not acknowledge the Emperor, but only in point of Homage and 
mutual Agreement, 

The Houfe of ^K/?n^ has three forts of Dominion •, tho(e o( Aufiria^ 
which are Hereditary to him ; thofe of Bohemia., which he now claims 
as his Right •, and thofe of Hungary, which he hath by Ele6tion. Out 
of this Houfe of Aujiria the German Emperors have been Eleded for 
above 400 years, ever fince the time of Hen. 4th, when the Lords of 
the Empire began to undervalue his Authority, and Pope Gregory the 
Seventh taking occafion thereby. Excommunicated him, and ordered 
the Imperial Scepter fhould be given to another j Then the Germans 
aboliftied the right of Succeilion, and aflumed to themfelves that of 
Ele£l:ing the Emperors. 

The Emperor, who is of that Houfe, ufually in his life-time, caufes 
his Son, or his Brother, or his next Kinfman to be Crowned King of 
Hungary, afterwards King oi Bohemia ; then if he finds the Princes dif- 
pofed to it, he caufes him to be Elected alfo King of the Romans., that 
is, his perpetual Vicar, and SuccefTor prefumptive to the Empire, 

Without the Revenue of his Hereditary Territories, he would fcarce 
have wherewithal to fupport hisDignityj for under theTitle of Imperial 


I lo Of Germmy, 

Mai'.M\y, he pvoflcfle? no Land : his principal Rights are the Elcdion 
and Iiivctiituree:)i' Feorty,the Grant of Privileges, and the R.ightof Le- 
pjtimaiion. He may make Laws, give Letters of (afe Condud:, eliablilh 
Ports, m:^>kc Pjiiiamcnts, fettle Llnivcrhties, ered Burroughs inro Ci- 
ties, create Oiilces, and out-law Cities by Proclamation. Lallly, He 
may make Kings, Dukes and MarquefTes ^ and he is fuperior to all the 
Princes of the Empire, who for that realon have a great refped for him. 

The Elcdtors are Eight in all, viz. the Archbifiiop of Mayam^ Arch- 
Chancellor of Germany^ the Archbiftiop of Treves., Arch-Chanctllor of 
France ■, the Archbidiop oi Cologn., Arch-Chancellor oi' Italy-, the King 
of Bohemia^ Great Cup- bearer ■■, the Duke of Bavaria , Great Steward i 
the Duke of Saxony., Great Marfhal or ConlUble ; the Duke of Bravden- 
B^^rjg/^, Great Chamberlain j and the Px'mcc Palatine, Great Treafurer. 
Thefe EledJ'ors pretend that their Dignity makes them equal to the 
Kings of Europe ; and, which is of greater moment, for that they Eledt 
and Crown the Emperor-, after which the Pope, by ufurpation, pre- 
tends a Right to contirm the Eleilion and Coronation. Four Voices 
of thefe Eledtors furtices to advance any one to the Imperial Dignity: 
and at prefcnt the King of Bohemia only has his Seat in the Ekdfion, 
The Secular Eledors may not nominate themfelves. Nor can the Lands 
of their Electorates be alienated. In the Houfe of Saxony the Ele- 
<Sor(hip belongs only to the Eldeft, who (hares the other Seigniories 
with his Brothers. The Elcdor ot Brandertbmgh is the moil Landed of 
all the reft, next to the King of Behemia ; his Dominions contain above 
two hundred German Leagues in length; but are for the moft part fepa- 
rated one from another ; and by the late Combuixion, and the For- 
tune of War, he is become the moli confiderable Prince of that Quali- 
fy in the Empire, y^mn) looo. under Otho the Third , the Eledors 
had fixed their Elecrorfhip, which firil began by permilLion under pre- 
tence of avoiding Confufion, and for the good of the common Inte- 
re(i ; fome tell us, that the Eledtors were Inftituted afcer the death of 
Orho the Third. And others fay, it was in the time of Kodulph of 
Hibsbufz. The Ecdefijjhcal Princes are, The Archbi(hop of Saltsburg, 
the Grand Mafter of the Teutonick^ Order; feveral Biftiops, and other 
great Prelates, Abbots and AbbefTes, who have no voice, but embody'd; 
thefe Princes are almoii abfokite over the Temporality of their Bene- 
hces ; neither has Chriflendom any Prelates fo potent as they. Their 
Elections to their Dignities belongs to the feveral Chapters, wherein 
neither the Pope, nor the Emperor, has any Right to intermeddle. 

Among the Secular Princes there is the Arch- Duke of ^«/^rij, the 
Princes of the Electoral Houfes, fome Dukes, Marqueffes and Landt- 


Of Germany, izi 

graves : there are alfo fome Earls and Barons who differ only in name 

and method of the Empire, 

They have their Seat in a Body which has four Volets in the Eibtcs 
of the Empire, But they have alfo every one their Voices in their.par- 
ticular AiTemblies, and fome of them Coin Money. There are fome 
Noblemen in Franconia^ in Saabia^ in the Country of the Rhine ^ and 
in the Lower AlfatU^ who are as abfolute in their own particular Ter- 
ritori :s, as the moft Potent Lords of the Empire in theirs i feveral Prin- 
cipalities in Germany are polfefTed by one Prince alone, and many times 
one Principality belongs to many. The Free Cities , which are fo 
many Republiques, are of two forts, viz> Imperial, and Hans Towns. 
The Imperial bear the Eagleof the Empire in their Arms, either entire 
or divided; and they have a Right to fend their Deputies to the Diets 
of the Empire, where their Corpora'^ion has two Voices. They ex- 
c-eed the number of Fourfcore, and a- c ccntidered either as lying upon 
the Seats of Suabia, or the Seats of che Rhine ; and they are thus divi- 
ded from the feveral Seats where the Deputies of the Cities take their 
places j the Deputy of the City oiCologn takes the Hrft place upon the 
Mine-Se^tj and the Deputy oiRatishourn takes the hrft place upon the 
SuabiaStdiX. : Some are govern'd by Noble Families, others live under 
a Popular Government. 

The HaHS Towns are in league together, to aid one another reci- 
procally in time of diftrefs, as alfo for the maintenance of the liberty 
of their Trade, and xo preferve themfelves from being ov.ircharg'd 
with Impofitions by Foreign Princes 5 but that League at this day is 
little regarded by feveral of rhefe Cities, whilft every one endeavours 
to ftand upon their own bottom, and do their own buiinefs themfelves. 
Of thcfe, Lukcl{^, Cologn, Brwifrvick^ and Vantzick^ are the four chief 5 
Lubeck^m^y fummon all the refi together, with the Advice of five of 
the Cities which are next adjoining to her. 

The m.oft famous Rivers in C?rw^«)' are the Rhine.^ the Danube^ the 
Elb^ the Odar^ the Fefer, and the Emf. The Rhine ^ Rhenus^ Cffar 
Strah. Tlifu &c. Rhyn or Reign Germ. Le Rein Galiii, Rhino Italis^ ari- 
feth OLitof the Alps in two Fountains, diitantabout a days journey a- 
{uncier.. the one called the Vorder Rhine^ or Anterior Rhenm^ fourceth out 
of the Hills of the Lepontij and the Mountain Luckmunier, The further, 
named the Hinder Rhein, or Posterior Rbenus^ out of the ^Ips^ and the 
Mountain der Vogel. Thefe meeting together about a German mile 
from Chur or Coire of the Grifons^ afterwards continued in one Channel 
towards the North by the Cities oiConjiance. BjJII, Spire, IFcrms Mtntz, 
and Cologne encreafed by the way with the addition of feveral other 

Pv. great 

182 Of Germany, 

great Rivers, unto the Fort Schenken Schans ; from whence it is con- 
veyed into the Ocean by four Branches or Channels , firft of the pyael 
by Nimmengen^ 'tiel and Bommel, until it lofeth its name in the Mae/. 
2. The Lec^ into which thcRImn divertethat Vuerlhde^ and is carried 
into the Maes betwixt Vort and Kotterdam. 3. The R^/«e extended 
from Schiiik^n Schans by Hmffen, Arnhem and If^agening, unto Vmrfiede^ 
where the main River being diverted by the Leck^^ with a fmall Cur- 
rent, it is continued by Vtricht , and through Holland unto Leydm^ 
where in the Sandy Downs betwixt it and the Sea,it leaveth its name, 
and under another name of the Vlid it is turned towards the South, 
falling into the Mms at Sluys over againft the Bnil. The fourth Branch 
is the IfeU drawn from the Rhine near Arnhem^ and paffing by Zut- 
phen and Vjventer^ falleth into the Zmder, or South- Sea, at Campn, 
The main Channels of the Khhn in the time of C^far were the Kbim 
which then fell into the Ocean, at the place where is now Catmck^ in 
Holland. And the Vahatis or Wan^ making the Illand of the Batavians of 
Tacitus, Chiefer Rivers received into the Khim are the Nech^r^ Nicer & 
Nicarus^ Flav. & A. Marc arifing in Silva Nigra , or Srvartzrvald near 
Rotweel , and falls into the Rhine at Manheim near Hi'idelberg, The 
Main M£nHs Tac. out of the Mount Fitchtelberg paflSng the Towns of 
Bamberg^ and IVurtzburg falleth in below Francfort. The Roer Rura. 
Scrip. Belgis. in IFeJiphalia^ flowing hereinto at Vuisburg. The Lippe^ 
Luppia^ tac. Lupias Strab. rifing not far from Paderborn^ empties it felf 
at the Wefcl. The Aar ilTuing out of the Alps of the Leponti near the 
Hill of St. Gothard^ is difcharged hereinto near JFaldfhut. The J//, 
EUhs Flavins.^ OMtot Sunt go w^ after the receipt of almoft infinite lelTcr 
Rivers, falls in a little below Strasburg. The Mofclle^ MofellaTac. jiuf. 
arifing out of the Mountains of Vauge at the Contines of Lorrain, is dif- 
burthened hereinto at Cobkntz. 

The Vonavp Ger. le Danube Gal. Vanubio Ital. & Hifp. Danorv jing. 
Vanubius Polyb. Strab. Vlin. &c. arifeth in Schtvartzwald^ diftant about 
two hours journey from the head of the Necl^ar^ and running Eaft- 
wards through Suavia^ Bavaria^ Aujhia, Hungarian ~Bulgaria^ &c. after 
above 1000 miles courfe it poureth into the E^/x/weSea, with a great 
violence through fix Channels , according to Tliny , through feven, 
according to Sol. Strab. and A. Marc. The lower part of this River 
was called //Jer. Strabo puts the beginning of this Name at its Cata- 
racts, Vtol. at the Town Jxiopolis. Pliny., where it arriveth at lUiri- 
cum. Appian at the Confluence of it with the River Savus. The 
greater Rivers received hereinto in Germany., are the Ifer^ Ifara. The 
Leck^., Lycus. Inn, JEnus oi Ptol. The Nah^ otN^has^ and the M»rci^ 
or Moraus. The 

Of Germmy- 125 

The Ew/ Gitm, j4mh & Amufia Strab. Atnifus & yimafus Ttoi & 
Pliny. It arifeth in IVejiphalia near Paderborn, and is disburthened into 
the German or Britijh Ocean. 

The Wefer^ Vifurgis Pliny^ Vifurigis Ptol. Bifurgis Strab. Iturgis Ovid. 
hath its beginning in the Hilly Foncik oi Vuf-ingerfValdt ^ p.lTmg by 
the Towns of Hamlen , Minden and Bremen , and having received the 
Fuld^ and i\\tAVer^ floweth into the German Ocean ; the part rovvaids 
the head is called PFierra^ Verra al. IVtrtz, 

The E/^e, yilbiscii Pliny. Strabo^ &c. rifethoatof the H^ll Kifenbirg^ 
being part of the Sudafx, incircling Bohemia, and pafling by the Towns 
-of Vrefden^ Wittenburg, Meydhurg , it falleth into the German Ocean be- 
low Hambcurg ^ towards its beginning in Bohemia-, it is called the Lahe. 
Greater Rivers which empty h reinto are the Muldaw ., Muldavia. 
TheEgr^j, thtSaltza^ Salaoi Strab. Ihz Spree. Suivus C)( Ptol. Unto 
this River reached the Roman Difcoveries, and the French Con<^u.&C\s^ 

The Odor., Odera^Viadrus Ptol. This arifeth out of the Hill Oderkr^ 
near Olmnniz in Moravia, palling by Brejliw., Glogaiv., Francford and Ste- 
tin, with the Rivers Neiffi and Warta, received thereinto j it is disbur- 
thened into the Fr//c/>/jdrjf at the twolllandsZ^/fc/t/w^andrfC/n with three 
Mouths, Pfyn.y SveinevnA Viuvenoiv, and fo into the Eall or Baltich^S^^, 

The chief Mountains of Germany were the Abnobi & Ahnjb£ ofPtoI. 
& Plin. near the Heads of the River VanoTv., and the Neccar^ now called 
Schrrartz-vpald by Scuto, and Die Baar. fViUychio. 

The Sudat£ of Ptol. or Suditi. Vandalici Monies, Vioni, are the Hills 
encircling Bij^fwi./, covered with the Woods Gabreia and Luna^ Wenden- 
berg. & Fiechtilberg tejie Baud. 

The Sarmatici Monies feem to be the fame with Sevo of Solinus & 
Plin. and Carpates of Ptol. between Poland and Hungary. NowCrapac^ 
& Tarczal, & Ben Mmch. & Wartzgarten, & Biefcid & Scheneberg., Sne- 
peji^ & B/es-fciady., Kuffis. Melibocus Mons., & latri Sclavis., Hartzrvaldt^ 
Pirkl^ermero: BrockersbergPeucero. By others Foge/x^«rg. The Hilly Coun- 
try of Hc^en between Franconia and 'Turingia by B. Khenano. 

Carvanc.K^ are the Hilly Trads of 'lirol and Carinthia., now Brenner 

The Albanns of Ptol. Albitis Strabo, are the Mountains of Stiriaj 
now Schwanberger- Albn.^ or Affder Alben. Laz. 

The B£bi Monies^ Ptol, are theCrabaten., or Krabaten Mount, in Croatia^ 
Cetius Mons ., fen Cejius., Uv. & Ptol. now Kalenberg^ or Hjlenberi!^ in Au- 
jhia^ continued a great length between the Damp? and the Drj, and 
diftinguilhed into fundry particular Names of Schieberg^ Veubfptrg, R- 
rieberg.,Heng(ierberg or Heujiperg.,Semering & Plaitz^ The common bounds 
fometimes of the Countries Nyric»«»5and P<3««i)«?j. R 2 The 

1 24 of Germany » 

The moft famous Woods were the Hercyni Cdf. "Tac. & Tlin. Hercina 
Claud. It began after C£far at the Khiin^ and the Confines of Helvetia, 
and was continued Ealiwards along thecourfe of the I)^«»^£, unto the 
Dacii in Tranfyhania, containing (hen in breadth nine days journey, in 
length more than iixty. Parts and remainders of this Wood, were all 
thofe vail DcTarts and Foreft of the Vaci and Sarmata^ whofe parts 
are Mirtiana Stlvj, were the Woods cov-ering the Hills /lhn,bi, and from 
their dark fhades called Schirariztv^ld.oi the c-lack Wood. 

The B^cenis of Cajir.^ the Semana Silva of Ttoh now D wringer tvaldty 
ox S'dva Innngici., upon the Borders of Bohemia towards Bavaria. 

Gahrct.4 Silva ?t9l, now Bchaimer-waldt^ or Silva Bohemica Mont, the 
Woods cf the Mouut Sucl£L'e towaids tb.eW. & N. 

Luna Sylva are the Woods of the SiHl£t£ towards Pajfan>, and the 

The Cborography of this great, but Heterogeneous Country, as was 
faid, is divided into m:.ny Elktes, and thofe Eftatcs abiolute or inde- 
pendent. For the better Survey of which, we vviil contlder Gerw<2«j/ 
in three great Parts, viz. Firfi, Germany about the Rhine: 2dly^ Ger- 
many about the Danube ; atid ^dly^ Germany about the Elbe and Oder. 

Let us begin with Germany about the Bhine ; and Hrf) with the Fre^e 
County of Burgundy., now the French County. 

FRENCH County. 

ACountrey, Hilly and uneven, rifing with continual Downs, and 
Mountain's, covered with fertile Vineyards, (hady Woods, and 
pleafant Valleys, watered with inlinite Brooks and Rivulets, purling 
down the hollow bottoms thereof; every where fo fertile, that it is 
called the Flower of France ; its chief places are Btjancon^ Civitas Vi- 
fontienjif Ant. V>funtlo C£far. Vifontium Ptol. a fair City, of good ftrength, 
a Univeriity, an Archbifhop's See, and Town-Imperial, feated in a 
fruitful Vaiky betwixt two Mountains befet with Vines, upon the 
Voux, with vvhofe ftrearas itisalm'-il encompafTed. 2. Vole^ Vola Se- 
quannrum, a Town of great Strength, Riches, and Beauty, and Famous 
for its College of Jefuits, fcituated upon the River Doux. Salino., fo 
named from the Salt-fprings thereof, from whence mtinite ftore of 
Salt is made and tranfported into the neighbouring Countries. The 
Town is Orong, large, and fair, lying in a deep hollow Valley, amongfl 
Mountains, upon the impetuous Rivulet Fcrica. Nozeretb is a fair 
well- traded Empory, near tbe Mountainous Ridge of thcTonr, for- 
tified with a iirong Caftle. Luxouti under the Vaugue^ is remarkable 

^ for 

Of Germany, 125* 

for the hot Medicinal Baths ; It is divided into three Shires or Ballia- 
gesof P(?/e, Poligny^ znd Fefoul ', belides, here are numbred 20 Wal- 
led Towns, and about 160 Lord (hips. This Countrey was fubjed: 
to the Princes of Aujirh^ of the Houfe of Spxin^ and under the Sfa- 
ni(h Government, Befancon excepted, which was a To^vn- Imperial, and 
belonging immediately to the Empire; But in the year i6d8, the 
French King, under the pretence of his Wife's Titk, with afuprizing 
fwiftnefs, conquered it in the midft of Winter, in Vck thin jifreen 
days; one of the greateft adiions that ever was performed: It ama- 
zed all Europe, and caufed ihtSpwiardio quit their pretentions to the 
Crown of Fortu^al. However, the Treaty of Aixla Chapclle reftored it 
again, but firft they difman^led all the iirong Places and Holds, and 
would have deftroyed the ri^h Silt- pits, had not the Interpoiition of 
England znd Holland prevented h but in the year 1674, Gray^ Wefuul, 
a4id the lofs of other places, began the compleat Conquell: of that 
Countrey, by the taking of Befancon , V.'le, Salin^ &C. j nor could 
the Duke of Lorrain, and Count Caprara relieve it, tho they defpe- 
rately engaged the Enemy at the Battel of Sieren, 

Of L R R A 1 N. 

Orth of Burgundy lies the PriiKipality or Dutchy of Lorra'm^ Lo- 
tbaringia^ Lottheringen, Lorreign j the Duke whereof is a Prince 
of the Empire *, and the Countrey was reckoned as a Feudatory there- 
of And by the Pyren£jn Treaty the faid Duke was to be reitored to 
his Dutchy of Lorrain, with all the places and Towns which he had 
poflelTed in Mentz., tout, and Verdun, furprized by Henry the Second, 
King of France, and fince. But France after feveralnew pretences and 
quarrels, in \66^^ Inverted Marfal by the Count of Gutche, the de- 
livery of which by the Duke of Lorrzi/7,rho it calmed the tempeil:, yet 
after contiiiual Incroachmentsupon his Jurifdiction, the Limits of his 
Territories, and his Soveraignty it fdf^ one of the Fm;ci; Generals in 
1(568, was ordered to feize his Perfon, had he not preferved it by 
leaving his Dukedom, which now Fm/;ce pofTelTes it all. 

The Countrey is very Woody, and fcmewhat Mountaiiious, ovcr- 
fpread with the Branches of the Forelt Ardmne, and the Faague', fof- 
iiciently ftored with all ncceffary Provifion. It affordeth plenty of 
Iron, Lead, Tin^ and other Mineral j : Well ftored with Lakes and Ri- 
vers, which are full of Fi(h •, alfo rtore of Salt-Pits, in which there is 
very fine Salt, fweet in tafte, and whiter than Scythian Snow, and 
brings yearly a Revenue of 1 00000 FrancJq^ 


126 Of Germany* 

Chief Places whereof are Metz.^ the Vivodurum of Ptol. and Tac Civi' 
tas Medio matricum of An*. Met£, & Mew, aliis : The Royal Seat fome- 
times of the Fr^wc^ Kings of Aujirafia ot Wejirkk^ : An Imperial City 
feated on the Mofel^ at the Confluence of the Seih River ; belieged 
by Charles the Emperor, with looooo men, Anno 1552, but despair- 
ing of fuccefs he left it, and afterwards carting olT his Empire, in the 
Monaftery of Julius he ended his life. 

It was the chief feat of the Mediomatrices of Ptol, the ivhdiomatrki 
of Cxfar. 

2. Toul. TullHm, VtoLCit. Lucorum & TuUo Ant. a Bifhop's See, and 
a Town Imperial upon the River M/Ii; built by TmHus Hijiilius, as 
the French Writers fay. The Metropolis of the Leuci or Liberia of Ca- 
far, Lucan, and ?toU 

3. Nancy, Nancejum & Nafwm Ptol. (He that confiders the Antomne 
Itinerary, (hall ealily find, thit Antonius his Nefium, cannot be feated 
in that place where Nancryum is now ; fo that Nafwm is not that which 
we do now call Nancy, but a Town 12 miles dilUnt from it, not far 
from the River A/o/j, in the Barroducan Province, commonly called 
Nas, as appeareth by the Infcription of Stone digged up there; for 
by the Ruins it appears that this N'as was formerly a very large City). 
Seated upon the River Murra^ the Refidence formerly of the Duke, 
once/lrongly Fortified, remarkable for the Difafter of Charles Duke 
of Burgundy, who loll the Battel and his Life near her Walls, 1475. 
taken by the Fre«c^ Anno 1^37. And^Anno i66i, her Fortifications 
were Difmantled. 

4. Verdun, Virodunum & Verodmum Ant. a Town Imperial , and a 
Bifliop*s Sec, upon the River Meufe : Called alfo Civitas Verdunenfium. 

5. Nicholaf, 2 miles from Nancy, if Walled, would be the faireft City 
ill Lorrain. Blanh^nburg, by the French Blancmont, is a fair and pleafant 
Town, adorned with an Ancient Caftle, and the Dukes Palace. Nor 
muft I forget the New Fort built by King Lewis the XIV<;5>. called Saar 
Louis, built upon the River Sare, between Vanderang and Sarbruck,. 

Of C L E F E. 

THE Eftates of theDutchy of Cleveland contained whilft it was 
the entire Patrimony of thofe Dukes, i. The Dutchy of Clevej, 
2. Of Julieru 3. O^ Berg. And 4. The Earldom of March,. Cleve was 
made an Earldom, ^/7«(7 pi I ; for want of Heirs it devolved into the 
Empire 1350. Charles the Fourth gave it to Adolph Biihop of Colea-^ 


Of Germany, 127 

Sigifmit fid the Emperor made it a Dukedom, 14 17. Its chief Places 
are Cleve, Clivia, Cleef ineolk. 2 , IFefel^ JVefelia, 

Of J V L I E R S. 

TH E Dukedom of Juliers was United to Ckves by Marriage 1 495. 
Its chief Places are Juliers ah Gulick^^ Juliacum Ant. belonging to 
the Prince of Nevphmg. 3. Ah^nFlandris^ Ach GermanUj Aixla Cha- 
pdle Gallts^ Aqwfgfona halis^ & Ar.uifgranum^ from its Hot Baths. Fe/e- 
ra Ptot. & Ant. aliis. But Pyrammand Pighms tells us that Stamen \n 
the Dutchy of CUves^ is the Vetera of the Ancients. And Simkrus will 
have it to be Berc/^upon the P^hine.Thermdgirranihy Kheginnni. Deiiroyed 
by Atiila, lince famous for being the Metropolis of the Empire of 
Charlemagne^ and lor his Burial-place, and alfo for the Tomb of the 
Emperor Of^j the Third, ruined by ih^ Normans ^S^^ dcflroyed by 
fire I I4<5, and again 1224 it was fired ; i<52 4 it was taken by the 
Spaniards j i6<,6 it was again almoft deftroyed by fire, viz. twenty 
Churches and Chappels, and about 5000 Houfes. Now famous for 
its Holy Relicks, and much vifited by Pilgrims from many parts, as 
alfo for the Treaty of Peace i6<58. Two Leagues from Ak^n is a Mine 
oi Lapis Calaminarls^ which hath been wrought upon for 300 years. 

Mj/itefifis Vixat us, the Dutchy of Mont ot Berg^ its chief City is 
Vnffddorpy a. Town and. Caftle, formerly the Seat of the Dukes of 
Clives anJ Juli'rs &c. Here is alfo Duytsburg an Imperial City, Vifpar- 
gifn^ Afcibiirgium & Difporumoi old. 

In. the County of A/^rcJ^ chief Places are Soeji^ or Zoe/?, Sufatumoi 
old, and Vortmund^ Iremonia & 'Dortmania, both free Cities. The 
Dutchy of Cletes., and Earldom of Mircj^, belongs now to the Marquis 
of Brandenburg^ that of Berg and Juliers to the Duke of Nervburg, 
Me»rs IS honoured with- the Title of an Earldom, now fubjeit to the 
King of England, as Prince of Orange. 

Adjoining to thefe Countries, are the three Electoral Archbi- - 
(hopricks ; 


i.'^T^H E Archbifhop oiMentz^ who is firft in Dignity, being Chan- 

JL cellor of the Sacred Empire, and hath the Priviledg of 

Crowning Csfar, except at Aix la Chapelle^ which then belongs to 

the Eledorof CoUen. His JurifdicStion and Territories, like fome of 


128 Of Germany, 

our DiojefTc-, lie^'jifperfecl in feverat Countries. His chief places are^Of Miintx^Gsrmanis^ Mayenee GjUi^^ Magonza Italif, Mocomiacum 
?toU Mignntiacitm Tjc. Mogontiacus & Mogamiacnm A. Marc. Cit. Moguti' 
tiacenfis Ant. M-^guntia Rheginom-, Magontia Eutrcpio^ the Metropolis then 
of ihc Province o[ Gsrmania prima Here, is (aid, was Hrft hivented 
the Noble Art of Printing, by John Gutefiburg^ Knight, in the year 
1 440. It was an Archbiihop's See in 745. And was taiien by the King 
oi Srveden i<^^i, who there kept his Chr/jimof. An Academy 1481. 
2 . Afchjfenbm^^ or AJciburgiam^ Afchaffinhurg the place of the Arch- 
bifhnps Refidence. ^.Erfordin'turwgia, Bkurgmw Ptol tdh Pyramioy 
Erphordia & Hzrcino Phordia & Erfnrdia^ Erfurdt Incolis^ Erford Gallis^ a 
City large, rich, and populous, accounted amongll the chiefell: in Ger- 
many^ Governed in manner of a Free States but in 166^ reduced 
again to the obedience of the Elector of MeKtz.^ ( ope Gallorum ), 
13^2 was founded an Univerfity. 

Of C L G N E. 

2. 'nr^H E ArchbiOhoprick oiCcllen^ a fair and goodly Countrey, lying 
A upon the left fliore of the Rhine: Its chief Places are, i. Coin 
Germ. Cohgne Gallis, Colonia Agrippinenfu Plin. Agrippinenfis Ptol. Co- 
Ionia Agrippinenfis & Oppidum Vhiorwn Tac. Colonia Agrippina & Agrippi- 
nenfis Ant. The Metropolis ot the Province of Germania Secunda, and 
a famous Colony of the Romans brought hither in the Reign of the 
Emperor Jiheriii^^ by Agrippina Daughter to C£far Germanicus^ and 
Wife to the Emperor Claudius. The Rof»e of Germany, An Imperial 
City, but does Homage to the Archbilhop. The Cathedral of St. Pe- 
tcr^s is of vaft and liupendious greatnefs. C<efar*s Bridg over the Rhine 
is one of theancientelt in Europe. Here alfoare faid to lye the Bodies of 
the three Kings that came from the Eaft to wonliip our Saviour. 
2. Bonne., Bona Ptol. C<i(ira Bonenfia Tac now the Reiidence of the Ele- 
<3:or, Seated in a pleafant and fruitful part of the Countrey. This 
Archbifhop is Chancellor of Italy^ and fecond \n Dignity. He is alfo 
Prince and Paftorof the Countrey and JurifdicSion of Leidg^ a Coun- 
trey very healthy and pleafant ; where are reckoned 25 Walled 
Towns, and 1700 Villages. But the defcription of this Countrey I 
{hall refer to that of the Spanijh Provinces, being intermixed with 
them. And (hall here only fay, that Liege is feated on the River Maez^ 
near that Valiey wherein two Legions of Julius Gxfar under Sabinus 
and Cotta were dellroyed by jimbioriz^ Captain of the Eburones. 

Of . 

Of GtrntAnyk i^^ 

Of T R E r E S. 

5. ^TP'O this fucceeds the Archbiftioprick of 7ri(rj or Treves^ Bmc' 
A. fis Treverenfif^ extended along the courfe of the M<fdk, from the 
Confines of Lcrrain unto the Rhine, A Countrey rather pleafant tha;-) 
fru'tful, hilly and full of Woods, rich chiefly in Minerals of Iron and 
Lead; Chief Places are, i.Trkr Gcrm.7revej GaUis, 7reveri halts, Co- 
Unia Treverorwn 7ac. Augu^ia MJa^ jiugujia Trevcrorum Piol. AagHJia Li- 
bera Pliny. T'reveris Salviano-, Civitas Ttevernmm Ant. th-c Mctrcpoli'? 
then of the firll Bdgica^ and Refidenceof the Vicar-General of Caul^ 
feated upon the Mufelle^ now an Archbifhop's See, and chief of the 
Countrey, whofeBiftiop is Chancellor of Franceiox the Empeior. Built 
and named from Trtbeta^ Brother to Nwus King of AJfyria, Anno ante 
Chrifium \<\Ci6^tefte Baud. Its ancient Inhabitants were the Trfwr? of 
C<£/dr and Liv. the Treveri Plin. & MeU^ the Trcviri Ptol. 2. Cohokntz. 
al. Coblentz,-, Legio prima Trajana Ptol, Cunfluentes Ant. feated at the In- 
flux of the River Mofelle and Khine, A Town populous and v/ell 
built, the Countrey about it very pleafant and fertile. 3. Hermanjhin^ 
Hermanni Saxum^ alfo Ernhretjieitij or Erenhreitjiein^ a ftrong Caftle, 
notable for its long Siege, ii53<5, oppolite to Cobkntz.. 

Mount- Royal upon the M^/t/, built by the King of France^ is a mo- 
dern and llrong Fortification. 

Of the Palatinate of the R H I N E. 

NExt to thefe lies the Palatinate of the Khine ; Palatinm inferior 
Rbeni, Pfdiz, die Rhein., or Nder Pfaliz. Germanic Palatinst die 
Khin, Gallis. This Countrey ( before thofe unhappy Wars betwixt 
the Empeior Ferdinand the Second, and Fredcrick^ihc Fifth, Count 
Palatine of the Rhine., ■ whereby it was much ruinated ) was account- 
ed the moit fruitful and pleafant of all Gmnany efpecially for its ex- 
cellent Rbcnijh Wines. Chief Places are Plcidelburg, Hddclburga, by 
fome thought to be the S»i/^nxof Ptol. Some Authors call ic Eddberg^ 
which lignities the Noble Mountain ; Orhers Etdhherg. which iigni- 
fies the Near Mountain ; feared on the South- fide of th River Ncccar^ 
in a Bottom, amongfi Kills. It was an Univerfity, ever fince the year 
1345, founded by Rupert Count Palatine.^ and much frequented. In 
the great Church was kept that famous Library, which was after- 
wards carried to Rome, and added to the Vatican. Upon the Town- 
houfe is a Clock with divers motion?. The Eledor Carolus Ludovi- 

S exs 

j50 ^/ Germany, 

cm was Knight of the mod Noble Order of the Garter, Great Trea- 
furer of the Errpive, and together with the Eledor of ^^^^w^; Vicar of 
tht Empire. By the Treaty of Mnnfter i6^S. he was reltored to the 
Lower Pahtir.ate. In his PaLce or Caftle of Hndelburg are divers 
things renrark^ble; viz, the Grotes and Waterworks. The Great 
Tun which contains about 2co Tuns. Other places zit Mxnhcim^ 
Mifihtmium, a Town ai>d flrong Fort at the Confluence of the Neccar^ 
or A^.^^r and Rhine. The Bridge over the Moat of the Cittadel into 
the Town is alfo remarkable. Not far hence ihnds the old Calile 
Tfzltz., wheace the Palatinates feem to have their Name of Pfaltz- 

Within the Limits of this County, and intermingled with the Lands 
of this Prince Palatine, are the Bi(hopricks of, i Spiers, Neomjgm of 
Ptol. Noviamagus Ant. Nemetes Ca?l. & Phn. telte Rhenano. Sptra Ita- 
lis, .^pirt Gallis, famous for the Imperial Chamber there kept, hxed 
at Francfrt in the Reign of Maxini'lian the Firft, afterwards at WormSf 
and now lalily in the Year 153c. tranflated hither. 2 Ot Worms 
'Borbetamagus T tol. & Birmitcmcgus. Cit. Vangionenfij & Wurmeafis of 
Ant. Latino Wormacia, famous for the many Imperial Parliaments there 
formerly held as aforefaid •, near which place Adolphus, Eail ot Naffarv^ 
the King of the Romans.^ was flain in the Year 12^2. by Albert Duke 
of Anuria. There is alfo belonging to this liiihoprick of 5/)/re,(7^f «/:?«>», 
or Vdenheim Ger. Philips burg Gal. Neomagus Ptol. telle J. Heroldo i taken 
by the Gem;^«/ from ihc French i6y^. Surrendred to the French i6b8. 
In theGarifon were 1500 Soldiers , 104 great Guns, 150 weight of 
Powder, and Provihons for feveral months. 

While the Dauphin was bulied in this Siege, the Marquefs of Bmff- 
lers, and the Baron of Monclar, made themfelves Maheis ot all the 
Places round about, and put Gariibns into Sftre, Mayence^ Creufmach^^ 
Baccarach ^ Hey del burgh , and feveral other Places as far as Hjylbon : 
great Contributions were demanded out o^ Franconia^ looooo Crowns 
of the City oi Frankfurt ^ 500000 of the Duke of Wtrtemhergh. But 
in June 1(589, we had the News that the French had laid the Cities of 
Spire, Oppe/'.hcim^ V/orms ^ud Franksndale in '''flies. 

Weft of this Palatinate, if not belonging to it, is Ztmeyhruch^n Inco- 
lis, Veuxponts Gallis , the chief City of the Dukedum ot the fame 
Name, by others called the Dukedom of Bipmts. Charles Gujlavus was 
Sonof ^^/:?« Cafwier. a younger Biotiier to the Duke of Zuueybmck^. but 
whether it belongs to th& Swedes, or Prince of Newbnrg. I do not cer- 
tainly find; 1 thmk it taken by the French much about the time 
that the Prince of Lutzeljiein received a French Garifon, 1 674. To this 


Of Germiny. iji 

alfo let us add the Lantgrave of I)arm(iadt , who has a Voice in th^ 
Aflemblies, and is of the Houfe of Cajfel. 

Of J L s A r I A, 

SOuth of this Palatinate lies the Province of Alfaiia^ Elfafs, or El- 
fatz Germ, yilface Gallis , a Country that fcarce yieldeth to the 
beft in Germany for pleafure and fertility, abounding with Corn, Wine, 
andfundry forts of delicious Fruits. It is divided into the Upper and 
Lower Mface, to which the French Geographers add Suntgorv and Brif- 
gow^ though all other reckon the latter to belong to the Circle of 
Schivaben. Chiefer Towns in the Lower Elfjtz are f-Feiffanborg , Jlha 
Sehufiana^ feu IVaJJemburgum^ a fair Town at the foot cf the Mountain 
Vogefuf, fortiried by Nature and Art. Hjgenaxp Hagenoia^ once both 
Imperial Towns, now fubjed: to the French ; as is Zabem, Tabern<e^ 
Ant. once the chief Seat of Jufiice of the Bifhop of Strasburgh. But the 
chief City of all Alfatia is Strasburgh^ populous, ftrong, and well built. 
The Church is one of the Wonders of the World, for the bignefs, the 
fumptuoufnefs, and the marvellous heighth of the Steeple, 574 foot, 
and the inimitable Strudure, The Arfenalis alfo veryconfiderable, and 
well provided with all forts of Ammunition and Arras ; yet furrendred 
to the French 1682. The Argentoratum of Ptol. & Cit. Argenioracenfi- 
um Ant. Argentina Italis. A Biftiop's See, and Imperial City. In the 
Higher y4//^//^, dixe Schleflad, Schle^adium, JE/ce^^of Ptol. & Ant. Col- 
mar built out of the Ruines of the Argentuaria^ of Ptol. & Ant. deftroy- 
ed by AniU and the Hms. Enfijheim, the Vruncis of Ant. The Upper 
Eljatz belonged wholly to the Arch- Dukes of Aujiria, the Lower to 
the biftiops oi Strasburg. Both challenged the Title of Lacidtgraves. 
But fince the Treaty of Munjier^ the French have enjoyed the greareft 
part. Chiefer Towns in Suntgow are Mulhaufen^ a Town Imperial, 
confederate with the Smtzers^ noted for its Gardens and Mills. Mnt' 
beViard, Mons Belligardus^ Montptlgard GQrmsinis^ ftands upon the Con- 
fines of /^Ifitia and Burgundy^ and was fubjedt to the Duke of Wirtem- 
hmg^ until it was feized upon by the French ; it is noted for its frrong 
Fortrefs, and for a Difpure between Bt&d; and Jac. Andrea, zXhsSchmid- 
liaus. Chief Towns in .Br//g,;n7 , or Brifgovia, beyond .he Rkhe , are 
Friburg^ FrSurgmm a Univeitiry, built by the Dukecf Zrm'^c;;, 1 1 12, 
now polTefled by the French \ not far from whence to be fcen the 
Ruins of Zeri/7^p«Caftle, from whence the ancient Duke^ were Entitled. 
Brifach^ M^ms Brifiacm Ant. a Fortrefs then Qi tht Romans .. novv of th^ 
French > and well fortihed. But Fort Hmingen near Bafd.^ and Fort 

S 2 Lems 

I r 2 Of Germany. 

LervU in the Rhine, not far from Badai, are the ftrongeft Fortifications 
in this Country. 

Come we now to the Eftates beyond the Rhine ^ under which we 
will take in Franco nia. Haft a, and Wefiphalia. 

Of the Circle of Franconia. 

TH E Circle of Frj«Co)«i;z is divided into three parts, viz,, i. Into 
EccletiaiUcks. 2. Laick. 3. Imperial Cities. So that 'tis go- 
verned by many diftindt Princes, fome of greater, others of lefs Power 
and Dominion -, but the Title of the whole is given to the Bifliop of 
Wirtshtirg. A Country hedged on all fides with Forefls and Moun- 
tains, within plain, healthy and pleafant, tolerably fruitful with Corn 
and Wine. Thechief of theEcclefiafticksare, firft the Bifliop oiWirtZ' 
burg , Bilthumb. Wmtzhurg incolis , Evefclie de Wurtsbourg Gallis. 
Whofe chief places are WurtTjhurg. Herbipoli^ quail Herebipolli, IVinz^- 
burg quafi Mnjhpolis, olim MjrcopAis. dc Tdapolis, tefte Irenico. d>c At- 
taunum Ptol. teiie Petro Apiano, feated upon the Main in a pleafant 
Plain, environed with Meadows, Gardens, and Vinie Downs. 2. The 
Bifliop of Bamberg, Gravionarum Ptol. tefte P. Apiano. Bamberga & 
Pamberga & Papeburga, in Script. German. This City is large, fair, 
and entirely Catholick. The Bilhop is the firft of the Empire, itac- 
knowledgeth no Metropolitan, but depends immediately upon the 
Pope. 3. Mfrgenthcim, APr^etkeim & M'rkenthal, & Mariental, Merge- 
thum feu Maru Vomuf, the Reiidence of the Great Mafter of the Tiuto- 
mc\Ordir. Thefe were fome German Gentlemen who waited upon 
the Emperor Frederick^xht Pirft in his Expedition to the Holy Land , 
who took the Croifado, and were It^ftalled at the Church or Hofpital 
of St. Mary JmifaLm^ and called Ail/rwrnV?/. - Their Order differed no- 
thing from the Templers of St. John , but in form and colour of their 
Crofs. After the taking of J^mfjhm by SaUM.'.e, ihefe Knights went 
to Ptolomais ; from whence Frederick the Second fcnt for them into Ger- 
many to fight againli the Prujfims and Livonians , who at that time 
were Pagans i which War began in the Year 12 10. In a littlt while 
after thefe Knights had made themfelves Mafters of a Country of very 
large extent, and obeyed the Order till i525. at which time Sigif- 
tnund. Kingof Po/W, gave the InveAiture of Pruffta unro Albert Mar- 
quis of Brandenburg. In the Year i 563 the Great Malkr became Se- 
cular again, and tookpartof the Lands fubjedi to the Order, with the 
Name of Duke of Courland. 

4. The 

Of QtrmAnj, ijvj; 

4. Tiie Bithoprick of Ekhdadt, or Aichjiadi, Ala NM'ifca Ant. 6c 
Jureatwn^ tette Gafp. Brocio, near the Vamtbc. The chief of the 
Laicks are the Marquefles of Cullemhach and ii s bach ^ the Connts of 
H)lac, WiTtheim and Erpach^ or Erbacb, who find their Original from 
a Daughter o[ Charlemagne^ who married to a Gentleman after ilie had 
carried him upon her back through the Court of the Palace. The Im- 
perial Towns are, i. Nuremberg, Norimberg, Nurnberg Germ. Neroher- 
g£ & Norrcomm Motif , Norica C£fari. A place of great Trade, and 
well frequented by Merchants. The fairefl, mod: piiviledged, richeii, 
and befi governed in Gtrmzny. Here the new chofen Emperor ougkc 
to hold his hril; Diet ^ and here are the Ornaments ui'ed at the Coro- 
nation of the Emperors, viz. the Royal Crown*. The Dalmatick 
Gown : The Imperial Cloak, &c. Here was MjximilLins Wooden Ea- 
gle, that flew a quarter of a mile, and back again. And here the Bur- 
gers have power to imprifcn their Children, and caft them alive into 
the River. Here Charles the Great defigned to make a CommLmicatiou 
of pafiage between the Dw«^e, and the Rhine^ by joining the Rednitz 
and the Atmul Rivers, whereby there might have been a Commerce 
by Water from the Low Countries to Vienna., and even unto the Eaxrne. 
But Tome inconveniencies in the attempt, and his Warlike Diverlions ^ 
made him give over that noble Defign. 

2. Frankfort.^ Francfort , 01 Franckf^rt. Fraucofiirtum oc Francphordia, 
Hdenofolis ^ olim Jray-:Clui Fryncormn, Tiie pafTage or Ford cf the 
Frati]{t. A free City, and reckoned in the Circle of Franconia by moft 
Geographers, though I rather take it to be in the Circle of the Higher I'- is renowned for its Book-Fairs , or Marts , in March, and 
in September, For its Fortrefs, and for the Elefiion of the Emperor. 
It is a large and ftror.g place, divided into two parts, Frafikfitrt and 
Saxenhaujen, by the River Me;«, united by a Stone- Bi id ge. 

Other Imperial Towns in Franainiaj are i. Schrrinfurt^ Suevorum 
Traje&iif, SvPtnfnrdia & Si:vinftirtum, {eatcd in a fruitful Soil. 2. Ro- 
tenhu^g al. Tukrum, feated upon the River Tauber, which fome fay is 
like Jerufalem for its Scituation upon Hills, and for its many Turrets, 
5. Weinjheim Viniftma di Vinflnmia lf^in(haim. 4. Alidorff 2l Univerfity.^^. 

Of H A S S 1 A. 

ADjoining to Franconia on the North-weft is the Landgraveihip 
ot Hejfen, oxHajfia, of a healthy Ait, and a fruitful Soil in Corn 
and Pakurage. Some Authors would have it fo named from the 


, . ^ Of GermAny* 

(Ltians, who did inhabit this Country by changing the Letters ; 
v/h'-nce it is yet called Caxzin-Elhogem Beam Rhenanm, Lib. i. iaith, 
thst the H4uns coming out of High Germany, and havnig expelled 
the Cam, did polTefs thefe parts, and called it after theu; own Name. 
There is none but the H->ule of Hfe that takes its chief Title of Laiid- 
eraviate from thence. That of Alfatia was transferred to the King 
■ ot Frxncc by the Treaty of Munihr -, that of Lmchtmihrg to the Houie 
of Bavina by the Marriage of Duke Albert with Matddis , Heirefs of 
that Principality ; That of "Ilmmgia belongs to the Duke ot Saxony i 
that of Saufmherg to the Marquifs of Badm 5 and that of NoUemboHrg to 
the Houfe of AHJhia ithe Count of Fmjiemberg takes upon him the qua- 
lity of Landerave oi StiHinguen and Bath j and the Counts of Saltz^tc 
ftvled Landgraves of Klegen. Hafta was heretofore only a County 
and part of the Principality of rburima. The greateft part of 
the Country is now divided into two Families, the one ot CaJJgl, - 
the other of Vamiiat of the youngeO WoMk-, chief places belong- 
ins; to the Landgraves, are Caffel, Cajfella & C.ffiUa. CajieUa Catto- 
rum & Stereontium Ptol tefte Pvramio upon the River Fuld, the 
chief Seat of the Landgraves. 2. Marpmg. or Manpurg, Marput- 
Hum & Martis-burgam, Matuacum Ptol. telk Ortel. &C Amafia, Baud, 
uoon the River Lohn, an Univerfity founded in the Year 1426. by 
Lems Bi(hop of Mwifter. Here the Landgraves have a ftately and mag- 
nihcent Calile, mounted upon a high Hill without theTown^en)oying 
a pleafant profped , and one of their chief places of Refidence 
q P^rmfW with its Caftle, is the Seat and Inheritance of the youngeft 
Houfe of the Landgrave. Part of this Country of HeJJen belongs to 
the Abbey of Fulda, one of the richeft and moft celebrious m Europe, 
Jnm 1640. it was taken by Bannkr, and here he heard a Voice in 
the Air, Be gone, Bannier, be gone, fornorv the time u -, yet he lived to 
set that Vidory at Homberg in Hafta, between Fndber^ and Francfird , 
But at the Battel near the River Sale, valorcufly detending a Bink,. 
he was forced to yield, and goeth to Halberjiadt, where voiding much 
Blood and Matter through an Impoftume, or breaking of a Vein he 
put an end to his lite, and to all his toyl and labours. This Abbey 
was founded by St. Boniface an Engliftiman : This Abbot is a Prince 
of the Empire, and Arch-Chancellor of the Emprefs, calls himfel^n- 
m^ttoi Gallia-, his County is called Bmhen, Btichovta {wn^thcjpknty 
of Beeches. To which we may add the Abbey of Hirchfdd betwixt 
Ueffen and the Rhine, and intermingled lies the Coiifederation oiW^:t' 
tcraw, or a Combination of many Elktes, viz. i. Earls or Counts ot 
Njjfiw, from whenee-thelllultrious Gmve xV/^wwe, and other Pnnc« 

Of Germ Any. i j^ 

of OrAng:^ are defcencIecJ, who has made the World unJcrfland, That 
the Kings of Smn and francz are not invincible \ but have bravely 
ftopt their Care'ir when they were driving apace to theliniverfal Mo- 
narchy. This County of iV^off^H?, of old iVdj^^arp, contained only a fmill 
parcel of Ground, but ot lare Ages has grown up into a conliderable 
Principality by the acceliion of the Counties of V/iilhurg^ Idihin, IFifs- 
hadtn^ Villenberg^ Bdiljiein^ dec. And therefore ulually called Najfarv 
Catzendhogen. 2. ^y/wj-, well allied. 3. Hi/iatv^ the Counts whereof 
have large Eftates, and a Juftice from which their Subjeds cannot ap- 
peal. 4. To this Country belongs rhe Counts of Waldcck, rubjedt to 
the Lantgraves. The Birons of Limhorg have a Title of Sempcifre. 
The Counts of Swartsbourg are great in Riches, with many others. 

Of W E S T P H A L I J, 

Contiguous on the North of Hiffm lies the Circle of U^cfiphalia ; ^ 
Country full of Woods, which nourilh man) Swine, which 
make excellent Bacon ; and abounding as plentifully in other places 
with Corn. This Country is divided among the EcclefiaSlicks, Counts 
and Imperial Cities. The Bilhops arr i. Mmiier ^ a City fcated on 
the River Ems, Mmajhrium al. Minigrado & M'mingrade^ built by Charles 
the Great. In the Year 1533. called N'^w Jerufalem by tac Anahaptifis, 
and their King Jjhn oi Ley den , King o{ Sion, who being at laft be- 
fieged and taken, was put on the top of a Steeple in an Iron Cage, 
where he was eaten up by Flies and Wafps, together with two of his 
Companions. 2. Of Padcborrh or Paderborn incolis, of a miraculous 
Foundation. 3. Mindcn^ Minda, once a BiQioprick, but now fetlcd 
upon the Marquels of Brandenburg with the Title of Prince, by Mim- 
fter Treaty , as alfo is Ferden, 4. Of Of>iabruc}{, or Ofenhrug, Ofnabru- 
gum (twOfnabrucum^ fo made 77^. a Carola Migno. The alternate pof- 
feffion whereof is given to the Duke of Brunjrfick^ioi his Ceffion of his 
Biftioprick of Hjlberjiat. 

This Circle of Wefiphalia is faid to contain four Dukedoms, viz» 
Weilphalia, under the Archbilhuprick of Crillm, whofc chief Town is 
Armsberg. 2. Berg. 3. Cleves. 4. Juliers ^ which we have already 
treated of. 

The chief Counts of We\lphalia^ are firft oi Eafi-Frieflatid, who it^ 
the year 1653. was raifed to the Dignity of Prince . whuie Seat is at 
u^urick^, or Amicum. 2. The Counts or Prince ot Oldenburg^ & Vtlmen- 
horft, are totally extinguiflied by the death of Anthony Gunther, in the 
Year i6'y6. However famous, in that the Kings oi Denmark, ^'^^ ^^' 


•i ^6 Of German)'. 

Tcended fiom it ever fince Chrijiun Earl oi Oldenburg was chofcn King 
of D^nnia>\^ Ann. 1448. 5. Of Schaypenburg, under the Count of 
Lippe. hhrk^oc Ravensbmg. undet Brandefibcrg. H:iyj under Lttnefihurg 
and Iljfe. Ltnge under the Prince o'l Ormqe. Emmerhnd in part un- 
der the Dutch. Kithiirg & Piremmt under the Count of L//'/'e, Ben- 
theim, Bjrchllei!f.)ri., B.hcdj^ lecklenb.irg , I'Vi^d , Brankhorjl or Gromfeld^ 
■'Dil'ebji'^, J)/ephj!tj M^ndcjchdd^ 8cc. under their own Counts. Ab- 
bies, 'liz,: Cor bey., Fjjen^ &c. 

The tree Cities are, i. Emden^ the Amafia PtoL tejie Chverio. 2. Her- 
Tcrdefi. 3. Brjl^, 4. Soeji. 5. Vmrnund in the County of Mark^ 
6. Lmigon? in the County of Lip. The Title of ff^ejlphalia as Ducal is 
ullirped by the Arbifhop of CoUaiy ever fince the prefcription of DuJce 
Henry., Sirnam°d the Lion. 

Our fccond Divilion of Germany was that of the Vumtbe., wherein 
miy be comprehended tirft Suaia Italis^ Scharaben Germanis-^ Sovabe 

Of the Circle of Suevia or Almaigne, Scljwaben IncoUsj 

Sovabe Galits, 

THE Circle or Dukedom of Schrvaben or Almaigne., for by thefe 
two Names the ancient Dukedom was called ; The State was 
ereded under this lali Title by Clovis King of the French. The firft 
Dukes were but Governours under the French during pleafure. After 
tne divilion of the French Empire by the Sons of Lrnvj- the Godly ^ 
and that the Empire was rranlhted to the Germans., they became He- 
reditary. The rirlt that trar.fmitted this Honour to Polkrity was Fre- 
dcrkk^thc Firft, created Duke o( Schtvaben, or J'mjigne by He/;ry the 
Fouith. Conradinm, taken Prilbner in Itjly in his Wars ag^inli Charles 
Duk^of /Injnt. and afterwards beheaded zt Naples , without Heirs, 
was the lali Duke of Schrvaben^ and in whom ended the Succellion and • 
Family of the F.WtnV^f. After this Difalier the Dukedom for want 
o! Heirs falling to the Empire , became fcattered into fundry leiTer 
States- viz. Eccleliafcicks, Laicks and Imperial Cities. The Biftiuos 
A.'c, I. Of J^fsbourg., whofe Pvefidcnce is at Villrng. i. Of Conjiance., 
vv'hofe Rtlidence is at Mersburg. 3. Of Ccire in the Grifsns. Other 
Grand Prelates are, hrll: the i\bbot of Kempton : 2. The Grand Prior of 
the Order of Ahltha, whofe Pvefidence is at Heitcrfheim about two 
Ocnvan Miles South of Brifach and Friburg. 

The Sucuhr Princes are, 1. The Duke of Wirtenburg^ who was raif- 
ed t ) Ducal Dignity in a Diet held at Iforms 14^5:. He hath a Coun- 

Of Germany, 137 

try where the Mountains abound in Mines, Vines and Woods. The 
Forefts of Schrvarz-ivaldt^ are well ftored with Timber-Trees, Game 
and Venifon of all kind; the Vallies are a continuation of Meadows, 
covered withCattel, and watered with Brooks full of Filli j the Pkins 
are thick fee with Gardens like thofe of the H.fperidef. His Pvefidence 
is at StHtgard, Stutgardia^kittd near to the Nech^r. There is no where 
to be Teen fairer Rows of Orange- Trees, Grotta's better contrived and 
beautified, Fountains more artificial, nor Fruits more pleafant to the 
fight or tafte than here. They that have been at "tubing, Tubinga ol. Att- 
gujia^ know how many Princes, Counts, Lords, Barons and Gentle- 
men have been bred in that Noble Colledge and Univerfity, where are 
excellent ProfefTors in all Faculties, principally in thofe which are 
worthy of IJluUrious Perfons. In this Country are reckoned 6-^ Ci- 
ties, 1 5 8 great Towns, ^45 Villages, 537 Water-mills, ard 14 Ab- 
beys of large Revenue. He hath a fair Militia of Horfe and Foot, and 
many FortreiTes, 

2, Of the Marquifate of Baden and Dttrlach : The Marquefs cf Baden 
after the death of Philip the lai^ of the Hochbergian Branch, was united 
into that Amo 150^. who dying in the Year 1515. his Lands were 
parted between his two Sons Bernard and Er/^fjf, who are now the 
Heads of two piincipal Branches, into which this Houfe is divided, 
viz. Baden 3.nd Dourlach, whofe Country lie^ adjacent to the Khine^ in- 
termingled up from Bafil to Philipjhurg, a Country pleafant, and Soil 
fruitful ; chiefer Towns are Baden, giving name to the Country , and 
fo ca-lied from the Hot Medicinal Baths thereof. 2. Vourlachj the Ti- 
tle of the fecond Son, 

5. Of the Counts of HohenzcVeren : The Lords of this Houfe arc 
Hereditary Chamberlains to the Emperors iince the time of Maximilian 
the Firil. Their Cafile of HohenzolJeren was ruined by Henrietta Coun- 
te(s of fVirtemberg^Lnd MontbeViard, but re-edified about the Year 1480. 
at which time Philip Duke of Burgundy, Albert Ele6tor of Brandenburg, 
Albert Duke of Auliria, and Charles Marquis of Baden, laid the fiiii flone 
of it, uiingaTray, a Trowel, and a Mallet, all of Silver. 

The Counts of Fur\i ember g, who are very renowned in Hiftory, arc 
both Princes of the Empire. The Marquifate of Burgaiv, or Buchaw, 
whofe chief place is Gutsburg. The Counts of Helfelihin, having ilou- 
ri(hed above 1000 years, expired fom:^ years Iince. llechberg whofe 
chief Town is Gemund. The Counts of Ottinguen, or Oeiing, are di- 
vided into two principal Branches, that of Waldenfiein is Catholick, 
that of Oitinguen Lutheran. The Fuggers are not very ancient. Ko' 
mgsie\\s new. The Papenbcimj are very famous. The B|jronies of 

T Walhurg^ 

1^9 Of Germany, 

Walburg^ Limhurg^ Jftjiingen, are confiderable. Befides thefe, there are 
fome parts wholly belonging to the Empire. 

Conjlance^ Co^Untia^ feated on the Bodenzee^ belongeth to the Houfe 
o{ Aniiria. Anno 1548. it was outlawed by Charles the Fifth ••> and 
is famous for the Council here held. Anno 141 4. where were aflenn- 
blccl the Fmperor Stgifmund^ four Patriarchs, 2cj Cardinals , 345 
Archbiftiops and Bilhops, 5^4 Abbots and Dodtors, i<5ooo Secular 
Princes and Noblemen; 450 Harlots, ^00 Barbers, 320 Minftrels 
and Jefters. The bufineis was the depofing of three Popes, Gregory 
the 1 2th at Rome ^ John the 23d at Bononia^ and Bfw/je* the 1 3 th 
in Spain, and fetting up Martin the Fiffh. And the degrading and 
burning of Hurome of irague^ and John H«f , withour any refptdi to the 
fafe conducft of the Emperor Sigifmund. 

The Budcnfee by ?Hn. L<icMf Acronius & Brigantinus, is about 8 Dutch 
Miles in Icjigth, and 3 in breadth, and in its greateii depth at Merf- 
/?^r^ abour doo yards. At the ifland Mdnave^ in the Year iS/^j^ 
X.\\z Swedes digging, found a Treafure to the value of Hve Millions. Be- 
low is the Lake Venetus of Vliny^ now called the Lake of Cf/, from a 
Town of that nsme. 

The chief and Imperial Cities of Schwahen are, Aushurg^ or Aujpurg 
& Augshurgh ^ from Att^ujii Burgum, where Augullus fetled a Roman 
Colony after Claudius Vrufms. Nero Germanicus had brought it into 
Subjediion, Vntfo Magus of old, and afterwards Angufla Liberia. Au- 
gujia Vmdelicorum Vtol. & Augufta Vindelicium Ant, famous for its Mag- 
nificence, Town Houfe, for being a BiQiop's See, and Imperial. 2.Vlm^ 
Vlma, feated at the meetings of the Rivers Z/er, BhvezndL Danube i 
of great ftate, large, rich, and well fortified, being fix miles in com- 
pafs. Here the Danube begins firft to be Nivigable. Charles the 
Great defigning to make a Navigable Paflage out of the Rhine into the 
Danube, caufed a Ditch to be made betwixt the Rivers Kegnitz & 
Altimul, two mile long, and 300 foot broad, not far from P.*penheim 
and IVeifemberg^ where there are yet fome Remarks of that vain At- 
tempt i for by reafon of the Rains , and Morifh Soyle, the Earth fell 
down, and filled all up. 

Kemptem Campidmum, an Abbacy, was the ordinary Refidence of the 
ancient Dukes of Sjvaben, and the native place of Hildegardis Wife to 

Dinkelfpiel or Dunkespihel, upon the River Warnitz, was often taken 
and retaken in the late Wars. Ejjingmn or Ezlingh, is a pretty Town 
upon the Neckjr under the protection of the Duke of Wtrtenburgh. At 
Ball is made great quantity of Salt. Hailbrm or Hailprun is an Impe- 

Of Germany^ 138 

rial City , yet pays the Tenth of its Wines and Grain to the Duke of 


Kaufbigeren or Kaufhunn bought its Liberty for 15000 Uvres. Lin" 
darv ftands upon an Ifland in the Lake Confiance, and is joined to the 
firm Land by a Bridge 2^0 Paces long, belonging to the Emperor, 
who hath given it the priviledge of coining Money. Mcmmingen the 
Vmfomagus of Ptol. is very ancient. Nortlingen or Nordlinghen is re- 
markable for the Battel which the Svoedes loft i^^^. where General 
Bjtt«/Vr was ilain, and Gufisvus Horn taken Prifoner. Rotmel^ for the 
lofs of Msittid^l Guebriant i<^43. for being a Retreat to the Cimbri^ 
when beaten by the Romans. Wimpfz, or Vaimpina^ iignifying fFeib- 
fpris^ for the unheard Cruelties of the Huns upon that Sex. Here F'or- 
tune triumphed over Valour, and Magnus Duke of Wirtemhurg died in 
the Battel 1622, Guemtmdy Gaudia Mundiy noted for itsTurnaments, 
and other Paftimes. Here are reckoned 3 5 Free Towns, viz, Baven- 
fperg.BHchatVj upon the Lake Federfee^Biberacb^Fiullendorff^ Ifin Biichorn& 
Vberlingen, upon the Lake Conflance^ or the Boden See. If^angen the 
Nemaria of Antonius^ Offinhurg^ & Gengenbach near the Rhine^ &c. 

0^ B A V A R I J. 

TH E Circle of Bavaria^ Bayern Jncolis-, Baviere GatJis^ Bavkra Hifp. 
& halts, Oltm Boioria & Vindilicia^ fo called by the addition of 
one Letter from the Avarians the remainder of the Hwms, who having 
driven out the Norkians^ feated themfelves in this Country ; and alfo 
Bojarta from theBoj^/2/,a People o^Gatlia Cifalpina.who fometiraes dwelt 
here. The Air is wholfome, and the Country is vleafant. The Na- 
rifcians^ Vindelkians and Noritians were the firftlnhabitants ^ is divided 
into the Dutchy and Palatinate. The Dukedom is divided info three 
parts j the Higher, the Lower, and the Archbiflioprick of SaltzJbourg^ 
a Dii]rid,anddiftind Jurifdic^ion of it feltThe Higher Bxvaria is gene- 
rally overfpread with Woods, cold and barren. The Lower fome- 
what more fruitful, and abundantly more pleafant. In th: Upper Sj- 
i'.^rw chief places are, Munchen^ Monacbmm, or M;/rtic^ upon the River 
J/er, the Refidence of the Dukes of Bavaria, and one of the faireft Pa- 
laces in Ewro/?^, enjoying a moft fweet and happy Scituation among the 
Woods, Gardens and Rivers, famous alfo for its feizure by the King 
of Sn>edeny who found a vaft Treafury herein. In the Lower Bavaria 
are, i, Ingoljiat,) or Angloftadium^ a noted UniveT/ity, founded in the 
Year 147 1. and is famous for putting the firft Aifront upon the King 
oi Sweden inGermany^ and forced him to raife the ^iege by Lems Duke 

T 2 of 

140 Of Germany, 

^ Bavaria. 2. Regenfperg^ or Regensbergh^ Katishone\ built by the 
Third Emperor, Claud'ms Tiberius Nero^ called Tiberina, or Augufta Ti- 
herii j in Antonius Regilkr called Cajira Regina ^ famous for the 
Diets held there, and for its long Bridge ; a fair and large City, beau- 
tified with a great number of Churches, Chappels, and other places 
dedicated to Religious ufes. Tisa BiQiop'sSee, and Town Imperial. 
2.Pajfaiv,Patavium,Bojodurum,Ptol.&^nt.2ind Batava of the Author of the 
Notitia^ then a Garifon-Town of the Romans^ the ftation of the Cohort 
of the Batavians, now a Bi(hop*s See, feated at the meetings of the 
Rivets T>anitbe^ Inn, znd Ills, and divided into three Towns, Pajfarp, 
Injiat, and Ilfiat. 

Landfhat is a fair Town upon the Ifer. F> cifengen is a Bi{hop*s See, 
feated upon a hill, Landfperg Is near unto the Alps of Tirol, 

Bnnavert was a Free City till the year 1^07, at what time it in- 
curred the Imperial Ban or Profcription, which was executed by the 
Duke of Bavaria, who brought it into Subjedion, and holds it ftill 
under his Laws. 

Confined within the Dukedom of B^z/^m, lies the Archbifhoprick 
of Saltz,hurgh, of a dry, rocky, ani barren Soil, feme frefhcr Vallies 
excepted ; rich chiefly in Minerals.* The only Town of Note is 
Saltzhurgh, Salishurgzim, al Jitvania of Ani. & Calirum Jitvavienfi of 
the Notitia, the Manlion then, and tixed Retidence of part of a Co- 
hort o( Rofnan Soldiers, now an Archbifhop's See, whofe Revenues 
are the largeft in all Germany., feated upon the River Saltzjch, where 
lies Interred the Body of Paracelftts. The more Ancient Inhabitants 
were the VindiUci, Florus, and others. 

The Countrey of the Upp-r Palatinate or Nortgnjv, from the more 
Northern Scituationof it as to the Dukedom, is a Countrey rough and 
hilly, rich chiefly in Minerals of Iron. A^nberg^ Ambcrga Cannabis, ftol. 
tejh P. App. upon the River Ills, enriched chiefly by the Commodity 
of Iron digged out of the Neighbouring Hills. The Caftle of Luch- 
iemburg mounted upon a Hill, gives Nime to the Lant graves (o called. 
Pfreimbt is the chief Town of the Landgraves of Lmhtenberg. Nervburg 
upon the R. Swart zach, is the place whereof are Itiled the Princes Pa- 
latine of Ntivburg, the fecond Branch of the Houfe of the Eledor of 
the Rhine, to whom this Palatinate did belong 5 burin the year 1523, 
the Emperor Ferdinand the Second transferred this Palatinate, with 
the Eledoral Dignity, from Frederick^ the Fifih, Count Palatine, to 
Maximilian Duke of Bavaria, and the Munjler-Ttcdiiy confened to Ba- 
varia the firft Eleftorfliip; and an eighth place was new ereded for 
Charles Lewis oi the Rhine, provided that if the Gw/i^/wwe Branch hap-- 

Of Germ Any. 141 

pen to fail before the Kodolphine^ the latter fhall re-enter into their an- 
cient Eledtorfhip, and the new created one Ihall be wholly aboliflied. 
There is in this Countrey the Mount Pinifer, commonly called Fitch- 
tdbergh. being fix miles about i out of which there doth flow fouif 
famous Puivers, the Mane^ the Nab^ the 5^^/, and the E^er, which 
winding in the figure of aCrofs, do run towards the tour Corners of 
thewoild. The more ancient Inhabitants were the Narifcioi Taciius, 
afterwards the Boiearians, 01 Bavarians^ their hrll known Habitation. 

Give me leave to add fome of the old Bavarian Laws. It was enadt- 
ed. That the Judg, to the end he might judge rightly, fhould have 
the Book of the Statutes, and that thereby he fhould determine and 
end all Suits and Controverfies. Neither fhould the Jud^ refped: 
Perfons or Gifts ^ but when he had judgtd righdy, he Ihould have 
the Ninth part of the Com pofltion- Money •, but if urongtully, he 
ihould pay twice as much as he had taken away by his unjuil Judg- 
ment ; and moreover (hould be fined Forty fnillings. He that fold 
any thing conliderable for a certain Price, Ihould fet down the bargain 
in writing, and have WitnelFes thereunto. No Bargain or Sale, un- 
lets it were free and voluntary, (hould be firm and currant. But I 
muft jiot be burdenfome with the repetition of thofe Lrtws which 
John Boeme j^uhanus has treated of at large. 

01 AV S T R I J. 

THE only Arcb-Dutchy in "Europe^ is Austria, or Oo^-rekh^ divided 
into the Upper and Lower Anjiria^ and hath united to it, as He- 
reditary poffJlionof that Houfe, the Provinces or Dukedoms of Sti* 
ria^ Carintbia-, Carniola^ the County of Tirol^ with that of Chilly^ and 
Marquifateof lFindi(h-Marc\. 

The particular Dukedom of Auiiria^ extended oa both fides of ths 
Danube^ is a Countrey pleafant, healthy, and abundantly fruitful in 
Corn and excelleru Wines. Its chief Cities and Places are, i. Vienna, 
Juliobona PtoL Vendnrn Strab, V'mdibona Ant, & Vnidomana of the Au- 
thor oiNoHtia^& Alii Flaviana. Fabiaua Hyl. IVmiGer. IVetfeh & PetZi 
Turcis, & Bjrcb tcfte Bforpn. Vknaltalis^ Waditn Polonis\ iVidoiBohemi^ 
VknneGaliis^ the IVIetropolis of Germany^ feated upon the South- fide of 
theVanitbe^ the greatelt River in Ettrope. In Circuit about ^ooo Geo- 
metrical paces. It is Famous for her UniveriJty, for four great Piaz^ 
za's. adorned with Marble Fountains and Statues 5 for its Cathedral 
ef St. Stephen ( whofe Steeple is about 4^5 foot high, confifiing of 
hewen ftone, and carved into various Figures of Men, Birds, and 

Beafts 1 

142 0/ GiTmrny. 

Beafts ) the Emperor's Treafary, the Arch-Duke*s Gallery, the Trea- 
fury of the Church, and the Sepulchre of Oth. The Arfenal, the Col- 
lege of the Jefuits, the Church and Convent of the Benedidines, of 
the Dominicans ^ and of the Francifcans^ are worthy of Piemark. With- 
in the City there was alfo the Hochbrug^ or High-Bridge, which is 
made by the croffing of two Streets at equal Angles , the ground of 
one Street being as high as the tops of the Houfes of the other, fo 
that to continue it, they were forced tobu.ld a Bridge or Arch in the 
lower Street to pafs over. In the Suburbs, the greatefl Curiofiries 
were the Favoritb, or the EmprelTes Garden •, that of the Biihop, 
and of the Earl of Ihuun^ of the Prince of Aushurg^ and others ^ ihe 
Church and Monaftry of the Carmdites^ of the Augujiines s the Her- 
mitage of xht Capuchins y and the Spanijh Monaltry ; Remarkable alfo 
for plenty of Wine, of Craw-hlh, and Salletsin Winter. 'Tis like- 
wife accounted the Bulwark of thisCountrey againft the 7«rj^/, being 
asftrong, as well fortified ^ built with part of the Money obtained 
for the Ranfom of Richard the Firft, King of England, taken Priloner 
in his return from Palcliine, by Leopold ihci\ith Duke of Jujhia. Fa- 
mous for the Repulfe it gave Solyman, and the whole power of the 
7'urkijh Empire, when of 2000CO Men he brought before it, he car- 
ried away but 1 18000, Anno 152^. And as famous for this lafi Re- 
pulfe of September the I2tb. i<583, for being clo(ely beficged by the 
Prime Vizier with 200000 Turkj^ Tartars^ Cojfackjt and Hungarian 
Malecontents on the 12^/:? of jMly^ i<^83, and as valoroufly defended 
by that Magnanimous Hero, Erneftus Kudiger Count Startnbergh, as Go- 
vernour, was then manfully relieved by the Invincible Prince. John 
King of Poland, the Eledors of Bavaria and Saxony., the Duke of 
Lorrain, Prince if^aldeck^, P. Salme, P. Louis oi Baden^ and the Marquis 
of Brandtnburgh, Baraitb, &c. During this Sie^e, the lurkj were laid 
to have loll 70000, and in the Bitttl more than 20000 men i that 
the Chriftians loll loooo or 15000 during the 'iege, and about 3 or 
400 on that great and lignal Vidtory, when the T'url{s formidable Ar- 
my was totally defeated, their Camp ( which was infinitely rich) 
their Baggage, Cannon, and Tents all taken, and Vienna happily re- 
lieved, whsn brought to its hil extremity. 

Other places in Aujlria are Lintz, Aradati of Ptol the Refidence of 
the Emperor during the Siege of Vienna^ not great, but as r^eat and 
handfome a City as moll in Gcrrrtany. The Houfes buih ot white Free- 
Hone, and the Caftle is of the Modern Fortification. Here is a Bridge 
over the Danube; beiieged by 40000 Peafants of Aujiria^ in the time 
of Ferdinand the Second, at lafl overcome by Papenheim, 


Of Qtrmmy^ 14 j 

'Em Anijis^ upHDti the River Aniftts^ or Onujm^ near which ftood 
the Lanriacum of old, now Lorch a Roman Garifon, and afterwards a 
Bilhop's See. Gniundt^ is confiderable for its ilore of Salt, digged oat 
of the bordering Mountains. 

Melck^e, Nomah\ or McaDilecfa, once the Seat of the Marquelfes of 
AHjhia, noted for its noble Cloiftcr of Bcnedidines^ which overlooks 
the Town, and the Tomb of St. Colman there nriuch honoured. At 
Stan is a Bridge over the Danube. Cnmbs is a Walled Town. 

Baden about four German miles from ViennaJ^s a pretty Walled Town, 
feated near a part of MouiU Ce^/W, which divided Noricum from Pan- 
noma. Moft remarkable for its Baths, which are much frequented, and 
are nine in number. 

Ncwliat is one of the chiefeft Cities in rlujlria^ it is of a fquare fi- 
gure, with a Piazza in the middle of it. Here was Count Peter Seri- 
ni, and Ftangipani^ beheaded, uS chief Contrivers of the Hungarian 

Pretrond^ or Huimhurg^ the fame, or near to the Carnuntum of Plin. & 
Liv. Camus oi Ttol. a lirongHold of the Tanmn'uns^ in vain attempted 
by the 2l(7w^«/ 1 70 years before the Incarnation, fubdued in the time 
of /^«g///?«j^ and made a Roman Colony. Heie refided the Emperor 
Antonius Philofophm three years, and died dii Vindihnna^ now Vienna, 
And here Sevems\szs Elcdted Emperor, ruined in after-times by /4«//tf 
in his Incuriions into thefe parts. 

The ancient Inhabitants of the Lower Aufiria were part of the Mar- 
comannioi Tacitus j thofe of the higher Aujiria w^re part of the Novici 
Ripenfis^ and of the Upper Pannonia. 

Of S T I R 1 J, 

TH E Marquifate of Sthia^ aliof Steirmarck. is a Hilly and Moun- 
tainous Countrey , rich chiefly in Minerals. The Inhabitants are 
much troubled with a Difeafe called Struma^ or the ififlgj-Ew/, a fwel- 
lingof the Throat, proceeding from their more cold and moilt Air, 
or from their more (harp and piercing Waters mingled with Snow, or 
with the virofe ftreams and particles of Mercury^ or other Minerals^ 
defcending from off their Mountains. 

Its chief Place is Gratz.^ Graiacum^ Grdciam^ & Savaria upon the Mur. 
Petarp is the Pet avium of Ptd. and the Petobio of Am. Marcel & P^to- 
vio Ant. Racklefpurg & Pruck^^ or Poreig^ the Bakntittm and Muri pones 
of the Ancients. Seckavi, or Stkou, a Bifhop's See, and Ce/y, the Celeia. 
of Pliny, are of the grt^tei^ Pilgrimages in the Aufirian Territory. 


144 ^f Germmy. M 

The Ancient Inhabitants were the Taurifci of Strah. or par-t of the 
2Vi;r/ci, rather a part of the Vannomi. 


C/4rinthia\ks on the Weft of Stiria: Its chief Vhct^zxtCla^^enfurt^ 
near the Lake Werdfee^ Claudia Plin.tefte Laz. A fair four-fquare 
Walled Town, with a fair Piazza in the middle, adorned with a Co- 
lumn of Marble, and a Statue of the Virgin upon it, alfo with a Sta- 
tue of the Emperor •, alfo with a noble Fountain in the middle, over 
which is a large prodigious Dragon of ftoiie, and Hercules with 
his Club ftanding before it. At B/eyWg are Lead- mine*!, where they 
have worked iioo years, and the Pit is i lo fathom deep. 

St. Veit^ or St. Faiih Vitopolis , feated upon the Confluence of the 
Rivers G/(?« and IVnnkh., a Walled Town, with (ix Churches, and a 
Piazza with a remarkable Fountain. In fight of St. Veitzxc four Hills 
with Chappelsupon them, to all which upon one day of the year the 
Inhabitants go in devotion on foot, which is near thirty 'EngUjk miles. 
Not far from St.Veit is a place called Saal or Solva^ yiger Solvmfu^ or 
Tjolfedt j a place fruitful in Antiquities j among others, that of the 
Kings Chair, ufed at the Inftalling of the Duke of Carinthra, which 
amoMg other Ceremonies, whether he be King, Prince, or Empeior, 
either himfelf or his Subltitute receives a gentle box on thcEarlrom 
a Countrey man. 

Lavemondt., ot Lavanmynd., LavantiOfiium^ a Biljops See. 

V/Hach JuliamCarnicum&Vacormmoi Ftol. ttjie Jivi , Sahd. upon 
the Vra. And Gruch^^ a Bi flop's See, 

The more ancient Inhabitants were the Carni of ftol. & Flin. 


TH E Dukedom of Camiola^ by the Germms Krain, is ri.h in Corn, 
Wine, and Oyl ; Chiefcr Towns are Laibach, or Lahjck^^ Laba- 
cum., the Pamportii of Strabo^ and Naaportus ot Pin, Memorable f^r 
the iiory of the Ship Argonaut a., wherein was brought the Golden 
Fleece from Votiius Euximis^ (topped here by the bordering Mountains, 
and carried over land to the Adriatick Sea, and fo brought back again 
unto Greece Krainburg is a very ikong place. And Gorecz, Goritmm^ near 
the Adriaikkj upon the River Lifonze.^ belongs to the Arch-duke of 
Auihia 5 as alfo the Earldoms of LiUey and JVindijhmarck^ the chief place 
of the firft beareth the fame name j the chUf place of the latter is 


Of Germany^ 145" 

Mctlingt the M^taVum^ or Metalumoi Strab. App. Here alfo is the Zirth', or the famous ftrange Lake ZirJ^mtzer, or Ziricbniiz. Lu- 
gmnij or Lug^a 5 Talus of Strab. Valus LihurnU^ & Japodum Valns-^ a 
Lake about two Germm miles long, and one broad. Every year in 
the month of June^ the water of this Lake defcendeth under ground 
through many great holes at the •bottom, and In the month of Stp- 
tember returneth again by the fame holes, and with a fpeedy afcent 
fprings up to the height of 14 or 15 foot, and affordeth plenty of 
Fifh ; and when dry, it yields iioreof grafs for Cattel. I^r/^, about 
ten miles from Goritia or Nordu of old, and is famous for its Quick- 
{ilv«r Mines, one of which is between 120 and 130 fathoms deep. 
'Tis feated amongft the Mountains upon a River of the fame name 
that runneth into tl'ie Zifonzo^ near which Odoacer King of Italy was 
llain in Battel by theodorkliji'mg of the Goths. 

"Trieih^ Terge^ttm^ is a Port-Town of the Emperors in the Adriatic\ 
Sea, as is alfo ^(/;//7ci^, once the Metropolis of nhtCarni^ but dertroyed 
by Attila 452, and by the Longobards 5po, fo that 'tis now poor and 
mean j both properly are in Italy. 

Ponteba, or Pont Fella^ is the exad Confines between the Venetian and 
the Imperial Dominions 5 on the onelide of the Bridglive Italians Cub- 
je(5i to the Venetians ; on the other, Germans^ fubjed to the Emperor. 

Weft oiCarinthia lies theCountrey of 7irol ; of a fertile Soil, and 
in many places Silver-Mines ; whofe chief places are Lifpmck^, ^niponi^ 
feated on the Oenns^ or Iww-River, which gave Name to the third 
Branch of Aufiria^ where the Arch- Dukes have a Magnificent Palace, 
fometimes the feat of Charles the Fifth, and Ferdinand the Firft. Trent, 
a Biflioprick feated on the River Adtjls 5 famous for the<3eneral Coun- 
cil there held by Pope PW the Third and his Succeffors, againft the 
Dodrines oi Luther 2nd Calvin : It began in ^^;2«(? 1545, and conti- 
nued off and on, for the fpace of eighteen years. Brixen, Brixia^ is a 
famous Biftioprick in this Countrey. 

Tyrol is a Caftle that gives Name unto the greateft Countrey of Ew 
rope. Scbivatz 2indStertz.ingen^AXC rich in Sihct-MiuQS^ 

And now we are come to our Third Divifionof Germany about the 
Elbe and Odur, where we may confider Saxony the Higher and Lower 
Circle. The firli comprehending the Eiktes of the Dukes and Ele- 
ctorates of Saxony.) of Brandenburgh, and Pomerania. The other con- 
taining the Dutchies of Hdftein^ of Bremen., of Lwieburg^ of Brunf- 
veick^^ of Lae>Penhurg., of Mik^i-nhurg^i &c. Then the Kingdom of Bohe- 
mia^ with the Dutchy of 5//f/?^, and Marquifateof Mor-;tvia. 

U ' Of 

1^6 Of Germany. 

Of the Higher Saxony. 

WE fliall confider firft theEftates of the Dukes and Eledlorate of 
Saxony. And here for the better information of the Reader 
in a matter of much Intricacy, and" which without the general know- 
ledge of the Saxonian Hiftory (which is too large here to be inferted ) 
cannot well be made plain and intelligible i we fliall therefore , con- 
trary to what other Authors of Geography have done in their Defcrip- 
t'lons o{ Saxony :, tell you, That whether Albert the Third deceafing 
without ilTue in the Year 141 2. in whom ended the Dukes Electors of 
Saxony of the Houfe oi Anhalt ; Or whether Erkh^ the Fifth of the Houfe 
of Saxon Lauenhur^h lapfed his time or demanding the InveOiture of 
the Eled-orfhip •■> Tis certain that Frederick^ the Ftrfl , Sirnaraed the 
Warlike, Marquifs of Mifnia , and Lantgrave of Thuringia^ was crea- 
ted Duke Elector of Saxony by the Emperor Sigifmmd in the Year 
1423. by this means the Title and Dignity of theEledors and Dukes 
of Saxony was quite removed out of the ancient and true Saxony , and 
Gonhned within Thuringia^ M'fnia, and the Countiy about Wittemberg^ 
called the Dutchy of Saxony, or Obcr Sachfen. The only PofTeffions of 
the Modern Dukes. Only by a further accumulation in the Year 
1583. the Houfe of Heneberg totally failing, that of Saxony took pofTef- 
fion of it by vertue of a Confraternity made between thofe Princes in 
the Year 1 554. And alfo that fince the laft War of Bohemia the Em- 
peror gave the Upper and Lower Lufatia to John George Elector of 
this Houfe, who died the 8th o( O&ober i6'^6, and was interred the 
4th of February i^t^y. with more than Regal pomp, there being 
3500 perfons in Mourning, and 24 Horfes of State covered with 
Black, and the Eledorate Efchutcheon Embroidered thereon , every 
one of them led by two Gentlemen. 

This Eledlor bequeathed by his laft Will to John George his Eldeft 
Son, the Lands infeparable from the Eledoral Dignity, viz. the 
Dutchy of Saxony^ together with the Upper and Lower Lufatia, with- 
feme Bailiwicks about Drefden j to j4uzujius^ the Adminiikator of Mag-^ 
deburg^ with twelve Bailiwicks about H«j|/, ^nd in T^hnringia. To Chri' 
jiian^ the Diocefs of Mtrsbourg, and fome Lands in Voritland, and in the 
Mountains. To Maurice, betides the Dioceffes of Naumburg and Zeitz^ 
all that of his Ele(3:oral Highnefs in the Principality o{ Heneburg, Thefe 
are all the Princes of Saxony of the D>:fcendents of the Eledlor Auguftus^ 
Brother to Maurice Duke of Saxony of a younger Houfe, who have 
their Habitation at Hall^ at Mkrsburg^ at Kaumburg, and at Vrefdm-^ 


Of Germmy* 147 

for John Frederick^^ Sirnamed the Magnanimous, of the Houfe of Fre- 
Jeric'f^thc Firft, Sirnamed the Warlike aforefaid, was in the Protelhnt 
Wars taken Prifoner by the Emperor Charles the Fifth, by whom he 
was deprived of his Lands and Ele(3:or{hip, which was given to Mau- 
rice aforefaid , his Kinfman ; but after hve years Captivity or Impri- 
fonment, his Lands, but not the Ele6torfiiip were reitored to him a- 
gain, which his SucceiTors now poflefs} which are now divided into 
three Branches, viz. of i. Aliembourg and Cohurg \ 2. 0{ Weymar : 
3. Oi Gotta and Eifenach. To thefe we may add the Principality of 
Anhalt^ which is divided amongft many Princes, who relide at VtJJaw^ 
at Beretnhorg^ at PlesJ^aiv., at Zerb^^ and at Cotfen, Intermingled with 
thefe are the Counts of Mansfield^ Hwenflein.SchivjrtzbHrg^ S;o!berg, &c. 
with two Imperial Cities, Northaufen and Mulhaufen^ and the Univer- 
fity of Jena ; all thcfe Ellates are contained within Mifnia^ T'kuringiay 
or Vuringe, and Saxony^ or Sacbfen^ and Lttfatia^ or Laveniiz^, Other 
chief Cities are, i.Mijma^ oxMiiffen. feated upon the Elbe^ whence 
the Province had its Name , a Bifhop's See, adorned with three fair 
Caftles or Palaces of the Bifhops, Burgraves, and of the Dukes o^ 
Saxony, 2dly, Lipfu, Leipfy^ or Ldpfick^^ not very large, but weal- 
thy and populous, beautirted with fair Buildings of Stone, viz. theCa- 
file, and St. Nicholoi's Church. 'Tis a rich Empory, and noted Uni' 
verllty, feated upon the Fviver Ellhr ^ having three Marts in the 
year : Famous alfo for two great Battels fought near unto it in the 
lafr Smdifh Wars ; One between Cnfiaphm A dolphm^ Km^of Stveden^ 
and Count T/t')/ General of the Imptrialifts, 16^1^ wherein the Swedes 
obtained a great Vidory : Tilly was wounded, and lived not long af- 
ter. In the other, Torjienfon.thc Swede, overcame Arch-Duke Leopoldus 
Gulielmus ^ and Odavio Ficcolomirii , Generals of the Imperial Army. 
And about a mile and a half from hence at Lutzen another great Bat- 
tel was fought i6^z. between the King of Sweden and the Imperial 
Army commanded by Wallenjiein Duke of Friedland, wherein the Swedes 
obtained the Victory, but the King of Sweden was ilain \ and on the 
Imperial tide that hrciOU% Godfrey Count of Pappenheims for thatVidlo- 
rious King could not die but co,iqu.'ring, and P-appenhcim ought not to 
fall but in the company of fo great a Prince. But the chiefeft is Vnf- 
den IncoU^^ T>refda Italic., the Seat and Refidency of theEledor of S^x-)- 
ny. Grand Marftial of the Empire, feated upon the River Elbe, over 
which there is a very nobk Stone-Bridge of 1 7 Arches ; 'tis well for- 
tified after the Modern way, with a l^rong Wall, and a larg: Ditch, 
having three Gates. Places moft worth the feeing here, are the Italian 
Girden in the Suburbs. The Hunter's Houfe in the eld Town. The 

U 2 Eleaor's 

14B of Germany. 

Eledlor»s Palace, His Houfe for wild Beafts. His Stable. His Arfe- 
nal, and his Kmijlk^mmer , or Gollecflion of Rarities. Here the Lw 
theran Women mourn in White, and fay Grace. 

4. Freiburg, a noted place, with other>5 adjacent, for its Silver 
IViines 5 around well- walled City, with a Piaz'za, Caltle, and hve 
Gates. In St. Peters Church b the fair M<^nunient of Duke Maurice 
Eledor of S.ixotiy, which in O&oh, 1632 up )n the furrender of the 
Town, coft 80000 Dollars to fave it from being ranfacked and de- 

5. Wittenberga. Leucoris Lat. Wittenhurg, in ober Sachfen, in an open 
Plain upon the Elbet ftrong'y fenced with Bulwarks, Walls, &c. a 
noted liniveriity for Lttiheran Divines, where alfo arc the Sepulchres 
of Luther, born at Eijlebcn, in the Earldom of Mansfddt 5 And of Mc 

South cf M(/«w, if not comfrehended in it, lies a little Country 
called Voithnd, or Viteland, which feemeth to take its Name from the 
Juites or Vites, who together with the Saxons and Angles conquered 
Britain, and gave Name to the Ifle of Ifight. Its chief place now is 
Zppic\avp, Cignea in Scrip, Germ. 

MarchtA 'Brandthurgenfis, 

TH F Marquifate of Brandenburg is a large Country , well ftored 
with Woods, Lakes and Fens, and in fome places with Corn. 
It is generally divided into two parts, the old and the new Marqui- 
fate. The Metropolis of the Old is Brandenburg^ or Brennoburgum, a. 
Bifhop's See, and the tirli Seat of the Marquifles, giving Name to the 
Country. The Metropolis of the New is Francfurt , Franeofurtum ad 
Oderam, a Univerfity 1505. enjoying a pleafant Scituation among 
Corn-fields, and Viney-downs, Co thdit Ceres znd Bacchus feem both 
enamoured of it. Berlin, 'Berlinum^ feated in the imdi\ oi the Province 
upon the bank of the River Spree, which Magimts, B?rtms IVtUichius^ 
T>reffer, Vrick^eimcr, and other Geographers have millakeri tor Ptolomys 
Suevus: on the other fide of the River is Coin, the place of the Prince 
Eled^or's Relidence. 

Coflrinum, Coftriiny Cu{i:rin & Kuftrin^ is a very nrongFortrefs, faid 
never yet taken -, it baffled the King of Svpeden in the Year 16^1. Ha- 
velburg is the Seat of a Biihop. Stendal is the Metropolis oi Alt-Marc}^, 
feated upon the River Vcht. Soltivedel, or Solrvcl ( i. e. the Houfe or 
Temple of the God Sol ) on the banks of the River Jetze, Gardlebeni, 
laid to be theAneieiK J fobergum,(wm the Image ofl/a liere.worihipped, 


Of GermA^jy, 149 

is famous foi its Beer, and Hops Oranienburg^ formerly Bolzai^, af- 
fords the greateft variety ot pleafuies. being eiicompaiTed with Parks 
and Foreiis. Btlides this Marquifate whereunco the Eiedtoral Dignity 
is annexed, there belongs to this f-rmcethe Dutchy of Fruffta in PJana'. 
The Ducchy or molery of Fomerania. The flcverlion of the Dutchy of 
MagdeouTg, The Durchy of CUvp.s^ and Earldom of Marl^. The Prin- 
cipalities of Halberji'd in Brmfiricb^, and Minden inW^ftphalia, which he 
had in lieu of his Rtiignation of the Higher Fom^'ra/iia to the Swede, 
The Dutchy of Crcjfen^ and Lordftiip of Fregnitz in SiUfu- Th-^ Ju- 
rifdidion of C(7/^?</x, orCj^/w, and other Towns in Lw/jfw, ox Laufs- 
tiiiz. The Branches of this Family are the MarqueiTes of CyJem- 
bach and Onfpach. 

Of Pomerania, or Pomeren» 

)Omerania lies extended all along the Shore of the Baltkk^SeZj di- 
vided into the Upper and Lower Potneren^ now Royal and Ducal 
Fomerania, the firit belonging to the Srvidcs^ the latter to the Elector 
q{ Brandenburg. A Country plain, populous, and in fome places fruit- 
til in Corn, Pafturage, Honey, Butter, Wax, Flax and Beer, vizo 
the Bitter Beer oi Stetin^ the Mum oi Gripfirald ^ the Knockdown of 

Chief Places in Fomerania Royal, are Sietin^ Stetinum, memorable for 
its brave Siege, and as brave defence in the Year 1(571, when taken 
from the Stpedes^ hnce reftored again by the Treaty of Nimegmn, 

W'lliin^ when y«//«M?« a flouriihing Emporium, Anno 1170. facked 
by VFaldemarpts King of Denmark; Gripfwald^ a noted Univerfity ; its • 
Fields and Cattel are tindured with the tafts of wild Garlick. VFol- 
ga^i, over-againft the Ifle Vfedom. Camin^ a Bifhop's See, over-againft 
the Ifls oi WoUin. Stratlfundt ^ ali^s Sundls ^ a well-traded Empor^" 
over-againft the Ifie F.tigau Taken by the Elector of Brandenbttrg 
1578. but by the Treaty of Peace (igned at St. Germain s en Laye^ 
July ap. i^7p. he refigned it back to the Srvedei. 

Chief Places in DuQdXFomeran^zxo.Colkrg at the mouth of the River ^ 
Ferfandt. Coflin upon tht River Kadnie. Nerp.garten upon the Hamerf- 
beck. Siargard upon the Ina. Kttgenveal upon tlic VVipper^ are all 
contiderable Towns. 

The famous Odtr having paifed Gartz and Grief en hagen^ and entring 
into Pomerania^ divides its (elf into feveral Branches or Arms, con- 
taining therein many large and fair Meadows; whereof fome are • 
above twoEnghJh miles in bteadth. After it has pafTcd h-^ Stetin, it di- 

i 50 Of Germany* 

lates its felf into the Vammijh Sea or Lake, then into the Vamantzk^y 
or Pfafcnivajfer, and at laft fpreads it Celt into a Vail: Fre(h-water Ocean 
called Dm groffe Frifche-Haf^ extending it (elt about 46 Englijh miles 
in length, and 4 in breadth : which Laiie difembogues it felt into the 
Baltick^Scsi in three Currents or Harbours, thcVivenowo^ Sxpyne^ znd Pe- 

This fiiall fufflce for the Higher Saxony, or the Eighth Circle of the 
Enfipire. Come we next to that of the Lower Saxony^ which contains, 

The Dutch) of Mecklenburg. 

MEckelburgienfrs^ five Mcgalopolitani Vucatus^ lies next to Pomeranian 
along the Coart of the Baltic}^ Sea, of a fruitful Soil, and rich in 
Corn. The Princes or Dukes whereof are now divided into two 
Branches ; the one whereof make their Relidence at Suevin^ or Schxve- 
rin, upon a great Lake, a Billiop's See, whole hrft Billiop, John ScotHs^ 
was cruelly martyred, Ann. 12 do. by the V^tnc/ilh Apoftatcs. The 
other at Gu(hon , or Gujharv , a well fortified Town, about 18 or 
20 Engliflj miles from Rojhck^, and have now each of them a moiety 
of the Dufchy, and are faid to be derived from the Vandal Princes. 
However in the lateGerw<i« Wars the Emperor made thefe Princes feel 
the weight of his Indignation, giving their Lands to Wallejiein a Stle- 
fun Gentleman, (a great Captain indeed, and renowned Soldier, who 
by a rtrange Ingratitude, and Devililh Ambition, came to a miferable 
end ; the Duke of Biron and the Earl of Effix had fuch like Defigns, 
and as Tragical Cataltrophcs.) Nevertheltls they re-entred into it by 
the Arms of the Great Guihvus their Coufm-German, 16^1. And 
though Alw!ffer-Treaty took Wtfmar^ yet gave them in Exchange the 
Bilhopricks of Ratzeburg and Suerin^ turned into Principalities. 

Other chief p'aces, are Vl^ifmar^ Wifmaria^ a Hans Town, and noted 
Port upon the Baltkk^.. founded out of the Ruins of the great and an- 
cient City of Mecklenburg^ or Megalopolis, Anno 1240. tak-en by Chri- 
(Iran V. Kin^ o( Venmark^^ i6y6. from the Swedes , but according to 
the Treaty of Peace figned at Fountanibleau on the 2d of Septemb-i^y^, 
it was to be rellored to the Swedes within three weeks alter the ratifi- 
cation of the faid Treaty ; yet in a fecond Treaty ligned on the 26tb 
of the faid Month at Lunden in Schonen ^ it was agreed that IVifmar 
(hould remain in the hands of the King of Venmirh^^s a Surety for the 
Arrears of certain Contributions due from that King to the Crown of 
Denmark^: fothat the Vanes, 1 think,Oill keep polfeilion of this Town, 


Of Germany, i^j 

tfie Obligation being not cancelled. 2. Rcjiock^, or Rofzliock^y a City 
of great Antiquity, by report of tiie Gerw^w Antiquaries. Wliat great 
things the Ancient K.o>«a« Writers report of Li2ci«m^«, Lacihurgium and 
Kodopolis^ they appropriate to Rcjhcl^y how true, I know not 5 'tis 
certain, that in the Year 32^. 'twas only a fmall inconliderable Vil- 
lage, built by fome poor Fidiermen on the Banks of thePVarna: now 
thcT!^ are reckoned 140 Streets, many adorned with high and (lately 
Houfes. There are 7 times 7 remarkable things in Rojhck. Seven 
great Doors to the Cathedral Church of St. Marys , 7 large Streets 
leading to the Market-place, 7 Gates of the City towards the Land, 
7 Bridgv's over the VFarna^ 7 Towers on the top of the Town- Hall, 
7 great Bells which chime at certain hours in the Town-Hall, 7 great 
LindenTrces in the Common Garden.lts moft noted Commodity com- 
monly is Beer, a Hans-City, noted Port, large, rich, and well-traded, a 
Univerlity founded Anno 141^. Since the Treaty at M««f?er, the ^wy^ie/ 
have built a Fort at the mouth of the River Warna , and cxadl Toll 
or Cuftoms of all Ships that pafs to Ko[hck^^ to the great prejudice of 
the City. 

Come we next in courfe to Bolftein, which is under the Homage 
and Pxight of the Empire, but being in poiTeilion of the Houfe of T)en^ 
mark^^ we (hall refer its Defcription to that Kingdom, and fpeakof ths 
Dutch ies of Brunfmck^zni Lunenburg. 

0/ the Dutchks o/Brunfwick and Lunenburg; 

TH T S was a part of the ancient Dukedom of Saxony^ till the Pro- 
fcription o{ Henry, Sirnamed the Lim^ by the Emperor Frederick, 
Barbarnfa ; but by the Mediation oi Henry the Second, King oi England, 
his Father-in-Law, ( being recon;iled unto the EmperorJ had the Ci-r 
ties of Brunfrvick^^nd Lunenburg^ with their Countries, reftored unto 
him 5 afterwards ereded into a Dukedom by the Emperor Frederick, 
the Second, whofe Polkrity enjoyed thcfe Dukedoms jointly till the 
Year 1430. when they were divided between William the Vidorious, 
who had the Title of Brmfxrick^, and his Uncle Bernard who had the 
Title of L««eflWg, and in their Pofierity both thefe Dutchies do ftill 

In the Dukedoms of Brurifwick, al. Brmfrvigenfis ^ & Hmnoveri 
The South and Eaft parts towards Hr/Jew, &c. fwell with Woody 
Mountains and Hills, parts of the ancient Hircinian', the Northern 
part more plain and fruitful in Corn, and other Commodities. 

f ^2 Of Germany. 

Chief Places are Brnnfmch , al. Braunfrvyck^ & Brunp/tga & Bmnopolij ', 
the Tulifur^iam of ?tol. tefh Apphno, upon the River^ and one of 
the chief Hans-Towns, containing about feven miles in compafs, fair, 
populous, and Wrongly fortified with a double Wall , peopled with 
indultrious Inhabitants, jealous of their Liberty ^ Governed in man- 
ner of a Free Eftate, held under the right of the Princes. Its chief 
Trade is in Hides and Mum. Go/lar, Geflarh, a Town Imperial. All 
the Houfes in this City are covered with a glittering kind of Slat ', the 
Inhabitants are all Miners, snd the only Trade of the Town is in dig- 
ging, cleanling, teir.pering, and vending all manner of Metals, ex- 
cept Gold -y and a great many choice Minerals of the Country, as Vi- 
triol, Brimrtone, Quicklilver, Copperas, &c» Holmjhdt Is reckoned 
the oldeft City in SaX'My ( except Bardiwick,) built by the Emperor 
Charles the Great, about Jn:-:. Vom. 782, it is famous for its Acidemh 
Jttlis , or Univerfity. V/clfinhuml-^ a very ftrong Cafile , and the 
Rciidencc of the Dukes of Bmnfmckj, where is a famous Library ^ with- 
in thefe Territories were alfo included the Principality of Halkrjlat^ 
now under the Eledror of Brandenburg, and the Bifiioprick of hildcfheim 
the Afcalingmm of Ttol. & Irenicus^ the Abbey ^cdclinhHrg, whofe Ab- 
batei's was fometimes Princefs of the Ernpiie, now fubjcft to theKoufe 
of Saxony. Hannover is the Seat and Title of another Branch of the 
Dukes of Brwfivkk-, whofe Duke is a Catholick, and by M/frf???' Trea- 
ty Eiihop of Ofnabnrg^ in v/hofe Territories are Calenhurgy Gruhcnha- 
gen, Goningetiy and Hamelcn, where the Inhabitants keep the Records 
of the famous Piper, who in 1284. drew the Boys of the Town in- 
to a Gave, who were never after heard of. 

Lun£hirgenfts Due at us , Hertzogthumb Lunmbourg^ incolis : Vulche de 
Lunebourg GaVis. The Countrey is plain, the Air Tharp and healthful, 
and the Soil barren. The chief Town is Lunenburg, Lun£bHrgum, up- 
on the River V'me^ now one of the Six Hans-Towns, large, popu- 
lous, and adorned with fair Buildings, whofe chief Trade is in Salt. 
Cell, OT ZelK is theR-elidencecf the Dukes, about 10 GtTwj« miles di- 
ftant from Litneburg. 

Of Bremen, Epifcopatus Bremenfis, 

HIS Diocefs or Archbifhoprick of Bremen is a Country whofe ex- 
treme parts along the Elbe and Wefer are very fertile for Corn 
and Pafturage , the more inner parts wild and barren. Bremen an 
Archbiihop's See, and a Univerfity, or Gymnafwm, an Imperial City, 
and the third Hans-Town 5 gives name to the Country ; it is feated 


Of Germmy, 153 

upon the right fide of the ^(/fr, large, populous, rich, and well-tra- 
ded, and firongly fenced, and is famous for its Art of drtfling Lea- 
ther, and Cloth, and for their Fifh. 

Stada^ Stadt , a noted Hans-Town , accounted the moft ancient in 
Saxony^ and once the Staple of the Englifh Merchant- Ad venturers, 
now the place where the Ships pay Tole, llrongly fortihed. Bremerf- 
forde, OT Bremerverden , a Caftle, and Village, where the Archbifhop 
did refide. But now the So'edej have there a ftrong Garjfon. CharUjiat 
is a ftrong Fort built by the Swedes near the mouth of the River fVefer. 
This Country, with the Principality of Ferdai^ ov Vehrden, in FFeji' 
fhalia^ now belongs to the Svpedes by the Treaty of Mnnjier, and is 
annexed to their Territories and Dominions under the Title of a 

Of Larvenbitrg, 

THIS Dutchy gives name to the Princes oi Saxon Larvmhurg^ who 
are Branches of the fame Houfe with the Princes of Anhalt. Ifs 
chief place is Larvenburg^ or Laitbenburg^ upon the FV^, a fine Town, 
but the Caftle is ruined, and the Duke lives at Raizeburg^ though he 
hath nothing there but the Cattle, the Town belonging, as was faid, 
to the Duke of Mecklenburg, 

Of Magdeburg, Ditto Magdeburgenfis. 

THIS Diocefs lies extended on both fides of the E/^, betwixt- 
Brandenburg^ and the proper Saxony. The chief Town is Mtig- 
deburg & Meydenburg^ incolis. Meydburg^ or Mrgdeburg : antiquis monu- 
mentis Pathcfiopolis. Mefuinum Ptol, te(tis Apphno, A Burgrave(hip of 
the Empire, and Archbifhop's ^ee, giving name to the Country. Re- 
edified by Edttha Wife unto the Emperor Henry the Firft, and Daugh- 
ter to Edmund^ King of England , and thus named in honour of her 
Sex. Her Effigies in ftone is in the Cathedral Church, with 1 9 Tuns 
of Gold which (he gave thereunto -, though others fay it was for the 
Worfhip of the Virgin T>iana. A place of great ftate, large and fair, 
and ftrongly fortified, once the Metropolitan City oi Germany, famous 
in the Protcftant Wars for a whole year's Siege againft the Emperor 
Charles the Fifth. But facked and burnt hy Tilly, and 3 6000 perfons 
put to the Sword, and deftroyed 16^1. and the Town almoft ruined. 
'Twas alfo famous for the firft Turnament which was in Germany, 
which was performed here in the Year 637. by the Emperor Henry^ 
Sirnamed the Fotvkr. 

X ^ Thefe 

J ^4 ^/ Germany. -I 

Thefe are the chief parts of the Lower Saxony , and contain the 
Ninth Circle of the Empire. 


Oiemum, Tac. 'Beiohemnm Taterc. Bomi Viol. Boheim Germ. Bobeme GaUis^ 
Boemia Hijpms., Bohemia It alts. Czesk^tzem incolis tejie Brieto. This 
Kingdom i? environed about with Mountains and Forefts, as it were 
witii FortiH.ation";. The Air fharp and piercing, theCountry rough 
and hilly, rich in Minerals, and ytlding fufficient plenty of Corn, 
and o-her ncceffary Proviiions , Wine excepted. Fiill inhabited 
by fome of the Germans, the H.rmiones , who were difpofleffed by the 
B ji, who gave Name unto the Country. The Boil were routed by 
the MtrcMjanni, a people of Germany. And thefe were alfo ejeded by 
the Sdaves under Zechuf, Brother unto Lechus ^ the Founder of the 
Polijh Monarchy, about the Year 64^. called in their own Country- 
language Czcchi, but named from the Country they feized upon, Bmh£- 
mi, upon their Hrft arrival. This people were governed by Dukes 
until about the Year io8(5. when Vratiflam or Vladiflam was created 
the firft King oi Bohemia. In a Diet at M^«/z,by the Emperor Henry the 
Fourth, about the Year 1 1^9. Power was given to the States to chufe 
their Princes , before being El£(2:ed by the Grace of the Emperors, 
fince which time the Kingdom continued Elective, though moft com- 
monly enjoyed by the next of blood, until the Royal Line being ex- 
tindt, the Knigdom was devolved upon the Houfe of j^ufiria. 

Chief Places are, Fraga Italis^ Prag incUis^ Prague Gallis. Marobu' 
dum PtoL tejie Sanf. & Brief, the Capital and Royal City of the King- 
dom of Bohemia^ Tested upon the River Muld^rv., by the Bohemians, Vl- 
tave-j it confifteth of three Towns, the Old, the New, and theLeffer. 
'Tis an Archbi(hoprickandUniverfitv, where in the Year 140^. were 
reckoned above 40CO Students under the Redosfhip of John Hus. 
The greatefl: Remarks are the Emperor's Palace, iind Summer-houfe. 
A fair Cathedral Church built ^23. The Palace and Garden of Cola- 
redo. The Palace of Count fFallefiein Duke of Frcidland. The Bridge 
being i7co foot long, and 35 foot broad , with two Gates, under 
two High Towers of Stone at each end. Near Pragm that deciding 
Battel was fought, November %. 1620. between Fre^m':^Prince Pala- 
tine of the Rhine, Eleded King oi Bohemia^ and the Emperor Fer^i/wW 
the Second, where the Victory fell unto the Imperialifts, Pragm forced 
to yield, and King Fredmch^w^di his Queen forced to fly into SiUfta, 


Of Germafiyl !«* 

^eritchin BroJa, by the River Saczua, a firorg phce wher- taken by 
Zifca. who then forced the Emperor Si^ifmwid to fly out of Bohemia. 

jMik^itv^ where was f'-ught that famous Battel of Feb. 2^. i6i-^. 
between Torjlmfon-, and the Imperialilis, the Succefs gave the Swedef 
the advantage of proceedhig further. 

Cz^ajlarp is the place where Zifca was buried, that famous Bohemian 
Gsneral, who fought when he was blind j and when dead, withcd 
his friends to make a Drum of his Skin. 

Kuttenburg. or Cnttemburg^ is famous for its Silver Mines. 

E^ra is a ftrong City , accounted the ff cond of Bohmia , and chief 
Maga7i;T€ of the Country. Famous for its Fountains, whofe Wafers 
cure all hihrmities of the Eyes and Ears, or other parts of the Head. 

The Mountains of the Giants in Bobtmia^ called Ripb£i or Caonojft^ 
are famous for three thing? \ for their Signification and Prognollicks 
of all Temptiis, for the ranty ai Plants, Stones and Gems there grow- 
ing and for a Spectrum called Ribenzd, which is faid to walk about 
thdfe Mountains in the form of aHuntfman. Jnfelmiu; de B.vt teUs us, 
that Rudulphus the Second, King of Boherr.ia^ had a Table of Jc\yels 
which he calls the Eighth Wonder of the Woild ; it was wr« ught 
with fuch Art, that the Jewels which were fet together with invilible 
Joints, prefented a moii pleafant Landskip, naturally reprefenting 
Woods, Pvivers, Flowers, Clouds, Animals, &c. the like not to be 
found in the World. 

The Waters of Carolina al- Karshad^ found out Jiwo 1370, in the 
time of Charles the Fourth, will in a Night's time turn Wood into a 
ftony cruft. 

Triat the Loadftones of Bohemia will give -the point of the World, 
but not draw Iron ; and that a Needle touched with one of thofe 
Stones, never points diredtly North, but declines eight or more degrees 
to the lalt. 

That Mummie5,as good as any in Egypt^hzve been found in Bohemia^ 
(a whole man of Myrrh, Amber) Bones of Giants, and Unicorns 
Horns, ^rc digg'd out of the Mountains. See-the Hillory of Bokw/^. 
Bi/h'/fluo Balhino & Soc. Jef. infol. Prag, 1^79. 

Other chief Towns are Pilfen^ large and Walled , Tabr.r upon the 
River Lauznitz,' Koningfgratz Ger. Hradium Regin£^ Kralovpihr^deizBDh, 
Kuttenbmg Ger. Ktttnahora Boh. Budercifs Gcr. aL Budeiowice Boh. Lmme' 
ritz Ger. al. Litomierzitze B'h. 

To thefe fome here add the Country and City of Glat^ upon the 
Borders of Stkfia, 

X2 Of 

1 1^6 Of GerntAnf, 

Of MordvUy Marker hy or MSren. 

IS a Country lying open only towards A-tHria^ and the South, up- 
on the other fides environed with Mountains a id Forelh ; plain 
within, and exceedingly populous, pleafanr, and fruitful for Corn, 
Wine and Pafturage. The Air fomewhaf unhealthy, being debarred 
from the cleanfing Eaft and Northern Winds, yet it has feveral rich 
Medicinal Fountains : And a ftrange kind of Frankincenfe or Myrrh, 
which is dug out of the bowels of the Earth. Once a Kingdom, now a 
Marquifate/ubjed to the B3kw/^«j-,anAppendant of that State fmceAa. 
2^1 7. whcnSigifmund the Emperor gave it to Jlbertus King oiBohemia. 
Chief Places are Olmutz,-> or Olmuntz, Germ, & Olmucz. Olamietmm & 
Olomunchim Latino. Hjlomane Boh. the Eburum of Ttol. tefte Tyrant. & 
Appiano^ rather Barouaa tejie Laz. A Univerfity feated on the River 
Morava, ovMarckhy which running quite through the Country,entreth 
the Vonaw near Presburgh, and gave name to the Countrey ; large 
and ftrongly fortified, taken by the Smdes^ but reftored by the Treaty 
of Mmftir. 

2 . Brinmm^ Brin. Gtr. Bruno Bohemis^ the Jrjicuj of Ptol Vilano^ but 
by Sanf. 'tis Hradifch. Walled, and hath a ftrong Cafile , famous for 
the Siege ot K545. by the Swe^e/jfeated upon the River Schtpartz^ind 

3. Iglarv Germ, or Igla^ Gzihlawa Bohem. Gehla\hy the Moravianr^ 
on the River fo called, feated upon a Hill on the Frontiers of Bohemia, 
well fortified, having a large Piazza. 

4. Znoimum^ Znaim^ Germ. Xnoymo Bohem. Lat. Znogma. the Medoflarti' 
um oiPtoL tefte C/«iJ. feated upon the River Ti^ey^, which divideth Mo- 
ravia from Juftria^ is famous for the death of Sigifmmd the Emperor, 
and for its Painted Houfes, and for its Sieges of 1645. 

The Moravians are a plain-dealing People, (lout and good Soldiers. 

Gradifco near Olmutz, is famous for its Myrrh and Frankincenfe, 
which contrary to the common cullom groweth immediately out of 
the Earth 5 and the Frankincenfe groweth naturally in the fhape and 
likenefs of thofe parts which Men and Women moli conceal, iejWDH- 
hravivo in his Bohemian Hiftory. 

Cremfir or Kremfier , by the Bohemians Kromeritz , now one of the 
faireft Cities in Moravia. Etvanczhz^ once notorious for its different 
Sedts in Religion 5 now all Jervs and Papifts. 


Of Germany. I $7 

Of Silrfay SchkfiMgen ^ Schltfieti, 

THIS Datchy is watered in the middle by the River O^er, whol^ 
ly encompafTed with Hills and Mountains, except towards the 
North. The Air therefore fliarp and piercing, lying open to thofe 
bluftering Winds. The Country is rough , and Woody , yet 
abounding in Corn, the Hilly parts yield plenty of Brafs, and other 

It was once fubjedi to the King of Voland^ afterwards it fubmitted, 
or was fubjecil to the King of Bkumia^ and is now an Appendant of 
that State. The ancient Inhabitants, among others, were the ^adi, 
againrt whom when M. Antonm the Emperor made War , and being 
in a great ftrait, the Legion ot Chriftians in his Army by their Prayers 
obtained from Heaven not only Thunderfhot and Artillery, which de- 
ftroyed the ^mdi ; but gentle Showers which refreihed the faint and 
dying Romans. Xiphil. in his Dion. 

Chief Places are BreJIarv Ger. Wraizlaw Bohem. IVratiJIavia. The 
Budorgis^ or Budorigum of Ftol. Fyramio & Curio. By Ortd. Budorgis is 
Rattibor, A BiQiop's See pyo. burnt in the Year 1341. now one of 
the faireft Cities in Germany^ with ftraight and open Streets. Other 
Places zTeGlogan>^ Crojfcn, belonging to the M. oi Brandenburg. Lignitz.y 
Schveeidnhz-i IVolavo^ Oppden^ Iroppaw^ Katibor^ Tefchen, Odfe, Sagan^ 
Jawer^ Brieg^ Moiiflerberg^ Groikjtv^ J.igerndorf^ Dukedoms and Cities-: 
to which we may add the County and City of Glaiz. amongft the 
Monies Sudetes, 

Thus have wefurrounded Germany^ and finifhed the Survey thereof.- 

As to the Revenue of the Emperor, 'tis not worth mentioning. It 
had need therefore of fome Prince, whofe own Eftate is fufficient to 
fupport the Grandeur and Dignity of fo Auguft a Title. 


BY the Latins that Trad is called Belgium:, from the Belgi^ the mofl; 
Potent People heretofore of all thete parts •, which upon the Cap- 
fulion of thofe Ancient Limits of Germany and France , die' contain 
17 d\iiindiEfhtes^ or Provinces : If is alfo called Cermania Infertv: j by 
the Englilh^ the Low-Countries ; by thtVutdj., Ntihalandt ^ by the Ita- 
lians, Spaniards^ and French^ Flanders , from, whence the inhabitants- 
were generally called Flemmings* 


1^8 Of Germany. 

'Tis a Country kdU^ very low , between the Banks of the Rhine 
and the Sea-flirr ', from which 'tis defended by extraordinary Charge 
and IndiUtry wiih Bank; and Ramparts. For Hubrandy, 'tis the heft 
cultivated 5 for tnuUitudtr of Towns and Viliage^^ the bcft Peopkd j 
for their neatnefs, the mott Remarkable 5 and by reafon of their feve- 
ral 'Vjanura(^ures. the nioii Rich of any Ciuintry in ' umpe. 

'Tis bounded on the Ni);th with the G'rman or Britil}} Ocean, which 
alfo fc pa rates it from Great Britain, on the Weft j and on the South 
and Eift it borders upon France and Germany. 

The Ancient Inhabitaiits were partly (ubdu'd by L.Dmfru^, in the 
time of Ati^HJhis C^far ^ tlie other were before overcome by Julius Ca- 
fiir: Afrer which fubjedtton they remained under the Rowan Empire 
until the Expiration of fhat Empire, when they v.'eie involved in that 
Publick Calamity, under the V \dcon ^n- French , who here (ucceedcd 
the Komx'js •> the whole was con rained under the Name and Kingdom 
ef A:'fjiralix.^ or Ojienrmh* After that the French Monarchy became 
divided amongft the Poilerity of the Emperor Lfw// the Godly, this 
part hereof broke into fundry new Principalities and Governments, 
and became divided into 17 Stares, or Provinces, whereof fomc En- 
titled their Governours. Dukes ; others, Earls ^ others, Lords. 

Thtir Names are there'. Four Dukedoms,^ Limhurg, Ltix-' 
emhui'g and Giiddirland. Seven Earldoms , Holland.., Zeland^ Zutphen, 
Flandtrs^ Jruir^ Hainaidt and bhmur. One MarquiDtc of the Holy 
Empire, comprehend mg Antwerp, Five Signiories, or Lord (hips, M-n- 
lins^ V'r?cht, Ovcr-Yjj'el^ Frirflind ^nd Groningen. Twoof thefc, Flan- 
ders., and part of Artnife.^ appertained to the Soverainty of the Kings 
oi France., quitted unto Philip the Second King of Spain by Hjiry the 
Second, Frmch King, in the Lti^WQoi Car^ih-ay., Flanders^ 
part oi Artois^ Lmberg., wirh Mj/ines., and the Marquifare of the Sa- 
cred Empire, became added to the Dominion and Family of Burgmidy 
by Vhilip the Hardy. H'lland, Zealand, ^efi- Freijland, Hainalt, Lux- 
emhtrg and ISIamUr^ 'by i'hilip the Good ; Gelderland^ Zutphen, Vtreicht, 
Over-yfjel and Groningen, by the Emperor Charles the Fifth. Since this 
Llnion they were governed in manner of Free Eftjtes by their Princes 
and Magiiirates, making a diltind: Nation and Commonwealth by 
theniklves. Duke Charges the Fighter, Prince hereof, had an intent 
to unite the parts then under his Government into one entire King- 
dom by the name of Burgundy. But the Provinces being Soveraign, 
and had their {( vcral Laws, Privileges, &c. this Projedl took no ef- 
i'ttt In the Reign of Ph/lip the Second King of Spain, Heir of 

Of Germ Any. '19 

ble Civil Broils, (b lor^g afflding thofe jrifli and flourldiing Countries, 
continued with the fpoil and ranfacking of all their chiet Towns and 
Cities, with the unfpe^Hable mifery and calaniity of a bloody War of 
48 years •, a War which coft the King of S^A'm the Lives of 600000 
men, and 150 Millions of Crowns, and £;?g/<2«,;/not fewer than zcoooo 
men, and above a Million of Money. A* laft, part of the Provinces 
were forced to continue ui-ider the Spani^j Yoak, and. part recovered 
jtheir Liberty; fo that now there ate in the Low Quntriss twoEllates, 
br Pomltiipns ,. far differing .one from another 5, far the one is a Re- 
'"piibjick^, 'qr iather fevctal'Republkk^^^ Uniced. and Confederated .it'i 
pncl-mji therdc^ic. tilled thQ,Vi}iied Proi'2f;ces^ aiid f commonly frOm 
the^- Principal Proviiice ) BjUand ; :The other, "for .the moft part,, did ; 
betong to tb.e King of Spain^ d.s Heir to* the Houle of 'Burgundy ^^ and is 
callf'd the Spanijh^-Pm.iincef^ ox iiariders ; but. of late Years thQ Trench ' 
''Kijogrhath conqueted th^-'irioft part thereof. : , •,. 7 ', «• 

As the Country is divided^ fo is alfo their Religion, for the Spa- 
mards ftrid:ly follow the Komjh., and -the States- General indulge the 
free Ufe of all Religions, but countenance only that of the Reformed 
Churches, according to C^j/i'/'/i.^ 

The Men for the moft pairt, are well proportioned , unrpindTul of 
goo3 Turns and Injuries ;ibf good iny^.nf ion, Frugal, ^n^d of iiidefa^ 
tigableTnduftry. .' \ ;'.- "V ■''' '^ 

Tb6 Women, generally of good Complexions, Familiar, Adive, 
Laborious," and converfant in Affairs in the Shops and Hnufes. 

Their Language, for the itioft. part,, is P;^/c/;, with lictje difference 
ill the Dialed ; but in the Provinces adjoining to Ff<2«ce, they fpeak .a- 
corrupt arid imperpe6i:FrfKci^",' from their Language called IVdfhons. 

The Air is Tern jierate, and more 'wholefDme than fjjmerly; the 
Wintermore long, tlian colB;, and the Sumrfler like the Spring iii Sou** 
thern Countries. , 

'i The Soil towards (j£ww«)/ is Woody and Hilly.s but towards the 
Sea full of Pafiure and Meadow-ground, which breed great ftore of 
Gattel,' which make Cheefe and Butter plentijful. . 



Of the LI N I T E D P R O V I N C E S, 

Or DVT CH Republick. 

THE Vnitcd Provinces are fo called, becaufe of the Union which 
they made together in the Year i57p. They are Seared toward 
the end of the two Rivers, the Khim and the Meufi, in the Northern 
part of the Lotp-Cvtmtrks^ between the Dominions of the King of 
Spain in f landers, and many Principalities of the Emfire. The Princes 
of the Empire, which are Neighbours to them, are, the Z)«%of New 


Of the Vmted Provinces. \6i 

hurgh in his Dutchy of Julurs j the Ele6l-or of Brandenhurgh in his Duke- 
dom of C/et/e/ j the Eledor oiCologn^ the Bifliopof M««^er, the Count 
of Bentheim, and the Prince of Ea^-Friefland^ in the Territories of the 
-fame Mame. 

The Vnited Provinces^ which formerly acknowledged the King of 
Spain, afterwards became Independent ; or, to fpeak more properly, 
fo many Commonwealths of themfelves, which yet all together make 
up but one Republick, under the Title of The Vnited Vrovinces of the 
Low Countries ; fo that the Dignity remains with the States-General ^hnt 
the Abfolute Authority (in matters excepted in the Alliance) abides in 
the States of every Province, The Arms of this Commonwealth is a Li- 
on holding a Bundle of feven Arrows clofe tyed together, in allufion 
fo fo many Provinces Confederated by the fame Alliance. And yet thefe 
Provinces have not been always fo well United, but that they have 
fometimes rather refembled a Body with fo many Heads, feme of 
which looked one way, and fome another. 

There is no Dominion in the World of fo fmallan Extent, that has 
fo great a number of Fortrejfes, and v/hich feems to be better Defend- 
ed by the Natural Scituationof the Ccuntrey it felf •, for it is fortified 
by the Sea, and feveral Rivers 5 that is to fay, the K^i^e, the Meufe, 
thcJVaal, the IJfel, &c. 

Befides the United Provinces, and the Territories belonging to them, 
the States have certain Towns in Brabant and Flanders. They have in 
Flanders the Sleuce, Middlehurgb, Ardemhurgh, the Safs of Gaunt, Axel, 
and Huljh In Brabant^ Lille, Bergen-Opzj)oni, Breda, Boijleduc, and Grave. 
They had alfo Valem and Fauquemont in the Dutchy of Limhurgh i and 
Maejiricbt in the Biftioprick of Liege ; won from them by the King of 
France, but reftored, and at this prefent in their polTcilion. InGerma- 
ny they had upon the Rbme, Orfoy, Wefel, Kee^, Enteric^ and Genep, 
in the Dutchy of Cleves , and Rhineberg, in the Eledoratc of Colegne. 
But thofe places are returned to their right Owners. Upon the edge 
of Wejlphalia, they have a Garifon in Embden, and in the Forts of Ei- 
dcler and Leer-ort, which belongs to the Prince of Eaji-Fri(JIand. 

Of thefe Vnited Provinces, four lye toward the Welt, Holland, Zeland, 
Utrecht, Guelderland and Zutphen. Three to the Eaft, Overyjfel, Frie/land, 
and Groningen. In their AlTeniblies thefe Provinces have always given 
their Voices in this Method, Cuelders and Zutphen iirft^ then Holland^ 
Zeland, Vtrecht, Friejland, Qver-Tffel , and laftly, Groningen, with the 
Ommelands. Her^ note t\i^tZutphen\s reckoned, one of the Seventeen 
Provinces,, but makes not one of the Stvtn , being comprehended 
under Gelderland -t fo that thofe who will have ten under the Spanijh 

Y Jurifdidion, 

J ^2 Of the Vnited Frovincesl 

Jurifdidiou, muft reckon Camhray for one, or that part of Gelders 
which yet remains fubjed: to the King of Spain. 

Each Province fends their Deputies to the Mjgue, where they com- 
pofe three Colleges or Affemblies ; the States-General^ the Council of 
State, and the Chamber of Accounts. In the Affemblies of the States- 
Gcneral, it behoves all the Provinces to give their Confent in general 
and particular, to the Refolutions there taken, there being no fuch 
thing among them as Plurality of Voices. Gmldrts takes place hrlt, as 
being the Eldeft, and becaufe her Plenipotentiaries firft propos'd the 
Union. The Admiralty fits in five places, and has five Magazines ; at 
Koterdam, Awfterdam, Horn, or Encbyfen, Middkhurgh, and Harlingben i 
the three firlt in Holland , the fourth in Zeland , and the fifth in 

Holland ( faith Sir JViliiam Temple) is a Countrey where the Earth 
is better than the Air, and Profit more in requell: than Honour ; 
where there is more Senfe than Wit; more good Nature than good 
Humour 5 and more Wealth than Pleafurei where a man would chufe 
rather to Travel than to Live, and Ihall find more Things to Obferve 
than Defire, and more Perfons to lifteem than to Love. 

The Earldom of Holland and Zeland, together with the Neighbour- 
ing Countrey of Weji-Frijia, was given unto Iheodoric Son to Sigebert 
Prince of Aquitania, by the Emperor Charles the Bald. By Arnulpkihtix 
fourth Prince, quitting the Fr^wc^ Allegiancejthey were firft made fub- 
jedl to the Soveraignty of the German Emperors. In John the Second, 
became added to the Houfe of Hainalt. In IVilliam the Third, to th'e 
Houfe of Bavaria. In Thiltp the Good, to that of Burgundy. In Philip the 
Second, ioth^toi Juftria ; in whofe Reign, after forty years War,rhey 
were acknowledged a FreeEftate by his Son Thilip the Third. 

The Province oi Holland is of moft Power and Confideration, as gi- 
ving Name to all the reft : It is fcituate very low, and therefore fenced 
with Banks and Ramparts to keep out the Sea -, it is alfo fenny, and 
full of Marfties, and therefore trenched with innumerable Dikes and 
Channels, to make it fit for Dwelling. 

Remarkable indeed is ths Induftry and Trade of the Inhabitants j 
that having little or no Corn, yet they are always provided, not only 
with fufficient for their own Ufe, but to fupply their Neighbours. 
Having no Timber of their own, they fpend more in Building of 
Ships, and fencing their Water-courfes, than any other Countrey : 
And having no Flax or W^ool, they make more Cloth of both forts, 
ihan moft Countries in Europe^, 


Of theVnitedProvmces. I^j 

The whole compafs of this Earldom is not above 180 miles, but in 
breadth no where above three hours Journey from the Sea. 

Amlhrdam, fcif uate on the Lake or Sea called Tie, and the Dike or 
Channel called Amjhl ^ in Latin AmjUlodanmm & Jmjierodamum -, 
built upon Piles like Venice ; and by the late Addition of the new to 
the old, may no^v vye with thericheft and faiieA Cities of the world i 
famous for its great Trade to theutmort parts of the Earth ; and as 
mfamous to fome for its Toleration of all Religions. 'Tis the Market 
or Shop where the Rarities and Commodities of all Countries are ex- 
pofed to Sile. 

The Stadt'houfe is the Prodigy of the World, and a Miracle be- 
yond the Seven that Antiquity brags To much of: A Building of great 
Magnificence, and as vaftExpence, begun in the year i64S,andin 
Augufi i<555. was the Dedication of it folemnized. In a Vault under 
this Stadt-houfe^ fecured by the ftrongeft Doors and and Locks, i^ kept 
that famous Bankj, which is fuppofed to be the greateft Treafure either 
real or imaginary, in uhe world. It is certain there is the appearance 
of infinite Riches in Bars of Gojd, Silver, and innumerable Bags of 
Metals, thought to be all Gold and Silver. But the Security of this 
Bank lies not inthofe Effeds, but in the Credit of the whole Tow«i 
or State of Am^erdam^ whofe Stock and Revenue is equal to fome 

Dortj Djrdracwn, fcituated upon four Rivers, hath the firft Voice, as 
the Town where the Eails of Holland and their Subjeds reciprocally 
bound themfelves each to another. There it is that tliey Coin their 
Money, and their Magiftrates have the Privilege to go with one of 
their Guards. In the Year 142 1, of a City upon the Continent it be- 
came an Ifland, through a moft dreadful Inundation, that Drowned 
about locooo People, and 80 Villages, pleafant and large. Hirlem^ 
Harkmnm^ is the place where they make their finelt Linnen Cloth, and 
the whiteft in the whole Province. Famous for the Invention of Print- 
ing by Lawrence Cejhr^ and its Inhabitants for breaking the PeluJIan 
Chain. The Duke of Alva having taken it, committed very great 
a(^s of bloody Cruelty therein. Ddph, Velf^ oxDelft, in Laiin Delphi, 
or Tfelfiitnj is the Burying- place of the Princes of Orange, and of great 
Trade for Cloathing •, famous for tbeftory of the Stork^, who cover- 
ing their young ones in the fire-time, all periflhed in the Flames ; and 
infamous for the Birth of V avid George, who callsd himfelf King and 
Chrift, who died in 155^ at Bafil, and three years after, his Bones 
were taken up and Burnt : And for the barbarous AlTaifination of 
William the firft, Prince of Orange., Anno 1535, it was utterly ruined 

Y 2 by 

164 ^f the Vmted Province s. 

by a dreadful Fire, //ww 1 554, it was unaccountably blown up by a 
vaft Magazine of Powder. Leyden, Lttddunum^Batavorum^ is the Eye, 
or as others will have it, the Garden of Holland^ as well for the 
cleannefsof their Streets, as the beauty of their Houfes. It is alfo 
famous for its Antiquity, for its Library, and the Excellent Edition 
of Books there Piinred ; as alfo for the entire Defeat of the Spanip 
Army. In this City was bor.n that Taylor, who to his ruin was made 
King of the Anabaptifts in Mwilhr. Sf rong and rich G.mde^ or Gouda, 
has this advantage, to be fcituated among Springs, and where the In- 
habitants enjoy the purefl: Air in all Holland. Koterdam, Roterodamttmy 
the place where Erafmrn was born, is the beft of the twelve Cities 
which they call fmall ones, by reafon of its great Trade upon the 

The Hague, by the DutchDen Haghe, and St. Gravenhaghe, ( that is, 
the Grove of the Earls orForefters), in Lat. HagaComitU ', it glories 
in being the principal Village, and as delightful a place as mofl in the 
world j highly commended for the breadth of its Streets, the ftate- 
linefs of its Buildings, and the fhadinefs of its Walks ^ and for the 
Princes Palace, and for the AfTembliesof the States- General. 

The Brill, Briela, is a well- frequented Harbour towards the South, 
in the Ifland of Voorn ; the reft of the Coaft is all Sands, with fome 
(belter for Fifiier-boats, with the Iflands Over-flac and Gorre. 

There is alfo the rich and daily Butter and Cheefe- Market, Gorhitm^ 
Lat. Gorichemum, on the JVale ; a ftrong place, and one of the Keys 
of Holland: The f silr znd commodious Hiw en Schonhoven or Schonhovia, 
So called from k$ pleafant Gardens. 

At Schevding was the flying or failing Chariot, which in two hours 
time would pafs with Eight and twenty Perfons, from Scheveling to 
Futten, which is about 42 Englifh miles. It was made for the famous 
Prince Maurice, by Simon Stevinw, a famous Mathematician. 

Geertrydenberg Cince Anno i<5ii, has been part of the Patrimony of 
the lUuftrious Houfe of Orange. 

Worcum, or Woudrichmum, the principal Town in the Lord(hip of 
Altena, part of the PoffeflTion of the Ancient and Noble Family of 
Home, until the year 1568, when Fhilip oi Montmorency ^ Ezi\ oi 
Horn was beheaded at BrujfeU by the bloody Alva, yinno idoo it 
was fold to the States of Holland. 

Leveftein is a Caftle at the confluence of the Maes and Pf^ael. 

Heafden has a good ftrong Caftle, but in ^nno 1680, the Lightning 
in the night-time piercing the Walls of the great Tower, fet lire to 
the vaft Magazine of Powder, which blew up the Tower and Caftle, 
and great part of the Town* Clmdert, 

Of theUnitedProvirjCts, id 5 

Cluiidert ftands in the Ifle of RuygenhiU; fortified with eight Bafti- 
ons, and fome Ravelins. 

Sevenbergen U now a well- peopled Village. Willem(iadt is a place of 
conliderable flrcngth, and a good Harbour. 

JJfeljhyn onthe Hdlandljfel^ or Fojfa Dmfiana^ now under the Prince 
of Orange^ well fortified, and furrounded with Gardens and pleafant 
Indofurcs. Its Trade confifts much in Cables and Cordage, and other 
like Manufadures. 

Vianen in Lat. Viana & ViaHda, the neatnefs of whofe buildings, as 
welias the neighbouring fields, advance the picifantnefs of the place. 

Alphen is fuppofed to be the Mhiniana Cajira of .V«f. Roomburch is 
called in Vdferm's Geographical Tables, Pr£torium Arrippinjs, 

Woeden is a fIrongTown, and a Poft of great concern, taken by 
x\\Q French^ Anno K^ya, quitted Anno i6y^. Ouderpater^ or Veteres Agua^ 
pleafantly feated upon the Iffd^ is noted for the beft Hemp. Schiedam 
is a place of confiderable Antiquity, faid to have had the Privileges of 
a City, j4nno 1274, 

Vlaerdingen^ at Flaerdinga, once the moft ancient and beft fortified 
Town in Hdland. 

At Naeltrvyck^^ FredericVrmcc of Orange^ built a Royal and Magnifi- 
cent Palace. 

At Laufdun, a League from the Hague^ is the Interment of Marga- 
ret Countefs of Henebergb^ and her 3^5 Children born at one birth, 
if Reverend Antiquity may command ouraffentto all its Stories and 

Mnyden upon the Vecht, in the late Wars, was made one of the 
firongeil Potts for the Defence of Holland. 

Wifep, Wefpe., or IVcfop^ is famous for its Beer, which is called the 
Flemmijh Thyfick^ 

Naerden is a Itrong, but little Town, fortified with fix Baftions, yet 
ill Anno 1 1572, the Garifon of 200 men, at the firft appearance of 
the Frmch^ threw down their Arms and fled to Amjierdam^ which is 
diftant about threeLeagues. In A u^uji 1673, i^ was befiegcd by the 
Dutch Army of 25000, but the Garifon of 3000 men quickly fur- 
rendred ; for which the Governor was condemned to perpetual Im? 
prifonment, and all the other Oificerscalhier'd. In Aano 14S', thole 
of Vtrecht furpri^ed this Town ( by dreiliiig up a company of Soldiers 
like Countrey- women going to Market ), and compelled the Inhabi- 
tants to pay a vaft fum of Money to redeem thcmfelves and houfes 
from the utmoll: extremities of Fire and Sword: But in the fama 
Y^iithtNaerdiners flew 1 $oQVltraledm upoiithe fpot, and carried 


t66 Of the Vmted Provinces, 

off a great Booty. Anno 1572, it furrendred to Frederic of Toledo^ 
who ordered all the Inhabirants to meet together m the Market or 
Church, and then commandtd his Soldiers to cut them in pieces. 

Alcmaer^ encompalTed with Mar (lies 5 when the Metropolis oiWiji- 
Friefland, C3i\hd Altenas now enriched by its Butter and ChCwfe, and 
adori^ed with extraordinary pleafant Gardens. Memorable for the 
Defeat the Inhabitants gave D' Alva^ merely becaufe he gave them no 
way to efcape. 

Hir«, upon the Zuyder-Zeei from its plenty of rich Villages, and 
Pafture-grounds, with pleafant Gardens and Walks, C3\\cd Cornucopia. 
In M.iy is the Fair for Butter and Cheefe. 

Edjm^ rather Tdam or Tedam^ a good Haven, is noted for its Build- 
ing of Ships, for making excellent Cheefe, and for the Sea-Nymph, 
( Anno 1 430 J that learned to fpin. 

Monnek^dam^ or Monachendam^ upon the fmall River Mofiicl{. 

Furmerend^ formerly belonged to the Noble Family of the Egmondf, 
but fold to the States, Auno 1 5pG. 

Medembliek^ or Medemlec}{, whether it was the Seat of Kadhodus tht 
famous King of the Frizons^ is uncertain ; but its comraodious Har- 
bours, capable of 300 large Ships, are of great Profit and Reputation 
to it. 

Egmondis a pleafant and fine built Village, and gave Title to one 
of the moft Ancient and Illuftrious Families of thefe Countries. 

Bevermck^ ( anciently called St. Agatha s Church ). 

TheTf^e/, or TfjffeMfland, abounds with all manner of NecefTaries, 
and having a great influence upon the entrance into the Zuyder-Zee, 
the States have built there a (trong Forlrefs, which is always provi- 
ded with a good Garifon. 

Flieland or Vlnland, called in Lat. FkvoUndia^ is of a long and nar- 
row figure, having only one fingle Village at each end. 

^t ScheUingxhc Englijh burnt and fired about 100 or 150 of the 
Vutcb Merchant- men, with fome Men of War. 1 hefe three Iflands, 
together with feveral large Banks of Sand, lye along the Mouth of 
tht Znydcr-Zce, and in fome meafure break the firii Alfmlts of the 
raging Ocean, making two good Harbours, viz.the Texel ^nd Flie. 

In the Wiering are divers good Villages, ieeding large Flocks of 

The Art and Induflry of the Vntch have manifefted thcmfelves in a 
thoufand particulars, but in nothing more than in their putting Bars 
to the Ocean, aiid in draining of Lakes of fo great extent, that they 
might be term'd Inland Seas j fuch were the Zype and Beemfier in 
Nonh'Hjhnd. The 

Of the Unlteci Provinces* t^j 

The Southern Iflands of Holland are, i. The Overmaes, oppofite to 


2. TheVoornj wherein ftands the BriU, or Breheet^ upon the mouth 
of the Khimy which was called H:/f«/, now iVydel^ a ilrong and well- 
fortified Town, one of the Cautionary i owns pawned by the Dutch 
to Qjeen Elizabeth^ and reftored by King James the L after it had 
been garifoned and commanded by the E«g///^ about 30 years. 

3. Goere-^oiGoedcree^ which tignihes a good ftation for Ships, at 
the mouth of the Mms-^ but now its Port is much obftruded with 
Sands, and infelkd with a Tempeiiuous Sea. 

4. Overflack^ or Overvlackee, comprehending feveral Villages, where 
is good Corn-land, but little Pafture. Thefe Iflands were formerly 
part of the Province of Zeland', but upon the diftribution of a Tax 
to be paid to the PiiEce, they fubjecfted themfelves to the States of 

Zdandy Zebndia, is the Province which was firft fet at Liberty, and 
laft confented to the Peace vvith Spain: At this day it contains the, 
greateft part of the Prince of Orange's PolTeffion. That of Vacheren^ 
Walachna^ in the Map, contains ten Dutch m.iles in compafs, is the 
faireft of all in the Loxf- Count rks^ with the City of Middkhmgh^ the 
Capital City of the Province, and the Staple for Wines ; a ftrong 
and large Empory. Flujhing^ Flrjjin^a^ the Key of the Netherlands, is 
aUo a good Harbour. Once an Englifh Garifon, and a Cautionary 
Town, delivered to Queen Elizabeth, Anno 1585. and reftored by 
King James^ Anno 1616 ; where the Renowned Sir Philip Sidney was 
the hrftGovernour, and died in that Service. The ftrong Sea- Town, 
Vere, or Ter-Ferc^ Vtria Lat. having many Staples for Herring and other 
Commodities ; Famous for the moft Noble and Uluftrious Family of 
xhtVeres, cnce E.irls of Oxford. Zeebmgh or Rammekens, is a ftrong 
Fort and good Harbour, engaged to the Englijh, but reftored to the. 
Dutch, together with the Bri// and Flufhing. 

Thefecond Illand xsSchowen, Scaldia, Lat. containing fix miles in 
Circuity its chief Town is Zerick,-2id, or Zirizec, noted for Madder 
and Salt ■-, and Browcrjhaz'en, inhabited by Fifhermen ; here was firft 
invented (he Marting of Herrings. The third is Zuiit-Bevetland, or 
SoHthBne'andy whofe only Town of note is Gt^ex, or 7'erGoes, The. 
fourth isDautland, or Duyueland^ named thus from the abundance of 
Pidgeoiis there breeding. It hath no Town of Note, but is memo- 
rable for the bold paffage of the Spzniards under Mondragon, crofs the 
Sea, in the year 157^^ j and for that in the year 1520 it was over- 
whelmed with a deluge of waters. Nmb Bevdand-, once termed 


1 68 Of theVmtedProvimes. 

Z^f/Ws Garden of Delights, but in that fatal Inundation of 1532, 
it was entirely overvvheimed by the Sea \ but iince above 2000 Acres 
of Land have been gained from the Sea. 

lolen is an Ifland (o called from a Town of that Name, divided 
itoniBrabant by a narrow Creek or Arm of the Sea. The more an- 
cient Inhabitants of thefe Iflands were the Mattiaci of Tacitus. They 
contain in all 8 Walled Towns, and about 100 Villages. The Coun- 
trey is low, flat, and Marfhy, rich in Corn and Pallurage, unhealthful, 
and fubjed: to Inundations, being kept in and defended from the Sea 
by Banks. 

The Bifiioprick or Lord (hip of Vtrecbt, Vtricefium Amm. was firft 
occafioned by one JViMrod, an Anglo-Saxon^ the Apol^Ie of thofe 
parts, and firrtBifliop hereof about the year <5i I, during the Regen- 
cy of Pepin the Fat. The SucceflTors of this JViMrcd^ by the Libe- 
raJity of the French Kings and German Emperors , attained unto as 
well the Temporal as the Spiritual Jurifdidion, together with that 
of Overyjfel, until Charles the Fifth, who by the confent of Henry 
Count Palatine, then Biftiop, feized upon the whole Temj oral Domi- 
nion hereof, leaving only the Spiritual to the Prelates, which alfo 
(ince, by the Ufurpation of the States, hath likewife been taken from 
them. It has a Capital City of the fsme Name, inhabited for the 
moft part by the Nobility cf the Countrey: But its greateft Glory 
for feveral Ages, was, its being the Seat of one of the moft Ancient 
and moft powerful Bilhops in the Chriftian World ; Firii called Infe- 
ritts Trajedum^ or VltrajMum j Vtricefmm^ Amm. ^ feated lix horary 
miles from Amjierdam, upon the old Channel of the Rhine ; now di- 
verted into the L^c;^: Mr. K ^3' tells us. That it was. Anno 166^^ en- 
vironed Tvith a thick and high. Wall, and a deep Trench ; yet in the 
year 16'] i. xhtVltrajidins fujmitted tothe French long before it could 
be fummoned ; which Civility coft thctn a Million 66Z000 Gilders^ 
(that is, above 160C00 I. fierling) which was exadfcd of them in 
Contributions between Jifne i<572, and TSlovemher 1673 \ befides 
200C00 Rix dollars for a Viaticum or Foy at the departure of the 
French. There is alfo the Thorowfare Rhenen, the fair and ilrong 
Amersfvrt^ the Frontier- To wn Mt'«//(Tf. Wnli^de 'Duerjhde^ the Baia- 
vodnrumoi Tac. & Ptol. Durojiatum &'Durojudium^ Lat. They reckon 
zh(j\xt Vtrecbt 55 Cities, to thefartheft whereof you may go by Wa- 
ter from Vtrecht in one day. 

The Province of Guelder s^ Gueldria. or Gucldre, was fir ft founded by 
two Brothers, /ir/c/<^r<s^ and Luppola^ firli made Guardiansof the Coun- 
try by the Inhabitant* in the Reign of the Emperor Charles the Bald. 


Of the Vmted Provmces, 169 

It was made an Earldom by the Emperor Henry the Third , made a 
Dukedom by the Emperor Lewis of Bavaria, After the deceafe oi Charles 
oiEgmond^ the laft Duke, by compofitioii between him and Charles the 
Ffth Emperor, this Province, with the Earldom oiZiitphen, united for 
a long time in the Houfe of the Dukes of Gdderland^ defcended upon 
the Emperor Charles the Fifth, and added by him to his other Pro- 
vinces of the Netherlands under Philip the Second 5 the greateft part 
(hoke off the Spanijh Yoak, and now with Zutpken governed m man- 
Kerof a FreeEftate, confederated with the xz^ioi iYicVnned Trovinces^ 
a third part of Gelderland excepted, where ftands the Towns of Txure- 
mond^ Loyal ; Gelders^ Martial ; Venlo^ Strong 5 Watchtendom and Strs- 
hny remaining yet fubjed to the Arch-Dutchefs, or Spaniards-^ who 
in the Year 1627. attempted in vain to bring the Rhine to the City 
oi Geldria , and into the Menfe^ to deprive the Vnited Provinces of the 
Trade of Germany. ISHmeghen ^ Noviomagtts al. Neomagm-, the Capital 
City of the Dutchy of Guddria , the Oppidum Batavonm of Tacitus, 
from whence Civilis ., after a fatal overthrow given him by the 
Komans^ fled with his Army into the Illand of the Batavi ^ now 
called the Batutve , or Betarp : It was one of the three Palaces 
of Charles the Great , and Len-is the Pious j as alfo of the fac- 
ceeding Emperors for four Ages ; Repaired by Frederic]^ the Fird, 
Sirnamed Ahenohardnr^ ii55- faken by Prince Maurice in the Year 
15^2. In Jidy \6']2. (urrendred to the French Vi^on none of the beft 
Terms : but in /^prtl 1(^74. given up by the French upon the ranfome 
of 82000 Pvixdollars for it and the Betaxv. Memorable for the Ne- 
gotiation of the Peace which was concluded about the end of 78. and 
the beginning of 7p. Nimguen the Ancient, Ruremond the Great, Zut- 
phen the Rich, and Arnheim the Fleafant, are the four chief Cities of 
the four Quarters of Gdderland<. Ruremond upon the mouth of the Ri- 
ver Roer', Ruremunda, Lau taken from the Spaniard.^ Ann.Vom, 165 2. 
but reflored by the Peace of Mu-njier. 

Arnbeimjthc Arenacum ot 7acitiis^\s the Capital City of the Velaw^ or 
Felunpe, and the Seat of the Supream Council of the Dukedom of Gel- 
der^ walled about, and fortihed in the Year 1233. dertroyed by Fire 
Ann. 1515. feated on the right fide of the Rhine ^ about two German 
miles from Nimegmn^ arxl as many from Vocshurg. One of the beft 
fortihed Towns in all the Provinces •, yet attack'd and furrendred to 
the French in the fame day, 72. but for J700CO Gilders re-deUvered 
with the whole Ft/jp,'. 

The Province oiZutphcn bears the fame Name with the Capital Ci- 
ty, and palTes fometimes for a fourth part of the Dutchy of Gelders, 

Z having 

1 70 Of the Vmfed Provinces, 

having no Voice in the AiTembly of the States-General, but only con- 
joined with this Dutchy. In the Siege of which was flaia that Ho- 
nour of Chivalry, and Mirror of Learning, Sit Phlip Sidney. Other 
Towns in Geldria are the llrong and encompalTed Frontier Bommd, & 
Bommelia.y Lat. with the Forts 6f St. Jndrew and Voorn^ making it im- 
pregnable*, yet taken by xhcFreneh i6j2. bur quitted again in K^yg. 
after 14 days fpent in ruining its Fortifications, and 360CO Gilders, 
or 3600 pound Englijh psdd for their kindnefs. 

B.7ttenhorgy Lat. Arx Batavorum.Tiel, the unhealthy,B«re«, belonging to 
the Prince oWrange. The Town and County of Cuknhurg , the Forts 
Knoifenhurg^ Schenckr Sconce, and lolhuys^ are confiderable j Hadermck^ 
and 'Elhmg upon the Zuyder-Zea ., Hattem upon the Jjfel^ znd IFagC' 
ningen upon the Khine, are the chief Towns in Arnheim quarter} And 
Doeshmg, DifmantlM by the French in /Ipril 1^73. 

GroU, the llrongeft H.-ld in the County of Zutphen, yet yielded after 
very little rehitance to theBifhop of Mwjjhr. June the ^th 16^2. 

Majrfhy and Fenny Brevoort, yet taken hy Prince Maurice, Ann 15^7. 
now by Pawn or Mortgage in the poiTellion of the Prince of, 

Over-Iffel^ Gt 'trans IJfal'ania , ( fo called from its Scituation be- 
yond the IJfel ) where the Rhine and that Ihjre their Streams toge- 
ther , by means of a Channel which Vmfus formerly made. It 
is divided into three parts j the Irvente, Tjfelland and Drent, in wiiich 
are contained 1 1 Towns , and 100 Villagts ; th.r principal of which 
zie Veventer, Lat Dave ntria, an Imperial Hans Town, being a famous 
PaiTage over the Ijfd 5 taken for the States by the Earl of Leiccjbr. Anno 
1585. but {mxcndredhy S\t William Stanley. Ann. I'jSy. to the Spa- 
niards', recovered by Prince Maurice, Ann. 1591. bur in the fatal Year 
1^72. it was taken by the B'fnop of Munihr, or rather betrayed bv the 
ArtiHcesof one Collonel Br"pr/wij: upon the divition ot the Conquered 
places betwem the Milif try ^relates ; this fell to the (haie of the Bifhop 
of CV>&V// , by wliom it was quitted in /^pril 1^74. to the States for 
42000 Kix- dollars. 

Campn Lat. Campi &Camp£ feated at the Confluence of the ^ffel in- 
to the Z-ivder Zee j ;ts m.iinftrep.gth lies in its Marfhy Scituarion : up- 
on the treacherous Sui render c>{'Daventer, 16"] 2. this capitulated, and 
yielded up it feh-, upon diviiion it fell to rhe Fnv;c/.7, who about the 
latter end of -^7^- quitted it for Socoo Gilders. 

Swil is forcihed wih dounle Walls, double Ditche.s , and very 
flron^^ R mparts and Bi Iwarks. and is a place ot great Trafhck. In 
April 1674. it was qu'f'-ed of the Bifliopof Cokns, Garilon, but the 
BourgmallerSj and fome others of the Town, were fent to Maejiricht^ 


Of the Vnited Trovinces\ lyi 

there to remain Prifoners till fuch time as the City had paid looooo 
Gilders for its ranfome. 

Thefe three Towns are in that part which is called TJJdland. 

Oldenzyl Lat. Oldenfalia & Oldfalta^ the Seat of the ?Mrient Sjlii of 
no great Ibength nor magnitude, yet fubjed to frequent Changes in 
the Spanjjh Wars. 

Otmaefen^ by Trithemms^ faid to be founded by Odomams king of the 
Francs, fiom whom it had its denomination. 

Vallenhoven upon the Zuyder-Zee^ is a neat and handfomeTown, well 
feated for the importation of Corn. 

Steenwyck a fmall Town, but well fortified by Prince Maurice, who 
recovered it from the Spaniards 1S92. Towards the end of 1(^73. it 
was forcM to pay a Ranfome of loooo Gilders to the Bi(hop of Mun- 
(ler^s Forces, and yet they ruined the Fortifications, and blew up the 
two Gates, and the Ammunition Houfe. Thefe are in the Ttpente^ Lat. 
'Twentia. &'Tuhamia. 

The County oiVuent confif^s much in Marfhes and Heath 5 but the 
two great Fens called Smilder-Veenen , and Echterreenen , afTords the 
Fewel-Turf, which is conveyed in great quantities to HjUand^ and the 
parts adjacent. Coeverden is the chief place of the County, and for 
ftrength inferior to none in Europe-, yet not above 6'^o paces in compafsj 
yet commands all the confiderable PafTes thereabouts. It is memora- 
ble for many Sieges in the Spanifh Wars, too tedious to relate. In 
Ann. 1672. it was fortified with a large deep double Ditch, with ve- 
ry high and ftrong Pvamparts, defended with 7 good Baftions, bearing 
the Names of the 7 Provinces, with well-wrought Parapets, Faufe 
Brays, and other Outworks, and a Caftle elkemed impregnable, yet 
yielded to the Bifhop of Mwi^er hi July , before it had been at the ex- 
pence of one man's life in defence of fo confiderable a Fortrefs. In 
Vicemher following the Dutch by a kind of a private furptize re- 
took it. 

Groningen^ comprehending the Omlands, is but of fmall extent, where 
there is nothing more rare than Stones and Vv'ood, fo that their Fuel 
is Turf, which they dig in great abundance. The Air is (harp and 
wholfome. The Metropolis of this Province is Groningen, or Gronin- 
ghm^ commodioufly feated for Water and Land Carriage : Anno 
Id 14. was an Univerfity founded here by the Provincial States •, at the 
entrance into the publicic School is this Infcription, Fsc ea qi-t£ moricns 
fjCii fw(fe vgIis. The Refiftance made by the Groninghcrs in the Year 
1672. not only raifed the Siege, but obtained the Reward of a dou- 
ble Vote in the Grand Council of Stare of the V/iited provinces. Other 

Z X Places 

172 Of the Vmted Provinces, 

Places are "Bourtang Fort, 'Bilting.,Wolder-Sconcef JVinfchofenzndi Langack^r 
Sconces. Midtvold^ once a flourifhing place, but now almofi: ruined by 
the outragious VoUart, which about 400 years ago fpread it felf upon 
the Ruinesof 33 good Villages. Dam^ & Velphzil^ are the two moft 
confiderable places in the Omlands. The laft is a very good Haven* 
In the Year idyi. the Dutch Eaji India Fket of 14 Ships, whofe La- 
ding was valued at idooooo pound Sterling, had been taken by the 
Englifh^ had they not got into this Port. 

Weii- Friefland was a Country formerly much larger than now: The 
Ancient Frizons were pofTdTors of the Provinces oiFriefland^ Groningen^ 
Overiffd^ IFeftphalia and North-Holland, called then Weji-Frujlxnd^ and" 
contiguous to the Province of Frujland: For the Zuyder-Zee^ which is 
not found in the Writings of the Ancients, wag formed by fome great 
Inundation , breaking in between the T'exell and the other Iflands , 
which are but the broken remainders of a continued Coafc. It is now 
divided into three parts, viz. Oofiergo^ JVeliergo.^ and Scven-rvolden^ or 
^Q [even Forelh ', which comprehends two Cities, iz Pret^cSures, 
127 Tillages. 

The two Cities are, i . Leeai>arden, Levardia& Leovarditm., the largeft, 
richeit, and beft built City in the Province, and ftrongly fortiHed i en- 
joying the benefit of many large Navigable Channels, honoured with 
the Supream Court and Chancery. 

2. Dorch^m^ot Vocum^ well fortified. The Guild-Hall and Bridge are 
moft coniiderable ; it was the Retidence for the Colledge of Admiral- 
ty, now tranflated to Harlmgerii a Haven Tov/n, and well fortified, 
and miy ealily be overflowed by the help of their SluceSo 

Fri?ick?r, or Franicheria., is an Univerfity, encompalTed with a good. 
Wall and Ditch, arid defended with a ftrong Caftle. 

Saeeck^is an ancient, populous, neat built and well-fortified Town, 
Balfrvam is encircled with good Corn, and Pafmre Fields, 

Of Stavereii, in Lat.Stavia & Stavordia, The Frieziffj Writers tell us, 
that it was not only the Metropolis of the Country, and chief Seat of 
their Kings , but the largeft and moil famous Empory of both Gtr- 

The chief Commodities of the Natural growth of thefe Provinces 
are Butter and Cheefe ; the reft being Manufadturies which they make 
out of fuch Materials as they fetch out of other Countries : But the 
Commodity that hath been of greateft advantage to them, is Fifh ; 
and that not caught upon their own Coaft neither. Their Herring- 
Trade, by computation, is worth 450000 /. /^er /f/J««w.* And that of 
Cod'fijh 150.00Q /. Snrl. yearly. 


Of the Vmted Provimes* • ""^73 

Generally the people are inclined to Navigation, and a Sea-faring 
Life 5 and many being born on Shipboard, and bred up at Sea, know 
no other Country •, To that their natural inclination, and neceffily cf 
employing themfelves that way , hath exceedingly increafed their 
Shipping i fo that 'tis thought they are Mafters of more Ships and VeG- 
fels of all forts, than almoJt all Europe befides. 

But that which is the juft adnjiration o-f all men, thcfe Senn Provinces 
are become greater, and more potent than Seventeen, in riches and 
power: Nay, they have outdone fome of the greateft Prhices in E«- 
tope. Their Cities are many and fpiendid ; and yet there axc more 
Sects among them than Cities, snd almoli as many Creeds as Heads; 
yet fo wife \u their Meetings, as never to diicourfe of Religion. Their 
Country ( in general for its Dim- hfions } is fuller of People, Cities-, 
Towns, Gallks, Forts, Bulwarks,, &c. for Military Defence, than 
any one Country in Europe. Their Naval Forces prodigious, befitting. 
Wonders rather than Words ; even a terror to the great Princes of the 
World. For their Trade, it far exceeds that of the Neighbouring 
Princes i and in theOeconomy of it, much more prudently managed : 
To every Town they alTign fome Staple Commodity ; as, to Djrf, the 
German Wines , and Corn ; to Middleburg , the French and Spanifh 
Wines ^ to Rotterdam formerly, now to Vori^ the Englijh Cloth : To 
Harlem, Knitting and Weaving, &c. which makcth their Towns fo 
equally rich and populous. 

One Miraculous Accident I muft not forget, becaufe mentioned by 
all Writers, viz. That Margaret, Sider to Earl Floris the ^tb^ being 
about 42 years of Age, brought forth at one Birth 365 Children, 
half Males, half Females, xhz odd one z HermaphroJiie ; they were all 
dhrifkned by G/^'^/a Suffragan to the Biihopof Vmtcht, in twoBafons, 
which are yet to be feen at the Cimrch of Lafdnnen, the Males J^hn, 
the Females Elizabeth •-, immediately after th^y all died, and their Mc» ■ 
thes alio. 




^ HE S E Provinces are To called, becaufe rubje(a to the Monarchy 
A of Spaw. It carries alfo the Name of Fla.derr, from that Pro- 
vince isthefahefr, the richell, and the be(i Peopled part. 

OtthdcSpaniJh Provinces, four are Frontiers of Fr^;/c^ j the Coun- 
ties of FWcr/, y^rtoi^ Hawault, and the Dutchy oi Lux^mhnr,. Five 
m the middle, viz. The Dukedom of 5r^^^,;^ the Mar^uifate of the 


Of the Spanifh Netherlands. I75 

Empire, the Signiory of Malines, the County of Natnur, and the Dutchy 
oiLimburgb. There are alfo two Feifsof the Empire , the BKhoprick 
of Lc/ge, and the Archbifhoprick of Cambray. The Kings of Spain 
were once Mafters ot thefe Provinces, and for the prefervation thereof 
have expended a good part of their Gold and Silver brought from 
the Indies, in the Wars they maintained againft the Dutch and 

The County of Flanders, Flandria Latinis , Vlaenderen by the Inha- 
bitants, Flandre French, Flandes Spaniards^ &Flandra Italians, is {ofuW 
of People, that it feems to be but one great City , and the lovelieft 
Country in Chriftendom ; enjoying a good and wholfome Air , and 
well water'd by a great number of flivers. All along the Co^li lie 
banks of Sand, that cover very Rich places. In the Neighbouring Sea 
are feveral Sands and Shelves , neverthelefs Ships ride there fafe 
enough. It formerly was divided into Dutch Flanders, Gallican Flan- 
ders^ and Imperial Flanders ; This belonged fomctimes unto the King- 
dom of Wefi France, and held by the Princes thereof under the Fief of 
this Crown ; quitted unto Philip the Second King of Spain, and to the 
Heirs of the Houfe of Burgundy by Henry the Second King of France, and 
the League of Cambray. 

]n Flanders, the principal places are Gaunt, Gandaurum, Ghendt & 
Gand by the French, one of the biggcft Cities of Europe : But though 
it have feveral Rivers that IHII bring a Trade to it, yet has it not the 
five and thirty thoufand that anciently it had, when it was 
able to Arm fi^ur and twenty thoufand men. *Tis famous for the Birth 
of Charles the Fifth, and of John Duke of Lancajhr , commonly called 
John of Gaunt. The C athedral is a (lately Strudure. In the Tower 
Bel'' fort hangs the Bell Roland ^ faid to weigh i2coo pound. The 
Church of St. Baio is the chief: That of St. Michael is famous for ex- 
cellent Paint'ngs. 

Oiiend, Ojienda , is a Town whofe Haven they can never block 
up, and which was once the Theater of War , when it held out a 
S:eie for above three years, too long for the Arch-Duchefs not to ftiift 
her Smock., being Ganfoned by the Evgliflj, and under Sir HoratioVere, 
who was then Governour thereof, at which Siege the Spaniards are faid 
to h\ve loll one hundred thoufand men. After the Town was yielded 
up^ there appeared nothing but amifhapen Chaos of Earth. Trenchss 
filled up, Curtains beat down, Bulwarks torn in pieces. 

Lille, Gal. L IJIe. Incol. R)Jftl, or Tor IJfel, upon Dole, the Capital 
of Wahon- Flanders, is one ot the beft in th; Lovf>- Countries ^ by reafon 
of its Wealth and Strength. 


-1 7 6 Of the SfAnt^o Netherlands. 

Tmrnay , Tornacum , & Vornick^^ Bagamim of Ptol. Chit, turnaceii' 
fmm of Ant. an Ancient City ; is fair , great , ftrong , rich , and 
well-peopled ; This was the Hrrt Town that fubmitted to the 
King of France^ after a formal Siege, who has fet up a Parlia- 
ment, and built a very ftrong Cittadel to fecure it. It is obfl^rved 
of Tournay^ that it was taken four feveral times upon St, Andren>^< day. 
I. ^y Henry the Eighth, King of E'lgland. 2. By the Em{.cror 
Maximilian the Fiiix. 3. By the Emperor C^ar/e/ the Fifth. 4. By 
the Duke of P;r/'w.j, 1581. Yielded to the Fr^wc/^, An.\66']. Vmay 
or Viiamm upon the Scarpe^ is ccnfiderablc for its Extent, Strength, 
Trade, and Seminary of E^vg/z/^jFloman-Catholicks. Anno 166*]. fur- 
rendred to the French after the ftiort Oppolition of three days. The 
Church oiNoftredam is about 1200 years old : It is a Staple of Corn, 
and hcinoured with an Uuiveriity. Oudenaerd^ fcituate upon the Scheldt 
is one of thefaireft Towns in this Province, both for Sciruation and 
Trade, commanded by a high Hill, taken by the French^ 166'j. in Icfs 
than 24 hours ; altho it coft the Prince of Parma two months. Anno 
1582. Reliored to thi Thatch by the ATiwg/^w-Treaty. 

Courtray^ feated upon the L?/, is a Hold of great importance, and 
well fortiried by the French , who took it after a (hort Siege, An. 
166'J. The Inhabitants are excellent at Diapering of Linnen. 

Ditnki^ Vwiq.'ierca, or Vuink^r}^^ faid to be built about the year 
^66. It is one of the Five Ports of Flanders^ once confiderable for its 
Herring-Fifhing, more for its Privateering. 

Anno 1535. Charles the V//^. built a Fortrefs here. Anno 1558. it 
was taken and burnt by the Frfw7^. ^/?«o 1583. it vvas furprizcd by 
Chamois^ who commanded a Regiment in the Town; not long after 
it was yielded up to the Prince of Parma^ having endured all the 
Extremities of a Siege. Aino I'^^Oc ^t'mcQ Maurice endeavoured in 
vain to (urprife it by ScaUdo. Ann} 16^"]. it was after a troublefome 
Siege taken by the Prince of Cmde^ with a great lofs of men, and 
the Expence of fome Eaglijh Blood. In Auguli^ 16 '^2. it was be- 
lieged by Arch-Duke Leopold^ and being difappointed of Relief by 
means of the Engliih^ it furrendred. In the year 1657. Crom»>eU 
having entrcd into a League with Frvi/zce, the Engl<jh took Mor.tmediy 
St. Venant, and the ftrong Fort of Mar dyke ^ and inverted V-ttJiirl^. 
In 11558. Vn Jilm of Ahjiria came with an Army of i<5coc. Horfe 
and Foot to Relieve I)/i/2,i!>;VI;^; but after a brisk Encounter vvas defeat- 
ed by the £//^/r/^ alone. This O/erthrow, followed prcfenfly after 
by the Lofs of the Miiquefs of Lida, Governor of the City, llainin 
a bold Sally, occalioncd the fpeedy furrender of the Place, which ac- 

Of theSpamfh Nttherli^ds", 177 

cording to Articles came into the hands of the Englifh^ and fo remain* 
ed till after the Piefioration of King CW/a the 11. when, for Reafons 
not to be mentioned, fold to th^Frmch King. It*s true, none but the 
inexhaurtible Treafure of that Rich Monarch was able to fupply 
the conftant Charge, and vaft Disburfements, requifite for the railing 
the Fortifications, the Citadel, the Balin for Ships, the Harbour or 
Mould of almort a mile in kngth : Prodigious indeed hath been his 
Expcnces in hnidiing thefe indefatigable and ftupendious Works. 

l/Tfc-/, by tho D^ichTperen^ Lat. J^r«e, has fo many Leaden Pipes for 
Channels and Conveyances of Water under ground, that itisfaid the 
Foundations are of Lead; It is honoured with theTitleof a Vikount, 
and enjoys a Jurifdidion of a large extent; now pofTelTed by the 
French, and well FortiHed ; diftant from Bruges p, and itomGamt i^ 

Winnock^berg or Winnoxhergen^ Lat, Mons Sa»&i Winmci, or Berga San-- 
di Winnoci^ 7 Leagues from Vnnk^rk^. and 7 from Ifres j it owes its 
name to a noble Monatky ereded upon a Hill in Honour of St. Win- 
noc diwEnglijh-mzn of wonderful Devotion and Piety. 'Tis now made 
very ftrong by the French. Between it and Vmkirk^ are two ftrong 
Forts well Fortihed, the one called Fort- Lea-v^, the other the Spanijh 
Fort, kept by the French to procure the more Elbow-room for the 
Garifon of VMnkirk^ 

Veurne or Fumes ^ is diftant from Dunkirk^ 4, and from Vixmude 
3 Leagues ; a neat Town, in a very rich Soil; it was the Relidence 
of LewM the nth. of France, during his Retirement with Philip o£ 

Graveling, in the middle between Dunkirk^, and Calais , upon the 
mouth of the River j4j^ which divides Francehom Flanders. It was 
fortihed by Charles ihcVth. An. 15-28- with live ftrong BalUons, and 
a Citadel j it ftandsin a low and phftiy L:vel, and is environed with 
fo many Outwarks and Ditches of Water, that it feems ftrange it 
ftiould be yielded up in fo (hort a time to the Englijh and French in the 
year 165-8. 

Cajjels, or Kajfel, Lat. Kafletum, originally Cajhl^um, feated upon the 
top of an high Hill. Near this place have been fought Three memo- 
rable Battels, by Three Philips^ Generals on the Fre/tcb iide ; The hrft 
advantagious to the Low-Countries by the evil fate of Philip the Fair. 
Thefecond was fortunate to the Fmici^, through the Courage or good 
fortune of Philip of f^alois. The third was in April, Auno 1 577, be- 
tween the Prince of Orange, and Philip Duke of Orleance : The Dutch 
were 30000 fent to thePvelief of St. Omers ; but afcei a hot fight of 

A a three 

178 Of the Spmiflf Netherlands. 

three hours, defeated by the 'French^ with the lofs of 3 000 flain upon 
the rpot, and as many taken Prifoners : The lofs of the French was 
about 200O. 

Bruges^ Lat. Brug£y fcituate in a large Plain about three Leagues from 
the Sea, and four from Ofiend^ about four Italian miles in compafs, 
and well fortified. The new Channel^cut with vait charge to the Sluce, 
isfecured by prodigious Turn-pikes from the rage of the Sea. The 
Canal cut by Spinola between Bruges and Gaunt^ is eight Leagues in 
length, and guarded by about 200 Forts and Redoubts. 1 he City is 
exceeding neat and well built j in it are feven Parifli Churches, that 
of St. Johns is the Cathedral, An. IS5P- iixty Religious Houfes, and 
three Colleges of Canons. The Jefuits College deferves moft ad- 
miration. The Market-place is very commodious, and of a pleafant 
fcituation in the Center of fix principal Streets, running from as ma- 
ny of the chief Gates. The Palace La tranche is nobly adorned with 
the Pidturesand Statues of feveral Fmperors, Kings, Arch-Dukes, e^c. 
The Women of Bruges are faid to excel both in Beauty and Bravery, 

Sluce., Slufa, Lat. by fome ClaufuU^ once an exceeding wealthy 
place, now irs Fortifications and Scituation are fuch, as render it very 
ftrong ; taken by the Prince of Varma^ An. 1 58^. Retaken by Prince 
Maurice^ i6o/\. It is the largefl: Harbour in all Flanders. 

All the other places of Flanders are generally confiderable, either 
for their Beauty, or for their Fortification, for eminent Sieges or re- 
markable Battels. 

The Soil is fo fertile, that the Lotv-Countrks.^ as the Natives fay, 
would have produced as much Riches as the Indies^ had all their Ter- 
ritories been as fruitful as that of Fumes, Near Newport or Neoprius 
was fought that memorable Battel betwixt the Arch- Duke y^/i'erf, and 
the States, where by the Valour of the Englifh, and the excellent Con- 
duct of thofe Noble and Gallant perfons, Sir Francis and Sir Horatio 
Vere^ the VxQioty was gained for the States. 

The Province of Jrtois^ in Lat. Artefia & Arthejia^ united to the 
Crown of France by the Tyren^an Treaty, from which it wasdifmem- 
bred. It enjoys a mild and temperate Air, with a fertile Soil, produ- 
cing all forts of Grain and Fruit, efpecially Wheat in abundance. 

ArrOi Gallis^ Artrehatum^ antiquk, Origiacum Ttol. Atrecht Ger. Araz.- 
zoj halis. The Capital City thereof conlifts of a high and Low Town, 
both very ftrong ; lince thj late Conquefts of the French King, the 
River which belongs to it has been made Navigable for Veflels to go 
beyond Vorvay. Hefdin, Hefdinum^ is a Regular Hexagon, by which 
the River was Navigable as far as MontrmL Bafaulme^ Bapalma^ is a 


Of the Spanifh Netherlands, 179 

place that cannot well be Belieged, becaufe there is no Water in all the 
Neighbourhood. Len/ is famous for the Victory of the French in the 
year 16 ^%, where the Prince of L/^«e, and the Marquefs of Grj«^ 
were taken, with 20 Captains, <5ioo common Soldiers, 40 Great 
Guiis, andpoEnfigns. Be//:7««eis fair and ftrong, and makes excel- 
lent good Cheefe ; And T'erroane^ Tervama^ Tervcin^ is known by its 
Ruins. At the Siege whereof. An. 1513. Maximilian the Emperor 
ferved in Perfon under the Englifh Colours. St. Omers^ Audomaropolis 
& F annum S. Audomari^ is a ftrong City, furrounded with Marflies, 
wherein there are Floating Iflands. It is feated on the River y^^, well 
fortified with Baftions, Half- moons, Ditches, e^c. \t vtdi% Anno 166 j. 
afTaulted by Monfieur, at the fame time that Camhray was by the King 
of France 5 and the Prince of Orange coming to its Relief, being de- 
feated near Caffel^ the Town was yielded up. In (hort, the Riches of 
the People, the Canal for Commerce, the Abby of St. Ber/i«, and the 
Englifh Seminary of Jefuits, hive rendred it a place of no common 
fame throughout all 'Europe, 

Aire^ or Arien^ Lat. Aria, upon the Lie River, is a very ftrong 
place, being environed on three fides by a Moori(h Level, and forti- 
fied with good Ditches, Baftions, Half moons, Pvedoubts , Horn- 
works, Counterfcarpj, &c. on the other fide it is defended with the 
ft:rong Fort of St. James ^ot St. Francis s in July i<575,befieged by the 
Marefchal de Hitmieres, and furrendred. , 

Haynault^ Hjnnona, by the Dutch Henegovc^ or Haingotv^ according to 
the Report of the Inhabitants, and the Records of the Province, ac- 
knowledgeth only God and the Sun for their Supreme Lords j how- 
ever it has fince had other Lords. 

Mms, called alfo M?«fe/, and Ber^^ew, the Capital City of H^zw^(7»7, 
and one of the principal Cities in the Spanifh Provinces ; wonderful 
ftrong by its Scituation, the Countrey round about being eafily over- 
flowed. It is alfo very well fortified with all manner of Works, Con- 
cerning the Surprifal of it. Anno 1572. by means of twelve Soldiers 
pretending to be Wine-Merchants, obtained the Keys of the City, and 
foletinfome Forces of Horfe and Foot, under Lewis oi Naffau^ bro- 
ther to the Prince of Orange^ fee Meteran^ lib. 4. and Meurfms^ lib. 3, 
Rerum Belgic. As for the Attempt upon the French Camp, in 1^78, 
near M^wj, by the Prince of Grangers Guards, and the Englifh, undeJ 
that Excellent Soldier and Valiant Earl of OJfory^ deferves a far better 
Pen than mine to deliver it to Pofterity in a peculiar manner, and 
among the greateft and raoft glorious Adions of this prefent Age. 
Nofooner was Mons invefted,^«. i<5pi. but the King of France ar- 

A a 2 rived 

1 8 o Of th Spamfb Netk rUnds. 

rived in the Camp, the 21/?. of Mjrc'y. The befieged al! along vigo* 
roufly defended themfelves^ but on the 8//:?. of /Ipril.. the Burgherf, 
fpurred on by the EcclefialHcks, and difcouraged by the Pvuiii of their 
Churches and Houfes, forced the Governor to Capitulate ; and upon 
the ptb. the Fre?2cb took pofTelTionof the Gate of Bartamont^ and on the 
loth: the Garifon marched out to the number of 2400 men, and 280 
Officers. The French put into the Town a Garifon of 4000 Horfe and 
1 0000 Foot. 'Tis reckon'd that the Siege co£t Fr»n«e feveral Millions, 
and above jooomen. 

This County of Hainatdt contains four Principali'ies, Barhancon, 
Chimai^ Ccnde, and Ligtte ; three Marquifates, AifauxyTnlon^Vergnks ; 
and 15 Counts, 22 Baronies, 26 Abbies, 12 Signiories, 2 4 Fortified 
Towns, and ^50 pieafant and rich Villages. The Eftate is ancient, 
being fometimes a part of the great Earldom of Ardemie, from which 
it was divided and made a diftindt Earldom by .-;/^ewi^ Sirnamed the 
Orphdine^ one of the youngetl Sons of Brwmlpb Count of Ardenne^ 
ilain by Vagobert a French King, who had this part, with Title of Earl 
given him by Sigebert King of Aujhafia^ to be held under the Sove- 
raignty of the French Kings, After long continuance ar.d often 
changes, it was by Jaqueline the lall: Princefs ( wanting Heirs ), fur- 
rendred (together with Holland^ Zeland^ and fVeji-Friefland , united 
•in Families ) unto Fhilip the Gcod-. Duke of Burgundy^ her next Kins- 
man. In whofe Houfe the Right ( but the Poffeition in the French 
King ) now remaineth , at leaft the greatcft part. Valenciennes , 
Vakntiana , is a great, fair . and well fortified place , taken by 
the French^ ^^11' lying upon the Schdd. ^ercetum^ ^efnoy 5 Lafki- 
decium^ Landrtcyi Avenna^ Avefnes t, PhilrppeviJIa^ Fbilipville; and M<i- 
rienburgb, Mariaburgum, are llrong places, all in the French Bing's 
Power ; together with Binch , Bmcbium *, Mannumt , not far from it, 
was one of the faireft Houfes in all the Countrey, Mary Queen of 
Hungary having omitted nothing that might adorn the Strudure. The 
Battel of Senefj 1674. was one of the moi\ remarkable Exploits of 
that exquifite General the Prince of Conde. 

Luxemburgenfu Vncatus. The Dutchy of Luximhurg. It was fome- 
times a part of the Principality of Jrdetmne. By the Emperor Charles 
the Fourth made a Dukedom in the perfonof his Brother TFcnceJIaui. 
By Elizabeth the laft Pr incefs, wanting Heirs, it was fold to Fhilip the 
Goodi Duke of Burgnin. This Province contains in Circuit about 70 
Leagues, or 200 Italian miles , it comprehends 20 Wall'd and Forti- 
fied Towns,and between 1 1 or 12 hundred Boroughs or Villages. Its 
chief City is Lmzenburg^ot Luxenbmn. in LatXutzenhurgumfir Luxenhur- 

Of the Spamflj Nether Urds, 1 8 1 

^Mw, & Lucemhur^um, (o called from the Image of the Sun Itheie 
worlhipped ; from whence fomc will have it originally called Lucif- 
burgum. Gnicciardin and others think it to be the AugnfiaRonundm- 
rnm of Ptol. It is commodiouily feated on a Hiil, Ikong and well for- 
tihed, but has fuffered much by the Injuries of War. It was taken 
and plundered by the French^ under the Command of the Duke of 
Orleance-, An. 154.2. As alfo the year following by the iame Enemy. 
Anno 1552, The whole Countrey was laid defolate by the Army of 
Henry the 2d. of France^ led into Germany againft CharUs the '^th. Nor 
was it ever more barbaroufly pillaged and harafs'd, than by the Fremh 
in July and Augu{i, An. 1673. And in An. 1674. the City was be- 
iicged, and furrendred to the French. 

Arlun^ or Ariumnn^ fo called from Ara Lwia ; it retains the Title of 
a Marquifate. 

The Dutchy of Mofelle lies along the Courfe of that River, between 
Metz. and Triers, is now under feveral Lords and Mafters. 

The Principaliry of Ardmnne is very Ancient, faid to have been 
eredi-ed in the time of the M-riwingii^ the lirft Royal Family of the 
Francks ; and to have been governed by fever -.1 brave Princes defcend^ 
ed from Chdion the (econd Monarch of that Nation. 

The Earldom of Chyny is oi an ample Jurifdi<3:ion over feveral 
Towns and Villages. 

The Earldom of Rouffy^ formerly called St. Pauly of which little 

La Roche en Ardenne^ gives Title to an Earldom, made fuch by the 
Ancient Kings ot France^ and formerly comprehended divers Lord- 
fhips. Vurbny gives Title to an Earldom. Marville is the Capital 
Town of a Lordaiip. Viandm^ Vknnen^ &Vienthal^ fuppofed to be 
fo called from an Ancient Calile ereded hy t\\Q Vandalls about the year. 
883, and by them called Vandelen i It gives Title to an Earldom which 
did belong to the Family of Orange. 

Bjjionac, Naif-Chateau St. Vit, Mars-en famenne^ or Alarche enf amines 
are fmall Towns^ feme with Caiiles, and fome without Walls. 

ThconviUe^Theonli Villa., CTTheonvilla^ by the Dutch Viedenhoven: LemS' 
the i4r^of France was not much advanced in the hfth year of his 
Age, ere he began to Triumph over his Enemies at the memorable 
Battel of Kocrny, 1643 ana the g.^inin^ of Theonville by. the Conduct 
of the Duke P* Anguim. Mmmedi. Mons medius. Vanvi'liers., Damu^ 
illerium^ belong to the French King : And Tuoix Ttf^dium^ by the French 
Carijran. There are (ome Lands in the F- >rcii of Ardcn that belong to 
theBilhopof Liege-, that is to fay, BoviUioni Bulliomm, with the Title 


1 8x Of the Spanijh Netherlands-, 

of a Vutchy^ and a (IrongCaftle upon the Rock or high Hill, whereof 
was named thsithmous Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lorain^ and thefirft 
of the Latins^ King of Jemfakm. St. Hubert^ to whom the Huntfmen 
make particular Devotions : And Rochefort, that beheld the French 
Vid-ors over the Spaniards at the Battel of /Ivin^ in the year 1635. 

Brabant^ Brabantia^ or Brachland , is a negleded or uncultivated 
Soil} but the Art and Induftry of the Brabantines and Flemmingsh^ve 
novi^ not only altered but improved their barren Lands, by fowing of 
Flax, one Acre whereof is worth about 40 or 50 /. After the Flax 
is pull'doff, they either fow the fame Land with Oats, and upon them 
Clover- grafs feed, only Harrowing it with Bufties •, which Grafs, 
after the Oats are mowed, yields a very great Pafture, and is cut three 
times in a year, and continues good for four or five years together j 
or elfe after the Flax , they fow Rye and Turnips j what Turnips 
they do not fell, they give to their Cattel, beating the Roots and 
Leaves (well-wafli'd ) together, and then boyling them in water, 
which makes their Cattel not only fat, but to yield a greater quantity 
of Milk. They alfo convert their heathy Land into Hop-Grounds, 
Orchards, and Nurferies for Pear, Apple, Cherry, and Walnut Trees, 
and alfo Oaks, Allies, and Elms ; whereby they make a vafl advan- 
tage by their Linnen, Paper, and Oyl, which with the help of their 
Windmills they prefs out of the Seeds of their Flax and Turnips. I 
(hall here only add to the Reproachof our own Sloth and Negligence, 
what hath been credibly reported , That there was no lefs than 
1 00000 /. worth of Flax yearly brought into England from Foreign 
Countries. But enough, and perhaps too much upon this SubjecfV. 
The States of Trabant confift of, i. The Ecclefiafticks, or Abbots. 
2. The Nobles, viz. Dukes, Marquefles, e^c 3. The Deputies ofrthe 
'^hief Cities. It is divided into four Quarters, called Tetrarchies, 
and diftinguiflied by the Names of their four principal Cities, Brujfels, 
Lovainey Antwerp, and Boijleduc. BruJJels, or Bruxch, is a City very 
well peopled , the Seat of the Governor, in whofe Palace is room 
enough to lodge feveral Kings. 

The Number 7 is obfervablein many things belonging to this City: 
viz, 7 publick Fountains; 7 principal Streets leading to the great 
Market-place, about which ftands 7 (lately Houfes 5 here ?,re alfo 7 Pa- 
rifli Churches, 7 Noble Families j 7 Licenfed and Sworn Midwives, 
7 Gates of Doric Work, each leading to a different Pleafure or Ex- 
ercife : The Lonvain Gate to Fowling, the Algidomontana Gate to Fifh- 
ing, the Anderlecht to pleafant Fields, the Flandrian to Pafture Grounds, 
the Laken Gate to Springs and Vineyards, the Mechlin to Gardens 5 


Of the SpAm[h Nether U >2cls. i g , 

here was alfo at one time 7 Crowned Heads. The Church of St. Gu- 
duU is one of the faireii in all the Country. The Palace feated upon 
a Hill, is a mofi: magniHcentand ftately piece of Building j adjoining 
to which is a large fpace of Ground enclofed with a Wall, containing 
in it whatever can be fubfcrvient to the Pleafures and Diverlion of a 
Prince; as Grotto's, Ponds, Water-works, Gardens, Walks, and 
places appropriated to different and-particular forts of Recreation. The 
Senate-houfe is a noble Pile of Building. The Tower is adorned with 
a Brafs Statue of St. Michael the Titular Angel of this City. The Pa- 
laces of the Nobility are magnificent, the Houfes of the Citizens fiately 
and fine. The Eccho is admirable, refledting the Voice 15 times: 
about three Leagues from it Hands the ample and famous Abby of y^/- 

The Channel that runs to Antwerp is one of the greateH Undertake- 
ings in the Low-Countries , wherein there are prodigious Sluces j for 
the making whereof, Sums of Money, no lefs prodigious, were ex- 
pended. The Neighbourhood of the Foreft oi Sognies lies very con- 
venient for Hunting. 

Lovaine, Lovanium^ which (bme affirm to be the Capital City of 
Brabant^ is one of the biggeil: Cities of Europe, with a famous Univer- 
lity , which gives the Natives occaiion to call it a City of Scho- 
lars ; Brujfels, a City of Courtefans ; Antvperf^ a City of Merchants 3 
ajid Mdines, a City of Advocates, by reafon of its Parliaments. It 
is pleafantly feated upon the River Dele 5 it contains 1 1 Market-places, 
1 1 Principal Streets, 140 LcfTer ; 1 4 Mills, 16 Bridges, and 4 Foun- 
tains for publick ufe. About the Year 1350 are faid to have been at 
leaft 40000 Weavers Shops, upon each of which at leafl: 30 or 40 
feveral perfons depended for work and livelihood ; the Hall or Stadt- 
Houfe is large and cofily, adorned with variety of Figures of the moft 
curious Worknnpanfhip > the Caftle is feated on the top of a Hill , fur- 
rounded with Vineyards and pleafant Gardens, and a healthy Air. 
Half an hours Journy from Louvain ihnds a Palace of the Duke of 
Anfcbot^ the way leading thereunto is wonderfully rare; but the 
Houfe for magnificence, pleafure and convenience, has perhaps not 
masiy Rivals in Europe. Other lefler Towns in the Quarter of Louvain 
are 7ionen or Ttlmont^ Lat. 7ban£ -, In the Year 1^75. much ruined by 
the French. S. T'ruyen^ or St.. Trou^ Lat. Centrones, its Walls were de- 
moliftied, and its Gates blown up by the French. Strong Leen?e, Lat. 
Levia, upon the R. Greet. Vieli^ or Viefiheim^ upon the K. Vemer. gives 
title to a Barony, now appertaining to the Prince of Orange. Gem- 
hloitrj^ Gemblicum Lat. feated upon the fteep of an Hill, envi- 

184 Of the Sp(tmjh Netherlands, 

roned by Precipices and deep Vallies. Hakn^ Lat. Hala. Sichen. 

Judoigiie or Gddirnac. Hamuye, & Landen^ are pretty confiderable 


Tilkmunt was taken by force in the Year 1(535 by the Fr^wc^ and 
HoUafiders, NrJlIr: is made remarkable by her Religious Covent of 
42 Nuns, who muft be not only Virgins and Legitimate, but both by 
Father and Mother of Noble Extradlion for four Defcents ; for the fine 
Linnen-cloth made there ; and for the fair High-ways round about it. 
Vilvorden upon the K\\'qv Sinne^ glories in an ancient Calile, the Grand 
Fvepofitory of the R.ecords of Brabant. 

Sai(f\ a fmall Village, Ls lately memorable for the Battel fought be- 
tween the Vtttch, Confederate with Spin^ the Empire, and the Forces 
oi France-, Ann. 1674. 

Marquifateof the Empre derives its Name from its Scituation, lying 
upon theAncientBoundsofFr^wce^and the Empire,and whither the Em- 
perors were wont to fend Governours , which they called Marque/fes. 
There is only the City of Antn^erp in li^Atmcittum & Aduatacum J^iu Be- 
cano^Anduverpum al. Antuerpia, Antwcrpm incolis, Antwerp Anglis. Anveret 
Hifp. Anvtrs Gal. Antorfi Germ. Anverfa halis. One of the taircft and 
moil pleafant Cities in all the Low-Countries ; tor which Rearon,CW/ex 
the Firli called it his Holy-day City : The Importance of the Scituati- 
on hath caufed it to be firongly fortihed with ten great Ballions and 
one of t\\(!i rtrongeft Citadels in Europe ; flank'd with hve great Baftions 
lined with Brick and Free-ftone. This Cittadel was built towards 
the higheft part of the River, that it might command the City, and 
be fucccured from that part of the Country which was fubjedi to its 
Prince. The Duke of Alva^ w!io built the Cittadel, caufed his Statue 
to be (tt up, which was afterwards taken down. The Jefuits in Ant- 
vperp have a Church built all of Marble, which is faid to be the faireft 
which they have in the World. The Church dedicated to the BlefTed 
Virgin is a very magnificent Stru^urei in which are 66 Chappels aiid 
Altars curioufly built, and fumptuoufly adorn'd with Statues and Fi- 
xtures, One of the Towers adjoining to this Church is fiid to be 420 
foot high, befids its top or Cover, which is 5 foot, and a Crofs up- 
on that 16 foot more. As to its Trade and number of Inhabitants, 
the Year 1 568. may be accounted its grand ClimaBerk. Then it was 
that 2500 Ships were feen together upoii the Scheld, and 400 Veffels 
obferved to come up with the fame Tide. Thit 2co Waggons arri- 
ved every day laden with PalTengers, and loooo Country Carts em- 
iployed in a d^y in the carriage and conveyance of Goods ; and 50P 


Of the Spanijb NethtrUnds, 185 

Coaches trolling about for the eafe and diverfion of the Richer fort. 
Then it was that they numbred 2cccoo Inhabitants, and tiourillied 
exceedingly in all forts of Commerce. 

Brzdd, 8 Leagues diltant from Antmrp^is confiderable for its bignefs, 
well built, and populous, and of great ftrength. The Lordihip of it 
belongs to the Prince of Orange, who has a Cafile and fair Palace in 
the Town, furprifed and taken b^ the Spaniards^ Ann.i 581. recovered 
by aStratagennof 80 Soldiers hid under a quantity of Turf in a Boat, 
in the Year 15-^0. Its Siege, which lalied nigh a whole year, was 
very rennarkable ; but all hopes of Relief at length vanifhing , it was 
furrendred to the Spaniards at the end of Afjy, i <52 5. yet in Jn- 1 537. 
by the indefatigable Valour, and excellent Conduct of Prince Frederic^ 
it was put into the pofTelfion oi the Vmted Provinces. 

The Fort Lillo^ fatuate upon the Scheldt thr^e Leagues from Ant- 
vperp^ is in the pofleilion of the States^ under whonj it hath been gra- : 
dually augmented to the bignefs of a fmall Town. Oppofite to which 
is the Fort Liefk^njhoeck,, both which being repoffefs'd, and its Foitifi- 
cations rebuilt by the Dutch^ is a great Curb to the Trade of Antwerp^ 
all VelfJs being conftantly fearch'd which pafs to or from that 

Ltre^ Lira Lat. is a neat and pleafantly feated Town, therefore the 
Rirtircment of Perfons of Quality and Merchants , whom a happy 
temper of mind has blefs'd no lefs with Content, than Fortune with 
Riches. Herentals is a firong place. Hwgjiraten hath the Title of an 
Earldom. Bergen Op Zoom Lat. Berg£ adZonam^ raifed to the Dignity 
of a Maiquifate by Charles the Fifth s it is a firong and well fortitied 
place, the Buildings fair and handfome, the Church of St. Lawyer/, 
and the Marquils's Palace are worthy of commendation. 

Soon after the violating of the Paciiica'icn of Gaunt, it was deliver- 
ed into the hands of the States'. About the Year 1588. beneged in 
vain by the Prince of Parma^ being l^outly defended by the Englifh un- 
der Vrury and Morgan^ Ann. 1622. it was in vain befieged by Spinola , 
never was place more furioufly affaulted, and feldom any more coura- 
giouily defended. 

By rhe Peace of Nimeq^hen concluded Amu i6y^. the Marquifate of 
Bergen OpZ'Wm, with its Appendences, &c. as alio all Rights, Adlions, 
Privileges, &c. was rellored to the Earl of Aitvergne^ one of ih^French 
King's chief Commanders. Steenbergen^ not far from the Sea, polfef- 
fcd by the Spaniards in Ann. 1 622. but after the railing of the Siege of 
Bergen Opz,oom^ it was retaken by Prince Maurice, afterwards ftrergth- 

B b ned 

1 86 Of the Spmi[h Netherlands. 

ned with new Ramparts and Bulwarks , and with divers new Forts 
and Redoubts. 

Samultt^ a large Fortrcfs, defigned to have been built with 7 great 
Bulwarks, and other Works ^ but a Fire, and the violent Inunda- 
tions of the Sckldi were exceeding prejudicial to the Span'tjh Purpofes 
and Endeavours. 

The City oi Bois- le-Vir. ^ by the French Bolduc^ in Latin Silva Ducts 
& BufcHtn Vucis^ in Vittch Hmo^m Bofch , gives denomination to the 
fourth and lall Quarter of Brabmt ; feveral Canals run through this 
City, over which lies $■ i Stone Bridges, and 38 Wooden ones. The 
City is feated upon a Hill in the midllof a Fenny Level, of a great ex- 
tent, well fortified with a flrong Wall, a deep and broad Ditdi, fiout 
Bulwarks and Ramparts, and all other Works, as the Ingenuity and 
Experience of Modern Ingineers could invent to render a Town, To 
commodioufly fcituated as this is, little lefs than impregnable. After 
the taking of Maejiritcht, Ann. i57p. it fell into the hands of the 
Prince of Parma. Ann. 1601, it was bcGe^ed by Px'mce Maurice, but 
relitved by Arch-Duke v^lbert. But in the Year i62p. it was, after a 
tedious and difficult Siege , yielded up to H.nry Frederic Prii xe of 
Orange. Begirt by the French, Ann. 16^2. but the King's unexpected 
Departure for France, Tmenne quitted the Siege, and marched higher 
into the Country. 

Bois-le-duchdS a large Jurifdidion, comprehending Lampin, Peland, 
Maefland\ the Diftrid: of O/ferjayc/^, and the Towns oi Hdmont, Find- 
hoMcn, Megen, Ravefiein, and Grave. Helmont is watered by the R.iver 
^f, it gave birth to Andreoi Hdmondanm , as the adjoining Village 
Breeck^ to Geropius Becanus. Findhovm is a little walled Town upon the. 
Dommel. Megen gives title to an Earldom. Ravifiine is defended by 
a good Caftle. Grave is a place of great Concern, the Fr nee of Orange 
is Lord of it. This City is head of the fmall Earldom of Cuyck^, it 
commands a confiderable Pafs upon the Maes, and is very lirongly for- 
tified. In the Year 1586. it was furrendred to the Prince of Parma 
bytheCowardife of the Governour, who therefore lo/i his Head. In 
^i««. 1602, it was after a Siege of two months by Prince Maurice^ re- 
du'^ed under the Obedience of the Confederate States, until the Y-ar 
i6y2 when it was taken by the French, the Garifon defcrting the 
place upon the approach of 40 or 50 of the Enemies Horfe ; by the 
French it was more (fiongly fortified, and made their Storc-Houfe, 
But Ann. 1 675. the Dmth, after- a clofe Siege of 3 or 4 Months, 
carried on with moft furious asid continued AHaults, it was yield- 
ed up» 


Of the Spanifh Netherlands. 187 

Michlin or Malines is the Refidcnce of the Parliament o{ th.^ Catho- 
/icJl^ProTwcTJ' of the King of Spain. Her Territories are very fraall, 
confiding of about nine Villages, yet making one of the j7 Provinces. 
Mechlin enjoys a very healthy and temperate Air, the River T>de runs 
thorow the midil of it, dividing the City into divers Iflands, united 
by a great number of Bridges , the Tide ilows up the River about a 
League above the City ; it is well fortified , and may be laid under 
Water. Gwcctardin tells us of a dreadful Tempeft which happen'd 
here in the Month oi Aitguji, 1 54<5. in which the Lightning gave fire 
to 2000 Barrels of Powder in a Tower near the Sandpord ; a fevere 
and lamentable Providence ! It is reported, That the Women of M«- 
lines^ when they are ready to Lye- in, go into Brabant to be brought to 
Bed, to the end their Children may enjoy the Privileges of the Bra- 
handers^ which are very great and advantagious, granted by the grace 
and favour of feveral Emperors , and by the goodnefs and condefcen- 
tion of their proper Princes. There is alfo in Brabant the Dukedom 
of Arfchot, and the Earldom of Hoochfiraten. The whole Country is 
faid to contain 80 German miles in compafs, 26 Towns ftrongly forti- 
fied both by Art and Nature, and 17 other which enjoy great Privi- 
leges. The Inhabitants have been accounted a Warlike People, but 
none of the wifeft j of whom Erafmut's Proverb was , Brabanti quo 
magis fenefcunt eo magts fiultefctent, 

Namur^ Namurcnm , is a Town of con(equence , by reafon of the 
pafTage over the Meufe^ in that part where the Sambre falls into her. 
Marble, Slate, and Sea-coal are thence tranfported. It was about 
the beginning ot J«w, i6()2. that the Fnnch having amafs'd all their 
Forces together, that they fet down before Namttr •, the Town quickly 
furrendred, but the New Fort and Caftle made a vigorous defence ; 
which coil the Frerkh the lives of m.any men and Officers j but being 
over- powered, on the 3 o of Jun^ the Garifon capitulated, and march- 
ed out. Cbarhrny^ Carolo-Regium, upon the Sambre^ is one of the beft 
Fortrelles of the Low-Countries^ fince it fell into the hands of the French^ 
reflored by the Treaty of Nimeguen to the Spaniards. 

Limbnr^h.^ Limburgum^ has only the Town of the fame Name, which 
is of any Remarque, with a flrong Cailile upon a Rockj taken by the 
French King in the Year K575. Valh^nburg^ FalcobHrgiim^ Lat. Fauque- 
mont., and Vakm^ two Earldoms, area part of this Dutchy. Rolduc^ 
Rod(-le-I)itc, by the Dutch., Hirtogen Rode, is a little neat Town. Cam' 
pen is a fpacious Village, guarded with a ftrong Calile. 

The Country of Liege belongs to its Biftiop, to whom the Inhabi- 
tants formerly gave the Title of Grace. He is elected by the Chapter, 

B b 2 who 

i88 Of the Spamjh Netherlands, 

who formerly refided at Tongres^ or 7ongeren , Civitof tmgrnrum Ptol, 
& Advatuca T'ongromm. Here flourifhed in the time of the Romans^ an 
ancient Billiop's See , after the Invafion and fpoil by Attiloi and the 
Hims^ by whom the Town was facked and deliroyed in the Year 4^8, 
it was removed by St. Savatm to Maefireich ; afterwards in the Year 
713. by St. Hubert it was removed to Luic}^ or Leige ^ where now it 
refteth. The Bifhoprick is of a large extent, and has many places 
within the Limits of the Neighbouring Provinces. Leige, Leodicum 
& Leodium^ is a City of Trade ; and as they fay, the Paradife of the 
Ecdelialhcks. Ic is Remarkable, that in the Year 1131. there were 
among ^he Canons of the Cathedral Church, nine Sons of Kings, 
14 Sons of Dukes, 29 Sons of Earls, and 7 Sons of Barons. The 
Eledtor of Cologne^ Prince thereof, caufed a Cittadel to be built there. 
The Cathedral of Lkge beareth the Name of St. Lambert, who was Bi- 
fhop of M;?e/?r/c;b, marthered by Vodo^ &c. about the Year 612. The 
Cittadel ftandeth upon a Hill, and is of great llrength, built to keep 
the City in fubjedion, lince the Year i6^p. Maeflreich^ for its Forti- 
fications, and the famous Sieges which have been laid to it, in that 
of 1673. the Englijh fignaliied their Valour under the Condudt of 
the Duke of Monmouth. The Treaty of Nimeguen reftored it to the 
Dutch, who now polTefs it. The Quarry of Stone about a quarter of a 
mile from the Town, is one of the nobleft in the World, for furpalling 
the Cave oi Cujioza or Cubola, faid to be 500 fathoms in breath, and 
700 in length. This is two miles in length under ground, high and 
ftately, no Labyrinth can be contrived more intricate, and yet all 
parts uniform. Maejireich that formerly was faid to belong to the 
Duke of Brabant ; and Ifkk^^ that was an Appurtenance to the Bi- 
(hop of Leiges Territories. The Spa is a neat Village in the F^oreft 
o( Jrdenna , feated in a bottom encompafTed with Hills. A place 
which for the vertue of its Mineral Springs is as famous as beneti- 
cial to Mankind. Mae(ireich , Trajedum ad M>fjm, is compofed of 
two Towns. 

Camhrefes, now almoft environed by the Territories oi^ France. The 
City of Cambray, Cameracum, by the Dutch, Camarkkjs, has two good 
Cittadels, the guard whereof was feldom committed to any other 
than Natural Spaniards. There is a Sun- Dial of tlngular Workman- 
fhip, wrought by a Shepherd : It is a Town, which in times of Peace 
yearly expofed to Sale above <5ocoo Pieces of tine Cloth. It was ta- 
ken by the French at the beginning of the Year i<577. though before, 
the King'? of Spjifi^ uncontrad idled by the Emperor, did appropriate 
to themkk'es the Temporal JmiWidiion oiCambray, as bdng of the 

' ;; fame 

Of the SpAnifh Netherlands. 189 

fame Nations and the Archbiftiops thereof in vain follicited for their 
re-eftab]i(hment. Thofe Prelates were called Archbilhopf, and Dukes 
of Cambray, Earls of Camhrifis , and Princes of the Holy Empire, tho 
generally they neither hid Seat or Voice in their Diet. 

The Extent of thefe Provinces is but firiall, but it is one of the befl 
peopled, and richeft fpots of Ground in the World ; more wholfome 
than formerly ; toward Germany Hilly and Woody, as we have faid ; 
but towards the Sea, generally fertile, and full of Pafi:ur.:igc. The 
Principal Rivers of the 17 Provinces, are the Khine^ the Mmfe^ and 
the Scheld. The Rhine rifes in Srvitz^erland ^ running chiefly through 
Germany. After ir has divided it felt at Fort Schenh^^ as it enters into 
the Low- Countries^ it mixes with feveral other Rivers, and lofeth its 
Name in the Sand a little below Leyden in HMjnd. The Meufe^ which 
falls out of France and Lorrain , has (his Advantage above the Khiney 
that (he retains4iei Naine, and prelerves her Waters unmix'd till (he 
fall into the Ocean, where Ihe m^ikes feveral good Ports. The Scheld 
was formerly the Limits between France and the Empire^ in the time 
o( Charles the Bald. htGamt^ the lix, a Navigable River, falls into 
it; and before it wholly lofeth its Name, it divides its felf into two 
principal Aims ; of which, the Left, which they call the Hout j and 
the Right, which flows to Ty/e;?, falls into the Matfe. Beiides thefe 
Rivers, and thofe that fall into them, there are Cuts, Channels and 
Mailhes, which ferve the Inhabitants both for Trafrique and De- 



f France. 

FRdiicz AngVis , Y rancid Italis & Hifpjnis , Frarckreicb Gtrmanis^ Al' 
frar.oui 'turc'is^ Gallia C^f. Plin. &c. The Hr(i Inhabitants of France 
were the AndcntGauls^ who p:illing the Alps^ under theCoi c^ud: of 
BcllovL'fus^ Conquered the nearcil: pirts of Italy^ called Galia Cijalp;nai 
and under that oiScgovejiis. over- run the greateft part vi Germany. The 
fame Nation under the Command of Bremn^Sj dilcomhttd the Romans^ 


of Frame. i^i- 

at the River Allia, Tacked the City, and bcfieged the Capitol. The/c 
were the Men who ranfacked lUyrkum , Famionia, Ihrace and Greece -, 
and plundred the Temple ofVelphos : But at laft were totally fubdued 
by Julm C£far, but not without much difficulty ; for they did not 
then fell their Liberty at To cheap a rate as other Nations did, ( ip2ooo 
of them being llain, before they would fubmit to the Roman Yoak j by 
whom the Country was divided into four parts, viz.. Narbonenfis, or 
Bracata^ containing Langued^c, Dolphin, and part of Savoy, 2 Aquta- 
nica, (from the City Aqna Augujia^ now V yicqu:) comprehending 
Gafcoign, Guienm , Saintonge, Limofvi , ^erci^ Perigort, Berry, Bnwbon- 
mis and Juv^rgne. 3. Celtica, containing the Provinces of Bretagne, 
Normandy, Anpu. T'^urain, Maine, La Beaufe, the Ifle of France, part of 
Campagne, the Dukedom oi Burgundy, and the County of Li noife. 4. Bel- 
gica, containing Picardy, the remaii^der of Champagne.. Bitrgnidy, and the 
Spanijh Netherlands. Long if Itood not in this Ibte 5 for about tl^e Year 
4v?o. Hmorinf being ro; , the Gothsy having overrun Spain and 
hdly, ieiu part oi fheir Forces and fubdued Galh.a Narkmcnfis, calling 
hLanmide Goth, afterwards corruptly Languedoc. Then extending 
tiieirConqueft unto th: Rivcr Ligerit, now Loire., they founded a King- 
dom, the principal Seat whereof was at Tholoufe. 

About the fame time, xhz BHrgmidimes , or Burgundiant , a people 
that iiihabitcd part of the Country of the Cajfubii, and part of the 
Country of the Mjrquifate of Brandenburg, together with the Fandalls 
and Suethes, feizcd upon orher pirts of France, and conftituted a King- 
dom called Burgundy., comprehenling both the County and Dutchy of 
Burj^undy., the County of Lwnuife , Dauphme, Savoy and Provence, who(e 
chief City was Anlate, now y^rles. 

A )Out the fami: timealfo, the Franks, a German Nation, having 
palTed the Rhine, feized upon the adjacent Territories of France^ where, 
founding a Monarchy (under their hrllKing Pharamond, al, Waramond) 
gave it the Name oi France. 

France lies ejccellently compad together, between the moft FlouriHi* 
ing S;atcs of Chiiftcndom, and in the mid.^le of the Northern Tempe- 
rate Zone, where the Lihibitancs breathe a moll: ferene and healthy 
Air. In (hort, it is Rich, Fertile, and well ; eopled ; there being. 
reckoned in it about 4000 good Towns a;.d Cities. 

Irs Length from Calais toToalon is about 620 miles, 73 to a degree, 
the Bre-dth from Brji to the Borders of Lorrain, or from Baine to Nice 
in Picdmnt is not more than 4p2. miles. I well know all other Au- 
thors falfcly make it much more. Molt of her Cities are equal to Pro- 
viaces, and moft of her Provinces are equal to Kingdoms. 

192 ^f Fra?7ce. 

H^r Corn, her JFi/ie, her Salt^ her Linncn Cloth., her Paper^ and fe- 
\CT3.\ Manufadnref^ inrich <he hihabitants. 

Tlie Limits and Bounds of this Kingdom have been various ; at 
prefcnt, (aiih a.Fr(ncIj Geographer, the KifigsConqmih cannor be bound-. 
ed, not by the Khnic, nor by the Ocean^ nor by the Vynneans.^ nor by 
the Alps. . And thofe that are not altogether Grangers to the world, 
will acknov.'kdge. That of all the Kingdoms of E?fr,/?c' there are none 
but may be faid to be inferior to France in fome rcfpe^l or other. The 
greatnefs of its Territories, tl:e populoufnefs of it, the nuniber of 
I heir Nubility and Gentry, their natural Courage, with the advantage 
of their Military Actions, and Warlike Ex.rcifes, the Scituation of 
their Coup.trey, the fruitfulnefs 2nd riches of the Soil , the prodigi- 
ous quantity of-all Commodities and Manufaduves, and the great 
Revenues of their Kings. Thefe Advantages have in all Ages raifed 
in them afpiring thoughts of the Eredtion of a new Weftern Empire. 
And how far this prefent King has gone ( by his Acquifuions ot late 
years ^ therell of the Princes of Z^/r^'/Jt-may confider of. 

The Kingdom is H^rreditary, and by an ancient ConHitution, as they 
pretend, called the S a liqae Law, never falls itito a Female Succeffion, 
And by the Law of Apennages^ the younger Sens of the Kirg cannot 
have pirtage with the Elder. Tiie King's Eldeft Son is called the Daw 
phine. The M narchy, which has rtood ever lince the yeav 420. hath 
been up'neld by the three Royal R.ces, ot Marovimm, ijrolinian, and 
Capctine, in a Line of 55 Kings. Pepin ihc ftiort, Son of Charles Mar- 
tf/depofed C/A'/^vr.'c^the hft of the MaovtgnianLmQ^ the Pope appro- 
ving and confirming of it. 

About the year f? 1 8, Hugh Capet, Earl 0^ Paris, cuttd the Caroline 
Family. Since this Capetine Race has gone in three Families ^ tirft in 
a direct Line till 1.328. then in the Houfe of Valois, till Henry the 
Fourth, of the Houfe of Bomhon, Anno i5Sp.' 

Among other Titles, the King hath that of Mft Ckrijlian^znd Eldeft 
Son of the Churchy bellowed upon him by the Pope. 

The Arms have been Three Flower de-luces Azure, in a Field (?r, 
ever t;nce Charles the Sixih. 

TheChriliian Pveligion washcre Hrfl planted by Martialis among 
the Giitds i hut among the French by Rermgius^ in the time of Clovis the 
Great. At prefent the people are divided, fome following the Roman., 
others the Preformed Religion, which have occalloned two feveral 
Malfacres, viZ'ihit of Merindol and Chahti.res 1545. upon the Bor- 
ders of France and Savoy , the Other that at Paris.^ 1572. and now 
this late Perfecution. 


Of France, 195 

The Kingdom is compofed of three Orders or Eftates j the Clergy-^ 
the l<iohiUty, and Commons. There are 16 Jrchbifhops, 106 Bifhops^ 
befides thofe of Arras, Tournay, and Perpignan: 16 Jbbots, Hcids ot 
Orders, or Congregations-, about '^0000 Cttratejhips, befides many 
other Eccleftaflical Vignities \ Several general and particular Govern- 
ments, 1 2 Ancient Peer (hips ^ and divers of new Creation ; a great nunv- 
ber of Principalities, Dukedoms , Marquifates, Earldoms, Baronies, and 
other Lordflnps : Eleven Parliaments, eight Chambers of Accounts, 22 
Generalities, ct Publick,? laces oi ?y.Qcdtoi the King's Revenue. 

There are four Principal Rivers ; the Seine, whofe Water is account- 
ed theftrongeftin the vi^orld, and more wholfome to drink than 
Fountain- water. The LwVe, King of the French Rivers ; the Garonne, 
moft Navigable ; and the Rhone, or Kofne, moft rapid. By others thus 
Charaderized 5 the Lorre tht fweeteft, the R^<j«c the fwifteft, the G^- 
ronne the %tedite{\, and the Seine the richeft. 

The Seine rifeth in Burgundy, w^tcnn^ Paris z\)d Roane, disburthen- 
Ing it felf into the Englijh Channel. The Sequanaoi C£far, 

The Loyre rifeth about the Mountains of Auvergne, being the higheft 
mFrance, vfZttxmg'Mantes and Or/e.;?n«,and augmenting with 72 Idkt 
Rivers, mingleth its fweet Waters in the Bifcain or Gafcoigne Sea. The 

Ligeris of Cafar. 

TheKhone, ot Rhofne, fpringeth up about three miles from the 
Head of the Rhine, watering Lions, Avignon, &c. and taking in 15 
lelTer Rivers, falleth into the Mediterranean Sea near Aries. The Rhoda- 

nw of C£far. ,., , , , tt, 1, 

The Garonne, running from the Pyrenean Hills, glidethby the Walls 
of Bourdeaux dwdi tbolcufe, and with the addition of 16 other Rivers 
dilates it felf into the jiquitain, now Bifcain Ocean. 7heGarumnaof 

Cafar. t ^ r /- 

The Mountains by Ancient Authors were the Gebenna by C<e}ar,Cam- 
mani Ptol & Ital. running zhn^by Langttedoc,Chevennes, and Auvergne, 

now les Sevennes. 

The Jura C£f. Jnraffm Ptol. which divideth the Frewc^ County from 
Savoy and the Smjfes, now called by feveral Names. 

The Vogefus, almoft Encircling Lorrain, and dividing it from JIfaita 
and Burgundy, now Vauge Mons, &cc. r n. 1 

There are feveral Divifions of France, which relpect the Church i 
the Nobiliiy, the Courts of Juflice, and the Finances. But it fuffices here 
to fay, That the general ftate of the Kingdom was held, ^w, 1614, 
after the Majefiy of Len^is the Xllhh. and that then all the Provinces 
met under 1 2 great Governments : Four of thefe Governments lye to- 

C c ward 

1 94 ^f Fra»se, 

ward the North upon the Seine, and thofe other Rivers that fall info 

it, viz. Piccardy., Normandy, the JJle of Fr.ince, and Champagne, 

Towards the middle, adjoining to the Loire, Bretagne^ Orlenoife, Bour- 
gpgne, Lionnoife. The other four, toward the South, near the Garonne^ 
viz. Guienne, Languedoc, Vauphine, and Provence: Under the Orlenoife is 
comprehended Maine, Perche, and Beauce : On this fide of the Loire, Ni- 
vernois, Touraine, and Anpu. j above the faid River, beyond it, Poi&ou, 
Angoumois zx\A Berry. 

Burgundy hath Bre^ : Under Lionnois are comprehended Lionnois-, Au- 
vergne, Bourhonnois, and Marche : Under Guienne is Bearne.^ Gafcoigne and 
Guienne it felf, Saintoinge, Perigort, Limofin^ Querci, and Kovergue : Un- 
der Langiicdoc is Cevennes. 

In each of thefe Governments are feveral great Cities, the chief of 
which 1 (hall fpeak of in order, t'/zi. In Piccardy the Storehoufe of Paris 
for Corn, is i. C«/^i^, called by C£far, Portm Jecius -, Partus Britanni- 
cus, MorinorumPlin. Prom. Icium Ptol. held by the Englijh near 200 
years, being taken by Edrvard the \\\d. after eleven months Siege, in 
1^47. but unfortunately loft by Queen Mary^ '557. feated oppofite 
toVoverin England, from whence it isdiftant about Ten Leagues : A 
Itrong Towji of great importance, and accounted the Key of France. 
Not far from Calais, at a place called Agincourt was the Flower of the 
French Nobility taken and ilain by King Henry the Fifth of England, viz. 
5 Dukes, 8 Earls, 25 Lords, 8qoo Knights and Gentlemen, and 
1 5000 common Soldiers.. 

2. Bulloign, Ctforijcum Navale Ptol. Partus Morinorum Plin. Civit, Bono^ 
nenfium Ant. Partus Gejforiacus of C£far ; a ikong Frontier- Town, ta- 
ken by Henry the Vlllth. of England, 1 5-44. at which time the Empe- 
ror Mjx/wi/ww bore Arms under the Englifh Crofs. 

3 . Amiens , Samarobrina C<ef. Samarobriga Ptol, Civit, Amhianenfu Ant- 
a Walled Town, feated upon the Scine^i well fortified with an Impieg- 
nable Citadel, built by Henry the XSfth. But mod famous for its Cathe- 
dral, fo beautified within, and adorned without, that 'tis the faireft 
and moft lovely Structure in the Weft of Europe. 

4. St. ^ujntin, Augufta Romanduorum Ptol. Civit. Vtromannorum Ant* 
^in&inopolis & Fanum St. ^uin6fine in Scriptis Gall, two Leagues from 
Augufia Veromanduorum, now Vermand, Baud. Crecie, the French Cann£,\z-^ 
mous for their great Overthrow, and the Vidory of the Englijh in the 
Reign of P/^////» the Sixth. A ftrong Frontier- Town, memorable for. 
the Battel there, An. 1557. where King Philip the IL of Spain, with, 
the Englijh, under the Command of the Earl of Pembroke, overthrew, 
the whole Forces of the French* 


Of France. 195 

Lmn^ a Bifhop's See, whofe Bifliop is one of the Twelve Peers of 
Trance^ Laudunum Ant. 

Soiffonsy Augujiata Veffonmn Ftol. a Bifliop's See, the lafl: place the 
Romans held in Gaul^ driven out by Clavis the Fifth. 

5. Guifej of mofi Note for the Dukes of Guife^ a Family that in a 
little time produced two Cardinals, and fix Dukes, befides many 
Daughters married into the beft Houfes of France. 

In Normandyiy formerly Neujiria^ are, i. Koven^ or Rojn^ Khotoma- 
guf, Ptol. Kothomagits^ Ant. feated on the Banks of the River Seine^ 
over which there is a famous Bridge. Taken by H.nry the Fifth 
after fix Months Siege, where were fami(hed 500C0, and 12 coo 
Starvelings turned out of the Town. An Archbifhops See, and Par- 
liament. In the chief Church, called Noftn-Vame, is the Sepulchre of 
John Duke of Bedford. It is a place of as great a Trade as any in France^ 
and one of the Principal Cities where Exchanges are ufed. 

Diepa, or Viepe^ a City of fome Trade, being a common Landing- 
place for the Engli(h.y in their PafTage into France. And is famous for 
its Fidelity and Allegiance to Henry the Fourth, when the C«(/?^« Fa- 
<^on in derifion called him King of I>iepe. 

Falecia^ or Falaife^ once a ftrongTown ; memorable for the Story 
of Arkt the Skinners Daughter, of whom Duke Robert begat William 
the Conqueror 5 in fpight to whom, and difgraceto his Mother, the 
Englijh call Whores, Hjrlots. Here alfo was the Roy d'Tustot, and Ver- 
nuil, when befieged by Philip the Second of France. King Richard the 
Firft of England to keep his promife, broke through the Palace of 
Weftminjier, and raifed the Siege. Gtfors is a firong Frontier Town. 
^ Haver de Grace^ Nevehave-n by the Englijh, in Latin, Francifcopolis ; a 
Cautionary Town to Q^cen Elizabeth. Partus Gratis oi old. Seez^Sa- 
gium & Sainm, is a Bifhops Seat. 

A/tranches, Ingena Ptol. Civit. Abrincantum Ant. 

CoMtances, Conjiantia Ant. Cherbourg, CxfarU Burgum, a firong Sea- 
coaft Town. 

Cherbourg Wic\, & La Hoguj, ftill laments as well as acknowledges 
the Burning of 14. or i j French Capital Ships by the Englijh, Anno 

Aumale., or Albemarle, Longmville, Alenfon, & Vamvil'e, gives the 
Title of Dukedoms. 

Bayeux, Cit. Bajocaffium Ant. Caen Cadomas, graced with an Uni- 
verfity founded by King Henry the Fifth, King of England, and the 
Abbey, with the Tombs of JViliiam the Conqueror, and Maud his 

C c 2 Lyfiux 

1^6 ^f f ranee, 

Lyfeux Cit. Lexoviorum Ant, Eureux Mediolamm Ptol &c. a Bifliops 
See, rich and flourifliing. 

The third Government is the Ifle of France, whofe City is Parif, 
formerly Lmetia^ becaufe feated in a Clayie Soil, A City, that for 
its Riches, Power, and Number of Inhabitants, may contend with 
any in Europe^ Seated on the Seine, and on a Soil fo fertile, that no 
City knows fuch Plenty ; 'tis Dignified with the Ordinary Refidence 
of the King, its chief Ornaments are the Palace of the Louvre, fo 
rauchfam'd abroad: ThePahces of the Nobility, viz.. That of Lttx- 
cmhmg, its Palace-Royal, its Church oi Noflredame, its Univcrfity , 
containing five Colleges ; the Halls of Juftice, the Courts of Parlia- 
ment. The Efiglijh held it for 1 6 years, and there Crowned King Hew- 
ry the Fifth, King of France. 

In this Province, about three miles from Pm.f, is feated St. Vmnis, 
Fanum S, Dionifii, famous for the Sepulchres of the French Kings i 
The Beautiful Houfe of Fount ain-belle-eau^ or Fons-bello-aqux, efteem- 
ed one of thefairell Palaces in Europe. As alfo rhe Royal Manfion of 
St,Germjin, feated on the Afcent of a Hill, feven miles from Paris, 
down the Water. And Bois deVincennes, in which Henry the Fifth end- 
ed his days. 

Senlis is the chief City of the Dukedom of Valois, the Silua Ne^ftm 
of Ant. which gave name to the Frewc/? Kings of the Second Branch 
of the Capets, which begun in Philip Vakis,Knr\o 1328. In his Reign 
was fought the Battel of Crecie, Anno 1343. where was ^im John 
King of Bohemia, 11 Princes, 80 Barons, 120 Knights, and 30000 
comm.on Soldiers. 

In Champaigm, the chief City is Kheimes, Vnrocorttun of C£f. Vuro' 
cotontm Ptol. Famous for being the place where the French Kings are 
commonly Crowned and Anointed : Therein alfo is Langres, Andoma- 
tmum of Ttol. the Seat of the Twelve Peers of France. Trois, the 
Augujhmana of Ptol. & Civitas Tricajfmm of Ant the meeting-place of 
Charles the Sixth, and Henry the 5^/7. Kings of France and England, 
where the Victorious King was efpoufed to Katherine Daughter to 
King Charles aforefaid. 

Bretagne. or Britany, of old Armorica, Co called from the Britains, 
who flew thither in the time of the Saxons Tyranny over them in 
England. Formerly the Titles of the Earls of Kichmond. Its Sea-Forr 
Towns are, Ereji, VendanaPortns, feated upon a fpacious Bay, the Key, 
the Bulwark, and bell: Harbour in France. St. Maloes, Aletha & Macls^ 
vium, built on a Rock ; aftrong, fair, and populous City, yet often 
fpoiled and damaged by the Englijh, Inland Towns are, Nants,Con- 


Of Trance* 197 

divincumPtoi. CH' Natmetum Ant. featcd on the Baiiks of the Loyre '•> 
and Rennes^ Condate of Ptol. Cit. Rodanum Ant. the Parliament-City 
for this County. Vames, TyarioriTwn Ptol. Cit. Vemtum Ant. (fcituate 
on a capacious Bay) the chief Town of the Old Vemti. Qjshipcr 
Ccrentin^ Corifopitum ^nt. S, Brkux^ Briocam. Vol, Volis* Tregxier^ 'Tn- 
corium^ dim Ofifmi. S, Pol de Leon., Leona^ are Bilhopricks. Morlaix, 
Mom Relaxuf^ Port Louis^ Blaiietj are well-frequented Ports. 

The Government of Orleance comprehends Mj/«e, PtrcJy^ Beauce^ Ni- 
vernoif., louraine^ y^n]isu\ once the Title of H:nry the Second, King of 
England^ and Earl of An]ou. Its chief Cities are, 

1. Orleance^ of old, Gennahum of Ctef.& Sirah. Cenabitm Vtol. Aft- 
rel'u. Its pleafant Scituation on the Loire makes it very beautiful and 
delight ul. Once the Seat- Royal of its own Kings, now the Title of 
the Second Son of France, It long felt the force of an Englijh Siege, 
where died Great M^w/^zcw^e Earl of Salisbury. On the chief Bridge 
of this City is the Statue of Joanxht Tualle de Dien^ or Maid, fo af- 
fiftant to the French in repelling the Englijh^ and railing the Siege of 
Orleance, M/)'the I2f/^, 1429. Burnt alive by the Englijh, An. 143 i. 
after which time the Affairs of the EngUp grew worfe and worfe ; 
for in An. 1435. Charles the BurgundianitW off; and in 1453. Talbot^ 
a man of great Valour and Condudt, v/as flain ^ and nothing was 
left to the Englifl} but CV/ce, of all that the £«^///^ had got in two and 
forty years. 

2. Mxns^ {Cit.Cenomannornmhy Antonius ; hy Ptol.Vidinum,) 
Vendofme^ which gave name to Antonio, Father to Henry the Fourth. 
3.. Cbaftres^ Carnutum j^it. Ptol. Autricum, fejted on the Loire; a- 

fair and pleafant City, diguilied with an Univerjity for the Study of 
the Civil Law. 

4. Never s^ Noviodmum., C£fjr. Nivernumal.Nivnnium Ant* upon t\\Q 
Loire, dignified with an Ancient Dukedom. 

5. Tours, C£farodu>HnPtol.7uronpLm Ant, where the Proteftants are 
faid Hrft to have begun in Frj«ce, and were called Hugonots \ Nigh to 
this place it was, that C/?i«r/ej- Martel, Father of King Pepin, in An. 732, 
difcomtited an xArmy of about 4C0000 Saracens, of which wereilain 
near 370000. 

Blois, pleafantly feated,and in a good Air 5 where the Dixke oi Guifef, 
the hrft mover of the Civil Wars, and contriver of the Maffacre at 
Parif, was flain by the command of Henry the Third. 

6. Angicrs, by Ptolemy called Juliufmajus , Andegl^vum Ant, of a 
large Circuit, Vj'ell built, feated in a good Air, and made an Uni- 


19^ Of France, 

verfity. Bejufort, belonging to the Duke of Lancafier, nigh which 

Town was the Duke of Clarence, Brother to Henry the Fifth, flain. 

7. VoiBiers^ by ?tol, Augufioritum, Civ. Pi&avorum Ant. an Univerfi- 
ty, famous for the ftudy of the Civil Law, and for Greatnefs faid to 
be next to Parii. In the Vine-fields, two Leagues from the City, was 
fought that memorable Battel between John of France , and Edward 
the Son of King Edward the IIW. firnamed the Black^Prince, who with 
8000 men overcame the French Army of 40000, whereof 10000 
were flain, befides Nobles i Prifoners taken were, Kin^John, and his 
Son Philip, 70 Earls, 50 Barons, and about 12000 Gentlemen. 

8. Rochcly fcated on the Aquitain Ocean • a place of great Trade, 
and of greater ftrength, before it was difmantled 1627. witnefs its 
many Sieges 5 An. 1570, by Jarvil. Anno 1573, by Byron with an 
Army of 50000 men, and 60 Pieces of Artillery. 1575, and 76. 
It was attempted by L^«^tT/j«. In I'yj 7 ^ by Lanfac. In the troubles 
of 1585, and 88, it was the Retreat of the King of Navarre, and 
Prince of Conde. Her Commodities, Rochel-lfine, Salt and Brandy. 
RupelJa Ant. Mortus Santoritm, Ptol. 

p. Angoukfme. Fnculifma al. Cit. Etolinenfium Ant. 

10. Bo«r^e/, a Town of great ftrength by Nature, and well forti- 
fied by Arr : fcituate in a low Flat, amongft deepimpailible Bogs and 
Marfhes ; 'Tis an ArchbiOioprick, and one of the beft Univerlities in 
France, called Avaricum in C£far^s time, of old Bituricum Ant. Varicum 

Sancerre, a flrong Town, memorable for a defperate and long Siege 
in the Reign of Charles the Ninth. 

In the Province of Bmrgundy, once a Kingdom, is firft, Dijon, Divio- 
num, built by the Emperor Aurdian ; proud in her Parliament, and for 
giving Birth to St. Bernard-, feated upon the ^oj/we. Next are Aaxerre^ 
Aniijfiodorum Ant. Chalon, Cabullinum Strab. CahaWinum Ptol. CaviUonium 
C£far, CaJirumGabalionenfe Ant. Mafcon., Caflrum Macifconenfe Ant. feated 
upon the Soafne, the beft Hold of KingCW/e/ the Seventh, in his hard 
VVars againft the Englilh. 

Alize, now afmall Village, formerly Alexia, the chief Fortrefs of 
Vercingeierix, who had 70000 men in the Town, when bcfieged by 
C£far''> and an Army of 300000 Gauls at the back of Cdfar, to re- 
lieve their fellows \ notwithftanding all which, the Town was yield- 
ed to Cddfar, and Vercingeterix fate at his feet, and became his Prifoner. 
Philip the third, Grandchild to Philip the Hardy, united to this Dutchy 
almoftall the Bdgic\ Provinces, but Charles his Son in the War againlt 
lj:ms the Eleventh, loft his Men, Money, and Life, at the Battels 


Of France. 199 

of Granfon^ Moratznd Nancy ^ I47^« afterwards this Dutchy was fei- 
zcd on by the French. 

Adjacent to, and in the Government of Bmrgundy^'u Brejf^ the chief 
Town thereof is Bourg^ or Brifs -, a place well built, and fo iirongly 
fortified, that itis erteemed impregnable. 

ThisCoLintrey wasby the Duke of Savoy delivered io Henry the IV. 
of France^ in lieu of the Marquifateof Siluces^ 1600. 

In the Province of Gum^ wherein are the Provinces of Gafcoign, 
Guien and Bzrn., are many Cities, the chief whereof are , Bourdeaux^ 
Burdegala Strab. & Ptol. Git. Burdegaknfium Ant. feated upon the Banks 
of the River Geronne 5 famous for being the Birth-place of King Richard 
the II. o( England', at prefent honoured with an Univerfity and Par- 
liament, and is a place cf good Trade. Near to this City is the fnnall 
Village called Greve^ which yields thofe Excellent Wines, called Gr^z/ej- 

About the Year 125^. tervis of France gave unto Henry the Third 
of England, the Dutchy of Guien, conditionally, that he fhould re- 
nounce all Title to his other Inheritances. It continued Englijh till 

In the particular Guien is the Province Saintoigne^ whofe chief place. 
is Saintes^ Mediolanum o( old yStrab, Mediolanium PtoL Ctt. Santorum Ant, 
2. The Province of Perigort^ whofe chief place is Perisuetix. VeJJuna of 
Ttol. Cit. PetrogoriuTum Ant. Environed with Viney-Downs, divided 
into two Towns. 3. The Province oi Limofin, whofe chief place is 
Limoges, Katiaftmn Ptol. Lemovicum al.Lemavicum Am. the Prifon of Beg- 
gers. 4. The Province of ^er«, whofe chief place is Cahors, Vueona 
Ptol. Cit. Cadorcorum Ant. a Rich and Fair City. 5. The Province of 
Ravergue^ whofe chief place, is Kodez , Segodunum Ptol. Cit. Kotenorura\ 

In the Province of Gafcoign are feveral Countries, whofe chief Cities 
or Towns are Bazits .Cnffium of Ptol. Cit. Vafatum Ant. Dax or D^Acques^ 
A(JH£ Aagufla of Ptol. Cit, Aquenfntm Ant. Auch, Jugujh of Ptol. Cit. 
Aufciorum Ant. an Archbifhop's See. Agen^ Aginium PtoL Agennenfmm% 
Ant. Condom.^ Condomum., a Bifhoprick. Bctjonne , Bawna Merc, near 

In the middle of the fmall Pviver Vidofa^ between France znd Sfairjy 
is the Ifland Faifans., (not mention'd by any Geographer I know 
of J where Cardinal Maz,arine^ and Von- Lewis de Harro began the Py" 
re«pj« Treaty the i^thof AHguji, ^^59' and whence in the Year \66q. 
hapned the Interview between the tv^o Kings, and the Reception of. 
the. Infanta t, when the Ifland was divided in the middle, and a Houfe 


503 Of Framt, 

built fo, that at the Table where the two Kings fate to eat, the King 
of France fate in France^ and the King of Spain ia Spain. 

In the Government of Lionoife^ are the feveral Provinces of Lionoife^ 
Avergne^ B'^urbon and Mj)'ch. 

In Lir,ioife, the chief City is Lyoni^ by the Ancienj^s , Lugdmum ; 
feated upon the conjun(3:ion of the Kofne with ihcSoane^ eflecmtd the 
fecond City o( Frante-^ a Famous Mart-Town, Ancient, and the See 
of an Archbifhop, who is Primate of all France. 

In Ava-gnt is Clcremont ,Claro Montmm^ upon its high Mountain. 

In Boufhon, Mmlrns-, the Centre of Fr^jwce. Molimm^ of old much 
reforted unto from all parts of France for its Hot Medicinal Baths. Ger- 
gohia al. Gergobina Cdefar^ tefie Farad. & Bel/or. 

In March, Gtteret and BiUaCy are the moll confiderable. 

In the Government of Langmdoc are, i. Jholoufe, lalofa C£f. Sirah. 
Ptolomy^ feated on the Gjro;f/2e, the Seat of an Archbifhop, and an Uni- 
verfit}' ; whofe large Fields , called by old Writers Campi Catalau- 
nici^ (which I rather think to be the Fields nt^x Chalons ) were memo- 
rable for the overthrow of Attila , King of the Huns , whofe Army 
conlliied of 500000. of which 180000 that day loft their lives, by 
Mtiui the Roman Lieutenant, who was rewarded ( by Valmtinian^ Em- 
peror of the Wejl) with the lofs of his Head. 2. Narbon^ Norbo oi 
Cdf. Plin. & Narbona Suet. A. Mar. in the Roman Infancy the moft po- 
pulous and greateft Town in France^ and the firft Roman Colony (Car- 
thage excepted.) To which Archelam (Son to Hirod King of the 
Jews) was baniflied by y^«^?f/?«/. 3. Montpelier, Montpejfnlamis ^ feat- 
ed on a high Mountain twelve miles from the Sea 5 an Univerfity for 
the Study of Phyfick, the Country about affording variety of Medici- 
nal Herbs , memorable for the Reliftance it made againft Letvis the 
Xni. in the laft Civil War about Religion. Nifmes^ Nemaufuj^ Strah. 
Mel. Nemaufjum Plin. & Ptol. & Nemaiifenfmrn Ant. In the Year 1270. 
Langmdoc returned to the Crown in the days of ?hiltp the Third. 

In the Government of Dauphin^ ( which is the Title of the firft Son 
oi France) is Vienna^ Scituate on the ilq/«e 5 an Archbifhop's See, and 
the chief of this Province ; 2. Faience^ a Biftiop's See, and Univerfity 
for the Civil-Law j a Rich , Strong, and well-traded Town 5 the 
Title of C£far Borgia^ when he caft off his Cardinal's Hat. 3. Greno- 
Me, Cii. Grattanopolita Ant. Accu^onorum Col. Ptol. Grationopolis Sido & 
P. Viae, a Parliament-Seat j Briancon^ Brigantio Ant. Gap, Cit, Apencen- 
fmm Ant. &c. Of the Seven Wonders of Vaupbine, fee AUard Sylva in 
LatinVtik^ which are, i. The Burning Fountain: 2. The Tower 
SamVenin: 3. The inacccllible Mountain : 4. The Wine-Fats of ^.//l 

finage : 

Of France* 201 

finage: 5. The Vinous Fountain: 6. The Manna of Bmwcow : 7. And 
the Fountain of Barberm. 

Provence took its name from the Romans j who being called in by the 
Marfilians^ pofTcfTed themfelves of this Country until Stilico called in 
the BHrgundianf^ of which Kingdom it was a member, until the time 
of the Ojirogoths^ Ann. 504. In the Year 1480. PJjene^ Grandchild 
to Len'/V Duke of Jnjou, Brother to Charles the firft, gave it to Leiris 
the Eleventh King of France. Chief Towns are, i . MarfciUeSf Majfilia^ 
commodioufly feated on the Mediterranean Sea, enjoying an Excellent 
Haven and Road for Ships j a place of great Trade, and well fre- 
quented with Merchants, and a Colony of the Phocians. 

2. Aix, Aqua SixU£, a Parliament-Seat i near this Town the C/w- 
^r/, confining of 300C00 fighting men, as they paffed by Marim, ask- 
ed his Solders what Service they would command them to Rome ; but 
in their march through the Alpes, having divided themfelves. Matins 
put them all to the Sword \ who had flain g. Servilius C^pio, and his 
whole Army, after his furprifal and pillaging of the Jurum 7olofanum, 
3. Aries i Arelate Plin, & ^relatmn Col. Ptol, 4. 7 onion, lauroentimn 
Ptol. "taureniiHm Strah. the bell: Sea-port Town in all France. On the 
North- Weft 0^ Provence lies the Principality of Orange^ whofe chief place 
is Orange , Araufia Plin, Arnfio Strah. Col. Arauftorum Ptol. C. Araufino- 
rum Ant. Famous for many R.are and Wonderful Antiquities ; be- 
longing of Ancient Right to his llluftrious Highnefs the Prince of 
Orange., but of late years feized upon by the French King. 

South of which lies the County of Venafm , fo called from Avenio^ 
now Avignon., the chief City of it j Famous for being the Ancient Seat 
of the Popes, for about 70 years ; faid to have 7 Par ifti- Churches, 
7 Mcnafteries ,~ 7 Nunneries, 7 Palaces, 7 Inns , and 7 Gates to its 

To thefe Governments might be added Lorain^ the French Comte, Al- 
face., moft part of the Spzni,!'} Provinces., the County oi RoufiUon on the 
Coaft of Spain, being now under the French King's Conquefts ; but 
for Method and Order-fake, I (hall refer them to their proper place. 

The chief Iflands of France., are, i. Strong Bell-IJIe^ Venetica San, 
Calofus. 2. Salt Nermoujiier. 3. Kec, the Out- work to Rochel^ fatal 
to the Englijh 162'], 4, Okron., Vliaras^ where Richard the III. gave 
thofe Laws as Lord of the S.-a, known to the World by the Title of 
The Laws of Okron. 5. The Tower d'Cardovan in the mouth of the 
Garonne. 6. The Ifle OueJJent, Vxanius, by the Englijh, VJhent, over 
againft the Lizard. In the Mediterranean lye the Ifles de Eres, the St£- 
chades of Ptol, 

Dd Of 


Of Spain. 

SPAlNhy the Greek^s firft called Iheria, not from Iberus the moft 
famous River in that Kingdom ; nor from Iberi, a people of j^fta i 
^mdmtm (inqttit BochartusJ Ebr£k 13^ Eber , Chdd^is ^-\1V) Ebra, 
vd ibraefl tranfttus, & qukquid ejl ulterius. Indeplurale ebrm vel ebnn, ut-^ 
mms& fines fignificat', Mmtoigitmlbmdm, qui ex Ph^nttmrn fententta 

Of Spain, 205 

terrarum fines ultimos hahitarmt. It was alfo called Hifperia, either from 
Hefperui^ a King thereof, or rather as being the furtheft Country 
Well-ward. So alfo by the Greekj and Romans it was called XmvU, 
from Pan. the Companion of Bacchus, By the Vhoenkians Scania, or 
Sphania, a Country of Rabbets or Conies 5 hftly, by the Moors Mus- 

Con jointly with Vortugal^ it makes a great Pemnfula, being enconiT 
pafled with the Ocean, and the Meditaranean Sea •, only towards ihc 
North-Eali, for 24.0 miles, it is firmly tack'd to tlie Continent by the" 
Tyrenean Hills. 

It is fcituatein the moft Weftern part of all Europe, in the moii 
Southeily part of the Northern Temperate Zone , and the longeit 
Summer's day is about 1 5 hours. 

As for the Dimenfions, it is faid to be in length from Porto en the 
mouth of the River Cape Crcus in Catalonia^ 600 Geometrical 
miles. And from Cape Gibralter to Cape Pendi^ in the Bay of Bifca, {ot:p^i 

■ ,; the breadth, is 480 miles. By Cluver 760 miles in length, and 600 

l.f_v in breadth. 

^' C-- Heylin, who follows j^(?/e/?i^«/,raith, this Kingdom was firfi: inhabited 
''' by the Progeny of 7i«^.«/, the Son of J.^]?,^ , being the Defcendants 
of the Iberiit who came in under Panus. 

i-^. Cluver faith, that the Celt£, a great and potent Nation, defcended 

f ; from Afcbenaz, were the firft that did people Spain, and caufed the 

I ; whole Country to be called Celtiheria. 

1^- The next Foreigners that came into Spain , were the Phoenicians , 

! failing from lyrus, as Viodorns and Siraho relate. Then the Creeh^ or 
Rhodians 5 afterterwards the Carthagenians did overrun a great part of 

-... it (under the condudl of Amilcar, Afdruhah and Annibal) even from 

^''*: the Weftern Ocean, to the Pyrenes 5 defiroyed Saguntum^ now Mor- 
vedre^ built new Carthage ; and had not Annibals ill Fate hurried him 
for Italy, the whole Country had been fubdu'd to the State of C^r- 

But the Carthagenians being overcome by the Romans-, in the fecond 
Punick^W^iT, it fell under the Dominion of the Romans , by whom it 
was divided into three Provinces, B£tica, Lufttanica^ and Terraconenfis ; 
B£tica was bounded on the North and Weft by the River Ana, now 
Gaudiana \ on the South by the Mediterranean Sea as far as Almeria : on 
the Eaft it was feparated from 'lerragon by a ftraight line from jilmeria 
to Cuidad Real, and contained the Kingdoms of Granata, Andaluzia, 
pixt'oi NertfCa(iile, znAEjlremadura, and was inhabited by theTurduli 
Eaftward, and by the Celtici towards the Weft. 

D d 2 Lufitania 

204 Of Spain. 

Lufitania was bounded on the North by the River Vurius , now 
Vuero ; on the Weft by the Ocean ; on the South by the River Gua- 
diana j on the Eaft by a Hne drawn from Ciiidal Real^ to Samora^ a 
Town feated on the River Vuero , and contains ahrjofi all Portugal, 
part of Old, and part of Mw Cajiile. 

The reft of Spain went to the making up of the Province of Ter- 

The Romans alfo divided Spain into two parts ; the one Citerior, the 
other Viterior ; the firft comprehended the Province of Terragon 5 the 
latter did comprife B£tica and Lufttania, and fo remained until the 
time oiHmorim the Emperor, when Gundmcus^ King of the Vandals, 
made an Eruption out oi Germany, and over- ran it about the Year of 
our Lord 400 The Vandals were not well fetled in their New Con- 
queft, when the Goths feized on this Country, forcing the Vandals in- 
to B£tica, and after into Africa, and fo made the Conqueft abfolute. 
The Saracens and Moors invaded it in the Year 720. under the Con- 
du(fV of Mufa and tariff, who were invited in by Julian, who was 
fent on an Embailie to the Moors of /ifrica by 'Roderick, the Gothifh King, 
but in the mean time deflowred his Daughter Cava, which the Father 
took in fuch indignation, that he procured the Moors to come into Spain, 
whoafter a Battel that laftedfeven days, in which ivoc/^ric/^ had 130000 
Foot, and 3 5000 Horfe-, and Tarijfc had 30000 Horfe, and 180000 
Foot, the Moors were Vidorious ; and having haraffed the whole 
Country, foanded feveral Kingdoms therein ■■, but the Moors not long 
enjoyed the (bic Sovereignty therein, for the Goths having recovered 
themfelves, the Moors by little and little were brought under. Hiylin 
tells us, that at laft Spain fell into a 12-partite divilion, viz. Leon and 
Oviedo, Navarre, Cor dub a, Gallicia, Bifca, Tolledo, Murcia, Caftile, Pot' 
tugal, Valemia, Catelogne and Arragon. But I chofe rather to follow 
Cluver, Mercator, Sanfon, who all agree, that at laft Spain fell under 
the Comm.and of feveral more powerful Princes, and was parted into 
15 grand Divifions, moft of wliich carried the Title of Kingdoms, 
five lie upon the Ocean, Bifcaia, Aftruria, Galicia, Portugal and Anda- 
lufia^ five upon the Mediterranean, Granada, Mnrcia, Vakntia, CatO' 
Ionia, and the Iflands of Majorca, Minorca and Tuica , and five Midland, 
vi2. Arragon, Navarr, the two Cajiiles, and Leon. 

Afterwards the whole Country was reduced under the Power of the 
Kings of Cajiile, Arragon and Portugal, and under thefe three Titles it 
is, that the King of Spain at prefent poftelleth his large Dominions 
which he governs by Eight Vice- Roys, But in the Year 16^0. the 
Duke of Braganza was proclaim*d King of Portugal, and ever ilnce it 
continues Independent.. The 

Of SpAin, 205 

The People of S^ain are of a fwarthy Complexion, black Hair, and 
of good Proportion 5 (lately in all their Actions, of a Ma jeftical Gate 
and Deportment, grave and ferious in their Carriages, in Offices of 
Piety very devout, not to fay fuperftitiousj obedient and faithful to 
their King : patient in Ad verfities, not prone to alter their Refolutions ; 
in War too deliberate ; Arts they efteem diflionourable, much addicted 
to Women, and naturally proud. 

Their Women fober, difcreet , indifferent handfome, clear com- 
plexioned, loving to their Husbands and Friends; yet by them fo nar- 
rowly watched and overlooked, that 'tis hardly pollible for them to 
have conference with any other man. 

In matters of Religion they are Roman-Catholick, and are moft 
ftrid to the Rites of the Roman Church, and oF the Faith and Dodtrinc 
therein profefTcd , the Inquifition being introduced againlt all other 
Beliefs 5 only there are fome Churches in loUdo v^^here the Mhs Arabic 
Office is ufed. 

The Language is not the fame in all places •, in fome parts it hath 
a mixture of the French : In Granada , and part of Andaluzia^ it par- 
takes much of the Moorijh : In other parts there is the Gothifh^ Arahick^y 
and old Spanifh *, but that which is common to them all, is, the Vul- 
gar Spanij}}^ or Cajiilian^ which hath much affinity with the Latin^ and 
is faid to be a brave lofty fwelling Speech, 

Their Civil and Imperial Laws generally ufed among them, are 
intermixed with many Cuftoms of the Goths ; the Edids and Confti- 
tutions of their feveral Kings ; thofe of the Goths hrft committed unto 
writing, and to order, by Eurkus:, firft King of the Goths : fhofe of 
Caliile digefied by Ferdinand the Fifth into feven Books, called Partidas^ 
which are read and difputed on in the publick Schools, as well as the 
Decretals, the Code, the Pandids, or any other part of Civil or 
Common Law. 

The Country is not very fertil in Corn or Cattel j but where it is 
produdive of the Fruits of Nature, it yields to no part o( Europe fof 
Delight and Pleafure ', but for the moft part, it is either over- grown 
with Woods, or cumbred with Rocky Mountains ; the Soil of a hot 
and Sandy Nature, and deficient in Water ; their chief Food being 
Sallets and Fruits, which appear in greater ripenefs and perfedion 
than in other places. 

In recompence of Corn and Flerti, they have feveral Rich Commo- 
dities, viz. Wines, Oyls, Sugar, feveral Metals, Rice, Silk, Licoras,, 
Honey, Wax, Saffron, Annifeed, Raillns , Almonds, Oranges, Li- 
mons , Cork J Soap, Anchovies, Soda Barrellia, Samack, Wool,, 


20 6 ^f Spain, 

Lambskins, Tobacco, &c, befides the Gold and Silver which they 
bring out of Jmerica, whereby they furnirn themfelves with rhofe o- 
ther Conveniences which they want : In the Year i5 i8. it was affirm- 
ed. That iince the fir ft Difcovery thereof by Cdumbus, the Spaniards 
had drawn out cf it above fifteen hundred and thirty fix Millions of 
Gold, of which the European Merchants (hare the greateft part ; And 
their neceflTity of purchafing Foreign Commcd it ies, empties their Pur- 
fes ; and their getting of this Gold and Silver depopulates and weakens 
the Country. 

The Horfes of this Country are in general efieem, but thofe o{^n- 
daluzia more than the reft i however, they travel upon Mules and 
AlTes, by reafon of the roughnefs of the Mountains. 

Here lived in ancient times the Gians Geryon and Cdcns^ overcome 
by Hercules. Seneca the Tragedian, and Seneca the Philofophcr, ^in- 
tilian the Orator, Lucian and Martial^ Pomponius Mela the Geographer, 
Fulgentius and Ifidore Bifhops, Arius Montanus^ Oforius, Tofiatus^ Ma- 

For Soldiers it had Theodo/ius the Great, Barnard del Carph , Cid 
Rues Vias, Sancho of Navarr^ Ferdinand the Catholick, and Charles the 

The Mountains of Spain may bediftinguilhed into fix greater Pvidges 
continued and knit together , and whereof the reft are parts : The 
firft are the Fyrenei Monies Strab. Mons ?yren£us Flin, Fyrene Vtol. Los 
Monies Pyreneus Hifp. Les Monies Pyrenees Gal. Monti Vyrenei Ital. ex- 
tending from the Cantabrian Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, once the 
Bounds between France and Spain^ which in feveral places have divers 
Names, which we fhall not here mention. 

The fecond are the Idubeda of Strab. Mela Piol. & aliis^ the iKGiJht.^ 
Seld. extending from the Pyrenes near the Springs of the River Ebro., 
Southwards, towards the Levant Sea, having divers Names in feveral 

A third Row of Mountains are coafting all along the Shore of the 
Cantabrian Ocean ; the Juga Ajiurnm Vlin. a more eminent top hereof 
is the Mountain St. Adrian^ from whofe top Vaf£m Brugen/ts faith, he 
faw both the Cantahrian and Mediterranean Seas, now Sierra d'las yijiu- 
rias^ & Monte d'Oca. ViU. Sierra d* Oviedo^ Coquj. Vindius Mons. PtoL 

A fourth Ridge , or Branch of Mountains, are the Orofpeda of Strab. 
the Ortofpeda of Piol. which at Alcaraz part into two Branches , the 
one tending towards Murcia and the Levant Sea j the other palling 
through Granada^ ends at the Strait of Gibralter^ the Extream Point 
whereof was called Calpe. 


Of Spain, 207 

One of the two Famous Pillars of HirmUs^ cppofite to which oa 
the African fide of the Straits was the Mountain Abila^ the other Pillar 
the narrow Sea between, was from hence called Fretum Hiuukum^ 
now the Straits of Gibralt^er. 

Out of the Orofpeda, about the Town of Alcaras^ brancheth the 
fifth Ridg of the Mountain called Sierra Morena^ running along the River 
Gaudalquiver^ until it ends at the Atlantiqm Ocean. The Mons Maria- 
nus of ?tol. and the Saltm Cajiulomnfu of C£far, The Scene of the 
Warlike Exploits of Von ^ixot de la Msncha, 

The fixth Branch begins about the Springs of the Dmro^ and keep- 
ing the River T^aio upon the left-fide, parteth New Caiiile from the Old, 
and dividesPortugal into two parts, ending at the Town Sintra^ fome 
30 miles from Ltshon. Some Authors reckon this the Iduheda Branch. 
But we find not any known Name new or ancient, only part hereof 
in Cajiile was by PZ/cy called Juga Carpetanta^ and part of it in Portugal^ 
Lun£ Mons by Viol. The chief of its new Names are Sierra de Tornof^ 
VaccJS MontOf d^Jvela, & Sierra Molina. 

The Principal Rivers of Spain^ the Vuero, Vurius Plin. very full o£ 
Fi(h. The T'agus Strah. now "laio^ renowned for its Golden Sand. 
The Gaudiana, An^H Strah. which, they fay, runs underground. The 
Gauldalquivery Bms Strah the deepeft of all. The Ebro^ Iherus Strah* 
famous by its Name : They all of them have their Sources in Ca(iiley 
but are not fo navigable as thofe in France. The Gaudiana has given 
occafion to the Spaniards to fay, That they have the richeH Bridge in 
the World, upon which generally feed above 1 0000 Sheep, and over 
which a good Army may march in Battel-array. The Ancients may 
have feem'd to have called this River very properly Anas^ by reafon it 
dives into the Earth, and rifes out again as a Duck does in the water. 
Some of the Moderns fay, that there are certain Mountains that fwal- 
low up this River. Others affirm, That it only falls into the Dikes 
and Graffs which the Country People make to water the Country, 
which is very barren ^ however, this is certain, That this running 
under ground happens to be near the Spring of Gaudiana^ and not 
towards Mtnda^ a^ marked down in the Old Maps : To fay truth. 
This is one of the three Miracles oi Spain 5 of which, the others are, 
a City encompaffed with fire j that is, with Walls of Flint-ftones, as 
Madrid', and a Bridge, over which the water runs, as is the Aquadudli 
of Segovia^ 

The Cities of this Kingdom have their Names from their Excellen- 
cy : Sevil the Merchandizing, Granada the Great, Valencia the Fair, 
Barcelona the Rich, Saragojfa the Coiitcnicd yValadoltd the Gentile, TcWi?^ 


2o8 ''f Spain, 

the Ancient, Madrid the Royal. It comprehencis 8 Archbiftiop "• -':s, 
and 45 Bifhopricks. The Archbifhopricks are, Toledoy Burgos^ Compo- 
jhVa.) SevH) Granada , Valencia , Saragojfa, and 7arragon. There are fe- 
veral very eonfidcrable Sea-Ports, Paffagio^ St. Andrews^ Coruna^ Cadiz^ 
Cartagena^ Alicant^ &c. 

Bifcay^ formerly called Cantahria, is Mountainous and Woody, 
which mrnifiies them with Timber to build more Ships than all the 
Provinces of Spain belides: It hath alfo fo great a Number of Mines 
and Iron Forges, that the Spaniards call it the Defence of Cajiile^ and 
the himoxy oi Spain. The B//c<;y/«er/, who were the Ancient Ci«j<3- 
brians^ enjoy very great Privileges, and boaft themfelves never to 
have been thoroughly Conquered, either by thtKomans^ Carthagenians^ 
Goths^ or Monrs. They ufe a different Language from that of the other 
Inhabitants of the Countrey,which is faid to be the ancientLanguage of 
Spain ; for as they remained in their Liberties not mattered, fo in their 
Language not altered. They differ from the rei^ of Spain alfo in Cu- 
ftoms, yielding their Bodies, but not their Purfes to the King • not 
fuffering any Bifhop to come amongft them •, and caufing their Wo- 
men to drink firft, hec2iu(c Ogno a Countefs would have poyfoned her 
Son Sancho. The Land, as well as in the Countrey of Giupufcoa^ is 
very well Tilled ; for they pay neither Tax, nor Tenth, nor Right of 
Entry. Their chief Cities are Bilhoa and St. Sebaftian 5 places of 
great Trade, efpecially in Wool, Iron, Chefnuts, and Bilboa Blades. 
Great Vtilels cannot come near Bilhoa^ being feated two miles from 
the Ocean, but upon a High Tide. It was built, or re-edified out of 
the R.uins of the ancient Flaviobriga of Ftol. by Viego de Haro, 1500. 
The Port of St. Sebajiian has a very fair Entrance, being Defended by 
two Gafiles, the one toward the Eafi, feated high 5 the other to the 
Weft, upon a low Rock. St. Jndero and Pajfagio are two excellent 
Ports, Fmntarahia the ftronger place, and further Town in »S>ji«, and 
Guataria tht Native place of Sebajiian Cabot^ who was the tirft that 
compafTed the world, in the Ship called the F/d?or)' ; Migellanm^ who 
went Chief in that Expedition, perifhing in the A(frlon. Laredo For- 
tm^ Lauretanus^ hath afpacious Bay. Placenza^ upon the River Veaia 
is inhabited by Blackfmiths. Tolofa upon the Orio River. Aiiuria^ cal- 
• led by fome the Kingdom of Oviedo^ is the Title of theEldefi Sons of 
the Kings of Spain^ being called Princes of Afturia. The younger 
Children whereof are called Infants^ ever iince the Reign of John 
theFirft. Hence were the fmall but fvvift Horfes which the Rt/w^wj 
called ^^^trcone/, the Eng///^ Hobbies. It was the Retreating place of 
the Kings of the Goths^ and feveral of the Bifhops, during the Inva- 


Of spam, zog 

fic^^^f^ the Moor/ i for which reafon Ovkdo, Lucum Ajiummoi Vtol. 
& Ovetum ; the Capital City thereof is called the City of Kings and 
Bifibops ; and indeed gave Title to the firit Chriilian Kings after the 
Moorijh Conqueft 5 for as the Luft of Roderick,, a Gothifh King of 
Spain^ firft brought in the Moors, io the Luft of Magmtza a Moortfh 
Viceroy, proved the overthrow and lofs of the Kingdom. Other 
Towns are Aviks on the Sea-ftiore, near Cape de Ids Penas, of old Scy- 
thium From, 

Galicia is not fo fertile as well peopled ; its former Inhabitants 
were the Gallaici, whence it had its name. St. Jago Compojhlla, which 
Biflioprick and Univerfity is there famous for the Pilgrimages which 
are thither made by thofe that go to vilit the Reliques of Sz. James, the 
Spaniard's Patron. Coruna, by the Englifh the Groine, is often men- 
tioned in our Spanijh Wars in Queen Elizabeth's days. The Flavittm 
Brigantium of Ttol. Brigantinm of Ant. Strong, and the chief Bulwark 
of Galicia, is memorable for the goodnefs andlargenefs of her Port: 
The Rich Silver Fleet, of about thirty Millions, put in there in the 
year i55r, to avoid the Englijh, who to furprize it, had way-laid all 
the Points of the Compafs to Cadiz. Lugo is the Lucus Augujii of Ttol, 
and Ant. the hums of Vlin. now a Bifliop's See, Orenfe is the Aqua Ca- 
uda of ftoU the Aqna Calenia of Ant. a Bifhop's See. tuy is the Tude 
of Ptol. Tyde Plin. a Bifhop's See. There are about forty other Ports 
in this Province, of which, Rivadeo, Ponte l^edra & Bajona, are the 
moft confiderable. 

Andaluzia, formerly Vandalitia from the Vandals, By Pliny Conventus 
Cordubenfts, is fo fair a Countrey,and fo plentiful in Corn, in Wine and 
Olives, that it palTes for the Granary and Magazine of the Kingdom. 
Sevil in this Province, is the Magazine of the Wealth of the New 
World. The Hifpalis of Strab, Ptol. and Plin, 

It is in compafs fix miles, compafTed with (lately Walls, and adorn- 
ed with no lefs Magnificent Buildings, infomuch that there is zSpanifh 
Proverb, Chinon haViftaSevWh, non haFijiameravilla. 

He that at Sevil hath not been, 
Strn^Aure's Wonder hath not feen. 

The River Batis, or Gaudelquiver, feparates it into two parts, which 
are joined together by a ftately Bridge? from hence the Spaniards fet 
forth their IVefi- India- Fleets, and hither they return to unload the 
Riches of the Wejiern World. It is dignified with an Univerfity, 
wherein fiudied Avicen the Moor, and Pope Silvefier the Second ; here 

E c alfo 

2IO Of Spain. 

^Ifo were two Provincial Councils held Amio 584, and 6:^6. and the 
See of an Archbiftiop, who is Metropolitan oi Andduzia and the fortu- 
nate Iflands. Here was Ifidore Bi(hop. From hence comes our Sevil 
Oranges, and Here lies the Body of Chrijiopber Columbus^ famous for 
his Difcovery of the New World. 

Not far from hence are to be feen the Reliques of the Italka of 
Strab. Ptol. and Ant. the lli/>pa Italica Vlin- the Country of the Empe- 
rors tra'im and Adrian^ now an obfcure Village about a League Eaft 
from Sevil. Cordova^ that honoured Antiquity with Lman , and the 
two Seneca s ^ and was more confiderable in the time of the Moors than 
now. The Principal Church was formerly one of the biggel^ Mofques 
among the Mahumetans^ next to that of Mecca. Corduha of Strab. Ptol. 
and Mda.y a famous Colony of the Raman f^ and Head of a particular 
Kingdom, fo called j now a Biftiop's Sec, and Seat of the Iiiquifition 
for this Province. Jaen is the Oningis-, or Oringis of Livi^ tefie Morale 
taken by Scipi:) Africanns from the Cirthngenians. Ecya is the Afligi of 
Plin. Ajiygis of Ftol. the AJhapa of Liv, taken by Lucius Martins , or ra- 
ther deftroyed by the Inhabitants •, read Sir/'K Ran-kigb^ fol. 744. Hi- 
turgi} Ptol & Ilurgis & lUiturgis Plin. Iliturgi. Liv. Lietor telle Marian. Aldea 
el Kio' Clufio. Andujar , Floriano. AnJHJHr el viejo. Amh. Moral. Caftnlo 
Ant Ca^ulon Ptol. Plin. Cajiaon Strab, Cajlono Car ClupiO. Caflona la voja 
Florian. between /4/c^;^(jr and Baezs, feated on the Guadelquiver^ not on 
the ^na. as Heylin faith, which being under the Komatis, was furpri- 
zed by the Gerafenis , but flain by Sertcrim , entring after them at 
the fame Gate i built 100 years before the War of Troy, tefie Mariana, 
Here Rmihd is faid to have took his Wife Himilce, and was one of the 
laft Towns that held out for the Cartbagenians ^ the chief City of the 
Oritani, feated upon an high Mountain, rather in Nerv Ca(Ule^ than in 
Andaluzia near Vbcda. Sil Lucar, at the mouth of the Guadalqniver^ 
is a Town of great Trade; the IVejl-India Gold and Silver Plate has 
fometimes ftopp'd at the Tower of the Port, which is called the Gol- 
den Tower , but generally that Fleet put in at Cadiz, or Port. St.Aii/- 
nVj,which is near to \t.Xeres de la Fontera,i\zr)ds not far from that place 
■ where thcMoors totally defeated the Gotbs^in theYear 7 1 4, after which, 
they haraffed all Spain without controul j and from hence come our 
Sherry-Sacks. The A£fa Regia of Strab. & Plin. the Jjia of Ptol & Ant. 
Medini Sidonia, the J^tfindum of Ptol. Afido Cefariana of Plin. whofe 
Duke was General of the Invincible Armado, 1588. Tariffa was fo 
called from T^r/jf General of the Moors in their hrll: SpanifJj Invaiion ■-, 
which LodovicHs Nonius thinks to have been the Famous 'Tartejfm of 
Herod. Strab. and other Authors, rich in Gold and Silver, and vidted 


Of Spain, 2ii 

by the continual Fleets of the Tyrian Merchants, and by the Phocenfis in 
the Reign of ArganthoniHs^ a little before their Expugnation by Cyrus y 
and by fome thought to be the fame with that Iharfu^ from whence 
Salamons Ships did fetch his Gold for the Ten:iple ztjentfalem. Some 
make this the fame with Carteia of Mela , Ptol. & Plin, Cartha of 
Ovid. Cart£a of Sieph. as Curh^ A-lariana and Bican. but Moralus will 
have Cartheja or Carteja to be Algtzira^ whofc pofition now is alike un- 
certain, but both feems to me to be the Gih&l "tariff of the Arab, or 
Gibralter. .Gibaltevy which now gives a Name to the Famous Streight 
which joins the Ocean and Mediterranean, and parts Europe from 
Africa^ called by the Ancients Fretum Hircukum^ Gaditanum^ & Tartef- 
ftacum^ now Ejhecho de Gibralter^ Hifpanis. This Streight is in length 
36 miles from Cape Trj/j/gfr to Gibralter^ in breadth at the Entrance 
18 miles, at the narrowelt place about 7 EfigliJI-; miles. Pdes is the 
Port from whence Columbus firft embarqued, upon his Intentions of a 
New Difcovery : And Cadiz, Cales Angl. &' Batavis^ Cadke Ital. Gades 
Caf. Plin. & Mela , Gadira Ptoh Erythia , & Tartejfos, Sirab. Contimfa 
Vionyf. is the Harbour of the Rich Plate-Fleets •, a Port fo important, 
that Charles the Fifth recommended the confervation thereof in a fpe- 
cial manner to his Son Philip the Second. Antiquity there fliews us 
the Footfteps of a Temple dedicated to Hcrmks, with two Columns, 
either of Copper or Silver, which the Natives aver to be the Pillars of 
that Hero, as well as the two Mountains upon each fide of the Streights 
of Gibralter : they Report, That in this Temple it was that Julius Ca- 
far wept when he called to mind the Prodigious Conquefts which 
Alexander the Great had ,gain'd at the Age of three and thirty Years, 
the confideration whereof carried him to thofe High Enterprifes , as 
Scipio was incited by the Adions oiZenophons Cyrus. 

The Kingdom of Granada under the lart Kings of the Moors (who 
loft it in the Year 1^91.) was far more Rich, and better Peopled than 
it is at this day : It was alfo much more Fertile ; for the Moors had a 
thoufand Inventions to water their Lands, by means of Cuts and 
Trenches, bringing the Water from groat Ptefervatories which they 
made in the Mountains, which aie called Monies dHos Alpayarof dim 
Alpuxarras. ! ?r birn ^tynH f'rii 

The Scituation of this Kingdom, and the Pofition of the Towns, 
agrees with the Relation or Defcription which Jttlius C£far has made. 
The City which bears its Name, Granatum, al.Granado, is the biggeft 
in all Spain ; its Buildings are of Free-fione, fenced about with attiong 
Wall, on which are 130 Turrets, and it hath 12 Gates. -It is very 
pleafant dwelling there, by reafon of the purenefs of the Air, and 

E e 2 plenty 

212 Of Spain. 

plenty of Fountains ; the Moors placing Paradife in that part of Hea- 
ven which is the particular Zenith of this place, Malaga, Malaca PtoL 
Strab. Mel. Ant, aftrong Town, and Billiop's See. Velez Malaga is the 
Sex of ?tol. Sexitanum Am, Scxi Firmum, & Julium Plin. Is famous for 
the excellency of its Wines and Raifins. Mmda is Notable ioxjulim 
C£fars Victory over Pompeys Sons. For near unto this place,in a Wood 
was fought that notable and laft Battel between C^efar and Pompey's 
Sons; the Honour of the day fell to C*e/«r, though not without great 
lofs. In other Battels he ufed to fay he fought for Honour , in this 
for his Life ; which not long after he loft, being murthered in the Se- 
nate-Houfe. Almera is the Abdara ftol. Ahdera Mela, founded by the 
Tyrians Strab. by the Carthaginians, Vlin. Antiquera is the Singilia Plin, 
Alhama the Artigis of Ptol, noted for its Medicinable Baths. Gaudix 
is a Biftiop's See. Loxa enjoys a pleafant Scituation. Muxacra is 
thought to be the Murgis of Ptol. Plin, Huefca the Ofca of Ptol. Vera the 
Vergao of Plin. 

Murcia is faid to be the Garden of Spain, by reafon of the plenty of 
Excellent fruits in thofe parts ; and fo abounding in Silver Mines, that 
the Romans kept 400 men at work. The City alfo that bears its 
name, the Menralia of Ptol, drives a great Trade in Silk. Carta^ena^ 
built by jifdrubal oi Carthage, Father of the Great Hannibal, and taken 
in the fecond Punick War by Scipio Africanus, twice facked and razed 
by the Barbarous Goths and Vandals ; re-edified and fortified by Philip 
the Second, King oi Spain i Is a good Sea-Port, a fafe and large Har- 
bour. Caravaca aifords the wood for the Crofs, to whieh the Spani- 
ards attribute a power to preferve men from Thunder. 

Valencia is the mofi; delightful Countrey of all Spain. The City (be- 
iides the name of the Province) bears the name of Fair and GxesLt Va- 
lencia, An Archbifhop's See, the Valentia of Ptol. Plin. &c. feated not 
far from the mouth of the River Vari^ by Mela, TLttrium Plin. Turia & 
lurias by others \ now Guadalaviar^ Plufto. A Univerfity, where ftu- 
died St. Vominich^tht Father of the Dominicans. Here was born under 
contrary Stars Luduvicns Vives, and Pope Alexander the Vlth. 

CuUera a Sea- Town, at the mouth of the River Xucar, formerly Sa- 
cron^ after the name of the River, and is famous in Plutarch for the 
Vidory of Sertorius againft Pompey, 

Venia, Dianicum of Ptol. Strab. Plin. and Solin. gives Title to the 
Marquefs of Venia, lince created Duke of Lerma. 

Alicant is known by the good Wines which are tranfported from 
thence. Upon the Sea-ftiore, at a place called Morvedra, are to befeen 
the Ruins of the Ancient Sagmtum of P.olj/b, the dcftrudtion whereof 

Of Spain] a i j 

by Hannibal occafioncd the fecond Punick War. A Town (o faithful 
to the Romans^ that the Inhabitants chofe rather to burn themfelves, 
than yield to Hannthal : Founded by the Zachimhians. Here is alfo 
the Promontory Ferraria of Mela. Artemifum Strab. & Vianium Cic. 
Plin. & Ptol. Punda del Emperador^ or Jttemuz, tefte Beutb. now Cabo Mar- 
tin, the refuge of Sertoritts in his Wars againft Metellus and Pompey. 

Laurigi telle J. Mariana, is the Lauro, or Lauron of Plutarch, the Lau- 
rona of Floro^ which Sertorius befieged and burnt, when Pompey with 
his whole Army rtood nigh, and yet durft not fuccour it. 

Xdtta is by Florian. the Incibilis, or Indihilis of Livi , where Hanno 
was overcome by Scipio 5 but Baud, faith , Incibilis is now Trayguera, 
20 Spanijh Leagues diftantfrom Xelua, or Chelua. 

Gandia gives title to the Dukes of the Houfe of Borgia. 

Segorbe or Segorve, is the Segobrega of Strab. and Plin. tefi<eVaf£. Pluf^ 
and 'larap. but the confufion of Authors makes me uncertain what it 
now is. 

The Iflands oi Maprqne and Minorqite, are the Ancient Baleares, the- 
Inhabitants whereof are exquifite Slingers, and great Pyrates ; they 
accuftom their Children to hit down their Breakfaft with a Sling, or 
elfe to go without it 5 and yet as nimble as they were, they were con- 
flrain'd to beg aid of Augulim againft the Rabbets that deftroyed their 
Lands.. The Books of knowledge writ by Kaymmd LuUy are very 
much ftudied at Majorque. The Soil of Tvka has a peculiar quality to 
deftroy the Serpents that are bred in thelfland 7ormentera. 

Arragon is overrun with the Branches of the Pyrenean and Idubeda 
Mountains, and is in mofl parts dry and fcanty of water, yet the Ri- 
ver Iberus runs through the middle of it. Its chief places are Saragoca, 
C^f. Augujia of PtoL Strab. Plin. Ant. &c. a Colony and Municipium of 
the Romans before called Salduba. Under the Moors it was the Head 
of a particular Kingdom, recovered in the Year 1 1 18. by the Chri- 
ftians, and made the Pvefidcnce of the Kings of Arragm, an Arch* 
bifhop's See, and Univerfity and Seat of the Inquiiifion, and Vice-Roy 
fox the Province. Taracona, or I'araz.ona, the Turiafo Ptol. Turia(f(y Plin; 
is a Bifhop's See. CahtaJHt upon the River Xalo, founded by Ajnb a. 
Sarazen Prince, half a mile from which was the ancient Bilbis of Ptol. 
and Bilbilii of Strab. the Countrey of the Poet Martial. Fraga upon 
the Pviver Senga Gallica^ Flava Ptol. & GaUicHm of Ant, Balbafiro is the 
Burtina of Ptol. Bortina of Ant. Huefca, the Ofca of Strab. Ptol. & Ant.- 
was the place where Sertonm (in Plutarch) kept the Children of the 
Spaniflj Nobility as Hoftages for their Fathers fidelity, but the Fathers 
revoking, the Children were cruelly murthered. Jacca amongft the 


214 Of Spaifi. 

Mountains, was the firft Seat of the Kings of Artdgm, j4infa and 
Benhuari , have been the Capitals of two little Kingdoms , Sobrar- 
hia and Rihagorca^ or Riha Curtia. Monzon is a place where fornnerly 
the States of Arragon were wont to A/Temble. 

Navarr was the fecond Kingdom for Antiquity in Spain, but furpri- 
fed and taken by Ffr^^M^W the Catholick, Anno 1^12, without one 
blow given. The King and Queen of Navarr being at that time both 
Frc"/;cy Subjedls j the Counrry is plain, yet on all fides environed with 
miglity Mountains, well watered with Rivers, and fruitful: Chiefer 
Towns are Pampehr.a, Pompelono( Ptol. Strah.& Ant, hrft founded by 
Vompey the Great, after the Wars ended with Sertorms \ a Bi!liop's See, 
and Seat of the Viceroys, feated in a Plain upon the River Arga. At 
the Siege of which Ignatius Loyola a Cantabrian, defending it againft the 
French^ was almoft killed by a wound of his Leg, which occalion'd a 
New Order in the Church, liz.. The Society of the Jefuits •, vide Man- 
fcrrat in Catalonia. 

2. V/ana, the Title of the Navarren Prince. Nigh this place C£far 
Borgia, Son to Pope Alexander the Sixth, was flain by an Ambufli. 
lejie Guicciardine. 

3. Vi&oria ( is the chief of the little Countrey called Olai'a^ oxOlaha^ 
between Navarr and Bifcay) firft built, or rather reedihed out of the 
Ruins of the ancient ViUica of Ptol, Anno 1 180. by SanCuus King of 
Navarr. This Countrey is divided into fix Mmndida's^ or Govern- 
ments, one of which lying on the other fide of the Pyreneant^ is called 
Loxv Navarr^ and is in the hands of the French King. 

The Kingdom of Caftilia was at firft named Bardulia^ and was the 
moil: prevailing Kingdom of all 5p^i« either by Conqucft or Intermarri- 
ages, divided into Calhllia laVeia^ or old Cajiile, and Ca[illia la Nueva^ or 
New Cajlile. Chiefer places in 0/«/Cjjf?//e are Burgos^ Bravum& Masburgi 
Ptol, tejie Tarapha^ & Burgi^ once the Royal Seat of the Kings of Cajiiky 
now an Archbiftiop's See. 

Avila^ the Abala of Ptol. of which Tojhitts^ Sirnamed Abulenfu^ was 
Biftiop, who isfaid to have wr!t as many flieets as he lived days. 

Soria is the place where the great Standard of the Kingdom is kept 5 
not far from which, towards the Springs of the Vnaro, Hood fome- 
times that famous Numantia^m which 4000 Solc'itrs wirhftood 40000 
Romans for 14 years, and at lalt gathering ail their Money, Goods, 
Armour, &c. together, laid them on a Pile, which being fired, they 
all voluntarilyburied themfelves in the flame, leaving Scipto nothing 
but the name of Numantia to adorn his Triumph. 


Of Spain* 2 I ly 

Segovia is the Seguhia of Ptol. SegoUa Vim. & Ant. a Bifhop's See^ 
near which yet ftandeth an ancient Aquedud of the Romans. 

Calahora upon the Ehro was the Calagorhis oi Ptol. Calaguris of Strab. 
and Calagunis of Ant, a Town of the Vafcones^ and of the Orator 

Logronnio upon the faid River, was the Juliohriga of Ptol. and Ju- 
liobrka of Plin. 

Nevf> Caftile^ is a Countrey for the moft part Champian and plain, af- 
fording fufficient plenty of Com, Fruits, and other necefifary provifion. 
Chiefer Towns are, J.Madrid, the Mantua of Ptol. Mxdritum al. the 
Seat of the Kings of Spain^ and now one of the moft fair and populous 
places of the Kingdom, well built with good Brick Houfes, many 
having Glafs-Windows, which is very rare in diW Spain-, the molt 
confiderable Buildings are the Piazza, the Prifon, the King's Chappel 
and Palace, the Palaces of the Duke of Alva, of Medina de los Tor- 
res, dec. The Englijh Colledge of Tbeatines^ II Retiro, &c. Out of 
Town, St. Perdo, and the Efcurial, or the Magnificent Monaftry of 
St. Laurence, which is about feven or eight Leagues from Madrid, 
amongft the Spaniards palfeth for the Eighth Wonder of the World, 
and is faid to have coft King Philip the Second, above twenty Millions 
of' Gold, no great Sum for a Prince, who is faid to have expended 
700 Millions of Gold during his Reign. 

2. Toledo, theToletptm of Plin. znd Ant. then the chief City of the 
Carpetani, mounted upon a fteep and uneven Rock, upon the right 
fhore of the River Taio, with whofe circling ftreams it is almoft en- 
compaffed. By the Goths it was made the Chamber and Royal Seat 
of their Kings. Under the Moors it became a petty Kingdom, and their 
firongeft hold in thofe parts ; after hve years Siege in the year 1085. 
recovered by Aiphonfus the Sixth, King of Ca^ile and Leon. Now an 
'Univerfity and Archbifhop's See, the richeft in Europe, whofe Bifliop 
is Primate and Chancellor of Spain. 

Alcala de Henares, is the Compluium of Ptol. and Ant. an Univerfity 
founded by F. Ximenes^ Cardinal and Archbilhop of Toledo. 

'Calatrava upon the River Gaudiana, abandoned by the Templers, and 
now gives nan^e to the Order of Knights fo called,confirmedby Pope 
Alexander the Third, i 16^, 

Alcaraz gives name to the Mountainous Trads of Sierra de Alcarazi 

Cuenca, a Bifhop's See, and Seat of the Inquifition, once an Invin- 
cible Fortrefs of t\\t Moors againft the Chrlilians, yet won from them; 
Anno 1177, by Sandius the Second, King of Ca(iile. 

. Sigmneas^ 

21 6 Of Spain, 

Sigmnca^ or Siguenxa^ is the Segontia Strab. Plin, the Secuntia of Liv. 
& Secontia Ant. StgontialaUa of Ttol. a City of the Celtiberi^ novvaBi- 
(hop's See, having a fair Cathedral. 

The Kingdom of Leon was the firft which the Chriftians eftablifhed 
after the Invafionof the Moors. The City which bears its name, has 
in it a Cathedral, famous for its beauty. The Church of T^oledo is mag- 
nified for its Wealth j that of Sevil for its bignefs ; that o{ Salamanca 
for its Strength. The City of Salamanca is honoured with an Univer- 
fity, which has the Privilege to teach the He/jrew, Greekc Arabic^^ and 
Chaldee Languages : They talk here of the Valley of Fatuegaj^ lately 
difcovered in the Mountains of this Kingdom, and which was never 
known before from the time of the M;or/ Invafion ^ difcovered by the 
occafion of an Hawk of the Duke of Jlva*s, which was loft amongft 
thofe Mountains; His Servants clambering from one Hill to another 
in fearch of it, at laft happened into a pleafant and large Valley, where 
they fpied a Company of naked Patacoes^ or Savage people, hem- 
med in amongii thofe many Rocks or Mountains. And then told 
their Mafter , That inftead of his Hawk, they had found a New " 
World in the midft of Spain. Upon further difcovery and enqui- 
ry they were thought to be a remnant of the ancient Spaniards, 
who had hid themfelves amongft thefe Mountains , for fear of the 

O/Catalonia:, and the County ^^/'Rouffillon. 

CAtalaunia^ rather Catalonia^ by the French Catalogne^ is varioufly 
derived by Authors ; fome ftomGothalonia., of the Goths zn^Ala- 
ni', fome from the Cafiellani, the old Inhabitants hereof: Others 
from the Cattalones, who alfo had here their dwellings j others 
from the Catti of Germany, and the Alani of Sarmatia , now Li- 

Paulus Hieronymus aflerts it to be 170 Italian miles long, and 130 
-broad : Boterus tells us there is numbred in this Province one Duke- 
dom, viz. Cardona ', three Marqulfates, 11 Earldoms, many Baronies 
and Lordftiips, 5^ Cities, or Walled Towns, and Six hundred thou- 
fand Inhabitants, among which were loooo French Shepherds and 

Some Authors tell us the Countrey is Hilly, and full of Woods, 
yielding bat fmall ftore of Corn, Wine, and Fruits ; fome fay it 
abounds with Corn, Wine, and Oyl. Others tell us it is more en- 

Of Spain. 21 J 

riched through its Maritime Scituation, than by home-bre4 Commo- 

Chief places are Barcelona^ Barcinon of Ttol. Barchitio of Mda^ and 
Barcino of Plin. and Jnt. a Roman Colony, firnamed Faventia by Plin. 
Seated upon the Miditenanean Sea, betwixt the Rivers Bxtulus of 
Mt/j, now Eifons and 'Rubricate or ■ Lnbregat River, won from the 
Moors by Lewi^ the Godly, Son to the Emperor Charles the Great. 
It's now a rich and noted Port. A Bifhop's See and Academy ; 
faid to be built by Hamilcar. Ant. Beath faith it was built by 
Hamhs. *Tis the Seat of the Vice-Roy, and Inquifition for the 
Province. 'Tis beautified with liately Buildings, both private and 
publick, with delightful Gardens : Its Port hath a Bridge qr Mole 
of Seven hundred and fifty Paces into the Sea, for the better fecuring 
of Ships. 

Terragona^ Terraeona Strah. & VtoL Terrace Plin, Mela^ & Sclinus^ is 
plcafantly feated about a Mile from the Mediterranean Sea, upon the 
Eafi of the River T'ulci^, now Francolino, tefte Coquo, founded by Cn, 
and Pub. Scipio during the fecond Punick War i a Repofitory of ancient 
Monuments ; Vid. Nomium c. 8 j. Afterwards made a Koman Colony, 
and the chief Town, giving name to the Province 'Terraconenjis. It 
W2is An. 1572. an Archbilhop's See, and Academy founded by Car- 
dinal Gafpar Cervan. 

Leriduy Llerda Ant. Strah. Ptol. Plin. Lucan. A Bifliop's See and Uni- 
verfity, feated upon the Rivers 5'/cow, now Segre., or Segor^ and not 
on the River Linga ( as Heylin faith ) and the chief City of ^rragon. 
Its adjacent F'ields are well Oored with Vines, Corn, Fruits, and 
Oyl, oftentimes beiieged by the French., and as often relieved by the 
Spaniards. And is famous for the Encounter which happened nigh un- 
to it, between Herculejut the Treafurer of Sertoriiis Army, and Manil- 
lius Proconful of Gallia., wherein Manilins was difcomfited, and his 
Army routed. 

Cerdona is a Dukedom of the fame Name, where are three things 
remarkable, A Mountain whofe Earth is like Meal or Flower. A 
Fountain whofe Water is of the colour of Red Wine. A Salt of di- 
vers Colours, but if pounded, it appears only white. 

lertofa., by (he French Tortofa, a Bifhop's See, feated upon the River 
Ebro, Vcrtofa Ptol. & Ant. Vert off a Strah, Vertufa Plin. a Roman Colony, 
Fortified with two Cables. Vide Marin. Smdum. 

Girona Germida Ptol. Ant. Plin. a Bifhop's See and Dukedom, gives 
Title to the Eldeft Sons of the Kings of Arragon^ built by Gerion 513 
years after the Flood, te^k Beuthero. 

F f Vkh, 

21 8 Of SpAtn. 

Vkh^ hfj. Mariana^ the Aufaoi Vtol. Corbiooi Liv, Vicns^& AqH£ 
Voconu^ a Biiliop's See. 'Tvvas the Pvende2vou7 of Count Monterks 
Countrey Militia, when he attempted the relief of Vayfarda^ but the 
paffages were too well fecured by the French. 

Not far from the right fhore of the River Lohngat arifeth the plea- 
fant Mountain Edulius Mons Ptol. & MeduUus by others, now Monfer- 
rato, a noted place for Miracles. Here Ignatius Loyola laid the foundati- 
on of the Society of Jefus, Anno 1522. This Mountain is faid to be 
two Miles high, and four Miles in Circumference, fluck full with 
Anchorets Cells ; and honoured with a much frequented Ghappel 
and Image of the Blefled Virgin-, whofe ravifliing defcription read in 
Tslonm Bihliothec. Hifp, and in Zfi/er's Defcription of the place, in his 
Iteneries of Spain. 

Kofas^ or Rofes., the 'Rhoda of Ttol. and Rhodope of Strab. founded 
by the Emporites or RhodianSf under the Pyrenean Mountains, a ftrong 

Puig de Cerda^ or Puigcerda, by the French Puicerdan^ is the chief 
Town of the Carotani ; Jugum Carratanorum near the Pyrenean Moun- 
tains , upon the River Segre & Sicorii t one League diitant from 

Llivia, Livia by Julian^ tohtanus de expeditione Wamh£ Regis Jotho- 
runtf Julia Libyca Ptol. & Plin. Unca, or Lima Florian 5 by others Infa 5 
in Sheldens Manufcript , Aiyv^ia,. 

Campredon^ a Walled Town, near the Springs of the River Ter, of 
Old Sambraca, the Sebendunum of Ptol. Jonqmra by the French., Jun- 
quera by the Inhabitants, Juncaria Ant. & Plin. Tavyj^a. in SbeL Manu- 
script, 'tis in the little County of Awpurdan^ near the PafTage of Le 
Col. de partus. 

Cap de Cruex by Florian^ is the Aphroditium of Ptol. Temphm Veneris^ 
& Venus Pyren£aoi Strab, & Plin. Portus Veneris Mela ', but Baud, tells 
us, that Port Veneris is now called Port Vendresy five Leagues diftant 
ifom Aphrodifmm Prom. 

Cadaquesntzx Rofes^ is the Cap de ^ires of the Gazette, i58i. 

Balagutr. Ballegariumin Scriptis Hifp. by Others Bergufia, feated upon 
the Riyer Se^e, and is famous for the Siege of the French, ^^45. 

Of spam, %i() 

Of the County of Rouffillon. 

ROnjfillhn by the French, is included betwixt two Branches of the 
Fyren£an Mountains, beginning at the Mountain Cano ; The 
one extending to Calibre and C. de Creux, a Promontory that is the 
furthert point Eaft ward ot Catalonia ; the other Branch running out 
unto Salfar. This Country was pawned by John King of j^rra- 
^gfrn^ 1462. to Lewis the nth. of France^ for ^00000 Crowns j 
and reftored to Ferdinand the Catholic!^, by Charles the^th, ^4-93- 
that he might not be hindred in his Journey to Naples. Tejfe 

Francis the firft, King of i^r^wfre, partly to requite the Emperor CW/ej 
the "yth. for the War he made in Provence^ and to get into his hands 
Perpignan^ one of the Doors of Spain., fent his Son Henry with an Ar- 
my to force it, Jn. 1 542. but the Town was well fortified, fo brave- 
ly manned, and fo well ftored,that his Journey proved as difhonoura- 
ble to the French., as the Invafion of Provence^ and the Siege of Mar- 
felles had been to the Emperor. 

Places of mod Note, are Perpignan., Papirianum & Perpinianum, built 
out of the Ruins of Kufcinum^ An, 106%. by Guinard E'3lt\ of Koufftl- 
/o«,feated in a pleafant Plain upon the River Tk/jf or Tj^f/z/, arichand 
flouri(hing Empory, and a ftrong-hold againft the French., till the year 
1642. VideNomium & Marianum. 

CoHiure & Colibre., by the French Colliourey EUeberri Mela^ Elliberis Plin, 
Jlihtrvf Livi., lUer'vs Ptol. lUyberis Strab, 

Eka, by the French Elne ; Helena^ of the Ancients, feated uponthe~ 
River TecJ??, once an Epifccpal See, but in An. i6od.. it was tranflated 
by Clement the ^th. to Perpignan, 

Cerat., Ceretum., near the River Tec/:?, was the meeting- place of the 
French and Spaniards Commiffioners, for regulating the limits and 
bounds of their Kingdoms., Anno 16 do. 

Bellagardia isaftrongplace, often taken and retaken by the French 
and Spaniards., feated near the entrance of Pertus into Catalonia, 

Sal, SalfuUo^ Melazv.d Ant. taken by the Fre«c^, 1^40. 

Between France 3ind Spain., are the Pyren^i Monies^ which tieth Spain 
to the Continent. The Cantahrian Ocean fiercely beating on the ^eft , 
and the Mediterranean gently wafliing the Eaft ends of them ; the 
higheft part whereof is Mount Canns, upon which in a clear day may 
be feen both the Seas: The Fraich fide of thefe Hills are faid to be 

F f 2 Naked 

22 o ^/ Spaift, 

Naked and Barren j the Spanifh very fertile, and adorned with Trees. 
Here was RonceValles, (o famous for the Battel betwixt the French and 
the Moors^ in which Rowland^ Coufin to Charles the Greats Oliver^ 
and others of the Peers of France^ were put to the Rout, and 20000 
of the French. 

The other Dominions of the King of Spain^ next to France^ are the 
Spmifh Provinces, or Flanders^ and ih^ French County^ Conquered in 
part by the King of France. In Italy the Dutchy oi Milan. Finals Or- 
bitello^ the Protediion of Piombinoznd Porto Longone^ the Kingdoms of 
Naples^ Sicily^ and Sardinia, Sec. In Africa^ Oran^ Marfal- quiver, Mel- 
liUa, Pennon de Velez^ Ceuta, and the Ifle Pantalarea, all along the Coaft 
of Barkary, upon the Mediterranean Sea. To which we muft add the 
Philipine lllands in /ifta^ and the greatell part of the Iflands and Con- 
tinent in America* > 




Portugal is a Kingdom of above five hundred years Erea:{oii,iD the 
mftern part of Spain, anciently called Lufitania, taking the prefent 
Name from Vorto, a Haven-Town at the Mouth of theP«cr^/, where 
the Ganls ufed to Land, and therefore called Toms Gallorum, andfincc 


^22 ^f PortugdL 

Portugal % or rather from Vortm and Cde^ then a fmall Village not far 
from it •, of old Tmus Calenfis , now Portugal. The length of it 
from South to North is about iix fcore Leagues. The breadth there- 
of about 25 or 30 Leagues, and in fome places fifty. It is feared up- 
on the Ocean. 

The Experience of the Inhabitants in Navigation, has caufed their 
Kings to be known in all the four Quarters of the W^jrld V where they 
have had many Kings their ValTals : as alio the convenience of bring- 
ing into Europe the moft rare and precious Merchandizes of the Eaji, 
Their Conquefts have extended above five thoufand Leagues upon the 
Coaft of Braziley and in the Eajl-Indies, their deiign being only Trade. 
It is true, that of late for feveral years they have not made any great 
Progrefs , or farther Advantage, by reafon of their War with Spain, 
and the great Garifons which they are forced to keep againfi the Hoi" 
lander, which has caufed them to fur render fome Places into the hands 
of the Englijlj upon the Royal Match between Portugal and England, 
viz. Tangier and Bombay. 

. The Provinces of Portugal have all their particular Commodities 5 
they afford among other things (tore of Citrons, and excellent 

' They have fome Mines ; for the Greekf and Romans fought in Portu- 
gal for that Wealthjwhich the Portuguczes fearch for in the Indies, They 
are fo well Peopled, efpecially toward the Sea, that there are to be rec- 
kon'd above fix hundred privileged Towns, and above four thoufand 
Parifties. The Roman C^^^oZ/ci^Religion only is profeffcd there i and 
thofe that are of the Race of the J^b?/, areforc*d to baptize their ChiN 

- There are three Archbifhopricks, Lisbon^ Braga and Evora ; and ten 
Bifhopricks ; the Archbifhops of Lishn and Br^jga^ have each of them 
200GO0 Livres Rent. There are Inquifitions at Lisbon, zt Coimbra, 
and at Evora ; and Parliaments at Lisbon and Porto^ places of general 
Receipt of the King's Revenue. Twenty feven Places have their Ge- 
neralities, which are called C(?/Mi;/r(.'«e/, ot Almoxarifates. 1 he Order 
of Chrift that refiJes at Tomar^ is the moft confiderablc which they have. 
The Kings are Grand Mafters thereof^ for upon that Order depends 
all their Conquefts from abroad. The Knights wear a red Crofs, and 
a white on^ in the middle-, whereas the Knights of Avis wear a Green 
Crofs, and thofe of St. James a Red one, who have their P^efidenet 
at PalnteUa neajf to Seiuval. It is faid that the Revenue of the Kingdom, 
fet'ting afide that of the Indies^ amounts to above t^n Millions of Li- 


Of Vortugd. - 223 

In the Year l<$40. this Kingdom revolted from the King of S^ain^ 
and at that time it was an admirable thing to confider, that a Secret of 
fo great importance fliould be carry'd on with fuch an exadi Secrecy 
among above two hundred Perlons, and for the fpace of a whole year : 
The principal motives fo this Revolt was. for that the King of S^ain 
gave leave to others befides the Vonugals^Ko Traffick into the Eaji-Indies^ 
together with the Tribute of the ^xth part, which the King caus'd to 
be publiftied in the Year 16^6. whereby he exadled hve^cT Cent, of all 
the Revenues and Merchandizes of the Kingdom. It confitis of fix Pro- 
vinces,which are as many General GovernmentSjE/-2fre-D(;«r<) and Mhiha^ 
Tralos- Montes^ Beyraf Ejhetna dura-y Alen teio, and the Kingdom of Jlgarve. 
Entre-Vauro and Minho^ is the moft delicious part, and fo well Peopled, 
that for 18 Leagues in length, and 12 in breadth, it contains above 
130 Monafteries well endow'd , 14^0 Parifhes, 5000 Fountains of 
Spring- water , two hundred Stone- Bridges , and fix Sea- ports ; 
fome call it the Delight and Marrow of Spain. Torto by the Vutch^ and 
by the EngUJh^ Port a Port ; a City, containing about 4000 Houfes, is 
a place of great Trade , and Braga^ Br£caria j^ugujia of Ptol. Bracara of 
Ant. and Br£ca of PUn. is renown'd for the feveral Councils that have 
been held there, and for the pretenfion of the Archbithop, who claims 
to be Archbifhop of all. Irahs-Montes is ftored with Mines, and adorn'd 
with the City oiBracanza the Capital of a Dukedom of 40000 Duckets. 
Revenue, wherein there are alfo fifty little Towns, and other Lands, 
which Entitle the Duke of Braganza to be three times a Marquifs, kven 
times an Earl, and many more times to be a Lord. The Princes of 
that Name, who are now in poffeffion of the Crown, ufually refided 
at Villa Viciofa ; and had a Prerogative beyond the Grandees of Spain, 
to fit in publick under the Royal Canopy of the Kings of Spain. 
Beyra is fertile in Rye, Millet, Apples and Chefnuts; Her Cityof Coiw- 
bra, formerly the Refidence of Alphnnfus the firft King of Portugal, who 
enjoyed a longer Soveraignty than any Prince fince the beginning of the 
Roman Monarchy attained tOj faith Heylin ; Sapores the Son of Mifdales 
King of Perjia^ whofe Father dying, left his Mother with Child, and 
the Pfr/ztz« Nobility fet the Crown on his Mother's Belly before (he was 
quick, came fliort of him by two years ; is famous for the Llniverfity, 
and for the Bifhoprick, which is reckoned to be worth above a hundred 
thoufand Livres of /Annual Rent. Eflremadura produces Wine, Oyl, Salt 
and Honey, which the Bees there make of Citron Flowers and Rofesi. 
her City of Lisbon. Oliojippon of Ptol. Oliftppon of Jnt. Olyfippo of Solynui^ 
and Olyfipj of Pliny , a Mmicipium of the Romans^ Sirnamed Falicitas 
Julia, the Royal Seat of the Kings of Portugal , an Archbifhop's See, 


224 ^f ^0^^^^^^' 

the Refidence of the Vice-Roys, a flourifhing Erapory \ fcituated up- 
on five rifing Hills upon the right Shore of the River ^agus^ Tajo inco- 
lis^ about 5 miles from the Ocean, having the advantage of the Eb- 
bing and Flowing of the Sea. It is faid to contain 32 Parifti-Churches, 
350 Streets, 1 1000 Dwelling-Houfes, idooco Inhabitants , befides 
Church-men, Strangers and Courtiers ; and with the Suburbs, about 
7 miles in ccmpafs ; the Capital City of all the Kingdom, ore of the 
faireir, richcft- the biggell and beft peopled of Europe. The little Town 
of Bt/Vw, which is near to it, is the Burying- place of many of the Kings 
of Fortugal. Santar'im is fo happy in the great rumber of Olives that 
grow round about it, that the Natives boalt that they cculd make a Ri- 
ver of their Oyl as big as 7agHS, It was the Scabalifcus of PtoL the 
Scabalis of Ant. and Pliny^ Sirnaraed Trxfidium Julium^ then a Roman 
Colony, and a Juridicial Refort, nam.ed from St. Irene, a Nun of To- 
mar, here martyred and enfhrined. Setubal^ the Salaiia oi Ptol. is well 
fcituated, and well built, and is a Town of good Trade ; it is the bell 
Haven in all the Kingdom, 30 miles long, and 3 broad -, her Salt- pits, 
and her Wines, by what the Portuguez.ej relate , bring a greater Reve- 
nue to their King, than all Arragon to the King of Spain. Akn tcio pafTes 
for the Granary oi Portugal, by reafonof the Corn which it produces. 
The City of Evora claims the next place in Dignity to Lisbon, In the 
Year 166^. the Portuguczes overthrew the Spaniards in a memorable 
Battel near to this City. Elvat is famous for its excellent Oyls, and 
for the Sieges that it has profperoufly held out againft the Spaniards, 
Ourique is the place where was fought that famous Battel which occa- 
lioned the Proclaiming of the firft King of Portugal ; Porfelegre is a Bi- 
ihop's See 5 Bija is fuppofed to be the Pax Julia of Plin, and Ptol. Al- 
garvcj though fmall in extent, it affumes the Title of a Kingdom, and 
was re united to the Crown by the Marriage of Alphonfus the Hid, 
with Beatrice of Ca{}ile : It produces Eggs, Olives , Almons and Wines, 
which are very much efteemed ; and indeed the word yllgerbia in the 
Language of the Moors., fignities a fruitful Campaign. 

Chief Towns are, Tavila, or Tavira, the Bjlfa of Ptol. and Plin. Faro 
is feated near the Cuneum Prnmontorium, nov/Capo Maria. Silves 
is the Ancient Ojfonaba of Ptol. the Onoba of Mela, the Sonoba of Strabo^^ 
by the Moors, Eicuba by the Spaniards., Ejioy, by fame Ejiombcr. Lagus 
is feated near the Promontorium Sacrum of Strab. and Ptol. now Cape 
St. Vincent, from the Pvelicks of the Holy Martyr brought from Vahntia 
by the perfecutcd ChriiHans, flying the Cruelty of Abdcrrahman , the 
Bvil King of the Spanijh Moors > removed afterwards to Lubcn by King 


Of Italy. 






* -la, 


muiiui ~mssm 

33 J^ 3S 'S'^ 

[Taly Anglis^ Italia IncolU & Hifpanis^ Italic GaVlfJf^elfchlandt Germamsy 
fVolska Zemiay Polonis, Vhfka Sclavonice ; called alfo by the Ancients, 
Aufonia. Campfena, Oenotria^ Hcfperia^ Janicula^ Saleumhrona^Satmnia,&c» 
Dnce Emprefs of the then known World , ftill the faireA and moft de- 
iicious Country of Europe, After fo long time, fo many Ages elapfed, 
it is not certainly decided who were her firft Inhabitants j nor whether 

G g fome 

726 Of Itafy. 

fome one Nition dH plant here, after the Confufion of Bahety or that 
It was peopled by little and little, as feveral Nations did arrive ; 'tis 
equally dubious, whether it received its general Name at firft, or whe- 
ther particular Parts had Hrft their Appellations: *Tis certain^ that fe- 
veral Nations, at fundry times, did tranfport themfelves thither from 
Greece, and peopled all the Sea-Coaft, faid to be Janusy An. Mm, 1 92 5^. 
after whom came Saturn out of Creet^ Evander, or Oemtrm out of jirca^ 
dia, with their Followers; after them arrived (omc "Trojans, under the 
Condudt oi Mneas^ whofe kind entertainment by Latintts King of the 
Latins^ occafioned the Wars between him and 'turnufy King of the R«- 
tuli i but after the Romans grew potent, all Italy fell under their Sub- 
J€(^ion bntil the time Of Honorius i after which feveral barbarous Na- 
tions, viz, Goths ^ Vandalism Hernles^znd the H«w/, pi fling the Alps, over- 
ran all Italy, and divided it into feveral Kingdoms. And when thefe 
were ejeded, or at leaft fubdued by the Lieutenants of the Emperor 
Jujiinian^ it was once more united to the Empire, till the Emprefs So- 
fhia envying Narfis*i Honour , re-called him from his Government ; 
whereupon he opened the PaiTage of the Country to Albonius King of 
the Lombards, who poffelTed themfelves of that Country, calling it by 
their own Name Longohardia. Thefe were at length fubdued by Teptn 
King of France, who was called into Italy by the Biftiop of Kome. After 
that, the Seat of the Koman Empire being fixed in Germany, Italy was 
reduced into feveral Parcels and Fadions,fo that the Soveraign Princes 
thereof at this day, are 

1. The Pope Vontifex Maximus , under whofe Dominion are thefe 
Provinces or Eftates, viz, Campania, Romania, Sahina, Vrovmcia Patrimonii 
St, Petri, Vhthria, Marchia Anconitana, Vucatns Cajirenfis, lerritoria Ori- 
vetanum, Peruftum^ & Civitatis Cafielli, Ducaius Vrhini, Romandiola, Bo- 
mnienfis Ager & Ducat us Ferrarienfis. 

2. The King of 5/?;»w, RexHifpania, to whom belongs l?fg««w NV^- 
folitaaum, Sicilia, Sardinia^ Vucatus Mediolanenfir , Marchionatus Finarii 
in Liguria, with others upon the Coaft of Tufcany, viz. Orbetellum, & 
Status adjacens, called by the Inhabitants, Stato deHi preftdii^ Principatus- 
Plumbini^ & Una infula, IJIe de Elbe. 

3. The Venetians y or Republica Veneta, under whofe Dominion are, 
Ifiria, Foro Julium,. Marchia Tarvijina, & Vucatus Venetus, Vulgo le Do- 
gado, Territoria Patavinum, Rhodighinum, Vicentinum^ Veronenfe, Brixia* 
num, Rergomenfi, &Cremenfe,. 

4. Duke of Savoy , Vucatus Sahandia, to whom belongs Principattn 
"isd^nontiumf ^Lad ip3itto( VUcatm Montis-F.errati, & Comitatus 'Nic£a. 

5' The: 

Of Italy^ 227 

5 . The Great Duke of 7nfcany^ Magnus "Dux Heturix^ egente Medicea^ 
under whom is the greater part of Heturia, viz. Florentina, Pifana, & 
Senenfif^ Petiliano, now Poteglianoj and ^qua^ now Ponte Molt, As alfo 
the lUdinds G or gonay Igilium^ i\ow ilGiglio^ Giarjulum, Mons Chrifii, 6cc. 
and Argons Portuiy now Porto Ferrahy or ?. Ferraro , Jle Elhe^ m Mart 

6. The Genoatis^ or Res Puhlica Genuenjis^ upon the Coaft of Mare 
Ugujiicum, to whona belongs alfo Corfica & Capraria Infula. 

7. Dux Mantanus e gente Gonzaga^ under whom is Vucatns Manta- 
nus^ and the greater part of Vucatus Montis Ferrari. 

8. Dux Mutinenfis e gente Elienfi, under whom is Dttcatus^ Mutinen- 
fts & Rhegienfis^ Principatus Carpenfts & Corregienjls, and great part of 
Carf€ronian£, or Carfagnana, 

p. Dux Permenfts c gente Farmfia^ who enjoyeth Vucatus Permenjts & 
Placentinuj, Ditto Bujfetana^ and great part of Principatus VaUis TarrL 
JO. Lncca^ or Res Puhlica Lucenfts^ in Heturia. 

11. Dux Majf£ e gente Pica, conmnmg Ducatus Majfe^ & Principa- 
tus Carrari£, in Heturia, 

12. D«x Mirandulanus e gente cibo , containing Ducatus Mirattduh 
& Comitatus Concordi£. 

1 3 . Dux Ga^all£ e gente Gonzago, 

14. Dux Sabulonet£, under the Dominion of <S'^<f/«. 

1 5 . Princeps CajiiUonis e gente Gonzaga, 

1 6. Princeps Sulphurini e gente Gonzaga, 

17- 'Princeps Monoid e gente Grimalda^ under the Prote<flion of France^ 

1 8, Princeps Majferina e gente Ferraria Flifca^& Marcinonatus Crepacorii. 

ip. Princeps Plumbini e gente Ludovifiat contdiinin^ Principatus Plum' 
hini & Ilua Infula^ now Elbe Ijle^ under the Dominion of Spain, -" 

20. Comes Novel!ari£ e gente Gonzaga* 

2 I. Res Publica S. Marini, Marcbio Fofdinovi e gente Malas pine^ in 
VaVe Mazr£. 

' The Emperor oi Germany has j^quilea^ and the Country oiGoritz^ 
as alfo Tergejh, Pedana & Piftno in Ijir'ta* The King of France hath Pig- 
nerol, with its Dependencies. 

Epifcopus Tridcntinus, is under the Dominion of the Count olTiroU 

Laftly, The Swiff es have four Italian Prefe6tures, viz. Lugan, Lo~ 
carn^ Mendriftx^ and Madia., which before the the Year 1512. did be^ 
long to theDutchy oi Milan, 

Gg 2 OF 


Of Helvetia^ or Schmt^erlandt. 

This Country^ which fhoM have followed Germany , heifig 
mtfpUced in the Cop)/, is therefore here inferted 

AT what time this whole Mountainous Trad, containing^many 
feveral Nations, was comprehended under the general Name of 
Helvetii, rhey were grown to fo great a Multitude, by a long Peace, 
and want of Tr.ffique,th3t the Country, being barren was no longer 
able to maintain tbem^fo that fetting fire to tHeir own Towns.they re- 
folved to feek out new Dwellings > but their palTage being ftopp'd by 


Of the Smjfes. 22 g 

Csfar^ he fo wafted them by feveral Defeats , that they were forced 
to crave leave to return into their own deftroyed Country : After this, 
they continued Members of the Roman Empire, till Conquered in the 
times o^ Hmorius ^ndValentinian^ by the Burgundians and Mtnains^ be- 
twixt whom it was divided i after taken by the French, it was made a 
part of the Kingdom of Burgundy ; and at length, by degrees, brought 
under the Power of theHoufe of Ju[hia^ by the Force of the Emperor 
jilbert^ the Son of Kodolph oi Hafpurg : But the People being ove^:- 
burthened by the OppreflSon of their Governors, taking occaiion by 
the Fadions of the Empire, and the weaknefs of the Aulirian Family, 
they contra6led a League Offenfive and Defenfive, for prefervation of 
their Liberby \ into which entered thofe of Switz, , Vren and Vnder- 
rvald 1308. more ftridtly 13 15. To thefe joined Lucern^ *353' 2«* 
rich, I ^$ I. G lar if. Beam 2ind Zug^ 1352. Friburg zwd Soloturn, 1481. 
Bafil and Schafhaufen, 1501. Appenzeet, 1553. Called Smtz,-, from the 
name of the Village where firft began this Confederacy , or becaufe 
the moft Famous and moft Potent of them ; not all united into one 
Confederation till the Year 15 13. Of no great Reputation, till the 
War made upon them by Charles Duke of Burgundy, whom they de- 
feated in three Battels at Granfon, Morat, and Nancy, 

This Country is in length about 240 miles, and 150 in breadth; 
very Mountainous , affording Deers , Wild Goats, and Bears. The 
lower parts of thefe Mountains afford rich Meadows, and nouriOiing 
Paftures for Cattel, wherein confitts their greateft Wealth. In fome 
places they have good Wines and Corn, if the Care and Induftry of 
the Husbandman be not wanting. This is faid to be the higheft Coun- 
try in dWEurope; yet is no place more ftored with Lakes, and the rife 
of more famous Rivers, which run through all parts thereof, viz. The 
Rhine Northward, through the 17 Provinces j the Danube Ealtward, 
through Germany, Hungary, the Toe Southward , through Italy % and 
the Rodamus Wertward, through France. 

As the Soil, fuch are the Inhabitants , of rude and rugged Difpofi- 
tions, more tit for Arms than Civil Occupations-, ferving any Prince 
that will hire them. In a word, they are tall, well proportioned, 
and ftrong ; naturally honeft, frugal and indudridus j great lovers of 
their Liberty. 

As for the Body of their State, it confifts of three difiind Parts, viz. 
I. 'Wxt Schvnitzsrs* 2. The 5'^(7ffj' which are Confederate with theme 
3. The rr£fe£iures, vvhich are Subjeds to the Schrvitzers. 

The .9c^n?//2;erj-are comprehended in i'^ Cantons, viz. Suitia SvPitzl 
Uria Vren^'TrattfilvaniaVuderopald, Lucma Lucern, 'THgiumLug,BernaB>;rn^ 


2^0 Of the Swiffes^ 

Tigurhm Zttrich , Bajilea Baftl, Friburgum Friburg^ Salodomm Soloiurn^ 
Abbatis cella Appenzid^ Glarona Glaritz-, Scaphufta Schafhaufen. Thefe 
make the Body of that Commonwealth, enjoying many Rights and 
Privileges, which the others do not. 

The fecond Member is made up of the Towns and States Confede- 
rates with them for the Picfervation of their Liberties, r;z. The Rhx- 
tii or G«/o/2j, who in the year 1408, united in a perpetual League with 
Vren, Switz.^ Vnderwaldea^ Lucerny Zurich^ Glariiz and Zttg. 

The Valeftiy Valaife^ or IFaliJIand^ who in the year i533,:ntred in- 
to League with the feven Catholick Cantons. 

The Town of St. Gal^ in the year 1452. obtained the Protedion 
and Confederacy of the fix Cantons of Zurich, Bern, Lucern, Smtz, 
Zug, and Glariiz. The jibbot of St. Gd only with Zurichi Lucern, 
Srpitzt and Glaritz,, 

Mulhaufm & Miilhnfium,& Arialbimm Ant. tefle Simlero/m /ilfatjayZ 
Town Imperial, joyncd in a perpetual League with all the Smtzers^ 

Rottveil & KoteviUaf in Su£viaj a Town-Imperial not far from the 
head of the Danaiv, united 15 19. with all the Cantons. 

Bienna, Bienne tejie Baudrand, rather Biely upon the Bie/er- Lake, was 
taken into the League with Berrty 1 5-47. 

Neocomium, Nanfchajlal Gallis, Notvenburg Germ, with Bern, Lucern 
and Friburg. 

Geneva, firft with Friburg, then with Bern and Zurich. 

As for the Prefedures of the Smtzers^ they are fuch lefTer Parcels 
and Addittaments, as have arrived to their State, and are fubjed to 
their Authority, either by Gift, Purchjfe or War, viz.. the Town and 
Countrey of Baden, Bremgarten, MtUingen, Raperfvilaos Kaperchftvill. The 
free Provinces of Wageathal. The County of 7ergow, al. Tergea. The 
Countrey and Town of Sargans and fValenjiat. The Prefedorfliip of 
Rheifiecl{. The Vallies of Locarn, Lugan, Mendrift, and Madia. The Bai- 
liages of Belinzona, Gajhren and Vlzenach. O^Granfon, Morat, and Orbe, 
and Schiparzimburg, and the Count Verdemburg. All which Cantons, 
as well as their Allies, are as fo many diftind Commonwealths, Go- 
verned by their Magiftrates, and independent upon one another. 
They have two forts of Religion amongft them, the Roman- Catholick 
and the Proteftant ; The Catholick Cantons are five, or as fome count, 
feven ; the five Cantons are, Vri, Smtz, Vnderwald, Lwarw, and Zug : 
They that reckon feven, add Friburg and Soleuri. But Zurich, Bern, Ba- 
ftl and ScafoufeyZK Proteftants ^ Glans and j^ppenzel are Proteftants and 
Papifts mix'd together : The Catholick Cantons aflemble at Lucern, 


Of the Swtjfes,. 2ji 

and the Proteftant Cantons at Aran. The General Affcmblies are held 
yearly at Badeuy which bears that Name from her Baths. Every Can- 
ton is free to engage where it fees convenient.^ Among all thefe Can^ 
tons, Zurich has the Precedency : Bern is the moft Powerful. Bafil has 
the fineft City, the Reiidence, and the Rendezvous of feveral learned 
men. The Canton of Schafoafe has a City, famous for Trade j and in 
Solothure ftands a City of the fame Name, where the moft Chriftian 
King's Ambaffador refides. Vren^ Switz^ Underpaid ^ Claris^ and 
yippenzel hive only Burroughs: The Order of the 13 Cantons, ac- 
cording to their Precedency, is Zurich, Bern^ Lttcern^ Vren, Switz, Vn^ 
dirppald^ Zug^ Claris^ Bajil, Fribmgy Solothure^ Schafhaufen and Jppenzel. 

Amongll the Allies of the Cantons, the Grifons are the moft Powerful 
ef all. Their City of Coire is the place whither the Merchandizes o£ 
Italy and Germany are brought, by reafon of its Scituation upon the 
Kh'me^ which in that place begins to grow Navigable. 

The Chief Cities in thefe Cantons, are Zurkh^the Tigurium oiCaf^ 
& Liv. pleafantly fcituate at the end of a Lake, called ZuriehStz^ 01 
Tigurinum Lacum^ divided almoft into two equal parts, by the River 
Ligamus, which runs out of the Lake, but joy ned together by two 
Bridges. The Houfes built of Timber and Painted, many four or five 
ftories high. The Streets narrow, but paved with Flints and Pebbles, 
»^Tis well Fortified, befides the Wall, with good Earth- works and 
Trenches. It hath a Univcrlity. Its Citizens are Rich, given to Mer- 
chandife, Bufieand Induftrious. To this belongs the Power and Autho- 
riey of fummoning the GeneralDictSjand having the firft place in both 

Ne2it Zurich was Zttinglius (lain, aged 44. years,- whofe Heart re* 
mained whole in the raidft of the Fire, after his Body was confumedo 
As alfo the Heart of Bifhop Cranmer in England^ as 'tis reported.> 

Below Zurich upon th^ Ligamus, enjoying a moft happy and plea- 
fant Scituation, lieth the Town of Baden, named thus from the hot- 
Baths thereof, beautified with fair Buildings. The Seat of their Ge-r 
neral Diets, much frequented and rcforted to j alfo for its publick 
and private Baths, not fo much for. Health as Pleafure. The chiefeft 
Virtue, is the quickning Power they have upon barren Women ; for 
here the Men and Women prcmifcuoufly waihtogethar, and which is 
wDrft, in private too. 

Bafil Ang. Bafil Germ, Bafle Gal. Bafilea Ital Baftlia Merceh The Arial- 
hinum of Ant. tejh Cluver & Sanfon. A City large and fair. The Houfes 
builtof Stone for the moft part, and painted, compaffcd with a dou^' 
hie Wall and Trench, Richand Populous. The River Rhim divides 


2^3 OftheSmffes. 

it into two parts, which are joined together by a Bridge of fourteen 
Arches. In this City arefaid to be 600 Fountains. It gives Title to 
a Bifhop, who is not fuffercd to lodge in the Town one Night. Spanta- 
lus an Englifh-ra'dn was the Hrfl: Bifhop here. 'Tisan Univerlity found- 
ed by Pope Pius the id. 

Here was Erafmtis buried ; and here was. held that Council, where 
it was decreed that a General Council was above the Pope, ^n. 143 i. 

Near hereunto is the Village /^«g^, where ftrjod the City Attgttfta 
Kauracon^ Ptol. Rauriaca of Flin. and Bafilia & Civitofy Bafil/enJiumo( Ant, 

B.rn, feared upon the Aar^ with whofe Streams, lHand-like, itisa!- 
moll: round encompaffcd > on that fide which is not, it is ftrongly for- 
tified with Baftions and Out- works. 'Tis built of Stone, and hath 
one long Street, with narrow Porticoes, or Cloyfters, on both fides. 
Tiie great Church is one of thehanfomeft Stone- Fabricks iu all Smt- 

Ljicern isfeated upon both fides of the River Rufs, iiTuing forth of 
the Lake Lucernznd ffaldjietteH-See, a neat City, and pleafantly feated j 
it hath four Bridges over the Rufs. one for Carts, the other Foot- 
Bridges, one near a quarter of a mile long. The great Church ftands 
without the City- Wall, and is noted for its great Organ. The City is 
well traded, and much frequented by Strangers, being the ordinary 
Road between Italy and Germany, and the Rendezvouz of their Mer- 
chandife pailingthat way. 

Altrof^ an open Village, is the chief of the Canton of 7Jren, The 
Village of Switz gave name to the Countrey. Stantz, is the chief of 
the Canton of Undertvald. Glar/s gives Name to thatCantoa Zug is 
a Walled Town upon the Left Shore of the Z»ge«-Sea. Appenz.el was 
fometimcs the Seat of the Abbots of St. Gj//, then Lords of the 
Countrey : now gives Name to the Canton. Solothum^ Solothurum of 
Ant. u^on the Aar^ was the place of Martyrdom of Vrfus and his ^5 
Theban Soldi'^rs, in the Reign of the Emperor Viocleftan. Friburg 
upon the KwtxSana. is a handfomeTown, and Head of the Canton. 

Schaf'haufen is feated upon the River Rhine, where all Boats and 
Floats that come down the River, unload, becaufe of the Catarad: 
or precipitous Defcent of the Rhine at Wafferfal. Here, as at Zurich^ the 
Citizens wear Swords when they go abroad. 

Chief Tovvns of the Confederate Eliates, are Geneva Cdf. Geneura 
Ital GnefGcrm. is pleafantly feated at the lower end of the Lake 
Lemtnm, now, or the Lake of Geneva, divided by the River 
Rhofm into two parts , which arc joyned together by two Wooden 
Bridges, flrong and well fortified with Ramparts and Baftions of Earth', 


Of the Sivijfes, 2^3 

and well governed, where Vice is difcountenaiiGed, yet Sports and 
Exercifes allowed upon the Lord's Day ^ the People Indultrious in 
Trading, and Provifions plentiful. Lofanne^ Laufanva^ the Laufonium 
Ant. is a great Town and Univeriity upon Lams Lamani. 

Coiravel Coria ltd. Chut Incolis ^Curia Ant. & P/(«c. is the Capital Ci- 
ty of the Grifons, almoin environed with Mountains, a Biftiop's See, 
whofe Inhabitants are all Proteftants, except the Bi(hop, who hath no- 
thing to do in the Government of it, yet Coins Money, which is 
currant there. This Rh£tt.i^ or Country of the Grifons, is divided 
into three parts, i. Legd Vjlla^ Cafx Dio^ or Fxdus Vomus Dei. 2. Lega 
Grifa. 5. Vicci Dritture or Fxdus decern JunfdiClionuM, 

SionltaL Sitten Ger. Sedunum C£f. & Phn. is the chief Townof F^j/e- 
fiaox Watiflitids^ reaching along the Courfe of the Rhofne. A Biihop's 
See, feated upon the Rhofne in a Plain, under a fteep bifoiked Moun- 
tain, fpiringup in manner of two high and precipitous Rocks ; upon 
the top of the one is the Cathedral Church, and the Houfes of the Ca- 
nons upon the other, which is much higher. The ftrong Cattle called 
Thyrhilc^ in Summer-time the pleafant Recefsof the Bilhops, the Key 
of the Countrey. 

Ma^i/ucl^ is the Orlodurus of C^/i & Civit. Valetifium Ant. St. Mauriaz 
Agaunnm^ now St. M'nhz-, clofed with a Cattle, and tvvo Gates upon 
the Bridge, and the Moun^'ains which (hut up the Countrey, which is 
within molt pleafant, fruitful, and happy in Corn, and excellent Pa- 
fmre •, where is alfo Salt Springs difcovered, /^««o 1544. r\t:ii Sitten. 
Alfo divers Fountains of hot Medicinal Waters. Without, the Coun- 
try is environed with a continual Wall of horrid and ficep Mountains. 
The farprife of it alarmed all Europe., when feized upon by the Count 
Fuentef^ for the King of Spahi. 

M liingen. Bnmgarfen md Mi'w^cr^, chief Places of Wagenthal.)\\t up- 
on the /?«r/ River. B/?/ appeit ineth to the Bifhopsof Btfii, Netven- 
burg to the H tufc of Longmv/l'e in Fr.uice, both confederate with Bern. 

The chitf places of Jurgow^ are St. Gj/, feated amongft Mountains, 
not far from the VJjine^ and the Lake Bodenzee. or Conjimce. The City 
is Rich, and well Goven.ed, inhabited by an indullrious People, iii 
making S uffsand Linn n > Jothes From the famous Monalhy hereof, 
are niined the Abbots, Princes of the Empire, and of great Power 
and Revcr.ncein this Countrey. Frarvenfeld is the chief belonging to 
theContedcrate Cantons. 

Chief pi jces in the Italivi Prefe{fi:ares, are Lncern, & Lorcamum^ 
felted ilia pl:afant and fruitful Pliin, betwixt high Mountains, and 
the Head of the Lake Mjggiore^ the Vcrbanus Laciis^ Strab.& Plin.' ^nd 

H h Luganttm.' 

254 ^/ ^^^h- 

Luganum^ upon the Lake Lueanus^ Paulin. Lago de Lugano^ Ital. Luvomz' 
z,ee, Helvet. 

Chiavenna Ital. Clavenna Ant, Claven^ i o Italian Miles from the Lake 
Como, The Lariuf Strab.& Flin. the Comacams of y^.'it. & P. Diac. Lacus 
Infubri^^ Lago di Como Italis^ Cnmerfee Germanis. Bortniu Ital. IVorms^ 
Germ. & Sondrio, are the chief Places in the Valtolina , Val'is Telina & 
Volturena Provincia. 

The Lake of Geneva is crofled by the Rhofne^ and yet they never mix 
their Waters together. And there are Tempel\s upon it, even in fair 
Weather, becauie it lies at the foot of the Hills. The Natives report, 
That Juliui C£far threw his Treafure into this Lake, vi^hen he vi^as pur- 
fued by the Smtz>ers 5 but hitherto they have fought for it in vain. 

The Waters of all the Lakes and Rivers in this Countrey, are ob- 
fcrved to be of a greenifti Colour, as the Sea- Water, and yet are not 
Brackilh or Salt. 

{?/ I T A L Y. 

IT'aly is fcituated in the middle Temperate Zone, in (hape of a Leg, 
betu'een the Mediterranean Sea, and the Gulphof Venice. The Alps 
( which F. Livy calls the Walls of Italy and Kome ), guard it towards 
thofe parts where it borders upon France^ Savoy, Smtzerland^ and 
Germany. The Appenine cuts through all the length of it. Ft?, Adige^ 
Tiber and Arno, are the biggeft Rivers. 

The Italians are Polite, Ingenious, Subtile,and very prudent; inCon- 
verfation pleafant i in Carriage obliging, extreme in their Cuftoms, 
temperate in their Diet, faithful to their Friends ; but thefe Dirp6fi- 
tionsare much fullied by four Vices, Revenge, Luftj Jealonfie and 

The Women for the mofi: part are handfome, of good Wit, and mo- 
deft Behaviour j Saints in the Church, Angels in the Streets, Magpies 
at the Door, Syrens in the Windows, and Goats in the Gardens. 

Their Cities are therefore the fairer and better built, becaufe the 
Nobility and Gentry ufually have their Habitations in them. 

Their Language is Courtly and Eloquent, much of the Latin', but 
the Tufcan Dialed, as being more polilhed, is received at the Court of 
Rome, and among Perfons of Quality. 

The Italians count not their Hours as we do, from 12 to 12. begin- 
ni^ig at Mid-day and Mid-night; but begin their account from Sun- 
fctting, reckoning from 1 to 24 Hours for a Day 5 and therefore ne- 


Of Italy. 235 

ceffitated- to alter and new-fet their Clocks every Day, the fetting of 
the Sun being a moveable Point or Term. 

In Italy are a vaft number of Religious Houfes, where young Wo- 
men of Quality, who for want of fufficicnt Fortunes or Pcrfonal En- 
dowments, cannot get Husbands fuitable to their Birth or Quality, 
their Parents for a fmall matter difpofe of, and fettle them there for 
their lives. 

There are alfo Hofpitals for the Entertainment of poor Travellers, 
who have their Diet and Lodging for three days ( Gratis,}^ befides a 
piece of Money when they go away. 

There are airo Hofpitals to take care of all expofed Children that 
are brought and put in at a Grate on purpofe ; for at the ringing of a 
Bell an Officer comes and receives the Child, and carries it to a Nurfe, 
and ihere it is maintained till it be grown up. 

The Nobility and Gentry of lutly chufe rather to fpend their Reve- 
nues in building fair Palaces, and adornhig them with Pictures and 
Statues, in making Orchards, Gardens, Walks, than in keeping 
great Houfes, and plentiful Tables. And certainly 'tis better Charity 
to employ poor people, awd give them Money for work, than to give 
them Money freely, and fuffer them to live in Idlenefs. 

One Ph£n:m(non obferved at Rome by Mr. Kay was, that in {harp Fro- 
fly weather in the middle of Winter, the Water in the Fountains 
was fohot, that he thought it had been heated over. the fire. 

Italy is divided into three great parts; 1. The Higher part, which 
is Lomhardy, Longobardia^ containing the greatcfl part of Gallia Gfalpina^ 
in which lies the Dutchy of Savoy, the Principality of Piedmont^ the 
Dutchy of Mmtferrat^the Commonwealth o^Genoua, Kiviera diGenoua^ 
the Dutchy of Milan, Stato di Milano^ of Parma, StaioddVHca diPar- 
ma^ oi M'dena, Ducatus Mutinenfis, Stato del Vaca dt Modena, of Man' 
toua^ Stato del Duca di Mint ma, the Territories of the Venetians^ Stato 
di Venetia, and the Bifhoprick of Trent, 

2.. The middle part, wherein are the Dominions or Land of the 
Church, Statn della Chic fa, or Vitio Ecclefa. The Eftates of the Great 
Duke of ttifca-ny, or Ditii Magni Vucis Heturi£ fou Titfcia. And the Com- 
monwealth of Lucca, Duminum Reipublic£ Lucenfis. 

5. The Lower, in which is the Kingdom of Naples y Regno di Napoli. 

4. To v/hich we may add a fourth, viz. the adjacent Ifles Sicilia, 
Sardinia, Corftca, dec. 

H h 2 Of. 


OfSAvoY and Piedmont. 

TH E Ancient Inhabitants of this Mountainous Countrey, were ge- 
nerally called by the Name of AUohroges \ of whoni the firft 
mention we find in Story, is the Atonement made by Hjnnibal \n his 
paffage this way, between Bmncus and his Brother, about the Succeffi- 
on of the Kingdom ; afterwards fubdued by the Romans^ under the 
ikvcral Condads of C. Vomium Mnobarbus^ and ^. Fabins Maxianus : 


Of Savoy, 2^7 

After which, CoUim^ one of the Kings of thefe ^Mr<7ge/j wasinfpe- 
cial favour with Augiti^m C^far , whence it had the Names of ,Hpes 
CoUi£, and by that Name reduced into the form of a Province by A/to. 
In the de^Uiiing of the Roman Empire, it became a p.ut of the Ku-g- 
doiT5 of iBj!/r^»/Z(^j^,_andjpaired with other Rights, to the Empire oi Ger- 
many^ "T. 

Amadkiht ITd' Farl of Mattrienne^ was, by the Emperor Henry the 
IVth. invefted with the Title of 5'^r'rt)'; And /4wW?j the VIII th, created 
the rirft Duke by Sigifmund^ Ann. J 3^7 But the main Power and Pa- 
trimony of this Houfe, was by the Valour of the two Enrls , Thomas 
and Peter ^ in the Years 1210, and 1256. who got by Conquelt a great 
part of Piedmont ; to which the Marquifate of Saluces was united by 
Marriage of the Daughter to Charles Duke of Savoy, whofe Succcilbrs 
kept poffellion of it, till Francis the Firif. pretending fome Title to it, 
in Right of his Mother, a Daughter of the Houfe of Savoy, annexed 
it to the Crown of France ^ from which it was recovered, during the 
Civil Wars of France^ by the Savoyards, about 1588. by whom 'tis 
{fill poflfelTed : By reafon of the difficult and narrow ways, and thofe 
full of Thieves , it was once called Malvoy ; but the Paflages being 
opened by theinduftry of the People, ani purged of Thieves by good 
Laws, it was called Savoy, Salvoy, Sabaudia Lat. Savoia Italis, La Sa- 
voye, Oallk. 

It is full of thofe Mountains which we call by a general name of 
Alps, though feveral Branches have their peculiar Names : M tent Ce- 
nis, and little St. Bernard, open the two moft confiderable PaiTagcS in- 
to Italy, *Tis a Country healthy enough, but not vexy fruitful, except 
(bme Valleys, which are very fertil and deligh ful. 

The common People are naturally dull and limple. and unwarlike, 
but the Gentry civil and ingenious. It paiTcs for the moft noble and 
primier Dukedom of Chriftendom •, the povver and prefence of whofe 
Dukes are the more confiderable, becaufe Miiiers of the moft part of 
the Paffages out of France into Italy -, and by the PofTeilion of Piedmont, 
the County of Nice, and other Signiories. 

Under the name oi Savoy are comprehended thefe fix parts. Suhau- 
dia propriu^ La Savoye. Genevenjis Comitatuf , Le GenevAs. Mmriana , 
La Maurienne. Tarantaifia , La Tarantaife. Foffiniacum , Le Fojjigny^ & 
Cabillictis TraCius, Le Chablais, 

Chamhery, Chambericum^ Chamberiacum, or Carmrriacum^ Civaro. Cic. 
tefie C£nali, & FirumVicontii, telle Pineto , is tiie Capital City of the 
Dukedom, and the refidence of a Parliament ; fortiritd with a ftrong 
Callle, and good Outworks. 


238 of Bavoj, 

Mjfitmelian, Monmdianum^ is the place of ftrength , with a Citadel 
that defends the reft of the Mountains, almoft inacceffible, where they 
fay the Keys of Savoy are locked up. Taken by (he French i6pi. 

M<m(iiers, Monajierium^ is an Archbifhop's See, the Civitiis Cantorum 
of Ant. Annecy^ Annecium^ was the Relidence of the Biftiops of Geneve. 

Ripaile was the Retiring place of Felix the IVth, before and after 
his Pontificate, that Prince living at peace in fuch a retirement from 
bufjnefs, that it became a Proverb, to Irveat Ripaile, of thofe that only 
took their pleafure, and lived at eafe. 

Other Places zxeClufe^ Clufe. Fannum SanBi Johamm. St. Jean in 
Mjuriena Vaie. Ihonon, Ihononiitm, or Ihnnonium. Le Bourg St. Morice. 
In the Mountains boidering on this Country and France, are the Pro- 
geny oi' the ^7%rr_,^.f, which about the Year 1 100. fiood for the Li- 
berty of the Church, and the Dodriue of their PredeccfTors 5 and a- 
bout the Year 1^50. they were almoft utterly ruined by the Popes and 
Fwic,^ Kings. The remainder preferring their Confcience before their 
Country, ictired up into the Mountains, and by their Indufiry and 
good Husbandry, the very Rock^ to bring forth Herbage for their 
Cattel, jnd here they worftiipped God according to the Reformed 
Churches until the latter end of Francis the Firft, when happened the 
MalTacre of Mrrimahum , or Mmgnan GaUis , and Chahrieres. And in 
the Year id62, and 1553. they were again perfecuted and mafTacred 
by fhe Savoyirds, Mr. Ray in his Travels of 166^. met with fome of 
the Protertants of Lucern and Angrona at 7urin, who told him that they 
were in number about 15000 Souls, and 2000 Fighting- men •, that 
they dwell in 14 Villages, that rhey are the only Proteftants in Italy, 
and iiave maintained their Religion 1200 years. But what hath been 
done to them fmce 1^84. Hiftory is filent; until the Expedition of 
the Vaudoif, l6Sp. 

Within the Limits of Saviy h the Signiory of Geneva, about eight 
Leagues in compafs, feated on the Like Lemamx, divided into two 
parts by the Rhofne, well fortifisd, and a flouriihing Univeriity, go- 
verned by a Common Council, con(i(tit-g of 200, the four chief where- 
of are called Slndiqms. Tne Church-Govcrnment confiftefh of Lay- 
men and Miniikrs, begun \>s Calvin, Anno 1541. Formerly it was 
theSoveraigntyof theDuke of .9dwj/ (>-,d therefore mentioned in this 
place; but unce the refinance of the gr:ai Siege 158^, they have flood 
on their own Liberty, and are reckoned a CommonwealcL 


Of Piedmont:, Fiemont Gallis^ Principatuf Pe- 
demontana^ Lat. Gallia Subalpna, Plin. &c. 

IT is now in the pofTeffion of the Duke of Savoy. The ancient In- 
habitants whereof, were the Salaffii^ Lihyci and 7auTmi. all van- 
quifhed by the Romans^ fubdued afterwards by the Lumbards, of whofe 
Kingdom it remain'd a part till its fubverfion, and then became divi- 
ded into feveral Efiates, till conquered by Thom^if and Peter Earls of 
Savoy ^ \n Anno 1481. 

Poffefled after by the French, upon pretence of a Title by the afore- 
faid Marriages after recover'd by the ^^^z/oyjr^. Anno 1588. And in 
the year 1 600 compounded with Henry the Fourth , the County of 
Brefi being given in exchange for the Marquifatc of Salujfe^ Marchefato 
di Saluzzo Italis, whofe chief place is Saluzzo Ital. Saluce Gal. Augu^a 
Vagknnorum^ & Saline Vtol. of which, together with the reft of Pied- 
monty and fome places of importance in Montferrat^ this Family of Sa- 
voy do now ftand poffefied of. 

A Country very fertile in Corn, Cattel, Wine and Fruits, Hemp 
and Flax, compared with Savoy and Smtz^erland^ but inferior to the 
reft of Italy ^ to which it did belong. 

It contains 15 Marquifates, 52 Earldoms, 160 Caftles, or Walled 
places : divided into thefe parts, viz. Vucatus Jugujianusy k Vuchede 
Aoufie. Marchionatuj Segufmus^ le Mar qui fate de Sufe. Marchionatut Epo- 
redU^ le Marqmfate £ Juree. Marchhnatus Salutiarum^ le Marquifat de- Sa- 
Iftffe. MarchionatUi Cev£. Le Marquifat de Ceva , Comitatus Ajienjis , le 
Comte d Afte, Vomininm VerccVenfe, la Scigneurie de Vercdl, To which is 
added Canavenfis "tradusy la Canavefe. 

The Principal Town whereof is I'urin, AttgufiaTaurinorum Volih. Plin, 
Ptol. Haurafu App. 6^ Liv. the Court and Palace of the Duke of Savoy, 
fcifuate on the River Po, a place very important for the Guard of 
Italy, and fortified with a ftrongCittadel ; adjoining to it is a Park of 
the Duke's , fix miles in Circuit, full of Woods, Lakes and pleafant 
Fountains, which makes it one of the fweeteft Scituations in Europe: 
The See of an Archbifnop, and an Univerfity where Erafmus took 
his Degree. 

Vercelli, & Vercell£^ Ptol. Verceil 'Gallis , a ftrong Town , bordering 
upon Milain 5 and by the Pyrenean Treaty reftored to the Duke of 


2^0 0/ Mont fer rat, 

Nice, or Nizze^ Nic£a Strab, Liv. Vrbs Vediantiomm^ built ouf of the 
Ruins of Ccmchmum^ Ptol. Cemelion^ Flin. Cemela. Not. fix milts North- 
wards. Sea^^ed at the iiiHux of the Kiva Varm^ near the Sea ; beauti- 
fied with a Cathedral Church , the Bifliop's Palace, a Monaftery of 
Nuns, and an Impregnable Cittadel, famous for the reliftance of a 
Navy of 200 Sail, under the T^nrk^fh Admiral Barbarofa. Anno 154.3. 
given by Joanna Ludovico 11. to the Duke of S iVoy.^ 13^5' The Coun- 
try is called Nifxcnfu Comitafur^ la nntado di Nizz,a, Incolis. Le Cotnte 
de Mce^ Gallif. And is f mous for the '^Ihonc^mer Hipparchus^ and the 
Poet Prrtbenius. Near which is the Haibor Villa Franca^ where the 

Dukes Gal'ies do ride. , J^rea., or Hiurea is the Eporedia of Ptol. 

EpnnediJ Piin Ep'^radia Strab. Eporadh /int. Ew^itha Sheld. a Bifhop's 
See and gives Title to the M^rquifate del June. ConiCwuum-, taken by 
the French 1641 now it bel(1ng'^ to the DuKe of Savcy^ a ftrong wulkd 
Town. ShP' S^gufwm^ Ptol. Se^i^fw Plm. & Ant, is the chief place of 
the Segufi lUS Mirchionatm. Ceva the Ceba Cafeum & Ccbanum Plin. and 
gives name to a Marquif-te. Joulie, Aod / & Jugji. Germ. Avoji & Aojie 
Gallis., is the Air/^u-it Pr£iorh Plin. & Ptol. and the chief ot Augujia 
Ducatus^i ancien^y a Roman Colony, and now for greatiit^fs and beauty 
of her Buildings may compare with the moH ftately Cities of Lombardy* 
Silu\ziltalis Scilutidi, Saline., & u ^u\i a Vagiennor urn o{ ih.% ^nzKwisi 
Saiuce , GaVis is the chief pi tce, Mircbefato di Saluzzo. Carmaniala^ 
now Carmtgnjla, is feated two miles froni the Pt; River, and nine from 
the T-nariif. ^uirM is ihe Chrrafceo^ ox Cuirafco^ CarreaPlin. 

Clarji'^um & Chierafco^ is famous {or the ^eace mide Anno 16^1. The 
Principality of M/{f^rJ« is undei the Government of its own Prince, . 
Ce gente Ferrera FUfca) who is a Dependant on the Pope. 

Piznerol, Pinaroliam. Pinarolo Ital. Fortitied with a Caflle of great 
importance ; io'd by Charles Emanuel to hwis the Thirteenth ot France, 
Anno 1631. a Commodious Pafs from France to Italy on all occafions. 

Of Montferaty or Montis Ferrati Ducatmy 
MonJ^rato Italis^ Monf err at Gallif. 

THE Elbte or Country o( Montferat doth in part belong to the Duke 
of Mantua , and the relt to the Duke of Savoy.^ a Wounfainous 
Country, but of a fertil Soil. The River lenarus parts the Poflellions 
of MantUa from that of Savoy, 


Of GenoM, 241 

Chief places belonging to the Duke of Mantua, are the impregnable 
Fortiried Cafale^ 01 Cafal, upon the ?<?, Bodincomagum & Budincomagus 
oiPlin. & Viol, Anno 1540. the French beat the Spaniards off from 
the Siege of Cafal , and in their Camp took docoo Duckets , and a 
Chariot that coft 8000 Duckets, Surprifed by the French^ i6pi. 

It is fortiHed with a Cartle and ftrong Cittadel, the fureft Key to 
the Eltate of the Duke of Maniua^ and indeed to all Italy. 

Alba, Alba Pompeia, where Feriimx the Roman Emperor was born, 
but barbaroufly murthered by the Pretorian Soldiers j now belongs to 
the Duke of Savoy, fince the Peace of Qukras^ or Pace Clarafci. 

Trin GaVis^ Trino halls, Tridinum & Iridinium Veteri, a walled Town, 
refiored to the Duke of Mmtua by the Peace aforefaid. 

u4cqui, Aqu£ Statell£ Strab. Aqii£ StatycUa Plhu belonging to the 
Duke of Mantua. 

Chief Pvivers are the Great and Little Voire. The Star a, and the 
Denarus, and the Bnrmio. 

Of the State ofGenouayReffublica Genuenjis 
ilGenovefato^feuKiviera di Genom. 

ONce very large, at prefent containing only the Ancient Liguriay 
in the Continent, the Ifle Ccrfca and Capraria, 

The old Ligurians were a flout and warlike Nation, vanquifhed by 
the Romans, and made one of the 1 1 Regions of Italy , in Augufius 
C^far^s Divifion -, and one of the 17 in the time of Conjiantine the Em- 
peror. A Country very Mountainous in the Land, and full of craggy 
Rocks to the Sea, but among thofe Hills are Rich Valleys, abounding 
in Citrons, Limons, Oranges and Vines, which produceth excellent 

'Tis in length about i 50 m.iles, in breadth not one fourth part fo 
much, tho fome Pretenders to Geography tell us, 'tis 80c in length, 
and notfo much in breadth. 

The chief City whereof is called Genoua, of old Genua ; firfi built by 
Janus the hrft King of Italy, but miferably defiroyed by Magn the Bro- 
ther of Hannibal', built again by the Senate of Rome, but again ruined 
by the Lombards, and re-edihed by Charles the Great, frituate on the 
Shore of the Ligurian Sea, full of liately Palaces richly adorned within 
and without, to which are joined pleafant and delightful Gardens. Its 
Strada Nuava or Neppjireet, being a long and fpacious Street, on each 

I i fide 

2^2 0/ Genoua, 

fide embellifhed with ftately Palaces, for the moft part all fupportedi 
with vaft Pillars of Marble, not to be paralleled in the World : Among 
which is the Jefuits Colled g, and magnificent Church, but inferior to 
a new Church, over one of whofe Altars (to omit other Ornaments 
of an exceffive value) are placed four Pillars of wreathed Aggat of an 
incredible greatnefs. The Palace of the DorU with its famous Bird- 
Cage. To which we may add its new Mould built even in the Sea, 
which make the Port (encompaffed with fjsir Buildings, in form of a 
Theatre) twice as large, and much fafer than before ; oppofite to 
which, on a ?haros is a Lanthoin of great bignefs, to give light to 
Sea-men in the Night. This City is in circuit about 8 Miles, fortified 
toward the Sea by Art, towards the Land by Art and Nature. Now 
Genoui^ laSuperba. The Inhabitants are addidted to Trade and Ufu- 
ry. The Women are allowed the liberty of the Streets. 

Other places of Note, are Sarzana or Serezana, a ftrong Fortrefs 
within the Confines of Tufcany. Vrincipatus Mjn£ci^ Monaco Jncolis^ 
Mourgues Gallis^ Hrcules Mon£ci Tortus or old, is a fmall, but a ftrong 
Town, feated upon a Rock under its own Prince. Gente Grimaldi^ 
Ann. 1641. It received the French Protedion. Finale is the Volliopcs ^ 
of Ant. t((ie Siml. Taken by the French i6pi, as was alfo 

Oneglia is a Principality under the Duke o£ Savoy ^ tejie Baud. 

Savona^ Savo Liv. famous for the Interview of Ferdinand of Spain^ 
and Lewis the \2th of France^ as alfo for yielding three Popes to the 
Church of Rome. Vtntimiglia Abiniminium Ptol. Alhintimilium lac. Al- 
hintemelium Cic. Vintimilium Var, and Alhenga^ Albingatinum Plin, Albi- 
gaunum Ptol. both well fortified. 

As for their Government, the principal of their Magiftrates hath the 
Name of Duke, to whom there are afliitant 8 Principal Officers, which, 
with the Duke are called the Signeury, which is alfo in matters of 
greateft concern fubordinate to the General Council, confining of 400 
Perfons, all Gentlemen of the City, who v/'ith the Signctery^ conftitute. 
the whole Body of the Commonwealth, 

Their Forces have been loooo ready to Arm at anytime, and 
25 Gallies always ready in the publick Arfenal^ 4 Gallies at Sea to fe- 
Qure their Trade. 

They are now under the Shelter and Prote<Sion of the Spaniards, 


Of the Dutchy o£ Milan. Ducatus Medio- 
lanenfis Stato de Milam. 

WHofe Ancient Inhabitants were the hfuhres, but is now under 
the Obedience of tl e King oi Spain ^ feated in the beii part of 
Lombardy^ rich in Natures gifts, and for its wonderful Fertihty, eftecm- 
ed the Flower in the Garden of Italy, and the Noblcft Dutchy in Chri- 
ilendom 5 the ways are there very pleafant, fet out almoft as ftrait as 
a Line, with Channels of running Water, and rows of Trees on both 
fides ; the moit delirable Place to live in that can be feen, if the Go- 
vernn:i£nt were not fo exceffive fevere , that there is nothing but po- 
verty over all this rich Country. 

Its chief City is Mtlan^ Mediolanum Strab. Plin. Milaiio Ital, Meyland 
Germ, which tho fo often ruined, and its Foundations fown with Salt; 
having been befiegcd 40, and taken 22 tinnes ; yet it exalts it felf as 
the faireft and greateit City of all Lombardy^ feated in a wide Plain, 
environed with kveral Rivers, ftrongly guarded with a fpacious and 
almoft impregnable Caflle, betides its other Fortiiicationsi the Build- 
ings fair and (lately , three efpecially very rriagnificent, its Caflle or 
Cittadel, Hofpital or Lazarette^ its Cathedral or Vome ; here are 3 6 Mo- 
nafteries of Nuns, 30 Convents of Friers, p(5 Parochial, 1 1 Collegiat 
Churches, moft of v,7hich are lately Strudures, beautified with curi- 
ous Paintings, Images and Sepulchres. In the Cabinet of the Chanoim 
Sctalla, are rare Curiofities, both of Art and Nature. 

The whole City is about 10 miles in compafs, exceeding populous, 
containing 3 000c o Inhabitants-, very rich, having many Families of 
Nobility and Gentry, of great Commerce by reafon of its Merchants, 
Shopkeepers and Artificers, and a general Staple for all Merchandizes 
from France, Spain,, and other parts of Zf^/y and Germany, 

Oi'her places in M//^«, are i Pavia, Papi£ feu T'icinum, madeanUni- 
verfity by Charles the IVth, guarded with a Cafile, and adorned with 
the richefi; Cathedral in Enrope^ worth 300C00 Crowns per Annum, 
famous for the Battel in Vt'hich Francis the firlt King of France was ta- 
ken Prifoner by C^jdAj- the Vth. 2. Alexandria, ox Ahjfandria. now 
the ftrongeH: Work of the whole Dutchy; well fortified againft the Af- 
faults and Batteries of ihcFrencb. 3. Cremcna, feated on the Banks of 
the P.'je; a place of good Trade, its Houfes ftatcly, its Streets large, 
beautified with curious Gardens, famous for its highTov/cr and Ca- 

1 i 2 thedral 

i44 Modeptdy &c. 

thedral Church. Here ViteVius's Soldiers were defeated by the Forces 
of Pefpajjatiy and. the Town fired by them. Ljcii is the Lauj Pompeja 
of the Ancients, a Frontier Town, but a miferable Garifon, 20 miles 
from Milan, in the Venetian Territory. T'oriona is the Vertona Ptol. & 
Plin.Verton. Steph. Verthonot Varthon^ Strab. taken by the French, 16^2, 
after delivered to the Spaniards, Nuvara^ Crema & Mortara, are alfo 
confiderable. Her Lakes are Lago Magiorcy Vtrhanus Lzcus o£ Sirah. in 
length 300 Stadia, $6 miles, and 6 broad, with her two Borremean 
Iflands, the lovelieft Spots of Ground in the World, 2. Lago Del Co- 
ma, 3 . Lugam Lams, or Lago di Lugano. Its Rivers are OHim, now 
Oglio River j Ahdua^ now Adde River ; Lamhrm fl. hodie, Lamhro Ri- 
ver, licinm fl. now Tefine River, which runs with fuch a force, that in 
3 hours with one Rower, Vt. Burnet was carried 50 miles. Sencia fl. 
or Scefta Pviver. 4. Coma, or Comnm , where the Plinies were born, 
on the South of the Lagode Coma, aforefaid, a Lake 48 miles in length,, 
LaricHT Lactts, Strab, & Plin. 


Of Modena. 

H E Dukedom of Modena^ Vucatus Mutinenfu, Stato del Vuca di 
Modena, contains the Cities of Modena and Reggio, with the Ter- 
ritories adjoining to them 5 Mi?^£«^ the Capital City, anciently better 
known by the name of Mutina, famous for the tirft Battel between An- 
tony and Augulius Cafar, Now the Reiidence of their Duke, whofe 
Palace, though not outwardly great, yet is richly adorned within. 5. 
whofe Cabinet or Mufeum, is well furnifhed with choice of natural Ra- 
rities, Jewels, &c. Brijfello, Brixellum Plin. & Ptol. famous for the Death 
of Otho the Roman Emperor, who here ilew himfelf, becaufe his Army 
was unfortunately vanquiihed by ViteHius, Reggio, Regium Lepidi, a 
Place that has occafioned great Stirs between the Popes and the old 
Dukes of Ferrara. Here are many Sculptors both for Ivory and 

Of Varma. 

THE Dukedom of Parma, Vucatits Tarmenfu, or il Vucato di Par-- 
ma, is much of the fame nature for Soil and Air, as Modena. 
Its chief City Parma, is feated in a fruitful Plain, 5 miles diftant 
from the Appenine, about 4 miles in compafs, adorned with many 


Of Mantua. 245 

rich and ftately Strudures, very populous, and well inhabited by Gen- 
try, who are much addided to Le;ir.,ing, Arts and Arms •, the Grounds 
about this City are of excellent PsUorage, which feed abundance of 
Sheep. Here is made the curious Parmafan Cheefe fo much eftcemed 
throughout all Europe. 

The Duke hath here his Palace, a place of great delight and fiate ; 
its Churches are beautiful and rarely embelliihed with Pictures and 

2. Fhcenz.a^ or Placentia, famous for the Refiftance which it made 
both to and Afdmhal j now renowned for its Fairs quarterly 
kept, which all Itdy^ Germany^ and other Countries do frequent, and 
here make their Exchanges. 

The River tnbU was witiiefs to the overthrow of xh& Romans by 

Of the Dutchy of Mantua. 

THE V)\J^kt^oa\ o{ Mantua^ Vucatits Maniuanm^ DHcato di Mantoua 
Italis, is a Country plentiful in Corn, Pafture, Wines, and all 
fort of Fruit; Mantoua^ the chief City, is feated in a Lake, 20 miles 
in corapafs, by nature very itrong and well fortified ^ having no en- 
trance, but over Cawlies. The Dukes Palace is fair and ftately, and 
the beft furnifhed in all haly^ except his Palace at MirmiroUa^ 5 miles 
from the City, which for the Plealares and Delights thereof, and for 
its rich furniture and beautified Gardens, may acceptably entertain . 
the be!! Prince in Chriucndom. AJantcua is of great Antiquity, Scbot- 
tus faith, 'tis 4 Miles in compafs, hath 8 Gates, and about 50000 
Soul?. It was miferably attacked by the Germans, 161 p. and by the 
Emperor Ferdinand the lid's Army in the Year 16^0. The Duke's 
yearly Revenue is fiid to be 400000 Crowns ; yet the prefent Duke is 
very poor, being indebted to the Venetians^ as Leti faith, four Millions 
of Crowns. There are belides four of five fmall Princes, but Sove- 
raign Lords, viz, Novellara, Guajieila, Bozolo^ Sabionetta, whofe Male- 
line is failed ; Calti^lione and Sol fare. 

As alfo of the Eliate of the Dutchy of Mmtferrat, which doth in par: 
belong to the Duke of M-mtH^.y the other part to the Duke of Savoy^ 
as aforcfaid. 


2 4^ 

Of the States of Venice. 

TH E DeiTiefnes of the Venetians are very full of Rivers , Lakes 
and Channels ; 'tisaRepublique of above 1200 years ftanding, 
and the Bulwark o{ Chrifiendom againil the TttrJ^s. The chief City is Vi- 
nice^ or Venetia, feated at the bottom of the Adriaikh^ Sea, or Gulph of 
Venice^ built on 72 Iflands, diilant from the main Land about five 
mile, and defended from the fury of the !"ea by a Bank of (fome fay) 
60, other 35 miles in length, open in feven places, which fave for 
paflages for Boats ox Gondola s^ of which there are 1300. but for Ships 
or VclTels of great burthen, the only pafTage is at Malamocco, and Ca- 
ftle Udo^ which are rtrongiy fortified j it is about 8 miles in ccmpafs, 
having about 4000 Bridges, of which that ot the Rialto is the chie, 
built over the Grand Canal. The Lagunes^ or Shallows of Venice^ fink 
of late fo much, that the preferving it (lill an liland, is like to become 
as great a charge to the Venetians , as the keeping out of the Sea is to 
the Vutch. 

Its Arfenal is the moft beautiful, thebiggeft, and the beft furnifhed 
in all Europe, being about two miles in circuit, where they always keep 
200 Gallies, with all Materials for War. 

Its Magazine of all forts of Engines and Arm.s for Sea and Land, 
among which are 1000 Coats of Plates garniilied with Goldj and co- 
vered with Velvet. 

But above all, its Churchof St. M<rr/^, reported to be the faireft 
and richeft in all the World, a Church of admirable Mfaick, Work, 
with Pillars of Marble, Porphiry, 6>c. and for the infide the Riches 
of it are fo great, the Image?, Tombs, &c. fo gloriouik the Altars fo 
adorned with Gold, Silver, Pearls, and Precious ttones, that all the 
Treafury of the State may feem to be amalTed in the decking of itc 

In this City are 200 particular Palaces, built of Marble, adorned 
with Columns, Statues, Pidures, &c. of great value, of fuch gran- 
deur, as th^Jt they are fit to lodge, and give entercainment to any 
Prince ; 17 Rich Hofj-itals, 56 Tribunals, or Courts of Juftice, 6^ Pa- 
rifh-Churches, ^6 Mouafteries of Nuns,54 Covents of Friers, 1 8 Chap- 
pels, 6 Free Schools, and its Pia2za*s fumptuoully adorned with Statues, 
P:iintings, &c. 

As for the Religion of this State, though they tolerate that of the 
G?-ffj!^ Church, they profcfs that of the Church of Rome^^ but with cau- 
tion and refpe<ft to their own Authority. 


Of Venice* 247 

Of their Forces Tome eftimate may be made by the Arms they 
brought againft Livp'ts the Xllth, where they had 2000 Men of Arms, 
3000 Light Horfe, and 30000 Foot, moft of their own Sub;e<fts, 
without any Detachments from their Forts or Garifons. 

And a (ignal Evidence of their power at Sea, was their great Fleet 
{^X. out againft the Grand Signior fur the War of Cyprus^ Anno 1570. 
in which they manned out one great Gallion, 1 1 great Gallies, 25 tall 
Ships, and 150 Gallies of lefler lize. To fum up all, they once held 
a War for feven years together againft all the Princes of Europe^ except 
England; in all which time they neither wanted Men nor Money. 

We may conclude therefore , That as Europe is the Head of the 
World, and Italy the Face of Europe j fo Venice is the Eye of Italy ^ the 
faireft, ftrongeft, and moft active part in that powerful Body. 

The Annual Revenues of this Republick, according to Mr. Kays 
information, was about hve Millions, and 300 and 2 cooo Venetian. 
Duckets yearly. 

Other Cities with their Territories belonging to the State of Venice^ 
are the pleafant Vtcenza^ or Vicentia \ the Healthy, Populous, and Fruit- 
ful Bnfcia^ Brixia. The ftrong FortreiTes Crema^ fix miles of which is 
the famous Cave oi Cufioza^ 4000 foot long, and 3000 broad, and 
three miles in circuit, with its ftately Temple San&a Maria della Cruce^ 
znd Btrgamo: The pleafant Phyfick-Univeifity ?^^o»^, Tadua^ thtVa- 
tavium of the A.ncients, built by Anienor ^ and is famous for the Birth 
of Liz{>'5 ZahanU and Magmus^ noted for the Civility of the Men, and 
Chaftity of the Women, with its Garden of Simples, tarvifium^ Tre- 
vifi^ with its excellent Wheat. Verona^ with its Hill Baldus , famous 
for Medicinal Herbs. The Territory of Friuli ^ where is the wellr 
fortified Palma^ Feltre and BeUmo. The Territory of Iliria^ Ijirie GalL 
Hyjiereich Germ, where is Tm/^, ox T'ergejlum^ Petana,. now Pedena, be-? 
longing to the Emperor. Citia Nova, ot.Mmonia^ Parenzo., Parentutn^ 
and Pola. Kovigo once belonging to the Dukedom of Ferrara^ with. 
Chipggia, the Bulwark of Fe/j/ce. 

Belides all thefe, the State of Frwce commands a great part of D^/- 
matia^ with the Iflands Corfu ^ Cephalonia^ Ithaca., Zant^ Cithera, and 
others. The Ifle of St. ^laure., and the ftrong PrQvefa^ weie in the 
Year i<585. conquered from the 7urks. 

The Bilhoprick oi Trent, which belongs to its proper Bifiiop, is in 
the Protcdion of the Hcufe of ^upia : Its chief City of the fame 
name, is inhabited by Italians and Germans , and is famous for the 
Council held there. But of this we have treated of more at large ia. 
the DefcripTioii of "tird in Germany^ 


Of the Ejlates of the Church or Top. 

THE Second part of Italy ^ according to our Method, contains the 
Eftatesof the Churchy oi7ufcany^ and Lucca : The Territories of 
the Church are the more confiderable, becaufe the Vofe^ to whom they 
belong; is a Spiritual as well as a Temporal Prince, Chief and , Sove- 
reign Voniif:x,^s he ftileshimfelf, of all Chri\hndom : Patriarch of ?^ 
and of the IFej} \ Primate and Hcxarch of Ita!y^ Metropolitan of the Suf- 
fragan-Bifhops of /Jowe, and E\(hop oi St, John Later an. 

The chief City is Rome, formerly the Capital City of the mofl con- 
fiderable Empire in the World ; Miftrefs of the faireft part of the Llni- 
verfe ; Famous for her great men that excelled in Valour, Juliice, 
and Temperance. The Seat of Kings, Confuls, and Emperors; faid to 
have been 50 miles in compafs, and her Walls fortified with 75-0 
Towers. But now not having the Moiety of its former priftinc Splen- 
dor and Magnitude, fcarce containing 1 1 miles in circuit ; yet few 
Cities can compare with her,if we confider her Antiquity,her Churches, 
her Palaces, and other Curiofities. Here was the Capitol faved from 
the Fury of the Gauls by the Cackling of GeeCc. It was twice burnt, 
once in the Civil Wars of Marius diud Syila^ and in the Wars of Vefpa- 
fian and Vitelihts. Here was the Temple of Janus open in the time of 
War, and fhutinthe time of Peace, which happened but three times 
during all their Monarchy: i. In the time of Numa. 2. After the 
Funick^Wzr. And 3. hi the Reign of Au^ujiu!, when our Saviour 
was born. Nor muft I forget the Tonte MiUe., a mile out of the City, 
anciently Pons Milviuf, where Conftantine was fhewed the Crofs, with 
thefe words, In hoc Signo Vinces. This City is feated on the Banks of 
thePtiver Tjr^fr (formerly upon ten Hills, though p.ow chiefly in the 
Campus Mjrtius.) On the top of the Vatican Hill is the proud Palace of 
the Popes^ large enough to entertain three Sovereign Princes at once, 
and their Attendants j beautified and enriched with excerent Point- 
ings and Curiofities, with the Garden Beluedere, famous for its rare 
Plants, delightful Walks, and curious Statues. On this H;ll is the 
Church of St. Peser, the moit fplendid and famous in alllvowei the 
mod: furaptuous, ftately, and magnificent Strudure in the World •, of 
that Majeftick buik and greatnefs, that it exceeds in all dimenlions the 
moil: famous Temples of the Ancients; in length 520 Foot, and 385 
in breadth ; adorned with Paintings, Tombs, and other choice P\e- 
liques. My Bounds will not permit to fpeak of its other Churches, Ho- 


Of the Eftates of the Church or Pope. 249 

fpitals,Monaftcries, Con vents ; of its Libraries, as the Vatican^ tht Jefuits 
CotledgyScc. The Palaces of the Cardinals are ftately StruQureSjand rich- 
ly adorned ; to which are joined pleafant Gardens. Here are feveral 
Piazza Sfdibimdmccoi Antiquities and Statues, which I (hall not name ; 
but may not forget the Caltle of St. j^ngelo, which for its Itrength, is 
efteemed impregnable, unlefs iiarved ; and here the Pope liveth in 
more State than any Prince in Chriflendom. The chief of the other Ci- 
ties and Territories belonging to the Eftates of the Church, are Bologna, 
C alias ) Bomnia ; famous for its Study of the Civil Law, for the Pope's 
Palace, or retiring- place 5 Pvich, Populous, and well inhabited by No- 
bility and Gentry, the chief Univerfity in Italy. Ferrara, Ferrarea, with 
its Iron- Mines, beautifully built, adorned with many Superb- Edifices 5 
in the midft of it is a fpadous Market-place, into which do open about 
twenty uniform Streets. And Comachio, with its Eels.The once fair Ha- 
vmRavetiria^in the Province of Ror»andiola,vfhcn CafarJugufius kept his 
Navy there ; famous for the Seat of the Emperor Honoriuf, and Succef- 
forsof the Gothijh Kings ; of the Exarchs, and of its Patriarch ; now 
the Haven is choaked up, and its Land covered with Water. Cervia 
invironed with Fens, is famous for its great quantity of Salt , as 
Fienza is for its Earthen Ware. Vrbin, Vrbinum^ feated at the bottom 
of the Appenim Hills, once famous for a fumptuous Palace, and a moft 
excelJent Library ^ as 2\{o^otTolydore Virgil, the Author of the Hifto- 
ryof England. Kimini, Ariminum of old, the taking of which fo fright- 
ed Tompiiy, that he left Kome. Other places are Fano, the Sea-Port- 
Town to Vrbin. Senigaglia, the Seno-Gallia of old ; and Pefaro, both Ma- 
ritime Towns. On the Banks of Metro, of old Metaums, was fought 
the great Battel betwixt Afdmhal the Brother of Hannibal, and the two 
Confuls, Z?w«/ and C/. Nero, where 56000 of the Garthagenians were 
flain, 5400 taken Prifoners, as Livy writeth. 

Ancona, in Marchia Anconitana, or Strata Marchadel Ancona, the beft 
Haven of Italy towards the Jdriatick^ Sea : And here I muft not for- 
get Loretto, or St. Maria Lauretane, famous for the Church of the Vir- 
gin Mary, a ftately Strudiure, richly adorned with Prefents, Offerings, 
and Gifts of Princes^ Nobles, &c. whofe Organs and other Mufick, 
makes an harmonious SouikI to thofe that go on Pilgrimage thither, 
either for Devotion, or Penance. Afcoli is the Afculum, iif ar which was 
fought the fecond Battel between the Romans and Pyrrhur j it was alfo 
the Seat of the War called BeUum Sociale. Macerata the Seat of the Go- 
vernors of this Province ; Fintio the ftrong. 

Perugia, or Perufm, is chief of the Province fo called, feated on the 
Banks of tyber, in a rich and fruitful Soil : Here it was that Augu^m 

K k befiegei 

2^0 Of the EJiates of the Chmch or Tope. 

belieged L, Antonim^ and Fulvia^ the Wife of M. jintony i and near to 
this City is the Lake de Perugia^ of old Thrafemene^ of about 30 miles 
in compals ^ near whofe Banks Hannibal flew Flaminius^ and 1 5000 of 
his Romans. Spokto^ in the Dutchy of Vmhria^ of great Antiquity, where 
are yet remaining ftately Aquaduds, the Temple of Concord^ and the 
Ruins of afpacious Theatre. Here is alfo the high Orvieto^ in the Pro- 
vince of Orvietin, feated on a high Rock. In Terra Sahina are Narni, Ne- 
quino^ and Term. In Campania Komana^ the chief places heCidcs Rome are 
Ardea^ now ruined, once the Seat of lurnus King cf the Rutuli^ the 
Rival and Competitor to ^neas •, taken by Tarq. Superhus, the refuge 
of the Romans, when the Gaulshzi taken Rome ; as is alfo AlbaLonga^ 
once the Seat of the Sylvian Kings i after the Duel between the three 
Brethren of the Horatii and Curatit^ it was ruined by TuVns Hoftilius. 
Iteranni of old. And the River Allia, where Brennus v/\th his Ga«// over- 
came the Roman Army of 40000, and marched to Rome, and had a- 
greed for 1000 pound weight of Gold to forfake the City, but before 
the payment of the money, they werevanquilhed by Camillus. y^lba^the 
Seat of the Sylvian Kings. Pale(irina, Pr^«e/f e, of old the refuge of Marius 
againfl5y/<3,who killed 12 000 of the Citizens when he took theTown. 
Ojiia built by Aacus Marcins^ feated at the mouth of tiber^ but its Ha- 
ven flopped up J whofe Bifhop confecrates the Pope. Lavinia^ fo named 
from L(2w/7w Daughter to Latinus King of the Laurentini^ married to 
Mneas, Trivoli^ libur of the Ancients. 

Chief places in the Patrimony of St. Teur, are Vdi a City once of 
great ftrength, wealth, and compafs. In the affaultof which, ^06 oi 
the Fabii were flain in one day, only one Child left at home, who re- 
ftored the Family, and was the Ancertor of Fabitts Maximus, the Pre- 
ferver of Italy againft Hannibal. After a Siege of ten years, this City was 
taken and deftroyed by Furius Camillas. CivitaVecchia, a Maritine Town 
abounding with Allom.Here are kept the Popes two Gallies, maintain- 
ed by 30000 Duckets, the yearly Tribute of 40000 Curtezans.Terriicir 
«^ is the ancient Anxur near the Promontorium Circeium^ now Monte Cif' 
ceVo, famous for the dwelling of the Enchantrefs Circe. Monte Fiafcone, 
where is the fo much celebrated Wine near the Lake Fi?//?/??/, now Bol- 
fena. Viterho is a large and well-fcituate Town, where is the Monument 
of Pope John 2 1, in the Voma. Here are Sulphure- Wells, and hot 

Intermingled with the Eftate of the Church, lies the Dutchy of Ca* 
^to., with the Town of RoncigHone., the Countrey of Citta di CajieUo, 
Strato del Vmadi Parma , whofe chief place isCa^ehna. The Sabatia^ 


OfTufcany. 251 

now il Ducato di Bracciano, the Title of the Family of the Vrfmef^ near 
the Lake fo called. And laftly, the Republick of Marino, a little Town 
on the top of a high Hill or Rock. The whole Territory is but one 
Mountain about three miles in length, and about ten miles round, con- 
taining three Villages more, and eight Corn-Mills, and two Powder- 
Mills, and about 4 or 5000 Inhabitants, of fighting-men about 1500. 
It hath been a Free State or Commonwealth for about a 1000 years, 
as the Inhabitants boaft. 

Of Tufcany^ La Tofcana. 

TV SCANT comprehends the greater part of the Ancient Him- 
ria, or Etruria, and is a Countrey full of fpacious Fields, and 
fruitful Valleys, fwelled here and there with pleafant Mountains,abun- 
dantly ftored with delicious Wines, and other Bleffingsof Nature : Its 
Metropolis is Florence, Florentia, or Fiorinza la Bella, a fair and flouvi(hing 
City, about fix miles in compafs ; feated in a fruitful and pkafanc 
Plain i thePviver Amo divides it into two parts, which are joined to- 
gether by four fair Scone- Bridges; Famous for the Stately and Magni- 
ficent Vihceof the Great Vuk^, richly adorned; and for the largenefs 
of the Building, the Architedure, and Ornaments of it, as alfo tor the 
Gardens, Fountains, Statues, Rarities, in the Gallery, in the Clofets, 
in the Armory, and in the Argenuria, equalling if not furpaffing moft 
Palaces in Furope. The Cathedral, or Vomo St. MMaFlorida, is alfo one 
of the chief Ornaments of it ; as alfo the New Chappel ot St. Lorenz.o, 
faid to be the moft rich and m^gniHck Strudture in the World. 

The fecond City is P//^, once a lich, populous, and flourifliingCity 
when a Free States now poor, and much defolate , feated at the en- 
trance of the River Jrno into the Sea, recovered to the Florentines by 
the Valour of Sir John Himhrvood, an Englijhman, now much eclipfed 
of its former Riches and Power : Memorable for its fair y^.quaduH of 
about 500 Arches ; its Cathedral with Brazen folding Doors, curioufly 
engraved •, and its Steeple fo built, that on all fides it feems crooked at 
the top, ready to fall on the Head of the Spedlator. 

Siena, an Inland City, feated in a large, pleafant, and fertile Terri- 
tory i enriched with Mines of Silver, and ftore of Marble ; adorned 
with beautiful Buildings; as the proud Palace, the lofty Tower of 
Mangio, its Dc;w9 built of black and white Marble; partof it paved 
with inlaid Marble, containing part of the Hiftory of the Bible. 

K k 2 Legorn, 

2 5 2 Of T life any. 

Legem, or Livorna^ Tortus Liburnus of old, a fair and beautiful City, 
accounted the flrongell:, and one of the principal Towns of Trade in 
the Mediterranean Sea, and the Scale of the Florentine Dominions, by 
whom it was purchafed of the Gmoyfes for 120000 Duckets •, now the 
Pvelidence of many Merchants and Strangers. The Haven within the 
Mole is but fmall, but there is good riding for Ships without. Here the 
Wind is Ealtcrly in the Forenoon, and Wefterly in the Afternoon, and 
after Sun-fet, no Wind fiirring. At Vifioya firft began the Quarrels of 
ihcNeri and Beanchi, and of theGuelfeznd GhibeUini. 

The Commonwealth of Lucca is about 80 miles in compafs, very 
fertile, and fo well Inhabited, that in two or three hours time it can 
have ready 30000 men in Arms. The chief City Lmcm, is a Free 
Town, rich, and fplendid ; well Fortitied, and Adorned with many 
fair Edifices, and Ihtely Churches, of which, that of St. Martin is the 
chief : ' Tis ieated in a Plain about two miles in Circuit. It bought its 
Liberty of the Emperor Kodolphns^ and hath been ever fince very zea- 
lous to preferve fofair a purchafe. It was the Meeting-place of Vdm- 
pey, Cdifar^ and Crajfus^ where they joined into a Confederacy. And 
here the Women walk the ftreets more freely than in other Cities of 
Italy, The publick Revenue is thought to be 1 00000 Crowns per 
^nnum. Their Olives the beft in Italy. 

Adjoining zoLucca^ are the Principality of Mahfpine ^^nd the Princi- 
pality of Majfa^ containing only Majfa and Carrara j the laft is often 
the Refidence of the Prince, the other is noted for its white Marble. 

The Great Vttk^ in all his Dominions is Supreme and abfolute Lord, 
and impofes what Taxes and Gabels he pleafes 5 every Houfe pays to 
him the Tenth of its yearly Rent. No Houfe or Land fold, but at leall 
one Tenth part goes to him. No Woman married, but he hath Sper 
Cent, cf her Portion. And every one that goes to Law, pays 2 per Cent, 
of what he fues for. Every Heifer pays a Grown. And not a Basket of 
Eggs that comes to Market but pays fome Toll. Befides the Territo- 
ries of Florence and Fifa^ called the old State, of which he is abfolute 
Sovereign j and the Territory ofSiena^ called the New State, for which 
he is Feudatory of the King of Spain: He is alfo poffeffed of a great 
part of the Ifle of Elha^ which he holds of Spain j part of Graffignana, 
bought of the MarquelTes of Malefpina, The Earldom of St. Fiora pur- 
chafed of the S^rozzi. The Marquifate of iS^niw. And the Earidom 
of Vitigliano and Sarano^ and fome other fmall places for which he is 
Feudatory of the Emperor. Kadicofani in Tufcany^ and Burgo San Sc~ 
pulchro in Vmbria, for which he is Feudatory to the Pope» 

Of Naples, 2^ J 

His Citadels and Fortreffes are well Fortified, and provided with 
Ammunition and Viduals, in which he keeps four or 5 coo Soldiery in 
conlhnt pay. He is able to fend into the Field 40000 Foot,3ooo Horfe. 
He can put to Sea twelve Gallies, two Galeaffes, and twenty Ships of 

Intermingled in the Territories of the Gre^t P«%,are the Principality 
of Piombino^ Noted for fome Mines of Lead ; Fortified with a ftrong 
Cartle, in the Hands of the Spaniards 5 as alfo fome other Ports and 
Places on the Sea, w«. Te/<iWQ«, Remarkable for the great Battel fought 
near unto it by the Romans and the Gauls^ where Atttlus was flain, but 
theVidory vas goihy Mmilius, with the flaughter of 40000, and 
1 0000 Pn.onersof the Enemies. 

Eliat deUi Prefidi^ Orbitello, Partus Hercole, and Monte Argmtara^ZXCzW. 
fubjedl to the Spaniards^ and ftrongly Garifoned by them. 

Of Naples^ or Neaplitamm Regmm^ La- 
tin ; Regno di Na^oli Incol. 

THE Third part of Italy we have comprehended under the King- 
dom of Naples^ of large extent, and very Fertile, abounding 
with Wines and Wheat, and famous for its brave Horfes ; Here you 
may fee large and beautiful Fields over-fhaded with rich Vines, thick 
and delightful Woods watered with fweet Fountains, wholefome 
Springs, Medicinal Waters, Baths of divers Virtues i enriched with 
Mines of feveral Metals, and decked with fundry Phyfical Herbs ; Rc- 
pleni(hed with fair and beautiful Cities and Towns. 

The chief City is Naples, one of the faireft in Europe ; Seated on the 
Mediterranean (hore, amongli pleafant Hills, and fruitful Fields ; Forti- 
fied with four brave Caftles, belides a fhong Wall, Ditches, Towers, 
&c. Enriched and Beautified with many fuperb Stru6tures,and magni- 
ficent Churches, Monalkries, Coiledges, Palaces of Princes and No* 
bles, with pleafant and delightful Gardens, a commodious and fjfe 
Port and Haven, v/here are kept liore of Gallies. Here was the Piebel- 
Vion under Mjjfarictlo', and in this City the Difcafe Morbus Gallicm wSiS 
firft known; and nigh unto itftandsthe Hill Monte Grogo, formerly 
Vefuvius i, no lefs famous now for its Grogo Wines, than of old for its 
calling forth fmoke and flames of fire. Upon the very top is a great Pic 
or Hollow, in form of an Amphitheatre of about a mile round. Neai 
to which is the Grotta di Cane, where the venomous vapour afcends 
not above a Foot from the Ground. Othes 

2^4 Of Naples, 

Other places of Note, are important Ca]eta^ on a Capacious Bay. 
Delicious Cnpua^xh^ Pleafures whereof enervated the Vidorious Arnns 
of HiunibaL Nila was witnefs of Hanmbal*s overthrow by Marcellus. 
Near Cuma was the Lake Avernus, with its unwholfome and Sulphu- 
reous IHnk, fo infcding the Air, that the Birds flying over, lofe their 
Lives. At Puteoli, now PozzhoIo^ was the Bridgof Ships to Bai£ three 
miles over, made by Caligula in a Bravado to awe Neptune^ and to ex- 
ceed the like A6h of Xaxfs^nd Darius. Mifer.tim wzs one of the Stati- 
ons of Augujlur^ Armada, as Kavenna was the other that awed the 
whole Roman Empire, and the Bui ial- place of Mifenus the Companion 
of JEneas,tefte Virg. 

Bai£ famous for Antiquities, viz- the Sweating Vault, or Bagne de 
Tritoli^ and Monte dc Cenere^ raifed by an Earthquake. ' 

And here ^zs^neas^s Defcent into Hell, Fabled by the Poets •, and 
the Cave or Grot of one of the Sybills. The Grot or Hole through 
Mount Panfilypus, about a mile in length, and 1 2 Foot high, and broad 
enough for two Carts to pafs one another. Amalfi^ where was invent- 
ed the Mariner's Compafs, Anno 13C0. by Flavio. The Phyflck School 
SaUrno^ Nero's 100 Churches under Ground in the Rocks, and his 
admirable Fiflipond within the Earth, within a mile of the Sea't in 
the Cathedral is the Monument of Hildebrand^ox Pope Grc^^rj the yth. 
and the Sei-(hore Polecaftry^ once Buxentum. The well-traded Mart - 
LMciano^ iom miUs from the AdrtJtickc Theate^ uow Viti di Chieti^ky en 
miles from the Sea. Sulmo^ Ot'i^'s Birth-place. The Lakes Lf/?«^ and 
Varanus, memorable for Eels 5 and for that draining cannot diminifli 
them, nor floods encreafe them. Locm is famous for the Law- maker 
ZalfUCHS^ and for the Victory of Cuncm-js an exccllenc Mutlcian, upon 
Arijhnns of K/;f^?«w, of the fame Profeilion. Gt/il'ip.?/;, aflbrding abun- 
dance of Oyl. Mjfifredonia^ an Archbilhop's See, with its Capacious 
Harbour, and Impregnable 'Caflle. Populous Sr. Sevmne^ the Rich- 
Soiled Barri, The high, Ikcp, and full of cragged Rocks, Angela^ 
el. Garganus Mons., a place Uefendble by Nature, and Strong by Art. 
The Important Haven-Town Btrrtflum , now Bcrletta. The poor 
Village Cann£., near the Banks of Auftdus , now Lafanto, once me- 
morable for the great Defeat that Hjnmbal gave to the Romans^ of 
whofe Army he flew 41700 in one place. 

Rich Lecca. The Choaked Haven Brindifi. The Capacious Port 
OirontOy Hidrwitum oi old, taken by Mahomet the Great, Anno 1481. 


Of Naples^ 2$5' 

The once well fortified Rojfanttm^ now Rofano, Old Tarentum, where 
lived Archytas^ fo famous for his Flying Dove. The Ancient Cofentia-t 
now Coz^enz^a^ on feven Hills j feated between two Rivers, of which 
the one turneth Hair red, and Silk white j the other Hair and Silk 
black. St. Euphemie^ where Rofes grow thrice a Year. And Defulate 

To conclude •, here are in this Kingdom Twenty Archbifhops, One 
hundred twenty feven Bilhups, Thirteen Princes, Twenty feven Dukes, 
Twenty four Marquelfes, and Ninety Earls. 

The Fourth General part of /f^/j/, we faid, might compreliend 
the Iflands of Sicily^ Sardimay Corftca^ dec. 



Of Sicily. 

lilliLUlu UNllllllllll mjj.iauj 

bmnii iiiiiiiii i 


F all the Iflands in the Mediterranean-Sea, Sicily is the moft 
Eminent, both for its Repute and Bignefs : It was once, if 
we may credit the Ancients, joined to the Continent, parted 
by an Inundation of the Sicilian Sea from Italy ; now divided 
by a fmall Channel a mile and half broad, between Meffina and Kegio, 
called the Far , or Fhare of Meffina j once terrible from the frightful 


Of Sicily, 2^7 

Names of Scyla. and Charyhdk : the firft a Rock, towards the North 
in Italy, the other a Gulf, or Whirlpool , on Sidly-Cide, which gave 
theoccaflon of the Proverb, Inctdk i« Scyllam cttpiens vit are Chziyb- 
dim 5 now not fo dangerous or aflfrightful to the skilful Pilot. 

It had its name from the Siatlii, a People of Italyy before that, it- 
was called Sicania^ from King Skams , who came ihither before the 
Tlro]an War , with a great number of Iberians. By the Gruh^^ called 
Trinacria-^ by the Latin f, 7>/^«etr^, from its three Promontories. It 
is placed under fo favourable an Afped of the Heavens, and fo rich a 
Soil, that the Mountains themfelves, even to the tops thereof, are 
found fruitful. 

The People that now inhabit it, are ingenious, eloquefit, and full 
of talk, prone to revenge, fubtle, envious, and Flatterers, va- 
liant, and greedy of Honour, not much addided to Traffique or La- 

This liland was famous for Mfchylm-^ the firft Tragedian of Fame; 
Viodorui Sicrdus, the Hiflorian* Empedccles^ the tirft Inventer of Rhe- 
torick 5 Euclid^ the famous Geometrician j yirchimedes^ the Mathema- 
tician, who made a Sphere of that art and bignefs, that one ftanding 
within, might fee the feveral motions of every Orb. 

The chief Places are, i. Meftf/a, of great ftrength, as well by Na- 
ture as Art; ftrongly walled, fortified with Bulwarks* a ftrongCit- 
tadel , and a commodious Haven ; beautified with fair and ftately 
Buildings ; the chiefeft place of Traffick in the whole Ifland j well 
frequented with Gentry, Citizens and Strangers , who live in great 
delight and pleafure. It lately, in a Rebellion, was un<ier the Com* 
mand of the French ; but they abandoning it, 'tis now returned to the 
Spanijh Government , who have four Caliles, and the City as many 
in their Command. The City Gates ftand open all night, for any to 
go in or out. The Government is by fix Jurors, four of the Gentry, 
and two of the Citizens. 

Its other places of note, are Syracufa, once the Metropolis of the 
whole Ifland 5 the greateft and goodlieft City of the Greeks i of a ftrong 
fcituation , and excellent profpec^ : The Ruins and Foundations of it 
do ftill demonftrate its priftine Grandeur. Noto, a City which here- 
tofore contended with Syraatfe for greatnefs 5 fcituate on a very high 
Rock, unaccedible on ail fides but by one narrow pafTage. 

The fair and capaciou? Harbour Pajfan, the never fortified Haven 
JjtgHJia, The Navel of the .ifland, Cajiro Gimjanni^ with its Mines of 
Salt. Leontini^ with its Lake, the Fifhing whereof is yearly worth 
iSooo, fome fay 500C00 Crowns. The Midland Town E/m^, where 

L I Vlmo 

2$8 Of Sicily, 

Pluto is faid to have ravifh'd Proferpine, TataymuSi now Palermo^ fci- 
tuateon the Weft Cape of the Ifland, beautified with large Streets, 
delicate Buildings, ftrong Walls, and magnificent Temples, with its 
Artificial Haven, forced out by a mighty Pierre, a Work of vaft ex- 
pence ; an Archbiftiop's See, anllniverfity, and Competitor for Trade 
with MeJJina, The Port T'rapam, was the Vrepanum of old, affords 
the beft Seamen. 

The Ruined Erex, near Mntit St. Julian^ the Seat of King j4ce(ieSy 
who fo kindly entertained ^mas^ and his wandring Trojans. The An- 
cient Catana^ the ftrong T^j^rwiw^, Tauromedium ^ near where the Cy- 
clops dwelt 5 near Milazzo was Sextus Tompeius defeated by AuguflHs, 
Gerganti the Jgrigentum & Ay^eti of old, is famous for the Tyrant 
Thalarls, and the brazen Bull of Perilous. 

The chief Hills in this Ifle, are Mont Hyhla, famous for its Bees and 
Honey , and Mount JE.tna , for its once continually fending forth 
Flames of Fire ; the Flames now commonly not being fo great and 
vifible as formerly ; but the extraordinary Eruptions and Conflagra- 
tions, when they happen, are ftill as terrible and amazing, as ruinous 
and deftrudivc to the Country. 

The ^.nciQwtJEgathes^ at the Weft end o( Sicily, are famous for the 
Defeat of Catullus by tht Carthaginians in the firft Funic War. 

Sardinia., Sardegna Ital, Zerdegna Hifp. Strab. & Sic. Sardon Hefy, 
Sandaliotvi Plat. Ichnufa Plin, once a Carthagenian Colony ; the next 
Ifland to Sicily for greatnefs in the Mediterranean, where the Earth is 
more benign than the Heavens j the length about 45 German miles,the 
breadth about 26. Its chief Places are, Calaris Plin. CaraVis PtoU now 
Cagliari^ the Seat of the Vice-Roy ; a good Haven , and well fre- 
quented. Here is the Beaft called Mufoli, of whofe skin is made the 
right Cordovant Leather. Here is alfo the Herb, from whence comes 
the Proverb, Rifus Sardonicus. 

Corfica was firft called Therapm, afterwards Cyrnus *, in length about 
30 GermanmW^s^ the breadth about 20. It was firft inhabited by the 
T«/«, afterwards by the Carthagenians, then by the Romans., then by 
the Saracens^ and now by the Genouans. The moft confiderable Places 
now, zreJdiazzer, Calui., Bonifaci ind Baflia : 0( o\d^ /^leria znd Ma- 
riana were the moft noted. 

The chief of the Ligurian or Tufcan Iflands, are Elba^ Ilua Plin. PtoU 
Mela. Mthalia Strab. about 4© miles compafs 5 famous for its two 
Ports, Porto Longone , and Porto Ferraro ; the firft belongs to the Spa- 
niards, the other to the Duke of Florence -, other Iflands are, Gorgona, 
Capraia^ Monte Chrijio, Giglioj dec. 


Of Sicily] 259 

The Ifles of Na^hs are 18 in number, the chief of which, are the 
Impregnable lochia, Mnaria Plin, The Acylum of Ferdinand King of 
Naples^ in the time of Charles the Vlllth of France. 2. Prochita. 3. Ca^ 
pria,thc Ketixement oi Agt^m zndtiberittf , . 

Molia or Vulcania & Liparam Infulxy & Hephdfiiades Gr£cis, noV¥ 
the Ides of L?>^ri, are about 1 2 in number i twoofthem, viz>. Stromas, 
holt and Vulcano^ do ftill burn and flame, and are famous for the Fa- ^ 
ble of Molut, and for the firft Naval Victory of the Ancient Ro-f 
wans* - ' 

The Iflands in the Mriatick Sea, are Ifola de tremitiy fotmerly Dio' 
mde£ InfuU^ fo called from Diomedes, King of ^tolia, who after the 
7ro/<i« War fetled here. 



iiTi I I n ~ 'II iiL 


(T^Sclavonia; hy the Germans or Dutch 
Writers^ Wi ndishlajvot. 

■ ^w 




«- *iL 




} 2kr^ 



-V .^^ 

^'^^^L^ 2? 


J O - 








SClavonia^ VEfclavonia Gallis, ScUavonia Italis : Accoi-ding to the 
Latin Authors , it did contain lUirkum Hodiemttm, viz. Valmatia, 
Croatiat Bofnia, & Sclavonia propria : But now, as it is properly taken, 
lying between the Vravus and Savnt , it is part of the Kingdom of 
Hmgary^ and contains the Countries of Sermieny Vakotpar^ Tofega, Wa- 


0/ Croatia, 261 

radin, and Zjgrahia: A Country more fit for grazing of Cattel, than 
for Tillage (for the Sheep bring forth twice a Year, and are [horn 
four times:) Its chief Commodities are Horfes for fervice , Oxen, 
and other wild Beafts, which yields them abundance of Hides, Tallow, 
Butter, Cheefe and WooU as alfo Wine and Oyl , with fom.e Veins 
of Gold and Silver. Its chief Places are, Pofega or Segoviiza., a Place 
of great ftrength ; and Gradiskci^ Gradifcha^ Graciana of old , under 
the Tyranny and Bondage of the Turlqfh Garifons. Zagrabria^ Sifopa^ 
Ftal, tejie Mol. & Agram. Waradin^ Variana a His Varafdium , nlh Laz^io 
Variana Cafira in Libro NotitU^ belonging to the Houfe of Aujiria ; and 
Copranitz or Caprancaa,^ a fair and iirong Place, under the Power of 
the Venetian. Sirmifch Germ. Sereim Hung, Sirmium of old , Valcouvar^ 
Valmm Ant. VeUz^ Simkro. Virovitza, the Key and Entrance into Scla- 
vonia^ Ann. 1684, capitulated, and 600 Janizaries marched out, and 
left it to the Imperialifts, after 1 13 years poffeilion. 

TheCaftle oiBatchin and IValpo, furrendred to Count Dmetvaldt m 
Sept. 1687. EJfeck^w^s alfo deferted by the 7«rly, where were found 
52 pieces of Cannon, 4 Mortarpieces, and a vait quantity of Ammu- 
nition and Provifion. Pojfega^ fcituated about 4 Miles from the Save, 
was alfo at the fame time abandoned, and left by the Jnrks^ and ga- 
rifoned by Count Dunervaldt. 

Of Croatia^ or Crabaten. 

CRoaiia. By this general Name were all the more Inland parts of 
Sclavonia , called. The reafon of the Name we find not ; it 
was brought hither firfi by the Sclaves, It is a Country, for the mofir 
part, cold and Mountainous, yet reafonably fruitful, with all necefTary 
Provifions for the life of man ; were it not for the Oppreilion and 
Neighbourhood of theTWri^x, to whofe Injury it is continually expofed : 
Its chief Places are, i. Sijfeg^ famous for the notable Refiftance which 
the Turks there found. Anno I'yg^. 2. Wihitz, once the Metropolis 
of the Countrey ; ftrongly fortitied by Nature and Art, but taken by 
the Jm\s^ Anno 15^2. But the chief Place in Croatia belonging to 
the Emperor, is now Careljht , the Refidence of the Governour Off 
Vice-Roy, Count Herberjiein^ Anno 1685. 

This Country contained anciently the more Inland part of Ly- 

262 Of Bofma, Dalmatian &c. 

Of Bofnia. 

BOfnia Italis, Bofnia Gallh^ Bofftn Germ, was anciently accounted a 
part oiCroatu •, by Ptol. part of Itlyrimm *, by Cluver part of Pano' 
Ilia. To me it feems to contain the more Inland part of xhtValmatia 
of Tlin, and Ftol. and together with it, it was united to Hungary^ un- 
der the Homage whereof it was ereded into a Kingdom, but of a ftiort 
continuance j for, in the Year i\6^. Mahomet the Great furptifed 
and took it, and converted it to a Province of the Turkifh Empire. 
The Places of moft importance therein , zrc Jaicza or Jazyge, for its 
Scituation on a Rocky Precipice, an unfordable River P/ew^, and an 
inacceffible Caftle, accounted Irnpregnable. 2. Bofna Serajum^ Bofna 
Serai^ the Metropolis and chief of the Country. 3. Banialucum & Vam- 
meltichai (oxmcily Banjalucb, the Refidence of the Bo/wm« Kings. Na- 
med thus from the River Bofna^ or from the River Beft^ a People of the 
Lower M<e/7a, expulfed thence by the Bulgariaas^ and fleeing hither. 
'Tis now a Turkifh Province commanded by a Bajfa^ and contains the 
Dutchy of St. Sabba, now Hertzegovinay tefie Lucio, 

Of Dalmatian lUiricum Polib. lUiris Vtol. 
lUiria StepL 

TH I S Province was by the Ancients divided into Liburnia on the 
Weft, and Valmaiia on the Eaft, now Vulgo Schiovonia^ tefie Baud. 
It lies along on the Sea-Coaft of the Adriatick^Sea, and is now pofTef- 
fed by the Venetians-zud^ the T«r^/ ^ the chief places polTelTed by the 
Vemtians.^ are Spalato, Spalatum olim Epetium, now Zarnovia, or Zarnou- 
nizay telle Lucio., a Maritime Town, and the Emporium of the Venetians ; 
fcated in a moft pleafant Valley in a Peninfula., joined to the tirm Land 
o^Dalmatia, by an Ijihmus of about a mile over, and is guarded by a pro- 
digious Precipice of Mountains to the firm Land, through which it hath 
only one PalTage, which is defended by a Fort, built upon a Rock, juft 
in the Entrance, with an open Port, but unfecure Bay tor great Ships. 
Clijfa^ fuppofed to be the Andretium of Strabo^ znd A nderium oi Ptol, 
is a ftrong Fort more by Nature than Art, Scituattd upon a Rock, 
which ftands juft in the middle of the PafTage between the Mountains, 
which is fo narrow, that not a Man or Horfe can pafs by without the 


of Dalmatian &c. 2^5 

Licenfe of their Caftle. It is now in the poffeflion of the Venetians^ ta- 
ken from the Tur\t^ 1 647. under the Condud of the Signior Fofcoh ; 
it is about 8 miles North of Spalato^ and 4 from Salona. 

In 1^47. Obraoz,zaj Carino^ OrtiJJina, Velino, Nadino ^ Vrana^ "tim 
and Salona^ were fubdued to the Vimtian Arms by the profperous Suc- 
celsof Fofcolo. And Sebenico belieged by Mahomet Techli^ who was forced 
to raife the Siege with the lofs and flaughter of many of his Soldiers. 
Zegna^ the Senia of the Ancients. 

Zam, the Jadera of Ftolomy •, ftrongly fortified, and well Manned ; 
of a commodious Scituation, almoft encompalTed with the Sea, only 
the Eaft-end joined to the firm Land i now very llrong, being fecured 
by divers Redoubts, and 4 Royal Baftions , and a new Line of Forti- 
fications, which makes it the moft conliderable and ftrongeft Place in 
all Dalmatia. 

Sebenico is a ftrong Fortrefs, feated on a rifing Hill, whofe fpacious 
Port is fecured by the Fort of St. Mco/^, and the Hills, byaCittadel, 
and the new Works of St. John. Salona^ a Roman Colony , and the 
ordinary Arfenal for their Navies j well known in Ancient Stories 
for the Retreat of Bioclefian, and the Garden of his Retirement, after 
he had renounced the Empire. 

TraUj 7raguriumoi Strabo and Plin, is fcituated between the firm 
Land, and a little Ifland Bna joined to the Land by a Stone-bridge^ 
and to the Ifland by a Wooden-bridge ; it is about 18 or 20 miles 
Weft from Spalato. 

LeJJina is the Ifle which Ptol. calls Pharia^ Strabo Tharor, very high. 
Rocky and Mountainous, reckoned about 100 miles in compafe, at 
the South- end is a good Haven, where is the Town, having a Cittadel 
on the-top of a fteep Rock. The place is noted for the Fitog-Trade 
of Sadelli^ which are like Jnchovies-, 100 miles from Zara^ 30 miles 
South from Spalato^ and 30 miles North from LiJJe. 

^Imijfa, the Pegmtimn of Ptolomy , or Pigantia ; feated on a Iiigh 
Rock, and defended with aftrong Cafile, now belonging to the lurk^^ 
te(ie Baud. 

Cafile Novo^ a ftrong Fortrefs within the Gulf of Catara^ taken by the 
Venetian, under theCondudrof General Conaro 1687. Cataro, Afcrivium 
Plin. Afcrivion Ptol. a ftrong Hold alfo of the Vefietiansz^ilnH the Turk/. 
But Mr. Wheeler faith, 'tis the HrftTown belonging to the turki^ 

Budua, the Butua of Ptol. is the laft place of the Venetians on the Val- 
matian Shores. Places more belonging to the Turkj^ are Narenza, Vul- 
cigno, or Vlcinium of old , a City of indifferent good Trade , where 
the Frank/ have a Conful j containing about 7 or 8oco Inhabitants. 


264 ^f Ragtifa. 

Scudari^ the ScoJra of Old •, ftrongly Seated on a fteep Rock, Memo- 
rable for the years ftout Refinance which it made ^igsi'md Mahcmet the 
Second 5 but taken yinno 1578. by the Turks. And Ahfio, the LiJJusof 
Old } the farther Town of all Dalmatia, vfhtxc Scanderheg was buried. 

Of the Commonwealth of Ragufa. 

'HIS is a fnnall Comnnonweath, whofe Town and Territories 
are in P^Mwt/.t, upon the Gulf of Venice^ and which pays Annu- 
ally to the 7«r^5oooo Lhres^ as being environed by the Territories 
under his Jurifdi<Sfion, and not able to fubfift without the Grand Sig- 
niors leave. It makes fome Acknowledgment alfo to the Venetians^ as 
Maders of the Gulf. It keeps good Correfpondence alfo with the Prin- 
ces oi Italy ; and endeavours to preferve themfelves under the Prote- 
ction of the King of Spain ^ to whom it pays Tribute in the Perfonof 
the Viceroy of Sicily. The Gentlemen mull marry Ladies, if they de- 
iire to be accounted Nobles of Ka^ufa. Contrary to the Cuftom of 
other Nations, they count the Age of men from the Conception, and 
not from the day of their Birth. The Revenue of the Fvepublick is 
about 30C000 Livres. The Inhabitants addid: themfelves altogether to 
Trade. In the year i66j. a great misfortune befel the City, it being 
almoft all fwallowed up by an Earthquake. Their Principal Port is 
that of the Holy Crofs, Santa Cruce., about nine miles from the City. 
The chief Governor is called theRc(Sor; but his Government lafts 
but one Month. The Citizens change every day the Governour of their 
Caftle ; Neither do they let him enter into his Ccrtimard but in the 
Night, and then they blind his Eyes. ThcJurkj have a kindnefs for 
the R^gKf/^«/, becaufethey pay their Tribute exactly, and becaufe they 
have, by their means, all the Commodities oiEttrope., which they Hand 
in need of. They give them thofe Privileges which they grant to no 
other Chriftian •, for they permit them to buy Provifions in their Domi- 
nions : For the Countrey about Ragufa is (b barren, full of Rocks and 
Stones, that if it brings forth any thing, 'tis by means of the Earth 
which they fetch from other parts. The Town is well built, and For- 
tihed with Walls, and a Caftle ; a Noted Empory, and of a good 
Trade -, the Epidaums of Old. 

I. Sabioneera^ is a Town Seated on a long flip of Land, Coppofite to 
Curzola ) b-ionging to the Republick of Ragufa, where are many de- 
lightful and fruitful Gardens. 

2. Santa 

Of Ragufa, 2^5 

2. Santa Crocey the Entrance good, the Port large, deep, and fecure> 
being every way Land-locked by Mountains round it, covered with 
Vineyards, Gardens, and Houfes of Pleafure of the Kagftfuns* 

3. Budm^ the Bulua of ?tol. is the laft place of the Venetians on the 
Dalmatian fhores. 

4. The Gulph of Lodrin was anciently the Gulph of Jpolonia, where 
Csfar narrowly efcaped with his Life and Fleet. 'Tis a dangerous paf- 
fage, about 1 50 miles over. 

Curzola by Strabo^ Corcyra Nigro, once belonging to the Republique 
of Ragttfayhwt taken from them by the Venetians by a cunning Exchange, 
The Town is of the fame Name, and feated upon a Peninfula, is a Bi- 
fhop*s Seat and Walled j befides which there is about five Villages. 

Along theCoaftof Valmatia lies a great clufter of lilands, Vehroni' 
chaTurcisy Liburnides InfuU by Strah, the Names of the chief you will 
find in the Maps, moft of them belonging to the Venetians ^ which are 
faid to contain 40000 Inhabitants. 

M m Of 


0/ S E R V I A . 

■ —K — " ^^ 

SEKVA, otZervia, as fome call it, contains part of M?^^ Superior, 
and part of Valmatia of old, it had once Kings of its own, now ex- 
tind. It was once under the Hmgarian Kings ; now wholly poffefTed 
by the rmk^. It is now divided into Maritine and Midland Servia, tefie 
Joan.Luao. Servia Maritima olim Chulmia, now Herzegovina, extendeth 
towards Dalmatia and Albania, Strvia Mediterranea is divided into two 
parts, viz. Kafcia and Bofna. It is a fruitful and pleafant Countrey • 
confiftingof Plains, Woods, and Hills, not without llout Men, good' 
Horfes, Wines and convenient Pvivers. Once well ftored with Mines 
of Gold and Silver, but thcfe now decayed, or loft 5 and the People 
grofs and rude^addiaed to Wine.and falfe in their Promifes. Its 

of Servia. 267 

Its chief places are, Belgrade ^ once the Bulwark of Chriftendom, 
bravely refifting the Power of Amurath the Second, and Mahomet the 
Great 5 repulfed by the Valour of Hmniades ; at which time Mahomet 
himfelf was wounded in the Breaft, loft his Ordnance, and 200 of his 
Ships, deftroyed by a Fleet which came from Buda ; but taken by So- 
lyman 1520. Seated (he is upon the confluence of the Vanuhe and the 
Savtis^ having the great Rivers lihifcuf^ the Vravus^ and Morava run- 
ning into the Danube not far from it 5 as brave a fcituation for Trade, 
as any Inland place in Europe. It is now adorned with two large Bezc' 
fieenf^ or places where the Richeft Commodities are Sold ; with a No- 
ble Caravanfara and Mofchea^ with a Metrefec\oi CoUedge for Students, 

Zendeririy Singdunum AnU Semendera Lat. Simedro Gr£e. taken by A- 
murath the Second, 1438, 

Soph.Scupi Ptol.hy the Turks called Vrchupia\ a City of great Trade, 
Seated in the remoteft part of Servia^ or Mxfta Superior^ or rather on 
the Confines of Macedonia. It Is a fair and large Town, having a great 
Number of Mofcheai^ once a Bi(hop*s, af tpr an Archbifhop's See 5 now 
noted for a great many Tanners^ that make excellent Leather. 

Great Anions have been hereabouts performed in the times of the 
"Romans^ efpecially by RegiJlianus* Hereabouts alfo ftood Parxcopoljs, znd 
Vlpianumof old. 

Jagodua is pleafantly feated in a fair Countrey, halfway from Viennor 
to Conftantinople. 

Halli Jahifar is a confiderable place, where there is a Church with 
two fair Towers. 

Lefcoa, or Lefcovia, feated upon the remarkable River Lyperitza^ the 
Mdianederoi Mcejta, 

The Hills between Serviaznd Macedonia., are a part of Mount Hamas., 
of which the M, Clijfura, one of the Spurs or Excurfions, (bines like 
Silver, confifting of Mufcovia Glafs. 

Vrania is a ftrong Pafs, which the Caftle commandeth, and locks up 
the paflage into Macedonia. 

The chief Rivers of Servia are, i. Morava^ Mofchius of old j is divi- 
ded into two Streams, the one named Moravi di Bulgaria^ the other 
Moravi di Servia, which uniting, run into the Danube at Zenderin 5 fo 
that by this River the Commodities of Servia and Bulgaria are carried 
into the Danube, and fo difperfed in Hmgaria, Au^ria, &c. Not far 
from which was that great Slaughter of the Turks by Hunniades, who 
with 1 0000 Horfe fet upon the Turkjfh Camp by Moon-light, flew 
300oo,and took 4000 Prifoners. And 2. Remarkable Lyperitza^ which 
Dr. Brown faith, that in lefs than twelve hours they pafTed it po times.- 

M m 2 0£ 

Of Bulgaria. 

BULGARIA is a Countrcy generally full of Woods and Delarts, 
themoft unpleafant and unpeopled of all the Vacian Provinces; 
but the lower parts not withoDt fome Plains and Valleys. 

The Inhabitants of a Natural liercenefs, yet patient of Toy! and 

Its chief places are, Soj>hia Vrocop Sofa Itallf, Sophie GaWis^ the lihifca 
oi Ptol.tefie Nig, & Mol. the Seat of a Beglerbeg^ under whom are 21 
Sangiacf ; feated in a long and fruitful Valley three miles diftant from 
a high Mountain, covered with Snow all the year. It is Beautified with 
many fair Hanes and Baths ^ a fta&ely Colled ge, and fair Mofques. 

Axiopolh^ Galacz tefie Laz. FloiZ' Marc. & Colanamik^. Baud, on the 
Banks of the Danaw^ which from this Town begins to take the Name 
of Ijhr, Mefembriaj fcituate on the Euxine. MercianopolU^ much menti- 
oned in the ftories of th^Goths^ for the Fights and Battels they had 
there with the Emperor Claudius . Nicopolis, by the Turk^s Sciltaro tefte 
Leunc. & Nigeboli^ memorable for the Founder of it, the Emperor Tra- 
jan ^ more for the many great Battels fought near unto it, whereof 
one was by Sigifmund the Emperor, and King of Hungary^ who with 
an Army of 130000 Chriftians befieged it, and Ba]azetQzmt to the 
'Relief of it, got the Victory, with the lofs of above fixty thoufand 
1urk,s^ killed 20000 Chriftians, and moft of the reft took Prifoners.The 
Second between Michael^ Vaivod of Valachia, and Mahomet the Third, 
over whom Michael got a Remarkable Vidtory. Varnay the Vionyfwpolis 
of the Ancients, on the Euxine Sea; Remarkable for the firft flight of 
Hunniades, and the Death of Uladijlaus King of iiawgary, 1444. Siliftria, 
the Ordinary Abode of a Turkjfh Bajfa, "Ternova, the ufual Refidenceof 
the Princes o(Bulgaria. Budina^ once of great Importance, but burnt to 
ihe Ground by Hunniades^ not far from the Old City Oefcus TribaVorum, 
^criduf^ the Birth place of Jufiinian; by the Turks called Giufiandih 
ToKii,. or Tomos, to which Ovid was Banilhed ; fome fay 'tis at this day 
called Tomifvpar ; others would have it to be Kiovia. Dinogetia Ptol. Vi- 
mgutia & Viniguttia ^nt. Denigu ex Tab. recens^ Drimago Nigra, Callatia, 
■CaHacis Ant. Calatis Strab. & Plin. Kilia Laz,. vulgo- Bialogrod. Calliacra, 
Laonico Fandalla Nig. Ijhopolis Plin. & Ptol, Ijiros Strab, I(iria Arriano. 
Stravico Cajial. Grojfea Nig. & Projiaviza Baud, much fubjcdt to the ir- 
ruptions of the Dobrufiaa Tartars, 


Of Greece. 


nffln -niJ urn 'mf jiy TT-Tdh-nT-mir-kar 
*^ ./'■' 3* . -U 

GK^'ECI., once the moft celebrated part of the World, in the 
prefent Latitude and Extent thereof, hath for its Eaftern Bouni 
the ^gean Sea, the Hellefpont, Fropontif, and the Thracian Bofphorm : 
For its Southern, the Cretian and the Ionian Sea ; on the Weft, the 
Adriatiek Sea ; and on the North, only United to the r«ft of E«r«/>e by 
the Mountain Hxmus, 


j7^ Of Greece, 

Confined at firft to Attica^ and tlie parts adjoining, only then cal- 
led HiUas^ from King HiUen^ the Son of Veucdion ; the Inhabitants 
Hillenes in Sacred Writ j and Greece^ (torn King Gr£CHs, the Son of Ce- 
cropii the firft King of Athens^ communicated afterwards fo 7'^f//^^/|(, to 
Teloponnefus, then to Epiruj^ and laftly to the Macedonian Empire. 

The hrft Inhabitants of Greece did live each under their proper Ma- 
giftrates in feveral Cities, until Fhilip King of Macedonia^ clearing his 
own Countrey of the Iberians ^ fubducd Jcbaia, Thracia, and a great 
part of Peloponnefus, And fucceeded by Alexander his Son^ who retained 
his Father's Conquefts, and vanquiQiing Darius the great, King of Per- 
fia^ and other Kings of India, founded the Grecian Monarchy, but in 
the height of his SuccelTcs died, being Poyfoned at Babylon. Afterwards 
the Romans became Matters of it j and after that the Goths and Huns 
did rathet Harrafs than Inhabit it. Laftly,the Saracens, now the TurJ^Sy 
and the Vi^orious Venetian, (hare it under their Obedience. 

Hence it is that Greece hath loft its former Divifion of Countries, and 
their Names, and received new i that which was particularly called 
Greece, is now czlhd Livadia-, Pelopennefus , Morea-, Thejfaly, Janna i 
rEpints, Canina j Macedonia \s divided into four parts ; that next Jama 
is called Cammolitari, that which borders upon Valmatia is called ^Iba- 
•nia ; that next to Thrace^is named Jamboly; and the midft of the Coun- 
trey retains its old Name Macedonia. Laiily, Thracia is now called 

The Grecians, once a Nation in matters of Government Famous, 
in Arms Glorious, in Arts Admirable 5 addi(9:ed to the love of Ver- 
tue. Civil of Behaviour, affed^ers of Liberty, and every way Noble 5 
only in their Commonwealth Principles and Civil DifTentions un- 
happy. But now under the !r«rj^y& Yoak, their Spirits are low, their 
Knowledge is Ignorance, their Liberty contented Slavery i their Ver- 
tues Vices, their Induftry Idlenefs; They are generally of good Pro- 
portion, and of a fwarthy Complexion : Their Women very well fa- 
voured, brown, and exceffive Amorous ; In Habit and Garb both 
Sexes generally follow thofe under whom they live. 

Their Primitive Language needs no Commendation, being well 
known for its lofty found, Elegancy, and fignificant Expreffions, ge- 
nuine Suavity, and happy Compofition of words •, Excellent for Phi- 
lofophy and the Liberal Arts, but more excellent for that fo great a 
part of the Oracles of our Salvation is delivered therein •, but now 
iiot only the Natural Elegance is loft, but the Language almoft de- 
voured by the Lingua Franca, 'tttrkHh, and Sclavonian Tongues. 


Of Greece. ±ji 

The Chriftian Religion was here firft Planted by St. Vaul, who went 
into Macedonia, pafltag thence to Hhejfalonica, from thence to Athensy 
and thence to Corinth^ watering the greateft part of Greece with the 
Dew of Heaven : But now confidering the Tyranny of the Turh^ on the 
one fide, and the Temptations of Preferment on the other , *tis almoft a 
wonder there ihould be any Chriftianity left amongft them i yet the 
Gates of Hell cannot prevail againft this afflidted Church ; for its mem- 
bers are endued with a Divine Humility,Patience,and Conftancy i their 
Priefts are reverenced, the Articles of Faith and Rules of a Holy Life 
preferved ; their Fafts and Feafts obferved ; the power of the Keys 
Exercifed, and the Judicature of the Church preferred before that of 
the Vivan. As to the material Points of their Religion, I (hall refer to 
the Defcription of my Scripture-Maps, 

, This Countrey hath formerly been Famous for MiUiades, Ariiiidef^ 
and Tbemijiocles o£ Athens-, Lyfander 3.nd Agefilaus o( Sparta 5 Felopidas 
and Epaminondas of 7hehes > Aratas and Philoparmeus of Achaia ; Pyrrhus 
oiEpirus, Philip of Macedon, Alexander the Great,brave Commanders.For 
Plato, Socrates, AriJiotle,DMnQ Philofophers : For Vemo^henes, Ifocrates, 
Mfchines, Eloquent Orators. Hefwdy Homer, 8cc. Excellent Poets. Solon 
and LycHrgus, Eminent Law- givers. Xenopbon, thuciades, Plutarch, He- 
rodotus, Famous Hiftoriographers ; with feveral other Authors and 
Promoters of Arts and Sciences, tootedioms to relate. But to proceed 
to the Provinces. 

The Inhabitants of Greece were of old divided into three forts, viz. 
the lones, the more famous whereof were the Athenians, The Veres, the 
moft renowned of whom were the Lacedemonians j and the ^(?/e/,who 
fent Colonies into Afia, near to Phocaa. By the ancient Writers called 
Achei, Achiai, Argivi, Vanai, Volopes, Vores, Vryopes, Hellenes, lonts, Myr' 
mdoneSf and Pelafgi, 

The Province of Romania, or Romelia, is the Ancient Thrace, by Ste- 
phanus\Aria -, by forae Scythia-, by Jofephus, Thyras, from Thyras the 
Son oijaphit \ by the turk.s now called Romeli : A Countrey neither of 
a Rich Soil, norpleafant Air, yet well Inhabited. But the chief Glory 
of this Province, and of all the Ottoman Empire, is the Renowned 
City Con^antinople, formerly called Lygus, Byzantium, and Nova Roma, 
now by the Greeks Ifiampoli, and by the Turks Stambol ; feated in the 
Latitude of 4oDegr, 56. In (hape Triangular, commanding the Pro- 
pontis, Bofphorits, and Enxine Seasj Seated on a Haven fo deep and Ca- 
pacious, that the Tur^s, for its Excellency, call it the Port of the world. 
At this day the chief Buildings are the Turks Seraglio, and the Temple 
or Mofque of St. Sophia, for Beauty and Workmanftiip exceeding ad- 
mirable to behold. The 

272 Of Greece. 

The Seraglio is a vaft place, inclofed and divided from the reft of the 
City with a Wall three miles in compafs, wherein are ftately Groves 
of Cyprefles, intermixed with delightful Gardens, Artificial Fountains, 
and all varieties of Pieafures which Luxury can eifed, or Treafure pro- 
cure. The principal Beauty of the City is the Scituation of it on the 
Mountains 5 Crowned with Magnificent Mofques with gilded Spires, 
refleding the Sun- beams with a marvellous fplendor. 

Other Cities of this Province are Andrianopolis^ or Hadrianopolis TtoL 
formerly Orefia Lampridio. Vfcudava^ feu Vfcadama Ammiano^ AndtrnopO' 
lis-i & Turcis Endren, tefie Busk a fair, large, and well-compofed City, 
with fair and ftately Mofques, efpecially one built by Sultan Solyman the 
Second, a very Magnifident Strudfcurc. 

Galiopolij formerly Calliopolis , feated near the Hellefpont within the 
Sea of Marmora, the firft City that ever the Turk/ poffeired in Europe^ 
furprized by Solyman, Anno 1358. 

Below Galipoli is the ftraiteft paftageof the Hellefpont^ formerly fa- 
mous for Xerxes^s Bridge, but efpecially for the two Caftles, Sejios and 
Abidos^ noted for the Story of Hero and Leander^ now called the Dar^ 
damllei, or Old Caftles , the New Caftles being at the mouth of the 
Hellefpont, and are the Bulwark of Conjiantinople, as the Caftles on the 
T^jracian Bofpfycrus are on the other fide. Galata or Pera, is oppofite to 
Conftantinople^ where live all the Foreign Ambafl&dors, Refidents and 
Envoys. Belgrade is 1 2 or 1 5 miles Northwards, where are the Sum- 
mer- Houfes of the Nobility, and the coftly Aquaduds that fupply Con- 

St. Stepbanoes is inhabited moft by Chriftians. At Great Schecmafhe 
are the Seraglio's of the Nobility. Selimhria hath Mofques, a Bazar 
and Grrei;^ Churches. Heraclea Leunc^ Heraclia Soph. Perinthus Plin. & 
Vtol, its Harbour makes it a Peninfula of four miles in compafs ; now 
an Archbifhop*s See, and its Church the beft in Turh^e : Noted alfo of 
old for the Palaces oiVefpatian, Vomitian and Antomnut^ Emperors of 
Kome 5 as alfo for its Amphitheatre cut out of one entire Marble. 

Rodefie^, Redd'^um Plin. Bifanthe Ptel. Rodojio Sophi^ 30 miles from 
Heraclia^ feated oft the fide of an Hill, at the bottom of a Bay, peopled 
with about 15000 Inhabitants, Chriftians, Turk/ and Jervs ^ much 
frequented, but of little Trade. 

Myrkphyion by the Greekf^ Murjion by the Tur)^-, it hath about 200 
Houles, about five miles from Rodefh. 

^dera^ now Afperofa. was the birth-place of Laughing Democritus, 

Mnos^ now Enio & Eno Grec. Xgms Turcisy a Town of great ftrength 
and fafety, therefore an honourable Prifon. Lifimachia, once of great 


Of Greece, 273 

Importance, now Heximily^ Taid to be built out of the Ruins of TMi" 
poli^ from Philip the Father of Alexander. 

Cardia, Cardiopolis Ptol, was the Birth-place of Eumenef, a Currier's 
Son, but a famous Warrier, g«<e Steph. & Pauf, eadem Lyfimachi£ & 
Hexamilio, Caridia^ iefte Soph, 

The Province or Kingdom of Macedonia, was fo called from King 
Macedoy Son of Ofiris. Others fay it had its name from a Son of Ju- 
piter and Thy£ ; or as Solinus fays, from Macedo, a Son or Grandchild 
of Vucalion, called alfo JEmathia Vlin. & Peonia, JEmonia Livio, For- 
n^erly it contained feveral Provinces, (the Names whereof are in my 
Sheet-Map of Greece ) and 'tis faid was inhabited by i fo feveral Na- 
tions. By the Ancients it was divided into four Principal parts, viz,. 
Prima, Secmda, Tenia, ^arta. That towards the Weft, or the 
Fourth part, is now called Albania, That part toward the N. E. firft 
and fecond part is called Jamholi. That in the middle retains the 
Name of Macedonia Propria. That towards the South is called Comeno- 
litari, containing part of Macedonia Tenia, and fome part of Ihejfalia. 

The chief Towns of jilbania, or Tars Occidentalis Macedonidi, are, 

1. Vyrrachium ^'£f. Cic. Ptol. &c. & Epidamnm Thucyd. Plin, &c. 
Vurazzo & Vrazzi Turcis, once memorable for the Valour of Sc£voy 
who alone fo longrefifted Pompey'shtmy, that he had 220 Darts flick- 
ing in his Shield, yet was C£far foiled. It was taken by Bajazet from 
the Venetians, Anno 14pp. 

2. Inacceffible and Impregnable Crow, thought by fome to be the 
Epicaria of Ptol. George Cajiriot , or Scanderheg , took it by a wile 5 but 
Amurath the Fourth loft his Life before it. The Antigonia of Ptol, tefle 
Soph. & Lazzio. 

3. Anion of Plin. & Ptol. now Valona, fcituate over-againft Otranta 
in Italy, and about <5o miles diftant, 30 miles from Valona, Land- 
wards rifeth a Fountain of Pitch mentioned by the Ancients , with 
which mixing Tar, they Careen Ships. Deferted and demolifhed by 
the Venetians, l6pi, 

■ 4. Apnlonia Liv. & Ptol, PoUina, Piergo, & Sojfopoli, tefie Baud. Ceres 
Nigro, a Town of great note in the times of the Romans, and the Key 
of Greece, memorable for the Study of Attgujius C£far. 

5. Sfeliigrade, or Vefiigrade, the Spetia of Laonic. Turcis Sucrige tefle 
Leund. Oxypyrgium Greets , tejie Soph, one of the laft Towns taken by 
Scanderheg, as Vibra was the firft. 

The Rock or Ifland Saffino, fix miles from Valona, boundeth the 
Gulf of Lodrino ; Vrilo, Strab. Ptol. & Plin. Vrinax Nigro, Vrino aids. Le 
Golphe de Vrin GalJis, Golpho Velio Vrino Italis, Not far from this Ifland 

Nn N.E. 

N. E. are the Falls of Tifcaria, the Ftfli they pickle,- the Rows they 
fait and dry in the Sun, and fo make Botago. 

Other places are .Albanopoliy 40 miles from Durazzo, and 3 5 from 
Akflio\\\T>almatia. Eladafagni the Vaulia of Ptol. tefle MoL Locrida-, 
Lychnidus Liv. Diod. & Ptol. Lychnidion Volyb. Lychnittus Herod. & Steph, 
A Lake and Archbiftioprick of Macedonia^ Jujiiniana Pritna^ then Achry- 
duf, VOchrida^ Tunis Giujiandil, 

Chief Towns in Jamholi were, i. Stagira Plin. Steph. Viod. Stantira 
Ptol. the Country of ^ri/?(?*/e, tefle Laertio, now Liba Nova, tefle Soph, or 
Macra tefle Nic£ta. 

2. Pallene Plin. Phlegra Herod. Patakne Ptol. Patalents Mol. Caniflro 
Soph, larcho, or tarfo Nardo. Sacred to the Mufes. 

3. Amphipolis Herod. Thucyd, &c, NeapoUs jint.ChriflopoliSoph, Em- 
boli T'urcif, 

4. Cavatla, Otfma 'thucyd. & Ptol, the Cabyla Ptol. Cavyla Cedreno 
iejie LeoncL & Bucephala tefle Brietio. 

5. Contejfa, which gives its name to the Gulf, Golfo di Contefa Ca^ 
ftaldo. Golfo di Monte Santo, Soph, the Strymonicns Sinus of Ptol. 

6. The(falonica, now Salonichi Soph, to whofe Inhabitants St. Paul 
writ his Epiftles i very populous of Chriftians, Turks ^'""^ J^^^^ a"<l 
of great Commerce, feated at the bottom of the Gulph Salonichi. The 
Sinus Tberm£us, or rather Thermaicus of Strab. & Ptol. diftant from 
Conflantinople about 320 miles, and from Durazzo about 230 miles. 

7. Siderocapfa the Chryfttes of Liv. tefie Bello, & Scydra Ptol. famous 
for its Mines of Gold and Silver, fo advantageous to the Turk^zs the 
report exceeds belief. 

8. Mount Athos of Liv, & Strab. Acroathon, or Acrothon Plin, & 
Mela. Aerothoon Herod, Athos Acron. a Gr£cis dytav oe^i , now Cima di 
Monte San&o. San^. Lame, & Agios Laura, Monaflir a Turcis & Seidi' 
dag tefle Leun^, Inhabited from the beginning of Chriftianity with 
Hermits, afterwards with Monks according to the Order of St. Bafil, 
Itftands in a Peninfula very fruitful, being 160 miles about, where 
they have ao Monafteries, and about 600 Kaloiis, They pay 1000 
Dollars a month, and have fafe protedion. The Town Kareis is in 
the middle of the Mount, where there is a Turkifh Aga, and a Market. 
Their Oiurches and Furniture are exceeding rich , and all are daily 
employed according to their feveral degrees and qualifications. 

Torone of Plin, & Mel, a Toronefilia Neptmi tefle Steph, Lango Soph. Ca- 
flle, Rampo Nardo & Pineta, Kainero vel Keinero Nigra, Agiomana, or Aio- 
mana Cafleldo 5 from hence Toronaicus Sinus, now Golfo di Agiomana^ or 
Aiomfina Cafl, Golfo di Rampo vel Rampa Nardo. 


Of Greece, 2^- 

Towiis in M^ce^owi^ properly fo called, and in Comenolitari, are) 
I. TeUa of Strab, Vlin. Vtol. &c. Jeniz^a, or Janizza Soph. Zuehria Ni- 
gro\ the Birth-place of Alexander. 

2. Piidnaoi Ptal,Siepk8cc. Chitro Soph* tzken by Cajfander, the Son 
of Antipater^ who murthered Olympias the Mother, Roxana the Wife, 
and Hercules the Heir apparent to Alexander the Great. 

3. Berr/^if, or Berr£a of Plin. Strab. Ptol.8cc. Veria Soph. Boor Turcii 
tefie LemS. where "St. Paul and Silas preached, 

4. Adeffa PtoL Edejfa Liv, &..Polyb. & JEg£a aliis. Vodena Mol. Soph* 
& aliif. 

- 5. Andarijiuf Ptol. Vojianza telie 7heveto aliis Eriffo. 

6. Tyrijfa Ptol. Cerefei Mercator Vinorigriza & Xerolibado aliis. 

7. St obi of Plin. Liv. & Ptol, in Pelagonia regione, Starachino Nardo. 

8. Antigonia in Mygdonia reg. Coiogna Pineto, aliis Antigoca. 

Of Thefalia. 

TH E Province of fhejfaly was called JEmonia & Pyrrhaa ; by 
Strabo. E^iaotis, by Plin, Dryopis, by Viod. Argos Pelafgi^ufn^ by 
Homer. Comenolitari Caji. T'humenefiria Geufr£o Lamina Lazio. But the 
greateft part is now called lanna tefie Brietio. It is a Country no lefe 
fruitful than pleafant, famous for the Hill Olympus^ vifible at a great 
diftance, confifting not of one rifing Peak, but extending a great way* 
in length from Eaft to Weft, remarkable for the Exploits of Paulus 
JEmilius , of Appius^ Claudius^ and of the Conful Martius^ of which, 
fee Sir Walter RaTpleigh, lib. i . cap. 7. For the Mountains of Pelion and 
Offa. For the Hill Othrys, the Hill Oeta^ where Hercules is faid to have 
burned himfelf with a poifoned Shirt. For the pleafant Valley of 
7empej called the Garden of the Mufes. For the Pharfalian Fields, 
where the Empire of the Roman Univerfe was difputed in two great 
Battels ; the one between Cafar and Pompey^ the other between Brutuf 
and Cajfms on the one fide, and Anthony aiid Augujius on the other. 
Here lived the Mirmadons, over whom Achilles was Captain at the War 
of Troy. The chief places are, Larijfa^ Larizzo Soph. Tennee Sherr^ lut' 
cis^ an Archbiflioprick, inhabited by Chriflians^ Turks and Jetvs ; plea- 
fantly feated upon a rifing ground, on the upper part whereof ftands^ 
the Palace of the Grand Signior, reputed alfo for the Town where Achil- 
les was born. 2. Ternovo^ a large and pleafant City, about ten miles 
Weftwards of Larijfa , where moft of the Inhabitans are Chriftians, 
there being 18 Churches, and but three Mofques. 3. Vimiiriadaj Ve- 

N n 2 metrias 

2j6 ^f Greece, 

wietriiK of old ; by Plin* the fame with Pegafa^oi great ftrength by Art 
and Nature. 4. Tegafa, now Volo^ in which the Ship called /4rgo was 
faid to be builf. Armiro^ Argos Velafgicum aU Larijfa^ the Seat of a 
Turkifh Sangiac. Vomichi^ the Lamia of Tolyb. Cic. Ptol. &c. H>miU 
TtoL Homolium Plin. Omok Strabo, Homolus Steph. Hmolium Liv. a City 
and M. in Thejfaly^ vide Virgil, lib. 7. JEneidof, now Lamina tcfh Mol. 
Laftly, Janna^ which gives name to the Country, an Archbilhoprick, 
that hath under it four Biftiopricks, Argiro-Cajho , Delvino , BntrintOy 
and Glyk^on. Doliche Ptol. is the Ttchala of Merc. & Briet. Alebriay 
ViJlano. frica, or Tricca, once the Bifhoprick of Heliodorus ^the Author 
of the EthiopickJMHoty. 

0/ E P I R U S. 

TH E Province of Epims, now Canina, rather Chimeray & VArta 
tefle Baud, is mountainous and barren , langui(hing under the 
Turhjjh Tyranny. Divided by fome into Chaonia^ 'thefporthay Acarnania 
& Mtolia. But by Brietius into Chaoma.^ Thefportia^ Ca{Jt0p<ea^ Acarnania^ 
Amphilochia^ Athamania^ Velopia and Mdojfta^ once a Country very po- 
pulous, until Taulus JEmilins deftroyed 70 of their Cities in one day. 

Places of moft note were Vodona, memorable for the Temple and 
Oracle of Jupiter, fcituate in a fair Grove of Vocal Oaks. 

Ambracia C^f, Cic. & Strab. Ampracia Herod, now UArta, the Regal 
Seat of King Pyrrhus, accounted by Hannibah i^ext to Alexander y the 
fecond great Soldier of the World. 

j4dium near Cape Ftgula^ nigh unto which Auguliuf and Antbony 
fought for the Empire of the World. 

Nicopolis^ now Prevefa , built by Auguftus , yielded to the Venetiant 
1684.. where were 200 Turk^, who were conduced near to Arta^ 
44 Pieces of Canon, 18 of Brafs, and 1200 Inhabitants v^^hich re- 
mained, whereby the T^/'/^x have loft looooo Crowns yearly by the 
Fifliery. And after the takhig of SanSia Maura by General Morofmi, 
, he caufed his Troops to make a defcent at Vagomeflro, who advanced 
50 miles into the Country, and ruined the whole Province of Acarna- 
nia, and burnt two great Towns, called Vragofi^ and Zapandi, and 
feveral Villages. 

Cajpope, now Joanna^ otjoannina^ faid to be the Metropolis of the 
Country, which 1 fuppofe to be the fame with Janna in Thejfaly. 

Hicatonipdon, in the Wars of Cyprus called Supoto^ now Chimera, 


of Greece, 277 

'toronty now Verga. Bulhrotus^ now BuirlntOy belonging to the Vem- 
tianu AnaCioria^ Vlin. &c. now Vonizza tejie Soph. Vodizza Lmnd 

In this Pifovince is Mount Pindus, facred to Apollo^ and the Acroce- 
raunian Mountains, the Rivers Acheron and Cocytus , faid to be the Ri- 
vers of Hell i and here was Olympias the Mother oi Alexander born. 

Of A CH AI A. 

TH E Province of Achaia , once called Hellof & Gr£cia tefie Plimo, 
Livalli & KumdU tefie Cafialdo^ of old divided into Bceotia^ At- 
tica, or Hellas., Megaris^ Phocis^ Locru OzoU^ Vor'ts^ JEtolia., & Opuno- 
rum regio. Now by theTwrJ^; called Livadia^ A Country famous in the 
Authors of the ancient times, for the Gallantry of its Men, and for 
the Statelinefsof its Structures. 

Places of moft note in Attka were, i. Athenes^ A^vh, or Athini, vul- 
garly called Setinef, in Lat. 38 degr. 5 min. A City heretofore a- 
dorned with all thofe Excellencies of ftrength and beauty which Art 
or C oft could add unto it ; a large, rich and ftately City, the Nurfery 
of Learning, and the Source of all Arts and Sciences, once called the 
famous Athens J the City of, built by Cecrops^ and ruled by 
Kings 550 years, then by Archomes for 6qo years ; then by the thirty 
Tyrants, till expelled by Thrafihulns^ and by the help of Epaminondas 
it obtained the Soveraignty of Greece , and many Ifles of the Eg£an 
Sea for 70 years*, till it fubmitted to Thilip of Macedon^ and Alexander 
the Great. Afterwards was much deftroyed by Sylly^ but reftored by 
Adrian the Emperor , and afterwards received various Fates , till it 
was enflaved hy- Mahomet the Second 1455. now taken from them by 
the bra v <! M;r//7/7i, I <5 8 7 . 

The Inhabitants are now, according to Efq; Wheeler's Defcription, 
1675. about 1 0000, three parts Chriftians, the reft Tw^, who per-- 
mit no Jervs to live among them. 'Tis an Archiepifcopal See, and has 
the Biftiops of Salona, Libadia^ Granitza, and fhalanta under it. It 
affords a vaft number of Antiquities, viz. the Temple of F/^or> , ^>y 
the Turkf made a Magazine for Powder: The Arfenal of Lycurgus : 
Minerva's.^ or Farthenions Temple, Vemojihenes Lanthorn , the Ottogon 
Tower of the Winds, T'hefeus's Temple, Adrian^ Pillar, the founda- 
tion of the Areopagus, the Theater of Bacchus, the Temple of J«/?/^er 
Olytnpius. Laftly, the Acropolis or Caftle on the South of the City, up- 
on a hard Rock , and inaccellible on all fides , fave the W. S. W. 
from this Cittadel is the Hill A^ufjeumj and the Mount Anchefmus, now 

St. Georgioo. 

279 ^f Grf^re, 

%x.GzorgiQ. And S. E. firom Athtns is Mount Hymetus^ now Televouni 
& Lambrarouni, where is plenty of Bees and Honey. All Provifions. 
ofFlelh, Fifh, Fowl Corn, Wine and Oyl are cheap here. Their 
Merchandizes are Oyl, Turky-Leathcr , Raw Silks, Pernocochi, 
Cake, Soap, JJoney, Wax, &c. 

The Town hath eight P/ij/ow«'j, or Parifhes, and abont 50 Parifti- 
Churches, 150 Chappels, and feveral Convents. 

Its two chief Ports dLtePortus Pyr£us^ now called Forto Lione by the 
Franks, Tmcis^ Vracona ; more South, Port Mmichiai now Hagiot & 
fhalaras Tortus^ now Port Nicolo, 

Other places in yittka are, i . Marathon^ famous for the Marathonian 
Bull flain by thefeus, and for the defeat of the Numerous Army of D^?- 
r'lHs by Miltiades, now a ruined Village. 

2. Eleufis, or EleufmCic. & Sir ah. now Lepftna^ buried in its own 
Rubbifhj it lies at the Foot of the M. Kerata^ or Gerata, Here was the 
Temple of Ceres, her Sacrifices called Sacra Eleufmia, and her Myfteries 
unclean and Devilifli, and once the Fortification of the thirty Tyrants 
of Athens. A mile off Weft, is the Sping Av^hov, i. e. Floridas, where 
Ceres fat weary with the fearch of Proferpwa ; and North is the Eleufmi" 
an Piain, and the Cytheron^ now Elitita Mountains. 

3. Phykj now Bigla Cafiro, ot Cajha^ Wheeler, was the place where 
thrafihulus began his Exploit of Expelling the Thirty Tyrants, and de- ' 
livering his Countrey. 

4. Tamrmus, Strah» & Ttol. a Sea- Town, now Torto Raphai Soph. 
whence i\\t Athenians idWz^io'Delos to carry the Prefents to Apollo fent 
from tht Hyperboreans. 

5. Brauron, now Vrannia, where was the Temple of Viana. 

6. RhamnuSf now Taura Cafiroy or Hebr£o Caftro, famous for the 
curious Statue of Netnefis. 

7. Pakne, now Angelopico, where the y^fk«i^»j have their Country- 

8. PentelitHs Mons, now Pe«^f/i, where is a Monaftry of 100 Caloires 
on a Mountain of curious Marble, in which are Grotta's incrufted with 
curious Congeladons. 

p. Fromontormm Sunium^ now Cape Colonni, from the white Pillars 
of Mi/zerWs Temple yet ftanding; and the Town Smium, one of the 
A«Mo/, or Burgefs-Townsof the/^*/;eni^«/. 

Places in Boiotia are, i. Hhebes, TivaSopb. Stives & Stibes Baud, thi- 
ther Thiva, Wheeler, in Lat. 38. degr. 22. min. Built by Cadmus tefie Ifo- 
dore, and fabled to be walled with Amphions Harp. Famous in old time 
for the Wars oiEt^ocks and Folicines^ Sons of Oedipus* Here lived Velo- 


Of Greece, 278 

fidas and Epaminonda/ ^'who overthrew thcLacedemoniaitj at the Battel of 
Leu^ra and Mantinea. Northwards is the thebean Lake, now Hylica 

2. AuUs^ now Atdide^ is famous for the (jrecwwj- Shipping out for 
the Trojan War. 

3. Lehadea^ not Lehadia telle Baud, tejle Zardo^ now Livadio , or 
Uhadiaj Wheeler, and gives name to all Achah. 

The Chriftians have here four Churches, and the Turh^ five Mofchs. 
Their Trade is in Woollen Stuffs and Rice, and near it is the Tropho- 
man Cave and Grove, where was an Oracle given by Jupiter, 

4. Afsraay the Birth-place of Hifiod, 
f. Charona, that of Plutarch, ^ 

6. Granitza, a Biflioprick. 

7. Coronda^ the fame or near toVymnia, i. e. two Months, becaufe 
Corn is fowed, ripe, and reaped in that time^teftelVheeler. Here were 
the Coron£i Agri^^ where the Games Tamhriotia were Celebrated. 

8. Alalcomene, probably now St. Georgia, where is a Convent, and 
two Churches. 

p. Tljefpia , now Neocorio, hence Mufe thefpiades. 

10. Tlatea, now faid to be called Coda, in whofc Plain was Mardo- 
nius (lain, 1 ^0000 Perfians, and of the Grecians but 6pp. 

11. Leu£irahctwixt Thefpia ^r\d Plaiea, now Parapagia, in who(e 
Plains the thebans overthrew the Spartans, fome of whom had raviftir 
ed Scedafus Daughters. 

12. fhisba, now Rimo Caftri y it hath now about 1 00 Cottages of 
Greeks and Albanefes. 

13. Tanagra of o\d, Gr£a& Pdtnandria, now Scamino, its Ruins are 
large , it hath about 200 Houfes, and many GreeJ^Churches ; 'tis fitu- 
ate near Mount Cerycim, on the River Afopus that divides Attica and 
Baotia , over againft Oropus, 

Its chief Lakes are, i. The Lake ofLivadia, formerly caHed Copais 
& Cephifts, about forty miles in compafs. The Streams and Torrents 
that fall into it would drown all B£otia^ but for the Subterraneous 
Channels, the Wonders of Art and Nature, that fuck in the water, 
and [convey it into the Mgean Sea : Thefe Subterraneous Catabaiha, 
are about fifty in all. i. The Helica Palur, now LzkeThives, 

Its chief Rivers are Afopus , now Scamino, and Cephijfus River. 

Its chief Mountains were, i. Helicon a Poetis decantijfimus, Mufir 
Sdcer, by the Inhabitants called Eialia, now Zagara, Wheel. 2. Cithde- 
ton Mons, Mufu Sacer, now Elatea Mons, tejie IFheel, 


280 ^f Greece, 

Chief Places in Mtolia are Lepanto, Nanpa&us Ptol. NeopaStur Cic, 
Naupa&utn Plin. Lepanti Gallif, Epados Cr£CM^ Einebachri lurcif, iejie 
Leone. An Archiepifcopal City, now built from the Sea-(hore to the 
top of a high Conical Mountain, having four Ranges of Walls be- 
fore the Caftle, which is feated on the top of the Mountain. Its Har- 
bour is narrow at its entrance, and (hallow ^ where 'tis faid, the fa- 
mous Cofair Dwr^c/^ Bej), Bafliaof Candia reHdeS. In the year 1408* 
it was fubjcd to the Emperour of Confiantinopk^ but the Emperour 
Emanuel gave it to the Venetians ^who fo fortified it, that in the year 147. 
it deftroyed 30000 TWri^, and the Army forced to raife the Siege ; 
hutBajazet the Second with an Army of 150000, attacked it by Sea 
and Land, and brought it to a moft deplorable eftate, and took it from 
them i49p. But in the year was retaken by Generalillimo Mo- 
rofinu The Trade is Leather, Oyl, Tobacco, Rice, Barly, Wheat, 
Furs, &c. Near this Town was that famous Sea-fight betwixt the 
Venetians and the Turk^^ where 2pooo Turks were killed, 4000 taken 
Prifoners, with 140 Gallies, and 1200 Chriftian Captives redeemed, 
1571. At the Entrance of this Gulf of LepantOy by the Ancients Si- 
nus Crif£us^ Sinus Corinthiacusy & Mare Alcyonum^ faid to be 100 miles 
in length, are two Caftles called alfo the Dardanelles of Lepanto^ not 
far from the Promontories 'Rbium & Antinhium^ Capo S. Andraai ^^ud. 
rather C. Antirio. 

Other places in Mtolia are Calydon with its Foreft, where Meliagar 
flew the wild Boar, now Aiton tejh Cyriaco^ rather GaUata Wheel. Here 
the River Evenus^ over which the Centaus: Nejfus carried Htrcules Wife 
V^aneira^ to have raviflied her. Alfo the River Achelous ^ much 
fabled by the Poets. The JEtolians were a turbulent and unruly 

Chief places in Locrix are, Amphijfa^ Lambinatefie Nigro, AnfifaBaud. 
Salona, Wheel, once the chief place of the Locrii Ozelorum^ feated now 
on a Rock under a Mountain, that joyns Mount Corax and Tarnajfus^ 
Mufts Sacer apud Poet as ^ Parnafo & Liacura tejie Soph. Licoura^ Wheel, 
The lurk^ have here feven Mofchs, and the Greeks fix Churches, whofe 
Bi(hop is under the Arch-Biftiop of Athens: They Trade with To- 
bacco and Cottons. 

'Xurcochoreoy thought to be the ancient LiUa^ is feated near the 
River Cephifus in the middle of a Plain between Mount Oeta and 
the ThermopyU ., famous for King Leonidas defence i faid to be a 
Town of the Locii Epicnemides^ (o called from the Mount and Town 


Of Greece, 281 

Thalanda on the South-fide of the River Plataniufy a Biflioprick 
and large Town by the Ruins of Churches and Towers ; a mile out 
of Town it feems to' be the City Opus-^ hence Lacrii Opwitii^ Sinus 

Vrepanum& Molycrium Strah & Vtol.Trapani Nigra, now Capo di Pra- 

Chief Places in Phocis are Velphos^ or "Delphi , Salona Nigra, Caftri Soph. 
& fVheeL once famous for the Oracle of ^/^o/Zo, who delivered his (ay- 
ings in AmphiboU*s and dark Sentences, whereby he deceived his De- 
votee's, as Crajfus and Pyrrhus', feated it was on the middle of the 
South-fideof the Mount Parnajfufy where Vncalion and Pyrrha faved 

2. VaHlis, now Valia^ noted for King 'tereus who raviflied Phi- 

3 . Cyrrha Plin, & Liv. Chyrra Ptol. Jfpropiti Zarda & Nardo^ now Tra- 
tnochi^ Wheeler, 

4. Anticyrrha Ptol. Anticyra Pauf. famous of old for its Heiebore, 
now in Ruins near to the Afprofpity Sinus, 

5. Pythia^ the Navil of the World, remarkable for the Affembly of 
the JmphiCtyones that condemned the Phocians for Sacriledge. 

Chief Places in MegarU are Megara^ feated in a Valley towards the 
Gulph of E«g?^, once comprehending twcT Rocks, now but one, ha- 
ving three or four Cottages of Greekj, much infefted with Pyrates, fa- 
mous once for the Se^a Megarica of Euclid, and for the Fable of King 
ZV>j(ra's Purple Hair. 

2. Towards the Harbour Minoa is the ruined Fortrefs Nic£a, and 
the Vodeca Ecclefia ; Weft are the Scironides Rupes, now Kak^fcalia, or 
Bad Bjy ; and the ancient Cromium, the Bounds between Anica. and 


Peloponnefus, now Morea, is the moft Famous Peninfula in the World ; 
Bounded with the Sea only, where it joineth to Greece by an Ijimus of 
fix miles in breadth •, very Memorable for the Fruitlefs Defign of di- 
vers Kings and Emperors to cut it through, and to make a perfed 
Illand of it i and for the Ijihmian Games inftituted by Thefeus i and 
for the Wall of Hexameli built by the Emperor Emanuel Hi 3. demoli- 
(hed by /^m«mi[? the Second 1424 i 1453. rebuilt by the Venetian's in 
15 days, with i3<5 Towers. 

A Country it was once abounding with all things, as well for the 
Delicacy and Contentment, as Neceffary for the Life of man -, and for 
the bignefs of it, none in the World hath fuffered in the Ruin of fo 

O many 

282 P/" Gm^e. 

many brave and ftately Cities, yet the beft Inhabited of aWGreece^ be- 
ing well Seated with Ports and Havens on all tides of it. 

This pieafant part of Greece has not always had the name of Morea^ 
as 'tis now called ^ Strabo faith that it was once c, lied Argo^ or Argos, 
from a famous City of that name within its Conlines *, and Mgiaka 
from JEgialus a famous King of the Syconians. Jpohdorus and ?ltny 
call it jipa^ from Aps the third King of the Arsjves ^ Son of 
Mgialus^ and alfo Telafgia, Afterwards it had the Name of Telo- 
potmefiti, from Telops the Son of Tantalm King of Phrygia and Taygetay 
now Morea, 

As to its Bignefs, Authors difagree, Ifodore allows it 3^3 miles in 
Circuit. Bourdon 'y6^. Torchacchi ')'J^. Bleau^ Sagredo^ zwdiViamli, 
make it ^00. Baudrand 550. Strabo makes the length 1400 Stadia. 
Sagredo makes it 170 miles from the Ijibmus to Modon. Baudrand 
makes it 150 from Corinth to lenmum Vrom. and from C. SchtUi to C, 

'tornefe 175- _ , . 

It was by Vtolomy^w^ others divided into eight parts, Achaia Propria^ 
Arcadia. Argia^ Corinthia, Elis^ Laconia^ Mejfenia and Sicyonia. Pom- 
ponius Mela divided it into but fix of thofe parts j he left out Corinthia 
and Sicyonia. 

Morri and Baudrand make four Divifions, viz. Vucatus Clarenti£, the 
Dutchyof Clarence^ oxChiarenza^ which comprehends Achaia Propria, 
Sicyonia znd Corinthia. 2. Belvedera, which contains Elii and Meffenia. 
3. Saccania^ or the lefTer Kow^nw, containing the ancient Argia or 
^y^tf/. 4. Traconia^ Qom'^it\itnd^\'C\%Laconia zwd Arcadia. 

Places mofl Famous are 5 i. Patra^^ an Arch-Biflioprick, known to 
the Romanr by the Name of jiugufia^ Aroe Patrenfis^ called alfo Neupa- 
tria by the lurks » "^'^ Badra and Balabutra^ tejie Leunc. Memorable 
for the Death of St. Andrea? the Apoftle , and now a Town of good 
Trade in Raw Silks, Leather, Honey, Wax, Wool, Cheefe, and Cur- 
rans. Situate near the Strait which openeth into the Bay of Corinth^ 

now Lepanto, a Strait Fortified on both fides with two Caftles by Ba- 
jazet^ to fecure the Entrance of the Bay ^ taken by Andrew Doriai^y i. 

Recoveredby^o/j/w^n the Magnificent. July 1687. abandoned by the 

TurkSi and poffelTcd by the Venetians. 

Chiarenza the Cyllene of Plin. Ptol. & Thucy. tefte Soph. Antravida Nig. 

But Brietai will have Vyme^ olim Strato; & Cattconia to be Clarenza^ once 

the Capital City of that Dutchy, now fome flight Traces of it are all 

that is vifible. Six miles from the Cape Tornefe^ Chelonates Prom. Strah. 

is the Caftle or Fortrefs of Tornez^e, now by the Turks Clemouzziy 

tejie WheeU Clemontiit CoroneVi^. 


Of Greece, 283 

VylM ofStrah. 'thucyd. &c. Aharinus Ptol.Neha^ Homero^ teflePauf. & 
Corypha/ium tefie Steph. Navarino Soph. Zonichia Leun&. now Zwichio^ or 
Navarin^ lo miles diftant from Cof^w i is famous for its Port, where 
2000 Veffels may ride at Anchor-, about five miles long, and three 
broad, having an Ifland lying before it; on the right hand it is guarded 
with a ftrong Caftle called Nerp Naverin 5 on the other hand (lands old 
IV^t/i^zrzw, formerly called Py?</. 

Modori) 10 miles from Cf^row, hy tht Turhj Maf urn ^ by F I in. Mcthom -, 
its Situation by Nature and Art makes itfi:rong,having a fafe and com- 
modious Haven, taken firft by the Venetians in the year 1124, In the 
year 14^8. it was taken by Bajazet with a great Slaughter. And in the 
year i<585. retaken by the Venetians. 

Coron^ once Vedufns, Nifi. Lauremh^ Epea^Vauf.hzih. a ftrong and ad- 
vantageous Situation on the right fide of Cape G^i7(?, the Jcritm From, 
of the Ancients, taken by Bajazet 1498. Taken again by General Voria 
1 53 3. but foon again returned to the Imkifh yoke. But in the year 1685. 
after the defeat of the 7^r^'/^ Gamp, and a vigorous refiftance, it was 
taken byafTault, with a dreadful flaughter of all the Inhabitants, by 
the Venetian s^who found 128 Pieces of Gannon,of which 66 were Brafs, 

Cdlamaia the Ab£a Ptol. Tmria & Epea Strah. tefie Soph. ( but Ab£a is 
Chioris^ Mol. And the Ihurium oiPtol. & T'hyrea PUn. is now Cume^ra^ 
tejie Mol. J The T'halame of Strab. & Pauf. 'theramne PUn, Therapne Solina 
& Mda^ te{h Gemiftro. But Niger will have Thalame to be Bjfilopotamo., 
or Vafilipotamo ; and Mol, will have it Barboliza. It is feated at the bot- 
tom of the Bay oiCoron^ about a mile from the Sea, on the Bank of the 
River Pamfits of Strabo^ Strsmio Niger^ defended with a flrcng Caftle, 
with Regular Fortifications, taken by the Venetians 1685. Nigh to 
which is the Lake Lerna., where Hrculcs flew the Monfter Hydras as 
alfo Mount Ttw^w/j-, where was the Cave (called the defcent of Hell) 
out of which he drew the Dog Cerberm ; and Namea was the place 
where he flew the dreadful Lion. As was alfo Z^r/.'^f^j a Fortrefs much 
favoured by Nature, but much more by Art, which was<delivered up 
to General Morojini in fight of the Captain Baffa with a numerous and 
powerful Army, who dared not to attempt its fuccour. 

Chielefa, is a Fortrefsof great importance for its advantages of Na- 
ture and Art, feated upon a fteep Rock, a mile and half from the Sea i 
of a Quadrangular Figure, Flanked with five great Towers, not far 
from the place where once Vittth ^ood. -It furrendred to-the Venetians 

Pajfova is a Fortification feated in the Province of Mwwd;, oppofite to 
Chielefa^ and Port Vitulo^ yielded to the Venetians 1 685. without a ftroke, 
and demolilhed. O 2 As 

i84 ^f Greece. 

As alfo the Fortrefs of Maina^ built where once flood the ancient 
CerfapolU^ by the Ottomans called lurcotogli Olimienof, by the Greeks Ca- 
firo di Maina, by thcTurl^f Monige^ demoliftied in the year 1 570. 

Myfura, Seated in a large Plain, full of fraall Villages, Olive and 
Mulberry-Trees, about 25 miles from the Sea, the Mountain T^)/£f/»/ 
commands it on the Weft j once Sparta^ then Laaddmon^ once one of 
the moft famous of the Grecian Cities, now flirunk to a little Town, 
fcarcely fliewing any Remains of its former Glory. Hiftorians do not 
agree who was its hrft Founder; fome fay it was Spartus the Son of 
King Amiclas^ others the Princefs, King Laceddmons Wife, who was 
called Sparui 5 fume affirm it was Cecrops^ and others attribute it to 
Spartus the Son of Phoroneus King of Argos, Contemporary with the 
Patriarch Jacob, and make it older {hzn Rome ^^ ^ years. TheCaftleis 
fo advantageoufly feated, that Hiftories affure us it was never taken. 
In the year 1687. furrendred to the Venetians. 

Malvafia, the Epidaurus, Limera & Monembafia of the Ancients, has a 
very advantageous Situation in a little Ifle on a Rock, waftied by the 
waves of \\iC Archipelagus^ yet enjoying feveral Sources of fweet clear 
Springs, inacceiTible on all fides but one place, which is defended with 
a thick tripple Wall, and joined to the main Land by a Wooden Bridg, 
having a very fpacious Port, and well defended ; yet though its Situ- 
ation renders it almoft invincible, by its ill fortune it hath under- 
gone feveral Changes: Taken from the Greek Emperors by the French 
and Venetians, hnuo 1x04. In the year 1537. it vvas taken by Solyman, 
and during the Wars of Candta it was attacked by the Venetians znd ta- 
ken,whodemoli{hed theFort,and left it. There is another Epidauras'm 
Argia^ called Efculapia Soph, famous for the Temple of JEfculapius. Pi- 
giada Nigro^ Cherronifi Soph. 

Napoli di Romania^ amongft the Celebrated Cities, once the Glory of 
Argia; this is now the chief, the Anaphiaoi Herod. Xenoph. & Strab. 
NaupliaPtol. NapliSoph. built by Nauplim King of Eub^a, the Son of 
Neptune and Amimonej and Father to Palamedes. About two miles in 
Compafs, almoft furrounded by the Sea, and defended by a Caftle, as 
the Harbour is by a Fort, built upon a Rock about 300 foot into the 
Sea, fo that both Nature and Art have confpired to render it ftrong ; 
now an Arch-Biflioprick, andthe F>efidence of theGovernour of the 
Province. Containing <5ooo Greek/^ befides a great number of other 
Inhabitants i firft taken 1205. by theFe«e/M«/,joyned with the French -y 
taken foon after by King Giovanijfa^ who left terrible marks of his rage 
and fury, by putting the whole Garifon to the Sword, and fackingthe 
Town. AfTaulted it was by Mahomet the Second with a powerful Army, 


Of Greece » 285 

but in vain \ fo Solyman alfo had no more fortunate fuceefs, but by a- 
greement obtain'd it from the Republick. Thefe twolaft places are ali 
that iheTurknow hath in theMore^, fo that the Venetians zvt now Ma- 
ilers of all that Countrey. 

Argoi^ of this Name are three Cities in Greece^ viz. i. At^i Am^hilo' 
chinm in Epiruf^ now Anjilocha. 2. Argos Felafgicum'm 7 heffalia^ now 
Armiro. 3. Argos Peloponneftacum^oncc I'horonia^ JaJJia.yHyppobole^'Dipofa^ 
or Vipjion, Seated on the River Inachus^ now Planizza Soph, not far 
from the Ruins of the Ancient Mycenia 5 Founded by Inachus in the 
year of the World 2 rpy. and continued for 54.6 years under Kings, 
then a Commonwealth, now'only retains the NameofitspafTed Glory, 
though featedina delightful Plain, about 24 miles from the Sea, a- 
bounding with Wine and Oyl, and all forts of Grain, and defended 
with a Cattle feated on a Hill. Here %\n^?ynhus was killed with a 
Tile from the hands of an old Woman. 

'trapolizza, Megalopolis Polyb. Strah. & Chrifiianopolis di^a tejie Baud, 
Leondari, or Leontari Soph, by the Turh^ called Mora Orta^ the Center 
of the Morea^ the chief place in the once famous Arcadia, the Births 
place of Volyhius the Hiftorian, 

Corinth-, the Corinthus of Strah. and folyh, Ephyro Lauremh. by the 
Inhabitants Coranto^ znd by the T^urkj Gerame, In the Lat.of 38 
degr.14. m. had its foundation from^/efej',who lived in the time of Ce- 
crops^o66. So advantageoufly feated in the midft of the I[ihmtis^ 
that fome have called it the Eye of Greece^ others the Bulwark of the 
Peloponnefus^ and the fplendor of Greece. This City formerly fo rich 
and M-2gniHcent, is now nothing more than a wretched Remnant of 
Wars and of Time, and hath preferved nothing more of its priftine 
Grandeur than its own Ruins. 

The famous Fortrefs of the Acrocorimhus^ the Guard of Corintht 
muft not be paffed by without a particular Remembrance. Built 
upon the point of a high Rock , and ftrengthened with a ftout 
Wall very lirong both by Art and Nature j yet after the taking of 
Lepanto^ the Serafquier being terrified by the Venetian Forces, had kt 
iii;eto it, and left it \ where ihz Venetians found 45 Brafs, and 4 Iron 
Guns idSy. 

Thus have I as briefly aspoffible given an Account of the Chief Ci- 
ties now extant in the Morea, the Stage and Theater of Adion in the 
late Wars. 

The chief Mountains in this Peninfula are the Fo/oe, or Phole Moun- 
tain, near which was feated the City of Olympia., famed by the Poets 
for the Country of the Centaurs flain by Hdrcw/f/, after his being Vi- 


286 Of Greece. 

dtorious over the Nmaan Lion, the L&Fnan Hydra, and the Eryman- 
than Boar. 

CyVene Mms^ at the top whereof are yet to be feen the Remains of 
the Temple of Mo-cury. 

Lyc£Hs Mons^ memorable for the Sacrifice of the Tyrant Arifiarchat^ 
made to thepubhcli Rage of the Lacedemonians. 

Menalus Mons^ for its (hady Groves, and refrefhing Air, Dedicated 
to ?an. 

Mons Sepia, foif the Death of Epites ftung by a Serpent. 

Monies Poylizi^ for Viana'^s Temple, called alfo Stymphalides. 

Mons Mintia, or Mitena, which gives a Profped to theGulph of C<?- 
ron, where the proud Fanes of Tluto and Trofetpina once ftood. At 
the foot of Mount Nonacres , at the foot whereof roul the fatal 
waves of Styx. Laflly, the Tageta^ Sacred to Bacchus^ CereSy j4poUo^ 
and Diana. 

Chief Rivers are, Alpheus Ttol. &c. Carbon, or Varhon. vulgo, Orphea, 
Soph, much famed by the Poets, who tell us alfo of its Subterraneous 
palTage to its beloved Fountain Arethufa in Sicily. 

EurotaSy now Vajfalipotamos^ Iris Niger Homerns tint, it rans by Mifit- 
tra^ and falls into the Gulf of Colchina ; in Summer very dry and 
(hallow, but in Winter fometimes overflowing its bounds. 

InachuSy now Plannizz,a , once Cramavor , then Haliacmon , called 
Inachus from the Son of Oceanus and 'Ihetis, whofe ftory is well 

I muft not forget the River Pamyfus, Strah. Plin. & AmathuSj 
Tanyjus Ptol, Stromio^ Ni^er, Tifeo, Giovio, which falls into the Gulph 
of Coron. 

All E«r^/>e affords not a place comparable to this pleafant Peninfula. 
Irs fruitful Plains flourifh with plenty, adorned with the charms of 
variety.. Its high Hills, though thought unpleafant objedls for their 
cragginefs, yet endowed with excellent Plants, and delicious Fruits j 
and its Climate is fofr, ferene and temperate. Here we may have 
the Melancholy view of the Imperial Seats of the Corinthians^ Lacede- 
monians, Syconiansy Mycenians^ Elians, Arcadians^ Pyleans, and Mejfe- 
nians^ now lying buried in their own Ruins. 


Of Greece* 287 

Of the Ijlands in the ^geari:, Cretan^ and 
Ionian Seas. 

THE Iflands that are adjacent to Greece, are, 1. Such as are in the 
Archipelago J or the Mgean Sea, which are about 43, and of late 
years have had 145000 Inhabitants that paid the Herach or PoUmoney 
to the Turks ', few or no X^rk^^ hve in them, becaufe of the Corfairs : 
Being Chri^ians they are fubjec^ to the Metropolitan of Scio, and are 
governed by their own Archontes^ and admire their own poor Free- 
dom. 2. The Ifles of the Cretan Sea, that are the Bar of the Arches, 
3. Thelllandsof the /(;«/<?« Sea, now all under the Venetian, 

Of the ^gean IJles. 

THE chief of thefe Iflands are, i. Negropont, by the Gmj^/ called 
Egripos, but formerly Macris^ Abantii and Et{h£a^ it lyes Eaft of 
Achaia^ from which it is faid to be once feparated by an Earthquake, 
which made the narrow Strait called Euripus^ whofe ebbing and flow- 
ingis not only feven times a day, butfometimes 1 1, 12, 13, i4times 
in the fpace of 4 or 5 hours. This ifland is Queen of the JEgean Sea, as 
well for fertility as greatnefs ; about a 100 miles in length, and 2 5 in 
breadth, and is plentiful in Sheep, Kids and Goats, Fifti, Wine and 
Fruits, and all other Provifions. The chid C\t)'\s Ncgropont, or Egripos^ 
on a Peninfula near the place where Chalcis flood, a place formerly of 
great wealth and power, and fince fo well fortified, that it coft the 
Turkj A. D. 1 47 1. 40000 men in the taking of it from the Venetians 5 
there S. Erizzo was murdered 5 and his beautiful Daughter Signora Anna 
refufing the fplendid Courtftiip of Mahomet^ was hewn in pieces by 
him. 2. Carifius, now Cari/io.hcnce Columne Cariji£. 3. ThePfomon- 
tory Capkrus, now Voro^ where Nauplius the Father of Palemedes (ha- 
ving by his falfe fires infeveral parts of the Ifland, ruined and deflroy- 
ed 200 GrdTcian Ships, and many thoufand men) drowned himfelf, be- 
caufe VlyJJes and Viomedes efcaped. The whole Ifland is now under 
the Turkj, 

2. Stalamine, once Lemnos^ meriiorable for the fabulous fall QxVulcan^ 
and for the Entertainment of Jafon and the Argonauts, by Hypfipyle] 
Daughter to Kiu^ thoas, Son of Bacchus and Ariadne-, now noted for a 


2SS Of Greece. 

Sovereign Mineral Earth againftlnfedtions, Poyfon, and cures Wounds, 
&c. it is gathered Jugujl 6tb. by the Gr^fj^ Monks with much Ceremo- 
ny, and many Religious Preparations, and made into fmall Pellets, feal- 
ed wirh the Tmkj Seal, and called 7erra Sigiliata^ and fo difperfed to 
the Merchants. 3. 5«w,J:he lurking place cf ^I'c/.-ii'ej, as Ortdins con- 
ceives i others think it to be one of CjcWw,more Southerly. 4. 7hafinf^ 
now Tajfo, *tis 40 or 50 miles in compafs, fruitful in Wine, &c.znd 
Woody. On the North it has a Town lituate upon a good Harbour. 
5- Samotht'ace, qu.ifi Santos 'Thrjci£^ formerly Durdania and L^.ucofia^ it 
has plenty of Honey and wild Deer, and commodious Harbours, now 
much infcfted by Pyrates. 6. Imbrui^ now Lembro, ten miles from 
Samothract\ and about 30 miles in compafs, 'tis Mountainous toward 
theEaft, andhas a well- watered Plain to the Weil. 7. Alomfus^ now 
Lmio. 8. Scopeliu!^ now Scitpelo. p. Sciathui^ now Si att a, of which 
little memorable. 

3. The Gulph of 5jron, now E^irtj, hath thefelflands. 1. Egina^ now 
tlrjgia, the Country of JEacm^- who was fabled to be Judgof Hell, with 
Radamanthus and Minos It is 80 miles in compafs, and has the Town 
JEgina, that conlifts cf SooDweiling-houfes, and from the Caftle is a 
fair Profped ; here the Grceh^ and Latins have each a Church. Here is 
plenty of Corn, Cotten, Honey, Wax, Almond and Carobs, and Red- 
legged Partridges. Betwixt the \{[z.n6s Angejiri^ Metopi, V uronifay Mmi^ 
and it felf, isaHarbour where Ships may ride. 2. Cophi?:idia is S.W. 
And fo is, 3. Calabrea^ now Porus^ 18 miles in compafs, now inhabited 
by Albjmfes \ here VerKoflhenes was banilhed, and poyfoned himfelf to 
avoid the Fury of Antipater. 4. Salamis^ now Colouri, 50 miles in 
compafs; it has three Towns, i. Colourij has now about 400 Per- 
fons. 2. MetropiSy 3oHoufes. 3. Ambalachi^ near this was the ancient 
City Salamis, near which was the Overthrow of Xtrxes his Navy, 
where 200 of his Ships were funk, and moft of the reft taken by the 
Athenians^ &c. Here alfo was the hixth-\jhce o{ Solon^ and the Royal 
SzztO^ Telamm the Father of Ajjx. 5. Lypfocalalia. 6. MegaU Kira^ 
and M/cra Kira^ two Scoglto's^ one formerly called K£ra^ on which 
Xrxes fat in a Silver Throne to behold the fight of the Navies. There 
are other fmall Iflands and Scoglio's which I omit for brevity's fake. 
The Inhabitants of thefe Iflands had a Vayvode and a Caddi^ but now 
th;y areleftto themfelves, and pay the Captain B^J^^ 785 Dollars for 
all Duties. 

4. The CycladeSj now thelflands of the ^rck/ , the chief are, i.De- 
/fl/, formerly Ortigia^ now S. Veli, becaufe it comprehends the Iflind 
Kheneia\Nd\. It is now deColate, though formerly noted for the re- 

Of Greece, 289 

ceptionof Litona^ where (he was delivered of j4polIoznd Diana. Apollo 
had here a Temple, and the circumjacent Iflands cslled Cyclades en- 
dowed it, and fent prefents to it. 2. Mycom^ or Uvmv© , 4 miles diftant 
Eaft,and 30 miles in Circuit.The Inhabitants are all PyTates,yetChrifti- 
ans, and have 30 Grrei^ Churches, and a Latin one. The VVomen are 
handfome, but not chalk. Here is plenty of Corn and Wine, bat little 
Wood and Water. They are Tributaries to i\\t7m\s. 3. 'Terns, now 
Ti«e,formerly i^ir»/i, and O^I?/«/tf, itlyeth high, being a large heap 
of Marble Rocks, but in many places covered with a fertile Soil, its 
chief Town flands in the middle of the Ifland on a pointed Rock, on 
the higheft part whereof is the Caltle, which affordeth a curious Pro- 
fped: over moft part of the jinhipelago. Here the Veneiian General of the 
Archipelago r did cs, 4. Thcrmta, Ptj/y^egw of old, in nioft Maps Firmz- 
nia-, it is much frequented by Paraly ticks. Lame, &c, by realbn of its 
many Baths and hot Springs that are very Diaphoretick. 5. Seriphos^ 
h-^ xhtGreeklSerfo^ in moft Maps *yer/?/:?a«f(?, it hath a Townand Har- 
bour on the Southlide, with a Convent of Gmi^ Monks. <5. Varas^ or 
P^/(;, formerly PadFjij and M/no^, famous for its good Air, and excel- 
lent Marble ; it was dedicated to Bacchuf^ becaufe Wine is here no more 
than Twelve-pence a Barrel 5 under the Marble Mountain is a Grotta 
with Figures of all forts of Woods, Groves, Trees, Pillars, and rare 
Poetical Fancies, framed by the falling of VVater congealed into Mar- 
ble, which by Candle-light is a moft furprizing Workmanfhip of Na- 
ture. 7. Siphanto, hath ten Villages, famous for excellent fruit, and 
beautiful Women. Here is a Monallery in which the Greei^Nuns are 
firft initiated. 8. Argentera, from a Mine of Silver, by the Greeks ^ii^ha , 
by Ptolomy and Strabo K/^aS?, it hath fome inhabitants, p. Milo, 'tis 
faid to have one of the beft Ports of the World, now a refuge for Cor- 
fairs. 10. BcUo-Tola, or Ifola Brugiala^ becaufe burnt and blown up not 
many years fince with Subterraneous fires. 1 1 . Andros, onceCauroj and 
Antandrof. 12. Nazos, now Necfia, or Nixia, of old Infula Veneris and 
Vyonifia^ remarkable for the goodnefs and plenty of its Wines, and for 
the excellent Marble Ophites, 1 ^.Cbia, or Cheos^ now Zea, with others 
of lefs note. 

5. The Sporades^^som axreipcdy becaufe (catte red in the Sea ^ the prin- 
cipal are 12 in number, i . AJhypdea, now Stj^mpalia. x.Anaphe, now 
Nan^o, 3. Hdena, now Macronifa^ where Paris enjoyed the hit Helena. 
4, *9(7/, where Hmer is faid to be buried. 5. Lagufa. 6, Phocufa. 7. Ph£' 
caQa. 8. Philocandros. g Schinufa. 10. Strybia. l i. Jhera, the Birth* 
place of the Poet CallimachHs. 1 2, Gierra^ &c. 

Pjp 6. Cjihsra, 

zgo Of Greece, 

6. Cythraj now GerigOf S, of Morea the Birth-place oiVenus and He- 
lena* Ir*s ijl peopled, of a barren and Mountainous Soil > it has plenty oC 
Sheep-, Hares and Fowls, efpccially Turtles, Ventts's beloved Birds. On 
the South it has a Town, and a good Harbour on the Eaft-Point 5*. M- 
colo. Here was the Temple of Venus^ out of which Helena was ftolen. 
On the South are the Scogliu^s Ovo and Cerigotto. The reft of the 
Iflands of the JEgean Sea we (hall refer to the defcription of Jfia 

The Cretan Id^nds: i.Candia^ {ormetly Hecatompolist Macronnefus, 
Idea J Telchifiia and Creta. It is feated in the mouth of the Mgean Sea, 
at the Entrance of the Archipelago, in i-ght of JJta and Africa', fo ad- 
vantageoufly firuated , that Arijhtle faid it was the only proper Seat of 
an Univerfal Empire. It is above 270 miles in length, and about 50 
in breadth. It hath been famous for the Wars of the Titans againft the 
Gods i for its excellent Ships and Archers ; for the Bull that raviftied 
Earopa j for the Amours of Pafiphae and Ariadne ; for the cruelty of the 
Minotaur ; for the Government of Saturn j for the Habitation and Se- 
pulchre oi Jupiter ; for the Laws of Minos and Rhadamanthus ; for the 
Labyrinth o{ V£dalHS •, and many other things thehihabitants boaftof ; 
but there is no belief of men that were always accounted £)'er/,as Tit. i, 12, 
out o^Epirmnides. Anciently it had an 100 Cities, 40 remaining in the 
time oi Ptolomy, i. Gnojfus^ now Cinojus. 2. Cydon, now Canea^ Mater 
Orbium^ hence Poma Cydonia^ now Adam*s Apples. 3. Ekmhira^ or Ery- 
tbr£a. 4. Miletum., named 2 7/w. 4. 20, with ACi. 27. 7, 8, &c, and 
21. 17. $.Gortyna^ hence SpiculaGortynia^ their beft Arrows. 6. Di- 
damnum. 7. Ampdus. 8. Minja^ now Aliemara. The chief Mountains 
are, i.lda, the higheil: in the Ifland, now called Pfdoriti, dom the top 
whereof may be difcerned both Seas. 2. Pi(?e, now Sethia and Laf}hi. 
^.Leucij a long Chain of Hills called of late di Madara, la Spachia^ and 
laSfacioces. The Rivers are none of them Navigable, but the defedt- 
is fupplied with good Harbours and Bays. The MuUet Scarus was a great 
Hony, Wax, Gum, Olives, Dates, Raifins, but little Corn. This Ifland 
was tirft Governed by Saturn, then by Jupiter^ who was Interred at 
Gnojfos', then fucceeded Minis his Son, begotten on Europa; after that 
the liland was Governed by a Republicki and in the time of Pompey the 
Great it was fubdued by the Romans j then the Emperors of Conjianti' 
nople were Matters of it ; after it was given to Boniface M. of Montferrat, 
who parted with it to the Venetians Anno T>om, 12 04. But the Tnrk,s in 
the year i<56p, after a War of 24 years quite expelled the Venetians^ 
and io became Matters of it. This Uland is now divided into four Ter- 

Of Greete, goi 

ritories, which bear the Name of fo many Principal Cities, viz. Candia, 
Canes, Reiim?, and Sittia. The Principal For treffes are Grahates^ Suda^ 
and Spinalon^a^ held by the Venetians. Candia^ the Capital City, fo ftrong 
by Art and Nature,lhat it was the Bulwark of Chriftendom,and main- 
tained it felfagainft many long and defperate Sieges of theTWrJly, be- 
fore it furrendered to them. Other Iflands are, 2. Claude^ Ad. 27. i<5. 
now Gfs?. 3- D/^, now St andia. /\.. Leto'a, now Chrljrina. <). Mgiliai 
now Ceccrigo. Crete had one Archbilhop, and eight Bifliops. 

The Ionian Iflands. 

I. *j^^/;f, anciently Zacymlms^ in North Lat. g^degr. 30. min. 
X V The Town is ftretched along thelhore, and is very popu- 
lous, according as thereftof the Ifland, that has 50 Towns and Vil- 
lages, fome Springs ; it is infefted with frequent Earthquakes. The 
Gree\ Church is here, as in other places under the Venetian^ much La- 
tinizd in their Do(ftrine, though they hate the Church of Rome. The 
Latins have here a Bi(hop, and divers Churches and Convents. The 
'Englijh have a Fadory, but no Frieii^ as in other places, and they 
feemtothe Natives to live without Religion, to die without hope, 
as they are buried without decency, to the difgrace of our Reformed 
Church, and the great fcandal of them that are without. Here is 
plenty of Currans, Wine, Oyl,-Melons, and other good Fruits. 2.Stra- 
phades.two Ifles, 50 miles South o( Zant ; here live many Gmi^ Monks 
vvellfortitiedj^ ^, Cephaloma^ formerly Santos. MeUna, and Tcleboe'^ 
Ms 120 miles in Circuit, the gresteft Ifle in Vlyjfes Kingdom. Ar- 
gofioU, alargePort every way Land-lockt, the Refidence of thtVene- 
tian Proveditor 5 the chief Town is Cefalona^ it affordeth abundance of 
Currans, Wine, Oyl, e^c. Thiakj^ four or- five miles over-againft 
Port Frfc.rrda , it affords abundance of Currans, 5-. Ithaca, for- 
merly P.i/ic/;/«'«, now Valde Compare, the Birth-place of 1^/)^ej, now 
without Inhabitants, yet it has good Curraus. 6. Echinades , five 
Scoglio*s, now called Curz^oUri at the mouth of the River Achelous j 
near thefe were fought the Battels of ACfimi and Lepanto. 7. St. Mauro, 
by the Greekj Lucas, Leucada, and Nerilos ; 'tis feparated from Acarna- 
nia by a Screight of five Paces over, and three or four foot deep in 
water ; the Calile is ftrong, called St. Mauro , Delivered up to 
General Momfvii, July K584. The Port is good, and named 
Cbimeno, and- the Ifland Leucas -, 'tis inhabited with Turkj and Greekj, 
molt are Pyrats , 'tis thirty or forty miles in Compafs, znd fruitful 

Pp 2 in 

2^2 Of Greece. 

ill Corn, Pafture, Oranges, &c. 8. Corfit^ iotmtt\y Corcyra^ ail i8o 
miles in Compafs, but for a Rock Weft, the Town would be almoft 
impregnable ; in the Caftle Eaft refides the Venetian General by Sea 
and Land, to whom the other Iflands appeal. The Ruined Towns are 
CaJJiopiaj now Cajfopo. 2 . Cherfopolis, now TaUopoli 5 here are alfo the 
Gardens of /^/«n(7»/,8cc. The Inhabitants are very revengeful; here 
is plenty of Wine, Oyl, and Fruits, but little Corn. The Greeks have 
here a Proto-pappa fubjedt to the Biftiop of Cephalonia^ but the Latins 
have a Bifhop. Thus much for the Gr£cian Iflands in the Mg^anfiretan^ 
and Ionian Seas. 


The pefent State of the Countries:^ Fortfy 
and other Places :, n^hich belong to the 
Europeans in the Weft WEaftJndies. 

HERE were at firft but two Na: ions in Europe that Succefs- 
fully undertook long Voyages by Sea, or who fent Colonies 
into Diftant Climates : The Spaniards toward the Weft, and 
the Vortugals into the Eaft. Thefe alio obtained from Pope. 
Akxander the Sixth, a Donation of all Lands undifcovered j but the 
other Europeans were not fatished at the Pope's Liberality ; for the En- 
glijh^ Vmch^^ud French^ would alfo have their (hare ; fince which time 
there have been feveral Changes in thofe Countries ; that Rigor which 
the Portugal and Spaniard ukd to exclude all other Nations, (erving on- 
ly to deftroy themfelves. 

The French have firft in Canada, Montreal, the Three Rivers, Quebec^ 
fadoufac, and other Places upon the great River of St. Laurence, and 
upon Sufferance or Incroachment, they pretend to that which we call 
Nova Scotia, the I(la)id of Cape Bretan. In New-found-Land, they have , 
Bay Fiaifance, and Bay Blancho. 

z. hmongthe Iflands calkd Antilks^^giit of St. Chrifiopheri, St, Bar- 
tholometvs, Santa Cruez, St. Martins, GHadaleupe^La Diftree^ Maria Galante, 
Les Saintes, Martinique, St. Aloifu, Grenada, and the Grenadins^ La Tortue, 
and feveral Cronies in the Weftern part of the Spanijh Ifland, other^ 
wife called Sanllo Domingo. 3. Upon the Southern Continent of y^mc- 
ric<» upon the Coaft of G«ytf«<j, the Ifland of C<«)/f«e3 where ftands the 
Fort St. Michael deCeperoux, now called Fort St Louis : The Iflauds of 
Corou, Coonama, Comoribo, 8cc. 4. The Trade of the Coaft of Africa, up- 
on the Rivers of Senega : where they have a Fort : Alfo upon the River 
of Gambia, at Kujifque near Cape Verd, at great Sejire^ at Ardra, and ma- 
ny other places in Guinie. 5. Fort Dauphin, and many other Foitrcffes 
in the Ifland of Mz^^g<3f/c4r, called by them the Dauphin I/land. The 
Iflands of St. Marie, Bourbon, and Diego Rois : The Bereaux, new Surait, 
and other places in the Mogul*s Country. In the Kingdom of Tunquin^ 
at Siam, in the Ifland of Java, and in other places. 

The Spaniards polTcfs thelargeft andbeft part of all America, where 
they have a great number of Cities; 1. in Northern ^>wriw , New 
Spain, where are the Parliaments of Mexico, Guadilair a ^nd Guatimala.Y - 
the Iflands of Cuba, Hifpaniola, Boriquen, &c. be fides St. AujUns, and St. 


2^4 Of the Eafi and, We fi -Indies • 

Mjtthwi in Florida, and fome part of New Mexico. In the Southern 
America., the Golden Caftile., otherwife called the Continent, where are 
the Parliaments oiFanama, and of the new Kingdom oi Granada. Peru^ 
-where are the Parliaments oi Quito., Lima and de la Plata. Chili and 
Paraguay, which compreherids the Country oi'Tucuma/) and dcla Plata, 
The Iflandsalfoof S(?/owo/j in theSouth Sea. 3. All along the Coalt 
oi jifrica upon the Sea (hore, Lirache^ Mi/wmsr^and the Canaries. 4. To- 
ward the Eaft, moft part of the Pbilipine IJIands, otherwile called the 
Manilks. They had alfo fome part of the M/lucqaes, but thefe they have 
long (ince quitted. 

The Portuguef's enjoy all theCoaft of Brafil in Southern America., and 
all along upon that Coaft,the Captain(hips of Para, Maranhaon ; Ciara.,,Grande^Paraiba,'TarKaracha^Pernambuco^Ser?gfppe, Baia de T'odos los San- 
tos, Los Jfl^os., Porto Seguro, Spirito Santo., Rio Janeiro, & SanVincente. To- 
ward the mouths of the Amjzon River, Llhro, Corduba and Cogemine, 
2. In Africa, upon theCoall of the Kingdom of Morocco., Mjza^an. 
Some Forts upon the River of Sf. Dominic ; Upon the Coalls of Guiny., 
Congo and Angola ; and certain Habitations in the Jfland of St. Thomas. 
The Azores, Madera, and Porto Santo. The IJlands of Cape Verd-, and cf, 
the Prince^ Ffr/J4;j^/.» Poo, Annabyn,6cc. 3. Several places in the Eaji-ln- 
dies., X II. Cafreria,' upon the Coift of Manamotopa, the Callle of Sofala, 
fhe Village of Sent, a Factory with a little Fort at Cape C<jm«*e/,with 
other flron^Houfcs upcuthe Entries of Guama, and thcflivers upon 
the Coaft. !n ', which is upon the Coa/t of Melinda. The City 
and Cafile of Mox^amhi que., with the ftrong Fort ofSt.Mark^:, Factories, 
and fome little Forts at Avgoxa and ^mlimarre. The Caftle of ^iloa^ 
and a Fadioiy in the Ijl^nds Mcr.fia. The City and Caftle of Mombaze, 
theCaftle of M^Iinda, with the Villages and Fadtories of Pale, and 
yimpax.e. The Trade of the Coaft of y^/riw, from the Cape of Good- 
Hipito tie Red- Sea. In the I/land Z'^cotcra, zt Adtn, Fartarch and P>al- 
fara. In Perfia, Fadtories. and half the Cuftoms of the IJIand of Baha- 
rem and Confue: the Trafikkto Fenderrich, to Cape Jafques and other 
places. In Z«^a belonging to the Great M.igul, t>amaon, with the Forts 
of St. John, Kielme, Matridiud Barampor. Becaim, the Fort Bandera^ other- 
wife called Manora, the Village of lana fortihed with three Baftions: 
the R"ck of Aiiertm, Ougueliupon tht Ganges ; the Trade of Agra, 
Amadahat. Cambaye., Surat, Baroche, Bengula ; and in D^can thty have 
Chard, with the Forts of M)rro, Caranga, the Village of Majfjgan. Goa 
with herFortreffcs in the Country of Bardes, and the TJl/nds of Ccran 
and D/t'jr, and fome other Lands about Go^. Upon the Coaft of C/;?/;:j, 
Macao. In the Tfl.znd Solor., the Village and Fort of LareniLq-.'.e : The 


Of the Eafi a»d Wtft-hdies, 2 9 f 

Traffick oiPerfia^ Golcoada Aracan Pfgu^Tanacerin, Lrgor^ Odia^ and other 
Places of Siam, Camb.oya^ and the Ifland of T'lmor. 

The Enrrjtjh have extraordinarily augmented their Territories in 
Ammca. They Trade to, and poflTers all the Northweft part of America^ 
New-Tork^, NdV-Jerfy^ Penfilvafiia^ Miry-Land^ Virginia^ Carolina^ New 
England^ moft part of thellle of N^w- found-land^ all Bermudas^ Long- 
JJIand, Manhatten^ now Nexv~l[or\^ &c. Of the Lucaya Hies, as NeW' 
Providence^ dec. Among the Southward Illes, Barbadoes^ Barhouda^ An- 
guillaf part of St. C/;ri,'ii?/V;t>'/, Montferrat^ Meuvis^ Antigo^ Domhuco^ and 
part of St. Vincent^ St. Kiiihcnne's IJIe^ called the Ifland of Providence, 
j^jw^/cj, and Trinity 7p. 7he fldy point. They had ferae Colonies ia 
Surcnam, Maroni^ Sinamari^ &c. with fome Forts upon the Coaft of 
Guyana. In Ajricjy Tangier^ near the Smij;/;//. Fort St. Andrerv u^pon 
the River of C(?w^itz. Fort St. Philips toward the Pviver St.Vominico. 
Tagrin^ Aladrebomba^ Taxorari.^ Cap:', Corfo^ Emacbam^ or Nf [change^ and 
other plases in Guinea, and the iiland of St. HcUens. Madrtfpatan^ and 
Fort St.Giorgeupon the Coi^ oi Cormandel. The Iiland of Bombay^ An- 
gediva. A Fa6i:oryat S'^rj/iand Bantam., with Houfes where the.Prefi- 
dents live. They have alfoFadories at Jfpahan and Gombru^ where they 
have half the Cuftoms : a Trade at /^gra, Amadabat., Cambaya^ Brodra^ 
Baroche., Vahul, Pettapoli; Maffipatan^ at Balafor^ Oguely., and at Vaca in 
Bengal., at Prianam Siud Jamby in Symatra, In Siam^ Camboyay Tunquin, 
and the Iiland Formofa. 

The Hollanders were expelled out of their ISIexv- Holland in America. 
However they ftill poffefs the lllandsof 5^ Euj}ace.,Saba,C^racco., where 
they have the Fort Amfierdam^ and Tobage^ or Nevp Fluffing., if not late- 
ly beaten out by the French. The City oiOro upon the hrm Land. The 
Colonies of^ij Poamaron, where there is the New City of Middlebmg.^ 
and the Fort Nova HoUandia.^ Eio Ffcquebc, a wide and great River, at 
whofe mouth lyeth three great lllands, viz,. Lttgetvaen., Magrieten., and 
Parrots Ifland. Higher up the River are feven other lllands, and further 
up the River is the Fort Kiick:ovcr-aII. Rio Vemarary., and River Barbie- 
. zos. The Colony of Soronam , where is the Fort Pamaribo. The 
River Caperrpaca., or j^pcrruvaca., and the River Winypoco., or Waia- 
poco., and other places upon the Coart of Guyana, in Africa., Arguin, 
and Goree.^ toward Cape Verd., where they have a Fort and Fadories at 
Kufjfcjue., at Porto d'Ale, and Joal. Si. George of the Mine, the Fort of 
the Mine, the Fort of W^{fj«, ot Moure., Cormentin., Axime, andBotroH 
mGuuiy upon the Gold Coa ft. Many Forts in Congo., See. at the Cape of 
GoodHipe., and at Ta^/e B^y two Forts more, in the' I (lands of A/^^:^^- 
gafcar and St. Maurice. Upon the Coaft of Malabar finor^BaTcelor^Mangahr^ - 


2^6 Of theEift andWtjl'Indies. . 

Can(imr^Crang<!r,oT^Qothin,Coulan, Upon the Coaft of Cormandel^Tuticonn^ 
Negapatan Karkalle.-dind Cneldresr.en FallecateJt) xhtlndian Peninfula be- 
yond Ganges Mai acca.vf\ih. the Forts and Iflands belonging to it.In the 
liland oi Ceylon, Ncgomb). Colombo^ Galle,BatkalojTrinqnilimalyyJafnipa~ 
tan^znd a Fortrefs called Blah^nburg in the Ifland of Manar. In the Ifland , 
of Java^ Jacatra. called Batav/a, and its Dependencies. The Ifle Amjlcr- 
dam, Lcyderij Middkburg^ DJft^ Encbyfen and Horn. Thellle of Bima, 
part of the Molucca Jjlands. Xn'ternaio^ thcFoxtsTacomtnayTalucco^ Ma- 
laya^ and Gammalamme. In Motir^ the Fort of NaJJau: In Macaian,Tajfafoy 
labiloila, Naflaqma^ otherwife Nahacaj and Maurice. In Bachianfiamma- 
doft^zwA Laboiia. InGilolo^ Sabou^nd Coma. In the Ifland of Amboyna, 
Coubella and Lovio. In the Banda I/lands^ Najfaw^ and Belgia in Nera.^ and 
Revenge in Porpleway.The Redoubt Hittorv in the ifle Hitton?.\n the Ifland of 
Sdor^Fort Henry Fort JanpauJam^oihtrwik. called Roterdam near the City 
oi Macaffar. The Iflandsof .J^n/^and Bocon nezt Macajfar, with another 
Fort in Timor, Part of the Southern Land, which is called New-Holland^ 
where lies Carpentaria^ the Lands of Viemens, Witz, Endracht^ Edds, 
Levoin^ and Nnitz Several Fadi:ories in Perfia, as at Comhtn^ Congr^ and 
Ifpahan. In the Territories of theGrea* Mogul ztAgra^ Amadabat,Cam- 
baya^ Baroche ^ Surrat^Ogueliy Kafan^Bafur^Dacat Vatna, and Bipilipataa, 
In Vecan at Finger la , in Coromandely at Tenega-patan^ at Goleonday 
Majlipatanf Palicate, Vatfcheron^ and Bincola-patan. In Pc^w at y^vdf and 
Sirtam. In ^/<jm at Odia. In the 7/7<?«i^ 0/ Sumatra^ at Tifo«, Priamam^ In- 
dapout, Gihbar^Jambi^ PalimbaMf and other places. In the Ifland of Java 
at B^«f<jwand jspatra. In the Ifland of Celebes ztManada znd Maeajfar. 
The Trade of the JjZ^w^ 0/ Zocotora. Upon the Coaft oi Arabia, at Mfcc^. 
-^£/e«, and Fartach. in the Iflands of Larckt Refem, and others near to 
Ormns. At Porc^, and molt parts oi Malabar. At Orix^i in Bifnegar, in 
Aratan^ in /^fg«. At Pera, at I^or, Pahan, Patane^ Singorat 
JBordelong^Ligor,on the Coall oi MaVacha, AtTun]uin, Chincheo, and other 
places ot Cif>//7<i : And at K/w^i in the Ifland of Borneo. At Nauguefegne near 
Japan. And excluding all other Nations, they pretend to the only 
Trade upon the Oriental Coait oi Sumatra , Japan^ Amboyna^ Balli, and 
other places. 

The Vanes have alfo Colonies in both the Indies. They have Neap 
Denmark in the North :rn part of America. The Fort of Frederick^ Burghy 
with three Baftioiw tlrat Command Cape Corfo in Guiny 5 and the Ca- 
ftle of ChrijUansburgh in the fame Country in the Kingdom of Accata, 
Krank^bary otherwife called Tramgo Bay, and Dansburgh upon the'Coafl: 



Of J^oney or Coin, 

MOney commonly is the mean for all Commodities : it is the Si- 
news and ftrength of a State, the Life and Soul of Commerce. 
Geometricians fay, That two Lines equal to a third Line, are equal 
ontsto another', io is Money a third Line by which all things are made 
cqUal in Val ue, not Maieria prima, becaufe it fcrves actually to no Ufe, 
but potentially to all. 

Coin feemeth to come from the French;Coin^ a Cornerj for the An- 
cienteft fort of Coin was cornered, not round. 

The firft ufe of Money was to Supply every mans particular wants 
by a Pledg thereof. 

The moft Ancient Money was of the pureft Gold, becaufe it had 
greatnefs of Weight, clofenefs of Parts, fixation, pliantnefs, orfoft- 
nefs, immunity from Ruft,and Beauty or Colour. And the Alchimifts, 
who have mort vexed that Body, fay, that 'tis harder to deftroy Gold, 
than to make it. Silver is next to it, and is more dudile than any o- 
ther Metal, except Gold. 

The purenefs and finenefs of Money, and the weight, is obfervable, 
for the intrinfick value thereof. The outward Form or Ghara(fier of 
the Prince or State, for the'extrinfick knowledge of Money. 

The intrinfick value of Money or Coin is fo much as there is pure 
Gold or Silver in it, in finenefs and weight. As for Gold, it is divided 
into 24 parts, called Carrats ; fo that when 'tis faid, Gold is 23 Car- 
rats fine, there is a 2^th part of Allay mingled with it. Or it 2 2 Gar- 
rats fine, then there is a 1 2th part of Allay, &c. The Ancient Standard 
of Sterling Gold was in Edward the Third's time, 23 Carrats 3 grains »• 
and one half of fine, and half a grain of Allay. Dr. Chamberlain in his 
Prefent State of England faith, 'tis now 2 2 Carrats of fine Gold, and 
2 Carrats of Allay. The Silver is 1 1 Ounces and two penny weight 
fine, and 18 penny weight of Allay, which alfo agrees with what that 
Author faith *tis now. 

'Tis manifeft that the moft proper Meafure in Kature for Gold and 
Silver, is weight ; and the Pradice of Antiquity doth confirm it j for 
the Shekel, Mina, Talent, and Drachme, both of the Komani and Gre- 
cians ^ were the names of feveral forts of weight. 

Clq Of 

i9^ ^/ MomyorCow* 

Of tin V report ion between Gold and Silver. 

This proportion mull needs differ in feveral times and places, accord- 
ing to the fcarcity or abundance of thofe Metals-, and indeed I find much 
variety amongll Authors, what it was amohgft the Hehrervs^ both as to 
Times and Interpretations. Bodine alledges the fame places to prove, 
that the Proportions were 25 for one, which other Authors do ayedge 
to prove it to be above 45 for one j and others i o for one. 'Tis the ge- 
neral confent, that in the times of the Flouriiliing of the Grecian Com- 
monwealths, the Proportion of Silver to Gold was 1 2 to one. And 
Livy tells us, that the JEtolians agreed with the Kowans to pay ten Ta- 
lents of Silver, inftead of every Talent of Gold. 

In France in the Year 1 6 14. the Proportion did arife to 13 , wanting 
about a feventh part, to one of Gold. 

In Germany in the Year id 10. the Proportion held 13. for onejforae- 
times a little more, fometimes a little lefs. 

The Proportion in Spain hath for a long time been as 12 to one. 

Ii"j the Vnited Province f^ by the Placcard 1 52 2. it was about 12, and 
two thirds fine Silver to one of Gold. 

AndinE«i^/Win the i^th.Yecixo{Cl^Elizabeth^ the znckut Sterling 
Standard of Gold and Silver was altered, and a pound of fine Gold 
valued at 1 1 /. of fine Silver, and 7 j-, 10 <^.over. And in the Second 
Jacobin the Proportion was 1 2 for one, but after raifed by Proclamation. 
The Proportion was 13 /. of fine Silver to 1 /. of fine Gold, at 2 4Cai- 
ratstothe Pound : afterwards I find it at 14 and one third*. 

The raifing of the Price of Money both of Gold and Silver, as it hath 
been ancient, fo it hath been a great Confufion and uncertainty among 
Coins J for the As^ which was Originally coined of a pound weight by 
the Romans^ was in the firft PunichJVar brought to two ounces,and the 
lelTer parts of it were abated proportionably. By Tapirim it was redu- 
ced to half an Ounce. The Denarii of Silver were at firfi: currant for 
JO As^ at length reduced to a Drachma, which is 8 in the Ounce, and 
the leiTer parts were abated in proportion. Afterwards it was worth 
16 As. And their ^^o/z^/irf^/m. were coined of 48 pieces in the pound -; 
and in the time of Jujiinian they wer.e 72 in the pound. And for fome 
hundreds of Years mod Princes and States have vied one upon another 
who (hall raife their Money higheft. 

But as Money was firft invented and chofen to be the Inftrument of 
Exchange and Meafure of all things, to avoid the trouble and charge- 
able Carriage ofCominodities from one place to another : So was tx- 

Of the^omznCoirt. 299 

change of Money alfo firft devifed to avoid the danger and adventure 
thereof from place to place. 

By the Exchanges,all Princes Coins are brought into one and the felf- 
fig^^uality and parity j for the real exchange is grounded upon know- 
mF of the Part or Value for Value of the Moneys of each feveral 
Coftntry according to their feveral Standards, abating or allowing ac- 
corcTm^ tcT the Value, Weight, and Finenefs of the fame, and fo redi- 
fyingboth the one and the other in equality and true value. 

But though the intrinfick value be the principrl Rule by which Ex- 
changes are fquared, yet there are many other Circumftances which 
do vary and alter the Exchange : As the Plenty and Scarcity of money, 
the Occafions and NecelTities of Princes ; the Trade and Commerce of 
Merchants, whofe Eftates being continually traverfed from one Coun- 
try to another, and from one Coin to another, do give and take as their 
occafions and the Rules of ths Exchanges conduce to their profit.Hence 
the Bankers in Italy^ SpMn^ and France^ being the great Takers and 
Deliverersof moneys at their feveral places of meeting, do concur in 
fetting the Kates and Prices of Exchange for their own Comrnodity 
and Advantage, which are feen h varioully to alter, and daily to rife 
and fall by thofe that ufe. this Myftery j fo that although i have given 
the common Eftimate of Foreign Coins to the Standard of London^. zs 
they are commonly valued, yet according to the Rules of Exchange 
they will be very different. 


Of the Roman Co'm. 

H E General Names for Money among the Romans are three, 

I. Moneta, Numus^ Tecmia^ 

Moneta^ (whmcc the French Monnoye) becaufe it (heweth the Author, 
the Value, and the Time. 

Numus^ox NummMs, faith Vcfms^ a Nnma, or rather of a Greek^Oicw 
ginal ci/7319 T» fo^K, from the Law. 

Pecunia, Either from the Images of Cattd ftamped upon it, or from 
their skin out of which money was Coined. 

TheNamesof the Brafs money among the Romans, were -^/, quafi 
JE/,the twelfth part oisL Roman penny.valueof our rrioney 3 farthingsi 
Sernis^ half an ^j ; Triens^, i third of an As ; ^adrans^ 1 fourth oS ao 
As i Sextans^ i fixth of an Asj | of a farthing, &c, 

Q, q 2 Roman 

Hs oe- 

^oo 0/ ^^^ Roman C^?/;?. 

Ro^jflSihrer Coins were the Venarius^ the old in value at 8 ^. three 
farthings j VtnariHs the new, in value at 7 d. half- penny. Sejhrtius be- 
ing 2 and a half di]/?/, in value id. 3 farthings and a half. Bigatus, ~ 
drains i having the Image of a Chariot, the fame with a Roman new|| 
narius. Viclortatus the Image of Vidiory, called Q^inarius^ in value 
3 farthings. LibeUa^the tenth part of the Rowa« penny, in value ^ far- 
things. Obolus the fixthpart of the Roman Venari i ^. ^. 

Of the Roman Gold Coins, there was the Amient piece or Conful^ — 
of a / of Gold in value 17 /. 1^3 farthings. The Emperour's Coin 
or Piece 5I of a /. of Gold, value 1 5 /. Half a Piece called Aurim 
Vrachmalii weighing one Vracbme^ value J s, 6d. Tremijfis Triens^ or a 
third part of the Emperour's Coin, value 5 /. 

As to the Coins of Gold after the tranflating of the Seat of the Em- 
pire to Byzantium, I hnd thefe; Conjfantiite Pieces of Gold, value ^ s.6d. 
3 farthings and ~ Thefe were current until the days of Va- 
lentinian^ who, as alfo Fii/ewj-, Arcadiuf, Hmorius and others, made their 
Coin fomewhat heavier, but all diifer'd little in the weight of the!r 
Coins > the Vakntinian Piece of Gold, called Scxtuluj^ was accounted in 
value 10/. 

The chkf Roman Coins valued with our Money, were the Talentum, 
containing 24 Sejhrtia^ 6000 Roman pence, value iS? /. lo/. Then 
theSeftertium^QOntzmm^ 1000 Sejierces, was valued at 7/. 16 s. ^ d. 
Libra, velpendo, a pound, 12 ounces, p<S drams i -^ part lefs than the 
Grecian pound, was in value 3 /. 

According to this account I find Camillttshis fine, 500000 Pieces of 
Brafs, was of our Money 15-62 /. 10 j. vide Liv.Lib. 6, 

So RojfiHs the Stage-player, his 1000 Vmeers or Roman pence, his 
daily reward, was 3 1 /. 5 /. vide Macrob. I. ^. c. 14* 

thais's demand of Demofthenes, looco VeneerSy was 312./. 10 /, 
2 $0000 Deneers the price ofC/cero*sHead to Antonius, was 7812 /. lo/. 
At this Rate like wife was the Supper of Caligula, valued at 78 1 2 5 /, 
And Julius Cafar gave unto Sevilia the Mother of Bruiui, a precious 
Stone, which he bought 60 times, valued at 4^875 /. The Heap ot 
Brafs money gathered by Curio the Son oi Valerius , viz. Sexeenties Sefier- 
iiums, value 468750 /. Max, lib. p. c. 1. 

JEfop the Tragedian Stage- player left unto his SonVucenties Sufierti- 
urn, value 1 5<5x^'fe /. 

And the Remains oi Crajf^s's Wealth- after the lOth. to Hercules, 
and his Publick Treat of the People of ^owe, and had given to all the 
Citizens 3 Months Com, vyere 7 100 talents^ value 133 1250 /. 


Mofiey or Cow, jo i 

The Koman Treafury taken from Captives and Enemies, began by 
Julius C£far, was M/Uks Sefiertmmj which is i ooooo Thoufand Se(i^ 
or 1 Million lOO Moco. and in value of our Money was 781250/. 

Emilius Taulut brought into the Treafury from the Macedonian Cap- 
tives, Bis MiVies Centies^ that is, two thoufand hundred thoufand H. S. 
or <.9f/Jfr/5 valued at 1(540525 /. 

The Money which at tive Triumphs was brought unto Julius Cxfar 
by the Captives, was Sexies, Millies Se(i. viz, fix Millions of Millions, 
value at 4682 500 /. 

Lentulus the Southfayer was worth before the Libertines impoverirti- 
ed him, i^mter Millies Sefiertium, viz. 4000 hundred H. S. valued at 

Julius C£far in the beginning of his Confulfliip, took out of the Ca- 
pitol 3000 /. of Gold, and put in fo much Brafs-money, valued at 

Anciochus to have peace with the Komans paid them 1000 T'alentr, 
value 28 11500/. 

And the Tribute laid upon the j^fians by Antonius was 20000 Ttjr- 
/e«/j, value 37500000/. 

Kormn Liquid Meafures Ifindrvere 
Cochlear five • " ■ ■ • • - ■ ■ 1 ■ » 

Ligulus «■"-— — ■ ■' - " ■■ " 4(5o8o» 

Cyathos ■ ■ . ^ i >^ . . 11510 

Acetabulum •»— — -i »■ ■■■> • . 7^80 

^artariaj - ■ ■ ■< '■ ^ ••. 3 840 

^ Hetninas ■■ — — — — i p2 o 

Sextarios ■ ■ » ■ ■' p6o 

Congios — — 1 60 

Modius — — ■ . * - do 

Vrna ■ ■ 40 

jimphota — -^ ■- ■ ' — m 20 

Cadus ' ■ " ■ ■ -i-— ■ . ■.,.» 13I 

Medimnus ^ ' - . > • 10 . 

Caukus -^ • " ■ ■ ' » » — ■ » I 

the Roman Meafures of Length noere, 

jyigitus" - ■ ■ I i ^ ■ 80000 

Pollex • ■■ — ^— i— »__— dooOG 

p, JtheLefs — "—*• " 20000 


0/ Money or Colnl 

Pes — 

Grejfus • 
Stadum — 

MilUre — 


' 33353 
•— — 2000 

— 1000 

Their Square Meafures were, i. ACtns minimus^ 4 foot broad, and 
120 long. T'izi. 480 Square feet. 2. Clima^zho\xt dofeetSquare. 3. Porc^, 
Apiece of Land 30 foot broad, and 120 foot long, containing 5<5oo 
Square feet. 4. Adlus ^adratus^ half an Acre, or 4 Porcas, 5. Jugerumy 
an Acre of Ground in length 2 40 foot, in breadth 1 2 o, which maketh 
28800 fquare feet. 6. Centuriaj 100 Acres, or 1 1520000 fquarefeet. 
7, Salmsi a Foreft or Land containing 4 Centuries, or 400 Acres, 

A Table of the Roman Tomd. 


— 6 pi 2 

— 1728 

— ' 57^ 
Scrupulum «— 288 

Drachma p^ 

Vficia '^-—^ 12 

Or by another Au- 
thor thus ; 
Grains — — >- 5040 
Oboles ' 5-04 
Vitioriatos ~— - 1 68 
Denarios • 84 
Ounces — — --- — 12 
L/^r^ I 

As^ JJbra^ Pondoi Solidut '-, a Pound was 12 Ounces Ir^j/ weight : 
So 1 alfo find) 

Grains ■ • " ■ • • 825 

Oboles — 

Denarios • 

— 3-7 

^nd the Ronian Talent to he. 


Ounces — 




- 1 500*^ the fame with 
10500 the Hebrevp 125/. 




of Monty or Com* 305 

Of the Grecian Coin. 

Darius Stater, having the Image of Sagitarim^ containhig 2 Drams, 
was worth 15 Shillings Englijh Gold. 

The Stater oi Cizicus weighing 28 Vrams^ was in value i pound, 
I (hilling. 
^ The Talent containg 60 Mina\ and every Mina a hundred Drams ; 
viz.. 6 thoufand Drams to a Talent^ was valued at 187 pound 10 (hil- 
lings Sterling. 

The greater 7'tf/e«/ of 8 thoufand Drams^ was valued at 250 pound 
fierling^ (b was the "Talent of Egypt. 

The Talent o( Babylon at 7 thoufand, was valued it 2 18 pound 15 
(hillings. The Talent o( JEgina at 3 12 pound id (hillings ; and that of 
Alexandrm containing 12 thoufand Drams ^ at 375 pound /?er//«g, 

l%e Grecian Siher Coins. 

The Stater oiUacedon was in value 2 /. $.d. farthing, and 2 thirds, 

The Stater oi Corinth, 1 s.S d.hdilf- penny fterling. 

TheDi^r^c^w«wwiththe Image of an Ox, was in value i /. 3^. 

The Drachma marked with Minerva*s Candle, weighing with the Ro- 
man penny, value)?er//>7^ 7 d.^. 

Of Grecian Dijlances: 

The DaBylus or Digitus, a fingers breadth " ' p<^ooo 

mhtugy^, the leffer Palm of four fingers breadth — — z+coo 

-S/jif/^awe the greater Palme I2 fingers breadth 8000 

Pes, 4. Palms 16 fingers, lefsthan the Koman foot by half 7 ^ 

an Inch, greater than the Hibrevo by one fourth S 

The Cubits were of 3 forts, z/iz,. of 18, of 20, and of 247 4.00a 

fingers in breadth ■ ■ J 

T.heOrgya, Pajfus, apace 5 d foot 4 Cubits — - — lOOQ 

Stradyum, Ordyjs, a furlong 100 paces, 400 cubits, doofeet • — ^ 8^ 
' Millare^ 8 Stradia or furlongs^ a Mile » _ - > • • ■ ," ■ .^^-^ i, 

•504 ^f Money or Coin, 

There was alfo the Tarafanga^ about twenty nine or thirty futlongs, 
and the 5c/;<e««/ which fome naake to be fixty furlong';, others bi>C 32 

The Grecian L^uui Meafures were^ 

The Amphora oi Attica^ containing 12 Choos<i 72 Ze^es or S(xtarios. 
Chus^ or Cotigiuj^ is fix Sextams : the Amphores half of a Metreta. 

Then there is the Cotile half a Sextaritti, the ^artarius a fourth of 
aSextariuf, Oxtbaphum an eighth, Chyathos the ^, Concha the ^\ oi a 
Stxtarius, Myfirum the ^, Chcmes the 55^ and Cochlear the 125 of a Sex- 

Of the Grecian Weights. 

The lefler T^/fM^ of fixty pounds, the Pound of twelire ounces and 
a half,-the Ounce of eight Drachms, the Drachm of three Scruples, 
the Scruple of two Oboles, one Obole of one and a half Lupine ; fo 
that a hundred Drachms of Aitica are ninety fix of the Roman ; And 
the lefler-pound of Jttica is but feventy five Drams, the greater hun- 
dred : one pound of the greater is i| of the leffer, and the greater Tu' 
Tm contain*^ So /. 

The Thyjtch Weights mentiojied hy Diofcorides and 


The Mina or Pound of fixteen Ounces, and the Libra or twelve 
Ounces, ninety fix Drachms, two hundred eighty eight Scruples, five 
hundred feventy fix Oboles, and fix thoufand nine hundred and 
twelve Grains. 

The parts of a Pound were Sextans two Ounces, ^adrans three 
Ounces, Tww/four Ounces, ^Icunx five Ounces, Selihra half a Pound, 
Sextwix feven Ounces, B:s eight Ounces, Dodrans nine Ounces, ViX- 
tans ten Ounces, Vemx eleven Ounces, d'c. 

For /^e ffcbrew Coins ^ 6cc. See Jeruraleni. 



Of the Coinf:, Weights and Meafures of the 
Chief Cities in Europe. 

Of Alicant. 

ALieant , feated on the Miditerraman Shore, is a Commodious 
Road for Shipping \ It affords Wines, Raifins, Licoris, An- 
nifeeds, Hard Soap, SodaBarrilla, and Almonds. 
TheCoins, are Livers^ Solds^ aiadPewifrj, 12 Vmiers vndikt 
a Sold^ 20 Solds stiver, which is about 5 d.Sterl. here are alfo Rials 
which they call Currant Money, a fingle Ri^/ being reckon*d above 6 d. 
Sterling: the Currant Money is of lefs worth than Plate from 7 to l<5 
per Cent, according to the Plenty or Scarcity of Pieces of Eight in the 

The Weights are theC^r^o, Quintal and Kove of 24 /. being i8 
Ounces; and the Kove of 3^/. being 12 Ounces: all grofs Commo- 
dities are weighed by 2 4. /, to the Rove^ and 4 Koves to the ^intal^ and 
2 ^intals and a half to the Cargo^ the ^intal p6 1, becaufe of 18 Oun- 
ces to the Pound, make 10^ Engli(h. 

Pepper, Cloves, all Spices, and other Commodities of Value, are 
(old by the Rove of 35 /. being 12 Ounces to the Pound, whofe <^/«- 
tal is 1 20 /. which is about 18 or 20 per Cent, lefs than the Englijh 1 12/. 
Here the Rove or Cantar is a quarter lefs than at Cadiz, or Mallaga. 

The Meafure is the ^<ir^, which makes 35 Inches Englijh and '. 
>• The dry Meafure is the Hanague^ whereof five make 8 Bufliel Englijh. 

The Wine Meafure. is the Cantar ^Vfhich. is about two Gallons Englijh. 

Note that 1 2 Barrachilia's is a Chiaze^which is equal with 4 Hommckj 
of Cadiz, or Mallaga. 

Salt at a Rial a Meafure ; you are according to Cuftom to have one 
Meafure for the Ships ufe without Money. 

Of Amfterdam. 

THIS City by reafon of its vaft Trade to Foreign Parts, affords 
plenty of all known Commodities in the World ; the feveral 
Commodities of Europe^ the Drugs, Spices and Silks oi Jfia^ the Pro- 
du^of ^frica^ and the Riches of America* 

R r Their 

^o& Of Coins, Weights J and Meafnres, 

Their Money or Coin is often inhanfed or debafed as they fee occa- 
fion, but commonly is found to be the fame as in the account at Ant" 
werp. Their Livre or Pound which is 10 s. Fkmi(h^ and 120 Stivers, - 
makes a Pound of Grofs, and 10 Stivers or Solds lurnois makes a Gil- 
der, which is commonly 2 /. Sterling •, and 6 Stivers is a Flcmijh Shil- 
ling, an J 5 Stiverj is reckoned as much as 6 d. Sterling. Eefides thefe, 
all Coins of Europe do here pafs currant, and are paid and received in 
Merchandize according to their value. The Vuccatoons are equal to 
10 Dutch Shillings, or 60 Stivers ; Patatoons are equal to 48 Stivers, 
or 8 Vntch Shillmgs. 

Their Weight is the Found of 1 6 Ounces^ 1 00 whereof makes their 
^intal^ which makes at London 108, or icp /. neat. 

Their Meafure is the E//, which is | of a Yard Englijh -, fo that 100 
Ells makes at London 74 Yards, or 60 EUs and a half, fomefay 5^ EUs. 

Of Antwerp, or Anvers. 

TH E former and Ancient Trade of this City was as great and emi^ 
rent as now Amfierdam is. 

Commodities here found, are Tapefiries^ Figures, Ccvctil Manufa- 
Buries^ and other the Commodities of F/W£r/. 

Their Accounts are here kept by Livres^ Solds and Beniers j which 
they term Pound, Shillings and Pence of Groflfes ; i x Grojfes making 
a Sold^ and 2 o Sold a Livre or Pound Flemijh. 

The Currant Money here, as generally through all the Spanijh Pro- 
vinces, are (befides the Spanijh and Imperial) Doits ; of which 8 makes 
a Stiver, and 6 Stivers a Shilling Flemijh't and 20 Stivers makes a Gil- 
der, 6 Gilders a Pound Flemi^ ; which is reckon'd for 1 2 j. Sterling, 
and 20 /. Sterling for 33 /. 4. d. Flemijh ; but in Exchange 'tis fome- 
times more than 3<5 s. Flemijh for a Pound Sterling. 

Their Weight is the ^intal of 100 /. of i<5 Ounces per 1. which 
makes at London 104. /. 

Their Meafure is the Ell Flemifh, which is one fourth of a Yard En- 
glijh, fo that 100 Ells Flemijh makes 60 Ells, or 75 Yards Englijh. 

Corn is fold by a Meafure called the Vertule, whereof 37 and a half 
makes a Laji at Amjierdam, -which is i o Quarters Engli(h. 

Wine is fold by the Stoop, the Jme, and the Butt'j 50 Stoops; is one 
Ame, and i^z Stoops is a B«» : the Stoop makes at London 7 Pfcts, and 
the yiwc, 42 G<i]!/(?n/ Wine- meafure. 

Of Coins y Weight Sy and Me afire si ^07 


BJlboa is a Town of great Trade, and much frequented by Mer- 
chants ; Seated two miles from the Oceao : Its Commodities 
are Fron, Chefnuts and Wool. 

The Coins are the fame as ufed throughout Spain. Vide Madrid and 

As to their Weights, they make ufe of two Kintals^ the one being 
100/. Subtle, which produceth at London ii i or 112 /. the other is 
only proper for Iron, which makes at London 128 /. 

Their Meafure is the VarCy of which 109 makes 100 Yards Enslijh. 

Corn is fold by the Hanega, 5 whereof makes a Quarter Englijh. 

Of Cadiz. 

HERE their Weight of Gold is more than in Italy^ the ?/(?o/Ls- 
ing two Grains heavier. To a Vobleon you mull: add 4 Grains ; 
to a double Vobleon you mufi: add 6 Grains. 

Of Copenhagen. 

Copenhagen^ the Seat of the Vanijh Kings in Wjnter 5 Commodities 
are Hides, Tallow, Stockfith, Armour, Cordage, Mails, Pitch, 
Tar, Deals/ Wainfcot, Buck-skins and Salt-fi(h. 

Coins here currant are the Dollars and Shillings ; 66 Shillings makes 
a Kix- dollar, which is 5 Shillings Sterling, 

They keep their Accompts by Marks of i<5 s. Banijh : and their Ex- 
changes are made by Kix-Vollars., which is the currant Coin of the 

Their Weights are the great and fmall Hundred, viz,- one of 120/. 
the other of 112 /. which are divided into 12 parts, or Stones, at 
10 1, per Stone. 

They have alfo a Skip-pound, which makes 32 Stone at 10 /. per 
Stone, which is 320 /. or 20 Lis- pounds of 16 pound mark, is a 
Skip-pound. And the 100 1. Englijh is found to be p2 at Copenhagen. 

Their Meafures I find no- where certain •■> the beft that I can fix upon 
iSj that 100 Yards Engli(h makes about 1^3 Ells there. 

Rr 2 Of 

308 Of Qoin^ Wtights^ unci Meafures, 

Of Conftantinople. 

CO/ijhntinopk is the Seat and Refidcnce of the Great furk^^ enjoying 
the Advantages of the Enxine and Mediterranean Seas ; of which 
'ris obferved, That the firll Emperor that Commanded it, was a Bald- 
winy and a Baldwin that loft it. That a Conjianjiine built it, a Gregory 
being Patriarch i and a Confiantine loft it, a Gregory being Patriarch : 
And it was gained by Mahomet, and a Mahomet (according to the Turk/ 
Prophecy) ftiall lofe it. 

The Commodities are Grograins, Camlets, Mohair, Carpets, An- 
iiifeeds, Cottons, Galls, &c. 

The Coins currant are Afpers, 80 whereof is accounted a Dollar, 
and 120 Afpers to the Sultanies of Gold : a Rial of 8 and a half is a 
Sultanie of God. The Lion Dollar at 75 Afpers. The German SeiimQ 
at 70 Afpers. The Rial of 8 for 80 Afpers. Sometimes the Sultanie, 
Hungar, or Chequin, is worth 10, 12, or 15 Afpers more than 80. 
iftd in Merchandize it doth pafs for po, 100, or 1 10 Afpers. 

Theienot tells us, that the Afpers are little pieces of Silver ftampt with 
the Grannd Signiors Name, and are worth about 8 Deniers, or 3 Far- 
things a-piece. The Ifoleite is worth 55 Afpers. The Jjfanies, or 
German Rix-Dollar, is worth 80 Afpers. The Piaftre or Picade of 
58 Sulsy is commonly worth po Afpers, fometimes but 80. And 
then the /^(fanie is worth but 75 Afpers. The Turkjjh Chequin is 
■worth 2 Viafters, The Venetian is worth 1 o Afpers more. And that 
a Purfe contains 500 Piajlers^ or 45000 Afpers. 

The Confer, which is i-yO Rottes^ the Rotte is 12 Ounces, the Ounce 
12 Drachms, the Drachm is i<5 ^irats^ the ^irat is 4 Grains. The 
Oqne contains 4C0 Drachms, I7<5 Drachms is a Lodero, and 100 Lo- 
deroes is accounted to be 42 Oqites^ and called a Q^intar , or Cantar^ 
which is 120 1. Englifh. 

Silk is fold by the Baleman, which is fix Oakj^ or 16 I. and one 
third Englijh -, but weighed by the Lodero^ 1 3 Loderocs^ and i J 2 Drachms 
makes a Baleman. 

The Mitigal, or Midical, is i Drachm and a half, which is 24 Kil- 
rats, 20 M/>?^^/x of Gold is 3 Ounces Englijh. ^ The C%w«, Sultanie, 
or Hungar ^ is 18 Kihts. 

The Meafure is the Picosy one of Cloth, 4 of which makes three 
Yards Englifh^ and is about 26 Inches and a half. 

The Second is tlie Grogram or Chamlet Pico^ containing 24 laches, 
^4 whereof makes 1 6 Yards Engltjh. 


Of Coift, Weights, and Meafares, 309 

Corn is fold by the /C/i/W, and weigheth about 20 Oa\s •, and eight 
Killowsand two thirds is a London Quarter. 

Wine and Oyl is fold by the Miter^ which makes 8 Oakf^ and is about 
two thirds of a Gallon EngUf^j. 

Of Cracovia. 

CKacovia^ tho the Metropolitan City of Poland^ yet of fmall account 
in Trade. 

Its Coins are the Gold Ducat, of the fame value of the HmgariaH 
Ducat. Grofzes, Orts, and Rix-dcllars, 18 GrofzmakeanOrt, 30 
Grofz make a Gilder or Florin, 6 Gilders make a* Ducat, 5 Orts of 
iSGrofz makes a Rix-dollar, and 4 Orts of 22 and a half Grofz 
makes a Rix-dollar, which in Specie is worth 40 Polifij Grofz, but in 
Buying and Selling it is accounted 3 6 Grofz. They make Contracts 
by Silver Gilders or Florins, but no fuch real Coin. 

The common weight is the pound, 13 d whereof is accounted a 
Quintar, which makes in London 114 pounds circa ; and the 100 
pound of London hath yielded here about 120 pound. 

The Meafureof Length is the Ell, which is half of theEngliJh Ell, 
but their Linnens are fold by the Shock, which contains 5-7 Ells and a 
half Englijh. 

Of Dantzick. 

DAn\zk\^ Seated about an E«^//'/^ Mile from the F^//icJ^ Shore, on 
the River Vijiula; the faireftCity, and greateft Trade of any in 
Truffta. Her Commodities are Wheat, Rye, Oats, Pot-afties, Clap- 
boards, Oats, Flax, Hemp, and Canvas. 

Their Coins are Dollars, Gilders, Grofz., and Pence. The Rix- 
dollar is worth QO Grofz, which is commonly valued at 4 j. <5 d. Ster- 
ling. A Gilder is worth 30 Grofz, and 18 of their Pence makes a 
Grofz. So that a Gilder is about i f. 6 d. Sterling. 

They keep their Accounts by Gilders, Grofz, and Pence. And they- 
reckon one great Mark is 2 Po///^ Gilders, and one PoUJh Gilder is 
worth two kiTcr Marks, one lefl^^r Mark is worth 15 Grofz, and the 
Grofz is 18 Pence. And a Grofz is worth 2| of a Farthing Sterling. 

Their Weight isthe Pound, whereof i 16 I. zxLondon makes loo/,. 
There is alfo theSkippoundjand the Lis-pound^ id or i4.Markr pound 

-3 lo Of Coins ^ Weights^ and Meafures. 

is one Lis-pound, and 2oLis-pounds makes one Skip-pound by the 
fmall Stone of 24 /. But there is a great Stone to weigh grofs Wares 
of 34. /. whercot 10 /. to the Skip-pound of 340 /. 

Their Mcafure for Length is the Ell, loo Ells whereof makes in 
London about 4p Ells. 

The Mcafure of Beer is the Fat, which contains 1 80 Stoops. 

The Meafurc of Corn is the Laft, which contains 60 Sheffels, 5^ 
whereof makes a Lafl in Jmfierdjm, or ic Quarters and a half Englijh. 
And 4 Sheffels make one Mud, which is the Shippuund of 34/. 

Of Florence. 

Florence is Seated on a Fruitful and Pleafant Plain, near the Conflu- 
ence of the River /^r/70 and C/jwn/, iirft built by 5y//j, made a Co- 
lony by the Triumviri ; razed by the Lombards^ Rebuilt by Charles the 
Great', bought its Liberty of Kodolphus ], andlaftly. Subject to the Me- 
t/ice/, now Dukes of Florence. 

The Commodities that this City producethjare the produd of the 
Dukedom, viz. Wines, Oyls, Silks both raw and wrought into feve- 
ralFabricks, as Taffaties, Sattins, Velvets, Pluflies, and Grograms. 
The Coins here currant are Ducats of 7 Livres /?cr Ducat, which is 
reckoned for 5 x. 3 ^. Sterling. The Livre is 20 Solds, which is valued 
p d. Sterling. The Livre fl alfo divided into 12 Craches^ whereof 8 is 
a Julio, which is 6 d. Sterling 5 5 Quatrinsis aCrach, and 60 Craches 
makes a Livre. 

'I hey keep their Accounts generally in Livres, Solds, and Dcniers, 
1 2 Deniers to a Sold, and 20 Solds to a Livre. 

The Weight is the Quintal, or 100 /. of 12 Ounces to the Pound, 
which 100 makes at London 78 /. 

The Meafure is the Brace, and 4 Braces is a Cane, and 100 Braces 
are found to make 48 Ells and a half, or 60 Yards and a half. 

Wine IS fold by thcCogno^ which is 10 Barrels, each Barrel 40 Me- 
tadels, or 10 Bottles, and the Barrel is to weigh 120 /. 

Oyl is fold by the Orcio or Barrel, and contains 32 Metadels, which 
(hould weigh 85 /. 

Wrought Silks are here fold by t'.£ Pound for Livres, and not by 


Of Corns, Weights, and Meafares, } it' 

- Of Frankford. 

FRranhford is a Free City, Famous for the Election of the Empe- 
rors, as alfo for two Fairs or Marts for Books, Annually kept, 
the one in Lent, the other in September. ^ - 

The Weight is the Pound of 1 5 Ounces , of which there is three 
Quintals, the one of loo /. for fine Goods, the other of 120 for 
grofs Goods, and the third of 1 32 /. for Food ; the 100 /. makes at 
London 1 08 /, , • . 

The Meafures of Length are two, one for Linncn, the other for 
Woollen, both Ells differing about two per Cent. lOO Ells whereof 
make at London about 48 Ells. 

Of Genoua. 

THIS City is Inhabited by the greateft Money- Mongers in Europe.. 
Their Coins here currant are Deniers, whereof 12 make a Sold, 
4 Solds a Chavalet, 5 Chavalets, or 20 Solds , a Livre , which is 1 j. 
4 d,. Sterling, po Solds makes a Crown of Gold, a Ducat in Silver 

is 4 Livres. 1 t^ . r» 

They keep their Accompts by Livres, Solds and Deniers. 20 De- 
niers is a Livre, and 5 Livres a piece of Eight. Here note, that a piece 
of I currant Money is worth but p6 Solds. But St. Georgej weighed 
1C4 Solds. 

Their Weight is the Pound of 12 Ounces, and 2 5 Pound is a Roue, 
6 Roues is a Kintal 5 and 1 00 /. Genoua is 7 o /. | EngUJh ; and i Pound 
Englifh is 1 7 Ounces Genoua 5 and 112/. Englip is 58 /. Genouji. And 
the Quintal is 100 Rotelles, which makes 150 fmaller Pounds, and is 
106 I. Erglijh. The grofs Quintal of 1 50 /. is of 18 Ounces to the 


The Meafure is the Cane, which is of two forts, one for Silk, which 
is of 9 Palms, whereof 100 makes 26 Yards Englifh-, the other for Lin- 
nen and Woollen is of 10 Palms,and makes 2 | Yards English. 

Wine is fold there by^the Miferold, whereof 5 makes a Botta di- 
mina, and two Barrels makes a Miferold, which is 100 Pints. 

Oyl is fold by the Barrel, 14 whereof makes a Tun of 236 Gallon* 
to the Tun.- 


312 0/ Cow, Weight Sy a?jd Meafires, 

Of Hamburgh. 

HAmhurgh is a Free City of the Empire, enjoying the Priviledgeof 
a Hanie-Town ; the Haven is guarded with an Iron Chain, the 
City adorned with nine Churches, a Senate-Houfe, and Exchange. 

The Merchants Exchange here for London by the Pound Sterlings 
for other places upon the Rix-dollar, at 54 Stivers. 

A Dollar is here faid to be worth 3 Whit-peiice, one Whit-penny 
is worth 18 Shillings, one Shilling to be 12 pence, and one Penny two 
Hellers. A Mark is 16 Stivers, and 7 Marks and a half is 20 /. F/e- 

Their Weight is the Pound, 120 whereof is their Quintal, and 
makes at London 107 or lop /. 

The Meafure is the Ell, 100 whereof makes at London 48 Ells and 
a half, and 100 Yards at London makes about 162 and a half, or 153 

Corn is meafured by Schepel , po making a Lafl, and 83 Schepels 
is I o Quarters Englifh. 

Of Legorn, or Livorn. 

Commodities are Oyls, Wines, Silks raw and wrought, Anchoves, 
Annifecds, Rice, Argal, with other Italian Commodities. 

Coins are Quatreens, 5 whereof make one Scratch or Craca , 
1 2 Scratches or Craca 's is one Livre, which is p d. Englifh^ 8 Craca's 
is one Julio, which is 6 d. Lnglijh^ 6 Livres or p Julio's is one Dollar, 
which varieth according to the Exchange ; 7 Livres is a Ducat, which 
is 5 X. p d, Englifh, And 7 Livres | is a Scudoe , or Crown D'oro, 
which is 5 i-. 7 d.l Sterling. 

The Accompts are kept in Dollars, Solds and Deniers, 12 Deniers 
to a Sold, and 20 Solds to a Dollar. Charges of Goods are kept in 
Livres, Solds and Deniers, and brought into pieces of 1 1 5 Solds per 
piece, which is called fhort Money, of which 5 Livres and 3 quarters 
is a Dollar, and 6 Livres or 120 Solds makes a Dollar, which is called 
Long- Money. Exchanges are with London for $6 s. d. per piece. 

Marfeilles for 60 Surneife per piece. Naples Ducats p2 for Pieces 

100 Venice Ducats Debank, 1055 for Pieces 100. with Solds, 113 for a 


Of Co'm^ Weight Sy and Meafares. ^ i j 

Commodifies fold by the Pound 12 Ounces. All forts of Silks in 
Julios, Cloves, Cinamon, Indigo, Cochineal, Storax , Benjamin 
Manna, and all other Drugs in Livres. Jf^w^j Hides, in Solds. 

Commodities fold by the Kintal ; Pepper, finamon Caffia, Lig- 
num, Nutmegs, Wax, Tinn, in Ducats. Gotten- wool, Cotfen- 
yarn, Ginger, in Ducats ; Gawles in Livres. Commodities fojd by 
the 1000 /. 

Lead, Campeach, Faxumbuck, in Ducats 5 Pot-a(hes in DolUrs, 
Sugars of all forts by the Kintal of 1 5 1 Vound in Scudoes or Crowns. 
Newfound- Land- Fi(h by the Kintal of 160 I in Julio's 5 Herrings By 
the Barrel, and Pilchards by the Hogfhead in Dollars, 

Their Weight is the Pound of 12 Ounces, of which 15 and a half 
makes the Pound Englifh, fothat their Quintal of 100 /. is 77 /. three 
Oune* I Enghffr^ or 145 /. there , is 112/. Englijh: By a late Ac- 
compt I find that their Kintal of 100/. makes 76/. Englijh., and 148/. 
there,is about 112 Englifh i and that their Kintal of Sugar is 151 /. a 
Kintal of Fifti 160 of their Pound. 

The Meafures of Le^rn^ 4 Braces makes a Lane, which is 2 Ells 
Englijh j 8 Braces is 5 yards Englijh. 

The Quintal of Allom is 130 /. which makes 100 /. 6 Ounces { 

The Quintal of Wool is 160 I. and makes 123 /. | Englijh^ 
Corn -Meafurc is a Stax, 3 Staxes is a Sack, 8 Sacks, or 24 Stars, 
is Moggio. A Stax, if the Corn be good, will weigh 50 1. Englijh^ 
3 Sacfes and three quarters makes the Englijh Quarter. 63 Mina's at 
Genma makes 100 Sacks at Legorn^ and 12 Mina's makes a Tun of 
40 Bufhels Winchcfter Meafure. 

Wine is fold by the Coyno, which is 10 Barrels, one Barrel is 
20 Flask, and 2 Mettidals is a Flask. .. - 

Oyl is fold by the Oxcio or Barrel, and ftiould weigh § 5 /. and hold 
32 Mettidals. 

Coxal and Colchefter Bays are fold by the Cayne in Livres, Serges 
and Perpetuanbes, Sayes, &c. are fold by the piece for Dollars. 

Of Lions. 

Lions is feated upon the Conflux of the Kofne and Soane^ is famous 
for its Trade of Silks, and for Exchanges. Their Coins currapt, 
and Accompts keeping, are the fame with Parif. 

For vVeights, I find three forts, viz. The King's weight, the Towns 
weight, and the Sills weight. 

S f The 

314 Of Coin^ Weights^ and Me afttres. 

The Town-weight is lOO /. of 1 6 Ounces, which maketh at London 
96 I. 

The Meafure is the Ahie, 7 whereof makes in London p Yards, fo 
that 'tis about a Yard and quarter at London, 

Of Lisbon. 

Commodities are, Honey, Wine, Oyl, Fruits, Fidi, Salt, white 
Marble, Allom -, and betides Drugs, Spices, Cottons, Callicoes, 
Precious Stones, Silks, and other Eaft-lndia^ Perfia, Arabia^ and China 

Coins are a Vintin, which is 20 Res, or 5 d. Sterl. A Rial, which 
is 40 Res, or two Vintin, 6 d. Sterl. A Teflon is 100 Res. 400 
Res is an Old'Crufado or Crown. 500 Res is a New CruflBo or 
Crown. ^00 Res is a Piece of Eight. looo Res is a Mill Rea. 

Weights are J 6 Ounces to a Pound. 32 Pound is a Roue. 4 Roues 
is a Kintal, 54 Roues is a Tun. This weight is 2|, or 3 per Cent, 
greater than the Englifh. The Quintal, whkh is of two forts, the 
greater Quintal, whereby they weigh Sugars and all Spices, except 
Pepper and Cinnamon, is divided into four Roues, each Roue being 
32 /. which is 128 /. at 16 Ounces to the Pound, and is bigger than 
the Ew^/?/& hundred by I <5 /. 

Pepper is fold by the Quintal of 121 /. which is juft our Hundred, 
and Cinnamon by the Quintal of 1 28 1. Englj(h. 

Meafures are of two forts, the one is the Vare for Linnen, -Silk, or _ 
Stuffs > and in meafuring, to every Vare is given an Inch; fo that the 
Vare is 42 Inches and three quarters, which is almoft an Ell Englifh, 

The other, called the Coveda , maketh three quarters of a Yard 
Englifh, and to this there is no advantage given. 

Meafure for Corn is the Alquier, three of which makes a Buihel of 
W^irtck/fer Meafure, and 5 of the Alquiers makes theHanaque, 15 AU 
quiers makes a Tun of Brifiol Water- meafure, 60 Alquiers makes a 
Moy of Salt. 100 Moysof Salt is 33 Weys Englijh, 3 Alquiers makes 
aBuQiel, 13 Chants makes an AUrouden, and 52 AHmudens is a Tun 
of Wine. 

Of London. 

WHEN Julim Cafar firft entred this Ifland, certain Iron Rings 
were currant inftead of Money > afterwards the Romans 
brought in theUfe of Gold, Silver, and Biafs Coins, 


Of Cow f Weis^hts^ and Meafires, 2i^ 

In the time of Richard ih^ Firft, pure Money was Coined in the Eail 
of Gfrw^wy, whereof fome of fhofe Eafterlings were Tent over for, and 
employed in his Mint ; from thence our Money was called Eajierling^ 
or Sterling^ Money, as fome think 5 hut others fay, of the Saxon word 
Ster^ weighty. 

The Coins here, and throughout all England^ as well Gold as Silver, 
arc feveral, and of a different value, but all reduced to Pounds, Shil- 
lings, and Pence i all Coined of Gold and Silver •, only in relation to 
the Neceffityof the Poor, and Exchange of great Money, s^ fmall piece 
of Brafs, called a Farthing, or fourth part of a Penny, hath been per- 
mitted to be Coined, but no man enforced to receive it in piy for 
Rent or Debt, which cannot be faid of any other State or Nation in 
the world befides. Four Farthings make a Penny, ix Pence a Shil- 
ling, and 20 Shillings a Pound Sterling. 

No Monies in any Mint are made of pure Gold and Silver, becaufe 
they are too flexible, and therefore allayed with Copper. The Stand- 
ard of Crown Gold is 22 Carrats of fine Gold, and twoCarrats of 
Allay in the Pound-weight Iroy^ which is divided into 44 parts and a 
half, each part is to pafs for 20 x. and the half part for 10, which is 
44 /. 10 /. the Pound Troy. The Allay of fome Gold Coins is all Sil- 
ver, as the Guinea Gold, which renders the Gold Coins fome more 
white, fome more yellow. The Standard oi Sterling Silver is 1 1 Ounces, 
and 2 penny- weight of fine Silver, and 18 penny-weight of Allay of 
Copper out of the fire; fo that 12 Ounces of pure Silver without any 
Allay, is worth 3 /.4 /. 6 d. and an Ounce is worth 5 s. 4. d. half- 
penny, but with Allay it is worth but 3 /. and the Ource 5 /. 

Of Weights there are two forts ufed throughout all England^ viz* 
Troy Weighty and Avoirdupoife Weight, 

r Pound Troy *) f 1 2 Ounces. 

IThe Ounce 
Penny weight 

20 Penny weight. 
24 Grains. 

TheMonyers divide the<{ Grain }>into'{ 20 Mites. 

. Perit 

24 Droites. 
20 Per its. 
L24 Blanks. 

'Tis alfo divided into 2 4 parts, which are called Carrats, To that 
each Carrat is 10 pennyweight Troy., orhalf an Ounce. And this Car- 
rat is divided into four parts, which are called Carrat- grains i fo that 
the Carrat-grain is two penny weight and a half,or 60 ordinary Grains^, 

S f 2 fo 

mce, C 
nd. J 

^ t6 0/ Coirty Weights, and Meifttrts\ 

fo there are 480 Grains in the Ounce, and 57<5o Grains in the Pound. 
By this weight arc weighed Pearls, precious Stones, Gold, Silver, 
Bread, and all manner of Corn and Gjain, and this weight the Apo- 
thecaries do or ought to ufe, tho by other Denominations their leaft 
weight is a Grain, 

20 Grains 1 r a Scruple, "^9 

3 Scruples V 1 Ja Dram, 

8 Drams C ' jan Ounce 

12 Ounces 3 expound. J Ife 

'Avoirdnpoife Weight \sxtA\xQC^ intofeveral Denominations, wt.Tuns, 
Hundreds, Quarters, Pounds, and Ounces 5 fo that 

1 6 Ounces 2 C a Pound, 

28 Pound C '^^j^^g ^a Quarrer, 

4 Quarters C ^a Hundred, or 112/. 

20 Hundred J C^a Tun. 

By this weight are weighed all Grocers Ware, FIe(h,Butter,Cheefe, 
Iron, Hemp, Flax, Lead, Steel ; alfo all things whereof comes wafte. 
All Meafures in Ew^/^w^are either Applicative, or Receptive. 
The fmalkft Applicative Meafure is a Barley Corn, whereof, 

3 In Length 1 fan Inch. 

12 Inches j j a Foot. 

3 Foot 

I Yard and a quarter | 

1 Foot and a half 1 

2 Cubits j* makes ^ a Yard. 

a Yard, 
an Ell. 

a Cubit. 

5 Foot 

6 Foot 

1(5 Foot and a half 
1 4. Perch j 

a G. ometrical Pace, 
a Fathom. 

a Perch, Pole, or Rod. 
a Furlorg 

8 Furl, or 3 2 o Perches j |_ a Mile Eitglifl}. 

So that a Mile, according to the Statute of Hjwry the Seventh, ought 
to be 63360 Inches, 1760 Yards, 1056 Paces, 320 Pole, or 5280 
Foot, that is, 280 Foot more than the Italian Mile j 60 Miles more 
exactly, 6p and a half, makes a Degree, and 360 Degrees, 012^020 
Miles compafs the whole Globe of the Earth, 


of Com J Wei^hts^ and Mt afire si ^if 

Receptive Meafures are two- fold : Firft of Liquid or moift things: 
Secondly, of dry things, whereof about a Pound Avoirdupoife make a 

2 Pints 

2 Quarts 

2 Pottles 

8 Gallons 

2 Firkins 

2 Kilderkins, or 32 Gallons 

p Gallons 

2 fuch Firkins, or 18 Gallons 

2 fuch Kilderkins>or 3 <5 Gallons 

1 Barrel and half, or 5 4 Gallons 
2"* HogQiead 

2 Butts, or 2 Pipes 

^ makes <{ 

'a Quart, 
a Pottle. 
a Gallon, 
a Firkin of Ale. 
a Kilderkin. 

Barrel of Ale. 

Firkin of Beer. 


Barrel of Beer. 


Butt or a Pipe. 



Confifting of 1728 Pints or Pounds; and a Barrel of Butter or Soap 
is the fame with a Barrel of Ale. The Englijh Wine-meafures are fmal- 
ler than thofe of Beer or Ale, and hold proportion as four to fii'e ; fa 
that four Gallons of Beer-meafure are five Gallons of Wine-meafure, 
and each Gallon of Wine is eight Pound T'roy weight 5 fo that a Kound- 
Ict of Wine holds eighteen Gallons, half a HogQiead thirty one Gal- 
1 ons and a half, a Teirce of Wine holds forty two Gallons, a Hogfhead 
iixty three Gallons, a Punchion eighty four Gallons, a Pipe or Butt a 
hundred twenty fix, and a Tun two hundred- fifty two Gallons, or 
two thoufand and fixteen Pints. 

Dry Meafures are thofe in which any kind of Dry Goods are mea- 
fured , as Corn , Coal , Salt, &c. of which there is the Pint ; two 
Pints make aQaart, two Quarts a Pottle, two Pottles a Gallon, two 
Gallons a Peck, four Pecks a Bufhel, four Bufhds a Comb or Cur- 
iiock, two Combs a Quarter, four Quarters a Chaldron, five Quarters 
a Weigh, ten Qairters a Lafi or Weigh, which contains 5120 Pints; 
where note, that the Corn Gallon is bigger than the Wine Gallon, 
and lefs than the Ale or Beer GallQn, and is in proportion to them as. 
33 to 28 and 35, and is counted 8 pounds Troy '^vcl^ht. 


2iS Of Coin, Weights, a»d Meafires, 

Of Lubeck. 

IT S Coins currant are the Rix-VoVars, worth 48 Sthen ; the Mer- 
chants VoVar at 33 Stiversy the Slecht-Voliar at 32 Stivers^ the Mark 
at 1 5 Stivers., thcGuld is one Mark and S Stivers ', the Realls 2 Marks 
and 1 4 Stivers, and 5 of their Stivers is 6 d. Sterlings and one Stiver is 
1 2 Fenning. 

Their Weight is the Pound, of which is made a Ccwfner and a Schip- 
pound, one Schip- pound is 20 Lis- pound, or 2 80 /. i Centner is 8 Lis- 
pound. A Tun of Salt is 20 /. A Stone of Flax is 20/. A Stone of 
Wool is 10/. one Pound is 16 Ounces, or 32 Lodt. 

Their Meafure is the Ell, 8 whereof make in London 5 Yards. 


0/ Madrid. ' 

\Adridy the Court of Spain^ and greateft Village in the World : 
^ , J. The Coins here, are the general Coins of Spain^ viz,, the Vucat^ 
which is 375 Mervedes in Exchange, and is called by fome the Voblon 
of Ca^ile. The Ca(liliano which is worth 485 Mervedes. 

The Florin of Caliile worth 26'^ Mervedes. 

The Spanijh Ducat hath eleven Kials of Plate, and a Rial is 34 Mer- 
vedesy a Ducat is generally valued about y /. ^ <i. Englijh, and the Kwi 
at 6 pence. 

0/ Malaga, 

M.^/4^<«, Seated on the Mediterranean, abounds in Raifins and Wine. 
Their Moneys are general with all Spain. 
They generally keep their Accompts in Beillon or Brafs money, by 
Rialsy Vnckfts and Mervedes. 3 4 Mervedes make a Rial of Beillon^ which 
according to the Law of the Kingdom (hould be worth 50 in the Hun- 
dred lefs than a Rial of Plate or Silver, upon the accompt 1 00000 
Maravedis are worth about 61 I. Englifh. But becaufe the Silver Coin 
in Spain is now Cent, per Cent, better than the Money of Be/il/o;;, which is 
moft part of Copper, 100000 Maravedis is worth but half of that Mo- 
ney : So that Beillon is not intrinfecally worth fo much as the Prince 
puts upon it. 


of Coin ^ W eight Sy and Meafisres, J 19 

Their Weight is the ^intal or C. which they divide into four Kows 
or Parts of 2 5 /. at 16 Ounces per pound , each Ounce contains 
16 Drachms, each Drachm 28 Grains ; and this ^i«f^/ or C. makes 
in London 106 AverdupoU, 

Their Meafure is the Fare^ of 32 or 38 Inches EngUfh. 

Wine-meafure is a Roue, which is divided into eight fmall Meafures 
called Sombref, and is in England four Gallons, and 2 5 of thefe fill a 
Pipe, which is a hundred Gallons Englifh. 

Oyl~nfieafure is the Roue of 2 5 /, 

Dry- meafure is the Hjncqne, which is divided into two AlmodeSy 
making one Bulhel and a half in weight by heap 14.4. /. by Strike, 
^p 1. Englijh. 

Meffena Weighs and Meafttres. 

TWelve Ounces is a Pound by which Silk is fold. 2 Pound \ makes 
zKottela 100 pound , that is between 70 and 71/. Englijh^ and 
100 Rottelas makes a common Cantar^ which is 176 /. Englijh. 

Of its Meafure : 8 Palmes makes a C<a«e, which is reckoned 2| yards 
Englijh, but found above 84 Inches. 

Coins are, 20 Grains, or 2 Carleens is a tarrie, which is 5 d. Ster- 
ling, ^o Tarries make an Ounce, which is 12 s,6 d. Sterling. 1 1 Tiir- 
ries is a Crown, or Scudo, which is 5 j. Sterling. 1 1 Tdrr/w is com- 
monly reckoned a PoiI/<ar, as Exchange. 

Accompts are kept in Ounces, Tarries and Grains, 20 Grains to a 
Tarrie, and 3 o Tarries to an Ounce. Perpetuanoes are fold by the piece 
for Crowns. Cloth, Bays, &c. by the Cane for Tarries. Pepper, 
Indigo, by the Cantar, for Ounces. Lead and Iron by the Cantar for 
Crowns. And Silk of all forts by the Pound, for Tarries. 


THEIR Currant Money are the Imperial Coins v other Coins, as 
Spanifh , French and halian^ pafs here in Merchandize. The 
Crown of the Gold of the Sun is worth ^6 or 5)8 Sol j the Ducat of 
Gold is in Circa a hundred Sol j the Ducat Imperial is valued at four 
Livres', a Crown of Gold Italian is five Litres and fix Sol Imperial 5 
and the Crown paffeth in Commerce for a hundred and ten Solsy and 
the Ducat for as much. 


^iO Of Coin y Weight Sy and Meafures, 

Weight is the ^intal of a hundre^J pound, Which makes at London 

feventy pound. 

Meafure is the Brace , a hundrsd whereof makes at London forty 

three Eils. 

0/ Mar fellies . 

AT Marfeilles the loo pound is in Engtrjh 88 /. 5, and S Palmt 
makes a Cane, which is 2 Yards I Englijh, The Mnld of Corn 
is 6o Bulhels, or 7^ Quarters Englifh, 

Of Mofcow. 

THeir Coins a^c the Cuppeck^, (en whereof make a Gnven, and ten 
Gnvcns is a Kuhle, which is about 8 /. Sterling, by fome 10 /. 
Sterling. There is alfo the Altine , by whicli name all Receipts and 
Payments are made, 33 whereof, and one Crapeck^, makes a Rubble^ 
which is an Imaginary Coin, and not Real-, 3 Cuppcch^ makfr'an 
yilthie. ^ _ ' -^^rjivs:^ 

Weight is the Zelotneck^, of which niticty lix make a pound, ^ fotty 
pound ^Poad, and ten PW ^Bercovet'-, fo their Pood is thirty -five 
pound Eng/ifh. ^} y^ 

Meafure is called an Archine, which is about 27 Inches in Cifea, IB 
that a hundred Archines are found to make about feventy five Yards 

Of Napks. 

THeir Commodities are Wines, Oyl«, Silks raw and wrought, 
SaffroUj Almonds, Argal, Brimftone and Annifeeds. 
Their Coins are, fix Cavals, or Cavallaf, makes a Turnefej two 7«r- 
mffei a Grain, ten Grains a Carline, two Carlims ^ Tarrie, and 5 7ar' 
ties a Ducat 5 which is 5 j. Sterling. / ;'• ' ^; -*^' 

Their Weight is a pound of twelve Ouiites, Which makes eleven 
Ounces I E/;^/i/fc, or 5^, fo that a hundred pound there produceth 
7 I pound Englifh. A VoUar is valued at p6 Grains according to Ex- 
change. 6 Ducats make an Ounce, by which the Cuftoms are rated. 
All Goods paying pi Grains per Ounce, according to the value. Ac- 
compts are kept in DucatSj Tarries and Grains, 20 Grains to a Tarrie, 
and 5 Tarries to a Ducat. 


Of Coin J Weights J and Meafureti J2i 

The Rotuh is thirty three Ounces and a half, a hundred Kottelloes is 
the Cantar of 277 /. which produceth ip6 I. at (ixteen Ounces />er 
pound in London. 

Oyl is fold by the Salmo, five and a half is reckoned for a Tun, 
which is 2 3 <5 Gallons Englijh. 

0/ Nuremburg. 

THeir Weight is the Pound of fixteen Ounces, of which ate two 
feveral ^intals^ the one of a hundred pound, the other of a 
hundred and twenty pound ; and the hundred makes dit London a hun- 
dred and eleven pound. 

Their Meafure is the Ell, a hundred whereof makes at London about 
fixty three Ells. • 

0/ Paris. 

PAri^ is one of the three Cities in France where Exchanges art made, 
and gives the Rule in matter of Coin to the other Cities. 

The Coins here, as generally through France^ are Venters^ twelve 
whereof makes a Sol , and twenty Sols a Litre j and by thefe they 
keep their Accompts. 

But the common Coins are the Gold and Silver Lems^s^ the .Gold 
Lervis weighing eleven Vemers^ and twelve Grains, the fame weight 
with the Spantfh Pijioly and the fame Standard ; once it was ten LivreSj 
now it palTeth for eleven Litres ; the French Livre is commonly reckon- 
ed to be one Shilling lix pence Sterlings and the Golden Lewi/ 16 s. 
6 d. Englifh. » 

The Silver Lew?/ weigheth twenty one Denitrs^ and twelve Grains, 
little more than a Spantfh piece of Eight, and about the fame Standard, 
and now goeth for three Livres , or fixty Sols , and is accounted for 
4 /. 6, d. Englifh -, but the Par in Exchange is fometiraes lefs than y5, 
fometimes more than 72 ^. Sterlings for a Crown French. 

Their Weight is the ^intal of a hundred pound, at (ixteen Ounces 
to the pound , which makes at London a hundred and ten pound 

Their Meafure is the Mne, which makes about forty five Inches 

T t Of 

,2a Of Com, Weightif and Medfitres, 


RIG Ay an Archbifliop*s See, and of great Commerce. Commo- 
dities here found, are Hemp both Rine and Pafs, Flax^ Ofens and 
String- flax. Clap- hoards j IVainfcots^ Oars^ Potafljcf, &c. 

Coins are RixdoUars^ Guilders^ and Grofz't thirty Gr^/z is a Guilder^ 
three Guilders a Dollar ; and a Guilder is one Shilling and fix pence Ster- 
ling, as vulgarly reckoned. 

Weight is the pound, whereof twenty make a Lifpmnd; and twen- 
ty Lifpound 2L Ship'pomd^ which is three hundred and a quarter £«g/zy^. 

Meafure is the Ell, whereof a hundred fixty fix and a half make, a 
hundred Yards Englifh. 

Of Roan. 

THE Kintal at Roan in Normandy is 104 /. Englifh lip. I. The 
-^M/;7e is 4<5 Inches Englijhi but for Linnen is allowed i^Aulnes, 
for 20. 

. Two Venters make a Voohle, 12 Venters make a .S'f^w/, 20 Sous make 
a Lzf re, which is i /. <5 ^. Englifh^ and is called a Fr<zn/^ j <^o 5<?//, or 
3 Lwe/ is a French Crown , or Lems , which weighs 2 1 Venters, 
22 Grains, and is 4 j. d d, Englifh. 

Of Rome. 

THeir Coins are Vucats or Crowns of Gold, which is worth eleven 
Julios or Ptf«/(?/ ; the Crown of Silver is worth ten Julios, the 
Julio is worth ten Bajoches^ or forty ^atrinsj the Bajoche is worth one 
^<?/6^ four Veniers fmall Money of R(?me. 

Their Weight is the ^nintal of a hundred pound, which makes in 
London eighty pound. 

Their Meafures are two,the one for Woollen, the other for Linnen ; 
the one is the Cane^ and eight Palms make a Cane, and thirty Canes is 
fifty live Ells and a half Englifh. 

The other is the Brace^ which is three Palms and a half of the faid 


Of Cow y Weight Sy md Meafires, ^23 

Of Sivil and Cadiz, 

SIvil is the faired: City of all Spahh and of the greateft Trade. 
Ifs Commodities are Wool, Silk and Oranges, Gold, Silver, 
Tobacco, Ginger, Cottons, Sugar, &c. being the produdt of the We- 
ftern Indks. 

The Merchants keep their Accompts as in other places of <S'/'^iw, in 
Mtrvedes and KUls j and the Exchanges are made upon the imagina- 
ry Vncat of 375 Mervedes^ which is fcmething above 5 j. 6 d. Sterling. 
But the Rial in Sivil is worth but 34 Mervedef, and fo fome keep their 
Accompts in Kids of 54 Mervedes to the Rial, which is about 6 pence 
EnglijTjy and fo it is generally eileemed throughout all Spain. 

TheVoblon oiCaftikls worth 375 Mervedes, but the Voblon currant 
of Carline Money is |j Mervedes. 

3 4 Mervedes is a Kial. 8 Rials is a piece of Eight , and 3 2 Ri^/x is 
a Single Piilol. 64 2?zW/ is a Double Piftol. 

Note, tliat there is an Advance of 6 per Cent, on Pieces of | above 
8 Rials. And 2 Rials Beillon is one Rial of Plate. 
■ Their Weight is the Kintal of 100 /. Subtle, at 4 Roves to the Kin- 
tal, each Rove being 25 /* which /Owf^/ is faid to make about 108 /. 
in Englifh. 

The Common Meafure is the Vare, a hundred whereof makes in 
London 74 Ells. 

Liquid Meafure is the Rovel^ which is about ^Gallons Englifh. Four 
^arteels is a Somar. 8 Somars is a Kot^e for Oyl and Wine. A Ha- 
naga of Corn is a Bufhel and half Englijh. 

Of Stockholm. 

. / 

STockJjolm is feated in watry Marihes, upon the Lake MeVar^ fecured 
by the two Forts^ M^axholm and Vigne , belides fortified with a 
ftrong Caftle, wherein are faid to be 400 Brafs Guns. 

Her Commodities are Iron, Steel, Copper and Lead, and other Mi- 
nerals •, alfo Honey, Wax, Tallow, Hides, from Mofcovp. 

Coins are the fame generally current in all Srviden, viz. Vohrs, 
which are divided into Marks, 8 whereof makes a Dollar, by which 
they exchange with other Countries. 

Their Weight and Meafure is the fame, as far as I can find, with 

T t 2 Of 

^24 of Coifty Weight Sy and MeafureSi 

Of Vienna. 

THeir Weight is the pound, which in feme Comnnodities is divi- 
ded into 32 C)oteSy and infonne into 28 Pints j the 100 /, doth 
m ke at London 123 /. in Circa. 

Their ivleafurcs are two, the one for Linnen, the other for Wool- 
len; the hundred Yards at London makes here a hundred and three 
Ells in Linnen, and a hundred and thirteen Ells in Woollen. 

Their Exchange is by RixdAIars of eight Shillings Fkmijh^ and by 
Vucats of Gold at twelve Shillings Flemifh. 

Of Venice. 

TKeir Commodities are Wines, Oyl, Rice, Paper, Quick- filver, 
Looking glafs , Annifeeds, Venice-Treacle, Aloes, Silk; the 
Commodities oi Turkic^ and the produ<^ oi India, Perfu^ yirabta and 
Egypt. _ * - 

Accompts are kept here by Tome in Livres^ Sols and Grofzes^ reckon- 
ing 12 Venters Grolz to the Sols^ and 20 Sols to the Liire^ 5 Sol and 
2 Venters is a Grofz^ and 24 Grofz makes a currant Vncat, which is fix 
Livres 4 Sols, 

By others in Vucats and Grofzes, at 6 Livres and 4 Sols per Vucat, 
reckoning 2^Grofz> to a Ducat. 

Others by Livres , Sols and Venters of Tictoliy which is the currant 
Coin of the City. 

The Vucat of Gold is worth 24 Venters ; the Livre o(Grofzes are of 
two forts, one de Banco^ ufually valued at 4 j. 4 d. Sterling.,' the other 
at 3 /, 4 d. which varieth according to the life and fall of Money in 

By the Monthly Accompt of 1687, 'tis faid that the Ducats which 
were worth 7 Livres., will go henceforward for no more than 6. The - 
Tiflols which were valued at 1 1, are fet at p Livres 12 Solsj and the 
reft proportionable. 

Their Weights are of 4 forts, the 100 1. Grofz is 158 1. Subtle^ and 
106 Englijk. 

The J 00/. Subtle (ot fine Goods, is 83 /. and a half Gro/^, and 
makes at London 6^1, fome fay 66. And i(yo Lnglijh is \'yi Venice 

The ICO /. of Silver or Gold Thread is \\6 I, 8 Ounces Subtle. 

The other is for Silver, Gold and Gemms. 


of Com^ Weights^ and Meafurei, 315' 

Their Meafures are two, called the Braces, the one for Silks, Da- 
mask, &c. of which 5 Braces makes 3 Yards EngHJh, or one Brace is 
22 Inches g Englifk, 

The other for Stuffs, Linnen, (^5. whereof 5 m^kes 2 Ells and a 
half Eng/i/^, or the Brace is 25 En^lifh Inches. 

Wine is fold by a Meafjre called the Amphora^ which is 4 Bi'^orz'.ts ; 
the BigorZ'X is 4 Quarts,. the Quart 4 -S'.zc/pzex, the^^c/^ie 4 len^. 

Oyl is fold as well by weight as meafure, the Meafure is called the 
MirO:, which makes by rneafure 25/. and by weight 30 /. 3 Ounces. 

Of the Coins, Weights and Meafures of the 
Chief Cities in Afia. 

Of Arabia. 

TH E Money of Arabia is called Lar'ms^ and ate in value as 
one of the French Crowns, only they want in weight 8 Sous 
of the Frewcib Crown, or Rial of Spain^ which is about 14 
^er Cent. lofs. Thefe Larms are the Ancient Coins of Afia^ 
but only currant in Arabia, and at Balfera, and along the PerOan Gulf, 
where they take 80 Larins for one 7oman, whick is 50 Abajjis. Ano- 
ther Author 1 find, that faith, That all the Coins throughout all Ara- 
bia, efpecially Arabia Foelix, are the fame, or at leall do correfpond 
with thofe under the Grand Signiors Dominions. In other places, viz.. 
the Afpzr, 60 whereof (or rather 80) makes aRu/ of 8 Spanifh, or a 
Dollar', alfo lOO Afpers are reckoned for a Sultme , Chiquin^ Zechin^ 
or Sheriff, which are the common Gold Coins, and held to be about 
8 /. Ster. 

That their Weights are alfo much the fam.e with thofe of "Turkey ^ 
viz. the Drachm, of which 10 makes an Ounce, and 14 Ounces a ^0- 
telh, 24 Kotello's is ^Fracello, which is 25 /. 12 Ounces Englijh, i^Fra- 
Ms is a Cantar , or, as 'tis called at Aden , a Bahar^ making about 

Their Meafure is alfo THr]il(h, viz, the Tico , efteemed to be 26 In- 
ches and a hdMFnglifh, 

^^ Of 

3-2 6 Of Corny Weights y and Meafures. 

Of the Chief Cities in Turkey;, &c. 

of Aleppo. 

ALcfpo is the moft Famous City of all the Grand Signior^s Domini- 
ons, and is Seated about \oo Engli/h miles from Alexandrctta 
or Scandaroon , which is the Sea- port and Road for all Ships to lade 
or unlade their Goods, which, are tranfported by Camels to Aleppo. 

Commodities are Silks, Chamlets, Galnuts, Valaneed, which is a 
a fort of Acorn-ftiell ( which the Curriers ufe to drefs their Leather) 
Cottcn, Yarn, Mohairs', Soap, Drugs of all forts, Galls, &Ci 

Coins of the Country are Shehecs, of which \6 make a Piece of 
Eight, and 14 of them a Lyon Dollar, The Sultanie, which is two 
Dollars or Pieces of Eight, which is 80 Afpers, the Lyon Dollar is 
70 Afpers. 

7'hivemt fays. That at y^leppo the Piafter of Rials is worth 80 Af- 
pers. The Boguelle 70. TheSchaied 5 Afpers, and 16 Schaieds for 
a Piafler, and 1 4 for a Boguelle. 

The Weights are the Drachm, and the Rottulo, which differs in 
Drachms according to the Commodities. 

The Rottulo is 4 /, 13 Ounces, that is 720 Drachms. 

The Rottulo for the Perfun or Ledg-filk is 680 Drachms, 72^ 

The Balladine Rottulo is 720 Drachms, 74^ Ounces. The Aleppo 
Rot tie. Thev. 

The Tripoli Silk Rottulo is the fame. 

The Caliravan Silk Rottulo is <5co Drachms,' 4 1. Er.gliJJj^ and 5 \. 

The Meppo WcWs is 120 Drachms, 13 Oanccs Englifb. 

The Cyprus Cotten Kintal of 100 Rottulo's 506 1. EngI?Jh. 

The Kintal of ico Rottulo's is <52 5 /. Levorne. 

The Oque contains 400 Drachms. 

Others tell us, a Kintal of 100 Rottulo's is 43*0 1. Englifh, called a 

A Wefno of Silver is ico Drachms, and there is a Wcfno o{ ^600 
Drachms, <5o Drachms to one Ounce, and 10 Ounces to the R.ottello, 
which is about 4/. i ■:[ Oances Avoirdnpoife -, Co that 112 1. Avoirdtipoifi 
IS 22 Rottello's 8 Ounces J and looRottcllo's is a Cantar, which is 
48 i /, u4voirdupoife. Gold 

Of Co'Wy Weights^ and Meafures, 'J 27 

Gold, Silver, Precious Stones, &c. are fold by the Mittigal, which 
is one Drachm and a half : a Drachm is lixty Carrats, and a Carrat 
is four Grains. 

The Meafure is the Pico, which is 27 Inches, or three quarters of a 
Yard Engltjh. 

The meafured Pike is | of a Yard Englijh. 


Of Alexandria- 
Kintal is 103 1. Englijh. A 100 Rottulo's is loi pr MarfeiJlei* 
330 Rottulo^s is a Sciba. which is 120 1. Livotne* 

Of Bagdat. 

THcvenot tells us, that the Patman makes three Rottuloes oi AhppOf 
or 6 Oques and 3 Ounces. That the Abajft is worth there two 
Chaii and |. The Piafter Rial is worth 8 Chais, and each Chais 5 Va- 
ras^ and the Para is 4 Jfpers. The Boqulle is worth 7 Chdis* The 
Turiqfh Chequin is worth 18, the Venetian ip Chais^ 

• Of Smyrna. 

SMyrna Weight, 180 Drachms is a Rottello. 
100 Rottello's is a Kintal of 45 Oaks, and is up 1. Englijh^ 
44 Oaks is a Kintal. 

2400 Drachms, or 6 Oaks, is a Battman. 
400 Drachms is an Oik, which is 2 /. n Ounces, Avoir. Englijh. 
800 Drachms is a Chigue. 
250 Drachms is an Oak Opium, 
120 Drachms is an Oak of Saffron. 
I4<5 Drachms is a Pound Englifh, 

To reduce Rottulo's into Oaks, multiply by p, and take the half 
thereof, cutting off the laft Figure, and multiply that by 20. To bring 
Oaks into Rottello's /¥r Cent, that is, multiply by 20, and divide by 9. 

To ^ring Rottello's into Battmans, multiply by 3, cut off the laft 
figure, and divide by 4, adding the remainder-to the figure cut off^ 
which mult, by 60. 

To bring Battman's into Rot. mult, by 40, and divide by 3. 

To reduce Battmans into Kintals, mult, by 2, and divide by 15. To 
bring Kintals into Battmans, multiply by 15, tlien take the half i for 
72 Battxnans is a Kintal. By. 

■jiS Of Coin, Weights^ anoi Meafures, 

By the Kintal of 45- Oaks are fold Cotten-yarii in forts, Galls , 
Allofti, Lead, Brazeel-wood, Bees-wax, Valonea, Logwood, Steel, 
Sugar, Gums, Almonds. By the Kintal of 44 Oaks is fold Cotten- 
wool, and Sheeps- wool in forts, Tin, Annifeeds and Boxwood. 

By the Battman is fold feveral forts of Silks. By the Oak is fold 
Pepper, Cloves, Mace, Benjamin, Galbanum, Sea-horfe- Teeth, Gum- 
Arabcck, Indico, Wo^mfceds, "Caffia of Ciir^, Senna, Rhubarb, Sca- 
mony, Agarick, Cochineal, white Cordivantsj and by the Cheque 
is fold Goats-hair beaten or unbeaten. 

Commodities are Raw Silk, which the Armenians bring out of Per- 
fia, Cham!et-yarn, and Chamlct or Goats-hair, which come from Ati' 
gouriy Gotten twilled, Skins and Cordovants of feveral colours, Cali- 
cuts white and blew. Wool for Matrices, Tapeftries, quilted Cover- 
lets, Soap, Rhubarb, Galls, Valleneed, Scammony, and Opium. 

The Culiom paid by the Englifh is 3 per Cent, as generally through- 
out all Turkey. 

The Coins currant o{ Smyrna are the fame with Con(l.mtinople^ and 
they keep their Accompts in the fame nature? and therefore I (hall re- 
fer vou thither. 

Tile Weights of Smyrna and Scio are the fame, viz. the Drachm, of 
which I So makesaRottello, 1 00 Rottello's makes a Quintal, which is 
45 Oaks, and is 119 /. Englifh; 400 Drachms alfo make an Oak, 
which is 2 /. II Ounces and a half Avoirdnpoife En'glijh. 

Their Meafure is the Pico, which is about 5 of a Yard EngUJh, 

O/'Jerufalem, or of the Hebrew Coins^ S^c. 

ALthough in all the Land of Judda^ 'Pale(iine^ or the Holy Land, 
there is not nov^^ any City of Trade or Commerce j yet 1 cannot 
omit what was once Remarkable , and may be of ufe to many to know 
the Coins, Weights and Meafures of the fen:>s in the flourifhing days 
of their State and Grandeur. 

Geld. A Varkon, or Vragmon , of which we read Ezra 8. 27. and 
Ezra. 2. 5, p. in Greck^ ii.^.y^^^ which the Englifh render a Drachm, the 
value was about 15 s. Englijh i the Drachm of Silver 1 x. 3 d. 

Silver. A Gorah, rendred Gerah and Megna by the Chalde Paraphrafe, 
by the Greeks, Obolos •, by the Englifh, a Piece of Silver, 1 Sam. 2. ^6. 
Exod. 30. 3 I. accounted to be about i d^. 

Silver. Argentem^ Heb. Cefeph. or Kefeph, a Piece of Silver ; when it 
ftaiideth for a Shekel of the San^uary, it is in^value is. 6 d. when it 
ftands for a common Shekel, it is i /. 3 d. 


Of CoWy Weight Sy and. Meafures, jip 

Argentem^ Gr£cm the /^m'ci^ Drachm, JB, ip. ip. valued at (even 
pence half-peny. 

Braff. j^ffarm or JJfarium, by the Rabbins 7/*r, by the Greek/ Afia- 
rion ; a ^(7w^/2 Coin weighing four Grains, the p6 part of the Pigahf 
or Shekil, Mattb. lo. 2p. is in value one Farthing and |. 

iS/Zt/er. Vmarm the Roman Peny, Mar/, i8. 28. with the Image of 
C<e/ir, M4«. 22.21. It was a fourth of the Silgah of the CaUeans, or 
Shekel of the Hehrevpi.^ in value feven pence haK-peny Englijh j and this 
was the common Peny. 

Silver. Drachma^ one fourth of the Shekel, equal to the Kotnan De- 
mrim or peny, L«% 15. 8, p. 

Silver. Vidrachmum half a Shekel, the peny of the Sanduary, Exod. 
30. 13. was I J. 3 ^. 

Gerd^, in theCW^eeParaphrafe Megna^ the Meg^^of the Arabians^, 
one fifth of a Drachm, fg part of a Shekel of the Sanctuary, three half- 
pence Englifh, 

Kefeph^ Gen. 20. 16. & 13. i^. 6c 43. 2 i. & 2 .?^w. 18, II. the 
fame with Cefeph, and Argenteus Hebr£us ^ the Chaldean Silgah or 
Jetvifl) Shekel, 2 /. 6 d, 

Kefhitah Heb. a Lamb, Gen. 33.19. J#. 24. 24. jFo^ 42, 1 1. the 
fame with Obolus and Ger^i^. 

A M^«ej[; of Silver contains 60 Hebrew Shekels, Eze)^. 45. 12. is in 
Englijh J I. 10/. 

A Maneh of Gold, it weighM 100 Hebretv Drachms, 200 Grecian 
Drachms, or 100 Shekels, i Kings 10. 17. 2 Chron, p. \6. of our 
Money it made 75 /. 

The Sl>ek^l from Shah^U Ponderare & Librare^ was twofold, the She- 
kel of the Sanduary , and the common Shekel, which was but half 
the other. The Shekel by fome was reckoned, as was faid before, for 
2 s. 6 d. Englijh , by Sir Walter Rarvkigh at 2 /. ^ d. by Mr. Greaves^ 
and the Primate of Ireland^ at 2 j. 5 d. according to which one Maneh 
of Silver will be 7 /. 5 d. of our Money. 

One Talent will make 3<^2 /. 10/. Gold is generally accounted to 
be 12 times as much in value as the like quantity of Silver. The pro- 
portion in England being one to 14 and one third, that is one Ounce 
of Gold is worth of Silver 3 /. 14/. 2 d. and the Ounce of pure Silver 
is worth %s. ^d. half-peny ; fo that a Drachm of Gold at 17 /. 5 </. 
pbfji, the Shekel is 2 I. ps. The Talent will be 4350 /. According to 
ivhich Computation King Vavidsiud his Princes gave towards the build- 
ing of the Temple 838 Millions 477 Thoufand 3^2 pounds 13 /. 6 d. 

Uu Of 

3^o Of Colfty Weights^ and Meafures. 

Of the Hebrew Weights. 

The Common Weights were ~1r or Weights of the San(Siuary, 

8 Drachms tS i^ Drachms 

4 Slickcls >< 8 Shekels 

2 Staters \J 4 Staters 

I Ounce "^^ I Ounce. 

A Shekel is about the weight of an EngLJh half Crown, or half an 

CZl* Mr. Greaves and Kivet faith, that the diltindion of a double 
Shekel, the one Sacred, equal to the Tetra-Vrachme^ the other Prophane" 
weighing the Vidi-achme, is without any folid Foundation in Writ, and 
without any probability of Reafon in a Wife State. 

The Hebrerv Cubit contained of our meafure according to Guildhall 
Standard, 17 Inches ^ or | of an Inch, exadly anfwering to the Ro- 
man foot and a half, it was a meafure from the Elbow to the Fingers 
end, vulgo a foot and a half, D^«^ 3. 1 1. The holy Cubit contained 
two common Cubits, i King. 7. 15. iChmi. 3. 15. The King's Cubit 
was three fingers longer than the common Cubit. 

The Geometrical Cubit contained 6 common Cubits, according to 
which was ATm^'s Ark built. 

The Barah^ tranflated often MiUarium^ figniheth fo much ground as 
may be travelled in half a day between Meal and Meal. 

Kaneh^ Arundo^ the Reed,fix Cubits and a hand's breadth, Ej^ei^ 40. 
5. the ufe of it was to meafure Building, Rev.ii.i'y, 
Stadium^ a Furlong, containing 12 j paces. 

Zaghad^ Zemed^ and Beroth^ Gen 3$. i^. a little way or piece of 
ground containing icoo Cubits, an Hebrerv mile, about 500 Englijh 

Zeretb, Spithama^ and Vodrans^ a Span i Exod.^^> 16. Jfa. 40. 12. 

Dry Meafure. 

I find theEphah is ftated at 52 /. I which reduced into Englijh Mea- 
fure makes iix Gallons one Pottle and half a Pint, and i o Ephaks made 
one Omer 5 the Omer was i Pottle 1 Pint 3 Ounces , and i o Omers 
made lEphah. 


Of Cow y Weights y and Meafires. 3J1 

Licjitid Meafnres. 

Their Liquid Meafnres were the Log, H///, and Bath ; The Bath is 
ordinarily reckoned of like quantity with the Ephah^ more exadly it 
is 52 Pints and a half, or by others 6 Gallons one Pottle and a half. 

The Hm is one Gallon and three quarters of a Pint, which is the 
6th part of a Bath. 

The Log is the one ^2 of the Hin.y that is | of a Pint , and | of an 
Ounce, that is 3 quarters of a Pint , wanting but the | part of an 
Ounce ; fo that the | part of a Hiti is almol\ one quarter of a Pint. 

Of the Coi/is, &c. of Perfia. 

o , 

THE Comnnodities of Perfta are Gold, Silver, Raw Silk in great 
abundance, fome Drugs and Spices, Wine-fruits, feveralManu- 
fadories, viz. Carpets, Arras- work, Hangings, Cloth of Gold and 
Silver, and fine Gotten- Cloths. 

The Coins in Perfia are Real and Nominal ■■> Real Coins are Bi/?iV, 
Shaxet's^ Mamoudis and Abajjis \ a Btfii is a tenth of an Ahajfi^ a Shaxet 
is a fourth of an Aba^i^ and the ^^<2j(/r is valued zt \6 d. Sterlings or 
i§ Sous 6 Venters. The Nominal Coins are Larks ^ Ors and 7omondi 
A L<?r/« is 2 Shaxes "d rf«^ 18 L^rwj to a Tomond in Commerce at Gdw- 
rtf«, but in no other place ; an Or is accounted for five Abajfts^ 6 s. 
lid. Englijh, and a Tomond for ten Or/ or fifty Abaffi^, which is in 
-Value 3 /, p X. Englifli. Rix Dollars and Pieces of Eight pafs for 14 
Shaxets^ or 3 Abaft's I per Piece. 

7hevenot tells us, That the Piafters are commonly worth 13 Schais if 
full weight; i^lnBifii. The Bi/ii confifts of 4 Ca/^egiE'ix, of which JO 
makes z Schais. The moft currant Money are the Aba(fis^ Mamoudis ^ 
Schais and Casbaghis ; the Ahajft is of the value of 4 Schais^ which is 
about 18 cVo/j" French. The Mamoudi contains two Schaisy which is 
about p Sols^ the Scai about 4 ^i)// 2, and the Casheghi 5 Veniers \ The 
Tomond is worth 1 5 Piajiers , or 50 Abaci's ; the Baz^eZ/o is worth three 
yibaffi's or 1 2 Schais. 

In Geometry, Thevenot tells us, the Perjians make ufe of a certain Mea- 
fure called a Farfange^ which is 3 Miles. The Miles contains 40C0 Cu- 
bits, the Cubit 2 4 Fingers (which by an Experiment he made, he finds 
to be 18 Inches, or a common Foot and half, which is exactly the Cu- 
bit.) The Finger is 6 Barley-corns laid fide-waysjfo that the Mile will be 

U u 2 6000 

^j2 Of Com^ Weights, and Meafures. 

6000 common Feet. And a degree to contain 22 Farfanges, or Para- 
fanges^ and ^ which is much about a French League. 

Their Weights are various, viz. the Maundfhaw , which is about 
1 3 pound Avoirdnpois for Silk. 

The Maund Surrat contains two and a half of the other, and is ufed 
for grofs Goods, efpecially at Gombrou. 

The Load, or Cargo^ which contains thirty fix Maundjharps^ makes 
About 485 1, Avoirdupois, 

The Mittigal for Gold, &c. whereof fix and a half makes an Ounce 

The Kattee for Diamonds, Pearls, e^c. wherein are twenty Vals, and 
twenty three Vals makes an Euglifh Carrack. 

Their Meafures are two, c^WtdCavedoes^ the greateftis an Inch lon- 
ger than the E«g///^ Yard, and the leffer is three quarters of the other, 
agreeable to the Pico of Turkje. 

Tavernier fsiith^ Their Wine, as all other things, are fold by weight, 
and not by meafure i and that in the Year t666. the whole account of 
Wines made at Sciras amounted to 200025 Mens, the only weight for 
Wines, containing nine pound French at fixteen Ounces to the pound, 
or 4125 T'ww/ at 300 Pints to the T««. 

0/ the ComSy 8iC. under the Dominion of the Great Mogul. 

TH E Commodities in Surrat^ Camhaia^ Amadahat^ and generally 
throughout the Mogul's Country, are Precious Stones, Agats, 
Jafper, feveral Drugs, Civet, Sugar-Candy, Indico, Lacque, Salt- 
petre, Musk, Borags, Ogium, Myraboles, Ginger, Sal-Arnnoniac, Am- 
ber and Rice ; all forts of Cottcns, Callicoes of all forts. Carpets and 
Coverlets of Leather, artificially wrought with Silks of all Colours, 
Sattins, Taffaties, Velvets, feveral Manufadories of Wood carved and 
imbellifhed, as Desks, Chefts, Boxes, Standifhes, &c. 

Coins. The RoupyoiGd\A weighs two Drachms and a half, and 
eleven Grains, and is valued in the Country at fourteen Koupies of 
„ Silver, and the Raupy of silver is reckoned at thirty Sous •■, fo that a 
Koupy of Gold comes to twenty one Litres of France^ the half Koupy 
comes to ten Lizres ten Sotts^ and the quarter Koupy to i^vcLivres hve 

As for their Copper money, the biggeft fort is generally worth two 
Sous, the next one Sous , the next to that 6 Detmrsy c r a Fecha. In 
Surrat, Cambaja, Barach. Buudra and j^madubat^ five Marpoudies goes 


of Coin^ Wd^hfs^ and Meafiresl ^^y 

fori Cron>n or Kealt, and for fmall Money they uCq Almonds y whereof 
forty, fometimes forty four, goes for a Pechsy which is fix Dcniers in 
value } there are alfo little pieces of Copper, which are called Pecha*s, 
whereof twenty they give for a Mamaudy, there is alfo in fome parts 
Shell-money, fifty or fixty of which makes a Vecha', as for the Ma- 
maudy^ it is always valued at forty Pecha. 

Their Weights are various. As for Gold, Silver, Civet, Musks, 
Bezarftones, &c. they have the Weight called the To//, which is 
1 2 Majfes, and is feven penny fixteen grains Troy weight Englijh 5 nine 
Deniers eight grains French. 

Thevenot tells us. That at Surrat^ there arc divers Heads of Weights 
and Meafures , but the moft common Weight ufed in Trade, is the 
Man, which contains forty Serres or Pounds, and the Pound of Surrat 
contains fourteen Ounces, or thirty five Toles. That all Gold and 
Silver is weighed by the To/e, which contains forty Mangelis, which 
makes fifty fix of our Cara&s^ or thirty two Vales. A Vale is 3 Gongys. 
That two Tolets || makes one Ounce of Paris weight. 

The Mdn makes 40 pound weight all the Indies overj but the Pounds 
or Serres vary. The Pounds of Surrat are greater than thofe of Gal- 
conda 5 and the Pound at Jgra is double to that at Snrrat , viz, 
28 Ounces or Serres. 

The Silver Roupie is as big as an AbaJJl of Perfia , it weighs a Tole, 
and commonly paiTes for thirty French Sols^ but is not worth above 
2p or 31 Pechasl^ fometimes 325. The Pecha is worth foraething 
more than lo French Veniers. And ^8 Badan or bitter Almonds for a 

For Silk there is th&Tice, which is five Mittigals and a half, or two 

The common Weight for other Commodities is the Sear , which is 
various in feveral parts-, the Sear at Agra is tvvofold, the one is twen- 
ty fix Pices, which is 2 6| Ounces, the other is thirty Pices, which is 
22 Ounces Avoirdupoife. 

The Sear of Surrat is eighteen Pices, which is 13I Ounces Avoirdu- 
pois : Tavernier faith, 'tis | of a Pound, and the Pound is of fixteen 

There is alfo the hundred Weights called Maunds ; fort^ Sears make 
a Maund of thirty three pound Englifh, and forty Sear makes a fmalf 
Maund of fifty four Pound | of Eaghjh. Tavernier faith, The Man is 
6p Pound at 16 Ounces to the Pound ; but the Man which they weigh 
their Indico wirhal, is bu- 53 Pound. 


; ^ ^4. Of Com, Wtights, m^ Meafures. 

Their Meafures are called the Covado or Cohit, the (horter is ufed for 
Silk and Linneii, and is 27 Inches Englifh ; the other Covado is diffe- 
rent in feveral places, viz. at Surrat^ Camboja, Sec, it is thirty Hve 
Inches, but xnAgra^ Vel'i^ &c. it is thirty two Inches. 

All Grains and Liquid Commodities are fold by weight, there be- 
ing no Concave Meafure in any of the Mogul's Territories. 

Of Pegu a»d Arackan. 

TH E King of Pegu's Silver Coin weighs two Drachms and a half, 
and twelve Grains, and makes about twenty Sons fix Veniers. 
And his FamhoT little pieces of Gold weighs feven Grains ; fifteen of 
which pafTes in value for a Real or French Crown. 

The Kingof ^rjcjl;<2«'s Money weighs two Drachms and a half, and 
fifteen Grains, and makes twenty one Sous : He Coins no Gold, but 
Trafficks in Gold uncoined ; the Metal is not worth above fourteen 
Carats., one Carat being the third part of an Ounce. 

Of the Money which the Englifh Coin in the Indies. 

TH E Money which the Englifh Coin at the Fort of St. George upon 
the Coaft of Cormandel^ they call Pagods as thofe of the Kings 
and Raja's of the Country are called) are of the fame weight for good- 
nefs, and pafs at the fame value , which is about the weight of the 
French half Piftol ; but the Gold is of bafer Metal, fo that an Ounce 
is not worth above forty two or forty three Livres, and not going for 
more than 4 Roupies. And at the famous Port of Bombay^ the Fngliffy 
have built a ftrong Fort, and Coin both Silver, Copper and Tin, but 
that Money only pafTeth among the Fnglijh , and the Villages along 
the Coaft for two or three Leagues about, as 'tis reported. 

Of the Money which the Dutch Coin in the Indies. 

AT Palicate the Dutch Coin Pagods of Gold, and Roupies of Silver, 
being of the fame weight of thofe of the Great Mogul, or the 
King of Golconda and Vifapor h they have alfo fmall Copper Money. 
Four Roupies to a Pagod^ which is about fix French Livres. There is 
alfo Fanons half Gold , and half Silver , fix and a half with half a 


Of Coin^ Weights^ and Meafures. J35' 

quarter- piece, makes a Koupk^ and 2(5i a Pagod. Gazers are fmall Cop- 
per- pieces, 40 of which go to a Fanon. 

Of the Money in Sumatra. 

TH E Money of Gold coined by the King of Achm^ is better than 
the French Louis in goodnefs , an Ounce being well worth 
50 Franks \ it weigheth ten Gxains, and is worth 16 Sous, and 
8 Deniers of French Money : Another Author faith, That the Coins 
here are the Cattee^ which is 8 Tayle, or 6 pound 8 Shillings Sterling. 
A 7ayk is 1 6 MafTes, or 1 6 Shilling Sterling ; and a Mafs is 4 Cupany, 
which is twelve pence Sterling, 

Their Weight is the Bahar, which is 200 Cattees ^ a Cattee is 
2p Ounces Avoirdupois Englilh. 

Of Goa. 

TH E Comnnodities natural of Goa are inconfiderable, but in Tiade 
there is the Commodities of the Indies-, of Perfiay Arabia^ China, 
&c. viz,. Precious Stones, Gold, Silver, Pearls, Silk, Gotten, Spices, 
Drugs, Fruits Corn, Iron, Steel, &c. 

The Coins there, are the Pardaus Sheraphin, worth 300 Rees of Per- 
tugal., or 4 Shillings 6 pence Englijh. 

The Pagod of Gold is worth lo Tangos, and 4 Tangas in good Mo- 
ney is one Pardau, and one Tangas is worth 4 good Ventins, a Ventin is 
worth 15 Bafaracos , and the Bafaracos is about 2 Kees of Portugal 

The St. Thomas of Gold is worth 8 Tangas, and the Pardaus de Kealesy 
is about 440 Kes of Portugal. 

Their Weight for Spices is the Bahar, which is three ^intals and a 
hili oi Portugal Weight, and another for Sugar, Honey, &c. which 
is called the Maund, which is ii pound of the aforefaid Weight. 
' Their Meafures for Length are the fame with thofe oi Lisbon, 

Their Meafures for Grains, Rice, &c. is the Medida, 24 whereof 
is a Maund, and twenty Maunds is a Candd.^ which is aljcut fourteen 
Bulhels £«g///^. 


^\6 Of Cow, Wdfgks, 'and Mtafures, 

Of the Coafi of Cormandel. 


Heir Commodities are Sugars, Pintadoes, Grains> Fruits, Drugs, 

, Precious Stones, Chriftal, &c. 

Their Coins are the Vagod of Gold , which is ^6 Fanans^ a fanan 
is about 3 d. value, and fo the Pagodh p /. but the true value is S x. 
6 d. or thereabouts. 

Their Weight is the Candct, which is 20 Mmnds^ a Maund 40 Sears, 
or 22 Majfesy which is 26 Pound 14 Ounces Englijh. 

Of Bantam. 

THE Commodities arc Pepper, Sugar, Preferved Ginger, Rice, 
Honey, &c. as alfo the produd ot other places. 
The Money coined here are only pieces of Copper minted, in the 
midft whereof is a hole to hang them on a ftring,which they call Pettier^ 
1000 whereof are in value about 5 Shillings 5^er/iw^. But the Mer- 
chants keep their Accounts by Spanijh Reals of 8 , which are currant 
for all forts of Commodities. 

Their Weights are the Bahar^ which is 3 T teals ^ or ^6p pound 
Englifh, the Pical is 100 Cattees, or 131 pound Englijh h and a Cattee 
is 2 CO I Ounces EngUfh. 

Their Meafure of length is the Covet ^ that is one fifth of an Englijh 

Their Dry Meafure is a Gantang^ which is 2 1 pound Englijh. 

Of Siam. 

TH E Commodities of Siam are Gotten, Linnen, Wine of Cocas, 
OT Indian Nats, Benjamin, Lac, Calamba, Camphora, Bezar, 
and Gold. 

The Coins there are a piece of Gold Coin, which weighs l8 Grains 
more than the French half Piftol, and is worth 10/. yd. Sterling. 

The Silver Coin is about the bignefs of a large Hazel-Nut, weighs 
3 Drachms and a half, and 25 Grains, and is worth about 2 Shillings 
5 pence Sterling, 

' Their 

Of CoifJy WetghiSj and Meafnres, ^ j7 

Their Weights are the Bahar^ which is of two forts, the great B^- 
har is 200 Gattees^ a Cattee is 26 lailCf a Taile is one Ounce aud a half 
of Lisbon. 

The fmall Bahar is alfo 2co Qwee, a Cattee is 22 Tiii/e/j a taik Is an 
Ounce 8 of Lhbon Weight. 

0/ China. 

THE Commodities are Pvice, Wheat, Wool, Cottons, Flax, 
Silk raw and wrought into feveral forts of Stuffs, Fiuits, Ho- 
ney, Wax, Rubarb, China-Roots, Wines, Sugar, Camphire, Musk, 
Civet, Salt, Gold, Iron, Tin, Steel, Quickfilver, Saltpetre, Porce- 
laine Difties, Precious Stones, Rubies, Saphires, Agars, Pearls, &c. 

They pay their Money by weight, which is denominated by Taleirfs 
and Meafures. 

In all the Kingdom of China there is no Money coined either Gold 
or Siver ^ that which they make ufe of in payments is only in Lumps, 
or pieces of Gold or Silver of divers forms and weights. 

The pieces of Gold ,by the Hollanders called Golftfcbut^ is worth 1200 
Gilders oi Holland^ or loi /. 5 /. Sterling •, the other pieces which weighs 
but half as much, is in value according to its proportion 5 an Ounce 
of this Gold is worth 3 /. 3 /. Eaglijh. 

In Trade every man carrieth about him a pair of Sheers to cut and 
divide their Money •, as alfo Scales and Weights to weigh it, and to 
proportion his Money according to the value of the Commodity he 

Their Weights are the Bahar, which is faid to differ in feveral 
.places i but the common Bahar of China is 300 Cat tees ^ a Cattee is 
16 Tailes^ which is about 20 Ounces and 3 quarters Avoirdufoife 5 fo 
that thtBahar is about ipo 1. Englijh. 

There is alfo the Bahar for fmall weight of 200 Cattees, 32 I'aile to 
a Cattee, and a taile is one Ounce and a half Avoir dupoifei, fo that the 
Bahar is 412 1, Engljih, 

Of Japan. 

THE Commodities of Japan are "^^^'heat, Millet, Rice, snd ex- 
cellent Barley, divers t\^ tals. as Gold, Silver, Copper, Tin, 
Lead, Iron s their Pearls ire great, bw Red. 

The Gold oi Japan is in valut v^nh 3 /. 15 /. the Ounce, th^re is 
one Coin or Piece of Gold which weigtis once Ounce iix Dsachms, 

X X which 

3^8 Of Corny Weights^ anl MeAfurei. 

which comes to about 6 Pound 1 1 ShilHrgs 3 Pence j there is alfo ano- 
ther that weighs the third part of the great one^ liz. half an Ounce 
48 Grahis, and comts to 2 /, 3 j-. p d,. Sterling, 

There are alfo feveral pieces of Silver called Ingots^ fonae weighing 
7 Ounces, at live Shillings the Ounce, con:ics to thirty hv^ :^hil!ingsi 
others of two Ounces 3 Drachms and a half, which comes to 12 Shil- 
lings 10 Pence | Si:rling-y and fo proportionable in value according to 
their weight, are the relt. 

There is alfo Copper Money, which they thred to the liumber of 
i5oo, which is the value of a Fell ot Taile in Silver, which the Vntcb 
reckon to be worth 3 Gelders and a half, which is 6 Shillings 4 Pence | 

Their Weights are theFu^w, which is 125 Vntch Pounds, one Fia- 
kin makes 100 Cattees, one Catt:e 16 T^i/e, one Taile 10 Maes, and a 
Cattec is by feme accounted 2 i Oances Avoirdup-nfe. 

Their Meafure for length is the Tattany or Ichin , which is about 
2 Yards g Englifh, or 6 Rhynland feet ; 60 Ickiens or Ichins is ^oRyhn- 
landKods, and 180 Rods is a Japan Mile. 

Their Dry Meafures are the Ganty which is 3 Cocas, which is three 
Pints Englijh. 


Of Cotn^ Weight Sf and Meafures". 


Verfian Money. 



A Bafli, or 2 Mamoudi's 
I Mamoudi's, or— 

I Cheyets — '"—- ' 

I Bifti- 

A Casbeke rimple~ 

A double Casbeke - 

One Or 

One Toman — >■ 

18 '<5 Deniers 
2 ,Chayets — 



Double Casbekes- 
Double Casbeke* - 

Denieis 3 half peny — — A 
II Deniers- 


1 Z4_ 

2 Too 

^ «2 

^ « II I 

4<5 Livres I Denier I Piaiier--| 3 |p|o ;o ? 

Indian Money. 

A Larin of Arabia, c^c. — 

A Mamoudi's 

A Roupy of Gold 

A Roupy of Silver-— — 
A Pecha 

A half Roupy 
Tipoura Silver 

Pagods i 



Agen Gold 
MacalTar Gold - 
Camboya Silver- 

Siam Gold 

iSiam Silver =»— — 


I Ecu, or French Crown— 




Livres - 

Sous — 
16 Sous 

12 I Sous 

A fern Fanos ' — ■ 

Afem Silver ■ — 

jChina Goltfcut 

iChina Silver Pieces- — - 

Pegu Gold Fanos ~ 

Pegu Silver »• 

Japan Gold ^ - 

Japan Silver Pieces-- 









SAPiftol: APiltolinJ 

} Gold is 1 1 Livres- % 

Ecu -. ~- 

Sous 8 Deniers- — 

Sous 8 Deniers— 


Livres 1 Sous - 

Sous 4 Deniers- 




1350 Livres 




Sous 8 Deniers « 

Real ■- 

Sous 6 Deniers 

Livres i o Sous ■ 

Sous — 

















































2 I 
I # 

Thefe Computations are made, fuppoHng a French Crown to be in 
jValue 54^. or 4/. d^. Sterlings the reputed Par, fo that a Sms is in value 
p d. 6c 10 Deniers 3. 
' _____ X X 2 A* 


Of Col ft, Weight Sy and Meafuresl 

A Table con 

taining the Proportion that the E.g'ffh Foot beareth to thel 

Meafurcs of other Places, divided into 12. In.hes and Tenths. And 

the Proportion of a Pound-ueight Avtrdupnis divided into 100 parts. 

beareth to 

the Foreign Pounds; carefully coiledlied from the Tables of 

SncUiHs^ V 

jgen^ Creates, Kicciolus^ ^c. 



II 3 p3 

Naples Palm 

op 6 

I 43 




2 I 2 



II 3 



d 10 5 


2 3 3 

Norimberg Foot 

1 I 


Balogncj or 


2 8 


Pcirwj Cupit 

1 10 4 

I 43 



I 2 4 

I z7 

F^ri/ Royal Foot 

I 8 




II <5 


Perfian Arach. 

3 2 3 



I p p 

I 61 


I 3 

I 6 



I 2 

Riga Foot 

I p p 



1 1 4 


Roman Foot onp 



11 6 


the Monum. S> 

11 <5 

i 23 



II 3 

r ip 

of Coffutius, J 


r 10 8 

Of Statilius 

II 7 



I 2 2 


Roman Palm 


Florence Brace or Ell 


I 23 

*S'/'^«. Palm, or ? 

Francfort on 

the Main 

II 4 


P P 



I 9 p 

p 6 

I 42 

^;>j«. Vare, or 7 
Rod qt. 4. Pal. \ 




I I 

Toledo Foot 

10 7 

I 00 



I 10 8 






2 3 I 

I 17 

Turin Foot 




2 P 

I 5 

7«rj^-/^ Pike at ; 
Couiiantinople f 

2 2 4 




II 4 




I p 8 

Ff/«'c5 Foot 

I I p 

I 53 



3 ^i 7 

I 9 






I 6 8 

I 43 

Univerfal Foot, 




II p 


or a Pendulum , 




d d 5 

I 40 

that will vibrate 

%o8 I 


132 times in a 







-t3 ^ 


^C^ <JJ ^Z 

G "" 

oj OJ *- 

r- t« 

3 f 


U.. 1^ r" Oi< CLi 



A S I A. 

AS I A is one of the Trijiartite Divifions of our Continent *, 
if we confider the Advantages which the Author of Nature 
hath given it ■, or the memorable Adtlons which have pafled 
in it •, That the firft Monarchies and Rehgions have here had their 
rife: That the chief Myfteries both of the Old and New Law, were 
here laid open : That from hence all Nations of the World , and all 


542 Of ASIA, 

Arts and Sciences, had their firfl: beginning : We may juftly prefer it 
before the other parts of the World. % 

It is feated in the Oriental part of our Continent, atid moft part \n 
the temperate Zone \ what it hath under the Torrid-, being either 
Peninffih or Jflts^ which the Waters and Sea do much refre(h. 

It extends (wmSmirnain the P^di^ to the farthert part of Tartarij 
near J.jfj in the E.iji, four thoufand and eight hundred Miles ^ and 
from (he lowermod point of Malacca in the Sozttb^ to the Strait^hts of 
Weigats in the Northy n makes four thoufand and two hundred Miles 
of lixty to a degree. In this length and breadth we do not compre- 
hend the jflands which belong to Afia 5 which are as great, as rich, 
and poflibly as numerous, as in other parts of the Univerfe. 

Whether it took its Name from Afia the Daughter of Oceanuf and 
Thetis^ W'ife of Jjpettiry.dkid Mother to Prometheus 5 or from JJitts the 
Son of- Aih^ a King 'of Ljdia\ot from /^/?/; the Philofopher, who 
gave the Valladium to theT?*^j^«/; or from the rhcemcian word Jfia, fig- 
nifying Medium : Tiiefe Originations to me are uncertain ; moft cer- 
tain it is, that this Name was firll: known to the Greeks on thatCoaft 
Of. polite to them, after it was given to that part of the Country ex- 
tending to the Euphrates^ called Afia Minor^ aixl at laft was communi- 
cated to all that Oriental Continent. 

Many are the Religions there followed ; but the Jevos^ Mahumetans 
and Idolaters, far exceed the ChrilHans in number. Idolatry began in 
the time of the AJfyriansS Judaifm amx)ng the Hebrews j ChrifVianifm 
in the Holy Land, but firil: fo called at Antiocb ; and Mahumetanifm in 

Mahumetanifm is received by the four principal Nations of Afta ; 
the T«/-/y , Jrahians , Tcrfians and Tartars. The Turks give the moft 
liberty, the Arabs are moft fuperftitions, the Perfians are moft rational, 
and the Tartars are moft ftmple. Some have made feventy and two 
Se(f^s among them, which may be reduced to two: That which the 
Turks follow, according to the Doftrine of Omar-^ and that which the 
Perfians follow, according to Holy's Indrudions : Thefe have their Pa- 
triarch ^t Ifpahan, the Tif/ri^r theirs at Bagdaf. The Greeks have alfo 
their Patriarchs here, known under the Titles of Antiocb divA Jcrufalem, 
There are alfo other Chriftians, as Jacobites., who have their Patriarch 
at Caramit, other wife called Am'ina 5 the Ne^iorians, the Copbites, the 
Geirgiafis^ (ht Armenians ^ and the Maronites. The Two latter have 
the two Patriarchs, the one at the Monaftery of the Three Churches near 
Erivan in Jrme.jia, the other ztCanobin in Mount Lihanus, 


Of ASIA. 34? 

/Ifta towards- the Weft is feparated from /^/r/wby the Red Sea, and 
by the Uhmus of Sucj. It is divided from l^uro^e by feveral Seas and 
Straights aheady mentioned in the Defcription of E^rp/^e. Toward the 
other Regions of the World, Ap,a is environed by the 'Tartarian, Chi- 
man^ Indian^ Ferfttn and A-'abian Seas. 

The principal Seas within the Country, are the Cafpian, the Euxine, 
and the Perfian Sea. The Dead Sea is very fmall in refped of the reft, 
yet is it famous for being in the Holy Land. 

The principal Rivers of 4/7^, 2itQ Euphrates^ Tigris^ Indus ^ Ganges, 
Croccus, Kiang, and ObL 

Cancafus and Tm'us, Co celebrated by the Ancients, are the higheft 
Mountains j but feveral Countries give them feveral other Names. 

We find that the Air of Jfia is almoft every-where temperate. And 
if we confider her Gold, or Silver, her Precious Stones, her Drugs, 
her Spices, her Silks, v.e may aver it to be the richeft, as well as the 
moft noble part of the World. Among other of her Produds, we moft 
efteem the Diamonds oi Narfingusy the Pepper and Ginger ci Malabar, 
theSillis of Bcngak^ the Rubies and Lake of Vegu., the Porcelane of C^z- 
ffa, the Cinamon oC Ceylon, the Gold of Smat, theCamphir of Borneo, 
the Cloves of the Mvkccas, the Nutmegs of Banda atid the Sandai cf 

Of the Seven Wonders of the World , there were four in Afici ; 
The Temple of Epbeftfs, the Maufoleum in Hjlicarnajfus, the Walls of 
Babylon, and the Khodian Coloffits. The Statue of OlyjKpian Jupiter in 
Europe, The Egyptian h^hyv'mth^ and the Pyramids in Africa. 

TheAfiaticks have been always a Soft- and Effeminate People, except 
the Mountainiers and the Tartars, who by their Incurfions perpetually 
vex'd their Neighbours. Their Coats cf Arms are nothing like thofe 
which the Families of Europe bear -, being composed only of the Let- 
ters of their Names, to which they add lometimes the Names of their 
Predeceflbrs. Their Embaflies, confidering the Prefents they make 
one to another, are but a kind of Trade and Exchange of Merchants, 
wherein every one looks after the true value, and fo to make his ad- 

Afu is in fubjedion to four Potent Monarchs, who are able to bring . 
mighty Armies into the Field : The Grand Signior, who rcfides in E«- 
rope, the Sultan of Terfta, the Cham of Tartary, at this day King cf Chi- 
na, and the Great Mogul. Befides thefc, there are feveral great: Princes 
in Georgia, in Arabia , in Tartary, in Jndia^ and in molt part of the 
Jfles. Several Nations alfo maintain their Liberty by livii:g among the 


344 Of AS 1 A. 

^ As to the Divifion of this part of the World, fome Authors divide it 
^T u^u^ '"^ Exterior, in reference to Mount Taurus : By means 
of which Mountam the Gm]^ make two grand Parts, the firft to the 
■honh the later to the Somh. I Oiall firft divide it into 7W firma, and 
L ^^'l J"^ Countries of the T:ma Firma toward the ^f/f, are Jfia- 
^^kr:irky, Georgia and ^.rahia. Toward the middle, P.r/?^; toward 
A'^-^TX' ^f^O'5 tothe Eaft, a/;/^. and to the South, India, 
divided hkewife into Terra Firma, which is the Empire of the Great 
Mogul 3 anu into two Peninfula^s, one on this fide, the other beyond 
Ganges. The Iflands in the Eaftern , or Indun Seas, (which are the 
iJF^j V ^'^^ ,^' ^^'^ "^^^^ '" number than in any other part of the 
World) are the MalMves, Ceylon, the Iflands of Sonde, viz. Sumatra, 
Borneo, Java &c. o[ Japan, the Philippines, znd the Molucca's. There 
are lome llks appertaining to Afta in the Mediterranean, as Cyprus and 
Abodes', and others in the Archipelago, zsMetellino, Scio, Samos, &c. 

So that Afia now ftaiids divided in thefe Monarchies or 
Principal Parts, Viz. 

-Turk^e in ^fia 1 ] p ^kppo, Cairo, Smirna. 

^fT \refflis,Akazltke^ndCori 

pj!^^f Mecca, Medina, M^cba. 

rr J* ■ • . ! Hifpahan, lauris, Sciras, 

lartarta y Whofe chief <( Surmarchand, Balch, Camul 

Cities are Pequin, Canton, Hanchev^. 


The EiTipire of the Mogul 
India within Ganges 
India without Ganges 

Agra, Labor, Surrai. 
Go a, Calicut, Golconda. 
iPegue, Siam, MaVaca* 

Til J • u S?/'?"^^^ ^^^^"' y^P'"''^ Sumatra, Borneo. 
lilandsmthe^ Mediterranean Sea, Cyprus, Rhodes. 

^Archipelago, MeteHino, Scio, Samos, &c. 



Of Turky in Afia. 

djl. TM:toLij Jl. 
fjl. Cuiiic Jl. 
k Latmus -Af . 

p. Pjitrnuria- 


Siattque Tttr\)i compreliends more than the "Roman Empire, in 
this part ot the World : Thofe Dominions did not often ex- 
tend beyond the River Euphrates : This beyond the Ri- 
ver Tygrif. 

Once the Temperature of the Air exceeding found and healthful, 
now every five or fix years the Peftilence deftroys Millions. 

Yy ~ The 

^4^ ^f Turky in Jftal 

The Soil formerly exceeding plentiful of all Fruits \ both for ufe 
and pleafurej now generally walte aiid barren. 

Once very populous and full of Stately Cities 5 now lamenting the 
Ruine and Deftruifiicn of them. 

The Mahometan Religion is chiefly proielVd in irofl: places thereof, 
only there ;;re fome Jew--/, and r-V' \Criltians mix's' <jmong them. As 
to their Manners, a Cadi or Turkjlh Judge judicioufly obferv'd, that 
the Ttirkr were to be blam'd for their Lechery, the Jervs for their S* 
perintion, and the Chriftians foir their" Litigioufncfs. 

Moil: excellently Se.;.ted is this part of the World, for it lies in the 
midft of our Continent, in the temperate Zone, being water'd by the 
whole Courfe of Euphrates and "Tigris, with the convenience of Four 
Seas?, the Mediierrar.eariy the Euxim^ ihe Cafpian^ and the Perfian Se?.s, 
, by which it Commerces with the principal Regions of the World, and 
chiefly with that of the Eaji-lndies. 

B'our great Provinces are in this -^JT^^7rl^T«rJl?y. Anatolia^ Turk<>tnama, 
T>;arbetk 3ivd SyriJ. Anatolia, ox Afia Mirror s is almoli a Peninfnla lying 
. between the Black^Sea, the Archipdago^ the Medittr^^anean^ and the Ri- 
ver Euphrates. The Ancient Creeks were wort to Piore it with Colo- 
nics, and the Grand Cyrus did not think his Empiie confiderable with- 
out it. For the fame Reafon have fo m.any Bartcls been fought either 
to preferve or conquer it. The Ancients divided this jinatoUa or Afta 
M///or,intQ fev?ral IclTer Parts or Regions, z;/2i. Pontus and BithiniajPaph' 
lagonia, Cappadocia, Armeiita Minor, Cilicia^ Jfamia, Pamphilia, Lycia^ 
Caria^ Jonia, Molis^ Lydia^ or M^onia, Piftdia, Lycaonia, Galacia, Vhry 
gia Major and Mmor, Mifia and Iroas, Here I had intended to have gi- 
ven a larger Defcription of all the ancient Names of places, dc. con- 
tained in this Aftatique I'urhyy viz. in AJia Minor ^ Mefopotamia, Armenia, 
AJfyriay Caldea , or Babylonia, Arabia^ Terra Sanda, Syria^ &e. But 
having lately purchafed fix Plates, vulgarly called Scriptural Maps, 
viz. • 

Firft, Of all the Earth, and how after the Flood it was divided a- 
mong the Sons of Noah, 

Second, Of Paradife, or the Garden of Edenj with the Countries 
circumjacent inhabited by the Patriarchs. 

7hird, The 40 years Travel of the Children of Ifrael through the 
Wild erne fs. 

Fourth, Canaan, or the Holy Land, as it was divided among the 
12 Tribes of Ifrael, and travelled through by our S-viour. 

F^fth, The Travels of St. Paul^ and other of the Appflles, in the 
f ropagating of the Gofpel. 


Of Turky m Jfia] 547 

SM^ Jerufalem, as it flourifhed in our Saviout's time. 
I (hall therefore here only give you the prefent State and View of 
thofe Countries , and refer you to my Defcription of thofe Maps, 
which will be a raoft compleat Epitomy of the whole Hifiory of thofe 
Ea(iern Countries. It now contains four Beglerhegf, or principal Go- 
vernments, that of Natolia^ at Cutaye , or Cute^ lurch .^ tejie LtuncL 
Cutaige^ ox Chiutaie tejie Baud. Kiotai P, Ricaut, oiCaramania at Cogni^ or 
Gogni^ the Iconium of Cic. Zenoph. Plin. of Amafia at Tocat, or Sijvai, or 
Stfvas the Sebaftiopolis of Tlin. and Ptol. of Aladuli at Marazh , or Ma- 
rafch, by the Turks ^ Zulcadie. The City of Bttrfa, the Prufa of Strab. 
Plin. & Ptol. Prufm Solino^ Burfa, Belon^ Bumfs furcis^ tifte Lmncl. built 
by King Prufias who betrayed Hannibal^ Ann. Mund. 32^7. taken by 
the Turks y A. D. 1300. it was the Pveiidence of the Kings of BithynU-, 
and offome of the GmJ^Emperors, and ladly of fome of the Tar^}^ 
Emperors, till they won Conjiantinopk. The firfi: of the Oitcman Race 
were buried there, except Solyman the fir ft, who would be buried at 
the Mouth of the Vardanels near CallipoH : It yields to none unlefs Con- 
ftantinopk^ either for Wealth, or number of Inhabitants. Nicomedijy 
Comedia^ Nicor^ Ifmgimid & Ifmir Turcis, tefle Lmncl. 'tis now a place 
of great Traffick for Silks, Cottens, Wool, Linen, Fruits, Pots, Glaf- 
fes, and other Commodities. ZVift-p, or Ifnkh^ Nlc£ci of Strab, Tlin. & 
TtoUprius Amigonia Strab. Olhia Plin. Ancore Suph. If inch & Nichor, Le- 
uncL Nich^a Soph, is famous for the firft General Council of 3 18 Bi- 
fliops, Ann. 325, and for the Refidence of the Grecian Emperors after 
the Franks ^^^ taken Conjiantinople^ Anno 12 01. Angomi & Angara 
Leuncl. Enguni Turcis., Ancyra Strab. & Plin. Angyra ex Codice Gy£co^ fa- 
mous for Tamerlans Vidory over^ Emperor of the Tmkj j and 
before that for Pompey's Victory over Mithridates^ and now for good 
Chamlets. Troy, Pergamus^ and Sardis^ have been R.OYal Cities. Troy^ 
renowned for the Ten years Siege of the Greckjy v. hofe Ruines alio 
are mixed with the Remains offome modern Srrudures. Pergamust 
by the Turks Birgama, is about 60 or 64 miles N. N. ^V. from Smirna^ 
watered by the River Cacus., is famous for the Wealth of King Ataluf, 
who overcame the Galat£ or GaUo-Grecians in a bloody Battel,was Con- 
federate with thzKomans againft King Philip-Jor the Invention of Parch- 
ment, for the Birth-place oi Galen, for its Tapcftiy, and for its being 
one of the Seven Churches. That of Sardis., by Homer Mcone, for the 
Refidence oiCruefm., and other the Kings of Lydia, Sinope upon the 
Black^Sea, for its Copper Mines, and for the Rclidence oi Mithridates, 
the moft formidable Enemy of the Romans. Scutari, formerly Chalcc 
don^ where the Fourth General Council was held, nis now a miferable 

Y y 2 Village 

^^3 of Turfy h Aft a. 

Village with heaps of ancient Ruines and Monuments of Defim6iion; 
jibydos ^noy/ one of the Vardanels^wzs famous for the Loves of Hero and 
Leander, and for the paflage ofXerxes^s prodigious Army over a Bridge 
of <574 Gallies. Foglia Vecchia^ formerly Phoc£a, the Mother of Mar- 
feiUes s the firft City which was taken by a formal Siege, by Harpagus 
Lieutenant to Grand Cyrm. Smima^ Ifmar Tmcis^ for t rade by Sea and 
Land, is the moft celebrated City in the Levant 5 hither the IVeflsm 
Fleets are bound, and from hence the faireft Caravans fet out, feated 
at the bottom of a Gulph, which is feven Leagues in length, defended 
with a Garde or Fort in (Uch a part of the Gulph, that no Ship can es- 
cape its Command. 

One of the Seven Churches of Jfta ; at this day a great City, but 
not fo great and beautiful as formerly, here are the R.uines of the 
Amphitheater, where it is faid St. folycarp was expofed to fight with 

This City is very populous, wherein is reckoned no lefs than Sixty 
thoufand 7tirh^^ Fifteeji thoufa .d Greeli^ , Eight thoufand Armenians^ 
Six or feven thourand Jeros^ oefides European Chri!iians» 

Smirna is a place of great plenty, the Soil abounding with Oil and 
Wine. The Sea affords good (lore of Fi(h, and Fowl is very cheap. 
But the Heats are very excelllve in Summer, and would he infuppor- 
table, were it not for the Breezes that come off the Sei about 10 in 
the Morning, and continues till the Evening, but the Plague and ma- 
lignant Fevers that fucceed it, are more deilrudive. Over the Gate 
of the upper Caflle the Koman Eagles continue ftill Engraved, and a 
great Head oi Stone, by the Turkj called Coidafa^ which fome think it 
to be the great Amazon Smirna^ which gave Name to this City. 

Ephfns., Efefo Soph, Figena or Fiena Cafi. Ayafaluch^ 'XurcU , Ricauf, 
During the Trojan War, Pliny tells us it was called Slopes, then Ortigia^ 
hy Lyfimachiii Arfvioa'j th^wMorgas^ th^n EphefiUj 45 Miles from ■5'w/V- 
«j, and about 5 Miles from the Sea upon the River C^j^rr, another of 
the 7 Churches of Aftj. Once famous for the Temple o£ Diana, faid 
to be Four hundred twenty five Feet in length , Two hundred and 
twenty in breadth, fuppoited with One hundred and twenty (kvm 
Marble Pillars Seventy feet high, Two hundred and twenty years a 
building, feven times fired, the lafi time was in the Night that Alex- 
ander was born. 

Laodicea, more anciently Viofpolif, one of the Seven Churches, now 
forgotten in its Name, and overwhelmed in its Ruines, which are by 
the Turhj called Eskihifar, not far from a place called VingizUe^ inha- 
bited by Greekit feated upon the River Lyem, 


Of Turky in Aft a. ^49 , 

Thiladelphia^ another of ttie Sei'cn Churches, by the Turk^ Aluflja- 
her, or the fair City; is yet adorn:?d with Twelve Churches, which 
profefs the Chrijiian Faith. 'Tis feated on the Riling of the Moun- 
tain tmolus , and watred with the River TaBclv.s 5 Anu is a place of 
Trade, being in the Pioad of the Ptrj:,;7« Caravans. 

Thyatira, Ak^vfar by the Tnrkj^ the laft of the Seven Jfian Churches, 
is a City well inhabited, and of a very confiderable Trade of Cotton- 
spool, which they fend to Smirna, 

HkropoIiSf Seidefchecher 'Inrcis , tefle Cruffio & Leuncl. Famhucl^\alaji 
Smith, ^phiotn-Carajfar Tavern, is feated over agaitift Laodicea, where 
are now to be feen the Ruins of vaft Fabricks, and the Grotta or Pla- 
soniHtn of Strab. famous for thofe peftilential Vapors which it per- 

Melaxo MoL Melejfo aliis , formerly Miletus, fent feveral Colonies 
abroad, and a long time withftood the Kings of Lydia. Hdicarnaf- 
fiis, famous for the Maufokum built by Queen Artemijla, in memory 
of Maufolus her Husband. Xanthm, famous for the float Refiihnce 
of its ancient Citizens againft Harpagia, Alexander and Bruins^ in all 
which Sieges they fuffered all Extrenalties imaginable. Sattalia^ other- 
wife Antali, lends its Name to a Gulph hard by. larfus, Tarfos 
Flin. Tarfo Europis, Terajfa incoUs , Tercis, Turcts Lewicl, once a famous 
Academy, Archbifhoprick, and Metropolitan of Ci/zci^, built by 5^r- 
dampalnSf Anno Mundi 3440. pofi Romam 60 Ifodoro. It hath alfb 
been called Antoniana, Stveriana & Hadriana, the place of St. Paurs E=- 
ducation. Cogni the Iconium of old, advantageoully fcituated in thei^. 
Mountains. Tiagtia, where the learned Apohnim was born. Amafia^ 
Amafed, Strab, & Ptol. Amnafan Turcis , is famous for the Birth of 
Miibridates and Strabo, for the Martyrdom of 7heodorus, and for the 
Refidence of the Eldeft Son of the Grand Signior, built in the hollow 
of a Mountain. Xda, not far off, built by Zeila Son of TSIicomedes, fa- 
mous for the Vidtory of Pharnaces over Strabo. 7rebizond, Trapefws 
Str.tb, & Plin. Mel. &c. Trabifonda & Trebifonda Europ£ij. Tarabafar Tur- 
cis icjh Leunc. the Seat of an Empire of (hort continuance, viz. 200 
years from the year 12^1, to the year 1450. now the Refidence of a 
Turk/fh Baflia. Tocat, the new Cjefaria of old, is a fair City, and one of 
the mofl: remarkable Thoroughfairs in the Eafi , where are lodged 
the Caravans from Perfu, Viabqmr^ Bagdat, Conjiantinople, Smirna, and . . 
other places. The Chrijiians have there Twelve Churches, and there 
relidts an Archbilhop, that hath under him Seven Suffragi'.is. The 
only place in all Afia, where Safron grows ; in the :niddlc of the Town 
is a great Rock^ upon the top whereof is an hi^h Caftle, with a Ga- 

rifoii .; 

^fb Of Turky in Jfta* 

xifon to command the Neighbouring Parts ; Uis governM by an 'A£a 
andC:/^i; for the Bafhaw lives at 5^^/, which is the ancient Scbafita, 
a large City, three days Journey from locat. Laiazzo, the famous 
Jffus near to TyU CylicU, where feveral Battels have been fought. In 
modern Story, That of a Soldan of Eg>pt againft Bajazitiht fecond, 
Emperor of the T:mk^, wherein he was defeated. In the fame place 
Alexander the Great defeated D^riw inperfon. There Ventidim Ba^us 
vanquiOi'd the Parthians. And Severiis the Emperor overcame Tefcen- 
nitm Niger his Rival in the Empire. Not far off i\ood the ancient An- 
chiale, built in the fame day andjyear in which Tarfus was by Sarda- 
napaluf. Satalia, Attalia Ptol. Aht^li 1'urcis, tejie Leunc. is famous tot 
its rich r^&f/fr/V/, and for giving Name to the Neighbouring Gulph 
founded by Ptolowy Philadelphus King of Egypt. Among the Pavers ot 
ACia the Dpi there is firft Jhermodon, upon whofe Banks the Amazom 
inhabited, now called Parmon. Halt, Halys, Strak Ptol. & Pit. Laly 
nig, Caftlirma P. Gyl. Otmagittchi & Aytotu turcli, tcjie Lemcl. was the 
Bounds of the Kingdom of Cyrm and Crxfw. Granicm toward theHe^ 
Jefpont, Granted Sauf. Lazzara, tejle Nig. was the Witnefs ol the hrii 
Vidory of Alexander the Great over the Per funs. PaUolm, Strah. Phn &- 
Chryforhoas Sol. now Sarabat, near to Sardis and Ihyatira, was famous 
forits golden Oar; Meander, Strab. Plin.&Zenoph.Meandros Ptol. now 
Madre, ex Aulocrcnefonte oriens, for his Swans, and his Windings. Cyd- 
riw near rarfus, now Carafu LeuncL whofe Waters were fo co d, that 
they kiird the Emperor Fredrrick, Earharoffa, who bath d himfelt there- 
in. And Alexander, who did the fame, was forfaken and given over 
by all his Phyficians. ^ , ^ u • , 

The moft renowned Mountains of the Lef[er Afu, are Taurm, which 
divides all ^Jz^ into two parts, as we have laid ahead y ; itisthemoft 
famous Mountain in the World, for its Height, its Length, and tor 
its Members CaucafiiS and Imaiis. Ida, near to 2roy, is famous ior the 
iudsnent of Paris between the three GoddeiTes. On Mount Imolus 
V/L' preferred Pan's Pipe before ApoUo's Harp. OnCragus was the 
Monfter Chimera made tradable by Mhrophon.^^^Ld the 
Loves of the Umi and Endymion. Mount Stella for the fatal Overthrow 
of Mitbridates by Pompey, and Bajaz^et's by %merlain. 


0/ Turhy in Aftal S5* 

Oi s r R I A. 

SYria^'Soria, It dps, La Sourie, Gallif ', Sunfian, 7urm'^^ Souriflan^ 
Incolkf. By the Ancients it was divided into three principal parts, 
viz. Syria Tropria, Phoenicia and Palefiim^ or the Holy Land. At pre- 
fent the Turkj divide it into three BcglerbegSy viz. of Halep, or Aleppo , 
Tripoli ox Tarabolof, and SchamoxVamafcus, which contains 16 or 20 
Sangiackf^ whofe Names and Scituations being for the moft part to 
us uknnown, I ftiall follow the Ancient Geography , and firft 
fpeak of 

Sj^yla Propria. 

In theDivifion or Parts of this, I find much Contrariety among all 
Geographers, and in all Maps. Baudrand tells us, 'tis divided into 
Comagena , Thoenicia^ Coelofyria , Palmyrena^ and Selettcia. In another 
place he faith, its parts are Syria Propria, Cxlocyria, Comagene, and Pal' 

Cluverius faith, 'tis divided into Antiochency Comagene^ Cxlo-SyriJ^ 
and Palmyrene. 

Golnitz, divides it into Comagena , Sekucia , Ccelo-Syria , and Idu" 

Heylin, into Phoenicia, Cxlo- Syria, and Syrophoenicia\ Bkait-^inio Coma" 
gena, Coclo-Syria, Phoeniciay Vemafcena, and Palmyrena. 

I come therefore to fpeak of the chief places in Syria Propria, which 

I . Antioch , or Anttochia magna , Theopolii a Ju^iniano Imperatore, 
Kehbjta a S. Triniiate^ by the Tnrkf Antachia Lmncl. once the Metro- 
polif of Syria, fituate on the River Orontes, now AJfr, or Hafei, 12 
jMilcs from the Mediterranean Shoar. Once adorned with (lately 
Palaces, Temples, &c. The Seat of fome of the Roman Empe- 

The Suburbs, called Daphne, from .^poVjs Miftris fo called, turned 
into a Laurel, now 5- Miles from A,n:och.^ was accounted one of the 
moft delicious places in the World, Famous lor the Oracle and Tem- 
ple of Apollo, who was here wortnipped in a Grove 10 miles in 
compaf', planted with CypreiTes, and other Trees, fo full and clofe 
together, that the Beams of the Sun could not dart through, wate- 

^'i^d Of Turky in Jfii, 

red with pleafant Streams, beautified with Fountains, and enriched 
with variety of Fruits. 

Aleppo^ Chalybon Katvolfio & TofteVo, Serosa^ Berou, or Beroe, ZonaM, 
Cedreno & P. Gyll, Hkro-polU tefte Betlom. Sanfone & Brietio. At prefent 
Aleppo or Halep^ is the greateft and principal City of all Syria^ and one 
of the moft famous of the Eaji^ and the 3d in the OttumanEmfiie, if 
we conlider it as the Rendezvous of the Caravans, and of the 7ur' 
h^fh Armies •■, as the Magazine of Jewels, of Spices, of Silks, and 0- 
ther coftly Commodities which are brought thither by Sea and Land, 
and from thence fent into other parts of the World by the Port of ^- 
iexandretta or Scandaroon. 

3. Hamah Leuncl. Hamoitd Bellon, jiman aim & Damant in Mappa 
Bleau, is the Apamea or Apamia of the Ancients , built by Sekucus^ 
and fo called from the Name of his Wife, feated in the midft of a 
great Plain , encompafled with pleafant Hills , abounding in Corn 
and Wine. Its Orchards fiored with variety of Fruits and Palm- 
Trees. Its Gardens watered with many Channels drawn from the 


4. Hams^ Hemz. 7'urcif^ Hjman Bell Chemps Tojlel. & I. Kydo. Ca- 
-wain Nigra., is the Emlfa Eufeb. EmiffaTtol. Hemefa Tlin. for pleafant fci- 

tuation much as the fame with Hamah. 

5. Seleucia^ built near the Mouth of Orontes by Seleucuf^ efteemed 
the greateft City-builder in the World, viz. p of his own Name, 16 
In memory of his Father Antiochus^ 6 bearing the Name of his Mother 
Laodicea^ and three in remembrance of his Wife Apamcea, befides feve- 
lal others, either built, repaired, or beautified by him. It had the 
Surname of Pieria, called alfo Soldin Nig.& Seleucbcjelber. Leone SidO" 

6. Zetigma, feated on the Banks of the River Euphrates^, where A- 
lexandcr the Great pafled over on a Bridge of Boats. 

7. Samofatba^ Scempfat L. Sidonienfi^ near the Banks of the Euphrates^ 
over which there was a Bridge for a paffage into Mefopotamia-, here was 
born Lnciati^ and Vatdm Sampfatmm , Patriarch of Antioch^ who was 
condemned for Herefie. 

8. Palmira^ AmagaraOrtel.Fayd. Sanf. feated near the Defart of z^- 
rabia^ famous for Zenobia^ who Hood in oppofition with Gallienus for 
the Empire of the Eaji^ but was taken Prifoner, and led in Triumph 
through Rome by Aurdian, 

9. Adadd is memorable for the Viflory that Anm King of Arahin 
obtained agdnft /^/ePfWer King of yewTj'* 


Of Turky in Afta. ^55 

10. Damafeui' Vamafco Europ£Pf, Sciam Minad^ Scham incolis LenncU 
Vamas GalJis^ once the chief City of Syria , and one of the naofr an- 
cient in all /ijia, feated near the River Chryforrhoas^ Pkarphar Hebrsis^ 
Adegele BeS. Farfar & Ferne Gijl. in a Soil fo fertile in Gardens, Or- 
chards and Vineyards, a place fo pleafant with Rivers and Fountains, 
fo fuifciting of Delights, fo ravifialng with Pieafures, that fome have 
called it, The Paradife of the WorUy famous for the Temple of Zicha- 
rias^ garnilhcd with 40 (lately Porches, and adorned with about pooo 
Lanthoms of Gold and Silver. Ruined and deftroyed by the Perftanr, 
Macedonians^ Romans^ Parthiani^ Saracens , Tai'tars , by the Soldans of 
E^yp^ and by the lurks. After the Battel of JJfus^ Akxander the Great 
found in Vamas 20C000 Talents of coined Money , and 500 Talents 

Laudicha-, Laodicea Cic. Strah. Flin. "Laodics Tolyh. fo called from 
Laodice the Wife of Antiochus^ and Mothgr of Seleucus, fur named Ca- 
binfa^ called Lizz,a & Lyche Minad. & Olivario^ 100 Miles from Va' 

There was alfo another Laodicea , Ttol. upon the Sea-coaft , 
30 Miles from Antioch Weft. Rhamata Hekr£is , Lyche incolis tede 

Bcrittts , now Bartuii or Berite , once much frequented by Mer- 
chants, and others , near which is that noted Valley where ( as it 
is faid ) St. George , by killing the Dragon , redeemed the King's 

Biblus^ now Gibbeleth, was the Habitation of Cinivas the Father of 
Myrrha, Mother to the fair Adonis y from whom the Neighbouring Ri- 
ver took its Name •, once a Bithop's See, now defolate. 

I had almoft forgot Alexandretta or Scanderoon^ the Sea- port 0^ Aleppo, 
a confufed heap of paltry Houfes inhabited by the Greeh^ , who keep 
Fudling Schools for the Mariners, and other meaner fort of the Peo- 
ple, only the Dwellings of the Vice-Confuls are very convenient : 
But 'Tavernier faith, They muft be Men who love Money that accept of 
thofc Employments •, for the Air, like that at Ormus , is fo badf in 
Summer efpecially, that if it doth not kill, yet they cannot avoid very 
dangerous Diftempers ; And after fome ftay there, to remove to a bet- 
ter Air, is to endanger their Lives : But Auri facra fames. 


9 ^4 Of Turky in AftA. 

Of Mefopotatnia. 

TH E Vadan Aram of the Scripture, Trahin by the Perftans^ Jaz,ei' 
rey by the Arabians^ Meredin by the Armenians , by the Tttrki T)i- 
arbeck, , is a Peninfula between the Euphrates and Tygris on the IVefly 
South and Eaft j and on the North, the Mountains fcparate it from Tur- 
comania-, the 5(?«//? part defart and barren, the Northern pzrt abound- 
ing with Corn and Wine. 

A Country nneraorable for the Birth of Abraham and Rebecca ; the 
long Abode of y^cot, and the Birth of his Children, the Original of 
the Hebrew Nation. 

SuccefTively fubjedled to the Babylonians, Ajfyrians , Medes and Per' 
fians ; from them conquer'd by the Romans ■•> recover'd again by the Per- 
fians, then fell into the power of the Sarazens, and now enflaved un- 
der the Turk/. 

Chfpha, or Ourfa, is the ancient Edefa, Edtjfa , Ptol. & Plin. Edefa 

Erech^ by the Hebrews and Rages, as VtVanovanus tells us, Orpha by 
Paulus Jovtus. Rotas by Hiithonus , Rhoas & Khoa Ni^er. Orfa by 
P. Gyllius, Rohai al. Orrhoai Arab. The Capital City of Mefopotamiay 
where they drefs the Yellow Cordovant Skins, the Blue at iocat, the 
Red at Viabek^r, 

Carrha, known to the Romans for the death of wealthy Crajfus, Orfa 
Baud. Heren, Nig. & Sanf. Dr. Leonard Rontvolf, who in Anno 1575- 
was at Haran, tells us it was then called Ophra, i i days Journy, ot 
232 Miles from Moful or Kmiveh \ That it was a fair City, well inha- 
bited, and richly furnifhed with Merchandize, but efpecially with fair 
Coverlets of divers Colours. 

tavernier and 7hevenot tell us , That Our/a is built where flood the 
ancient Edeffa, memorable in the Church Hiftory for the Story of Aba- 
garus 5 and in Roman Hiftory for the death of the Emperor CaracaVa -, 
and by the Report of the Inhabitants, the place wher€ Abraham li- 
ved': So that Hjvan, Edeffa, Carrha, and Orfa, feem to me to be all 
the fame City. The Walls of the City are of Free Stone, with Bat- 
tlements and Towers, but Pvuinous within i upon the South-fide there 
is a Caftle upon a Hill, with fome old pitiful Guns. The City is go- 
verned by a Balhaw, ^ ^ , ■ 
Viarbek^er, or Viarbsquir, is alfo the Caramit or Caremu & Carahemtt 
turds , tefie Leuncl the Amida of Frocop. Amni£a Ptol. Hemit incolis 

Of Turk) in Afia. ^ 5 ^ 

%lim ConjlMtia di^a tefle Baud. Zoriga MJet. feated near the Tygris, a 
Frontier Town of great Strength, the Seat of a Turkjfh BaQia, con- 
taining two or three fair Piazza's, ani a migiiiticent Mofque, for- 
merly a Ghriftian Church. 'Tis well peopled, containing, by Re- 
port, 2000 Cbrijiians, | Ac/mniMs^ the retl Ne{ioreans^ and fome few 
Jacobites. Fanaous for its Red Mitroquinr , furpalling in Colour all 
others in the laft, as alfo for excellent V/ine and good Bread. 

B/r, or Birigeon, is feated on the Eu^^hrates., upon the Brow of a Hill, 
Plenty of Bread, Wiae and Fifli. 

Sbsrindy Tav. tcbamMck^Toiv. is a very good Town, with a fair 
Inn, and vecy gT)d Biths round about it, near which is a Moun- 
tain, on the top whereof is a Fortrefs , with a Garifon, which the 
Grand Vificr in the Year 1^3 i. after his lofs at Bagdat^ intended to 
have made his Refuse, but was ftrangled before he could accomplifli 
his defign. 

Vadacardia 7av. The Ruincs whereof denote it to have been a 
large Town, but now the Inhabitants have no other Habitation but 
the Hollows of Rocks. 

Coufafar lav. Kodgiafar Thev, is a Village where you pay the Cu- 
ftoms of Viarheqtiir lav. rather of Merdin tejh Thev. 

Merdin, Mard->. Herob. Ftol. Msrdino Onupb. Mirdin. Barb. Mtrdanwm 
Trocopio^ two Leagues from Kodgiafar^ is a little City i'eated on a Moun- 
tain with good Walls, and a Caftle, where is refident a Baftia, who 
hath under him 200 Spahi^s., and 400 Janifarks. 

Karafara Tav. Caradene Thev, ihews the Ruines of feven or eight 
Churches, and was once a great Town, one day's Journy from 

Nesbin is but the (hadow of the ancient Nifibi^ of Strab. Ptol. Plut. 
Tlin. and formerly a great Town , now hardly an ordinary Vil- 

Af>/«/, upon the Weft fide of the River Tyg^rh^ is encompaffed with 
Walls of rough Stone, plaiflered over with little pointed Battlenr^nts 
on the top. It hath a Cafile built of Free Stone, and the Walls are 
about three Fathom high *, on the Land fide feparated from the Town 
by a Ditch five or fix Fathoms broad, and very deep. In the Caftle 
there are fix large Guns, whereof one is broken, and one is mount- 
ed ; feveral Field-pieces, whereof two mounted. 

The Tygris here in Summer is not broader than the River Sein in 
France^ but deep and rapid, and in Winter *tis as broad again. 

And here I cannot omit what Thevenot affirms of Sanfuti's Map of 
this Country, viz. That befides the miftakes of Rivers, he hatfa 

Z z 2 , made 

3 $6 Of Turky^ in Ajja, 

made (b many Faults in the pofltion of Places in their Diftances, as 
alfo in their Names , that nothing^ of the Country is true in the 
Map. -^^^''i 

T>iarhec\^ taken in general, comprehends Arzerum, the yiffyria of 
oldy and Terac the ancient Chaldea^ or Babylonia, the chief Cities where- 
of are Babylon and Nineveh, which were heretofore very famous, now 
altogether ruined : Nineveh juft over againfi M^ful, was the Refidence 
of ehe King of /^ffyrta, 24 Leagues in Circuit. The voluntary death 
oi Sardanafahu^ and the Repentance of the Inhabitants, have reuown- 
ed it in Story, Towards the Frontiers of Ajjyria inhabited a War- 
like People, called, T'he Curds^ where many great Battels have been 
fought, viz. That at Arbda and Gaugamda, Plin. or Gangamela Strab^ 
now near to, if not the fame with , SchiaJjrazitr, the Scat of a I'iirkjfb 
Beglerbcgj R.enowned for the Vidory of Alexander the Great againft 
Varius, killing above 400000 Per/i<2/a-, with the lofs oi ^00 Alacedo- 
nians. There the Calijfs won the Battel of Maragi ^ which made 
them Matters of all Perfia. And near to Chny, Selim defeated Iflmael 
Sepbi^ who had always been a Vidior before. Babylon lay a fmall day's 
Journy from Bagdat^ which ftands upon the Tygris, and is only a heap 
of Ruins in a place called Fdougia, near to which they (hew the place 
where liood the Tower of Bahd^ famous for the Confulion of Lan- 

This Babylon was built by Nimrod, whom fome affirm to be Belus. 
Semiramis and Nebudyadnezz^r much augmented it : The firft of the 
two having encompaffed it with fuch Walls as were accounted one o.f 
the Seven bonders of the Worlds and the high and fair Gardens upon 
the Terras were no lefsadmir'd. It was taken hy Cyrus, by Darius, by 
Alexander the Great, who died there, and by Sekucus. The Power and 
Wealth of Babylon was fo great, that it contributed more to the Grand 
Cyrus, than the third part of all his Dominions. Next to Babylon , Se- 
leucia, called Coche and Alexandria, then Seletfcia, from Antiochus the Son. 
oi Sdeucius . tefie Martiano, now Bagdad, ox Bagadat,tefie Sanfone ; was the 
moft confiderable City in all y4fia, and then Ctcftphon : Baghdat, or Baga- 
dad, generally called Bahylonyis not only the Rendezvous of feveral Mer- 
chants, but alfo of the Mahometans of all parts of JJtay who go to vilit 
the Sepulchres of Ow^ and Haly, and other Mahometan Saints. It was a 
long time the Refidence of the Caliphs* Vlity who was one of riiem, was 
Mafter of one of the greateft Monarchies in the world •, for it extended 
from the moft Weftern parts of Barbary, to the Eaji- Indies. Another 
Caliph of this City, at his Death leff Eight Sons , Eight Daughters, 
Eight Millions of Gold, Eight thoufand Slaves, and the Addition of 


Of Turky in Aft a, ^^j 

Eight Kingdoms to his Dominion In the year 1538. when Amurath 
the Fourth rc-took it from the Ferfiifis , he caufed three men out of 
every Tent through his Army to be caft into the Moat, and over them 
a vaft number of Bavins and Wooll-Sacks, that he might the more 
eafily Affauk the Town, Kufa^ or Mecha Ali^ is a City, for which 
the Mahomet jns have a particular Veneration, as being the Buryiag- 
place of Haly. B.'Jforay or Balfora^ is the %ndnn of Strak Plvi, Ptol. a 
Town near the Mouth of Tygrk^ which they of the Country call Shat. 
It is large and pleafant, by reafon of its Palm- Trees. The conveni- 
ency of its Ports furnifhes India and Perfia with Dates, which are Bread 
and Wine to thofe that know how to order them. Some few years 
fince, Bj/fofj fell under the Jurifdidlion o^ Ali-Bjjfa, who (til'd him- 
felf King thereof , who left it to his SuccefTors , who enjoy it from 
Father to Son, paying a fmall Tribute to the Grand Signior, who is 
afraid to opprefs him left he fliould Revolt j but thefe two laft Places 
properly belong to Arabia, 



Of Canaan. 









--ft- Zo^tfAl 

S li A 



JLtrnutth -r^ r- ■"■/•••°. 

, J... .,...„.„—,» ^ oCTtgan 



's V 

;/«^; '^'^T; Z'^.^. f* .^e» 5^ 

ID "v*"^ 



■f'^. <?«*"»•. .f/uAji (r<i/ - fL,^ .-■ * 

3ethpetor t/'- ^T^j 

: 3.^-* — -^ 

'^'</-/ .■■•••••. '^'^ I i,>^°^rThe Deai Sea" -"^^^-^^^ V 


THis Country was firft Inhabited by Canaan the Son of Cham, and 
called by his Name. He dying, left it to his Eleven Sons, that 
bore the Name of the Children of Canaan , at what time it contained 

52 King 

Of Turky in Aft a. 359 

52 Kingdoms, and 5 Satrapes: Divided afterwards into 12 Tribes, 
that bore the Names of the Sons oi Jacob and Ifrael, being conquered 
by Jofhna^ and pofTeflfed by the Ifradnes \ who for 38(5 years were go- 
verned by Captains and Judges; after that, for 418 years, by Kings. 
YxomKehohozm 10 Tribes revolted , who chofe the fugitive jF^roWw 
for their King ; His SuccefTors were itiled Kings of Ifrad^ (o that it then 
contained two Kingdoms, viz. i (1, oijudah, whofe Regal Seat was Je- 
rufalem ; 2d, of Ifrael^ whofe Scat was at Samaria. After 255? years, 
the Ifraelites were led into Captivity by the King oi Affyria^ fome fay 
beyond the Cafpian Mountains , from whence they never returned. 
And the JJfyrians poffefTed their Land , and were called Samaritans. 
The People of Judah were alfo afterwards carried Captive into Baby- 
lon by Ntbftchadnezzar^ after fet at liberty by Cynis^ and returned back 
under the Gondu<3: of 'Ziruhbahel, After this, they were called Jen?/, 
and the Country Jewry ; and for about 364 years they were governed 
hy Arijlocracy ^ until the Miccabees ^ who, after many Conflidts with 
their powerful Neighbours, upheld the Government 131 years; du- 
ring which interval, the Remans under Pompey conquerM Judea-^ and 
after the Death'of AntigonuSy the laft of the Race of the Maccabees^ Hsrod 
is made King by Augujm and Anthony^ a man of admirable Virtues and 
execrable Vices, fortunate abroad , unfortunate in his Family 5 his 
Life tragical, his Death defperate. After whofe Death, the Kingdom 
was divided into Two parts, half of it had the Title of Ethnarch^ the 
other half divided into two 7'etrarchies . Archslaus baniihed and dying 
in Exile , his Ethnarchy was reduced into a Roman Province , and the 
Government committed unto Pontiw Pilate, by 7';kriiis Cdfar^ under 
whom our Saviour^ the Holy Jej///, did futfer Death, when the Jevps 
cried out, His 'Blood be upon Vs and Ours. A willi not long after ef- 
fected with all fulnefs of Terror, for the Calamities of the War in- 
flicted by Gallm, Vefpafian^ and litus^ exceed both Example and De- 
fcription, and del^royed about 11 coco People. The Laud deihoycd-, 
and on every Head an Annual Tribute impoied ; The J^rcs were quiet 
until the Reign C'f Adrian^ when again they raifed new Com.motiors, 
being headed by Berochab- ihdt countefeit MeJJiah', but Julius Severus^ 
Lieutenant to Adrian ^ razed 50 of their Strong Holds, and ^§'5 
Towns, and flew 580G00; fo that the Countries lay walie, and the 
ruined Cicies became an Habitation for Wild Bealts, and the Captivci» 
were tranfported into Spain^ and from thence again exiled in the year 

In which Inteival of time, the Country inhabited by othef People, 
about the time of Conjiant/ne,. embraced the Cbrifiian R.c4igion : But in 


l6o 0/ Turky hi Jfia. 

the Reign of Thocoft the Perfuns ovenan the whole Countiy of Palejline, 
inBid^ing unheard-of Tortures on the Patient Chijlhns. No fooner 
freed from that Yoak,but they fuflFcrcd under a greater by the execra- 
ble Saracens^ under the Condu<fi of Omar^ who were long after expul- 
fed by the Turkj^ then newly planted in ?^rfta by Tj-ngropilix, When 
the ChrijUsns of the f^f/f, for the recovery of the Land, fct forth an 
Army of 300000, Godfry of B longe the General, who made thereof 
an abfolute Conqueft, and was eleded King o{ Jerufatem^ in the Spth 
year of that Kingdom; and during the Reign of Guy, the Chrijlians 
were utterly driven oat and deflroyed by Saladi/ie, the Egyptian Sultan^ 
who held it until Sdymus the Firft, Emperor of the Twrjly-, who in the 
year 1 5 17. added the Holy Land, together with Egypt^ unto the Ottoman 
Empire, under whofe Power it now is governed by Two Sanziac\sy 
under the Baffa ofVamafcui ^ one refiding at Jerufalcm, the other at 
Naploiu. It is now for the moft part inhabited by Moors and Arahi' 
ans^ thofe pofTeiling the Vallies, thefe the Mountains j fome few T«rj^/, 
many Greeks , with other Chrijlians of all Seds and Nations j fome 
Jews^ who inherit no part of the Land, but live as Aliens in their own 

The Cluorographical Divifion of CANAAN. 

This Land oiCanaan^ within Jordan^ was divided into five Principal 
Parts or Provinces, viz. ly?, Jevory in the Souths where King David's 
Throne was fet, and the Holy City built, comprehending the Two 
Tribes of Judah and BenjamitK 2d, Samaria in the midft, the chief 
Seat of the Ten Tribes 01 Ifrael, containing the Tribe of Ephraim, and 
the half Tribe of Manajfes. 3 d, Galilee in the North- Ea/?, where Chriji 
^c/«/ was very converfant, and was divided into the Higher and the 
Lower, containing part of /f/^«r , 2\\ Naptbali , and part of Zebulm, 
4t^, Phosnicia on the North-lFeli part of Canaan y containing the Sea- 
coaii of A (hnr and Zebulun. $thy The Land of the Philijiins upon the 
If^eji of Canaan,, whofe Country was allotted to Judah^ Van, and Simeon, 
thefe were always great Enemies to the Ifraelites s and from them was 
the whole Land called Palejiine. 

The Land of Canaan without Jordan , pofllfled by the Amorites , 
who had driven out the Moabites and Ammonites^ contained three Prin- 
cipal Parts i ifi. Part of the Kingdom of Sihon King of the Amo- 
rites, in Hejhbon, taken from the Moabites, which was given to the 
F^eitbenites. 2d, The Land of Gilead, which contained part of the 


Of Turky in Afm, 361 

Kingdom o( Sihoiti taken from the Jmmonites j and part of the King- 
dom of Og King oiBaJhan, which was given to the Gadftes. 3^, The 
reft of the Kingdom of Og, with half Gikad^ and the Pvegion of ^r- 
gob, was given to the half Tribe of Manajfes: All which are delineated 
in the Map, as alfo the Names of the Chief Cities and Towns in each 

Once a Country To fertile, that it was called, ^ Landfljwmg mth 
Mi\ and Honey i, adorned with pleafant Mountains, and luxurious 
Vallies i neither fcorched with Heat, nor pinched with Cold. The 
Wealth and Power of it fo great, the People, Cities and Towns fo 
numerous, that there was no Country in the World that could com- 
pare with it. But now remains a fearful Monument of Divine Ven- 
geance, a fad and difmal Mirror for all other like finful Countries to 
view their Deftiny by. Jemfalem, though fallen from her ancient 
Luftre, defervesftill our remembrance. Once her Kings, her Princes, 
her Temple , her Palaces were the Greateft, the Richeft, the Faireft, 
^nd moft Magnificent in the World. Once a City Sacred and Glori- 
ous, the Seat of Infinite Majefty, the Theatre of Myfteries and Mira- 
cles, the Diadem in the Circle of Crowns, and the glory of the Uni- 
verfe, but now leabod: It was ruined by Nebuchadnezzar % Vefpafian 
and Titus utterly razed it, and deftroyed above Eleven hundred thou- 
fand People, v;. 'V 

To defcribe this Country in all its Circumftances, to fpeak of its 
Laws, Religion , its Divifions , Wars and Alterations ^ to write of 
all the various Tranfadions that have hapned in it, would require a 
Volume of it felf. I (hall therefore leave it to my aforefaid Defcription 
of ihis part of the World, where I (hall give a more particular Geo- 
graphical and Hiftotical Relation of its Cities, Towns, and other me- 
morable Tranfadions, which will be a very ufeRil and neceflary In- 
troduaiion into the Frinclpa's of ancient Geography and Hiftory. 

Aaa Of 


Of ARMENIA Major, 



X...X -"v - "^-^ tr j^i . 

AKwf/;/^ is divided by the Puver 'Euphrates info two parts, Maht 
^ and M?>7or. The greater Armema is by the 'Tmhs cali'd Tttrcoma- 
rjj •, by the Perfians^ thoura, Emnoe,^ or Jremnoe , by the Nijhrians^ Zd- 
hecdihis^ by ^<2/;/^ff, Curdilhn^ by CV/^yer, P^;?^/ and C?W/. 


Of Tnrlj in AfiA, ^^. 

The Ancient Tnhabitants were the Mardi , and GoTdi^\ now the 
lurcomans and Curdes. The \ni\ are faid to be defcended from Turque- 
iian in Tartary, froni whence came the turki. The later are defcended 
Irom the Ancient People of /ijfyria. 

Ptolomy di^jidtd Armenia into iour principal Parts, which contained 
2 Provinces, and 87 Citie?. 

P/.«> accounted 120 Strategies, Governments, or particular Turifdi- 
ctions ot every Provnice. -^ 

A Country much better known, and more Famous in Ancient Time 
than now. 1 he Advantage of its Bounds, the Nature of its Situati- 
on theMagnihcenceorfome of Its Kings, among which, Tv£r^«./, Son- 
in-law to Mnlmdates Kmgoi Ponuu. hath been the mort Famous; its 
Greatnefs, Government and Riches, much contributed to its Renown 

In this Country are the Heads of four Rivers, Euphrates, ryaru, 
Fbafis, and Araxer. ^ » /i. j 

Euphrates, Perath Mofes, Frat Nkolaio, Morot fou r^rcis from one GA^ 
o^the Mountain ^«,./ falls this River, whkh div^id^s Z.""a d 
Mefopotarma horn A[u Mmor, Syria and Arabia, defcends into Chaldea 
where .t waters the Ancient Babylon, and joyns with tygr^s fomewhTt* 

DeiOW DJZdatt 

rygris HidcklEbr^is, regit CaM & Pinero , Dighth J.fepho de- 
fcends from the Georgian Mountains, falls into divers Lakes lofcs it 
felf divers times m the Earth, cuts through the Mountains, feparates 
Mfopotama horn AJfyria, waflies the Ruines oiNmveh, receives the 
Branches of the Euphrates, and difcharges it felf into the Perfial 

Phafu or F^jCr^ hath its Head in the fame Mountain with the Eubhra- 
tes, and runs Its Courfe towards the North i and after it hath paffed 
100 Bridges, falls into the Euxine Sea. ^ 

;.f'1r-'Li'''^'*'t'^^'''^'T-p^^'^ 7^,^. runs Eailward, and joins 
It felf with Kur.OT Cyrus , whofe Rife or Spring is from the other Hde 
of the Mounta:n Mi.^ anj ^en falls ini;o the C./;..«la Since 
thefe Rivers have here thdr Springs, Sanfon te^ls us, That if there vet 
remains any marks by which we may difcover the place where the Ter- 

other But Sir John Shardm makes the River Phafis to arife from the 

dy, their Countenance commonly gi a ve, their Features well-propor- 
tioned, and of comely Perfonage, but of a Melancholy and Sam'nine 

A a a 2 a:_ 

^64 0/ Turky in J ft a. 

Air. In their Humours, Covetous and Sordid, Heady and OKftinate $ 
of a dull and ftupid Apprehenlion, unlcfs in Merchandize and Trade*. 
Yer, 'tisobferved, That thofe that arc broughfupin other Cout. tries, 
are of a more acute Llnderlianding, plcafiiig and mtiry in Behaviour i 
butthe Women are commonly ill-fhaped, longnoled, and not fo much 
as toix^rably handfom. 'Ric. 

^rmaiia was conquered in the Year i 5 1 5. by Stlimus the Firft, and 
annexed to the Ottoman Dominions; yet the Armenians pretend they 
cannot be made laves, by reafon of cerfain Privilcdges which their 
PredeceiTors obtained from Mahomet^ when they allilted him to fettle 
his Empire 5 upon which coniideration moft of the Merchants of Turky 
go by the name of Armenians. 

The Armenian Church is Ruled by four Patriarchs,thechief of which 
refidcsat Etchmeafen Ric. Ecs-miazin Chard. Changlee Chilfe by the Turk/, 
or Ouch Chilfe from the Three Churches, which are there built in aTri- 
angle^ about two or three Leagues from Kivan, or Erivan. 

The chief Places now are Erztrum, Theodofiopolis, P Gillio-, Sinera Mi' 
nadaio, Aziris aliU, a Frontier Town, and Great Thorough- Fare, the 
Refidence of a Baftia. The Houfes are ill built of Wood, without any 
Order or Proportion, where are fome Remains of Churches. Taver- 
nier tells us. That tho it be very cold, yet Barley grows there in 40 days, 
and If^heat in 60. 

Erez^ after Garifoned hyMufiapha^ was taken by Storm, and was 
witnefs of Emirhamz firft Conteft with the Turk. 

Cars^ Carje, or Char/a Leunc. a large City, but thin Peopled, feated in 
a good Soil, the Rendezvous of the Grand Signiors Army. A days Jour- 
ny from Kars, are to be feen theRuines of a great City called Anik^gee, 
ftronglyfituate in ^Mjrjhj Tav. 

Kivan, or Erivan, is feated in a plentiful Country now belonging to 
the Sultan oiPerfia, being taken by Sha Sefi, who put all the Garifonto 
the Sword. 'Tis famous for its Trade of Silks and plenty of Wine ; 
not far froni this City are to be feen the Ruines of the Ancient Artaxata, 
the Seat of the Ancient Kings of Jlrmma , tefte Tavirnier : So that Tffitf 
in Georgia cannot be the Artaxata of the Ancients, as in our Geographical 

Najp.van, or Nachavan, the Ncxuana of Ptol. according fo the Opini- 
on of the Armenians , is the moft Ancient City of the World , three 
Leagues from Mount ^r^w^ the place where Noah lived after he came 
out of the Ark. There is feen the Ruines of a great Mofque, which, 
they fay, was one of the moft ftately Buildings in the World, ereded in 
memory of Noah'*s burying-place. 


Of Turhy in Aftn. ^65 

In the Canderan Plains, not far from NaJJivan., was fought a memo- 
rahle Battel betwixt the T'urk^ and Perfia-Uy where both the Enriperors> 
Selym and Jfinad^ were prefent. 

Van, the Artemlta Plin. Artctmita Strah. ArteTrAdita Ptol. is a great 
City upon the fide of the wide Lake Arcijfa, or Arfaniai , now Lake 
de Va'.ian^ feated on the top of a high Mountain, and is the Seat of a 
lurkifh Beglerheg. 

Betlis, by fonne faid to be the T'igranccerta of Plin. & Tac, belongs 
to a Bey, or Prince of the Country, who neither acknowledges the 
Grand Stgnm\ nor the Perfian Sultan. It is fcituate between two high 
Mountains, guarded with a Calile and Draw-Bridge. The Bey, be- 
fides the ftrength of his PafTes , is able to bring above 25000 Horfe, 
befides Foot, into the Field. Near this place the Perftans obtained a 
great Vidory over the Turks^ in which were flain five Sanz.iac}{F, 800 
Janiz,aries.y 2000Q Soldiers, 40 pieces of Cannon taken, and i?oij/w-?«'/ 
Seraglioy in which were Beauties he not a little doted on, when Ibra- 
him BalTa was ftrangled by a Mute. 

Old Jiilpha or 7yulfa was the ancient Habitation of the Armenians^ 
which SbaAhhas carried into Perfia, and is thought to be the Ariammem 
of the Ancients. 

Jjlabat^ a League from the Arof, the only Country that produceth 
the RonoiKoot^ whofeufe is to dye Red, and fcr which there is a vaft 
Sale all over Perfia and India. 

Marante is famous for the burying-place of KcaFs Wife. 

Sophiana is more like a Fcrert than a City. 

The Convent of St. Stephens near Nakfii'anj was the retiring place 
oi Su Matihcrv, and St. Bart bolomerp^ in the time of their Perfecutionj 
a noted place for Devotion. 

Of Georgia. 

BEtween the Black^Sea and the Cafpian^Vics Georgia ^ fo called by the 
Grecians from the word Georgoi., which lignifies Husbandmen : 
Some will have this Name derive it ielf from that of St. George^ the 
Patron Saint of all the Chriftians of the Gref^ Church. Under the 
general Name whereof, we comprehend Mingrelia , Gurgijian, Zuiria^ 
and Comania : Provinces which the ancient Romans could not fubdue, 
by reafon of the ruggednefs of the Mountains, which were known to 
the Ancients by the Name of Caucafm^ made famous by the Fable of 
Trometheiis. Mingrelia.^ with Avogafja, are the fame with Colchis, or 
little more : Famous for the Amours oi Jafon and Medea, and for the 
Conqueft of the Golden Fleece by the Argonauts, Guf 

3<^^ Of Turhy in Afuu 

, Gurgijhn is the ancient Ikria ; Zuiria anfwcrs to the ancient Jlhania j 
and Cvmania or Carcuffta coinpofeth feme part ot the Jfutic Sarmjtia 
on the South of D.'«. 

The ancient Kingdom of Cholchis was not Co fmall as now Ms rec- 
koned, when it extended fr( m the Taliis M£>u<^ as far as Ibtria-, whofe 
Capital City was alfo fo called, where our Modern Geographers place 
Faffo. The Corax and Tbafu^ famous Rivers in ancient Hiltory, now 
called Cndours and Rione^ ferve for its bounds, in length i lo Miles, 
in breadth about do. It is new divided into three parts , viz. Mm- 
gnl'ta^ Gimdf and Imiretta. 

MingrcUa^ Odifche hicol. is a Country full of Hills and Mountains, 
Vallies and Plains, almolt covered with Woods. The Air is temperate, 
but very moid and unwholfome , in regard of the extreme wet Wea- 
ther ; Co that in Summer the moilture of the Earth, being heated by 
the Sun, caufcch trequent Peiiilences, and other Difeafes, very dan- 
gerous to Strangers. It abounds with many Rivers, which fall from 
the Mountain Ci/wcj///<, and difcharge into the B/ucil;^5'e^, viz. Codours^ 
the Corax of the Ancients. The lacbeur, which Arrian calls Siganm. 
The Socum, fuppofed to be the T^rfcen of Arrkn^ and the fhajferis of 
Ptol. The Lar.gHT, ihe JjiolphufoC o]6. The Kelmhel^ or Gobi oC Ar- 
rian. The Cianifcjri^ Cw/;c«j of the Ancients. The Schemfcari, or R/- 
ver Horfe^ by the Greeks H^ppiis. The Abafcia^ oiGlaucm of Strabo^ the 
Caries of Arrian, and the Caritus of Ftol. Thefe two Rivers intermix 
with the famous Thajis^ about 20 Miles from the Sea. 

The Fhafjs, by the Turks Fachs^ by the Inhabitants Rione ^ at the 
Mouth is about a Mile and half over. There are feveral fmall Iflands 
in the Mouth of it , upon the biggeft of which Sultan Morat built a 
Fortrefs in the Year 1578. when he attempted the Conqueft of that 
Country, the Ruines of which are now to be feen,but no Remainders 
of the Temple of Rhea to be feen, which was confecrated to the Wor- 
ihip of Chrill in the Reign of the Emperor Zeno -, nor any Ruines of 
the ancient Scbafla^ or the famous Colchis , now to be feen. And the 
City F.?/l;, placed where Chalets dood by our htc Geographcrj.y is alfo a 
great miftake, tejie Sir John Char Jin, who was upon the place. 

The Country produceth little Corn or Pulfc, the Fruits are moft 
wild and unwholfome s that which thrives beft is the Grape, of which 
there is great plenty, and the Wine moft excellent, ilrong, and a 
good Body, plealing to the Tafte, and comfortable to the Stomach 5 
Co that if the People knew how to make it rightly, there would be 
■ no better in Afza. 

^ Their 

Of Turky in Afia. j^- 

Their ufual Grain is Gem, which is as fmall as Coriander Seed 
and very much refembles Millet, whicli is fowed i,i Spring time after 
the fame manner as Rice, by making a hole in the ground with their 
Finger, then put in the Grain, and cover it, which produceth a Stalk 
liiie to the Sugar-Cane, at the end of which there is an Ear that con- 
tains above 300 Grains. This boiled into a Parte, is the only Bread 
ot all the Inhabitants of the Blac^Sea, (wmPalui M^ctis round toTre- 

Befides this Gom, they have Millet, Rice, Wheat and Barley, 
which two laft they fow upon the Ground without plowing ^ for the 
Oround is fo foft, that it takes root a foot deep in the Mold, and 
comes up without any trouble. 

The ordinary Food of the Country is Beef and Pork, very plenty, 
and fo good, that the World affords no better. Their Wild-Fowl is 
good, but fcarce. Their Venifon is the Wild Boar, the Hart, the 
btag, the Fallow Deer and Hare, which are men excellent. There 
are Partridges, Pheafants, Quails, and Wild Pidgeons in abundance. 

In the Mountains of Caucafus are bred great numbers of Eagles and 
Pelicans, Hawks, Hobbies, and other Birds of Prey, and other ilrange 
x?r^) p""^"°^" "1 ^"'^ Pai'ts. And the Foreirs produce a number of 
Vv^ild Beafts, as Tygers, Lions, Leopards, Wolves and Chacals. 

At Vigivitas is a Church with three Bodies, where they fay St. A-^ 
drew preached in that place, and the Catholkos once in his 1 fe goes 
thither to make the Holy Oyl. 

WMmgrelia are neither Cities nor Towns, only two Villages by the 
bca-hde. Ifgaour is the chief Port and grand Market of Mmmha 
Anargbia is the mort confiderable Village built, where iiood the anci- 
eiu Heraclea. But all the Houfes are fcattered up and down in the 
Country, that you cannot travel a mile, but you Oiallmeet with three 
or four together. 

There are about nine or t^n Cartlcs, at the ch-efeft whereof, called 
Kms, the Prince keeps his Cour. Tis furrounded with a rtone 
Wall, and guarded witn a few Cannon, but the rert of the Caities- 
lave none. Saptas is the name of two Churches, one of which be- 
longs to the Ihmhies. 

the Mingrdian men are endued with all mifchievou? Qualities 
there IS no wickednefs to which they are not inclined. All addicted 
to Thievery, which they make their Study, Employment, Partime 
and olory. Aififfination, Murther, Lying, are efteemed noble and 
brave Aaions. Drunkennefs, Fornication, Adultery, Bigamy, In- 
c€ft, are Virtues m Mm^di,, Otheiwile good Soldiers, wdi Ihaped,, 


^58 P/" T»^h ^^ -^f^' 

tide a Horfe well , and handle their Lance with extraordinary dex- 

The Women of Quality are very handfome and well (haped, having 
Features and Glances very charming and obliging, naturally Tubtle 
and quick of Apprehenlion, extremely civil and complemental, otiier- 
wife the molt wicked in the world. Haughty, perhdious, deceitful, 
crueK and impudent to procure their Lovers, or to deftroy them. 

Thj Education of Children in Miiigrclia, is the mod lewd and vici- 
ous in the world ; their Fathers bring them up to Thievery, and their 
Mothers to Obfcenity. 

The Inhabitants o( Caucafw that border upon Colchis, are the Ala- 
«c.r, whofe Country was formerly the Northern Frontier of Armenia ; 
The S nan's, the Gigu's. the CaracioUs, by the 'lurks called C^r^Ckr^/, 
that is the Blach^ Circafians , by reafon of the Fogs and Clouds that 
darken their Sky, though elfe they are thefaireft People in the world. 
Formerly they wereChrilhans, and yet retain fome Relicks andCu- 
ftoms of it, but now profefs no Ft^eligion, but live by Robbery and 
Fvapine, ignorant of all Arts and Sciences, more tall and portly than 
other People, furious in their Looks, and their Difpofitions and Cou- 
rage no lefs favage i the moft daring Robbers, and moa refolute Af- 
falTins in the world. . t j 

The Nagayan-tartars for the moft part inhabit the Champaigne Land 
about Ajiracan, living in Tents fenced with Stakes and Palifadoes, to 
(ecure themfelves from the Affaults and Infolences of Night- Robbers, 
and the Kalmuck^ Tartars , who oftentimes furprize them unawares, 
and carry away both Men and Cattel. 

The Country of Curiel is very fmall , feparated from Mingnlia by 
the River Thafu : And in every thing, as to its Nature and the Man- 
ners of its Inhabitants, it refembles Mingrelia, for they have the fame 
Religion, Cultoms, and the fame Inclinations to Lying, Robbery and 

G^l'isa large Caftle, Four- fquare built, of hard and rough Stones, 
of a great bulk, feated upon the Sea-fide ; it hath four Walls and two 
Gates, but no Trenches nor Fortificationsi belonging to the Prmce ot 
Gttrid, diftant from Thafts about four Miles. 

Akalzik is a Fortrefs, built upon the Defcent of Mount Camafus, 
feated in a hollow place among Hillocks, fortified with double Walls, 
and flanked with Towers, both built with Battlements after the An- 
cent manner, defended with a few Guns, and is the refidence of a 
rmm Baffa. Adjoining to this Fortrefs is a large Town, conliftmg 
of about four hundred Houfes, all new, and of a late Eredion, 


Of Turky in j4fta, 3^9 

inhabited by, %ttrks , Armenians^ Georgians ^ Greeks, Jews and C/^/'- 
i^ians. , .;■> :i;jci) i.uai hhov 1 ■ i vj :r:t>M •j:.35:)wOm c Vii^A .:yut'LiA\ 

Imlretta Is calkd by the7W%, PtfcJ&dfci^«^i*l^;-o'f Pk^iii^^fwfcj^^j^, the 
Little Prince 5 is a Country full of Woods and Mountains, but the 
Valleys are lovely, and the Plains moft pieafant : Here Money is coin- 
ed, and here are fevcral Towns ; but as for the Manners and CuKoms 
of the Inhabitants, they are the fame as in MingreMa. The King hath 
four good Caftles, viz. Scander, feated upon the iide of a Valley, Regia 
and Scorgia^ both almoft inacceffible in the Mountains, and naturally 
fortified j 4 CotatU^ bearing the Name of the Town and Country 
round it ; perhaps the Catatene oi Ptol. go miles from the mouth of 
the River Vhafis^ built at the foot of a Hill, conlifting of about 200 
Houfes i it hath a Fortrefs built with feveral Towers, and a double 

Thefe Three Kingdot^s are tributary toithe Turks. TheTributebf 
the King of Imiretta is 80 Boys and Girls^ from Ten to Twenty years 
of Age. The Prince of Guriel pays 46 Children of both Sexes. And 
the Prince of Mingrelia doooo Ells of Linnen Cloth made in that 

The Princes of A4i«gre/(j^gi;iFe,tjhemfeIves the Title of D^^i^w, that 
is,., tiie Head of Juftice. jf-j ; ;.:rjifin:cl bfis fnA'lp ■^;il/.>fvvonHani v'i 

, - ■■'■'. I ,;Iiilmo 1;^^ 

,, . , Cy Gurgiftan. ■ ' 11. '; e : • 

GEorgia^ by our modern Geographers and the Perfians^ is called Giti" 
gifiaa , by rhe Georgians Carthml By fome Authors 'tis divided 
into four particular Provinces, vjpu. Imirett^ and Guriel, of which we 
have fpoken before 53. Caket 5 4. Carthuel. Thefe two lall are un- 
der the Terfian Dominion ; and this is that which the Pcr^^w call Gur- 
gifian^ and the Georgians Cdrthueli, 

It is a Country full of Wood, and very Mountainous, yet endofes 
a great number of pieafant Plains ; and the River Kur, the Cyruf of 
the Ancients, runs through the mid 11: of it. . ...i . ..: 

The Temper of the Air is very kindly •, tbfir Fair; weather begins; 
about May, and lads till the end oiNovembxr. The Soil, if well wa- 
tered, produces all fort of Grain, Herbs and Fruir in abundance; 
therefore as fertile a Country as can be imagined, where a man may 
live both delicioufly and cheap. Their Bread as good as any in the 
world, and their Fruit of all forts is very delicious. Nor is there any 
part of Europe .X\\d,i producetb fairer Pears and /Apples, or better tafied ;, 
nor any part of Afia that brings forth more delicious Pomegranates. 

B b b Their 

37© Of Tnrky in Ajla, 

Theit Cattel very good and plentiful ; their Fowl of all forts is inconi- 
parable. There is no better Meat in the world than their young Por- 
kers, of which there are abundance. The Cafpian Sea and Kur River 
furnifti it with all forts of Salt and Frefli Fifli j and there is alfo no 
Country where they drink more or better Wine : No men are more 
addidted to their fenfual Pleafures, and beaftial Voluptuoufnefs , that 
is, to Drunkennefs and Luxury ; neither are the Women lefs vicious 
and wicked, having an extraordinary Inclination to the male Sex, and 
contribute more to that torrent of Uncleannefs , which overflows all 
the Country. 

Nature, faith Sir John Chardin, hath beftowed upon the Women of 
that Country Graces and Features which are not other-where to be 
feen; fo that 'tis impoflible to behold them without loving of them> 
more charming Countenances, nor more lovely Statures and Propor- 
tions can be pencilled forth by all the Art of man : They are Tall, 
clear Limb'd, Plump and Full, but not over-fat, and extremely flen- 
der in the Walk ; but that which fpoils all, is their Nafty Shifts, and 
Painted Faces. 

The Men are naturally witty j nor would there be more Learned 
Men, or more Ingenious Mafters in the world, were they but improved 
by the knowledge of Arts and Sciences •■> but their Education is fo mean 
and brutifli, having nothing but bad Examples, that thofe Parts are 
altogether drowned in Vice and Ignorance , fo that they are gene- 
rally Cheats and Knaves , Perfidious , Treacherous , Ingrateful and 

There are feveral Biftiops in Georgia^, an Archbifhop and a Patriarch, 
whom they call Catholicos : There are alfo many Churches 5 but no- 
thing remains of Chriftianity, unlefs the name of their Fafts, for they 
neither know or pradife the leaft Precept of the Law of Jefw Chriji, 

The Church-men alfo will be as drunk , and keep Female Slaves 
for their Concubines, as well as others. 

The Nobility exercife a more Tyrannical power over their Subje<^s 
than in Mingrelia^ challenging a right over their Eftates, Liberty and 
Lives; if they feize upon them, whether Wife or Children, they fell 
them, or difpofe of them as they pleafe. 

The Province of Cartbuel contains no more than four Cities, Gori^ 
Suram^ Aly and leflU ; Gori^ or Kori^ Armatica or HarmafiU^ of old, iejh 
Sanf. isafmallCity feated in a Plain, between two Mountains, upon 
the bank of the River CW, at the foot of a fmall Hill, upon which 
there is a Fortrefs built, which is garifoned by Native Vcrfians, 

;}'^i; . Suram 


Of Turky in Afi(U ^71 

Sutam is a fmallTown,but the Fortrefs is lar^e and well built, ha- 
ving 100 Men in garifon, 

Tf^fef, Anaxata Plin. Artaxia 'tac, Artaxiafata Strab. by the Georgians 
Cala^ by fome lehek-cala ; is called alfo Darel Melee v by P. Jovius 
Choim, the faireft City in Georgia, feated at the bottom of a Mountain, 
at the foot of which runs the River Cur. The City is en<rompafled^ 
with ftrong Walls, defended with a large Fortrefs on the South- fide j 
it contains about 14 Churches, fix belonging to the Georgians^ and 
the reft to the Armenians. The Cathedral, which is called Sion , is 
feated upon the bank of the River , built of all fair hewen Stone. 
There is not a Mofque in 7eflis^ though the City belongs to a Maho- 
metan Emperor, and governed by a Mahometan Prince. The Bazars 
or Market-places are very fair and large , built of Stone. The Inns 
or Caravanfera'^s are no lefs beautiful. The Prince's Palace is one of the 
moft beautiful Ornaments in Tejlk 5 it hath been twice under the 
power of the 7«rj^/, once in the Reign oilfhmael the fecond, King of 
Ferfta^ and in the Reign of his Succeffor. Solyman took it almoft at 
the fame time as he did 7aurU. 

The Kingdom of Cak^t is at prefent in fubjedion to the King of 
Verfiay governed by his Viceroy. The Cities are all Ruines , unlefs 
that which is called Cah^t^ or Ka}^et, 

In the Northern part of that Kingdom, the Amazons are fuppofed to 
have inhabited. ?toh fixes their Country in the Afiatick, Sarmatia to 
the Weft of Wolga. ^intim Curtius faith alfo, that the Kingdom of 
thalejiris was near to the Kiwcr Fhafis 5 and Strabo^ fpeaking ot the Ex- 
peditions of Pompey and CanidiuSy is of the fame opinion. 

^iria borders upon the Cafpian Sea ; its chief Places are Verbent, 
Caucaft£ Pori£y Plin. or PyU Iberia Ortel. Demir & temir-Capi lurcU, 
Alexandria^ Porta Ferre£, & Cafpi£ Fort£^ of old , now belonging to 
the Perfians i it Is a great Market for Slaves, and is a ftrong walPd 
Town, faid to be built by Alexander the Great. And Tarky, at this 
day under the Duke of Mofcovy. Some Authors tell us of Stranu or 
Zambanachj which anfwers to Ancient Albana-, of Zitach, or Gorgora, 
thoughj^ fo be the Ancient Getara^ or Gagara of Ptolomy, and Chipeche 
to be the Ancient Chabala. 

It contains the Circaffian and Vagejian Tartars : The Circajfian Coun- 
try is very fertile, producing good ftore of Fruit and Grain, and alfo 
good pafture Ground. The Men are very Corpulent and Robuft, have 
broad Faces, but not fquare, like the Crmn and Ca/wac^/ •, ofafwar- 
thy yellow Complexion, fliaving their Heads and Beards after a ftrange 
manner j a furly ill-natui'd People, good Horfe-men : Their Arms 

B b b 2 are 

^y^ Of Turk) in Jfia, 

are a kind of long Bow, which they handle with great dexterity 
Their Women are very fair and lovely, with Black Eyes, well pro-' 
portioned in their Bodies, of a middle Stature. 

The Vagejian or Daghejian 7'artars inhabit the Hilly Country, which 
lies towards the Sea ; the Men are in Shape and Habit much like the 
Circas-'tartars 't their Arms are Bow and Arrows, and a Scimitar : 
When they ride out, they have Spears and Launces, a Helmet and 
Target 5 great Men- ftealers, which they fell totheT«rJ^r and Perfians. 
The Dagejian Tartars arefubje(^ to feveral Princes and Lords, who are 
independently foveraign. 

hboMtVerbent appear the Ruins of a Wall, which is faid to reach as 
far as the Euxine Sea ^ and in many places of the Country appear the 
Ruins of many Caftles. 

Schamachy^ Sammachi & Summachi, the Cyropolis of Ptol. Circambate^ 
Terfis > Cyfelethy Arabibus, was once a ftrong place, but in the Wars of 
the 7ur}{ and Perftans it was difmantled, and made an open Village, 
The Streets are narrow, the Buildings low ; it hath a fpacious Mar^t- 
place or Bogan , having feveral Shops and Galleries, rich in Merchan- 
dizes ^iid Manufadlories, but much fubjed to Earthquakes. 



■^ Of the ISLANDS -about 

SOme of thefe Iflands have been very remarkable to Antiquity, o- 
thers to us at prefent. The molt remarkable are ; 
I. 7enedos^ Calydna & Lemophryn. Eu^l. Phenice & Lyrnejfas Flin.TeneJo 
Sop.\y^hiQh produce tnoli excellent Mufcad me Wines and cheap.fcituate 

near i 

374 Of Turky in Jfu. 

near the Mouth o( the Hellefpont oppofite to Troy^ famous for the con- 
cealing of the Grecian Navy. 

2. Metelino, Lesbos fiu Mytlena^ of old Antiffci ^ Pelafgia^ Macarea^ 
Hemerte, Lafia, JEgyra & JEthiope^ Pl/n.&aliiu Itschief City isMe- 
ielhief which for its ^reatnefs, and excellency of its Wine, gives Name 
to the Ifland. Here was Sappho born, the Inventrefs of the Sapphick^ 
Verfe: Vittacus-, one of the Sages of Greece-, and Arion the Dolphin 

3. Chios, of old Italia-, Mthale, Macris & Pityufa^ now Ohio or 
Scio^ by the Turkj Sacher^ by the Terfians Seghex, diltant from the /<?«/- 
an Shores about four Leagues, in compafs about 124 Miles. It affbrd- 
eth excellent Fruits in great plenty, but is raoft remarkable for its Mu- 
•fick, for its Honey, for the Church of its Convent oiNiomem^ once 
one of the faireft in the world. And for the Sepulchre of Homer. It 
was given to the Gennues by the Emperor Andromcus PaUologm., and by 
them pclTeffed. Ann. i5<^5. it was by Selimm -yecrW/^ fraudulently 
fujrprized and taken, and now fubjed to the 'tur}^. 

4. To the Well of this Ifland lies Pfyra.^ a fmall Ifland now called 
Pfara, witnefs of the unhappy Fate of a great part of the Venetian Fleet 
1547, and the lofs of G. Gr/w^«i, then drowned. 

5. Icaria^wovfNicaria^oioi^'Doliche^ Macris & Ichthief a. It abounds 
in Corn and Pafturage, in compafs about So Miles, and is remarkable 
for the Shipwrack oilcariu. The poorert, and yet the happieft Hie of 
the whole Mgean Seai (he Soil barren, but the Air healthful , their 
Wealth but fmall, but their Liberty and Security great. 

6. Samos is one of the greateft and moft remarkable Iflands of the 
Archipelago^ the Country of Pythagoras^ and once a Kingdom, and go- 
verned by its own Kings. It is now about 26 French Leagues in com- 
pafs, and counts i8 Towns and Villages. 

The Ruines of the old City of Samos .^ are fix Miles in compafs, over 
againft the old City ; about a Mile diiiant (lands the new, now called 
■Megale Chora f where is theRefidenceof the Archbithop (lately in L^«- 
^on) the Cadee j^ga, &c. Mons Cercetius , or the Mountain Kerkis is 
the highcft of the whole Ifland, and is covered with Snow almoit all 
the Year, and hath a Lake on the top well ftored with Eels. 

The little Samos abounds with a Flower which hath a fragrancy 
like Musk, and hath alfo this quality, That time doth not decay, but 
augment the fragrancy of its fmell. This Flower is tranfplanted into 
the choiceft Gardens of Confiantimpk , and the Grand Signior wears it 
ordinarily in its turbant. 


Of Turky in Afia, ^75- 

Cdrlovafy is the fecond Town in the Ifland, having 5*00 Houfes, 
and five Churches , a place of great Trade to Sea, and yet their Port 
is (6 unfafe, that they are forced to load their Veflcls afliore, and fo 
launch them off. Nor muft I forget the Samian VelTels, fovereign for 
divers ufes in Phyfick and Chirurgery. — 

Between Nicaria and Samosy lie the noted Pvocks once called Melan- 
thii, now Fornoli, 

7. Patbmof^ Falmofa, Soph. & Bel. now Patino:, by Georgerines^ 36 Miles 
in compafs. 

Once famous for the Refidence of that great Apoftle St. John, and 
for thofe wonderful Revelations which that Evangelilt had there, du- 
ring his Baniftimcnt in the time of the Perfecution under Vomitian^ 
which to him indeed wzs y^pocalypfe, but to zW Others j^pocrypha. 

The Port called Scala on the VVeft fide towards Naxos^ is the beft 
of all in the Archipdago, near which is a Rock of a great heighth, cal- 
led Synops, from the Magician in St. Johns days. The Ifland is well 
ilored with Vines, Fig- Trees, Lemon and Orange Trees, and Corn, 
but all fubjed to the Robbery of Pyrats , as well Chriflians as Maho- 
metans ; fo that Poverty is their bell: Protection againft Rapine , and 
Patience the only Remedy againft their Tyrannical Oppreffion. 

8. Heron, now Lero, about 1 8 Miles in compafs, noted for /^/<7ej-. 
p. Claroi, now Calamo, 40 Miles in compafs, very mountainous, 

once facred to Apoht abounding alfo with plenty of Aloes. 

10. Com, Cos, or Coa, formerly Meropes, Carta & Nymph<ea, now 
Lango. Nig. Stancora 7urcis. It is in compafs 70 Miles, furnifhed 
with fweet and pleafant Streams j and is famous for being the Birth- 
place of Hippocrates^ the Revivor of Phyfick > and ApeVes the famous 

11. Carpaihos, now ScarpantCf in compafs ^o Miles, ftored with the 
beft Coral. 

12. Khodiu, Ophiufa&TelchiniSy Strab. A(ieria, JEthraa, Trinacria^ 
Corymhia, Poeffa^ Atabyria, Macaria & Colojfa, according to the Anci^ 
ents, in compafs is 135 Miles. Its Soil fertile, its Air temperate; 
plentiful in all things as well for Delight as Profit ; full of excellent 
Partures, adorned with pleafant green Trees. The Sun is here fo 
conftant, that it was dedicated to the Sun, and held facted to Phcd>iis, 
to whom they eiefted that vaft ColvJJ'm of Brafs, accounted one of the 
Seven Wondirs of the World, faid to be 50 Cubits in heighth, every 
Finger as great as an ordinary Statue, and the Thumb too great to 
be fathomed, made by Chareies o^ Lindm. It was 12 years a making, 
and 66 years afterwards thrown down by an Earthquake, poo Ca- 

rj6 Of Turky in J fa. 

mels were laden with the Brafs which was ufed about it to faften and 
hold faft: the Stones. \-ur 

The Town or City is well fortified with a treble Wall, and five 
ftrong FortrclTes, embracirg a moft fafe and admirable Haven, given 
to the Knights of St. John de Acre^ or Jerufalem, by Emanuel the Grcf/^ 
Emperor in the year 1308. but in the year 1522. after it had been 
defended againft the Infidels 214 years, it was taken by Solyman the 
Greaty and after fix Months Siege it was furrendred, Vihrm being the 
great Mafier, to the general difhonour of the Chriilian Princes in 
their tardy Succors. 

13. Cyprm, oi o\d Crypta^ or Crypton. Ftol. It was alfo called Cfr^/?/'/, 
Cethin & Cethina, then Amathufia^ Taphia^ Salaminia^ Macaria^ Cithe- 
reoy Achamantis^ Afperia, CoVinia & Erafa. It is in circuit, according 
to Strab. 427 Miles. To Plin. 375. From the rocky (hore of Cilicia 
60 Miles, and from the Coaft of Syria 100. During the Empire of 
the Perftans and Macedonians .y it contained nine Kingdoms : but by Ptol. 
divided into four parts, Salamina^ Amathufia^ Lapatha^ and Paphia^ (o 
named of their principal Cities. 

I, Salamis Ptol. Salamine Plin. was built by Teucer, when banilhed 
by his Father T'elamon. 

Afterwards called Con(ianua Stepk but deftroyed by the Jerps in the 
days of the Emperor 7rajan, 

And lafily, by the Saracens in the Reign of Heraclitm^ from the 
Ruines whereof the Harnacojias^Fama Augujia^ now Famago^a was ere- 
died by King Co/?d, ihe Father of Queen Katharine^hmous in Story for 
the unfor(mi3 te Valour of the Venetians., under the Command of Sig- 
nior Brdgadine^ againfi the furious AfTaults of the Army o{ Selymm II. 
condudted by Muilapha, w'ho caufed them all to be rr.urthcred but the 
Governour, whom he fl?ad alive, after the Surrender of the Place up- 
on honourable Conditions. 

In Lapathia^ where once fiood Tremithuf, Trimethm Ptcl. Tremjfjnfa^ 
or Tnmituge Soph, now flands the Regal City of Nicofia^ Leucafta & 
Leucotheon Gr£c- Ledrinfu d Leuihmi Soph, of a circular Form, and five 
Miles in circumference, taken by the aforefaid Mufiapha, Ann. 1570. 
with-an uncredible Slaughti^r. 

North of this, and upon the Sea, fiood Ceraunia^ or Ceronia^ Cirynia^, 
Tlin. Caryfiiii & Cerinium Ortel. now Cerines., eredfed by Cyrus^ a Ihong 
place, yet yielded to theT^rJ^/ before it was befieged. 

Amathm^ now Limifo^ Sacred unto Vam -, and wherein the Rites 
and Sacrifices of her Adonim were annually celebrated ; faid to be built 
by Amafis^ who was the firft that conquered C)//)>"«ir. Our late Naviga- 

Of Turky in Afia. J77 

tions tell us, that Larricho is the City from whence our Merchandize 
comes that is laden at Port Salines^ or Larntca, To called, of the abun- 
dance of Salt that is there made, and here the Imk firft Jand^d his 
Army, the chief Port in Cyprus. 

Further Weftward is a PrGmontory^ inform of a Veninfula^ now cal- 
led, Capo dih Gatte^ formerly Curias, from a City not far di(knt of the 
fame Name, now called Epijcopia. On this Promontory is the Ruines 
of a Monaftery oi Greek^Colcieros^ who breed up Cats to deftroy Ser- 
pents, and to return home upon the found of a Bell, and therefore by 
fome called the Cape of Cats. 

Phrurium Promont. now Bianco,, is the place from whence they were 
thrown that but prefumed to touch Apollo's Altar in the adjoining 

Paphos Nova, Ptol Nea Paphos^ Plin. PaUpaphos^ St rah. & Mela Pa- 
phium Polyb. now Buffoy or Baphoy built by Agapenor^ five miles from 
the old Paphos^ faid, by Ovid^ to be built by the Son of Pigmalion^ by 
his Ivory Statue 5 fuch, faid to be, in regard of her Beauty. Others 
fay it was built by Cyneras, Father and Grandfather to Adonis, who 
having fworn to affift Menelaus with 50 Ships , Cent him only one, 
with the Models of the other in Clay, to colour his Perjury. Both 
places famous for the Worftiip oi Venus ^ and the Sacrifices which her 
Votaries of both Sexes did perform in their natural Nakednefs : But 
. her Temples were razed to the ground by the procurement of St. Bar- 
nahy, not only here, but throughout the Illind. 

Eaftwards of Capo St. Pifano, formerly Pro. Aeamas^ was the City 
Jrfmoe, now Lefcare, Luftg. or Crifoca & Aleffendretta , renowned for 
the Groves of Jupiter. 

This Ifland boafis of the Births of Afdapiades^ Solon, Zeno the Stoick, 
Apnllnnius and "Zenophon A Country abounding with all things necef- 
fary for Life, and therefore called Macaria ; and afforded matter to 
build a Ship from the bottom of the Keel, to the top of her Top- 
gallant, and to furnifti her with Tackle and Munition. In Summer 
exceeding hot and unhealthy, annoyed with Serpents. The Brooks, 
for Rivers it ha^h none, are often exhaufted by the Sun, and for 
36 years, in the time of Unjiantine, it never rained. It was firft pof- 
fefTcd by the Sons of Japhet, paid Tribute to the Egyptian Amafis, con- 
quered by Bchts, and governed by the Pcfterity of Tfww, until C)/r»j 
expulfed th^^ nine Kings that there ruled. After the Grecians rcpoffeft 
the Suvejeignty, and kept it until the death of Nicocles j then it fell un- 
der the Government of the Ptolom/s 5 then the wealth of it allured 
the Romans to make a Conqueft of it ; reftored to Ckopaifa^ and 

C c c her 

2 -7 8 Of Turhy in Afia. 

her Sifter Arftnoe , by Antonrnf ^ but he overthrown, it was made a 
Koman Province, and with the Tranfmigration of the Empire , fub- 
mitted to the Biz,antine Emperors, governed by a Succeffion of Dulles 
forSoo Yeirs,when conquered by omRicbardl, and given in Exchange 
for the Titular Kingdom of Jerufakm, unto Guy of Lnfignan^. in whofe 
Family it continued untill ^nn. 1473. Tt was then by Catharina Cor- 
nelia, a Venetiafi Lady, the Widow to King James the Baftard, who 
had taken it by force from his Sifter Carlotte, relTgned to the Venet'tans i 
who, p7 years after, loft it to the 7«ri;/, under whofe Yoke it now 
grometh. 'Tfs for the moft part inhabited by Grefj^, whofe Ecclefi- 
aftical Eft Jte is governed by the Archbifhop of Nicofia, and the three 
Biftiops of Famagojia, Faphm^ and Amathus. 

Its chief Mountain is Olympus ^ containing 50 miles in its Bafis, now 
called the Mountain of the Holy Cfjfs, cloathed with Trees, and ftored 
with Fountains and Monafteries, poffefled by the Greek Coloieres of the 
Order of St. Baftl. 

Its Commodities are Oil, and Grains of feveral forts. Wine, that 
lafteth for eight years. Raifins of the Sun, Citrons, Oranges, Pom- 
granates, Almonds, Figs, Saffron, Coriander, Sugar j Turpentine, 
Rhubarb, Colloquintida, Scammony, &c. Cotton, VVools, Chamo- 
lets, Salt, Sope, Afties. 

There are Mines of Brafs, fome Gold and Silver, Green Soder, Vi- 
triol, Alom, Orpiment, White and Pved Lead, and Iron , divers 
kinds of precious Stones, viz. the Emeral and Turkey. 

Thus having defcribed the chief places of the Ottoman Empire, I fliall 
alfo give a ftiort account of their Government, Policy, Religion, &€. 

In order whereunto, we need not fo much regard their firft com- 
ing out of Scytbia, Anno 577. nor when they feized on Armenia Major, 
giving it the Name of Turcomania, t^^Inno 844. nor when Trangrolipix 
overthrew the Perfian Sultan. 1030. nor yet when Cutlu Mofes revolt- 
ed from him, and made a diftindt Kingdom in Arabia : But when Ot- 
toman, by ftrange Fortunes, and from fmall Beginnings , (wallowed 
up the other Families into the Oguftan Tribe, and united them into 
•one Head, Ann 1300. from thence muft we deduce the lirft Founda- 
tion of the Ottoman Empire: They had then no Government but what 
•was Martial and Arbitrary in the higheft degree ^ wherefore it is not 
ftrange, if their Laws are Severe, their Juftice Rigor, their Govern- 
ment Tyranny : That their Emperor ftiould be abfolute, uncontroula- 
ble i whofe Speeches may be irrational, and yet Laws ; whofe Actions 


Of Turky in Ajta, ^jg 

irregular, and yet examples j whofe Sentences and Judgments, th^ 
corrupt and inconfiderate, yet are irrefiftible Decrees. 

So that when one refleds on the fmall reward for Vertue, and no 
puniftiment for thrivhig Vice ; how men are raifed by Flattery, Chance, 
and the fole Favour of the Prince, to the weightieft and moft ho- 
nourable Charges of the Empire, without any previous deferts, or ex- 
perience of Parts or Abilities : When one conliders, that one Frown 
of their Prince cuts them off, that their Treafure is their Snare, and 
their Riches will inevitably effed: their Ruine, though they have all 
the Arguments of Faithfulnefs and Honefty ; one might admire the 
long continuance of this vaft Empire, and wonder at the increafe of its 

But that which cements all Breaches, and cures the gteateft Difor- 
ders, is thequicknefs aad feverity of their Juflice, which makes every 
Crime, relating to Government, equal, and punifties it with the laft 
and extreamert puniftiment, Death. And to die by the Hand, or 
Command of the Grand Signior , with an entire Refignation, is ac- 
counted the higheft point of Martyrdom, thegreateft reward of Faith- 
fulnefs, and the confummation of all Honour. Otherwife this great 
Body would burft with the Poyfon of its own ill Humors, aod fpread 
into ruinous Divifions. 

The Youth, that are defigned for the great Offices of the Empre, 
are called by the 'titrks Ichoglans^ which are of Chriftian Parents, taken 
in the War, or prefented from remote Parts , fo that they have no o- 
ther Relations nor Dependences i no other intereil: to ferve, befides 
that of their Great Marter, to whom they are taught by Education, 
and compeU'd by neccffity, to be faithful : And indeed they are the 
befi: adapted Inftruments for fuch a Tyrannic Prince, whom he can 
raife without envy, and deftroy without danger. 

Their chiefeft Itudics and learning is in Reading and Writing, being 
inftrudf ed in the Arabian Tongue, wherein the Secrets and Treafure of 
their Religion and Laws are contained, efpecially the Alcoran. The 
more Polite and Ingenious learn the Tirfun Tongue, which tits them 
with Eloquence, corrects the grofsnefs, and inrichesthe barrennefsof 
the turkifh Language. 

They have fome Books of Poetry, written both in Perfian and Ara- 
hick^', but as for Logick, Phyfick, Metaphy/ick, and Mathematicks, 
they are wholly ignorant of them : Some certain Rules of Allrology 
they have , with which they bufie themfelves in Propheiics of future 
Contingencies in the Affairs of the Empire : As for Geography, the 
wifert and greateft amongft them have not the leaft infpec^ion into it, 

C c c 2 nor 

380 ^f Turky in Jfia, 

nor clarft their Seamen heretofore venture beyond fi^ht of Land, ha- 
ving little knowledge of the Art of Navigation, until f ime improve- 
ment, which of late they have made therein : As for Hiftur y or Chro- 
nology, they underliand fo little, that the moft Learned affirm J^t;^ to 
be a Judge in Solomons Court, and that ALxunder the Great was Gene- 
ral of his Armies. 

ThtVifw Azem. or VrimeVifier, whofe great Office of Charge and 
Tiurt, as it is the higheft, fo it is the neareft to /we'sThundi-rbolt, 
and moilexpofed to Envy and DeftrucSion. It being the ^olicy oi the 
great Princes of the Eaji to conftitute one on whom all the blame of 
mifcarriages in Government might be thrown, whillt they with the 
more freedom enjoy their Softnefs and Luxury. This great Minifter, 
as he is the Reprefentative of the Grand Signior, becaufe to him all the 
power of the Sultan is immediately devolved.j fo he is the Head or 
Mouth of the Law ; and to him are all Appeals made, and his State 
and Greatnefs lives in the Honour of him whom he reprefents*, and his 
Power, in refpe(3: of his Inferiors , is as ample as his Mafter's, who 
■Ogives it him. Next to this Vijier Azem, are the feveral Beglerbegs, which 
are fo many general Governments, upon which depend feveral Sangi- 
ack^ or Provinces 5 there being in 'turk^e about 30 Beglerhegs^ whereof 
22 are Ha's^ that is, fuch as have their Revenue allotted them in the 
places that they govern, colledied by their own Officers according to 
Commiilion : Of which the firft is Kiotai^ or Choutaja of jinatolia^ the 
yearly Revenue of which is a Million of AfperSf and hath under its Ju- 
Tifdi(iion i^Sangiack^^ and the Command of 22 Caftles. The 2d is 
at Cogni, or Iconium in Caramania, whofe Revenue is 660074 Afpers^ 
and contains 7 Sangiacks-, and 20 Caftles. The 3d Viarhik^r^ or San- 
giar^ whofe Revenue is a Million 1.00660 Afpers, and hath 19 San- 
giackj'. of which a 1 1 are properly belonging to the Ottoman Royalties, 
and are Curdian Countries, called Buk^nmet^ or Saline\ which have na 
Lords or I'imariots to command them, but areabfolute Mafters of their 
own Ellates. The 4th is Soham^ or Vamas^ whofe Revenue is a Milli- 
on o^ Afperf^ and hath 7 Sangiacks^ and •^Sangiacj^s Saline. The 5 th 
is Sitvas in Armenia^ which hath ^oooco Afpers Revenue, and 6 San- 
giacks, and ip Caftles. The 6th is that oi Erzerum^ on the Confines 
oi Georgia, which hath a Revenue of a Million 200660 Afpers, and 
contains 11 Sangiach^, and 13 Caftles. The 7th is the Government 
of f^Van or Van in Media, of a Ivlillion 13220^ Afpers, and hath 
14 Sangiacks. The 8th is 7ebilder, on the Confines of Georgia, with 
a Revenue of ^25000 Afpers, and p Sangiacks, The pth is the Go- 
vernment of SchehmZiul in JJfyria, which hath a Million of Afpers^ and 

20 San- 

Of Turky in Jfta, ^ g | 

2 Sangiacks, The lOth is Halep, or Aleppo, which hath ^yyjjz 
JfperSs and commands 7 Sangiacks^ and two in which are no Tinsariotf. 
The nth is Murafch, near the River Euphrates^ being a Revenue of 
528450 ^y/?er/, and commands 4 Sangtackr. The nth is the Go- 
vernment oiCyprtti, or Kibros^ allowed a Revenue of 500650 Afpers, 
.and commands 7 Sangiach^ ^ 4 with H^'s, and 3 with Saline^ and 
14 Caftles. The 13 th is tripoly of <S[)rij. or T'arabolas Scham, hath a 
Revenue of 800000 Afpers^ atd 4 Sangiacks. The 14th is Trabizondy 
formerly the Imperial Seat of the Comneni, feated on the Euxine Sea ; 
This hath no Sanghck^f , but the Revenue is 734850 jifpers^ with 
14 Caftles. The 15th is that of i^^rj-, hath a Revenue of 810550 
jifpers^ and commands 6 Sangiack^, The 1 5th is that of Moful^ or 
Nineveh^ in 4/5"'''«) a Revenue of 581056 Afpers ^ and commands 
5 Sangiack^, The 1 7th is of K%, hath a Revenue of 58oooo 4/J?er/, 
and 7 Sangiacks : Thefe are the Begkrbegs in 4/?<j. Of thofe in E«r(j/?f, 
the iSth.viz. that oi Romuli is the moft honourable, the Seat of the 
P^/c<^, or B^y^ij, is at Sophia^ it hath a Million and loooco 4//7erj 
yearly Revenue, commands 24 Sangiacks^ whereof Morea was one, 
tho now made part of the Revenue of the Queen- Mother. The ipth 
is the charge of the Kupudan, or Generl of the iVhite Seas^ whofe Re- 
venue is 885000 Afpers ; he is Admiral of the lurkifh Fleet, and com- 
mands 13 Sangiack/j whofe Refidence is at Galipoli. The 20th is that 
of Bttda in Hungary^ it commands 2 i Sangiack^. The 2 ift is that of 
Temefrvaer, and hath 7 Sangiacks- The 2 2d is that of Bi?//;^, now 
called Sclavonia^ yfhXzh commands 8 Sangiacks. Thofe that are with 
Salary, or paid out of the Grand Signiors Treafury, are lirft, that of 
Grand Cairoy or Mtfir., who hath a Revenue of 5ooooo Scheriffs^ov Ze- 
chins., a year, and commands i5 Sangiackf^ befides as much is the Tri- 
bute paid the Grand Signior, and another Sum of 5ooooo Zecbins year- 
ly goes to the payment of the Turks. The 2d is the Government of 
Mgdety or Babylon^ which hath a Revenue of a Million and 700000 
Afpirs, and commands 22 Sangiack^. The 3d is that of Temen in Ara- 
biz Feliz, whofe place of Refidence is Aden^ upon the Red Sea, which 
is now under the power of the Arabians. As is alfo the Government 
ofHabekh, upon the Confines of the AbaJJines, now wholly loli to the 
Turk. And the Government of Bifra, or Balfera, a Maritime Cicy in 
the Sinus Perftcm, where were reckoned 2 5 Sangiacks ■> hut now the 
T«r^ have no power there. Lal^ly, the Government of Labfe^ on 
the Coiirines of Ormits^ where are 5 Sangiacks, but poor and incond- 



382 Of Turky in Afta. 

To thefe we fhould add the Governments oi Algiers, tmk, and 
Tripoh m Batbary, but thefe are now much fallen off from the rurk's 
obedience, and almoft independent, and fubfifting of themfelves. 

Behdes the Dominions of the GrW %«w already mentioned, he 
poffefles Sujguem upon the Red Sea ; Volfar and Elcahf, Jfaph, or ^zac, 
at the Mouth oiDon ; TemrocJ^, near the Palus Meotts ; Caffa, and other 
V^^ctsmLefferJanary, Befarabia, Ocziacon^, md Vujfan, towards the 
Mouth of the Nieper, and the Kingdoms of Zibit and Ziden, in Arabia 
the Happy, All which may be feen in the following Map. 

30 \ 


"Be^ dt Caramanui 


Slavonut- '' . 
Bej dt "freme/it 
\<M tMoUlayta, 

Se^ it Scfiam. 

af'l^erra. Sancta. 
3-^y J-:BaJmi 

Ne-wM"a£ of tlie 



Of Turky in Aft a. 385 

So that in lefs than 300 Years, the T'wj^x have made Conquefts in 
Europe., AJid^ and Africa^ as confiderable as thofe of the Row^n/, who 
fpent 850 *ere they accomplilh'd theirs. 

The delightful Fields of yifia^ the pleafant Plains o( Greece^ the 
Plenty of Egypt^ the Fruitfulneis of the Nile., the Luxury of Corinth, 
the S\3.h{\ancc oi Peloponnefiif^ Lemnos., Scio., withother Ifles of theE^e- 
an Sea, the Spices of Arabia^ the Riches of great part of Perfia and 
Georgia^ all Armenia znd AJJyria., the Provinces oi uifta Minor., the Coun- 
tries oi Syria ^ Palefiine and Phoenicia^ the Principalities of Moldavia^ 
Valachia^ Romania ^ Bulgaria, Servia^ and the bell: part o{ Hnngaria^ 
concur alltogether to fatisfy the Appetite of this Jurj^fh Sultan 5 all the 
Extent of this vaft Territory, the Lands and Houfes, as vi^ell as the Ca- 
ftles and Arms, being all his, and at his fole Difpofal and Gift i only 
to Lands dedicated to Religious Ufes he difclaims all Right, and will 
not (to the (hame of our Se^taries^ violate the Penetralia of the San- 

The abfolute and unlimited Power of this Prince is evident by his 
Titles, as, God on Earth, "The Shador» of God, Brother to the Sun and Moon, 
7'heGiverof all Earthly CroK>ns.t dec. And 'tis an ordinary faying, Thaf 
theGrand Signior is above the Law, that the written Law is controu- 
lable, that his Mouth is the Law it felf, and the power of an infallible 
Interpretation is in him. 

It is vulgarly known to all, that their Law was compiled hyMaho' 
met^ with the help of Sergius the Monk, whofe infamous Life is parti- 
cularly recorded by-many Authors, and too tedious to be repeated here: 
I (hall therefore only fay, That though there is a great diverfity amongft 
Doditors, as touching the Explanation of their Law \ yet there are iive 
Articles or Fundamentals thereof, to which every 'turk^ is obliged, 
I. Cleannefs in the outward parts of the Body and Garments. 2, To 
make Prayers five times a day. 3. Toobferve their Ramazan^ or 
monthly Faft. 4. To perform faithfully the Zekat., or giving of Alms. 
5. To make their Pilgrimage to Mecha^ if they have means and pofft- 
bility to ptrfoim it. The fole Article of Faith required to be believed, 
is, That there is but one God, and Mahomet his Prophet. 

When Mahumetanifmwsisiiia weak, and therefore put on a modefc 
Countenance and plaufible Afped to deceive Mankind, then it courted 
and favoured the ChrilHan Religion, drawing its Tenents and Do- 
drines in feme Conformity to that Rule, confffing Chrift to be a 
Prophet, and greater than Mofes ^ that he was born of a Virgin, &c 
But as-foon as its Government encreafed, and that by Arms and bad 
Arts the Grand Signior had fecured his Kingdom j his promifes of To- 


1^4 ^f '^fi^h ^^ ^fi^* 

leration and Indulgence were changed into a harfher Note, and his 
Edid:s were then for Blood and Ruine; what knots of Argument he 
could not untie, he cut, and made his Spiritual Power as large as his 
Temporal. Yet towards his Followers, he rendred his Precepts eafie 
and plea(ant, acceptable fo the Fancy and Appetite, as well as to the 
Capacity of the Vulgar : Reprefenting Heaven to them, not in a fpiri- 
tual manner, or Delights unexpreffible, and Raviftiments known on- 
ly in part to illuminate Souls ; but with grofs Conception of the Beau- 
ty of Women, of tbe Duration of one A(^ of Carnal Copulation, of 
the beaftly Satisfadion of a gluttonous Palate : And that Perfuation 
and Principle in their Catechifm^ That the Souls of thofe who die in 
the Wars againji Chrifiians^ are therefore innmediately tranfpcrted to 
Paradife, muft neceflarily whet the Swords, and raife the Spirits of 
the Soldiers, and isthereafon they run fo eagerly to their own Slaugh- 
ter •> efteeming their Lives and Bodies at no greater Price than the va- 
lue of Stones and Rubbifh to fill Rivers and Ditches. 

The Mufti is the Principal Head of the Mahometan Religion, or O- 
racle of all doubtful Queftions in their Law, and is of great efteem 
amongft the 7»rjly. When he pafTeth Determination in any Cafe, it is 
brought to the Cadie or Judge, and the Grand Signior himfelf will in 
no wife contradict or oppofe it ^ fo that Law-Suits of the greateft mo- 
ment are concluded in an hour without Arreftof Judgment, Appeals, 
or other dilatory Arts of Law. 

The State of Marriage is accounted both Honourable and Holy a- 
mongft the Turk^^ yet the Priefts or Churchmen hath the leaft hand in 
the Solemnity, but it is performed by the Cadie or Judge. Polygamie 
is freely indulged to them by their Religion, as far as the number of 
four Wives. And left this Confinement ftiould feem a reftricSion of 
their Liberty, and free ufe of Women, every one may befides enjoy 
his Women Slaves, which is not much envied by the Wives, fo long as 
they enjoy their due Maintenance, and a reafonable (hare in their Huf- 
bands Bed : For if negleded above a Week, (he hath Remedy by Law •, 
and if Che be fo mod eft not to fue for the Default, (he is often fo inge- 
nious to contrive a fupply of her Wants, being accounted the moft la- 
fcivious of Women, and excel in the moft refined and ingenious Sub- 
tikies to fteal their Pleafure *, which, if difcovered, the Blood of her 
Family is reckoned tainted and difgraced ; but the Husband getting a 
Divorce, quits himfelf of his Wife and Di(honours together. 

Among all the Priviledges that the Sultan enjoys above his Subjeds, 
this one he has lefs than they, that he cannot marry, yet hath as' many 
Women as ferves his ufe, iho never fo libidinous, which are kept in 
ihQSeraglioj like Horfes in Stables. Circum" 

OfTurky in Afia. 385 

CtrcHmeifton is not reckoned one of the Five Points which conftitutc\ie MahometanBelhvcr, but is only propofed as a tryal and proof of 
Man*s obedience to the more neceflary parts of the Law. 

They never Circumcife their Children until the Age of 7 years, and 
upwards i and then they do it by a Barber or Chyrurgion. 

The Forces of the Turkj are very numerous, their Armies well dif- 
ciplin'd, and the Belief of Predejiination, betides the ufe of Opium, 
makes them bold to undertake any EnterpriCe. Their Militia is of two 
forts, one receives Maintenance from certain Lands beftowed on tism 
by the Grand Signior : And thefe again are either Zjlms or limariots-^ 
which together may amount to about icoooo Men, and come under 
the general Denomination of Spahi^s, and compofe the Jurh^jh Horfe. 
The other fort, which receive their conftant Pay in ready Money, 
out of the Grand Signior's Treafury, are the Janizaries, who are now 
increafed to the Number of an 1 00000, and the next main Sinew of 
theOttomanPowet ; being confidered in the Wars, they are the beft 
Difciplined Soldiery of the Turktfh Camp. 

Belides thefe in Egypt^ there are 20000 Horfe, paid at the Charge 
of the Country, and 80000 Timariots'^ the Crim Tartars are alfo to fur- 
ni(h him with an 1 00000 Men, and the Prince in Perfon to lead them, 
lithtGrand Signior come into the Field j otherwife but half the Num- 
ber. And the Princes' of Valachia, Moldavia, and 'tranfilvania, are 
never excufed from Perfonal attendance in the Camp with 6 or 7000 
Men apiece. 

But the Ottoman ^tmks are not now fo renowed for their Chivalry 
and Difcipline, as in former times ; that ancient Sublimity and Ma jefty 
of the Sultan is much abated, their Forces by Land decayed, their Ma- 
ritime Power weakened, nothing remains of their Ancient Govern- 
ment and Valor; nor doth the Ottoman Court remunerate the Servi- 
ces, exalt the Intereft of the Cavalry, or maintain the Reputation of 
the Janix.aries 5 but grown Rich and Luxurious with Peace and Plen- 
ty, they are much declined from their Greatnefs and Power: for in this 
vaft and large Empire Countries are depopulated. Villages abandoned, 
whole Provinces, as pleafant and fruitful as Tempe or 7hejfaly, unculti- 
vated and turned into a Defert or VVildernefs. 

Ddd Of 


THE j4rabianTVfcteiit{\ czlkd Ifhmaelhej, (lomljhmael: Then Sa^ 
razens^ from Sarah the Wife of Abraham : Though others de- 
jiye the Name from Saara^ which fignilies a Defert : Others from 


Of ArahU, I Jy 

«94r(j%, which fignifies Kobbery. They that deduce the Etymology from 
Sarahs affirm, That the Sarazens^ being at firft called Agarensy chofe 
rather to bear the Mijireffes than the Servants Name, and fo changed 
their JppeVation. 

The Arabians that live in Cities, go by the Name of Moors, They 
that live in the Deferts are divided into Tribes, and every Tribe into 
Families, which have every one a particular Ckii^, who acknowledges 
the Tupreme Cheil^ Thefc Vagabond Arabians boaft themfelves to be 
the mort Noble People in the World ; for which reafon they never 
ally themfelves with any other Nation but their own. They could ne- 
ver be fubdued either by the Mpypians, Terfians^ Gree\s^ Romans^ or 
Twh^s : But, on the contrary, they have fetled themfelves in feveral 
Parts of Africa^ where they have a large Dominion. They wander up 
and down in that fafliion,the better to find out Pafturagefor their Cat- 
etl, and to free themfelves from the opprelTionof the7«ri;/.TheB<:?/^/sof 
the Grand Signior.who are their Neighbours, and the Caravans^ztt for- 
ced to give Money to the Cheih^, to preferve themfelves from being 
molefted or defpoiled by them in their Journies. Under Z^Z/fjOne of the 
Caliphs ^ot Arabian Princes, their Empire extended from Mej(/^,upon the 
Atlantick,%^z.,io the River Indus ; fo that in length it exceeded ih^Koman 

The /^r^^/c^Longuage is fo enchanting, that 'tis a common Hyper- 
bole^ that the Saints in Heaven^ and thofe in Paradife, fpeak^ it : And 
as in it the Holy Decalogue was given, fo, as an Allay , therein was 
hatched the Velufwe Alcoran^ and therefore is generally received in 

Thefe Arabians, becaufe cf their continual lying in the open Fields, 
were once accounted the bell j4ftrologers and Hyficians in theVVorld, as 
Khafts and Mefue, Avicen and Aterroes Philofophcrs i Algazales, Halt, 
Albumazer Alirologers -, great Geographers Leo and Abttlfeda. 

The Beduiris anci Beagebres^ who are the moft known People, are Co 
inclined to Pvobbery, that their principal Maintenance confifts in plun- 
dering of Paffcngers, claiming a Priviledge to demand l(hmael's Right 
from the Sons of Ifaac. They are very dextrous on Horfeback, in 
managing their Bows and Half-Pikes, fo that Thirty furkifh Mufque- 
teers will hardly attack Ten of thefe Arrabians armed after their man- 

Their Wealth confifts in Herds of Cattel and Horfes, which will 
travel great Journies; of whiwh they make fo great reckoning, that 
they keep a Regifter of their Breed, which is approved by certain 

D d d 2 They 

jSS Of Arabia. 

They fit at Meals upon their Heels ; aud the oldeft among them 
wears the richeft Habit, and the moft gay Colours. Their Predecef- 
fots forbad Building, and Tilling their Lands j alledging, that were 
but to invite Enemies to invade, and make them a Prey to enjoy 

The Succeffion of the Kingdom belongs to that Noble Perfon who 
was firft born after the King was proclaimed. And, indeed, to com- 
pare the Manners and Maxims of the Jfiatkkj ^nd Europeans together, 
we may fay, That the Arabians due like the Italians^ the Perfians like 
the French^ and the Turks like the Spaniards* 

Arabia^ in general, was tirft called Ethiopia^ is fubje(3: to fuch ex- 
ceilive Heats, that People are conftraii^ed generally to Travel by 
Night. There are abundance of Mountains, but few Rivers. It is 
divided into three parts. T)nt Stony ^ theVeferty the Happy. The tv/o 
tirft belong, almoft, to the T^urk^', the Happy Arahia acknowledges fe- 
veral petty Princes. 

The Stony Arabia Barraab, Njbath<ej Ft oh Barrha Cafiald. Bengaucal 
Zeigler. Kathal-Albagh incolif^ was anciently pofTefled by the Midia* 
nit is ^ Moabites^ Amakkites^zn^ the Idum£ans^ or Edomites. The Lands 
of the Ammonites or Amorites, and of Og King of Ba/hanf were parts 
of Arabia Petrea ', though it be alfo true, that fome part of Arabia 
Vefma belonged to the Ifhmaelites and Amalelqtes i The Inhabitants 
thereof at this time pay a Tribute to the BaJJ;a of Cairo. Fetra gzve 
it its Name, which fignifies aK(?c/;, whereon it was built, was aplac^ 
of great ftrength, and much noted as well in Holy Writ, as in pro- 
phane Hiftory. Befieged in vain by Severus^ and before him by Tra- 
jan, Vv'ho was compelled to throw away his Imperial Hibit, and fliefcr 
bis Life. 

Yet Amaziah, King of Judah, after he had flaughtered loooo 
of the Edomitesj took it by War, and called it Jok^beel^ a Kings 


The Soldans of Egypt, for the exceeding ftrength thereof, kept 
therein all their Treafures, Of this place, fee more in the Defcri- 
tion of Canaan, and the bordering- Countries. 

Bnlira^ now Bujferetb, is a place of good Efteem, I fuppofe the 
fame wkhPetra. 

Tor, or El Tor, upon the Kf^^ ^S'.'-^^, is a pitiful Haven, defended by 
aFour-fquare Caftle; near to it :xte (ound Champignons^ petrified noh it e 
Corals Seal' skins. Small Oy{hrs, and foraetimes 5't'j-Mi3«/?fr/ like men. 
They report that this was the Haven Ez/'c^w Gc^rr, from v^'hich Solomon 
fent his Ships for Ophir* Mount Horeb and Sinai are famous in Scripture. 


Of Arabia, 389 

Arabia the Defert^ or Beriara, is a place altnoft quite deftitute of 
Water ; or if there be any Wells, the Water is for little fervice. 
Ana upon the Euphrates ( the place where the Grand Seignior's Tri- 
bute is paid, as the Lord of the Country ) is the beft place in it. 
There is one King in Arabia that has a moving and portative City, 
that is to fay, it confifts in Tents, v^hich he can command them to 
carry where he pleafes, Sumifcafac Is thought to be the ancient Sa- 
ba^ whence the M^/gifet forth to adore Chrilt, and the Queen to vilit 

But SkThomas Herbert tells us. That after the Flood, A^wro^So- 
vereignizing at Babylon^ his Brother Havilah feated his Colony in 
Sufiana^ Seba, Raamah, and Sabbata, in Arabia. Seba or Sheba fiAed on 
the Weftern Coall adjacent to the Red Sea, where he built a City after 
his own Name, from whence the Queen came that >'ifited Solomon^ as 
he fuppofeth. 

That Sabjta planted the South- part of Arabia 5 and Raamab, or 
Rhegma^ on the North-eaft part towards Balfera , where they buiic 
Cities after their Names, mentionM E^^fi^. 27. 

In thefe parts was the Wildernefs where the Children of Ifrael 
wandered 40 years. Here Mjfes eftablilbed Ecdefiaftical and Poli- 
tical Laws. Here was the burning Bu(h, the Water-bearing Pucck^ 
the Mountains of Sinai and Horeb^ and Mount Hor where Aaron 

'the Happy Arabia^ Hyaman or Aimar, Gemen or Giamen Tnrcps^ Mar" 
moitj.Sarracenii'j Sabsa^ Plin. carries that Name, as being a more 
fruitful Soil than either of the two. It breeds excellent Hoifes^ Man- 
na, Cinnamon^ Myrrhe , Balfam , Benjamin , hicenfe , and other Per- 
fumes 5 fo that if Aromatick^ Gums , Succttlent Fruits , Fragant 
TIorvers<i and fuch fort of Delicacies pleafe thy fenfe, fay-, Arabia is 
the "Phoenix of the Eafi^ and with VanJius^ Toe Epitome of Delight^ and 
with St. Aitliin, Paradife. The Air is temperate and healthful. The 
Country enriched with pleafant Streams and Fountains, whofe Wa- 
ters are Medicinal. 

Aden is a Town of great Trade, ftanding in a little Peninfula, at 
the foot of a Mountain guarded with two Caftles towards the North, 
and a fmall Fortrefs at the Entry Into the Haven. The Portu^uefes^ 
when they firft fetled themfelves in i\\t Indies^ had a deligii to make 
themlelves Matters of this City, as alfo of Ormm and Malacba. Bjt 
theturk^ prevented them from taking Aden, the King whereof they 
hun^ at the Yards- Arm of the Admiral'/ Gaily, Since which; fome 
otiier Revolutions have happen'd, fo that the Natives of the Coun- 
try have again dirpoffeifed the "Xurk/. Mecca and Molina are famous 

i^o Of ArahU. 

for the Pilgrimages of the Mahometans : For which they that make 
them, are in high efteem among the reft. They go particularly to 
Mecca^ to pay their Devotions to a Four-fquare Houfe, which they 
call 7he Houfe of God, and pretend the fame to have been built by 
Abraham. This City, containing about 6ooq Houfcs, ftands about 
a days Journy from the Red Sea, being the place where Mahomet 
was born, whofe Body was afterwards tranflated to Medina, upon 
the difcovery of Albuquerque the Portuguefe^s defiga to have furpri- 
zed the Port of Ziden, otherwife Gidde, with an intention to have 
carried away that Mahometan Relique. The Country about Mecca 
produceth abundance of that fort of Berry, of which Coffee is made. 

Kttfa, or Kalufa the Holy City, called Rajiack^, when walled by 
Omir, the Burial place of MortU-Ali, Saint, King and Prophet of the 

Medina is three days Journy from the Ked Sea, the burying place 
of Mahomet, as the 7«rj^x pretend. The Sepulchre or Tomb where- 
in M^/[>owef lieth, iscnclofed within an iron Grate, and covered with 
Green Velvet, which is every year made new, and fent by the Grand 
Seignior, the old one being by the Priefts cut in little pieces, and fold 
at great Rates, asReliques, to the Pilgrims. In the Temple where 
this Tomb is placed, there are faid to be 3000 Lamps of Gold and 
Silver, wherein is Balfam, and other Rich Odors, Ointments and Oils 
continually kept burning. They would impofe it for a Miracle, that 
his Tomb (hould hang in the Air by means of the Loadftone : But 
befides that there is no fuch thing, were it true, there were no won- 
der in it; YotDemocratei the Athenian, by the Order of Ptolomey King 
of Egypt, undertook to make the Statue of Arfinoe all of Iron, and to 
hang it up in the fame manner. And in the Temple o( Serapis in 
Alexandria, there was an Iron Sun that hung in the Ait by the force 
of a Loadftone, being a rare piece of Workmanftiip. 

The Prince of Mecca, called Sultan Sheriff, is one of the moft po- 
tent Princes in all Arabia : His refidence is ufually at Almachirana, 
feated on the top of an high Mountain of difficult accefs. 

Sanaa is one of the greateft, faireit, and ftrongeft Towns of Arabia, 
adorned with Vineyards, Meadows and Gardens. 

Vafar is one of the chief Ports upon the Red Sea, next to Zibit, 
near the mouth of the Red Sea, which is Fair, Rich, and of great 
Trade for Drugs t Spices, Perfumes, &c. Once the Relidence of a Jurkifh 
Beglerbeg '■, before that, the Seat of a King, beheaded by the Turks, at 
the fame time when the King of Aden was hanged at the Yards- Arm 
of the Admiral's Ship. The Ports of Volfar and Pefcher are mod 


Of Arabia, J^i 

renowjied on the South-Coaft for Frankincenfe. The Grand Siguier, 
thcPerftan Sopbi, and other Mahemnan Monarchs, oft-times fend him 
Prefents, and the Hrft allows him alfo fome part of the Revenue of 
Egypt^ becaufc he i? of the Race of Mahomet^ and to oblige him to be 
kind to the Pilgrim T«rj^/. 

Fartach^ a Kingdom and City near the Sea, Caxem^ Guhdhaman 
Mibinali, Amanziridin^ Mas f ate ^ Mafcalat and Jemen, are fo many 
Sultanies or petty Kingdoms in the Happy Arabia : Mufcate-t or Maf- 
catfaif^ not far from Kozelgate^ Corodanum Ptol. Macin Amiam. thought 
to be RhagHtna^ Rhegma of Ptol, the Raamah of Ezekt 27. 22. for- 
merly belonging to the Portuguefe^ had, for a longtime, all the Trade 
of the Indiej to Mecca^ through the conveniency of the Cities Elcatif, 
or the ancient Gerra, which communicates its name to the Perfian 
Gulph, and Lahfa^ or Lazarch, Sohar in the Eaftern part had alfo for- 
merly the Trade, but iince the fame hath been tranflated to Ormus 
and Gomhron, Mocha upon the Red Sea is an open City, indifferently 
well built, and fortihed with a fmall Caftle. In it there live Jerps, 
Perfianr^ Armenians^ Indians .^ and 'Banians : So that it is a Town of great 
Commerce ; and there it is, that all the Pilgrims land that come 
from the ladies to Micca. It hath alfo much increafed in Riches and 
Repute, in regard that the Veffels that come from Sues to Aden^ ra- 
ther chufe to unlade there, to avoid the dangerous pafTages of Babel- 
Mandel, "Diodori loftda, Arriam. tefie Rhamufw, 







THE Kingdom or Empire of Per/ij, is at prefent one of the 
greateft and moft famous of Afia ; yet is but a part of the 
ancient Empire of the Pgr^<?»/5 ioxthQAffyrian Monarchy contained 


Of Per pa. ^^^ 

all that which both 'turk^ and Verfian at this day poflefs in that pare 
of the World : And beginning-underN/w^j-, lafted 13 or 1400 years, 
ending in that Notorious and effeminate Epicure, Sardanapalui, 

After which it was divided into that of the Medes and Babylonianr, 
who continued it lefs than 300 Years. Then the Perftans made them- 
felves Matters of it during 200 and odd Years, under Cyrus Son of 
Cambyfes, Son of Cyrus ^ Son of Darius^ Son of Achamenes , Son of 
Ferfis^ who,faith7^i/ore, gave Per/?^ its Name. In Nimrod's 6zys, cal- - 
led Chufa, or Cuth » in Chedorlaomers^ and to Daniel's time, Elam ; af- 
terwards Perfia^ from Perfius, Son of Perfeas, a Grecian Hero, Son to 
Jupiter, by Danae the Daughter oiAcrifms. Afterwards called Arfaca^ 
from Arfaces the Heroicli Parthian. After by the Inhabitants, Artea, 
By the Tartariy Corfaca, By the Arabians, Saraednea. By the 7«ri^f, 
Azamia and Axmia, Farfi & Farjijian Incolk. 

The Macedonians ^nd Greekj (\iccGeded j for having Ruined the Em- 
pire of the Perftans, they gave a beginning to that of the Macedo- 
nians : But Alexander the Great held this Empire but few Years, and 
dying, it was Cantonized out among his Captains, who, taking the 
Title of Kings, waged War againft each other, till the Romans fei- 
zed the Weftern, and the Parthians the Oriental part of that Mo- 

Thefe Parthians freed themfelves from the Rule of the Macedo- 
nians 250 Years before the Birth of Chrift,and Reigned near 5 00 years. 

Artaxerxes reftored the Perfian Government 228 Years after Chrift's 
Nativity. About the Year 505 , the Caliph of Bagdat , Omar, or 
Hofhmar, the Third after Mahomet, became Mafter of it. So that Per- 
fia, after a long uninterrupted Succeilion of 28 Kings from Artax- 
erxes, kts in an eclipfed Cloud, and becomes fettered under the Iron 
Yoke of a Saracenick^ Bondage ; once garnilhed with 22 Kingdoms, 
formidable to the Koman Emperors, and Miftrefs of the greateft part 
• of Jfta. 

In the Year 1257 or 8 , the Tartars exterminated the whole Race 
of the Caliph of Bagdat. And in the Year 1472. the Turcomans of 
Armenia got the Kingdom. But about the Year 1505. Ijhmael So- 
phi once more re-eftabliflied the Perftans in the polTeilion of the Ori- 
ental part of that ancient Empire, which now extends from the Ty 
gris and Euphrates on the Well, almoft to the River Indus on the Eaft j 
And from the Perfian Gulph, and the River Oxus on the North, to 
the Perfian and Indian Seas on the South. 

But that you may the better underftand the full extent of the Do- 
minions of this large Kingdom, Khali give you the true Number of 

f^ e e the 

J94 ^/ ^^4^' 

the Provinces of the whole Continent of Vetfta^ according to the old 
and new Defcriptions of feveral Geographers. 

And firft the old Names by Clttver^ were Gedrofta, Carmania, Dran- 
gana, ^racofia^ Paropamifis, Ba&riana^ Margiana^ Hyrcania, Arh^ Par- 
thia^ Perjis^ Suftana, ^jfyria^ Media. 

The new Names Saro, Cufijian, Elaran, Farft, Aracy Elfabar, Viar- 
gument , Corafon , Sablefian , Candahor , Sigefian , Cheftmur , Kirman , 

2. By Baudran^ old Names, Media ^ Hyrcania, Margiana^ j^JJyria - 
parf^ Suftana, Parthiay Aria, Paropanifuiy Chaldea, Perfta , Caramaniay 
Vrans^iana^ jirachofiay and Gedrofia. 

The new Names are Servan, Gilan, Dilemon, Ayrack^ Agemi^ laberefian, 
Gorgiarij Rh£mns.y Churdijian, Corafan^ Yerack^ Cufijirani Farfi , Cherman, 
Sijijian, Macheran^ Candahor% and Sablejhn. 

1. Therefore this Monarch pofleffeth a great part of the great 
Armenia , which we call lurcomania , efpecially that part which is - 
feated between the two Rivers Kur and Aras^ the Cyrm and Araxei 
of old; This Country is one of the moft beautiful and richeft pieces 
of Land in all Perjia, by the Natives called Iran, or Karahag, 

2. Shirvaa, or Schirn>ani all along the Cafpian Sea, part of Media 

3. The V tovmc& Edzerhaijan, ox Azerheyan -, And thefe two Pro- 
vinces make up the ancient Media, Sarch. Clu, 

4. Is Kylan, or Guilan, Perfis, which is the old Hircania, Strava M. 
Angiol. Viargument Merc, Hyrach. Eryth, and comprehends feveral other 
Provinces, as Mefandran, Lahetzan, Refcht and Kesksr* 

5. Is Eflarabad, tabifiran, or 'Tocharifian ■, formerly Margiana^ 
Jefelbajh Cafi. Tremigan Pineto, which extends to the River OxM. 

6. Zagathay, 01 Sacathay Nig. is the Province of the Ousbec Tartars 
or Mauranabar, comprehending all the ancient Sogdiana, and part of ; 
Ba&riana, dec. 

7. Corajfan, Sernere Merc, is fbme part of Ba&riana , now Batter 
Kamuf. Charoffan, Cajiald. which alfo comprehends the Province of; 
Heri, or Eri, remarkable for the greateft Trade of any in Perfia. The . 
Ariaoi old. 

8. Sablefan , formerly Paropamifus. Calcbifian Caft. Navagrat, M, . 
P. Ven. 

p. The Territories and Cities of Candahor and Cabnl, compre- 
hend the ancient Aracofia, now belonging to the Mogul. 

10. Is Sigifian Marc, formerly Drangiana 5 aliU Ilmenti 

1 1. Is Kirman, or Chirmain, and comprehends all the Territories 

OfPerfta. ^g^ 

of the{er\t Carmania bordering upon the Indian Sea, conta'ming the 
Province of 

12. Makerafjj wherein isCircarii Patau, and the Defert of Vulcinda. 

1 3 . Cheufefian Mind. Chus Men* which was heretofore called Sufiana. 

14. Is Hierackf or Erdc\/lgemi^ the Ancient Tarthia^ Nig. Charef- 
fen, and lies in the midft of all Per/x^, Jrach Merc. & Minad. Tcx» 
Alph. Hadr, 

15. Is Fan, C which Laet calls Fare) Farfifian Merc, and is the 
ancient Ferfta, whereof TerfepolU was the chief City. 

1 6. Is Viarbeck^^ Merc. Azamia Bd. formerly Mefopjtamiaj between 
Euphrates and Tygris* 

ly. Is Curdijian, or yirzerum, formerly /^jf/jm, extending all along 
the Eaft-fide of the River Tygris^ from the Lake l^'an, to the Frontiers 
of Bagdat. 

18. Is Terac}{, or Hieracl^Arahi^ other wife the Country of Bahy- 
Ion, or Cbaldea. Thefe three laft Countries being moft now under 
the Turkifh power, we have already difcourfed thereof. 

The Government- of Perfia is Defpotick, or abfolutely Arbitrary, 
the King having the fole power of Life and Death over all his $ub- 
jec3:s, without any Tryals, or Law-proceedings. Nor is there any So- 
vereign in the World more Abfolute than He ; yet, in the exercifc 
thereof, it is faid to be gentle and eafie, fuppor table both to Perfians 
and Strangers. And for the Laws of Hofpitality, they are fo firidtly 
obferved, that the King will have all Strangers to be his Guefis. The 
general Title given to the Kings of Perfia is that of Sha, though the 
Vulgar call him by the Name of the Sophi, which is a proper Name. 
The Perftans had ever a very great Veneration for their Sovereign. 
And,atthisday,they believe it to be a greater AlTeveration tofwear 
by the Name of their King, than by the Name of their God, perhaps 
out of the fame Belief with thofe of Achem'm Sumatra, who fay, that 
God is far off, but the King is near at hand. The Wealth of this 
King is very vaft, asappearM by the Treafure which Alexander found 
in the Coffers of Varius. And to defcend towards our Times, Sha 
Sophi, one of their laft Kings, had no lefs than 7400 Marhes of Gold"- 
Plate for the ordinary Service of his Court. * 

The King decealing, the Eldeft Son afcends the Throne, whilft his 
Brothers are kept in the Haram, and their Eyes put out ; and often- 
times the Children of the King's Brothers and Sifters alfo, to avoid 
Competition for the Sovereignty, and Rebellion. 

The State of Pcr/?^ is diftinguiihed, like moft of the European Sutcs, 
Into three Bodies. 

E e e 2 The 

396 Of Perfta. 

The firft of the Sword, which anfwers to the Nobility. 

Thefecoiid is that of the Gown, which anfwers to the Law and 

The third is compofed of Merchants, Handicraftfmen, and La* 

The Athemat Voulet is the Prime Minifter in Temporals, the Sedre 
in Spirituals, whofe Offices are much the fame with the Grand Vtfier*s 
and the Mnftt in Imk^y. 

The greatefl part of the Lands in Per^^ belong to the King, and 
are farmed by private perfons 5 the reft are meafured , and pay fo 
much a meafure. The King hath alfo a vaft Income by Merchandifes 
that pay Cuftom and Toll. 

The Commerce of this mighty Empire confifts in the Trade of the 
Country, and Foreign Traffick. The Country Trade is in the hands 
of Terfians and Jews. The Foreign Trade is in the hands of the Arme- 
nians, who are Fadors for the King and Noblemen. 

Their Commodities are curious Silk/^ exquifite Carpets and TiffueSy 
with other Mz?/2»/c/f/«rex of Gold^ Silk^ and i?//x)er, great quantities of 
Lintien Cloth of all forts of Colours. Their Seal-skins and Goat-skins' 
are tranfported by the Hollanders into India and J^pan^ as alfo into 
Mofcovy and Poland. The famous KoncK Root is tranfported over all 
Indiat gresit i\oreoi dried Fruits^ o{ candid ^inces ^ and Boxes of Mar^ 
malet made at Balfera , Fruits pickled in Vinegar^ ftveet Water.^ Almonds ^ 
Kaifins^ and purgative Frunes -, They vend abundance of their Camels 
into 'Tnrk^^ great ftore of Horfes and Mules into Jndia^ and a prodigi- 
ous number of Sheep and Lambs into Natolia and Romania. 

The natural Complediion of the Terfians is Tawney,as may be feen by 
the G^^^w, the original Inhabitants of the Country ; but the prefent 
Terfians^ by reafon of their frequent Marriages with fair Georgian Wo- 
men, have contracted a better degree of Comelinefs and Beauty. 

The Juftice among them is very exadi and fpeedy. Suits being de- 
termined upon the place. Murther feverely punifhed. and extraor- 
dinary Care taken for the fecurity of the High-ways, for Thieves find 
no mercy ', and if a Merchant be robbed, the Governour of the Pro- 
vince makes good the Lofs. 

The Air of Pcr/ij varies according to the diverfity of its fituation ; 
the Country o{ Edzerbeitzan is very fharpand coW, but healthy 5 the 
Air of Kilan is very unwholfom ; but the Province of Mazandra^, 
from September to March^ feems a kind of Terreftrial Paradife. At 
Jfpahanin the middle of Ptr/z^, there are fix months of hot, and fix 
months of cold weather. In the Southern Provinces the Heats are 


Bf Perfta, '^s)y 

very exceffive; In fome parts the Snow falls three or four times in a 
Seafon, and fometimes very thick *, but Rain there is very little. As 
for Woods there are none in all the Country ^ and Springs are very 
fcarce to Travellers. 'Tis a Country generally mountainous, out of 
fome of which they dig Salt, as Stones out of a Quarry j and there 
are fome Plains there, where the Sand is nothing but Salt. Of late 
feveral Copper Mines have been found out, of which the Natives make 
all forts of Kitchin Houfhold-fiuff : their Lead comes from iff rw^w-, 
their Iron and Steel from Corazan and Cashin , feme Mines of Gold 
and Silver there were, but the Expence is more than the Profit. The 
Provinces of Guilan and Mazandran furnifti'd all Perfia with Oil. ylrnte' 
nia, Mtngrelia^ Georg/jand Midia abound in Vineyards, but their Vines 
they bury all Winter, and take them up in the Spring. The Flowers 
of Terfiii are not comparable tog^hofe of I,wope for Variety or Beauty j 
nor are their Apples, Pears, Oranges, Granares, Prunes, Cherries, 
Quinces, Chefnuts, Medlers, and other forts of Fruits (o well tafted 
as ours •, yet their Apricocks, the better fort, are better than oursj which 
when you open, the Stone cleaves in tsvo, and the Kernel, which is 
only a fmall Skin as white as Snow, is moft pleafant to the Tafte ; fo 
likewife their Melons are moft excellent, very plentiful, and more 
wholefome than ours. 

Their Fowl are much the fame as we have mEurope, and their Poul- 
try are very plentiful, only there are noTurkies. All forts of Water- 
Fowl are commonly in fome parts of the Country j and as for Birds of 
Prey it wants none. 

The Native Inhabitants are generally very inquifitive after future E> 
vcixts, confulting their Aftrologers like Oracks j much addidcd to ill 
Language, but never blafphemeGod. norfubjed tofwearj naturally 
great DiflTemblers and Flatterers, exceflSve in their Luxury and Ex- 
pences, much accuftomed to Tobacco and Coffee, and to make mutu- 
tualVifits \ generally addided to Play and Paftimes; yet the men neve* 
dance, nor do they ufe walking to and again as we do. 

The two great Seds amongft the Followers of Mahomet (which 
are moft violent againft each other ) are the Iturki and Perfians The 
Firft hold Mahomet to be the chief and ultimate Prophet 5 the later 
prefet Haly before him, and efteem his Infpirat ions greater, and his 
Interpretations of the Law more perfed and Divine ; and their 
Grand Feftival is the Feaft of Hocen and Hujfein. The King permits 
the Carmdites, Capuchins, y^ujiin-Fryers^, and other Orders, to have 
their Houfes and Churches in his Royal City of Ifpahan^ where their 
Superiors live in natureof Ambaffadorsfor the Chriftian Princes ; They. 


^g% Of Per pa. 

are as fuperflitious as the 7«rj^f, and believe material Enjoyments m 
Paradife; tho others, more refined, affirm, That Beatitude conjijh in the 
perfeU h^notvUdge of the Sciences ; and for the Senfes, theyjhaU have t heir fat if- 
fabion according to their quality. 

Their Women are efteem'd the hanfomeft in all Afia, their Horfes 
the nimbleft, their Camels the ftrongeft : And in the Country they 
commend the Bread oitezdecas, the Wine oi Schiras^ and the Women 
of Yez'd, 

The Ferftan Language is fo fweet, that it is only in ufe among the 
Women and Poets ; the King and the Nobility generally fpeaking the 
7«rj^'(^ Tongue. 

Tlie greateft Trade is at Bagdat for 7»r^v, and at Gombron for the 
Indies. The Rings of Perfta permit Strangers to trade upon their Coafts, 
but not to build Forts : and the Mogn^ and Emperor of China obferve 
the fame Policy in their Dominions. They lie between two potent 
Neighbours, the T«rj!^and the Great Mogul, The Strength of theii 
Kingdom confifls chiefly in its Situation, being furrounded by high 
Mountains and vaft Deferts. Ifhmael Sophi brought into the Field an 
Army of 300000 Men againft Se/zw Emperor of the turkj. And 
other Perfian Kings have had Armies of 7 or Socooo Men : But ge- 
nerally their Armies now a- days confift not of above 50 or <5oooo 
Horfe 5 belides 30000 which are -always kept upon the Fron- 

The Militia is divided into three forts, which arc the Corfchps^ ge- 
nerally called Kefel'Bajh'i, or Red-heads, in number about 22000 all 
good Soldiers and Horfemen. 

The fecond fort, the Go^/^zw/ or Slaves, KmegSido Georgians, who 
are about 18000, being alfo Horfemen. 

The third fort are the Tafenk^giis, who are compofed of Men taken 
from the Plough, as moft fit for Labour -, they are Footmen arm'd with 
a Scimeter and aMufquet, 

The Perftansy efpecially the Rich, are much lefs fabjcdl: to Sicknefs 
than the Europeans-, nor are they much troubled with the Pox, for 
the dry Air of the Country is an Enemy toitj befides, they go often 
to the Bath, to fweat out the Venom of that Diftemper \ for as for 
any Method of Phyfick, they have none; Diet is the chief Remedy 
which the Phyficians prefcribe in all Difeafes, and account moft fove- 

They divide the Natural Day into four parts; from Sun-riiing to 
Noon, from Noon to Suivfet, from Sun-fet to Midnight, and from 
Midnight till Sunrife; and in the Vjiji^lgar Computation of Time, make 

Of Perjta. ^^^. 

ufe of Lunar Months, which they always begin from the firft appear- 
ance of the New Moon : But in their Aftronomical Accounts, they 
make ufe of Solar Months. The Firit Month begins upon the nth of 
our March, the day of the Vernal Equinox being the firft day of their 
Year; upon which Day if aPer/i^«hath not money to buy him a new 
Habit, he will mortgage his own Body to have one. 

The Per/I,«wj betroth their Children very young, at nine or ten years; . 
and among the Armenians fome are married and lie together at five 
or fix > their Law allows them but four Wives, but they may have as 
many hired Women as they pleafe, and may alfo enjoy their Slaves 
whom they purchafe ; the Children both of the one and of the other 
are accounted Lawful, and inherit all alike. The Nobility of the Per- 
/i^w/ is founded upon their being defcended from Mahomet, and thefe^ 
have the Title of Mir or Prince ; and the Daughters that of Mirza or 

The Verfians wear Red Turbants, the 'tartars of Giagatay Green 
ones; The iTwrJ^i/^ Turbants are White, and the Greefex Blue. And as 
they are thus diftinguiftied in the Colours of their Turbants, foif we 
regard the natural Enmities of Nations, we (hall find as great an An^ 
tipathy between the turhj and Perfians, as there is between the Chine- 
fes and Japanners, the Armenians and Nejiorians^ the Arabians and 
Abajjines^ the French and Spaniards^ the Italians and Greekjt ^he Ger» 
mans and Polandersy the Danes and Suedes^ or the Mufcovites and T^r- 

The Capital City of all Perfia is Jfpahan^ built by y^r/<ice/, who enlar- 
ged the Parthian Dominions, and called D^r^,afterwards Afpadara^ alfo 
Nymzamena by Ben. Jonaf Hagiftan^ Clu. Asbaharvn by the Arabian 
Geographer*, Saphaon Mandevel. Spaharvn Herb, Spahan-, Afpachan, 
Izpaan and Hifpahan, in fome Maps and Authors, 537 Miles from the 
Perfian Sea, 3^0 from the Cafpian, 450 from Babylon, and 870 from. 
Candahor: By which laft diftance, agreeing very near with what IV?- 
vernier vmkts it, viz.. 390 Agats , (every Agat being a Province 
League ) I find Perfia is at leaft 3 or 400 miles too much in length 
in moft Maps, and in fome much more : As it is the Refidence of the 
Perfian King, and in the Centre of his Empire, Noble *, as feated 
on a vaft Plain, which extends three ways 15 or 20 Leagues, fair and ' 
pleafant 5 for Air healthy ; confidering her Palaces, fiately : her Gar- 
dens delicious and fragrant ; her Piazza's, and the Wealth of her Ba- 
zars or publick Market-places rich and populous -, only the Streets are 
narrow and dark, and annoyed with Loads of Ordure and Filth 5 in 
the Summer Dulty, and in the Winter Miry. . 


^oo- Of Perfi/f* 

TiHlfha^ or Jelphey H;rb. is a little City, feparated from Ifpahan by 
the River Sonderou , and is a Colony of Armenians^ who enjoy Lands 
and great Priviledges. They have i^ ot 1 6 Churches and Chappels, 
and no Mahometans may live amongft them. 

Schkiis^ Sheraz.z a Perfis, Schirafittm Baud. Sheraz Herb. Siaphof Ben 
Jonof^ Xirias Von Garcias^ Zyras P. Venet. Cirecatha Steph. CyropolU Muf- 
Uedini Sadd'r. A City no lefs ancient than great, according to that 
Proberb, ^ando Schiras erat Schiras tunc Cairm erat ejits pagiify and is 
now the Second City for Magnificence in the Perfian Monarchy, plea- 
fantly feated at the end of a fpaciousPlain circumvolved with lofty Hills, 
enriched by Trade, made lovely by Art.The Palaces rife fo amiably,the 
Mofqttes and Hummitms with their Casrulean Tiles, and gilded Vanes, a- 
mongft the Cypreffes fo glitter by refledting the Sun-beams in a curious 
(jplendor. The Vineyards, Gardens, Cypreffes, Sudatories and Tem- 
ples, ravilhing the Eye and Smell i fo that in every part (he appears 
fair and delightful. 

Here Cyrm, the moft excellent of Heathen Princes, was born ; and 
here his Body (all but his Head, which was fent to Pifagard) lies en- 

Here the Great Macedonian glutted his Avarice and Bacchifm. 

Here the firft Sybel fung our Saviour's Incarnation -, And here a feries 
of 200 Kings have fwayed their Scepters. 

The Government of Schiras is one of the higheft Commands for a 
Subje<S, and is particularly famous for the molt excellent Wines in all 

7avernier fells us, That now it looks rather like a Town half ruined, 
than a City ; And that there is a wonderful Well, which is 1 5 years 
rifing to the top, and 1 5 Years falling or finking to the bottom. 

Perfepollf^ by the Greek^znd Latin Authors, Elamis by the Perfians and 
OrientalNations,when in itsPerfedion was theMetropolis of the World, 
&7otius Orhvs Sphndjr^ when in its flouriftiing condition, faith D. Sicti- 
luf, and ^Curtius, the Richeft, the Nobleft, and the Lovelieft City 
under the S jn ; fo beautiful and fo ftately in its Strudure, being moft 
of Cedar and Cypre/s Wood , the Order of Building fo curious and 
regular, as it was in that Age juftly ftiled, "The Glory of the World, 

The Succefs oi AntiochufEpiphanes at Jerufalem^ when he facrilegioufly 
ravifhed tenTuns of Gold, made him march to Perfepolis with an Army, 
in hopes of getting the Greatelt Exchequer in the World ; for tho 
Babylon and Shnfhan were very rich, the one furnilhtng the Macedonian 
Vidtor wirl) 50000 Talents, the other with p Millions of Gold, and 
50JOC? Taknts in Bullioniyet in Perfepolii there was found 120000 Ta- 

Of Per flit, 401 

le4its; or according to Strabo ^ 32 Millions, 750000 Pounds. 

Time would fail me to mention the lofty Palace of ihtTerfian Em- 
perors, which for Situation, Profpec^, Richnefs in Materials, and Cu- 
rioiity of Art, rendred it incomparable of that Majefty and Splendor, 
as put the World's Conqueror into amaiement at his entrance therein- 
to. But alas ! this rich and famous City, yea, the Palace alfo, was at 
a drunken Feaft, in a debauched Humour, by theinliigation oiThaU, 
and at the command o{ Alexander^ fet all on fire; an Ad which the 
Great Prince would have quenched with his Tears ; but preceding 
mifchiefs are not amended by fucceeding Lamentations ; but of the 
Maufolea, the Temple dedicated to Anaia^ or Diana, and of the Ruins 
of it at this day, called ChilmanoryCi Chehdminor^ Vide Her^e^'s Tra- 

Comejharp, where Sir R. Shirley was once Commander, thought to 
be the Camaxa^ where the memorable Battel betwixt Artaxerxes and 
Cyriif his Brother was fought. Others think it the fame which Pliny 
called Faradona, or Orebatys of PtoL 

Near Gheez is a narrow Strait, the Mountains on either fide are very 
precipitous, and vaftly high, rot more than 40 Yards broad , and 
8 Miles long, and is one of the three noted PafTages through the Moun- 
tain Taurus , which leads to Hircania ; through this Strait the iaffA" 
mazonian came to Alexander, 

Penfcopp Herb. Firufeuch Val. is noted fot the abundance of Pheafants 
and other Game for Hawking. 

A(haraff Herb, Efcrefde Val. is about two Miles from the Cafpian Scf^ 
in Latitude 38 degrees,- 17 minutes, due North from Ifpahan. Here 
Sha Abbas gave Audience to Sir Vodmore Cotton the Englifh Ambaflfa- 
dor, and is but five miles from Fcnabaut the Hircanim Metropolis. 

Ferrabaut^ or Efhabut upon the Cafpian Sea, fome take this for the 
Remains of the old Amamfa^ fome for the Socanda Ptol. others fuppofe 
it to be the Phraata^ which Marct-n Anioniw befieged when he invaded 
Media, to be revenged for the Death of Crajfm the Hich, who, with 
30000 of his men, where flain by Phraartes ihc Parthian. 

Omoul^ by fome Zarama, by others Ladracarta, wher^ AUxandervt- 
freihed his Army in the purfuit of gfj(/7<f the infamous Ba&rianh others 
think it to be the Kc m-^ins oi Nabarca, where the Oracle af Vnam 
was famoufed. The Inhabitants obfervefixor feven fev^rai Sabbaths. 

At Vamoan the J^ws inhabit in great numbers, having, as they re- 
port, been feated, ever (ince the Tranlplantation fioj-n Canaan by Sal- 
manaff()\ 2 Kin^s I J. 6. and alfo fay, that upon the Vamoaa Mountain 
Noah^^^ii. reikd. 

'^ ^ ^ Tyroan 

40^ Of TtrftA, 

Tyroan feems to be the Rhaz.mda of Strak a City of about 3000 
Houfes. The Women are lovely, and curious in Novelties; but the 
Jealouiie of the Men confines them 5 yet vetitis rebus glifdt volun- 

Sufa, otSu/batiy every where famoufed, was one of the three Roy- 
al Palaces xht Median Monarchs fo much gloried and delighted in; was 
the place where Ahafhuerus kept his Court, and Tome other Kings ; A- 
Uxander there efpoufed Statyra the Perfjan Princefs, and Daughter of 
DariuSi and Ephe^ion her Sifter. Here he made a Feaft for pooo Guefts, 
to each of which he gave a Cup of Gold. Here he got 5:0000 Talents 
in Silver, and pcooooo Millions of coined Goldj now Valdac or Bal- 
dach^P, Venet. Su!haCa(i. Soufier Sanf feated upon the River Choafpk,, a 
River of fuch account with the Tirfian Emperors, that no Water but of 
Ck^T/'fef, no Bread but from Affes in Pbryghy no Wine but the Chalybo- 
nian in Syria^ no Salt but homMemphls in Mgypt^ could pleafe their Pa- 
lates. It was called Ulai'm Daniel, EuUm Plin. Tiritiri Sanf. HereCy- 
rus the Great entertained his moft beautiful Parthea. Here Alexander 
gaveiooooTalents to pay the Debts of thofe that had a mind to return 
into Greece, and received a Recruit of 30000 young Soldiers. Here it 
was alfo that He^er obtained fomuch favour for the Jen?/, and where 
HatftUn was hanged in the Place of Mordecai. It is related, that the 
Palace of Sufa., built by Varius, was enriched by Memnon^ with the 
Spoil of the Great 'thebes in ^gypt^ and that the Stones were fattened 
with Gold. Next to Perfepolis it was reckoned one of the moft fump- 
tuous Fabricks of the Kings of Perfia-, but this Gity is now wafte and de- 

Congo, or Bander Conco, is a City upon the Gulph oiBalfaraf not much 
unlike 7oulon\n Provence: It rofe from the Ruins of Ormus, as well as 
Gombroni and there is a Cuftom-houfe, of which the Terfians and For- 
tugmfes divide the Profit. 

Laar^ Corrha, Ptol. Laodicea Pymtus , Seleucia Elymiadis Appian. Lara 
Baud. Laar P. Venet, (gives its Name to a certain piece of Silver Money 
coined there, and) contains above 4000 Houfes, and a little Cittadel. 
Some believe it to be the ancient Pafagardei, where the Grand Cyrus 
vanquifhed Afiyagef, and tranflated the Empire of the Medes into that 
of Perf\a, Calanus , an Indian Philofopher , fuffered a voluntary 
Death there, in fight of the who\t Macedonian Army. It has been 
much difpeopled by Earthquakes, which often, happen in thofe 


Of Perfta. 40? 

Lan is the Capital City of the Province, which formerly bore th^ 
Title of a Kingdom ; it is enclofed on both fides with high Mountains* 
being built round about a Rock, upon which there (lands a Caftle, 
where the King keeps a Garifon ^ the moft part of its Inhabitants are 
Jetvs i there is no Water but Rain-water, which doth not happen 
fometimes for three years together, which Water ftanding in the Gi- 
fterns fo long, breeds Worms, and whether you (train or boil it, there 
will remain a foulnefs and corruption in it, which breeds Worms in 
the Legs and Feet of men ; and J. B. tavernier faith, That at his re- 
turn to /'tfw the fifth time of his Travelling, he had one came out of 
his Left Foot an Ell and a half long, and another from the Ankle of his 
Right Foot an Ell long. 

At Jaarown^ or Gaarom, about 20 Far fangs, or 62 'Englifh miles from 
Larr^ the Inhabitants are moft Jews^ who tell us, they are of theKTue 
of Reuben, Gad^ and the half Tribe of Manaffer^ who by tiglath Pilaf- 
fer were carried captive to this place, 2 Kings 17. 6. and that the Off- 
fprings of Van, Union , Ajher and Naphthali were planted at Va- 

Near this place is a precious Liquor or Mummy growing, carefully 
preferved for the King's fole ufe. It diftils only in June, horn the top 
of thofe mountains, a moft redolent Gum, fovereign againft Poyfon, a 
Catholicon for all forts of wounds. 

laum, (the Ecbatana of the Ancients, the Metropolis of the Em- 
pire of the Medef ) by the Turkr Taberyz ; by Ezra, Achmetha, is a 
great City, and well peopled, the general Mart for Turky^ Mufcovy, 
the Indies , and Terjia ; for all forts of Merchandize, efpecially Silks. 

j4n?io 15 14. the Grand Signior Selym fent a Bafha with an Army, 
and ranfack'd it: 1530 Solymanlnvdided it with fo much fury, that it 
flamed many days-, reviving again, it was made proftrate to I/^r^^/m 
Bafha's Luxury i^^^. But 1585. it groaned under the greateft Suffer- 
ing, when Ofman Balha, Slave'to Amurat, perpetrated all manner of 

In the Year 1 6^0. it was almoft ruined by Sultan Anmrath, but now 
re-edified, the Buildings of Brick being baked in the Sun. At this 
City are feen the Ruins of ftately Strudures, or great Mofques or Tem- 
ples of a prodigious height and magnitude. In one dedicated to Diana, 
the Great ArtaxerKes fequeftred the fair Afpafia, whofe Beauty made 
him and his Son Competitors. Here are drelTed the greateft part of the 
Shagreen Skins that are vended all over Perfia. 

Casbin. Cazbyn Hrb. Kazvin by the Verfians. The Arfatia of the 
Ancients , or Arfifaca of Strabo. Here Farmcnio was killed , and 

■ F f f 2 Ephcjiion.^ 

404 ^/ ^^^A 

tpheliionj Alexanders Favourite, died, and a Monument erected, upon 
which was fpent 12000 Talents, or 7 Millions of Crowns. Then did 
the Altar fmoke with Incenfe, and the Dr. was offered up in Sacrifice, 
and the dead Corps worQiipped as a Deity. It is a great City without 
Walls, thought to be the Rages m tohit^ the beft half of it is in Gardens, 
feated in alarge and fair Plain, 30 miles in compafs. Here died Sir K<7- 
hert Shirley, and Sir Dodmore Co«on,the Ambaffadors who went for Per- 
fia^Anno 1626. having no gilded Trophies to adorn their Sepulchres, 
only their Virtues, which will out-lali thofe bubbles of Vanity. Here 
alfodied j^bbar the Ferfian Monarch in the year 162^. 

Sauvay Herb. Saba de Val. a City pleafantly feated upon a rifing hill, 
in a fruitful Country, much delightful for aerial Mutick, efpecially the 

A Thoufand voarhliug Notes their throat i difplays-f 
Which their ftveet Mufick^chants as many ways. 

About 1 1 Leagues from Tauris, is a Lake about 1 5 Leagues com pa&^ 
in the mid^k of which is a little Hill , that rifes infenfibly , out of 
which theire bubble out many little Springs s an^ the Earth which 
they water is of two ftrange diftind Qualities 5 for one fort ferves to 
make Lime, the next to that is a hollow fpungy Stone, and under 
that is a white tranfparent Stone, which is onely a congelation of the 
Waters of thefe Streams s for fometimes you (hall meet with creeping 
Animals congealed therein ; for one piece fent to Sha Ahbas^ Taver- 
nier offered 15000 Crowns, in which was a Lizard about a foot 

Ardevil is not only famous for the Royal Sepulchres of Sha Sefi^^ind 
other PerfianKings^ and for the Pilgrimages that are made to it i bat al- 
fo for numerous Caravans of Silk , which render it one of the moil 
confiderable Cities in Perfia : It is of a'moderate bignefs, feated in a 
lovely opening of the Mountains, the Avenues of it are very pleafant, 
being Alleys of great Trees, and is watered with a River that runs tho- 
row the middle of the City. 

Sultany, 7igranocerta , Tigranopolls , and Ttgranopetra , /e/?e Appianai 
Sultania. Javio, Sana. Bonacciolo. BitlU Baud, is a very large City j and 
if you will believe the Armenians^ they will tell yoa, that there were 
once near 800 Churches in it. 

Kern, Coom Herb. Cama , Arba&a , or Coama of old ; by fome, 
Heeatompolis , is one of the great Cities of Perfia, in a fat Country, 
abounding with Rice and excellent Granates j that which is moft re- 

Of Peyfia. 405 

markable is a large Mofque, where are the Sepulchres of Sha Sefi and 
Sha Abhas the Second, the Tomb of Sedi Favma, the Gratrd-Daughtcr 
of H^/i, and the Tomb oiFatima Zubra the Diughicv of Mahomet. 

Cafchan is zKo a large City, and well peopled, ftored with SilJ^ 
rveaverf., which make the bert purfied Satins mix'd with Gold and 
Silver. The Houfes are fairly built. The Mofques and Baths are 
in their Cupoloes curioufly caeruleated with a feigned Torquoife. The 
Buz.x.^r is fpacious and uniform. The Caravanfera is the mq'X flately 
Fabrick of that kind in Verfta, 

Bakfty gives its name to the Cafpian Sea ; and near to it there is a 
Spring ef Oi/, which ferves all over Perfjd to burn in Lamps. 

Kirman towaids the affords very fine Heel, of which they 
make Weapons very highly'prizM : For a Scymiter of that Steel will 
cut through an Helmet with an eafie Blow. 

Ormui formerly bore the Title of a Kingdon). As to the Name, 
it was called Org£no and Gera by Vener'ms , Necrokin by B. Joim^ 
Zamrhi by the lartars^ yoroSf a by Niger, Ormufuhy Jofephus^ Omiza 
Pliny. Amazon Ptol. Ogyris 'themtuf^ Curtms znd Rufus, Tcrnia Strabo, 
where Prince Eryf/;^;^ was buried, from whom Mare Rubrum h^d i|j|> 
denomination. Thelilandis about 15 Miles in compafs, fubjedi to 
fuch excellive heats, that it produces nothing coniiderable but Salt, 
and is two good Leagues from the Hrm Land. There is not a drop 
of freih Water in it but what is carried thither. 

In the Year 1507. it was reduced under the Crown of Portugal by 
Alphonfo (T Albuquerque, The fair and delicate iituation ofOrmus, for 
Trade and Commerce, asit was the Staple and Glory of the Eaftern 
World, has occationed fome to fay, That if the tVorld vvcre a Ring, 
Ormus rva^ to he the JerveL 

In the Year 1622. Sha Ahkis took it by the Affiftance of the 
Englifh^ commanded by Czpt.'fVeddul ', and then tranflated the Trade 
to Gombron., which he called by his own Name Bender- AbaJJi. The 
Poriugals \oi\ about 6 or 7 Millions at the taking of the Town. 

Gombrott, or Gcmrou , Hacand Ofor. iince the Fall of Orrniis , 
is become a City of great Commerce, guarded with two Cafiles in 
which are planted 8q pieces of brafs Ordnance. The Air is fo hot 
a»id unwhclfome.that no Strangers can live there above 3 or 4 Months 
in the Year, but for d or7 Months are forced to retire up in the 
Mountains-2 or 3 days Journy oif. About 3 Miles from Gow^ro/*, is 
the famous Bjwny^w Tree, of as great Pveputc, as the Idol Oak to our 
Vruidd oi old: Now all Nations that traffick upon the Indian Seas, 
and Land CaiavanSjCarry Commodities.thitherj and bring from thence 

" Velveti\ 

40« Of Perfu. 

Vclveif tafatm, Rat, Si\ and other U4m Commodities -. So that 
IZioT " ' '" "'^ "*'" ^' ""^'' Om.6. or de- 

J^harm upon the Coaft of ^„fc^, is tlie ancient Tyhs yet belong- 
ng toP«y?. ; „ ,s an Ifland famous for its Springs of frelh wTJu 
the bottom of the Sea: For its Pearl Fifhcry, where are found he 
deareft , biggefi, and roundeft in all the W. The Air is fo nn 
wholfom and fo hot, that no Strangers can live there unfitteM'M 
Veemkcr January ,ni March-, for the Wind is fo ful try and ftiflin. 

Z^^tz^S^"" '"''"'' ' '''' """"''^^ "^ !^ 

But at Bander Congo the Air is good, and the Soil and the W^t^e^ 

^W™/;.„ del vered it up to the Grea, Mogul : ttSh^M^^^^ 
Second took it in the Year 1^50, under whofe power ifffill re| 

ContelffZh":^p"^°V*"°''l^""'^"' was decided that Famous' 
<-onte« tor the Perfian Crown betwixt ^rtaxerxes and Cynu. 


Of Afiatick Tartaria. 



THis is the Vafteft Region of our Continent 5 in Bignefs it equals 
all E«r(7/?e, and contains all thofe great and fpacious Provinces, 
which the Ancients called SerUf Scytkia extra Imattm^ Scythia iniray 


4® 8 Of Jftatitk Tart aria. 

Imaum^ StiC£, Scgdiana, and thegreateft partof Sarmatia Aftatica^ ex- 
tending it felf the whole length of Afia. 

If we lookback to their Original, we (hall find that they were of 
all other, the mofi: Ancient people, patient in Labours, fierce in War, 
and firong of Body j their Flocks and Herds their greated Wealth i 
Silver and Gold they contemned as much as others coveted it ; Mmm 
and T«»w, thofe common Earretors and Authors of Debate, were not 
known among them : And the ignorance of Vice did as much con- 
tribute to their welfare, as the knowledge of Virtue doth to others. 

The firft grand attempt of thefe People, of which we find any 
mention, was when the Chazariy or Cbf>z,arj, in the time of the Em- 
peror Jufline^ overfpread all that vaft Continent between China and 
Borijihenes^ Conquered part of India-, all Ba&ria^ Sogdiana^ and made 
the Perfians Tributaries, and pofTeffed alfo Taurica Cherfomfes.^ called 
by them Caffaria, 'or Cazar'ia : The refidence of their Prince was 
about the mouth of the ^o/g<», which the T(2r?^r/ called Athtl^ a large 
City of great trade ; by Nc^ar Eddin^ called Belanjar 5 and by him and 
Ahulfeda placed in 46 Deg. 30 Min. N. Latitude, which is within a 
few miuutes where Ohartmmdkts Aflracan^ anddoubtlefs may be that 
which he calls old Aftracan. 

Thefe Chaz,ari did continue till about Anno Chr. poo. at which 
time they gave place to the Comaniatis^ or Cumanians, a 7ur}{i(h Nmon, 
who inhabited all that Trad: of Land from the Neiper unto lurquiftan •, 
thefe were almoft totally deftroyed by the T'i^r/ar/, foon after the 
death of IngU Chan, or Cingls Chan>n^ under the condud^ of Batu or' 
Bathy, Nephew to Hocata the Tartarian Emperor, only the King Ku- 
i^e« efcaped with 40000 men into H«w^<2/3', where they had a Coun- 
try allotted them, called to this day Campus Cxmdims. 

Bathy having deftroyed the Comanians , efiablidied his own Domi- 
nions, and fixed his abode on the Eaft of the ?v\\-qx Volga^ and built 
a place, and called it Serai, which was a great and populous City, the 
Ruins whereof are now called Czaryfsgorod, 

But when Tamerlan, who was Viceroy or General of thofe Coun- 
tries comprehended between the Oxuj and luxartes, had extended his 
xonquefts towards Balch and Chorafan, (the Aria of the Ancients ) 
llmotamifch then Emperor of Serai, filled with jealoufics of iiis grow- 
ing greamers, gathered a great Army to invade him, whom lamer- 
Ian met on the borders of his own Country, and after a m,oft bloody 
fight gained the Vidtory ; after which Succefs Tamerlan having fub- 
ducd gr edit put o( India, Ferfia, Media, Armenia, Mefopofamia , Ba^i- 
lotna and Syria, refoived to requite the Invafion of Tku&amijh ; where- 
upon with an Army of 500000 Men, he marched through M^dia, 

pa (Ted 

Of Apatick Tartdria. 409 

paffcd the VorU Caucafe, now ( Derhent X and over Volga, and at laft 
encountred with Tbu&amifh. The Battel was long and doubtful, 
three days without intermiilion -, at latt Thudami/h was defeated and 
fled, leaving his Country expofed to the fury of his Enemies, who 
demoM^edSerai, with other Cities on the north and weft of the Caf- 
pian Sea j and leaving the Country a defert, they returned into Per- 
fu. After this devaftation, thefe T^artars, by difcords^ fell into feve- 
ral divifions, and Tamerlan dying, his great Empire was alfo divi- 
ded amongrthis Children ^ fo that Tartary is now divided into feve- 
ral Hords or Tribes; but the knowledge we have of them is fo lit- 
tle, the Ataxy or difagreement and confufion of Authors that write 
of them, fo great, that I am not a little doubtful what to write of 
them, that may be of any certainty for the Readers fatisfad:ion ; how- 
ever in this obfcurity we (hall follow the light of the beft reputed 
Geographers, and fay, that the Aftatkk tartarie is divided into, five 
great parts. The Vifert Tartaric, Z^gathy, tarquefian, Northern tartark^ 
and Crim Tartaric. 

The Defert Tartaric is fo calFd, becaufe moft part of- the Lands lie 
untiird •, for the Tartars are a people that hate Jgriculture , and 
laugh at CM?M«J for feeding on the Tops of Reeds^ for fo they call 
our Corn: The Inhabitants are divided into feveral Tribes or Hordes, 
of which the more confiderable are, i . The Nejagan Tartars, or great 
Nagoyy whofe Country is all plain and defert 400 or 500 miles in 
length, between Jjlracan and Samara, and 200 miles in breadth 
from Aftracan to Teih^ or Za?cj^ River ; it hath no fenced Towns or 
Habitations, though formerly there were divers, efpecially that of 
Czarofsgorod, faid to have been 20 miles in Circuit, feated between 
the K'lvexsVolga and J^abon,'m z iettWe and healthful Country : And 
Aftracan,^\z.ced on a rifing ground not far from the mouth of the Volga, 
about 50 miles diftant from the Cafpian-Sea, guarded with a ftrong 
Caftle, and encompaffed with Water. 

Thefe Tartars are faid to be more Tall and Proper than the reft, 
but ill favoured, broad Faces, Hat little Nofes, fmall hollow Eyes, 
and of Blackilh, or rather Tawny Completion : The heat of the Sun 
for fome months of the year is moft exceilive, and the Cold in the 
Winter no lefs extream. 

Polygamy is much in faftiion amongft them, having many Wives 
according to their ability ■-, if one Brother die, the other takes all his 
Wives ; and if all the brothers chance to die, then the Wives arc de- 
volved, likeother Goods and Chattels, unto the Eideft Brothers Son ; 
not fuifering a Married woman in any wife to go out of the Kindred. 

G g g When 

^lo ^f AfiAtkk 'tart aria. 

When tliey remove their Habitation, which is ufually againft the 
Summer and Winter, they carry their Houfes in Waggons with four 
Wheels drawn by Camels. 

2. On the North of great JVrfgo^, dwell the Kalmuk,e Tartars y in a 
Country abounding with all things neceffary for a comfortable fub- 
fiftence; Their chief Commodities are Sables, Martens, Black Foxes, 
Squirril-Skins, and other Furs, which they, exchange with the Ruffes 
for AqHavtt£^ Mead and Tobacco : Their Chief places are Siberia^ the 
head of a Province, as alfo is Tumen ^ Cafan and Bulgar are the chief 
Towns of the Zavolhenfes-y and towards the North lie the SamoideSfZW 
fubjedl to the Kuffes ; the Kalma\es are accounted good Soldiers, and 
their Women are little inferior in Skill and Valor. They own no re- 
ligious worftiip, except fome adoration to the Sun and Mooni and for 
their Diet, Hcrfe-Hefh is a great dainty, and any Carrion is good fare. 

3 . Next to the great Na^oy^ towards the Eaft, is Caffachy Horda, 
or PP^ild Tartars^ who march up and down the Country (which is 
very defert) much after the manner of the Nagoife. 

4. Eaftward from the K<»/ww%/.towards the South,live the Turgea- 
cheansy being a numerous and warlike People, governed by a Chan 
or King. 

5. TheCaragans lie all along the Cafpian-Sea^ between the River 
7'<??i;^', unto the River J<zA;<»r/e/, a defert and barren Country, the Peo- 
ple miferable poor, very Tawny and ill favoured, having no Town 
except Prefilannes on the (buthfide o( laxartes. 

Mod part oiVefart Tartarie isunder the jurifdidionof the Duke of 
Mofcovte, and yield him great ftore of rich Furs. 

Zagathy, Sacathys Vsbeck^^ or Ousbeg, contains the ancient Mergiana-, 
Badria and Sogdiana ; Mergiana by Pinetus is called Tremighen , by 
Cajiald Jefelbafh : A Country fo fruitful in Corn and Wine, that 
Strabo reports, how one bunch of Grapes, prefcnted to Alexander^ 
tilled a Basket two Cubits about, which encouraged him to found 
that City Alexandria^ zitetwzxds Antiochia and Selttcia, fmce Indian, 
In this Country fome think Noah planted, foon after he left the 
Ark ; and that he, or fome to his Memory, built the City Niffa , 
though others pretend 'Bacchus to be the Founder of it ; and that 
from hence, Nimrod and his Followers departed into the Vd\e Shi- 
nar^ which lies between the Rivers of Jaxartes^ now Chefel and Oxm 5 
a Country of different foil, and indifferent fertile, but much aug- 
mented by the Indufiry of the Inhabitants, who are the mofi ingeni? 
ous of the Wefiern Tartars, lovers of Art, and well skill'd in Ma- 
aufadures and Trade, The City of Satmarchand^ the Marcanda o£ 


of AftAtick Tartaria, ^t t 

Ptol, Paraednda, Strab. was both the Cradle and Grave to T^amertan the 
Great, who adorned it with an Academy, as is alfo Bochar, BaSrh, of 
old Balira •-, before that, Zoroajies and Zoroafpa, probably from Zoroajier^ 
their firft King, flain by Ninus. A Town of great Trade, where lived 
Avicen, one of the moil famous Philofophers and Phyficiansofthe Eaftj 
there are alfo Batch and Badafchian on the Frontiers of Chorozan. Sogdi- 
ana was a Province fubje(9: to the Perftans'. Here Cyrus built the old 
Cyrofcata or CyropoHf, which held out a long time, and was almoft 
fatal to the grea't Macedonian Conqueror, but by him deftroyed in re- 
venge of fo great a danger. Not far from which that Infamous Re- 
gicide Bejfus^ after his perfidious dealing with his Prince, was appre- 
hended and brought bound to Alexander, who abhorring his tight, 
ordered he ftiould be delivered to Oxates the brother of Varm, to be 
difpofed of as he fliould think fit. Here alfo was Alexandria Oxiana^ 
and Alexandria Vltima. 

tarqttefian lies eaft from Vshec}{^ and is fubdivided into feveral King- 
doms ; of which the beft known are Cafchar, or Hiachan, Chialpf or 'lur^ 
phan^Chiartiam^Cotam. Thebet, ot Tenduc znd Camul : That of C^/c/^r is 
the richeff, and is well ftored with Rhubarb, That of Ciartham is the 
leaft and fandy, but hath many Jafpars and other Stonss. 

Thofe of Cotam and Chiali^ have Corn, Wine, Flax and Hemp: 
Thebet or Tanguth is ftored with Musk and Cinamon ; whofe Kings 
were formerly called Vn-Chan or Prefier John, a Title now errone- 
oufly conferred on the Abafine or Ethiopian Emperor in Africa ; for 
Presbiter John was chief of the Kingdom of Tanchut, or "tanguth , 
which the tartars call Barantola, the Sarazens Boratai, and the Na- 
tives Lajfaywhkh. is by the confent of all knowing perfons feated 
in Afia, next to the confines of the great Mogul, amongft the Moun- 
tains o{ Caucafus 2ind Imauf. It was in the year 1248. when King 
Len>J4 was in the Ifland of Cyprifs at Nicojia, that Ambaffadors from 
one of the Tartarian Princes, whofe Name was Ercalthay^ informed 
the King , that the Great Cham of tartary had about three years 
before been baptized, having been converted by the Emprefs his 
Mother, and Daughter of a Kmg of the Indians', She having always 
been a Chriftian •, and that their- Matter Prince Ercalthay, who had 
alfo for a long time been a Chriftian, was fent by the Great Cham 
with a potent Army againft the Cailiffe of Baldac^ an Enemy of the, 

The Name of Presbyter John, denoteth feme Chriftian Prince , 
whofe Dominions are placed by the confent oT mofi: knowing Per- 
fons, not among the Ethiopians, nor in any part oi Africa, as mof^fup- 

G g g 2 poie. 

412 Of Afutick TartarU, 

pofe, but in the Continent of ^/i J ; but in what part formerly 'twas, is 
not exadly known. Some Authors fay they were Kings oi Cathay ^vihioh 
is doubtful, becaufe 'tis now difcovered by modern Relations, and Tra- 
vels into thofe parts, that zWCathay'x'i but the Northern part of China, 

But it is more than probable, that betides that portion of Land, 
there is another large part of the World center minate on the north 
and weft, unto the Empire of China^ which in former Ages had the 
Name of Cathay^ and is the fame with that of Thehet^ by fome cal- 
led Begargar^ &c. as aforefaid , which clearly appeareth by a Voy- 
age of two Fathers from China to the Mogor, who tell us that at 
Bietala, a Caftle at the end of Baremola^ the Great Lama or Prieji 
did then rtfide, and gave an account of their Chriftian Religion: 
And to me it fcems further contirmed, by a Journy made into the 
Wejiern 7artary :, Anno 1683. by the Emperor of China ; we have 
this account of thofe People, In all the JVeHern Tartary there is no- 
thing to be found but Mountains, Rocks and Vallies ^ . there are nei- 
ther Cities, Towns or Villages, nor Houfes. The Inhabitants lodge 
under Tents in the open Fields, which they remove from one Val- 
ley to another, according as they find pafiure. They pafs their Life 
either in Hunting, or doing nothing. As they neither Plow nor 
Sow, fo they make no Harveft. They live upon Milk, Cheefe and 
Flefli, and h^ve a fort of Wine not much unlike our ^Aqua-Vita^ 
with which they are often drunk. In (hort, they care for nothing 
from morning $9 night, but to drink and eat like the Beafts and 
Droves which they feed. They are not without their Prierts, which 
they call Lam,tf^ for whom they have a fingular vejieration i in 
which they differ from the Oriental Tartars^ the moft pa^t of whom 
have no Religion, nordo they believe any God. This part of Tarta- 
ry lies without the prodigious Wall of China for more than 300 
Miles j of which Wall, faith our Author, I can fay without Hyper- 
bolizing , that the Seven Wonders^ of the World put together, are 
not comparable to this Work. And all that Fame has fpread con- 
cerning it among the Europeans^ is far ihort of what I my felf have 
feen. He alfo tells us, that divers of the Petty Kings of the Wefiern 
7artary^ came from all fides for 3 OD Miles, and fome for 500 Miles, 
together with their Wives and Cliildren, to falnte the Emperor. 
That this Country is divided into 48 Provinces, and now tributary 
to the Emperor of China. 

Crim Tartary, (which all Authors confound with a nonfuch Cathay)^ 
is divided into fevcral parts, of which I am able to fay nothing, 
in the way of Chorography, noi much in Hiftory, only I find that 


Of AfiAtick TarUrU, 41 » 

the King of Nmlham, or Niuche^ called Xmchi , conquered China at 
twelve years of Ag^, with the faithful afliftance of his two Uncles » 
a young Conqueror, notonly famous for his Succefs , but alfoforthe 
Moderation which he ufed- to his newly fubdued people. And Ws 
certain, that xhdtT^artars know of no Cities or Towns beyond the 
Wall oi China , therefore Cathay can be no other than the Northern 
part of Ch'ma^ and Camhalu is Fe/^/2 5 and ^inz.oy- anfwers to Han- 

The NortbernTartarie , which is called the True Ancient Tartarie^ is 
the coldeft, moft untilled, moft barbarous^, (and moft unknown of all *,) 
Some amongft them have their Kings, others live by Hords, or Com- 
monalities r as for their Names/tis eafy to give what Names men pleafe, 
hi parts wholly unknown. 

But in the Year 16S1. the Emperor of China made a Voyage info 
the Eaftern Tartary : In this Journey (faith the Father Verbiefl^ who 
was the Publiftier of it ) we always went towards the North-Eaft, 
from Pik^n, in all 1 100 miles to the Province of Leao-tum j the way be- 
ing about 300 miles, the Capital City whereof is Xin-Tam in the Lati- 
tude of ^i Degrees 5<5 Minutes ; a City very fair, and pretty intire, . 
and has in it the Remains of an ancient Palace, where was no declina- 
tion of the Magnetkk^Needle. 

This Province is about 400 miles from the Frontier to the City Vla^ , 
but all the Cities and Towns are intirely ruined, only fome few Hou- 
fes built of Earth, or the Rubbifh of old Buildings, and covered with^ 
Thatch or Straw. 

That all the Country beyond the Province of Leao-tum is exceeding 
deffert , where nothing is to be feen on all fides but Mountains and 
Vallics, Dens of Bears, Tygers, and other devouring Beafts; here and-^ 
there a poor Reed-hut upon the fide of fome Brooks. 

The City Via, on the River Songoro tart. Sumhoa-Chin. lies in 44 De- 
grees 20 Minutes. The Needle there declines from the South to the fFefi ■ 
I Degree 20 Minutes, and is the faireft in all this Country, and fome^ 
times alfp the Seat of the Empire of the Tartars. 

But Kiron is about 30 Miles from Z^/^, upon the River Songoro, (which 
takes its Ccurfe from the Mount Champe) famous for having been the 
ancient Seat of our Tartars. That the Mofcovitcs come oftentimes to 
the River Songoro to H{h for Pearls. That the Diliance of Kiron from 
Xin-Tam was IC28 Chinefe Stadia , containing ^6^ miles ; the Chhitfz- 
Stadium being 3^0 Geometrical paceSi 

I Qiall only add, that by this Relation k doth appear to me,that M- 
nlhan^oTNiuchejUWid be the fame Country which is here czWedLeao-tuiff, 
for the Emperor's defign was to vilit the Sepulchres of his Anceiiors. 



Of I N D I A. 

TH E Name of India is now given to the Empire of the Mogul, and 
to the two Penivfulas^ one on this fide, the other beyond Ganges, 
and the Iflands fcattered m the Indian Sea, which are all comprehen- 
ded under the General Name of the Eaji-Indies^ under which Appella- 
tion fome Authors do alfo take in all the Oriental Part of Afia, The 
Old Inhabitants hereof were by Megafihenes faid to be 122 feveral Na- 
tions 5 originally defcended from the Sons of Noah^ before their Jour- 
ney to the Valley of Shinaar 5 and Heylin faith, that the Plantation of 
India did precede the attempt of Babel. Itsfirft Invafion was by Semi- 
ramU^ with an Army of above 4 Millions, (\.iCtefias and Viodoruf Sicx^ 
ItK fay true) who was met with by Staurobates an Indian King,with as 
great an Army» by whom (he was overcome and flain. The next In- 
vaiion on this Country was by Bacchusy the Son of J^«/ji/cr,accompanied 
with Hercules, who by force or by arts overcame them, and taught 
them theufe of Wine, Oyl, and the Art of Archite(fture. After this 
Alexander invaded India, beginning firft with Clophae, Queen of Maga' 
za. After with Forw^ whom he vanquiftied and tooki but giving 
them their Liberty and Kingdoms again, he returned into his own 
Country \ after this they lived in peace under their feveral Kings, un- 
til the year 1587. when difcovered by the Portttgals, after by theEng- 
lijhy Vutchy &c. 


O F T H E 


Empire of the MOGUL. 



HIMin mini IIIIIM II B iiill ) J m—r -_, , .,, —^ I -— -- 

r;^M_Ji^. ■„„ 11 1 ,1 1 Bifflj ,1,111 mill,, „|„ , ,,,^^^^ ^ ^^ ^, 

THIS vaft Empire comprehends the greateftpartof die Continent 
oi India: The prefent Mogul^ who is the Sovereign, derives 
his Original from Great ttmarlmg^y ot Tamrlofh and is the Eleventh. 


/^l6 Of the Empire of the Mogul. 

in a diredt Line def-endantfronahim 5 there are {evcx3.\ Indian King- 
doms tributary to him, and he is cftecmed the richeft Prince in the 
world, and the moft potent Monarch of ^/?.t. 

The Territories of his Country beinghisown Hereditary Revenues, 
the great Lords arc but his" Receivers, who give an account to the 
Governors of the Provinces, and they to the chief Treafurcrs and 
Comptrollers of the Exchequer. He is alfo the general Heir to all 
thofe to whom he gives Penfions, and his Will is a Law in the decillon 
of his Subjeds Affairs, and therefore they carry the Names of their 
Employments, and not of the Lands which they enjoy. ^ 

Sha Jehan, whoReigned Forty years, left behind him about 5 Mil- 
lions, and the Throne that he made coft an 1 60 Millions, and 500000 
Livers ^ befides fix other Thrones fet all over with Diamonds, B.u- 
bies. Emeralds, andPath: tejie Tav. 

The Money of this Kingdom is of a good Alloy: The Mogul is able 
to bring looooo Horfeinto theField, but his Infantry is very incon- 
fiderable, either for Number or Experience. He has a good number 
of Elephants, which do him great fervice ; for they arefureof foot, 
and lie down and rife up very readily. The King is a Turkifh Mahu- 
metan, neverthelefs the moft part of his VafTals are Pagans : But as 
there are feveral forts of People, fo like wife there are divers forts 
of Religions amongft them, which I (hall briefly mention at the end 
of the Defcription of the Eaji-Indies. 

The Mogul's Country is very fertile and well peopled near the 
great Rivers. They make excellent Bread, having Corn and Rice in 
abundance; Victuals, in general, are very cheap, however the Inha- 
bitants are very temperate and fober. The naghbouring Country 
to lartary is full of Mountains and Forefts, where the Mogul oft- 
times takes hispleafure in Hunting, there being great abundance and 
variety of wild Beafls : And there it was that Jhxander cut douii 
the Wood for the Ships which hefent down t\\Q Indus into the Ocean. 
As for Remains of Antiquity there are few or none, the Moguls ha- 
ving ruined all the ancient Cities, which (according to the Ancients) 
were 30 large Cities, 3000 walled Towns and Caftles, for natural 
Defence reckoned impregnable, which may not be improbale, if it 
were, asfome affirm, the fir ft Seminary or Station of Noah after his 
defcentfrom Ararat, not far hence diftant, and afterward the delight 
of Bacchus^ which fome think was the fame with Noah ; and from the 
wonderful increafe of People, which appears by that huge .Army 
Staurobates drevf out in his defence zgzmi\ Semiramk the AJJyrian Em- 
prefs, both Armies containing 3 Millions. 


Of the Empire of the MogUl. " 417 

And fo well builded and planted was this part of Indict^ that when 
Alexander, by the overthrow of Porus near the River Hydafpls, en- 
tered India., Herodotus and Curtm report, that y4Iexander fhould fay, 
He found greater Cities and more Jumptuou^ Buildings in King PorusV 
Dominions, than he had ohfervedin all the World be fides. 

Indm is Navigable .from Labor to Sende \ the Natives call'd it 
Pang-ab, by reafon of the hve Rivers that fall into it toward the up- 
per part of its Courfe, which are now called Rauee, Behat^ Ohchan, 
Wihy, and Sindar ", by Vtol. Aceftnes, CophySy Hydafpis, Zaradas and 

Ganges was formerly famous for its Gold, now for its Water, which 
is very pure. The Natives hold, that it fandifies them, whether they 
drink, or whether they bathe in it. 

There are in the whole Empire about 37 Kingdoms, the Names 
whereof are aimoft the fame withthofeof the Capital Cities, viz, 
jigra. Attack^, Bakar, Bakifch, Bando. Bengala, Berar, Bmhar, Cahul, Ka- 
k^res^Candahar, Candid, Canduana^Caffimere, Chitor, 'Delli,Gor, GuzaratCy 
Haiacan, Jamha, Jenupar, Je[felmere, Jefml, Maluay, Mevat, Multan^ 
Narva, Naugracnt, Patna, Pengab, Pitan, Samhal, Siba, Soretf Tattay Vdeffa. 
tejie 7hev. 

There are alfo fome petty Territories, as the Ka]a% which are of 
very ancient Extra6tion, and maintain themfelves in Mountains and 
Fortreffes that are inacceffible. Some of their Cities, that terminate 
in Pore, feem to retain the memory of Porm ; as others by Scander^ 
the Name of Alexander. The Dominions of the great Mogul are 
larger than the Perfians, and equal to thofe of the great turk^ His 
ftrength lies in the Number of his Subjeds, the Vaftnefs of his 
Wealth, and the Extent of his Empire, his Revenue exceeding the 
Perftan and the fur\s both put together i but the Sophi furpaffes him 
in Horfe, in Arms, and warlike People ; And with the turk^hc keeps 
a good Correfpondence, as being both of the fame Religion. Guze- 
r^/ yields him yearly above 18 Millions of Gold, gnd the Merchants 
of that Country are accounted the beft in all India. It contains 3 fair 
Cities, Amadabat, Cambaya, and Surat, with about 30 others very 

Amadabat, Amacajlif Ptol, tejle Herb. Amadavifips in Arrian , one of 
the greateft Cities in India, and of a vaft Trade. The Buzzar is 
Rich and Uniform •, The Caftle Strong, large Moated ; The Maufe- 
leum Stately, compafTed at a little diftance, with the Dormitories 
of many Cambayan Potentates i and two Miles off, are the curious 
Gardens and Palace oi Chavpn-channa a Perftan* 

H h h Cam' 

41 8 Of the Empire of the Mogul, 

Cambayi^ Cammane Nigra. Barigaza.. tejie Baud. Syra(lene, iefie Stuchio^ 
was call'd the Indian Caire, as well for its Greatnefs, as alio for its 
Trafiick, and the Fertility of the Soil. Here they fhape the fair y-Jgjts 
that come from the ladies into fcveral forts of Workmanihip, and in 
the Suburbs they make/«^/cfl. The Tides aie fo (wiii to the North of 
the Gulph, that a Horfe at full Speed cannot keep pace with tht hrft 
Wave. The Streets were formerly lock'd up every Ni^ht, but the 
Sea and its Trade is fallen away from it. 

Surat, the Muziris ot PtoL Herb Siraftia, Sanf about 40 days Jour- 
nyfrom /^gra^ drives as great a Trade as any of the Cities of yifia^ 
though the Acccfs to it be very dangerous ♦, and the "River Tappy or 
Tmdy , which rifing out of the Vecan Mountains , glides through 
Bramporey and in Meanders mns by the Walls of Surat, and after 14 
or 15 Miles circumgyring to and fro, difchargesit felt into the Ocean, 
fo (hallow at the Mouth, that it will hardly bear a Bark of 70 or 80 
Tuns, fo that the Ships are forced to unlade at Soali or Snoali, re- 
markable for the mifchanceof Capt. Woodcock^^ who, at the taking of 
OrmuSy had lighted upon a Frigat laden with about a Million of 
Ryals, which he feized, and coming into this Swali Road, the Whale 
funk. Alas! the uncertainty of fading Pelf. The Eugli/h and J>utcb 
have there their Prefidents and Fadories, making it the greateit Mart 
in the Eaji- Indies* 

Baroche is of a great Trade for Cottons, the Englijh have a very fair 
Houfe there, not far from which place 7avernier tells us, That of a dry 
/?/V^, a Mountebank^ in lefs than half an hour made a Tree four or five foot 
bigh^ that did bear Leaves and Flowers. 

Broudra is a great City, in a fertile Soil, and of a great Tiadefor 

At Navapour near Surat, grows the beft Kicein the World. 

The famous Port of Bombay^ the Miliz'geris of ?toU belongs to the 
King of England^ where is built a ftropg Fort,and Mony is coined there. 

The Portugals have had frequent Quarrels with the Mogul about 
their Fortress of Diu, the Patala of Ptol. te^e Nig. & Pinet. Patalena/ 
& Hidafpa Pltn. & Strab. Petacal. Cajialdo^ Bar ace of Ptol y^drianoj. 
Here, after Alexander had failed down the Indus, and arrived at this 
place, he invaded the Country or the Oxydrachans, and ftormed the 
principal place of the Mallyans, where temerariouily mounting the 
Parapet, and violently lt;apiiig into the Town, followed but by ^ Of- 
ficers, he had periQied by the Darts and Weapons of his Enemies, had 
not the Army, as men defperate, in his Refcue, enforced their fpeedy 


Of the Em fire of the MognL 4^9 

This Ifland is about a League long, and four Mufquet-ftiot broadithe 
Hiven is barred with an Iron Chain, being under the comnoand of the 
Cannon of the Caftle. It was Nobly defended in the years 153P. and 
154.5, againft prodigious Armies •■» fo that the Mogul was forced to let 
them fettle ttiere to his extreme' diffatisfadiion : But the laft Relations 
from thofe parts brings News, that the Portugals have been at length 
conftrain'd to abandon it. 

/igra was of old Cas fome tell us ), called Negara , before 
that, Vhnyftopolis, founded by Bacchus. Nijfa Jufiino , vide Hiduyt 
fol. 48p. It contains the Capital City of the Empire, able to raife 
200000 lighting men upon occaiion. The Prince receives a great 
Revenue for about 200 Stows that are therein. It is twice as big as 
Ifpaban, but ill built, and without Walls 5 and has been enlarged fince 
1^66. when Eckkar refided there, and having built a ftately Caftlc 
or Palace, gave it the Name of Ek^r-Ahad. De/i, or Vehly, was the 
Refidence of the Mogul before Agra, and fo continues, (ince Sha /«;- 
ban had built the New City, and called it by his Name Jehan Abady 
or Gehanabaty where the Mogul hath a ftately Palace half a League in 
Circuit. Gouleor is a Caftle where the Mogul imprifons the Princes 
of the Blood which he fufpe6ts. 

Labor is the Metropolis of that Kingdom, built upon one of the 
five Rivers that defcend from the Mountains to fwell the River Indus , 
It is the Rendezvous of the Caravans, and was the ancient Bucepha- 
lus, and has been, by report, 24 Leagues in Compafs. Naugracut 
fliews an Idol, to which many come in Pilgrimage. 

Fettipore, if the Water had been good, by this time had triumphed 
over all the Cities in India. 

Bannaras, on the Banks o( Ganges, is full of miftiapen Pagods. 

Cahul, the Chabura of PtoL by fome thought to be the Alexan- 
dria Arachofta, which the Macedonian built near the Mount Caucafur; 
whofe City beus the fame Name, is large and well fortified •, of great 
Trade for Horfes, Sheep, and other Cattel, and is in the great Road 
from Labor to Samarcand, 

Mando is one of the faireft Towns of the Province of Malva, fortifi- 
ed with Walls and a Caftle on the top of a Hill. 

Siranak^r is the chief City of Caffimere. 

Multan is of a rich Soil, and great Trade for CaVicoes, but de- 

Attok^i 01 Atek Tau, is one of the beftand f\rongeft Garifons the 

Hhh 2 great 

4 20 Of the Empire of the Mogul, 

great Vlogid has, and no Stranger is pernnitted to enter without the 

King's Pafpoit* 

B»c/^r liands where the Rivers Kavpey and Chaul fall into the In- 
dus. Lourebander 2ind Viul are the Ports to Tatta. Janagar is the 
chief City of Soret^ Beifher of BMiklfh, Vankjluf of Kak^res , Hard- 
ware of Siba* Jamhn gives Name to its Province , as alfo doth 

Bi\mar is chief of Bah^r^ and Narual that of Meuijt. Tjtaa and 
Patna gives Name to their refpedtive Provinces ; between the King- 
doms oiCambaya and Bengalazte the Provinces oiCandlf^ Chitor, Ma- 
lueyj Berar^ and RanOf, whofe chief places are Brampore, Chitor^ Rantipore, 
Shapor,theSorao( Ptol.hy Baud, and Gurchttto, Jtffdmere is the City 
where E}i^ar was born. Afmere is famous for the Sepulchre of Hogi, 
Hendown, Bando and Janupar, are three Provinces near j4gra and Velli. 
Rotof isone of theftrongeft places in j4fia. 

Brampore, Baramatvs Ftol. is a great City, but much ruined, with a 
Caftle in themidft of it j of a great Trade for Calicuts^ fome painted 
with Flowers of divers Colours, others white and clear, and fome 
ftriped with God and Silver. 

Chytor is a City upon a high Rock, claiming Precedency for An- 
tiquity amongft all the Cities of India ; of old 7axil!a, fuppofed to be 
the Metropolis, whence King Porus iffued againft great Alexander. 
After which Battel, Alexander celebrated the Bacchanalia at the Mount 
M^res, and for 1 5 days glutted his Army with thofe myftick Foppe- 
ries, and conftiruted his Argyrafpides. And at Nyffa^ built by Bacchm 
upon the Bank of the Hydafpis^ a Branch of the River Indus , Alex- 
mdtr upoCedy famous in thofe days for the Sacred Mount, and incom- 
parable Vines there abounding, which fome think to be the firft Plan- 
tation of the Patriarch ]Vb^)[>. 

Seronge and Chitpour are of great Trade for painted Calicut s^ called 
Chites j thofe of Seronge. are the moft lively Colours , and laft- 

HaVabof, or Elahajfe^ the Chryfohorca in Plin. by fome Nifua tefte 
Herb, is a great City up^n the confluence of Jemtny and Ganges ^ 
which Pviver there, is no broader than the Seine before the Loure j and 
at fome times in the year fo little Water, that it will not bear a fmall 
Boat; much reforted to by the Bannyans., for the Relicks of divers 
deformed Pagothia's. Thefe Bannyans fwarm in multitudes all over 
the Indies t fucking in the fweetnefs of Gain by an immeafurable thirft 
and induftry: But the Mwr/ and Genf/Zej- often ravifh it from them 5 
for the Bannyan is no Hedor nor Fighter, but morally honeft, cour- 

Of the Empire of the MoguL 42" j 

teous in Behaviour, temperate in Pailion, decent in Apparel, abOe" 
mious in their Diet, indulhious in their Callings, charitable to the 
needy, humble to all , and fo innocent, as not to take away the Life 
of the fmalleft Vermin, believing the Tranfanimation of Souls into 
Beafts; a Perfuafion though firange to us, was not to our Countrey- . 
men the Dtuida of old. 

Elora^ not much above three hours from Doltabad, is famous for the 
many Pagods of Gigantick Figures of men and women cut in the 
Rock, fo that if one confiders the number of fpacious Temples full of 
Pillars and Pilafters, and the many Thoufands of Figures, all cut out 
of a Natural Rock, it may be truly faid, 7hat they are H^ork/ /«r- 
pafjing Hnman force* 

The River Ganges, having received an infinite number of Brooks 
and Rivers from the North- Eafi and Weft, difcharges it felf by feve- 
ral Mouths into the Gulph of ^engala^ making feveral pleafant Iflands, 
containing many Towns covered with lovely Indian Trees. 

Patna is one of the greateft Cities of India upon the Banks of Gan^ 
gest about two Leagues long, where the Hollanders have an Houfe, be- 
caufe of their Trade in Salt-petre. 

Vnca is a great Town, about two Leagues long by the fide of Gan- 
ges^ where the Englijh and Hollanders have very fair Houfes for their 
Goods and Trade, reckoned the Capital City of Bengala. 

At Ouguely is the general Fa<9:ory of the Vutch, and at Kaffen Ba" 
fer is the Houfe of the Diredor of all the Holland Factories in Bengala, 
Kachemire, Cachmir and Kichmir, "thev. is efteemed the little Paradife of 
India^ by reafon of its Beauty. At Bannereus upon the Banks oi Gan- 
ges, and Jaganate, upon the mouth of it, are the chief Pagods, than, 
which nothing can be more magnificent, by reafon of the quantity of 
Gold and Jewels wherewitli they are adorned, and millions of People 
repair thither to celebrate their Feftivals. 

Bengala, famous for its temperate Air, for the Fertility of the 
Soil, for the great ftore of Kice, for its Cane or Bamboo's, and its 
Calamha wovd, which yields the moft pleafant fcent in the world. It 
gives its Name to one of the moft famous Gulphs of Afia, called 
Golfo de Bengala, the Sinus Gangeticus of Ftol. Its yearly Revenue 
paid to the Mogul, comes to a Million and 500000 Koupies clear ; the 
chief City thereof is Bengala. by fome Satigan. Gange Ftol. Ganges Strabff^ 
Thevenot calls this Province OuleJJer-, the Idolaters, Jaganat, 
Befides ihefe Countries, 1 tind mention made by Wlr.T^avernier, 
I. Of the Kingdom of Boutony of a large E 51 tent , Lmous for 
Mhs^ Rbubarby Wormfeed, and Furrj^ and the Caravan is three months 


A 22 0/ the Empire of the Mogul, 

travelling from ?atna to Bout an ^ the way being generally through 
Forefts, and over Mountains, which after you have pafTed, the Coun- 
try is good, abounding in K/ce, Corn^ Pulfe and Jf'ine. They have 
had for a long time the ufe of Mufquets and Cannon, and their Gun- 
powder is long, but of great Force : The Natives are ftrcng and 
well proportioned, but their Nofes and Faces are fomewhat flat ; and 
there is no King in the world more feared and more refpeded than 
the King of Boutan. 

2. Of the Kingdom of Tipra adjoining to Pegu^ of whofe extent 
there is no certain Conjedure to be made > there is a Mine of Gold, 
but courfe, as alfo a fort of courfe Silk, which is the greateft Revenue 
the King hath. 

3 . Of the Kingdom of Afem, which is one of the beft Countries in all 
^fia^ producing all things neceffary for human fuftenance, yet Vogsflepif 
is the greateft delicacy ; there are Miwes of Gold^ Silver^ Lead^ Irony 
and ftore of SUk^ and GumlaJ^. Kenerof is the Name of the City 
where the King keeps his Court ; and at Ax.o are the Tombs of the 
Kings of Jfem ; and 'tis thought that thefe are the firft Inventers of 
Guns and Powder, which from thence fpread into China. They have 
Vines, but make no Wine, but dry their Grapes to make Aquaviia ; 
and of the Leaves of Adani% Fig-tree they make Salt. The Men and 
Women are generally well complexioned , but fwarthy, fubjed to 
Wens in their Throats, as well as thofe of Bouton and Tipra* They 
go Naked, only covering their Privy Parts i and a Blue Bonnet or 
Cap upon their Heads, with Bracelets upon their Ears, Arms and 


The Peninsula 
On this fide G A N G E S. 


THis Veninfula is comprehended between the Mouths of Jndm and 
Ganges^ and advances Northwards from the Eft^te of the Ma- 
gul to Ca^e Cormorin in the South, and on the Eaft and \^ eft it is 


4^4 ^^^ VeninJuU on this fide Gafi^es, 

wa{hed by the Ocean or Indian Sea. It is divided into two parts by 
the Mountains of Gata^ which ftretch themfelves from the North 
to the South with feveral fair Plains on the top, and occafion feve- 
ral feafons at the fame time •, for many times it is Winter on the 
one fide, and Summer on the other. It belongs to above fifty Kings, 
the potenteft of which by degrees fubdueth the reft. The Portugals, 
Englijh^ and HoVanderi^ have feveral places near the Sea, with For- 
trelTes for the fecurity of their Trade, which is generally in Spices^ 
Jewels^ Pearls and Cotten-Linmn. The other places upon the Land are 
inhabited by the Natives^ whofe Petty Sovereigns not being able 
to hinder the Settlement of the Europeans ^ are glad to entertain Com- 
merce with them, and to crave their Ailiftance in their Wars one with 
another. This Peninfula may be divided into four principal parts ; 
Decan, Golconda^ Narfwgua^ and Malabar. 

Vecan acknowledges Vifapour , Mnfopatta , Baud. Viziapour , Ihev. 
for her Capital City, which is large, but fcambling ; the King's Pa- 
lace is vaftly big, but ill built, the Seat of Idalcan, or Vialcan, a Ma- 
hometan King, once very powerful ; He took Vabul from the Portw 
gals, befieged Chaul and Goa, leading his Army, near two hun- 
dred thoufand men, well provided with Ammunition, his Artillery 
great, having, as 'tis faid, one particular Cannon that will carry a 
Bullet of near eight hundred pound weight j once Tributary to the 
Mogul, but now Abfolute, Tav. who has won from him Vultabat^ of a 
great Trade, and one of the beft Fortrefles in the Mogufs Empire ; 
Bider^ Paranda, and other places, and built the great and new City of 
Aureng-abad^ encorapafled with a Lake , and adorned with a fair 
Mofque and ftately Monument. 

Goa, the Barigaza of oldj is the refidence of the P(?rfK^,2/ Viceroy, 
and the Km^oi PortugaVs Magazine for the Eaft- Indies , and Har- 
bour for their Indian Fleet : Tis reported, that the Hofpital of Goa 
is more Beautiful, Richer,and better accommodated than the Hofpital 
of the Holy-Ghoft in ^owe, or the Infirmery of Maltha: The Ci- 
ty is very large -, and though without Gates and Walls, yet with its 
Caftles and Forts 'tis of great ftrength and force : Their Houfes 
fair, their Palaces and publick Buildings very Magnificent , their 
Churches ftately and richly adorned. Her Strength and Beauty took 
rife from the D^w/i Rings, from whom Anno 2 505* Albuquerque the 
Vidorious Portttgal conquered it, and after that defended it againft 
70000, Foot and 3500 Horfe, which Idulcan brought to reduce it 
with. 'Tis the braveftand beft defended City in the Orient, feated 
in an Ifle called T?//T^<»rj 30 miles in Circuit, furrounded by a freftl 


The "PiHtnfuU on this fUe Ganges. 4^5 

River, ftreaming from the mighty Mountain Bellaguate ; The whole 
Ifle fo abounding in feveral little Towns, Fields, Groves and Gar- 
dens, repleniftied with Grafs, Corn, CatteJ, Fruit, Flowers, and fuch 
felf-raviftiing Objeds, that here the Vortugah live in all manner of de- 
light and Pleafure, exceeding Proud and Stately, but Civil and Cour- 
teous \ both Sexes given to Venery, and the Women excelTively amo- 
rous of White men, but much confined. The King of Vifapour hath 
four good Ports in this 'Decan Territory, Rejapour^, Vabul, Vmga of 
old^ ijrft yielded to the Mercy of Jndragm Governour of Chaul^ but 
foon taken by the Z>eM««ew,but recover'd from them h^F. Alm?yda-^zn^ 
after great Slaughter of the Inhabitants and Rich Spoil, burnt the 
City, repaired afterward by the Vice- Roy of Goa : About the year 
1 620 taken by an Englijh Captain, (Hall) who made the Daring Tor- 
tugal know, that their Bravadoes to the 'Englijh were not terrible. 

Choul^ the Comane of Ptol. te(ie Caft. ravKhed from the Diadem of Pg- 
can by Almeyda in the year 1507. And in the year 1573 ^^ was be- 
iieged by Mifamoluc^ the Vecan Prince, with an numerous Army of 
Horfe, Foot and Elephants 5 but he was forced to raife his Siege with 
Lofs and Shame. 

Crapatan and Mengrdia^ which laft is. one of the beft Roads in all 
India^ and is famous for Cardamum, the beft of Spices 5 and the Vutcb 
have a Fadory there. 

The H I s T o R Y of Seyagy Tay. StVagi They. 

THe Plundering of Surrat by Sivagy^ and the defperate Attacks 
made upon fome of our Ea^-Jw^w Ships, efpecially that of the 
Preiident, Captain Jonathan Hide Commander, in the year K583, 
by I $00 of his men, in three Ships and four Grabs, who were brave- 
ly repulfed with a great Slaughter, though thofe brave men had not 
the happinefs long to enjoy the Honour of that noble Adion, the 
Ship unfortunately caft away coming into the Channel, and all 
the men but two loft. Thefe and many other of his Adions, have 
given many occafion to inquire what he is, and what Country he 

This Ka]a Siva^, born at Bajhaim^ the Son of a Captain of the 
King of Fi^ci/>o«r/, being of a reftlefs and turbulent Spirit, rebelled 
in his Father's life-time, and putting himfelf at the head of feveral 
Bandiii , and other debauched Young men , he retired unto the 

I i i . Mountains 

426 The VeninfuU on this fide Ganges, 

Mountains of Viftapour^ and made his part good agairift all thofe that 
came to attack him. 

The King of Vifiapour thinking that his Father kept Intelligence 
with him, caufed him to be arrefted, and he died in Prifon. Sivigy 
conceived fo great a hatred againft the King, that he ufed all endea- 
vours to be revenged of him. And in a very (hort time he plundered 
Vifiapour, and with the Booty he took, made himfelf fo ftrong in Men, 
Arms and Horfes, that he became able enough to feize fome Towns, 
viz^. Kajapour^ Rafigar^ Crapaten, Daboul^ and to form a little §tate 
thereabout. The King dying about that time, and the Queens en- 
deavours to reduce him being unfuccefsful, (he accepted the Peace he 
propofed to her, that he (hould enjoy the Territories which he had 
fubdued, that he ftiould be tributary to the Young King, and pay hina 
half his Revenue. 

However, he could not reft, but plundered fome places belonging to 
the Great MoguU who therefore fent Forces againft him under the Con- 
duct: of the Governor of Aurenge-Abat. But Sivigi having his retreat 
always in the Mountains, and being extremely cunning, the Mogul 
could not reduce him. In the mean time to be revenged on the Mogul, 
he refolved to plunder Sitrrat, which he did for 40 days ; fo that none 
but the Engli(h zr\d' Dutch faved themfelves, by the vigorous Defence 
they made, by reafon of their Cannon, which Sivigy would not venture 
upon, nor durft he adventure to attack the Caftle, but marched off 
with the Wealth he got, which was reported to be worth in Jewels, 
Gold and Silver, to the value of Thirty French Millions, which was^ 
in the year i<5<54 when he was 35' years of Age. And the Mogul's ' 
Affairs not fuffering him to purfue his Revenge upon Sivigy^ he fiill 
continues his Robberies and Pyracies upon all opportunities and oc- 

Malabar^ or Malavar is a low Country, with a delightful Coaft, and 
well inhabited by people that practice Pyracy. There is a certain 
wind, which blowing there in winter, fo difiurbs the neighbouring 
Sea, that itrouls the Sand to the mouths of the adjoining Ports j fo 
that at that time there is not water for little Barks to enter •, but in 
the Summer time another contrary wind is there fo violent, that it 
drives back the fame Sand, and renders the Ports again Navigable ; 
The great number of Rivers in this Country renders Horfes ufelels, 
efpecially for War. A Country moft part of the year verdant, and 
abounding with Cattel , Corn , Cotton , Pepper , Ginger^ CaJJta , Car- 
damum^ Rice^ Myrobalans^ Ananas ■ pappof y Melons, Dates, Coco's and 
other Fruits. 


The TeninfHU on this fide Ganges, 427 

Calecut^ ox Calicut^ thought to be the Town which Vtol. calls Can- 
ihapis, an Error of Niger and Bertiuf. CalicarU Herb, is a Town of 
Trade, where the Fortugals firft fetled themfelves, though not with 
thatfuccefs asatCoc^/w, where they obtain'd leave to raife a Cittadel, 
which was the firlt Fort they had in the Eafl-Indies ^ but that For- 
trefs was taken from them by the Hollanders in the year 1662. The 
Prince of Calicuts calls himfelf Zamorin^ a Prince of great power and 
awe ; and not more black of colour, than treacherous in difpofition